View original document

The full text on this page is automatically extracted from the file linked above and may contain errors and inconsistencies.

D e p a r t m e n t

of

L a b o r

O ffic e o f the Secretary
WASHINGTON
4
" MATTERS

0?

RECORD "

The functions o f the D irector o f Negro Economics are advisory to the
Secretary on matters m anifestly or d ir e c tly a ffe c tin g Negro wage-earners,
fo llow in g the recognition by the Secretary o f Labor o f the p r a c tic a b ility o f
the Negro wage-earners having representation in the Department o f Labor and
subsequent appointment o f Dr. George E. Haynes as D irector o f Negro Economics,
the new D irector v is it e d various points in the South fo r the purpose o f assur­
ing to the Department cooperation o f white and colored individuals and white
and colored groups.
The fo llo w in g are some o f the points at which hearty
cooperation was secured at f i r s t :
Richmond, Va.; Raleigh, N. C.; Columbia,
S. C .; A tlanta, Ga.; Birmingham, A la .; Meridian, M iss.; N ash ville, Tenn.;
L o u is v ille , Ey.
At these points o f f i c i a l s o f the schools, o f the State Councils o f
National Defense, o f the Chambers o f Commerce, o f the U. S. xinployment Ser­
v ic e , and o f white and Negro colleges promised the Department o f Labor co­
operation and assistance in it s e ffo r ts to develop Negro wage-earners in
such a way as to increase th e ir e ffic ie n c y fo r maximum production to win the
war.
The f i r s t o f a series o f state conferences o f representative white and
Negro c itizen s was called by Governor Bickett on June 19.
There were present
at this conference, which was held in the o ffic e o f the Governor, seventeen o f
the most substantial Negro citizen s from a l l parts o f the State, and fiv e white
c itiz e n s , including Governor B ickett, who presided throu^out the conference
and took an a ctive part in its discussion.
The general plans o f the Depart­
ment o f Labor fo r increasing the morale and e ffic ie n c y fo r winning the War were
outlined by the D irector o f Negro Economics and were fr e e ly discussed.
At the
close o f the meeting the Governor appointed a Temporary Committee which drafted
a constitu tion providing fo r a state Negro Workers' Advisory Committee and fo r
the organization o f lo ca l county and o it y committees.
This plan o f organiza­
tion , with s lig h t m odifications and adjustments fo r other states, has served as
a model fo r the development o f voluntary f i e l d organization in four other south­
ern states and s ix northern sta tes.
Governor Bickett was so h i^ ily pleased with
the resu lts o f the conference that he gave a statement to the public press in
which he said that i t was the most p a tr io tic and h elpfu l conference he had a t­
tended.




2
The Southern S ocio lo gica l Congress held a state meeting o f white and
colored c itizen s from a l l parts o f M ississippi at Gulfport, M iss., on July 12,
1916.
The D irector o f Negro Economics was in vited to address this state con­
feren ce.
About 200 white c itiz e n s , both business men and plan ters, and about
76 Negro citizen s were in attendance.
The Department took advantage o f this
sta te gathering to c a ll together those who were esp ecia lly in terested in Negro
labor adjustment.
The address o f the Director o f Negro Economics on war labor
problems re la tin g to Negroes, given before the Southern S o cio lo gica l Congress,
not only gained a hearty response from whites and Negroes present, but several
o f the white citizen s took an a ctive part in the departmental meetings to work
out our plan o f state-wide Negro Workers’ Advisory Committees with lo ca l commit­
tees, which plan was adopted.
The meeting o f the Southern S o cio lo g ica l Congress was clo sely follow ed by a
state conference o f representative white and Negro o itizen s at Jackson­
v i l l e , Fla.
This conference was called by Governor Sidney J. Catts,
who presided at a number o f the sessions.
The plan adopted by the conference
ca lled fo r the fonmation o f a state Negro Workers' Advisory Committee, composed
o f representative Negroes and cooperating white c itizen s representing the state
Council o f National Defense and the U. S. Employment Servioe.
A program o f
a c t iv it ie s was worked out which had as it s object the promotion o f a b etter
understanding in employment matters in Florida and the removal o f discontent
o f workers, in order that greater production o f food and supplies might en­
sue.
So great was the enthusiasm o f the citizen s in Jacksonville that a
monster mass meeting was held at which Governor Catts and other prominent
o f f i c i a l s spoke.
In the meantime, the V irgin ia organization, through the help o f the
Negro Organization Society o f that sta te, had been begun, and the f i r s t super­
v is o r o f Negro Economics was appointed and undertook the d irection o f the ad­
viso ry work in that sta te.
The next step was to get the work and organisation launched in northern
t e r r ito r y .
Ohio was selected fo r the i n i t i a l e ff o r t .
Consequently, on
August 5, 1918, a conference was ca lled by the Department, with the hearty co­
operation o f the Federal D irector o f the U. S. Employment Service and Governor
Cox.
This conference, whioh met at the State Capitol, Columbus, was very not­
able fo r the number in attendance, representing, as they did, white employers,
Negro wage-earners and representatives o f white wage-earners*
There were in
attendance about 125 persons.
During the afternoon session Governor Cox gave
an address.
The conference adopted the usual plan o f state organization, and
Charles E. H a ll, the second supervisor o f Negro economics, who haul been
transferred from the Department o f Commerce, was detailed to the state to
develop the organization and to supervise the work under the authority o f
the U. S. Employment S ervice.




The conference in Kentucky was held on August 6.
There were both
white and colored representatives in attendance.
This conference was unique
in that the plan o f organization adopted was that o f a united war work com­
m ittee with a special committee o f white c itizen s appointed by the State Council
o f Defense, as cooperating members.
This war work committee included repre­

3
sentatives from the Department o f Agricu ltu re, the U. S. Food Administration,

the Red Gross, the council o f Defense and the Department o f Labor.
Governor
A, 0. Stanley o f Kentucky attended the morning session and made an enthusiastic
address to the delegates.
Ey this time, the influence o f the state conferences had so proven th e ir
value, th e ir effectiven ess and th e ir usefulness as a means o f s ta rtin g the state
movement and creating good w i l l and favorable sentiment that other conferences
have follow ed almost as a matter o f course.
Additional conferences have been
held la t e r in Georgia, Missouri, I l l i n o i s , Michigan, Pennsylvania and New
Jersey, and steps have been taken eith e r fo r conferences or organization o f the
work in New York and South Carolina.
By the close o f the year Just passed, and a ft e r s ix months o f work,
Negro Workers’ Advisory Committees, s ta te, county and c it y , had been wholly or
p a rtly foraed in ten states and steps had been taken to establish committees
in three other sta tes.
Nearly a l l o f these committees have white and Negro
members o f have cooperating white members representing organizations o f the
white employers and white workers.
One o f the most sig n ific a n t facts about
the in vita tio n s and acceptances o f service on these coomittees by white and
Negro persons, numbering more than a thousand, is that there has been, so fa r
as we have any record, only one case o f a member o f one committee whose re la ­
tionship on the committee has caused fr ic t io n or made necessary a request fo r
his resign ation .
There has been the h ea rtiest response fo r this work from
o itizen s o f both races everywhere.
Many o f them have used th e ir time, th e ir
servioes and th e ir money to fa rth er the departmental program.
I t is the expressed opinion o f competent judges that the holding o f
these conferences and the voluntary cooperation o f hundreds o f white and Negro
o itizen s on these comnittees, both North and South, are in themselves results
s u ffic ie n t to ju s t ify th is e ff o r t o f the Department.
But even more s i g n i f i ­
cant is the fa ct that these men and women serving on comnittees are h e lp fu lly
in touch with scores o f thousands o f employers and white and Negro workers.
The prin cip les on which the work fo r Negro wage-earners is based are:
1. Representation: In view o f the fact that Negroes constitute about
one tenth o f the to ta l population o f this country and about one sixth o f
the working population o f the country, i t is reasonable that they should
have representation around the council table when matters a ffe c tin g them
are considered.
When given such representation and opportunity, Negroes
w i l l respond and shoulder th e ir part o f resp o n sib ility on the farm, in the
fa cto ry, at the shipyard, and wherever else an opportunity is given them to
serve.
2.
The two races are thrown together in d a ily Work.
The m ajority o f the
employers and a large number o f the fe llo w employees o f Negro workers are
white persons.
This condition gives ris e to misunderstandings, prejudices,
antagonisms, fears and suspicions.
These fa cts must be recognized and dealt
with in a statesmanlike way.




4
3. Looal character o f the problems:
The problems are lo ca l problems
between lo c a l employers and. loca l employees.
The lo ca l people need the
visio n o f national p o lic ie s and standards to apply to them.
4. Cooperation: Therefore, any plan or program should be based upon the
cooperation o f white employers and representatives o f Negro wage-earners, and,
wherever possible, o f white wage-earners.
As previously acknowledged by the Secretary o f Labor, the work o f Negro
Economics would obviously involve two general d iff ic u lt ie s in any e ffo r t to
carry out an e ffe c t iv e program based, o f course, upon the functions o f the
Department o f Labor:
1. The d iff ic u lt ie s o f fo r e s ta llin g a strong fe e lin g o f suspicion on
the part o f the Negro people.
(This is easy to arouse because o f th e ir
past experience in ra cia l and labor m atters).
2. The d iff ic u lt y o f fo r e s ta llin g a wrong inpression among white people,
e s p ecia lly those in the South, about the intention behind the e ffo r ts o f the
Department.
The North Carolina Conference, then, was p a rticu la rly encouraging, inas­
much as the Governor expressed him self as h i^ ily pleased with the results and
acoepted a place as Honorary Chairman o f the State Committee.
Those present
and taking part in the North Carolina Conference were: Dr. A. K. Moore,
Rev. P. R. Berry, Bishop H. B. Delaney, Berry O 'K elly, Mrs. Annie W. Holland,
Dr. S. G. Atkins, Col. J. H. Young, P r o f. J. D. Wray, P ro f. L. E. H all,
Mrs. F. C. W illiam s, Dr. J. B. Dudley, Bishop G. W. Clinton, P ro f. C. L. M.
Smith, C. C. Spaulding, J. E. Taylor, Capt. L. E. Hamlin, Dr. George J. Ramsey,
Ralph Izard, N. C. Newbold, Governor T. W. Bickett.
At a la t e r date, the Governor selected the members o f the f i r s t Negro
Workers' Advisory Committee and recommended to the Secretary o f Labor th e ir
appointment.
In Exhibit "A ", hereto attached, w ill be seen the scope o f
duties and allegian ce to the Department and to the State o f these so-called
Negro Workers' Advisory Committees.
The ea rly plans o f the Department out­
lin ed three lin es o f a c t iv it y fo r dealing with the problems o f Negro laborers in
th e ir re la tio n to white workers and white employers as follows-.
1. The establishment o f cooperative coomittees o f white and colored
citize n s in the sta te and lo c a lit y where the problems o f Negro labor a rise ,
due to large numbers o f Negro workers.
2. Development o f a p u b lic ity or educational campaign to oreate good
fe e lin g between the races, and have the white and Negro citizen s to understand
and cooperate with the Department's plan.
3. The appointment o f Negro s t a ff workers in the states and lo c a lit ie s
to develop establishment o f these committees and to conduct this work o f
b e tte r ra c ia l relations and to a ssist the several division s and services
o f the Department in demobilizing and standardizing Negro labor fo r winning
the War.
These three ideals have been carried into each state conference




5
and have been thoroughly emphasized at every gathering involving Negro Economics
as dealth with by the Department o f Labor.
As another ex h ib it (Exhibit "B ") there is attached hereto a copy o f an
in v ita tio n which the Department has used fo r persons to accept membership on
these cooperative conmittees.
The above-described procedure as to conferences and cooperation
been followed in Ohio, New Jersey, Florida, Kentucky, Georgia and other
sta tes.
In matters o f record as to the cooperative service o f the War divisions
o f this Department and other Departments, the Negro Economics work may be
b r ie f ly summarized as follow s:
The U. S. Enployment Service necessarily reoeived the largest amount o f
cooperative e ff o r t from this o ffic e .
P a rticu la rly has this been bo with r e f­
erence to the questions r e la tin g to private agencies and the handling o f Negro
labor on and a ft e r August 1, 1918, when the Enployment Service was given the
re s p o n s ib ility o f re cru itin g and placing common labor fo r war industries em­
ployin g 100 or more workers.
The Negro Workers' Advisory Goranittees in many
lo c a lit ie s assisted as volunteers during the days o f war labor re cru itin g and
placement.
E i^ it o f the state Supervisors o f Negro Economics have th e ir
o ffic e s eith e r with the Federal Directors o f the .employment Service or in
close connection with them.
These Federal D irectors, with one exception,
have turned to these state supervisors fo r advice and help on p ra c tic a lly a l l
matters re la tin g to Negroes in th e ir states.
Questions o f location o f o ffic e s to serve Negro neighborhoods, the
formation o f p o lic ie s and plans o f the employment Service to serve them more
e ff e c t iv e ly , the selection o f competent Negro examiners, and a number o f other
questions from time to time have been handled fo r this S ervice. Details i l ­
lu stra tin g the cooperation with this Service are too many fo r report here, but
may be found in the f i l e s of this o ffic e .
Ample testimony from federal directors
is a va ila b le. As a part o f the cooperative work with th is Service in V irgin ia
and Alabama has been assistance in the Inauguration o f the work o f the Boys'
Working Reserve among Negro boys.
A close plan o f cooperation has been worked out with the Women's Bureau.
This o ffic e gave assistance in the fin din g and sele ctio n o f a special agent,
Helen B. Ir v in , fo r work among Negro women.
She is assisted in this work
by Elizabeth Boss Haynes, as a dollar-a-year employee.
The e ffo r ts to ad­
just the Negro labor situ ation as fa r as i t relates to Negro women is being
made e ffe c t iv e by means o f close cooperation between the o ffic e o f the
D irector o f Negro Economics and the Women's Bureau.
The In vestigation and Inspection Service has taken upon its s t a ff a
competent Negro in vestiga to r, Byron K. Armstrong, recommended by this o ffic e .
This Service has been ca lled upon and has rendered valuable cooperative
service in making in vestigations o f Negro conditions o f labor, at times
employing several o f it s agents fo r such in vestigations.




This o ffic e has also received a number o f complaints o f discrim ination
against Negro workers on account o f color and has occasionally used the
good o ffic e s o f the Labor Adjustment Service on such cases.
The Information and Education Service has been ca lled upon constantly
in carrying out the departmental plan fo r p u b licity and educational campaigns
to improve race relatio n s o f workers and to increase the morale and e ffic ie n c y
o f Negro workers.
A regular service has been given to both the white and
Negro press by th is cooperation, and i t may be reasonably stated that in th is
way we have gained the support o f the Negro newspapers o f the country, more
than 200 in number, and have made a f a i r beginning in g e ttin g our p u b licity
into the white newspapers both North and South.
As an illu s tr a tio n , a news
release on that part o f the Secretary's annual report re la tin g to Negro
workers was prepared by this d iv is io n .
I t was sent out by the Information and
Education S ervice.
Clippings from white newspapers show that the release was
used by them as fa r north as Eaine, as fa r west as C a lifo rn ia , and as fa r
south as Louisiana.
Numerous Negro newspapers, North and South, oarried the
release in f u ll.
This o ffic e has assisted the Bureau o f Industrial Housing and Trans­
portation with advice on plans fo r war housing as i t concerned Negroes in
Washington, Newport News and Portsmouth, V irg in ia , and the Homes R egistration
Service o f that Bureau in establish in g a branch o ffic e in Washington.
o
A number o f Negro workers employed on the railroads o f the country
n atu rally have applied to this o ffic e fo r advice and help.
Departmental
ethics and courtesy, o f course, lim ited the amount o f service that could be
given to these cases to a ssistin g than in g e ttin g in touch with the proper
o f f ic ia ls o f the U. S. Railroad Administration and advising them where and
when to present th e ir cases.
A sim ila r cooperative relationship has been
eatablished with the War Department throu^i the o ffic e o f Dr. itonett J.
Scott, Special Assistant to the Secretary o f War, fo r dealing with Negro
a ffa ir s .
The U. S. Health Service has inaugurated a special e ffo r t to reach
Negroes in combatting venereal diseases.
The small amount o f information
available shows the e ffe c t o f such diseases on the e ffic ie n c y o f indu strial
workers and that Negroes are very seriou sly a ffe c te d .
Therefore, this
o f f ic e has welcomed the cooperation o f the Public Health Service in its edu­
cational campaign among Negro workers and has given that Service some help
in g e ttin g in touch with workers through our f ie ld organization and through
public meetings.
Especial mention should be made o f the cooperation received from the
Council o f National Defense in sta rtin g and developing one program in
the South.
The Washington o ffic e dealing with the State Councils gave our
plans, endorsement, furnished le tte r s o f introduction and gave advice. The o f­
f i c i a l s o f State Counoils in V irgin ia , F la ., Ga., A la ., and Kentucky a c tiv e ­
ly promoted our cooperative plan o f organization. In V irgin ia and Florida,
the Executive Secretaries arranged fo r the appointment o f white cooperating
committees from the county Councils o f those states to work as a part o f our
Negro Workers’ Advisory Committees. The Georgia Council len t aid to our




7
State Committee.
The Alabama Council appointed a Negro a u xilia ry to a ssist
our work.
Mention has already been made o f the jo in t a c t iv it y with the
Kentucky Council o f Defense.
The e ffe c t o f the conferences, interview s, public meetings and pub­
l i c i t y upon the a ttitu d e o f the mind o f white workers and Negro workers and
white employers is o f s u ffic ie n t importance to c a ll fo r special mention.
In many o f the lo c a lit ie s by the holding o f the conferences and the es­
tablishment of the Negro Workers* Advisory Committees, the p rin cip le of
Negroes having representation in council when matters a ffe c tin g th eir
in terest were being considered and decided was acted upon fo r the f i r s t
time.
In these committees where white and Negro citizen s have met there
has been a frankness o f discussion o f problems and a flow o f understanding
and good w i l l which could not be measured in language or set down in figu res.
P o ten tia l fr ic t io n in a number o f instances has been removed and in some cases
actual clashes o f the races have probably been prevented.
Of equal in terest is the fo llow in g copy o f a l e t t e r from the Secretary
o f Labor, which was read before the Southern S ociologica l Congress July 10,
and 11, 1918:
July 9, 1918.
"D r. J. E. McCulloch,
General Secretary, Southern S ocio lo gica l Congress,
Meridian, Miss.
My dear Dr. McCulloch:
The special War Workers* Conference fo r the State o f M ississip p i, to be
conducted by the Southern S o cio lo g ica l Congress July 10 and 11, impresses
me as a very s ig n ific a n t step in the e ff o r t o f the Nation to m obilize its
labor power fo r one hundred per cent production in industry and agricu ltu re.
Such use o f the labor power o f the Country is imperative as a second lin e
o f defense behind the m illion s o f our men now on the fig h tin g fron t in
France, in the army camps in this Country and in our Navy upon the high
seas.
The experts t e l l us that i t takes from s ix to ten workers at home to keep
one so ld ie r on the fir in g lin e in Europe.
Whatever, th erefore, helps to
m obilize, distrib u te and energise those who do the work of our war industries
has become as important a fa cto r in winning the 7/ar as the prowess o f our
armies in the f i e l d or our navy on the seas.
The President o f the United States has lodged the function o f recru itin g and
placing labor fo r war industries in the United States iinployment Service
o f the Department o f Labor.
Beginning with common labor on August 1,
th is service w i l l gradually take charge o f the m obilizing and placing of
a l l labor fo r war industries employing one hundred or more workers.
This
w i l l profoundly a ffe c t a l l other industries and a l l other workers.
It w ill
correct the abuses and the troubles growing out o f the large labor turnover
with the consequent disruption o f regular work.







8

In assuming such re s p o n s ib ility the Department o f Labor is aware o f
the dangers.
./e need the cooperation and help o f such men and women as
tather in your conferences to guard against these dangers.
Workers must
not be taken from one essen tia l industry only to be placed in other work
not necessary to the prosecution o f the War.
Discretion and care must be
used in the movement o f laborers from one part o f the country to another
in order that the economics fa b ric o f the nation w i l l be disturbed as l i t t l e
as p o ssib le.
We need to keep ever before us the idea that the in terests o f
the laborers and the in terests o f the business men are complementary.
They
are parts o f that great organization o f industry and agriculture so necessary
to the successful waging o f th is war and so essen tial to the l i f e o f the
Nation.
Above a l l , every safeguard must be taken to protect the standard o f
liv in g and the morale o f the wage-earners.
Especially must great care
be taken to keep the age lim it o f those who enter industry at a high le v e l,
l i s t we rob our future citizen sh ip o f its righ t to growth and time fo r
education.
We must also take knowledge o f the dangers attendant upon
the large entranoe o f women into heavy and hazardous industries.
The exigencies o f war times should not be made the occasion fo r the
breaking down o f those standards o f hours, wages and conditions o f work
which are designed to protect the childhood, the womenhood and the mother­
hood o f the present and the future.
I t is esp ecia lly important at this crucial period, when we need to
conserve a l l the resources o f the Nation fo r the conduct o f the War,
that these prin cip les should be applied to a l l the people o f our Country,
including the Negro people, who constitute about one-sixth o f the to ta l
laboring population.
A sim ilar p o licy w i l l be equally important in the
readjustment period vftiich w i l l fo llow the War.
I am pleased to know
that your Congress is givin g the problem it s earnest consideration.
The American Workingnan is known to have the h ip e s t standard o f
liv in g o f any wage-worker in the world.
This is because the American
wage-worker is the most productive in the world.
The two things play
back and forth as cause and e ff e c t , one o f the other.
I am sure that
your Congress stands with the Department o f Labor in its vig ila n ce to see
that this re la tio n o f cause and e ff e c t between h ig i power o f produotion
o f the workers and high qu ality o f working and liv in g conditions fo r the
workers should be maintained and advanced.
Wishing fo r you, therefore, a successful conference, I beg to remain,
Yours very tru ly,
(Signed) W. £. Wilson,
S ecretary."

With the signing o f the arm istice on November 11, the problem o f
making provision fo r the placement o f returning soldiers and s a ilo rs , together
with many other problems o f adjustment from war industries to peace-time oc­
cupations has n ecessarily needed a tten tion .
Among these problems has been
the shortage o f labor in the South.
Within the past month the Negro Economics
service has responded to a c a ll from M ississippi fo r assistance in the matter
o f supplying Negro labor.
The departmental representatives in a number o f
northern states have endeavored to f u l f i l l this c a ll and in so doing have
had at th e ir disposal the fu l l cooperation o f a l l the agencies and organiza­
tions which have assisted the Department in it s ea rly plans fo r Negro workers.
B r ie fly , the fo llow in g are sane o f the present day results o f the Negro
Economics work:
Surveys:
A. Negro Labor Supply: Surveys to ascertain the supply o f Negro labor where
i t was ava ila b le were made with the assistance o f the Negro Workers' Advisory
Comnittees in o itie s and counties o f I l l i n o i s , Ohio, Florida and New Jersey.
These surveys o f conditions in each community were made by means o f
questionnaires sent out by the Supervisors o f Negro Economics to the county
chairmen o f the Negro Workers’ Advisory Committees and to the superintendents
o f lo ca l employment o ffic e s .
In this way reports from each lo c a lity by
persons thoroughly acquainted with conditions are received about the surplus
or shortage o f Negro labor and the d istrib u tio n o f that labor w ithin the state,
together with any other facts a ffe c tin g race relations o f white employers,
white employees and Negro workers.
Examples: In Ohio, complete reports o f this kind fo r the month o f
February were received from 31 counties o f the State.
In I l l i n o i s , reports
o f th is kind were received from 14 counties o f the S tate.
In Florida, at
the request o f the Farm Service D ivision, U. S. iinployment S ervice, a special
survey was made in s ix counties o f the State in connection with e ffo r ts to
re cru it Negro labor fo r harvesting truck orops in that sta te.
B. Negro Labor Conditions; The Supervisors o f Negro Economics in I l l i n o i s ,
New Jersey and Elorida have made special investigations o f conditions in
p a rticu la r plants to advise the firms on matters o f labor turnover.
For
example, on request o f the Federal D irector fo r M ississippi fo r recru itin g o f
surplus Negro labor in I l l i n o i s and Ohio fo r sawmill and farm operations in
that sta te, the Supervisors o f Negro Economics in I l l i n o i s , Ohio and
M ississippi have cooperated in a ssistin g the Federal Directors o f those
three states in making investigations o f the conditions surrounding the
opportunities offered and a d vertisin g the opportunities through the Negro
Workers’ Advisory Comnittees in I l l i n o i s and Ohio.
I I . Seeking Opportunities and Assistance in Placement o f Negro Workers:
Special assistance has been given to the Federal Directors, U. S. Em­
ployment S ervice, in seeking opportunities fo r the placement o f returning
Negro sold iers in eigh t o f the states where there are supervisors o f Negro




economics.
In I l l i n o i s , the supervisor o f Negro economics supervised the
organization o f a branch o ffic e in Chicago and the selectio n o f a colored
board o f management fo r special work in the placement o f returned Negro
s o ld ie rs .
The 370th Infantry (o ld Eighth I l l i n o i s ) and 365th Infantry
returned during February and with the help o f volunteers 1,000 firms were
s o lic ite d hy telephone and personal v i s i t s , and 5,000 le t t e r s , signed by
the Federal D irector, U. S. Qnployment S ervice, were sent to Chicago em­
ployers in the in te re s t o f jobs fo r returning colored s o ld ie rs .
In Chicago
and other parts o f the state questionnaires were sent to 500 firms already
employing over f i f t y Negroes, and approximately f i f t y per cent reported
th e ir intention o f reta in in g th e ir Negro employees.
The supervisor o f Negro economics in New Jersey has supervised and
advised on the recru itin g and placement o f p r a c tic a lly a l l Negroes passing
through the o ffic e s in that S tate.
Besides assistance given in seeking opportunities and the placement o f
colored sold iers sim ilar cooperation has been given to the U. S. Employment
Service in the seeking o f opportunities in the recru itin g and placement o f
other Negro wage-earners.
For eslample, in the D is tric t o f Columbia a system
o f about 75 volunteers has been b u ilt up.
Th rong these volunteers more
than 100 colored workers were recruited and sent to the lo ca l employment
o f f ic e a ft e r requests had been made fo r suoh assistance.
In addition, Positions have been located through the Employment Service
fo r s p e c ia lly —q u a lifie d men whose applications have been referred to this
o ffic e .
These special cases included men with co lleg e or u n iversity tra in ­
ing, many o f whom had been in the Army.
In each case the man was referred
to organizations or individuals and in almost every one o f about f i f t y cases
the men have been referred to d e fin ite opportunities fo r employment.
I t has
not been fe a s ib le to fo llow up these cases to know d e fin it e ly how many were
placed.
I I I . Conferences on Netcro Labor Problems:
The Supervisor o f Negro Economics fo r M ississip p i, in cooperation with
the Department o f Education, oarried out a program o f a series o f county
group conferences o f school teachers and attended conferences o f Negro
m in isters.
This was a continuation o f the conferences begun in December.
A ll to ld , they reported that f i f t y such conferences had been held, with an
attendance o f from about 150 to 300 teachers and ministers from a l l parts
o f the State o f M ississip p i.
In I l l i n o i s , the Supervisor o f Negro Economics held small group con­
ferences to discuss d e ta ils o f work fo r promoting the w elfare o f Negro
wage-earners in three centers o f the S tate.
In V irgin ia three such lo ca l
conferences were held.
On February 17 and 18 an informal oonferenoe o f persons esp ecia lly in­
terested in problems o f Negro wage-earners connected with priva te organiza­
tions national in scope that are dealing with such questions, met at the c a ll
o f the Secretary fo r two days at 7/ashington, D. G.




11
Three sessions, morning, afternoon and evening, on the f i r s t day, and two
sessions, morning and afternoon, on the second day, were held.
Full discussion on the several topics illu s tra te d in the accompanying
program (See Exhibit "A ") took place.
The keynote o f the conference was
cooperation between the Department and priva te agencies and cooperation
between white and colored workers and employers.
The object o f the con­
ference was c le a rly pursued during the sessions.
This o b ject, as set
fo rth in the c a ll o f the conference, was to seek cooperation and coordina­
tio n o f programs o f work and plans o f action o f those interested in the
w elfare o f Negro wage-earners and obtaining a clea rer understanding and
clo ser cooperation between them and the a c t iv it ie s o f th is Department in
it s e ffo r ts fo r increasing the morale and e ffic ie n c y o f Negro workers, fo r
improving th e ir condition and th e ir opportunities fo r p ro fita b le employment
and th e ir relatio n s to white employers and white workers.
The Secretary
addressed the Conference, as did a lso the Assistant Secretary, the S o lic it o r
and Acting Secretary and other o f f i c i a l s o f the Department.
At the closin g session o f the Conference a set o f resolutions and a
program o f p ra ctica l work, reported by the sub-committees appointed, were
unanimously adopted and recommended to the Secretary o f Labor.
The con­
ference appointed a Continuation Committee which met on February 28 and
worked out d eta iled methods o f carrying out such parts o f the resolutions
and program o f work as m i^it be approved by the Secretary.
With some s lig h t
a ltera tion s the resolutions and programs o f work were approved by the
Secretaiy March 13, 1919.
In a l l , there were 150 delegates attending the Conference, representing
45 agencies, boards and organizations esp ecia lly interested in the w elfare
o f Negro wage-earners.
A number o f w ritten comments have been received
since the Conference, highly commending it s qu ality and the possible gpod
that may flow from i t .
Throughout the Negro Economics work there has been the continued
p o lic y o f mutual cooperation.
There has been the p o licy o f absolute com­
munity aspect as to each and every labor problem that has arisen. I t has been
re a d ily recognized that Washington could not s e t t le problems between an em­
ployer in M ississippi and his Negro worker in M ississip p i.
S t i l l , by being
on frie n d ly terms with both o f them the Department o f Labor has been able to
bring to th e ir service national standards and p o lic ie s fo r the adjustment o f
th e ir problems.
The plan has been to go to each lo c a lity , be i t state,
county or c it y , and therein to have its representatives o f Negro wage-earners,
white employers and, wherever possible, white employees to adjust its labor
d if f ic u lt ie s .
Educational, c iv ic , fratern a l and so cia l organizations, both North
and South, have re a d ily assisted the Department to solve the d iff ic u lt y o f
fo r e s ta llin g a strong fe e lin g o f suspicion on the part o f the colored people
anri a wrong impression among white people, esp ecia lly among those in the South,
about the e ffo r ts o f the Department.
From the Federal Director o f the U. S.
Ftoployment Service fo r M ississippi comes the follow in g statement:




t
0

t

0

t

t




n

•

The fir s t of a series of state conferences of representative white and
Kegro oitisens was oalled ly Oovemor Biokett on June 19.

There sere present

at this oonferenoe, #tioh was h e ll in the of floe o f the Oovemor, seventeen of
the aost substantial Negro oitisens tram a ll parts of the State, ani five white
oitisens, including Oovemor Biokett, who presided throughout the ooaferenoe
ani took an aotive part in it s iisoussion.

The general plans o f the Depart­

ment of Labor for increasing ths morale ani efficiency for winning the War were
outlined ly the Director of Negro Soonomioe and were freely llsoussed.

At the

close ox the meeting the Governor appointed a Temporary Committee whioh drafted
a oonetitution providing for a state Negro Workers* Advisory Committee ani for
the organisation o f local oounty ani city consul ttees.

This plan of organisa­

tion, with slight modifications ani adjustments for other states, has served as
a model for the ievelomont of voluntary fie ld organisation in four other south­
ern states ani six northern states.

Governor Blokstt was so highly please! with

the results of the oonferenoe that ho gave a statement to the publlo press, in
Khioh he s a il that i t was the most patriotic and helpful oonferenoe he had
attended.
The Southern taoiologioal Congress held a stats meeting of white and
colored oitisens from a l l parts of Mississippi at Gulfport, H iss., on July 12,
1918.

The Director of Negro Koonoaiog wae invited to address this stats oon-

ferenos.

About 200 white oitisens, both business men and planters, ani about

75 Negro oitisens were in attendance.

The Department took advantage o f this

state gathering to o a ll together those who were especially Interested in Negro
labor adjustment.

The address or the Director of Negro Soonomios on war labor

problems relating to Negroes, given before the Southern Sooiologioal Congress,
not only gained a hearty response from whites and Negroes present, but several
of the white oitisens took an aotive part in the departmental meetings to work







an address.

The oonfarence adopted the usual plan o f state organisation, and

Mr. Oharlas 3. H a ll, tha second sr

rviaor o f Negro •oonoealoa, who lad been

transferred from the Department of tonunaroo, was totalled to the state to levelop the organisation and to i i v o n i w

the work: under tho authority of the U*S.

iSmplojmout 3«rvloa.
The ooaforenoa la Kentucky was h e ll on August 6,
vtolte and colored representatives In attendance.

There were both

This conference was unique

in that the plan of organisation adopted was that of a united war work ooaaittee with a special committee of Mhlte oltisens appointed by the Jtate Council
of >iifmae, as cooperating neabers.

This war work: oaaaictee Includel repre­

sentatives from the department of Agriculture, the ij.s. Food Administration,
the Bed Cross, the Council o f Jefsase aid tho department of Labor.

Governor

A.O. Stanley ox Kentucky attended the morning session anl n*<U* an enthusiastic
address to the delegates.
% this time, the Influence of the state conferences had so proven their
▼alue, their effectiveness and their usefulness as a means o f starting the stats
jsovetaent, and creating good w ill ana favorable sentiment that other conferences
havs followed almost as a sattsr o f course.

Additional conferences have been

held later In Georgia, Missouri, I llin o is , Michigan, Pexuuylvania aai New
have been taken either for oonferencea or organisation of the
work in hew York: and South Carolina.
the close of the year Just passed, ani afte r six months of work,
Vegro .oncers' Advisory Joaolttees, state, county anl city, had been wholly or
partly formed In ten states and steps had been taken to establish commit tees
la three other states.

Nearly a ll of these committees have A l t s anl Negro

members or have cooperating white members representing organizations 0f the




* U U employers an! ttilto workers.

Caw o f the most significant facts .boat

the invitations aad acceptances o f service on those committees ly shite «nd
Hegro Persons, mmbering more than • thDasani, i , that there has been, so fa r
M * * hacw% * * * reoop4' « * T on® °*®® o f a member of one committee whose rela ­
tionship on the oomiittee has caused m o tio n or iaade necessary a request for
^ h ia ^ t iw i#

There has been the heartiest response for this work: from

oitisens or both races everyAere.

:,lany of then have used their tiae, thsir

servioes ani thsir -sonsy to farther the dspartmantal program.
It is the expressed opinion of competent Judges that the hoiain, of
these ooafarena*$ ani the voluntazy cooperation of hundreds o f shits and Negro
oltisens on these commit teas, both North and South, are in themselves results
suffioisnt to Justify this effort o f the department.

But even more sig n ifi­

cant is the faat that these men and women serving on committees are helpfully
in touch with scores of thouaanis of employers and white ani Negro workers.
The principle a on shloh the work for Negro sage-earners i s bass 4 arei
1. depresentation*

in view

f the fact that Nogroes constitute about

one-tenth of the total population of this country and about one sixth
of the working population of the country, it Is reasonable tbit they
should have representation around the counsel table tAsn omttsrs a f feoting tham artt honaldered.

Then given suoh representation ani op­

portunity, Negroes w ill respond and shoulder their part of responsibility
on the farm, in the factory, »t the shipyard, and wherever else an op­
portunity i s given them to serve.
X. The two races are thrown together in daily work.




The majority of the

employers ani a large number of the fellow employees of Negro workers are
white persona.

This condition gives rise to mi sunder standings, preju­

dices, antagonisms, fears ani suspicions.

These faots must be rooog-

•r

r

n isei and dealt 4 th In a statesmanlike way.
3. Local character o f the problem*!

The problems are local problems between

Icoal employers and looal employees*

The local people need the vision

of national policies nnl standards to apply to them.

4* Cooperation!

Therefore, any plan or prcgraiu she aid be based upon the

oooperatlcn o f shite employers and representatives o f Hegro wage-earners,
and, fllierover possible, o f ./hits wugn*-camera .
As previously mbfeaowladgsd hgr the Jecrefcazy of Labor, the work o f

ITegro Economics would obviously involve two general d ifficu lties In any e f­
fort to carry out on effective progrma baaed, o f course, upon the functions
of the Department of Labor!
1.

The iifflo u lt le s o f forestallin g a strong feeling of susplolon

on the part o f the Wegro people. (This Is easy to arouse because of
thalr past experience In racial and labor matters).
2.

The d iffic u lty o f forestallin g a wrong Impression among white

people, especially those in the South, about the intention behind the
e ffo rts o f the Department.
The Worth Carolina Conference, then, was particularly encouraging,
inasmuch as the Governor expressed himself ns highly pleased with the re­
suits and accepted a place a3 honorary chairman o f the State Committee.
Those present and taking part in the Worth Carolina conference weret




Dr. A.dt. Moore
Bev. P.R, Berry
Bishop E.3. Delaney
Berry O'iCelly
Mra. Annie 7 Holland
i * . i.0 . Atkins
Col. J.H, Yuung
Prof. J.D. v.ray
Prof. L.8. Hall
urs. r .o . Williams
Dr. J.3. Dudley
Bishop C.W. Clinton
Prof. O.L*K. 3ml th

.

.




The above-do sort bed procedure as to conferences and cooperation has
been followed in Ohio, Sew Jersey, Florida, KontaaHy, Georgia and other states*
In matters of record as to the cooperative service of the War divisions
o f this department and other Departments, the Negro Economics work ..ay be b rie f­
ly eunnarlsed as follows*
The U*3. Employment Service necessarily received the largest amount of
cooperative effort from this o ffic e .

articularly Las this been so with re f­

erence to the questions relating to private agenoins and the handling of ^egro
labor cm and after August 1, 1918, when the Employment Service was given the
responsibility of recruiting and placing common labor for war industries em­
ploying 100 or more workers.

The Negro '.'ortcers* Advisory Committees In many

lo calities assisted as volunteers during the days of mmr labc * re o rd tin - und
placement.

Ei«£t of the state

;upervisors of TTegro Economics have their

offices either with the Federal Directors of the Employment Service or in
close connection with them.

These Feiers.1 Directors, with one exception,

have turned to these state aaixarviBors for advice ani help on practically a l l
matters relating to Negroes in their states,
-4B
iusstions of location of offices to serve Negro neighborhoods, the
I
formation of policies and plans of the Employment Dervioe to serve the-: more
effectively, the soleotion o f competent Negro examiners, and a number o f ether
questions from time to time have been handled for this Service.

Details i l ­

lustratin'; the cooperation with this Horvioe ere too many for report here, but
may be found la the f ile s of this o ffic e .
ie available*

Ample testimony from federal iireotors

As a part of the cooperative work, with this Dervloe in Virginia

and Alabama has been assistance in the Inauguration of the work of the Boys'
Working Keserv* among Negro boys.




-9

A close plan of cooperation has been worked out with the Woman in
Industry Service.

This cffiae gave assistance in the finding and selection

o f a special agent, Helen B. Irvin , for sork among Negro women.

She Is as­

sisted in this work by Elizabeth. Boss Haynes, as a dollar—a—
year employee.
The efforts to adjust the Negro labor situation as fa r as It relates to
Negro women is being made effective by means of cloee cooperation between the
office of the -director of Negro Economics and the Woman in Industry Service.
The Investigation and Inspection Service has taken upon its s ta ff a
competent Negro investigator, Barron K. Armstrong, recommended by this offic e .
This Service lias been called u on and has rendered valuable cooperative service
in making investigations of Negro conditions of labor, at times employing sev­
eral of its agents for such investigations.
This office has aloo received a number o f complaints of discrimina­
tion against Negro workers on account c>f color and has occasionally use! the
good offices of the nabor Adjustment Servioe on such cases.
The Information and Education Service hag been called upon constantly
in carry in ; out the :0epar tmenta l plan for publicity and educational campaigns
to improve race relations of workers and to inoroase the morale and efficiency
of Negro workers.

A regular servioe has been given to both the white and

Negro press by this cooperation, anl it may be reasonably stated that in this
way we have gained the support of the Negro newspapers c f tha country, more
than 200 in number, and have male a fa ir beginning in getting our publicity
into the lihite newspapers both Worth and South.

As an illu stratio n , a news

release on that part of the iecretary *3 annual report relating to Negro workers
was prepared by this division.
tion 3orvica.

It was sent out by the Information and Educa­

Clippings from white newspapers show that the release was used

by them as far north as Maine, as far west as California, and as far south as
Louisiana.
fu ll.



Numerous Negro newspapers, North and South, carried the release in

This office has assisted the Bureau o f Industrial Housing and Trans*
port&tlon with advice on plans for u r housing as it concerned Ea^roo3 in
Washington, Newport Sews ani dortsmouth, V irgin ia, and the Homes Registration
Service of that Bureau in establishing a branoh office in Washington.
A number of Negro workers employed on the railroads of the country
naturally have applied to this office for advioe ani help*

Departmental ethios

and oourteay, of course, limited the amount of service that could be given to
these oases to assisting thaa in getting in touch with the proper o ffic ia ls
of the U.S. Railroad Administration and advising them where and rfian to pre­
sent their oases*

A similar cooperative relationship has been established

with the War Department through the office of Mb * Aomett J. Scott, Special
Assistant to the Secretary c-f War, for dealing with Negro a ffa ir s .
The U.S, Health Service has inaugurated a special effo rt tc reach
Negroes in combatting venereal diseases.

The small amount ou information

available shows the effect of such diseases on the efficiency of industrial
workers and that Negroes are very seriously affected.

Therefore, this

office has weloomed the cooperation o f the rublic Health Service in its edu­
cational campaigi ament.: Negro workers and has given that oervice some help
in getting in touch with Tjortaors throutji our fie ld organization and through
public meetings.
Sspecial mention should be .made of the cooperation received from
the Oounoil of National Defense in starting anr developing one program in
the South.

The Washington office dealing with the State Councils *;ave u r plans

endorsement' furnished letters of introduction and gave advioe.

The o ffic ia ls

of State Councils in V irgin ia, Florida, Georgia, Alabama and Kentucky actioely promote our cooperative plan of organisation.

In Virginia and F lo rila ,

the Executive Secretary arranged for the appointment of itxite cooperating




committees from the scanty Council. of those states to worlc as a part o f our
"•sro Sorters* Advisory Committees.
State Committee.
oar nor*.

The Georgia Oouncil lent aid to oar

The Alabama Ooonoil appointed a Negro auxiliary to assist

Men Mon has already bean made of the joint activity with the K m -

tnoky Oounoil of Defense.

'

The effeot of the conferences, interviews, pobUe meeting and pub­
lic it y upon the attitude of the mini of K ilt# worker, and Negro worker. « d
* iit e employers i s of sufficient importance to call for special n a tio n ,
m many o f the lo ca litie s *

the holding of the conferences and the establishment

o f the Negro torto,rs» Advisory Committees, the principle of Negroes having
representation in council when matters affecting their interest were being
•onsiderei and leolled was acted upon for the fir s t time,

to these com­

mittee. where * i t e and Negro citisens have a t there he. oeen a f r * o m e „
of lieeussion of problems and a flow of understanding ami good w ill ,hioh
oould not be nea.ured in language or set down in fig u re ..

Potential fr ic ­

tion in a number of instances has boon removed and in some cases actual
olashes of the races have probably been prevented.
Of equal interest is the following copy of a le tte r from the Stale tary
o f Labor, which was read before the Southern Sociological Oongress, July 10
and 11, 1918i
July 9, 1918.
flr. J.B. McCulloch
General Secretary, Southern Sociologioal Jon^eaa
Meridian, Miss.
Jy dear Dr. MeOullochj
The special War ('oricara* Oonferenoe for the State of Mississ­
ip p i, to be conducted hy the Southern Sooiological Congress Julv 10
Mid 11, increases me as a very significant atop In the effort o f tlm
Nation to mobilise its labor power for one tamdrM *P cont proiuo-




I

7)

tion in industry and agricu ltu re. Suoh use o f the labor power o f aha
Country Is imperative as a second lin e o f defense behinl the m illion s
o f our men now on the f i t t i n g front in i*ranco, in the arny camps
in th is Country and in our Navy upon the hi gh seas*
•'The experts t e l l us that i t takes from s ix to ten workers at
home to keep ons so ld ie r on the f ir in g lin e in Europe. .Whatever,
th e refo re , helps to m obilise, d istrib u te and e n e r;i*e those vhc do
the work o f our war industries has become >a ii^portant a factor in
winning the War as the prowess o f our armies in the f i e l l or our
navy on tne seas.
*'The ^resident o f the United Hates ha 3 lodged the function
o f re cru itin g and p ls o lA f labor fo r war industries in the Uhlted
States tSraploymert Service o f the Department o f Labor* Be.~inni)i»
with common labor cn lugust 1, th is service w ill gradually take
charge o f the m obilising an placing o f a l l labor fo r war in­
dustries employing one hundred or more workers, -his w ill pro­
foundly a ffe c t a l l other industries and a l l other workers. I t w ill
oorroct the abuses and the troubles growing out o f the large labor
turnover with the consequent disruption o f regular work.
"In assuming such. re sp o n sib ility the Jejr.?rt.ment o f Labor is
aware o f the dangers. We need the cooperation and help o f such man
and women ns gather In your conferencec to guard against these danrerc.
Workers must not be taken from one essen tial industry only to be
placed in other *or.< not necessary to the prosecution o f the -a r.
Discretion and care must he used in the movement o f laborers from
one part o f the country to another, In order *-hut the cccnnaalcs
fa b ric o f the nation w ill be disturbed as l i t t l e as p ossib le,
need to keep ever before us the ile a that the in terests of the labor­
ers and the in te rests o f the business nan are complementary. Ih iy
are parts o f that great organization o f in la stly a d agriculture
so necessary to the successful waging o f th is war and eo essential
to ths l i f e o f the nation*
"Above a l l , every safeguard must be taken to protect the
standard o f liv in g and the nora le o f the wage oam>>ru.
; aptjci.il ly
must great care be taken to keep the age lim it o f those who enter
industry at a hi &i l e v e l , le s t we rob our future oitisen ah ip o f i t s
righ t to growth and. time fo r education, ie must also take knowledge
o f the dangers attendant upon the larjre entrance o f women into heavy
and hazardous Industries,
"The ex ig 0.nci.es c f war times s ln u li not >e tala tne oocasion
fo r the breaking down o f those standards o f hours, wages ani condi­
tions o f work which are dasijpujd to protect the childhood, the
womanhood and *-he motherhood o f the pro cant and the future.




"It Is especially important at th is cranial p eriod , whan we
need to conserve a l l the rasouroes o f tfc» A ttic a fo r the ooaluot o f
the * a r , that those principles e h iu li be applied to a l l the >ooole
o f oar Jountry, in c lu iia - the Kegro people, ?ht constitute about
one-sixth of the total laboring population, A sim ila r tx>lioy w ill
b© equally important in the reaijuctaaat perioa aiioh w i l l fo llo w
the f c r . I am pleased to know that your longresa is g iv in g the
problem I t s earnest eoasidaratiua.
"Ihe American uerxiinjaan is kaosn to have the highest standard
of liv in g o f any wag*-ww*er in the w r i t , fhls is oocause the I'uarioan w^-*-wo-ker la the woed pro motive in the n orU . H u two things
pUy bac* an I forth as cause an I effeot, one of the other. I « » cure
that your Congress stands ,1th the Jspart wnt o f Labor in ito vigilance
to sea that this relation of oause and effeot between hi * >owar of
production o- the wrtcorv *nd h i * quailty o f worfeUg and l i U n con­
ditions for the sorfcers « hr old be rwintnlned ant advanced.
"Wishing for you, therefore, a successful aonfereuoe, I beg to
remain.
Yourc very truly,
(31*<aed)

W.B. Vilaon

feorefcaxy*

ffith the siijninjj o f the arc-istioe on re venter 1 ) , the problem o f
making provision fo r the placeman t o f returning soldiers an t sailors, together
with many other problems o f ajnstraant from war Industries to psaoa-titne occu­
pations has neoeasarUy needed attention,
shortage o f labor in the South*

toonr these problow* has teen the

Within the past mon-h the JJegro Soonoralos

eervloe has r«spanJei to a c a ll from Mlsaieaippl fox* assistance in the matter
of supplying Utflro labor.

5!h» departmental representatives in a number of

northern states have endeavored to f u l f i l l this c a ll aai in so iotag have
had at their iisposal the f u l l cooperation of a l l the a^noies an l orspniaatlons shtch have assisted the dspartncnt in its ea~ly pl>a* for Wegro sorters.




B r ie fly the follow ing are some o f the present

results o f the

Negro Soonomios wortct
jsui,.a.j iLx.^»
4. »M — Lnher Supply*
itirveya to ascertain the 3apply o f Kegro labor whore i t was a v a il­
able were mads with the a s e ie t osce of the Icgro "Vorkoro Alvisory OcBxoittees
In citie3 and counties o f I l l i n o i s , Chio, Florida dad. New Jersey.
These surveys of conditions in each con .unity were made ty xeuns
o f questionnaires sent out by the Hupervisors o f Negro faconosics to the
oounty chairmen o f the Negro Workers* &ivi ;oiy Ccnx-ilttees ani to -he super­
intendents o f lo c a l employment o ffic e s.

In th is wbj; reports from each

locality "ty persons thoroughly acquainted with oon iition s are received
about the surplus or Shortage o f Negro labor an* the distribu tion o f
that labor within the s ta te , together with any other fa cts a ffe c tin g
race re la tio n s o f white employers, Jhito ouplqyeea and L'ogro worriers.
examplest

In Ohio, oonplate reports of this ifjnd for the month

o f February were received from 31 or unties of the State.

In I llin o is ,

reports of this kind v»re received from 14 counties o f the State.

In

Florida, at the request o f tlie Farm Scrvioe Jlvision, IT.3. Employment
Service, a special Burvey wua tale in six counties of the ;t,ate in con­
nection with efforts to recruit Negro labor for harvesting truck oroys in
that State.
» . J a g K L -la b o r

Jondf 1 1on a.

The Supervisors o f Negro Sconomic3 in Illin o is , New Jersey and
Florida have made special investigations o f conditions in p a rticu lar
plants to advise the fim s on matters o f labor turnover.

For examole,

on request o f the federal Director fo r Jilasisaippl fo r reoru ltin g o f




-

15-

surplus Negro labor In Illin o is and Ohio for sawmill anl farm operadons
in that state, the Supervisors o f Negro TSoonoaiis in I llin o is , Ohio and
Mississippi have cooperated in assisting the Federal Directors o f those
three states in making invest! jstions of the coniitiona surrounding the
opportunities offered and advertising the opportunities throndh the
Negro 7/ortcers Advisory Oomraittees in Illin o is ani Ohio.
IX.

PLV?gr*Tfr r ' - str.o ttot t t u
3p e d a l assistance has teen given to the fed era l D irectors, TT.S.
iSmployment. Jo rv io o , in seeking opportunities fo r "he placement o f re­
turning Negro so ld iers in eight of the states where there are c‘ttr*P_
visors o f Negro Socnonias.

In I l l i n o i s , the Supervisor o f Negro 3oo-

nomios supervised the organisation of a branch o ffic e in Ohiaago anl the
selection o f a colored board of mnagemsnt fo r speclnl work in the place­
ment o f returned Negro s o ld ie rs .

The 370th Infnutry (old Si &th I l l i n o i s )

and 365th Infantry returned luring February and with help o f volun­
teers 1,000 firms were s o lic it e d qy telephone and personal v i s i t s , and
5,000 le t t e r s , signed by the fed eral D irector, TT.P. Naploynent Service,
were sent to Chicago employers In the in terest o f Jobs fo r returning
colored s o ld ie r s .

In Chicago and other parts o f the state question­

naires were sent to 500 firms already emnloyin?; over f i f t y Fegrocr, and
approximately f i f t y

per cent reported th e ir in tention o f retain in g their

Negro employees.
The Supervisor o f Negro dcunomios in New Jersey hae supervised
and advised on the reoruitiag and placement of praotioally a l l Negroes
passing through the offices in thst State*
Besides assistance given in eeeklcg opportunities and the place­
ment of oolored soldiers similar cooperation hae been ;lven to the
.

U.5. Smploymant Service in the -jeeldng o f opportunities in the recruit-




-16ln g and placement o f other Negro wage-earners.

For example, in the D istrict

o f Columbia, a system o f aDout 75 volunteers has been b u ilt up.

Through

these volunteers more than 100 colored workers were recru ited anl sent to
the lo c a l employment o ffic e a fte r requests had ueen made fo r suoh assistance*
In addition, positions have been located through the Employment Ser­
v ice fo r s p e c ia lly -q u a ilfle d men whose applications have been re ferred to
th is o f f i c e .

These special cases included len w ith c o lle g e or u niversity

tra in in g , many o f Whom had. bean in the Arny.

In each case the man was

referred to organizations o f In d iviIn a ls and in almost eveiy one o f about
f i f t y cases the mean have been referred to d e fin ite opportunities fo r em­
ployment.

I t has not been fe a s ib le to fo llo w up these cases to know def­

in it e ly how icany ware placed.
h

i

. 3 Q M E :a s r-:s s




ci j a c :/ .

. w. 3 f

,- k c b

The -oporriaor o f Negro Economics fo r M ississippi, in cooperation
with the Department o f Education, carried out a program o f a series o f
county group conferences of school teachers and attended conferences of
Negro m in istors.
December.

This was a continuation o f the conferences begun in

A ll t o ld , they reported that f i f t y suoh conferences had been

held, with an attendance o f from about 150 to 300 teachers and m inisters
from a l l parts o f the State o f K ls s is s ip p l.
In I l l i n o i s the Supervisor o f Negro Eocnoaios h e l l small group
conferences to iiacass d e ta ils o f work fo r promoting the w elfare o f
Negro wage-earners in’ three cantors o f the S tate.

In V irg in ia three

suoh loca l conferences were held.
On February 17 and 13 an informal conference o f persons especial­
ly in terested in problems o f Negro wage-earners connected with p rivate
organisations national in soope that are dealing w ith suoh questions,
tost at the c a ll o f the Secretary fo r two days at Washington, D.O.

-

17-

Three sessions, morning, afternoon and evening, on the f i r s t is^ , and two
sessions, morning and afternoon, on the second day, were h eld.
Fu ll discussion on the several topics illu s tra te d in the accompanyin - program too* place. (See Exhibit " A ").

The key note o f the confer­

ence was cooperation between the Department and private agencies and co­
operation between white and colored workers and employers.

The object

o f the conference was c le a rly pursued during the sessions.

This o b ject,

as set forth in the c a ll of the conference, was to seek cooperation and
coordination o f programs o f work and plans o f action o f thoso interested
In the welfare o f Kegro wage-earners and obtaining a clea rer unde-stand­
ing and clo ser cooperation between them and the a c t iv it ie s o f this depart­
ment in i t s e ffo r t s fo r increasing the morale and e ffic ie n c y o f Negro
workers, fo r improving th e ir condition and th e ir opportunities fo r p ro f­
ita b le employment and th e ir rela tio n s to white employers and viiitc work­
ers.

The Secretary addressed the Conference, as did also the Assistant

-ecretary, the S o lic ito r anl Acting Secretary, and other o f f i c i a l s o f
the Department.
At the Oj-Osing session o f the Conference a set o f resolutions and
a program o f p ractical work, reported by the aub—committees appointed,
were unanimously adopted and recommended to the Secretary o f Labor.
The Conference appointed a continuation Committee which ra et on February
28 and worked out d eta iled methods of carrying out such parts of the
resolutions anl program o f work as might be approved by the Secretary,
With some 3 li$ it a ltera tion s the resolutions and programs o f work waro
approved by the Secretary Inarch 13, 1919,
In a l l , there were 150 delegates attending the Conference, represent­
ing 45 agencies, boards and organizations esp ecia lly in terested in the







The fo llo w in g summary, corrected to Decemoer 31, 1916, may be added:
FELJ CdGAHIZAUCN:
1. State Supervisors.
The State Supervisor* o f Negro doonomics work under the approval o f and
in close cooperation with the federal State d irectors o f the U.3. l&nployraent
S ervice, and under the authority o f that Sorvice.

They receive advice on

th e ir work from the d ire c to r o f Begro Economics.

The work ha8 been so or­

ganised in connection with the Employment Service that the Supervisors nlas't
f i r s t , a ssist the ISmployment Service in natters o f placing Negro workers;
and second, in g iv in g the Federal State D irectors and the Department advice
on the d i f f ic u lt problems a ris in g in th e ir sta tes.

Working under the author­

it y o f the iimploymont Service they also have needed o f f i c i a l standing with
lo oa l whiie ani colored c itiz e n s .
2.

State Conferences and Negro Workers* idvisory Comaittaes (Subject to

co rrection o f fig u r e s ).
StatA Committees, county committees and o ity committees have been organ­
iz e d and appointed a fte r state and looal conferences have been held.

These

conferences were made up o f representatives of Negro workers, white employers
and, wherever p ossib le, white workmen.
The personnel o f the oumnittees is sim ilar to that o f the conferences,
namely,- representative whi ;e employers, Negro wage-earners, ani vhite wageearners, wherever p o ssib le.

On December 31, 1918, committees had been organ­

ized as follow s:




i

State

V irg in ia
Ohio
Georgia
I llin o i s
M ississippi
Michigan
Vlorida
Borth Carolina
17ew Jersey
Pennsylvania

•

1



■

County
State
Committees
1
1
-

1
1
1
1

Committees

55
31(includes
23
17(includes
8
12 (includes
15(incluloo
9

«.
-

—

City
Committoes
5
14)
9
2
6}
6
1
5
2

12

" I t might be added that the work o f Negro Economics, since i t
has been c le a rly coordinated with that o f the jinployment Service in
the State o f M ississip p i, promises to be o f much use from now on.
Meetings o f Negro school teachers gathered in d is t r ic t conferences,
with attendance o f from two to three hundred, have been addressed and
informed as to the work o f the Employment S ervice, Boys' Working Reserve
and Negro Economics.
About f i f t y o f these conferences have been held.
The Negro Workers' Advisory Committee in the State o f M ississippi
is w ell organized and the work is prospering veiy s a t is fa c t o r ily ."
The fo llow in g sunmary, corrected to December 31, 1918, may be added:
F ie ld Organization;
, 1• S tate Supervisors: The State Supervisors o f Negro Economics work
under the approval o f and in close cooperation with the fed eral State
Directors o f the U. S. anployment Service, and under the authority o f
that S ervice.
They receive advice on th e ir work from the Director o f
economics.
The work has been so organized in connection with the
Janployment Service that the supervisors may, f i r s t , a ssist the Employ­
ment Servioe in matters o f placing’ Negro workers; and, second, in givin g
tne fed eral State Directors and the Department advice on the d iff ic u lt
problems a ris in g in th e ir sta tes.
Working under the authority o f the
janployment Service they also have needed o f f i c i a l standing with local
white and colored c itiz e n s .
dtate Conferences and. Negro Workers' Advisory Committees; state
Committees, county committees and c ity committees have been organized and
appointed a ft e r state and lo c a l conferences have been held.
These con­
ferences were made up o f representatives o f Negro workers, white employers
and, wherever p ossib le, white workmen.
The personnel o f the committees is sim ila r to that o f the conferences,
namely: - representative white employers, Negro wage-earners, and white
wage-earners, wherever possible.
On December 31, 1918, conmittees had been
organized as follow s;

State
V irg in ia
Ohio
Georgia
I l lin o is
M ississippi
Michigan
F lorid a
North Carolina
New Jersey
Pennsylvania

i



State
Committees
1
1
1
1
1
1
-

County
Committees
55
31
28
17
8
12
15
9
-

City
Commit
includes

5
14

If
It
If
e
ft
if

9
2
6
6
1
5

Question Is Does the D ivision o f Negro Economics, Department o f Labor,
function as a separate and d is tin c t branch o f the Department?
Answer:
I t does not.
This work is a branch o f the O ffice o f the
Secretary o f Labor and is under his personal supervision.
I t is ad­
viso ry , on Negro a ffa ir s , to the Secretary and to the directors and
o f f i c i a l s o f the several bureaus and services, in matters which d ir e c t­
ly or m anifestly a ffe c t Negro wage-earners.
The o f f i c i a l s who deal
with matters a ffe c tin g Negro wage-earners are not removed from the
authority and executive d irectio n o f chiefs o f the division s or bureaus
under which they are employed.
According to the expressed instructions
o f the Secretary no dual d irection o f such s t a ff employees is under­
taken when dealing with Negro wage-earners.
The Division o f Negro
Economics furnishes advice on work dealing with Negro wage-earners,
wherever undertaken, and is kept informed o f the progress o f such work
so that the Department may have the b en efit o f continued judgment and
advice from within the Negro group on such matters.
Question 2: Has the D ivision o f Negro Economics, Department o f Labor,
any executive powers, and, i f so, what are they?
Answer:
With reference to the employees on the s t a ff o f any o f the
several divisions or bureaus, the Division o f Negro Economics has no
executive powers whatever.
In order to carry out the advisory
funotion o f Negro Economics special assistants have been furnished fo r
the Negro Economics Service through whom i t may gather such informa­
tion about the condition o f Negro wage-earners, th e ir relation s to
white employers and white workers and th eir relation s to the a c t iv it ie s
o f the Department, so that through them the several d ivision s, bureaus
and services o f the Department may be informed and advised. This work
has not been carried on as a separate Negro bureau.
The executive
d irection o f the D ivision o f Negro Economics rests with the Secretary
o f Labor and with those to whom he delegates i t .
In the case o f such
o f the assistants in the Negro economics work as are located in
particu lar states, any executive d irectio n o f them is carried out under
the supervision and approval o f the federal D irector o f the U. S. QnployAent Service o f the respective sta tes.
A ll the a c t iv it ie s and
plans o f such lo ca l assistants are proposed and carried out only with
the approval and supervision o f the Eederal State Directors o f the
U. S. Employment S ervice.
I t should be added that these f i e l d assistants in Negro Economics
are few in number, there having been appointed only one in each o f #ten
sta tes, with such lim ited c le r ic a l assistance as th e ir work required as
i t has developed.
The Eaderal Directors o f the U. S. Employment
Service have, from time to time, commended the usefulness, tact and
judgment o f these men in advisin g them on Negro a ffa ir s and a ssistin g
them in the work o f handling Negro labor.
Question 3:

In matters o f p o lio y , what is the actual procedure?

Answer:
I f this question is c o rre c tly interpreted i t means to inquire
what has been the actual practice in using the services o f the
D ivision o f Negro Economics.
This can probably best be answered







throu^i citing-, b r ie fly , examples where such service has been
rendered.
y ir s t , the U. S. Employment S ervice, from time to time,
needed Negroes as examiners and recru iters in the handling o f Negro
labor.
Negroes in d iffe r e n t lo c a lit ie s applied fo r such work.
The
Negro economics d ivis io n was asked fo r advice on the q u a lifica tio n s,
character and trustworthiness o f such applicants.
Investigations were
made and opinion given the Employment Service on these persons to
a s s is t that Service in making selection s.
Again, la st year, with the taking over o f the re cru itin g and place­
ment o f unskilled workers in war industries employing one hundred or
more workmen, a number o f priva te employment agencies, both commercial
and philanthropic, appealed to the Employment Service to take over th e ir
en terprises.
Just what p o licy should be pursued in dealing with these
Negro agencies ca lled fo r a knowledge o f Negro a ffa ir s from those
ow ng
e inside o f Negro l i f e .
The Negro Economics D ivision ad16 J* ‘Ploirm9nt Service on a lin e o f p o licy to be pursued towards
these agencies, which advice and p o licy were accepted and adopted.
° f aVai lat)l9 Negro labor and o f other conditions connected
7.
® re cru itin g and placement o f Negroes were made fo r the informa­
tion and guidance o f the Employment Service.
Again, several instances in both northern and southern industrial
centers have arisen where considerable race fr ic t io n developed between
e and Negro workers, and the Department was ca lled upon to in­
vestig a te and to use its good o ffic e s fo r c o n c ilia tio n .
In these
instances the D ivision o f Negro Economics advised on lines o f procedure
to get in touch with the best element o f colored people in order to
ow how to deal with the masses in bringing about adjustments in the

*'ur*her»
Bureau o f Industrial Housing and Transportation, U. S.
Housing Corporation, used the D ivision o f Negro Economics fo r advice on
matters o f developing roc® re g is tra tio n fo r Negro war workers in d i f ­
feren t lo c a lit ie s on g e ttin g in touch with the colored people fo r this
purpose and on the community side o f its own housing projects fo r Negro
war workers.
The .<oraen-in-Industiy Service has used the Negro EconSics
D ivision fo r advice on a number o f questions a risin g in various parts o f
tne country on the employment o f Negro women.
These are only a few examples o f the many ways the advisory service o f
the D ivision o f Negro Economics is operated.
Erom a y e a r’ s experiment
i t is cle a r that the Department could not have dealt successfully with
the many d i f f ic u lt and d elica te questions a ris in g out o f the problems
o f Negro labor unless i t had had in its service such a competent
representative o f the Negroes themselves.
The jud^nent o f the Secretary’ s
Advisory council which, under the Chaiimanship o f the Hon. John Lind
recommended that the Secretary appoint a Negro as adviser on such mat­
te rs , has been amply ju s t ifie d by experience.

Question 4s
upon?

To what extent, i f any, is organization o f any nature re lie d

Answer:
The only raachineiy that could in any way be ca lle d organization
consists o f what we have ca lled Negro Workers' Advisory Committees,
These are cooperative advisoiy committees formed in four southern
states and fiv e northern states follow in g state and lo c a l conferences
o f representatives o f white employers, white workers, wherever possible,
and Negro workers, with whom departmental o f f i c i a l s fu lly and fr e e ly
discussed a l l the plans and methods involved.
In each state these
white and colored representatives took the lead in forming lo ca l
committees by counties, c it ie s and towns.
The cooperative committees
are made up o f the best Negroes, most trusted by the white c itizen s
o f the community, and in each instance white citize n s from among the
employers o f Negro labor, and wherever p ossib le, from among white
workers have consented to serve eith er as members o f the Negro Workers'
Advisory Committees or on cooperating committees o f white c itiz e n s .
In some states these white members were nominated by the State Council
o f Defense.
In some lo c a lit ie s they have been nominated by the
Chambers o f Commerce or other organizations o f white c itiz e n s .




I t should be emphasized that this plan leaves the most responsible
white and colored citizen s of each state and lo c a lit y absolutely free
to work out th e ir own lo c a l problems, and brings to th e ir assistance
in a cooperative s p ir it and manner, through the Department o f Labor,
the wider experience, methods and connections o f other states and
lo c a lit ie s .
A fte r consultation with many thoughtful white and colored citize n s
on the matter o f a general organization to include the rank and f i l e
o f Negro workers, the Department d e fin ite ly decided not to attempt
any general organization o f the masses o f Negroes, le s t such e ffo r ts
would be misunderstood.
The plan has been to reach and influence the
Negro workers fo r greater regu la rity, promptness, t h r i f t , productive
e f f o r t , and improvement o f th e ir homes and habits through the touch
o f these cooperative committees with the churches, w elfare organiza­
tions and other agencies already at work among Negroes.
The main function o f these advisory committees has been to keep
the Department and it s representatives informed and advised o f the
fe e lin g s , desires and conditions in th e ir own lo c a lity and to a ssist
the Department in adapting it s work so as to make i t acceptable and
e ffe c t iv e wherever frie n d ly adjustment o f questions in volvin g Negro
workers and th e ir relation s to white people a r is e .
A ll o f these
people, both white and colored, have h e a rtily responded as volunteers
in such cooperation.
i f the white people in the several states and
lo c a lit ie s would cooperate further in this e ffo r t o f the Department
they would fin d that this plan o f cooperation is the best means and
p ra c tic a lly the only means now being system atically developed by which
white employers, Negro workers, and white workers may oome to an amicable
understanding and adjustment o f th e ir problems.
The great mass o f
the Negro workers are without constructive, in te llig e n t guidance.

They are now restless and unsettled.
The wise plan is to give them
frie n d ly cooperation and thus help defend them from unscrupulous
agita tors who may try to use them fo r dangerous purposes.
The De­
partment has special need o f the advice and counsel o f such co­
operative committees in an e ffo r t o f it s o f f ic ia ls to deal with these
d if f ic u lt matters.
Question 5:

To what extend, i f any, is Negro labor being urged to unionize?

Answer:
Negro labor is not being urged to unionize by anyone exercis­
ing any authority o f this Department.
Where charges o f such a c t iv it y
have been alleged the Department has taken special pains to make in ­
vestigation s o f the action o f any o f it s o f f i c i a l s dealing with Negroes
and to fo r e s ta ll any such o f f i c i a l action or propaganda.
I t oan be
said, w itji confidence, that the employees connected with the Division
o f Negro Economics have not urged or encouraged Negroes to unionize,
and any evidence that any o f f i c i a l is engaged in such a c t iv it y w ill
receive prompt atten tion .
Question 6: What p o lic y has the Department, i f any, concerning Negroes
unionizing?
Answer:
The Department has no p o licy concerning Negroes unionizing.
The question o f whether they should unionize or whether they should not
unionize is not a matter o f departmental business.
The work o f this
Department is fo r the w elfare o f nonunion as w ell as union wage-earners,
white and colored.
I t is obvious, th erefore, that the Department
should not and could not have any p o lic y concerning Negroes unionizing.
Question 7: The fea r has been expressed that this movement is being used
by a gitators and unscrupulous propagandists and that as a resu lt
attempt is being made to propagate a fe e lin g o f unrest and d is s a tis ­
fa ctio n among the Negroes and to arouse in them a desire to dominate.
What explanation can you give to such c r itic s ?
Answer:
I t can be emphatically said that this movement is not being
used in any way by a gita tors and unscrupulous propagandists. Every
man and women, white or colored, who has been asked to serve on any
o f the advisory committees or to act in any other capacity, o f f i c i a l l y
or u n o ffic ia lly , are persons w ell known by the local white and colored
people to be the most r e lia b le , level-headed, oonstructive-minded people
in th e ir community - people who have liv e d long in th e ir community and
who have the confidence o f both races.
I t is a fa c t that many care­
fu l observers t e s t ify that there is unrest and d is s a tisfa c tio n among
Negroes.
So fa r as the Department has any information i t is in no
way the resu lt o f any a g ita tio n or a c t iv it y o f those who have taken
part in the work o f the Department.
On the contrary and as a matter
o f fa c t , these advisory ccranittees have been the most in flu en tia l
means, both during the War and since the ann istice, o f removing un­
re st and d is s a tis fa c tio n among the Negroes.
Public o f f ic ia ls and
white and colored citizen s have w ritten to the Secretary and other




o f f i c i a l s o f the Department commending this movement.
They say i t is
helping to make Negro labor more stable, more responsive to productive
demands, and more contented.
O ffic ia ls o f p rivate organizations o f
both white and colored people have expressed th e ir approval.
A ll
o f this shows that thiB movement has been the means o f checking the
unpleasant conditions mentioned in the above question.
I t needs to be emphasized, th erefo re, that as the Department gets
la rg er cooperation from the thoughtful white citizen s o f each community
those citizen s w ill find that this Department has p r a c tic a lly the only *
movement by means o f which bolsh evist and sim ilar propaganda, about
which th e ir fears have been expressed, can be successfully met.
it
is no exaggeration to say that so e ffe c t iv e have been the results that
botn public o f f i c i a l s and priva te c itiz e n s , white and colored, have
responded with enthusiasm to i t as a means o f helping to adjust the
many d e lic a te and d i f f ic u lt questions where white and colored wageearners and vfoite employers are involved.
Huestion 8s i t has also been charged that industrial leaders and employers
have been requested by the Department o f Labor to confer with Negro
m l* I t t ,
*he ^ P ^ ^ t o f Labor, D ivision o f Negro Economics.
./hat explanation is there o f this feature o f complaint?
AnSW®5‘ .
This Department was f i r s t asked to give special attention to
th is matter in volvin g Negro workers about 1915, with repeated requests




Jrom 8
t T
^
s
- -°+U

* tair
in VieW ° f the ereat R a t i o n o f Negroes
t0 the ®orth *
In try in g to p erfo m a service to the
the Nation in this connection o ff i c i a l s o f the Department
and advice.' ^
indU3t r i a l leaders and employers and others fo r counsel
migration
D®partment had an extensive in vestigation made o f Negro
a d v i s e d ^ I T ! ' °5 C ltizen s’ ^ it e and colored, North and Southf
a tive o- i-h«I5Partment t0 haVe oontinuous expert advice by a represent^ -e# iv?eroes o f the country, esp ecia lly with reference to
These
m obilization o f Negro labor fo r winning the war.
®
! tS Wer® referred t0 ^ e advisory council o f the Department,
o f an ecn-nn f eprese“ ta tiv es o f employers, o f wage-earners, o f women,
council
mrj° spe° i a l i s t » and o f the general public, o f which advisory
recomrHnrt ^ /?n* Joiin Lind o f Minnesota was the Chairman.
This council
commended the appointment o f a special Negro adviser.
Qr.rn1^ ^ eqU0^ l y ’ ^
Baynes, a Negro, from N ash ville, Tenn., was
many person c / b o th * ° f N®gr° Economics* upon the recommendation o f
J M

T r : f n ^ b V : r y ; aLorth
was . strone one fr0B

who ha,d ^

-




H

6

"CCmSRGIAl CLUB OF NASHVILLE
March 15th, 1918,
Hon, W illiam Bauchop Wilson,
Secretary o f Labor,
Washington, D. G.
Dear Mr. Wilson:
I wired you today as follow s:
'The Commercial Club o f Nashville representing fift e e n
hundred o f her foremost business and professional men h e a rtily
endorse the application o f Doctor George Edmund Haynes o f Nash­
v i l l e fo r appointment as adviser to you representing your De­
partment in the study o f Negro employment and migration. We
b elieve him to be both by tra in in g and education eminently
. q u a lified fo r the p o sition .
Our f i r s t hand knowledge o f his
work here ju s t ifie s our recommendation.'
Confirming the same w i l l say I am sure that you have been made ac­
quainted with the educational q u alifica tio n s o f Dr, George Edmund
Haynes fo r the position he aspires to .
The Commercial Club is in a position to probably know b e tte r than
any other organization o f individuals as to his q u a lifica tio n s fo r the
p o sitio n he is seeking.
The handling o f the Negro is an ever present proposition in the
South both in d u stria lly and in a c iv ic way.
These problems are con­
stan tly coming up in the work o f the southern commercial organizations,
and as an Executive o f the Commercial Club I have had opportunities to
know o f Dr. Haynes' q u a lifica tio n s.
He is a student with a broad
v is io n and g ifte d with executive a b ilit y fa r above the average, and
has in addition to these a large fund o f good everyday horse sense.
I do not b e lie v e a b etter q u a lifie d man fo r the position can be found
than Dr. Haynes.
Hesjjeot fu lly ,
COMMERCIAL CLUB OF NASHVILLE,
(Signed) W. R. Lanier,
Secretary."
'When white employers or industrial leaders have been asked
oonfer with o f f i c i a l s o f the Department on these matters and i t
desirable that Jr. Haynes be d ir e c tly informed o f the ideas and
o f such c itiz e n s , the inclinations or feelin gs o f such citizen s
sou^it before they were asked to see him.
I f in any case such

to
seemed
opinions
have been
c itiz e n




showed an in clin a tion not to grant such an interview there has been no
plan or d isp osition to press such a request.
In every case where such
a request has been made i t has seemed desirable that the Negro adviser
should have the knowledge coming from white citizen s at the time he
might give to the Department the necessary information and advice
about the conditions and fe e lin g o f the Negro workers, i f the best
results fo r greater productive e ffo r t from these workers is to be
obtained.







/

Conferences and cooperation with employers w i l l be 'welcomed
by the Department looking to the improvement o f the productive e f ­
fic ie n c y of Negro workers along the follow in g lin e s :
^
a. Training o f Negro workers, both shop tra in in g and common
school tra in in g.
b. Housing o f Negro workers.
c. Methods o f encouraging t h r ift and improvement o f health o f workers.
d. Provisions fo r wholesome recreation. The fa c ts show that th is is
one o f the best means o f improving re gu la rity and promptness in
employment.
e. Use o f Negro workers in as many lin es as possible to me,t the
growing demand fo r more e ffic ie n t labor.
V. Advisory se rv ic e :
The advisory service to the several bureaus and d ivisio n s o f
the Department in such way as w i l l help in the more e ffe c t iv e re cru itin g
and d istribu tion and improvement o f Negro workers w ill be continued.
V I. Necessary to Atrriculture and Industry;
I t is important to the agriculture and industry o f the Country
that Negro workers as a l l other workers should function to 100 per
cent o f t h e i r a b ilit y and every f a c i l i t y should be furnished them fo r
th is purpose.
V II. -iffjo ie ncy Campaigns th rou ii Volunteer Help?
The present plans o f the Department in th is connection are to
stimulate the cooperative Negro workers advisory committees in the
lo c a lit ie s where they have been already started to more p ra ctica l
value fo r increasing the productive power anl e ffic ie n c y o f Negro
workers and improving th eir re la tio n s to vtfiite employers and white
workers. The help of white employers is esp ecia lly neeied fo r th is
work. The plans contemplate:
1.

Series o f shop talks to Negroes wherever employers are
w illin g to have competent speakers to come to discuss
such questions as promptness, re g u la rity , fu ll-tim e work,
health, t h r ift anl sim ilar questions. i.:uch along th is
lin e has already been done with the hearty approval o f
employers in terested.

2.

I f funds can be procured fo r i t , the Department plans a
series o f p ictu res, cartoons and placards on sim ilar topics
to those treated in the shop ta lk s.

3.

A campaign o f education by means o f public speeches and
printed matter to be presented to Negro audiences wherever
they can be reached, urging them to higher standarls o f
sanitation and housing in their neighborhoods. Already
the attention o f various agencies is being c a l l e l to the
necessity fo r "clean-up campaigns", "Gardenin • movements"
and the lik e .




4. A systematic educational campaign through the r e lia b le Negro
newspapers on b etter relation s o f white employers, white
workers and Negro workers; on b etter improving the e f ­
fic ie n c y and morale o f Negro labor and on stimulating Negroes
to improve th e ir conditions*




D e p a r t m e n t
of
L a b o r
O ffice o f the Secretary
CAGHILGTGN

Hegro economics - Advisor:/ Service:
1. Study o f Negro women in industrial operations to see what is
present status.
2. Committee on Unskilled jjabor - Association o f Corporation
Schools - Study Courses.
3. Conference course fo r colored industrial w elfare workers at
Hampton and Tuskegee.
Conference o f white representatives at c a ll o f lir. ferguson.
4. Gathering o f information by correspondence.
5. D istribution o f studies on Negro Labor.
6. Advising bureaus - Comen’ s, Children's, e t c ., on things in ­
volvin g Negro.
7. Answering correspondence.
Q. .analyzing data furnished from Census.




EXTRACT FR(M THE RESOLUTIONS OF THE NATIONAL NEGRO BUSINESS LEAGUE,
A tla n tic C ity, N. J .,
Aug. 21, 22, 23, 1918.
We commend the appointment by Secretary Wilson o f the Labor De­
partment o f Dr. George E. Haynes as representative o f the race in the
Labor Department, who is rendering valuable service, and we o a ll upon
our people everywhere to cooperate with him in the work o f his o ffic e
to inorease the e ffic ie n c y and. productiveness o f Negro labor.
TELEGRAM
S t. Louis, Mo.
Secretary Wia. B. -ilson .
Dept. Labor,
Washington, D. C.
We, the National Baptist Convention, represented by fiv e thousand
delegates and representing more tnan three m illio n Negro Baptists
in the United States, most h e a rtily commend your appointment o f
Geor^o E. Haynes as Director o f Negro Economics and pledge onr loya l
support to our Government in a l l the a c t iv it ie s incident to the
Groat world War.
R. B. Hudson, secretary
E. C. M orris, President.
EjffiRACI FECM TEE RESOLUTIONS ADOPTED AT THE INFORMAL CONFERENCE ON
NEGRO jJlwOR PLGBiDSML, FEBRUARY 17 and 18, 1919, Washington, D. 0 .,
LITH lb 6 REPRESENTATIVES OF 4b WELFARE ORGANIXAIIQNS AND AGENCIES,
NATIONAL in scope.
That i t is the consensus o f this body that the representatives o f
national organizations attending this conference request th e ir lo ca l
representatives in various states to cooperate immediately with the
representatives o f the Director o f Negro economics o f the U. S.
Department o f Labor in a l l matters a ffe c tin g the interests o f the
Negro workers.
Hon. W. B. Wilson,
Secretary o f Labor,
Washington, D. C.
Dear Sixt
As President o f the Negro Fellowship League, 1 w rite to express our
appreciation o f your action in retain ing Dr. George E. Haynes as one
o f your assistan ts.
The Negro race fe e ls that you have reoognized our
claim to representation in a l l departments o f our danocracy.
We
c e rta in ly regret that Congress fa ile d in it s appropriations a l l the
more that in sp ite o f the fa ct you have retained a representative o f
our race on your s t a f f .
Again thanking you, we are
Very truly yours,
President - Negro Fellowship League




U.

S.

jln p lo y m e n t S e r v i c e ,

Meridian, M iss., January 29, 1919.

From: Federal Director
To: Director General
Subject; Negro Economics D ivision.
1. In r e p ly to le t t e r from Assistant Director General, dated
January 23d, in reference to D ivision o f Negro Economics.

2. In th is connection the w riter wishes to state that this
Service is providing an o ffic e on the same flo o r as the o ffic e o f
the Federal D irector fo r the Supervisor o f Negro Economics.
The
present Supervisor, L. L. Foster, a young Negro o f energy, is con­
fe r r in g almost d a ily with the Federal Director in reference to his
work.
3. The w rite r attended the meeting o f the Negro State Advisory
Board in Jackson, Monday, January 27, at which meeting plans were
perfected fo r the organization o f the Negro boys between the ages
o f 16 and 21 in M ississippi in the Boys' Working Reserve.
Coopera­
tio n has been obtained from the State A gricu ltu ral College, and they
have agreed to supply instructors wherever necessary to instruct these
Negro boys in a short course prepared by the Reserve.
Arrangements
were made fo r v is it in g and organizing Reserves in approximately
twenty in du strial Negro schools in the State fo r the g iv in g o f
this course in connection with these schools in the early spring.
This service w i l l then undertake to place these students in a ctive
farm work as soon as school is closed.
4. The Negro Workers' Advisory Committee in the State o f
M ississippi is w e ll organized and the work is prospering very
s a tis fa c to ry .
(Signed) H. H. Weir,
Federal D irector.




- Lot pOx* . u blicat ion.
FUNCTION A3':) 701K 09 THS DIVISION CF NEGRO ECONOMICS
IN TH3
OFFICE OF THE 23CR3TAHY OF 'IA30R
. Corrected to March 15,1919. /

Reconstruction and meace ..-roblems:
1*

The thousands o f Negro workers in war industries who w i l l
npw be sh ifted to peace-time in du stries, along with other
wortcers, need special atten tion the same as during the
period when they were being sh ifte d in to war industries.

2.

Probably between 400,000 and 500,000 workers have migrated
from the South to northern communities. The potential
race fr ic t io n and d iffic u lt ie s o f adjustment, both with
white wage-earners and in d u stria l communities, where
they must fin d community l i f e with the white residents,
are legitim ate concerns o f this Jepartment.
•

,Jm There w ill be special problems connected with the adjust­
ment o f colored women in industry and probably in ioraestic
and personal service c a llin g fo r advice to the 7/omen in
Industry D ivision .
4.

5.

The problems of creatin g increased e ffic ie n c y and t h r ift
among Negro workers w ill be even greater than during the
war.
In the South the common in terest o f the white employer dio
wants to employ the services h ich the Negro wage-earner
has to o ffe r w ill make the adjustment of the labor situa­
tion one o f the most far-reaching factors in bringing
about just ani amicable race relation s. These conditions
are acute, growing out o f the present unsettled conditions
follow in g migration anl war restlessness of the two races.

6.

The adjustment o f the farm labor situation in the South is
very la rg e ly a Negro labor question.

7.

The problems of demobilization o f the thousands o f Negro
sold iers . d ll probably c a ll fo r more tact ani judgment than
were needed during the period \iien they were being drafted
out o f production into the Array. In fa c t , i t is not an
exaggeration to say that the return o f the Negro so ld ier
to c i v i l l i f e is one o f the most d elicate and l i f f i c u l t
questions confronting the Nation, north and south.










-4-

1*

Assistance has Deen given the U.S. Employment S ervice, North
and South, in the re cru itin g and placement o f Negro w&geeam ers.

2.

Educational campaigns have been carried on to inform Negroes
o f the re la tio n o f th eir wont to winning the war an l o f the
necessity o f 100 per cent production, Shis ha- been .one
through mass meetings, churches, lo >.gcsf s o c ie tie s , posters
lit e r a t u r e , e tc .

3.

Housing, sanitation an L general con li;io n s : E ffo r ts were .ale
to induce employers to look a fte r sanitation in industrial
towns and camps.
.mployers and contractors were appealed to
\
011 kne ground thet proper conditions produce greater regular—
i t y , s ta b ility and contentment anon , kegro workers.

A.

effic ie n c y Jampaiga: bhup t.lk s on the n ation 's need, the
l.egro *s opportuni ties fo r large earning , on race >ri l e ,
promptness, re g u la rity an- fu ll time work have been iven.
topioyers and other c itiz e n s have gladly arranged hours fo r
■ such work and have commended the e ffo r ts .

b.

-ompulsory labor le g is la tio n applied to women: fh is question
has been dealt with in several lo c a lit ie s in two ways:
a*

lhrough a campaign o f education arnon , sgro workers by
..1 1 1 ch an e ffo r t was male to show them that the proper
response i;o the c a ll fo r war labor would prevent the
passage o f compulsory le g is la tio n , or the applying of
th e'Wjrk-or-fin£it P rin cip le" to women.

b.

ihrou^i meeting o f state and c it y o f f i c i a l s , the greater
eftectiven ess o f persuasion has been presented as
a ^ in s t compulsory le g is la tio n .

6.

Conferences o f representatives o f Negro wage-earners, employers
and white wage-earners were held in nine states, ani in a
number o f lo c a lit ie s .

7.

ca refu lly selected information about the Negro labor conditions
were seoured from responsible observers in various lo c a lit ie s
o f d iffe re n t states from time to time. Ehis served to Hide
the Jepartment in meeting war labor needs0




-5 -

T I*

B m ifr r 9f the Plan fp r foW h^ ru c tlo n a il

-eaco needs:

The u t i l i t y of th is plan, as ca rried out during the war, fo r
peaoe needs may be c le a r ly seen from a review o f the
( 9 ) items
named as reconstruction and peace problems. Furthermore , the questions
o f race rela tio n s w i l l probably a ffe c t and modify labor problems, so
fa r as they re la te to Negroes, fo r an in d e fin ite p erio d / There w ill be
need o f a constructive plan o f organization and program Of work, such
as have been carried out during war times, to oreate b etter fe e lin g be­
tween white employers, white workers anl Negro wage-earners and to in­
crease th eir opportunities fo r p ro fita b le employment.
The combination o f white and colored c itizen s as volunteers
on lo c a l committees advising and cooperating together anl with the
o f f i c i a l s c f the Department of Labor may be regarded as a most d e s ir­
able means o f securing the largest resu lt in applying the national pol­
ic ie s and standards o f the department to looa l problems. These commit­
tees w ill help -he department in i t s attempts to apply these p o lic ie s
and standards through the several division s o f the department*which may
be continued into peace tim es, so fa r as they deal with Negro wageearners. In fa c t, already these Negro Workers' Advisory Committees and
the State Supervisors o f Negro Economics have very quickly readjusted
th e ir war plans and program fo r cooperation with 'the Councils o f Defense,
the Community Labor Boards, the Federal directors o f the U.3. Employment
Service anl a l l the other d ivision s o f the Department in the readjustment
problems now upon us.

(Signed)

GEORGE S. HAYNES,
director Of Negro Economics.

FS




The u t i l i t y o f th is plan, as ca rried out during the war, fo r
peace needs raay be c le a r ly seen from a review o f the nine (9) items
named as reconstruction and peace problems. Furthermore, the questions
o f race relatio n s w ill probably a ffe c t and modify labor problems, so
fa r as they re la te to Negroes, fo r an in d e fin ite period. There w ill be
need o f a constructive plan o f organization and program Of work, such
as have been carried out during war times, to create b e tte r fe e lin g be­
tween white employers, white workers anl Negro wage-earners an i to in­
crease th e ir opportunities fo r p ro fita b le employment.
The combination o f white ani colored citizen s as volunteers
on lo ca l committees advising ani cooperating together aul w ith the
o f f i c i a l s o f the Department o f Labor iaay be regarded as a most d e s ir­
able means o f securing the largest resu lt in applying the national x>lic ie s and standards o f the Jepartment to lo ca l problems. These commit­
tees w ill help the Department in i t s attempts to apply these p o lic ie s
ani standards through the several iiv is io n s o f the Department which may
be continued into peace tim es, so fa r as thqy deal with Negro wa:^eam ers. In fa c t, already these Negro Tor'Kars’ Advisory Committees m l
the State Supervisors of Negro economics have very quickly readjusted
th e ir war plans and program fo r cooperation with the Councils o f Defense,
the Community Labor Boards, the Federal Directors o f the U.S. employment
Service and a l l the other d ivision s o f the Depp.rtment in the readjustment
problems now upon us.

(Signed)

(ISOHG-S L . HAYNeS,
Director d f Negro economics.







U.

S.

EM PLOH-ENT S E R V IC E

74 East Gay S t., Columbus, Ohio, A p ril 9, 1919.
Mr. Ethelbert Stewart,
D irector o f In vestigation & Inspection Service,
O ffic e o f the Secretary, Department o f Labor,
Washington, D. C.
My dear Mr. Stewart;
Mr. Charles E. H a ll, who has been Supervisor o f Negro Economics in Ohio,
handed me a copy o f your le t t e r o f March 27th with reference to his re ­
ports being made through the o ffic e o f the Federal Director fo r Ohio.
Mr. Hall has been located in the o ffic e o f the Federal D irector fo r the
past several months and we are very glad to advise that the relation sh ip
is very pleasant.
We fe e l that Mr. Hall is a very competent man and
esp ecia lly fit t e d fo r the lin e o f work to which he is assigned.
This le t t e r is w ritten as an acknowled^nent o f the receip t o f instruc­
tions contained in your le t t e r o f above date.
Very tru ly yours,
(Signed) C. H. Mayhugfr,
Acting Federal D irector fo r Ohio.
1423 Newton S treet, Wash., D. C., July 9, 1919.
Dr. George E. Haynes,
D irector o f Negro Economics, Department o f Labor,
Washington, D. 0.
My dear Dr. Haynes;
I very much regret to learn that fa ilu re o f appropriations has made i t
necessary to discontinue the work which has been carried on by Mr.
Charles E. H all, Supervisor o f Negro Economics fo r Ohio.
Mr. Hall Assisted the Employment Service in every possible way in re­
cru itin g labor during the war and in the readjustment o f labor a fte r
the signing o f the arm istice.
The b ig task before him at this time is to a ssist in c r y s ta lliz in g ’ the
best thought and carrying out the best possible plans fo r improving
housing conditions and aiding the Negroes to become s a t is fa c t o r ily ad­
justed to the new indu strial condition which confronts them. His work,
I b e lie v e , has been a real fa cto r in preventing the development of
radical unrest among the Negroes in Ohio.
My knowledge'of Mr. H all*s work was gained through contact as Federal
Director o f xinployment fo r Ohio, from which p o sitio n I resigned March
15, 1919.
Veiy tru ly yours,
(Signed) Fred C. Croxton.




O F F IC E OF THE SECRETARY

In vestiga tion and Inspection Service

D ivision o f Lregro Economics:

Exp

n s e s - Mar. 15 to June 15, 1919

$7,295.35

Salaries (19) people

$7,295.35

Travel:
Per diem
Transportation
Miscellaneous

.

584.00
6.58
153.30
743.88
3.35

3.35

145.45

145.45

29.69

29.69

12.57

12.57

Outstanding Transportation requests

615.40

615.40

Estimated outstanding h i l l s unpaid

800.00

800.00

♦♦Supplies
Rent
Telegraph
Telephone

T o t a l
♦•Does not include supplies furnished from stock

.j>9,645.00




142 C. 9th S t., Middletown, Ohio,
July 14, 1919.

Hon. W. B. Wilson,
Secretary o f Labor,
Washington, D. G.
Bear S ir:
Vie knew nothing o f the resu lts that could be derived from aggression in
the Department o f Labor u n til we came in touch with Mr. Charles g. H all,
who wrote to us from 74 g. Gay S treet, Columbus, Ohio.
Through his persistence, much o f the unrest in labor c irc le s among
Negroes in this County has been a lle v ia te d ; they b elieve the Govern­
ment is interested in th e ir w elfare and we have set to work with new
zea l.
Many are buying homes, and Middletown claims the honor
th ird "Savings and Loan Association" (Colored) in this
"Savings and Loan Association" was recommended and the
By-Laws were w ritte n and given to us by Mr. Charles E.

o f having the
State.
This
Constitution and
H a ll.

Vie fe e l, that the absence o f Mr. Hall w i l l be a great loss to the best
in terests o f the Negro in Ohio.
Therefore, according to the request
o f the colored people o f this c it y , and by the unanimous vote o f the
Directors o f "The Progressive Savings and Loan Association" o f Middle­
town, Ohio, this request is sent to you, asking you to use your in ­
fluence that Mr. H all may be continued Supervisor o f Negro economics
in Ohio.
B elievin g you w i l l do the best you can fo r the develojment o f the State
and Country, we await your action.
R espectfu lly,
(Signed) B. Whitney Clark,
Pastor, Second Baptist Church.




1025 Twelfth S treet,
August, Ga., July 6, 1919

To whom i t may concern:
This is to c e r t ify that the fo llow in g resolution was unanimously
adopted at the recent annual meeting o f the national Association o f
Teachers in Colored Schools, held at Orangeburg, S. C., July 26 Aug. 2, 1919.
(Signed) Silas X. Floyd,
Executive Secretary and Chairman,
P u b lic ity Committee, N. A. T. C. S.
THE DEPARTMENT OP NEGRO ECONOMICS
We, the members o f the National Association o f Teachers in
Colored Schools, in annual convention assembled, note with great
s a tis fa c tio n the announcement o f Hon. W illiam B. Wilson, Secretary
o f Labor, that he w i l l continue the advisory service in the Depart­
ment o f Labor under the d irectio n o f Dr. George E. Haynes, Director
o f Negro Economics, and that he w ill make such provision fo r main­
ta in in g i t as is possible under the cu rtailed appropriations made by
Congress.
We express our hearty commendation o f the action o f the
Secretary o f Labor and assure him o f our continued cooperation and
assistance in dealing with problems a ffe c tin g the Negro wage-earners
o f the country, esp ecia lly as to th e ir relation s with white em­
ployers and white workers.

model constitution ^ou
L0C»L NFGRO wcpr^c; AD^ISO^Y COMMITTEE
-

A r tic le I . NAME*
Advisory Committee.

The name of th is committee s h a ll be The Negro Workers

A rtic le I I . PURPOSE: The purpose of this committee sh a ll be to study, P1^
and advise in a cooperative s p ir it and manner with erployers of Segro aab° r>
white workers, with Negro workers and with the United States Department o
in securing greater production in industry through increasing regu la rity, app
cation and e ffic ie n c y and through improving the general x:»xniiRXfc condition o
workers.

J

A r tic le I I I . MFMFS^SUIP : The membership of th is committee sh a ll be composed
of not more than th irty persons, men and women of the northwest.
» eae
iv
members Shall be women.
A r t ic le TV. APPOINTMENTS? The members of th is committee Shall be appointed
by the Secretary of Labor, who sh a ll also designate the chairman and the Secretary.
Upon the f i r s t appointment the members sh a ll be divided into three groups tc
serve six , nine and twelve months re sp ective ly . Thereafter, one-t .ir o
membership of the committee sh a ll be appointed every s ix months o ser e
term’, cf eighteen months, subject to reappointment. The chairman an^
e ®e
tary eh a ll serve fo r a period of s ix months each, subject to reaPP°*n)*®n * fa ith .
Treasurer sh a ll be elected by the Committee. He sh all be under bond f
9
fu l performance cf such duties as the committee may designate.
A r t ic le V. MEETINGS? The advisory Committee sh a ll meet at least cnee
month and at such other times as the committee may decide.
even mer
•
con stitu te a quorum. The chairman sh a ll be required to c a ll a meeting up n
w ritte n request c f fiv e members.
A r t ic le n . DYLANS? The Committee sh a ll make such b y - la w s * ^
conduct c f business as seem best, subject to the approval of the Central Advis
Ccmmitfltee.

.

A r t ic le M il, PO"TRS 0* THE COMMITTEE: The Committee sh a ll transact a l l busi­
ness, m.ake plans, kks** enter into agreements and * e r f °™ sU C h s u l ^ L s L t i c n
be necessary fo r carrying cut the purpose c f this committee. A ll such transaction,
plans, agreements, or acts shall* be subject tc revisio n by the Central Advisory
Ccmmitte e and the United States Department of Labor, through it s u y
represen tatives.
A r t i c l e Mill. FINANCES? This organisation sh all not have power or authority
tc incur*6 expenses or contracts, which sh all in any way obligate the United States
Department cf Labor. No debt sh a ll be incurred by this committee
^ e v W y
provided Jcr. The Treasurer of this committee sh all 1eep acc un
P
expenditures and he sh a ll keep any funds intrusted tc him deposited in such banks
or trust c empanies as the committee sh a ll decide,
A r tic le IX. - AMENDMENTS? Amendments may be made to this Constitution by twethirds vote at a regular and duly called meeting of this c o r n tee, p
am.endm.ents s*hall be approved by the Central Committee and the United States De
partment of Xabor,




S e c tio n 3 . The m eeting plt-x.-. . f th. u lvisc ry Committee and the E x ecu tive
Board s h a ll be a t the o f f ic e O j
c
„ ■ w is o r o f
the S ta te , u n le s s oth erw ise
ord ered by the E x e c u tiv e Board.
t f lov'ed by the Department o f L ab or,
A r tic le V l l .
BY* LANS- The "A.ecut .ve Board s h b l m b s such b y-law s and
r u le s f o r the conduct o f L u s jre o s a., ueen L est , su b ject to the a p p ro v a l o f the
A d v is o ry Ocianittee and too B o a : rmi.-nt o f Tabor/

.

A r t i c l e V II.:,
PC., E l? Cl THE ThSCUTIlE BOM. *, The E x e c u tiv e Bo rd s h a ll
tra n s a c t a l l b u sin ess, male plains, e n te r Vnto agreements, and p erform such oth er
a c ts as may be neceesa/v "'01 c a r r y in g ou” the pu.ry. s i o f t h is o o m n jttee. A l l such
tr a n s a c tio n s , p l& rs, r. ^ u i e u s , or a c ts r h d ll be sub,e it to r e v is io n by the
A d v is o ry Committee and the U nited S ta te s Department o f la b o r , through i t s d u ly
au th o rized r e p r e s e n ts '■iv a s .
A r t i c l e IP., COUNTY AND LOCAL COJfclTTEESj The Department o f Labor s h a ll
appoint f o r each county and l o c a l i t y o f the S t a t e , having a s u f f ic ie n t Negro
p o p u la tio n , a county o r lo c a l Negro Workers A d v is o ry Committee o f not more then
nine p erson s. At le a s t two o f the members s h a ll be women.
The lo c a l superintencen
o f the u . S . Employment S e rv ic e .or the chairman c f the Community Labor Board s h a ll
be e x - o f f i c i o
member o f trie county or lo c a l com m ittee.
A r t i c l e X.
FIN. LOT'S: N e ith e r t h is o r g a n iz a tio n , i,ts E x ecu tive Board, o r
the County o r lo c a l A d v is o ry Covimittee s h a ll have power o r a u th o r ity to incur
expenses or make any - fin a n c ia l agreements or c o n tr a c ts , which s h a ll in a n yw ay
o b lig a te the s ta te o f M ichigan or the U n ited S ta te s jp -rtrrent o f Labor. No debts
s h a ll be in cu rred by t h is committee o r i t s E xecu tive Board or by to y county o r l o c a l
committee u n less p r e v io u s ly provided f o r .
The tr e a s u r e r o f t h is committee s h a ll
keep account o f r e c e ip t s and ex p en d itu res and he s h a ll keep any funds in tru s te d to
him d e p o s ite d in such bank o r tru s t companies as the E x ecu tive Board she.ll decid.e.
A r t ic le X I.
AMENDMENTS: Ammendments m y be made to t h is C o n s titu tio n by
two—th ir d s v o te at a r e g u la r ail; d u ly c a lle d m eeting o f th is Committee, provided,
such ammendment s h a ll have been p r e v io u s ly approved, by the U n ited S ta tes
Department o f L b o r.










KEGP.O p e o n a g e s

I K FLORID*.

_ This work was started a ft e r a conference o f white and colored
c itiz e n s ca lled by the Governor.
The work proceeded in orderly
fashion, being commended on a l l sides by both white and*colored
c itiz e n s , and was veiy e ffe c tiv e in increasing the morale, e ffic ie n c y
and contentment o f Negro workers in many parts o f the State during
the War and throu^out the period o f restlessness just a fte r the
Arm istice was signed.
Representatives o f a lumber association in Florida became
disturbed, i t seems over material which appeared in colored news­
papers and magazines o f the so-called inflammatory type, the a rtic le s
in which are sent into Florida and other southern states from the
North, and confused the Negro Economics work with the so-called
inflammatory propaganda, a lle g in g some connection o f the departmental
representative with this lite ra tu re .
Upon recommendation o f the Governor o f Florida, the Secretary
o f Labor temporarily suspended the Negro economics work in Florida.
Th ereafter, the Secretary sent two inspectors to Florida to look
into the situ ation , both among white and colored people.
These
inspectors, without the knowledge o f the Negro representative in
F lorida, went over the State wherever he had been, and interviewed
employers^and employees.
in a l l this search no evidence could be
obtained that showed that in any way the departmental representative
had had anything to do with any unrest among Negroes, but, rather,
that he irad had a great deal to do towards removing discontentment
among them.
The agents o f the lumber in terests admitted to the inspectors
o f the Department that there were no grounds fo r lodging a case
against the departmental representative or the departmental work in
F lorida.
_he whole situ ation indicated that there were newsj>aper
statements which created misunderstanding throughout the S tate, but
the results o f the inspectors’ work disclosed no facts at the bottom
o f these newspaper statements which re fle c te d upon the conduct o f the
work as a basis fo r the newspaper statements.
A ll o f the Negroes connected with the work througiout the State,
as w e ll as the Negro supervisor, were w ell known by the substantial ’
white and colored c itiz e n s .
The supervisor, him self, had been a
mechanic, a teacher and an owner o f a business fo r a number o f years
in Florida.
The fu l l records o f the Department on this whole matter are open
to inspection.
*




„ . ^ 4rep} y t0 y °ur le t t e r o f Lay 24th, I am o f the opinion that the
work being done by your Department is useful and successful. Recently
I listen ed to a speech by your Assistant Supervisor, and I think he *
handles his subject w e ll.”
“ inK ne
Very tru ly yours,
(Signed) J. E. Latham,
J. E . Latham Company, Greensboro, n . c .
-nT. , , I , ? aV9 re c e iv sd your in terestin g le t t e r o f Kay 24th and I
c o rd ia lly approve your e ffo r ts to improve the e ffic ie n c y o f Negro
“ ! t0 ^ eate a b etter untiesta n d in g between white e m S e r s
! ? ! ? " thr° Ugh the C00P9ra tiv e medium o f the lo c a l Negro
Advisory Commattees.
i t is advisable o f course to avoid the m u lt S y 6 f sirai l ar undertakings sand to concentrate or coordinate the
1 *
S °r "L ,d w e
derstanding.

*»
— t the £ . £ .
I w i l l be glad to oooperate in a reasonable way.
Yours tru ly,
(Signed) James Sprunt,
Henderson Sprunt & Son, Wilmington, N. C.

a t t m 'L r f T T ®
£ r £ e

I t y° ur D^ srhMn“

have always been most courteously

° f re a l in t6 r a S t “ *

*« “

>—

* » S

2

*

I te e l that there is great need fo r your Department in th « Qfmti,
p a rticu la rly in the industrial sections th ereof.
“
*
Yours very tru ly,
(Signed) J. E. s . Thorpe,
Tallassee Power Company, Badin, N. £ . "

employee.
I sh all be glad to £ what I I l f t f ^ r t l e l S . P ° y'>r “ d
the organization at a l l times.
further the purposes o f
Yours tru ly,
(Signed) John G. Bragaw, J r . ,
Guano Manufacturer, Washington, D. C.

I

I




January 27, 1320

x*
:
i U ”3i..

JtX
t
OP
t
t B rie f Study anl Report
The iodel V illa g e o f North B a lia , H .C..
t o f the d irector o f Negro
Senacaics fo llow in g his
v i s i t November 23,1913,
inhabited, prin ci •aliy, by the T & ^ . amployoes

:
:

o f the Tallaaaee .'ower (k>apany,
x

I.

g o r e

IT W

r A.

Supplementary to sy nemo rinJLum o f Eovaaoer 1, 1319, to the
Seorotary I have the honor to submit the fo llow in g b r ie f report in -he
above u n title d matter, in .ooo?d oe with instructions o f the Assistant
Secretary.
I t w ill be reca lled that North Carolina m s the f i r s t state into
shiah the worlc o f the department, in Negro Economics, was ca rried . Follow­
ing t l » North Carolina conference in June 1916 ani the appointment, fo r that
S tate, of a supervisor o f Negro ioonouios, nr. A.M. Noore, the members o f
the State Negro .orlcer3 Advisory Committee were appointed, ani the forma­
tion o f sta te-w ile oifcy ani oc unty a u x ilia ry committees was began. There­
a fte r the North Carolina economic o c n iiticn c ."err jnrveyed, -ini reports
Wwi*e subrsiitied to th is o ffic e teaching u ^ n favorable an! unfavorable
oiro-.BBatr.noes which sere found in North Carolina.
Huong s ig n ific a n t conditions which pointed 3fcrongly to the
f u l l understand!r^g by sooe North Carolina employers o f he jo in t needs
o f employers and employees were the conditions which the Tall&ssee Power
Company had grasped *iuh the ile a o f /talcing as a ttr a c tiv e as possible
the circumstances and surroundings o f i t s worming classes. The North
Carolina supervisor iiupu tched a ..peciai agent to v i s i t the plant o f
this oompany, and so splendid were the conditions o f la b o r, o f l i f e ,
and o f morale among the employees of the Tallassee Power Company at
North Oalin, N .C ., that the department o f Labor, thru i t s Information
and H iocati on Jorvicp issued a release in which these conditions were




specified ( a copy of this release - Auroh 191 1919, ia attached
hereto m l .uade a piirt h e re o f) .
The local Negro »ork«rs Advisory Cosmittee o f Baiin, 5.0.
had been able to present to the T a il*asee ^ t-ar Com,.'my the aims
ani ^ lie ife b o f u « JeoarUenttt of Labor for Negro vu.t;e-»am ers an 1 had
beou au'^aeri mi by the membership of Mr. I.B. 3. Thorpe, .Superintendent
of the a lia s see
:er Company, oho at once linked.
u wi f . he de­
partment of Labor the e ffo rts vhieh his company hoi berm in 3917.
Thro ngJh.out the your tho Sadia Committee, the o ffic ia ls of the
Tallassee fc A>r Coup«uiy, ml :a® o ffic ia ls of the „oiiy of 3udin works!
hand in hand in a complete pro pran flfcioh had as its objective the mak­
ing of North Sadia into a nodal oi ,y. hence, it was do issire of a ll
that at »omfa future lay the director of TTeftrc Boonowios mi lit V isit
North la iln , inspect the pl.mt of the TullasS-ie power Company ani iia.co a
b rie f etuly of the social and economic conditions of North Batin.
November h3t 1919, waa the earliest xa’.e on flhiah it was practical to
make suoh a v i s i t .

II •

__ L j l 9. ,t,,s.

The growth of Balia uruj rapid u , November &6% 1919, feund i t a
busy o itv of 1,300 inhabitants froa £0 at.-tee anl three f<~re?gn cou ntries,
o f which 1730 were e-i^lcyeos of the 'iallassae -o vur Company. North
Baiin was comprised cf the Negro inhabitants, of who» 900 ire employees
o f the above named company. I noted that 3adin was apparently b u ilt
rather than ieveloped, as are raort c i t i e s ; for peer pa*rt;rsv-^tw as dni
a lle y s , unpainted hou3e3, poorly l i n t e l s tre e ts , irre g u l r business
sections, liv e s and retrea ts had not apparently sxi te l ires: the ;>efin in g. On the other hand, I found w all la id o ff s tre e ts , p a iv e i anl
concrete sidewalks, pain ,ed cottages with eleotire lim its, running
sater, with sewsrage systems, gardens, high pressure fi r e plugs m l hC30
houses in every section o f tho town. dltfcin the town I no*-ei ilmplehear ed, good nat ired ^egro e itis o n a , comprised o f laymen, professional
and business men. In the mind there seem^. t' renuiin r.o doubt as to
the Negro's a b ilit y to _evelop i f ,i an kind encourage,sent ani le ft un­
hindered.
The Tallasseu rower Company is eug&-od in -,he business o f
making aluminum. At once I ucti ed i t s b e lie f that i f the rcy r in­
cen tive is held out to workers good r e m it s w ill fo llo w , i t s o f f i c i a l s
seamed whole-heartedly to rea lise that the human element i s , a ft e r a i l .







A RiuI^F iSlv.UiTUSHJ Tor emergency oases, sickness or lrtJuiy, and. a laath ben efit o f "100.
A FXBOT AIJ j^HVICE and a snodem hospital fo r e ff lo ie n t
lareedi&te fre e treatment.

ml!

7.

BCAHJ MD i n i F O fo r sin gle .non at reasonable rata3 in
hoarling houses, cafes ani ,-riv . e horaea

8.

BO! "'3 -JOLJ on a 20-ysar oagnasat dan, Uie oay tents
amounting to iho usual uoatiuy hot’ ?e rout.

9.

H trj3
more th?j» r w x a & b lo * an! i l l homoe furnished
with e le c t r ic l l - f i t i , running r r t e r and scrror. A ll
houses are
at U , c e lle d
i w e ll-b u ilt; each lo t has a
f^ont yard, chicken yard ;n i garden p lo t , with a back a lle y
fo r the c o lle c tio n o f trash -:ni arb.go .tiich is removed
fre e o f efcnrro.
JT*. . ..o AJu) 3i53li.ioJ ilOU.fSC . unions to serve a l l , at cur­
rent p rices, fo r cash or on the installm ent plan.
BKOBD BU3IHB3S i*u!T have a genuine wolcaao in this oonawnity
where opportunitiss fc r successful enterprises are unexcelled.

10.
11.

B. Siucatio-itl
1. A if IKS m 'W .:' b’OSOCl o f 12 gra los, with a p rin cip al and six
(6) teachvra. i'hs new uc.ool buillix^, (in cour ie o f erection )
is an exr.ct duplicate o f the school fc r waive onii_ureu; i t
ocoupios a whole block fo r blequace ploy-grounds anl p l ^ gruand equii^iont.
2.
3.

4.

A DONSSTIC CISSGS «PA9T. 2*? efclsfc teaches the g ir ls to be
s u ffic ie n t home-makers.
A /.*NUAL THAIFI?SS DSrAHTtiSTT shich teaches the boys to be
useful with th eir ntuiis in house carper, try , cabinet making
«n i trades.
A SICrKt JOH’ OL fo r non .ml wcco.. ho uiuh to improve th eir
education.

5.

A GOEdfciKSdTOHI 0? iOJSK with four (4) s p e c ia lis ts in musical
education 'who teach a l l branches o f .usle, v e e r i —a i» # t r
mental.

6.

TJ2 COldOTITT 3GI_iJEK« c recced at a cost o f $
where public meetings, leotu s s , ocnoarts and entertainments
o f a l l kinds are regu larly p r o v iie l.




-o -

0« &oralT1. m s W t J M CffJUCnSS; OHO building (A .J t.t.Z .) ercc*ed
°86* 0 f *
*
1
< * * * * » * ) in course o f
tlon .0 cost *
. Other b a i l l i c ^ » m fce
ercccel as test as the congregations tre s o lid ifie d .
2 * TJfv .;m «K S I'J L 'JJXCH, in o lu lla r i31 the Balia Pastors
aai preachers.
*• ^
^•AHOOiHS.’ healed by a colored physician
uU coa.oaity auras, which regulates the publio health
ana .uaono a hygiene and aanita-lon.
*' i ? “

* « 3,arasr Y “ '1*101 1M a p o n e » » « * ,
^ * > » * * . • - lo o
iUse,oloo » i 1 „
'.a
to a l l la s - a b liln ; c itiz e n s .

5>
U ^ la li^ c r !
*'

orotooclon

5he cur3® (,f
* 1 * ' and it s
* •7a3ra * “ M 14 ao * * * * * *

« Jf 8, * aa®bar c ■' ^ *o rta Carolina Pedsrn .ica o f Colored Voiaen.,* Clubs, A io h is prone in *
.rer "orals and a higher appreciation o f *ununhood.

a. j fci^.i (­
1. 1 Tn.tlFSJ, .Hl.TJ.ld, f u l l l*no S3)rrc leliV ire fforicsr
to looic a ft e r too in te rests o r Ke«ro
j 0y0« , to ,roiao..e a better and acre whole-am cor ,uuiy i i : a Uli t,
the energies o f .ho * orders alon , h elpfu l lin e s
-hen a*six* ■oru ia over*
A .aHI> 37S23U o f lo c a l solf-rjovernnert, consist* . o f
.c ur {-*) - a r l Cwxaitteen with a flhaimvn un i si*(G )
It r e e t Captains in c<w* O oonm ea, popularly e le c t s !.
Thxa torn o f organisation leaves p r s e tle a llv a l l the
c iv ic an* social l i f e o f the cocroa ity anier the oontr o l o f tli© .aoricara themselves aal emphasizes the
E 2 5 5 r - » * " “ ••• 3. S tt-J jm ! m m m m i - m .

- » ■ » * * « * * " . or
» i . ; » » . M<BMt
in .or .he Tard '^Bte i m i U :c v o c e i o f he '•v&rd Chairnsr a . fens heads o f a l l general erran izatien s. a *
d irector o f 'i'elfaro *ctft is the y r e s ii&u..
%

4. dC.Ol'h . iifAjltf organisations {not previously aer.tionuijj
a . Business League (branch of N a t 'i. Negro 3.L.)
°* ■
‘‘ire dapartnent ( jix companies)
o. Athletio Association ( Including a l l soorts)
d. Gladiators Athletio Club A dancing Class







-7 -

It is s ivotwil panacea to * t* 1:xr($& proportion ot
Xffcor ilff ic u lt la o aai BtauxUnrataaiingn existing between
swr'1eye r ” an! enn-1oyee s •

le a p e d T ally ,

i>|psotojp, JJo-ffo £oonc«ilds.







2

The Southern Sociological Congress held a state meeting of white and
colored citizens from a l l parts of Mississippi at Gulfport, Miss., on July 12,
1918.
The Director of Hegro Economics was invited to address this state con­
ference.
About 200 white citizens, both business men and planters, and about
75 Negro citizens were in attendance.
The Department took advantage of this
state gathering to call together those tiho were especially interested in Negro
labor adjustment.
The address of the Dlreotor of Negro Economics on war labor
problems relating to Negroes, given before the Southern Sociological Congress,
not only gained a hearty response from whites and Negroes present, but several
o f the white citizens took an active part in the departmental meetings to work
out our plan of state-wide Negro Workers* Advisory CouKittees with local oomnittees, which plan was adopted.
The meeting of the Southern Sociological Congress was closely followed by a
state conference of representative white and Negro oitizens at Jackson­
v i lle , Fla.
This conference was called by Governor Sidney J. Catts,
who presided at a number of the sessions.
The plan adopted by the conference
called for the formation of a state Negro Workers' Advisory Committee, composed
of representative Negroes and cooperating white citizens representing the state
Council of National Defense and the 0. S. Employment Service.
a program of
activities was worked out which had as its object the promotion of a better
understanding in employment matters in Florida and the removal of discontent
o f workers, in order that greater production of food and supplies might en­
sue.
Go great was the enthusiasm of the citizens in Jacksonville that a
monster mass meeting was held at which Governor Catts and other prominent
o ffic ia ls spoke.
In the meantime, the Virginia organization, through the help of the
Negro Organization Society of that state, had been begun, and the fir s t super­
visor of Negro Economics was appointed and undertook the direction of the ad­
visory work in that state.
The next step was to get the work and organization launched in northern
territory.
Ohio was selected for the in itia l e ffo rt.
Consequently, on
August 5, 1918, a conference was called by the Department, with the hearty co­
operation of the Federal Director of the 0. S. .Employment Service a-nd Governor
Cox.
This conference, whioh met at the State Capitol, Columbus, was very not­
able for the number In attendance, representing, as they did, white employers,
Negro wage-earners and representatives of white wage-earners.
There were in
attendance about 125 persons.
Itarlng the afternoon session Governor Cox gave
an address.
The conference adopted the usual plan of state organization, and
Charles JS. H all, the second supervisor of Negro economics, who had been
transferred from the Department of Commerce, was detailed to the state to
develop the organization and to supervise the work under the authority of
the U. S. Employment Servioe.
The conference in Kentucky was held on August 6.
There were both
white and colored representatives in attendance.
This conference was unique
in that the plan of organization adopted was that of a united war work com­
mittee with a special conmittee of white oitizens appointed by the State Council
of Defense, as cooperating members.
This war work committee included repre\\

3

sentatives fro® the Department of Agriculture, the U. S. J?ood Administration,
the Bed Cross, the council o f Defense and the Department of Labor.
Governor
A. 0. Stanley of Kentucky attended the morning session and made an enthusiastic
address to the delegates.
By this time, the influence of the state conferences had so proven their
value, their effectiveness and their usefulness as a means of starting the state
movement and creating good w ill and favorable sentiment that other conferences
have followed almost as a matter of oourse.
Additional conferences have been
held later in Georgia, Missouri, Illin o is , Michigan, Pennsylvania and Mew
Jersey, and steps have been taken either for conferences or organisation of the
wofk in Hew York and South Carolina.
By the close of the year just passed, and after six months of work,
Begro Workers* Advisory Coomittees, state, oounty and oity, had been wholly or
partly fomed in ten states and steps had been taken to establish coomittees
in three other states.
Nearly a l l of these committees have white and Negro
members of have cooperating white members representing organisations of the
white employers and white workers.
One of the most significant facts about
the invitations and acceptances of service on these conmittees by white and
Kegro persons, numbering more than a thousand, is that there has been, so far
as we have any reoord, only one case of a member of one committee whose rela­
tionship on the committee b”-*2
*5 caused friotion or made necessary a request for
his resignation.
There has been the heartiest response for this work from
citizens of both races everywhere.
Many of them have used their time, their
services and their money to further the departmental program.
It is the expressed opinion of competent judges that the holding of
these conferences and the voluntary oooperation of hundreds of white and negro
citizens on these conmittees, both Borth and 3outh, are in themselves results
sufficient to ju stify this effort of the Department.
But even more s ig n ifi­
cant is the fact that these man and women serving on conmittees are helpfully
in touoh with soores of thousands of employers and white and Begro workers.
The prinoiples on which the work for Begro wage-earners is based are:
1. Representation: In view of the fact that negroes constitute about
one tenth of the total population of this country and about one sixth of
the working population of the oountxy, it is reasonable that they should
have representation around the oouncil table when matters affecting them
are considered.
When given such representation and opportunity, negroes
w ill respond and shoulder their part of responsibility on the fam , in the
factory, at the shipyard, and wherever else an opportunity is given them to
serve•




2. The two raoes are thrown together in daily 1|owk.
The majority o f the
employers and a large number o f the fellow employees of Begro workers are
white persons.
This condition gives rise to misunderstandings, prejudices,
antagonisms, fears and suspicions.
These facts must be recognised and dealt
with in a statesmanlike way.

4

3. Local character of the problems:
The problems are local problems
between local employers and local employees.
The local people need the
▼lsion of national policies and standards to apply to them.
4. Cooperation: Therefore, any plan or program should be based upon the
cooperation of white employers and representatives of Negro wage-earners, and,
wherever possible, of white wage-earners.
As previously acknowledged hy the Georetary of Labor, the work of Negro
Economics would obviously involve two general d iffic u ltie s in any effort to
carry out an effective program based, of oourse, upon the functions of the
Department o f Labor:
1. The d iffic u ltie s of forestalling a strong feeling of suspicion on
the part of the Negro people.
(This is easy to arouse because of their
past experience in racial and labor matters ).
2. The d iffic u lty of forestalling a wrong impression among white people
especially those In the South, about the intention behind the efforts of the*
Department.
The north Carolina Conference, then, was particularly encouraging, inas­
much as the Governor expressed himself as highly pleased with the results and
accepted a place as Honorary Chairman of the State Committee.
Those present
and taking part in the North Carolina Conference were; Dr. A. M. lioore.
Berry, Bishop H. B. Delaney, Berry 0'Kelly, lfrs. Annie W. Holland,
Dr. S. G. Atkins, Col. J. H. Young, Prof. J. D. Wray, Prof. L. E. Hall,
Mrs. J?. C. Williams, Dr. J. B. ftidley, Bishop G. W. Clinton, Prof. C. L. If.
Smith, C. C. Spaulding, J. E. Taylor, Capt. L. E. Hamlin, Dr. George J. lUuasey,
Balph Izard, N. C. Newtold, Governor T. W. Bickett.
At a la te r date, the Governor selected the members of the fir s t Negro
Workers * Advisory Cananittee and reoommended to the Secretary of Labor their
appointment.
In Exhibit "A” , hereto attaohed, w ill be seen the scope of
duties and allegisnoe to the Department and to the State of these so-called
Negro workers' Advisory Committees.
The early plans of the Department out­
lined three lines o f activity for dealing with the problems of Negro laborers in
their relation to white workers and white employers as follows:
1. The establishment of cooperative committees of white and colored
citizens in the stato and locality where the problems of Negro labor arise,
due to large numbers of Negro workers.
2. Development of a publicity or educational campaign to create good
feelin g between the races, and have the white and Negro citizens to understand
and cooperate with the Department's plan.
3. The appointment of Negro s ta ff workers in the states and localities
to develop establishment of these committees and to conduot thi 3 work of
better racial relations and to assist the several divisions and services
of the Department in danobilizing and standardizing Negro labor for winning
the War.
These three ideals have been oarried Into each state conference




5

and have teen thorou^ily emphasized at every gathering involving Negro jconomics
as dealth with by the Department of Labor.
As another exhibit (Nshibit "B ") there is attaohed hereto a copy of an
invitation which the Department has used for persons to accept membership on
these cooperative cccaaittees.
The above-described procedure as to conferences and cooperation has
been followed in Chio, New Jersey, i-lorida, Kentucky, Georgia end other
states.
In matters of record as to the cooperative service of the War divisions
of this Department
other Departments, the Negro lioonomioe work may be
b rie fly summarized as follows:
The U. 2. Dnployment Service necessarily received the largest amount of
cooperative effort from this office.
Particularly lias this been so with r e f­
erence to the questions relating to private agencies and the handling of Negro
labor on and after August 1, 1916, when the lifetploynent Service was given the
responsibility of recruiting and placing common labor for war industries em­
ploying 100 or more v/ortoers.
The Negro '.Vorkers * Advisory Committees in many
lo calities assisted as volunteers dturing the days of war labor recruiting and
placement.
JEi^it of the state 'Jupervisort of Negro Dconomioe have their
offices either with the federal Directors of the rinployrnent Service or in
dose connection with them.
These Pederal Directors, with one e?»eptien,
have turned to these state supervisors for advice and help on practically u ll
Blatters relating to Negroes in their states.
Questions of location of offices to serve Negro neighborhoods, the
formation of policies and plans of tho itaployment Service to serve them more
effectively, the selection of competent Negro examiners, and a number of other
questions from time to time have been handled for this Service. Details i l ­
lustrating tho cooperation with this Service are too iany for report here, but
may be found in the file s of this office.
Ample testimony from federal directors
is available. As a part of the cooperative work with this Service in Virginia
nnn Alabama has been assistance in the inauguration of the work of the Boys'
forking Deserve among Negro boys.
A close plan of cooperation has been worked cut with the Women's Bureau.
This office gave assistance in the finding and selection of a special agent,
Helen £. Irvin, for work among Negro women.
She ia assisted in this work
by Llisabeth doss Haynes, as u dollar-a-year employee.
The efforts to ad­
just tho Negro labor situation as far as it relates to Negro women is being
made effective by means of close cooperation between the office of the
Director of Negro iioonomios and the Women's Bureau.
The Investigation and Inspection Service has taken upon its s t a ff a
competent Negro investigator, Uyron K. Armstrong, recommended by this offio e.
This Gervioe has boen called upon and has rendered valuable cooperative
service in making investigations of Negro conditions of labor, at times
employing several of its agents for such investigations.




This office lias also received a number of complaints o f discrimination
against Negro workers on account of color and has occasionally used the
good offices of the Labor Adjustment service on such oases.
The Information and Education Service has been called upon constantly
in carrying out the departmental plan for publicity and educational campaigns
to improve race relations of workers and to increase the morale and efficiency
of Negro workers.
A regular service has been given to both the white and
Negro press by this cooperation* and it may oe reasonably stated that in this
way we have gained the support of the negro newspapers of the country* more
than 200 in number* and have made a fa ir beginning in getting our publicity
into the white newspapers both North and South.
As an illustration* a news
release on that part of the Secretary’s annual report relating to Negro
workers was prepared by this division.
It was sent out by the Information and
education Service.
Clippings from white newspapers show that the release was
used by then as fa r north as Maine, as far west as California, and as far
south as Louisiana.
ihmdqwous .Negro newspapers, North and south, carried the
release in fu ll.
Shis office has assisted the bureau of Industrial Housing and Trans­
portation with advice on plans for war housing as It concerned Negroes in
Washington, Newport News and Portsmouth, Virginia, and the Homes Registration
Service of that Bureau in establishing a branch office in Washington.
A number of Negro workers employed on the railroads of the country
naturally have applied to this office for advice and help.
Departmental
ethics and oourtesy, of course, limited the amount of service that could be
given to these cases to assisting them in getting in touch with the proper
o ffic ia ls of the U. S. Railroad Administration and advising them where and
when to present their oases.
A similar cooperative relationship nas been
established with the liar Department through the offioe of Dr. jamnett J.
Soott, Special Assistant to the beoretary of War, for dealing with Negro
a ffa irs .
The U. S. Health Service has inaugurated a special effort to reach
Negroes in combatting venereal diseases.
The small amount of information
available shows the effect of suoh diseases on the efficiency of industrial
workers and that Negroes are very seriously affected.
Therefore, this
o ffio e has welcomed the cooperation of the Publio Health Service in its eduoational oampalga among Negro workers and has given that Service some help
in getting in touch with workers through our fie ld organization and through
publio meetings.
Especial mention should be made of the cooperation received from the
Cotmoll of National Defense In starting and developing one program in
the South.
The Washington offioe dealing with the State Councils gave our
plans, endorsement, furnished letters o f introduction and gave advice. The of­
fic ia ls of State Counoils in Virginia, F la., Ga., A la., and Kentucky active­
ly promoted our cooperative plan of organization. In Virginia and Florida,
the Executive Secretaries arranged for the appointment of white cooperating
oomnittees from the county Councils of those rtates to work as a part of our
Negro Workers' Advisory OonnitteeB. The Georgia Council lent aid to our




State Committee.
The Alabama Council appointed a Negro auxiliary to aasiet
our work.
Mention has already been made of the joint activity with the
Kentucky Council of Defense.
The effect of the conferences, Interviews, publlo meetings and pub­
lic it y upon the attitude of the mind of white workers and Negro workers and
white amployerc 5a of sufficient importance to o sll for special mention.
In many of the localities by the holding of the conferences and the es­
tablishment of the Negro ’.Yorkers * Advisory Committees, the principle of
Negroes having representation In council ^hen matters affecting their
Interest were being considered and decided was acted upon for the firs t
time.
In these committees where white and Negro citizens have met there
has been a frankness of discussion of problems and a flow o f understanding
and good w ill which could not be measured in language or set down in figures.
Potential friction in a number of instances has been removed and in some cases
aotual clashes of the races have probably been prevented.
Of equal interest it the following copy of a letter from the Secretary
of Labor, which was read before the Southern Sociological Congress July 10,
and 11, 1918t
July 9, 1910.
"Dr. J. B. McCulloch,
General Secretary, Southern Sociological Congress,
Meridian, Miss.




My dear Dr. KoOullooh:
The special War Sorters* Conference for the . tate of M ississippi, to be
conducted by the Southern Sociological Congress July 10 and 11, impresses
mo ae a vexy rignifioant step in the effort of the Nation to mobilise its
labor power for one hundred per cent production in industiy and agriculture.
Such use of the labor power of the Country is imperative as a second line
of defence behind the millions of our men now or the f i t t i n g front in
franco, in the army camps in this Country and in our Navy upon the higi
seas.
The experts t e ll us that i t takes from sin to ten workers at home to keep
one soldier on the firin g line in Burope.
Whatever, therefore, helps to
mobilize, distribute and energise those who do the work of our war industries
has become as important a factor in winning the War ae the prowess of cur
amles in the fie ld or our navy on the seas.
The President of the United States has lodged the function of recruiting and
placing labor for war industries in the United States Jaployment Service
of the Department of Labor.
Beginning with common labor on August 1,
this 3 ervico w ill gradually take charge of the mobilizing and planing of
a ll labor for war industries employing one hundred or more workers.
This
V1X1 profoundly affect a l l other industries and a ll other wortere.
It w ill
correct the abuses and the troubles growing out of the large labor turnover
with the consequent disruption of regular work.




8

In assuming such responsibility the Department of Labor is aware of
the dangers.
We need the cooperation and help of such men and women as
tather in your conferences to guard against these dangers.
Workers must
not be taken from one essential industry only to be placed in other work
not necessary to the prosecution of the War.
Discretion and care mast be
used in the movement of laborers from one part of the country to another
in order that the economics fabric of the nation w ill be disturbed as li t t le
as possible.
We need to keep ever before us the idea that the interests of
the laborers and the interests of the business men are complementary.
They
are parts of that great organization of industry and agriculture so necessary
to the successful waging of this war and so essential to the li f e of the
nation.
Above a l l , every safeguard must be taken to proteot the standard of
liv in g and the morale of the wage—earners• Especially must great care
be taken to keep the age limit of those who enter industry at a high level,
l i s t we rob our future citizenship of its ri^ it to growth and time for
education.
We must also take knowledge of the dangers attendant upon
the large entra^ie of women into heavy and hazardous industries.
The exigencies of war times should not be made the occasion for the
breaking down of those standards o f hours, wages and conditions o f work
which are designed to proteot the childhood, the womanhood and the mother­
hood of the present and the future.
It is especially important at this oruoial period, when we need to
conserve a ll the resources of the nation for the oonduot of the War,
that these principles should be applied to a ll the people of our Country,
including the Hegro people, who constitute about one-sixth of the total
laboring population.
A similar policy w ill be equally important in the
readjustment period which w ill follow the War. * I am pleased to know
that your Congress is giving the problem its earnest oonslderation.
The American Workingnan is known to have the hi£iest standard of
livin g of any wage-worker in the world.
This is beoause the American
wage-worker is the most productive in the world.
The two things play
baok and forth as cause and effeot, one of the other.
1 am sure that
your Congress stands with the Department of Labor in its vigllanoe to see
that this relation of oauBO and effect between higx power of production
of the workers and high quality of woxklng and liv in g conditions for the
workers should be maintained and advanced.
Wishing for you, therefore, a successful conference, I beg to remain,
Tours very truly,
(Signed) W. B. Wilson
Seoretaxy."

With the signing of the armistice on November 11, the problem of
making provision for the placement of returning soldiers and sa ilo rs, together
with many other problems of adjustment from war industries to peace-time oc­
cupations has necessarily needed attention.
Among these problems has Ween
the shortage of labor in the South.
Within the past month the Negro Economics
service has responded to a c a ll from Mississippi for assistance in the matter
of supplying Negro labor.
The departmental representatives in a number of
northern states have endeavored to f u l f i l l this c a ll and in so doing have
had at their disposal the fu ll cooperation of a ll the agencies and organiza­
tions which have assisted the Department in its early plans for Negro workers.
B riefly, the following are some of the present day results of the Negro
Economics work:
Surveys:
A. Negro Labor supply; Surveys to ascertain the supply o f Negro labor where
it was available were made with the assistance of the Negro Workers' Advisory
Coaraittees in oities and oounties of Illin o is , Ohio, Florida and New Jersey.
ese surveys of conditions in each conmunity were made by means of
_
nnaires sent out by the Supervisors of Negro Economics to the county
chairmen of the Negro Workers' Advisory Committees and to the superintendents
of local employment offioes.
In this way reports from each locality by
persons thoroughly acquainted with conditions are received about the surplus
or shortage of Negro labor and the distribution o f that labor within the state,
together with any other faots affecting raoe relations of white employers,
white employees and Negro workers.

t

Examples: In Ohio, complete reports of this kind for the month of
February were reoeived from 31 counties of the State.
In I llin o is , reports
of this kind were reoeived from 14 counties of the State.
In Florida, at
the request of the Farm Service Division, U. S. Ftaployment Service, a special
survey was made in six oounties of the State in connection with efforts to
recruit Negro labor for harvesting truck orops in that state.
B. Negro Labor Conditions: The Supervisors of Negro Economics in Illin o is ,
New Jersey and Florida have made speoial investigations of conditions in
particular plants to advise the firms on matters of labor turnover.
?or
example, on request of the Federal Direotor for Mississippi fo r recruiting of
surplus Negro labor in Illin o is and Ohio for sawmill and farm operations in
that state, the Supervisors of Negro Eoonomioe in I llin o is , Ohio and
Mississippi have cooperated in assisting the Federal Directors of those
three states in making investigations of the conditions surrounding the
opportunities offered and advertising the opportunities through the Negro
Workers' Advisory Ccmnittees in Illin o is and Ohio.
I I . Seeking Opportunities and Assistance in Placement of Negro Workers:
Speoial assistance has been given to the Federal Direotors, U. S.
ployment Service, in seeking opportunities for the placement of returning
Negro soldiers in ei£xt of the Btates where there are supervisors of Negro




economics.
In Illin o is , the supervisor of Negro economics supervised the
organization of a branoh office in Chicago and the selection of a colored
hoard of management for speoial work in the placement of returned Negro
soldiers.
The 370th Infantry (old Eighth Illin o is ) and 365th Infantxy
returned during February and with the help o f volunteers 1,000 firms were
solicited by telephone and personal v isits, and 5,000 letters, signed by
the Federal Director, U. 3. employment Service, were sent to Chicago em­
ployers in the interest of jobs for returning colored soldiers.
In Chicago
and other parts of the state questionnaires were sent to 500 firms already
employing over fift y Negroes, and approximately fift y per cent reported
their intention of retaining their Negro employees.
The supervisor o f Negro economics in New Jersey has supervised and
advised on the recruiting and placement of praotioally a l l Negroes passing
through the offices in that State.
Besides assistance given in seeking opportunities and the placement of
colored soldiers similar cooperation has been given to the U. 3. ^aployment
Service in the seeking of opportunities in the recruiting and placement of
other Negro wage-earners.
For example, in the D istrict of Columbia a system
of about 75 volunteers has been bu ilt up.
Through these volunteers more
than 100 oolored workers were recruited and sent to the looal employment
o ffice after requests had been made for suoh assistance.
In addition, Positions have been located through the Employment Service
for speoially-qualifled men Whose applications have been referred to this
o ffic e .
These speoial oases included men with college or university train­
ing, many of whom had been in the Army.
In each case the maw v/as referred
to organizations or individuals and in almost every one o f about f if t y cases
the men have been referred to definite opportunities for employment.
it has
not been feasible to follow up these cases to know definitely hew
were
placed.
I I I . Conferences on Negro labor Problemsi
The Supervisor o f Negro Economics for Missiesippi, in oooperation with
the Department of Education, oarried out a program of a series of county
group conferences of school teachers and attended conferences of Negro
ministers.
This was a continuation of the conferences begun in December.
A ll told, they reported that f if t y such conferences had been held, with an
attendance of from about 150 to 300 teachers and ministers from a ll parts
of the State of M ississippi.
In Illin o is , the Supervisor of Negro Economics held small group con­
ferences to discuss details of work for promoting the welfare of Negro
wage-earners in three centers of the State.
In Virginia three suoh looal
oonfexenoes were held.
On February 17 and 16 an informal conference of persons especially in­
terested in problems of Negro wage-earners connected with private organiza­
tions national in scope that are dealing with suoh questions, met at the c a ll
o f the Secretary for two days at Washington, D. 0.




Three sessions, morning, afternoon and evening, on the fir s t day, and two
sessions, morning and afternoon, on the second day, were held.
jftill discussion on the several topios illustrated in the aooanp&oy ing
program (See inhibit "A") took plaoe.
The keynote o f the conference was
oooperation between the Department and private agencies and cooperation
between white and colored workers and employers.
The object of the con­
ference was d e a rly pursued during the sessions.
This object, as set
forth in the ca ll of the conference, was to seek cooperation and coordina­
tion of programs of work and plans of action of those interested in the
welfare of Negro wage-earners and obtaining a clearer understanding and
oloser cooperation between them and the aotivities of this Department in
its efforts for increasing the morale and efficiency of Negro workers, for
improving their condition and their opportunities for profitable employment
and their relations to white employers and White workers.
The Seoretary
addressed the Conference, as did also the Assistant Sooretaxy, the S olicitor
and Acting Seoretary and other o ffic ia ls of the Department.
At the closing session of the Conference a set of resolutions and a
program of practical work, reported by the sub—ccranittees appointed, were
unamimou3 ly adopted and recommended to the Seoretary of Labor.
The con­
ference appointed a Continuation Committee which met on Februaxy 26 and
worked out detailed methods of carrying out such parts of the resolutions
and program of work as might be approved by the Seoretary.
With some alight
alterations the resolutions and programs of work were approved by the
Seoretary llaroh 13, 1S19.
In a l l , there were 150 delegates attending the Conforence, representing
45 agencies, boards and organisations especially interested in the welfare
of Negro wage-earners.
A number of written comments have been received
since the Conference, highly commending its quality and the possible 03od
that may flow from it .

Throughout the Negro Economics work there has been the continued
policy o f mutual oooperation.
There has been the policy o f absolute com­
munity aspect as to each and every labor problem that has arisen. I t has been
readily recognized that Washington could not se ttle problems between an em­
ployer in Mississippi and his Negro worker in M issiesippi.
S t i l l , by being
on frien dly terms with both of them the Department o f Labor has been able to
bring to th eir service national standards and policies fo r the adjustment o f
th eir problems.
The plan has been to go to eaoh lo c a lity , be i t state,
oounty or oity, and therein to have its representatives o f Negro wage-earners,
«hite employers and, wherever possible, white employees to adjust its labor
d iffic u lt ie s .
Kdncational, o iv ic , fraternal and social organizations, both North
aM Couth, have readily assisted the Department to solve the d iffic u lt y o f
fo resta llin g a strong fe elin g o f suspicion on the part o f the colored people
and a wrong impression among white people, especially among those in the South,
about the effo rts of the Department.
From the Federal Director o f the TJ. S.
Employment Servioe fo r Mississippi comes the following statement:




12

" I t might be added that the work of Negro Economics, since It
has been clearly coordinated with that of the deployment Service in
the State of M ississippi, promises to be of much use from now on.
Meetings of Negro school teachers gathered in district conferences,
with attendance of from two to three hundred, hare been addressed and
informed as to the work of the Employment Service, Boys* Working Reserve
and Negro Economics.
About f if t y of these conferences have been held.
The Negro Workers' Advisory Committee in the State of Mississippi
is well organized and the work is prospering very satisfacto rily ."
The following summary, corrected to Deoemter 31, 1918, may be added;
H ia i l . Oi^anigatlon:
1» State Cupervlsors; The State Supervisors of Negro Economics work
under the approval of and in close cooperation with the Federal State
Directors of the U. S. Employment Service, and under the authority of
that Service.
They receive advice on their work from the Director of
Negro Economics.
The work has been so organized in connection with the
deployment Service that the supervisors may, f ir s t , assist the Employ­
ment Service in matters of placing Negro workers; and, second, in giving
the Federal State Directors and the Department advice on the d iffic u lt
problems arising in their states.
Working under the authority of the
deployment Service they also have needed o ffic ia l standing with local
white and colored citizens.
2.
State Conferences and Negro Workers' Advisory Committees; State
Ccnsnittees, county cominittees and city committees have been organized and
appointed after state and looal conferences have been held.
These con­
ferences were made up of representatives of Negro workers, white employers
and, wherever possible, white workmen.
The personnel of the committees is similar to that of the conferences,
namely; - representative white employers, Negro wage-earners, and white
wage-earners, wherever possible.
On December 31, 1918, committees had been
organised as follows;

State
Virginia
Ohio
Georgia
I llin o is
Mississippi
Michigan
Florida
North Carolina
New Jersey
Pennsylvania




State
Committees
1
1
—
1
1
1
1
-

County
Committees
55
31
28
17
8
12
15
9
—

City
Como:
includes

It
If
If

•
If
If

5
U
9
2
6
6
1
5




asi-AHnnarc c>t lAsrn
Offlo e o f the Secretary
Washington
" d iv is io n n? jTBcmc sccirrjjioa"

lairiBas of ibociu >

The functions of the director of Negro Seonomlcs are advisory to the
Secretary on matters aanifsrtly or U rootly affS otlu g Negro wage-earners.
Following the recognition

if

the Secretary o f labor of the p ra c tic a lity of

the Negro wage-earners having representation In the Department of Labor and
subsequent appointment o -hr. George S. Haynes as Director of Negro Sconcmlos,
the new Director v i s i t * various points In the South fo r the purpose o f assur­
ing to the Department cooperation of white ani colored. Individuals and White
and colored grout*. The fo llo ^ n g are acme of the points at which jearty
cooperation was se<**®d ** fir s t t
RiGhmonl, c*t Raleigh, V.O.y 3olumbia,S.0.| Atlanta,Oa.| Blrmln^iam,
41a. j Meridian, !»■•* Nashville, Tatra.) Louisville, Ny.
At thasfpolnts o ffic ia ls of the schools, o f the State Dounoil o f
National iJsfbnr. o f the Shambars o f Comaeroe, of the T7.S. Smploymsat Ser­
v ic e , and o f nAte and Negro colleges promised the Department of Labor oooperation aai***l stance in it s e ffo r ts to develop Negro wage-earners In
such a

my

the m&r.

a’ to increase their efficie n cy fo r aaxlmaa production to win

Th« f ir s t o f a ssrlos o f stats conferences o f representative A l t s and
Bsgro oitisena was oallsd by Governor Slakett on Jans 19.

Thors wore present

at this conference, which was hold la the oittoe of tb* ioysm or, seventeen o f
tho most substantial Negro o ltlssa s from a l l parts of tbs Stats, m i fir s whits
oitisem s, in d u iin g Governor Blokstt, who presided throughout ths ooafsrsnos
and took sn aotlws part la It s dissuasion*

Ths general plan a o f ths Jspart-

asnt o f Labor fo r increasing ths morals s a l e fficie n cy fo r winning ths t'ar wars
outlined by ths iJlrsotor of Negro Bocnomios and were fre ely disouased.

At ths

oloss or the aatln i' the Governor appoints! iBfeapomry donimlttos whloh drafted
a constitution provi lin g for a state Negro

o it e r s ' Adviaoiy lossalttss and to r

ths organisation o f lo s a l county and olty oonsaittees.

This plan of organisa­

tio n , with alight Dodlfloations anl adjustments fo r other states, has served as
a modal fo r the dsvelopasnt of voluntary f l a i l organi xitlon In four other south*
am states an! six northern states,

dor amor Biokett was so highly pleased with

ths results o f ths oonfersnoe that hs gave a statement ,o ths public press, In
vdiloh hs said that I t was ths most p a trio tic and helpful oonfersnoe hs had, at­
tended.
The uoutham doolologtaal Congress held a stats meeting of whits and
adored oitlsena from a ll parts of hlsai elppt at Gulfport, Kiss*, on JOy 12,
1916*

Ths drector of Negro -oonomlos was invited to address this stats con­

ference.

About 200 white oitlssns, both business asm and planters, ant about

T5 Nsgro oltlsens were In attsndancs.

Ths Jspart ant took advantage of this

stats gathering to c a ll together those who were especially interested in Nsgro
labor adjustment*

Bis address of ths d motor of Negro Booncnios on war labor

problems relating to Negroes, given before ths Southern iociolo le a l Congress,
not only gained a hearty response from whites sol Negroes present, but several
of the white oilaon s took an active part in the dspartavntal meet in * to work




-3 -

out our plan of state-^wile Negro Works re* Advisoiy Cormittees with local commit
tees, which plan was adopted*
The meeting of the Southern Sociological Oongreee was closely followed by a
state conference o f representative white and Negro citizens at Jackson­
v ille , Florida.

This conference was called by Governor Jiiney J. Oatts,

who presided at a nwnber of the sessions.
e

The plan adopted by the conference

called fo r the formation of a state Negro Workers' Advisory Committee, composed
of representative Negroes ani cooperating white citizens representing the state
Council of National Defense and the U.S. employment Service.

A program of

activities was worked out which had as it s object the promotion o f a better
understanding in employment matters in Florida anl the removal of discontent
of workers, in order that greater production o f food and supplies mi^it en­
sue.

So great was the enthusiasm of the oitizens in Jacksonville that a

monster mass meeting was held at which Governor Catts and other prominent
o ffic ia ls spoke.
In the meantime, the Virginia organization, through the fcfclp of the
Negro Organization Society o f that state, had been begun, and the fir s t super­
visor of Negro Kconomios was appointed and undertook the direction o f the ad­
visory work in that State.
The next step was to get the work and organization launched in northern
territory.

Ohio was selected fbr the in it ia l e ffo rt.

Consequently, on

August 5, 1918, a conference was called by the Department with the hearty co­
operation of the Bederal Director o f the U.S. Employment Service and Governor
Cox.

This conference, which met at the State Capitol, Columbus, was vory not­

able for the number in attendance, representing, as they did, White employers,
Negro wage-earners and representatives of itfiite wage-earners.
attendance about 125 persons.




There were in

During the afternoon session Governor Cox gave

an address.

The conference adopted the usual plan of state organization, and

Mr. Charles B. H a ll, the second supervisor of Negro economics, who had been
transferred from the Department of Commerce, was detailed to tie state to devel­
op the organisation and to supervise the work under the authority of the U.S.
Employment Service.
The conference in Kentucky was held on August 6.
* iit e and colored representatives in attendance.

There were both

This conference was unique

in that the plan of organisation adopted w&s that of a united war work oommit oe with a special committee of vfcite citizens appointed by the State Council
of defense, as cooperating members.

This war work committee included repre­

sentatives from the Department of Agriculture, the U.S. Food Administration,
Che Red lro3s, the Council of Defense and the Department of Labor.

Governor

A.C. Stanley of Kentucky attended the morning session and made an enthusiastic
address to the delegates.
this time, the influence of the state conferences had

30

proven their

value, their effectiveness and their usefulness as a nans of starting the state
movement ani creating good w ill and favorable sentiment that other conferences
have followed almost as a matter of course.

Additional conferences have been

held la te r in Georgia, Missouri , I llin o i s , Michigan, Pennsylvania ani Hew
Jersey, and steps have been taken either for conferences or organization of the
work in Hew York and South Carolina.
By the close of the year Just passed, and after six months of work,
Negro Workers’ Advisory Committees, state, county and city, had been wholly or
partly formed in ten states and steps had been taken to establish conmittees
in three other states.

Nearly a l l o f these committees have idiite and Negro

members or have cooperating white members representing organizations o f the







white employers ani white workers.

One of the most si ?jaifleant facts about,

the invitations and acceptances of service on these committees by white ani
Negro persons, numberin ' more than a thousand, i s that there has been, so far
as we have any record, only one case of a member of one committee whose re la ­
tionship on the committee has caused friction or made necessary a request for
his resignation.

There has been the heartiest response for this work from

citizens of both races everywhere.

Many of them have used their time, their

services and their money to further the Departmental program.
It i s the expressed opinion of competent judges that the holding of
these conferences and the voluntary cooperation o f hundreds of white and Negro
citizens on these committees, both North and South, are in theraelves results
sufficient to justify this effort of the Department.

But even more s ig n ifi­

cant is the fact that these men and women serving on committees are helpfully
in touch with scores of thousands of employers and white and Negro workers.
The principles on vfaioh the work for Negro wa*,e-«arnars is based arei
1. Representation!

In view of the fact that Negroes constitute about

one-tenth of the total population of this country and about one sixth
of the working population of the oountiy, it is reasonable that they
should have representation around the counsel table when matters a f ­
fecting them are considered.

When given such representation and op­

portunity, Negroes w ill respond and tfioulder their part of responsibility
on the farm, in the factoiy, at the shipyard, ani wherever else an op­
portunity i s {“iven them to serve.
2. The two race*

are thrown together in daily work.

The majority of the

employers and a large number of the fellow employees of Negro workers are
white persons.

This condition gives rise to misunderstandings, preju­

dices, antagonisms, fears and suspicions.

These facts must be recog-

-6 -

nizei and dealt with in a statesmanlike way.
3. Loc'al character of the prtbliane:

The problems are local problaras between

local employers and local employees.

The local people need the visiou

of national policies and standards to apply to tiiem.
4. Cooperation:

Therefore, any plan or program should be based upon the

cooperation of white employers and representatives of Negro wage-earners,
and, wherever possible, of white wago-earners.
As previously acknowledged by the Secretary of labor, the work of
Negro Economics TOold obviously involve two general d iffic u ltie s in any e f­
fort to carry out an effective program based, of course, upon the functions
of the Department of labor:
1. The d iffic u ltie s o f forestallin g a strong feeling of suspicion
on the part o f the Negro people. (This is easy to arouse because of
their past expertence in racial and labor matters).
2. The d iffic u lty of forestallin g a wrong impression among white
people, especially those in the South, about the intention behind the
effo rts o f the department*
The North Carolina Conference, then, was particularly encouraging,
inasmuch as the So/eraor expressed himself as highly pleased with the re­
sults anl accepted a place as honorary chairman of the 3tate Comnit tee.
Those present anl taking part in the North Carolina conference were:




Dr. A.M, Moore
3ev. P.il. Berry
Bishftp H.B. Delaney
Berry O’Kelly
Mrs. Annie W, Holland
Dr. 3 .ft. Atkins
Col. J.H. Young
Prof. J.J. ./ray
Prof. L.B. Hall
Mrs. P.C. Williams
Dr. J.B, Dudley
Bishop Gr*W. Clinton
Prof. C.L*M, Smith




f
-8 -

The above-described procedure as to conferences and cooperation has
been followed in Ohio. New Jersey, Florida, Kentucky, Georgia an1 other states.
In matters o f record as to the cooperative service of the War divisions
of h i a department and other department s, the Negro Economics work may be b rie f­
ly summarized as follows:
The 0.3. Employment Service necessarily received the largest amount
cooperative effort frcsn this o ffic e .

of

Particularly has this been so with r e f­

erence to the questions relating to private agencies and the handling of Negro
labor on am a fte r August 1, 1918, when the Employment Service was given the
responsibility of recruiting and placing cornnon labor for war industries em­
ploying 100 or more workers.

The Negro Workers’ Advisozy Committees in nary

lo ca litie s assisted as volunteers during the days of war labor recruiting aM
plao«7ieiit.

Aight o f the state Supervisors of Negro Economics have their

oflices either with the Federal Directors of the Employment Service or in
close connection with them.

These Federal directors, with one exception,

have turned to these state supervisors for advice anl help on practically a l l
matters relatin g to Negroes in ttieir states.
staestions of location of offices to serve Negro neighborhoods, the
formation of policies and plans of the Employment 3ervioe to serve them more
e ffe c tiv e ly , the selection of competent Negro examiners, and a masher of other
questions from time to time have bean handled for this Service.

Details i l ­

lustrating the cooperation with this Servioe are too many for report here, but

may be found in the file s of this offic e .
is available.

Ample testimony from federal lirectors

As a part o f the cooperative work with this Service in Virginia

and Alabama has oeen assistance in the inauguration of the work of the Boys’
■Jforicing Keaerve among Negro boys.




$

j

-9 -

A close plan o f cooperation has been worked out with the 'Sfoman in
Industry S ervice.

This o ffic e gave assistance in the fin din g and selection

o f a special agent, Helen B. Ir v in , fo r work among Negro women.

She is as­

sisted in th is work by Elizabeth Hess Haynes, as a dollar-a-year employeev
The e ffo r ts to adjust the Negro labor situ ation as fa r as i t re la te s to
Negro v/aaen i s being made e ffe c t iv e by means of close cooperation between the
o ffic e o f the d irector o f Negro Economic* and the Woman in Industry S ervice.
The Investigu tion and Inspection Service has ta^en upon i t s s t a ff a
competent Negro in v e s tig a to r, Boron K. Armstrong, recommended by th is

o ffic e .

This Service has been ca lled upon and has rendered valuable cooperative service
in making in vestigation s o f Negro conditions of labor, at tin »s employing sev­
eral o f i t s agents fo r such in vestiga tion s.
This o ffic e has also reoeifled a number o f complaints o f discrim ina­
tion against Negro workers un account o f color

and has occasionally used the

good o ffic e s o f the Labor Adjustment Service on such cases.
The Information and Education Service has been c a lle d upon constantly
in carrying

out the Departmental plan fo r p u b lic ity and educational campaigns

to improve race re la tio n s o f workers and to increase the morale arid e ffic ie n c y
o f Negro workers.

A regular aervico has been given to both the white and

Negro prose by tills cooperation, and i t may be reasonably stated that in th is
way we have gained the support o f the Negro newspapers o f the country, more
than 200 in number, and have mare a fa ir beginning in ge ttin g our p u b licity
into the white newspapers both North and South.

As an illu s ta a tio n , a news

release on that part o f the Secretary's annual report re la tin g to Negro worters
was prepared by th is d iv is io n .
tion S ervice.

I t was sent out by the Information and Educa­

Clippings from white newspapers show that the release was used

by them as fa r north as Maine, as fa r west as C a lifo rn ia , ani as fa r south as
Louisiana.
fu ll.




Numerous Negro newspapers, North and 3outh, ca rried the release in

-1 0 -

™ s ofti aa ka» assisted the Bureau of Industrial Housing and Trans­
portation with advice on plana for war housing as it concerned Hegroes in
'Washington, Newport Sews anl Portsmouth, Virginia, and the Homes Registration
Service of that Bureau in establishing a branch office in "ashinnton.
A number of Hegro workers employed on the railroads of the country
naturally have app liei to this office for advice and help.

Departmental ethlce

and o o u rte ^ , o f oourae, limited the jmoont o f iorvioe that could be given to
those cases to assisting ttiaa in gsttiag in touch with the proper o ffic ia ls
o f the ’J .S. Railroad AAninlutration and advising than whore anl vfcen to pre­
sent their cases.

A similar cooperative relationship has been established

with the war department through fee of floe of ?Jr. Smaett J. 3oott, Scaoial
Assistant to the Secretary of War, fo r dealing wi th Begre a ffa ir s .
The IT*#. Health Service has inaugurated a special effort to reach
Hegroes in combatting venereal diseases.

The small amount of information

a v a il alv>.e jhO’VB the effect of such diseases on the efficiency of industrial
wo risers ani that Negroes are very seriously affected.

Therefore, this

office has welcomed the cooperation of the :ublic Health Service in its edu­
cational campaign among Hegro morite re and has given that Service sou» help
in getting in touch with workers th ro a t our fie ld organisation anl throng
publlo meetings.
Especial mention should be made of the cooperation received from

the Council of Rational defence in starting and developing one program in
the South.

The eashington office dealing sith the State Couuoile gave our plana

endorsement, furaiafaoi letters of introduction and gave advice.

The o ffic ia ls

of State lounoila in V irginia, ?lorida, Georgia, Alabama anl Kentuohy aotlcely promote our cooperative plan of organisation.

In Virginia and Tlorida,

the Snecutlve Secretary arranged for the appointment of \*iite cooperating




-

11

-

coramittees from the oounty Councils of those states to work as a part of our
Negro Workers* Advisory Comnittees.
$ftate Committee.
our work.

The Georgia Council lent a l l to our

The Alabama Council appointed a Negro auxiliary to assist

Mention has already been male of the joint activity with the Ken­

tucky Counoil o f defense*
The affect of the conferences, interviews, public meeting* and pub­
lic ity upon the attitude of the mind of vhite workers and Negro workers anl
white employers i s of sufficient importance to c a ll for special mention.
In many of the lo ca litie s by the holding of the conferences ani the arstabllahment
of the Negro Workers* Advisory Consult tees, the principle of Negroes having
representation in council than matters affecting their interest were being
considered anl decided was acted upon for the fir s t time.

In these com­

mittees where white and Negro citizens have met there has been a frankness
of discussion of problems and a flow of understanding and good w ill *hioh
could not be measured in language or set down in figures*

Potential f r i c ­

tion in a number of instances has been removed and in some oases aotual
clashed o f the raoes have probably been prevented.
Of equil interest is the following copy of a letter from the Secretary
of Labor, which was read before the Southern Sociological Congress, July 10
and 11, 1918i
July 9, 1918.
Jr. J*B. KoCulloch
General Secretary, Southern Sociological Congress
Meridian, Miss*
t,y dear Dr. UcCullochx
The speioal War Workers* Conference for the 3tate of Mississ­
ippi, to be conducted by the Southern Sociological Congress July 10
and 11, impresses me as a wary significant step in the effort of the
Nation to mobilize it s labor power fo r one hundred per cent produo-







"Xt la
tally important at this omodal period, ehen m
need to conserve a ll the resourooa of the ration for tho oondnst of
tho Far, that these ;rlaotpl*a ahouli ho applied to a ll tho people
of our Joiwtiy , inoluling tho Fegro people, oho constitute about
oon-olxth of tho total laboring opulatlon. A sln il r >ollay w ill
ho equally lr>i»ortant in tho readjuatasnt parted thleh w ill folio*
tho l a r . X an ploaaol to know that ytur Congress Is 4 ▼In? tha
probleo its earnout a«aaiieratlan.
“Tho American wortclnpaon la knows to have tho hl^tost atantor*
of living of any via e-worteer la tho w r i t . This to beeause tho taerioin wage-wortor la tho noat pro festive la tho to rid. Tho toe things
play back anl forth as cause ant affect, oao of tho oth»r. X an ours
that year Oongress otan la with tho Jerartmnt of labor In Its vigilance
to so# that this rotation of cause anl offset botwooa hljv power of
pro bastion of tho wortum and hi«fc quality of working anl living oca*
Utlcma for tho workers she a l l bo x&intainol anl adwanoe*.
”Wi Jdng far yon, therefore, a auceesafUl conference, X bog to
regain,
Tours Tory truly,
Ol j t oel ) F.B. Wilson

leers tary.

171th tho al going Of tho a m U tle e on Bevenber 11, tho problea of
Baaldag provision for tho plaoewsit o f retaining soldi ; re sni sailors, to rather
with many other .re blent o f adj ataont fro a war In last rise to poaoe-tlmo occu­
pations haa

•oeoaarlly nee lot attention.

shortage o f labor in tho South.

Amng those arobleas has boon tha

Si thin tho past nonth tho Jtegro Uoawalaa

service has res ontol to a s a il froa Klseleslppl fo r assistance In the :«attor
of supplying Fegrc labor.

The 'm artnsntal representatives in a number of

northern states h^ve •mioavorel to f u l f i l l this s a il anl in so lolag ten
ha t at their Uspoaal tho f u l l oooperation of a ll tho agencies anl <r: m lsat lone *tloh have as el eted tho Jojafteoat In it s early pl:n o f or legro wcisoro.




-1 4 -

3riefly the following are som of the present day results of the

J U U Y 3 T ai

arrays to aoocrtala tlm aapply of *o «w labor oftioro It v u c r s i l •blo «oro nade 4 th tho assistance o f tbo *e«ro

orktro uvlscjy «•**■! ttoee

la oft loo ani oooatloo o f XUiaois* Chic, Florida m i Vmt Jerw y,
Q moo snnrsy* o f oonlltlono la oosh ixnaamlty were aado by m m *

o f qaeatHmaalreo em t oat by

aapervlsor# o f Koyro

eoneaalos to the

ooaafey chainm u o f the Bogro *o i*»re ' vtvl aosy Ooaolttooo and to the sqparlat.ooOontt of lo o «l «wj»loy»*it ©ffleee.

Xn hi a way reports fw w each

locality ty perscaui beroaghly aoq>atn ed 4 <;h coalition* aro received
above tho aturplw or abortago o f t i f r t , labor ant the distribution of
that labor within tho otato, together with any other foot* affecting
vaoo relations o f white ewpleysrs, White employee* ahl Bogun werksre*
dM yloat

la

bio, complete report* o f this d ial fo r tho oontfc

o f Aabruary wore roooiwod frew » l orantln* o f tho State*

to m in ota,

report* o f «M i -tlnd ware roooiwod fro* Id ooant loo o f tho State*

In

Florida* at tho reqeeat ©f tho far* Service 4 vial on, SUS* tnpioywmt
orvico, a epeelal anrvoy w*e wade la six ooimtlaa o f tho state In o«aaeetloa with e ffo rts to moral t Begro labor fo r hu-rootlng trooic or©pa la
that State*

fbe Snrerriaora

f legre .oouoalos In Illln ota* Bow Joroe? m l

/ l o r l h have aadfaa s.wolal lnveeti etlous of oonlltlono In pertienlar
plants to advise tho flnto on aattoro of labor tavaewar*

for cample,

oa reqaeet o f tho federal 4r*ot r for Stlsaleeippl for roernltln^ o f




-1 5 -

su rp lu e Negro la b o r in I l l in o i s an t <h lo f o r s a w a lll a n l farm o p e ratio n s
In th at s t a t s , the S u p e rv iso rs o f Negro ieonoalos In I l l in o i s , Ohio a n l
M is s is s ip p i have cooperated in a s s is t in g the fe d e ral D ire cto r* o f these
t'araa sta te s In making In v e s tig a tio n s o f the o o n lltlo n s a u rro u a iin g the
o p p o rtu n itie s o ffe re d and a d v e rtis in g the o p p o rtu n itie s throufdi the
Negro W orkers A d viso ry Zoom ittees In I l l in o is a n l O hio.
II.

S p e cia l a s s is ta n c e has been g iv e n to the F e ia r& l J lr e s t o r s , O .S.
iSmployrasnt S e r v ic e , in seeking o p p o rtu n itie s fo r the placement o f r e tu m ln

Negro s o ld io rs in e ig h t o f the s ta te s where there a re Super­

v is o r s <f Negro -noaom ios.

In I l l in o i s , the n p e rv ic o r of Negro h e -

nowles su p ervised the o rg a n isa tio n o f a branch o f flo e in Shloago a n l the
s e le c tio n o f a co lo red board of management fo r sp e c ia l work in the p la c e ­
ment of returned Negro s o ld ie r s .

The 370th In fa n try ( o il 41 $ t h I llin o is )

a n l 865th In fa n try returned in r in g February a n t 4 th the h e lp o f vo lun­
te e rs 1,000 firm s were s o lic it e d by telephone and p erso nal v is it s , and
5,000 le t t e r s , signed by the fe d e ral d ire c to r,

r;,3. fiaployneat S e rv ic e ,

ware sent to Ohio . .0 em ployers in the in te re s t or lobs fo r re tu rn in g
co lo red s o ld ie r s .

In Ohio&go and o th er p a rts o f the state q u estio n ­

n a ire s were sent to 500 firm s alre ad y em ploying over f if t y Negroes, end
approxim ately f if t y p ar odnt reported th e ir in te n tio n o f r e t a in in g t h e ir
Negro employees.
The Supervisor o f Negro -acnomioa in New Jarse y has su p e rvise d
and ad vise d on the r e c r u it in g and placement o f p r a c t ic a lly a l l Negroes
p a ssin g through the o ffic e s in that S ta ts .
L e s lie s a ssista n c e g ive n in seeking o p p o rtu n itie s and the p l^ o e tasnt of co lo red a > liia r s s im ila r co o peratio n ha# oeen
0, 3 .




jaployaent

Iv o n to the

e r v ic e in the seeking o f o p p o rtu n itie s In the r e o r u lt -

r~+

1*5 H i p U M M t of c t w * o g *
of M t o M a • 4 r o i « o f *Ocmt TA

th**° * **• * • —
tho lo o«l

Air « t o * i o f i * « *
k | ^

» * * 100 oolom l oom .ro m

a *.

* . m #t

^ o «h

r n m it v i mA mut u

. orriee Oftor f H « M t a hoi moo mao for i « k

to a i U U c a , ^ « l U c a . hoto boon loaatol th ro a * to. >

1

ooUtaaao.

^ , .

3

.,.

▼la« tar A p o a U U y -^ a a U flo l aoa whom ^ p lts o tle a * b«vo boon ro/urrui to
om oo.

Ibooo 0 oolfti ooooo lnoiotoi non *1 to » « U « s » or mlT(ifoll|

training, tony o f *hc® bad boon to too A n y .

to «*ob

0 *0 0

too m a too

M fa rro l so orjoalsatluas or la Hot tool 0 a a i la almost m j y oao of about
fift y m m s too ton k m * boon ro ftrro i to toll at to r n f r io o li I n t m m y l^ rw a t .

f t boo not booo foaoiblo to to ilo r *

toooo

00000

to too* i o f .

la i.o ly boo aoqy *or* r 1 ‘ trtii

t i l . X X I 2:1:Z1

^

■ ,, a ^ , ,

fho 3np«rrltor of logro

ooaoaio. for M a d M lp D l, la ooopomtloo

olto too .Jo^orttoat of Itoootloo, earrio* oat o footsMi of o oorloo of
owaaty froa*> ooaf«r*aoo« of m tu v l tootb.ro mi attonlod oouf-r*.a»oo of
*o*ro atatotom*
oooabjr.

in

fb lo **» * ooatlaaatloa o f tbo ooaforonooo mg* » la

t o i l , tour rovortod feat fift y «wob omfuroaooo bai m m

b o l l, wlto «a attouiaaoo » f from abeat lfto to .wo toaobsm oat ilalat.ro

frtw a l l parts of too ftt&fco of tfi»oloslM?t»
In Illin o is tbo

aj»rvloo r of *o«m tocoumtoo b a ll m t ll groay

oMifosMooos to Uoo*so totallo of aerie for promoting too oolfara of
»o««> to«o-oaraere la tbroo ooat .ro o f too

tato.

Za Tlr.Amla throe

euob lo o u oonforooooo ear* bold,
C* Atbriajy 1? '*ai 1ft an iafononl ooaforoooo o f yorsoao
ly latorootol la /toblomo of Jfo«ro to«o-totoero ^ b o o t o l rftb private
o ^ b l m t l o a o national in eoope toat art laatta* ,lto tosh * u »t lo a o ,
tot at too t a i l of too * 0rotary for too lay * at Waefela«t<a, X I ,




-lf?ltP»e sessions, aeralng, afternoon m i evening-, on the fir s t A^T, anl tiro
sessions, morala*; and afternoon, on the second Lay, were held.
f a ll ii so a,*si on on the several topio a illustrated In the aooomparying program took place, (bee exhibit "A")

The key note of the conf ar­

ea0® ma cooperation between the department and private age no las and co­
operation between *tolte and colored vorteers and eityloyera.

The objeot

of the conference was olearly pursued luring the cessions.

This o b > e t,

as set forth in the c a ll of the conference, ms to seek cooperation and
oooriin.tion o f prograas of soric and plana of action of those interested
in the welfare of Hegro wage-camera and obt-:Inin.; a clearer understand­
ing anl closer cooperation between than and the ac tiv ities o f this depart­
ment in ite efforts for Increasing the morale and efficiency of Kegrc
workera, for improvin'; their coalition aai their opportunities for

r o f-

ltable employment and their relatione to shite employers and h lte work­
ers.

The deoretary addressed the (Jonference, as did also the Assistant

;<eor«tary, the iolioitor anl Acting Secretary, aai other o ffic ia ls of
the department*
At the alo.4ng session of the lonferenoe a set of reaolations and
a program of practical work, reported by the jub-couxalttees appointed,
mere unanimously adopted and reoomranded to the secretary of labor.
The Conference appointed a Continuation Joaaittee shioh met on February
Z6 and uorksd out Jet lie d methods of carrying out such parts of the
reaolations ant program of work as Ight be approved by the Jeorotaxy.
dth some slight alterations the resolutions snl programs of sork rare
approved by the deor*>taxy karch 13, 1919.
In a l l , there w?re ISO delegates attending the Ckmferenoe, represent­
ing 46 agencies, bounds and orgsaiaations especially Interested In the










-1 9 -

The following aumnaiy, corrected to December 31, 1916, may be aided:
EISLJ OBBffllZASIOBi
1. State Supervisors.
The State Supervisors of Negro Economics work under the approval of and
in close cooperation with the Federal State Directors of the U.S. Employment
Service, and under the authority of that Service.

They receive advice on

their work from the Director of Negro Economics.

The work has been so or­

ganized in connection with the Employment Service that the Supervisors may,
f i r s t , assist the Employment Service in matters of placing Negro workers*
and stodtnd, in giving the Federal State Directors and the Department advice
on the t iffio u lt problems arisin g in their states.

Working under the author­

ity of the Employment Service they also hare needed o f f ic ia l stanilng with
local white and colored oitisens.
2.

State flonferenoes and Negro Workors* Advisory Committees ( iubject to

correction of figu res).
State Committees, county committees and city conmittees have been organ­
ized and appointed after state and local conferences have been held.

These

conferences were made up of representatives of Negro workers, white employers
and, wherever possible, white workmen.
The personnel of the committees is similar to that of the conferences,
namely,- representative white employers, Negro wage-earners, and * .i te wageearners, iWherever possible.
ized as follows:

On December 31, 1918, conmittees had been organ­

3 . T a b le

of

ie t a ils t

Approxim ate M um bai

County
State

Virginia
Ohio ._________
Georgia
Illin o is
Mississippi —
Michigan------FI or i la ---------North Carolina
Hew Jersey ____
annaylvanla _




State
Committees

Committees

Jity
Committees

1------------M
-------- - ~
6
' 1'
------ 31(incluie# ------------- 14)
-28
- ---------------- 1 7 (in c lu le s ------------ — ~
- 1
-------------------- e -------------- ------ *----- - 9)
—1 ------------------ l£ (in o liiie s------------ — 2
—1 ---------------- 6(inclu vles— ------------ 6 )
- 1 -------------------- 9 ----------------------------- 6)
- - --------------- -------------------------—
—------------- --------------------- ------- b
2

uontlon I t

3oo* the Division o f Negro kjononioa, Department o f Labor,

fa c tio n m a separate and distinct branch o f the jopartawntv
Aiurwon

It doos not.

Till* work 1* a branch o f the Cffloo o f the

lioorotarj o f Labor and 1® midor his personal supervision.

It l® ad-*

▼Inor/» on liegro a ffa ir * , to the Decretory and to th* directors and
o ffto la l* o f the savwral bureaus and eerviooa, In natter® which direct­
ly

or manifestly affect Negro wage-earners.

Che o ffic ia l® who deal

with mattern «tffoot lag Hegn> wage-earners are not removed tnxr. the
authority and executive direction o f chief® o f the divisions or xiieaus
under which they or# employod.
o f the

Aooording to the expressed instruction®

ec rotary no dual direction o f ®uoh ® taff employees i® under-

tidco when dealing with Negro wage-earners*

The division o f S*gro

Loonomioa furnishes advice on work dealing with Negro wa0 e-earnsrs,
wherever undertaken, and la kept informed o f the progress o f suah work
*

io that the Department nay haws the benefit o f continued judgment and
advioe from within the Negro group on such natters.

Question 2 t

Bus the Division o f Negro Loononius, jojiartment o f Labor,

any executive power;., and, i f so, what are they?
Answer:




91 th reference to the employees on the s t a ff o f any o f the

several divisions or bureaus, the Division o f Negro Joonomlos has no
executive powers whatever*

In order to cany out the advisory

function o f Negro Loonomlos special assistants have been furnished for
the Negro Loonomios Service through whom it may gather such informa­
tion about the condition o f Negro wage-earner®, th eir relations to
white employers and white workers and their relations to the n ativities
o f the Department, so that through thorn the several division s, bureaus

«od services o f the Japartoent may be info mod and advised.
hoa not been oarrled on m a separate Negro bureau.

This wort

The executive

direction o f the Division of fiegro Dooncmloe rests with the decretory
o f Labor and with those to whom he delegates i t .

In the cose o f such

o f the oss is touts in the Segro economics wort as are located in
particular states, ary executive direct ion o f them is oarrled out under
the BUparviaion and approval o f the .federal Director o f the u. 3 * M r
ployoeat service o f the respective states.

A ll the a c tiv ities and

plane o f such local assistants are proposed and carried out only with
the approval and supervision o f the itodend State Directors o f the
B* 8. Deployment service.

•

It should be added that these f ie ld assistants in Kegro Loonomloe
are few in number, there having been appointed only one in each o f ten
states, with suoh lim ited c le r ic a l assistance as th eir wort required as
i t has developed.

The federal Directors o f the

U. s.

^ployroent

Service have, from tine to tine, oemmended the usefulness, tact and
judgaent of these men in advising them on Kegro a ffa irs and assisting
them in the wort o f handling Negro labor.
Question 3i

in matters o f policy, what is the actual procedure?

Answert

I f this question is correctly Interpreted It means to in­




quire what has been the actual practice in using the services o f the
Division o f if'egro concmios.

This can probably beet be answered

through citin g, b rie fly , examples where such service has been
rendered.

f i r s t , the C. 3. -Deployment service, from time to time,

needed degrees as examiners and recruiters In the handling o f negro
labor.

negroes in different lo calities applied for such wort.

The




Sagro -oonojiiios division was asked for advice on the quail float ions,
ahamo tar and trustworthiness o f such applicants.
were made and opinions given the -inployment

Investigations

arvioo on these persona

to assist that uorrioo in snaking soleetions.
Again, la st year, with the taking over o f the recruiting and place*
sent of unskilled workers in war Indus tries employing one hundred or
more wortaen, a msabor o f private employment agencies, both oocnerolal
and philanthropic, appealed to the idaployrcent . ervloe to take over their
enterprises.

Just what policy should be jarsued In dealing with these

Segro agencies called for a knowledge of Negro a ffa irs from those
knowln

the inside o f Segro l i f e .

The Negro ^oononlcs Division ad*

vised the deployment Service on a line o f policy to be pursued towards
these agencies, which advise and policy were accepted and adopted,
surveys of available Negro labor and of other conditions connected
with the recruiting and placement of Negroes were made for the in*
formation and guidance of the Icplaymeat .ervioo.
Again, several Instances In both northern and southern industrial
centers have arisen where considerable race friction developed between
white end Negro workers, and the Deportment was celled upon to in*
vestigato and to use its good o f floes for conciliation,

in these

instances the Division o f Negro .loonomloo advised on lines o f procedure
to dst in touch with the best element of colored people in order to
know how to deal with the masses In bringing about adjustments la the
situation.
further, the Jurwaa of industrial Housing and Transportation, U. s .
Housing Corporation, used the Division of Negro dooncoloe for advice on
Blatters of developing room registration for Negro war workers In d i f -

4
ferent lo c a litie s on getting la touch with the colored p*0ple for this pur­
pose and on th* oomtaonity side o f it* own housing projocte for Kegr© war
workers.

Th* ^cmon-ln-Industry Service has used the Jiegro .commies

Division for sdvloi on a ztunber o f fusstions arising In various parts o f
th* country on the omployiaent o f Segro women.
The#* are only a few example* o f th* many way* the advisory service of
the Division o f Hegro Joonomioa is operated.

^

a year’s experiment it

is clear that th* department could not have dealt suooeesfolly with the
oany d iffic u lt and delicate questions arising out o f the problems of
Searo labor unless it had had In Its service such a competent representative
of the Negroes themselves.

The jud,p*mt of th* . ocrotaxy’s Advisory

Council which, under th* Jhaimanship o f the Hon. John Lind, reooamended
that the

ecretary sgjpolnt a Uegro as adviser on such matters, has been

imply Justified by experience.
auction 4i

To itfiat extent, i f any, is organisation of any nature relied

upon?
Answer:




The only machinery that could in any way be called organisation

consist* of *hat we have called negro Workers’ Advisory Committees.

These

are cooperative advisory oonmittees formed in four southern states »n4 five
northern states following state and local oonferences of representatives of
white employers, white workers. Wherever possible, and Segro wcrtam, with
whom departmental o ffic ia l* fully and freely discussed a l l the p*»n° and
methods involved.

in each state these white and colored representatives

took the lead in forming local committees by oounties, oltles and towns.
The cooperative committees are made up o f the best Begroes, most trusted
by th* w h i t e

o l t i s e n s

of

the

c o mmu n i t y ,

in

eaah instance white oltisens from among th* employers o f Hegro labor, ^

■

r




wherever possible, fro® among white worker* hare consented to servo either
as members o f ths Negro workers* Advisory kanttiUees or on cooperating com­
mittees of white eltisens,

In sense states these white member* were nominated

by the State Donnell o f Defense*

In some lo calities they haws been

by the Ohamber* o f Coranerce or other organ1satlone o f whlto cltlsene.
It should be ecnhacised that thl» plan leaves the most responsible
A l t o and oolored citizens of each stato and looollty absolutely froe to
work out their own local problems, and brings to their assistance in a
cooperative sp irit and manner, through the Department o f Labor, the wider
experience, methods and connections of other states and lo c a litie s .
After consultation with many thoughtful shite and oolored citizens
on the matter of a general organisation to include the rank and f ile
o f Kegve workers, tho Department definitely decided not to attempt
any general organisation of the masses o f Neiproes, lest such efforts would
be mlau- .dors tool.

-he plan lias been to reach and influence the Negro

workers for greater re W a r i l y , promptness, th rift, productive e ffo rt,
and improvement of their homes and habits through the touch of those co­
ops rat ivo cosaaitteos with the dhurchoe, welfare organizations and other
agencies already at work among Negroes.
The main function of these advisory oesanitteee has been to keep
the -apartment and its representatives informed and advised o f the feelings,
desires and conditions In their own locality and to assist the Tep&rtaent
in adapting itc work so as to (sake it acceptable and effective eherever
friendly adjustment o f "juestlonB Involving Negro werkoro
tlons to vtiite poople arise.

A ll o f these

their re]a—

both shite und colored,

have heartily responded as volunteers la such cooperation,

i f the white




T
It is obvious, therefor®, that the Department should not and ootmc not
have any polios* souqs mints .Negroes unionising*
question 7»

The fear has been expressed that this movement Is being used by

agitators ami unscrupulous propagandists and that as a result attempt
Is being made to propagate a feeling of unrest and dlssatisfeotlon among
the Hegroes and to arouse in them a daelre to dominate,

\ hat eaq?luna­

tion oan you give to such oritioa?
Answers




It Can be aniihatloally said that this movement is not being used

in any way by agitators and unscrupulous propagandist®,

.-.very man and

woman, white or colored, who has been asked to sorve on any o f the advisory
oammittees or to aot in any other capacity, o ffic ia lly or unoffloally, are
pars one well known by the local white and colored people to bo the most re­
lia b le , level-headed, oons trust i vo-mlnded people in their owwsanlty,- people
who have lived long in their oonsmlty and who have the oonfidenoe o f both
races.

It is a foot that many careful observers testify that there is un­

rest and dissatisfaction among .togroes,

So fa r as the Jepartnent has any

iafumation i t is in no way the result of aqy agitation or activity of
those who have taken part In the work of the department.

On the contrary

and as a matter o f fact, these advisory oocalttoee have been the most in­
fluential means, both during the bar and since the araistioe, of removing
unrest and dissatisfaction among the Negroes,

Publio o ffio ia ls and white

and colored oitlsanc have written to the .eoretary and other o ffio ia ls of
the department ocraaeuding this movement.

They soy It is helping to make

Negro labor mors stable, more responsive to productive demands, and more
contented.

O ffic ia ls of private organisations o f both White and ooloiwd

peopls have eocpxwaaed their approval.

A ll o f this ahows that this move-







2

anl services of the Department may be informed and advised.
has not been carried on as a separate Negro bureau.

This woric

The executive

direction o f the Division o f Negro Soonoaics rests with the Secretary
of labor ani with those to Nhora he delegatee i t .

In the ease of suoh

of the assistants in the Negro .ioonomlca work a 3 aro looated in
partioular states, any executive dirootion of them is carried oat under
the supervision and approval of the federal Director o f the TJ.3 . ftmployraeut Service a f the respective states.

A ll the a ctiv ities and

plans of suoh local assistants aro proposed and carried out only with
the approval ani supervision of the Federal State Directors of the
U.8. Smployment Service.
It should be ailed that these field assistants in Negro Economics
are few in number, there having been appointed only one In each of ten
states, with suoh limited c le ric a l assistance as tbel • wor- required as
it has developed.

The f’edornl Directors o f the 7 .1. Employment

Service have, from time to time, commonioi the usefulness, tact and
jud^nent of these

in advising them on Negro a ffa irs ani assisting

then in the work of handling Negro labor.
Question 3:

In matters of policy, what is the actual procedure?

Answer:

I f thi3 question is correctly interpreted it

.eans to in­

quire what has beer the aotual practice in using the services of the
Division of Negro honcmios.

This can probably boat be answered

through citin g, b r ie fly , examples where such service has been
V
rendered.

F irst, the 7.S. iSmploynent Service, from time to f ime,

needed Negroes as examiners ani recruiters In the handling of Negro
labor.




Negroes in different lo c a litie s applied for such work.

The




Negro Economics division was asked for advise on the qualifications,
character and trustworthiness o f such applicants.

Investigations

were made ani opinions ;iven the 'Implojraent .Service on these persons
to a ssist that Service in a&lcing selection s.
A ^ in , la s t yea r, with the taking over r.f the re cru itin g and place­
ment o f unskilled workers in war in lu n tries omploy ing one hundred or
more workmen, a number o f privato employment agencies, botli commercial
ani ohtlauthropio, appealed to the ilmploynimt Jervioe to take over th e ir
en terprises.

Just *hat p o licy should oe pursued in iea lin g v?j th these

Negro agencies c a lle d fo r a icnowiodge o f Negro a ffa ir s from those
knowing the inside o f Negro l i f e ,

'i'he Negro jSoonomlos division ad­

vised the iimployiaant d srvite ou a lin e o f p o licy to be pursued towari3
these agencies, which advise in i policy wore accept3i anl adopted.
Surveys o f a va ila b le Negro laoor anx of other co a litio n s connected
with the recruiting and placement of Negroes were maie fo r the In­
formation and pzidanae of the Ira01071x6111 Service.

Again, several instances in both northern and soutnem industrial
centers have arisen where c o n s id e ra b le race fr ic t io n developed ’ otween
Tsfcita ani Negro workers, ani the department was called upon to In­
ves tig a te a a i to use it s good o ffic e s fo r c o n c ilia tio n .

In these

instances the d ivis io n o f Negro Acon-iaics advised on lin es o f procedure
to got in touch with the best element o f colored people in crier to
know how to deal with the masses In bringing about adjustments in the
situation.
further, the dureau of Industrial Housing ani Tra.cscortatioa, TJ.3.
Housing Corporation, used the nivision of iegro -doomnaics for advice on
matters of developing room registration for Negro war workers in d if -







5
wherever possib le, from among white workers have consented to aerre either
as iwabers o f the Scgro Workers* Advisory Committees or on cooperating oommitteos o f *h ite o itis o n s .

tn some states these white

by the State Council o f JJefense.

.embers were nominated

In some lo c a lit ie s they have been nominated

by the Ohaaberg o f Commerce or other organisation* o f white o itise n s.
I* should

emphasized that th is plan loaves the most responsible

* h it « a a l colored o itis e n s o f each state and lo c a lity absolutely free to
work out th e ir own lo c a l problems, and brings to th e ir assistance in a
cooperative s p ir it and manner, through the department o f Labor, the wider
experience, methods and connections o f other states m il l o c a lit ie s .
A fte r consultation with many thoughtful *h ite and colored citizen s
on the n a tter o f a general organisation to include the rank and f i l e
o f Hegro workers, the Jepartmeut le f i n i t e l y decided not to attempt
any general organisation o f the masses o f Kagross. le s t such e f f o r t , would
be misunderstood.

'Ihe plan has been to renal, and influence the Kegro

workers fo r greater regu larlty,p re^ptli9ss# W ir lft f pr0<ta#tlT, , ffo r t#
and improvement o f th e ir homes and habits through the touch o f these co­
operative committees with the churches, w elfare organisations and other
agencies already at m a among JSegroaa.
The m in function o f these advisory c c ^ t t o e a has been to keep
the department and i t s re p re s e n ta tio n in fom ed anl u iviael o f the fe e lin g s ,
desire a and conditions in th e ir own lo c a lit y and to a ssist the Je^rtawnt
in adapting i

v.or.c so as to aaka i t acceptable and e ffe c t iv e wherever

frie n d ly adjustmmit o f questions In volvin g ffegro workers a a l th eir iw lationc

o white people a ris e .

A ll o f those people, both .faite ani oolored,

have heartily responded an volunteers in each cooperation.

I f the .h its

P.OPU U th. a.ver.1 atatea anl lo o a llt le . wool, ..operate fo r,M r Jn th l.
• ffo r t o f the M j u t i a t they » i U
the beet ~ » o

f l n l that t h l. plan of ooo.Mr.blon 1.

and pm otloally th . only n , « , new b .,n * g y a te m a tld ,, de-

T.lop . 1 Vy which whit. employer,. Bogro » A » M ,

wrlM „

w

#J-

to . » nmloabl. uhler.tBc.anjo f f i i adjuatannt - f t h a l r preblama.

a . groat

. . . . o f th . ITogrc norker. are without oon atru otiv., ln t . lU g .n t

.utUnoa.

o r . no. reatlaaa and u n a o ttlo i.

a . wiae p lm

t0

fr lm l.

ly cooperation * n l thus h *lp Jofeni t i m rw*.
*
on~ * mj5 frwa unscrropulotM agitators A o
a*&r try to use them fo r lajixarous
* 9roua parpoeeu.

»
„
The ^spartaeat haa speoial

neai o f th« nlvioe ajxi oounoal o f mv>v
u-it cooperative camroittees in an e ffo r t
o f I t . o f f i c i a l , to le a l with those d i f f ic u lt m atter..
Jueatlon St
to .»r .

I . what exten t, I f « y , 1 . Begrc U b c r „ slng ^
* ,^ 0

labor I . not being

W y authority o f t h l . leyartment*

t0 unlonlae *

t0

anyone « , ro ttin g

There chargee o f aunh a o t lv lt y hare

bora a ll.* e d the Department ha. taken o jo o H l padna to t » l » ln v .e t lg .t t o n .
o f th . nation o f any o f I t , o f f i c i a l , d o l i n g r t th Hejrooa m i to fo r e . t a ll
“ ' 7 suoh o f f i c i a l notion or propasanla.

rt can be a n il, w ith confH a..oe,

thn- the em ploye, connected r tth the atvlolou o f -regro Sccnomlo, have not
u rgol or eccoumied B.groe, to unlonlae, and nny evldeuce that « ?

c f f lc l n l

1 . en su ed U auoh a c t iv it y w i l l receive pru.pt a tten tion .
<lu..tto» 6.

K . t policy ha. th. Department. I f any, oonoem lu, Begroe,

m ilon izi ngf
IM w er:




a.

Department ha. no policy concerning F .g r «

unlondrtnp.

a .

queotton o f whether they ahould unlonlae or another they ah ,n il not u u lon l..
l e not a matter o f lnpartm.au: bualneaa.
fo r tho w elfare o f non-union aa w e ll „

The w r i o f t h l . Department 1.

„nlcn ..je - e a r n e r ,, . h i t . and colored.




It is obvious, therefore, that the Jepar truant should not and could not
have any policy conaornin.; Negrons unionising.
Qaestlon 7i

The fear has been expressed that this movement is being used by

agitators and unscrupulous p r o p e r lis t s an? that as a result attempt
ia bains made to propagate a feeling o f unront and dissatisfaction among
the Negroes and to arouse in then a desire to icnluato.

ra »t wuplstaa-

tion can you give to such critics?
Answers

It can be emphatically s a i l that this siovomont is not being used

in any /’ay lsrr agitators and tbiscw uiloue oropagan i i s t s .

Every roan and

woman, whit,® or colored, who has been asked to serve on any o f the advisory
oommitteer or to aot in any other capacity, o f f i c i a lly cr u n o ffic ia lly are
persons w ell Known by the local w hit* and colored people to be the racst re­
lia b le , level-headed, constructlve-minied people In th e ir ccceraaity,- people
who have lived long in th e ir oaamoai>.y and tfhc nj»ve toe confidence of both
raoes.

It ia a fact that many careful observers te s tily that there is un­

re st and d issatisfactio n among feegroes.

So fa r as the Jep%rtment has any

information i t i s in no *«uy the result of ony a gita tion or a ctiv ity o f
these who have taaen part in ti e work o f the Jeoartment.

On the contrary

and as a usattor of fa o t, these advisory committees have been the moat in ­
flu e n tia l neams, both daring the rfar anl since the a rm istice, o f removing
unrest and d is s a tis fa c tio n among the Negroes,

Public official?? s n i White

•fed colored oisiaens navo w ritten to the ieorer-ary ami other o f f i c i a l a o f

the Dej/oirtineut ocsnendlng this movement•

*hay say i t ia helping to make

Negro labor more s ta b le , more responsive to productive demands, anl mere
contents i.

O ffic ia ls o f p riva te organisations o f both sh ite a r t colored

people have expressed th e ir approval.

A ll of th is shewe that this raove-

<
>

w
8

rcent has bean the means of oheoking the unpleasant conditions mentioned llA
the above question.
I t needs to be emphasized, th e re fo re , that as the Department gats
la rg e r cooperation from the thoughtful white c itiz e n s o f each community,
those c itiz e n s w i l l fin d that th is Department has p ra c tic a lly the only
movement by means o f which Bolshevist and sim ilar propaganda, about which
th e ir fears

ba\e been expressed, can be successfully met.

I t is nc e l ­

a b o ra tio n to say that so e ffe c t iv e have been the resu lts that both public
o f f i o ia l s and p rivate c it iz e n s , white and colored, have responded with
enthusiasm to I t as a means o f h .ip ln 3 to adjust the many ie llo a te and
d i f f ic u l t questions where white and oolored wage-earners and white em­
ployers are in volved.
Question 8j

I t has also been charged that indu strial leaders and employers

have been requested by the Department o f Labor to confer with Negro o f ­
f i c i a l s o f the Department o f Labor, Division o f Negro Economics.

What

explanation i s there of this feature o f complaint?
Answer:

This Department m s f i r s t askei to give special attention to

th is matter in volvin g Negro workers about 1916, with repeated requests
that some steps be takan In view o f the great migration of Negroes from
the South to the North.

In try in g to perform a service to the South <tn^

to the Nation in th is oonneotion o f f i c i a l s o f the Department have asked
many in d u strial leaders ani employers and others fo r counsel and a lv ic e .
xifter the Department had an extensive in vestiga tio n made o f
Negro m igration, a number o f c itiz e n s , white and colored. North anl South,
advised the Department to have continuous expert advice by a represent­
a tiv e o f the Negroes o f the country, esp ecia lly with reference




Question X: Does the D ivision o f Negro Eoonomios, Department o f Labor,
function as a separate and d istin o t branch o f the Department?
Answer:
I t does not.
This work is a branch o f the O ffice o f the
Secretary o f Labor and is under his personal supervision.
I t is ad­
v is o ry , on Negro a ffa ir s , to the Secretary and to the directors and
o f f i c i a l s o f the several bureaus and services, in matters which d ire o tly or m anifestly a ffe o t Negro wage-earners.
The o f f i c i a l s who deal
w ith matters a ffe c tin g Negro wage-earners are not removed from the
authority and executive d irectio n o f chiefs o f the division s or bureaus
under which they are employed.
According to the expressed instructions
o f the Secretary no dual d irectio n o f suoh s t a ff employees is under­
taken when dealing with Negro wage-earners.
The D ivision o f Negro
Economics furnishes advice on work dealing with Negro wage-earners,
wherever undertaken, and is kept informed o f the progress o f such work
so that the Department may have the b en efit o f continued judgment and
advice from w ith in the Negro group on suoh matters.
Question 2: Has the D ivision o f Negro Economics, Department o f Labor,
any executive powers, and, i f so, what are they?
Answer:
With reference to the employees on the s t a ff o f any o f the
several division s or bureaus, the D ivision o f Negro Eoonomios has no
executive powers whatever.
In order to carry out the advisory
funotion o f Negro Eoonomios special assistants have been furnished fo r
the Negro Economics Service through whom i t may gather such informa­
tio n about the condition o f Negro wage-earners, th e ir relation s to
white employers and white workers and th e ir relation s to the a c t iv it ie s
o f the Department, so that through them the several d ivis io n s, bureaus
and services o f the Department may he informed and advised. This work
has not been oarried on as a separate Negro bureau.
The executive
d irectio n o f the D ivision o f Negro Eoonomios rests with the Secretary
o f Labor and with those to whom he delegates i t .
In the case o f suoh
o f the assistants in the Negro economics work as are located in
■
p a rticu la r sta tes, any executive d irectio n o f them is oarried out under
the supervision and approval o f the Federal D irector o f the U. S. QnployAent Service o f the respective sta tes.
A ll the a c t iv it ie s and
plans o f suoh lo o a l assistants are proposed and carried out only with
the approval and supervision o f the Federal State Directors o f the
U. S. anployment S ervice.
I t should be added that these f i e l d assistants in Negro Eoonomios
are few in number, there having been appointed only one in each o f ten
s ta te s , w ith suoh lim ited c le r ic a l assistance as th e ir work required as
i t has developed.
The Federal Directors o f the U. S. j&aployment
Service have, from time to time, connended the usefulness, tact and
judgnent o f these men in advisin g them on Negro a ffa ir s and a ssistin g
them in the work o f handling Negro labor.
Question 3»

In matters o f p o lic y , what is the actual procedure?

Answer:
I f th is question is c o rre c tly intezpreted i t means to inquire
what has been the actual praotioe in using the servioes o f the
D ivision o f Negro Economics.
This can probably best be answered







2

through c itin g , b r ie fly , examples where such servioe has been
rendered.
F ir s t, the D. S. iinployment S ervice, from time to time,
needed Negroes as examiners and recru iters in the handling o f Negro
labor.
Uegroes in d iffe re n t lo c a lit ie s applied fo r such work.
The
Negro Economics d ivis io n was asked fo r advice on the q u a lific a tio n s ,
character and trustworthiness o f such applicants.
Investigations were
made and opinion given the Ibaployment Servioe on these persons to
a s s is t that Service in making selection s.
Again, la s t year, w ith the taking over o f the racw aiting and place­
ment o f unskilled workers in war industries employing one hundred or
more workmen, a number o f priva te employment agencies, both cammeroial
and philanthropic, appealed to the Itaployment Servioe to take over th e ir
en terprises.
Just what p o licy should be pursued in dealing with these
Negro agencies ca lled fo r a knowledge o f Negro a ffa ir s from those
knowing the inside o f Negro l i f e .
The Negro Economics D ivision ad­
vised the i&rployment Service on a lin e o f p o licy to be pursued towards
these agencies, which advice and p o lioy were accepted and adopted.
Surreys o f a vailable Negro labor and o f other conditions connected
with the re cru itin g and placement o f Negroes were made fo r the informa­
tio n and guidance o f the Employment Servioe.
Again, several Instances in both northern and southern in du strial
centers have arisen where considerable race fr ic t io n developed between
tthite and Negro workers, and the Department was ca lled upon to in­
vestig a te and to use its good o ffic e s fo r co n c ilia tio n .
In these
instances the D ivision o f Negro Eoonomios advised on lin es o f procedure
to get in touch with the best element o f colored people in order to
know how to deal with the masses in bringing about adjustments in the
situ ation .
Further, the Bureau o f Industrial Housing and Transportation, U. 3.
Housing Corporation, used the Division o f Negro Economics fo r advice on
matters o f developing roan re g is tra tio n fo r Negro war workers in d i f ­
feren t lo c a lit ie s on g e ttin g in touch with the colored people fo r th is
purpose and on the community side o f it s own housing p rojects fo r Negro
war workers.
The Vomen-in-lndustiy Servioe has used the Negro Economics
D ivision fo r advice on a number o f questions a risin g in various parts o f
the country on the employment o f Negro women.
xlienq are only a few examples o f the many ways the advisory service o f
the D ivision o f Negro Economics is operated.
From a y e a r's experiment
i t is olear that the Department oould not have dealt successfully with
the many d iff ic u lt and d elica te questions a risin g out o f the problems
o f Negro labor unless i t had had in its servioe such a competent
representative o f the Negroes themselves.
The judgnent o f the S ecretary's
Advisory Council whioh, under the Chairmanship o f the Hon. John Lind,
recommended that the Secretary appoint & Negro as adviser on such mat­
te rs , has been amply ju s t ifie d by experience.

3
Question 4:
upon?

To what exten t, I f any, is organization o f any nature re lie d

Answer:
The only machinery that oould in any way be o a lled organization
oonsists o f what we have ca lled Negro Workers', Advisory Committees.
These are cooperative advisory committees formed in four southern
states and f iv e northern states follow in g sta te and lo c a l conferences
o f representatives o f white employers, white workers, wherever possible,
and Negro workers, with whom departmental o f f i c i a l s fu lly and fr e e ly
discussed a l l the plans and methods Involved.
In each state these
white and colored representatives took the lead in forming lo c a l
committees by counties, c it ie s and towns.
The cooperative committees
are made up o f the best Negroes, most trusted by the white citizen s
o f the community, and in each instance white citize n s from among the
employers o f Negro labor, and Wherever p o ssib le, from among white
workers have consented to serve eith e r as members o f the Negro Workers'
Advisory Committees or on cooperating committees o f white c itiz e n s .
In some states these white members were nominated by the State Council
o f Defense.
In some lo c a lit ie s they have been nominated by the
Chambers o f Comneroe or other organizations o f white o itiz e n s .




I t should be emphasized that this plan leaves the most responsible
white and colored citizen s of each state and lo c a lit y absolutely fre e
to work out th e ir own lo c a l problems, and brings to th e ir assistanoe
in a cooperative s p ir it and manner, through the Department o f Labor,
the wider experience, methods and connections o f other states and
lo c a lit ie s .
A fte r consultation with many thoughtful white and colored o itizen s
on the matter o f a general organization to include the rank and f i l e
o f Negro workers, the Department d e fin ite ly decided not to attempt
any general organization o f the masses o f Negroes, le s t such e ffo r ts
would be misunderstood.
The plan has been to reach and influence the
Negro workers fo r greater re g u la rity , promptness, t h r i f t , productive
e f f o r t , and improvement o f th e ir homes and habits through the touoh
o f these cooperative committees with the ohurches, w elfare organiza­
tions and other agencies already a t work among Negroes.
The main function o f these advisory committees has been to keep
the Department and it s representatives informed and advised o f the
fe e lin g s , desires and conditions in th e ir own lo c a lity and to a ssist
the Department in adapting its work so as to make i t aooeptable and
e ffe c t iv e wherever frie n d ly adjustment o f questions in volvin g Negro
workers and th e ir relation s to white people a r is e .
A l l o f these
people, both white and colored, have h e a rtily responded as volunteers
in such cooperation.
I f the white people in the severa l states and
lo c a lit ie s would cooperate further in this e ff o r t o f the Department
they would fin d that this plan o f cooperation is the best means and
p z a c tio a lly the only means now being system atically developed by whioh
white employers, Negro workers, and white workers may come to an anicable
understanding and adjustment o f th e ir problems.
The great mass o f
the Negro woxkers are without constru ctire, in te llig e n t guidance.

4

They are now restless and unsettled.
The wise plan is to give them
frien d ly cooperation and thus help defend them from unscrupulous
a gitators Who may try to use them fo r dangerous purposes.
The De­
partment has special need o f the advice and counsel o f such co­
operative committees in an e ffo r t o f it s o f f i c i a l s to deal with these
d if f ic u lt matters.
Question 5s

To what extend, i f any, is Negro labor being urged to unionise?

Answers
Negro labor is not being urged to unionize by anyone ex ercis­
ing any authority o f this Department.
Where charges o f such a c t iv it y
have been alleged the Department has taken special pains to make in ­
vestigation s o f the action o f any o f it s o f f i c i a l s dealing with Negroes
and to fo r e s t a ll any such o f f i c i a l action or propaganda.
I t o&n be
said, w itji confidence, that the employees connected with the D ivision
o f Negro Economies have not urged or encouraged Negroes to unionise,
and any evidence that any o f f i c i a l is engaged in such a c t iv it y w i l l
receive prompt atten tion .
Question 6s What p o lic y has tho Department, i f any, concerning Negroes
unionising? (
Answers
The Department has no p o lioy concerning Negroes unionising.
The question o f whether they should unionize or whether they should not
unionize is not a matter o f departmental business.
The work o f this
Department is fo r the w elfare o f nonunion as w e ll as union wage-earners,
white and colored.
I t is obvious, th erefore, that the Department
should not and could not have any p o lic y concerning Negroes unionizing.
Question 7S The fea r has been expressed that this movement is being used
by a gitators and unscrupulous propagandists and that as a resu lt
attempt is being made to propagate a fe e lin g o f unrest and d is s a tis ­
fa ctio n among the Negroes and to arouse in them a desire to dominate.
What essplanation oan you give to such c r itic s ?
Answer:
I t oan be emphatically said that this movement is not being
used in any way by agita tors and unscrupulous propagandists. Every
man and women, white or colored, who has been asked to serve on any
o f the advisory committees or to aot in any other oapaoity, o f f i c i a l l y
or u n o ffic ia lly , are persons w e ll known by the local White and colored
people to be the most r e lia b le , level-headed, constructive-minded people
in th eir community - people who have liv e d long in th eir community and
who )iave the confidence o f both races.
I t is a fa c t that many care­
fu l observers t e s t ily that there 1e unrest and d is s a tis fa c tio n among
Negroes.
So fa r as the Department has any information i t is in no
way the resu lt o f any a g ita tio n or a c t iv it y o f those who have taken
part in the work o f the Department.
On the contrary and as a matter
o f fa c t , these advisory o cm ittees have been the most in flu e n tia l
means, both during the War and since the arm istice, o f removing tinrest and d is s a tis fa c tio n among the Negroes.
Public o f f i c i a l s and
white and colored c itizen s have w ritten to the Secretary and other




5

o f f i c i a l s o f the Department commending this movement.
They say i t is
helping to make Negro labor more stable, more responsive to productive
demandr, and more oontented.
O ffic ia ls o f p rivate organizations of
both white and colored people have expressed th e ir approval.
A ll
o f this shows that this movement hat been the means o f checking the
unpleasant conditions mentioned in the above question.
I t needs to be emphasized, th erefo re, that as the Department gets
la rg e r cooperation from the thou$itful white oitizen s o f each community,
those oitizen s w i l l find that this Department has p ra c tic a lly the only
movement by means o f v/hich bolsh evist and sim ilar propaganda, about
which th e ir fears have been expressed, can be success full;/ met.
It
is no exaggeration to say that so e ffe c t iv e have been the results that
both public o f f i c i a l s and priva te c itiz e n s , white and colored, have
rospondeu. with enthusiasm to i t as a means o f helping to adjust the
many d e lic a te and d i f f ic u lt questions where white and. colored wageearners and white employers are involved.
Question 8: I t lias also been charged that indu strial leaders and employers
have been requested by the Department o f Labor to confer with Negro
o f f i c i a l s o f the Department o f Labor, D ivision o f Negro Economics.
171iat explanation is there o f this feature o f complaint?
Answer:
This Department was f i r 3 t asked to give special atten tion to
th is matter in volvin g Negro workers about 1915, with repeated requests
that some steps be taken in view o f the great m igration of Negroes
from the Pouth to the North.
In try in g to perform a service to the
South and to the Nation In this connection o f f i c i a l s o f the Department
have asked many indu strial leaders and employers and others fo r counsel
and advice.




A fte r the Department 1-ad an extensive in vestiga tio n made o f Negro
m igration, a number o f c itiz e n s , vihlte and colored, North and South,
advised the Department to have continuous expert advice by a represent­
a tiv e o f the Negroes o f the country, esp ecia lly with reference to
g e ttin g e ffe o t iv e m obilization o f Negro labor fo r winning the war.
These requests were referred to the advisory council o f the Depertment,
composed o f representatives o f employers, o f wage-earners, o f women,
o f an economic s p e c ia lis t, and o f the general public, o f whidh advisory
council the Hon. John Lind o f Minnesota was the Chairman.
This counoil
recommended the appointment o f a special Negro adviser.
Consequently, Dr. Haynes, a Negro, from N ash ville, Torn., was
appointed as D irector o f Negro Economics, upon the recommendation o f
many persons o f both race3, North and South, who had known him and
his work fo r a number o f years.
Among the many endorsements there
was a strong one from the Cotanercial Club o f Nashville as follow s;




6

"OCBMBHQIAL CLUB OP NASHVILLE
March 15th, 1918.
Hon. W illiam Banohop Wilson,
Heoretary o f Labor,
Washington, D. C.
Dear Mr. Wilson:
I wired you today as follow s:
'The Commercial Club o f Nashville representing fift e e n
hundred o f her foremost business and professional men h e a rtily
endorse the application o f Doctor George Sdtaind Haynes o f Nash­
v i l l e fo r appointment as adviser to you representing your De­
partment in*the study o f Negro employment and m igration. We
b elie ve him to be both, by tra in in g and. education eminently
q u a lified fo r the p o sition .
Our f i r s t hand knowledge o f hie
work here J u stifies our recranaendation. •
Confirming the same w i l l aay I am euro that you have been made ac­
quainted with the educational q u a lifica tio n s o f Dr. George Kdnund
Haynes fo r the position he aspires to.
The Commercial Club is in a p osition to probably' know b e tte r than
any other organisation o f individuals as to his qu ail flo a t ions fo r the
p o sition he is seeking.
The handling o f the Negro is an ever present proposition in the
South both in d u stria lly and in a c iv ic way.
These problems aro con­
stantly coming up in the work o f the southern commercial organisations,
and as an Executive o f the Oommeroial Club I have had opportunities to
know o f Dr. Haynes' q u a lific a tio n s .
He is a student with a broad
visio n and g ifte d with executive a b ilit y fa r above the average, and
has in addition to these a large fund o f good everyday horso senae.
I do not b elie ve a b etter q u a lifie d man fo r the position can be found
than Dr. Haynes.
Hespeotfully,
COMMERCIAL CLUB OP NASHVILLE,
(Signed) W. H. Uanler,

i
S ecretary."
When white employers or industrial leaders have been asked
oonfer with o f f i c i a l s o f the Department on these matters and i t
desirable that Dr. Haynes be d ir e c tly informed o f the ideas and
o f such c itiz e n s , the inclinations or feelin gs o f suoh citizen s
sought before they were asked to see him.
I f in any case such

to
seemed
opinions
have been
c itiz e n




showed an in clin a tio n not to grant such an interview there has "been no
plan or d isp osition to press suoh a request.
In every case where such
a request has been made i t has seemed desirable that the Negro adviser
should have the knowledge coming from white c itiz e n s at the time he
might give to the Department the neoessary information and advice
about the conditions and fe e lin g o f the Negro workers, i f the best
resu lts fo r greater productive e ffo r t from these workers is to be
obtained.







The s lig h t danger o f pursuing "new studies" only, i t seems to me, lie s
only in the probable laok o f comparisons o f conditions o f war and
post-ear periods.
I think th is danger is discounted, however, by
the "new approach” which the present Industrial Agent can invoke.
I t is probable that her new questioim aire w i l l be b etter f it t e d to
present-day conditions.
Then, too, in some cases i t w i l l be possible
fo r her to give greater emphasis to things which are re a lly more " v i t a l"
today than they were "yesterday" - such as wage scales, hours o f service,
etc.
Therefore, I resp ectfu lly recommend 1. That the report o f the former Agent be revised and
handled by i t s e l f in one o f the ways recommended
by you in your memorandum o f yesterday - and
2. That the present Agent complete her outline and
questionnaire and be assigned to new studies.







S e p u r t a i n t
of
L a b o r
Cffioe of the Secretary
^iasaw tcB

1. Study o f ilojro \nsaen La industrial operations to eoa- v/hat ie
procont status.
2. Cowmittoe oa Unskilled Labor - Association of Corporation
Schools - otudy Courses.
5.
Conference course for colored industrial wolfare workers at
I'-aapton and 'Ixu.Y.&t&e.

Cocnforcno? of white roprocoxtatlYee at call of Lr. yoreaeon.
4. Gathering o f ieforu n tion by correspondence.

5. Distribution of studios ou Eeipro Labor.
6. M r icing bureaus - tteum's, Children’s* etc., oa thinga ia ro lrin * Begrc.
7. LMWorin* ecrrosponiojvjo.

Q. /jruiiyBlr&n&'.ti-. fumlrhed from Census.




D e p a r t m e n t
of
L a b o r
Office of the Seoret&ry
BASHINGSGH

toBBLMwm&as. - Jt e X*pj&.£&*?±9Ai
1« Study o f Negro women in industrial operations to nee what is
present status.
2. Committee on Unskilled Labor - Association o f Corporation
Schools - study Courses.
8.
Conference course fo r colored indu strial w elfare w orker at
Hampton and Tu.-kegeo.
Conference o f white representatives at o a ll o f Kr. yerguaou.
4. (lathering o f information by correspondence.
5. D istribution o f studies on Negro Labor.
6. Advising bureaus - ..0 "ien’ e, C hildren's, e t c ., on things in­
volvin g Negro.
7. Answering correspondence.
0. Analy&ft|ftpata furnished from Census.

MODEL CONSTITUTION w0p
LOC4L NEGPO woorprsc ADVISORY COMMITTEE
A rtic le I, NAME:
Advisory Committee.

The name of th is committee sh a ll be The Negro Worker®

A rtic le I I , PURPOSE: The purpose of this committee sh a ll be to s^udy, plaTi
and advise in a cooperative s p ir it and manner with erployers o f Negro labor, with
white workers, with Negro workers and with the United States Department of Labor
in securing greater production in industry through increasing re g u la rity * a p p li­
cation and e ffic ie n c y and through improving the general x:»znlfcs±k conditio** 0 J
workers.
A r tic le I I I , MEMIFPS’-IP : The membership of th is committee sh a ll be ^omposed
of not more than th irty persons, men and women of the northwest. At leafe^ ^ vs
members sh a ll be women.
A r t ic le IV, APPOINTMENTS: The members of th is committee sh all be appointed
by the Secretary of Labor, who sh a ll also designate the chairman and the Secretary.
Upon the f i r s t appointment the members sh all be divided into three groups
serve six , nine and twelve months re s p e c tiv e ly . Thereafter, one-third of the
membership of the committee sh a ll be appointed every s ix months to serve fo r a
ten;-, c f eighteen months, subject to reappointment. The chairman and the secre­
tary s h a ll serve fo r a period of s ix months each, subject to reappointment, A
Treasurer sh a ll be elected by the Committee, He shall be under bond fo r the faithp
fu l performance cf such duties as the committee may designate.
A r t ic le V, MEETINGS: The advisory Committee sh a ll meet at least once every
month and at such ether times as the committee may decide. Seven members sh all
con stitu te a quorum. The chairman sh a ll be required to c a ll a meeting upon the
w ritte n request c f fiv e members.
A r t ic le VI. BY-LA’’’S: The Committee sh all make such by-laws and rules fe r the
conduct c f business as seem best, subject to the approval of the Central Advisory
Committee,
A r t ic le ’U I. POWERS 0^ THE C0?n'ITTFE: The Committee sh a ll transact a l l busi­
ness, m>ake plans,
enter into agreements, and perform such other acts as may
be necessary fo r carrying cut the purpose c f this committee. A ll such transaction,
plans, ^agreements, or acts sh a ll be subject to revision by the Central Advisory
Committe e and the United States Department of Labor, through it s duly authorized
rep resen ta tives.
A r t ic le V II I, FINANCES* This organization sh all not have power or authority
tc incur expenses or contracts, which sh all in any way ob ligate the United States
Departmen t cf Labor, No debt sh a ll he incurred by this committee unless previously
provided ifcr. The Treasurer of this committee sh all keep account of receipts and
expenditures and he sh a ll keep any funds intrusted tc him deposited in such banks
or tru st c empanies as the committee sh a ll decide.
1
/
■
A r tic le IE .- AMENDMENTS: Amendments may be made tc this Constitution by twothirds vote at a regular and duly called meeting of this committee, provided such
am.eftdm.ehts S’h a ll bo approved by the Central Committee and the United States De­
partment of XaboftV




S e c tio n 3 . The m eeting pl-v~. . f th. v'ivisc ry Committee and the E x ecu tive
hoard s h a ll he a t the o f f ic e or . .c y y m is o r o f the S ta te , u n le s s oth erw ise
ord ered hv the E x e c u tiv e Board ,

approved t y the Department o f L a b o r»

A r tic le V l l .
BY-LAWS:
The Execut..ve Board shaj 1 viene oaich b y-law s and
ru le s f o r the conduct o f tu arn ess a.: seen L est , su b ject to the a p p rova l o f tne
A d v is o ry Committee &r.c. too ’Apa: vm-nt o f iabor/
A r t i c l e V l l :,. PILE A:5 CV THE JE3CUTIIE BOAIJ t The E x ecu tive Board s h a ll
tra n s a c t a l l bu /in oss, male plans , e n te r in to agreem ents, and perform such oth er
a c ts as may oe n ecessary "’or c a r r y in g out the purpose o f tV _s com m ittee. A l l such
tr a n s a c tio n s , p la r ? , a y r ^ re n ts , or a cts s h a ll he mope i t to r e v is io n by the
A d v is o ry Committee and the United S ta te s Department o f la b o r , through i t s du ly
a u th o rized r e p r e s e n ts ‘ Ives*
A r t i c l e IX „ COUNTY /v.D LOCAL COMMITTEES: The Department o f la b o r s h a ll
appoint f o r each county and l o c a l i t y o f the S ta te , h avin g a s u f f ic ie n t Negro
co p u la tio n , a county o r lo c a l Negro Workers A d v is o ry Committee o f not more than
nine p erso n s. At le a s t two of. the members s h a ll be women.
The lo c a l superintenden
o f the U .S. Employment S e rv ic e or the chairman c f the Community Labor Board s h a ll
be e x - o f f i c i o
member o f the county or lo c a l com m ittee.
A r t i c l e X.
FINANCES: N e ith e r t h is o r g a n is a tio n , i t s E x ecu tive Board, o r
the County o r lo c a l A d v is o ry Committee s h a ll have power or a u th o r ity to incur
expenses or make any f in a n c ia l agreements or c o n tr a c ts , which s h a ll in a n yw ay
o b lig a t e the s ta te o f M ichigan ox the U n ited S ta te s D. y.rtmer.t o f Lr.oor• No debts
s h a ll be in cu rred by t h is committee o r i t s E x ecu tive Board or by any county o r l o c a l
committee u n less p r e v io u s ly provided f o r .
The tr e a s u r e r o f t n s committee s h a ll
keep account o f r e c e ip t s and ex p en d itu res and he s n a il keep any funds in tru s te d to
him d e p o s ite d in such bank o r tr u s t companies as the E x ecu tive Boar! s h a ll d e c id e .
A r t ic le X I.
AMENDMENTS: Ammendments may be made to th is C o n s titu tio n by
tw o -th ird s v o te at a r e g u la r an d u ly c a lle d m eeting o f tn is Committee, provider,
such ammencment s h a ll have been p r e v io u s ly approved by the U itec. S ta tes
Department o f L b o r.










Jonf-irences and oooperati'-a with employers w ill ho weloom l
by the Japartaout looking to the improvement o f tJ»e sroduotlve ©£floieuoy of Bogro wpteri along the followin' l&noot
a. Training of Negro workers, both shop training aal i nmil■
ichcol training.
b# Housln of Negro m>Deers.
o. Uethoda of onaouragln*; thrift and improvement of health of workers.
4. 'rovlalons for wholesoas reorontlon. Tha foots show that this Is
one of the best aeons of improving regularity ani promptness in
employment •
e. Use of "egro soHeaps in as many lines as possible to s t tho
.$rowin»; demffiia for raore efficient labor.
The advisory service to tho sever -1 bureaus anl dlvlaions o f
tho apartment in suoh way no w ill help in tho more effective reor.ilting
an>l distribution and improvement of Negro workera w ill bo oontlnued.
VI. .'.'ttoossarv to ..Jloulture anl h i ustfgt
It is imy^rtant to the agriculture and industry of the Ooumtry
that Negro workers as a l l other workers jhould function to 100 por
aant of their a b ility and every fa c u lty shouli be furnished thorn fo r
this purpose.
Til. i m a l a n a v -dm al a a throuii oluataor i^lat
'ihe -resent plans of tho department in thl s oonnoot ion are to
stimulate tho oooperative Negro woDears dvi eory oocauittsos in the
lo c a litie s idiers they have been already started to more practical
value for inoreaslng tho productive power anl efficiency of ::ogro
woDears and inproving their relations to shito employers a 1 .hi to
uoDeere. The help of white employers is especially use led for this
work. -Tie plans oontemplatei
1.

-erics o f shop talks to Negroes wherever o-u-loy >rs are
w illing to haevo competent speakers to come to llaouas
su»h questions as promptness, rs jularit: , full-tim e « r k .
health, thrift and similar questions.
joh ilong this
line has alreaty boon done 4 th tho hearty approval of
employers interested.

£.

I f funis can bo procured for i t , tho jopartment -Ians a
series o f ploturss, cartoons anl pl-ioards on similar topics
to those treated in the shop talks.

3.

A campaign of education ty mean* of public speeohes and
printed natter to be presented to Negro a ulem as wherov-ir
they can bo reaohed, urging them to hi her stan laris of
sanitation and housing in their net hborhoods. Alrsaiy
tho attention o f various agencies is being sailed to tho
necessity for "eleoa-M > campaigns", "Gardenias loveneate”
and the lik e .




litis work was started a ft e r a conference o f white and colored
c itizen s called by the Governor.
The work proceeded in orderly
rashion, ooing consnonded on a l l oidec by both white and colored
c itiz e n s , and wa3 very e ffe c t iv e in increasing the morale, e ffic ie n c y
and contentment o f Negro workers in many parts c f the 3tate during
the War and throughout the period o f restlessness just a fte r the
Arm istice was signed.
llepresentatives o f a lumber association In Florida became
disturbed, i t seems ever material which appeared in colored news­
papers and magasir.es o f the so-called inflansnatoiy type, ths a r tic le s
in which are sent into Florida and other southern states from the
North, and confused the Negro Economics work with the o o -c a ll 9 i
inflammatory propaganda, a lle g in g some connection o f the departmental
representative with this lite ra tu re .

to inspection.

W




—

op*n




S FECK COOPERATING WHITE HEMBKRL OF NORTH CAROLINA NEGRO WORKERS
ADVISORY CG&2HTTEE3
In reply to your l e t t e r o f Kay 24th, I am o f the opinion that the
irork being done by your department is useful and successful. Recently
I listen ed to a speech by your Assistant Supervisor, and I think he
handles his subject w e l l . ”
Very tru ly yours,
(Signed) J. E. Latham^
J. E. Latham Company, Greensboro, N. C.
I have received your in terestin g le t t e r o f May 24th and I
c o rd ia lly approve your e ffo r ts to improve the e ffic ie n c y o f Negro
workers and to create a b e tte r understanding between white employers
and colored workers through the cooperative medium o f the lo c a l Negro
Advisory Committees.
I t is advisable o f course to avoid the m u ltiply­
ing o f sim ilar undertakingssand to concentrate or coordinate the
purposes o f the Department o f Labor in bringing about the desirod mutual
understanding.
I w i l l be glad to cooperate in a reasonable way.
Yours tru ly ,
(Signed) James Sprnnt,
Henderson Sprunt & Son, Wilmington, N. C.
uur requests to your Department have always been most courteously
attended to and matters o f real in terest and value to us have in variably
been the re s u lt.
I fe e l that there is great need fo r your Department in the South,
p a rtic u la rly in the indu strial sections th ereof.
Yours very tru ly,
(Signed) J. E. £5. Thorpe,
Tallassee Power Company, 3adin, N. C."
I t is my opinion that the plan mapped out by the Department of Labor,
as explained by you, is an excellen t one and that with proper cooperation
from both sides i t can be developed fo r great good to both employer
employee.
I sh all be glad to do what I can to further the purposes o f
the organization at a l l times.
Yours tru ly,
(Signed) John G. Braga*, J r.,
Guano Manufacturer, Washington, D. C.




8TAIMMBMS3 JRCU GOOPiSMTlHG tfHITii kTABKRn OP SOUTH CAROLISA NECRO
•YORKiiRS ADVIL OiTT COKKITTEEu
In reply to your l e t t e r o f Kay 24th, I am o f the opinion that the
work being done by your Department is useful and successful. Recently
I listen ed to a speech by your Assistant Supervisor, and I think he
handles h is subject w e ll,"
Very tru ly yours,
(Signed) J. 2, Latham,
J. D. Latham Company, Greensboro, N. 0,

I have received your in te restin g l e t t e r o f Kay 24th
I
c o rd ia lly approve your e ffo r ts to improve the e ffio ie n o y o f Begro
workers and to create a b etto r understanding between rihlto employers
and colored workers through the cooperative medium o f the lo ca l liegro
.icivieory Conanitteoe.
I t is advisable o f course to avoid the m u ltiply­
ing o f sim ila r undertakings and to concentrate or coordinate the
purposes o f the Department o f Labor la bringing about the desired mutual
Mi. lerstanding. I w ill be glad to cooperate in a reasonable wcy.
Tour8 tru ly,
(Signed) James Sprunt,
Henderaon Dpiunt A Son, Wilmington, H, 0.

Our re quotit a to your Department have always been most courteously
attended to and matters o f real in terest and value to us have invariably
been tne resu lt.
I fe e l that there is great need for your Department
in the Louth, p a rticu la rly in the industrial sections th ereo f.
Tours very tru ly,
(Signed) J. d. S. Thorpe,
Tallassee Power Company, 9adln, H. c."
i..v

* V E

p in io n thet the plan napped out by the Department o f
,l a M e:roell4nt ote QDd t&at with proper
o pem t-on tm ji both siden i t can bo developed fo r great t-o^d to both
employer and employee.
I sh all be glad to do what f c ^ t o ' f u * h £
the purposes o f the organisation at a l l tin es.
fa rth e r
Yours truly,
(Signed) John G. Bragaw, J r .,
Guano Manufacturer, Washington. N, o




EXTRACT FRCfcl THE RESOLUTIONS OF THE NATIONAL NEGRO BUSINESS LEAGUE,
A tla n tic C ity, N. J .,
Aug. 21, 22, 23, 1918.
We commend the appointment by Secretary Wilson o f the Labor De­
partment o f Dr. George E. Haynes as representative o f the race in the
Labor Department, who is rendering valuable service, and we c a ll upon
our people everywhere to cooperate with him in the work o f his o ffic e
to increase the e ffic ie n c y and productiveness o f Negro labor.
TELEGRAM
Secretary V/m. B. Wilson,
Dept. Labor,
Washington, D. C.

S t. Louis, Mo.

We, the National Baptist Convention, represented by fiv e thousand
delegates and representing more than three m illio n Negro Baptists
in the United States, most h e a rtily commend your appointment o f
George
Haynes as Director o f Negro Economics and pledge our lo ya l
support to our Government in a l l the a c t iv it ie s incident to the
Great World War.
R. B. Hudson, Secretary
E. C. M orris, President.
EXTRACT FRCii THE RESOLUTIONS ADOPTED AT THE INFORMAL CONFERENCE ON
NEGRO LABOR PROBLEMS, FEBRUARY 17 and 18, 1919, Washington, D. C.,
WITH 156 REPRESENTATIVES OF 45 WELFARE ORGANIZATIONS AND AGENCIES,
NATIONAL IN SCOPE.
That i t is the consensus o f this body that the representatives o f
national organizations attending this conference request th e ir lo ca l
representatives in various states to cooperate immediately with the
representatives o f the Director o f Negro Economics o f the U. S.
Department o f Labor in a l l matters a ffo o tin g the interests o f the
Negro workers.
Hon. W. B. Wilson,
Secretary o f Labor,
Washington, D. C.
Dear S ir:
As President o f the Negro Fellowship League, I w rite to express our
appreciation o f your action in retain ing Dr. George E. Haynes as one
o f your assistants.
The Negro race fe e ls that you have recognized our
claim to representation in a l l departments o f our democracy.
v/e
certa in ly regret that Congress fa ile d in it s appropriations a l l the
more that in sp ite o f the fa ct you have retained a representative o f
our race on your s t a f f .
Again thanking you, we are
Very truly yours,
President - Negro Fellowship League.







<Ls. p .r
II, S. lispioymont dervioe,

.Voridlr<n, 11ns., January 29, 1919,

Prom '’od.eral Direotor
To s Director 'General
Subjjoctt Negro '•.oonomico Division,

.

1. In reply to le t t e r tram ARaibtant D irector deaerul, dated
January 22d, In reference to Division o f Hcgro .icoaocics,
2. la this connection the w rite r wishes to ntute that this
Service Is providing an o f f ic e on the ease flo o r as the o f f i c e o f
the Federal 13re cto r fo r the Supervisor o f ;2egro -oonaroioi;.
2aa
prsaoat Supervisor, L, L, Fostor, a young Itojrc o f energy, ie oaafo rrl.v ; almost d a ily with tho Federal .Director in reforeace to his
•wor*.
S.
The w rite r attended tho meeting o f tho kagro State advisory
Board in Jackson, kondoy, January 27, at which meeting plena wero
perfected fo r the organisation o f the Negro hoys between the ages o f
16 and 21 in ^in oieaip p i in the Boys* .forking Fieaarvc,
Cooperatioa
han been obtained from the Stats .Agricultural College, and they have
agreed to supply instructor.; wherever aocedsary to instruct these
Hegro boys in a short course prepared by tho Reserve.
.jrrangaaontE
wero made fo r v is it in g and organizing Reserves la approximately
tvroaty indu strial Pngro schools in tho State fo r the g iv in g o f
this course in connection with these school* in tho ea rly spring.
This Service w i l l then undertake to place those studonts in active
fact! work as soon a.3 school io closed.
4.
The Uegro 'Yorkorn* .Advisory Joraraittoc in tho State o f
S ississijvp i io w e ll organised and tho work Is prospering very s a tis ­
fa c to ry .
(Sicued) It. E. V o ir,
Federal Dlrootor




U. S.

ii r p l o y n i e n t S e r v i c e ,

Meridian, M iss., January 29, 1919.

From: fed eral Director
To: D irector General
Subject: Negro Economics D ivision.
1. in reply to le t t e r from Assistant Director General, dated
January 23d, in reference to Division o f Negro Economics.
2. In th is connection the w riter wishes to state that this
Service I p providing an o ffic e on the same flo o r a3 the o ffic e o f
the Federal Director fo r the 'dupervisor o f Negro Economics.
Phe
present Sup rv is o r, L. L. Foster, a young Negro o f energy, is con­
fe r r in g almost d a ily with the Federal D irector in reference to his
work.
3.
The w rite r attended the meeting o f the Negro State Advisory
Board in Jackson. Monday, January 27, at Which meeting plans were
perfected fo r the organization o f the Negro boy3 between the ages
o f 16 and 21 in M ississippi in the hoys' '.Vorking Deserve.
Coopera­
tio n has been obtained from the State Agricultural College, and*they
hav3 agreed to supply instructors wherever neoessary to instruct these
Negro boys j.n a short course prepared by tiie Noserve.
Arrangements
were made fo r v is it in g and organizing Reserves in approximately
twenty in d u strial Negro schools in the State fo r the g iv in g o f
th is course in connection with these schools in the early spring.
This service w i l l then undertake to place these students in a ctlvo
farm work as soon as school is closed.
i . The Negro workers' Advisory Committee in the State o f
M ississippi is w e ll organized and the work is prospering very
sa tis fa c to ry .
(Signed) H. H. Weir,
Federal Director.




U. S. itaployment Service,
9 i'ranklin S treet, (Newark, U. J.
A p ril 2, 1919.
P ro f. Geo. E. Hsyne3,
D irector o f Negro Economics,
Washington, D. G.
*

dear Dr. Haynes:

I t is my understanding that you desire an expression o f opinion aa to
the work o f the Bureau o f Negro Economics.
I
1 am glad to inform you that i t is our understanding that Negro ad­
visor;/ committees have boon organised in the prin cip al indu strial
centers throughout the S tate.
(these committees hold regular
meetings at which U r. Ashby (Gupervieor of negro economics fo r Her;
Jerseyj is often present and ho addresses these groups on natters
r e la tiv e to the situ ation pertain in g to Negro labor in the State
and advises them as to how they can make the boat o f th e ir op­
p o rtu n ities .
Committees o f this character have been helpful
into the o ffic e s in the matter o f opportunities fo r colored men
and v.orqen, and also in moulding sontinent in fa vor o f colored workers.
She Camden, ii. J . , Committee is doing an especially fin a piece o f
work in the in terest o f the returning colored so ld ie rs .
Mr. Ashby
personally attends the meetings o f tho w elfare organisations wherever
i t is possible in the S tate, g iv in g s p e c ific attention to the ben efits
that may accrue to the colored workers.
Personally, I oan only speak in the highest terms o f the work which
he has been enabled to accomplish fo r the b en efit o f the liegro
worker o f Hev? Jersey.
I fe e l quite s a tis fie d that responsive to
the energetic work which he has performed that various colored
organisations throughout the ft a t e found i t advisable fo r th eir
best in terests to send telegrams to the various Washington representatives
asking fo r continuation o f the U. 3. -iaployment Service.
Very tru ly yours,
(Signed) J. o p ltz,
Asst, federal D irector o f Unployment fo r IJ. J.




U.

3.

itoploym ont S e r v i c e

9 Franklin Street, Newark, N. J ,,
April 2, 1919.
P ro f. Geo. £• Haynes,
D irector o f Negro yconoroios,
Washington, D. 0.
My dear Dr, ^aynea*
I t is my understanding that you desire an expression o f opinion as to
the work o f the Bureau o f Ne-pro iiccnomlcs.
I an glad to inform yon that i t Is our understanding that negro ad­
visory co-tnittees have been organised in the principal industrial
ccntorc t'<irou Jhout the r;ta te .
Theoe coranitteeo hold ro ju la r
meetings at whioh Mr. Ashby (Supervisor o f i.agro wConoraies fo r low
Jersey! is often present rsnd he addrosren these frrcuos on pattern
r e la t iv e to the situ a tion ]cartainir - to Negro labor in. the ^tate
and advises them as to how they can tjiYo the host o f tfcelr op­
p o rtu n ities.
'cesiStteea o f thio charactor hove been h elpfu l
in to the o fflo o s in the matter o f opportunities fo r colored men
and women, and al3o in moulding contimoat in fa vor o f oolored
workera.
The Camden, I . J .« Committee is doing an esp ecia lly fin e piece of
work in the in terest o f the ietu rn ing colored so ld ie rs .
Mr. Arhby
personally attends tho meetings o f the w elfare organisations wherever
i t io possible in the State, g iv in g s p e c ific attention to tho ben efits
that aay accrue to the colored workers.
Personally, I can only speak in the higheot tome o f the work whioh he
has been enabled to accomplish fo r tho b en efit o f tho Hogro worlar
o f Sew Jersey.
I fe e l -juite satisfied that responsive to the
en ergetic work whioh he has performed that various oolorod organisa­
tions throughout the State found i t advisable fo r th e ir best in terests
to send tolegTcrr to the vrvrlouc ffashington. ro^renontotlvec a.ikicF
fo r continuation o f tho U. S. anplcynent S ervice.
Very tru ly yours,
(Signed) J . Spits,
Asst. Federal Director o f iteployment fo r H. j




U. S. ISKPLOTKEfiT SERVICE
74 East Gay S t., Columbus, Ohio, A p ril 9, 1919.
lir. 3thelbort Stewart,
D ireotor o f In vestigation & Inspection Service,
O ffic e o f the Secretary, Department o f Labor,
Washington, D. G.
My dear Vr . Stewart:
Mr. Charles E. H a ll, who has been Supervisor o f Negro Economics in Ohio,
handed me a copy o f your l e t t e r o f March 27th w ith reference to his re­
port s being made through the o ffic e o f the Federal Director fo r Ohio.
lir. Hall lias been located in the o ffic e o f the Federal D irector fo r the
past several months and we are very glad to advise that the relationship
is very pleasant.
l e fe e l that Mr. Hall is a very competent tuan and
esp ecia lly fit t e d fo r the lin e o f work to which he is assigned.
This l e t t e r is w ritten as an acknowledgment o f the receip t o f instruc­
tions oontained in your l e t t e r o f above date.
Very tru ly yours,
(Signed) C. II. Mayhngh,
Acting Federal D irector fo r Ohio.
142S Newton S treet, Wash., D. C., .July 9, 1919.
Dr. George E. Haynes,
Direotor o f Negro Economics, Department o f Labor,
Washington, D. 0.
My dear Dr. Haynes:
1 very much regret to learn that fa ilu re o f appropriations has made i t
necessary to discontinue the work which has been oarried on by Mr.
Charles E. H all, Supervisor o f Negro Economics fo r Ohio.
Mr. Hall Assisted the Ltaploymont Service in every possible way in re­
c ru itin g labor during the war and in the readjustment o f labor a fte r
the signing o f the arm istice.
The b ig task before him at this time is to a ssist in c r y s ta lliz in g the
best thought and oarrying out the best possible plans fo r improving
housing conditions and aidin g tho Negroes to become s a t is fa c t o r ily ad­
justed to the new in du strial condition which confronts them. His work,
I b e lie v e , has been a real fa c to r in preventing the development o f
rad ical unrest among the Negroes in Ohio.
My knowledge o f Mr. H a ll's work was gained through oontaot as Federal
D ireotor o f Employment fo r Ohio, from which p o sition I resigned March
15, 1919.
•
Very tru ly yours,
(Signed) Fred C. Croxton.




£ .9 iu r

U. S. DKPLOTL'DHr SESVICd
74 Zaat (lay S t ., Ctolumbus, Ohio, A p ril 9, 19X9

Mr. 2tholb«*rt Htewart,
D irector o f in vestigation & Inspection S ervice,
O ffic e o f the Secretary, Department o f Labor,
Washington, D. 0.
I$y dear Hr, Stewart:
Mr. Jharlos g . H a ll, who has boon Supervisor o f Negro socuomioo in Ohio,
handed me a cope/ o f your le t t e r o f March 27th with reference to his re­
ports bain^j made through the o ffio e o f the federal D irector fo r Ohio.
Mr. H all has been located in the o ffic e o f the Hoderal D irector fo r the
past several months and wo are very glad to advise that the l-olationship
is very pleasant.
We fe e l that Mr. Hall is a very competent man and
e s p ecia lly f i t t e d fo r the lin e o f work to which ho is assigned,
This l e t t e r is -written as an acknowledgment of the re c o io t o f Instruc­
tion u contained in your l e t t e r o f above date.
Very tru ly yours,
(Signed) 0. H. Mnyhugh,
Acting Federal D irector fo r Ohio.
1427 Newton S treet, Wash., n. C,, Jaiy 9, 1919.
Dr. aeorge £• Ifcynee,
D irector o f Negro economics, Department o f labor,
Washington, D. C.
My dear Dr. Haynes:
1 very much rogret to learn that fa ilu re o f appropriations has made i t
necessary to discontinue the werte whioh has been carried on by » r .
Charles 2. H a ll, Supervisor o f Ee*rro icenomice fo r Ohio.
Hr. H all assisted the Jnployment Service in oveiy possible way in re ­
cru itin g labor during the war and in the readjustment o f labor a ft e r
the signing o f the arm istice.
The b ig task before him at this time is to a ssist in c r y s ta llis in g the
best thought and carrying out the best possible plans fo r Improving
housing conditions and aiding the Negroes to become s a tis fa c to r ily ad­
justed to the new industrial condition which confronts them.
His work,
I b e lie v e , has been a real fa c to r in preventing the developoent o f
radical unroat among the Negroes in Ohio.
My knowledge o f Mr. Hall*a work was gained through contact as fed eral
d ire c to r o f iiaployment fo r th lo , from which p o sition I resigned March 15,
19X9.
Very tru ly yours,
(Signed) Fred 0. Jroxton.

S alaries (19} people

$7,295.SB

#7,295.35

Travel:
Per diem
Tremsportat ion
Miscellaneous

584.00
6.58
153.30
743.88

••Supplies

3.35

3.35

145.45

145.45

Telegraph

29.69

29.69

Telephone

12.57

12.57

Outstanding Transportation requests

615.40

615.40

.Estimated outstanding b i l l s unpaid

800.00

800.00

Kent

T o t a l
••Does not Include supplies furnished from stock.




.$9,645.00










/

142 a. 9th S t., Middletown, Ohio,
July 14, 1919.

Hon. <V. L. Wilson,
Secretary o f Labor,
Washington, D. C.
Lear S ir:
Y.'e knew nothing o f the resu lts that could be derived from aggression in
the Department o f Labor u n til we came in touch with Mr. Charles a. H all,
who wrote to us from 74 S. Cay S treet, Columbus, Ohio.
Through his persistence, much o f the unrest in labor c irc le s among
Negroes in this County has been a lle v ia te d ; they b elieve the Govern­
ment is interested in th e ir w elfare and we have set to work with new
zea l.
Many are buying homes, and Middletown claims the honor
th ird "Savings and Loan Association" (Colored) in this
"Cavings and Loan Association" was recommended and the
By-Laws were w ritten and given to us by Mr. Charles E.

o f having the
State.
This
Constitution and
H a ll.

■

We fe e l, that the absence o f Mr. Hall w i l l be a great loss to tho beat
in terests o f the Negro in Ohio.
Therefore, according to the request
o f the colored people o f this c it y , and by the unanimous vote o f the
Directors o f "The Progressive Savings and Loan Association" o f Middle­
town, Ohio, this request is sent to you, asking you to use your in­
fluence that Mr. H all may be continued Supervisor o f Negro Economics
in Ohio.
B elievin g you w i l l do the best you can fo r the development o f tho State
and Country, wo -wait your action.
Ilesp ectfu lly,
(Signed) B. 7/hitney Clark,
Pastor, Second Baptist Churoil.


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102