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Workers of Spanish Origin:
A Chartbook
U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
1978
Bulletin 1970







Family Head Data

While the family data in this report were assembled by the tra­
ditional procedures for identifying a "head" for every fam ily— with the
male in husband-wife families being automatically classified as the head—
the Bureau of Labor Statistics has recently changed this practice. In light
of current social trends, the Bureau no longer designates any person as the
"head" in husband-wife families and publishes a large body of data on
persons in the family. However, this chartbook was prepared and in pro­
duction before the adoption of this change. Publication is being made in
the traditional format in order to avoid a long delay in the release of
material which has been in great demand.

Workers of Spanish Origin
A Chartbook
U.S. Department of Labor
Ray Marshall, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Julius Shiskin, Commissioner
1978
Bulletin 1970




For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U .S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D .C . 20402
Stock No. 029-001-02134-8




Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data

United States. Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Workers of Spanish origin.
(Bulletin - Bureau of Labor Statistics ; 1970)
Supt. of Docs, no.: L 2.3s 1970.
1. Spanish Americans in the United States— Employment
— Statistics. 2. Mexican Americans— Employment— United
States— Statistics. 3* Puerto Ricans in the United
States— Employment— Statistics. 4» Unemployment—
United States— Statistics. 5. Wages— United States—
Statistics. I. Mellor, Earl. II. Title. III. Series:
United States. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Bulletin ;
1970.

HD808l*S7A2

1977

331.6*3*6873

77-608152

Preface
This chartbook focuses on selected characteristics of the Spanish-American population and labor force. Many of the charts include data on two specific
groups of Spanish origin: Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans. Although most
Americans of Spanish origin are white (about 96 percent), they may be of any
race. Their numbers are included in the appropriate comparative data shown for
whites and blacks. In this bulletin, the category “ Spanish origin” refers to per­
sons of Spanish origin or descent as defined in appendix B.
The chartbook is divided into four sections. Part I looks at the size and com­
position of the labor force and at labor force participation rates. Part II portrays
characteristics of the unemployed and their unemployment rates. Part III covers
work experience in 1975 (weeks worked, whether usually full- or part-time em­
ployment and incidence of unemployment) and the earnings received during the
year. Part IV presents data on family income and on poverty. Three appendixes
include technical notes, definitions of terms, and a statistical table for each chart.
Many of the data presented in the four sections and in appendix C are cross-clas­
sified by sex, family relationship, years of school completed, and other demo­
graphic and social characteristics.
This bulletin was prepared by Earl F. Mellor of the Office of Current Employ­
ment Analysis, under the guidance of Janice N. Hedges. Bernardine Finstad con­
tributed to the statistical work, and Daniel Glazer provided compilations of unpub­
lished data from Current Population Survey files for March 1976.
Material in this publication is in the public domain and may be reproduced
without permission of the Federal Government. Please credit the Bureau of Labor
Statistics and cite the name and number of the publication.







Contents
Page

Summary indicators for persons of Spanish origin ..............................
Part I.

Part II.

1

Labor Force:

Chart:
1. Population and labor force, by Spanish origin, March 1976 .
2. Residence of the labor force, by Spanish origin and race,
March 1976 ......................................................................
3. Age of the labor force, by Spanish origin and race, March
1976 ..................................................................................
4. Family status of labor force participants, by Spanish origin
and race, March 1976 ......................................................
5. Years of school completed by labor force participants, by
Spanish origin and race, March 1976 ..............................
6. Labor force participation rates, by sex, and Spanish origin
and race, March 1976 ......................................................
7. Labor force participation rates, by age, sex, and Spanish
origin, March 1976 ...........................................................
8. Labor force participation rates of family heads, by sex, and
Spanish origin and race, March 1976 ..............................
9. Labor force participation rates of wives, by presence and
age of children, and Spanish origin, March 1976 ............

14.
5
6




15.
16.

7
8
9
10
11
12
13

Unemployment:

Chart:
10. Unemployment rates, by Spanish origin and race, fourth
quarter 1973-76 .................................................................
11. Unemployed persons, by age, and Spanish origin and race,
March 1976 ......................................................................
12. Family status of the unemployed, by Spanish origin and race,
March 1976 ........................................................................
13. Unemployment rates, by sex, and Spanish origin and race,
March 1976 ......................................................................

Page

17
18
19
20

Part III.

Unemployment rates, by age, sex, and Spanish origin and
race, March 1976 ............................................................
Unemployment rates of family heads, wives, and unrelated
individuals, by sex, and Spanish origin and race, March
1976 .................................................................................
Unemployment rates, by years of school completed, sex, and
Spanish origin and race, March 1976 ..............................

21
22
23

Work Experience and Earnings:

Chart:
17. Work experience in 1975, by sex, and Spanish origin and race
18. Year-round, full-time work experience in 1975 of family heads,
by sex and Spanish origin and ra c e ..................................
19. Employment in 1975, by occupation, sex, and Spanish origin
and race ...........................................................................
20. Incidence of unemployment in 1975, by Spanish origin and
race ..................................................................................
21. Median annual earnings of persons who worked in 1975, by
sex, and Spanish origin and race ................................................

22A. Median annual earnings of persons who worked year round,
full time in 1975, by sex, and Spanish origin and race . . . .
22B. Distribution of annual earnings of persons who worked year
round, full time in 1975, by sex, and Spanish origin and
race ..................................................................................
23. Median annual earnings of family heads, by work experience
in 1975, sex, and Spanish origin and race .......................
24. Median annual earnings of persons who worked year round,
full time in 1975, by years of school completed, sex, and
Spanish originandrace ....................................................
25. Earnings of family heads and wives as a percent of 1975
family income, by sex, and Spanish origin and ra c e .......

27
28
29
30
31

32
33
34

35
36

v

Contents— Continued:
Page

Page

28.

Chart—Continued:
26.

Part IV.

Family heads with earnings below the poverty level as a
percent of family heads who worked year round, full time
in 1975, by sex, and Spanish origin and ra c e ..................

29.
37

31.

Income and Poverty:

Chart:

Appendixes.

27A. Median family income in 1975, by Spanish origin and race
of family head ..................................................................

41

27B. Distribution of family income in 1975, by Spanish origin and
race of family head .........................................................

42


VI


30.

Median family income in 1975, by sex, and Spanish origin and
race of family head...........................................................
Median family income in 1975, by number of earners in the
family, and Spanish origin and race of family head.........
Persons with income below poverty level in 1975, by work
experience, and Spanish origin and race .........................
Percent of families with 1975 income below the poverty level,
by sex, and Spanish origin and race of family head.........

43
44
45
46

Technical Notes and Source Tables:

A. Source, coverage, and limitations of the data .......................
B. Definitions of terms ...............................................................
C. Reference tables ....................................................................

49
52
54

S u m m a ry Ind icato rs for Persons of Spanish O rigin

Persons of Spanish Origin as a Percent of:
The Total Population

The Labor Force

Unemployed Persons

Persons in the Labor Force with Four
Years of College or More

5%

■■■■
■

4%

2%

Persons in the Labor Force with
Eight Years of School or Less

Workers Whose Longest Job in 1975 was
in a Professional or Technical Occupation
Workers Whose Longest Job in 1975 was
as a Semiskilled Worker

■ ■ ■ I

2%

■ ■■
■■■

m

m

m

7%

f:
Families Headed by a Person of Spanish Origin as a Percent D
All Families

Families with an Income of $25,000 or
More in 1975

4%

■ ■ ■ j

2%

Families in Poverty




1




Part I
Labor Force







Chart 1.
Population and Labor Force, by Spanish Origin, March 1976

Persons of Spanish origin are 5 percent
of the total population and 4 percent
of the civilian labor force. More than
half of the population and labor force
of Spanish origin is of Mexican origin
or descent.

Labor Force
93,063,000

U.S. Population
211,140,000




Spanish Origin
3,936,000

Spanish Origin
11,117,000

Mexican American
6,590,000

95.8%

Mexican
American
2,393,000

Puerto Rican
1,753,000

Puerto
Rican
473.000

Other Spanish Origin
2,774,000

Other
Spanish
Origin
1.070.000

5

C h art 2.
Residence of the L ab or Force, by S panish O rig in and Race, M arch 1976

Nonmetropolitan

Members of the labor force of Spanish
origin are much more likely than the
overall labor force to reside in the
central cities of metropolitan areas. This
is particularly true of Puerto Ricans.


6


Metropolitan:
Suburbs
Central Cities

Mexican American

Other Spanish Origin

49.7%

C h art 3.
A g e of the L ab or Force, by Spanish O rigin and Race, M arch 1976

16 to 24 years

Workers of Spanish origin tend to be
younger than other workers.

25 to 44 years
45 to 64 years
65 years and over

All Persons

'Less FRASER
Digitized for than 0.05 percent.


Spanish Origin

White

Mexican American

Total
1.0%

Puerto Rican

1 . 1%

Other Spanish Origin

3.2%

7

□□□□□□

Chart 4.
Family Status of Labor Force Participants, by Spanish Origin and Race,
March 1976

Man as Family Head
Woman as Family Head

The distribution by family status of
members of the labor force of Spanish
origin is similar to that of the total labor
force. About half are family heads.


8


Wife of Head

Child of Head

Other Relative of Head
Unrelated Individual

Black

Mexican American

OtherSpanish Origin

White

Chart 5.
Years of School Completed by Labor Force Participants, by Spanish Origin
and Race, March 1976

□

8 Years or Less |

1

1 to 3 Years of I
High School

Workers of Spanish origin as a group
have completed fewer years of school
than other workers.

All Persons




4 Years of
High School
1 to 3 Years of
College
4 Years of
College or More

□
□
□

|
|
I
I
I
I

Spanish Origin

Total

Mexican American
4.6%

Y
t

9

Chart 6.
Labor Force Participation Rates, by Sex, and Spanish Origin and Race,
March 1976

Total

Men of Spanish origin are as likely as
all men to be in the labor force. Among
women, however, those of Spanish
origin are less likely to be in the labor
force.

Mexican American
Puerto Rican
Other Spanish Origin

All Persons

All Persons

Spanish Origin


1 0


Black

White

Spanish Origin

Black

White

Percent in
Labor Force
90

77.4

75
66.6

60
50.5
46.8

46.3
42.9

45

43.9

30.5

30

15

Men

Women

C h art 7.
L ab or Force P articipatio n Rates, by A ge, Sex, and Spanish O rigin , M arch 1976

All Persons

Among persons of Spanish origin, as
among all persons, labor force
participation is highest for those
25 to 44 years old, and lowest for those
65 and over.

Spanish Origin

Percent in
Labor Force
100




Men

Women
11

Chart 8.
Labor Force Participation Rates of Family Heads, by Sex, and Spanish Origin
and Race, March 1976

Total

Among men who head families, those of
Spanish origin are more likely than
others to be in the labor force. The
opposite is true for women who head
families.

Mexican American


http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
12
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

□

All Persons

Men

j

Puerto Rican |
OtherSpanish Origin

All Persons

■

Women

□

Chart 9.
Labor Force Participation Rates of Wives, by Presence and Age of Children,
and Spanish Origin, March 1976

All Wives

The presence of young children in the
family is associated with greatly lower
labor force participation among women
of Spanish origin.

Spanish Origin

Wives as Percent
in Labor Force
60

45

30

32.4

3 2 .7

15

0

Children by Age



No children under 18

With children
6 to 17 only

Children 3 to 5 only

One or more
children under 3
13




Part II
Unemployment







Chart 10.
Unemployment Rates, by Spanish Origin and Race, Fourth Quarter 1973-76

The unemployment rate of persons of
Spanish origin, as for all persons,
fluctuates with the state of the economy,
The rate for workers of Spanish origin,

Fourth Quarter1
1973

however, is consistently higher than
that of the overall population, although
lower than that of blacks.

1974
1975
1976

All Persons
Spanish Origin

Black

White
Unemployed as a
Percent of Labor Force
15

12

6.6

II
0
'The fourth quarter rate is the average of rates for October, November and December. Data are not seasonally adjusted.




17

Chart 11.
Unemployed Persons, by Age, and Spanish Origin and Race, March 1976

16 to 24 Years

Youth 16 to 24 years old account for
two-fifths of the unemployed persons
of Spanish origin—about the same pro­
portion as among all the unemployed.


18


25 to 44 Years
45 to 64 Years
65 Years and Over
Spanish Origin 450,000

White 6,142,000

1 . 1%

1 4 .4 %

3 9 .8 %

2 .8%

Chart 12.
Family Status of the Unemployed, by Spanish Origin and Race, March 1976
Of almost one-half million persons of
Spanish origin who were unemployed in
March 1976, about one-third were family
heads. One-quarter were wives.




Man as Family Head
Woman as Family Head
Wife of Family Head
Child of Family Head
Other Relative of Head
Unrelated Individual

19

Chart 13.
Unemployment Rates, by Sex, and Spanish Origin and Race, March 1976
Total
Men and women of Spanish origin have
lower unemployment rates on average
than black men and women. Puerto
Ricans, however, are about as likely
as blacks to be jobless.

Mexican American

Puerto Rican
Other
Unemployed as a Percent
of the Labor Force

All Persons

20




Spanish Origin

Black

W hite

All Persons

Spanish Origin

Black

White

All Persons

Spanish Origin

Black

White

Chart 14.
Unemployment Rates, by Age, Sex, and Spanish Origin and Race, March 1976

All Persons

One in five youths of Spanish origin is
jobless. As in other population groups,
the unemployment rate for those 16
to 24 years of age is two to three times
higher than for other age groups.

Spanish Origin

]

Black

White
Unemployed as a Percent
of the Labor Force
30
28.1

16 to 24 years

28.1

25 to 44 years

45 to 64 years
Men

65 years and over

16 to 24 years
25 to 44 years
Women

45 to 64 years

65 years and over

’Rate not shown because base (labor force) is less than 75 thousand.




21

Chart 15.
Unemployment Rates of Family Heads, Wives, and Unrelated Individuals, by Sex,
and Spanish Origin and Race, March 1976
Among family heads, the unemploy­
ment rate for men of Spanish origin
in March 1976 was 8.1 percent— higher
than that for all men. The rateforw om en
of Spanish origin was about the same
as for ail women.

Unemployed as a Percent
of Labor Force
16
Black
Black

Spanish
Origin

12

A"
Persons

Spanish
Black

8

4

0


22


Family Heads

Wives

Unrelated Individuals

Chart 16.
Unemployment Rates, by Years of School Completed, Sex, and Spanish Origin
and Race, March 1976
Persons of Spanish origin, as well as
all persons, who have completed 1 year
of college or more have substantially
lower unemployment rates than those
who have not finished high school.

Men

Women

Unemployed as a Percent
of the Labor Force

16

Less Than 4 Years of High School

4 Years of High School

1 Year of College or More

12

8

4

0




23




Part III
Work Experience and Earnings







Chart 17.
Work Experience in 1975 by Sex, and Spanish Origin and Race

Part-time

Three-fifths of the men of Spanish origin
who held jobs in 1975 worked year
round, full time. For women of Spanish
origin, the comparable proportion was
about two-fifths.

Part-year;
Full-time
Year-round;
Full-time

Percent
Men

Women

100

90_____

80_____

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

All
Persons

Mexican Puerto Other
Total American Rican Spanish
Spanish Origin

Black

White

All
Persons


Note: A year-round
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/ worker is one who worked 50 to 52 weeks in 1975; a part-year worker is one who worked 1 to 49 weeks.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Mexican Puerto Other
Total American Rican Spanish

Black

White

Spanish Origin

27

C h art 18.
Y ea r-ro u n d , F u ll-tim e W o rk E xp e rien ce in 1975 of Fam ily Heads, by Sex,
and Spanish O rigin and R ace

Among family heads who worked in
1975, men of Spanish origin were less
likely than all men to have worked year
round, full time. Women of Spanish

origin who worked in 1975 were as likely
as all women to have worked year round,
full time.

All Persons

All Persons

Spanish
Origin

Black

Spanish
Origin

White

Black

White

Year-round, Full-time Workers
as a Percent of
All Workers in 1975
80

75.9

70.2

60
53.6

40

20

0
Men as Far

28


r

‘

Women as F

Chart 19.
Employment in 1975, by Occupation, Sex, and Spanish Origin and Race

Workers of Spanish origin are much less
likely than the total working population
to be employed in the professional and
technical, and managerial and adminis-




Professional
and Technical

Clerical
Workers

Laborers,
Except Farm

Managers and
Administrators,
Except Farm

Craft and
Kindred
Workers

Service Workers,
Including Private
Household

Sales
Workers

trative occupation groups. They are
far more likely to be employed as skilled
or unskilled manual workers,

Operatives,
including
Transport

Farm
Workers

1

Women
Spanish Origin

All Persons

12.3%

33.7%

Black

White

20.3%

39.4%
24.5%

34.9%
16.0%

1.2% '

1 .0 %

29

C h art 20.
In cid en ce of U n em p lo ym e n t in 1975, by Spanish O rigin and Race

Total
About one-quarter of the persons of
Spanish origin in the labor force in 1975
experienced some unemployment—a
proportion somewhat greater than that
of the total labor force, but less than
that of the black labor force.

Mexican American
Puerto Rican

■
□
□

Other Spanish Origin

All Persons
Spanish Origin




Black

White
Percent of Labor Force
Unemployed Sometime in 1975

C h art 21.
M ed ian A n n ual Earnings of Persons W ho W orked in 1975, by Sex, and
Spanish O rigin and Race

Total

Median earnings for men of Spanish
origin were about seven-tenths of those
of all men in 1975. The median for
women of Spanish origin was about
nine-tenths of that of all women.

■

j
□
i
Puerto Rican
□

Mexican American

Other Spanish Origin |

■

All Persons

All Persons

Spanish Origin

Black

White

Black

Spanish Origin

White

Median
Earnings
$ 12,000

$10,184

10,000

$9,830

■■




8,000

$7,913

Men

Women

31

Chart 22A.
Median Annual Earnings of Persons Who Worked Year round, Full time in 1975,
by Sex, and Spanish Origin and Race

Median earnings for men of Spanish
origin who worked year round, full time
in 1975 were about three-quarters of
those for all year-round, full-time
workers and the same as their black

Total

counterparts. Among women who
worked year round, full time, those of
Spanish origin earned less than their
black counterparts.

Mexican American
Puerto Rican
Other Spanish Origin

All Persons

All Persons

Spanish Origin

32



Black

White

Spanish Origin

Black

White

Median
Earnings
$15,000

$12,877

12,000

$9,698

9,000

6,000

3,000

0

Chart 22B.
Distribution of Annual Earnings of Persons Who Worked Year round, Full time
in 1975, by Sex, and Spanish Origin and Race
About 16 percent of the men of Spanish
origin, but only 2 percent of the women,
earned $15,000 or more for year-round,
full-time work in 1975. Among all year-




Under $2,000

$10,000 to $14,999

$2,000 to $4,999

$15,000 to $24,999

$5,000 to $9,999

round, full-tim e workers, about 35
percent of the men and 5 percent of the
women had 1975 earnings of $15,000
or more.

$25,000 or more

□
□
■

Women

1. 6%

33

Chart 23.
Median Annual Earnings of Family Heads, by Work Experience in 1975, Sex,
and Spanish Origin and Race
Among family heads who worked in
1975, men of Spanish origin earned less
than black men, while women of
Spanish origin and black women had
about the same earnings. Among family

Men

heads who worked year round, full time
in 1975, both men and women of
Spanish origin had earnings below their
black counterparts.

Women

Median Earnings
$15,000
All Family Heads
All Family Heads

34



White

Worked in 1975

Worked Year round, Full time in 1975

White

Chart 24.
Median Annual Earnings of Persons Who Worked Year round, Full time in 1975,
by Years of School Completed, Sex, and Spanish Origin and Race
Among workers of Spanish origin, as
among all workers, earnings for year
round, full time work increased with
more years of school completed.
Earnings of both men and women of

Men

Spanish origin with some college
education were about three-fifths great­
er than the earnings of those who did
not finish high school.

Women

Median
Earnings
All
Persons

$16,000

White

1
White

Persons

12,000

8,000

4,000

0




Less Than 4 Years
of High School

4 Years
of High School

1 Year
of College or More

35

Chart 25.
Earnings of Family Heads and Wives « a Percent of 1975 Family Incom e,
by Sex, and Spanish Origin and Race
The earnings of the family head
accounted for about two-thirds of
1975 family income in families with
a male head of Spanish origin and in
all families with a male head. In

All Persons

husband-wife families of Spanish origin,
the earnings of wives accounted for
about one-sixth of aggregate family
income.

Spanish Origin

Black

White

Median Earnings
as Percent of 1975
Family Income
70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

36



Men as Family Heads

Women as Family Heads

Wives

Chart 26.
Family Heads with Earnings Below the Poverty Level as a Percent
of Family Heads Who Worked Year round, Full time in 1975, by Sex and
Spanish Origin and Race
Family heads of Spanish origin who
worked year round, full time were much
more likely than all family heads with
similar work experience to have earn­
ings below the poverty level.

Women as Fan-lily Heads

Men as Family Heads
All Heads

Spanish
Origin

Black

White

All Heads

Spanish
Origin

Black

White

2 6 .1 %

Percent

25

20

15.5%
14 .7 %

15

10




5 .9 %
5 .2 %

37




Part IV
Income and Poverty







Chart 27A.
Median Family Income in 1975, by Spanish Origin, and Race of Family Head
Total

T he median incom e of all fam ilies
headed by a person of Sp an ish origin
falls between that of w hites and blacks,
but is closer to that of blacks. However,
the average incom e of Puerto Rican
fam ilies is less than that of blacks.

M exican Am erican
Puerto Rican
O ther Sp anish Origin

All Fam ilies

Sp an ish Origin

B la ck

W hite
Median
Incom e
$15,000
$14,268

12,000
$11279

*

jj
■ ■■■
$9,551




$9,546

“

$8,779

^

■
■

■

t

6,000

3,000

0

41

Hay tan solo alrededor de dos quintas
partes de probabilidades de que las
familias de origen hispano, en
comparacion con la totalidad de las
familias, percibieran unos ingresos
globales de $20,000 o mas en 1975. En

Todas las Familias


http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
42
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

cambio, hubo doble de probabilidades
de que las familias de origen hispano
percibieran ingresos inferiores a $4,000
en comparacion con la totalidad de las
familias.

□E3BD

G rafico 2 7B .
D istrib u tio n del Ingreso Fam iliar en 1 97 5 , segun O rigen Hispano y Raza
del C a be za de Familia

Menos de $4,000

$10,000 a $14,999

a $6,999

$15,000 a $19,999

$4,000

$7,000 a $9,999

□

$20,000 a $24,999

$25,000 o mas

Familias con Cabeza
de Familia de Origen
Hispano

Total

Americanos de
Origen Mexicano

Puertorriquenos

Otras Personas de
Origen Hispano

Chart 28.
Median Family Income in 1975, by Sex, and Spanish Origin and Race
of Family Head

Man as Head

Am ong fam ilies of Sp an ish origin, as
am ong all families, the median incom e
of those headed by a man is more than
tw ice that of those headed by a wom an.
Fam ilies with a man of Sp an ish origin as
head have a lower median incom e than
fam ilies headed by a black man.

W om an as Head

M edian Incom e

$16,000

12,000

8,000

4,000




All Fam ilies

43

Chart 29.
Median Family Income in 1975, by Number of Earners in the Family,
and Spanish Origin and Race of Family Head
Fam ily incom e increases with the
num ber of earners in the fam ily. Excep t
for fam ilies with on ly one earner, there

w as no significant difference between
the m edian incom e of fam ilies of S p a n ­
ish origin and black families.

All Fam ilies

S p a n ish O rigin

B la c k

W hite

M edian Incom e
No Earners

Four or M ore Earn ers

$24,000

22,000

20,000
18,000

16,000

14,000

12,000
10,000
8,000

6,000
$5,232

4,000

j
$3,544

2,000

0

http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
44
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

$3,511

Chart 30.
Persons with Income Below Poverty Level in 1975, by Work Experience,
and Spanish Origin and Race
Persons of Sp an ish origin 16 years old
and over w ere about tw ice as likely as
all persons, and alm ost as likely as
blacks, to be in poverty in 1975. Am ong

those w ho w orked in 1975, the incidence
of poverty am ong persons of Sp an ish
origin w as about the sam e as that am ong
their black counterparts.

All Pe rso n s 16 and O ver
W orked in 1975
W orked Y ear round, Full time in 1975

Pe rcen t B e lo w
Po verty Level




8.4

W hite
S p an ish Origin

45

Chart 31.
Percent of Families with 1975 Income Below the Poverty Level, by Sex, and
Spanish Origin and Race of Family Head
Fam ilies with heads of Sp an ish origin
w ere two-and-a-half times as likely as
all fam ilies to be in poverty in 1975.

All Fam ilies

Fam ilies with heads of Puerto R ica n
origin had a higher poverty rate than
black families.

M an as Head

W o m an as Head

Pe rcen t B e lo w
Po verty Level
65


http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
46
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Puerto R ican
M exican A m erican

All Fam ilies

Sp an ish Origin

B la ck

W hite

Appendixes
Technical Notes and Source Tables







Appendix A. Source, Coverage, and Limitations of the Data

Source and coverage

to the

If other factors are held constant, the size of the

marital and fam ily ch a racte ristics;

standard error is in versely related to the num ber of

unemployment, and other items pertaining
previous y ear);

T he tab les in appendix C present all data co n ­

years of school com pleted; and incom e, including its

households sam pled for any one group; thus, stand­

tained in the preceding charts and, in m any cases,

com ponents such as earnings. M any of the data d e­

ard errors for C P S data on the Puerto R ica n popula­

additional information. U nless otherw ise noted, data

rived from the M arch

by the

tion are relatively larger than those for all persons of

refer to the civilian

16

B ureau of Labo r S ta tis tic s in S p e c ia l L a b o r F o rc e

Sp an ish origin, w hich in turn, tend to be larger than

the

R e p o rts and by the Bu reau of the C en su s in C u rre n t
P o p u la tio n R e p o rts

those for blacks, whites, or all persons.2 B e c a u s e

Limitations of the data

m ay be statistically significant, yet a larger ap p ar­

ye ars old and

noninstitutional population

over, and

are tabulated

from

M arch 1976 C urrent Population S u rv e y (C P S ).

CPS

are

published

persons of S p an ish origin and all persons or w hites

T he C P S is conducted monthly for the Bu re a u of
La b o r S ta tistics by the Bu reau of the C ensus. T h e
households in the survey are located in 461 sam ple

ent difference betw een Puerto R ic a n s and all per­

a re a s com prising 923 counties and independent
cities, with co ve ra g e in every S ta te and the D istrict

All data are based on the sam ple survey (except
as noted in table C-1), and thus m ay be different

of Colum bia. A bout 55,000 housing units or other

from those that w ould be obtained from a 100-per­

living

each

cent enum eration. In addition, all data are su b ject

month, and about 47,000 of them, containing about

to the errors in response, enum eration, and p roc­

quarters

are

assig ned

for

interview

100,000 persons 16 ye a rs old and over, are o c c u ­
pied by households eligible for interview. Of these
units, about 3 to 5 p ercent are not interveiw ed in
a given month b e ca u se the residents are not found
at home after repeated calls, are tem porarily absent,
or are otherw ise u n availab le for interview. In all,

essing typ ical of any survey. T h e standard error
m easures the variations that o c c u r by c h a n c e be­
c au se the sam ple m ay not be com pletely re p rese n­
tative of the universe. T h e c h a n c e s are about 68 out

ea ch

of 100 that an estim ate from the sam ple w ould differ
from a com plete cen su s by less than the standard
error. T h e c h a n c e s are about 95 out of 100 that the

T h e b asic monthly survey provides sta tistics on

difference w ould be less than tw ice the standard
error and about 99 out of 100 that it w ould be less

about 45,000
month.

households

are

interview ed

of this relationship, an apparent difference between

sons of Sp an ish origin, or another group, m ay not
be statistically significant. Thus the user of this
bulletin is cautioned against drawing con clusions
from relatively sm all differences betw een numbers
shown in the charts or tables. B e c a u s e of the re la­
tively large standard errors asso ciated with small
numbers, p ercen tag es or m edians derived from a
base of less than 75,000 are not shown.3
C a lc u la tin g s ta n d a rd e rro rs . Stan dard errors of esti­
mated n u m b e rs (x) are derived from the following
form ula:

a (x) = V (a) x- + (b) x
in w hich x is the size of the estim ate and (a) and

unem ploym ent,

than 2Vz tim es the standard error. All statem ents of

(b) are param eters asso ciated with a p articular ch a r­

and on persons not in the labor force, and are pub­

com parison ap pearing in the charts and in the text

acteristic.

lished m onthly by the Bu reau of La b o r S ta tis tic s in

are significant at the 90-percent level (1.6 standard

E m p lo y m e n t a n d E a rn in g s . In s elected months, the

errors or more). T he tests of sig n ifica n ce for state­

com puted by using sam ple data for both num erator

b asic survey is supplem ented by additional inquiries

ments in this bulletin utilize tables and form ulas pro­

and

designed to provide more detailed statistics of e c o ­

vided by the B ureau of the Census, som e of w h ich

form ula:

the

labor force,

em ploym ent

and

nom ic and other activity. E a c h M arch there are sup­

are published in C u rre n t P o p u la tio n

plem ental questions on w ork e x p erien ce (num ber of

p lo y m e n t a n d E a rn in g s , and S p e c ia l L a b o r F o rc e
R e p o rts .

w ee k s worked, w hether part- or full-time, w e e k s of




49

R e p o rts , E m ­

Stan d a rd

errors

denom inator,

of

estim ated

are derived

p ercen tag es

from

(p),

the following

in w h ich y is the base of the p ercen tag e (the de­
nom inator) 4 p is the p ercen tag e expressed as a
,
d ecim al (e.g., 10.5 p ercen t = .105), and (b) is the
p aram eter asso ciate d with the p articular c h a ra c te r­

of table A-1 is limited. A dditional inform ation on the

la tio n S u rv e y a n d o n d e fin itio n s o f te rm s , se e B L S R e p o rt

calculation of standard errors and exam ples of their
calculation, including those of m edians, are provided
in the publications cited at the bottom of table A-1.

463,

istics of the numerator.
T a b le

A-1

p rovides
and

of the

population

(a)

with

and

(b)

la tio n

most of the

groups

co vered

------------ FOOTNOTES------------

in

ple size, the sam ple design, and estim ation p ro ce ­

m o n th s

Force Reports a n d o th e r p u b lic a tio n s

the (a)

s u p p le m e n ta l

d a ta

h o ld e rs , a n d

w o r k s c h e d u le s )

param eter m ay va ry am ong

different age

and w om en

separately.

S in c e

nearly all com parison s in this bulletin are based on

m e n ta l d a ta

(u s u a l w e e k ly

( c h a r a c te r is tic s

and

Special Labor

u s in g

e a rn in g s ,

M ay

m u ltip le

O c to b e r C P S

o f s tu d e n ts ,

C PS
jo b ­

s u p p le ­

g ra d u a te s ,

and

Directory of Labor
Force Studies Based on the Current Population Survey fo r
s c h o o l d ro p o u ts ). S e e B L S R e p o rt 456,

p ercen tag es (w hich require only the (b) param eter

a d e ta ile d

in the calcu latio n of the standard error), the detail

th e C PS . F o r a d d itio n a l in fo rm a tio n o n th e C u rre n t P o p u ­




M a rc h

s ta n d a rd

s u rv e y

e rr o r s

o th e r th a n

is a b o u t tw ic e

f o r th is

M a rc h

a re

th a t o f o th e r

p o p u la tio n

a b o u t 30

g ro u p

p e rc e n t

fro m
h ig h e r

th a n th o s e fro m M a rc h d a ta .
x T h e B u re a u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s p re p a re s

dures, and they are su b ject to change. In addition,
groups and by w h ether data are for both sexes to­

in th e

m o n th s ,

this bulletin. T h e se param eters depend on the sam ­

gether or for men

p u b lic a tio n o f B L S a n d th e B u re a u o f th e C e n s u s .
2 B e c a u s e th e s a m p lin g ra te o f th e S p a n is h o rig in p o p u ­

valu es

param eters that are asso ciate d
ch a ra c te ris tic s

Concepts and Methods Used in Labor Force Sta­
tistics Derived from the Current Population Survey, a jo in t

lis tin g

o f B L S p u b lic a tio n s u tiliz in g

50

d a ta fro m

3Som e

o f th e

p e rc e n ta g e s

show n

in

th e

c h a rts

and

ta b le s , p r im a r ily la b o r fo r c e p a r tic ip a tio n ra te s a n d u n e m ­
p lo y m e n t ra te s , w e re c a lc u la te d fro m
and

m ay

o b ta in e d

d if f e r

s lig h tly

fro m

by c a lc u la tin g th e m

u n ro u n d e d n u m b e rs

th e

ra te s

w h ic h

fro m

th e

ro u n d e d

w o u ld

be

n u m b e rs

w h ic h a p p e a r in th e ta b le s .
‘ V a lu e s fo r x a n d y a re n o t in th o u s a n d s — th e f u ll n u m ­
b e r m u s t be u se d .

Table A-1. Standard error parameters to be used for selected characteristics from the March 1976 Current Population Survey
P a ra m e te r
C h a ra c te r is tic 1 a n d p o p u la tio n g ro u p 2

F a m ilie s s

P e rs o n s
(a)

P o p u la tio n , a ge, s e x :
A ll ra c e s , w h ite ..................................................................................................
B la c k ........................................................................................................................
S p a n is h o r ig in :
B o th s e x e s .................................................................................................
M a le o r fe m a le ..........................................................................................
In c o m e a n d e a rn in g s :
A ll ra c e s ................................................................................................................
W h ite ........................................................................................................................
B la c k ......................................................................................................................
S p a n is h o rig in ....................................................................................................
P o v e rty s ta tu s o f p e rs o n s 14 y e a rs o r o v e r:
A ll ra c e s , w h ite .................................................................................................
B la c k .......................................................................................................................
S p a n is h o rig in ....................................................................................................
E d u c a tio n a l a tta in m e n t o r s c h o o l e n ro llm e n t:
A ll ra c e s , w h i t e ....................................................................................................
B la c k .......................................................................................................................
S p a n is h o rig in ....................................................................................................
L a b o r fo rc e , e m p lo y m e n t, w o r k e x p e rie n c e :
A ll ra c e s , w h ite :
B o th s e x e s .................................................................................................
M a le o r F e m a le ........................................................................................
B la c k ........................................................................................................................
S p a n is h o r ig in :
M o s t ite m s ....................................................................................................
D e ta ile d o c c u p a tio n , by s e x ...............................................................
U n e m p lo y m e n t:
A ll ra c e s , w h ite .................................................................................................
B la c k .......................................................................................................................
S p a n is h o rig in ....................................................................................................
M a rita l s ta tu s a n d h o u s e h o ld c h a ra c te r is tic s :
A ll ra c e s , w h ite .................................................................................................
S o m e h o u s e h o ld m e m b e rs .................................................................
A ll h o u s e h o ld m e m b e rs ......................................................................
B la c k .......................................................................................................................
S o m e h o u s e h o ld m e m b e rs .................................................................
A ll h o u s e h o ld m e m b e rs ......................................................................
S p a n is h o rig in ....................................................................................................
S o m e h o u s e h o ld m e m b e rs .................................................................
A ll h o u s e h o ld m e m b e rs ......................................................................

(b)

(')
n

n
(J)

(b)

- .0 0 0 0 1 0
- .0 0 0 0 8 7

1 3 8 8.6 4 4 4
1255.0 3 8 2

- .0 0 0 0 4 4 1
- .0 0 0 0 2 5 6

8 9 1 7 .4 2 3 6
4 4 3 1 .7 8 0 5

- .0 0 0 0 1 9 5
- .0 0 0 0 1 9 5

1 4 2 2.2 0 6 9
1 4 2 2.2 0 6 9

- .0 0 0 0 0 7
-.0 0 0 0 0 7
-.0 0 0 0 5 2
- .0 0 0 0 1 1

1 5 3 3.4 9 8 6
1 5 3 3.4 9 8 6
1 3 8 4.8 4 6 6
2 2 2 9 .3 5 5 9

- .0 0 0 0 0 8
-.0 0 0 0 0 8
-.0 0 0 0 6 4
- .0 0 0 0 1 9 5

1063.1 8 0 9
1 0 6 3.1 8 0 9
9 2 2 .0 6 8 9
1 4 2 2.2 0 6 9

-.0 0 0 0 2 9
-.0 0 0 2 0 0
- .0 0 0 0 4 4 1

6 1 3 3.9 9 4 4
5 5 3 9.3 8 6 4
8 9 1 7 .4 2 3 6

-.0 0 0 0 0 8
-.0 0 0 0 6 4
- .0 0 0 0 1 9 5

1063.1 8 0 9
9 2 2 .0 6 8 9
1422.2 0 6 9

- .0 0 0 0 1 6
- .0 0 0 1 8 6
-.0 0 0 0 1 4 8

2 0 6 4 .3 4 5 2
2 7 9 1 .7 8 0 5
2 2 8 5 .1 0 8 9

-.0 0 0 0 1 0
-.0 0 0 0 8 7
-.0 0 0 0 1 9 5

1388.6 4 4 4
1 2 55.0382
1 422.2069

-.0 0 0 0 1 1
-.0 0 0 0 1 6
- .0 0 0 0 9 4

146 0.2 3 4 2
1 1 2 4 .6 9 3 4
1 3 0 7.8 1 3 9

-.0 0 0 0 1 0
-.0 0 0 0 1 0
-.0 0 0 0 8 7

138 8.6 4 4 4
1388.6 4 4 4
1 2 5 5.0 3 8 2

- .0 0 0 0 2 5 6
-.0 0 0 0 1 9 5

4 4 3 1 .7 8 0 5
1 4 2 2.2 0 6 9

-.0 0 0 0 1 9 5
-.0 0 0 0 1 9 5

1422.2 0 6 9
1422.2 0 6 9

- .0 0 0 0 0 5
- .0 0 0 0 0 5
-.0 0 0 0 1 9 5

1 6 2 9.1 8 6 5
1 6 2 9 .1 8 6 5
1422.2 0 6 9

-.0 0 0 0 1 0
-.0 0 0 0 8 7
- .0 0 0 0 1 9 5

1388.6 4 4 4
1 2 5 5.0 3 8 2
1422.2 0 6 9

-.0 0 0 0 1 0

1 3 8 8.6 4 4 4

— .0 0 00 1 7
— .0 00020

350 0 2791
4 2 5 2 .7 2 3 5
- .0 0 0 0 8 7

1255.0 3 8 2

— .0 00210
— .0 0 00 3 0 8

502 0 1527
7 4 0 2 .1 6 3 9
— .0 0 00 1 9 5

1422.2 0 6 9

— .0 0 00 2 5 6
— .0000441

4 4 3 1 .7 8 0 5
8 9 1 7 .4 2 3 6

1 When comparing percentages, use the parameters which pertain to the characteristic in the
num erators of the percentages. Example: If the comparison is between the percent of high school
graduates with earnings of $10,000 or more and the percent of high school graduates with
earnings of less than $5,000, the parameter for earnings would be used rather than that for
education. However, if the comparison is between persons with four years of college as a per­
cent of all persons with earnings of $10,000 or more, and high school dropouts as a percent
of all persons with earnings of $10,000 or more, the parameter for education would be used
rather than that for earnings.
When comparing estimates (numbers) of different characteristics from cross-tabulations, use
the parameters which have the largest (b). Example: If a comparison is between the number
of employed high school graduates and the number of unemployed high school graduates, the
parameters for education would be used rather than the parameters of employment and un­
employment.




(a)

2 Because the sampling rate of the Spanish origin population in March is about twice that of
other months, the Spanish origin parameters in this table should be used only for March data.
Standard errors for other months are about 30 percent larger.
3 The parameters for families should be used for items which can typically appear only once
in a given household or family, e.g., family income, earnings of family head, earnings of wife,
poverty status of unrelated individuals.
4 Values of all races, white, and black, by age and sex are not estimates from the Current
Population Survey but are obtained from independent sources. These values have no sampling
error associated with them.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Current Population R eports,
Series P-20, No. 290; Series P-60, Nos. 101 and 102; and unpublished data.

51

Appendix B. Definitions of Terms

Demographic and social characteristics

"M ex ican - A m erican ” . Pe rso n s w ho reported them ­

A g e . T he age cla ssificatio n is based upon a per­
so n ’s age at last birthday.

Y e a rs o f s c h o o l c o m p le te d . D ata on ye ars of school

selves as Puerto R ica n (item 14) w e re classified
separately. T h o se w ho c h o se C uban, C entral or

com pleted w ere derived from the com bination

an sw ers to questions con ce rning the highest g rade

South A m erican, or “ O ther S p a n is h ” (item s 15-17)

of school attended by the person and w h eth er or

of

w ere consolidated into the categ ory "O th e r S p a n ­
F a m ily . T he term "fa m ily ” as used here refers to a

not that g rade w a s finished. T he questions on ed u ­

ish” . In the questionnaire "O th e r S p a n is h ” (item 17)

cational attainm ent ap p ly only to progress in "re g u ­

group of two persons or more, related by blood,

includes persons w h ose origin or d esce n t is from

lar” schools. S u c h sch o o ls include graded public,

m arriage, or adoption, and residing together; such

S p a in and those of mixed Sp a n ish origin or descent.

private, and parochial elem entary and high sch o o ls

Figure 1

and professional schools, w h ether day s c h o o ls or

persons are counted as m em bers of one fam ily. O ne
person in ea ch fam ily is d esignated as the " h e a d ” ,

(both junior and senio r high), colleges, universities,
night schools. Thus, regular schooling is that w h ich

usually the person w ho is regarded as the head by

m ay a d v a n ce a person tow ard an elem entary school

m em bers of the family.1M arried w om en are not c la s ­
sified as heads if their husbands a re living with them
at the tim e of the survey. A lodger and his w ife who
are not related to the head of the fam ily or a resi­
dent em plo yee w h o se w ife lives with him are co n ­
sidered a sep a ra te fam ily. H ow ever, a m arried co u ­
ple or parent-child group related to the head of the
fam ily and sharing his living quarters (a subfam ily)

W h a t is y o u r o rig in o r d e s c e n t?

certificate or a high school diplom a, or a college,
university, or professional school degree. S c h o o lin g

01 G e rm a n

10 M e x ic a n -A m e ric a n

02 Ita lia n

11 C h ic a n o

03 Iris h

12 M e x ic a n

in other than regular sch o o ls w a s counted on ly if the
credits obtained w ere regarded as transferab le to a
school in the regular school system .

R a ce . In the C urrent Population Su rvey, the popu­
lation is divided into three groups on the basis of

13 M e x ic a n o
14 P u e rto R ic a n

06 R u ssia n

15 C u b a n

07 E n g lis h

is treated not as a sep a ra te fam ily but as part of the
h ea d ’s family. Pe rs o n s not in fam ilies are classified
as unrelated individuals.

04 F re n c h
05 P o lis h

16 C e n tra l o r S o u th A m e ric a n

08 S c o ttis h

17 O th e r S p a n is h

at all as paid em p lo yee s in their own b usiness or
profession, on their ow n farm, or as unpaid w o rk ers

09 W e lsh

20 N e g ro

working 15 hours or m ore in an enterprise operated

race: white, black, and "o th e r” . D ata for ra ce s other

21

than w hite or b lack a re not show n in this bulletin.
R a c e is determ ined
view er.

by observation

of the

B la c k

30 A n o th e r g ro u p n o t lis te d

S p a n is h o rig in o r d e s c e n t. Identification of persons
sponses to the C P S question show n in figure 1.
Pe rso n s
A m erican,
10-13)

w ho

reported

C hicano,

w ere

them selves

M exican,

con solid ated




into

as

Mexican-

or M exicano
the

one

(item s

E m p lo y e d in M a rc h 1976. Em p loyed persons a re all
those who during the su rvey w eek, (a) did an y w ork

by a m em ber of the fam ily; or (b) did not w o rk but
had jobs or businesses from w h ich they w e re tem-

OR

inter­

of Sp an ish origin or d esce n t w a s obtained from re­

Labor force and employment status

FORM CPS-597
(1-3-74)

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE
SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC STATISTICS ADMIN.
BUREAU OF THE CENSUS

O R IG IN F L A S H C A R D
C U R R E N T P O P U L A T IO N S U R V E Y

categ ory

52

Nearly all male family heads are husbands in husbandwife families; most female family heads are mothers living with
their children (and no husband present). The procedures for
identifying family heads were devised many years ago and do
not reflect current social trends. These procedures are in the pro­
cess of being revised. For example, the Bureau of Labor Statis­
tics no longer designates any person as the head in husband-wife
families. However, this chartbook was prepared prior to the
adoption of this change. For a comprehensive discussion of the
definition and limitations of the family head concept and the
efforts of the Bureau of Labor Statistics to present more rele­
vant data, see Janet L. Norwood, "New Approaches to Statis­
tics on the Family," M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w , July 1977, pp 3134. Also see box on inside front cover of this chartbook.

porarily absent b e cau se of illness, bad w eather, v a ­
cation, labor-management dispute, or other personal
reasons, w hether or not they w ere paid by their
em ployers for the tim e off, and w h ether or not they
w ere seeking other jobs.
U n e m p lo y e d in M a rc h 1976. Unem ployed persons
are all those w ho did not w ork during the survey

In c id e n c e o f u n e m p lo y m e n t in 1975. T h e proportion
of the work force unem ployed at som e tim e during

Y e a r-ro u n d

fu ll-tim e

w o rk e rs .

Year-round

full-time

w orkers are persons w ho w orked prim arily at full­
time jobs for 50 w eeks or m ore in 1975.
P a rt-y e a r w o rk e rs .

preceding 4 w eeks, and w ere ava ilab le

who worked either full time or part tim e for 1 to 49
w eeks in 1975.

during the survey w ee k or w ould have been a v a il­

Part-year w orkers are

persons

In c o m e . Data on incom e are limited to m oney in­
com e received before paym ents for personal incom e
taxes and deductions for social security, union dues,
M edicare, etc. M oney incom e is the sum of the
am ounts received from earnings; social security and
public assista n ce paym ents; dividends, interest, and
rent;

unem ploym ent

governm ent

and

and

private

w o rk ers’ com pensation;
em ployee

pensions;

and

other periodic income. (C ertain m oney receip ts such

able except for tem porary illness. Also included as
unem ployed are those who did not w ork at all,
w ere ava ilab le for work, and (a) w ere waiting to be

renter, or sharecropper.

the year represents the in cidence of unemployment.

week, m ade sp ecific efforts to find a job within the
for w ork

person on his or her own account, as an owner,

L o n g e s t jo b . A p erso n ’s longest job during the year

as capital gains are not included.) Therefore, m oney

is the one w hich w as held for the greatest num ber

incom e does not reflect the fact that m any fam ilies

called b ack to a job from w hich they had been laid

of weeks. For most w a g e and sala ry w orkers, a job

re ce ive part of their incom e in the form of nonm oney

off, or (b) w ere waiting to report to a new w a g e or
salary job within 30 days.

is defined as all the time w orked for the sam e em ­

transfers such as food stamps, health benefits, and

ployer. T he only exception is work for private fam i­

subsidized housing; that m any farm fam ilies receive

lies (dom estic service, babysitting, odd jobs, and
L a b o r fo rc e in M a rc h 1976. T he labor force com ­
prises all civilian persons classified as em ployed or
unem ployed acco rd ing to the ab ove definitions.

nonm oney incom e in the form of rent-free housing

the like) w hich is counted as a single job regardless

and goods produced and consum ed on the farm; or

of number of em ployers. Self-em ploym ent and un­

that nonm oney incom e is also

paid work in fam ily-operated enterprises are also

nonfarm residents w hich often takes the form of the
use of business transportation and facilities, full or

designated as jobs for purposes of this survey.
N o t in la b o r fo rc e in M a rc h 1976. Pe rso n s not c la s s i­
fied as em ployed or unem ployed are defined as not
in the labor force. Pe rso n s doing only incidental
unpaid fam ily work (less than 15 hours a w eek) are
also classified as not in the labor force.

Work experience

received

by som e

partial paym ent by business for retirem ent programs,
O c c u p a tio n . T he data on occup ation refer to the job
held for the longest period of tim e during the year.
Pe rso n s who held two jobs or more are reported in
the job at w hich they w orked the greatest num ber
of weeks.

m edical and educational expenses, etc. T h e se e le ­
ments should

be considered when

com paring

in­

com e levels. M oreover, readers should be aw are
that for m any different reasons there is a tend ency
in household surveys for respondents to underreport
their incom e. Underreporting tends to be m ore pro­
nounced for incom e sources that are not derived

Earnings, income, and poverty

during the year at full- or part-time jobs.

E a rn in g s . Earning s consist of incom e from the fol­
lowing sources: (1) M oney w a g e s or sala ry re ceived

rentals, etc. O verall, incom e earned from w a g e s or
sala ries is much better reported than other sources

for work perform ed as an em plo yee during the in­

W o rk e x p e rie n c e . Pe rso n s with w ork ex p erien ce in
1975 are those w ho w orked as cilivian s at any time

from earnings, such as social security, public a s ­
sistance, and net incom e from in te rest,, dividends,

of incom e and is nearly equal to independently de­

com e year. This categ o ry includes w ages, salary,

rived adm inistrative sources. B y contrast, 1973 in­

P a rt-tim e a n d fu ll-tim e jo b s . R esp ond ents are asked

com m issions, tips, piece-rate paym ents, and

com e data on social security and public assista n ce

how

bonuses earned, before deductions w e re m ade for

paym ents to b eneficiaries equaled approxim ately 89

during 1975. T h e y are classified as having w orked

taxes, bonds, pensions, union dues, etc. (2) Net in­

at full-time jobs if they w orked 35 hours or m ore per

com e from nonfarm self-em ploym ent— gross receipts

and 75 percent, respectively, of independently d e­
rived estim ates.

m any hours

they

usually

w orked

per w ee k

cash

w eek in a m ajority of the w eeks w orked during the

minus expenses from o n e ’s own business, profes­

year; respondents are classified as having w orked a

sional enterprise, or partnership. (3) Net incom e from

P o v e rty . Fam ilies and unrelated individuals are c la s ­

part-time job if they w orked 1 to 34 hours per w eek

farm self-em ploym ent— gross receipts minus operat­

sified as being ab ove or below the poverty level

in a m ajority of the w eeks w orked during the year.

ing expenses from the operation of a farm

using the poverty index adopted by a Fed era l Inter-




53

by a

a g e n cy Com m ittee in 1969. T h is index is based on
the D epartm ent of A g ricu ltu re ’s 1961 Eco n o m y Food

dividuals and two-person fam ilies a re further differ­

com pensate for the relatively larger fixed expenses
of these sm aller households.

entiated by age of head

(under 65 y e a rs and 65

ments of fam ilies based on their size and com po si­
tion, sex and age of the fam ily head, and farm-

W e ig h te d a v e ra g e th re s h o ld s a t th e p o v e rty le v e l.

years and over). T h e total fam ily in com e of ea ch
fam ily in the sam ple is tested ag ainst the ap p ro pri­

The

of the

ate dollar threshold to determ ine the poverty status

nonfarm residence. It w a s determ ined from the D e­

C ensus to determ ine the poverty status of fam ilies

partm ent of A g ricu ltu re’s 1955 su rvey of food co n ­

and unrelated individuals con sist of a set of 124

of that fam ily. If the fam ily’s total incom e is less
than its corresponding cutoff, the fam ily is classified

sumption that fam ilies of three

thresholds arranged

as below the poverty level.

Plan and reflects the different consum ption require­

or m ore

persons

spend approxim ately one-third of their incom e on

poverty

cutoffs

used

by the

Bu reau

in a four-dim ensional

matrix

consisting of fam ily size (from one person, i.e., an
unrelated individual, to a seven-or-more-person fam ­

T he poverty thresholds are updated every y e a r

fore, set at three tim es the cost of the econ om y
food plan. For sm aller fam ilies and persons living

ily) cross-classified by p re se n ce and num ber of fam ­

to reflect cha n g es in the C onsum er P r ic e Index
(C P I). Thus, the a ve ra g e poverty threshold for a non­

ily m em bers under 18 years old (from no children

farm fam ily of four w a s $5,500 in 1975, about 9

alone, the cost of the econ om y food plan w a s multi­

present to six or more children

percen t higher than the co m parable 1974 cutoff of

plied by factors that w ere slightly higher in order to

head, and

food; the poverty level for these fam ilies w as, th ere­

farm-nonfarm

present); sex of

residence.

U nrelated

in­

$5,038.

Appendix C. Reference Tables

Table C-1. Population and labor force by Spanish origin and race, March 1976

P o p u la tio n 3:
N um ber
P e rc e n t
L a b o r fo rc e :
N um ber
P e rc e n t

S p a n is h o rig in 1

A ll
p e rs o n s

T o ta l

(in th o u s a n d s ) ...........................................................................
..............................................................................................................

2 1 1 ,1 4 0
100.0

(in th o u s a n d s ) ...........................................................................
..............................................................................................................

9 3 ,06 3
100.0

P o p u la tio n a n d la b o r fo rc e

P u e rto
R ic a n

O th e r

B la c k

W h ite

O th e r2

1 1 ,11 7
5.3

6,5 90
3.1

1,753
0.8

2,7 74
1.3

2 4 ,16 2
11.4

183,364
86.8

3 ,6 1 4
1.7

3,9 36
4.2

2 ,3 93
2.6

473
0.5

1,070
1.1

9 ,0 79
9.8

8 2 ,45 0
88.6

1,534
1.6

1 Persons of Spanish origin may be of any race. Their numbers are included in the data per­
taining to race. According to the 1970 census, more than 96 percent of the population of
Spanish origin are classified as white.
2 Includes American Indian, Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Hawaiian, and Korean, among others.
Data on individual other races are not available from the Current Population Survey.
3 In this table only, data on population refer to the civilian noninstitutional population of all
ages plus male members of the Armed Forces living on post with their families, or living off




R a ce

M e x ic a n
A m e ric a n

post. Data on the labor force in this and other tables refer only to the civilian noninstitutional
population, 16 years old and over.
NOTE: Detail may not add to totals because of rounding.
SOURCES: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports,
Series P-20, No. 302; and U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, unpublished
Current Population Survey tabulations, March 1976.

54

Table C-2. Residence of the labor force, by Spanish origin and race,
March 1976

Table C-3. Age of the labor force, by Spanish origin and race,
March 1976

(Percent distribution)

(Percent distribution)
S p a n is h o rig in

S p a n is h o rig in

U n ite d S ta te s (th o u s a n d s ) ..
U n ite d S ta te s (p e rc e n t) ......
M e tr o p o lita n a re a s ......
C e n tra l c itie s .........
S u b u rb s ...................
N o n m e tro p o lita n a re a s ..

T o ta l

9 3 ,06 3

3,9 36

100.0
69.5
29.0
4 0.4
30.5

100.0
84.0
49.5
34.5
16.0

M e x ic a n
A m e ric a n
2,3 93
100.0
78.0
43.9
34.1
22.0

P u e rto
R ic a n
4 73
100.0

O th e r
1,070
100.0

97.3
77.4
19.9
2.5

91.5
4 9.7
41.8
8.5

B la c k

W h ite

Age

A ll
p e rs o n s

9,0 79

8 2 ,45 0

L a b o r fo rc e (th o u s a n d s ) ....

93 ,06 3

3 ,9 36

2,393

473

L a b o r fo rc e (p e rc e n t) ...........

A ll
p e rs o n s

R e s id e n c e

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

23.3
43.3
30.3
3.1

26.2
50.4
22.3
1.0

29.2
49.3
20.4
1.1

24.5
53.9
21.4

20.4
51.3
27.1
1.1

100.0
76.8
57.8
19.0
23.2

100.0
68.4
2 5.5
4 2.8
31.6

NOTE: Detail may not add to totals because of rounding.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, unpublished Current Popula­
tion Survey tabulations, March 1976.

16
25
45
65

to 24
to 44
to 64
y e a rs

y e a rs
y e a rs
y e a rs
o ld o r

..............
..............
..............
o v e r ....

M e x ic a n
T o ta l
A m e ric a n

P u e rto
R ic a n

O

B la c k

W h ite

1,070

9,0 79

8 2 ,45 0

100.0

100.0

100.0

23.8
46.8
26.3
3.1

23.2
42.8
30.8
3.2

O th e r

1 Less than 0.05 percent.
NOTE: Detail may not add to totals because of rounding.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, unpublished Current Popula­
tion Survey tabulations, March 1976.

Table C-4. Family status of labor force participants, by sex, and Spanish origin and race, March 1976
(Percent distribution)
S p a n is h o rig in
F a m ily s ta tu s a n d s e x

L a b o r fo rc e (th o u s a n d s ) .....................................................................................

A ll
p e rs o n s

T o ta l

M e x ic a n
A m e ric a n

P u e rto
R ic a n

O th e r

B la c k

W h ite

93 ,06 3

3,936

2 ,3 9 3

473

1,070

9,079

8 2 ,45 0

...............................................................................................

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

In fa m ilie s ..............................................................................................................
H e a d s o f fa m ilie s .....................................................................................
M e n 1 ....................................................................................................
W om en
...............................................................................................
W iv e s o f fa m ily h e a d s .........................................................................
C h ild re n o f fa m ily h e a d s ....................................................................
O th e r re la tiv e s o f fa m ily h e a d s .......................................................

8 7.8
46.7
4 2.2
4.5
23.0
15.8
2.4

89.6
48.1
42.5
5.6
20.8
16.4
4.3

91.2
4 8.0
4 3.0
5.0
20.1
18.5
4.6

8 6.9
52.5
4 4.3
8.3
18.0
12.7
3.6

87.1
4 6.5
4 0.7
5.9
23.6
13.4
3.6

85.5
41.8
30.3
11.5
20.5
17.9
5.2

88.1
4 7.3
43.6
3.7
23.2
15.6
2.0

U n re la te d in d iv id u a ls .....................................................................................
M en ................................................................................................................
W om en
.........................................................................................................

12.2
6.3
5.9

10.4
6.7
3.7

8.8
6.4
2.3

13.1
9.5
3.6

12.8
6.2
6.7

14.6
8.0
6.5

11.9
6.1
5.8

L a b o r fo rc e (p e rc e n t)

’■According to Census Bureau definition, the husband is always classified as the head of a
husband-wife family.




SOURCE: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, unpublished Current Popula­
tion Survey tabulations, March 1976.

55

Table C-5.

Years of school completed by labor force participants, by sex, and Spanish origin and race, March 1976

(Percent distribution)
S p a n is h o rig in
S e x a n d y e a rs o f s c h o o l

B o th s e x e s :
L a b o r fo rc e (th o u s a n d s ) ................................................................................

A ll
p e rs o n s

T o ta l

M e x ic a n
A m e ric a n

P u e rto
R ic a n

O th e r

B la c k

W h ite

9 3 ,06 3

3,936

2,393

473

1,070

9,079

82 ,45 0

.....................................................................................

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

1 00.0

y e a rs o f e le m e n ta ry s c h o o l o r le s s .........................................
to 3 y e a rs o f h iq h s c h o o l ...............................................................
y e a rs o f h ig h s c h o o l .........................................................................
to 3 y e a rs o f c o lle g e ......................................................................
y e a rs o f c o lle g e o r m o re ...............................................................

10.7
17.1
39.8
16.0
16.5

31.5
19.7
30.9
11.1
6.8

36.6
21.1
28.0
9.7
4.6

3 1.5
23.5
3 3.4
7.8
3.8

2 0.0
15.0
3 6 .3
15.6
13.1

18.9
24.3
36.8
12.0
8.1

9.8
16.4
4 0 .3
16.4
17.2

L a b o r fo rc e (th o u s a n d s ) ................................................................................

L a b o r fo rc e
8
1
4
1
4

(p e rc e n t)

M en:
5 5 ,24 6

2,4 20

1,517

301

601

4,7 02

49,651

.....................................................................................

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

1 00.0

100.0

1 00.0

y e a rs o f e le m e n ta ry s c h o o l o r le s s .........................................
to 3 y e a rs o f h ig h s c h o o l ...............................................................
y e a rs o f h ig h s c h o o l .........................................................................
to 3 y e a rs o f c o lle g e .......................................................................
y e a rs o f c o lle g e o r m o re ..................................................................

12.2
17.1
36.5
16.0
18.2

3 3.9
2 0.5
27.1
10.7
7.8

3 9.5
20.7
24.8
9.6
5.5

33.8
26.5
28.8
7.3
3.6

20.0
17.0
32.1
15.3
15.6

23.3
24.7
34.0
11.3
6.7

11.2
16.4
3 6.8
16.5
19.0

W om en:
L a b o r fo rc e (th o u s a n d s ) .................................................................................

L a b o r fo rc e
8
1
4
1
4

3 7 ,81 7

1,516

876

171

4 68

4 ,3 7 7

3 2 ,79 9

.....................................................................................

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

1 00.0

100.0

y e a rs o f e le m e n ta ry s c h o o l o r le s s .........................................
to 3 y e a rs o f h ig h s c h o o l ...............................................................
y e a rs o f h iq h s c h o o l .........................................................................
to 3 y e a rs o f c o lle g e .......................................................................
y e a rs o f c o lle g e o r m o re ..................................................................

8.4
17.1
4 4.6
15.9
14.0

27.6
18.6
37.0
11.6
5.2

3 1 .5
21.9
3 3.6
9.9
3.0

27.5
18.1
42.1
8.2
4.1

20.1
12.6
4 1.5
16.0
9.8

14.1
23.8
39.8
12.6
9.7

7.6
16.3
4 5 .4
16.3
14.3

L a b o r fo r c e
8
1
4
1
4

(p e rc e n t)

(p e rc e n t)

NOTE: Detail may not add to totals because of rounding.




SOURCE: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, unpublished Current Popula­
tion Survey tabulations, March 1976.

56

Table C-6. Labor force participation rates, by sex,
and Spanish origin and race, March 1976

Table C-7. Labor force participation rates, by age, sex, and Spanish
origin and race, March 1976

(Numbers in thousands)

(Percent of population in labor force)
S p a n is h o rig in

S p a n is h o rig in
Ite m

B o th s e x e s :
P o p u la tio n ..............
L a b o r fo rc e ...........
P e rc e n t in la b o r
fo rc e ......................
M en:
P o p u la tio n ..............
L a b o r fo r c e ...........
P e rc e n t in la b o r
fo rc e .....................
W om en:
P o p u la tio n ..............
L a b o r fo rc e ...........
P e rc e n t in la b o r
fo rc e .....................

A ll
p e rs o n s

T o ta l

7 2 ,34 6
9 3 ,06 3

3,113
3,9 36

1,891
2,3 93

442
473

60.8

59.2

6 1.6

7 2,346
5 5,246

3,113
2,420

76.4

M e x ic a n P u e rto
A m e ric a n R ic a n

B la c k

781
1,070

7,056
9,0 79

6 4 ,12 7
8 2 ,45 0

47.1

60.9

57.7

61.1

1,891
1,517

442
301

781
601

7,056
4,7 02

6 4 ,12 7
49,651

77.7

80.3

68.2

77.0

66.6

77.4

8 0 ,83 4
3 7 ,8 1 7

3,5 30
1,516

1,995
876

561
171

974
468

8,6 74
4 ,3 7 7

70 ,85 8
3 2 ,79 9

46.8

4 2.9

43.9

30.5

48.1

50.5

S e x a n d age

W h ite

4 6.3

O th e r

M e x ic a n P u e rto
T o ta l
A m e ric a n R ic a n

B la c k

W h ite

77.0
57.4
93.7
85.8
(')

6 6.6
54.9
88.6
70.1
19.4

77.4
70.8
95.8
8 4.6
20.8

48.1
49.5
56.8
48.8
1.2

5 0.5
4 3.9
65.9
53.1
13.0

4 6.3
57.5
56.2
48.2
8.1

O th e r

M en:
16 y e a rs
16 to 24
25 to 44
45 to 64
65 y e a rs
W om en:
16 y e a rs
16 to 24
25 to 44
45 to 64
65 y e a rs

o r o v e r ..................
y e a r s .......................
y e a rs ........................
y e a rs .......................
o r o v e r ...................

76.4
68.8
95.0
83.4
20.6

77.7
65.1
93.0
82.0
16.4

8 0.3
71.5
94.2
81.7
17.8

6 8.2
49.1
87.1
74.7

o r o v e r ...................
y e a rs .......................
y e a rs ........................
y e a rs .......................
o r o v e r ...................

46.8
55.5
57.3
48.6
8.5

42.9
43.6
49.2
41.3
4.2

4 3.9
4 5.3
50.6
39.0
7.2

30.5
28.8
33.5
32.1

H

C)

1 Rate not shown because base of percentage (population) is less than 75,000.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, unpublished Current Popula­
tion Survey tabulations, March 1976.

NOTE: Detail may not add to totals because of rounding.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, unpublished Current Popula­
tion Survey tabulations, March 1976.




A ll
p e rs o n s

57

Table C-8. Labor force participation rates, by family status, sex, and
Spanish origin and race, March 1976
(Percent of persons in the labor force)
S p a n is h o rig in
S e x a n d fa m ily s ta tu s

M e n , 16 y e a rs o r o v e r ................
In fa m ilie s ...............................
H e a d s o f fa m ilie s 1 ....
C h ild re n o f fa m ily
h e a d s ..........................
O th e r re la tiv e s o f
fa m ily h e a d s ...........
U n re la te d in d iv id u a ls .........
W o m e n , 16 y e a rs o r o v e r .........
In fa m ilie s ...............................
H e a d s o f fa m ilie s ......
W iv e s o f fa m ily
h e a d s ..........................
C h ild re n o f fa m ily
h e a d s ..........................
O th e r re la tiv e s o f
fa m ily h e a d s ...........
U n re la te d in d iv id u a ls .........

A ll
p e rs o n s

T o ta l

M e x ic a n
A m e ric a n

76.4
77.0
81.9

77.7
77.8
86.1

63.1

B la c k

W h ite

P u e rto
R ic a n

O th e r

8 0.3
8 0.8
87.4

6 8.2
66.1
79.4

77.0
77.2
86.6

66.6
67.3
78.3

77.4
78.0
82.1

54.8

62.7

33.1

49.0

5 2.5

6 4.7

5 9.3
71.2
4 6.8
4 6.9
55.7

74.5
77.0
42.9
4 2.4
42.5

78.2
75.8
4 3.9
43.8
4 8.9

0
0
3 0 .5
30.0
24.2

O
75.6
48.1
46.7
54.5

46.8
63.1
50.5
50.9
52.3

63.8
72.6
46.3
46.4
57.0

45.2

41.9

40.8

33.9

48.2

57.0

4 4.2

54.3

49.1

52.6

30.9

50.5

41.9

5 6.5

27.3
46.1

28.4
48.7

36.6
45.0

n

o

19.1
57.2

36.0
48.1

25.1
4 5 .5

1 According to Census Bureau definition, the husband is always classified as the head of a
husband-wife family.
2 Rates not shown because of percentage (population) is less than 75,000.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, unpublished Current Popula­
tion Survey tabulations, March 1976.

Table C-9 Labor force participation rates of women by family status, presence and age of children, and Spanish origin and race, March 1976
(Percent of persons in the labor force)
W o m e n as fa m ily h e a d s

W iv e s
P re s e n c e a n d a g e o f c h ild r e n 1

T o ta l, 16 y e a rs o r o v e r ................................................................................................................
N o c h ild r e n u n d e r 18 y e a rs .............................................................................................
C h ild re n u n d e r 18 y e a rs ....................................................................................................
C h ild re n 6 to 17 y e a rs o n ly ...................................................................................
C h ild re n u n d e r 6 y e a rs .............................................................................................
C h ild re n 3 to 5 y e a rs o n ly ...........................................................................
O n e o r m o re c h ild r e n u n d e r 3 y e a rs ...................................................

A ll
p e rs o n s

S p a n is h
o rig in

B la c k

4 5.0
4 3.8
46.1
53.7
3 7.4
44.1
32.4

4 1 .6
42.1
4 1.4
4 8.8
35.8
4 0.8
3 2 .7

5 6 .7
50.0
6 1 .5
6 5.4
5 7.5
6 1.7
5 4.2

W h ite
44.1
4 3 .4
4 4.8
5 2.7
3 5 .3
4 2.5
3 0.3

A ll

S p a n is h

p e rs o n s

o rig in

55.7
46.1
6 1.7
6 7.0
52.7
6 1 .7
40.8

42.5
41.1
4 2 .9
5 1.9
3 2.6
3 8.8
26.9

B la c k
52.2
48.2
53.9
58.2
48.2
58.2
38.2

W h ite
5 7.0
4 5 .5
6 5 .3
70.6
55.0
6 3 .3
4 2.2

1 Women are classified according to the age of their youngest child and do not appear in
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, unpublished Current Populamore than 1 category.
tion Survey tabulations, March 1976.




58




Table C-10. Unemployment rates, by Spanish origin and race, annual
and quarterly averages, 1973-76
S p a n is h
o rig in

Y e a r a n d q u a rte r

A ll
p e rs o n s

1973 a n n u a l a v e r a g e ’ ....................................
II Q u a r t e r .....................................................
Ill Q u a rte r ..................................................
IV Q u a rte r ...................................................

4.9
4.8
4.8
4.4

7.5
8.1
7.0
7.3

9.3
9.7
9.8
7.9

4.3
4.3
4.2
4.0

1974 a n n u a l a v e ra g e ......................................
I Q u a rte r .....................................................
II Q u a r t e r .....................................................
Ill Q u a rte r ..................................................
IV Q u a rte r ..................................................

5.6
5.6
5.1
5.5
6.1

8.1
8.4
7.7
8.0
8.2

10.4
9.8
9.7
10.5
11.5

5.0
5.1
4.6
5.0
5.5

1975

a n n u a l a v e ra g e ....................................
I Q u a rte r .....................................................
II Q u a r t e r .....................................................
Ill Q u a rte r ...................................................
IV Q u a rte r ..................................................

8.5
9.1
8.7
8.3
7.8

12.2
12.4
12.9
11.8
11.8

14.7
15.1
15.1
14.9
13.8

7.8
8.4
8.0
7.6
7.1

1976 a n n u a l a v e ra g e ......................................
I Q u a rte r .....................................................
II Q u a r t e r .....................................................
Ill Q u a rte r ..................................................
IV Q u a rte r ..................................................

7.7
8.5
7.4
7.6
7.3

11.5
11.6
11.1
11.8
11.1

13.8
14.6
13.7
14.0
13.2

7.0
7.8
6.6
6.9
6.6

B la c k

W h ite

1 Data collection began in March 1973; 1973 annual average includes estimates of levels for
January and February.
NOTE: Data are not seasonally adjusted and, hence, time comparisons of quarterly data should
be made using only the same quarter of the year. Quarterly data are not available prior to the
second quarter of 1973.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, E m ploym en t and E arnings,
January, April, July, and October issues from April 1974 through January 1977.

59

Table C-11. Unemployed persons, by age, sex, and Spanish origin and race, March 1976
P e rc e n t

N u m b e r (th o u s a n d s )
S e x a n d a ge

A ll
p e rs o n s

S p a n is h
o rig in

B la c k

B o th s e x e s , 16 y e a rs o r o v e r .....................................................................................
1 6 -24 y e a rs ................................................................................................................
2 5 -4 4 y e a rs ...................................................................................................................
4 5 -6 4 y e a rs ...................................................................................................................
65 y e a rs o r o v e r .......................................................................................................
M e n , 16 y e a rs o r o v e r ....................................................................................................
1 6 -24 y e a rs ................................................................................................................
2 5 -4 4 y e a rs ...................................................................................................................
4 5 -6 4 y e a rs ...................................................................................................................
65 y e a rs o r o v e r .......................................................................................................
W o m e n , 16 y e a rs o r o v e r ...............................................................................................
1 6 -2 4 y e a rs ................................................................................................................
2 5 -4 4 y e a rs ...................................................................................................................
4 5 -6 4 y e a rs ...................................................................................................................
65 y e a rs o r o v e r .......................................................................................................

7,530
3 ,3 5 7
2,5 53
1,426
194
4 ,3 22
1,902
1,420
866
134
3,208
1,455
1,133
560
60

450
201
179
65
5
260
125
92
39
4
190
77
87
26
1

1,261
608
440
194
21
6 89
318
229
129
13
5 73
290
211
64
8

NOTE: Detail may not add to totals because of rounding.

W h ite

A ll
p e rs o n s

S p a n is h
o rig in

B la c k

6 ,1 42
2,710
2,0 50
1,213
169
3 ,5 6 5
l ’566
1,153
729
117
2,5 77
1,144
8 97
484
52

100.0
4 4 .6
3 3.9
18.9
2.6
100.0
44.0
32.9
20.0
3.1
100.0
4 5.4
3 5.3
17.5
1.9

1 00.0
4 4 .7
39.8
14.4
1.1
1 00.0
48.1
35.4
15.0
1.5
100.0
4 0.5
4 5.8
13.7
0.5

100.0
4 8.2
34.9
15.4
1.7
100.0
46.2
33.2
18.7
1.9
100.0
50.6
36.8
11.2
1.4

W h ite
100.0
44.1
33.4
19.7
2.8
1 00.0
4 3.9
32.3
20.4
3.3
100.0
4 4.4
3 4.8
18.8
2.0

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, unpublished Current Popula­
tion Survey tabulations, March 1976.

Table C-12. Family status of the unemployed, by sex, and Spanish origin and race, March 1976
P e rc e n t

N u m b e r (th o u s a n d s )
F a m ily s ta tu s a n d s e x

A ll
p e rs o n s

S p a n is h
o rig in

U n e m p lo y e d ..........................................................................................................................
In fa m ilie s .....................................................................................................................
H e a d s o f fa m ilie s :
M e n 1 ...........................................................................................................
W o m e n ......................................................................................................
W iv e s o f fa m ily h e a d s .........................................................................
C h ild re n o f fa m ily h e a d s ..................................................................
O th e r re la tiv e s o f fa m ily h e a d s .....................................................
U n re la te d in d iv id u a ls .............................................................................................
M en ........................................................................................................................
W o m e n ................................................................................................................

7,530
6,5 73
1,968
4 10
1,501
2 ,3 56
338
957
6 13
3 45

S p a n is h
o rig in

B la c k

W h ite

B la c k

W h ite

A ll
p e rs o n s

450
4 13

1,261
1,113

6 ,1 42
5,3 54

100.0
8 7 .3

100.0
9 1.8

100.0
8 8.3

10 0 .0
8 7.2

135
21
109
124
23
37
27
10

234
144
170
4 76
90
148
109
40

1,703
254
1,305
1,849
243
787
4 93
294

26.1
5.4
19.9
3 1.3
4.5
12.7
8.1
4.6

30.0
4.7
24.2
27.6
5.1
8.2
6.0
2.2

18.6
11.4
13.5
3 7.7
7.1
11.7
8.6
3.2

2 7.7
4.1
2 1.2
30.1
4.0
12.8
8.0
4.8

1 According to Census Bureau definition, the husband is always classified as the head of a
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, unpublished Current Populahusband-wife family.
tion Survey tabulations, March 1976.
NOTE: Detail may not add to totals because of rounding.




60

Table C-13. Employment status of the labor force, by sex, and Spanish
origin and race, March 1976

Table C-14. Unemployment rates, by age, sex, and Spanish origin and
race, March 1976

(Numbers in thousands)

(Percent of labor force unem ployed)
S p a n is h o rig in

S p a n is h o rig in
S e x a n d e m p lo y m e n t s ta tu s

B o th s e x e s :
L a b o r fo r c e .....................
E m p lo y e d ..........................
U n e m p lo y e d ..................
U n e m p lo y e d as a
p e rc e n t o f la b o r
f o r c e .....................
M en:
L a b o r fo r c e .....................
E m p lo y e d ..........................
U n e m p lo y e d ...................
U n e m p lo y e d as a
p e rc e n t o f la b o r
f o r c e .....................
W om en:
L a b o r fo rc e .....................
E m p lo y e d ..........................
U n e m p lo y e d ...................
U n e m p lo y e d as a
p e rc e n t o f la b o r
f o r c e .....................

A ll
p e rs o n s

9 3 ,06 3
8 5 ,53 3
7,530

8.1

M e x ic a n P u e rto
T o ta l
A m e ric a n R ic a n

O th e r

3,9 36
3,4 86
450

1,070
969
101

2,3 93
2,110
283

11.4

11.8

4 73
4 06
66

14.0

9.4

B la c k

W h ite

9,079
7,818
1,261

8 2 ,45 0
76 ,30 9
6,1 42

13.9

S e x a n d a ge

B o th s e x e s ,16 y e a rs o r o v e r..
16 to 24 y e a rs ..................
25 to 44 y e a rs ..................
45 to 64 y e a rs ..................
65 y e a rs o r o v e r ..............
M e n , 16 y e a rs o r o v e r ..............
16 to 24 y e a rs ..................
25 to 44 y e a rs ...................
45 to 64 y e a rs ...................
65 y e a rs o r o v e r ..............
W o m e n , 16 y e a rs o r o v e r ......
16 to 24 y e a rs ...................
25 to 44 y e a rs ..................
45 to 64 y e a rs ..................
65 y e a rs o r o v e r ..............

7.4

5 5 ,24 6
5 0 ,92 4
4,3 22

2,420
2,160
260

1,517
1,358
160

301
259
43

601
544
57

4 ,7 0 2
4,0 14
689

49,651
4 6 ,0 8 7
3 ,5 65

7.8

10.7

10.5

14.2

9.5

14.6

7.2

3 7 ,81 7
3 4 ,60 9
3,2 08

1,516
1,325
190

876
753
123

171
148
24

468
425
43

4 ,3 7 7
3,8 04
573

3 2 ,79 9
3 0 ,22 2
2,577

8.5

12.5

14.0

13.9

9.3

13.1

7.9

8.1
15.5
6.3
5.1
6.7
7.8
16.2
5.8
5.0
7.3
8.5
14.7
7.2
5.1
5.6

M e x ic a n
T o ta l
A m e ric a n

P u e rto
R ic a n

O th e r

11.4
19.4
9.0
7.4

11.8
20.1
9.6
5.8

14.0
25.4
10.9
8.9

9.4
14.3
6.8
9.5

10.7
20.5
7.6
6.8

10.5
20.5
7.3
5.3

14.2

9.5
17.6
6.3
8.7

12.5
18.0
11.2
8.4

14.0
19.3
13.5
7.0

n

(’)

n

(')

n

n

n

o
n

11.4

0
0
10.1
0
0
13.9

O

0

9.3
10.7
7.5
10.6

0

B la c k

13.9
28.1
10.4
8.1
7.3
14.6
28.1
10.6
10.3
8.6
13.1
28.1
10.1
5.7
5.9

W h ite

7.4
14.1
5.8
4.8
6.5
7.2
15.0
5.3
4.6
7.0
7.9
13.1
6.7
5.0
5.5

1 Rate not shown because base of percentage (labor force) is less than 75,000.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, unpublished Current Popula­
tion Survey tabulations, March 1976.

NOTE: Detail may not add to totals because of rounding.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Labor. Bureau of Labor Statistics, unpublished Current Popula­
tion Survey tabulations, March 1976.




A ll
p e rs o n s

61

Table C-15. Unemployment rates, by family status, sex, and Spanish
origin and race, March 1976

Table C-16. Unemployment rates, by years of school completed, sex,
and Spanish origin and race, March 1976
S p a n is h o rig in

S p a n is h o rig in
S e x a n d fa m ily s ta tu s

B o th s e x e s , 16 y e a rs o r o v e r..
In f a m i l i e s .............................
H e a d s o f fa m ilie s 1 .........
W iv e s o f fa m ily h e a d s ....
C h ild re n o f fa m ily
h e a d s ..................................
O th e r re la tiv e s o f
fa m ily h e a d s ...................
U n re la te d in d iv id u a ls ....
M e n , 16 y e a rs o r o v e r ..............
In f a m i l i e s .............................
H e a d s o f f a m i l i e s ..............
C h ild re n o f fa m ily
h e a d s .................................
O th e r r e la tiv e s o f
fa m ily h e a d s ...................
U n re la te d in d iv id u a ls ....
W o m e n , 16 y e a rs o r o v e r ......
In fa m ilie s .............................
H e a d s o f f a m i l i e s ..............
W iv e s o f fa m ily h e a d s ....
C h ild r e n o f fa m ily
h e a d s ..................................
O th e r re la tiv e s o f
fa m ily h e a d s ...................
U n re la te d in d iv id u a ls ....

A ll
p e rs o n s

M e x ic a n
T o ta l
A m e ric a n

P u e rto
R ic p n

O th e r

B la c k

W h ite

8.1
8.0
5.5
7.0

11.4
11.7
8.3
13.3

11.8
12.3
8.0
14.7

14.0
14.3
10.4
15.3

9.4
9.3
7.8
10.1

13.9
14.3
10.0
9.1

7.4
7.4
5.0
6.8

16.0

19.3

2 0.3

0

11.9

2 9.3

T4.4

15.3
8.5
7.8
7.5
5.0

13.7
9.0
10.7
10.8
8.1

13.2
7.3
10.5
10.8
7.8

(-■
)

(-’)

(2
)
14.2
13.7
9.5

9.9
9.5
9.4
8.2

18.9
11.2
14.6
14.6
8.5

14.8
8.0
7.2
6.9
4.7

17.5

2 3.0

2 3.3

0

15.1

29.6

16.0

16.0
10.4
8.5
8.8
9.8
7.0

11.3
10.1
12.5
13.1
9.6
13.3

9.9
7.9
14.0
14.6
10.2
14.7

n
0

n

o

13.9
15.4

9.3
9.2

o

H

15.3

10.1

22.9
14.9
13.1
14.1
13.7
9.1

14.8
9.8
7 .9
8.1
8.3
6.8

13.9

14.3

16.2

n

0

28.8

12.1

14.3
6.3

O

O

n

(-')

6.9

(2)

14.3
6.7

S e x a n d y e a rs o f s c h o o l

14.8
6.2

o

(2)

B o th s e x e s , 16 y e a rs o r
o v e r ..............................................
L e ss th a n 4 y e a rs o f
h ig h s c h o o l .....................
4 y e a rs o f h ig h s c h o o l....
1 y e a r o f c o lle g e o r
m o re .................................
M e n , 16 y e a rs o r o v e r ..............
L e ss th a n 4 y e a rs o f
h ig h s c h o o l .....................
4 y e a rs o f h ig h s c h o o l....
1 y e a r o f c o lle g e o r
m o re .................................
W o m e n , 16 y e a rs o r o v e r ......
L e s s th a n 4 y e a rs o f
h ig h s c h o o l .....................
4 y e a rs o f h ig h s c h o o l....
1 y e a r o f c o lle g e o r
m o re .................................

M e x ic a n
T o ta l
A m e ric a n

P u e rto
R ic a n

O th e r

B la c k

W h ite

8.1

11.4

11.8

14.0

9.4

13.9

7.4

12.1
8.2

13.0
11.6

13.3
11.7

12.3
18.2

12.0
8.9

15.4
14.9

11.6
7.5

4.5
7.8

6.8
10.7

6.4
10.5

(')
14.2

6.8
9.5

8.8
14.6

4.2
7.2

11.8
8.0

11.6
11.8

11.1
11.3

12.6
18.1

12.6
10.2

15.4
15.7

11.3
7.3

4.2
8.5

6.7
12.5

7.0
14.0

O
13.9

5.4
9.3

10.5
13.1

3.9
7.9

12.6
8.4

15.6
11.4

17.3
12.2

12.8

o

11.1
7.7

15.5
14.1

12.1
7.7

5.1

7.1

5.3

n

9.1

7.2

4.8

1 Rate not shown because base of percentage (labor force) is less than 75,000.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, unpublished Current Popula­
tion Survey tabulations, March 1976.

1 According to Census Bureau definition, the husband is always classified as the head of a
husband-wife family.
2 Rate not shown because base of percentage (labor force) is less than 75,000.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, unpublished Current Popula­
tion Survey tabulations, March 1976.




A ll
p e rs o n s

62

Table C-17.

Work experience in 1975, by sex, and Spanish origin and race

(Percent distribution)
S p a n is h o rig in
S e x a n d w o rk e x p e rie n c e

M en , 16 y e a rs o r o v e r (th o u s a n d s ) ...........................................................................................
W o rk e d in 1975 (th o u s a n d s ) .....................................................................

A ll
p e rs o n s

T o ta l

M e x ic a n
A m e ric a n

P u e rto
R ic a n

O th e r

B la c k

W h ite

7 2 ,34 6
5 8 ,35 9

3 ,1 13
2,531

1,891
1,583

442
308

781
639

7,056
4,955

6 4 ,12 7
52,481

W o rk e d in 1975 (p e rc e n t) ..............................................................................................................

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

U s u a lly w o rk e d fu ll tim e ......................................................................................................
1 to 13 w e e k s ...................................................................................................................
14 to 26 w e e k s ................................................................................................................
27 to 39 w e e k s ................................................................................................................
40 to 4 9 w e e k s ................................................................................................................
50 to 52 w e e k s ................................................................................................................
U s u a lly w o rk e d p a rt tim e ....................................................................................................
1 to 13 w e e k s ...................................................................................................................
14 to 26 w e e k s ................................................................................................................
27 to 39 w e e k s ................................................................................................................
40 to 49 w e e k s ................................................................................................................
50 to 52 w e e k s ................................................................................................................
W o m e n , 16 y e a rs o r o v e r (th o u s a n d s ) ............................................................................................
W o rk e d in 1975 (th o u s a n d s ) .........................................................................................................

87.6
4.8
5.5
5.9
7.4
63.9
12.4
2.8
2.3
1.6
1.4
4.4
8 0 ,83 4
42,881

8 8.7
6.0
7.2
6.7
9.0
59.7
11.3
2.6
2.2
1.5
1.0
4.1
3,5 30
1,698

88.0
6.6
6.9
7.4
9.9
57.3
12.1
2.8
2.3
1.6
0.9
4.4
1,995
1,012

92.2
5.8
10.4
4.5
6.5
65.0
7.8
2.9
0.6
1.0
1.0
2.3
561
193

8 8.6
4.7
6.4
6.1
8.3
63.1
11.4
1.7
2.7
1.6
1.3
4.2
974
494

85.4
6.7
7.0
7.3
8.4
56.0
14.6
4.2
3.2
1.8
1.2
4.1
8,674
4,675

87.8
4.6
5.3
5.8
7.4
64.7
12.2
2.7
2.2
1.6
1.4
4.4
70 ,85 8
3 7 ,46 3

W o rk e d in 1975 (p e rc e n t) ..............................................................................................................

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

U s u a lly w o rk e d fu ll tim e ......................................................................................................
1 to 13 w e e k s ...................................................................................................................
14 to 26 w e e k s ................................................................................................................
27 to 39 w e e k s ................................................................................................................
40 to 49 w e e k s ................................................................................................................
50 to 52 w e e k s ................................................................................................................
U s u a lly w o rk e d p a rt tim e ....................................................................................................
1 to 13 w e e k s ...................................................................................................................
14 to 26 w e e k s ................................................................................................................
27 to 39 w e e k s ................................................................................................................
40 to 49 w e e k s ................................................................................................................
50 to 52 w e e k s ................................................................................................................

67.0
6.6
6.9
5.8
6.4
4 1.4
33.0
7.3
5.5
4.5
3.8
11.8

73.8
10.5
9.8
9.1
6.8
37.5
26.2
7.4
5.1
2.8
3.1
7.8

71.5
13.2
9.8
9.8
6.5
32.2
2 8.5
8.5
5.1
2.9
3.2
8.8

73.1
7.8
8.3
7.3
7.3
42.5
26.9
6.7
4.1
4.1
3.1
8.8

78.7
6.1
10.5
8.5
7.3
46.4
21.3
5.3
5.5
2.2
3.0
5.3

71.9
8.1
7.2
6.3
6.5
4 3.7
28.1
7.0
4.4
3.3
2.8
10.7

66.3
6.4
6.8
5.7
6.3
41.0
3 3.7
7.4
5.7
4.7
4.0
11.9

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, unpublished Current Population Survey tabulations, March 1976.




63

Table C-18.

Work experience in 1975 of family heads and wives, by presence of children, sex, and Spanish origin and race

(N um bers in thousands)

F a m ily s ta tu s ,1 w o r k e x p e rie n c e , a n d
p re s e n c e o f c h ild r e n u n d e r 18

F a m ily h e a d s ....................................................................
W o rk e d in 1975 .....................................................
P e rc e n t o f fa m ily h e a d s ..........................
W o rk e d a t y e a r ro u n d , fu ll tim e jo b s 2 ......
P e rc e n t o f w o rk e d in 1975 ...................
P e rc e n t o f fa m ily h e a d s ..........................
F a m ily h e a d s w ith c h ild r e n u n d e r 18 y e a rs ....
W o rk e d in 1975 .....................................................
P e rc e n t o f fa m ily h e a d s ..........................
W o rk e d a t y e a r ro u n d , fu ll tim e jo b s ......
P e rc e n t o f w o rk e d in 1975 ...................
P e rc e n t o f fa m ily h e a d s ..........................
W iv e s ...................................................................................
W o rk e d in 1975 .....................................................
P e rc e n t o f w iv e s .........................................
W o rk e d a t y e a r ro u n d , f u ll tim e jo b s .........
P e rc e n t o f w o rk e d in 1975 ...................
P e rc e n t o f w iv e s .........................................

A ll
p e rs o n s

4 7 ,98 3
4 0 ,5 0 4
84.4
3 0 ,53 8
75.4
6 3.6
2 4 ,98 6
2 3 ,97 8
96.0
1 8,948
79.0
75.8

M en
S p a n is h o rig in
B la c k

T o ta l

M e x ic a n
A m e ric a n

P u e rto
R ic a n

1,944
1,719
88.4
1,207
70.2
62.1
1,371
1,281
93.4
912
71.2
66.5

1,178
1,056
8 9.6
719
68.1
61.0
852
8 03
94.2
551
6 8.6
6 4.7

263
216
82.1
163
75.5
62.0
176
158
89.8
120
75.9
6 8.2

503
4 46
88.7
325
72.9
64.6
343
321
93.6
241
75.1
7 0.3

3 ,5 13
2,8 50
81.1
1,963
68.9
55.9
1,985
1,790
9 0.2
1,270
70.9
64.0

21.5

1 Family status in March 1976, the date of the survey. According to Census Bureau definition,
the husband is always classified as the head of a husband-wife family.
2 A year-round, full-time worker is one who worked 50 to 52 weeks in 1975, usually full time
(35 hours or more per week).




W h ite

O th e r
4 3 ,8 0 5
37,081
84.7
2 8 ,16 3
75.9
64.3
2 2 ,58 4
2 1 ,80 3
9 6.5
17,390
79.8
77.0

A ll
p e rs o n s

7,481
4,3 63
58.3
2,3 38
53.6
3 1.3
4 ,6 20
2,9 89
6 4.7
1,476
49.4
31.9
4 7 ,30 8
2 4 ,49 8
51.8
10,152
41.4

W om en
S p a n is h o rig in

B la c k

T o ta l

M e x ic a n
A m e ric a n

P u e rto
R ic a n

521
222
4 2.6
119
5 3.6
22.8
3 92
168
4 2.9
87
51.8
22.2
1,955
949
4 8.5
344
36.2
17.6

245
116
4 7 .3
64
5 5.2
26.1
183
90
4 9.2
48
53.3
26.2
1,180
583
49.4
180
3 0.9
15.3

161
40
24.8
20

115
67
58.3
35

W h ite

O th e r

0

0

12.4
132
32
24.2
17

30.4
76
47
6 1.8
22

O

n

12.9
251
100
39.8
40
4 0.0
15.9

28.9
524
265
50.6
125
47.2
23.9

2 ,0 0 4
1,098
54.8
533
4 8.5
26.6
1,435
821
5 7.2
374
4 5 .6
26.1
3 ,2 7 0
1,981
60.6
938
47.3
2 8.7

5,3 79
3,211
59.7
1,778
55.4
33.1
3 ,1 3 4
' 2,1 39
6 8.3
1,092
51.1
34.8
4 3 ,29 0
2 2 ,10 7
51.1
9,032
4 0.9
20.9

3 Percent not shown because base of percentage is less than 75,000.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, unpublished Current Popula­
tion Survey tabulations, March 1976.

64

Table C-19.

Employment in 1975, by occupation, sex, and Spanish origin and race

(Percent distribution)
S p a n is h o rig in
A ll
p e rs o n s
M en:
W o rk e d in 1975 1 (th o u s a n d s )

..............................

T o ta l

M e x ic a n A m e ric a n

P u e rto
R ic a n

O th e r

B la c k

W h ite

5 8 ,3 5 9

2,531

1,583

308

639

4 ,9 55

52,481

W o rk e d in 1975 (p e rc e n t) .....................................................................................................................

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

P ro fe s s io n a l a n d te c h n ic a l .........................................................................................................
M a n a g e rs a n d a d m in is tra to rs , e x c e p t fa rm ......................................................................
S a le s w o rk e rs .................................................................................................................................
C le r ic a l w o rk e rs ...............................................................................................................................
C ra ft a n d k in d re d w o rk e rs .........................................................................................................
O p e ra tiv e s , e x c e p t tr a n s p o r t ....................................................................................................
T ra n s p o rt e q u ip m e n t o p e ra tiv e s ............................................................................................
N o n fa rm la b o re rs ............................................................................................................................
P riv a te h o u s e h o ld w o rk e rs .........................................................................................................
S e rv ic e , e x c e p t p riv a te h o u s e h o ld .......................................................................................
F arm w o rk e rs ....................................................................................................................................

14.2
13.0
5.7
6.1
20.5
11.6
5.8
8.6

7.2
5.8
3.3
6.0
18.7
18.4
6.9
12.6

4.9
4.9
2.6
4.7
18.4
19.1
8.0
15.1

6 2
5.2
3 6
6 5
14 9
21.1
7.1
10.7

13.3
8.3
4.9
8.9
21.3
15.3
4.1
7.2

6.8
3.7
1.8
7.0
15.3
16.7
9.6
16.8

14.8
14.0
6.2
6.0
21.1
11.2
5.4
7.8

9.5
4.9

13.6
7.6

11 0
11 2

21 8
2.9

16 0
0.9

17.8
4.4

8.6
4.9

W om en:
W o rk e d in 1975 (th o u s a n d s ) ................................................................................................................

42,881

1,698

1,012

193

494

4 ,6 75

3 7 ,46 3

W o rk e d in 1975 (p e rc e n t) .....................................................................................................................

100 0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

P ro fe s s io n a l a n d te c h n ic a l .........................................................................................................
M a n a g e rs a n d a d m in is tra to rs , e x c e p t fa rm ......................................................................
S a le s w o rk e rs .................................................................................................................................
C le r ic a l w o rk e rs ...............................................................................................................................
C ra ft a n d k in d re d w o r k e r s .........................................................................................................
O p e ra tiv e s , e x c e p t tr a n s p o r t ....................................................................................................
T ra n s p o rt e q u ip m e n t o p e ra tiv e s ............................................................................................
N o n fa rm la b o re rs ............................................................................................................................
P riv a te h o u s e h o ld w o rk e rs .........................................................................................................
S e rv ic e , e x c e p t p riv a te h o u s e h o ld ..........................................................................................
F arm w o rk e rs ....................................................................................................................................

14.9
5.1
7.2
3 3.7
1.4
11.7
0.6
1.2
3.4
18.9
1.8

7.2
2.5
5.3
28.2
2.2
25.7
0.4
1.5
4.1
18.1
4.8

5.6
2.1
4.7
27.0
2.6
23.9
0.3
1.5
4.4
20.1
7.9

8.8
0.5
5.2
29.0
2.6
29.0
1.6
1.6
2.1
19.7
0.5

9.7
4.3
6.7
30.2
1.6
27.9
0.2
1.4
4.0
13.6
0.2

11.3
1.9
2.6
24.5
1.0
15.6
0.4
1.2
11.3
28.1
2.1

15.3
5.6
7.8
34.9
1.4
11.2
0.7
1.2
2.5
17.8
1.7

1 Persons who worked any time during 1975 and were 16 years old or over in March 1976, the
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, unpublished Current Populasurvey date.
tion Survey tabulations, March 1976.
NOTE: Detail may not add to totals because of rounding.




65

Table C-20.

Unemployment in 1975, by duration, and Spanish origin and race

(Percent distrib utio n)

S p a n is h o rig in
D u ra tio n o f u n e m p lo y m e n t

In la b o r fo rc e in 1 9 7 5 1 (th o u s a n d s ) ...............................
W ith u n e m p lo y m e n t in 1975 (th o u s a n d s ) ...................
P e rc e n t o f p e rs o n s in la b o r fo rc e ................................
W ith u n e m p lo y m e n t in 1975 (p e rc e n t) ...............
Y e a r-ro u n d w o rk e rs w ith 1-2 w e e k s o f u n e m p lo y m e n t ..........
P a rt-y e a r w o rk e rs .........................................
U n e m p lo y e d 1-4 w e e k s ...................................
U n e m p lo y e d 5 -1 4 w e e k s ............................
U n e m p lo y e d 1 5 -2 6 w e e k s .....................
U n e m p lo y e d 27 w e e k s o r m o re .....................
In la b o r fo rc e , b u t d id n o t w o r k in 1975 ..............

A ll
p e rs o n s

T o ta l

M e x ic a n
A m e ric a n

104,441
21 ,10 4
20.2
100.0
4.0
80.8
17.9
2 6.5
20.3
16.1
15.2

4 ,4 0 5
1,152
26.2
100.0
3.2
81.5
15.9
27.3
20.5
17.9
15.3

2,6 87
717
26.7
100.0
2.9
84.1
17.7
28.5
19.4
18.4
13.0

1 Persons 16 years old or over in March 1976 who were in the labor force any time during 1975.

P u e rto
R ic a n
533
148
27.8
100.0
5.4
73.0
15.5
23.6
19.6
14.2
21.6

O th e r
1,183
2 86
24.2
1 00.0
2.8
7 9.7
11.5
26.2
23.8
18.5
17.5

B la c k

W h ite

10,496
3,100
29.5
100.0
2.7
69.4
11.9
20.8
18.8
17.8
27.9

9 2 ,22 9
1 7,660
19.1
100.0
4.3
82.8
18.9
27.6
20.6
15.8
12.9

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, unpublished Current Popula­
tion Survey tabulations, March 1976.

NOTE: Detail may not add to totals because of rounding.

Table C-21. Annual earnings of persons who worked in 1975, by sex, and Spanish origin and race
(Percent distribution)
S e x a n d a n n u a l e a rn in g s

M en:
W o rk e d in 1975 1 (th o u s a n d s ) ....................................................................
W o rk e d in 1975 (p e rc e n t) ..............................................................................
U n d e r $ 2 ,0 0 0 2 ..........................................................................................
$ 2 ,0 0 0 to $ 4 ,9 9 9 .....................................................................................
$ 5 ,0 0 0 to $ 9 ,9 9 9 .....................................................................................
$ 1 0 ,0 0 0 to $ 1 4 ,9 9 9 .................................................................................
$ 1 5 ,0 0 0 to $ 2 4 ,9 9 9 ................................................................................
$ 2 5 ,0 0 0 o r m o re ........................................................................................
M e d ia n e a rn in g s .....................................................................................
W om en:
W o rk e d in 1975 1 (th o u s a n d s ) ....................................................................
W o rk e d in 197 5 (p e rc e n t) ..............................................................................
U n d e r $ 2 ,0 0 0 2 ..........................................................................................
$ 2 ,0 0 0 to $ 4 ,9 9 9 .....................................................................................
$ 5 ,0 0 0 to $ 9 ,9 9 9 .....................................................................................
$ 1 0 ,0 0 0 to $ 1 4 ,9 9 9 ................................................................................
$ 1 5 ,0 0 0 to $ 2 4 ,9 9 9 ...............................................................................
$ 2 5 ,0 0 0 o r m o re ........................................................................................
M e d ia n e a rn in g s .....................................................................................

S p a n is h o rig in

A ll
p e rs o n s

T o ta l

5 8 ,35 9
100.0
14.3
13.0
23.6
24.5
19.2
5.5
$ 9,830

2,531
100.0
15.3
17.0
37.8
19.5
8.8
1.5
$ 7 ,1 1 9

1,583
100.0
16.6
18.3
3 6.4
18.6
8.8
1.1
$6 ,74 5

308
100.0
13.3
14.9
46.8
19.5
4.9
0.6
$7,191

42,881
100.0
32.6
25.6
30.0
9.4
2.1
0.2
$ 3 ,96 7

1,698
100.0
3 4.5
3 0.4
29.1
5.3
0.6
0.1
$ 3 ,57 7

1,012
100.0
40.0
31.1
2 4.7
3.7
0.3
0.1
$3,011

1 Persons who worked any time during 1975 and were 16 years old or over in March 1976,
the survey date.
2 Includes workers with no earnings or a loss.




M e x ic a n
A m e ric a n

B la c k

W h ite

639
100.0
13.0
14.7
37.4
21.6
10.5
2.8
$ 7 ,91 3

4,9 55
100.0
18.6
19.4
32.0
21.0
8.4
0.6
$ 6 ,80 7

52,481
100.0
13.8
12.3
22.8
24.9
20.2
6.0
$ 1 0 ,1 8 4

193
100.0
28.1
29.7
35.9
6.3

494
100.0
25.7
29.1
3 5.6
8.1
1.4

$ 4,457

$4 ,47 9

4,6 75
100.0
3 2.6
27.4
29.4
9.1
1.5
0.1
$3 ,90 5

3 7 ,4 6 3
100.0
3 2 .7
2 6.5
30.1
9.4
2.2
0.2
$ 3 ,9 6 7

P u e rto
R ic a n

O th e r

NOTE: Detail may not add to totals because of rounding,
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, unpublished Current Popula­
tion Survey tabulations, March 1976.

6 6

Table C-22. Annual earnings of persons who worked year round, full time in 1975, by sex, and Spanish origin and race
(Percent distribution)
S p a n is h o rig in
S e x a n d a n n u a l e a rn in g s

A ll
p e rs o n s

T o ta l

3 7 ,29 7
100.0
2.1
4.6
24.7
3 3.0
27.6
8.0
$ 1 2 ,6 2 4

1,511
100.0
1.5
7.7
4 6.3
28.7
13.4
2.3
$ 9 ,41 3

9 07
100.0
1.4
9.6
4 5.8
27.6
13.6
1.9
$ 9 ,24 7

201
100.0
1.5
5.0
57.2
27.9
7.5
1.0
$ 8,512

1 7,735
100.0
4.4
16.1
54.4
20.2
4.5
0.4
$ 7 ,43 8

6 36
100.0
4.6
23.0
58.0
12.9
1.6
0.2
$ 6 ,38 8

326
100.0
5.8
27.6
55.2
10.1
0.9
0.3
$ 5 ,94 5

M e x ic a n
A m e ric a n

B la c k

W h ite

404
100.0
1.5
5.0
4 1.6
32.2
16.1
4.0
$ 1 0 ,1 9 7

2,775
100.0
1.8
10.8
40.0
32.9
13.5
0.9
$9,698

3 3 ,9 7 5
100.0
2.1
4.1
23.3
3 3.0
28.8
8.6
$ 1 2 ,8 7 7

82
100.0
2.5
18.5
64.2
14.8

229
100.0
3.5
18.4
60.5
14.9
2.6

$ 7 ,14 4

$ 6 ,75 8

2,043
100.0
4.2
21.4
53.2
18.4
2.8
0.1
$7,223

15,371
100.0
4.5
15.4
54.6
20.3
4.7
0.5
$7,441

P u e rto
R ic a n

O th e r

M en:
W o rk e d y e a r ro u n d , fu ll tim e in 1975 1 (th o u s a n d s ) .......................
W o rk e d y e a r ro u n d , fu ll tim e in 1975 (p e rc e n t) ............................
U n d e r $ 2 ,00 0 2 ..........................................................................................
$2 ,00 0 to $ 4 ,99 9 .....................................................................................
$ 5 ,00 0 to $ 9 ,99 9 .....................................................................................
$ 1 0 ,0 0 0 to $ 1 4 ,9 9 9 ................................................................................
$ 1 5 ,0 0 0 to $ 2 4 ,9 9 9 ................................................................................
$ 2 5 ,0 0 0 o r m o re .....................................................................................
M e d ia n e a rn in g s .....................................................................................
W om en:
W o rk e d y e a r ro u n d , fu ll tim e in 1975 1 (th o u s a n d s ) .......................
W o rk e d y e a r ro u n d , fu ll tim e in 1975 (p e rc e n t) ............................
U n d e r $ 2 ,0 0 0 2 ..........................................................................................
$ 2 ,00 0 to $ 4 ,9 9 9 .....................................................................................
$ 5 ,00 0 to $ 9 ,9 9 9 .....................................................................................
$ 1 0 ,0 0 0 to $ 1 4 ,9 9 9 ................................................................................
$ 1 5 ,0 0 0 to $ 2 4 ,9 9 9 ................................................................................
$ 2 5 ,0 0 0 o r m o re .....................................................................................
M e d ia n e a rn in g s .....................................................................................

1 Persons who worked 50 to 52 weeks in 1975, usually full time (35 hours or more per week)
and were 16 years old or over in March 1976, the survey date.
2 Includes workers with no earnings or a loss.

NOTE: Detail may not add to totals because of rounding,
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, unpublished Current Popula­
tion Survey tabulations, March 1976.

Table C-23. Median annual earnings of family heads and of husbands and wives, by work experience in 1975, sex, and Spanish origin and race
S p a n is h o rig in
S ex, w o r k e x p e rie n c e , fa m ily s ta tu s \ a n d m a rita l s ta tu s

F a m ily h e a d s :
M e n :2
W o rk e d in 1975 ........................................................................................
W o rk e d y e a r ro u n d , fu ll tim e in 1 9 7 5 3 ......................................
W om en:
W o rk e d in 1975 ........................................................................................
W o rk e d y e a r ro u n d , fu ll tim e in 1 9 7 5 3 ......................................
M a rrie d , s p o u s e p re s e n t:
H usbands:
W o rk e d in 1975 ........................................................................................
W o rk e d y e a r ro u n d , fu ll tim e in 1 9 7 5 3 ......................................
W iv e s :
W o rk e d in 1975 ........................................................................................
W o rk e d y e a r ro u n d , fu ll tim e in 1 9 7 5 3 ......................................

A ll
p e rs o n s

T o ta l

$ 1 1,895
13,334

$8,401
9,8 15

$ 8 ,12 3
9,6 52

$ 7 ,93 7
8 ,7 7 5

5,358
7,643

4 ,7 5 2
6 ,4 3 7

4,2 58
(4)

n
0

11,884
13,330

8 ,3 42
9 ,7 60

8 ,1 13
9,6 36

7,9 25
8,7 88

4 ,2 2 0
7,377

3,6 96
6,421

3 ,2 3 6
6 ,0 53

4 ,3 7 3

1 Family status of persons 16 years old or over, in March 1976, the survey date. Data for
family heads refer to persons who are heads of primary and secondary families, while data on
husbands and wives refer to all married couples, including those in subfamilies.
2 According to Census Bureau definition, the husband is always classified as the head of a
husband-wife family.




M e x ic a n
A m e ric a n

P u e rto
R ic a n

O

B la c k

W h ite

$8,808
10,314

$ 1 2,188
1 3,645

4,512
7,241

5,6 70
7,720

9,001
10,563

8,815
10,286

1 2,177
13,646

4,5 20
6,707

4,396
7,214

4,1 90
7 ,3 76

O th e r

$ 9 ,21 3
10,692

n
n

3 A year-round, full-time worker is one who worked 50 to 52 weeks in 1975, usually full time
(35 hours or more per week).
4 Median not shown because base is less than 75,000.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, unpublished Current Popula­
tion Survey tabulations, March 1976.

67

Table C-24. Median annual earnings of persons who worked year round, full time in 1975, by years of school completed, sex, and
Spanish origin and race
Sex and years of school1
Men:
All year-round, full-time w orkers2 .................................................
Less than 4 years of high school .........................................
4 years of high school ............................................................
1 year of college or more ......................................................
4 years of college or more .............................................
Women:
All year-round, full-time workers 2 ..................................................
Less than 4 years of high school .........................................
4 years of high school ............................................................
1 year of college or more ......................................................
4 years of college or more .............................................

Spanish origin
Puerto
Mexican
Rican
American

All
persons

Total

$12,624
10,026
12,255
15,486
17,129

$9,413
7,974
10,159
12,533
14,702

$9,247
7,949
10,508
12,246

7,438
5,613
7,039
9,399
10,498

6,388
5,243
6,835
8,466

O

Black

White

(3
)

$10,197
8,355
9,980
13,135
15,429

$9,698
8,114
10,039
12,195
13,451

$12,877
10,308
12,429
15,708
17,370

5,945
4,917
6,534

7,144

6,758

o

O

n
0

6,867
(')

7,223
5,173
7,215
9,300
10,105

7,441
5,710
7,014
9,397
10,541

o
O

$8,512
7,766
0

n

O
O

Other

O

1 Years of school completed by persons 16 years old or over in March 1976, the survey date.
Median not shown because base is less than 75,000 persons.
2A year-round, full-time worker is one who worked 50 to 52 weeks in 1975, usually full time
(35 hours or more per week).
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, unpublished Current Popula­
tion Survey tabulations, March 1976.

Table C-25. Earnings of family heads, wives, and family heads with children, as a percent of 1975 family income, by sex, and
Spanish origin and race
Family status1 and sex
Heads of families:
Men ...................................................................................................
Women .............................................................................................
Wives of family heads .............................................................................
Heads of families with children under 18 years:
Men ...................................................................................................
Women .............................................................................................

Earnings as a percent of 1975 Family income 2
Spanish origin
Mexican
Puerto
Total
Other
Rican
American

All
persons

White

66.1
40.1
15.2

66.5
35.4
16.0

67.2
36.9
14.9

61.9
22.8
16.7

67.1
44.7
17.7

57.1
42.2
23.5

66.7
39.6
14.7

75.8
52.5

71.3
39.1

72.0
42.9

66.5
21.9

71.9
52.9

62.2
48.7

76.9
54.0

sex. Total income is the sum of the earned and unearned incomes received by all family
members.

1 Family head 16 years old or over in March 1976, the survey date; family status for same
date.
2 This number is derived by dividing the aggregate earnings of the family head (or wife) into
the total 1975 income of all families containing a person of the indicated family status and




Black

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, unpublished Current Popula­
tion Survey tabulations, March 1976.

68

Table C-26. Family heads with earnings below the poverty level, by work experience in 1975, sex, and Spanish origin and race
(Numbers in thousands)
Sex, work experience, and earnings
Both sexes:
Family heads1 .......................................
Worked in 1975 ............................................
Earnings below family poverty level2 ........................
Earnings below family poverty level (percent) ...........
Worked year round, full time in 1975 ...................................
Earnings below family poverty level ............................
Earnings below family poverty level (percent) ...........
Men:
Family heads ...................................................................................
Worked in 1975 .......................................................................
Earnings below family poverty level .............................
Earnings below family poverty level (percent) ...........
Worked year round, full time in 1975 ...................................
Earnings below family poverty level .............................
Earnings below family poverty level (percent) ...........
Women:
Family heads ....................................................................................
Worked in 1975 .......................................................................
Earnings below family poverty level .............................
Earnings below family poverty level (percent) ...........
Worked year round, full time in 1975 ...................................
Earnings below family poverty level .............................
Earnings below family poverty level (percent) ...........

All
family
heads

Total

Other

Black

White

55,464
44,867
7,886
17.6
32,876
2,141
6.5

2,464
1,941
589
30.3
1,327
218
16.4

1,422
1,172
418
35.7
784
165
21.0

425
256
68
26.6
183
24
13.1

617
513
103
20.1
360
29
8.1

5,517
3,948
1,405
35.6
2,496
406
16.3

49,184
40,292
6,337
15.7
29,941
1,695
5.7

47,983
40,504
6,007
14.8
30,538
1,798
5.9

1,944
1,719
476
27.7
1,207
187
15.5

1,178
1,056
348
33.0
719
140
19.5

263
216
51
23.6
163
22
13.5

503
446
77
17.3
325
25
7.7

3,513
2,850
805
28.2
1,963
279
14.2

43,805
37,081
5,073
13.7
28,163
1,478
5.2

7,481
4,363
1,879
43.1
2,338
343
14.7

521
222
113
5.1
119
31
26.1

245
116
70
60.3
64
25
(3
)

161
40
17

115
67
26

20
2

35
4

2,004
1,098
600
54.6
533
127
23.8

5,379
3,211
1,264
39.4
1,778
217
12.2

1 Family heads in March 1976.
2 The earnings of each family head are compared to the poverty theshold for his or her
family (see footnote 2, table C-30). The fact that a working family head has earnings below the
poverty level does not necessarily indicate that the family's total income is below the poverty
threshold as there may be other earners in the family and/or one or more family members may
receive “unearned” income.




Spanish origin
Puerto
Mexican
Rican
American

0

0

n

n

3 P e rc e n t n o t sho w n b e c au se o f bas e o f p e rc e n ta g e is less th a n 7 5 ,0 0 0 .

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, unpublished Current Popula­
tion Survey tabulations, March 1976.

69

Table C-27. Family income in 1975, by Spanish origin and race of family
head

Table C-28. Median family income in 1975, by type of family, and
Spanish origin and race of family head

(Percent distribution)

Family income

All
families

Spanish origin
Mexican Puerto
Total
American Rican

All fam ilies1 (thousands) ....
All families (percent) .........

56,245
100.0

2,499
100.0

1,442
100.0

Less than $4,000 .........
$4,000 to $6,999 .........
$7,000 to $9,999 .........
$10,000 to $14,999 .....
$15,000 to $19,999 .....
$20,000 to $24,999 .....
$25,000 or more .........
Median income ...........

8.0
12.4
12.8
22.3
18.7
11.6
14.1
$13,719

15.5
19.8
17.0
22.6
14.2
5.8
4.9
$9,551

15.8
19.2
17.6
22.2
15.1
5.4
4.5
$9,546

436
100.0

All
families

Type of family 1
Other

Black

621
100.0

5,586
100.0

20.1
11.4
27.8
15.9
18.1
14.9
20.4
25.2
7.2
16.8
3.6
8.3
2.8
7.4
$7,291 $11,279

Black

White

$9,551
10,925
10,950
13,821
9,191
10,415
4,785

$8,779
11,389
11,526
14,355
8,543
8,955
4,898

$14,268
15,094
15,125
17,550
13,042
13,793
7,651

White
All families ......................................................
Man as head .........................................
Husband-wife families ...................
Wife in paid labor fo rce 2 .....
Wife not in paid labor force ..
Other families with a man as head
Woman as head .....................................

49,873
100.0

20.1
6.6
20.5
11.5
15.5
12.6
20.6
22.6
12.3
19.5
6.0
12.2
5.0
15.1
$8,779 $14,268

$13,719
14,816
14,867
17,237
12,752
12,995
6,844

1 Families with head 14 years old or over in March 1976. Data refer to the civilian noninstitutional population and members of the Armed Forces living on post with their families or living
off post.
2 Persons are classified in the paid labor force if they were employed as wage and salary
workers or self-employed workers during the survey week (in March 1976) or were looking for
work at the time and had last worked as wage and salary or self-employed workers.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, C urrent Population R eports,
Series P-60, No. 103.

1 Families with head 14 years old or over in March 1976. Data refer to the civilian noninstitutional population and members of the Armed Forces living on post with their families or living
off post.
NOTE: Detail may not add to totals because of rounding.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Current Population R eports,
Series P-60, No. 103; and Series P-20, No. 302.




Spanish
origin

Table C-29. Median 1975 income of families, by number of earners in
the family, and Spanish origin and race of family head
Number of earners 1

All
persons

Spanish
origin

Black

White

None ......................................................
1 ............................................................
2 ............................................................
3 ............................................................
4 or more ...........................................

$5,232
11,568
16,058
20,531
23,785

$3,544
7,952
12,640
15,716
19,877

$3,511
7,086
12,914
15,808
18,147

$5,645
12,198
16,360
21,005
24,203

1 Families with head 14 years old or over in March 1976. Data refer to the civilian noninstitutional population and members of the Armed Forces living on post with their families or living
off post.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, C urrent Population R eports,
Series P-60, No. 103.

70

Table C-30. Persons with income below the poverty level in 1975, by work experience, and Spanish origin and race
(Numbers in thousands)

Work experience

All
persons

Total

All persons, 16 years or over1 ..............................................................
Income below poverty level2 ..........................................................
Percent below poverty level .................................................
Worked in 1975 ........................................................................................
Income below poverty level ...........................................................
Percent below poverty level ...................................................
Worked 50 to 52 weeks, usually full time ...........................
Income below poverty level ...........................................
Percent below poverty level ...................................
Worked other than year round, full time .............................
Income below poverty level ...........................................
Percent below poverty level ...................................
Did not work in 1975 ..............................................................................
Income below poverty level ...........................................................
Percent below poverty level .................................................

153,180
15,813
10.3
101,240
6,342
6.3
55,032
1,244
2.3
46,207
5,098
11.0
51,940
9,470
18.2

6,644
1,499
22.6
4,229
606
14.3
2,148
150
7.0
2,081
456
21.9
2,415
893
37.0

1 Persons 16 years old or over in March 1976.
2 The definition of poverty was developed by the Social Security Administration in 1964 and
revised by a Federal Interagency Committee in 1969. The poverty levels used in the data for this
report consist of a set of 124 thresholds determined by family size, presence and number of
family members under 18 years old, sex and age of family head (or unrelated individual), and
farm-nonfarm residence. Poverty thresholds are updated every year to reflect changes in the

Spanish origin
Puerto
Mexican
Rican
American
3,885
932
24.0
2,594
451
17.4
1,232
112
9.1
1,362
339
24.9
1,291
481
37.3

1,003
279
27.8
501
55
11.0
283
12
4.2
218
43
19.7
502
224
44.6

Other
1,755
288
16.4
1,133
100
8.8
633
27
4.3
500
74
14.8
622
188
30.2

Black

White

15,731
4,081
25.9
9,630
1,448
15.0
4,818
233
4.8
4,812
1,215
25.2
6,101
2,634
43.2

134,985
11,383
8.4
89,944
4,709
5.2
49,345
992
2.0
40,599
3,717
9.2
45,041
6,674
14.8

Consumer Price Index. The threshold for the average nonfarm family of four was $5,500 in 1975.
For further details, see U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Current Population
R eports, Series P-60, No. 106.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, unpublished Current Popula­
tion Survey tabulations, March 1976.

Table C-31. Percent of families with 1975 income below the poverty level, by sex of family head, presence of children, and Spanish origin and
race of family head
Sex of family head and presence of children

All fam ilies2 ..............................................................................................
With children under 18 years ........................................................
Man as head ..................................................................................
With children under 18 years ........................................................
Woman as head ......................................................
With children under 18 years ........................................................

All
persons

Total

9.7
13.0
6.1
7.1
32.4
45.0

25.2
28.8
17.6
19.3
53.6
61.7

Percent below poverty level1
Spanish origin
Puerto
Mexican
American
Rican
26.7
30.4
20.2
22.8
57.6
66.1

33.4
37.9
17.1
17.6
60.2
65.2

Other
16.0
17.9
11.7
11.7
34.8
46.1

Black

White

27.4
34.2
14.5
16.1
50.1
59.2

7.6
10.1
5.4
6.2
25.9
38.3

1 See footnote 2 of table C-30.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, unpublished Current Popula2 Data refer to families with a head 16 years old or over in March 1976, the date of the
tion Survey tabulations, March 1976.
survey. Family status and presence of children also refer to March 1976.




71

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Federal O ffice Building
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Regions VII and VIII*
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*R egions VII and VIII are serviced
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**R egions IX and X are serviced
by San Francisco

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