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UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
JAMES J. DAVIS, Secretary

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
ETHELBERT STEWART, Commissioner

BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES)
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS)
WAGES

AND

HOURS

OF

M
'

‘

LABOR

iQ Q

*
SERIES

HISTORY OF
WAGES IN THE UNITED STATES
FROM COLONIAL TIMES
TO 1928

OCTOBER, 1929

UNITED STATES
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON : 1929

For sale by th e S up erintend ent o f Docu'ments, W ashington, D. C.




Price 80 cents

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
Part 1 of this report was prepared by Estelle M. Stewart, of the
United States Department of Labor. Part 2 was prepared under the
direction of J. C. Bowen, of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, United
States Department of Labor.
ii




CONTENTS

Introduction____________________________________________________________

Page
1

PART 1 FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1840
C hapter 1.— Early working conditions and wage legislation_____________
Scarcity of labor___________________________________________________
Control of workers_________________________________________________
Wage legislation___________________________________________________
Craftsmen as planters______________________________________________
Craft lines indefinite_______________________________________________
C hapter 2.— Money and money equivalents____________________________
The tobacco wages of Virginia_____________________________________
The “ country pay” of New England_______________________________
“ Found” __________________________________________________________
Colonial currency__________________________________________________
American money___________________________________________________
Prices of commodities used as barter_______________________________
Contemporary data on prices_______________________________________
C hapter 3.— The indenture system of labor____________________________
‘‘ Indentured servants’1 and ‘ ‘ redemptioners ” ______________________
'
Importance of system______________________________________________
Development of system____________________________________________
Character of indentured servants___________________________________
Methods of sale and distribution___________________________________
Legal status of servants________ ____________________________________
Extended terms as punishment________________ _______ ____________
Working conditions and social status_________________________ _____
Freedom dues--------------------------------------------------------------------------------Apprentices and children___________________________________________
Freedmen--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Decline of system__________________________________________________
C hapter 4.— Building trades___________________________________________
Seventeenth century_______________________________________________
Town building in Virginia_____________________________________
Wages at close of century______________________________________
Eighteenth century________________________________________________
Painting_______________________________________________________
Government building__________________________________________
Nineteenth century i _______________________________________________
Jefferson’s notes on building___________________________________
Shipbuilding_______________________________________________________
Cabinetmaking-------------------------------------------------------------------------------Chapter 5.— Iron industry____________________________________________
Blacksmiths________________________________________________________
Nails______________________________________________________________
Chapter 6.— Glass industry____________________________________________
C hapter 7.— Textile industries_________________________________________
Household manufacture____________________________________________
Working and living conditions under factory system-----------------------Wages_____________________________________________________________
Southern mills_____________________________________________________
Chapter 8.— Maritime industries_______________________________________
Merchant marine---------------------------------------------------------------------------Fishing------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Whaling___________________________________________________________
Chapter 9.— Boots and shoes---------------------------------------------------------------Southern manufacture--------------------------------------------------------------------Boots.................. - _______ __________________________________________



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IV

CONTENTS

Page
C hapter 10.— Clothing trades___________________________________ ______ ___112
Tailoring------------ -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 112
Ready-made clothing---------------------------------------------------------------------- ---- 115
Chapter 11.— Printing and publishing_________________________________ ___118
Chapter 12.— Agricultural labor---------------------------------------------------------------- 124
Chapter 13.— School-teachers------------ -------------------------------------------------- ---- 129
Chapter 14.— Other occupations----------------------------------------------------------------134
Domestic servants_________________________________________________ ___ 134
Common labor-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---- 136
Barbers_______________________________________________________________ 139
List of published sources_______________________________________________ ___140
PART 2 .—
FROM 1840 TO 1928
Introduction___________________________________________________________ ___145
A. Bakery trades— Bakers--------------------------------------------- --------------------------- 147
B. Building trades:
Bricklayers_____________________________________ _______________ ___154
Carpenters_____________________________________________________ ___159
Electric wiremen (inside)__________________________________________167
Engineers, stationary___________________________________________ ___170
Firemen, stationary____________________________________________ ___175
Hod carriers____________________________________________________ ___17S
Laborers_______________________________________________________ ___185
Marble cutters____________________________________________________ 187
Masons____________________________________________________________189
Painters________________________________________________________ ___195
Plasterers______________________________________________________ ___ 202
Plumbers_____ _________________________________________________ ___206
Stonecutters____________________________________________________ ___211
Tile layers_________________________________________________ ____ ___ 217
C. Clothing industry:
Dressmakers------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ---- 219
Sewing-machine operators______________________________________ ___221
D. Farming— Farm laborers____________________________________________ ___225
E. Glass and clay products:
Glass blowers, bottles__________________________________________ ___233
Potters.------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ---- 235
Turners, pottery___________________________________________________236
F. Iron and steel industry:
Catchers___________________________________________________________239
Fillers__________________________________________________________ ___250
Furnace helpers____________________________________________________247
Puddlers_______________________________________________________ ___245
Rollers____________________ _____________________________________ ___241
Roughers----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---- 244
G. Laborers____________________________________________________________ ___253
H. Leather and its products:
Boots and shoes------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---- 261
Cutters____________________________________________________ ___263
Lasters____________________________________________________ ___268
McKay stitchers___________________________________________ ___270
Shoemakers________________________________________________ ___262
Stitchers, upper____________________________________________ ___264
Vampers___________________________________________________ ___265
Tanners, leather________________________________________________ ___272
I. Metal trades (other than iron and steel):
Blacksmiths____________________________________________________ ___2 75
Boiler makers__________________________________________________ ___283
Core makers----------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---- 289
Diesinkers______________________________________________________ ___292
Horseshoers____________________________________________________ ___293
Laborers_______________________________________________________ ___295
Lathe hands___________________________________________________ ___297
Machinists_____________________________________________________ ___298
Millwrights________________________________________________________308
Holders, iron__________ ________________________________________ ___311
Pattern makers_________________________________________________ ___318
Toolmakers____________________________________________________ ___326



CONTENTS
J. Mining industry:
Drivers, coal mines_____________________________________________
Loaders, coal mines______________________________________ ______
Miners, coal mines______________________________________________
Miners, iron____________________________________________________
Timbermen, coal mines_________________________________________
K. Printing and publishing (newspaper and book and jo b ):
Bookbinders____________________________________________________
Pressfeeders____________________________________________________
Proof readers___________________________________________________
Compositors____________________________________________________
Pressmen_______________________________________________________
Stereotypers____________________________________________________
L. Textile industries:
Cotton_________________________________________________________
Doffers____________________________________________________
Drawers-in_________________________________________________
Drawing-frame tenders_____________________________________
Dyers______________________________________________________
Laborers----------------------------------------------------------------------------Loom fixers________________________________________________
Slasher tenders_____________________________________________
Speeder tenders____________________________________________
Spinners___________________________________________________
Weavers___________________________________________________
Hosiery and underwear_________________________________________
Knitters___________________________________________________
Silk____________________________________________________________
Weavers___________________________________________________
Winders___________________________________________________
Woolen and worsted goods______________________________________
Doifers____________________________________________________
Dressers___________________________________________________
Dyers______________________________________________________
Loom fixers________________________________________________
Spinners____________ ______________________________________
Weavers___________________________________________________
Wool sorters_______________________________________________
M. Tobacco industry:
Cigar makers___________________________________________________
Strippers, tobacco______________________________________________
N. Transportation (including teamsters and longshoremen):
Railroad trainmen—
Brakemen__________________________________________________
Conductors________________________________________________
Engineers, locom otive______________________________________
Firemen, locomotive________________________________________
Street railwaymen—
Conductors, street railways_________________________________
Motormen, street railways__________________________________
Longshoremen__________________________________________________
Teamsters_____________________________________________________
O. Woodworking trades (including lumber):
Cabinetmakers_________________________________________________
Coopers________________________________________________________
Choppers and sawyers (felling trees), logging-----------------------------Laborers, lumber_______________________________________________
Pattern makers {see Metal trades).
Sawyers, lumber________________________________________________
W ood workers___________________________________________________




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APPENDIXES
Page

A.— Early wage legislation: Bill fixing wages in Essex County,
Mass., 1670__________________________________________________________
A p p e n d i x B.— Building trades:
Building contract for Pohick Church, Va., 1769------------------------------Construction costs of Monticello___________________________________
Rules of work and book of prices of Boston carpenters, 1800________
A p p e n d i x C.— Glass: List of prices in glass bottle blowing, 1846________
A p p e n d i x D.— Time table of Lowell textile mills________________________
A p p e n d i x E.— Printing: Early union wage scales_______________________
A p p e n d i x F.— Index numbers of wages_________________________________
A p p e n d i x G.— Publications of the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics
containing wage rates and earnings up to January 15, 1929____ ______
A p p e n d ix




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BULLETIN OF THE

U. S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
No. 499

WASHINGTON

o cto ber,

1929

HISTORY OF WAGES IN THE UNITED STATES
FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1928
INTRODUCTION
This report attempts to present a picture of American wages from
early colonial days to the present time. The picture is drawn
necessarily in rather broad strokes. In general, the policy has been
to select representative occupations in representative industries, and
present for such occupations as continuous a record as possible of
wages and hours of labor.
The main reason for the preparation of the present report was the
desire to preserve in permanent form the principal contents of the
bureau’s early wage studies as well as the still earlier records of
colonial America. The printed reports containing these early data are
for the most part long out of print and the unpublished documents
are inaccessible to many persons who desire to use them.
The present report incorporates, of course, only a small proportion
of the bureau’s published wage studies, but it does contain a sufficient
volume of material to meet the needs of most readers. Moreover,
by bringing together and coordinating the various studies and docu­
ments it makes reference very much easier than has been the case in
the past, when the tracing of wage movements in particular occupa­
tions or industries over a period of years required the thumbing of
many volumes.
The character of the source material makes necessary the dividing
of the report into two distinct parts, Part 1 dealing with the period
prior to 1840 and Part 2 covering the period from 1840 to 1928. For
the period prior to 1840 the source material is scattered, lacking in
consecutiveness, and seldom available in modern statistical form.
Part 1 of the report, therefore, is largely in text form, and the basic
information is derived from a multitude of sources.
Part 2, beginning with the year 1840, is entirely statistical in
presentation, and the source material is derived entirely from the
reports of the former United States Department of Labor and its
successor, the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the present United
States Department of Labor.




1




PART 1

FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1840







PART 1.—FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1840
Wages in and of themselves have been consistently overlooked by
most writers of American history. Economic histories, to be sure, deal
with wages, occasionally quite completely for a given era, locality,
or trade, but even in them wages are incidental to the main theme.
So far there has been no publication, at least within the bureau's
knowledge, which deals specifically with the subject of early American
wages.
In its effort to supply that lack the bureau drew first upon secondary
sources, to bring together authoritative data scattered through many
volumes of histories and economic studies. William B. Weeden’s
“ Economic and Social History of New England, 1620-1789,” and
Philip A. Bruce's “ Economic History of Virginia in the Seventeenth
Century,” furnished the general framework. As the work progressed
and publication after publication was reviewed only to find that all
of them covered practically the same ground, it was decided to go
beyond secondary sources to original material to fill the gaps in the
story.
Except for State archives and State historical societies, the most
fruitful source has been the material now being collected by the Baker
Library of the Harvard Graduate School of Business Administration.
This material contains records, ledgers, account books, and corre­
spondence of some of the earliest American industries, going back in
one case, that of the Saugus (Lynn) Iron Works, to 1643. Pay rolls
of the Slater textile mills for more than 50 years are in the Baker
collection, as well as many other records of great value and interest.
All of this material was generously placed at the disposal of the
bureau.
The record so far as it has been preserved is scattered at best, and
the most persistent research still leaves wide gaps which it seems
impossible to fill. The first half of the eighteenth century, in partic­
ular, proved barren ground, but apparently that has been the
experience of all students of early America, whatever special field
they have tried to cover. Yet when it is considered that wages and
working conditions did not change materially nor rapidly before the
industrial era, probably the material gathered by the bureau consti­
tutes an essentially complete picture of early American wages.
More than wage figures alone, however, is needed to tell the whole
story. Methods of payment in the earliest periods are as important
as the pay itself, and both must be interpreted in the light of cus­
toms, systems of labor, and working conditions peculiar to coloniza­
tion. Hence the indenture and redemption systems, which were an
important factor in influencing workmen to emigrate to the colonies,
are dealt with in the study, although no wages, in the sense of regular
money payments, were involved under those peculiar labor systems.




5

6

PART 1.— FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1840

It has also been necessary to go, somewhat sketchily, into the
question of the various currencies in which wages were paid, since
currency values varied with time and place. No attempt has been
made, however, to do more than convert these values into the present
American equivalent. No comparison with the present-day purchas­
ing value of that American equivalent is undertaken. Where contem­
porary evidence has been obtained which is suggestive of living costs
and what the wages paid meant in terms of standards of living, it is
used, but beyond that the report has not ventured.
Wage data and conditions of labor so far as the bureau has been able
to secure them are given fully in Part 1 of this report for the fol­
lowing trades and industries: Building trades, shipbuilding, cabinetmaking, iron, glass, textiles, boots and shoes, clothing, printing, sea­
men, and agriculture. A few other trades are treated as fully as the
scattered data permit. School-teachers have been included in the
study.




Chapter 1.— EARLY WORKING CONDITIONS AND WAGE
LEGISLATION

“ High American wages” date from the beginning of the country,
to judge from evidence contained in the earliest colonial records in
which reference to wages is found. Letters and reports from agents
of the British companies engaged in colonial settlement and from the
early colonial governors, express consternation amounting to distress
over the “ exhorbitant demands” of craftsmen and laborers. A
colonial treasurer of the Virginia Colony declared, about 1625, that
the wages paid there were “ intolerable” and “ much in excess of the
sum paid to the same class of persons in England.” 1 In 1633 Gover­
nor Winthrop, of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, noted that the
“ excessive rates” charged by workmen “ grew to a general complaint”
which called for legislative action,2 and a colonial governor in North
Carolina complained that “ the Price of Labour is very high.”
From the workman’s side of the story comes similar testimony
treated from a different viewpoint. Gabriel Thomas, who wrote a
history of “ the Provm.ee and Countrey of Pensilvania” in 1698 for
the purpose of inducing the poverty-stricken workers of England to
emigrate, asserts that “ the encouragements are very greate and
inviting, for Poor People (both Men and Women) of all kinds can
here get three times the wages for their Labour they can in England
or Wales;” 8 and William Penn says in a letter that “ all provisions
are reasonable but Labour dear, which makes it a good Poor Man’s
country.” 4 Another promoter, with a zeal suggestive of present-day
publicity methods, wrote glowingly of the “ happy circumstances”
in which laborers in New Jersey were placed in 1641.5
Viewed from this distance, neither the wages nor the working
conditions, so far as history records them, appear either “ extrava­
gant” or “ inviting;” but it is undoubtedly true that wages began in
the colonies at a higher rate than was being paid in Europe at the
same time. If, however, as Bruce concludes from contemporaneous
writings, the “ only thing dear” in the colonies “ was labor,” 6 that
condition arose chiefly from the scarcity of workers, especially skilled
craftsmen.
SCARCITY OF LABOR

Throughout the colonial period this scarcity was a vital problem
that influenced customs ana legislation and resulted in the establish­
ment of the elaborate system of securing workers by contract or
“ indenture” which became a definite labor policy in Pennsylvania
and in the southern colonies and was widely practiced in all of them.
The record suggests that lack of sufficient craftsmen was a serious
condition for more than a century. Governor Winthrop, of the
1 Brace, Philip A.: Economic History of Virginia in the Seventeenth Century, Vol. II, p. 48.
* Hart, Albert Bushnell, ed.: American History Told by Contemporaries (Governor Winthrop’s Journal
quoted), Vol. I, p. 374.
3 Thomas, Gabriel: An Historical and Geographical Account of the Province and Countrey of Pen­
silvania, published 1698.
* Oldmixon, John: British Empire in America, Vol. I, p. 316.
* Evelin, Kobert: Directions for Adventurers, in Force’s Tracts, Vol. II.
« Bruce, Vol. I, p. 684.




8

PART 1.— FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1840

Massachusetts Bay Colony, declared in 1630 that the “ scarcity of
workers caused them to raise their wages to an excessive rate;” 7
a century and a quarter later Governor Dobbs, of North Carolina,
reported that “ artificers and labourers being scarce in comparison to
the number of Planters, when they are employed they won’t work
half, scarce a third part of work in a Day of what they do in Europe,
and their wages are from two shillings to 3,4, and 5 shillings per Diem
this currency.” 8 During the intervening years the same story is
told—New Amsterdam in 1658 had “ no sawyers” and only “ one
articled smith. Free smiths are extraordinarily scarce,” and because
of the price they were in consequence able to command “ it is not ad­
visable to get much work done by them.” 9 In Maine, in 1675,
“ handicraftsmen are but few, the Tumelor, or Cooper, Smiths and
Carpenters are best welcomed amongst them;” 1 while “ artificers”
0
were “ so scarce” in South Carolina in 1731 “ that all sorts of work is
vrery Dear; Taylors, Shoemakers, Smiths, &c would be particularly
acceptable.” 1
1
CONTROL OF WORKERS

Both of these conditions, the scarcity of labor and the resulting high
wages, were met differently by the northern and the southern colonies.
Out of them grew the indenture system and, eventually in the South,
slavery. The indenture system will be taken up in a later chapter.
The New England colonies undertook to meet them by regulation
and legislation. If local laws limiting property holding and citizen­
ship to “ freemen” and “ commoners” operated to exclude needed
tradesmen from a town, the laws were either suspended in given cases
or the town found some way to get around them in order to secure the
desired services. Both Boston and Charlestown in 1640 waived cer­
tain of the citizenship requirements to obtain carpenters. As early
as 1635 Lynn voted to admit a landless blacksmith, and later granted
him 20 acres of land, thus keeping both the blacksmith and the letter
of the law requiring that residents be landholders.
These concessions as a rule had strings to them. When 20 citizens
of Haverhill, Mass., raised a subscription among themselves to
purchase a house and land in order that a blacksmith could come into
the settlement, they required that the smith agree to remain for seven
years, and did not permit him to work for any person other than the
20 subscribers. The town of Windsor, Conn., presented a currier
with a house and land and “ something for a shop,” but it was to belong
to him and his heirs only on condition that “ he lives and dies with
us and affords us the use of his trade.” Otherwise the property was
to revert to the town.1 In 1656 William How was granted “ twelve
2
acres of meadow land and twelve acres of upland” in what afterwards
became the great textile center of Lowell, Mass., “ provided he set
up his trade of weaving and perform the town’s work.” 1
3
Once established in the colony, workmen were under the rigid
regulation and control of a governmental system which, to quote
i Hart, Vol. I, p. 374.

8 North Carolina Records; Letter from Governor Dobbs to Lords of Trade, January 4,1755, Vol. V, p. 315.
9 O’Callaghan's Documents Relative to the Colonial History of the State of New York. (Letter from
Director of Colony to the Commissioners), Vol. II, p. 52.
10 Hart, Vol. I, p. 433. An Account of Two Voyages to New England, by John Josselyn.
ii Carroll, B. E., ed.: Historical Collections of South Carolina, Vol. II, p. 130.
m Weeden, William B.: Economic and Social History of New England, 1620-1789, Vol. I, p. 81.
m Bagnall, William R.: Textile Industries of the United States, p. 8.




CHAPTER 1.— E&RLY WORKING CONDITIONS

9

Weeden, believed that it “ could legislate prosperity and well-being
for everyone, rich or poor.” 1 Impressment of labor was one tenet
4
of that system, and “ either the public need or the demands of private
business could enforce it.” 1 As a rule it was only in harvest time
5
that craftsmen were impressed into private service, but carpenters
were sometimes drafted to build houses for individuals. Work on
the public roads one day in the month was required of every workman
in Salem, and he was subject to a fine of 3 shillings if he did not com­
ply.1 When the selectmen of Dedham, Mass., decided to build a
6
meeting house, the committee in charge was authorized to “ order
men to worke upon the same.” 1
7
WAGE LEGISLATION

It was in legislation dealing with wages, however, that the author­
ities in the New England colonies made their most persistent efforts
to control workers. Plymouth Colony and Massachusetts Bay Colony
passed similar laws in 1630 fixing a maximum rate of pay. In Massa­
chusetts Bay Colony:
It was ordered that Carpenters, Joyners, Brickelayers, Sawers and Thatchers
shal not take above 2s. [48.6 cents] a day, and 16d. [32 cents] a day if they have
meate and drinke, nor any man shall give more, under paine of 10s. [$2.43] to
taker and giver; and that sawers shal not take above 4s. 6d. [$1.00] ye hundred
for boards, att six score to the hundred, if they have their wood felled and squared
for them, and not above 5s. 6d. [$1.33] if they fell and square their wood them­
selves.
It was ordered that labourers shal not take above 12d. [24.3 cents] a day for
their worke, and not above 6d. [12 cents] and meat and drink, under paine of
10s. [$2.43].1
8

Although this law was not successful and operated less than six
months, the court tried again in 1633, with lower rates and evidently
greater determination, to dictate wages. The second ruling kept
the same rate of 2s. a day for “ master” workmen—building trades­
men, mowers, and wheelwrights—but the rate with “ dyett” became
14d. (28 cents) a day instead of 16d. “ Master taylors” were allowed
12d. (24.3 cents) and “ inferior taylors” 8d. (16 cents) per day “ with
dyett.” Instead of fixing the rate for laborers, or “ inferior” work­
men, as did the 1630 act, that of 1633 left its determination to the
town constable and “ two indifferent freemen,” probably for each and
every given case.
Apparently it was not a simple matter to employ craftsmen at that
rate. There were few settlers in the Bay Colony who did not have
some land, cultivation of which undoubtedly paid better than day
work at an arbitrarily fixed rate. Employers were soon overbidding
the rate, and in a few cases were “ presented” before the court and
fined for violating the law. After a year of this, the clause fixing a
penalty for paying more than the legal rate was repealed. The penalty
for taking more was assessed against several workmen after it was no
longer illegal to pay more, but this ill-balanced arrangement resulted
in the following year, 1635, in the repeal of the wage-fixing statute in
its entirety.
w Weeden, Vol. I, p. 99.
is Idem, Vol. I, p. 82.
16 Felt, Joseph B.: Annals of Salem, Vol. I, p. 285.
17 Massachusetts Historical Society: Dedham Town Records,
i* Massachusetts Bay Colony Records, Vol. I, p. 109.




10

PAHT 1.— FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1840

Naturally wages went up. The highest rate for which workmen
had been haled into court and fined was, according to the court
records, 2s. 6d. (61 cents) per day. With legal restraints removed
skilled workers commanded 3s. (73 cents) a day, perhaps more in
specific instances. Colonial authorities recognized that their legisla­
tive policy had failed, but, as Weeden expressesit, the idea “ that labor
could fix its own reward worried them exceedingly.” 1 Not unlike
9
their successors of a much later day, when “ divers complaints con­
cerning oppression in wages, * * * to the great dishonor of
God, the scandall of the gosple and the griefe of divers of God’s
people” began to follow upon the repeal of wage legislation, the court
appointed a commission of 29 men, including Endicott, Winthrop,
Bradstreet, and Mather, “ to bring into the next Generali Court their
thoughts for the remediing of the same.” 2
0
Tins communion of the best minds of Massachusetts Bay seems to
have produced nothing more concrete than the adoption of a policy
of “ local option” by which each town was advised and requested
to control its own wage rate, and the promulgation of the following
declaration by the General Court:
The Court, having taken into consideration the scarsity of money and the
great abatement in the prices of corne, cattle and other commodities of the
countrey, whereby it is impossible that men shall bee able to give such wages to
servants and other labourers and workmen as formerly, so as many think better
to lay aside their busines and impliments (which would tende to the ruin of the
Churches and the Commonwealth) than to spend the small remainder of their
estates for the maintenance of others in such a way as will not afford them some
equall recompence— it is therefore hearby declared that it is thought equall that
all servants, labourers and workmen shall bee content to abate their wages accord­
ing to the fall of the commodities wherein their labour is bestowed, and that they
shall bee satisfied with payment in such things as are raised by their labour or
other commodities which the countrey affoards, and that they are to be content
to partake now in the present scarsity as well as they have had their advantage
by the plenty of former times, and this Court shall account it great oppression
in any that shall transgress the intention of this Order, and will have them pro­
ceeded with accordingly.2
1

While the General Court of the Bay Colony thus changed its pol­
icy from one of dictating a limit to what a workman might have for
his work to one of thinking about what should content him, the court
of Plymouth Colony retained its old legal rate of 2s. (48.6 cents),
with no greater success at enforcement, and the towns of the Bay
Colony undertook to carry out what the colonial authorities had
passed on to them to handle. The wage rates fixed by the towns
were lower than those in the colonial statutes, but that was because
of the general depression and hard times following the crop failure
of 1640. Carpenters in Hingham were reduced from 2s. to Is. lOd.
(44.5 cents), and wheelwrights from 2s. 3d. (54.6 cents) to 2s. a day;
while mowers kept the old rate of 2s. and common labor rose to Is,
6d. (36 cents).2 As late as 1651 Thomas Trusler, of Salem, was
2
presented before the Essex County Court for “ taking excessive
wages from John Alderman, viz., 10s. 6d. ($1.75) 2 for a day’s work
3
of 6 oxen and one man,” 2 but no fine is recorded.
4
Weeden, Vol. I, p. 179.
20 Massachusetts Bay Colony Records, Vol. I, p. 223.
31 Idem, Vol. I, p. 326.
2 Weeden, Vol. I, p. 173.
2
23 Colonial currency; shilling worth 16.7 cents in American equivalent.
2 Essex County Court Records.
4




CHAPTER 1.— EARLY WORKING CONDITIONS

11

Twenty years after the New England colonies had given up the
futile effort to control a commodity so urgently in demand as labor,
Virginia attempted both impressment and wage fixing in its program
of town building, and succeeded only in driving mechanics out of the
colony.2
5
CRAFTSMEN AS PLANTERS

The many, constantly repeated efforts to control and regulate labor
by legislative action were made inoperative by the continued scarcity
of workers, especially in the skilled crafts, and by “ the abundance
6
of land and the common desire to plant settlers upon it.” 2
The tendency of craftsmen to become farmers was frowned upon
in New England, since it was “ more to the public welfare and the
Glory of God to hold them to their trade,” and specifically legislated
against in Virginia. Agents of the Virginia Company were instructed
to establish tradesmen in towns, in order “ to remove them from
temptation to plant on their own account.” 2
7
Nevertheless, the evidence, though slight, is that among the com­
paratively few skilled workers who emigrated to the colonies, a con­
siderable number did as a matter of fact take up land and become
farmers and tobacco planters. Weeden speaks of the opportunity
afforded workers in New England to become landholders as “ the
countervailing privilege which lightened and ameliorated the severity
toward laborers and those working for hire,” and quotes Johnson’s
“ Wonder-Working Providence” as declaring, in 1650, that “ there
are many hundreds of laboring men who had not enough to bring
them over, yet now are worth scores, and some hundreds of pounds,”
through cultivating the land available to them.2
6
“ While it would be erroneous to say that as a general class the free
mechanics of Virginia in the seventeenth century enjoyed even a
moderate degree of prosperity from the mere pursuit of their trades,”
Bruce believes that “ there are nevertheless many evidences that
numerous individuals belonging to this class were men in possession
of considerable wealth, derived, there is reason to think, as much
from cultivation of tobacco on their own account as from the accumu­
lation of the proceeds of their mechanical work in the service of their
neighbors.” 2 He gives several instances on which he bases his
8
conclusions:
The trade of blacksmith was perhaps the least remunerative of all the callings
of that general character, since, the roads being level and free from stones, it was
the habit of the planters to allow their horses to go unshod. * * * The
county records of the period show that persons in this calling were able to acquire
small estates.
*
* * The trade of cooper was far more profitable, the field offered for the
exercise of skill being a wider one. * * * There were few more important
articles connected with the economy of the plantation than the hogsheads in which
the tobacco, when cured, was stored for shipment. It was the business of the
cooper to manufacture these receptacles, an occupation in which a handsome
remuneration was assured owing to the abundance of work; it is not surprising,
therefore, to discover that this class of tradesmen were in possession of consider­
able tracts of real estate and owned many kinds of personalty. Numerous
patents to public lands were obtained by them. In 1657 alone, two were issued,
aggregating seven hundred and fifty acres.2
9
** Bee p. 60.
Weeden, Vol. I, p. 84.
2 Bruce, Vol. II, p. 411.
7

61298°— 29------ 2



Bruce, Vol. II, p. 418.
« Idem, Vol. II, pp. 418-421.

12

PART 1.— FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1840

Carpenters often “ secured public lands, either in fee simple or by
lease for a long term of years.” 2 Many tanners had large property
9
holdings, and colonial records show substantial areas possessed
by shoemakers.3
0
CRAFT LINES INDEFINITE

Craft distinctions as we know them were not made in the colonial
and provincial eras, either in the performance of work or in the pay­
ment of wages. The mechanic was apt to be a j ack-of-all-trades,
even though he might also be master of his own, for his skill could be
used to advantage outside his own craft. The building trades were
frequently combmed in one person; a blacksmith and wheelwright
might be a silversmith at the same time, and the shoemaker was, very
likely, a tanner as well. “ If any one could or would carry on ten
trades, no one would have a right to prevent him,” 3 since the guild
1
system of the Old World had not been transplanted to the New.
It will be noticed that the rates fixed by the early colonial laws
make slight distinction in the trades in the matter of wages, and that
the difference between pay for skilled work and for unskilled work is
not great. In fact, in two instances of record, it is specifically stated
that all work should be paid for at the same rate. The men who
worked upon the construction of the meeting house in Dedham,
Mass., in 1637, were to be assigned tasks to which they were “ severally
apted,” and the same wages were to be paid “ in all cases.” 3 In the
2
reconstruction of a fort on Point Comfort, Va., the General Court
ordered that mechanics and laborers should “ all receive the same
wages.” 3
3
This condition held true until the beginning of the eighteenth
century. Even then the differences between the crafts were not
marked until trade organizations began to spring up toward the close
of the century. By 1800 wage rates appear for numerous crafts,
with fairly well-defined jurisdictional lines, but the rates themselves
do not vary materially as between these different crafts, and the
distinction between skilled and unskilled labor is not so strongly
reflected in their pay as it became later, with the development of a
pronounced craft consciousness.
An interesting analysis of the conditions which produced this slight
difference in their wages is given by a pioneer textile manufacturer:
On a comparison of the prices of labor in this country with those of Great
Britain, we perceive that although the wage of common labor is much higher
here, yet that of the artificer is not. Here the demand for labor is chiefly agri­
cultural and the wages seem to be regulated by it. There the mechanic arts
afford so much employment that the demand for every species of skill and ingenu­
ity is constant and high. Hence it happens that we can satisfy our artists with
wages very little above the common labor of the country, while those wrho come
from Europe will not work without a much greater price.3
4
® Idem, Vol. II, pp. 418-421.
30 Idem, Vol. II, pp. 478-479.
Mittelberger, Gottlieb: Journey to Pennsylvania, 1750-1754, p. 56.
32 Dedham Town Records (see p. 47).
33 Bruce, Vol. II, p. 417.
34 Manuscript letter of George Gabot, Sept. 6f 1791, in Hamilton Papers, Library of Congress.




Chapter 2.— MONEY AND MONEY EQUIVALENT

Although wages are fixed in terms of money in the early colonial
statutes, money was not at first, in any of the colonies, the medium
in which the workers were principally paid. A system of barter
existed throughout the first century of settlement and the very scarce
currency was little used in the payment of wages.
THE TOBACCO WAGES OF VIRGINIA

In Virginia wages were quoted not in coin but in pounds of tobacco.
Tobacco was in fact money, the standard of value “ in which all the
supplies, both domestic and imported, were purchased; in which the
tax imposed by public levy was settled; in which the tithables of the
minister, the lees of the attorney and physician, the debts due the
merchant, the remuneration of the free mechanic, the wages of the
servant, the charges of the midwife and the grave digger were paid.” 1
Tobacco warehouse receipts, or “ tobacco notes,” took the place of
metal currency and served all the purposes of a more usual monetary
system in general business transactions, at least in the export trade.
However, “ the inconveniences of such a system were felt * * * in
the working of internal affairs, in the transaction of local business, for
instance, in the sale of the commodity of labor and professional
knowledge and the like.” 2 Another writer explains that “ when we
recall the constant fluctuation in the price of tobacco we can imagine
what a clumsy and inefficient currency tobacco must have been. A
tobacco note issued one year might lose half its value by a fall in the
price of tobacco in the following year.” 3
Tobacco prices, on which wages were based, are shown in the fol­
lowing table, compiled by Jacobstein from Government figures and
colonial statutes:4
Year

1619____________________
1628____________________
1631___________________
1640___________________
1645___________________

Per pound

3s.
3d.
6d.
12d.
l^ d .

Year

1665____________________
1690___________________
1722___________________
1753___________________
1763___________________

Per pound

Id.
2d.
%d.
2d.
2d.

The shilling in the first quotation was the British shilling, then
worth 24.3 cents in the American equivalent. As will be pointed out
later, the value of the colonial shilling began to diverge from that of
the sterling shilling about 1640. Hence in addition to the materially
lower value of tobacco per pound after 1640, the price is based on a
currency of a lower standard, and the quotation of Id. as for instance
in 1665, probably represents less than 1.5 cents in American money.
On that basis, the rate of 20 pounds of tobacco a day, fixed by court
order in 1666 to be paid on a certain construction job,5 converts into a
trifle less than 30 cents a day in the American equivalent.
1 Brace, Philip A.: Economic History of Virginia in the 17th Century, Vol. II, p. 495.
a Bruce, Vol. II, p. 497.
3 Jacobstein, Meyer: The Tobacco Industry in the United States. Columbia University Studies in
History, Economics, and Public Law, Vol. XXVI, No. 3, p. 25.
* Idem, Vol. XXVI, No. 3, p. 23.
4 See p. 50.




13

14

PABT 1.— FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1840
THE “ COUNTRY PAY” OF NEW ENGLAND

The most widely used mediums of exchange in the New England
colonies were beaver skins and “ country pay,” which means, sub­
stantially, agricultural products, corn chiefly. # Beaver was “ second in
value only to the precious metals,” and furnished “ an equivalent for
cash,” 6 since, like the tobacco of the southern colonies, it found a
constant and fairly stable market in Europe. Its use was largely
confined to foreign business and must have been rare indeed in the
payment of wages, because it appears in only one instance in the wage
material obtained from the early records. Weeden quotes from an
account book dated Piscataqua, N. H., April 1, 1633: “ I paid the
Smith for work 2 lbs of Beaver and 2 shillings in Beaver at 2 several
times. To the taylor for mending blanketts, beaver % lb.” Beaver
was worth at the time from 14s. to 20s. a pound.7
The standard medium in which workmen were paid was “ corn,” a
generic term which included “ several species of grain and even peas,
which, together with livestock, lawfully received at the colonial
treasury for public taxes, was often designated by the phrase ‘country
pay.’ ” 8 In 1631 the Massachusetts General Court ordered “ that
corne shall passe for payment of all debts at the usual rate it is solde
for, unless money or beaver be expressly named. ” 9 For years the
selling price of corn was alternately fixed and freed by the court,
and the rate at which it would be received for taxes was established
annually.
Corn sold in 1631, the year in which it was made a legal tender,
at 10s. ($2.43) to 11s. ($2.67) a bushel; the next year the price had
fallen to 4s. 6d. ($1.00), recovering slightly, in 1633, to 6s. ($1.46) per
bushel. Its selling price fluctuated between 4s. 6d. and 6s. until
1641, and its currency value as set by the court varied accordingly.
That year, following the poor crops of 1640, the court did not under­
take to maintain a selling price, declaring instead that:
For servants and workmen’s wages it is ordered that they may be paid in
corne. For the price, if the parties can not agree, the corne is to be valued by 2
indifferent freemen, to be choesen the one by the master, the other by the servant
or workman (who are to have respect to the valewe of the worke or service);
and if they cannot agree then a third man is to be chosen by the magistrate.*0

After 1642 the price of corn in colonial money, though rising occa­
sionally as high as 6s. ($1) kept at a fairly steady level of 3s. (50 cents)
a bushel until the close of the century, when the period of inflated
paper money set in.
Depreciation in the value of articles other than com in which
workmen were paid materially lessened the amount actually received
for work. To illustrate, Boston’s first lawyer undertook a case for a
carpenter of Cambridge who received as part of his pay for the con­
struction of a house “ one cowe and one steere calfe” valued, by the
employer, at £25 ($121.50). According to the plaintiff, that price
“ was then overvalued £5 [$24.30] at least.” The carpenter had to
pay his workmen £9 ($43.75) in money for their work on the job.
Later, when he tried to market his cattle, the price had fallen so that
“ now they are not wx>rth above £12 [$58.32].” In addition to the
6 Weeden, William B.: Economic and Social History of New England, 1620-1789, Vol. I, p. 39.
7 Idem, Vol. I, p. 132.
8 Felt, Joseph B.: Massachusetts Currency, p. 13.
• Massachusetts Bay Colony Records Vol. I, p. 192.
10 Idem, Vol. I, p. 340.




CHAPTER 2.— MONEY AND MONEY EQUIVALENT

15

loss of £13 ($63.18) in the value of the stock, the plaintiff had been
at an expense of “ £2 10s, [$12.15] for the keeping of them since, which
amounts to £15 10s. [$75.33],” the amount entered in the petition
for relief.1
1
Toward the close of the seventeenth century the expanding trade
with the West Indies brought in an increasing supply of silver, and
from the opening of the eighteenth century to the Revolution, while
“ country pay” was still a factor in the payment of wages, it does not
appear in the record to so great an extent as in the colonial period. It
was again resorted to during the Revolution, when money was prac­
tically worthless.
The custom of granting discounts from country-pay prices for cash
payment in the purchase of goods was adopted after money became
more plentiful, and the allowance ran from one-fourth to one-third
of the barter price. On the other hand, workers who demanded money
instead of, or in addition to, country pay had to accept from onefourth to one-third less than the wages paid in barter. A building
contract dated 1694 specifies that the contract price of £15 10s.
($51.67) is “ to be payed in Rye at four shillings [66.7 cents] per bushel
& Indian corne at three shillings [50 cents] a bushel;” should any
part of the £15 10s. be paid in money, however, the builder “ shall
abate one-fourth part thereof.” 1
2
“ FOUND”

Still another difficulty in the way of computing colonial wages
arises from the almost universal practice of providing workers with
board at the place where they were engaged. That custom was, of
course? always followed in the case of farm laborers and domestic
servants, as it still is, and wages for these classes can safely be regarded
as in addition to maintenance.
In the earliest days that was also true of tailors, shoemakers, and
to some extent of building tradesmen, but it is not always possible to
determine which wage rates do and which do not include board.
Frequently the record says specifically so much per day “ and found”
or “ with dyett,” and it is assumed that substantially higher rates for
the same or comparable occupations in the same period must be
straight wages. Often, too, the wage rate will be followed by the
expression “ the labourer finding himself,” and by a comparison of
rates in the two methods of payment it is possible to estimate when
maintenance is a part of the pay in cases where the item itself does not
cover that point.
Another early practice which became the subject of frequent legisla­
tion and constant agitation is suggested in the following statute of
1645:
Whereas it is found by too common and sad experience in all parts of the colony
that the forcing of labourers and other workmen to take wine in pay for wages
is a great nursery or preparative to drunkenness * * * it is therefore ordered
and ordained by this Court that no labourer or workman whatsoever shall after
ye publication and promulgation hereof be inforced or pressed to take wine in
pay for his labour.1
8
11 Lechford, Thomas: Manuscript Notebook, 1638-1641 (published by the American Antiquarian Society,
1885), p. 410.
1 See p. 48.
2
13 Massachusetts Bay Colony Records, Vol. II, p. 101.




16

PART 1.— FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1840

Later, in 1672, another angle to this same problem developed.
Instead of “ being pressed to take wine in pay for his labour,” work­
men were accused of “ demanding an allouance of licquors or wines
every day, over and above their wages, without which it is found, by
too sad experience, many refuse to worke.” It was “ therefore ordered
by the Court and by the authority thereof, and be it hereby enacted,
that if any person or persons after publication hereof shall give wine
or strong licquors to any workmen or boys that work with them, except
in case of necessity, shall pay twenty shillings [$3.33] for every such
offence.” 1
4
A hundred years afterward Jefferson wrote of the crew of building
tradesmen whom he employed on some remodeling work on his home:
“ I observe that their food and liquor has cost exactly 2s. [33.3 cents]
on the day's labor.”
COLONIAL CURRENCY

The earliest settlers in both the Virginia and the Massachusetts
colonies used English money, of course, and while sterling lasted it
had the same value in the colonies as in the mother country. Very
early in the history of the colonies, however, this condition changed,
and while the British form of pounds, shillings, and pence was re­
tained until after the establishment of the Republic, it was not in
fact the British monetary system. After 1640 colonial money was
based on the Spanish dollar instead of on the pound sterling.
At the same time the value of the monetary unit, the colonial
shilling, was exceedingly erratic, seldom, as an early statistician
observed, “ being the same in two different Provinces at a time, and
often changing values in the same place.” 1
5
The Virginia shilling remained practically stable throughout the
history of the colony. In 1645 the Assembly declared that the
Spanish “ piece of 8” , which in time became the American dollar,
should pass current and be valued as the equivalent of six shillings of
Virginia money. This established the Virginia shilling at 16.7 cents
in the American equivalent. For perhaps two decades following that
order, through political manipulation the value fluctuated between
5s. and 6s. to the dollar, but by 1680 the standard was again firmly
established at 6s., and discussion of the money of this colony can be
dismissed with the statement that a Virginia shilling means 16.7
cents wherever quoted.
Pennsylvania also escaped most of the fluctuation and inflation of
its currency that beset other colonies, but a shilling had two different
values, each of which can be regarded as stable during the periods
specified. The colonial shilling ran five to the Spanish dollar, making
20 cents in the American equivalent. The standard changed early
in the provincial era to 7s. 6d. to the dollar, “ at which, from 1742, it
finally rested.” 1
6
The same situation was essentially true in New Jersey, Delaware,
and Maryland. The shilling in these four colonies can therefore be
quoted at 20 cents up to the close of the first quarter of the eighteenth
century, and 13.3 cents thereafter.
The New York money unit during the first half century of settle­
ment was the Dutch florin, which is 40 cents in the American equiva­
n Idem, Vol. IV, No. 2, p. 510.
is Wright, John: The American Negotiator (3d edition, London, 1767), p. 1.
13 Phillips, Henry, jr.: Pennsylvania Paper Money, p. 13.




CHAPTER 2.— MONEY AND MONEY EQUIVALENT

17

lent. With the disintegration of Dutch power in the colony, about
1665, New York adopted the shilling unit, but its value there was
considerably less than in the other old settlements. The New York
shilling, when introduced, was worth 12.5 cents, 8 shillings to the
dollar, and maintained a fair degree of stability up to the Revolution.
The shilling of North Carolina had the same nominal value as that
of New York, but suffered depreciation repeatedly and probably fell
as low as did that of South Carolina, although by 1764 it had recov­
ered, and afterward kept its position at 12.5 cents. Starting with a
value in the American equivalent of 21.4 cents, 4s. 8d. to the dollar,
South Carolina money was at first the highest in the American
colonies. In 1710 a South Carolina shilling was quoted by the
provincial governor 1 at slightly more than two-thirds the value of
7
the sterling shilling, which gives it a value approximately that of
the Virginia shilling. The Province issued paper money in 1712 to
meet its proportion of expense in one of the Queen Anne wars, after
which her currency fell headlong. Wright computed 32 South Caro­
lina shillings to the Spanish dollar in 1760.1 This makes a paper
8
shilling of the period worth a trifle more than 3 cents, and it fell
ultimately to less than 3 cents.1
9
New England currency, however, has the most confused history.
Information concerning it deals chiefly with Massachusetts, but in
the main conditions in the Bay Colony were duplicated throughout
the entire northern settlement.
Inflation at the close of the seventeenth century followed a
standard New England shilling stabilized for 60 years at 16.7 cents.
That was the value established after the sterling shilling had dis­
appeared, maintained by the pine-tree shilling of the Hull mint,
beginning in 1653, and fixed by statute in 1679.2 The adoption of
0
paper money at the close of the century did not result in immediate
depreciation. With repeated emissions after 1712 to meet the cost
of the military expeditions into Canada, however, the New England
paper shilling fell steadily, dropping from 8s. to the Spanish dollar
in 1713, to 45 in 1749.2
0
To avert ruin Massachusetts secured a substantial shipment of
sterling money from England and set about to redeem her paper
currency and to place her finances on a sounder footing. In 1750
“ lawful money” was established and “ old tenor” was gradually re­
deemed. Lawful money continued the old relation of 6 to 1 between
the shilling and the Spanish dollar.
Conversion to the American equivalent of wages paid in old
tenor from 1716 to 1750 is made on the basis of the relation between
the paper shilling and the Spanish dollar, as follows:2
1
In 1716, 9% shillings to the Spanish dollar; in 1717, 12; in 1722, 14;
in 1728, 18; in 1730, 20; in 1737, 26; in 1739, 27; in 1741, 28.
A conversion table printed in Boston in 1750 “ to bring Old Tenor
into Lawful Money” gives the relative Talue of old tenor as twofifteenths the value of lawful money; in other words 15 shillings in
17 Carroll, B. E., ed.: South Carolina Historical Collections, Vol. II, p. 122. History of South Carolma
(attributed to Governor Glen).
18 Wright’s American Negotiator.
Clark, Victor S.: History of Manufactures in the United States, 1607-1860, p. 584.
2 Felt’s Massachusetts Currency.
0
21 Potter, Elisha R.: Emissions of Paper Money Made by the Colony of Rhode Island.




18

PART 1.— FROM COLONIAL, TIMES TO 1840

old tenor were worth 2 shillings in the new currency.2 Felt puts
2
the ratio of old tenor to lawful money as high as 10 to 1 in 1751.
In Rhode Island in 1769 it took £8 in old tenor to pay a debt of 6
shillings, which was about the rate applied by that colony in redeem­
ing her old tenor currency in 1770.2
3
Efforts at stabilization, fairly successful for several years, were
defeated by the Revolution, when values were again completely upset
by the depreciation and practical worthlessness of continental paper
money. Then wage rates appear in pounds per day instead of
shillings, and all wages and prices mount to fanciful heights which,
for conversion purposes, make them quite literally “ not worth a
continental. ” This can be strikingly illustrated by the following
items taken from the ordinary daily accounts of the Pennsylvania
Hospital in 1780, which are expressed in continental currency:
Mutton, $7 a pound; potatoes, $18 a peck; coffee, $12 a pound;
sugar, $6 a pound; butter, $8 a pound; bread, $4 a loaf; eggs, $9 a
dozen; three days’ whitewashing at $55 a day; 2% days’ washing at
$20 a day; servant girl, $50 a month.
Provincial and town governments undertook both price and wage
fixing throughout the course of the war, trying to keep pace with the
fictitious values of their worthless paper currencies. The earnestness,
as well as the futility of this effort is suggested in the following
declaration with which, on November 3, 1779, the New Hampshire
Convention of Delegates followed up its November proclamation
fixing prices and wages: 2
4
Money is justly called the Sinews of War, and if the stipulated Prices are
not complied with it is natural to conclude that Money will depreciate faster
than it has ever done, and should that be unhappily our case, soon, very soon,
it will not be in our Power to support our Army or even ourselves. * * *
We must earnestly entreat every Merchant, Trader and Farmer and every other
Rank of People to consider that if they vie with each other in obtaining High
Prices and which will distress the other most, until the Money will not purchase
any Article, what satisfaction will it be for the Merchant to recollect he received
an hundred or an hundred and twenty dollars for a Yard of Cloth, the Farmer a
thousand or 1200 dollars for a Yoke of Oxen, or any other Person to receive for
what he has to sell or for his Labour at that Rate and so in Proportion for every­
thing they sell, when all they receive may not purchase either Food or Raiment.
AMERICAN MONEY

The American monetary system adopted by the Republic at the
close of the Revolution established itself slowly. Pounds, shillings,
and pence remained the money terminology in most of the old com­
munities for more than a generation after the adoption of the Con­
stitution, although they were of course definitely convertible into
dollars and cents. The personal accounts of Thomas Jefferson, even
while he was President (1801-1809), are kept in pounds, shillings, and
pence. In the pay rolls of the Slater mills in Rhode Island time and
piece rates are given in shillings and total earnings in dollars and cents
up to 1845, and probably longer. Massachusetts and New York,
and the new Territories to the west, seem to have dropped the old form
almost at once, but other parts of New England and the South did not .
22 Massachusetts Bureau of Statistics of Labor: History of Wages and Prices in Massachusetts, 1752-18S3
by Carroll D. Wright, p. 42.
23 Potter, Elisha R.: Emissions of Paper Money Made by the Colony of Rhode Island.
24 New Hampshire Broadsides, Library of Congress.




19

CHAPTER 2.— MONET AND MONEY EQUIVALENT

Moreover, the old complication remained. In Virginia, Rhode
Island, and Connecticut a shilling meant 16.7 cents; in Pennsylvania,
Maryland, Delaware, and New Jersey, 13.3 cents; and in New York
and the Carolinas, 12.5 cents. Thus a hypothetical wage rate of
6s. a day in Virginia, 7s. 6d. a day in Philadelphia, and 8s. in New
York City in 1800 would not mean that wages were one-third higher
in New York than in Richmond. The actual money payment in all
cases would have been an American dollar.
PRICES OF COMMODITIES USED AS BARTER

Truck payment entered so largely into the calculation of wages
during the colonial and provincial eras that some conception of prices
is necessary to interpret wages. It has been pointed out in an
earlier wage study that, “ as is well known, statistics of prices for
any period are much easier to obtain than statistics of w^ages for the
same period,” 2 but unfortunately they are not easy to translate into
5
terms of cost of living. Without attempting to do more than suggest
the purchasing power of money wages, and the market value of the
commodities given to workers in exchange for their labor, some price
statistics are presented.
Tables 1 and 2 are a combination of various data, figures for the
years 1633 to 1720 having been taken from the appendix to Weeden’s
“ Economic and Social History of New England,” which presents
statutory prices for the most part; and figures from 1720 from Felt’s
“ Annals of Salem/' Felt’s sources were contemporary account
books, “ prices current” broadsides, and grocery bills.
Table 1 gives the New England prices of wheat and corn per
bushel, at 10-year periods, from 1630 to 1750. So little fluctuation
was found in the price of these products from year to year that a
single entry for each decade was considered sufficient.
T a b l e 1.— Prices of wheat and corn in New England colonies, at 10-year periodsf

1630 to 1750, with American equivalents

Year

Price of wheat, per Price of corn, per
Value of
bushel
I
bushel
shilling
in
American Shillings American Shillings American
equivalent and pence equivalent and pence equivalent
Cents

1630.
1640.
1650.
1660.
1670.
1680.
1690.
1700.
1710.
1720.
1730
1740.
1750.

24.3
24.3
16.7
16.7
{
16.7
16.7
16.7
16.7
16.7
7.5
{
5.0
3.6

2
.0

s. d.

0
0
0
0
i 0
5
5 0
7
5

4 6
5 0
7 0
0
1 0
10 6
21 0
55 0

u Wright’s History of Wages and Prices, Massachusetts, 1752-1860, p. 41.




s.
(

I
$1.70
.84
.67
.84 }
.84
.84
.75
{
.84
1.17
.60
.68 }
.60
.76
1.10

10
11
4
3
3
3
3

d.

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

i
3
2 6
4 0
6 6
10 6
27 0

$2.43
2.67
.97
.50
.50
.50
.50
.33
.50
.50
.42
.30
.33
.38
.54

20

PART 1.— FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1840

Table 2 shows no regularity in intervals of time. The figures show­
ing prices of butter, beef, and pork were used for all years for which
they could be obtained.
T a b l e %.— Prices

of butter, beef, and pork in the New England Colonies, for speci­
fied years, 1683 to 1749, with American equivalents
Price per pound

Year

Value of
shilling
Pork
Butter
Beef
in Amer­
ican
equiva­
Shillings American Shillings American Shillings American
lent
equiva­
equiva­
equiva­
and
and
and
pence
lent
lent
pence
lent
pence
Cents

...................................
1633
1637....................................... .
1653............................................
1665............................................
1667_________________ ______
1670
.............................
1678....................... ...................
1685................................... .......
1687................. - ......... — .........
1690................. .........................
1692..
...................................
1695.................................. .......
1699.................... .......................
1704_
.............................
1711...........................................
1712. .......................... .............
1 7 1 9 ___________ ___________
1727....... ....................................
1733. ______ __________ ___
1740_______________________1741.................................. ........
1747....................................... .
1748............................................
1749............................................

24.3
24.3
16.7
16.7
16.7
16. 7
16.7
16.7
16.7
16.7
16.7
16.7
16.7
16.7
16.7
16.7
8.3
7.1
5.0
3.6
3.6
2.5
2.5
2.0

s, d.
6
7

s.

$0.12
. 14

6
6
5
9
4
4

.08
.08
.07
.13
.06
.06

4

3
^
3

(
I

.06

7
10
11
1 0
1 6

.10
.14
.08
.07
.08

5 0
7 0
8 0

.13
.18
.16

d.

s.

.02
.03

2
in

.03
.018

m

.05 .

$0.06
.04
.06
.04
.04
.03
.035
.04

.03

2

1
1
2
2

4
3
4
3
3
2
2H
3

$0.04
.03
.04

m
2

d.

7
10
2
8
0
9

.03
.03
.04
.04
.05
.055

3
2

.04
.03
.06

8
1
2
2
4

.03

2
6
9
0

.04
.06
.07
.08

Table 3 was found in “ Economica, a Statistical Manual for the
United States of America,” by Samuel Blodget, the imprint of which
says that it was “ printed for the Author in the City of Washington,
1806.” This table is reproduced exactly as printed. The author’s
own comment on it is interesting. In a footnote to the table he says:
The table shewing the variation of money is * * * not only one of the
most important but cost more time and attention to bring it to its present state
than either, if not all, in this book, the general table alone excepted; and yet it
can not be made as complete as it ought to be to answer all the desirable pur­
poses of a common measure for all estimates of real instead of merely nominal
expenditures; the variations in prices have often been so sudden that an average
for any three months must sometimes appear doubtful to those who have not
full time for inquiry. It is made up from prices current, and merchants’ books
and accounts of sales in every State in the Union.

This statistical presentation of a century and a quarter ago follows:




65
60
60
65
65
45

40
40
40
35
40
35

6
7
7
7
7
5K

4
5
5
5
5
4

50
50
50
60
60
50

85
80
80
75
85
75

60
60
60
60
65
50

50
45
45
40
50
45

8
8

5
5
5
6
4X

95
100
100
100
105
95

130
120
120
120
135
120

75
75
75
75
75
75

60
60
60
60
60
55

150
250
250
200
200
6

4X
5
5
6
6

90
100
100
110
110
90

210
210
210
200
210
200

110
no
110
110
110
100

95
95
95
90
95
85

10
11
11
12
12X
10

OX
5X

16
10X
14

250
300
250
250
250

5

75
80
80
80
100
75

205
200
200
200
210
180

106
106
106
106
106
100

95
95
95
95
100
90

12

7X
7X

19
21

30
50
50
30
30

Boston.............
New York.......
Philadelphia . . .
Baltimore.........
Charleston____
U. S. averaged.

1790

1785

"1790

Boston.............
New York.......
Philadelphia—_
Baltimore.........
Charleston____
U. S. averaged..

1795
1795

Boston.............
New York____
Philadelphia...
Baltimore____
Charleston.......
U . S. averaged..
Boston.............
New York.......
Philadelphia...
Baltimore____
Charleston____
U. S. averaged..

1800
1800
"1805




1805

2X

50
60
65
50
60
2X

100
120
120
100
100
5X

ox

4
4
4
3H

4X

m

6
6
5
6

4X

»X
8X
8X

8

8X
9

9
9

9X

9

12X

13
13
14
12

4
4
4
4

Hams, per lb.

80
75
75
75
80
60

1785

Herring, barrel

5
3X

50
55
60
50
50
50

Boston.............
New York.......
Philadelphia...
Baltimore........
Charleston.......
TJ. S. averaged..

Tobacco, cwt.

Cts.

Flour, barrel

Dols.

Rice, cwt.

Dols.

Cod-fish, cwt.

Butter, per lb.

Cts.

Lard, per lb.

Pork, per cwt.

Cts.

Tallow, per lb.

Beef, per barrel

Cts.

Dols.

Potatoes, per bu.

Corn, per bushel

Cts.

Years

Cheese, per lb.

Rye, per bushel

•sf-g
s?!"3

Wheat, per bushel

Places

Rent, ditto, per c.

-Is
0*9

Labour, per day

Prices current in the principal cities, etc., of the United States, showing the variation of money, etc., for 20 years, from authentic
documents
Lands, improved,
near towns, per A.

T a b l e 3 .—

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Dols.

Dols.

Dols.

Dols.

Dols.

Cts.

11
12
12
14
15

6
8
9
9
10
7

2X
3X
ZX
3X
3X
*X

10
11
11
11
12
9

7
7
7
7
6

10X

6
8
9
9
10
7

12
12
12
13
14
10

8
8
8
9
9
8

14
15
15
16
17
15

10
11
11
11
12
9

11
12
11
12
13
9

3X
3X
3X
3X
3X

5X
5X
5X
5X
6
5

13

11
11
11
12
13
10

18
19
19
20
25
19

11

nx
13

6

15

OX

15X
15X

12
14
14
14
15
11

20
22
25
30
50
22

13
14
14
14
15
13

15
16
16
18
20
15

30
35
40
60
100
30

4X

4

5
5
5
5M

5X
4X

6

6X

7X
7X

8

7X

13X

13
14
15
12

21X

22
24
20

6X

12X
12X
12X

14
11

13X

4
4
4

3X
3X

2X
3

4X
4

3X
3

3X
3X
3X
3X

5
5
5

5X

4

3X

5X
4X

4X
4X
4X
4
4
4

4

4
4
4
4

7

5H

13
13
14
11

*X
4X
*X
m
4X

13X

4

13X

4x
m

14
14
15
13

13X

13X
13X

13X
14X

UX

15
13

3
3
3
3

13X

15
13

*x
4X
*x
4x
4x

5
5

3

4X

OX
ox
OX

3X
3X

7
0

4X
4X
4X

io x
io x
io x

4X
4X

4X
5X
5X
5X
5X
5

5X

io x
11
10

3K

3

5X
5X
5X
5X
5X

6
6
6

. m

2X
2X
2X
2X
2X
2X
3
3X
3X

3

7X

8
8
8
9
7
9

9X
9X
10

3X
3X

10

3
3X
3X
3X
4

11
11X
nx
nx
nx

4

4
4
4
4
4

9X

10
12

12X
12X
12X
12X

m

4X

11

7

4

13

UX

7X

11

ox

4X
4X
4X

13X
13X
13X

nx
UX

11X

10

7

OX

0X

5
4

14
12

22

PART 1.— FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1840

Flour prices are thus reviewed in Clark’s “ History of Manufactures
in the United States, 1607-1860” (p. 139):
The price of flour was subject to great variation, both at different seasons and
from year to year. In local markets a hundredweight o f flour usually sold for
about the same as 3 bushels of wheat. In an age when every farmer took his
own grain to the mill, and had it ground for toll in kind, there was little chance
for speculation to affect prices in the local market. The scanty evidence at
hand indicates that during the seventeenth century prices were at times very
high. In 1629 wheat flour is rated at $3 a bushel, and in 1697 at between $11
and $12 a barrel. There had been an intervening period of moderate prices,
but thereafter for some years quotations maintained a high level. In 1721,
again, very low prices, possibly under $1 per 100 pounds, are quoted in New
England. After this date we have a fairly continuous record of flour values in
the middle colonies. From 1721 until 1748 quotations ranged between $1 and
$1.50 a hundredweight, with an average probably not far from midway between
those two figures. The latter year prices rose to $2.80 a hundredweight, and,
with the exception of a few short seasons, they remained above $2 from that
time until the Revolution. In other words, during the first part of the century
flour cost in port towns under $3 a barrel, and from the middle of the century
until the war with England, following the abrupt rise in 1748, it usually cost
above $4 a barrel.
CONTEMPORARY DATA ON PRICES

Some contemporary material bearing on the general subject of
prices and cost of living was found, chiefly with reference to board
and lodging. Data of this character appear more frequently after
the Revolution, and by 1800-1820 are not uncommon in the many
books of travel of that period.
An early pronouncement of the relation between wages and prices
is found in an order of the Massachusetts Bay Colony General Court
of 1634, issued after the 1633 statute fixing wages. Referring to its
wage enactment, by which “ the wages of workemen were reduced to
a certainety in regard of the great extorcion used by dyvers persons
of little conscience,” the court decides that:
Nowe, least the honest and conscionable workemen be wronged or discouraged
by excessive prizes of those commodyties which are necessary for their life and
comfort, wee have thought it very just and equall to sett order also therein; wee
doe therefore hereby order, that after publique notice hereof noe persons shall
sell to any of the inhabitants within this jurisdiction any provision, cloathinge,
tooles or other commodities above the rate of four pence in a shilling more than
the same cost or might be bought for ready money in England, on paine of for­
feiting the valewe of the things solde, except cheese, which, in regard of the
much hazard in bringing, and wyne and oyle, vinegar and strong waters, which
in regard of leakeing may be solde att such rates (provided the same be moderate)
as the buyer and seller can agree. And for lynnen and other commodyties
which, in regard of their close stowage and small hazard, may be afforded att a
cheape rate, wee doe advise all men to be a rule to themselves in keeping a good
conscience, assuring them that if any man shall exceede the bounds of moderacion we shall punish them severely.2
6

A few years later the court, “ aware that the board at public
houses, if extravagant, not only required a corresponding price from
the traveller, but also put him in the hazard of contracting a taste
for similar fare at his own house, and thus promoted a costly mode
of living, ever unfavorable to the pecuniary concerns of a com­
munity,” 2 tried another way of helping the consumer. It de­
7
clared that:
Whereas complaint hath bene also made that diverse pore people, who would
willingly content themselves with meane dyet are forced to take such dyet as is
26 Massachusetts Bay Colony Records, Vol. I, p. 110.

 Massachusetts Currency, p. 22.
27 Felt’s


CHAPTER 2.— MONEY AND MONEY EQUIVALENT

23

tendered them at 12d. [24.3 cents] the meale or more; it is now ordered that
every keeper of such Inn or comon vicualling house shall sell and allow unto every
of their guests such victuals as they shall call for, and not force them to take
more or other than they desire, bee it never so meane and small in quantity,
and shall affoard the same and all other dyet at reasonable prizes upon paine of
such fine as the Court shall inflict according to the measure and quantity of
the offence.2
8

This law was enacted in 1637. In 1639 Virginia fixed the price of
a meal at an “ ordinary” at 12d. “ Five years later, the charge for
a meal at an inn was not allowed to exceed 10 pounds of tobacco
(15.4 cents). Only wholesome diet was to be furnished and that in
sufficient quantity.” 2
9
Writing about Maine in 1675 an early chronicler says:
Massachusetts merchants furnish them with all things they stand in need of,
keeping here and there fair Magazines stored with English goods, but they set
excessive*prices upon them. If they do not gain cent per cent they cry out that
they are losers, hence English shoes are sold for 8 & 9s. [$1.33-$1.50] a pair;
worsted stockings of 3/6 [95 cents] for 7/8 [$1.28] a pair; . . . serges of 2 or
3s. [48.6-73 cents] a yard for 6s. and 7s. [$1 and $1.17] a yard, and so all sorts of
commodities, both for planters and fishermen.8
0

Bread prices were generally fixed by order of the colonial court or
by town ordinances. These regulations controlled both the weight
and the price of a loaf of bread, basing price on the current price of
wheat flour. In the earliest days bread sold at a penny a loaf, and
governmental control dealt only with the weight that must be given
for a penny. Thus a New Haven, Conn., ordinance of 1640 stipulates
that with w^heat at 6s. 6d. ($1.58) a bushel, white bread must weigh
6 ounces per loaf; “ wheat bread” 9% ounces, and the “ household
loaf” 12% ounces. Each loaf sold at an English penny, which is
about 2 cents. The Massachusetts General Court in 1696 fixed a
sliding scale of loaf weights proportionate to the price of flour, ranging
from 8% ounces when flour sold at 16 shillings ($2.67) per hundred­
weight, to 4% ounces when flour cost 32s. ($5.33), the loaf of bread to
sell in all cases at one penny.
Speaking of the women of Pennsylvania who in 1698 earned “ their
own Livelihood by their own Industry,” Thomas found their charges
very high, “ for I can buy in London a cheesecake for Two pence,
bigger than theirs for that price, when at the same time their milk is
as cheap as we can buy it in London and their Flour cheaper by
one-half.”
A Salem, Mass., ordinance of April, 1726, declares that:
Wheat for this month is 11s. [61 cents]8 a bushel. The price and weight of
1
bread required to be 2d. [1 cent] for a loaf of 8 oz. 4 drs.; 4d. [4 cents] for a loaf
16 oz. 12 drs.; 6d. [6 cents] for a wheaten loaf of 2 lbs. 5 oz.; 6d. for a household
loaf of 3 lbs. 2 oz.8
2

Board in Virginia in the middle of the seventeenth century was £5
sterling ($24.30) a year, on which “ any one can live in a manner
which in England would entail an outlay of thirty pound sterling
[$145.80].” 3 A century later board in the Shenandoah Valley region
3
28 Massachusetts Bay Colony Records, Vol. I, p. 214.
Bruce, Vol. II, p. 203.
80 Hart, Albert Bushnell, ed.: American History Told by Contemporaries, Vol. I, p. 433. An account
of Two Voyages to New England, by John Josselyn. Conversion of these prices has been made on the
assumption that Josselyn was comparing the cost of the articles in colonial money with the cost of the same
article in England in terms of English money. Hence the sterling shilling has been used to convert the
values he quotes, while the colonial shilling is used to convert actual prices charged.
81 Depreciated currency, 18 shillings to the dollar. See p. 17.
*2 Quoted in Felt’s Annals of Salem, Vol. II, p. 153.
Bullock’s
 Virginia, p. 37.



24

PART 1.— FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1840

of Virginia was £15 [$50] a year in the account book of a local
blacksmith.3
4
At about the same period board in Boston was 12s. ($2) a week,3
4
practically twice the rate in rural Virginia. A generation later the
same rate is given for board in New York outside New York City.
In the city it was $7 a week.3 The rate charged for board in Phila­
5
delphia in 1748 is reported by one of the numerous European travelers
of the period: “ I and my companion had a room, candles, beds,
attendance, and three meals a day, if we chose to have so many, for
20s. ($2.67) per week in Pennsylvania currency. But wood, washing,
and wine, if required, were to be paid for besides.” 3 Speaking of
6
the same period, another visitor says:
Provisions are cheap in Pennsylvania, but everything that is manufactured
and brought into the country is three or four times as dear as in Germany.
Even in the humblest and poorest houses in this country there is no meali without
meat, and no one eats the bread without butter or cheese, although the bread is
as good as with us. It is very annoying, however, that nothing but salt meat is
eaten in summer and rarely fresh meat in winter. On account of the extensive
stock raising, meat is very cheap.3
7

At the close of the century, 1790, Tench Coxe, then Assistant
Secretary of the Treasury, in one of his papers on economic and
industrial conditions in the young Republic, declares that—
Though the wages of the industrious poor are very good, yet the necessaries
of life are cheaper than in Europe, and the articles used are more comfortable
and pleasing. It may be safely affirmed that an american cent, being equal to
the hundredth part of a mexican dollar, will buy as good butchers meat in the
capitals of the several states as a penny sterling will buy in Amsterdam, Paris,
or London. Fish, in all our cities and towns near the sea, are excellent, abundant,
and cheaper far than butchers meat; and poultry is so low that a turkey of
fourteen or fifteen pounds weight may be bought for three shillings and nine
pence to four shillings and six pence sterling [90 cents to $1.09].3
8

Material on the cost of living for the years immediately following
the War of 1812 is abundant in a 3-volume work entitled “ A Statisti­
cal, Political and Historical Account of the United States,” by D. B.
Warden, published in Edinburgh in 1819. How accurate Warden’s
figures are has not been definitely determined. He was a Government
official in Washington at one time and later United States consul at
Paris, where his book was written. He seems not to have gained any
standing as a historian, but McMaster quotes his figures occasionally
and they are consistent with other data of the same period. They
are presented here as interesting rather than as authoritative. The
period covered is in all cases the three years from 1815 to 1818.
Board in New York was $2 a week in the country and villages and
$4 or $5 in towns, depending on their size and importance. The
average rent of houses of the sort used by mechanics in the towns
was $80 a year.
In Pennsylvania—
The price of living in a farmer’s house, boarding, lodging and washing, $2 a
week. It is well ascertained that a family may be comfortably supported, each,
per day, for 20 cents, and even for 16 cents in some counties. On the western
side of the mountains a resident has assured me that a family may be supported
84 Manuscript accounts.
35 McMaster, John Bach: History of the People of the United States, Vol. I, p. 242.
36 Kalm, Peter: Journeys into North America, Vol. I, p. 24.
37 Mittelberger, Gottlieb: Journey to Pennsylvania, 1750-1754, pp. 64-5.
38 Coxe, Tench: View of America, pp. 95-6.




CHAPTER 2.— MONEY AND MONEY EQUIVALENT

25

at the rate of 10 cents each. A gentleman who lived many years in Carlisle in
reply to my inquiry on the subject observed that before the year 1812 the average
expense for a family for living was $1 a week.8
9

Another writer, who traveled from Virginia to Illinois in 1817 look­
ing for a homestead, and who made datty notes of his observations
and experiences, found, in McConnellsburg, Pa., a blacksmith who
“ earns $20 a month and board, and he lives in a cabin of one room
for which, with a garden, he pays $20 a year.” 4
0
Both men agree that “ in general,” as Warden reports it, cost of liv­
ing in the Middle West Territories “ is one-third cheaper than in the
eastern States.” In Kentucky “ provisions are cheap and in great
abundance. Board is $2 a week. The rent of a house containing
five good rooms is from $100 to $200 a year; a house for mechanics
from $20 to $50.”
Curiously enough, Warden seems to find living higher in the South
than in the East. “ Beef, mutton and pork were 12 cents per pound ”
in Richmond in 1815, but were “ in remote parts of the interior, about
half that price.” Board of workmen in Richmond was $3.50 to $5.50;
in towns of lesser importance, $2 to $2.50 per week. “ The rent of a
house at Richmond, not of the handsomest class, was $1,400 a year;
of a store, about one-third less.”
New Orleans led in high cost of board, according to Warden, who
says that “ board is about $1 a day; in some of the best houses, twice
that sum.” As early as 1808 “ the common price of French boarding
houses was $45 a month without supper or wine; American boarding
houses, $32.”
Retail prices in Washington, D. C., in 1818, were: “ Beef, 4%d. to
6d. [$0.06-$0.08] per pound; pork the same; potatoes, 3s. 4d. [$0.56] a
bushel; bread, 2d. [$0,031 & pound; milk, 5Kd. [$0.08] a quart; tea,
4/6 to 13s. 6d. [$0.75 to $2.25] per pound; coffee, 12Kd. to 16d. [$0.14
to $0.22] per pound.” Fuel wood was $4 a cord; shoes were $2.50 a
pair. Bricks cost $5.75 to $6.50 per thousand, and “ a house consist­
ing of three stories, 26 feet in front and 40 feet deep, completely
finished, costs from $4,000 to $6,000. A house of two stories of the
same length and breadth is valued at from $3,000 to $4,000.”
The following “ estimated expense of clothing a family of 6 ” for a
year is not for any specified locality, and unfortunately gives no hint
as to either quantity or quality of clothing purchasable on that
budget. It reads:
Man and wife, at $25.40 each____________________________ $50. 80
One child above 16_______________________________________ 25. 40
Three children under 16, at $23.95 each__________________
71. 85
148. 05

Clothing prices are obtainable to some extent for all periods, but
are not applicable in relation to wages, because practically always
these prices are quoted on a class of goods which workingmen did not
buy.
Living standards maintained on the basis of these cost of living data
differed as radically from present-day conditions as did the prices
themselves. Comment on the marked differences between living
w Warden, D. B.: A Statistical, Political, and Historical Account of the United States, Vol. II, p. 85.
40 B irkbeck, Morris: Notes on a Journey in America from the Coast of Virginia to the Territory of
Illinois, 1817.




26

PART 1.— FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1840

conditions of wage earners at the beginning of the nineteenth century
and those of wage earners of 1885 is made by Carroll D. Wright in his
History of Wages and Prices in Massachusetts, 1752-1860 (pp. 10-11):
Laborers at the beginning of the century had few of the comforts and con­
veniences now common in the poorest families. China, glassware, and carpets,
to say nothing of the numberless contrivances now in use for facilitating house­
hold labor, were then practically out of reach. Dwellings were warmed by open
fires of wood, while churches were not warmed at all. The iron cook stove for
economically and efficiently aiding in the culinary operations of the family had
not yet appeared. Anthracite coal, though for fifteen years in use on black­
smiths’ forges in the coal region, was unavailable for household purposes, and in
1806 the first freightage of a few hundred bushels was brought down to Phila­
delphia and there used experimentally, with indifferent success.
The artisan’s food was simple, often coarse, and in fact confined to the bare
necessities of life. The wide range of products which now enrich the working­
man’s table, brought to him from all the markets of the world by the modern
system of rapid transportation, were many of them unknown, or if known were
expensive luxuries only obtainable by the favored few.

McMaster, speaking of the food and clothing of the early American
workingman, says:
Among the fruits and vegetables of which no one had then even heard, are
cantaloupes, many varieties of peaches and pears, tomatoes and rhubarb, sweet
corn, the cauliflower, the egg plant, head lettuce, and okra.
If the food of an artisan would now be thought coarse, his clothes would be
thought abominable. A pair of yellow buckskin or leathern breeches, a checked
shirt, a red flannel jacket, a rusty felt hat cocked up at the corners, shoes of
neat’s skin set off with huge buckles of brass, and a leathern apron, comprised
his scanty wardrobe.4
1
41 History of the People of the United States, Vol..I. p. 97.




Chapter 3.— THE INDENTURE SYSTEM OF LABOR

It is undoubtedly because free labor, hired on a wage basis, was in
more general use in New England than in the other colonies that the
existing wage data for the colonial period are so largely confined to
New England. Conversely, probably the chief reason wage statistics
covering the other settlements are so rarely found is that a labor
system very different from employment for actual wages prevailed.
This system was that of*“ indentured” labor, generally referred to
as white servitude, which grew out of the demand for land and for
laborers in the colonies on one hand, and of the overpopulation and
extreme poverty of Europe on the other.
“ INDENTURED SERVANTS9 AND “ REDEMPTIONERS9
9
9

White servitude took two different forms—labor under a specific
contract called an indenture and under a less definite agreement
embodied in legislation or what came to be known as “ the custom of
the country.”
An indentured servant was one who came to the New World under a
contract either with a planter who imported him into the colony, or
with the shipowner or merchant who transported him for the purpose
of disposing of his services upon arrival. British law required that
all British subjects emigrating as servants should, before sailing,
execute indentures stipulating the number of years of service entered
into, and whether the labor to be performed was a definite trade or
any kind of work required by the other party to the contract. The
master, in consideration of his right to the servant’s labor, agreed to
provide food, clothing, and lodging for the stated period of time, and
generally to allow additional compensation in the nature of provisions,
clothing, and equipment upon the expiration of the term. This
allowance came to be known as “ freedom dues” and sometimes,
particularly in the beginning, included land. These indentures were
similar in form; in fact a printed form came into use as the system
developed. They were officially recorded at the port of embarkation,
and had the full force of law in both England and the colonies.
Redemptioners were as a rule Europeans who, desiring to emigrate
but having no means to pay for their own passage, permitted the
shippers to dispose of their services, in exchange for transportation,
under conditions controlled by colonial legislation or by “ the custom
of the country.”
The distinction is largely one of procedure, because “ when a
redemptioner had been sold, he had the legal status of an indentured
servant ” ^
IMPORTANCE OF SYSTEM

Basically the entire system of white servitude which developed in
the American colonies “ was only a modified form of the system of
apprenticeship which had been in vogue in England for several
i Herrick, Oheesman A.: White Servitude in Pennsylvania, p. 4, footnote.

61298°— 29------ 3



27

28

PART 1.'— FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1840

centuries preceding. The wide use of this system of labor during
the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries accounts in a great measure
for the readiness with which persons in later years entered into a
contract of servitude in order to reach the New World.” 2 # The
system is generally regarded as being economically necessary in its
time, and “ indentured servants have been long regarded as the chief
support of the American industrial system in the seventeenth cen­
tury,” 3 because—
No system of free labor could have been maintained in the colonies until a
comparatively late date. In the first place, the poor of Europe would not have
been able to come to America had they been obliged to pay for their passage in
advance. On the other hand, the planters could not afford to pay the wages of
free laborers. Even with the large supply of servants and convicts, free labor
was high and unprofitable. Laborers would not hire, except for very high wages,
when they could easily obtain new lands and become planters themselves.4

Accordingly, “ the economic importance of the servant in develop­
ing the resources of the colonies, especially the middle colonies, can
hardly be overestimated.” 5
DEVELOPMENT OF SYSTEM

Social, political, and economic conditions in Great Britain during
the seventeenth century produced unemployment and widespread
poverty which created the supply of available workers out of which
the indenture system evolved. Two conditions in the colonies pro­
duced the market for this supply. One was the desire for land—a
desire which could be met by the importation of servants under the
“ headright” system, which allowed each settler a certain number of
acres for each person brought into the colony; the other was the
acute need for labor to clear and develop the land after it had been
acquired. That the latter condition was the more compelling motive
is evidenced by the fact that the importation of servants was in no­
wise diminished by the later abolition of the headright system.
Inevitably, then, the transportation and sale of servants from
Europe to the colonies became an established business in the Old
World, and a form of servitude which could be bought and controlled
was adopted as the labor policy of the New World.
Actually most of the first colonists to settle Virginia were servants
of the exploiting company, and were bound to its service for a definite
period of time. Under the program of colonization carried out by
the Virginia company—
The position of an early planter was theoretically that of a member o f the
Company who was to receive in lieu of his services for a term of years his main­
tenance during that time, or his transportation and maintenance at the Com­
pany’s charge. For the adventure of his person, as well as for every subscrip­
tion of £12 10s., [$60.75] he received a bill of adventure which entitled him to
the proportion that would fall to a single share in the division of land and
profits. As a member he stood on an equal footing with all other members and
stockholders. Practically, however, he was, at least during the first twelve
years of the Company’s government, little better than a servant, manipulated
in the interest of the Company, held in servitude beyond a stipulated term, and
defrauded of his just share in the proceeds of the undertaking.6
2 McCormac, Eugene Irving: White Servitude in Maryland; Johns Hopkins University Studies in
Historical and Political Science, Series XXII, Nos. 3-4, p. 7.
3 Herrick, p. 10.
4 McCormac, pp. 33-34.
«Idem, p. 32.
6 Ballagh, James Curtis: White Servitude in the Colony of Virginia; Johns Hopkins University Studies
in Historical and Political Science, Series XIII, Nos. 6-7, 1895, p. 13.




CHAPTER 3.— THE INDENTURE SYSTEM OF LABOR

29

The policy thus introduced at the outset was adopted by these same
colonists when they were at last freed from their servile connection
with the company and became planters on their own account, and
“ there"gradually grew up after the year 1616 and the establishment
the part of societies of
transporting servants to
„
n the same conditions of
service as those made with the company. This developed, as property
began to be acquired by the planters generally, into the common
mode of transporting servants on contract by indenture for a limited
term of service, varying in individual cases according to the terms of
the contract.” 7
Importation of servants was largely an individual matter at first.
The planters who were in need of workers requested their represen­
tatives in England to send men out as needed, and the expenses of
the voyage were met by the employer. Gradually the procuring of
workers for the colonies grew into a business, and with the develop­
ment of a steady market and greater shipping facilities, merchants
and shippers began the transportation of servants, without previous
solicitation on the part of the planters, solely^ as a commercial enter­
prise. That it was a profitable undertaking is suggested by the fact
that “ a servant might be transported at a cost of from £6 to £8
[$29.16 to $38.88], and sold for £40 or £60 [$194.40 to $291.16]. ” 8
While in large part the business thus created was a legitimate form
of assisted immigration, it led to evils both in procuring and in trans­
porting which discredited the entire traffic. Systematic kidnaping
of children and adults was resorted to and carried on openly and
flagrantly in English seaports. The^ alarming proportions assumed
by this outrage finally compelled legislative action which influenced
the indenture system as a whole without, however, materially
affecting the kidnaping evil itself. The law requiring that inden­
tures be executed and recorded before sailing was a direct result of
the practice of kidnaping. This law probably checked the operations
of the organized kidnapers to some extent, but a few years later
merchants in the colonial trade appealed to Parliament for measures
to protect their legitimate business of supplying the colonies with
laborers. Parliament granted the request with an act making the
stealing and transporting of children and adults a crime punishable
by death “ without benefit of clergy.”
“ Not even this extreme penalty,” Bruce states, “ could put a stop
to the mischief. Ten years after this^ act became a law, it was said
that 10,000 persons^ were annually spirited away from the kingdom
by the arts of the kidnapers. ” 9
The operations, half a century later, of the agents, or “ newlanders,”
on the Continent, especially in the German Palatinate, were com­
parable in their methods of persuasion to the “ spirits,” or professional
kidnapers, of England during the seventeenth century. These new­
landers were employed by the shipping companies to secure redemptioners for the colonies, specifically for the Pennsylvania trade.
While perhaps physical force was not used by them, as it was by the
English kidnapers, some of the worst abuses which attached to the
7 Ballagh, p. 26.
8 Idem, p. 41.
• Bruce, Philip A.: Economic History of Virginia in the Seventeenth Century, Vol. I> p. 618.




30

PART 1.— FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1840

colonial labor system are attributable to the exploitations practiced
by these promoters. Both the “ spirits” and the “ newlanders” were
the prototypes of the emigrant runner who became an unpleasantly
familiar figure in the induced immigration of a much later period in
American history.
Exploitation of emigrating servants during the long waits for ships,
and on shipboard, and appalling conditions resulting from over­
crowding, insufficient food, and lack of sanitary provisions and pre­
cautions during the voyage, constituted additional evils which both
the home and the colonial governments tried in vain to control.
That evil, far from being checked, grew in proportion to the continued
increase in the importation of bound servants into the country, and
as a feature of assisted immigration, long outlived the indenture
system.
CHARACTER OF INDENTURED SERVANTS

The first laborers sent into the early settlements as indentured
servants came chiefly from the great class of unemployed and unem­
ployable unskilled workers and landless agricultural laborers— the
unassimilable surplus population of Great Britain. Undoubtedly
thoughout the history of the indenture system in all the colonies that
remained true of a preponderance of the servant class from the
British Isles and the Continent, in spite of the stigma of criminality
which later attached to the class. Their poverty, as Bruce points
out, was no obstacle to their emigration to a land in urgent need of
their services, particularly since that poverty was the result of social
and economic conditions of which they were merely victims, and
which “ could not destroy the great qualities inherent in the stock
from which they sprung.” 1
0
Transportation to the colonies was a legitimate means of diverting
an unwieldy overflow of population in order to mitigate the burdens
of the English poor law, and to that end it was principally employed.
Probably the comment made upon the character of those sent out in
one of the first shipments of indentured servants could have been
aptly applied to every shipment— “ They are like those who are left
behind, even of all sorts, better and worse.”
The “ worse” element increased, however, with the later practice
of sentencing criminals to transportation to the colonies as long-term
servants. Among the first convicts sent over in any numbers “ politi­
cal prisoners, or offenders against the government rather than against
the law, constituted the larger class.” 1 The political disturbances
1
of the seventeenth century sent many into exile as indentured servants
to the American colonists. Cromwell sent over 1,600 royalist
soldiers, and the practice continued with each change in political
domination until some time after the Restoration. The servants
who were in this category, “ far from always belonging to a low
station in their native country, frequently represented the most
useful and respectable elements in the kingdom.” 1
2
But the practice extended to the criminal class, and regardless of
constant protest and resistance on the part of the colonies, trans­
portation of “ King’s p >sengers,” as they were euphemistically
<
10 Bruce, Vol. I, p. 582.
11 Herrick, p. 116.
1 Bruce, Vol. I, p. 608.
3




CHAPTER 3.— THE INDENTURE SYSTEM OF LABOR

31

called, increased rapidly throughout the eighteenth century, and was
stopped only by the American Revolution.
The first recorded instance of the indenture of a criminal is in
Virginia in 1618, “ when a man convicted of manslaughter and sen­
tenced to be hanged was reprieved, 'because he was a carpenter and
the plantation needed carpenters.’ ” 1 English penal law, in the
3
middle of the seventeenth century, prescribed the death penalty
for more than 300 different crimes, among which “ arson of cornstacks” and “ killing of cattle” were included. Bruce suggests
that transportation was seized upon as “ a compromise on the part
of the English judges” with the “ pitiless rigidity of the criminal code
then in force.” 1
4
Early in the eighteenth century an act was passed providing “ that
in cases of minor offenses, grand or petit larceny, and other misde­
meanors for which benefit of clergy was allowed and upon which
whipping and burning in the hand were visited, criminals might be
sent to the American colonies for seven years. Similar offenders
who w ere in the workhouses were included. Where persons had been
convicted or stood attainted of any offense for which death might
be inflicted under the law, or where they were convicted of any crime
for which benefit of clergy was denied them, judges might commute
the sentences to transportation for 14 years in the plantations.” 1
5
Return to England before the expiration of the term to which they
were sentenced carried a mandatory infliction of the death penalty,
and completion of the tenn amounted to pardon.
The colonists opposed the introduction of convicts by every means
within their power, but their efforts were not successful. Pennsyl­
vania and Virginia controlled the matter to a considerable extent,
but the other settlements were unable to do so. Maryland especially
became “ the dumping-ground for English jails, and received more
convicts than any other plantation on the continent. A contem­
porary, in 1767, estimates the number imported into Maryland for
the preceding thirty years at 600 per annum.” 1
6
The attitude of the American settlers toward the practice is shown
in the many regulative and restrictive laws passed by the provincial
legislatures, and by the bitter attacks upon it in the early news­
papers. Franklin fought it vigorously in his paper and in England.
Feeling grew more intense as the policy persisted in spite of growing
opposition, and Herrick makes the point that “ the sending of convicts
rather than trade regulation led to early estrangement.” 1
7
Various estimates have been made of the entire number sent as
servants into the colonies. “ Between 1717 and 1775 the number sent
from Old Bailey alone is thought to be 10,000, and the whole number
from various places in Great Britain and Ireland at least 50,000.” 1
8
Most of these “ King’s passengers,” McCormac holds, “ were ordi­
nary criminals. Among them were men and women of all ages and
descriptions. They represented all crimes—if some of the offenses
may be so classed—from stealing a loaf of bread to sustain life, to
highway robbery. The worst criminals were seldom transported.” 1
9
13 Ballagh, p. 36.
Bruce, Vol. I, p. 603.
i* Herrick, p. 119.
*• McCormac, p. 98.
*7 Herrick, p 131.
m McCormac, p. 93, citing Butler, British Convicts Shipped to America—American Historical Keview,
Vol. II, p. 25; and Lang, Transportation and Colonization, pp. 37-38.
 95.
Idem, p.



32

PART 1.— FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1840

An inconsiderable element of the indentured servant class came
from the colonies themselves. These servants as a rule were either
persons who had been sentenced to servitude by the colonial courts
for misdemeanors, or who had voluntarily sold themselves to escape
imprisonment for debt.
M ETHODS OF SALE AND DISTRIBUTION

After the emigrating servant, whether indentured or kidnaped, a
free-willer or a convict, had survived the hardships and perils of the
voyage, he became merely merchandise when the ship reached its
American port. “ When a large proportion of servants on board of a
ship arriving in Virginia were consigned under indenture to planters
named in the bills of lading, the vessel either proceeded directly to
the landings of these planters, or to some general port where it could
be conveniently reached by them.” If, on the other hand, the cargo
of servants was the property of the shipmaster, to be sold in port by
him to the highest bidder, as was usually the case, “ it seems to have
been the habit of the planters residing in the neighborhood to go on
board and make purchases of servants. The most prominent citizens
did not disdain to buy in person in this manner.” 2
0
After the colonial press appeared, notices of the arrival of ships
having servants to be disposed of were frequent. These advertise­
ments gave the number, age, and sex of the human cargo, and fre­
quently listed various trades and callings as being available in the
person of those transported. The public was invited to inspect the
outfit on board ship, where sales would be conducted by the captain.
Redemptioners were supposed to be allowed a certain number of
days after arrival in port to obtain money with which to pay the
captain for their passage, but “ in practice they were usually sold
without indenture as soon as the ship arrived.” 2 One of the charges
1
against the shippers was that no time was allowed the newcomer to
make his own arrangements upon landing, but instead he was sum­
marily disposed of in payment of his debt to the ship, sometimes
with no real comprehension of the meaning of the transaction. The
manner in which the sale of the German redemptioners who poured
into Pennsylvania in the second quarter of the eighteenth century
was carried on is given minutely by a contemporary who was pre­
sumably familiar with the custom. “ The sale of human beings in
the market on board the ship,” he says, “ is carried on thus:”
Every day Englishmen, Dutchmen, and High-German people come from the
city of Philadelphia and other places, in part from a great distance, say 20, 30,
or 40 hours away, and go on board the newly arrived ship that has brought and
offers for sale passengers from Europe, and select among them the healthy persons
such as they deem suitable for their business, and bargain with them how long
they will serve for their passage money, which most of them are still in debt for.
When they have come to an agreement, it happens that adult persons bind them­
selves in writing to serve 3, 4, 5, or 6 years for the amount due by them, according
to their age and strength. But very young people, from 10 to 15 years, must
serve till they are 21 years old.
Many parents must sell and trade away their children like so many head of
cattle; for if their children take the debt upon themselves, the parents can leave
2 Bruce, Vol. I, p. 633.
®
McCormac, p. 43.




CEA.PTER 3.— THE INDENTURE SYSTEM OF LABOR

33

the ship free and unrestrained; but as the parents often do not know where
and to what people their children are going, it often happens that such parents
and children, after leaving the ship, do not see each other again for many years,
perhaps no more in all their lives.
When people arrive who can not make themselves free, but have children
under 5 years, the parents can not free themselves by them, for such children
must be given to somebody without compensation to be brought up, and they
must serve for their bringing up until they are 21 years old. Children from 5
to 10 years, who pay half price for their passage, viz, 30 florins [$12], must
likewise serve for it until they are 21 years of age; they cannot, therefore, redeem
their parents by taking the debt of the latter upon themselves. But children
above 10 years can take part of their parents’ debt upon themselves.
A woman must stand for her husband if he arrives sick, and in like manner
a man for his sick wife, and take the debt upon herself or himself, and thus
serve five to six years not alone for his or her own debt, but also for that of the
sick husband or wife. But if both are sick? such persons are sent from the ship
to the sick-house (hospital), but not until it appears probable that they will find
no purchasers. As soon as they are well again they must serve for their passage,
or pay if they have the means.
It often happens that whole families, husband, wife, and children, are separated
by being sold to different purchasers, especially when they have not paid any
part of their passage money.
When a husband or wife has died at sea, when the ship has made more than
half of her trip, the survivor must pay or serve not only for himself or herself,
but also for the deceased.
When both parents have died over half-way at sea, their children, especially
when they are young and have nothing to pawn or to pay, must stand for their
own and their parents’ passage, and serve till they are 21 years old.2
2

Prices varied according to age, skill, length of service, and other
considerations, but “ the average price for adults seems to have been
about £15 to £20 [$72.90 to $97.20],” while “ convicts were regularly
sold by the contractors at £8 to £20 [$38.88 to $97.20] each.” 2 The
3
price for which redemptioners were sold in Pennsylvania “ was grad­
ually advanced during the eighteenth century” and as the price
increased “ charges of passage were increased,” 2 so that whatever
4
might be the market value of a man's services, the shippers put in
a claim for his transportation of substantially that amount.
Opposition to the policy of transportation of criminals, and preju­
dice against convicts as servants, made their sale difficult. Colonies
passed laws requiring ship captains having convicts for sale to declare
them such, stating the nature of the offense and the length of the sen­
tence. Virginia and Pennsylvania fixed duties upon transported
convicts. The mother country could abrogate these legislative
restrictions in its determination to foist its outcasts upon the colonies,
but it had no such advantage when it came to the actual sale to the
planters of a commodity which they did not want. Devious means
had to be resorted to for disguising the true status of the convicts.
One story is told of a vessel which landed at Annapolis, Md., carrying
“ sixty-six indentures signed by the Mayor of Dublin, and twenty-two
wigs,” the purpose of the wigs being “ to set off as decent servants”
a shipment of convicts.2
5
As settlement moved back from the seaboard a new business grew
up analogous to that of servant shipping. Dealers would buy up
servants in blocks at the port of entry and take them inland for sale
in the new settlements. The trade practices of these dealers seem to
22 Mittleberger, Gottlieb: Journey to Pennsylvania, 1750-1754, pp. 26-28.
28 McCormac, p. 42.
24 Herrick, p. 202.
Annals of Philadelphia, quoted by Herrick, p. 118.




34

PART 1.— FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1840

have earned for them their suggestive name of “ soul drivers” and were
in fact not unlike the better-known tactics of their contemporaries,
the slave traders. The back country was depended upon largely to
furnish the market for the criminal class which the more experienced
buyers in the old settlements refused.
LEGAL STATUS OF SERVANTS

A servant became the property of his employer, or master, as soon
as the sale of his services was effected. He could at any time during
liis servitude be resold for the remainder of his term, without his own
consent. In Pennsylvania, however, the law did not permit his
removal from the colony after resale without his consent.
The legal character of the institution of white servitude was defi­
nitely fixed in all the colonies and was practically identical in all in
which it was the predominating labor system. An indenture executed
in England covering the term and kind of service, the obligations of
both master and servants, and the remuneration to be paid, was re­
garded as a legal contract enforceable by the colonial courts. As
the practice of sending “ free-willers ” into the country without con­
tract grew, the abuses inherent therein were very soon checked by
legislation, particularly with respect to the length of service and the
“ freedom dues,” that is, the amount payable at the expiration of the
term. Maryland fixed the term of service for servants sold without
indenture at four years for males 18 years of age and over and females
12 years of age and over. Males under 18 were to serve until they
were 24; females under 12 were bound for seven years.2 In Pennsyl­
6
vania servitude was for five years for persons 17 years of age and over,
and until the age of 22 for those under 17,2 and Virginia, after frequent
7
changes, settled upon a term of five years for persons 19 years of age
and over, and one extending through the twenty-fourth year for those
under 19.2 Longer terms could not be enforced except as punish­
8
ment, and then only as penalties inflicted by law or court order.
To protect the servant against manipulation in the matter of age,
the laws required that masters present their servants in court within
three months to record their ages, if known; if ages were not known,
they were to be “ adjudged” by the court and recorded. In the
southern colonies a master’s failure to comply with this regulation
shortened the servant’s term one year. Later a fine was imposed as
an additional penalty.
Whether the servant was bound by an indenture specific in its terms,
or merely by the custom of the country, “ he had a legal as well as
moral right to expect that provision would be made for his comfort­
able existence,” 2 and, according to a contemporary, “ the laws of
9
Virginia take great care for the good usage of servants as to necessi­
ties, Diet and Clothes.” 3 Virginia law also provided that a sick or
0
disabled servant “ could claim support and medical attention at his
master’s charge during servitude without any reciprocal right on the
part of the master therefor. The master was prevented by the
liability of his goods and chattels to seizure from avoiding this obliga­
26 McCormac, p. 44.
2 Herrick, p. 291, citing laws.
7
28 Bruce, Vol. II, p. 5, citing Hening’s Statutes, Vol. II, p. 240,
» Idem, Vol. II, p. 5.
80 Oldinixon, John: British Empire in America (1735), Vol. I, p. 426.




CHAPTER 3.— THE INDENTURE SYSTEM OF LABOR

35

tion by freeing his servant and throwing him upon the parish.” 3
1
Moreover, if the servant had become sick or disabled “ in consequence
of the meagreness of the provision made for his comfort, or as the
result of punishment to which he might have been subjected, he was
to be taken away from his master, * * * turned over to the
church wardens of the parish, and until the expiration of his term
supported at the expense of his original employer,” 3 if his condition
2
did not permit resale.
Legally servants could always bring charges against their masters
for mistreatment, violation of contract, and the like, but they were
themselves subject to punishment if they failed to prove their case.
“ While there were laws granting to servants the right to bring their
masters to justice for any cruel or unjust treatment,” Geiser finds
“ few occasions on which this right was exercised,” 3 and Herrick
3
agrees that “ servants did not find it easy to get their rights.” 3 On
4
the other hand, Bruce maintains that so far as legal safeguards went
the servant was afforded “ absolute security in the enjoyment of every
comfort that he could reasonably claim,” and “ if in any case he
suffered, it was to be attributed to his own supineness and not to any
deficiency in the law prescribing the remedy,” 3 and still another
5
student of the system asserts that “ the courts carefully guarded his
contract and effected speedy redress of his grievances.” 3 However,
6
both of the writers just quoted were referring specifically to the early
history of the system in Virginia, before it had become the complicated
labor problem which it was in Pennsylvania in the time about which
the two previously quoted authorities are writing. Every history of
the system w
rhich has been consulted gives instances of judicial
decisions favorable to the servants, particularly in the important
item of freedom dues.
EXTENDED TERMS AS PUNISHMENT

Nevertheless the laws themselves afforded almost unlimited oppor­
tunities for injustice and exploitation by providing for additional
time in servitude as a penalty for countless infractions and misde­
meanors. In its practical application, extension of time as a legal
theory worked two ways. It was granted to the employer as com­
pensation for damages in his claim against a servant who broke laws
dealing solely with the master and servant relationship, and it was
also granted even in criminal cases where the employer paid in money
a fine assessed against a servant for violation of general laws having
no connection with his status as servant.
Numerous laws were designed merely to protect the master in his
right to his servant’s time and labor. Chief among these were those
prohibiting trading with a servant without his master’s consent;
prohibiting marriage of servants, even to free persons, without such
consent; and the laws relating to runaway servants. Offenses
against all of these laws were punished by extension of the period of
servitude, the amount of added time being in some instances fixed by
Ballagh, p. 64.
*3 Bruce, Vol. II, p. 12-13.
33 Geiser, Karl Frederick: Redemptioners and Indentured Servants in the Colony and Commonwealth
of Pennsylvania, p. 103.
* Herrick, p. 278.
m Brace, Vol. II, p. 11.
»* Ballagh, p. 44;




36

PART 1.— FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1840

statute, in others determined by the court. Marriage between serv­
ants without the consent of their masters was penalized by an addi­
tional year of service. If a servant married a free person the latter
must either pay a prohibitive fine to the employer, or serve him for
one year. If a woman servant gave birth to an illegitimate child her
time of service might be extended from one to two years, and in some
colonies the children were placed at the disposal of the parish until
they were 31 years of age. In Maryland “ masters were compelled
by law to maintain bastard children of their women servants. If the
father could be found, he was held responsible for the support of the
child; if not, the mother must repay the master by servitude or other­
wise.” 3 The Virginia law did not permit extended time in case the
7
master was the father of the servant’s child. Instead, the mother
became the property of the parish for two years following the expi­
ration of her term of service.
The problem of the runaway servant grew increasingly worse as
the system developed, and resulted in stringent laws which restricted
the liberties even of freemen, particularly those whose servitude had
recently ended. Some colonies required passes of every person found
outside his own immediate neighborhood, and if such pass or similar
evidence of good faith were not produced on demand, the traveler
was considered a runaway servant and treated accordingly. Often
in such cases the person taken prisoner was really a runaway. If
after due notice he was not claimed, he could be sold again into servi­
tude to pay the costs of his apprehension and maintenance.
Extensions of service ranging from double the amount of lost time
to 10 days for each day’s absence were imposed after a servant was
recovered. At first the county bore the cost of pursuit and capture.
Later that was assessed against the servant, which, in actual practice,
meant that the master paid the money cost and then recovered it
from the servant in the form of extended servitude in addition to
that already laid against him for lost time. In this way a servant’s
time could be so extended as practically to double the legal limit of
an indenture.
The following bill against a runaway servant, dated Philadelphia,
July 17, 1769,3 illustrates the manner in which the money cost of
8
capture was assessed against the runaway and in turn translated into
a time value which was added to the period of servitude. The bill
reads:
£

s.

To Messrs. Fearis and LeTeliene for one day which they
spent looking for you-----------------------------------------------------10
T o their ferriage twice, 1/4, & expences 1/1 (17.3 and 14.30) _
2
T o advertising in Gazette, Journal and Chronicle--------------15
T o ditto in the York papers_______________________________
5
T o 100 handbills at Y ork__________________________________
7
To John LeTeliene for 10 days which he lost in search of you
at York, at 3/4 per day (44 cents)_______________________ 1 13
T o ditto for cash which you took away from him__________
17
T o ditto for his gold brooch which he lost when he was look­
ing for you _____________________________________________
17
T o cash expended by LeTeliene in going to New York, while
he was there and on his way back-----------------------------------3
T o horse hire for ditto, 10 days at 5/ (66.6 cents)__________ 2 10
37 McCormac, p. 70.
3* In Logan Papers, Vol. X, Historical Society of Pennsylvania.




d.

10 ($1.43)
5 ($0.32)
($2.00)
($0,666)
6 ($1.00)
4 ($4.44)
($2.27)
($2.27)
($8.00)
($6.67)

37

CHAPTER 3.— THE INDENTURE SYSTEM OP LABOR
T o Reward, Charges and Prison fees at Carlisle, as per R ob't
Semple's account_______________________________________ 7
T o cash paid waggoner for bringing you home_____________ 2
To time lost from the 16 July, the day you ran away, till the
21st of August, following, the day you were brought back,
is 1 monthe & 6 days.

£

s.

6
5

d.

($19.49)
($6.00)

Under the last item entered in the bill is a series of calculations,
unintelligible now without some key by which to interpret them, but
which seemed to work out in an orderly fashion to the closing nota­
tion on the bill: “ To serve beyond his indented time, fifteen months.”
WORKING CONDITIONS AND SOCIAL STATUS

To give an accurate idea of the actual condition of the indentured
servant class is, as Geiser emphasizes, “ no easy task, because there
are almost as many different opinions as there are contemporary
accounts.” 3 Moreover, these contemporary accounts develop not
9
only different opinions but distinctly contradictory evidence. One
of the earliest records is subject to considerable discount because it
was admittedly written by a pamphleteer for the purpose of attracting
servants to Maryland. On the other hand, he is writing of a day
before the system had assumed the formidable character it later
developed. As Alsop sees it, the life of the indentured servants is a
pleasant, easy one :
Five days and a half in the summer weeks is the allotted time that they work
in; for two months when the sun predominates in the highest pitch of his heat
they claim an ancient and customary privilege, to repose themselves three hours
a dav within the house, and this is undeniably granted to them that work in the
field.4
0

A Virginia contemporary gives a similar account:
The labour servants are put to is not so hard nor of such continuance as Hus­
bandmen nor Handicraft are kept at in England. I said little or nothing is done
in the winter time. None ever work before sunrise nor after sunset. In the
summer they rest, sleep or exercise themselves five houres in the heat of the day.
Saturday afternoon is always their own, the olde Holidays are observed, and the
Sabbath spent in good exercise.4
1

Half a century later an early historian declares that so far as con­
ditions in Virginia are concerned “ all the labour of the country,
which consists chiefly in Tilling, Manuring the Ground, sawing and
planting tobacco, is so easy that as hard work as ’tis represented to
be, the Day Labourers in England are much the greater slaves, if
hard Work and hard Living are signs of Slavery.” 4
2
With the passage of another half century the picture grows less
attractive, as evidenced by the available contemporary record.
Servants in Maryland “ are strained to the utmost to perform their
allotted labors; and from a prepossession in many cases too justly
founded, they are supposed to be receiving the just reward which is
due to repeated offenses. There are doubtless many exceptions to
this observation, yet, generally speaking, they groan beneath a worse
than Egyptian bondage.” 4 Mittelberger, who in 1750 was as frankly
3
»» Geiser, p. 102.
40 Alsop, George: Character of the Province of Maryland, p. 57.
u Hammond, John: Leah and Kachel (in Force's Tracts, Vol. III).
42 Oldmixon, Vol. I, p. 426.
43 Eddis, William: Letters from America (1775), p. 70.




38

PART 1.— FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1840

writing to discourage servant immigration as AIsop in 1650 was to
promote it, finds that—
Work and labor in this new and wild land are very hard and manifold, and
many a one who came here in his old age must work very hard to his end for his
bread. I will not speak of young people. Work mostly consists in cutting wood,
felling oak-trees, rooting out, or as they say, clearing large tracts of forests.
Such forests, being cleared, are then laid out for fields and meadows. From the
best hewn wood, fences are made around the new fields; for there all meadows,
orchards and fruit-fields are surrounded and fenced with planks made of thicklysplit wood, laid one above the other, as in zigzag lines, and within such enclosures
horses, cattle and sheep are permitted to graze. Our Europeans, who are pur­
chased, must work hard, for new fields are constantly laid out, and so they learn
that stumps of oak-trees are in America certainly as hard as in Germany. How­
ever hard he may be compelled to work in the fatherland, he will surely find it
quite as hard, if not harder, in the new country.4
4

For an unbiassed estimate of the actual situation, “ the middle
ground” between the extreme viewpoints taken by those who saw
the system in operation “ seems to be nearer the truth,” McCormac
thinks, and—
It is quite probable that in the early years the servant differed little socially
from the master whom he served. Both were ignorant and lived the happy-golucky life of the frontiersman. Many masters were themselves only freed ser­
vants. As society advanced the position of the servant did not advance with it,
but rather deteriorated. The large importation of convicts and fugitives from
justice and the mingling of servants with slaves tended to degrade the whole
servant class.4
5
FREEDOM DUES

In relation to a wage study, the crux of the indenture system lies
of course in the actual remuneration, over and above maintenance
for the indenture period, which a servant could claim. Fortunately,
unlike the elements of treatment and social status, the matter of
freedom dues is quite definitely fixed, at least in terms of its day and
time, however inconvertible those terms may be. Whether em­
bodied definitely in an indenture executed in Europe years before they
fell due, or in the laws of the colony prevailing at the time, colonial
courts saw to it that freedom dues were granted the servant as a
right. Laws and judicial decisions might lean strongly in the direc­
tion of the master class in all other particulars, but all the evidence
indicates that the servant held the whip hand in the collection of his
promised remuneration when his term of servitude was ended.
The “ headright,” which gave planters a tract of land, usually 50
acres but varying at different times and in different colonies, for each
servant brought over, gave rise to the belief that the land thus
obtained reverted to the servant when he became a freedman. That
was true in only one colony, and there only for a period of little more
than 20 years. The Maryland General Assembly in 1640 enumerated
as one item of the legal freedom dues “ fifty acres of land, five
whereof at least to be plantable.” 4 This was considered “ a great
6
burden by the planters, as it cancelled in great measure the profits
derived from the labor of the servants,” and was repealed in 1663,
after which “ the freed servant could no longer require land from his
former master unless it was expressly stipulated in the indenture.” 4
7
Hammond, in his tract, “ Leah and Eachel, or the Two Fruitful!
Sisters, Virginia and Mary-land,” warns against the prevailing “ old
44 Mittelberger, pp. 29-31.
46 McCormac, p. 72.




4* Maryland State Archives, Vol. I, p. 97.
47 McCormac, pp. 23-24.

CHAPTER 3.— THE INDENTURE SYSTEM OF LABOR

39

delusion” that land is granted a servant “ according to the Custome
of the Countrey,” for, he says, “ their is no land accustomary due to
the servant, but to the Master, and therefore that servant is unwise
that will not dash out that custom in his covenant and make that
due of Land absolutely his own.”
Servants sometimes acquired land as part of their freedom dues,
but except under the Maryland provision quoted, its acquisition was
a legal right only when named in the indenture. Land was avail­
able to freedmen in the proprietary colonies by application to the
governor, but that was uncleared land which had not been taken up.
Certain other provisions for the freedmen were uniformly made
either by contract or by law, although details varied with time and
place. The Pennsylvania law of 1700 is typical. It provided that—
Every servant that shall faithfully serve four years or more shall, at the
expiration of their servitude, have a discharge, and shall be duly clothed with
two complete suits of apparel, whereof one shall be new, and shall also be fur­
nished with one axe, one grubbing hoe and one weeding hoe, at the charge of the
master or mistress.4
8

Ten to fifteen bushels of Indian corn and a smaller amount of wheat
were frequently included, and the regulations of New Jersey substi­
tuted horses for the hoes. A Maryland law of 1715 specifies what
constituted a complete suit of apparel: “ 1 new Hat; 1 good suit
(coat and breeches) either Kersey or broadcloth; 1 new shirt of white
linen, 1 pair of French Fall shoes and stockings” for the men, and
“ Waste Coat and Petty coat of new half-thick or Penistone; a new
shift of white linen (Two Suits); Shoes and stockings; a blue apron
and Two caps of white linen” for the women.4
T
9
Freedom dues seem to have been wholly a matter of agreement
between master and servant in New England. In the Bay Colony
these agreements were recorded in and enforced by the General
Court. Boston's first lawyer executed an indenture calling for
“ double apparrell and five pounds [$24.30] in money” 5 at the end
0
of seven years. In another instance he prosecuted a case for a ser­
vant whose indenture entitled him to “ wages of foure pounds [$19.44]
by the yeare and a pigg to be payd at every yeare’s end and in the
end of the terme [six years] to have a Convenient lott for his services.
He [the master] promised also the said Servant three suits of apparell
and six shirts.” 5 A money consideration ranging from £3 to £10
1
($14.58 to $48.60) appears in practically all of the indentures which
Lechford drew up, for apprentices as well as for servants, and in
those recorded in the proceedings of the Massachusetts Bay Colony
General Court.
In the later history of the system, the value of the articles called
for in the freedom dues was often given in cash. The last law passed
in North Carolina dealing with freedom dues provided for “ £3
[$7.50] proclamation money and one suit of clothes.” 5
2
« Pennsylvania Statutes at Large, II, 54-56, cited in Herrick, p. 293.
« Geiser, p. 72, footnote, citing A Complete Collection of the Laws of Maryland, 1692-1725, Annapolis,
1727.
MLechford’s Manuscript Note Book, p. 76.
« Idem, p. 251.
w Bassett, John Spencer: Slavery and Servitude in the Colony of North Carolina, Johns Hopkins Uni­
versity Studies in Historical and Political Science, 14th Series, 1896, Nos. IV-V, p. 84.




40

PART 1.— FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1840
APPRENTICES AND CHILDREN

The apprenticing of children to trades followed in practically all
particulars the indenture system, but there were two marked differ­
ences—the length of service and the fact that an apprentice could
not be assigned, or transferred to a master other than the original
contracting party, except in case of the death of the master. Studies
of the old colonial labor system make almost no distinction between
actual apprenticeship and the indenturing of children, so that it is
difficult now 16 draw the line. The record is clearer in New England
than in other colonies, probably because bound servitude was less
general among workers other than apprentices, and more trades were
practiced.
As a general rule an-apprenticeship lasted for seven years, unless
the child was very young when bound. In that case the term ex­
pired when the boy became 21. Apprentice contracts drawn up by
Lechford generally called for “ double apparel” and a money pay­
ment at the end of the term, although there is considerable varia­
tion. Two contracts binding boys to carpenters specify a 7-vear
term; in one case the boy is to have “ an ewe kidd at the end of
foure yeares if he doe his duty, and £5 [$24.30] at the end of the
terme, meate, drinke & Clothes & Double Apparell when he goes
forth” ; 5 the other gives no terms for the apprentice period, but calls
3
for one additional year’s work as a journeyman, with “ wages for
that year £8 [$38.88].” 6 Suggestive of some of the curious provi­
4
sions in apprentice contracts is one from Windsor, Conn., which
obligates the master to teach the boy “ to write and read English
and cast accounts, and be at the cost and use his best endeavors to
get his scurf head cured. Also to learn him the trade of a cooper,
and at the end of his term to let him go free and give him double
apparel, a musket, sword and bandoliers, and 20s [$4.86].” 5
5
An apprenticeship indenture recorded in Roxbury, Mass., about
1678, under which the master was to teach the “ art, trade, mistery
and science” of shoemaking, is typical of the general terms of these
contracts, traces of which are still found in apprentice indentures:
The said Josaph shall truly and faithfully serve, his Counsels lawful and hon­
est obay, his secretts shall keep, hurt to his master he shall not doe nor consent
to be done, at unlawful games he shall not play, nor from his masters buisness
absent himselfe by night or day, his masters goods he shall not wast nor imbezzell, nor them lend without his masters Consent. Taverns and Ale Howses he
shall not frequent except about his masters buisness there to be done but as
a true and faithful servant ought to behave himselfe in word and deed during the
said terme, * * * and at the end of six years to give their said apprentice
doubell apparell, one suit for the Lord’s day and one suit for the working days
meet and comely for one of his degree and calling.5
6

The contract between a Virginia planter and a boy whom he im­
ported as an apprentice in 1659 is even more specific:
This identure made the 6th Day of June in the year of our Lord Christ 1659,
witnesseth, that Bartholomew Clarke ye son of John Clarke of the city of Canter­
bury, Sadler, of his own liking and with ye consent of Francis Plumber of ye
City of Canterbury, Brewer, hath put himself apprentice unto Edward Rowzie
53 Lechford, Thomas: Manuscript Notebook, 1638-1641 (published by American Antiquarian Society,
1885, p. 151).
« Idem, p. 153.
65 Weeden, William B.: Economic and Social History of New England, 1620-1789, Vol. I, p. 84, quoting
Stiles, Windsor, p. 146.
w Idem, Vol. I, p. 274, citing Drake's Roxbury, p. 64.




CHAPTER 3.— THE INDENTURE SYSTEM OF LABOR

41

of Virginia, planter, as an apprentice with him to dwell from ye day of ye date
mentioned above unto ye full term of four years from thence next ensuing fully
to be complete and ended, all which said term the said Bartholomew Clarke well
and faithfully the said Edward Rowzie as his master shall serve, his secrets keep,
his commands just and lawful he shall observe, and fornication he shall not
commit, nor contract matrimony with any woman during the said term, he shall
not do hurt unto his master nor consent to ye doing of any, but to his power shall
hinder and prevent ye doing o f any; at cards, dice or any unlawful games he
shall not play; he shall not waste the goods of his said master nor lend them to
anybody without his master’s consent; he shall not absent himself from his said
master’s service day or night, but as a true and faithful servant shall demean
himself, and the said Edward Rowzie in ye mystery, art, and occupation of a
planter which now * * * the best manner he can the said Bartholomew
shall teach or cause to be taught, and also during said term shall find and allow
his apprentice competent meat, drink, apparel, washing, lodging and all other
things fitting for his degree and in the end thereof, fifty acres of land to be laid
out for him, and all other things which according to the custom of the country
is or ought to be done.5
7

Suggestive also of a later day is the complaint that journeymen
took their own sons on as apprentices and did not carry them through
the full term. Boston undertook to control that condition by a rule
that no one could set up as an independent journeyman or mechanic
unless he was 21 years of age and had served seven years under a
master workman.
The custom developed during the eighteenth century of giving
both apprentices and indentured children six weeks’ schooling
throughout the year. Pennsylvania law made that compulsory in
181°.
The indenture system was widely used as a means of emptying
European orphan asylums and almshouses. The vice director of a
Dutch colony on the Delaware River wrote thus to his commissioners
in Holland in 1658:
The children sent over from the almshouse have safely arrived and were in
sufficient request so that all are bound out with one and the other; the eldest
for 2 years, the others, and the major portion, for 3 years, and the youngest for 4
years, earning 40, 60, and 80 guilders [$16, $24, and $32] during the above period,
and at the end of the term will be fitted out in the same manner as they are at
present. Please continue to send others from time to time but if possible none
ought to come less than 15 years of age, and somewhat strong.5
8

The Virginia Company dispatched 100 poor and orphaned children
to the colony in 1619, and the following year, at the instance of the
company, the city of London sent an additional hundred. Virginia
planters preferred children as servants, not only because they were
“ more easily controlled, but their terms continued for a greater
length of time than those of persons who had reached maturity, and
in consequence their masters were not called upon to supply their
places so often nor so soon.” 6
9
The custom of indenturing pauper and orphan children, together
with the practice of promiscuous kidnaping of children for trans­
portation as servants, resulted in the presence in the colonies of a
very considerable number of young people. “ So great was the
demand for these youthful laborers that in one year alone, 1627,
fourteen or fifteen hundred children who had been gathered up in
different parts of England were sent to Virginia.” 6
0
87 Brace, Vol. II, pp. 1-2, footnote, citing Records of Rappahanock County, 1664-1673, p. 21.
88 Documents Relative to Colonial History of New York. Vol. II, pp. 51-52.
» Brace, Vol. I, p. 595.
60Idem, p. 612.




42

PART 1.— FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1840

New England children were subject to being bound out to servi­
tude by court action if in the opinion of the authorities parents were
too poor or unfit to care for them in thei manner which the authorities
considered proper and necessary. Apparently this practice went on
to an extent that would seem quite appalling now.
It would be interesting to know to what extent throughout our
history, from the time that 100 children landed in Virginia in 1619,
to the time nearly 200 hundred years later, when Slater opened his
cotton mill with nine small children, the work of a very young coun­
try was really carried on by its very young inhabitants.
FREEDMEN

Information regarding the indentured servant after he was freed is
almost wholly lacking, either because students of the system stop at
the dividing line, or because, as one of them says, the freed servant
almost immediately “ was merged into the great body of freemen,
and all traces of his former occupations were soon obliterated.” 6 Out
1
of the little historical material which has survived, Ballagh finds that
“ enough remains to give decisive proof of a very rapid evolution of
servants when free, and to show that they did not continue as a class
at all.” 6
2
In the southern colonies the evidence seems strong that to a large
extent freedmen became either tenants or overseers on the great
tobacco plantations. “ An overseer was usually allowed one-seventh
of the calves, foals, grain, and tobacco, and one-half of the pigs
raised on the plantation. If he were thrifty he was soon able to
stock a plantation of his own. Many thus became men of wealth
and good standing.” 6
3
Two very early records indicate that the freedman was not always
an asset to the community. Governor Winthrop, of the Massachus­
etts Bay Colony, had an indentured servant who, when he was out
of his time, “ took great wages above others, in ready money only.
In a year or a little more, he had scraped together about £25 [$121.50],
and then returned with his prey to England.” 6 One of “ the Reasons
4
and Causes Why and How New Netherlands is So Decayed,” in the
opinion of Junker Van der Cook “ and Ten others,” is that “ it seems
as if from the first the Company sought to stock this land with their
own employees, which was a great mistake, for when their time was
out they returned home, taking nothing with them except a little in
their pockets and a bad name for the country.” 6 Josselyn, who
5
found in his journeys to New England much to lament about, decries
the fact that “ Servants, which are for the most part English, when
they are out of their time will not work under half a crown [61 cents]
a day, and for less I do not see how they can, by reason of the dearness
of clothing. If they hire them by the year they pay them 14 or 15
pound, yea, 20 pound [$68.04-$72.90-$97.20] at the year’s end in
corn, cattle and fish.”
Herrick quotes the pastor of a Lutheran church in Philadelphia as
reporting in 1746 “ that while the congregation over which he presided
« Geiser, p. 109.
« Ballagh, p. 81.
« Bassett, p. 85.
•* Winthrop's Journal, quoted in Weeden, Vol. I, p. 179.
MHart, Albert Bushnell, ed.: American History Told by Contemporaries, Vol. I, p. 532.




CHAPTER 3.— THE INDENTURE SYSTEM OF LABOR

43

was one of the largest it was also one of the poorest; its membership
was of those who were temporary residents paying off the debt of their
passage, and when this was paid they moved inland, to secure property
for themselves.” 6 Another evidence of the success of servants as
6
citizens is contained in a letter which an Irish immigrant wrote from
his new home in New York to his old home in Ireland, in 1737, in
which he speaks with great enthusiasm of the opportunities in the
New World, and declares that “ there are Servants here out of Ireland
and have served their time here who are now Justices of the Piece.” 6
7
Bruce finds “ many evidences that it was common for servants upon
the close of their terms to earn a subsistence in the character of hired
laborers,” 6 and Geiser says it was not uncommon in Pennsylvania
8
for a newly liberated servant to enter into a second indenture.6
9
For the best of the servant class “ the redemptioner’s school of
experience was severe, but it fitted him for the exacting demands of
claiming a wilderness, and if health were not broken, those who com­
pleted indentures were well prepared to carve out a fortune in the
New World.” 7 For the worst, “ the convict class disappeared by
0
destroying itself,” 7 since the criminals “ frequently meet here with
1
the end they deserved at Home” 7 and, according to Benjamin Frank­
2
lin, were “ commonly advanced to the gallows.”
DECLINE OF SYSTEM

The bulk of the indentured servant traffic flowed into Virginia,
Maryland, and Pennsylvania, and the system was economically more
vital to those colonies than to the others. The economic value of the
indenture system became markedly! different as between the tobaccogrowing South and industrialJBssi^yJvania, however. This is shown
in the developments of the firatdte3l(irfi%e eighteenth century, during
which the system dedimdfdn ths^iaoiaiion colonies almost as rapidly
as it grew in Pennsylvania^aaicbiiJ thfe fact that it lasted in the latter
colony nearly a century after it had become outgrown in Maryland
and Virginia.
In the South white servitude went down “ before the black man?
s
superior endurance, docility, and labor capacity,” 7 and from the
3
planter’s viewpoint more important still, the black man’s inability to
escape from a servitude which, far from being limited to a few years
of his own life, outlived him and descended to his children.
“ One of the most serious drawbacks to the employment of inden­
tured laborers,” Bruce points out, “ was the inevitable frequency of
change attending this form of service. A planter might introduce a
hundred willing laborers, who might prove invaluable to him during
the time covered by their covenants, but in a few years, when expe­
rience had made them efficient, and their bodies had become thoroughly
enured to the change of climate, they recovered their freedom.” 7
4
Their places then had to be filled again, involving a repeated outlay
««Herrick, p. 181.
67 Letter from James Murray, in Memorial History of New York City, Vol. II, p. 203.
68 Bruce, Vol. II, p. 47.
69 Geiser, p. 75.
w Herrick, p. 270.
7 Idem, p. 140.
1
73 Jones, Hugh: Present State of Virginia (1724)—Extract in Documentary History of American Indus­
trial Society, Vol. 1, p. 339.
73 Bassett, p. 77.
74 Bruce, Vol. II, p. 58.


61298°—29----- i


44

PART 1.— FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1840

of money to secure new hands, in addition to that expended in freedom
dues for those whom they succeeded.
Indentured labor on the vast tobacco plantations became too
expensive, as hired free labor had always been. Even with the great
difference in the initial expenditure, the negro slave was cheaper than
the white servant, and inevitably supplanted him. The same condi­
tions of economic demand and a ready market which had produced
traffic in white servants operated to develop the slave trade suffi­
ciently to accommodate that market, and there was the added advan­
tage that the natural increase in negro population in the colonies
created a native supply.
The Carolinas and Georgia reacted immediately to the experience
of the older colonies and adopted slavery from the start. White
servitude never got a real foothold in these newer plantation colonies,
and by the middle of the eighteenth century the system was practically
at an end. throughout the South.
Conditions resulting from a single-crop agricultural industry thus
destroyed white servitude and established negro slavery in the tobacco
growing colonies. ^ Industrial conditions in Pennsylvania produced
exactly the opposite result, because “ the diversified production and
industry which prevailed in Pennsylvania required a higher order of
labor than that^ of slaves.” 7 Hence “ the introduction of white
5
servants under indenture went hand in hand with the industrial
progress of the country.” 7 Pennsylvania began manufacturing from
6
her immense store of raw material almost at once, and “ after 1730
was regarded as one of the leading* industrial and commercial settle­
ments of America. ^ It was in part to satisfy the labor demand of an
industrial community with diversified production that the indentured
labor system assumed such proportions.” 7
7
Indentured servants in the southern colonies were predominantly
agricultural laborers. Except for the large influx of German farmers
this seems not to have been true in Pennsylvania. Herrick gives
a detailed analysis of advertisements of servants for sale and finds
that “ almost invariably” the dealer “ made the claim that they
were either all mechanics and tradesmen, or that tradesmen were
included among those to be sold.” He adds, however, that since
“ the trade to which a servant made claim was important in securing
for him a ready sale,” it is quite likely that dealers and servants
were not above misrepresenting the degree of skill available.7 Ana­
®
lyzing advertisements for runaway servants also to determine the
extent of craftsmanship among them, Herrick found that the trade
previously followed by the runaway “ was given in approximately
one-half of the advertisements, and as given shows a large proportion
of skilled laborers.” 7
9
A contemporary account is that of the president of the Provincial
Council who, in 1756, reported that “ every kind of business here,
as well among the Tradesmen and Mechanics as the Planters and
Farmers, is chiefly carried on and supported by the labor of inden­
tured servants.” 8
0
As a labor policy white servitude continued in Pennsylvania for a
quarter of a century after the establishment of the Republic. It
75 Herrick, p. 23.

7« Idem, p. 60.

77 Idem, p. 57.


78 Idem, p. 73.
7 Idem, p. 75.
®
so Quoted in Geiser, p. 25.

CHAPTER 3.— THE INDENTURE SYSTEM OF LABOR

45

took on renewed vigor after the Revolution, and indentured serv­
ants figure largely in the heavy immigration at the close of the
eighteenth century. The last officially recorded registry8 of a re1
demptioner in Pennsylvania is dated December 1, 1831.
The system was never legally abolished. It died gradually as the
economic conditions which had created it changed. As population
increased, indentured immigrants were no longer necessary to an
adequate labor supply, and with the introduction of machinery and
the factory system employers found it cheaper to hire free labor by
the day, or as needed, than to maintain servants by the year. One
law, however, did affect the system materially. When imprison­
ment for debt was outlawed, carrying with it the master’s power
to compel the servant to discharge his debt, “ the institution of
indentured service received its legal death blow and necessarily died
out without any special enactment.” 8
2
81 Herrick, Cheesman A.: White Slavery in Pennsylvania. Reproduction of original register, fronting
p. 266.
82 Geiser, p. 42.




Chapter 4.— BUILDING TRADES
SEVENTEENTH CENTURY

Building, in the earliest days of colonial settlement, was not im­
portant, and skilled building mechanics were few, especially in the
southern colonies. There were two bricklayers, four carpenters, and
one mason among the first settlers at Jamestown in 1607, but later,
in 1609 and 1610, the Virginia Company of London advertised for
building tradesmen to emigrate to the colony, apparently without
results.1
Bricks were made in Virginia at the very beginning of the colony,
but, according to Bruce, they seem “ to have entered only to a limited
extent into the construction of the dwellings,” 2 being confined almost
wholly to chimneys. The rough structures of plank or log which
housed the first Virginia settlers were probably erected without the
aid of skilled builders. At any rate, no mention is made of definite
wages paid building tradesmen prior to 1624, when the price of brick­
laying was fixed at 40 pounds of tobacco ($2.43) per thousand bricks.
Scarcity of artisans of all trades persisted throughout the early
history of Virginia. The company repeatedly issued broadsides ad­
vertising for mechanics and offered special inducements, such as
grants of town properties for home building; and planters frequently
wrote home to their agents directing that carpenters, bricklayers,
and masons be dispatched to the colony under terms considerably
more advantageous to the worker than those customarily offered for
plantation labor. Later, after the Colonial Assembly was estab­
lished, a law was enacted (1661-62) which exempted “ handicrafts­
men” from taxation. Although short-lived, this legislation suggests
the lengths to which the colony found it necessary to go in its effort to
secure an adequate supply of skilled craftsmen.
“ The most favorable legislation, however,” Bruce says, “ was unable
to create a large and prosperous class of mechanics in Virginia,” 3or at
least to insure their remaining in the trades to which they had been
trained- The tendency w as always to abandon the trades and follow
the general drift of labor to the plantations. In 1633 an effort was
made to force mechanics to follow their trades by enacting a law for­
bidding them to perform agricultural labor of any kind.4
Neither legislative policy influenced conditions materially. The
indenture system, which seems to have been almost exclusively fol­
lowed in the southern colonies, was not a satisfactory method of
maintaining a supply of mechanics. If a craftsman had completed
his apprenticeship before emigrating his term of indenture was gener­
ally brief—four years at the most— and upon its expiration his place
had to be filled by another craftsman, often with the attendant ex­
* Bruce, Philip A.: Economic History of Virginia in the Seventeenth Century. Vol. II, p. 400.
2 Idem, Vol. II, p. 134.
* Idem, Vol. II, p. 413.
* Hening’s Statutes of Virginia, Vol. I, p. 208.


46


CHAPTER 4.----BUILDING TRADES

47

pense increased by special inducements to tradesmen. Frequently
indentured mechanics became planters themselves when their terms
were out. All these many difficulties in the way of keeping a sufficient
number of mechanics in the colony resulted in the adoption by the
planters of a practice of training their negro slaves, whose terms of
service did not expire, in the crafts necessary for the self-contained
community which a tobacco plantation became. Accordingly, the
building industry as such can hardly be said to have existed in the
South of the colonial period, and information about it is rare.
While not leaving so specific a record to show it, the northern
colonies undoubtedly suffered with the southern in the matter of
scarcity of building tradesmen. On the other hand, there are quite
early stories which suggest how the building problem was handled.
The southern colonists settled on widely scattered plantations and had
slight need for towns—in fact, opposed them. In the North, par­
ticularly in New England, the town was the important factor in
colonial development.
The records of the town of Dedham, Mass., show that in 1637,
within a few years of its founding, a committee was “ choesen to
contrive the Fabricke of a meetinghouse to be in length 30 foote
& 20 foote in breadth & between the upper & nether sill in ye studds
12 foote, the same to be girte, and to order men to worke upon the
same in all workes as they are severally apted accordingly. As also
to proportion the same worke and wages in all cases.” 5
What the wages were, on the basis of a daily rate, the record does
not show. It says only that the following terms were adopted:
There shall be allowed such as do fell Pynes of 2 foote over at ye carfe 6 six
pence [12 cents] and for Oake of the same "thickness eight pence [16 cents]: and
for grater and smaler after ye same Rate. If any tree split by the default of
ye feller he shal loose ye felling.
Crosse cutting every 2 foote over to be allowed six pence & so every scantling
after that Rate.
To allow for saweing Pyne bords 5s. [$1.22] & for splitting 6s. [$1.46] per 100
And for ye breaking Carfe of 2 foote deepe 3d. [6 cents] per foote Running
Measure.
Carpenters to have for makeing pitholes 12s. [$2.91] per pair.

Daily wages in Massachusetts probably were at the time 3 shillings
(73 cents) a day. An agreement dated 1629 between the Massa­
chusetts Bay Company and Richard Claydon, carpenter, specifies
that the emigrant's debt to the company should be discharged by
crediting him with 3s. a day for his work for the company. In 1630
the Colonial Court ordered that “ carpenters, joyners, bricklayers,
sawers, and thatchers shall not take above 2s. [48.6 cents] a day.” *
If “ they have meate and drinke” the 2s. rate was cut to 16d.
[32 cents].
Nevertheless, the rate apparently remained around 3s. a day, for
three years later Governor Winthrop says that because carpenters
and masons were receiving 3s. a day, on account of the scarcity of
workmen, “ it grew a general complaint which the Court, taking
knowledge of, as also of some further evils which were springing out
of the excessive rates of wages, they made an order that carpenters
masons, etc., should take but 2s. a day.” 8
6 Dedham Town Records, published by the Massachusetts Historical Society.
• The point of cutting.
' Massachusetts Bay Colony Records, Vol. I, pp. 74-75.
 Winthrop’s Journal.
* Governor



48

PART 1.— FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1840

The pay of bricklayers in New York in the year in which Dedham
built its meeting house, 1637? was 80 cents a aay.
Occasional items of record in the ensuing 10 years indicate, in
most instances, somewhat lower rates. Mechanics engaged in the
construction of Fort Charles and Fort James, on the Virginia coast, in
1643, were paid the equivalent of Is. 2d. (19.5 cents) a day in tobacco,
the rate being 7 pounds per day, a pound of which at this time “ did
not exceed two pence” 9 in value. Bricklayers in Plymouth Colony
were still working at the legal rate of 2s. a day, which the Plymouth
Colony Court had undertaken to maintain even after the Massa­
chusetts Bay Colony had abandoned the effort to control wages by
legislation. The New Amsterdam rate remained about the same,
that is, 2 florins, or 80 cents a day, for skilled men, and 40 to 50 cents
for day laborers.1
0
Dedham, Mass., built a schoolhouse in 1648, “ the lengthe 18 foot
being 14 foot beside the chimney, the wideness 15 foot, the studd
9 foote betwixt the joynts, one floor of joyce: 2 convenient windows
in the lower roome and one in the chamber, the plancher layed, the
stayers made, the sides boarded feather-edged and rabbited, the
doors made and hanged.” The total cost of construction was
£17 6s. lOd. ($57.80), of which the builder received £11 3d. ($36.70)
“ for his worke about ye schoole house.” Laborers working under
him were paid Is. 8d. (28 cents) a day.1
1
Nearly 50 years later Dedham needed a new schoolhouse to replace
this early one. The selectmen met on March 8, 1694, “ to go threw
with the agreement with John Baker concerning the schoole house,”
and they agreed—
that the said John Baker shall goe on and build the schoole house, finding
all timber, boards claubords shingles naills glasse bricke stone & clay & borde
the outside and claubord the inside & make it close warm and desent suitable
to such a schoole house & to make one door and two windows containing twelve
foots of glass also a good stone chimney nine foots between gams and to carry
it out of the house with good bricke and to find whatever else is necessary & to
finish said house to the turning of the K ey'by the First of June 1695 Excepting
the upar floor & claubording the inside which flor and claubording is also
to be finished by the twenty-fifth day of October next after the date hereof For
and in consideration of this abovewritten we the Selectmen of Dedham doe
agree in behalf of the towne that the abovesaid John Baker shall receive of the
Town of Dedham twenty shillings [$3.33] in money att the time when said
Schoole house is raised and fifteen pounds ten shillings [$51.67] at the twentyfifth day of February next to be payed in corn in R ye at four shillings [66.7 cents]
per bushell & Indian corn at three shillings [50 cents] per bushel & so much as
shall be payed of the fifteen pounds ten shillings in mony the said John Baker
shall abate one-fourth part thereof He is also to receive the old schoole house
with what belongs thereto & the stone and clay of the town's lying by it.1
2
TOWN BUILDING IN VIRGINIA

While towns multiplied in number and grew in size throughout the
northern colonies, Virginia remained townless. Repeated efforts on
the part of the British Government to promote or compel the erection
of towns failed, because the land-holding system upon which the
colony was founded made community living economically impossible.
After the Restoration a very determined attempt was made by the
• Bruce, Vol. II, p. 416.
10 Bishop, J. Leander: History of American Manufactures, 1608-1860.
11 Dedham Town Records.

13 Idem.



CHAPTER 4.— BUILDING TRADES

49

home government to establish towns, and when Berkeley returned to
the governorship in 1662 he carried with him instructions to erect a
town on each river. Bruce remarks that—
It is a significant commentary on the effect of the numerous laws which had
been passed with a view to enlarging Jamestown that Berkeley was specially
directed to begin at this place a new attempt at town-building in Virginia.
Such was the recommendation which was necessary after all the carefully con­
sidered undertakings of fifty years.1
3

The General Assembly embodied the order of the British Govern­
ment in the “ Cohabitation act” of 1662, which, as analyzed by Bruce—
constitutes one of the most interesting acts of legislation in colonial history, and
might be regarded as a remarkable triumph of legislative hope over practical
experience were it not for the statement of the preamble that the assembly had
undertaken to encourage the building of towns because they looked upon it as
their duty to conform to the wishes of their sovereign in England.
# Under the terms of this statute, it was provided that Jamestown should con­
sist of thirty-two houses, a number which indicated that the General Assembly
was disposed to be moderate and prudent in its requirements. Each house was
to be forty feet from end to end, twenty feet in width in the interior, and eight­
een feet in height. Each was to be constructed of brick. The walls were to be
two bricks in thickness as far as the water table, and one and a half the remaining
distance. The roof was to be covered with slate or tile, and was to be fifteen
feet in pitch.
Although the colony had prospered in a fair measure for a period of fifty
years without having a large settlement at Jamestown, nevertheless it had now
been determined in earnest to establish one there. To accomplish this, each of
the seventeen counties into which Virginia was divided at this time was ordered
to build a house at Jamestown at its own expense. The authority was conferred
on all to impress into service the mechanics needed for the work, such as brick­
layers, carpenters, sawyers and other tradesmen. The strictest regulations were
laid down to prevent every kind of exaction. The bricks were to be manufac­
tured in the most careful manner and were in size to represent statute measure;
the price was not to exceed one hundred and fifty pounds of tobacco ($2.10) for
every thousand. In addition to receiving his food without charge the ordinary
laborer engaged in erecting a house was to be paid at the rate of two thousand
pounds of tobacco ($28) a year. The brickmakers and bricklayers were to be
remunerated according to the number of bricks moulded and laid, while the
wages of each carpenter were not to exceed thirty pounds of tobacco (42 cents)
a day. Each sawyer was to receive half a pound of tobacco for every foot of
plank and timber for joices which he fashioned into shape. The keepers of the
taverns at Jamestown were required to supply the ordinary laborer with food at
the rate of one thousand pounds o f tobacco ($14) a year, and the most skilled
workmen at the rate of fifteen hundred ($21). An important provision of the law
was that after its passage no wooden house was to be erected in Jamestown,
and all such houses then standing should not be repaired with the same material,
but should be replaced by structures of brick.
This brief synopsis of the law of 1662 shows how elaborate were the provisions
of that measure for the enlargement more especially of Jamestown. As far as
legislation, independently of favorable local conditions, could create a town
where none existed, it might be supposed that the law would have been successful
in accomplishing its object, so far, at least, as the capital was concerned. It
provided in detail for the erection of a number of houses at a cost which was
distributed among the people of the seventeen counties. The mechanics to be
employed in the work were to be provided for properly, and to be fully remunerated
for their labor.

To answer the question of “ what was the practical result of all
these carefully considered provisions?” Bruce draws upon contem­
porary evidence and finds that “ three years after their adoption
Secretary Ludwell, writing to Secretary Bennett in England, stated
that enough of the proposed town had been built to accommodate
the officers employed in the civil administration of Virginia, but this,
 Vol. II, p. 538.
U Bruce,


50

PART 1.— FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1840

it may be inferred, * * * amounted only to the construction of
four or five houses. He declared that the erection of this scanty
number of buildings had entailed the loss of hundreds of people,
apprehension of impressment having driven many mechanics from the
colony.” 1
4
The wages provided for in the cohabitation act seem to be higher
than the prevailing rate, for later, in 1666, the Colonial Court ordered
that in the reconstruction of the fort on Point Comfort workmen
should receive 20 pounds of tobacco for a day’s work, an order
which applied equally to skilled mechanics and common laborers.1
5
Tobacco is valued at this time at Id. a pound,1 which makes a day’s
6
pay in tobacco about equivalent to Is. 8d. (28 cents) in currency.
WAGES AT CLOSE OF CENTURY

A few scattered records complete the available data for the seven­
teenth century. Under date of September 26, 1673, Hendrick Van
Borsum of New Amsterdam contracted “ to serve the Honorable
Governor as Carpenter for the period of the current year commencing
to-morrow; for which service he shall receive a salary of fl. 30 a month
[equal to $12.— E d .] without board. * * * but whenever he
shall be sent to work without the city he shall be provided with
victuals.” 1 Salem, Mass., built a town hall in 1677 and paid the
7
carpenter £20 ($66.67), “ one-third in money and two-thirds in
provisions” for his work.1
8
A building contract entered into in Henrico County, Va., in 1679,
called for the erection of a house 40 feet long and 20 feet wide, clapboarded and roofed, with a chimney at either end, “ the upper and lower
floors to be divided respectively into two rooms by a wooden parti­
tion.” The house was to be finished in seven months, and the owner
agreed to pay the builder “ twelve hundred pounds of tobacco in cask.”
Tobacco was probably worth about 2d. a pound, and 1,200 pounds
converted into American money would amount to $33.60. A few
years later a carpenter in a neighboring county agreed to build a house
of similar dimensions for £9 sterling, or $43.74.1
9
The usual rate of pay for building craftsmen in New" Jersey in
1680-1685 was 2s. (40 cents) a day; in Amboy, “ where building was
active,” mechanics received 2s. 6d. (50 cents)2 a day. “ The houses
0
building at Amboy in 1683 are described as usually 30 feet long, 16
feet wide, 10 feet between joints, with double chimney of timber
and clay ‘ as the manner of this country is to build/ and cost about
£50 [$200] each.” 2
1
Thomas recorded that in Pennsylvania in 1698 “ Carpenters, both
House and Ship, Bricklayers, Masons, either of these Trades-Men
will get between Five and Six Shillings [$1 and $1.20]2 every day con­
0
stantly. Brickmakers have twenty shillings [$4] a thousand for their
Bricks at the Kiln,” and “ Plasterers have commonly eighteen pence
[30 cents] a yard for Plastering.”
MIdem, Vol. II, pp. 540-545.
15 General Court Orders, March 29, 1666—Robinson transcript, pp. 112-113.
16 Jacobstein—See p. 13.
1 New York Colonial Documents, Vol. II, p. 617.
7
1£ Felt’s Annals of Salem, Vol. I, p. 390.
19 Bruce, Vol. II, pp. 151-152.
J Colonial shilling of Pennsylvania and New Jersey, worth 20 cents. See p. 16.
C
h Bishop, p. 109, footnote.




CHAPTER 4.— BUILDING TRADES

51

EIGHTEENTH CENTURY

A gradual differentiation in building trades and in the rates paid
different crafts becomes evident from the beginning of the eighteenth
century . As wealth accumulated in the mercantile centers and on the
plantations building began to develop along more pretentious, or at
least more substantial, lines. The generic “ carpenter” who did
practically all the building in the colonial period, is joined by the brick
and stone mason, the ornamental-iron worker, the painter and paperhanger, the plasterer, the cabinetmaker and the wood carver. By the
middle of the century such homes as Mount Vernon and Monticello,
in Virginia, and the Harrison Gray Otis mansion, in Boston, were
being erected, calling for the highest degree of skilled craftsmanship
in various lines. Some figures showing the remuneration of these
crafts have come down to us, often not as actual wages, as we under­
stand the term, but rather in accounts of work done on a piece or job
basis. Unfortunately there is little data which would enable us to
translate the job basis to a time basis and thus get a clearer idea of
what the sums received meant in terms of a day’s work.
Rates of pay of carpenters, bricklayers, and building laborers are
given by the day in the accounts of public building in Massachusetts
during the first quarter of the century, beginning at 3s. 6d. and 3s. 8d.
(58.4 and 61 cents) for carpenters and 4s. (66.7 cents) for bricklayers
in 1701.2 In 1712 carpenters on the Boston town hall were getting
2
5s. (83.3 cents) a day, “ all cash,” 2 and bricklayers 6s. ($1) a day.
3
Common labor was usually paid 2s. 6d. (42 cents) a day.
In New York during this period “ handicraftsmen such as Car­
penters, Joyners, Masons and Bricklayers may earn at least five shil­
lings New York money [62.5 cents] every day they will work,” and
common laborers “ may earn two shillings ana three pence [28 cents]
New York money ” .2 Rates in South Carolina in 1710 were: Brick­
4
layers, 6s. ($1), carpenters and joiners, 3s. to 5s. (50 to 83.3 cents);
“ a labourer hath from one shilling and three pence to 2s. [21 to 33.3
cents] a day, with Lodging and Diett.” 2
5
For the years between 1710 and 1730 there is very little data, such
figures as are found showing slight change from the earlier record.
Money inflation had begun by 1730 and rates began to rise, particu­
larly in New England. Virginia money, however, maintained a fairly
even standard, and the higher rate of 3s. (50 cents) a day for carpen­
ters in 1731 2 undoubtedly represents an actual increase in wages.
6
A “ skilful carpenter” in South Carolina in the same year “ is not
ashamed to demand his 30s. per day besides his Diet, and the Com­
mon wages of a Workman is 20s. a day provided he speaks English.
* * * But this is Carolina money,” 2 which at that time was
7
worth about three cents a shilling in American money.2
8
22 Massachusetts State Archives.
® Douglass, William: Discourse Concerning the Currencies of the British Plantations in America (1739).
In Economic Studies of the American Economic Association, Vol. II, 1897, p. 322.
2 O'Callaghan’s Documents Relative to the Colonial History of the State of New York, Vol. V, p. 106.
4
a# From “ History of South Carolina” attributed to Gov. Glen of the Province, in South Carolina His­
torical Collections, Vol. II, p. 261.
26 Manuscript account book, Library of Congress.
2' South Carolina Historical Collections, Vol. II, p. 122.
28 See p. 17.




52

PART 1.— FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1840

The following is “ an account of work done” by a carpenter in York
County, Va., in 1733:2
9
£

s.

d.

To 30 squares of shingling at 4/5 (73.7 cents)______________ 6
To a sash frame and sashes_______________________________
To 1 days’ work myself and Thomas at 3/ (50 cents), 7 days’
work Daniel at 2/6 (42 cents) and 7 days Matt at 1/8 (28
cents)__________________________________________________ 1
T o putting in 71 diamond panes of glass at 2d. (2.8 cents)____
T o putting in 5 sash panes of glass at 3d. (4.2 cents)---------T o painting 80 yards outside house at 10 d.(14 cents)_____ 3

15
14

00 ($22. 50)
00 ($2. 33)

14
11
1
6

00 ($5.67)
10 ($1. 97)
3 ($0. 21)
8 ($11. 11)

An Irish immigrant to New York wrote to his family in Ireland, in
a letter dated November 7, 1737, that masons and carpenters in New
York City “ get 6 shillings [75 cents] a day.” 3
0
The rate on public works in Massachusetts from 1735 to 1740 3
1
was 12s. (45.6 cents) a day for “ master workmen” in all trades,
7s. 9d. (30 cents) for “ hands,” and 7s. to 7s. 6d. (27 to 29 cents) for
laborers. Twelve shillings, however, were “ equal to only 3 shillings
4 pence of Former Times” ; and “ even this is further reduced by
obliging him to take one half in Shop Goods at 25 per cent or more
Advance over the Money Price; this Iniquity still grows by reducing
the Goods part to the least vendable, the Shopkeeper refusing to let
them have Provisions, West India Goods or Goods of Great Britain
that are in demand.” 3
2
Stonemasons were paid 15s. (57 cents) per perch, and 3s. 6d.
(13.3 cents) was paid for a square yard of “ finish plaistering.” John
Simpson billed the provincial “ Committee on Repair of ye Powder
House ” for labor at the rate of 14s. (53 cents) per day each for himself
and two of his assistants, and 12s. (45.6 cents) per day for the rest of
his crew. The bill suffered a substantial disallowance at the hands of
the House of Representatives before payment, however, because of
“ overcharge on daye’s work.” 3
3
Interior painting of the Province House was charged for in 1737 at
the rate of 3s. (11.4 cents) a “ yard” (square yard) for “ bright red,”
2s. (7.6 cents) for “ lead colour,” and 12d. (3.8 cents) for priming.
By 1741 prices on the same work had advanced to Is. 6d.. (5.4 cents)
for priming, 10s. (36 cents) for “ vermillion,” 5s. (18 cents) for “ light
blue,” 3s. 6d. (12.6 cents) for “ pearl colour,” and 8s. (29 cents) for
green. The House reduced the rate on the green room 2s. a yard
before approving the bill.3 The price for painting in Virginia at this
3
time was lOd. (14 cents) for outside work and 12d. (16.7 cents) for
inside, “ painting over three times.” A day’s work was worth 3s.
(50 cents).
Masons repairing one of the fortifications in Boston harbor in 1740
received 10s. (36 cents) a day “ and found,” board being rated at 20s.
(72 cents) a w^eek. Masons’ “ attendants” received 5s. (18 cents)
a day and board.3
3
Carpenters’ rates in Salem, Mass., in 1743 were 13s. 6d. a day3
4
and in Virginia 3s.3 but in this instance the southerner apparently
5
had the advantage, since transposed to the American equivalent,
29 Manuscript account book, Jones Family Papers, Library of Congress.
3° In Memorial History of New York City (Edited by James Grant Wilson, 1892), Vol. 2, p. 203,
Depreciated currency—shilling worth about 3.8 cents. See p. 17.
32 Douglass’s Discourse on Currencies, p. 322.
33 Massachusetts State Archives.
34 Felt, Joseph B.: Annals of Salem, p. 200.
35 Manuscript Account Book.




53

CHAPTER 4.— BUILDING TRADES

13s. 6d. in inflated Massachusetts paper currency was worth less than
40 cents, while in stable Virginia money three shillings amounted to
half a dollar. Philadelphia carpenters at this time were earning
4s. 6d. (59 cents) a day.
Rates continued to soar in Massachusetts until 1750, when “ lawful
money” was established. After that, workmen on public construc­
tion were paid at the following rates and subsistence, which remained
fairly constant up to the Revolution: 3
6
Per day

Bricklayers_____________________________________
Bricklayers' helpers_____________________________ 4s.
Laborers________________________________________
Carpenters_____________________________________
Laborers________________________________________

6s. ($1. 00 )
8d. ($0. 78 )
4s. ($0. 667)
4s. ($0. 667)
2s. ($0. 333)

Building-trades’ rates in Pennsylvania from 1750 to 1775 were:
Bricklayers, 5s. 6d. and 6s. (72.6 and 80 cents); bricklayers’ helpers,
3s. 6d. to 5s. (46 to 66.7 cents); carpenters, 5s. to 6s. (66.7 to 80 cents);
painters, 6s. (80 cents); and unskilled labor, 2s. 6d. to 3s. (32.6 to 40
cents) a day. These are the usual rates given in various manuscript
accounts.3 Lower rates also appear, especially in the Norris and
7
Stiegel account books, in which, in the decade between 1756 and 1766,
masons’ rates are given as 3s. 6d. and 4s. (46 and 53 cents) a day, 4s.
being the summer rate. An agreement with a carpenter, dated 1758,
has the memorandum: “ Hitherto, William says, he charged 5s.
(66.7 cents) a day, but now offers to work at 4s^(53 cents) a day and
find himself.” 3 A plasterer received only 2s. 6d. (32.6 cents), the
8
rate for common labor, while shingle roofing paid 3s. (40 cents) a day.
A contract for shingle making, in Pennsylvania in 1763, calls for
8,000 shingles at 25s. ($3.33) and one-half gallon liquor per thousand,
“ but if any are found to be bad, to be deducted out of his wages, or if
the above number should not come to hand.” 3
9
In North Carolina at the same time “ artificers” received “ from 3
to 4 shillings a day [37.5 to 50 cents}, common labour 2s. [25 cents}.” 4
0
An advertisement in the Boston Gazette of November 6, 1760, calls
for “ a person who understands cutting slate to cover houses who will
agree for one month or as many days as he will work this Fall and pay
him 40s. O T (old tenor) or 4s. sterling (97 cents) per day, he finding
himself; and if he wants to Board he may agree very reasonable with
the Tenants who live nigh the works,”
After the Revolution, from 1785 to the close of the century, the rates
paid skilled building tradesmen in Philadelphia were 7s. 6d. ($1) for
carpenters; 6s. and 6s. 5d. (80 and 85 cents) for painters, and 6s. (80
cents) for plasterers. Five shillings (66.7 cents) a day was paid for
whitewashing.
PAINTING

Baker Library in Cambridge contains a file of account books of the
firm of Rea & Johnston, painters, of Boston, dating from 1765 to the
early 1800’s. They were sign painters, ship painters, house painters,
interior decorators, and portrait painters. Apparently they were
high-grade craftsmen, and such names as Oliver Wendell, Asa Fuller,
38 Massachusetts State Archives.
37 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, manuscript collection.
38 Charles Norris's Account Book, Historical Society of Pennsylvania.
w Mary Ann Furnace, Manuscript account books, Historical Society of Pennsylvania.
40 North Carolina Records, Vol. V, p. 644. North Carolina shillings, 12.5 cents. See p. 17.




54

PART 1.— FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1840

the Lowells, and Harrison Gray Otis appear in their accounts year
after year. Typical entries for various years follow:
£

1765— To 2 days’ work papering a room ______________
1767— T o 130 yards painting at 7s. O T per yard_____
1772— To painting portico at Parish House, 26 yards,
at lOd. (14 cents)___________________________
To painting back chamber green, 8 yards, at Is.
6d. (25 cents)__________________________ ____
1781— To painting front room, 85 yards, at 2s. (33.3
cents) a yard_______________________________
1783— T o painting entry, staircase and upper chambers,
127 yards, at Is. Id. (18 c e n ts )_____________
1791— To painting your house, outside, from the Gar­
rett to the Ground, Fences &c Included, viz:

s.

d.

12
45

11

00

($2. 00)
($20. 24)

1

1

8

($3. 61)

12

($2. 00)

8

10

0

($28.33)

7

8

2

($24. 69)

31

9

5

($104.90)

766 do. at lOd. (14cents). 31 18
Four Luthern Window s, at 3s. (50 cents)__________ 12
40 window frames, at 2s. (33.3 cents)_____
4
952 sash lights, at 2 cents each____________
5 14

4
2

($106.38)
($2. 00)
($13. 33)
($19. 03)

73 13

11

($245. 65)

Measure

South F ront.__ 233 yards.
West E nd------ 106 do.
Northwest___ 156 do.
North E nd___ 86 do.
581 j^ards,at Is. (16.7cents).
East Side in ye
Tan Y a r d ,
measure____ 191 yards.
Garrett, Roof,
Lookout,
G a n gb oa rd ,
Eaves, Fences,
P u jn p , a n d
Top of Cis­
tern________ 575 yards.

Grand T otal_______________________

In 1793 inside painting, which had been 7 to lOd. (9.8 to 14 cents)
for about 15 years, is raised to Is. (16.7 cents) per square yard. The
last entry in the 1793 account book reads:
Harrison Gray Otis, Dr.
To painting sundry parts of your house inside, viz:
Front R oom ________________
84 yards.
Chamber___________________
81 do.
Dining parlour______________ 95 do.
Entry & stairway___________ 178 do.
438 yards, at ls__

£21. 18. 0

($73. 00)

The next year the rate went still higher, to Is. 2d. (19.5 cents),
and the price charged for painting Venetian blinds was raised from 10s.
to 15s. ($1.67 to $2.50) a pair. In 1797 American money appeared
in the accounts. Inside painting was 20 cents a 3rard, and a school
was charged $1.25 for “ one day's work of one of our painters.”
GOVERNMENT BUILDING

The close of the century found public construction actively under
way in various places. The Federal Government began in 1793 the
erection of the United States Capitol and other buildings, and the
laying
 out and development of the District of Columbia, and two


55

CHAPTER 4.— BUILDING TRADES

years later Massachusetts began to build its new statehouse. The
Virginia scale for skilled building-trades men was, in 1796-97, 6s. a
day ($1); for helpers, 4s. (66.7 cents); and for laborers, 2s. 6d. (42
cents),4 and probably those rates prevailed on the Government work
1
in the District of Columbia. “ Hodcarriers and mortar mixers, dig­
gers and choppers, who from 1793 to 1800 labored on the public build­
ings and cut the streets and avenues of Washington received $70 a
year, or, if they wished, $60 for all the work they could do from March
1 to December 20. (They were of course found, but not clothed.)
The hours of labor were invariably from sunrise to sunset.” 4
2
Data dealing with the cost of constructing the Massachusetts State
Capitol appear in voluminous detail in the account books of the period
in the State archives. The administrative end of the work was ap­
parently intrusted to a committee, composed largely of members of the
,
two houses of the State legislature. Charles Bulfinch, the architect
who designed the building, was also a member of the committee.
Whereas to-day an undertaking of that nature is turned over to a
building contractor who handles the administrative work as well as
the materials and labor, it was much more complicated than that in
Massachusetts in 1795. Each material dealer billed the committee
for the amount of material delivered, no matter how small, and a
dozen different carters presented bills for delivery, often in form and
writing so illiterate as to make their deciphering difficult.
Carters charged 6s. ($1) a load. The price of bricks seems to have
been fixed at $9 a thousand, and bricks were sold to the committee
at that price by a variety of dealers. The masonry was apparent^
contracted for by a firm of mason contractors, whose accounts were
presented on a printed billhead, in a businesslike manner more like
present-day bookkeeping than the countless little statements on torn
scraps of paper which represent other classes of participants in the
undertaking. The mason contractors charged the State $5 a thou­
sand for laying brick and $1.33 a perch for setting stone, but paid
their bricklayers and stone masons $1.50 per day.
A dollar and a half a day was the standard rate for most of the
skilled trades. Common or “ general labor,” received 6s. to 8s.
($1 to $1.33) a day. The “ master mechanics” and foremen received
$2. The cabinetmakers who built the mahogany bookcases, the
tables, the Speaker's chair, etc., were also paid $2.
Piece prices are given for lathing and plastering at 25 cents per
square yard; those for ornamental stucco work run from Is. (16.7
cents) a foot for straight molding to 3s. 6d. (58 cents) for the most
elaborate design; the price charged by the woodcarver for the
Corinthian capitals was $70 each for the 23-inch columns, and $50
for the 3K-inch columns, while the pine cone on the top of the dome
was $25. The columns range from $3 to $10 each for turning, de­
pending upon the diameter.
The bill for painting reads thus:
£

To painting State House three times over, 10,822
square yards, at 1/6 (25 cents)____________________ 811
T o painting the Dome over the fourth time, 9% day s’
work, at 9s. ($1.50)---------------------------------------------4

s.

13
5

41 Thomas Jefferson’s manuscript account books, Massachusetts Historical Society.
42 McMaster, John B., History of the People of United States, Vol. II, pp. 617-18.




d.

00 ($2, 705. 50)

6

($14. 25)

56

PART 1.— FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1840
NINETEENTH CENTURY

Wages rose steadily with the opening of the new century, after
Federal and State Governments had begun really to function, and
the new Republic to find itself. “ It is impossible,” McMaster
states, “ to read the many memorials which for twenty years (17901810) had been coming to Congress, without noticing the general
complaint of the high price of wages. To us, when we consider the
long hours of labor and the cost of living, these wages seem ex­
tremely low.” John Jay calls the w
rage demands of mechanics and
laborers at this period “ very extravagant.”
The carpenters of Boston in 1800 “ chose a large and respectable
committee out of their number” to formulate a new scale of piece
rates to take the place of the 1774 “ book of prices” which, “ not
considering that they were calculated upon a scale which bears no
proportion to the price of other labor now, and which is by no means
an equivalent compensation for the service, in reference to the raised
price of the necessaries of life,” was still in general use. This 1800
price list and “ rules of work” will be found in full in Appendix B.
From about 1810 sources of information become numerous, and
data from these various sources are on the w^hole consistent. They
show enough uniformity to justify the conclusion that by that time
wage standards had become fairly fixed for the respective crafts,
and suggest about the same differences between geographic localities
and trades that we find to-day.
McMaster reports that rates for all classes of work differed “ in
r
each of the three great belts along which population streamed west­
ward.” They were highest in the New England and New York
area, as far west as Ohio, and lowest in the South, with the territory
west of Ohio holding the middle ground. In each of these belts,
wages were lower on the seaboard than inland.
Although Monticello, Thomas Jefferson’s home in Virginia, was
built in 1770-1772, most of the entries in his account books dealing
with building costs and rates paid building-trades men cover a later
period, 1800-1815. He gives not only rates, but a compilation of
“ observations,” to use his own term, and data concerning both time
and money costs in building which are worth reproducing substan­
tially as he wrote them. Most of these entries, when dated at all,
run from 1810 to 1815.1
3
JEFFERSON’S NOTES ON BUILDING
B r i c k .— A demicord of earth (4-foot cube) makes 1,000 bricks. A man will
turn up 4 such cubes, or even 5, a day. The price for turning up is Is. [13.3
cents] (Maryland) the cube, or 1,000 bricks, the laborer finding himself.
A man moulds 2,000 bricks a day. His attendance is a man to temper, one to
wheel the mortar to him, and a boy to bear off (Philadelphia).
At Georgetown in 1792 a brickmaker for 2}i dollars the thousand made the
bricks, turning up the clay and finding himself everything except wood to burn
and planks to cover them.
The brick work is about one-third of the whole cost, the carpenter’s material
and iron-mongery one-third, the carpenter’s work one-third.
1814.— Chisolm and two apprentices (one of them a new beginner) lay 1,600
bricks a day.
S t o n e .— Paving or other stone cut at 8d. [11.2 cents] the superficial foot, the
block being found, and provisions.


« Thomas Jefferson’s Manuscript Account books, Massachusetts Historical Society.


CH4.PTER 4.— BUILDING TRADES

57

The price for laying stone is 2s. 6d. [42 cents] per perch in an 18-inch wall. In
Augusta it is 2s. [33.3 cents]. Such stone work is cheaper than brick in the
proportion of £1,056.4 to £581.5 [$3,520.67 to $1,937.50]. Everything calculated
accurately by a workman at Georgetown, his brick work coming to $9.60 per thou­
sand and his stone work $2 per perch, including the cost and carriage of-every­
thing, even of the rough stone. A man lays generally 3 perch a day, and even
5 in a very thick wall.
W o o d .— The sawmills over the mountains saw for 20s. [$3.33] the thousand,
or one-half for the other.
Two mawlers and 3 rivers will rive 750 pine slabs a day, of 14 feet long, and
double that number 6 feet long. Every slab clears about 4 inches, that is to say,
30 slabs properly clapped clear 10 feet.
Another estimate is that 3 men will get only 450 slabs a day if 6 feet long and
5 inches broad.
T o rive and draw 500 shingles is a common day’s work .4 A man may joint
4
3,000 a day.
Four men got out and out 600 chestnut pales a day, 7 feet long, for the garden.
P a i n t .— Venetian blinds. The Upholsterer’s part costs 2 dollars and the
painting (by a coach painter) a French crown [about $1].
F r e s c o p a i n t i n g .— Schneider charges a dollar a yard he finding paints, or 8s.
[$1.33] a day, paint &c found him. He can do half a yard an hour.
C a r p e n t r y .— June, 1812: Johnny Heming and Lewis made a set of Venetian
blinds, with fixed slats, i e 2 pair 3 feet 3 inches square, in 6 days, splitting out the
slats from common plank with a handsaw. Say a window a week.
March 21, 1814: Johnny Heming began the body of a landau January 12 and
finished it this day, being 9 weeks and 5 days. He had not more help from
Lewis than made up for his own interruptions. The smith work employed the 2
smiths perhaps one-third of the same time.
A panelled door is done in 5 days, all the stuff being previously planed up.

A Boston painter’s bill in 1814 reads as follows:
To
To
To
To
To
To

2 days’ work________________________________________________________ $3. 75
hanging 7}^ rolls of paper____________________________________________
3. 50
hanging 10J4 rolls of paper, at 50 cents a roll________________________
5. 25
whiting ceiling______________________________________________________
1. 00
pinkwashing the sides_______________________________________________
2. 00
whiting and pinking 3 upper chambers at 4s. [66.7 cents] each_______
2. 00

Masons’ wages had advanced in Massachusetts from $1.50 a day in
1795-1800, when the statehouse was under construction, to $2 in 1815,
when Boston was building an almshouse and paying that rate for the
brickwork, with bricks at $1 per 100, an advance of $1 per thousand
over the price paid by the State for the capitol. Plastering at the alms­
house was 50 cents a square yard, and slate roofers received $2 a day.4
5
This rate is higher, however, than the prevailing rate at the time.
Official statistics of the Massachusetts Bureau of Statistics of Labor
show an average rate of $1.21 for masons over the entire State.4
6
Across the State line, in Rhode Island, a manufacturing concern was
building a road and a bridge connecting two factories. Foremen on
this job received $1.75 a day, masons and carpenters, $1.50, and
laborers, 6s. ($1). Carting was $2.50 for man and team.4
7
A contemporary historian gives presumably authentic daily rates
for carpenters and bricklayers in several States for the period 18151817, as follows:4
8
Bricklayers.— $1.50 in New York and South Carolina; $2 in Pennsylvania;
$1 in Ohio; and $3 per M. in District of Columbia.
Carpenters.— $1.50 per day in Maine and New York and $1 in Ohio.
44 Shingle makers in Ohio in 1815 were paid $1.50 per day.
46 Manuscript account book, Baker Library.
46 Massachusetts Bureau of Statistics of Labor. History of Wages and Prices, 1752-1883.
47 Manuscript Account book, Moses Brown, John Carter Brown Library, Providence.
< Warden, D. B.: A Statistical, Political, and Historical Account of the United States (published in
8
Edinburgh in 1819).




58

PART 1.— FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1840

Another contemporary writer quotes a general average for the
whole country in the following decade as $1.45 for carpenters and
$1.62 for masons.4
9
In 1832 carpenters in Boston were offered $2 a day to break a
strike for a 10-hour day.5 In New York in 1836 they were getting
0
$1.75, and in that year the Philadelphia carpenters struck for $1.50
per day from March 20 to November 20 and $1.25 for the remainder
of the year. The rate at the time of the strike was $1.25 from April 1
to November 1, and $1.12K for the winter.
Table 4 is compiled from Wright’s Wages and Prices, 1752-1883,
and shows rates paid certain of the building trades in the State of
Massachusetts, from 1800 to 1838, giving high, medium, and low rates,
per day.
T able 4*— Daily wage rates (high, medium, and, low) for specified building trades
in Massachusetts, 1800 to 1838
Carpenters
Year
High
6s.
1800
____ 5s. 10^d.
1801
1802
1803
1804
5s. 9d.
$1. 75
1805
1806_______
1807.............
1. 75
1808.............
1. 33
1809
1.11
1810- ___
1.24
1811.............
1812.............
1813
1.43
1814..........
« 1.00
1815.............
1816_______
1817_____
1. 42
1818.........
1819_______
1820_______
1821_______
1822___
1823_______
1824_______
1825_______ i
8 1.33
1826_______
1827_______ _________
1828.............
1829-..........
1830.............
1833..............
1834.............
1835.............
* 1.25
1837_............
o 2.00
1838.............
* 2.00

Me­
dium

5s.
$1.08
1.16
1.46
1.46
1.50
1.00
1.00
1.40
1.26
1.04
1.00

Low

4s. Id.
$1.17

Me­
dium

Me­
High dium Low High

5s. 2d.
4s 6<
1

Laborers

Painters

Masons

Low

___ fifi

1
$1.33

I

1

. 67
1.06 $1. 75
1.00 1.33
.75
1.00

1. 74

1.50

i.so’

$1. 33
1.00

3.25

•

i

•^*
1.50

1.50

1.13 - , .

.75 _____ **1.21 i1____
i
:

3.00

1.14
1.00
.89
1.00
.83

I
1.00 Ui. 50

1. 2 5 1 1.00 $1.25

$1.00

___ 1
______

1.26
1

1.12 n . 50
1.33
1.33

1.25

1.25

Me­
dium

Low

4s. 2d.
5s. 8d.
6s.

3s. 9d.

1

High

1.00

2s.
3s. lOd.
5s. 4s. 6d.
$0.42
.89
5s. 3d.
4s.
.84
$0.25
$1.02
1.00
.86
1.27
6s. 4s. 6d. 3s. 6d.
$1.00
$0.85
$0.50
1.67
1.23
.99
1.10
.84
.51
1.00
1. 25
1.07
.67
1.00
.57
1.33
.78
1.35
1.00
.50
.99
.79
1.74
1.07
1.00
1.00
....... ."75
.80
.50
1.15
.50
1.00
.68
.64
1.00
.75
.80
.67
1.00
.73
.68
1.00
.50
.71
.99
1.00
.46
.79
.72
1.13
1.00
.50
1.00
.69
.76
.74
.88
1.00
1.00
.63
.83

« With board, $0,625; with board in summer, high—$1.25; summer, low—$0,625).
* In winter, $0.88; with board, summer and winter, $0,628.
8 Winter, high—$1.25; winter, low—$1. Summer, with board, high—$0.84; summer, with board, low—
$0.50; winter, with board, high—$0.75; winter, with board, low—$0.50.
d Summer, board, high;—
$0.84; summer, board, low—$0.66; winter, board, high—$0.75; winter, board,
low—$0.50.
* Summer, board, high—$0.90; summer, board, low—$0.60; winter, high—$1.12; winter, low—$1; winter,
board, high—$0.84; winter, board, low—$0.50.
* Summer, board, high—$0.84; summer, board, low—$0.66; winter—$1 per day; winter, board, high—
$0.75; winter, board, low—$0.50.
0 Cotton-mill carpenters.
40 Allen, Zachariah: Science of Mechanics (1829).
*° Documentary History of American Industrial Society, Vol. VI, p. 86.




59

CHAPTER 4.— BTJILDING TRADES
SHIPBUILDING

“ As soon as colonial labor settled into organized work” 6 it began
1
the first American industry, shipbuilding. The need of the colonies
themselves for vessels and the abundance of readily accessible mate­
rials made its development natural.
Unlike most of the trades of the colonial period, that of shipbuilding
was followed by skilled and specialized workers. “ With timely
wisdom,” Weeden says, “ the sagacious fathers had brought ship­
wrights from England who were complete masters of the art of build­
ing ships in their day. The descendants of these men, aided by the
hardy seamen bred in the fisheries, could launch the best and cheapest
vessel to be had in the latter half of the seventeenth century.” 6
2
The Virginia Company sent 25 skilled ship carpenters to James­
town, who were “ to be employed only in the trade in which they had
been educated,” 5 and “ Penn brought a shipbuilder on his first
3
voyage.” 6
4
The development of the industry has been related frequently in
maritime and economic histories, but for the specific purposes of the
present study the available information is extremely meager. Old
records show construction costs per ton over long periods, but details
bearing on labor costs and wage rates are wholly lacking. The reason
seems to be that given by Weeden, with particular reference to New
England— that “ this work of shipbuilding * * * was carried on
substantially without money” 6 and the men engaged in it “ saw
5
little money * * * for their labor. West India sugar and rum,
home produce, a few dry goods—in fact all their immediate and neces­
sary consumption—was dealt out to them in return for their labor.” 6
6
One early record relates to New Jersey in 1641, but it is the work of
one of the pamphleteers of the period and is very probably over­
stated. According to his report “ ten men a day will build a tun of
shipping as in England * * * which is 6s. [$1.20] a day’s work,
having the Timber without money.” 6
7
The rate of pay for ship carpenters in Massachusetts in the last
quarter of the seventeenth century seems to have been 3s. and 3s. 6d.
(50 and 58 cents) a day, the latter rate being for skilled work. The
following account, dated 1680, is probably for repair work, except
perhaps in the case of the last entry:6
8
£

s.

To work on the Penelope, 10^ days________________________ 1 16
Making half a mast for the Penelope___________________________12
6 daye’s work on the Ketch George when Bayly was master. 1 01
6 daye’s work on the Ketch George when Peter Miller was
master__________________________________________________ 1 02
Work done on the Ketch Swallow, 49^ dayes______________ 8
13

d.

9

6
0

($ 6. 13)
($2. 08)
($3. 50)

9 ($3.79)
3 ($28. 87)

The daily rate is 3s. 6d. (58 cents) in all cases except “ when Peter
Miller was master,” when it is 3s. 8d. (61 cents). No explanation is
offered for the increase—perhaps Captain Miller was difficult to
work for.
81 Weeden, William B.: Economic and Social History of New England, 1620-1789, Vol. I, p. 167.
m Idem, Vol. I, p. 255.
63 Bruce, Vol. II, p. 429.
64 Herrick, Cheesman A.: White Servitude in Pennsylvania, p. 65.
« Weeden, Vol. I, p. 167.
w Idem, Vol. I, p. 366.
w Evelin, Robert: Directions for Adventurers—Force’s Tracts, Vol. II. (New Jersey, 20-cent shilling.)
*8 Manuscript account book, Essex Institute.

61298°— 29------ 5



60

PABT 1.— FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1840

A blacksmith billed a Salem shipbuilder in 1690 for £1 5s. ($4.17)
for making an anchor weighing 50 pounds,5 but unfortunately no
9
time is entered in the statement. Gabriel Thomas quoted the rate
of pay of ship carpenters in Pennsylvania in 1698 as “ between five
and six shillings” ($1 and $1.20) 6 a day.
0
A very early employer's liability case which was decided in favor of
the plaintiff grew out of an accident in a Salem shipyard in 1641, in
which a rigger was killed. The employer “ was required by the Court
of Assistants to pay £10 sterling [$48.60] to the wife and children of
the deceased because they thought that sufficient care was not taken
to have his tackle strong enough.” 6
1
Virginia produced some seagoing vessels, but large ships were not
imperative because foreign shippers were always eager to furnish all
that were needed to move the tobacco crops. On the other hand,
small sloops and shallops which could navigate Virginia rivers to the
wharves of the planters were in constant demand, and were built in
the colony. Bruce quotes a statement of 1672, presenting in itemized
form the cost of building a sloop:
The total amount was 4,467 pounds of tobacco, which at the rate of two pence
a pound represented an expense, perhaps, of about $925. In the construction of
this sloop the various parts were supplied by different persons. It seems to have
required four months to complete it, for the charges for the food furnished the
carpenter run over that length of time; a cask of cider was also consumed by him
during the same period .6
2

After more than a century of extensive shipbuilding on the New
England seaboard the industry moved inland after more timber.
While Weeden accounts for the decline of the industry in the old
centers after 1750 by the exhaustion of the great trees,6 another
3
writer holds that “ in Boston shipbuilding was a declining industry on
account of the exorbitant wages, carpenters demanding 67 cents a
day.” 6 This exorbitant rate, however, represents an increase of only
4
6d. to Is. (8.4 to 16.7 cents) over the rate of a century before. In
Pennsylvania throughout the last quarter of the eighteenth century
the rate for skilled workers was 9s. ($1.20) a day.6
5
Stephen Girard, of Philadelphia, apparently paid more than the
prevailing rate to all his employees, whatever their occupation. Pay
rolls for an overhauling and repair job on his ship Voltaire at Phila­
delphia in 1807 show the following daily rates: Carpenters and
calkers, $2; sawyers, $1.25; painters, $1.25; laborers, $1.10 and $1.6
6
These rates are considerably higher than those paid in Massachusetts
at a later period, after the general rise in wages following the War of
1812. Shipyard wages in 1815, as given in the Massachusetts State
report, are $1.13 a day for boat builders, or 50 cents a day with
board, and $1.25 for riggers. In 1825-26 the average rate was
$1.25, and $2 a day for calkers.6
7
A custom of long standing in the shipbuilding industry required
employers to furnish workers with “ drink or grog at various intervals
in the day. The ceremony of laying the keel, and of commencing
69 Manuscript account book, Essex Institute.
60 Pennsylvania colonial shilling, 20 cents.
61 Felt, Joseph B.: Annals of Salem, Vol. I, p. 178.
62 Bruce, Vol. II, p. 436 (citing Kecords of York County, Va., Vol. 1671-1694, p. 25).
«3 Weeden, Vol. II, p. 765.
64 Clark, Victor S.: History of Manufactures in the United States, 1607-1860, p. 208.
68 Wharton & Humphreys Shipyard Accounts, 1773-1795, Historical Society of Pennsylvania.
66 In Girard College Library, Philadelphia.
67 Massachusetts Bureau of Statistics of Labor (16th annual report), History of Wages and Prices, p. 175.




CHAPTER 4.— BUILDING TRADES

61

each part of the work, as also the christening or naming of a vessel,
was always accompanied with the use of ardent spirits.” 6 In 1817
8
Thacher Magoun, a shipbuilder of Medford, Mass., “ determined to
abolish the grog privilege.”
The hours of labor at that time were from sunrise to sunset, and all employers
were obliged by custom to furnish liquor free at least twice a day. These two
periods for drink were really periods of rest, and were called luncheon times, and
Mr. Magoun’s no-rum movement meant no luncheon time, and was practically
an increase in the working time, the employer thus saving the cost of time as
well as the cost of rum. The hours of this luncheon privilege were eleven o'clock
in the forenoon and four o'clock in the afternoon. Many of the workmen who
were temperance men were indignant at the action of their employer, as they
felt that the luncheon times were as oases in the desert of unremitting toil.6 *
8

There was a brief, unsuccessful strike, “ but finally all gave in and
a ship was built without the use of liquor in any form.” 6
8
Ship workers “ seem to have been the first to bring the question of
the hours of labor to a direct issue.” 6 The journeyman shipwrights
9
and calkers of Boston organized in 1832 and “ resolved that from and
after March 20 until the first of September we will not labor more
than ten hours a day unless paid extra for each and every hour.” 7
0
The master builders promptly locked them out and advertised in
the Boston papers for shipwrights who were “ not pledged to any
combination respecting hours,” and offered $2 a day.7
1
The Boston journeymen were defeated, but “ while the merchants
of Boston were saying that it was impossible to conduct their busi­
ness on the ten-hour system, the system was adopted in New York
and Philadelphia after a struggle, and it was working satisfactorily.
Public sentiment grew stronger in favor of the ship workers ” and the
movement started in New York and Philadelphia “ spread along the
coast and culminated in the proclamation of President Van Buren
fixing the hours of labor for persons employed in the navy yards ” 7 at
2
10 a day.
Conditions in shipyards at the time were thus described:
Everywhere, from the Government shipyards down to the ten-ton sloop set
up in the woods miles from any place, the rule holds good. Hurrah! Hurry
and hiring men to-day; to-morrow, or day after, or next week, the place is as
quiet as a grave yard; the crisis is passed, the hurry is over, the craft launched
and gone, and so all the craftsmen— scattered in as many directions, perhaps, as
there are men, in search of some other three-weeks ’ job.
In some four or five of our larger cities ship work is something more continuous
and reliable; but even they are by no means exempt from depressions and sudden
fluctuations; and whenever the “ slack tim e” comes if the ship carpenter, caulker,
joiner, etc., is not absolutely discharged, his wages are reduced until he finds
himself wondering ‘ (what he will do with it,” his remuneration, at the highest
figure, being no greater than that of some half a dozen other classes of mechanics
whose employment is constant and always under shelter, so that whatever time
they may lose is voluntary .7
8
CABINETM AKIN G

The cabinetmaker, as distinct from the carpenter and joiner,
makes his appearance in the latter part of the eighteenth century.
The earliest daily rate which the bureau was able to find is the $2
68 McNeill, George E., ed.: The Labor Movement (1887), p. 333.
«»Idem, p. 337.
w Idem, p. 339.
71 Documentary History American Industrial Society, Vol. VI, pp. 85-86.
w McNeill, George E.: The Labor Movement, pp. 340-341.
» Idem, p. 341.




62

PA T 1.—F O C L N L T E T 1840
R
R M O O IA IM S O

paid to the cabinetmakers who built the furniture in the Massa­
chusetts State House in 1797.7 This was undoubtedly much higher
4
than the prevailing rate, as were most of the wages paid on that job,
and was for expert work. Fifty years later the rate established by
the Journeyman Cabinet Makers Beneficial Society of the District of
Columbia was only “ $1.50 for every ten hours’ work when employed
by the day.” 7
6
The usual method of payment in cabinetmaking, however, was by
the job or piece. While specifications for each job are detailed, no
suggestion is given as to the time involved in execution. A list of
“ Prices of Cabinet and Chair Work” was carefully recorded by Ben­
jamin Lehman, a Philadelphia manufacturer, in 1786, with the
notation: “ The first column is of Mahogany, the second of Walnut,
the third the Journeyman’s Wages.7 Various items selected from
6
this list, with the amount paid to the journeyman for the work spe­
cified, follow:
High chest of drawers on a frame, head and corners and plain
feet______________________________________________________
Ditto, claw feet, leaves on knees and shell drawers____________

£ s. d.
3 10 0 ($9.33)
5 0 0 ($13. 33)

Low chest of drawers_____________________________________ j j *7 | ($5 qq)
Chairs__________________________________ 10s. ($1.33) to—
17
($2! 26)
Easy chairs________________________________________________
18
($ 2. 40)
Chair frames for stuffing___________________________________
6
($0. 80)
Sofas, plain____________ ____________________________________
1 0 0 ($2. 67)
Ditto, with a fret on the feet and Rails and Carved Mouldings.
2 10 0 ($ 6. 67)
Dining Tables, 3 ' 6" _______________________________________
1 0 0 ($2.67)
4 '__________________________________________
1 2 6 ($3.00)
4 ' 6" _______________________________________
1 5 0 ($3.33)
5' 6" with 6 legs____________________________
1 15 0 ($4. 67)
Card tables________________________________________________
17 6 ($2.33)
Card tables with round corners_____________________________
1 2 6 ($3. 00)
Bedsteads, low posts with claw feet_________________________
10
($ 1. 33)
Bedsteads, high posts, fluted pillars and carved capital______
1 10
($4. 00)
Ditto with plain turned pillars and bases___________________
15
($ 2. 00)

Cabinetmakers in New York City were sufficiently well organized
in 1802 to establish a “ Book of Prices” which was agreed to by the
employers in September of that year. This price list was maintained
until 1817, when it was revised and again accepted by the employers.
The next revision was begun in 1832, but was not signed by the
employers and put into effect until two years later, a strike for enforce­
ment having taken place in the meantime. The rates in the 1817
price list are considerably higher in most instances than those of 1834.
Whether the 1817 prices held throughout the 15 years, or whether
the revision of 1832 was an attempt to stabilize a falling scale is not
known. The 1817 Book of Prices reflects the general advance in both
wages and prices which followed the War of 1812, and it is altogether
probable that it was not effectively enforced throughout the entire
period in which it w presumably operative.
^as
The bureau had access to a volume, privately owned, in which all
three of these price lists— 1802, 1817, and 1834— are combined.
Items are fisted in the minutest detail, with full specifications for the
work and the manner in which it was to be performed. The articles
listed change from household furniture which in 1802 is fairly simple,
7 Massachusetts State Archives; see also p. 55.
4
w Constitution of 1842 in Library of Congress.
In manuscript collection, Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.




63

CHAPTER 4.— BUILDING TRADES

through successive styles and periods to a seemingly endless number
in 1834, specifications for which are intricate and detailed in the
extreme. The simple styles of 1802 have largely disappeared from the
list in 1817 and are wholly absent in 1834, and many of those intro­
duced in 1817 have been replaced in the later revision. This makes
comparison of prices difficult and uncertain. In tabulating this
material, selection was made only of standard articles of furniture
which seemed from the specifications to be reasonably comparable.
The specifications as listed are taken from the 1802 book, elaborations
on winch in the later editions have been omitted.
The 1802 book states that “ men working by the day are to be paid
in proportion to their earnings by the piece, and find their own
candles.”
The preface to the 1817 list reads:
It appears from long experience that the late Book of Prices has been found
deficient in many respects, owing to the late improvements and alterations in the
work; therefore to better regulate the prices of cabinet work, the New York Soci­
ety of Journeymen Cabinet Makers have determined to lay before their employers
one which they trust will prevent, in some degree, those disputes which have
frequently occurred by taking prices of work from improper places. They have
endeavored to arrange them so that the present book will allow the work to aver­
age as much, and no more, than the late book, with the advance of 1234 per cent.

The following table shows the piece prices paid on selected articles
for each of the three periods covered. In the original, prices are
quoted in pounds, shillings, and pence for 1802 and 1817. Since that
was not the money system of the time it has been converted for
presentation here:
Table 5.— Piece prices on selected articles of furniture, as given in union agreements
in New York City, from 1802 to 1834
Article
Plain chest or bureau, 3 feet 6 inches long, 2 feet 7 inches high between the mold­
ings, 4 drawers.... ..............................................................................................
Each inch less in length, deduct....................................................................
Each inch more in length, add.......................................................................
Each drawer...................................................................................................
Serpentine chest or bureau, 3 feet 8 inches long, 2 feet 10 inches high, 4 drawers.
Secretary, 3 feet 10 inches long, 3 feet 1 inch high, 8 small drawers, 8 letter holes,
3 long drawers.
Straight front library bookcase, 5 feet long, 7 feet 6 inches high between plinth and
cornice, 2 flat panel doors upper and 2 lower, 4 shelves in each side of upper part
and 2 on each side of lower.................................................................................
Low wardrobe, 4 feet 2 inches long, 3 feet 8 inches high between moldings, 2 flat
panel doors, panels plowed in, with ovolo stuck on inner edge, 3 shelves inside,
2 short drawers in bottom..................................................................................
Wardrobe, 4 feet long, 6 feet 2 inches high between moldings, 2 flat panel doors,
panels plowed in, an ovolo stuck in inner edge, four trays in upper part, 3 long
drawers in lower................................................................................................
Inch more in length, a d d ..............................................................................
Inch more in height, add................................................................................
Inch less in length, deduct— ........................................................................
Inch less in height, deduct............................................................................
Half round dining table, 4 feet long, veneered rail, 3 plain legs, an astragal or five
strings round the lower edge of the rail..............................................................
Knee-hole library table, 4 feet long, 2 feet 6 inches wide, 9 drawers........................
Same, 5 feet 6 inches long, 2 feet 4 inches wide, 3 drawers in each pedestal and one
in center, 6 plain tapered legs............................................................................
Straight-front sideboard, 6 feet long, framing 21 inches deep, deep drawer at one
end partitioned for bottles.................................................................................
i Lower.
2 Upper.




1802

1817

$6.50
.08
.08
.68
12.50

$8.25
.08
.08
.88
12.50

15.00

1834

$6.70
.08
.12
.68
11.25
18.50

20.00 /HI. 50
\H4.00

U 0.00
3 11.00

9.50

10.38

8.75

16.25
.19
.08
.19
.08

22.13
.30
.15
.30
.15

17.25
.25
.12
.16
.08

2.50
14.50

3.13

3.75

16.38
20.00

15.00

14.00

64

PiRT 1.— FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1840

Table 5*— Piece prices on selected articles of furniture, as given in union agreements
in New York Cityf from 1802 to 1834— Continued
Article

1802

1817

Low post bedstead, four posts turned____________________________________
If made of hardwood, extra__________________________________________
High post bedstead__________________________________ _________________
If made of hardwood, extra........................................... .......... ....... ....... ......
Clock case, with arched head, scroll or cove pediment, the top of the body door
serpentine, and quarter-round on ditto, frieze below top molding, etc_______
Cradle, plain, all solid_________________________________________________
A square-back chair, with straight top and stay rail, four upright slats, straight
seat, made for stuffing over the rails, plain tapered legs___________________

$0.88
.38
2.00
.50

$1.13
.63
2.00
.83

$1.00
.50
2.00
.75

8.10
2.75

12.50
3.38

11.50
3.25

1.50

2.13

1834

(3)

3 Chair prices for 1834 period, various designs, range from $2.13 for Grecian chairs, to $5 for rocking chairs.
“ All chairs for which a price can not be found in the list to be settled by a committee. Where a single
Grecian chair is to be made, charge 25 cents extra; French chair, 50 cents extra. Shaping, gluing, veneering,
all charged for in addition to price for body work.”

Additional regulations in the 1817 agreement are: “ All pine work
to be done by the day, and the workman to be paid according to his
earnings by the piece. When work, or any part of it, is made of cherry,
ash, or plain maple, to be the same as mahogany. When glass plates
are put in any piece of work, to pay 5 per cent on the value thereon,
the workman to take the risk. It shall be optional with the employer
to have them put in by the workman or not.”
The latter provision was changed in 1834, when it was agreed that
putting in glass plates was “ to be paid for according to time, the
employer to take the risk.” Further, “ all marble pillars, tops, etc.,
to be at the risk of the employers.”
Prices which could not be fixed by the 1834 scale were “ to be settled
by a committee of employers and journeymen.”
The time rate paid cabinetmakers in 1832, as given in the McLane
report on statistics of manufactures, ranges from 75 cents to $1.25
a day, and averages a dollar a day in most of the States reporting. In
Maine, however, 75 cents was the prevailing rate.




Chapter 5.— IRON INDUSTRY

A supply of iron was among the chief material advantages which
England expected to derive from the American colonies, because of
the abundance of good ore and of wood for charcoal, which was then
used as coal. Iron manufacture was begun in Virginia very soon
after its settlement, but the early efforts met with a series of disasters
which discouraged further development throughout the seventeenth
century.
The first iron works were established in 1620 at Falling Creek,
about 60 miles above Jamestown, by a group of ironworkers from
England. A promising beginning was followed immediately by the
death of the superintendent and two of the master workmen. Later
the Virginia Company sent over a new superintendent and 20 skilled
men to put the enterprise back on its feet. These 20 men went at
the expense of the company, were to be supported by it for the first
year, and agreed to remain in its employ for seven years. Again the
Falling Creek works were progressing toward success when the Indian
massacre of 1622 put an end to the undertaking. All of the workmen
were killed and the plant was destroyed.
The discovery of bog ore in Massachusetts led to the establishment
of the first productive iron works in the colonies at Saugus (Lynn)
about 1643. Governor Winthrop’s son, John Winthrop, jr., was
chiefly instrumental in organizing a company of “ undertakers” in
England which raised £1,000 ($4,860) for the enterprise. Winthrop
returned to Massachusetts with skilled workmen and obtained con­
cessions from the Colonial Government, provisional upon completing
the works within three years and providing the colony with sufficient
iron at £20 ($97.20) per ton. Later stock in the company was offered
to the public and the General Court requested “ all citizens * * *
to take stock according to their ability.” By 1648, Winthrop wrote,
the furnace was producing “ 8 tuns per week, and their bar iron is as
good as the Spanish.” In capacity it “ ranked with the larger estab­
lishments of this kind, either in America or abroad.” 1
The enterprise, which “ embraced a blast furnace, or ‘ foundery/
and a refining forge,” 2 was, according to an account written in 1677,
“ very much promoted and strenuously carried on for some time, but
at length, instead of drawing out bars of iron for the country’s use,
there was hammered out nothing but contentions and lawsuits.” 8
It became involved in many difficulties which resulted in the discon­
tinuance of the plant about 1688, after it had passed through several
hands.
Baker Library of the Harvard Graduate School of Business Ad­
ministration has recently come into possession of a collection of
manuscripts, chiefly letters, accounts, and inventories, of the Saugus
i Clark, Victor S.: History of Manufactures in the United States, 1607-1860, p. 170.
* Swank, James M.: Iron in All Ages, p. 83.
8 Quoted by Swank, p. 83.




65

66

PART 1.— FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1840

Iron Works. Some of these accounts are practically pay rolls.
Those dealing particularly with the furnace and forge for the year
1652 are here reproduced as copied from the original manuscripts by
the bureau representative:
To
“
“
“
“
“
“
To
“
“
“
To
“
“
“

26 weekes worke at Forge________________________________ £16-6s. ($54.33)
2 dayes worke at ye finnery chimneye___________________
5s. ($0.83)
5 dayes worke and setting an anvill______________________
15s. ($2.50)
14 dayes worke at Furnace_______________________________ £ l-1 5 s. ($5.83)
10s. ($1.67)
Hennry Leonard for 4 dayes worke_______________________
James Leonard for 15 dayes worke about finnery chimneye
and other worke about ye forge________________________ £ l-1 3 s . ($5.50)
ditto Leonard for dressing his bellows 3 times_____________£ l-1 0 s. ($5.00)
accompte of Jno Vinton for 6}4 dayes work_______________
16/3 ($2.71)
accompte of Ralph Russel for 2}i dayes work_____________
6/3 ($1.04)
accompte of Thomas Wiggins for 2 dayes worke__________
5s. ($0.83)
7 dayes work____________________________________________
17/6 ($2.92)
4 dayes worke fashiojiing ye hammer beames_____________
50s. ($ 8 .33)
dayes work putting in ye furnace beames______________
5/3 ($0.88)
30 dayes worke about ye workes at 2/6___________________ £3-15s. ($12.50)
acct Jno Turner, 49 weekes waiges________________________£ 2 9 -8 s. ($98.00)

These are wages paid the skilled workers. Reduced to a daily rate,
the amount is 2s. 6d. (42 cents) in practically all instances. The cost
of boarding these men, which is also entered in the accounts, runs
from 5s. to 5s. 8d. (83.3 to 94.5 cents) per capita a week. The super­
intendent received £100 a year, probably sterling ($486), and his
agreement with the company provided for “ passadge for himself, his
wife, 2 children, 3 servants; an howse to be built for him and ground
to be allowed him for his horses and a few cowes.”
Unskilled labor was done by Scotchmen taken prisoners by Crom­
well and sent to the iron works under 10 years* indenture to the com­
pany. Nearly 40 of these indentured servants were employed in the
plant. On one occasion the company in England protested the
weekly charge of 5 shillings per head for boarding them, and insisted
that this amount be cut to 3s. 6d. (58 cents), “ you haveing ther
plenty of fish, both fresh and salt, and pidgions and venison and come
and pease.”
The woodsmen’s accounts give a time rate in some cases and a
piece rate in others. The time rate appears in such entries as: “ To
accompte of Samuel Harte for 9 months wages, £9 [$30]” ; “ to acct
of Daniel Salmon for 20 weeks waiges at 9s. [$1.50] a week” ; “ to
ditto for 27 weekes waiges at 12s. [$2.00] per weeke,” and in occasional
items of Is. 6d. (25 cents) for a day’s work felling trees. The piece
rate is generally 2 s., 2 s. 4d., and 2s. 8d. (33.3, 39, and 44.5 cents)
a cord for cutting and cording, depending on the length of the log.
One entry is for 2s. 6d. (42 cents) “ to a daye's work attendance on ye
coarde woode, being afire.”
The charge for loading “ coale” is entered variously, ranging from
4s. 8d. to 5s. 8d. (78 to 94.5 cents) a “ loade,” but there is no way
of determining what constituted a load. Colonel Spotswood, 70
years later, estimated the cost of coaling charcoal at his Virginia
forge at 5s. (83.3 cents) per load of 160 bushels. Very likely a load
meant the same thing at Saugus, as other rates are comparable in
the two plants, particularly in cording wood, for which Spotswood
paid 2s. (33.3 cents) a cord for wood “ cut, mauled, cut to length
(4 feet) and delivered at pits.” 4
4 Pearse,
 John B.: A Concise History of the Iron Manufacture of the American Colonies, p. 12.


CHAPTER 5.— IRON INDUSTRY

67

To obtain the raw material, bog ore, “ men go out with boats and
make use of instruments much like those with which oysters are
taken, to get up the ore from the bottom of the pond.” 5 The “ bogg
myne” accounts show that this work was paid for at the rate of 6s.
($1) a ton. “ For a number of years/' before the supply began to
run out, “ a man would take up and bring to shore two tons of it in
a day.” 6
An account which may be credited to maintenance is “ 9 monthes
carpenter work, £35 [$116.67],” which is about 3s. (50 cents) per day.
Other items, which do not specify the occupation, are, “ wages at
12s. 8d. [$2.11] per week” ; “ to 6 monthes waiges, £20 [$66.67]” ;
“ to 26 weekes work at 12s. 8d. [$2.11]” ; “ to 4 weekes waiges, £2
[$6.67].”
Later records suggest that the employees of the company experi­
enced difficulty in collecting their wages. Among the papers in the
bankruptcy proceedings is a petition presented to the court by
several of the workmen, whose names appear on the accounts, who
“ do most humbly petition this Honored Court to be pleased that
before any judgment be entered your petitioners may be payed their
just dues, or such order taken that they may be payd in some short
time.”
Weeden speaks of the Saugus Iron Works as “ a school for in­
structing iron workers” 6 which influenced the industry materially,
however limited the success of the enterprise itself. The Leonards,
Henry and James, who appear in the accounts, were among the
skilled, men whom Winthrop secured in England. They left the
Saugus works to start other plants throughout Massachusetts, the
most successful of which was at Raynham, and founded a long line
of New England iron masters. Ralph Russell also left Saugus to
set up a forge of his own. ^Joseph Jenks, one of the early American
inventors, was the machinist at the Saugus Iron Works. He made
the molds for the first castings, and later obtained from the super­
intendent of the plant a concession to start a small forge for the
manufacture of edged tools. He made the dies for the “ pine tree
shilling” coined by the Bay Colony, and in 1654, still working at
his small forge in the Saugus plant, built the first fire engine made in
America. His son left the Saugus plant in 1671 and started “ the
forge which founded Pawtucket,” R. I.7
In the colonial period iron and steel manufacture, Clark says, “ was
entirely a workshop craft. A bloomery was simply a large black­
smith's forge, generally with a power-diiven bellows, or a small
furnace without a stack, in which rich ores could be deoxydized in
an open charcoal fire so as to form a semimolten mass or bloom of
wrought iron, which was refined by hammering upon an anvil.
Almost any country smithy might become a bloomery upon occa­
sion, and we have no record of how often small quantities of iron
may have been made in this way.” 8 Thomas, Pennsylvania's
chronicler, records one instance (1698) which suggests how profitable
the smith may have found these occasional incursions into iron manu­
facture: “ A blacksmith, (my next Neighbor) who himself, with one
8 Prom an old letter, quoted by Swank, p. 94.
* Vol. I, p. 178.
7 Pawtucket Times Historical Magazine, Oct. 8,1921 (two hundred and fiftieth anniversary).
8 Clark, p. 169.




68

PAl
RT 1.— FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1840

negro man he had, got 50s. [$10]9 in one Day, by working up a hun­
dred pound weight of Iron, which at 6 pence [10 cents] per pound
(and that is the Common Price) amounts to that Summ.”
Iron manufacture developed rapidly in all the colonies during the
first half of the eighteenth century. Several successful furnaces were
operated in Maryland and Virginia, but because of the wide use of
indentured labor wage data concerning them is obscure. “ The Vir­
ginia works used slave labor, with English or German foremen,”
and “ the Maryland furnaces, especially in later years, used either
indentured English convicts or redemptioners whose labor was sold
for a term of years.” 1
0
Colonel Alexander Spotswood, an English engineer, served as
governor of the Virginia colony for 14 years and then became, in 1724,
its most prominent ironmaster. He paid his superintendent £100
($333) a year, and had in addition a pay roll of £500 ($1,665) a year
for “ the founder, miner, collier, stock taker, clerk, smith, carpenter,
wheelright, and several carters.” 1
1
Colonial furnaces in the first half of the eighteenth century, during
which many sprang up, operated successfully for a brief period and
then died out, have been described as “ baronial and patriarchal,
resembling a feudal holding or a southern plantation. They were
located where forests were within easy reach and generally had a farm
adjacent; with the slaves, white servants and free laborers, one of
these furnaces formed a little settlement.” 1 Operating methods in
2
use in 1759, in Pennsylvania and New Jersey specifically, are given
thus by a contemporary:
The workmen are partly English and partly Irish, with some few Germans,
although the work is carried on after the English method. The pig iron is melted
into geese and is cast from five to six feet long and a half foot broad, for con­
venience in forging. The pigs are first operated upon by the finers. Then the
chiffery or hammermen take it back again into their hands and beat out the
long bars.
The finers are paid 30s. [$4] 1 a ton, the hammermen 23s. 9d. [$3.15] a ton;
8
that is to say, both together £2.13.9 [$7.15] per ton. The laborers are generally
composed partly of negroes (slaves) and partly of servants from Germany 'or
Ireland bought for a term of years.1
4

The most ambitious undertakings of the latter half of the century
were those of Hasenclever in New Jersey and Stiegel in Pennsylvania.
Both of these enterprises, like that of the Saugus Iron Works a hundred
years before, ended in bankruptcy within a few years. Hasenclever
had enormous holdings and attempted operations on a scale which
would be considerable even now. Business records and statements
of costs of production which he left are reproduced in Pearse’s History
of Iron Manufacture in the American Colonies, thus: 1
5
He set out to build five blast furnaces and seven forges, with twelve hammers
and twenty-five fires. He estimated the cost of building these works at about
£40,000 [$100,000]1 , and the profits from them at £10,000 [$25,000] at least—
6
the furnaces producing 3,500 tons pig iron yearly, at a profit of two pounds,
eleven shillings four pence sterling [$12.47], and the forges one thousand two
9 Pennsylvania colonial shilling equals 20 cents.
10 Pearse, p. 16.
Idem, p. 13.
1J Herrick, Cheesman A.: White Servitude in Pennsylvania, p. 64.
13 Pennsylvania Shilling of Provincial era—13.3 cents. See p. 16.
14 Acrelius, Israel: History of New Sweden. In Pennsylvania Historical Society Memoirs, Vol. IX.
15 Pearse, pp. 67-70.
18 New York currency—shilling is 12.5 cents.




69

CHAPTER 5.— IRON INDUSTRY

hundred and fifty tons bar iron yearly, at a profit of seven pounds thirteen
shillings sterling [$37.18] per ton.
The actual costs of producing pig and bar iron are thus detailed:
Effective Account of the Expenses and Wages paid in the Province of New Jersey,
in North America, to smelt five tons of Ore into three tons of Pig Iron, and to
reduce three tons of Pig Iron into two tons of Bar Iron:
T o 5 tons of ore, with all charges rendered, at the furnace, £ s. d.
15s. [$1.88] per ton __________________________________ 3 15 0 ($9. 38)
9 loads of charcoal, of 96 bushels each, at 20s. [$2.50] per
load_________________________________________________ 9 0 0 ($22. 50)
Wages— 1 founder, at 5s. [63 cents] per day, and 9 assist­
ants, viz: 1 keeper, 2 fillers, 2 ore breakers, 2 coal
stockers, 1 gutterman, 1 bankman, at 3s. [37.5 cents]
per day_____________________________________________
1 12 0 ($4. 00)
Salaries and repair of buildings and roads per day______ 1 0 0 ($ 2. 50)
15

7 0 ($38. 38)

Expenses to Reduce Three Tons of Pig Iron into Two Tons of Bar Iron:
£

T o 3 tons of pig iron_________________________________
9 loads of coal, at 96 bushels per load, at 20s. [$2.50]__
Forgemen's wages, at £ 4 5s. [$10.63] per ton__________
Salaries and repair of buildings and roads, at £ 3 [$7.50]
per ton _____________________________________________
Transport to New York and shipping, per ton, £1 10s.
[$3.75]_____________________________________________

s.

15
9

8

7
0
10

d.

0
0

($22. 50)
($ 21. 25)

6

0

0

($15. 00)

3

0

0

($7.50)

0 ($38. 38)

Two tons of bar iron on board ship at New York
cost, in New York currency__________________41 17 0 ($104. 63)
The expenses of making bar iron at Ringwood, out of the old material ex­
tracted from the cinder heaps, is stated as follows, for 4 tons, 1 hundredweight,
2 quarters:
T o 3*4 tons of cinder iron, at £1 10s. [$3.75], New York £ s. d.
currency per ton _______________________________________ 5 5 0 ($13. 13)
5 tons old forge cinders, at £1 [$2.50] per ton _____________ 5 0 0 ($ 12. 50)
21% loads of charcoal, at 96 bushels per load, at 20s. [$2.50]_ 21 15 0 ($54. 38)
Forgeman’s wages, at £5 14s. [$14.25] per ton— (one-third
more than for common bar)____________________________ 23 3 11 ($57. 98)
55

3 11 ($137. 99)

Rates at the Stiegel furnaces in Pennsylvania in 1756-1760 were
less than those paid at the Saugus Iron Works a hundred years
before. The prevailing daily rates were Is. 6d. and 2s. (19 cents
and 26.6 cents), while monthly wages ranged from 30s. to 60s. ($4 to
$8). The ore miners received more money, 2s. lOd. to 3s. 5d. (36.6
to 45 cents), but it is possible that they were not boarded, as were
the men at the forge.1 The Mary Ann Furnace,1 a neighbor of
7
7
StiegePs Elizabeth Furnace, paid by the month almost entirely,
although the accounts occasionally show entries by the day. The pre­
vailing monthly wage for both the miners and the forgemen was 50s.
($6.67), the range being from 45s. ($6) to £3 ($8). A higher rate of
70s. ($9.33) which appears occasionally in the accounts was prob­
ably paid to foremen. The stoker received £4 ($10.68) a month,
while “ night work in the smith shop” was valued at £4.10 ($12).
When a daily rate was paid it was 2s. 6d. (33 cents) in nearly all cases.
The rates for hauling differed with the material hauled. Ore paid
5s. (67 cents); limestone, 7s. 6d. ($1), and sand 6s. (80 cents) per
load of 132% bushels. A man with a team earned 12s. ($1.60) a
day “ on his own diet.”
*7 Manuscript account books in the Library of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania.



70

PART 1.— FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1840

The items of expense as shown by the account books of still another
contemporary “ furnace” suggest that, with the exception of the
bankman, the workers were indentured servants maintained entirely
by the company. Clothing, shoes, medical attendance, and the like
appear frequently in the account of expenditures. Wages to the
bankman at 35s. ($4.67) a month are entered regularly, and a daily
rate of 2s. (26.6 cents) appears occasionally.
An interesting story of the labor system and methods of wage
payment practiced in a South Carolina iron works in 1785-1795 can
be read into an advertisement in the Charleston City Gazette of
May 12, 1795, which announces the works for sale at public auction.1
8
The plant holdings consisted of 15,000 acres of land “ on which are
about twenty-five improved farms,” and a settlement containing
four gristmills and two sawmills. The extent of available timber
was great enough that “ before there will be any occasion to go to an
improper distance for coal, the woods will bear a second cutting.”
In addition to land, buildings, and plant equipment, “ there are up­
wards of ninety negroes attached to the works, between 70 and 80
of whom are grown, the rest are children. Most of these negroes
have been employed for a considerable time at the works and are very
useful and valuable as forgemen, blacksmiths, founders, miners, and
various other occupations. ”
Workmen were paid “ either in bar iron or in castings, according
to their respective branches. ” The value of a ton of bar iron at the
time, as stated in the advertisement, was £37 10s. sterling ($182.25).
This reduces to 9 cents a pound in American money. The price of
castings as quoted in the advertisement is 3Kd. sterling, or 7 cents,
per pound. ^The following table has been made from the statement
of wages paid at the works, as given in the advertisement. Conver­
sion to a money equivalent has been made by using the rate per pound
of castings and bar iron given above.
Monthly wages {in pounds of iron) paid at the works, with money equivalent

Occupation:

Castings

Money

(p u d
o n s)

equ
ivalen
t

Founders and keepers___________________________________ 1, 250
Fellers__________________________________________________
154

$87. 50
10.78

Bar iron
To
f 100
Laborers------------------------------------------------------------------------ ^ 130
Wheelwrights___________________________________________
250
250
Carpenters_____________________________________________
175
Blacksmiths____________________________________________
Master colliers__________________________________________
400
Under colliers___________________________________________
250

n9.00
7Q
22. 50
22. 50
15. 75
36. 00
22. 50

Those paid at piece rates were the finer, the hammerer, and the
wood cutters. The finer was paid 200 pounds of bar iron ($18) per
long ton of “ anchonies” and the hammerer 150 pounds of bar iron
($13.50) per short ton of bar iron. The woodsmen received 6 pounds
of iron (54 cents) for each 4 feet by 4 feet 4 inches by 8 feet cord.
In all cases the workmen ^found themselves,” and, in the case of
the founder, whatever he paid his keeper came out of his own monthly
wages. Board, according to the proprietors, “ is generally 50 pounds
18 In Documentary History of American Industrial Society, Vol. II, pp. 306-312.




CHAPTER 5.— IRON INDUSTRY

71

iron [$4.50] per month” ; “ wheat, 8 pounds iron [$0.72] per bushel;
* * * 4 pounds of iron ($0.36) is given per bushel for corn,”
while meat was from 3 to 4 cents a pound.
The proprietors assured prospective bidders that “ it is probable
that hands of all professions may be procured to carry on the works,
and that goods would answer them better than cash in payment.”
They are further of the opinion that “ if a store of goods well laid in
was established, the hands would be better satisfied to take goods for
payment at 125 per cent advance than they now are with the present
mode of payment” in bar iron or castings. That method had been
followed, it was explained, because there was “ no store now estab­
lished to furnish a regular supply to the work people. ”
Massachusetts foundries paid $1.13 a day to skilled foundrymen
and pattern makers in 1815, and 87K cents to unskilled.1 The scale
9
at the Foxhall foundry at Georgetown, in the District of Columbia,
where about 30 men were employed in 1818, was $2 a day for fore­
men, $1.50 for rnolders, and $0.66% for laborers.2 By 1825 the scale
0
had advanced in Massachusetts to $1.25 and $1.50 for skilled men.1
9
In the report of Louis McLane, Secretary of the Treasury, on Statis­
tics of Manufactures in the United States in 1832, the average pay
of workers in blast furnaces, rolling mills, and foundries, is a dollar
a day in all States reporting. In Connecticut and New York the
most highly skilled workers received $1.50, and one New Jersey mill
reported $2. The rate in New Hampshire was as low as 67 and 75
cents, but most mills paid $1.
During the Revolution the demand for ironworkers in the manu­
facture of arms and cannon was great, and labor was so scarce that
all men employed in iron works were exempt from military duty and
prisoners of war were sent into the foundries to work.
BLACKSMITHS

The blacksmith, who was also the manufacturer of tools and house­
hold utensils, was a very important factor in colonial life.
Numerous records show the concessions and efforts that were made
to establish blacksmiths in the new settlements, and wherever
mention is made of the scarcity of labor they are included among the
needed craftsmen. Advertisements for blacksmith apprentices occur
repeatedly in all the early newspapers, and as a rule boys apprenticed
to that trade received money payment, sometimes as much as a
pound a year, as an inducement. Since blacksmiths were independent
craftsmen and proprietors of their own shops almost wholly, little
material as to earnings or rates of pay is available. Blacksmiths
were not specified in the wage-fixing statutes of the Massachusetts
colonies, so it is safe to assume that few of them were employed as
journeymen. In 1639 two of the craft in Massachusetts, “ in behalfe
of themselves and the rest of the blacksmiths within this Colony,”
petitioned the colonial court for “ advice and help” in meeting an
acute situation created by the rise in the price of coal from “ 30s.
[$7.29] a chaldron (36 bushels) to £4 [$19.44] lacking but 2s. (i. e.
£3 18s.) [$18.95] a chaldron.” Moreover, “ they are forced speedily
19 Massachusetts Bureau of Statistics of Labor: History of Wages and Prices in Massachusetts, 17521883, p. 171.
2 Warden, D. B.: A Statistical, Political, and Historical Account of the United States, Vol. Ill, p. 214,
°
footnote.




72

PART 1.— FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1840

to buy them at that great price or els they can not be gotten for
money, but are bought up and sent away into other parts of this
Continent.” The petitioning blacksmiths feared that “ unlesse some
speedy remedy be found out to help and prevent these mischeifes
their trade will be much hurt and the commonwealth deeply
prejudiced.” 2
1
The blacksmiths and the commonwealth must have weathered the
crisis some way without the necessary governmental aid to business,
for the court took no action on the petition.
Journeyman blacksmiths were paid 1 florin (40 cents) a day in New
Amsterdam in 1637. A hundred and fifty years later the rate in
New York City was $1 a day, while the journeyman rate in Massa­
chusetts toward the close of the eighteenth century was $0.66%.
In a table of the “ price of labour ” in South Carolina in 1710, appear­
ing in a brief history of the colony attributed to the governor of the
period,2 blacksmiths are the highest paid craftsmen in the list, at
2
7s. 6d. ($1.25) a day. In western Pennsylvania a hundred years
later “ a blacksmith earns $20 a month and board, and he lives in a
cabin of one room for which, with a garden, he pays $20 a year.” 2
3
In 1774 Thomas Jefferson made an agreement “ with Francis
Bishop that he shall work at the smith trade with Barnaby, whom he
is to teach. I am to build him a house and a shop at Shadwell and
to find him 400 pounds of pork and corn for himself. Also I am to
find him tools, but if I can not get them in time he is to use his own
until I can. He and Barnaby are to get their own coal and wood
(but I waggon in the coal) and we go halves in the profits of the busi­
ness.” The arrangement as to wood was apparently changed after­
wards, as six weeks later, on the day “ Bishop the blacksmith begins to
work for me,” an entry reads: “ George Bradley goes to cutting wood
for Bishop, for which I am to pay him, by the month, £8 [$26.67]
and meat a year. He pays his own levies and taxes and clothes
himself.” 2
4
At the close of the seventeenth century (1690) a Salem blacksmith
charged Is. (16.7 cents) for shoeing a horse and Is. 6d. (25 cents) for
“ makeing a bolt.” 2 A bill for smith work done at Province House
5
in Boston in 1742 reads:2
6
£

s.

T o 3 strong padlocks to stable___________________________ 1 6
T o 2 hasps and 4 staples to ditto_________________________
7
To a bar and 2 long staples to coach house_______________
15
To a strong pair H hinges and 8 screws and nails to a door
under the Great Stairs_________________________________
10
To a new large lock and bolting on with screws on stable
door___________________________________________________ 1
8

d.

0
0
0

($0. 78)
($0. 21)
($0. 45)

0

($0. 30)
($0.84)

Five years later, after the devastating fire which swept Boston in
1747,2 a smith presents a bill for four days’ work at the Province
7
House, at 25 shillings [50 cents] a day, for “ removing and taking care
of ironwork preserved from the flames.” 2
6
Lechford’s Notebook, p. 184.
22 In CarrolPs South Carolina Historical Collections, Vol. 2, p. 261.
23 Birkbeck, Morris: Notes on a Journey in America from the Coast of Virginia to the Territory of Illinois,
p. 35.
24 Jefferson's manuscript account books, Massachusetts Historical Society.
28 Manuscript account book, Essex Institute.
?6 Massachusetts State Archives.
27 Depreciated currency—shilling worth about 3 cents in 1742, and 2 cents in 1747.




CHAPTER 5.— IRON

73

These bills against the Province House are of course stated in
“ old tenor” currency, the depreciated paper of the period, which for
the five years referred to ran 30s. to 50s. to the Spanish dollar.2
8
Shoeing a horse “ all round ” cost 3s. (40 cents) in Maryland in 1771,
and 4s. (53 cents) during the war.2 The Portsmouth, N. H., “ Town
9
Committee for Regulating Prices” fixed 5s. per pound as the price
blacksmiths could charge “ for weight work” and “ for shoeing a
horse all round not above £6 and for shifting a sett of shoes, 30s.” 3
0
This proclamation was dated October 1,1779, at which time, according
to the State Committee’s Scale of Depreciated Currency 3 it took
0
£2,030 in continental paper to be worth £100 in coin. At that rate
the staggering sum of £6 for shoeing a horse becomes about onetwentieth of that, or 6s. ($1), a figure somewhat more comparable
to the Maryland price. Six pounds was also the price in Pennsylvania
in the same year for “ shoeing a horse with four new shoes.” The
pre-war price in that Province was 5s. (66.7 cents).3
1
NAILS

That nails should have been a really serious problem in any age
seems almost fantastic now. Nevertheless the need for nails played
an important part in colonial economics, and the value attached to
their possession can be appreciated when one realizes that in early
Virginia nails were a part of a planter's estate, listed in inventories
and mentioned in wills. Throughout the first century of settlement,
evidently, all the nails used by the colonists were imported, and so
valuable were they that, Bruce relates—
Small landowners, in deserting their homes with a view to making a settle­
ment elsewhere on more fertile soil, were in the habit of burning their cabins
when abandoned, in order to secure the nails by which the planks were held
together, and so general did this habit become that in 1644-45 it was provided
by law, as a means of destroying the motive for setting the houses on fire, that
each planter, when he gave up his dwelling, should be allowed, at public expense,
as many nails as two impartial men should calculate to be in the frame of the
deserted residence.3
2

After the manufacture of iron commenced in the colonies, slitting
mills were established which cut bar iron into nail-rods, and the manu­
facture of nails became a widespread industry. It was a common
practice for “ country people to erect small forges in their chimney
comers and in winter, and in evenings, when little other work can
be done, great quantities of nails are made, even by children. These
people take the rod iron of the merchant and return him the nails
and in consequence of this easy mode of barter the manufacture is
prodigiously great.” 3 Advertisements of nails for sale in large or
3
small quantities are pretty sure to be found in the early newspapers.
Factory production began to displace the home manufacture of
hand wrought nails after 1790, with the introduction of a nail-cutting
machine. Within a few years many machines for making nails were
patented and put into operation, and “ the occupation of making
nails in the chimney comer met with a serious check.” 3
4
28 See p. 17.
2* Dixon manuscript account books, Library of Congress,
so New Hampshire Broadsides, Library of Congress.
81 Norris Manuscript account books, Historical Society of Pennsylvania.
Bruce, Philip A.: Economic History of Virginia in the 17th Century, Vol. II, p. 146-147*
m Quoted in Swank, p. 99.
** Swank, p. 99.




74

PART 1.— FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1840

Thomas Jefferson ran a nail factory on his Monticello plantation,
which must have been an enterprising business, to judge from the
many entries in his account books of purchases of nail rods in large
quantities. The work was done by slaves. It was Jefferson’s practice
to work negro boys between 16 and 19 years of age in the “ nailery,”
under the supervision of an overseer. In 1803 he was paying the
overseer £10 ($33.33) a year for his services as superintendent of the
nailery, in addition to wages paid him for other duties about the
plantation. Jefferson decided to change that method, however,
and “ from the commencement of the ensuing year he is to have 2
per cent on all the nails sold instead of the 10 pounds. ” 3
5
In 1781 nail makers in one of the early factories in Massachusetts
were paid 48 cents a day. By 1817 this rate had more than doubled
and in the manufacture of tacks the workers were paid $1 a day.
The piece rate in tack factories was 2.8 cents per thousand in 1822, by
which time the day rate had increased to $1.25.3 Daily earnings of
6
pieceworkers in a Pennsylvania nail factory in 1832 were $1 to $1.50.3
7
Processes and earnings in a nail factory in Salem, Mass., in 1810,
are given thus by a visitor to the works:
Two heading machines are contrived to support by two levers the nail against
an immovable cap. * * * The rollers for the iron slitting mill are powerful.
The cutting machines are of different sizes, with different motions. The larger
machine is fed by tongs led by a pulley. The smaller is fed by hand and can
give 1,400 strokes in a minute. The machine for heading is not used since
the first experiment, as it is found heading is done better by hand than any
machine as yet invented both as to time and goodness o f execution. Board for
the workmen can be had at 15s. [$2.50] a week, and the men who head have
about an average of 5s. [83.3 cents] per hundredweight and can earn from 6s. to
9s. [$1 to $1.50] a day .3
8
35 Jefferson’s manuscript account books.
a Massachusetts Bureau of Statistics of Labor: History of Wages and Prices in Massachusetts, 1752-1883,
®
p. 172.
27 Statistics of Manufactures, Vol. II. p. 215.
w Diary of William Bentley, D. D. (published by Essex Institute), p. 498.




Chapter 6.— GLASS INDUSTRY

One of the first manufactures undertaken in the colonies was glass,
but in sjnte of repeated efforts and the availability of excellent mate­
rial, the industry attained no really successfuHooting for more than a
century. A glasshouse was started in Virginia during the second
year of settlement, manned by skilled workmen from Europe. The
prime interest of the Virginia Company in promoting the manufac­
ture of glass was “ the necessity of providing; a large quantity of beads
for the use of the settlers in their trade with the Indian natives.” 1
The first venture failed after Smith left the colony, and “ nothing more
was heard of glass manufacture in Virginia until 1621, in which year
there was an effort to establish it on a permanent footing.” 2
This second effort consisted of transporting “ four Italians skilled
in glass-making” and erecting a factory, but the enterprise was a
failure from the start.
Salem, Mass., granted land in 1639 to several men for the purpose of
promoting the manufacture of glass. After the reorganization of the
company a few years later the Salem glasshouse operated for 25 or
30 years, but “ it is probable that nothing more was attempted than
the manufacture of bottles and other coarse descriptions of glass.”
The great increase in New England population and prosperity * * * and
the improvements already taking place in the construction of the dwellings,
would have rendered the domestic manufacture of window glass a special boon
to the country. But its fabrication is altogether a more difficult and expensive
matter than that of bottles and the coarser household wares. Hence we find
that the first dwelling houses of the colonists, in all parts of the country, were
very generally— with the exception of those of some of the wealthier emigrants—
destitute of glass windows.3

New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania made early efforts at
glassmaking, but “ notwithstanding these attempts in different
quarters to manufacture glass, and the existence of good material,
from which the purest glass is now made, * * * no great progress
was made before the Revolution.” 4
^Two concerns, however, one in New Jersey and one in Pennsylva­
nia, had achieved a fair degree of success and had passed out of exist­
ence before the close of the Revolution. Of these, the New Jersey
plant was the older. It was established by Caspar Wistar, at Alloway, N. J., in 1739, and operated until 1780, manufacturing “ bottles
and coarse green window glass.” 6
Wistar made an agreement with four expert German glassmakers
to pay their passage to America, “ they to teach the art of glassmaking
to him and his son Richard and to no one else; and he to provide
land, fuel, servants, food, and material for a glass factory in the
province of New Jersey; to advance money for all expenses, including
1 Bruce, Philip A.: Economic History of Virginia in the Seventeenth Century, Vol. II, p. 440.
2 Idem, p. 441.
» Bishop, J. Leander: History of American Manufactures, 1608-1860, Vol. I, p. 234.
4 Idem, p. 236.
* Clark, Victor S.: History of Manufactures in the United States, 1607-1860, p. 209.

61298°— 29------ 6



75

76

PART 1.— FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1840

their support, and to give them one-third of the net profits of the
enterprise.” 6
While nothing was found bearing directly on the working force of
Wistar’s plant, Bishop says it “ employed quite a number of German
workmen,” 7 and it is very likely that most of the operatives were
indentured servants. That they were housed at the works is evident
from the inventory published in the advertisement which offered the
plant for sale. Tnis inventory, printed in the Pennsylvania Journal
of October 11, 1780, reads:8
Tw o furnaces with the necessary ovens for casting glass, drying wood, etc.
Nearby are two flattening ovens in separate houses, a store house, a pot house, a
house with tables for cutting glass, stamping mill, rolling mill for preparing glass
for working pots. Dwellings for workmen. Mansion house, 6 rooms to a floor.
Bake house and wash house. Store house.

Scarcity of skilled labor in the second generation seems to have
been chiefly responsible for the failure of the Wistar works after 40
years of a fairly substantial business. In fact, the difficulty in get­
ting and keeping trained workmen accounts in large part for the in­
variable failures of the many early attempts at glassmaking in the
colonies. Governor Moore of New York wrote to the Lords of
Trade and Plantations in 1767 that “ the Master of a Glass House
which was set up here a few years ago, now a bankrupt, assured me
that his ruin was owing to no other cause than being deserted by the
Servants he had imported at great expense.” 9
The first attempts at flint-glass manufacture to achieve any stability
were those made by Henry William Stiegel, in Pennsylvania, be­
ginning in 1763. Stiegel was an iron master, but branched out first
into the manufacture of ordinary window glass and bottles, and
later, at his last factory at Manheim, into the ambitious efforts in
decorated and colored art glass which, though ending in speedy
bankruptcy, produced nevertheless the first American flint glass of
any artistic value or interest. In his study of “ Stiegel Glass,”
Frederick William Hunter estimates flint glass to have been 30 per
cent of the output of the Manheim factory.1 To students of early
0
glass, Hunter believes—
It is of course perfectly evident that Stiegel had expert help trained in the
Bristol technique; also that he had German workmen whose knowledge of the
use of verifiable enamels was a professional one. And not only were the blowers
and decorators employed in the last glass house thus specially trained, but the
pot men and foremen who mixed and made the delicately colored glasses of the
later period of the factory were evidently experts. The conclusion is therefore
warranted that Stiegel brought men over from Europe especially for the manning
of his last factory. But the direct evidence of this that I have been able to find is
so slight that the fact of his having, on June 5, 1772, taken on three indentured
servants— Archibald Jackson for 4 years at £15 [$40]; Patrick Flanigan for 5
1
years at £15; and John Williams for 7 years at £15— is about the extent of it .1

Discussing processes in the Stiegel works, Hunter says:
It is likely, from the wording of his advertisements, that both the “ crown”
method (by which an opened bubble of glass was spun into a flat circular disc
from which window panes were cut) and the “ sheet” method (in which an ob­
long cylinder of glass was first fashioned and then cut longitudinally by a diamond
and allowed to open and flatten out under the influence of heat), were practiced
6 Hunter, Frederick William: Stiegel Glass, p. 159.
7 Bishop, Vol. I, p. 236.
8 Quoted by Hunter.
• O’Callaghan’s Documentary History of New York, Vol. I, p. 733.
10 Hunter, p. 225.
 p. 72.
Idem,



CHAPTER

6.— GLASS INDUSTRY

77

at the works. On the other hand, the common run of bottles were usually, at
this time, blown in crude clay moulds that were open at the top and about as
deep as the body of the bottle. The body of the bottle being thus formed, the
punty rod was attached to the bottom (driving it in a bit in the operation),
and the neck of the bottle drawn out by means of the blowpipe .1
2

Fortunately the account books of the Manheim works have been
preserved and are in the manuscript collection of the Historical
Society of Pennsylvania, and while the bookkeeping is extremely
crude, at times even erratic, it is possible to arrive at StiegeFs wage
scale from the scattered entries.
From 1763 to 1770 most of the glassmakers were paid by the
piece, the scales of prices for which, per dozen, were as follows:
Window glass:
8 x 10_____________
7 x 9 ______________
6 x 8 ______________
5 x 7 _____________
4 x 6 ____________ _
Tableware:
Small glasses _ _
Plates____ ____
_

S.

6

d.

Cents

0
5 0
4 0
2 6
1 6

80

0
0

40
53

3
4

66. 7
53
32. 6
19

Tableware— Continued.
Salts ______ __ _
Cream jugs (each) _
Bottles:
Gallon__________
Quart___________
Pint______________
Gill______________

8.

2
0
3

d.

0
2

0
1 6
1 1
1 0

Cents

26. 6

2
40
19
14
13. 3

Some workers were time workers even in this early period. Daily
rates, where quoted, are 2s. 8d. and 3s. (34:6 and 40 cents), while
monthly wages ranged from £1 10s. ($4) for boys to £3 and £3 10s.
($8 and $9.33) for shearers.
Piecework seems to have been abolished at the beginning of 1771,
and all of the regular staff put on a monthly basis under monthly or
yearly agreements. Monthly wages remained about the same— the
skilled men getting from £3 to £3 10s., while wages of unskilled
workers and boys ranged between £1 ($2.67) and £2 15s. ($7.33).
The agreements state specifically that the employee is “ to work
at anything he is put to, Teazing alone excepted.” In that occupa­
tion a definite agreement was made—for example, “ this day agreed
with George Kloppert for to teaze in the glasshouse for the time of
one year from this date at £3 10s. per month.” An agreement
covering tender boys reads:
Agreement made this day with John Nowman for his Two Boys to work in the
Glasshouse at tending the Glassmakers or any other work they shall be ordered
to do by H. W. Stiegel or any of his Deputies for and during this present Blast,
for which the said Nowman is to receive the sum of Two pounds Ten shillings
[$6.67] per month. The said Nowman is to find them their accomodations.

Another agreement, probably covering unskilled labor of a general
nature, states that “ Martin Betz is to work in the glasshouse or
anywhere else where he is ordered at any Business that he shall be
ordered to do, during the time of 12 Months, for which he is to
receive £31 [$82.67] or the value thereof, finding his own accommoda­
tions during the whole Time.” A postscript adds that “ he is also to
have 10 pounds of Nails in Bargain.” A teamster agreed “ to drive
ox team for one year at £33 [$88.20] and in Bargain one pair of Shoes.”
Later, in 1773-1775, after Stiegel had begun to specialize in art
glass, he paid considerably higher wages for the skilled work. Expert
h Hunter,

p. 187.




78

P4RT 1.— FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1840

workmen, largely imported from England, Germany, and Italy, were
paid salaries ranging from £5 Is. 9d. to £5 11s. 4d. ($13.56 to $14.84)
a month. One of his specialists, however, he did not import.
Hunter reproduces in facsimile 1 a “ Memorandum of Agreement made
3
this Fourth Day of June, 1773, between Henry William Stiegel,
owner of the American Flint Glass Manufactory of the one Side, and
Lazarus Isaacs, Glass Cutter of Philadelphia, of the other Side.”
Isaacs was to be employed as “ cutter and flowerer at £5 10s. ($14.67)
per month.” Stiegel was to furnish him “ a house to live in and also
a piece of land for a garden. As to firewood, he is to be supplied like
the other workmen at five shillings [66.7 cents] per cord hawled to
his Door. For the Rest of the Materials belonging to his Work said
H. W. Stiegel is to find them, except his own Tools and Utensils
belonging to his work.” A penalty clause involving “ £1,000 lawful
money of Pennsylvania” [$2,670] was attached for violation of the
agreement by either party.
After StiegePs financial collapse, which he tried unsuccessfully to
check by means of a lottery, the works were abandoned and no effort
was ever made to revive the industry.
The manuscript accounts of the Boston Glass Works in 1794 show
that “ the aggregate week’s wages of a foreman, 8 assistants and a
boy, were $58.50. Probably the glassmakers, who were imported
workmen, received about $1 a day.1 Twenty-five years later,
4
average daily wages in the industry in Massachusetts, according to
State report, were$2.04 for gaffers, $1.63 for cutters, $1.05 for jour­
neymen in unspecified occupations, and 54 cents for boys. By 1840
these rates had increased to $2.87 for gaffers, $2.22 for cutters, and
$1.50 for unclassified journeymen. Boys* wages remained the same.1
5
The McLane report, covering about the same period, gives a general
average for all skilled occupations of $1.30 a day, and 50 cents a day
for boys, in the Massachusetts factories.1
6
In the glass industry in Pennsylvania boys earned $1.50 to $3.50 a
week, whne of the flint glassworks reporting, one stated that “ wages
vary from $5 to $20 per week for men.” 1 Another gave $14 a week
7
as the highest amount earned. In window-glass manufacture, one
concern paid its blowers 85 cents per 100 feet, and its cutters $18 a box,
while time workers received $18 a month. Boys were paid $4 a
month. Another reported only annual earnings— “ 10 men at an
average of $450 per annum; 5 at $200; 2 at $150; 1 at $125; and 10
boys at $50 per annum. Eight hours a day, nine months in the
year.” 1
8
The oldest existing union scale in glass bottle blowing, dated June
22, 1846, is reproduced in the appendix. Union officials pointed out
that piece rates for identical and comparable articles in the current
union scale do not differ materially from these early rates, the differ­
ence in earning power lying, of course, in the vastly greater production
by machine processes.
m Hunter, p. 73.
m Clark, p. 394.

18 Massachusetts State Bureau of Statistics of Labor, History of Wages and Prices in Massachusetts
1752-1860, p. 166.
16 Statistics of Manufactures, 1832, Vol. I, p. 525.
Idem, Vol. II, p. 523.
is Idem, Vol. II, p. 532.




Chapter 7-— TEXTILE INDUSTRIES
HOUSEHOLD MANUFACTURE

During the first 75 years of colonial settlement textile manufacture
was so wholly a household industry that, in New England and the
middle colonies at least, nearly every home was a textile factory.
The southern colonies, at a decided trade advantage in being able to
exchange their tobacco for imported fabrics, were not under the neces­
sity for home production which impelled their northern neighbors.
Because each household was practically self-sufficient, the question
of rates of pay for cloth manufacture does not enter until the close of
the seventeenth century, with the appearance of the itinerant and
the custom weavers. Skilled workers were needed to finish the home
product, and from the first they established “ fulling mills” which
dressed and finished the coarse home-made fabrics. But they have
left no record of what their services were worth. The first fulling
mill was established in Rowley, Mass., about 1643, by 20 skilled textile
workers from Yorkshire, England, who brought their equipment with
them. “ This appears to have been the first place at which woolen
cloth was made in New England.” 1 Fulling mills sprang up rapidly
throughout the colonies, and are the beginnings of mill production of
cloth; but, according to Bishop, even after their introduction, “ much
of the woolen cloth of household manufacture was worn in its unfulled
and unfinished state.” 1
Despite the mother country’s policy of prohibiting the manufacture
of textiles in the colonies, colonial authorities at various times through­
out the first century offered bounties from public funds on cloth manu­
facture and on the necessary raw material. Furthermore, Massa­
chusetts Bay Colony undertook to make home spinning obligatory by
an order that—
All hands not necessarily employed on other occasions, as women, boys and
girls, shall and are hereby enjoined to spin according to their skill and ability,
and that the selectmen in every town do consider the condition and capacity of
every family, and accordingly assess them as one or more spinners. And because
several families are necessarily employed the greater part of their time in other
business, yet, if opportunities were attended, some time might be spared, at least
by some of them, for this work; the said selectmen shall therefore assess such
families at half or a quarter of a spinner, according to their capacities. Secondly,
and that every one thus assessed for a whole spinner, do after the present year,
1656, spin for 30 weeks eavery yeare 3 pounds per week of linnen, cotton or
woollen, and so proportionally for half or quarter spinners, under the penalty of
12d. for every pound short.2

Later the spinning school was evolved, out of which, perhaps, grew
the conception of employing child labor in textile manufacture. The
Virginia colony passed a law in 1646 calling for the establishment of two
flax houses, under the direction of a master and mistress appointed
by the assembly, to which each county was required to send two
1 Bishop, J. Leander: History of American Manufactures, 1608-1860, Vol. I, p. 304.
Massachusetts Bay Colony Records, Vol. Ill, p. 396.




79

80

PART 1.— FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1840

children, “ male or female, of the age of eight or seven at least, whose
parents were too poor to educate them, to be instructed in the art of
carding, knitting, and spinning. In order that ample provision might
be made for the health and comfort of the pupils, each county was
required to supply the two children whom it sent with six barrels of
Indian corn, a sow, two laying hens, linen and woolen apparel, shoes,
hose, a bed, rug, blanket, two coverlets, a wooden bowl or tray, and
two pewter spoons.” 3 This school appears to have existed only on
paper, and in 1663 the General Assembly passed another law directing
each county to provide for “ educating and instructing poor children
in the knowledge of spinning, weaving, and other useful occupations.” 4
Early in the eighteenth century two concurrent movements were
started in Boston to establish spinning schools for children. One was
a public enterprise, the funds for which were raised by popular sub­
scription and later by a luxury tax. A large brick building was
erected, and the school “ was spiritedly conducted for a few years,
but was soon abandoned.” 6 The other spinning school was the
philanthropic undertaking of a Boston merchant, to provide employ­
ment for the children of the poor. Textile manufacture as a means
of poor relief was also tried in New York City when, in 1734, it built
an almshouse and installed four spinning wheels, flax, and knitting
equipment “ for the relief and setting on work of poor needy persons”
and inmates.
“ These movements,” Weeden says, “ helped to make spinners at
home, but went no further.” 6 How extensive home manufacture
was can be gathered from reports of colonial governors to the British
Board of Trade. It was to the interests of the governors to minimize
the degree of commercial manufacture, since it was specifically pro­
hibited by the home government, but they could not cover up the
fact that home manufacture made the rank and file of colonists inde­
pendent of imports, even if their statements as to manufacture for
sale were strictly true. A New York governor reported that in 1708
the inhabitants of the Province “ already make very good serges,
linsey-woolseys, and in some places they begin to make coarse cloth
and without doubt in a short time they will so far improve in that as
not to want the assistance of England to clothe themselves.” 7 In
Virginia at the same time Governor Spotswood found that—
The people being disappointed of the necessary supply of Cloathing for their
familys in return for their tobacco found themselves under the necessity o f
attempting to Cloath themselves with their own manufacture. This is now
become so universal that even in one of the best countys for tobacco I 'm credibly
informed that there has been made this last year above 40,000 yards of divers
sorts of woolen, cotton and linnen Cloath .8

“ Country people and planters” in Massachusetts at about the
same time, according to a colonial official’s statement, had “ entered
so far into making their own woolens that not one in forty but wears
his own carding, spinning, etc.” 9
3 Bruce, Philip A.: Economic History of Virginia in the 17th Century, Vol. II, p. 455.
* Hening’s Virginia Statutes, Vol. II, p. 266.
5 Bishop, Vol. I, p. 333.
• Weeden, William B.: Economic and Social History of New England, 1620-1789, Vol. I, p. 305.
7 In O’Callaghan’s Documents, Vol. V, p. 59.
8 Gov. Spotswood’s Report to British Council of Trade, Mar. 20, 1710, in Virginia Historical Society
Collections, Vol. I, pp. 72-73.
9 Clark, Victor S.: History of Manufactures in the United States, 1607-1860, p. 199.




CHAPTER 7.— TEXTILE INDUSTRIES

81

Ten years before the Revolution Governor Moore, of New York,
reported that—
The custom of making these coarse cloths prevails in private families through­
out the whole province, and almost in very house a sufficient quantity is manu­
factured for the use of that family, without the least design o f sending any of it
to market. This I had the opportunity of seeing in the late tour that I made,
and had the same accounts given me by all the persons of whom I made inquiry;
for every house swarms with children, who are set to work as soon as they are
able to spin and card, and as every family is furnished with a loom, the itinerant
weavers who travel about the country put the finishing hand to the work .1
0

The implements used in this widespread household industry were
the spinning wheel, “ an antique form of the common hand loom, and,
after its^invention about the year 1670, * * * the weaver's
loom in its present form; hand cards and combs for preparing the
material, and a primitive form of shuttle. Stock cards, the drop box,
the flying shuttle, and the whole series of later improvements in
carding, spinning^ and weaving, were not then invented. Nearly
all the processes of manufacture were manual operations, and the
appliances few and imperfect. Even the dressing of woolen cloth,
with a tolerably good supply of fulling mills, was imperfectly and
laboriously performed.” 1
1
The material produced was chiefly linsey-woolsey, made with linen
warj) and a coarse woolen filling, kersey, and serge, both of which
consisted of wool in various forms combined with tow or linen, and
fabrics made of linen and hemp. “ The dress of apprentices and
laborers almost invariably comprised shirts of home-manufactured
'‘ ozenbrig* made of hemp or flax, and varying in price from one to
one shilling and sixpence per yard; and vests and breeches of the same
or of coarse tow cloth. Coats, or doublets, and breeches of leather, or
enduring buckskin, and coats also of kersey, drugget, duroy, frieze,
etc.; felt hats, coarse leather shoes with brass buckles ana often
wooden heels, and coarse yam or worsted stockings, were the outer
habiliments of that class and were principally of home manufacture.” 1
2
Weaving seems to have been the first process to break away from
concentration within the household. Weaving on the home loom
b y itinerant weavers, and by men who used their own looms, working
up their neighbors' homespun yarns for them on a contract basis,
developed toward the end of the seventeenth century and was prac­
ticed by individuals who, presumably, had skill and speed superior
to the general run of household workers. Itinerant weavers, accord­
ing to Thomas, speaking of Pennsylvania in 1698, “ have twelve
pence (Is.) [20 cents] the yard for Weaving of that which is little
more than half a yard in breadth.” A Connecticut itinerant weaver
in 1713 charged Is. 3d. (21 cents) per yard for plain cloth and checked
shirting, and Is. (16.7 cents) a yard for drugget.
Contract or custom weaving must have developed specialized
weave shops because of the skill of individual operatives, but the
record, Weeden says, is “ mostly but not all lost.” An inventory
filed at New Haven, Conn., in 1684, included five looms, one of them
a silk loom, and because the man whose estate was inventoried was
not wealthy Weeden infers that “ his business consisted in weaving
custom work on these five looms. He must have employed hired
10 Reports to Board of Trade, quoted by Clark, p. 209.
11 Bishop, Vol. I, pp. 332-333.
w Idem, Vol. I, p. 331.




82

PART 1.— FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1840

laborers or his six children in the work. The fact of the silk loom
evinces especial skill in the art.” 1
3
Later, in 1696, a record appears of “ an humble dyer, comber,
weaver, and fuller” of Boston who, Weeden thinks, was probably
“ the first organizer” of the textile industry in America.
He dyed wool, using two furnaces, and he combed it, either colored or w h ite..
Doubtless the spinning was done in the homesteads o f eastern Massachusetts
by the dames, or the daughters of the dames, who had been taught in the spinning
classes. The wool might be their own, or “ put out ” by Cornish for the spinning.
Evidently he traded his manufacture for that of others; he combed and wove,
but he did not card or spin. Dyeing in two furnaces, combing with two combs,
weaving with four looms, a detached and independent fulling mill, would make
a considerable business.1
4

The record does not show, however, the value of his labor in carry­
ing on his business.^ The inventory gives only the price per yard of
the product, and it is not until 75 years later that figures are available
showing the labor charge in a similar enterprise. An advertisement
in the Virginia Gazette (Williamsburg) of January 13,1774, reads:1
5
This is to inform the Publick and those Gentlemen in particular who were so
kind to assist me in may Plan for executing my Fulling Mill that it is now com­
plete and at Work. All persons that are disposed to encourage this laudable
Undertaking I shall be obliged to for their Favours. I advise the Publick that
I have two Looms at Work that weave five Quarter Yard wide Cloth, as it is
much to the Manufacturers Advantage to have their Cloth wove o f that Width.
M y Price for weaving is Is. a yard; Fulling, Dying, Dressing, &c. Is. more for
common cloth, but dearer for Live Colours.

The advertisement states further that “ it is to be observed for I
Work for ready Money only.”
An advertisement in the Boston News Letter of March 8, 1770,
proposed the establishment of a woolen mill with the following
estimated annual pay roll: 1 comber at £40 ($133.33); 4 weavers at
£40 each; 15 spinners at £15 ($50); 3 winders of worsted and yarn at
£12 ($40); 2 boys at £15 ($50); and a manager at £100 ($333).
These rates of course apply to mill production, rudimentary though
it was. Rates paid to home spinners and weavers by the “ manu­
factories,” which were little more than distributing centers, the yarn
merchants or the custom weavers, are .here presented as compiled
from various sources by Mr. Clark in his History of Manufactures,
1609-1860:
From the close of the seventeenth century until the introduction of automatic
machinery for spinning and weaving the cost of textile operations in America
remained constant. About the year 1700 yarns o f cotton, flax or wool were spun
for 8 cents a run, the equivalent of 4 cents a skein in later measurements; and the
cost of spinning the coarse cotton or woolen yarns then used was about 20 cents a
pound. During the Revolution the rates paid textile labor in New England
remained the same as in the earlier period. Linen warps, cotton filling, and tow
yarn were spun for 8 cents a run. In Virginia the price for spinning wool varied
from 11 to 25 cents a pound, and for cotton from 33 to 67 cents. After the Revo­
lution the spinners working at the Hartford woolen manufactory received 8 cents
a run or about 20 cents a pound for spinning wool. In the South most of the
spinning was done in families or by slave girls, and very few entries for this labor
occur in southern account books, though weaving items are common. In 1782
the cost of spinning in Virginia varied from 17 cents a pound for coarse tow yarns
used in making osnaburgs to 33 cents a pound for cotton warp used in mixed
cotton and woolen goods.
13 Weeden, Vol. I, p. 305.
» Idem, Vol. I, pp. 389-390.
«
16 In Documentary History of American Industrial Society, Vol. II, p. 326.




CHAPTER 7.— TEXTILE INDUSTRIES

83

These data, fragmentary as they are, indicate clearly that the price of household
textile labor had remained stationary for over a century, and that the labor-cost
of spinning normally ranged from 20 to 30 cents per pound of yarn, according to
the fineness of the product and the material employed.
At the opening of the eighteenth century the usual price for making coarse
fabrics of cotton and linen, kerseys, and worsteds, in Massachusetts, varied
from 6 to 8 cents a yard. From that time until the Revolution cottons, woolens,
and towcloth, plain and striped, were woven for 4.5 and 5 cents a yard. The
Virginia price for weaving country cloth of cotton and linen was somewhat
higher, or from 5.5 to 6.5 cents a yard. Jeans were woven for 21 cents, tickings
for 25 cents, fine linen for 28 cents, and coarse osnaburgs for about 10 cents.
In New Jersey during the Revolution the price of weaving linen cloth was about
7 and 8 cents a yard, “ coating” 13 cents, and double-width linen 16 cents.
Stripes from dyed weft, necessitating the use of three or four shuttles, were woven
for 16 cents a yard, and sheetings for about the same price.
The New Jersey rate for weaving woolen cloth and worsted in 1787 and 1788
was 13.33 cents a yard, or 1 Pennsylvania shilling. The Hartford Woolen Manu­
factory a year later paid 12 to 14 cents a yard for weaving coarse cassimeres and
coatings. At the close of the Revolution the price of weaving coarse cotton,
and cotton and woolen cloths, in Virginia, was 5.67 cents, while fine woolen cloths
were woven for three times that amount, or a shilling a yard. Shirtings that
sold for 55 cents a yard were woven for 8.33 cents .1
6

Dyeing of yarn and cloth for the home weavers was carried on at
first in 1-man shops quite independently of the textile mills. News­
paper advertisements give an idea of this business. # John Hickey,
“ living at the South End of Boston next house to the Sign of the White
Horse,” advertised in the Boston Gazette of September 1, 1760, that
he “ has furnished himself with all sorts of utensils fit to carry on the
Business of Silk or Cloth Dyeing. * * * and prints Linnens
with True Blues and Whites.” He worked for cash only, and charged
1 shilling (16.7 cents) per pound for dyeing linen or cotton blue
“ and all other goods in proportion, and engages his work as well as
if sent to London.”
A Nashville, Tenn., dyer in 1804 advertised: “ Blue, Red, Green,
Black and Yellow Dying—I will color cotton and linen thread a deep
blue at four shillings sixpence [56 cents] per pound, and a light blue
at two shillings sixpence [31 cents] per pound; and the other colors
mentioned I will dye upon woolens at two shillings [25 cents] per
pound.” 1
7
The many spinning mills which grew up after the Revolution greatly
increased the amount of home weaving for the market, and as late
as 1810 “ only 2 per cent of the cloth made in America was produced
in factories.” 1 The way in which these sporadic establishments
8
kept down labor costs is suggested by the very frank advertisement
of a Connecticut plant appearing in the Connecticut Courant of May
4, 1795, which announced that a new mill had been opened which
“ proposes to receive as apprentices to the cotton and woolen manu­
factory any number of boys and girls from the age of 10 to 14. They
will be instructed in the various branches of the factory, well clothed
and well fed, and taught to read, write and cipher, and parents may
be assured that the most particular attention will be paid to the morals
as well as the education of the children.” Timothy Dwight visited a
Connecticut mill during his travels and reported that “ the principal
part of the labour in attending the machinery in the cotton and woolen
manufactories is done by women and children; the former hired at
i« Clark, pp. 387-388.
17 Cited in Documentary History of American Industrial Society, Vol. II, p. 328.
is Clark, p.
 529.



84

PART 1.— FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1840

from 50 cents to one dollar a week; the latter are apprentices who are
regularly instructed in reading, writing and arithmetic. The wages
of the men are from 5 to 21 dollars a month.” 1 According to an old
9
letter, another Connecticut mill was at one time working 73 children
from a New York almshouse as indentured apprentices.2 Moses
0
Brown, Slaters partner, expressed the opinion that the general
practice of employing children had resulted in “ nearly a total saving
of labor to the country.” 2
1
Samuel Slater was the working superintendent of both the first two
mills started by him and his several partners with Arkwright spinning
machinery and “ received in each case $1.50 per day for his services,
making his wages $3.00 a day.” 2
2
These early spinning mills gave out the yarn to be woven by home
weavers on hand looms. There are abundant data on weaving rates
per yard for hand weaving in the period between the rise of the
spinning mill, after about 1790, and the introduction of power looms
about 1817. These rates show a very wide range, but unfortunately
do not often specify the kind of cloth woven. The Batchelder mill
at New Ipswich, Mass., “ often had more than 100 weavers, some of
whom came 6 or 8 miles to receive the yarn and to return the woven
cloth, the price paid for weaving being 3 to 7 cents a yard.” 2 The
3
product in this case was sheeting and shirtings. ‘ ‘A fair adult handloom weaver,” according to Carroll D. Wright, could “ weave from
42 to 48 yards of commoii shirting per week.” 2 Applying the rate
4
paid at the New Ipswich mill, home weavers on this grade of goods
might earn from $1.50 to $3 a week. In the same year, 1807, a
Rhode Island mill was paying from 8 to 17 cents a yard for dress plaids,
probably ginghams.
A Maryland company, with mills at Baltimore and Ellicott City,
was in 1812-1815 the largest spinning concern in the country, operat­
ing 8,000 spindles. Their weavers were paid 12 cents a yard for
weaving a cotton fabric running 40 picks to the inch, 3 yards to the
pound, and earned about 50 cents a day. The Virginia rate was
10 cents a yard.
The mill at Pittsfield, Mass., manufacturing high-grade broadcloth,
paid its weavers 40 to 60 cents a yard in 1805. These weavers worked
at the mill, however, on special looms.
A weaver’s ticket used by the Slater mill in Pawtucket, R. I., is
here reproduced. On the back, written in ink, is the date—July 4,
1817. These tickets, given out at the mill with the yarn, are the
instructions to the weavers for producing the particular kind of
fabric or pattern desired.
19 Travels in New England and New York, quoted in BagnalPs Textile Industries in the United States,
p. 354.
20 Quoted in Bagnall, p. 357.
Letter in Hamilton papers, Library of Congress, cited by Clark, p. 398.
23 Lewton, Frederick L.: Samuel Slater and the Oldest Cotton Machinery in America, in Annual Report
of Smithsonian Institution, 1926, p. 506.
23 Bagnall, William: Textile Industries in the United States, p. 477.
24 In “ The Factory System of the United States,” in Census of 1880, Vol. II, p. 585.




CHAPTER 7.— TEXTILE INDUSTRIES

85

ooooo< x > ooo< k x x x x x x x x x >>
x
o
x
<<

Pattern, No. 56.
To be warped 81. Beer in a J 2
^.
Slaie
Yards
Spools
Skeins on a Spool will warp the piece.
Weight 22 lb. 1 oz.
112 Skeins. D. Blue. Warp. 12.
28 do.
White.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
112 Skeins. D. Blue. Filling.
28 do.
White.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
To be striped in the Warp.
8 Threads, D. Blue.
2
White.
To be Filled.
8 Threads, D. Blue.
2
White.
PRIC E of Weaving 6 Cents pr. Yard,
if well wove and trimmed.
Weavers must return the Yarn left
of a piece, with the Cloth.— Cloth must
be trimmed, wove as thick at the ends
as in the middle, and returned free from
stains and dirt; and if it is made too
sleazy, or damaged in any way, a deduc­
tion will be made from the weaving.—
Return this with the Cloth.

<>ooooooooooooc>oooooooooc>oooo<>
WORKING AND LIVING CONDITIONS UNDER FACTORY SYSTEM

Power looms and improved spinning machinery had changed tex­
tile manufacture definitely from a domestic to a factory industry by
1820. Some home weaving was still done as late as 1850, but it was
insignificant. The weaving labor cost in a yard of sheeting, which
had been 12 cents on hand looms, became one-tenth of that on power
looms, a degree of competition which naturally hand weaving could
not survive. Ledgers of a Providence yarn factory2 give the rates
5
paid home weavers over a series of years immediately following the
general adoption of power looms. Ginghams which were woven in
1818 for 8 cents a yard were worth only 3 cents to the weaver in
1824. The rate on stripes and checks which had been 6 cents in
1818 had fallen to 2% cents in 1824.
Even under factory production the work was still carried on largely
by women and children. Their employment was looked upon then as
an unqualified good which made possible the development of manu­
facture without taking men from agriculture, while at the same time
it made women and children, to quote Alexander Hamilton, “ more
useful than they otherwise would be,” 2 and enabled them to escape
6
the evils of idleness and destitution. Agriculture was itself a gainer
 Library.
26 In Baker
ft H a m ilton , Alexander: Report on Manuiactures, 1791, p. 29.


86

PART 1.— FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1840

by the new opportunities for women, according to Hamilton, because
“ the husbandman himself experiences a new source of profit and
support from the increased industry of his wife and daughters.” 2
6
The employment of women and children was, moreover, a distinct
advantage to the manufacturer in several ways, one of which is perhaps
suggested in an observation made by one of their number, the man
who first applied power to the weaving of woolen cloth. In his diary
he says that after many experiments it had proved its practicability—
We commenced building power looms to take the place of hand looms With all
possible dispatch. The saving in operating 60 looms by water instead of the old
way, by hand, amounted to about $40 per day. Besides this saving, we got
rid of 60 weavers, the most of them men who in those bygone days were intem­
perate and exceedingly troublesome, and substituted for them 30 girls, who were
easily managed and did more and better work .2
7

The mill town soon followed the establishment of the factory system
in cloth manufacture, but it assumed two different forms. These
two systems, as they first developed in the two most important
centers, are analyzed by a pioneer manufacturer:
Mr. Slater had proceeded upon the English plan of employing families in the
mill, often including children at an age when it would have been more proper for
them to be at school. The consequence was the bringing together, in a factory
village, a collection of families dependent entirely upon their labor, and often of
parents who were disposed to live upon the labor of their children rather than
upon their own, and exposed to suffering, as the operatives have been in England,
whenever there was any interruption in the business. It was also the custom,
instead of making payments in money, to establish what was called a Factory
Store, from which the families were furnished with provisions and other articles in
payment for their labor, which resulted in a sort of dependence upon their em­
ployers.
A t Waltham, they at once commenced the practice of the payment of wages in
money, every week or fortnight, and also provided boarding-houses to accomodate
all in their employ. This precluded the employment of children; as about half
the usual wages of females would be required for the payment of board, the
Company could not afford to pay board and wages to those who were not capable
of doing full work. The result was that only those of mature age could find
employment; and such usually having a home to which they could return in case
of any interruption in the business, they were not subject to be left dependent or
exposed to suffering.2
8

Pay rolls of one of the Slater spinning mills in Pawtucket have
three headings— amount earned, #charges, and net amount paid.
The charges column is subdivided into two parts, one headed “ cow,”
the other, “ rent.” The charge for pasturing the cow was usually
57 cents for each pay-roll period of two weeks. Rent runs from 96
cents to $1.08 for the same period. Unlike the mills using the boarding-house system, turnover in the Slater mills seems not to have been
a serious matter. The same families appear on the pay rolls year
after year, and generally the same members of the family as well.
Changes seem to be occasioned chiefly by the marriage of the older
girls, after which a new name appears at the end of the list of members
of the family employed. The Very nominal sum earned by the
newcomer justifies the assumption, even without data on ages, that
as one of the family’s wage earners took up a new place in another
family, her small brother or sister was drafted into service to help
fill the gap. The domestic economy of the Howland family, over a
period of three years, as shown by the pay rolls, is typical:
26 Hamilton, Alexander: Report on Manufactures, 1791, p. 29.
27 Manuscript Diary of Joshua Aubin, Amesbury, Mass., in Baker Library. (Citation probably refers

 1821.)
to year
Batchelder,
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/ Samuel: Early Progress of Cotton Manufacture in the United States (1863). pp. 74-75.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

T

able

6* — Earnings

of typical mill family employed in spinning room, with amounts owed the company, for specified pay-roll periods*
1828-1830
[Occupations not specified]
Two weeks ending Nov. 28, 1828

Days Amount
worked earned

$10.00
5. 50
1.33
1.17
4.00
2.00
24.00

i Inserted by bureau—not in original pay rolls.




$10.00 $0.83
5.50
.46
1.33
.11
1.17
.09
4.00
.33
2.00
.17
$0.57

$0.96

22.47

Charges

1.87

12
12
12
12
12
12
12

Cow

Aver*
age
Net
net Days
amount earn­ worked Amount
earned
paid
ings
Rent
per
day i

$10.00
6.00
1.50
1.33
4.00
2.83
1.00
26.66

$10.00
6.00
1.50
1.33
4.00
2.83
1.00
$0.57

$0.96

$0.83
.50
.13
.11
.33
.24
.08

25.13

2.09

Cow

Aver­
age
Net
net
amount earn­
paid
ings
Rent
per
day1

11.6
11.6
11.3
11.3

$7.67
5.75
1.40
1.25

$7.67
5.75
1.40
1.25

$0.66
.50
.12
.11

11.3

2.72

2.72

.24

17.16

1.43

18.79

$0.57

$1.06

INDUSTRIES

Total.................. ......... .........

12
12
12
12
12
12

Charges

Aver­
age
net Days
earn­ worked Amount
earned
ings
per
day1

7.— TEXTILE

Howland, Willard...........................
Howland, Malvin._........................
Howland, Munyan.........................
Howland, John. .......... ..................
Howland, Polly...............................
Howland, Hannah..........................
Howland, Lorinda..........................

Cow

Net
amount
paid
Rent

Two weeks ending July 31,1830

CH
APTER

Charges
Name of operative

Two weeks ending Aug. 1,1829

88

PART 1.— FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1840

While there was a company store in connection with the Slater
mills at Pawtucket, truck payment does not seem to have been the
practice, at least to an extent which would affect the pay rolls, and
the only charges against the operatives are those of pasturage and
rent, as shown in the table. In most New England mill towns,
however, with the exception of Lowell, truck payment was the
general method. The Fall River mill started out, in 1817, by pay­
ing only in goods—money was not used. The system was changed,
according to a story, after the following incident:
Accounts so invariably showed a balance in favor of the mill owners that
the employees began to be much dissatisfied. Hannah Borden's position was
a peculiarly independent one, not merely because she was the daughter of a
stockholder, but because she was the best weaver in the city and the company
could not afford to lose her. She felt that it was unfair that the operatives
should not be allowed to see their accounts, and felt so certain that her own
were not correct that she went to the agent and threatened to leave unless he
would let her see the books. He ordered them sent up, and she found articles
like suspenders and rum charged against her. She finally demanded money
wages as the only condition on which she would remain in the mill, and the
granting of her demand led the other hands to insist on the same treatment,
9
and money wages for every one became the rule.2

The Lowell mills were established later than those already men­
tioned and adopted the company boarding-house method of pro­
viding living quarters for their hands. In the earliest years the
Lowell mills were unique in the class of operatives they attracted.
These pioneer “ mill girls” were, to quote a writer who was one of
them in her early girlhood, “ blooming and energetic New England
women. They were naturally intelligent, had mother wit." 3 An
0
impressive number of them became leaders in various fields after
they left the mills; some of them became famous and all of them,
as a class, were the subjects of much economic, social, and literary
discussion both here and in England for 20 years. They carried
on, from 1840 to 1847, the “ Lowell Offering, a Repository of Original
Articles written by Factory Girls," which was “ not only the first
work written by factory girls, but also the first magazine or journal
written exclusively by women in all the world.” 3
1
The lives of the operatives were under a rigorous corporation
paternalism which controlled working conditions and—
not only regulated the dwelling places and food of their operatives but dictated
the time of going to bed and the rules of social intercourse. For the most part
the operatives in the early days seem to have made few objections to the system,
but occasionally a considerable measure of opposition is found. In one of the
early factory tracts, issued by the Female Labor Reform Association of Lowell,
complaint is made of the wearisome extent of corporation control. At the close
of the day’s work, the operative was said to be watched to see that her footsteps
did not “ drag beyond the corporation limits” and whether she wished it or not
she was subjected to the manifold inconveniences of a large crowded boarding
house where, too, it was said that the price paid for her accommodation was so
utterly insignificant that it would not insure to her the common comforts of life .3
2

Board at the company boarding houses was $1.25 per capita for
women and $1.75 for men a week, 25 cents of which, prior to 1836,
was paid by the corporation. In 1836 the Merrimack plant, the
largest of the Lowell mills, announced a cut in wages and the dis­
continuance of its contribution toward the maintenance of its em­
29 Abbott, Edith: Women in Industry, p. 272.
30 Robinson, Harriet H.: Loom and Spindle, p. 62.




« Abbott, p. 114.
** Idem, pp. 114-115.

CHAPTER 7.— TEXTILE INDUSTRIES

ployees, and brought about its first strike.
a cnild took part in this “ turn-out,” says:

89

Mrs. Robinson, who as

It is hardly necessary to say that so far as results were concerned this strike
did no good. The dissatisfaction of the operatives subsided, or burned itself
out, and though the authorities did not accede to their demands, the majority
returned to their work and the corporation went on cutting down the wages.3
3

Nevertheless, these continued wage reductions had a decided effect
upon the labor force in the Lowell mills. With each succeeding cut
the “ best of the girls left and went to their homes or to the other
employments that were fast opening to women, until there were very
few of the old guard left; ana thus the status of the factory popula­
tion of New England gradually became what we know it to be
to-day.” 3
4
Out of her own experience in the Merrimack mills, Mrs. Robinson
wrote thus of living and working conditions:
Except in rare instances, the rights of the early mill girls were secure. They
were subject to no extortion, if they did extra work they were always paid in
full, and their own account of labor done by the piece was always accepted.
They kept the figures and were paid accordingly.
Their life in the factory was made pleasant to them. In those days there was
no need of advocating the doctrine of the proper relation between employer and
employed. Help was too valuable to be ill-treated.
Their surroundings were pure, and the whole atmosphere of their boarding
houses was as refined as that of their homes.
The health of the girls was good. The regularity and simplicity of their lives
and the plain and substantial food provided for them kept them free from illness.3
5

Another writer, of the later era of factory sanitation and legal
control of working conditions for women, wonders a little if this
picture is not after all a long backward view which reflects an ideal­
ized rather than an actual condition, and in which “ long hours,
unsanitary mills, crowded boarding houses, compulsorily supported
corporation churches * * * are forgotten.” 3 Miss Abbott notes
6
an official complaint made by a physician in the Lowell Hospital,
“ not only of the lack of ventilation, but of the ‘ manifest disregard
of cleanliness1 and of the overcrowding in some of the corporation
boarding houses.” 3
7
From an article in the census of 1880, making a comparison between
the “ modem” and improved factory of 1880 and the fiist large textile
mills, we get some impression of the physical make-up of the old
plants:
The first mills built were very considerable structures for their time, but they
were low-studded, badly lighted, and were heated by stoves; and in these mills
the operatives were compelled to work under arduous conditions (owing to the
imperfection o f the machinery) thirteen to fourteen hours a day. These narrow
structures were in some places built seven stories in height. In the earlier mills
the apparatus for the removal of dust from the factory was very imperfect .3
8

The Philadelphia Album, in its issue of March 8, 1834, described
“ the shop in which all the machinery employed in the mills is manu­
factured.” This “ machine shop, belonging to the Locks and Canal
Company”
33 Robinson, pp. 85-86.
3* Idem, p. 86.
8* Idem, p. 71 et seq.
3« Abbott, p. 133.
37 Idem, pp. 128-12p.
38 Atkinson, Edward: Special Report on Cotton Manufacture. Census of 1880, Vol. II, pp. 953-954.




90

PART 1.— FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1840

is probably the largest shop in the country, being built of brick, four stories
high, two hundred and twenty feet in length and forty-five in width. About
200 machinists, some of them the most skilful and ingenious workmen in the
United States or in the world, are constantly employed. About 600 tons of
cast and wrought iron, two-thirds of which at least are of American production,
are annually converted into machinery, besides a large quantity of imported
steel.

Working hours in the textile mills “ extended from five o’clock in
the morning until seven in the evening, with one-half hour for break­
fast and for dinner. Even the doffers were forced to be on duty
nearly fourteen hours a day, and this was the greatest hardship in
the lives of these children. For it was not until 1842 that the hours
of labor for children under twelve years of age were limited to ten
per day; but the Hen-hour law* itself was not passed until long after
some of the little doffers were old enough to appear before the legis­
lative committee on the subject and plead—by their presence—for a
reduction of the hours of labor.” 3
9
Even with a 13-hour day, some overtime was worked, and “ the
young woman who is able is generally willing to engage in it, as she
draws the pay, to the extent of the extra work, of two girls, while
she incurs the expense of the board of but one.” 4
0
The working-day at Lowell seems to have been shortened to 12
hours about 1845.4 Baker Library has a collection of time-schedule
1
placards of the Lowell mills ranging from 1853 to 1875. A specimen
schedule is given in the appendix.
On the other hand, the 12-hour day seems to hare existed in the
Slater and other Rhode Island mills as early as 1825. No definite
evidence of this has been obtained—the statement is made by infer­
ence drawn from the fact that the pay rolls of the Rhode Island
mills to which the bureau had access used 12 as the denominator in
noting fractions of a working-day, as 3/12, 7/12, etc. The hours of
labor in the Lonsdale mills in Rhode Island were 12 per day for all
occupations, from 1830 to I860.4
2
Saturday was often, perhaps generally, shorter by at least two
hours, than the other working-days. The work week in the Rhode
Island mills was probably 70 hours.
WAGES

Early data on wages in textile mills are scattered and frequently
confusing. As a rule the few available pay rolls cover only weekly
or monthly earnings and afford slight means of determining rates or
any other basis by which earnings were calculated. Rates by occu­
pations can not be had, because no distinction is made of occupa­
tions within a department, and the rates on a known occupation,
such as frame spinning, may vary widely, probably according to the
age of the operative. Thus earnings in the spinning room range all
the way from those of doffers who may be 7 or 8 years old, to the
skilled men, but only the overseers, and occasionally the second
hands, are given an occupational designation.
From secondary sources the bureau has pay-roll data on the
Waltham (Mass.) mill for the year 1821, and on the Merrimack
39Robinson, p. 31.
40 Miles, Henry A.: Lowell as It Was and As It Is (Lowell, 1845), p. 108.
« Census of 1880, Vol. XX, p. 350.
« Idem,
 p. 366.



CHAPTER 7.— TEXTILE INDUSTRIES

91

mills (Lowell, Mass.) for 1824 and 1840. The data dealing with the
Waltham mill were taken from original pay rolls by Edith Abbott,
and appear in her book, Women in Industry. Information covering
the Lowell plants is from the tabulated census material found in
Volume X X of the census of 1880.
Data dealing with the Slater mills in Rhode Island were taken
from the file of original pay-roll books in Baker Library by the
bureau representative, and cover the years 1828 to 1843.
In only four departments—carding, spinning, weaving, and dress­
ing—are figures available which are in any way adequate or com­
parable. The particular Slater mill from which the most definite
data were secured is the “ Steam Cotton Manufactory” established
in Providence in 1827. Either the mill used only mule spinners, or
else the pay rolls for the frame spinning department have been lost,
as the only entries covering spinning were for mule spinning. Mule
spinning was in its very earliest experimental stage at that time,
and it is possible that Slater was merely experimenting at Provi­
dence, and getting most of the yam for his Providence weave room
from his Pawtucket yarn mills. Rates paid frame spinners at Paw­
tucket are shown in Table 6. The average daily earnings there were
much lower than in the spinning departments of the other mills,
probably because child labor was employed in the Slater mills to a
much greater extent than was the case in Massachusetts. Hence,
in the following table the spinning department in the Slater mill
has been omitted as not being comparable with that of the other
mills. Mule spinning will be considered separately.
Table 7 shows the average daily rates of operatives below the
supervisory grades, for the four departments in each of the three
plants discussed. As already stated, occupations within the depart­
ment can not be specified, since no distinction is made of them in
the pay rolls themselves.
Table 7.— Average daily rates of pay of cotton mill operatives in certain New
England mills, 1821 to 1828

Department

Carding______________
Spinning_____________
Weaving_____________
Dressing______________

Waltham,
Mass.,
mill, 1821

Lowell,
Mass.,
mill, 1824

Slater
mill,
Rhode
Island,
1828

$0.39
.43
.45
.50

$0,375
.56
.67
.375

$0.31
C)
.50
.375

i Mule spinners, rates not comparable.

We do not know the length of the working-day in the Waltham
mill. Very likely it was the same as that at Lowell, 5 a. m. to 7
p. m., with two half-hour recesses for meals— that is, a 13-hour day.
The 12-hour day obtained in the Providence plant.
The higher rate for weaving paid by the Lowell concern did not
continue. Mention has been made of wage reductions, beginning
in 1836. The 1840 rate quoted in the census tables is 50 cents a day.
The high rate in the earlier years was admittedly paid as an effective
inducement to attract a high grade of workers.


61298°— 29------ 7


92

PART 1.— FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1840

Average full-time weekly earnings at the rates given would be
$2.34, $2.25, and $1.86 for carders; $2.60 and $3.36 for spinners;
$2.70, $4.02, and $3 for weavers; $3 and $2.25 for dressers.
Actual earnings in the Lowell mills are not available. The Waltham
pay rolls give weekly earnings, the Slater pay rolls, monthly. The
range from lowest to highest in Waltham is: Carding, $1.50 to $6;
spinning, $2.50 to $7.50; weaving, $1.75 to $6.60; dressing, $2.23 to

$7 .
The lowest monthly earnings in the weave room at the Slater
mills for the month oi November, 1828, is $1.25, the highest is $9,
while the average monthly earnings of the 20 weavers employed, all
women, is $7.58. During the month of October of the following
year, 1829, three women earned more than $14 on two looms, and in
the same month of 1830, working on three looms, 10 of the women
weavers earned between $14 and $15.
It is only by inference that wages paid to overseers can be taken
from the Waltham pay rolls. One man in the carding department
and two in the weave room at $12 a week each were undoubtedly
supervisors, as that is analogous to the rate of $2 per day for carding
and weaving overseers in the Merrimack mills. In the Slater mills
those two occupations were paid only $1.50 per day. Spinning-room
overseers in both the Massachusetts plants received $1.75 a day, or
$10.50 a week. These rates are all higher than those of dressingroom overseers, which were $1.76 at Waltham, $1.50 at Lowell, and
$1.13 at Providence. Second hands in the card room got $1.25 a
day in Lowell and $1 in Providence. The rate for loom fixers in the
Slater pay rolls, the only one giving that occupation, is $1.25 a day,
the same as the overseer’s rate. The sizing maker in the dressing
department received $1 a day. The superintendent of the Steam
Cotton Manufactory was on a fixed salary of $50 a month.
Rates in the Slater mills, the only establishment for which data ex­
tending over a period of years are available, show practically no change
in the 15 years studied except in the single occupation of mule spin­
ning. The census report, after giving average weekly wages in two
representative Massachusetts mills in 1828, says: “ These rates did
not vary much for several years,” and follows that statement with
average weekly earnings in the same plants in 1836, showing slightly
lower wages in some cases and higher in others. For example, the
average weekly earnings of women weavers was $2.61 in 1828 and
$2.05 in 1836; of dressers, $2.82 in 1828 and $3.11 in 1836.4
3
Rates and earnings of the mule spinners employed at Slater’s
Steam Cotton Manufactory afford an interesting contrast to the low
wages in the other departments. Mule spinners are always men,
and it is quite likely that in the experimental undertaking at Provi­
dence the operatives were skilled men who had learned the work in
England, where mule spinning was introduced several years before
its advent here.
In the first year of operation of the Providence plant only five mule
spinners were employed. They received $1.33 a day, and were the
highest paid men in the plant^except the carding and weaving over­
seers. The next year, 1829, piece rates were introduced. The over­
seer kept the $1.33 time rate, while the spinners were paid at the
« Census of 1880, Vol. II, p. 576.




CHAPTER 7.— TEXTILE INDUSTRIES

93

rate of 16 cents per 100 skeins of warp, and 13 cents per 100 skeins
of filling. Actual monthly earnings in the month of October, 1829,
range from $36.18 to $44.10, and average $39.54 for the seven men
employed. By 1830 the rate had dropped 1 cent per 100 on filling,
but earnings were even higher, ranging from $40.19 to $43.30 and
averaging $41.48, with the same number engaged.
The rate in September, 1834, had increased to $1.50 a day for the
overseer, while the piece rates paid the spinners had dropped to 14
cents per 100 skeins of warp and 10% cents for filling. Twelve
spinners were employed, whose actual monthly earnings ranged from
$27.65 to $44.97. Ten years later the piece rate had dropped to
8K and 6% cents per 100 skeins, and the highest amount earned in
May, 1844, was $35.70.
An earlier figure than any here quoted is taken from the May,
1817, pay roll of the Boston Manufacturing Co., which enters a mule
spinner’s earnings for one day at $2.50 .u
A strike for shorter hours closed 10 textile mills in Paterson, N. J.,
in 1835. Testimony and affidavits 4 taken during the course of the
5
strike showed that 600 of the strikers were children under 16 years of
age, whose weekly earnings ranged from 50 cents to $1.75 and aver­
aged $1.12^. The workday, the excessive length of which had
brought about the strike, was from sunrise to sunset from March 1
to October 1, and from daylight to 8 p. m. from October 1 to March 1.
One-half hour was allowed for breakfast during the period between
March 15 and October 1. For the remainder of the year operatives
ate their breakfast at home “ by candle light” before reporting at the
mill. The dinner period was 45 minutes throughout the year.
Actual weekly earnings of 10 young persons, whose occupations,
however, were not given, were thus reported in affidavits: One boy,
aged 19, and one girl, 18, at $2.75; four girls, ages 13 to 20, and one
boy, aged 15, at $2; 1 girl, 13, at $1.50; 1 boy, 12, at $1.25; and a
10-year old girl at 44 cents.
SOUTHERN MILLS

While there were small textile mills in the South in the first half of
the nineteenth century, information about them is very slight and
wage data are almost wholly lacking for the period under discussion.
Average weekly wages in 1831, covering all operatives and classified
by sex instead of by occupational divisions, is all that it has been
possible to secure, and that only from secondary sources. “ Average
weekly wages of males in Maryland amounted to $3.87 and of females,
$1.91; male operatives in Virginia received $2.73 and females $1.58.” 4
6
Textile manufacture in the South was carried on almost wholly
by slave and child labor. An early English student of economic
conditions in the American slave States wrote of his visit and observa­
tions in a cotton mill in Athens, Ga., in 1839:
There is no difficulty * * * on account of color, the white girls working
in the same room and at the same loom with the black girls, and boys of each color,
44 Clark, p. 388.
46 National Trades Union (New York), Aug. 15,1835, quoted from the Paterson Courier, in Documentary
History of American Industrial Society, Vol. V, pp. 63-66.
48 Montgomery, James: Practical Details of Cotton Manufacture in the United States (Glasgow, 1840),
p. 161.




94

PART 1.— FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1840

as well as men and women, working together without repugnance or objection.
The negroes here are found to be quite as easily taught to perform all the required
duties of spinners and weavers as the whites, and are just as tractable when taught;
but their labour is dearer than that of the whites, for whilst the free boys and girls
employed receive about $7.00 per month, out of which they find themselves,
the slaves are paid the same wages (which is handed over to their owners) and the
mill-owner has to feed them in addition; so that the free labour is cheaper to him
than the slave; and the hope expressed by the proprietor to me was that the
progressive increase of the white population by immigration would enable him
to employ wholly their free labour, which to him would be more advantageous .4
7
47 From Slave States in America, cited in Documentary History of American Industrial Society, Vol. II,
p. 357.




Chapter 8.— MARITIME INDUSTRIES
MERCHANT MARINE

A large part of the time of the Courts of Assistants of the Massa­
chusetts Bay Colony was given to adjudicating disputes involving
seamen's wages, and, while we can not know that the seamen actually
collected the amounts due them, certainly the court almost uniformly
declared in their favor. The importance to the general welfare of
the colony of the merchant marine made it advisable to protect the
interests of the seamen, at least so far as their wages were concerned.
Living and working conditions on board ship were probably regarded
as the individual concern of the shippers and their employees, but
the court was apparently always ready to intercede in the matter of
money payment due maritime workers.
Another indication^ that, legally at least, seamen's wages were
safeguarded is found in the case of a privateer which was seized by
order of the governor of New York in 1699. Writing to the Lords
of Trade in London about the incident, the colonial governor, the
Earl of Bellamont, says:
The ship Hester that I ordered to be seized and brought from Perth Amboy
was condemned and sold by Inch of Candle at New Yorke, but neither the King
nor I as Governor had a shilling by that seizure; for the Master swore the sea­
men's wages amounted to more than the price the ship sold for, and Mr. Graham,
the Atturny, asured me that it was law that in cases of that kind the seamen were
to be paid their wages, and that the ship was a pledge for their wages .1

It is not often possible to determine accurately the rates paid sea­
men, as the court cases as a rule covered lump-sum payments for an
entire voyage the duration of which is not stated. Occasionally,
however, a monthly rate is specified. These rates vary somewhat on
different ships, but from a considerable number of cases in the court
records during the last quarter of the seventeenth century the scale
can be fairly definitely stated. Ordinary seamen received from 27
to 35 shillings ($4.50 to $5.83), and able seamen from 32 to 40 shillings
($5.33 to $6.67), a month. Two different records put the rate for
boatswains at 45 shillings ($7.50) per month, in one case “ till ye ship
arrived at Barbadoes," and 48s. ($8) from the time of leaving Barbadoes to the end of the voyage. The court in 1676 ordered the
master of the ship Nevis to pay its pilot £5 ($16.67) and its carpenter
54s. ($9) a month for a voyage of five months. Five and six pounds
($16.67 and $20) a month were the usual rates for captains.
A Massachusetts law of 1680 decreed that masters and mariners
in port should receive half pay.2
Rates paid on merchant vessels sailing from Virginia ports were
practically the same as those paid by the New England ship owners,
averaging, for seamen, about 30 shillings ($5) a month in 1668.
1 O’Callaghan’s Documents Kelative to History of Colony of New York, Vol. IV, p. 591.
2Massachusetts Archives, lxi, p. 214.




95

96

PART 1.— FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1840

The pay per month on a ship sailing from Norfolk in 1695 was: Sea­
men, £2 4s. ($7.33); chief mate, £4 ($13.33); a ship physician and a
ship carpenter, £3 10s. ($11.67) each.3
The North Carolina fleet seems to have combined the functions
of navy and merchant marine. The Shaftsbury papers 4 give de­
tailed pay rolls of several ships in the fleet, of which the following,
for the ship Caroline in the year 1669, is representative:
£

Per
month

s.

Henry Brayne, master_________________________________________5
John Comings, mate__________________________________________ 3
Richard Dyas, gunner_________________________________________
Richard Cole, carpenter_______________________________________ 3
Peter Salter, trumpeter________________________________________
Arthur Roper, boatswain's mate_______________________________
Carpenter's mate______________________________________________
11 seamen, each---------------------------------------------------------------------

35

5
35
30
30
30

($24. 30)
($14. 58)
($8. 50)
($15. 80)
($8. 50)
($7. 29)
($ 7. 29)
($7. 29)

Available data for the eighteenth century show a gradual but not
marked rise from these early rates. In 1707 the scale was £6 ($20)
per month for master, £3 10s. ($11.67) for first mate, £2 15s. ($9.16)
for second mate, and £1 15s. ($5.83) each for gunner, carpenter, and
boatswain.5 “ In 1713 and 1714 seamen ranged from £2 2s. to £2 15s.
[$7 to $9.16] per month, generally £2 10s. [$8.33]; mates got £3 5s.
[$10.83]; captains, £4 10s. [$15]. In a picked crew of a Massachu­
setts sloop in 1730 to 1734 three men obtained £3 [$10] per month
each; the mate, £4 [$13.33]; the captain, £6 [$20]. These seamen
paid sixpence [8.4 cents] per month from their small wages to the
collectors of different ports for the use of Greenwich Hospital.” 6
A slave ship owned by Peter Faneuil sailed from Sierra Leone on
April 10 and arrived at Newport on August 1, 1743. Its pay roll,7
in which sterling is specified, reads:
T a b l e 8 . — Pay roll of slave ship, 1743

Men’s names

Qualities

When
shipt

Charles Winkham.........
John Battey..................
Oliver Arnold................
Alex McKinsey.............
Silvester Sweet..............
Oliver Somes.............. .
Wm. Umerey................
Wm. W yat....................

Master........
Mate...........
2d mate.......
Boatswain..
Sailor_____
___ do_____
___ do.........
.......do.........

Apr. 10-._...d o .........
...d o .........
...d o .........
-__do.........
...d o .........
May 1___
...d o .........

When
American
Wages sterling discharged Wages due equivalent
£
6
3
3
3
2
2
2
2

s.
00 ($29.16)
10 ( 17.01)
10 ( 17.01)
00 ( 14.58)
10 ( 12.15)
10 ( 12.15)
00 ( 9.72)
10 ( 12.15)

Aug. 18__
— do. 17.._-_do. —. . .
__.do. 16-„
— do. 18-„
— do. 16-.___do. 1 6 ...
— do. 1 8 ...

£
25
14
12
12
10
10
7
8

s.
12
16
14
12
13
10
1
18

d.
0
4
0
0
4
0
4
4

$124.41
72.00
61.70
61.22
51.83
51.03
34.34
43.33

Perhaps the crews of ships engaged in the highly profitable slave
trade shared some of the gains as well as the hazards of the business,
as these wages, in sterling, are considerably higher than others quoted
for the same period.
The sloop Humminghird, of Massachusetts, in the service of the
Province, made an official voyage from Boston to Annapolis, Md.,
and return, in 1744. The master received £20 sterling ($97.20) for
8 Bruce, Philip A.: Economic History of Virginia in the 17th Century, Vol. II, pp. 347-348.
4 In Collections of South Carolina Historical Society, Vol. Ill, p. 141.
6 Weeden, William B.: Economic and Social History of New England, 1620-1789, Vol.JI, p. 889.
• Idem, Vol. II, p. 577.
i Original manuscript in Rhode Island State Archives, cited by Weeden, Vol. II, p. 469.




97

CHAPTER 8.— MARITIME INDUSTRIES

the voyage; the mate, who also served as pilot, was paid £25 sterling
($121.50) for the voyage. Monthly rates, also sterling, paid to the
crew were: £1 10s. 6d. ($7.40) to the gunner; £1 7s. ($6.56) to the
boatswain; and £1 4s. ($5.83) to each of the 16 seamen.8
A shipping contract9 executed at New London, Conn., in 1767,
reads:
That in consideration of the monthly or other wages, against each respective
seaman and mariner's name hereunder set, They severally shall and will perform
the above mentioned voyage and the said Master doth hereby hire the said Sea­
men and Mariners for the said voyage at such monthly wages to be paid pursuant
to the Laws of Great Britain.
£

Wages per month
s.

Master--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4
Seaman_____________________________________________________ _2
Seaman_____________________________________________________ _1
Seaman_____________________________________________________ _1
Mariner_____________________________________________________ _1
Mariner_____________________________________________________ _1
Mariner_____________________________________________________ _1

16
00
15
10
15
10

5

($23. 30)
($9. 72)
($8. 50)
($7. 29)
($ 8. 50)
($7.29)
($6.08)

While sterling is not specified in this case, it is fair to conclude, by
comparison with wages paid by the Hummingbird, that sterling was
meant.
In January, 1776, the brig Nancy, sailing from Wickford, R. I.,
“ and by God's grace bound for the Salt Islands,” carried the following
crew and pay roll:1
0
T a b l e 9 . — Brig Nancy, Benjamin Baker, master, 1776

Men’s names

Benjamin Baker............
John Bissel—
..................
Ezekil Mitchel...............
John (x) Jones. .............
Gid Jenkins............. ......
Wm. Homes............... .
Simon (x) Laven............
Dom Smith....................
Daniel Jones..................

Wages per
month

Quality
£

s.

Captain....... 10 10 ($35.00)
Mate______ 6 18 ($23.00)
Saler............ 3 6 ($11.00)
Saler............ 3 6 ($11.00)
Raw hand-. 2 11 ($8.50)
Cook........... 2 2 ($7.00)
Saler............ 3 0 ($10.00)
Saler............ 3 0 ($10.00)
Saler............ 3 6 ($11.00)

Advance Wages on ye
wages
voige
£

8.

10 10
6 18
3 6
3 6
2 11
2 2
3 0
3 0
3 6

Month

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

27
27
22
17
25
26
23
23
17

American
equivalent

Whole
wages
£

30
20
9

8. d.

9 0
0 6
0 4

7 4
6 4
8 6
8 6
8 11

6
3
0
0
7

$101.50
6& 75
30.05
24.08
20.71
27.67
27.67
28.59

In this case, Rhode Island money was undoubtedly the currency
in which these wages were paid.
“ If we could look into the living of these hardy mariners in their
dingy cabins” —there, Weeden thinks, “ would be history indeed.”
Plainly, there was a democratic simplicity instituted which contrasted some­
what with the modified aristocratic rftovement characteristic of New England.
Forecastle and cabin, if separated in fact, were closely related in principle.
N ot only did fishing crews join interest in the catch, but ordinary seamen had
small privileges for their own freight, which they ventured in the voyage and
turned in trade. This diffusion of interest among the common seamen affected
sensibly the working of a vessel. There was a common feeling engendered
between owner and sailor, which fostered the proper energy of the voyage .1
1

Reported rates after the establishment of the Republic show some
discrepancies. A broadside, posted in Baltimore in 1790, advertising
for men for the mercantile marine, offered $30 a month to the mate,
s Massachusetts State Archives.
9 Connecticut Broadsides, Library of Congress.
10 in Rhode Island State Archives, cited in Weeden, Vol. II, p. 911,

1 Weeden, Vol. II, p. 576.
1



98

PART 1.— FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1840

$20 to able seamen, $18 to the cook, and $12 to the cabin steward.1
2
Between 1796 and 1820 Stephen Girard’s ships sailing out of Phila­
delphia paid even higher wages to their crews. The captain’s salary
was $50 a month in all cases recorded, and that of first mate ran from
$30 to $38; of second mate, $25 to $34. Seamen’s rates were usually
either $22 or $32 a month, and cooks $20. A large proportion of the
wages credited to the accounts of the crews appear in the Girard
receipt books as having been paid out in Philadelphia to the wives
and mothers of the sailors, throughout the duration of their voyages.
Girard’s scale seems considerably higher than the average pay in
the merchant marine. This was perhaps due to the fact that he
operated a fleet of privateers which, like the slave ships, may have
had to offer special inducements because of the greater risk. Two
agreements are of record concerning men on the brig Sally, captured
by the British in 1800 and taken to Halifax. The cook gave a receipt
for $20 on account and agreed to wait for the remainder due him
“ until said Mr. Girard has recovered said brig and cargo under the
appeal which he has entered at Halifax.” The mate agreed that “ if
said Stephen Girard recovers from the British his vessel and cargo,
he will pay me the remainder of my wages, after deducting the
proportion of charges. Otherwise I will have no further demand
against him.” The mate’s claim was settled two years later by the
payment of $107.
Speaking of conditions affecting the merchant marine in 1790 to
1795, McMaster says that “ common sailors could scarcely be had
at $24 a month.” 1 Yet the “ sailors’ strike” of 1803 was the result of
3
an attempt of seamen shipping out of New York City to obtain an
increase in wages from $10 a month to $14,1 and Warden reported
4
that from 1800 to 1815 monthly wages of seamen “ varied from
$10 to $17.” 1
6
According to McMaster, river boatmen on the Mississippi and the
Ohio received a dollar a day,1 while Warden quotes $25 a month.1
6
7
McMaster also sees in “ the rush of men into the merchant marine” 1
6
between 1800 and 1810 one of the chief causes for the abrupt rise in
wages paid unskilled labor during that decade.
Seamen’s wages as quoted by Warden must have remained fairly
constant for the next 20 years, as a second sailors’ strike, which
occurred in Boston in 1837, was an attempt to force an advance in
wages from $14 to $16 a month. The strike failed because “ plenty
of men could be obtained at the lower rate.” 1
8
The only rate for longshoremen that has been found pertains to
Massachusetts in 1756, and is given in “ old tenor” currency, which
converts into 50 cents a day for white laborers and 45 cents for
negroes.1
9
Salaries of keepers of the lighthouses along the Massachusetts coast
ranged from $150 a year for Plymouth Light to $350 a year for that
on Thatcher’s Island, in the period immediately following the War
of 1812.2
0
12 Maryland Broadsides, Library of Congress.
13 History of the People of the United States, Vol. I, p. 242.
14 Third Annual Report, U. S. Commissioner of Labor (1887), p. 1031.
15 Warden, D. B.: A Statistical, Political, and Historical Account of the United States. Vol. m . d. 274.
footnote.
*
w Vol. I ll, p. 510.
»V ol. II, p. 340.
18 Eleventh Annual Report, Massachusetts Bureau of Statistics of Labor (1880), p. 6.
w Massachusetts
 Vol. I,State Archives.
20 Warden,
p. 344.



CHAPTER

8.— MARITIME

INDUSTRIES

99

FISHING

It is to be regretted that an industry which played so conspicuous
a part in the economic life of New England, and engaged the services
01 so many people as did fishing, should have left behind it so slight
an industrial history. The dependence of the early colonists on
fishing and the later economic importance of the fish trade are always
given prominence by both contemporary writers and historians in
treating of colonial America, but reference to the earnings of the men
engaged in the industry are so rare as to be practically nonexistent.
This can probably be accounted for by the system of payment used
even by large-scale operators like Faneuil—that of giving the fisher­
men a percentage of the value of the catch after each voyage, a
system which, of course, made earnings a very uncertain factor.
An#unknown, but undoubtedly considerable, proportion of the
colonists earned their living fishing for the shippers, and “ the busi­
ness of the fisheries enters into all the doings of the time. Whenever
we turn over the stray papers of a seventeenth century merchant we
find evidences, great and small, of his constant intercourse with fish
and fishermen.” 2
1
This early fishing system, like all the industries of the time, stimulated in the
highest degree the personal powers of the participants. Great changes have
been wrought gradually in the position of the individual fisherman, the laborer,
and in capital, his environment, the tools and appliances of his work. A t this
period the capitalists, fitting out the expedition with boat, provisions, seines, etc.,
took one half the value o f the catch, and the other part went to the crew. In
the eighteenth century the capitalist’s moiety was reduced to one-fifth— a proortion which gave great opportunity to the individual fisherman, and which
isted until near our own time .2
2

E

The value of the individual fisherman’s share of the catch on one
voyage might be as high as £8 or £9 ($26.67 or $30), according to
Josselyn’s report in 1675. A Massachusetts fisherman brought suit
in the Essex County quarterly court in 1663 for payment of wages
under a contract calling for “ a year’s employment fishing,” for
which the stipulated remuneration of £29 4s. ($97.33) was “ to be
paid mostly by bills of exchange on England.” 2
3
By the middle of the eighteenth centuiy “ New England employed
45,880 tons of shipping and 6,002 men ” 2 in its fishing industry, but
*
the extent of the industry in terms of earnings of the men engaged in
it evidently can not now be determined.
WHALING

The whaling industry reached its peak somewhat later than the
period dealt with in this study, but it was not unimportant even in
the earliest years of the development of the maritime industries.
Before the Revolution it had assumed considerable importance, and
“ New England easily led all the world” 2 in the trade. In 1774 it
6
employed approximately 4,700 men. The Revolution and the War
of 1812 checked its normal development, and it was not until about
1825 that the industry regained a substantial footing.
21 Weeden, Vol. I, p. 247.
22 Idem, Vol. I, pp. 245-246.
28 Essex County Quarterly Court Records, Vol. I ll, p. 106. (Published by Essex Institute.)
« Weeden, Vol. II, p. 750.
** Idem, Vol. I, p. 443.




100

PART 1.— FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1840

A recent book 2 goes exhaustively into the subject of whaling and
6
presents, largely from original sources, “ a study of life and labor” in
the industry. Mr. Hohman’s work will be liberally drawn upon in a
brief treatment of an American industry which, although completely
extinct now, played nevertheless a prominent part in the industrial
history of early America.
Hohman fixes 1830 to 1860 as “ the golden era” of the industry, an
era which brought not only an enormous financial and industrial
expansion but marked changes within the industry itself as well,
particularly in relation to “ the human material entering into the
crews.”
So gradual was this change that it is impossible to assign it to any given year.
Yet so unmistakable was it, too, that the industry was divided into two roughly
defined but clearly recognizable periods. For want of a more precise boundary
line these two may be separated by the half decade 1825-1830. Before that time
the crews were provincial and homogeneous; after 1830 they were cosmopolitan
and heterogeneous. The early foremast hands were made up largely o f Yankees
from the New England seaboard, with an admixture of Gay Head Indians and a
small representative o f negroes; while during the second period individuals from
every race and from a score of nationalities rubbed shoulders in the crowded
forecastles and steerages. Coincident with this shift from provincialism to
cosmopolitanism went a marked deterioration in skill, experience, efficiency and
morale, as well as a striking increase in the total number of men engaged in the
fishery .2
7

By 1833 the American whaling fleet was employing 10,000 seamen,
whose most striking attribute was their youth.
Old men were virtually unknown at sea; and even middle-aged men were rare
except among masters and mates. Voyage after voyage whaling vessels sailed
with crews whose average ages were little in excess of twenty years. It was
exceptional to find a man of thirty in the forecastle, while countless hands were
still in their teens.
A logical corollary of such extreme youth was found in lack of experience.
The percentage of green hands carried by many whalers was truly astoundin*g.
In one vessel which left New Bedford in 1832 only four of the fourteen men in the
forecastle had ever been to sea before.
But inexperience was by no means the worst characteristic exhibited in the
forecastles. All too often the foremast hands came from the dregs of shore life.
This heavy dilution of the labor supply with inexperienced and degenerate ele­
ments brought about a notable decrease in both efficiency and morality. Closer
supervision and a more relentless driving were practiced in an effort to secure the
adequate performance of necessary tasks.2
8

As the industry grew and the demand for whalemen increased, a
system of labor recruiting developed which resorted to all manner of
“ suave deceit and shameless misrepresentation” to secure workers.
Through this “ funnel-like system” extending, by means of various
shipping agencies, from the seaboard to the Great Lakes, “ men from
all parts of the country flowed into the forecastles, with the whaling
ports at the receptive end.” 2
9
Prospective whalemen, herded into droves and dispatched to the
whaling ports, passed from the hands of the shipping agent into those
of the outfitter. “ This individual may be characterized briefly as the
entrepreneur of the labor supply phase of the industry. Usually, too,
he was the organizer, guiding spirit, and main beneficiary of the
26 Hohman, Elmo Paul: The American Whaleman (Longman, Green & Co.), 1928.
27 Idem, p. 48.
28 Idem, pp. 57-59.
29 Idem, p. 90.




CHAPTER 8.— MARITIME INDUSTRIES

101

system of commercialized exploitation which fed upon the whale­
man's earnings.” 3
0
The extent of the outfit sold to the recruit “ varied with the igno­
rance, need, or gullibility of the purchaser and with the shrewdness,
rapacity, or dishonesty, of the seller." In most cases, however—
The outfits were exceedingly scanty (in view of the length o f the voyage for
which they were intended), shamelessly inferior in quality, and extortionate in
price. A t times the prices were only twenty to thirty per cent above the going
rates charged for similar goods in ordinary stores; but in countless instances the
discrepancy rose to one hundred per cent and more. In general, the coarsest and
cheapest materials were provided for amounts which would have been more than
sufficient, elsewhere, to purchase goods of excellent quality and workmanship .3
1

In actual money, these bills against the whalemen ran between $60
and $100. “ The one figure most often mentioned by contemporary
writers was $75; and an analysis of hundreds of accounts showed that
a majority of the men were charged with amounts ranging from $70
to $90.” 3
2
This amount was paid by the employer to the merchant who sold
the outfit, then charged against the whaleman, at interest which ran
for the entire length of the voyage.
Whalers made longer and longer voyages as the industry grew,
until toward the end “ four and four and a half years became increas­
ingly common.” 3 In^ the earlier period, “ a report made to the
3
Secretary of the Navy in 1828 showed that during the years 1815 to
1824 inclusive, the average length of 178 cruises had been twentynine months.''3
4
Living conditions on board the whalers, which were the homes of the
men in the industry for these long terms, differed probably only in
degree from those in the merchant marine or the fishing trade. The
manufacturing element in whaling, however—that is, reducing the
whale to the marketable products of oil, bone, and spermaceti, all of
which was done on shipboard— aggravated what was very likely the
most wretched conditions existing in maritime work.
Living quarters on a whaler are described thus:
Conditions in the cabin were usually adequate, if not wholly commendable*
The captain occupied a large stateroom on the starboard side, with a bed so
swung that the rocking of the vessel was counteracted. The mates had smaller
staterooms, with ordinary bunks, just forward of the captain’s quarters.
Still farther forward, and completely separated from the officers’ staterooms,
was the steerage, an irregular compartment ordinarily containing eight plainly
constructed bunks. It was small, poorly ventilated and lighted, and allowed no
privacy; but with care and favoring conditions it might be made passably
comfortable.
In the forecastle, however, conditions were universally inadequate and often
squalid and filthy. The average forecastle was a very low compartment, juts
under the main deck in the extreme forward part of the vessel, which followed
the curve of the bows back some sixteen to twenty-five feet and enclosed the
lower portion of the foremast, thus diminishing still further the small deck space.
The bunks, crudely constructed of rough planking, were ranged along the sides
of the compartment in a double tier. The only ventilation and light came from
the hole cut in the deck above for the purpose of giving access to the ladder which
was the sole means of entrance and egress. This hole was thus entrance, exit,
ventilator and skylight. In cold or stormy weather, when it has to be kept
closed, there was no ventilation or daylight whatever. Such quarters commonly
housed from twelve to twenty men (a number at once tragic and ridiculous) .3
5

The method of payment in the whaling industry, like that in
fishing, was the “ lay” system— that is, each worker received a
Hohman,
 30 Idem, pp. p. 97.
31
99-100.


» Idem, p. 98.
p. 85.

m Idem,

34 Idem, p. 84.
** Idem, pp. 125-126.

102

PART 1.— FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1840

fractional part, called the “ lay,” of the total net proceeds of the
voyage. “ Captains, mates, boatsteerers, and coopers received
‘ short lays’ ranging from
to
of the net proceeds; able and
ordinary seamen, stewards, cooks, and blacksmiths were entitled to
shares which varied from
to
green hands and boys had to
be content with ‘ long lays’ which fluctuated from y -Q to
-J
and
instances of fractions as small as
and even
were not
unknown.” 3
6
Only occasionally are these “ lays” expressed in money. The
account of one whaler for a voyage of practically two years, 1805 to
1807, gives earnings in money, as follows: Captain, $2,052.13;
first mate, $1,381.41; second mate, $1,008.06; two boat steerers,
$777.05 each; cooper, $621,64; boy, $310.82; seamen, including
negroes and temporary hands, from $108.36 to $497.31 each.
The amount of the lay dropped steadily during the first half of the
nineteenth century. Converting manuscript accounts of voyages
of two vessels into averages, Hohman deduces the following data:
Average length of voyage and average earnings of 39 foremast hands carried
by the bark Minerva during three consecutive voyages, 1836-1841: Average
length of voyage, 614 days; average lay per voyage, $94.51; average earnings
per month, $4.62; average earnings per day, 15.4 cents.
Average length o f voyage and average earnings of 70 foremast hands carried
by the bark Marcella during four consecutive voyages, 1845-1856: Average
length of voyage, 935 days; average lay per voyage, $97.60; average earnings
per month, $3.12; average earnings per day, 10.4 cents .3
7

Against earnings, however, was set the whaleman’s indebtedness,
first for his outfit, and later for all indebtedness incurred on ship­
board, such as purchases from the ship’s store, advanced wages,
and the like, all of which bore extortionate interest for the entire
length of the voyage. Hence “ it was not uncommon for a seaman
to find himself actually in debt to the agents of the vessel on which he
had worked for a period of two to four years.” 3 Frequently this
8
situation was met by inducing, if not requiring, the debtor seaman to
ship on the next voyage in order to work off his obligation.
Normally, “ the strength of the lay was sufficient to prevail against
its crowding adversaries” 3 on the debit side of the account, and there
9
was, beside, even for those whose lays did not cover their debts, the
incalculable item of maintenance for indefinite periods. “ Even after
allowing for the execrable fare that was commonly furnished, ‘ free
board’ for a period of two to four years was an important matter
to the men in the forecastle,” but “ just how important it was, in
accurate terms of dollars and cents, no one seems to have taken the
trouble to ascertain.” 4
0
Hohman estimates that “ in round terms, the average whaleman was
receiving about 20 cents a day plus food and bunk space, at a time
when the average unskilled shore worker was being paid about 90
cents a day without room and board.” But—
Since wages paid in addition to board and room were from 33 per cent to 50
per cent lower than ordinary money wages, these same shore laborers would have
received from forty-five cents to sixty cents per day if they had been living with
their employers. That is, when average earnings were reckoned on a comparable
basis, the lowest grade of landlubber could sell his untrained strength for an
amount two or three times as great as that obtained by the occupant of a whaling
forecastle .4
1
36 Hohman, p. 217.


*7 Idem, pp. 236-237.


28 Idem, p. 219.
38 Idem, p. 265.

40 Idem, p. 268.
" Idem, p. 240.

Chapter 9.— BOOTS AND SHOES

Throughout the period covered in this study, that is, up to 1840,
boot and shoe making was wholly a handicraft. The history of the
industry follows closely that of textiles from household manufacture
through the stages of the itinerant journeyman and the small shop
to power-driven machinery in the factory. One marked difference
is that while by 1840 machine production of textiles was well under­
way, shoemaking machines had not yet been invented. Shoemaking
“ could be performed adequately * * * by any frontier farmer
in his colonial kitchen” 1 but gradually the itinerant cobbler found
his way into that colonial kitchen.
^ This cobbler was either a journeyman, “ whipping the ca t” after his appren­
ticeship to some master in a larger town was completed, or a self-taught farmer
of their own community who could make more at this trade than at farming.
His standard was apt to be higher, his experience wider, his number of lasts
greater, and his knowledge of leather deeper than that of any other farmer in
the village.2

Nothing accurate can be given as representing the earnings of the
itinerant shoemaker of the colonial period, because his pay was
chiefly in board and truck.
In the larger settlements journeyman shoemakers, working in their
own home shops, developed a custom trade which in the language of
the day was known as “ bespoke work.” Early wage rates un­
doubtedly always apply to this “ bespoke work” and represent the
amount of money paid by the customer to the journeyman for the
labor on a pair of shoes, the material for which the customer himself
supplied.
What was probably the first guild venture in America was made by
the shoemakers of Boston in 1648, when they petitioned the General
Court for authority to organize to protect the trade from “ the damag
which the country sustaynes by occasion of bad ware made by some
of that trade.” 3 A charter was granted under which shoemakers
were given“ libertie and powre” to assemble, elect officers, and “ to
make orders for the well governinge of theire company, in the mannaginge of theire trade and all the affayres thereunto pertaining,”
such rules to be submitted to the county court for approval. “ And
for the better executing such orders” the elected officers “ or any
three of them shall have power to heare and determine all offenses
against any of their said orders.” Upon complaint to the county court
“ of any person or persons who shall use the art or trade of shoomaker
or any part thereof, not being approved of by the officers of ye said
shoomakers to be a sufficient workman, the said court shall have
power to send for such persons and suppress them.” The charter
made the definite prohibition, however, “ that no unlawful combina­
tion be made at any time by the said company of shoomakers for
inhancinge the prices of shooes, bootes or wages.” It also dictated
that “ no shoomaker shall refuse to make shooes for any inhabitant
at reasonable rates of theire own leather for the use of themselves
1 Hazard, Blanche Evans: The Organization of the Boot and Shoe Industry in Massachusetts before
1875, p. 4.
2 Idem, p. 6.
a Massachusetts Bay Colony Records, Vol. Ill, pp. 132-133.




104

PART 1.— FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1840

and families.” Any craftsman who “ shall find himselfe greived”
by the actions or decisions of the “ company” had recourse to the
county court.
The working utensils of the craft were as simple as its organization.
The colonial cobbler—
had a flat face hammer and an awl and pincers and knives, which he brought from
England with him, a lapstone that was picked up on the seashore, some handforged nails, some linen thread spun perhaps by housewives of New England, some
wax from the bee-hives of colonial farmers, and leather imported from Europe
or made by some early tanner. His product was crude, for he had only crude
tools and materials with which to work .4

While there is a record of a “ shoe factory in which nine men were
employed ” 6 in Virginia as early as 1652, the shift of the industry from
the household into the shop was neither marked nor important before
the middle of the eighteenth century. John Adam Dagyr, a master
craftsman who emigrated from Wales to Lynn, Mass., in 1750, is
credited with being “ the first organizer of the industry in this country” 6
and his skill gave to the business “ a lift and impetus * * * equal
to the moving power of a new invention.” 7 # Although even at that
time “ New England shoemakers led in the industry,” 8 Lynn, which
was already a shoe center, had only three shops in which journeymen
were employed.9
From the available records it appears, curiously, that in custom or
“ bespoke work” the charge for making a pair of shoes shows prac­
tically no change throughout the history of the handicraft. The first
rate found is that given by Gabriel Thomas in his history of Pennsyl­
vania and applies to Philadelphia in 1698. He says: “ As to Journey­
men Shoemakers, they have Two Shillings per Pair for both men and
women’s Shoes.” Both the census of 1860, in its history of the boot
and shoe industry,1 and Bishop's History of American Manufactures 1
0
1
give the same rate, 2s. per pair, as the wages received by journeyman
shoemakers in Philadelphia in 1698, and while the source is not given
in either work, they are quite certainly quoting Thomas.
Two shillings in Pennyslvania currency of the period is 40 cents in
the American equivalent.1 Entries in the ledger of a Massachusetts
2
shoemaker in 1806 1 show such items as “ to making 15 pairs boys’
3
shoes, $6.25” ; “ to making 18 pairs men’s shoes, $7.50,” etc., which
in each case makes an average labor cost of 42 cents per pair. The
diary of a shoemaker of Lynn, Mass., apparently doing “ bespoke
work” exclusively, shows that in 1822 he was getting 40 and 45 cents
per pair for his work.1
4
Unfortunately there are no data to show whether or not these prices
are for comparable products. In the later development of the indus­
try, rates varied decidedly on different kinds of work, as, for example,
between women’s shoes and men’s work shoes, between pumps and
high boots, and so on.
* Gannon, Fred A.: Shoemaking, Old and New, p. 9.
«Tryon, Holla M.: Household Manufactures in the United States, 1640-1860, p. 4 (citing J. C. Wise's
Eastern Shore of Virginia in the Seventeenth Century, p. 302).
6 Allen, Frederick J.: The Shoe Industry, p. 6.
7 Weeden, William B.: Economic and Social History of New England, 1620-1789, Vol. II, p. 682.
8 Allen, p. 13.
»Weeden, p. 682.
i° Census of Manufactures, 1860, p. lxi.
n Vol. I, p. 444.
1 See p. 16.
2
1 Hazard, p. 46.
3
i* The Ways of a Worker of a Century Ago, as Shown by the Diary of Joseph Lye, Shoemaker (Published
A. Gannon, Salem, Mass.)
by Fred



CHAPTER 9.— BOOTS AND SHOES

105

The only definite information regarding productivity applies to the
later era, 1817-1822, and comes from the diary just referred to. Lye’s
usual daily production seems to have been two pairs of shoes, although
he sometimes made three pairs, and on one day he records making
“ two pairs of village walking boots at 45 cents, two pairs military at
40 cents.” 1 At that rate, the usual daily earnings of a good shoe­
5
maker, working for himself on “ bespoke work” in his own shop, would
be 80 to 90 cents. Two of Lye’s entries read: “ This week’s work comes
to $5.87 exclusive of other work;” “ this week’s work amounts to
$5.40;” items which in both cases refer only to his earnings at the
shoemaking trade.
Developments beginning shortly after 1750 materially changed the
nature of the industry from one carried on in 1-man shops for a cus­
tom trade to large-scale production for the open market. In the
initial transition—
Though apprentices and journeymen were employed, the less skilled and more
irregular labor of the women and girls of the family was also utilized. The
shoemaker turned over to the entrepreneur the completed shoe, often the combined
labor of every member of his family besides his apprentices and journeymen, but
with all the processes done in his shop under his direction .1
6

Ultimately came diversification and lessened skill, as the work was
put out from a central shop to home workers who were not necessarily
journeyman shoemakers.
Domestic workers came from miles around to the central shop to “ take o u t”
work; women got boot legs to side up and cord; men got boots to last and bottom
for their own work, and straps to stick, tops and counters to sew on for their
children’s work. All the members of a family, oftentimes of a whole community,
would be found working on boots .1
7

The greatly increased output which was necessary during the
Revolution to supply shoes to the Army resulted in the establish­
ment of shoe factories, and introduced “ a distinction between capital
and labor in the industry” and a division of labor within the factory.
It was known that workmen were usually expert in particular operations, for
instance, in cutting and fitting the uppers, or in preparing soles, or in sewing the
sole to the upper. This fact produced a division of labor. Shoemaking in fac­
tories during this period, until the introduction of machinery, was marked also
by the custom of having what were called “ teams” of workers. A team con­
sisted of a number of workers, each performing a particular process, the whole
team producing an entire shoe. On the other hand, a team might consist of a
group of men all experts on a single process. Such a team was usually known
as a “ gang.” A gang of bottomers, for instance, often went from factory to
factory, or from employer to employer, having a contract with each to bottom
all the shoes in process of making. The team or gang system gradually passed
largely out of use after the introduction of shoe machinery.
The typical shoemaker had long been his own master. He worked in his
little shop at home as he pleased, doing perhaps farm work or engaging in some
other occupation a part of the year. He objected to serving any other master
than himself, and believed that obedience to a foreman was a surrender of his
personal rights and liberties. He was reluctant to submit to factory hours,
from seven in the morning until six at night, and to exacting factory regulations.
He opposed in like manner the introduction of labor-saving machinery. The
general industrial growth of communities was, however, an irresistible though a
slowly coming tide. Progressive methods of employment and the introduction
of machinery gradually broke down all opposition .1
8
is The Ways of a Worker of a Century Ago, p. 13.
w Hazard, p. 25.
1 Idem, p. 52.
7
»* Allen, pp. 17-21.




106

PART 1.— FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1840

The average daily earnings of shoemakers in factories in Massa­
chusetts was 73 cents during the decade 1791-1800, and $1.06 from
1821 to 1830, according to the Massachusetts Bureau of Statistics of
Labor.1 Wages at Lynn, which in 1830 “ ranged from $5 to $7 a
9
week,” were paid in scrip.
The Union Store, a noted store of 1830, was established and carried on by a
group of Lynn manufacturers. It was stocked with goods of all kinds, indeed,
with everything that a man might need in daily life. Shoe manufacturers who
were interested in this store gave their employes orders on the store in payment
of wages. Each order read: “ Please deliver to the bearer goods to the amount
o f _______” The man who insisted on cash payment of his wages usually had a
great deal of difficulty in finding employment. The order went into circulation,
for shoemakers used them to pay for goods that they bought at stores other than
the Union Store, and to pay the doctor, the druggist, and others. The orders
were accepted as worth 60 or 70 per cent of their face value when in general
circulation, but were worth their full value in exchange for goods at the Union
Store.
Fortunately, necessities of life were cheap. So a shoemaker who brought in
his week's work and got an order on the store in payment for his wages, was
usually able to exchange that order for enough goods to keep himself and his
family alive for the week .2
0

That system was not confined to Lynn. The entrepreneur in the
shoe business in this period often had his own grocery business, and
“ by having the grocery store where his goods, bought at wholesale,
could be paid out at retail prices to his domestic workers, he got rid
of paying wages in cash.” 2
1
From the rise of the factory to the introduction of machinery after
1850, the work of stitching the uppers, called “ binding,” was done
almost wholly by women as a home occupation.
Since the women did the work in their own homes, much of it was done at
times when they were not engaged in household duties. The factories of Lynn
gave out a great deal of work to the women of the neighboring towns and villages,
as well as to those within the city. In the fishing villages of the coast, where
shoemaking was a winter occupation for fishermen, their wives and daughters
found employment at shoebinding through a great part of the year .2
2

Shoe binding was done as well by women who depended upon it
for their livelihood, and “ by working all day they were able to earn
50 or 75 cents.” 2 In 1803 the piecework price for shoe binding
3
ranged from 22 to 50 cents per dozen pairs.2
4
The report of the Secretary of the Treasury on Statistics of Manu­
factures in 1832 shows the prevailing wage rates in the shoe factories
after factory production was well organized, but before the intro­
duction of any machinery except the pegging machine. These data
also show the difference m rates paid for different types of work.
The lowest wage rate reported in Massachusetts was paid at Essex,
Ipswich, Topsfield, and Wenham, where the product was almost
entirely rough work shoes for men and boys, wmch found their chief
market in the South. The average rate was 46 cents a day for men
and 14 cents for women. Daily earnings on this grade of work were
as low as 33 cents. At Danvers, where a comparable grade of goods
was produced, men averaged 66 cents, boys 30 cents, and women 25
cents per day. Marblehead specialized in childrens shoes and men’s
19 History of Wages and Prices in Massachusetts, 1752-1883, p. 280.
80 Gannon, pp. 15-16.
Hazard, pp. 51-52.
* Abbott, Edith: Women in Industry, p. 155.
2
23 Gannon, p. 22.
Massachusetts Bureau of Statistics of Labor: History of Wages and Prices, p. 175.




CHAPTER 9.— BOOTS AND SHOES

107

slippers, the average daily rate on which was 52 cents for men, 28
cents for boys; and 13 cents for women. ^ The report adds that “ many
citizens of this town go to sea or fishing in the summer and make
shoes in the winter.” 2
6
In factories making men’s shoes for general market the usual rate
was 70 cents a day, although at Randolph the average was 83 cents
for men, which is a higher rate than that paid at Lynn on high-grade
women’s shoes. The average daily rate in the Lynn factories was 72
cents for men, 45 cents for boys, and 22 cents for women. This rate
is considerably lower than that reported by Braintree and Weymouth,
which also manufactured women’s shoes. In these towns the average
rate is given as $1 a day. While many workers in the Lynn factories
received that much, daily rates of 50 and 67 cents were not uncommon.
Wages were higher in Boston than elsewhere, averaging $1.10 per
day for men, and 50 cents for women and boys. Referring to the shoe
trade in Boston the report says:
The boot and shoe manufacture in this city is so intimately connected with
the same branches in the neighboring counties that it is not easy to separate it.
Many of the principal establishments in Boston have shops in the country to
which they furnish the stock and from which they receive the manufactured
article. Most of the shoe stores, as they are termed, have one or more persons
employed in making and repairing shoes in the city, while at the same time they
have the greater part of their saleable stock from the country. Many of the
persons who are taken into the above estimate are merely cobblers, keeping a
small shop and employing one person, while many others employ from 12 to 20
constantly .2
6

In western Massachusetts both men’s and women’s shoes were made
and the average daily rate was 88 cents, which was considerably
higher than the average in Essex County, where the trade was con­
centrated. Women and boys were apparently not employed in the
industry in the western part of the State; at any rate they are not
shown in the reports. In Worcester, where the trade was “ custom
work entirely” 2 men earned 84 cents a day, a figure which still
7
reflected the 40-cent rate on bespoke work, on the assumed production
of two pairs daily.
The average daily rates in other States were: 67 cents for men, 50
cents for boys, and 30 cents for women, in New Hampshire; 78 cents
for men in Maine; and “ $18 a month in towns and from $8 to $10 in
the country” 2 in Pennsylvania. The McLane report does not coyer
8
the boot and shoe industry in New York, although it was extensive
at that time.
In 1835 “ Philadelphia shoemakers publicly complained that the
Eastern States, meaning Massachusetts, did not do shoemaking as
well as they and charged less. This was probably true in all its order
and sale work aside from its regular private custom work. New
England was then specializing in brogans and cheap shoes for women.
The Philadelphia shoe industry always made the highest grade shoes
with skilled German workers.” 2
9
The working-day in 1832 in shoe factories reported in the McLane
report was uniformly 12 hours.
« McLane, Louis: Statistics of Manufactures in the United States, 1832 (Report of U. S. Treasury),
Vol. I, p. 238.
24 McLane Report, Vol. I, p. 468.
Idem, Vol. I, p. 569.
28 Idem, Vol. II, p. 598.
Hazard, p. 144, footnote.


61298°—
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108

PART 1.— FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1840

SOUTHERN MANUFACTURE

Authorities on the boot and shoe industry agree that the manu­
facture of shoes in the southern colonies was negligible. Planters and
the well-to-do in general imported foreign-made goods for their per­
sonal wear, while, on the other hand, the servants and slaves on the
plantations afforded the best market for the inferior work shoes pro­
duced in certain sections of Massachusetts and Connecticut. In the
earlier period, however, before New England began exporting shoes,
there was undoubtedly a considerable home manufacture in Virginia.
The list of artificers for whom the London Company advertised in 1609 did
not include tanners, curriers and shoemakers, from which it would be inferred
that the corporation expected to furnish the settlers with shoes from England
in addition to every other form of clothing. In the broadside issued by the com­
pany in 1611, tanners and shoemakers were among those to whom inducements
to emigrate were offered; and these inducements proved effective, for it is known
that there were shoemakers and tanners in the colony in 1616 who followed
their trades as well as cultivated the ground .8
0

Captain Mathews was a prominent planter who made a point of
demonstrating his theory that a well-managed plantation could
produce successfully every commodity necessary to its maintenance.
In 1648, “ in addition to having spinners and weavers among his
servants and slaves, he owned a tannery and employed eight shoe­
makers, a number so great that they must have been engaged in part
in making shoes for sale.” 3 Reference has already been made to
1
another Virginia colonist who employed nine men in his “ shoe factory.” 3 Bruce also mentions this same planter, and adds that “ there
2
were few planters of easy fortune who did not have tradesmen of this
character in their employment,” 3 since “ leading planters were in
3
the habit of importing shoemakers from England for the same reasons
that moved them to bring in representatives of other trades.” 3
4
Here again, in trying to determine wages paid these workers, we
encounter the indenture system, and while Bruce asserts that “ there
are many indications in the records of the latter half of the seven­
teenth century^ that both tanners and shoemakers constituted a class
of importance in the colony, including those who were free as well as
those who were serving under articles of indenture,” 3 there is no
6
reference to earnings in the trade, and quite probably the work was
chiefly that of indentured servants without wages.
Plantation accounts of a later period develop a new angle— the
practice followed by planters who had shoemakers of hiring them out
to neighbors who needed their services. Whether these craftsmen
were indentured^ servants or negro slaves is not known, but in this
connection it is immaterial, since in either case the amount paid for
their work would have gone not to them but to their masters.
Letters in the “ Jones Family Papers ” 3 suggest that the shoemakers
6
on the Jones estate were much in demand by neighboring planters.
Bills against these planters in the Jones account books give a fair
idea of the labor cost in the shoes made from their own stock, probably
for their servants and slaves. In 1747 Thomas Jones billed one
30 Brace, Philip A.: Economic History of Virginia in the Seventeenth Century, Vol. II, pp. 474-475.
Idem, Vol. II, pp. 475-476.
82 See p. 104.
83 Bruce, Vol. n , p. 476.
* Idem, Vol. II, p. 477.
w Idem, p. 476.

w Manuscript Collection, Library of Congress.



109

CHAPTER 9.— BOOTS AND SHOES

customer for: “ Making 14 pairs of plains, 14s. [$2.67];” and “ 4 pairs
of shoes, 5s. [83.3 cents].” The following year the account reads:
“ To making 8 pairs of men’s and women’s pumps, 12s. [$2]; 1 pair
men’s falls, 1/3 [21 cents]; 18 pairs of plams, 18s. [$3].” In 1749
another of Jones’s neighbors was billed: “ To two days’ work of two
shoemakers, 8s. [$1.33]” ; and later in the same year, “ to one day’s
work of one shoemaker, Is. [16.7 cents].
BOOTS

Boots, according to one history of the industry, “ were little worn
before the War for Independence.” 3 Philadelphia seems to have
7
been the center of the early manufacture of boots and the home of
the early trade organizations of both workers and employers, as well
as the scene of the prosecution of the first trial of trade-unionists for
“ combination and conspiracy to raise their wages.”
The first organization of journeymen cordwainers was in Phila­
delphia in 1792, and during its life the scale for making ordinary
boots rose from $1.40 in 1792 to $2.75 in 1796, for shop and bespoke
work. The journeymen agreed to do order work for $2.50 “ in order to
encourage the exportation trade.”
This was taken advantage of at the time of the cholera epidemic in 1798 when
the journeymen were paid only $2.25. After the journeymen returned to the
city they organized their second strike, in 1798, for an increase. This was
immediately granted by the employers, but in the following year, 1799, the em­
ployers effected an organization and ordered a return to the former wage. This
caused an obstinate strike and lockout of nine or ten weeks, ending in a compro­
mise. Again in 1804 there was another brief strike, at which the journeymen
won and the employers agreed to pay $2.75. But after Christmas, when work
became slack, the price of order work was reduced to $2.50. This led to the
obstinate strike of 1805 in which the journeymen demanded a flat increase all
round to $3 on both wholesale and retail work . 8
8

The testimony in the trial of the Philadelphia cordwainers in 1806 3
9
which grew out of this strike contains considerable information dealing
with wages and working conditions in the bootmaking trade in the
first decade of the nineteenth century.
The scale current in 1805 and the proposed increase which the
employers, through a general agreement, refused to grant w ere:4
0
Prices
in 1805

Prices
proposed

• Fancy tops_______________________________________ $ 4 25
Back straps_______________________________________ 3. 75
Long boots________________________________________ 2. 75
Cossacks__________________________________________ 2. 75
Bootees___________________________________________ 2. 50

$5. 00
4. 00
3. 00
3. 00
3. 00

Evidence was introduced to show that the new prices asked by the
Philadelphia cordwainers were the rates then prevailing in New York
and Baltimore.4 In this connection the statement was made that
1
‘ ‘considering how much dearer house rent, firing, and marketing is
at those places, the journeymen in Philadelphia have the advantage
even at the present rates. ” 4
2
w Census of Manufactures, 1860, p. lxix.
*8 Commons, John R.: Introduction to Trial of the Philadelphia Cordwainers, 1806, In Documentary
History of American Industrial Society, Vol. in, p. 37.
89 Documentary History of American Industrial Society, Vol. III.
< Idem, p. 106.
®
« Idem, p. 112.
« FRASER
Digitized for Idem, p. 103.



110

PART 1.— FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1840

Replying to a question about journeymen’s weekly earnings, one
employer said:
I have had them earn but six and seven dollars, but some have earned eleven
and a quarter and twelve dollars a week; a good workman may earn eleven and
a quarter a week, for a good workman can make three pairs of back strap boots
a week, which at $3.75 a pair is eleven dollars and a quarter .4
0

A journeyman called upon as witness was asked: “ How many
hours a day must a man work to earn $11.25 per week? ” He replied,
“ I could not earn ten dollars at the present rates if I was to work all
the twenty-four hours of the day.” 4 Another journeyman testified:
3
A man can not make a pair of back straps under three days, setting steadily,
late and early. I can not make twelve dollars a week, and I much doubt if any
man can on full-dress, fancy-top, back strap boots .4
4

A third said:
I work very hard, and later hours than other men. A t most I earn but ten
dollars a week; I don’t remember I ever earned eleven and a quarter. In
common I could not earn more than seven or eight; on an average I can not make
more than nine dollars.4
5

When fancy-top boots came into fashion in the summer of 1805,
the employers granted an advance of 50 cents above the prevailing
rate on backstrap boots for the new model. ^ According to one
witness who worked on fancy-top boots at the price originally fixed—
“ I could only make eight dollars and a half a week, and I worked
from five in the morning until twelve or one at night. I can not
make more than two pair a week. ” 4
6
The strike was lost and the defendants in the conspiracy trial were
found “ guilty of a combination to raise their wages” and fined
“ eight dollars each, with costs of suit.” 4 In the list of prices
7
adopted by the employers at the close of the strike order work was
not mentioned, and because of the failure of the strike “ workmen
were compelled to accept the employers’ list. ”
Consequently in 1806, as compared with 1789, the price for boots (i. e. ordinary
long boots and cossacks) paid to the journeymen on retail and custom work had
advanced from $1.40 to $2.75, while the price on wholesale work of the same
quality, after futile efforts of the journeymen to equalize it, was left open to
individual bargains.4
8

The New York piece-price scale in effect in 18054 was:
9
Back strap boots, fair tops________________________________ $4. 00
Back strapping the to p _______________________________
.7 5
Ornament straps closed outside_______________________
. 25
Back strap bootees________________________________________
3. 50
Wax legs closed outside, plain counters, fair tops__________
3. 25
Cordovan boots, fair-tops_________________________________
3. 00
Cordovan bootees_________________________________________
2. 50
Suwarrow boots, closed outside____________________________
3. 00
Suwarrow, inside closed, bespoke__________________________
2. 75
Suwarrow, inside, inferior work____________________________
2. 50
Binding boots_____________________________________________
.2 5
Stabbing boots____________________________________________
. 25
Footing old boots_______________________________ __________
2. 00
Foxing new boots_________________________________________
. 50
Foxing and countering old boots___________________________ 2. 00
Foxing without counters__________________________________
1. 75
Shoes, best work__________________________________________
1. 12
Shoes, inferior w ork_______________________________________
1. 00
40 Documentary History of American Industrial Society, Vol. I ll, p. 106.

« Idem, p. 118.
< Idem, p. 123.
«
« Idem, p. 236.

4 Idem, pp. 121-122.
4
48 Idem, p. 124.
48 Commons, op. tit., p. 38.
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
« Documentary History of American Industrial Society, Vol. HI, pp. 368-369.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

CHAPTER 9.— BOOTS AND SHOES

111

Pumps, French edges---------------------------------------------------------$1. 12
Pumps, shouldered edges__________________________________ 1. 00
Golo shoes________________________________________________ 1. 50
Stitching rans_____________________________________________
.7 5
Cork soles________________________________________________
. 50

The organized journeymen cordwainers of Pittsburgh were defend­
ants in 1815 in a conspiracy trial similar, in the indictment and
developments, to that of the Philadelphia bootmakers nine years
before. The wage scale and earnings, however, can not be so defi­
nitely established from the testimony in the Pittsburgh trial6 as in
0
the Philadelphia case. The price on cossacks, which had been $2.75,
was raised to $3.25; bootees went from $2.25 to $2.75; fine shoes
were to pay $1.25 and men's pumps, $1.12%
.
The organized journeymen struck to enforce this new scale and the
organized employers countered with the proposal to adopt the Phila­
delphia scale. The only indication of the outcome of the strike is
the trial itself, which suggests that the men lost, and the fact that
the defendants were found guilty and fined $1 each and costs.
One journeyman, testifying for the prosecution, said that an in­
dustrious man could support his family under the current scale, as
living was cheaper than it had been. “ A common week's work
upon cossacks is nine dollars—I have earned twelve. Wages paid
every Saturday evening." 6
1
Apparently it was customary for the journeyman to live with their
employers. In 1812 the members of the union “ took an oath not to
give more than two dollars a week for boarding and finding to any
employer. We thought it duly proportioned to the wages given by
them." 6 The employers, in their counterproposal at the time of
2
the strike, three years later, “ agreed to board them at $2.50 a week
and find them with room, fires, candles, e t c ." 6
3
An employer who “ generally had from fourteen to twenty-two
hands" and who paid $3 instead of $2.75 for work on cossacks, gave
as his objection to the scale the fact that “ they made no difference
between good and bad workmen, or between customer and order
work." 6
4
In an “ Address to the Journeymen Cordwainers of the City and
County of Philadelphia", issued in 1835 by the 200 members of the
“ United Beneficial Society of Journeyman Cordwainers" it was de­
clared that “ the wages of $2.75 formerly paid for boots have fallen
to $1.12K; that their earnings of $9 to $10 a week have fallen to $4
to $6; that, in order to earn such wages they must work in many
instances fourteen hours a day" while other skilled tradesmen “ are
earning $8 to $12 a week" and often “ only working ten hours a
d a y ."6
6
Boot and shoe workers were outstanding among the crafts which
early formed trade organizations. These were sufficiently effective
and active that “ of the 17 trials for conspiracy prior to 1842, the
shoemakers occasioned nine."6
6
w Documentary Histosy of American Industrial Society, Vol. IV, pp. 15-87.
81 Idem, p. 32.
« Idem, p. 34.
“ Idem, p. 46.
“ Idem, p. 49.
MCommons, in Documentary History of American Industrial Society, Vol. I ll, p. 40*
m Idem, p. 19,




Chapter 10.— CLOTHING TRADES
TAILORING

Tailors were specifically included in the second act of Massachu­
setts Bay Colony General Court, 1633, fixing maximum wages for
workers. In that statute “ master taylors” were allowed Is. (24.3
cents) a day with “ dyett,” while “ inferior taylors” were to be
content with 8d. (16 cents) and board.
Ten years later one of the Connecticut settlements which perhaps
had identical or similar legal restraint upon the earnings of tailors,
nevertheless made it possible for them to earn the prescribed amount
by legislating work for them:
A public order of the colony of New Haven, in 1643, soon after its settlement,
required the tailors to see that every family was provided with “ a coat o f cotton
woole well and substantially made.” In the following year the functions o f the
craft were again called into exercise for the public safety in a curious order
requiring, under penalty, that so soon as canvas and cotton could be obtained
from abroad, “ every family within the plantation shall accordingly provide
and after continue furnished with a coate well made and soe quilted with cotton
woole as may be fit for service and a comfortable defence against Indian arrowes,
and the taylors about town shall consider and advise how to make them and take
care that they be done without unnecessary delay.” 1

While journeymen tailors of this period were, like the weavers and
the shoemakers, largely itinerant workers, the tailoring shop had
appeared in the larger settlements, to judge by a partnership agree­
ment drawn up in Boston in 1639. By the terms of this 7-year
agreement the—
Co-partners in the trade of Taylery shal be and continue together daylie in
one shoppe and be at equall costs and charges in providing and paying for shoproome and all necessary utensills and things requisite to their saide trade and
shall each o f them have one Apprentice servant in their joyn t shoppe from time
to time during the said terme of seaven yeares. All the profitts, commodities
and advantages which shal be gotten by them in theire said trade, and b y the
industry and worke o f them the said partyes to these presents, and o f theire
Apprentice servants shal be equally Due and be divided and parted from time
to tim e unto and betweene the saide partyes to these presents. In case o f
sickness or other necessary occasion of absence of them the saide parties to these
presents from their saide joyn t shopp during the said terme, if the saide absence
shall be by the space of a Day or more, that then the one of the said parties
shall allow unto the other 16d. [22.3 cents] for every Dayes absence of each
other .8

Another agreement of record seems to be a modified indenture into
which Luke Mathews, a tailor of Hereford, entered with Thomas
Landon, of Virginia:
Mathews bound himself to serve Landon for a period of two years, his term to
begin when he reached the Colony; the remuneration was to be six pence [8.4
cents] a day when working for members of Landon's family, but when for other
persons he was to be entitled to one-half the proceeds of his labor, whatever it
might be .3

Six tailors were sent to the Virginia colony in 1608 as indentured
servants and many freemen “ who followed this calling secured a
livelihood by working by the day or by the task.” 4 Earnings of
i Census of Manufactures, I860, p. lxiii.
* Lechford, Thomas: Manuscript Notebook, 1638-1641 (published by American Antiquarian Society,
1885), pp. 91-92,
8 Bruce, Philip A.: Economic History of Virginia in the 17th Century, Vol. II, p. 471.
<Idem, p. 472.


112


CHAPTER 10.----CLOTHING TRADES

113

tailors of this period are always quoted in pounds of tobacco, con­
version of ^
which into American money, using the scant data on
tobacco prices which we have,5 produces rather inconsistent results.
In 1678, Philip Thomas of Henrico brought in a statement of indebtedness
against Captain Crews of that county which showed that he had for forty-two
and a half days been employed in the service of the latter under an agreement
promising him twenty pounds of tobacco (1/8) [28 cents] each day. William
Murray was in 1697 sued by John Nelson, a tailor, for the amount which had
been agreed upon as his reward for services extending over six weeks. This was
one thousand pounds of tobacco £8 6s. 8d., or about 4/4 per day [$27.77 or 72.3
cents a day].6

Bruce relates “ a curious instance which throws light upon the
social standing” of craftsmen in the Virginia colony:
James Bullock, a tailor, entered into a wager with Mr. Mathew Slader that in
a race to take place between their horses he would prove the winner. The court,
instead of allowing him the amount agreed upon in the bet, which he seems to
have won, fined him one hundred pounds of tobacco, on the ground that it was
illegal for laborers to participate in horse-racing, this being a sport reserved
exclusively for gentlemen. Tailors, nevertheless, were considered sufficiently
respectable to act as the attorneys of leading planters in special transactions.7

“ There are numerous indications,” Bruce adds, “ that tailors en­
joyed a large measure of prosperity.”
Two accounts of wage rates in Pennsylvania, one referring to 1698,8
the other to 1710,9 give 12s. ($2.40) a week and board as the usual
earnings of journeyman tailors. In New York in 1737 “ a tailor gets
20s. [$2.50] for making a suit of clothes” 1 and in Virginia in 1757 a
0
tailor’s bill for “ making a coat, waistcoat and 2 pair breeches” was
£1 6s. ($4.33).1
1
A woman dressmaker in Salem, Mass., in 1768 charged 12s. old
tenor (about 25 cents) for day work, and from £1 to £1 2s. 6d. (45
to 50 cents) for making a gown.1
2
A piece, or “ job” system of payment in place of daily rates came
into use toward the close of the eighteenth century, and “ during the
first half of the nineteenth century there seems to have been little
uniformity in methods of payment, although it is probable that the
piece system predominated.” 1
3
Journeyman tailors of Baltimore had a trade organization as early
as 1795 which “ forced wages up to seven shillings sixpence [$1] per
job.” Later, in 1805, “ the pay per job was fixed at 8/9 [$1.16] and a
system of ‘ extras’ was introduced by which what had once been four
jobs was at last made to count as eight.” 1
4
The wages of tailors, “ finding themselves and working 14 and 15
hours a day, were from $7 to $9 a week” 1 in Ohio in 1819, according
5
to a traveler, who, however, probably “ made the estimate after talk­
ing with journeymen about their piece scales.” 1 Another traveler
6
5 See p. 13.
6 Bruce, Vol. II, p. 472.
7 Idem, p. 473.
»Thomas, Gabriel: An Historical and Geographical Account of the Province and Countrey of Pensilvania (1698).
• Captain Robert Boyles’ Voayages and Adventures, in Hart’s History Told by Contemporaries, Vol.
n, p. 75.
10 Letter in Memorial History of New York City, Vol. II, p. 203.
11 Jones Family Papers, Manuscript, Library of Congress.
m Manuscript Account Book, Lee-Cabot Papers, Massachusetts Historical Society.
13 Stowell, Charles Jacob: Studies in Trade-Unionism in the Custom Tailoring Trade, p. 18.
m McMaster, John Bach: History of the People of the United States, Vol. I ll, p. 511.
w Hulme’s Journal, in Thwaite’s Early Western Travels, Vol. X, p. 75.
i« Stowell, p. 18.




114

PART 1.— FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1840

reported that journeymen tailors were making $2 a day in Pittsburgh
in 1817,1 while in Kentucky at the same time “ a tailor will charge
7
from $5 to $10 for making a coat.” 1
8
Average weekly earnings of tailors in Massachusetts in 1815 was
$6, or $3 with board. Ten years later the rate with board was the
same, while the rate without board had advanced to $7 and $8.
In 1828 daily rates were $1.25 and $1.50.1
9
The involved system of piece prices prevailing is shown in the
“ Trial of Twenty-four Journeymen Tailors Charged with a Con­
spiracy” in Philadelphia in 1827. The case rose out of an order
which was not specifically covered by the bill of prices. The six
men working on the garment, a “ lady’s riding habit of thin pongee,” 2
0
fixed $7.06 as the price for making, which, according to the employers,
was $1 more than the bill of prices on thin material called for. They
paid the men their price and then discharged them, after which
most of their employees struck because, as one witness expressed it,
they “ saw no reason for discharging men for demanding the usual
wages.” 2 The defendants were acquitted of the charge of con­
1
spiracy to raise wages, but were found guilty on the third count in
the indictment, that of trying to force the reinstatement of the
discharged workers. The attorney for the defense gave notice of
appeal, and if the case was followed further the record apparently
has not been found.
The bill of prices introduced as evidence was:
Ladies’ Habits, Coats and Pelisses 2
2
Habits without skirts, plain__________________________________________ $4. 50
Habits with skirts, plain--------------------------------------------------------------------- -- 6. 00
If loops or strings to tie up at bottom, extra---------------------------------------. 25
Vent at sleeve hand, without buttons, extra---------------------------------------. 12J^
Wadding in breast, extra_____________________________________________
.2 5
Hussar skirts rantered to body, extra_________________________________
. 12J^
Each fly in breast, extra______________________________________________
. 25
Habits, hussar fashion, without skirts__________________________________6. 00
Habits, hussar fashion, with skirts____________________________________ _7. 50
Wadded sleeve heads, extra___________________________________________
. 18%

The testimony contains no reference to the time involved, or to
weekly earnings on piecework. One witness declared that “ if
regular prices are not paid we can’t support ourselves.” 2 Wages for
3
week work were given as $12 in the testimony.2
3
An “ Emigrants’ Directory” of 1820, “ advised tailors who might
come to this country that in New York their trade had been ‘ much
injured by the employment of women and boys who work from
twenty-five to fifty per cent cheaper than the men.’ A man that
can cut, it was specified, ‘ will be occasionally very well paid, the
women not being very clever in this branch of the business makes
men more necessary. Trousers are all made by women.’ ” 2
4
17Birkbeck, Morris: Notes on a Journey in America from the Coast of Virginia to the Territory of Illinois
(1817).
18 Warden, D. B.: A Statistical, Political and Historical Account of the United States, Vol. II, p. 340.
19 Massachusetts Bureau of Statistics of Labor: History of Wages and Prices in Massachusetts, 17521883,p. 165.
20

Trial, p. 16.

Idem, p. 49.

22 Idem, p. 129.
23 Idem, p. 48.

Abbott, Edith: Women in Industry, p. 218, quoting “ View of the United States of America, A Com­

plete
Emigrant’s Directory ” (London, 1820), p. 371.


CHAPTER 10.— CLOTHING TRADES

115

The McLane report of 1832 covers 100 tailoring shops in Boston,
employing 300 men at $2 a day, and 100 boys and 1,300 women at
50 cents a day.2
5
READY-MADE CLOTHING

“ The first ready-made clothing of which we have record was
4shirts for the Indians/ which were made by at least one woman in
Northfield, Mass., about 1725 for 8d. [11.2 cents] each, and ‘ men's
Breeches’ which were made for Is. 6d. [25 cents] a pair.” 2 While
6
“ we are accustomed to associate the ready-made industry with the
introduction of machinery * * * the industry was known long
before.” The custom trade was the first to begin supplying the
demand for ready-made clothes, a demand which came “ with the
development of a middle class who demanded better clothing than
a workingman's suit, but were still unable to pay for the expensive
custom suit.” 2
7
By 1835 “ the manufacture of ready-made clothing had become a
thriving business ” but “ it was practically confined to men's and boys'
clothing of the cheaper grades and to shirts, and the quantities manu­
factured were necessarily small, the work being all done by hand.
It is probable, though there are practically no statistics on the sub­
ject, that during this period women retained all their former work,
the lighter forms of sewing, and at the same time slowly encroached
upon the domain of the man tailor.” 2
8
In its treatment of wages, hours, and working conditions of women
in the clothing trades in the early years of the industry,2 the report
9
of the United States Department o f Commerce and Labor on Woman
and Child Wage Earners in the United States3 draws upon the labor
0
papers of the period, and the investigations of Mathew Carey, for
most of its data. It prefaces its summary with the declaration that
“ the history of this period, like that of the better-known period of
the machine, is a tale of long hours, low wages, and exploitation.” 3
1
It was declared that in Philadelphia in 1829 it required “ great
expertness, unceasing industry from sunrise till 10 or 11 o'clock at
night, constant employment (which few of them have) without any
interruption whatever from sickness or attention to their families,
to earn a dollar and a half a week,” and that much of the workers'
time had to be given to “ travelling 8, 10, 12, or 14 squares for work
and as many to take it back when finished.” 3
2
Conditions in New York a year later were, according to the New
York Sentinel, the first labor aaily, as bad as those in Philadelphia,
and “ no means had been discovered or adopted to mitigate the dis­
tress.”
Many women in New York, said the Sentinel, were employed “ in making
duck pantaloons for a readymade clothes store for 4 cents a pair, and cotton shirts
for 7 cents apiece. These women stated,” said the Sentinel, “ that with the
most unremitting industry they could sew no more than three pair of pantaloons,
or one shirt, in a day, and that they were obliged to labor for this paltry pittance
** McLane, Louis: Statistics of Manufactures in the United States, 1832, Vol. I, p. 465.
8 Sumner, Helen L.: History of Women in Industry in the United States. In Vol. IX of the U. S.
®
Department of Commerce ana Labor Report on Conditions of Women and Child Wage Earners in the
United States, p. 120.
27 Stowell, p. 20.
28 Sumner, p. 123.
» In Vol. IX, pp. 115-174.
Senate Document No. 645,61st Congress, 2d session.
81 Sumner, p. 123.
» Sumner, p. 123, quoting Free Trade Advocate, Philadelphia, Mar. 14,1829.




116

PART 1.— FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1840

or be entirely without employment.” The storekeeper, for whom they wrought,
could procure the services of emigrants wretchedly poor, or get his work done at
the almshouse, and would give no higher wages. In consequence, the price of
such work was reduced to nearly a similar rate throughout the city.8
8

In Boston, the report continues, “ conditions were as bad as in
Philadelphia and New York—
The Rev. Joseph Tuckerman recorded in 1830 that he had recently been told
“ by a very respectable keeper of a slop shop that he has for some time past had
50 applications a day from females for work with which he could not supply
them; and the work sought by them is coarse shirts to be made at 10, 8, or even
6% cents each, or laborers’ frocks, or duck pantaloons, at the same prices.”
The average weekly wages for such work, when a woman was fully employed, he
gave as but a dollar or a dollar and a quarter— less, apparently, than in Phila­
delphia. Rents, moreover, he stated to be higher in Boston than in Philadelphia,
the common price of a room being a dollar a w eek.8
4

Pittsburgh tailors in 1830 were paying for “ making a pair of panta­
loons, which took about 15 hours, 25 cents, and for making a shirt,
‘ that takes a woman a whole day if she attends to any other work
in her fam ily/ 12% cents.” 3 These rates are practically identical
5
with those of 8d. (11.2 cents) for shirts and Is. 6d. (25 cents) for
“ men’s breeches” paid a century before ? as previously noted.
Mathew Carey estimated yearly receipts and expenditures of the
woman worker in the clothing trade as follows:3
6
Forty-four weeks, at $1.25_____________________________________________$55. 00
Lodgings, 50 cents per week___________________________________ $26. 00
Fuel, 25 cents per week, but say only 12J^>_____________________
6. 50
------------ 32.50
Remains for victuals and clothes________________________________

22. 50

Later, in 1833, Carey “ made still another calculation of the receipts
and expenditures of the seamstress. Laying aside all consideration
of unemployment, sickness, or lack of skill and rapidity, and taking
as a basis the highest wages paid, he made, for a woman without
children, the following calculation per annum: ” 3
7
Nine shirts per week, $1.12^__________________________________________ $58. 50
Rent, at 50 cents______________________________________________ $26. 00
Shoes and clothes, suppose_____________________________________ 10. 00
Fuel per week, say 15 cents____________________________________
7. 80
Soap, candles, etc., 8 cents___________________________ .________
4. 16
Remain for food and drink 20 cents per week, or about 2% cents
per day_____________________________________________________
10. 54
------------ 58.50
Expert seamstresses could not make more than eight or nine shirts or duck
pantaloons a week, which at the highest price paid, 12^ cents, would amount to
only $1.12} i 8
8

During the decade 1825-1835 women employed in the clothing
trades in the three largest centers, New York, Philadelphia, and Balti­
more, instituted a number of movements toward organization. Most
of these were benevolent societies chiefly, but one organized in Balti­
more in 1833 seems to have been not only economic but militant. It
organized for the purpose of striking for increased wages, and
“ resolved that, more effectively to accomplish our purpose, we enter
into a positive agreement to take out no work from the shops until
proper rates be established.” The women “ strenuously advised and



88 Sumner, p. 124.
84 Idem, p. 125.
« Idem, p. 127.

8®
Idem., p. 127.
37 Idem, pp. 128-129.
88 Idem, pp. 127-128.

CHAPTER 10.— CLOTHING TRADES

117

requested” all other women in the trade to cooperate “ in the present
attempt to establish such a bill of wages as shall remunerate us for
our labor.”
At a later meeting a bill of prices was drawn up and a strike to
enforce it was called for October 1. “ On the following day the
journeymen tailors of Baltimore issued a call for a special meeting
for the purpose of assisting the women in their stand for higher wages.
The women’s organization was called the Female^ Union Society of
Tailoresses and Seamstresses. The result of the strike and the further
work of the Female Union Society are unknown.” 8
9
* Andrews, John B.: History of Women in Trade Unions. Vol. X of Beport on Conditions of Woman
and Child Wage Earners in the United States, pp. 38-39.




Chapter 11.— PRINTING AND PUBLISHING

Harvard College owned and controlled the first printing press in
the American Colonies, and the first printers were in the employ of
the colonial government. Governmental control went so far that
in 1664 the Massachusetts Bay Colony General Court ordered that
“ for the Preventing of Irregularyties and Abuse to the authority of
this Country by the Printing Presse * * * their shall no
Printing Press be allowed in any Town within this Jurisdiction but
in Cambridge, nor shall any person or persons presume to print any
copie but by the allowance first had and obtayned under the hand
of such as this court shall from time to time Impower.” 1 Shortly
afterward, this law was amended “ to permit the use of a press at
Boston, and a person was authorized to conduct it, subject, how­
ever, to the licensers who were appointed for the purpose of inspect­
ing it.” 2 Even with some liberalization from time to time, it was
not until well along in the eighteenth century that printers became
craftsmen independent of the control of colonial authorities.
Stephen Daye, the first printer, was “ granted three hundred
acres of land where it may be convenient, without prejudice to any
town.” The grant was made to him as printer for the Colony, in
1641, but he did not take up the land, and in 1655, six years after he
had left the position, he appealed to the court for “ Recompence of
his Care and Charge in furtheringe the work of Printing.” The
court confirmed the original grant of land, but two years later Day*?,
was still complaining to the General Court that “ he hath suffered
much damage by Erecting the Printing Presse at Cambridge for
which he never had yett any Considerable Satisfaction.” 3
His successor, Samuel Green, was ordered by the General Court, in
1654, to print the laws of the Colony “ to the number of five, six, or
seven hundred as the Court shall order, all which coppies the Treas­
urer shall take and pay for in wheate for the number of five hundred
after the rate of one penny [1.4 cents] a sheete, or eight shillings
[$1.33] a hundred for five hundred sheets.” 4
Green printed the Indian Bible on the Cambridge presses, the
second of which had been shipped from England for the purpose by
the Society for Propagating the Gospel among the Indians. In the
account6 presented to the society by its colonial agent for that
piece of work were the following labor charges. Other items in the
original, not quoted here, cover stock and repairs to the presses.
£

s. d.

T o printing the Title Sheete to the New Testament_______ 1 0 0 ( $3.
T o printing 1500 Cattechisms_____________________________ 15 0 0 ( $50.
T o printing 21 sheets of the Old Testament, att 3 lb. 10s.
[$11.67] per sheete, Mr. Johnson being absent__________ 73 10 0 ($245.
T o printing 25 sheetes with his healp, att 50s. [$8.33] per
sheete__________________________________________________ 62 10 0 ($208.
T o binding 200 Testaments att 6d. [8.4 cents] a peece._____ 5 0 0 ( $16.

33)
00)
00)
33)
67)

i Thomas, Isaiah: History of Printing in America (1st ed. Mass. 1810), Vol. I, p. 247. Massachusetts
Bay Colony Records quoted,
a Idem, Vol. I, p. 207.




CHAPTER 11.— PRINTING AND PUBLISHING

119

Johnson, mentioned in Green’s account, was sent from England
by the society under a 3-year contract, to assist in the work of print­
ing the Indian Bible. The printers estimated that with two men
working together they could “ print a sheete every weeke” and
computed the whole job “ to amount to a hundred and fifty sheetes.”
Johnson proved unreliable, however, and “ absented himselfe from
the worke more than halfe a yeare att one time,” which is given by
the agent of the society as accounting for the fact that Green had
worked alone on 21 sheets of the Bible and had in consequence
raised his price from £2 10s. to £3 10s. [$8.33 to $11.67].6
There is apparently no available record of the wages of journeyman
printers from the time, after the opening^ of the eighteenth century,
when they began to work independently, in the publication of tracts,
books, and newspapers, until the close of the century. Perhaps that
is explained in Thomas’s statement that “ it seems to have been the
custom with master printers in Boston at that time, when their
business was on a very small scale, instead of hiring those who had
served a regular apprenticeship to the trade as journeymen, to admit
them as temporary partners in work and to draw a proportion of
the profit.” 7 Thomas relates that he himself “ accepted an offer
for board for his services” on one job,8 and Benjamin Franklin, while
he frequently refers to the low wages he received as a journeyman,
fails to state what those wages were.
Thomas mentions salaries paid to two printers who were employed
as official printers to provincial governments before the Revolution.
One of these was retained by both Virginia and Maryland, each of
which paid him “ a salary of two hundred pounds per annum in
country produce.” Later, in 1740, Maryland terminated that
arrangement and appointed another man “ printer for the colony” at
an annual salary of £500 ($1,335)9currency. “ For this sum he printed
the laws as they were made from session to session, proclamations,
&c., he being paid the cost of paper used in the work.” 1 When he
0
died in 1767 his widow succeeded him as official printer.
Apparently it was quite the custom for wives of printers to take
over the business of a printing establishment upon the death of their
husbands. Thomas makes frequent reference, in his biographies of
early printers, to the succession of the widow to the business. In
most cases she was an employer only, but Anne Franklin, widow of
James and sister-in-law of Benjamin, “ printed for the colony” of
Rhode Island, in 1745, assisted by her two daughters, who “ were
correct and quick compositors at case,” 1 having been instructed by
1
their father.
Before the Revolution “ printing was confined to the capitals of the
colonies, but the war occasioned the dispersion of the presses,”
largely to insure their safety, and “ after the establishment of our
independence presses multiplied very fast not only in seaports but in
all the principal inland towns and villages.” 1
2
Following this rapid development of printing and the increase in
the number of newspapers, a number which Thomas found “ almost
6 Idem, Vol. I, p. 266 (quoting letter from colonial agent to society in London)*
* Idem, Vol. I, p. 301.
« Idem, Vol. I, p. 370.
• Maryland currency—pound worth $2.67.
10 Thomas, Vol. II, pp. 128-129.
11 Idem, Vol.
 I, p. 420.
12 Idem, Vol. I, p. 210.



120

PART 1.— FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1840

incredible” in 1810,1 sporadic organizations of journeymen sprang up
3
to establish and stabilize rates of wages. A study of these organiza­
tions was published by the Bureau of Labor of the United States De­
partment of Commerce and Labor in its Bulletin No. 61, November,
1905.1 Except where otherwise noted, data on printers' wages
4
from 1786 are taken from this report of the bureau, and apply only
to what were, substantially, union scales. Rates at which the
“ tramp printer” and partially skilled men worked have not been
found to an extent which would justify their inclusion.
In 1786, 26 journeyman printers of Philadelphia, “ probably com­
prising a majority of the competent men in the city at that time,”
met and unanimously resolved to resist an attempted wage reduction,
and agreed not “ to engage to work for any printing establishment
in this city or county under the sum of $6.00 per week,” and to
support “ such of our brethren as shall be thrown out of employment
by refusing to work for less than $6 per week.”
The rate in New York was substantially lower than that in Phil­
adelphia at the time, evidently 87K cents a day, and not until 1795
did the journeymen of New York succeed in raising their rate to $1.
Four years later the Franklin Typographical Society of Journeyman
Printers of New York was formed. It drew up a complete wage scale
and struck to enforce it. This scale called for 25 cents for 1,000 ems,
not less than $7 a week in book and job work, and $8 a week on
newspapers.
The Philadelphia Typographical Society was organized in 1802 and
drew up a bill of prices, which is believed to be the oldest printed
scale which has been preserved. In presenting the scale to the master
printers for acceptance the society asserted that “ we have confined
ourselves to what a majority of employers in this city gives ” and that
its chief purpose was “ to have one uniform price established.” The
scale was:
Composition:
Per week, not less than---------------------------------------------------------------- $8. 00
Every 1,000 m’s, from brevier to English, inclusive_______________
. 25
. 50
Common rule or figure work_____________________________________
Press work:
Per week, not less than__________________________________________ $8. 00
All paper below medium, per token (240 sheets)___________________
.3 0
All paper above medium, per token______________________________
. 37%
Broadsides, per token____________________________________________
. 75
Cards, per pack__________________________________________________
. 12}&
All small jobs____________________________________________________
. 30

A year later the price of composition on newspapers was increased
to 30 cents per 1,000 ems, and a charge was placed on each alteration
from copy after proofs had been corrected.
While the Philadelphia society was growing stronger numerically
and economically, the craft in New York was losing ground. By
1804 the scale previously adopted had been so demoralized that com­
positors were taking 5 cents per 1,000 ems less, and pressmen were
working for 25 cents per token instead of 37K cents. Boys were
displacing journeymen in typesetting, at $4 and $4.50 a week. The
New York society drafted a new scale in 1809 in which it attempted
little more than to restore the 1800 scale. In some shops strikes were
13 Idem, Vol. II, p. 183.

14 Stewart, Ethelbert: Documentary History of the Early Organizations of Printers, pp. 857-1033.



CHAPTER 11.— PRINTING AND PUBLISHING

121

called to enforce the standard. It was adopted, but apparently
represented no advance over conditions in 1800. Six publishers then
made an agreement to raise their subscription price from $8 to $10
a year, because, at the 25 cents per 1,000 ems rate, compositors were
earning as high as $8 a week, and “ such great wages, combined with
the cost of paper and type,” and of clerk hire, which “ had risen from
$350 to $400 and even $500 a year,” 1 were ruining their business.
5
New York made its next advance in 1815, when it secured sub­
stantial increases. Piece prices in typesetting ranged from 27 to 50
cents per 1,000 ems, and “ all workmen employed by the week shall
receive not less than $9 in book offices and on evening papers, and on
morning papers not less than $10.” The scale for pressmen ranged
from 33 cents to 39 cents per token, depending on the size of type and
weight of paper, “ a token of paper, if on bookwork, to consist of no
more than 10% quires, and if on a daily paper, of no more than 10.”
Three cents extra was to be paid “ on forms containing wood engrav­
ings.” Pressmen working by the week received $10 a week on
morning papers and $9 on evening papers. When teaching appren­
tices they were to be given 5 cents additional per token for the first
three months, and 3 cents per token for the next three months.
The society went beyond its immediate jurisdiction and undertook
“ to induce” other organizations, those of Philadelphia, Albany, New
York, and Washington, D. C., especially, “ to raise their prices to at
least the same standard as ours.”
The scale in Washington at the time was:
Compositors
During the recess of Congress, in book or newspaper offices, to receive not
less than $9 per week. During the session, in offices engaged on congressional
work, or in newspaper offices, to receive not less than $10 per week, and $2 for
each and every Sunday.
By the piece: For every 1,000 ems, from brevier to pica, 28 cents; for smaller
letter than brevier, 3 3 cents; on newspapers, not less than 30 cents per 1,000
ems; above pica, to be charged as pica.
Alterations: Compositors to receive, for alterations from copy, at the rate of 25
cents per hour.
Pressmen
During the recess of Congress, shall receive not less than $9 per week; by the
piece, in newspaper offices, not less than 27)4 cents per token for royal or super­
royal; nor less than 45 cents per token for imperial.
During the session, in offices engaged on congressional work, or in newspaper
offices, not to receive less than $10 per week, and $2 for each and every Sunday.
Paper: Medium, and below medium, when the form consists of brevier or
larger letter, 33% cents per token; below brevier, not less than 35 cents per
token; royal and upward, on brevier or larger letter, not less than 37}i cents
per token; all under brevier, not less than 50 cents per token.
Jobs not less than 35 cents per token.
Cards, for one pack and not exceeding two packs, 35 cents; when exceeding
two packs, to be paid at the rate of 15 cents per pack.
Broadsides shaft be paid for double, according to the size of the paper.
For taking down or putting up a press, $3.
For working down a new press, $6.
When an alteration in a form takes place, each pressman shall be paid 16J^
cents an hour.
No pressman shall teach an apprentice presswork without the benefit of his
work for 13 weeks, or half his wages for 6 months; nor shall he teach an appren­
tice who is more than 18 years old, and who is bound for less than three years.

The same scale was in force in Baltimore, and placed both cities
well ahead of most of the northern cities. Weekly earnings in Boston

http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/ Bach: History of the People of the United States, Vol. I, pp. 617-618.
is McMaster, John
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PART 1 — FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1840

were less than $7 a week in 1815, and did not reach $9 until 1825,
in which year that is recorded as the highest rate paid both pressmen
and compositors, with $7.50 as the medium and $6 as the low rate per
week.1
6
There is a lapse of nearly 20 years in the wage data given in the
bureau bulletin. During that time the early organizations were
either collapsing entirely or changing their functions to those of
benevolent societies wholly. About 1830 a new wave of organiza­
tion set in, this time along definite trade-union lines, and wage rates
were again brought up for revision. Perhaps this gap in the story
is more apparent than real, however, because in Washington, for
example, the 1815 wage scale was actually in continuous application
for more than 20 years. Baltimore, on the other hand, had not main­
tained its scale, and the prices asked by the union founded in 1831
were appreciably lower than those paid in 1815. Whether or not the
scale represented an increase over the prevailing rate is not recorded.
The 1831 scale was 25 cents per 1,000 ems on the usual run of work,
and $8 a week for compositors employed by the week. Piece rates
per token for pressmen were 30 to 37% cents on ordinary work.
Pressmen employed by the week were to receive $8 in book and job
offices and on evening papers, $9 on morning papers. Overtime
appears for the first time, at the rate of 20 cents an hour after 10
hours for time workers, 4 cents extra per token and 5 cents addi­
tional per 1,000 ems for pieceworkers.
This lowered scale suggests deteriorated trade conditions which the
record for the 20 years definitely shows. Women were appearing in
printing offices, boys without training were taking the places of
journeymen, and apprenticeship was almost demoralized. Me­
chanical changes, such as stereotyping, were affecting earnings
materially.
When the printers of New York founded a trade-union, they pref­
aced their constitution, adopted in 1833, with “ Introductory Re­
marks” which give an idea of the disturbed state of the trade. The
printing industry, it said, prospered for several years following the
stabilization which grew out of the 1815 uniform scale, and—
Some printers from a distance, having heard that business was good, and being
determined to obtain it at all hazards, located themselves among us; and to
secure a sufficient quantity of work commenced operations on terms that could
not be afforded, if they wished to obtain a fair remuneration for their labor, or
act honestly by the workman. The consequence was that while a few grew rich
at the expense of the journeymen, old established printers [employers] who had
before paid honorable prices, were obliged to reduce their charges for work or
lose much o f their business; and as their receipts were diminished, the wages
of the journeymen were reduced by degrees until, instead of a uniform scale of
prices, every man was compelled to work for what he could obtain.
Another cause of depression was the practice, which then prevailed, and has
continued more or less to the present time, of employing runaway or dismissed
apprentices for a small compensation. These were called two-thirds men, and
have always proved a great pest to the profession. Added to this, roller boys,
having gained admission to the interior of a printing office, have in a short time
fought their way from the rear to the front of the press, to the discharge of the
regular pressman.
The trade also, as far as pressmen are concerned, had suffered extremely by the
applications of machinery to that branch of the business; and while a few indi­
viduals were growing rich, as they asserted, for the benefit of the public at large,
many who had spent from five to seven years o f the flower of their lives in acquir­
ing a knowledge of their profession were left without employment.

> Massachusetts Bureau of Statistics of Labor: History of Wages and Prices in Massachusetts, 1752•
1883, p. 174.


<
.^APTER 11.— PRINTING AND PUBLISHING

123

Matters continued in this condition for a number of years. Meantime the
business of stereotyping had increased to a great extent; and the numerous im­
provements in the art * * * rendered it every year more and more difficult
for compositors to support themselves and their families. To the disgrace of
some employers, every advantage was taken of the necessities of the workmen,
and impositions were continually practiced upon them.

The scale adopted by this New York organization in 1833 differed
little from that of Baltimore, except in the rate for time workers
which was set at $12 a week for compositors on morning papers, and
$9 for those on evening papers and in book and job offices; and $9
a week for pressmen. Two years later, the printers of Philadelphia,
where prices had fallen much below the scale of 20 years before, at­
tempted to establish weekly rates at $9 for evening papers and in book
and job offices, and $10 for morning papers. Ten nours remained the
working day everywhere, and the overtime rate was still 20 cents
an hour.
No material increase above these rates was obtained in the old cities
up to 1840 except in Washington, where the printers secured some
advances in the scale of 1837. Time workers received $11 a week
during sessions of Congress and $10 during recesses, while the piece
rate went to 31 cents per 1,000 ems and 37 cents per token. Sunday
work was to receive $2, with 25 cents additional for each hour in
excess of eight. On other days the overtime rate was still 20 cents
an hour after 10 hours.
The Washington union had had a stormy time for several years on
the apprentice question with Duff Green, printer to the Senate, who
not only fought long-term apprenticeship and made a point of
employing “ two-thirders ” and runaway apprentices as journeymen,
but proposed to establish a school where printing would be taught in
one year to 200 boys annually. The 1837 scale contained the
unequivocal declaration, acceded to by the employers, that—
After the 1st day o f January, 1839, the Columbia Typographical Society will
not permit members of said society to work in any office where boys may be
taken on as apprentices to the printing business to serve for a less period than
five years.

During the late 30’s the printers in some of the southern cities
organized and established rates considerably higher than any of those
current in the east. In Nashville, Tenn., the time rate was $11 a
week for compositors and $12 for pressmen; the piece rate, 35 cents
per 1,000 ems and 40 cents per token on ordinary work.
The New Orleans rate, fixed in its 1839 scale, was 62K cents per
1,000 ems, increased from 50 cents; 75 cents per token for printing
newspapers and $1 per token on bookwork. Weekly rates, which had
been $15, were raised to $19 for compositors and pressmen on evening
papers and in book and job offices. Pressmen on morning papers got
$22 a week, while compositors were to work by the piece only. Fore­
men’s wages were $25 a week on morning papers and $22.50 on evening
papers. Overtime paid 40 cents an hour.
In Tallahassee, Fla., $18 a week was paid, but the organization
there issued a warning to the trade not to be tempted by that ap­
parently high wage, because “ they will have to pay here, for board,
from $6 to $10 a week; clothing and other expenses double, and often
treble to that of the northern prices, and all other things in proportion.”
The various union scales referred to will be found in full in Ap­
Digitized for pendix E.
FRASER
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
61298°— 29------ 9
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Chapter 12.— AGRICULTURAL LABOR
Agricultural labor during the first century of colonial settlement was
>robably not free labor to any appreciable extent, even in New Engand. The indentured servants discussed in chapter 3 were farm
hands chiefly, hence any extensive treatment of the working condi­
tions and pay of agricultural laborers in the seventeenth century
would be largely repetition of what has already been given in that
chapter in reference to the working conditions of the indentured
servants.
There are, however, some data on the wages of free laborers who
engaged in farm work. Early in the history of the Virginia settle­
ment hired laborers commanded wages of 1 pound of tobacco (3
shillings) (73 cents)1 a day and their food. By the close of the
seventeenth century this rate had fallen to Is. (16.7 cents)2 by the
day, and £6 sterling ($29.16) by the year.3
In Massachusetts, in the first few years of settlement, labor at a
maximum wage fixed by law was compulsory during planting and
harvesting seasons. “ Artificers and mechanics, compelled by the
constable, must leave their crafts unless they had harvesting of
their own, and betake themselves to the fields of their neighbors
‘ needing ym.’ ” 4 The first legal rate, fixed in 1630, was from 6d.
to Is. (12 to 24.3 cents) per day and board. The act of 1633 raised
the rate to 8d. (16 cents) with board, Is. 6d. (36 cents) without board,
for field laborers, and 2s. (48.6 cents) a day for mowers, who were
classed with the skilled craftsmen. After the repeal of the wagefixing laws, mowers increased their rates to 2s. 6d. (60 cents) per day;
farm laborers, to 2s. (48.6 cents) per day from February 10 to Novem­
ber 10, and Is. 6d. (36 cents) per day for the winter months.
This rate held for only two years, and in 1641, following the crop
failure and depression of 1640, mowers had dropped back to 2s., and
field hands to Is. 8d. (40 cents) from March to September, Is, 4d.
(32 cents) from September to March. By 1644 wages were higher,
but had not quite reached the level of 1639. Data for that year fix
the price of a day’s work for a man and 4 oxen at 4s. 6d. ($1.09);
for a man and 6 oxen at 7s. ($1.70); and for a man and 8 oxen at 8s.
($1,94).4 A Salem man was “ presented ” to the county court in 1651
for demanding “ excessive wages/’ which in this case were 10s. 6d„
($1.75) for a day’s work of one man and six oxen.6 ^
The scarcity of labor produced, besides conscription in the interest
of the farmers, the system of communal herding on the village common.

f

Cowherd, swineherd, goatherd, and shepherd, each and all served in various
towns, caring for the animals of the villagers. By embodying in one communal
herd the cattle of many owners, the best care was obtained with the least effort.
Labor was scarce on the widening estates of the proprietors and in the growing
towns.^ In some cases, as at Cambridge, the cows were brought into the village
twice in twenty-four hours to be milked, and were pastured out day and night.
The Cambridge arrangement is typical of the customs prevailing in 1635, as weU
as at later periods. Richard Rice was to keep 100 cows for three months* receiving
i English sterling shilling—24.3 cents. See p. 13.
a Colonial shilling.
8 Bruce, Philip A.: Economic History of Virginia in the
century, Vo?. II, pp. 48, 50.
* Weeden, William B.: Economic and Social History of New England, 1020-1789, Vol. II, pp, 877-880.
£ Essex County (Mass.) Quarterly Court .Records, Vol. II. Colonial shilling—16.7 cents,
FRASER

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124


CHAPTER 12.— AGRICULTURAL LABOR

125

ten pounds [$48.60] in pay. The town gives him two men to help him the first
fourteen days, and one man the next seven days. Then that the morals of Richard,
the “ cowkeep,” might not deteriorate in this enforced daily duty, he was to be
allowed two Sabbaths out of three for worship, the town providing for the herd on
those days. He was to pay three pence fine for any night when he failed to bring
in all his charge. He could not keep any other cattle without consent of the
townsmen.
Always at half an hour after sunrise and again before sunset, the herdsman
went through the village street gathering or dispersing his herd. He signalled
by winding his horn, and the owners waited at their home gates to attend the
patient kine as they went out and in.*

"The herdsman of Salem was paid 15s. (83.64) a week, “ one-half in
English corn, the other half in Indian.” 7
Another angle of the scarcity and urgency of farm labor is the
protest against using their time in military training which one fanner
voiced to-fche General Court “ in behalfe of himself and all other

^

Country,” declaring that—

Whereas husb3tf^r? anc* tillage much concerne tli&good of this Commonwealth
and your peticonefc? " ave undertaken the managing anlLtillage of divers ffarmes
in the Country & s \ f* n& °* English corne their servantsN oftentimes drawne
21$
from their worke to vtayne
secd time, hay tyme & harvebkto the great dis­
couragement & dammaji? °* y°ur petigoners and your petigoner the said Zacheus
Gould for himselfe s a itX ; ^ i or oue day® trayning this years he was much
damnnf\t in his hay.
ed
norasmuch as fishermen upon just grounds are
exempted from trayning b<m
!ause their trade is also for the Common wealth,
Your pcticoners humbly pray\|^ this Court will bepleased to take the premises
into tlieir grave Consideration^*1^ thereupon to give order for the incourage-'
1
nient of your petiQOriers who aix& husbandmen imployed about English graine
that they & their servants may W exempted from ordinary traynings in seed
tyme hay tyme and harvest.9

Because (he colonists were ahv^y® uhard driven in obtaining the
necessary servants,” Indians “ wSsP. forced into servitude for one
reason and another.” This servitutHf was enforced not by definite
indenture, such as covered and, in\k? measure, protected white
laborers, but by methods which, as \Weden observes, “ would not
satisfy modern criticism.” 9
_
Colonial farming implements were primitHre m the extreme, even
in comparison with those in use in the motheff ( ountry afc the same
c
time. The exorbitant price of imported iron
the roughness of
the newly beared lands made the use of plow&V^Pr»cticable, and
they were not widely used in Virginia until the emSp^th® century.
With the crude plow then used in Virginia, compose8Sfil wood
“ with the exception of the tips and shares, which were pieces of iron
fastened to the parts most inclined to wear from their more dkastfcontact with the s o il/'1 it required “ a month to turnover T2 acres,
0
although by exercising great industry a itan and boy might accom­
plish this work in 12 days. Two ablebocied laborers were sufficient
to sow 60 acres in wheat in the course of one season, and to reap the
grain when it was in a condition to be turvested.” 1
1
At the iron works at Saugus, Mass./* Joseph Jenks was inventing
and manufacturing edged tools for hffifcf&hold and farm use during the
middle of the century. He “ thickened the back of his scythe; at
• Weeden, Vol. 1, pp. 64-$5.
7 Salem Town Records.

• Lechfort, Thomas: Manuscripr Notebook, 1638-1641 (published by American Antiquarian Society,
loooJt pi 322.
•Weeden, Vol. I, p. 103.
19 Bruce, Vol. I, p. 200.
[l Idem, Vol. I, p. 320 (citing Williams’s Virginia Richly Valued, p. 13, in Force’s Tracts, Vol. III).
uSee p. 67-




126

PABT 1.— FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1840

the same time he lightened and lengthened the blade, increasing its
cutting force and thus giving the mower greater advantage in the
crucial struggle of the harvest time.” 1
3
The foundation of New England agriculture was grass; “ cut and
dried into hay it became the main stay of industry, the maintenance
of animal life through the hard winters,” and “ the leader of a mowing
field was honored among men, a rustic hero in the uncertain season
when hay must be secured or perish.” 1 The rustic, liero benefited
1
financially by the demands for his labor, for mowing was always paid
at a higher rate than other farm work. In £ later period a manu­
script account book shows 6s. ($1) a day fpr mowing, while the same
man earned only 4s. 6d. (75 cents) a day when employed in weeding.
Practices which probably added, more than did the higher wage
rate to the cost of hay to tne consumer are suggested iu aryulvertisement appearing in the Boston Weekly Newsletter of
signed by the official weighmaster of the Port of B o s ^ i It’reads:
This is to notify the Town of Boston that they have becty;mposecj UBO nntj
n
wronged by the carters and sloopmen in taking the Hay
C
omes by Water
by only guessing at the Weight. To make it easier to thofBuver
i to rirevent
such unjust Dealings, I do hereby notify the Town th a /fr o /t h is Day forward
I will weigh the Hay that comes by Water for three pejg^e a Hundred.

"While the southern colonies tended .moryand more to large-scale
cultivation of tobacco and became stnctljf igricultursl communities
producing a single crop, New England
subordinating agriculture
to commerce so completely that farming lefb '‘ few distinctive marks
on the economic development of'thelgme » and was confined almost
wholly to the ‘‘wants of each jlJomostead.” 1 Tobacco growing
8
required immense plantations anffi many hands in its'cultivation.
Labor was secured through thejjfidenture system and through slavery*
and on most plantations th e j^ jy free labor, paid on' a wage busis)
was that of the overseers, ijsew England farming, on' the other han4,
was done chiefly by the fajmily, with occasional help hired by tho day
at the old 2s. rate, whicq/held almost without change until tho Revo­
lution.
*
The day rate in Pennsylvania for extra hands was about the same
-i
England. According to Watson’s Annals of
Philadelphia
and after the period of the Revolution, when
wheat wasjjg£766.7 cents) a bushel, the price of labour in the harvest
tuna Was2s. 6d. (32.6 cents) for men, and for boys, Is. 3d. (16 cents).”
The writer, in passing, makes a rather familiar comment of the olaer
gengn>)«in_QB the new by adding: “ I have seen wealthy men in
Chester County
in their boyhood worked many days at
reaping for Is. 3d., and afterwards, in manhood, for 2s. 6d. The sons
of sucn men won't now lalpur at all.”

The change which took fJace within the years just preceding the
Revolution was one of method of employment and payment rather
than a change in rates. ThtjiDstitution of the “ hired hand” who
lived with the family and was paid by the month was introduced about
1775, and by the close of the century was in general use. The pre­
vailing monthly wage was $7.
—
s
An interesting debate which indircctly tpneems wages of farm
hands took place in the House of Representatives on January 6,
» Weeden, Vol. 1, p. 184.
Mldem, Vol. I, p. 164.




» Ider'-P- ^
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CHAPTER 12.— AGRICULTURAL LABOR

127

1794.1 A bill was under discussion “ for augmenting the pay of
7
soldiers from S3 to $4 a month,” an amendment to which “ proposed
an addition of a fifth dollar.” The increase was opposed by some
members for two distinct reasons. One was the effect upon the morale
of the soldiers themselves; the other was the danger that the new rate
would attract farm laborers who were less wen off under existing
conditions than they would be in the army if the bill were adopted.
Mr, Wadsworth of New York declared that “ in the States north of
Pennsylvania the wages of a common laborer were not superior on the
whole to those of the common soldier.” According to the congres­
sional reporter Mr. Smith, presumably of Vermont, “ said that as to the
rate of labor, good men were hired to work in Vermont for £18 a year,
which is equal to $4 a month, and out of that they find their own
clothes. He thought it a very dangerous plan to raise the wages of
soldiers at this time, when ev^ry article was above its natural price,
because when tb: j returned to their old level it would be impossible
to reduce wages.’7 Speaking in support of the bill, “ Mr. Boudinot
said that he would be very sorry to recommend the augmentation if he
thought it would induce farmers to quit their professions for a military
life,” but “ he had no apprehensions of that kind. America would be
in a very bad situation indeed if additional pay of $12 a year could
bribe a farmer to enlist. He would look strange at any of his neighbors
who should tell him that they had embraced such an o^er.”
Fifteen years later the monthly pay of farm hands, as reported by
McMaster, was $7 in winter and $10 in summer in Maine and eastern
Massachusetts; $9 in western Massachusetts and $10 in Connecticut,
apparently all year; $13 and $14 without board in New York, and
$8 “ and found” in Pennsylvania for a 26-day month.1
8
After the War of 1812 these rates rose to $ 12 and $15 a month, even
$18 in the new Territories. Farm laborers in Maine, in 1815, accord­
ing to Warden, “ have from $9 to $12 per month with food and half
a pint of rum a day; and $20 without provisions.” 1 By 1816the
9
rate per day, when used, was $1 in Massachusetts, as shown in a
manuscript account book.2 This rate is listed as “ high ” for 1820-21,
0
in the official Massachusetts report2 and “ medium” in 1823. One
1
dollar was again the high rate in 1825, and continued so for more
than 20 years.
In the South, as has been stated, only the overseers received actual
wages. Frequently, perhaps usually in the earlier periods, these men
became overseers upon the expiration of their terms
indentured
servants. “ In the seventeenth, as in the eighteenth and nineteenth
centuries, the position of an overseer furnished many opportunities
to the incumbent for the improvement of his condition by the ac­
cumulation of property.” 2 An overseer “ was usually allowed one2
seventh of the calves, foals, grain and tobacco, and one-half of lube
pigs raised on the plantation. If he were thrifty he was soon able to
stock a plantation of his own.” 2 When paid in money the rate
3
varied from £15 to £40 ($50 to $133.33) a year in 1710.2 One of
4
17 Annals of Congress, 3d Congress, 1st session, House of Representatives, p. 159-163;
m McMaster, John Bach: History of the People of the United States, Vol. Ill, pp. 511-514.
is Warden, D . B.: A Statistical, Political, and Historical Account of the United States, Vol. I, p. 369.
2 In Baker Library.
0
__
_
si Massachusetts Bureau of Statistics of Labor: History of Wages and Prices, pp. 161-162.
22 Bruce, Vol. II, p. 47.
23 Bassett,
Servitude
North Carolina, p. 85.
 John Speneer: Slavery andCarolina, inin the Colony of Historical Collections, Vol. II, p. 261.
24 Governor Glenn's History of South
South Carolina



128

PART 1.— FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1840

Washington’s account books shows that he “ paid John Allison in
full for nis year’s service as overseer, £37.6.8” ($124.45) in cash m
December 31, 1797.2
5
Jefferson paid the overseer on his Bedford plantation, in charge of
16 hands, $200 a year in 1811.2 An overseer on a rice plantation in
6
Georgia was getting $250 a year in 1830.
Jefferson as a rule employed his overseers on a share basis, at any
rate on his home estate of Monticello. His notes contain the follow­
ing contract, which he considered a model agreement for plantatipn
supervisors:
Articles for Contracts with Overseers 2
6
The employer to have his share of grain at a fixed price at the end of the year
if he chuses it.
N ot to share till seed grain is taken out, and then of what is sold or eaten by
measure only.
Allow one-half a share for every horse, and the same for a plough-boy, a share
for every 8 hands as far as 16, but never more than 2 shares.
Provisions— 400 lbs. of pork if single, 500 lbs. if married.
T o be turned off at any time of year if his employer disapproves of liis con&mt,
on paying a proportion of what shall be made according to the time he has staid.
T o pay for carrying his share of the crops to market.
T o pay the carriage o f all refused to ditto.
To pay his own taxes and levies.
T o pay his share of liquor and hiring at harvest.
To
change clear profits with his employer at the end of the year if the em­
ploy vx vhuses.
N ot allowed to keep a horse or a goose or to keep a woman for waiting on him
out of the crops.
25 Manuscript account book—John Carter Brown Library.
Thor as Jefferson's manuscript note books, in Massachusetts Historical Society Library.




Chapter 13.— SCHOOL-TEACHERS

Wide as was the application of the indenture system of labor to
the economic life of early America, it is a matter of curious interest,
from the modem viewpoint, to find that it was no less generally
applied to the first educational efforts of the groping young colonies.
Indeed, as one student of the system sees it, “ perhaps in nothing
was the influence of the servant more marked in his effect on society
than in that powerful agency for good or evil,” 1 the school.
An early custom in the South, afterward adopted in the middle
colonies, was for a family or a group of families to purchase imported
servants who were represented as being qualified #to teach. One
servant advertised himself for sale as a schoolmaster in Pennsylvania,
stating that his indenture might be taken by a group of families for
a period not to exceed seven years.
Incoming servants were frequently mentioned
times French and other languages, also as writing
teach reading and accounts. Mention of these
school .masters who had run away, broken jail,
servant school masters were com m on.2

as knowing Latin, and some­
a good hand and being able to
and the occasional notices of
and forged passes, show that

The diary of an English bookkeeper 3 who, “ being reduced to
the last shilling I hade, was obliged to go to Virginia for four years
as a schoolmaster for Bedd, Board, ^washing and five pounds [$24.30] 4
during the whole time,” gives a fair idea of the way the system worked.
He arrived at Fredericksburg, Va., in April, 1774, and after two
weeks spent in search of a master he was bought by Colonel Daingerfield, a planter living “ about seven miles below the Toun of Fredericksburgh,” on the Rappahannock. He was given “ a neat little
house at the upper end of an Avenue of planting at 500 yds from the
Main House, where I was to keep the school and Lodge myself in it.”
The next day, April 27—
About 8 A M the colonel delivered his three Sons to my Charge to teach
them to read, write and figure, his oldest son Edwin 10 years of age, intred
into two syllables in the spelling book, Bathourest his second son six years of
age in the Alphabete and William his third son 4 years of age does not know the
letters. * * * M y School Houres is from 6 to 8 in the morning; in the
forenoon from 9 to 12, and from 8 to 6 in the afternoon.

The diary continues:
Munday, June 20th. This morning entred to school Philip and Dorethea
Edge’s Children of Mr Benjamin Edge Planter.
Tuesday, 21st. This day Mr Smuel Edge Planter came to me and begged me
to take a son of his to school who was both deaf and dum, and I consented to
try what I could do with him.

When he was not busy teaching he acted as bookkeeper and
purchasing agent for his master, and when in town in the latter
capacity he occasionally picked up such additional jobs as writing
“ a love letter from Mr Anderson to one Peggie Dewar at the Howse
1 Geiser, Karl Frederick: Redemptioners and Identured Servants in tlie Colony and Commonwealth
of Pennsylvania, p. 107.
2 Herrick, Cheesman A.: White Servitude in Pennsylvania, p. 271.
^
s Diary of John Harrower, 1773-1776, American Historical Review, Vol. VI, pp. 72-106; Extracts m
Documentary History of American Industrial Society, Vol. I, pp. 366-369.
<English money.




130

PART 1.— FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1840

of Mr John Mitchel at the Wilderness.” An entry dated April 23,
1776, two years after he entered service, reads:
At noon rode to Town, got the Newspapers and settled with Mr. Porter for
teaching his two soifs 12 months when he verry genteely allowed me £ 6 [$20]5
for them, besides a present o f two silk vests and two pair of Nankeen Breeches
last summer and a Gallon of rum at Christenmass, both he and Mrs Porter being
extreamly well satisfied with what I hade don to them.

Harrower’s difficulties in finding a purchaser, while the boat builder,
two coopers, and a barber who sailed with him sold readily, substan­
tiates the statement of a contemporary that “ schoolmasters did not
find so ready a sale or bring such good prices as others.” 6
In spite of the fact that in the southern and middle colonies “ it
was largely the redemptioners and indentured servants that instructed
the youths of the time,” the schoolmaster of that class was not “ a
model of excellence.”
In fact he was not supposed to be, and his character was usually in keeping
with his reputation. T oo often their moral standard was low, their habits dis­
solute and their methods and discipline extremely crude. That sobriety was at
a premium among this class may be inferred from the following advertisement:
“ Wanted, a sober person that is capable of teaching a school; such a person com­
ing well recommended may find encouragement in said employ.” There is no
evidence that convicts were thus employed in Pennsylvania, but the servant
formed no small proportion of the teaching force o f the colony. Scarcely a vessel
arrived in which there were not schoolmasters regularly advertised for sale.
In none of the middle colonies at this time did the teacher occupy an exalted posi­
tion. He was regarded as an unproductive laborer. Agricultural laborers or
artisans was what the colony wanted and needed most, and they were nearly
always sold at a higher price than the schoolmasters.7

Maryland, also—
depended largely upon servant schoolmasters for the instruction of its youth.
“ At least two-thirds o f the little education we receive,” says Boucher, “ are
derived from instructors who are either indented servants or transported felons.”
This was not a random statement, but was made after an investigation of the
subject. Concerning the character of these servant schoolmasters, there is little
said by other contemporaries.8

In New York and New England the seed of the public school was
planted early in the course of settlement. During the period of Dutch
control in New York “ religion and education received early and con­
stant attention,” and teaching was largely in the hands of the clergy.
In 1650 William Vestens was sent from Amsterdam as schoolmaster and con­
soler of the sick. A common school was maintained at the time with a succesion
of teachers. In 1652 Domine Samuel Drisius, who could preach in Dutch, French,
and English, was sent * * * at a salary of fourteen hundred and fifty guil­
ders [$580],9 and Domine Gideon Schaats, at a salary of eight hundred guilders
[$320j, came out to Rensselaerwyck as preacher and schoolmaster.
In 1658 a petition was submitted to the Amsterdam chamber for a master for
a Latin school (at Jamaica, Long Island), and the next year * * * a profes­
sor came out in that capacity, but he gave way in 1661 to Domine Aegidius Luyck,
whose reputation drew pupils from families as far away as Virginia and the Carolinas.1
0

The school system which the Dutch had founded and fostered very
nearly collapsed under English rule in the colony, the representatives
of which were “ occupied with other things.”
6 Virginia money.
6 Herrick, p. 271, quoting Jonathan Boucher, “ a Maryland rector who was tutor to Washington’s step­
son.”
7 Geiser, pp. 107-108.
* McCormac, Eugene Irving: White Servitude in Maryland, p. 76.
0 Guilder 40 cents
American equivalent.
 is Ellis H.: in the York (Sciidder’s American Commonwealths), pp. 77,87.
10 Roberts,
New



CHAPTER 13.— SCHOOL TEACHERS

131

Schools there were, but so poorly supported that our historian Smith testifies
that after he was born, “ such was the negligence of the day, that an instructor
could not find bread from the voluntary contributions o f the inhabitants.” It
was high time to care for the youth of the province, for its population had become,
in 1731, 50,289. Yet an act passed in 1732 “ to encourage a public school in the
city of New York ” went no further. * * * This school was free to all pupils.1
1

The professional opportunities afforded by the Latin schools of
New York City were promising enough in 1737 to prompt one resident
to write to his pastor in Ireland that “ if your sons would come here
they would get more in one year teaching a Latin school than you your­
self will get for three years’ preaching.” 1
2
An early act of the legislature after New York became a State was
to appropriate $50,000, “ of which the interest was to be applied in the
ratio of the population, with like sums raised by local tax, in the pay­
ment of wages of teachers in the common schools.” 1
3
Massachusetts, to the end “ that learning may not be buried in ye
grave of our fathers in ye church and commonwealth,” established
schools by law in 1647, ordering each town of 50 householders “ to
appoint one within their towne to teach all such children as shall re­
sort to him to write and reade, whose wages shall be paid either by ye
parents or masters of such children, or by ye inhabitants in general,
by way of supply.” Towns of 100 householders were ordered “ to se>
t
up a grammar school, ye master thereof being able to instruct youth
so farr as they may be fited for ye university.” 1
4
Several towns had schools before this law was enacted. Boston
started one in 1635, and in 1644 the inhabitants of Dedham “ die
resolve and consent * * * to rayse the summe of £20 [$66.6T
per annum toward maintaining a schoolmaster to keep a free schoo
in our town.” 1 Dedham thereupon founded the first real public
6
school, free to pupils and supported wholly out of tax funds.
There was no uniformity m the salaries paid schoolmasters by the
different towns. At the same time that Dedham was paying £20,
Essex was paying only £14 ($46.67) and Watertown £30 ($100).
“ The Watertown salary continued about the same for some seventy
years; in 1715 or 1720 it was raised to £36 [$120].” 1
6
Woburn also paid at the rate of £30 ($100) a year for a number of
years after its school began to function; but the town seems to have
had a struggle to establish one. The first effort was made in 1685,
when a teacher was employed at £5 ($16.67) per annum to teach all
the children who applied. None applied, and the schoolmaster
received only £1 10s. ($5) of the fixed salary. Fifteen years later a
school was run for four months and the teacher was paid £9 ($30) for
his services. After that the salary varied from £30 “ and horse
kept,” in 1709, to £21 15s, ($72.50) and board in 1714. Wages in
old tenor during the second quarter of the century went as high as
£100 a year in 1745 to 1748, but after 1760 the rate settled to £40
($133.33) lawful money for an 11-month term.1
7
Dedham raised the salary of its school master in 1695 to £25
($83.33) per year, “ whereof eight pounds is to be in money, the other
11 Roberts, p. 262.
12 Letter in Memorial History of New York City, Vol. II, p. 203.
w Robert’s New York, Vol. II, p. 457.
24 Massachusetts Bay Colony Records, Vol. II, p. 6.
,
m Slafter, Carlos: Citing Dedham Town Records (Schools and Teachers of Dedham, Mass., 1644-1904,
p. 7).
w Weeden, William B.: Economic and Social History of New England, 1620-1789, Vol. I, p. 222.
Digitized for17 Bewail, Samuel: History of Woburn, Mass., Appendix No. xiii, pp. 686-587.
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PART 1.— FROM COLONIAXi TIMES TO 1840

£17 [$56.67] in corne, Rye at 4s. [66.7 cents] per bushell and Indian
corne at 3s. [50 cents] per bushell.” 1 The next year “ the town
8
began to pay the salary of the school master entirely in money.” 1
9
Thereafter the scale was £28 [$93.33] in 1705 and £200 [$88.67] in
1751. The last entry is in old tenor, and represented about £25 in
lawful money, so that in actual money the salary was about the same
for the entire half century.
Many other towns paid the schoolmaster a small sum out of the
town treasury, and whatever else he made came through tuition fees
paid by the pupils. This was true of both Cambridge and Northamp­
ton, among others. Each of these towns paid only £10 [$33.33] out
of the public funds toward the teacher's salary. Northampton
pupils paid, in addition, “ ffowre pence [5.6 cents] ;per weeke for such
as are in the Primer and other English books and sixpense [8.4 cents]
per week to learn the Accidence (Latin grammar) wrighting and
Casting Accounts.” 2
0
In 1687 the town changed its method of paying the master. He was still
to collect tuition fees, but whatever he lacked of getting forty pounds [$133.33]
was to be made up by the town. There was always much delinquency in paying
on the part of those who sent children to school, and when the teacher was thus
relieved from any absolute necessity for following up his debtors, it can easily
be imagined that the amount collected dwindled. The result was that the town
voted shortly afterward to allow “ the Scholars to go free.” 2
1

While the towns were inclined to be lax in the matter of school
maintenance, the colonial authorities were persistent in enforcing the
school law, and many town records show instances in which the town
is “ presented” for violations, frequently caused by inability to secure
a teacher. Framingham, for example, voted in 1716 “ to have a
moving school in the four quarters of the town. Mr. Goddard
consented to teach four weeks in each place for £15 [$50] and all
taught at his house were to pay 6d. [8.4 cents] per head per week.”
The plan was not successful, apparently, for the records two years
later show that “ a committee having reported their inability, after
the utmost diligence, to obtain a schoolmaster, and the town again
having been presented, another committee was appointed to obtain
one, ‘ and that forthwith/ It was voted that the gentlemen of the
committee go first to Captain Edward Goddard and see upon what
terms he would serve the town; if he would serve the town as cheap
as, or something cheaper than another, then the committee was to
make a bargain with him for the year.” 2
2
# In the New Haven and Connecticut colonies schools were estab­
lished almost at once, parents paying a stated sum for each child.
At Guilford this fee was 4s. [66.7 cents] per quarter for each pupil.
The New Haven colonial court ordered in 1657 that each town not
already maintaining a school should open one and pay one-third the
cost of operation, the rest to be carried on a per capita basis by the
families using it.
Plymouth Colony “ farmed its fisheries of bass and mackerel on
the Cape coast and gave the proceeds to the support of the public
schools. In 1684-1693 the rental was £30 [$100] per annum.” 2
Z
w Records of Selectmen, Dedham, Mass., 1695.
w Slafter, p. 34.
2 Johnson, Clifton: Old Time Schools and School Books, p. 5 (Northampton Town Records quoted).
0
Idem, p. 5.
2 Barry, William: History of Framingham, Mass.. p, 75.
2
2 Weeden, Vol. I, p. 247.
8
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133

The salary of President Rogers, of Harvard, as fixed by the court
in 1682 was £100 ($333) in money and £50 ($166.67) in commodi­
ties; while each of his two assistants received £50 in money.
The routine of the early schools is suggested in the Dorchester
school rules of 1645, which provided that—
for seven months in the warmer part of the year the master should every day
begin to teach at seven o ’clock in the morning and dismiss the scholars at five
in th»e afternoon, while in the colder and darker months of the remainder of the
year he was to begin at eight and close at four. There was to be a midday
intermission fr^m eleven to one except on Monday, when the master “ shall call
his scholars together between twelve and one of the clock to examine them what
they have learned, at which time also he shall take notice of any misdemeanor
or outrage that any of his scholars shall have committed on the sabbath, to the
end that at some convenient time due admonition and correction may be
administered/’ 2
4

The women who taught the “ dame schools” received salaries that
were modest in the extreme, generally amounting to 10 shillings
($1.67) a year in the earliest period. To be sure, these schools were
usually held in the women’s homes, and were casual affairs so far as
instruction was concerned. Later, when the dame school was taking
care of the smallest children and leaving the schoolmaster freer to
carry on the “ grammar school,” the relative importance attached to
the two classes of teachers is suggested by the action of the overseers
of the town of Manchester, Mass., who in 1736—
Voted that “ the £50 [$166.07] voted for the support of a free school in Man­
chester the one half of sd £50 to be expended to supporte four school dames to
keep a free school” in various parts of the town, “ the other half of sd £50 to
be expended to supporte a school master to keep a free schoole in the schoole
house in Manchester in fall and winter season.” 2
5

Twenty years later the pay of the keeper of a dame school was even
less, as £12 lawful money ($40) was assessed “ to be distributed to
Three School Mistresses in Three different parts of ye town.” 2
5
Before the Revolutionary period the dame school had been absorbed
into the town school, and women teachers were taking over the town
schools for the summer months, to leave the men free for farm work.
In 1773 Lydia Warner kept school in Northfield, Mass., for 18 weeks
at 5 shillings (83 cents) a week.2
6
From the close of the eighteenth century until well into the
nineteenth—
The usual sum paid to a master was ten or twelve dollars a month, though a
wealthy district might, in exceptional cases, give twenty dollars to retain a man
of culture and experience. Women earned from four to ten dollars. Even after
the middle of the nineteenth century the standard pay for a woman teacher in
many districts was one dollar a week. Thus a “ qualified woman teacher” in a
Connecticut town in 1798 received a weekly stipend of sixty-seven cents, and
some masters of that period were paid no more. Besides the money remunera­
tion, the districts boarded the teachers. Otherwise the salary would have loomed
much larger, and the town appropriation would have quickly melted away.
The teacher “ boarded round” among the homes of the pupils, spending at each
house a length of time proportioned to the number of school children in the
family. The custom was common until after 1850.2
7
2 Johnson, p. 11.
4
2 Lamson, D. F.: History of the Town of Manchester, Mass., pp. 206-208.
5
2 Temple, Josiah H., and Sheldon, George: History of Northfield, Mass., p. 316.
6
2 Johnson, p. 126.
7




Chapter 14.— OTHER OCCUPATIONS
Scattered data for a few other trades and occupations, unskilled
chiefly, were found among the many sources drawn upon for material,
but they are too fragmentary to be worked into a continuous story.
They are therefore presented in a sketchy fashion which makes no
claim to completeness.
DOMESTIC SERVANTS

Household servants, like agricultural laborers, were almost without
exception indentured, but there are instances in which the need of
housekeepers was so compelling that money considerations in addi­
tion to the usual terms of indenture were offered.
Domestic servants shipped from Holland into Pennsylvania in
1663, for example, were under indenture to serve “ for a term of
years to defray the expense of bringing them over,” but they also
received “ yearly wages of 60, 70 and 80 guilders [$24.00, $28.00 and
$32.00].” 1 #
A Virginia planter sent to England in 1680 for “ a trained house­
keeper, offering to pay her passage money, to allow her three pounds
sterling ($14.58) by the year, and to furnish her food without charge.
He considered that this would be highly acceptable, as the remunera­
tion, he said, would be equal to that which was received by the same
class of domestics in the mother country.” 2 The same terms were
made “ betweene Elisabeth Evans of Bridgend, in the County of
Glamorgan, and John Wheelewright, minister,” of Exeter, N. H.,
in a contract executed by Lechford, in 1639.3
* A much better bargain was made in Virginia in 1697 by a woman
already in the colony who “ was to receive remuneration for her work
during a period of two months and a half, at the rate of five pounds,
sixteen shillings and six pence [$19.42] 4 a month,” a rate which,
it is added, was “ probably not considered extraordinary.” 2 In
Pennsylvania at the time “ maidservants’ wages is commonly
betwixt six and ten pounds [$24 and $40] per annum, with very good
accomodations.” 6
“ The women who were exported from England to the Colony”
(Virginia), Bruce says, “ had unusual opportunities for advancing
their welfare in life. If they enjoyed an honorable reputation, they
found no difficulty in marrying into a higher station than they had
been accustomed to ; Bullock mentioned the fact that no maid whom
he had brought over failed to find a husband in the course of three
months after she had entered his service.” 6 Another contempora­
neous account asserts that the “ dearness” of women's work in Penn­
sylvania at the beginning of the eighteenth century “ proceeds from
the smallness of the number and the scarcity of workers, for even the
1 Herrick, Cheesman A.: White Servitude in Pennsylvania, p. 27. Guilder is 40 cents in the American
equivalent.
2 Bruce, Philip A.: Economic History of Virginia in the 17th century, Vol. II, p. 49.
3 Lechford, Thomas: Manuscript Notebook, 1638-1641., p. 107.
4Virginia currency.
6 Thomas, Gabriel: An Historical and Geographical Account of the Province and Country of Pensilvania
(1698). Pennsylvania currency, pound worth $4.
• Bruce, \flol. II, p. 61.

134



CHAPTER 14.— OTHER OCCUPATIONS

135

meanest single women marry well, and being above Want are above
Work.” 7
An account book kept in Salem, Mass., in 1695 8 notes three days'
work by a laundress at Is. (16.7 cents) a day, while “ the old steward's
book of Harvard College shows that the wages of a laundress between
1687-1719 were ten shillings [$1.67] a quarter.” 9
Peter Kalm reported wages of household servants in Philadelphia
in 1748 as £8 to £10 ($21.33 to $26.67) for women and £16 to £20
($42.67 to $53.33) for men a year, which, he added, was much more
than was paid in the rural districts of Pennsylvania.1 A contemporary
0
gives £1 5s. ($3.13) as the monthly wages of domestics in Georgia in
1735.1
1
At the close of the century domestic servants were getting $7 a
month in Virginia 1 and $8 at New York.1
2
3
The Pennsylvania Hospital of Philadelphia is the oldest existing
hospital in the country. The wages paid its household servants—
cooks, housemaids, and laundresses—can be traced for consecutive
years beginning with 1752, from the old account books still kept at the
institution.
In 1752 cooks were paid £10 to £15 ($26.68 to $40) a year; house­
maids, £10, and the matron, £30 ($80). After the Revolution,
1785 to 1800, the weekly rate is 5s (66.7 cents) for the cook, 7s. 6d.
($1) for the baker, and 3s. 9d. (49 cents) each for housemaids. Laun­
dresses earned 2s. 6d. (32.6 cents) a day. From 1801 to 1810 the baker
and the housemaids were getting $10 a month; the cook, $1 a week;
laundresses, 50 cents, and a cleaning woman 60 cents a day. These
rates later show very little change except in the case of the baker
and the cook, who in 1820 were receiving $16 a month and $2 a week,
respectively.
The laundresses, at $3 a week, were paid more than the nurses,
whose wages rose in 1817 to $2 a week, after a yearly wage of £14 to
£18 ($37.34 to $48) extending back 50 years. ^Probably, however, the
laundresses were not maintained at the hospital as the nurses were.
Laundry work was reduced to $2 a week in 1822.
One of Stephen Girard’s housemaids, who had been indentured to
him, agreed in 1801 to remain with him after the expiration of her
servitude at $1.25 a week. Charges for house cleaning in his accounts1
4
show a rate of 5s. (66.7 cents) a day.
Sweeping chimneys cost the hospital 6d. (6 cents) per chimney in
1752, but the rate rose steadily to Is. 6d. (19 cents) apiece in 1800,
at which time Girard was paying 25 cents a chimney.
Thomas Jefferson’s account books contain many items covering the
wages of the household staff of his large establishment at Monticello.
In 1801 he engaged a French steward at $40 a month “ for himself and
his wife as femme de charge.” A typical pay roll for the period of
7 Hart, Albert B., ed.: American History Told by Contemporaries, Vol. II, p. 75. Captain Robert
Boyle’s Adventures.
8 In Essex Institute, Salem.
__ .
• Abbott, Edith: Women in Industry, p. 264, citing manuscript records in library of Harvard university.
10 Travels in North American, vol. 1, p. 387.
n Oldmixon, John: British Empire in America, Vol. I, p. 541.
12 Thomas Jefferson’s manuscript accounts.
13 MeMaster, John Baeh: History of the People of the United States, Vol. I, p. 242.
1 In Girard College Library,
4




136

PART 1.— FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1840

this steward's incumbency, at which time Jefferson himself was living
in the White House, reads:
M. Rapin, 47 days_______________________________________ $62. 67
M. Juiien, May 4 to June 4 ______________________________
25. 00
Joseph Daugherty, May 4 to June 4 _____________________
16. 00
Chris Silverman, May 4 to June 4 ________________________ 14. 00
14. 00
Edward Maher, M ay 4 to June 4 ________________________
Maria Murphy, May 4 to June 4 ________________________
9. 00
Garcon de cuisine, April 26 to May 26________ ___________
8. 00
The cook woman, March 20 to May 20__________________
30. 00
John (baker), M ay 4 to June 4___ _______________________
10. 00

These are all white servants. A later pay roll in the account con­
cludes with the statement that “ this makes the regular establish­
ment of servants $135 per month, besides liveries and besides Raping
forty dollars— 175 D .”
Warden gives $15 to $20 a month as the wages of a first-class cook
in Washington a few years later, and $2 to $4 a month for “ maid
servants.” 1 Domestics in Massachusetts at about that time were
5
paid at the rate of 50 cents a week.1
6
The report of the United States Department of Commerce and
Labor on the History of Women in Industry 1 gives the following
7
data, compiled from various sources, on wages of domestic servants
during the second quarter of the nineteenth century:1
8
In 1829 a writer in the Mechanics’ Free Press stated that for a period of at
least thirty years the wages of female domestics had remained practically sta­
tionary, but that they had profited somewhat by the fall in prices which had
occurred during that period. In New England, however, the opening of the cot­
ton factories, especially those at Lowell, had caused a decided increase in the wages
of women domestics. Wages in New England, which had averaged about 70
cents a week in 1808 and 50 cents in 1815, ranged from $1.25 to $1.50 in 1849.
In New York the usual wages, which appear to have been between $4 and $5 a
month in 1826, were said to have been about $6 a month in 1835. In Pottsville,
Pa., the wages of servant girls in 1830 were $1 a week, and women who could clean
house and wash clothes could readily obtain 50 cents a day. A writer in the Del­
aware Advertiser in 1830 stated that a servant in his family received 75 cents a
week, or $39 a year, which, he said, was almost the lowest wages ever paid for
housework.

While on the whole “ the conditions of labor of domestic servants
have changed but little,” as Miss Sumner remarks, nevertheless in
the early history of the country, when many of the industries were
carried on in the home, “ a large part of the time of domestic servants
was spent in manufacturing occupations of one kind or another,”
an aspect of that field of work which changed conditions have com­
pletely eliminated.
COM M ON LABOR

The expressions “ common labour” and “ labouring men” appear
frequently in the old records, but it is not at all certain that common
labor then meant what it does now, or that the “ labouring men”
referred to were unskilled workers and not craftsmen. In some cases
a difference in the rates quoted for workers so designated, compared
with those for specified trades, justify the assumption that they apply
to unskilled, or common labor. For example, Gabriel Thomas is
1 Warden, D. B.: A Statistical, Political, and Historical Account of the United States, Vol. Ill, p. 195,
5
1 Massachusetts Bureau of Statistics of Labor: History of Wages and Prices, in Massachusetts, 1752-1883.
6
p, 82.
1 Sumner, Helen L.: Vol. IX of Beport on Conditions of Woman and Child Wage Earners,
7
i* idem, Ch. IV, pp. 179-180,
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137

specific in his references to skilled workers, listing the separate crafts
and quoting the wages paid them. Then he adds that “ labouring
men have commonly 14 and 15 pound ($56 and $60)1 a year and their
9
Meate, Drink, Washing and Lodgeing.” Governor Glenn, also, in
his History of South Carolina (1710), distinguishes between designated
craftsmen whose daily wages range from 4s. to 7s. 6d. ($0.67 to $1.25)
and “ labourers” who have “ from Is. 3d. to 2s. [21 to 33.3 cents]2 a
0
day.” Undoubtedly in both cases the workers were of the class now
grouped as common labor.
Laborers as distinguished from both agricultural laborers and
craftsmen in the History of Wages and Prices in Massachusetts were
paid 33 cents (2s.) a day, with slight variation, from 1752 to the
Revolution, In four years of that period, 1758 to 1761, the average
rate fell to 25 cents, and in 1762 to 17.8 cents. The highest rate given
in the decade following the outbreak of the war was 79 cents in 1779;
the lowest, 22 cents in 1777.2
1
A story of danger, labor difficulties, privation, and tragedy for
the rough, unskilled labor that forced a path into a wilderness runs
through the prosaic clerical entries in the account against “ the
Province of Pennsylvania for charges on opening a Road from the
Back Settlements of said Province towards the Ohio for the King’s
Service, in Pursuance of an Application from the late General Braddock.” 2
2
The road led out from Carlisle, Pa., ^toward the west, across the
mountains. Work was begun on May* 5, 1755. The trail blazers
went first, and were paid 2s. 6d. (32.6 cents) and 3s. (40 cents) a day.
They were followed by the surveyors, probably the only skilled men
on the job, who were paid 6s. (80 cents) a day.
Road gangs were organized wherever they could be gathered
together and sent to the camps. Working time was “ calculated
from the day each man arrived at the Road. No allowance made for
coming to the Road before Entry, and no time allowed for returning
home, both which the labourers seem to insist upon.” Enemy
Indians attacked the camps and the labor force was seriously dis­
rupted not only by killings at the hands of the Indians, but by the
loss of the men who “ deserted the service at the time our People
was scalped by the Indians.”
The laborers were paid 2s. 6d. (32.6 cents) a day. The scale for
the gang foremen, or “ overseers,” as they were called, was 3s. 6d.
(46 cents), which was considered too low. The commission in charge
of the projeclTwrote that “ the overseers think if more is not allowed
they will not have justice done.”
Teamsters received 2s. 6d. a day, the same as the laborers, unless
they drove their own horses, in which case they were allowed 2s.
(26.6 cents) a day for each horse. A wagon, team, and driver earned
12s. ($1.60) a day. Horses were rented from the neighboring far­
mers as they went along, at 2s. a day, and frequently fell victim to
the arrows and thefts of the Indians. After the project was aban­
1 Pennsylvania colonial currency—shilling worth 20 cents.
9
8 In South Carolina Historical Collections, Vol. II, p. 261.
0
History of Wages and Prices in Massachusetts, p. 167.
2 In Norris Papers, manuscript collection of Historical Society of Pennsylvania.
2




138

PART 1.— FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1840

doned, following Braddock’s defeat and death, one of the commis­
sioners petitioned the provincial assembly thus:
The most of these persons who has lost their horses are very poor people and
some of them were heads of families, that were killed and have left their Widows
and Children behind them, very poor, and no horses to work on their Plantations,
and they and all others as before mentioned were in the Government service
doing what they could toward the work of the Roads, although it has to our
great disadvantage turned out to little account at present, as General Braddock
did not succeed, notwithstanding these poor people who suffered on the Roads
even at the expence of their Lives. And I hope the Honorable House will con­
sider the Widow and the Fatherless, altho’ they live in this unhappy county of
Cumberland, whose Inhabitants are exposed to many Dangers, and as it was I
that Employed these Poor People they give me a great deal of uneasiness in
coming daily looking for Redress for their Labour and Losses, which I hope,
Gentlemen, you 'll consider.

Some degree of protection from enemy Indians was necessary to
keep the camps from complete demoralization, so the commissioners,
in the absence of a militia, employed a guard of “ 70 men and 70 horses
Ten Days Guarding the Cattle and Provisions, Burying the Dead
and Endeavoring to preserve some of the Provisions that was lost.
As we Labour under many Disadvantages of the kind by reason we
have no Militia therefore must do all Business by Money, and these
persons whom we promised to pay demanded 4s. [53.3 cents] per
Diem,” a sum which the commissioner “ leaves to the Consideration
of the House.”
Speaking of conditions in the country as a whole in 1784 McMaster
says that the wage of the unskilled common laborer was 25 cents a
day. “ Sometimes when laborers were few he was paid more, and
became the envy of his fellows if at the end of the week he took home
to his family 15s. Yet all authorities agree that in 1784 the hire of
workmen was twice as great as in 1774.” 2 Later—
3
Between 1800 and 1810 the spread of population, the increase in the number
of farms, the rush of men into the merchant marine, raised the pay of the un­
skilled laborer very perceptibly. From the estimates of the cost of internal
improvements, from the pay rolls of turnpike companies, from town records,
from private diaries, from newspaper advertisements, it appears that during this
period men who could drive piles, or build roads, or dig ditches, or pave streets,
or tend a machine in any of the factories, or were engaged in transportation, were
paid from one dollar to a dollar and a third per day. One advertisement for 30
men to work on the road from Genessee River to Buffalo offers $12 a month,
food, lodging, and whisky every day.2
4

Warden’s figures for common labor in 1815 are $1 a day in Maine 2
6
and New York;2 60 to 70 cents by the day and $140 by the year
6
“ with food,” in Pennsylvania;2 and 50 cents a day with food or 75
7
cents without food, in Ohio.2
8
# An unidentified southern newspaper printed the following adver­
tisement on May 24, 1833:2
9
Five Hundred Laborers Wanted: We will employ the above number of laborers
to work on the Muscle Shoals Canal, etc., at the rates of Fifteen Dollars per
month for twenty-six working days, or we will employ Negroes by the year or
for a less time as may suit the convenience of the planters. We will also be
2 McMaster, Vol. I, p. 96.
3
« Idem, Vol. Ill, p. 510.
2 Warden, Vol. I, p. 387.
8
2 Idem, Vol. I, d. 539.
5
2 Idem, Vol. II, p. 85.
7
2 Idem, Vol. II, p. 262.
8
2 Quoted in E. S. Abdy’s Journal of a Residence in the United States (London, 1835), Vol. II, p 109, in
9
Documentary History of American Industrial Society, Vol. II, p. 348.




CHAPTER 14.— OTHER OCCUPATIONS

139

responsible to slave-holders who hire their Negroes to us for any injury or damage
that may hereafter happen in the progress of blasting rocks or of caving in of
banks.

Going outside the chronological limits of this study to cite the pay
rolls of the Kutland and Burlington Kailroad3 which was under
0
construction in 1849, unskilled workers in the construction gangs were
paid $1 a day, which is 50 cents less than the rate for skilled trades­
men. Common laborers in the road gangs, which cleared the right
of way for the construction men, received 85 cents a day.
BARBERS

The practice of barbers in the early days apparently was to charge
for their services by the month or quarter, instead of by the job.
judging from the few items found by the bureau these charges are
confusingly dissimilar, except perhaps in the case of Boston barbers?
who seem to have had a trade organization. This is inferred from a
news item in the New England Courant of November 31-December
7, 1724, which announced that—
On Tuesday, the first of this Instant, in the Evening, Thirty-two Principal
Barbers of this place assembled at the Golden Ball, with a Trumpeter attending
them, to debate some important Articles relating to their Occupations; where
it was proposed that they should raise their Shaving from 8s. to 10s. [48 to 60
cents]3 per Quarter,and that they should advance 5s. [30 cents] on the Price of
1
making Common Wiggs and 10s. [60 cents] on their Tye ones. It was also pro­
posed that no one of this Faculty should shave or dress wiggs on Sunday morn­
ings for the Future, on Penalty of forfeiting Ten pounds [$12] for every such
Offence; From whence it may be fairly concluded that in the past such a Practice
has been too common among them.

Two bills against Mr. Jones of Virginia in the manuscript collection
of Jones Family Papers are:
T o one year’s shaving, July, 1724 to 1725___________________
15s. ($2.50)
T o one and one-half years7 shaving, from July, 1725, to De­
cember, 1726_______________________ _________________ ____ £1 2s. 6d. ($3.75)

Sixty years later Thomas Jefferson’s monthly bill at the barbers
was 20 shillings ($3.33). Another entry in Jefferson’s account book
for the same year, 1784, reads: “ Bob begins work with a barber at
15s. ($2.50) a month.” Bob must have been an assistant of some
sort, as that rate seems too low for a journeyman and too high for an
apprentice, but the notebook sheds no further light.
An agreement made in Philadelphia in 1807 between a hatter and
a barber calls for “ three shaves a week, at $2 a quarter, to be paid
for in hats.” 3
2
3 Baker Library.
0
si Depreciated currency—shilling worth about 6 cents.

32 Manuscript Account Book, Historical Society of Pennsylvania

61298°— 29------ 10




LIST OF PUBLISHED SOURCES
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Acrelius, Israel— History of New Sweden (in Pennsylvania Historical Society
Memoirs, VoL IX ).
Allen, Frederick J.— The Shoe Industry.
Allen, Zachariah— Science of Mechanics (1829).
Alsop* George— Character of the Province of Maryland (1650).
Andrews, John B.— History of Women in Trade Unions (Vol. X of Report on
Conditions of Woman and Child Wage Earners in United States).
Annals of Congress— Third Congress, 1st session.
Atkinson, Edward— Special Report on Cotton Manufacture (in Census of 1880,
VoL II).
Bagnall, William— Textile Industries in the United States (1860) .
Ballagh, James Curtis— White Servitude in the Colony of Virginia (in Johns
Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science, Series X I II),
Barry, William— History of Framingham, Mass.
Bassett, John Spencer— Slavery and Servitude in the Colony of North Carolina
(in Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science.
Series X IV ).
Batchelder, Samuel— Early Progress of Cotton Manufacture in the United States.
Bently, William D. D.— Diary of (Published by Essex Institute, Salem, Mass.).
Birkbeck, Morris— Notes on a Journey in America from the Coast of Virginia to
the Territory o f Illinois (1817).
Bishop, J. Leander—History of American Manufacturers, 1608-1860. 2 vols.
Blodgett, Samuel— Economica, a Statistical Manual for the United States of
America (privately published in Washington, D. C., 1806).
Bruce, Philip A.— Economic History of Virginia in the Seventeenth Century.
2 vols.
Bullock, William— Virginia (London, 1649).
Clark, Victor S.— History o f Manufactures in the United States, 1607-1860.
Commons, John R.— Introduction to Trial of Journeyman Cordwainers, 1806
(in Vol. I l l , Documentary History of American Industrial Society).
Coxe, Tench— View of America (1794).
Dedham (Mass.) Town Records— Published by Massachusetts Historical Societ.y.
Documentary History of American Industrial Society. 10 vols. John R.
Commons, editor.
Douglass, William— Discourse Concerning the Currencies of the British Planta­
tions in America (1739). (In Economic Studies of American Economic
Association, Vol. II, 1897.)
Eddis, William— Letters from America (1775).
Essex County (Mass.) Court Records— Published by Essex Institute.
Evelm, Robert— Directions for Adventurers (in Force’s Tracts, Vol. II).
Felt, Joseph B .:
Annals of Salem. 2 vols.
Massachusetts Currency.
Force, Peter— Tracts and Other Papers Relating to the Origin, Settlement and
Progress of the Colonies in North America. 4 vols.
Gannon, Fred A.— Shoe Making, Old and New.
Geiser, Karl Frederick— Redemptioners and Indentured Servants in the Colony
and Commonwealth o f Pennsylvania.
Hamilton, Alexander— Report on Manufactures, 1791.
Hammond, John— Leah and Rachel, or the Two Fruitfull Sisters, Virginia and
Mary-land (in Force’s Tracts, Vol. III).
Harrower, John— Diary o f (in American Historical Review, Vol. V I).
Hart, Albert Bushnell— Editor, American History Told by Contemporaries.
Hazard, Blanche Evans— The Organization of the Boot and Shoe Industry in
Massachusetts Before 1875.
Hening, William Waller— Virginia Statutes at Large.
Herrick, Cheesman A.— White Servitude in Pennsylvania.

140




LIST OF PUBLISHED SOTJRCES

141

Hohman, Elmo Paul— The American Whaleman.
Hunter, Frederick William— Stiegel Glass.
Jacobstein, Meyer— The Tobacco Industry in the United States (in Columbia
University Studies in History, Economics and Political Law, Vol. X X V I).
Johnson, Clifton— Old Time Schools and School Books.
Josselyn, John— An Account of Two Voyages to New England (in Vol. I of Hart’s
American History Told by Contemporaries).
Kaim, Peter— Journeys into North America. 2 vols.
Lamson, D. F.— History of the Town of Manchester (Mass.).
Lechford, Thomas— Manuscript Notebook, 1638-1641 (published by American
Antiquarian Society, 1885).
Lewton, Frederick L.— Samuel Slater and the Oldest Cotton Machinery in
America (in Annual Report of Smithsonian Institution, 1926).
Lye, Joseph— The Ways of a Worker of a Century Ago, as Shown by the Diary
of Joseph Lye, Shoemaker (published by Fred A. Gannon, Salem).
McCormac, Eugene Irving— White Servitude in Maryland (in Johns Hopkins
University Studies in Historical and Political Science, Series X X I I ) .
McLane, Louis— Statistics of Manufacturers in the United States, 1832 (Report
of U. S. Treasury).
Me Master, John Bach— History of the People of the United States. 8 vols.
McNeill, George— The Labor Movement.
Massachusetts:
Records of the Governor and Company of the Massachusetts Bay in New
England (Including Records of the General Court and Courts of Assistants),
1628-1686. 5 vols.
Bureau of Statistics of Labor, 11th Annual Report (1880).
Miles, Henry A.— Lowell as it Was and as It is (1845).
Mittelberger, Gottlieb— Journey to Pennsylvania, 1750-1754.
Montgomery, James— Practical Details of Cotton Manufacture in the United
States (Glasgow, 1840).
New York— Documents Relative to the Colonial History of the State of New
York (edited by E. B. O’ Callaghan).
New York C ity -M em o ria l History (edited by James Grant Wilson).
North Carolina Records. 15 vols.
Oldmixon, John— British Empire in America (1735), 3 vols.
Pearse, John B.— A Concise History of the Iron Manufacture of the American
Colonies.
Phillips, Henry, Jr.— Pennsylvania Paper Money.
Potter, Elisha R.— Emissions of Paper Money Made by the Colony of Rhode
Island.
Roberts, Ellis H.— New York (American Commonwealths, Horace E. Scudder,
editor).
Robinson, Harriet H.— Loom and Spindle.
Salem (Mass.) Town Records.
Sewall, Samuel— History of Woburfi, Mass.
Slafter, Carlos— Schools and Teachers of Dedham, Mass., 1644-1904.
South Carolina Historical Collections— B. E. Carroll, editor.
Stewart, Ethelbert— Documentary History of the Early Organizations of Printers
(Bulletin of U. S. Bureau of Labor, November, 1905).
Stowell, Charles Jacob— Studies in Trade Unionism in the Custom Tailoring
Trade.
Sumner, Helen L.— History of Women in Industry in the United States (Vol. IX
of the Report on Conditions of Woman and Child Wage Earners in the United
States),
Swank, James M.— Iron in all Ages.
Temple, Josiah H., and Sheldon, George— History of Northfield (Mass.).
Thwaites, Reuben Gold— Editor, Early Western Travels. 32 vols.
Thomas, Gabriel— An Historical and Geographical Account of the Province and
Countrey of Pensilvania (1698).
Thomas, Isaiah— History of Printing in America (1810) .
Trial of Twenty-Four Journeyman Tailors Charged with a Conspiracy (Trans­
script of Testimony, Philadelphia, 1827).
Try on, Rolla Melton— Household Manufactures in the United States, 1640-1860.




142

PART 1— FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO 1840

United States:
Department of Labor, Third Annual Report, 1887.
Department of Commerce and Labor, Report on Conditions of Woman and
Child Wage Earners in the United States. 10 vols. (Senate Document
No. 645, 61st Congress, 2nd Session).
Census of Manufactures, 1860.
Census of Manufactures, 1880.
Virginia Historical Society Collections.
Warden, D. B.— A Statistical, Political, and Historical Account of the United
States. 3 vols. (1819).
Weeden, William B.— Economic and Social History of New England, 1620-1789
2 vols.
Winthrop, Governor John— Journal (In Hart’s Contemporaries, Vol. I)
Wright, Carroll D.:
Factory System in the United States (in Vol. II, Census of 1880).
History of Wages and Prices, 1752-1883. From 16th Annual Report of the
Massachusetts Bureau of Statistics of Labor, 1885.
Wright, John— The American Negotiator (3rd edition, London, 1767)







PART 2
FROM 1840 TO 1928




PART 2.—FROM 1840 TO 1928
INTRODUCTION

The work of the Bureau of Labor Statistics has always covered a
wide field. In the early years of the bureau it was the policy to make
a thorough study of at least one important subject each year, but no
attempt was made to specialize in particular lines of work and to
collect and publish data on each of those lines each year. As a con­
sequence, the list of publications of the bureau in the early years
shows very disconnected subject titles.
To illustrate this point the first of the annual reports of the bureau
published in 1886, related to industry depressions; the second report
related to convict labor; the third report related to strikes and lock­
outs; the fourth report to working women in large cities; the fifth
report related to railroad labor. In 1889 the bureau also published
a special report relating to marriage and divorce. ^This policy
required the personnel of the bureau to be general practitioners, com­
petent to handle fairly well almost any subject that might come up
for investigation, but it did not permit of a development of specialists
in particular lines of work. This condition has been remedied, but
only in part. The personnel of the bureau has always^ been small
and there has not been an opportunity for the specialization which is
now so desirable.
The subject of wages was covered quite fully in some of the early
publications of the bureau and scarcely at all in other publications.
The fifth annual report was devoted largely to the wages of railroad
employees and the chapters on wages formed a very important part
of the sixth annual report which bears the title “ Cost of Production.”
Wages constituted quite a large part of the eleventh annual report
relating to work and wages of men, women, and children, and also of
the thirteenth annual report, relating to hand and machine labor.
The first really large wage study, however, was published as part of
the so-called “ Aldrich” report. This report, although published as
a Senate document, was mainly prepared by the then Department of
Labor, now the Bureau of Labor Statistics. It contained a quantity
of information on wages, running back as far as 1840, and coming
down to 1891.
The nineteenth annual report published in 1904 was devoted
entirely to wages and hours of labor. It contained figures by occupa­
tions for many of the major industries of the United States. As
the Aldrich report ended with 1891, it was decided that this report
should include wage data as far back as 1890. This gave a continuity
of partially comparable information on wages and hours of labor from
1840 to 1903. The report was compiled on rather different lines than
the Aldrich report and was more systematically planned. It was
possible to get for this report substantially such figures as were wanted
while in compiling the Aldrich report, because of the long period



145

146

INTRODUCTION

covered, it was more often a case of getting such figures-as could be
obtained than in getting the figures that were wanted. The nine­
teenth annual report, therefore, is much better balanced in its material
than the Aldrich report.
The wage study made in the nineteenth annual report was con­
tinued in an abridged form each year down to and including 1907.
The figures for each year were published in the bulletins of the bureau.
After 1907 the annual collection of wage data was dropped for a few
years while the bureau was devoting its limited resources and per­
sonnel to other lines of work. The major work of the bureau for a
period of two or three years was a report on condition of women and
child wage earners in the United States. This report when finally
published consisted of 19 volumes and was a monumental piece of
work. It included quite a fund of information concerning wages in
some few industries, but the wage figures applied only to the time of
the study.
In 1912 the bureau began to devote much more of its time to the
study of wages. Several industries were covered at this time and the
wage data were collected back to the year 1907. At this time also
the bureau began the collection of union-wage figures as such, and on
this subject a study and report has been made each year down to the
present time.
It was the intention of the bureau when the wage surveys were
resumed in 1912 that several of the major industries should be studied
each year and a considerable number of industries were thus covered
for two or three years. Then the bureau, because of the pressure of
other lines of work, changed its policy and decided to cover several of
the major industries on alternate years, covering some of them one
year and others the next, without an attempt being made to fill in
data for the missing year. This is the policy of the bureau to-day,
although it has never been able strictly to adhere to the “ alternate
year” plan and for some industries there are gaps of three or four
years in the figures. It would be highly desirable to cover all of the
important industries each year so that there might be available at all
times wage information not more than one year out of date, but
because of the limitation of funds and the necessity of carrying other
lines of work the bureau is unable to do more on the subject of wages
than it is doing at the present time.
This explanation will show why this report can not give directly
connected figures for industries and occupations through the period
from 1840 to the present time. It is also to be noted that the report
does not contain by any means all of the wage data available, but
from the publications of the bureau enough wage data have been
collected and are presented to show what the rates of wages in general
have been over the entire period covered and also to furnish a very
good idea as to the trend of wages throughout the period.
All the wage data presented in Part 2 are from studies made by
the Bureau of Labor Statistics, except the data for farm laborers in
Tables D -2 and D -3 (pp. 227 and 228) which are taken from reports
of the United States Department of Agriculture.




A.— BAKERY TRADES
BAKERS

The sources from which wage data were secured are the fifteenth and
the nineteenth annual reports of the Commissioner of Labor Statistics
and bulletins of the Bureau of Labor Statistics Nos. 59, 65, 71, 77,
131, 143, 171, 194, 214, 245, 259, 274, 286, 302, 325, 354, 388, 404,
431, 457, and 482.
In some of these reports the data are presented by cities, in others
by States or geographic divisions; whenever such data were not avail­
able for any of these, the information is shown for the United States.
In some instances there are overlapping periods. These represent
information from different sources and are considered valuable for
that reason. The details are shown here in the same manner as
published in the above-noted reports.
An inspection of these tables will show that in the early years
from 1880 to 1900 bakers were grouped into one class as presented in
Table A -l, and again from 1905 to 1907 in Table A-4. In Table A-2,
which presents data for the years 1890 to 1904, and Table A-5, which
covers the period from 1907 to 1928, inclusive, bakers are presented
as first hands and second hands, mixers, benchmen, ovenmen, etc.
The occupation terms first hand, second hand, etc., do not represent
identical work in all of the different cities where these terms are used.
A particular kind of work in one city may be considered as first-hand
work and in another city the same w^ork may be classed as second­
hand. These reports have followed the terminology used in each city.
The wage data reported for the early periods ana extending to 1907
were copied by agents of the Bureau of Labor Statistics direct from
pay rolls or other records of representative establishments in the vari­
ous localities. Both hours and earnings as shown here represent
averages computed from these reports.
For the period from 1907 to 1928 the wage data reported here repre­
sents minimum rates of wages paid to union workers through agree­
ments with their employers or group of employers. The hours repre­
sent the maximum which may be worked beyond which extra for
overtime is usually paid. For further explanation of the source of
these details see “ Building trades,” page 153.




147

148

PART 2.— FROM 1840 TO 1928
T a b l e A - l . — Bakers, 1880-1900, by year and State

Lowest, highest, and
average—

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State Sex

Year and State
Hours per
week

1880:
Georgia.._.......
New Jersey___
Pennsylvania. _
1881:
_
Connecticut_
Illinois.............
New Jersey___
New York____
Do.............
1832:
Illinois.............
Missouri.........New Jersey___
Do.............
Ohio................
1883:
Massachusetts.
Michigan.........
New Jersey___
Ohio................
West Virginia1884:
California........
Illinois.............
Iowa................
Michigan.........
New Jersey___
New York.......
Ohio................
Pennsylvania. .
1885:
Iowa_________
New Jersey___
New York.......
1886:
California........
Do.............
Do._..........
Connecticut_
_
Georgia............
Illinois.............
Iowa................
Kentucky........
Louisiana........
Massachusetts.
Michigan.........
Minnesota.......
Missouri..........
Do.............
New Jersey___
New York____
Do.............
Ohio.......... ......
Pennsylvania. .
Wisconsin........
1887:
Connecticut_
_
Kansas...........
New York.......
Ohio..... ..........
D o ............
Wisconsin........
1888:
Colorado..........
Iowa................
Kansas.............
New Jersey___
New York____
Do........ .
Rhode Island _.
1890:
Minnesota.......
New York.......
Ohio................

1.10-1.46-1.24
1.75-1.75-1.75
1.50-1.70-1.68
1.20-2.26-1.65
112- 112-112 U. 65-1.65-1.65
72- 90- 84
74-100- 87
72-102- 89
74-112-100

8

60- 60-60

(2
)
72- 72- 72

60- 60- 60

2.00-2.50-2.04

1.67-4.17-2.28
1.33-1.67-1.55
11.67-1.67-1.67

1.6 -1 8 .6
8 .6 -1 8
1.33-3.83-2.12
. 50-4.00-1.76
1.33-3.00-1.69
1.67-1.67-1.67
1.33-1.33-1.33

60- 72- 64 il.92-3.00-2.62
78- 78- 78 1.25-1.50-1.42
72- 72- 72 2.00-2. 25-2.08

(2
)

1.25-2.88-1.76
1.33-2.83-1.80
2.17-2.17-2.17
60- 60- 60 1.83-1.83-1.83
59- 60- 60 1.25-3.00-1.85

48- 84- 62
120- 120-120

60- 60- 60
60- 78- 63
60- 86- 82

2.33-2.33-2.33
1.17-3.00-1.79
. 60-2.50-2.22

60- 60- 60 2.30-2.30-2.30
48- 84- 64 1.34-2.50-1.73
60- 90- 69 il.34-2.50-2.03
60- 60- 60 1.88-2.25-2.00
60- 66- 61 1.25-1. 75-1.49
54- 86- 7a 1.50-2.50-2.02
60- 77- 72 1.00-2.25-1.65
.2 -1 1 .2
69- 69- 69 1 1 .2 -1 1
105-105-105 11.25-1.25-1.25
62- 62- 62 2.32-2. 32-2.32
48- 60- 54 1.75-1.75-1.75
80- 80- 80 1.75-1.75-1.75
54- 60- 55 1.00-1.58-1.16

(2
)

78- 7860-12060- 6087- 8784- 8480- 80-

78
79
60
87
84
80

11.00-1.23-1.10

2
.00-2.00-2.00
.80-2.67-1.92
1.67-2.00-1.91

1 6 .6 -1 6
.6 -1 6 .6

1.50-1.50-1.50
1.50-1.50-1.50

(2
)
(*
>

1.00-1 0 .0
.0 -1 0

(?
)

1.00-1.67-1.66

.81-2.09-1.93

74- 74- 74 12.83-2.83-2.83
60- 78 (2) 1.00-2.50-1.71
60- 78 (2)
.60-1.00- .85

5.00-5.00-5.00
2.00-2.00-2.00
2.14-2.50-2.27
72- 81- 74 2.00-3.00-2.67
55- 81- 67 1.50-5.00-2.17
73- 73- 73 U. 00-1.56-1.25
2.50-2.50-2.50
(2
)
60- 60- 60
72- 72- 72

(2
)

:2
)

60- 72- 61


*And board.


Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)

Rate per day
(dollars)

60- 66- 63 1.67-2.00-1.88
80- 80- 80 11.50-1.50-1. 50
60- 60- 60 2.33-3.33-2.81

74-102- 99
60- 72- 67

Sex

1.00-2.00-1.64
. 67-3.33-1.39
1.20-2.50-1.69

* Not reported,

1891:
Michigan..
New York.
Ohio..........
1892:
California..
Illinois___
Do___*
Iowa........ .
Missouri..,
1893:
Illinois___
D o ....
Maryland.
D o.—
Missouri..
Montana. _
Do___
New York.
Do___
Do___
Ohio..................
D o ....
Do__............
Pennsylvania
Do...............
1894:
District of Co­
lumbia...........
Iowa..................
Do..............
New Hampshire.
Ohio___l___.......
Do..............
1895:
Georgia.............
Illinois________
Iowa........ ........
Massachusetts..
Missouri....... .
New York....... .
North Carolina..
Ohio................ .
Do...............
Rhode Island...
Colorado..
Florida.—
.
Georgia...
_
Illinois_
Iowa..

8

M. 48- 72- 61

M.
.77-3.33-1.81
(2
)
F. 48-60-57 1.00-1.67-1.13
F. 63- 63- 63 3.96- . 96- . 96
M. 48- 72- 62 1.16-3.00-1.88
M.
1.33-2.08-1.69
(2
>
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
F.
M.
M.
F.
M.
M.

Illinois___

Michigan.
Nebraska.
D o ....
Virginia...
D o ....

59- 9636- 5630- 96; 72- 7284- 8457- 7748- 4848-11756-10270- 8454- 7260- 6060- 6042-10860- 84-

.83-4. 17-2.07
67
.50-2. 00-1.06
49
. 67-5. 00-2.06
68
72 4.17-4. 17-4.17
84 1.17-3. 00-1.55
61 2.00-4. 17-3.58
48 3.96-2. 50-1.73
.67-4. 17-1.67
73
69 i. 58-1. 33- .99
.54-2. 00-1.40
75
.0 -2
62 1 0 . 50-1.73
L
1.40-1. 50-1.44
60
.50-1. 00- .54
60
.42-3. 33-1.90
71
73 1.67-1. 92-1.01

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
F.

60- 60- 60 2.00-3.00-2.50
60- 84- 66 1.17-3.75-2.05
60- 60- 60 12.17-2.17-2.17
60- 72- 63 2.17-3.50-2.88
64- 72- 62 1.14-4.17-1.76
48- 66- 58
.50- .66- .59

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
F.
M.

59606060-

(2
)

66- 66(2
)
60- 6660- 7272- 7260- 6048- 7254- 6060-10860- 6060- 6863- 6354- 5760- 60-

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
Missouri..
M.
Do___
F.
Nebraska.
M.
New York.
M.
Ohio.........
M.
Do_______ F.
Pennsylvania.. . M.
West Virgi
M.

1897:

.50-1.00- .67
. 58-5.00-1.57
1.00-3.00-1.77

6060545466-

59606060(2
)
6060726066-

59
60
60
60

1.25-2. 33-1.46

2 0 . 00 2.00
,0 -2
2.33-2. 33-2.33
2 0 . 25-2.14
.1 -2
-

60
60
60
55
66

.67-2. 29-1.85
2.00-3. 33-2.39
1.50-1. 50-1.50
.66-3. 33-1.90
.58- . 75- .71
.67-3. 00-1.83

66

2.00-2.00-2.00

62
61
72
60
62
59
63
60
62
63
55
60

1.00-2.00-1.84
. 67-3.00-2.01
1.67-1.67-1.67
1.17-1.17-1.17
1.40-2.25-1.91
.92-1.20- .98
.50-4.25-1.85
.83-3.00-1.72
.87-2.35-1.71
.54- .54- .54
1.50-3.33-2.16
1.85-1.83-1.83

2.00-2.00-2.00

M. 60- 60- 60 2.00-2.17-2.09
M. 70- 85- 75 . 86-1.71-1.46
M.
2.04-2.04-2.04
(2
)
(2)
M.
2.00-2.00-2.00
(2 \

1
.00-1.00-1.00
.60-3.00- .92
.50-1.50- .86

il.

54- 96- 63
48- 72- 60

Michigan.
Nebraska.

M.

(2
)
48- 96- 62

1.25-1.50-1.41
1.00-2.50-1.83

Georgia............
Massachusetts.

M. 60- 60- 60
M. 66- 70- 68

.60-2.00-1.06
1.17-4.17-2.17

Georgia............ M. I 60- 60- 60
Massachusetts- . M. j 66- 70- 68

.60-2.00-1.06
1.17-4.17-2.15

1900:

F.
(2
)

»And board and lodging.

149

A.— BAKERY TRACES
T

able

A -2 .— Bakers, first hands, males, 1890—
1904, by geographic division and
year
North Atlantic
Year

South Atlantic

North Central

South Central

Hours
Rate
Hours
Hours
Rate
Rate
Hours
Rate
per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour

1890...........................
1891...........................
1892...........................
1893...........................
1894...........................
1895...........................
1896...........................
1897...........................
1898...........................
1899...........................
1900...........................
190X............................
1902............................
1903...........................
1904............................

64.6
64.7
64.6
64.3
65.1
65.1
65.1
65.1
65.4
65.2
63.4
63.6
63.6
63.4
61.3

$0,259
.261
.259
.258
.255
.256
.257
.258
.257
.258
.268
.271
.275
.279
.272

67.6
67.6
67.6
67.6
67.6
67.6
67.6
67.6
67.6
67.6
67.6
65.2
65.2
63.4
60.9

$0,198
.198
.198
.198
198
197
.201
.203
.210
.208
.217
.234
.234
.240
.262

65.8
65.8
65.9
65.9
64.4
64.3
64.2
64.1
62.7
61.2
60.9
60.8
60.4
59.6
59.2

$0,230
.230
.231
.226
.226
.228
.231
.232
.239
.253
.258
.261
.274
.280
.283

71.4
71.4
' 71.4
71.4
71.4
71.4
71.4
71.4
71.4
70.7
69.5
68.5
68.5
67.4
65.3

$0,224
.224
.224
.224
.224
.225
.225
.225
.226
.232
.240
.247
.247
.232
.250

T a b l e A -3 .— Bakers, second hands, males, 1890-1904f by geographic division and

year
North Atlantic
Year

able

North Central

South Central

Rate
Hours
Hours
Hours
Rate
Hours
Rate
Rate
per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour

1890............. .............
1891...........................
1892............................
1893............................
1894...........................
1895...........................
1896........ ..................
1897............................
1898............................
1899...........................
1900...........................
1901...........................
1902............................
1903...........................
1904.......................... .
T

South Atlantic

68.2
68.1
68.1
67.8
67.3
67.9
67.8
68.1
67.7
68.2
66.5
67.4
67.4
66.6
60.4

$0.181
.184
.185
.185
.187
.187
.188
.186
.188
189
.194
.198
.204
.210
.226

63.2
63.2
63.5
63.2
62.8
63.6
63.7
63.7
66.1
63.5
63.8
62.2
62.2
61.5
61.0

$0.154
.154
.153
.156
.157
.154
.158
.158
.158
.163
.164
.179
.179
.175
.204

64.0
64.0
64.7
64.7
64.5
63.7
63.7
63.1
62.2
60.4
59.8
59.6
58.5
59.2
58.4

$0,192
.198
.192
.191
.190
.192
. 194
.197
.201
.209
.216
.217
.233
.229
.239

74.3
74.3
74.3
74.3
74.3
74.3
74.3
74.3
74.3
74.3
73.7
73.3
72.9
68.3
66.6

$0,158
.158
.158
.1-58
.158
.158
.158
.158
.158
.158
.166
.169
.172
.181
.197

A -4 .— Bakers, males, 1905-1907, by geographic division and year
North Atlantic

Year

1905..........................
1906-........................
1907...........................

South Atlantic

North Central

South Central

Hours
Hours
Rate
Rate
Hours
Rate
Hours
Rate
per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour per week per hoar
61.8
61.2
61.3




$0,242
.251
.251

59.8
60.0
59.4

$0,239
.240
.245

58.0
57.5
57.6

$0,248
.257
.258

65.4
67.5
66.4

$0,220
.210
.218

150

PAKT 2.— FROM 1840 TO 1928

T a b l e A 5.— Bakers, first hands, hand, day work, males, 1907-1928, by city and year
Cincinnati, Ohio 1
Year
1907..
19081909..
1910-.
1911..
1912-.
1913..
191419151916191719181919192019211922192319241925192619271928-.

54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
64.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
Indianapolis,

190719081909191019111912191319141915..
1916.
1917.
19181919..
19201921192219231924192519261927..
1928-

60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
57.0
57.0
57.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
64.0
54.0
64.0
54.0

$0,205
>.278
78.0
.278
72.0
.250
.278
.278
72.0
.333
.278
6 .0
6
.367
60.0
.278
.367
60.0
.278
.367
60.0
.296
57.0
.386
.296
.407
54.0
.315
.431
.315
51.0
.431
51.0
.333
.529
51.0
.370
.627
51.0
.444
51.0
.824
.750
51.0
.824
.750
51.0
.741
.750
.765
51.0
.771
.765
51.0
.771
.765
51.0
.771
.765
.771
51.0
.765
.771
51.0
.965
.771
51.0
Ind.4 Kansas City, Mo.{

$0.267
.267
.267
.267
,265
.265
.267
.267
.316
.816
.368
.463
.55 o
.648
.694
.694
.694
.694
.694
.694
.694
.694

Omaha, Nebr.
1907..
1908..
1909..
19101911..
19121913_.
1914_.
19151916...
1917_.
19181919..
192019211922.
1923192419251926..
1927..
1928..

Dallas, Tex.2

Denver, Colo.3

Fall River, Mass.

Rate
Hours
Rate
Hours
Hours
Rate
Rate
Hours
per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour

60.0
60.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
64.0
64.0
64.0

$0.267
.267
.296
.296
.296
.296
.296
.296
.296

54.0
$0,296
54.0
.296
54.0
.333
.333
54.0
54.0
.352
54.0
.352
54.0
.389
54.0
.407
.407
54.0
54.0
.407
54.0
.444
.481
54.0
54.0
.556
.813
48.0
48.0
.813
.813
48.0
.813
48.0
.875
48.0
.875
48.0
.875
48.0
48.0
.896
48.0
.896
San Francisco,
Calif.7
60.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
51.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0

$0,367
.463
.463
.463
.463
.463
.463
.463
.463
.463
.463
.556
.725
.875
.958
.896
.958
.958
.958
.958
.958

60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
54.0
54.0
60.0

$0,316
57.0
.333
57.0
54.0
.370
64.0
.370
64.0
.370
54.0
.370
54.0
.370
.389
54.0
54.0
.426
51.0
.539
51.0
.608
.627
51.0
48.0
.615
.667
48.0
48.0
.708
48.0
.792
48.0
.792
48.0
.792
48.0
.792
Louisville, K y i
57.0
67.0
57.0
57.0
57.0
57.0
57.0
57.0
57.0
57.0
57.0

74.0
74.0
74.0
62.0
62.0
56.0
54.0
64.0
64.0
60.0
64.0
51.0
51.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0

.583
.583
.583
.583
.625
.625
.625
.625
.625

Seattle, Wash.*
60.0
60.0
60.0
54.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0

$0,216
.243
.243
.323
.323
.357
.333
.370
.370
.300
.370
«. 412
.510
.854
.979
.979
.979
.979
.979
.979
.979
.979

Washington, D . C.s

$0,400
.400
.417
.463
.521
.521
.458
.458
.458
.458
.500

.6 8
8
.813

.875
.938

10
.0 0
10
.0 0
1.000

1.000
1.000

1 Oven men.
3 Foremen, 1916-1928, inclusive.
3 Oven men, 1910-1924, inclusive.
4 Oven men, 1907-1912, inclusive; foremen, 1913-1928, inclusive.
8 Oven men, 1913-1928, inclusive.
a Scale became 51 cents on May 25,1918.
7 Oven m m , 1914-1928, inclusive.
 8 Benchmen in charge of ovens, 3913-1917, inclusive; oven men, 1918-1928, inclusive.
0 Not classified, 1907-1922, inclusive; journeymen, 1923-1928, inclusive.
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/ became 40 cents per hour on June 2, 1917.
Seale

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

.300

New York, N. Y.

$0,263
.263
.281
.281
.281
.281
.281
.281
.281
.281
.316

48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0

$0,283
.283
.283
.300
.333
.333

54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
64.0
54.0
64.0
64.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0

$0,306
.320
.320
.320
.333
.333
.361
.361
.361
.361
w. 361
.563
.640
.900
.900
.900

1.000

10
.0 0
10
.0 0
10
.0 0
10
.0 0
10
.0 0

151

A .— BAKERY TRADES
T a b l e A - 6 . —-Bakers, first hands, machine, day work, males, 1907-1928, &
?/

and year

Kansas City,
Mo. i
Year

1907..
1908..
1909..
2910..
1911..
1912..
1913..
1914..
1915..
1918..
191719181919..
19201921..
1922..
1923..
1924..
1925..
192619271928-

Washington,
D. C. a

Cincinnati,
Ohio 3

New York,
N. Y.<

San Francisco,
Calif.3

Hours Rate
per
per
week hour

Hours Rate
per
per
week hour

Hours Rate
per
per
week hour

Hours Rate
per
per
week hour

Hours Rate
per
per
hour

54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
54.0
54.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0

$
0

48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0

$0.344
.360
.360
.360
.375
.375
.406
.406
.406
.406
«.406
.563

48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0

50.375
.375
.375
.396
.396
.438
.521
.750

54.0
54.0
54.0
51.0
51.0
51.0
51.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0

$0,370
.370
.370
.392
.431
7.431

.529
.875

48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0

$0,521
.521
.521
.521
.521
.625
.771
.875

12
.0 1
12
.0 1
1.083
1.083

848.0

1 Oven men, 1907-1920, inclusive.

2 Not classified, 1907-1918, inclusive.

8 Oven men, 1913-1920, inclusive.
* Oven men, 1913-1924, inclusive.

Denver,
Colo.*
Hours
per

Rate
per
hour

48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0

$0,667
.615
667
708
708
708
708
708

8 Oven men, 1921-1928, inclusive.
6 Seale became 45 cents an June 2,1917.
7 Scale became 52.9 cents on May 25,1918.
8 Benchmen and machine hands.

T a b l e A - 7 . — Bakers, first hands, machine, night work, males, 1907-1912, by city

and year
Cincinnati, Ohio 1 Indianapolis, Ind.*
Year

1907..............................................................................................
1908..............................................................................................
1909..............................................................................................
1910..............................................................................................
1911..............................................................................................
1912..............................................................................................
i Oven men, 1907-1912, inclusive.




Hours
Hours
Rate
Rate
per week per hour per week per hour
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0

$0,315
.315
.315
.315
.315
.315

60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0

$0,300
.300
.300
.300
.300
.300

152
T

able

PART 2.— FROM 1840 TO 1928
A -8 .— Bakers, second handsf hand, day work} males, 1907-1928, by city
and year
Cincinnati, Ohio 1
Year

Dallas, Texas 1

Denver, Colo.1

Fall River, Mass.3

Hours
Rate
Hours
Rate
Hours
Rate
Rate
Hours
per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour

1907.............................
1908............................
1909............................
1910.......... ................
1911_...........................
1912..........................
1913____ ____________
1914.................. .........
1915________________
1916............ ................
1917________________
1918...........................
1919............................
1920.............................
1921________________
1922............................
1923________ _______
1924________________
1925.............................
1926........................ .
1927.............................
1928_,„.......................

54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0

$0,241
.241
.241
.241
.241
.241
.259
.259
.278
.278
.296
.333
.407

.688
.688
.688

.708
.708
.708
.708
.708
.708

78.0
72.0
72.0

66.0

60.0
60.0
60.0
57.0
54.0
51.0
51.0
51.0
51.0
51.0
51.0
51.0
51.0
51.0
51.0
51.0
51.0

$0.180

.222

.250
.303
.333
.333
.333
.351
.370
.392
.392
.471
.569
.765
.765

.688

.716
.716
.716
.716
.716

Indianapolis, Ind.8 Kansas City, Mo.4
1907.............................
1908.............................
1909...........................
1910............................
1911________________
1912............................
1913............................
1914.............................
1915............................
1916....................... .
1917................... .........
1918............................
1919.............................
1920............ ...............
1921............................
1922............................
1923............................
1924________________
1925________________
1926............................
1927.............................
1928.............. . __

60.0
C
0.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
57.0
57.0
57.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0

$0,233
.233
.233
.233
.233
.267
.267
.250
.263
.298
.333
.389
.481
.574
.556
.556
.556
.556
.556
.556
.556
.556

Year
1907................................................................
1908................................... ...........................
1909................................................................
1910....... .......................................................
1911........................ .......................................
1912
____
1913____________________________ _______
1914__________________________ _________
1915______________ ____________ _______
1916_______________ ______ ______________
1917 .
- .................
1918.__________________________ ________
1919
.
......................
1920 _
_________ _________________
1921
_
______________ _____
1922 ____ . ________________________
1923
.................
1924
........................ ...... ....................
1925............................................. .................
1926
....................................
1927 ................. .............. .............................
1928
........................................ .

54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0*
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0

$0,278
.278
.296
.296
.333
.352
.352
.370
.370
.370
.407
.444
.519
.750
.750
.750
.750
.813
.813
.813
.833
.833

Omaha, Nebr.
60.0
60.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0

$0,250
.250
.278
.278
.278
.278
.278
.278
.278

51.0

.725

57.0
57.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
51.0
51.0
51.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0

$0,263
.298
.333
.333
.333
.333
.333
.352
.389
.490
.559
.588
.573
.625
.667
.667
.667
.667
.667

Louisville, Ky.5
57.0
57.0
57.0
57.0
57.0
57.0
57.0
57.0
57.0
57.0
57.0

$0,228
.228
.246
.246
.246
.246
.246
.246
.246
. 246
.272

48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0

.500
.500
.500
.542
.583
.583
.583
.583
.583

San Francisco,
Calif.»
60.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
51.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0

$0,300
.389
.389
.389
.389
.389
.389
.389
.389
.389
.389
.500
.667
.813
.896
.833
.896
.896
.896
.896
.896
.896

60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
54.0
54.0

$0,233
.233
.233
.250
.278
.278

60.0

.250

48.0

.667

New York, N. Y.
74.0
74.0
74.0
62.0
62.0
56.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
60.0
54.0
51.0
51.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0

$0.189
. 189
.216
.258
.258
.286
.296
.315
.315
.267
.333

8.353

.451
.792
.917
.917
.917
.917
.917
.917
.917
.917

Seattle, Wash.3
60.0
60.0
60.0
54.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0

$0.333
.333
.333
.370
.417
.417
.417
.417
.417
.417
.458
.625
.750
.875
.875
.813
.875
.938
.938
.938
.938
.938

i Benehmen, 1913-1928, inclusive.
6 Benehmen, 1920.
s Benehmen, 1914-15, inclusive; second hands and benehmen, 1916-17, inclusive; benehmen, mixers, and
oven men, 1921-1928, inclusive.
* Benehmen.

4 Benehmen, 1913-1928, inclusive.
« Scale became 45.1 cents on May L4,1918.
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

B — BUILDING TRADES

The sources from which these wage data were taken are the fifteenth
and the nineteenth annual reports of the Commissioner of Labor Sta­
tistics and bulletins of the Bureau of Labor Statistics Nos. 59, 65,
71, 77, 131, 143, 171, 194, 214, 245, 259, 274, 286, 302, 325, 354, 362,
388, 404, 422, 431, 457, 471, and 482.
The wage data reported for the early periods and extending to 1907
were obtained by agents of the Bureau of Labor Statistics direct from
pay rolls or other records of representative establishments in the vari­
ous localities. The hours shown here are basic or regular full­
time working hours of the various establishments reduced to an aver­
age for each particular occupation. The earnings are averages
obtained by dividing the actual earnings of all employees working in
each specified occupation during a representative pay period by their
actual hours worked during this same representative pay period.
For the period from 1907 to 1928 the rates represent the minimum
union scales of wages which have been agreed to or accepted by the
union men and the employers. The hours represent the maximum
which may be worked beyond which extra •payment for overtime is
usually made. In many instances workmen are actually paid more
than the scale, and in other instances they work fewer hours than
the scale designates.
A large part of this union wage data were obtained by agents of
the Bureau of Labor Statistics through personal visits to business
agents and secretaries of the respective trade unions in the various
cities. Through the cooperation of the State labor bureau officials
in Massachusetts, Ohio, and Pennsylvania, certain details from their
reports were furnished to this bureau. Whenever available the wage
scales, written agreements, and trade-union records were consulted.
The various wage agreements as reported represent wages for differ­
ent units of time, some per hour, others per day or month. For the
purpose of comparison, all of these varying rates have been converted
into a common unit of a rate per hour.
Electricians were designated as inside wiremen in the overlapping
period from 1890 to 1900 and from 1900 to 1928, Tables B~6 and B-7.
The data for laborers here presented cover those engaged in wosk
on or about building construction for the period of 1890 to 1928.
For other laborers see Tables D -l, D -2, D -3 (pp. 225, 227, and 228),
G -l (p. 253), 1-16, 1-17,1-18 (pp. 295 and 296), O -ll, and 0-12
(p. 464).




153

154

PART 2.— FROM 1840 TO 1928
T a b l e B - l . — Bricklayers, 1840-1900, by year and State
Lowest, highest, and
average—

Year and State

Sex

1840:
M.
New York.......
1841:
New York............ M.
1842:
New York............ M.
1843:
New York______ M.
1844:
I.
New York______ IV
1845:
New York............ M.
1846:
New York............ M.
1847:
Massachusetts___ M.
New York.......... M.
1848:
Massachusetts--- M.
New York............ M.
1849:
New York_.......... M.
1850:
New York............ M.
1851:
New York............ M.
1852:
New York........... M.
1853:
New York______ M.
1854:
New York........... M.
1855:
New York_____ M.
1856:
New York............ M.
M.
Ohio_________
1857:
New York............ M.
M.
Ohio___
1858:
New York............ M.
Ohio................... . M.
1859:
Massachusetts___ M.
New York______ M.
Ohio........... ......... M.
1800:
Massachusetts___ M.
New York______ M.
Ohio................... . M.
Pennsylvania....... M.
1861:
Massachusetts___ M.
New York.......... M.
Ohio..................... M.
Pennsylvania....... M.
1862:
Massachusetts___ M.
New York
M.
M.
Ohio
Pennsylvania....... M.
1863:
Massachusetts___ M,
M.
New York
Ohio__________ _ M.
1864:
Massachusetts___ M.
New York............ M.
O h io ............. ...... M.
Pennsylvania....... M.
1865:
Massachusetts___ M.
New York............ M.
Ohio_______ ____ M.
Pennsylvania....... 1 m J




Lowest, highest, and
average—.
Year and State

Sex

Hours per Hate per clay
week
(dollars)

60-60-60

1.75-1. 75-1. 75

60-60-60

1.50-2,50-1. 79

60-60-60

1.50-2.50-2.00

60-60-60

2. 50-2.50-2. 50

60-60-60

2.50-2.50-2. 50

60-60-60

2. 50-2.50-2. 50

60-60-60

1.75-2.00-1. 79

60-60-60
60-60-60

1.33-1.33-1.33
1.75-2.00-1.88

60-60-60
60-60-60

1.33-1.67-1.39
1.75-2.00-1.88

60-60-60

1. 75-2.00-1.88

60-60-60

2.00-2.00-2.00

C0-60-60

1.75-2.00-1.88

60-60-60

1. 75-2.00-1. 93

60-60-60

I. 75-2.00-1. 96

60-60-60

1. 75-2.00-1. 94

60-60-60

1. 75-2.25-2.00

60-60-60
60-60-60

1. 75-2. 25-2.00
2.00-2.00-2.00

60-60-60
60-60-60

1. 75-2. 50-2.08
2.00-2.00-2.00

60-60-60
60-60-60

1. 50-2. 50-1.86
2.00-2.00-2.00

60-60-60
60— 60
60—
60-60-60

1. 25-2.25-1. 74
1. 50-2. 50-1.80
2.25-2.25-2.25

60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
54-54-54

1.25-2.00-1.53
2.00-2. 75-2.05
1.67-2. 25-1. 98
2.00-2.00-2.00

60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
54-54-54

1.50-2.25-1.81
2.00-2.50-2.03
2. 25-2.25-2.25
2.00-2.00-2.00

60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
54-54-54

1. 25-2.00-1. 79
2.00-2. 50-2.11
2. .50-2. 50-2. 50
2.25-2.25-2.25

60-60-60
gO-60-60
60-60-60

1.40-2.50-2.05
1.50-2.50-2. 25
2. 75-2. 75-2. 75

60-60-60 1. 75-3.00-2.31
60-60-60 1. 75-3.00-2. 77
60~G(M;0 3.00-3.00-3.00
54-54-54 2. 50-2. 50-2.50
60-60-60
6O O O
-C -C
60-60-60
54-54-54

2.00-3.00-2.59
2.25-3.00-2. 81

4. 00-4.00-4.00

3. C0-3.00-3.00

Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)
1866:
Massachusetts___
New York______
Ohio. _ . _ .
Pennsylvania.......
1867:
Massachusetts___
New York
__
Ohio........... .........
Pennsy1v ania
1868:
Massachusetts___
New York............
Ohio........ ............
Pennsylvania.......
1869:
Massachusetts___
New York...........
Ohio........ ............
Pennsylvania____
1870:
California_______
Illinois..................
Louisiana.............
Maryland.............
Massachusetts___
Minnesota ............
Missouri________
New York.........
Ohio....................
Pennsylvania.......
Virginia................
1871:
California_______
Louisiana.............
Maryland_______
Massachusetts___
Minnesota...........
Missouri________
New York............
Ohio..... ...............
Pennsylvania____
Virginia_________
1872:
California.............
Illinois_________
Louisiana........ .
Maryland_______
Massachusetts___
Minnesota______
Missouri________
New York............
Ohio.____ ______
Pennsylvania____
Virginia................
1873:
California.............
Illinois..................
Louisiana_______
Maryland_______
Massachusetts___
Minnesota............
Missouri. .............
! New York______
1 Ohio.....................
| Pennsylvania____
Virginia................
1874:
California_______
Illinois......... .......
Louisiana-------Maryland_______
Massachusetts--Minnesota______
Missouri...............

M.
M.
M.
M.

60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
54-54-54

2. 25-3. 75-2.95
3.00-4.00-3.58
4.00-4.00-4. G
O
3.00-3.00-3.00

M.
M.
M.
M.

60-60-60
60-60-<)0
60-60-60
54-54-54

2.25-4.00-3.17
3.50-5.00-4.67
5.00-5.00-5.00
3. 50-3.50-3.50

M.
M.
M.
M.

60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
54-54-54

3.00-4.00-3.76
4.00-4.50-4.35
5.00-5.00-5.00
3.50-3.50-3.50

M.
M.
M.
M.

60-60-60
60-60-60
eo-co-eo
54-54-54

2.25-4.00-3.44
4.00-5.00-4.88
5. 60-5.00-5.00
3.50-3.50-3.50

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

48-48-48
60-60-60
80-60-60
59-59-59
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
54-60-57
00-60-60

5.00-5.00-5.00
3.00-3.50-3.38
2.25-3.00-2.50
4.00-4.504.15
3.00-5.00-3.97
3. 50-3.50-3.50
3. 00-3.00-3.00
3.00-5.00-3.89
4. 50-5.00-4.63
3, 00-5.00-4.01
3. 50-3. 50-3. 50

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

48— 48
48—
60-60-60
60-60-60
59-59-59
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
54-60-55
60-60-60

5.00-5.00-5.00
5.00-5.00-5.00
2.25-3.00-2.50
4.00-4. 50-4. 29
2. 50-5. 00-4.07
3. 50-3. 50-3.50
3.00-3.00-3.00
3.00-4.00-3.85
5.00-5.00-5.00
3.00-4.00-3.89
3.50-3.50-3.50

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

48-48-48 5.00-5.00-5.00
60-60-60 5.00-5.00-5.00
60-60-60 2.25-3. CO-2.58
59-59-59 4.00-4.50-4.19
60-60-60 2.25-4. 75-3.86
60-60-60 3.50-3.50-3.50
60-60-60 3. C0-3.00-3.00
48-60-59 3.00-4.00-3. 84
60-C0-C0 3.33-5.00-4.69
54-60-56 3. 00-5.00-4. 20
60-60-60 3.50-3.50-3.50

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

48-48-48
60-60-60
60-60-60
59-59-59
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
48-60-59
60-60-60
54 60 57
60-60-60

5.00-5.00-5.00
3. 50-3. .50-3. 50
2. 25-3.00-2.50
3.00-4. 50-3.72
2.25-4. 75-3.88
3.50-3.50-3.50
2.75-2.75-2.753.00-5.00-3.83
5.00-5.00-5.00
3.25-5.00-3. 94
3.50-3. 50-3. 50

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

48-48-48
60-60-60
60-60-60
59-59-59
60-80-60
60-60-60
60-60-60

5.00-5.00-5.00
2. 50-2. 50-2. 50
2.2.5-2. 75-2.42
3. 00-3.50-3.20
3.00-4.00-3.50
3. 50-3.50-3. 50
2.75-2.75-2.75

B.—B IL IN T A E
U D G RDS
T able B - l . —

155

Bricklayers, 1840-1900, by year and State— Continued
Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Year and State

1874—Continued.
New York____
Ohio................
Pennsylvania- .
Virginia...........
1875:
California........
Illinois.............
Louisiana........
Maryland........
Massachusetts--Minnesota______
Missouri.............
New York______
Ohio..... ...............
Pennsylvania---Virginia.............. .
1876:
California.............
Illinois................ .
Louisiana.............
Maryland—
........ .
Massachusetts_
_
Minnesota.......... .
Missouri............. .
New York............
Ohio.....................
Pennsylvania___
Virginia................
1877:
California.............
Illinois................ .
Louisiana.............
Maryland............
Massachusetts___
Minnesota...........
Missouri________
New York............
Ohio______ ____
Pennsylvania.......
Virginia................
1878:
California.............
Illinois..................
Louisiana.............
Maryland.............
Massachusetts___
Minnesota............
Missouri...............
New York............
Ohio.....................
Pennsylvania.......
Virginia................
1879:
California.............
Illinois................
Louisiana.............
Maryland........... .
Massachusetts___
Minnesota............
Missouri............. .
New Jersey....... .
New York............
Ohio............... .
Pennsylvania____
Virginia................
1880:
California.............
Illinois.................
Louisiana.—. .......
Maryland........... .
Massachusetts___
Minnesota............
Missouri...............
New Jersey..........
Not reported.
Digitized for iFRASER

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Sex

Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)

M, 48-60-59
M. 60-60-60
M 54-60-57
M. 60-60-60
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

M

M.
M,
M.
M,
M.

3.00-4.50-3.42
5.00-5.00-5.00
2.00-4.00-3.07
3.00-3.00-3.00

48-60-59 5.00-5.00-5.00
60-60-60 2.50-2. 50-2.50
60-60-60 2.25-3.00-2.50
59-59-59 3.50-4.00-3.71
60-60-60 3.00-4.50-3.48
60-60-60 3.50-3.50-3.50
60-60-60 2.75-2.75-2.75
48-60-59 3.00-4.00-3.35
60-60-60 4.50-4.50-4.50
54-60-57 3.00-4.00-3.33
60-60-60 2.75-2.75-2.75

M 48-60-57 4.00-5.00-4.22
M. 60-60-60 3.00-3.00-3.00
M, 60-60-60 2.25-3.00-2.58
M. 59-59-59 3.50-4.00-3.69
M 60-60-60 2.88-4.00-3.45
M. 60-60-60 3.50-3.50-3.50
M 60-60-60 2.75-2.75-2.75
M. 48-60-58 2.50-4.00-3.11
M. 60-60-60 4.50-4.50-4.50
M. 54-60-57 1.29-4.00-2.92
M. 60-60-60 2.50-2.50-2.50
4.00-5.00-4.14
3.00-3.00-3.00
60-60-60 2.25-3.00-2.56
53-53-53 3.50-4.00-3.72
60-60-60 2. 50-4.00-2.96
60-60-60 3.50-3.50-3.50
60-60-60 2.75-2.75-2.75
48-60-58 2.50-4.00-2.85
M . 60-60-60 4.00-4.00-4.00
M, 54-60-57 1.80-3.60-2.84
M. 60-60-60 2.50-2.50-2.50
M.
M.
M.
M.
M
M.
M.
M

M
M.
M.
M,
M.
M.
M.
M.
M,
M.
M.

48-60-58

48-60-54 4.00-4. 00-4.00
60-60-60 3.00-3. 00-3.00
60-60-60 2.25-3. 00-2.56
53-53-53 3.50-4. 00-3.71
60-60-60 2.50-3. 50-2.90
60-60-60 3.50-3. 50-3.50
60-60-60 3.00-3. 00-3.00
48-60-58 2.50-4. 00-2.81
60-60-60 2.00-4. 00-2.41
54-72-57 1.25-3. 50-2.40
60-60-60 2.50-2. 50-2.50

48-60-55 4.00-4.00-4.00
60-60-60 3.50-3.50-3.50
60-60-60 2.00-2.50-2.25
53-53-53 3.50-4.00-3. 70
60-60-60 2.40-3.25-2.71
60-60-60 3.50-3.50-3.50
60-60-60 1.50-3.00-2.67
60-60-60 1.50-1. 50-1.50
(0
M. 48-60-58 2.50-3.50-3.13
M. 60-60-60 2.00-4.00-3.33
M 54-60-56 1.67-3.25-2.39
.
M. 60-60-60 2.50-2.50-2.50
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

0)

48-60-56
60-60-60
60-60-60
53-53-53
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
58-60-59

61298°—
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/ 29- -11
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

4.00-4.00-4.00
3. 50-3.50-3.50
2.25-3.00-2.56
3.50-4.00-3. 70
2. 50-3. 25-2. 68
3. 50-3. 50-3. 50
3.50-3.50-3. 50
2.00-2.50-2.25

Hours per• Rate per day
week
(dollars)
1880—Continued.
New York______
Ohio.....................
Pennsylvania____
Virginia---------1881:
California.............
Illinois..................
Louisiana.............
Maryland.............
Massachusetts___
Minnesota....... .
Missouri...............
New Jersey..........
New York______

48-60-59
60-60-60
54-60-57
60-60-60

2.75-3. 50-3.12
3.50-3.75-3.50
1.75-3.50-2.32
2.50-2.50-2.50

M. 48-60-57
M. 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60
M. 48-48-48
M. 60-60-60
M. 59-60-60
M. 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60
M. 48-60-59
M. 59-60-60
Pennsylvania_
_ M. 54-60-57
Virginia................ M. 60-60-60
1882:
California............. M. 48-60-57
Connecticut—
....... M. 60-60-60
Delaware............ M. 50-50-50
Illinois.................. M. 60-60-60
Iow a.......... ........ M. 60-60-60
Louisiana............. M. 60-60-60
Maryland............. M. 4&-4&-48
Massachusetts___ M. 60-60-60
Minnesota............ M. 59-60-60
Missouri—............ M. 60-60-60
New Jersey........... M.
O
New York______ M. 48-60-59
M. 60-60-60
Do.................. (*) 59-60-59
Pennsylvania....... M. 54-60-57
Virginia_________ M. 60-60-60
1883:
California............. M. 48-54-53
Illinois.................. M. 59-60-59
Indiana---------------- M. 60-60-60
Iowa................ . M. 59-60-60
Louisiana............. M. 60-60-60
Maryland----- .. . M. 48-48-48
Massachusetts
M. 60-60-60
Michigan.............. M.
(0
Minnesota............ M. 60-60-60
Missouri____*
___ M. 60-60-60
New Jersey........... M. 60-60-60
New York______ M. 48-60-58
O hio-.................. M. 59-100-61
Pennsylvania....... M. 54-60-57
Texas.................... M. 60-60-60
Virginia................ M. 60-60-60
1884:
California............. M. 48-60-54
Illinois.................. M. 60-60-60
Iowa..................... M. 60-72-60
Louisiana............. M. 60-60-60
Maryland............. M. 48-48-48
Massachusetts___ M. 60-60-60
Michigan.............. M.
0)
Minnesota............ M. 59-60-59
Missouri............... M. 60-60-60
New Jersey........... M. 59-60-59
New York............ M. 53-60-57
Ohio.................... M. 60-60-60
Pennsylvania_
_ M. 54-60-56
Texas.................... M. 60-60-60
Virginia................ M. 60-60-60
1885:
California_______ M. 48-54-52
Illinois................. M. 48-60-48
Kansas.................. M. 60-60-60
Kentucky............. M. 60-60-60
Louisiana............. M. 60-60-60
Maryland............. M. 48-48-48

4.00-4.00-4.00
3. 50-3. 50-3.50
2.75-3.00-2.88
3. 50-4.00-3.67
2.50-3.50-2.83
4.00-5.00-4.55
4.00-4.10-4.04
2.67-4.00-3.28
2. 75-4.50-3.52
2.50-4.00-3.54
2.00-3.50-2.94
2.50-2.50-2.50

M.
M.
M.
M.

4.00-5.50-5.15
3.50-3. 50-3.50
3.00-3.25-3.13
2.68-3.50-3.42
2.50-4.50-3.93
2.25-3.00-2.50
4.00-4.00-4.00
2.25-4.00-3.18
3.25-5.00-4.14
4.00-4.75-4.29
2.75-2.75-2.75
3.50-4.00-3.89
3.50-4.00-3.66
3. 50-4.00-3.75
2.00-4.50-3.07
3.00-3.00-3.00
4.00-5. 50-5.25
3. 50-4.00-3.75

3. 50-3. 67-3. 54

4.00-4. 50-4.17
2.25-3.00-2. 50
4.00-4.00-4.00
2. 25-4.00-3.25
1.25-6.00-3.17
5.00-5.00-5.00
4. 50-4. 50-4.50
2.00-3.00-2.67
3.50-4.00-4.00
2. 50-5.00-3.82
2.25-4.50-3.36
4. 50-5.00-4.75
2.32-3.50-2.78
3.00-5.50-4.22
3.50-5.00-3.53
2.00-10.00-3.66
2.25-3.50-3.42
4.00-4.50-4.25
2.25-4.00-3.20
1.75-4.00-2.93
3.60-5.00-4.16
4.00-4.50-4.47
2.33-4.00-3.05
3.50-4.00-4.00
3.48-4. 50-3.67
2. 50-4.00-3.35
3.50-3.50-3.50
3.50-3.50-3.50
5.00-5.50-5.36
2.80-4.00-3.99
3.50-4.00-3.93
3. 50-3.50-3.50
2.00-3.00-2.50
4.00-4.50-4.04

156

PART 2.— PROM 1840 TO 1928
T a b le B - l . — Bricklayers, 1840-1900, by year and State— Continued
Lowest, highest, and
average—

Year and State

Sex

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Sex

Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)
1886—Continued.

Massachusetts___
Minnesota..........
Missouri .............
New Jersey.........
New York-.........
Ohio....................
Oregon................
Pennsylvania--Virginia..............

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
54-60-54
60-72-61
59-59-59
54-72-60
60-60-60

California............
D o ..............
Dist. of Columbia.
Illinois................
Indiana......... .
Iowa_..................
Kansas...............
Louisiana______
Maryland______
Massachusetts -. _
Minnesota..........
Missouri.............
New York______
O hio................ .
Pennsylvania___
South Carolina_
_
Virginia..............
Wisconsin...........

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

48-60-59 2.30-5.50-3.19
48-48-48 3.50-3.50-3.50
53-58-54 4.50-4.504.50
48-60-52 2.00-4.00-3.76
54-60-57 4.00-4.05-4.03
48-78-59 1.00-6.00-3.12
60-60-60 3.504.50-4.00
60-60-60 2.25-3.00-2.56
48-48 48 3.50-4.00-3.88
58-60-59 2.504.00-3.50
54-66-57 3.60-5.00-4.23
48-48-48 3.60-3.60-3.60
48-60-51 3.004.05-3.59
60-60-60 1.69-4.50-3.54
54-54-54 3.00-4.50-3.72
59-60-60 2.75-5.00-3.88
58-60-59 3.50-4.50-4.17
59-59-59 2.50-2.50-2. 50

California............
Illinois_________
Kansas................
Louisiana............
Maryland...........
Massachusetts__
Michigan.......... .
D o ...............
Minnesota_____
Missouri............
New Jersey-----New York............
North Carolina__
Ohio.....................
Pennsylvania.......
Virginia.. ........ .
Wisconsin.............

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

48-54 53 5.00-5.50-5.39
48-48-48 4.004.00-4.00
60-60-60 4. 00-5.00-4.33
60-60-60 2.25-2.50-2.38
48-48-48 1. 90-5. 50-3. 66
54-60-58 1.75-4. 00-2.94
60-60-60 2.00-4.00-3.15
3.30- .30- .30
0)
60-60-60 5.00-5.00-5.00
48-48-48 2.50-4.00-3.40
2.40-2.40-2.40
0)
53-60-54 3.004.05-3.93
60-66-61 1.50-3.00-2.19
54-60-59 1.50-5.00-3.22
54-60-54 2. 004. 50-3.61
60-60-60 3.00-4.00-3.47
1.50-4.50-2.81
0)

California.............
Georgia.................
Illinois..................
Iowa.....................
Kansas........... ......
Lousiana............. .
Maine. ................
Maryland..... .......
Massachusetts___
Michigan..............
Minnesota............
M issouri.............
New Jersey-----New York_______
North Carolina
Ohio.................
Pennsyl vania..
South Carolina_
_
Tennessee—
Virginia.......

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
0)
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

48-54-53
0)
48-48-48
48-60-57
48-48-48
60-60-60
60-60-60
48-48 48
54-60-56
60-60-60
60-60-60
48-48-48
54-54-54
53-60-55
60-72-64
60-60-60
54-54-54
0)
0)
60-60-60

5.00-5.50-5.42
2.00-2.00-2.00
4.00-4.00-4.00
2.17-4.00-3.17
4.00-5.33-4.84
2.25-2. 50-2.42
3.00-3.50-3.25
4.00-4.00-4.00
2.50-4.50-3.30
1.50-3.26-2.17
5.00-5.00-5.00
4.404.40-4.40
2.50-4.05-3.50
3.00-5.00-3.78
1.00-3.00-1.86
1.75-4.50-3.23
3.15-4.50-3.84
1.00-1.75-1.38
4.00-5.00-4.08
3.00-3.50-3.29

California.
Illinois____
Indiana.......
Kansas........
Louisiana-__
Maryland...

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

48-54-53
48-6049
60-60-60
0)
60-60-60
48-48-48

5.00-6.00-5. 77
3.00-4.00-3. 94
3.50— oO 3. oO
3. —
3.25-3. 25-3.25
2. 25-3.00-2. 58
4.00-4.00-4.00

1886:

1887:

1888:

1889:

1Not reported.



2.75-4.50-3.37
5.00-5.00-5.00
4.50-4. 504.50
3.00-3.25-3.00
3.50-4.00-3.82
1.50-4.50-3.78
6.00-6.00-6.00
2.70-4.50-3.38
3.00-3.50-3.46

Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)
1889—Continued.
Massachusetts___
Minnesota............
Missouri...............
New York............
North Carolina__
Ohio.....................
Pennsylvania____
Tennessee.............
Virginia................
West Virginia.......
Wisconsin............
1890:
California.......... .
Illinois__________
Kansas.................
Louisiana....... ......
Maryland_______
Massachusetts___
Minnesota______
Missouri...............
New York............
Ohio.....................
Pennsylvania.......
Virginia................
1891:
California.......... .
Illinois..................
Louisiana_______
Maryland.............
Massachusetts___
Minnesota______
Missouri________
New York______
Ohio.....................
Pennsylvania____
Virginia... ............
Wisconsin_______
1892:
California............
Illinois__________
Iowa___*_..........
Louisiana....... ......
Maryland.............
Massachusetts___
Michigan............
Minnesota______
Missouri..............
New York______
Ohio............ .......
D o.................
Pennsylvania.......
Virginia................
1893:
California.............
Illinois!....... .........
Louisiana.......... .
Maryland.............
Massachusetts___
Minnesota............
Missouri...............
Montana..............
New York............
Ohio..... ................
Pennsylvania____
Virginia................
Wisconsin_______
1894:
California.............
] Illinois..................
j Iowa____ ______
i Louisiana.............
! Maryland.............
! Massachusetts___
' Minnesota______

2Per hour.

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

54-60-56
60-60-60
48-48-48
48-60-51
60-72-62
60-60-60
54-60-54

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

48-54-53
48-48-48

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

48-54-53
48-48-48
54-54-54
48-48-48
54-60-56
60-60-60
48-48-48
48-60-48
54-60-59
54-54-54
60-60-60

M.
M
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
0)
M.
M.

48-54-53 3.00-6.00-5.02
48-48-48 4.00-4.00-4.00
54-60-55 3. 50-4. 50-3.97
54-54-54 4.05-4.05-4.05
48-48-48 3. 50-4.00-3. 77
54-54-54 3.00-4.05-3. 68
54-60-55 1.00-9.44-3.43
60-60-60 4. 50-4. 50-4. 50
48-54-54 2.82-4. 50-4. 41
48-60-48 3. 50-4.00-4.00
54-60-57 2.00-4.95-3.93
48-72-54 1.25-10.00-4.01
54-54-54 3.60-4.05-3.87
54 54-54 3. 60-3.60-3. 60

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

48-48-48
48-48-48
54-54-54
45-60-50
54-54-54
60-60-60
48-48-48
48-54-48
47-60-49
54-60-59
48-60-54
54-54-54

0)

5.00-5.00-5.00
1. 67-4.00-3.94
4.05-4.05-4.05
. 50-5.00-3.40
3.15-4.05-3. 75
4. 50-4. 50-4. f.0
4. 40-4.40-4. 40
5.00-6.00-5.82
1. 50-4. 50-3. S3
2.00-4. 50-3. 53
1.33-5.00-3.65
3.60-3.60-3.60
2.2 0 - . m - . 33

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

48-48-48
48-48-48
48-66-57
54-54-54
48-48-48
43-54-52
80-60-60

5.00-5.00-5.00
4.00-4.00-4.00
2. 50-4. 67-3. 71
4.05-4.05-4.05
3.50-4.00-3.70
3. 36-4.05-3. 65
4. 50-4. 50-4. 50

66- 66-66

60-60-60
60-60-60

0

0)

60-60-60
48-48-48
54-60-55
60-60-60
48-48-48
48-60-48
54-60-58
54-54-54
60-60-60

0)

3And board.

2.25-3.87-3.46
5.00-5.00-5.00
2.25 4.40-4. 27
3.50-4.05-4. 03
2.00-2. 50-2.30
3.25-5.00-4. 71
2.50-5.50-3. 78
4.00-4.00-4.00
3.50-3.50-3.50
2.50-4. 00-3. 50
1.84-4- 32-3.22
5.00-6. 00-5.83
4.00-4. 00-4 00
2.50-5 •00-4.05
2.00-3. 50-2. 75
3.50-4. 00-3.75
2.50-4. 05-3. 55
2.25-4. 75-3. 93
2.50 6. 00-4. 43
2.00-4. 50-3.98
3.25-4. 95-3.83
3.60-4. 50-3.86
4.00-4. 00-4.00
5.00-6.00-5.81
4.00-4.00-4. 00
4. 05-4.05-4. 05
3.50-4.00-3.72
2. 25-3. 78-3. 51
4. 50-4. 50-4. 50
2.66-4.40-4.12
2.00-4.00-3. 98
3.25-4.95-3. 84
3.604.05-3.99
4.00-4.00-4.00
2 .2 0 - . 70- . 37

157

B.— BUILDING TRADES
T

able

B -l. — Bricklayers, 1840-1900, by year and State— Continued
Lowest, highest, and
average—

Year and State

Sex

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Sex

Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)
1894—Continued.
Missouri......... ....
New York.......
North Carolina_
_
Ohio................
Pennsylvania -_
Virginia...........
1895:
California.........
Illinois.............
Louisiana........
Maryland........
Massachusetts___
Minnesota.......
Missouri..........
New York____
North Carolina—
Ohio................
Pennsylvania..
Virginia...........
1896:
Alabama..........
California.........
Colorado..........
Georgia-..........
Illinois.............
Louisiana.........
Maryland........
Massachusetts___
Minnesota..........
Missouri.............
New York............
North Carolina...
Ohio.__............. .
Pennsylvania___
Rhode Island___
South Carolina__
Virginia.............
1897:
California..........
Illinois...............
Louisiana..........
Maryland..........
Massachusetts -.
Michigan...........
Minnesota.........
Missouri............

48-48-48 4. 40-4.40-4.40
48-48-48 ►4.00-4.00-4.00
60-72-64 1. 25-3.00-2.13
48-60-59 1.63-4. 50-2. 59
54-54-54 3.00-4.25-3. 26
54-54-54 3.60-3.60-3.60
48-48-48
48-48-48
54-54-54
48-48-48
48-48-48
60-60-60
48-48-48
48-48-48
60-66-61
48-72-60
54-54-54
54-54-54

5.00-5.00-5.00
4.00-4.00-4.00
4.05-4.05-4.05
3.00-3.00-3.00
2.40-3. 60-3.34
4. 50-4. 50-4.50
2.70-5. 50-4. 51
4.00-4.00-4.00
1. 50-3.00-2. 27
1. 50-5.00-3.07
3.00-4.05- 3. 56
3.60-3.60-3.60

(0

3.00-3.00-3.00
5.00-5.00-5.00
4.00-4.00-4.00
. 75-3.00-1.86
2.004.00-3.98
3.15-3. 60-3.38
2.99-3. 50-3.02
2.40-7. 70-3.87
4. 50-4. 50-4. 50
4.40-4. 40-4.40
1.04-4. 00-3.97
1.00-2. 50-1.88
1.85-3.75-3.41
2.50-5.49-4. 30

48-48-48
48-48-48

0)

48-48-48
54-54-54
48-54-53
48-84-50
60-60-60
48-48-48
48-6048
60-72-62
48-60-56
50-60-52
60-60-60
66- 66-66

0)
54-54-54

2.00-2.00-2.00
2.25-2. 25-2. 25
2.00-3.33-2.79
3.15-3.15-3.15

5.00-5.00-5.00
4.00-4.00-4.00
3.15-3.60-3.40
3.00-3.00-3.00
2.40-4.00-3.45
0) 2.45- .45- .45
60-60-60 4. 50-4. 50-4. 50
48-48-48 4.40-4.40-4.40
48-48-48
48-48-48
54-54-54
53-53-53
48-48-48

Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)
1897—Continued.

Montana............
Nebraska_______
New York______
O hio............ ......
Do................
Pennsylvania___
Virginia— .......... .

2.73-2.73-2.73
0)
48-54-48 2.25-4.00-3.93
48-48-48 4.00-4.00-4.00
48-48-48 3. 20-3. 20-3.20
54r-60-60 1.50-8.10-3.02
54-54-54 2.70-4.05-3. 54
54-54-54 2.50-2.50-2.50

California............
Illinois....... ......... .
Kansas---------Louisiana............
Maryland— ........
Massachusetts—
Michigan............ .
Minnesota______
Missouri.............
Nebraska............ .
New York...........
Ohio.....................
Pennsylvania___
Virginia................
Do----------

48-48-48 5.00-5.00-5.00
48-48-48 4.00-4.00-4.00
48-54r-52 3.20-4. 50-4.07
54-54-54 3.15-3.60-3.38
53-53-53 3.00-3.00-3.00
48-48-48 3.20-4.40-3.41
2.37-3.60-3.41
0)
54-54-54 4. 50-4. 50-4. 50
48-48-48 3.20-3.20-3.20
42-60-56 . 75-5.00-2.93
48-48-48 4.00-4.00-4.00
48-48-48 3.00-4.00-3.42
44-54-48 1.90-3.83-2. 89
54-54-54 2. 25-2. 25-2. 25
54-54-54 4.00-4.00-4.00

Alabama______
_
California.............
Georgia.—.......... .
Illinois.................
Massachusetts_
_
Montana-------New Jersey......... .
New York............
North Carolina— .
Ohio.....................
Pennsylvania___

50-60-50
48-48-48
60-60-60
48-48-48
48-48-48
48-48-48
53-53-53
44-54-47
48-84-61
60-60-60
48-48-48

4.05-4.40-4.05
4.00-5.00-4, 75
1.75-2.25-2.11
4. 50-4. 50-4. 50
3.60-3.60-3.60

Alabama_______
California_______
Georgia— .......... .
Illinois..................
Massachusetts_
_
Montana............ .
New Jersey......... .
New York............
North Carolina— .
Ohio.....................
Pennsylvania___

54-54-54
48-48-48
60-60-60
48-48-48
48-48-48
48-48-48
53-53-53
44-54r47
60-60-60
60-60-60
48-48-48

4.05-4.40-4.05
4. 00-5.00-4. 74
2.00-3.00-2.38
4.50-4.50-4.50
3. 60-3.60-3.60

1898:

1899:

1900:

1 Not reported.

6.00-6.00-6.00

3.09-3.09-30.9
3.20-4.03-3. 50
1.25-3.00-2.17
1.82-4. 68-3.47
2.15-4.60-3.56

6.00-6.00-6.00

3. 53-3. 53-3. 53
3.20-4.03-3.53
1.75-3.00-2. 29
2.75-4.25-3.63
4.004.00-4.00

%Per hour.

T a b l e B - 2 . — Bricklayers, males, 1890-1928, by city and year
Atlanta, Ga.
Year

1890...........................
1891...........................
1892...........................
1893...........................
1894...........................
1895...........................
1896...........................
1897.......... ........ .......
1898...........................
1899-............... .........
1900.................. .........
1901..........................
1902........................ .

1903........._.......... ,___j

Birmingham, Ala.

Boston, Mass.

Chicago, 111.

Hours
Rate
Hours
Hours
Rate
Hours
Rate
Rate
per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour
60.0
60.0
„ 60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
57.7



$0,230
.230
.225
.225
.225
.236
.257
.257
.267
.267
.292
.292
.313
.380

59.9
59.8
59.7
59.3
59.7
58.6
59.1
58.2
58.4
57.8
59.3
58.7
48.0
48.0

$0,496
.493
.445
.393
.303
.314
.272
.327
.327
.339
.314
.367
.539
.500

53.8
53.8
50.9
49.4
48.8
48.1
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0

$0,398
.427
.431
.441
.450
.448
.449
.457
.466
.475
.480
.505
.503
.525

48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
46.5
46.2
46.3
46.3
46.2
46.2
44.0

$0,500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.550
.600

158
T

PART 2.— FROM 1840 TO 1928
able

B -2 .— Bricklayers, males, 1890-1928, by city and year— Continued
Atlanta, Ga.

Year

1904.
1905.
1906.
1907.
1908.
1909.
1910.
1911.
1912.
1913.
1914.
1915.
1916.
1917.
1918.
1919.
1920.
1921.
1922.
1923.
1924.
1925.
1926.
1927.
1928.

1900..
1901..
1902..
1903..
1904..
1905..
1906..
1907..
1908..
1909..
3910..
1911..
1912„.
1913..
1914..
1915..
1916..
1917..
1918..
1919..
1920_.
1921..
1922..
1923..
1924..
1925..
1926..
1927..
1928..

57.4
55.3
56.0
53.0
53.0
53.0
53.0
53.0
53.0
53.0
50.0
50.0
50.0
50.0
50.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0,404
.445
.462
.400
.450
.450
.450
.450
.450
.450
.4.50
.450
.500
.600
.600
.700
1.125

49.1
48.5
48.6
4S.4
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
45.0
45.0
45.0
45.0
45.0
45.0
45.0
45.0
45.0
45.0
45.0
45.0
45.0
45.0
45.0
45.0
45.0
45.0
45.0
45.0
45.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

48.0
48.0
49.7

10.491
.497
.604

10
.0 0
10
.0 0

1.125
1.250
1.250
1.400
1.400
1.400

$0,495
.504
.505
.500
.563
.563
.650
.453
.456
.473
.500
.518
.563
.563
.600
.617
.621
.600
.600
.600
.625
.625
.650
.650
.650
.700
.700
.750
.900
.900
1.250
1.250
1.250
1.250
1.500
1.500
1.625
1.625
1.625

44.0
44.0

1.500
1.500

Denver, Colo.
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

144 hours, June 15 to Sept. 15.
2 44 hours, October to April, both inclusive.
3 48 hours, November to April, both inclusive.
* 48 hours, December to February, both inclusive.




Boston, Mass.

Chicago, HI.

Hours
Hours
Rate
Rate
Rate
Hours
Rate
Hours
per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour

Cincinnati, Ohio
1890..
1891..
1892..
1893..
1894..
18951896..
1897..

Birmingham, Ala.

$0,625
.625
.625
.625
.375
.375
.375
.469
.625
.625
.625
.625
.638
.665
.641
.639
.703
.750
.750
.750
.750
.750
.750
.750
.750
.750
.875
.875

10
.0 0
10
.0 0
1.250
1.250
1.250
1.375
1.500
1.500
1.500
1.500
1.500

48.0
48.0
47.7
*44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0.537
.550
.589
.600
.600
.600
.600
.600
.600
.650
.650
.650
.650
.700
.800
.800

10
.0 0
10
.0 0
10
.0 0
1.2.50
1.250
1.250
1.400
1.400
1.400

Detroit, Mich.
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
148.0
148.0
148.0
2 48.0
3 44.0
3 44.0
4 44.0
4 44.0
4 44.0
4 44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

.389
.389
.346
.308
.391
.400
.391
.375
.400
.450
.450
.514
.530
.500
.550
.572
.575
.600
.600
.625
.625
.625
.650
.650
.650
.700
.750
.800
.900
1.250

10
.0 0
10
.0 0
1.350
1.500
1.500
1.500
1.575
1.575

45.1
45.5
45.2
48.0
48.0
48.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

.630
.627
.625
.625
.(575
.675
.675
.725
.750
.750
.750
.750
.750
750
.875
1.250
1.250

10
.1 0
10
.1 0
1.250
1.500
1.500
1.625
1.625

New Orleans, La.
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
51.2
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0,397
.388
.395
.409
.409
.378
.356
.450
.474
.500
.500
.625
.625
.625
.629
.625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.750

10
.0 0
10
.0 0
10
.0 0
10
.0 0
1.250
1.250
1.250
1.250
1.500

159

B.-— BUILDING TRADES

T a b l e B -2 .— Bricklayers, males, 1890-1928, by city and year— Continued
New York, N. Y.«
Year

Philadelphia, Pa.

St. Louis, Mo.

San Francisco, Calif.

Hours
Hours
Hours
Rate
Rate
Rate
Hours
Rate
per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour
49.6
49.3
48.0
47.7
47.9
47.5
47.9
48.0
47.6
44.8
44.4
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

18901891..
1892189318941895189618971898189919001901190219031904190519061907190819091910191119121913191419151916191719181919192019211922192319241925192619271928-

$0,471
.473
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.550
.562
.590
.648
.637
.650
.700
.700
.700
.700
.700
.700
.700
.700
.700
.750
.750
.750
.750
.813
.875
1.250
1.250
1.250
1.500
1.500
1.500
1.750
1.750
1.750

50.4
50.1
50.2
50.1
50.1
50.2
50.2
50.2
45.8
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
6 44.0
#44.0
6 44.0
40.0
40.0

$0.447
.450
.449
.449
.450
.449
.449
.448
.403
.463
.494
.496
.550
.600
.600
.600
.625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.650
.650
.650
.700
.800
.800
1.300
1.300
1.250
1.375
1.500
1.500
1.625
1.625
1.625

53.5
53.7
54.1
52.6
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
46.6
45.9
45.8
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0,481
.478
.463
.450
.493
.491
.502
.504
.457
.533
.550
.550
.582
.642
.658
.708
.737
.650
.650
.650
.700
.700
.700
.700
.750
.750
.750
.750
.850

10
.0 0
1.250
1.250
1.250
1.500
1.750
1.750
1.750
1. 750
1.750

49.7
49.6
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
45.6
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0; 637
.036
.625
.625
.625
. 625
.625
.625'
.625
.625
.625
.625
.640
.759
.750
.750
.889
.875
.875
.875
.875
.875
.875
.875
.875
.875
.875
.875

10
.0 0

1.125
1.250
1.250
1.250
1.375
1.375
1.375
1.375
1.375
1.375

8 Greater New York, 1903-1907.
« Full holiday on Saturday, June to September, inclusive.
T a b l e B -3 .— Carpenters and joiners, 1840-1900, by year and State
Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

1840:
Connecticut___
Massachusetts___
New York____
Pennsylvania...
1841:
Connecticut____
Massachusetts___
New York______
Pennsylvania___
1842:
Connecticut____
Massachusetts__
New York..........
Pennsylvania___
1843:
Connecticut........
Massachusetts__
New York_____
Pennsylvania___


Sex

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Sex

Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)



60-60-60
60-84-65
60-60-60
60-60-60

1.25-1.62-1.46
1.17-1.67-1.25
1.13-1.50-1.29
1.00-1.25-1.20

60-60-60
60-84-65
60-60-60
60-60-60

1.25-1.62-1.46
1.17-1.67-1.28
1.25-1.75-1.50
1.25-1.25-1.25

60-60-60
60-84-71
60-60-60
60-60-60

1.37-1.50-1.43
. 88-1.67-1.28
1.25-1.75-1. 50
1.25-1.25-1.25

60-60-60
60-84-63
60-60-60
60-60-60

1.37-1.62-1.50
. 91-1.75-1.29
1.00-1. 50-1.33
1.25rl. 25-1.25

Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)
1844:
Connecticut..........
Massachusetts___
New York______
Pennsylvania.......
1845:
Connecticut..........
Massachusetts___
New York............
Pennsylvania____
1846:
Connecticut..........
Massachusetts___
New York______
Pennsylvania.......
1847:
Connecticut..........
M assachusetts
New York............
Pennsylvania.......

M. 60-60-60
M i 60-84-68
M. 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60

1.37-1.62-1.50
.91-1.50-1.27
1.25-1.75-1.50
1.25-1.25-1.25

M.
M.
M.
M.

60-60-60
60-84-69
60-72-61
60-60-60

1.25-1.62-1.44
1.00-1.58-1.22
1.00-1.75-1. 55
1.25-1.25-1.25

M.
M.
M.
M.

60-60-60
60-84-65
60-60-60
60-60-60

1.37-1.62-1. 50
1.00-1.67-1.29
1.00-2.00-1.76
1.25-1.25-1.25

M.
M.
M.
M.

60-60-60
60-84-69
60-60-60
60-60-60

1.37-1.62-1. 50
.60-1.50-1.28
1.00-2.00-1.72
1.25-1.50-1.47

160
T able

PART 2.— PROM 1840 TO 1928
B— .—Carpenters and joiners, 1840-1900, by year and State— Continued
3
Lowest, highest, and
average—

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Sex

Year and State

Sex
Hours per Rate per day
(dollars)
week

Hours per Rate per day
(dollars)
week
1848:
Connecticut____
Massachusetts-..
New Jersey____
New York_____
Pennsylvania___
1849:
Connecticut...... .
Massachusetts. _.
New York..........
Pennsylvania_
_
1850:
Connecticut---Massachusetts. _.
New York..........
Pennsylvania—
1851:
Connecticut........
Massachusetts-..
New York.........
Pennsylvania_
_
1852:
Connecticut____
Massachusetts. .
New York.........
Pennsylvania__
1853:
Connecticut......
Massachusetts -.
New York.........
Pennsylvania.—
1854:
Connecticut......
Maryland..........
Massachusetts..
New York_____
Pennsylvania-..
1855:
Connecticut......
Maryland-........
Massachusetts-New Jersey---New York_____
Pennsylvania. . .
1856:
Connecticut......
Maryland..........
Massachusetts- New York.........
Ohio..................
Pennsylvania.._
1857:
Connecticut___
Maryland-........
Massachusetts. .
New York.........
Ohio..................
Pennsylvania...
1858:
Connecticut......
Maryland.........
Massachusetts-.
New York.........
O hio................
Pennsylvania.
1859:
Connecticut......
Illinois...............
Maryland_____
MassachusettsNew Jersey___
New York____
Ohio..... ............
Pennsylvania...

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

60-60-60
60-84-65

M.
M.
M.
M.

60-60-60
75-84-80
60-72-62
60-60-60

M.
M.
M.
M.

60-60-60
60-84-66
60-60-60
60-60-60

M.
M.
M.
M.

60-60-60
60-84-68
60-60-60
60-60-60

M.
M.
M.
M.

60-60-60
60-78-63
60-60-60
60-60-60

M.
M.
M.
M.

60-60-430
60-78-67
60-60-60
60-60-60

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

60-60-60
60-60-60
60-78-64
60-60-60
60-60-60

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

60-60-60
60-60-60
60-72-62
60-72-68
60-72-60
60-60-60

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

60-60-60
60-60-60
60-72-64
60-72-60
60-60-60
60-60-60

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M,

60-60-60
60-60-60
60-72-62
60-72-60
60-60-60
60-60-60




<)
*
60-60-60
60-60-60

60-72-62
60-60-60
60-78-64
60-72-60
M 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60
M,
M,
M,
M,

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

60-72-61
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-78-63
60-60-60
60-72-60
60-60-60
60-60-60

1860:
Connecticut—
M.
M.
Maryland—
Massachusetts___ M.
New York.......... M.
Ohio................ ... M.
Pennsylvania___ M.
1.25-1.62-1.44 1861:
Connecticut____ M.
. 75-L 58-1.31
Massachusetts_
_ M.
1.35-2.00-1.74
New York........... M.
1.25-1. 50-1.43
Ohio.................... M.
Pennsylvania___ M.
1.37-1.75-1. 58 1862:
. 60-2.00-1.33
Connecticut........ M.
1.00-2.00-1. 71
Massachusetts--- M.
1.25-1. 50-1.44
M,
New York__
M,
Ohio.............
1.37-1.75-1.60
M.
Pennsylvania
. 75-2.00-1.30 1863:
1.00-2.00-1.74
Connecticut........ . M.
1.25-1. 50-1.44
M.
Maryland_
_
Massachusetts___ M.
1.37-1.75-1.60
M.
New York_
_
. 75-1. 50-1.30
M.
Ohio.............
1.00-2.00-1.80
M.
Pennsylvania.
1.25-1.50-1.45 1864:
M.
Connecticut..
1.50-1.75-1.67
M.
_
Maryland_
1.00-1.73-1.30
Massachusetts___ M.
1.0 -2 0 .8
0 .0 -1 8 New Jersey.......... M.
1. 25-1.50-1.48
New York............ M.
Ohio........ ............ M.
1.75-2.00-1.88
Pennsylvania___ M.
1. 38-1.38-1.38 1865:
1.00-1.83-1.38
Connecticut— __ M.
.
1.00-2.25-1.89
Maryland______ M.
1. 50-1.50-1. 50
Massachusetts_ M.
_
New Jersey.......... M.
L 25-L 75-L 50
New York........... M.
1. 38-1.38-1.38
Ohio................... M.
1.00-2. 50-1.42
Pennsylvania---- M .
1. 50-1. 50-1. 50 1866:
2. 25-1.25-1.85
Connecticut.......... M.
1. 50-1. 50-1.50
Maryland........... . M.
Massachusetts_ M.
_
1.37-1. 50-1.46
New Jersey------ M.
1.38-1.38-1.38
New York.......... . M.
1.08-1.75-1.40
Ohio..... ............... M.
1.13-2.25-1.76
Pennsylvania___ M.
1. 50-1. 50-1.50 1867:
1.50-1.50-1.50
Connecticut........ M.
Georgia.............. M.
1. 50-2.00-1.69
Maryland........... M.
1.38-1.38-1.38
Massachusetts___ M.
M.
1.00-2. 50-1.37
New Jersey. .
1.25-2.25-1.79
M.
New Y ork...
1.50-1. 50-1.50
M.
Ohio.............
M.
1.50-1.50-1.50
Pennsylvania

1.25-1.62-1.44
. 60-1.63-1.32
1. 25-1.25-1. 25
1.00-2.50-1.71
1.25-1.50-1.48

1.25-2.00-1.50
1.38-1.3S-1.38
1.00-2.75-1.34
1.25-2.50-1.85
1. 50-1. 50-1. 50
1.50-1.50-1.50
1. 50-1.75-1.67

2.00-2.00-2.00
1.38-1.38-1.38
1.00-1. 75-1.38
1. 50-1. 50-1.50
1.13-3. 50-1.90
1. 50-1. 50-1. 50
1.50-1.75-1.58

1Not reported.

Connecticut...
Maryland.___
Massachusetts_
_
New Jersey__
New York___
O hio.............
Pennsylvania.
1869:
Connecticut__
Maryland.......
Massachusetts -..
New Jersey...
New York___
Ohio..... .........
Pennsylvania___

60-72-61
60-60-60
60-78-63
60-72-60
60-60-60
60-60-60

1.25-1.75-1.65
1.38-1.38-1.38
1.00-3.00-1.35
1.00-2.50-1.90
1.00-1.67-1. 39
1.75-1.75-1.75

60-60-60
60-78-63
60-72-60
60-60-60
60-60-60

1.25-1.75-1.50
1.00-1.83-1.40
1. 25-2.50-1.91
1. 50-1.63-1. 57
1.75-2.00-1.89

60-60-60
60-72-62
60-72-60
60-60-60
60-60-60

1.25-1.75-1.48
1.00-3.00-1.36
1.25-2.50-1.89
1. 50-1.63-1.57
1.75-2.50-2.21

60-72-60
60-60-60
60-72-62
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60

1.50-2.50-1.86
1. 50-1.75-1.69
1-00-3.00-1.40
1.34-2.50-1.97
1.75-1.75-1.75
1.25-3.00-2.44

60-72-60
60-60-60
60-72-63
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60

1.63-3. 00-2.05
1.50-2. 25-2.07
1 0 . 50-1.65
.1 -2

2 0 . 0 -2 0
.0 -2 0 .0
1.34-3. 00-2.70
2. 25-2. 25-2.25
2.25-3. 00-2.52

1. 62-3.00-2.25
1.67-2. 50-2.33
1.42-3.00-2.14

60-60-60
60-60-60
60-72-61
60-60-60
60-72-60
60-60-60
60-60-60

1.67-3.25-2.90
2. 50-2.50-2. 50
2-25-2.50-2.39

60-66-61
60-60-60
60-72-62
60-60-60
60-72-60
60-60-60
60-60-60

2.25-3.00-2.63
1.67-2.75-2. 52
1.33-4.00-2.03
2.30-2.30-2.30
1.75-3.50-3.19
3.00-3.00-3.00
2.50-2.75-2.57

2.00-2.00-2.00

2.75-3.25-3.03
1.25-1.75-1.50
60-60-60 ic67-3.00-2.67
1.50-4.00-2.42
60-72-62
60-60-60 2.50-2.50-2.50
60-72-60 1.67-3.75-3.27
60-60-60 2.50-2.50-2.50
60-60-60 2 . 50-2.75-2.59
60-60-60
66- 66-66

M
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M,

60-60-60 2.25-3.25-3- 05
60-60-60 1.67-3.25-2.84
60-66-62 L 25-4.00-2.23
60-60-60 2. 50-2.50-2.50
60-72-60 1.50-4.00-3. 58
60-60-60 % 50-2.50-2. 50
60-60-60 2.50-2.75-2.60

M.
M,
M.
M.
M.
M.

60-60-60
60-60-60
60-66-62
60-60-60
59-72-60
60-60-60
60-60-60

M

* And board.

2.00-4.00-2.98
1.67-3.25-2.73
1.25-3.00-2.22
2.50-2. 50-2.50
1. 75-4.00-3.63
2.25-2.25-2.25
2.00-2.75-2.57

161

B .— BUILDING TRADES

T a b le B -3.— Carpenters and joiners, 1840-1900, by year and State— Continued
Lowest, highest, and

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Year and State

Sex

'Sex
Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)

Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)
1870:
California..........
Connecticut........
Illinois................
Louisiana............
Maryland...........
Massachusetts...
Minnesota..........
Missouri.............
New Jersey.........
New York...........
O hio..................
Pennsylvania___
Virginia...............
1871:
California............
Connecticut____
Illinois................
Louisiana............
Maryland...........
Massachusetts- __
Minnesota..........
Missouri.............
New Jersey.........
New York...........
Ohio....................
Pennsylvania___
Rhode Island___
Virginia...............
1872:
California............
Connecticut____
Illinois................
Louisiana............
Maryland...........
Massachusetts.. .
Minnesota..........
Missouri.............
New Hampshire .
New Jersey.........
New York......... .
Ohio....................
Pennsylvania___
South Carolina...
Virginia..............
1873:
California............
Connecticut—
___
Illinois................
Louisiana............
Maryland...........
Massachusetts - __
Minnesota...........
Missouri.............
New Hampshire.
New Jersey.........
New York...........
Ohio....................
Pennsylvania___
Virginia...............
1874:
California............
Connecticut........
Illinois................
Louisiana............
Maryland...........
Massachusetts-. Minnesota..........
Missouri.............
New HampshireNew Jersey.........
New York______
Ohio._................
Pennsylvania___
Virginia-.............

M. 60-60-60 3.50-4.00-3.83
M. 60-60-60 1.75-4.00-2.77
M. 60-60-60 2. 50-3.00-2. 58

M. 64-54-64 2.50-3.50-2.88

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

60-60-60
60-66-62
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
69-72-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60

1.67-3.00-2.58
1.16-3.50-2.34
1.75-2.00-1.94
3.50-3.50-3.50
2. 50-2. 50-2.50
2.00-3. 75-3.38
1.80-3.25-2.45
2.00-3.50-2.67
2.00-2.75-2.27

M. 60-60-60 3.50-4.00-3.77
M. 60-66-60 1. 75-3. 50-2. 79

M. 60-60-60 2.30-3.00-2.89

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

54-54-54
60-60-60
63-66-61
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
59-72-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60

2. 50-3. 50-2.89
1.67-3.00-2. 58
1.33-3.50-2.45
1.75-2.00-1.94
3. 50-3.50-3.50
2. 50-2. 50-2.50
2.00-3.75-3.39
1.80-3.50-2.50
2.00-3.50-2.70

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

60-60-60
60-66-61
60-60-60
64-54-54
60-60-60
60-66-61
60-60-60
60-60-60
72-72-72
60-60-60
54-72-57
60-60-60
60-60-60
72-72-72
60-60-60

3.50-4.00-3.76
2.00-3.50-2.73
2.40-3.15-2.82
2.50-3.00-2.86
1.67-3. 00-2.56
1. 50-4.50-2.51
1. 75-2.00-1.85
3.50-3. 50-3.50
2.50-2. 50-2.50
1.75-3. 75-3.25
1.83-3.50-2.52
2.00-3.50-2.69
1.75-1.75-1.75
2.25-2.75-2.43

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

60-60-60
60-66-60
60-60-60
54-54-54
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
72-72-72
60-60-60
54-72-57
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60

3.50-4.00-3.71
2. 50-4.50-3.04
2. 50-3.15-2. 56
2.50-3.50-2.87
1.67-3.00-2.05
1. 25-3.25-2.40
1.75-2.00-1.84
3.50-3.50-3.50
2.25-2.25-2.25
2.50-3.00-2.90
1.75-4.00-3.28
1.90-3.25-2.67
2.00-4.00-2.31
2.00-2.75-2.49

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

60-60-60
60-66-60
60-60-60
54-54-54
60-60-60
60-66-61
60-60-60
60-60-60
72-72-72
60-60-60
54-72-57
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60

3.50-4.00-3.63
2.00-4.50-2.89
2.00-2.60-2.21
2.50-3.25-2.80
1.67-2.75-2.16
1.25-4.50-2.33
1.75-2.00-1.86
3.50-3.50-3.50
2.25-2.25-2.25
2.67-2.67-2.67
1.75-4.00-3.30
1.90-3.00-2.50
1.08-3.67-2.15
2.00-2.75-2.41

2.00-2.00-2.00

2.00-2.75-2.23

2. 25-2. 25-2. 25

1Not reported.



1875:
California.........
M.
Connecticut_
_
M.
Illinois.............
M.
Louisiana.........
M.
Maryland........
M.
Massachusetts___ M.
M.
Minnesota.......
Missouri.......... _ M.
New Hampshire- - M.
New Jersey......... M.
New York______ M.
Ohio.................... M.
Pennsylvania___ M.
Rhode Island___ M.
Virginia............... M.
1876:
California.—....... M.
Connecticut____ M.
Illinois_________ M.
Louisiana............ M.
Maryland........... M.
Massachusetts_ M.
_
Minnesota............ M.
Missouri______
M.
New Hampshire-. M.
New Jersey.......
M.
New York......... M.
North Carolina- M.
M.
Ohio..................
M.
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island..- M.
M.
Virginia.............
1877:
California..........
M.
Connecticut___
M.
Georgia.............. M.
Illinois............... M.
Louisiana_____
M.
Maryland.......... M.
Massachusetts-. M.
Minnesota......... M.
Missouri.-............ M.
New Hampshire-- M.
New Jersey_____ M.
New York____
M.
Ohio................
M.
M.
Pennsylvania-.
Do----------- M.
M.
Rhode Island-.
Virginia............
M.
1878:
California.........
M.
Connecticut_
_
M.
Georgia............
M.
Illinois.......... .
M.
Louisiana.........
M.
Maryland........ . M.
Massachusetts___ M.
Minnesota............ M.
Missouri.........
M.
New Hampshire-. M.
New Jersey......... M.
New York______ M.
Ohio..................... M.
Pennsylvania___ M.
Virginia— .......... . M.
1879:
California............. M.
Connecticut........ . M.
Illinois................ . M.
Louisiana............ M.
Maryland........... M.
Massachusetts_ M.
_
Minnesota.......... . M.

* Per hour.

60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
54-54-54
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
72-72-72
60-60-60
54-72-57
60-60-60
60-72-61
60-60-60
60-60-60

3.50-3.50-3.50
2.00-3.50-2.68
2.00-2.70-2.21
2.50-3. 25-2.81
1.67-2. 75-2.12
1.50-3.00-2.15
1.75-2.00-1.85
3. 50-3.50-3.50
2. 25-2. 25-2. 25
2.67-2.67-2.67
1.55-3.75-3.10
1.67-3.00-2.46
1.63-3.67-2.05
2. 25-2.25-2. 25
2.00-2. 75-2.46

54-60-56
60-66-60
60-60-60
54-54-54
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
72-72-72
60-60-60
54-72-57
60-60-60
60-60-60
48-66-57
60-60-60
60-60-60

3.50-3.50-3. 50
1.75-3.50-2. 51
2.00-2.40-2.15
2.50-3.25-2.68
1.67-3.00-2.05
1.40-2.75-2.08
1.75-2.00-1.86
3.50-3.50-3.50
2. 25-2. 25-2. 25
2.67-2.67-2.67
1.75-3.75-2.92
1.50-1.50-1. 50
1.86-2.75-2.45
1.10-3.67-2.02
2. 50-2.50-2. 50
2.00-2.75-2.52

54-60-55
60-60-60
66- 66-66
60-60-60

3.50-3.50-3.50
1.75-2.75-2. 20
2. 25-2.25-2. 25
2.20-2.50-2. 24
2. 50-3. 25-2.68
1.50-3.00-2.06
1.39-2.50-1.81
1.75-2.00-1.86
3.50-3.50-3.50
2. 25-2. 25-2.25
1.00-2.67-1.80
1.50-3. 50-2.85
1.17-4.00-2.04
1.25-3.00-2.15

54-54-54

60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
72-72-72
53-60-55
54-72-57
60-84-65
48-72-58

0)

3.22- . 2 - . 2
2 2

54-60-56
60-72-66
60-60-60
54-54-54
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
48-48-48
72-72-72
60-60-60
54-72-56
48-60-60
48-72-59
60-60-60

3.50-3.50-3.50
2.00-3.00-2.53
1.75-2.42-2.08
2.00-2.40-2.14
2.50-3.25-2.69
1.25-2.50-1.93
1.39-2.75-1.82
2.00-2.25-2.10
2.80-2.80-2.80
2.25-2.25-2.25
1.75-2.67-1.93
1.50-3.50-2.93
1.10-2.75-1.91
.80-3.00-1.87
1.25-2.00-1.58

54-60-56
60-66-61
60-60-60
54-64-54
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60

3.50-3.50-3.50
1.75-2.75-2.04
2.00-2.40-2.24
2.50-3.00-2.69
1.25-2. 50-2.09
1.00-2.75-1.91
2.00-2.25-2.10

60-60-60
60-60-60

66- 66-66

1.25-2.00-1.63
1.50-2.25-1.87

162

PART 2.— FROM 1840 TO 1928

Table B -3 . — Carpenters and joiners, 1840-1900, by year and State— Continued
Lowest, highest, and
Year and State

Sex

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Sex

Hours per Rate per day
(dollars)
week
1879—Continued.
Missouri..............
New Hampshire..
New Jersey......... .
New York............
Ohio.....................
Pennsylvania- Do.............
D o.._........
Virginia...........
1880:
California.........
Connecticut___
Georgia............
Illinois.............
Louisiana.........
Maryland........
Massachusetts--Minnesota.........
Missouri..........
New Hampshire
New Jersey.......
New York............
North Carolina-.
Ohio....................
Pennsylvania___
Rhode Island___
Virginia..............
1881:
California............
Connecticut____
Georgia---- ---Illinois................
Louisiana.............
Maryland____
Massachusetts___
Michigan.----Minnesota....... .
Missouri________
New Hampshire.New Jersey..........
New York_____
Ohio.................. .
Pennsylvania___
Rhode Island___
South Carolina...
Virginia..............
1882:
California.......... .
Connecticut____
Georgia.............
Illinois...............
Louisiana______
Maine____ ____
Maryland______
Massachusetts___
Minnesota______
Missouri..... .........
New Hampshire. _
New Jersey.........
New York...........
North Carolina. _
Ohio....................
Do.................
Pennsylvania___
Rhode Island___
South Carolina—
Virginia...............
1883:
Alabama.............
California...........
Connecticut........
Georgia...............
Illinois.................
Louisiana............

1.17-2.80-2.19
2.00-2.00-2.00
. 70-3.00-1.66
1.50-3.50-2.90
1.50-3.75-2.00
. 60-3.00-1.68
2 2.25-2.25-2.25
*. 77- . 77- . 77
8
60-60-60 1.25-1.75-1.50

48-60-51
72-72-72
50-60-58
54-72-56
60-60-60
54-78-60

54-60-57
60-66-61
43-60-56
54-54-54
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
48-48-48
72-72-72
54-84-60
54-72-57
60-60-60
60-60-60
50-66-60
60-60-60
60-60-60

3.50-3. 50-3.50
2 0 . 75-2.15
.0 -2
1. 50-2. 00-1.76
1. 56-2. 50-2.03
2.00-3. 00-2.67
1. 75-2. 50-2.12
1.25-2. 75-1.90
2 0 . 25-2.11
.0 -2
2.80-2. 80-2.80

2 0 . 00 2.00
.0 -2
-

1.00-3. 00-1.54
1. 50-4. 00-2.96
1.50-1. 50-1.50
1.25-2. 75-1.99
.90-3. 00-2.28
1. 25-2. 25-1.77
1.13-1. 75-1.42

60-60-60
54-54-54
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
48-60-60
65-72-65
60-60-60
54-72-58
59-72-60
60-72-60
60-60-60
72-72-72
60-60-60

3.00-3. 50-3.45
1.75-2. 75-2.33
1.50-1. 50-1.50
2 0 . 50-2.37
.0 -2
2.25-3. 00-2.48
1.50-2. 50-2.17
1.35-2. 75-2.12
1. 75-1. 75-1.75
2. 25-2. 50-2.35
2.25-2, 80-2.40
; 75-2. 50-1.80
1.75-2. 50-2.11
1.50-3. 50-2.87
1.00-3. 47-2.10
1.70-3. 17-2.21
1.25-2. 25-1.81
1.25-1. 27-1.26
1.25-2. 25-1.75

54-60-57
60-66-61
72-72-72
60-60-60
54-54-54
66- 66-66
60-60-60
59-60-60
60-60-60
48-60-54
66-72-67
60-72-63
54-72-58
60-60-60
60-60-60
54-75-60
45-66-60
60-60-60
61-69-66
60-60-60

3.00-3. 50-3.42
2.17-2. 75-2.49
1.50-1. 50-1.50
1.15-2. 50-2.04
2. 25-2. 75-2.50
1.50-1. 50-1.50
1.67-2. 75-2. 34
1.35-3. 00-2.08
2. 25-2. 50-2. 35
1.67-3. 25-2.75
1. 75-2. 10-1.98
2 0 . 50-2.14
.0 -2
1.50-3. 50-3.08
1. 25-1. 25-1.25
1. 60-3. 17-2.35
1. 25-3. 00-1.91
1.25-4. 00-2.63
1. 25-2. 50-2.00
1.25-2. 00-1. 53
1. 25-2. 25-1.77

0)

1.00-1. 50-1.25
3.00-3.50-3.30
2.17-3.50-2.57
2.00-2. 75-2. 21
2.00-2.50-2.33
2.25-2.75-2.54

54-60-56
60-60-60
66- 66-66

54-60-56
60-66-60
66- 66-66

60-60-60
54-54-54

1Not reported.



Hours per Rato per day
week
(dollars)
1883—
-Continued.
Maryland........... . M.
Massachusetts___ M.
Michigan_______ M.
Minnesota.......... . M.
Missouri________ M.
New Hampshire.. M.
_
New Jersey..,_ M.
New York............ M.
North Carolina- M.
Ohio..................... M.
Pennsylvania___ M.
Rhode Island___ M.
South Carolina._ M.
Tennessee........... . M.
Virginia................ M.
1884:
California........... . M.
Connecticut____ M.
Georgia............... . M.
Illinois................ . M.
Indiana............... M.
Iowa................... M.
Louisiana............. M.
Maryland______ M.
Massachusetts_
_ M.
Michigan............ . M.
Minnesota.......... . M.
Missouri............ . M.
New Hampshire.. M.
New Jersey......... M.
New York______ M.
Ohio______ ____ M.
Pennsylvania___ M.
Rhode Island___ M.
South Carolina— M.
Tennessee.......... M.
Virginia— .......... M.
Wisconsin........... M.
1885:
California........... M.
Connecticut........ M.
Delaware_______ M.
Dist. of Columbia. M.
M.
Georgia.-.
M.
Illinois_
_
M.
Indiana...
M.
Iowa........
Kansas__
M.
Kentucky.
M.
Louisiana.......... . M.
Maine. ............... M.
Maryland—......... M.
Massachusetts_
_ M.
Michigan............ M.
Minnesota.......... M.
Missouri____*___ M.
New Hampshire.- M.
M.
New Jersey
New YorkM.
North Carolina__ M.
Ohio_____ _____ M.
Pennsylvania___ M.
Rhode Island___ M.
Tennessee........ . M.
Vermont............. M.
Virginia— .......... M.
West Virginia...,. M.
Wisconsin........... M.
1886:
California..-....... M.
D o - ............. M.
Connecticut........ M.
Dist. of Columbia. M.
- M.
Illinois .

2And board.

60-60-60
60-60-60

(0
60-60-60

43-48-48
72-72-72
51-72-60
54-72-59

0)

59-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
70-72-71

66- 66-66

60-60-60
54-60-60
60-66-60
66-70-68
59-60-60

0)

57-72-61
54-66-60
60-60-60
60-60-60

0)

60-60-60
48-60-51
72-72-72
42-60-59
54-72-57
54-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60

1.67-2. 75-2.34
1.15-3. 50-2. 35
.50-4. 0 -2 0
0 .0
2. 25-2. 50-2.34
2. 80-2. 80-2.80

2 0 . 0 -2 0
.0 -2 0 .0
0 .2
1.35-3. 0 -2 0
1.25-3. 50-3.22
1 0 . 0 -1 0
.0 -1 0 .0
1. 50-3. 25-2.40
1.67-4. 00-2.68
1.25-3. 00-2.11
1.25-1. 25-1.25
1. 33-2. C0-1.67
1.50-2. 50-1.95

2.00-3. 50-2.75
2.17-3. 75-2.53
1.25-2. 50-1.95
2.00-3. 00-2.74
1. 75-2. 25-2.00
1.00-4. 00-2.40

2 0 . 75-2.26
.0 -2
2 0 . 75-2.42
.0 -2

1.35-3. 00-2.08
.46-5. 75-1.84
2. 25-2. 50-2.34
1.67-3. 0 -2 6
0 .7

2 0 . 00 2.00
.0 -2
-

1.20-3. 00-2.28
1.66-3. 50-3.02
1. 50-3. 25-2.30
1.50-4. 00-1.97
1.25-3. 00-2.24
1. 25-2. 00-1.63

66- 66-66
55-60-59

2 0 -2 00 2.00
,0.

54-60-57
60-69-61
60-60-60
60-60-60
69-69-69
60-72-60
60-66-60
57-57-57
48-60-57
60-60-60
54-54-54
64-66-65
54-72-61
60-60-60

2.25-3. 50-3.12
1.50-3. 75-2.32
1. 50-2. 25-1.81
3.00-3. 00-3.00
.90-1. 25-1.17
1. 50-4. 00-2.28
1. 50-2. 50-2. 22
2. 25-2. 25-2. 25
1.36-3. 00-2.13
1. 65-1. 65-1.65
2.25-2 75-2.51
1.25-3. 00-1.92
1. 50-2. 75-2.31
1.25-3. 00-1.97
1.30-3. 07-2.01
2.25-2. 50-2.34
1. 50-3. 00- 2.11
1.05-2. 8:3-1.97
1.25-3. 33-2.37
1.00-3. 50-2.99
.75-2. 25-1.50
1.30-3. 2.5-2.08.
1. 75-4 0 -1 6
0 .8
0 .1
1.25-3. 0 -2 4
1. 58-1. 58-1.58
1. 92-2. 00-1.93
1.35-2. 50-1.93
1. 50-2. 00-1.87
1.85-2. 67-2.10

0)

66- 66-66

60-60-60
48-60-50
59-72-63
42-66-59
54-72-58
60-69-61
60-72-61
48-72-60
60-60-60
60-60-60

66- 66-66

48-72-60
60-66-60
60-60-60

-

1. 50-2. 50.2.01
2.33-2. 33-2.33

48-60-60 2.00-5.00-3.05
60-60-60 22.49-2.49-2.49
54-60-58 1. 25-3. 38-2. 46
53-58-55 3.00-3.00-3.00
48-60-55 1.50-3.00-2.18

1And rent.

163

B.— BUILDING TRADES
T a b l e B - 3 . —Carpenters

a7id joiners, 1840-1900, by year and State— Continued

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Sex

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)
1886—Continued.
Iowa..... ............
Kansas...............
Louisiana............
Maryland...........
Massachusetts.. .
Michigan............
Minnesota..........
Missouri.............
New Hampshire.
New Jersey.......
New York...........
North Carolina. _
Ohio....................
Pennsylvania___
Rhode Island___
Vermont.............
Virginia...............
1887:
California............
Connecticut____
Delaware. _.........
Florida____ ____
Illinois................
Do................
Kansas.............. .
Louisiana............
Maine____ _____
Maryland............
D o................
Massachusetts.. .
Michigan............
D o ...............
Minnesota..........
Missouri..............
Do__.............
Nebraska............
New HampshireNew Jersey....... .
New York...........
North Carolina. .
Ohio.................. ,
Oregon................
Pennsylvania___
D o ........... .
Rhode Island___
Virginia...............
West Virginia___
Wisconsin...........
Do................
1888:
California............
Colorado............
Connecticut........
Delaware. ..........
Georgia...............
Illinois................
Indiana________
Iowa...................
Louisiana— .......
M aine...............
Maryland...........
Massachusetts
Michigan...........
Minnesota..........
Missouri.............
Do................
New Hampshire .
New Jersey.........
New York...........
Do-...............
Do— ............
North Carolina. _
Ohio— ...............
Pennsylvania___
Digitized forRhode Island___
FRASER

http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
1Not reported.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1.00-5.00-2.26
1.50-3.00-2.28
2. 25-2.75-2.51
2.00-2.75-2.50
1.35-3. 00-2.16
1.67-1.67-1.67
2.00-2.50-2.14
2.60-2.80-2.72
1.50-2.00-1.71
1.50-3. 25-2. 59
1.67-4.16-2.84
1.50-1.50-1.50
1.06-3.80-2.40
1.75-3.60-2.45
1. 25-3. 00-2. 21
2. 50-2.50-2.50
1.50-2.50-1.78
3.00-3.50-3.24
. 92-3.38-2.24

s. 1A 2 k. 2
2 -. Z~ 0

1.25-3.00-2.05
2.20-2. 75-2.48
2.08-2.08-2.08
1.50-3.00-2.36
2.25-2. 75-2.51
1. 50-2.50-1.74
1.20-3.00-1.90
8.20- . 25- . 23
1.00-3.50-2.06
1.25-3.50-1.95
8.15-. 21§-. 18$
2. 25-2. 50-2.34
1.25-3. 26-2. 31
1.87-2. 64-2. 56
1.50-4.79-2.34
1.50-2.75-2.18
1.30-3.00-1.89
1. 2*5-3. 50-2.34
1.00-2.75-1.47
1.00-3.25-2.07
2.00-4. 00-2.99
1.00-3. 60-2.12
8.15- .25- .19
1. 50-3.00-2. 24
1.00-2. 50-1.76
1.15-2.25-1.65
1.25-3.50-2.01
2 1.35-1.35-1.35
3.00-3.50-3.25
1.92-5.50-2.55
2.00-3.38-2.56
2.00-2. 25-2.13
1.50-2. 25-1.73
2.00-2. 75-2.47
1.46-2.88-2.08
1.80-2. 68-2.23
1.75-2.86-2.41
2.25-2. 75-2.51
1.75-2.00-1.90
2.00-2. 75-2.43
1.35-3.00-2.06
1.00-4.22-2.09
2.25-2. 50-2.34
2.40-2.40-2.40
1.92-2.68-2.37
1.50-2.00-1.75
1.67-3.00-2.24
1.00-4.16-2.68
3.30- . 30- . 30
41.50-1.50-1.50
. 75-2.50-1.46
1.10-3.25-2.11
1.00-3.60-2.66
1.00-3.25-2.26
2 And

board.

Sex
Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)

1888—Continued.
South Carolina...
Tennessee...........
Virginia..............
West Virginia_
_
1889:
Alabama.............
California...........
Colorado.............
Connecticut.......
Georgia...............
Illinois............... .
Indiana............. .
Do................
Iowa..................
Kansas.............. .
Do................
Louisiana.......... .
Maine............... .
Maryland..........
Massachusetts-..
Michigan.......... .
Minnesota..........
Missouri.............
Do................
New Hampshire.
New Jersey....... .
New York..........
North Carolina..
Ohio...................
Do................
Pennsylvania—
Do................
Rhode Island—
South Carolina...
Tennessee...........
Virginia............. .
West Virginia—
D o...............
Wisconsin..........
1890:
Alabama.............
California...........
Connecticut........
Illinois............... .
Indiana............. .
Iowa.................. .
Kansas...............
Kentucky...........
Louisiana...........
Maine................
Maryland...........
Massachusetts-..
Michigan...........
Minnesota..........
Mississippi.........
Missouri.............
Nebraska...........
New Hampshire.
New Jersey........
New York__......
North Carolina..
Ohio...................
Do................
Pennsylvania_
_
Rhode Island--Tennessee...........
Virginia..............
Wisconsin..........
1891:
California...........
Connecticut.......
Florida...............
Illinois................
Indiana..............
Louisiana...........
Maine................

3Per hour.

66- 66-66

0)

54-72 0
60-63-62

0.75-1.75-1.13
1.50-1.50-1.50
1.00-2.25-1.76
2.40-2.40-2.40
1.00-5.00-1.90
3.00-3.60-3.32
3.00-3.00-3.00
1.84-3.25-2.53
1.25-2.00-1.81
1.48-2.88-2.28
1.25-2.75-1.84
1.50-2.50-2.00
1.50-2.75-2.21
2.50-2.50-2.50
1.50-3.33-2.29
2.2.5-2.75-2.48
1.25-3.00-1.93
1.17-2.75-2.33
1.23-3.25-2.14
1.00-3.45-2.01
2.25-2.50-2.33
1.50-3.00-2.36
1.12-2.67-2.00
1.50-3.00-1.81
1.25-2.67-2.05
1.25-4.00-3.14
1.00-2.00-1.42
1.40-3.25-2.16
2.50-2.50-2.50
1.15-3.60-2.44
2.50-3.50-2.82
1.50-3.34-2.23

1 0 .0 -1 0
.0 -1 0 .0

1.00-3.00-1.72
1.50-2.25-2.01
1.80-3.00-2.42
2.50-2.50-2.50
.79-4.97-1.92

1.00-3.00-2.20
3.00-3.50-3.22
2.25-3.25-2.64
2.10-2.40-2.30
1.40-2.75-1.98
1.13-2.50-2.07
1.75-3.25-2.39

2 0 .0 -2 0
.0 -2 0 .0

2.25-2. 75-2.50
1.50-2.00-1.75
1.25-2.75-2.41
1.35-3.25-2.11
1.33-3.00-1.91
1.00-2.75-2.15
1.13-1.40-1.27
2.30-2.80-2.79
1.50-3.00-2.13
1.72-2.25-1.81
1.35-3.00-1- 83
.38-5.25-2.46
1.00-1.42-1.23
1.25-3.00-2.02
. 92-3.41-2.07
1.65-3.60-2.77
1.50-3.00-2.34
1.25-2.00-1.63
1.88-2.50-2.14
2.50-2.50-2.50
3.00-3.50-3.25
2.25-3.25-2.69
1.54-2.00-1.85
2.10-2.80-2.58
1.47-2.66-1.87
2.00-2.75-2.35
1.38-3.00-1.97

* And rent.

164

PART 2.— FROM 1840 TO 1928

Table B -3 .— Carpenters and joiners, 1840-1900, by year and State— Continued
Lowest, highest, and
average—

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Sex

Year and State

Sex
Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)

Hours per Rate per day
(dollars)
week
1891—Continued.
Maine™................
Maryland............
Massachusetts—
Minnesota..........
Missouri.............
New Hampshire.
New Jersey.........
New York..........
North Carolina.
D o...... ..........
O hio.......... ........
Pennsylvania___
Rhode Island...
South Carolina...
Virginia..............
Wisconsin...........
D o...............
1892:
California...........
Connecticut........
Delaware. ..........
Florida.............. .
Illinois................
Indiana...............
Iowa...................
Louisiana............
Maine.................
Maryland______
Massachusetts_
_
Do................
Michigan------Minnesota_____
Missouri............
New Jersey_____
New York______
North Carolina. _
Do................
O hio.................
Do__.............
Pennsylvania___
Rhode Island___
South Carolina...
Virginia...............
1893:
California............
Connecticut____
Delaware...........
Illin o is...............
Indiana...............
Kansas................
Louisiana............
Maryland... .......
Massachusetts- .
Michigan............
Minnesota..........
Missouri............
Montana.............
New Hampshire..
New Jersey.........
New York...........
North Carolina. _
Ohio............. ......
Pennsylvania___
Rhode Island___
Virginia...............
Wisconsin...........
1894:
California...........
Connecticut____
Delaware______
Georgia.............
Illinois................
Indiana...............




(0

54-60-54
64-60-59
60-60-60
48-48-48
60-60-60
60-60-60
48-72-49
60-75-63

(9

54-72-58
54-60-54
60-60-60
60-60-60
54-54-54

0)
0)

a
0.20-0.20-0.20
2.00-2.75-2.42
1.35-3.25-2.09
2.00-2.25-2.20
.81-3.25-2.17

2
.00-2.00-2.00
3.00-3.00-3.00
.38-5.25-2.46
.65-1.75-1.34
.70-2.12-1.57
1.25-3.00-2.17
1.67-3.60-2.76
1.50-3.00-2.39
1.42-1.75-1.54
2.00-2.50-2.22

2.00-2.00-2.00
U2J- .30- .23

. 75-4.00-3.29
48-60-50
45-60-56 2.03-4.81-2.63
60-60-60 1.50-3.00-2.05
60-66-63 1.75-3.00-2.01
48-60-53 2.20-2.80-2.59
54-72-60 1.16-2.58-2.01
54-60-59 1.00-3.00-2.22
54-54-54 2.00-2. 75-2. 33
60-60-60 1.82-2.75-2.06
148-60-51 1.50-3.00-2.14
54-60-59 1.35-4.00-2.06
60-60-60 2.25-2.25-2.25
24-72-57
.50-11.22-2.05
60-60-60 2.00-2.25-2.20
48-48-48 2.25-3. 20-2.81
60-60-60 2.50-3.00-2. 75
48-60-50 1.50-3.75-3.14
60-60-60 1.50-1.50-1.50
1.00-2.02-1. 62
0)
54-60-56 1.58-3.00-2.21
53-72-55 1.25-2. 50-2.17
54-60-55 1.76-3.60-2.72
42-60-59
. 77-3.50-2.36
60-60-60 1.50-1.75-1.69
54-54r-54 2.00-2.50-2.16
54-60-56
60-60-60
60-60-60
40-66-50
48-60-59

3.00-3.50-3.23
2.204.81-2.53
1.50-2.84-2.07
. 33-7.83-2.89
1.61-2.47-2.01

54-54-54
46-60-55
54-60-56
42-78-59
60-60-60
48-60-55
45-60-51
48-66-59
60-60-60
36-72-49

2.00-2. 75-2.30
. 67-3.00-2.26
1.34-4.06-2.23
1.20-3.64-1.93
2.00-2.25-2.11
1.46-3. 20-2.57
2.50-5.00-4.19
1.25-4.00-2.23
2.90-2.90-2.90
. 67-3.75-3.08
1.00-1.93-1.58
1.05-3.15-2.03
.67-3.60-2.52
. 92-3.00-2.47
2.00-2.50-2.18
3.10- . 35- . 21

0)

0)

45-60-58
45-72-56
60-60-60
54-54-54

0)

54-60-56
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
48-60-49
48-60-56

2.22-2.22-2.22

2.75-3.50-3.17
1.80-2.89-2.2f>
1.50-2.84-1.97

2.00-2.00-2.00
2.20-3.00-2.95
1.35-2.62-1.95

i Not reported.

1894—Continued.

M.
Kansas.................. M.
Louisiana............. M.
M ain e................. M.
Maryland— ......... M.
Massachusetts___ M.
Minnesota.......... . M.
Missouri—............ M.
Montana.............. M.
New Hampshire - _ M.
New York.......... . 0)
Do.................. M.
North Carolina__ M.
Ohio..................... M.
Pennsylvania....... M.
Rhode Island....... M.
Virginia................ M.
West Virginia....... M.
1895:
Alabama............... M.
Connecticut.......... M.
Delaware_______ M.
Georgia............... . M.
Illinois — .......... M.
Indiana................. M.
Iowa.................... 0)
Kansas_________ M.
Kentucky............. M.
Louisiana............. M.
Maine. ................ M.
Maryland_______ M.
Massachusetts___ M.
M ichigan............ M.
Minnesota. .......... M.
Missouri............. . M.
Montana.............. M.
New Hampshire.. M.
New Jersey.......... M.
New York............ M.
North Carolina._. M.
Ohio..................... M.
Pennsylvania____ M.
Rhode Island____ M.
_
South Carolina_ M.
Tennessee............. M.
Virginia................ M.
Wisconsin............. 0)
1896:
Alabama............... M.
California............. M.
Colorado............... M.
Connecticut.......... M.
Dist. of Columbia. M.
Florida................. M.
Georgia................. M.
Illinois.................. M.
Indiana................. M.
Iowa..................... 0)
Kansas.................. M.
Louisiana............. M.
Maryland............. M.
Massachusetts___ M.
Michigan.............. M.
Minnesota............ M.
Mississippi........... M.
Missouri............... M.
Do................ 0)
Montana.............. M.
Nebraska_______ M.
New Hampshire -. M.
New York........... M.
North Carolina__ M.
’ Ohio................... M.

»Per hour.

42-72-59
58-58-58
54-54-54
54-66-60
54-54-54
54-60-56
60-60-60
48-48-48
0)
60-60-60
0
48-60-48
60-66 60
54r-72-58
54-60-57
60-60-60
54-54-54
48-60-55

1.10-3.75-2.19
1.92-2.00-1.93
2.00-2. 75-2.34
1.25-2.50-1.99
2.25-2.50-2.43
1.16-4.06-2.24
2.00-2.25-2.11
3.20-3.20-3.20
2.41-3.35-2.73
1. 50-2.50-1.89
2. 50-2.50-2. 50
1.25-3.75-3.33
. 50-2. 75-1.51
1.08-5.00-2.01
1.60-3.60-2. 51
1. 50-2.50-1.94
2. 00-2.50-2.20
1.15-2.88-1.58

66-66-66
60-72-62
60-60-60
66-66-66
48-60-50
48-60-59
(*)
60-60-60
60-60-60
54-63-55
60-60-60
54-54-54
41-60-57
0)
60-60-60
48-60-48
0)
59-60-60,
53-60-59
48-60-48
60-72-61
48-72-57
54-60-56
57-66-60
61-66-64
66-66-66
54-55-54
48-84-60

1.50-1.50-1. 50
1.80-2.89-2.27
1. 50-2.84-1.91
1. 25-2.25-1.68
2. 20-3.00-2.70
1.23-2.26-1.85
1. 52-2.50-1.96
. 86-2.88-2.13
2. 50-2. 50-2. 50
2. 00-2.75-2. 33
1. 25-2.75-2.12,
2.25-2.50-2.40
1.16-4.06-2. 22
1. 52-2. 25-1.89
2.00-2.25-2.10
1. 50-3.00-2. 67
2.06-3. 50-2. 72,
1.10-2.42-1. 80
2.00-2. 75-2.35
1. 50-3.75-3.33
. 75-2.75-1. 61
1.00-3. 50-1.97
1.60-3.60-2.37
1. 50-3.00-2.31
1.20-2. 50-1. 59
1.10-2. 00-1. 44
2.00-2.50-2.30
.95-2.70-1.77

0)
54-60-55
48-60-55
60-60-60
0)
0)
60-66-66
48-60-55
48-65-59
0)
48-60-57
54-54-54
48-60-54
53-84-56
55-60-56
60-60-60
0)
48-48-48
0)
(l)
48-60-52
60-60-60
48-70-50
80-72-62
48-66-57

1.33-2.50-1.85
2.75-3.50-3.12
2.00-5.20-2.86
1.50-2.94-2.04
1.00-2.50-1. 75
1.50-2.17-1.93
. 25-3.00-1.56
1.50-3.00-2.47
1.11-2. ol-l. 99
1.52-2.46-2.00
1.50-2.25-2.09
2.00-2.75-2.32
1. 50-2.81-2.37
2.00-3.30-2.48
1.67-2.50-2.22
2.00-2.25-2.10
. 42-1.25- . 78
2.80-2.80-2.80
1. 70-2.57-2.24
2.26-3.49-2.71
1. 50-3.40-2.56
1.60-1.95-1.74
1.20-4.95-3.13
.45-2.50-1.66
1.30-3.15-1.92

B.—B IL IN T A E
U D G RDS
T

able

165

B -3 .— Carpenters and joiners, 1840—
1900, by year and State— C o n t in u e d
Lowest, highest, and

Year and State

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Sex

Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)
1896—Continued.
Pennsylvania..
Rhode Island __
South Carolina_
_
Tennessee_____
Vermont______
Virginia............
Wisconsin____
1897:
California.........
Connecticut_
_
Illinois.............
Iowa................
Kansas.............
Do.............
Louisiana_____
Maryland_____
Do............. .
Massachusetts___
Michigan..............
Minnesota............
Missouri...............
Montana________
Nebraska..............
New York............
North Carolina...
Ohio.....................
Do..................
Pennsylvania.......
Virginia................
1898
California.............
Illinois....... ..........
Indiana....... .........
Iowa.....................
Kansas.................
Louisiana.............
Maryland.............
Massachusetts___
Michigan_______

47-72-56 1.50-4.05-2. 70
60-60-60 2.00-2.25-2.16
66- 66-66

(0

64-66-65
54-54-54
60-60-60
54-60-56
54-60-58
48-60-51

0
0
54-54-54
42-84-61

54-54-54
54-60-59
54-54-54

0)

60-60-60
48-48-48

0)

48-60-51
48-60-49

0)

54-60-57
60-72-62
54-72-49
54-66-59

. 50-1.50-1.17
. 83-3.00-1.67
2.00-2.25-2.13
1.75-2.50-2.03
2.00-2.25-2.02

2.75-3.50-3.08
2.25-2.50-2.33
2.20-2.80-2.67
1.63-2.42-1.98
1.50-2. 70-2.00
3.16- . 20- . 18
2.00-2. 75-2.33
2.25-2. 50-2.43
1.60-2. 44-2.00
2.25-3.00-2.54
1.72-2.25-1.89
2.00-2.25-2.18
2.80-2.80-2.80
2.24r-3.59-2.67
1.00-3.00-2.30
1. 31-4.05-2.63
1.24-2.23-1.62
1.45-3.15-1.94
1.00-2.50-1.73
1.12-4.05-2.46
1.12-2.50-1.62

54-60-55 2. 75-3.50-3.05
48-60-56 2.20-2.80-2.44
48-60-58 1.35-2.31-1.93

0)

1.69-2. 36-2.02

54-54-54

2. 50-3. 00-2. 54

33-60-52 1.24-2.75-2.34
54-54-54 2.00-2.75-2.35
54-54-54 2.25-2.50-2.42

(?
)

1.50-2.00-1.73

Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)
1898—Continued.
Minnesota.......... .
Missouri.............
Do..................
Nebraska............ .
Do................ .
New Jersey......... .
New York.......... .
North Carolina.._
.
Ohio.....................
Pennsylvania___
Virginia—.............
1899:
Alabama_______
California..........
Georgia................
Illinois..................
Massachusetts___
Michigan_____
Montana........ _.
New Jersey____
New York....... .
North Carolina Do.............
Ohio................
Pennsylvania -.
Tennessee........
Virginia...........
1900:
Alabama..........
California........
Georgia............
Illinois.-..........
Massachusetts___
Montana........... ..
New Jersey..........
New York....... .
North Carolina . . .
Ohio.....................
Pennsylvania.......

i Not reported.

60-60-60 2 0 . 25-2.18
.0 -2
48-48-48 2. 80-2. 80-2.80
48-60-59 1.60-2. 62-2.24
48-60-56 1.00-4. 50-2.27
<> 3.17*- .25-. 22i
*
60-60-60 1.71-2. 50-2.05
48-60-49 1.35-3. 50-2.61
.0 -2
* 1 0 . 23-1. 59
54-60-57 1.33-3. 15-1.86
54-60-56 1.60-4. 05-2. 49
54-54-54 2 0 . 50-2.18
.0 -2
60-60-60
48-48-48
59-60-60
48-48-48
48-48-48

8

1.50-3.25-2.00
2. 50-3.50-3. 06
1.25-2.75-1.83
3.40-3.40-3.40
2. 40-2. 64-2. 42
1.97-1.97-1.97
4.42-4.42-4.42
1.96-2.50-1.97
1.80-3.50-2.14
. 75-3.00-1.40
1.00-2.24-1.57
1.65-2.70-2.20
1.65-3.00-2.69
1.35-2.04-1.59
1.00-2.41-1.62

54-60-54
48-48-48
59-60-60
48-48-48
48-48-48
53-53-53
53-53-53
44-54-51
60-60-60

1.50-3.25-2.48
3.00-3.50-3.08
1.50-2.75-1.96
3.40-3.40-3. 40
2. 40-2.64-2. 42
4.42-4. 42-4 42
2.04-3.00-2.24
1.80-4 00-2.25
. 80-2.40-1.39

48-48-48

2.80-2.80-2.80

C
)

53-53-53
53-53-53
44-54-51
48-72-60

0)

48-54-51
54-54-54

48-54-51

1.80-2. 70-2. 22

8 Pea: hour.

T a b l e B -4 . — Carpenters, males, 1890-1928, by city and year
Atlanta, Ga.
Year

1890...........................
1891...........................
1892...........................
1893...........................
1894...........................
1895...........................
1896...........................
1897...........................
1898........... ....... .......
1899.......... ................
1900...........................
1901.......... ............. .
1902...........................
1903...........................
1904..-.......................
1905............-..............
1906................... .......
1907................
1908..................... .
1909...........................

1910............................
1911..........................
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/

Birmingham, Ala.

Boston, Mass.

Chicago, 111.

Hours
Hours
Rate
Hours
Rate
Rate
Rate
Hours
per week per hour pea: week per hour per week per houj per week per hour
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.9
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
59.8 .
59.8
59.4
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

$0,189
.185
.183
.182
.188
.204
.206
.206
.216
.217
.235
.229
.234
.239
.243
.243
.274
.300
.300
. 300
.300
.350

59.5
59.6
59.5
58.3
59.2
57.3
58.0
58.8
58.4
57.4
56.0
54.2 .
49.3
49.2
50.0
49.2
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0

$0,284
.288
.270
.263
.248
.217
.206
.229
.248
.240
.263
.291
.316
.327
.321
.369
.374
.400
.400
.400
.400
.450

540
54.0
540
540
540
540
54.0
540
540
54.0
49.4
48.9
48.9
48.5
48.1
48.2
48.1 •
48.0
48.0 =
48.0:
44.0
44.0

$0,300
.301
.303
.304
.305
.303
.303
.303
.305
.305
.305
.338
.337
.349
.374
.384
.405
.438
.438
.478
.500
.500

48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
44.0
440
44.0
440
440
44.0
440
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
440
44.0

$0,350
.350
.350
.350
.350
.350
.350
.350
.375
.425
.450
.450
.450
.500
.500
.505
.550
.563
.563
.563
.600
.600

166
T

PART 2.— FROM 1840 TO 1928
able

B -4 . — Carpenters, males, 1890-1928, by city and year— C o n t in u e d
Atlanta, Ga.

Year

1912...........................
1913............................
1914.......................—
1915...........................
1916...........................
1917...........................
1918...........................
1919........ — ..............
1920...........................
1921...........................
1922...........................
1923...........................
1924............. -............
1925...........................
1926...........................
1927...........................
1928............................

1922...........................
1923...........................
1924............................
1925...........................
1926............................
1927............................
1928............................

54.0
50.0
50.0
50.0
50.0
50.0
50.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0,350
.400
.400
.400
.400
.500
.500
.600
.800
.700
.700
.700
.800
.800
.800
.800
.800

54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
51.2
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
44.5
44.5
44.5
44.5
44.5
44.5
44.5
44.5
44.5
44.5
44.5
44.5
44.5
44.5
44.5
44.5
44.5
44.5
44.5
44.5
44.5
44.5

$0,275
.292
.318
.310
.326
.283
.283
.274
.258
.270
.296
.323
.356
.370
.379
.404
.402
.450
.450
.450
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.550
.600
.625
.650
.700
1.000
1.000
.950
1.050
1.150
1.250
1.313
1.350
1.375

New York, N . Y.*

48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0,450
.525
.450
.450
.450
.450
.550
.650
.750
.750
.750
.750
.875
.875
.950
1.000
1.000

Denver, Colo.
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
46.2
45.8
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
40.0
40.0

$0,344
.344
.344
.263
.250
.265'
.261
.250
.313
.375
.375
.406
.450
.450
.450
.450
.500
.500
.550
.600
.600
.600
.600
.600
.600
.600
.600
.700
.750
.875
1.125
1.125
1.000
1.125
1.125
1.125
1.125
1.250
1.250

Philadelphia, Pa.

$0,295
55.0
48.2
$0,431
1890............................
55.3
.298
.435
48.1
1891............................
.299
54.9
.436
48.1
1892...........................
.298
.433
55.2
48.2
,1893............................
.300
.435
54.7
48.0
1894...........................
54.7
.298
.433
48.1
1895...........................
55.0
.298
48.0
.436
1896...........................
55.1
.296
.437
48.0
1897...........................
64.0
.314
48.0
.438
1898............................

i Greater
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/ New York, 1903-1907; Manhattan, 1907-1927.

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Boston, Mass.

Chicago, 111.

Hours
Rate
Hours
Rate
Hours
Rate
Hours
Rate
per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour

Cincinnati, Ohio
1890............................
1891...........................
1892...........................
1893...........................
1894...........................
1895...........................
1898...........................
1897...........................
1898...........................
1899...........................
1900...........................
1901...........................
1902...........................
1903..................-.......
1904............................
1905..........................1906...........................
1907...........................
1908...........................
1909...........................
1910...........................
1911...........................
1912............................
1913............................
1914............................
1915............................
1916............................
1917............................
1918............................
1919............................
1920............................

Birmingham, Ala.

44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0,500
.500
.550
.550
.570
.600
.650
.750
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.050
1.100
1.100
1.250
1.250
1,250

Detroit, Mich.
54.0
54.0
64.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0,229
.211
.221
.223
.193
.196
.204
.210
.207
.220
.239
.257
.296
.319
.342
.342
.349
.350
.375
.375
.400
.450
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.600
.600
.800
1.000
.850
.850
1.150
1.150
1.150
1.150
1.150
1.150

St. Louis, Mo.
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0

$0,306
.306
.324
.357
.360
.350
.350
.350
.350

44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0.650
.«50
.650
.650
.700
.700
.700
.800
1.250
1.250
1.100
1.250
1.250
1.250
1.375
1.500
1.500

New Orleans, La.
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
64.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
51.6
48.8
49.7
48.0
48.0
49.4
49.3
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0.279
.269
.269
.262
.265
.264
.264
.261
.264
.259
.280
.298
.298
.353
.356
.358
.360
.450
.450
.450
.400
.400
.400
.400
.400
.400
.400
.400
.500
.600
.750
1.000
1.000
.900
.900
.900
.900
.900
.900

San Francisco,
Calif.
66.2
66.4
66.2
56.4
55.8
55.5
52.6
52.4
63.0

$0,369
.369
.373
.352
.334
.331
.367
.370
.368

167

B.— BUILDING TRADES

T a b l e B -4 . — Carpenters, males, 1890-1928, by city and year— Continued
New York, N. Y.

Philadelphia, Pa.

San Francisco,
Calif.

St. Louis, Mo.

Year
xxuurs
Rate
Hours
Rate
J U1
Hours
Q U9
X,itI
Rate
V /O
Hours
Jttate
Hours
xxuurs
Rate
per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour
1899..
1900..
1901..
1902..
1903..
1904..
1905..
1906..
1907..
1907..
1908..
1909..
1910..
9911..
19121913_.
1914..
1915..
19161917..
19181919..
192019211922192319241925..
19261927..
1928-

47.0
44.1
44.1
44.1
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0,451
.495
.497
.514
.536
.530
.537
.575
.607
.625
.625
.625
,625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.750
1.125
1.125
1.125
1.125
1.313
1.313
1.500
1.500
1.500

54.0
48.0
47.8
46.2
46.3
46.4
46.1
44.9
44.1
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0,311
.343
.347
.392
.400
.400
.400
.450
.462
.450
.450
.450
.500
.500
.500
.500
.550
.550
.550
.600
.700
.800
1.125
1.125
.900
1.125
1.125
1.125
1.250
1.250
1.250

48.0
46.7
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
40.0

$0,325
.383
.410
.424
.532
.523
.550
.550
.596
.550
.550
.600
.600
.625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.650
.700
.825

10
.0 0
1.250
10
.1 0
1.250
1.500
1.500
1.500
1.500
1.500

52.9
52.6
52.4
48.7
45.1
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0,379
.394
.396
.427
.497
.500
*504
,608
.625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.750
.875
1.063
1.125
1.044
1.044
1.044
1.044
1.125
1.125
1.125

T a b l e B -5 . — Electricians (inside wiremen), 1880-1900, by year and State
Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

1880:
New Jersey..........
1883:
Massachusetts___
1884:
Michigan..............
1885:
Ohio.....................
Pennsylvania.......
1887:
Maryland.............
Massachusetts___
New York............
Ohio.....................
Wisconsin.............
1888:
New York............
1889:
Indiana................
Pennsylvania.......
1890:
Michigan.............
New York............
1891:
Maine..................
Missouri...............
New York............
1892:
Pennsylvania.......
Digitized for 1 Not reported.
FRASER

Sex

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Sex

Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)

0)

56-56-56

2.00-2.00-2.00

M.

0)

1.17-3.25-2.15

M.

2.25-3.00-2.63

0)
M. 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60

1.89-1.89-1.89
2.00-2.00-2.00

M.
0)
M.
0)
M.
0)
M. 60-60-60
M.
0)

1.25-2.88-2.08
2.00-4.11-2.53
3.19-3.64-3.42
1.50-2.90-2.33
2.47-2.47-2.47

M. 54-72-58

1.50-8.33-3.78

M. 60-60-60
(0
(9

1.25-1.25-1.25
2.30-2.30-2.30

M. 60-60-60
M.
0)

. 67-2.50-1.51
1.52-2.92-2.34

M. 72-72-72
M.
0)
M.
0)

2.00-2.00-2.00
2.95-2.95-2.95
1.67-5.83-2.54

M. 60-60-60

3.50-3.50.3.50



Hours per Rate per day
(dollars)
week
1893:
Illinois..................
Montana..............
New Hampshire. .
Ohio....... ..............
Pennsylvania.......
1894:
Iowa.....................
New Hampshire. .
New York............
Ohio.....................
Pennsylvania.......
1895:
Georgia.................
Maine...................
Massachusetts___
Michigan..............
Missouri...............
New Hampshire-.
New York............
Ohio.....................
Pennsylvania.......
Vermont...............
1896:
Connecticut..........
Georgia.................
Illinois..................
Maryland........... .
Massachusetts___

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

60-60-60
49-70-60
53-60-58
54-54-54
60-70-65

3.00-3.00-3.00
3.50-5.75-4.11
2.00-5.00-2.88
3.00-3.00-3.00
3.00-3.83-3.42

M.
M.
(»)
M.
M.

60-72-62
57-60-59

1.92-2.71-2.31
1.75-2.50-2.00
3.00-3.00-3.00
1.50-3.00-1.88
2.70-2.70-2.70

(9

60-72-62
60-60-60

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

1.50-2.25-1.88
1.75-2.75-2.08
2.25-2.50-2.38
.75-3.30-1.88
2.50-2.50-2.50
59-60-60 1.18-2.50-1.42
48-48-48 3.00-3.00-3.00
60-60-60 1.66-2.50-1.98
60-60-60 2.70-2.70-2.70
60-60-60 1.50-1.50-1.50

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

60-60-60
66-66-66
54-54-54
54-54-54
60-60-60

66-66-66
60-60-60
60-60-60

8

3.00-3.00-3.00
1.50-1.50-1.50
2. 50-2.50-2.50
4.00-4.00-4.00
4.17-4.17-4.15

168
T

able

PART 2.— PROM 1840 TO 1928
B-S* — Electricians (inside wiremen), 1880-1900, by year and State— Con,
Lowest, highest, and
average—

Year and State

Sex

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Sex

Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)
18^6—0 ontinued.
Nebraska.............
New York______
Ohio___________
Pennsylvania.......
South Carolina___
Wisconsin............
1897:
Nebraska..............
Ohio____ ______
Pennsylvania____
Virginia.

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

60-60-60
0)
60-60-60
60-60-60
0)
60-72-66

2.00-2.75-2.17
. 83-3.50-1.94
1.60-2.25-1.98
1.60-2.50-2.41
1.17-1.17-1.17
1.50-2.25-1.88

M.
0)
0)
0)
M. 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60

2.00-2.00-2.00
2. 25-2.25-2.25
2.75-2.75-2. 75
1.80-1.80-1.80

1898:
Iowa___________ 0)
0)
Kansas.................. M. 60-60-60

1.75-1.75-1.75
2.07-2.88-2.48

Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)
1898—Continued.
Michigan_______
Missouri________
Nebraska_______
Pennsylvania____
Washington_____
1899:
Michigan..............
New York............
North Carolina.
Pennsylvania.......
Virginia_________
1900:
New York.... .......

M.
0)
M. 60-72-61
M. 60-60-60
M.
P)
0)
C
1)

1.50-2.75-2.62
2.00-5.00-2.50
1.00-5.00-2.61
2.10-2.10-2.10
1-62.3.33-2.33

M. 60-60-60
(l)
M.
M.
v)
(l)
M.
?1\
0)

2.08-3.12-2.37
2.50-2.50-2. 50
2. 25-2. 25-2.25
2.40-2. 50-2.45
1.50-3. 65-2.18

M.

2.50-2.50-2.50

C
1)

1 Not reported.
T a b l e B -6 . — Inside wiremen, males, 1890-1907, by geographic division and year
North Atlantic
Year

1890..____ ________
1891............................
1892............................
1893............................
1894_..........................
1895............................
1896............................
1897............................
1898............................
1899............................
1900............................
1901............................
1902..........................
1903...........................
1904............................
1905............... ............
1906............................
1907...........................

South Atlantic

North Central

South Central

Hours
Rate
Hours
Hours
Rate
Hours
Rate
Rate
per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour
56.0
56.0
55.6
55.3
55.0
53.7
53.0
51.2
50.7
51.1
48.7
48.9
48.7
46.1
46.8
46.5
46.6
46.5

$0,266
.266
.274
.292
.280
.302
.300
.328
.338
.344
.396
.380
.402
.434
.416
.412
.423
.425

59.2
58.8
58.7
.58.8
58.4
58.3
57.8
58.1
58.2
58.6
57.9
56.6
56.6
53.8
51.8
51.3
50.8
50.5

$0.226
.218
.217
. 217
.213
.218
.229
.228
.242
.242
.275
.278
.292
.309
.314
.340
.363
.379

53.3
53.2
49.4
52.4
53.0
53.9
52.0
51.6
52.0
51.8
51.0
50.7
49.6
47.8 •
48.5
47.6
48.4
48.0

$0.266
.267
.276
.310
.301
.316
.345
.345
.367
.365
.359
.373
.397
.430
.387
.427
.394
.419

59.3
59.3
59.3
59.3
59,3
59.3
59.3
59.4
54.7
54.7
52.5
52.1
52.1
50.2
52.3
52.7
‘ 52.9
51.4

$0.229
.231
.230
.228
.229
.247
.247
.248
.279
.279
.291
.296
.306
.321
.337
.307
.314
.344

T a b l e B -7 . — Inside wiremen, males, 1907-1928> by city and year
Atlanta, Ga.
Year

Birmingham, Ala.

Chicago, 111.

Hours
Rate
Hours
Rate
Hours
Rate
Hours
Rate
per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour

1907............................
1908............................
1909............................
1910..... ......................
1911....... ....................
54.0
$0,333
54.0
1912............................
.389
54.0
.444
1913...........................
1914.......................... .
1915............................
1916...........................
.389
1017. ........................ .
54.0
1918............................
48.0
.550
1919.......................... .
44.0
.750
.900
44.0
1920...........................

1 48
2 62.5
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/ hours October to April.

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Boston , Mass.

48.0
$0,438
48.0
.438
48.0
48.0
.438
48.0
48.0
144.0
48.0
.500
144.0
48.0
.500
44.0
44.0
.563
44.0
.625
44.0
44.0
44.0
.625
44.0
44.0
.500
44.0
44.0
.500
44.0
44.0
.500
44.0
3.625
44.0
44.0
44.0
.800
44.0
44.0
1.000
cents effective July 1.

$0.450
.450
.450
.500
.500
.550
.550
.550
2.600
.625
.650
.700
.775
1.000

44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

3 75 cents on June 21.

$0.625
.625
.688
.688
.750
.750
.750
.750
.750
.750
.750
.813
.875
1.260

169

B .— BUILDING TRADES
T

able

B -7 . — Inside wiremen, males, 1907-1928, by city and year— C o n t in u e d
Atlanta, Ga.

Year

Boston, Mass.

Chicago, 111.

Hours
Bate
Hours
Rate
Hours
Rate
Hours
Rate
per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour

1921............................
1922
1923...........................
1924...........................
1925...........................
1926........................ .
1927...........................
1928_______________

44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0,900
.900
.900
.900
.900
.900
„900
1.000

Cincinnati, Ohio
1907.
1908..... .....................
1909...........................
1910...........................
1911....... ...................
1912...........................
1913....... ....................
1914............................
1915............................
1916............. .............
1917........... .............
1918_______________
1919_______________
1920_______________
1921_______________
1922_______________
1923_____ __ ______
1924___ __________ _
1925............................
1926............................
1927............................
1928_______________

48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
44.5
44.5
44.5
44.0
44.5
44.5
44.5
44.5
44.5
44.5
44.5
44.5
44. 5
44.5
44.5
44.5
44.5
44.5

44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44. 0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

1922______________

44.0

1923

44.0

1924
1925...........................
1926...........................
1927...........................
1928...........................

44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0,500
.563
.563
.563
.563
.563
.563
.600
.600
.600
.650
•. 650
.750
1.125
i, |1.125 )
\1.000 /
13 A-125 }
\1.000
13 k m }

44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0,531
.531
.531
.563
.563
.563
.563
.563
.563
.600
.625
.825
.825
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.125
1.125
1.250
1.375
1.375
1.375

Philadelphia, Pa.
«48.0
5 48. 0
5 48.0
5 48.0
6 48.0
s 48.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0,450
.450
.450
.450
.450
.450
.450
.450
.450
.500
.563
io. 650
.750
121.000
1.125

44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

4 $1,000
i 1.000
1.050
1.100
1.100
1.200
1.250
1.250

Detroit, Mich.
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
«48.0
6 48.0
48.0
* 44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0,400
.400
.400
.438
.438
.469
.469
.500
6.531
.594
.669
.750
.938
1.250
1.000
1.000
1.125
1.250
1.300
1.400
1.500
1.500

St. Louis, Mo.
440
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44 0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0,650
.650
.650
.650
.650
.650
.650
.700
.750
.750
.750
i i . 750
.875
1.000
1.250

44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

s $1.250
1.100
1.100
1.250
1.500
1.500
1. 503
1.625

New Orleans, la .,
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0,450
.450
.450
.450
.450
.450
.450
.500
.500
.500
.500
7.563
.700
.900
1.000
1.000
.900
1.050
1.100
1.100
1.200
1.250

San Francisco, Calif.
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0,625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.750
.750
.875
1.125

44.0

.900

44.0

1.250

44 0

1.000

44.0

1.000

44.0

1.250

440

1.000

\
44.0
ls {l:oSo J
1.313
«44.0
1.500
i<44.0
1.500
« 44. 0
1.500
44.0

1.125
1.125
1.250
1.250
1.250

44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44 0

1.500
1.500
1.500
1.500
1.500

440
44.0
44 0
44 0
440

1.000
1.000
1.063
1.125
1.125

8 75 cents on June 21.
* Old scale; strike pending.
«44 hours June to September.
6 Effective Nov. 1.
7 70 cents on June 1.
8 Nominal only; all received more.




$1,000
.850
1.000
1.125
1.125
1.125
1.250
1.250

Denver, Colo.

$0,406
.406
.406
.406
.450
.450
.500
.500
.531
.563
.625
.688
s . 719
1.000
1.000
.950
1.050
1.150
1.250
1. 313
1.350
1.375

New York, N. Y.
1907
1908...........................
1909.______ _______
2910...........................
1911...........................
1912..........................
1913...........................
1914...........................
1915..... ......................
1916...........................
1917...........................
1918............................
1919............................
1920............................
1921............................

Birmingham, Ala.

9 75 cents on June 15.
10 75 cents on June 1.
n 86.3 cents on July 15.
12 25 per cent received $1.25.
13 2 unions.
1140 hours June to August.

170

PART 2.— FROM 1840 TO 1928
T

able

B -8 .— Engineers, stationary, 1840-1900, by year and State
Lowest, highest, and
average—

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Sex

Year and State
Hours
per week

1840:
Massachusetts___
1841:
Massachusetts--New York............
1842:
Connecticut.........
Massachusetts--New York............
Pennsylvania.......
1843:
Massachusetts--New York............
Pennsylvania.......
1844:
Connecticut.........
Massachusetts___
New York............
Pennsylvania.......
1845:
Connecticut.........
Massachusetts___
New York______
Pennsylvania.......
1846:
Connecticut.........
Massachusetts___
New York............
Pennsylvania.......
1847:
Connecticut.........
Massachusetts--New York______
1 Not reported.
1848:
Connecticut.........
Massachusetts. _..
New York............
1849:
Connecticut........ .
Massachusetts___
New York............
Pennsylvania___
1850:
Connecticut.........
Massachusetts___
New Y ork..........
Pennsylvania___
1851:
Connecticut.........
Massachusetts_
_
New York............
Pennsylvania___
1852:
Connecticut........
Massachusetts_
_
New HampshireNew York...........
Pennsylvania___
1853:
Connecticut........
Massachusetts_
_
New Hampshire-.
New York_____
Pennsylvania___
1854:
Connecticut........
Maryland...........
Massachusetts- - _
New HampshireNew York...........
Pennsylvania___

1Not reported.



84-84-84

2.00-2 0 .0
.0 -2 0
2 0 .0 -2 0
.0 -2 0 .0

Hours Rate per day
(dollars)
per week

Rate per day
(dollars)

84-84-84
84-84-84
60-60-60

1.50-1.50-1.50
1.75-1.75-1.75

84-84-84

0

2.00-2 0 .0
.0 -2 0
1. 75-1.75-1.75
1 0 .0 -1 0
.0 -1 0 .0

84-84-84
84-84-84

2.00-2.00-2.00
1.75-1.75-1.75

60-60-60

1.34-1.34-1.34
2.00-2.00-2.00
1.00-1.75-1.38
1.00-1.00-1.00

84-84-84

(0

84-84-84
60-84-72

0)

1.0 -1 0 .0
0 .0 -1 0

60-60-60
84-84-84
60-84-72

1.50-1.50-1.50
2. 25-2. 25-2.25
1*00-1. 75-1.38
1.42-1.42-1.42

60-60-60
84-84-84
60-84-72

0)

1.50-1.50-1.50
2. 25-2. 25-2.25
. 75-1. 75-1.25
1.42-1.42-1.42

60-60-60
84-84-84
60-84-68

1.50-1.50-1.50
2. 25-2. 25-2. 25
.83-2.00-1.24

60-60-60
84-84-84
60-84-68

1.50-1.50-1.50
2. 25-2.25-2. 25
1.00-2.00-1.33

60-60-60
84-84-84
60-84-66

1. 50-1.50-1.50
2. 25-2.25-2. 25
1. 00-2.00-1. 56

60-60-60
84-84-84
60-84-63
72-72-72

1.17-1.50-1.34
2. 25-2.25-2. 25
. 75-2.00-1.36
1.00-1.50-1.30

50-60-60
84-84-84
60-84-66
72-72-72

1.50-1.50-1.50
2. 25-2. 25-2. 25
. 75-2.00-1.38
1.34-1.56-1.45

60-60-60
72-72-72
60-60-60
60-84-68
72-72-72

1.50-1.50-1.50
2. 25-2. 25-2. 25

60-60-60
72-72-72
60-60-60
60-84-68
72-72-72

1.17-1.50-1.34
2. 50-2, 50-2. 50

60-60-60
60-60-60
72-72-72
60-60-60
60-84-66
72-72-72

1.06-1.50-1.30
1.50-1.50-1.50
2.50-2.50-2.50

C
1
)

0)

1.0 -1 0 .0
0 .0 -1 0

1
.00-1.00-1.00
3.00-2.00-1.58
1.34-1.56-1.45

1.00-1 0 .0
.0 -1 0
1.25-2.00-1.67
1.34-1.56-1.44

1.00-1 0 .0
.0 -1 0

1.00-2.00-1.53
1.34-1.56-1.45

1855:
Connecticut.........
Florida.................
Maryland.............
Massachusetts--New Hampshire..
New York............
Pennsylvania.......
1856:
Connecticut.........
Maryland— ........
Massachusetts--New Hampshire-.
New York....... —.
Pennsylvania.......
1857:
Connecticut—......
Maryland.......—
Massachusetts___
New Hampshire..
New York............
Pennsylvania.......
1858:
Connecticut........ .
Maryland.............
Massachusetts___
New Hampshire..
New York............
Pennsylvania___
1859:
Connecticut........ .
Maryland—
..........
Massachusetts___
New Hampshire..
New York______
Pennsylvania___
1860:
Connecticut........
Maryland______
Massachusetts_
_
New HampshireNew York...........
Pennsylvania___
1861:
Connecticut........
Massachusetts_
_
New York______
Pennsylvania___
1862:
Connecticut........
Massachusetts_
_
New HampshireNew York______
Pennsylvania___
1863:
Connecticut........
Maryland...........
Massachusetts -. New HampshireNew York....... .
Pennsylvania___
1864:
Connecticut........
Maryland______
Massachusetts. __
New HampshireNew Jersey.........
New York...........
Ohio....................
Pennsylvania___

I
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
72-72-72
60-60-60
60-84-64
72-72-72

1.25-1.67-1.47
3.00-3.00-3.00
1.50-1.50-1.50
2. 50-2.50-2. 50

60-60-60
60-60-60
72-72-72
60-60-60
60-84-67
72-72-72

1.25-2.00-1.64
1.50-1.50-1.50
2.50-2.50-2.50
1.17-1.17-1.17
1.13-2.30-1.60
1.501.80-1.65

60-60-60
60-60-60
72-72-72
60-60-60
60-84-66
72-72-72

1.25-2.00-1.64
1.50-1.50-1.50
2.75-2.75-2.75
1.17-1.17-1.17
1.13-2.30-1.53
1.50-1.80-1.65

60-60-60
60-60-60
72-72-72
60-60-60
60-84-76
72-72-72

1.38-1.67-1.51
1.50-1.50-1.50
2.75-2.75-2.75
1.17-1.17-1.17
1.00-2.30-1.56
1.50-2.04-1.77

60-60-60
60-60-60
72-72-72
60-60-60
60-84-72
72-72-72

1.17-1.67-1.40
1.50-1.50-1.50
2.75-2.75-2.75
1.08-1.08-1.08
1.00-2.30-1.64
1.50-2.04-1.77

60-60-60
60-60-60
60-72-68
60-60-60
60-84-68
60-72-66

1.17-1.50-1.34
1.50-1.50-1.50
2.50-3.00-2.67
1.17-1.17-1.17
1.00-2.50-1.63
1.50-2.40-1.80

60-60-60

66- 66-66

60-84-68
60-72-66

1.17-1.50-1.34
3.00-3.00-3.00
1.00-2.50-1.82
1.50-2.40-1.80

60-60-60
60-66-62
60-60-60
60-84-70
60-72-66

1.25-2.00-1.69
2.25-3.00-2.50
1.17-1.17-1.17
1.00-2.50-1.77
1.50-2.40-1.86

60-60-60
60-60-60
66- 66-66
60-60-60
60-84-67
60-72-64

1.50-1.67-1.54
1.34-1.67-1.51
3.00-3.00-3.00
1.17-1.17-1.17
1.00-2.75-1.69
1.50-2.40-1.86

60-60-60
60-60-60
54-66-62
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-84-73
70-70-70
60-72-64

1.67-2.50-1.92
1.67-2.17-1.92
2.50-3.00-2.67
1.25-1.25-1.25

1.00-1.00-1.00
1.00-2.50-1.54
1.50-1.56-1.53

2.00-2.00-2.00
1.17-2.93-2.04
2.25-2.25-2.25
1.67-2.64-2.10

171

B.— BUILDING TRADES
T able

B-8. — Engineers, stationary, 1840-1900, by year and State— Continued
Lowest, highest, and
average—

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Year and State

Sex
Hours
per week

1865:
Connecticut____
Maryland_____
Massachusetts._
New Hampshire.
New Jersey____
New York......... .
Ohio...................
Pennsylvania___
Rhode Island___
1866:
Connecticut..........
Maryland.........
Massachusetts___
New Hampshire.
New Jersey_____
New York...........
Ohio....................
Pennsylvania___
Rhode Island___
1867:
Connecticut____
Maryland— .......
Massachusetts___
New Hampshire.
New Jersey.........
New York......... .
Ohio___________
Pennsylvania___
Rhode Island___

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

60-60-60 2. 00-2. 50-2.25
60-60-60 2.17-2. 17-2.17
66- 66-66 2.75-3. 10-2.93
60-60-60 1. 50-1. 50-1.50
60-60-60 2. 00-2. 17-2.09
60-84-70 1.34-3. 32-2.34
70-70-70 3.00-3. 00-3.00
60-72-64 1.67-3. 00-2.14
78-78-78 1.50-1. 50-1.50

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

60-60-60
60-60-60
66- 66-66

60-60-60
60-60-60
60-84-70
70-70-70
60-72-63
78-78-78

M. 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60
M. 66- 66-66
M. 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60
M. 60-84-70
M. 70-70-70
M. 60-72-63
M. 78-78-78

1.75-2. 50-2.08
2.17-2. 17-2.17
2. 75-3. 00- 2.88
1. 75-1. 75-1. 75
2. 00- 2. 50-2. 33
1.34-3. 32-2.43
3.00-3. 00-3.00
1.75-3. 00-2.40
1. 75-1. 75-1. 75

2. 00-2. 50-2.25

2.17-2. 17-2.17
3.00-3. 00-3.00
1. 75-1. 75-1. 75
2. 50-2. 50-2. 50
1.34-3. 50-2.63
3.00-3. 00-3.00
1.75-3. 00-2.42
1.75-1. 75-1. 75

Connecticut........
Maryland...........
Massachusetts___
New Hampshire..
New Jersey.........
New York______
Ohio......... ........... .
Pennsylvania___
Rhode Island____

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

60-60-60 2.25-2. 50-2.42
60-60-60 2.17-2. 17-2.17
60-66-64 2.50-3. 00-2.83
60-60-60 1. 75-1. 75-1. 75
60-60-60 2.50-2. 50-2. 50
60-84-70 1.34-3. 50-2.66
70-70-70 3.00-3. 00-3.00
60-72-63 1. 75-3. 00-2.44
0 .0
72-72-72 2. 00- 2. 0 -2 0

Connecticut_____
Maryland............
Massachusetts___
New Hampshire. .
New Jersey___
New York........
Ohio.................
Pennsylvania. .
R hode Island........

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

60-60-60
60-60-60

60-60-60
60-60-60
59-84-69
70-70-70
M 60-72-64
.
M. 72-72-72

2. 50-2. 50-2.50
2.17-2. 17-2.17
2. 50-3. 00-2.83
1.50-2. 50-1.85
2. 50-2. 50-2.50
1.34-3. 50-2.66
3. 00-3. 00-3.00
2.00-3. 00-2. 50
2.25-2. 25-2. 25

Connecticut___
Maryland............
Massachusetts. . .
New HampshireNew Jersey...........
New York.............
Ohio......................
Pennsylvania.......
Rhode Island........

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
59-84-66
70-70-70
60-72-64
72-72-72

2. 75-2. 75-2. 75
2.17-2. 17-2.17
2.50-3. 00-2.75
2. 00- 2. 00-2.90
2.50-3. 00-2.67
1.34-4. 17-2.97
3.00-3. 00-3.00
2.00-3. 00-2.50
2.50-2. 50-2.50

Connecticut........ .
Maryland.......... .
Massachusetts___
New Hampshire..
New Jersey...........
New York............
Pennsylvania.......
lihode Island........

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

60-60-60
60-60-60
48-66-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
59-84-70
60-72-64
72-72-72

2.67-3. 00-2.84
2.17-2. 17-2.17
1.33-3. 00-2.49
2. 00-2. 00- 2.00
2.50-2. 50-2.50
1.34-3. 84-2.86
2. 00-2. 64-2.35
2.50-2. 50-2.50

1869:

1870:

1871:

1872:

66- 66-66

66- 66-66

2.67-4.00-3. 25
2.17-2.17-2.17
2.75-3.00-2.92
i Not reported,

Connecticut.......... M. 60-60-60
Maryland.............. M. 60-60-60
Massachusetts___ M. 66- 66-66

61298°— 29------ 12



Sex
Hours Rate per day
per week
(dollars)

Rate per day
(dollars)
1872—Continued.
New Hampshire.. M.
New Jersey.......... M.
New York------- M.
Ohio..................... M.
Pennsylvania....... 0)
Do.................. M.
Rhode Island....... M.
1873:
Connecticut......... M.
Maryland-........... M.
Massachusetts--- M.
New Hampshire.. M.
New Jersey.......... M.
New York............ M.
Pennsylvania---- M.
Rhode Island....... M.
1874:
Alabama—............ M.
Connecticut.......... M.
Delaware............ - M.
Illinois-................ M.
Maryland-------- M.
Massachusetts--- M.
New Hampshire. _ M.
New Jersey______ M.
New York------- M.
Oregon.................. M.
Pennsylvania---- M.
Rhode Island____ M.
1875:
Connecticut.......... M.
Maryland............. M.
Massachusetts___ M.
New Hampshire-_ M.
New Jersey______ M.
New York___....... M.
Pennsylvania....... M.
Rhode Island____ M.
1876:
Connecticut......... M.
Maryland— ......... M.
Massachusetts___ M.
New Hampshire,. M.
New Jersey______ M.
New York.... ....... M.
Pennsylvania....... M.
Do.................. M.
Rhode Island____ M.
South Carolina__ M.
1877:
Connecticut......... M.
Maryland............ M.
Massachusetts- _ M.
New Hampshire. _ M.
New Jersey--....... M.
New York. ____ M.
Ohio..................... M.
Pennsylvania....... M.
Rhode Island
M.
1878:
Connecticut.......... M.
Georgia................. M.
Maryland........... M.
Massachusetts___ M.
New Hampshire. _ M.
New Jersey______ M.
New York........... M.
North Carolina__ M.
Ohio..................... M.
Pennsylvania....... M.
Rhode Island____ M.
»Per hour.

60-72-66
60-60-60
59-84-65
0)
60-60-60
54-72-61
72-72-72

1.63-2.00-1.82
2. 50-2. 60-2. 60
1. 67-4.15-2.62
1.80-2.67-2.23
4. 00-4.00-4.00
2.00-2.82-2.30
2. 75-2.75-2.75

60-60-60
60-60-60
66-66-66
60-72-66
60-60-60
60-84-64
60-72-64
72-72-72

2.67-3.34-3.00
2.17-2.17-2.17
2. 7.5-3.00-2.92
1.75-2.00-1.88
2. 50-2. 50-2. 50
2.00-4.15-2.70
1.50-3.83-2.52
2. 75-2.75-2. 75

72-72-72
60-60-60
60-60-60
59-59-59
60-60-60
60-66-63
60-72-66
60-60-60
60-84-67
60-60-60
60-72-62
72-72-72

2.00-2.00-2.00
2.67-3. 34-3.00
2.00-2.00-2.00
2. 50-2. 50-2.50
2.17-2.17-2.17
2.50-3.08-2.73
1.80-2.00-1.90
2. 50-2.50-2.50
2.00-4.15-2.94
4.17-4.17-4.17
1.10-3. 00-1.88
2.75-2.75-2.75

60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-72-66
60-60-60
60-84-71
60-72-65
72-72-72

2.50-3.00-2.67
2.17-2.17-2.17
3.00-3.00-3.00
1.80-2.00-1.90
2. 50-2.50-2.50
2.00-4.60-3.21
1. 35-2.67-2.38
2.75-2.75-2.76

60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-72-66
60-60-60
59-84-70
60-72-62
0)
72-72-72
66-66-66

3.00-3. 00-3.00
2.17-2.17-2.17
3.00-3. 00-3. 00
1.35-2.00-1.65
2.50-2. 50-2. 50
2.00-4.60-3.09
. 76-5.00-2.00
2.18- .18- .18
2.75-2.75-2.75
2.00-2.00-2.00

60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
72-72-72
60-60-60
59-84-70
60-84-79
48-72-65
72-72-72

2.75-2.75-2.75
2.17-2.17-2.17
3.00-3.25-3.08
1.50-1.50-1.50
2.00-2.00-2.00
2.00-4.60-3.10
1.00-5.00-1.97
1.35-2.91-2.14
2.75-2.76-2.75

60-72-68
66-66-66
60-60-60
60-60-60
72-72-72
60-60-60
59-84-70
0)
69-59-59
54-72-67
72-72-72

2.50-3.33-2.86
3.00-3.00-3.00
2.17-2.17-2.17
3. 00-3.25-3.08
1. 50-1.50-1.50
2.00-2.00-2.00
1.84-4.60-3.04
1.33-1.33-1.33
1.25-3.07-1.87
. 80-3.50-1.68
2.76-2.76-2.76

172

PART 2.— FROM 1840 TO 1928

Table B -8,— Engineers, stationary, 184-0-1900, by year and State— Continued
Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

1879:
Connecticut........
Maryland—_.......
Massachusetts__
Missouri-----------New Hampshire.
New Jersey-------New York______
Pennsylvania----Do.................
Rhode Island___
1880:
Connecticut........ .
Georgia.................
Illinois.................
Kentucky............
Maryland---------Massachusetts___
Missouri-----------New Hampshire
New Jersey_____
New York______
Ohio.....................
Pennsylvania___
Rhode Island___
South Carolina___
1881:
Connecticut___
Georgia---------Kentucky------Maryland------Massachusetts___
Michigan_______
New Hampshire
New Jersey_____
New York--.......
North Carolina.Ohio___________
Pennsylvania----Rhode Island___
1882:
Connecticut____
Georgia................
Kentucky............
Maine.............. .
Maryland----------Massachusetts__
Missouri....... ......
New Hampshire. _
New Jersey___
New Y o r k ..........
North Carolina. _
Ohio.................
Do................_
Pennsylvania----Rhode Island____
South Carolina...
Virginia.......... .....
West Virginia___
1883:
Alabama..............
Connecticut........
Georgia................
Kentucky— .......
Maryland....... .....
Massachusetts___
Mississippi______
New Hampshire..
New Jersey___
New York.............
North Carolina
Ohio—...................
Pennsylvania____
Rhode Island____
Tennessee.............

Sex
Hours
per week

Rate per day
(dollars)

.0 -2
60-60-60 2 0 . 50-2. 25
60-60-60 2.17-2. 17-2.17
60-60-60 2.29-3. 50-2.90
70-70-70 1.32-1. 32-1. 32
60-72-66 1.15-1. 60-1.38
.0 -2
60-60-60 2 0 . 00- 2.00
.84-4. 60-2.55
59-84-72
54^-72-60 . 50-3. 50-1.73
3.77- . 77- . 77
0)
72-72-72 3.00-3. 00-3.00
60-60-60

0)

60-61-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60

0

60-72-67
60-60-60
59-84-65

2 0 . 50-2.25
.0 -2

2.50-2. 50-2. 50
1.24-2. 95-1.94
1.50-1. 50-1. 50
2.17-2. 17-2.17
2.00-3. 50-2.58

2 0 . 0 -2 0
.0 -2 0 .0
1.15-1. 65-1.40
2 0 . 0 -2 0
.0 -2 0 .0

53-72-61
72-72-72

0

1.00-4. 60-2.48
2.50-2. 50-2. 50
1.75-2. 59-2.25
3.25-3, 25-3. 25
.83- . 83- .83

60-60-60

2 0 . 50-2. 25
.0 -2

0

66- 66-66

0
60-60-80

60-60-60
60-60-60
60-72-66
60-60-60

59-84-65

0
55-72-63
60-72-63
66-72-69
60-66-62
72-72-72
60-66-63

66- 66-66

60-60-60
60-60-60
59-59-59
60-72-66
60-72-67
59-84-62
72-72-72
60-60-60
54r-112-64
60-72-62
60-72-66
61-69-65

0

59-59-59
60-60-60
66-69-68

0)

60-60-60
60-60-60

0

60-72-66
48-75-58
59-84-64
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-72-62
72-72-72
66- 66-66

i Not reported.



Lowest, highest, and
average—

2.50-2. 50-2. 50
1.67-1. 67-1.67
2.17-2. 17-2.17
1.92-3. 50-2.57
2. 50-2. 50-2. 50
1.15-1. 65-1.40

2 0 . 00 2.00
.0 -2
-

1.34-4. 60-2.29
.75- . 75- .75
1.20-3. 68- 2.11
1. 75-2. 64-2.22
3.25-3. 25-3. 25
1. 50-3. 00-2.32
1.50-2. 00-1. 75
1. 75-2. 00- 1.88
1.25-1. 75-1. 50

2 0 . 00 2.00
.0 -2
-

2. 29-3. 72-3.01
3.00-3. 00-3.00
1.15-1. 65-1.40
1.50-3. 0 -2 1
0 .1
1. 34-4. 60-2. 29
1.50-1. 50-1.50

2 0 . 00
.0 -2

-

2.00

.83-4. 17-1.99
1. 75-2. 64-2.26
2.25-3. 25-2.75
.90-2. 00-1.63
1.50-1. 50-1.50
1.50-2. 00-1.75

3. 50-3. 50-3. 50

2 0 . 75-2.33
.0 -2
.83-2. 75-1.86
2 0 . 00 2.00
.0 -2
2 0 . 00-2.00
.0 -2
-

1. 25-5. 00-2.50
2.92-2. 92-2.92
1.15-1. 65-1.40
1. 33-3. 00-2.03
1.17-4. 60-2.24

1 0 . 0 -1 0
.0 -1 0 .0

1.60-3. 00-2.31
1. 75-2. 64-2.18
2. 50-2. 50-2. 50
3.00-3. 00-3.00

Year and State

Sex

Hours
Rate per day
per week
(dollars)

1884:

Connecticut_____
Florida.................
Georgia.................
Indiana.............
Kentucky... ....... .
Louisiana......... .
Maryland_______
Massachusetts___
Michigan..............
Missouri....... .......
New Hampshire. _
New Jersey_____
New York______
Ohio.....................
Pennsylvania____
Rhode Island____
Tennessee........... Virginia... ............
West Virginia___
Wisconsin.............

60-60-60

63-66-65
60-60-60
60-60-60

3.00-3.50-3. 25

Alabama...............
Arkansas— ........
California.............
Connecticut..........
Delaware............ .
Georgia.—.......... .
Illinois................
Indiana............. ...
Iowa................ .
Kentucky-------Louisiana-------Maine................. .
Maryland— ........
Massachusetts___
Michigan..........
Missouri..........
New Hampshire- _
New Jersey....... .
New York______
North Carolina __
Ohio...................
Oregon..... ...........
Pennsylvania--Rhode Island___
South Carolina___
Tennessee____
Vermont.........
Virginia— .......
West Virginia-.
Wisconsin........

66-72-71
60-60-60
60-72-62
60-66-61
60-72-69
59-69-63
55-72-68
60-72-62
60-63-63
60-66-62
55-60-58
60-72-69
50-72-01
60-66-05
48-72-58
60-72-64
42-81-65
49-84-64
60-69-62
54-72-66
72-72-72
48-72-53
48-72-60

1.08-3. 50-2.08
3.00-3. 00-3.00
1.40-6. 00-4.10
1. 25-3, 00- 2.20
1. 50-2. 00-1.82
1.33-2. 50-1. 78
1.50-4. 50-2.57
1. 50-3. 33-2.13
1. 67-3. 00-1. 73
1. 50-3. 00 .0
-2 2
2.00-3. 00-2. 50
1.40-2. 50-1.92
1.45-3. 00-1.95
1.17-4. 00-2. 34
.85-4. 75-2. 52
1.35-5. 33-2.27
1. 20-3. 00-1. 72
1.33-2. 50-1.96
1. 25 -5. 83-2. 32
1 0 . 83-2.43
.0 -2
1.00-3. 84-1.85
2.25-2. 25-2. 25
1.08-5. 75-1.76
2. 50-3. 25-2.88

60-72-69
60-66-61
60-72-65
60-66-61
59-72-62

1.90-4. 33-2.53
1.13-3. 33-1. 82
1.25-2. 50-1.81
1. 50-5. 00-2.45

-

2.00-2.00-2.00

2.08-4.00-3.04
. 85-5. 50-2. 54
2. 50-2.74-2. 74
60-72-66 1.15-1.65-1.40
54-84-67 1.33-3.67-1.93
59-84-64 1.67-4.60-2.28
54-59-57 1.00-2.75-1.96
54-72-61 1.00-3.33-1. 75
60-72-66 2.50-3.00-2.75
59-66-63 1.33-2.50-1.92
55-59-57 1.67-3.33-2. 50
60-60-60 2.50-3.00-2.67
60-60-60 2.00-2.00-2.00

0
70-70-70

1885:

54-72-67

0

Connecticut..........M.
Delaware-............M
Illinois................ M.
Indiana................ M,
Iowa..................... M,
Kentucky............. M,
Maryland— ........ M.
Massachusetts___ M.
Michigan..............M
Minnesota............M
New Hampshire.. M
New Jersey.......... M,
New York....... . M.
Pennsylvania....... M,
Rhode Island....... M.
1887:
Connecticut_____ M.
Delaware_______ M.
Florida...... ......... . M.
Maryland— ....... . M,
Massachusetts___M,
Michigan............ J M

* Per hour.

2.00-2.75-2.38

2.00-2.00-2.00
0
66 66-66 1.33-2.75-2.06
2. 25-2. 25-2. 25
0
54-66-62 2.00-3.33-2.78

1 0 . 0 -1 0
.0 -1 0 .0
1.25-2. 1 -1 8
0 .6

60-60-60 2.0 -2 75-2.38
0.
72-72-72 2.08-2. 08-2.08
48-72-57 2.00-3. 33-2. 75
60-60-60 1 2 . 00-1.96
.9 -2
60-60-60 1. 50-2. 0 -1 6
0 .8
60-60-60 1. 50-1. 50-1.50
48-60-57 1.67-2. 50-2.05
60-60-60 2.00-4. 25-2.92
48-60-59 1.25-4. 17-2. 21
.00-2. 0 -2 0
60-60-60 2
0 .0
60-72-66 1.2 -1 70-1,45
0.
55-72-65 1.33-2. 50-1.91
54-84-61 1.33-4. 60-2.34
48-72-60 1.42-4. 17-2.43
60-60-60 2.00-3. 58-2.71
60-60-60

0
0

60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60

aAnd rent.

1.50-4. 59-2.5.3
*.13- .13- .23
1. 00-1. 53-1. 37
. 77-3.75-1.65
1. 50-4.25-2. 35
1.25-2. 30-1.81

B.— BUILDING
T ab le

173

TRADES

B-8.— Engineers, stationary, 1840-1900, & year and State— Continued
?/

Year and State

18S7—Continued.
Michigan.............
Missouri..............
New Hampshire _
New Jersey.........
New York...........
Ohio.....................
Oregon.................
Pennsylvania___
Do.................
Rhode Island___
Virginia...............
■Wisconsin............
1888:
California............
Colorado..........
Connecticut.........
Delaware- ...........
Illinois.................
Indiana................
Kansas..... ...........
Maryland______
Massachusetts
Michigan.............
Nov/ Hampshire _
New Jersey.........
New York...........
D o .................
Do..................
Do.......... .
D o ...............
North Carolina __
Ohio................... .
Pennsylvania___
Rhode Island___
South Carolina__
Tennessee............
Virginia________
West Virginia___
1889:
Alabama..............
California....... .....
Colorado........ .
Connecticut.........
Delaware_______
Georgia_________
Illinois.......... ......
Indiana...........
Do.................
Kansas.................
Do_.......... .
Maine..... .............
Maryland.......... .
Massachusetts
Michigan.............
Minnesota______
Mississippi_____
Missouri..............
Do.................
New Hampshire.
New Jersey.........
New York...........
Do............ .
North Carolina. _
Ohio....................
Pennsylvania___
Rhode Island___

Virginia.._____
West Virginia...
Wisconsin..........
1890:
Alabama______
California..........
Connecticut......
Illinois...............

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Hours
per week

Rate per day
(dollars)

0 0 .2 -0 0
W 2 .2 -0 0 .2

74-74-74 1.65-2.68-1.92
60-60-60 1.25-1.70-1.48
60-60-60 . 50-3.64-1.94
60-84-64 .38-4.60-2.12
64-72-60 1.25-2.75-1.94
. 58-2.88-2.34
2.13-.25-.17J
60-72-62 1.05-3.25-2.10
60-60-60 1.50-2.50-1.95
1.34-1.34-1.34
1.50-3.07-2.08

61-61-61 3.75-5.00-4.38

m 1.73-2.09-1.92
60-60-60 2.00-3.25-2.63
1.83-1.83-1.83
0)
60-84-67 1.63-3.25-2.35
0) 2.13-2.13-2.13
60-72-67 1.25-4.17-2.08
60-60-60 2.00-2.00-2.00
60-60-60 1.654.25-2.65
48-78-61 . 80-3.83-2.15
60-60-60 1.25-1.75-1.50
60-60-60 1. 50-3.50-2.30
48-84-63 1.00-5.00-2.45
C !. 27J-. 27§-. 27£
1
)
68-58-58 4 .0 -2 0 .0
2 0 .0 -2 0
60-60-60 «1.83-1.83-1.83

6 0 .0 -2 0
2.0 -2 0 .0
3.00-3.00-3.00
1.75-3.07-2.59
1.05-5.00-2.36
1.67-3.33-2.44
1.50-1.50-1.50
1.40-2.00-1.79
1.00-2.30-1.64
1.50-2.66-2.10

48-84-87

8
60-60-60

60-60-60
66-84-78
60-72-65
60-72-63

a)

54-90-65
60-60-60
60-72-62
60-60-60
60-84-61
60-60-60

0

72-72-72
60-72-66
50-84-65

8

60-84-70
45-84-67
60-60-60
60-84-77
60-84-74
49-84-66
60-60-60

1.10-3.48-2.13
3. 00-4.84-3. 92
2.50-2.50-2.50
1. 84-3.25-2. 47
2.25-2.25-2.25
1. 50-5.00-2.22
1. 50-4.41-2.24
1. 53-3.00-2.03
3.50-3.50-3.50
1. 50-1. 50-1. 50
1.00-3. 50-2.04
2.00-2.50-2.25
1. 38-2. 50-2.15
1.65-4. 25-2.61
.67-3.83-1.97
2.05-2.31-2.16
1.25-1.25-1.25
1.00-3.00-1.75
1.04-3.00-1.77
1.25-3.00-2.33
1.53-2.83-2.02
1.30-4.60-2.00
3.25-3.25-3.25
1.50-1.50-1.50
1.35-4.00-2.12
1.204.00-2.16
2.50-2.91-2.72
1.00-4.79-2.12
1.25-2.75-2.05
1.05-3.15-2.24
1.50-2.50-1.90

60-84-70 1.50-3.67-2.41
2.50-2.50-2.50
2.00-3.33-2. 73
60-84-68 1. 75-2.50-2.12
1 Not reported.
2 Per hour.
8 And rent.
* And board.
60-60-60




Year and State

1890-—
Continued.
Indiana________
Kentucky...........
Louisiana............
Maryland..........
Massachusetts
Michigan............
Mississippi..........
Missouri_______
New Hampshire.
New Jersey.........
New York..........
Do................
North Carolina. _
Ohio....................
D o................
Pennsylvania--Rhode Island___
Tennessee...........
Wisconsin...........
1891:
Connecticut........
Florida................
Illinois................
Kansas................
Maine. ...............
Maryland........ .
Massachusetts. __
Michigan............
Minnesota_____
Missouri_______
New Hampshire.
New Jersey_____
New York...........
D o - .............
O hio..................
Pennsylvania___
Rhode Island--South Carolina__
Wisconsin...........
Do................
1892:
California............
Connecticut........
Florida—
.............
Indiana...............
Iowa..................
Maine.................
Maryland...........
Massachusetts.. .
Michigan. ..........
Minnesota_____
New Hampshire.
New Jersey.........
New York_____
Ohio— ...............
Do—.............
Do................
Pennsylvania___
Rhode Island___
South Carolina__
Wisconsin...... .

Sex

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Hours Rate per day
per week
(dollars)
60-60-60

J

48-84-63
60-60-60
60-60-60

8

60-60-60
60-84-68
54-84-63

I ,

42-84-61
54-84-65
60-60-60

0)

55-84-77
60-60-60
60-60-60
72-84-78
60-60-60
60-72-66
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60

0)

60-60-60
60-60-60

0)

54-84-63
48-84-62
60-72-62
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60

0)

1. 50-2.50-2.41
3.00-3.00-3.00
4.00-4,00-4.00
1. 25-2.67-1. 93
1.65-4.25-2. 56
. 50-3.75-1.87
3.19-3.19-3.19
1.97-1.97-1.97
1.25-2.00-1.63
1.20-3.50-1.84
. 67-7.33-2.26
31.13-1.13-1.13
1.00-2.50-1.72
1.00-2.20-1. 77
1.17-5.00-2.13
1.00-3.24-2.13
2.38-2.75-2. 57
3.00-3.07-3.04
2.35-3.25-2.69
2.25-3. 00-2.67
1.92-4. 79-2.80
2.68-3. 00-2.84
1.60-2. 50-2.11
1.67-2. 50-2.01

2 0 . 00 .0
.0 -2 -2 0

1. 65-4. 25-2.52
3.00-3, 00-3.00
2.00-3. 00-2.50
1. 50-4. 09-2. 25
1. 25-1. 75-1.50
2 0 . 08-2.04
.0 -2
31.13-1. 13-1.13
. 67-7. 33-2. 26
.75-5. 0 -2 0
0 .1
2.00-3. 24-2. 54
2. 75-2. 75-2,75
1.50-3. 20-2.15
3.00-3. 00-3.00
43.51-3. 51-3.51

54-66-59
60-60-60
54-66-61
48-72-61
60-72-68
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
54-72-61
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-77-63
84-84-84
48-72-65

1. 75-4. 80-2.53
3.00-3. 0 0 3.00
2.00-3. 00-2.50
1. 25-1. 25-1. 25
2. 25-2. 25-2.25
2.00-4. 60-2.72
2 0 . 50-2.39
.0 -2
.90-3, 83-2.04

60-60-60
53-60-57
60-60-60
60-60-60

1.75-3. 00-2.14
1.60-3. 45-2.74
3.00-3. 00-3.00

0)

1.34-5. 50-3.22
2.00-3. 00-2.42
1.00-4. 00-1.93
1. 25-3. 00-1.84
1.45-1. 92-1.67

2 1 . 1 -2 1
.1 -2 1 .1
2.30-2. 30-2.30
2 0 -20 -2 0
. 0 . 0 .0

2.20-. 20-.20
2 0 . 67-2.41
.0 -2

Illinois................ . M. 60-84-72 1.67-3.00-2.34
Maryland........... . M. 72-72-72 1.67-1.67-1.67
Massachusetts___ M. 60-63-61
1.75-3.30-2.31
Michigan............ M. 57-81-64 1.50-3.00-1.94
Minnesota........... M. 60-60-60
2.00-3.00-2.50
Missouri________ M. 48-72-65
1. 50-5.00-2.67
Montana.............. 0 ) 60-60-60 3.00-3.69-3.52
D o - ............... 0)
(i)
"2.27-2.27-2.27
New Jersey.......... M. 84-84-84 1.60-1.60-1.60
2.20-2.31-2. 26
New York............ M. 60-66-63
. 50- . 50- . 50
North Carolina__ M. 60-60-60
. 83-5.00-2.13
Ohio..................... M. 48-78-62
5 And rent and fuel.
6 And a percentage.
? And board and lodging.

174

PART 2.— FROM 1840 TO 1928

T a b le B -8 .— Engineers, stationary, 1840-1900, by year and State— Continued
Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Sex

Year and State
Hours
per week

1893—Continued.
Pennsylvania....... M.
Rhode Island....... M,
Wisconsin_______ M.
1894:
Connecticut.......... M.
Dist, of Columbia. M.
Georgia_________ M
Indiana_________ M,
Maine___ ______ M
Maryland_______ M
Massachusetts___ M.
Michigan............. M.
Minnesota______ M
Montana.............. M.
New Hampshire. _ M.
New York............ M.
North Carolina. __ M.
Ohio..................... M.
Pennsylvania....... M.
Rhode Island____ M
West Virginia....... M.
Wisconsin_______ M.
1895:
Alabama________ M.
Connecticut_____ M.
Florida_________ M.
Georgia_________ M.
Illinois__________ M.
Iowa..................... M.
Louisiana............. M.
Maine__________ M.
Maryland_______ M.
Massachusetts___ M.
Michigan.............. M.
Minnesota______ M.
Mississippi______ M.
Missouri________ M.
Montana________ M.
New Hampshire. _ M.
New Jersey_____ M.
New York............ M.
North Carolina. __ M.
Ohio..................... M.
Pennsylvania....... M.
Rhode Island....... M.
South Carolina_ M.
_
Tennessee ____ M.
Vermont............... M.
Virginia................ M.
West Virginia....... M.
Wisconsin............. M.
D o-................ (9
1896:
Alabama............... M.
California_______ M.
Colorado____ __ M.
Connecticut.......... M.
Delaware............. M.
Florida................. M.
Georgia................ M.
Illinois.................. M.
Indiana................ M.

i Not reported.




Lowest, highest, and
average—

60-60-60

2.00-2.67-2.35
3.00-3.00-3.00
2.08-3.00-2.54

Sex

Rate per day
(dollars)

(9

60-60-60
60-60-60
54-60-58
60-72-62
48-72-60
54-60-59
60-72-68
54-72-60
60-60-60
60-60-60

(9

53-53-53
60-72-60
60-72-63
23-84-61
60-60-60

(9

60-72-66
60-60-60
60-66-64
59-72-61
63-63-63
51-66-64
54-60-57
54-60-57
55-63-59
54-60-60
54-90-62
48-72-59
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
59-60-60

2.75-2.75-2.75
2.35-2.67-2.51
. 75-2.75-1.85
.88-3.25-2.08
1.50-2. 50-1.94
2.00-2.50-2.08
1.50-3.30-2.38
2.70-2.70-2.70
2.00-2. 56-2.35
3.37-3.50-3.43
1.75-2.75-2.33
1.00-3.33-2.00
. 75-3.00-1.20
. 50-5.00-2.04
2.00-2.67-2.24
2.70-2.70-2.70
1.25-2.75-2.00
3.00-3.00-3.00

60-66-61
48-60-58
48-66-59
54-72-64
45-84-63
42-60-59
55-66-59
54-66-64
59-67-65
60-72-66
54-72-63
59-60-60
59-60-60
48-90-65

2.25-3.50-3.08
1.50-3.25-2.51
1.00-1.00-1.00
1.00-3.00-1.94
2.67-3.83-2.79
2.00-2.00-2.00
2.00-4.00-3.19
1.50-3.00-2.01
1. 50-3. 00-2.12
1. 50-4.17-2. 52
2.70-2.70-2. 70
2. O 2. 56-2.35
O
2. 92-2. 92-2.92
1. 51-4. 85-2.89
1. 53-2. 25-1.86
1. 25-3.00-1.77
1.67-8.00-2. 50
1.25-5.00-2. 52
. 30-2.60-1.08
.75-4.80-2.09
1.25-3.50-2.54
1.67-4.17-2.64
. 83-2.08-1.39
1.00-3.33-2.13
1.25-2.50-1.88
1.15-3.67-2.17
2.00-2.33-2.17
2.00-3.00-2.33
1.50-5.00-2.39

63-63-63
60-60-60
48-72-54
60-60-60
72-72-72
60-60-60
60-72-63
51-60-58
60-65-62

1.10-1.10-1.10
1.25-3.00-2.19
1.53-3.50-2.98
2.00-4.00-2.80
2.25-2.25-2.25
1.00-2.50-1.67
. 75-3.50-1.68
2.00-5.00-2.66
1. 75-2.50-2.16

(9

4And board.

Honrs Rate per day
(dollars)
per week
1896—Continued.
Iowa____ ______
Kentucky _____
M a in e .- _______
Maryland.............
Massachusetts___
Michigan..............
Minnesota______
Do..................
Missouri__-_____
Montana ______
Nebraska.............
New Hampshire—
New Jersey_____
New York............
North Carolina—
Pennsylvania.......
Rhode Island.......
South Carolina—
Vermont________
West Virginia.......
W
i<3^nn«?m
1897:
Connecticut_____
Georgia_________
Illinois_________
Kansas _________
Maine__________
Massachusetts--Michigan.............
Montana _____
Nebraska. . ______
New York............
North Carolina-. .
Ohio.....................
Pennsylvania____
Vermont________
Virginia___. . . ___
1898:
Iowa___________
Missouri...............
Nebraska..............
New Jersey_____
New York............
Ohio.....................
Pennsylvania.......
Washington_____
1899:
Massachusetts--Michigan.............
New York............
North Carolina-..
Ohio.....................
Pennsylvania.......
Tennessee_______
Virginia_________
1900:8
Alabama...............
Massachusetts--New York...........
North Carolinai Ohio................ —

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

48-60-59 1.50-2.67-2.11
54-63-60 1.50-3.33-2.11
53-53-53 2.00-2.00-2.00
48-70-60 1.33-3.50-2.19
48-84-63 1. 75-4.00-2.61
54-72-60 1.22-4.17-2.05
60_g0_60 42.10-2.10-2.10
54-60-59 2.25-3.83-2.96
48-72-60
. 75-4.50-2.32
2.59-2.59-2.59
(9
48-72-62
. 77-5.00-2.08
60-60-60 2.50-2.75-2.63
56-60-60 2.00-4.00-3.13
48-84-63 1.25-5.00-2.67
54-69-67 . 70-1.50-1.04
48-72-61 1.00-4.50-2.12
47-72-59 1.28-4.17-2.31
60-60-60 1.92-4.00-3.09
. 90-3.50-1.97
66-66-66
60-64-62 2.00-2.50-2.25
55-60-59 1.25-3.13-2.23
48-72-61 1.50-5.83-2.48

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

58-60-60
66-66-66
60-60-60
28-98-74
54-60-59
60-63-60
60-60-60

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

48-72-61
54-72-70
66-75-69
54-72-66
48-60-56
72-72-72
48-72-63

(9

(9

(9

(9

72-72-72

1
<9 60-66-61

M. 60-72-66
M. 60-60-60
M.
(9
M.
(9

(9

(9

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

48-48-48

M.
M.
M.
M.

63-63-63
48-48-48
53-59-56
59-69-65

(9

53-59-56
59-90-66

(9

84-84-84
A)
I1)
(9

(9

(9

2.50-4.00-3.46
4.16-4.16-4.16
2.67-3.50-3.00
. 82-2.49-1.43
2.00-2.50-2.25
2.03-3.50-2.68
1. 97-2.25-1. 97
2.41-2.76-2.61
1.00-4.00-1.79
1.50-6.00-3.00
.65- .90- .73
. 75-4.00-2.03
1.35-3.00-2.20
2.50-2. 50-2. 50
. 62-3.33-1.59
2.50-2.50-2.50
2.47-3.00-2.60
1.00-4.60-1.85
1.50-3.00-1.83
1.50-7. 50-3.17
1.25-2.80-1.92
1.50-3.75-2.06
1.73-3.00-2.35
3.00-3.00-3.00
1.83-2.25-2.01
2.50-3.00-2.63
1.00-3.00-1.50
1.38-3.45-2.16
1.60-3.25-2.24
1.50-2.00-1.90
1.50-3.00-2.20
1.25-1.25-1.50
3.00-3.00-3.20
2.50-3.00-2.03
1.00-3.00-1.61
2. 50-2. 50-2. 65

8No available wage data after 1900.

175

B.— BUILDING TRADES
T a b le B--9.— Firemeny stationary, 1840-1900, by year and State
Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Sex

Year and State
Hours
per week

1.25-1.25-1.25
. 75- . 75- . 75

84-84-84

1.25-1.25-1.25

84-84-84

1.25-1.25-1.25

84-84-84

1.25-1.30-1.28

84-84-84

1.25-1.30-1.28

84-84-84

1.25-1.30-1.28

84-84-84

1.30-1.35-1.33

84-84-84

1.35-1.35-1.35

84-84-84

1.25-1.35-1.30

84-84-84

1.25-1.35-1.32

84-84-84

1.35-1.35-1.35

84-84-84

1.35-1.35-1.35

72-72-72

1.35-1.40-1.38

72-72-72
72-72-72

1.40-1.50-1.45
.84- .84- .84

72-72-72
72-72-72

1.42-1.45-1.44
.84- .84- .84

72-72-72
60-72-62

1.45-1.50-1.48
1.00-1.00-1.00

72-72-72
72-72-72

1.00-1.50-1.32.
1.00-1.00-1.00

72-72-72
72-72-72

1.00-1.50-1.32
1.00-1.00-1.00

72-72-72
72-72-72

1.17-1.50-1.36
. 75- . 75- . 75

72-72-72
72-72-72

1.17-1.50-1.41
.75- . 75- . 75

60-72-70
72-72-72

1.00-1.50-1.33
. 75- . 75- . 75

66-66-66
72-72-72

1.25-1.50-1.38
. 75- . 75- . 75

66-66-66
72-72-72

1.25-1.50-1.41
. 75- . 75- . 75

66-66-66

1.25-1.67-1.48

72-72-72
66-66-66

1.25-1.25-1.25
1.35-1.50-1.46

66-66-66
60-72-62

1.40-1.75 1.51
1.50-2.00-1.58

66-66-66
66-66-66
72-72-72

1.50-1.50-1.50
1.50-1.83-1.58
2.00-2.00-2.00

66-66-66
66-66-66
72-72-72

1.75-1. 75-1. 75
1.50-2.00-1.67
2.00-2.00-2.00

i Not reported.



Sex

Rate per day
(dollars)

84-84-84
72-72-72

1840:
Massachusetts___ M.
New York.... ....... M.
1841:
Massachusetts___ M.
1842:
Massachusetts___ M.
1843:
Massachusetts___ M.
1844:
Massachusetts___ M.
1845:
Massachusetts___ M.
1846:
Massachusetts___ 'M.
1847:
Massachusetts___ M.
1848:
Massachusetts___ M.
1849:
Massachusetts___ M.
1850:
Massachusetts___ M.
1851:
Massachusetts___ M.
1852:
Massachusetts___ M.
1853:
Massachusetts___ M.
New York______ M.
1854:
Massachusetts___ M.
New York______ M.
1855:
Massachusetts— M.
New York.... ........ M.
1856:
Massachusetts___ M.
New York______ M.
1857;
Massachusetts___ M.
New York______ M.
1858:
Massachusetts___ M.
New York______ M.
1859:
Massachusetts___ M.
New York.... ....... M.
1800:
Massachusetts___ M.
New York______ M.
1861:
Massachusetts___ M.
New York______ M
1862:
Massachusetts___ M.
New York.... ........ M.
1863:
Massachusetts___ M.
1864:
Connecticut.......... M.
Massachusetts___ M.
3865:
Massachusetts___ M.
New Y ork .......... M.
1866:
Connecticut_____ M.
Massachusetts___ M.
New York.... ....... M.
1867:
Connecticut.......... M.
Massachusetts___ M.
New York.... ....... M.

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Hours Rate per day
per week
(dollars)
1868:
Connecticut_____ M.
Massachusetts___ M.
New York______ M.
1869:
Connecticut_____ M.
Massachusetts___ M.
New Hampshire-. M.
New York.... ....... M.
1870:
Connecticut-........ M.
Massachusetts___ M.
New Jersey______ M.
New York.... ....... M.
1871:
Connecticut-........ M.
Massachusetts___ M.
New York—____ M.
1872:
Connecticut.......... M.
Massachusetts___ M.
New York.... ....... M.
South Carolina_ M.
_
.1873:
Connecticut.......... M.
Massachusetts___ M.
New Y ork .......... M.
1874:
Alabama—............ M.
Connecticut—
....... M.
Massachusetts___ M.
New York.... ....... M.
Pennsylvania....... M.
1875:
Connecticut.......... M.
Massachusetts___ M.
New York.... ....... M.
Pennsylvania....... M.
1876:
Connecticut_____ M.
Massachusetts___ M.
New Hampshire-- M.
New York.... ....... M.
Pennsylvania-. .. M.
South Carolina_ M.
_
1877:
Connecticut.......... M.
Georgia................. M.
Massachusetts___ M.
New York.... ....... M.
Ohio..................... M.
Pennsylvania....... M.
1878:
Connecticut.......... M.
Georgia................. M.
Massachusetts___ M.
New Y ork .......... M.
Ohio.—................. M.
Pennsylvania....... M.
Virginia... ............ M.
1879:
Connecticut.......... M.
Massachusetts___ M.
Missouri............... M.
New York.... ........ M.
M.
Pennsylvania-Do...... —....... M.
1880:
Massachusetts--- M.
New Hampshire-_ M.
New York............ M.
Pennsylvania---- M.
Rhode Island____ M.
Virginia................ M.

8And board.

66-66-66
66-66-66
66-66-66

1.50-1.50-1.50
1.45-2.00-1.64
1.75-1.75-1.75

60-60-66
66-66-66
(9
66-60-66

1.25-1.50-1.38
1.45-2.00-1.67
1.75-1.75-1.75
1.75-1.75-1.75

66-66-66
60-66-66
60-60-60
66-66-62

1.50-1.50-1.50
1.40-2.00-1.73
2.00-2.00-2.00
1. 75-2.50 2.25

66-66-66
59-70-63
66-66-66

1.50-1.60-1.55
1.45-2.00-1.86
1.75-1.75-1.75

60-66-64
66-66-66
66-66-66
72-72-72

1.60-2.00-1.74
1.45-2.00-1.61
1.75-1.75-1.75
1.25-1.25-1.25

66-66-66
66-66-66
60-66-62

1.75-1.75-1.75
1.50-1.75-1.67
1.38-1.75-1.50

72-72-72
66-66-66
66-66-66
66-66-66
(l)

1. $0-1.50-1.50
1.75-2.00-1.88
1.67-1.75-1.72
1.50-1.50-1.50
1.40-1.90-1.66

60-66-66
60-60-60
66-66-66
(9
66-66-66
60-60-60
66-66-66
66-66-66
(9
60-66-66

1.75-1.75-1.75
1.50-1.75-1.60
1.63-1.63-1.63
1.50-2.25-1.88
1. 75-1.80-1.78
1.35-1.75-1.57
1.35-1.50-1.40
1.42-1.42-1.42
.85-2.90-1.62
1.00-1.00-1.00

66-66-66
66-66-66
60-60-60
66-66-66
84-84-84
60-72-64

1.80-1.80-1.80
1.50-1.50-1.50
1.20-1.75-1.51
1.27-1.27-1.27
1.00-1.92-1.40
1.38-2.21-1.81

66-72-71
66-66-66
60-60-60
66-66-66
(9
54-84-68
72-72-72

1.80-2.25-2.14
1.00-1.00-1.00
1.20-1.75-1.49
1.27-1.27-1.27
2.30-2.30-2.30
.45-2.00-1.25
1.00-1.00-1.00

66-66-66 1.80-1.80-1.80
60-60-60 1.20-1.60-1.36
60-60-60 1.19-1.19-1.19
66-66-66 1.27-1.27-1.27
60-60-60 .44-2.50-1.39
2.75- . 75- . 75
<9
60-60-60
69-69-69
59-66-61
60-60-60
72-72-72
68-68-68

1.10-1.60-1.37
1.60-1.60-1.60
1.27-2.50-2.09
1.25-1.67-1.47
1.25-1.45-1.35
1.25-1.25-1.25

176

PA.RT 2.— FROM 1840 TO 1928

Table B -9.— Firemen, stationary, 1840-1900, 6^ year and
Lowest, highest, and
average—
Yeal? and State

Hours
per week
1881:
Connecticut-.
Massachusetts___
New Hampshire..
New Jersey_____
New York______
North Carolina...
Obio__................ .
Rhode Island____
1882:
Connecticut__. __
Georgia________
M aine.............. Massachusetts_
_
Missouri.............
New Hampshire..
New Jersey_____
New York.......... .
North CarolinaOhio............. .......
Rhode Island___
South Carolina__
Virginia.............. .
West Virginia-,__
1883:
Alabama........ .....
Connecticut____
Georgia...............
Kentucky—
........
Massachusetts_
_
Michigan............ .
Mississippi_____
New Jersey_____
New York______
Pennsylvania___
Rhode Island____
Tennessee—
........ .
1884:
Connecticut____
Georgia.... ..........
Indiana,.............
Iowa...................
Kentucky...........
Louisiana...........
Massachusetts__
Michigan ............
New Jersey_____
New York_____
Ohio....................
Pennsylvania___
Rhode Island___
South C arolinaWest Virginia___
1885:
Alabama_______
Arkansas.............
California............
Connecticut___ _
Delaware_______
Georgia...............
Illinois_________
Indiana.......... .
Kentucky............
Louisiana..-.......
Maine.................
Maryland...........
Massachusetts- -.
Michigan______
Minnesota_____
Missouri.............
New HampshireNew Jersey.........
New York-----North Carolina. _
O hio..................




Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Sex

66- 66-66

1.25-L 80-1.58

Sex

Hours Rate per da
per week
(dollars)

Rate per day
(dollars)

66- 66-66

60-60-60
65-65-65
72-72-72
66- 66-66

0)
60-72-69

72-72-72

66 - 66-66

70-70-70

(9

60-60-60
59-59-59
66- 66-66

48-72-55
66- 66-66

72-72-72
57-72-65
72-72-72
61-69-65

<9

59-59-59

(9

60-66-64

(9

60-60-60

9
8

54-72-64
66- 66-66

(9

72-72-72
65-66-66

1 0 . 0 -1 0
.0 -1 0 .0
1.25-1. 60-1.42
1.25-2. 00-1.45

1 8 . 6 -1 8
.6 -1 8 .6

1. 40-1. 40-1.40
.60- . 60- .60
1. 25-2. 00-1. 55
1.25-1. 45-1.32

1.25-1. 75-1.46
.75- . 75- .75
1.50-1. 50-1.50
1 0 . 60-1.39
.2 -1
1.75-1. 75-1.75
1.50-1. 50-1.50
1.50-2. 50-2.15
1.25-1. 25-1.25

1 0 . 0 -1 0
.0 -1 0 .0
.50-2. 50-1.46
1.25-1. 45-1.35
1 0 . 25-1.08
.0 -1
1.25-1. 50-1.38
1.40-1. 40-1.40

1.17-1. 17-1.17
1.25-2. 00-1.70
.75-1. 60-1.26

1 0 . 0 -1 0
.0 -1 0 .0
1 0 . 08-1.50
.0 -2
1.25-2. 58-1.85
1.33-1. 33-1.33
1.25-3. 33-1.74
1.25-1. 25-1.25
1.50-1. 50-1.50
1.25-1. 60-1.43
1 0 . 17-1.09
.0 -1

60-66-64
66-70-67

1.25-1. 75-1.50
1 0 . 25-1.07
.0 -1
.90-2. 00-1.48
0)
63-63-63 1.37-1. 37-1.37
0 .8
66- 66-66 1.75-2. 0 -1 8
63-66-64 1.67-2. 25-1.89
60-60-60 1 0 . 60-1.48
.2 -1
1.00-4. 50-1.76
(9
60-70-61 1.33-2. 04-1.70
66- 66-66 1.25-1. 25-1. 25
54r-54-54 3.00-3. 33-3.17
1.48-1. 48-1.48
(0
60-72-68 1 .37-L 60-L 49
. 83- . 83- .83
60-60-60 1.50-1. 67-1.59
66-84-82
60-60-60
60-72-62
60-69-64
60-60-60
60-72-69
60-66-61
60-66-62
55-55-55
60-72-67
60-84-75
59-60-60
60-66-65

(9

60-72-69
60-66-61
55-72-62
60-72-66
60-60-62
58-84-68

.75-1. 50-1. 21
1.75-1. 75-L 75
1.00-2. 50-1. 52
1.25-2. 10-1. 76
1.16-1. 25-1.21
.65- . 85- .75
1.50-2. 33-1.86
1
.20-1. 63-1.49
1.50-1 65-1.54

2 0 . 0 -2 0
.0 -2 0 .0
1.15-2. 50-1.86
1.25-2. 14-1.86
1. 0 -2 25-1.54
0.
1.15-2. 75-1.64
1. 75-1. 75-1. 75
1.50-2. 85-2.11
1.35-1. 80-1.56
.75-1. 83-1.31
1.10-3. 00-1.54
. 75-1. 00- . 90
1. 0 -2 33-1.31
0.

i Not reported.

— Continued

1885—
-Continued.
Pennsylvania---Rhode Island----Tennessee.............
Vermont........ ......
Virginia— ............
West Virginia___
Wisconsin.............
1886:
Alabama..............
Connecticut_____
Delaware- ............
Illinois..................
Kansas............... .
Massachusetts___
Michigan.............
New Hampshire-.
New Jersey___
New York------Pennsylvania___
Rhode Island___
1887:
Connecticut........
Maryland— .......
Massachusetts—
Michigan______
Missouri. ............
Nebraska............
New Jersey_____
New York______
Ohio....................
Oregon................
Pennsylvania---D o ...............
Rhode Island___
Wisconsin............
1888:
California_______
Connecticut_____
Delaware............ .
Georgia.................
Illinois.......... —
Indiana______ '
Kansas.................
Massachusetts. .
Michigan...........
Missouri............
New Jersey---New York.........
Do...............
North Carolina__
Ohio................... .
Rhode Island___
South Carolina..Tennessee...........
Virginia..... ....... ...
West Virginia____

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

60-84-63
72-72-72
66-67-67
66-66-66
60-84-71
60-60-60
60-72-63

1.45-1.92-1.64
1.25-1.60-1.43
1.00-1.00-1.00
1.40-1.50-1.43
1.00-1. 50-1.22
1. 25-1. 25-1. 25
1.67-2.00-1.77

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

60-60-60
66-66-66
72-72-72
54-60-56

. 60- . 60- . 60
1. 62-1. 62-1. 62
1.67-1.67-1.67
1.50-2.33-1.98
2.17-2.17-2.17
1.25-1.60-1.48
1.00-1.50-1.39
1.25-1.33-1.26
. 83-1.67-1.44
1.00-2.00-1.63
1.25-2.25-1.66
1.25-1. 75-1. 47

(9

60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-72-63
54-66-57
57-64-60
60-60-60

M. 60-60-60 1.50-2.50-1. 77
M.
1.10-2.50-1.53
(9
M. 60-60-60 1.00-2.00-1.53
.77-1.75-1.33
M. 60-60-60
M.
1. 75-1.75-1. 75
(9
(9 54-60-55 1.35-2.37-1.84
M.
1.15-2.11-1.93
(9
M. 58-60-59 1.04-3.50-2.42
M. 54-60-57 1. 25-3.00-1.57
2. 49-2.49-2.49
M.
(9
M.
3.12- . 20- . 14
(9
M. 72-72-72 1. 40-2.10-1. 53
M. 60-60-60 1.25-1.50-1.36
M.
1.25-1. 25-1.25
0)
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

Alabama........ ..... M.
California............ M.
Connecticut_____ M.
Georgia________ M.
Illinois............... M.
Indiana............... M.
Kansas........... .
M.
M aine,.............. M.
Maryland........... M.
Massachusetts___ M.
M.
Michigan.........
Minnesota....... .... M.
Mississippi......
M.
Missouri..........
M.
Do__..........
(9
New Hampshire- - M.
M.
New Jersey___
New York.......
M.

8Per hour.

61-61-61
60-60-60

(9

66—
66-,66
60-60-60

<9
(9

60-60-60
36-78-58

(9
(9
(9

48-72-65

<9

54-72-63
60-60-60
66-66-66

(9

72-72-72
66-66-66
48-90-64

2.31-2. 50-2. 41
1. 50-1. 75-1. 59
1.17-1.17-1.17
1.25-1. 50-1. 38
. 80-2.29-1.64
1. 63-1.63-1.63
1. 75-1. 75-1. 75
1.00-2.00-1.43
. 58-2.15-1.97
1. 50-1. 50-1. 50
1.50-4.50-2.67
3.12*-. 12|- 12*
. 67-3.33-1.89
1.25-1.25-1. 25
1.73-2.00-1.85
1.25-1.67-1.48
- 75-1.25- . 95
1.00-1.50-1.23
1.00-1.56-1.30
1.86-1.86-1.86

1.10-1.80-1.42
1.75-2.50-2.13
(9
60-60-60 1.00-2.00-1.53
66-84-75 1.00-1.50-1.19
60-72-68
.55-2.35-1.63
60-72-62 1.50-2.00-1.70
54-72-61 1.25-1.83-1.50
60-70-63 1.27-1. 75-1. 55
60-60-60 1. 00-1.65-1.42
60-60-60 1.25-2.00-1.67
.83-2.25-1.67
56-70-61
60-60-60 1.75-1.95-1.89
1.25-1.25-1.25
(9
1.50-2.17-1.73
(9
1.19-1.64-1.37
(9
60-72-70 1.50-2.17-1.62
60-60-60 1.50-1.50-1. f 0
60-72-66 1.25-2.10-1.74

177

B .— BUILDING TRA.DES

T abes B -9.— Firemen, stationary, 1840-1900, by year and State— Continued
Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Sex

^ ear and State
Hours
per week

1889—Continued.
North Carolina.-Ohio.....................
Pennsylvania.......
Rhode Island.......
South Carolina_
_
Tennessee.............
Virginia................
West Virginia.......
Wisconsin............
1890:
Connecticut_____
Kentucky.............
Louisiana.............
Maine--........ ......
Massachusetts___
Michigan..............
Mississippi-..........
New Hampshire. _
New Jersey..........
New York....... ....
Do..................
North Carolina__

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

0)
50-84-67
55-84-63
60-60-60
69-69-69
60-72-66
60-84-72
60-70-66
60-60-60

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

60-60-60
60-87-78
0)

(9

70-70-70
60-60-60
60-60-60
0)
60-60-60
60-60-60
45-63-55

b

0) 48-72-62
Pennsylvania____ M. 60-60-60
Rhode Island....... M. 60-60-60
Tennessee............. M. 69-69-69
Wisconsin............. M. 84-84-84
1891:
Connecticut.......... M. 60-60-60
Florida................. M. 60-60-60
Kansas____ _____ M. 60-60-60
Maine.................. M. 60-72-69
Massachusetts___ M. 60-60-60
Michigan.............. M. 60-60-60
Minnesota............ M. 60-60-60
Missouri............... M.
0)
New York............ M. 60-60-60
Do.................. 0)
0)
North Carolina__ M. 71-71-71
Ohio..................... M. 36-84-63
Pennsylvania....... M. 60-60-60
Rhode Island....... M. 60-60-60
South Carolina_ M. 60-60-60
_
Wisconsin............. M. 60-60-60
1892:
California............. M. 54-60-56
Connecticut.......... M. 60-60-60
Florida................. M. 60-66-61
Indiana................. M. 60-60-60
Maine.................. M. 60-60-60
Massachusetts___ M. 58-72-62
Michigan.............. M. 60-60-60
Minnesota............ M. 60-60-60
New Hampshire.. M. 60-60-60
New York............ M. 54-60-58
Ohio..................... M. 48-84-69
Rhode Island....... M. 60-60-60
_
South Carolina_ M. 60-60-60
Wisconsin............. M. 60-60-60
1893:
Connecticut—
....... M. 60-60-60
Maryland............. M. 72-72-72
Massachusetts___ M. 60-72-69
Michigan.... ......... M. 60-72-66
Minnesota______ M. 60-60-60
Missouri............... M. 54-72-68
New Hampshire __ M. 60-60-60
New Jersey______ M. 84-84-84
New York............ M. 54-60-57
Ohio..................... M. 36-81-62
Pennsylvania....... M. 60-60-60
Rhode Island
M.
0)
Wisconsin_______ M. 60-60-60
1 Not reported.




Lowest, highest, and
average—

Rate per day
(dollars)

Q
/\fr
OX
C
Hours
Rate per day
per week
(dollars)

1894:
Connecticut_____ M. 60-60-60
Georgia................. M. 60-60-60
Indiana................. M. 72-72-72
M ain e................. M. 60-66-62
Massachusetts___ M. 60-84-74
Michigan. ............ M. 60-60-60
Minnesota........... M. 60-60-60
Montana___ ____ M.
0)
New Hampshire - _ M. 53-60-57
New York______ M. 54-60-60
. 50-1.50-1.03
North Carolina__ M. 60-84-63
Ohio..................... M. 54-72-64
1.50-2.00-1.81
1.00-1.25-1.13
Rhode Island....... M.
(*)
2.00-2.00-2.00
Do_................ 0
0)
1. 25-1.50-1.33
South Carolina_ M. 66-66-66
_
1.00-2. 00-1.48
West Virginia___ M. 60-72-69
. 67-2.05-1. 54
Wisconsin—
.......... M. 60-60-60
1. 00-1.50-1.25 1895:
1. 50-1. 50-1.50
Alabama.............. M. 60-66-62
Connecticut_____ M. 45-72-63
1.00-1. 75-1.47
Florida................. M. 60-63-62
.50-5.00-1.83
Georgia-.............. M. . 66-66-66
<1.13-1.13-1.13
Illinois.................. M. 54-64-54
. 50-1.25- . 99
Kansas................. M. 48-48-48
. 75-3.00-1.64
Louisiana............. M. 55-63-61
1.58-1.83-1.70
Maine .................. M. 60-60-60
1.25-1.63-1.46
.......... M. 54-72-62
Maryland—
. 75-1.50-1.14
Massachusetts___ M. 54-72-60
1.50-1.50-1.50
Michigan.... ......... M. 54-72-60
Minnesota.-........ M. 60-60-60
1.50-1.50-1.50
Mississippi... ....... M. 60-60-60
1.50-1.50-1.50
Missouri............... M. 59-60-60
2.00-2.00-2.00
Montana___ ____ M.
1. 50-2.00-1.74
0)
1.25-2.25-1.63
New Hampshire. - M. 59-66-60
New Jersey.......... M. 53-60-59
1.88-1.88-1.88
New York__......... M. 48-60-60
1.75-2.00-1.88
1.24-2.84-2.28
North Carolina__ M. 60-72-65
Ohio..................... M. 36-84-65
.50-5.00-1.82
Pennsylvania____ M. 54-80-59
<1.13-1.13-1.13
. 50- . 50- . 50
Rhode Island____ M. 55-66-60
South Carolina_ M. 60-66-64
_
1.00-3.00-1. 74
.......... M. 59-67-65
Tennessee—
2.00-2.00-2.00
1.25-1. 50-1.38
Virginia—
.......... M. 60-72-68
Wisconsin............. M. 60-60-60
.84-1.25-1.10
1.65-2.00-1.83
Do.................. 0) 60-78-65
1896:
Alabama________ M. 63-63-63
2.49-2.67-2.63
1. 50-1. 50-1.60
California............. M. 60-60-60
1.00-1.54-1.33
Colorado________ M. 60-72-62
1.12-1.25-1.19
Connecticut_____ M. 60-60-60
Delaware.............. M. 72-72-72
1.43-2.00-1. 66
Florida................. M.
1.45-2.25-1.79
0)
Georgia—............. M. 54-66-64
1.75-1.75-1.75
Illinois.................. M. 54-60-57
1.75-2.00-1.88
Indiana,............... M. 60-65-64
1.25-1.25-1.25
1.58-2.00-1.73
M.
0)
Kentucky_______ M 60-63-61
. 50-3.50-1.72
Maryland—
.......... M. 60-77-67
1.50-1.50-1.50
1.00-1.50-1.30
Massachusetts___ M. 54-70-68
2.50-2.50-2.50
Michigan.............. M. 54-72-61
Minnesota — ...... M. 60-60-60
2.25-2.25-2.25
Do.................. M. 60-60-60
Montana— .......... M.
1.67-1.67-1.67
0)
1.80-1. 98-1.89
Nebraska. ............ M. 48-60-55
1.25-1.75-1.50
New Hampshire. . M. 60-60-60
New Jersey. ......... M. 56-60-59
1.75-2.00-1.88
. 67-4.17-1.85
New York............ M. 48-84-65
1.25-1.25-1.25
North Carolina__ M 66-69-69
Ohio,.................... M. 36-72-64
1.40-1.40-1.40
1.67-2,00-1.84
Pennsylvania , . M. 54-84-60
. 75-2.50-1.59
Rhode Island____ M. 60-60-60
1.73-2.49-2.11
South Carolina_ M. 66-66-66
_
1.50-1.50-1.50
Tennessee............. M.
0)
1.50-2.50-1.89 1 Vermont............... M. 66-66-66
<And rent.
3 And board.
1.00-1.00-1.00
1.13-2.25-1.56
1.25-2.50-1.69
1.25-1.60-1.42
. 75- . 75- . 75
1.00-2.00-1.33
1.00-1. 75-1.64
1.25-2.25-1.83
1.50-2.00-1.78

1.90-1.90-1.90
IftXM. 00-1.00
1.33-1.33-1.33
1.19-2.00-1.50
1.65-2.00-1.84
1.75-1.75-1.75
1.50-1.75-1.56
2.43-2.43-2.43
1.25-2.00-1.63
1.00-2.00-1.53
.52-1.25- .96
1.48-3.22-1. 88
1.35-1.35-1.35
1.40-1.67-1.51
1.00-1.00-1.00
1.10-1.25-1.19
2.00-2.00-2.00
1.00-1.75-1.32
1.25-2.00-1.73
1.00-1.00-1.00
. 75-1.60-1.05
2.30-2.30-2,30
1.00-1.00-1.00
1. 72-2.25-1.95
1.13-2.50-1.92
1.08-2. 33-1.65
1. 25-3.00-1.78
1.15-1.63-). 41
1.50-1.60-1. 53
1.50-1.50-1. 50
1.25-2.56-1.71
2.17-2.17-2.17
1.13-2.25-1.58
1.17-3.00-1.94
1.00-3.50-1.88
.60-1.25- .89
.67-2.81-1.63
1.50-2. 50-1. 76
1.50-2.00-1.66
1.00-1. 50-1.07
. 50-1.25-1.05
1.08-1.75-1.37
2.00-2.00-2.00
1.25-2.50-1.68
1.10-1.10-1.10
1. 50-2.00-1.75
1.50-2.63-2.04
1.25-2.45-1. 91
1.79-1.79-1. 79
1-25-1.25-1.25
.40-1.35-1.00
1.50-2,33-1.91
1.00-1.60-1.45
1.92-1.92-1.92
1.00-1.75-1.30
1.00-2.01-1.84
1.25-2.28-2.08
. 66-2.00-1.32
U. 15-1.15-1.15
1.20-2.00-1.67
2.91-2.98-2.94
1.66-2. 50-2.02
1.17-1.75-1.35
1.50-2.33-1.97
1.00-2.50-1.96
. 60-1.00- . 85
.99-3.50-1.69
1.17-2.25-1.69
1.50-2. 00--1. 75
. 75-1.50-1.09
1.00-1.00-1.00
1.75-1.75-1.75

178

PART 2.— FROM 1840 TO 1928

T a b le B -9.— Firemen, stationary, 1840-1900, by year and State— C ontinued
Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Sex

Year and State
Hours
per week

1.67-2.63-1.99
1.67-2.00-1.75

Sex

Hours Rate per day
per week
(dollars)

Rate per day
(dollars)

55-59-57
48-72-63

lg&G—Continued.
West Virginia___
Wisconsin... .........
1897:
Connecticut_____
Georgia.................
Illinois..................
Kansas... .............
Maine....... ...........
Massachusetts___
Michigan.............
Nebraska. ............
New York............
Ohio....................
Pennsylvania____
Virginia................
1898:
Iowa........—.........
Kansas.................

Lowest, highest, and
average—

60-60-60

6 -6 -6
666

1.75-2. 00-1.90
1.50-1. 50-1. 50

60-60-60
56-84-71
60-66-65
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
54-72-70
48-72-66
48-60-65
48-72-63

2.0 -2 50-2.25
0.

0)

1.75-1.75-1.75
1.40-1.75-1. 58

48-78-63

i Not reported.

.86-2. 14-1.48
1. 50-1. 50-1.50
1.40-2. 25-1.97
1.40-1. 53-1.53
2.25-2. 50-2.38
1.25-3. 00-2.46
.80-2. 00-1.53
1.35-2. 32-1. 56
.50-1. 75-1.14

1898—Continued.
Missouri.......... .
Nebraska......... .
New York____
Ohio_________
Pennsylvania.
Washington___
1899:
Michigan........
New York____
North Carolina.
Ohio................
Pennsylvania..
Tennessee_____
Virginia...........
1900: «
New York............
Ohio_________
Pennsylvania____

48-72-63
60-96-83

0)
(l)
0)

59-59-59
66- 66-66

0)
0)
C
1
)

84-84-84
50-59-59

0)

84-84-84

1.75-1.90-1.80
.40-3.00-1.80
1.00-3.00-1.84
1.35-1.75-1.58
1.40-2.00-1.65
1.50-2.25-1.81
1.67-1.96-1.89
1.67-1.67-1.67
. 60- . 60- . 60
1.48-1.72-1.65
1.50-1.00-1.82
1.10-1.74-1.39
1.15-1.75-1,34
1.67-1.67-1.67
1.65-1.65-1.65

2.00-2.00-2.00

8 No available wage data later than 1900.

T a b l e B-10. — Hod carriers, 1840-1900, by year and State
Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

1840:
New York______
1841:
New York............
1842:
New York______
1843:
New York______
1844:
New York______
1845:
New York______
1846:
New York______
1847:
New York______
1848:
New York______
1849:
Massachusetts___
New York............
1850:
Massachusetts___
New York______
1851:
New York______
1852:
Connecticut..........
Massachusetts___
New York______
1853:
Connecticut..........
Massachusetts___
New York............
1854:
Connecticut..........
Massachusetts___
New York.......... .
i Not
 reported.

Sex

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Hours
per week

M. 60-60-60

0.75-1.13-0.85

M. 60-60-60

. 75-1.13- . 94

Sex

Rate per day
(dollars)

M. 60-60-60

. 75-1.13- . 84

M. 60-60-60

1.13-1.13-1.13

M. 60-60-60

1.13-1. 25-1. 23

M. 60-60-60

. 75-1.25- . 84

M. 60-60-60

. 75-1.25-1.00

M. 60-60-60

. 81-1.25-1.03

M. 60-60-60

.88-1.25-1.07

M.
0)
M. 60-60-60

. 75- . 84- . 80
. 88-1.25-1.07

M. 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60

. 75-1.00- . 86
.88-1.25- .94

M. 60-60-60

.88-1.13-1.00

M.
(0
M.
(0
M. 60-60-60

1.00-1.00-1.00
. 87- . 87- . 87
. 88-1.38-1.13

M. 48-48-48
M. 78-78-78
M. 60-60-60

.80-1.00- .91
. 87-1.00- . 94
. 75-1. 50-1.06

M. 60-60-60
M. 78-78-78
M. 60-60-60

. 80-1.20-1.08
. 87-1.00- . 94
. 88-1. 50-1.00



Hours
Rate per day
per week
(dollars)
1855:
Connecticut..........
Massachusetts___
New York............
1856:
Connecticut........
Massachusetts___
New York______
1857:
Connecticut..........
Massachusetts___
New York______
1858:
Connecticut..........
Massachusetts___
New York............
1859:
Connecticut..........
Massachusetts___
New York______
1860:
Connecticut
Massachusetts___
New York............
Ohio_____ ______
Pennsylvania.......
1861:
Connecticut..........
Massachusetts___
New York______
Pennsylvania.......
1862:
Connecticut.........
Massachusetts___
New York............
Pennsylvania____
1863:
Connecticut_____
Massachusetts___
New York______

M. 48-60-56
M. 78-78-78
M. 60-60-60

0.80-1.00-0.93
1.00-1.00-1.00
. 75-1. 50-1.00

M. 48-60-55
M. 78-78-78
M. 60-60-60

. 80-1. 00- . 92
. 87-1.12- . 97
. 75-1. 50-1.03

M. 48-60-53
M. 78-78-78
M. 60-60-60

1.00-1.25-1.13
. 87- . 87- . 87
. 75-1. 50-1.04

M. 60-60-60
M. 78-78-78
M. 60-60-60

1.00-1.00-1.00
1.00-1.17-1. 07
. 75-1. 50-1.10

M. 48-60-53
M. 60-78-63
M. 60-60-60

.80-1.33-1.04
. 87-1.25-]. 11
. 75-1.50-1.03

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

48-60-56
60-78-65
60-60-60
0)
54-54-54

. 80-1.16-1.00
1.00-1.17-1.04
. 81-1. 50-1.18
1.00-1.00-1.00
1.12-1.12-1.12

M.
M.
M.
M.

60-60-60
60-78-61
60-60-60
54-54-54

1.00-1.00-3.00
. 90-1.25-1.08
. 81-1. 75-1.20
1.25-1.25-1.25

M.
M.
M.
M.

60-60-60
60-78-63
60-60-60
54-54-54

1.00-1. 00-1.00
1.00-1.25-1.18
. 81-1. 75-1.15
1.25-1.25-1.25

M. 48-60-53
M. 60-78-63
M. 60-60-60

1. 50-1. 62-1. 55
1.00-1.25-1.19
. 96-1. 75-1.31

179

B .— BUILDING TRADES
T ab le B -1 0 .— Hod carriers, 1840-1900, by year and State— Continued
Lowest, highest, and
Year and State

Sex

Year and State
Hours
per week

1864:

Rate per day
(dollars)

Connecticut.........
Massachusetts_
_
New York______
Pennsylvania___

M.
M.
M.
M.

60-60-60
60-78-63
60-60-60
54-54-54

1. 50-1. 67-1. 60
1.00-1.50-1.43
1.06-2. 25-1. 68
1. 50-1. 50-1.50

Connecticut.........
Massachusetts-. _
New York______
Pennsylvania___

M.
M.
M.
M.

60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
54-54-54

1.67-1. 67-1.67
1. 50-1. 75-1. 55
1.38-2.25-1. 71
2.00-2.00-2.00

Connecticut........
Massachusetts_
_
New York______
Pennsylvania___

Mt

60-60-60
M. 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60
M. 54-54-54

1.67-1.67-1.67
1. 50-2.00-1. 74
1.44-2. 50-2.16
2.00-2.00-2.00

Connecticut.........
Massachusetts___
New York........
Pennsylvania..

M.
M.
M.
M.

48-60-59
60-60-60
60-60-60
54-54-54

1.33-1. 75-1. 70
1. 50-2.00-1. 59
1.44-2. 75-2. 21
2.25-2.25-2.25

Connecticut____
Massachusetts___
New York_____
Pennsylvania___

M.
M.
M.
M.

48-60-57
60-60-60
60-60-60
54-54-54

1. 20-2.00-1.80
2.00-2.00-2. 00
1.44-2. 50-2. 09
2.25-2.25-2.25

Connecticut_____
Massachusetts___
New York_______
Pennsylvania........

M.
M.
M.
M.

48-60-55
60-60-60
60-60-60
54-54-54

1. 75-2.00-1.90
1. 50-2.25-1.93
1.44-2. 75-2. 43
2.00-2.00-2.00

California-...........
Connecticut........
Illinois.................
Louisiana_______
Maryland............
Massachusetts- __
Minnesota...........
Missouri..............
New York______
Ohio........... ........
Pennsylvania___
Virginia...............

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

48-54-52 3.00-3.00-3.00
48-60-58 1.40-2.00-1. 90
60-60-60 1. 50-1. 50-1. 50
60-60-60 1. 50-1. 50-1. 50
59-50-59 2. 50-2. 75-2. 63
60-60-60 1. 75-2. 50-2.12
M 60-60-60 1. 50-1. 50-1. 50
.
M 60-60-60 1. 50-1. 75-1. 58
.
M . 60-80-60 1. 44-2. 75-2. 39
M. 60-60-60 2. 75-2. 75-2. 75
M 54-60-57 2.00-2. 50-2.12
.
M. 60-60-60 1. 25-1.25-1. 25

California-...........
Connecticut_____
Illinois.____ ____
Louisiana............
Maryland............
Massachusetts___
Minnesota______
Missouri.............. .
New York______
Ohio......................
Pennsylvania____
Virginia............... .

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

48-54-52 3.00-3.00-3.00
48-60-57 1. 60-2. 00-1.93
60-60-60 1. 50-1. 50-1. 50
60-60-60 1. 50-1. 50-1. 50
59-59-59 2. 50-3. 00-2. 70
60-60-60 1.17-2. 50-2. 09
60-60-60 1. 50-1. 50-1. 50
60-60-60 1. 50-1. 75-1. 58
M 60-60-60 1.44-2. 50-2. 35
.
M. 60-60-60 3.00-3.00-3.00
M. 54-60-55 2.25-2. 50-2.27
M. 60-60-60 1.25-1.25-1.25

California..............
Connecticut..........
Illinois.......... .......
Louisiana.............
Maryland_______
Massachusetts___
Minnesota.........
Missouri...........
New York____
Ohio.................
Pennsylvania...
Virginia___ . . . .

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

M
.

48-54-52
48-60-56
60-60-60
60-60-60
59-69-59
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
48-60-59
60-60-60
54-60-56
60-60-60

3.00-3.00-3.00
1.60-2.00-1.84
1. 50-1. 50-1. 50
1. 50-1. 50-1. 50
2. 50-3.00-2.67
1. 75-2. 50-1.98
1. 50-1. 50-1. 50
1. 50-1. 75-1. 58
1.44-2. 50-2.37
2.00-3.00-2.80
2. 25-2. 50-2.48
1.25-1.25-L 25

California......... .
Connecticut___
Illinois.............. .
Louisiana......... .

M.
M.
M.
M.:

48-54-52
48-60-58
60-60-60
60-60-60

3.00-3.00-3. 00
1. 50-2.00-1.92
1. 50-1. 50-1. 50
1.50-1. 50-1.50

1805:

1866:

1867:

3868:

1860:

1870:

1871:

1872:

1873:

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Qv
/\
&ex




Hours Rate per day
per week
(dollars)
1873—Continued.
Maryland.............
Massachusetts___
Minnesota______
Missouri...............
New York______
Ohio.....................
Pennsylvania.,.
Virginia................
1874:
California.............
Connecticut..........
Illinois..................
Louisiana.............
Maryland.. ..........
Massachusetts___
Minnesota...........
Missouri—............
New York______
Ohio....................
Pennsylvania___
Virginia................
1875:
California.............
Connecticut..........
Illinois..................
Louisiana.............
Maryland—
........ .
Massachusetts___
Minnesota............
Missouri...............
New York______
Ohio.....................
Pennsylvania.......
Virginia................
1876:
California.............
Connecticut..........
Illinois.--.......... —
Louisiana________

Maryland—..........
Massachusetts___
Minnesota............
Missouri________
New York............
Ohio....................
Pennsylvania____
Virginia...............
1877:
California.............
Connecticut..........
Illinois..................
Louisiana_______
Maryland...........
Massachusetts___
Minnesota______
Missouri...............
New York______
Ohio.....................
Pennsylvania
Virginia................
1878:
California.............
Connecticut..........
Illinois..................
Louisiana_______
Maryland.............
Massachusetts___
Minnesota............
Missouri...............
New York______
Ohio.....................
Pennsylvania ....
Virginia................

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

59-59-59
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
48-60-59
60-60-60
54-60-57
60-60-60

M.
M.
M.
M
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

48-54-52 3.00-3.0C-3.00
48-60-52 1.50-2.00-1.72
60-60-60 1.00-1.00-1. 00
60-60-60 1.50-1.50-1.50
59-59-59 1. 25-1. 50-1. 38
60-60-60 1. 75-2. 50-1. 95
60-60-60 1. 50-1.50-1.50
60-60-60 1. 25-1.50-1.32
48-60-58 1.44-2. 50-2, 01
60-60-60 3.00-3.00-3.00
54-60-57 2. 25-2. 50-2. 26
60-60-60 1.13-1.13-1.13

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

48-60-58 3.00-3.00-3.00
48-60-54 1.20-2.00-1.58
60-60-60 1.00-1. 25-1.06
60-60-60 1. 50-1.50-1.50
59-59-59 1. 25-1. 75-1.45
60-60-60 1. 62-2. 50-1. 91
60-60-60 1. 50-1. 50-1. 50
60-60-60 1. 25-1. 504.32
48-60-59 1.25-2.25-1.98
6060-60 2, 75-2. 75-2.75
54-60-57 2.00-2. 50-2.04
60-60-60 1.00-1.00-1. G
O

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

48-60-57
48-60-56
60-60-60
60-60-60
59-59-59
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
48-60-58
60-60-60
54-60-58
60-60-60

2. 50-3.00-2.63
1.20-2.00-1.48
1.00-1. 25-1.05
1. 50-1.50-1.50
1. 50-1, 75-1. 57
1.62-2. 25-1.84
1.50-1. 50-1.50
1.25-1. 50-1.33
1.25-2. 25-1.92
2. 75-2. 75-2. 75
1. 75-2.25-1.80
1.00-1.00-1.00

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M
M.

48-60-57
48-60-58
60-60-60
60-60-60
53-53-53
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
48-60-58
60-60-60
54-60-58
60-60-60

2.50-3.00-2.63
1.00-2.00-1.42
1.00-1.00-1.00
1. 50-1. 50-1. 50
1. 50-2.00-1.67
1. 50-2. C0-1. 79
1. 50-1. 50-1.50
1.25-1,50-1.34
1 00-2.25-1.77
2. 50-2.50-2. 50
1.50-2.25-1.65
1.00-1.00-1.00

M.
M.
M.
M.
M,
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

48-60-53
48-60-54
60-60-60
60-60-60
53-53-53
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
48-60-58
60-60-60
54-60-56
60-60-60.

2.25-2.50-2.35
1.25-1.75-1.48
1.50-1.50-1.50
1.50-1.50-1,50
. 1.50-2.00-1 76
1.50-2.25-1.83
1.75-1. 75-1. 75
1,50-1.75-1.60
1.00-2.25-1. 73
2.50-2.50-2. 60
.85-2.25-1.44
1.00-1.00-1.00

2. 50-3.00-2.63
1. 50-2. 50-2.03
1. 50-1. 50-1. 50
1.25-1. 50-1.32
1. 50-2. 50-2. 37
3. 00-3.00-3.00
2. 25-2. 50-2. 47
1.25-1.25-1. 26

180

PART 2.----FROM 1S 10 TO 1928
T a b ls B-10.— Hod carriers. 1840-1900} by year and State— Continued
Lowest, highest, and
average—

Year and State

Lowest, highest, and
average—

Sex

Year and State
Hours
per week

1879:
M.
California-........
Connecticut-__
M.
Illinois............. .
M.
Louisiana........ .
M.
Maryland.—......... M.
Massachusetts___ M.
Minnesota.......
M.
Missouri.......... .
M.
New York____
M.
Ohio................
M.
Pennsylvania___ M.
Virginia...........
M.
1880:
California........
M.
Connecticut___
M.
Illinois.............
M.
Louisiana_____
M.
Maryland____
M.
Massachusetts___ M.
Minnesota.......
M.
Missouri..........
M.
New York____
M.
M.
Ohio................
Pennsylvania...
M
.
Virginia...........
M.
1881:
California........
M.
Connecticut_
_
M
.
Dist. of Columbia. M.
Illinois................ M
.
Louisiana............. M.
Maryland........... M.
Massachusetts___ M.
Minnesota____
M.
Missouri—.......
M.
New York____
M.
Ohio................
M.
Pennsylvania..
M.
Virginia...........
M.
1882:
California-.......
M.
Connecticut_
_
M.
Delaware-------- M.
Illinois........ .
M.
Louisiana____
M.
Maryland____
M.
Massachusetts___ M.
Minnesota.......
M
Missouri..........
M
New Jersey___
M
New York.......
M.
Ohio...............
M.
Pennsylvania____ M.
Virginia...........
M.
California........
M.
M.
Connecticut_
_
Illinois.............
M.
Louisiana___
M.
Maryland........
M.
Massachusetts___ M.
Minnesota.......... M.
Missouri............. M
M.
New Jersey____
New York_____ M.
Ohio.................. . M
Pennsylvania_
_ M.
Virginia............. . M .
1884:
California.......... . M.
Connecticut......
M.
Dist. of Columbia™ M.
M.
Illinois.........
M.
Louisiana____
Maryland........
M.

48-60-55
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
53-53-53
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
48-60-58
60-60-60
54-60-56
60-60-60

2.50-3. 00-2.70
1. 25-1, 75-1.28
1. 50-1. 50-1. 50
1. 50-1. 50-1.50
1. 50-2. 00-1. 74
1.62-2. 00-1.82
1.75-1. 75-1.75
1.50-1. 75-1.61
1 0 . 25-1.83
.0 -2
1.25-2. 25-2.00
1.25-2. 00-1.47

48-60-56
48-60-58
60-60-60
60-60-60
53-53-53
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
48-60-58
60-60-60
54-60-57
60-60-60

2. 50-2. 50-2.50
1 0 . 75-1.49
.1 -1
1.50-1. 50-1. 50
1.50-1. 50-1.50
1.50-2. 00-1.73
1. 75-2. 25-1.82
1. 75-2. 00-1.92
1. 75-2. 00-1.83
1.13-2. 25-1.99
2.25-2. 25-2.25
1.50-2. 00-1. 62

Sex

Rate per day
(dollars)

1 0 . 0 -1 0
.0 -1 0 .0

1 0 . 0 -1 0
.0 -1 0 .0

48-60-56 2. 50-2. 50-2. 50
48-60-55 1.50-2. 00-1. 79
60-60-60 1.87-1. 87-1.87
60-60-60 1. 50-1. 50-1.50
60-60-60 1.50-1. 50-1.50
48-48-48 1. 50-2, 00-1.73
60-60-0*0 1. 50-2. 00-1.62
60-60-60 1. 75-2. 00-1.90
60-60-60 1. 75-3. 00-1.84
48-60-58 1 0 . 50-2.21
.0 -2
60-60-60 2.50-2. 50-2.50
54-60-59 1.50-2. 00-1.78
60-60-60 1 0 . 0 -1 0
.0 -1 0 .0
48-60-57 3.00-3. 00-3.00
48-60-54 1.60-2. 25-1.96
50-50-50 2 0 . 0 -2 0
.0 -2 0 .0
60-60-60 1.50-1. 75-1.65
60-60-60 1. 50-1. 50-1.50
48-48-48 1. 50-1. 75-1. 61
60-60-60 1. 50-2. 25-1. 71
60-60-60 2 0 . 0 -2 0
.0 -2 0 .0
60-60-60 1.85-3. 00-1.97

0

48-60-58
60-60-60
54-60-57
60-60-60
48-57-55
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
48-48-48
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
48-60-58
60-60-60
54-60-57
60-60-60
48-60-59
48-60-55
58-58-58
60-60-60
60-60-60
48-48-48

1Not reported.



2 0 . 0 -2 0
.0 -2 0 .0
1 0 . 50-2.35
.0 -2
2.50-2. 50-2.50
1. 75-2. 00-1.84
1.13-1. 13-1.13

3.00-3. 00-3.00
1.67-2. 00-1.99
1.50-1. 50-1.50
1.50-1. 50-1.50
1.50-2. 00-1.75
1.35-2. 25-1.94

2 0 . 0 -2 0
.0 -2 0 .0
1.75-3. 0 -2 2
0 .1
2 0 . 75-2.36
.0 -2
1.38-2. 75-2.37
2.75-2. 75-2.75
1. 75-2. 50-2.04
1.25-1. 25-1.25

2.00-3.00-2.29
1.60-2.25-1. m

2.00-2.00-2.00
1.75-1.75-1. 75
1. 50-1. 50-1. 50
1. 50-2.00-1. 75

Hours Rate per day
per week
(dollars)
1884—Con tinued.
Massachusetts___ M.
Michigan............. M.
Minnesota_______ M.
Missouri.—.......... M.
New Jersey_____ M.
New York______ M.
Ohio.................... M.
Pennsylvania____ M.
Virginia................ M.
1885:
California............. M.
Connecticut.......... M.
Illinois.................. M.
Indiana................ M.
Kansas.................. M.
Kentucky........... . M.
Louisiana............. M.
Maryland............. M.
Massachusetts___ M.
Minnesota............ M.
Missouri............... M.
New Jersey.......... M.
New York............ M.
Ohio................... . M.
Pennsylvania....... M.
Virginia................ M.
1886:
California............. M.
Do.................. M.
Connecticut_____ M.
Dist. of Columbia. M.
Illinois..... ............ M.
Kansas____ _____ M.
Kentucky............ M.
Louisiana............. M.
Maryland............. M.
Massachusetts___ M.
Minnesota........... M.
Missouri.............. M.
New Jersey.......... M.
New York______ M.
Ohio—.................. M.
Pennsylvania
M.
Virginia................ M.
iooD.
California............. M.
Connecticut.......... M.
Delaware.............. M.
Illinois.................. M.
Kansas................. M.
Louisiana—
.......... M.
1887:
Maine. ................. M.
Maryland............. M.
Massachusetts___ M.
Michigan.............. M.
Minnesota............ M.
Missouri............... M.
New Jersey.......... M.
New York............ M.
Do.................. M.
Ohio..................... M.
Pennsylvania....... M.
D o ................. M.
M.
Rhode Island
Virginia................ M.
Wisconsin............. M.
1888:
California............. M.
Connecticut.......... M.
Illinois.................. M.
Louisiana............. M.
Maryland........... . M.
Massachusetts___ M.
Minnesota______ ' M.

2And board.

60-60-60
0
60-60-60
60-60-60
59-60-59
54-60-57
60-60-60
54-60-56
60-60-60

1.50-2.00-1.72
1.50-1.75-1.67
2. 00-2.00-2.00
2. 75-3. 00-2.83
1. 67-2. 50-1.85
1.25-2.50-2.33
2. 75-2. 75-2. 75
1. 75-2. 25-2.01
1.25-1. 25-1.25

48-57-54
48-60-51
48-48-48
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
48-48-48
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
54-60-57
60-72-63
54-60-58
60-60-60

3.00-3.00-3.00
1. 60-2.25-1. 94
1.75-1.75-1.75
1.25-1.25-1.25
1.50-1.50-1. 50
1.50-1.50-1. 50
1. 50-1.50-1. 50
2.00-2.50-2. 23
1.15-2.25-1. 66
2.00-2. 00-2.00
2. 75-3.00-2,85
1.50-2.00-1. 67
1.10-2.50-2.34
1.25-2. 75-2.32
1. 65-2. 25-2.08
1.25-1.25-1. 25

48-60-59
48-48-48
48-54-52
53-53-53
48-60-56
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
48-48-48
58-60-60
60-60-60
48-48-48
60-60-60
53-60-54
60-60-60
54-54-54
58-60-60

1.04-3. 00-1. 66
22.50-2. 50-2. 50
1. 60-2.00-1. 88
2. 00-2.00-2. 00
1.50-2.00-1. 61
2.00-2.00-2.00
2.00-2.00-2.00
1. 50-1.50-1.50
2.00-2.25-2.13
1.25-2.00-1. 69
2.00-2.00-2.00
2.20-2.40-2, 26
2.00-2.00-2.00
1.35-2.52-2.38
2. 75-2.75-2.75
2. 00-2.50-2.21
1.25-1.75-1.47

48-57-55
48-54-52
0
48-48-48
60-60-60
60-60-60

3.00-3.00-3.00
1. 75-2.00-1.91
3.14h . 14- . 14
1.75-1.75-1.75
1.40 2.00-1.64
1.50-1.50-1.50

1.25-1.25-1.25
0
48-48-48 1.00-2.50-1.83
54-60-59 1.20-2.07-1.67
1.50-1.60-1.56
0
60-60-60 2.00-2.00-2.00
48-48-48 1.25-2.60-2.18
1.40-1.70-1.60
0
3.10- .20- .15
0
53-60-54 1.25-2.52-2.13
54-60-58 1.10-2.50-1.95
3.10-. 17£~ . 13
0
54-60-60 1.20-3.50-1.57
1.25-1.25-1.24
0
60-60-60 1.25-1.25-1.22
1.50-1.75-1.55
0
48-57-54
48-54-53
48-48-48
60-60-60
48-48-48
54-60-58
60-60-60

3Per hour.

3.00-3.00-3.00
1.78-2.00-1.98
1.75-1.75-1.75
1.50-i. 50-1.50
2. 25-2.50-2.39
1.50-2.07-1.73
2.00-2.00-2.00

181

B.— BUILDING TRADES
T a b le B -10.— Hod carriers, 1840-1900, by year and State— Continued
Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Sex

Year and State
Hours
per week

1888—Oontinued.
Missouri.............
New -Jersey.........
New York..........
Ohio...................
Pennsylvania___
Virginia..............
1889:
Alabama_______
California______
Connecticut____
Illinois................
Kansas................
Louisiana............
Maryland...........
Massachusetts
Minnesota..........
Missouri.............
New Hampshire.
New York..........
Ohio...................
Pennsylvania___
Virginia.............
West Virginia___
Wisconsin.........._
1890:
California______
Connecticut........
Illinois_________
Louisiana...........
Maryland............
Massachusetts.. .
Minnesota..........
Missouri—..........
Nebraska............
New York..........
Ohio................
Pennsylvania___
Virginia........... .
1891:
California______
Connecticut.......
Illinois....... .........
Louisiana...........
Maine_________
Maryland—
........
Massachusetts__
Minnesota..........
Missouri............
New York______
Ohio...................
Pennsylvania___
Virginia________
Wisconsin...........
1892:
California...........
Connecticut____
Illinois................
Iowa....................
Louisiana............
Maryland..........
Massachusetts...
Michigan............
Minnesota..........
Missouri............
New York______
Ohio........... .......
Do........ A
..._
Pennsylvania___
Rhode Island___
Virginia..............
1893:
California............
Illinois................
Louisiana..........
Maryland...........

Lowest, highest, and
average—

48-48-48
51-60-54
53-60-56
60-60-60
54-54-54
60-60-60

2.80-3.00-2. 90
1.60-2.50-2.21
1.13-2.75-1.83
2. 50-2.50-2.50
2. 00-2.50-2.23
1. 25-1.25-1.25

60-66-65
48-57-54
48-51-51
48-60-50
60-60-60
60-60-60
48-48-48
54-60-58
60-60-60
48-48-48

1 0 . 20-1.03
.0 -1
3.00-3. 00-3.00
1. 78-2. 00-1.89
1.25-1. 75-1.70
1.40-1. 75-1.53
1.60-1. 50-1.50
2.25-2. 60-2.38
1.50-2. 07-1.69

Sex

Hours Rate per day
per week
(dollars)

Bate per day
(dollars)

0)
48-60-51

60-60-60
54-60-55
60-60-60

0)
C
)

48-57-55
48-54-51
48-48-48
60-60-60
48-48-48
54-60-57
60-60-60
48-48-48

0)

48-60-50
54-54-54
54-54-54
60-60-60
48-57-55
48-54-53
48-48-48
54-54-54
60-60-60
48-48-48
54-60-58
60-60-60
48-48-48
48-60-48
54-54-54
54-54-54
60-60-60

<
9

2 0 . 00 2.00
.0 -2
-

2.80-3. 00- 2.86
1.25-1. 25-1.25
1.25-2. 52-2.40
1.13-2. 50-1.99
1.25-2. 50-2. 07
1.25-1. 25-1.25
1.71-1. 71-1. 71
1.43-2. 18-1.68
3.00-3.00-3.00
1. 78-2.00-1.91
1.50-1.75-1. 75
1.50-1.50-1.50
2.25-2.50-2.37
1.50-2.07-1.80
1.25-2.00-1.85
2.80-3.00-2.86
1.80-2.25-1.99
1.25-2.52-2.39
2.52-2.52-2. 52
2.25-2.50-2.35
1. 35-1.35-1.35
3.00-3.00-3.00
1. 78-2.12-2.03
1. 75-1. 75-1. 75
1.35-1. 35-1.35
1. 50-2.00-1.64
2. 25-2. 50-2.36
1.50-2.07-1. 77
1.75-2.00-1.85
2.80-3.00-2.90
1. 25-2. 50-2.30
2.48-2. 48-2.48
2.00-2.50-2.26
1. 35-1. 35-1.35
.12£-.27£-.18£

48-57-53 3.00-3.50-3.17
54-54-54 2.13-2.13-2.13
48-48-48 1. 75-1.75-1.75
60-60-60 1.50-1.50-1.50
54-54-54 1.35-1.35-1.35
48-48-48 2. 25-2.50-2.38
54-54-54 2. 07-2. 25-2.24
54-60-58 1.25-2.00-1.58
60H60-60 1.75-2.00-1.88
48-48-48 2.80-3.00-2.91
48-60-50 1. 50-2. 50-2.34
54-54-54 2.48-2.48-2.48
63-60-55
. 75-2.50-2.05
64-64-54 2.00-2.50-2.23
54-60-59 1.50-2. 50-1.85
54-54-54 1.25-1.25-1.25
48-54-53
48-60-48
54-54-54
48-60-49

3.00-3.00-3.00
1. 50-2.50-1.76
1.35-1.35-1.35
1.50-2.50-2.13


1Not reported.


1893—Continued.
Massachusetts___
Michigan.............
Minnesota...........
Missouri...........
Montana..............
New York______
O hio....................
Pennsylvania____
Rhode Island.......
Virginia................
Wisconsin............
1894:
California_______
Illinois..................
Louisiana.............
Maine............ ......
Maryland. ...........
Massachusetts___
Minnesota............
Missouri..... .........
New York______
O hio...................
Pennsylvania___
Rhode Island.......
Virginia................
1895:
California_______
Illinois_________
Louisiana.............
Maine..................
Maryland...........
Massachusetts___
Minnesota............
Missouri—............
New York______
Ohio.....................
Pennsylvania____
Virginia________
California.............
Connecticut.........
District of Colum­
bia...............
Illinois__________
Maryland--........
Massachusetts___
Minnesota______
Missouri—............
New York______
Ohio.....................
Pennsylvania____
Tennessee...........
Virginia................
1897:
California.............
Illinois..................
Louisiana_______
Maryland— .........
Massachusetts___
Minnesota............
Missouri...............
New York............
Ohio.....................
Pennsylvania____
Virginia_________
1898:
California.............
Illinois........ ........
Louisiana.............
Maryland.............
Massachusetts__
Minnesota..........
Missouri............. .
Nebraska.............
New York......... .

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

54-54-54
60-G0-G0
60-60-60
48-48-48
48-48-48
48-60-49
64-60-58
53-60-54
54-54-54

2.07-2.25-2.22
1.25-1.25-1.25
1. 75-1.75-1.75
2.80-3.00-2.88
3.75-4.00-3.83
1. 25-2. 50-2,33
2.00-2.81-2.27
1. 50-2. 67-2.28
2.24-2.25-2.25
1.25-1. 25-1. 25

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

48-54-52
48-48-48
54-54-54
60-00-60
48-48-48
48-54-52
60-60-60
48-48-48
48-48-48
48-60-56
54-54-54
60-60-60
54-54-54

3.00-3. 00-3.00
1.75-1. 75-1. 76
1. 35-1. 35-1.35
1. 50-1. 75-1.58
2 0 . 50-2.20
.0 -2
2 0 -2 25-2.19
. 0.
1.75-1, 75-1, 75
2. 80-3. 00-2.84
2.40-2. 40-2.40
L 25-2. 50-1.67
2 0 -2 50-2.22
.0.
1. 50-1. 50-1.50
1.25-1. 25-1.25

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

48-54-52
48-48-48
54-54-54
60-60-60
48-48-48
48-48-48
60-60-60
48-48-48
48-48-48
48-60-54
M 54-54-54
.
M. 54-54-54

3.00-3. 00-3.00
1. 50-1. 50-1.50
1.35-1, 35-1.36
1.50-2. 50-1.63
1. 75-2. 00-1.94
1.84-2. 00- 2.00
1.75-1, 75-1.75
1.33-2. 60-2.39
2.40-2. 40-2.40
1.25-2. 50-1.94
2 0 . 50-2.19
.0 -2
1.25-1. 25-1.25

M. 48-54-52
M. 60-60-60

3.00-3.00-3.00
1.50-1.50-1.50

M
.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

0)
0)

0

12J-.2 J-. 1J
2 5

1.50-1. 67-1.59
.90-2. 33-1.48
1.75-2. 50-2.09
1.84-3. 41-2.15
1.75-1. 75-1. 76
2.60-2. 80-2.70,
1.50-2. 50-2.35
1.25-2. 00-1,50
1. 58-2. 71-2.34
.83- 83- .83
1.13-1. 13-1.13

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M*,
M.
M.

48-6049
48-54-53
47-77-49
60-60-60
48-48-48
44-60-48
48-60-56
45-60-50

M

54-54-54

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

48-54-52
48-48-48
54-54-54
63-53-53
48-48-48
60-60-60
48-48-48
48-48-48
48-48-48
54-54-54
54-54-54

3.00-3.00-3.00

48-54-52
48-48-48
54-54-54
53-53-53
48-48-48
54-54-54
48-48-48
0) 48-72-62
M. 4S-48-48

3.00-3. 00-3.00

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

3Per hour.

0)

2.00-2.00-2.00
1.35-1.35-1.35
1.75-2.00-1.91
1.84-2.00-2.00
1. 75-1.75-1.75
2.60-2.80-2.68
2.40-2.40-2.40

2.00-2.00-2.00
1.00-1.00-1.00

2.00-2.25-2.12

2 0 . 00 2.00
.0 -2
-

1.35-1. 35-1.35
1. 75-2. 00-1.89
1.60-2. 00-1.97
1.75-1. 75-1.75
2.60-2. 80-2.70
1 0 . 75-1,40
.0 -1
2.40-2. 40-2,40

182

PA.RT 2.— FROM 1840 TO 1928
T a b l e B--10.— Hod carriers, 1840-1900, by year and State— Continued
Lowest, highest, and
average—

Year and State

Sex

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Sex

Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)
1898—Continued.
Ohio....................
Pennsylvania.......
Virginia................
1899:
California.............
Massachusetts___
Montana..... .........
New York............
Do..................

M. 48-48-48
M. 44-54-51
M. 54-54-54

1.2.5-2.00-1.50
1.35-2.00-1.88
1.00-1.00-1.00

M.
M.
M.
M.
(!)

1. 75-3.00-2.44
2.00-2.50-2.10
4.00-4.50-4.28
1.20-2.42-1.69
3.00-3.00-3.00

54-54-54
48-48-48
48-48-48
44-54-49
0)

Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)
1898—Continued.
Ohio.....................
Pennsylvania____
1900:
California.............
Massachusetts___
Montana________
New York............
Ohio....................
Pennsylvania.......

M. 60-60-60
M. 48-48-48

1.20-1.66-1.44
1.50-2.50-2.39

54-54-54
48-48-48
48-48-48
44-54-49
60-60-60
48-48-48

1. 75-3.00-2.54
2.00-2.50-2.10
4.00-4.50-4.33
1.20-2.42-1.71
1.40-1.70-1.43
2.40-2.50-2.42

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

i Not reported.
T a b l e B - l l .— Hod carriers, males, 1890-1928, by city and year
[Where two rates are shown for one year, the first rate is for brick and the second for mortar]
Atlanta, Ga.
Year

Birmingham, Ala.

Boston , Mass.

Hours
Rate
Hours
Hours
Rate
Rate
Hours
Rate
per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour

1890...........................
1891...........................
1892 ..........................
1893 ..........................
1894...........................
1895...........................
1896............................
1897............................
1898...........................
1900................ ^.........
1901...........................
1902
.....................
1903 ..........................
1904
.....................
1905..........................
.....................
1906
1907............................
1908............................
1909............................
1910 .......................
1911
.....................
1912............................
3913............................
1914............................
19]5...........................
1 916..........................
1918 .........................
1919............................ .
1920
....................
1921..........................
1922 .......................
1923
....................
1924
..................
1925............................
1920
.............
1927............................
1928............................




Chicago, 111.

59.1
56.1
54.8

$0,103
.123
.150

54.0
* 5 4 .0

.281
.281

44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

.300
.300
.300
.300
.250
.250
/
\

47.0

.500

53.5
53.6
53.4
52.4
51.8
50.7
50.4
50.7
51.0
47.7
47.7
47.7
47.7
47.8
47.0
46.9
46.9
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0.257
.256
.259
.260
.261
.260
.260
.261
.261
.281
.288
.287
.291
.291
.304
.309
.321
.300
.300
.300
.350
.350
.350
.350
.350
.350
.350
.400
.425
.425
.501 }
.700
.700
.700
.700
.700
.700
.790
.790
.790

48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
46.1
44.0
44.0
45.6
45.7
48.0
48.0
48.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0,219
.219
.219
.219
.219
.213
.214
.250
.250
.250
.250
.250
.264
.312
.319
.315
.357
.350
.350
.350
.425
.450
.450
.480
.400
.500
.425
.450
.500
.575
1.000
1.000
. 725
. 725
.725
. 825
.875
.900
.900

183

B.— BUILDING TRADES

T ab le B - l l .— Hod carriers, males, 1890-1928, by city and year— Continued
Cincinnati, Ohio
Year

Denver, Colo.

Detroit, Mich.

New Orleans, La.

Rate
Hours
Bate
Bate
Hours
Hours
Hours
Rate
per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour
49.7
48.8
48.9
48.6
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
44.9
45.0
44.9
45.0

$0.285
.297
.296
.301
.313
.313
.300
.250
.250
.264
.299
.299
.350
.350
.356
.355
.367
.375

48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
53.9
52.0
52.7
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

1908.

45.0

.375

44.0

1909.

45.0

.375

44.0

1910.

45.0

.375

44.0

1911.

45.0

.375

44.0

1912.

45.0

.425

44.0

1913.

45.0

.425

44.0

1914.

45.0

.425

44.0

1800.
1891.
1892.
1893.
1894.
1895.
1896.
1897.
1898.
1899.
1900.
1901.
1902.
1903.
1904.
1905.
1906.
1907.

1915.

45.0

.425

44.0

1916.

45.0

.425

44.0

1917.

45.0

.425

44.0

1918.

45.0

.500

44.0

1919.

45.0

.575

44.0

1920.

45.0

.850

44.0

1921.

45.0

.850

44.0

1922.

45.0

.725

44.0

1923.

45.0

.825

44.0

1924.

45.0

.900

44.0

1925.

45.0

.925

44.0

1926.

45.0

.950

44.0

1927.

45.0

.975

44.0

1928.

45.0

.975

44.0




$0.303
.313
.315
.301
.290
.299
.301
.312
.314
.295
.305
.306
.350
.349
.372
.344
.375
.375
.406
.375
.406
.375
.406
.375
.406
.375
.406
.375
.406
.375
.406
.375
.406
.375
.406
.438
.469
.531
.563
.625
.656
.750
.781
.750
.781
.750
.781
.750
.781
.813
.844
.813
.844
.813
.844
.813
.844
.813
.844

53.1
53.5
53.5
53.0
53.1
53.4
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0

$
0

54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
48.0
48.0
53.0
52.9
48.0

48.0
48.0

.350

44.0

.350

44.0

.179
.187
.275

.350
.350

44.0

$ ,2 2
01
.2 2
1
.2 2
1
.2 2
1
.2 2
1
.2 2
1
.2 2
1
.2 2
1
.212
.2 2
1
.2 2
1
.212
.288
.2 0
1

.350
.400
.400
.438
.500

44.0
44.0
44.0

.650

44.0

10
.0 0

45.0

500

44.0

.750

45.0

650

44.0

.750

45.0

650

49.5

750

45.0

650

49.5

750

45.0

750

44.0

750

45.0

750

44.0

750

44.0

750

184

PART 2.— FROM 1840 TO 1928

T a b le B - l l .— Hod carriers, males, 1890-1928., 5?/
New York, N. Y.1

Philadelphia, Pa.

and year— Continued

St. Louis, Mo.

San Francisco,
CaJif.

Year
Hours
Rate
Rate
Hours
Rate
Hours
Rate
Hours
per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour
1890
18911892189318941895..
1896189718981899190019011902..
1903..
1904..
1905190619071908-

48.4
47.6
46.8
46.8
47.0
46.8
47.2
47.5
48.7
45.2
44.8
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

1909-

44.0

1910-

44.0

1911..

44.0

.375

1912..

44.0

1913..

51.4
50. 7
50.7
50.6
50.3
50. 6
50.7
50.9
48.1
46.8
46.4
46.9
45.7
44.2
44.0
46.0
46.9
46.8
44.0

$0.278
.271
.275
.276
.282
.274
.274
.268
.262
.271
.283
.279
.309
.348
.313
.306
.308
.314
.350

49.4
49.2
49.5
49.1
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
46.4
44.8
44.7
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.3
44.4
44.3
44.0

.375

.350

44.0

.375

.350

44.0

44.0

.350

44.0

.375

44.0

.350

44.0

44.0

.375

44.0

1914..

44.0

.375

44.0

.350

44.0

1915..

44.0

.375

44.0

.350

44.0

1916..

44.0

.375

44.0

.400

44.0

1917..
1918..
1919..
1920..
1921..
1922..
1923..
1924..
1925..
1926..
1927..
1928.

44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

.425
.470
.575
.875
.875

44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
'44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

.450
.600
.700

44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

i Greater New York, 1903-1907.




.294
.299
.303
.299
.298
.295
.304
.329
.361
.360
.359
.361
.379
.381
.375

.700

10
.0 0

1.125
1.125
1.125

44.0

10
.0 0
.850
.850

10
.0 0
10
.0 0
10
.0 0
10
.0 0
10
.0 0
.8501
1 0J
.0 0

$0.320
.319
.313
.297
.296
.283
. 333
. 325
.319
.338
.346
. 355
.381
.399
.406
.439
.440
.453
.375
.<400
. 375
.400
.375
.400
.425
. 450
. 425
.450
.425 ,
.450 j/
.475 "
.500
. 475
. 500
. 475
.S00
. 475
.500
.550
. 650
.700
. 850
. 850
LO O
C
1.150
1.150
1.150
1.150
1.150

52.7
52.9
49.3
49.7
49.1
49.5
49.8
49.9
49.8
49.5
49.6
49.5
48.9
46.1
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0.357
. 352
.384
.375
.382
.377

44.0

.500

44.0

.500

44.0

.500

44.0

.500

44.0

.500

44.0

.500

44.0

.500

.3 4
7
.374
.376
.372
.380
.379
.376
.432
.438
. 445
.527
.519
.500

44.0

.500

44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
46.3
46.3
46.3
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

.500
.625
.750
.938

10
.0 0
.713
.772
.772
.875
.875
.875
.875

185

B .— BUILDING TRADES
T a b l e B - 1 3 . — Laborers, males, 1890-1928, by city and yeai
[For other laborers see Tables D-l, D-2, D-3, G-l, 1-16,1-17, 1-18, 0-11, and 0-12]
Atlanta, Ga.

Birmingham, Ala.

Boston, Mass.*

Chicago, 111.8

Hours
Hate
Hours
Hours
Hours
Rate
Rate
Rate
per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour
1.890-

18911892180310941395—
1898189718981899190019011902190319041905190619071908190919101911191219131914191516161917-.
1 9 181919192019211922...
1923—
1924—
1925—
1926—
1927—

58.1
59.3
58.4
59.0

54.0
54.0

$0.107
.103
.119
.127

60.0
60.0
59.1
58.9
59.7
58.4
59.1
58.6
58.0
58.8
58.8
56.9
56.8
58.1
58.5
56.8
57.7

.200
.2 0
0

i English excavators, 1907-1911; excavators, 1912-13.
3 Excavators, 1912-1916; building workers, 1917-18.




$ .1 1
00
.1 1
0
.123
.144

.1 1
0

.086
.081
.084
.107
.125
.125
.125
.132
.147

59.8
59.8
59.7
59.8
59.8
59.7
59.7
59.6
59.8
59.5
59.4
59.5
54.6
57.4
56.3
54.5
53.4
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
44.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
48.0
48.0
48. 0
48.0
48.0
48.0

$0.173
.173
.173
.173
.173
. 173
.173
.175
.175
.175
.177
.176
.192
.172
.166
.178
.189
.2.50
.300
.300
.300
.300
. 300
.350
.350
.350
.350
.375
.400
.400
. 675
.675
.675
.675
.650
.650
.740
.740
.740

60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
46.2
46.4
47.7
50.9
48.0
48.0
48.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
410
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0.167
.167
.172
.170
.170
.170
.171
.172
.172
.170
.169
.192
.192
.284
.292
.276
.294
. “50
8
.350
.350
.375
.375
.375
.400
.400
.400
.425
.450
.500
.575

10
.0 0
10
.0 0
.725
.725
.725
.825
.875
.900
.900

186

PART 2.— PROM 1840 TO 1928

T a b l e B— — Laborers, males, 1890—
12.
1928, by city and year— Continued
Denver , Colo.

Cincinnati, Ohio
Year

1890.............................
1891 .........................
1892 ........................
1893.............................
1894
....... .
1895________ ______ 1896....... ...................
1897.............................
1898.............................
1899....... ....................
1900-....... - .............1901______ ______
1902......... ...................
1903............................
1004............................
1905....... ....................
1006.
- ............... 1907- . - .................
1912.............................
1913...........................
1914
- _
1915.............................
1916....... .....................
1917.............................
1918_________ ______
1919....... .....................
1920-. .. .................
1921...........................
1922 ...........................
1923_______________ _
1924___________ ____
1925— ....... ................
1926......... .......... ......
1927.............................
1928.............................

54.6
54.9
56.2
52.9
52.1
60.0
60.0
50.0
50.0
50.0
50.0
50.0
50.0
50.0
50.0
50.0
50.0
50.0
50.0
50.0
60.0
50.0

$0.174
. 186
. 190

.202
.204

.200
.200

.250
.250
.300
.350
.400
.450
.500
. 4C
0
.450
.525
.550
.580
.600
.600

1890.............................
1891.................... ........
1892......... ........... ........
1893....... .....................
1894.............................
1895________________
1896............ ................
1897.............................
1898....... .....................
1899.............................
1900.............. ..............
19.31________ ________

1913 _
1914________________
1916................. ..........
1917________________
1918_____ ___________
19.I9_.__
1920________________
1921________________
1923.............................
1924.............................
1925...................... ......
1926
1927........................... .
1928.........
FRASER ...... .............

New Orleans, La.

Hours
Hours
Hours
Rate
Rate
Rate
Hours
Rate
per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour

New York, N. Y.»

1903.............. .
.......
I9C4.................
1905____ _____ ______
1906............................
1907...................... ......
1903................. ..........
I9C9.......... .................
1910____
1911............ ...... ........

Detroit,, Mich.

51.8
51.5
51. 3
53.0

$0.217
.237
.243
.264

44.0
44.0
48.0
48.0
44.0
44.0

.375
.438
.500
.500
.500
.625

44.0
44.0

.813
.813

Philadelphia, Pa.
58.5
58.2
58.4
57.3
56.8
57.7
57.7
57.9
57.8

58.8
53.7
51. 5
50.4
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0.157
. 188

.202
.210

57.1
56.5
56.6
56.1
57.3
57.6
50.1
58.1

$0.158
. 157
.157
.159
. 161
.158
.159
.158
.158
. 159
. 160
. 107
.163
. 156
. 156
•j fti
.179

.219
. 219
.219
.219
. 219
i"I........... .
.225
.225
.225
.250
.250
.300 ....... 44.6’
.~350"
.405
.625
44.0
.405
.625
44.0
.750
44.0
.750
.875
44.0
1.000
.875
1.000
44.0
.850
1.000
44.0
.850
44.0
.850
1.000
1.050
1.150
44.0
1.125
1.150
44.0
.600

Digitized for
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
8 Excavators, 1907-1920, inclusive.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

4 Building work, 1916.

54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
51.0
48.2
48.2
48.0
50.4
49.3
48.8
49.2

$0.153
. 156
. 156
.153
«153
.153
.153
.154
. 155
. 142
.177
. 194
.198

.201

56.0
57.0
58.0
55. 6
55.7

$0.186
. 180
. 179
. 179
.195

54.0
54.0
54.0

.300
. 300
.400

44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
49.5
49.5
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

.650
.750
45.0
.4 —
.600
45.0
.500
.500
45.0
.500
.600
45.0
.500
.600
............ 00
.600
.600
.600 _____ _ i
i
.600

St. Louis, Mo.4
60.0
G.0
O
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0

.250
.250
.250
.250
.250
.250
.250
.250
.250
.250
.300
.400
.450
.675
.675
.575
.675
. 750
.750
.750
.750
.759

1
' San Francisco,
Calif.5
i

$0.169
.169
.163
. 159
.142
. 156
.138
. 155
.142
.139
.140
.181
.187
.206

44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

.206
.209
.214
.216

54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
48.0
48.0
48.0

$0. 278
.278
.278
.278
.278
.278
.278
.313
.313
.313
.375
.438
.025
.750
.813
.625
. 025
.625
. 625
.625

.688
.688

8 Building ' ork, 1914-1916, inclusive.

187

B.— BUILDING TRADES
T able

B-13.— Marble cutters, 1840-1899, by year and State
Lowest, highest, and
average—

State

Sex

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)

M. 60-60-60

1855:
MarylandNew York.
1856:
1857:

1.50-1.50-1.50

M. 60-60-60

1.50-1.75-1.63

M. 60-60-60

1.50-1.50-1.50

M. 60-60-60

1.50-1.50-1.50

M. 60-60-60

1.25-1.50-1.44

M. 60-60-60

1.50-1. 75-1.56

M. 60-60-60

1.67-1. 75-1. 73

M. 60-60-60

1. 75-1.75-1. 75

M. 60-60-60

1.50-1. 75-1.63

M. 60-60-60

2.13-2.13-2.13

M. 60-60-60

2.25-2.25-2.25

M. 60-60-60

2.00-2.25-2.13

IM. 60-60-60
IM. 60-60-60

2.00-2.00-2.00
2.00-3.00-2.50

60-60-60
60-60-60

2.00-2. 00-2.00
1. 75-2. 50-2.19

54-60-58
60-60-60

2.00-2. 25-2.11
2.00-2. 50-2.28

54-60-58
60-60-60

2.00-2.25-2.17
1.63-2.50-2.21

54-60-58
60-60-60

2.00-2.25-2.16
1.88-2.00-1.99

54-60-58
60-60-60

2.00-2.25-2.15
1.67-2.25-2.04

54-60-58
60-60-60

2.00-2.25-2.16
1.34-2.38-2.04

60-60-60
60-60-60

2.00-2.50-2.07
1.34r-2.13-1.62

l f
I
I l
1 l
1
t 1
1 1
f 1
________

1840:
New York.
1841:
New York.
1842:
New York.
1843:
New York.
1844:
New York.
1845:
New York.
1846:
New York.
1847:
New York.
1848:
New York.
1851:
New York.
1852:
New York.
1853:
New York.
1854:

:............ !M.

.............Im .
:.................. _ J M.
New York.
i
1858:
.............M.
;.........................i M.
1859:
__......._ J m .
Maryland:.........M.
New ”
1860:
!
.............j m .
Mar:
:............ !M.
New
1
1861:
.............IM.
:______ | M.
1862:
.......... Jm .
Nev
1863:
.............M.
Mai
:............ jM.
Nev
1864:
.............!M.
............ IM.
1865:
Maryland..
■M.
M.
MarylandNew York.
1867:
MarylandNew York.
1868:
Maryland..
New York1869:
MarylandNew York.
1870:
MarylandNew York.

60-60-60

1.25-1.88-1.58

60-60-60
60-60-60

2.25-2.25-2.25
1.67-2.25-1.95

60-60-60
60-60-60

2.25-3.00-2.78
1.75-3.00-2.52

60-60-60
60-60-60

3.25-3.25-3.25
2.00-3.50-2.91

M. 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60

3.25-3.25-3.25
2.00-3.75-2.94

M. 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60

3.25-3.50-3.41
2.25-4.00-3.39

M. 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60

3.50-3.50-3.50
2.00-4.00-3.46

M. 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60

3.50-3.50-3.50
2.25-4.50-3.69

M. 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60

3.50-3.50-3.50
2.25-4.50-3.19

i Not reported.
61298°— 29- — 13



1871:
Maryland.............
Massachusetts___
New York............
1872:
Maryland.............
New York............
1873:
Maryland.............
New York............
1874:
Maryland-,..........
New York............
1875:
Maryland.............
New York______
1876:
Maryland.............
New York............
1877:
Maryland.............
New York..........
Ohio.....................
1878:
Maryland.............
New Y ork ..........
1879:
Maryland.............
Missouri___ ____
New York______
1880:
Maryland—
..........
New York............
1881:
Maryland—
..........
New York............
1882:
Maryland_______
Massachusetts
Missouri________
New York............
1883:
Maryland.............
Massachusetts___
New York..........
1884:
California. ............
Iowa................ .
..........
Maryland—
Michigan_______
Missouri...............
New York............
1885:
Maryland.............
New York______
1886:
California.............
Do.......-....... .
Illinois..................
Iowa.....................
Kansas..................
Maryland............
New York............
Vermont...............
1887:
Kansas..................
Maryland.............
New York______
Ohio.....................
Wisconsin-..........
1888:
Maryland.............
New York............

StiJL
Hours per Rate per day
•week
(dollars)

M. 60-60-60
M. 59-59-59
M. 60-60-60

3.50-3.50-3. 5ft
2.50-2.50-2. 50
2.00-4.00-3.22

M. 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60

3.50-3.50-3.50
2.00-4.00-3.27

M. 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60

3.00-3.50-3.45
2.25-4.00-3.25

M. 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60

3.00-3.50-3.44
2.25-3.75-3.11

M 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60

3.00-3.50-3.43
2.25-3.75-3,10

M. 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60

2.75-3.50-3.30
2.25-3.75-2.93

M. 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60
M.
0)
M. 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60

2.75-3.50-2.85
2.25-3.00-2.77
2.00-2.00-2.00

M. 60-60-60
M. 59-60-60
M. 60-60-60

2.50-2.75-2.72
1.83-2.17-2.00
2.25-2.75-2.38

M. 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60

2.50-2. 50-2.50
2.13-2.50-2.40

M. 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60

2.50-2.50-2.50
2.00-3.00-2.57

M.
M.
M.
M.

60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60

2.50-2.75-2.65
2. 80-3.40-3.15
1.67-3.00-2.29
2.00-3.00-2.05

M. 60-60-60
M.
0)
M. 60-60-60

2.50-2. 75-2.66
2.00-2.75-2.30
2.25-3.00-2.69

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
0
60-60-60
60-60-60

2.50-3.00-2.88
2.50-2.50-2.50
2.50-2. 75-2.69
2.25-2.50-2.38
1.67-3.00-2.88
2.50-3.50-2.85

M. 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60

2.50-2. 75-2.71
2.50-3.50-2.82

2.50-2.75-2.72
2.00-3.00-2.47

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

60-60-60 2.50-4.00-2.68
72-72-72 23.00-3.00-3.00
48-60-52 1.60-3.00-2.07
60-60-60 .90-2.50-1.70
60-60-60 2.00-2.00-2.00
60-60-60 2.25-2.75-2.63
60-60-60 2.50-3. 50-2.94
60-60-60 2.60-2.60-2. m

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
54-60-60
0)

2.00-2.00-2.00
2.50-2.75-2.71
2.75-3.00-2.98
1.50-3.00-2, 5b
2.00-3.00-2.50

M. 60-60-60
M. 48-60-54

2.75-3.00-2.89
L 67-3.94-3.01

3And board.

188

P .R 2.—F O 1840 T 1928
AT
RM
O

T a b le

B-13.— Marble cutters, 1840-1899, by year and State— Continued
Lowest, highest, and
average—

Year and State

(
I

Sex

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Sex

Hours per Rate per day j
week
(dollars)
j
1889:
Maryland_______
New York______
1890:
Maryland.............
Minnesota______
New York............
Ohio___________
1891:
Maryland.............
New York______
Ohio.....................
1892:
California_______
Maryland.............
Massachusetts--Michigan....... ......
New York______
1893:
Illinois_________
Missouri...............
Montana..............
New York..........
Ohio.....................
Pennsylvania----

M
M

64-54-54

2.75-3.00-2.88
2.50-3.50-2.89 !

M. 64-54-54
M.
(9
M. 54-54-54
(9 60-60-60

2.75-3.00-2.86
1.50-2.75-2.19
2.00-3.90-3.21
1.66-1.75-1.72

M. 54-54-54
M. 48-54-50
M. 54-60-58

2.75-3.00-2.88
2.00-3.90-3.27
2.00-2.75-2.45

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

54-57-55
54-54-54
60-60-60
48-54-49

1.83-3.50-2.67
2.50-3.00-2.83
4.00-5.00-4. 33
1.28-2.34-1.81
2.75-3.50-3.38

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

48-60-56
54-54-54
54-54-54
48-59-53
54-60-59
59-60-60

2.50-4.00-3.42
1. 86- 1. 86- 1.86
4.00-4.00-4.00
1.33-3.50-2.51
2.00-3.00-2.20
1.17-2.33-1.75

(9

Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)
1894:
Iowa____ ______
NewYork_..........
North Carolina. __
1895:
New York_____
North Carolina...
Vermont________
Wisconsin...........
1896:
Kansas_________
New York______
Ohio..____ _____
Vermont—............
1897:
Kansas.................
New York............
Virginia_____ ___
1898:
New York............
1899:
North Carolina.. .

M. 60-60-60
M. 54-54-54
(9 60-60-60

1.67-2. 50-2.08
2. 50-3. 50-2. 77
2.50-2.50-2.50

M. 54-54-54
M. 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60
(9 60-60-60

2. 50-3.50-2.80
3.00-3.00-3.00
2.50-3. 50-3.00
1.25-2.50-1.75

M.
M.
M.
M.

60-60-60
54-54-54
52-54-53
60-60-60

1.50-2.50-2.00
2.50-3.50-2.83
1.81-2.50-2.19
2.00-2.15-2.08

M. 54-60-57
M. 48-54-48
M. 54-60-59

1.35-2.25-1.80
2.50-4.50-3.94
1.50-2.75-1.93

M. 48-54-48

2.50-4.50-4.22

M. 54-54-64

2. 00-2. 00-2.00

i Not reported.
T a b le

B— — Marble cutters, males, 1890-1907,
14.
North Atlantic

Year

1890..................... —
1891_____ _________
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894_______________
1895_______________
1896____ __________
1897...........................
1898.......................—
1899.......... ................
1900...................
1901.......... ...............
1902.......... ............ .
1903....... ......... ..........
1904............................
1905............. ........ .
1906-............. ..........
19071________ _____

geographic division and year

North Central

South Central

Hours
Hours
Rate
Bate
Hours
Bate
Bate
Hours
per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour
$0,380
52.7
.415
50.4
.392
50.9
.392
50.9
.388
50.6
50.5
.386
50.6
.415
50.2
.422
.425
49.9
47.1
.447
.447
46.8
46.7
.486
.531
46.4
46.0
.536
.477
47.0
46.9
.491
46.8 '
.490
46.5
.496

1No available wage data after 1907.




South Atlantic

61/

56.6
56.3
66.3
66.4

66.6

66.9
66.3

66.6
66.8

66.9
66.5
66.3
55.6
53.8
52.1
52.0
52.1
51.4

$0,287
.281
.277
.280
.278
.278
.288
.284
.282
.267
.277
.275
.283
.318
.333
.351
.373
.374

57.5
57.1
63.0
62.9
67.6
67.2
66.4
66.4
56.7
57.1
57.3
56.1
56.3
53.2
54.0
53.9
54.7
55.1

$0,249
.250
.327
.327
.248
.240
.246
.246
.242
.235
.255
.271
.283
.302
.304
.302
.320
.321

56.8
56.7
56.8

66.8

57.0
57.4
57.1
56.8
56.8
56.3
56.2
56.2
56.3
55.9
56.6
57.0
55.6
53.9

$0,282
.290
.291
.288
.288
.284
.284
.281
.284
.288
.289
.292
.290
.296
.298
.306
.305
.358

189

B.— BUILDING TRADES
T able

B -15.— Masons, 1840-1900, by year and State
Lowest, highest, and
average—

Lowest, highest, and
average—

Year and State

Tear and State

Sex

Sex
Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)

Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)
1840:
Massachusetts___
New York_______
1841:
Massachusetts___
New York______
1842:
Massachusetts___
1843:
Massachusetts___
1844:
Massachusetts___
New York.... .......
1845:
Massachusetts___
New York____ __
1846:
Massachusetts___
New York_______
1847:
Massachusetts___
New York_____
1848:
Massachusetts___
New York_______
1849:
Massachusetts___
New York_______
1850:
Massachusetts___
New York_..........
1851:
Massachusetts___
New York____ . . .
1852:
Connecticut_____
Massachusetts___
New York_______
1853:
Connecticut_____
Massachusetts___
New York_______
1854:
Connecticut_____
Massachusetts___
New York-___ . . .
1855:
Connecticut_____
Massachusetts___
New York_______
1856:
Connecticut_____
Massachusetts___
New York______
Pennsylvania____
1857:
Connecticut_____
Massachusetts___
New York_______
1858:
Connecticut_____
Massachusetts___
New York__ . . . . .
1859:
Connecticut_____
Massachusetts___
New York___ . . . .
1860:
Connecticut_____
Massachusetts___
New York___ . . . .
1861:
Connecticut__. . . .
Massachusetts. . . .
New Y o r k ........
1 Not reported;

M. 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60
M 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60
M 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60
M 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60
M.
0)
M. 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60
M. 54-60-59
M. 60-78-63
M. 60-60-60
M. 48-60-54
M. 78-78-78
M. 60-60-60
M. 48-60-57
M. 72-78-76
M. 60-60-60
M.
M.
M.
M.

48-60-59
60-78-75
60-60-60
72-72-72

M. 60-60-60
M. 60-78-71
M. 60-60-60
M. 48-60-59
M. 60-78-74
M. 60-60-60
M. 48-60-58
M. 60-78-67
M. 60-60-60
M. 48-60-56
M. 60-78-67
M. 60-60-60
M. 48-60-50
M. 60-78-64
M. 60-60-60




1862:
Connecticut..........
Massachusetts___
New York.... ........
1.75-2.00-1.88 1863:
1.50-1.50-1.50
Connecticut_____
Massachusetts___
1.88-1.88-1.88
New York______
' 1864:
1.54-2.00-1.84
Connecticut..........
Massachusetts___
1.54-2.00-1.76
New York_______
1.50-1.50-1.50 1865:
Connecticut..........
1.54-1.88-1.79
Massachusetts___
1.50-1.50-1.50
New York_______
1866:
1.54-1.88-1.84
Connecticut..........
1.50-1.75-1.55
Massachusetts___
New York.... ........
1.75-2.00-1.82 1867:
1.50-1.75-1.63
Connecticut_____
Massachusetts___
2.00-2.00-2.00
New York_______
1.50-1.50-1.50 1868:
Connecticut..........
1.25-2.00-1.63
Massachusetts___
1.50-1.50-1.50
New York_______
1869:
1.25-2.00-1.51
Connecticut..........
1.50-1.75-1.60
Massachusetts___
New York............
1.50-2.00-1.63 1870:
1.50-1.63-1.60
California _______
Connecticut..........
1.50-2.00-1.80
Illinois..................
1.50-2.00-1.83
Maryland_____ _
1.50-1.75-1.63
Massachusetts___
Minnesota............
1.40-2.00-1.68
Missouri________
1.75-2.00-1.94
New York............
1.75-2.50-1.95
Ohio.....................
Pennsylvania____
1.75-2.25-2.04
Virginia_________
1.75-2.00-1.93 1871:
1.50-2.50-2.00
California. ____
Connecticut_____
1.50-2.00-1.76
Illinois__________
1.00-2.00-1. 79
Maryland.............
1.75-2.50-2.03
Massachusetts___
Minnesota............
1.40-2.00-1.89
Missouri________
1.00-2.00-1.80
New York............
1.50-2.50-1.62
Ohio __ .
.7 7 - .7 7 - .7 7
Pennsylvania____
Virginia................
1.75-2.25-2.00 1872:
1.00-2.00-1.75
California.............
1.75-2.50-2.04
Connecticut...
Illinois..................
1.75-2.25-2.03
Maryland__ __
. 83-2.25-1.90
Massachusetts___
1.75-2.50-2.13
Minnesota______
Missouri...............
1.40-2.50-2.03
New York............
1.00-2.25-1.88
Ohio.....................
1.50-2.50-1.90
Pennsylvania____
Virginia................
1.60-2.25-1.94 1873:
1.00-2.25-1.84
California.............
2.50-2.50-2.50
Connecticut_____
Illinois..................
1.75-2.00-1.78
Maryland_______
Massachusetts___
.83-2.25-1.77
2.50-2.50-2.50
Minnesota............
1.75-1.75-1.75
1.50-1.50-1.50

M. 60-60-60
M. 60-78-65
M. 60-60-60

1.75-2.25-2.00
1.08-2.25-1.80
1.84-2.50-2.05

M. 48-60-54
M. 60-78-65
M. 60-60-60

2.25-3.25-2.72
1.08-2.50-2.03
1.50-2.50-1.98

M. 60-60-60
M. 60-78-65
M. 60-60-60

2.00-2.50-2.48
1.33-2.52-2.17
2.00-2.67-2.35

M. 60-60-60
M. 60-66-61
M. 60-60-60

2.50-3.00-2.82
2.00-3.00-2.73
2.00-2.67-2.40

M. 60-60-60
M. 60-66-60
M. 60-60-60

3.00-3.00-3.00
1.75-4.00-2.91
2.00-3.50-2.73

M. 60-60-60
M. 60-66-61
M. 60-60-60

3.00-3.50-3.42
2.50-4.00-3.29
2.00-3.50-2.72

M. 48-60-56
M. 60-66-61
M. 60-60-60

3.25-4.00-3.76
2.50-4.50-3.52
2.00-3.50-2.72

M. 48-60-55
M. 60-66-60
M. 60-60-60

3.20-4.00-3.68
2.75-4.50-3.64
2.00-3.50-2.72

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

48-54-52
48-60-59
60-60-60
59-60-60
60-66-61
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
54-60-58
60-60-60

5.00-5.00-5.00
3.20-4.00-3.93
3.00-3.50-3.33
4.004.50-4.20
2.50-4.50-3.65
2.25-2.25-2.25
2.25-2.25-2.25
2.25-4.67-3.41
3.00-3.00-3.00
2.50-3.25-3.01
3.50-3.50-3.50

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

48-54-52 5.00-5.00-5.00
48-60-58 2.50-4.00-3.71
60-60-60 5.00-5.00-5.00
59-60-60 4.00-4.50-4.20
60-66-60 2.50-4.25-3.54
60-60-60 2.25-2.25-2.25
60-60-60 2.25-2.25-2.25
60-60-60 2.25-4.67-3.42
60-60-60 3.00-3.00-3.00
54-60-58 2.25-3.50-2.97
60-60-60 4.50-4.50-4.50

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

48-54-53
48-60-56
60-60-60
59-60-59
60-66-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
54-60-59
60-60-60

5.00-5.00-5.00
3.00-4.50-3.71
5.00-5.00-5.00
4.00-4.504.23
2.87-4.50-3.13
2.25-2.25-2.25
2.25-2.25-2.25
2.25-4.67-3.38
3.00-4.00-3.15
3.25-3.75-3.35
4.50-4.50-4.50

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

48-54-52
48-60-59
60-60-60
59-60-60
60-66-62
60-60-60

5.00-5.00-5.00
3.00-4.00-3.90
3.50-3.50-3.50
4.00-4.50-4.25
2.50-4.00-3.29
2.25-2.25-2.25

190

PART 2.— FROM 1840 TO 1928
T a b le

B—
15*—Masons, 1840-1900, by year and State— Continued
Lowest, highest, and
average—

Year and State

Sex

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Sex
Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)

Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)
1873—Continued.
Missouri...............
New York............
Ohio.....................
Pennsylvania.......
Virginia_________
1874:
California_______
Connecticut___
Illinois—....... .......
Maryland.............
Massachusetts___
Minnesota______
Missouri________
New York.._____
Ohio............. .......
Pennsylvania.......
Virginia................
1875:
California.............
Connecticut_____
Illinois........ .........
Maryland........... .
Massachusetts___
Minnesota...........
Missouri...............
New Y ork...........
Ohio.....................
Pennsylvania____
Virginia-...............
1876:
California_______
Connecticut_____
Illinois........ ........
Maryland.............
Massachusetts___
M innesota..........
Missouri________
New York....... . . .
Ohio............. .......
Pennsylvania____
Virginia______ _
1877:
California_______
Connecticut_____
Illinois__________
Maryland.............
Massachusetts___
Minnesota______
Missouri________
New York______
Ohio.....................
Pennsylvania____
Virginia................
1878:
California______
Connecticut_____
Illinois__________
Maryland_______
Massachusetts___
Minnesota............
Missouri________
New Y ork..—___
Ohio___________
Pennsylvania____
Virginia_________
1879:
California..._____
Connecticut_____
Illinois..................
Maryland.............
Massachusetts___
Minnesota............
Missouri...............
New Jersey...........
New York....... .
* Not reported.




M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
54-60-59
60-60-60

2.25-2.25-2.25
2.38-4.67-3.36
3.50-3.50-3.50
3.00-3.50-3.33
4.50-4.50-4.50

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

48-54-53
48-60-53
60-60-60
69-60-60
60-66-61
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
54-60-59
60-60-60

5.00-5.00-5.00
3.00*4.00-3.53
2.50-2.50-2.50
2.25-4.50-3.29
2.08-4. 50-3.27
2.25-2. 25-2.25
2.25-2. 25-2.25
2.50-3.00-2.95
3.25-3.25-3.25
1.75-3. 50-2.42
3.50-3. 50-3.50

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

48-54-54 5.00-5.00-5.00
48-60-54 •2.40-4.00-2.98
60-60-60 2.50-2. 50-2. 50
59-60-60 2.25-4. 50-3.29
60-60-60 2.00-4. 25-3.02
60-60-60 2.25-2. 25-2. 25
60-60-60 2.25-2. 25-2. 25
60-60-60 2.50-4.00-3.01
60-60-60 3.00-3.00-3.00
64-60-59 2.25-3. 50-2.88
60-60-60 3.50-3.50-3.50

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

48-54-54
48-60-56
60-60-60
54-59-57
60-60-60
60-60-60
48-48-48
60-60-60
60-60-60
54-60-60
60-60-60

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

48-54-53 5.00-5.00-5. 00
48-60-59 2. 25-4. 00-2.56
60-60-60 3.00-3.00-3.00
53-54-53 3.00-4. 50-3.67
60-60-60 1. 70-3.50-2.68
60-60-60 2. 25-2. 25-2. 25
48-48-48 4. 00-4. 00-4.00
60— 60 2.00-2. 75-2.12
60—
60-60-60 2.00-2.25-2.06
48-60-59 2.00-3.50-2.36
60-60-60 3. 50-3.50-3.50

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

48-54-53
60-60-60
60-60-60
53-54-53
60-60-60
60-60-60
48-48-48
60-60-60
60-60-60
54-72-59
60-60-60

4.00-5.00-4.88
1. 75-4.00-2.50
3.00-3.00-3.00
3.00-4. 50-3.57
1.88-3.25-2.52
2.75-3. 00-2.89
4.00-4.00-4.00
2.00-2.75-2.11
2.00-2.25-2.11
1.25-2.75-1.98
3.50-3.50-3.50

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

48-54-53
48-60-59
60-60-60
53-54-53
60-60-60
60-60-00
48-48-48
59-60-60
60-60-60

4.00-5.00-4.83
1.75-4.00-2.24
3.50-3.50-3.50
3.50-4.50-3.57
1. 73-3.50-2.59
2. 75-3. 00-2.89
4.00-4.00-4.00
1. 00-1. 75-1. 50
2. 00-2. 50-2. 47

5.00-5.00-5.00
2.40-4. 00-2. 70
3.00-3.00-3.00
3.00-4.50-3.64
1.75-4. 00-3.00
2. 25-2. 25-2.25
4.00-4.00-4.00
2. 50-2. 75-2. 52
2. 75-3.00-2.89
2. 25-3. 50-2.47
3. 50-3.50-3. 50

1879—Continued.
Ohio______ ____
Pennsylvania___
Virginia........... .
1880:
California..........
Connecticut_____
Illinois..................
Maryland........... .
Massachusetts___
Minnesota.......... .
Missouri.......... ...
New Jersey......... .
New York______
Ohio....... .............
Pennsylvania___
Virginia___ _____
1881:
California.............
Colorado_______
Connecticut-........
Illinois................ .
Maryland.............
Massachusetts_
_
Minnesota...........
Missouri.............
New Jersey.........
New York______
Ohio....................
Pennsylvania___
Virginia............—
.1882:
California______
Colorado.............
Connecticut____
Illinois.................
Maryland............
Massachusetts___
Minnesota............
Missouri.......... ...
Now Jersey_____
New York______
Ohio.......... ..........
Do__............. .
Pennsylvania___
Virginia.............
1883:
California_______
Connecticut_____
Illinois..................
Maryland.............
Massachusetts_
_
Michigan............
Minnesota...........
Missouri.......... .
New Jersey.........
New York...........
Ohio....................
Pennsylvania___
Virginia— ..........
1884:
California............
Connecticut____
Illinois.................
Iowa....................
Maryland...........
Massachusetts___
Michigan.........
Minnesota.......
Missouri..........
New Jersey___
New York____
Ohio................
Pennsylvania..
Virginia...........

M. 60-60-60
M. 54-60-60
M. 60-60-60
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

2.00-2.50-2.06
1.17-2.50-2.19
3.50-3.50-3.50

M.
M.
M.
M.

48-54-53 4.00-5. 00-4.89
48-60-58 2.00-4. 00-2.59
60-60-60 2.20-3. 50-2.98
53-54-54 3.00-4. 50-3.78
60-60-60 2.00-3. 50-2.52
60-60-60 2.75-3. 00-2.89
48-48-48 4.00-4. 00-4.00
54-60-59 1.25-2. 50-1.72
60-60-60 2.38-2. 75-2.58
60-60-60 2.0 -2 25-2.25
0.
54-60-59 1. 50-2. 50-2.14
60-60-60 3. 50-3. 50-3.50

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

48-54-54 4.00-5. 00-4.95
60-60-60 3.50-3. 50-3.50
48-60-56 1.80-4. 00-2.77
60-60-60 3.50-3. 50-3.50
48-54-51 3.00-4. 50-3.68
60-60-60 2.00-3. 50-2.70
60-60-60 3.50-3. 50-3.50
48-48-48 4.00-4. 00-4.00
60-60-60 2.50-2. 50-2.50
60-60-60 2.38-3. 00-2.92
60-60-60 2.50-3. 00-2.95
54-66-59 2.00-3. 00-2.85
60-60-60 3.50-3. 50-3.50

0)

48-54-54 4.00-5. 00-4.94
60-60-60 4.00-4. 00-4.00
48-60-59 2.25-4. 00-3.35
60-60-60 3. 50-3. 50-3.50
48-54-50 3. 00-4. 50-3.62
60-60-60 2.00-4. 00-2. 80
60-60-60 3. 50-3. 50-3.50
48-60-49 2. 50-4. 00-3.95
2. 75-3. 00-2.86
(0
60-60-60 2.38-4. 00-3.22
60-60-60 2. 75-3. 00-2.98
.0 -2
< 60-60-60 2 0 . 63-2.32
l)
M. 54-60-58 1.30-3. 25-2.77
M. 60-60-60 3.50-3. 50-3.50

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

48-54-53
48-60-49
60-60-60
48-54-50
80-60 60

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

48-60-55
48-60-57
60-60-60
60-60-60
48-54-50
60-60-60

(0

60-60-60
48-48-48
60-60-60
60-60-60
59-70-60
54-60-59
60-60-60

0)

60-60-60
48-48-48
60-72-60
60-60-60
59-60-60
54-54-54
60-60-60

4.00-5.00-4.91
2.50-4.00-3.46
3.50-3.50-3.50
3.00-4.50-3.61
1.25-5.00-2.68
1.00-3.75-2.74
3.50-3.50-3.50
4.00-4.00-4.00
2.50-2.88-2.60
2.50-4.00-3.31
2.00-4.17-3.14
2.00-3.30-3.11
3.50-3.50-3.50
2.50-5.00-4.16
3.00-4.00-3.55
3.50-3.50-3.50
1.50-4.50-2.48
3.00-4.50-3.57
2.00-4 00-3.22
1.00-4.00-2.56
3.50-3.50-3.50
4.004.00-4.00
1.50-3.51-2.87
2.38-3.90-3.26
2. 50-3.25-3.00
2.00-4.00-2.41
3.50-3.50-3. 50

191

B.— BUILDING TRADES
T a b le B -1 5 .— Masons, 1840-1900, by year and State— Continued
Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Sex

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Sex

Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)
1885:
California_______
Connecticut_____
Georgia_________
Illinois .......... ...
Indiana................
Kansas
Maine..................Maryland-....
Massachusetts___
Michigan,
Minnesota______
Missouri
Nebraska_______
New Jersey..........
New York_______
O h io -,_________
Pennsylvania.......
Vermont________
Virginia-............. .
West Virginia.......
1886:
California.............
Cnnnftp.tifint _
Illinois..................
Iowa___________
Kansas
.....
Maryland_______
Massachusetts--Minnesota______
Missouri.......... .
New Hampshire. _
New Jersey...... ....
New York_______
Ohio____________
Pennsylvania.......
Virginia________
1887:
California_______
Connecticut_____
Delaware_______
Florida_________
Illinois__________
Kansas_________
Maine__________
Maryland_______
Do..................
Massachusetts___
Michigan_______
Minnesota______
Missouri________
Nebraska_______
New Jersey______
New York_____
D o...... -.........
North Carolina-__
Ohio.....................
Pennsylvania____
Do............. .
Rhode Island-___
Virginia________
West Virginia.......
Wisconsin_______
1888:
California.............
Colorado—............
Connecticut—
'.___
Georgia................
Illinois..................
Iowa..... ...............
Kansas_________
Maryland...... ......
Massachusetts___
Michigan_______
Minnesota............

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

60-60-60
48-48-48
60-60-60
51-60-60
54-66-56
60-60-60
48-60-54
66-66-66
48-54-51
60-60-60

4.00-5.00-4.92
2.75-4.00-3.30
2.25-2.25-2.25
4.00-5.00-4.05
1.75-2.60-2.00
1.25-3.00-2.70
1.13-2.75-1.88
3.00-4. 60-3.57
1.60-4.00-3.11
1.50-3. 75-2.40
3.60-3. 50-3.50
4.00-4.00-4.00
3.60-3. 50-3.50
1.50-3.60-2.68
1.87-3. 60-3.05
1.52-4. 00-3.14
2.00-3.50-2.60
2.25-2.25-2.25
3.00-3.60-3.28
3.50-3.50-3.50

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

48-54-54
54-54-54
48-60-55
60-60-60
48-60-60
48-54-51
60-60-60
63-60-59
48-48-48
60-60-60
60-60-60
63-60-54
54-54-54
53-60-57
54-64-54

4.00-6.00-4.94
2. 75-4.00-3.50
1.75-4.00-3.30
1.00-4.00-2.78
1.50-3.50-2.80
3.50-4. 50-3.86
1.80-4.00-3.04
2.25-2. 26-2.36
4.00-4.00-4.00
1.13-2.25-1.63
2.50-3.00-2.98
2.50-4.00-2.75
2.70-2.93-2.87
2.00-3.30-3.13
3.50-3.50-3.50

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

48-64-53
48-54-51

4.00-5.00-4.89
1.50-4.00-2.81
a. 15-.35J—29*
.
3.00-3.00-3.00
4.00-4.00-4.00
1.50-3. 50-2.89
2.25-3.00-2. 54
2.32£-.32£-.32£
1. 50-4. 50-2. 73
1.25-5. 50-2.39
2. 50-4.00-3.33
3. 50-3. 50-3. 50
1.50-4.00-3.52
2.50-4.00-3.52
2.50-3.10-2.80
a. 13- . 35- . 24
1.50-4.00-3.35
1.00-1.00-1.00
1.25-3.50-2.82
2.10- .30-. 18&
1.40-3.50-2.66
2.50-3.00-2.75
2.00-3.00-2.84
1.50-2. 50-1.81
2.004.00-2.73

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

48-54-54
48-60-53
69-6^-69
48-60-49
60-60-60
60-60-60
66-66-66
48-54r-50
60-60-60

(9

(9

(i)
48-48-48
60-60-60
60-60-60

(9

48-54-51
60-60-60

(9

60-60-60
48-48-48
60-60-60

(9
(1
)

48-60-56
72-72-72
54-72-57

(9

54-60-56

(9

54-54-54
8
48-54-53
60-60-60
48-54-53
66-66-66
48-48-48
54-60-58

(9

48-54-51
60-60-60
48-60-59
60-60-60

4.00-5.00-4.83
4.50-5.00-4.75
2.50-4.00-3.55
2.50-2.75-2. 56
4.00-4.00-4.00
2.50-3.30-2.94
2.00-3. 58-3. 24
3.50-4. 50-3.96
1.94-5.50-3.49
1.00-2.99-2.45
3.50-3. 50-3.50

* Not reported.



Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)
1888—Continued.
Missouri..........
New Jersey___
New York______
Do..................
North Carolina.—
Ohio..........
Pennsylvania..
Rhode Island-South Carolina-__
Virginia—
.........
1889:
. Alabama________
California—. . . .
Connecticut___
Illinois..........
Indiana______
Kansas-------Maine-------Maryland........
Massachusetts___
Michigan......... .
Minnesota_____
Missouri_______
Do................
New HampshireNew York______
North Carolina—
Ohio.................
Pennsylvania-.
Tennessee____
Virginia...........
West Vriginia---Wisconsin____
1890:
California_____
Connecticut_
_
Illinois_______
Indiana....... —
Kansas-------Maryland____
Massachusetts___
Minnesota______
Missouri..... .......
Nebraska_______
New York..........
North Carolina..
Ohio...................
Pennsylvania___
Virginia................
1891:
California______
Connecticut_____
Illinois..................
Kansas_________
M aine............... .
Maryland........... .
Massachusetts_
_
Minnesota.......... .
Missouri............. .
New York.......... .
North Carolina-_
Ohio................ .
Pennsylvania___
Virginia........ .......
Wisconsin______
1892:
California.............
Connecticut_____
Illinois.......... ......
Iowa....................
Kansas................ .
Maine................. .
Maryland.............

* P hour.
er

48-48-48
51-60-56

(9

48-60-55
60-78-66
54-54-54
54-54-54

(9

66- 66-66

60-60-60
54-54-54

4.00-4.00-4.00
1.49-3.50-2.86
*.33i- .45-.39£
1.37-4.05-3.37
1.00-2.50-1.42
1.25-3. 50-2. 68
2.00-3.30-2.97
2.00-5.00-2.97
1.00-2.25-1* 25
3.45-3.45-3.45
3.00-3.00-3.00

60-66-61
48-54-53
48-54-50
48-72-53

1.50-5.00-2.73
4.00-5.00-4.85
2.25-4.00-3.30
1.53-6.13-3.44
66- 66-66 2.25-3.00-2.75
60-60-60 1.75-3.12-2.69
60-60-60 1.25-2.25-1.83
48-54-51 3.00-4.50-3.75
60-60-60 1.75-5.50-3.20
3.00-4.00-3. 50
(9
60-60-60 3. 50-3.50-3.50
1.92-2.00-1.96
(9
48-48-48 1.50-4.00-3.91
1.50-3.00-1.97
(9
54-60-57 1.50-4.00-3.32
60-60-60 1.00-1. 50-1.25
54-66-59 1.34-6.37-2.84
54r-60-57 1.35-4.17-3.00
60-72-64 2.00-3.75-2.58
54-72-64 1.75-3.50-2. 79
60-60-60 2.50-4.17-3.44
2.26-5.00-3.49
(9
48-54-53
48-54-50
48-48-48
60-60-60

(9

48-54-51
60-60-60
60-60-60
48-48-48

(9

48-60-50

(9

54-54-54
54-54-54
54-54-54

4.00-5.00-4.80
2.50-4.00-3.39
2.18-4.00-3.88

2.00-2.00-2.00

2.00-3.75-3.08
3.60-4.50-3.93
1.94-5. 50-3. 29
1. 75-3. 50-2.81
4.00-4.00-4.00
1.50-3.00-2.50
1.25-5.00-3.39
1.25-2.87-1.84
3.60-4. 50-3.74
2.00-4.00-3.40
3.00-3.00-3.00

48-54-53
48-54-53
48-48-48
60-60-60
60-60-60
48-54-51
60-60-60
60-60-60
48-48-48
48-60-49
60-60-60
54-54-54
54-54-54
54-54-54

4.00-5.00-4. 86
2.50-4.05-3. 71
4.00-4.00-4.00
2.63-2. 63-2. 63
2.00-3.25-2.68
3.604.50-3.98
1.94-5.50-3.11
3. 50-3. 50-3. 50
4.00-4.00-4.00
1.13-5.00-3.18
1.65-1.65-1. 65
3.24-3.60-3.55
2.00-3.60-3.39
3.00-3.00-3.00
3.20- .45- .30

48-54-53
54-54-54
48-48-48
54-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
48-54-51

3.00-4.50-4.00
1.50-4.05-3.77
4.00-4.004.00
2.00-4.00-3.25
2.38-2.38-2.38

(9

2.00-2.00-2.00

3.60-4.50-3.95

192

PAJRT 2.— FROM 1840 TO 1928
T a b le B -1 5 .— Masons, 1840-1900, by year and State— Continued
Lowest, highest, and
average—

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Sex

Year and State

Sex
Hours per Rate per day
(dollars)
week

Hours per Rate per day
(dollars)
week
1892—Continued.
Massachusetts__
Michigan............
Minnesota____. .
Missouri........ .
New York_____
Ohio...................
Pennsylvania___
Rhode Island___
Virginia...............
1893:
California______
Connecticut____
Illinois_________
Kansas................
Maryland...........
Massachusetts
Michigan............
Minnesota_____
Missouri.............
Montana.............
New Hampshire New York_____
Ohio...................
Pennsylvania--Rhode Island___
Virginia___. . . . . .
W isconsin........
1894:
California............
Connecticut____
Illinois................
Iowa__________
Maine.................
Maryland...........
Massachusetts
Minnesota_____
Missouri.............
New York__.......
Ohio....................
Pennsylvania___
Rhode Island___
Virginia...............
1895:
California............
Connecticut........
Illinois................
M ain e...............
Maryland...........
M assachusetts. _.
Minnesota..........
Missouri.............
Nebraska...........
New Hampshire .
New York_____
North Carolina..
Ohio...................
Pennsylvania___
Rhode Island___
Virginia..............
Wisconsin...........




58-60-59
36-60-57
60-60-60
48-48-48
48-60-49
48-60-55
54-54-54
54-60-59
54-54-54

1.88-4.00-3.18
1.50-5.00-3.25
2. 25-2.50-2.41
4.00-4.004.00
2.50-4.00-3.90
1.15-4.00-3.41
2.00-3.60-3.47
1.00-5.00-3.08
3.00-3.00-3.00

48-54-53
54-60-56
48-48-48

0)

4.00-4.50-4.40
1.50-4.05-3.72
2.25-5.00-3.94
3.50-3.50-3.50
2.00-4.50-3.72
1.88-4.00-2.96
1. 75-1. 75-1. 75
2.25-2. 50-2.36
2.03-4.00-2.08
4.50-6.00-5.17
1.50-3. 75-2.98
2.00-4.00-3.07
2.50-3.60-3.15
1.00-4.00-2.94
2.00-3.50-3.23
3.00-3.00-3.00
3.20- .40- .30

48-54-53
54r-54-54
48-48-48
48-60-59
58-58-58
54-60-60
48-54-51
58-58-58
60-60-60
48-48-48
48-48-48
48-60-56
54-54-54
60-60-60
54-54-54

4.00-4. 50-4.42
1.75-4. 05-3.73
4.00-4. 004.00
1.67-3. 67-2.90
2.22-3. 50-2.24
1. 75-3. 00-2.48
4.00-4. 50-4.11
1.30-3. 62-2.07
2.25-2. 50-2.36
4.00-4. 00-4.00
2.50-4. 00-3.95
2.50-3. 30-3.04
2.00-3. 15-2.81
1.75-2. 75-2.17
3.00-3. 00-3.00

(l)

48-60-52
58-58-58
60-60-60
60-60-60
48-60-48
42-54-51
54-60-59
47-60-51
54-60-58
48-60-56
60-60-60
54-54-54

48-54-53 4.00-4. 50-4.44
54-54-54 1. 75-4. 05-3. 74
48-48-48 4.00-4. 00-4.00
60-60-60 1.50-2. 00-1.75
60-60-60 1.50-3. 00-2.09
48-54-52 3.00-3. 50-3.13
58-58-58 1.30-3. 75-2.64
60-60-60 2.25-2. 50-2.36
48-48-48 3.60-3. 60-3.60
60-60-60 1 0 . 00-1.50
.0 -2
60-60-60 1.35-3. 25-1.83
48-48-48 2.50-4. 00-3.94
60-60-60 1 0 . 50-1.33
.0 -1
48-60-55 2.50-4. 00-3.57
54-54-54 2.00-3. 42-3.03
.0 -2
60-60-60 2 0 . 50-2.25
54-54-54 3.00-3. 00-3.00
48-60-55 1.50-3. 60-2. 72

i Not reported.

California..........
Connecticut____
Georgia________
Illinois...............
Kansas..............
Maryland..........
Massachusetts-..
Michigan......... .
Minnesota.........
Missouri ............
Nebraska...........
New Hampshire.
New York.........
North Carolina..
Ohio__________
Pennsylvania__
Rhode Island__
Tennessee_____
Virginia... .........
1897:
California..........
Connecticut___
Illinois...............
Kansas..............
D o ..............
Maryland_____
Michigan......... .
Minnesota.........
Missouri.........
Nebraska...........
New York_____
Ohio..................
Pennsylvania...
Virginia.............
1898:
California_____
Illinois________
Kansas..............
Maryland..........
Michigan______
Minnesota.........
Missouri............
Nebraska...........
Do...............
New York__
Ohio..................
Pennsylvania__
Virginia.............
1899:
California..........
Georgia.............
Massachusetts..
New York_____
Ohio..................
Pennsylvania. ._
1900:
California..........
Georgia.............
Massachusetts. .
New York_____
Pennsylvania-..

2

Per hour.

48-54-53
60-60-60

0)

48-48-48
60-60-60
53-60-56
48-60-50
60-60-60
60-60-60
48-48-48
48-48-48
60-60-60
48-60-49
60-66-63
48-60-56
50-60-53
60-60-60

o

54-54-54
48-54-53
54-54-54
48-48-48
48-60-56

(*
)
0)
60-60-60

53-54r-54
48-48-48
48-48-48
48-53-48
48-48-48
54-54-54
54-54-54
48-54-53
48-48-48
54-54-54
53-54-54

0)

54-54-54
48-48-48
48-60-56

0)

48-54-48
48-48-48
54-54-54
54-54-54
48-48-48
60-60-60
48-48-48
44-60-48

4.00-4. 50-4.38
3.00-3. 62-3.31
. 67-2. 50-1.54
3.00-4. 00-3.91
2.50-2. 50-2.50
2.99-3. 51-3.19
2.00-4. 20-3.37
3.00-3..00-3.00
2.25-2. 50-2.39
3.60-3. 60-3.60
3.00-3. 00-3.00
2. 25-3. 00-2.92
2.50-4. 00-3.92
1 0 . 50-1.25
.0 -1
2.50-3. 26-3.09
2.58-3, 75-3.22
3.00-3. 00-3.00
1 0 . 50-1.58
.0 -2
3.00-3. 00-3.00
4.00-4.50-4.40
2.00-3.60-2.70
4.00-4.00-4.00
2.00-3.20-2.39
2.17*-. 17£-. m
3.00-3.50-3.13
2.71-2.71-2.71
2. 25-2.50-2.39
3.60-3.60-3.60
4.004.00-4.00
3.00-4.05-3.38
2. 56-2.56-2.56
1.64-3.15-2.83
3.00-3.00-3.00
4.00-4.50-4.41
4.00-4.00-4.00
2. 25-3.00-2.65
3.00-3.50-3.13
2. 00-2.72-2.37
2. 25-2.50-2.39
2. 80-2.80-2.80
1.00-3.37-2.33
*. 17£-. 17*-. 1 7 |
3.20-4.05-3.67
2.40-2.50-2.41
2.00-3.15-2.87
3.00-3.00-3.00

54-54-54

3.00-3.00-3.00
2.00-2. 25-2.13
3.60-3.60-3.60
2.93-3.60-3/06
2.75-2.75-2.75
2.50-3.00-3.00

48-48-48
60-60-60
48-48-48
44-60-48
48-48-48

3.50-3.50-3.50
2.00-2. 25-2.13
3.60-3.60-3.60
2.93-3.60-3.04
3.00-3.00-3.00

0)

193

B.— BUILDING TRADES

T a b le B -16.—Stone masons, males, 1890-1907, by geographic division and year
South Atlantic

North Atlantic
Year

North Central

South Central

Rate
Rate
Hours
Rate
Hours
Hours
Rate
Hours
per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour

1890............................
1891............................
1892...........................
1893...........................
1894...........................
1895...........................
1896— .......................
1897...........................
1898........................ .
1899...........................
1900...........................
1901...........................
1902...........................
1903...........................
1904...........................
1905...........................
1906...........................
1907...........................

56.2
56.4
56.3
56.0
55.9
55.7
55.6
55.1
53.3
54.4
53.0
52.9
51.5
49.8
48.6
47.6
47.5
47.3

$0.323
.318
.315
.316
.313
.312
.315
.319
.333
.329
.340
.354
.381
.423
.443
.465
.477
.493

54.3
54.4
54.7
54.7
55.1
56.0
54.6
53.9
53.9
53.9
53.6
53.7
51.3
51.0
51.5
51.8
52.0
51.2

$0.368
.364
.359
.362
.343
.314
.382
.354
.333
.339
.352
.376
.445
.467
.461
.456
.467
.458

52.6
52.6
52.3
51.7
51.6
51.2
51.2
50.1
50.6
50.1
50.0
48.5
48.0
48.6
47.7
48.0
48.1
47.6

$0,420
.421
.421
.417
.382
.398
.404
.414
.395
.426
.424
.457
.485
.499
.532
.510
.526
.546

56.3
56.3
56.3
55.8
55.6
55.2
54.6
54.6
54.5
54.4
54.4
51.8
50.4
50.8
52.4
51.1
49.5
49.5

$0,350
.350
.360
.363
.369
.348
.346
.342
.344
.363
.369
.371
.421
.448
.408
.421
.463
.474

T a b l e B -17.— Stone masons, males, 1907-1928, by city and year
Atlanta, Ga.
Year

Birmingham, Ala.

Boston, M ass.

Chicago, 111.

Hours
Rate
Hours
Rate
Rate
Hours
Rate
Hours
per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour

1907...........................
1908...........................
1909..... ......................
1910._...................... .
1911..........................
1912...........................
1913............. .............
1914........................ . /
1
1915_____ _________
1916..................... .
1917................ ..........
1918...........................
1919................ .........
1920.........................
1921...........................
1922______ ______
1923..................... .
1924........... ...............
1925...........................
1926..........................
1927.................. .........
1928...........................

53.0
53.0
53.0
53.0
53.0
53.0
53.0
350.0 |
53.0
50.0
4 50.0
50.0
50.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0 /
\
44.0 /
\
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0,408
.459
.459
.459
.459
.450
.450
. 450
.450
.500
.600
«.600
7.700
n . 125
l.CO
O
1.000
1.125
31.250 }
1.125
31.250 }
1.125
1.400
1.400
1.400

1 Rough foundation, 55 cents.
248 hours October to December.
* Two unions.
<53 hours October to April.




244.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0,700
.700
.700
.700
.700
.875
.875
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.125
1.250

44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

1.375
1.500
1.500
1.500

44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

i $0.600
1.600
.600
.600
.600
.600
.650
.650
.650
.650
.700
.800
.800
1.000
81.000
1.000
1.250
1. 250

48.0
48.0
48.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0,628
.628
.675
.675
.675
.725
.750
.750
.750
.750
.750
«. 750
.875
1.250
81.250
1.100
1.100
1.500

1.250
1.400
1.400
1.400

44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

1.500
1.500
1.625
1.625

*70 cents on June 1.
681.3 cents on August 1.
^Nominal rate; all received more.
801d scale; strike pending.

194

PART 2 .— FROM 1840 TO 1928

T a b le

B-17.— Stone masons, males, 1907-1928, by city and year— Continued
Cincinnati, Ohio

Year

1907..... ....... .............
1908-.-............. .......
1909_______________
1910__________
1911_______________
1912— ___ ________
1913______________
1914______________
1915— ___ ________
1916.............. ............
1917_______________
1918_______________
1919_______ _______
1920_____________1921_______________
1922_____ __ ______
1923_______ ____—
1924_____ ____ _____
1925______ _____—
1926_______________
1927_______________
1928...........................

45.0
45.0
45.0
45.0
45.0
45.0
45.0
45.0
45.0
45.0
45.0
45.0
45.0
45.0
45.0
45.0
45.0
45.0
45.0
45.0
44.0
44.0

$0,540
.540
.540
.540
.540
.540
.600
.600
.600
.600
.650
.700
.700
.900
1.000
1.000
1.125
1.125
1.250
1.250
1.500
1.500

44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0,625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.750
.875
.875
1.125
1.125
1.250
1.375
1.500
1.500
1.500
1.500
1.500

Philadelphia, Pa.

44.0
$0. 525
44.0
44.0
.550
44.0
44.0
.550
44.0
44.0
.550
44.0
44.0
.575
44.0
44.0
.575
44.0
44.0
.600
44.0
44.0
.600
44.0
44.0
.600
44.0
44.0
.625
44.0
44.0 J to .625 }
44.0
I
. 750
44.0
.750
44.0
44.0
12. 8O
O
44.0
44.0
1.250
44.0
44.0
44.0
1.250
44.0
44.0
1.250
44.0
1.500
44.0
44.0
1.500
44.0
44.0
1.500
44.0
M
44.0
1.750
44.0
44.0
1. 750
44.0
1. 750
44.0
44.0
j

8 Old scale; strike pending.
948 hours November to April, inclusive.

1 48 hours December to February, inclusive.
0

» Manhattan and Bronx, 1912 to 1920.




Detroit,, Mich.

New Orleans, La.

Hours
Hours
Hours
Rate
Hours
Rate
Rate
Rate
per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour

New York, N. Y.1*
1907 ............. ...........
1908 ........... ............
1909 ______ ____
1910 _____________
1911
............. .......
1912_______________
1913______ ______ 1914___ _____ _____
1915_______________
1916.......... .................
1917_______________
1918_______________
1919_______________
1920_______________
1921___ ___________
1922_______________
1923_______________
1924__________ ____
1925................ ..........
1926
1927-.......................1928.......................—

Denver , Colo.

$0,500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.550
.550
.550
.600
.700
«. 800
1.300
1.300
1.000
1.250
1.300
1.300
1.500
1.500
1.500

48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
944.0
944.0
W44.0
1044.6
1044.0
1044.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0,550
.550
.550
.550
.550
.550
.600
.650
.650
.700
.750
.800
.900
1.250
1.000
1.000
1.350
1.500
1.500
1.500
1.575
1.575

St. Louis, Mo.
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

48.0
48.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0,625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.750
1.000
1.250
1.000
1.000
1.250
1.250
1.250
1.250
1.500

San Francisco, Calif.

$0,600
.600
.600
.600
.600
$0.875
.600
44.0
.600
44.0
.875
.700
.700
.700
.700 ________ ________
.700
44.0
1.000
.850
1.000
44.0
1.125
81.125
44.0
1.000
44.0
1.250
1. 250
1.500
44.0
1.375
1.500
44.0
1.375
1.500
1. 500
1.375
1. 500
44.0
44.0
1.375
1.500

12 Rate for foundation work.
1350 per cent received more.
1440 hours July and August.

B.— BUILDING TRADES
T able

195

B-18.— Painters, 1840-1900, by year and State
Lowest, highest, and
average—

Year and State

Sex

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Sex

Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)
1840:
___
Connecticut.—
Maryland............Massachusetts___
New York______
1841:
Maryland........
Massachusetts___
New York....... . . .
1842:
Connecticut_____
Maryland........ —
Massachusetts___
New York__ -___
1843:
Maryland___ -__
Massachusetts___
New York_____
1844:
Maryland.............
Massachusetts___
New York______
1845:
Maryland.............
Massachusetts___
New York............
1846:
Maryland— ____
Massachusetts___
New York______
1847:
Maryland_______
Massachusetts___
New York............
1848:
Maryland.............
Massachusetts___
New York______
1849:
Maryland.............
Massachusetts___
New York....... ___
Pennsylvania____
1850:
Maryland.............
Massachusetts___
New York______
Pennsylvania.......
1851:
Maryland.............
Massachusetts___
New York....... .
Pennsylvania____
1852:
Maryland-______
Massachusetts___
New York....... .
Pennsylvania.......
1853:
Massachusetts___
New York............
Pennsylvania.......
Do.................
1854:
Massachusetts___
New York______
Pennsylvania____
1855:
Massachusetts___
New York______
Pennsylvania____
1856:
Maryland_______
Massachusetts___
New York............
Pennsylvania.......

66-66-66
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60

1.50-1.50-1.50
1.25-1.25-1.25
1.42-1.67-1.50
1.25-1.50-1.49

M. 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60

1.25-1.25-1.25
1.33-1.67-1.50
1.25-1.50-1.49

66-66-66
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60

1.50-1.50-1.50
1.25-1.38-1.33
1.42-1.67-1.55
1.25-1.50-1.49

M 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60
M 60-60-60

1.25-1.3&-1.35
1.33-1.67-1.44
1.25-1.50-1.49

M. 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60
M 60-60-60

1.25-1.50-1.40
1.42-1.67-1.48
1.25-1.50-1.49

M. 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60

1.38-1.50-1.43
1.33-1.42-1.34
1.25-1.50-1.49

M 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60

1.38-1.50-1.43
.96-1.42-1.23
1.25-1.50-1.49

M. 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60

1.50-1.50-1.50
1.67-1.67-1.67
1.25-1.50-1.49

M. 60-60-60
M. 60-75-64
M. 60-60-60

1.50-1.50-1.50
1.00-1.50-1.37
1.25-1.50-1.49

M.
M.
M.
M.

60-60-60
60-75-65
60-60-60
60-60-60

1.50-1.50-1.50
1.42-1.67-1.49
1.25-1. 50-1.49
1. 50-2.50-1.75

M.
M.
M.
M.

60-60-60
60-75-70
60-60-60
60-60-60

1. 50-1.50-1.50
1.42-1.50-1.47
1.25-1.75-1.72
1.25-1.50-1.47

M.
M.
M.
M.

60-60-60
60-75-64
60-60-60
60-60-60

1. 50-1.50-1.50
1.42-1.50-1.44
1.25-1.75-1.73
1.12-1.50-1.37

M.
M.
M.
M.

60-60-60
60-75-62
60-60-60
60-60-60

1.50-1. 50-1. 50
.96-1.50-1.17
1.00-1.75-1.61
1.25-2.50-1.55

M.
M.
M.
F.

60-75-64
60-60-60
60-60-60
54-54-54

1.42-1.67-1.48
1.25-1.75-1.73
1.25-3.00-1.75
. 59- . 84- . 70

M. 60-66-62
M. 60-60-60
F. 54-54-54

1.12-1.75-1.40
1.25-2.00-1.97
. 59- . 84r- . 69

M. 60-72-64
M. 60-60-60
F. 54-54-54

1.00-1.75-1.48
1.25-2.00-1.98
. 67- . 84- . 73

M.
M.
M.
F.

1. 75-1.75-1. 75
. 96-1.75-1.34
1.25-2.00-1.93
.67- .84- .73

M
M.
M.
M

M
M.
M.
M.

1Not reported.



60-60-60
60-72-61
60-60-60
54-60-58

Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)
1857:
Maryland_______
Massachusetts___
New York....... .
Pennsylvania____
Virginia.............
1858:
Maryland.............
Massachusetts___
New York............
Pennsylvania-___
1859:
Maryland—
_____
Massachusetts___
New York....... .
Pennsylvania.___
1860:
Maryland_______
Massachusetts___
New York............

M.
M.
M.
F.
M.

60-60-60
60-78-63
60-60-60
54-54-54
72-72-72

1.75-1.75-1.75
1.00-1.75-1.42
3.25-2.00-1.95
. 67- . 84r- . 77
1.00-1.00-1.00

M.
M.
M.
F.

60-60-60
60-78-67
60-60-60
54-54-54

1.75-1.75-1.75
.87-1.75-1.28
1.25-1.75-L 73
.67- .84- .75

M.
M.
M.
F.

60-60-60
60-78-70
60-60-60
54-54-54

1.50-1.75-1.64
.87-1.75-1.20
1.25-2.00-1.96
.6 7 - .8 4 - .7 5

M.
M.
M.
M.
Pennsylvania. ___ M.
Do-................ F.
1861:
Maryland........ . . . M.
Massachusetts___ M.
New York....... — M.
Pennsylvania.___ F.
1862:
Maryland_______ M.
Massachusetts___ M.
New York______ M.
Pennsylvania____ F.
1863:
Maryland............. M.
Massachusetts___ M.
New York............ M.
Pennsylvania____ F.
1864:
Delaware. ............ M.
Maryland........
M.
Massachusetts___ M.
New York_____ M.
Pennsylvania____ F.
1865:
Delaware.........
M.
Maryland_______ M.
Massachusetts___ M.
New York______ M.
Pennsylvania....... M.
Do.................. F.
1866:
Maryland_______ M
Massachusetts___ M.
New York__ ____ M.
Pennsylvania....... M.
Do.................. F.
1867:
Delaware.............. M.
Maryland— ......... M.
Massachusetts___ M.
New York______ M.
Pennsylvania____ M.
Do.................. F.
1868:
Delaware_______ M.
Maryland_______ M.
Massachusetts___ M.
New York............ M.
Pennsylvania.._ M.
D o . ________ F.
1869:
D elaw are______ M.
Maryland............ M.
Massachusetts___ M.
New York............ M.

60-60-60
60-78-69
60-60-60
0)
60-60-60
54-54-54

1.50-1.75-1.67
.75 1.75*1.28
1.25-2.00-1.97
1.25-2.00-1.63
1. 50-1.50-1.50
.67- .84- .75

60-60-60
60-78-73
60-60-60
54-54-54

1. 50-1.67-1.59
1.00-2.00-1.23
1.25-2.00-1.93
.67- .84- .72

60-60-60
60-78-68
60-60-60
54-54-54

1.17-1.50-1.45
. 83-1.75-1.29
1.75-2.00-1.98
.67- .84- .78

60-60-60
60-78-66
60-60-60
54-54-54

1.50-1.75-1.57
1.00-1.83-1:35
1.75-2.50-2.21
. 67- . 84- . 78

60-60-60
60-60-60
60-78-66
60-60-60
54-54-54

1.67-2.42-2.06
1.50-2.50-2.40
. 75-2.50-1.57
1.75-3.00-2.93
.7 5 - .8 4 - .8 1

60-60-60
60-60-60
60-72-63
60-72-60
60-60-60
54-54-54

1.25-2.50-1.89
2. 50-2. 50-2. 50
1.16-2. 50-1.88
1.38-3.60-2.82
1.84-1.84-1.84
.84- .84- .84

60-60-60
60-72-62
60-60-60
60-60-60
54-54-54

2.50-3.00-2.54
1.25-3.00-2.08
1.75-3.50-3.35
2.00-2.00-2.00
. 75-1.00- . 86

60-60-60
60-60-60
60-72-61
60-60-60
60-60-60
54-60-55

2.00-3.33-2.55
2.50-3.00-2.96
1.42-3.50-2.11
1.75-4.00-3.86
2.17-2.17-2.17
.75-1.00- .87

60-60-60
60-60-60
60-66-62
60-60-60
60-60-60
54-54-54

2.25-3.33-2. 54
2.50-3.00-2.96
1.00-4.00-2.39
1.75-4.00-3.43
2.17-2.17-2.17
. 75-1.17- . 89

60-60-60
60-60-60
60-66-62
60-60-60

2.00-3.50-2.46
2.50-3.00-2.94
1.25-4.50-2.22
1.75-4.50-4.29

196

PART 2.— FROM 1840 TO 1928
T a b le B-18.— Painters, 1840-1900, by year and State— Continued
Lowest, highest, and
average—

Year and State

1869—Continued.
Pennsylvania.......
Do..................
1870:
California.............
Delaware..............
Illinois..................
Louisiana.............
Maryland.............
Massachusetts--Minnesota............
Missouri...............
New York............
Ohio................... .
Pennsylvania.......
Do..................
Virginia................
1871:
California.............
Delaware............
Illinois__________
Louisiana.........
Maryland.............
Massachusetts___
Minnesota............
Missouri...............
New York............
Ohio.....................
Pennsylvania'-___
D o .................
Virginia................
1872:
California.............
Delaware.... .........
Illinois__________
Louisiana_______
Maryland— ........
Massachusetts___
Minnesota............
Missouri...............
New York............
Ohio..... ...............
Pennsylvania.......
D o .................
„ Virginia................
1873:
California.............
Delaware! _..........
Illinois..................
Louisiana.............
Maryland.............
Massachusetts___
Minnesota............
Missouri...............
New York............
Ohio.....................
Pennsylvania.......
Do..................
Virginia................
1874:
California.............
Delaware-------Illinois..................
Louisiana.............
Maryland.............
Massachusetts___
Minnesota............
Missouri...............
New York______
Ohio.....................
Pennsylvania____
Do..................
Virginia_________
1875:
California__ . . . . . .

Sex

Hours per Rate per day
(dollars)
week

M. 60-60-60
F. 54-54-54

2.17-2.17-2.17
.84-1.17- .96

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
F.
M.

60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-66-61
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
59-59-59
60-60-60
54-54-54
60-60-60

3.50-4.00-3.72
2.00-3.50-2.47
1.75-3.25-2.17
2.50-2. 50-2.50
2.50-3. 00-2.53
1. 25-4.50-2. 37
2.50-3.00-2.77
2.50-2.50-2.50
1.75-3.50-3.15
2.50-2. 50-2. 50
2.00-4.50-2.69
. 75-1.17- .97
2.00-2.00-2.00

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
F.
M.

60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-66-61
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
59-59-59
60-60-60
54-54-54
60-60-60

3.50-4.00-3.66
2.00-3.00-2.43
2.00-3. 50-2.22
2.50-2. 50-2.50
2.50-3.00-2.52
. 75-4.25-2.35
2.50-3.00-2.77
2.50-2.50-2.50
1.75-3.50-3.16
2.50-2.50-2.50
2.00-4.50-2. 72
. 75-1.17- . 97
2.00-2.00-2.00

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
F.
M.

60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-66-61
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
59-59-59
60-60-60
54-54-54
60-60-60

3. 50-4.00-3.70
2.17-3.00-2.56
2. 50-3. 25-2.67
3.00-3. 00-3. 00
2.50-2.50-2.50
1.00-4.50-2.47
2. 50-3.00-2.67
2.50-2. 50-2. 50
1.50-3.75-3.12
1.85-3. 00-2. 61
2.00-4.50-2.78
.75-1.50-1.08
2.00-2.00-2.00

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
F.
M.

60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
CO-66-61
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
59-59-59
60-60-60
54-54-54
60-60-60

3.50-4.00-3.69
2.00-3.00-2. 55
1.75-3.00-2.26
3.00-3.00-3.00
2.50-2.50-2.50
1.50-4.50-2.72
2.50-3.00-2.67
2.50-2.50-2.50
1.75-4.00-3.13
2.50-2.50-2.50
1.50-4.50-2.65
. 75-1.50-1.14
1,75-1.75-1.75

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
F.
M.

60-60-60 3.00-3.50-3.25
60-60-60 1.67-2.92-2.41
60-60-60 1.75-2.65-2.07
60-60-60 2.00-2.00-2.00
60-60-60 2.50-2.50-2.50
60-66-61 1.60-4.50-2.45
60-60-60 2.50-3.00-2.67
60-60-60 2.50-2.50-2.50
60-60-60 1.75-4.00-3.02
50-59-59 2.50-2.50-2.50
60-60-60 1.25-4.50-2.37
54-54-54 . 75-1.50-1.10
60-60-60 1.75-1.75-1.75

M. 60-60-60

3.00-3.50-3.17
1.50-2.50-1.89
1 Not reported.

Delaware-___ . .. . M. 60-60-60




Year and State

Sex

1875—Continued.
Illinois............... M.
Louisiana..........
M.
Maryland.......... M.
Massachusetts. . _ M.
Minnesota......... M.
M.
Missouri...........
New York......... M.
O hio................. M.
M.
Pennsylvania..
F.
D o ..............
Virginia............. M.
1876:
M.
California..........
Delaware...... .
M.
Illinois............... M.
M.
Louisiana..........
Maryland_____
M.
Massachusetts.. __ M.
Minnesota......... M.
Missouri........... M.
New York......... M.
Ohio.................. M.
Pennsylvania... M.
Do...............
F.
Virginia............. M.
1877:
California_____
M.
Delaware.......... M.
Illinois............... M.
Louisiana..........
M.
Maryland-----M.
Massachusetts. __ M.
Minnesota......... M.
Missouri............ M.
New Jersey.......
M.
New York_____ M.
Ohio..................
M.
Pennsylvania...
M.
D o .............. M.
Do...............
F.
Virginia.............
M.
1878:
California..........
M.
Connecticut___
M.
Delaware........... M.
Illinois............... M.
Louisiana..........
M.
Maryland.......... M.
Massachusetts.. _ M.
Minnesota......... M.
Missouri............ M.
New York___ _
M.
O hio................. M.
Pennsylvania
M.
Do..............
M.
Virginia............. M.
1879:
California..........
M.
Delaware........... M.
Illinois............... M.
Louisiana..........
M.
Maryland_____
M.
Massachusetts.. _ M.
Minnesota____
M.
Missouri..........
M.
New Jersey
(9
New York......... M.
Ohio.................
M.
Pennsylvania.
M.
Do..............
F.
Virginia__. . . . . .
M.
1880:
California..........
M.
Illinois________
M.
Louisiana..........
M.
2 Per hour.

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-72-60
59-59-59
60-60-60
54-54-54
60-60-60

1.50-2.65-2.17
2.00-2.00-2.00
2.00-2.50-2.50
1.50-3.00-2.22
2.50-3.00-2.67
2.50-2.50-2.50
1. 75-4.00-3.08
2. 50-2.50-2.50
. 50-4.20-2.23
. 75-1.50-1.15
1.75-1.75-1.75

54-54-54
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
54-60-59
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
59-59-59
48-60-59
54-54-54
60-60-60

3.00-3.50-3.26
1. 50-2.33-1.87
1.50-2.50-2.00
2.00-2.00-2.00
2.00-2.50-2.47
1.02-4.00-2.05
2.50-3.00-2.60
2. 50-2.50-2.50
1.75HL 00-3.02
2.50-2.50-2.50
.56-4.00-2.02
. 75-1.34-1.03
1.75-1.75-1.75

54-54-54
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
54-60-59
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
59-60-59
48-60-58
0)
54-54-54
60-60-60

3.00-3.50-3.10
1.67-2.00-1.77
1.50-2.50-2.02
2. 25-2.25-2. 25
2.00-2.50-2.48
1.45-3.00-2.09
2.50-3.00-2.60
2.50-2.50-2.50
2.00-2.10-2.09
1.55-4.00-2.59
1. 50-2.50-1.86
.90-4.00-2.33
2.20- .20- .20
1.00-1.34-1.17
1.75-1.75-1.75

54-54-54 3.00-3.50-3.19
72-72-72 2.25-2. 25-2.25
60-60-60 1. 50-1.67-1.58
60-60-60 1. 75-2. 50-2.05
60-60-60 2. 25-2. 25-2. 25
60-60-60 1. 75-2.50-2. 48
54-60-59 1.25-3.00-1.99
60-60-60 2.50-3.00-2.65
60-60-60 2.50-2.50-2.50
60-60-60 1. 50-4.00-2.61
59-60-59 1.50-2.67-1.80
48-60-58 1.00-4.00-2.17
54-60-57
. 85-1.34-1.01
60-60-60 1.75-1.75-1.75
54-54-54 3.00-3.50-3.11
60-60-60 1.67-1.83-1.71
60-60-60 1.75-2.50-2.13
60-60-60 2.00-2.00-2.00
60-60-60 2.00-2.50-2.48
54-60-59
. 75-2. 75-1.88
60-60-60 2.50-3.00-2.65
59-60-60 1.25-3.33-2.18
. 62-2.00-1.65
50-72-60
60-72-60 1.75-3.25-2.84
59-59-59
. 75-2.50-1.91
54-72-60 1.10-4.00-1.95
54-54-54 1.00-1.34-1.17
60-60-60 1,75-1.75-1.75
54-54-54
49-60-57
60-60-60

3.00-3.50-3.10
1.74-2.50-2.02
2.00-2.00-2.00

197

B.— BUILDING TRADES
T able B -1 8 .—

Painters, 1840-1900, by year and State— Continued
Lowest, highest, and
average—

Year and State

1880—Continued.
Maryland______
Massachusetts___
Minnesota____
Missouri—.......
New Jersey___
New York.......
Ohio................
Pennsylvania- Do.............
Virginia________
1881:
California........
Delaware.........
Dist. of Columbia.
Illinois.............
Louisiana____
Maryland____
Massachusetts___
Minnesota.......
Missouri ..........
New Hampshire..
New Jersey___
New York.......
Ohio.................
Pennsylvania..
Do.............
Virginia...........
Wisconsin____
1882:
California.,___
Delaware_____
Illinois........ .
Louisiana_____
Maryland____
Massachusetts.
Minnesota.......
Missouri..........
New Jersey___
New York.......
Ohio.................
Do.............
Pennsylvania. .
Do.............
Virginia...........
1883:
California.........
Delaware-............
Dist. of Columbia.
Georgia............
Illinois.............
Louisiana.........
Maryland........
Massachusetts___
Do.............
M ich igan ......
Minnesota.......
Missouri..........
New Jersey___
New York.......
Ohio.................
Pennsylvania..
Do.............
Texas...............
Virginia...........
1884:
California.........
Delaware.........
Illinois.............
Indiana............
Iowa................
Louisiana........
Maryland........
Massachusetts___
Michigan.........
Minnesota.......
Missouri..........
New Jersey___
New York....... .

Sex

Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)
60-60-60
64-60-59
60-60-60
60-60-60
55-60-60
60-72-60
59-59-59
60-60-60
64-64-64
60-60-60

1.75-2.50-2.47
.76-2.50-1.95
2.75-2.75-2.75
2.50-2.50-2.50
1.00-2.50-1.62
1.75-3.00-2.94
1.50-2.00-1.52
1.50-3.33-2.36
1.00-1.34-1.17
2.00-2.00-2.00

54-54-54
60-60-60
58-58-58
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
64-60-59
60-60-60
60-60-60
65-65-65
54-60-59
58-72-58
64-60-59
60-60-60
54-54-54
60-60-60
59-59-59

3.00-3.00-3.00
1.66-2.50-1.92
2.00-2.25-2.13
1.75-3.00-2.30

54-54-54
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
54-60-57
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
68-72-58
59-59-59
57-72-60
60-60-60
64-54-54
60-60-60

3.00-3.00-3.00
1.67-2.67-2.09
2.00-3.00-2.55

54-54-54
60-60-60
58-58-58

0)

60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
54-60-57

$

60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
58-72-58
48-60-59
60-60-60
54-54-54
60-60-60
60-60-60
54-60-54
60-60-60
54-60-60

2.00-2.00-2.00
1.75-2.50-2.47
1.00-3.00-2.04
2.75-2.75-2.75
2. 50-2. 50-2. 50
1.35-2. 25-1.63
1.37-2.50-1.91
1.75-3.50-2.76
1.20-3.00-1.61
1.70-3.33-2.50
1.00-1.34-1.17

2.00-2.00-2.00
1.85-1.85-1.85

2.00-2.00-2.00

1.75-2.50-2.47
1.10-3.00-2.11
2.75-2. 75-2.75
1.25-3.33-2.71
1.50-3.00-2.70
1.92-3.50-2.86
2.25-2.50-2.38
1.00-3.50-1.71
1.67-3.67-2.49
1.00-1.34-1.17

2.00-2.00-2.00
3.00-3.60-3.17
1.83-2.67-2.13
2.50-3.00-2.75
1.75-1.75-1.75
2.00-3.00-2.62

2.00-2.00-2.00

1.75-2.50-2.49
1.00-3.50-2.11
.83-1.15- .97
.40-5.00-1.97
2.75-2.75-2.75
2.50-2.50-2.50
1.33-3.00-2.50
1.92-3.50-3.25
1.50-3.00-2.20
2.00-3.33-2.65
.92-1.17-1.05
2.50-2.50-2.50

2.00-2.00-2.00

2.00-5.00-3.12
2.00-3.00-2.21
2.30-3.00-2.48
1.50-1.50-1.50
(0
54-72-60 1.50-4.00-2.40
2.25-2.25-2.25
60-60-60
60-60-60 1.75-2.50-2.49
54-60-58 1.15-3.50-2.12
.50-4.25-1.88
0)
60-60-60 2.75-2.75-2.75
48-60-51 2.17-4.00-2.45
54-60-60 .83-3.00-2.29
58-72-58 1.92-3.50-3.26
i Not reported.




Year and State

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Sex

Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)

1884—Continued.
Ohio..................
Pennsylvania...
Do...............
Virginia.............
1885:
California..........
Connecticut......
Delaware.........
Georgia.............
Illinois...............
Indiana.............
Iowa..................

1.30-2.50-1.89
1.67-3.67-2.14
.92-1.17-1.04
2.50-2.50-2.60
2.25-3.00-2.98
1.50-3.50-2.10
1.50-2. 50-1.76

1.00-1.00-1.00
1.00-4.00-2.17
. 65-2.25-1.68

2.00-2.00-2.00
1.92-3.00-2.32
2. 25-2.25-2.25
1.33-2.03-1.70
1.75-2.50-2.49
1.04-3.50-2.13
1.00-3.08-1.94
2.75-2.75-2.76
1.92-2.75-2.40
1.25-1. 25-1.25
1.00-4.67-2.40
.58- .58- .58
1.12-3. 50-2.96
.67-1.00- .87
1. 50-2.50-1.75
1.25-3.85-1.73
1.88-3.67-2.03
.92-1.17-1.04
1.31-1. 75-1.53
1.50-2.00-1.61
1.80-2.50-2.30

Louisiana.............
Maine..................
Maryland.............
Massachusetts___
Michigan............ .
Minnesota...........
Missouri..............
New Hampshire..
New Jersey..........
Do.................
New York...........
Do.......... .....
North Carolina...
Ohio...................
Pennsylvania......
Do.................
Rhode Island.......
Vermont..............
Virginia................
Wisconsin............
1886:
California.............
Do.................
Connecticut.........
Delaware.............
Dist. of Columbia.
Illinois..................
Iowa.......... .........
Kansas------ ---Louisiana............
Maryland.............
Do..................
Massachusetts___
Michigan.............
Minnesota............
Missouri..............
New Hampshire..
New Jersey___
Do.............
New York____
Ohio................
Pennsylvania _.
D o ..,.........
Rhode Island..
Virginia...........
1887:
California.........
Connecticut_
_
Do.............
Delaware_____
Do.............
Florida—
..........
Illinois.............
Do.............
Do.............
Louisiana.........
Maine..............
Maryland........
Massachusetts___
Do.............
M ichigan..___
Do.............
Minnesota.......
* Per hour.

1.00-1.00-1.00

1.92-5.00-2.57
2.88-3.00-2.99
2.00-2.25-2.14
1.50-2.50-1.79
3.00-3.00-3.00
1.50-3.50-2.54
. 50-5.00-2.13
1.00-2.90-2.12
2.25-2.25-2.25
.67- .67- .67
1.75-2.50-2.49
1.25-3.50-2.40
2.15-2.15-2.15
. 75-2.75-2.67
2.40-2.50-2.42
1.60-1.60-1.60
2.50-3.00-2.74
1.08-1.08-1.08
1.90-3.50-3.18
1.21-3.34-2.14
.92-1.17-1.11
1.26-3.67-2.65

2.00-2.00-2.00
2.50-2.50-2.50

3.00-3.00-3.00
.84-3.00-2.20
.91- .91-.91
2.17J-.22J-.20

60-60-60

1.75-3.00-2.01
1.00-4.00-1.99
.58-1.68- .94
2.20-2.80-2.39
1.77-1.77-1.77
2.00-3.75-2.41
2.25-2.25-2.25
1.50-2.25-1.88
.80-2.50-2.04
.92-1.17-1.02
1.00-3.35-1.98
1.75-2.50-1.96
a. 15-. 21-. 17*
2.76-2.75-2.75

198

PART 2.— FROM 1840 TO 1928
T able

B -18.— Painters, 1840-1900, by year and State— Continued
Lowest, highest, and
average—

Year and State

Sex

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Sex

Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)
1887—Continued.
Missouri.............
Do................
Nebraska............
New Hampshire.
New Jersey----New York..........
Do................
Do___ _____
North Carolina-_
Ohio....................
Do................
Oregon................
Pennsylvania___
Do................
Do................
Rhode Island —
Virginia.......
West Virginia—
Wisconsin...........
1888:
California...........
Colorado.............
Delaware............
Georgia............. .
Illinois................
Indiana...............
Iowa...................
Louisiana..........
M aine................
Maryland...........
Massachusetts - -Michigan............
Minnesota..........
Missouri.............
Do................
New Jersey........
D o ...............
New York..........
Do._.............
North Carolina-.
Ohio...................
Pennsylvania--Do................
Rhode Island___
South Carolina__
Virginia...............
California...........
Connecticut____
Delaware...........
Illinois................
Indiana...............
Iowa....................
Kansas— ..........
Louisiana............
Maine. ...............
Maryland...........
Massachusetts- - Michigan............
Minnesota..........
Missouri............
New Hampshire.
New York...........
North Carolina-.
Ohio....................
Pennsylvania___
Do................
Virginia...............
1890:
California............
Delaware............
Illinois................
Indiana...............
Kansas................




1890—Continued.
1.73-3. 00-2.39
Louisiana............. M.
2.30-2. 95-2.73
Maryland............. M.
M.
Massachusetts.
1.00-3. 50-2.26
2.50-2. 50-2.50
Michigan.............. M.
2.25-2. 25-2.25
Minnesota............ M.
52-60-57 a .35-1. 17- . 74
Missouri............... M.
48-72-54 1.25-3. 50-2.93
Nebraska.............. M.
a.12- .25- .18
New Hampshire-- M.
0
60-72-63 1.00-2. 00-1.48
New York............ M.
57-60-60
.42-1. 00- .82
Do.................. F.
M.
48-60-59 .50-3. 50-1.94
1.50-3. 60-2.83
Do................ 0
0
54-60-55
.60-3. 67-2.17
Pennsylvania____ M.
* .15- . 2 -. 1 $
0 8
Do.................. F.
0
54-54-54
.92-1. 17-1.08
Virginia................ M.
1.70-2. 50-2.20
Wisconsin............. M.
0
60-60-60 1.75-2. 00-1.95 1891:
1.25-2. 00-1.75
California............. M.
0
Delaware_______ M.
. 71-3. 00-1 6
.6
0
Illinois__________ M.
Indiana................. M.
54-54-54 3.00-3.00-3.00
Louisiana............. M.
48-60-56 2.03-3.25-2.19
Maine................... M.
60-60-60 1.75-3.00-2.01
Maryland— ......... M.
66- 66-66 1.25-2.48-1.40
Massachusetts___ M.
48-60-53 2.20-3.00-2.48
Michigan.............. F.
60-72-60 1.15-2. 57-2.04
Minnesota............ M.
51-60-59 1.50-3.00-2.17
Missouri—............ M.
1.75-2. 75-2.29
0
New York______ M.
60-60-60 2.25-2. 25-2.25
F.
D o - ....... .
60-60-60 2.00-2. 50-2.25
Ohio..................... M.
54-60-54 1.75-2.50-2.49
Pennsylvania....... M.
54-60-57 1.00-3. 25-2.22
D o - ............... F.
60-60-60 1.99-2.49-2.09
Virginia................ M.
60-60-60 2. 75-2. 75-2. 75
Wisconsin........... M.
48-60-51 2.40-2.50-2.43
1.80-2. 33-2.01 1892:
California............. M.
54-60-55 1.54-2. 75-1. 65
Delaware______
1 0 . 0 -1.00 Illinois............. . _ M.
.0 -1 0
0
M.
46-72-57
. 75-4.17-2. 59
Do.................. F.
. 16*-. 17$-. 17*
0
Indiana....... ......... M.
60-72-62
.83-2. 25-1.39
Iowa....... ............. M.
59-60-59 1.28-2.74-1.94
Louisiana............. M.
53-60-55 1.90-3.67-2.69
Maine................... M.
64-54-54
. 92-1.17-1.05
Maryland............. M.
1.16-3.00-2.27
0
Massachusetts___ M.
66- 66-66 1.00-1.00-1.00
Michigan.............. M.
60-60-60 1.00-2.00-1.93
Minnesota............ M.
Missouri.............. M.
54-54-54 3.00-3.00-3.00
New York............ M.
2.00-2.00-2.00 Ohio..................... M.
0
60-60-60 1.83-3.00-2.08
Do.................. 0
48-60-54 2.10-2.93-2.40
Pennsylvania....... M.
48-60-59 1. 25-2. 22-1.67
Rhode Island
M.
48-60-57 1. 50-2.40-1.95
Virginia...... ......... M.
60-60-60 1.20-3.00-2.28 1893:
60-60-60 2.25-2.25-2.25
California............. M.
1.50-2.00-1. 75
0)
Delaware.............. M.
54-60-54 1.35-2.50-2.47
Illinois.................. M.
54-60-58 1.00-3.25-2.05
Indiana................ M.
60-60-60 . 67-3.00-1.13
Louisiana............. M.
60-60-80 2.75-2. 75-2.75
Maryland............. M.
48-60-51 2.40-2.50-2.43
Massachusetts___ M.
60-60-60 1.25-2. 20-1.80
Michigan............. M.
54-72-55 1.50-3.50-3.40
Minnesota............ M.
60-72-63 1.00-2.00-1.75
Missouri............... M.
59-59-59 2.50-2.50-2.50
Montana.............. M.
. 75-4.16-2.68
53-60-65
New Hampshire.. M.
54-54-54 .95-1.25-1.09
New York............ M.
60-60-60 2.00-2.00-2.00
D o................. F.
Ohio..................... M.
D o - ............... F.
54-54-54 2.50-3.50-2.89
Pennsylvania____ M.
60-60-60 1.75-3.00-2.17
Rhode Island....... M.
48-60-52 2.00-2.60-2.32
Virginia................. M.
54-60-60 1.10-2.50-1.92
Wisconsin............. M.
1.70-2. 75-2.22
0
1Not reported.
2 Per hour.

48-72-52
0
54-60-59

8

Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)

60-60-60
54-60-54
54-60-58
60-60-60
60-60-60
48-48-48
0
60-60-60
48-72-55
0
59-59-59
42-60-57
53-60-55
54-54-54
60-60-60
0
.

2.25-2.25-2.25
2.00-2.50-2.50
1.26-3.25-2.16
. 33-3.33-1.50
1.00-2.76-2.28
2.40-2.50-2.43
2.50-2.50-2.50
1.70-2.00-1.80
.50-5.00-2.16
.88-1.17-1.06
2.50-2.50-2.50
. 65-5.00-1.71
2.00-4.10-2.70
1.25-1.25-1.25
1.75-1.75-1.75
.89-4.47-1.93

48-48-48 2.50-3.50-2.93
60-60-60 1.75-3.00-2.17
48-60-51 2.20-2.80-2.41
48-60-57 1.10-2.38-1.81
60-60-60 2.25-2.25-2.25
60-60-60 1.17-2.75-1.98
54-60-54 2.00-2.50-2.50
54-60-58 1.25-3.25-2.21
.50- .77- .59
0
60-60-60 2. 75-2. 75-2. 75
48-48-48 1.09-3.09-2.17
48-72-51
.50-5.00-2.09
1.00-1.17-1.06
0
42-72-58
.75-2.75-1.81
54-60-55 2.00-4.16-2.73
54-54-54 1.25-1.25-1.25
60-60-60 1.75-1.75-1.75
2.12$-. 45-. 2U
0
48-60-50 1.50-4.00-3.00
60-60-60 1.33-3.00-2.00
48-60-50 2. 20-2.80-2.56
58-60-59
. 83-1. 77-1.26
54-60-60 1.10-2. 79-1.84
60-6060
. 50-2.50-2. 21
54-54-54 2. 70-2. 70 -2. 70
60-60-60 1.83-1.90-3.88
54-60-56 1.50-2.50-2. 21
54-60-57 1.25-3. 25-2. 23
42-60-58 . 50-7. 00-2.05
60-60-60 2.50-2. 75-2.63
48-60-52 1.17-3.00-2.62
48-60-51 1. 75-3.50-3.43
53-53-53 2.61-2.61-2.61
. 50-3.00-1.94
53-60-56
53-60-55 1.40-4.16-2.61
54-60-57 1.25-4.00-2.38
60-60-60 2.00-2.00-2.00
48-48-48
60-60-60
48-72-50
48-60-58
54-54-54
44-72-55
54-60-55
54-60-59
60-60-60
48-60-57
48-54-50
48-66-59
48-60-50
48-60-56
30-60-56
54-54-54
.48-60-56
60-60-60
60-60-60
0

2.50-3. 50-2.89
1.33-3.00-1.95
.47-4.33-2.67
1.65-2.31-1.95
2.70-2.70-2.70
. 67-3.33-2.33
1.25-3.00-2.35
. 75-3.83-1.89
2, 50-2. 50-2.50
1.75-2. 75-2.31
2.50-5.00-3.74
1.25-4.00-2.13
.67-4.17-2.93
.50-1.08- .75
1.00-5.00-1.75
. 75-1.20-1.16
. 50-4.16-2. 49
1.66-3.50-2.48
2.00-2.00-2.00
a. 10- . 50- .23

199

B.— BUILDING TRADES
T a b le

B -18.— Painters, 1840-1900, by year and State— Continued
Lowest, highest, and
average—

Year and State

Sex

Lowest, highest, and
average—

Year and State

Sex

Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)
1894:
California........... M.
Delaware............ M.
Illinois................. M.
Indiana________ M 4
Iowa___________ M .
Kansas..... .......... . M.
Louisiana............. M
i
Maine.................. M
i
Maryland............. M
i
Massachusetts_ M,
_
Do..................
Minnesota____
ft
Missouri ..........
M.
New Hampshire.. M;
New York......... M,
Do__............
North Carolina.
ft
Do...............
Ohio..................
ft
Pennsylvania. __ M .
Rhode Island__
Virginia. ............ f t
West Virginia____ M.
1895:
California........
M4
M.
Connecticut___
Delaware___ _
M.
Illinois..........
M.
Indiana............
M.
Kansas_______
Louisiana.........
ft
Maine......... .
M.
Maryland_______ M
i
Massachusetts___ M .
Michigan.........
M
i
Minnesota.......
Mi
Missouri ..........
M»
Montana..........
Ma
New Hampshire. _ Ms
New York......... Mi
North Carolina.__ M s
Ohio..... ....... ...... M.
D o ............... P.
Pennsylvania___ M.
Rhode Island._
_ M.
Virginia___ . . . . . M.
Wisconsin...____ «
1896:
California______ M.
Colorado_______ Mi
Connecticut_____ Mi
Dist. of Columbia. Mi
Georgia________ M.
Illinois_____ ___ M.
Indiana________ M .
Kansas______ . . . M i
Louisiana______ M i
Maryland_______ M s
Massachusetts___ M i
Michigan_____
M.
Minnesota____
M.

48-48-48
60-60-60
48-60-49
48-60-66
46-84-69
64r-54-64
64-64-64
60-60-60
64-64-54
64-68-55
0
60-60-60
48-48-48
60-60-60
48-60-54
60-60-60
24-60-54
63-60-55
0
60-60-60
64-64-54

2.50-3.50-2.89
1.33-3.00-1.86
2.30-3.00-2.61
1.20-2.76-1.84
. 75-3.60-2.03
2.32-2.32-2.32
2.70-2. 70-2.70
1.50-3.00-2.11
2.50-2.60-2.60
1.26-4.60-2.60
2.00-2.00-2.00
2.50-2.50-2.50
2.50-2.50-2.50
1.50-1.50-1.50
1.25-3.50-2.61
2. 50-2.50-2.50
1.00-1.26-1.22
1.36-2.50-1.90
.60-3.00-1.68
1.12-4.16-2.61
1.04-1.60-1.27
2.00-2.00-2.00
1.80-1.80-1.80

48-48-48 2.50-3.50-2.83
60-60-60 2.00-2.00-2.00
60-60-60 1.33-2.76-1.62
48-60-49 2.35-3.00-2.63
64-60-60 1.49-3.33-1.85
48-48-48 1.53-1.53-1.63
64-54-54 2.25-2.26-2.25
60-60-60 1.25-2.25-1.89
64-54-54 2.50-2.50-2.60
41-60-65 1.00-3.00-2.15
1.50-2.00-1.74
0
60-60-60 2.50-2.60-2.60
48-48-48 2.00-2.60-2.49
4.29-4.29-4.29
0)
60-60-60 1.00-2.00-1.60
48-60-56 .88-3.60-2.32
60-72-63 1.00-1.76-1.29
36-72-55 .50-3.00-1.68
60-60-60 .60-.90- .73
53-60-55 . 904.16-2.58
55-55-55 3.33-3.33-3.33
60-60-60 1.75-1.76-1.75
48-84-59 . 64-4.00-1.74
48-48-48
48-48-48
60-60-60

8 -6 -6
60 6
6

48-60-49
48-65-58
48-72-57
64-54-54
63-60-55
48-60-51
60-60-60
60-60-60

Mi

48-60-57
0
48-48-48
48-60-54
60-60-60
60-60-60
48-60-51
69-59-59
60-72-62
46-60-54

Missouri
M.
Montana..
M.
Nebraska.,
M.
Do_________
New Hampshire. _ f t
New Jersey______ M .
New York...____ M i
Do................. F
*
North Carolina_ M i
_
Ohio.
M
i

2.50-3.50-2.83
2.50-2.50-2.60
1.25-1.76-1.40
2.50-2.50-2.50
.50-1.76-1.27
.32-3.00-2.52
1.40-2.36-1.88
1.50-2.50-2.13
2.26-2.26-2.26
1.51-2.60-2.28
1.50-2.81-2.40
. 40-3.26-1.51
2.50-2.50-2.50
1.50-1.50-1.50
1.08-2.50-1.94
3.64-3.64-3.64
2.00-3.16-2.87
. 75-3.00-1.44
1.55-1.60-1.59
1.50-1.60-1.60
. 50-4.00-2.96
• 60-1.00- • 76
1.50-2.60-1.88
.76-3.00-1.64

i Not reported.




Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)
1896—Continued.
Ohio__________
Pennsylvania_
_
Rhode Island_
_
South Carolina...
Tennessee______
Vermont_______
Virginia_______
1897:
California______
Connecticut...__
Illinois________
Louisiana..
Maryland..
Do.
Massachusetts__
Michigan............
Do................
Minnesota______
Missouri.............
Montana..... .......
Nebraska.... .......
New York______
Ohio....................
Pennsylvania___
Virginia..............
1898:
California...........
Illinois_________
Indiana.... ...........
Kansas..... ...........
Louisiana............
Maryland...........
Massachusetts__
Michigan______
Minnesota______
Missouri.............
Do................
Nebraska............
Do_________
New York______
Ohio....................
Pennsylvania___
Virginia________
Do_________
1899:
Alabama_______
California______
Georgia____ ____
Illinois.................
Massachusetts__
Michigan_______
Montana............
New Jersey_____
New York______
North Carolina_
Ohio....................
Pennsylvania___
Virginia___ ____
1900:
Alabama—..........
California______
Georgia____ ____
Illinois............. .
Massachusetts.. _
Montana............
New Jersey_____
New York______
North Carolina. _
Ohio....................
Pennsylvania___
2
Per hour.

54-60-60 0.764). 90-0.81
48-60-66 1.10-3.30-2.73
60-60-60 1.33-1.83-1.64
66- 66-66 1.05-1.06-1.06
r
r
1.00-1.33-1.16
1.26-1.26-1.26
60-60-60 1.75-1.75-1.75
48-48-48
48-66-62
48-60-49
48-60-67
64-64-54
64-64-64
64-54-64
64-64-64
0
48-54-60
60-60-60
48-48-48
48-60-49
48-60-49
63-53-53
63-60-64
64-60-59
48-48-48
48-60-60
42-72-68
48-54-52
64-54-54
64-54-54
64-64-64

m

48-48-48
48-60-60
48-60-66
0
48-60-50
53-53-63
53-60-55
60-60-60
64-64-64

2.60-3.60-2.72
2.00-2.06-2.03
2.36-3.00-2.77
1.30-2.30-1.98

2.00-2.00-2.00
2.50-2.60-2.60
1.90-2.00-1.96
2.25-3.38-2.63
1.62-1.62-1.62
.99-2.44-1 86
2.50-2.60-2.60
2.50-2.60-2.50
1.72-3.46-2.46
1.36-2.70-2.44
1.25-3.60-2.46
2.61-2.61-2.61
1.80-3.00-2.61
.66-2.00-1.51
2.60-3.60-2.76
2.36-3.00-2.74
1.14-2.37-1.87
1.36-2.03-1.76

2.00-2.00-2.00

2.60-2.50-2.60
2.25-3.92-2.86
1.32-1.87-1.56
2.50-2.50-2.50
2.50-2.50-2.50
1.91-2.50-2.29
1.00-4.00-2.14
2
.25- . 25- . 25
1.00-4.00-2.47
2.61-2.61-2.61
1.70-3.00-2.50
1.75-1.75-1.75
2.50-2.60-2.50

1.50-3.00-2.22
3.00-3.00-3.00
1.75-2.00-1.84
2.40-3.00-2.96
2.25-3.00-2.56
1.50-1.50-1.50
48-48-48 4.05-4.05-4.05
64-54-54 2.50-2.50-2.30
47-54-52 2.25-3.50-2.57
64-72-62 1.00-2.65-1.52
48-48-48 2.00-2.00-2.00
48-48-48 2.80-2.80-2.80
2.15-2.50-2.40
0
64-60-64
48-48-48
60-60-60
48-48-48
48-53-48

64-60-64 1.60-3.00-2.25
48-48-48 3.00-3.00-3.00
60-60-60 1.75-2.00-1.84
48-48-48 3.00-3.20-3.15
48-53-48 2.25-3.00-2.56
48-48-48 4.05-4.05-4.05
63-63-53 2.50-2.50-2.50
47-54-63 2.25-3.60-2.39
60-60-60 1.25-1.50-1.38
48-48-48 2.00-2.25-2.14
48-48-48 2.80-2.80-2.80

200

PART 2.— FROM 1840 TO 1928
T able

B -1 9 .— Painters, males, 1890-1928, by city and year
Atlanta, Ga.

Year

Birmingham, Ala.

Boston, Mass.

Chicago, 111.

Sours
Rate
Hours
Rate
Hours
Bate
Hours
Rate
per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour

1890...........................
1891............................
1892.......................... 1893.......................... 1894............................
1895........................ 1896............................
1897............................
1898....... ....................
1899............................
1900...........................
1901............................
1902............................
1903.......................... 1904............................
1905.......................... .
1906____ ____ ______
1907............................
1908............................
1909.......................... .
1910............................
1911............................
1912............................
1913............................
1914....... ....................
1915............................
1916....... ....................
1917............................
1918...........................
1919....... ....................
1920............................
1921............................
1922............................
1923.......... ................
1924.......................—
1905...........................
1926....................... —
1927............................
1928............................

60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
55.8
54.5
54.8
54.6
153.0
153.0
153.0
153.0
153.0
153.0
153.0
153.0
153.0
153.0
153.0
48.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0,163
.173
.187
.186
.189
.189
.192
.193
.189
-.189
.212
.211
.238
.228
.242
.249
.275
.278
.278
.278
.307
.307
.333
.333
.333
.333
.333
• 3j51
.500
.600
.600
.850
.750
.750
.750
.750
.800
.850
.850

Cincinnati, Ohio
1890.......... ................
58.8
1891............................
56.4
1892..... ......................
54.4
52.1
1893....... — ...............
1894.................-.........
54.7
1895.................. .........
54.6
1896---- ------ ----54.6
1897............. ..............
54.7
1898_______________
53.9
1899_______________
51.1
1900............................
48.6
1901............— ...........
48.0
1902............... ............
48.0
1903....................... .
48.0
1904_____ _________
48.0
1905...........................
48.0
1906.......... ................
48.0
1907............................
48.0
1908...........................
48.0
1909..............-............
48.0
1910...........................
44.0
1911...........................
44.0
1912............................
44.0
1913.......... ................
44.0
1914............................
44.0
1915............................
44.0
1916.......................... .
44.0
1917............................
44.0
1918.......... -...............
44.0
1919.......................... .
44.0
1920............................
44.0
1921............................
44.0
l Work 53 hours; paid for 54.




$0,275
.283
.290
.300
.284
.286
.286
.264
.280
.278
.306
.331
.346
.350
.375
.375
.375
.400
.400
.425
.432
.450
.450
.450
.500
.500
.550
.550
.600
.625
.875
1.000

60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
56.0
56.2
54.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0,250
.250
.250
.227
.205
.200
.200
.200
.221
.233
.250
.258
.301
.400
.353
.356
.356
.350
.350
.375
.400
.400
.450
.450
.450
.450
.450
.500
.625
.750
.875
.875
.750
.875
.875
1.000
1.000
1.125
1.000

Denver, Colo.
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0,285
.287
.292
.282
.265
.265
.278
.324
.331
.338
.361
.375
.437
.437
.437
.437
.451
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.550
.625
.688
.850
1.000
1.125

54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
52.8
52.4
51.7
48.4
48.4
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0

$0,283
.285
.287
.290
.297
.289
.294
.302
.317
.314
.317
.321
.321
.240
.350
.352
.375
.395
.410
.410
.455
.455
.500
.500
.550
.550
.605
.625
.750
.825
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.050
1.100
1.100
1.250
1.250
1.250

Detroit Mich.
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0,227
.232
.231
.235
.233
.216
.222
.220
.226
.231
.237
.264
.283
.296
.327
.332
.342
.350
.350
.375
.375
.400
.400
.450
.450
.450
.500
.600
.700
.800
1.000
1.000

48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
45.6
45.4
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
40.0

$0,305
.309
.324
.347
.327
.337
.337
.351
.351
.383
.379
.400
.400
.400
.450
.450
.481
.500
.500
.550
.600
.600
.600
.650
.700
.700
.700
.725
.750
.875
1.250
1.250
1.100
1.250
1.250
1.500
1.500
1.500
1.625

New Orleans, La.
52.8
52.9
52.0
51.8
51.9
51.7
51.9
52.1
52.2
52.4
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0.236
.235
.251
.250
.253
.239
.252
.253
.261
.264
.285
.290
.286
.285
.313
.313
.360
.375
.375
.400
.400
.400
.400
.400
.400
.400
.400
.400
.500
.650
.750
.900

B.— BUILDING TRADES
T a b le

B -1 9.— Painters, males, 1890-1928, by city and year— Continued
Cincinnati, Ohio

Year

201

Denver, Colo.

Detroit, Mich.

New Orleans, La.

Bate
Bate
Hours
Bate
Hours
Hours
Hours
Bate
per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
40.0
40.0

1922192319241925..
1926..
19271928..

$0,875
.975
1.075
1.175
1.250
1.313
1.313

New York, N. Y.2
1890..
1891..
1892..
18931894..
1895..
1896..
1897..
1899..
1900..
1901..
1902..
1903..
19041905..
19061907..
19081909..
1910..
191119121913..
1914..
1915..
1916..
1917..
1918..
1919..
19201921..
1922..
1923..
1924..
1925..
19261927..
1928..

51.0
50.7
48.0
48.0
48.1
47.9
47.8
47.9
47.8
47.8
47.6
47.6
44.4
44.1
44.1
44.1
44.1
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0

$0,396
.394
.420
.420
.420
.417
.414
.414
.417
.417
.417
.420
.466
.479
.455
.459
.470
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.625
.625
.625
.750
1.125
1.125
1.125
1.125
1.313
1.313
1.500
1.500
1. 750
1.500

44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
40.0
40.0

$1,000
1.000
1.125
1.125
1.250
1.250
1.250

Philadelphia, Pa.

5 ;0
4

54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
40.0
40.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0.293
.287
.287
.285
.283
.286
.350
.350
.350
.375
.375
.375
.375
.400
.400
.400
.425
.425
.425
.425
.425
.425
.425
.450
.600
.750

10
.0 0
10
.0 0
10
.0 0
10
.0 0
10
.0 0
10
.0 0
31 0
.0 0
1.050
1.050

44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

10
.0 0

1.125
1.125
1.250
1.250
1.250

St. Louis, Mo.
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
44.6
44.6
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0.305
.305
.313
.313
.313
.313
.313
.313
.313
.323
.375
.375
.427
.449
.450
.457
.501
.500
.500
.500
.525
.550
.550
.575
.600
.625
.625
.625
.750
.750

10
.0 0

1.250
1.000
1.125
1.300
1.300
1.350
1.438

44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

San Francisco, Calif.
51.6
50.9
51.0
48.7
48.8
48.4
48.6
48.8
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
47.8
47.8
44.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0 j

* Greater New York, 1903-1906; includes Manhattan, Bronx, Kings, and Richmond. 1907-1928.
8 Old scale; strike pending.




$0,800
.800
.850
.850
.850
.900
.900

$0,334
.336
.337
.363
.332
.341
.346
.352
.375
.375
.375
.424
.438
.438
.438
.438
.564
.500
.500
.500
.563
.563
.563
.563
.594
.625
.625
.625
.750
.875
1.063
1.063
1.000
1.044
1.044
1.044
1.044
1.125
1.125

202

PART 2.— FROM 1840 TO 1928
T able

B -20.— -Plasterers, 1840-1900, by year and State
Lowest, highest, and
average—

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Year and State

Sex

Ses
Hours peir Rate per day
week
(dollars)

Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)
1840:
Pennsylvania _
1841:
Pennsylvania.
1842:
1843:
Pennsylvania___
1844:
Pennsylvania___
1845:
Pennsylvania___
1846:
Pennsylvania___
1847:
Pennsylvania___
1848:
Pennsylvania___
1849:
Pennsylvania___
1860:
Pennsylvania___
1851:
New York_____
Pennsylvania___
1852:
New York...........
Pennsylvania___
1853:
New York_____
Pennsylvania___
1854:
New York_____
Pennsylvania___
1855:
New York______
Pennsylvania___
1856:
New York______
Pennsylvania___
1857:
New York______
Pennsylvania___
1858:
New York______
Pennsylvania___
1859:
New York______
Pennsylvania___
1860:
New York______
Pennsylvania___
1861:
New York............
Pennsylvania___
1862:
New York______
Pennsylvania.......
1863:
New Y o rk ..........
Pennsylvania.......
1864:
New York............
Pennsylvania____
1865:
New York.......
Pennsylvania- _
1966:
New York.......
Pennsylvania..
1867:
New York____
Pennsylvania. _
1868:
New York.......
Pennsylvania.

M. 60-60-60

1.50-1.50-1.50

M. 60-60-60

1.50-1.50-1.50

M. 60-60-60

1.50-1.50-1.50

M. 60-60-60

1.50-1.50-1.50

M. 60-60-60

1.50-1.50-1.50

M. 60-60-60

1. 50-1. 50-1. 50

M. 60-60-60

1.50-1. 50-1. 50

M. 60-60-60

1. 50-1.75-1.63

M. 60-60-60

1.50-1.75-1.61

M. 60-60-60

1.50-1.75-1.64

M. 60-60-60

1. 50-1.75-1.63

M. 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60

1.75-1.75-1.75
1.50-1. 75-1.63

M. 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60

1.75-175.-1.75
1.50-1.75-1.65

M, 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60

1.75-1.75-1.75
1. 50-1.75-1.60

M. 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60

1. 75-1. 75-1. 75
1.50-1. 75-1.63

M. 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60

1.75-1.75-1.75
1.50-1.75-1.66

M. 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60

1. 75-1. 75-1. 75
1. 50-1. 75-1.64

M. 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60

1. 75-1.75-1.75
1. 50-1.75-1.66

M. 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60

1. 50-1.50-1.50
1.50-1. 75-1. 67

M. 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60

1. 50-1.50-1.50
1.50-1.75-1.68

M. 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60

2.00-2.00-2.00
1. 50-1. 75-1.69

M. 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60

2.00-2.00-2.00
1.50-1.75-1.66

M. 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60

2. 25-2.25-2. 25
1.50-1. 75-1. 67

M. 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60

2. 50-2.50-2.50
1. 75-2.00-1.92

M. 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60

3.00-3.00-3.00
1.75-2.00-1.93

M. 60-60-60 | 3.00-3.00-3.00
M. 60-60-60 1.75-2.50-2.29
M. 60-60-60 ' 4.00-4.00-4.00
M. 60-60-60 2.00-3.00-2. 60
M. 60-60-60 ! 5.00-5.00-5.00
M. 60-60-60 ! 3.00-4.00-3.70
1
M. 60-60-60 1 4.50-4.50-4.50
M. 60-60-60 1 3.00-4.00-3.67

1Not reported.



1869:
New York______ M.
Pennsylvania____ M.
1870:
New York....... . M.
Pennsylvania....... M.
1871:
New York______ M.
Pennsylvania____ M.
1872:
Massachusetts___ M.
New York______ M.
Ohio.......... ........... M.
Pennsylvania____ M.
1873:
New York........... M.
Pennsylvania____ M.
1874:
New Y ork .......... M.
Pennsylvania____ M.
1875:
New Y ork .......... M.
Pennsylvania....... M.
1876:
New York.......... . M.
Pennsylvania....... M.
1877::
New York............ M.
Ohio........ ........ . M.
Pennsylvania____ M.
1878:
New Y ork........... M.
Ohio___________ M.
Pennsylvania____ M.
1Ri '
A 7Q
O
Missouri.............. M.
New Jersey_____ (0
New York______ M.
Pennsylvania....... M.
1880:
New Y ork.......... M.
M.
North Carolina.
Ohio___________ M.
M.
Pennsylvania
1881:
Dist. of Columbia. M.
Massachusetts___ M.
New Y ork.......... M.
Ohio..................... M.
M.
Pennsylvania
1882:
Dist, of Columbia- M.
Illinois-............... M.
Missouri............... M.
New York.......... 0)
Ohio______ _____ M.
Pennsylvania
M.
1883:
Iowa------- ----- M.
Massachusetts___ M.
Michigan............. M.
Minnesota............ M.
Missouri............ . M.
New Jersey.......... M.
New York.......... . M.
Ohio..................... M.
Pennsylvania
M.
1884:
California............. M.
Illinois................ . M.
Iowa.................... M.
Louisiana............. M.
Michigan............. M.
Missouri............... M.
New Jersey.......... M.
New York............ M.

60-60-60
60-60-60

5.00-5.00-5.00
3.00-4.00-3.67

60-60-60
60-60-60

3.75-5.00-3.91
2.50-3.00-2.86

60-60-60
60-60-60

3.75-4.00-3.77
2.50-3.00-2.88

60-60-60
48-60-59
0)
60-60-60

3.75-3.75-3.75
3.75-4.00-3.77
3.50-3.50-3.50
2.50-3.00-2.86

48-60-59
60-60-60

3.75-4.00-3.77
2.50-3.00-2.92

48-60-59
60-60-60

3.25-3.50-3.27
2.50-3.00-2.86

48-60-59
60-60-60

3.00-3.25-3.24
2.50-3.00-2.88

48-60-59
60-60-60

2.50-2.75-2.76
1.75-2.50-2.31

48-60-59
60-60-60
60-60-60

2.25-2.50-2.26
2.00-2.00-2.00
1.75-2.00-1.94

48-60-59
60-60-60
60-60-60

2.25-2.50-2.27
2.00-2.50-2.03
1. 75-2.00-1.94

0)
60-60-60
48-60-59
54-72-60

2.00-3.00-2.75
1. 00-1.00-1.00
2.50-2.75-2.74
. 83-1.83-1.58

48-60-60
72-72-72
0)
60-60-60

2.75-3.00-2.75
2. 50-2.50-2.50
2.50-2.50-2. 50
1.50-2.00-1.81

58-58-58
60-60-60
48-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60

1. 75-2.50-2.13
2. 25-2.75-2.50
2.86-4.50-3.16
2.00-3.00-2.55
1.50-3.00-1.97

58-58-58
60-60-60
60-60-60
48-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60

3. 00-3.50-3.25
3.00-3.00-3.00
3.00-3.50-3.41
3.32-4.00-3.41
3.00-3.50-3.25
1.75— o0—
3.
2.39

60-60-60
<*)
(l)
59-60-60
59-59-59
60-60-60
48-60-60
60-60-60
59-60-59

3.00-3.50-3.17
2.00-3.50-3.05
1.25-4.00-2.68
4. 50-4.50-4.50
4.00-4.50-4.25
1. 67-2.50-2.00
2.50-4.00-3.12
2. 50-3.33-2.99
2.50-3.00-2.98

60-60-60 3.00-4.00-3.42
59-59-59 3.00-4.50-4.41
60-72-60 1.50-8.00-3.09
60-60-60 3.00-3.00-3.00
54-54-54 1. 50-3.50-3.16
60-60-60 4.00-4.004.00
60-60-60 2.33-3.00-2.64
54-60-55 2.94-4.00-3.44

203

B.— BUILDING TRADES
T a b l e T t-S Q .—

Plasterers, 1840-1900, by year and State— C o n t i n u e d
Lowest, highest, and

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Sex

Year and State

1884—Continued.
Ohio.................. .,
Pennsylvania___
1885:
Kansas_________
New Jersey_____
New York....... .
Pennsylvania___
1886:
California........... .
D o .............. .
Dist. of Columbia.
Illinois................ .
Iowa.....................
Kansas_________
New York.......... .
Ohio................... .
Pennsylvania___
Texas..................
1887:
Florida............... .
Kansas_________
Maryland........... .
Massachusetts_
_
Missouri............ .
New York.......... .
Ohio....................
Pennsylvania___
Wisconsin______
1888:
Colorado_______
Iowa.......... ....... .
Kansas— .......... .
Michigan_______
New Jersey_____
New York_____ _
North Carolina—
Ohio................
Pennsylvania..
1889:
Kansas_____ . .
New York______
Pennsylvania____
Wisconsin____
1890:
Kansas_______
Minnesota____
Nebraska______
New York______
Pennsylvania____
1891:
Missouri____. . . . .
New York___ . . . .
Pennsylvania. . . . .
Wisconsin____ . . .
.1892:
California.............
Michigan....... ......
Missouri...............
1 Not reported.

61298°—29----- 14




3.02-3.02-3.02
2.00-3.50-3.25
2.00-3.50-2.92
2.25-3.00-2.50
3.45-4.00-3.52
3.50-3.50-3.50
2.50-5.00-2.97

22 8
.8 -2.88-2.88
3.00-3.50-3.25
1.67-4.00-2.67
1.00-6.50-2.81
1.00-4.00-2.80
1.00-4.00-3.66
3.10-3.10-3.10
2.66-3.50-2.85
3.00-3.50-3.25

2.50-2.50-2.50
2.25-5.00-3.17
1.75-2.00-1.92
3-50.3.50-3.50
2.50-2.50-2.50
3.78-4.00-3. 79
1.50-3.50-2.59
2.00-3.50-3.00
3.00-3.00-3.00
4.00-5.00-4.50
2.00-3.67-2. S3
3.00-3.50-3.25
1.92-1.92-1.92
4.00-4.00-4.00
3.00-4.00-3.53
1.00-2.50-1.83
1.50-3.12-2.59
3.50-3.50-3.50
2.70-2.70-2.70
3.78-4.00-3.78
3.50-3.50-3.50
1.27-3.68-2.52
2.25-3.00-2.78
1.75-4.00-3.36
4.00-4.00-4.00
2.00-4.50-3.94
3.50-3.50-3.50
2.50-2.50-2.50
2.00-4.00-3. 90
3.20-3.20-3.20
3.15- .45- .33
5.00-5.00-5.00
1.00-4.05-2.95
4.00-4.00-4.00

Sex
Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)

Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)
1892—Continued.
New York-----Ohio...................
Pennsylvania___
Rhode Island___
1893:
Illinois................
Maryland—
........
Michigan—........
Missouri..... .......
New HampshireNew York-----Ohio...................
Pennsylvania___
Wisconsin______
1894:
Iowa....................
New HampshireNew York______
North Carolina. _
Ohio....................
New York........
North Carolina .
1896:
Colorado...........
Georgia.............
Illinois—............
Kansas...... .......
Massachusetts. .
New York----North Carolina.
Pennsylvania.
1897:
Nebraska...........
New York----1898:
New York_____
1899:
Alabama............
California.........
Georgia.............
Illinois...............
Massachusetts- _.
Montana...........
New York_____
North Carolina..
Pennsylvania . . .
1900:
Alabama............
California..........
Georgia_______
Illinois................
MassachusettsMontana______
New York_____
North Carolina..
Pennsylvania_
_

*And board.

48-48-48
53-60-56
48-48-48
54-60-55

4.00-4.00-4.00
1.25-3.60-3.13
3.20-3.20-3.20
2.50-3.50-3.39

48-84-57
48-60-55
60-60-60
48-48-48
60-60-60
48-55-53
60-60-60
54-60-57

1.25-4.17-2.56
.83-3.00-1.79
1.46-1.46-1.46
4.00-4.00-4.00
2.25-3.00-2.63
.83-4.00-3.85
2.50-2.50-2.50
1.33-3.00-2.17
3.20- .40- .30

48-60-57
60-60-60
48-48-48
60-60-60

0)

1.75-4.00-2.88
1.75-1.75-1.75
4.00-4.00-4.00
2.00-2.50-2.25
1.17-4.00-3.12

48-48-48
60-63-61

4.00-4.00-4.00
1.50-2.35-1.75

0)

48-48-48

3.00-3.00-3.00
.42- .83- .63
0)
48-48-48 1.50-1.50 1.50
60-60-60 2.00-2.50-2.25
47-48-47 3.37-4.00-3.46
44-48-45 4.00-4.00-4.00
60-60-60 1.50-3.00-2.33
48-54-49 2.75-3.51-3.19
60-70-65
48-48-48
48-54-49

1.20-2.50-1. 73
2.00-4.00-3.90
2.75-4.00-3.25

48-54-48

3.00-4.00-3.57

54-54-54 2.00-2.50-2.25
48-48-48 3.00-4.00-3. 60
60-60-60 1.50-2.50-2.85
48-48-48 3. 50-4.00-3.88
48-48-48 3.44-3.60-3.57
48-48-48 6.00-6.00-6.00
44-54-48 3.00-4.50-3.47
60-60-60 1.75-2.50-2.15
48-48-48 3.20-3.20-3.20
48-48-48
48-48-48
60-60-60
48-48-48
48-48-48
48-48-48
44-54-48
60-60-60
48-48-48
3 Per hour.

4.00-4.00-4.00
3.00-4.50-4.11
1.50-2.50-1.85
4.00-4.00-4.00
3.44-3.60-3.58
7.00-7.00-7.00
2.88-4.50-3.60
1.75-2.50-2.14
3.20-3.20-3.20

204

PART 2.— FROM 1840 TO 1928

Table B-31.— Plasterers,
Atlanta, Ga.
Year

1890............................
1891............................
1892 ..................... J-1893.....................l___
1894............................
1895............................
1896............................
1897............................
1898............................
1899........................
1900............................
1901.......................... 1902...........................
1903...........................
1904............................
1905............................
1906.......................—
1907............................
1908.......................... 1909............................
1910...........................
1911............................
1912............................
1913...........................
1914............— .........1915.......... ......... .......
1916........................ 1917..........................1918............. -......... 1919........................ 1920............. -...........1921............................
1922................ ...........
1923............................
1924..................... — 1925.......................... 1926................ ...........
1927________ ______
1928............................

Birmingham, Ala.

Boston, Mass.

Chicago, HI.

Hours
Hours
Hours
Rate
Hours
Rate
Rate
Rate
per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour

54.0
54.0
540
54.0
53.0
53.0
53.0
53.0
153.0
153.0
153.0
153.0
153.0
153.0
153.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0,317
.350
.400
.440
.450
.450
.450
.450
.400
.444
.444
.444
.444
.444
.444
.688
.750
.750
.750
1.000
1.000
1.125
1.125
1.250
1.250
1. 250

Cincinnati, Ohio
54.0
1890............................
1891............................
54.0
1892............................
54.0
50.7
1893............................
1894............................
51.3
51.2
1895............................
48.0
1896............................
48.0
1897...........................
48.0
1898............................
48.0
1899........................ 48.0
1900............................
48.0
1901...........................
48.0
1902............................
45.6
1903............................
1904............................
44.5
44.5
1905............................
44.5
1906............................
44.5
1907............................
44.5
1908............................
44.5
1909............................
44.5
1910............................
44.5
1911...........................
1912............................
44.5
44.5
1913............................
44.5
1914............................
44.5
1915............................
44.5
1916............................
1917............................
44.5
1918............................
44.5
1919...........................
44.5
44.5
1920...........................
i Work 53 hours; paid for 54.




males, 1890-1928, by city and year

$0,366
.364
.400
.400
.400
.423
.450
.413
.375
.400
.422
.500
.500
.563
.625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.688
.750
.750
.750
.750
.750
.875
1.000

59.0
59.2
59.5
58.9
59.3
58.2
58.5
59.0
57.0
57.1
57.4
56.3
48.6
48.0
48.0
48.0
46.2
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0,441
.411
.382
.368
.256
.249
.266
.261
.298
.330
.331
.408
.473
.521
.464
.479
.538
.563
.563
.563
.563
.625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.750
.750
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.250
1.250
1.250
1.250
1.250

Denver, Colo.
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0,500
.500
.500
.432
.281
.359
.375
.455
.500
.500
.500
.500
.553
.638
.625
.625
.666
.688
.688
.688
.688
.688
.688
.750
.750
.750
.750
.875
.875
.875
1.250

53.1
53.1
52.5
52.5
52.6
52.4
52.5
52.5
49.4
44.4
44.4
44.4
44.3
44.6
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0

$0,398
.398
.403
.403
.403
.404
.404
.404
.403
.453
.454
.454
.455
.456
.500
.502
.551
.600
.600
.650
.650
.650
.650
.650
.650
.650
.700
.700
.700
.800
1.000
1.250
1.125
1.125
1.250
1.250
1.500
1.500
1.500

Detroit, Mich.

48.0
48.0
46.5
45.6
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0,500
.500
.509
.555
.531
.563
.563
.600
.600
.625
.688
.688
.688
.688
.750
.750
.875
1.250

48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
44.0
44. t)
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0,442
.442
.500
.500
.438
.438
.495
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.563
.563
.585
.688
.688
.688
.688
.688
.688
.750
.750
.750
.750
.750
.750
.813
.875
1.250
1.250
1.100
1.500
1.500
1.500
1.500
1.625
1.625

New Orleans, La.
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
45.0
45.0
45.0
45.0

$0,244
.248
.246
.246
.248
.246
.248
.248
.248
.248
.250
.250
.281
.375
.400
.450
.479
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.625
.625
.625
.500
.500
.625
.625
.750
1.000

205

B .— BUILDING TRADES

T a b le B - £ l.— Plasterers, males, 1890-1928, by city and year— Continued
Cincinnati, Ohio
Year

1921............................
1922...........................
1923...........................
1924...........................
1925...........................
1926...........................
1927...........................
1928............................

Detroit:, Mich.

New Orleans, La.

Hours
Bate
Bate
Hours
Hours
Bate
Hours
Bate
per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour
44.5
44.5
44.5
44.5
44.5
44.5
44.5
44.5

$1.125
1.125
1.250
1.500
1.500
1.500
1.500
1.500

New York, N. Y.2
1890............................
1891...........................
1892............................
1893........ •_
...............
1894____...............
1895...........................
1896...........................
1897....... ....................
1898....... ............. ...
1899...........................
1900..........................
1901...........................
1 9 0 2 .........................
1903...........................
1904...........................
1905..........................
1906...........................
1907...........................
1908...........................
1909...........................
1910...........................
1911..........................
1912....... ....................
1913..........................
1914..........................
1915...........................
1916....... ....................
1917.......... .................
1918...........................
1919.......... .................
1920...........................
19 21 .........................
1922......................... .
1923..........................
1924............................
1925........ ..................
1926............................
1927______ ________
1928............. .............

Denver, Colo.

48.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
40.0
40.0
40.0

2 Greater New York, 1903-1907.




$0,500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.563
.563
.563
.625
.682
.680
.688
.688
.688
.688
.688
.688
.688
.688
.688
.688
.688
.750
.750
.750
.900
1.250
1.250
1.250
1.250
1.500
1.500
1.750
1.750
1.750

44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$1,250
1.250
1.250
1.500
1.500
1.500
1.500
1.500

Philadelphia, Pa.
53.2
51.5
51.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
46.0
45.8
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0

$0,390
.394
.394
.442
.400
.400
.400
.400
.400
.400
.400
.450
.450
.500
.500
.563
.563
.594
.594
.594
.625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.700
.750
.800
1.250
1.250
1.250
1.250
1.500
1.500
1.750
1.750
1.750

44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$1,250
1.125
1.500
1.563
1.563
1.563
1.625
1.625

St. Louis, Mo.
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
46.3
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44:0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
40.0

$0,500
.500
.532
.488
.488
.492
.413
.443
.450
.500
.563
.563
.625
.750
.750
.750
.750
.750
.750
.750
.750
.750
.750
.750
.750
.750
.750
.750
.875
1.000
1.250
1.375
1.375
1.500
1.750
1.750
1.750
1.750
1.750

45.0
45.0
45.0
45.0
44.0
45.0
44.0
45.0

$1,000
1.000
1.000
1.250
1.250
1.250
1.250
1.250

San Francisco, Calif.
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0,652
.625
.625
.625
.625
.500
.375
.313
.375
.500
.417
.625
.693
.727
.750
.750
.875
.875
.875
.875
.875
.875
.875
.875
.875
.875
.875
.875
1.000
1.125
1.250
1.375
1.275
1.275
1.275
1.500
1.500
1.500
1.500

206

PART 2.— FROM 1840 TO 1928
T a b l e B - 2 2 . — Plumbers,

1850-1900, by year and State-

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Sex

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)

1850:
Massachusetts--New Jersey--1851:
New Jersey--New York.......
1852:
New Jersey--New York.......
1853:
New Jersey--New York........
1854:
New Jersey--New York----1855:
New Jersey--New York.......
1856:
New Jersey--New York.......
1857:
Connecticut—
New Jersey--New York.......
1858:
New Jersey--New York.......
1859:
New Jersey--New York.......
I860:
New Jersey--New York.......
1861:
New Jersey--New York---1862:
New Jersey--New York.......
1863:
New Jersey--New York.......
1864:
New Jersey___
New York.......
1865:
New Jersey___
New York____
1866:
New Jersey___
New York.......
1887:
New Jersey___
New York........
1868:
New Jersey___
New York.......
New Jersey.......... M.
New York............ M.
1870:
California............. M.
Illinois................. M.
Louisiana............. M.
Maryland.............M.
Massachusetts___ M.
Minnesota............M.
Missouri............... M.
New Jersey.......... M.
New York............ M.
Ohio..................... M.
Pennsylvania....... M.
Virginia................ M,
1871:
'
California............. !M.
Illinois.................. ' M.




60-60-60
60-60-60

2.00-2.00-2.00

60-60-60
60-60-60

1.50-1.50-1; 50
1.75-2.00-1.90

60-60-60
60-60-60

1.50-1.50-1.50
1.75-2.00-1.90

60-60-60
60-60-60

1.50-1.50-1.50
2.00-2.25-2.17

60-60-60
60-60-60

1.50-1.75-1.58
2.00-2.25-2.17

60-60-60
60-60-60

1.50-2.00-1.75
2.00-2.25-2.17

60-60-60
60-60-60

1.75-1.75-1.75
2.00-2.25-2.17

60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60

1.62-1.62-1.62
1.50-1.75-1.63
2.00-2.25-2.15

60-60-60
60-60-60

1.50-1.88-1.69
2.00-2.25-2.17

60-60-60
60-60-60

2.00-2.00-2.00

60-60-60
60-60-60

2.00-2.00-2.00

60-60-60
60-60-60

2.00-2.00-2.00

60-60-60
60-60-60

1.38-2.00-1.69
1.75-2.00-1.93

1.50-1.50-1.50

1.75-2.00-1.90
1.75-2.00-1.88

1.75-2.00-1.88

60-60-60' 2.00-2.00-2.00
60-60-60 2.50-2.50-2.50
60-60-60
60-60-60

2.50-2.50-2. 50
3.50-3.50-3.50

60-60-60
60-60-60

3.00-3.00-3.00
3.50-3.50-3.50

60-60-60
60-60-60

1. 75-3.33-2.77
3.50-3.50-3.50

60-60-60
60-60-60

2.00-3.33-2.90
3.75-4.00-3,85

60-60-60
60-60-60

2. 50-3. 75-3.19
3.75-4.00-3.85

60-60-60
60-60-60

2.50-3.75-3.25
3.75-4.00-3.85

54-54-54
60-60-60
60-60-60
59-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
54-60-57
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60

3.00-4.00-3.66
3.15-3.15-3.15
2.50-3.00-2.75
2.50-3.25-2.87
3.00-5.50-3.50
3.50-4.00-3.63
3.50-3.50-3.50
2.50-3.75-3.25
2.75-4.00-3.37
3. 75-3. 75-3.75
2.50-3.75-2.96
3.00-3.50-3.10

60-60-60
54-54-54

3.00-4.00-3.62
3.15-3.15-3.15

Sex
Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)

1871—Continued.
Louisiana-........ .
Maryland...........
Massachusetts ..
Minnesota........
Missouri...........
New Jersey____
New York........
Ohio................ .
Pennsylvania__
Virginia.............
1872:
California..........
Illinois...............
Louisiana..........
Maryland..........
Massachusetts-.
Minnesota.........
Missouri...........
New Jersey____
New York.........
Ohio..................
Pennsylvania. —
Virginia_ . ___
_
1873:
California..........
Illinois...............
Louisiana..........
Maryland..........
Massachusetts -.
Minnesota.........
Missouri______
New Jersey........
New York.........
Ohio............... .
Pennsylvania--Virginia.............
1874:
California..........
Illinois...............
Louisiana..........
Maryland..........
Massachusetts -.
Minnesota_____
Missouri............
New Jersey........
New York.........
Ohio..................
Pennsylvania-. .
Virginia.............
1875:
California..........
Illinois...............
Louisiana..........
Maryland..........
Massachusetts . .
Minnesota_____
Missouri.......... .
New Jersey.......
New York.........
Ohio..... ............
Pennsylvania -—
Virginia.............
1876:
California..........
Illinois...............
Louisiana..........
Maryland..........
Massachusetts..
Minnesota.........
Missouri............
New Jersey........
New York--.—
Ohio.
Pennsylvania.
Virginia..........

60-60-60
60-60-60
59-60-80
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
54-60-57
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60

2.50-3. 00-2.70
2.50-3. 25-2.91
3.00-5. 00-3.45
3.50-4. 00-3.83
3.50-3. 50-3.50
2.50-3. 75-3.25
2.50-4. 00-3.36
3.50-3. 75-3.58
2.50-3. 75-3.02
3.00-3. 50-3.10

60-60-60
54-54-54
60-60-60
60-60-60

3.00-4.00-3. 70
3.15-3.15-3.15
2.50-3.00-2.75
2.50*-3.25-2.89
3.00-4.50-3.42
3.50-4.00-3.60
3.50-3.50-3.50
2.50-3. 75-3.31
2.504.00-3.22
1.67-2.50-2.29
2.50-4.17-2.92
3.00-3.50-3.10

60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
54-60-57
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60

3.00-4. 00-3.66
3.15-3. 15-3.15
2.50-3. 00-2.70
2.50-3. 25-2.89
3.004. 00-3.50
3.50-4. 00-3.58
3.50-3. 50-3.50
60- 60-60 2.50-3. 75-3.25
54-60-57 2.504. 00-3.18
60-60-60 2.50-3. 00-2.56
60-60-60 2.50-4. 17-2.89
60-60-60 3.00-3. 50-3.13

60-60-60
54-54-54
60-60-60
60-60-60
59-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60

60-60-60
54-54-54
60-60-60
60-60-60
59-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
54-60-57
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60

3.00-4.00-3.61
3.15-3.15-3.15
2.50-3.00-2.75
2. 25-3.00-2. 74
3.00-4.00-3.36
3.50-4.00-3.56
3.50-3. 50-3. 50
2.83-3.50-3.28
2.50-4.00-3.11
3.00-3.33-3.11
2.50-4.17-2.77
3.00-3.50-3.13

60-60-60 3.00-4.00-3.62
54-54-54 3.15-3.15-3.15
60-60-60 2.50-3.00-2.72
60-60-60 2.25-3.00-2.74
59-60-60 3.00-4.00-3.26
60-60-60 3.50-4.00-3.56
60-60-60 3.50-3.50-3.50
60-60-60 2.83-3.50-3.28
54-60-57 2.50-4.00-3.16
60-60-60 2.00-3.67-3.24
60-60-60 2.50-4.17-3.09
60-60-60 3.00-3.50-3.17
60-60-60
54-54-54
60-60-60
60-60-60
59-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
54-60-57
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60

3.00-4.00-3.60
3-15-3.15-3.15
2.50-3.00-2.64
2.25-3.00-2.69
3.004.00-3.30
3.50-3.50-3.50
3.50-3.50-3.50
2.83-3.50-3.17
2.50-3* 50-3.13
2.00-3.33-2.90
2.25-4.17-2.93
3.00-3.50-3.17

207

B.— BUILDING TRADES
T a b le

B -22.— Plumbers, 1850-1900, by year and State—Continued
Lowest, highest, and
average—

Year and State

Sex

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Sex

Hours per Rate per day
(dollars)
week
1877:
California..........
Illinois............. .
Louisiana..........
Maryland........ .
Massachusetts -.
Minnesota.......
Missouri..........
New Jersey......
New York........
Ohio................ .
Pennsylvania -.
Virginia........... .
1878:
California..........
Illinois............. .
Louisiana..........
Maryland........ .
Massachusetts -.
Minnesota....... .
Missouri.......... .
New Jersey___
New York....... .
Ohio..................
Pennsylvania-..
Virginia........... .
1879:
California.........
Illinois............. .
Louisiana..........
Maryland........ .
Massachusetts..
Minnesota....... .
Missouri—........
New Jersey___
New York....... .
Ohio................ .
Pennsylvania...
Virginia........... .
1880:
California........ .
Illinois........ .....
Louisiana........ .
Maryland........ .
Massachusetts-.
Minnesota____
Missouri.......... .
New Jersey___
Do........ .....
New York....... .
Ohio................ .
Pennsylvania -..
Virginia........... .
1881:
California..........
Illinois..............
Louisiana..........
Maryland.........
Massachusetts..
Minnesota........
Missouri...........
New Jersey.......
New York.........
Ohio..................
Pennsylvania-..
Virginia............
1882:
California.........
Illinois..............
Louisiana..........
Maryland........ .
Massachusetts..
Minnesota....... .
Missouri-^-;..—!
N ew Jeteey....:

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M
M
M.
M.

60-60-60
54-54-54
60-60-60
60-60-60
59-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
54-60-57
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60

3.00-4.00-3.60
3.15-3.15-3.15
2.50-3.00-2.72
2. 25-3.00-2.74
3.00-3.50-3.22
3.50-3.50-3.50
3.50-3.50-3.50
2.83-3.00-2.92
2.50-3.50-3.16
3.00-3.00-3.00
2.50-3.33-2.58
3.00-3.50-3.13

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

60-60-60
54-54-54
60-60-60
60-60-60
59-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
54-60-54
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60

3.00-4.00-3.55
3.15-3.15-3.15
2.50-3.00-2.63
2.25-3.00-2.74
2.00-3.00-2.45
3.50-3.50-3.50
3.50-3.50-3.50
2.50-2.75-2.63
2. 50-3. 50-3.13
2.00-3.33-2.89
1.75-2.75-2.35
3.00-3.50-3.13

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

60-60-6054-54-54
60-60-60
60-60-60
59-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
54-60-54
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60

3.00-4.00-3.62
3.15-3.15-3.15
2.50-3.00-2.70
2.25-3.00-2.76
2.00-2.50-2.23
3.50-3.50-3.50
3.50-3. 50-3.50
1.00-2.75-1.94
2.50-3.50-3.12
2.17-3.33-2.83
2.00-3.00-2.55
3.00-3.50-3.13

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
0)
M.
M.
M.
M.

00-60-60 3.00-4.00-3.63
48-48-48 3.00-3.15-3.08
60-60-60 2.50-3.00-2.75
60-60-60 2.25-3.00-2. 70
59-60-60 2.00-3.00-2.66
60-60-60 3.50-3.50-3.50
60-60-60 3.50-3.50-3.50
60-60-60 2.38-2.50-2.44
67-67-67 3.11-3.11-3.11
54-60-54 3.00-3.50-3.37
60-60-60 2.00-3.33-2.74
60-60-60 2.00-3.00-2.42
60-60-60 2.00-3.00-2.42

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

60-60-60
48-48-48
60-60-60
60-60-60
59-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
54-60-54
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60

3.00-4.00-3.43
3.50-3.50-3.50
2.50-3.00-2.67
2.25-3.00-2. 70
2.00-3.33-2.72
3.50-3.50-3.50
3,50-3.50-3.50
2.50-2.50-2.50
3.00-3.50-3.43
2.67-4.17-3.11
1.75-2.75-2.34
2.50-3.00-2.63

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M
L

60-60-60
48-60-51
60-60-60
60-60-60
59-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60

3.00-4.00-3.50
3.00-3.50-3.39
2.50-3.00-2.60
2.25-3.00-2.70
2.50-3.00-2.78
3.50-3.50-3.50
2.50-3.50-3.25
2.50-2.50-2.50

i Not reported*



Hours per Rate per day
(dollars)
week
1882—Continued.
New York............ M.
Ohio.................... M.
Pennsylvania....... M.
Virginia................ M.
1883:
California............. M.
Illinois__________ M.
Louisiana............. M.
Maryland_______ M.
Massachusetts___ M.
Michigan.............. M.
Minnesota............ M.
Missouri............... M.
N ew Jersey........... M.
New Y ork .......... M.
Ohio.................... M.
Pennsylvania____ M.
Virginia................ M.
1884:
California............. M.
Illinois.................. M.
Iowa..................... M.
Louisiana............ M.
Maryland............. M.
Massachusetts___ M.
Michigan.............. M.
Minnesota............ M.
Missouri—............ M.
New Jersey______ M.
New York............ M.
Ohio..................... M.
Pennsylvania....... M.
Virginia-............... M.
1885:
California............. M.
Dist. of Columbia. M.
Illinois.................. M.
Louisiana_______ M.
Maryland........... . M.
Massachusetts___ M.
Minnesota............ M.
Missouri............ . M.
New Jersey........... M.
New York.......... . M.
Ohio....... ............. M.
Pennsylvania____ M.
Virginia................ M.
1886:
California............. M.
Dist. of Columbia. M.
Illinois.................. M.
Iowa.........-.......... M.
Kansas.................. M.
Louisiana............. M.
Maryland_______ M.
Massachusetts___ M.
Minnesota............ M.
Missouri............. . M.
New Jersey........... M.
New York............ M.
Ohio..................... M.
Pennsylvania....... M.
Virginia................ M.
1887:
California............. M.
Connecticut— —— M.
Illinois....... ........... M.
Kansas.............. M.
Louisiana............. M.
Maryland___. . . . . M.
Massachusetts___ M.
Michigan.............. M.
Minnesota______ M.
Missouri..... ......... M J

54-60-54
60-60-60
59-60-60
60-60-60

3.50-3.50-3.50
2.00-3.50-3.10
2.00-3.00-2.67
2.50-3.00-2.60

54-54-54
48-48-48
60-60-60
60-60-60
59-60-60
0)
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
54-60-58
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60

3.00-4.00-3.53
3.50-3.50-3.50
2.50-3.00-2.64
2.25-3.00-2.71
1.75-3.50-3.04
.60-3.00-2.27
3.50-3.50-3.50
3.50-3.50-3.50
2.00-3.00-2.50
3.50-3.50-3.50
2.50-3.25-2.86
1.75-3.16-2.89
2.00-2.50-2.13

54-60-57
48-48-48
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
59-60-60
(l)
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
54-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60

3.00-4.00-3.26
3.00-3.50-3.49
2.00-3.00-2.67
2.50-3.00-2.75
2.25-3.00-2.70
2.75-3.50-3.12
1.00-3.00-2.27
3.50-3.50-3.50
3.00-4.50-3.53
2.08-3.00-2.44
3.50-3.50-3.50
2.00-3.79-2.83
2.00-3.00-2.72
2.00-2.50-2.10

54-54-54
60-60-60
48-48-48
60-60-60
60-60-60
59-60-60
48-60-54
60-60-60
54-60-57
45-60-56
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60

3.00-4.00-3.56
3.50-3.50-3.50
3.50-3.50-3.50
2. 50-3.00-2. 70
2.25-3.00-2.70
2. 50-3.50-3.21
3. 50-3.50-3.50
3.50-3.50-3.50
2.17-3.50-2.69
2. 75-3.50-3.17
1.92-2.92-2.68
2. 50-3.50-2.86
2.00-2.50-2.13

54-60-58
53-54-54
48-60-50
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
54-59-54
48-60-57
48-60-59
53-60-56
48-60-54
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60

2.50-4.00-3.05
3.50-3.50-3.50
2. 00-3.60-3.36
2.00-4.00-2.63
3.00-3.00-3.00
2.50-3.00-2.72
2.25-3.00-2.73
2.50-4.00-3.24
2.25-3.50-2.33
3.00-3.50-3.04
2.25-3.50-2.74
1.67-4.00-3.28
2.50-3.50-3.10
2.00-3.50-2.81
2.00-2.50-2.13

54-54-54
0
48-48-48
64-60-58
60-60-60
64-54-54
54-59-54
0)
48-60-54
48-48-48

3.00-4.00-3.50
1.50-4.00-2.57
3.50-3.60-3.57
2.35-3.50-2.75
2.50-3.00-2.67
1.70-3.00-2.55
2.00-4.00-3.12
2.35-2.61-2.48
3.50-3.50-3.50
3.50-3.50-3.50

208

PART 2.— FROM 1840 TO 1928
T

able

B -22.— Plumbers, 1850-1900, by year and State— Continued
Lowest, highest, and
average—

Year and State

Sex

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Sex
Hours per Bate per day
week
(dollars)

Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)
1887—Continued.
New Jersey...........
New York............
Do..................
Ohio.....................
Oregon... ..............
Pennsylvania.......
Virginia................
Wisconsin.............
1888:
California.............
Illinois..................
Louisiana.............
Maryland.............
Massachusetts___
Michigan..............
Minnesota............
Missouri..... ....... .
New Jersey....... .
Do................ .
New York............
Do................ .
Ohio.....................
Pennsylvania____
Virginia................
1889:
California.............
Illinois................ .
Louisiana.............
Maryland.............
Massachusetts___
Michigan.............
Minnesota............
Missouri............. .
New Jersey......... .
New York______
Ohio.................. . _
Pennsylvania.......
Virginia................
Wisconsin_______
1890:
California.............
Illinois.......... .......
Kansas..................
Louisiana.—....... Maryland.............
Massachusetts___
Michigan..............
Minnesota............
Missouri...............
New Jersey...........
New York______
Ohio.....................
Pennsylvania.......
Virginia_________
1891:
California.............
Illinois..................
Louisiana............
Maryland.............
Massachusetts___
Minnesota- —.......
Missouri..............
New Jersey...........
New York............
Ohio.....................
Pennsylvania.......
Virginia................
Wisconsin.............
1892:
California.............
Illinois..................
Louisiana.............
Maryland.............
Massachusetts___
Michigan..............

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

60-60-60
48-54-52
0
64-60-59
0
60-72-61
60-60-60
0

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
0)
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

64-54-54 ‘3.00-4.00-3.50
48-48-48 3.50-3.60-3.58
60-60-60 2. 50-3.00-2.58
64-54-54 2.00-3.00-2.64
54-59-55 2.83-4.00-3.18
60-60-60 2.30-3.26-2.78
48-60-54 3.50-3.50-3.50
48-48-48 3.50-3.50-3.50
60-60-60 2.50-3.00-2.75
54-60-57 2.50-3.50-3.00
48-60-54 1.00-4.00-3.37
2. 22J-. 22J-. 22J
0
54-54-54 1. 50-3.83-2. 77
54-60-59 2. 50-4.00-3.15
60-60-60 2.00-2.50-2.10

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

54-54-54
48-48-48
60-60-60
64-54-54
64^59-54
60-60-60
48-60-54
48-48-48
60-60-60
48-54-48
54-54-54
54-60-59
60-60-60
0

3.00-4.00-3.45
3.50-3.60-3.57
2.50-3.00-2.67
2. 00-3.00-2.65
2.83-4.00-3.24
1.10-2.50-1.80
3. 50-3.50-3. 50
3. 50-3. 50-3. 50
2. 50-3.00-2. 75
3. 50-3.75-3.59
2.00-3.50-3.13
2.50-3.50-3.13
2.00-2.50-2.20
1.66-3.48-2.35

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

48-54-53
48-48-48
0
60-60-60
54-54^54
54-54r-54
60-60-60
48-60-54
48-48-48
60-60-60
48-54-48
54-54-54
54-60-59
60-60-60

3.00-4.00-3.55
3.75-3.75-3.75
2.50-3.50-3.04
2.50-3.00-2.64
2.50-3.00-2.79
2.50-4.00-3.19
1.33-2.67-2.00
1.50-4.00-3.12
3.50-3.50-3.50
2.50-3.00-2.75
1.50-3.75-2.94
1.80-3.33-2.90
2.50-3.50-3.00
2.00-2.50-2.20

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

48-48-48 3.00-4.00-3.56
48-48-48 3. 75-3.75-3.75
60-60-60 2.50-3.00-2.67
54-54-54 2.50-3.00-2.79
54-54-54 2.50-4.00-3.25
48-48-48 3.50-3.50-3.50
48-48-48 3. 50-3.50-3.50
60-60-60 2.50-2.50-2.50
48-48-48
.55-3. 75-2.87
54-60-58 1.50-3.50-2.50
54-60-59 2.50-3.50-3.06
60-60-60 2.00-2.50-2.20
2.17J- .40-.30^
0

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

48-54-49 1.50-4.00-3.65
48-48-48 3. 75-3.75-3.75
64-54-54 2.50-3.00-2.72
64-54-54 2.50-3.00-2.82
54-54-54 2.50-4.00-3.17
54-60-59
.42-5.00-2.44
1 Not reported.




2.50-3.00-2.75
2.10-3.75-3.52
a .20- .30- .23
1.25-3.83-2.76
4.79-4.79-4. 79
2.00-3.50-2. 94
2.00-2.50-2.13
2.42-2.42-2.42

1892—Continued.
M.
Minnesota____
Missouri .......... .
M.
New Jersey___
M.
New York.......
M.
M.
Ohio.................
D o............
Pennsylvania. .
&
Rhode Island.
M.
M.
Virginia______
1893:
M.
California.........
Illinois-.............
M.
Louisiana..........
M.
Maryland........
M.
Massachusetts..
M.
M.
Michigan.........
M.
Minnesota____
Missouri—.......
M.
M.
Montana..........
New Hampshire __ M.
New York______ M.
Ohio..................... M.
M.
Pennsylvania. .
Rhode Island..
M.
M.
Virginia........... .
Wisconsin____
M.
1894:
California.........
M.
Illinois.............
M.
M.
Iowa.................
M.
Louisiana_____
Maryland____
M.
Massachusetts___ M.
Minnesota_____ M.
Missouri—.......... M.
New York______ M.
North Carolina-_
Ohio.................... &
Pennsylvania--- M.
Virginia............... M.
1895:
California............ M.
Illinois................ M.
Louisiana............ M.
Maryland............ M.
Massachusetts--- M.
Minnesota.......... . M.
Missouri............. . M.
New York............ M.
North Carolina-_. M.
Ohio..................... M.
Pennsylvania___ M.
Virginia.............. . M.
1896:
Alabama............. . M.
California............. M.
Colorado............. . M.
Florida................. M.
Illinois................ . M.
Kansas................ . M.
Louisiana............. M.
Maryland........... . M.
Massachusetts— M.
Minnesota.......... . M.
Missouri............. M.
New York.......... . M.
North Carolina__ M.
Ohio................
M.
Pennsylvania..
M.
Virginia...........
M.
1897:
California........
M.
Illinois.............
M.
Kansas.............
M.
Louisiana........
M.
JPer hour.

48-48-48
48-48-48
60-60-60
48-48-48
64-54-54
53-60-55
54-60-57
49-60-55
60-00-60

3.50-3.50-3.50
3.50-3.50-3.50
3.00-3.00-3.00
3.50-3.75-3.58
3.50-3.50-3.50
1.00-5.50-3.26
2.50-3.50-3.06
1.00-3.50-2.69
2.00-2.50-2.20

48-48-48
48-60-49
54-54-54
54-72-56
54-54-54
57-60-59
48-48-48
48-48-48
42-60-50
69-60-60
48-60-49
48-60-56
48-66-55
0)
48-48-48
0

3.00-4.00-3.55
1.50-4.50-3.53
2.50-3.00-2.60
. 67-4.17-2.56
3.00-3.50-3.30
1.35-2.00-1.68
3.50-3.50-3.50
3.50-3.50-3.50
3.00-5.00-4.38
1.75-3.50-2.54
1.17-3.75-3.53
1.50-3.67-2.49
1.00-3.83-2.81
3.00-3.50-3.42
2.00-2.50-2.25
2. 1 5 - .4 5 - .3 0

48-48-48
48-48-48
48-60-55
54-54-54
54-54 54
54-54-54
48-48-48
48-48-48
48-60-48
60-60-60
54-60-58
54-54-54
48-48-48

3.00-4.00-3.57
3.75-3.75-3.75
1.00-3.50-2.64
2.50-3.00-2.70
2.50-3.00-2.82
3.00-3.50-3.13
3.50-3.50-3.50
3.50-3.50-3.50
1.50-3.75-3.72
2.88-2.88-2.88
1.67-3.50-2.50
2. 50-3.50-3.06
2.00-2.50-2.25

48-48-48
48-48-48
54-54-54
54-54-54
48-54-49
48-48-48
48-48-48
48-48-48
60-60-60
54-60-55
50-54-53
48-48-48

3.00-4.00-3.59
3. 75-3. 75-3.75
2. 50-3.00-2.58
2.50-3.00-2.75
2. 50-3.50-3. 28
3. 50-3.50-3. 50
3.50-3.50-3.50
3. 50-3. 75-3.74
2.50-2.50-2.50
2.00-3.50-2.75
2. 70-3.50-3.07
2.00-2.50-2.25

0
48-48-48
48-48-48
0
48-54-48
60-60-60
54-54-54
54-54-54
48-56-48
48-48-48
48-48-48
48-60-49
64-54-54
48-60-55
48-60-53

1.25-1.25-1.25
3.00-4.00-3.59
4.00-4.00-4.00
1.25-1.25-1.25
2.00-3. 75-3. 71
2.00-2.00-2.00
2.50-3.00-2.67
2. 50-3.00-2. 53
2.50-4. 50-3. 77
3. 50-3.50-3.50
3. 50-3.50-3.50
1.00-3.85-3.49
2.50-2.50-2. 50
1.50-3.50-2. 32
2.08-3. 51-3.05
2.00-2.50-2.25

48-48-48 3.00-4.00-3.54
48-48-48 3. 75-3. 75-3. 75
2 .30- . 30- . 30
0
64-54-54 2.50-3.00-2.72

209

B.— BTTIUDING TRADES
T a b le

B -22.— Plumbers, 1850-1900, by year and State— C o n t i n u e d
Lowest, highest, and
average—

Year and State

Sex

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Hours per Rate per day
(dollars)
week
1897—Continued.
Maryland........
Massachusetts___
Michigan.........
Minnesota.......
Missouri..........
Nebraska.........
New York.......
Ohio.................
Pennsylvania..
Virginia...........
1898:
California........
Illinois.............
Louisiana........
Maryland........
Massachusetts--Michigan.........
Minnesota........
Missouri.......... .
Nebraska..........
New York____
Ohio_________

64-54-54
48-54-49
<*)
48-48-48
48-48-48
48-60-52
48-48-48
53-53-53
50-54-53
48-48-48

2.50-3.00-2.79
2.50-3.50-3.31
1.98-1.98-1. 98
3. 50-3. 50-3. 50
3.50-3. 50-3.50
3.004.00-3.35
3. 25-3. 75-3. 73
1.67-3.50-2. 79
1.67-3. 50-2.95
2.00-2.50-2, 25

48-48-48 3.00-4.00-3.61
48-48-48 3. 75-3.75-3. 75
54-54-54 2. 50-3.00-2.64
54-54-54 2.50-3.00-2.79
48-48-48 2. 50-3. 50-3. 27
2.00-2.50-2.17
0)
48-48-48 3.50-3. 50-3.50
48-48-48 3.50-3.50-3.50
54-60-56
. 75-6.00-2.51
48-48-48 3.50-3. 75-3. 74
53-53-53 1.83-3. 50-2. 93

Sex

Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)
1898—Continued.
Pennsylvania___
Virginia,-............
1899:
California............
Illinois. ............
Massachusetts. . .
Montana.............
New Jersey.........
New York.......... .
North Carolina--.
O h io..............
Pennsylvania. .
1900:
California........
Illinois..______
Massachusetts___
Montana_____
New Jersey---New York.......
O h io .............
Pennsylvania...

50-54-52
48-48-48

1.67-3.50-2.92
2.00-2.50-2.25

48-48-48
dl-11-11
48-48-48
48-48-48
54-54-54
48-54-50
54-60-57
48-48-48
54-54-54

4.00-4.00-4.00
3.67-3.90-3.69
3.75-3.75-3.75
5.60-5.60-5.60
3.00-3.00-3.00
2.50-3.50-3.19
2.50-2.70-2.60
2.25-3.50^2.69
3.00-3.50-3.31

48-48-48
d i l l 11
48-48-48
48-48-48
48-48-48
48-54-50
48-48-48
54-54-54

4.00-4.00-4.00
3.67-3.90-3.68
3. 75-3.75-3.75
5.60-5.60-5.60
3.00-3.00-3.00
2.50-3.50-3.19
2.25-3.50-2.71
3.00-3.50-3.31
i

1 Not reported.
T a b l e B - 2 3 .- - Plumbers, males, 1890-1928, by city and year
Birmingham, Ala.2

Atlanta, Ga.1
Year

1890............................
1891..... ................. .
1892..........................
1893...........................
1894........... ...............
1895...........................
1896...........................
1897........ ..................
1898................ ..........
1899..... .................... .
1900
...................
1901......................... 1992.......-...................
1903...........................
1904........................ .
1905........................ .
1906............. ..............
1907________ ______
1908__________ ____
1909__________ ____
1910........ ............... .
1911_______________
1912_______________
1913______ ________
1914............. — .........
1915........ ................ .
1916........................ 1917_______________
1918........ -................
1919__________ ____
1920________ ______
1921____ __________
1922________ ______
1923...........................
1924...........................
1925...........................
1926.........................
1927...........................
1928........ .................

Boston, Mass.

Chicago, 111.1

Hours
Hours
Bate
Hours
Hours
Rate
Bate
Rate
per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour

!
i
1
i
I
i

54.7
53.1
53.1
53.0
3 53.0
3 53.0
3 53.0
3 53.0
53.0
53.0
53.0
53.0
53.0
53.0
53.0
49.5
49.5
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0.378
.397
.392
.425
.400
.400
.400
.400
.450
.450
.450
.450
.450
.450
.450
.500
.600
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.250
1.250
1.250

 1 Includes gas fitters, 1907-1928.
2 Includes gas fitters, 1912-1928.


47.8
47.8
48.0
47.0
47.0
47.0
47.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0.5Q2
.503
.563
.575
.575
.638
.638
.688
.688
.688
.688
.750
.750
.750
.750
.875
1.125
1.500
1.500
1.250
1.500
1.500
1.500
1.500
1.500
1.500

51.5
51.4
50.4
50.4
50.2
49.0
49.1
49.1
49.3
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0,426
.425
.430
.432
.428
.440
.438
.439
.433
.446
.448
.447
.450
.453
.456
.456
.476
.500
.500
.550
.550
.550
.600
.600
.650
.650
.650
.688
• .750
.800
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.050
1.100
1.100
1.250
1.250
1.375

48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
46.9
46.7
46.9
46.7
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
41.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

8Work 53 hours; paid for 54.

$0,469
.469
.469
.469
.469
.469
.469
.469
.469
.500
.500
.500
.500
.563
.563
.563
.563
.625
.650
.650
.688
.688
.688
.750
.750
.750
.750
.750
.750
.844
1.250
1.250
1.100
1.100
1.250
1.250
1.500
1.500
1.625

210

PART 2.— FROM 1840 TO 1928

T a b l e B -23. — Plumbers, males, 1890-1928, by city and year— Continued
Year
1890.......................—
1891........................ ...
1892...........................
1893...........................
1894..........................
1895...........................
1896................ ..........
1897..........-..............
1898...........................
1899__.......................
1900..........................
1901_____ _____
1902___ __________
1 9 0 3....____ ______
19C4.............. ............
1905_______________
1906->________ _____
1907........ ..................
1908— .......................
1909...........................
1910______________
1911_______________
1912_________ _____
1913— . ___________
1914____ ____ ______
1915_______________
1916_______________
1917— .......................
1918_______________
1919.....................
1920— .....................
1921— ............. .........
1922_______ _______
1923...........................
1924__________ ____
1925_______________
1926...........................
1927------ ---------1928........ ..................
1890............................
1891............................
1892...........................
1893.— .....................
1894....... ....................
1895....... ....................
1896....... ....................
1897..........................
1898....... ....................
1899.......................—
1900....... ....................
1901....... ............... —
1902....... ....................
1903..................... —
1904............................
1905______ ____ ____
1906...........................
1907............................
1908..... ............ ........
1909_________ ______
1910_______________
1911............... ............
1912...........................
1913...........................
3914............................
1915..........................
1916...........................
1917..... — ...........
1918_____ ____ _____
1919_______ _______
1920_______________
1921...........................
1922...........................
1923...........................
1924...........................
1925............................
1926...........................
1927.......... ................
1928................ ..........

Denver, Colo.1
Cincinnati, Ohio 1
Detroit, Mich.
Hours
Hours
Hours
Rate
Rate
Rate
per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour
54.7
$0,500
$0,388
48.0
54.0
$0.302
54.7
54.0
.500
.388
48.0
.289
55.4
.383
48.0
.500
54.0
.296
54.7
.388
48.0
.500
54.0
.303
54.9
.387
54.0
48.0
.500
.303
55.0
.386
.500
.299
48.0
54.0
51.9
54.0
.299
.406
48.0
.500
51.9
48.0
.500
54.0
.296
.406
51.9
.500
54.0
.289
.406
48.0
51.6
54.0
.279
.408
48.0
.500
51.4
48.0
.327
.410
48.0
.500
48.8
.431
48.0
48.0
.500
.355
48.0
.438
44.0
.531
48.0
.370
48.0
48.0
.460
44.0
.531
.367
48.0
44.0
.424
.500
.531
48.0
48.0
.454
.500
44.0
48.0
.545
48.0
48.0
.500
44.0
.401
.625
44.5
48.0
.500
48.0
.469
.563
44. 5
44.0
48.0
.500
.469
.625
44.5
48.0
.500
44.0
.469
.625
44.5
48.0
.563
44.0
.500
.625
48.0
44.5
.563
44.0
.625
.500
44.5
44.0
48.0
.563
.500
.625
44.5
48.0
44.0
.618
.563
.625
44.5
48.0
.618
44.0
.563
.625
44.5
48.0
.600
.618
44.0
.625
44.5
44.0
.618
44.0
.625
.625
44.0
.656
44.0
44.0
.688
.750
44.0
.656
44.0
44.0
.750
.875
44.0
44.0
.750
44.0
.875
.900
44.0
1.000
44.0
44.0
1.250
1.000
44.0
44.0
44.0
1.000
1.000
1.063
44.0
1.000
44.0
440
1.000
1.063
44.0
1.125
44.0
44.0
1.250
1.188
44.0
1.250
44.0
44.0
1.300
1.188
44.0
44.0
1.250
44.0
1.300
1*250
44.0
44.0
1.400
1.3.50
44.0
1.375
44.0
1.375
44.0
44.0
1.500
1.375
44.0
44.0
1.375
44.0
1.500
1.375
New York, N. Y.< Philadelphia, P a .1
St. Louis, Mo.
48.5
$0,439
55.2
48.0
$0,340
$0,409
48.6
.438
55.6
48.0
.336
.438
48.6
.439
55.0
.339
48.0
.438
48.7
.454
54.1
48.0
.343
.438
48.5
48.0
.458
53.5
.352
.438
48.5
.459
53.5
.345
48.0
.438
48.7
.454
53.4
48.0
.438
.347
48.7
.455
48.0
.438
53.6
.348
48.7
.456
48.0
.438
53.7
.346
46.8
.457
48.8
.457
53.0
.345
48.2
44.0
.461
.500
.354
52.7
48.2
.500
51.1
44.0
.488
.369
44.4
44.0
.500
.526
48.3
.385
44.4
44.0
.625
47.2
.525
.405
44.1
44.0
.560
.625
47.8
.438
44.0
44.0
.625
.593
.438
47.7
44.0
44.0
.595
.625
.438
47.7
44.0
44.0
.625
44.0
.438
.625
44.0
.625
44.0
.663
44.0
.438
44.0
.663
44.0
.625
44.0
.438
44.0
.663
44.0
.625
44.0
.438
44.0
.688
44.0
.500
44.0
.663
44.0
.500
44.0
.663
.688
44.0
44.0
44.0
.688
44.0
.500
.663
44.0
.688
44.0
.500
44.0
.750
44.0
.688
44.0
.500
44.0
.750
44.0
44.0
.688
44.0
.500
.750
44.0
44.0
44.0
.750
.688
.563
44.0
.750
44.0
.625
44.0
.813
44.0
44.0
.750
44.0
1.000
.800
44.0
1.125
44.0
.900
44.0
1.250
44.0
44.0
1.125
44.0
1.150
1.250
44.0
1.125
44.0
1.250
.900
44.0
44.0
1.250
44.0
44.0
1.250
1.150
44.0
44.0
1.375
44.0
1.500
1.150
44.0
44.0
1.375
1.150
44.0
1.500
44.0
3.500
44.0
1.150
44.0
1.500
44.0
1.500
44.0
44,0
1.150
1.500
44.0
1.500
44.0
44.0
1.150
li 500;

i Includes gas fitters, 1907-1928.

New Orleans, La.1
Hours
Rate
per week per hour
52.8
$0,325
53.1
.322
.322
53.3
.325
52.2
52.3
.321
.321
52.3
52.5
.322
52.5
.323
52.5
.339
52.7
.340
52.8
.334
48.0
.388
48.0
.404
48.0
.431
48.0
.490
48.0
.500
48.0
.494
48.0
.500
48.0
.500
48.0
.563
48.0
.563
48.0
.563
48.0
.563
48.0
.563
48.0
.563
48.0
.563
48.0
.563
48.0
.563
4a 0
.688
48.0
.800
48.0
.900
44.0
1.000
44.0
.900
44.0
.900
44.0
1.050
44.0
1.125
44.0
1.250
44.0
1.250
44.0
1.250
San Francisco, Calif.
48.0
$0,455
48.0
.455
48.0
.473
48.0
.470
48.0
.467
48.0
.469
48.0
.470
48.0
.466
48.0
.474
48.0
.488
48.0
.488
48.0
.492
48.0
.521
47.9
.564
47.5
.632
47.5
.632
44.0
.800

* Greater New York, 1903-1906; Manhattan and Bronx (includes gas fitters), 1907-1928.



44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

.750
.750
.750
.750
.750
.750
.813
.875
1.000
1.250
1.250
1.250
1.250
1.125
1.125

44.0
44,0,

1.250
1.250

211

B.— BUILDING TRADES
T a b l e B - 2 4 .—

Stonecutters, 1850-1900,

6^

year and State

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Sex

Sex

Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)
1850:
New York____
1851:
New York.......
1852:
New York____
1853:
New York.......
1854:
New York____
1855:
New York.......
1856:
New York.......
1857:
New York____
1858:
New York.......
1859:
Massachusetts___
New York.......
1860:
Massachusetts___
New York.......... .
Ohio................... .
Pennsylvania___
1861:
Massachusetts—
New York.......... .
Pennsylvania___
1862:
New York....... ...
Pennsylvania---New York.......
Pennsylvania.......
1864:
New York.......
Penrsyl vania . .
1865:
New York.......
Pennsylvania. _
1866:
New York.......
Pennsylvania. .
1867:
Pennsylvania____
1868:
Pennsylvania..
New York.......... M.
Pennsylvania....... M.
1870:
California_______ M.
Illinois..................M.
Louisiana-............M.
Maryland............. M.
Massachusetts___ M.
Minnesota............M.
Missouri.......... . M.
New York....... . M.
Ohio___ _______ M.
Pennsylvania.—. . M
Virginia_________M.
1871:
California............. M.
Illinois..................M.
Louisiana............. M.
Maryland.............M.
Massachusetts___ M.
Minnesota............M.
Missouri........... . M,
New York............ M.
O h io .....—. .........,M f
Pennsylvania....... M.
V irgin ia.............) M.

60-60-60

2.00-2.00-2.00

60-60-60

2.00-2.00-2.00

60-60-60

2.00-2.00-2.00

60-60-60

2.00-2.00-2.00

60-60-60

2.00-2.00-2.00

60-60-60

2.00-2.00-2.00

60-60-60

2.00-2.00-2.00

60-60-60

2.00-2.00-2.00

60-60-60

2.00-2.00-2.00

60-60-60
60-60-60

1.10-1.57-1.25
2.00-2.00-2.00

60-60-60
60-60-60
0)
60-60-60

1.12-2.00-1.37
2.00-2.00-2.00
1.67-1.67-1.67
1.75-1.75-1.75

60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60

1.12-2.00-1.43
2.00-2.00-2.00
1.75-1.75-1.75

60-60-60
60-60-60

2.00-2.00-2.00
1.75-1.75-1.75

60-60-60
60-60-60

2.25-2.25-2. 25
2.00-2.00-2.00

60-60-60
60-60-60

2. 75-2.75-2. 75
2.50-2.75-2.69

60-60-60
60-60-60

3.50-3.50-3. 50
3.00-3.25-3.05

60-60-60
60-60-60

3.75-3. 75-3. 75
3.25-3.25-3.25

60-60-60

3.25-3.25-3.25

60-60-60

3.75-3.75-3.75

60-60-60
60-60-60

4.25-4.25-4. 25
2.50-2.50-2.50

48-60-55
48-48-48
60-60-60
59-59-59
54-60-59
60-60-60
54-60-56
60-60-60
60-60-60
48-60-57
60-60-60

4.00-5.00-4.14
3.50-3.50-3.50
4.504.50-4.50
4.00-4.00-4.00
3.50-4.50-4.09
3.00-3.00-3.00
2.00-4.00-2.50
4.25-4.25-4.25
3.50-3.50-3.50
3.00-4.00-3. 58
3.50-3.50-3. 50

48-60-55 4.00-5.00-4.11
48-48-48 3.50-3.50-3.50
60-60-60 4.50-4.50-4.50
59-59-59 4.00-4.00-4.00
54-60-59 3.50-4.50-3.87
60-60-60 3.00-3.00-3.00
54-60-56 2.00-4.00-2.62
60-60-60 4.00-4.00-4.00
60-60-60 3.50-3.50-3.50
59-60-59 3.00-4.00-3.52
60-60-60 3.50-3.50-3.50


1 Not reported.


Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)
1872:
California.............
Illinois..................
Louisiana.............
Maryland.............
Massachusetts--Minnesota______
Missouri...............
New York............
Ohio_...................
Pennsylvania.......
Virginia................
1873:
California.............
Illinois..... ............
Louisiana.............
Maryland_______
Massachusetts___
Minnesota______
Missouri-.............
New York_____~
Ohio.....................
Pennsylvania.......
Virginia...............
1874:
California..... .......
Illinois__________
Louisiana— ........
Maryland-------Massachusetts___
Minnesota------Missouri________
New York— ........
Ohio__________ _
Pennsylvania____
Virginia...............
1875:
California_______
Illinois____ _____
Louisiana_______
Maryland_______
Massachusetts___
Minnesota______
Missouri-.............
New York______
Ohio..... ...............
Pennsylvania____
Virginia................
1876:
California_______
Illinois-................
Louisiana-............
Maryland_______
Massachusetts.. . .
Minnesota______
Missouri________
New York______

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

48-60-56
48-48-48
60-60-60
59-59-59
54-60-59
60-60-60
54-60-56
60-60-60
60-60-60
59-60-59
60-60-60

4 00-5.00-4.07
5.00-5.00-5.00
4. 50-4. 50-4. 50
4.00-4.00-4.00
3. 25-4. 50-4.02
3.00-3.00-3.00
2.00-4.00-2.46
4.00-4.00-4.00
3.50-5.00-4.45
3. 50-4.50-3.85
3.50-3.50-3.50

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

48-60-55
48-48-48
60-60-60
59-59-59
54-60-57
60-60-60
54-60-56
60-60-60
60-60-60
59-60-59
48-60-54

4.00-5.00-4.07
3.00-3.00-3.00
4.504.50-4.50
4.00-4.00-4.00
3.25-5.00-4.50
3.00-3.00-3.00
2.00-3.50-2.50
4.004.00-4.00
4.50-4.50-4.50
3.50-4.50-3.82
3.50-4.50-3.97

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

48-60-54 4.00-5.00-4.04
48-48-48 2.50-2.50-2.50
60-60-60 4.50-4.50-4.50
59-59-59 4.00-4.00-4.00
54-60-58 3.00-5.00-3.97
60-80-60 3.00-3.00-3.00
54-60-57 2.00-3.50-2.46
60-60-60 4.00-4.00-4.00
60-60-60 4.00-4.00-4.00
50-60-59 3.25-4.50-3.73
60-60-60 3.00-3.00-3.00

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

48-54-52
48-48-48
60-60-60
59-59-59
54-60-58
60-60-60
54-60-57
60-60-60
60-60-60
59-60-59
60-60-60

4.00-5.004.04
2. 25-2.25-2.25
4.00-4.00-4.00
4.00-4.00-4.00
2.50-4.00-3.10
3.00-3.00-3.00
2.00-3.00-2.40
3.50-3.50-3.50
4.00-4.00-4.00
3.00-4.50-3.65
3.00-3.00-3.00

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
Pennsylvania..
M.
Virginia.............. M.
1877:
California........... M.
Illinois................ M.
Louisiana.......... . M.
Maryland............. M.
Massachusetts___ M.
Minnesota........... M.
Missouri.............. M.
New Jersey______ M.
New York______ M.
Ohio.—................. M.
Pennsylvania, M.
Virginia________ M.
1878:
California_______ M.
Illinois___. . . ____ M.

48-54-52
48-48-48
60-60-60
59-59-59
54-60-59
60-60-60
48-60-54
60-60-60
60-60-60
59-60-59
60-60-60

3.50-5.00-3.77
2.50-4.00-2.54
3.75-3.75-3.75
3.00-3.00-3.00
2.25-3.50-2.75
3.00-3.00-3.00
2.25-4.00-2.88
3.00-3.00-3.00
3.00-3.50-3.25
2.50-4.50-3.24
3.00-3.00-3.00

48-54-52
48-48-48
60-60-60
59-59-59
54-60-57
60-60-60
48-60-54
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
59-60-59
60-60-60

3.50-5.00-3.79
2.50-2.50-2.50
2.50-2.50-2.50
3.00-3.00-3.00
2.25-3.00-2.62
3.00-3.50-3.23
2.25-4.00-2.68
2.00-2.00-2.00
3.00-3.00-3.00
2.00-2.50-2.30
2.00-3.75-2.79
3.00-3.00-3.00

48-54-53
48-48-48

3.50-4.00-3.67
2.50-2.50-2.50

212

PART 2 — FROM 1840 TO 1928
T a b l e B - 2 4 . — Stonecutters,

1850-1900,

6t/

year and State— Continued

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Sex

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Hours per Rate per day
(dollars)
week

1878—Continued.
Louisiana.............
Maryland_______
Massachusetts___
M innesota..........
Missouri..... .........
New York______
Ohio.....................
Pennsylvania____
Virginia_________
1879:
California.............
Illinois__________
Louisiana_______
Maryland_______
Massachusetts___
Minnesota____
Missouri______
New York____
Ohio..... ............
Pennsylvania. .
Virginia____ ...
1880:
California_____
Illinois_______
Louisiana_____
Maryland_____
Massachusetts..
Minnesota____
Missouri______
New Jersey___
New York____
Ohio____ ____
Pennsylvania. Virginia...........
1881:
California........
Illinois.............
Louisiana.........
Maryland........
Massachusetts___
Michigan.........
Minnesota.......
Missouri_____
New York.......
Ohio...............
Pennsylvania..
Virginia...........
1882:
California.........
Dist. of Columbia.
Illinois.............
Indiana............
Louisiana.........
Maryland........
Massachusetts___
Michigan.........
Minnesota.......
Missouri..........
New Jersey___
New York____
Ohio.................
Pennsylvania..
Virginia............
1883:
California.............
Illinois.............
Indiana............
Louisiana_____
Maryland____
Massachusetts..
Michigan.........
Minnesota.......
Missouri..........
New Jersey___

60-60-60
54-60-56
60 60-60
48-60-54
60-60-60
60-60-60
59-60-59
60-60-60

2.50-2. 50-2.50
3.00-3. 00-3.00
2.25-3. 00-2.83
3.50-3. 50-3.50
2.25-4. 00-2.63
3.00-3. 00-3.00
1.50-2. 50-2.20
2.00-3. 25-2.56
3.00-3. 00-3.00

48-54-53
48-48-48
60-60-60
59-59-59
54-60-57
60-60-60
48-60-54
60-60-60
60-60-60
59-60-59
60-60-60

3. 50-4. 00-3.70
2.50-2. 50-2.50
2.50-2. 50-2.50
3.00-3. 00-3.00
2.25-3. 00-2.68
3. 50-3. 50-3.50
1.67-4. 00-2.29
3.00-3. 00-3.00
2.00-3. 00-2.30
1.00-2. 50-2.11
3.00-3. 00-3.00

48-54-53
48-48-48
60-60-60
59-59-59
54-60-58
60-60-60
48-60-54
48-48-48
60-60-60
60-60-60
59-60-59
60-60-60

3.50-4. 00-3.66
3.00-3. 00-3.00
2.50-2. 50-2.50
3.00-3. 00-3.00
2.00-3. 00-2.58
3.50-3. 50-3.50
2.25-4. 00-2.79
3.50-3. 50-3.50
3.00-3. 00-3.00
1.25-3. 00-2.90
1. 25-3. 00-2.49
3.00-3. 00-3.00

48-54-53
48-60-58
60-60-60
59-59-59
54-59-57
60-60-60
60-60-60
48-60-54
60-60-60
60-60-60
54-60-58
60-60-60

3.50-4. 00-3. 68
3.00-3. 50-3. 33
2. 75-2. 75-2.75
3.00-3. 00-3.00
2.46-4. 00-3.12
2.10-2. 60-2.35
3. 50-3. 50-3. 50
2.25-4. 00-2. 80
3.00-3. 00-3.00
1.55-3. 25-2. 75
2.75-3. 25-2.95
3.00-3. 00-3.00

48-54-53
52-58-55
48-48-48
60-60-60
60-60-60
59-59-59
54-59-56
60-60-60
60-60-60
48-60-57
53-53-53
53-60-60
60-60-60
59-60-60
60-60-60

3.50-4. 00-3.65
3.00-3. 00-3.00
3.00-3. 00-3.00
3.00-3. 50-3.11
3.00-3. 00-3.00
3.00-3. 00-3.00
2.21-3. 00-2.77
2.99-3. 99-3.57
3.50-3. 50-3.50
2.25-4. 00-3.21
2.50-3. 75-2.73
2.90-3. 75-3.16
2.06-3. 50-2.46
3.00-3. 75-3.07
3.00-3. 00-3.00

48-54-53
48-48-48
60-60-60
60-60-60
54-59-55
54-59-58
0)
60-60-60
48-60-54
51-54-53

3.50-4.00-3.65
3.00-3.00-3.00
3.00-3.00-3.00
2.50-3.00-2.75
3.00-3.25-3.11
2.50-3.50-2.99
1.25-5.00-2.74
3.50-3.50-3.50
2.25-4.00-3.07
3.42-3.50-3.48

i Not reported.




Sex
Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)

1883—Continued.
New York....... .
Ohio..................
Pennsylvania...
Virginia.............
1884:
California.............
Dist. of Columbia.
Illinois. ................
Iowa.....................
Louisiana.............
Maine. ................
Maryland.............
Massachusetts___
Michigan.............
Minnesota............
Missouri...............
New Jersey..........
New York............
Ohio....................
Pennsylvania____
Texas...................
Virginia................
1885:
California. ...........
Illinois..................
Kansas.................
Louisiana.............
Maryland.............
Massachusetts___
Minnesota............
Missouri ...............
New Jersey./.......
New York______
Ohio.....................
Pennsylvaia.........
Virginia................
1886:
California.............
Do..................
Connecticut_____
Dist. of ColumbiaGeorgia............
Illinois.............
Iowa.................
Kansas.............
Louisiana.........
Maryland_____
Massachusetts___
Minnesota............
Missouri.............
New Jersey.........
New York______
Ohio...................
Pennsylvania___
South Dakota___
Vermont.............
Virginia...............
1887:
California.............
Delaware_____
Illinois.............
Louisiana............
Maine. ...............
Maryland______
Massachusetts--.
Minnesota..........
Missouri.............
New York..........
Ohio....................
Pennsylvania___
Virginia...............
West Virginia.
Wisconsin-........

* And board.

53-60-60
59-60-60
59-60-60
60-60-60

2.75-3.75-2.92
2.50-3.50-2.86
3.25-3.75-3.30
3.00-3.00-3.00

48-60-54
48-48-48
48-57-48
60-60-60
60-60-60
58-58-58
59-59-59
54-59-55
(0
60-60-60
48-60-56
60-60-60
60-60-60
54-60-55
54-60-59
59-60-60
60-60-60

3.50-4.00-3.61
3.00-3.60-3.44
3.00-4.00-3.09
3.00-3.00-3.00
2.50-2.50-2.50
3.00-3.00-3.00
3.00-3.00-3.00
2.70-4.00-3.59
1.50-3.50-2.63
3.50-3.50-3.50
2.25-4.00-3.02
2. 75-3.50-2.88
3.75-3.75-3. 75
3.50-3.50-3.50
3.25-3.75-3.31
4.00-5.00-4.93
3.00-3.00-3.00

48-54-53
48-48-48
60-60-60
60-60-60
53-60-55
54-59-58
48-60-54
48-60-55
53-60-54
48-54-49
57-60-59
53-60-56
54-54-54

3.50-4.00-3.62
3.00-3.00-3.00
3.00-3.50-3.25
2.50-2.50-2.50
3.00-3.25-3.10
2.46-4.00-3.04
3.50-5.00-3.78
2.25-4.00-2.81
1.67-3.42-3.14
3.75-4.50-4.33
3.15-3.50-3.47
3.25-3.75-3.42
3.00-3.00-3.00

48-60-59 2.00-4.00-2.66
60-60-60 U.92-1.92-1.92
54-54-54 3. 25-3.25-3. 25
53-53-53 3.50-3.60-3.55
54-54-54 4.00-4.00-4.00
48-60-56 1. 50-3.50-3.22
66- 66-66 1.28-4.00-2.10
60-60-60 3.00-3.50-3.04
60-60-60 2. 50-2. 50-2.50
53-53-53 3.25-3.25-3.25
54-59-58 2.46-4.00-2.99
48-60-54 2.50-3.50-3.18
48-54-51 2.25-4.00-2.88
50-50-50 3.50-3.50-3.50
48-60-58 2.80-3.75-3.36
48-60-54 3.25-3.60-3.33
53-54-54 3.00-3.60-3.21
4.00-4.00-4.00
0
60-60-60 2.50-2.50-2.50
54-54-54 3.00-3.00-3.00
48-54-53 3.50-4.00-3.63
3.20-. 27£~. 26i
0)
48-48-48 3.50-3.50-3.50
48-60-49 3.50-4.25-3.60
60-60-60 2.50-2.50-2.50
60-60-60 2.00-2.75-2.54
53-53-53 1.35-3.25-2.91
54-59-57 1.35-4.00-2.95
60-60-60 3.50-3.50-3.50
48-54-51 2.25-4.00-3.00
54-54-54 2.50-3.75-3.05
53-60-57 1.25-4.69-3.46
53-54-53 2.00-3.65-2.90
54-54-54 3.00-3.00-3.00
2.75-3,00-2.90
2.50-3.50-3.00

8

8 Per hour.

213

B.— BUILDING TRADES
T able B-24,— Stonecutters, 1850-1900, by year and State— Continued
Lowest, highest, and
Year and State

1888:
California.......... .
Colorado.............
Illinois................
Kansas.............. .
Louisiana...........
Maine__.............
Maryland...........
Massachusetts. _.
Michigan______
Minnesota..........
Missouri—..........
New Jersey........
New York_____
North Carolina..
Ohio—................
Pennsylvania___
Rhode Island___
Virginia..............
1889:
California-..........
Illinois................
Kansas...............
Louisiana...........
Maryland... .......
Massachusetts...
Minnesota_____
Missouri.............
New York_____
Ohio...................
Pennsylvania___
Virginia..............
Wisconsin...........
1890:
California-..........
Illinois—.............
Kansas...............
Louisiana...........
Maryland...........
Massachusetts _..
Minnesota..........
Missouri............
New York_____
Ohio...................
Do................
Pennsylvania___
Virginia..............
1891:
California............
Illinois................
Louisiana............
Maryland...........
Massachusetts...
Minnesota.........
Missouri.............
New York..........
Ohio....................
Pennsylvania___
Virginia...............
Wisconsin...........
1892:
California............
Illinois................
Indiana...............
Louisiana............
Maryland...........
Massachusetts...
Michigan............
Minnesota..........
Missouri.............
Ohio...................
D o .............
Pennsylvania___
Rhode Island___
Vermont.............
Virginia..............


Sex

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Sex

Hours per Rate per da
week
(dollars)

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

48-64-53
60-60-60
48-48-48

3.50-4.00-3.68
3.00-4.17-3.59
3.50-3.60-3.50
3.33-3.60-3.53
(9
60-60-60 2. 50-2. 50-2.50
67-60-60 2.00-3.00-2.61
63-53-53 3.60-3.60-3.60
64-59-58 2.70-4.00-3.04
60-60-60 1.99-3.99-3.63
60-60-60 3.50-3. 50-3.50
48-54-51 2.25-4.00-3.13
(9 61-60-55 3.00-4. 50-3.43
M. 48-60-53 1.63-4.50-3.83
M. 60-72-65 1.50-3.00-2.20
M 53-53-53 4.05-4.05-4.05
M. 63-54-53 3.25-3.75-3.33
1.16-4.00-2.50
M,
(9
M. 64-54-54 3.00-3.00-3.00
M.
M.
M,
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

48-54-53
48-48-48

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

48-54-53
48-48-48

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

48-54-51 3.50-4.00-3.72
48-48-48 4.00-4.00-4.00
54-54-54 2.50-2.50-2.50
48-53-51 3.44-3.64-3. 56
48-54-52 2. 79-4. 00-3. 32
60-60-60 3.50-3.50-3.50
48-54-50 2. 25-4. 00-3.42
54-54-54 2.00-4.00-3.00
53-60-58 3.00-4.06-3.39
53-54-53 3.50-4.14-3.63
54-54-54 3.00-3.00-3.00
3.22- . 60- . 37
(9

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

48-54-51 3.00-5.00-3.78
48-48-48 4.50-4.50-150
60-60-60 1.95-3.60-2.13
54-54-54 2.50-2.50-2.60
48-48-48 3.44-3.44-3.44
48-60-54 2.16-3.52-2.93
48-60-54 . 50-5.00-3.39
60-60-60 3.25-3.50-3.38
48-60-55 2.25-4.00-3.51
53-53-53 4.05-4.05-4.05
48-60-55 1.25-5.00-3.52
53-54-53 3.50-4.14-3.57
48-60-54 1.53-4.00-2.72
60-60-60 2.15-2.16-2.15
54-54-54 3.00-3.00-3.00

(9

60-60-60
53-53-53
54-59-58
60-60-60
48-54-51
54-54-54
53-63-53
63-64-53
64-64-54

(9

(9

60-60-60
53-53-53
48-59-57
60-60-60
48-54-50
64-54-54
53-53-53
(9 54-60-59
M. 63-54-53
M. 54-54-54

ff.

M.
M.
M
-.:

3.50-4.00-3.69
3.50-3.50-3.50
3.25-3.60-3.50
2. 50-2. 50-2. 50
3.60-3.60-3.60
2. 70-4.00-3.12
3. 50-3. 50-3.50
2. 25-4.00-3.13
3.75-3.75-3.75
4.06-4.05-4.05
3.25-4.00-3.45
3.00-3.00-3.00
1.84-4.05-2.98
3.50-4.00-3.67
4.00-4.00-4.00
2.60-5.00-3.43
2. 50-2. 50-2.50
3. 60-3. 60-3. 60
2. 70-4.00-3. 28
2.25-4.00-3.73
2. 25-4.00-3.36
2.00-4.00-2.99
4.05-4.05-4.05
1. 50-3.60-2.21
3. 25-4.00-3.33
3.00-3.00-3.00

i Not reported.


Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)
1893:
California.............
Illinois..................
Louisiana.............
Maryland.............
Massachusetts___
Minnesota............
Missouri...............
Montana..............
New Hampshire _.
New York............
Ohio.....................
Pennsylvania.......
Rhode Island.......
Virginia................
Wisconsin.............
1894:
California.............
Dist. of Columbia.
Illinois..................
Iowa.....................
Louisiana.............
Maryland.............
Massachusetts___
Do..................
Minnesota............
Missouri...............
New Hampshire..
New York............
North Carolina__
Ohio.....................
Pennsylvania.......
Virginia................
1895:
California.............
Connecticut..........
Illinois..................
Louisiana.............
Maryland.............
Massachusetts___
Minnesota............
Missouri...............
North Carolina...
Ohio—..................
Pennsylvania____
Virginia................
Wisconsin.............
1896:
California.............
Illinois—...............
Kansas.................
Louisiana.............
Maryland...........
Massachusetts. __
Minnesota............
Missouri...............
Nebraska..............
New York............
Ohio.....................
Pennsylvania.......
Virginia................
1897:
California.............
Illinois..................
Kansas..................
Do..................
Louisiana.............
Maryland.............
Massachusetts___
Michigan..............
Minnesota............
Missouri...............
Nebraska............ .
New York............
Ohio.....................
Pennsylvania
Virginia................

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

3.50-4.00-3.61
1.50-4.50-3.79
2. 50-2.50-2.50
1.00-3.44-3.37
2.16-3.15-2. 76
3.25-3.50-3.40
2. 25-4.00-2.40
5.00-5.00-5.00
1.50-3.90-2.73
1.50-4.00-2.70
3.60-4.05-4.02
. 50-4.14-3.54
2.75-2.80-2.76
(9
54-54-54 3.00-3.00-3.00
3.15- .50-.33i
(9

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

48-54-52
48-48-48
48-48-48
60-60-60
54-54-54
48-48-48

48-54-53
44-60-49
54-54-54
48-60-49
48-54-53
60-60-60
48-60-48
42-54-52
53-60-54
48-72-56
53-54-53
53-60-54

3.50-4.00-3.66
3.60-3.60-3.60
4.00-4.00-4.00
2.50-4.00-3.25
2.50-3.00-2.63
3.44-3.44-3.44
3.00-3.00-3.00
(9
(9
M. 48-54-52 2.25-3.00-2.81
M. 60-60-60 3.25-3.50-3.40
M. 48-54-50 2.25-3.60-3.14
M. 53-54-53 2.00-3.00-2.93
3.00-3.00-3.00
(9
(9
48-48-48 3.00-4.00-3.33
S .- 48-48-48 1.67-3.60-3.21
M. 53-54-53 3. 50-4.00-3. 55
M. 54-54-54 3.00-3.00-3.00
48-54-52
60-60-60
48-48-48
54-54-54
48-48-48
48-60-54
60-60-60
48-54-49
60-60-60
48-60-52
63-54-53
64-54-54
(9 64-54-54
M. 48-54-52
M. 44-54-48
M. 48-48-48
M. 64-54-54
$1. 48-60-50
M. 48-60-54
M. 60-60-60
M. 48-60-51
M. 60-60-60
M. 48-48-48
M. 48-56-54
M. 50-54-51
M. 54-54-54
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

(9

M.
M.
M.
M.

8Per hour

48-54-52
48-48-48
48-60-57

(9

64-54-64
48-48-48
48-54-52

(9

60-60-60
48-64-51
48-48-48
48-60-49
48-48-48
54-54-54
54-60-55

3.50-4.00-3.63
3.00-3.00-3.00
4.00-4.00-4.00
3.00-3.00-3.00
3.44-3.44-3.44
1.80-3.00-2.60
3.25-3.50-3.40
2.25-3.60-3.30
3.00-3.50-3.10
2.50-3.60-3.35
3.50-4.00-3.57
3.00-3.00-3.00
1.50-3.50-2.50
3.50-4.00-3.68
1.00-4.63-3.75
2. 50-2.50-2.50
2.50-2.50-2.50
3. 24-3.51-3.38
2.00-4.40-2.70
3.25-3.50-3.40
1.75-3.60-2.94
2.00-3.00-2.50
3. 50-3.50-3.50
3.11-3.60-3.25
2.70-4.00-3.40
3.00-3.00-3.00
3.00-4.00-3.61
4.00-4.004.00
1.25-3.00-2.25
3.25- .25- .25
2.50-3.00-2.75
3.44-3.44-3.44
2.70-3.20-2.83
2.80-2.80-2.80
3.25-3.60-3.40
2.25-3.80-3.06
3.20-3.20-3.20
1.09-4.50-3.41
3.60-3.60-3.60
2.70-4.05-3.23
1.50-3.00-2.86

214

PART 2.— FROM 1840 TO 1928
T a b le

B-24.— Stonecutters, 1850-1900, by year and State— Continued
Lowest, highest, and
average—

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Sex

Year and State

Sex

Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)
1898:
California.............
Illinois..................
Louisiana.............
Maryland.............
Massachusetts___
Michigan..............
Minnesota............
Missouri...............
Nebraska..............
New York............
Ohio.....................
Pennsylvania____
Virginia................

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
(0
M.
M.
M.
M.

48-54-53
48-48-48
54-54-54
48-48-48
48-54-51
60-60-60
48-54-52
54-60-56
44-60-47
48-48-48
54-54-54
54-54-54

3.00-4.00-3.52
4.50-4.50-4.50
2.50-3.00-2.75
3.44-3.44-3.44
2.70-3.20-2.95
1.50-2.50-1.95
3. 25-3.50-3.40
2. 25-3.20-2.57
. 75-4.00-2.66
2.00-4.53-3.45
3.00-3.00-3.00
3.06-4.05-3.25
2.50-3.00-2.67

Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)
1899:
Alabama...............
California.............
Montana..............
New York............
Pennsylvania.......
1900:
Alabama...............
California.............
Georgia.................
Montana—...........
New York............
Pennsylvania____

M.
M.
M.
M.
(*)

54-54-54
48-48-48
48-48-48
44-48-47
50-50-50

3.15-3.15-3.15
2.75-2.75-2.75
5.33-5.33-5.33
3.00-4.50-3.51
3.50-3.50 3.50

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
(0

54-54-54
48-48-48
60-60-60
48-48-48
44-48-46
50-50-50

3.60-3.60-3.60
3.60-3.60-3.60
3.00-3.60-3.30
6.00-6.00-6.00
3.00-4.50-3.62
3.50-3.50-3.50

1 Not reported.
T a b l e B -25.— Stonecutters, so/i stone, males, 1890-1906,

6 / geographic division
1

and year
North Atlantic
Year

1890...........................
1891.......................—
1892................ ...........
1893...........................
1894-........................
1895_______________
1896-.........-...............
1897_______________
1898— .....................
1899....... — ..............
1900.........-.................
1901...........................
1902............................
1903_______________
1904.....................—
1905...........................
1900...........................




South Atlantic

North Central

South Central

Hours
Rate
Hours
Rate
Hours
Hours
Rate
Rate
per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour
51.1
48.9
48.7
48.3
48. 3
47.9
47.4
47.0
46.5
46.6
46.5
45.8
45.8
45.1
45.2
45.5
45.2

$0,418
.440
.440
.440
.432
.423
.439
.442
.451
.457
.466
.475
.503
.558
.541
. 523
.522

53.6
51.2
48.3
48.3
48.4
48.4
48.4
48.4
48.4
48.7
48.6
48.7
48.0
48.0
48.2
48.3
48.2

$0.403
.415
.425
.425
.423
.424
.424
.423
.427
. 4j25
.426
.425
.431
.456
.449
.474
.484

50.2
50.2
49.9
51.0
50.2
50.3
50.8
49.0
48.5
48.8
49.4
48.5
48.6
47.0
47.2
46.8
46.3

$0,418
.425
.434
.413
.408
.401
.392
.417
.432
.416
.408
.419
.450
.486
.495
.498
.514

55.0
55.3
55.2
55.3
55.4
55.6
54.8
54.4
54.5
54.5
54.4
53.9
53.0
47.3
46.1
46.2
46.3

$0,360
.348
.361
.358
.341
.329
.329
.318
.315
.319
.324
.360
.344
.465
.472
. 489
.495

215

B .— BUILDING TRADES

T a b l e B -2 6.— Stonecutters, soft stone, males, 1907—
1928, by city and year
Atlanta, Qa.
Year

Birmingham, Ala

Boston, Mass.*

Chicago, HI.

Hours
Hours
Hours
Bate
Bate
Rate
Hours
Bate
per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour

1907............................
1908............................
1909............................
1910...........................
1911...........................
1912...........................
1913..................... .
1914...........................
1915............................
1916_..........................
1917...........................
1918...........................
1919...........................
1920...........................
1921..................... . . . .
1922..................... .
1923............. ..............
1924............................
1925...........................
1926..... ......................
1927...........................
1928......................... .

48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0,500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.625
.750
1.000
1.000
.900
1.000
1.000
1.125

Cincinnati, Ohio
44.5
44.5
44.5
44.5
44.5
44.5
44.5
44.0
44.5
44.5
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

1907...........................
1908...........................
1909........ ..................
1910...........................
1911....... ....................
1912............................
1 9 1 3.........................
1914...........................
1915...........................
1916............................
1917...........................
1 9 1 8.........................
1919............................
1920................ ..........
1921............................
1922.......... ........ .......
1923__________ ____
1924........................
1925........................
1926...........................
1927.........................
1028........................ .

$0,563
.503
.563
.563
.563
.563
.563
.600
.625
.650
.700
.775
1.150
1.250
1.250
1.250
1.250
1.250
1. 325
1.500
1.500

44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44,0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0,450
.450
.450
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.625
.625
.900

44.0
44.0
44.0

1.000
1.000
1.000

Denver, Colo.
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0,625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.750
.875
1.000
1.125
1.000
1.125
1.125
1.250
1.250
1. 250
1. 250

New York, N. Y.8 Philadelphia, Pa.4
1907...........................
1908...........................
1909........................
1910........... .......... .
1911..................... ......
1912........................ .
1913_____ _______
1914...........................
1915....... ....................
1916............................
1917...........................
1918..................... .
1919............................
1920...........................
1921............................
1923...........................
1924...........................
1925..........................
1926..........................
1927....... ....................
1928............. ........ .

44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0.625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.684
.688
.688
.688
.688
.688
.844
1,125
1.125
1.125
1.250
1.313
1.375
1.500
1.500
1.500

44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0,500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.530
.563
.563
.650
.650
.825
1.100
1.200
1.000
1.125
1.250
1.250

44.0
44.0

1.313
1.313

48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0,500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.563
.563
.563
.563
.625
.700
.700
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.125
1.100
1.100
1.250
1.250
1.250

44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

Detroit , Mich.2
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
50.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

New Orleans, La.

$0,500
.500
.500
.563
.563
.563
.625
.625
.625
.650
.700
.800
1.000
1.250
1.125
1.125
1.250
1.250
1.220
1. 375
1.375
1.375

St. Louis, Mo.*

44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
440
44.0
44.0
44 0

$1,000
1.250
1.250
1.250
1.250
1.250
1.250
1.250
1.250

San Francisco, Calif.

$0. 563
.563
.563
.563
.563
.563
.563
.625
.625
.625
.625
.700
.850
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.125
1.250
1.250
1.250
1.250
1.250

1 Inside men only, J912-J920 and 1923-1928, inclusive.
2 Not classified, 1909-1914 and 1922-1924; outside men only, 1915-1921 and 1925-1928.
8 First class only.
* Inside men only, 1914-1916 and 1919-1921.
4 Inside men only, 1921-1922.




$0,625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.700
.700
.700
.813
1.250
1.250
1.025
1.025
1.250
1.375
1.500
1.500
1.500

44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
440
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0,625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.700
.700
.700
.700
.700
.700
1.000
1.000
1.125
1.000

44.0
44.0
440
44.0

1.125
1.125
1.125
1.125

216

PART 2.— rFROM 1840 TO 1928

T a b l e B -£ 7.— Granite cutters, males, 1890-1906, fey geographic division and year
North Atlantic
Year

South Atlantic

North Central

Western

Hours
Rate
Hours
Rate
Hours
Rate
Hours
Rate
per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour

1890...........................
1891...........................
1892...........................
1893...........................
1894...........................
1895............................
1896...........................
1897...........................
1898...........................
1899...........................
1900...........................
1901.— .....................
1902— .......................
1903...........................
1904— ...................
1905..... ......................
1906...........................

54.5
54.2
53.9
53.9
52.9
53.4
53.4
53.4
53.5
52.0
50.1
49.6
49.5
48.5
47.9
47.5
47.6

$0.330
.337
.339
.344
.346
.341
.337
.333
.325
.328
.356
.363
.370
.389
.383
.411
.413

50.1
51.6
51.0
50.4
53.2
50.6
50.6
52.1
53.1
50.4
52.4
53.4
50.0
50.1
48.2
48.4
48.3

$0,366
.367
.379
.376
.340
.386
.386
.364
.350
.396
.363
.353
.376
.361
.396
.397
.394

54.6
52.9
53.1
53.3
53.2
52.7
52.6
52.9
52.2
52.3
52.1
51.1
51.1
52.1
53.4
52.7
52.8

$0,340
.352
.351
.341
.344
.342
.348
.341
.352
.362
.354
.367
.381
.355
.338
.344
.372

48.9
49.0
49.6
51.1
51.0
50.6
51.4
51.0
50.0
50.3
48.3
48.1
47.9
47.1
47.6
47.3
47.6

T a b l e B -28.— Granite cutters, inside, males, 1907-1928,
Atlanta, Ga.1
Year

Boston, Mass.2

Chicago, 111.3

$0,487
.486
.480
.457
.455
.455
.447
.464
.474
.471
.496
.500
.503
.503
.552
.549
.566

and year
Cincinnati, Ohio*

Hours
Rate
Hours
Rate
Hours
Rate
Hours
Rate
per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour

1907..... ......................
1908.......... ................
1909...........................
1910...........................
1911...........................

48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
45.0
45.0
45.0
45.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0,375
.375
.375
.400
.400
.413
.413
.413
.413
.500
.500
.600
.700
.750
1.000
1.000
1.000

1913...........................
191 4 .........................
1915__________ ____
1916.— .....................
1917..........................
19 18....................... .
1919..... ......................
1920............................
1921............................
1922............................
1923...........................
1924............................
1925...........................
1926...........................
!
1927...........................
1928........................... ........ ......1
...............
Denver, Colo.5
1907............................
1908............................
1909............................
1910............................
1911............................
1912............................
1913............................
1914............................
1915...........................
1916............. .............
1917............................
1918............................
1919............................
1920...........................
1921..........................
1922...........................
1924............................
1925............................
1926............................
1927............................
1928............................

44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0,500
.500
.570
.570
.570
.571
.570
.570
.570
.570
.570
.688
.850
1.000
1.063
1.063
1.063
1.063
1.063
1.125
1.125
1.125

44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0.444
.444
.456
.456
.456
.500
.500
.600
.750
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.100
1.125
1.125

Detroit, Mich.
48.0
48.0
48.0
44.0
44.0
44.5
44.5
44.5
44.5
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0.375
.375
.375
.406
.406
.438
.450
.450
.450
.500
.513
.625
.750
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.125
1.125

48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44,0
44.0
44.0
<44. 0
* 44.0
4 44.0

$0,375
.406
.406
.406
.406
.563
.625
.500
45.0
$0,500
.500
44.0
.500
.531
44.0
.500
.563
44.0
.500
.663
44.0
.625
.763
44.0
.750
.863
44.0
1.000
1.125
44.0
1.000
1.125
40.0
1.000
1.125
44.0
1.000
1.125
1.125
44.0
1.500
44.0
1.125
1.250
44.0
1.125
1.375
44.0
1.125
1.500
44.0
1.125
New Orleans, La.6 New York, N. Y.7
54.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
45.0
45.0
45.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
. 44.0

$0,333
.333
.400
.400
.400
.400
.450
.450
.450
.500
.500
.500
.750
.800
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.125
1.125

1 Not classified, 1916-1923, inclusive.
2 Not classified, 1919-1928, inclusive.
3 Includes machine men, 1914-1921; not classified, 1922-1924; building work, 1926-1928.
* 40 hours per week, November to March, inclusive.
5 Not classified, but includes outside men, 1907-1912.
6 Not classified, 1907-1911, inclusive.

* Not classified, 1919-1928.



44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0,438
.438
.438
.438
.438
.500
.600
.500
.500
.500
.500
.688
.790
1.000
1.125
1.125
1.125
1.125
1.125
1.375
1.375
1.375

217

B.— BUILDING TRADES
T a b le

B -2 8.— Granite cutters, inside, males, 1907-1928, by city and year— C o n t d .
Philadelphia, Pa.8

San Francisco,
Calif.®

St. Louis, Mo.

Year
Hours
Bate
Hours
Rate
Hours
Rate
per week per hour per week per hour* per week per hour
1907.............................................................
1908....................................................... —
1909....................................................... .
1910.................................................... .......
1911.............................. .......... ..................
1912.............................................................
1913.............................................................
1914..................................... .......... ............
1915........................... ..................... ...........
1916....................................... ...................
1917.................................... .......................
1918........................... .................. ..............
1919........................ ....... ...........................
1920............................ ............................. .
1921............................................................
1922.................................................. .........
1923............................................................
1924................................ ...........................
1925............................................................
1926............................................................
1927.............................................................
1928.........................................................

44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0,478
.478
.478
.478
.500
.500
.500
.563
.563
.563
.563
.700
.800
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.125
1.125
1.125
1.188
1.125
1.250

44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0,500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.600
.750
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.125
1.125
1.250
1.250
1.250

48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0,563
.563
.625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.663
.675
.700
.875
1.000
1.125
1.125
1.125
1.125
1.125
1.188
1.188
1.188

8 Not classified, but includes outside men, 1907-1913; includes outside men and machine men, 1916-1928.
9 Not classified, 1925-1927, inclusive.
T a b l e B -2 9 .— Tile layers, 1886-1899, by year and State
Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Sex

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Sex

Hours per Rate per day
(dollars)
week
1886:
Illinois..................
1888:
New York............
1890:
Minnesota............
1892:
California.............
Michigan.............

M. 54-60-60

1.75-3.50-3.36

M. 53-59-54

3.004.00-3.88

M.

2.50-2.75-2.54

0)

M. 48-48-48
M.
0

1 Not reported.




3.00-5.50-4.17
2.65-2.65-2. 65

Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)
1893:
Illinois..................
1894:
Ohio.....................
1895:
Ohio...................
1896:
Ohio................... .
1899:
New York....... .

M. 48-48-48

4.00-4.00-4.00

M. 60-60-60

2.50-2.50-2.50

M. 54-54-54

4.50-4.50-4.50

M. 54-54-54

2.50-2.50-2.50

44-44-44

4. 50-4. 50-4. 50

0)

218

PART 2.— FROM 1840 TO 1928
T

able

B -30.— Tile layers, males, 1912-1928, by city and year
Atlanta, Ga.

Year

1912...........................
1913...........................
1914-..........................
1915............................
1916............................
1917...........................
1918...........................
1919...........................
1920...........................
1921...........................
1922...........................
1923...........................
1924________ - .........
1925.......... .... ............
1926...........................
1927............. .............
1928...........................

44.0
$1.125
44.0
1.000
44.0
1.000
44.0
1.125
1.250
44.0
/ 1.125 |
44.0 \
1.250
44.0
1.400
44.0
1.400
44.0
1.400

45.5
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0.625
.625
.625
.688
.688
.688
.688
.719
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.125
1.250
1.250
1.313
1. 500
1.500

New York, N. Y.

1913............................
1914............................
1915...........................
1916............................
1917-....... ..........
1918......... ................
1919............. .............
1920.......... ......... .......
1921...........................
1922............................
1923...........................
1924.......... ....... .........
1925.........................
1926...........................
1927............................
1928............................




Boston,, Mass.

Chicago, 111.

Rate
Hours
Rate
Hours
Rate
Hours
Rate
Hours
per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour

Cincinnati, Oliio
1912........................
1913...........................
1914...........................
1915........ .......... .......
1916........ — ...........—
1917_____ _________
1918___ ___________
1919............... ............
1920...........................
1921...........................
1922.......................—
1923.................. .........
1924...........................
1925__________ ____
1926_______ _______
1927___ ______ . . . . .
1928...........................

Birmingham, Ala.

44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0.625
.688
.688
.688
.688
.750
.750
.813
1.125
1.125
1.125
1.125
1.313
1.313
1.500
1.500
1.500

44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$1.250
1.250
1.375
1.500
1.500
1.500

Denvei Colo.
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0,625
.625
.625
.625
.625
.700
.700
.875
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.125
1.125
1.250
1.250
1.250
1.375

Philadelphia, Pa.
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0.625
.625
.625
.625
.650
.675
.700
.800
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.250
1.500
1.500
1.500
1.500
1.500

44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
40.0
40.040.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0,625
.688
.688
.688
.688
.750
.750
.800
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.125
1.250
1.250
1.250
1.400
1.400

Detroit, Mich.

48.0
48.0
48.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44. 0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0.500
.500
.600
.600
.688
.688
.719
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.125
1.125
1.375
1.500
1.500
1.500

St. Louis, Mo.
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0,625
.625
.688
.688
.688
.688
.750
.850
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.250
1.500
1.500
1.500
1.500
1.500

44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0.750
.750
.750
.750
.750
.750
• 750
.875
1.250
1.250
1.025
1.154
1.300
1.300
1.300
1.625
1.625

New Orleans, La.

44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$1,000
1.000
1.000
1.125
1.125
1.125
1.250
1.250
1.250

San Francisco, Calif.
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0,750
.750
.750
.750
.750
.750
.813
1.000
1.125
1.125
1.000
1.125
1.250
1.250
1.250
1.250
1.250

C.— CLOTHING INDUSTRY

The sources from which this wage data were secured are the fifteenth
and the nineteenth annual reports of the Commissioner of Labor
Statistics and bulletins of the Bureau of Labor Statistics Nos. 59,
65, 71, 77, 135, 161, 187, 265, 329, 387, 435, and 503.
The wage data shown here for dressmakers is very incomplete, no
information of this character being available for any period after the
year 1898.
The details for sewing-machine operators in men’s clothing are
shown by States from 1865 to 1900, Table C-2; by geographic divi­
sions from 1890 to 1907, Tables C-3 and C -4; and by cities, Tables
C-5 and C-6, for the various specified periods from 1911 to 1928,
inclusive, whenever reports on men’s clothing were published.
The wage data presented here includes employees working on all
grades from a cheap suit up to a garment of very high class.
In the early history of the clothing industry it required years of
experience to become an all-round expert workman. The presentd&y employee is a specialist who performs a particular operation or a
limited number of operations. By this constant repetition of the
same operation an inexperienced employee soon acquires both skill
and speed. When an employee has learned a particular occupation
he seldom ever changes to another.
There are two distinct types of clothing manufacturers—one who
buys, cuts, and manufactures the materials into finished garments
and sells the product; the other is a contractor who cuts and manu­
factures the garments for a specified piece price per garment. These
contractors usually provide their own help, machinery, and work­
rooms.
T

able

C - l.— Dressmakers, 1851-1898, by year and State

Lowest, highest, and
average—

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Year and State

Sex

Sex
Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)

Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)
1851:
New York............
1871:
Massachusetts___
New York............
1872:
New York............
1873:
Pennsylvania.......
1874:
Illinois..................
Pennsylvania.......
1875:
Ohio.....................
1876:
Illinois..................
New York............
Pennsylvania.......
Texas...................
1877:
Illinois..................
New Jersey..........

F.

0)

F. 60-60-60
F.
(9

1.33-1.33-1.33
1.00-2.00-1.35
.33- .33- .33

F.

(9

F.

22.00-2.00-2.00

<9

.8 3 - .8 3 - .8 3

F.
F.

(9
(9

1.00-1.00-1.00
1.17-1.17-1.17

F.

<9

.8 3 - .8 3 - .8 3

F.
F.
F.
F.

(9
(9
(9
<9

1.00-1.08-1.04
.25- .2 5 - .2 5
.67-1.17-. 92
1.33-1.33-1.33

F.
F.

(9
<9

. 25- .25- .25
1.50-1.50-1.50

* Not reported.


61298°— 29------ 15


1879:
Illinois...............
0.33-1.00-0.67
Indiana.............
1.00-L 00-1.00
Massachusetts..
. 83- . 83- . 83
New Jersey.......
1.00-1.00-1.00
New York............! F.
. 33- . 83- . 58
Pennsylvania___ F.
.67-1.25- .96
1880:
Illinois.......... .......; F.
1.00-1.00-1.00
New York.......... ! F.
.67- .67- .67
Pennsylvania.......1 F.
1.50-1.50-1.50
Rhode Island____ F.
1.00-1.00-1.00
1881:
i
Illinois.................
. 50- . 83- . 67
Massachusetts___
1.00-1.00-1.00
1882:
.67- .90- .82
Illinois..................
57-57-57
Missouri...............
. 42- . 42- . 42
<9
60-60-60 1.50-1.50-1.50
Do..................
.67-1.00-. 99
New Jersey..........
New York............
. 50- . 83- . 67
1.00-1.00-1.00
Pennsylvania___
D o................ .
*.75-.75-.75
* And board.

219

220

PAJR 2.— FROM 1840 TO 1928
T
T a b le

C —1 . —

Dressmakers, 1851-1898,

y e a r anc? $tfa£e— C o n t i n u e d

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Sex

Lowest, highest, and
Year and State

Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)

California.........
Illinois.............
D o..............
Indiana........... .
Kentucky........
Michigan.........
Missouri..........
New Jersey___
New York.......
Pennsylvania..
Wisconsin............
1884:
California_____
Georgia............
Illinois.............
Massachusetts.
Michigan.........
Minnesota.......
Missouri..........
New Jersey___
New York.......
Pennsylvania. .
1885:
California.........
Georgia............
Illinois.............
Do.............
Indiana............
Massachusetts___
Missouri.............
New Jersey.........
New York...........
Ohio...................
Pennsylvania___
Wisconsin...........
1886:
California............
Illinois................
Indiana...............
Iowa....................
Maryland...........
Minnesota_____
Do................
Missouri.............
New Jersey.........
Do................
New York. _ ___
Ohio...................
Pennsylvania___
Rhode Island___
Wisconsin...........
1887:
California............
Illinois................
Indiana...............
Kentucky...........
Louisiana............
Massachusetts.
Minnesota..........
Montana.............
New York_____
Do................

1.00-1.00-1.00
. 50-1.00- . 78
21.00-1.00-1.00
.92- .92- .92
. 54-1.00- . 77
. 35-2.00- . 87
.42- .42- .42
.67- .92- .81
. 50-3.33-1.44
.83- .83- .83
.50- .50- .50
1.00-2.50-1.31
. 50- . 50- . 50
.67-1.17- .94
1.17-1.17-1.17
.17-3.00- .91
.33-.33- .33
. 58- . 58- . 58
.33-1.33-. 88
.58-1.67-1.00
.25-1.25- .91
.50- .83- .67
1.00-1.25-1.10
1.17-1.17-1.17
. 83- . 83- . 83
. 58- . 58- . 58
. 50-1.33- . 92
. 75- . 75- . 75
. 67-2.83- . 99
. 50-7.50-1.48
.33- .83- .58
.67-1.33- .96
.50- .50- .50
0
54-54-54
0

66- 66-66

54-65-59

8
42-72-57

51-57-54
72-72-72
51-66-57
(0
53-56-55
54-58-55
0

54-60-56
50-72-54
54-65-58
54-60-59
53-57-54
0
57-57-57
51-66-58
54-54-54

i Not reported.




.67- .75- .71
. 58-4.17-1.50
.83-1.00- .92
1.07-1.07-1.07
. 25-2.00- . 81
.42- .42- .42
1.00-1.00-1.00
.22-2.50- .93
. 18-1.00- . 72
1.25-1. 25-1.25
.67-2.50-1.42
.25-1.00- .61
.50-1.25- .91
.67-1.67-1.01
.67-1.00- .84
.42-2.00-1.02
.33-3.00-1.27
.50- .67- .59
. 084-2.00- . 94
.25-1.42- .86
. 52-1.67-1.15
.42- .42- .42
2.00-2.00-2.00
.17-3.00- .94
2 83—. 83—. 83
.

Sex
Hours per Rate per day
(dollars)
week

1887—Continued.
Ohio______ ____
Pennsylvania___
1888:
California-..........
Colorado.............
Georgia...............
Indiana..............
Iowa..................
M aine..............
New Jersey.........
New York_____
South Carolina...
1889:
Rhode Island___
1890:
New York......... .
1891:
Michigan______
New York_____
North Carolina..
1892:
California.......... .
Illinois...............
Iow a.................
Maine...............
Do...............
Do...............
1893:
Illinois...............
Do...............
Maryland-----D o ..........
Montana______
New Jersey____
New York_____
D o „ ............
Pennsylvania__
Do...............
1894:
Indiana.............
Iow a.................
Kansas..............
New York........
O hio.................
Pennsylvania__
1895:
Louisiana..........
Do...............
Maine...............
New York_____
Ohio..................
1896:
Colorado............
Florida..............
Georgia. ...........
Illinois...............
Massachusetts. _
Pennsylvania__
Michigan..
Nebraska..

2 And board.

53-72-60
50-53-52

0.3&-4.00-0.77
.83-1.00- .89

54-60-54
54-90-58
54-66-59
54-63-57
81-81-81
60-96-69
60-60-60
0
36-48-39

.42-2.00- .95
. 33-2.67-1.21
.83-2.00- .91
.29-1.33- .84
. 38-1.50- . 98
1.00-1.25-1.06
1.25-1.25-1.25
1.17-1.67-1.63
.50-1.67- .84

0)
42-72-55

. 92- . 92- . 92
.50-2.00-1.07

0

s.83-1.67-1.34

0
0
60-60-60

2.18-1.39- .66
2.83-2.00-1.47
.75- .75- .75

54-72-56
48-54-50
54-84-62
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60

.50-2.75-1.22
. 58-6.67-1.97
. 50-1.75- . 78
. 33-2.50- . 87
3.42- .42- .42
2.42- .42- .42

36-90-58
70-70-70
60-72-66
46-84-62
42-51-48
58-58-58

. 33-3. 33-1.21
2.83- 83- .83
1.00-1. 00-1.00
. 17-2. 00- .87
. 17-5. 75-1.66
.42-2. 50-1.07
1.67-1. 67-1.67
.33-2. 50-1.16
.50-4. 17-2.13
.33-2. 00-1.04

68- 68-68

36-72-57
50-60-57
36-72-59
55-58-57
60-72-62
61-61-61
48-84-58

.25-2.00- .98
. 50-1.67-1.18
1.1S-1.18-1.18
1.50-1.50-1.50
.58-1.33- .96
. 67-1. 50-1.06

60-60-60
60-60-60
57-57-57
54-54-54
60-60-60

5.83-5.83-5.83
.33-4.17-1.30
.38-1.50-1.02
.67-2.67-1.45
.53-1.34- .72

54-54-54
0
54-57-56
54-54-54
(0
56-59-58

1.35-2.00-1.68
1.33-1.33-1.33
.83-1.67-1.10
. 25-4.17-1.34
1.17-1.17-1.17
.67-1.50- .94

0
60-60-60

. 74-1.50- .93
.75-2.00-1.17

8

3And dinner.

221

C.— CLOTHING INDUSTRY
T

able

C -2.— Sewing-machine operators, 1865-1900, by year and State
Lowest, highest, and
average—

Year and State

Lowest, highest, and
Year and State

Sex
Hours per Bate per day
week
(dollars)

1865:
New York1870:
New York1871:
1872:
Massachusetts_
_
1873:
Connecticut_____
1874:
Connecticut_____
1875:
New York___ ___
1877:
Maine_______
1880:
Georgia--------Maryland........... .
Massachusetts_
_
New York.......... .
Do................
Pennsylvania---Do................
South Carolina—
1881:
Connecticut........
Missouri.............
New HampshirePennsylvania---1882:
Missouri.............
New HampshireDo................
New Jersey.........
North Carolina-_
Do................
Pennsylvania___
South Carolina...
Virginia............. 1883:
Massachusetts_
_
New Jersey......... .
Do............. ...
North Carolina—.
1884:
Georgia________
Missouri............. .
New Jersey..........
Do................
Pennsylvania___
Rhode Island___
South Carolina__
Virginia................
1885:
Alabama_______
California_______
Connecticut_____
Do................ .
Illinois..................
Do................ .
Iowa................... .
Louisiana.............
Maine..................
Do................
Maryland-..........
Do................
Massachusetts_
_
Michigan............
Minnesota______
New Jersey.........
New York______
Do—. . . . . . . . .
Ohio....................
Pennsylvania___
Wisconsin... .......

51-51-51

1.17-1.75-1.40

52-54-52

.75-1.50-1.04

48-60-60

.75-2.33-1.31

60-60-60

1.00-2.50-1.28

60-60-60

.58-1.33-1.04

0

.75-1.00- .76

54-72-70

1.09-1.42-L30

66- 66-66

.88- .90- .89

T
60-60-60
60-60-60
54-60-55
60-60-60
57-57-57
60-60-60

.75- .75- .75
.75-1.21- .92
.67- .92- .79
2.88-3.20-3.04
. 85-2.61-1.24
1.50-2.00-1.75
.83-1.00- .92
.58-1.00- .81

60-60-60
54-54-54
65-65-65
0

1.41-1.41-1.41
.73-1.41-1.15
1.10-1.10-1.10
1.17-1.17-1.17

59-59-59

54-54-54

.64-1.53-1.13
.70-L15- .99
. 75-1.50- . 98
1.25-1.50-1.42
.42- .42- .42
.50- .50- .50
.67-1.00- .82
1.00-1.00-1.00
1.00-1.33-1.16

0
60-60-60
60-72-60
60-60-60

. 83-3.33-1.68
1.50-2.00-1.83
. 67-1.33-1.01
.50- .83- .68

0
60-60-60
60-60-60
59-60-60
48-60-54
60-60-60

.75- .75- .75
.66-1.08- .86
1.00-1.00-1.00
. 50-2.50- . 97
.83-1.17-1.01
1.00-1.17-1.09
.75- .75- .75
.6 7 - .8 3 - .7 5

66- 66-66
66- 66-66

8

72-72-72
52-59-55

55-55-55

.83- .95- .88
1.00-1.00-1.00
.85-1.00-.93
.60-1.17- .91
2.00-4.17-2.68
. 83-2.36-1.19
.35-1.45- .72
. 63-L 35-1.00
1.19-1.19-1.19
.80-1.00-. 95
1.25-3.33-2.15
.33-2.08- .78
.33-1.83-1.09
.31-1.15- .73
. 60-1.^50- .89
40-59-50 . 58-1.67-1.06
51-60-54 1.21-3.20-1.86
51-72-57 .3a-2.23-l.10
60-60-60 1.15-1.15-1.15
60-60-60 .41-. 41- .41
60-60-60 .53-1.05- .82

60-60-60
60-69-61
54-54r-54
54-60-55
53-63-61
0
66- 66-66
66- 66-66
54-60-58
54-60-59
60-60-60
60-60-60


* Not reported.


Hours per Bate per day
week
(dollars)
California.......... .
Connecticut____
Illinois............... .
Do................
Iowa...................
Maryland...........
Massachusetts...
Michigan.......... .
Missouri—..........
Montana______
New Jersey....... .
New York..........
D o „ .............
Pennsylvania_
_
Do................
D o - .............
Bhode Island_
_
1887:
California...........
Connecticut____
Illinois................
Iowa.................. .
Kentucky_____
Louisiana.......... .
Maryland...........
Massachusetts-..
Minnesota..........
Montana______
New York..........
Ohio............. .....
Pennsylvania_
_
Wisconsin_____
1888:
California.......... .
Georgia............. .
Indiana............. .
Maine............... .
New Jersey....... .
New York..........
D o „ .............
Do................
South Carolina—
.
Do................
Do................
Virginia............. .
1889:
Maine................
Massachusetts___
New Hampshire-.
Do.............
Bhode Island..
1890:
New York.......
Do.............
Tennessee_____
1891:
Michigan.........
New York.......
Do.............
Ohio.................
1892:
California_____
Illinois.............
Maine______ _
1893:
Missouri..........
New Jersey___
New York____
Do_______
Ohio................
Do.______
1894:
Massachusetts___
New York____
Ohio.................
D o „ ..........

1.25-1.25-1.25
.85-1.00- .93
1.67-2.33-2.00
1.00-1.67-1.19
.41-1.83-1.01
.17-2.04- .85
.62- .89- .89
.43-1.44- .91
.25-2.00- .80
.67- .67- .67
.33-1.67-1.00
1.50-2.33-1.88
. 50-1.49-1.00
1.25-1.25-1.25
.21-2.50- .99
.20-2.43-1.08
.50-1.42- .89
. 50-1.63-1.11
1.42-1.42-1.42
.50-1.67-1.07
1.00-1.08-1.06
.25-1.33- .76
.42-1.17- .75
„50- . 50- . 50
.46-2.33-1.09
.50-2.17-1.30
.58- .58- .58
. 25-3.00-1.15
. 18-1.67- . 77
.15-2.00- .96
.8 3 - .8 3 - .8 3
. 50-1.17-1.00
.42- .60- .49
.29- .73- .54
1.42-1.42-1.42
.40-1.50- .98
. 50-2.67-1.27
. 83-1.67-1.23
.83-2.00-1.39
.50- .83- .70
. 75- . 75- . 75
. 70- . 70- . 70
.31- .75- .53

57H

1.25-1.25-1.25
.90- .95- .93
.80- .80- .80
1.35-1.35-1.35
.50- .70- .60
.17-4.17-1.26
.42-2.50-1.01
.65- .65- .65

51-51-51

.65-1.08- .84
. 17-4.17-1.19
. 42-2.50-1.01
1.00-L 00-L 00
.58-1.50-1.06
.31-2.23- .99
.50-1.50-.86
2.83-3.33-3.13
.42-1.83-.90
1.67-1.67-1.67
.50-1.50- .82
1.50-3.50-1.85
.75-1.42-1.16
L 17-1.25-1.23
.67-1.25- .89
1.50-2.00-1.77
.60-1.50- .96

222
T a b le

PART 2.— FROM 1840 TO 1928
C -2. — Sewing-machine operators, 1865-1900, by year and State— Continued
Lowest, highest, and
average—

Year and State

i!

Sex

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Sex

Hours per Rate per day
(dollars)
week
1895:
Connecticut___
Georgia....... -—
Do________
Illinois____ ___
Do...............
Iowa._...............
Louisiana..........
Maryland..........
Do...............
Massachusetts—
Do...............
Missouri............
New Hampshire
Do...............
New Jersey.......
Do...............
New York.........
Do...............
North Carolina. __
Do................ .
Ohio................... .
Do................ .
Pennsylvania___
Rhode Island___
South Carolina....
Virginia................
1896:
Alabama............. .
Connecticut_____
Georgia.......
Do........
Illinois.........
Do........
Iowa............
Maryland__
Michigan__

F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
F.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
F.
M.
M.
F.
F.
F.
F.
F.

59-60-59 0.62-1.51-1.09
.75- .75- .75
66-66-66
66-66-66 .75- .75- .75
54-54-54 1.33-4.08-2.45
51-54-54 .75-1.50-1.04
54-54-54 .20-1.43- .74
60-60-60 .50-1.50- .95
54-57-56 L 17-3.33-2.06
48-60-56 .46-2.13-1.06
58-60-60 1.00-1.34-1.24
54-60-58 .38-3.00-1.11
54-60-57 . 66-1* 62-1.05
60-60-60 1.15-1.25-1.18
60-60-60 .80-1.26-1.03
55-55-55 .93-2.00-1.62
48-60-55 .33-2.50-1.01
51-60-53 .67-3.83-2.46
49-60-55
.23-2.85-1.22
60-60-60 .50-1.00- .68
66-70-68
.75- .90- .83
54-60-57 1.60-3.50-1.84
45-60-56 .73-1.25- .97
60-60-60 1.67-1.67-1.67
60-60-60 1.00-1.17-1.09
‘60-66-61 .58-1.00- .80
54-55-55 .67-1.25- .77

F.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
F.
F.
F.

63-63-63
60-60-60
66-66-66
63-63-63
57-57-57
48-60-53
48-60-51
54-60-59
54-60-58

.7 0 - .7 0 - .7 0
.80-2.00-1.10
1.00-1.00-1.00
.75-1.00- .85
1.67-2.00-1.75
.83-2.31-1.39
.23-2.42- .91
.42-2.25- .88
.35-1.69- .92

Hours per Rate par day
week
(dollars)
1896—Continued.
Minnesota______
Missouri..............
Do..................
Nebraska..............
New Jersey..........
Do..................
New York............
Do..................
North Carolina__
Do..................
Ohio.....................
Do..................
Pennsylvania.......
Do..................
Rhode Island.......
Do..................
South Carolina_
_
1897:
Massachusetts___
Nebraska..............
New Jersey______
Do..................
New Y ork...........
Do..................
Virginia__-...........
1898:
New Jersey______
Do___ ______
New York______
1899:
Georgia.................
North Carolina__
1900:
Georgia.................
North Carolina. _.

F.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.

60-60-60 1.26-1.80-1.61
54-60-55
.70-1.50- .90
48-66-59
.67-3.35-1.70
57-60-58
.40-1.65- .90
60-60-60 1.66-1.66-1.66
56-56-56 1.00-1.25-1.11
.83-2.67-1.84
57-60-60
54-60-56
.54-1.07- .98
69-69-69
.40- .40- .40
68-68-68
.60- .60- .60
54-58-58 1.25-3.00-1.86
36-60-54
.50-1.40- .89
54-60-55
.42-2.50-1.76
48-60-57
.32-2.23- .98
60-60-60 1.00-1.00-1.00
60-60-60 1.00-1.57-1.45
66-66-66
.75-1.00- .88

F. 51-63-52
F.
M.
(9
F.
0)
F. 54-54-54
M.
0)
F. 48-60-59

1.25-1.50-1.38
1.00-1.00-1.00
1.68-1.88-1.87
.81-1.25-1.06
1.00-1.50-1.33
1.50-1.50-1.50
.60-1.00- .73

M. 60-60-60
F. 60-60-60
M. 60-60-60

.67-2.50-1.46
. 58-1.50- . 90
1.00-3.00-1.73

F.
F.

60-60-60
60-63-61

.40-1.12- .73
.40-1.52- .79

F.
F.

60-66-62
60-63-61

.40-1.12- .65
.40-1.52- .80

1 Not reported.
T a b l e 0 -3 . — Sewing-machine operators, males, meny clothing, 1890-1907, by
s

geographic division and year
North Atlantic
Year

1890............................
1891............................
1892...........................
1893............................
1894............. .............
1895...........................
1896-..........................
1897....... ....................
1898...........................
1899............................
1900............................
1901...........................
1902............................
1903............................
1904............................
1905............................
1906............................
1907...........................




South Atlantic

North Central

South Central

Hours
Hours
Rate
Rate
Hours
Rate
Hours
Rate
per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
54
54
54
54.3
55.2
55.0
54.9
55.1

$0,263
.263
.270
.270
.261
.261
.263
.261
.261
.275
.274
.299
.299
.226
.203
.208
.219
.224

60.0
58.8
58.6
58.7
55.9

$0,227
.257
.233
.258
.235

55.3
54.7
54.1
54.0
54.0

$0,304
.280
.289
.310
.316

58.3
56.4
54.1
57.5
56.8

$0,217
.172
.178
.279
.281

223

C.----CLOTHING INDUSTRY
T able

€ -4 . — Sewing-machine operators, females, men’s clothing, 1890-1907, by
geographic division and year
South Atlantic
Year

1890...........................
1891...........................
1892...........................
1893...........................
1894...........................
1895...........................
1896...........................
1897...........................
1898...........................
1899.......... ................
1900...........................
1901....... ....................
1902...........................
1903...........................
1904...........................
1905................ ..........
1906...........................
1907...........................

North Central

South Central

North Atlantic

Rate
Hours
Rate
Hours
Hours
Hours
Rate
Rate
per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
57.0
55.9
55.8
56.3
56.6

$0,085
.081
.080
.081
.085
.085
.085
.085
.087
.088
.089
.090
.090
.107
.112
.116
.137
.141

58.1
57.8
57.9
58.5
58.0
58.0
57.9
57.7
57.5
57.7
57.8
57.7
57.4
55.2
55.1
55.8
54.1
54,1

$0,072
.076
.078
.074
.075
.076
.079
.076
.081
.080
.076
.078
.082
.112
.147
.161
.194
.189

55.0
55.0
55.0
55.0
55.1
55.1
55.1
55.0
55.0
55.0
55.0
55.0
55.0
57.2
54.9
53.9
54.6
55.0

$0.100
.100 j
.100
.100
.091
.091
.091
.098
.109
.109
.109
.109
109
.109
.103
.113
.130
.132

54.0
54.1
54.0
53.8
53.7

$0,126
.126
.132
.133
.138

T a b l e C -5 . — Operators, coat, males, men’s clothing, 1911-1928, by city and year
Baltimore, Md.
Year

1911 .......................
1912...........................
1913...........................
1914...........................
1919...........................
1922...........................
1924.__................ .
1926_..........................
1928..................... .

Boston., Mass.

Cincinnati, Ohio

Rate
Hours
Hours
Rate
Hours
Hours
Rate
Rate
per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour
59.5
59.2
53.9
53.8
48.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0,190
.200
.224
.265
.614
.863
.945
.887
.786

53.2
50.0
50.0
45.8
44.1
44.0
44.0
42.5

$0.307
.403
.399
.611
.803
1.000
1.037
.973

Cleveland, Ohio 1 New York, N. Y.i
1911...........................
1912...........................
1913...........................
1914...................... .
1919...........................
1922...........................
1924 ..........................
1926..........................
1928 ..........................

Chicago, 111.

49.8

$0,505

44.0

.892

56.1
56.5
51.8
51.3
46.8
44.3
44.2
44.3
44.3

i Includes operators on coats, vests, and pants, 1919.




$0,270
.272
.335
.331
.639
1.002
1.050
1.035
1.018

54.0
54.0
52.0
52.0
48.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0,317
.313
.344
.344
.565
1.043
1.092
1.181
1.192

Philadelphia, Pa.*
54.4
54.4
53.9
54.0
48.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0,257
.251
.266
.266
.609
.787
.901
.952
.919

53.8
50.9
51.4
49.9
42.5
41.2
41.4
41.5

$0,208
.292
.292
.493
.811
1.011
.914
1.265

Rochester, N. Y.1
54.7
546
52.0
50.0
48.0
440
440
440
43.8

$0,305
.286
.337
.354
.562
.872
1.028
1.102
.975

224
T

able

PART 2.— FROM 1840 TO 1928
C -6 . — Operators, coat, females, meris clothing, 1911—
1928, by city and year
Baltimore, Md.1
Year

1 9 1 1 ..........................
1912 ........ ...............
1913 ........................
1914 ........................
1919...........................
1922...........................
1924 ..........................
1926........ .................1928......................... .

Boston, Mass.1

Chicago, 111.1

Cincinnati, Ohio1

Hours
Bate
Hours
Bate
Hours
Bate
Hours
Bate
per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour
57.6
56.2
53.3
52.2
48.0
44.0
44.0
44.4
44.0

$0.129
.132
.153
.168
.375
.492
.410
.461
.424

54.0
50.0
50.0
46.0
44.2
44.0
44.0
42.7

$0,157
.164
.179
.313
.419
.581
.570
.489

54.0
54.0
52.0
52.0
48.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0,224
.209
.222
.248
.400
.755
.905
.941
1.019

53.7
53.3
50.4
50.6
49.0
42.4
39.1
40.0
38.1

$0,164
.161
.184
.186
.255
.550
.610
.632
.718

Cleveland, Ohio 1 New York, N. Y. 1 Philadelphia, Pa.1 Bochester, N. Y.1
1911...........................
1912...........................
1913...........................
1914......................... .
1919...........................
1922...........................
1924...........................
1926— .......................
1928...........................

48.1

$0,381

46.3
44.0

.614
.607

54.8
56.0
52.5
52.2
46.8
45.3
45.4
45.2
45.1

i Includes operators on coats, vests, and pants, 1919.




$0,152
.138
.170
.170
.394
.604
.648
.644
.642

54.0
54.1
54.0
54.0
48.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0,145
.150
.173
.172
.347
.466
.476
.588
.529

54.4
54.6
52.0
50.0
48.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
42.2

$0,191
.190
.204
.222
.374
.538
.680
.682
.645

D.— FARMING
FARM LABORERS

The sources from which wage data were secured are the Fifteenth
Annual Report of the Commissioner of Labor Statistics and the
reports of the United States Department of Agriculture. For other
laborers see Tables B-12 (p. 185), G -l (p. 253), 1-16, 1-17, 1-18
(pp. 295 and 296), 0-11, and 0-12 (p. 464).
T a b l e D - l . — Farm laborers, 1841-1899, by year and State
Lowest;, highest, and
a verage—
Year and State

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Sex

1841:
Texas..... .............. M. 66-66-66
1843:
Florida................. M. 66-66-66
1844:
•
Kentucky............. M. 60-60-60
1845:
New Jersey______ M.
(9
1846:
New Jersey______ M.
Do.................. Mi
<9
1847:
New Jersey.......... M*
<9
1848:
New Jersey.......... M.
0 5 -6
Wisconsin............ M. 6 -1 5 0
1849:
New Jersey......... M i
0
1850:
Illinois .................. M. 60-60-60
Kentucky............. M. 60-60-60
New Jersey. ......... M.
Bhode Island____ M. 60-60-60
1851:
New Jersey........... M.
<9
1852:
New Jersey........... M.
1853:
Florida................. M. 60-60-60
New Jersey......... M.
Wisconsin............. M. 60-60-60
1854:
New Jersey......... M.
New Y ork........... M. 66-66-66
1855:
Illinois.................. M. 60-60-60
Louisiana............. M. 66-66-66
New Jersey........... M.
i1
)
Do._............... M.
(9
New York............ M. 66-66-66
1856:
New Jersey______ M.
<
9
New York___....... M. 66-66-66
Wisconsin............. M. 60-60-60
1857:
New Jersey______ M.
(9
New York............ M. 66-66-66
1858:
Illinois.................. M. 60-60-60
New Jersey........... M.
New York______ M. 66-66-66
1859:
New Jersey........... M.
f)
Do.................. M.
(9
New York............ M. 66-66-66
i Not reported.




0.50-0.50-0.50
.75- .75- .75
.30- .30- .30
2.25- .40- .31
.40- .40- .40
2 ,23- .35- .29
.27- .40- .33
.23- .50- .37
2 .63- .63- .63
.32-

.50- .41

.40-1.00.50-1.00.33- .50.75- .75-

.58
.96
.42
.75

.50- .37
.27- .50- .38
.29-

.31- .31- .31
.38- .50- .44
2 .75-, ,75- ,
.75
.35- .38- .37
1.00-1 .00-1 .00
.40-1.00- .64
1.00-1.00-1.00
.23- .35- .29
2.63-,.63- .63
.88- , 88- , 88
.
.
.43-,.63- .51
.88-..88-,.88
2.63-..68-,.63
.38-,.54-,.48
.88-,.88-,.88
1.00-1.00-1.00
.38-. ,50-, ,44
.88-. .88-, .88
.42-.,42- .,42
2 .38-.,38-.,38
.88-. 88- .,88
3 And

Sex
Hours per Bate per day
week
(dollars)

Hours per Bate per day
week
(dollars)
1860:
Illinois—...............
New Jersey_____
New York__.........
1861:
New Jersey_____
New York___.......
1862:
New Jersey........
New York__........
1863:
New Jersey_____
Do..................
New York............
1864:
New Jersey..........
Do............. .
New York............
1865:
New Jersey..........
New York.......... .
1866:
Iowa................
New York...........
South Carolina__
1867:
New York............
1868:
Illinois.................
New York............
Alabama........
Missouri........
New York___
1870:
Florida...........
Illinois............
Louisiana___
Missouri........
New York___
1871:
New York___
1872:
Illinois............
New York___
1873:
New York___
1874:
New York.*...
1875:
New York___
1876:
New York___
Pennsylvania.

60-66-61

(9

1.00-1.00-1.00
.42- .42- .42

<
9

.46- .46- .46
. 88- . 88- .88

66 - 66-66

(9

. 23- . 27- . 25
1.00-1.00-1.00

66- 66-66

8

.3 1 - .3 1 - .3 1
3.50- . 50- . 50
1.13-1.13-1.13

66- 66-66

8

.31- .58- .42
3.67-1.00- .84
1.50-1.50-1.50

(9

2 .77- . 77- . 77

60-60-60

60-60-60

66- 66-66

1.00-1.00-1.00
1.50-1.50-1,50
.77- .77- .77

66- 66-66

1.50-1.50-1.50

60-60-60

1.00-1.00-1.00
1.50-1.50-1.50

60-60-60
60-60-60

. 75- . 75- . 75
1.50-1.50-1.50
1.75-1.75-1.75

60-60-60
60-60-60
66- 66-66

60-60-60
66- 66-66

.40- .50- .47
1 00-1.90-1.46
1.00-1.00-1.00
1.00-1.00-1.00
1.50-1.50-1.50

66- 66-66

1.50-1.50-1.50

60-60-60
66- 66-66

.65-1.25-1.05
1.50-1.50-1.50

66-66-66

1.25-1.25-1.25

66- 66-66

1.25-1.25-1.25

63-63-63

1.25-1.25-1.25
.60-1.00- .85

66- 66-66
66- 66-66

66- 66-66

66- 66-66

66 - 66-66

. 88- . 88-

.88

1.50-1.50-1.50

1.50-1.50-1.50

(9

* And house.

225

226

PART 2.— PROM 1840 TO 1928
T

able

D - l . — Farm

laborers, 1841-1899, by year and State— Continued

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Sex

Year and State

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Sex

Hours per Rate per day
(dollars)
week
1877:
New York............
1878:
New York............
1879:
New Jersey..........
New York............
1880:
New Jersey..........
New York....... .
North Carolina.
1881:
Louisiana.............
New York............
1882:
New York............
1883:
New York.......
1884:
California.............
Michigan.............
New York.......
1885:
Florida.................
Kansas. _...............
New Jersey..........
Do..................
New York............
1886:
Alabama...............
Connecticut..........
Florida.................
Illinois..................
Kansas.................
Louisiana.............
Do................ .
New York............
1887:
Connecticut.........
Do..................
Kansas..................
New York............
Wisconsin.............
1888:
Colorado...............
Iowa.....................
New York............
Ohio.....................
1889:
Minnesota............
New York............
North Carolina—
1890:
Maine...................
Nebraska.............
New York............
North Carolina_
_
North Dakota......
1891:
New York............
North Dakota......
Wisconsin.............

M. 63-63-63

1.00-1.00-1.00

M. 63-63-63

.88- .88- .88

0 70-70-70
M. 63-63-63

.60- .75- .68
,8 8 - .8 8 - .8 8

40-90-61
0
M. 63-63-63
M. 60-60-60

.39-1,50-1.05
1.25-1.25-1.25
,7 5 - .7 5 - .7 5

M. 60-60-60
M. 63-63-63

.75- .75- .75
1.25-1.25-1.25

M. 63-63-63

1.50-1.50-1.50

M. 63-63-63

1.25-1.25-1.25

M. 60-72-68 *.96-1.15-1.08
M.
1.00-2.00-1.61
0
M. 63-63-63 1.25-1.25-1.25
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

60-60-60
.50- .60- .55
60-60-60 1.00-1.00-1.00
60-60-60 1.00-1.00-1.00
72-72-72 *. 69- . 69- . 69
63-63-63 1.38-1.38-1.38

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
F.
M.

60-60-60
0
60-60-60
60-96-75
0
70-70-70
70-70-70
63-63-63

.60- .60- .60
1.00-1.00-1.00
.3 5 - .7 5 - .6 2
. 46-1.25- . 70
1.00-2.00-1.39
1.00-1.00-1.00
.75- .75- .75
1.38-1.38-1.38

M.
.75-2.00-1.27
0)
M.
2 .13-1.50- . 75
0)
M. 60-78-72
. 75-1.70-1.15
M. 63-63-63 1.38-1.38-1.38
M.
L00-1.00-1.00
(0
M. 72-72-72
M.
0
M. 59-63-63
M.
0

.75-2,25-1.50
*.50-1.67- .90
1.30-1.67-1.40
*.42-1.27- .73

0
0
M. 63-63-63
M. 66-66-66

. 91-1.52-1.15
1.50-1.50-1.50
.40- .40- .40

M.
0
M.
0
M. 63-63-63
M. 78-78-78
M.
0

.17-2.08-1.00
1.50-1.50-1.50
1.15-1.50-1.49
.40- .50- .45
2.50-1.61-1.10

M. 63-63-63
0
0
£

1892:

0 60-90-71
North Carolina... M. 72-72-72

1893:

0.38-1.25-0.85
.5 0 -.5 0 -.5 0

Florida.................
Illinois............. .
Maryland-............
Missouri...............
Montana..............
Do..................
Do..................
New York............
Do.................
North Carolina...
Pennsylvania.......
Wisconsin.............

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

.7 S - .7 S - .7 5
60-60-60
60-72-61 1.00-1.50-1.45
60-72-69
.50-1.67-.80
60-60-60 1.00-2.00-1.19
54-54-54 1.92-1.92-1.92
54-66-58 41.15-1.34-1.21
60-78-62 * 77-1.53-1.31
60-84-66 1.00-1.25-1.17
72-72-72 2.33-.33-.33
. 50-1.00- . 67
60-72-71
72-72-72 1.38-1.38-1.38
1.25-1.25-1.25
0

Georgia................
Illinois..................
Iowa................... .
Do................
Michigan.............
Do..................
Do..................
Montana..............
New York............
North Carolina...
Do..................

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
F.

60-60-60
60-66-60
60-96-78
72-84r-78

Florida.................
Illinois..................
Do..................
Iowa_____ ______
Kentucky......... .
Louisiana.............
Missouri...............
Montana..............
Nebraska..............
North Carolina...
North Dakota...
South Carolina___
Texas...................
Wisconsin.............
Do..................

M.
M.
F.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

60-60-60
60-66-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
48-66-58
6 -66-66
6
60-60-60

60-60-60

.2 5 -.6 5 -.4 8
.75-1.25-1.10
.75-1.00- .92
1.00-1.50-1.08
.50-2.00- .84
.65- .65- .65
.85- .85- .85
*. 61-1.51-1.03
1.25-1.25-1.25
.50-1.00- .63
.41-1.58- .91
.58- .58- .58
.50-1.00- .55
.58-1.34- .86
* 27-1.50- .75

California.............
Georgia................
Missouri...............
New Y ork..........
Tennessee.............
Do..................

M. 60-60-60
(l)
M.
(1)
m
hj
M.
M
F.

1.50-2,50-1.90
.29- .83- .56
.38- .77- .58
.46-1.73-.74
.5 8 -.5 8 -.5 8
.7 5 -.7 5 -.7 5

Kansas.................. M. 54-112-75

.38-1.15- .77

Nebraska.............. 0 60-72-67
Pennsylvania____ M.
0
.1899:
Pennsylvania
M.
0)

.20-3.00- .88
1.15-1.15-1.15

1894:

1895:

0

h

0

60-78-62
60-60-60
60-72-69
72-72-72

0

60-60-60
60-60-60

0)

60-60-60
60-60-60

0

1.15-1.50-1.37
2.58-1.50-1.11
1.25-1.25-1.25

1 Not reported.
3 And board.
<And board and lodging.




Hours per Rate per day
(dollars)
week

1896:

1897:

a

1898:

# And fuel.
«And perquisites.

.50- .5 0 -.5 0
1.00-2.50-1.32
.75-1.00-. 82
2.77- .77- .77
.19-2.00- .73
*1.00-1.00-1.00
•58-1.15- .87
3.77-1.53-1.20
.50-1.50-1.25
.20-1.00-.56
.4 0 -.4 0 -.4 0

1.34-1.34-1.34

D F R IN
.-- A M G
T a b le

D - 2 . — Farm

227

laborers, males, 1866-1927, by year and index number
Average yearly farm wage *

Year

Per month—
With
board

1866 3.............................................................. ............
1869_ .................................................. ......... ..............
1874 or 1875...................................... ....... ............
1877or 1879 *................ ......... ............ ........................
1879 or 1880.._________________________________
1880 or 1881____________ _____ _________________
1881 or 1882................................. ......... ......................
1884 or 1885__________ _________ ________ _______
1887 or 1888..___________________________ ______
1889 or 1890_____ _______ __________ ____________
1891 or 1892______ _____________________________
1893- ..................... ........................ ....... ....... ............
1894_..................................................... ....... ............
1895_____________ ____ _____ _____ ____________
1898......................... ............................. ............ .......
1899._______ _________ ________ _______________
1902...................................... ............ ............ ............
1906. ........................ ....................... ............ ....... .
1909.......................... ......... .......................... ..............
1910. ___ ______ ________ _____________________
1911________ _______ ________ __________ ______
1912__ ______ ____________________ ____________
1913___ _____________ ________________________
1914.... ........................................ ....... ............... .......
1915__________________________________________
191(1____________ _____ __________________ _____
1917__________________________ ___________ ___
1918_____ ______ __________ _______ ___________
1919...................................... .......... ..........................
1920_____ _________ _________ ______ ____ ______
1921________________ _______ _________________
1922............. ............................................................
1923-........................... ......... ......... ........................
1924--........................ .................................. ...........
1925. ............. ............................................................
1926 ________ ____________192T- ....................................................

$10.09
9.97
11.16
10.86
11.70
12.32
12.88
13.08
13.29
13. 29
13.48
13.85
12.70
12.75
13. 29
13.90
15. 51
18.73
20.48
19. 58
19.85
20. 46
21. 27
20.90
21.08
23. 04
28.64
35.12
40.14
47.24
30.25
29.31
33.09
33.34
33.88
34.86
34.58

Without
board
$15. 50
15.50
17.10
16.79
17.53
18.52
19.11
19.22
19.67
19.45
20.02
19.97
18.57
18.74
19.16
19.97
22.12
26.19
28.09
28.04
28.33
29.14
30.21
29. 72
29.97
32. 58
40.19
49.13
56.77
65. 05
43.58
42.09
46.74
47.22
47.80
48.86
48.63

Index
numbers
of farm
wages—
19101914
Without = 100 2
board

Per day—
With
board
$0.64
.63
.68
.61
.64
.67
.70
.71
.72
.72
.73
.72
.65
.65
.71
.75
.83
1.03
1.04
1.07
1.07
1.12
1.15
1.11
1.12
1.24
1.56
2.05
2.44
2.84
1.66
1.64
1.91
1.88
1.89
1.91
1.90

$0.90
.87
.94
.84
.89
.92
.97
.96
.98
.97
.98
.92
.84
.85
.94
.99
1.09
1.32
1.31
1.40
1.40
1.44
1.48
1.43
1.45
1.60
2.00
2.61
3.10
3.56
2.17
2.14
2.45
2.44
2.46
2.49
2.46

55
54
59
56
59
62
65
65
66
66
67
67
61
62
65
68
76
92
96
97
97
101
104
101
102
112
140
176
206
239
150
146
166
166
168
171
170

i Yearly averages are from reports by crop reporters, giving average wages for the year in their localities
and published by United States Department of Agriculture.
! In constructing the farm wage index numbers the rates of wages per day with and without board and
wages per month with and without board were used.
« Years 1866 to 1878 in gold.
4 1877 or lb78, 1878 or 1879 (combined).




228
T

PART 2.— FROM 1840 TO 1928

able

D -3 . — Farm laborers, males, 1910-1928, by geographic division and State
Per month with board
1917

1922

1923

1925

1926

1927

NORTH ATLANTIC
Maine
_
_
_ __
.
__ $23.50
N pw Hampshire
.
..........................
23.50
Vermont_____________________ _______ 25.00
22.75
Massachusetts........ ................................
■Rhode Tsiand _
_____ _____, _ .
21.00
21.00
Connecticut New York____________________ ______ 23 50
New Jersey.__________ ______________ 19.50
Pennsylvania _ .
_
__
18.75

$36.00
35.00
35.00
38.00
31.00
35.00
35.00
32.00
30.00

$38.00
38.60
35.00
41.00
40.00
40.00
39.70
40.00
33.00

$41.00
46.50
40.60
50.00
50.00
52.00
45.50
44.50
38.00

$43.00
46.00
46.00
50.00
50.00
51.00
48.00
46.00
39.50

$45.00
50.00
36.00
52.00
51.00
54.00
50.50
54.00
41.75

$ 5 .0 0
49.00
47.00
52.00
52.00
54.00
49.75
47.00
41.00

$47.00
49.00
48.00
49.00
54.00
53.00
49.75
47.00
39.75

21. 65

33.26

37.14

43.42

45.29

47.75

47.01

46.58

32.60
30.20
33.90
33.60
37.00
35.00
36.80
28.70
38.70
36.40
34.50
32.50

36.80
35.40
40.20
40.00
45.00
37.00
43.30
31.00
40.30
43.20
40.00
35.90

38.00
35.00
42.00
41.00
46.50
45.00
45.50
32.00
49.50
46.50
40.00
36.00

39.00
37.00
42.00
43.50
48.50
46.75
46.25
34.00
49.50
43.75
40.00
37.00

39.25
37.00
42.50
42.50
49.00
47.25
46.75
33.00
53.25
48.25
43.00
37.75

38.75
37.00
43.25
43.00
48.75
47.00
47.75
33.00
54.25
48.25
43.00
39.25

40.80

41.91

42.47

42.73

Geographic division and State

Average.............................. ...........

1910

NORTH CENTRAL
Ohio.......................................................
Indiana
Illinois
___ _
_ __
Michigan.____ ______________________
Wisconsin... _______ ________________
Minnesota
Iowa________________________________
Missouri.................................... ..............
North Dakota_____________ _________
South Dakota. _____ _________________
Nebraska. ..
. . . . ....... ...................
Kansas______ ______________________

_

.......

Average_______________________

1928

i
21.00
20.50
24.50
23.00
26.00
26.00
28.00
21.50
29 00
27.00
26.50
24.00

0)

31.00
29.00
33.00
34.00
36.00
39.00
41.00
29.00
41.00
42.00
39.00
33.00
0

0

0

SOUTH ATLANTIC
Delaware........ ....................... .................
Maryland___________________________
Virginia_____________________________
West Virginia_______________________
North Carolina______________________
South Carolina______________________
Georgia__________ _______- .............. .....
Florida....... ......................................... .....

16.00
13.50
14.00
19.40
13.60
12.00
13.00

29.00
24.00
22.00
31.00
25.00
18.00
19.00

27.10
28.50
24.80
33.20
24.00
16.20
15.60

32.80
32.00
28.00
35.50
28.00
20.00
17.30

32.00
34.50
30.00
36.50
29.00
21. 25
20.50

35.00
35.75
30.00
34.75
30.00
21.00
21.50

33.00
36.75
31.00
34.00
27.50
20.50
20.25

32.00
36.00
30.00
33.25
27.75
21.00
19.50

Average____________________

13.77

22.44

22.12

24.93

26.20

26.76

25.77

25.43

Kentucky_________________ ______
Tennessee___________________ ____
Alabama____________________ ____
Mississippi........ ....... .......................
Arkansas________________________
Louisiana_______________________
Oklahoma_______________________
Texas.......... .......................................

16.00
14.00
13.00
13.30
16.25
13.50
19.10
18.00

24.00
21.00
16.00
17.00
23.00
19.00
28.00
25.00

25.90
22.30
17.60
18.20
21.35
22.40
26.00
24.20

28.10
24.60
19.90
20.00
23.00
21.00
27.40
28.30

27.25
25.50
26.00
22.00
25.00
23.00
29.50
29.00

28.50
24.75
22.50
23.75
30.00
24.00
31.50
30.00

27.50
25.75
22.00
23.50
25.50
23.50
30.25
26.50

27.25
24.50
21.00
21.75
26.00
25.75
31.25
31.25

Average____________________

15.28

21.88

22.33

24.13

26.32

27.14

25.57

26.57

Oregon________________ _________
California.______________________

38.00
35.00
35.00
29.50
24.50
30.00
35.00
37.00
33.00
32.00
33.00

46.00
51.00
45.00
41.00
32.00
48.00
50.00
50.00
47.00
44.00
43.00

42.20
46.00
39.50
35.00
31.00
40.00
47.00
48.00
45.00
43.50
55.00

48.00
53.00
44.50
40.00
32.50
54.00
54.00
58.00
54.30
52.50
56.00

56.50
54.50
47.00
40.00
33.00
44.50
56.50
55.50
52.00
45.00
60.00

52.50
56.00
49.00
41.30
34.00
45.00
54.50
59.25
51.00
51.00
63.00

60.25
58.25
51.75
43.00
35.25
50.50
59.75
63.25
53.75
53.25
65.00

60.50
55.50
53.00
40.50
36.25
52.00
53.50
62.00
52.75
49.00
62.00

Average____________________

32.69

44.25

45.57

51.25

52.02

53.61

56.39

54.21

United S ta tes...____________

19.21

28.87

29.17

33.18

34.91

36.00

35.68

35.75

15.00

22.00

23.40

26.00

26.00

28.00

24.25

24.00

SOUTH CENTRAL

WESTERN

Montana______________________ -Idaho___________________________
Wyoming_______________________
Colorado________________________
New Mexico_____________________
Arizona_________________________
U ta h .____ ___________________________

Nevada_________________________
W ashington_________________________

i Not reported.




229

D.— FARMING
T a b le

D -3 .— Farm laborers, males, 1910-1928, by geographic division and State—
Continued
Per month without hoard

Geographic division and State

1910

1917

1922

1923

1925

1926

1927

Maine__________________________ $34.50
New Hampshire....... ......................... 35.50
Vermont____________________ ____ 35.50
Massachusetts____ ______ ________ 37.20
Rhode Island ..... . . ,, ...... ...... 34.00
Connecticut................ ....................... 36.00
New York___________*___________ 35.00
New Jersey.......... ............................. 31.50
Pennsylvania..................................... 29.00

$53.00
51.00
50.00
58.00
48.00
52.00
48.00
46.00
45.00

$53.50
60.00
52.00
68.00
65.00
67.00
56.50
62.00
50.90

$61.00
69.00
60.30
80.00
80.00
75.00
64.00
67.00
55.50

$63.00
71.00
66.00
78.00
72.00
76.00
69.00
72.00
58.50

$64.00
76.00
65.00
79.00
78.00
80.00
70.25
77.00
60.00

$66.00
71.00
69.00
83.00
82.00
82.00
69.50
72.00
61.50

$65.00
74.00
72.00
80.00
80.00
81.00
70.75
70.00
59.75

33.19

48.06

55.82

63.31

66.88

68. 67

69.03

68.71

29.00
28.40
32.90
33.00
37.25
38.00
39.00
29.50
42.00
39.00
38.00
34.00

43.00
41.00
44.00
47.00
52.00
54.00
53.00
39.00
60.00
61.00
53.00
46.00

46.50
42.70
45.00
47.30
54.00
50.00
49.70
39> 50
.
55.50
53.00
48.50
46.70

50.40
48.60
52.50
55.00
63.00
55.50
56.60
42.50
58.80
61.70
54.00
50.60

53.00
48.00
55.00
58.00
64.00
61.00
57.00
43.00
68.50
61.50
54.50
50.00

55.00
50.00
55.00
61.00
66.00
62.00
56.75
44.00
69.50
60.00
53.50
51.00

54.50
50.00
55.00
59.25
67.25
63.75
55.00
45.00
72.00
66.50
55.75
52.25

53.75
49.00
55.00
60.00
65.25
63.75
58.50
44.00
75.75
66.00
58.00
54.25

55.10

56.12

56.67

56.96

1928

NORTH ATLANTIC

Average___________________
NORTH CENTRAL

Ohio...................................................
Indian^.
_ __
Illinois_____________ __________ __
Michigan_______________________
Wisconsin_________________ _____
MinnfiSftta ......
_ _
Iowa____________________________
Missouri. _______________________
North D akota___________________
South Dakota____________________
Nebraska________________________
Kansas__________________________
Average____________________

0)

0)

0)

0)

SOUTH ATLANTIC

24.75
21.50
19.50
29.00
19.50
16. 50
18.00
25.00

43.00
37.00
32.00
45.00
80.00
25.00
26.00
33.00

40.00
42.00
35.50
47.90
33.00
23.20
23.00
35.50

51.00
48.00
40.00
50.50
39.00
27.50
24.50
40.00

48.00
50.75
42.00
52.25
40.00
30.00
28.75
38.00

48.00
51.00
43.00
49.50
41.00
29.50
29.50
42.50

50.00
52.25
43.00
48.75
38.00
29.25
28.75
36. 75

46.00
51.25
42.00
48.00
39.25
28.00
27.25
37.00

19.75

30.80

31.72

35.55

36.84

37. 58

36.44

35.78

Kentucky_______________________
Tennessee_______________________
Alabama________________________
Mississippi______________________
Arkansas________________________
Louisiana_______________________
OkiahoTna . _____________ .
Texas______ ____________________

23.10
20.00
18.50
19.50
24.00
20.25
28.10
24.50

33.00
29.00
24.00
24.00
32.00
30.00
40.00
35.00

36.30
30.75
25.80
25.90
31. 60
32.60
37.00
35.40

38.60
35.00
28.20
29.40
33.90
33.00
38.30
39.70

38.25
35.25
34.00
32.00
35.00
34.75
42.00
42.00

39.75
33.00
31.50
33.70
37.50
36.00
45.00
44.00

38.25
33.50
27.00
32.00
36.00
33.00
47.25
43.25

38.00
33.25
30.00
31.25
35.75
35.25
43.25
42.50

Average____________________

21.90

31.07

32.09

34.55

37.25

38.15

36.85

36.74

Montana________________________
Idaho___________________________
Wyoming............. ..............................
Colorado________________________
New Mexico_____________________
Arizona_________________________
U tah............................. ....................
Nevada_________________________
Washington______________________
Oregon__________________________
California_______________________

50.00
49.50
49.00
44.50
34.35
40.00
47.50
54.00
50.00
44.50
47.00

70.00
70.00
68.00
60.00
48.00
68.00
68.00
72.00
66.00
61.00
63.00

63.00
66.00
60.00
54.00
46.00
58.00
64.00
65.00
65.00
63.00
79.00

65.50
72.70
62.50
58.30
48.00
66.00
73.70
86.00
77.00
70.00
82.00

76.25
76.00
69.00
59.00
49.00
73.50
76.50
71.75
76.00
65.00
87.00

75.00
77.00
70.00
63.80
50.00
65.00
75.00
81.50
75.00
76.00
90.00

77.50
79.50
73.25
65.00
49. 75
69.00
80.75
89.00
77.75
72.00
90.00

83.25
77.75
77.00
60.50
49.25
72.00
74.00
80.00
78.00
69.75
90.00

Average_______ j____________

46.48

63.59

66.03

72.79

75.19

77.31

78.33

77.68

United States_______ _______

27.50

40.43

41. 79

46.91

48.99

50.10

49. 77

49.60

Delaware___________ _____________
Maryland_______________________
Virginia_________________________
West Virginia____________________
North Carolina________ ______ ___
South Carolina___________________
Georgia_________________ _______
Florida______ ______________ _____
Average ___________ ______
SOUTH CENTRAL

WESTERN

i Not reported.




230

PART 2.— PROM 1840 TO 1928

T a b le

D -3. — Farm laborersy males, 1910-1928, by geographic division and State—
Continued
Per day with board
1910

1917

1922

1923

1925

1926

1927

Maine- „
Naw TTampshirfl
Vermont_____________ ______ ____
Massachusetts....... ........................ .
...........
Rhode Island
nnnnfint.innt
New York....................... ..................
New Jersey_____________________
Pennsyl vania.......... ..........................

$1.23
1.18
1.21
1.22
1.12
1.07
1.28
l'.ll
1.04

$2.02
1.92
1.98
2.00
1.90
1.85
1.94
1.95
1.80

$2.08
2.11
1.96
2.31
2.37
2.05
2.46
2.25
2.10

$2.50
2.70
2.55
2.95
2.65
2.80
3.00
2.55
2.48

$2.50
2.60
2.50
2.90
2.80
2.70
3.05
2.65
2.60

$2. 60
2.50
2.60
2.75
2.80
2.85
3.10
2.90
2.60

$2.75
2.70
2.55
2.90
2.70
2.90
3.05
2.90
2.60

$2.60
2.55
2.60
2.90
3.00
2.80
3.00
2.85
2.55

Average.......................... ........

1.17

1.91

2.24

2.73

2.78

2.82

2.83

2.78

1.20
1.14
1.31
1.22
1.35
1.48
1.57
1.02
1.60
1.54
1.57
1.42

1.88
1.65
1.85
1.97
2.00
2.17
2.23
1.44
2.45
2.52
2.31
2.00

2.00
1.80
1.95
2.10
2.20
2.20
2.11
1.46
2. 50
2.25
2.15
2.19

2.18
2.25
2.40
2.58
2.45
2.55
2.52
1.62
2.50
2.65
2.42
2.32

2.55
2.20
2.35
2.65
2.50
2.85
2.50
1.75
3.80
2.85
2.35
2.20

2.55
2.55
2.35
2.75
2.45
2.80
2.50
1.70
3.35
2.45
2.25
2.20

2.50
2.25
2.25
2.70
2.55
2.75
2.55
1.65
4.20
2.95
2.55
2.40

2.45
2.20
2.30
2.75
2.50
2.80
2.55
1.70
4.15
3.00
2.45
2.50

0)

(*)

0

0)

2.45

2.41

2.47

2.48

Geographic division and State

1928

NORTH ATLANTIC

NORTH CENTRAL

Ohio..................-......... -....................
Indiana... ..... ........... ........... .. ..
Tljinois ... _„ _ _ ___
. ... ___
Michigan
.
Wisconsin............. ......... ....... ...........
Minnesota
_
_ _
____________ _________Iowa
______
Missouri_______________________
North Dakota.. . ..................... .
South Dakota..........................,........
Nebraska__. . . . . ....................
Kansas........
.........
Average___________ . _______
SOUTH ATLANTIC

Delaware............... ........._...............
Maryland.............. ...........................
Virginia________________________
West Virginia______ ____________
North Carolina__________________
South Carolina___ -____ __________
Georgia________ _____ ___________
Florida...... ........................................

.98
.88
.78
.94
. 73
.70
.73
.96

1.75
1.52
1.25
1.55
1.18
.93
1.00
1.14

1.60
1.54
1.31
1. 55
1.35
.85
.88
1.15

2.25
1.95
1.61
1.90
1.55
1.12
1.00
1.44

2.75
2.35
1.60
1.95
1.50
1.05
1.10
1.35

2.50
2.25
1.65
1.80
1.50
1.05
1.10
1.50

2.50
2.20
1.65
1.75
1.40
1.00
1.05
1.20

2. 3!>
2.30
1.65
1.75
1. 50
1.00
1.05
1.25

Average__________ ________ _

.77

1.17

1.18

1.41

1.42

1.42

1.35

1.38

Louisiana_____ _________________
Oklahoma_____ _________________
Texas........ ....... ........................

_________________

.85
.77
.85
.83
.90
.77
1.11
1.04

1.20
1.02
1.00
.95
1.20
1.11
1.65
1.28

1.23
1. 07
1.00
1.10
1.15
1.26
1.52
1.30

1.51
1.28
1.20
1.29
1.30
1.45
1.60
1.45

1.45
1.20
1.20
1.25
1.25
1.40
1.80
1.55

1.60
1.20
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.35
1.85
1.70

1.35
1.15
1.20
1.20
1.30
1.25
1.75
1.55

1.40
1.20
1.15
1.15
1.20
1.25
1.80
1.60

Average....................................

.89

1.18

1.20

1.38

1.40

1.46

1.36

1.37

1. 77
1.70
1.73
1.47
1.12
1.34
1.55
1.39
1.72
1.51
1.44

2.44
2.48
2.15
2.15
1.55
2.22
2.42
2.25
2.40
2.15
2.04

2.40
2.22
1.95
1.90
1.30
1.75
2.16
2.40
2.38
2.25
2.53

2.70
2.85
2.50
2.20
1.58
2.10
2.47
2.45
2.95
2.80
2.80

3.25
2.85
2.55
2.20
1.60
1.95
2.65
2.40
2.80
2.40
2.55

3.20
2.85
2.50
2.40
1.70
1.75
2.40
2.55
2.90
2.50
2.55

3.65
3.05
2.65
2.40
1.75
2.05
2.70
2.85
3.05
2.70
2.65

3.70
3.00
2.65
2.35
1.85
2.20
2.40
2.65
2.85
2.75
2.70

Average____________________

1.51

1.87

2.23

2.64

2.49

. 2.51

2.67

2.66

United States.................. .......

1.06

1.56

1.65

1.93

1.95

1.97

1.96

1.96

SOUTH CENTRAL

Kentucky_______________________
Tennessee........... ............... ...............
Alabama________________________
Mississippi______________________
A rkan sas

WESTERN

M ontana..___
_____ ___ ...
Idaho___________ _______________
Wyoming_______________________
Colorado________________________
New Mexico_____________________
Arizona_________________________
U ta h ...............................................
Nevada_____________ _____ _____
Washington.......................................
Oregon..................................... .........
California_______________________

1Not reported.




231

D.— FARMING
T able

D -3,— Farm laborers, males, 1910-1928, & geographic division and State—
?/
Continued
Per day without board

Geographic division and State

1910

1917

1922

1923

1925

1926

1927

$1.60
1.65
1.60

1.46
1.49

$2.56
2.50
2.45
2.55
2.45
2.50
2.47
2.40
2.35

$2.70
2.84
2.53
3.18
3.20
2.95
3.15
3.00
2.70

$3.10
3.60
3.20
3.90
3.65
3.75
3.70
3.55
3.15

$3.30
3.30
3.20
3.65
3.65
3.70
3.80
3.65
3.40

$3.25
3.30
3.20
3.80
3.60
3.80
3.90
3.75
3.35

$3.30
3.45
3.35
3.75
3.70
3.85
3.80
3.80
3.40

$3.30
3.65
3.40
3.75
3.80
3.75
3.80
3.85
3.30

1.58

2.43

2.91

3.48

3.58

3.62

3.62

3.58

1.57
1.45
1.63

2.10

2.37

2.60
2.32
2.48
2.70
2.90
2.95
2.67
1.90
3.40
3.10
2.85
2.75

2.92
2.83
2.96
3.23
3.15
3.29
3.12

3.25
2.90
2.95
3.35
3.10
3.50
3.15

3.10
2.75
2.95
3.40
3.10
3.55
3.20

3.50
3.45
3.00
2.90

3.25
2.85
3.05
3.35
3.25
3.50
3.15
2.30
4.50
3.75
3.15
2.90

3.25
2.85
3.05
3.50
3.15
3.40
3.10

1.96
1.^4

2.32
2.50
2.52
2.77
2.76
1.82
3.30
3.15
2.95
2.50

4.20
3.25
3.00
2.90

4.90
3.70
3.30
3.10

5.05
3.80
3.30
3.20

0)

(0

0)

(9

3.14

3.08

3.14

3.14

1.22

2.16

2.07

1.01

1.27
.97
.90
.95
1.32

2.55

1.60

2.75
2.50
2.08
2.50
1.95
1.42
1.30

3.30
3.10

1.65
2.06
1.50
1.16
1.31
1.55

2.00

1.35
1.35
1.85

3.10
2.95
2.15
2.50
1.90
1.40
1.45

2.00

3.15
2.90
2.15
2.40
1.75
1.35
1.40
1.70

3.05
2.90
2.15
2.45
1.90
1.25
1.35
1.70

1.01

1.52

1. 55

1.82

1.84

1.86

1.78

1.78

1.12
1.02

1.59
1.35
1.26
1.27
1.58
1.39

1.97
1.64
1.50

2.10

1.63
1.40
1.30
1.45
1.52
1.60
1.96

2.00
1.88

1. 75
1.55
1.45
1.60
1.70
1.60

1.66

2.05
1.60
1.60
1.65
1.70
1.80
2.50

1.65

1.95
1.50
1.55
1.70
1.75
1.65
2.35
2.05

2.20

2.20
2.00

1.80
1.50
1.50
1.55
1.60
1.55
2.25

2.00

1.15

1.53

1.56

1.76

1.83

1.91

1.75

1.74

2.36
2.27
2.29

3.20
3.00
2.75
2.60
1.80
2.50
2.81
3.40
3.15
2.95
3.40

3.55
3.45
3.40
2.90
2.70
3.05
3.58
3.75
3.48
3.70

3.85
3.70
3.40
3.00
2.15
2.65
2.90
3.15
3.70
3.10
3.60

3.85
3.65
3.40
3.20

2.02

3.30
3.20
3.17
2.79
1.97
2.83
3.00
3.00
3.10
2.80
2.67

2.50
3.10
2.95
3.60
3.25
3.65

4.40
3.75
3.55
3.20
2.15
2.75
3.30
3.50
3.70
3.45
3.60

4.35
3.75
3.55
3.15
2.30
2.70
3.15
3.50
3.70
3.25
3.65

2.06

2.82

3.00

3.42

3.33

3.37

3.45

3.44

1.38

2.02

2.15

2.47

2.53

2.55

2.51

2.51

1928

NORTH ATLANTIC

Maine...............
New Hampshire.
Vermont............
Massachusetts ...
Rhode Island___
Connecticut.......
New York.........
New Jersey........
Pennsylvania___
Average..

.

1.66

1.56
1.55

1.66

NORTH CENTRAL

Ohio................................
Indiana—............. ............
Illinois...... ............. .........
Michigan..... ....................
Wisconsin.........................
Minnesota.—....................
Iowa................ .............
Missouri...........................
North Dakota...................
South Dakota.............. .....
Nebraska..........................
Average..

1.66

1.78
1.90
1.98
1.32

2.20
2.00

2.10

2.20

2.20

2.20

SOUTH ATLANTIC

Delaware.........
Maryland.........
Virginia...........
West Virginia—_
North CarolinaSouth Carolina..
Georgia............
Florida............
Average....... ..........

1.18

2.00

2.11

1.76

2.10

1.75
1.08

1.12

2.10

2.00

SOUTH CENTRAL

Kentucky..
Tennessee..
Alabama. _

1.05

1.10
1.20
1.02

Louisiana.-.
Oklahoma—
Texas........

1.47
1.32

Average..

1.68
1.66

1.75

WESTERN

Montana___
Idaho—........
Wyoming___
Colorado......
New Mexico.
Arizona____
Utah...........
Nevada..
Oregon___
California..
United States.
1Not reported.




2.00
1.58

2.01
2.00

1.96
2.26
2.07

2.10

2.20

E.— GLASS AND CLAY PRODUCTS

The sources from which these wage data were taken are the fifteenth
and the nineteenth annual reports of the Commissioner of Labor
Statistics and bulletins of the Bureau of Labor Statistics Nos. 59, 65,
71, 77, 265, and 412.
The available reports on wages and hours of labor in the glass and
the pottery industries are very few in number.
A large per cent of the workers in the pottery industry are on piece­
work. They are paid at rates per dozen pieces of ware, per “ kiln day, ”
per 100 cubic feet, or other piece units. A “ kiln day ” is a specified
number of cubic feet of kiln space. The space varies with the product
which is being produced.
In establishments where no record of time actually worked by
pieceworkers was regularly kept, a special day by day record of
actual time worked by each employee was kept for a representative
pay period, at the request of the Bureau of Labor Statistics. These
actual hours worked at piece rates thus obtained enabled the bureau
to arrive at the earnings per hour for employees in each occupation.
These were computed by dividing the combined earnings of all em­
ployees in each occupation which were received during the selected
pay period by the combined hours worked by all employees in each
specified occupation.
The same method has been used in arriving at hours and earnings
in other industries where pieceworkers are found.
In the early history of glass blowing the work was almost entirely
a handicraft. No machinery and only a very few tools were used.
The experienced blower usually had one or more unskilled assistants,
generally boys, who did his carrying and cleaned blowpipes, etc.
In later years molds were introduced to aid in shaping the articles,
and a few more years later mechanical devices were introduced which
pressed the simpler articles in molds without the need of blowing, and
finally, in 1895, machines appeared on the market which actually
did the blowing of glass. These machines dispensed with the blower as
such, but still required the services of a skilled glass gatherer to feed
the machine and a skilled glass worker to operate the pressing and
blowing levers. In the year 1898 there appeared an entirely auto­
matic Dottle-blowing machine. Machinists were required on this
new device, but no glass workers of the old type.
These improved methods affected all classes of labor, both skilled
and unskilled. Their numbers, their duties, and the conditions
under which they worked underwent many changes.
Improved methods, however, did not supersede entirely the old
hand methods. Machines were limited to certain classes of wares,
therefore the old systems of working and the old devices of the past
were continued in active use, and not infrequently, side by side in
the same factory.
232




233

E.— GLASS AND CLAY PRODUCTS
T a b le E -l.— Glass blowers, bottles, 1841-1898, by year and State
Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Sex

1841:

Sex
Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)

Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)
1877:

New Jersey..

1.60-4.00-2.49

New Jersey..

1.60-4.00-2.49

New Jersey..

1.60-4.00-2. 49

New Jersey..

2.10-4.76-3.09

New Jersey. .

2.35-4.76-3.22

1842:

New Jersey...

(9

3.38-3.90-3.68

New Jersey...

3.38-3.90-3.68

New Jersey...
Pennsylvania-

0)
0)
0)
0)
54-54-54

New Jersey...
Ohio............
Pennsylvania.

43-50-45
58-58-58

0)

4.87-5.47-5.15
3. 58-4.17 3.96
4.00-5.00-4.50

New Jersey-..
Pennsylvania.

54-54-54

0)

4.87-5.47-5.15
4.00-4.50-4.13

Kentucky......
New Jersey. -.
Pennsylvania-

52-52-52
48-60-51
54-54-54

5.00-5.00-5.00
2.68-6.33-4.23
4.00-4.00-4.00

Illinois..........
Kentucky......
New Jersey. - Ohio.............
Pennsylvania-

60-60-60
52-52-52
36-60-51
48-54-53
54-58-58

4.00-4.00-4.00
5.00-5.00-5.00
1.73-6.00-4.08
3.28-3.88-3.74
4.00-5.00-4.83

California......
Illinois..........
Kentucky......
Massachusetts.
New Jersey...
Ohio.............
Pennsylvania.
West Virginia-

60-60-60
60-60-60
52-60-56
59-59-59
36-60-52
54-54-54
48-60-58
60-60-60

4.33-4.33-4.33
4.00-4.00-4.00
4.00-5.00-4.46
2.89-2.89-2.89
1.67-15.00-4.14
3.88-4. 50-4.13
3.98-5.00-4.37
4.90-4.90-4.90

Illinois..........
New Jersey,. New York---Pennsylvania -

51-51-51
48-60-54
54-60-55
54-60-58

4.50-4.50-4.50
1.33-11.53-4.22
2.00-4.75-3.76
4.10-4.50-4.21

New Jersey...
Ohio...... .......

60-60-60

(9

4.61-5.25-4.84
3.20-5.00-4.21

New Jersey...
New York___

45-54-52
50-54-52

2.65-8.00-4.95
5.00-5.50-5.27

Indiana.........
New Jersey__
New York___

54-54-54
54-54-54

4. 50-5.33-4.56
4.00-5.47-4.05
2.01-6.84-4.78

1878:

1843:

1879:

1844:
1845:

1846:

New Jersey...
Pennsylvania.

1880:
1881:

New Jersey. .

2.35-4.76-3.22

New Jersey..

2.60-4.75-3.39

New Jersey--

2.60-4.75-3.39

New Jersey. .

2.45-4.00-3.01

New Jersey..

2.45-4.00-3.01

1847:
1848:

1882:

1849:
1850:
1851:

New Jersey..

2.45-4.00-3.01

New Jersey..

2.50-3.75-2.99

New Jersey..

2.50-3.75-2.99

New Jersey..,

2.50-3.75-2.99

New Jersey..,

2.25-3.60-2.77

New Jersey..

2.25-3.60-2.77

1852:

1853:
1854:

1855:
1856:

1857:

New Jersey..

2.25-3.60-2.77

New Jersey..

2.25-3.60-2.77

New Jersey..

2.25-3.08-2.59

New Jersey..

2.25-3.08-2.59

New Jersey. _

2.10-2.90-2.44

New Jersey..

2.25-3.85-2.95

New Jersey..

2.25-3.85-2.95

New Jersey..

2.25-3.85-2.95

New Jersey..

3.36-4.76-3.95

1858:

1859:

3.38-3.90-3.68
3.00-4.00-3.45
3.50-3.90-3.70
5.00-5.00-5.00

1883:

1884:

1885:

1886:

1860:
1861:

1862:
1863:

1887:
1888:

1864:

1865:

1866:

New Jersey. _

3.36-4.76-3.95

New Jersey. .

4.90-5.40-5.14

New Jersey..

4.87-5.60-5.19

New Jersey..

4.87-5.60-5.19

New Jersey. .

4.87-5.60-5.19

New Jersey..

4.87-5.60-5.17

New Jersey..,

4.87-5.60-5.19

New Jersey..

4.87-5.60-5.19

New Jersey..

4.60-5.40-4.96

New Jersey..

4.34-5.00-4.64

New Jersey..
Pennsylvania,

4.07-4.75-4.36
3.50-3.50-3.50

1867:
1868:
1869:

1870:

1871:
1872:
1873:

1874:
1875:

1889:

1890:

California......
Illinois..........
Indiana.........
Maryland......
Missouri------New Jersey.-.
New York___
Ohio.............
Pennsylvania-

0)
0)
54-54-54

54-54-54
52-52-52
54-54-54
48-54-51
44-55-46
54-54-54
51-54-53

1891:

(2
)

2.59-6.50-5.34
3.55-9.70-4.65
3.68-4.85-4.35
3.13-6.00-5.37
1.13-5.74-3.80
3.29-7.73-4.44
1.67-6.15-4.27
1.87-9.21-4.40

Illinois..........
New Jersey.._
New York___

53-53-53

Indiana.........
New Jersey.

54-54-54

New Jersey...

55-55-55

.7 5 - .7 5 - .75

New Jersey...

54-60-54

2.50-10.00-3.97

8

1892:

0)

1893:

3.83-4.07-3.96
4.87-5.47-5.15
3.92-5.00-4.85
5.90-5.90-5.90
4.87-5.47-5.15

1898:

1876:

8

i Not reported.




* $10.00-$10.00-$10.00.

234
T

a b le

PART 2.— FROM 1840 TO 1928
E -2 .— Blowers (green glass), males, 1890-1907, by geographic division and
year
North Atlantic
Year

a b le

52.7
51.7
52.1
52.8
51.8
51.6
51.7
51.8
52.7
50.8
51.0
51.0
51.0
51.0
51.1
50.9
47.9
47.8

1.511
.499
.538
.503
.507
.495
.502
.486
.478
.538
.593
.633
.597
.605
.710
.672
.762
.796

North Atlantic

50.6
50.5
50.5
50.7
50.5
50.6
50. 6
50.6
50.6
50.6
50.8
50.5
50.5
50.7
49.6
49.8
49.6
49.7

1900..
1901-.
1902..
1903..
1904..
19051906..
1907-

50.0
50.0

$0.799

North Central

South Atlantic

$0.555
.559
.534
.543
.581
.541
.562
.572
.532
.562
.567
.600
.588
.561
.605
.604
.641
.657

49.5
49.5
49.5
49.5
49.5
49.5
49.5
49.5
49.5
49.5
49.5
49.5
49.5
49.5
50.5
49.0
50.0
49.9

i. 452
.452
.469
.472
.482
.496
.494
.492
.476
.505
.498
.496
.526
.515
.618
.656
.672
.681

55.4
55.5

$0,574
.570

E -4 .— Blowers (bottles, tableware, window and lighting ware), males, 1919,
by State and year
Indiana
Year

1919........................

New Jersey

____ _

* Not reported.



New York

Ohio

Hours
Rate
Hours
Rate
Hours
Rate
Hours
Rate
per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour
0

$1.011

0

0)

$1,055

$0,856
Virginia

Pennsylvania
1919

$0,788
.785
.770

Rate
Hours
Rate
Hours
Rate
Hours
per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour

1890..
1891-.
18921893_.
1894..
1895..
'1896. .
1897-.

a b le

49.0
49.6
49.5

E -3 .— Blowers (flint glass), males, 1890-1907, by geographic division and year

Year

T

South Atlantic

Rate
Rate
Hours
Hours
Hours
Rate
per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour

1S90.
1891.
1892.
1893.
1894.
1895.
1896.
1897.
1898.
1899.
1900.
1901.
1902.
1903.
1904.
1905.
1906.
1907.
T

North Central

0

$0,852

(0

$0,809

West Virginia
0

$0,980

0

$0,905

235

E.— GLASS AND CLAY PRODUCTS
T a b le E -5.— Potters, 1840-1895, by year and State
Lowest, highest, and
average—
Sex

Year and State

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Sex

Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)
1840:
Ohio.
1865:
Massachusetts....
1872:
Ohio.........
1877:
New Jersey
Ohio_____
1879:
Ohio.........
1880:
New Jersey .
1881:
New Jersey .
Ohio..........
1882:
Ohio..........

M. 60-60-60 0.80-1.20-1.00
M. 60-60-60 2.50-2.50-2.50
M.

1.50-2.50-2.08

(9

M. 64-64-64 2.25-2.25-2. 25
M.
2.00-2.50-2.46
(9
M.

1. 75-2.50-2.20

(9

M.
0)
M.
M.

60-60-60 3.00-3.00-3.00
58-65-61 1.00-2.00-1.56
60-60-60 2.00-2.00-2.00
56-60-60 2.00-2.00-2.00

0) 48-60-57 2.00-3.00-2.50
0) 60-60-60 2.50-2.50-2.50
M. 48-66-58 1.50-3.00-2.28

New Jersey.
Ohio..........
1884:
Iowa..........
Michigan__
New Jersey.
1886:
California.
Do____

M. 60-60-60 1.00-2.00-1.50
M.
1.50-1.50-1.50
(0
M. 60-60-60 2.71-2.71-2.71
M. 60-60-60 1.00-4.00-2.00
M. 60-60-60 *1.50-1.50-1.50

Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)
1886—Continued.
Illinois................
Ohio...................
1887:
Ohio...................
Wisconsin...........
1888:
Michigan............
New Jersey.........
New York..........
1890:
Minnesota..........
New York..........
1891:
New York______
1892:
Ohio...................
1893:
Illinois................
Maryland...........
D o ...............
Massachusetts___
New York..........
Ohio...................
1894:
Massachusetts___
Ohio...................
West Virginia.
1895:
Massachusetts___

1 Not reported.

M. 54-60-57 1.35-2.50-1.89
1.15-2.42-1.87
M.
(9
M. 48-63-55 .66-3.50-2.31
1.25-1.25-1.25
M.
(9
M. 60-60-60 1.75-1.75-1.75
M. 60-60-60 1.60-3.50-1.92
M. 60-60-60 1.25-3.00-2.68
M.
M.
M.

1.25-2.75-1.64
3.00-3.00-3.00

h
«9

.42-3.00-2.41
. 50-4.00-2.14

M. 45-60-57
M.
M.
F.
M.
M.
M.

60-60-60
55-72-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
59-59-59
60-60-60

2.00-2.00-2.00
.42-3.33-1.60
.25-1.67- .76
2.80-5.70-3.83
2.17-2.17-2.17
4.00-4.00-4.00

M. 60-60-60 2.50-3.60-3.05
M. 54-60-54 2.00-2.61-2.54
M. 60-60-60 1.80-1.80-1.80
M. 60-60-60 2.50-3.36-2.79

2 And board.

T a b l e E -6 .— Jiggers, males, 1919, by State and year
New York
Year

New Jersey

Ohio

West Virginia

Hours
Hours
Hours
Rate
Hours
Rate
Rate
Rate
per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour

1919.....................

$0,830

(9

(0

$0.772

$0,812

(9

$0,721

(9

* Not reported.
T a b l e E -7 .— Jiggers, males, 1925} by group and year
[Group 1 includes 5 East Liverpool, Ohio, and 6 near-by West Virginia potteries; Group 2 includes 11 small
potteries in East Liverpool, Ohio; Group 3 includes 15 potteries outside of East Liverpool, Ohio, 2 in
Pennsylvania, and 1 in West Virginia; Group 4 includes 3 potteries in Trenton, N .J.; and Group 5 covers
1 pottery each in Maryland, Tennessee, and Virginia]
Group 1
Year

1925_____________

Group 2

Group 3

Group 4

Group 5

■
y
Hours
per
week

Rate
per
hour

Hours
per
week

Rate
per
hour

Hours
per
week

Rate
per
hour

Hours
per
week

Rate
per
hour

Hours
per
week

(9

$0,955

(9

$0,836

(9

$0,909

(9

$0,892

(9

i Not reported.
61298°— 29------ 16



Rate
per
hour
$0,794

236

PAKT 2.— FROM 1840 TO 1928
T

E -8 .— Kiln placers, males, 1919, by State and year

a b le

New York
Year

West Virginia

New Jersey

Ohio

Hours
Hours
Hours
Rate
Rate
Hours
Rate
Rate
per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour

1919........................

$0,809

(9

(9

$0,844

$0,870

(9

$0,800

(9

i Not reported.
T

a b le

E -9 .— Kiln placers, males, 1925, by group and year
[For explanation of groups see Table E-7.]
Group 1

Group 2

Group 3

Group 4

Group 5

Year

Hours
per
week

Rate
per
hour

Hours
per
week

Rate
per
hour

Hours
per
week

Rate
per
hour

Hours
per
week

Rate
per
hour

Hours
per
week

1925.......................

(9

$1.076

(9

$0,978

(9

$1.012

(9

$1.127

(9

Rate
per
hour
$1.164

i Not reported.
T a b l e E-10.— Turners, clay and pottery products, 1872-1896, by year and State
Lowest, highest, and
average—
Sex

Year and State

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Sex

Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)
1872:
Ohio...................
1877:
Ohio...................
1879:
Ohio._................
1879:
Pennsylvania___
1882:
O h io ._________
1884:
New Jersey_____
Ohio...................
1886:
New Jersey_____
1887:
Ohio...................
Do................

M.

(9

3.33-3.33-3.33

M.

(9

2.50-2.50-2.50

M.

(9

2.50-2.50-2.50

(9

54-60-57

1.00-1.50-1.25

(9

48-60-52 1.50-3.00-2.56

M. 60-60-60 2.08-2.08-2.08
M. 30-54-48 1.00-2.78-2.25
M. 60-60-60 3.00-3.00-3.00
F. 54-54-56 1.00-1.33-1.11
M. 48-60-54 1.50-3.00-2.42

Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)
1888:
New York______
1890:
New York______
Ohio...................
1891:
New York...........
Ohio___________
1892:
Ohio...................
1893:
Ohio___________
1894:
Ohio...................
Do................
1896:
Ohio...................

M. 53-54-54 1.67-2.50-2.12
M.
(9

2.00-3.45-3.21
1.00-3.00-2.26

(9

42-60-53

M.
2.00-3.45-2.68
(9
M. 48-60-57 2.00-3.40-2.44
(9

44-60-53

.75-5.00-2.55

M. 48-60-58 2.00-3.00-2.50
M. 54-60-55 1.37-3.00-2.31
F. 60-60-60 . 75- . 75- . 75
M. 54-54-54 2.63-2.79-2.71

i Not reported.
T a b l e E - l l .— Turners, males, 1919, by State and year
New York
Year

1919........................

1Not reported*



New Jersey

West Virginia

Ohio

Rate
Hours
Rate
Rate
Hours
Rate
Hours
Hours
per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour
(9

$0,860

(9

$0,636

(9

$0,845

(9

$0,807

237

E.— GLASS AND CLAT PRODUCTS
T a b l e E -12.— Turners, males, 1925,
Group 1

Group 2

group and year

Group 3

Group 4

Group 5

Year

Hours
per
week

Bate
per
hour

Hours
per
week

Bate
per
hour

Hours
per
week

Bate
per
hour

Hours
per
week

Bate
per
hour

Hours
per
week

1925.......................

(*)

$0,928

0)

$0,922

(*)

$0,982

(*)

$0,602

0




Bate
per
hour
$1,169

F.— IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY
The sources from which wage data were secured are the fifteenth
and the nineteenth annual reports of the Commissioner of Labor
Statistics and bulletins of the Bureau of Labor Statistics Nos. 59, 65,
71, 77, 151, 168, 218, 265, 305, 353, 381, and 442.
In the early years, 1840 to 1900, Table F-16, certain employees
were reported as fillers. These reports may have included those
who did both top and bottom filling.
In later years and in the overlapping period from 1890 to 1926
details are shown for top fillers, Tables F-17 and F-18. Bottom
fillers were reported from 1897 to 1915, and for two districts in a few
later years, Table F-19. Wages and hours are also shown for skip
operators from 1907 to 1926, see Table F-20. These employees
have largely supplanted the work performed by top fillers. Mechan­
ical filling instead of hand^ filling of stacks is merely a short term
covering a whole series of improvements in the method of charging
the furnace. It does away with bottom fillers and their helpers, top
fillers and their helpers, and substitutes larrymen and their helpers
and skip operators. In some plants this change alone cut the time in
man-hours of labor per ton of output by one-half.
The pig-casting machine displaces a considerable number of sand
cutters, iron carriers, and miscellaneous yard labor. The pig machine
brings about a savings of labor in the iron yard because of the fact that
the pigs are elevated in the process of cooling and permits them to drop
into gondolas and open cars from which they are unloaded by loco­
motive cranes.
The ore bridge and car dumper have also exerted an influence on
labor time. One or two men with a car dumper can ^handle all the
ore that a one or two furnace plant can use whereby if it had to be
shoveled out by hand the labor cost would be prohibitive. An ore
bridge with a crew of two operators and two oilers removes the ore
from the stock pile and keeps the bins supplied and eliminates the
use of several locomotive cranes and reduces the amount of railroad
transportation in the plant, thus cutting the labor force.
Charging machines in open hearth furnaces have eliminated many
men, as furnaces were originally charged by hand the materials being
laid on a peel and pushed into the furnace, but with modern large fur­
naces both on account of the time required and the arduousness of the
labor this is done by a charging machine.
The 3-high roll null which took the place of the old 2-high makes it
possible to greatly increase the output of mills' rolling plates and
shapes of large size, as it takes too long and too many men to drag
and shove the piece back over the top of the roll after the first pass,
but about 1857 the idea of a 3-high mill was conceived, which has
three rolls set one above the other in which the center roll rotates in
the opposite direction of the upper and lower rolls. In mills of this

http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
238
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

239

F.— IRON AND STEEL

type the rolls can be operated at great speed and the material carried
through in some types of mills almost at the rate of better than a half
mile a minute. The only disadvantage of a 3-high mill is the power
necessary to raise large weights up to the pass over the middle roll.
The continuous rolling mills which are now coming into use in
rolling sheet product is revolutionizing the old hand method of rolling
sheets. This is the newest invention in the iron and steel industry.
About 20 men in the electrical, mechanical, and operating crews in
charge of an entire mill for an 8-hour shift will produce a tonnage
equal to that of 360 men on the hot-mill crews of 40 hand mills in an
8-hour shift.
Mechanical puddling machines are now taking the place of hand
puddling with a great saving in labor time, but this operation is so
new that no available data can be given, the bureau having made no
study of this process.
T a b l e F - l . — Catchers, bar mills, 1840-1899, by year and State
Lowest, highest, and
Year and State

Sex

Lowest, highest, and
Year and State

Hours per Bate per day
week
(dollars)
1840:

New York.

60- 60-60

1.00-1.25-1.13

New York.

60- 60-60

.75-1.25-1.00

New York.

60- 60-60

. 75- . 75- . 75

New York.

60- 60-60

. 88- . 88- .88

New York.

60- 60-60

1.25-1.25-1.25

New York.

60- 60-60

. 56- . 56- . 56

New York.

60- 60-60

. 44-1.00- . 54

New York.

60- 60-60

.44-1.00- .73

New York.

60- 60-60

.44-1.00- .61

New York.

60- 60-60

.50- . 63- . 57

New York.

60- 60-60

1842:

1843:
1844:
1845:
1847:
1849:

1850:

1851:
1852:
1853:

1854:

. 38- . 63- . 50

New York.

60- 60-60

.44-1.00- .63

New York.

60- 60-60

.44- .81- .60

New York.

60- 60-60

. 63-1.13- . 95

1855:
1856:
1857:

New York.

60- 60-60

.44-1.13- .82

New York.

60- 60-60

.50- . 88- .77

New York.

60- 60-60

. 50-1.00- . 83

1858:
1859:

1860:

Hours per Bate per day
week
(dollars)
1866:

New York__

60- 60-60

1.00-4.25-1.95

New York_
_

60- 60-60

1.00-4. 25-2; 03

New York_
_

60- 60-60

1.38-1.75-1.60

New York_
_

60- 60-60

1.06-1.75-1.41
1.00-1. 75-1. 52

1867:
1868:
1869:

1870:

New York__

60- 60-60

New York_
_

60- 60-60

1.13-1.75-1.48

New York__

60- 60-60

1.00-2.13-1.55

New York__

60- 60-60

. 63-2.13-1.57

New York__
Pennsylvania.

60- 60-60

1. 25-1.88-1.51
1. 25-3.67-2.31

New York__
Pennsylvania.

60- 60-60

0

1.13-1. 75-1.42
1.68-2.82-2.28

New York__
Pennsylvania

60- 60-60

0)

1.04-1.40-1.20
. 64-6.00-1.88

New York__
Ohio............

60- 60-60

0)

1.13-1.40-1.24
1.33-4.17-2.60

New York__
Pennsylvania.

60- 60-60
48-72-58

1.00-1.25-1.10
. 98-2.75-1.75

New York__
Pennsylvania

60- 60-60
60- 60-60

. 50-1.25- . 97
. 60-4.00-2.10

55-55-55
60- 60-60
66- 66-66

1.50-1.50-1.50
1.20-1.70-1.55
1.44-1.44-1.44

60- 60-60

1.00-1.95-1.59

60- 60-60

. 65-1.68-1.35

72-72-72
60- 60-60

1.17-2.00-1.54
1.00-1.68-1.47

1871:

1872:
1873:
1874:

1875:

1876:
1877:

1878:
1879:

0)

1880:

New York.

60- 60-60

.56-1.06- .85

New York.

60- 60-60

. 56-1.25- . 90

New York.

60- 60-60

. 56-1.06- . 87

1881:

New York.

60- 60-60

.63-1.38-1.06

1882:

New York.

60- 60-60

.75-2.00-1.39

1883:

New York.

60- 60-60

1.13-2.00-1.59

1861:

1862:
1863:

1864:

1865:




New Jersey...
New York__
Pennsylvania.

New York__
New York_
_

New Jersey...
New York__

240

PART 2.— FROM 1840 TO 1928

T a b le F - l .— Catchers, bar mills, 1840-1899, by year and State— Continued
Lowest, highest, and

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Sex

Year and State
Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)

1884:
New Jersey.........
New York...........
1885:
Delaware............
Illinois................
Indiana..............
Kentucky...........
New Jersey.........
New York..........
Ohio..................
Pennsylvania
Virginia..............
West Virginia----1886:
New Jersey.........
New York..........
1887:
New York..........
Ohio..................
Pennsylvania......
Wisconsin...........
1888:
New Jersey.........
1889:
Alabama.............
Delaware............
Illinois................
Indiana..............
Maryland...........
New York...........
Ohio... ...............
Pennsylvania......
Tennessee...........

M. 54-72-59 1.62-2.53-1.84
M. 60-60-60 .90-1.50-1.40
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
54-72-63
60-72-64
60-72-64
60-72-68
48-60-52
60-60-60

1.77-1.77-1.77
2.00-0.30 3.83
3.75-3.75-3.75
2.75-4.00-3.25
. 83-1.33-1.17
1.50-2.60-1.97
1.25-4.84-2.54
2.07-4.00-2.69
1.38-2.25-1.69
2.50-2.50-2.50

M. 60-60-60 1.00-1.47-1.27
M. 60-60-60 1.50-1.50-1.50
M. 60-60-60 1.30-1.30-1.30
M. 54-60-57 1.50-4.00-2.40
M.
2.31-9.47-3.63
0
M.
4.00-4.00-4.00
0
M.

0

1.40-3.43-2.44

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

0
60-60-60
60-72-70
66-72-68
0
60-60-60
44-66-55
60-66-59
0

1.15-2.17-1.83
1.40-1.66-1.60
1.31-7.76-2.83
1.20-4.41-2.16
1.87-1.87-1.87
1.34-2.64-1.81
1.35-7.00-2.68
1.25-5.32-2.10
1.50-2.50-1.74

Sex
Hours per Rate per day
(dollars)
week

1889—Continued.
Virginia..........
West Virginia___
1890:
Alabama.........
Wisconsin____
1891:
New York.......
1892:
Missouri.........
New York......
Ohio.... .........
1893:
New York......
1894:
New York......
1895:
Ohio..............
Wisconsin____
1896:
Connecticut_
_
New York......
Pennsylvania..
1897:
New York......
Ohio..............
Pennsylvania..
1898:
Ohio............. .
Pennsylvania..
1899:
Ohio..............
Pennsylvania..

65-55-55 1.00-2.25-1.86
2.50-2.50-2.50

0

56-60-56 2.25-5.00-3.11
56-56-55 3.60-3.60-3.60

0
0
0
0

1.60-2.08-1.88

48-48-48 2.10-2.75-2.46
1.35-1.36-1.36
48-63-54 1.00-8.00-2.74
1.35-1.35-1.36
1.35-1.36-1.35

48-72-55 1.00-7.70-2.67
66- 66-66 4.00-4.00-4.00
60-60-60 2.25-2.25-2.25
60-60-60 1.75-1.75-1.75
60-72-69 .98-2.26-1.94
60-60-60 1.65-1.65-1.65
48-72-53 . 70-8.00-2.51
1.58-2.87-2.10

0
8
8

1.04-7.00-2.90
1.17-5.00-3.11
1.25-8.40-3.39
1.70-7.09-3.42

i Not reported.
T

a b le

F—
2.— Catchers, males, bar mills, 1890-1907, by geographic division and year
North Atlantic
Year

South Atlantic

North Central

South Central

Hours
Rate
Hours
Rate
Hours
Rate
Rate
Hours
per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour

1890........................
1891........................
1892........................
1893........................
1894........................
1895........................
1896........................
1897........................
1898........................
1899........................
1900........................
1901........................
1902.........................
1903........................
1904........................
1905........................
1906.........................
1907........................




65.6
65.7
65.7
65.9
65.6
64.8
64.8
64.8
64.8
64.8
64.8
64.8
66.9
66.2
61.4
65.6
64.0
63.9

$0,324
.287
.283
.301
.262
.282
.293
.299
.284
.335
.350
.336
.358
.418
.295
.298
.334
.348

60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.9
60.9

$0,232
.232
.219
.204
.217
.212
.225
.180
.176
.180
.225
.233
.248
.242
.228
.263
.263
.273

72.0
72.0
72.0
72.0
72.0
72.0
72.0
57.6
57.6
56.4
60.0
59.5
60.3
63.8
64.4
66.7
67.4
67.4

$0,594
.600
.535
.484
.475
.510
.497
.502
.536
.541
.504
.475
.626
.688
.517
.488
.549
.632

60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
72.0
72.0
72.0
72.0
72.0

$0,132
.153
.147
.108
.095
.093
.135
.143
.126
.157
.146
.132
.162
.141
.266
.263
.265
.306

P.—IR N A D ST E
O N
EL
T

a b le

241

F -3 .— Catchers, males, bar mills, 1907-1926, by geographic division and year
Pittsburgh

Eastern

Qreat Lakes and
Middle West

Southern

Year
Rate
Hours
Rate
Hours
Rate
Hours
Rate
Hours
per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour
61.6
59.1
59.1
58.9
58.5
57.8
56.5
57.2
57.2

1907........................
1908........................
1909........................
1910........................
1911........................
1912........................
1913........................
1914........................
1915........................
1919........................
1920........................
1922______ ________
1924.......... *............
1926.......... .............

(9

56.7
56.9
55.2
55.2

$0,314
.301
.297
.326
.309
.332
.389
.398
.400
.797
.840
.606
.717
.711

65.9
66.2
66.0
62.2
62.0
61.3
61.8
62.2
61.5
(9

62.8
57.6
52.6
51.9

$0,478
.375
.428
.452
.417
.419
.438
.400
.426
.922
.983
.752
.822
.908

55.4
55.4
55.4
55.4
55.4
55.5
56.0
57.0
58.3

$0,440
.456
.423
.465
.455
.568
.522
.484
.471
1.047
1.290
.805
.955
.962

(9

50.2
54.1
56.2
52.7

54.7
54.8
55.4
(9

63.6
64.3
58.1
56.7

$0,429
.433
.402
*741
.858
•650
.714
.615

* Not reported.
T a b l e F -4 .— Rollers, bar mills, 1840-1899, by year and State
Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Year and State Sex

1840:
Pennsylvania-.. M.
1841:
Pennsylvania. — M.
1842:
New York........ M.
Pennsylvania.— M.
1843:
New York........ M.
Pennsylvania- — M.
10AA•
ion*
New York...... . M.
Pennsylvania-_~ M.
1845:
New York........ M.
Pennsylvania-— M.
1846:
New York........ M.
Pennsylvania-— M.
1847:
Pennsylvania— M.
1848:
New York____ M.
Pennsylvania. — M.
1849:
New York____ M.
Pennsylvania. __ M.
1850:
Pennsylvania- M.
1851:
Pennsylvania__ M.
1852:
Pennsylvania... M.
1853:
New York____ M.
Pennsylvania... M.
1854:
New York____ M.
Pennsylvania. .. M.
1855:
New York........ M.
Pennsylvania.-_ M.
1856:
Pennsylvania. — M.
1857:

Pennsylvania. M.

Lowest, highest, and
average—

Hours per
week

(9

2.88- 2.88- 2.88

(9

2.88- 2.88- 2.88

Sex
Hours per
week

Rate per day
(dollars)

60-60-60 2.75- 2.75- 2.75
2.88- 2.88- 2.88
(9
60-60-60 2.00- 2.00- 2.00
2.88- 2.88- 2.88
(9
60-60-60 2.00- 2.00- 2.00
2.88- 2.88- 2.88
(9
60-60-60 2.00- 2.00- 2.00
2.88- 2.88- 2.88
(9
60-60-60 2.00- 2.00- 2.00
2.88- 2.88- 2.88
(9
(9

2.88- 2.88- 2.88

60-60-60 2.00- 2.00- 2.00
2.88- 2.88- 2.88
(9
60-60-60 2.00- 2.00- 2.00
2.88- 2.88- 2.88
(9
(9

2.52- 2.52- 2.52

(9

2.52- 2.52- 2.52

<9

2.52- 2.52- 2.52

60-60-60 2.00- 2.00- 2.00
3.20- 3.20- 3.20
(9
60-60-60 2.00- 2.00- 2.00
3.20- 3.20- 3.20
(9
60-60-60 2.00- 2.00- 2.00
3.20- 3.20- 3.20
(9

http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/ .
*Ntre ote
o pr d
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

(9

3.48- 3.48- 3.48

(9

3.48- 3.48- 3.48

1858:
Pennsylvania- M.
1859:
Pennsylvania-— M.
1860:
Pennsylvania- __ M.
1861:
Pennsylvania__ M.
1862:
Pennsylvania.— M.
IfcA *
?•
lo w1
Pennsylvania. __ M.
1864:
New York____ M.
Pennsylvania— M.
1865:
New Ydrk
M.
Pennsylvania- M.
1866:
New York____ M.
Pennsylvania-. - M.
1867:
New York........ M.
Pennsylvania— M.
68:
New York____ M.
18Pennsylvania. — M.
1869:
New York____ M.
Pennsylvania.— M.
1870:
Pennsylvania.— M .
1871:
Massachusetts.. M.
New York____ M.
Pennsylvania.— M.
1872:
New York____ M.
Ohio................ M.
Pennsylvania... (9
Do_______ M.
1873:
New York........ M.
Pennsylvania— M.
1874:
Pennsylvania... M.

Rate per day
(dollars)

(9

3.00- 3.00- 3.00

(9

3.00- 3.00- 3.00

(9

3.20- 3.20- 3.20

(9

3.20- 3.20- 3.20

(9

4.00- 4.00- 4.00

(9

4.40- 4.40- 4.40

60-60-60 4.00- 4.00- 4.00
5.60- 5.60- 5.60
(9
60-60-60 4.00- 4.25- 4.14
4.40- 4.40- 4.40
(9
60-60-60 4.00- 5.00- 4.15
5.28- 5.28- 5.28
(9
60-60-60 4.00- 5.00- 4.23
4.95- 4.95- 4.95
(9
60-60-60 4.00- 4.00- 4.00
5.67- 5.67- 5.67
(9
60-60-60 4.00- 4.00- 4.00
4.50- 4.50- 4.50
(9
(9

4.50- 4.50- 4.50

60-60-60 2.25- 2.68- 2.35
60-60-60 4.50- 4.50- 4.50
4.50- 4.50- 4.50
(9
60-60-60 4.50- 4.50- 4.50
5.00-10.83- 7.11
(9
60-60-60 7.29-7.29- 7.29
5.76- 5.76- 5.76
(9
60-60-60 4.50-4.50- 4.50
4.50- 4.50- 4.50
(9
(9

L50- 7.33- 2.86

242
T

PART 2.— FROM 1840 TO 1928
a b le

F -4 .— Rollers, bar mills, 1840-1899,

year and State— Continued

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Sex

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Sex

Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)
1875:
Pennsylvania
M.
1876:
Pennsylvania. __ M .
1877:
Ohio................ M.
Pennsylvania— M.
1878:
Ohio—............. M
Pennsylvania.— M.
1879:
Ohio................ M.
Pennsylvania. __ M.
1880:
Ohio................ M
Pennsylvania— M.
1881:
New York____ M.
Ohio_________ M.
Pennsylvania-— M .
1882:
New York____ M.
Ohio................ M.
Pennsylvania. __ M .
1883:
Michigan_____ M.
New Jersey____ M.
New York____ M .
Ohio_________ M .
Pennsylvania. — M.
1884:
Illinois............. M.
New Jersey____ M.
Ohio................ M.
Pennsylvania. M.
1885:
Delaware......... M.
Illinois............. M.
Indiana_______ M.
Kentucky_____ M.
New Jersey____ M .
New York........ M .
Ohio................ M .
Pennsylvania... M .
Virginia.......... . M.
West Virginia... M .
Wisconsin........ M .
1886:
New Jersey____ M.
New York_____ M.
Ohio................ M.
Pennsylvania. - M.
1887:
New York_____ M.
Ohio................ M.
Pennsylvania.. . M .
Wisconsin........ M.




0

1.92- 4.92- 3.47

0

1.40- 8.80- 3.53

65-72-68 1.67- 8.33- 5.33
3.60- 3.60- 3.60
0
2.50- 8.00- 4.02
0
48-72-61 1.50- 7.00- 4.39
2.58-10.00- 5.14
0
57-72-61 1.20- 7.00- 2.81
4.17-10.00- 6.18
0
48-72-66 2,85- 8.00- 5.07
60-60-60 4.00- 5.00- 4.50
42-60-57 4.00-15.00- 5.88
48-72-60 3.00-10.00- 6.02
60-60-60 5.00—5.00- 5.00
53-66-60 4.17- 6.67- 5.61
42-72-56 8.50- 7.00- 4.78
0
66-72-72
60-60-60
54-72-61
0)
66-66-66
48-72-69
W
0
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
54-72-65
48-60-59
60-72-63
48-60-55
48-60-54
60-60-60
60-60-60

3.00- 4.00- 3.29
3.00- 7.00- 4.31
5.00- 6.50- 5.75
3.17- 6.00- 4.56
3.60- 3.60- 3.60

60-60-60
60-60-60
0)
0
60-60-60
42-72-60
0
0

1.00- 1.83- 1.31
4.50- 4.50- 4.50
3.02- 6.01- 4.20
3.38- 3.38- 3.38

4.00-10.00- 8.00
3.17- 3.65- 3.24
3.25-12.50- 6.95
3.15- 3.15- 3.15
1.50- 2.75- 2.29
5.30-11.65- 7.72
4,50-10.00- 7.17
3.50- 9.25- 7.44
.83- 2.00- 1.32
4.40- 6.00- 4.94
1.54r-12.00- 6.92
3.15-10.00- 5.35
2.30- 4.50- 3.64
5.00- 7.00- 6.00
3.66- 3.66- 3.66

4.50- 4.50- 4.50
3.00-33.82- 6.53
3.00-21.86- 7.95
3.00-10.00- 9.15

Hours per Rate per day
(dollars)
week
1888:
New Jersey....... M.
Pennsylvania. — M.
Tennessee......... M.
West Virginia... M .
1889:
Alabama......... M.
Delaware-........ M.
Illinois............. M .
Indiana............ M .
Maryland......... M .
New York........ M.
Ohio................ M.
Pennsylvania. — M.
Tennessee_____ M .
Virginia_______ M.
West Virginia__ M.
1890:
Alabam a.___ M.
New York........ M .
Pennsylvania- „ M .
Wisconsin...___ M .
1891:
New York____ M.
Pennsylvania - — M .
1892:
Indiana_______ M .
Missouri______ M .
New York____ M .
Ohio......... ...... <9
Pennsylvania. ... M .
1893:
New York____ M.
1894:
Indiana_______ M.
New York____ M.
West Virginia— M .
1895:
New York____ M .
Ohio_____ ____ M .
Pennsylvania... M.
1896:
Illinois—______ M.
M.
Pennsylvania
1897:
Ohio................ 0
Pennsylvania­ M .
n s:
Ohio............... M.
Pennsylvania. — M .
1899:
Ohio................ M.
Pennsylvania
M.

0
0
0
66-66-66

1.67- 7.67- 3.78
3.71- 3.71- 3.71
5.00- 6.00- 5.67
4.47-4.47-4.47

60-60-60 5.00-10.00- 7.04
60-60-60 1.64- 2.80- 2.38
60-72-72 2.50- 7.00- 6.05
66-66-66 3.13-4.86-4.00
60-60-60 1.50- 2.80-2.37
60-60-60 2.25- 7.50- 5.22
44-70-56 4.00-25.83- 7.20
50-66-60 1.63-19.23- 6.13
1. 50-10.40- 4.10
0
55-55-55 12.90-12.90-12.90
66-66-66- 5.29- 7.67- 6.01
55-60-56
60-60-60
0
55-55-55
0
48-60-56
48-48-48
0)
48-63-55
0
0
48-51-50
0)
54-54-54

4.17- 5. 50- 4.68
2. 50- 4.50- 2.68
3,96- 3.96- 3,96
4.25- 4.25- 4.25
1.00- 5.00- 2.13
3.96- 3.96- 3.96
3.05- 5.50- 4.13
7.00-10.50- 9.36
6.75- 6.75- 6.75
3.50-30.00-9.96
3.96- 3.96- 3.96
6.75- 6.75- 6,75
6.00- 9.00- 7.50
6.75- 6.75- 6.75
1.25- 1.25- 1.25

60-60-60 1.25- 6.75- 4.92
48-72-55 2.00-13.50- 7.27
60-80-60 1.25- 1.25- 1.25
60-60-60 1.75- 1.75- 1.75
60-72-69 2.17- 5.00-4.06
48-72-54 .80-25.00- 8.33
4.37- 6.32- 5.37
0
0)
0

3.50-20.84- 7.43
.90- 8.50- 3.86

(1
)
0

4.75-25.00-10.69
.95-15.47- 2.99

243

F.— IKON AND STEEL
T a b le

F -5 .— Rollers, males, bar mills, 1890-1907,
North Atlantic
Year

a b le

geographic division and year

North Central

South Central

Rate
Hours
Rate
Hours
Rate
Hours
Rate
Hours
pei week per hour per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour
64.4
64.8
65.1
64.6
64.8
64.4
64.4
64.4
64.4
64.4
64.4
64.4
64.8
64.8
62.2
63.6
63.8
63.7

1890........................
1891........................
1892........................
1893........................
1894........................
1895.......................
1896......................
1897..................... .
1898... ....................
1899.......... .............
1900.......................
1901.......... .............
1902........................
1903........................
1904........................
1905.......................
1906........................
1907........................
T

South Atlantic

6?/

$0,563
.554
.531
.554
.528
.546
.539
.585
.553
.581
.625
.645
.657
.737
.698
.719
.704
.773

60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
61.3
61.3

$0,720
.697
.707
.627
.631
.568
.624
.562
.536
.540
.655
.663
.653
.654
.560
.668
.700
.774

72.0
72.0
72.0
72.0
72.0
72.0
72.0
57.6
57.6
57.6
64.0
64.0
64.0
64.0
70.3
71.7
70.3
70.3

$1,022
1.032
.900
.894
.793
.880
.933
1.050
1.084
1.429
1.127
1.192
1.441
1.423
1.063
.966
1.085
1.040

60.0
mo
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
72.0
72.0
72.0
72.0

$0,519
.589
.552
.378
.328
.325
.540
.542
.476
.600
.600
.585
.681
.594
.629
.306
.940
1.006

F -6 .— Rollers, males, 6ar raiWs, 1907-1926, by geographic division and year
Eastern

Pittsburgh

Great Lakes and
Middle West

Southern

Year
Hours
Hours
Hours
Rate
Hours
Rate
Rate
Rate
per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour
1907.............................
1908.............................
1909.............................
1910...........................
1911.............................
1912.............................
1913_________ ______
1914.............................
1915-..........................
1919.............................
1920................. ..........
1922________________
1924.......................... .
1926.............................

1 Not reported.




60.7
59.8
59.8
58.6
58.4
58.6
57.4
58.0
57.9
0)
56.6
58.5
56.5

55.9

$0,777
.776
.830
.748
.741
.772
.811
.823
.836
1.375
1.566
1.063
1.347
1.379

66.9
67.3
66.9
62.9
62.2
61.3
61.7
61.7
60.9
0)
61.0
56.7
51.4
51.0

$1,097
.929
1.014
1.048
.937
.933
1.074
.926
.987
1.748
1.912
1.470
1.681
1. 756

65.6
66.7
66.7

66.8
65.8

66.2

60.3
59.7
60.4
0)
67.7
58.9
54.1
52.9

$0,999
.853
.799
.785
.854
.803
1.019
1.050
1.014
2.077
2.433
1.676
1.673
1.832

55.1
55.2
55.2
0)
62.7
63.1
57.9
57.2

$1,006
.945
.876
1.745
1.941
1.408
1.474
1.589

244

PART 2.— FROM 1840 TO 1928
T able F -7 .—

Roughers, bar mills, 1848-1899, by year and State

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State
1843:

Sex

Hours per Bate per day
(dollars)
week

Year and State
1879—Continued.

60-60-60 0.95-2.00-1.42
5.00-5.00-5.00
0)
54-72-62 1.30-4.59-2.83

New York____
Pennsylvania-..

66- 66-66

New York........
Ohio.— ..........
Pennsylvania-..

60-60-60 2.10-3.00-2.51
48-48-48 5.00-5.00-5.00
66- 66-66 2.70-3.00-2.85

New York........

60-60-60 2.10-3.75-2.77

Michigan.........
New Jersey......
New York........

1.00-3.00-2.44
0
72-72-72 1.33-3.50-2.32
60-60-60 2.10-3.63-2.56

New Jersey......
New York-------

60-60-60 2.17-2.17-2.17
60-60-60 2.00-3.60-2.32

Illinois.............
Indiana............
Kentucky------New York____
Ohio................
Pennsylvania.—
Virginia...........

60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-72-67
60-72-65
48-60-52
48-60-53

New Jersey......
New York-----Ohio................

60-60-60 1.67-2.92-2.25
60-60-60 1.50-2.50-1.82
60-60-60 2.03-3.35-2.86

Ohio...............
Pennsylvania. —
Rhode Island.
Wisconsin........

54-72-60 2.25-5.00-2.95
2. 00-4.67-3.37
0)
60-60-60 3.50-3.50-3.50
4.50-4. 50-4.50
0

New JerseyNew York—

2.75-4.47-3.47
60-72-69 1.25-2.93-2.21

Alabama........
Illinois...........
Indiana..........
Missouri........
New York......
Ohio............ .
Pennsylvania - .
Tennessee.......
Virginia........ .
West Virginia..
1890:
Alabama....... .

54-54-54 1. 04-2.67-1. 68
72-72-72 2.18-5.04-3. 58
66-72-69 1.75-3.69-2.47
1.65-1.98-1.82
0
60-60-60 1.25-3.05-2.49
44-72-56 2.00-4.81-3.12
55-66-59 1.61-4.93-3.08
2.00-2.50-2.11
0
55-55-55 4.00-4.00-4.00
2.50-2.50-2.50
0

M. 60-60-60 1.38-1.50-1.40

New York......

M. 60-60-60 1.13-1.38-1.26

New York......

M. 60-60-60 1.50-1.50-1.50

New York......

M. 60-60-60 1.50-1.50-1.50

New York......

M. 60-60-60 1.50-1.50-1.50

New York......

M. 60-60-60 1.63-1.63-1.63

1882:

New York......

M. 60-60-60 1.63-1.63-1.63

1883:

New York......

M. 60-60-60 1.63-1.63-1.63

New York......

M. 60-60-60 1.63-1.63-1.63

New York......

M. 60-60-60 1.63-1.63-1.63

New York......

M. 60-60-60 1.50-1.63-1.56

New York......

M. 60-60-60 1.50-1.75-1.64

New York......

M. 60-60-60 1.38-1.75-1.61

New York___

M. 60-60-60 1.38-1.88-1.62

New York___

M. 60-60-60 1.50-1.88-1.65

New York___

M. 60-60-60 1.25-1.50-1.43

New York___

M. 60-60-60 1.25-1.63-1.45

New York___
Ohio............. .

M. 60-60-60 1.25-1.63-1.51
5.00-5.00-5.00
M.

New York-----

M. 60-60-60 1.25-1.63-1.52

New York___

M. 60-60-60 1.13-1.88-1.58

New York___

M. 60-60-60 1.50-2.50-1.91

New York___

M. 60-60-60 1.75-3.50-2.53

New York___

M. 60-60-60 1.94-1.94-1.94

New York___

M. 60-60-60 1.25-3.50-2.89

New York___

M. 60-60-60 1.25-3.50-2.78

New York___

M. 60-60-60 3.00-3.38-3.19

New York___

M. 60-60-60 1.38-2.50-1.94

New York___

M. 60-60-60 1.38-3.75-2.21

New York___

M. 60-60-60 1.63-3.25-2.29

New York___
Ohio.............

M. 60-60-60 1.85-2.75-2.24
M.
7.50-7-50-7.50

1845:

1846:

1847:

1848:
1849:

1850:

1851:
1852:

1853:

1854:
1855:

1856:

1857:

1858:
1859:

1860:

1861:
1862:
1863:

1864:
865:

1866:

1867:
1868:
1869:
1870:

1871:
1872:
1873:

0

0

New York___

M. 60-60-60 2.00-3.25-2.42

New York___
Pennsylvania-

M.

New York___
Pennsylvania..

M. 60-60-60 2.2 -2 0 .2
0 .2 -2 0
M.
3.24-3.24-3.24
0

New York___
Pennsylvania-

M. 60-60-60 1.75-2.20-1.90
1.74-2.00-1.78
M.
0

New York___

M. 60-60-60 1.75-1.75-1.75

New York___

M. 60-60-60 1.60-1.75-1.68

Missouri........

M, 60-60-60 1.75-1.75-1.75

1874:

1875:
1876:

1877:
1878:
1879:

M


i Not reported.


60-60-60

0)

1 8 .8 -1 8
.8 -1 8 .8

2.33-3.25-2.56

Hours per Bate per day
week
(dollars)

New York........
Ohio................
Pennsylvania-—

New Y ork-,—.

1844:

Sex

Lowest, highest, and
average—

1880:
1881:

1884:

1885:

1886:

1887:

New York.
1892:
Missouri—.
New York.
Ohio.........
New York.
1894:
Indiana___
New York.
Ohio.........
1895:
New York.
Ohio.........
Pennsylvania .
1897:
Ohio.............
Ohio.............
Pennsylvania.
1899:
Ohio.............
Pennsylvania .

60-60-60 1.80-2.10-1.95
2.70-3.50-2.97

3.50-3.50-3.50
3.75-3.75-3.75
1.75-3.00-2.48
1.50-3.15-2.58
1.62-4.00-3.04
2. 50-4.00-3.56
1.60-2.50-1.96

55-60-56 2.75-3.67-3.17

0

2.00-2.00-2.00

48-48-48 1.67-2.75-2.64
1.80-2.93-2.55
1.75-7.85-3.28

0

180-2.93-2.55

60-60-60 4. 50-4.50-4.50
1.80-2.93-2.55
0
60-60-60 2.70-2.70-2.70

0

48-72-57

1.80-2.93-2.65
1.40-5.75-2.93

60-72-70 2.50-3.00-2.93
48-72-55

.85-4.85-2.85

0
0
P
>
0

1.75-4.75-3.41
1.17-4.00-2.94
2.34-6.00-4.10
2.52-4.77-3.73

245

F.— IKON A.ND STEEL

T a b le F— .— Roughers, males, 1890-1907, by geographic division and year
8
North Atlantic
Year

South Atlantic

North Central

South Central

Rate
Rate
Hours
Hours
Kate
Hours
Rate
Hours
per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour
63.6
63.7
63.8
64.1
63.8
63.7
63.9
63.8
63.7
63.7
63.4
63.7
63.9
63.2
62.4
65.7
65.4
65.3

1890........................
1891........................
1892........................
1893........................
1894........................
1895...... .................
1896........................
1897........................
1898........................
1899........................
1900........................
1901........................
1902........................
1903........................
1904........................
1905........................
1906........................
1907........................

$0,309
.302
.313
.321
.294
.281
.288
.302
.283
.337
.342
.345
.367
.421
.329
.359
.385
.404

60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
61.1
61.1

$0,361
.335
.329
.315
.315
.302
.301
.279
.257
.273
.326
.317
.336
.308
.330
.355
.341
.379

72.0
72.0
72.0
72.0
72.0
72.0
72.0
56.0
55.4
55.4
59.9
60.1
60.0
63.7
60.7
61.5
61.0
61.4

$0,475
.546
.454
.406
.418
.430
.412
.430
.390
.467
.516
.567
.646
.612
.519
.504
.518
.576

60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
72.0
72.0
72.0
72.0
72.0

$0,220
.245
.236
.193
.150
.140
.196
.217
.189
.256
.219
.216
.281
.207
.323
.347
.332
.352

T a b l e F -9 .— Roughersy males, bar mills, 1907-1926, by geographic division and

year
Pittsburgh

Eastern

Great Lakes and
Middle West

Southern

Year
Rate
Hours
Hours
Rate
Rate
Hours
Hours
Rate
per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour
60.4
59.4
59.4
58.3
58.3
57.5
56.8
57.6
57.7
0
56.9
58.0
55.7
55.3

1907........................
1908........................
1909........................
1910........................
1911........................
1912.......... —...........
1913........................
1914........................
1915........................
1919........................
1920........................
1922........................
1924........................
1926______________

$0,316
.301
.337
.356
.358
.384
.410
.412
.409
.846
.927
.628
.773
.783

66.4
67.0
66.7
62.7
61.9
61.1
62.5
62.5
61.8
0
60.4
56.1
52.3
52.8

$0,424
.341
.370
.412
.37.5
.372
.450
.413
.444
.947
1.008
.722
.824
.865

56.7
58.6
58.5
60.2
59.8
59.8
55.9
56.7
57.9
0
49.9
53.8
55.2
52.5

$0,487
.365
.379
.422
.393
.435
.516
.483
.468
1.045
1,301
.830
.953
1.002

55.9
56.2
56.2
0)
64.3
64.8
58.8
55.7

$0,434
.427
.406
.768
.852
.605
.669
.639

i Not reported.
T a b l e F -1 0 .— Puddlers, puddling mills, 1840-1899,

year and State

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Sex

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Sex

Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)
1840:
Pennsylvania .....r,
1841:
Pennsylvania___
1842:
Pennsylvania......
1843:
Pennsylvania......
1844:
Pennsylvania......

M.

0

2.30-3.69-3.00

M.

0

2.30-3.45-2.88

M.

0)

2.30-3.13-2.72

M.

0

2.30-3.13-2.72

M.

0

2.30-3.13-2.72

* Not reported.



Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)
1845:
Pennsylvania..__
1846:
Pennsylvania___
1847:
Pennsylvania___
1848:
Pennsylvania___
1849:
Pennsylvania......

M.

0

2.30-3.69-3.00

M.

«*)

2.30-3.69-3.00
2.30-3.69-3.00

M.
M.

0

2.30-3.69-3.00

M.

0

2.30 3.69 3.00

246

PART 2.— FROM 1840 TO 1928

T a b le F -1 0 .— Puddlers, puddling mills, 1840—
1899, by year and State—-Con.

Year and State

Sex

1850:
Pennsylvania...... M.
1851:
Pennsylvania...... M .
1852:
Pennsylvania___ M .
1853:
Pennsylvania...... M.
1854:
Pennsj'l vania...... M .
1855:
Pennsylvania...... M .
1856:
Pennsylvania___ M .
1857:
Pennsylvania...... M .
1858:
Pennsylvania........ M .
1859:
Pennsylvania____ M .
I860:
Pennsylvania___ M .
1861:
Pennsylvania...... M.
1862:
Pennsylvania...... M.
1863:
Pennsylvania...... M .
1864:
Pennsylvania___ M.
1865:
Pennsylvania___ M.
1866:
Pennsylvania___ M.
1867:
Pennsylvania...... M.
1868:
Pennsylvania___ M.
1869:
Pennsylvania...... M.
1870:
Pennsylvania...... M.
1871:
Massachusetts___ M.
Pennsylvania___ M.
1872:
Ohio.................. M.
Pennsylvania___ 0
Do............... M.
1873:
Pennsylvania . M.
1874:
Pennsylvania...... M.
1875:
Pennsylvania___ M.
1876:
Pennsylvania...... M.
1877:
Ohio................. . M.
Pennsylvania.... M.
1878:
Ohio.................. M.
Pennsylvania___ M.
1879:
Ohio................... M.
Pennsylvania
M.
1880:
New Jersey......... 0
Ohio................... M.
Pennsylvania. . M.
1881:
Ohio................... M.
Pennsylvania
M.
Tennessee........... M.
1882:
Missouri............. M.
. Ohio...... ............. M.


i Not reported.


Lowest, highest, and
average—
Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)
I1
)

2.01-3. CO-2.51

«

2.01-3.00-2.51
1.73-3.00-2.37

0

2.59-3.00-2.80

f)

2.59-3.00-2.80

0

2.59-2.67-2.63

0

2.67-2.88-2.78

0

2.67-2.88-2.78

0

2.01-2.33-2.17

0

2.01-2.67-2.34

0

2.01-2.67-2.34

0

2.01-2.67-2.34

0

2.30-3.00-2.65

0

3.79-4.00-3.90

0

5.17-5.33-5.25

0

3.83-4.14-3.99

0

4.83-5.37-5.10

0

4 14-5.37-4. 76
*

0

4.36-4.83-4.60

0

4.144.81-4.48

(0
0
0

4.14-4. 50-4.32
2.68-2.68-2.68
4.14:—
4.66-4.40

2.67-5.83-4.47
0
60-60-60 5.72-5.72-5.72
5.35-5.60-5.48
0
4.29-4.84-4.57
0
0

2.60-4.40-3.04

0

2.76-3.75-3.42

0
55-62-59
0
60-66-63
42-72-58

2.00-3.60-2.96
2.33-5.00-4.11
2.50-3.15-2.83
2.50-4.50-3.06
2.00-5.00-3.04

3. 00-4.70-3.41
0
54-72-63 1.67-4. 75-3.39
55-58-57 2.50-3.40-2.95
2.60-6.00-3. 75
0
60-66-63 2.50-4.50-3.35
40-72-56 3.00-6.13-3.91
54-78-61 2.44-5.05-3.32
75-75-75 6.00-6.25-6.13
60-60-60 4.57-4.66-4.62
60-72-65 3.86-6. 50-5.50

Year and State

Sex

1882—Continued.
Ohio................... 0
Pennsylvania . . M.
1883:
Illinois................ M.
Indiana............... M.
Michigan............ M.
New Jersey......... M.
Ohio................... M.
Pennsylvania...... M.
1884:
Illinois................ M.
New Jersey......... M.
Ohio.................. M.
Pennsylvania...... M.
1885:
Delaware............ M.
Illinois................ M.
Indiana.............. M.
Kentucky......... M.
New Jersey......... M.
New York........... M.
Ohio................... M.
Pennsylvania...... M.
Virginia.............. M.
West Virginia...... M.
1886:
Illinois............. . M.
Missouri............. M.
New Jersey......... M.
Pennsylvania...... M.
Virginia.............. M.
Wisconsin........... M.
1887:
Ohio.......... ....... M.
Pennsylvania...... M.
Wisconsin........... M.
1888:
New Jersey......... M.
New York______ M.
Ohio................... M.
Pennsylvania___ M.
Tennessee........... M.
1889:
Alabama_______ M.
Delaware............ M .
Illinois............... M.
Indiana.. ............ M .
Maryland........... M.
New York......... . M.
Ohio.................. M.
Pennsylvania____ M.
Virginia............. M.
West Virginia...... M.
1890:
Alabama............. M.
Pennsylvania...... M.
Wisconsin........ . M.
1891:
New York........... M.
Pennsylvania...... M.
1892:
Indiana.............. M.
Pennsylvania...... M.
1893:
Ohio................... M.
1894:
Indiana.............. M .
1895:
Wisconsin........... 0
1896:
Pennsylvania-.... M .
1898:
Ohio...... ............ M.
Pennsylvania____ M.
1899:
Ohio................. . M.
| Pennsylvania____ 'M.

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)
44-70-61 2.67-4.00-3.69
55-66-59 2.80-4.83-3.06
60-66-63
60-60-60
0)
72-72-72
53-66-57
55-72-58

1.75-2.00-1.88
4.00-4.00-4.00
1.50-5.50-3.24
3.35-5.00-4.09
3.25-4.00-3.33
2.60-3.46-2.78

0
54-72-66
42-66-56
60-60-60

4.33-4.33-4.33
1.75-3.50-2.40
2.50-4.58-3.55
2.50-3.46-2.55

60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
72-72-72
60-60-60
42-72-58
55-60-60
48-60-58
60-60-60

2.50-2.50-2.50
4.00-4.00-4.00
4.00-4.00-4.00
2.00-3.75-3.08
1.67-1.92-1.79
2.36-3.15-2.82
3.00-4.17-3.64
2.30-3.62-3.22
2.35-2.40-2.36
2.75-2.75-2.75

54-54-54
4848-48
60-60-60
60-72-61
60-60-60
66-66-66

6.00-6.00-6.00
2.75-2.75-2.75
1.75-2.50-1.99
2.40-3.34-2.76
2. 50-2. 50-2. 50
4.00-4 00-4.00

48-72-59
60-60-60
0
60-72-66
54-54-54
0
0
0
48-48-48
60-66-64
60-72-70
66-72-68
60-60-60
60-60-60
44-66-56
50-66-59
55-55-55
0
56-55-55
0
55-55-55

2.00-5.50-3.88
2.91-4. 00-3. 50
4.25-4. 25-4.25

0
0
48-60-57
(0
60-60-60

3.50-3.50-3.50
2.91-3.67-3. 29

2.27-3.00-2.81
2.66-2.66-2.66
2.00-5. 50-3. 75
2. 73-3.67-3.20
3.00-3.00-3.00
3.60-3.60-3.60
2.44-2.44-2.44
3.21-4.75-3.73
3.67-4.00-3.77
2.57-2.57-2.57
2.70-6.09-3.92
3.88-7.30-4.57
2.16-5.68-3.19
1.01-2.41-1.78
2.76-3.84-3.09
3.67-3.67-3.67
2.91-3.67-3.29
4.50-4.50-4. 50

2.90-3.13-3.02
2.55-3.67-3.11
3.70-4.00-3.83

48-72-60 3.25-4.00-3.63
66-72-69 3.00-3.03-3.02
72-72-72 4.50-4.50-4.50
0
0

1.92-5.18-3.30
2.51-5.50-2.92

0
0

2.30-5.75-4.26
2.75-6.00-3.56

247

P.— IRON AND STEEL
T

a b le

F - l l . — Puddlers, males, puddling mills, muck bar, 1890-1903, by geographic
division and year
North Atlantic
Year

a b le

North Central

South Central

Rate
Hours
Rate
Hours
Rate
Kate
Hours
Hours
per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour
57.8
57.8
56.7
57.7
59.9
59.6
55.4
58.2
59.3
58.6
58.6
57.8
57.9
57.9

1890........................
1891........................
1892,.......................
1893........................
1894....................
1895....................
1896........................
1897______________
1898........................
1899....... ................
1900....... ................
1901.......................
1902........................
1903.......................
T

South Atlantic

$0,386
.378
.379
.417
.351
.357
.358
.365
.366
.350
.327
.340
.357
.374

$0,344
.346
.343
.323
.280
.295
.312
.288
.292
.378
.318
.304
.329
.347

57.0
56.5
57.0
56.2
56.5
55.4
55.7
55.5
55.5
54.4
56.4
55.5
55.7
56.6

54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
69.7
69.7
69.7
69.7

$0,521
.528
.523
.475
.357
.378
.400
.356
.327
.453
.414
.361
.378
.425

60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
54.8
54.8
56.2

$0,263
.249
.242
.260
.208
.229
.219
.233
.210
.226
.245
.344
.387
.308

F -12.— Puddlers, males, puddling mills, 1914-1926, by geographic division
and year

Eastern

Great Lakes
and Middle
West

Pittsburgh

Southern

United States

Year
Hours
per
week
1914.......................
1915.......................
1919.......................
1920.......................
1922.......................
1924.................
1926_____________

Rate
per
hour

Hours
per
week

55.2 $0,406
52.3
.367
1.146
0)
48.2 1.282
49.9
.651
.904
53.0

Hours
per
week

Rate
per
hour

51.4 $0,514
51.7
.527
1.444
0
51.8 1.588
46.8
.795
47.9 1.230

Rate
per
hour

Hours
per
week

54.5 $0,515
54.5
.488
1.217
0

Rate
per
hour

57.7 $0.316
57.9
.283
1.018
0
58.0 1.228
43.4
.888
.889
53.1

Hours
per
week

53.5

Rate
per
hour

$0,767

i Not reported.
T a b l e F -1 3 .— Furnace keepers, pig-iron blast furnaces, 1840-1900, by year and

State
Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Sex

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Sex

Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)
1840:
Pennsylvania
1841:
Pennsylvania......
1842:
Pennsylvania......
1843:
Pennsylvania___
1844:
Pennsylvania......
1845:
Pennsylvania......
1846:
Pennsylvania......
1847:
Pennsylvania., .
1848:
Pennsylvania. . ...

M.

0)

1.00-1.00-1.00

M.

0

1.00-1.00-1.00

M.

0

1.00-1.00-1.00

M.

0

1.00-1.00-1.00

M.

0)

1.21-1.21-1.21

0)

1.41-1.41-1.41

M.
M.

0)

1.42-1.42-1.42

M.

0

1.70-1.70-1.70

M.

0

1.67-1.67-1.67


i Not reported.


Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)
1849:
Pennsylvania___
1850:
Pennsylvania____
1851:
Pennsylvania......
1852:
Pennsylvania......
1853:
Pennsylvania......
1854:
Pennsylvania......
1855:
Pennsylvania......
1856:
Pennsylvania......
1857:
Pennsylvania......

M.

0

1.40-1.40-1.40

M.

(0

1.65-1.65-1.65

M.

0)

1.69-1.69-1.69

M.

0

1.53-1.53-1.53

M.

0

1.63-1.63-1.63

M.

0

1.63-1.63-1.63

M.

1.92-1.92-1.92
(0
M. 72-72-72 .72-1.94-1.13
M.

0)

1.94-1.94-1.94

248

PART 2.— FROM 1840 TO 1928

T a b le F —
13.— Furnace keepers, pig-iron blast furnaces, 1840-1900,
— Continued

Lowest, highest, and
average—

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Year and State

Sex

Sex
Hours per Rate per day
(dollars)

Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)
1858:
Pennsylvania..
1859:
Pennsylvania1860:
Pennsylvania. _
1861:
Pennsylvania-.
1862:
Pennsylvania..
1863:
Pennsylvania. 1864:
Pennsylvania..
1865:
Pennsylvania..
1866:
Pennsylvania..
1867:
Pennsylvania-.
1868:
Pennsylvania..
1869:
Pennsylvania..
1870:
Pennsylvania..
1871:
Pennsylvania..
1872:
Pennsylvania..
1873:
Pennsylvania..
1874:
Pennsylvania..
1875:
Pennsylvania..
1876:
Pennsylvania-.
1877:
Ohio............. .
Pennsylvania..
1878:
O hio-..........
Pennsylvania..
1879:
Ohio.............
Pennsylvania.
Do..........
1880:
Ohio.............
Pennsylvania .
1881:
Ohio.............
Pennsylvania1882:
Pennsylvania.
1883:
Pennsylvania.
1884:
Michigan.......
New Jersey...
Ohio............. .
Pennsylvania.

(9
(9

1.70-1.70-1.70

<9
(9
(9

1.85-1.85-1.85

M.

<9
(9

1.90-1.90-1.90
2.70-2.70-2.70

M.

(9

2.49-2.49-2.49

(9
(9
(9
(9

2.41-2.41-2.41

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

M.
M.
M.
M.

1.67-1.67-1.67
1.90-1.90-1.90

1
.68-1.68-1.68

2.53-2.53-2.53
2.53-2.53-2.53
2.77-2.77-2.77
2.77-2.77-2.77

M.

(9
(9
(9
(9
(9
(9

M.

(9

.85-2.37-1.67

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

2.78-2.78-2.78
3.15-3.15-3.15
2.58-3.27-2.81
1.25-4.00-1.94
1.60-1.94-1.71

1885:
Indiana.........
Maryland......
New York___
Ohio............
Pennsylvania.
Virginia.........
1886:
Pennsylvania.
1887:
Ohio.............
Pennsylvania.
Wisconsin......
1888:
Illinois.-.......
Michigan......
New York___
Ohio.............
Pennsylvania _

Alabama.........
New York......
Ohio..............
Pennsylvania..
Wisconsin.......

84-84r-84

2.00-2.00-2.00
2.00-2.00-2.00

1890:

M.
(9
M. 84r-84-84
M.
(9

. 86-2.80-1.51
. 79-2.50-1.59

1892:

M. 84-84-84 1.90-2.00-1.95
M

0

2.25-2.25-2.25

M.
1.85-1.85-1.85
(9
M. 70-84-80 1.59-2.53-1.82
M.
1.00-2.25-1.64
M,
2.25-2.25-2.25
8




1Not reported.

84-84-84
84-84-84
70-84r-75
84-84-84
84-84-84

1.25-2.00-1.89
1.65-1.65-1.65
3.10-3.25-3.21
1.70-1.70-1.70
1.58-1.58-1.58

1891:

70-84-77 1.00-2.65-1.65
M. 84-84-84 1.78-1.90-1.84

2.05-2.05-2.05

84-84-84
84-84-84
84r-84-84
84-84-84
72-72-72
84-84-84
84-84-84
84-84-84
84-84-84
56-84-83
77-84-82
84-84-84
84-84-84

.86-1.75-1.37
.79-2.25-1.36

M

(9

70-84-74 1.40-2.25-1.91
84-84-84 2.10-2.25-2.18
3.10-3.10-3.10
(9

Alabama.........
Georgia..........
Illinois...........
Indiana..........
Maryland.......
Michigan........
Missouri.........
New York____
Ohio..............
Pennsylvania..
Tennessee.......
Virginia..........
West Virginia-

M.
(9
M. 67-84-82

a. 66- .66- .66

1.85-1. 85-1.85
1.50-1. 50-1.50
1.67-1. 85-1.79
1.35-2. 00-1.64
1.80-2. 25-2.02
1.80-1. 80-1.80
1.50-2. 30-1.93

Virginia..........
West Virginia..

1889:

.86-1.90-1.32
1.56-1.56-1.56

60-84-78 1.07-2.50-1.63
M. 84-84-84 1.30-1.78-1.62

70-70-70
84-84-84
84-84-84
72-84-84
84-84-84
84-84-84
84-84-84

3.25-3.25-3.25
1.80-2.00-1.90
1.88-2.15-1.98
2.40-2.40-2.40
1.85-2.25-2.04
1.85-1.85-1.85
(9
84-84r-84 1.40-2.00-1.67
84-84-84 2.40-2.40-2.40

M. 60-84-77
M.
(9

M

year and

New York......
Pennsylvania..

(9

2.00-2.00-2.00
1.70-1.70-1.70
1.85-2.15-1.98
1.80-2.50-2.07
1.08-3.00-3.91
1.75-2.00-1.89
1.50-2.00-1.83
1.65-2.40-2.01

72-84-76 1.00-2.30-1.43
84-84-84 1.90-2.25-2.02
84-84-84 3.00-3.00-3.00

8

1.75-2.20-1.93

2.00-2.00-2.00

Ohio..............
Pennsylvania..

58-84-72 1.00-3.00-1.69
2.25-2.25-2.25
(9

New Jersey___

84-84-84 1.75-1.75-1.75

Ohio..............

84-84-84

Pennsylvania..

84-84r-84 1.68-1.69-1.69

Ohio..............
Pennsylvania..

84-84-84

(9

. 75-2.20-1.50
2.00-2.10-2.06

(9

2.10-2.20-2.17

1893:

1895:
1896:

1897:

1898:

Pennsylvania..

1899:

.75-2.25-1.70

Alabama........
Pennsylvania..

84-84-84 1.75-1.85-1.82
2.40-2.50-2.47
(9

Alabama........

84-84-84 1.80-1,85-1.83

1900:

1And rent.

249

F.— -IRON AND STEEL

T a b l e F -1 4 .— Keepers, males, blast furnaces, 1890-1907, by geographic division

and year

North Atlantic
Year

South Atlantic

North Central

South Central

Hours
Hours
Bate
Bate
Hours
Bate
Hours
Bate
per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
840
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

1890........................
1891........................
1892........................
1893........................
1894.......................
1895........................
1896.......... ..........
1897.............. .......
1898...... ................ .
1899...... ..................
1900........................
1901..,....................
1902...... ..................
1903...... ..................
1904........................
1905........................
1906........................
1907........................

$0,182
.178
.175
.165
.163
.155
.159
.155
.155
.168
.180
.178
.191
.192
.190
.201
.202
.214

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

$0,180
.180
.180
.176
.208
.208
.179
.153
.160
.170
.174
.177
.175
.183
.170
.184
.184
.187

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

$0,220
.238
.247
.246
.173
.215
.215
.183
.187
.208
.209
.215
.219
.221
.201
.210
.213
.223

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

$0,159
.156
.150
.147
.133
.130
.134
.130
.130
.132
.141
.141
.144
.148
.155
.158
.166
.166

T a b l e F -1 5 .— Keepers, males, blast furnaces, 1907-1926, by geographic division

and year
Eastern

Pittsburgh

Great Lakes and
Middle West

Southern

Year
Hours
Hours
Hours
Hours
Bate
Bate
Bate
Bate
per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour
1907........................
1908........................
1909........................
1910........................
1911........................
1912........................
1913........................
1914........................
1915........................
1919........................
1920........................
1922........................
1924........................
1926........................
1Not reported.




84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
81.6
81.6
82.2
81.8
82.5
0)
84.0
83.5
62.7
63.0

$0,173
.161
.150
.177
.174
.179
.196
.199
.195
.487
.526
.404
.530
.519

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
78.5
84.0
78.9
78.8
0)
77.3
75.6
54.7
55.5

$0,231
.230
.219
.236
.236
.248
.259
.259
.258
.605
.684
.457
.647
.632

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
80.3
79.1
79.1
77.1
76.3
0)
66.3
71.7
55.3
55.4

$0,235
.224
.225
.229
.231
.231
.247
.245
.246
.572
.682
.446
.619
.622

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
82.1
82.7
84.0
84.0
0)
78.3
76.0
62.4
62.5

$0,170
.161
.150
.171
.169
.170
.181
.177
.172
.389
.462
.318
.405
.412

250

PART 2.— FROM 1840 TO 1928

Table F-16.— FiUers,

pig iron, blastfurnaces, 1840-1900, by year and State

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Sex

1840:

Year and State
Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)
0

0.65-0.65-0.65

Pennsylvania____ M.

0

.65- .65- .65

Pennsylvania____ M.

0

.65- .65- .65

Pennsylvania...... M.

0

.65- .65- .65

Pennsylvania...... M.

0

.85- .85- .85

1842:

1843:
1844:

1845:

Pennsylvania____

Sex

Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)

1878:

Pennsylvania____ M.

1841:

Lowest, highest, and
average—

Ohio................... M.
Pennsylvania..... M.

67-84-83

(0

a 86-1.50-1.18
. 60-2.00-1.14

Ohio................... M.
Pennsylvania____ M.
Do................ M.

0
m
(i)

. 77-1.70-1.37
.72-2.00-1.38
2.66- .66- . 66

Ohio................... M.
Pennsylvania...... M.

60-84-81

0.86-1.82-1.46
1.56-1.56-1.56

Ohio................... M.
Pennsylvania...... M.

70-84-78

0

.86-1.75=1.49
1.56-1.56-1.56

New Jersey......... M.
Pennsylvania...... M.

84-84-84
84-84-84

1.65-1. 75-1.69
1.71-1. 75-1.74

New Jersey......... M.
Pennsylvania...... M.

0
0

1.29-1.72-1.49
1.88-1.88-1.88

New Jersey......... M.
Ohio................... M.
Pennsylvania...... M.

70-84-81
48-84-59

0

1.35-1.58-1.48
. 81-1.70-1.45
1.88-1.88-1.88

Indiana............... M.
Maryland_______ M.
M.
Pennsylvania...... M.
Virginia.............. M.

70-70-70
84-84-84
48-84-64
84-84-84
84-84-84

1.35-1.35-1.35
1.25rl. 50-1.35
.73-1.46-1.30
1.65-1.71-1.65
1.10-1.10-1.10

Pennsylvania...... M.

0

1.71-1.71-1.71

Ohio................... M.
Pennsylvania...... M.

70-70-70

1.40-1.40-1.40
1.88-1.88-1.88

1879:

1880:
1881:

M.

0

1.01-1.01-1.01

Pennsylvania____ M.

0

.99- .99- .99

Pennsylvania____ M.

0

1.13-1.13-1.13

Pennsylvania____ M.

0

1.12-1.12-1.12

Pennsylvania____ M.

0

1.02-10.2-1.02

Pennsylvania____ M

0

1.07-1.07-1.07

Pennsylvania...... M.

0
0

1.09-1.09-1.09
1.05-1.05-1.05

M.

0)

1.16-1.16-1.16

M.

0

1.16-1.16-1.16

1886:

M.

0

1.32-1.32-1.32

1887:

M.

0

1.36-1.36-1.36

0

1846:
1847:

1848:
1849:
1850:

1851:
1852:

Pennsylvania____ M,

1853:

Pennsylvania____
1854:
Pennsylvania___
1855:
Pennsylvania____
1856:
Pennsylvania____

1857:

Pennsylvania____ M.
1.36-1.36-1.36
0
1858:
Pennsylvania____ M.
1.30-1.30-1.30
0
1859:
(1)
1.25-1.25-1.25
Pennsylvania____ M.
1860:
1.37-1.37-1.37
Pennsylvania____ M.
0
1861:
1.44—
1.44-1.44
Pennsylvania____ M.
0
1862:
1.25-1.25-1.25
Pennsylvania____ M.
0
1803:
1.38-1.38-1.38
Pennsylvania____ M.
0
1864:
2.10-2.10-2.10
Pennsylvania____ M.
0
1865:
1.93-1.93-1.93
Pennsylvania____ M.
0
1866:
1.95-1.95-1.95
Pennsylvania____ M.
0
1867:
2.05-2.05-2.05
Pennsylvania __ M.
0
1868:
2.05-2.05-2.05
Pennsylvania.__ M.
0
1869:
(i)
2.25-2.25-2.25
Pennsylvania____ M.
1870:
2.25-2.25-2.25
Pennsylvania___ M.
0
1871:
2.25-2.25-2.25
Pennsylvania____ M.
0
1872:
2.56-2.56-2.56
M.
Pennsylvania____ \
0
1873:
!
M.
2.40-2.66-2.43
Pennsylvania
0
1874:
|
1.10-1.79-1.49
Pennsylvania. . M.
0
1875:
M.
1.35-1.70-1.40
Pennsylvania.
0
1876:
M.
.79-1.87-1.37
Pennsylvania
0
1877:
Ohio................... M. 60-84-80 . 77-1.60-1.22
1.37-1.37-1.37
Pennsylvania____ M.
0




1Not reported.

1882:

1883:
1884:

1885:

1888:

New York......... .
Ohio...................
Pennsylvania......
Tennessee...........
Virginia..............
West Virginia......
1889:
Alabama.............
Georgia________
Illinois................
Maryland_______
Missouri.............
New York...........

M. 77-77-77 1.50-1.50-1.50
M. 84-84-84 1.65-1.65-1.65
M. 84-84-84 1.50-1.75-1.61
M.
1.00-1.20-1.18
0
M. 84-84-84 1.00-1.30-1.20
M. 84-84-84 1.65-1.65-1.65

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
Pennsylvania...... M.
Tennessee........... M.
West Virginia___ M.
1890:
Alabama..... .......... M.
New York........... M.
Ohio................... M.
Pennsylvania...... M.
Wisconsin
M.
1891:
New York______ M.
Pennsylvania...... M.
1892:
Pennsylvania...... M.
1896:
Pennsylvania...... M .
1897:
Pennsylvania----- M.
1898:
Pennsylvania...... M.
1899:
M
Alabama
Pennsylvania------ m ;
1900:
Alabama.......... M.

*

0

And rent.

70-84-84
84-84-84
70-70-70
72-72-72
84-84-84
70-84-74
56-84-80
56-84-80
84-84-84
70-84-76

1.10-1.70-1.23

1.10-1.25-1.18
2.10-2.10-2.10
1.35-1.35-1.35

1.50-1.50-1.50
1.29-1.70-1.43
1.35-2.00-1.58

1.08-1.88-1.48
1.20-1.30-1.23
1.40-1.65-1.64

84-84-84
0
72-84-83
84-84-84
84-84-84

1.10-1.10-1.10
1.75-1.75-1. 75
1.00-1.70-1.58
1.65-1.88-1.67
1.92-1.92-1.92

0
0

1.50-1.75-1.55
1.70-1.70-1.70

0

1.88-1.88-1.88

70-84-74 1.10-1.38-1.22
0

1.50-1.50-1.50

0
84-84-84
0
84-84-84

1.15-1.20-1.19
1.90-1.90-1.90

1.65-1.65-1.65

1.20-1.25-1.21

251

F.— IRON AND STEEL
T

a b le

F -1 7 .— Top fillers, males, blast furnaces, 1890-1907, by geographic division
and year
i
North Atlantic
Year

1890........................
1891........................
1892........................
1893........................
1894........................
1895........................
1896........................
1897........................
1898........................
1899........................
1900........................
1901........................
1902........................
1903........................
1904........................
1905....... ................
1906...... — .............
1907........................
T

a b le

South Atlantic

North Central

South Central

Rate
Hours
Rate
Hours
Hours
Rate
Hours
Rate
per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
82.0
82.0
82.0

$0,133
.128
.132
.128
.125
.124
.127
.123
.120
.135
.145
.140
.148
.148
.144
.164
.164
.176

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

$0,149
.143
.155
.145
.204
.204
.151
.134
.142
.145
.145
.160
.154
.145
.135
.135
.133
.154

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
71.5
72.0
81.3
79.5
79.5

$0.173
.178
.181
.180
.139
.144
.157
.154
.156
.174
.176
.178
.182
.232
.212
.190
.200
.210

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

$0,133
.127
.127
.124
.112
.110
.118
.109
.105
.115
.123
.124
.129
.131
.142
.146
.168
.159

F -1 8 .— Top fillers, males, blast furnaces, 1907-1926, by geographic division
and year
Eastern

Pittsburgh

Great Lakes and
Middle West

Southern

Year
Hours
Rate
Rate
Rate
Hours
Hours
Hours
Rate
per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour
1907........................
1908........................
1909........................
1910........................
1911___ __________
1912........................
1913........................
1914........................
1915........................
1919 .....................
1920........................
1922........................
1924........................
1926........................

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

i Not reported.

61298°— 29------ 17




$0,155
.136
.136
.158
.163
.154
.189
.200
.200

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

$0,217
.206
.206
.217
.217
.217
.227
.238
.238

84.0
84.0
84.0
74.7
75.6
78.4
78.4
70.5
7a 5
(1 „
)
62.7
60.0
55.2
53.0

$0,212
.193
.203
.240
.227
.218
.238
.251
.251
.644
.859
.549
.766
.643

84.0
84.0
840
84.0
84.0
79.1
80.8
84.0
84.0
0
78.9
76.1
57.7
54.0

$0,152
• 154
.138
.150
• 147
.147
.164
.162
.161
.336
.388
.288
.424
.474

252
T

a b le

PA.RT 2.— FROM 1840 TO 1928
F-19*— Bottom fillers, males, blast furnaces, 1907—
1926,
division and year
Eastern

Pittsburgh

Great Lakes and
Middle West

geographic

Southern

Year
Rate
Rate
Hours
Rate
Hours
Kate
Hours
Hours
per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour
1907........................
1908........................
1909-.......................
1910........................
1911........................
1912........................
1913........................
1914........................
1915........................
1919........................
1920........................
1922........................
1924........................
1926........................

$0,141
.127
.128
.143
.136
.142
.164
.171
.172

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

$0.182
.173
.172
.186
.186
.186
.208
.210
.210
*

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
80.9
79.4

<9

61.7
70.2
55.3
53.0

$0.186
.167
.177
.182
.175
.178
.196
.192
.190
.487
.691
.417
.594
.584

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
77.6
78.2
84.0
84.0

(9

78.7
75.2
53.6
53.6

$0.142
.143
.114
.133
.133
.131
.144
.139
.137
.340
.423
.266
.414
.412

i Not reported.
T

a b le

F—
20,—

operators, males, 6Zas£ furnaces, 1907—
1920, fry geographic
division and year
Eastern

Pittsburgh

Great Lakes and
Middle West

Southern

Year
Hours
Rate
Hours
Hours
Rate
Rate
Hours
Rate
per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour per week per hour
190 7
190 8
190 9
1910........................
1911........................
1912........................
1913........................
1914........................
1915........................
1919........................
1920........................
1922........................
1924........................
1926........................
1Not reported.




84.0
78.0
78.0
79.2
80.0
81.6

(9

84.0
83.5
62.7
63.6

i

$0,167
.173
.186
.196
.194
.196
.468
.511
.387
.513
.506

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
77.4
84.0
78.4
78.7

(9

77.2
76.0
54.9
55.8

$0,192
.191
.184
.207
.205
.217
.227
.230
.231
.565
.620
.419
.580
.583

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
81.2
81.1
78.2
76.8

(9

63.2
71.5
55.1
55.4

$0,219
.204
.202
.204
.208
.214
.225
.224
.224
.558
.663
.423
.589
.605

84.0
84.0
84.0
840
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

<
9

78.5
76.0
65.6
68.3

$0,152
. 140
.155
.161
.160
.161
.170
.169
.169
.379
.456
.328
.392
.356

G.— LABORERS

The source from which these wage data were taken is the Fifteenth
Annual Report of the Commissioner of Labor Statistics. This report
covers the period from 1840 to 1900. No information is available as
to the nature of the work on which these employees were engaged.
Wage data for other laborers are also reported in the building, the
metal, and the woodworking trades groups, Tables B-12, 1-16, 1-17,
1-18, 0-11, and 0-12, and as “ farm laborers” Tables D -l, D-2,
and D -3
T a b l e GML— Laborers, 1840-1900, by year and State
Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Sex

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Sex
Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)

Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)
1840:

Massachusetts..
New York........
O hio...............
Pennsylvania.._

1841:

Massachusetts..
New York........

1842:

Massachusetts...
New York........
Pennsylvania—

1843:

Massachusetts..
New York_____
Pennsylvania__

1844:

Massachusetts. _
New York.........
Pennsylvania__

1845:

Massachusetts..
New York........
Ohio................
Pennsylvania—

1846:

Massachusetts..
New Hampshire.
New York........
Pennsylvania__

1847:

Massachusetts...
New Hampshire.
New York.........
Pennsylvania—

1848:

78-84-81 0.75-1.00-0.91
60-60-60 . 75-1.25- . 95
60-60-60 .30- .60- .56
1. 00- 1. 00- 1.00
0)
78-84-80
60-60-60

.87-1.00- .96
.69-1.25- .99

78-84-83
60-72-61

.75-1.00- .86
. 50-1.2 5 - . 89
1. 00- 1. 00- 1.00

0)

78-84-81
60-72-61

0)

78-84-81
60-72-61

.87-1.00- .94

. 56-1.25- . 86
1. 00- 1. 00- 1.00
.87-1.00- .94
.59-1.25- .90

0)

1. 00- 1. 00- 1.00

72-84-80
60-60-60
60-60-60

. 65-1.00- . 80
. 63-1.25- . 84
.70- .70- .70
1.00-1.45-1.03

72-84-81

. 65-1.00- . 85
.67-1.00- .83
.63-1.25- .83
1. 00- 1. 00- 1.00

0)

66- 66-66

60-60-60

0)

72-84-79
66- 66-66

60-60-60

<9

.70-1.17- .88
.67-1.00- .80
.46-1.25- .86
1. 00- 1. 00- 1.00

Connecticut......
Massachusetts...
New Hampshire.
New York........
Pennsylvania—

60-60-60
72-84-78
60-60-60
60-60-60

0)

.96- .96- .96
.70-1.17- .87
.80-1.00- .90
. 63-1.25- . 86
1. 00- 1. 00- 1.00

Connecticut___
Massachusetts..
New Hampshire
New York........
Ohio................
Pennsylvania__

60-60-60
60-84-66
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60

.96- .96- .96
.60-1.00- .84
.80-1.17- .97
.63-1.25-.93
. 88- . 88-.88
.80-1.00- .94

1849:

1850:
Connecticut........ M.
Massachusetts___ M.
New Hampshire.. M.
New Jersey......... M.
New York______ M.
Ohio................... M.
Pennsylvania...... M.
1851:
Connecticut_____ M.
Maryland........... M.
Massachusetts___ M.
New Hampshire __ M.
New Jersey......... M.
New York______ M.
Ohio................... M.
Pennsylvania___ M.
1852:
Connecticut_____ M.
Massachusetts___ M.
New Hampshire._ M.
New Jersey......... M.
New York______ M.
Ohio................... M.
Pennsylvania____ M.
1853:
Connecticut........ M.
Massachusetts___ M.
New Hampshire __ M.
New Jersey-------- M.
New York........... M.
Ohio................... M.
Pennsylvania...... M.
1854:
Connecticut........ M.
Maryland........... M.
Massachusetts___ M.
New Hampshire. _ M.
New Jersey......... M.
New York........... M.
Ohio______ ____ M.
Pennsylvania
M.
1855:
Connecticut........ M.
Maryland........... M.
Massachusetts___ M.
New Hampshire. . M.
New York.......... M.
Ohio.................. M.
Pennsylvania...... M.

60-60-60 0.96- .96-0.96
60-84-67 .75-1.33- .90
60-60-60 .80-1.00- .90
60-60-60 . 75- . 75- . 75
60-60-60 .63-1.25- .92
60-60-60 .88- .88- .88
60-60-60 .80-1.00- .95
60-60-60 .9&- .96- .96
60-60-60 1.00-1.00-1.00
60-84-63 . 60-1.25- . 89
60-60-60 .80-1.00- .91
60-60-60 .75- .88- .82
60-60-60 .68-1.25- .89
60-60-60 .8&- .88- .88
60-60-60 1.00-1.00-1.00
60-60-60 .84-1.00- .95
60-72-63 .60-1.25- .87
60-60-60 .80-1.25- .99
60-60-60 .88- .88- .88
60-60-60 .63-1.25- .94
60-60-60 .88-1.00- .92
60-60-60 1.00-1.50-1.03
60-60-60 .83-1.00- .92
60-72-64 .55-1.25- .87
60-60-60 .80-1.00- .89
60-60-60 .88-1.00- .98
60-72-60 . 63-1.50-1.15
60-60-60 1.00-1.00-1.00
60-60-60 1.00-1.61-1.03
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-72-63
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-72-60
60-60-60
60-60-60

. 83-1.25-1.04
1.00-1.00-1.00
.62-1.25-.88
.83-1.00- .95
1.00-1.00-1.00
. 50-1.25- . 97
1.00-2.00-1.53
1.00-1.61-1.03

60-60-60 .83-1.25-1.06
60-60-60 1.00-1.00-1.00
60-72-63 .63-1.25- .89
60-60-60 .83-1.00- .94
60-72-61 .63-1.44- .95
60-60-60 1.00-1.00-1.00
60-60-60 1.00-1.67-1.05

i Not reported.



253

254

PART 2.— FROM 1840 TO 1928
T a b le GML— Laborers, 1840-1900, by year and State— Continued
Lowest, highest, and
average—

Year and State

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Sex

Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)
1856:
Connecticut_____ M
Maryland........... M.
Massachusetts___ M.
New Hampshire.. M.
New Jersey_____ M
New York______ M
Ohio.................. M
Pennsylvania___ M.
Rhode Island...... M.
1857:
Connecticut........ M.
Maryland
M
Massachusetts___ M.
M ichigan......... M
New Hampshire. _ M.
New Jersey_____ M
New York______ M
O h io ._________ M
Pennsylvania _ , M
Rhode Island...... M.
Virginia________ M
1858:
ConnecticutM
Maryland........... M.
Massachusetts___ M.
Michigan_______ M.
New Hampshire.. M.
Do................ M.
New Jersey_____ M .
New York______ M.
Ohio.................. M.
Pennsylvania___ M.
Rhode Island...... M..
1859:
Maryland....... . M.
Massachusetts___ M.
Michigan............ M.
New Hampshire _. M_.
Do................ M.
New Jersey_____ M.
New York______ M.
Ohio.................. M.
Pennsylvania___ M.
Rhode Island...... M .
1860:
Illinois_________ M.
Maryland........... M.
Massachusetts___ M.
Michigan............ M.
New Hampshire.. M.
Do................ M .
M.
New Jersey
New Y o rk _____ M.
Ohio______ ____ M.
Pennsylvania...... M.
Rhode Island...... M.
1861:
Maryland______ M.
Massachusetts___ M.
Michigan............ M.
New Hampshire. . M.
Do................ M .
M.
New Jersey
New York........... M.
Ohio................... M.
Pennsylvania___ M.
Rhode Island., ... M.




60-60-60
60-60-60
60-72-61
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-72-61
60-60-60
60-60-60
84-84-84
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-72-61
(i)
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-72-62
60-60-60
60-60-60
84-84-84
72-72-72
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-72-63
(i)
60-60-60
72-72-72
60-60-60
60-72-62
60-60-60
60-60-60
84-84-84
60-60-60
60-72-63
0)
60-60-60
72-72-72
60-60-60
60-72-61
60-60-60
60-60-60
84-84-84
60-60-60
60-72-64
60-72-66
0)
60-60-60
72-72-72
60-60-60
60-72-61
60-60-60
60-60-60
78-78-78
60-60-60
60-72-62
0)
60-60-60
72-72-72
60-60-60
60-72-61
60-60-60
60-60-60
78-78-78

Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)

1862:
Maryland______ M.
Massachusetts___ M.
Michigan............ M.
New Hampshire-. M.
Do................ M .
New Jersey ___ M .
New York______ M .
O hio................. M .
Pennsylvania___ M.
Rhode Island...... M .
. 72-1.34-1.03 1863:
1.00-1.13-1.03
Maryland______ M .
.65-1.25- .94
Massachusetts___ M .
. 75- . 75- . 75
Michigan............ M .
. 83-1.25-1.13
New Hampshire. . M .
1.00-1.25-1.06
Do................ M .
. 63-1.50- . 97
New Jersey_____ M .
1.00-1.00-1.00
New York ____ M .
. 90-1.67-1.05
Ohio..___ _____ M.
. 71- . 71- . 71
Pennsylvania...... M.
Rhode Island____ M.
. 50- . 75- . 63
1864:
. 72-1.34-1.10
Maryland_______ M.
1.00-1.13-1.04
Massachusetts----- M.
. 50-1.00- . 93
New Hampshire - - M.
. 75- . 75- . 75
D o............... M.
.92-1.25-1.06
New Jersey-------- M.
New York______ M.
2.39- . 39- . 39
1.00-1.00-1.00
Ohio................. '. M.
Pennsylvania___ M.
. 63-1.25- . 97
Rhode Island....... M.
1.00-1.00-1.00
1.00-1.67-1.07 1865:
Connecticut......... M.
. 79- . 79- . 79
Maryland........... M.
Massachusetts___ M.
1.00-1.13-1.04
Michigan............ M.
. 50-1. 25- . 95
New Hampshire - _ M.
. 75- . 75- . 75
Do............... M.
. 92-1.17-1.05
2 .39i- . 39- . 39
New Jersey_____ M.
New York______ M.
1.00-1. 25-1.16
. 63-1. 50-1.02
North Carolina- _. M.
1.00-1.00-1.00
Ohio......... ........ M.
1.00-1.67-1.04
Pennsylvania----- M.
. 96- . 96- . 96
Rhode Island____ M.
1866:
Maryland_______ M.
1.00-1.00-1.00
Massachusetts___ M.
.92-1.25-1.05
.62-1.50-1.01
Michigan. ........... M.
1.25-1.25-1.25
New Hampshire- _ M.
Do................ M.
1.00-1.25-1.13
2.39- . 39- . 39
New Jersey_____ M.
New York______ M.
1.13-1.25-1.18
. 44-2.00- . 99
Ohio................... M.
Pennsylvania___ M.
1.00-1.00-1.00
Rhode Island....... M.
. 92-2.25-1.37
. 96- . 96- . 96 1867:
Georgia. ............. M.
Maryland_______ M.
. 75-1.13- . 86
Massachusetts___ M.
.62-1.50- .98
M ichigan........... M.
1.00-1.00-1.00
1.00-1.00-1.00
New Hampshire. _ M.
D o ............... M.
2.39- . 39- . 39
New Jersey_____ M.
1.00-1.00-1.00
New York........... M.
. 69-1.38-1.00
1.00-1.00-1.00
Ohio................... M.
Pennsylvania.... M.
. 83-1.67-1.08
. 96- . 96- . 96
Rhode Island....... M.
. 83-1.25-1.04
1.00-1.13-1.03
. 63-1.25- . 90
1.00-1.33-1.11
1.00-1.00-1.00
. 63-1.13- . 98
1.00-1.00-1.00
1.00-1.67-1.09
.71-.71-.71

i Not reported.

8And board.

60-60-60
60-72-62
0)
60-60-60
72-72-72
60-60-60
60-72-61
60-60-60
60-60-60
78-78-78

0.83- .83-0.83
. 62-1.50- . 99
.90- .90- .90
1.00-1.33-1.11
2 .46- .46- .46
1.00-1.00-1.00
. 50-1.38- . 97
1.00-1.00-1.00
. 83-1.67-1.09
.96- .96- .96

60-60-60
60-72-62
(l)
60-60-60
72-72-72
60-60-60
60-72-61
60-60-60
60-60-60
78-78-78

1.00-1.75-1.38
. 50-1.75-1.11
1.75-1.75-1.75
1.00-1.42-1.08
2 .62- . 62- . 62
1.13-1.50-1.26
. 25-1.75-1.16
1.15-1.15-1.15
. 83-1.65-1.19
.96- .96- .96

60-60-60
60-72-63
60-60-60
72-72-72
60-60-60
60-72-61
60-60-60
60-60-60
78-78-78

1.25-1.67-1.42
. 70-1.75-1.29
1.00-1.67-1.34
2 .69- . 69- . 69
1.13-1.66-1.45
. 88-1.75-1.30
1.50-1.50-1.50
1.00-1.75-1.29
.92- .92- .92

60-60-60
60-72-62
60-72-64
0)
60-60-60
72-72-72
60-60-60
60-72-61
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
78-78-78

1.25-1.25-1.25
. 50-1.67-1.47
. 75-1.83-1.53
2.00-2.00-2.00
.92- .92- .92
2.69- .69- .69
1.33-2.00-1.70
. 96-2.25-1.60
. 75- . 75- . 75
1.75-1.75-1.75
1.00-2.00-1. 56
1.00-1.00-1.00

60-60-60
60-72-62
0)
60-60-60
72-72-72
60-60-60
60-72-62
60-60-60
60-60-60
78-78-78

1.60-2.00-1.65
. 65-2.00-1.58
2.00-2.00-2.00
1.25-1.50-1.42
2.69- .69- .69
1.24-1.83-1.57
. 96-2.25-1.61
1.90-1.90-1.90
1.50-2.00-1.60
1.00-1.00-1.00

66-66-66
60-60-60
60-72-62
0)
60-60-60
72-72-72
60-60-60
60-72-62
60-60-60
60-60-60
78-78-78

. 50- . 75- . 67
1.50-2.00-1.63
.62-2.00-1.54
2.00-2.00-2.00
1.42-1.50-1.48
2.69- . 69- . 69
1.75-1.83-1.78
.68-2.25-1.51
1.90-1.90-1.90
1.50-1.75-1.58
1.00-1.00-1.00

255

G.— LABORERS
T a b le G - l.— Laborers, 1840-1900, by year and State— Continued

Lowest, highest, and

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Sex

Year and State

Sex
Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)

Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)
1868:

Connecticut......
Delaware........
M aine.............
Maryland.........
Massachusetts—.
Michigan.........
New Hampshire .
Do.............
New Jersey.......
New York_____
Ohio................
Pennsylvania__
Rhode Island_
_

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

60-60-60
60-60-60
66-66-66
60-60-60
60-72-62
60-60-60
72-72-72
60-60-60
60-72-62
60-60-60
60-62-60
72-72-72

1.60-1.76-1.63
1.42-1.67-1.47
1.00-1.26-1.13
1.50-2.00-1.63
1.00-2.00-1.58
1.80-1.80-1.80
1.33-1.33-1.33
2.69- .69- .69
1.50-1.83-1.73
.68-2.36-1.56
1.75-1.76-1.75
1.00-2.00-1.53
1.00-1.00-1.00

Connecticut___
Delaware--......
Maryland.........
Massachusetts...
Michigan______
New Hampshire.
Do....... ......
New Jersey____
New York_____
Ohio................
Pennsylvania. __
Rhode Island_
_

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-72-62
0)
60-60-60
72-72-72
60-60-60
60-72-61
60-60-60
60-60-60
72-72-72

1.50-1.75-1.63
1.17-1.50-1.37
1.50-2.00-1.62
1.00-2.00-1.57
1.80-1.80-1.80
1.33-1.75-1.48
2.69- .69- .69
1.50-1.88-1. 76
. 88-2.50-1.66
1.75-1.75-1.75
.83-2.00-1.53
1.00-1.00-1.00

California........
Delaware--......
Illinois. ............
Louisiana.........
Maryland.........
Massachusetts...
Michigan.........
Minnesota........
Missouri______
New Hampshire.
Do.............
New Jersey____
New York_____
North Carolina.
Ohio................
Pennsylvania. —
Rhode Island__

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-72-63
(l)
60-60-60
54-54-54
60-60-60
72-72-72
60-60-60
60-72-62
60-60-60
60-60-60
54-64-59
72-72-72

2.00-2.00-2.00
1.33-1.50-1.37
1.75-2.00-1.90
1.50-1.50-1.50
1.25-2.00-1.41
1.00-2.00-1.58
1.75-1.75-1.75
1.25-1.25-1.25
1.50-1.50-1.50
1.33-1.58-1.48
2.69- .69- .69
1.00-2.50-2.05
.75-2.50-1.66
.75- .75- .75
1.50-2.00-1.59
1.00-1.83-1.50
1.33-1.33-1.33

California.........
Delaware--......
Illinois.............
Louisiana.........
Maryland.........
Massachusetts..
Michigan.........
Minnesota........
Missouri______
New Hampshire.
Do.............
New Jersey......
New York........
Ohio...............
Pennsylvania—
Rhode Island__

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
48-72-61
0)
60-60-60
64-54-54
60-60-60
72-72-72
60-60-60
60-72-61
60-60-60
54-60-55
72-72-72

2.00-2.00-2.00
1.33-1.67-1.44
1.75-2.00-1.90
1.50-1.60-1.50
1.25-2.00-1.41
.90-2.08-1.68
1.75-1.75-1.75
1.25-1.25-1.25
1.50-1.50-1.50
1.33-1.58-1.48
2.69- .69- .69
1.17-2.00-1.73
. 75-2.50-1.72
1.50-2.00-1.75
1.00-1.83-1.46
.83-.83-.83

California.........
Connecticut___
Delaware_____
Illinois.............
Louisiana.........
Maryland........
Massachusetts..
Michigan.........
Do.............
Minnesota........
Missouri..........
New Hampshire.
Do.............

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-72-61
60-60-60

1869:

1870:

1871:

1872:




2.00-2.00-2.00
1.75-2.00-1.92
1.33-1.67-1.50
1.75-2.00-1.91
1.50-1.50-1.50
1.25-2.00-1.41
1.00-2.00-1.55
2 l.OO-l. 00-1.00
1.76-1.76-1.75
60-60-60 1.25-1.26-1.25
64-60-54 1.60-1.50-1.50
60-60-60 1.00-1.58-1.36
72-72-72 2.69- .69- .69
i Not reported.

1872—Continued
New Jersey......... M.
New York........... M.
Ohio................... M.
Pennsylvania...... M.
Rhode Island...... M.
South Carolina__ M.
1873:
California............ M.
Connecticut_____ M.
Delaware--......... M,
Illinois................ M.
Louisiana............ M.
Maryland........... M.
Massachusetts---- M.
Michigan............ M.
Minnesota.......... M .
Missouri............. M .
New Hampshire.. M .
Do................ M .
New Jersey......... M.
New York______ M.
Ohio................... M.
Pennsylvania___ M.
Rhode Island...... M.
1874:
Alabama............. M.
California............ M.
Connecticut------- M.
Delaware............ M.
Illinois................ M.
Indiana............... M.
Iowa................... M.
Louisiana...... ..... M.
Maryland........... M.
Massachusetts___ M.
Michigan............ M.
Minnesota.......... M.
Missouri............. M.
New Hampshire.. M.
D o ............. M.
New Jersey......... M.
New York______ M.
Ohio................... M.
Pennsylvania...... M.
Do................ (0
Rhode Island...... M.
Virginia.............. M.
1875:
California........... M.
Connecticut........ M.
Delaware........... M.
Illinois................ M.
Louisiana............ M.
M aine--............. M.
Maryland........... M .
Massachusetts — M.
Michigan............ M.
Minnesota.......... M.
Missouri............. M.
New Hampshire - _ M.
Do................ M.
New Jersey......... M.
New Y ork.......... M.
Ohio.................. M.
Pennsylvania___ M.
Rhode Island...... M.
Virginia.............. M.
1876:
California........... M .
Connecticut........ M.
Delaware.-......... M .
Illinois................ M.
Louisiana............ M.
Maryland........... M.
Massachusetts___ M.
*And board.

60-60-60 1.83-2.00-1.96
60-72-61 .63-2.60-1.70
60-60-60 1.60-2.83-1.79
54-60-57 1.17-2.00-1.43
72-72-72 .83- .83- .83
72-72-72 .7 5 -.7 6 -.7 5
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-72-62

2.00-2.00-2.00

60-60-60
64-60-55
60-60-60
72-72-72
60-60-60
60-72-61
60-60-60
64-60-60
72-72-72

1.25-1.25-1.25
1. 50-1.50-1.50
1.00-1.58-1.39
2.69-.69- .69
1.67-2.00-1.77
.88-3.50-1.73
1.50-2.75-1.69
1.25-2.00-1.52
.83- .83- .83

0)

1.00-2.00-1.67
1.33-1.68-1.49
1.75-2.00-1.90
1.50-1.60-1.50
1.25-2.00-1.40
1. 00- 2. 00- 1.55

2.00-2.00-2.00

72-72-72 1
.00-1.00-1.00
60-60-60 2.00-2.00-2.00
60-60-60 2.00-2.00-2.00
60-60-60 1.17-1.83-1.42
60-60-60 1.00-2.22-1.51

8

1.47-1.73-1.72
1.53-1.53-1.53

60-60-60 1.50-1.50-1.50
60-60-60 1.25-2.00-1.32
60-72-62 1.00-2.00-1.49

0)

1.35-1.35-1.35
1.25-1.25-1.25
1.50-1.50-1.50
1.25-1.58-1.46
2 9 -.6 9 -.6 9
.6
1.50-2.00-1.88
.75-3.00-1.72
1.16-2.00-1.59
. 75-2.05-1.38
1.40-1.50-1.49
.83- .83- .83
1. 00- 1. 00- 1.00

60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
72-72-72
60-60-60
60-72-61

1.50-2.00-1.81
1.50-2.00-1.75
1.00-1.50-1.31
1.50-1.75-1. 75
1.75-1.75-1.75
1.50-1.76-1.67
1.25-2.00-1.30
1.25-2.00-1.44
1.35-1.35-1.35
1.25-1.25-1.25
1.50-1.50-1.50
1.33-1.50-1.44
2 .6 9 -.6 9 -.6 9
.75-2.00-1.67
. 63-2.75-1.53
1.33-1.83-1.56
1.00-2.14—
1.59
.92- .92- .92
1. 00- 1. 00- 1.00

60-60-60
64-60-55
60-60-60
72-72-72
60-60-60
60-72-61
60-60-60
64-60-56
54-60-59
72-72-72
60-60-60

0)

60-60-60
64-60-56
60-60-60
72-72-72
60-60-60
60-72-61
60-60-60
64-72-61
72-72-72
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-72-61

1. 00- 2. 00- 1.86

1.20-1.84-1.52
1.17-1.50-1.32
1.50-1.60-1.60
1.75-1.75-1.75
1.15-2.00-1.28
.90-1.83-1.38

256

PART 2.— FROM 1840 TO 1928

T a b le G—
1.— Laborers, 1840—
1900, by year and State— Continued
Lowest, highest, and
Year and State

Lowest, highest, and
Year and State

Sex

Sex

Hours per! Rate per day
week j (dollars)
1876— Continued

Michigan............
Minnesota..........
Missouri.............
New Hampshire. _
Do...............
New Jersey.........
New York..........
Ohio...................
Pennsylvania!---Do................
Rhode Island
South Carolina_
_
Virginia..........

1877:

0)

(0

72-72-72
60-60-60

California........
Connecticut___
Delaware........
Illinois............
Louisiana.......
Maine............
Maryland.......
Massachusetts___
Michigan.........
Minnesota........
Missouri..........
New Hampshire. _
New Jersey.........
New York—...... .
Ohio................. .
Pennsylvania___
Do.............. .
Rhode Island___
Virginia... ......... .

60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60

California-......... .
Connecticut-.......
Delaware.......... .
Illinois...............
Louisiana.......... .
Maryland.......... .
Massachusetts__
Michigan............
Minnesota......... .
Missouri.............
New Hampshire..
Do.............. .
New Jersey.........
New York......... .
Ohio.................
Pennsylvania___
Do..............
Rhode Island___
Virginia.............

60-60-60
60-72-71
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-72-61

California.......... .
Connecticut....... .
Delaware...........
Illinois_________
Louisiana..........
Maryland..........
Massachusetts__
Michigan...........
Minnesota.........
Missouri............
New Hampshire —
Do............
New Jersey___
Do................
New York......
Ohio...............
Pennsylvania..
Do............
Do.............
Rhode Island......
Virginia..........

60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-72-61

66- 66-66

60-60-60
60-72-61

0

60-60-60
54-60-57
72-72-72
60-67-64
60-72-61
60-84-76
42-72-58

0
72-72-72

60-60-60

1878:

3 .1 4 -.1 4 .92- .9 2 .5 0 - .8 3 .8 3 - .8 3 -

.14
.92
.66
.83

2.00-2.00-2.00

1.50-1.50-1.50
1.17-1.50-1.34
1.50-1.50-1.50
1.50-1.50-1.50
.75-1.25- .97
1.00-1.83-1.27
.85-1.90-1.33
1.35-1.35-1.35
1.25-1.25-1.25
1.50-1.50-1.50
3 .69- .6 9 - .69
1.00-2.00-1.27
.65-2.50-1.30
.80-2.13-1.21
.80-2.25-1.51
a. 1 1 -. 11-. 11
.92- .9 2 - .92

1
.00-1.00-1.00
2.00-2.00-2.00

60-60-60
54-60-58
60-60-60
72-72-72
60-60-60
60-72-61
54-72-60
45-72-60

1.00-1.75-1.47
1.17-1.50-1.34
1.38-1.50-1.50
1.50-1.50-1.50
1.00-1.83-1.27
1.00-1.90-1.30
1.35-1.35-1.35
1.25-1.50-1.35
1.50-1.50-1.50
1.25-1.25-1.25
3.69- .6 9 - .69
1.08-2.00-1.17
.65-2.25-1.25
.83-1.67-1.18
.70-2.50-1.30

72-72-72
60-60-60

. 92- . 92- .92
.83- .8 3 - .83

0

0

1879:

0

60-60-60
45-72-59
60-60-60
72-72-72
60-60-60
46-78-60
60-72-61
60-60-60
42-84-58
72-72-72
60-60-60

1Not reported.




1880:
1.35-1.35-1.35

60-60-60 1.25-1.25-1.25
54-60-57 1.50-1.50-1.50
60-66-65 1.35-1.50-1.41
72-72-72 a.69- .69- .69
60-60-60 1.50-2.00-1.81
60-72-61
.56-2.75-1.49
60-60-60 1.50-1.83-1.55
.65-4.00-1.50
48-60-59
66- 66-66

Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)

a12-. 12- .12
.

2.00-2.00-2.00
1.25-1.25-1.25
1.00-1.50-1.32
1.38-1.50-1.49
1.50-1.50-1.50
1.00-1.67-1.36
1.00-1.75-1.25
1.35-1.35-1.35
1.25-1.50-1.35
.75-1.73-1.30
1.00-1.25-1.19
3.69- .69- .69
1.33-2.00-1.52
.75-2.00-1.12
.45-2.25-1.25
.88-1.80-1.26
.50-2.59-1.27
3*75- .7 5 - .75
‘. 7 7 - . 7 7 - . 77
.92- .9 2 - .92

1.00-1.00-1.00

Alabama............
California..........
Connecticut.......
Georgia............. .
Illinois.............. .
Kentucky— ......
Do..............
Louisiana— ......
M aine..............
Maryland..........
Massachusetts__
Michigan...........
Do..............
Minnesota.........
Do..............
Missouri_______
Do..............
New Hampshire.
Do..............
Do..............
New Jersey........
Do..............
Do..............
New York.........
Do..............
Ohio.............. .
Do-.............
Pennsylvania___
Do..............
Rhode Island___
Do..............

1.20-1.47-1.29

2.00-2.00-2.00
1.50-1.50-1.50
.67-2.00- .93
. 90-1.60-1.20

1.00-1.00-1.00

1.03-1.03-1.03'
1.50-1.50-1.50

1.00-1.00-1.00

1.12-1.67-1.27
.75-1.75-1.20
.55-1.55-1.55
1.60-1.73-1.67
1.50-1.50-1.50
1.90-1.96-1.93
0
54-60-58 1.50-1.50-1.50
1.20-1.36-1.23
1.00-1.25-1.19
3.69- .69- .69
1.00-1.10-1.05
1.33-1.75-1.53
.90-1.90-1.21
1.21-1.24-1.23
.63-2.00-1.30
1.20-1.37-1.26
1.00-2.00-1.27
1.03-1.25-1.05
.75-2.00-1.29

1.10-1.12-1.10
1.10-1.10-1.10
1.00-1.25-1.09
1.00-1.05-1.05
.53-.5 3-.5 3
1.00-1.25-1.01
1.50-1.50-1.50
1.68-1.81-1.74

Texas................
Virginia.............
West Virginia___
Wisconsin..........

1881:

California..........
Connecticut.......
Delaware...........
Georgia.............
Illinois..............
Indiana.............
Kentucky..........
Louisiana..........
Maryland..........
Massachusetts.
Michigan...........
Minnesota.........
Missouri............
New Hampshire .
Do............—
New Jersey........
New York.........
Ohio.................
Pennsylvania___
Rhode Island___
Virginia.............
Wisconsin..........

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

2.00-2.00-2.00
1.50-1.50-1.50
1.00-1.54-1.28
.90-1.17-1.08
1.15-1.60-1.32
1.00-1.35-1.25
1.10-1.10-1.10
1.50-1.50-1.50
1.16-1.67-1.28
.65-2.00-1.05
1.25-1.50-1.27
1.50-1.50-1.50
1.15-1.50-1.38
1.00-1.30-1.20
3.75-.75-.75
1.00-1.75-1.24
.50-2.25-1.48
.75-2.25-1.34
1.00-1.83-1.24
1.06-1.10-1.09
1.00-1.00-1.00
1.25-1.67-1.53

California..........
Connecticut____
Delaware______
Georgia.............
Illinois..............
Louisiana..........
Maryland..........
Massachusetts.. .
Michigan...........
Minnesota.........
Missouri..........
Nebraska...........
New Hampshire .
Do..............
New Jersey........

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

2.00-2.00-2.00
1.25-1.50-1.28
L 00-1.50-1.26
.50-1.25- .94
.77-2.30-1.19
1.50-1.50-1.50
1.20-1.67-1.29
.90-2.00-1.26
1.50-1.50-1.50
1.40-1.75-1.62
1.00-2.25-1.46
1.25-1.25-1.25
.50-L 30- .90
s.75-.75- .75
1.00-2.00-1,17

1882:

3And board.

M
»

* Per hour.

257

G.— LABORERS
Table GML— Laborers, 1840-1900, by year and State— Continued

Lowest, highest, and
average—

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Sex

Year and State

Sex

Hours per Rate per day
(dollars)
week
1882—Continued.
New York______
North Carolina__
O hio__________
Do.............
Pennsylvania......
Rhode Island......
South Carolina_
_
Virginia
West Virginia......
Wisconsin___
1883:
Alabama
California
Colorado_______
Connecticut
Georgia________
Illinois
T,niiisi{vna
Massachusetts---Michigan
, -

M. 57-72-59
M.
(9
M 60-60-60
<9 54-92-fi0
M. 54r66r59
M. 60-72-61
M. 61-69-66
M. 60-60-60
M. 59-59-59
M. 57-57-57

. 75-2.25-1.57
. 75- . 75- . 75
1.17-1.25-1.35
. 75-2.00-1.-37
1.00-1. 75-1.34
1.10-1.83-1.54
. 60-1.25- . 81
1.00-1.25-1.01
1. 25-1.25-1.25
1.75-1.75-1. 75

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

. 67_ . 67- . 67
1.00-2.00-1.01
2.00-2.00-2.00
1.50-1.50-1.50
1.00-1.50-1.27
. 50-1.25- . 82
1.50-1.68-1.50
. 83-1.50-1.47
1.20-1.67-1.28
. 90-2.00-1.30
. 75-3.00-1.44
1.50-1.50-1.50
1.00-1.00-1.00
1.50-1.75-1.66
1.00-1.30-1. 20
2.75- . 75- . 75
. 91-2.00-1.20
. 75-2.50-1.51
1.20-2.17-1.36
1.20-1.75-1.46
1.10-1.10-1.10
. 65-1.35-1.28
. 80-1.00- . 93
1.00-1.00-1.00
1.00-1.00-1.00

Mississippi______
Missouri________
New Hampshire—
Do_________
New Jersey_____
New York______
Ohio _________
Pennsylvania......
Rhode Island.—
South Carolina_
_
Tennessee_______
Virginia________
West Virginia___
1884:
Alabama_______ M.
California_______ M.
Colorado_______ M.
Delaware_______ M.
Georgia________ M.
Illinois_________ M.
Indiana________ M.
Iowa___________ M.
Louisiana_______ M.
Maryland_______ M.
Massachusetts---- M.
Do................ M.
Michigan_______ M.
Minnesota______ M.
Missouri_______ M.
New Hampshire- _ M.
Do_________ M.
New Jersey_____ M.
New York______ M .
Ohio___________ M.
Pennsylvania____ M.
Rhode Island____ M.
South Carolina_ M.
_
Virginia________ M.
Washington_____ M.
M.
West Virginia1885:
Alabama________ M.
Arkansas_________ M.
California_______ M.
Connecticut_____ M.
Delaware_______ M.
Georgia________ M.
Illinois__________ M.
Indiana__________ M.
Iowa__-________ M.
Kansas______ _ M.
Kentucky........... M.

(9

60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
66-69-69
60-60-60
60-63-60
60-60-60
60-72-60

(9

60-60-60

(9

54-60-58
60-60-60
72-72-72
48-75-61
60-72-61
45-84-61
54-60-59
72-72-72
60-72-61
66-66-66
60-60-60
60-60-60
84-84-84
60-84-61
72-72-72
60-72-70
66-70-68
60-60-60

(9

60-84-63
60-66-60
60-60-60
60-72-60
60-60-60

(9

60-60-60
54-60-58
60-60-60
72-72-72
54-72-61
53-72-56
54-72-60
54-60-59
72-72-72
69-69-69
60-60-60
60-60-60
59-60-59

1.00-1.00-1.00
2.00-2.49-2.31
2. 50-2. 50-2. 50
1.00-2. 50-1. 29
. 75-1.00- . 78
1.10-2.00-1.50
1.00-1. 25-1.19
. 67-2.00-1.28
1.00-1.50-1.48
1.20-1.67-1.28
. 75-2.00-1.30
2 1.50-1.50-1.50
. 46-2. 75-1. 42
1.50-1. 50-1.50
1. 25-1. 75-1.49
1.00-1.30-1.20
2.75- . 75- . 75
. 83-2.00-1.26
. 63-2.50-1.99
.67-2.25-1.20
.67-2.00-1.27
1.10-1.10-1.10
.58- .75- .73
.67-1.25-1.01
. 80-1.00- . 90
.83-1.50-1.16

72-72-72 . 80-1.50-1.12
60-60-60 1.50-1.50-1.50
60-72-61 . 75-3.50-1.74
59-66-59 . 67-1.38-1.30
60-72-61 .42-1.65-1.21
69-69-69 .32- .85- .51
54-72-60 .50-2.00-1.44
6 -7 -6 .80-2.12-1.33
020
60-70-70 1.35-1.50-1.36
48-108-60 .75-2.00-1.37
54-66-60 .75-2.00-1.28

i Not reported.



Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)
1885—Continued.

Louisiana— ........ M.
Maine................ M.
Maryland............ M.
Massachusetts___ M.
Michigan............ M.
Minnesota______ M.
Missouri............. M.
New Hampshire-_ M.
Do._............. M.
New Jersey_____ M.
Do................ M.
New York______ M.
North Carolina— M.
M.
Oregon.... ............ M.
Pennsylvania____ M.
Rhode Island....... M.
South Carolina_ M.
_
Tennessee.... ........ M.
M.
Vermont—.......... M.
Virginia.............. M.
West Virginia___ M.
Wisconsin........... M.

60-60-60 1.50-1.50-1.50
.90-2.17-1.32
54-72-66
60-72-67
.95-2.00-1.18
.67-2.00-1.22
50-72-61
.58-3.00-1.35
60-66-66
60-72-64 1.25-1.62-1.39
48-72-55 1.00-2.00-1.39
59-66-61
. 71-2.17-1.24
72-72-72 2.75- . 75- . 75
42-72-60
. 63-2.50-1.27
60-60-60 2.96- .96- .96
. 60-2.50-1.63
53-72-57
60-69-62
. 67-1.00- . 83
54-72-61
. 50-2.08-1.12
72-72-72 1.75-1.75-1.75
48-72-58
.75-2.60-1.27
48-72-58
.83-2.00-1.32
66- 66-66 . 85-1.25- . 88
60-72-66
.90-1.50-1.01
60-60-60 1.50-1.50-1.50
60-66-60 1. 10- 1. 12- 1.10
48-72-57
. 75-1.30- . 94
54-66-60 1.00-1.42-1.20
60-69-65 1.00-1.67-1.39

California............
Connecticut.........
Delaware............
Dist. of ColumbiaIllinois................
Indiana...............

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
Kansas.... ........... M.
Maryland........... M.
Massachusetts___ M.
Michigan............ M.
Minnesota........... M.
Missouri............. M.
New Hampshire— M.
Do................ M.
New Jersey......... M.
New York........... M.
North Dakota.... M.
Ohio................... M.
Pennsylvania...... M.
Rhode Island...... M.
Tennessee............ M.
Vermont............. M.
Virginia.............. M.
West Virginia___ M.
Wisconsin........... M.

60-60-60 1.75-2.00-1.87
60-60-60
.75-2.00-1.63
60-72-64 1.00-1.42-1.25
58-58-58 2. 00- 2. 00- 2.00
48-78-56
.83-2.00-1.58
60-60-60 1. 20- 1. 20- 1.20
60-78-61
.50-4.00-1.30
30-78-60
. 75-2.00-1.36
48-60-60 1.00-2.00-1.09
60-72-61
. 75-1.84-1.28
54-60-58 1.00-2.00-1.26
60-60-60 1.13-1.50-1.28
54-60-58 1.50-1.50-1.50
60-60-60 1.20-1.40-1.31
72-72-72 2.75- . 75- . 75
57-72-58
.55-2.00-1.17
42-72-60
. 75-2.50-1.49
60-60-60 1.75-1.75-1.75
60-60-60
.65-2.25-1.29
54-60-59
.83-1.80-1.31
60-60-60
.83-1.83-1.32
72-72-72 1.25-1.25-1.25
60-60-60 1.25-1.25-1.25
60-60-60 1. 00- 1. 00- 1.00
66- 66-66 1. 10- 1. 10- 1.10
48-72-60
.94-1.50-1.23

California............
Connecticut........
Delaware............
Do................
Florida...............
Do......... ........
Illinois................
Do................
Kansas.... ............
Do................
Kentucky...........
Louisiana............
Maine................
Maryland...........
Do__.............
Massachusetts___
Do................
Michigan............
Do................
Minnesota...........
Missouri............ .
Do................
Nebraska............

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

60-63-60
60-60-60
60-60-60

M.
M.
F.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

54-72-60

1886:

1887:

1And board.

(9

(9

(9
(9

60-60-60

(9

(9

60-60-60
60-60-60
60-72-60
60-60-60

(9

60-72-61

(9

60-60-60

(9

60-60-60
54-72-58

(9

M. 54-60-58

* Per hour.

1.75-2.00-1.92
. 72-2.00-1.48
1.00-1.67-1.30
3 . 10- . 20- . 12
.27-2.00-1.03
8.10- . 15- . 14
1.50-1.50-1.50
1.64-1.64-1.64
. 75-2.25-1.63
2 .7 5 -. 75-.75
1. 00- 1. 00- 1.00
1.75-1.75-1.75
.75-2.00-1.21
.38-2.30-1.17
3.13- . 18- . 15
. 38-2.25-1* 45
3.16^-. 20- . 17
1.00-2.30-1.33
». 1 0-. 17- .13
1.50-1.50-1.50
1.00-2.57-1.40
1.13-1.62-1.53
1. 00- 2.50-1.63

258

PART 2.— FROM 1840 TO 1928
T a b le Gr-1.— Laborers, 1840-1900, by year and State— Continued
Lowest^ highest, and
average—

Year and State

Sex

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Sex

Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)
Continued.
New Hampshire..
Do...............
New Jersey.........
New York..........
Do...............
North Carolina__
Ohio..................
Oregon...............
Pennsylvania......
Do...............
Rhode Island......
Do...............
Virginia..............
West Virginia......
Wisconsin...........

1887—

60-60-60 1.25-1.40-1.30
60-60-60 2.75- . 75—. 75
60-60-60 1.20-2.00-1.39
53-72-60
. 58-2.50-1.39
8.10-. 18H-. 14
0
60-78-62
.50-1.75- .80
42-72-60
. 50-2.50-1.37
1.53-2.49-2.03
0
.31-3.54-1.29
48-72-59

.2 -. 2
0) 8.07^—0 1
1.10-2.50-1.43
0) 8.15-. 25-. 16^
60-60-60
48-60-54

.46-2.00-1.06
. 54-1.53-1.15
1.00-2.00-1.41

1888:

California...........
Colorado.............
Connecticut.......
Delaware..........
Georgia............. .
Illinois............. .
Indiana______
Iowa..................
Do.............. .
Kansas............ .
Louisiana.......... .
M aine-..............
Maryland.......... .
Massachusetts_
_
Michigan............
Minnesota______
Missouri.............
Do.............
New Hampshire..
Do............. .
New Jersey........
New York......... .
Do..............
Do..............
Do..............
Do..............
North Carolina. _
Ohio_____ ____ _
Pennsylvania___
Rhode Island___
South Carolina....
Tennessee.......... .
Virginia..............
West Virginia___
Alabama.......... .
Do..............
Alaska................
Arizona.............
Arkansas...........
California......
Do..............
Colorado...........
Connecticut.......
Do..............
Delaware-.........
Do.......... .
Georgia.............
Do..............
Idaho................
Illinois_____
Do..............
Indiana.............
Do..............
Indian Territory.
Iowa.................
Do..............
Kansas..............
Do..............

60- 60-60

48-60-58
60-60-60
60-60-60
66- 66-66

60-84-61

0
0

54-63-60
54-72-61
60-60-60
60-72-63
60-60-60
60-72-61
36-90-60
60-60-60
54-60-58
T

60-60-60
48-84-60
48-93-60

0
60-60-60
0

66- 66-66

60-72-66
60-60-60
54-84-61
60- 60-60

66- 66-66

60-60-60
60-72-64
60-66-63
48-84-63

0
8
0

60-60-60
60-60-60

0
0
66-84-69

60-60-60

8

60-72-63

0

60-60-61

I)
1
0

48-60-58
48-72-60

2.00-2.00-2.00

1.15-2.00-1.88
1.25-1.25-1.25
1.00-1.67-1.29
.50-1.75-. 89
1.40-3.00-1.55
1.25-1.25-1.25
1.00-1.75-1.28
31.25-1.25-1.25
.75-2.00-1.48
1.75-1.75-1.75
1.00-2.00-1.49
1.20-1.67-1.28
.75-1.84-1.24
.77-2.38-1.51
1.50-1.50-1.50
1.50-1. 50-1. 50
1.15-1.60-1.34
1.25-1.50-1.33
2 .75 -.7 5 - .75
1.00-2.00-1.38
.66-3.00-1.52
8.14- .25- .21
2.96- .96- .96
«.75- .75- .75
*1.25-1.25-1.25
.31-1.00-. 61
.91-2.00-1.32
1.00-2.45-1.39

1.00-2.00-1.20
.50-1.00- .59
.40-1.85-1.03
.50-1.90-1.01
1.40-1.80-1.42

.75-2.50-1.23
.83-1.47-1.26
2.00-2.82-2.61
1.49-3.20-2.42
1.22-2.06-1.65
1.75-2.00-1.95
1.16-3.70-2.06
1.63-3.75-2.66
1.25-1.50-1.29
1.48-1.74-1.57
1.00-1.67-1.16
1.50-1.50-1.50
.50-2.00-1.02
.80-1.05-. 99
1.77-3.50-3.05
. 52-3.00-1.46

1.00-2.00-1.68
1.00-2.05-1.29
.96-1.91-1.45
1.90-2.41-2.27
1.19-2.13-1.67
1.16-1.46-1.30
.75-1.95-1.58
.50-2.25-1.54

i Not reported.
2And board.



8Per hour.

Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)
1889—Continued.

Kentucky..........
Louisiana..........
M aine--............
M aine.-............
Maryland..........
Do..............
Massachusetts.. _
Do..............
M ichigan.........
Do..............
Minnesota_____
Do.............
Missouri............
Do..............
Do..............
Montana........ .
Nebraska...........
Nevada.............
New Hampshire-.
Do............
Do...........
New Jersey___
Do............
New Mexico__
New York____
Do...........
North Carolina. _.
Do...........
North Dakota___
Ohio..............
Do............
Oregon....... .
Pennsylvania. _
Do_______
Rhode Island..
Do...........
Sou.th Carolina_
_
Do_______
South Dakota..
Do..........
Texas.............
Utah..............
Vermont....... .
Virginia..........
Washington__
West Virginia..
Do.......... .
Wisconsin......
Do.......... .
Wyoming.......

1890:

Alabama........
California.......
Connecticut....
Delaware____
Illinois.......... .
Indiana......... .
Louisiana.......... .
M aine..............
Maryland..........
Massachusetts.. _
Michigan______
Minnesota______
Missouri
Nebraska.
New Hampshire- _
Do......
New Jersey.
New York..
Do......
North Carolina. __
*

And rent.

1.01-1.84-1.31
1.75-1.75-1.75
1.62-1.75-1.67
.75-2.00-1.40
.89-1.87-1.31
1.05-1.86-1.57
.75-1.90-1.22
1.25-1.80-1.56
.33-2.13-1.66
1.25-2.10-1.65
1.50-1.85-1.76
1.48-1.96-1.84
.75-2.00-1.24
1.12-1.91-1.54
.60-2.21-1.41
1.50-3.58-3.17
1.54-1.54-1.54
2.00-3.88-3.15
1.05-1.50-1.17
1.50-1.68-1.65
2.75- .75- .75
1.25-2.00-1.32
1.21-1.45-1.33
1.00-3.00-2.30
.40-2.50-1.36
1.20-1.75-1.37
.40-1.25- .73
. 75-1.00- . 86
1.50-1.88-1.72
.95-3.50-1.40
1.00-2.00-1.43
1.00-3.50-2.28
. 75-3.50-1. 41
1.00-2.03 1.51
1.36-1.54^1.53

1.10-1.10-1.10

.50 -.8 2-. 65
.78-1.20- .98
1.50-3.00-2.67
.60-1.85-1.07
. 60-1.65-1.14
.53-2.50-1.32
1.75-3.31-2.86
1.03-1.45-1.33
.75-1.50-1.05
.75-1.70-1.18
2.06-3.34-2.53
.75-3.22-1.43
.93-2.00-1.41
1.00-2.10-1.62
1.37-1.81-1.65
2.00-4.00-2.38

.31-2.00-1.26
1.75-2.00-1.84
.92-1.75-1.38
1.00-1.67-1.29
1.00-2.00-1.51
.75-1.63-1.26
1.10-1.75-1.43
. 50-1.50-1.44
1.25-1.25-1.25
1.10-1.67-1.27
.90-1.84-1.30
.33-2.50-1.33
1.00-2.10-1.45
.90-1.00- .99
.75-2.00-1.50
1.20-2.03-1.62
1.00-1.50-1.25
2.75- .75- .75
.67-2.00-1.27
.60-2.50-1.57
8,14- .14- . 14
.50-1.00-.75

8And board and washing.

259

G.— LABORERS
T a b le G - l .— Laborers, 1840-1900, by year and State— C ontinued
Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Sex

Lowest, highest, and
average—
Year and State

Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)
1890—
-Continued.
Ohio___________
Do................
Pennsylvania......
Rhode Island.......

M.
(9
M.
M.
Tfinnftssfte.......... M.
Virginia_ ___ ... M.
_
Wisconsin.__ ___ M.
1891:
California...____ M.
C onnecticut..___ M.
Delaw are....___ M.
Illinois_____ ____ M.
Do_______... M.
Transas
M.
T.onisiftna.. 11ir.„ M.
I- _
Maine_____ ___ M.
Do................ M.
Maryland_______ M.
Massachusetts___ M.
Michigan_______ M.
Minnesota._ __ M.
Do................ M.
Missouri............. M.
New Hampshire.. M.
New Jersey_____ M.
New York______ M.
Do................ M.
North Carolina__ M.
Ohio................... M.
Pennsylvania___ M.
Rhode Island...... M.
South Carolina_ M.
_
Virginia________ M.
Wisconsin______ M.
Do................ M.
1892:
California___ .... M.
Do................ M.
Connecticut_____ M.
Delaware_______ M.
Florida_________ M.
Illinois_________ M.
Indiana________ M.
M.
Iowa___
Kansas_________ M.
Louisiana_______ M.
Maine_________ M.
Maryland_______ M.
Massachusetts___ M.
Michigan_______ M.
Minnesota______ M.
Do................ M.
Missouri________ M.
New Hampshire_ M.
New Jersey_____ M.
New York______ M.
Ohio............ ...... M.
Pennsylvania____ M.
Rhode Island...... M.
South Carolina_ M.
_
Vermont________ M.
Virginia________ M .
Wisconsin........... M.
1893:
California_______ M.
Connecticut_____ M.
Delaware______ M.
Illinois...... ..... ... M.
Do................ M.
Kansas___ . ...... M.
Louisiana___ ___ M .
Maine_________ M.
Maryland______ M.
Massachusetts___ M.
Michigan............ M.

i Not reported.



54-72.60 . 82-2.00-1.36
48-72-60 . 75-2.00-1.37
54-60-57 .75-2.00-1.42
60-60-60 .75-1.43-1.02
69-69-69 . 30-1.00- . 59
60-60-60 1.00-1.00-1.00
60-84-63 1.40-2.15-1.55
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
36-72-63
60-60-60
60-84-61

(9

60-60-60
60-72-61
60-60-60
60-60-60

(9

54-60-58
60-60-60
60-60-60
54-72-61

(9

60-72-64
42-72-59
54-60-57
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60

(9

48-66-60
60-60-60
54-60-55
60-60-60
60-60-60
59-60-60
48-66-59
54-96-61
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
58-72-61
54-60-60
60-60-60

(9

54-60-58
60-60-60
60-60-60
54-66-60
36-84-59
54-60-58
53-60-59
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60

1.75-2.00-1.84
1.50-1.50-1.50
1.00-1.67-1.29
1.50-1.75-1.63
1.50-1.75-1.51
1.50-2.05-1.67
1.50-1.50-1.50
. 87-2.00-1.44
3.20- . 20- . 20
1.20-1.67-1.29
.90-1.84-1.32
1.25-1.55-1.28
1.50-1.75-1.65
a 84-1.15- . 91
.
1.02-2.07-1.38
. 75-1.50-1.08
1.00-1.75-1.46
. 60-2. 75-1.44
3.14- . 14- . 14
.38-1.50- .85
. 60-2.00-1.40
1.00-2.00-1.41
1.10-1.10-1.10
1.00-1.00-1.00
1.00-1.00-1.00
1.00-1. 71-1.40
3.10- . 20- . 15
1.00-2.25-1.90
21.15-1.25-1.15
. 83-2.18-2.02
1.00-2.00-1.30
1.00-1.25-1.09
1.50-1.75-1.51
. 72-1.77-1.29
. 76-1.80-1.34
1.60-1.75-1.62
1.50-1.50-1.50
1.41-1.84-1.52
1.20-1.67-1.28
.80-2.00-1.45
. 75-2.00-1.32
1.50-1. 75-1.72
2.84-1.15- .91
1.50-1.50-1.50
1.25-1.25-1.25
1.67-1.75-1.72
1.00-2.50-1.72
. 75-3.00-1.45
1.00-2.00-1.41
1.25-1.75-1.55
1.00-1.00-1.00
1.25-1.25-1.25
1.00-1.00-1.00
1.50-1.60-1.55

60-60-60 1.50-2.00-1.73
54-54-54 2.13-2.13-2.13
60-60-60 .83-2.00-1.31
40-84-60 .33-2.75-1.57
65-72-69 2.67-1.17- .92
1.50-1.50-1.50
(9
60-60-60 1.50-1. 50-1.50
1.62-1.62-1.62
(9
42-95-61 . 25-3.00-1.25
58-60-59 . 87-2.00-1. 51
48-72-60 . 96-2.00-1.30

* And board.

Sex
Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)

1893— Continued.

Minnesota.........
Do..........
Missouri............
Montana...........
Do..............
New HampshireNew Jersey........
New York.........
North Carolina__
Ohio.................
Pennsylvania___
Rhode Island___
Virginia.............
Wisconsin..........
Do..............
Do..............

1894:

California..........
Connecticut.......
Delaware..........
Georgia.............
Illinois..............
Indiana.............
Iowa...... ..........
Kansas..............
Louisiana..........
Maine_________
Maryland..........
Massachusetts. —
Michigan............
Minnesota_____
Do..............
Missouri............
Montana.......... .,
Do..............
New Hampshire..
New York......... .
North Carolina__
Do..............
Ohio..................
Pennsylvania----Rhode Island___
Virginia..............
West Virginia___
Wisconsin_____ _

1895:

Alabama............
California.......... .
Connecticut------Delaware..........
Florida........... .
Georgia.............
Illinois................

Kentucky..........
Louisiana..........
M aine--............
Maryland..........
Massachusetts-..
Michigan...........
Minnesota.........
Do__............
Mississippi........
Missouri............
Montana...........
New Hampshire.
New Jersey........
New York.........
North Carolina..
Ohio.................
Pennsylvania___
Rhode Island___
South Carolina_
Virginia..
3 Per hour.

60-60-60 L 50-1.70-1.61

(9

2.61-1.15—. 78
.69-2.00-1.59
1.50-2.50-1.78
6 1.53-1.53-1.53
1.00-2.00-1.36
1.20-1.55-1.39
. 67-3.00-L 49
. 75- . 75- . 75
.50-2.75-1.41
. 25-3.00-1.38
2. 00- 2. 00- 2.00
(9
60-60-60 1. 00- 1. 00- 1.00
60-60-60 . 75-1.76-1.47
.12H-20-.14^
(9
2 50- . 84- . 81
.
(9

54-72-61
54-66-55
54-54-54
55-60-59
60-84-73
42-84-59
60-60-60
36-72-59
48-84-59

60-60-60
54-54-54
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
48-64-56
48-84-62
62-62-62
60-60-60
57-66-60
60-72-62
54r-72-62
60-60-60
60-60-60

(9
(9
(9

54-60-58
54-69-60
54-60-60
60-72-62
60-72-68

30-72-59

54-60-56

(9

1.50-2.00-1.75
2.13-2.13-2.13
. 83-2.00-1.27
.6 0 -. 8 0-. 73
1.50-1.50-1.50
1.25-1.57-1.41
. 67-2.25-1.43
1.05-1.43-1.08
1.25-1.25-1.25
1.00-2.00-1.47
1.00-1.50-1.27
. 75-2.00-1.54
1.13-1.38-1.25
1.25-1.75-1.50
2.61-1.00- . 70
1.50-1.50-1.50
1.46-2.42-2.15
« 1.22- 1. 22- 1.22
L 17-2.00-1.53
. 60-2.00-1.51
.40-1.50- .79
.40-1.50-.82
. 50-3.33-1.36
1.10-1.83-1.44
. 75-1. 75-1.17

60-60-60 1 0 .0 -1 0
.0 -1 0 .0
48-60-59 . 80-1.83-1.35
60-60-60 1.25-1.25-1.25
60-66-64
60-60-60
54-72-60
60-60-60
60-63-62
51-66-63
60-60-60
42-72-60
60-60-60
60-63-61
60-60-60
60-90-64
41-72-60
60-60-60
60-60-60

(9

60-60-60
54r-60-58

(9

59-60-60
48-60-58
48-72-60
60-72-63
36-72-60
54-60-57
55-60-59
54-66-66
60-66-65
48-72-59

.50- .90- .69
1.50-2.00-1.76
. 75-2.13-1.67
. 83-1.83-1.23
.60-1.00- .80
.70-1.50-1.04
1.50-1.50-1.50
. 75-2.30-1.54
1.00-1.33-1.08
.75-2.00-1.22
. 92-2.77-1.61
1.00-2.00-1.28
. 67-2.17-1.47
. 50-2.00-1.26
1.37-1.75-1.39
3.58- .7 7 -. 62
.90- .90-.90
.60-2.10-1.45
1.10-2.17-1.32
.60-2.75-1.43
. 75-2.00-1.34
. 58-2.50-1.49
. 50-1.50- . 75
.40-4.00-1.36
.53-2.00-1.36
.92-2.00-1.50
. 50-1.33- . 72
.80-1.30- .99
.67-1.25-1.04

6And board and lodging.

260

PART 2.— FROM 1840 TO 1928
T a b le G -1.— Laborers, 1840-1900, by year and State— Continued
Lowest, highest, and
average—
Hours per Rate per day
w
eek
(dollars)

Year and State

1895—Continued.
West Virginia----Wisconsin.......... .
Do............... .
1896:
Alabama............ .
California............
Colorado............ .
Connecticut....... .
Delaware-...........
Dist. of Columbia.
Florida................
Georgia...............
Illinois............... .
Indiana...............
Iowa.................. .
Kansas................
Kentucky...........
Louisiana............
Maryland............
Massachusetts—
Michigan........... .
Do............... .
Minnesota.........
Do................
Mississippi..........
Missouri............ .
Montana.............
Nebraska........... .
New Hampshire- .
New Jersey........ .
New York...........
North Carolina...
Ohio..................
Do............... .
Pennsylvania___
Rhode Island......
South Carolina....
Tennessee...........
Vermont.............
Virginia...............
West Virginia___
Wisconsin... ........
1897:
California............
Connecticut____
Illinois................
Kansas...............
Louisiana............
Maine................

Lowest, highest, and
average—
aAL
ir
06J
Hours per Rate per day
week
(dollars)

M. 59-59-59 1.25-1.25-1.25
M. 60-60-60 1.25-1.25-1.25
0 42-96-60 .40-2.33-1.22

1897—Continued.
Maryland............ M. 54-60-58 1.25-1.50-1.27
Massachusetts___ M. 60-60-60 . 95-1.75-1.48
Michigan............. M. 60-60-60 .75-1.35-1.25

Sex

Year and State

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
0)
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
F.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

0)
60-60-60
54-60-60
60-60-60
54-72-64
0)
0)
54-72-65
42-77-59
60-65-62
48-58-51
48-78-59
60-60-60
60-60-60
48-70-60
54-84-60
54-60-59
60-60-60
60-60-60
60-60-60
0)
48-72-60
0)
48-72-59
54-60-59
60-60-60
36-84-61
69-72-70
45-72-59
48-60-57
47-72-60
60-60-60
66-66-66
0)
60-66-62
60-60-60
48-60-58
48-60-58

.75- .90- .83
1.00-2.00-1.29
. 75-1.75-1.47
1.00-1. 75-1.24
.50-1.33- .89
.83- .83- .83
1.00-2. 00-1.31
.50-1.58- .88
. 83-2. 25-1.32
1.10-2. 00-1.21
. 58-1. 67-1.43
. 58-2. 30-1.28
. 45-1. 00- . 71
1