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Injuries Resulting From Fal1
From Elevations




Injuries KdSMQimg Froorra Falls

From Elevations
U.S. Department of Labor
Raymond J. Donovan, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Janet L. Norwood, Commissioner
June 1984
Bulletin 2195

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office Washington, D.C. 20402



\




Pr©fa©®

This bulletin summarizes the results of a survey of
workers who were injured as the result of falling from
elevations. The findings of this survey, which was con­
ducted during the period from December 1981 through
June 1982, will assist the Occupational Safety and
Health Administration ( o s h a ) in developing safety
standards, compliance strategy, and training programs
for reducing work-related injuries.
The survey was conducted by the Bureau’s Office of
Occupational Safety and Health Statistics, in coopera­
tion with the following States: Arizona, Arkansas,
California, Colorado, Delaware, Hawaii, Indiana,
Iowa, Kentucky, Maine, M aryland, Michigan,
Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, North Carolina, Ohio,
Tennessee, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington,
Wisconsin, and Wyoming. Bls regional offices coor­
dinated State operations. The Offices of Compliance;
Standards Development; Statistical Studies and
Analysis; Regulatory Analysis; and Training of o s h a
and the Office of Safety Research of the National In­
stitute for Occupational Safety and Health contributed
to the planning and development of the survey. The
Work Injury Report staff, Maryrose Cline-Buso, Larry
Jones, and Lye Pearson, were involved in the develop­
ment and editing of the survey. Ms. Cline-Buso pre­




pared the analysis of the survey findings. The survey
was directed by Helen McDonald under the supervision
of Herbert Schaffer.
The data collected in the survey are valid for
understanding how and why injuries occurred among
the workers studied. However, the user should exercise
caution in extrapolating the data to estimate injuries for
the entire population because of limitations of the
survey. States participating in data collection may not
represent the country as a whole; reporting re­
quirements for workers’ compensation reports, which
are the source for selecting injuries for study, vary
among States; and the data collection period is not in­
tended to represent the entire year.
For analytical purposes, incidence rates of the injuries
studied were not generated, nor can they be inferred
from the data because information on hours of work
during the survey period is not available. See appendix
A for scope and methodology of the survey.
A list of other Work Injury Reports published since
1978 appears at the end of this bulletin.
Material in this publication is in the public domain
and, with appropriate credit, may be reproduced with­
out permission.

l




J

Page

Sum m ary.......................................................................................................................................................

1

Charts:
1. Chart 1. Distribution of injuries resulting from falls from elevations by
industry division, December 1981-June 1982..........................................................................
2. Chart 2. Distribution o f injuries resulting from falls from elevations by
activity at the time of the accident, December 1981-June 1982 ...........................................

1
2

Tables:
Injuries resulting from falls from elevations, selected States, December 1981-June 1982:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

Industry classification.................................................................................................................
Size o f com pany........................................................... . .............................................................
Occupation....................................................................................................................................
Age o f worker................................................ ..............................................................................
Sex o f w orker...............................................................................................................................
Activity at time o f accident.......................
Description o f accident . .........................................................
Source of injury......................................................................................................................
Nature o f injury...........................................................................................................................
Part of body affected...................................................................................................................
Estimated days away from w o r k .............................................................................................
Length o f hospitalization required...........................................................................................
Use o f fall protection at time of accident ...............................................................................
Fall protection practices and policies.......................................................................................
Conditions or factors contributing to accident......................................................................
Accident prevention.................................

5
5
6
7
7
8
9
11
11
12
13
13
14
14
16
16

Appendixes:
A. Survey explanatory n o te ..................................................... ; ..................................................... 17
B. Participating State a g en cies...................................................................................................... 18
C. Survey questionnaire................................................................................................................... 19




v

Summary

operatives (excluding transport). The remainder were
employed in a wide variety o f occupations such as
transport equipment operatives, managers, and clerical
workers. One-fourth o f the workers were under 25 years
o f age, and almost three-fifths were under 35 (table 4).
All but 5 percent o f the injured workers were men (table

The Bureau o f Labor Statistics surveyed 774 workers
who sustained work-related injuries as the result o f fall­
ing from elevations.1 The survey was conducted from
December 198! through June 1982. Workers were asked
to describe the height at which they were working prior
to their fall, the distance they fell, the object or surface
from which they fell, the location of the worksite, and
their activities at the time o f the fall. As a measure of
the severity o f workers’ injuries, information was ob­
tained on the number o f days workers lost from work
and the amount o f hospitalization required as a result o f
their injuries, as well as the nature of the injury and the
part o f the body affected. Injured workers were also
asked to provide information on the availability and use
o f fall protection equipment (such as guardrails or safe­
ty belts) and any hazardous conditions or other factors
which may have contributed to their fall.

5).

Activity nil Sim ®f a©©id®mt
®
Workers were performing a variety o f activities at the
time o f their fall. As shown in chart 2, the largest pro­
portion o f workers, 17 percent, reported their activity as
loading or unloading material (table 6). Thirteen per­
cent were operating, repairing, cleaning, or installing
equipment, and 10 percent were engaged in carpentry
work. Of the remaining workers, the majority were per­
forming tasks often associated with construction, in­
cluding roofing, welding, painting, masonry or
bricklaying, and sheetmetal work. When asked to
describe their specific movements at the time o f the acci­
dent, 28 percent o f the workers indicated they were
climbing up to or down from an elevated position oi
place. Thirteen percent noted that they were walking, 11

Survey highlight®
More than four-fifths o f the workers surveyed in­
dicated that there was no fall protection in the area
where they were working at the time of their accident. In
addition, most o f the workers provided with fall protec­
tion equipment were unprotected at the time o f the acci­
dent; they had either disconnected the personal fall pro­
tection devices to move around or they were not in the
immediate area where guardrails were in place. Twofifths o f the workers fell 10 feet or more; one-tenth fell
20 feet or more. More than four-fifths lost time away
from work; one-third were hospitalized as a result o f
their injuries.

Chisel 1. Distribution of injuries resulting from
falls from ©S@
vsti@ by industry division,
ns
D@ mb@ 1©S2~Jun@ 1©@
©@
r
2

Industry, @©©upati@n, ag®, and
As shown in chart 1, about two-fifths of the falls oc­
curred to workers employed by construction firms,
mostly special trade and general building contractors
(table 1). Nearly one-fourth worked for manufacturers.
More than one-half of all workers were employed by
companies with fewer than 50 employees, about equally
divided between firms with I to 10 employees and firms
with II to 49 (table 2). Craftworkers accounted for 44
percent of the injured workers; the predominant oc­
cupations were carpenters, 10 percent, and mechanics or
repairers, 6 percent (table 3). Twenty-four percent of
the workers surveyed were employed as laborers, most
frequently construction laborers, and 12 percent as
1 See appendix A for the scope of the survey.




1

Chart 2 Distribution of injuri@s resulting from fails from elevations by activity at the time of the accident,
o
December 1981=June 1982
Loading or unloading material
Operating, repairing, cleaning,
or installing equipment
Carpentry
General maintenance work
Telephone, electrical, cable, or
other utility service work
Roofing
Construction work, n.e.c.
Inspecting equipment or
material
Welding
Plastering, drywall, or
insulation work
Tree trimming or logging
Other
Going to or from worksite
Ironwork or structural steel
work
{Masonry or bricklaying work

Painting
Pipefitting or plumbing
Sheetmetal or siding work

Percent
(table 7). One-fourth were at elevations of 3 to 5 feet;
and slightly more than one-fifth were 10 to 15 feet up.
The remaining workers, about one-fourth, were at even
higher elevations. Almost three-fifths worked daily or
almost every day at the heights from which they fe ll

percent were stepping from one surface to another, and
10 percent were stepping backward. Additionally, 28
percent of the workers were lifting, carrying, or moving
objects; and 24 percent were using tools or equipment.
More than one-half of the workers fell while working
at commercial or industrial worksites and nearly threetenths at construction worksites. About three-fifths of
the falls occurred outdoors.

Workers were asked to identify the object or structure
from which they fell. Heading the list were scaffolds,
17 percent, and roofs, 14 percent. An additional 14 per­
cent of the falls occurred to workers standing on
miscellaneous single objects, such as pieces o f equip­
ment or work materials. Eight percent o f the workers
were on walkways or catwalks, and an equal percentage

Description of accident
The largest proportion of workers, three-tenths, were
at heights o f 5 to 10 feet when their accidents occurred




2

were at ground or floor level, close to holes, openings,
or trenches. Following these were loading docks, piled
or stacked materials, attic beams or other building
structures, and telephone or utility poles, each account­
ing for 5 or 6 percent o f the cases.
The falls were usually preceded by one or more events
which resulted in loss o f balance. One-half o f the in­
jured workers reported that they slipped or lost their
footing. Substantially fewer, 18 percent, indicated that
they were holding onto an object and fell when it broke
or they lost their grip. One-tenth of the workers said
they fell because the surface on which they were stand­
ing broke, collapsed, or shifted. Examples o f other
events occurring less frequently were workers being
struck, pushed, or knocked over; accidentally stepping
in a hole or opening; tripping or catching their foot; and
falling when tools or work materials slipped or broke,
causing them to lose their balance. More than one-tenth
attributed their falls simply to loss of balance with no
other events involved.
The distance a worker fell was usually identical to the
height where the work was being performed at the time
of the accident. The few exceptions involved workers
who fell to another elevated surface, were stopped by
safety lines, or managed to stop their falls by grabbing
onto beams, pipes, or pieces o f equipment.
The source o f injury, which identifies the object or
substance which produced the injury, was most com­
monly the ground or floor surface (table 8). Workers
who did not fall to a working surface landed on various
types o f objects, such as boxes, tools, or work
materials. Almost one-half o f the workers indicated
they fell to concrete, rock, or asphalt surfaces. Nearly
three-tenths landed on dirt or grass.

ductivity loss o f 6 workweeks. One-third o f the workers
were hospitalized due to their injuries (table 12). The
average hospital stay was 10 nights.
It should be noted that one-quarter o f the workers
who lost time were unable to estimate the number o f lost
workdays. When compared to workers who were able to
estimate lost time, these workers fell from higher eleva­
tions, sustained a larger proportion o f fractures, and re­
quired hospitalization more often (see text table 1).
Therefore, it is likely that the average number o f lost
workdays for these workers would be greater than for
those who were able to provide estimates.

Availability and us© off fail protection equipment
Fall protection equipment includes a variety o f
devices designed to either prevent falls or to save
workers once they begin to fall. An example of the
former would be guardrails. Devices such as safety nets
or safety belts tied o ff to a lifeline would be in the latter
category.
More than four-fifths o f the workers surveyed
reported there was no fall protection in their work area
(table 13). Almost one-half o f these workers were o f the
opinion, at least prior to their accidents, that fall protec­
tion was not practical to use for the type o f work they
were doing. Three-tenths felt they were not up high
enough to need fall protection.
Fifty-seven workers, or 45 percent o f those who in­
dicated that fall protection equipment was available,
reported that guardrails were used at the worksite.
However, 30 o f these workers fell from an area or side
not protected by railings. For example, a scaffold may
have had guardrails but the worker fell while climbing
down from the platform. Eleven workers said the guard­
rails broke, and seven fell over or under the railings.
One worker commented that the guardrail had been
removed to speed up the work being done.
Seventy-four workers were provided with safety belts,
but more than three-fourths were not attached to a
lifeline or structure. Most said they were unwilling or
unable to connect their safety belts because they were

injuries, hospitalization, and lost workdays
Fractures were the most common injuries, sustained
by 46 percent o f the workers (table 9). Next in frequency
were muscle sprains or strains and bruises or contu­
sions, accounting for 42 and 39 percent, respectively.
Eighteen percent o f the workers suffered cuts, lacera­
tions, or punctures.
Almost three-tenths o f the workers experienced in­
juries to more than one part o f their body (table 10). An
equal proportion of workers received injuries to the
trunk, particularly the back. Lower extremity injuries,
most commonly to the ankle, knee, and foot, were sus­
tained by one-quarter of the workers and injuries to the
upper extremities by more than one-tenth.
Eighty-five percent of the workers surveyed lost days
away from work as a result of their injuries (table 11).
The average lost-time case was an estimated 31 days,
which was 14 days more than the 1982 national average
for all lost-workday injury cases.2 Thus, on the average,
assuming a 5-day workweek, the falls resulted in a pro­
2 News release,

usdl

Tent table 1. Workers wh© estimated lost workdays and
workers who did not, selected characteristics
(Percent of lost workday cases)
Lost time not
estimated

Hospitalization
Required hospitalization ...................
Did not require hospitalization .........

32
68

71
29

Nature of injury
Fracture .............................................

47

67

Distance worker fell
Less than 10 fe e t..............................
10 to 20 feet .....................................
20 feet or more .................................

-43-471, November 4, 1983, table 2.




Lost time
estimated

61
33
7

44
33
22

Characteristics

3

moving around. This situation was particularly com­
mon among utility and telephone workers, who in­
dicated that they were not using their pole straps while
climbing up or down. Some workers indicated that there
was no place to connect their equipment
O f the 16 workers who actually had personal fall pro­
tection in use at the time o f their falls, 10 were wearing
safety belts tied o ff with lanyards. Six were using safety
belts with pole straps, which afford a measure o f fall
protection in addition to freeing the hands for work.
Four o f the workers using fall protection equipment in­
dicated that it stopped their fall, although each sustain­
ed a back injury. One of the four commented that his
protective equipment prevented a fall o f approximately
50 feet.
Fall protection devices, however, failed to stop the
fall o f 12 o f the 16 workers. Five workers fell while us­
ing pole straps: Three were climbing utility poles and
‘gaffed out’ when their climbing spikes failed to hold;
one attached his pole strap to a hook which gave out;
and a fifth said his safety belt broke. O f the remaining
seven workers who were using fall protection, one fell
10 feet to the ground because his lanyard was too long.
Another worker hooked his lanyard to a pole on a scaf­
fold which broke when he fell against it, and one worker
fell after he hooked his belt directly to a structure
without fully closing the hook. Three workers using
safety belts and lanyards did not indicate which part of
the system failed. The final case was unique since the
worker belonged to an industrial rescue team and was
practicing rappelling down a mine shaft. While transfer­
ring to another descent rope, the equipment was
bumped and she was released, falling 30 feet.

14). Furthermore, almost one-half noted that they
worked at these heights daily or almost every day. Over
one-half said their employers did not require fall protec­
tion o f any kind at heights of 10 feet or more or that
they did not know the company policy. In addition,
three-fourths o f the injured workers had not been pro­
vided training on the use o f fall protection by their
employers.

Ctoutoiitoirfli m to©tors e@ntributsng to a©eid@eift
Three-fifths o f the workers cited hazardous condi­
tions which they felt contributed to their falls (table 15).
Slippery working surfaces, usually reported in combina­
tion with weather conditions, were the most frequently
noted hazardous conditions. Next in frequency were
uneven or sloped walking surfaces and cluttered work
areas. About two-fifths o f the workers reporting hazar­
dous conditions said they were aware o f these condi­
tions prior to their accident. Other factors which con­
tributed to the accidents were more general. One out o f
five o f the workers surveyed said they did not realize
that they were near the edge o f an opening. Carelessness
and not paying attention to where they were going were
each cited as contributing factors by almost 1 out o f 10
workers. Other commonly indicated causal factors were
the inability to see where they were stepping, being
distracted by the activity of a co-worker, and being tired
or fatigued.

Pr@ initsti¥® m®ssur®s
¥@
Finally, opinions were obtained from nearly seventenths o f the workers surveyed on what might have
prevented their fall. The largest proportion o f the
respondents, 43 percent, cited safer work procedures on
their part; 22 percent indicated that the use o f guardrails
or other fall protection would have prevented their fall;
and 21 percent said their employer should have enforced
safer work procedures (table 16). Sixteen percent o f the
workers indicated that the hazardous conditions could
have been removed before working in the area, and 10
percent recommended more or better safety training.

P
’ra©ti©®s m<3 p@ i@ related to fall pr@to©tl@§i
fli@ §
Workers were asked if they or their co-workers ever
worked at heights o f 10 feet or more and, if so, to in­
dicate their company’s policy on the use o f fall protec­
tion. While less than one-half of the workers surveyed
were above 10 feet when they fell, four-fifths reported
they (or their co-workers) worked at such heights (table




4




Table 1. Industry classification: Injuries resulting from falls from
elevations, selected States, December 1981-June 1982
Standard Industrial Classification (SIC)

Number

Percent

774

100

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing

31

4

Mining 1

13

2

Construction ....................................
General building contractors....
Heavy construction contractors
Special trade contractors ........

316
92
30
194

41
12
4
25

Manufacturing ......................................................
Food and kindred products...........................
Tobacco manufactures.................................
Textile mill products......................................
Apparel and other textile products...............
Lumber and wood products..........................
Furniture and fixtures....................................
Paper and allied products .............................
Printing and publishing..................................
Chemicals and allied products......................
Rubber and miscellaneous plastics products
Stone, clay, and glass products...................
Primary metal industries ...............................
Fabricated metal products.............................
Machinery, except electrical..........................
Electric and electronic equipment................
Transportation equipment.............................
Instruments and related products ................

180
35
1
5
5
29
5
9

23
5

Total

(1
2)

1
1
4
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
2
1
1

8

4
5
6

21
16
9
4
15
3

2
( 2)

Transportation and public utilities

57

7

Wholesale trade

55

7

Retail trade

55

7

Finance, insurance, and real estate

12

2

Services

52

7

Other industries, n.e.c.

3

1 Limited to oil and gas extraction.
2 Less than 0.5 percent.
n.e.c. = not elsewhere classified.
NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages

(2
)

may not add to 100. See appendix A for
the scope of the survey.
SOURCE: State workers’ compensation
reports.

Table 2. Sis© of company: Injuries resulting from falls from elevations,
selected States, December 1981=June 1982
Number

Size of company

Percent

Murnbsr of people employed in worker’s eompany
719
1 to 10
11 to 49
50 to 99
100 to 499

................................................................
.................................................................
......................................................................
...............................................................

100

195
201
102
130
91

27
28
14
18
13

number of responses may vary
question.
SOURCE: Survey questionnaires.

NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages
may not add to 100. See appendix A for
the scope of the survey. Because incom­
plete questionnaires were used, the total

5

by




Table 3. Occupation: Injuries resulting from falls from elevations,
selected States, December 1981-June 1982
Number

Occupation

Percent

3
1

20

Electricians ....................................................................................

2

10

Crane derrick and hoist operators .............................................

100

27

Boilermakers .................................................................................

774
13

Total ..............................................................................................

3

340
8
9
1
74
4
2
4
1
13
2
17

44
1
1
o
10
1
0
1

0

2

(')
2

Excavating, grading, and road machine operators, excluding

Job-and-die setters m etal............................................................

Household appliance and accessory installers and mechanics
Radio and television repairers ...................................................

Plumbers and pipefitters...............................................................
Printing press operators ...............................................................
Roofers and slaters.......................................................................
Sheetmetai apprentices................................................................
Shoe repairers ..............................................................................

Tile setters.....................................................................................

3
30
1
1
2
47
5
4
17
1
2
13
5
7
2
19
1
15
1
20
8
1
1
21
6
16
1
2

(')
4
o
0
o
6
1
1
2
0
(’)
2
1
1

0

2

o
2
o
3
1
o
(’)
3
1
2
(’)
O

90
34

Animal caretakers, excluding fa rm ..............................................
Carpenter helpers........................................................................
Construction laborers, excluding carpenter helpers ..................
Freight, material handlers............................................................
Garbage collectors......................................................................
Gardeners and groundskeepers, excluding farm .......................
Timber cutting and logging workers............................................

Miscellaneous laborers................................................................

See footnotes at end of table.

6

12
4

185
1
4
62
23
1
8
11
7
2
18
38
10

24
O
1
8
3
0
1
1
1
(1
)
2
5
1




Table 3. Occupation: Injuries resulting from falls from elevations,
selected States, December 1981-June 1982—Continued
Occupation

Number

Percent

1

Farmers and farm managers...........................................................

(’)

25

3

Service workers, excluding private household ............................

24

3

Private household workers..............................................................

1

Nonclassifiable...................................................................................

4

1 Less than 0.5 percent.
NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages
may not add to 100. See appendix A for

0
1

the scope of the survey.
SOURCE: State workers' compensation
reports..

Table 4. Age of worker: Injuries resulting from falls from elevations,
selected States, December 1981-June 1982
Number

Age
Total ..............................................................................................
17-19
20-24
25-34
35.44

years
years
years
years

..........................................................................................
.........................................................................................
..........................................................................................
..........................................................................................

55-64 years ..........................................................................................
65 years or m ore.................................................................................
NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages
may not add to 100. See appendix A for
the scope of the survey.

Percent

774

100

37
159
239
124
120
58
8
29

5
21
31
16
16
7
1
4

SOURCE: State workers’ compensation
reports,

Table 5. Sex of worker: Injuries resulting from falls from elevations,
selected States, December 1981-June 1982
Sex

Number

Percent

Total ..............................................................................................

774

100

Men ......................................................................................................
W omen.................................................................................................

739
35

95
5

NOTE: See appendix A for the scope
of the survey.

SOURCE: State workers’ compensation
reports.

7




Tab!® 6. Activity aft Sim® of accident: injuries resulting from falls from
elevations, selected States, December 1981-Jun® 1982
Number

Activity at time of accident

Percent

Type of work
Total ............................................................................

761

100

Painting..............................................................................
W elding..............................................................................
Roofing............................................................................ ...
Carpentry...........................................................................
Masonry or bricklaying.......................................................
Ironwork or structural steel w ork......................................
Sheetmetal or siding w ork.................................................
Plastering, drywall, or insulation work...............................
Pipefitting or plumbing .......................................................
Other construction work ....................................................
Telephone, electrical, cable, or other utility service work
Loading or unloading material..........................................
Inspecting equipment or material.....................................
Operating, repairing, cleaning, or installing equipment ....
Tree trimming or logging ...................................................
General maintenance w o rk ...............................................
Going to or from worksite .................................................
O th e r................................................... ..............................

19
27
50
77
16
17
10
22
17
42
62
130
38
100
25
69
15
25

2
4
7
10
2
2
1
3
2
6
8
17
5
13
3
9
2
3

Activity at time of accident
Total 1..................................... ......

733

Lifting, carrying, or moving objects....
Using tools or equipment...................
Walking ................................................
Running................................................
Stepping backward..............................
Stepping from one surface to another
Climbing up or d ow n...........................
Other activity.......................................

205
174
98

28
24
13

71
84
205
6

10
11
28
1

Total ................................................

765

100

Privately owned home ..........................
Commercial or industrial building .........
Construction site ...................................
Logging s ite ...................................... ....
Barn, orchard, or other agricultural site
Public street or roadside ......................
Apartment house..................................
O th e r.....................................................

40
409
211
10
19
27
8
41

5
53
28
1
2
4
1
5

770

100

299
471

39
61

O

Location of worksite

Location at the worksite
Total ................... .......
Indoors ...
Outdoors
1 Because more than one response is
possible, the sum of the responses and
percentages may not equal the total. Per­
centages are calculated by dividing each
response by the total number of persons
who answered the question.
NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages

may not add to 100. See appendix A for
the scope of the survey. Because incom­
plete questionnaires were used, the total
number of responses may vary by
question.
SOURCE: Survey questionnaires.

8




Table 7. Description of accident: Injuries resulting from falls from
elevations, selected States, December 1981-June 1982
Description of accident

Number

Percent

Events involved in fall
T o ta l1

763

Surface you were on broke, collapsed, or gave w a y ....
Surface you were on moved, tilted, or shifted...........
Lost grip on object you were holding on to for balance
Object you were holding on to for balance gave way ...
Slipped or lost footing.............. ......................................
Tripped or caught fo o t....................................................
Lost balance o n ly ............................................................
Was struck, pushed, or knocked over...........................
Stepped in hole ..............................................................
Gaffed.out .......................................................................
Tool or work material shifted, slipped, or b ro ke...........
Piece of equipment or clothing got caught or hung up .
Jumped to control fa ll.....................................................
O th e r...............................................................................

14

(1
)
2

60

8

88

12

46
381
29
96
53
44
24
33
7
6
16

6

50
4
13
7
6
3
4
1

1
2

Surface worker fell from
Total ...........................

773

Suspended scaffold..................................................................
Other type of scaffold...............................................................
Walkway or catwalk .................................................................
Loading dock.............................................................................
Roof...........................................................................................
Attic beam or other building structure.....................................
Piled or stacked material..........................................................
Single box, barrel, container, piece of furniture or equipment
Ground surface or floor (edge of a hole, trench, etc.)...........
Wall ...........................................................................................
Tree or lo g ...............................................................................
Shelf, rack, or storage platform...............................................
Telephone or utility p o le ..........................................................
Platform or ramp................... ...................................................
Other structure....................................................... ..................
O th e r........................................................................................

100

26
109
61
46
111
36
48
105
58
30
23

3
14

21

37
17
15
30

8
6

14
5
6

14
8

4
3
3
5

2
2
4

Distance above the ground, floor level, or opening before fall

100
25
30
21
12
12

753

100

28
435
176
43
71

3 to 5 feet .......
5 to 10 feet ....
10 to 15 feet ....
15 to 20 feet ....
20 feet or more

771
196
234
160
92
89

Total .............................................................................................

4
58
23

How often worker normally worked at finis height
Total .......................................................................
First time worked at this height....
Daily or almost every d a y............
Several times a month.................
About once a m onth....................
Seldom— less than once a month
See footnotes at end of table.

9

6

9




T b ® 7. Dsgeriptien of accident: Injuries resulting from tfatlO from
aiS O
o
elevations, selected States, December 1981-June 1982—Continued
Number

Description of accident

Percent

Distant© worker felt
T o ta l..............................................................................................

789

100

Less than 3 fe e t..................................................................................
3 to 5 fe e t ...........................................................................................
5 to 10 f e e t.........................................................................................
10 to 15 fe e t.......................................................................................
15 to 20 fe e t.......................................................................................
20 feet or more....................................................................................

17
218
227
151
82
74

2
28
30
20
11
10

T ota l1............................................................................................

768

(’)

Earth, dirt, or g ra ss.............................................................................
Concrete, rock, or asphalt surface.....................................................
Metal surface.......................................................................................
Wood surface.......................................................................................
Boxes, tools, work materials, or other objects..................................
Carpet or tiled flooring........................................................................
O th e r....................................................................................................

208

27

3§6
97
67
58
14
42

46

Surfaee(s) worker fell to

' Because more than one response is
possible, the sum of the responses and
percentages may not equal the total. Per­
centages are calculated by dividing each
response by the total number of persons
who answered the question.
NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages

10

13
9
7
2
5

may not add to 100. See appendix A for
the scope of the survey. Because incom­
plete questionnaires were used, the total
number of responses may vary by
question.
SOURCE: Survey questionnaires.




Table 8. Source of injury: Injuries resulting from falls from elevations,
selected States, December 1981-June 1982
Number

Source of injury

Percent

Total ..............................................................................................

774

Bodily motion .......................................................................................
Boilers, pressure vessels....................................................................
Boxes, barrels, containers...................................................................
Buildings and structures .....................................................................
Ceramic item s......................................................................................
Conveyors .............................................................................................

1
1
17
14
2
3

O
(')

Electrical apparatus.............................................................................
Furniture, fixtures, etc...........................................................................
Handtools, powered ............................................................................
Heating equipment (nonelectric), n.e.c................................................
Ladders................................................................................................

1
1
1
2
1

(’)
(’)
o
0
(’)

Machines .............................................................................................
Mineral items, nonmetallic, n.e.c.........................................................
Plants, trees, vegetation......................................................................
Vehicles ...............................................................................................
Wood items .........................................................................................

4
13
2
3
7
14

Working surfaces.................................................................................
Working surfaces, uns...................................................................
F lo o r..............................................................................................
Ground ..........................................................................................
Ramps...........................................................................................
Roofs........................... .................................................................
Runways, platforms.......................................................................
Sidewalks, paths, etc.....................................................................
Stairs, steps...................................................................................
Street, road ...................................................................................
Working surfaces, n.e.c.................................................................

675
29
252
321
1
3
8
7
6
14
34

Person..................................................................................................
Miscellaneous, n.e.c.............................................................................
Nonclassifiable.....................................................................................

1
6
5

1 Less than 0.5 percent.
n.e.c. = not elsewhere classified.
uns. = unspecified
NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages

100

2
2
(’)
(’)

1
2
(')
0
1
2
87
4
33
41
(')
(')
1
1
1
2
4
0
1
1

may not add to 100. See appendix A for
the scope of the survey,
SOURCE: State workers’ compensation
reports.

Table 9. Nature of injury: Injuries resulting from falls from elevations,
selected States, December 1981-Jume 1982
Nature of injury

Number

Total 1............................................................................................

768

Fracture................................................................................................
Cut, laceration, or puncture.................................................................
Bruise or contusion .............................................................................
Muscle sprain, strain, or torn ligaments.............................................
Concussion..........................................................................................
O th e r....................................................................................................

355
140
299
324
46
54

1
Because more than one response is
possible, the sum of the responses and
percentages may not equal the total. Per­
centages are calculated by dividing each
response by the total number of persons
who answered the question.

11

Percent
(')
46
18
39
42
6
7

NOTE: See appendix A for the scope
of the survey. Because incomplete ques­
tionnaires were used, the total number of
responses may vary by question.
SOURCE: Survey questionnaires.




TabB® 10. Part: ©f b©dly affected: Injuries resulting from falls from
elevations, selected States, Deeember 1981-June 1982
Number

Part of body

Percent

Total ..............................................................................................

774

100

Head.....................................................................................................
Brain..............................................................................................
Eye(s)............................................................................................
Face ..............................................................................................
Scalp .............................................................................................
Skuli...............................................................................................
Head, multiple...............................................................................

20
5
1
5
2
2
5

3
1
(1
)
1
(’)
(')
1

N e ck.....................................................................................................

8

1

Upper extremities ................................................................................
Arm(s)............................................................................................
Arm, uns.......................................................................................
Upper a rm ...................................................................................
Elbow..........................................................................................
Forearm.......................................................................................
Arm, multiple ..............................................................................
Arm, n.e.c.....................................................................................
W rist..............................................................................................
Hand..............................................................................................
Finger(s).........................................................................................
Upper extremities, multiple...........................................................

110
55
13
3
29
6
3
1
28
11
10
6

14
7
2
O
4
1
0
(’)
4
1
1
1

T ru n k....................................................................................................
Trunk, uns.......................................................................................
Abdomen .......................................................................................
B a c k ..............................................................................................
Chest.............................................................................................
H ip s ...............................................................................................
Shoulder(s)....................................................................................
Trunk, multiple ..............................................................................
Trunk, n.e.c.............. ......................................................................

219
3
8
100
43
21
24
15
5

28
O
1
13
6
3
3
2
1

Lower extremities................................................................................
Leg(s).............................................................................................
Leg, uns........................................................................................
Thigh............................................................................................
K n e e ...........................................................................................
Lower le g ....................................................................................
Leg, m ultiple...............................................................................
A n kle .............................................................................................
F o o t...............................................................................................
Toe(s)............................................................................................
Lower extremities, multiple...........................................................

195
79
11
2
48
14
4
54
42
4
16

25
10
1
O
6
2
1
7
5
1
2

Multiple parts........................................................................................

217

28

Nonclassifiable.....................................................................................

5

1

1 Less than 0.5 percent.
n.e.c. = not elsewhere classified.
uns. = unspecified
NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages

may not add to 100. See appendix A for
the scope of the survey.
SOURCE: State workers’ compensation
reports.

12




Table 11. Estimated days away from work: Injuries resyStirag from fails
from ©ievations, selected States, December l®@l=Jyini© 1§§2
Number

Days away from work

Percent

Total 1............................................................................................

740

100

No days away from work ....................................................................
1 to 5 d a ys..........................................................................................
6 to 10 days.........................................................................................
11 to 15 days.......................................................................................
16 to 20 days......................................................................................
21 to 25 days.......................................................................................
26 to 30 days.......................................................................................
31 to 40 days..................................................... .................................
41 to 60 days................................................... ............. .....................
More than 60 days..............................................................................

114
123
59
47
36
19
35
45
42
71

15
17
8
6
5
3
5
6
6
10

Lost-time cases for which days away from work were not
estimated..........................................................................................

149

20

Mean days away from work per lost-workday c a s e ................. ........

31

Median days away from work per lost-workday c a s e .......................

18

1 Excludes 3 workers for whom data
were not available because they retired,
were laid off, or put on permanent disabil­
ity.
NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages
may not add to 100. See appendix A for

the scope of the survey. Because incom­
plete questionnaires were used, the total
number of responses may vary by
question.
SOURCE: Survey questionnaires.

Tabs© 12. Length of hospitalisation required: Injuries resulting from fall®
from ©tevatioras, selected States, December 1981-June 1f©§
Number

Length of hospitalization

Percent

763

100

500
14
30
26
20
28
17
21
5
12
15
35
9
14

66
2
4
3
3
4
2
3
1
2
2
5
1
2

17

2

Hospitalized cases for which length of hospitalization was not
Mean length (nights) of hospitalization per hospitalized c a s e ..........

10

Median length (nights) of hospitaiization per hospitalized
6
number of responses may vary
question.
SOURCE: Survey questionnaires.

NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages
may not add to 100. See appendix A for
the scope of the survey. Because incom­
plete questionnaires were used, the total

13

by




Table 13. Use of faii protection at time of accident: Injuries resulting
from falls from elevations, seiected States, December 1©81-June 1982
Use of fall protection at time of accident

Number

Percent

Personal fall protection equipment worn or used at the time
of accident

71
5

Total
Safety belt (or harness) tied off with lanyard or rope g ra b ....
Safety belt (or harness) with pole strap in u s e .......................
Window cleaner’s belt connected to structure........................
Wearing safety belt or harness but not attached to lifeline or
structure..................................................................................
Wearing other fall protection equipment.................................
None..........................................................................................
Fall protec*

100

8

1

6

1

53
2

682

O

91

’•» the work area at the time of aceident
(2
)
82
8
0

74
2

None................. .........
Guardrails ..................
Roofers’ warning lines
Safety nets ................
Safety belts ...............
Other fall protection ...

717
589
57
3

T ota l1 ...............................................................................
2

10
O

Reasort(s) there was no fall protection in work area
Total 2............................................................ .............

533

Not up high enough to need a n y ....................................
Not practical to use in that type of w o rk ........................
Did not think it was needed.............................................
Too much trouble to set u p .............................................
Did not know if it was required........................................
None provided by employer.............................................
Other reason (s ).................................................................

162
253
106
26
75
26
12

30
47
20
5
14
5
2

Total 2 .....................................................................................

121

(*>

Fell from side or area not protected by guardrail......................
Fell over guardrail........................................................................
Fell under guardrail ......................................................................
Guardrail b roke............................................................................
Safety net bro ke ..........................................................................
Did not land on n e t......................................................................
Warning line was too close to edge of ro o f...............................
Was beyond warning lin e ............................................................
Fall protection not connected because worker was moving
around........................................................................................
Other reason(s)............................................................................

30
4
3
11

25
3
2
9

1
2

1
2

42
33

35
27

0

Worker with fall protection: Reason(s) it failed to prevent
fail 3

1 Less than 0.5 percent.
2 Because more than one response is
possible, the sum of the responses and
percentages may not equal the total. Per­
centages are calculated by dividing each
response by the total number of persons
who answered the question.
3 Includes 4 workers who did not fall
the full distance because fall protection

equipment stopped their fall.
NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages
may not add to 100. See appendix A for
the scope of the survey. Because incom­
plete questionnaires were used, the total
number of responses may vary by
question.
SOURCE: Survey questionnaires.

14




Table 14. Fall protection practices and policies: Injuries resulting from
fails from ©Sevations, selected States, December 1Si1-Jun@ 1®@
2
Fall protection practices and policies

Number

Percent

Frequency off wort; at heights off 10 feet or more
Total ..............................................................................................

763

100

Never....................................................................................................
Daily or almost every day....................................................................
Several times a month........................................................................
About once a m onth...........................................................................
Less than once a m onth.....................................................................

150
361
161
33
58

20
47
21
4
8

Workers who work at heights off 10 feet or more: Company
requirements on the use off fall protection at these heights
Total 1............................................................................................

567

O

None required......................................................................................
Guardrails required..............................................................................
Roofers’ warning lines required..........................................................
Safety nets required............................................................................
Personal fall protection (safety belt, lanyard,
lifeline, etc.) required........................................................................
Other fall protection required..............................................................
Don’t know whether company requires fall
protection at these heights ..............................................................

256
154
16
8

45
27
3
1

141
2

25
O

50

9

Total ..,...........................................................................................

687

100

Not provided by company...................................................................
Provided by company .........................................................................

514
173

75
25

Training on how and when to use fall protection

1 Because more than one response is
possible, the sum of the responses and
percentages may not equal the total. Per­
centages are calculated by dividing each
response by the total number of persons
who answered the question.
2 Less than 0.5 percent.

15

NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages
may not add to 100. See appendix A for
the scope of the survey. Because incom­
plete questionnaires were used, the total
number of responses may vary by
question.
SOURCE: Survey questionnaires.




Table 15. Conditions or factors contributing to accident: Injuries
resulting from falls from elevations, selected States,
December 1981-June 1982
Conditions or factors contributing to accident

Number

• Percent

Hazardous conditions at worksite
725

Total 1
Cluttered work area.......................................................
Slippery walking surface................................................
Uneven or sloped walking surface...............................
Weather conditions .......................................................
Inadequate lighting........................................................
Ladder or scaffold inadequate for job or not available
Structure in bad condition or unstable........................ .
Inadequate or faulty guardrails or safety equipment ....
O th e r.............................................................................
No hazardous conditions contributed to accident ......

61
199
85
133
27
13
29
32
41
286

(')
8

27
12
18
4

2
4
4
6

39

Worker’s awareness of hazardous conditions before accident

Not aware or hazardous conditions
Aware of hazardous conditions.....
No hazardous conditions involved .

689

100

151
252
286

Total .............................................................................................

22

37
42

Other contributing factors
685

Total 1
Had physical condition which contributed to accident
Did not realize you were near edge of opening.........
Not paying attention to where you were g o ing..........
Was careless in what you were doing........................
Could not see where you were going.........................
Distracted by noise, co-worker’s activity, e t c .............
Tired or fatigued..........................................................
Walking, climbing, or moving too fa s t.........................
O th e r............................................................................
Nothing else contributed to accident..........................

10
126
55
57
40
29
24
18
24
381

(1
)
1
18
8
8

6
4
4
3
4
56

may not add to 100. See appendix A for
the scope of the survey. Because incom­
plete questionnaires were used, the total
number of responses may vary by
question.
SOURCE: Survey questionnaires.

1 Because more than one response is
possible, the sum of the responses and
percentages may not equal the total. Per­
centages are calculated by dividing each
response by the total number of persons
who answered the question.
NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages

Table 16. Accident prevention: Injuries resulting from falls from
elevations, selected States, December 1981-June 1982
Accident prevention

Number

Percent

Actions, methods, or procedures that worker feels would
have prevented accident
Total 1....................................................................
Using guardrail or other type of fall protection .................................
Removing hazards before working in a re a ...............................
More or better safety training..................................................
Using safer work procedures on your p a rt................................
Having company enforce safe work procedure................................
Having proper equipment to do jo b .........................................
O th e r..............................................................

possible, the sum of the responses and
percentages may not equal the total. Per­
centages are calculated by dividing each
response by the total number of persons
who answered the question.

534
116
86
54
232
111
43
27

(')

22
16
10
43
21
8
5

of the survey. Because incomplete ques­
tionnaires were used, the total number of
responses may vary by question.
SOURCE: Survey questionnaires.

16

Appendix A. Survey
Explanatory M©t@

The survey was designed to develop information on
injuries resulting from falls from elevations. The scope
of the survey extended to all Industries except coal,
metallic and nonmetallic mining, and government. All
occupations were Included in the scope of the survey.
In order to focus on situations in which fall protec­
tion may have been appropriate, cases were excluded
from the survey if the worker fell less than 3 feet. In ad­
dition, falls on stairs, falls from ladders, vehicles, or
animals, and falls resulting from explosions, cave-ins,
or structural collapses (other than suspended scaffolds)
were not Included. Cases were also excluded from the
survey if the Injury resulted in a fatality or if more than
120 days had elapsed between the time of Injury and the
beginning of the survey.
The survey covered the 24 States listed in appendix B.
To identify cases within the scope of the survey, staff of
participating State agencies reviewed employers5reports
of injuries required by State workers5 compensation
laws and mailed questionnaires to injured workers
selected for study. Cooperation was requested on a
voluntary basis. During the survey period, December
1981-Juee 1982, 774 survey questionnaires were return­
ed and found to be within the scope of the survey,
resulting in a 54-percent response rate.
Although the data were aggregated for all par­
ticipating States, it should be noted that the
workers5 compensation cases selected for study reflect
differences in reporting requirements. For example,
some States require reporting of workers5compensation
cases involving medical treatment regardless of lost
time, while others limit reporting to cases involving lost
time ranging from 1 to 8 days.




No attempt was made to weight the data collected so
that they would be representative of all falls from eleva­
tions. Although participating States provided a broad
geographical and industrial mix, they were not selected
statistically to represent the country as a whole.
Moreover, collection for the survey was terminated
when responses exceeded 750 cases.
Questionnaires returned by the injured workers were
reviewed for completeness and response errors. Where
feasible, responses on the questionnaire falling into the
‘other’ category were classified by bls to provide as
much descriptive information as possible. Affected were
the following questions: A (location at worksite), c (sur­
face worker fell from), e (type of work), m (events in­
volved in fall), N (hazardous conditions at worksite), u
(reason there was no fall protection), v (reason fall pro­
tection failed to prevent fall)', and x (actions, methods,
etc., that might have prevented fall).
Estimates of mean and median lost workdays and
nights of hospitalization do not include cases in which
workers indicated lost time or hospitalization but failed
to provide numerical estimates of the amount of time.
All usable responses in incomplete questionnaires
were tabulated. Consequently, response rates vary
among questions. No attempt was made to adjust the
data for nonresponse.
Information on the employer’s industry classification
and the worker’s age, sex, part of body injured, and
source of injury was classified and tabulated for all
respondents based on information furnished by the
employer in the workers’ compensation report.
Numerical values shown in tables were actual counts
while percentages were rounded to the nearest whole
number.

17

Appendix B. PartSelpatlng
State Agencies

Arizona Industrial Commission
Arkansas Department o f Labor
California Department of Industrial Affairs
Colorado Department o f Labor and Employment
Delaware Department o f Labor
Hawaii Department o f Labor and Industrial Relations
Indiana Division o f Labor
Iowa Bureau o f Labor
Kentucky Department o f Labor
Maine Department o f Labor
Maryland Department o f Licensing and Regulation
Michigan Department o f Labor
Missouri Department o f Labor and Industrial Relations




Montana Department o f Labor and Industry
Nebraska Workmen’s Compensation Court
North Carolina Industrial Commission
Ohio Industrial Commission
Tennessee Department o f Labor
Utah Industrial Commission
Vermont Department o f Labor and Industry
Virginia Department o f Labor and Industry
Washington Department of Labor and Industries
Wisconsin Department o f Industry, Labor, and Human
Relations
Wyoming Department o f Labor and Statistics

18

Appendix 0. Survey Questionnair©
U.S. 0@piartm@3it of L@
b®r

Bureau of Labor Statistics
Work Injury Report—Falls From Elevations
T he in fo rm a tio n co lle c te d on th is fo rm by th e Bureau o f
L a b o r S ta tistics and the S tate Agencies c o o p e ra tin g in its
sta tistica l program w ill be held in c o n fid e n c e and w ill be
:.ed fo r sta tistica l purposes o n ly .
.

This report is authorised by lew 39 U.S.C. 2.
Your voluntary cooperation is needed to make
the results o f this survey comprehensive,
accurate, e nd timely.

Form Approved
O.M.B. No. 1220-0047
Approval Expires 6 /3 0 /8 2

D a te o f
State

A. W here
1. □
2. □
3. □
4. Q

8.

A c c id e n t

Case N u m b e r

y©y Krorhistg at tSta tfma @f yrai? accidant? I Check one.)

t.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

□
□
□
□
□
□
7. □

P rlva to ly ow ned hom o
C o m m ercial o r In d u s tria l b u ild in g (o ffic e , warehouse, store,
fa c to ry , school, etc.)
C o n s tru c tio n site
O th e r are® (brldga, o u ts id e ta n k .tre e , e tc ,): {D e scrib e ) --------

W ars y e t! in d o o rs o r o u td o o rs ?
1. □ In doors
2. □ O u td o o rs

J.

2.
3.
4.
5.
8.

□
□

Suspended sca ffo ld
O th e r ty p e o f s c a ffo ld
E W alkw ay or ca tw a lk
D
□ L oa ding do ck
□ R oof
O A t tic beam o r o th e r b u ild in g s tru c tu re
□ Piled o r stacked m a te ria l )lu m b e r, b ricks, boxes, etc.)
l H Single bo x, b a rre l, c o n ta in e r o r piece o f fu rn itu r e
□ G ro u n d surface o r flo o r (edgs o f a hole , tre n c h , etc.)
□ Wall
□ Tree
_
□ O th e r: {Describe) _ __________________ ___________________

E a rth, d ir t o r gross
C oncrete, ro c k o r asph alt surfoco
M otal surface
W ood surface
Boxes, to o ls , w o rk m ate rials o r o th e r obje cts
C arpeted o r tile d flo o r in g
O th s r: (D escribe) ------------------------- — ----------------------------------

What we?© yo ur injuries? (Check all that apply.)

E F ractura (s) — In d ic a te
D

1.

C. What did you fat! from ? {Check one.)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

What d id y@u fe ll on to? (Chock all that apply.)

O
□
□
□

C uts, lacerations o r pun c tu re s
Bruises, co n tu sio n s
M uscle s p ra in /s tra ln , to rn ligam ents
B rain concussion
□ O th e r: (D escribe) ____________ _______________________________

K. H o w m a n y w o rk d a y s d id y o u (osr d o v o u e x p a c t to ) Soso due t o y o u r
in ju ry ? (W O TE : D© n o t esnant th o d a y o f in ju ry , days o n lig h t d u ty
w o rk , rostos! days o f f o r h d id s y s .)

_______________ W orkdays

D L iftin g , ca rry in g

□
□
4. □
5. l H
6. D
7. LI
8. □

o r m o v in g objects
Using to o ls or e q u ip m e n t
W alking
R u n n in g
S tepping b ackw ard
St 'p p ln g fro m one surface to a no ther
C lim b in g up o r dow n
O th e r: (D escribe)_____._________________ _______________ _______

L, D id y e w in ju ry require you to tea hosjrftaSSsed w©m5®ht?
1. □
2. □

□
□
L
L
L
L
□
D
L
□
□
□
□

P a intin g
W elding
R o o fin g
C a rp e n try
O th e r c o n s tru c tio n w o rk : (D s ^ rib o ) _______________________ ___
T elephone, e le c tric a l o r o th e r u t ilit y service w o rk
L o a d ln g /u n lo s d in g m a te ria l
Inspecting e q u ip m e n t o r m a te rie l
O perating, repairing, closning o r Installing e q u ip m e n t
Tree trim m in g o r logging
General m aintenance w o rk
G oing to or fro m w o rk s ite
O th e r: (Describe)__________« _ _________ __________________

E
D

N. D id m y hazardous c o n d itio n s ©essfTShwts t o y o u r e s s ld c n t? (Check

e ll d ie t apply.)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

F. H ew hi|£i c&eva sho grcuntd, files? level or e^snsnjs tvere ysts to fe ro
yea (Ml? (Check one.)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

□
□
□
□
□
L

Less th a n 3 fe e t ( fo r exam ple: ta b le h s jg h t Is less th a n 3 fs s t)
3 to 6 fe a t
5 to 10 fe e t
10 to 15 fe e t
16 to 20 fe a t
20 fo o t o r m ore

1. □
2. □

4i □
S. □
6. □

m?ere
No
Yes

ef tftsss hazard* before your sssodssss?

(Describe)
2.
3.
4.
5.
S.
7.
8.

□
□
□
□
□
Q
□
9. □
10.
□

H. Hot® fe? d id y©» fa il? (Chock one.)
Less th e n 3 fe a t
3 to 5 fo o t
5 to 10 fe a t

C lu tte re d w o rk area
S lip p e ry w a lk in g surfoco: (Doscribs) -----------------------------------------Uneven o r sloped w a lk in g surface
W eather c o n d itio n s : (Describe) -----------— ---------------------------------Inadequ ate lig h tin g
O th e r: (Describe) ---------------------------- ---------------------------------- ------- -N o hazardous c o n d itio n s c o n trib u te d t© acc id e n t

3.

L

N o hazardous c o n d itio n s Involved

D id assytitistfl ®!ss © s m rib u t® t© y o w essidsn?? (Check a ll d ie t apply.)
1. □ Hod physica l c o n d itio n w h ic h c o n trlfo u ts d t o th® a c c id e n t:

Q F irs t tim e y o u w o rk e d a t th is h e ig h t
□ D a ily o r a lm o s t ovary day
O Several tim e s a m o n th
L A b o u t ones o m o n th
L S e ld o m — leas th a n once e morndt

1. □
2. □
3. D

□
□
□
□
Q
□
□

O. Wars you

G. Hoiw often do you n o rm sily «?©?& s4 ®ste Rs!#sf? (Check one.)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

No
Yes
If yeo, h o w lo n g w ere y o u (o r do y o u o x p e c t to be) In th e
hosp ital?
I
____________ ___ _ N ig h ts
l____J ____ I____ I

f$ . H oks d id y e a r e x s id a n t o c cur? (Check a il th a t apply.)
1. □ F lo o r, s c a ffo ld , etc., b ro k e , collapead o r gave w a y
2. ED W a lkw a y, tree, etc., m oved, tilte d o r s h ifte d
3. □ Loo t grip on o b je c t y o u w are h o ld in g on to fo r balance
O b je c t y o u w a re h o ld in g on to gave w ay
4.
5. □ S lip p e d o r lo s t fo o tin g
S. □ T rip p e d o r c a u g h t f o o t
7. □ L o s t balance
8. □ Was s tru c k , pushed o r k n o c k e d over
9. □ O ccurred In o th e r w a y : (Describe) — ----------— -------— ----- -— _ —

E. What typ a o f w o rk «?ars yea dsing? (Check one.)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

I___ I____ I------- L_---- 1
_

Check h e r e _____ If y o u d id n o t lose tim e b e y o n d th e day o f
in ju ry .

D. W f n was yosar a ctivity at tha tiem® e f yo u r esssdsnt? (Check ell that apply J
1

bone(s) b ro k e n (leg, rib , ankle, etc.)

10 to 15 fe a t
15 to 20 fe a t
20 fo o t o r m ore

___________ __ ______ _

___ _____________ _________ ______ ________ —

D id n o t realize y o u w are near sdgs o r ope ning
N o t p a y in g d o e s a tte n tio n t o w h e re y o u w are going
Wee careless In w h a t-y o u w e re doin g
C o u ld n o t ©as w h e re y o u w e re going
Was d is tric te d by nolo®, co-w ork® r'a a c tiv ity , ®tc.
Was tire d o r fa tig u e d
W a lk in g to o fa s t o r ru n n in g
O th e r: (Describe)
.............................
.... — — — --------—
N o th in g else c o n tr ib u te d to a c c id e n t

COi^Tl^UE ON REVERSE SIDE
BLS 98 E (Feb. 1882)




19

W. Indicate whether you were wearing and using personal fall protection
equipment (see pictures below) at the time of your accident.
(Check one.)

Q. Do you or your co-workers ever work at heights of HO feat or more?
(Check one.)
1. □
2. □
3. CD
4. □
5. CD

No
Yes—
Y es—
Y es—
Y es—

d a ily o r a lm o s t e ve ry day
several tim e s a m o n th
a b o u t on ce a m o n th
less th a n o n c e a m o n th

1. CD S a fe ty b e lt ( o r harness) tie d o f f w ith la n y a rd o r ro p e grab
2. CD S a fe ty b e lt (o r harness) w ith pole strap in use
3. CD W in d o w c le a n e r's b e lt c o n n e c te d to s tru c tu r e
4. C W e a rin g s a fe ty b e lt o r harness b u t not a tta c h e d to lif e lin e o r
D
structure
5. CD W e a rin g o th e r fall p ro te c ­
t io n e q u ip m e n t: (Describe)---------------------------------------------------6. CD N o n e o f th e abo ve

R. if yes, doss y ou r company require the usd of fall protection at heights
o f 10 feet or more? (Check ad that apply.)
1- □
2. □
3. CD
4. □
5. □
6. CD

7.

No
Y es— g u a rd ra ils
Y e s— r o o f e r s 'w a r n in g lin e s
Y e s— s a fe ty nets
Y e s — p e rso n a l f a ll p r o t e c tio n (s a fe ty b e lt, la n y a rd , life lin e , e tc .)
Y e s — o th e r fa ll p r o t e c tio n : (Describe)

CD D o n 't k n o w

S. Doas y o u r company p rovid e tra in in g o n h o w and w hen to uss fa ll
p ro te ctio n ?
1. □ N o
2. □ Yes
T. Was there fa ll p ro te c tio n in th e area w here yo u ware w o rk in g at the
tim e o f y o u r accident? fCheck all that apply.)
1. □
2. CD
3. □
4. CD
5.

No
Yes- g u a rd ra ils
Y e s— r o o fe rs ' w a rn in g lin e s
Y es— s a fe ty nets

CD Y e s —s a fe ty b e lts

6. CD Y e s —other fell protection: (Describe)______________________

S a fe ty B e lt,
L ife lin e and
L a n y a rd

U. i f there was no ta li p ro te c tio n , in d ica te raason(s) w h y . (Check ad

W in d o w
C le a n e r's
B e lt

P o le S tra p

that apply.)
1.
2.

CD N o t u p h ig h e n o u g h to need any
CD N o t practical t o use in

X. What do you fee! could have prevented your accident? (Check all
that apply.)

that type of work: (E xplain )____________:
________________
3.
4.

CD D id n o t t h in k i t w a s needed
CD T o o m u c h tr o u b le t o set up

1.

V. *f th e re was fe ll p ro te c tio n , w h y d id n 't i t prevent y o u r fa ll? (Check

all that apply.)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
S.
S.

CD
CD
CD
CD
D
CD
CD
□
□

F f f r o m side o r area n o t p ro te c te d b y g u a rd ra il
P e ll o v e r g u a rd ra il
F e ll u n d e r g u a rd ra il
G u a rd ra il b ro k e
S a fe ty n e t b ro k e
D id n o t la n d on n e t
W a rn in g lin e w as t o o clo se to edge o f r o o f
Was b e y o n d w a rn in g lin e
O th e r re a so n (s): (D escrib e) _______ ______________________

CD
CD
CD
CD
□

R e m o v in g h aza rds b e fo re w o r k in g in area
M o re o r b e tte r s a fe ty tra in in g
U sing safer w o r k p ro c e d u re s o n y o u r p a r t
H a v in g c o m p a n y en force safe w o rk procedures
O th e r: (Describe) --------------------------- —-----------------------------

Y. How many people are currently employed in your company7(check one)
1.
2.

20

□
□

1 to 10
11 t o 4 9

3.

Briefly describe how your accident occurred.




CD U sing g u a rd ra ils o r o th e r ty p e s o f fa ll p r o t e c tio n

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

5. C D id not know if it was required
D
6. CD O th e r re a so n (s): (Describe ) _______________________ ____.____

□

50 to 9 9

4. □
5. □

100 to 4 9 9
5 0 0 o r m o re

W ork Injury Reports

Reports which may be purchased from the U.S. Department o f Commerce, National Technical Information Services
(NTIS), 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, Virginia 22161:
© Survey o f Ladder Accidents Resulting in Injuries
NTIS Accession No. PB83 207985 (1978)
o Survey o f Welding and Cutting Accidents Resulting in Injuries
NTIS Accession No. PB83 208017 (1978)
© Survey o f Scaffold Accidents Resulting in Injuries
NTIS Accession No. PB83 208009 (1978)
© Survey o f Power Saw Accidents Resulting in Injuries
NTIS Accession No. PB83 207993 (1978)
Reports available from the Office of Occupational Safety and Health Statistics, U.S. Department o f Labor, Room
4014, 601 D Street, N.W ., Washington, D .C ., 20212 or regional offices:
o Accidents Involving Eye Injuries,
Report 597 (1980)
© Accidents Involving Face Injuries,
Report 604 (1980)
© Accidents Involving Head Injuries,
Report 605 (1980)
© Accidents Involving Foot Injuries,
Report 626 (1981)
Reports which may be purchased from the Superintendent o f Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office,
Washington, D.C. 20402:
© Injuries Related to Servicing Equipment
Bulletin 2115 (1981)
© Back Injuries Associated with Lifting
Bulletin 2144 (1982)
© Work Related Hand Injuries and Upper Extremity Amputations
Bulletin 2160 (1982)
© Injuries in Oil and Gas Drilling and Services
Bulletin 2179 (1983)




i

New
Productivity
R e p O ltS
□

from the Bureau of Labor Statistics

Productivity
Measures fo r
Selected industries,

Updates through I982
indexes of output per
employee hour for the
industries currently
included in the U.S.
Government’s program
of productivity
measurement. Data are
presented for 129
industries.

1054- 82
Bulletin 2189

GPO Stock No.
029-001-02793-1

273 pages

□

Articles from the

A BLS Reader
On
Productivity

Price $6.50
GPO Stock No.
029-001-02755-9

Monthly Labor Review
and other publications on
productivity concepts
and measurement, inter­
national productivity
comparisons, tech­
nological developments,
and productivity trends in
the business economy,
individual industries, and
the Federal Government.
Also contains statistical
tables and charts.

Bulletin 2171

238 pages
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