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UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BULLETIN OF THE WOMEN’S BUREAU, No. 58

WOMEN IN DELAWARE
INDUSTRIES
A STUDY OF HOURS, WAGES, AND
WORKING CONDITIONS




[Public—No. 259-—66th Congress]
[H. R. 13229]
An Act To establish in the Department of Labor a bureau to be known as the
Women’s Bureau

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the
United States of America in Congress assembled, That there shall be
established in the Department of Labor a bureau to be known as
the Women’s Bureau.
Sec. 2. That the said bureau shall be in charge of a director, a
woman, to be appointed by the President, by and with the advice
and consent of the Senate, who shall receive an annual compensation
of $5,000. It shall be the duty of said bureau to formulate stand­
ards and policies which shall promote the welfare of wage-earning
women, improve their working conditions, increase their efficiency,
and advance their opportunities for profitable employment. The
said bureau shall have authority to investigate and report to the
said department upon all matters pertaining to the welfare of women
in industry. The director of said bureau may from time to time
publish the results of these investigations in such a manner and to
such extent as the Secretary of Labor may prescribe.
Sec. 3. That there shall be in said bureau an assistant director,
to be appointed by the Secretary of Labor, who shall receive an
annual compensation of $3,500 and shall perform such duties as
shall be prescribed by the director and approved by the Secretary
of Labor.
Sec. 4. That there is hereby authorized to be employed by said
bureau a chief clerk and such special agents, assistants, clerks, and
other employees at such rates of compensation and in such numbers
as Congress may from time to time provide by appropriations.
Sec. 5. That the Secretary of Labor is hereby directed to furnish
sufficient quarters, office furniture, and equipment for the work of
the bureau.
Sec. 6. That this act shall take effect and be in force from and
after its passage.
Approved, June 5, 1920.




U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
JAMES J. DAVIS, SECRETARY

WOMEN’S BUREAU
MARY ANDERSON, Director

BULLETIN OF THE WOMEN'S BUREAU,

NO.

WOMEN IN DELAWARE
INDUSTRIES
A STUDY OF HOURS, WAGES, AND
WORKING CONDITIONS




o>v

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1

UNITED STATES
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON
1927

58




ADDITIONAL COPIES
OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE PROCURED FROM
THE SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON, D. C.
AT

25 CENTS PER COPY

CONTENTS

*

.

d

*.

Letter of transmittal
Part I. Introduction
]_g
Scope and method of investigation__________________________
Summary of facts________________ _________________________
Conclusions
II. Hours in factories, stores, and laundries 8-19
Scheduled hours
Daily hours____________________
Weekly hours
12
Saturday hours
IS
Lunch periods
10
Hours actually worked
17
Lost time
17
Overtime_____________________________________ _____
III. Wages in factories, stores, and laundries 21-41
Week’s earnings
Methods of payment
Earnings and time worked___ ________________________
Earnings of full-timeworkers
30
Earnings and rates
32
Weekly rates and scheduled weekly hours______________
Earnings and experience
35
Earnings and age
37
Year's earnings
gg
IV. Working conditions in factories, stores, and laundries 43-60
General workroom conditions
44
Cleaning__________
Heating
45
Ventilation
45
Lighting
40
Seating
47
.
Uniforms
49
Hazard and strain
49
Sanitation_____________________________ ___________________
Drinking facilities_______________
Washing facilities
51
Toilets
52
Service facilities
50
Lunch rooms
50
Rest rooms
57
Cloak rooms
57
Health service and first aid
58
Employment management
58
General mercantile and 5-and-10-cent stores outside Wil­
mington _________ ______________________________________




hi

VII
2
5
7
9
9

19
22
26
28

34

45

59
50

59

IV

CONTENTS
Page

Part V. Vegetable canneries 61-88
Hours and wages
62
Earnings of timeworkers and pieceworkers------------------68
Earnings by occupation
70
Hourly rates
71
Earnings in plants with incomplete records___________
72
Working conditions
74
Location and buildi ngs____________
74
Processing of canned tomatoes75
General workroom conditions
77
Sanitary and service facilities
82
Cannery camps
84
Buildings
85
Sanitation
87
Premises
88
VI. Hotels and restaurants 89-101
Hours1------------------------------------------------------ ----------------------90
Weekly hours
91
Daily hours____________________
92
Over-all hours
94
Wages
100
Working conditions____________________ __________________
101
VII. The workers_______________________________ 103-120
Personal information
103
Nativity-------------------------------103
Age_________________________________ _______________
105
Conjugal condition
106
Living condition
107
Family relationship and responsibilities
108
Chief source of family support___ ____________________
108
Occupation of chief wage earner
108
Number of wage earners and sizeof family____________
109
Industrial history
111
Length of service in industry
111
Age at beginning work
112
First job and length of service therein_________________
113
Time in the trade
114
Number of industries engaged in
117
Time with the employing firm
117
Number of jobs held during preceding year___________
118
Jobs before and after marriage
119
Appendix A—General tables 123-146
Appendix B—Schedule forms 147-156
TEXT TABLES
Table 1. Number of establishments visited and number of men and women
employed therein, by industry
2. Scheduled daily hours, by industry
10
3. Scheduled weekly hours, by industry
13
4. Distribution of women and their medianearnings, by industry.
5. Number of women employed and their median earnings, 1923
and 1924, by industry
25
6. Extent of timework and piecework, by industry_______________




4

23

26

CONTENTS

V
Page

Table 7. Week’s earnings of women who worked the firm’s scheduled
week compared with those for all workers, by industry______
8. Median rates and median earnings, by industry_______________
9. Weekly rates and actual week’s earnings______________________
10. Year’s earnings of women for whom 52-week pay-roll records
were secured, and comparison of their average weekly earn­
ings with the median for all women, by industry___________
11. Inadequacy of washing facilities for women employees, by
industry
52
12. Inadequacy of toilet facilities, by industry___________________
13. Median earnings of cannery employees, by time worked and
race
86
14. Extent of timework and piecework in canneries, by product,
race and for (tomatoes) occupation___ ____________________
15. Hourly rates of timeworkers in canneries, by product and (for
tomatoes) occupation
71
16. Hours and earnings of tomato peelers, by cannery—plants with
incomplete records
73
17. Scheduled weekly hours in hotels and restaurants, by occupa­
tion_______
91
18. Length of the day’s work in hotels and restaurants, by occupation
19. Scheduled over-all hours in hotels and restaurants, by occupa­
tion__________________
20. Time off for meals or rest in hotels and restaurants, by over-all
hours
97
21. Irregularity of hotel and restaurant days, byoccupation________
22. Age at beginning work—regular industries and canneries______
23. Length of service in first job, by industry
114
24. Time in the trade, by industry---------------------------------------25. Length of service of women having had employment in only one
regular industry, by industry
116
26. Length of service in major industry of women having had
employment in two or more, by industry
116
27. Time with the employing firm, by industry
118
28. Number of jobs held during the year, by age group—regular
industries
118
29. Number of jobs held during the year, by agegroup—canneries30. Work of women before and after marriage, by employment at
time of survey
119

31
33
34

40

54

69

93
95

99
112
115

119

APPENDIX TABLES
Table

III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.
VIII.

I. Scheduled Saturday hours, by industry
II. Length of lunch period, by industry
Hours worked less than scheduled, by industry_____________
Hours worked more than scheduled, by industry___________
Week's earnings of white women, by industry______________
Number of timeworkers and pieceworkers and their week’s
earnings, by industry._______________________ ___________
Median earnings and hours worked, by industry___________
Week’s earnings and time worked, all industries___________




123
124
125
126
127
128
130
131

VI

CONTENTS
Page

Table IX. Earnings of women who worked the firm’s scheduled week,
by industry
133
X. Weekly rate and actual week’s earnings, by industry_______
XI. Weekly rate and scheduled weekly hours, all industries_____
XII. Week’s earnings of women who supplied personal informa­
tion, by time in the trade—all industries_________________
XIII. Median earnings and time in the trade, by industry-----------XIV. Week’s earnings of women who supplied personal informa­
tion, by age—all industries---------------------------------------------XV. Year’s earnings of women for whom 52-week pay-roll records
were secured, by industry
140
XVI. Week’s earnings of cannery employees, by time worked and
race_________________________________________ ___________
XVII. Week’s earnings of women in hotels and restaurants, by occu­
pation and race
143
XVIII. Nativity of the women employees who supplied personal in­
formation, by industry
144
XIX. Age of the women employees who supplied personal informa­
tion, by industry
145
XX. Conjugal condition of the women employees who supplied
146
personal information, by industry
XXI. Living condition of the women employees who supplied per­
sonal information, by industry
146




134
136
137
138
139

141

C

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
United States Department of Labor,
Women's Bureau,

Washington, December 11, 1926.
There is submitted herewith a report of women in Delaware
industries, a study of hours, wages, and working conditions in the
industries of the State, including the canneries. The request for this
study was made by the Labor Commission of Delaware and was
indorsed by the Delaware Council of Social Agencies, an association
made up of 30 organizations. The State officials and especially the
inspectors of the State department of labor were most helpful in the
assistance which they gave. Special credit is due to the employers,
who were very generous in their help and cooperation.
Miss Caroline Manning was in charge of the survey, Miss Elizabeth
A. Hyde supervised the tabulation of the statistical material, and
Miss M. Loretta Sullivan and Miss Ethel Erickson wrote the report.
Mary Anderson, Director.
Hon. James J. Davis,
Secretary of Labor.
Sir:




VII

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES
PART I
INTRODUCTION

Early in 1924 the Women’s Bureau of the United States Depart­
ment of Labor was asked by the Labor Commission of Delaware to
make a survey in that State of the wages and hours of women workers.
The request received not only the indorsement of the Delaware
Council of Social Agencies, an association made up of some 30 organi­
zations which are working for the social welfare of the State, but also
the approval of several civic leaders.
Following its policy of cooperating whenever possible with State
departments of labor, the Women’s Bureau undertook the survey,
and for two months in the late summer and early fall of 1924 its
agents were busy securing data from which statistical tables after­
wards were drawn up. State officials, and especially inspectors of
the State department of labor, by their cooperation greatly facili­
tated the work of the survey. Due credit is likewise extended to the
employers, who in almost every instance gave free access to their
records, a courtesy which made possible the collection of data pre­
sented in this bulletin.
In area Delaware is the second smallest State in the Union, and it
is third lowest as regards population. Industrially, at least as far as
women are concerned, it is not prominent, for according to the 1920
census only 20.8 per cent of all females 10 years of age and over were
found to be gainfully employed; of these, 35.2 per cent were in domestic
and personal service; 21 per cent in clerical and the same proportion in
manufacturing and mechanical pursuits; 9.1 per cent and 8.1 per cent
in professional service and trade, respectively; while 5.5 per cent were
in agriculture, extraction of minerals, transportation, and public serv­
ice combined.1 Almost two-thirds (64.3 per cent) of the 18,102
women whose occupations were thus reported in the last census were
in the major groups—domestic and personal service, trade, and man­
ufacture—wherein appeared all occupations included in the present
study. The bureau’s agents secured wage data for one-fourth (25.7
per cent) of the women in these three groups, and this proportion*
1U. S. Bureau of the Census.




Fourteenth census: 1920. v. 4, Population.

Occupations, pp. 56-73.

2

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

may be regarded as fairly representative of the number of women in
the various industries included. Leather, canning and preserving,
and tobacco and cigars constitute the chief woman-employing manu­
facturing industries of the State; in fact, one-half (51.4 per cent) of
the average number of women wage earners in 1920 were found in
these three classifications.2
SCOPE AND METHOD OF INVESTIGATION

As it was impossible with the limitation of time and funds to
include all establishments wherein women worked in Delaware, the
bureau’s agents inspected a representative number of plants, large,
small, and medium-sized, with different types of management and in
various localities. It was the aim of the bureau to include in each
of the industries a fair proportion of the total number of women
employed therein. Thus, although the number of women reported
in the manufacture of paper and paper products, of pulp and hardfiber products and of wood products may seem small, the figure is rep­
resentative of the number of women in each of these industries in
Delaware.
In the matter of locality a computation of census figures shows
that 39.2 per cent of the establishments of the State were located in
Wilmington.3 In the present study 34.9 per cent of the plants vis­
ited were in Wilmington, 6.8 per cent in Dover, and 58.2 per cent in
the smaller cities and towns and in rural districts. All the canneries
were located outside Wilmington, as were 83.3 per cent of the cloth­
ing factories, 75 per cent of the pulp and hard-fiber plants, 80.6 per
cent of the stores in the general mercantile industry, and more than
one-half (66.7 and 57.1 per cent, respectively) of the restaurants and
the miscellaneous manufacturing establishments.
The 146 stores, factories, laundries, hotels, restaurants, and can­
neries for which wage data were collected were located in the follow­
ing 29 cities, towns, and industrial communities of the State:
Barkers Landing.
Blanchard.
Bridgeville.
Dagsboro.
Dover.
Farmington.
Felton.
Georgetown.
Greenwood.
Harbeson.

Harrington.
Hartly.
Laurel.
Lewes.
Middletown.
Milford.
Millsboro.
Milton.
Newark.
New Castle.

Oak Grove.
Odessa.
Rehoboth Beach.
Seaford.
Smyrna.
Townsend.
Wilmington.
Wyoming.
Yorklyn.

Definite information regarding the number of employees and data
on hours and wages of the women workers were recorded by inves*U. S. Bureau of the Census.
Ibid., p. 216, Table 10.




Fourteenth census: 1920. v. 9, Manufactures, 1919. p. 215, Table 8.

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

3

tigators after interviewing employers and managers and on examining
the pay rolls of the plants. The agents themselves copied the wage
figures from the books of the various establishments, in this way
insuring the uniformity of method and making comparable as far as
possible the material obtained from all plants.
It was the object of the bureau to secure data for a current pay
roll. Most of the records copied were for a week in August or Sep­
tember, a time especially good for the vegetable canneries which were
then at the peak of their season. A week in July or October had to be
taken for some establishments, however, because a normal week was
not recorded during either of the other months. In one hosiery and
knit-goods mill it was necessary to copy records for a period as early
as the week which ended July 4, this being regarded as the latest
representative pay roll of this factory. Workers were paid on a
weekly basis in all but a few of the establishments covered, and for
the exceptions the earnings of the women were prorated in order that
all wage data should be uniformly presented. Figures for a week in
1923 corresponding as nearly as possible to the date of the current
pay roll also were secured, as was a record of the year’s earnings for
about 20 per cent of the women in each plant, only the records of
those employees who had worked at least 44 weeks of the year being
considered for the latter tabulation.
Facts relating to age, nativity, conjugal and living condition, and
time in the trade were obtained through personal interviews with the
women at their work. The woman’s dependents and her home re­
sponsibilities always are subjects of great importance, and the answers
to queries regarding the worker’s economic status in the home reveal
some very significant facts. In addition to securing wage data and per­
sonal-history records the agents made a thorough investigation of all
factories and laundries where women were employed. Detailed in­
formation concerning conditions of work in the many small stores in
the outlying districts of Delaware was not considered sufficiently im­
portant to incorporate in a report like the present one, since these
facilities, or the lack of them, were applicable to so few women.
Early in the survey it was apparent that in order to present wage
data for the desired quota of women in general mercantile and 5-and10-cent stores pay-roll records of the workers in stores where only one
or two women were employed would have to be included, even though
a detailed investigation of the working conditions of these establish­
ments was thought to be inexpedient.
For vegetable canneries a different schedule form was used. The
seasonal nature of this industry sets it apart from the others included
in the survey not only because of the many migrants employed but
on account of the hours and wages prevailing. It is the only indus­
try in the survey in which women’s hours of work are excepted from




4

WOMEN IN DELAWAKE INDUSTRIES

the State’s limitation of a 10-hour day and a 55-hour week. The
short season and excessive undertime or overtime cause great fluc­
tuations in the earnings of the women and make uncertain the amount
received each week in the pay envelope.
The industries included in this survey, the number of establish­
ment < covered, and the number of employees in these establishments
are given in the table following:
Table 1.—Number of establishments visited and number of men and women employed

therein, by industry

Industry

Number
Total
of
number
establish­ of em­
ployees
ments

All industries_________
Manufacturing:
Cigars____________ _________
Clothing.............. .......................
Food products_______ _____ _
Leather (tanning)__________
Paper and paper products_
_
Pulp and hard-fiber products.
Textiles—
Hosiery and knit goods.-.
Other_________________
Wood products..........................
Miscellaneous____________ _
General mercantile_____________
6-and-10-cent stores1____________
34
2
Laundries_____________________
Hotels and restaurants_________
Vegetable canneries____________

Number of women
Number
of men
White

Negro

5,511
4

112
26
6

3
4
4
*5
3
7
J31
17
5
15
34

482
537
422
1,189
230
538 :
145
1, 501
166
751
427
118
300
196
2,685

29
46
254
931
180
474

453
491
168
258
50
64

21
1,137
110
432
74
19
104
111
* 1, 589

124
364
56
319
353
99
196
64
3 844

21

8 252

1 No men were employed by two firms manufacturing clothing and one manufacturing textiles other
than hosiery and knit goods, nor in 14 general mercantile establishments, and two5-and-10-cent stores
2 Includes two establishments manufacturing candy.
3 Throughout this report this industry has been designated 5-and-10-cent stores although a few establish­
ments sold goods at 25 cents and $1.
4 Includes one cannery reporting total number of males only, men and boys not specified.
fi Exclusive of tomato peelers in 12 canneries having no individual records. See p. 73.

The 4,176 women included in the survey were employed in facto­
ries, stores, laundries, hotels, restaurants, and vegetable canneries.
More than one-half (56.2 per cent) of the total number of women
were employed in factories and 26.2 per cent in canneries, while 10.8
per cent worked in stores, 4.7 per cent in laundries, and 2 per cent
in hotels and restaurants.
In the general tabulation of scheduled hours and wages the figures
for hotel and restaurant workers and for women in canneries are not
included. Both these industries are discussed in separate sections of
the report. The great irregularity in hours and variation in the scale
of wages in each of these groups imply differences so great as to
make individual treatment necessary. The seasonal nature of the
work in canneries and the system of including meals or board and
lodging as part payment for hotel and restaurant employees tend to
affect the week’s wages of the workers and to prevent a comparison
of their earnings with those of women in other industries.




5

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

SUMMARY OF FACTS

Extent of survey.
Number of cities and towns visited-----------------------------------------------29
Number of establishments visited------------------------------------ ------------146
Number of women employed in these establishments---------------------- 4, 176

Workers.
1. Proportion of negroes----------------------------------------------------------------2. Distribution of women in industry groups—
Manufacturing-----------------------------------------------------------------------Mercantile__________________________________
Laundries_______________________________________________ ____
Hotels and restaurants-----------------------------------------------------------Vegetable canneries-------------------------------------------------------------3. Age of—
3,244 white women—
Under 25 years 49. 7
25 and under 30 years----------------- ---------------------------------30 years and over________________________
428 negro women—
Under 25 years1---------------------------------------------------------- -—
25 and under 30 years----------------------------------------------30 years and over 42. 1
4. Conjugal condition of4—
3,255 white women—
Singlei-------------------Married__________________ ____ _______ ___ ______ :--------- Widowed, separated, or divorced-------------------------------------5. Living condition of4—
3.254 white women—Living with relatives--------------------------------------------Living independently
7. 7
6. Nativity of4—
3.255 white women—
Native born 90. 8
Foreign born
9. 2

Per cent

6. 5
56
104.
2.
26.

2
8
7
0
2

10. 4
39. 9
42. 8
15. 2

53. 7
33.6
12. 6

92. 3

Hours.
I. Factories, stores, and laundries.
Data for 88 establishments reporting daily hours and for 97 report­
ing weekly hours may be summarized as follows:
1. Daily hours—
Eight hours or less for 15.3 per cent of the women.
Ten hours and over for 9.5 per cent of the women.
2. Weekly hours—
Forty-eight hours or less for 21.5 per cent of the women.
Fifty-five hours and over for 9.8 per cent of the women.
Hours less than scheduled hours worked by 62.1 per cent of
the women for whom hours worked were reported.
Hours more than scheduled hours worked by 4 per cent of
the women for whom hours worked were reported.

* Records of negro' women on nativity and conjugal and living condition were not adequate for statis tical purposes.




6

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

Hours—Continued.
I. Factories, stores, and laundries—Continued.
3. Saturday hours—■
Saturday hours shorter than the daily schedule for 85.7 per
cent and no Saturday work for 10.4 per cent of the women
in factories.
Saturday hours longer than the daily schedule for 88.3 per
cent of the women in stores.
Saturday hours shorter than the daily schedule for 100 per
cent of the women in laundries.
II. Hotels and restaurants.
For 81 women employed in 15 hotels and restaurants the scheduled
hours of duty on 51 per cent of all the working days were 8 or
less.
Over-all hours on 48.2 per cent of the days were 10 or more.
III. Vegetable canneries.
31.5 per cent of the women for whom hours worked were reported
had a week longer than 55 hours.

Wages.
A summary of the wage data is presented in the following form:
For 97 factories, stores, and laundries—
Median week’s earnings—
1923
For all women $12.70 $11.05
For full-time workers
12.90
Median year’s earnings 675. 00
For 15 hotels and restaurants—
Median week’s earnings—
For 64 white women
10. 15
For 21 negro women
10. 75
For 34 vegetable canneries—Median week’s earnings—For 844 white women
9. 40
For 252 negro women
5. 55

1924

Working conditions.
For the 54 factories, 36 stores, 7 laundries, and 15 hotels and restaurants
inspected—
1. General workroom conditions were as follows:
(а) Thirteen factories and 1 laundry had some of or all their aisles
obstructed, and 8 factories and 1 laundry had narrow aisles.
In 5 stores the space behind the counters was so narrow
that clerks passed one another with difficulty.
(б) Floors of cement or other hard material were in use in 11
factories, 4 laundries, and 6 restaurants.
Floors were in an unsatisfactory state of repair in 16 facto­
ries and 2 laundries, and dirty in 13 manufacturing
plants.
to Natural light was found inadequate in 9 factories, 3 laun­
dries, and 4 stores, and unshaded bulbs were in general
use in 28 plants, 1 of these being a laundry.




WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

7

Working conditions—Continued.
For the 54 factories, 36 stores, 7 laundrie , and 15 hotels and restaurants
inspected—Continued.
1. General workroom conditions were as follows—Continued.
(d) In 32 manufacturing plants and 5 laundries some or all
women had standing jobs, and in only about one-third of
these firms were chairs or stools available for occasional
use; in 16 factories and 1 laundry some of the women sat
all day on stools or benches without backs. Only 2 fac­
tories had installed chairs with adjustable legs and backs.
2. The need for improved sanitation is shown by the following:
(a) In 18 factories, 4 stores, and 3 laundries the common drinking
cup was found; bubblers were provided in 18 establish­
ments, 13 of these having insanitary ones.
(b) No washing facilities were found in 5 factories, no towels in
33 factories and 2 laundries, and common towels in 14
factories, 5 stores, and 2 laundries.
(c) According to the Women’s Bureau recommendation (1 instal­
lation for every 15 women) 16 factories had an inadequate
number of toilet facilities; in 27 factories and 2 laundries
the toilets were not designated. Only privies were pro­
vided in 12 factories.
3. The record of service facilities 6 disclosed—
No lunch room in 45 establishments.
No cloak room in 30 establishments.
No rest room in 52 establishments.

CONCLUSIONS

As regards women workers Delaware is not primarily an industrial
State, and its standard of legal protection for women employed
therein is not particularly high. A 10-hour day and a 55-hour week
is the limitation fixed by the State in all but one of the industries
covered in this survey. As in other States, however, many employers
had instituted in the plants where women worked schedules shorter
than those allowed by law; for as many as nine-tenths of the women
reported in the factories, stores, and laundries had a daily schedule
of less than 10 hours, and more than one-fifth of the total number
were employed in plants in which the weekly schedule was 48 hours
or less. Of the 18 States for which hour data have been obtained
by agents of the Women’s Bureau, Delaware falls below 10 in the
proportion of women for whom scheduled weekly hours were 48 or
less.
The chief difficulty with the working hours of the 84 restaurant
workers included in the survey was the irregularity of the workday,
the daily and weekly schedule of the majority of the women being
not unduly long. Some women were required to put in a seven-day
week or were subjected to the inconvenience of broken shifts with a
• Stores outside Wilmington were not included in the tabulation made of service facilities.




8

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

long over-all span. Another drawback in some instances was the lack
of a special meal period, the worker being required to eat on duty
whenever opportunity occurred.
The canning industry was the one exception to the hour regulations
fixed by the State laws. Many of the managers reported that the
seasonal nature of the industry and the irregularity of the workday
made a fixed schedule almost impossible. In a week considered rep­
resentative one-fifth of the women—white and negro—for whom the
number of hours worked was recorded on the pay rolls of the can­
neries showed a week of 60 hours or more.
The median of the week’s earnings for women in the factories,
stores, and laundries of Delaware was $11.05, an amount lower than
the median shown for the majority of the other States investigated
by the bureau. The fact that one-half of the women received earn­
ings of less than the $11.05 for a week considered representative,
reveals a wage situation in need of improvement. The wage data for
canneries and hotels and restaurants also tend to emphasize this im­
pression. In vegetable canneries the median earnings for white and
negro women were $9.40 and $5.55, respectively, and for white
and negro women in hotels and restaurants they were $10.15 and
$10.75, respectively.
From the discussion of plant conditions for women in the major
industrial group it is evident that in many establishments the stand­
ards of plant equipment left much to be desired. A plant which
provides no washing facilities, no towels, or only a common towel can
not be considered efficient in sanitary measures; yet five factories
furnished no washing facilities, and almost one-third of the establish­
ments investigated provided only a common towel. In the canneries
the handling of food makes such measures as cleanliness of the
workroom and proper washing and toilet facilities of the utmost
importance, and while the Delaware survey shows that in many of
the canning establishments visited sanitary provisions were quite
satisfactory, in others disorder and messiness prevailed.
At the time of the survey about two-fifths of the 34 vegetable
canneries investigated were furnishing quarters to some or all workers,
many of these women being brought in from other States for the
canning season. Most of the camps provided for these workers fell
far below the standards of a model camp, and although there was
practically no overcrowding in the 1924 season, in a year with a
heavy pack accommodations would be congested. There was need
for better buildings and for more attention to sanitation, especially in
the matter of the provision of garbage receptacles and of better
privies. An improved drainage system to carry off surface water
where the premises were low or flat also was greatly needed.




PART II
HOURS IN FACTORIES, STORES, AND LAUNDRIES

Data given in this section on scheduled hours represent the normal
working hours of the establishments visited and only rarely the sched­
ules resulting from the industrial depression. The tabulations shown
are based on information obtained from managers relative to the
daily and weekly hour schedules prevailing in their establishments;
in other words, statistics have been compiled concerning the number
of hours stipulated by each firm that women in its employ should work
regularly, each day and each week. Policies in regard to lunch
periods, Saturday half holidays, and night work in the various plants
are recorded, since knowledge of such practices aids greatly in deter­
mining the suitability of the hours of women. It should be borne in
mind that scheduled hours do not take into account overtime and
time lost by employees; in fact, it frequently happens that the hours
which women actually work during a day or a week do not coincide
with the scheduled hours of the plant. Whenever possible, data on
the hours actually worked by the women included in the survey were
secured, and an analysis of this material appears later in the report.
The scheduled hours of women working in canneries and restau­
rants are not discussed in this section. Fluctuations day by day in
the hours of canneries and the great irregularities in the hours of
hotel and restaurant employees make it impossible to include the data
on these two industries in the hour tabulations of plants with a
regular schedule. For these groups, therefore, separate discussions
are presented.
SCHEDULED HOURS

Daily hours.

The scheduled daily working hours for women in the establish­
ments included in the survey are shown in Table 2. Generally
speaking these hours are representative of a five-day week, but the
schedules of some plants included in the analysis covered only four
days, since at the time of the investigation a few establishments in
Delaware were not operating full time. Saturday, so often regarded
as shorter than other workdays, is not included in the following table
of daily hours.
26716°—27f----- 2




9

Table 2.—Scheduled, daily hours, by industry
Number of establishments and number of women whose scheduled daily hours were—
.Number
reported

Under 8

Over 8 and
under 9

8

Industry

Over 9 and
under 10

9

Over 10

10

188

2.970
100.0

224
7.5

2
22

*23

579
19.5

* 21

1,439
48.5

1

16

8
2
2

210
125
56

2
3
2
3

447
265
29
172

11
34

3

30

61

2
3

51
240

2

81
12

*3

205

6

1
1

215
7.2

1
1

216

2

231
7.8

13

1

5

Manufacturing:
4
12
6
76
3
Textiles—
4
5
3
7
122
7
5

453
491
168
258
50
64 ..............
124
364
56
319
328
99
196

5

231

1
1
26
4

9
15
78
92

1
1
1
2
*3
3

65
23
18
2
7
73

*11

1
1
2
1
1
1

280
9.4

82

..........
12

2
0.1

'
i

8

39

|

12
59
24

52

3

2

123

2

62

11 .............................

i Details aggregate more than total because some establishments appear in more than one hour group. Total excludes 9 general mercantile establishments, employing 25
women, with hours too irregular for tabulation.
* Includes an establishment with 2 women alternating 8 and 8H hours.
»Includes an establishment with 1 woman working 11 hours on Tuesday and Thursday.
Aincludes an establishment with 137 women working 10 hours on Friday and none on Saturday.
« Includes an establishment with 1 woman working 4 hours on Thursday, and an establishment with 3 women working 8 hours on Thursday.
• Includes an establishment with 1 woman working 7}4 hours on Tuesday.
l Details aggregate more than total because some establishments appear in more than one hour group.




t

*

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

Estab­
Estab­
Estab­
Estab­
Estab­
Estab­
Estab­
Estab­
lish­ Women lish­ Women lish­ Women lish­ Women lish­ W omen lish­ Women lish­ W omen lish­ W omen
ments
ments
ments
ments
ments
ments
ments
ments

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

11

Delaware has established a 10-hour day and a 55-hour week as
the maximum that women employed in the industries discussed in
this section of the report may be permitted to work. Although the
five firms, with 231 women, showing a scheduled day of less than 8
hours are in the general mercantile division, this group also includes
the two firms having 2 women with a schedule of more than 10
hours. Thus it happens that the shortest as well as the longest
hour schedule shown in the table is for the general mercantile group,
which industry includes approximately one-eighth of all women
reported.
The standard advocated for wage-earning women is an 8-hour
day, and about one-fourth of the establishments and 15.3 per cent
of the women included in the Delaware factories, stores, and laundries
had a day of 8 hours or less. Although seven industries are included
in this classification, all but one-eighth of the women shown as having
a schedule of 8 hours or less were employed in stores. The manu­
facture of clothing, of paper and paper products, of pulp and hardfiber products, of hosiery and knit goods, and of “other textiles,”
together with laundries, had no firm which reported a schedule so
short as this.
The table shows that almost one-half (48.5 per cent) of the women
had scheduled daily hours of over 9 and under 10. In regard to
numbers affected, the next highest group is the one of 9 hours, which
includes less than one-fifth (19.5 per cent) of the total number of
women reported. Although this latter classification reveals 2
more establishments than appear in the former group, the 9-hour
column shows only two-fifths as many women, a fact which empha­
sizes the small proportion of women in most of the 23 firms report­
ing a 9-hour day.
The majority of the manufacturing industries had the greatest
proportion of their women in the 9-and-under-l0-hour groups. Each
of the following nine manufacturing industries had more than twofifths of their women workers so classified: Cigars, food products,
clothing, leather, “other textiles,” miscellaneous, pulp and hard-fiber
products, hosiery and knit goods, and wood products. The first six
of these industries reveal the vast majority of women with a sched­
ule of 9 and under 10 hours. As many as 84.3 per cent of all the
women in manufacture were scheduled for a day of this length. It
is apparent then that the more up-to-date managers of manufacturing
plants have voluntarily adopted a schedule less than that sanctioned
on the statute books as the hours a woman may work. The fact
that these firms have instituted a schedule shorter than is required
by law is proof that the maximum fixed by the State is not neces­
sarily the standard of the industry. For in addition to the State
regulation, which covers practically all the industries discussed in
this section of the report, it is frequently the practice of an industry
to set a standard of hours for the women employed therein.




12

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

Only about one-eighth of the establishments had a day of 10 hours.
More than nine-tenths of the women had a scheduled day shorter
than the maximum fixed by law. Table 2 shows that no plant manu­
facturing cigars, clothing, or pulp and hard-fiber products, nor in the
miscellaneous group, and no 5-and-10-cent store had a daily sched­
ule as high as 10 hours. But even though the vast majority of the
establishments and as many as 90.5 per cent of the women are shown
as having a schedule of less than 10 hours, there were 13 establishments
in the survey with a longer daily schedule, two of them reporting hours
in excess of 10 a day. Eight industries, employing almost one tenth
of the women appearing in the table, have some firms whose daily
schedule was at least as long as 10 hours. More than two-fifths of
these women were in laundries, over one-half were engaged in manufac­
ture, while a very small per cent (1.8) were in the general mercantile
group. About the last, it may be said that long hours for women
occurred in small towns where there were not many women employed
outside the home. Sometimes only one saleswoman each was employed
in these stores, although in one of the four reporting as many as 10 hours
there were three women employed. As it is the custom of stores in
small towns to keep open at night for the accommodation of patrons,
it is not surprising to find that the four stores which appear in the
table as having scheduled hours of 10 and over were located in small
communities. Because of the great irregularities in the daily hours
of these firms, such qualifications as “depends on business” or “almost
family relationship” were given by managers in explanation of the
staggered hours reported, fluctuations in the opening and closing
hours of an establishment naturally affecting the schedule of hours
prevailing.
^
Almost four-fifths of the women engaged in the manufacture of
paper show a schedule of exactly 10 hours, and more than three-fifths
of all the laundry workers appear in this classification. The manu­
facture of wood products had the next highest proportion, over twofifths of its women, having a day the exact length of the maximum
set by the State. In the other five industries reporting a schedule
of this length, the proportion of women in each with such hours was
quite small.
Weekly hours.
The report of daily hours does not tell the whole story. Only by
a comparison of daily hours with the hours women are required to
work during a week is a true picture given of working schedules in
the various industries. It is not the length of one day, but the
steady grind day after day, that takes a toll of woman’s health and
strength. The accompanying table shows the number of women
and establishments in each industry with the specified hours' per
week.




Table 3.—Scheduled weekly hours, by industry
Number of establishments and number of women whose scheduled weekly hours wero—
Number
reported

Under
44

Over 44
and un­
der 48

44

Clothing............ ..... ...........—.........Food products........ ........................—

Textiles—

197 2,995
mo
4
12
6
16
3
4

453
491
168
258
50
64

4
5
3
7
131
7
5

124
364
56
319
353
99
196

1

15

54 and
under 55

Over
55

55

1

9

i
1
3

149
14
172

1
1

70
15

1

3

161
32

2

30

2

56

34

2
5

81
231

1
1

137
1

1
2

1
62

1
1
2
2
1

65
23
68
71
11

1

9
92

2

3

Establishm ents

15

285
9.5

1

93

1
1
2

35
29

1
1
1

12
59
24

9
1

16
5

6

8

2

123

9

a
o
£

12
8
39

1
2

a

1

o
£

I

Establishm ents

fl
9
a

190
6.3

2
1

447
46

15

18
4
1

8

10
0.3

1

16

an

*5
4

i

|

88
2.9

1
is

15

1

4

547
18.3

1

650
21.7

11

11

1

1

324 216
10.8

256
8.5

a

9

|

Establishm ents

a
i
0
£

1

Establish ­
m ents

Establishm ents

a
a
0
is
9

1

is

I

Establishm ents

fl
1
9

|

0
(S

9

22

2

'Details aggregate more than total because some establishments appear in more than one hour group.
'Includes an establishment with three women alternating 51H and 55 hours.




§
a

I

Establishm ents

a
0
£

61

1

a
9

5
1

138
4.6

35

6

11

1

403
13.5

2

15
0.5

11

1

89
3.0

3

2

4

a
a
0
£

j

a
0
a
0
is

1

a
a
0
£

9

E stablish ­
m ents

Is
K

E stablish ­
m ents

A

.22 tr3c

Establish ­
m ents

Women

a
9
a
0
£

Establish ­
m ents

Establish ­
m ents
Manufacturing:

Over 52
and un­
der 54

52

4
1

— —

7

r

9
1

WOMEN IN DELAWAEE INDUSTRIES

Per cent distribution of women............

Over 50
and un­
der 52

50
|

Industry

Over 48
and un­
der 50

48

CO

14

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

The largest per cent of women in any classification of the table is
found in the over-50-and-under-52-hour group, where about one-fifth
of the women appear. Next in order is the 18.3 per cent shown for
women employed by firms which scheduled a week of over 52 and
under 54 hours in length, cigar manufacturing embracing more than
four-fifths of the women whose schedule was thus reported.
More than one-half of the 2,995 women in the table had a week
of 50 and under 54 hours. Of the 12 industries included, the manu­
facture of cigars, of clothing, of “other textiles,” and of leather
constitute more than three-fourths of the women in these classifi­
cations.
As previously stated, Delaware has fixed 55 hours as the maximum
a woman may work, yet the table shows that not quite one-tenth of
the total number had a schedule as long as this. Eight industries
are included in this 55-hour classification. They are as follows:
The manufacture of food, leather, paper and paper products, hosiery
and knit goods, “other textiles,” and wood products, general mercan­
tile establishments, and laundries. More than two-fifths of the
women appear in one industry—laundries.
Due to the same causes as were found to exist in the discussion
of daily hours, namely, the customs and habits of small communities,
stores were found to be the only industrial group having weekly hours
beyond the maximum. When it is seen, however, that the eight
establishments with such a schedule employed but 10 women, their
influence on so representative a group as the 2,995 women appearing
in the table manifestly is negligible. The three stores that reported
hours as long as 60 were located in the same town, and one of the
three had a weekly schedule ranging from 10 to 12J^ hours longer
than the 55-hour limitation.
Each of four industry groups—the manufacture of food products,
paper and paper products, hosiery and knit goods, and the miscel­
laneous manufacturing group—shows one firm having a schedule less
than 44 hours, but the number of women in this hour classification
is very small, only 3 per cent of the total reported.
All industries except the manufacture of “other textiles,” the
5-and-10-cent stores, and the laundries show at least one firm whose
weekly schedule for women workers was 48 hours or less. Practically
one-fifth (20.6 per cent) of the establishments and 21.5 per cent of
the women had a schedule of not more than 48 hours, and threetenths of these firms and almost three-eighths (36 per cent) of the
women appearing in this classification are found in the general
mercantile group. It is interesting to note that approximately twothirds of the total number of women in the general mercantile
industry had a scheduled week not exceeding 48 hours in length.




WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

15

Saturday hours.

In many localities and in a number of industries Saturday is re­
garded as a short working day; therefore a separate tabulation of the
Saturday schedules reported is shown in Appendix Table I. It would
seem that the provisions of the Delaware law—a 10-hour day and a
55-hour week—would of themselves be somewhat suggestive of short
Saturday hours. In the 13 industries investigated, 92 firms recorded
Saturday schedules for 2,752 women. Five plants—two in the mis­
cellaneous manufacturing group, one manufacturing paper and paper
products, one a clothing factory, and one a hosiery and knit-goods
mill—employing altogether 243 women, reported no work on Sat­
urdays at the time of the survey.
More than one-half of the establishments (54.6 per cent) reported
a Saturday of 3 and less than 6 hours. This classification includes
practically three-fourths (73.7 per cent) of the women, and all these
.but the 8.9 per cent employed in laundries were in manufacturing
plants. With the exception of stores all industries had at least one
establishment with a Saturday of less than 6 hours.
The vast majority (85.6 per cent) of the women in the manufac­
turing industries and all those employed in laundries had a Sat­
urday of 4 and under 6 hours, while all general mercantile establish­
ments reported a Saturday longer than 7 hours for their women
employees. It was in stores—both the 5-and-10-cent and the general
mercantile establishments—that the long Saturday prevailed in Del­
aware, for no laundry and only one manufacturing plant—a food
factory—scheduled a Saturday as long as the 7 hours shown as the
minimum for stores. Although the factory mentioned employed
more than one-half (55.4 per cent) of the women reported in the man­
ufacture of food products, it had adopted a 9-hour day throughout
the week.
From unpublished correlations of the daily and the Saturday hours
of women in Delaware establishments it is seen that all laundries and
all except one of the manufacturing plants had a shorter schedule on
Saturday than on other days. The situation in stores, however, was
quite different, for in all but one of the establishments reporting both
schedules the women were expected to work a Saturday at least as long
as was recorded for the other days of the week. Six stores had uni­
form hours throughout the week; that is, they had the same schedule
on each of the six days reported, but with the exception of the one
store whose schedule of hours was the best of any reported in this in­
dustry, the number of women employed in them is almost negligible,
comprising less than one-eighth of the number included. In studying
these statistics it is apparent that for approximately one-tenth (10.3
per cent) of the women in stores a schedule of less than 8 hours was
recorded for every day of the week, Saturday for these women being




16

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

one-half hour longer than the schedule reported for the other days.
All these women were employees of one Wilmington establishment,
and this firm also reported the lowest weekly schedule of any of the
stores investigated in Delaware. Five stores, however, had a sched­
ule of 8 hours and under for every day of the week, Saturday included.
This affected more than one-half (54.1 per cent) of the number of
women shown as the total of this industry group.
The great concentration of women in stores appears in the corre­
lation of a day under 8 hours with an 8-hour Saturday, more than
two-fifths of the women in 5-and-10-cent stores and general mercan­
tile establishments combined falling into this group. However, the
group of women with a daily schedule of 8 and under 9 hours and a
Saturday of more than 10 comprises about one-fourth (25.1 per cent)
of the number with both schedules reported in the two types of stores.
From an analysis of these unpublished data in regard to the two
groups of stores in which it is the custom to have Saturday hours
longer than those of any other day of the week, two interesting facts
are revealed. Stores show 115 women (26.9 per cent of the number
having both daily and Saturday schedules reported) who had a Sat­
urday of more than 10 hours, and while 187 women, or 43.8 percent,
had a Saturday schedule as long as 10 hours, only 6 women had a
schedule as long as this on other days. Concerning the legal aspects
of these long Saturday hours a clause in the Delaware law allows as
much as two hours of overtime on one day a week, provided the
weekly maximum of 55 hours be not exceeded.
Lunch periods.

Since the Delaware law provides 30 minutes as a minimum for
lunch, this was the shortest schedule reported by any establishment
in the industries shown in Table II in the appendix. Most of the
firms reporting a 30-minute or a 45-minute lunch period were located
in Wilmington, where less lunch time is provided than in other places
in the State. Outside Wilmington it is customary to allow a longer
interval, for in country towns most of the women go to their homes,
and at least an hour is necessary for the workers to eat lunch and
return to the plant. However, stores in Wilmington as well as those
in the State at large allowed employees at least one hour for lunch.
In three industrial groups—5-and-10-cent stores, general mercantile
establishments, and the manufacture of wood products—an hour was
the shortest lunch period reported by any firm. For about one-fifth
of the women, in more than two-fifths of the firms, reporting in general
mercantile, and for a very small proportion in miscellaneous manu­
facturing—3 women in one brush plant—more than an hour’s lunch
period was permitted.




WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

17

Of all the women reported, about one-third had an hour for lunch
while approximately two-fifths had an interval of exactly 45 minutes.
In all, more than four-fifths of the women, working in approximately
four-fifths of the establishments, had a lunch period beyond that fixed
by the State law as a minimum.
HOURS ACTUALLY WORKED

Lost time.

Due to various causes the hours the women actually worked did
not tally with those which the plants scheduled. It is evident that
in any organization dealing with human beings some time would be
lost by workers in any specified week secured. Sometimes a worker
loses time because she is ill or because of illness in the family; some­
times the various demands of a household compel a woman to remain
at home. However, the worker herself is not always responsible for
the discrepancy between hours scheduled and hours worked, for
sometimes the plant-—because of broken machinery, slack orders, or
a dull season—does not operate its full weekly schedule. In the
present study there are several instances of shutdowns in a certain
department or in the whole of the plant, and the records show that
the workers lost one day or even two because the plant was not
running its full scheduled week.
Since stores do not generally report hours actually worked, neither
5-and-10-cent stores nor general mercantile establishments have been
included in the tables representing undertime hours or extent of
overtime.
In spite of the fact that effort was made to secure a representative
week—that is, one with a normal working schedule—the amount of
lost time shown for women is considerable. (Table III in the
appendix.) Altogether 62.1 per cent of the women for whom hour
records were secured show some undertime during the week of the
pay roll. Two-thirds (67 per cent) of those who lost time had lost
10 hours or more, nearly one-third (31.7 per cent) 20 hours and over,
and almost one-tenth 30 hours or more. This last-named group
includes at least one woman in every industry reported upon except
the manufacture of wood products. However, even in this industry
there was one woman who lost between 25 and 30 hours. Clothing
manufacture shows 33 women and textiles other than hosiery and knit
goods show 24 women for whom the time lost covered more than
one-half the possible working period even where the scheduled hours
of establishments were as long as the 55-hour maximum of the
State. In these two industries, a large proportion of the women
having hour data reported are found to have lost time—91.9 per
cent in clothing and 87.6 per cent in “other textiles”; about onefourth of the women having undertime in the former industry lost
25 hours or more, while only one-tenth of the number in “other




18

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

textiles” show as much as this, the great concentration in any one
classification in this latter industry being the 48.9 per cent appear­
ing in the 10-and-under- 15-hour group.
In each of six manufacturing industries more than one-half of the
women whose complete hour data were reported lost some time.
Clothing, “other textiles, ” paper and paper products, pulp and hardfiber products, wood products, and hosiery and knit-goods each
had more than 50 per cent of the women whose hour data were
reported working less than scheduled time. Laundries reported a
lower proportion of women not working the schedule of the plant
(26.3 per cent) than did any other of the 11 industries involved.
The greatest number of women in any one group of undertime
hours (28.3 per cent) fall in the 10-and-under-l5-hour classification;
more than one-half of the women in paper manufacture and practi­
cally one-half of those in “other textiles ” appear in this classification.
This would mean that lost time for the women in this group would
average as much as 2 hours a day; in other words, for each of the
women reported in the 10-and-under-l 5-hour classification it maybe
said that an average of about 2 hours a day was lost, and this is a
calculation based on a week selected because it was considered rep­
resentative of conditions in the plant. Three-fifths of the women
who lost time show less than 15 hours lost, the largest proportions
of these being found in “ other textiles” and clothing manufacture.
Altogether about one-eighth of the women in the table had less
than 5 hours of lost time, and more than one-half of this number
appear in 2 of the 10 industries included; it seems conclusive, then,
that the great proportion of women for whom time lost was reported
lost an average of more than one hour daily.
Was the number of women who showed undertime greater or less
at the time of the survey than in 1923, and was the period a longer
or a shorter one for the various industries involved? In order to
present statistical data on this subject, the agents of the bureau
obtained, whenever possible, for the corresponding week in 1923 pay
roll records of the identical firms which furnished data for the current
year.
A comparison of the undertime tables for the two weeks shows that
while almost one-third (31.7 per cent) of the women on the current
pay roll for whom lost time could be ascertained show as much as 20
hours, only 14.2 per cent of those for whom scheduled and actual
hours lost were recorded for 1923 show such an extent of undertime.
On the other hand, while the 1924 records show that for about onethird of the women having lost time reported such period was less
than 10 hours during the week considered representative, the earlier
pay rolls reveal as many as three-fifths (61.9 per cent) of the women
with undertime amounting to less than 10 hours.




WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

19

Considering the fact that employers chose a week in 1924 supposed
to be representative of conditions, the lost time reported would seem
to be indicative of the general depression prevailing throughout the
country. Establishments manufacturing leather, clothing, and pulp
and hard-fiber products particularly felt the hard times, and the
records of the various plants reveal an operating schedule consider­
ably below the normal period of the industry.
In both years “other textiles” had a greater number of women
losing time than had any other industry in the group, and although
leather took second place in this respect in 1923, in 1924 it was pre­
ceded by clothing manufacture. In many branch or subcontract
shops records of the number of employees in 1923 were not avail­
able, and the current year’s report, because of the inclusion of these
shops, probably shows a higher proportion of workers with lost time
in the industry.
Unpublished figures give a correlation of lost time with scheduled
weekly hours. In several of the groups for which reports of sched­
uled hours were given it is apparent that the majority of the women
had lost some time, but it is surprising to find such high per cents
as 60 and 69.7 as the proportions of women who lost time in groups
with scheduled hours as low as 44 hours and less. In each of the
two classifications representative of schedules of 52 hours and over
50 and under 52 hours, three-fourths of the women lost time, some
of them as much as 30 hours. Moreover, nearly four-fifths of the
women showing undertime in each of these scheduled-hour groups
lost 10 hours or more, about one-fourth of the number in the former
and over one-third of those in the latter group appearing in the 10and-under-15-hour classification of the table.
Overtime.

In contrast to the number of women with records of lost time the
few (63) appearing in the table on overtime seem very insignificant.
(Table IV in the appendix.) About three-fourths of this number show
less than 2 hours of overtime, and there were only 3 women whose
overtime extended to 4 hours a week. Almost one-half the women
reported as working in excess of the regular schedule (47.6 per cent)
are found in the l-and-under-2-hour classification. Of the six indus­
tries in which some women had overtime, two—food and pulp and
hard-fiber products—include approximately two-thirds of the total;
in fact, all the women who had 2 hours or more of overtime were
confined to one industry—food products.
.







PART III
WAGES IN FACTORIES, STORES, AND LAUNDRIES

In any discussion of wages consideration must be given to the vari­
ous elements which cause fluctuations in the earnings of the individ­
ual—fluctuations which are duly reflected in the earnings of the
workers as a group. To the worker the subject of wages has always
been one of great importance, since it involves not only the support
of the individual but quite often the maintenance of others who are
dependent on her.
As in other State studies made by the Women’s Bureau, analysis
of the wage situation in Delaware has been made from two main angles:
What women wage earners received for a current week and what
they received for the year immediately preceding the investigation.
As previously stated, a representative week during the fall of 1924
was selected, and a week corresponding as nearly as possible to the
date of the current year’s pay roll was chosen for 1923, special effort
being made to secure records from the books of the identical plants
covered in 1924. Moreover, managers of establishments which had
been in operation for a year or more were asked to give the agents
of the bureau the names of their steadiest women workers. To obtain
records of approximately one-fifth of the women whose names
appeared on the pay rolls of the various plants, but to include only
workers employed in the establishment for at least 44 weeks of the
year, was the system governing the collection of such data. It is
apparent that the week’s wage assumes a new significance when con­
trasted with the yearly budget, and it is only by giving such impor­
tant factors full consideration that a true picture of the wage
situation is presented. The earnings of a picked group of women
over a period as long as a year delineate rather accurately the gen­
eral trend of industrial wages in the State for that time.
Because of the public demand stores employed a steady force
throughout most of the year, and it was not difficult for them to
choose a normal week. This is true also of most laundries, although
occasionally there is rush work when all employees must stay beyond
the scheduled hours. There were manufacturing plants in Delaware,
however, which had not operated on their regular schedule for weeks
previous to the period for which pay rolls were taken, and this fact
accounts largely, no doubt, for the excessive amount of lost time and
the consequent low earnings received by women in several of the
industries included in the survey.
21




22

WOMEN IN DELAWAEE INDUSTRIES

WEEK’S EARNINGS

Regardless of time worked the actual earnings of the women in
the various industries reported extended over a wide range, from less
than $1 to the group receiving $35 and under $40. The median of
the week’s earnings for all the women investigated was $11.05; in
other words, one-half of all the women in specified industries in Dela­
ware for whom week’s earnings were reported received more than
$11.05, and one-half received less than that amount.
The following summary of the median earnings of women working
in manufacturing plants, in stores, and in laundries shows Delaware
tenth among 14 States where similar wage investigations have been
made by the Women’s Bureau:
State

Year of
survey

Median
earnings

Rhode Island _ .
1920 $16.
New Jersey
__ __ 1922
14.
Ohio
_______ 1922
13.
Oklahoma
_______ 1924
13.
Georgia- _ _
__ /1920 } 12.
11921
Missouri______ ______ 1922
12.
Kansas ___ _
1920
11.

85
95
80
00
95
65
95

State

Year of
survey

Arkansas
Tennessee
_ . __
Delaware
__
Kentucky _
South Carolina
_
Alabama
__ _
Mississippi _

1922
1925
1924
1921
1922
1922
1925

Median
earnings

$11.
11.
11.
10.
9.
8.
8.

60
10
05
75
50
80
60

In the foregoing arrangement only four States-—Mississippi, Ala­
bama, South Carolina, and Kentucky—show median earnings for the
women reported lower than the $11.05 computed for the women in
the Delaware survey.
To the mill-village system, with its customary low rental and costplus charge for provisions and other necessities, may be attributed in
part the lower median earnings of the last three of these States, and
since mill workers comprised from two-fifths to seven-eighths of the
white women there for whom wage data were secured the influence of
the textile group on the total number of workers in these States was
correspondingly strong. Due allowance for this special condition must
be made, therefore, when comparing the median earnings of these
women with the median earnings of women in States where such a
system does not prevail.
The present study shows that the largest groups of women were
found in the manufacture of clothing and of cigars, and strangely
enough these two industries reveal the lowest and the highest median
earnings reported, $8.10 and $16.40, respectively, being the amounts
computed for the 491 women in clothing manufacture and the 453
women in cigars.




23

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES
Table 4.—Distribution of women and their median earnings, by industry
Women employed
Industry
Number Per cent

All industries________________ ___________________ ___________

Median
earnings,
week of
pay-roll
investiga­
tion

2,995

100.0

$11.05

453
491
168
258
50
64

15.1
16. 4
5. 6
8.6
1.7
2.1

16.40
8.10
12.00
15. 50
14. 40
10.60

124
364
56
319
353

4.1
12. 2
1.9
10. 7
11.8

196

Manufacturing:
Cigars____________ ______________
Clothing............. ................ . __
Food products............................................................
Leather (tanning)................... ............... .....................................
Paper and paper products___________________________
Pulp and hard-fiber products_______________________
Textiles—
Hosiery and knit goods ________________ ________ ____
Other____ _________ ____________________
Wood products....................... ............. ......................... ..........
Miscellaneous................................... ................ ..
Genera] mercantile... ............... ..................................................

6.5

11.15
9.80
9.05
11.95
11.70
9.75
9.35

The second highest median ($15.50) is found for the group of
women making glazed kid and leather. The manufacture of food
products, with a median of $12, comes fourth in the list of industries
surveyed and the fact of the median being as high as this may be
attributed to one establishment which had a high-wage policy. When
this plant is omitted from the calculation, the median for the other
five firms engaged in the manufacture of food products is found to be
$10.50. In the neighboring State of New Jersey, where a survey
was made in 1922 by the bureau, the median of the earnings of women
in food products was $14.75.'
It is apparent from Table V in the appendix that 6 of the 13
industries and more than two-fifths of the 2,995 women reported had
median earnings below $11.05, the median for women in all the
industries included in this section of the report.
Only 5 of the 13 industries appearing in Table V have any women
receiving as much as $25, and of the 52 women so tabulated 43 were
employed in the manufacture of cigars or leather. It is interesting to
note that no woman in either cigar or leather manufacturing worked
more than 5J^ days during the week for which the pay roll was
taken.
Only 7.6 per cent of the women included in the survey earned as
much as $20, and although these women are scattered thoughout
eight industries more than half of them are found in one—cigar
manufacturing. When it is realized that approximately six-sevenths
(85.9 per cent) of these women are found in three industrial groups,
the relative importance as wage-producing industries of cigars, of
!U. S. Department of Labor.
p. 72, Table I.




Women’s Bureau.

Women in New Jersey industries.

Bui. 37, 1924,

24

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

leather, and of the miscellaneous manufacturing group becomes
apparent.
In “miscellaneous manufacturing” as in “other textiles” are in­
cluded some of the most important factories in Wilmington, yet
because not more than two of these establishments were producing
the same kind of goods they could not be classified in any single
industry group without making possible their identification. Chew­
ing gum, snuff, tin-handled brushes, dental supplies, metal bottle
caps, and shower-bath equipment are the products of the firms in
“miscellaneous manufacture,” and the earnings of women in a group
as diversified as this must be regarded as less significant than the
amounts shown for women working in one specified industry.
A further analysis of the table shows that one-eleventh of the
women reported received less than $6 as their week’s earnings, and
that more than twice that number, or almost one-fifth of them, were
paid less than 18 for a week considered normal. On the other hand,
about one-fifth of the number reported received as much as $16—an
amount which has been regarded as a minimum living wage for
women.
In the industry groups presenting the highest and the lowest
median earnings the extent of variation in the actual earnings of the
women is of sufficient interest to make a discussion worth while.
The manufacture of cigars shows 29 women (6.4 per cent of all those
scheduled) whose actual earnings were less than $8, while clothing
reveals as many as 242 (49.3 per cent) receiving so low an amount;
and although 127 women (28 per cent) in cigar manufacturing were
found to receive $20 or more, only 5 clothing workers (1 per cent)
appear in such a classification.
Underemployment, prevailing at the time of the survey, was partly
responsible for the low earnings of women in certain industries,
depression being particularly noticeable in the manufacture of
clothing, of leather, and of pulp and hard-fiber products. The records
of the firms in these industries show considerable part-time employ­
ment during the weeks immediately preceding the study; in fact,
some managers and superintendents complained of dull times during
most of the 1924 season. To such a condition, and to the existence
of branch or subcontract shops, the low earnings reported for the
women in the clothing industry can be directly traced. Clothing is
one of the leading manufacturing industries outside Wilmington, but
unpublished figures reveal that the earnings in branch or subcontract
shops had a median of only $7.25. The location of many of these
shops in small, isolated communities is likely to restrict the rate of
pay, and the wages prevailing, since the shops employed more than
two-thirds (69.7 per cent) of the women in this industrial group,
necessarily affect the median of all the clothing workers reported.
The figure for the entire clothing industry was only $8.10 and almost




25

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

two-thirds of the women actually received less than 110. For
New Jersey firms producing articles of clothing similar to those
included in the present survey—men’s shirts, underwear, overalls,
and women’s dresses—median earnings were found in 1922 to be
between $13 and $14,2 $5 more than the amount shown for women
engaged on the same kind of work in Delaware in 1924.
Whenever it was possible records also were obtained from the pay
rolls of the plants for a normal week in 1923 corresponding as nearly
as could be to the date of the current pay-roll period. From such
material a table illustrative of the general industrial trend of the
State has been prepared, giving the numbers of women in the various
groups and their median earnings in the early as well as in the late pay­
roll period. The change from 1923 to 1924 in the numbers of women
and in median earnings is significant of the conditions prevailing in
the various industries at the time the survey was made.
Table 5.—Number of women employed and their median earnings, 1923 and 1924,
by industry
Number of women
reported

Median earnings

Industry
1923
All industries___________

1923

2,995

Manufacturing:
Cigars____________________
Clothing__________________
Food products____________
Leather (tanning)__________
Paper and paper products. _.
Pulp and hard-fiber products.
Textiles—
Hosiery and knit goods...
Other_________________
Wood products____________
Miscellaneous_____________
General mercantile_____________
5-and-10-cent stores_____________
Laundries_____________________

$11. 05

453
491
168
258
50
64

524
1335
277
331
57
76

124
364
56
319
353
99
196

161
443
59
430
1254
81
153

1 See statement in text following.

16. 40

Per cent increase
(+) or decrease (—)
in 1924
Number Median
of women earnings

$12. 70
17.45

8.10

10.10

12. 00

15. 50
14. 40
10. 60

18.10
15.15
15.05
10. 80

11.15
9. 80
9.05
11.95
11. 70
9. 75
9.35

13. 30
10. 90
8. 75
13. 70
12. 35
9. 25
9. 65

-13.5
* +46. 6
-39.4

-6.0

-19.8
-33.7
+ 2.3
-4.3
-1.9

-22.1

-12.3
-15.8
-23.0
-17.8
-5.0
-25.8
i +39. 0
+22.

-16.2
-10.1

+3. 1

-12.8

-5.3
+ 5.4
-3.1

2

+28.1

'

•

Although several establishments had no pay rolls for the earlier
period available, in at least two firms in each of the industries it
was possible to secure pay-roll data for 1923. The industries with
larger numbers on the roll taken in 1924 than on that taken in 1923
are clothing manufacture, stores, and laundries. In 5 of the 12
plants included in the clothing industry pay-roll data for 1923 could
not be secured, and since there is no appreciable difference in the
number of women employed in the other 7 establishments in the two
periods studied, the fictitious increase in the industry for 1924 is
accounted for by the fact that for these 5 plants there is only the
* U. S. Department of Labor,
p. 13, Table 3.

26716°—27f------3




Women’s Bureau.

Women in New Jersey industries.

Bui. 37, 1924,

26

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

1924 figure. Frequently the small general mercantile establishments
reported the lack of pay records, and this, together with the fact that
one establishment had only recently opened its doors, made the
earlier pay data unavailable in 18 stores and advanced the number of
women in 1924 as much as 30 per cent over the number in 1923.
Among the 13 industries considered in this section of the report
only about two-thirds (68 per cent) of the establishments visited had
records for 1923 available, yet the accompanying table shows that there
were practically 200 more names of women workers on the earlier pay
rolls than were found on those copied for the current week. Slack
employment is indicated also in the decrease by as much as one-eighth
of the median earnings computed for this period. Since early pay­
roll data were secured whenever possible for a week corresponding in
date to that surveyed in 1924, the decrease would seem to be more
or less significant of the economic conditions prevailing in Delaware
during the two periods under discussion.
Methods of payment.

Payment of wages is made on the basis of time worked or of amount
of work done. Occasionally these two are combined, as when a
woman is shifted from one job to another and receives part of her
pay for timework and part for her output during the week. Delays
in the arrival of work, time lost on account of poor run of material,
or troubles with machines, are apt to cause reductions in the earnings
of pieceworkers, and as such contingencies are not so directly linked
with the earnings of those paid an hourly, daily, or weekly rate as with
those paid by output, pieceworkers must be quite experienced before
they earn more than do timeworkers in the same occupation.
The following table shows the methods of payment followed in the
industries included in this section of the report:
Table 6.—Extent

of timework and piecework, by industry
Number and per cent of women in each specified industry
*
who were on—

Number
of
women
reported

All industries .....................
Manufacturing:
Cigars____ ___ ___________
Clothing........ ................ .........
Food products
Leather (tanning)------------Paper and paper products..
Pulp and hard-fiber products
Textiles—
Hosiery and knit goods.
Other
Wood products
Miscellaneous
General mercantile----------------5-and-10-eent stores----------------Laundries-----------------------------




Timework

Piecework

Both timework
and piecework

Number Per cent

Industry

Number Per cent

Number Per cent

2,979

1,505

50.5

1,301

43.7

173

5.8

453
488

85
30
156
110
23
51

18.8
6. 1
92.9
43. 5
46.0
81.0

367
449
12
143
27
12

81.0
92.0
7.1
56.5
54.0
19.0

1
9

0.2
1.8

31
184
43
160
348
99
185

25. 0
50.5
76.8
50.5
100.0
100. 0
94.4

93
55
10
122

75.0
15.1
17.9
38.5

125
3
35

34.3
5.4
11.0

11

5. 6

253
63
364
56
317
99
196

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

27

It is apparent that there is no great difference in the numbers of
timeworkers and pieceworkers, for slightly more than half (50.5 per
cent) of the women were paid on the first basis and 43.7 per cent on
the second, while a very small per cent (5.8) did both timework and
piecework during the week reported.
Women in stores—both the general mercantile and the 5-and-10cent establishments—are paid on either a daily or a weekly basis, so
the fact of industries as important as these having larger proportions
of timeworkers than had other industry groups is not surprising. Al­
together, 100 per cent of the women shown in Table 6 as working in
stores (general mercantile and the 5-and-10-cent establishments) are
timeworkers, while laundries, and the manufacture of food products,
of pulp and hard-fiber products, and of wood products have 94.4
per cent, 92.9 per cent, 81 per cent, and 76.8 per cent, respectively,
of their numbers paid on the basis of time worked. In other words,
6 of the 13 industries show more than three-fourths of the women for
whom basis of pay was reported who are classified as timeworkers.
The majority of the pieceworkers are found in the manufacturing
of clothing and cigars—62.7 per cent of all the women paid on a
basis of output being found in these two industries. These two
groups and the manufacture of hosiery and knit goods are foremost
in the proportion of their workers paid according to output, each of
the three having as many as three-fourths of its women designated
as pieceworkers. As indicative of the diversity in the make-up of a
group such as textiles other than hosiery and knit goods, the table
shows more than twice the number of women having both a time­
work and a piecework job as were reported doing piecework only.
Table VI in the appendix gives the earnings of timeworkers and of
pieceworkers in each of the industries reported. Great increases in
the median earnings computed for pieceworkers over those shown for
timeworkers are particularly noticeable in three industrial groups—
the manufacture of cigars, of leather, and of “other textiles”—while
in the miscellaneous manufacturing group and in hosiery and knit
goods only slight increases (12.7 and 3.2 per cent) are apparent. In
cigar manufacture women paid on a basis of output had a median
($17.55) more than four-fifths in excess of the amount computed for
timeworkers ($9.60), a fact due to the number of hand rollers and
bunch makers included in the former classification. The pieceworkers
reported in these occupations undoubtedly raise the median earnings
of the group in each of these industries. In two industries—clothing
and paper and paper products—median earnings were lower for piece­
workers, the decrease being 20 per cent in one instance and 8.2 per
cent in the other.




28

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

Earnings and time worked.
The earnings discussed in the foregoing pages were tabulated with­
out reference to the time worked during the week. On account of
the large amount of time lost by the women, for one reason or another,
a correlation of earnings and time worked in the various industries
is especially significant. The most satisfactory way of presenting
such data is by an analysis of earnings in conjunction with actual
hours worked. Unfortunately it was not possible to secure hour data
for all women for whom wage figures were taken because of the custom
frequently encountered of not recording on pay rolls the hours of
pieceworkers. Altogether, hour records were secured for slightly
more than one-half (52.9 per cent) of the women for whom length of
time worked was copied from the books of the plants. Correlating
the amount of pay received with the number of days on which work
was done was possible for 42.1 per cent of the women. Although
this method is considered a little less exact than the other, it is deemed
sufficiently accurate for general purposes. For the remaining 5 per
cent of the number no relation between earnings and time worked
can be traced.
All the women reported in “other textiles” and in pulp and hardfiber manufacture appear as hour workers, while in factories making
cigars and in 5-and-10-cent stores it is the usual custom to keep rec­
ords in terms of days; therefore only a few women in the cigar
industry (9) and no women in the 5-and-10-cent stores appear in the
table of hours worked (Table VII). Excluding, then, the two groups
in which all women had hours worked reported, as well as the 5-and10-cent stores where all women are shown as day workers, unpublished
data show that the 10 remaining industries comprise some firms whose
pay rolls recorded either hours worked or days worked besides some
in which the jobs of a few employees alternated in such a way that
it was impossible to include them in either section of Table VIII.
An analysis of the pay rolls of the firms manufacturing food products
and hosiery and knit goods shows that hours worked were recorded
for practically all the women in these industries, while in firms man­
ufacturing wood products all the women for whom time worked was
reported were in hour groups.
Although records of general mercantile establishments usually are
kept in terms of days worked, there are 16 stores in which the week’s
record was kept by hours. Unpublished data show this to be the
only industry which has the same median earnings for all hour work­
ers as for women whose week was 48 hours or more; in other words,
no woman in general mercantile worked less than 48 hours during a




WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

29

week considered normal. Of more than passing interest are the two
women in this industry reported to have worked a 62-hour and a 65hour week, respectively, and to have received exactly $5 each for the
period.
In the clothing industry hours worked were reported for almost
two-thirds (65.5 per cent) of the women for whom time data were
secured. Since these women were employees of branch or subcon­
tract shops, the 17.20 computed as the median of this group is indic­
ative of the low earnings. Unpublished figures show that one-third
of these women had a week of less than 30 hours, their median earn­
ings being only $4.55; three-fourths of the total number had less than
a 44-hour week, and one-half of this number received less than $6
during a week considered representative.
Examination of Table VIIl-Ain the appendix emphasizes the fact
that long hours do not necessarily mean high wages, and this is true
of the group as well as of the individual. In fact, of the various
hour classifications in the table, though 54 hours shows the highest
median ($16.50) the 48-hour group is next ($15.85), while the
median for the women who worked 55 hours is only $12.25. More­
over, for the nine women having a week of more than 55 hours actual
earnings ranged from $5 to $19, and four of these women received
less than $7 as compensation. The decreased median earnings in
the classifications following the 48-hour group emphasize most strongly
the lack of any coordination between hours worked and earnings
received. In the five classifications covering hours over 48 and
under 54, there is only one in which the median does not show more
than a $2 decrease below the median for women working 48 hours.
Approximately two-fifths of the women in this table had a week of
48 hours or over and their median earnings amount to $13.35, or $2.75
more than the median earnings computed for all hour workers.
About one-fifth of these 48-hour workers actually received less than
$10, a little more than three-fifths did not earn as much as $15, and
approximately three-fourths show less than $16 for a week selected
by the various establishments as a normal one in the industry.
In a discussion of hours and wages ,it is significant to note that 38,
or 4.9 per cent, of the 782 women working a week of less than 44
hours, received between $16 and $24 as their actual earnings. More
than four-fifths of this number appear in the two groups of textile
manufacturing, the large majority being in textiles other than hosiery
and knit goods. This is a diversified industrial group, for it includes
two woolen-yarn mills, one jute plant, one silk mill, and one
bleachery. In only three of the five establishments in the group
“other textiles” were women engaged in the usual textile occupations—




30

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

winding, spinning, and weaving. The silk mill is an important one
in regard to both number of women employees and wages paid.
Although running only a 4-day week throughout the summer of
1924, the week’s wages of the women in this plant were sufficiently
high during the week selected to raise the median earnings of this
textile group.
Time records for a little more than two-fifths (42.1 per cent) of
the women were shown on various pay rolls in terms of days, the
largest group classification being 5)/> days, where approximately twofifths of the women in Section B of Table VIII appear. For this
group median earnings are found to be $15.95, which is almost 50
per cent over the amount computed for women working on 6 days
of the week. Even the 5-day group shows a higher median ($11.85)
than is found in the 6-day classification ($11). The 1,004 women
whose week consisted of at least 5 days show median earnings of
$12.50, although for women working 48 hours or more the median is
6.8 per cent higher—$13.35 being the amount.
With such a great concentration of women in the 5, the 5)^, and
the 6 day classifications of the table (these three combined include
almost four-fifths of the total number having days recorded) it is
natural that the proportion of women working only a few days should
be small; as a matter of fact, only 2.7 per cent of the number for
whom days worked were reported had a week of less than 3 days.
Earnings of full-time workers.
Approximately one-half (49.5 per cent) of the women for whom
time records were secured worked the scheduled week of the plant in
which they were employed. Women working in establishments
which kept these data in terms of hours as well as those whose record
was shown according to the days on which work was done are in­
cluded in this discussion. Thus, if an establishment reported
days as its regular operating period, the employees for whom 5}^ days
of work were recorded on its pay roll are considered full-time workers,
and these, together with the women whose hours worked exactly
correspond with the weekly hours scheduled by the firm, constitute
the number presented in the following table. On many pay rolls a
check beside a name indicates that the employee worked in the plant
on that day, but whether or not the entire day was spent at work
generally is not recorded. In some instances it is evident that the
low earnings cited cover only a few hours’ work on each of the days
recorded, but when a firm reports a 5, a 5)^, or a 6 day schedule and
its pay roll credits women with work on each of these days, it seems
plausible to include these employees in a tabulation of full-time
workers.




WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

31

Table 7.— Week’s earnings of women who worked the firm’s scheduled week com­
pared with those for all workers, by industry
Women who worked
the firm’s sched­
uled week
Industry

All industries______

___________

Manufacturing:
Cigars^ ____________
_
Clothing__________________
Food products.................... ................
Leather (tanning)..................... ........
Textiles—
Hosiery and knit goods..............................
Other_________ _________
Wood products.......... ....................
5-and-10-cent stores..................... ............
Laundries___________________
.

Per cent
of women
Number for whom
time rec­
ord was
available

Median earnings
of—

Full­
time
workers

All
workers

Per cent
by which
median
earnings
of full­
time
workers
exceeded
those of
all
workers

11,408

49.5

$12.90

$11.05

16.7

336
53
135

74.3
12.8
41.1
52.7

17.65
9.80
18.25
16. 65

12. 00

7.6
21.0
52.1
7.4

59
45
16
164
320
70
134

48.0
12.4
37.2
58.0
91.4
70.7
68.4

12. 70
13.80
9. 60
12.65
12.05

11.15
9.80
11.95

40.8
5.9
3.0
4.6
6.4

------------------------------------------------------------1 Total includes two industries not given separately because numbers too small to make a median
significant.

Stores—both the 5-and-10 and the general mercantile-—laundries,
and factories making cigars show that the vast majority of the women
reported worked the required schedules of the firm. In each of six
industrial groups full-time workers comprise more than 50 per cent
of the number reported.
A comparison of the median earnings of all the women included in
the investigation with the median earnings of women working the
firms’ schedules reveals an increase of 16.7 per cent in the amount
received by the latter group. In four industries—the manufacture
of cigars, food products, leather, and “other textiles”—the median
earnings of full-time workers exceed the $12.90 computed for the 1,480
women appearing in Table 7.
In contrast to the high earnings received by women in the
manufacture of cigars—$17.65 being the amount computed—are the
low medians prevailing in three other industries. Clothing factories,
establishments manufacturing wood products, and laundries show less
than $10 as the median earnings of women who worked the schedules
of their firms. While about three-eighths of the women in wood
products and over two-thirds of those in laundries are reported as
full-time workers, median earnings are, respectively, only 6.1 and 6.4
per cent higher than the amounts computed for all women in these
industries. One-eighth (12.8 per cent) of the women in the manu­
facture of clothing are full-time workers, yet the table shows the
median earnings of this group to be increased one-fifth (21 per cent)
of the amount computed for all women reported in the industry, and




32

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

even then median earnings of full-time workers in the clothing indus­
try are found to be only $9.80. In other words, earnings for onehalf the women working the weekly schedules of the plants were less
than $9.80.
From the more detailed figures appearing in Table IX in the
appendix it is apparent that five full-time workers in clothing manu­
facture received less than $5 as remuneration for the week. Four of
the five women referred to were pieceworkers, probably inexperienced,
and as three of these had time worked reported in days, it is possible
that during the week for which the pay roll was taken a workday for
them meant only a few hours of work.
The manufacture of food products is an industry with a different
story. Here, owing to the number of more highly paid workers in
the one firm already cited, an increase of 52.1 per cent is noted in
the median of full-time workers over the median for all workers
irrespective of time worked. The more detailed figures in Table IX
reveal that almost two-thirds (65.2 per cent) of those reported in
this industry are in the $18-and-under-$19 group of workers, unpub­
lished data showing that practically all these women were employees
of the one firm whose influence is largely responsible for the median
earnings of the industry being as high as they are.
For all the women in textiles other than hosiery and knit goods
median earnings were low ($9.80), but women working the schedules
of the firms averaged an amount which was 40.8 per cent higher.
Such an increase, applicable to five plants wherein women were
reported as full-time workers, can be attributed to the exclusion of
those women whose low earnings are inextricably tied up with the
few hours they worked.
Earnings and rates.

The most definite means of analyzing the actual and the possible
earnings of workers seems to be by a comparison of week’s earnings
and weekly rates. This would, of course, apply to timeworkers only,
as weekly rates for pieceworkers can not be ascertained. Since
workers are human beings and not machines, a certain amount of
lost time is to be expected. In any week selected some lost time is
reported and some workers, through either personal or plant reasons,
are receiving less than the amount quoted on the books as their
weekly rate. However, current expenses must be met from the week’s
pay envelope in spite of the fact that such envelope does not con­
tain the same amount every week. A fair idea of the amount a
woman might earn if no time were lost, together w'ith the median
earnings for each industry, is given in the following table, compiled
from the more detailed figures presented in Table X in the appendix.
No rates were computed from the records brought into the bureau,




33

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

so only those tirneworkers whose rates appeared on the books of the
plants in which they were employed are included.
Table 8.—Median

rales and median earnings, by industry

Number
of women
reported

Industry

All industries____________ _________________
Manufacturing:
Cigars_______________ _______
Clothing-..................................

_

Leather (tanning)________________ .
Pulp and hard-fiber products ................. ......................
Textiles —
Hosiery and knit goods_____________ _____ ____
Other...... .................... ............................ ......................
Wood products____ _____ _____ ____ _______________
General mercantile_________ ______ ______ ____ ___ ____

Median
weekly
rale

Median
week’s
earnings

Per cent by
which
week’s
earnings
fell below
(—) or ex­
ceeded (+)
weekly rate

1,385

$11. 60

$10.65

-9.1

72
30
156
49
23
49

9. 75
11. 50
18.15
16.10
13 95
10. 80

10 00
12.65
15 15
14. 70
10. 05

—6 7
-13.0
-30.3
—5 9
+5.4
—6. 8

24
184
41
152
347
77
181

12.00
12. 65
9. 50
11 25
11. 60
9. 75
9. 70

10. 50
9. 90
8. 95
10. 60
11 80
9. 45
9. 10

—12. 5
—21 7
—5 8
-5.8
+1 7
—3 6
-6.2

Not quite one-half (46.2 per cent) of the women for whom wage data
were copied were tirneworkers whose rates appeared on the pay rolls.
The median rate for 1,385 women in the 13 industries investigated
in Delaware amounted to SI 1.60, or 9.1 per cent more than the me­
dian earnings computed for the same group. Two industries—paper
manufacture and general mercantile—show median earnings higher
than the rates, undoubtedly due to the practice of one paper mill of
giving a bonus for production and to the custom in some general
mercantile establishments of giving commissions on sales.
The highest rate of any industry in the table appears for the
women manufacturing food products ($18.15), yet median earnings
of this group fall 30.3 per cent below this amount. Leather man­
ufacture is second ($16.10), and its median earnings are 5.9 per cent
less. Paper and paper products, showing a median rate of $13.95, is
third, but this is the group in which median earnings are higher by
5.4 per cent—an increase due to the bonus paid by one firm in the
industry. The lowest median rates are for women in the manufacture
of wrnod products and of cigars, in 5-and-10-cent stores, and in laun­
dries, all of which fall below $10; in other words, one-half the women
for whom weekly rates were reported in these four industries wTould
receive not more than $9.50, $9.75, $9.75, or $9.70, respectively,
even though they had worked the full scheduled hours of the firm in
which they were employed. Their only chance of higher earnings
lay in the possibility of overtime and this put additional tax upon
their strength. However, it does not seem likely that overtime was
resorted to, for as a matter of fact the median earnings of the




34

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

women in these four industries were from 3.1 to 6.7 per cent below the
median rates.
. The accompanying table, compiled from the more detailed figures
of Table X in the appendix, gives in somewhat different form the
findings in regard to rates and earnings:
Table 9.—Weekly rates and actual week’s earnings
Women for whom amount specified was—
Amount

Weekly rate
Number

Week’s earnings

Per cent Number Per cent

1,385
Under $10____________ _______________

_____

$12 and under $15................................................................ .........
$15 and under $20____ ________ ______________ ____ _____
$20 and over___________________________

100.0

1,385

100.0

399
342
314
299
31

28.8
24.7
22.7
21.6
2.2

588
307
239
227
24

42.5
22.2
17.3
16.4
1.7

It is apparent that less than three-tenths (28.8 per cent) of the
women were supposed to receive under $10, but as many as 42.5 per
cent actually did so. For 47.4 per cent of the women the rate was
$10 and under $15 but the actual earnings of only 39.4 per cent of
the total number came within this classification. The number of
women whose actual earnings were $15 and under $20 was only about
three-fourths the number scheduled to receive rates in this
classification.
While the proportion of women in each group of weekly rates and
week’s earnings decreases as the amount increases, the progression is
found to be more gradual in the case of rates than of earnings; for
while nearly tWo-thirds (64.6 per cent) of the women received earn­
ings of less than $12, only a little more than half of those included
in the table (53.5 per cent) had weekly rates which fell below this
amount. However, the fact that for approximately three-fourths
(76.2 per cent) of the women the weekly rate was less than $15,
shows that Delaware women who were timeworkers, even though
they worked full time, were greatly limited in the amounts they
could expect to earn.
Weekly rates and scheduled weekly hours.
A correlation of weekly rates and the scheduled hours of work in
Delaware reveals some interesting facts. The argument, so often
heard that a reduction in wages follows any shortening of the hours
of work for women is not borne out in Table XI in the appendix, for
although it is apparent that the highest median rate of any classified
group ($18.25) appears for women whose weekly schedule was reported
as 54 hours, women whose week was exactly 48 hours are second




WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

35

highest ($15.60). The classifications intervening reveal a decided
decrease in the medians. A drop of more than one-third the amount
computed for those having a 48-hour week is evident in the median
rate for women working over 48 and under 50 hours, while the next
four classifications show such median rates as $10.55, $11.40, $10.15,
and $10.75. In view of the fact that such amounts appear for
women who had a scheduled week longer than that reported for
women whose median rate was $15.60, it seems fairly obvious that a
shorter schedule does not mean a lower rate of pay.
Of the 1,385 women for whom information relative to rates and
-scheduled hours was available, almost one-fourth (24.8 per cent)
worked in plants in which the weekly schedule was over 44 and under
48 hours, the median rate for this group being $10.80. The median
rate for women in the 55-hour column was $11.70, 90 cents in excess
of the short-hours group.
Of the 31 women whose rates were $20 and over, not quite onethird (32.3 per cent) had a week exceeding 48 hours, and only 27.3
per cent of those whose wages were under $10 had a schedule of 48
hours or less. In this latter group more than three-fifths of the
women were expected to work a week as long as 50 hours, and
approximately one-sixth of them were in plants whose schedules
were 55 hours or more.
Earnings and experience.

It seems natural to suppose that one of the chief factors tending
toward an increase in wages would be the length of time a woman
had been in the trade. It is to be expected that as her skill and
experience increased she would become more and more valuable to
the firm in which she was employed, and this fact is best recognized
by the higher scale of wages paid for additional years of service. In
order to present a more thorough analysis of this problem one of the
inquiries pertained to the length of time the woman had been in the
trade, and this information was obtained for more than two-tliirds
(70.5 per cent.) of the workers for whom wage data had been secured.
As proof that women in industrial occupations do stick to a trade
is the fact that more than three-eighths of those reporting had spent
as much as 5 years of their industrial life in the trade they were
pursuing at the time of the investigation, and as many as 6.1 per
cent had a record of 20 years or more of experience in the same
industry. (Table XII in the appendix.)
The greatest number of women in any one group appear in the 5and-under-10-year classification, in which approximately one-fifth
(20.9 per cent) of those reporting are found. In this group actual
earnings also were shown to be highest, a worker in cigar manufac­
ture receiving between $35 and $40. Although the table shows that




36

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

the column representative of women who had spent less than 1
year in the trade is second largest (16.6 per cent) a similar propor­
tion (17 per cent) is to be found in the groups reporting as much as
10 years, median earnings being $9.15 in the one case and $15.05 for
those in the trade 10 years or more. It must be remembered that
the under-l-year group includes a number of young girls in their
first job.
With three-eighths of the total number of women reporting 5 years
or more in the trade, the question of the money value placed upon
experience of this length by employers is rather significant. In these
groups the median earnings are computed as $13.80. Since longer
time in the trade is not always accompanied by a corresponding
increase in earnings, ust how much does an experience of 5, 10, 15,
or 20 years mean in dollars and cents to the worker? The follow­
ing summary discloses not only the week’s median earnings for each
classification of time in the trade but the per cent of increase of
each median over the median computed for beginners:
Time in the trade

6 months and under 1 year ------------ ------ --1 and under 2 years
-------------- . 2 and under 3 years_____—
.
.
3 and under 4 years------- -..
.
4 and under 5 years __ —
--------5 and under 10 years
.
--------------------10 and under 15 years.
------- --------15 and under 20 years. __ _ __
—
20 years and over. _ _________
_

Per cent of in­
Median
Number of week’s earn­ crease over me­
dian for under-6women
ings
months’ period
189
161
346
277
184
153
442
148
83
129

$9.
9.
10.
11.
12.
12.
12.
12.
15.
15.

15
25
25
40
05
60
90
85
75
80

1.1
12. 0
24. 6
31. 7
37. 7
41. 0
40. 4
72. 1
72. 7

In each of the groups representative of less than 5 years in the
trade gradual increases in the median earnings of the workers are
revealed, the 5-and-under-10-year and 10-and-under-l 5-year groups
show medians practically alike, and from the next classifications—
considerably higher—it is apparent that the median earnings of
women who had spent as much as 15 years in the trade were between
$6 and $7 higher than the amount paid beginners.
From Table XIII it appears that all but 1 of the 10 industries
shown had one or more women with a record of some 20 years in the
trade. While the median earnings of this group are found to be
$15.80, actual earnings range from $4 and under $5 to $25 and under
$30. It is apparent that the greatest number of women having as
much as 20 years’ experience were employed in the manufacture of
food products; in fact, more than one-third of the number who
reported experience in this industry had spent 20 years or more in




37

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

this trade. Some of these women showed 45, 46, or 47 years as their
length of service in one plant, a fact which considerably influences
the median earnings of the women in food products ($18.10) who
reported as much as 20 years’ experience. More than four-fifths
(82.9 per cent) of the women in this 20-year-and-over group appear
in four industries—food products, general mercantile, leather, and
“other textiles”—and with the exception of general mercantile each
of these would seem to emphasize the influence exerted by a pre­
dominating firm in the specified group.
Of all the industries included in the survey, laundries had the larg­
est proportion and paper manufacturing the smallest proportion of
women employees who had been in the trade less than one year.
Unpublished data also reveal that only 1 of the 41 women reporting
in the latter industry had less than a year’s experience, while 24 of the
41 (58.5 per cent) had been engaged in such work for five years or
more. Thirty-one of the 142 women in laundries had been as much
as five years in the industry, and 62, or 43.7 per cent, had had less
than one year’s experience. In the 5-and-10-cent stores no woman
had worked as long as 10 years, and only one woman in wood man
ufacturing showed service for this length of time. More than threefifths of all the women who reported at least five years in the trade
were found in three manufacturing industries leather, food products,
and paper.
Earnings and age.

Table XIV in the appendix, which presents earnings of women in
the various age groups, shows that the peak in regard to median
earnings is reached for women in the 30-and-under-40-year classifica­
tion. There is a gradual increase in the medians up to this point,
and then earnings decline with advancing years. The following
summary compiled from this table gives the number of women and
the median earnings in each of the various age groups:
Ago group

16
18
20
25
30
40
50
60

and under
and under
and under
and under
and under
and under
and under
years and

18 years
20 years
25 years.
30 years
40 years
50 years
60 years
over------

Number of

women

323
353
475
224
363
199
106
74

Median
earnings

$9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
12.
11.
10.

70
80
60
00
10
30
00
10

Median earnings of the women 60 years of age and over are only 4.1
per cent higher than the median of those 16 and under 18 years. It
would seem, then, that it is experience in the industry and not the




38

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

general experience due to advanced years that accounts for the prog­
ress in earnings illustrated in the summary on page 36. As a matter
of fact, not quite one-sixth of the women in the highest age group
of the table received as much as $16 for their actual week’s earnings
and only 31.1 per cent earned $12 or more.
The highest proportion of women (30 per cent) in any one of the
age classifications whose actual earnings were $16 or more is found
for those reporting their age as 30 and under 40 years: and almost
one-fourth of the number in the next highest age group (40 and under
50 years) are recorded as earning at least this amount. One-fourth
(26.5 per cent) of the women included in the groups 25 and under
50 years—which classification may be said to represent maturity—
earned $16 or more during the week reported, and about one-sixth
(17.8 per cent) of the women in the age groups below 25 years were
earning as much as this.
YEAR’S EARNINGS

Although the wage figures before quoted are representative of one
week’s earnings, records of women for the 52 weeks of the year also
were copied from the plants’ pay rolls. Fluctuations in the activities
of the industries as well as vicissitudes in the industrial lives of the
workers are apt to cause variations week by week in the earnings of
women. Moreover, records were taken for a week in which there
was not an excessive amount either of overtime or of time lost—a
week in which no holidays or shutdowns occurred to lessen the amount
of actual earnings. The figures for a period of this kind present a
cross section of the women’s wage data, but it is the year’s earnings
which in the long run set the standard by which living expenses must
be met. Accordingly wage data were secured, whenever possible, for
approximately one-fifth of the women employed in each of the plants
investigated. In order to be classed as a steady worker a woman
must have been with a firm for the 52 weeks preceding the study and
during that period she must have worked at least 44 weeks. This
does not mean that 44 complete weeks were required, but that a copy
of the year’s earnings was made only for women whom the pay rolls
showed to have worked on one or more days in at least 44 weeks of
the year. Due to various reasons, plant and personal, it was impos­
sible for a woman always to put in a full week; consequently, if a
worker considered by the plant as steady had her record of time
worked on the pay rolls for at least 44 weeks, her earnings were
copied by the agents, it being assumed that these amounts consti­
tuted the sum total of her earnings for the .year.
For the most part records were taken for the calendar year 1923,
although in a few instances pay rolls covering the 52 weeks immedi­
ately preceding the survey were all that were available to the bureau’s
agents.




39

WOMEN IN DELAW ABE INDUSTRIES

Table XV shows that year’s records were secured for 580 women
in the factories, stores, and laundries in Delaware, the year’s median
earnings for these women being $675, an amount which represents
a weekly average per woman of $12.98. Since the women in this
group are all steady workers, it is interesting to note the similarity
in the average earnings as computed for one fifty-second of the
year’s median and the median earnings ($12.90) of women who worked
the scheduled hours or days of the plant at the time the week’s pay
roll was taken.
Although the range of earnings extends from $200 to $1,600 there
was but one woman in the$200-and-under-$250 classification and there
were only five who earned as much as $1,400. The manufacture
of food products and that of clothing show the greatest range of earn­
ings—in the former industry the women received between $250 and
$1,600, while in the latter the earnings ranged from $200 to $1,200,
only three women in this group receiving as much as $1,000. The
maximum amount computed for women in food products was $582—
this industry being largely of a seasonal character in Delaware—•
and for women in 5-and-10-cent stores $680 was the maximum for
the year.
Compiled from the more detailed figures in Table XV in the appen­
dix, the following summary shows that 30.2 per cent of the women
for whom a year’s records were taken received $800 or more during
the year. This represents an average of at least $15.38 per week,
while during the week for which pay data were taken there were 20.4
per cent of the women reported who actually received earnings of $16
or more. Approximately 50 per cent of the women received from
$500 to $800 during the year, these earnings indicating an average of
from $9.62 to $15.38 per week. Although about one-fifth of those
reported are shown as receiving less than $500, which averages less
than $9.62 a week, the table presenting earnings of a specified week
shows that more than three-eighths of the women for whom a week’s
wage record was secured earned less than $10 during such a period.




Women who received
specified amounts
Year’s earnings
Number

Per cent

580

100. 0

9
20
82
103
103
88
53
55
67

1.
3.
14.
17.
17.
15.
9.
9.
11.

6
4
1
8
8
2
1
5
6

40

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

The following table, arranged in the order of the median earnings,
discloses the number of women in each industry for whom a year’s rec­
ords were secured. Median earnings for the year are shown and the
weekly aveiage as computed for every industry in the survey except
paper manufacture is contrasted with the median earnings computed
for women whose week’s data were copied from the pay rolls. Since
the number of women in paper manufacture for whom year’s records
were available was too small to make the median for the year signifi­
cant, this industry has not been specified in the accompanying table.
Table 10. Year's earnings of women for whom 52-week pay-roll records were
secured, and comparison of their average weekly earnings with the median for all
women, by industry
1

Industry

Year’s earnings

Number
of women Median
reported earnings

year’s
earnings
divided
by 52

Total............... .......

$11.05

Cigars_________
Leather (tanning)____
General mercantile
Hosiery and knit goods...
Miscellaneous manufacturing
textiles other than hosiery and knit goods
Pulp and hard-flber products____
lood products_______
Laundries__________
Clothing____________
5-and-10-cent stores___
W ood products. _ ____________
x

I'M

Median
week’s
earnings of
all women
on the
current
pay rolli

nnn
53
35
55
85
23

16. 40
11.70

708
663

12. 75
11. 31

ID

11.95
9.80
10. 60
9.35
8.10
9. 75
9. 05

unr, uiuu.Hiy III

putation of a median significant.

By a coincidence the amount computed as the median of the year’s
earnings of women in cigar manufacturing in New Jersey3 is identical
with the median earnings shown for women in this industry in Del­
aware ($900). In the present investigation this is the highest median
revealed for any group, the amount being more than twice as much as
the median computed for wood products ($421) and more than 70 per
cent higher (71.4) than the median of women in 5-and-10-cent stores
($525).
The amount computed for women in cigar manufacture is $128
higher than the median of women in the leather industry, though this
is the second highest median of all the industrial groups in the table.
Throughout the report it has been evident that the number of
women in each of three industries—wood products, pulp and hardfiber products, and paper products—is small, yet the totals shown for
these groups may be considered representative, since in Delaware
these are not numerically important as woman-employing industries.
‘

f ep”rt™ent of Labor-

P* o4, A SDi6 V ill.




Women’s Bureau.

Women in New Jersey industries.

Bui. 37, 1924,

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

41

In all but three of the industries—leather, food products, and wood
products—the year’s median earnings divided by 52 gives a larger
amount than the median computed for the industry in the one week
for which the pay roll was selected. Probably this is due to the fact
that the women for whom year’s records were copied from the pay
rolls were exemplary workers, since in the great majority of cases these
women were the plants’ best and steadiest workers throughout
the year.
Unpublished data show that the number of weeks worked was re­
ported for 560 women and that almost three-fourths (72.1 per cent)
of this number were employed 50 weeks or more, a group for whom
median earnings amounted to $715, or an average of $13.75 for each
week of the year. While about one-eighth (12.6 per cent) of the women
appearing in this classification of 50 weeks or more received as much
as $1,000, 14.9 per cent show a remuneration of less than $500 for
their year’s work. The small proportion of women working 50 weeks
or more for whom annual earnings were as high as $1,200 (4.5 per
cent) were employees of 4 of the 13 industries—the manufacture of
cigars, of hosiery and knit goods, and of food products, and general
mercantile—more than three-fourths of the number being found in the
first-mentioned industry. Of the manufacturing industries all but
two—cigars and paper and paper products—show the earnings of
some women throughout the 52-week period, while hosiery and knit
goods had but one worker whose record showed attendance during
every week of the year. On the other hand, the general mercantile
industry presents almost three-fourths (73.6 per cent) of the women
whose year’s earnings and weeks worked were reported as receiving
payment for each of the 52 weeks, this higher per cent being due, no
doubt, to the practice of giving vacations, or at least part of them,
with pay, a custom as yet extended to workers in comparatively few
factories or laundries in the country. At certain dull seasons of the
year several plants in specific industries reported a curtailment of
their week by one or two days.
Other unpublished figures show that 90.4 per cent of the women
for whom a record of the year’s earnings was secured lost less than
five weeks during the year for which the earnings were taken. The
records likewise reveal that about three-eighths (36.8 per cent) of
the 560 women for whom the number of weeks wTas recorded were
absent only one or two weeks during the year. Of those having
both year’s earnings and the number of weeks worked reported, only
two were found to have been absent from the plant eight weeks.
26716°-27f------ 4







PART IV
WORKING CONDITIONS IN FACTORIES, STORES, AND
LAUNDRIES

The executive who clamors against expenditures necessary to make
his working force comfortable and contented does not belong to the
progressive movement of managers. Good working conditions are
beneficial to both employer and employee, and are urged as good busi­
ness and social policy. Bad working conditions, by causing unneces­
sary fatigue, waste human energy, and thus increase labor costs. If a
manager desires to decrease the costs and problems of a high labor
turnover, he must recognize the importance of safe, wholesome, and
attractive workrooms. A contented, stable, and efficient group of
workers can not be maintained in dark and insanitary shops.
Since a large number of women are serving in the dual r61e of wage
earner and home maker, the public and State have a special interest
in the welfare of employed women, for any force which unnecessarily
wastes and depletes the strength of mothers ultimately reacts on the
morale and character of the community. Then, too, as a body of
consumers society has a right to insist that the products which it
uses should be made and distributed under clean and sanitary
conditions.
A survey of the surroundings of the women at work in Delaware
disclosed only a limited number of places that were flagrantly bad,
yet there was evidence that many employers did not fully appreciate
the importance of good working conditions and the significance of
the existing State laws applying to the employers of women. Since
the majority of the stores and industrial establishments1 surveyed
were comparatively small, many of the employers interviewed attrib­
uted their failure to provide more extensively for the sanitation and
comfort of their workers to limited capital. However, there is no
sound reason why the primary essentials of cleanliness, sanitation,
good heating, lighting, ventilation, and seating should not be found
in the small as well as in the large plants. The survey was made not
from the viewpoint of technicians in plant management but from
the standpoint of reasonable and practicable standards necessary for
the efficiency and health of the workers.
stores outside W ilmington are not included in the general section on working conditions, but are
discussed briefly at the end of the section.




43

44

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

GENERAL WORKROOM CONDITIONS

The factors in the make-up of a workroom—the condition of the
stairway which leads to it; the space, order, and arrangement of
equipment; the cleanliness and repair of the walls, windows, and
floors; the heating, ventilation, and lighting—all have a bearing on
the productivity and well-being of the working force.
Bad stairways are deplored because of their close relation to fire
and accident hazards. Delaware laws do not regulate in any way
the condition of stairways for the safety of the worker. In 54 of
the establishments visited stairways were used by women; some were
well constructed, but too many were reported as bad for one or more
of the following reasons:
Number of establishments having bad stairway facilities for some of or all the women
employed
Winding (triangular treads present)
_
No handrail provided_ __________
Narrow__________________________
Steep ____________________________
Broken; treads in poor repair____
No artificial light________ ,________
Dirty____________________________

6
16
23
13
14
20
6

Two brief descriptions from agents’ schedules give a better idea of
some of the conditions which existed:
Stairway was steep, narrow, dark, poorly constructed, and had treads that were
badly worn. There was an electric light at the top of the stairs, but it was not
in use as the manager wanted to conserve electricity.
Stairway was very crude with open risers; not inclosed or railed in any way
but open on both sides.

Booms crowded with equipment and workers and congested on
account of narrow and obstructed aisles were found in a few places.
Extremely narrow aisles were reported in 8 manufacturing estab­
lishments and 1 laundry, and in 5 stores the space behind the count­
ers was so small that the clerks passed one another with difficulty.
In 13 factories and 1 laundry aisles were unduly obstructed with
protruding parts of machinery, shafting, equipment, or posts. A com­
mon practice in garment factories of having power shafting of about
knee height extending across the aisles was a possible cause of falls
as well as an inconvenience. Oily, dirty, patched, and splintered
floors detract from the appearance of the workroom and are a men­
ace to the health and safety of the workers. Floors were in an
unsatisfactory state of repair in 18 estab ishments and were dirty in
13. Having the walls and ceilings clean and of a light color and the
windows washed frequently, makes the workroom cheerful and is
good lighting economy. The following comments from the reports
describe general conditions in two plants:




WOMEN IN DELAWABE INDUSTRIES

45

Crumbs and dfibris under parking table were evidence of the room’s not having
been swept for several days. Dough was so badly caked on the floor that scraping
of the floor seemed necessary for its removal. Dough maker carried dough in
his arms against his shirt. General impression was that of dirt, disorder, and
lack of the usual sanitary precautions in food manufacturing.
Floors, walls, and ceilings were in extreme state of dilapidation; plaster was
falling, walls had not been painted for many years; and there were holes in the
floor.

Cleaning.

One of the primary factors in the housekeeping of any establish­
ment should be cleanliness, yet it was a common occurrence to find
slipshod methods and irregularity of cleaning. There was a tendency
on the part of some of the managers to dismiss cleaning as a matter
of minor significance. The practice of delegating the cleaning duties
to employees hired for other work is not recommended in view of
the conditions found in plants where this system was used. In 26
manufacturing plants and 2 laundries the women were partly or
wholly responsible for cleaning the workroom. Cleaning should be
done by janitors or charwomen especially employed for such work.
Not only are daily sweeping and dusting necessary, but floors should
be scrubbed and windows washed at regular intervals. Where lint
and large quantities of dust accompany the manufacturing operations,
the use of vacuum cleaners simplifies and improves the cleaning.
Heating.

Either too much or too little heat saps the energy and lowers the
vitality of the worker. Since the Delaware survey was made in the
early fall, it was difficult to judge the effectiveness of the heating
systems used. Instances where the heating arrangements apparently
were unsatisfactory were noted in 16 establishments. In severa
places women were working so close to the steam pipes that at times
they must suffer discomfort from excessive heat. About one-half of
the garment factories outside Wilmington were equipped with stoves,
which could hardly give out heat evenly distributed and sufficient
for all. In a shedlike woodworking factory the women on the second
floor complained of the lack of any heat except that which came up
the open stairway from the room below, and said that several times
the winter before they had been unable to remain at work because
of the cold.
Ventilation.

Plenty of fresh air, uncontaminated and in motion, is one of the
elementary needs of a good workroom. Ventilation standards in
terms of cubic air capacity, velocity, and humidity are outside the
scope of a general study, and, as in heating, only the outstandingly
bad cases of ventilation were reported. The Delaware law states in




46

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

a general way that wherever women are employed in manufacturing,
mercantile, and other commercial establishments there shall be an
air capacity of not less than 250 cubic feet for each person employed
and the work place shall be adequately ventilated.2 An occasional
change of air by opening windows and the buildings themselves not
being airtight were the means of ventilation most commonly relied on,
and if cross ventilation was possible and the windows actually were
opened, unless there were processes or material which complicated
the problem these were in many cases all that was necessary for
ventilation. However, where there are noxious gases, vapors, fumes,
and organic or mineral dusts in appreciable quantities, artificial
means are needed to keep the air in good condition, and such pro­
visions are legally required in Delaware. In three of the laundries
practically nothing was done to relieve the heat and humidity, and
the need for hoods and general exhaust fans was imperative.
Although by opening the windows direct ventilation would have been
possible, in two cigar factories the atmosphere was dry, stuffy, and
saturated with tobacco fumes. Rag sorting in paper and fiber
factories is a dirty, dusty process, requiring special attention to
ventilation. Windows, equipment, and workers were covered with a
furry coat of lint and dust in one establishment surveyed, where the
use of vacuum cleaners and electrically driven exhausts was impos­
sible, as the plant was not equipped with electricity. Systems for
mitigating the special problems of ventilation have been worked out
by industrial engineers, and most of the bad conditions encountered
in Delaware plants could be remedied.
Lighting.

Lighting standards vary greatly according to the kind of light
used, the nature of the work, and the materials handled. A general
requirement for all work is that there must be sufficient illumination
without glare. Deficiencies in regard to lighting result in lessened
production, more waste, spoiled work, eyestrain, and nervous fatigue
on the part of the worker. Much of the work in factories is carried
on during the day with the aid of natural light only. The human
eye is best adapted to the color of natural light and when adequate
this is preferred to any form of artificial light. Large windows of
the modern factory type are a means of lighting economy; saw-tooth
and monitor roofs, wherever feasible, help to supply adequate day­
light. Many instances of excellent natural lighting were noted in
Delaware, and in only 16 plants was the natural light inadequate for
the daylight hours. As natural light can be too intense, curtains,
shades, or glass especially treated for the work involved and for the
location of the building, must be supplied for at least the southern
* Acts of Delaware, 1917, ch. 231, sec. 5.




WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

47

and western windows. In several places the women had nailed paper
across the windows to keep out the bright, direct rays of the sun.
A bad practice, noticed especially in the garment factories, is to
arrange the worktables or machines in rows parallel to the windows,
so that the workers on one side must face the light. A better plan is
to place the equipment in rows at right angles to the windows.
From a standpoint of apparent sufficiency the amount and inten­
sity of the artificial light seemed adequate in all but 6 establishments.
Some plants were equipped with excellent systems of general indirect
lighting. The most usual and obvious defect in illumination was the
wide prevalence of unshaded and unfrosted bulbs dangling on drop
cords at or slightly above eye level. The brilliancy of the light
attracts, dazzles, and strains the eye. Unshaded bulbs were
found in general use in 28 establishments, 9 of the garment factories
being in this group. At best, sewing-machine operators are subject
to eyestrain, and they need lighting that will lessen rather than in­
crease the strain placed on their vision. Glare may be caused also
by too much light and by the reflection of light on brightly finished
surfaces.
Seating.

The study of fatigue and its relation to output has made industrial
engineers as well as agencies interested in the welfare of the worker
urge the installation of adequate and suitable seats. The value of
good seating has been recognized in a general way in the Delaware
law, which states that in every mercantile, mechanical transportation,
or manufacturing establishment, laundry, baking or printing estab­
lishment, dressmaking establishment, place of amusement, telephone
or telegraph office or exchange, hotel, restaurant, or office in which
females are employed or permitted to work—
* * * there shall be provided suitable seats for their use in the room where
they work and the use of such seats shall be permitted. At least one seat shall
be provided for every three females employed or permitted to work at any one
time. During working hours all seats shall be conveniently accessible to those
for whose use they are provided.3

The findings of the study disclosed, however, that little effort or
attention was being expended on the problem of seating. Seating
facilities depend somewhat on the job and vary within a plant. In
making the survey seating arrangements were considered from three
aspects: First, for sitting jobs; second, for standing jobs; and third,
for jobs at which the worker could either sit or stand while operating.
Constant standing causes an accumulation of fatgue which can not
fail to affect the physical strength and productive capacity of the
worker. In 32 manufacturing establishments and 5 laundries, some
of or all the women stood constantly while working, and in only about
* Acts of Delaware, 1917, ch. 231, sec. 2.




48

WOMEN' IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

one-third of these firms were there chairs or stools available for occa­
sional use. When there was a lull in the operations or while waiting
for fresh supplies it was a common sight to see girls and women rest­
ing on window sills or worktables or leaning against the walls. These
intermissions would be much more effective in counteracting the ef­
fects of accumulated fatigue if com ortable chairs were accessible. The
work of saleswomen in stores is a standing job, and where women are
employed behind counters the space should be w'de enough to per­
mit the use of a seat and still allow another person to pass behind
the one seated. The space behind the counters was reported as in­
sufficient in one general mercantile and two 5-and-10-cent stores. All
the stores except one provided seats of some kind in adequate number.
In several of the stores, however, the women complained of never
having a chance to use a seat.
A continued sitting posture involves physical strain, but if such
position is unavoidable a chair with a comfortable seat and back
should be furnished for the worker. If the body be properly sup­
ported by the chair the work will be carried on with better posture
and less fatigue. In 46 of the factories visited some of the women
sat at their operations. Of women who were seated, sewing-machine
operators in the clothing establishments and hide glazers in the leather
plants were the most numerous. The ordinary stiff-backed kitchen
chair was the common provision, but in 16 plants some of the women
sat all day on stools or benches without backs. Satisfactory seating
for sitting jobs was found in only 2 plants, where chairs with adjust­
able legs and backs had been installed.
The ideal arrangement for working posture permits change at will
from a sitting to a standing position and vice versa. Many jobs now
considered to require either constant sitting or constant standing
could be sh fted into this class if thought were given to the type and
adjustability of the chair as well as to the arrangement of machines
and worktables. In 14 factories and 1 laundry, among the plants
vis ted, some of the women could vary their posture. However, in
not a single case were their seats adjustab'e and in 9 establ'shments
there were stools and benches without backs.
The employer could not ignore the fact that many jobs cou'd be
carried on with less expense to him and with conservation of the
strength of the employees if suitab’e seating accommodations were
provided. The standards for seating recommended by the Women’s
Bureau as a guide to employers and State legislators sum up the
main points as follows:
Continuous standing and continuous sitting are both injurious. A chair should
be provided for every woman, and its use encouraged. It is possible and desir­
able to adjust the height of the chairs in relation to the height of machines or




WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

49

worktables, so that the workers may with equal convenience and efficiency stand or
sit at their work. The seats should have backs. If the chairs are high, foot
rests should be provided.4

Uniforms.

The need for a uniform and the type most desirable to be worn de­
pend on the nature of the work. If food is being prepared or handled,
the public is interested that its purity be protected by the wearing of
clean aprons and caps by those who have a part in the processes. Six
food plants were included in the survey, and in two of these no uni­
forms were worn, in two the women furnished their own, and in two
the management supplied and cared for the uniforms. When women
are operating machines there is always the risk of their clothing and
hair becoming entangled in the cogs and wheels, and uniforms are
needed for safety; moreover, if women are exposed to oils, chemicals,
or excessive dust, uniforms protect or replace their street clothing.
For reasons other than sanitation uniforms were needed in six plants
included in the survey, but in none of them was such protection supp ied or required. If uniforms are desirable, it is well for the firms
to supply and maintain them, thus not adding to the expenses of
the worker.
HAZARD AND STRAIN

The menaces to safety and health of poor posture, bad stairways,
slippery floors, and unsatisfactory arrangements for cleaning, lighting,
heating, and ventilation are supplemented for the worker by risks of
fire, occupational accident or disease, and strain from the job.
,
The spread of “safety first” propaganda and the growth of the idea
that accidents arising out of, and in the course of, employment were
properly a cost of operation and as such compensable to the injured,
were two of the factors which led to the adoption of compensation
laws by all States but a few in the South in a period of less than 15
years. A compensation law went into effect in Delaware in Septem­
ber, 1917. A casual study of the accident reports filed with the in­
dustrial accident board did not reveal any major compensable acci­
dents to women. Some of the most common accidents in which
women had suffered partial or temporary disability were as follows:
Hands or arms caught in machines in some cases necessitating the
amputation of one or more fingers; lacerations from power-driven cut­
ting machines in the garment trade; falls on slippery floors; materials
falling on the worker; infections from minor cuts; slivers and bones
run into hands. Undoubtedly, if proper safeguards and precautions
had been taken some of these accidents might have been avoided.
4 U. S. Department o Labor.
Bulletin 3, 1921, p.

5.




Women's Bureau. Standards for employment of women in industry.

50

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

Education of the employer and the worker along the lines of accident
prevention is more constructive than is merely paying compensation
after the accident has occurred. A number of States—of which Cali­
fornia, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, and Wisconsin are outstand­
ing—have invested the boards or commissions administering the
compensation law with the power of safety inspection and accidentprevention work. Neither the industrial board nor the labor com­
mission of Delaware has the authority or resources to undertake work
of this kind. The merit system of rating by which insurance carriers
give lower rates to firms equipped with safety devices is an economic
spur to better conditions, but it should be reinforced by State laws to
insure to all workers the benefits of adequate accident-prevention
measures.
Many workers are subject to the hazards of occupational disease
and illness arising from the nature of their work. Such diseases as
well as accidents should be compensable, but they are excluded by
the provisions of the Delaware compensation law.
Occupational strain, which may seem of minor significance when
considered alone or in a single instance, if always present is likely to
cause undue fatigue long before the end of the week. Uncomfortable
reaching for materials, the operating of stiff and poorly adjusted
treadles and levers, the lifting of heavy objects, and continued speed­
ing—all waste the worker’s energy, though easily avoidable by thought
on the part of the management.
SANITATION

Plant sanitation as it applies to drinking, washing, and toilet facil­
ities is closely related to the health and comfort of the workers.
Delaware has enacted a sanitary law for female employees which covers
sanitation and service fac lities in a general way, but unfortunately
a number of employers either ignore or are ignorant of this legislation.
Drinking facilities.

The Delaware sanitary law in its section on drinking water states:
A sufficient supply of clean and pure water and individual drinking cups or a
sanitary fountain shall be provided in every establishment named in section 1
of this act [mercantile, mechanical transportation or manufacturing establish­
ment, laundry, baking or printing establishment, dressmaking establishment,
place of amusement, telephone or telegraph office or exchange, hotel, restaurant,
or office] in which females are employed or permitted to work. If drinking water
is placed in receptacles, such receptacles shall be properly covered to prevent
contamination and shall at all times be kept thoroughly clean. No employer in
any such establishment shall collect from any employee money for ice or water
furnished for drinking purposes.5
# Acts of Delaware, 1917, ch. 231, sec. 7.




WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

51

Uncontaminated water, easily accessible to the workers, and indi­
vidual drinking cups or sanitary bubblers are reasonable and desirable
standards for drinking facilities. Individual drinking cups were
found in 5 of the establ shments visited and sanitary bubblers in
5. Common drinking cups, long taboo as carriers of infectious
diseases, were in use in 25 firms. One store had enameled cups
chained to the tanks. Empty paper-cup containers are of little
service to employees, and care must be taken to keep a sufficient
supply of paper cups on hand with a receptacle near by for the
disposal of used cups.
Sanitary bubblers are a practical and easy way of meeting the need
of drinking facilities. Unfortunately, most drinking fountains are
of the insanitary type which has almost as many hidden dangers as
are found in the common cup. A sanitary bubbler is so constructed
that the jet of water comes from a nozzle inclined at an angle of 15
degrees or more from the vertical, so that the water does not fall
back on the orifice, and the nozzle is protected by a collar that
prevents the lips from coming in contact with it.
Eighteen establishments were equipped with bubble fountains,
but only 5 of them were of the sanitary type. In 18 plants there
was no provision for drinking water other than the faucets in the
toilet room or workroom. In only about one-half of the places
visited was the drinking water iced or cooled.
Washing facilities.

Their hygienic importance should make ample washing provisions
a requisite in every establishment. Common-sense principles of san­
itation and personal cleanliness demand that the workers wash their
hands before lunch and before leaving for home even if their work is
not particularly dirty nor injurious to the health. However, in 5
factories there were no washing facilities. Although the use of the
common towel, like that of the common drinking cup, is an insani­
tary practice, 14 factories, 5 stores, and 2 laundries were making
such provision. It is to be regretted that so few managers felt the
need of furnishing hot water for washing, since in 47 of 68 estab­
lishments there was only cold water. Soap was supplied by the
management in about one-half of the firms; sinks or basins were
reported as dirty in 18 places. Where food is handled the consumer
has a vital interest that there should be special precautions in regard
to personal cleanliness, yet proper provision was not made in all the
food factories of Delaware. In one food plant an old black iron sink,
with a single cold-water faucet and no soap or towels, was the only
provision for washing. The following table gives a more detailed
statement of the inadequacy of washing facilities.




52

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

Table

11.—Inadequacy of washing facilities for women employees, by industry

Industry

All industries_____
Manufacturing:
Cigars...... ..............
Clothing________
Food products..............
Leather (tanning)_____
Paper and paper products...
Pulp and hard-fiber products ...
Textiles—
Hosiery and knit goods________
Other ................. ................
Wood products____________
Miscellaneous __
General mercantile (Wilmington)___
5-and-10-cent stores (Wilmington)___
Laundries____________

Num­
ber
of
estab­
lish­
ments
report­
ing
68

Number of establishments with—
No
wash­
ing
facili­
ties

No
towel

Com­
mon
towels

No
soap

No
hot
water

Equip­
ment
dirty

35

21

34

47

18

3
1
3
4
4

2

1
1

l

1
5

2
1
1

5
4
5

2
1

1
.... Ll

The present Delaware law requires that there shall be not less than
one spigot, basin, or receptacle for each 25 employees, and that in
establishments where poisonous or injurious substances, fumes, gases,
dust, lint, or particles of material created in the process of manu­
facture are present, hot water, soap, and individual towels, or paper
towels, shall be provided.” The latter provision should be extended
to all industries.
Toilets.

Clean and adequate toilet facilities are of primary consequence in
plant sanitation. Delaware legislators have enacted a detailed and
extensive law with reference to toilets where women are employed,
which reads as follows:
In every mercantile, mechanical transportation, or manufacturing establishment,
laundry, baking or printing establishment, dressmaking establishment, place of
amusement, telephone or telegraph office or exchange, hotel, restaurant, or office
in which females are employed or permitted to work, there shall be provided
suitable and easily accessible water-closets or privies for their use.
When both males and females are employed or permitted to work, and four
or more persons are employed, separate water-closets or privies shall be provided
for each sex and shall be plainly marked at the entrance “ Men ” and “ Women,”
and these closets shall be easily accessible.
Where fifteen or less such females are employed or permitted to work at any
time, at least one water-closet or privy shall be provided; where fifteen or more
such persbns are employed, they shall be provided in the ratio of one for every
twenty-five persons.
• Acts of Delaware, 1817, eh. 231, secs. 3, 4




WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

53

All water-closets or privies shall be properly lighted and shall at all times be
kept in repair, clean, sanitary, and free from all obscene writing or marking. The
compartments containing such water-closets or privies shall open to the outer
air or be ventilated by means of a shaft or air duct to the outer air.
The entrance to every water-closet or privy used by females shall be effec­
tively screened by partition or vestibule. Where water-closets or privies for
males and females are in adjoining compartments, they shall be separated by
solid partitions extending from the floor to the ceiling; and where the entrances
adjoin, they shall be separated by a screen or partition at least 7 feet high.7

In respect to the fundamental factors of accessibility, arrangement,
and maintenance, the Delaware law meets the standards recommended
by the Women’s Bureau. However, in the ratio of toilet facilities
to women employed, the bureau recommends 1 to 15 rather than the
Delaware ratio of 1 to 25. According to the ratio of 1 to 15, the
toilet facilities in 16 establishments were inadequate, while according
to the State standard the delinquent establishments were only 4.
Although toilet conditions were not bad in the majority of places
visited, there was warranted the deduction that a number of em­
ployers were not aware of the facts of the law. The accompanying
table gives a detailed statement of the nature of the inadequacy of
toilet facilities in Delaware.
7 Acts of Delaware, 1917, ch. 231, sec. 1.




cn
Table

12.—Inadequacy of toilet facilities, by industry
Number of establishments with toilet facilities inadequate as specified1

Industry

12

4
12
6
6
3
4

2
1

4
5
3
7
5
4
5

4

7
2
3
1

1

1

29

15

2
3
5

1
1
1
1

14

Room
No ar­
En­
not
tificial trance Seats Auto­
prop­
light to room not in­ matic
erly
seat
not
pro­
venti­ vided screened closed flush
lated

14
1

11

7

1

2
1
2
3

16

20

32

12

1

1
1
3
3

1

12

Room
cleaned
by
Room Privies
Room women
not
only
not
em­ cleaned toilet
clean ployed regu­ facility
larly
for
other
work

2
1

1
1

1

1

3
3

1

1

‘Facilities were inadequate foronly part of the force in the following cases: Automatic seat Bush, 6 establishments; room not designated, room not properly ventilated. 5 estab­
lishments; room not ceiled, 4 establishments; an . no artificial light, entrance not screened, room not clean, 2 establishments.
■




IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

68

Same
toilet Room Room
for men not des­ not
ignated ceiled
and
women

WOMEN*

All industries................
Manufacturing:
Cigars................... ............
Clothing____________
Food products.............
Leather (tanning). ______
Paper and paper products........
Pulp and hard-fiber products__
Textiles—
Hosiery and knit goods___________________
Other ............... .....................
Wood products.................................
Miscellaneous.......... ...........
General mercantile (Wilmington)...........................
5-and-10-cent stores (Wilmington)______
Laundries............................................

Number of seats
Num­
inadequate
ber of
estab­
lish­
More More
ments than 15 than 25
report­ em­
em­
ing ployees ployees
to a seat to a seat

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

55

Justification of the provisions for separation and designation is
unnecessary, yet in 7 places toilets for men and women were not sepa­
rated. In most cases these were small establishments coming within
the exception stated in the law. Carelessness in designating toilets
was a more common offence, as there were 29 plants where the toilet
room was not marked. To afford privacy the interior pf the toi­
let room should be effectively screened from view of the workroom,
and every seat should occupy a separate compartment inclosed on
four sides. In 11 establishments some of or all the toilets were not
screened, and in 7 the seats were not inclosed. Ventilation of the
toilet room needs particular attention. In 15 establishments the
ventilation was unsatisfactory, either because there was not an out­
side window or air shaft or because the partitions of the toilet room
did not extend to the ceiling, thus allowing ventilation through the
workroom or a combined rest and lunch room. Automatic-flushing
seats, which are not recommended because of their tendency easily
to become out of repair, were reported in some of or all the toilets in
12 establishments. The need for artificial light is apparent when
the early winter evenings are considered. No artificial light was
provided in some of or all the toilet rooms in 14 establishments.
Privies, which are always insanitary and unsatisfactory toilet fa­
cilities, were provided for the women in 12 factories. A few of the
outside closets, instead of having the ordinary vault, were equipped
with antifreezing water-flushing arrangements connected with septic
tanks or the local sewer system. While in the summer these seemed
better than the ordinary privies, in the winter the effectiveness of
their supposedly antifreezing characteristic was questioned by the
agents making inspection. Two excerpts from the schedules on toilet
facilities are presented here:
In one toilet room three seats were out of order. Partitions between the seats
extended only a short way and there were no doors.
No sewerage system in the part of the city rvhere plant was located. Man­
ager said that the town rvas supposed to have the vaults of the privies cleaned.
Vaults had not been cleaned for a long time and the manager said he intended
to report conditions to board of health.

The maintenance of toilet rooms in a state of cleanliness and repair
should not be regarded lightly in plant housekeeping. In 16 estab­
lishments some of or all the toilet facilities were classed as dirty. The
cleaning of toilets should not be added to the duties of women em­
ployed for other work, if for no other reason than the haphazard clean­
ing methods which usually accompany such arrangements. In all
establishments the responsibility for cleaning the toilets should be




56

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

given to a person hired for this work, as a janitor or a charwoman.
When inquiries were made as to the nature and frequency of cleaning,
many replies were vague and evasive, but the indications were that in
about one-half of the plants no systematic method and schedule for
cleaning were in force. A toilet room needs more than an occasional
sweeping and an irregular mopping with strong-smelling disinfectant
to keep it in good condition. Scrubbings with soap, hot water, and
disinfectants are a necessity.
Where the establishment is large enough to warrant employing a
matron to supervise and to be responsible for the condition and use
of sanitary and service facilities, it will be found a wise expenditure.
SERVICE FACILITIES

Service rooms provided particularly for the comfort and convenience
of the workers, such as lunch rooms, rest rooms, and cloak rooms, are
not philanthropic frills of industry but good economic policy.
Lunch rooms.

Where it is impossible for all the workers to go home for their
lunch period, a lunch room is a necessary plant asset. Though there
may be no health hazard, it is not conducive to the cleanliness of the
workroom and the welfare of the working force to have lunches eaten
at the regular worktables and machines. A change of surroundings
at noon, provided it be a pleasant change, is beneficial to the em­
ployees’ digestion and aids in effecting recovery from the fatigue of
the morning’s labor.
In most of the establishments in the rural towns of Delaware and
in many of those in Wilmington it was possible for the majority of
the working force to go home during the noon period, and on this
account lunch rooms were deemed unnecessary by the employers.
However, usually there were a number of workers who came from a
distance, and it does not seem right that they should have to eat at
their workbenches or else take refuge in the doorways and alleys.
Twenty-three of the establishments visited in Delaware provided
lunch rooms for their employees, though in 16 of these the lunch
room meant merely the presence of tables and chairs in a combination
of rest room, cloak room, and lunch room.
Furnishings need not be elaborate, but the room should be clean,
well ventilated, and light. A very dirty lunch room, located in a
semidark, damp cellar in one plant visited, was its own explanation
of the women’s preference for eating in the workroom. Hot, nour­
ishing food provided at cost has proved worth while in many plants




WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

57

because of the renewed energy with which the employees approach
the afternoon work. In two factories visited hot food was sold to
the workers at noon. It may not seem practicable for a manage­
ment to prepare food for its employees, but even the smallest plant
can provide an electric or gas stove on which hot drinks may be
made. At the time of the survey only two establishments were
equipped with cooking conveniences for the use of the workers.
Rest rooms.

The up-to-date business man, cognizant of the effect of rest on
fatigue and of fatigue on output, considers a rest room a good invest­
ment. Some States require the provision of a rest room in places
employing women, but Delaware has no such regulation. Altogether
16 rest rooms were reported in establishments included in the survey,
and 12 of the 16 were combined with other service facilities, such as
lunch rooms or cloak rooms. Four of the rest rooms were unsatis­
factory as regards ventilation, and three were dirty, while in several
the equipment was so inadequate that it was really a misnomer to
term the place a rest room. The provision of a few stiff chairs and a
bench in a combined service room does not transform the place into
a rest room, for to serve its purpose of alleviating fatigue a rest room
should be quiet, clean, cheerful, and equipped with comfortable chairs
and couches. A couch or couches (depending on the number of em­
ployees) should be considered a necessary part of a rest room’s furnish­
ings, for, to quote an authority on fatigue, “Even a few minutes in a
reclining position provides such rest as could not be gained in a much
longer time if seated upright in the most comfortable chair.”8
Cloak rooms.

Coats, dresses, and hats draped on walls and posts or thrown over
boxes and tables give a workroom an untidy appearance and are not
satisfactory from the worker’s standpoint. A safe, clean place, sepa­
rated from the workroom, where street garments and lunches may
be left, is a necessity in every establishment. In 28 factories, 9 stores,
and 1 laundry cloak-room facilities were found, more than one-half
of the rooms being used for other service. Nine of the cloak rooms
were dirty, 4 had no provision for artificial lighting, and 14 were not
equipped with chair or bench on which a worker might be seated
while changing her shoes. Most of the cloak rooms had only nails
or wall hooks on which to hang clothing. A more satisfactory arrange­
ment than wall hooks consists of a metal pipe on which coat hangers
arc fastened, with a rack above for hats, lunches, and packages.
*Gilbreth, Frank B., and Gilbreth, Lillian M. Fatigue study. New York, Sturgis & Walton Co., 1916.
p. 42.

26716°—27 j------ 5




58

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

Where a change of clothing is customary or necessary a dressing
room is needed to assure privacy to the women employees. This is a
requirement of the sanitary law for female employees in Delaware,9
but it is not always complied with, since in at least two places visited,
where the women changed their street dresses for cover-all aprons,
there were no dressing rooms. In one of these places the women’s
street dresses were hanging on posts, and the only privacy attain­
able for the changing of dresses was in hiding behind the posts or the
machinery.
Health service and first aid.

With the increasing appreciation of the value of maintaining an
efficient corps of workers, business men have turned their attention
to health standards and service. In many large establishments a
physical examination by the company’s doctor is a prerequisite to
employment. Health records and follow-up work by company doc­
tors and nurses are designed to maintain the efficiency of the employed
as well as to show a sympathetic interest in their welfare. Many
plants find it a justifiable expense to equip a small hospital where
immediate treatment in case of accident or minor indisposition may
be administered. Four manufacturing establishments included in
this study maintained emergency hospitals with nurses in attendance.
The extensive nature of the health work in one plant is shown in the
following description from an agent’s schedule:
A complete dental and physical examination is required at entrance. Health
records are kept. Two nurses are in attendance for full time, and a doctor
spends his mornings at the plant. All employees may have free treatment in case
of accident or sickness. A dentist is at the plant hospital two days a week and
prophylactic and temporary dental work is offered the workers.

The size, character, and resources of a plant have a bearing on the
extent of its health work, but regardless of whether or not the work
is hazardous every establishment should be equipped to offer first
aid. Some sort of first-aid equipment was reported in 33 of the 54
factories, 3 of the 9 stores, and 2 of the 5 laundries. Sometimes a
first-aid cabinet was found, when opened, to contain only empty
boxes and bottles. The care and administering of the supplies
should not be left to chance, but should be definitely assigned to a
person or persons with some knowledge of, as well as adaptation for,
such services.
EMPLOYMENT MANAGEMENT

Division of labor and specialization in management are two key­
notes of modern business administration. Foremen in a factory
9 Acts of Delaware, 1917, ch. 231, sec. 3.




WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

59

naturally are chiefly interested in production, and to add to their reg­
ular duties the employment function of hiring, transferring, and
discharging workers has generally been found to be inefficient and
wasteful. Centralizing employment management in a personnel
department, or in small establishments placing this function under
the control of one person, usually insures better industrial relations,
lower turnover, and a uniform and impartial treatment of employees.
Since lew of the plants visited in Delaware were large enough to
warrant the full-time services of an employment manager, it is not
surprising that only two were met with in the course of the study.
However, of all the establishments only 9 permitted the foremen to
do their own hiring and firing. This system was common in the leather
factories, where in 5 of 6 such plants the employment management
was decentralized. In the remainder of the factories, stores, and
laundries either the owner or a general manager was responsible
for employment work and employment policies.
Employment records, giving the personal background of the
workers, such as their education, experience, and family responsibil­
ities, are an aid in placing and transferring employees effectively.
Where the firm is so small that a personal relation exists between
the manager and each worker, these records naturally are not of so
much value as in establishments where hundreds or thousands are
employed. Little in the form of employment records was found,
as only 7 factories and 2 stores kept personnel cards bearing any­
thing more than the name and address.
A feature of general managerial conditions in Delaware which
probably affected both the employment situation and working con­
ditions was the fact that of 54 factories included in the survey 17
were branch or subcontract shops, 11 of 12 garment factories being
in this group.
GENERAL MERCANTILE AND 5-AND-10-CENT STORES OUTSIDE
WILMINGTON

Since all the cities and towns outside Wilmington have popula­
tions of less than 5,000, small stores are to be expected. Working
conditions in 25 general mercantile and three 5-and-10-cent stores
included in the survey affected only 56 women employees. Only one
woman was employed in each of 13 stores, and two were employed
in each of 10. Personnel problems of these small stores are those
connected with hours and wages rather than with working conditions.
Little or no thought was given to working conditions in the stores
outside Wilmington, yet there were very few places that were un­
pleasant or insanitary for the workers. In many cases the sales­




60

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

rooms were small, congested, and crowded with goods, and the aisles
behind the counters generally were narrow. However, the women
were not confined to one place, and in all stores but one seats were
available for resting between sales. Relations between the employer
and his employee or employees were most informal. In several
stores the owners lived in rooms at the rear of the salesroom or on
the floor above, and in 6 establishments the employees had access to
the toilet and washing facilities in the dwellings of the employers.
Washing facilities in the stores usually were a common utility sink
or basin, and hot water and soap were provided in only three.
Drinking facilities other than the faucet generally were lacking.
Cooled water during the summer months was reported in only five
stores. Five had only outside privies for toilet facilities, and in the
case of the largest store, employing seven women, there was not a
toilet of any kind because, as the manager pointed out, there was a
public-comfort station across the street. As most of the women in
these stores lived near by and went to their homes at noon, they
were perhaps not so greatly inconvenienced by the lack of sanitation
and service facilities as it might seem. Nevertheless, the situation
called for improvement.




PART V
VEGETABLE CANNERIES

During the late summer and fall the ripening of the tomato crop
colors the landscape and industrial life of southern Delaware. Fields
are fringed with rows of filled tomato baskets waiting to be carried
to a neighboring cannery. On the roads are trucks and on the water­
ways are barges piled several tiers deep with baskets of red—splashes
of brightness in their surroundings. As one travels in rural Delaware,
tall, thin smokestacks, characteristic of canneries, usually are the
only skyline evidence of industrial life.
According to the commercial value of Delaware’s manufactured
products, the canning industry ranked fifth at the time of the 1920
census.* Considerable quantities of peas, corn, and beans, and small
1
quantities of sweet potatoes, pumpkins, and fruit are canned, but the
chief canned product is tomatoes. In 1924 Delaware ranked sixth
among the States in the output of canned tomatoes.2 The National
Canners’ Association in its compilation of annual canning statistics
gives the following figures for Delaware: Corn 221,000 cases, peas
305,000 cases, and tomatoes 803,000 cases.3 According to a list sub­
mitted by the Delaware Labor Commission there were 71 canneries
operating in the State in 1924. About 85 per cent of the canneries
were in the two southern and rural counties—32 in Kent and 30 in
Sussex. There were 9 in New Castle, the northern county.4
Thirty-four canneries were visited by agents of the Women’s
Bureau, and all but four of these were working on tomatoes during
the 1924 season. Three canneries were equipped to can only corn,
one was canning lima beans, and two worked alternately on corn
and tomatoes.
During September, the peak month for the tomato canners, more
women are employed in the canneries than in any other industry in
the State.5 According to estimates given by the canners, approxi­
mately 2,200 women and 1,500 men were employed in the 34 can­
neries visited during the peak weeks. This was said to be made up
of fairly equal numbers of negro and white men and women.
»IJ. S. Bureau of the Census. Fourteenth census: 1920. v. 9, Manufactures, 1919. pp. 219, 220.
1 National Canners’ Association. Tomato statistics, corn statistics, and pea statistics, 1924.
1 Idem.
‘Delaware Labor Commission. Manufacturing establishments of Delaware, Jan. 1, 1925. pp. 13-18,
• U. S. Bureau of the Census. Fourteenth census: 1920. v. 9, Manufactures, 1919. p. 224. Table 27.




61

/

62

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

HOURS AND WAGES

Because canning is seasonal work the number of employees and
extent of output vary considerably from week to week; in an industry
so largely dependent upon the ripening of the crop climatic condi­
tions are apt to cause either a shutdown or an influx in the cannery.
Good management—forethought in regard to the amount of goods
to be delivered and cared for at the plant at stated intervals—exerts
a strong influence on the length of the working day. It has been
proved that one of the chief reasons for excessive overtime in a can­
nery is the fact of the overseier’s contracting for more of the crop
than can be handled in a scheduled or regular day. Having on hand
an excess of perishable goods becomes a temptation to the manage­
ment to can as much as possible, and in this way long hours and
excessive overtime long have been regarded as the lot of the cannery
worker. Weather conditions, too, frequently are the cause of a fluc­
tuation in the cannery, so that when several days of rain render
picking impossible the accumulative picking of the next few days
swamps the plant, and at such times it seems that nothing but long
hours or a greatly increased force can save the crop. A number of
canners have found the solution to such a problem in the employ­
ment of an extra shift of workers at the peak of the season; by thus
lessening the fatigue of employees in their plants the more progres­
sive canners are insured greater efficiency on the part of the
individual and a larger output for the plant.
Science has proved the fact that long hours of work do not result
in increased production—that beyond a certain point the workers’
efficiency is impaired and a falling off in production noted. By poi­
soning the system fatigue so reacts on the physical structure of the
individual that lessened productivity becomes the lot of that firm
which day after day requires long hours of its workers. The true
significance of long and irregular hours becomes apparent further
when it is realized that many women, after a day of varying length
at the cannery, store, or factory, have multitudinous duties at home.
Limitation of the hours of work of women is, therefore, a safety
measure, the conservation of their energy being a forward step in
the progress of the race. Considering the output of the plant
as the main reason for its commercial existence, it would seem that
measures tending to insure the greatest production and at the same
time conserve the health of employees would be deemed of such vast
importance as to be readily adopted.
During the height of the season the thought uppermost in the
mind of the canner is to dispatch the goods as quickly as possible.
The raw product deteriorates rapidly, and to save the crop requires
either an extra corps of workers or longer hours for those already




WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

63

employed. Too often is the latter method chosen and an additional
and unexpected tax put upon the strength of each worker. A woman
who does not know whether her workday will be 1 hour or 13
hours long is not disposed to give to her task that attention charac­
teristic of one whose hours of work are regular day after day.
The attempts already referred to, by which a few industrial pio­
neers made the effort to standardize and shorten the working day of
women in canneries, should be regarded as a forward step in the prog­
ress of the industry. Eecognizing this fact, some managers have
speeded up production without at the same time imposing a hazard
on any individual worker. Thus is the product saved for both canner and consumer without in the least jeopardizing the health of the
employees.
Many of the canneries visited by the agents of the Women’s Bureau
during this investigation were located in isolated districts, the plant
forming the one link of the community with the industrial world.
Some of the labor for these plants is imported from large cities, but
much of it is recruited from the neighboring farms and for this the
few weeks of seasonal work in a canning factory constitute the extent
of the worker’s industrial history for the year.
It has been said that scheduled hours mean almost nothing in the
canneries—there is so much overtime and undertime that any schedule
would be warped beyond recognition. According to the report of
the American Canners’ Association already quoted, 1924 showed a
decrease from 1923 of 14.7 per cent in the total number of cans of
tomatoes produced in the United States. In that time the output
of Delaware fell more than one-third (34 per cent), and while the
State ranked third in the number of cans of tomatoes produced in
1923 it dropped to sixth place in 1924. With this condition in mind
it does not seem strange, owing to the irregularity of the season of
1924, that the various plants could not specify with any degree of
accuracy the scheduled hours of a day or of a week. Since sched­
uled hours in the canneries are so varied and irregular it is to be
expected that the actual working hours of the women employees
would fluctuate from day to day and from week to week.
In a discussion of the length of the working day in canneries the
following statement is of extreme significance, for it depicts the gradual
development of the industry in a State having vast cannery interests:
The hours worked in the canneries have been gradually reduced year by year.
Twenty years ago it was considered that an establishment was not operating in
a way to bring the utmost returns on the investment unless the plant were run­
ning about 20 hours a day. One of the notable things at the present stage of
industrial development is the fact that the canneries have learned what other
lines of industry have learned—that excessive hours of work are not efficient from
the viewpoint of output, to say nothing of the consideration of the welfare of the
workers. In past years Sunday work was very common. However, it was found




64

WOMEN IN DELAWAEE INDUSTRIES

that the women accomplished less in seven days than in six. For the most part
they took time off during the week, so that their hours of work were increased by
very little. The total output was not increased, but all the regular operating
expenses were increased by one day’s work. In the asparagus canneries employ­
ing Chinese labor the seven-day week still prevails; but those employing American
women operate upon a six-day week. With this exception of the Chinese can­
neries Sunday work has been eliminated.6

Because of the perishability of the product, canning is considered
seasonal work. In Delaware this industry is the one exception to the
law limiting the hours of work of women to 10 a day and 55 a week.
In 17 States and the District of Columbia, however, the laws make
no distinction between canning and any other form of manufacturing,
limiting the number of hours per day or per week that a factory may
operate. Six States—Arkansas, California, Kansas, New York, Ore­
gon, and Wisconsin—that have exempted canning from the general
la-w covering manufacturing, as Delaware has done, have placed such
restrictions on women’s overtime in seasonal work that each of these
States may be said to regulate the hours of work of the women in
canneries. If restrictions regarding overtime are applicable to sea­
sonal work in some States, it would seem that the old theory of the
necessity of long or irregular hours is exploded and the way made
clear for similar legislation in other States where canneries are found.
In all but 3 of the 34 canneries inspected in Delaware, both daily
and weekly schedules were reported as “irregular” or “unusual,”
and although approximately one-third of the 31 did give some par­
ticular number of hours, in each instance the number was qualified
by the term “ irregular ” or “ not usual.” Such indefinite information
is not suited to statistical analysis, so scheduled hours of cannery
workers do not appear in this report.
Cannery material collected by the agents of the bureau discloses
the fact that two systems of recording pay-roll data were in use in
Delaware at the time of the survey. Because of the difference in the
type of information secured, tabulations of these records have been
made in two ways: First, according to the week’s actual earnings,
and second, by ascertaining the average earnings per woman for the
week. No attempt has been made to combine the data on earnings
of women for whom individual entry was shown with those of women
in plants where pay rolls recorded the day’s work in totals only.
The system first named permits the same standardized tables of
earnings, correlated with days and hours worked, as are shown in other
statistical reports of the Women’s Bureau. The detailed information
presented on pay rolls of the various firms wras copied for every
• California Industrial Welfare Commission. Report on the regulation of wages, hours, and working
conditions of women and minors in the fruit and vegetable canning industry of California. May, 1917,
p. 118. (Bulletin 1.)




WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

65

woman whose name appeared on the books and from such data
statistical tables for the period were compiled.
The second system, in which a record of the day’s work was kept
in totals only, was found in 12 canneries. Figures showing the total
number of employees working part or all of each day specified and
the total.number of buckets of tomatoes, for example, peeled each
day, comprise the extent of the pay-roll data available. In most of
the canneries the number of hours the plant has been in operation
each day of the period also was reported. From this material the
week’s average earnings per woman and computations of hourly and
daily averages have been made for each of the plants included.
Regarding the former group, unpublished data including women
for whom time worked was not reported, show that regardless of
time worked the range of actual earnings extended from less than
$1 received by 12 women to the $28 earned by 1, the latter amount
being the highest reported in any current pay roll of this industry.
Even a cursory examination of the records reveals a great bulking
of numbers in the lower wage groups, almost one-third (31.3 per
cent) of the white women and approximately three-fourths (72.2 per
cent) of the negro women earning less than $7 during the week
reported. When it is remembered that in California $16 is the
minimum wage required by law for women in canneries, the fact
that only 8.3 per cent of the women for whom wage data were secured
in the canneries of Delaware received as much as this places addi­
tional stress on the very low earnings of the women scheduled.
In all, 24 firms furnished individual pay-roll data for 1,096 women,
844 of whom were white and 252 negro. Regardless of time worked,
median earnings of white women were $9.40, while negro women had
a median of only $5.55. The latter figure is closely tied up with the
short time these women worked, 35% being the longest weekly hour
period reported. The 24 negro women in section A of Table XVI
in the appendix all were employed by one firm; all had a 20-cent
rate of pay and all designated tomato peeling as their occupation.
It is significant of the short time prevailing in the canneries of Dela­
ware to find that this particular firm, which reported a maximum of
35J^ hours for negro women, showed only one of its white women to
have exceeded these hours.
To present a true picture of the situation, a correlation of earnings
with time worked is necessary. How many hours or days did it
take the worker to acquire such earnings? What factories were re­
sponsible for variations, not only in the earnings of the individual
from week to week but in the earnings of the group? Of all the
women reported, almost one-half (47.3 per cent) had time worked
recorded in hours, over two-fifths (41.8 per cent) had days worked
reported, and 10.9 per cent gave such an indefinite report that it




66

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

was not possible to use the data in a correlation of earnings and
time worked.
Table XVI presents week’s earnings of the women in canneries by
the time worked. Section A includes the women whose hours worked
were reported, and section B those whose records were kept in days.
In the first section of this table approximately one-fifth (21 per
cent) of the women reported had a week of 60 hours and over, unpub­
lished data revealing that all but one woman in this group worked
more than 60 hours. Almost one-third (31.5 per cent) of the women
for whom hours worked were reported exceeded 55 hours—the maxi­
mum set by the State for other industries.
In spite of these per cents in the higher hour groups, the greatest
proportion of women in any one classification is that of 30 and under
40 hours, over one-fourth (26.1 per cent) of the women appearing in
this one column. The short time general throughout the industry in
1924 is emphasized in both sections of Table XVI; as many as 45.8
per cent of the women for whom time worked was reported are found
to have worked less than 40 hours or on less than 4 days. This
heavy bulking in groups employed only part time involves approxi­
mately one-half of the women for whom time worked was reported
during a week considered sufficiently representative to be selected
by the managements.
Since no scheduled time, either daily or weekly, was available for
the canneries and there is no standard of hours in the industry, an
exact statistical presentation of the number of work hours to a day
is not practicable. However, for the especial purpose of presenting
in more tangible form the tremendous amount of part-time work
during the week scheduled, days may be reckoned in terms of 10
hours each. Applying this formula to the records, it is evident that
little beyond a half week’s work was the lot of the women in the fourday classification of the table and of the women working 30 and
under 40 hours in the week considered as representative of the indus­
try. Not far from two-fifths of all the women for whom time worked
was reported had employment for only about half the week.
The 30-and-under-40-hour classification includes 24.5 per cent of
the white and 58.3 per cent of the negro women whose hours were
reported, but the total number of the negro women in section A of
this table is very small, there being a ratio of about 1 negro to 20
white women. About one-fourth the white women having hours
worked reported received actual earnings of $6 and under $8, the
median earnings of the whole group being $9.05. For the negro
women median earnings have been computed as $6.30.
While actual earnings of the women in the first section o 'the table
range from less than $1 to the $17-and-under-$18 group, the daysworked section includes one woman who received as much as $27.40
for the week. Of the women for whom hours were reported the six




WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

67

in the h'ghest wage classification, $17 and under $18, were employed
by one firm as general packers and had such hours of work as 58%,
59%, and 60%.
That an undertime week was prevalent in the ndustry in Delaware
is further emphasized by the table of days worked, where the greatest
proportion of women in any one group appears in the three-day column.
The vast majority of the women in this classification (80.1 per cent)
were negroes, and it is evident that almost three-fourths (72.9 per
cent) of the negro women for whom days worked were reported had
been employed on not more than three days. On the other hand, prac­
tically two-fifths (39.9 per cent) of the white women in the table
appear in the group representative of a week of six days.
For the white women whose records show work on six days median
earnings are found to be $15.15, an amount higher by $2 than the
median earnings of those whose records show as much as 50 hours of
work during the week for which the pay roll was taken. Almost 60
per cent of the white women in section B of the table are shown as
working on five or six days, median earnings for this number (176)
being $12.65. As already stated, no negro women had hours exceed­
ing 35% and the 14 whose records showed as much as five days of
work constituted only 9 per cent of themumber found in the table of
days worked, an exceedingly small proportion when contrasted with
the 60 per cent quoted for white women who worked on at least five
days of the week.
By the 10-hour-day formula already referred to, all women who
worked 50 hours or more and those whose records showed employ­
ment on 5 or 6 days may be considered as working a full week. In
all, they constitute about three-eighths (38.2 per cent) of the women
for whom both earnings and time worked were secured. Median
earnings for the group having worked as much as 50 hours are $13.15,
and for those working on 5 days or more they are $12.55; a combi­
nation of these two groups reveals median earnings for women work­
ing a full week amounting to $12.95.
As already stated, the highest-paid worker for whom a record of
time worked was reported was a peeler who received $27.40 for a
six-day week, and the actual earnings recorded for peelers in general
are very much higher than the amounts shown for packers. While
the six highest paid packers received $17 and $18 for a week of more
than 58 hours, there were 27 peelers whose earnings amounted to
more than this during the six-day week recorded.
Arranged according to the number of hours or the number of days
worked, the following table, compiled from the more detailed figures
in Table XVI in the appendix, shows the number, the per cent, and
the median earnings of white and negro women for whom individual
pay-roll records were secured.




68

WOMEN IN DELAW ABE INDUSTRIES
Table 13.—Median earnings of cannery employees, by time worked and race

WHITE WOMEN WHOSE TIME WORKED
WAS REPORTED IN HOURS

Hours worked

Number Per cent Median
of
distri­
earn­
women
ings
reported bution
494

60 and under 70................
70 and under 80

100. 0
5.5
4.7
9.9
24.5
18.4
15.0
18.2
3.8

1. 40
3. 20
4. 80
7. 00
9. 50
11. 85
13. 15
14. 75

NEGRO WOMEN WHOSE TIME WORKED
WAS REPORTED IN HOURS
—........ —

24

100.0

$6. 30

10 and under 20...............

2
1
7
14

8.3
4.2
29.2
58.3

0)
(1)
(1)
<‘)

Tota.

Days on which work
was done

Number Per cent Median
of
distri­
earn­
women
ings
reported bution
303

$9. 05

27
23
49
121
91
74
90
19

WHITE WOMEN WHOSE TIME WORKED
WAS REPORTED IN DAYS

1
_____ _
2_________ ____
3____ ____ _____ _____
4____________________
5________ ___________
6_______ ____ _______

100. 0

$9.66

20
18
28
61
55
121

6.6
5. 9
9. 2
20.1
18. 2
39.8

1.70
4.00
5.50
6.45
10.05
16.15

NEGRO WOMEN WHOSE TIME WORKED
WAS REPORTED IN DAYS
Total.............. .........

155

100.0

$5.16

1
______________
2..................... .................
3........ .................. . ......
4_________ ________ 5.........................................
6

10
14
113
4
6
8

6.5
9.0
72.9
2.6
3.9
5.2

C1)
(i)
5.25
(l)
(>)
w

1 Not computed, owing to small number involved.

Although for the white women the median of the earnings with
record of days worked is higher than the median for the group with
hours worked reported, for the negro women the opposite is true.
The table shows that for both hours and days worked the median
earnings of white women increased with each successive group.
Although earnings were higher for women working on 6 days than for
those having a corresponding period in hours, the fact must be
remembered that work “on 6 days” may involve an excessive number
of hours, since for women in the day group no hours were recorded.
Dependent on the flow of work on each of the days, a 6-day week in
the canneries of Delaware may mean many hours or few. On the
books of many plants an entry of a day’s work indicates only that
a woman worked on that day, but whether it was for a short time,
for full time, or for much overtime, was not made a matter of record
by the cannery.
Because of the small number of negro women involved it was
possible to compute median earnings only for the 3-day classification,
which includes almost three-fourths of the negro women in the
second section of the table. For these 113 women the median was
$5.25.
Earnings of timeworkers and pieceworkers.

Just as two systems of payment prevail in many other industries, the
canneries show a representative number of timeworkers and of piece-




69

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

workers—516 and 566, respectively. An analysis of the occupations
of the women in relation to their basis of pay becomes of especial
significance since the numbers included in these two groups are so
nearly alike.
Table 14.—Extent of timework and piecework in canneries, by product, race, and
(for tomatoes) occupation
Number of women employed on—
Mum her of women
reported
Product and occupation
White

Negro

Timework

White

S42

492

62
200

63
20
108
34
2
147

Negro

White

338

66
52

401
20
108
34
2
159

Tomatoes—

252

66
52

Piecework

24

Negro

228

Both
timework
and
piece­
work;
white
12

52
24

338

176

12

i The same as “ packing " in some establishments.

Unpublished data reveal that the women paid on a piece-rate basis
all were employed in 10 of the plants; 9 plants paid in this way
only the tomato peelers, and 1 had negro bean sorters thus classified.
Tomato peeling generally is regarded as a piecework job, so it is not
surprising that almost six-sevenths (85.5 per cent) of the women in
this occupational group were paid by the number of buckets. Numer­
ically first of the occupations listed in Table 14, peeling includes almost
two-thirds (64.3 per cent) of the women having a particular kind of
work specified on the books of the plants. Median earnings are found
to be $7 for all peelers, timeworkers and pieceworkers. For women
whose pay is based on the number of buckets, 17.15 is the median
computed. In only one plant were peelers given an hourly rate, the
87 women in this cannery appearing as timeworkers.
Appendix Table XVI-A gives all facts regarding the earnings and
hours of timeworkers, since the women for whom hours worked are
shown are the same as those whose pay was reported on a time basis.
Moreover, a tabulation of the earnings of pieceworkers includes almost
all the women appearing in the correlation of earnings and days
worked. In only one column—that of 6 days—does the total repre­
sent a different group of women. For eight women no definite basis
of pay was recorded on the books of the plants, although a record of
their earnings and the days they worked did appear. The eight
additional women are found in the 6-day group of Table XVI-B in
the appendix and affect the median of the total number to a slight




70

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

extent, for the median of the pieceworkers is $9.45, or 20 cents less
than that of the women with a record of days worked.
Earnings by occupation.

Preparation—that is, sorting and peeling tomatoes, sorting beans,
and trimming corn—engaged more than five-sixths of all women for
whom jobs definitely were reported, a ratio of 5 preparers to 1 canner.
The 159 women having more than one job are not included in this
proportion. Packing, which is considered a canning rather than a
preparing job, often includes men as well as'women, while men are
rarely, if ever, employed as preparers.
The median earnings of preparers working 50 hours or more, again
arbitrarily considered as the length of a full week, are found to be
$14.30; those of canners, $16.10. The number and per cent of these
women, arranged in three different hour classifications, together with
the median earnings of groups which might be considered as under­
time, full-time, or overtime workers have been summarized as follows:
Preparation
Hours worked

Women reporting
Number

Total.

...

____

Under 50 hours ....
50 and under 65 hours ...
65 hours and over.
_ ____
_
50 hours and over_
_

Canning

. . .

Per cent

225

100. 0

192
33
33

Women reporting
Median
earnings

Median
earnings

Number

Per cent

$7. 55

144

100. 0

$8. 33

85. .3
14. 7

7. 25
14. 30

96
21
27

66. 7
14. 9
18. 8

6. 30
13. 50
16. 35

14. 7

14. 30

48

33. 3

16. 10

The great majority of workers are shown in the lowest hour group­
ing, as many as six-sevenths of the preparers and two-thirds of the
canners being found in this classification. Although no preparation
job was continued for as long as 65 hours, almost one-fifth of the
canners show a week at least as long as this.
No woman worked a week of exactly 50 hours and the median
earnings of preparers who worked between 50 and 65 hours are $14.30,
an amount approaching the $15.15 for peelers doing piecework six days
of the week. In comparing the median earnings of these two groups
it must be remembered that the 10-hour day on which full time has
been based is hypothetical, for, as already remarked, the great major­
ity of the canneries gave no definite information of their scheduled
hours.
According to an unpublished tabulation, bean sorting and tomato
peeling had no woman who had worked as long as 50 hours, but both
trimming corn and packing tomatoes showed a number who had put




71

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

in as much time as this, the median earnings for these two groups
amounting to $14.65 for trimmers and $16.25 for packers, amounts
not unlike the medians quoted for all preparers and all packers ($14.30
and $16.10, respectively), whose week was at least 50 hours long.
Regardless of time worked, median earnings of white women paid
on a basis of output were $9.90 and those of negroes $5.50, while the
medians for timeworkers, white and negro, were respectively $9.05
and $6.30.
Hourly rates.

The records of timeworkers included various occupations in the
canning of tomatoes, corn, or beans, and as different plants paid dif­
ferent rates, even for the same kind of work, an analysis of the hourly
rates according to the job classification of the women is of interest.
Table 15.—Hourly rates of timeworkers in canneries, by product and (for tomatoes)
occupation
Number of women whose hourly rate was—
Product and occupation

Number of wornen reported

White
Total....
Ter cent distribution —

Negro

492
100.0

24
100.0

20 cents
17 K
cents

38
7.7

White
330
67.1

Over
20 and
under
Negro 25 cents
11
2.2

65
52
Tomatoes—

63
20
108
34
2
147

24
2
36

60
9
61
32
2
111

24
11

Over
25 and
under
30 cents

104
21. 1

2
0.4

1
50

24
100. 0

25
cents

2

3
11
37
2

30
cents

7
1.4

7

i..........

iThe same as “ packing ” in some establishments.

Of the 516 timeworkers for whom occupation and hourly rate were
specified, 43.6 per cent were engaged in preparing and 27.9 per cent
in canning, while 28.5 per cent had more than one job during the
pay-roll period reported. The 118 women in the corn and bean
canneries are classed as preparers, since the women scheduled in these
firms, though engaged on two or more operations, were confined to
preparation jobs. Due to the fact of some large plants recording
two or more occupations for many of their women, this proportion
in the tomato industry is abnormally high.
Four-fifths of the women whose records were secured were engaged
on tomatoes at the time of the survey, and as far as the number
employed is concerned the most important of the jobs specified is
packing. Peeling, on which were employed all the negro timeworkers
in the industry, is second of the tomato occupations listed.




72

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

More than two-thirds of the women received an hourly rate of 20
cents; about one-fifth, approximately one-lialf of whom were trimming
corn, got 25 cents an hour. With the exception of those paid 17]/%
cents, the number of women in each of the other classifications is
insignificant. The seven women for whom a 30-cent rate was
reported were employed by one firm as general packers.
Earnings in plants with incomplete records.

As cannery work in Delaware is carried on in quite isolated places,
modern methods of bookkeeping and cost accounting as yet have not
been adopted throughout the industry. How much this lack of
system affects the standards of hours and wages it is difficult to say,
but the poorly kept records of seasonal industries probably exert a
depressing influence on the industry’s hours and wages. Apparently
canneries as yet have not recognized the value of the complete records
kept by other industries over a period of three to five years; an anal­
ysis and comparison of these figures bring to light unsuspected leaks,
the discovery of which leads to adoption of measures of improvement
and progress.
On the books of 12 canneries there was no individual record of the
work done by peelers. Total output being their chief concern, these
plants—many of them temporary structures—kept account each day
of the total number of buckets of peeled tomatoes turned in and the
number of employees working. They knew also the number of days
and hours the plant was in operation. In these canneries tickets
were distributed, and a number was punched in the column desig­
nated for each basket of tomatoes a peeler received and for each bucket
of peeled tomatoes she turned in. As the peeling is mostly a piece­
work job, the output of the individual depends to a great extent upon
the speed and regularity of the worker, for while one woman might
complete a ticket in a day or two another more spasmodic and irregu­
lar in attendance and work might be several days making a similar
record. The 12 canneries using this lump-sum method kept no
account of an individual’s pay; earnings were figured and payment was
made according to the number of buckets punched on each peeler’s
card or cards for the given period, the only items shown on the books
being the sum totals for each day the cannery was in operation. Since
these were the only data available in the records copied by the agents
of the bureau, computations have been made which show, for the
peelers in each plant, the average number of women employed and
of buckets peeled, the average hourly and daily earnings, and the
average earnings for the week. Although not so valuable as the
individual earnings copied from the pay rolls, these averages for
peelers are of interest and importance; and as practically all the
women included were engaged on tomato peeling, a discussion of




73

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

their average earnings seems significant. Kecords of tomato peelers
only are found in Table 16. In the one plant which reported work
alternately on corn and tomatoes, entries regarding the number of
women workers and the number of crates and baskets of corn were
so definite that it was not a difficult matter to pick out the items
having reference to tomato peeling.
Table 16.—Hours

and earnings of tomato peelers, by cannery—plants with incom­
plete records 1

Cannery

Number 1_ ..............................
Number 2 ____________
Number 3___________ _____
Number 4. _
Number 5
Number 6________________
Number 7.............................. .
Number 8
Number 9______ ______ ___
Number 10_______ _____
Number 11.---------------------Number 12_______ _____ __

Average num­
ber of—
Aver­
Aver­
age
age
num­ Days Hours week’s
ber
can­
can­
earn­
of
nery
nery
ings
peelers was in was in
opera­ opera­
tion
tion
57
50
50
29
78
42
30
60
32
70
60
60

5
5
3
5
6
2J4
6
6
5
6
5
6

45%
36 H
19 H
45
46!i
2D 2
60
«
35
40
44 H
52

$6. 43
8.64
4.16
10. 42
6. 16
5.19
13. 79
8. 85
8. 78
14. 04
4.50
10.17

Aver­ Aver­
age
age
daily hourly
earn­
earn­
ings
ings

$1. 29
1.73
1.39
2. 08
1.03
2. 08
2. 30
1.47
1.76
2. 34
.90
1. 70

$0.14
.24
.21
.23
.13
.24
.23
w
.25
.35
. 10
.20

Piece
rate

$0. 07
.06
.07
.06
.07
.08
.08
.06
.05
.08
.08
.08

Maxi­ Mini­
mum mum
num­ num­
ber
ber
em­
em­
ployed ployed

62
65
o
31
85
45
40
m
35
85
60
60

m

<*)

51
25
25
65
35
20
18
60
60
60

lIn these canneries records of individual employees were not kept, but their total number, total out­
put, and rate, and the days and hours cannery was in operation, were obtainable.
aNot reported.

In 9 of the 12 canneries listed in the foregoing table individual
pay records were available for women engaged on other than peeling
jobs, so it seems evident that in three-fourths of these plants records
were kept in two ways—sum totals only for the peelers and individ­
ual records for all other jobs. These 9 plants have been included in
the 24 canneries furnishing individual records as well as in the 12
plants for which only totals of each working day were secured. From
material in this latter form the average number of peelers and their
average earnings per hour and per day, as well as the week’s average
earnings, have been found. Such data could not, of course, be co­
ordinated with individual pay-roll records, as two kinds of earnings—
average and actual—are involved.
Five of the 12 establishments reported operated on 6 days of the
week, the average week’s earnings per woman ranging from $6.16 in
one plant to $14.04 in another. In explanation of the high earnings
prevailing in the latter, a note on the schedule taken for this cannery
is quoted here: “Children were said to help by peeling into their
mothers’ buckets.” An increase in the output of the plant without a
corresponding increase in the number of employees would raise the
average earnings of this one firm. However, though operating a 4026716°—27f---- 6




74

WOMEN IN DELAW ARE INDUSTRIES

hour week, 6^ hours less than the weekly operation of the plant
which showed the lowest average wage ($6.16), this cannery has aver­
age earnings more than twice the amount computed for the plant
with an operating period one-sixth longer. It does not seem possible
that such an increase in average earnings could be attributed to the
help of children, and the higher average of the peelers probably is
due to other conditions.
As a great number of the plants canning tomatoes had no other
wage data available for tomato peelers, the preceding table is of
twofold interest; it presents not only average earnings of a selected
occupation in which many women are engaged but the fluctuations
occurring in the average hourly, daily, and week’s earnings in that
occupation for the women in 12 plants.
WORKING CONDITIONS

Location and buildings.

Tomato canning is a highly competitive business. In the United
States there are more canners of tomatoes than of any other single
article of canned food. The large number of canneries is due to the
fact that the processes are simple, comparatively little machinery
being essential, and the character of women’s work is similar to
domestic food preparation, so that training and skill on the part of
the worker are not required. Since the season comes during mild
weather, it is not necessary to build expensive and substantial struc­
tures to house machinery and workers.
A favorite location for canneries is on the bank of a creek or river;
such streams facilitate the disposal of waste matter and are some­
times used for transporting tomatoes to the cannery. In towns lack­
ing such natural advantages the canneries usually are found near the
railroad stations. Occasionally one finds canneries inland, away
from towns and railroads, hidden in the fields or a farmer’s back yard.
Such plants are hardly more than neighborhood affairs, to which
whole families, including the babies and watch dogs, report when
the canneries operate. Almost nothing is done to make the yard or
surroundings attractive; often the cannery yard is cluttered with
piles of broken boxes, wood, and coal, and further disfigured by stag­
nant puddles of water due to overflowing gutters and leaking drains.
Many canneries are hardly more than open-air pavilions. In cases
of stormy or inclement weather, such buildings are not comfortable
working places. Where apples, pumpkins, and sweet potatoes are
canned after the tomato season, the women must feel the cold and
dampness greatly. Light and air are admitted by raising flap sides
of the walls, and for protection against the weather a few places
provide canvas curtains. Sash windows and screens rarely are




WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

75

furnished. Two of the best canneries visited had metal awnings over
the wall openings, which kept out excessive sunlight and rain.
Two canneries were quite dilapidated. In one, the floor of the
can loft and storeroom had collapsed during the season and the whole
place indicated a state of unchecked depreciation and deterioration.
Another, which had operated intermittently in the last few seasons,
with its sides caving inward, seemed ready to fall at the first strong
blast of wind. However, these were exceptional cases, and most of
the canneries were in a good state of repair and represented all that
could be expected of such buildings.
None but the larger canneries have more than a single story. In
only five firms were women reported to be working above the ground
floor and their number was small. However, in four of the five cases
the stairways leading to the second floor were bad. In two the
stairways were little more than ladders, and in the others there were
no handrails or protection against a headlong fall if a worker should
slip. In several places unguarded floor openings on the second floor
offered a possible accident hazard. The workers, usually young girls,
who were employed on the second floor, were “can chuters,” whose
duty was to keep a steady flow of cans sliding down a chute to the
filling machines and tables. Frequently young boys, in some places
very young boys, were employed for this operation. Where the floor
of the can loft was poor, the steam from the workman below oozed
through the cracks, and with the small windows and low sloping roofs
characteristic of these places, on hot days the heat and humidity
must have caused the workers great discomfort.
Processing of canned tomatoes.

A brief description of the processes involved in converting fresh
tomatoes into the tinned product may serve to give an idea of the
work of women in canneries. When sufficient fruit has been received
in the yard to warrant a run of tomatoes, the preliminary washing
begins. This work is usually done by men. The common procedure
is to dump the fruit into a tank filled with water, from which it is
carried on a conveyor belt beneath a spray to wash away sand and
clay clinging to the skins.
Ordinarily the next step is sorting, removing the imperfect tomatoes
and cutting away the defective parts. Where the tomatoes are used
only for the familiar canned product, the peelings being thrown away,
sorting sometimes is considered an unnecessary expense and is not
required, the idea being that the peeler will throw away the imperfect
tomatoes with the skin and waste. Faulty sorting often is the cause of
a high bacteria count and a putrid product. Where any of the pulp
products, such as catsup, puree, or paste, are made either directly




76

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

from the tomatoes or from the parings and cores, careful sorting is
essential. Sorting is done by women, either at tables or along the
sides of slowly moving belts. As a careless sorter can do much
harm, this work usually is given to the dependable and careful workers.
It is customary to use as sorters old employees who have proven ener­
getic and regular at their work.
After being sorted the tomatoes are sent through the scalder or
steamer, where hot sprays of water or jets of steam loosen the skins
for peeling. Peelers, almost entirely women, are the largest group of
workers within the cannery. Most of the peeling is done by hand, the
few peeling machines that are on the market not being generally ac­
cepted by even the larger firms. Canners who have not put in machine
peelers say that some of the machines are liable to destroy the shape
of the fruit and others affect the natural flavor of the tomato where
caustic solutions are used to loosen the skins. Two canneries visited
were using a combination of hand and machine peeling; machines
having rapidly revolving brushes and using a caustic solution freed
the skins, and the women were supposed only to have to pluck out
the stem end to which the skin of the entire tomato clung. However,
due to a poor grade of tomatoes, the women in one place were con­
stantly using knives to cut out bad and green parts of the fruit.
Machine peeling has not yet supplanted hand peeling to any extent,
and the number of women employed at peeling is greater than the
number employed at any other Operation­
Filling the cans is the next step and is usually a machine process.
Hand filling is said to preserve the shape of the fruit; it is used in
the larger canneries when a fancy pack is desired and in some of the
smaller canneries which have not extensive mechanical equipment.
Hand filling is women's work, but the filling machines are tended by
men. Women inspectors frequently are employed to see that the
cans are full and in good condition as they come from the machine.
Before the cans are sealed they must be heated to exhaust any
pockets of air in the contents, so as to produce a vacuum after the
cans are closed. This is done usually by passing the cans on a
conveyor through a steam chamber. Capping machines to put on
the covers are rather general in the canneries. After the cans are
sealed, they are placed generally in racks or specially designed iron
baskets and lowered into kettles of boiling water, where they are
cooked for the required time. In four canneries visited a newer
method of cooking was used in which the cans are rotated slowly in
a spiral course through an inclosed steam chamber, the process end­
ing in a cooler. The latter method shortens the time by half and
also confines the steam within the cooker, which is especially desira­
ble if the cooking must be done in the general workroom. If only
pulp products are manufactured, the work of the women is confined




WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

77

to that of sorting tomatoes, preparing onions and other seasonings,
and capping and labeling bottles and cans. The labeling of cans and
bottles usually is done by women, sometimes during the canning
season proper but more often after the season’s work is completed.7
General workroom conditions.

Conditions in canneries varied greatly with the size, resources, and
progressiveness of the organization and management. Most of the
canners are on the alert to install equipment and to introduce meth­
ods which will improve the quality of their product and the sanitation
of their plants. In many places the arrangements, methods, and
cleanliness were all that the most fastidious could ask for, but in
others chaos and messiness were the outstanding characteristics.
Worktables.—Height, width, arrangement, and type of tomato-peel­
ing tables varied considerably from one cannery to another. The
most common worktable arrangement was the “merry-go-round.”
More than one-half of the canneries had this type, in which a con­
veyor of wood, metal, or rubber runs continuously in a circular
course carrying a never-ceasing parade of buckets of steaming toma­
toes to be peeled, buckets of peeled tomatoes, and wide dishpans of
trimmings and waste. Various arrangements for holding the buckets
and pans for the peelers are built on both sides of the central con­
veyor. In some canneries there are metal rings into which lit the
buckets and pans; in others these are accommodated on a series of
individual shelves at different heights; but the best arrangement
seems to be a continuous shelf-like table with the outside edge raised
to keep the waste from dripping on the worker. The abundant
juice and squashiness of tomatoes makes peeling wet work at the
best and where there are rings or a series of shelves to hold the
receptacles, many of the peelers become soaked in juice and the
accumulation of waste and drippings on the floor is much greater
than where the workers are protected from the drainage by having
a solid table.
For those who work on the inside of the “merry-go-round” to
reach their places, it is necessary to build bridgelike stairs or stiles
over the moving conveyor. Often these stiles presented a real acci­
dent hazard. Four stiles were reported as exceedingly bad; their
construction was so crude and unstable that they shook from side to
side as one crossed; treads were broken or missing and there were
no handrails. Even where the construction of the stile is good,1
1 Because of the few corn canneries visited, their processing and conditions are not discussed. Ordinarily
the canning of corn is largely mechanical. Husking is done by machines, and the ears are inspected and
the bad parts cut out by women. In two canneries the kernel was cut from the cob by hand. After
cutting, the kernels are freed from silk and pieces of cob and packed in cans with salt, sugar, and water;
after this they are heated, sealed, and cooked. One corn cannery was immaculately clean. The walls
and tables gleamed with white enamel. The workers all had caps and aprons and even the manager
wore a white washable suit.




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WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

treads wet and slippery with peelings are possible accident traps.
Stiles of strong construction, railed on both sides, with ample clear­
ance space at the top so that the person crossing can stand erect,
and kept clean and in good repair, are not costly nor difficult to pro­
vide when the canner has an interest in the welfare of his workers.
In seven of the canneries visited, boxlike tables, occasionally sepa­
rated into cribs or compartments for each worker, were arranged in
parallel rows across the room. Four to six women worked at each
table, and helpers, men or boys, waited on them, bringing buckets of
unpeeled tomatoes from the scalder and carrying the buckets of
peeled fruit to the fillers. Trimmings and waste were allowed to
accumidate on the table, and when the mass got too deep and messy,
the women stopped and pushed it to the back of the table or to one
end. This opened into a gutter, from which the waste was removed
to the outside by being pushed and shoveled into containers by help­
ers or carried off by a mechanical conveyor. Where the waste was
pushed down to the end of the table, the end positions were especially
undesirable, because the women there had constantly to stop to move
along the wet and slippery mess piling up at their places.
A somewhat similar type of table found in the survey was termed
a “table-chute.” Helpers were used in the same way, but the tables
were longer and the method of waste disposal decidedly better. The
table was built like a hopper, with its front and back extending to
the floor. Before each worker and at a convenient distance was an
opening in the top of the table into which the peelings were dropped.
The waste slid to a gutter in the floor, from which it was removed
by a mechanical conveyor or by being pushed to the outside by
shovels made to fit the gutter. One of the best canneries in all
respects had a table of this type. The floors usually were drier and
the women less spattered with juice where the “box” table or the
“ table-chute ” was used, but in both the disadvantage was the
dependency of the women on the cooperation and efficiency of the
helpers to supply them with tomatoes and pans. One instance
especially was noted where the inefficiency of the helpers created a
state of confusion.
Enamel or granite-ware buckets and dishpans were the receptacles
used by the peelers. Where the merry-go-round form of table was
used, much confusion and dissatisfaction was avoided by having the
buckets and pans numbered so that each worker had her own set.
Two canneries eliminated the use of receptacles by feeding the fruit
to the workers directly on a slowly moving rubber belt and by carry­
ing off the waste and peeled tomatoes in the same way on other
belts.
Elevated worlc positions.—Women employed at the sorting tables,
feeding the pulp machines, or at the filling tables often were compelled




WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

79

to stand on platforms elevated some distance from the floor. The bad
factors of such working places were their insubstantial, loose construc­
tion and, in places where the ceilings were low, the steam that
enveloped the women. In the 12 canneries having these platforms,
one-half were reported as poorly built. In many cases the platform
was only a plank supported on boxes or blocks of wood, and in some
the platform was exceedingly narrow. In 8 canneries the plat­
forms were so high above the floor that steps were needed to reach
them, but nothing more than a movable and insecure box was
provided. If it is necessary to have these elevated work positions,
they should at least be made safe and comfortable places on which
to work.
Seating.—In the canneries seating is a haphazard arrangement at
the best, and little attention has been given to its needs or possibili­
ties. Managers attempted to justify the absence of seats on the
grounds that canning is seasonal and irregular work and it is unnec­
essary to provide comforts and safeguards for the employee’s health
for so short a time. Occasionally the management discouraged the
use of seats on the theory that workers are less efficient when seated.
Constant standing for 10 to 12 hours in the busy canning season
is deplorable from the standpoint of the individual and undoubtedly
reduces the possible output of the worker. Twenty canneries cov­
ered by this study had peeling tables of a height convenient only for
standing at work, and of these not one provided enough boxes or
stools for the workers to be able to sit occasionally. Of the rest of
the canneries, which had tables of sitting height, only six were ade­
quately supplied with stools and two had boxes sufficient for all to
sit at work. To stand at a low table, bending over work, is extremely
fatiguing. Instances were reported where the tables were so low—
and no seats supplied—that the women preferred not to use the planks
provided to keep them off the wet floor because of the extra stoop­
ing required. If the free use of empty packing boxes was allowed,
some canners seemed to feel that the seating needs of their plants
had been met. Many of the peelers brought their boxes from the
packing or storage shed.
Interfering braces, returning belts, and sometimes the long reach
necessary to lift pans and buckets from the conveyor, all affect the
feasibility of the peelers’ sitting at work. Most of these hindrances
can be removed easily; the position of braces and shelves can be
changed and belts can be raised or lowered so as to obtain the proper
clearance space. The ideal arrangement is that at which the employee
is in a comfortable working position when standing and has a stool
of the right height always available, so that work may be performed
either standing or sitting. The ideals of cannery seating have been
summarized in a California report in the following:




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WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

A seat for cannery use should be comfortable for all users, produce a hygienic
position, and not interfere in any way with the motions necessary on the part
of the worker. It should further be adjustable, at least vertically; it should be
durable, easily cleaned and not cumbersome, admitting, if possible, of construc­
tion at the cannery, or, at any rate, of moderate expense.
There is no question that a free choice of position on the part of the worker
and the shortening of the motions required on her part will reduce fatigue, and
hence increase output. The whole problem is just as much one of efficiency as
of hygiene and any improvement would obviously be to the benefit of both
employer and employee.8

Strain.—Long hours of continuous standing are the most apparent
fatigue-producing factor in canneries, but there are other forms of
strain which can not be ignored. Excessive noise brings on fatigue,
and most canneries are exceedingly noisy. The mechanical-conveyor
systems are noisy in themselves; empty cans ring as they tumble
down to the filling machine, and the bang of the capping machine
adds to the din. Working at the merry-go-round, if the conveyor
moves rapidly, may strain the eyes of the worker. After 10 hours
the eyes and head are weary and a sensation of a moving conveyor
persists and recurs for hours after leaving the cannery. An old colored
woman made the following comment, unsolicited by the agent: “See
dem blue glasses? Well, I wears ’em because if I don’t, dem pans
goin’ roun’ and roun’ all de time makes me drunk.”
In the corn canneries where the kernel is cut from the cob by hand,
the women wear a wooden shield on the stomach, against which they
hold the cob as they cut. The posture of the women cutting is bad,
and the bandaging of wrists and hands is considered as much a prep­
aration for work as are sharp knives. The women complained that
their hand ahd arm muscles were barely hardened to the job by the
end of the season.
These strains may be of minor significance, but altogether they tend
to belie the common idea that canning is entirely easy and wholesome
work and therefore requires no regulation of working conditions.
Uniforms.—The Delaware law dealing with uniforms in canneries
reads as follows: “Female employees who work where foods are being
prepared for canning shall wear clean aprons or dresses made of
washable fabric and shall also wear clean washable caps over their
hair.”9 On the whole, this regulation seemed to be generally observed,
and though there were a few uncovered heads the managers seemed
to be earnestly trying to enforce the provision by insisting that some
sort of headgear should be worn. Colored bandannas, sunbonnets,
ribboned boudoir caps, and old hats all were represented. Ordinarily
'California Industrial Welfare Commission. Report on the regulation of wages, hours, and working
conditions of women and minors in the fruit and vegetable canning industry of California May 1917
pp. 169, 176 (Bulletin 1).
' Acts of Delaware, 1915, ch. 228, sec. 5.




WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

81

the women supplied their own caps, aprons, and knives. In four
canneries, caps, aprons, and knives were sold at cost, and in one they
were furnished on payment of a deposit, which was refunded at the
end of the season if they were returned.
Lighting and ventilation.—The open construction of canneries and
the season in which they operate mitigate the problems of lighting and
ventilation. Many of the canneries are not even wired for electricity,
and most of the work is such that no special intensity of light is
required. The disposal of excessive amounts of steam is the chief prob­
lem of ventilation. The scalding and cooking processes naturally
are accompanied by steam and, unless special arrangements are
made to control the escaping steam, the workroom may become both
uncomfortable and unhealthful. In an effort to keep out the steam,
scalders often were placed entirely or partly outside the peeling room;
but even with this arrangement, on cold or rainy days clouds of wet
steam hung heavily under the low ceilings and women working at the
sorting tables, which usually were near the scalders, were bathed in
steam. In one cannery the women had wrapped their heads and necks
with towels and scarfs to protect them from the steam. Many canners
had made adequate provision for the removal of steam by having the
cooker and scalder in a room separate from that in which the peelers
worked, and by having openings in the roof which gave the steam a
ready means of exit.
Floor drainage.—The canner must pay particular attention to keep­
ing his plant and equipment clean, as mold and the other tiny organisms
which render his product unsalable develop rapidly in insanitary
surroundings. To clean buckets, machines, tables, and floors there
must be an abundance of hot water and live steam. Most of the
canneries visited were cleaned twice a day, during the lunch period
and at the end of the day, the evening cleaning being the more
thorough. In 17 canneries the floors were being hosed constantly or
were washed at least twice daily, and in the rest of the canneries
visited there was at least one cleaning daily. It is not the general
cleanliness of the canneries but the accumulation of water and waste
between cleanings that affects the worker. The lack of sufficient
gutters and the inadequate pitch of the floor toward the gutters
cause puddles of water to remain after the cleaning. A few notes
taken from the cannery schedules give an idea of some of the condi­
tions found:
To reach peelers it was necessary to wade through water. A few of the women
and most of the men in the cannery wore rubber boots.
Floor was covered with juice and squashy tomatoes. Cookers and cooling
tanks were above the level of the peelers on a platform at one end of the room,
and the overflow from these tanks drained into the part of the room where the
peelers wo.ro working. Several hose were lying around with water running from
their nozzles.




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WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

Juice, skins, whole tomatoes, and puddles of water all around made the floors
sloppy.
Can fillers were in such a wet place that ordinary planks were not enough to
keep the women’s feet out of the water.

By their own carelessness in allowing peelings and refuse to fall
the women were partly responsible for the bad conditions of the floors.
However, in a goodly number of canneries where the floors were
pitched toward a network of gutters that carried off the liquid waste
efficiently, and the worktables were such that there was no table
drainage to the floor, conditions were remarkably good, especially
when contrasted with those in some other places.
Since most of the cannery floors are cement, the women need pro­
tection against not only the wetness but the hardness of the floors.
Platforms, racks, or raised planks, which should be considered a neces­
sity in all canneries, were found in only about one-third of those
visited. In the rest there were heterogeneous planks, box covers,
and pieces of mill wood, many of these platform substitutes being
brought in by the women themselves. Here is an urgent need for
the canners to pay more attention to equipping their plants with
platforms to keep the peelers off the wet and hard floor. A platform,
to give adequate protection, should raise the worker several inches
from the floor and should be of a type which dries quickly and gives
a pliant footing, thus adding much to the comfort of the worker.
Waste disposal.—Messy surroundings tend to make careless work­
ers, and canners should not expect the employees to be careful unless
they are provided with adequate means of disposing of liquid and
solid wastes. Waste disposal is a vital problem for the canner, but
it is of little concern to the worker unless the methods are so bad
that they interfere with his health or productivity. Liquid waste
commonly is drained through tile drains or gutters to streams or
ditches near by. Solid waste, the trimmings and cores of the to­
matoes, if pulp products are manufactured, are put through a dehy­
drating process in a machine known as a cyclone. Only the dry
skins and seed remain after this process, and some of the can­
ners who do not use the trimmings for a commercial product have
a cyclone to facilitate the disposal of waste. Solid waste usually
was hauled to adjoining fields to serve as fertilizer. In two places
all the waste, liquid and solid, was drained into septic tanks, from
which it was pumped and spread on neighboring fields. In all but
seven of the canneries the waste-disposal problem seemed to be han­
dled satisfactorily. Accumulated waste in the yard or cannery
denoted careless and inefficient management.
Sanitary and service facilities.

Due to the limited capital, the small plants, and the short seasons
of many of the canneries, it was not surprising that little was done in




WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

83

the way of providing service facilities, such as lunch rooms, cloak
rooms, and rest rooms. However, there are certain sanitary needs,
in the way of drinking, washing, and toilet facilities, which principles
of health preservation and common decency dictate as necessities
even in canneries.
Drinking facilities.—Many of the canners boasted of their good
water supply. The source of the water may have been good gener­
ally, but little was done in the way of providing drinking facilities.
Drinking facilities usually were one and the same as the arrangement
provided for washing buckets and pans; about one-third of the can­
neries had provision for drinking other than that at the spigot or
trough where the peeling receptacles were washed. Several times the
agents saw the old-fashioned bucket with a common can passed
around by helpers from table to table. Seven plants were equipped
with bubblers, but none of the fountains met the sanitary requirement
that the jet of water flowing from the orifice should be at an angle
of at least 15 degrees from the vertical.10 Individual paper cups
were found in only one cannery, but most of the women were able to
supply themselves with empty tomato cans for individual drink­
ing cups. In one cannery the pump, which was the only source of
drinking water for the workers, had been out of repair for several
weeks.
Washing facilities.—Where food products are handled the consumer
has an interest in seeing that soap, towels, and washing conveniences
are available. The progressiveness of the management in canneries
was reflected somewhat by the attention given to the provision of
washing facilities. Of the 34 canneries visited, 9 made special pro­
vision of bowls for washing. In the others the workers had to wash
at the places used for washing pans, which might be a barrel outside
the cannery, a pump, a flowing hose at cleaning time, or troughs and
tubs with running water. Soap was furnished in 13 canneries, and
individual towels were supplied in 15. The washing facilities in one
cannery were reported by the agent as follows:
Liquid soap container and towel fixture empty and looked as though not used
for a long time. Wash bowls provided, but seemed ready to fall from their
brackets any minute. Owner started to show several wash bowls in another part
of the room, but then said he guessed they had never been put back after the
installation of new machinery.

Running water, individual towels, and plenty of soap should be
part of the washing accommodations of every cannery.
Toilets.—The preponderance of outside toilets or privies was amaz­
ing. Four canneries had modern flush toilets; the other 30 had out­
side privies. All but one had facilities separate for men and women
and usually separate for negro and white workers. The condition of
MTke National Safety Council recommends 30 degrees as the most satisfactory angle.




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WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

the buildings, the numbers using the toilets, and the vaults of many
of the privies were far from satisfactory. More than one-third of the
buildings were old, unpainted, ramshackle affairs, showing no attempt
at maintaining even a fair degree of cleanliness. Vaults were reported
as fly-proof in 9 places and in 11 there were evidences of disinfectant
having been used. Instead of being built over a vault, six privies
were so placed that they were suspended over the banks of a stream
or pond, and in some of these places the tide action was insufficient to
carry off the fecal matter. A few excerpts from the cannery reports
give an idea of some of the conditions met with:
A plank, insecure and slippery, over a ditch led to privy. A worker said she
was afraid of plank and also lest the building fall back into the river. Tide action
was not enough to clean properly.
Approach to privy was bad; the closet was located on the bank of a pond, and
a split log and several planks made a pathway which was steep and slippery with
puddles on both sides. The exhaust from the engine room opened near the privy
adding to the danger of the approach and the general disagreeableness. Door
hung on one hinge, and the inside of the building was exceedingly dirty.
Privy had no vault. Tin cans placed under seat were not inclosed in any way.

Conditions like those described are intolerable, and there is a real
need that regulations be made and enforced with reference to the num­
ber, location, construction, and upkeep of cannery toilet facilities.
CANNERY CAMPS

The limited extent of the local labor market makes it necessary for
almost one-half of the canners to bring in help from sources outside
their home community. To secure a working force of the required
number, some of the Delaware canners sent out busses and trucks
to transport help from farms and towns near by. A more common
practice was to employ a man known as a “row boss” who rounded
up whole families to live and work at the cannery. Ordinarily the
canners did not resort to the importation of outside help unless it
was difficult to secure local workers, because maintaining a camp is
expensive and brings a host of problems. However, in years when the
tomato crop is abundant and the competition for labor is keen, a force
of workers housed in the cannery yard lessens the manager’s worries
relating to production. Employees housed in a cannery camp are
more or less under the thumb of the manager and assure a fairly per­
manent working force, which is a real asset in a big year.
Of the 34 canneries visited, 14 were providing housing accommoda­
tions for all or a part of their workers. The imported cannery help
in Delaware were largely Poles from Baltimore; the workers in more
than one-half of the camps gave their home residence as Baltimore.
One cannery settlement was made up of Italians from Philadelphia.
Several camps were peopled by negroes who had been recruited from
the eastern peninsula of Maryland and from near Norfolk, Va.




WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

85

The “row boss” is an intermediary between the canner and the
foreign help in his camp; he might be called a cannery padrone.
The canner hires the row boss to secure and manage the foreign help.
He is always of the same nationality as the workers brought into the
camp. Generally he not only represents the management in the
hiring of workers but lives in the camp and oversees the work
of the foreign help in the cannery. In gathering up his cannery
force the row boss usually offers the following inducements: Free
rent, free fuel, transportation to the cannery and home again if the
workers remain through the entire season, and a summer outing
in the country or a small town at which all the members of the family
old enough to work can earn good wages. Of the negro employees
the same workers tend to migrate to the cannery for years without any
official summons.
Buildings.

Some of the camps were all that one could reasonably expect such
places to be; the buildings were substantial, well roofed, and gener­
ally clean and comfortable. More often, however, the living quarters
provided by the canners were bad; the dwellings were the cheapest
and poorest that human beings would accept as shelter. The camps
ranged from a small shed in which 2 families were living to one of
two dozen houses with accommodations for possibly 50 families.
Most of the camps were located on the cannery grounds, with the
idea of having the workers readily available. Eleven of the camps
were within a hundred yards of the cannery proper. With two excep­
tions, the buildings were summer structures, shanty in type, with­
out foundations. In a number of places the exterior was unpainted,
the roofs were leaky, the walls unsealed and unplastered, with wide
cracks between the boards; windows were minus both panes and
screens, floors were rough, and doors were without latches or locks.
The types of camp buildings varied, but in a general way the quar­
ters provided could be classified as detached houses, remodeled barns
and sheds, two-story shacks or tenements, and long rows of low, con­
nected, barrack rooms. In the case of two canneries, small detached
houses a block away, plastered and finished as regular dwellings,
were maintained as a camp. These were not originally built for such
a purpose and were rented to negro tenants during the winter. One
of these camps was very good; the other was wretched.
In several places slight remodeling, such as the addition of a rough
floor, crude partitions which frequently extended only part way, and
holes cut in the walls for windows, had converted sheds and barns into
housing facilities. The following excerpts from camp schedules are
typical descriptions of this sort:




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WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

Two of the units of the camp seem to be old barns.
An aisle runs through
the center of the building, with doors at each end. Rooms open off both sides,
with wooden partition not reaching to the ceiling separating the rooms. On the
aisle side there are no partitions, and sheets, pieces of burlap, and old quilts had
been hung to secure some privacy.
Six rooms had been partitioned off in an old shed. Wide, rough boards had
been put in for flooring, and a small hole had been cut in the outside walls for a
window for each room. One corner of the shed served as a common dining room
and kitchen; there was no flooring in this part. On the day of the agent’s visit
it had been raining and water had leaked through the roof so that the ground
inside of shed was mostly mud. Several negro families were huddled around an
old rusty kitchen stove.

Camps built in recent years usually were long, low, single-story
sheds, barracklike in appearance. Each room was a unit intended
for a family group. About 12 by 12 feet, though in many cases
smaller, was the average size of the rooms. A small window, rarely
two, and a door leading to the outside were provided for every room.
In the case of this type of building the roof generally had been built
to project out over the doorway several feet, and most of the cook­
ing, eating, and community gossip was carried on out of doors under
this shelter. The two-story house was considered rather out of date
and was unpopular with both employers and employees. There
seemed to be an aversion on the part of the workers to living above
the ground floor, and instances were noticed where extreme crowd­
ing was preferred to the use of upstairs rooms.
Failure to keep the buildings in repair gave several camps a dilap­
idated appearance. Broken windows and leaky roofs were common;
repairs often were left to the makeshift arrangements of the occu­
pants. There was a marked need, for light and for sanitation, of
more and larger windows equipped with screens.
The camp buildings were little more than places in which to sleep
and to store the possessions which the occupants had brought with
them. The floor space was almost filled with beds; the walls were
draped with clothing; boxes and bags of food took considerable
space. The furnishings generally were meager and consisted of
articles which could be made on the place. All but four or five of
the camps were equipped with some sort of tables, seats, or benches.
In one place there were well-built wooden cupboards, with padlocks,
for the storing of food and other belongings. Iron bedsteads and
cots were supplied in a few places, but bunks—boxlike containers
for straw and bedding, both of the single and double decked variety—
were the most common arrangements for beds. In a few places straw
spread over the floor on one or more sides of the room, with no pre­
tense of bunks, was reported. While the bad conditions described
may not be typical of the cannery camps of Delaware, they repre­
sent the camp provisions found in more than one-half the canneries
visited.




WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

87

In many places order and cleanliness, remarkable in view of the
time and facilities at their disposal, were maintained by the Polish
women workers. The cannery workers of this race are accustomed
to modern plumbing and ordinary conveniences in their city
homes, and many apologized profusely for the disorder of their shacks,
though this would have been hard to avoid. Some of the managers
complained bitterly of the class of labor in their camps, and said
that it was practically impossible to maintain a decent camp because
of the destructiveness and low standards of the campers. However,
where the canners provided good camps the occupants seemed for
the most part to maintain fairly high standards of cleanliness and
order.
Washing and cooking were carried on almost entirely in the yards.
In all but one camp the women brought their own laundry tubs. Oil
stoves, gas plates, old wood and coal ranges, and outside fireplaces
all were represented among the cooking facilities. In one camp
individual oil stoves and in another individual gas plates were fur­
nished to the families. Where wood or coal stoves were used they
were located in cook sheds and were for the common or community
use of all the families living in the camp. The most common cooking
facility was a homemade stove of stones or brick, with a piece of
corrugated iron for the top. These outside fireplaces were allowed
to remain from season to season, each new group repairing the ruins
from the previous year. Two or three employers, recognizing the
advantages and popularity of these individual fireplaces, had made
formal provision for them in long cook sheds with roofs but no wTalls.
A stove having a fire box of cement walls, with pieces of heavy iron
sheeting for the top and long flues extending through the roof of the
cook shed, was provided for every family. Fuel always was furnished
by the employer. Where the help was Polish, the workers usually
had built one or more clay and brick ovens for community use in
baking bread.
Sanitation.

Nothing about the camps was more generally neglected than were
the privies. In every camp insanitary privies—inadequate in number
and with buildings and vaults in wretched condition—were much too
common. Often the same toilets served for both cannery and camp.
At least one-half of the toilets were reported as unfit in some respect
for use. In these cases the workers preferred to find a place in the
woods or in growths of underbrush rather than use the facilities
provided by the employer.
Water supply.—Good water for drinking and cooking purposes,
with a plentiful supply for washing and cleaning, is essential to health
and comfort. No instance of especially inconvenient or inadequate




88

WOMEN IN DELAWAKE INDUSTEIES

water supply was reported. In many cases there were no arrange­
ments for drainage around the pumps or spigots and the overflow
formed puddles, these, with the much tramping around the place,
causing mud to extend for several feet on all sides.
Premises.

Practically nothing was done to make the yards attractive, and
little attention was given to matters of healthfulness and sanitation.
The planting of shade trees, a few grass plots, and the graveling of the
paths would improve the appearance of the grounds and make the
camp settlements more livable. Only six of the camps were provided
with receptacles for garbage. In the others there were unsightly piles
of refuse and tin cans, or, if there was a growth of trees or a field of
weeds and underbrush near by, this served as a dumping ground for
all rubbish. Washwater, dishwater, and slops were thrown directly
on the ground and in some places had collected in foul-smelling pools.
Lacking any arrangements for surface drainage, after a rain the yards
became one huge mud puddle. For one camp the “yard” comprised
only the few feet of ground directly in front of the doorways, as in
the rear a pig pasture extended to the very walls of the dwellings, and
in the front a wood and coal pile belonging to the cannery came
almost to the doorsteps. A praiseworthy feature reported on two or
three camp schedules was the lighting of the grounds at night by
electric lights or oil lamps. In one camp, which was good in all
respects except its privies, a man was employed to keep the grounds
clean and orderly and to watch the camp while the employees were
at work in the cannery. Two of the camps visited employed persons
to care for the babies and young children while the mothers were at
work.




PART VI
HOTELS AND RESTAURANTS

Because of the irregularity of their hours and the differences in the
make-up of their pay it is necessary to consider women employed in
hotels and restaurants separately from other industrial groups.
Establishments in this industry remain open many hours for the
accommodation of the public, and it is quite a general practice in
restaurants to employ women to work on two or even on three dif­
ferent shifts a day. In this way the majority of workers are on hand
when they are most needed, the number being correspondingly low
when the demand for service is not urgent. During the day there
are distinct peaks of work when it is imperative to have a full force,
although in the hours intervening many houses find business so slack
that only the fewest possible employees are retained.
In spite of the progress toward a standardization of hours made by
some employers the records, whether taken collectively or singly,
too often reveal excessively long daily and weekly hours, night work,
the seven-day week, objectionably early and late hours for beginning
and ending work, the lack of definite meal periods, and the split shift
with long over-all hours. It may at first seem that most of these
evils are an inherent part of the industry—that since people patron­
ize restaurants at all hours of the day and night it behooves the
manager to be ready to serve them at all times; in other words,
that it is to satisfy the public need that such conditions exist. The
best answer to such an argument is the fact that many States have
found it expedient to limit the hours of work of women employed in
hotels and restaurants, as well as of those in other industries.
Delaware is one of these States. Its law fixes 6 days in one calen­
dar week, a 10-hour day, and a 55-hour week as the maximum time
these women may work. There is a proviso which permits any
female “to work 12 hours in one day only of each week, on the con­
dition that her total hours of employment for any one week shall
not exceed 55 hours.” The law further provides that “if any part
of the daily employment of any said female is performed between the
hours of 11 o'clock p.m.and 7 o’clock a.m. of the following day, no
26716°—27f----- 7




89

90

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

such female shall be employed or permitted to work thereat more
than 8 hours in any 24 hours.”1
Although the State has fixed the same code for female employees
of restaurants and hotels as for the women working in stores, factories,
and laundries, 14.3 per cent of the women in hotels and restaurants
for whom scheduled hours were reported had a week longer than 55
hours. Considered in terms of days rather than hours, it was found
that 19 women—22.6 per cent of the total number reported—were
expected to work on 7 days of that week for which the schedule was
secured.
HOURS

Of the 14 restaurants and hotels which reported definite hours of
business, 9 kept their doors open from between 4 and 7 a. m. until
10 or 12 o’clock at night. Two establishments were not open on Sun­
day and 7 others reported closing from one-half to eight and onehalf hours earlier on that day than on any other day of the week.
In a study of restaurant hours it is necessary to consider the sched­
ules of individual women, since shifts and irregularities cause great
variation in hours for the different workers within any one establish­
ment. Due to the practice, quite general in restaurants, of waitresses
rotating in the matter of the day off, the majority of the women on
this job show a 6-day schedule even when it is evident that the
establishment in which they were employed was open on Sundays.
For almost three-fifths of the restaurants and hotels which reported
daily hours, a business day was as long as 16 hours, 5 of these places
reporting 18 or 19 hours. Only 1 establishment--a tea shop where
lunches and dinners were served—was open less than 12 hours a day.
Comparatively few of the women included in the study reported
for work before 7 a. m., and the eight women included in this group
were employees of 3 establishments. Such an early start was required
of three women on 2 days of that week for which hour data were
secured, while for five others the time for beginning work was con­
sistently early throughout the week. Five of the eight women whose
schedules show work days starting before 7 o’clock had these days
broken up into two or three shifts.
The schedules of four women definitely revealed employment after
11 o’clock at night six or seven times a week, and nine other women
were required to work later than this hour on 2 or 3 days of the week.
Three of the four women appearing in the former group had a 7day week; two of these had a Sunday which terminated at 10 p. m.,
1 Acts of Delaware, 1917, ch. 90, sec. 35.




91

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

while the third was required to work from 5 p. m. until midnight
every day of the period. The fourth worker had 1 day off and put
in 7 hours on each of the 6 days remaining.
Weekly hours.

Unpublished data show that for practically three-fourths (76.2 per
cent) of the 84 women included, a schedule of 6 days was maintained.
More than one-half of the number in this group of 6-day workers
were waitresses, and over one-fourth (28.1 per cent) were classed as
cooks, vegetable girls, and kitchen help. Forty-four women (68.8 per
cent of the 6-day workers) had no employment on Sunday, and 13 of
the 20 women whose record showed a day off during the week worked
the same schedule of hours on Sundays as they did on week days.
From these unpublished tables it is seen further, that although the
entire number of negro workers in the 7-day group had the same
number of hours every day, only 3 of the 12 white women whose
hours were reported for 7 days revealed a uniform schedule through­
out the week. A consideration of the women whose scheduled hours
on Sundays as well as on week days were recorded discloses the fact
that although 64.9 per cent of the number reported had a Sunday of
8 hours or less, only 51.4 per cent were included in this classification
on other days.
None of the women in hotels and restaurants had a scheduled
week of less than 5 days; in fact, a 5-day week was reported for only
one woman, a pantry worker. Pantry helpers and candy-counter girls
are the two occupational groups in which no women were reported
as working on more than 6 days during the week scheduled.
Table 17.—Scheduled weekly hours in hotels and restaurants, by occupation

Occupation

Number of women whose scheduled weekly hours were—
Number of
Over 44
Over 48
Over 54
Over 55
women
and
and
Under
and
and 60 and
re­
ported
under 48 under 54 under 55 under over
44
54
60
48
55
84

Cook; vegetable girl; kitchen help-

12

14

5

1 24

24
7
5
46
2

4
4
1
3

1
1
3
8
1

1
1
1
?

14

i One woman alternated a week of 57 hours and one a week of

9
1

8

3

6

2

1
8

3

5

10
3
1

2

6

59l hours.
A

According to the preceding table, the greatest number of women
in any one group (28.6 per cent) had a scheduled week of over 48




92

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

and under 54 hours, and almost three-fifths of these were cooks, vege­
table girls, or kitchen help. For less than three-eighths of all the
workers reported the scheduled week was 48 hours or less, and about
two-fifths of this number were waitresses. A week as long as 54
hours was reported for 34.5 per cent of the workers, all but 5 of the
women in the group being classified as waitresses. Schedules of
more than 55 hours were recorded by 5 establishments, and affected
8 waitresses, 1 dishwasher, and 3 cooks.
Daily hours.

The irregularity of the restaurant workers’ week has already been
dwelt upon. Because of the fact that many of the women have at
least two schedules during the week it is impossible to determine a
uniform schedule of daily hours, so for this reason the number of
hours shown for each of the work days reported is used and one
woman appears in the tables several times according to the number
of variations in length of workday in her scheduled week. The total
number of employee days shown is therefore six or seven times the
number of women for whom scheduled hours were reported.




Table 18.—Length of the day’s work in hotels and restaurants, by occupation
Number of employee days on which the scheduled hours wereOccupation

___ ________ ___ ____________

81

504

24
7
5
43
2

150
44
29
269
12

5 and
under 6

6 and
under 7

7 and
under 8

4

3

74

77

1
1

8
6
42

1 Includes one woman whose scheduled hours every other week were 8H a day.




Over 9
and
under 10

26

3

Over 8
and
under 9

19

8

9

Over 10

10

*99

79

36

30

75

163
1

13

34

25

49
3

2 27

4

2 Eleven hours on 7 days, 12 on 13,13 on 4, and 14 on 3 days.

20

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

Total

Cook; vegetable girl; kitchen help._____ __________
Dish and glass washer___________
Pantry help...... ............................ ......
Waitress____ __________
Candy-counter help___________________

Number Number
of
of
women employee
reported
days
Under 5

CC
GO

94

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

An analysis of the length of the days the women were required to
work is presented in Table 18, which shows that schedules of 8
hours or less were reported for slightly more than one-half (51 per
cent) the days totaled for all the women employed. Dish and glass
washers had a greater proportion of short days than had the women
in any other occupational group; a schedule of 8 hours or less was
reported for 90.9 per cent of their employee days. Nine hours or
more was the schedule reported on about one-third the days, and
about three-fourths of these were the days of waitresses; in regard to
this job it is apparent that almost one-half (47.6 per cent) the days
reported for women waiting on the table were at least 9 hours in
length and that slightly more than one-fourth were 10 hours or more.
Over-all hours.

The period of time from the beginning to the end of a woman’s
workday, including hours off duty for meals or for rest, has been des­
ignated as over-all hours. Data showing the over-all hours on the
workdays of the employees, arranged according to occupation, are
presented in the table following:




Table 19.—Scheduled over-all hours in hotels and restaurants, by occupation

Occupation

Number of employee days on which the over-all hours were—
Number Number
of women of em­
9 and 10 and 11 and 12 and 13 and
reported ployee Under 5 and 6 and 7 and 8 and
under under under under under
days
under 6 under 7 under 8 under 9
5
14
11
12
13
10

1 An over-all of 16 hours on 3 days and of 18 hours on 13.




81

5
43

504

29
269
12

4

3

1

61
g
6
32
1

28

106

7
2
14
5

10

61

1
58
2

44

63

61

14
4

78
18

16
6
4
36
1

19
6
11
25

26

16 and
over

28

31

116

27
1

29
2

7
9

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

Total........ .................. ................
Cook; vegetable girl; kitchen help
Dish and glass washer___________
Pantry help_____________________
Waitress________________________
Candy-counter help______________

14 and
under
15

CO
07

96

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

Approximately one-half (48.2 per cent) of all the employee days are
found in classificaiions representing 10 hours and more of over-all,
and 63 per cent of these are the days of waitresses. In all, 56.5 per
cent of the days reported for the women in this one occupation had
an over-all as long as 10 hours. In the column of 16 hours and
over, 13 of the 16 days reported had an over-all of 18 hours. Six
days of this length occurred in the week’s record of 1 waitress, and two
or three days as long as this appear in each of the schedules of 3 pan­
try helpers. In any discussion of the day’s over-all it is especially
significant to take into consideration the length of time the women
are off duty. The accompanying table presents this information
for 504 employee days, but because of the different schedules reported
for the different days of the week it was not possible to present the
number of women in each classification.




Table 20.—Time off for meals or rest in hotels and restaurants, by over-all hours

Time off duty




504

4

1

61

28

106

61

44

198
37
76
50
44
58
14
27

4

1

60
1

19
9

73
9
24

11
14
27
2

23
4
2
13
2

1

63

61

28

31

1
8
3
3
13

3

18

13

6
20

7
19
18
16
10

4
13
6
24
11

3 ..............

1 ..............1

• 13

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

Total.

Number of employee days on which the over-all hours were—
Number
of em­
9 and 10 and 11 and 12 and 13 and 14 and 16 and
ployee Under 5 and 6 and 7 and
8 and under under under under under under under
days
under 6 under 7 under 8 underO
5
12
14
17
13
15
10
11

co

98

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

On 198 days—almost two-fifths of the total reported—the work
period was continuous, and, if the lunch or dinner hour occurred while
the women were on duty, those for whom meals were provided as
part remuneration ate whenever there was a lull in the day’s work.
On these 198 days over-all hours tallied exactly with scheduled hours,
since on this number of days there was no time off duty. The long­
est period of over-all on days which had an unbroken schedule was
recorded for one negro cook, each of whose 7 days was exactly 12
hours in length.
Unpublished figures show that 3 women had as much as 8 hours
off duty on 2 of their 6 days of employment, at which times their
workday lasted from 6 a.m. to noon and from 8 p.m. until midnight.
On 42 days three periods of work were reported, and the intervening
periods of rest—usually a short and a long one—were recorded for
18 women; these intervals lasted from a half hour—recorded on 15
of the days reported—to a period of 4}/£ hours off duty shown on
each of the 7 days of one waitress. The schedule of this woman gives
an excellent idea of the broken shift, although in her case both rest
periods were of sufficient length and regularity to permit a fairly
satisfactory adjustment of her day. The record shows that this
worker was expected to be on the job from 6.30 to 9.30 a.m., from
noon until 1.30 p.m., and from 6 until 7.30 in the evening. Thus
the 13 hours of over-all meant for this woman a work schedule of
only 6 hours a day, and the combined intervals off duty actually
exceeded the hours she was expected to work.
From unpublished data it is apparent that a definite time for meals
was reported for only 16.4 per cent of the employee days of white
women. On almost two-thirds of the 58 days for which the time off
was specifically reported, as breakfast, lunch, or dinner time, 30 min­
utes was allowed for each meal, while on 36.2 per cent of the days
the meal period was 1 hour. The schedules of negro women show
that meals were eaten on duty on as many as 111 of the employee
days; on the remaining 14 days (reported for 2 cooks) no interval for
meals was recorded within the over-all period. In regard to the meal
periods of waitresses, on three-fifths of the days for which some report
was obtained the women ate their meals while on duty—that is, when­
ever there was an interim in the day’s rush—no provision being made
to prevent interruptions at mealtimes. There were 45 days when
meal periods fell between shifts, and on more than three-fifths of
these a definite time off for meals also was provided by the manage­
ments. The women whose days are included in this group had hours
that covered two or more meal periods.
Hotels and restaurants must be ready to serve the public whenever
the service is needed, and because of this requirement they are open
practically all hours of the day and night. It is to be expected, then,




99

WOMEN IN DELAW ABE INDUSTBIES

that hours scheduled for these employees would show greater irregu­
larity than is apparent in other industries, for not only is the period
between opening and closing the doors of a restaurant longer, but, as
already stated, each day comprises two or three definite peaks of
work when a mobilization of employees is essential. To meet this
emergency some managers have introduced staggered hours of em­
ployment, an arrangement which does away with the excessively long
over-all hours embodied in the broken-shift arrangement. The fol­
lowing table shows the number of women on a uniform schedule, as
well as those reported on two or three shifts, arranged according to
occupational group:
Table

21.—Irregularity

of hotel and restaurant days, by occupation
Number of women with same schedule
each day

Occupation

Num­
ber of
women Total Work in
re­
on
ported uniform 1 un­
broken
sched­ shift
ule

Work
broken
by 1
period
off duty

Work
broken
by 2
periods
oil duty

Total..........-.................................

81

32

19

9

3

Cook; vegetable girl; kitchen help...

24
7
5
43
2

20
6
1
5

17
1

2
5
2

25

1

1

Num­
ber of
women
Work work­
broken on ing
2 dif­
by 3 or ferent
more sched­
periods
off duty ules

2

1

1

Num­
ber of
women
work­
ing
on 3 or
more
differ­
ent
sched­
ules
24

4
1
20

1
'

-

■!

1
3
18
2

Although only 5 of the 43 waitresses were reported as having a
uniform schedule, practically all dish and glass washers and a major­
ity of cooks, vegetable girls, and kitchen help had but one arrange­
ment of their hours throughout the week. Considering the first three
classifications in Table 21 as kitchen workers, and waitresses and
candy-counter girls as dining-room help, it is found that three-fourths
of the kitchen workers and a little over one-tenth of the dining-room
workers had a uniform schedule. Of the women employed in the
dining rooms, 44.4 per cent alternated their scheduled hours day by
day, and an equal proportion show more than two sets of hours dur­
ing the week.
More than one-half (56.3 per cent) of the women on a uniform
schedule were negroes, and all these had an unbroken shift of hours.
The few white women who had but one schedule of hours are scat­
tered in the groups representative of one, two, or three periods off
duty every day of the week. Practically two-fifths of the white
women had to adjust themselves to three different shifts of work
hours.




100

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES
WAGES

Pay-roll records were secured for 64 white women and 21 negro
women, and these were employed in 15 hotels and restaurants in Dela­
ware. Earnings of workers in the various occupational groups are
presented in Table XVII in the appendix, and are found to extend
from the $4-and-under-$5 classification, in which appears one negro
woman, to the $20-and-under-$21 grouping, in which two women
employed at a candy counter are found. Practically three-fifths (58.8
per cent) of all the women reported received $8 and under $11 as
actual earnings for the week. Computations show that median
earnings for all white women are $10.15, and for all negro women
$10.75.
Waiting at table seems to be the most general occupation, as many
as seven-tenths (71.9 per cent) of all the white women appearing in
this classification. The median earnings of waitresses—all of whom
are white amount to $10.05. The other white women are scattered,
some appearing in each of the various occupational groups—cooks,
vegetable girls, and kitchen help, dish and glass washers, pantry help,
candy-counter girls, and chambermaids—but as there were less than
seven white women in any of these classifications, median earnings
were not computed.
Cooks, vegetable girls, and kitchen help, more than any other classi­
fication, comprise the great majority (90.5 per cent) of the negro
women in hotels and restaurants. The median of the earnings of
these workers is $10.75, exactly the same amount as the median
quoted for all negro women included.
According to unpublished data, about five-eighths (63 per cent) of
the 46 women whose hours worked were reported were white, and
more than four-fifths of this number had worked a week of more than
48 hours. Despite the fact that hotels and restaurants are included
in the 55-hour regulation of the State, more than one-fourth (28.3
per cent) of the women, white and negro, for whom the number of
hours worked was recorded on the pay rolls showed hours longer
than the maximum allowed by law. The earnings of the women
in the group for whom more than 55 hours' work was reported range
from $5 and under $6 to $16 and under $17, the highest amount
being recorded for one negro woman. In each case noted the median
earnings of negro women are higher than those of white women. In
fact, 9 of the 12 women with earnings of $11 or more were negroes.
A similar situation is revealed in a compilation, also unpublished,
which shows the time women worked as reported in days. All these
women were white. About two-fifths (38.8 per cent) of all the women
in hotels and restaurants are included in this compilation of days
worked, and almost one-eighth of these worked on seven days of the




WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

101

week. Earnings of this group extended from $6 and under $7 to $10
and under $11, although those for whom a week of six days was
reported show a much wider range. As many as 84.8 per cent of the
women in this tabulation of days worked had a 6-day week, and the
median earnings of this group amounted to $10.25.
WORKING CONDITIONS

Fifteen restaurants, employing 86 women, were included in the
study. Five of these, employing more than one-half of the women,
were in Wilmington; the rest were scattered throughout the State.
As in the small stores with only a few employees, standardized working
conditions were not to be expected. Again, there was a sort of
family relationship, bordering on that found in domestic service,
between the employer and employees.
However, because of the handling of food, if for no other reason,
certain standards of cleanliness and order are essential in restaurants.
A bad feature in five of the restaurants visited was the extreme
congestion in the kitchen and pantry, which gave a general atmos­
phere of disorder to the place. In six the ventilation in the kitchen
was bad; there was neither natural nor artificial exhaust to carry
off the steam and smoke. Inadequate washing facilities were provided
for at least some employees in more than half the small restaurants
reported. The white women in four and the negro women in seven
restaurants were furnished with no place other than the kitchen sink at
which to wash their hands. There were no hand towels in five res­
taurants, and common towels were the only provision in three. In
10 places toilets were used by the public as well as by the employees,
and they were separated and designated in only 3. Six of the res­
taurants were located in hotels, and in these the women had the
privilege of using the hotel facilities. Although uniforms are the
customary mode of dress and a sanitary precaution in eating houses,
only one of the restaurants provided them and had them laundered
for their employees.







«

PART VII
THE WORKERS
PERSONAL INFORMATION

Although facts have been accumulated which show that many of
the popular concepts about women and their work are erroneous,
women’s employment in industry is hedged by numerous prejudices
based on traditional and habitual modes of thinking. Just as it is cus­
tomary for the production manager to analyze the product of his fac­
tory to discover ways of improving it, so those desirous of bettering
human relationships in industry should study the make-up and respon­
sibilities of the workers. A survey covering only wages and hours
does not afford the human touch which is an indispensable factor in
any social study. Human aspects, such as nativity, age, marital
status, living condition, and industrial experience, all are a part of
the worker’s background affecting her social and economic condition.
To procure this personal information, brief interviews were held with
a representative number of women in all the industries included in
the study. Altogether, questionnaires were filled out for 2,519 women
employed in the regular industries and for 736 white women in the
canneries,*and while it is difficult to reduce to concrete figures facts
1
about human beings, with all their complexities and variabilities, tables
have been compiled which are at least suggestive of the outstanding
characteristics of women employed in Delaware industries.
Nativity.
Immigrant workers, ignorant of industrial conditions and anxious
to secure work, often will accept any employment offered them
regardless of hours and conditions. Where there are large numbers of
foreign born, special labor problems may arise, but in Delaware the
proportion is so small that immigrant labor is of minor significance.
According to the last census, 8.9 per cent of the population of the
State was of foreign birth.2 Table XVIII shows that, of the white
women interviewed, 90.8 per cent were native born and 9.2 per cent
foreign born. There was little diversity of nationality, as immi­
gration from Poland and Italy made up about three-fourths (76.6 per
cent) of the distribution. The proportion of foreign born varied con­
siderably in the different industries; leather with 26 per cent, cigars
1 In addition the ages of 431 negro women in the canneries were reported.
1 U. S. Bureau of the Census. Fourteenth census: 1920. v. 3, Population, 1920. p. 172, Table 9.




103

104

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

with 15.6 per cent, and canning with 14.3 per cent (negro women
not included) had the largest numbers and proportions of immigrant
women employed. Outside Wilmington foreign born were found only
in the canneries, and these women were not Delaware residents but
had been brought in from Maryland and Pennsylvania to supple­
ment the labor supply for the canning season.
The negro population was estimated as 13.6 per cent by the 1920
census,3 being relatively greater in the two southern counties of Kent
and Sussex than in New Castle County. Canneries were the only
manufacturing establishments employing negro women in appre­
ciable numbers.
Ability to speak English by time in the United States.—The length
of residence in the United States of foreign-born workers correlated
with the ability to speak English shows several interesting facts. A
comparison of the relative numbers of non-English-speaking women
in the regular industries and in the canneries discloses a much larger
proportion in the latter. Due to the curtailment of immigration in late
years, the number of recent immigrants is small. In the regular
industries there were 20 women who had been in this country less than
five years, and one-half of these did not speak English; in the can­
neries there were only 6, none of whom spoke English. Of more sig­
nificance is the inability to speak English of many who had lived here
10 or more years; 27.1 per cent in the regular industries and 50.5 per
cent of the women interviewed in the canneries were in this group.
Altogether, in the nonseasonal industries almost 70 per cent and in
the canneries not quite 50 per cent of the women from non-Englishspeaking races had acquired at least a rudimentary speaking knowl­
edge of English, while the rest held fast to their native languages.
Ability to read and write.—In addition to inquiries regarding the for­
eign-born women’s knowledge of English, all the women were ques­
tioned as to their ability to read and write either English or a foreign
tongue. Figures taken from the 1920 census show that 5.9 per cent of
the population of the State as a whole were illiterate; that 1.5 per cent
of the native white women, 19.6 per cent of the foreign-born women,
and 18.6 per cent of the negro women were illiterate.4 From the
number reporting in the Women’s Bureau study, it was found that
in the regular industries less than 1 per cent (0.8) of the native white
women and 17.6 per cent of the foreign-born women were illiterate,
while in the canneries 5.4 per cent of the native white, 45.2 per cent
of the foreign born, and 20.5 per cent of the negro women admitted
inability to read any language. The higher proportion of illiteracy
in the canneries among both the native and the foreign born is notice­
able, but it must not be overlooked that the immigrant women
■ U. S. Bureau of the Census.
< Ibid., p. 170, Table 4.




Fourteenth census: 1920. v. 3, Population, 1920. p. 172, Table 9.

105

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

working in the canneries were not Delaware residents but migrant
help brought into the State for the canning season.
Age.

A study of the distribution of working women by age groups serves
to refute the worn but deep-seated tradition that women are merely
transitory wage earners for a short period before marriage. Young
women may not expect to remain breadwinners for many years, but
comparatively large numbers do so. Although home making does
occupy some women during all or most of their possible wage-earning
period, many, both married and single, must for many years provide
for themselves and aid in the support of others from their earnings.
From Table XIX it is evident that women of all ages were employed
in Delaware industries. While a majority of the women were young,
almost 30 per cent (28.9) being under 20 years of age, there was a
quite general distribution in other age groups, with about one-half
(48.7 per cent) in the groups of 20 but under 40 and a little more
than one-fifth (22.4 per cent) in the divisions of 40 years and over.
Certain industries draw especially upon the younger groups for
their labor supply, while others have a preponderant number of the
older. Young women tend to be found in industries which demand
speed and dexterity of motion, and they also predominate in the
5-and-10-cent stores. Delaware figures show the largest number
of young women workers in the following groups:
Industry

Cigars _
_____
_
_
Hosiery and knit goods
_____ ______ __ _

Per cent of
Per cent of
women under women under
20 years of age 25 years of age

66.
53.

0
1
51. 6
50. 9

90.
75.
66.
67.

5
8
3
1

One-half or more of the women were 30 years of age or over in the
following industries:
Industry

Canneries (white women)______
_
_ _____ ____ __
Food products. _
_
__
_
_______ __________ ____
Leather___________
__ __________ ____ _ _ ______ __________

Per cent of
women 30
years of age
and over

59. 0
>65. 3
50. 5

1 Figures for the food industry are greatly affected by the number of women 60 years of age and over
employed by one firm.

In clothing, textiles other than hosiery and knit goods, and general
mercantile, the other industries employing women in considerable
26716°—27 f----- 8




106

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

numbers, one-half or more of the women were in the classifications 20
and under 40 years of age.
Negro women were employed extensively only in canning, and a
comparison of their ages with those of white women employed in this
industry makes it apparent that more young negro than young white
women go into the canneries, for 42.8 per cent of the negroes were
under 25 years of age as compared with 32.7 per cent of the white
women in this group.
Low wages often are attributed to the youth of the workers; yet,
even in industries which have a large proportion of mature women,
there is no parallelism in the rise of the age and the wage curves.
According to Table XIV, which has already been discussed in the
wage section, there is a gradual increase in earnings with the age of
the worker up to 40 and then a decline. Comparing the median
wage of the group 30 and under 40 years of age and that of the
youngest group, those 16 and under 18, the increase is only about
35 per cent, which can hardly be considered rapid wage progression,
especially in light of most initial wages.
Conjugal condition.

For a large number of women marriage means not the abandon­
ment of their jobs but—because of the low wages, illness, death, or
desertion of the husband—increased responsibilities. More than 600
of the married women working in the factories and stores of Delaware
and reporting on this inquiry had never been engaged in work out­
side the home until after marriage. Of the 3,255 white women
reporting marital status, the following percentages from Table XX
show that almost one-half the number were or had been married.
Conjugal condition

Single_________________________
Married_______________________
Widowed, separated, or divorced

5

Per cent of
women

S3. 7
33. 6
12. 6

The proportions of married and single women in the different in­
dustries varied in much the same way as did the age distribution.
Wherever there were preponderant numbers of young women, there
were large proportions of single women. In the 5-and-10-cent stores,
textile mills, cigar factories, and general mercantile establishments, 70
per cent or more of the women were unmarried. In the proportion
of unmarried women the peak point was 88.1 per cent in the 5-and10-cent stores, and in the proportion of women married or widowed,
by whatever means, the peak was 75 per cent in the canneries. Onehalf or more of the women in the following industries were or had
been married:




107

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

Per cent
of women who
were or had
been married

Industry

Canneries (white women) __ _
Food products _____ ____
_
Clothing
______
Leather_ __
_

__ _

_____________

_ ____ __
_
_ __
_
__ -__
______ __
____________

_
_
__

_ _
_

75.
60.
58.
56.
55.

0
3
7
3
8

Living condition.

Women are less mobile than men as industrial workers and more
inclined to seek employment in their home locality and remain with
their families. Of 3,254 white women from whom information in
regard to living condition was obtained, 92.3 per cent were living
with relatives, leaving only 7.7 per cent living independently.
(Table XXI.) A correlation of industry and living condition has
little significance, except that it brings out the fact that where there
are large numbers of young women employed, only a very small per­
centage are living apart from their families; for example, in the 5-and10-cent stores only 1.2 per cent and in the cigar industry 3.1 per
cent were recorded as living independently. The large proportion of
women employed in hotels and restaurants who were living inde­
pendently is due to the custom in some of the firms of providing
room and board as a part of the worker’s remuneration.
One of the anomalies that continue to persist in reference to
women’s economic position is the idea that since the vast majority
of women live at home they have cheap maintenance and few responsiblities. As it is customary to assume that men have dependents
to support, it is too general a rule to suppose that women have only
their own wants and exigencies to provide for if even these are not
subsidized by their families. The argument that women who live at
home do not need as much as those who live independently is diffi­
cult to substantiate with facts, but facts have been gathered in other
studies which present proof that living with one’s family may entail
heavy responsibilities and sacrifices. Education is cut short and
recreation foregone on the part of large numbers of women to help
provide for the needs of the family group. In many cases the
amounts contributed to the family’s expenses by women, both mar­
ried and single, living at home, are more than the costs of board and
room to the woman living independently. In the general study of
employed women in Delaware no attempt was made to discover the
amounts contributed by the women to their families or the reasons
for working, but other facts were obtained which serve as indicators
of the economic burdens borne by many wage-earning women in
the State.




108

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES
FAMILY RELATIONSHIP AND RESPONSIBILITIES

Chief source of family support.

In a family group with several wage earners it is often difficult to
assign to one person the responsibility of being the chief wage earner,
for the earnings are really joint interdependent contributions, the
chief source of which varies from time to time. Although it is not
unusual for a woman to be the chief and sometimes the sole support
of the family, most women share with others the financial burdens
of the group. Of the families represented by the women interviewed
in the regular industries, 31.5 per cent were maintained primarily by
the earnings of the women living in the group. About 16 per cent
(15.9) of the women reported that they were living in families in
which a group of related women were supporting the household.
In almost one-fourth (24.8 per cent) of the families covered by the
survey the worker scheduled was the principal breadwinner. Of this
last group of women, more than one-half (54.6 per cent) were single,
about one-sixteenth (6.4 per cent) were married, and approximately
two-fifths (39 per cent) were widowed, separated, or divorced. The
large number of single women in this classification is especially note­
worthy. Again and again young girls, particularly in the leather and
cigar trades, insisted that their earnings were the basic supply for the
family expenses. About three-fourths (74.8 per cent) of the women
with broken marital relationship were the chief wage earners in their
households; this was the largest proportion of women relatively, and
it is a generally conceded fact that where illness, death, or an unsuc­
cessful marriage has made the wife the family’s mainstay she usually
clings tenaciously to her job. Most of the married women (85.6 per
cent) reported that their husbands were the chief breadwinners in
their homes, but this does not mean that the wife’s earnings were
not economically important. Fathers were named in this category
by about one-third (32.4 per cent) of all the women and by about
one-half (50.5 per cent) of those who were single.
The number of women employed in canneries who were the chief
providers for their families is much smaller proportionally. The
rural counties of the State offer few opportunities for women workers
other than the seasonal work in canneries. Women who must depend
entirely on their own earnings usually are forced to leave their home
localities. Less than 10 per cent (9.5) of all the women in the can­
neries named themselves as the chief wage earners. Male relatives
were given as the chief providers by 83.1 per cent of the women in
canneries, as compared with 59.9 per cent in the regular industries.
Occupation of chief wage earner.

Further unpublished tabulations show the occupations of the chief
wage earners in the families studied. The indefinite answers of many




109

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

women in regard to the trades and occupations of their husbands and
fathers made it impossible to obtain comparable data. From the
assembled information, however, transportation, leather work, agri­
culture, and trade stand out as the occupations of a majority of the
male relatives who served as chief breadwinners.
Occasionally the woman being interviewed offered the comment
that the person normally the chief wage earner was at the time out
of work. Seventy cases were recorded where illness or unemployment
had removed from male relatives the responsibility of family support;
46 of these were qualified by the statement that the unemployment
was of short duration, and these were counted as wage earners in the
tables. Women reported as chief wage earners were employed in
numbers of more than 100 in the following groups:

•

Domestic and personal service

Number of
women who
were chief
wage earners

Industry

_____

__

----------

-

-

191
167
160
146
129
120

Only two occupations, farming and transportation, were reported
as the source of earnings for male relatives by any appreciable num­
ber of women employed in canning. Of the women who themselves
were the chief wage earners, the seasonal work in the fields and can­
neries was the principal occupation of about four-fifths. Most of
these women probably added to their earnings throughout the year
by irregular jobs on neighboring farms, home sewing, domestic service,
or taking in roomers and boarders.
Number of wage earners and size of family.

To get another aspect of the family status of the women covered
by the survey, information was compiled to show the size of families
correlated with the number and sex of the wage earners. According
to such unpublished data, most of the families represented were
small, as about one-half (51.7 per cent) of the women reporting were
living in families made up of two, three, and four members, and were
almost evenly distributed in these groups. However, there was a
considerable number of large families represented, as 23.1 per cent
of the women were living in households of seven or more persons.
The amount of a family’s income is, to some extent at least, affected
by the number of persons who have contributed. For all families the




110

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

average number of wage earners was 2.5 per family; families with
seven or more members averaged three or more wage earners. Con­
sidering the number of persons to each wage earner, the data show
that the average was 1.9 for all families, varying from 1.1 in families
of 2 members to 3 in the families of 10 or more members. The total
number of female wage earners is greater than the number of male,
due to the interviews being obtained entirely from women, and this
accounts also for the entire absence of any families in which men were
the sole earners. The number of women who were the sole support
of their family group constituted 3.8 per cent of the total of women
reporting on the subject. It is worth noting that of the families in
which a woman was the only wage earner, 30 had 4 members, 14 had
5, 9 had 6, 2 had 7, 2 had 8, and 1 had 9 members. Another feature
deserving comment is that in many families every member who is able
to work does so; for example, there were 192 families of three members,
100 of 4, and 25 of 5, all of whom were wage earners.
The size and make-up of the families of 705 white women inter­
viewed in the canneries also were tabulated. The families of these
women tended to be less than those of the women in the regular indus­
tries, as 61.4 per cent of the women reported that they were living in
families of from 2 to 4 members, and 13.4 per cent had 7 or more
members. Along with the smaller families goes a slightly larger
average number of wage earners to a family (2.6 wage earners per
family) and lower average number of persons to each worker (1.7
persons to each wage earner).
What proportion of these families were children? In the regular
industries, 70.5 per cent of the persons represented were 16 years of
age or over, 22 per cent were 6 and under 16, and 7.5 per cent were
under 6 years. Among the families having women employed in the
canneries, the proportion of children was a little higher in spite of
the fact that the average family was smaller than in the nonseasonal
industries. Adults—per^pns 16 years and over—made up 65.5 per
cent of the families recorded, children 6 to 16 constituted 24.3 per
cent, and children under 6 were 10.2 per cent.
In many cases the composition of the migrant family in a cannery
camp differed from that of the family as it lived in the home locality.
The real family unit has been included in the figures for the 705
white women working in canneries, and a separate tabulation has
been made of the age compositon of the cannery camp group.
Schedules representative of migrant families were filled out for 166
women. The chief factor of interest in their tabulation is the larger
proportion of children shown for these women, 47.3 per cent of
the members of migrant families, as against 34.5 per cent of the can­
nery families when at home, being under 16 years of age. Husbands
and older children who have regular employment usually can not




WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

111

leave home when the wives and younger children go to the canneries.
If the season is good, children old enough to peel tomatoes or help
around the cannery generally can find work. The percentage of
children under 6 (18.1) indicates the need of a caretaker at the can­
nery to be responsible for the young children while the mothers are
at work.
INDUSTRIAL HISTORY

Are women a lot of restless job seekers, drifting from plant to plant
during a comparatively short wage-earning period? Whenever the
industrial histories of a group of women are examined they prove
such an idea to be merely another of the fallacies connected with
women and their employment. Statistics disclosing length of service
in industry and the stability of women as workers all bear out the
generalization that the majority of wage-earning women stick to
their jobs. The work histories of the women employed in the Dela­
ware canneries can not be considered typical of nor comparable to
those of regular factory workers, as the majority of the cannery
women had never engaged in anything'but seasonal work and in many
respects were casual workers.
Length of service in industry.

Nine of the women interviewed in Delaware had been gainfully
employed for more than 40 years; one of them, aged 67, had begun
to work at 11 years of age, and she estimated that she had worked
52 of the 56 years over which, her working life was spread. Though
such cases are not representative of the bulk of wage earners, they
add to the hypothesis that women are not transitory workers. In
one of the compilations of the industrial histories the over-all and the
actual years worked have been analyzed. The over-all working pe­
riod is considered as the interval from the worker’s first job until the
time of the study; for example, in the case of the woman just men­
tioned there was an over-all of 56 years and an actual working span
of 52 years. One naturally expects to find a marked deviation be­
tween over-all and actual working years, due to time lost through
unemployment, illness, or home duties. As an illustration of the devi­
ation between over-all and actual working years, there may be taken
the group of 164 women reporting an over-all of 4 and under 5 years
in industry. For 45.1 per cent of these women the over-all and actual
time apparently were equal; 35.4 per cent had worked 3 and under 4
years, and 14 per cent had worked 2 and under 3 years. Altogether
these three groups account for approximately 95 per cent of the
women in this class, those with an actual working period of less than
2 years constituting only 5.5 per cent. In the groups with an over­
all of 10 years or more, there are very small proportions who actually
worked less than 5 years. In fact, of all the women employed in the
regular industries who reported on time worked, almost one-half
(45.6 per cent) had worked 5 years or more.




112

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

With the numerous canneries in Delaware it might reasonably be
expected that fairly large numbers of women would have been en­
gaged in both regular and seasonal work. However, the numbers
who had actually worked in both were surprisingly small. Of the
women in industries other than canneries, 137 of those interviewed
reported seasonal work as a part of their occupational histories, while
of those interviewed in the canneries, 357 included experience in indus­
tries other than canneries as part of their working life. This consti­
tutes in all about 15 per cent of the women covered by the survey.
In general, with a long period of years in regular work the number
of seasons spent in canneries was small, and vice versa. Seasonal
workers are a distinct group, and it is not customary for regular
workers to leave their jobs to go into the canneries.
More than one-half (51.3 per cent) of the cannery workers who
reported their over-all working period had industrial histories record­
ing only seasonal work. Of these women, 38.3 per cent, nearly twofilths, had worked at canning, off and on, for an over-all period of 10
years or more. The actual number of seasons worked by most of
the women was not great; 37.9 per cent had worked 1 or 2 seasons
and 22.9 per cent had worked 10 seasons or more. It was impracti­
cable to attempt to estimate the time worked in units other than sea­
sons, as hours or days worked are not generally recorded; in fact, all
employment arrangements in canneries are quite informal, depending
primarily on the abundance of the crops. Though most of the women
are irregular workers, large numbers Of them undoubtedly look for­
ward to the canning season as an opportunity to supplement the
family income.
Age at beginning work.

Closely allied to the over-all working period is the age at which
the women began to work. The following table summarizes unpub­
lished figures on age at beginning work:
Table 22.

Age at beginning work—regular industries and canneries
Per cent of women

Age at beginning work
Regular
indus­
tries

Canneries

White
Under 14 years ...____
14 and under 16 years____
16 and under 18 years____
18 and under 20 years..
20 and under 26 years. .
25 and under 30 years. .
30 and under 40 years..........
40 and under 50 years
50 and under 60 years. .




13.0

.9
.2

3.4
1.4

Negro
49.3

WOMEN IN DEL,AW ARK INDUSTRIES

113

These figures show that the majority of the women began to work
for wages at an early age. The large proportion who began to
work before 16 is significant—33.3 per cent of the women in the reg­
ular industries, and 30.9 per cent of the white women and 74.9 per
cent of the negro women in canneries. The large percentage of the
negro cannery workers beginning when young probably is due to the
fact that there are many tasks on the farms and in the canneries for
which children can be used during the rush seasons. Approximately
four-fifths of the women in the regular industries and three-fifths of the
white women and 95 per cent of the negro women in the canneries
had been employed by the age of 20. Occasionally women do not
enter gainful employment until middle age. In the regular indus­
tries 94 women, or 3.8 per cent, and of the white women in canneries
a much larger proportion, 11.7 per cent, began their industrial occu­
pations at the age of 40 or over. For all white women, regardless of
present age, the period between 16 and 18 years was the one most
common for beginning work. In the regular industries a larger pro­
portion of the women 30 or more years of age than of those not yet
30 at the time of the survey reported having begun work before they
were 14. In the canneries the opposite was true.
If women are forced by economic necessity to enter industry at an
early age, they are apt to accept the first available job, often one
which requires little or no skill and which gives little in the way of
training or opportunities for advancement. Furthermore, in many
cases beginning work early means that the worker will have, in her
lack of education, a perpetual handicap to her progress and social
well-being.
First job and length of service therein.

Vocational guidance and placement of beginning workers has been
urged in academic circles, but so far it has not materially affected the
mass of industrial workers. Do women seeking employment for the
first time select jobs which afford training in trades and may develop
natural aptitudes, or are they driven, by the need of money, to take
the first employment offered? Do women stick to their first jobs?
No attempt was made in the present survey to find why or how
the worker’s first job was obtained, but the length of service in the
first job and the industry in which the worker was first employed
were recorded. The following are the figures for the regular industries,




114

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

the details being the industries in which 100 or more white women
had their initial occupations:
Table 23.—Length of service in first job, by industry
Women reporting

Per cent of women who worked at their
first jobs—

Number Per cent

Under 6 6 months 3 years
5 years
months and under and over and over
1 year

Industry where first employed

......................................

«2,364

100.0

16.2

10.2

40.8

26.0

Textiles__________________ ____ ______
Trade____________ _______________ ____
Tobacco_________ _____________________
Clothing
Leather__________ _______________ .... Laundries
Food products........ ..........................................

All industries

419
374
336
276
190
116
101

17.7
15.8
14.2
11.7
8.0
4.9
4.3

17.2
21. 9
15.8
12.3
6.8
29.3
21.8

11.0
12.6
7.4
8.0
7.4
12.9
5.9

35.3
35.8
39.0
43.8
60. 0
26.7
50.5

21.5
22.5
21.4
20.4
42.6
15. 5
42.6

1 Total includes industry groups, not tabulated separately, in which less than 100 women appeared.

From these figures it is apparent that, for all industries, only a
little more than one-fourth of the women reporting remained less than
a year in their first jobs, indicating that for most women their first
work is a serious wage-earning proposition, not a trial job. Rela­
tively more workers who began in the leather industry than in any
other remained in the same line of work for three years or more.
The highest turnover of beginning workers appears to have been in
laundries, trade, and food manufacturing. On the whole, it would
seem that the first job is fairly important in determining the kind
of work which a woman will follow in her wage-earning life.
About two-thirds of the women in the canneries earned their first
wages in canning or other seasonal work, and of those who began
working in other industries 29.7 per cent worked in clothing manu­
facturing, 7.8 per cent in dressmaking or tailoring, 6.8 per cent in
tobacco manufacturing, 5 per cent in textile manufacturing, and 5
per cent in trade. The smallness of the various groups lessens the
significance of the numerical distribution, but of the whole group
almost 50 per cent had remained for 3 or more years in their first
jobs, 1 in 12 remaining there 15 or 20 years.
Time in the trade.

How long had the women been engaged in the industries in which
they were working at the time of the interview? A general summary
of time in the trade follows:
Time in the trade

Per cent of
women

Time in the trade

Under 6 months-. _____ .
6 months and under 1 year __
1 and under 2 years_
_
_
2 and under 3 years
____
3 and under 4 years_______ __

10.
7.
16.
12.
8.

4 and under 5 vears
.. .
5 and under 10 years _ .
_
10 and under 15 years . _
_
15 and under 20 years _ . _
20 years and over
__ _ _




4
9
6
9
3

Per cent of
women

7.
20.
6.
3.
5.

5
4
7
7
6

115

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

Combining these figures into other groups, it is disclosed that only
18. 3 per cent had been in the trade less than one year, which is more
significant when one remembers that in this group are a considerable
number of young women in industry for the first time. More than
one-half (52.2 per cent) had been employed for 3 or more years, 36. 4
per cent had been employed for 5 years or more, and 16 per cent for
10 years or more. By considering the industries which included at
least 75 women and combining the numbers related to years of experi­
ence into larger groups, the following table is obtained:
Table 24.—Time in the trade, by industry

Number
of women
reporting

Industry

Per cent of women who had been
in the trade—
Under
1 year

3 years
5 years 10 years
and over and over and over

12,504

18.3

52.2

36.4

16.0

357
389
148
212
94
268
309
84
173

14. 6
16. 2

55. 2
48. 8
66 9
74.1
50. 0
54. 9
55. 3
22. 6
31.2

31. 4
28. 8
60.8
61.8
39 4
36. 6
44 7
7.1
20.8

8.4
10. 0
55.4
29.2
12 8
16. 4
24.6

Manufacturing:

7.1
11.7
10. 4
19. 7
42. 9
43.9

8.7

1 Total includes four industry groups not tabulated separately since none showed as many as 75 women.

The 5-and-10-cent stores, laundries, and cigar factories rank the
lowest in the proportions of women who remain in the industry.
Do the women return season after season to work in the canneries?
The following figures show the proportions of white and negro women
having varying degrees of experience in the trade:
Number of
seasons
worked in
canneries

i
2
3 and over
5 and over
10 and over

Per cent of women
White

Negro

19.
23.
56.
37.
19.

14.
16.
68.
44.
24.

9
8
3
9
9

8
4
9
5
1

These facts indicate that many women, the negro even more than
the white, do report season after season for work in the canneries.
Other tabulations, unpublished, were prepared to show the length
of service in the industries in which the women had been employed
the longest. Of the 2,324 women who were used as a base in this
compilation, 1,324 had been employed in only one regular industry;
995 of these were distributed in the various manufacturing industries,




116

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

246 in trade, 63 in laundries, and 20 in personal service. By omitting
industries in which fewer than 100 women were represented, these
data were arranged in practically the same form as those showing
time in the present industry. They are presented in the accom­
panying table:
Table 25.-—Length of service of women having had employment in only one reg­
ular industry, by industry

Industry

Number
of women
reporting

Per cent of women who had
worked in only one regular
industry—
3 years
5 years 10 years
and over and over and over

All industries

11,324

57.3

42.0

19.7

246
243
212
180
127

Trade_
_
Tobacco
Textiles..
Clothing
Leather..

54.5
59.3
54.7
53.3
80.3

43.5
34.6
38.2
35.6
70.1

22.0
9.1
20.8
15.0
34.5

1 Total includes industry groups, not tabulated separately, in which less than 100 women appeared.

Comparing these figures with those on time in the present indus­
try, the same general tendencies are apparent. The average length
of time is somewhat higher, due to the fact that these women had
spent all their time in a single industry. The tendency of workers in
tobacco manufacturing to drop out of the industry before the 10-year
period is reached is again brought out, while leather and textile manu­
facturing and trade keep relatively large proportions of their workers
more than 10 years.
For the remaining 1,000 women, who had been employed in two
or more industries, the following is a table of the time worked in
the major industry; that is, the one for which the longest period of
employment was recorded:
Table 26.—Length of service in major industry of women having had employment
in two or more, by industry

Major industry

Number
of women
reporting

Per cent of women who had
worked in the major of two
or more industries—
3 years
5 years
10 years
and over and over and over

All industries
Trade_
_
Tobacco.
Textiles..
Clothing.
Leather _

1,000

69.5

50.3

22.4

117
130
183
98
98

70.1
65.4
65.0
66.3
85.7

45.3
37.7
48. 1
39.8
65.3

19.7
10.8
19.7
16.3
32.7

The only essentially new aspect brought out by the figures in this
table is that the period spent in the major industry by women who




WOMEN IN DELAW ABE INDUSTRIES

117

had worked in more than one is higher than the percentages for the
workers represented in the two tables immediately preceding.
Number of industries engaged in.

Do women change about from industry to industry? From a study
of the regular, irregular, and seasonal jobs which had been held by
women employed at the time of the survey in the regular industries,
it was found that 94 per cent had had only regular jobs. Their dis­
tribution from the standpoint o" the number of industries in which
employment had been experienced was as follows:
Number of
industries
engaged in

Per cent of
women

1
2
3
4
5 and over

52.
29.
9.
2.
.

4
7
2
1
7

It is of interest to note that those who had worked in more than
two industries made up only about 12 per cent of the group. With
increasing over-all periods the proportion employed in more than a
single industry increases slightly, but even with the long over-all
one-third or more of the women were in the single-industry group.
As already noted, of the cannery workers interviewed, 51.3 per cent
had worked only in seasonal occupations; of the remainder approxi­
mately two-thirds (63.8 per cent) had been employed in seasonal
work and one regular industry.
Time with the employing firm.

Narrowing still further the field of the stability of the worker, how
long had the women worked for the firm by which employed at the
time of the survey? How many had shifted about from plant to
plant within a given industry? Summary figures are as follows:
Time with the firm

Per cent
of women

Under 6 months-_ __ _
_
6 months and under 1 year__
I and under 2 years_ _
2 and under 3 years__ __ 3 and under 4 years_______

14.
10.
18.
13.
9.

8
1
8
1
8

Time with the firm

4 and under 5 years
5 and under 10 years____
15 and under 20 years
20 years and over________ .

Per cent
of women

fi
i&
5
2.
3.

5
i
n
2
5

When compared with the tabulation of time in the trade, these fig­
ures show a certain amount of turnover of the workers, but it is
significant that three-fourths (75.2 per cent) of the women had been




118

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

with the firm in which found more than a year. Additional figures
in a form similar to the tabulation of time in the trade are here pre­
sented, only industries employing representative numbers of women
being included.
Table 27.—Time with the employing firm, by industry

Industry

Number
of women
reporting

Per cent of women who had been with
employing firm—
Under
1 year

3 years
5 years 10 years
and over and over and over

*2,507

All industries
Manufacturing:
Cigars___________ ___________________________
Clothing ____________________________ _____
Food products____________ ____ ____________
Leather (tanning)________ —
Hosiery and knit goods
Other textiles.______
____ ________________

24.9

43.2

26.8

10.7

359
389
148
212
95
268
309
84
173

22.6
18.8
17.6
18.4
21. 1
11.6
35.0
60.7
53.2

39.3
41.9
64.2
48.1
42.1
49. 6
44.3
14.3
22.0

12.8
21.9
60. 1
33.0
21.1
32. 1
33.7
4.8
12.1

3.1
6.9
255.4
9.0
5.3
13.4
14.2
3.5

1 Total includes four industry groups not tabulated separately since none showed as many as 75 women.
2 All figures of the stability of women workers in food are determined in their tendencies by one firm
in which conditions wero unusually good.

Tenure of employment with the firm means very little in seasonal
work. If there are several canneries in a community the women may
work in more than one during the season, while if there is only the
one cannery there is no choice. The records of the women brought
out that about seven-tenths (71.4 per cent) of both white and negro
women had worked in the cannery in which they were then employed
less than three seasons.
Number of jobs held during preceding year.

Considering the year preceding the time of the interview, how many
of the women had been employed in more than one plant? Figures
showing the age of the worker and the number of jobs held in the
past year are here presented:
Table 28.—Number of jobs held during the year, by age group—regular industries
Per cent of women who had
had during the year—
Number
of
women
reporting One job Two jobs Three
jobs

Age group

50 and under 60 years............... .................................... .




. -----

396
425
551
277
427
224
123
85

82.1
89.9
95.6
95.3
97.2
97.8
98.4
100.0

16.9
10.1
4.0
4.3
2.8
2.2
.8

0.8
.4
.4
.8

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

119

The increasing stability with increasing age is brought out clearly.
The low turnover on the part of practically all the women may be
caused partly by the amount of unemployment and the low ebb of
production in many industries, so that women probably clung to
their jobs with more than usual solicitude.
Employment relations in seasonal work are so informal and the
duration of the various jobs is so short that a much higher ratio of
workers holding more than one job may be expected. In the figures
following, it is interesting to notice that the age of the worker was
not so significant in regard to the number of jobs held as it was with
the regular "industries.
Table 29.—Number of jobs held during the year, by age group—canneries

Age group

Per cent of women who had had during the year—
Number of
women report­
ing
One job
Two jobs
Three jobs
White

16 and under 18 years____
18 and under 20 years______
20 and under 25 years.
____
25 and under 30 years______________
30 and under 40 years_____
40 and under 50 years_______
50 and under 60 years -._............ ..
60 years and over_______ .

Negro

White

Negro

White

Negro

White

76
63
101
61
146
143
85
57

50
53
80
65
79
63
26
12

51.3
54.0
71.3
67.2
72.6
66.4
67.1
66.7

48.0
32.1
41.3
26.2
20.3
30.2
42.3
16.7

42.1
36.5
22.8
23.0
23.3
30.8
29.4
24.6

48.0
58.5
53.8
66.2
64.6
60.3
57.7
75.0

6.6
9.5
5.9
9.8
4.1
2.1
3.5
8.8

Negro
4.0
9.4
5.0
7.7
13.9
9.5
8.3

Jobs before and after marriage.

When women return to industrial work after marriage, do they find
employment in the same general lines of work as before? In the
following table, analyzing the work of married women, there is appar­
ent a decided tendency of the women to continue in the same kind
of work.
Table 30.—Work of women before and after marriage, by employment at time of
survey
Number of women who had
had—
Employment at time of survey

Number
of women
No em­
Different
reporting ployment Same
work
work
before
before
before
marriage marriage marriage

Total________ ______
Per cent distribution______
Manufacturing_____________
Canneries......................._ .............
Domestic and personal____________
Trade............ ................

s

»1,452
100.0

* 610
42.0

3 675
46. 5

167
11.5

759
522
72
99

280
278
20
32

417
171
38
49

62
73
14
18

*_____________
1 Negro women not included.
2 Work done in foreign countries not included.
3 In 258 cases women had had 2 or more (perhaps several) kinds of employment, before or after mar­
riage, but at some time before marriage had engaged in present employment.




120

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

Of the 1,452 married women reporting on their industrial experi­
ence, 610 (42 per cent) had not been gainfully employed before
marriage and 167 (11.5 per cent) had work after marriage entirely
different from that before—for example, a single woman working
in a cigar factory might be employed as a saleswoman after marriage.
Unpublished figures show that the 675 doing the same work as when
single were distributed as follows: Four hundred and seventeen had
been employed at one job both before and after marriage, 24 had
worked in two jobs but reported the same occupation before and
after marriage, and the remaining 234 had worked in two or more
general lines of industry before and after marriage, with one or more
of their jobs the same in both periods.




APPENDIXES
APPENDIX A—General Tables
APPENDIX B—Schedule Forms

26716°—271---- 9




121




APPENDIX A
Table

I.—Scheduled Saturday hours, by industry
Number of establishments and number of women whose scheduled Saturday hours were—
4 and
under 5

5 and
under 6

7 and
under 8

8 and
under 9

9 and
under 10

10 and
under 11

11 and
under 12

Manufacturing:

Textiles—

4
12
6
6

4
3
7
131
7
5

2, 995
100.0
453
491
168
258
50
64
124
364
56
319
353
99
196

5

1

243
8.1

19
1
11

1
2

1

—

2
0.1

2

22
—

37
211
9
131

3
4
2
2

63
153
47
36

2

62

5
—

189
6.3

447
76
26
222
39
27

1
1
3

45
1.5

6
396
47
36

2

134

Establish ­
m ents

169
5.6

11
—

17
0.6

10
—

17
0. 6

77
92

11

17

10

17

Women

Women

*12

|

7
—

1

108
3.6

—

93

________ i

22
3

Establishm ents

Women

|

1

Establishm ents

Women

Establish ­
m ents

Women

Establisbm ents

30 1,270 *2
42.4
—
—
2
3
2
5
2
2

2
8
2
1

61
152

935
31.2

,d
ot tn
3a
s
Vi ►<
w

Women

197
Per cent distribution of women......................... ....... ............

1

|

Women

Establish ­
m ents

Women

Establish ­
ments

Women

E stablish ­
m ents

Women

E stablish ­
m ents

Industry

12 and
over

45

4
i

188
1

4
2

9
6

38
4

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

3 and
under 4

Women

None

Establish ­
m ents

Number
reported

1 Details aggregate more than total because some establishments appear in more than one hour group.
’ Includes an establishment in which one woman alternated 7M and 1VA hours,
a Includes an establishment in which one woman alternated 10^ and U'A hours.




to

CO

Table

II.—Length of lunch period, hy industry1

fcO
.4*

Number of establishments and number of women whose lunch period was—
reported

Over 30 and
under 45 minutes

30 minutes
Industry

*95

2,992
100.0

21

588
19.7

4
12
6
6
3
4

453
491
168
258
50
64

2
4
2
1
2

52
61
17
12
49

4
5
3
7
329
7
5

124
364
56
319
350
99
196

2
2

Textiles—

2

36

4

190

1

65
2.2

15

50

14

1,247
41.7

2
1
1
3
1

447
149
14
172
11

2
3

2

Over 1 hour

1 hour

Estab­ Wom­ Estab­ Wom­
Wom­ Estab­ Wom­ Estab­ Wom­
lish­
lish­
lish­
lish­
en
en
en
en
en
ments
ments
ments
ments

47
124

Manufacturing:

3

Over 45 minutes
and under 1 hour

77
240

1

137

1

27
0.9

243

990
33.1

2
9
1
1

1

6
290
93
69

3
2
17
27
1

56
93
278
99
6

314

75
2.5

1
T3

3
72

27

1 Details aggregate more than total because one establishment appears in more than one hour group. Total excludes an establishment with one woman having no lunch period
off duty and an establishment with two women alternating a long shift broken by 5Yi hours and work only after noon
1 Includes an establishment with five women having 1 % hours on Saturday and an establishment with 14 women having 2 hours on Saturday.
includes an establishment with three women having lunch periods varying from 1 to 2H hours and an establishment with one woman having a 1-hour lunch period
on Tuesday and Thursday and 23^ hours on other days.




4

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

Estab­ Wom­ Estab­ Wom­ Estab­
lish­
lish
lish­
en
en
ments
ments
ments

45 minutes

«

Table

Industry

III.—Hours worked less than scheduled, by industry

1,584

983
100.0

9
272
167
179
24
64

3
250
77
83
41

33.3
91.9
46.1
46.4
66 7
64.1

123
364
43
173
133
133

64
319
27
68

52.0
87.6
62.8
39.3

Per cent distribution of women who lost time----------------Manufacturing:
Food products.........................................................................
Leather (tanning)_____._--------- ------------------------ -----Textiles—

Miscellaneous
Genera] mercantile

35

■For the great majority of salespeople, time worked was reported in days.




62.1
_______

26.3

Number of women who worked less than scheduled hours to the extent of

3 and 4 and 5 and 10 and 15 and 20 and 25 and 30 hours
Under 1 and 2 and
and
under under under under under under under under under
1
hour 2 hours 3 hours 4 hours 5 hours 10 hours 15 hours 20 hours 25 hours 30 hours

24
2.4

36
3.7

31
3.2

8
0.8

36
3.7

189
19.2

278
28.3

69
7.0

170
17.3

53
5.4

89
9.1

4

1
1

13

3
1

16
4

2
57
19

43
4

17
4

33
28

30
6

1
33
10

6

1

4
1

I

1
16

9
11

1
3

1

4

1

2
2
2
1

27
10
9
12

16
156
5
21

8
21
1
7

1
90
2
10

2
9
1
4

5
24

4
3

2

7

1

3

3

9

2

3

1

4

8

2

1
7

3

1
1

5

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

Number and
per cent of
Number
women who
of women worked less
for whom than scheduled
hours
hours
worked
were
reported
Per
Num­
cent
ber

to

Cn

126

WOMEN IN DELAW ABE INDTJSTBIES
Table

IV.—Hours worked more than scheduled, by industry

Industry

Number and Number of women who worked more than
scheduled hours to the extent of—
per cent of
Number women who
of women worked more
for whom than scheduled
hours
hours
3 and
2 and
4 and
worked
Under 1 and
under
1 hour 2under 3under 4under 5 hours
hours hours hours
reported Num­
Per
ber
cent
1,684

Per cent distribution of women
Manufacturing:

Pulp and hard-fiber products..
Textiles—

18

4.0

9
272
167
179
24
64
123
364
43
173
*33
133

6
2
22
9
6
18

66.7
.7
13.2
5.0
25.0
28.1

30

5

7

3

28.6

63
100.0

47.6

7.9

11.1

4.8

5

7

3

6
2
1

6
9

6
9

9
1
1

|:
1

,
I

1

1 For the great majority of sa lespeople, time worked was reported in days.




I

. .

].
1

w

V.—Week’s earnings of white women, by industry

Table

Number of women earning each specified amount in—
The manufacture of—
T estiles

All
industries
Cigars

Total. ________________
Median earnings_________ ____

$8 and under 89
$9 and under $10-. ..
$10 and under $11
$11 and under $12_____________




2.995
$11. 05

453
$16. 40

4
23
24
60
72
87
135
166
288
291
334
213
206
158
132
190
128
80
136
41
52
42
44
25
12
43
7
2

1
1
3
1
5
9
9
37
24
19
23
19
20
24
19
32
32
27
21
24
21
26
18
9
23
4
2

Pulp and
Paper
Food
Leather
Clothing products (tanning) and paper hard-fiber Hosiery
products products and knit
goods
491
$8.10

16S
$12.00

3
11
16
34
50
47
40
41
34
42
47
34
20
21
14
7
6
9
g
2

2
2
1
1
2
3
10
13
10
30
10
7
7
3
13
7
1
46

2

2
1

50
$14. 40

1

64
$10. 60

124
$11. 15

1

258
$15.50

1
3
1
3
6
4
10
14
18
13
15
8
8
9
5
1
4
1

1
1

3
4
8
4
14
15
10
26
30
29
26
16
21
5
16
7
5
4

1
3
1
2
4
9
8
10
2
3
3
1

Other

2
2
14
6
12
5
3
2
4
2
9
1
1

364
$9. 80

«

1
1
2
4
8
16
29
34
57
38
38
31
24
20
11
12
14
3
6
5
3

1
4
1

Wood
Miscella­
products neous

56
$9. 05

2
1
7
7
10
17
7
5

319
$11. 95

1
1
7
3
2
12
18
33
28
36
19
26
18
14
45
17
4
8
5
6
8
4
1
2

14

General 5-and-10cent
mercan­
tile
stores

353
$11. 70

99
$0.75

Laun­
dries

196
$9. 35

2
1
12
14
51
71
20
60
17
12
41
8
8
8
1
3
]
5
1

3
10
14
22
22
13
4
3

1

9
43
32
19
23
14
7
3
3
2

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

Week’s earnings

1

4
|
1

1
1

to

-4

128

WOMEN IN DELAWAEE INDUSTRIES
Table

VI.—Number of timeworkers and pieceworkers

Number of women earning each specified amount in—
The manufacture of—

Week's earnings

All
industries
Cigars

Food
products

Clothing

Leather
(tanning)

Time- Piece- Time- Piece- Time- Piece- Time- Piece- Time- Piecework­ work­ work­ work­ work­ work­ work­ work­ work­ work­
ers
ers
ers
ers
ers
ers
ers
ers
ers
ers
Total__________
Median earnings
Under $1______
$1 and under $2
$2 and under $3___
$3 and under $4_____
$4 and under $5__
$5 and under $6____
$6 and under $7___
$7 and under $8.
$8 and under $9_____
$9 and under $10______
$10 and under $11____
$11 and under $12________
$12 and under $13___
$13 and under $14.._ _
$14 and under $15
$15 and under $16______ ...
$16 and under $17________
$17 and under $18...............
$18 and under $19______ ...
$19 and under $20_____ _
$20 and under $21______
$21 and under $22.....................
$22 and under $23
$23 and under $24.......... . .
$24 and under $25
$25 and under $30_____
$30 and under $35________
$35 and under $40_______

1,505 1,301
$10.65 $12. 75
1
9
7
19
14
27
57
92
193
219
127
84
65
119
42
14
66
3
7
6
7
2
1
4
1

3
13
15
40
53
52
58
60
70
76
90
74
70
63
61
78
63
68
38
42
36
36
23
11
39
6
2

30
85
367
$9. 60 $17.55 $10. 00
1

2

3
8

3

31

5
6

1
2
1

36
39

11
10

3
3

38
41

9
27

3
5

19

2

121

2

110
143$13. 85 $17.45

2
8

13
9

12

1

2
4
3

(*)

2

1

1
2

3
1
1
17

46

1
1

1
1

1

i Not computed, owing to small number involved.




449
156
$8.00 $12. 65

25
18
9
23
4
2

2
1

14

129

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES
and their week’s earnings, by industry
Number of women earning each specified amount in—Continued
The manufacture of—Continued

Gen­ 5-and
eral
1.0­
mer­ cent Laundries
can­ stores
tile

Textiles
Paper and
paper
products

Pulp and
bard-fiber
products Hosiery and
knit goods

Miscel­
laneous

Wood
products
Other

Time Time- Time­ Piece­
Time- Piece- Time- Piece- Time-Piece­ Time-piece­ Time­ Piece- Time- Piece­ work­ work- work­ work
work­ work­ work- work- work-work work- work work work­ work­ work
ers
ers
ers
ers
ers
ers
ers
ers
ers
ers
ers
ers
ers
ers
ers
ers
27
51
23
$14.70 $13.50 $10.15

12

0




1841
55
43
31
93
$10. 90 $11. 25 $9. 90 $16. 25 $8.85

2

3 .

30
18
18
19
16
14

2

.

5
5

_

1
1
1
2.
4

8
8

33.
4.

4

10.
1 -

1
1

185
348
99
160
122
$10. 65 $12. 00 $11. 75 $9. 75: 19.15

1
1
4

1.
2
10
8
21

10

O)

5.
52.
2 .
4_

1-

10
10
10
11
11

7
6

5
7
3
5
4
3
5
3

0

.Table VII.—Median earnings and hours worked, by industry

W
O

Number of women who worked each specifled number of hours and their median earnings in—
The manufacture of—

Textiles

All indus­
tries
Clothing

p

48 and over_________

br

ja p

a
sg

c3

£

Under 30___________
30 and under 39_____
39 and under 44_____
44.. ____ __________
Over 44 and under 48
48__________________
Over 48 and under 50
50__________________
Over 50 and under 52.
52_______ ____ _____
Over 52 and under 54.
54__________________
Over 54 and under 55.
55______ _______ ____
Over 55_____________

®©

<o ©
©
-ga ® OT © 8
n
eg

a
Total.................

Food prod­ Leather Paper and Pulp and
hard-fiber
paper
ucts
(tanning)
products products

■ss
II

11, 584 $10. 60

$7. 20

$12.05

179 $14. 75

6.20
10. 20
10.20

4. 55
7. 35

7.10
10. 40
(2)
(2)
15. 05

(2)
(2)
11.75

1282
334
166
17
1135
47
81
84
146
23
50
93
5

10. 50
11.10

15.85
10.50
12. 75
14.45
10. 40
13. 85
16. 50

8.l.

0

10.15
12. 10

(2)

0
(2)
(2)

0

(2)
(2)
11.40
10.65
(2)
18. 50

1112 12. 25

20 14.15

9

(2)
8 0
104 15. 75
(2)

$10. 60

$11.10

$9.80

(2)
(2)
0
0
10.90
0
0
0

64

35 11.05

16. 80

125 15.65

8.50
10.55
13.75

0

(2)
12

Laundries

3
-©
P
£

3S

114 7.10
160 10.25
17 10.90

(2)

43

8. 85

173 $13. 95

m
15. 90
0

0

49 12.10

IS. 15

0

0

0

15."6o
58 13.35

12

0

0
24

9.10

15.75:

19.30

5 0
3!: 0
4; 0

0

9. 30

(2)
075
10.

33 $12. 55

9.00
12. 75'
8.85

0

0
13

General
mercan­
tile

^a
Bg

a bf
■gs .2 .5 rO 5
~a as
-p5

^a
gs

(2)

(2)
1650 13.35

$13. 40

Other

Miscella­
neous

15

©©

-°a
ag
s
& *

£

Hosiery
and knit
goods

Wood
products

13

0

0
0
0

"33

0
930

9! 0

0

0
0
0
0
0
33 i 12.55

7| 0
0
2

57 10.10
108

9,50

womentomSeesepihrat^SediannUs™tenUiSntted ^ ttfi VarioUS industries’ since women are Eluded in the total who were employed in industries reporting hours for too few
1 Not computed, owing to small number involved.




WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

Hours worked during the week

*
Table

VIII.—Week’s earnings and time worked, all industries

A. WOMEN WHOSE TIME WORKED WAS REPORTED IN HOURS
Number of women earning each specified amount who worked—

Week’s earnings

Total_____
Median earnings..

1,584
$10. 60

Under $1.................
$1 and under $2...
$2 and under $3- ..
$3 and under $4__.
$4 and under $5-..
$5 and under $6__.
$6 and under $7...
$7 and under $8...
$8 and under $9...
$9 and under $10..
$10 and under $11.
$11 and under $12.
$12 and under $13.
$13 and under $14.
$14 and under $15.
$15 and under $16.
$16 and under $17.
$17 and under $18.
$18 and under $19.
$19 and under $20
$20 and under $21.
$21 and under $22.
$22 and under $23.
$23 and under $24.
$24 and under $25.
$25 and under $30.
$30 and under $35.

99

182

3
14
13
39
49
63
77
107
178
145
167
122

107
95
70
106
69
18
82
14
13
12
12

5

2
1
1

»Not computed, owing to small number involved.




101 !

65

17

135

47

81

84

146

28

50

53
282
$16. 50
6.20 $8. 55 $10. 50 $10. 35 $9.70 $10.85 $10. 50 $11.10 $15.85 $10.50 $12. 75 $14. 45 $10. 40 $13.85

112

0

$12. 25

0

C1)

0

650
$13.35

2
3
4
19
65
48
47
51
66

55
41
77
51
7
71
9

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

Num­
Over
Over
Over
ber of
Over
Over
Oyer
39
42
48
55
33
54
30
50 and
52 and
48 and
44 and
wom­ Un­ and and 36 and and
and
and
60 Over hours
54
and
55
52
50
48
44
under hours under hours under hours under hours under hours 60
en re­ der under under under under under
and
hours under hours
39
p rted 30
52
54
50
42 | 44
48
hours over
60
36
33
55
hours hours hours hours hours hours
hours
hours
hours
hours
hours
hours

10
10

8
3
2
CO

Table

VIII.—Week’s earnings and time worked, all industries—Continued
CO
to

B. WOMEN WHOSE TIME WORKED WAS REPORTED IN DAYS

Week’s earnings

Number
of
women
reported

1,262
$11.70

$1 and under $2 ...
$2 and under $3 ...
$3 and under $4 ...
$4 and under $5 ...
$5 and under $6 ...
$6 and under $7 ...
$7 and under $8___
$8 and under $9...
$9 and under $10 ._
$10 and under $11 _
$11 and under $12.
$12 and under $13 .
$13 and under $14 _
$14 and under $15 _
$15 and under $16 _
$16 and under $17 _
$17 and under $18 _
$18 and under $19 .
$19 and under $20.
$20 and under $21.
$21 and under $22
$22 and under $23
$23 and under $24 ..
$24 and under $25
$25 and under $30
$30 and under $35
$35 and under $40..

1 day

1M days

(l)

0)

5
9
15
15

15

$3. 50

2y2 days
10

(l)

3 days

39
$6. 70

3}4 days
31
$9. 65

4 days

39
;9.15

4Yi days
115
$11. 05

5 days

128
$11. 85

5K days

519
$15. 95

6 days

357
$11.00

1

21

4
3
12
9
7
59
16
40
64
50
80
25
28
18
55
14
15
17
12
21
32
26
7
40
8
29
6
20
1
23
2
25
1
24
5
18
1
10
37
4 ;
4
i
2 -------------1

54
54
106
138
153
86

91
54
50
70
47
55
43
25
36
27
30
20
10

41
5
2

1 Not computed, owing to small number involved.




2 days

4

5 days
and over
1,004
$12. 50
1
1
1
2
5
20
30
89
116
138
60
81
34
43
66
44
51
39
24
27
26
29
19
10
41
5
2

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

Total______
Median earnings..

Number of women earning each specified amount who worked on—

Table

IX.—Earnings of women who worked the firm's scheduled week, hy industry
Number of women earning each specified amount who worked the firm’s scheduled days or hours inThe manufacture of—

Week’s earnings
Cigars

Total____
Median earnings
$1 and under $2__
$2 and under $3. _
$3 and under $4__
$4 and under $5._.
$5 aud under $6._
$6 and under $7._
$7 and under $8._
$8 and under $9__.
$9 and under $10.
$10 and under $11
$11 and under $12
$12 and under $13
$13 and under $14
$14 and under $15
$15 and under $16
$16 and under $17
$17 and under $18
$18 and under $19
$19 and under $20
$20 and under $21
$21 and under $22
$22 and under $23
$23 and under $24
$24 and under $25
$25 and under $30
$30 and under $35
$35 and under $40

1,408
$12.90

336
$17.65

1
1
1
2
9
25
29
124
145
166
85
126
71
66
119
65
54
102
31
33
36
34
22
12
41
6
2

53
$9. 80

69
$18. 25

135
$16. 65

2
(O

(O

59
$12.70

5

45
$13.80

General 5-and-10cent
mercan­
tile
stores
Wood Miscella­
products
neous

16
$9.60

164
$12. 65

320
$12.05

70
$10.20

12
6
10
46
65
17
59
15
11
39
7
7
8
1
3
1
5
1

2
2
8
19
19
11
4
3
1

Laun­
dries

134
$9.95

r
2

3
2
3
2
4
6
28
7
15
14
5
15
10
3
10
2
15
14
22
1
3
27
21
19
19
1
20
24
17
9
23
4 .................
2

iNot computed, owing to small number involved.




Textiles
Paper
hardand
Leather
Food
ClothiDg products (tanning)
Hosiery
fiber
paper
Other
products products and knit
goods

2

9
2
1
1

1

1
45

2
1
4
5
9
2
9
4
8
8
3

4
6
9
16
20
12
10
15
5
6
7

2

3
1

1

4
14

1
12
3
10
12
4
5
9
1
1

3

2
4
5
18
13
28
4
12
7
3
30
8
2
5
5
5
7
3
2

i

1

1

5
37
26
19
18
12
6
3
1
2
1
3

WOMEN IN DELAW ABE INDUSTRIES

All in­
dustries

1

4
1

i
CO
CO

134

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES
Table

X.—Weekly rate and actual

Number of women for whom amount specified was weekly rate and number
lor whom it was actual week’s earnings in—
The manufacture of—
All in­
dustries
Amount

Cigars

Food prod­
ucts

Clothing

CO bd

m3

Under $4_________
$4 and under $5___
$5 and under $6___
$6 and under $7___
$7 and under $8___
$8 and under $9___
$9 and under $10___
$10 and under $11.
$11 and under $12.
$12 and under $13. _.
$13 and under $14...
$14 and under $15...
$15 and under $16...
$16 and under $17...
$17 and under $18._.
$18 and under $19...
$19 and under $20___
$20 and under $21...
$21 and under $22...
$22 and under $23....
$23 and under $24__
$24 and under $25—.
$25 and under $30.__
$30 and under $35...




14
39
144
201

226
116
172
85
57
112

47
16
122

2
9
7
7

Paper and
paper prod­
ucts

w ta
m3d

m3

©
£
Total........ ................ ... 1,385 1,385
Median...... ............................$11. 60 $10. 55

Leather
(tanning)

72
72
30
30
156
1561
49
49
23
23
19.75 $9.10 $11. 50 $10. 00 $18.15 $12. 65 $16.10 $15.15 $13. 95 $14. 70

36
13
26
56
88

181
188
197
110

118
64
57
115
37
13
61

1
6
4
6
2
1
4
1

1

1

6
4
6
6
1
3

3
3
3
5
2

1

1

1

1

10

135

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

week’s earnings, by industry
Number of women for whom amount specified was weekly rate and number for whom it was actual
week’s earnings in—Continued* 9 * 11
The manufacture of—Continued
General
mercantile

Textiles

Laundries

W eek ’s earn ­

5-and-10cent stores

ings

.

W eekly
r

ings

rate

W eek ’s earn ­

ings

ings

W eekly rate

W eek ’s earn ­

Other

W eek ’s earn ­

a
u
c3
<0 SO
oo
mB
<o
$

Wood prod­ Miscellane­
ucts
ous

W eekly rate

losiery and
knit goods

W eekly rate

W eekly rate

Pulp
hard- fiber
prod lets

152
152
41
184
184
41
24
49
24
49
$10.80 $10.05 $12.00 $10. 50 $12. 05 $9. 90 $9. 50 $8. 95 $11. 25 $10. 60
1

6
7
13
10

2l
2
' 14
6
11
4

_ _
1
2
3
2
4

1
1
1
1
4
3
2
2

1
23,
32
90!
7i
lOl
12

1

1

4
3
10
8
21
30
18
18
19
10
14
8
8
4
1

3
1
1
6
6
8

7
27

h

7

1
5
22
19
28
4

4
7

5
4C

7
12
23
17
22
7
si
8
4I
31
3

1

1
2
2

_____

1
1
1
1

j
1




1

1

347
77
77
181
181
$11.80 $9.75' $9.45, $9.70 $9.10
9
5
5
9
16
43
30

16

23
11

5
3

1

Table

XI.—Weekly rate and scheduled weekly hours, all industries1
Number of women receiving each specified rate whose scheduled weekly hours were—

Weekly rate

1,385
100.0
$11. 60

Under $4_______
$4 and under $5...................
$5 and under $6 .
$6 and under $7 _.
$7 and under $8 ...
$8 and under $9_______
$9 and under $10_________
$10 and under $11 _ .
$11 and under $12........ ..........
$12 and under $13..............
$13 and under $14 ______
$14 and under $15_________
$15 and under $16_______
$16 and under $17...........................
$17 and under $18...... ..........
$18 and under $19 .....................
$19 and under $20.....................
$20 and under $21___________
$21 and under $22________ _
$22 and under $23 ................. .........

14
39
144
201
226
116
172
85
57
112
47
16
122
2
9
7
7

$24 and under $25________ ____
$25 and under $30
$30 and under $35...........................

3
1

(*)

14
1.0

Over 44
and
under 48

44

11
0.8
(2)

1

343
24.8
$10. 80

Over 48
and
under 50

48

56
4.0
$15. 60

94
6.8
$10. 25

153
11.0
$10. 55

Over 52
and
under 54

52

217
15.7
$11. 40

23
1.7
$10.15

3
16
38
39
31
29
17
18
8
10
2
3
1
1
1

1
5
5
3
2

114
8.2
$10.75

Over 54
and
under 55

54

137
9.9
$18. 25

Over 55

55

11
0.8
(2)

206
14. 9
$11. 70

6
0.4
(2)

1
1
2
1

3

2

6

2
4
1

1

1

1

10
15
36
40
88
25
41
15
11
29
9
4
8
3

16
15
12
16
4
22
3
4
1

1
44
1

1
i

3
3

5
3

2
60
27
3
9
5
2
8
24
3
2
1
1
3
2

1
5
1

1
2
27
15
16
15
5
17
7
5
3
1

2
1
9
11
12
6
1
2
1

42
26
23
17
49
16
10
6
2
1
13

4
5
2

94

1

4

1 ■

i Hotels and restaurants and canneries are not included in this section of the report.




Over 50
and
under 52

50

1
i
*Not computed, owing to small number involved.

r

1
1
1

1

WOMEN IN DELAW ABE INDUSTBIES

Total_____
Per cent distribution...
Median rate................

Number
of
women
reported Under 44

V

Table

XII.—Week’s earnings of women who supplied personal information, by time in the trade—all industries1

26716° — 27t

Number of women earning each specified amount who had been in the trade—

Week’s earnings

Under 1 year

Number
of women
reporting
Total

Total.................................. ..........................................
Median earnings______________________ -..................

$25 and under $30................................................ ................
$30 and under $35

2,112
100. 0
$11.30

31
45
62
94
108
192
210
255
158
149
105
103
143
93
54
100
31
32
33
33
17
9
35

2 and
under 3
years

3 and
under 4
years

4 and
under 5
years

277
13.1
$11.40

184
8.7
$12.05

153
7.2
$12. 60

1
5
8
9
10
20
25
19
34
20
22
15
17
18
16
9
7
5
4
5

1
1
3
4
4
6
2
19
18
20
13
15
9
14
10
11
1
7
7
3
6
2
3

350
16.6
$9.15

189
8.9
$9.15

161
7.6
$9. 25

846
16.4
$10. 25

3
4
12
10
17
23
30
64
69
37
27
19
8
5
12
6

2
2
5
5
9
15
20
30
46
21
12
10
5
2
5

1
2
7
5
8
8
10
34
23
16
15
9
3
3
7
6

1
1
6
13
14
22
23
40
38
62
34
25
14
11
16
7
7
4
1

1
1
1

1
1
1

1

1

1

'Hotels and restaurants and canneries are not included in this section of the report.




under 2
years

6 months
and
under 1
year

2
1
2
1
1

1
2
5
i

5

15 and
10 and
5 and
20 years
under 10 under 15 under 20 and over
years
years
years

442
20.9
$12. 90

148
7.0
$12. 85

83
3. 9
$15. 75

129
6.1
$15. 80

1
2
4
8
5
7
6
19
17
14
9
5
7
13
6
5
5
3
3
8
2
1
4

4
4
10
12
17
28
35

ii
32
34
28
32
45
19
13
20
4
11
11
10
5
4
11

1
3
1
7
7
5
16
16
7
13
8
7
12
3
6
10
4
6
3
5
3
4
1

1
1
2
6
10
4
4
3
10
5
7
15

1
3
5
3

3
1
5

10
9
13
13
5
31
4
1
2
2

3

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

Under 6
months

1
3

1
CO

-4

Table

XIII.—Median earnings and time in the trade, by industry
CO

00
Number of women and their median earnings after experience in the trade of—
Under 1 year

All women

T otal

o
u fl
<u ©
fl E

P

!z
All industries_________________
Manufacturing:
Cigars______________ _
Clothing______________
Food products
Leather (tanning)........ .............................
Textiles—
Hosiery and knit goods
_
_.
Other_______
Miscellaneous______________
General mercantile_____________
5-and-10-cent stores_____________
Laundries_____________________

£
o
o
o
c
o
B
03
03
0
c
© co u a © CO t- © A CO M © t
©
© £ © S)
© © fl b£ fl £ ©
fl
£2 bb
fl
fl
Jo fl £ Jo
.2.2 P © fl
'S
'3
'S
'3 ”
®
©
©
©
s
Z a Z s * a

P

P

o
fi fl
£a

P

Z

a
CO
© co
CM
.2 -2
,f3
©

a

2 and
under
3 years

o
k
©
a

fl
©
a

p
z

3 and
under
4 years

fl
fl
o
M
03
fl a
©
©a ©§
fl
fl bfl a © A .fl
8.5
•5
'fl
©
i
a
z

P

4 and
under
5 years

5 and
under
10 years

fl
©
©
^ fl © M tH fl
©
© fl ^ ^ ®
£
£
a fl

©
a

P

Z

a

P

Z

10 and
under
15 years

fl
fl
o
fl co s- fl (H co
fl
©
©£ ©
G bi fl © fl
J fl
a ■£
'3
'O
©
i
£
Z

P

15 and
under
20 years

20 years
and over

B
s
o
a
fl
© co f- fl ©
©©
fl £ .fl.fl a a fl
fl w>
fl fl
%
©
3
§
Z
z
o

©©

P

p

12,112 $11. 30 ‘350 $9.15 ‘189 $9.15 ■161 $9. 25 ‘346 $10. 25 1277 $11. 40 ‘184 $12. 05 ‘153 $12.60 ‘442 $12. 90 ‘148 $12. 85 ‘83 $15. 75 ‘129 $15. 80
296 16. 70
332 8. 65
138 12. 40
182 15. 65

38
48
21
12

9. 30
5. 65
8. 60
0

27
16
14
3

8. 70
5. 35
0
0

11
32
7
9

82
214
242
278
71
142

9 0
15 8.75
39 10. 50
54 9. 75
26 9.15
62 8.60

3
7
21
36
15
38

m
0

6 0
8 0
18 12.00
18 9. 60
11 (2)
24 8. 50

11.65
9. 40
12.15
11. 40
10.10
9. 85

9. 50
9. 80
8. 75
8. 85

0

5. 80

0
0

38 11. 65
71 7. 90
11 (*)
16 15.00

57 16. 70
41 8. 90
14 0
19 14.90

35 18.90
46 9. 60
4 0
13 0

38 19.65
24 10.00
4 0
10 0

64 19.35
68 9. 45
8 (2)
59 15.55

17 20.25
23 8.'50
18 10. 65
22 18. 00

7
6
11
13

18
44
41
38
15
,i

13 0
28 8. 75
32 13. 00
32 10. 75
12 (2)
14 0

5 0
24 9.75
23 14. 50
13 0
2 (2)
7 0

5 0
17 11.50
15 15. 25
14 0
(2)
7 0

21 12.15
45 9. 40
71 12. 90
58 12.40
(2)
18 12.15

6 (2)
11 (2)
17 11. 25
23 12. 90

3 (2)
12 (2)
3 (2)
22 15. 60

10.20
8. 45
12. 40
10. 40
10. 05
9.90

4

0

3

(2)
(2)
(2)
0

0

2 (2)
5 (2)
47 18.10
18 16.65
2 (2)
18 11. 00
1 (2)
24 15. 50
6

0

1 Hotels and restaurants and canneries are not included in this section of the report. The total of this table exceeds the sum of details, as the total includes three manufac­
turing groups not appearing separately because their numbers are too small for the computation of medians.
2 Not computed, owing to small number involved.




WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

Industry

1 and
under
2 years

Under 6 6 months
months and under
1 year

4

Table

XIV.—Week’s earnings of women who supplied personal information, by age

all industries1

JL
Number of women earning each specified amount whose age was—
Week’s earnings

Number
of women
25 and
40 and
50 and
30 and
20 and
18 and
reporting under 18 under 20 under 25 under 30 under 40 under 50 under 60 60 years
and over
years
years
years
years
years
years
years

$1 and under $2................. —.........-............ -..................
$2 and under $3------------------------------------------------$3 and under $4...... ......................... .................. -............
$4 and under $5------ ------ -......................-......................
$5 and under $6---------------------------------------- -------$6 and under $7------------------------------------------------$7 and under $8------------------------------------------- ----$8 and under $9_......................... —............ —.........—
$9 and under $10--------------------- ------ -........................
$10 and under $11............ ..................................................
$11 and under $12........ ................ ....................................
$12 and under $13------------------------------- -------------$13 and under $14---------------------------------------------$14 and under $15..............................................................
$15 and under $16.......... ............................................. —
$16 and under $17---------------------------------------------$17 and under $18------------- ------ -------------------------$18 and under $19---------------------------------------------$19 and under $20--........ ....................... -........................
$20 and under $21............................................................
$21 and under $22 ................................. ....... ...............$22 and under $23-........................................................$23 and under $24..........................................................$24 and under $25-------------------------------------------$25 and under $30........ ....... ............................... -..........
$30 and under $35.--......................................................
$35 and under $40----------------------------- -------------i Hotels

2,117
$11. 30

323
$9.70

353
$10. 80

475
$11.60

224
$12. 00

6
7
31
45
62
96
108
192
211
253
158
149
105
104
144
95
54
101
31
31
' 33
34

2
1
6
5
12
19
34
48
49
32
21
18
12
18
12
10
6
3
6
3

2
1
6
11
10
18
17
49
30
41
34
17
13
14
19
13
8
9
8

2
2
7
8
11
19
14
35
44
70
41
51
21
20
30
17
10
19

1
3
4
5
11
10
14
16
36
12
13
15
10
24
13

9

i
3

8
13
10
8
2

8
4
3
2

3
5
10
16
11
24
29
30
22
30
18
24
32
23
17
23
8
10
3
9
2
3

1

199
$12. 30

106
$11.00

74
$10.10

2
4
5
7
4
3
17
11
6
5
6
4
11
4
1
14

2
5
6
1
7
8
7
12
3
3
4
2
2
1

2

8
4
1

3
1

6

363
$13.10

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

Total___________________________________
Median earnings............ —........................... -................

2
2
3
3
5
11
11
19
21
19
12
16
12
14
14
7
16
3
1
2
2

1
i

11

4 —-..........
1

and restaurants and canneries are not included in this section of the report.




CO

CO

XV.- - Year’s earnings of women for whom 52-week -pay-roll records were secured, by industry

140

Table

Number of women earning each specified amount in—
The manufacture of—
Year’s earnings
All
industries

Total.....................................
Median earnings...... ......................
$200 and under $250 ................. ___
$250 and under $300......................
$300 and under $350___________
$350 and under $400~~~
$400 and under $450
$450 and under $500........
$500 and under $550 ........... ™
$550 and under $600
$600 and under $650.......................
$650 and under $700
$700 and under $750...........
$750 and under $800...... ...........___
$800 and under $850...... .............. .
$850 and under $900...... ................
$900 and under $1,000........... .......
$1,000 and under $1,100...... ...........
$1,100 and under $1,200________
$1,200 and under $1,400. ................
$1,400 and under $1,600...... ...........

580
$675

88

$900

1
8

3
17
29
53
42
61
50
53
46
42
33
20

55
30
18
14
5

*Not computed, owing to small number involved.




Clothing

78
$560
1
5
1
7
5
12
8
5
4
8
6
5
2
3
3
2
1

Food
Leather
products (tanning)

19
$588

63
$772

Textiles
Paper
Pulp and
and
hard-fiber
Hosiery
paper
products products and knit
Other
goods

o

11

23
$592

35
$725

85
$663

Wood
Miscella­
products
neous

15
$421

55
$708

General 5-and-10cent
mercan­
tile
stores

53
$742

19
$525

3
1
3
1
2
3
3
1
1

1

2
3
4
8
11
8
6
4
8
5
4

3
4
3
4
5
1
4

2
1
2

1

2
4 ................

2 ____

Laun­
dries

36
$572

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

Cigars

«

v

Table XVI.—Week’s earnings of cannery employees, by time worked and race
A. WOMEN WHOSE TIME WORKED WAS REPORTED IN HOURS

Number of women earning each specified amount who worked—

Week’s earnings

Number of
women reported

Under 10 hours

10 and under
20 hours

20 and under
30 hours

Median earnings...............................................................

Negro

White

Negro

White

Negro

White

Negro

494
100.0
$9.05

24
100.0
$6.30

27
5.5
$1. 40

2
8.3
(■>

23
4.7
$3. 20

1
4.2
C1)

49
9.9
$4. 80

7
29.2
C1)

2

5
21
1

2

10
7
6

1

5
24
12
3
5

1
6

5
21
11
12
30
14
62
63
27
38
35
28
51
27
32
12
20
6
■Not computed, owing to small number involved.




1
1
6
7
7

.........

40 and
under
50
hours

50 and
under
60
hours

60 and 70 and
under under
80
70
hours hours

50
hours
and
over

White Negro

White

White

White

White

White

14
58.3
(>)

91
18.4
$9. 50

74
15.0
$11.85

90
18.2
$13.15

19
3.8
$14. 75

121
24.5
$7. 00

2
59
54
3
3

7
7

4
24
34
18
5
4
2

1
16
23
6
3
19
1
5

1
41
22
5
20
1

13
6

183
37.0
$13.15

1
17
23
47
25
32
12
20
6

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

White

30 and under
40 hours

Table XVI.—Week’s earnings of cannery employees, by time worked and race—Continued

1

B. WOMEN WHOSE TIME WORKED WAS REPORTED IN DAYS

Week’s earnings

ts3

Number of women earning each specified amount who worked on-

Number of
women re­
ported

1 day

2 days

3 days

4 days

5 days

6 days

5 days and over

Negro

White

Negro

White

Negro

White

Negro

White

Negro

White

Negro

White

Negro

White

Total
Per cent distribution___________________
Median earnings______ _______ _____ ___

303
100.0
$9. 65

155
100.0
$5.15

20
6.6
$1.70

10
6.5
(■)

18
5.9
$4.00

14
9.0
o

28
9.2
$5. 50

113
72.9
$5. 25

61
20.1
$6. 45

4
2.6
(■)

55
18.2
$10. 05

6
3.9
o

121
39.9
$15.15

8
5.2
o

176
58.0
$12. 65

Under $1...........................................................
$1 and under $2........ ..................................
$2 and under $3..................... ......................
$3 and under $4_______
$4 and under $5........ ................ .
$5 and under $6_____________
$6 and under $7................. ................
$7 and under $8................................................. .
$8 and under $9............................ _....................
$9 and under $10..-.........................................
$10 and under $11.......................................
$11 and under $12_______________ .
$12 and under $13_________________ _
$13 and under $14...... ..............................
$14 and under $15.... ........................... ..
$15 and under $16___________
$16 and under $17
$17 and under $18___ ____ _______ ______
$18 and under $19
$19 and under $20...............................................
$20 and under $21________ ______________
$21 and under $22................................ ..............
$22 and under $23
$23 and under $24............................................
$24 and under $25........ ......................................
$25 and under $26_________ ____ _______
$26 and under $27
. _ ______ .
$27 and under $28. __
_ _

5
7
7
16
21
27
18
23
15
19
23
25
13
4
10
16
14
9
5
5
4
4
6
1
2
1
2
1

2
7
13
18
33
31
18
10
4
9
2
2
1
2

5
7
3
2
2

2
4
3
1

4
5
3

1
5
2
5
1

5
7

1

2
3
3

14
9.0
o

' ...
..............

2
5
15

............
1

18

1

12

1

1
1

2

i

1
2

I

1
1
"

..........

—
I

1
1

*Not computed, owing to small number involved.




Negro

4

...

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

White

143

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES
Table

XVII.—Week’s earnings of women in hotels and restaurants, by occu­
pation and race
Number of women earning each specified amount whose
occupation was—

Week's earnings

Number of
women
reported

Cook; vegetable Dish and glass Pantry
girl; kitchen
washer
help
help

Wait­ Candycounter
ress
help

White
Total________ _______

Negro

White

Negro

White

Negro

White

White

64
100.0
$10.15

21
100.0
$10. 75

6
7.8
<>)

19
90.5
$10. 75

6
9.4
(>)

2
9.5

5
7.8
(■)

46
71.9
$10. 05

1

1
2
4
4
9
10
23
1
3

1
1
3
3
2
3
2

3
3

1
2
2

2

2

1

2

1 Not computed, owing to small number involved.




1
1
2
3
2
3
1
1
2
2

n

1
1
1
3
1

4
1
1

White
2
3.1
(■)

1
2
3
9
7
16
1
3
3
1
2

Table

XVIII.—Nativity of the women employees who supplied personal information, hy industry
Women who were born in—
Num­
ber of
wom­
en re­
port­
ing

Industry

Foreign countries
United States
Tc tal

All industries

_

_

Manufacturing:
Cigars............................................... ..........
Clothing........ ................................... ...........
Food products-...........................................
Leather (tanning)_____________ ___
Paper and paper products_________
Pulp and hard-fiber products
Textiles—
Hosiery and knit goods
Other____________ ______________
Wood products______________
Miscellaneous____________________
General mercantile.......... .................. .........
5-and-10-cent stores................ ....................
Laundries............ .................. ..........
Hotels and restaurants_______________
Vegetable canneries__________________




Per
cent

Num­
ber

Per
cent

Aus­
tria

Can­
ada

Eng­
land

France

Ger­
many

11

2

10

13,255

2, 956

90.8

299

9.2

6

1

360
391
151
215
42
56

304
360
143
159
41
54

84.4
92.1
94.7
74.0
97.6
96.4

56
31
8
56
1
2

15.6
7.9
5.3
26.0
2. 4
3.6

2
1

1

95
270
46
272
309
84
173
55
736

91
249
46
269
306
83
168
52
' 631

95.8
92. 2
100.0
98.9
99.0
98.8
97.1
94.5
85.7

4
21

4.2
7.8

3
3
1
5
3
105

1.1
1.0
1.2
2. 9
5.5
14.3

1 Negro women not included.

Ire­
land

Poland Russia

15

66

163

15

1

1

19
2
2
13

24
20
2
38

1

1
1

6

1
1
3

5

25
2

1

2
7
1

1 i.......... "1

Other

1

l
5 ■........ .

Scot­
land

7
6

1

3
2
1
1

1

1
1

1

Italy

2
1

2

1

2
e

1

2
75

19

* Brazil, Sweden, Spain, Egypt, and Czechoslovakia, each one.

4

1
2

WOMEN IN DELAWAKE INDUSTRIES

Num­
ber

4

Table

XIX.—Age of the women employees who supplied personal information, by industry
Women whose age was—

Industry

Manufacturing:
Cigars---------------------------------Clothing........................................
Food products______________ _
Leather (tanning)---------------Paper and paper products----Pulp and hard-fiber products.
Textiles—
Hosiery and knit goods.__
Other....................—.........— "Wood products________ ____
Miscellaneous--------------------General mercantile-------------------5-and-10-cent stores------------------Laundries______________________
Hotels and restaurants.......... .........
Vegetable canneries—
White women______________
Negro women--------- --------—




3,672

403

11.0

652

17.8

432‘

11.8

236

6.4

154

4.2

360
391
150
214

22.8
16.9
12.0
22.0
16.7
37.5 ’

35
50
6
35
7
6

9.7
12.8
4.0
16.4
16.7
8.9

34
79
21
76
12
9

9.4
20. 2
14. 0
35.5
28.6
16.1

8
51
24
23
6
1

2.2
10. 7
14. 3
1. 8

4
26
28
7
2

1.1
6.6
18.7
3.3
4.8

6
28
25
2

1.7
7.2
16.7
0.9

14
67
8
75
77
29
28
12

14.7
24.9
17.4
27.7
25.3
34.5
16.2
21.8

12
23
8
29
43
6
11
7

12.6
8.6
17.4
10.7
14.1
7.1
6.4
12.7

10
45
3
45
63
1
21
8

10.5
16. 7
6. 5
16.6
20.7
1. 2
12.1
14. 5

9
21
8
19
38

17. 4
7. 0
12. 5

1.5
2.2
3.0
2.6

7. 5
5.5

1.1
4.5
8.7
4.8
5.9
1. 2
5.2

4
1
8
8

13
3

1
12
4
13
18
1
9

3

1.7

101
80

13.8
18.6

61
65

8.3
15.2

19.9
146
79 j 18.4

145
63

19.8
14. 7

85
26

11.6
6.3

57
12

7.8
2.8

14.2

541

14.7

732

26.7
10.7

522

95
49
16
16
6
14

26.4
12.5
10.7
7.5
14.3
25.0

82
66
18
47
7
21

22.1
19.7
6.5
15.1
10.9
25.0
22.5
32.7
8.6
12.4

6

4. 8
10.7

28

29.5
16. 4

24
26
49
7

15.1
7.9
31.0
28.3
12.7

21
53
3
41
33
21
39
18

76
50

10.4
11.7

63
53

19.9

9.5

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

All industries...........................—-------------------

Num­
30 and under 40 and under 50 and under 60 years and
ber of 16 and under ] 18 and under 20 and under 25 and under
60 years
over
50 years
40 years
30 years
25 years
20 years
18 years
women
report­
ing
Per Num- Per
Per Num- Per Num- Per Num- Per Num- Per Num-'| cent
cent
ber
ber
ber |
ber 1 cent
cent
ber
cent
ber
cent
ber
cent
ber

Oi

146
Table

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES
XX.

Conjugal condition of the women employees who supplied personal
information, by industry
Women who were—
Num­
ber of
women
report­
ing

Industry

Single

Num­
ber
All industries

Widowed, sep­
arated, or di­
vorced

Married

Per
cent

Num­
ber

Per
cent

Num­
ber

Per­
cent

13, 255

Manufacturing:
Cigars........ ............................ ..................
Clothing ______________________
Food products........................................
Leather (tanning)________ ____________
Paper and paper products____________
Pulp and hard-fiber products.....................
Textiles—
Hosiery and knit goods
Other __________ _ .. ___
Wood products__________ _____________
Miscellaneous.________ ___________
General mercantile.__..............................
5-and-10-cent stores.. ______
Laundries ....................... .........
Hotels and restaurants______ ______
Vegetable canneries_______________________

1,749

53.7

1, 095

33.6

411

12.6

360
391
151
215
42
56

259
171
60
95
26
38

71.9
43.7
39.7
44.2
61.9
67.9

81
162
56
79
12
14

22.5
41.4
37.1
36.7
28.6
25.0

20
58
35
41
4
4

5. 6
14. 8
23. 2

95
270
46
272
309
84
173
55
736

81
199
19
169
219
74
117
38
184

85.3
73.7
41.3
62.1
70.9
88.1
67.6
69.1
25.0

11
27
20
63
55
6
30
11
468

11.6
10.0
43.5
23.2
17.8
7.1
17.3
20.0
63.6

3
44
7
40
35
4
26
6
84

3. 2
16. 3
15. 2
14. 7
11.3
4. 8
15.0
10. 9
11.4

9. 5

1 Negro women not included.
Table

XXI.—Living condition of the women employees who supplied personal
information, by industry
Women who were living—

Industry

Num­
ber of
wom­
en re­
port­
ing

With relatives
Total

Total
Dis­ Not
With Other
Near1 tant spec­
Num­ Per
ified Num­ Per friends
ber cent
ber cent

All industries______ __________ 2 3,254 3,004
Manufacturing:
Cigars
Clothing___________ ____ _______
Food products_________ _____
Leather (tanning)
Paper and paper products........ .....
Pulp and hard-fiber products
Textiles—
Hosiery and knit goods
Other______________________
Miscellaneous _
.......... . _ _
General mercantile_______ __________
Hotels and restaurants.............................
Vegetable canneries...................... ...........
iSame as “at home.”




. Independently

92.3 2,743

69

192

250

7.7

22

228

11
37
19
21
3
4

3.1
9.5
12. 6
9 8
7.1
7.1

3
4
4

8
33
15

360
391
151
214
42
56

349
354
132
193
39
52

96.9
90.5
87.4
90.2
92.9
92.9

327
315
122
167
36
47

6
5
3
1
1

16
34
7
25
3
4

95
270
46
272
309
84
173
55
736

88
234
43
248
277
83
154
45
713

92.6
86.7
93. 5
91.2
89.6
98. 8
89. 0
81.8
96.9

83
204
41
221
234
76
141
42
687

4
10

1
20

7
36

7.4
13. 3

1
3

6
33

7
12
6
4
1
9

20
31
1
9
2
17

24
32

8.8
10.4

2
3

22
29

19
10
23

11. 0
18. 2
3.1

2

10
21

* Negro women not included.

147

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

APPENDIX B
SCHEDULE FORMS
Schedule

I

This schedule was used for recording the number of employees, scheduled
hours, plant policies, and data on working conditions in factories.
TJ. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR, WOMEN’S BUREAU, WASHINGTON
1. Name of factory-----------------------------------------2. Product................... ............................. -....................
3. Number employed:

Address-----------------------------------------------------Person interviewed____________________ _____
Position.......................................................................

Day

W.
C.
W
C.
Total
Men............................................................ Boys.......... ....................................—............................... .
Women__________
Girls--------------------- -------------------- - --------------Total.................................... -.................. Total....... ................................. -............................................

Night

W.
C.
W.
C.
Total
Men........ .......................... ........... ........... Boys...........................................................
....................
Women.................................................— Girls......................... -.............-.............................................
Total........................................................... Total......... ...........-- .....................................................
4. Firm’s scheduled hours:
Total..
Daily: Begin........... End.......... . Lunch period_______ Rest period —
Saturday “ ..............
“ ..................
“
“
““
“ Shifts
" ..............
“ _________
“
“
““
“ Regular weekly number of days----------------------------- Total weekly hours--------------------Shifts: Weekly number of periods................. ........... Total shifts, weekly hours------------Daily: Begin............. End............ Lunch period---------- Rest period.............. Total.
Saturday “ ---------“ ----------u “
““
“ Shifts
“.............
“ ..................
“ “ -..............
“
14
“ Regular weekly number of days.............................-......... Total weekly hours--------- ----------Shifts: Weekly number of periods—........................... Total shifts, weekly hours------------5. Seasonal............................. .............................. ........ ........................-....................... ...... ......................
6. Employment policy:
Employment manager-__________ Or centralized method----------------- Foremen..
Records kept............................................................. -............................... ......... ...............................
7. Subcontract shop............................................-......... Home work given out...---------- -----------Date............................................................ ......... Agent...................................................... -.........
8. Halls.
Indirect____ ____ Cl.................. Nat. It. o. k.................. Art. prov.................. Other
9. Stairway.
__________________ __________________
No.

Location

Wind­ Nat. It. Art. It.
adqt.
ing
prov.

1
Workrooms.

Hand
rl. o. k.

Nar­
row

Steep

Cl.

Rpr.
o. k.

i
1

1

Number
11. Aisles

10. Floors
Mat.

Notes




Other

Obst.

12. Walls

Other

13. Ceiling

148

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

14. Clng. done by: Girls........ Men........ Jant......... Janitress ....
Other------ No resp____
15. Natural lighting: Type of windows; On how many sides of workroom
; Occupations where women face
the light; Shades; Awnings, etc........ ................................... .

16.

Artificial lighting: Kind (general, individual); Shades or reflectors (general, individual) ..

17-18. Glare or reflection: Describe_______ ____ _
19. Heating system.................................. ....................
20. Ventilation.
App. o. k----- ------- Art________ Kind.
Loc..........................................................
21. Special prob.:
Heat; Cold; Dust; Lint; Humid; Fumes..
Other_________________________

22. Sanitation.

Drinking facilities: Loc
San........ . .. Tank
Cup, common___
Individual____ ... Kind
23. Washing facilities.
If none, where wash___
Towels
No.

Kind

Conv.

Cln.

Repr.

Hot
water

Soap
fur.
Fur. Ind.

Paper

Com­
mon

Often

------ SeP............- If none, arrangement................ Flush, hand........ ....... Auto
Rpr.............. .
Plb------------- Cl.................. Paper------------- Instrt............ .
Sngl. Row
No. No.
Nat. Vnt. Art. Lgt. Lgt.
in Room Seat vnt. oth. vnt. nat. art. Cl.
T.R. seats FI. Loc. Conv. Scrn. Desig. st.
ceil. end.
rm. rm.
o.k. rm. o.k. o.k. o.k.

25.

26.
„
27.

Total no. seats............... No. wmn. per seat................ Clng. done by: Girls.............. Men
Jant-------------- Janitress................... Other................... No. resp................. Swept-reg....,
Fre<V................ Wrli:- hrs------------- Scrub reg................. Freq__.............. Work hrs................
Service and welfare. Lunch room: Combined with Prov........................................ . Kind
Loc................- Equip, o. k—.............. Cln____ _____ Lt. nat.......
Art------------- Vent. o. k............ — Prov. hot food or drink only___
Cooking convncs—............ Supr.................. If none
Rest room: Comb, with........ .
Prov.............. . Loc................ Equip, o. k............... Cln...
„,Lg*' nat........ ........... Art-------------- Vent' °- k-------------- Supr-------------- If none____
Cloak-room: Combined with----------- Prov............. Loe________ Conv..........
Lkr___.
®hlv................ Hngr._............ Wl. hk................ Scats................ Cln................ Lgt. nat...
Art----------- Vent. o. k----------- Supr------------ If none_____
Lkr
Shiv.,
Hngr------------- Wl. hk




1

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

149

28. Health service: Hosp---------------- Chg. of Dr. reg On call
First aid................ Chg. of................ Med. exam............... Health rec________ Acc. rec................
Comp.................................... ................................................ .................................... ..............................................
29. Other welfare............................................................................................................... ...................... ........................ .

Foot rest
30. Occupations

Uniforms
Kept by

Needed
Kind

Kind Need

Furn.

*
Stand:

Sit or stand:

Describe: Opportunity to sit, etc.

The foregoing schedule was used for recording the data for canneries, supple­
mented by information on the following subjects:
CANNERY CONDITIONS
31.

Floor drainage. Gutters........... ............................................. Covered.........................................................
Platforms________ ______________ ___ ____ ____________ _____ _____ ____ _____________________
Adequate

32.

Work tables.

Arrangement.

Conveyors distributing fruit.......... .................... ....................... Adequate.
Crowded________________________________________________________
Convenient height for sitting.......... .................... ............... For standing..
O bstructions........ ............................. ................... ...............................................
Width convenient for reaching.
Drained________________ _____
33.

Utensils. Pans------------ --------------- Buckets......................................... Other
Conditions............................................................ ....................................................... ..

34.

Waste removal. Conveyors............................ ......................... Adequate..................
Helpers Sufficient no Efficient
Receptacles Kind__________________________ _____________ Condition___

35. Outside privies. No.................................. . Distance ................. ............... Separate
Screened..................... ................................... Condition of building____ _____ ____
Vault: Fly-proof............................................. . How often cleaned?........................
Seat covers........... ................ ................... ..... Disinfectant used?.......... ..................
Number of women per toilet.................................................... ........................................36
36. Strains, etc. Standing.............................................................. Lifting..................
Reaching............. ...................... Speeding......................... ................... Cuts.
Bums........ ....................................... ................. . Fruit acid........................... .




150

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES
Schedule

II

This schedule was used for recording the number of employees, scheduled hours,
plant policies, and data on working conditions in mercantile establishments.
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR, WOMEN’S BUREAU, WASHINGTON
Name of store_________
Person interviewed.
Type..................................
Number employed:
W.
Men______________ _
Women ________ _ __
Total..................................

C.

W.
Men..........................
Women________ _
Total_____________

Day

C.

W.
Boys............................
... Girls________
... Total________ ____

C.

Total

C.

Total

Evening
__
._
_.

4. Firm's scheduled hours:
Daily: Begin..--------Saturday “ ................
Shifts
“ ................

W.

..

Total ______ _______

End............
“ ..............
« ..............

Lunch period..............
«
“ _______
“
» ________

Best period................

“

“

<•
“

"

Total.
<<
«

Eegular weekly number of days........ ................................ Total weekly hours............................
Shifts: Weekly number of periods.......... ....................... Total shifts, weekly hours
Daily: Begin............ End.................. Lunchperiod______ Rest period............... Total.
Saturday “ ..................
“
““
«<>
Shifts
“ _________
“
““
*•t*
n
Regular weekly nymber of days..................................... Total weekly hours.........................
Shifts: Weekly number of periods----------------- -------- Total shifts, weekly hours
5. Overtime or seasonal hours___________________________

<<

6. Employment policy:
Employment manager_____
Date____________________ _
7. Halls.
Indirect________ Cl
8. Stairway.
No.

Location

Wind­ Nat. It.
ing
adqt.

Art. It. Hand rl.
o.k.
prov.

Nar­
row

Steep

Cl.

Rpr.
o. k.

Other

l------1------ 1-----Elevators for operators.............................................................................
9. Workrooms. Describe: Cleanliness; Seats; Ventilation; Crowding.

10.

Salesroom. Aisles-------------------------------------- Tables in center, etc.
Describe______________________________________________ 11

11. Natural lighting. Describe: Salesrooms.
Workrooms................................... ...........




WOMEN IN DELAWABE INDUSTRIES
12.

Artificial lighting. Describe: Salesrooms
Workrooms................... ..............................

13.

Heating system.

14.

Ventilation.

151

Salesrooms

15. Sanitation.

а.

10.

17.

18.

ID.
20.

Drinking facilities............. ........................................ ....................................................
................. San------------- Tank................. Cooler................. Used by workers only
................. Faucet................. Other................. Cup, common.................. Indiv
Kind...............
б. WashingTacilities: For workers only.................. For public and workers.................. Where located
..................... -............ Clean................... By whom...................
Freq.................... Hot water
.................. Soap__.............. Towels
c. Toilets: Kind........ ........................... For workers only.................. For workers and public..........
----- Location.................................... Screened.................. Room ceiled.—.......... Nat. vent.
.......... —- Nat. light.................. Art. light................. Clean____ ____ By whom................^
Freq------------- Number of seats------------- No. of women per seat
Service and welfare. Lunchroom: Combined with________ Prov_________ Kind_
_
Loc............... -.................. Equip, o. k................. Cl................... Lt. nat........... .
Art'
.................. Ventk...... ........... Prov. food or drink only...... ........... Cooking convncs.
------------- Supr------------- If none
Rest room: Combd. with................ Prov............ ..... Loc_________ Equip, o. k_
_
------------- Lgt. nat------------- Art------------- Vent. o. k________ Supr
If none........... .....
Cloakroom: Combd. with________ Prov............... Loc................ Conv................ Lkr__
Shiv.................... Bangr....................
WI. hk...................
Seats____ _____
Cl”
Lght nat............... - Art------------- Vent. o. k............. . Supr.......... ....... If none,
Lkr...... ........... Shiv.................. Hngr.................. Wl. hk.............. „
Health service: First aid____________ ____ _.Dispensary___________________________ __
Other welfare______________________________

Cl.

21. Seats: Type.

App. suf. no-------------

Rules for use-------------

Room to pass behind seats and counters

Schedule III

This schedule was used for recording the number of employees, scheduled
hours, plant policies, and data on working conditions in hotels and restaurants.
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR, WOMEN’S BUREAU, WASHINGTON
Firm name_________________
Address___________________
Type of restaurant............... ............
Hours open for business: Daily.
No. of men.........................
_
No. of women_________ ...
Total........ ...........................
Location of building.........................




..

Person interviewed...

Total
Boys_
_

152

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

6. Workroom conditions.

a.

General description of use of floors.

6. General impression of workrooms.

c.

Cleaning_____________________________________ _____________ _______ ______________ _______

d.

Heating.

e.

Lighting........ ................................................................ ................:.................. ........... ...................................

{

.................................................................................... .........................

#

/. Ventilation

7.

Occupations.

8.

Sanitation.
a. Drinking facilities.

Describe general duties of various employees:

b.

Washing facilities.

c.

Toilets: (1) Location_______ (2) Ventilation________ (3) Lighting, daylight........ ....... Arti­
ficial________ (4) Screened from workroom________ (5) Describe, Ventilation—Cleanliness;
Cleaned when and by whom; Type of toilet; Type of seat

.......... ..................... ............................... Hot water-------------

Soap..................

Towels.................

(6) No. of seatsNo. of women per seat

d.

Uniforms. Supplied_______________ Required__________ ____ Laundering.
0. Service and welfare facilities.
c. Lunch room______________________________________________________________

b.

............... ..............................................-......... -....... ................

Restroom................................. .................. .......................................................................................................

c. Cloak room and locker facilities................................. ................................................................................

d.
e.

Health service: Medical examination Health record........................................... First-aid equip­
ment—
Other welfare equipment________________________ _________ ____ ______ _______ ___________10

10. Employment management.
a. Hiring and discharging centralized............... Other.
b. Record kept.__................ ................................................
c. ................................................................ -...............................




1

*

153

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES
HOURS

Establishment...... ............................................................. ........................... ..
Worker................................................ Race...................... Occupation.
Hours

Meals
Total
hours

Bunday—
Monday...
Tuesday...
Wednesday
Thursday..
Friday____
Saturday ._

Worker____________________ ____

Race_____ ____ _

Total weekly.
Occupation.......................................... ..........
Meals

Hours
M
12 1 2 3

4

M
5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 0 7 8 9 10 11 12

On
duty

Off
duty

Total
hours

1
Total weekly.
Worker.

Occupation.
Hours

Meals
Total
hours

Sunday___
Monday ...
Tuesday...
Wednesday
Thursday. _
Friday____
Saturday ..

Date........ .................. ....................... ..............................

20716°—27f------ 11




Total weekly.
Agent................ ....................................................

154

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES
Schedule

IV

Pay-roll information was copied onto this card, one card being used for each
woman employee. Certain information was added from Schedule V.
U. 8. DEPARTMENT OP LABOR, WOMEN’S BUREAU

4

Establishment

Employee’s No.

Department

Name

Male

Address

Age

*

Conjugal condition

Occupation

Rate of
pay

Female j

1

M
Piece

Hour

(

Days
worked

$0.
Regular
weekly
hours

Hours
worked
this period

Day

Week

$

$

Overtime
hours

M Month
$

NR

Month

Additions

*

Undertime
hours

$
Deductions

Earnings
This period Computed for
regular time 1
$

Country of birth

Began work

Time at work

$
In this trade

$
This firm

Age
At home

Board

Pay-roll period
-----Days ending

Schedule

V

This schedule was distributed in the factory to be filled out by each woman
employee. Certain information was transferred to Schedule IV.
U. 8. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR, WOMEN’S BUREAU
Establishment
Nama...
Address
Country of birth___________ _________________ ____
How old were you when you began to work for wages.
How long have you been in this trade or business____
How long have you been working for this firm_______
What is your regular work here..........................................

Employee’s No.

---------- Male or female______
Single, married, widowed, sepa­
rated, or divorced__________
..................... Age-............ ............

Schooling—Last grade completed________________________________
Do you live with your family----------------------- With other relatives
Do you board or room with persons not relatives...................... .............




Department

v

155

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES
Schedule

VI

This schedule was used to record ^earnings for each week in the year.
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR, WOMEN’S BUREAU, WASHINGTON
Firm ....................................................................................................

(D

Occupation

Date

1_.

PTB

ii®
Occupation 1 Name

Date

PTB

1
2
3
Earnings Earnings Earnings

27_________ ______
28________________
29________________
30______
31—......................... .
32______
33_ ..................... —
34________________
35_______ ______
36-................
37________________
38________________
39................... ...........
40____
41 —
42________________
43___
44—
45____
46__
47___
48____
49......................... .......
50________________
51—
52....

6..

7_.
8..

9.
__________

.................
__________

10...
11­

12__________
.
13..
14_
....................... ..............
15­
__________
16.
17­
18­
19-

__________
_____
........
23.
___
___
24. ...........
25. .................
—
-

Name

1
2
3
Earnings Earnings Earnings

2.
-______ _______
3...... ......................4_ ................ ..
—
5..
___ _______ ___

20.
21
22...........
.

©

City ...........................................

__________

....................
_________
..............
..

12
3
Total $................................................. Total $................................................. Total $............................
Weeks worked......................... ....... Weeks worked.......... ...................... Weeks worked............
Weeks not worked ......................... Weeks not worked Weeks not worked ...
Average weekly wage---------------- Average weekly wage Average weekly wage.
Average for 52 wks------------------ Average for 52 wks Average for 52 wks_______________
Schedule

VII

This schedule was used for the information secured during interviews with the
women employed in the establishments surveyed.
women’s bureau, u. s. department of labor

[Employee’s Interview]
1.
2.
3.
7.
8.
12.
13.
15.

Employer------------------------------------------ ------ Address
Worker_____________________________________ Address...........................
Dept---------Country of birth..............— 4. Yrs. in U. S...... ............ 5. Natrlzd...........
3. Spk. EngLit. (read or write any lang.)........ .........
S. M. W. D.------- 9. Age------- 10. Age at marriage------- 11. In school last yr,
Living with friends_____ Relatives........ . Or adrift
Relationship of chief wage earner________ 14. Occupation............. .
Size of family: Resident families—
16. Migrant families:
M
M
No. 16 yrs. and over___ At work.
No. 16 yrs. and over___ At work.
No. 6 to 16
“
12 *
14
No. 6 to 16___________
44
44
No. under 6— ________ “
44
No. under 6;__________
44
44
Total......................... ......... 44
44 .
Total.......... .................. ..... 44
44




156

WOMEN IN DELAWARE INDUSTRIES

17. Kinds of work:

Duration
Before
mar’d.

After
mar’d.

Ages

Pres, trade or business.......... ............
With this firm..................................
Other work in past 12 mos.:

.

Previous years:
First job_______ _____ _______
Other jobs_______________

In foreign country:

18. Opportunity for other kinds of employment.
19. War workers____________________________
20. Provision for care of young children while responsible adult is at work.




Agent.
Date..

PUBLICATIONS OF THE WOMEN’S BUREAU
Any of these bulletins still available will be sent free of charge upon request.
No. 1. Proposed Employment of Women During the War in the Industries of Niagara Falls, N. Y.
16 pp. 1918.
No. 2. Labor Laws for Women in Industries in Indiana. 29 pp. 1918.
No. 3. Standards for the Employment of Women in Industry. 7 pp. 1919.
No. 4. Wages of Candy Makers in Philadelphia in 1919. 46 pp. 1919.
No. 5. The Eight-Hour Day in Federal and State Legislation. 19 pp. 1919. (Out of print.)
No. 6. The Employment of Women in Hazardous Industries in the United States. 8 pp. 1919.
No. 7. Night-Work Laws in the United States. 4 pp. 1919.
No. 8. Women in the Government Service. 37 pp. 1920. (Out of print.)
No. 9. Home WTork in Bridgeport, Conn. 35 pp. 1920. (Out of print.)
No. 10. riours and Conditions of Work for Women in Industry in Virginia. 32 pp. 1920. (Out of
print.)
No. 11. Women Street Car Conductors and Ticket Agents. 90 pp. 1920.
No. 12. The New Position of Women in American Industry. 158 pp. 1920. (Out of print.)
No. 13. Industrial Opportunities and Training for Women and Girls. 48 pp. 1920.
No. 14. A Physiological Basis for the Shorter Working Day for Women. 20 pp. 1921. (Out of print.)
No. 15. Some Effects of Legislation Limiting Hours of Work for Women. 26 pp. 1921. (Out of print.)
No. 16. See Bulletin 40.
No. 17. Women’s Wages in Kansas. 104 pp. 1921.
No. 18. Health Problems of Women in Industry. 11 pp. 1921.
No. 19. Iowa Women in Industry. 73 pp. 1922.
No. 20. Negro Women in Industry. 65 pp. 1922. (Out of print.)
No. 21. Women in Rhode Island Industries. 73 pp. 1922.
No. 22. Women in Georgia Industries. 89 pp. 1922. (Out of print.)
No. 23. The Family Status of Breadwinning WTomen. 43 pp. 1922.
No. 24. Women in Maryland Industries. 96 pp. 1922.
No. 25. Women in the Candy Industry in Chicago and St. Louis. 72 pp. 1923. (Out of print.)
No. 26. Women in Arkansas Industries. 86 pp. 1923. •
No. 27. The Occupational Progress of Women. 37 pp. 1922.
No. 28. Women's Contributions in the Field of Invention. 51 pp. 1923.
No. 29. Women in Kentucky Industries. 114 pp. 1923.
No. 30. The Share of Wage-Earning W’omen in Family Support. 170 pp. 1923.
No. 31. What Industry Means to Women Workers. 10 pp. 1923.
No. 32. Women in South Carolina Industries. 128 pp. 1923.
No. 33. Proceedings of the Women’s Industrial Conference. 190 pp. 1923.
No. 34. Women in Alabama Industries. 86 pp. 1924.
No. 35. Women in Missouri Industries. 127 pp. 1924.
No. 36. Radio Talks on Women in Industry. 34 pp. 1924.
No. 37. Women in New Jersey Industries. 99 pp. 1924.
No. 38. Married Women in Industry. 8 pp. 1924.
No. 39. Domestic Workers and Their Employment Relations. 87 pp. 1924.
No. 40. State Laws Affecting Working Women. 53 pp. 1924. (Revision of Bulletin 16.)
No. 41. Family Status of Breadwinning WTomen in Four Selected Cities. 145 pp. 1925.
No. 42. List of References on Minimum Wage for Women in the United States and Canada. 42 pp. 1925.
No. 43. Standards and Scheduled Hours of Work for Women in Industry. 68 pp. 1925.
No. 44. Women in Ohio Industries. 137 pp. 1926.
No. 45. Home Environment and Employment Opportunities of Women in Coal-Mine Workers’ Fam­
ilies. 61 pp. 1925. (Out of print.)
No. 46. Facts About Working Women—A Graphic Presentation Based on Census Statistics. 64 pp. 1925.
No. 47. Women in the Fruit-Growing and Canning Industries in the State of Washington. 223 pp. 1926.
No. 48. Women in Oklahoma Industries. 118 pp. 1926.
No. 49. Women Workers and Family Support. 10 pp. 1925. (Out of print.)
No. 50. Effects of Applied Research Upon the Employment Opportunities of American Women.
54 pp. 1926.
No. 51. Women in Illinois Industries. 108 pp. 1926.
No. 52. Lost Time and Labor Turnover in Cotton Mills. 203 pp. 1926.
No. 53. The Status of Women in the Government Service in 1925. 103 pp. 1926.
No. 54. Changing Jobs. 12 pp. 1926.
No. 55. Women in Mississippi Industries. 89 pp. 1926.
No. 56. Women in Tennessee Industries. (In press.)
No. 57. Women Workers and Industrial Poisons. 5 pp. 1926.
No. 58. Women in Delaware Industry. 156 pp. 1927.
No. 59. Short Talks about Working Women. (In press.)
No. 60. Industrial Accidents to Women in New Jersey, Ohio, and Wisconsin. (In press.)
No. 61. Minimum Wage Laws. The History of Their Development in the United States. 1912 to 1925.
(In press.)
Annual Reports of the Director, 1919, 1920, 1921, 1922, 1923, 1924,1925, 1926.





Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102