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Injuries to
Construction Laborers
U.S. Department of Labor




INDUSTRY A:\3 iCi

Injuries to
Construction Laborers
U.S. Department of Labor
William E. Brock, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Janet L. Norwood, Commissioner
March 1986
Bulletin 2252

F o r sa le by th e S u p erin ten d en t of D ocu m en ts, U .S. Government Printing Office Washington, D.C. 20402







Preface

This bulletin summarizes the results of a survey of
construction laborers who were injured on the job in the
month of October 1983. The findings of this survey will
assist the Occupational Safety and Health Administra­
tion (OSHA) in developing safety standards, com­
pliance strategy, and training programs for reducing
work-related injuries.
The survey was conducted by the Bureau’s Office of
Occupational Safety and Health Statistics, in coopera­
tion with the following State agencies:

Nebraska Workmen’s Compensation Court,
Statistics Section
New Mexico Occupational Health and Safety
Bureau
>
North Carolina Department of Commerce, In­
dustrial Commission
Industrial Commission of Ohio, Division of Safety
and Hygiene
Oregon Workers’ Compensation Department,
Research and Statistics Section
Tennessee Department of Labor,, Division of Labor
Standards, Research Section ' ’
Texas Industrial Accident Board and Department
of Health
Utah Industrial Commission, Statistics Division
Vermont Department of Labor and Industry
Virginia Department of Labor and Industry, Divi­
sion of Research and Statistics
Washington Department of Labor and Industries,
Industrial Insurance Division, Data Analysis Sec­
tion
Wisconsin Department of Industry, Labor, and
Human Relations, Workers’ Compensation Divi­
sion
Wyoming Department of Labor and Statistics,
Research and Statistics Section
The following offices of the Occupational Safety and
Health Administration of the UPSK Department of
Labor contributed to the planniti&a&d development of
the survey: Compliance, Standards Development,
Statistical Studies and Analysis, Regulatory Analysis,
and Training. The Office of Safety Research of the Na­
tional Institute for Occupational Safety and Health also
contributed. The analysis of the survey findings was
prepared by Helen McDonald. Lyn Pearson developed
the computer tabulations.
A list of other Work Injury Reports published since
1978 appears at the end of this bulletin.
Material in this publication is in the public domain
and, with appropriate credit, may be reproduced
without permission.

Alaska Department of Labor, Workers’ Compen­
sation Division
Industrial Commission of Arizona, Division of Ad­
ministrative Management, Research and
Statistics
Arkansas Workers’ Compensation Commission
California Department of Industrial Relations,
Division of Labor Statistics and Research
Colorado Department of Labor and Employment,
Division of Labor/Statistics
Delaware Department of Labor, Division of In­
dustrial Affairs, OSH Statistics Section
Hawaii Department of Labor and Industrial Rela­
tions, OSH Research Section
Iowa Bureau of Labor, Research and Statistics
Kentucky Labor Cabinet, Occupational Safety and
Health Program
Maine Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor
Standards
Maryland Department of Licensing and Regula­
tion, Division of Labor and Industry, Research
and Statistics Unit
Michigan Department of Labor, MIOSHA Infor­
mation Section
Missouri Department of Labor and Industrial Rela­
tions, Division of Workers’ Compensation,
Statistical Section
Montana Department of Labor and Industry,
Workers’ Compensation Division, Statistical Sec­
tion




iii




Contents

Page
Introduction..........................................................................................................................

1

Survey results........................................................................................................................

1

Limitations of the data.........................................................................................................

5

Chart 1: Industry distribution of injured construction laborers, 1983 ..................................
Chart 2: Age comparison of injured construction laborers and all
construction laborers, 1983 ................................................................................
Chart 3: Length of service with employer: Injured construction laborers, 1983 ..................
Chart 4: Length of service in industry: Injured construction laborers, 1983 ........................

2
2
3
3

Tables:
Injuries to construction laborers, selected States, October 1983:
1. Industry and type of work.......................................................................................
2. Location on job site and length of time on site at time of accident...........................
3. Type of accident......................................................................................................
4. Source of injury......................................................................................................
5. Tools and heavy equipment used when injured......................................................
6. Personal protective equipment worn.......................................................................
7. Nature of injury......................................................................................................
8. Part of body affected...............................................................................................
9. Estimated days away from w o rk ............................................................................
10. Length of hospitalization required...........................................................................
11. Conditions or factors contributing to the accident...................................................
12. Training information..............................................................................................
13. Accident prevention................................................................................................
14. Activity at time of accident.....................................................................................
15. Length of service....................................................................................................
16. Sex of worker.........................................................................................................
17. Age of worker.........................................................................................................

6
7
8
9
11
12
13
14
15
15
16
17
18
19
20
20
20

Appendixes:
A. Survey explanatory note...............................................................................................
B. Participating State agencies.........................................................................................
C. Survey questionnaire ..................................................................................................

21
23
24




v




Injuries to Construction Laborers

Introduction
Nearly 1 out of 5 workers in the construction industry
is classified as a laborer. Laborers include the “ helpers”
who assist the carpenters, electricians, masons, or other
craft workers, and the workers who do the shoveling,
lifting, carrying, and a variety of other jobs which re­
quire relatively few skills. Indicative of the many ac­
tivities laborers perform, 286 jobs were listed in the 1970
Bureau of the Census Index of Occupations under the
heading “ Construction Laborers.” These laborers work
in an industry that had an overall occupational injury
incidence rate of 14.7 per 100 full-time workers in 1983,
almost twice the national rate of 7.5, and higher than
any other industry division.1 In fact, construction
laborers are injured about 2Vi times more frequently
than the general work force.2
At the request of the Occupational Safety and Health
Administration, the Bureau of Labor Statistics surveyed
a sample of these workers to obtain more information
on the actions and hazards associated with their work
injuries. Injured workers were asked to describe their
activity, tools or equipment used, and location at the
time of the accident. As a measure of the severity of the
workers’ injuries, information was obtained on the
number of days lost from work, the length of
hospitalization required, the nature of the injury, and
the part of the body affected. Workers also indicated
how much training and experience they had with their
employer and in construction in general. Finally, they
were asked about worksite conditions or other factors
thought to contribute to the accident and what they felt
would be the best preventive measures.

tures where repair or remodeling work was in process
(table 1). A similar proportion occurred during new
construction of nonbuilding structures such as walls,
towers, or parking lots. Next in frequency were injuries
during site clearance and demolition work, road
building or repair, sewer or pipeline work, and bridge or
tunnel construction.
Although most injuries occurred at ground or floor
level, 22 percent of the workers were at elevations when
their injuries occurred (table 2). The most common
elevated locations were scaffolds, ladders, and roofs.
About 7 percent of the injuries took place in trenches.
Age and experience. Younger construction laborers are
more likely to be injured than older laborers. Seventyeight percent of the injured workers were under 35 years
of age, compared with 63 percent of all construction
laborers (chart 2).
The construction laborers who were injured had
shorter job tenures than most construction laborers: 74
percent of those injured had less then 1 year’s ex­
perience (chart 3). Only 44 percent of all construction
laborers had this short a length of service on their cur­
rent job.3 More than one-half of the injured laborers
had been at the particular job site less than 1 month
(table 2). Furthermore, 1 out of 8 injuries occurred to
workers on their first day at the site.
However, more than three-fourths of the injured had
been in the industry longer than 1 year, and two-fifths
had 5 or more years of service in the industry (chart 4).
Type o f accident, activity, and source o f injury. Onefourth of the workers were injured as a result of being
struck by objects (table 3). Overexertion was the cause
of about one-fifth of the injuries. Falls from elevations,
striking against objects, and getting caught in or bet­
ween objects were each responsible for about one-tenth
of the injuries. More than one-half of the injuries due to
overexertion occurred to workers whose primary task
was lifting, carrying, or moving objects (text table 1).
Another job associated with overexertion was shovel­
ing. Falls from elevations occurred most often to
laborers who were actually building or installing forms
or parts of the structure and to workers who were walk­
ing or climbing from one work area to another. Other
impact injuries (being struck by or striking against ob-

Survey results
Industry and type o f work. General building contractors
(residential and industrial buildings) had the largest pro­
portion of injuries to laborers, followed by special trade
contractors (plumbing, painting, electrical, and other
specialty work). Heavy construction contractors, who
are involved with projects such as highways, bridges,
tunnels, and utility lines, had the smallest proportion
(chart 1).
Slightly more than one-third of the injuries occurred
at sites where new buildings or houses were being
erected. About 1 in 7 injuries happened at existing struc­
1 Occupational Injuries and Illnesses in the United States by In­
dustry, Bulletin 2236 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1983).
2 “ BLS Develops Measure of Job Risk by Occupation,” Monthly
Labor Review, October 1981, page 26.




3
BLS Office of Employment and Unemployment Statistics, un­
published data, January 1983.
1

Chart 2. Age com parison of injured construction laborers and all construction laborers, 1983

16-19
(1) Less than 1 percent.



20-24

25-34

35-44
Age
2

45-54

55-64

65 and
over

Chart 3. Length of service with em ployer: injured construction laborers, 1983

Percent

Percent

40 -

40

30 -

- 30

20

-

-

-

lif e
fm *
m
*

20

10

:SV
'

Less
than
1 week

1 to 4
weeks

6 months
to
1 year

1 to 6
months

1 to 5
years

5 years
or more

Chart 4. Length of service in construction industry: Injured construction laborers, 1983

Percent




Percent

Less
than
1 week

1 to 4
weeks

1 to 6
months

6 months
to
1 year
3

1 to 5
years

5 years
orm ore

Text table 1. Activity at time of accident: Injuries to construction laborers, selected States, October 1983
Type of accident
Activity

Total injured
workers

Struck
against

Struck by

Fall from
elevation

Caught
in, under,
between

Over­
exertion

100

100

24

55

Percent
100

100

100

29

21

25

100
11

11

11

14

27

11

3

8

17

9

9

10

2

Shoveling digging ................................................................................

5

3

4

0

4

10

Climbing walking, running, not elsewhere classified.........................

7

13

2

29

4

1

All other activities.................................................................................

40

35

46

24

47

29

NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100.
appendix A for the scope of the survey.

See

SOURCE: Survey questionnaires,

workers. About one-half of the sprains were due to
overexertion (text table 2). Fractures, cuts, and bruises
were most often caused by the impact of falling, swing­
ing, or flying objects.
Injuries to the arms, hands, and fingers were sustain­
ed by nearly three-tenths of the workers (table 8). About
one-fifth of the workers suffered back injuries. Eyes
and legs each represented about one-tenth of the injury
sites. More than three-fourths of the laborers lost days
away from work as a result of their injuries (table 9).5
Based on the median, more than one-half of those
reporting lost time were out of work for 10 or more
days, with the average lost-time case resulting in 17 days
away from work. One out of eight laborers indicated
that they were hospitalized overnight after the accident,
with an average hospital stay of 5 nights (table 10).

jects) were more widely spread among the numerous ac­
tivities, indicating that these risks are not as concen­
trated within certain activities.
Although more than 90 different objects and
substances were identified as the source of injury, the
most common were: Metal items (including pipes,
fasteners, structural metal, and metal chips), 21 percent;
working surfaces, 13 percent; nonpowered handtools, 8
percent; wood items and mineral items, 7 percent each;
and powered handtools, 6 percent (table 4). Overall, on­
ly 14 percent of the workers were injured by tools, even
though nearly one-half of the laborers were using tools
at the time of injury, most frequently hammers, sledges,
digging tools, and power saws (table 5).
Personal protective equipment. Seventy-three percent of
the injured construction laborers were wearing personal
protective equipment (table 6). In comparison, other
populations studied in high-risk industries have shown
much higher usage rates: 98 percent of the injured
workers in oil and gas drilling and servicing and 96 per­
cent of surveyed workers in the logging industry were
wearing some safety gear.4 Among the injured construc­
tion laborers, gloves were the most common protection,
worn by one-half of them. Less frequently used were:
Hard hats, 44 percent; steel-toed shoes or boots, 35 per­
cent; eye protection, 18 percent; and ear plugs, 8 per­
cent.

Factors contributing to accident. Nearly one-half of the
workers cited hazardous conditions at the worksite as
contributing to their accident (table 11). Slippery
ground or floor surfaces were noted by 14 percent. Lack
of sufficient space to work ranked almost as high. More
than one-half of the laborers who cited lack of space
were on ladders, scaffolds, or beams or in trenches, tun­
nels, vehicles, or other areas where movement may be
difficult.
Eight percent of the workers indicated weather condi­
tions contributed to the accident. An equal proportion
faulted cluttered work areas. Next in frequency were
tools or equipment being in bad condition and poor
lighting. Interestingly, most of those who reported
hazardous worksite conditions indicated that they were
aware of the hazards prior to their injuries.
Contributing factors of a more general nature were

Nature o f injury, lost workdays, and hospitalization.
Muscle sprains and strains topped the list of injuries,
suffered by nearly 4 out of 10 injured laborers (table 7).
Next were cuts, occurring in 1 out of 4 cases, followed
by fractures and bruises, each cited by 1 out of 5

4
Injuries in Oil and Gas Drilling and Services, Bulletin 2179
5
See appendix A for differences in reporting requirements among
(Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1983) and Injuries in the Logging In­
the States included in this study.
dustry, Bulletin 2203 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1984).




4

Text table 2. Nature of injury by type of accident: Injuries to construction laborers, selected States, October 1983
Type of accident
Total
injured
workers

Nature of injury

Struck
against

Fall from
Struck by elevation

Caught
in, under,
between

Over­
exertion

Other

Percent
Fracture .................................................................................................

100

5

41

19

19

3

13

Cut, laceration, or puncture.................................................................

100

23

45

8

13

0

11

Bruise, contusion .................................................................................

100

8

46

18

16

2

10

Muscle sprain or strain, torn ligament................................................

100

6

8

15

5

51

14

Amputation ...........................................................................................

100

0

27

0

73

0

0

Concussion...........................................................................................

100

0

43

57

0

0

0

NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100. See
appendix A for the scope of the survey.

SOURCE: Survey questionnaires,

cited by almost two- thirds of the injured workers. The
fast pace of work and the heavy weight of objects being
handled were each identified by more than one-fifth of
the laborers. About 1 in 10 indicated faulty judgment of
time or distance on their part, while an equal proportion
placed at least part of the blame on their co-workers’ ac­
tions. Three other reasons were each cited in 1 out of 20
cases: Not having the right tools or equipment, fatigue,
and inattention.

they had not been given any information on hazardous
chemicals or materials.
Three-fifths of the laborers had taken vocational
education in school or other technical training courses,
and all but one-tenth of them reported that the courses
provided information related to occupational safety and
health. Safety hazards and related topics, such as the
use of protective equipment, were covered more often
than health topics. However, 7 out of 10 felt that these
courses should provide more information on the possi­
ble safety and health risks in their jobs.

Job and safety training. About three-fourths of the in­
jured construction laborers had received training for the
type of work being done when injured, usually from
their present or previous employers (table 12). However,
less than one-half of the laborers indicated that their
training covered safety instructions for that specific job.
Two-thirds of the workers had been given on-the- job or
other types of safety instructions, although they weren’t
always related to the specific task being performed when
they were hurt.
Nearly four-fifths of the laborers had received no in­
formation on the health hazards of asbestos. Those who
did usually cited their employers or the news media as
their source of information. As noted below, however,
workers involved in demolition or repair work, where
the risk of asbestos exposure is higher than in new con­
struction, were somewhat more likely to have received
this information:

Accident prevention.The injured workers were asked
how they thought their accident could have been
prevented (table 13). About 1 in 5 suggested safer work
procedures on their part. A similar proportion said
more help was needed to do the job safely. Next in fre­
quency were: Making the work area safer, allowing
more time for the work, using personal protective
equipment, and having better or different tools or
equipment to do the job. About three-tenths of the
workers felt that it could not have been prevented, often
commenting,“ It was a freak accident,” perhaps unaware
of the overall frequency of occupational injuries.
Limitations of the data
The data in this survey represent the population of in­
jured construction laborers reported in the 27
cooperating States during the reference period of Oc­
tober 1983. However, the user should note the following
limitations: States participating in data collection may
not be representative of the country as a whole; govern­
ment is not included; reporting requirements for
workers’ compensation reports, the source documents
for selecting injuries for study, vary among States; and
the reference period is not intended to represent the en­
tire year.
Incidence rates of the injuries studied were not
generated, nor can they be inferred from the data,
because information on hours of work for the survey
period is not available. See appendix A for scope and
methodology of the survey.

Information on asbestos
Type o f work

Total

Provided

Not
provided

(Percent)
Site clearance or demolition .. .
Repair work or remodeling . . . .
Constructing new house,
building, or structure..............
Road building, laying pipe,
or sewer li n e ............................
Bridge or tunnel
construction............................

100
100

29
30

71
70

100

19

81

100

21

79

100

13

87

More than three-fourths of the workers indicated that




5




Table 1. Industry and type of work: Injuries to construction
laborers, selected States, October 1983
Industry and type of work
Total, 3,700 injured workers

Percent
100

Industry

General building contractors...............................................................
General building contractors, uns.....................................................
Residential building construction.....................................................
Single-family housing construction .............................................
Residential construction, uns. or n.e.c.........................................
Operative builders ............................................................................
Nonresidential building construction...............................................
Industrial buildings and warehouses...........................................
Nonresidential construction, uns. or n.e.c...................................

38
7
15
9

Heavy construction contractors................
Heavy construction contractors, uns.....
Highway and street construction...........
Heavy construction, except highway....
Bridge, tunnel, and elevated highway
Water, sewer, and utility lines ...........
Heavy construction, n.e.c...................

28
3

Special trade contractors....................................................................
Plumbing, heating, air conditioning .................................................
Electrical work ..................................................................................
Masonry, stonework, and plastering...............................................
Masonry, stonework, and plastering, uns....................................
Masonry and other stonework.....................................................
Plastering, drywall, and insulation...............................................
Terrazzo, tile, marble, mosaic work............................................
Carpentering......................................................................................
Roofing and sheet metal w o rk........................................................
Concrete work ..................................................................................
Water well drilling.............................................................................
Miscellaneous special trade contractors.........................................
Structural steel erection ...............................................................
Glass and glazing w ork................................................................
Excavating and foundation w ork.................................................
Wrecking and demolition w ork....................................................
Installing building equipment, n.e.c..............................................
Special trade contractors, uns. or n.e.c...........................................

34
4
3
7
0
4

6
1

15
3
12

8

17
3
9
6

2
1
1

0

3
6
5
1

0

3
1

(’)
4

Type of work

Site clearance or demolition............................................
Construction of new house or building............................
Construction of structure other than house or building ..
Repair work or remodeling (including addition to house)
Road building or repair.....................................................
Bridge or tunnel construction...........................................
Laying sewer lines or other pipelines..............................
O ther..................................................................................

10
36
13
14
8
5
6
8

1 Less than 0.5 percent.
n.e.c. = not elsewhere classified.
uns. = unspecified.
NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100. See appendix A
for the scope of the survey.
SOURCE: Industry obtained from State workers’ compensation reports; type
of work obtained from survey questionnaires.

6




Table 2. Location on job site and length of time on site at time
of accident: Injuries to construction laborers, selected States,
October 1983

Location and length of time
Total, 3,700 injured workers.........................................................

Percent
100

Location

Ground or floor level...........................................................................
Ladder ..................................................................................................
Scaffold.................................................................................................
Stairs or steps......................................................................................
Tunnel ...................................................................................................
Roof......................................................................................................
Beam, girder, or other area above ground level...............................
In tank...................................................................................................
In trench ...............................................................................................
In or on vehicle....................................................................................
O ther....................................................................................................
Not at job s ite ......................................................................................

62
5
6
1
1
4
6
(')
7
4
2
1

Length of time at job site

First day at site ....................................................................................
Less than 1 week................................................................................
1 week to 1 month..............................................................................
1 to 3 months ......................................................................................
More than 3 months ............................................................................
Not at job s ite ......................................................................................

12
16
27
21
22
1

1 Less than 0.5 percent.
NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100. See appendix A
for the scope of the survey.
SOURCE: Survey questionnaires.

7




Table 3. Type of accident: Injuries to construction laborers,
selected States, October 1983

Type of accident
Total, 3,700 injured workers

Percent
100

Struck against.............
Struck against, uns.
Stationary object....
Moving object........
Struck by......................
Struck by, uns........
Falling object.........
Flying object..........
Struck by, n.e.c......

10
1
8

1

25

1
10

3

11

Fall from elevation....................
Fall from elevation, uns......
From scaffolds, etc.............
From ladders......................
From piled materials .........
From vehicles.....................
On stairs .............................
Into shafts, etc.....................
Fall to lower level, n.e.c.....
Fall on same level....................
Fall to the walkway, etc......
Fall onto or against objects
Fall on same level, n.e.c. ...

11

O
2
2
O

1
1
1

3
7
4
3
O

Caught in, under, between...................................................................
Caught in, under, between, uns.....................................................
Inrunning or meshing objects........................................................
Moving and stationary objects......................................................
Collapsing materials......................................................................
Caught in, under, between, n.e.c...................................................
Rubbed or abraded..............................................................................
Rubbed or abraded, uns.................................................................
Leaning, kneeling, etc.....................................................................
Objects handled.............................................................................
Foreign matter in eyes...................................................................
Rubbed or abraded, n.e.c...............................................................
Bodily reaction......................................................................................
Overexertion..........................................................................................
Overexertion, uns............................................................................
Lifting objects.................................................................................
Pulling or pushing objects.............................................................
Wielding or throwing objects.........................................................
Overexertion, n.e.c..........................................................................
Contact with electric current................................................................
Contact with temperature extremes....................................................
Hot objects or substances............................................................
Contact with radiations, caustics, etc..................................................
Contact with radiations, caustics, etc., uns...................................
By inhalation...................................................................................
By absorption.................................................................................
Contact with radiations, caustics, etc., n.e.c.................................
Transportation accidents, other than motor vehicle.........................
Highway motor vehicle accidents........................................................
Explosions ............................................................................................
Nonclassifiable...................................................................................... 1

8

2
1

3

1

0
0

2
7

1
6

(’)
3
22

2
10

3
5
2
O
2
2
3
O
O
2
0
(1)
(1)
(’)
2

1 Less than 0.5 percent.
n.e.c. = not elsewhere classified.
uns. = unspecified.
NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100. See appendix A
for the scope of the survey.
SOURCE: State workers’ compensation reports.

8




Table 4. Source of injury: Injuries to construction laborers,
selected States, October 1983

Source of injury

Percent
100

Total, 3,700 injured workers
Animals, insects, etc....................
Bodily motion ..............................
Boilers, pressure vessels............
Boxes, barrels, containers..........
Buildings and structures.............
Ceramic item s.............................
Chemicals, chemical compounds
Clothing.......................................
Coal and petroleum products....
Conveyors....................................
Electric apparatus.......................
Flame, fire, smoke......................
Furniture, fixtures, etc..................
Glass items, n.e.c........................

(’)
3
1

3
4

1
2

0

2

0

1

0
0

Handtools, not powered ...............
Handtools, not powered, uns. .
Blow torch ...............................
Chisel ......................................
Crowbar...................................
Hammer..................................
Knife ........................................
Pick..........................................
Pliers........................................
Rope, chain .............................
Screwdriver..............................
Shovel.....................................
Wrench....................................
Handtools, not powered, n.e.c.
Handtools, powered......................
Handtools, powered, uns.........
Grinder....................................
Drill ..........................................
Hammer, tamper.....................
Knife........................................
Saw..........................................
Handtools, powered, n.e.c......

0
0
0
0
(')
0
0
0
0
0
(’)
0

Heat, atmospheric ......................................
Heating equipment (nonelectric), n.e.c.......
Hoisting apparatus......................................
Ladders.......................................................
Liquids, n.e.c................................................
Machines ....................................................
Agitators, mixers..................................
Buffers, polishers, etc...........................
Casting, forging, welding .....................
Drilling, boring ......................................
Highway construction, n.e.c.................
Planers, shapers, molders...................
Saws.....................................................
Shears, slitters, slicers.........................
Machines, n.e.c.....................................
Mechanical power transmission apparatus

0
0

Metal items.......................................
Metal items, uns.........................
Automobile parts........................
Structural metal.........................
Molten metal .............................
Pipe and fittings........................
Metal parts (except automobile)
Metal fasteners.........................
Metal binders ............................
Metal chips, splinters, particles
Metal items, n.e.c.......................
Mineral items, metallic, n.e.c...........
Mineral items, nonmetallic, n.e.c.....
Paper and pulp ................................

21

0
o
0
0
0
0
0
0
(')
1

(’)
5
O
4
O
4
1
2

3
O
7
0

See footnotes at end of table.

9




Table 4. Source of injury: Injuries to construction laborers,
selected States, October 1983— Continued

Source of injury
Particles (unidentified).............................
Plants, trees, vegetation.........................
Plastic items, n.e.c...................................
Pumps and prime movers ......................
Radiating substances and equipment....
Soaps, detergents, etc., n.e.c.................
Silica........................................................
Scrap, debris, waste materials, n.e.c......
Textile items, n.e.c...................................
Vehicles ...............................................
Highway vehicles, powered.........
Plant or industrial vehicles ..........
Rail vehicles.................................
Vehicles, n.e.c................................
Wood item s.........................................
Wood items, uns............................
Logs...............................................
Lumber......................................... .
Skids, pallets................................
Wood items, n.e.c..........................
Working surfaces....................
Working surfaces, uns......
Floor.................................
Ground ..............................
Ramps..............................
Roofs................................
Runways, platforms.........
Sidewalks, paths, etc........
Stairs, steps......................
Street, road ......................
Working surfaces, n.e.c. ...
Person....................................
Rubber products.....................
Miscellaneous, n.e.c................
Nonclassifiable........................

Percent
1

0
0

1
1

0
O
0
4
2
2

O
(’)
O
O
0

i

13
2
2

7
0
O
(’)
0
1
0
0
0
2
3

1 Less than 0.5 percent.
n.e.c. = not elsewhere classified.
uns. = unspecified.
NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100. See appendix A
for the scope of the survey.
SOURCE: State workers’ compensation reports.

10




Table 5. Tools and heavy equipment used when injured:
Injuries to construction laborers, selected States,
October 1983

Tools and heavy equipment

Percent

Tool worker was using

Total, 3,700 injured workers

100
15

Powered to o l.............
Drill .........................
Grinder...................
Jackhammer..........
Nail gun .................
Saw ........................
Tamper...................
Stapler....................
Welding tools, torch
Other powered tool

2
1

3

1

4

1

Nonpowered to o l..........................................
Cart, d olly..................................................
Crowbar, pry b ar.......................................
Float..........................................................
Hammer, sledge, mallet............................
K n ife .................................................................

Pliers, tongs ..............................................
Rope, chain...............................................
Scissors, shears, cutters..........................
Shovel, spade, pick, or other digging tool
Trowel, putty knife....................................
Wheelbarrow.............................................
Wrench ......................................................
Other nonpowered tool.............................
Nonpowered tool, uns...............................
No tools

(’)
1
3
32
(’)
2
O
10
1
1
1
1

7

1
2

2
4
1

53

Heavy equipment or vehicle worker was operating

Total, 3,700 injured workers...............................................
Pickup truck, van, car, or jeep...................
Concrete mixer (mobile) ............................
Cement mixer (stationary) ..........................
Dump truck..................................................
Road paving equipment.............................
Tractor (wheel)............................................
Tractor (track) .............................................
Bulldozer.....................................................
Other earth moving equipment.................
Crane, hoist, or conveyor..........................
Pump, blower, or compressor...................
Other heavy equipment .............................
Not operating heavy equipment or vehicle
See footnotes at end of table.

11

100
0
(’)
0
0
0
(’)
0
0
97




Table 5. Tools and heavy equipment used when injured:
Injuries to construction laborers, selected States,
October 1983— Continued

Tools and heavy equipment

Percent

To worker’s knowledge, safety features of
heavy equipment or vehicle

Total, 130 injured workers
Backup alarms....................................................
Cage or cover to protect against falling objects
Rollover protection..............................................
Seat belt ..............................................................
Emergency stop or deadman switch .................
Machine guards or belt guards in use...............
Other safety features..........................................

(1
2
)
17
18
18
15
17

Not aware of any safety features

33

1 Less than 0.5 percent.
2 Because more than one response is possible, the sum of the percentages
may not equal 100. Percentages are based on the total number of persons
who answered the question.
uns. = unspecified.
NOTE: Dashes indicate no data were reported. Due to rounding, percent­
ages may not add to 100. See appendix A for the scope of the survey.
SOURCE: Survey questionnaires.

Table 6. Personal protective equipment worn: Injuries to
construction laborers, selected States, October 1983

Protective equipment
Total, 3,700 injured workers..........................................................

Percent
(')

Hard h a t.................................................................................
Gloves....................................................................................
Steel-toed safety shoes or steel-toed boots .......................
Steel plate in sole of shoes..................................................
Safety glasses, goggles, or other eye protection ...............
Ear plugs or other hearing protection...................................
Welder’s hood or welder’s shield.........................................
Respirator or protective mask ..............................................
Safety belt tied off to lanyard and/or lifeline ......................
Safety belt not tied off to lanyard and lifeline.....................
Guardrails or safety railings at heights or around openings
Seat belt .................................................................................
Other .......................................................................................

44
50
35
5
18
8
1
4
1
(2
)
1
(2
)
3

Not wearing or using protective equipment

27

1 Because more than one response is possible, the sum of the percentages
may not equal 100. Percentages are based on the total number of persons
who answered the question.
2 Less than 0.5 percent.
NOTE: See appendix A for the scope of the survey.
SOURCE: Survey questionnaires.

12




Table 7. Nature of injury: Injuries to construction laborers,
selected States, October 1983

Nature of injury
Total, 3,700 injured workers.........................................................
Fracture.................................................................................................
Cut, laceration, or puncture.................................................................
Bruise, contusion.................................................................................
Muscle sprain or strain, torn ligament................................................
Heat burn..............................................................................................
Chemical burn......................................................................................
Amputation ...........................................................................................
Object in eye(s) ...................................................................................
Concussion...........................................................................................
O ther.....................................................................................................

Percent
O
19
25
20
38
2
1
1
9
1
7

1 Because more than one response is possible, the sum of the percentages
may not equal 100. Percentages are based on the total number of persons
who answered the question.
NOTE: See appendix A for the scope of the survey.
SOURCE: Survey questionnaires.

13




Table 8. Part of body affected: Injuries to construction
laborers, selected States, October 1983

Part of body
Total, 3,700 injured workers

Percent

100
15
1
1
0
9
2
(’)
0
1
1
28
0
4
2
O
1
1
0
3
7
12
1
26
O
1
19
2
1
2
1
24
O
10
2
1
6
1
(’)
(’)
4
6
3
1
5
1
1

Head....................
Head, uns......
Brain.............
Ear(s)............
Eye(s)...........
Face .............
Scalp ............
Head, multiple
Head, n.e.c. ...
Neck
Upper extremities ....................
Upper extremities, uns.......
Arm(s)................................
Arm(s), uns.......................
Upper arm(s) ..................
Elbow(s) ..........................
Forearm(s) ......................
Arm(s), n.e.c....................
Wrist(s)..............................
Hand(s) ..............................
Finger(s).............................
Upper extremities, multiple
Trunk....................
Trunk, uns.......
Abdomen .......
Back ..............
Chest.............
Hip(s).............
Shoulder(s) ....
Trunk, multiple
Lower extremities ....................
Lower extremities, uns.......
Leg(s).................................
Leg(s), uns.......................
Thigh(s) ...........................
Knee(s)............................
Lower leg(s)....................
Leg(s), multiple...............
Leg(s), n.e.c.....................
Ankle(s)..............................
Foot or fe e t.......................
Toe(s)................................
Lower extremities, multiple
Multiple parts
Body system
Nonclassifiable

1 Less than 0.5 percent.
n.e.c. = not elsewhere classified.
uns. = unspecified.
NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100. See appendix A
for the scope of the survey.
SOURCE: State workers’ compensation reports.

14




Table 9. Estimated days away from work: Injuries to
construction laborers, selected States, October 1983

Days away from work

Percent

Total, 3,700 injured workers.........................................................

100

No days away from work ....................................................................
1 to 5 days ..........................................................................................
6 to 10 days .....................................................................................
11 to 15 days .....................................................................................
16 to 20 days ...................................................................................

23
25
11
7
4
3
4
3
6
2

26 to 30 days.......................................................................................
31 to 40 days .....................................................................................
41 to 60 days
............................................................................
More than 60 days..............................................................................
Lost-time cases for which days away from work were not
estimated .........................................................................................
Mean days away from work per lost-workday case..........................

12
17

NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100. See appendix A
for the scope of the survey.
SOURCE: Survey questionnaires.

Table 10. Length of hospitalization required: Injuries to
construction laborers, selected States, October 1983

Length of hospitalization

Percent

Total, 3,700 injured workers.........................................................

100

No hospitalization required..................................................................
1 night..................................................................................................
2 nights................................................................................................
3 nights................................................................................................
4 nights.................................................................................................
5 nights.................................................................................................
6 nights.................................................................................................
7 nights.................................................................................................
8 nights.................................................................................................
9 nights................................................................................................
10 nights...............................................................................................
11 nights or m ore................................................................................
Hospitalized cases for which length of hospitalization was not
estimated ...........................................................................................

88
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1

Mean length (nights) of hospitalization per hospitalized case.........

5

1 Less than 0.5 percent.
NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100. See appendix A
for the scope of the survey.
SOURCE: Survey questionnaires.

15




Table 11. Conditions or factors contributing to the accident:
Injuries to construction laborers, selected States, October

1983

Conditions or factors workers felt
contributed to accident

Percent

Worksite conditions

Total, 3,700 injured workers

0

Weather at time of accident....................................................
Slippery ground or floor surface..............................................
No guardrails or safety railings................................................
Working in a limited area or space.........................................
Poor lighting..............................................................................
Cluttered work area..................................................................
Tools or equipment in bad condition or not working properly
Structure was broken or in bad condition...............................
Not enough ventilation..............................................................
O ther..........................................................................................

8
14
3
13
4
8
6
3

No conditions at worksite led to accident

54

1

6

Worker awareness of conditions prior to accident

Total, 3,700 injured workers...............................................
Not aware of these conditions ..................
Aware of a ll of the conditions indicated....
Aware of som e of the conditions indicated
No conditions at worksite led to accident

100
9
30
5
55

Other contributing factors

Total, 3,700 injured workers..........................................................
Co-worker’s activity..............................................................................
Working too fa s t...................................................................................
Tool or equipment not right for jo b .....................................................
Working when tired or fatigued ...........................................................
Working when under stress .................................................................
Lifting, pushing, or moving an object that was too heavy or bulky ...
Misjudged time or distance needed to avoid injury...........................
Not paying full attention to work or distracted...................................
Not given proper training or instructions for jo b ................................
Too noisy..............................................................................................
O ther.....................................................................................................
No other factors contributed to accident1

(')
10
21

6
5
3
22
11
5
3
1
6
36

1 Because more than one response is possible, the sum of the percentages
may not equal 100. Percentages are based on the total number of persons
who answered the question.
NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100. See appendix A
for the scope of the survey.
SOURCE: Survey questionnaires.

16




Table 12. Training information: Injuries to construction
laborers, selected States, October 1983

Training information

Percent

Source of training for work being done when injured

Total, 3,700 injured workers
Present supervisor or employer............................
Previous supervisor or employer..........................
Co-worker (other than supervisor) .......................
School teacher or military instructor....................
Other ......................................................................
Never received any training for this type of work

0
34
28
21
6
3
26

Whether training included safety instructions for work being
done when injured

Total, 3,700 injured workers........................................................
N o ...........................................................................
Yes .........................................................................
Don’t remember....................................................
Never received any training for this type of work

100
23
44
6
26

How safety instructions were given

Total, 3,700 injured workers.........................................................
Never received safety instructions......................
Printed materials (safety manual, textbook, etc.)
In school or other type of classroom instruction
On the job ...........................................................
Safety meetings...................................................
O ther.....................................................................

(1)
33
10

6
51
23
2

Information on the health hazards of asbestos

Total, 3,700 injured workers............................................

100

Provided information on asbestos.........................................
No information provided ........................................................

22

78

Information on hazardous chemicals

Total, 3,700 injured workers..................................
Provided information on hazardous chemicals...........
No information provided ...............................................

100
23
77

Vocational education or other technical training courses
received

Total, 3,700 injured workers.....................................................
None.................................................................................................
In school..........................................................................................
Through union.................................................................................
In military .........................................................................................
In apprentice program.....................................................................
In other program.............................................................................
See footnotes at end of table.

17

(’)
40
49
7
10
6
6




Table 12. Training information: Injuries to construction
laborers, selected States, October 1983— Continued

Training information

Percent

Safety or health information provided in these courses

Total, 2,230 injured workers
Safety hazards worker might find on the job .....................................
Health hazards worker might find on the job such as fumes,
asbestos, etc..........................................................................................
How to recognize, avoid, or prevent unsafe or unhealthy conditions
on the job ..........................................................................................
When and how to use personal protective equipment such as
gloves, hard hat, etc...........................................................................
When and how to use a respirator.....................................................
Other safety or health information ......................................................
None......................................................................................................

O
69
36
52
62
25

12
11

Workers’ opinions on whether courses should provide more
information on safety and health risks found on the job

Total, 2,230 injured workers........................................................
Should provide more information .....
Should not provide more information

100
70
30

1 Because more than one response is possible, the sum of the percentages
may not equal 100. Percentages are based on the total number of persons
who answered the question.
NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages may not add to ItJO. See appendix A
for the scope of the survey.
SOURCE: Survey questionnaires.

Table 13. Accident prevention: Injuries to construction
laborers, selected States, October 1983
Accident prevention

Percent

Actions, methods, or procedures that worker feels would
have prevented accident

Total, 3,700 injured workers
Making area safer before working ......................
More or better safety training..............................
Using personal protective equipment .................
Using safer work procedures on worker’s part ...
Having company enforce safe work procedures
Using guardrails or other types of fall protection
Better or different tools or equipment................
More time to do job .........................................
Better supervision.................................................
More help to do job .............................................
Other .....................................................................
Do not think it could have been prevented .......

(’)
15
8
14
21

11

5
13
15
7
19
7
29

1 Because more than one response is possible, the sum of the percentages
may not equal 100. Percentages are based on the total number of persons
who answered the question.
NOTE: See appendix A for the scope of the survey.
SOURCE: Survey questionnaires.

18




Table 14. Activity at time of accident: Injuries to construction
laborers, selected States, October 1983

Activity
Total, 3,700 injured workers
Manually lifting, carrying, moving .......................................................
Decking.............................................................................................
Brick, block, flagstone .....................................................................
Concrete, mortar .............................................................................
Doors, cabinets, windows ...............................................................
Lumber, plywood, wood trusses, or forms.....................................
Pipe ...................................................................................................
Steel beams.....................................................................................
Tar, asphalt......................................................................................
Wallboard, dry-wall, sheetrock........................................................
Rebars ..............................................................................................
Structural items or building supplies, n.e.c......................................
Rocks, gravel, shrubs, plants .........................................................
Trash, rubble, scrap.........................................................................
Tools, equipment..............................................................................
O ther.................................................................................................
Unknown...........................................................................................
Mechanically lifting, carrying, moving items
Mixing, pouring, spreading, or applying..............
Concrete, cement.............................................
Asphalt, ta r........................................................
Caulking, putty, grout, plaster, joint compound
O ther.................................................................
Assembling, disassembling, or moving scaffold...........................
Chipping, grinding...........................................................................
Shoveling, digging ..........................................................................
Painting, sanding ............................................................................
Breaking up or cutting concrete, asphalt, brick, rocks, etc..........
Building or installing forms or parts of the structure (walls, roof,
floor, siding).................................................................................
Disassembling or tearing down forms or parts of structure
(walls, roof, floor, siding) ............................................................
Cleaning or repairing tools, equipment, or vehicles ....................
Assembling or setting up tools or equipment..............................
General maintenance or cleanup..................................................
Electrical work or assisting electrician..........................................
Operating mobile equipment..............................
Laying pipe.........................................................
Road paving work, n.e.c.....................................
Repointing mortar, cleaning mortar from bricks
Welding...............................................................
Cutting.................................................................
Climbing, walking, running, n.e.c........................
Other .....................................................................................................
Unknown...............................................................................................

Percent

100
29
1
2
2
(')
6
2
1
1
1
1
5
0
1
4
2
0
4
5
4
1

0
0
2
1

0

5
3

11

8
3
3
3
1
1

3

0
(’)
1
3
7
5
(1)

’ Less than 0.5 percent.
n.e.c. = not elsewhere classified.
NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100. See appendix A
for the scope of the survey.
SOURCE: Survey questionnaires.

19




Table 15. Length of service: Injuries to construction laborers,
selected States, October 1983

Length of service

Percent

Total, 3,700 injured workers

100

Length of service with employer

Less than 1 week ..
1 to 4 weeks .........
1 to 6 months .......
6 months to 1 year
1 to 5 years..........
5 years or m ore....

6

18
38
12
17
10

Length of service in construction

Less than 1 week.......................................................
1 to 4 weeks ..............................................................
1 to 6 months ............................................................
6 months to 1 year.....................................................
1 to 5 years................................................................
5 years or m ore..........................................................

1

3
11
8

37
40

NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100. See appendix A
for the scope of the survey.
SOURCE: Survey questionnaires.

Table 16. Sex of worker: Injuries to construction laborers,
selected States, October 1983
Sex

Percent

Total, 3,700 injured workers..........................................................

100

Men .......................................................................................................
Women..................................................................................................

98
2

NOTE: See appendix A for the scope of the survey.
SOURCE: State workers' compensation reports.

Table 17. Age of worker: Injuries to construction laborers,
selected States, October 1983
Age

Percent

Total, 3,700 injured workers..........................................................
16-19 years .......
20-24 years .......
25-34 years .......
35-44 years .......
45-54 years .......
55-64 years .......
65 years or more

100
10
32
36
12

7
3
O

1 Less than 0.5 percent.
NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100. See appendix A
for the scope of the survey.
SOURCE: State workers’ compensation reports.

20

Appendix A. Survey Explanatory Note

Scope of survey
The survey was designed to develop information on
injuries to laborers employed in the construction in­
dustry in the private sector. The injuries studied occur­
red during the month of October 1983. Workers were
classified as construction laborers according to the 1970
Bureau of the Census classification of occupations.
Cases excluded from the scope of the survey were onthe-road vehicle accidents other than at a roadside con­
struction site; assaults; and fatalities.
The survey covered the 27 States shown in appendix
B. To identify cases within the scope of the survey, staff
of the participating State agencies reviewed Employer’s
Reports of Injuries required by State workers’ compen­
sation laws. A systematic random sample of 1 out of
every 3 in-scope reports was selected, and a question­
naire was mailed to each injured worker in the sample.
Cooperation was voluntary. During the survey period,
658 survey questionnaires were returned and found to
be within the scope of the survey, resulting in a response
rate of 53 percent.
Although the data were aggregated for all par­
ticipating States, it should be noted that the workers’
compensation cases selected for study reflect differences
in reporting requirements. Workers’ compensation
cases involving medical treatment regardless of lost time
are reported in the following States: Hawaii, Maine,
Montana, Nebraska, North Carolina, Texas, Utah, Ver­
mont, Washington, and Wyoming. The remaining par­
ticipating States require reports for cases involving the
following number of days away from work:l
day—Alaska, California, Ohio; 2 days—Kentucky; 3
days—Missouri; 4 days—Colorado, Delaware, Iowa,
Maryland, Oregon, Wisconsin; 7 days—Michigan; 8
days—Arizona, Arkansas, New Mexico, Tennessee, and
Virginia. Although participating States provided a
broad geographic and industrial mix, they were not
selected statistically to represent the country as a whole.
Information on the employer’s industry classifica­
tion, the worker’s age, sex, and part of body injured,
and the source of injury were classified based on infor­
mation furnished by the employer in the workers’ com­
pensation report. The worker’s activity at the time of
the accident was classified according to the overall task
being performed. For example, carrying bricks to a
bricklayer was coded as materials handling, while lifting
bricks in the process of building a wall would be con­
sidered as building a structure.




Weighting and estimating procedures
A weighting procedure was used to make the sample
of injured workers account for all in-scope injured
workers in the 27 participating States. For this survey,
an original weight of 3, which is the inverse of the pro­
bability of selection, was applied to each sample
member’s response.
Forty-seven percent of the workers selected to par­
ticipate in the survey did not return the questionnaire.
These are referred to as unit nonrespondents. A weightclass nonresponse adjustment procedure was used to
reduce the bias due to nonresponse in the estimates. In
this procedure, the sample is partitioned into cells, and a
unit nonresponse adjustment factor is calculated within
each cell. This procedure is based on the assumption
that, within each cell, the response distribution of the
unit nonrespondents would be the same as the response
distribution of the respondents.
To determine the set of cells for unit nonresponse ad­
justment, a comparison of the following characteristics
was made between respondents and nonrespondents:
Age, sex, nature of injury, part of body affected,
source, type of accident, and industry. The greatest dif­
ference between respondents and nonrespondents was in
the age distribution. Further, it was determined that the
survey responses varied by age. Therefore, an age parti­
tion (0-34 years, 35 or more years, and age unknown)
was used to adjust for unit nonresponse.
In addition to workers not returning the question­
naire, there were a small number that responded to the
survey but did not answer all of the questions. These are
referred to as item nonrespondents. To account for this
type of nonresponse, it was assumed that the response
distribution of the item nonrespondents would be the
same as the response distribution of the item
respondents.
For each question, a final weight for each respondent
was calculated as the original weight times an adjust­
ment factor for unit and item nonresponse.
The estimate of the total number of in-scope injured
workers for each question is equal to the sum of the
final weights of the respondents.
The estimate of the percent of workers giving a par­
ticular answer to a question is the sum of the final
weights of the respondents giving a particular answer
divided by the estimate of the total number of in-scope
injured workers.
Estimates of mean and median lost workdays and

21

measure of the sampling error in the estimates, are
calculated as part of the survey’s estimation process and
are available upon request.
Nonsampling errors in the estimates can be attributed
to many sources, e.g., inability to obtain information
about all cases in the sample, mistakes in recording or
coding the data, definitional difficulties, etc. To
minimize the nonsampling errors in the estimates, the
completed questionnaires are edited and apparent in­
consistencies are checked.

nights of hospitalization do not include cases in which
workers indicated lost time or hospitalization but failed
to provide numerical estimates of the amount of time.
Reliability

All estimates derived from a sample survey are sub­
ject to sampling and nonsampling errors. Sampling er­
rors occur because observations are made on a sample,
not on the entire population. Estimates based on the dif­
ferent possible samples of the same size and sample
design could differ. The standard errors, which are a




22

Appendix B. Participating State Agencies




23

Appendix C. Survey Questionnaire
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Work Injury Report—Construction Workers
The in fo rm a tio n collected on th is fo rm by m e Bureau o f
Lab or S ta tis tic s ana the S tate Agencies cooperanng in its
statistical program w ill be held ir. confidence and w ill be
used to r s tatistical purposes o n iy
S urvey P I !
Code

q

U.S. Department of Labor

This report is authorizea by law 29 U.S.C. 2.
Your voluntary cooperation is needed to make
the result* o f this survey comprehensive,
accurate, and timely.
Oate o f ["
A c c id e n t |_

Case

N um b er

L i i_ _

A. Which best describes the type of construction you were working on
when injured? (Check one.)
S ite clearance o r d e m o litio n

[j

LJ C o n s tru c tio n o f s tru c tu re o th e r th e n house or b u ild in g :

4.

□

5.

Q

C o n s tru c tio n o f

new house

IF Y O U W E R E O P E R A T IN G H E A V Y E Q U IP M E N T O R A V E H IC L E

or building

}

W H E N IN J U R E D :

|

1

3.

2. G

F o rm Ap p roved
O .M .B . N o. 1 2 2 0 0047
A p p roval E xpires 9 /3 0 /8 6

G . In d ic a te th e ty p e .

'.Check one.)

1. LJ P ic k u p ir..c k , van, car, or jeep

|

(D escribe) _____________________________________________

2.

[J

C o n c re te m ix e r im o b i: ;)

3.

□

C e m e n t rn ix o : I s t a u o n a r y i

R e p a ir w o rk o r rem o d elin g (in c lu d in g add in g a d d itio n to house)

4.

!_i D u m p tr u c k

R oad b u ild in g o r repair

5.

G

6.

G

7.

□

O th e r:

R o a d p a v in g e q u ip m e n t:

B ridge or tu n n e l co n s tru c tio n

(Describe)

(Describe) ____________________________

)

6.

T ra c to r (tra c k )

□

B u lld o z e r

9.

(Check one.)

T ra c to r (w n e e l

□

8.

8. Where were you on the job site at the time of your accident?

□

7.

□

O th e r earth m o v in g e q u ip m e n t:

(Explain) ________________________

1.

G

N o ta tjo b s ite

2.

□

3.
4.

C
C

L ad d er
S c a ffo ld

10.

U

C ran e, h oist, o r c o n v e y o r

11.

□

P u m p , b lo w e r, o r c o m p re s s o r

S ta irs o r steps
Tunnel

12.

□

O th e r h eavy e q u ip m e n t:

(Describe)

G ro u n d o r flo o r level

5.
6.

D
G

knowledge, w h a t s a fe ty fe a tu re s d id th e h e a v y e q u ip m e n t o r
vehicle have? (Check all that apply.)

H. To your

7. □

R oof

8.

Beam , girder, o r o th e r area above gro u n d level

9.

lJ

G in

(Describe) _______________________

tank

1.

Q

B a c k u p alarm s

10.

□

In tren ch

11.

Q

in vehicle

2.
3.

G
G

Cage o r c o v e r t o p r o t e c t a g a in s t fa llin g o b je c ts
R o llo v e r p r o te c tio n

12.

□

O th e r:

4.

O

S eat b e lt

5.
8.

Q
G

E m erg en cy s to p o r d e a d m a n s w itc h
M a c h in e guards o r b e lt g u a rd s in use

7.

G

O th e r

8.

G

N o t a w are o f a n y safe ty fe atu res

(Describe) ______________________________

C. How long had you been working at that job site before the accident?

(Check one.)

1.
2.

□

3.
4.

G
□

1 w eek to 1 m o n th
1 to 3 m o n th s

5.

□

M o re th a n 3 m o n th s

safety fe a tu re :

G

F irs t d ay a t site
Less th a n 1 w eek

(Describe)

_________________________

CONTINUE WITH I. BELOW.
I.

D. What were you doing at the time of your accident?

Were there any worksite conditions which you feel contributed to your
accident? (Check all that apply.)
1. □ W e a th e r at tim e o f accid en t: (Describe) _____________________
2.

(B e specific. F o r e x a m p le : S h o velin g d ir t in tre n c h , b re a k in g up
a sp h alt, a p p ly in g jo in t c o m p o u n d , go in g t o g et to o l, e tc .)

O

S lip p e ry g ro u n d or flo o r surface:

(Describe)

3.

G

N o g uardrails o r safety railings

4.

□

W o rk in g in a lim ite d area or space

5.

□

P o o r lig h tin g

6.

D

C lu tte re d w o rk area (trash lyin g on flo o r, e tc .)

7

G

T o o ls o r e q u ip m e n t in bad c o n d itio n o r n o t w o rk in g p ro p e rly

8. G

S tru c tu re w as b ro ke n o r in bad c o n d itio n
N o t enough v e n tila tio n
_____________________________________
O th e r:
N o c o n d itio n s a t w o rk s ite led to accid e n t

9.
10.
11.

J.

□
□
□

(Describe)

Ware you aware of these conditions before your accident?
1. G

(Check one.)

N o c o n d itio n s a t w o rk s ite led to a c c id e n t

2. G No—n o t a w a re o f these c o n d itio n s
3.
4.

E. What tool(s),

G
Q

Y e s —a w are o f all o f th e c o n d itio n s ch ec k e d above 4
Y e s —a w a re o f som e o f th e c o n d itio n s c h e c k e d above

if any. were you using when injured?
K.

T o o l( s ) : _______________________________________________

F. Was the tool powered or nonpowered?

Were there any other factors which you feel contributed to your
accident? (Check all that apply.)
1. D C o -w o rk e r's a c tiv ity : (Explain) ____________________________
2. G

(Check one.)

□
□

W o rk ing to o fast

G

G

M isju d g ed tim e o r d istan ce n eeded t o av o id In ju ry

□

N o t p a y in g fu ll a tte n tio n to w o rk o r d is tra c te d

G
□

N o t given p ro p e r tra in in g o r In s tru c tio n s fo r jo b
T o o noisy

11

□

O th e r:

12

IF NOT, GO TO I.

G

W o rk in g w h e n tire d o r fatig u e d
W o rk in g w h e n u n d e r stress
L iftin g , pushing, o r m o v in g an o b je c t t h a t w as to o heavy o r b u lk y

9.
10.

IF YOU WERE OPERA TING A VEHICLE OR
HE A VY EQUIPMENT, COMPLETE G and H;

T o o l o r e q u ip m e n t n o t rig h t f o r jo b

G
□

8.

N o n p o w e re d

O

4.
5.
6.

N o t using a n y to o ls
P o w ered

3.

3.

7.

1.
2.

G

N o o th e r fac to rs c o n trib u te d to a c c id e n t

(Describe)_________________________________________________

Describe how your accident happened.

ULSWUH (October 1983)




CONTINUE ON REVERSE SIDE
24

wearing o r using at the
(Check all that apply.)

S. W h o traine d y o u fo r this ty p e o f w o rk ?

L . W hat ty p e o f pro te ctive e q u ipm e n t w ere y o u
1.

1.

G

Present supervisor or e m p lo y e r
P revious supervisor or e m p lo y e r

□

C o -w o rk e r (o th e r th a n supervisor)

5.

G

S c h o o l tea c h e r or m ilita ry in s tru c to r

6.

E ar p lu g * or o th er hearing p ro te c tio n

□
□

4.

G

N e v e r received any tra in in g fo r th is ty p e o f w o rk

3.

,_j H ard h st

2 ;._i G loves
3.
Steel to e d ta fe ty *hoe« o r steel to e d b o o t*
4. Lj Steei p la te in *o ie o f *h o e *
5. G S a fe ty glasses, goggle*, o r o th e r eye p ro te c tio n
6.

(Check all that apply.)

□

2.

tim e o f y o u r accident?

□

O th e r:

(D escribe) _______________________________________________

7.

G

W e ld e r's h o o d o r w e ld e d * shield

8
9

G
□

R e s p ira to r
S a fe ty b e lt tied o f f to lan y a rd a n d /o r life lin e

10

G

S a fe ty P e lt n o t tied o ff to la n y a rd and life lin e

w h en injured?

G u a rd ra ils or safety railings at h eights or a ro u n d openings

1
2.

11
'2 -

O:
G

T . D id y o u r trainin g co ver s a fe ty instruction s fo r the jo b y o u w ere doin g

(DescribeI

3.

________________________________________________

13

G

O th e r

14.

G

N o t w earin g or using p ro te c tiv e e q u ip m e n t

M . W h at w ere y o u r injuries?
1

G

(Check all that apply.)

1. G

G

Bruises, co n tusions

4.

G

M u scle sprain o r strain, to rn ligam ents

5.

G

H e a t b urn

6

2.

1.., Cuts, lacerations, o r p u n ctu res

3.

i_i N e v e r received any tra in in g fo r this ty p e o f w ork

□

No
Yes
D o n 't re m e m D e r

U. How were your safety instructions given?

i- r a c t u r e ls l- In d ic a t e bo n e(s) b ro k e n
(leg, rib, a n k le , e t c . ) _______________________________________________

2

G
G

4.

S e a t p e lt

U

P rin te d m ate ria ls (sa fe ty m an u al, te x tb o o k , etc.)

J C h e m ic a l ourn
L J A m p u ta tio n

7.

S.
9.
10.

G

3.

G in

4.

□

O n th e jo b

5.
6.

O b je c t in eye(s)

(Check a!, that apply.)

N e v e r received safety in stru ctio n s

□
□

S a fe ty m eetings
O th e r.

school o r o th e r ty p e o f classroom in s tru c tio n

(Describe) ________________________________________

V. Have you been given any information on the health hazards of arisestos?

_J B rain concussion
□ O th e r:

(Describe)

1.

________________________________________________

Q

2.

N . D id y o u r in ju ry cause y o u to lose tim e fro m w o rk b e y o n d the da y o f

(Explain)

Yes:

□

No

in ju ry ?
1.

G

I f yes:
a.

No

2

□

Yes

W.

H o .v

io ng w e ie you (o r d o yo u e x p e c t to be) o u t O f w o rk ?

Have you been given any information on other hazardous chemicals
or materials?
1.

D o n o t c o u n t th e d a y o f in ju r y , d a ys on lig h t d u ty

□

Yes:

2.

i.N G T E :

□

(Explain)2
6
5
4
3

No

w o rk , n orm al days o ff, o r h o lid a y s.)

_______ _________________ W o rk d a y s
b.

H a v e you re tu rn e d to w o rk ?

(Check one.)

1

3.

□

X. Have you had vocational education (such as “shop" or "vo-tach") or
other technical training courses? (Check all that apply.)

!._j N o —still o ff because o f in ju ry

2 G Y es

1.

□

No

2.

□

□

Yes— in m ilita ry

□

Y es—in a p p re n tic e p ro g ram

6.

No

□

Y es— in o th e r p ro g ram :

(Describe)

________________________

If yes:

I f yes:
a

Y es—th ro u g h un io n

5.

Yes

Y es—in school

□

4.

1.

□

3.

O . D id y o u r in ju ry req uire y o u to be h o sp ita lize d o vern ig ht?

□

2.

(E x p la in ) _________________________________________

O th e r.

a.

H o w long w e re y o u (o r do y o u e x p e c t to be) in th e hospital?

W h a t s afety o r h e a lth in fo rm a tio n d id th e course(s) include?

(Check all that apply.)
1.

(B e s p ecific:

G

3.

P. W h at was y o u r jo b title at the tim e o f the accident?

D

2.

_________________________ N ights

S a fe ty hazard s yo u m ig h t fin d on th e jo b

□

H e a lth h azards y o u m ig h t fin d o n th e jo b

asbestos, etc.)

(such as fumes,

H o w to reco g n ize, avoid, o r p re v e n t unsafe or u n h e a lth y
c o n d itio n s on th e jo b

E le c tric ia n 's h e lp e r, p lu m b e r's h e lp e r, general lab o rer, e tc .)
4.

□

W hen and h o w to use personal p ro te c tiv e e q u ip m e n t
such as gloves, hard h at, etc.

5.

O

W hen and h o w to use res p ira to r

6.

Q

O th e r safety or h ealth in fo rm a tio n :

(Describe)

Q. How long had you worked for your employer when you were injured?
7.

(C h e c k o n e .)
1.

□

2.

□

1 to 4 w e e k s

3.

L_ 1 t o 6 m o n th s

□

None

Less th a n 1 w e e k

4.

U
G
□

1.

□

No

2.

□

Yes

1 to 5 ye a rs

6.

D o y o u th in k these courses sho u ld p ro v id e m o re in fo rm a tio n
o n safety and h ealth risks fo u n d on th e jo b ?

6 m o n th s t o 1 y e a r

5.

b.

5 y e a rs o r m o re

Y.

H o w d o y o u th in k y o u r ty p e o f accident co u ld have been prevented?

(Check all that apply.)

1. G M aking area safer before w orking
2. G M ore or better ta fe ty training
3. G Using personal protective equipm ent
4. G Using sefer w o rk procedures on yo u r part
5. G Having com pany enforce safe w o rk procedures
6. G Using guardrails or other types o f fa ll pro te ctio n
7. G Better or d iffe re n t to o ls or equipm ent
8. G M ore tim e to do job
9. G Better supervision
10. G M ore help to do jo b
11. G O ther: (D escribe) ______________________________________________
12. G Do n o t th in k it could have been prevented

R. How long had you done construction work? (NOTE: Do not count
tim e you worked in jobs other than construction.)
i.

Li

Less th a n 1 w eek

2.

G

1 to 4 w eeks

3.

G

1 to 6 m o n th s

4.

□

6 m o n th s to 1 y ear

5

□

1 to 5 years

6.

G

5 years or m o re




25

Work Injury Reports

Reports which may be purchased from the U.S. Department of Commerce, National Technical Information Service
( n t i s ) , 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, Virginia 22161:
• Survey of Ladder Accidents Resulting in Injuries
n t i s Accession No. PB83 207985 (1978)
• Survey of Welding and Cutting Accidents Resulting in Injuries
n t i s Accession No. PB83 208017 (1978)
• Survey of Scaffold Accidents Resulting in Injuries
n t i s Accession No. PB83 208009 (1978)
• Survey of Power Saw Accidents Resulting in Injuries
n t i s Accession No. PB83 207993 (1978)
• Accidents Involving Eye Injuries
n t i s Accession No. PH83 182535 (1980)
• Accidents Involving Face Injuries
n t i s Accession No. PH83 183335 (1980)
• Accidents Involving Head Injuries
n t i s Accession No. PH83 183343 (1980)
• Accidents Involving Foot Injuries
n t i s Accession No. PH83 182527 (1981)
• Injuries Related to Servicing Equipment
n t i s Accession No. PH83 182543 (1981)
• Back Injuries Associated with Lifting
n t i s Accession No. PH83 183285 (1982)
• Work-Related Hand Injuries and Upper Extremity Amputations
n t i s Accession No. PH83 183319 (1982)
The following report is available from the Office of Occupational Safety and Health Statistics, U.S. Department of
Labor, Room 4014, 601 D Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20212.
• Injuries in Oil and Gas Drilling and Services
Bulletin 2179 (1983)
Reports which may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office,
Washington, D.C. 20402:
• Injuries Resulting From Falls From Elevations
Bulletin 2195 (1984)
• Injuries in the Logging Industry
Bulletin 2203 (1984)
• Injuries Resulting From Falls on Stairs
Bulletin 2214 (1984)
• Injuries to Construction Laborers
Bulletin 2252 (1986)




26
☆ U .S . GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1 9 8 6 O -

4 9 1 -5 4 3

(4 6 3 2 7 )

Bureau of Labor Statistics
Regional Offices

John F. Kennedy Federal Building
Government Center
Boston, Mass. 02203
Phone: (617) 223-6761

Region II

Suite 3400
1515 Broadway
New York. N Y 10036
Phone: (212) 944-3121

Region III

3535 Market Street
P.0 Box 13309
Philadelphia. Pa. 19101
Phone: (215) 596-1154




Region IV

Regions VII and VIII

Region V

Region I

Regions IX and X

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Atlanta, Ga. 30367
Phone: (404) 347-4418

9th Floor
Federal Office Building
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Chicago, III 60604
Phone (312) 353-1880

Region VI

Federal Building
525 Griffin St., Rm. 221
Dallas, Tex. 75202
Phone (214) 767-6971

911 Walnut Street
Kansas City. Mo. 64106
Phone: (816) 374-2481

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Box 36017
San Francisco. Calif 94102
Phone: (415) 556-4678

U.S. Department of Laoor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Washington, D.C. 20212
Official Business
Penalty for Private Use, $300




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