View original document

The full text on this page is automatically extracted from the file linked above and may contain errors and inconsistencies.

W a g e s a n d R e la te d B enefits

1 LBR AKT
9 AO MRES
1957-58

0

E a r n in g s

T r e n d s

0

I n t e r c it y

0

O c c u p a t i o n a l

0

S u p p l e m e n t a r y

C o m p a r i s o n s

E a r n in g s

P r a c tic e s

Bulletin No. 1224-20

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary



BUREAU OF LABOR ST T IC
A IST S
Ewan Clague, Com issioner
m




W a g e s

and

R e la t e d

B e n e f it s

19 LABOR MARKETS




1957-58

W

E a r n in g s T re n d s

#

In te rc ity C o m p a ris o n s

#

O c c u p a t io n a l E a r n in g s

9

S u p p le m e n ta ry P ra c tic e s

Bulletin No. 1224-20
February 1959

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BU REAU O F LA BO R STATISTICS
Ew an C lagu « , CommissioiMr

☆

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.G.

Price 50 cents




Preface

Contents
Page

The Community Wage Survey Program
The U. So Department of L abor’ s Bureau of Labor
Statistics regularly conducts areawide wage surveys in a
number of important industrial centers. The studies, made
from late fall to early spring, provide data on occupational
earnings and related supplementary benefits. A prelim i­
nary report is available on completion of the study in each
area, usually in the month following the payroll period
studied. The prelim inary report is supplied free of charge.
This is followed within 2 months by an area summary bul­
letin (for sale) that provides additional data not included
in the earlier report.
These include;
For each occupation—areawide and selected
industry-group average earnings and em ploy­
ment and distributions of workers by earnings
intervals.
For each related "frin g e” benefit and sup­
plementary wage practice— selective distribu­
tions of frequency of the practice and service
requirements (where pertinent) by areawide
and industry-group proportions of office and
plant workers to whom applicable.
A scope table— showing the number of e s ­
tablishments in scope, the number studied, and
corresponding office and plant worker em ploy­
ment, in the area and industry groups, as
defined.
This consolidated bulletin sum m arizes and ana­
lyzes the results of the individual area bulletins for the
surveys made during late 1957 and early 1958. A list of
the bulletins for the areas surveyed appears on the last
page.




Introduction _____________________________________________________________
Industrial composition of the 19 areas _____________________________
Comparability of area data __________________________________________
Summary ________________________________________________________________
Trends of occupational earnings, 1953-58 ____________________________
Movement of wages, all industries, 1957-58 ________________________
Movement of wages, all industries, 1953-58 _______________________
Movement of wages, manufacturing _________________________________
Coverage and method of computing the indexes _____________________
Limitations of the data _______________________________________________
Wage differences among labor markets ________________________________
Method of computing area relatives _________________________________
Interarea comparisons _______________________________________________
Occupational earnings ___________________________________________________
Office occupations ____________________________________________________
Professional and technical occupations _____________________________
Plant occupations ____________________________________________________
Establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions ________
Introduction __________________________________________________________
Labor-management agreement coverage ___________________________
Minimum entrance rates for office workers ________________________
Types of wage payment plans _________________
Single rate and rate range plans ________ -_______________________
Incentive wage systems __________________________________________
Scheduled workweeks ___________________________________:_____________
Workweeks of 40 hours ___________________________________________
Workweeks under 40 hours _______________________________________
Workweeks over 40 hours ________________________________________
Trends ----------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------Overtime pay provisions ____________________________________________
Weekly overtime _____________________________________________________
Daily overtime _______________________________________________________
Trend of scheduled hours and overtime premium
pay since winter 1952-53 ________
Late-shift pay provisions (manufacturing) __________________________
Trend of shift differentials since winter 1952-53 __________________
Paid holidays _________________________________________________________
Total holiday time ________________________________________________
Common holidays _________________________________________________
Trends _____________________________________________________________
Paid vacations ________________________________________________________
Trends _____________________________________________________________
Health and insurance plans __________________________________________
Retirement plans ____________________________________
Trends _____________________________________________________________

iii

1
1
2
5
7
7
7
8
8
8
13
13
13
17
17
18
18
35
35
35
36
36
36
37
37
37
37
37
37
38
38
39
39
39
41
41
41
42
42
42
45
45
46
46

Contents—Continued

Contents—Continued

Page

Page
T ab les:— Continued

Charts:
1.
2.
3.

Relative employment in 6 industry divisions,
19 labor markets _____________ _________________________________
Relative employment in selected manufacturing
industry divisions, 19 labor markets ____________________ —
Increases in coverage of supplementary wage provisions
between 1952-53 and 1957-58 _______________________________

3
4
43

Tables:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

W age indexe s , offic e and plant _____________
Percent in creases, office and plant ---------—
P ayroll periods c o v e r e d ___________________—
Interarea pay com parisons, office workers
Interarea pay com parisons, plant workers
M ajor paid holidays __________________________
Types of retirem ent pension plan __________

A: Occupational earnings
Average weekly earnings for selected office occupations —
A -l.
All industries _________________________________
A-2.
Manufacturing___________
A -3.
Nonmanufacturing ____________________________
A-4.
Public utilities ___________________________
A-5.
Wholesale trade ______________________________
A -6.
Retail trade ___________________________
A -7.
Finance ______________________________________
A -8.
Services ______________________________________
Average hourly earnings for selected plant occupations —
A -9.
All industries _________________________________
A -10. Manufacturing _________________________________
A -11. Nonmanufacturing ____________________________
A -12. Public utilities ___________________
A - 13. Whole sale trade ________ ______________________
A -14. Retail trade ___________________________________
A -15. Finance ______________________________________
A -16. Services _________________________________
B: Establishment practices and supplementary
wage provisions
B -l.
Labor-management agreement coverage _______
Minimum entrance rates for women office workers —
B-2.
All industries _________________________________
B-3.
Manufacturing_________________________________
Wage structure characteristics—
B-4.
Rate structure characteristics ________________
B-5.
Method of wage payment (plant workers)—
manufacturing _______________________________




9

10
11

15
15
44
47

19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
33
48
49
50
51
52

Scheduled weekly hours —
B-6.
All industries ______
B- 7. Manufac turing ____________________ —
____________
B-8.
Public utilities ____________________ ,_____________ .
B-9.
Wholesale trade __________
B-10. Retail trade _____________________________________
B -11. Finance _________________________________________
B-12. Services _________________________________________
Overtime premium pay—
B -13. All industries ___________________________________
B-14. Manufac tur ing ___________________________________
Shift differentials, manufacturing—
B -l 5. Provisions __________________ _____________________ *
B -l 6. Practices _______________________________________
Paid holidays —
B-17. All industries ________________
B-l7a. Paid holiday time— all industries ________________
B -18. Manufacturing_______ ____________________________
B -l9. Public utilities ______________ _______ -________-____
B-20. Wholesale trade —
________________________
B-21. Retail trade ___________________
B-22. Finance ________________—
________________________
B-23. Services ________________________________________
Paid vacations —
B-24. All industries _____
B-25. Manufacturing____________________
B-26. Public utilities _
B-27. Wholesale trade _________________________________
B-28. Retail trade _______________
B-29. Finance _____________
B-30. Services ______________________________________

53
53
54
54
55
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75

Health, insurance, and pension plans —
B - 3 1. A ll industries ___________________________________________
B - 32. M anufacturing______________ —__________ ______________ _
B -3 3 . Public utilities ____________________ __ _______ __________
B -3 4 . Wholesale trade _____________________________ ____________
B - 3 5. Retail trade _____________________________________________
B -3 6 . Finance ___________________ _______________________________
B -3 7 . Services _________________________________________________

76
77
78
79
80
81
81

Appendixes:
A: Occupational earnings, Buffalo, N . Y . ---------------------------------B: Scope and method of survey ------------ ,--------------------------------------C: Occupational descriptions __________________ ___________________

83
84
87

W ages and Related Benefits,, 19 Labor Markets, 1957-581
Introduction
The U. S. Department of Labor !s Bureau of Labor Statistics
conducted surveys of occupational earnings and related practices in
19 important labor market areas during late 1957 and early 1 9 5 8 .2
These studies were part of a continuing program designed to meet a
variety of governmental and nongovernmental needs for information
on occupational earnings, establishment practices, and related wage
provisions.
Occupations common to a variety of manufacturing and
nonmanufacturing industries are studied on a communitywide basis in
selected a re as.
The area surveys provide earnings data for the fo l­
lowing types of occupations: (a) Office clerica l; (b) professional and
technical; (c) maintenance and power plant; and (d) custodial and m a ­
terial movement.
Data are also collected and sum m arized on shift
operations and differentials, weekly work schedules, and supplemen­
tary wage benefits such as paid vacations and paid holidays.
These
data, presented in detail in the individual area bulletins, are sum ­
m arized and analyzed in this bulletin.3

The establishments within the scope of the surveys in thei
19 areas provided employment to an estimated l lU million w orkers,
of whom 5 .8 m illion were plant and office w orkers, as defined on
page 84.
At the time of the latest study, the largest area labor force
(New York City proper) was more than 20 tim es the size of that in
the sm allest area (M emphis), and more than 10 tim es as large as
that in either Atlanta, D allas, Denver, New Orleans, Portland (O r e g .),
or Seattle.
The 3 largest areas studied— Chicago, Los A ngeles-Long
Beach, and New York City— accounted for alm ost half of both the
manufacturing and th e nonmanufacturing employment in th e 19 areas
combined.

Industrial Composition of the 19 A reas
Each of the detailed area bulletins presents areawide inform a­
tion combining data for six major industry groupings. (See table in
appendix B. ) Separate data for each industry group are provided
where feasible, depending largely on the relative size and importance
of the industry group within a given area.
Thus, the sampling tech­
niques permitted computation of separate data for manufacturing and
public utilities in each of the 19 a reas; retail trade in 14; finance
in 13; wholesale trade in 12; and services in 5.

The 19 areas covered by this report had a combined popu­
lation of about 37 m illion in 1950— nearly a fourth of the Nation’ s
total. Eighteen States were represented, permitting some examination
of interregional as well as intraregional variations in pay levels and
associated practices.

The individual industry divisions had about the same relative
importance in the 19 areas as a group as in the Nation as a whole
(chart l ) .
Among the 19 a re a s, the industrial composition of the
individual areas varied substantially.
1 Prepared by Otto Hollberg and Alexander N. Jarrell in the
Division of Wages and Industrial Relations of the Bureau of Labor
Statistics.
A rea studies were supervised by the Bureau’s Regional
Wage A nalysts.
2 Since 1948, the Bureau has conducted 1 or m ore areawide
surveys in 51 labor m arkets.
The earliest surveys covered office
workers only.
Surveys covering both office and plant workers were
conducted in 40 areas in late 1951 and early 1952; in 20 areas in
1952-53; and in 17 areas in each of the next 4 years.
Some areas
are studied annually and others biennially.
A listing of area reports
issued previously, including items covered, is available in Directory
of Community Wage Surveys; copies are available upon request from
the U. S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washing­
ton 25, D. C. , or from any of Its 5 regional offices.
3 See listing of occupational wage survey bulletins on last page.




In each of the a reas, Milwaukee, Cleveland, and NewarkJersey City, more workers were employed in manufacturing industries
than in all nonmanufacturing industry groups combined. (See chart 1.)
More than 40 percent of the labor force in 5 other areas was employed
in manufacturing.
On the other hand^ manufacturing industries em ­
ployed fewer than a third of the workers in Mem phis, Portland (Oreg. ),
D allas, San Francisco-Oakland, Denver, and New Orleans; and in these
areas the proportion of the labor force engaged in trade was greater
than that engaged in manufacturing.

Similar employment variations were evident among the com ­
ponents of the broad industry divisions.
Thus, marked differences
among the areas are shown in relative employment in the various

2
industry groups within the manufacturing division (chart 2).
The
group of related industries with the largest segment of the manu­
facturing labor force in 11 of the 19 areas was made up of metals
and metalworking firm s. The strongest concentrations of em ploy­
ment in these manufacturing industries, ranging from 50 to 72 per­
cent, were found in Cleveland, Seattle, Milwaukee, Los A ngeles-L ong
Beach, B altim ore, Chicago, and D allas.
Those areas showing the
weakest concentration in the metal industries (less than 30 percent)
were Denver, New Orleans, M em phis, and New York City.
The
latter area showed a larger proportion of employment in the textiles
and apparel industries than in the metal and metal products industries.




Comparability of A rea Data
Areawide (all industries) estim ates of wage levels and r e ­
lated practices were affected to some extent by the industrial compo­
sition of the area.
The proportion of employment accounted fo r, both
by the respective broad industry divisions and their subgroups, varied
considerably from area to area.
The estim ates must, therefore, be
viewed in term s of these interarea differences.
In a few a re a s, addi­
tional limitations on a re a -to -a r e a comparisons arose from incomplete
coverage of certain industries; these are indicated in the footnotes to
the table in appendix B on page 86.

3
C h a r t 1.

RELATIVE EMPLOYMENT IN 6 INDUSTRY DIVISIONS
19 LABOR MARKETS
0

10

20

30

40

50

PERCENT

60

70

80

90

100

UNITED STATES
19 AREAS COMBINED
Milwaukee
Cleveland
Newark-Jersey City
St. Louis
Chicago
Philadelphia
Baltimore
Los Angeles-Long Beach
Boston
Minneapolis-St. Paul
Seattle
New York City
Atlanta
Memphis
Portland (Oreg.)
Dallas
San Francisco-Oakland
Denver
New Orleans
M anufacturing

U N IT E D STATES D E P A R T M E N T O F LA B O R
3UREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




C o n s t r u c t i o n , F in a n c e , Public U ti l it i e s , a n d S e r v i c e s

Source: C ounty Business P a tte rn s , 1957*,

Trade

U .S. D epartm ent of Com m erce.

4
C h a rt 2.

RELATIVE EMPLOYMENT IN SELECTED MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY DIVISIONS
t» LABOR MARKETS

PERCENT

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

UNITED STATES
19 AREAS COMBINED
Cleveland
Seattle
Milwaukee
Los Angeles-Long Beach
Baltimore
Chicago
Dallas
St. Louis
Newark-Jersey City
Atlanta
Minneapolis-St. Paul
San Francisco-Oakland
Boston
Philadelphia
Portland (Oreg.)
Denver
New Orleans
Memphis
New York City
■ M B

M etals and

■

M e t a l Pr o du c t*

U N IT E D STATES D E P A R T M E N T O F LA B O R
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




■

nDOOQQ| M a n u f a c t u r i n g O t h e r T h a n M e t a l s ,
M e tal Products, T extiles, and A p p a r e l

T extiles and
Apparel

Source: County Business P a tte rn s , 1957; U .S . D epartm ent off Commerce.

100

5

Over a period of y ears, occupational wage rates and wage
supplements as regularly studied under the Bureau's community wage
survey program , have registered continuous improvement. Wage rates
have risen and the proportion of workers entitled to receive supple­
mentary wage benefits has increased.
In addition, the substantive
nature of the supplementary wage benefits has been enlarged or lib ­
eralized in some way.
During the winter of 1957 -5 8, 19 labor markets were surveyed
under this program . Of these 19 a re as, 10 that had been surveyed in
each of the years beginning with 1952-53 provided earnings com pari­
sons for 4 selected occupational groupings.
Increases in pay levels
during the period between the 1956-57 and 1957-58 studies, were
slightly greater than those recorded a year earlier for 3 of the 4 occu­
pational groups for which wage trends were computed.
Earnings of
industrial nurses increased 5 .3 percent, compared with 5 .2 percent a
year earlier; skilled maintenance w orkers, 5 .3 percent, compared
with 5. 1 percent; and unskilled men plant w orkers, 5 .2 percent, com ­
pared with 5. 1 percent. Increases in salaries of women office work­
ers averaged 4 .3 percent during 1957-58 compared with 5. 3 a year
earlier. Over the 5-y ear period 1952-53 to 1957 -5 8, median increases
in all-industry average earnings for workers in the 4 occupational
groups ranged from 24. 8 percent for women office workers to 29. 1
for women industrial nurses.
Pay levels for office, professional and technical, and plant
workers in the 19 labor markets surveyed during 1957-58 were gen­
erally highest in the larger West Coast and North Central areas.
Wage differences among the 19 areas were greater for unskilled plant
workers than for skilled maintenance and office workers and were
substantially greater for plant workers in nonmanufacturing than in
manufacturing.
Earnings of office and plant workers tended to be
higher in manufacturing than in nonmanufacturing industries and men
earned more than women in sim ilar jobs.
Data were collected on establishment practices and supple­
mentary wage benefits in only 17 of the 19 areas in 1 9 57 -5 8. Twothirds or m ore of the plant workers in 14 of these 17 areas were
covered by labor-managem ent agreements which established their wages
and working conditions.
Such coverage among office workers was
much lower, with from 20 to 30 percent covered in 3 a re as, 10 to
19 percent in 12 a reas, and less than 10 percent covered in the other
2 a reas.
Form al rate structures providing single rates or a range of
rates for each job category have been widely adopted in industry—
particularly in manufacturing and public utilities and more commonly
for plant than office Workers. Form al rates covering office depart­
ments typically provided a range of rates for each job category,
whereas in plant departments, plans providing for a range of rates
were predominant in only 5 of the 17 areas.




A 40-hour workweek applied to a little m ore than half of the
office w orkers, virtually the same as in the winter of 1952 -5 3; nearly
all of the remaining office workers worked fewer than 40 hours.
Work schedules of less than 40 hours for office workers were found
m ore often in nonmanufacturing than in manufacturing.
Eighty-two
percent of the plant workers worked 40 hours, compared with 74 p e r ­
cent in the earlier period.
About 9 percent had schedules of more
than 40 hours, compared with 21 percent in 1952-53.
Premium pay at time and one-half was the alm ost universal
provision for overtime pay at the time of the survey.
The number of
hours worked before overtime was paid varied, but the great m ajority
of the workers in industry were paid overtime rates after hours worked
in excess of 8 a day or 40 a week, except in industries or areas
where schedules of less than 8 hours a day or 40 hours a week were
prevalent.
In the latter case, the hours at premium pay might im ­
mediately follow the scheduled hours, or they might be preceded by a
stipulated amount of "o v e r tim e " without any additional compensation,
or pro rata based on the regular rate of pay (straight-tim e).
The great m ajority of manufacturing workers were employed
in firm s that had premium pay provisions for late-sh ift work, com ­
monly a uniform cents-per-h our addition to fir st-sh ift rates— a p rac­
tice that has not changed during the past 5 y ears. In terms of those
employed, from about a tenth to a little m ore than one-fourth of the
manufacturing plant workers were actually working on late shifts at
the time of the survey.
The m ost common provision for both office and plant workers
was 6 paid holidays. The next m ost common provision was 7 holidays.
Increasing numbers of workers were granted 7 or 8 holidays in the
period between 1952-53 and 1957 -5 8. Half day paid holidays in addition
to the standard holidays also became m ore common in this period.
Thus, in 18 areas, in the 5-year period, the proportion of office
workers whose total paid holiday time equaled 7 days or m ore in­
creased from 60 to 77 percent, and that of plant workers, from 31 to
64 percent.

4
Time comparisons in the remaining sections of this summ ary
are based on 18 a reas. The larger labor markets have generally been
surveyed each year whereas others have been covered biennially or
less often. In order to present the best possible m easure of changes
in supplementary wage provisions, this and later comparisons are
based on data for a constant list of 18 a reas.
Since some of the
18 areas were not surveyed in the years of reference, it was n eces­
sary to include data from the previous or following year. A reas for
which current information was available for each year of reference
accounted for 80 percent or m ore of the employment covered.

6
Vacation pay was alm ost universally available in the indus­
tries and areas surveyed, often after as little as 6 months* service,
and, to the extent of a week’ s pay, to virtually all workers after
a y e a r ’s service.
A lm ost as many were eligible for 2 w eeks’ pay
after 5 years* service.
Three weeks* pay after 10 years* service
was available in 1957 -5 8 to 41 percent of the office workers and
2 6 percent of the plant workers— up from 21 and 11 percent, r e ­
spectively,
the proportions recorded in 195 2 -5 3 . Four weeks* pay,
usually requiring 25 years* serv ice, was available to 35 percent of
the office and 19 percent of the plant w orkers, up from 19 and 7 p er­
cent, respectively, in 195 2 -5 3 . Vacation pay provisions were typically
m ore liberal for office than for plant w orkers.
Part or all of the cost of one or m ore types of employee
health, insurance, or pension plan was paid by em ployers of virtually
all office and plant w orkers. On this b a sis, life insurance was availa­
ble to 94 percent of the office and 92 percent of the plant w orkers, up




from 87 and 88 percent, respectively, in 195 2 -5 3 .
Hospitalization
and surgical insurance were available to from about 80 to 84 percent
of the office and plant w orkers, up about 11 percentage points (hos­
pitalization) and 16 percentage points (surgical) from the earlier
lev els. About 60 percent were provided m edical insurance, compared
with 40 percent in the earlier period. Provisions for employee illn ess,
in the form either of paid sick leave or insurance benefits, applied
to about as many workers as did hospitalization or surgical insurance
in 1 9 5 7 -5 8 , although the proportions covered were unchanged from
195 2 -5 3 . Paid sick leave was the typical provision for office workers
and sickness and accident insurance for plant w orkers. Catastrophe
(extended m edical) insurance applied to about three-tenths of the office
and a tenth of the plant w orkers, compared with a 2 -percent proportion
of each group in 1 9 52 -5 3. Retirement plans applied to about 79 percent
of the office and 68 percent of the plant w orkers, coverage having been
extended to an added seventh of either group during the preceding
5 y ears.

7

Trends of Occupational Earnings, 1953-58

Movement of W ages, A ll Industries,

1957-58

Average pay levels of women industrial nurses and skilled
men maintenance workers increased 5. 3 percent and unskilled men
plant w orkers, 5 .2 percent during the interim between the 1957 and
1958 stu d ie s.5 Women office workers whose weekly salaries in­
creased 4. 3 percent in this period made up the only group of the
4 considered in which the increase was less than a year earlier. For
these w o rk ers, during the past year the increase in salaries was the
second lowest since 1953, whereas the increases for the other job
categories were nearly the same as the highest increases, granted b e­
tween 1953 and 1954. (For yearly indexes^ see table l ;f o r y e a r-to -y e a r
percentage increm ents, see table 2. )

Differences in survey timing among areas accounted for some
of the interarea variation in the relative increases in earnings.
To
cite the extrem e, Cleveland showed the largest increases during the
period between the 1957 and 1958 surveys, but the lapsed time in
Cleveland was 20 months between surveys, compared with from 10 to
13 months between surveys in the other 12 areas surveyed in both
periods.

In these other a reas, increases in earnings during the year
ranged by area and occupational group as follow s: For women office
w orkers, from 2 .4 percent in Memphis to 5. 7 percent in Boston and
Philadelphia; for women industrial nurses, from 3 .3 percent in M em ­
phis to 7. 4 percent in Portland; for skilled maintenance men, from
4 .1 percent in M inneapolis-St. Paul to 6 .3 percent in Memphis; and
for unskilled men plant w orkers, from 4 .5 percent in Memphis to
6. 0 percent in Philadelphia.

Movement of W ages,

A ll Industries,

1953-58

Over the 5-y ear period between 1953 and 1958, median in­
creases in all-industry average earnings for workers in the 4 occu­
pational groups considered, ranged from 24. 8 percent for women office
workers to 2 9 .1 percent for industrial nurses in the 10 areas which
were studied in all periods from 1953 to 1958. 6 Earnings of unskilled
plant and skilled maintenance groups increased 2 5 .9 and 2 6 .6 percent,
respectively.
Even though the average increase in salaries of wox.'en office
workers was the lowest among the four occupational groups, deviations
from the overall trend were noticeable among individual a reas. For
example, in the 17 areas covered both in 1953 and 1958, unskilled
workers and industrial nurses received the highest percentage in­
creases in 7 and 6 areas, respectively; skilled maintenance and office
worker^ earnings increased more than the other groups in 2 areas.
Percent of increase in earnings level during the 5-y ear period
varied substantially among a r e a s .7 Increases for women office work­
ers ranged from 20.8 percent in Memphis to 29 .7 percent in Baltim ore.
For women industrial nurses, increases ranged from 22. 7 percent in
Dallas to 3 2 .8 percent in Baltim ore.
New York City registered the
lowest increase over this period for skilled maintenance men and
Dallas for unskilled men plant w o rk ers, 22. 7 and 2 3 .5 , respectively.
Highest increases for those groups were the 3 5 .2 percent in Denver
for skilled maintenance men and the 40. 0 percent for unskilled plant
workers in Baltimore (table 1). Thus, the greatest interarea varia­
tion in increases was in the unskilled worker group.
The least variation in increases granted over the 5-year
period among the 4 groups within a single labor market was in Los
A ngeles-L ong Beach----1 .4 percentage points. Greatest variation was
in Atlanta where the average pay for unskilled workers rose nearly
14 percentage points more than the average pay for women office
w orkers.

5
Years shown refer to fiscal years ending June 30 during which
studies were conducted.
Studies are not conducted during the same
month in all areas. For example, the 1958 study includes areas with
pay periods varying from August 1957 to June 1958.
However, the
interim between studies is usually 12 months in each of the areas.
6 The ” 5-y ear period” covered 67 months in Portland and 60,
Pay periods studied in each area are shown in table 3.
61, or 62 months in the other 9 areas.
The percentage increases in this paragraph are median area
7 Part of this variation is due to differences in the length of the
increases in 10 of the 19 areas surveyed in 1958 which were also
5-year period (varied from 54 months in Boston to 68 months in
studied in each of the years 1 9 53 -5 8. These areas include New York
Cleveland). To minim ize these differences, the ranges shown are for
City, Philadelphia, Atlanta, D allas, M emphis, Chicago, Minneapolis-St.
the 14 areas where the 5-year period covered from 58 to 62 months.
Paul, Los A ngeles-L ong Beach, Portland (Oreg. ), and San Francis coExcluded are Boston (54 months), Portland (67 months), and Cleveland
Oakland.
(68 months).




8

It should be noted that increases referred to in earlier para­
graphs are percentage increases. Highest percentage increases were
not necessarily the highest increases in term s of cents per hour.
For example, from 1952 to 1958, earnings of unskilled plant workers
rose 3 5 .7 percent in Atlanta and 2 5 .9 percent in San F ran ciscoOakland. These percentage inrreases were equivalent to about 37 cents
in Atlanta and 42 cents in San Francisco-Oakland. Thus, even though
the percentage differential in earnings for unskilled workers in these
areas narrowed during this period, the actual differential (c en ts-p erhour) increased.
In the 17 areas which were studied in both 1953 and 1958,
percent differences in earnings of the skilled maintenance men and
unskilled men plant worker groups narrowed slightly.
Changes in
the percentage differential over this period varied from an increase
of nearly 4 percent in Portland (Oreg. ), to a decrease of nearly
13 percent in Atlanta. Differentials between the skilled and unskilled
groups narrowed in 9 a re as, increased in 7 areas, and remained the
same in Los A ngeles-L ong Beach. C en ts-per-h ou r differen ces, how­
ever, increased in all areas over this period.
Movement of W ages,

Manufacturing

On the whole, the difference in increases for manufacturing
industries and those for all industries combined were relatively slight.
In m ost ca ses, where comparison was possible the difference in the
amount of increase over the 5 years between manufacturing and ail
industries was less than 2 percentage points. Part of this sim ilarity
in wage movement was due to the importance of manufacturing in the
all industries classification.
For exam ple, m ost of the industrial
nurses and nearly all of the skilled maintenance workers except auto­
motive mechanics were employed in manufacturing industries.
The
greatest difference between the increase in manufacturing and the in­
crease for ail industries was for industrial nurses in New York City.
Their earnings increased 26. 8 percent in ail industries, compared
with 34. 1 percent in manufacturing.
New York City was the only
area in which more than half of the industrial nurses were employed
in nonmanufacturing industries.
Coverage and Method of Computing the Indexes
For office clerical workers and industrial nu rses, the indexes
relate to average weekly salaries for normal hours of work, that is ,
the standard work schedule for which straight-tim e salaries are paid.
For plant worker groups, they m easure changes in straight-tim e hourly
earnings, excluding premium pay for overtime and for work on week­
ends, holidays, and late shifts.
The indexes are based on data for
selected key occupations and include m ost of the num erically important
jobs within each group. The office clerical data are based on women
in the following 18 job s:
B ille r s, machine (billing machine); book­
keeping-machine operators, class A and B; Comptometer operators;
clerks, file, class A and B; clerk s, order; clerk s, payroll; key­
punch operators; office g irls; secre ta rie s; stenographers, general;




switchboard operators; switchboard operator-receptionists; tabulatingmachine operators; transcribing-m a chine operators,
general; and
typists, class A and B. The industrial nurse data are based on women
industrial nurses.
Men in the following 10 skilled maintenance jobs
and 3 unskilled jobs were included in the plant worker data: Skilled—
carpenters; electricians; m achinists; m echanics; m echanics, automotive; m illwrights; painters; pipefitters; sh eet-m etal workers; and tool
and die m akers; unskilled— jan itors, porters, and cleaners; lab orers,
m aterial handling; and watchmen.
Nearly a third of the office employees in all industries within
the scope of the surveys were employed in the 18 occupations used in
constructing the office w o rk ers1 index. Less than a tenth of all plant
w orkers, the m ajority of whom were unskilled, were employed in the
13 occupations used in computing the indexes for skilled and unskilled
w orkers. These jobs were not n ecessarily representative of production
workers m ore directly connected with the actual manufacturing, p roc­
essing, or of servicing jobs which vary widely among plants and
industries.
A large m ajority of the skilled maintenance workers
covered by the index was employed in manufacturing establishm ents,
whereas the unskilled workers were about evenly divided between
manufacturing and
nonmanufacturing.
A large proportion of office
workers was employed in nonmanufacturing industries.
Average weekly salaries or average hourly earnings were
computed for each of the selected occupations. The average salaries
or hourly earnings were multiplied by the average of 1953 and 1954
employment in each job in the particular a reas. These weighted earn­
ings for individual occupations were totaled to obtain an aggregate
for each occupational group. Finally, the ratio of these group aggre­
gates for a given year to the aggregate for the base period (survey
month, winter 1952-53) was computed and the result multiplied by the
base year index (100) to get the index for the given year.
Limitations of the Data
The indexes m easu re, principally, the effects of (l) general
salary and wage changes; (2) m erit or other increases in pay received
by individual workers while in the same job; and (3) changes in the
labor force such as labor turnover, force expansions, force reductions,
and changes in the proportion of workers employed by establishments
with different pay lev els.
Changes in the labor force can cause in­
creases or decreases in the occupational averages without actual wage
changes.
For example, a force expansion might increase the p ro ­
portion of lower paid workers in a specific occupation and result in a
drop in the average, whereas a reduction in the proportion of lower
paid workers would have the opposite effect. The movement of a high
paying establishment out of an area could cause the average earnings
to drop, even though no change in rates occurred in other area
establishm ents.

The use of constant employment weights eliminates the effects
of changes in the proportion of workers represented in each job in­
cluded in the data. Nor are the indexes affected by changes in stand­
ard work schedules or in premium pay for overtime, since they are
based on pay for straight-time hours.

9
T ab le 1. W a g e in d e x e s , o ffic e a n d plant
(Indexes of average weekly earnings or average hourly earnings1 for selected occupational groups in 17 labor markets,2 1956-58* )
(1953 = 100)
Industrial nurses
(women)

Women office
workers

Skilled maintenance trades
(men)

Unskilled plant workers
(men)

Area
1956

1957

1958

1956

1957

1958
1
______________

1956

1957

1958

1956

1957

1958

All industries
Northeast:
Boston «.
__ ____ _ .
Newark-Jersey City _ ___ ________
New York C ity ___________________
Philadelphia____ __ „ __ ___ .

(4)
114.0
114.3
114.6

117.0
C)
120.3
122.0

123.8
125.0
124.5
129.0

(4)
111.2
115.5
115.1

117.7
(4)
121.1
122.2

123.4
126. 1
126.8
130.2

(4)
115.4
113.4
116.4

116.4
(4)
117.7
122.5

122.5
127.4
122.7
128.8

(4)
118.2
113.5
115.5

114.4
(4)
119.6
120.9

119.7
128.4
125. 1
128.1

South:
Atlanta
__ _ ________ __
Baltimore_____ __________________
Dallas . ___________________ __
Memphis---------------------------------------

111.8
(4)
115.3
113.2

115.6
(4)
122.0
118.0

122.1
129.7
127. 3
120.8

119.8
(4)
109.8
121.0

124.4
l4)
117.4
126. 1

131.3
132.8
122.7
130.3

114. 1
(4
)
115.0
115.2

119. 1
(4)
119.4
121.4

126.4
134.5
124.2
129.0

122.6
(4)
112. 1
117.2

128.6
(4)
116.6
125.6

135.7
140.0
123.5
131.2

North Central:
Chicago__________________________
Cleveland__ ___ ______________
Milwaukee ______ ___________ _______
Minneapolis-St. Paul ____________
St. Louis .
__ ___
. _
_

114.3
(4)
110. 1
114. 1
114.7

120.5
122.0
(5)
121.3
(5)

126.1
131.9
125.1
125.0
124.0

116.9
(4)
115.0
118.1

116.8

122.8
124.8
(*)
124.4
(5)

130.9
138.3
131.5
129.1
128.8

115.5
(4)
113.0
115.5
117.3

121.3
121.9
(5
)
121.7
(5)

127. 6
130.5
128.2
126. 7
129.0

114.4
(4)
111.1
117. 1
116.6

119.0
124.7
* (S)
4124.6
t5
)

124.8
134.5
126.3
131.1
127.5

West:
Denver
...
..............
Los Angeles-Long Beach _____ j__
Portland __
__________________
San Francisco-Oakland___________

113.3
113.5
116.0
112.7

(4)
120.5
120.2
118.3

125.8
124.4
126.3
123.3

115.2
112.8
113.2
113.8

(4)
119.5
115.5
121.0

129.6
125.5
124.0
129.0

120.9
114.8
115.0
110.4

(4)
119.4
121.2
118.6

135.2
125.7
128.3
125.6

123.8
113.6
113.9
113.2

(4)
119.6
119.1
119.4

137.3
125.8
125.3
125.9

Manufacturing
Northeast:
Boston
.
Newark-Jersey City „ ...................
New York City „ _____
_
_ _
Philadelphia_____________________

(4)
113.9
110.0
114.6

114.6
(4)
122.8
120.4

121.6
126.2
126.4
127. 9

(4)
111.2
121.7
116.5

117.6
(4)
127.5
123.6

122.4
126.1
134. 1
130.7

(4)
115.7
113.2
115.7

117.1
(4
)
119.4
122.0

123.5
127.6
124.1
128.2

(4)
120. 1
114.5
113.9

114.2
(4)
123. 1
119.0

119.4
132.2
129.8
125.9

South:
Atlanta
— . _ ________
Baltimore ___________________ ____
D allas_
_
_ __
.
_ _
Memphis
. _____

110.5
(4)
112.7
110.7

116.0
(4)
118.9
117.0

123.9
132.1
124.4
122.3

118.5
(4)
108.1
(7)

124.4
(4)
116.3
132.8

131.9
133.8
122.2
(7)

113.6
(4)
114.6
113.2

118.0
l4)
119.3
118.5

126.0
136.3
124.5
124.8

118.9
(4)
115.0
111.6

126.7
(4
)
121.5
119.7

136.0
140.9
126.9
126.7

North Central:
Chicago
. . . . . . . . . . . .......
Cleveland_________ i_____________
Milwaukee_____ ____ ________ ____
Minneapolis-S t. P au l____________
St. Louis ________________________

114.4
(4)
112.6
113.3
113.9

120.6
123.6
(5)
119.3
(5)

127.3
134.7
127.2
122.9
124.3

116.9
(4)
115.0
117.2

116 .8

122.8
124.1
(*)
123.4
(5
)

130.9
138.3
131.5
128.9
128.8

115.4
(4)
113.6
113.9
116.8

121.7
122.0
(5)
119.7
l5)

128.2
130.3
128.9
125.1
128.5

113.0
(4)
113.6
115.5
115.2

118.5
121.2
(*>
121.7
(5)

124.6
129.8
127.5
127.1
126.7

West:
Denver ___________________________
Los Angeles-)Long Beach ______ _
Portland _ J
__________ _________
San Francisco-Oakland___________

116.5
113.7
114.6
112.8

(4)
120.2
120.7
118. 1

129.7
125.5
125.3
123.0

(7)
114.2
114. 1
114.5

(4)
120.3
114.8
122.5

(7)
127.0
123.4
130.4

120.0
115.2
115.1
110.7

(4
)
119.8
122.3
120. 1

137.4
126.4
129.9
127.8

124. 1
112.9

(4
)
117.9
121.3
118.4

141.5
124.3
127.7
124.8

116.0

111.6

1 Average weekly earnings relate to standard salaries that are paid for standard work schedules. Average hourly earnings are straight-time hourly earnings, excluding premium pay for overtime
and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.'
2 New Orleans and Seattle, included in the current studies, were not surveyed in 1953 (the base year of the indexes).
3 Fiscal years ending June 30. See table 3 for payroll periods covered in each area.
4 Not surveyed this period.
* Data were collected only for selected plant workers in manufacturing industries in Milwaukee and for plant workers in manufacturing and public utilities industries in St. Louis.
* Revised estimate.
7 Insufficient data to meet publication criteria.




10

T ab le 2 . Percent in cr e a se s, o ffic e an d plant
(Percent of increase in average weekly earnings or average hourly earnings 1 for selected periods* and selected occupational groups in 14 labor markets3)

Area

1953
to
1954

Women office workers
1954
1955
1956
to
to
to
1955
1956
1957

1957
to
1958

1953
to
1954

Industrial nurses (women)
1954
1955
1957
to
to
to
to
1958
1955
1957
1956

Skilled maintenance trades (men)
1T53
to
1954

1954
to
1955

1955
to
1956

1956
to
1957

1957
to
1958

Unskilled plant workers (nren)
1953
1954
1955
T9T7—
nm
to
to
to
to
to
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958

All industries
IlDrthcast:
Boston----------------------------------------Newark-Jersey C ity -------------------New York City ---------------------------Philadelphia -------------------------------South:
Atlanta ---------------------------------------Dallas ---------------------------------------Memphis -------- — ------ ----- --------North Central:
Chicago --------------------------------------Minneapolis-St. Paul -----------------St. Louis -----------------------------------West:
Denver ---------------------------------------Los Angeles-Long Beach -----------Portland -----------------------------------San Francisco- Oakland --------------

5.2
5. 7
4. 3
7. 1

2.9
3.9
3. 5
3. 4

(4)
3. 8
5.9
3. 4

(4)
<
4)
5.2
6. 5

5. 7
(4)
3. 5
5. 7

6. 5
5.2
4.2
7. 1

1.5
4. 3
5.4
3. 0

(4)
1.4
5. 1
4. 3

(4)
(4)
4.9
6.2

4. 8
(4)
4. 7
6. 5

5.3
5. 6
4. 5
7.2

1.9
3. 7
5. 0
4. 4

(4)
5.4
3.4
4. 0

(4)
(4)
3. 8
5.2

5.2
(4)
4. 3
5.2

5. 1
7. 1
5.4
4. 5

2.4
4.2
2.6
4. 3

(4)
6.0
5. 0
6. 0

(4)
(4)
5.3
4. 7

4. 7
(4)
4.6
6.0

3. 0
5. 6
4. 1

2.2
5.0
2. 1

6. 3
4.0
6. 5

3.4
5. 8
4. 3

5. 6
4. 3
2 .4

5. 3
(5)
6. 7

4. 3
7. 6
7. 1

9.0
2. 8
5.9

3. 8
6.9
4.2

5. 5
4. 5
3.3

5. 3
5.9
3. 5

2.9
3. 8
3. 0

5. 4
4. 6
8. 1

4. 3
3.4
5.4

6.2
4. 4
6. 3

5.9
3. 6
5.2,

1.8
3. 3
3. 5

13. 6
4. 7
7. 7

4.9
4. 0
7.2

5. 6
5.9
4. 5

5. 8
6.3
5. 7

3.6
3.3
4.2

4. 3
3. 8
4.2

5.4
6. 3
(7)

4. 7
3.0
(7)

5.9
9 .4
6.4

4.2
4.3
3. 0

6.0
3.4
6.6

5.0
5.3
(7)

6. 6
3. 8
(7)

6.3
6. 6
7. 1

3. 3
3. 3
3.2

5. 1
4.9
6. 1

5.0
5. 3
(7)

5.3
4. 1
(7)

5. 7
6.4
8. 5

3. 5
4.9
3.0

4. 6
4.9
4.4

4.0
8 6. 4
(7
)

4.9
5.2
(7)

5. 7
4. 6
4. 7
4. 4

2.9
3. 6
5.4
3.0

4.2
4. 7
5.2
4. 8

(4)
6.2
3. 6
5.0

(4)
3.3
5. 1
4.2

8.0
5.4
1.6
4.3

0
2. 5
6.9
6. 3

6. 7
4. 3
4. 3
2. 6

(4)
6.0
2. 1
6.4

(4)
5. 1
7.4
6.6

8. 1
5. 5
5. 5
4.0

4. 5
3.0
3.9
2 .4

7. 0
5. 6
4.9
3. 7

(4)
4.0
5. 5
7. 5

(4)
5. 3
5. 8
5.9

8.0
6.0
4.9
6. 1

5. 7
3.6
5.4
3.0 -

8.4
3.4
3.0
4.4

(4)
5.3
4. 6
5. 5

(4)
5.2
5.2
5.4

Manufacturing
Northeast:
Bos ton — — — —
— — ____.___________
Newark-Jersey C ity-------------------New York City ---------------------------Philadelphia -------------------------------South:
Atlanta ---------------------------------------Dallas ----------------------------------------Memphis ------------------------------------North Central:
Chicago ------ ------- ------ —. . . . — —
__
Minneapolis-St. Paul -----------------St. Louis -----------------------------------West:
I5enver ---------------------------------------Los Angeles-Long Beach -----------Portland
San Francis co-Oakland----------------

4.4
5.9
5.2
6. 6

2.3
3. 7
4. 7
4. 6

(4)
3.8
5. 3
2. 8

(4)
(4)
5.9
5. 1

6. 1
(4)
2.9
6.2

7.2
5.2
8.0
7.9

0. 7
4.3
7.4
2.9

(4)
1.4
5.0
5.0

(4)
(4)
4.8
6. 1

4. 1
(4)
5. 1
5. 7

5. 6
5. 5
5.2
7.2

1.9
3. 7
4.2
3.9

(4)
5. 8
3.2
3. 8

(4)
(4)
5. 5
5. 4

5. 4
(4)
3.9
5. 1

5. 5
7.8
6. 3
3. 3

3. 1
4. 1
3.8
4. 5

(4)
6.9
3.8
5. 5

(4)
(4)
7.5
4. 5

4. 6
(4)
5. 5
5. 8

3. 8
3. 3
2. 3

1.9
5.0
3.9

4.4
3.9
4. 7

5.0
5. 5
5. 6

6. 8
4. 6
4. 6

(8)
(5)
(*)

(8)
9.9
(8
)

8.8
1.4
(8)

5.0
7. 5
(8)

6.0
5. 1
(8)

4.9
7.0
1.6

3. 1
3.6
2. 3

5. 0
3. 5
8.9

3.9
4.2
4. 8

6. 8
4.4
5. 4

4.9
9.5
3.4

1. 7
4.0
4.2

11.4
1. 1
3. 6

6.6
5. 7
7.3

7. 3
4.4
5. 8

6.2
5. 8
5. 5

3.4
3. 6
3. 1

4.2
3. 4
4. 8

5.4
5. 3
(7)

5. 5
3.0
(7)

5.9
9 .4
5. 6

4.2
5.0
3. 8

6.0
2. 0
6.6

5.0
5.3
(7)

6.6
4.4
(7)

5. 8
6. 7
7.0

3. 1
1.4
2.9

5. 8
5.4
6.2

5. 5
5. 1
(7)

5. 3
4.4
(7)

4. 8
5. 8
7. 4

2. 7
4.8
2. 6

5.0
4.2
4.6

4.9
5.4
(7
)

5. 1
4.4
(7)

5. 8
5.2
4. 3
4.5

3. 8
3. 6
5. 6
2 .4

6. 1
4.3
4. 0
5.4

(4)
5.8
5.3
4. 7

(4)
4.4
3.8
4.2

(*)
6. 8
.8
5. 1

(8)
2.5
7. 8
6.2

(8)
4.3
5.0
2. 6

(4)
5.3
.7
7.0

(4)
5.6
7.5
6.5

9.2
5. 8
4. 6
4. 0

3. 1
2.9
4. 7
2.2

6.6
5. 8
5. 1
4. 1

(4)
4.0
6.2
8. 5

(4)
5. 5
6.2
6.4

12.4
4.9
5. 5
4.2

5. 8
3.5
6. 7
4.2

4. 3
3.9
3. 1
4. 3

(4)
4.4
4. 6
6.0

(4)
5.4
5.3
5.5

1 Average weekly earnings relate to standard salaries that are paid for standard work schedules. Average hourly earnings are straight-time hourly earnings excluding premium pay for overtime
and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
* Fiscal years ending June 30. See table 3 for payroll periods covered in each area.
3 Baltimore, Cleveland, Milwaukee, New Orleans, and Seattle were not surveyed in consecutive periods between 1953 and 1958.
4 Not surveyed during both periods.
5 Decrease. This decline was probably due to a change in employment rather than to a decline in salaries.
4 Revised.
7 Data were collected only for selected plant workers in manufacturing and public utilities industries during 1957.
8 Insufficient data to meet publication criteria.







11

T a b le 3 . P ayroll p e riod s c o v e r e d
{Payroll periods covered in the community wage surveys, 19 labor markets, 1953-581)
Area

1953

Northeast:
Boston_____ ______________ _
______
Newark-Jersey City
New York C ity ______ _ _
______
Philadelphia __
. _____ _ _
_
South:
Atlanta
_ _
___
Baltimore __ __ _ ___________
____
Dallas
.................................... ..
Memphis
....
.............
New Orleans
.
____ __ .
North Central:
Chicago
Cleveland __
Milwaukee
.
__
Minneapolis-St. Paul
St. Louis
_ ___ _

............
__

_

West:
Denver
_ _
Los Angeles-Long Beach
Portland
_ _ _ ___ _ .
_
San Francisco-Oakland________________
____ __
___
_
_ ___
Seattle __

1954

1955

1956

1957

March 195 3
March 1954
April 1955
September 1956
November 1952 December 1953 December 1954 December 1955
February 1953 February 1954 March 1955
April 1957
April 1956
November 1954 November 1955 November 1956
October 1952
October 1953

March 195 3
October 1952
August 1952
January 1953

March 1955
March 1954
April 1955
September 1953 September 1954
January 1954
February 1955
November 1953

1958

September 1957
December 1957
April 1958
October 1957

April 1956

April 1957
May 1958
August 1957
October 1955
October 1956
October 1957
February 1956 February 1957 January 1958
November 1955
February 1958

March 195 3
March 1954
October 1952
April 1954
April 1953
November 1952 November 195 3
December 1952 January 1954

April 1955
October 1954

April 1956

April 1958
June 1958
May 1958
January 1958
November 1957

November 1952
February1953
September 1952
January 1953

December 1954
March 1955
April 1955
January 1955

December 1955
March 1956
March 1957
April 1957
April 1956
January 1956
January 1957
August 1956

December 1957
March 1958
April 1958
January 1958
August 1957

December 195 3
March 1954
September 1953
January 1954

April 1957
October 1956
November 1955 April 1957*
November 1954 December 1955 March 1957
February 1955 February 1956 February19573

1 Fiscal years ending June 30.
Limited to plant workers in manufacturing industries.
3 Limited to plant workers in manufacturing industries and public utilities.




13

Wage Differences Among Labor Markets

The magnitude of wage differences between any two of the
areas studied varied somewhat among occupations, and in some ca se s,
between men and women in the same occupation.
Average pay for
men payroll clerks in B altim ore, for exam ple, exceeded that in San
Francisco-Oakland by $8 a week, whereas women payroll clerks were
higher paid in San Francisco-Oakland— earning $ 8 0 .5 0 , compared with
$66 in B altim ore.
Therefore, to get a more representative indicator
of interarea wage differences, area estimates were constructed for
groups of workers in office, skilled maintenance, custodial, and m a ­
terial movement jo b s .8 Interarea wage differences for these groups
of workers w ill not necessarily agree with m easures based on aver­
ages for broader groups of workers or occupational averages for a
specific industry.
The use of data for the same jobs in each labor m arket, to­
gether with the assumption of a constant employment relationship be­
tween jobs in all markets eliminates interarea differences in occupa­
tional composition as a factor in examining pay lev els.
Industrial
composition, however, varies substantially among labor m arkets,
particularly in manufacturing.
This type of variation is necessarily
reflected in the area estim ates.

Method of Computing A rea Relatives
The following method was used in computing the data used in
the com parisons.
For each area, aggregates for all industries com ­
bined and for manufacturing and nonmanufacturing separately were
computed by multiplying the average standard weekly salary for each
of 18 office jobs and the average straight-tim e hourly earnings (ex­
cluding premium pay for overtime and nightwork) for each of 17 plant
jobs by estimated total employment in the job in all industries and
areas combined.

8
The office occupations covered 5 m en's and 13 w om en’s
Men— clerk s, accounting, class A ; clerk s, accounting, class B; order
clerks; office boys; tabulating-machine operators; women— b ille r s,
machine (billing); bookkeeping-machine operators, class B; Com ptom eter operators; clerk s, accounting, class A ; clerk s, accounting, class B;
clerk s, file, class B; clerk s, payroll; key-punch operator s; secretaries;
stenographers, general; switchboard operators; typists, class A ; typ ists,
class B.
The plant jobs included 6 maintenance trades, 4 custodial
and 7 m aterial movement jobs:
Maintenance-—
automotive m echanics,
carpenters, electrician s, m achinists, m echanics, a n d p a i n t e r s ;
Custodial— guards, janitors, jan itresses, and watchmen; Material
—
movement— forklift operators; m aterial handling laborers; order fill­
e rs; packers, shipping; shipping and receiving clerks; truckdrivers,
medium; and truckdrivers, heavy trailer type.




For purposes of this comparison, aggregates for each occu­
pational group and industry group are expressed as percentages of like
groups in New York City, adjusted for differences in survey timing.
Wage data for New York City relate to A pril 1958, as did those for Chi­
cago and Portland. The other 16 areas were surveyed during the follow­
ing months:
1957— August— B altim ore, Seattle; September— Boston;
October—D allas, Philadelphia; November—St. Louis; December—Denver,
N ew ark-Jersey City; 1958— January— Mem phis, M inneapolis-St. Paul,
San Francisco-Oakland; February—New Orleans; March—Los A n gelesLong Beach; May—Atlanta, Milwaukee; and June—Cleveland.
The
adjustment for timing differences assum ed that New York City wages
increased uniformly over the 12-month period between annual studies
and that an intermediate level for any intervening month could be ob­
tained by adding the estimated wage increment to A pril 1957 pay levels.
The comparisons in the present study are comparable with analyses
made in the 1956-57 study but not with the unadjusted computations
for earlier y ears.

Interarea Comparisons
Office clerical pay levels in Chicago, Cleveland, Los A n gelesLong Beach, and San Francisco-Oakland were at 105 to 106 percent of
the New York City level (table 4 ) . 9 Office worker salaries in Milwau­
kee, N ew ark-Jersey City, Portland, and Seattle did not differ signifi­
cantly from those in New York City.
Clustered at 93 to 95 percent
of New York City pay were B altim ore, D allas, Denver, Philadelphia,
and St. Louis; below 90 percent were Boston, New O rleans, and
M em phis.
A rea pay relatives for manufacturing differed in both level and
rank from those for nonmanufacturing. With average salaries in New
York City manufacturing expressed as 100, manufacturing pay of office
workers in other areas ranged from 108 in the San Francisco Bay area
to 86 in Mem phis. In nonmanufacturing, pay relatives ranged from 105
in Chicago and Los A ngeles-L ong Beach to 83 in Memphis.
Pay r ela ­
tives tended to be higher in manufacturing than in nonmanufacturing.
Within both industry divisions, pay relatives for men office workers
jobs:
were higher than those for women in each of the 18 a reas.
M en’ s
salaries averaged less than 95 percent of the New York City level
in manufacturing only in New Orleans and in nonmanufacturing only in
Memphis and New O rleans.
For women, pay relatives were less than
95 in 7 areas in manufacturing and 11 areas in
nonmanufacturing.

9
If comparison were based on average hourly earnings instead
of average weekly sa la rie s, New York City would rank first among
these areas. Whereas general stenographers, for exam ple, average a
36-hour week in New York City, they averaged from 38.5 to 39. 5 hours
in the 4 areas with the highest salary levels.

14
Skilled maintenance w o r k e r s were highest paid
in San
Francis co-Oakland (114 percent of New York City) with relatives of
105 or higher also recorded in the 3 other West Coast areas, the
5 North Central areas, and in Newark-Jersey City (table 5).
Lowest
rates (91 percent of New York City) were found in Atlanta and Dallas.
Within manufacturing, pay relatives ranged from 111 in San FranciscoOakland to 89 in Atlanta and Memphis.
Nonmanufacturing relatives
for skilled maintenance workers were highest (120) in Chicago and low­
est (83) in Memphis. In four-fifths of the areas, average pay for skilled
maintenance workers in nonmanufacturing compared more favorably
with the New York City level than was the case in manufacturing.
All-industry averages for custodial workers were also highest
in San Francisco-Oakland; they were above New York City in all




areas except Boston, Philadelphia, St. Louis, Denver, and the 5 south­
ern areas.
In sharp contrast to pay relationships for skilled main­
tenance men, custodial pay in manufacturing in all areas compared
more favorably with the New York City level than did nonmanufac­
turing levels.
Excluding Baltimore, southern averages were 87 to
90 percent of New York City in manufacturing but 59 to 67 percent
in nonmanufacturing.
In summary, the wage spread between the highest and lowest
pay areas was greater for custodial workers than skilled maintenance
and office workers and, except for the latter, were substantially
greater in nonmanufacturing than in manufacturing.
With southern
areas excluded, the wage spreads were sharply reduced.

15
T a b le 4 . Interanea p a y com p arison s, o ffic e w o rk e r s
(Relative pay levels for office w ork ers in 19 labor m arkets by industry division and sex , winter 195 7-58 )
(New York City = 100)
A ll industries
Men
and
women

Labor m arket

Manufacturing
Women

89
99
100
94

96
107
100
100
96
106
101
96
92

105
106
98
91
95
94
106
99
105
100

Men
and
women

89
98
100
93

91
93
93
84
87

Northeast:
Boston ____ _____________________________ ________________
N ew ark -J e rsey City
__ ________ _______________
New York City _________ _____ ___ _________________
_____ ________ ___
Philadelphia __
__
South:
Atlanta _______________ _________________________________
B altim ore _______________ ________ ________
_ ___
Dallas __________ ___ _________________ _
_________
M em phis _______________________ ______________________
New O rleans _
__ __
North Central:
Chicago
_
_
__
_ _
Cleveland _________ ___________________ ____ _________ __
Milwaukee „ __________________________ _____
______
M in neapolis-S t. Paul _ _
_
___
St. Louis _
___
_
W est:
Denver ___ ___
___________ __ _______
______
Los A n g e le s-L o n g Beach
_
Portland __
_ __
__
__
__
_ __
San F ran cisco-O akland _______________________________
Seattle
______ ________ ______ _____________________

Men

N onmanufac tur ing
Men
and
women

Men

Women

89
97
100
93

96
104
100
99

88
96
100
92

89
98
100
92

95
108
100
100

88
97
100
91

90
92
92
82
87

95
97
97
86
89

97
106
107
97
93

95
96
96
85
89

90
89
91
83
87

96
105
98
94
92

90
87
90
81
87

111
117
109
100
103

105
105
96
90
93

103
107
97
88
93

110
117
107
97
103

102
105
96
87
92

105
101
94
92
93

110
111
104
102
100

104
100
92
90
92

98
111
113
112
110

93
106
97
104
99

94
107
96
108
103

96
110
107
112
115

94
106
95
108
102

94
105
100
104
98

99
110
/1 16
109
no

93
104
98
103
96

Men

Women

T ab le 5 . Interarea p a y c om p arison s, plant w ork e rs
(Relative pay levels for plant w ork ers in 19 labor m arkets by industry division and work category, winter 19 5 7 -5 8 )
(New York City = 100)

Labor m arket

Northeast:
Boston _____________________________________ ___________
N e w ark -J e rsey City ______ ________________________
New Y ork C i t y __ _________ ________ __________
Philadelphia _______ __________ __ ______ _ ---------South:
Atlanta _______________________________________________ _
B altim ore __ ____________ ________________________ Dallas ________________________ ____________ ________ M emphis _ _____ __________________________ ___________
New Orleans ____________________________________________
North Central:
r.lii rajro
Cleveland ____________ _________ ___________ ________
_
Milwaukee
fT 1 fr in
, l, w _____________ r
M in neapolis-S t. Paul _____ ________________ ____ _
St. Louis __ ---------------- ------ -------------------------------------W est:
Denver ____
____ _________ __________________________
Los A n g e le s-L o n g Beach __________________ _____ _
Portland ______ _ ______________________ : ____________
_
San F ran cisco-O akland _________________________ ___
Seattle __ _ ___ __ _________________________ _______




M aintenance,
custodial,
Maintenance
and
m aterial
movem ent

Nonmanufacturing

Manufacturing

A ll industries

Custodial

M aterial
m ovement

Maintenance,
custodial^
and
Maintenance
m aterial
movement

Custodial

M aterial
m ovement

Maintenance,
custodial (
and
Maintenance
m aterial
m ovement

Custodial

M aterial
movement

93
108
100
100

94
106
100
104

95
106
100
96

91
110
100
100

93
109
100
99

93
104
100
101

99
110
100
103

89
111
100
96

92
107
100
99

94
115
100
106

88
98
100
86

93
109
100
103

83
94
80
78
75

91
101
91
92
95

77
90
77
75
64

82
94
78
74
72

82
96
85
81
80

89
99
90
89
92

88
102
90
87
87

77
92
80
74
70

82
87
75
73
74

95
94
86
83
95

67
73
67
63
59

84
92
75
74
73

106
108
107
104
102

112
106
107
105
108

105
107
106
103
97

104
109
108
104
102

103
107
106
102
103

105
103
104
101
104

109
114
112
109
106

99
105
103
99
100

108
106
105
106
99

120
107
110
112
111

101
92
89
96
80

107
112
111
108
105

97
108
106
115
107

101
108
109
114
106

95
109
106
118
109

97
108
105
114
106

98
107
105
114
106

99
104
105
111
100

104
115
110
124
112

95
103
102
111
106

97
109
106
116
108

105
114
no
114
109

86
102
99
113
105

99
111
108
118
109




17

Occupational Earnings

Occupational pay differed widely among and within areas.
Among the 19 labor markets surveyed, occupational averages were
nearly always highest in San Francisco-Oakland, Los Angeles-Long
Beach, Chicago, or Cleveland. 10 Among the office jobs studied, men
payroll clerks and class B accounting clerks in Baltimore were the
only jobs in which average salaries exceeded the salaries of similar
workers in all four of the above areas. The only exceptions in mainte­
nance and powerplant jobs studied were in Milwaukee; oilers in this
area were the highest paid among the 19 areas and Milwaukee rates
for maintenance machinists were equaled only by Chicago. Among the
custodial, warehousing, and shipping jobs studied, truckdrivers in
Newark-Jersev City and New York City and operators of forklift power
trucks in New York City were the highest paid among the 19 areas. Men
leader and senior draftsmen, the highest paid in New York City, were
the exceptions among professional and technical occupations studied.
In general, average earnings of plant and office workers
tended to be higher in manufacturing than in nonmanufacturing indus­
tries and within these groups pay levels varied widely. Average rates
in individual nonmanufacturing industries, however, frequently equaled
or exceeded those in manufacturing.
Most of the higher than manu­
facturing averages were found in public utilities, followed by wholesale
trade and, chiefly in some maintenance jobs, by retail trade.
To
illustrate, salaries of secretaries in manufacturing exceeded those in
nonmanufacturing in 18 of the 19 labor markets, but in the 18 areas
where comparisons were possible, salaries of secretaries employed
by public utilities exceeded those paid in manufacturing in 13 areas
and were the same in another area.
Similarly, maintenance carpen­
ters generally averaged higher pay in retail trade than in manufac­
turing plants.
In using the accompanying tables, it should be noted that all
figures are averages, and that a very substantial overlapping of in­
dividual earnings were found among industry divisions and labor m ar­
k e ts.11 For example, even though secretaries in Cleveland averaged
$85 a week in nonmanufacturing industries as a group, compared with
$74.50 in Philadelphia, over a tenth of the Philadelphia secretaries
were earning more than $90, whereas two-thirds of the Cleveland
secretaries earned less than this figure.
Secretaries in Philadelphia
public utilities averaged $ 9 9 .5 0 , compared with $95 in Cleveland
public utilities.

Office Occupations. —Secretaries were the highest paid women
office workers studied in 18 of the 19 areas (table A - l ) .
Their av­
erage weekly salaries ranged from $66 in Memphis to $89.50 in
Cleveland* and exceeded $75 in all other areas except Boston and
Minneapolis-St. Paul (table A - l ) .
Women accounting clerks (class A)
had average salaries that were from $1 to $8 lower than those of
secretaries in all areas except Memphis where accounting clerks av­
eraged $1.50 a week more ($ 6 7 .5 0 ).
The difference between the
salaries of secretaries and general stenographers ranged from $7.50
in Memphis to $17 in Milwaukee.
Salaries of stenographers exceeded
$60 in all areas except Memphis (58.50) and were highest in Lofc
Angeles-Long Beach ($75), although they were nearly as high ($74)
in Chicago, Cleveland, and San Francisco-Oakland.
Among the lower paid women office jobs, average salaries
of office girls ranged from $40.50 in New Orleans to $57.50 in Cleve­
land, Los Angeles-Long Beach, and San Francisco-Oakland.
Among the 6 men’s office jobs studied, class A accounting
clerks had the highest weekly salaries, averaging from $8 3.50 in
Boston to $102 in Cleveland.
In 13 of the 19 areas, they averaged
$90 or more a week.
Salaries of men office workers exceeded those
for women in similar occupations.
The average amount by which
men's salaries exceeded those of women were as follows: Order
clerks, $2 0 .5 0 ; payroll clerks, $1 7 .5 0 ; accounting clerks (class A),
$16.5 0; accounting clerks (class B), $ 13.50; and tabulating-machine
operators, $10; differences in averages for office boys and office girls
were small.
Although available information does not permit an exhaustive
analysis of the differences between men’ s and women’s average sala­
ries, certain conclusions can be drawn from data for individual offices.
For example, although men tabulating-machine operators in St. Louis
averaged $9 more a week than women, men and women both averaged
$81 in establishments employing both sexes in the job.
The higher
average for men reflects the fact that the average was $87 in offices
reporting only men in the job, compared with $68 in offices reporting
only women.

Among the 6 office jobs for which data were collected for
both men and women, the greatest difference in their average sala­
ries was for payroll clerks in Baltimore; men averaged $100 a week,
10
For a more detailed description of intercity wage differences,
compared with $66 for women.
Men payroll clerks in Baltimore av­
see Wage Differences Among Labor Markets, p. 13.
eraged $102.50 in establishments which reported only men in this
l * The distribution of workers by average hourly or weekly
job, $37.50 higher than the average for women in establishments re ­
earnings are presented in the bulletins for the various areas.
See
porting only women payroll clerks.
In nearly a third of the Baltimore
offices employing both men and women payroll clerks, the highest
last page for listing of triese bulletins.




18

paid individuals in the job were women.
In offices employing both
men and women payroll clerks, men averaged $87, compared with
$76 for women— an $11 difference, compared with the $34 difference
in the overall average.
It should be noted further that more than nine-tenths of the
men payroll clerks in Baltimore were found in manufacturing estab­
lishments whose averages were generally higher than those in non­
manufacturing, whereas nearly half of the women were employed in
the latter type of establishment.
Job descriptions used in classifying employees in these sur­
veys were usually more generalized that those used in individual e s ­
tablishments to allow for minor differences among establishments in
specific duties perform ed.12 Moreover, it can be conjectured that
women generally had less service than men in a job.
To the extent
that individual salaries were adjusted on the basis of length of serv­
ice or merit review, longer average service for men would result in
higher average pay when both sexes are employed within the same
rate range.
For information by industry groups for office workers, see
tables A - 2 to A - 8.
Professional and Technical Occupations. — Among the profes­
sional and technical workers covered by the survey, draftsmen leaders
had the highest weekly salaries— from $112.50 in Seattle to $159 in
New York City. Senior draftsmen averaged $110 or more in 7 of the
19 areas, and in 9 of the other 12 areas their earnings ranged from
$105 to $1 0 9 .5 0 .
In the remaining 3 areas, senior draftsmen av­
eraged $92 in Dallas, $96.50 in Seattle, and $101.50 in MinneapolisSt. Paul.
Weekly pay of industrial nurses— the only profession in which
women's earnings were studied— ranged from $76.50 in Boston to
12
This is essential to permit grouping of occupational
rates representing comparable job content.
The job descriptions used
are in appendix C, p. 87.




$93.5 0 in Los Angeles-Long Beach. In 17 of the 19 areas, their sala­
ries exceeded salaries of secretaries, generally the highest paid
women's office job studied, by from $1 .5 0 to $ 1 1 .5 0 .
In Milwaukee,
nurses and secretaries averaged the same and in Portland, nurses
salaries were 50 cents a week less than secretaries salaries.
For information by industry groups for professional and tech­
nical occupations, see tables A -2 , A -3 , and A -4 .
Plant Occupations. — Tool and die makers, the highest paid
skilled maintenance workers studied, had average hourly earnings
ranging from $2 .5 4 in Dallas to $ 3.15 in San Francis co-Oakland
(table A -9 ).
In all the North Central and western areas, except
Denver, tool and die makers averaged $2.81 or more an hour.
Bal­
timore tool and die makers, averaging $2.79 an hour, were the high­
est paid among the northeastern and southern areas.
Maintenance electricians and machinists averaged $ 2 .4 0 or
more an hour in all areas except Dallas.
In each of these trades,
average rates exceeding $2 .7 5 were recorded in all but 1 of the North
Central and Pacific Coast labor markets.
Hourly earnings of mainte­
nance carpenters were below $2.40 in Boston and all 5 of the southern
areas. Maintenance painters averaged less than $2.40 in Boston, New
York City, Philadelphia, and the 5 southern areas but more than $2.75
in Chicago, Minneapolis-St. Paul, and Portland (Oreg.).
Janitors in San Francisco-Oakland averaged $ 1 .9 0 — 83 per­
cent more than in New Orleans.
Excluding the southern areas, the
difference between the highest and lowest area averages for janitors
was only 28 percent.
Among the jobs studied, the greatest difference
in average hourly earnings between areas was for women operators of
passenger elevators. Their average hourly earnings in San FranciscoOakland ($1.83) were more than 3 times as high as in Atlanta (60 cents).
Average hourly earnings of material handling laborers in the south­
ern areas, excluding Baltimore, ranged from $1.38 in Memphis to
$1.52 in Atlanta.
Laborers averaged $1 .6 7 in Boston, $1.79 in
Baltimore, $ 1.83 in Philadelphia, $1 .8 8 in New York City, and $1.90
or more in the other 11 areas.
v/age
For information by industry groups for plant occupations, see
tables A - 10 to A - 16.

19

A* Occupational Earnings
Table A-L Office occupations-all industries
(Average weekly earnings 1 for selected occupations studied in 6 broad industry divisions, winter 1957-58)
Northeast
Sex, occupation, and grade

NewarkBoston2- Jersey
City2

New
York
City2

South

Phila­
delphia* Atlanta

Balti­
more

North Central
West
Los
San
New
Minne­
leve­
Dallas Memphis2 Orleans Chicago2 Cland2 Milwau­ apolis- St. Louis2 Denver Angeles - Portland FranSeattle 2
kee
Long
cis co St. Paul
Beach2
Oakland2

Office clerical

Men
Clerks:
Accounting, class A --------------------Accounting, class B -------------- —
O r d e r---- --- _ ------------------- ----_
Payroll
__ __ _______ _ __ _
Tabulating-machine operators ______

$ 8 3 . 50
6 2 .0 0
80. 00
83. 50
47. 50
71. 00

$92.
81.
87.
86.
53.
79.

50
50
50
50
50
50

$ 9 1 . 50
69. 00
7 9 .0 0
79. 50
52. 00
76. 00

$ 9 1 . 50
66. 50
8 1 .0 0
80. 50
48. 00
7 5 .0 0

$ 8 7 . 50
70. 00
74. 50
8 2 .0 0
49. 00
76. 00

$ 9 3 . 50
83. 00
83. 00
1 0 0 .0 0
48. 00
80. 00

61. 50
5 2 .0 0

62. 50
57. 50

66. 00
68. 50

61. 00
58. 00

58. 00

-

6 3 .0 0
55. 50

7 3 .0 0
58. 00

74. 50
63. 50

67. 00
56. 50

68. 50
56. 50
58. 50
4 7 .0 0
58. 50
6 3 .0 0
57. 50

76.
62.
63.
50.
64.
71 .
68.

50
50
50
50
50
50
00

8 1 .0 0
64. 50
67. 50
54. 00
66. 00
75. 50
68. 50

5 3 .5 0
57. 50
47. 50
71. 50
61. 50
6 4 .0 0
58. 50

61.
63.
53.
83.
67.
72.
65.

50
50
50
00
50
50
50

58. 50
62. 50

$93.
73.
75.
82.
48.
76.

50
50
50
00
50
50

$ 8 9 . 50
7 2 .0 0
67. 00

58. 00
54. 50

60. 50
56. 50

5 5 ,0 0
45. 50

63. 00
59. 00

65. 50
51. 50

66. 50
55. 00

72. 50
57. 50
61. 50
47. 50
53. 50
6 5 .0 0
62. 00

74. 50
5 7 .0 0
60. 00
47. 50
5 6 .0 0
64. 50
62. 50

70. 50
5 8 .0 0
57. 50
4 6 .0 0
53. 50
66. 00
63. 50

70. 00
59. 50
58. 00
4 7 .0 0
58. 50
64. 50
61. 50

5 9 .0 0
63. 50
51. 00
85. 00
69. 00
82. 00
67. 50

55.
60.
46.
78.
64.
72.
60.

53.
60.
48.
77.
65.

56.
58.
46.
76.
64.

56. 50

57. 00

61. 00
59. 00
46. 50
7 7 .0 0
66. 50
83. 00
53. 50

43. 50

63. 50
69. 00

66. 50
72. 50

58. 50
65. 50

57. 50
63. 00

57. 50
65. 00

61. 00
68. 00

55. 00
68. 50

58. 50
58. 50
5 1 .0 0

62. 50
65. 00
55. 50

69. 00
66. 00
58. 50

58. 50
62. 50
52. 50

58. 00
59. 50
50. 00

60. 00
64. 00
51. 50

55. 50
59. 00
5 1 .0 0

1 4 2 .0 0
1 0 7 .0 0
79. 50
5 9 .0 0

126. 50
1 0 7 .5 0
80. 00
-

1 5 9 .0 0
1 2 6 .0 0
8 4 .0 0
78. 50

50
00
00
50

1 5 4 .0 0
1 0 5 .5 0
78. 00
-

135. 00
1 0 7 .0 0
74. 50
69. 00

76. 50

84. 50

90. 00

82. 00

86. 00

85. 00

50
50
50
50
50
00

$102. 00
83. 50
9 5 .0 0
90. 50
63. 00
97. 00

$ 9 9 .5 0
77. 50
83. 00
9 1 .0 0
56. 50
8 6 .0 0

$ 8 8 . 50
6 9 .0 0
84. 00
7 8 .0 0
49. 00
76. 00

$ 9 0 .0 0
73. 00
80. 50
86. 50
5 0 .0 0
83. 50

$ 8 7 . 50
7 5 .0 0
72. 00
80. 50
49. 50
78. 50

$ 9 5 .0 0
78. 00
91. 50
9 7 .0 0
5 9 .0 0
8 8 .0 0

$ 9 8 . 50

53. 00
47. 00

68. 50
65. 00

66. 50
71. 50

5 6 .0 0
59. 00

55. 50
61. 50

61. 50
63. 50

6 1 .0 0
55. 50

67. 00
71. 50

68. 00
52. 50

62. 00
52. 50

80. 50
68. 00

79. 00
64. 50

73. 50
60. 00

69. 00
56. 50

64. 50
56. 00

71. 00
56. 00

67.
54.
56.
46.
55.
59.
54.

50
50
00
50
50
50
50

7 4 .0 0
56. 00
59. 00
45. 50
56. 50
59. 00
58. 00

84.
68.
68.
55.
68.
76.
72.

00
00
00
50
00
50
00

81. 50
69. 00
69. 00
5 7 .0 0
68. 00
76. 00
71. 50

8 1 .0 0
62. 50
64. 50
5 6 .0 0
63. 50
67. 00
61. 00

73.
57.
59.
48.
59.
65.
62.

00
50
50
50
00
50
50

77. 00
58. 50
6 1 .0 0
50. 50
5 9 .0 0
65. 00
63. 50

72.
60.
61.
52.
56.
67.
60.

50
50
00
50

58.
40.
76.
62.

67. 50
71. 50
57. 50
89. 50
74. 00
82. 50
69 ..00

6 1 .0 0
63. 00
50. 00
83. 50
66. 50

46. 50

63. 50
69. 50
56. 50
87. 00
74. 00
83.. 50
68. 00

61. 50

53.
56.
46.
74.
62.
64.
60.

50
00
50
00
00
00
00

57.
62.
50.
79.
63.
69.
60.

56.
59.
47.
79.
66.
77.
56.

56. 50
71. 00

70. 00
77. 00

68. 00
77. 00

6 1 .0 0
72. 50

57. 00
67. 50

59. 00
74. 50

54. 00
58. 00
46. 50

60. 50
56. 00
50. 00

70. 00
7 1 .0 0
61. 00

69. 00
73. 00
62. 50

6 1 .0 0
67. 00
56. 50

58. 50
59. 00
52. 00

1 1 4 .5 0
9 2 .0 0
74. 00
61. 50

1 0 7 .5 0
66. 50
-

1 0 9 .5 0
75. 50
-

140. 00
1 2 1 .5 0
87. 00
70. 00

1 4 1 .0 0
117. 50
91. 50
84. 50

138. 50
1 1 0 .0 0
86. 00
66. 50

81. 00

77. 50

80. 00

89. 00

92. 00

83. 50

44. 50
82. 00

$87.
66.
66.
80.
44.
77.

00
00
00
50
50
00

$97.
77.
94.
91.
57.
85.

00
50
50
00
00
00

$ 9 3 .0 0
85. 00
87. 50
88. 50
55. 00
83. 00

6 3 .0 0
5 8 .0 0

74. 50
66. 50

60. 50
68. 50

81. 50
62. 00

76. 00
59. 50

8 1 .0 0
60. 50

72. 50
58. 00

00
00
50
50
00
00
50

84.
70.
67.
55.
75.
78.
76.

00
00
50
00
50
50
00

79.
67.
63.
49.
63.
70.
67.

79.
68.
71.
55.
76.
80.
72.

74. 00
62. 50
67. 50
54. 50
65. 50
7 1 .0 0
66. 00

50
50
50
00
50
00
50

66.
74.
57.
87.
75.
84.
70.

50
00
50
00
00
50
00

6 1 .0 0
67. 00
4 9 .0 0
80. 50
69. 00

60. 00
70. 50

70. 00
85. 50

60. 00
62. 50
53. 50

60. 00
59. 50
5 3 .0 0

1 0 1 .5 0
80. 50
61. 00

1 4 2 .0 0
112. 50
8 4 .0 0
69. 00

82. 00

80. 50

91. 50
54. 50
96. 00

$95.
84.
91.
92.
58.
85.

Women
Billers, machine:
Billing m achine__ ______________
Bookkeeping machine _____ _____
Bookkeeping-machine operators:
Class A __________________________
Class B - ______________________
Clerks:
Accounting, class A ------------------ _
Accounting, class B ______ ,_______
File, class A — ------ _ „ ---------File, class B ____ _________ __ _
O r d e r_
_ _ __ _____ _________
P a y ro ll_________________ ____ •
—
Comptometer operators ________ __
Duplicating-machine operators
(mimeograph or ditto) -------------------Key-punch operators ----------- — __
Office girls _ __ ________________
Secretaries _________________________
Stenographers, general ___________
Stenographers, technical ___________
Switchboard operators ______________
Switchboard operatorreceptionists ____ _______ _____
Tabula ting-machine op era tors______
Transcribing-machine operators,
general __________________________ _
Typists, class A ___ ______________
Typists, class B ____________________

00
00
50
00
50
50
50

00
00
00
50
50

00
50
00
00
00

58.
45.
66.
58.

50
50
50
00

50
50
50
00
50
50
50

00
00
50
50
50
50
00

50
50
50
00
00
50
00

60. 50

66. 00
68. 00
57. 50
85. 00
7 4 .0 0
72. 50
68. ^0

54.
65.
55.
82.
69.
71.
64.

50
50
50
00
50
50
*0

64. 00
8 2 .0 0

68. 00
80. 50

64. 00
73. 50

66. 50
70. 50
60. 50

62. 50
64. 50
56. 50

68. 50
70. 50
59. 50

6 1 .0 0
65. 00
54. 50

1 5 0 .0 0
122. 00
81. 00
-

1 4 1 .0 0
1 1 1 .50
85. 00
-

105. 00
88. 00
-

124. 00
1 0 8 .5 0
85. 50

112. 50
96. 50
73. 50
-

81. 00

93. 50

80. 00

Professional and technical

Men
Draftsmen, leader ______________
„
Draftsmen, s e n io r__________________
Draftsmen, junior _____ ___________
Tracers --------------------------------------------

148.
105.
82.
59.

-

Women
Nurses, industrial (reg istered )_____

1 Earnings relate to standard salaries that are paid for standard work schedules.
2 Exceptions to the standard industry limitations are shown in footnotes 4 and/or 7 to the table in appendix B.
NOTE: Dashes indicate no data reported or data that do not meet publication criteria.




89. 00

89. 00

20

Table A-2. Office occupations-manufacturing
(A verage weekly ea rn in g s^ o r selected occupations studied in manufacturing, winter 1 9 5 7 -5 8 )
South

N ortheast

Boston

N ew arkJ erse y
City

New
York
City

P hila­
delphia

Atlanta

$ 9 1 .5 0
6 3 .0 0
79. 50
47. 50
7 2 .0 0

$ 9 2 .0 0
74. 50
9 2 .0 0
8 4 .0 0
5 4 .0 0
8 4 .5 0

$ 9 4 . 50
74. 50
8 0 .0 0
8 4 .0 0
52. 50
7 9 .0 0

$ 9 1 . 50
73. 50
7 9 .0 0
8 0 .5 0
49 . 50
8 0 .5 0

$ 9 0 .0 0
7 2 .5 0
74. 50
80. 00
5 1 .0 0
89. 00

Sex, occupation, and grade

B alti­
m ore

D allas

North C entral

Memphis

New
Chicago
Orleans

C lev e­
land

W est

M inne­
M ilw au­
apolis - St. Louis
kee
St. Paul

Denver

Los
San
A n g e le sFran Portland
Long
c is c o Beach
Oakland

Seattle

Office clerical
Men
C lerk s:
Accounting, class A ----------Accounting, class B -----------

Office b o y s --------------------------------Tabulating-m achine operators

$ 9 6 .0 0 $ 1 0 2 .5 0
7 8 .0 0
7 9 .0 0
84. 50
1 0 0 .5 0
85. 50
5 2 .0 0
4 9 .0 0
8 4 .5 0
87. 50

$ 9 1 .0 0
8 6 .0 0

$ 8 7 . 50
6 9 -0 0
6 9 .0 0
8 1 .0 0
46. 50

$ 9 9 .0 0 $1 0 5 .0 0
8 2 .0 0
86. 50
9 8 .0 0
9 2 .0 0
9 1 .5 0
93 . 50
5 9 .0 0
63. 50
8 8 .0 0 1 0 1 .0 0

$101. 00
8 0 .0 0
84. 00
9 0 .0 0
5 7 .0 0
8 9 .0 0

$ 8 4 . 50
6 9 .0 0
8 7 .5 0
-

4 9 .0 0
7 9 .5 0

$ 9 2 .0 0
8 0 .0 0
8 3 .5 0
8 7 .0 0
5 2 .0 0
8 3 .5 0

$ 8 7 .0 0
75. 50
75. 50
78. 50
-

$ 9 7 .5 0
7 6 .5 0
9 1 .0 0
9 7 .5 0
6 3 .5 0
8 9 .0 0

-

98 . 50
-

5 0 .0 0

$ 9 8 .0 0
8 9 .0 0
9 6 .5 0
97 . 50
5 8 .0 0
88. 00

$ 9 2 .0 0
-

6 3 .5 0
“

'

W omen
B ille r s , m achine:
Billing m a c h i n e ---------------------------------Bookkeeping machine ----------------------B ookkeeping-m achine op erators:
C lass A ----------------------------------------------C lass B ----------------------------------------------C lerk s:
Accounting, class A ------------------------Accounting, class B ------------------------F ile , class A -------------------------------------F ile , class B ------------------------------------Order --------------------------------------------------P a y r o l l -----------------------------------------------C om ptom eter operators -----------------------D uplicating-m achine operators
(m im eograph or ditto) ---------------------Key-punch op era to rs------------------------------Office girls
------------------------------------------S ecretaries
-----------------------------------------Stenographers, general -----------------------Stenographers, technical --------------------Switchboard operators --------------------------Switchboard op eratorreceptionists —
Tabulating-m achine o p e r a t o r s ------------Tran scrib in g-m achin e op erators,
general -------------------------------------------------Typists, class A -----------------------------------T yp ists, class B ------------------------------------

$ 9 4 .0 0

5 9 .0 0
-

6 1 .5 0
6 0 .0 0

66. 50
6 8 .0 0

6 1 .5 0
64. 50

6 2 .5 0
-

58. 50
-

6 0 .0 0
-

5 6 .5 0
“

6 0 .0 0
-

6 8 .5 0
-

68. 50
-

6 1 .0 0
“

70. 00
6 1 .0 0

7 7 .0 0
65. 00

76. 50
68. 50

69. 50
6 1 .0 0

7 6 .5 0
6 4 .0 0

68. 00
62. 00

7 2 .5 0
6 1 .0 0

6 8 .0 0
6 1 .5 0

6 5 .0 0
63. 50

8 0 .0 0
7 1 .5 0

79. 50
68. 50

78. 00
63. 50

60. 50

7 2 .5 0
62. 50

7 0 .5 0
6 0 .5 0
5 9 .5 0
50. 50
58. 50
6 2 .0 0
63. 50

79.
62.
69.
56.
67.
72.
68.

50
50
00
50
50
50
50

8 3 .0 0
6 7 .0 0
7 3 .0 0
58. 50
6 5 .5 0
75. 50
7 1 .0 0

77. 50
6 0 .0 0
6 4 .0 0
53. 50
5 8 .5 0
6 6 .5 0
6 4 .0 0

7 6 .5 0
62. 50
5 8 .0 0
6 1 .5 0
56. 50
6 4 .0 0
7 5 .0 0

7 6 .0 0
67. 00
57. 50
50. 50
67. 50
67. 50

8 2 .5 0
6 5 .0 0
63. 0b
59. 50
65. 50
6 6 .0 0
68. 50

7 2 .5 0
5 9 .0 0
5 6 .5 0
4 9 .5 0
58. 50
6 2 .5 0
6 6 .0 0

74. 50
5 7 .5 0
6 3 .5 0
6 2 .0 0
67. 50

86. 50
7 1 .5 0
6 9 .5 0
5 9 .0 0
7 2 .5 0
7 6 .5 0
75. 50

88. 00
74. 00
7 0 .0 0
62. 00
6 9 .0 0
79. 00
74. 50

82. 50
67. 00
68. 00
6 2 .5 0
57. 50
67. 50
65. 50

73. 50
5 9 .0 0
58. 00
4 9 .5 0
6 3 .0 0
6 4 .0 0
6 4 .0 0

8 0 .0 0
6 1 .0 0
6 2 .5 0
5 1 .5 0
6 1 .5 0
6 2 .0 0
6 4 .0 0

68. 00
6 5 .0 0

5 3 .0 0
5 9 .5 0
56. 00
74. 50
64. 00
64. 00
66. 50

6 1 .0 0
67. 00
5 1 .0 0
8 9 .0 0
72. 50
84. 50
72. 50

5 9 .0 0
63. 00
5 0 .0 0
81. 50
6 7 .0 0
74. 50
68. 50

_

68. 00
53. 50
83. 50
70. 50
7 0 .0 0
7 1 .5 0

73. 50
8 1 .0 0
70. 00
73. 50

5 7 .0 0
62. 00
50. 50
82. 00
6 5 .0 0
71. 00
6 9 .5 0

6 1 .0 0
7 1 .0 0

6 3 .0 0
72. 50

67. 00
75. 00

59. 50
74. 50

63. 50
57. 00
54. 00

64. 50
6 6 .0 0
58. 50

70. 00
73. 00
62. 50

1 5 0 .5 0
1 0 4 .5 0
7 9 .0 0

1 2 7 .0 0
1 0 7 .0 0
82. 50
"

84. 50

_

62. 50
-

6 8 .5 0
74. 50

6 7 .0 0
-

8 1 .0 0
-

82. 50
7 6 .5 0

7 7 .5 0
64. 50

8 3 .5 0
74. 50

6 7 .5 0

8 5 .5 0
7 2 .0 0
7 4 .5 0
6 6 .0 0
75. 00
78. 50
7 9 .0 0

8 1 .5 0
67. 50
5 6 .5 0
7 1 .0 0
7 0 .0 0

8 6 .5 0
77. 00
7 6 .5 0
64. 50
7 9 .0 0
8 1 .0 0
7 4 .0 0

8 6 .0 0
72. 00
6 6 .0 0
6 8 .0 0
7 5 .0 0
7 0 .0 0

68. 00
81. 50
70. 00
68. 50

7 1 .0 0
75. 50
59. 50
87. 50
78. 00
89. 50
78. 50

60. 50
55. 00
79. 50
70. 50
-

67. 50
72. 00
6 1 .0 0
90 . 50
78. 00
7 9 .0 0

67. 50
62. 50
8 6 .0 0
72. 00
7 0 .0 0

_

65. 50
7 9 .0 0
6 2 .0 0
-

_

_

_

_

_

82 . 00
72. 00
68. 50

6 6 .0 0
56. 00
8 0 .0 0
73. 50
67. 00

6 4 .0 0
4 7. 50
67. 50
63. 50
-

74. 50
79. 50
65. 50
“

62. 50
7 1 .0 0
59. 50
88. 50
7 5 .0 0
8 6 .0 0
74. 50

69. 00
75. 00
60. 50
9 2 . 50
77. 50
82. 50
77. 50

64.
66.
54.
85.
68.
74.

00

58. 00
46. 50
76. 00
6 2 .0 0
65. 00

5 6 .0 0

58. 00
-

6 1 .5 0
-

57. 50
-

5 6 .0 0
-

7 1 .0 0
-

69. 50
86. 50

64. 00
76. 50

5 9 .0 0
-

5 9 .5 0
75. 50

58. 00
-

7 1 .0 0
86. 50

6 5 .0 0
"

69. 00
82. 50

65. 50
-

59. 00
6 7 .0 0
54. 50

5 9 .0 0
6 9 .0 0
56. 00

64. 50
6 6 .0 0
6 1 .0 0

56. 00
6 3 .0 0
59. 00

54. 50
6 0 .0 0
5 1 .0 0

6 2 .0 0
5 2 .0 0

70. 50
7 2 .0 0
63. 00

71. 00
76. 00
66. 50

62. 00
70. 50
5 9 .0 0

58. 50
58. 50
5 4 .0 0

60. 50
65. 00
57. 00

65. 00
6 1 .5 0
55. 50

65. 00
75. 00
67. 00

6 4 .0 0
71. 00
60. 50

72. 50
76. 50
65. 50

68. 50
6 1 .5 0

158. 50
114. 50
7 7 .0 0
■

149. 50
1 0 4 .0 0
82. 50
59. 50

1 0 5 .0 0
8 0 .0 0
“

13 5.50
1 0 8 .5 0
78. 50
6 9 .0 0

1 0 2 .0 0
9 1 .0 0
74. 00
“

1 0 9 .5 0
6 9 .0 0
”

1 1 0 .0 0
7 3 .5 0
”

1 3 6 .5 0
1 1 7 .0 0
84. 50
69. 50

1 4 1 .0 0
117. 50
9 0 .0 0
8 4 .0 0

136. 50
1 1 0 .0 0
85. 50
66. 50

1 0 1 .5 0
80. 50
6 1 .0 0

1 4 3 .5 0
1 1 3 .0 0
8 3 .0 0
-

1 2 2 .5 0
98 . 50
75. 50

1 4 1 .5 0
109. 50*
8 2 .5 0

106. 50
88. 50

1 2 3 .0 0
1 1 0 .0 0
8 7 .0 0

'

'

'

'

9 2 . 50

8 3 .0 0

8 9 .0 0

87. 00

82. 50

-

8 3 .0 0

8 9 .0 0

9 2 .0 0

83. 50

82. 50

80. 50

8 3 .0 0

9 4 . 00

7 9 .0 0

9 0 .0 0

65. 50
66. 50

00
50
00
50
00

_

Professional and technical
Men
D raftsm en , leader ---------------------------------D raftsm en , senior ---------------------------------D raftsm en, junior ---------------------------------T r a c ers ---------------------------------------------------

9 5 .5 0
72. 00
”

Women
N u r se s, industrial (registered )

76. 50

1 Earnings relate to standard sa la rie s that are paid for standard work schedules.
N O TE :

Dashes indicate no data reported or data that do not m eet publication c rite ria .




9 0 .0 0

21

Table A-3. Office occupations-nonmanufacturing
( A v e r a g e w e e k ly e a r n i n g s 1 f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s s tu d ie d in n o n m a n u fa c t u r in g ,

North*:ast
Sex, occupation, and grade

Newark Boston2 Jersey
City2

New
York
City2

South

Phila­
delphia2 Atlanta

Balti­
m ore

w in te r

1 9 5 7 -5 8 )

North C entral

Dallas M em p his2

New
Orleans

C hicago2

C le v e ­
land2

//e s t

M inneM ilw au­
a p o lis- St. L o u is2 Denver
kee
St. Paul

Los
San
A n g e le s F ran Portland
Seattle2
Long
c is c o B each2
Oakland2

O
ffice clerical
Men
Clerks:
Accounting, class A ___________ _ $ 8 0 .0 0
Accounting, class B ...................... *
6 1 .5 0
Order ________________ ___ ________
8 0 .0 0
Payroll__*_________ *_____________
Office boys _____ *___________________
4 7 .5 0
6 9 .5 0
Tabulating-machine operators _____

$ 9 3 .5 0
8 7 .0 0
8 3 .5 0
5 3 .5 0
7 6 .0 0

$ 9 0 .5 0
6 7 .5 0
7 9 . 00
7 7 .5 0
5 2 .0 0
7 5 .0 0

$ 9 2 .0 0
64. 00
8 2 .0 0
81. 50
4 7 .5 0
7 0 . 00

$ 8 7 .0 0
69. 00
7 4 .5 0
84. 00
4 9 .0 0
7 2 .0 0

6 4 .0 0
5 0 .0 0

6 4 .0 0
5 5 .0 0

66 . 00
6 8 .5 0

60 . 50
5 4 .5 0

56. 50

-

6 0 .0 0
5 4 .0 0

65 . 00
5 5 .5 0

7 3 . 50
6 3 .0 0

63. 00
5 6 .0 0

6 7 .5 0
5 5 .5 0
5 8 .0 0
4 6 . 00
5 8 .0 0
6 3 .5 0
5 6 .0 0

7 3 .5 0
6 2 .5 0
6 0 .5 0
4 9 .0 0
6 1 .0 0
6 8 .5 0
6 7 .0 0

8 0 .0 0
64 . 00
6 6 .0 0
5 3 .0 0
66. po
7 5 .5 0
6 8 .0 0
5 7 .0 0
6 2 .5 0
5 1 .0 0
8 3 .5 0
67. 50
7 9 . 50
6 6 .5 0

-

$ 8 9 .5 0
9 0 .5 0
81. 00

$ 8 9 .5 0
66. 00
7 3 .5 0
7 9 .0 0
4 7 .5 0
70 . 50

$ 8 7 .5 0

4 9 .5 0

60. 50
58. 00

69 . 50
5 7 .0 0
6 0 .5 0
4 6 .0 0
5 1 .0 0
6 2 .0 0
61. 00

-

$ 9 6 . 50
7 5 . 00
9 5 .5 0
9 1 .0 0
5 6 .5 0
83 . 00

$ 9 4 .0 0
7 6 .5 0
9 2 .5 0

$ 9 6 . 00
82. 50

$ 9 2 .0 0
6 8 .5 0
82. 50

$ 8 6 .5 0
6 9 .0 0
7 8 . 00

$ 8 7 .5 0
7 4 . 50
71. 00

4 3 . 00
78. 00

$ 8 6 . 50
6 5 .5 0
6 5 .5 0
8 0 .0 0
4 4 . 00
7 4 .5 0

6 2 .0 0
8 7 .5 0

54. 00
7 9 .0 0

4 9 . 00
7 4 .5 0

4 8 .0 0
8 3 .0 0

6 0 .5 0
56. 00

52. 50
4 5 .5 0

50. 50
4 7 .0 0

6 8 .5 0
63 . CC

6 2 .5 0

-

54. 00
5 8 .5 0

55. 00
6 1 .5 0

62. 50
4 9 .5 0

65. 50
53. 50

6 8 .0 0
5 0 .5 0

6 0 .0 0
5 1 .0 0

8 0 .5 0
6 7 .6 6

7 7 .5 0
6 3 .0 0

5 8 .0 0

7 4 .0 0
56. 00
5 8 .0 0
4 7 .0 0
56. 00
64. 50
61. 50

6 8 .0 0
5 5 .5 0
5 8 .0 0
4 5 . 00
52. 00
64 . 00
61. 50

68. 00
58. 00
57. 00
4 5 . 5C
54. 00
6 4 .0 0
5 9 .5 0

66. 00
53. 50
56. 00
4 6 .0 0
52. 50
55. 50
51. 00

74. 00
5 5 .0 0
5 7 .5 0
4 5 . 50
55. 00
5 7 . 00
5 6 .0 0

8 2 .5 0
66 . 50
6 7 .5 0
54. 50
65 . 50
7 6 .5 0
7 0 .0 0

77. 50
64. 00
6 7 .5 0
54. 00
6 5 .5 0
7 0 . 50
6 7 .5 0

50. 50
5 7 .5 0
4 7 .5 0
7 6 .5 0
6 4 .5 0

4 7 .0 0
5 5 .0 0
4 5 . 00
71. 50
5 7 .0 0

53. 00
58. 50
60. 00

-

4 6 . 50
7 4 .5 0

-

66. 00

-

-

-

-

$ 1 0 0 .5 0

50. 00
77 . 00

$ 9 1 . 50
7 8. 50
91. 50
96. 00
5 7 . 00
8 7 .0 0

6 1 .0 0

-

61. 00
53. 50

6 7 .5 0
55. 00

6 2 .0 0
5 3 .5 0

73. 00
5 7 .0 0
61 . 00
48. 50
5 7 .5 0
6 7 .0 0
6 2 .0 0

-

$ 9 3 .5 0

58. 50
9 7 .5 0

$ 9 0 . 50
V 7 .00
89. 00
86. 00
58. 00
83. 50

6 7 .0 0
68. 50

6 1 .5 0
55 . 50

72 . 00
6o. 00

60. 00
68. 50

70 . 50
55.50

8 1 .0 0
59. 50

59. 00

7 8 .0 0
5 9 .5 0

7 2 . 50
5 7 .5 0

7 3 . 50
5 7 .0 0
5 9 .5 0
4 9 . 50
5 7 .5 0
7 1 .0 0
6 3 .0 0

70. 50
59. 50
58. 50
50. 00
55. 50
66. 00
5 9 .5 0

82. 50
68. 50
65. 00
52. 00
76 . 50
7 9 .0 0
74 . 50

7 7 .5 0
6 7 .0 0
6 4 .0 0
4 6 . 50
6 3 .0 0
7 0 .0 0
66. 00

78 . 50
66 . 50
7 1 .0 0
54. 50
7 5 . 00
80. 00
71 . 00

71.00

6 1 .0 0
6 1 .5 0
4 9 . 00
65. 00
68 . 50
65. 00

-

-

64. 50
6 7 .0 0
5 4 .5 0
82. 00
7 2 .0 0

54. 00
6 3 .5 0
50. 00
7 7 .5 0
66. 00

60. 50
63. 00

-

67. 00
6 7 .0 0
79 . 50

62. 00
63. G
O
68. 50

-

-

-

87. 50

-

_

8 6 .0 0

_

51. 00
8 7 .5 0

Women
Billers, machine:
Billing machine _ * _____ _
_
^
Bookkeeping machine _ ______ _
_
Bookkeeping-machine operators:
Class A __________________________
Class B ________ _ ____ ___ _____
Clerks:
Accounting, class A _ ________
Accounting, class B _____________
File, class A ___________ __ __
File, class B ______ ______________
O rder__*_____________ .___j_______
___ ____ —
- ..... ,
Payroll
Comptometer operators _____________
Duplicating-machine operators
(mimeograph or ditto) __^
... ...
Key-punch operators ___ _____
Office g irls______________. . .._________
Secretaries___________ _________ ____
Stenographers, general_____ ________
Stenographers, technical _____ ___ __
Switchboard operators_________
Switchboard operator-receptionists
Tabulating-machine operators_____
Transcribing-machine operators,
general _______________________ ____
Typists, class A _________ __________
Typists, class B __
... ._
_ ____

-

-

5 6 .0 0
4 5 .0 0
7 0 .5 0
5 9 .5 0
6 4 .5 0
5 6 .5 0
5 7 .0 0
5 9 .5 0

6 0 .5 0
5 3 .5 0
8 2 .0 0
6 5 .0 0
7 4 .5 0
6 2 .0 0
6 4 .5 0
6 6 .0 0

56 . 00
6 0 .0 0
5 0 .0 0

-

_

-

-

56. 00
4 4 .0 0
65. 50
55. 50

5 6 .0 0
4 0 .0 0
7 5 .5 0
61 . 00

5 2 .5 0
57. 00
62 . 00

5 6 .0 0
4 4 .5 0
75. 50
62. 00
7 2 .5 0
5 0 .5 0
61. 00
66. 50

4 1 . 50
54. 00

4 5 .5 0
5 7 .0 0

-

6 5 . 00
6 8 .5 0
5 5 .0 0
8 5 .5 0
7 3 .0 0
8 2 .5 0
66. 00
69 . 00
7 6 .5 0

60. 00
55 . 50
4 9 .5 0

7 9 .5 0
6 0 .0 0

-

50. u0
5 8 .0 0
6 6 .5 0
5 8 .0 0

_

-

-

6 4 .0 0
5 4 .5 0
8 5 .0 0
6 9 . 00

5 8 .5 0
4 7 .5 0
8 0 .5 0
6 3 .0 0

58. 00
6 2 .5 0
5 1 .0 0
7 5 .5 0
62. 00

58. 00
4 7 .0 0
7 8 .5 0
65. 00

62. 00
6 5 .5 0

-

5 6 .5 0
5 7 .0 0
6 9 .0 0

5 4 .5 0
4 6 .5 0
7 3 .0 0
6 2 .0 0
6 4 .0 0
58 . 00
56 . 00
6 4 .5 0

55. 50
58. 50
7 4 . 00

54. 00
60. 50
68. 00

61. 50
7 2 .5 0
56. 00
86. 00
72. 50
80. 50
66. 50
69. 50
85. 00

6 9 .5 0
7 0 . 00
6 0 .0 0

6 5 .5 0
6 7 .0 0
59. 00

60 . 00
5 9 .5 0
53. 50

5 8 .5 0
5 9 .5 0
5 1 .5 0

5 9 .5 0
60 . 50
50. 50

5 7 .5 0
5 8 .5 0
5 2 .5 0

6 7 .0 0
67. 00
5 7 .5 0

6 2 .5 0
62. 50
5 5 .5 0

68 . 00
6 7 .5 0
58. 00

6 1 .0 0
61. 00
5 2 .0 0

72 . 00

5 8 .0 0
4 5 .0 0
7 4 .5 0
6 1 .5 0
6 7 .5 0
57. 50
57. 50
61. 00

6 1 .5 0
6 2 .5 0
54 . 00

6 9 .0 0
65. 00
5 7 .5 0

5 8 .5 0
58. 00
5 1 .0 0

58. 00
58. 00
4 9 .5 0

5 7 .5 0
58. 00
4 7 . 50

55. 50
58. 00
4 9 . 50

54. 00
56. 50
4 5 .5 0

1 1 0 .5 0
8 0 .5 0

111. 00
7 4 .5 0

1 3 4 .5 0
88. 50

110. 50
7 7 ,5 0

1 0 7 .0 0
75 . 00

1 0 2 .5 0
69. 00

9 5 .5 0
75 . 00

_

1 0 7 .5 0

_
-

.
-

1 0 1 .5 0
7 8 .5 0

1 0 9 .5 0
88. 00

88. 50

1 2 2 .5 0
100. 50

-

1 0 4 .5 0
8 1 .5 0

1 0 7 .0 0

-

126. 50
9 4 . 00

1 0 2 .0 0

'

7 5 .0 0

-

88. 50

7 8 .5 0

-

-

-

-

-

8 8 .5 0

-

-

-

-

-

8 9 .5 0

-

-

-

66. :o

-

-

_

-

_

-

-

-

-

7 0 . 00
4 7 .5 0
8 1 .0 0
68 . 50

-

-

-

professional a d technical
n
Men
Draftsmen, senior .___ .... .. _ ._
Draftsmen, junior
_ __ . ...____

-

-

Women
Nurses, industrial (registered) _ ___
_

1 Earnings relate to standard salaries that are paid for standard work schedules.
2 Exceptions to the standard industry limitations are shown in footnotes 4 and/or 7 to the table in appendix B.
NOTE: Dashes indicate no data reported or data that do not meet publication criteria.




22

Table A-4. Office occupations-public utilitiest
(A v e r a g e w e e k ly e a r n in g s 1 f o r

s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s s tu d ie d in t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ,

New arkB osto n 2 J ersey
City

an d o t h e r p u b lic u t i l i t i e s ,

South

Northeast
Sex, occupation, and grade

c o m m u n ic a tio n ,

New
Y ork
C ity2

P h ila­
delphia

Atlanta

B a lti­
m ore

D allas

w in te r

1 9 5 7 -5 8 )

North C entral
New
C le v e ­
M em p his2
C hicago2
Orleans
land2

Milw au­
kee

West

M innea p o lis- St. Louis
St. Paul

Denver

Los
San
A n g e le sF ran Portland
Seattle 2
Long
c is c o Beach 2
Oakland2

Office clerical
Men
C le r k s, accounting, c la ss A _______ _
C le r k s, accounting, c la s s B -------------- _
Office boys __ __ ------------- __ __ _____
Tabulating-m achine operators

$ 9 0 . 50
4 5 . 00
-

$ 8 9 . 00
-

_
"

$ 9 0 . 00
70. 50
75. 00

_

$ 101. 00 $ 101. 00 $ 1 0 2 .5 0
80. 00
80. 00
80. 50
53. 00
46 . 50
78. 50
8 9 .5 0
-

82. 50

-

$ 6 4 .0 0 $ 1 0 2 .0 0
6 5 .5 0
4 4 . 50
6 4 .5 0
8 9 .5 0

-

$ 9 9 . 50 $ 1 0 2 .5 0 $ 101. 00
69 . 00
-

$ 8 5 .5 0
-

$ 8 5 . 00
-

$ 9 0 . 00
87. 00

$ 1 0 3 .0 0
"

$ 9 7 . 50
8 3 .5 0
6 0 .5 0
8 8 .5 0

$ 8 9 .5 0
-

Women

B ille r s , machine (billing m ac h in e)----C le r k s :
Accounting, c la ss A
Accounting, c la ss B ________________
F ile , c la ss B _______
___ __
P a y ro ll __ __ _____ „ __ __
C om ptom eter op erators „ _____
K ey-punch operators ___________________
O ffice g ir ls ________ _____ __ _____
_____ __ „
__ _
S ec reta ries _
Stenographers, g e n e r a l______
_____
Switchboard operators
__ __ ________
Switchboard o p e r a to r -r e c e p tio n is ts __
Tabulating-m achine o p e r a t o r s ________
T y p ists, c la ss A
T y p ists, c la ss B

_

64. 50

71 . 00
84 . 00
6 2 .5 0
62 . 00
4 8 . 50
6 6 . 00
62 . 00
87. 00
85. 50
63 . 00
64. 50
67 . 00 - 6 6 .0 0
6 3 .0 0
6 6 . 00
50. 50
59. 00

_

_

91. 00
74. 00
58. 00
76. 50
74. 00
64. 50
4 9 . 00
93. 00
7 0. 00
71. 50
b 9 .5 0
67. 00
62. 00

83. 00
74. 00
57. 00
5 8 .5 0
9 9 .5 0
66. 00
7 0 , 50
65. 00
63. 50
56. 5C

119. 00
73 . 50

“

_
84.
61.
52.
7 0.
65.
66.
91.
68.
71.
59.

00
50
50
00
50
00
50
00
00

00

$ 7 0 . 00
57. 00
6 2 .5 0
56. 00
55. 00

68. 00
53. 50
67. 50
69. 00
66. 00
4 7 . 00
80. 00
64. 00
61. 00
7 3 .5 0
60 . 00
52. 50

.

_

74. 50

_

_

56. 50

_

61. 50

_

_

74. 00

65. 00

7 6 .0 0
6 0 . 00
57. 50
7 7 .5 0
58. 00
57 . 00
60 . 00
56. 00
55 . 00

8 7 .5 0
69. 50
5 9 .5 0
7 9 .0 0
74 . 00
7 2 . 50
92 . 00
7 8 . 00
7 6 .0 0
/ 0. 00
7 6 .5 0
60 . 00

65. 00
5 9 .5 0
6 8 .5 0
60 . 00
95 . 00
7 1. 50
7 0 . 00
67 . 50
6 5 .5 0

68. 00
55. 50
69. 00
6 2 .5 0
9 2 .5 0
6 9 .5 0
6 5 .5 0
62. 00
55. 00

7 5 .5 0
63 . 00
51 . 00
6 9 .5 0
5 8 .0 0
55. 00
74. 50
6 8 .5 0
7 2 .0 0
58. 00

8 3 .5 0
6 3 .5 0
5 4 .5 0
7 2 .0 0
6 9 . 00
85. 00
7 0. 00
64. 00
8 5 .5 0
60. 50

76. 50
62. 50
52. 00
67. 50
59. 50
87. 00
69 . 00
6 8 .5 0
63. 00

8 3 .5 0
73. 00
68. 50
83. 00
7 0. 00
7 6 .5 0
6 1 .5 0
93 . 00
7 7 .5 0
76. 00
81. 00
69. 00

7 7 .5 0
7 5 . 00
6 7 .5 0
9 0 . 00
7 2 .0 0
71 . 50
6 5 .5 0

6 7 . 00

6 2 . 00

7 9 .5 0
7 2 . 00
6 5 .5 0
8 4 .5 0
7 9 . 00
75. 00
8 6 .5 0
7 7 .5 0
80 . 00
81. 00
8 6 .5 0
7 3. 00
63. 50

7 5 .5 0
6 5 .5 0
58. 00
7 0 .5 0
7 0. 00
8 5 .5 0
7 0. 00
66. 00
6 2 .5 0
5 7 . 00

_

-

-

-

-

83. 00

1 1 4 .5 0

1 0 2 .5 0

-

-

“

120. 00
9 9 . 00

-

“

"

'

$ 7 9 . 50
7 3 . 50
-

,
68 . 50
-

Professional and technical
Men
D raftsm en , senior _ __ ________________
D raftsm en , junior
_________ __
___

_

_

"

”

_

1 0 8 .0 0
69. 50

_
“

82. 50
“

‘

1 E arni^6 s relate co otanaara sa la rie s that are paid for standard work schedules.
2
j

1 o r m o r e u t i l it i e s a r e m u n ic ip a l ly o p e r a t e d , a n d , t h e r e f o r e , e x c lu d e d f r o m th e s c o p e o f th e s t u d ie s .
T r a n s p o r t a t io n (e x c lu d in g r a i l r o a d s ) , c o m m u n ic a t io n , a n d o th e r p u b lic u t i l i t i e s .

NOTE:

D a s h e s in d ic a te no d a ta r e p o r t e d o r d a ta th a t d o n ot m e e t p u b lic a tio n




c r ite r ia .

S e e fo o t n o te 4 t o th e t a b le in a p p e n d ix B .

Table A -5.

23

O ffice occupations-w holesale trade

(A verage w eekly earnings 1 for selected occupations studied in w holesale trade, winter 1957-58)
Northeast
Sex, occupation, and grade
Boston

Newark J ersey
City

South

New
York
City

P h ila­
delphia

Atlanta

North C entral
B a lti­
m ore

Chicago

C le v e ­
land

«Vest

M inne­
a p o lisSt. Paul

St. Louis

Los
A n g e le sLong
Beach

San
F ranc isc o Oakland

$ 9 3 . 00

$ 9 0 . 50

$ 9 3 .0 0

Office clerical
Men
C lerk s:
Accounting, c la ss A ________________
Accounting, c la ss B ________________
Order __________ ____________________
Office boys ______________________________
Tabulating-m achine operators _______

$ 8 3 .5 0
6 9 .5 0
8 0 .5 0
5 3 .0 0
-

$ 1 0 7 .5 0

84. 00
4 7 .5 0
-

$ 9 1 .5 0
73 . 00
7 9 .0 0
54. 00
8 1 .0 0

$ 9 6 .0 0
6 7 .0 0
8 1 .5 0
5 1 .0 0
7 6 . 00

$85.
69.
75.
52.
79 .

50
00
00
00
00

-

-

$ 9 7 .0 0
7 3 . 50
9 7 .0 0
5 7 .5 0
86. 00

6 8 .5 0

_

8 1 .5 0
66. 00

-

$ 9 7 .0 0
84. 00

-

$ 9 1 .5 0

-

$84.
69.
81.
53.
-

00
50
50
50

-

-

-

80. 00
51. 00

91. 0G
59. 50
85. 50

88. 50
94. 00

55. 50

_

75. 50

_

6 8 . 00

7 3 . 00
5 7 .5 0

62. 00

83. 50
72. 00

79. 50
6 7 .5 0

76 . 50
6 9 .5 0

72 . 50
57. 50

76. 00
61. 00

80. 00
7 1 .5 0

56. 50
7 4 . 00
7 7 .0 0
6 7 .5 0
68 . 50

5 3 .5 0
71 . 50
74. 50
62. 00
59. 00
4 9 . 50
7 7 .5 0
65. 00

53. 00

79. 50
71. 00
7 7 . °0
58. 50
84. 00
83. 50
7 7 .0 0
77. 00
58. 50
85. 00
75. 00
73 . 00

9 4 . 00
-

Wome n
B ille r s , machine (billing m ac h in e)__
Bookkeeping-m achine op erators:
C la ss A
_________ ___________________
C la ss B --------------------------------------C lerk s:
Accounting, c la ss A ________________
Accounting, c la ss B ........................
F ile , c la ss A ............................. ............
F ile , c la ss B ____________________
Order ___________________________
P a y r o ll ___________ _____ _________
Com ptom eter operators
_ _________
Key-punch operators ____________
_______________________ __
Office g ir ls
Secretaries ...... ....................................... .....
Stenographers, general _______________
Switchboard operators _________________
Switchboard o p eratorreceptionists __________________________
Tran scrib in g-m achin e op erators,
g e n e r a l____________________________ __
T yp ists, c la ss A _______________________
T yp ists, c la ss B _______________ ____
1

6 9 .5 0

_

6 9 .0 0

_

65. 50

_

6 2 .5 0

5 9 .0 0

7 3 .5 0
7 1 .0 0

6 7 .5 0

6 7 .5 0
61. 00

-

75 . 50
5 9 .0 0

6 8 .0 0

8 2 .5 0
6 9 .5 0
66. 50
5 6 .0 0
67 . 00
81 . 50
6 8 .5 0
6 7 .0 0

79 . 50
65 . 50
7 3 .0 0
5 1 .0 0

75 . 00
60. 50
62. 00
53. 50
5 7 .5 0
69. 00
63. 50
6 1 .5 0

-

-

-

-

-

-

7 4 .5 0
6 7 .5 0
6 3 .5 0

7 8 . 50
6 9 . 00

-

84. 50
7 0 .5 0
7 0 . 00

7 8 . 50
6 6 .5 0
68. 00

78 . 00
68. 50

7 2 .5 0
76 . 00

-

-

-

6 2 .5 0

6 7 .0 0

68 . 00

5 7 .0 0

60. 50

5 7 .5 0

68. 00

68 . 00

5 7 .5 0

58. 00

71 . 50

6 7 .0 0

6 3 .0 0
72 . 00
5 5 .0 0

-

7 2 .0 0
6 9 .0 0
6 2 .5 0

65. 50
6 8 .5 0
54 . 50

66. 50
64. 50
54. 50

-

70 . 50
7 6 . 50
6 2 .5 0

65. 50
7 3 .0 0
59. 50

61. 00
6 3 .0 0
54. 00

62. 50
53. 50

69. 50
72. 50
64. 50

69. 00
69. 00
61. 00

4 9 .5 0
6 3 .5 0
7 4 . 50
6 1 .5 0
63 . 50

-

4 8 .0 0
64. 00

72 . 50
6 5 .5 0

6 0 . 00

-

8 2 .5 0
6 6 .5 0
6 0 .0 0

D ashes indicate no data reported or data that do not m eet publication cr ite ria .




-

85. 00
7 1. 00
7 1 .0 0
59. 00
72 . 00
7 6 . 50
7 6 . 00
68. 50
55. 00
88. 00
7 3 .5 0
7 4 . 00

-

Earnings relate to standard sa la rie s that are paid for standard work schedules.

NOTE:

-

-

6 3 .0 0

-

5 3 .0 0

-

68. 00
6 7 .0 0

54. 00

-

84. 00
72 . 00
68 . 50

-

-

-

75. 50
63 . 00
69. 00

-

77 . 50
6 3 .5 0

-

59. 00
89. 50
86. 00
71. 50
7 2 .5 0

88. 00
7 5 .5 0
6 9 .5 0

24

Tab le A -6 .

O ffice occupations-relail trade

(A verage w eekly earnings 1 fo r s e le cte d occupations studied in retail trade, w inter 1957-58)

South

Northeast
Sex, occupation, and grade
Boston

NewarkJersey
City*

New
York
City*

Phila­
delphia2

Atlanta

Balti­
more

North Central

West
San
Francis co Oakland

Dallas

New
Orleans

Chicago

Minne­
apolis St. Paul

$84. 00

$78.00

$98.00

$90. 50

-

-

-

-

53. 00
-

-

-

$67. 00

$56. 00
.

Denver

Portland

Seattle

Office clerical
Men
Clerks, accounting, class A ___ _____

-

$85.00

-

-

65. 50

$ 53. 50

52.00

-

66. 50

64. 00
51. 50
44. 50
48.00
57. 50
54.00
53. 00
44.00
69. 50
55. 50
55. 00

$64. 50

78. 50
59. 00
51.00
63.00
68. 50
66. 00
58.00
81.00
66. 50
61. 50

-

-

$85. 50

-

Women
B illers, machine:
Billing m achine_ _____________
_
Bookkeeping m a ch in e____________
Bookkeeping-machine operators,
class B --------- _ __ ------ __ _ —
Clerks:
Accounting, class A -------------------Accounting, class B _____________
File, class B __ ____ ___ _ __ —
O r d e r -----------------------------------Payroll
_ __ . ____ ________
Comptometer operators _ ___ __ __
Key-punch op era tors_______________
Office girls _______
_________ _
Secretaries ______ „ ___
Stenographers, general ___ __ ---Switchboard operators __ „ ____ __
Switchboard operator receptionists _____
_ „ _______
Typists, class A ___ _ _____ _ ___
Typists, class B - __ ____ __

-

$49.00

50. 50

-

53. 00
63. 00
6 1 . 00
74. 00
-

55. 50

-

-

49. 00

51.50

64. 00
64. 50
56. 50

49. 50
-

$48. 50

55.00

47.00

-

58. 00

55. 50

49. 50

53.00

47. 50

65. 50

57. 50

$55. 50

$61. 50

70. 50

63. 50

69. 50
55. 50
42. 00
49.00
59. 00
58. 50
60.00

70. 00
53.00
44. 50
51. 50
59.00
60. 00
51. 50
67. 00
57. 50
50. 50

61.00
53. 00
41.00
47. 50
60.00
60. 00
,66. 50
60. 00
49. 50

65. 50
55.00
40. 00
46. 00
59. 50
58. 00
58. 50
42. 50
72. 00
56. 50
45. 50

67.00
52. 50
42.00
47. 50
56.00
50. 50
54.00
69. 00
53. 50
44. 00

82. 50
64. 50
54.00
56. 50
69. 50
66.00
66.00
54. 50
83. 00
69.00
62. 50

75. 50
53. 00
47. 50
51.00
61. 50
61. 00
46.00
72. 50
60. 50
52. 50

65.00
55. 50
50.00
_
61. 50
54. 50
45. 50
69. 50
56. 50
50. 50

64.00
64.00
62. 50
-

79. 50
67. 00
58.00
65. 00
73. 50
70.00
68.00

65.00
58. 00
52.00
58.00
68.00
64. 00
-

53. 50
60. 50
49. 50

-

71.00

54. 50

46.00
47. 00

-

-

58. 50

52. 00

55.00
55.00
49. 50

-

74. 00
59. 50
51. 50
-

50.00
-

-

52. 50

48.00

50.00

1 Earnings relate to standard sa la rie s that are paid fo r standard work schedules.
2 Excludes data for lim ite d -p r ic e variety sto r e s.
N O TE : Dashes indicate no data reported or data that do not m eet publication crite ria .




-

-

-

71. 00
52. 50

80. 00
70. 00
68.00

72.50
63. 00
62. 00

-

68. 00
60. 50

64. 50
-

58. 50

Table A -7.

25

O ffice occu p ation s-fin an ce*

(A verage weekly earnings 1 for selected occupations studied in finance, insurance, and real estate, winter 1 9 5 7 -5 8 )
N ortheast
Sex, occupation, and grade
Boston

N ew arkJ ersey
C ity

South

New
York
City

P hila­
delphia

Atlanta

$86. 50
62. 50
51. 50
71.00

$88. 50
56.00
47. 50
65. 50

$80. 00
63.00
45. 50
64. 50

73. 50
61.00

62. 50
53.00

76. 50
61.00
64. 50
51. 50
76.00
67. 50
61.00
53.50
83.50
65. 50
67.00

66. 50
52. 50
56.50
45. 50
59.00

66. 00
50.00
56.00
44. 50
59. 50

67.00
50.00
54.50
43. 00
64.00

-

-

-

56. 00
45. 00
70. 50
58.00
58.00

51. 50
47. 00
71.50
58. 50
59. 50

53. 50
43. 00
70.00
54.00
53.00

North C entral

B alti­
m ore

Dallas

$81.50

$87. 50

Chicago

W est

C le v e ­
land

M inne­
a p o lisSt. Paul

-

-

St. Louis

Los
A n g e le sLong
Beach

$77. 50

$84. 00

San
F ran c is c o Oakland

Office clerical
Men

C lerk s, accounting, c la ss A ---------------C le r k s, accounting, c la ss B ---------------Office b o y s ----------------------------------------------Tabulating-m achine operators ------------

$71.00
54.00
47. 00
65.00

_
-

$54.00

-

-

46. 50
65.00

46.00
69. 50

$92.00
75. 50
56. 00
78. 50

-

-

55.00

48. 50

67.00
49.50

79. 00
67.00

59. 50
51.50
53.00
44.00
61.00
56. 00
51.50
44. 00
74. 50
60.00
59. 50

79.00
63. 50
65. 50
53. 00
81. 50
64.50
66. 50
55.00
84.00
70.50
70.50

_
$63. 00
"

$82.50

-

-

-

$45. 50
72. 00

46. 00
"

53. 00
83. 00

57. 00
78. 50

55. 50
50.00

-

-

57. 50

57. 50

67. 50
49.50
57.00
46.50

75. 50
61.00
59.50
49. 50
78. 00

71.50
61.50
69.00
51.00
77. 50

W omen

Bookkeeping-m achine op erators:
C la ss A ---------------------------------------------C lass B ---------------------------------------------C lerk s:
Accounting, class A
----------------------Accounting, class B
----------------------F ile , class A
----------------------------------F ile , c la ss B
----------------------------------P ayroll
---------------------------------------------C om ptom eter operators
--------------------Key-punch operators
—................... ..........
Office girls
--------------------------------------------Secretaries
-------------------------------------------Stenographers, general ----------------------Switchboard operators
----------------------Switchboard op eratorreceptionists
—
Tabulating-m achine operators ---------Tran scrib in g-m achin e op erators,
general
---------------------------------------------T y p ists, class A ------------------------------T yp ists, class B -------------------------------

1
*

59.00
51.00

-

54. 00

65.00
52.00
55.00
45. 50
60. 50
51.50
53. 50
45. 50
68. 50
57. 00
5 7.00

68.00
59.00
58.00
47.00
71.50

56.50
61.00

63.50

62. 50
73. 00

53.50
61.00

53.00
59.00

56. 00

60. 50
60. 50

67.50

-

54. 00
57. 00
49. 50

59. 50
59. 50
51.00

67. 00
62. 50
55. 50

54. 00
57. 00
49. 00

55. 00
56.00
47. 50

54. 00
54. 00
46.00

53. 00
56. 50
47. 50

-

60.50
51.00
79. 00
61.50
60.00

Earnings relate to standard salarie s that are'paid for standard w ork schedules.
Finance, insurance, and real estate.

N O TE :

Dashes indicate no data reported or data that do not m e et publication c rite ria .




-

-

-

61.00

52.00

-

62. 50

69.50
56.00

-

_

53.00

46. 50

-

-

-

59. 50
60. 50

-

-

-

81.50
65.00
64. 00

61.00
52. 50
44. 00
73. 50
57. 50
59.00

56. 50
47. 50
67.00
56. 50
57.00

64. 50
52. 50
82. 50
70.00
65. 50

62. 50
52. 50
80. 00
69.50
66.00

-

56. 50
62. 50

-

-

-

63. 00
81. 50

62.50
74.50

68. 00
68. 00
59. 00

-

65.50
58. 00

56. 00
53.50
49. 50

58. 00
56. 50
46.50

63. 50
64. 00
55.50

67. 00
65.50
56.50

-




Table A -8 .

O ffice occupations-services

(Average weekly earnings1 for selected occupations studied in services, winter 1957-58)
Northeast
Sex, occupation, and grade
Boston

New
York
City

North Central
Phila­
delphia

West

Chicago

Los
AngelesLong
Beach2

Office clerical
Men
Office boys

$44.50

$50.00

$45.00

$55.00

$56.00

Women
Bookkeeping-machine operators, class B __________
Clerks:
Accounting, class A ___________________________
Accounting, class B
File, class B __
__ ____
_ __ __
__
Payroll
Comptometer operators
Secretaries _______________________________________
Stenographers, general __ ____
Switchboard operators ____________________________
Switchboard operator-receptionists
Typists, class A
Typists, class B _________________________________

_

70.00

_

71.50

66.50

71.50
60.00
48.50
65.50

78.50
63.00
55.00
74.50
68.50
81.00
69.50
64.00
66.00
67.50
61.00

-

81.00
68.00
55.00
79.00
71.50
86.00
75.50
58.50
72.00
73.00
63.00

81.50
67.00
52.50
74.00
64.00
84.00
70.00
56.50
64.00
70.00
59.50

-

66.00
55.50
49.00
54.50
61.50
48.50

60.00
46.00
-

69.00
62.00
48.00
55.50
59.00
53.50

Earnings relate to standard salaries that are paid for standard work schedules.
2 Excludes motion-picture production and allied services; data for these industries are included, however, in "all industries"

1

"nonm anufacturing . "

NOTE; Dashes indicate no data reported or data that do not meet publication criteria.

and

27
Table A -9 .

Plant o ccu p atio n s-all industries

(Average hourly earnings 1 for selected occupations studied in 6 broad industry divisions, winter 1957-58)
Northe ast
Occupation 2

NewarkBoston3 Jersey
City3

New
York
City3

South

Phila­
delphia3 Atlanta

Balti­
m ore

North Central
West
Los
San
New
Cleve­ Milwau­ MinneDallas Memphis3
apolis- St. Louis3 Denver Angeles- Portland Fran- Seattle3
Orleans Chicago3 land3
kee
Long
cis co St. Paul
Beach3
Oakland3

Maintenance and powerpiant

C arpenters__________________________
Electricians
Engineers, stationary
Firemen, stationary boiler
_
_
Helpers, trades
Machine-tool operators,
toolroom __________________________
Machinists
Mechanics
Mechanics, automotive
Millwrights
_. _
Oilers
Painter s _
Pipefitters _
_
__ __
_
Plumbers ___________________________
Sheet-metal workers ________________
Tool and die makers ________________

$ 2 .3 2
2 .4 4
2 .3 6
2 .0 0
1 .9 0

$ 2 .6 6
2 .7 8
2 .8 3
2 .2 5
2 .0 7

$ 2 .4 7
2 .5 2
2 .6 6
2 .0 9
2 .0 2

$ 2 .6 0
2 .6 1
2 .2 4
2 .0 9
2 .1 8

$ 2 .2 1
2 .5 6
1 .9 8
1 .5 8
1 .6 9

$ 2 .3 4
2 .5 1
2 .2 9
2 .0 6
1 .9 6

$ 2 .2 5
2 .2 8
1.9 1
1 .7 2
1 .5 8

$ 2 . 13
2 .4 1
2 . 15
1.2 8
1 .5 2

$ 2 .1 9
2 .5 4
1 .9 2
1.5 6
1 .7 9

$ 2 .8 3
2 .9 0
2 .8 6
2 .2 8
2 .2 7

$ 2 .6 9
2 .7 8
2 .6 7
2 .3 4
2 .2 7

$ 2 .6 3
2 .8 0
2 .6 2
2 .2 8
2 .0 8

$ 2 .7 2
2 .7 7
2 .5 1
2 .2 6
2 . 14

$ 2 .6 3
2 .7 i
2 .6 4
2 .4 0
2 .3 0

2 .3 7
2 .4 4
2 .2 4
2 . 18
2 .3 1
1 .8 9
2 .0 8
2 .3 9
2 .3 0
2 .4 3
2 .6 2

2 .6 3
2 .7 2
2 .6 4
2 .3 7
2 .6 6
2 .2 4
2 .4 6
2 .7 7
2 .9 4
2 .6 9
2 .7 6

2 .5 8
2 .7 0
2 .5 4
2 .4 1
2 .5 5
2 .0 9
2 .2 3
2 .5 3
2 .2 6
2 .5 7
2 .7 8

2 .4 9
2 .6 4
2 .5 0
2 .4 5
2 .5 1
1 .9 5
2 .3 6
2 .6 6
2 .4 2
2 .5 5
2 .7 2

2 .4 5
2 . 12
2 . 15
2 .6 4
1 .5 9
2 . 19
2 .7 1
_

2 .5 0
2 .7 0
2 .5 3
2 .2 4
2 .5 0
2 .0 7
2 .1 7
2 .5 8

2 .5 0
2 .2 1
2 .1 9
2 .4 9
1 .9 7
2 .0 1
2 .6 8
_

2 .5 2
2 .4 2
2 .2 0
1.8 1
2 .0 1
2 .3 8
_

2 .6 2
2 .8 2
2 .5 4
2 .4 6
2 .7 3
2 .2 7
2 .6 2
2 .7 6

_

_

-

2 .5 4

2 .7 7

-

2 .7 2
2 .7 3
2 .6 4
2 .6 0
2 .7 1
2 .2 9
2 .5 2
2 .7 3
_
2 .6 8
2 .8 9

2 .3 8
2 .6 9
2 .3 9
2 .4 2
2 .6 2
2 . 15
2 .7 7
2 .7 9

2 .5 6
2 .7 9

2 .7 3
2 .8 9
2 .6 3
2 .7 1
2 .7 6
2 .2 4
2 .9 0
2 .8 7
2 .9 9
2 .8 3
3 .0 5

2 .6 8
2 .8 9
2 .5 9
2 .5 6
2 .6 5
2 .3 4
2 .6 4
2 .7 2

_

2 .3 8
2 .2 1
2 .0 6
2 .3 2
1.8 5
2 .0 5
2 .2 4

2 .7 5
3 .0 2

2 .6 2
2 .8 1

2 .7 3
2 .8 9

1.21

1.5 2

1.6 9

1 .5 3

1 .0 0

.9 3

.7 2

.8 3

2 .0 1

1 .3 3

1 .8 0

1 .4 7

1.2 2

1. 12
1 .8 0

1 .2 6
2 .0 0

1 .5 5
1 .7 7

1.2 5
1 .6 3

.6 0
2 .1 3

.9 5
1 .9 3

.8 6
1 .7 6

.6 6
1 .9 3

.7 1
1.3 8

1 .2 7
2 .0 0

1. 13
2 .2 0

1. 19
2 .0 3

1 .3 6
1 .9 8

1. 18
2 .0 0

1.0 8
1 .9 9

-

_

_

_

_

$ 2 .5 3
2 .5 6
2 .3 7
1.9 5
1.9 1

_
2 .5 1
2 .5 2
2 .4 1

_

$ 2 .6 5
2 .8 1
2 .7 3
2 .4 0
2 .2 8

$ 2 .7 9
2 .8 4
2 .6 2
2 .2 7
2 .1 4

$ 2 .8 0
2 .9 0
2 .7 2
2 .4 9
2 .3 3

$ 2 .4 9
2 .6 2
2 .4 4
2 . 13
2 .0 4

2 .7 1
2 .8 0
2 .6 1

2 .7 0
2 .7 6
2 .7 1
2 .5 5
2 .7 4
2 . 19
2 .7 8
2 .7 3

2 .8 2
2 .8 6
2 .8 2
2 .7 5
3 .0 7
2 .2 6
2 .7 2
2 .8 5

2 .6 1
2 .5 5
2 .5 6
2 .4 4
2 . 14
2 .5 1
2 .4 5

2 .7 5
2 .8 3

2 .7 8
3 . 15

2 .8 8

2.61

2 .7 0

2 .7 5
2 .1 5
2 .5 5
2 .7 9
2 .6 9
2 .7 9
2 .8 8

“

1.4 5

2 .0 6
2 .4 4
2 .6 2

_
.

_

_

_

_
_

Custodial, warehousing, and shipping

Elevator operators.
passenger (men) ___________________
Elevator operators,
passenger (women) ________ ______
Guards
Janitors, porters, and
cleaners (men)
Janitors, porters, and
cleaners (women)
Laborers, material handling ________
Order fillers
Packers, shipping (men)
Packers, shipping (women) _________
Receiving clerks
Shipping clerks
__
Shipping and receiving clerks _______
Truckdrivers 4 _
_
Light (under 1l/z tons) ___________
Medium ( l lf z to and including
4 tons)
_
___
__ _
Heavy (over 4 tons,
trailer type) ____________________
Heavy (over 4 tons, other than
trailer type) ____________________
Truckers, power (forklift)
Truckers, power (other than
forklift) ___________________________
Watchmen ________________________________

1
2
5
4

1 .3 0
"

~

1 .8 3
1 .8 2

1.4 5
2 .0 1

1 .5 0

1 .7 4

1 .6 2

1.5 8

1 .2 0

1 .4 5

1 .2 2

1 .2 0

1 .0 4

1.7 6

1.8 1

1 .8 0

1.6 5

1 .5 8

1 .4 8

1 .7 4

1 .6 9

1 .9 0

1 .6 6

1 .2 6
1 .6 7
1.7 5
1 .6 7
1.3 9
1.8 0
1.8 8
1.8 6
2 .0 9
1.8 2

1 .3 8
2 .0 9
2 .0 5
1 .8 4
1 .4 4
2 .0 5
2 .2 1
2 . 18
2 .5 8
2 .0 7

1 .4 6
1 .8 8
1 .8 9
1 .6 6
1 .5 5
1 .9 4
2 . 13
2 .0 6
2 .5 6
2 .1 3

1.2 1
1 .8 3
1 .9 7
1 .7 3
1 .4 0
1 .8 7
2 .1 3
2 . 12
2 .3 6
2 . 10

.8 3
1.5 2
1 .5 1
1.4 5
1.3 2
1 .6 6
1 .8 3
2 .0 0
1 .9 3
1.3 9

1 .0 5
1 .7 9
1 .6 2
1 .6 8
1. 16
1 .8 4
1 .9 3
1 .8 9
2 .0 3
1 .0 1

.8 8
1 .4 2
1.5 1
1 .4 0
1 .8 2
1 .7 8
1.8 1
1 .7 7
1 .5 2

.8 9
1.3 8
1 .3 7
1.4 5
1.1 1
1.5 5
1.7 1
1 .7 0
1 .7 4
1. 14

.7 4
1 .3 9
1.4 1
1 .3 1
.9 8
1 .5 6
1 .5 8
1.7 5

1.5 6
1.9 6
1 .9 9
1.8 8
1..68
2 .1 1
2 .2 1
2 . 10
2 .5 2
2 .4 7

1 .3 8
2 . 14
2 . 11
2 . 11
2 . 17
2 .2 3
2 . 18
2 .4 8
2 . 10

1 .4 4
2 . 10
2 .0 9
2 .0 9
1 .7 3
2 . 13
2 . 19
2 .3 3
2 .4 5
2 . 34

1 .3 7
2 .0 3
1 .9 6
1.9 5
1 .4 7
2 . 10
2 .2 0
2 . 16
2 .2 9
2 .2 8

1 .2 6
1.9 1
1.9 2
1 .8 6
1.5 8
2 .0 6
2 .1 1
2 .0 4
2 .3 6
2 . 18

1.3 6
1 .9 0
1 .8 3
1 .6 4
1 .4 0
1.7 8
1 .8 6
2 .0 3
2 .0 4
1 .8 6

1 .4 9
2 .0 9
2 . 12
2 .0 3
1.8 5
2 .2 1
2 .2 3
2 .2 4
2 .3 6
2 . 14

1 .4 8
2 .0 9
2 .0 3
1.9 8
_
2 .0 8
2 .2 5
2 . 13
2 .2 6
2 .0 7

1.8 1
2 . 19
2 .2 3
2 . 15
1.6 5
2 .3 0
2 .3 6
2 .4 2
2 .5 0
2 .4 6

1 .5 7
2 .0 2
2 .0 5
1.9 6
1.7 0
1.9 1
2 . 11
2 . 12
2 .3 2
2 . 14

1 .9 6

2 .6 5

2 .5 4 '

2 .3 4

1 .9 6

1 .9 4

1 .9 0

1 .6 7

1.5 5

2 .4 6

2 .4 9

2 .2 8

2 .2 8

2 .3 6

2 .0 6

2 .3 3

2 .2 1

2 .5 0

2 .2 4

2 .2 8

2 .6 6

2.44

2 .4 7

2 .2 8

2 .2 3

1 .6 9

1.8 1

1 .5 3

2 .5 9

2 .4 9

2 .5 8

2 .3 3

2 .3 9

2 .2 0

2 .4 4

2 .3 4

2 .5 8

2 .4 1

2 . 14
1 .9 7

2 .4 3
2 .2 0

2 .8 5
2 .3 4

2 .3 7
2 .0 3

1.8 0

2 .0 1
2 . 12

1 .7 0

1 .5 2

2 .0 0
1 .7 0

2 .5 8
2 .2 1

2 .6 6
2 .2 7

2 .4 4
2 .2 5

2 .2 6
2 .1 7

2 . 11

2 .0 0
1 .9 9

2 .4 5
2 .2 4

2 .2 8
2 . 17

2 .5 0
2 .2 8

2 .3 7
2 . 10

2 .0 1
1 .5 0

1 .9 7
1 .6 3

2 .2 7
1 .7 0

1.9 1
1 .5 7

_
1 .2 8

2 .2 4
1 .3 4

1 .8 9
1 .2 3

1.7 5
1.0 8

1 .5 8
1. 10

2 . 18
1 .3 7

2 .5 5
1 .6 7

2 . 18
1 .6 0

2 . 14
1 .7 3

2 .0 2
1.4 2

1.4 8

2 .2 2
1 .8 2

2 .2 4
1.8 5

2 .5 5
1.9 5

2 . 11
1 .8 7 *

1.61

1 .3 9

Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
Data limited to men workers except where otherwise indicated.
Exceptions to the standard industry limitations are shown in footnotes 4 and/or 7 to the table in appendix B.
Includes all drivers, regardless of size and type of truck operated.

NOTE: Dashes indicate no data reported or data that do not meet publication criteria.




1.7 1

1.4 2
2 . 15

1.61

28
Table A -10.

Plant occupations-m anufacturing

(A verage hourly earnings 1 fo r selected occupations studied in m anufacturing, w inter 1957-58)

Northeast
Occupation2
Boston

NewarkJersey
City

New
York
City

South
Phila­
delphia Atlanta

Balti­
more

Dallas

North Central
West
Los
San
MinneNew Chicago Cleve­
Angeles Memphis Orleans
Portland Franland Milwau­ apolis- St. Louis Denver
Long
cis co - Seattle
kee
St. Paul
Beach
Oakland

Maintenance and powerplant
Carpenters
$2.27
Electricians _ _ _
2.48
Engineers, stationary ____________—
2.45
Firemen, stationary boiler _________
2. 03
Helpers, trades
„ _ __ _
1.92
Machine-tool operators,
toolroom
. _
2.37
Machinists
_ ... .... ...... .........
2.45
Mechanics __________________________
2.22
2.44
Mechanics, automotive _____________
Millwrights ____________ __________ __
2.31
Oilers _ _L
_
1.88
Painters ___ __ _____ _
_
_ __
2.24
Pipefitters
_ ..
2.39
Sheet-metal workers _ _ .......... . .
2.45
Tool and die makers
_ _ __
2.63

$2.56
2.73
2. 87
2.27
2. 03

$2.52
2.69
2.91
2.41
2. 00

$2.57
2.62
2.32
2. 13
2.24

$2.20
3.60
2.50
1.60
1.91

$ 2.4 0
2.54
2.39
2.08
1.99

$ 2.3 0
2.41
2.22
1.79
1.65

$ 1.97
2.51
2.34
1.27
1.38

$2.21
2. 57
1.89
1.65
1.82

$2.62
2.85
2.78
2.20
2.26

$2.61
2.78
2.76
2.35
2.30

$2.61
2.76
2. 68
2.31
2. 04

$2.64
2.72
2.52
2.28
2. 09

$2.62
2.76
2.71
2.38
2.31

$2.53
2.56
2. 51
2.24
1.88

$2.6 0
2.79
2.78
2.51
2.28

$2.77
2.83
2. 63
2.23
2. 12

$2.75
2.95
2.94
2.59
2.38

$2.46
2.59
2.41
2. 16
2. 04

2.63
2.71
2.65
2.64
2.64
2.23
2.44
2.73
2.67
2.75

2.58
2.69
2.57
2.47
2.60
2. 17
2.54
2.55
2.58
2.78

2.49
2.62
2.50
2.50
2.51
1.95
2.48
2.66
2.56
2.72

2.42
2. 06
2. 10
2.64
1.59
2.49
2.72
-

2.50
2.71
2.55
2.27
2.50
2. 07
2.35
2.59
2.57
2.80

2.45
2.24
2.04
1.86
2.28
2.54

2.50
2.23
2.04
2.49
2.06
2.28
2.68
2..77

2. 52
2.42
2. 08
1.84
2.32
2.35
-

2.73
2.88
2.62
2. 67
2.76
2.21
2.62
2. 83
2.84
3. 05

2.72
2.73
2. 64
2.63
2.71
2.30
2. 60
2.73
2. 68
2.89

2.68
2.90
2. 59
2. 68
2. 65
2.34
2.63
2.73
2.76
3. 02

2.38
2.68
2.38
2. 50
2. 62
2. 15
2.76
2.76
2.63
2. 81

2.62
2.82
2.54
2.58
2.73
2.28
2. 62
2.76
2.74
2.89

2.52
2.49
2. 06
2.59
2.62
2.70

2.71
2.79
2.60
2.63
2.75
2. 15
2.54
2.79
2.77
2.88

2.70
2.79
2.72
2.49
2.74
2. 19
2.79
2.73
2. 83

2.82
2. 87
2. 83
2.81
3. 07
2.25
2.77
2.86
3. 15

_
2. 61
2.57
2.46
2.44
2. 14
2.42
2.44
2.88

Custodial, warehousing, and shipping
Guards
__
__ _
_
Janitors, porters, and
cleaners (m e n )____________ r___ ,___
Janitors, porters, and
cleaners (women) __ ____ __ __ __
Laborers, material handling ________
Order fillers
__ „
__
_ __
Packers, shipping (men)
Packers, shipping (women) ..............
Receiving clerks ......
Shipping clerks
. ................
Shipping and receiving c l e r k s _______
Truckdrivers 3 _
Light (under 1 Va tons) __________
Medium ( I 1 to and including
/*
4 tons)
Heavy (over 4 tons,
trailer type) _
_ _
Heavy (over 4 tons, other than
trailer type) __ _ _
Truckers, power (forklift)
Truckers, power (other than
forklift)
.........................................
Watchmen
__ __ __ ____
__ _ __

1.87

2.03

1.97

2. 00

2.26

2. 08

1.91

2. 02

1.95

2. 06

2.22

2. 05

2. 05

2. 08

2. 15

2. 17

_

2. 16

2. 03

1.64

1.83

1.64

1.71

1.48

1.73

1.47

1.42

1.43

1. 81

1.93

1.90

1.79

1.73

1.72

1.90

1.84

2. 05

1.79

1.39
1.64
1.83
1.69
1.40
1.90
1.98
1.89
2. 14
2. 06

1.64
2. 13
1.95
1. 86
1.55
2. 04
2. 13
2.24
2.90
2. 11

1.54
2. 00
1.67
1.63
1.59
2.01
2. 17
2.03
2.78
2. 12

1.42
1.83
1.81
1.77
1.70
1.98
2. 13
1.89
2.33
2.29

1. 12
1. 51
1.46
1.53
1.77
1.89
2. 17
1.51
1. 50

1.31
1.83
1.52
1.79
1. 13
2.08
2. 04
1.85
2.09
2.24

1.23
1.50
1.78
1.51
2.07
1.96
1.88
1.67
1.51

1.25
1.39
1.55
1.58
1. 10
1.95
1.81
1.69
1.58
-

1.23
1.39
1.24
1.31
1.76
1.71
1.68
1.52
1.32

1.64
1.92
1.98
1.95
1.73
2. 16
2.31
2. 12
2.49
2.56

1.74
2. 09
2. 16
2. 15
1.64
2. 19
2.23
2.28
2.43
2.28

1.72
2. 10
1.95
2. 10
1.79
2. 14
2.21
2.31
2.25
2. 11

1.60
1.95
1.98
1.93
2. 15
2.21
2. 19
2.30
2.38

1.50
1. 89
1.87
1.88
1.59
2. 09
2. 18
2. 04
2.45
2.21

1.51
1.89
1.93
1.68
1.36
2. 04
1.92
1.92
2. 01
1.80

1.77
2. 04
1.96
2. 03
1.91
2.21
2. 17
2.26
2.38
2.05

1.59
2. 08
2. 13
1.83
2.29
2.37
2. 19
2.30
2. 04

1.92
2. 13
2.30
2. 19
2.33
2.31
2.39
2.57
2.53

2. 01
2. 14
1.98
1. 88
2. 18
2. 19
2.46
-

2. 10

2. 14

3. 08

2.79

2.34

1.34

1.94

1.56

1.57

1.57

2.41

2.43

2.26

2.27

2.51

2. 13

3. 02

2.57

2.36

2. 03

2. 07

1.84

1.76

1.64

2.52

2. 51

2.47

-

2.55

2. 16
1.95

2.46
2. 18

3. 06
2.32

2.34
2. 00

1.92

2. 15
2. 13

1.77

1.68

1.81

2.20

2.26

2.24

2. 04

2. 10

2. 01
1.58

1.97
1.68

2.25
1.63

1.89
1.68

1.26

2.24
1.44

2. 13
1.39

1.92
1.20

1.32

2. 17
1.77

2.55
1.77

2. 18
1.81

2. 15
1.89

2. 01
1.73

1 E xcludes prem iu m pay fo r o v ertim e and fo r w ork on w eekends, holidays,
2 Data lim ited to m en w o rk e rs except w here otherw ise indicated.
3 Includes a ll d r iv e r s , r e g a r d le s s o f size and type o f truck operated.
NOTE:

and late shifts.

D ashes indicate no data re p o rte d o r data that do not m eet publication c rite ria .




2.42

2.26

2.59

2.40

2.53

2.35

2.59

2.44

1.97

2.43
2.20

2.36
2. 18

2.55
2.27

2.35
2. 08

1.50

2. 14
1.91

2.28
1. 87

2.54
2. 01

2. 10
1.87

-

29

Tabl$ A-ll. Plant occupations-nonmanufacturing
(Average hourly earnings 1 for selected occupations studied in nonmanufacturing, winter 1957-58)
Northeast
Occupation 2

NewarkBoston3 Jersey
City3

New
York
City3

South

Phila­
delphia3 Atlanta

Balti­
more

North Central

West
Los
San
Minne­
Dallas Memphis3 New Chicago3 Cleve­ Milwau­ apolis - St. Louis3 Denver Angeles- Portland Fran- Seattle3
Orleans
kee
land3
Long
ciscoSt. Paul
Beach3
Oakland3

M
ainten ce a d pow
an
n
erplan
t
$2.43
Carpenters
.
.
2.25
Electricians —
. .
2.18
Engineers, stationary ------------1.94
Firemen, stationary boiler
_ ____
_
1.84
Helpers, trades_______ .. ...
______
Machinists______ ___________ ___ -____
Mechanics
------ ------2.28
2.14
Mechanics, automotive --------------------Painter a _
--1.87
_
Pipefitters
-------------- —
Plumber 8 _
_ _________
___ _
___ -

$3.07
3.17
2.76

2.22
2.20
2.94
2.61
2.28
2.51
3.25
-

$2.45
2.40
2.53
1.89
2.04
2.73
2.43
2.40

2.16
2.49
2.22

$2.69
2.52
2.08
1.92
1.96
2.48
2.43

2.20
_
2.32

$2.21
2.38
1.72
1.55
2.79
2.25

2.16
1.95
_
-

$2.08

$2.25
-

2. 35
2.23
1.78
>
-

$2.21
2.05
1.78
1.49
2. 10'
2.07
1.90
-

.96

.85

.95
1.67

.85
1.40

2.21
2.01
1.92
1.79
-

$2.17
2.44
1.95
1.04
1.67
2.44
2.24
1.76
_
-

$3.18
3.10
2.94
2.47
2.31
3.02
2.67
2.72
3
3.18
3. 14

$2.92
2.71
2.49
1.94
_
_
2.59
2.36
_
-

.63

.82

2.01

1.33

.66

.70

1.21

1.25
1.88

1. 13

2.01

1. 14
-

.94

1.70

1.47

1.56

1.54

1.29

1.30

1.54

1.29

1.99
1.77
1.55
2.07
2.09
2.08
2.53
2.40

1.21
2.10
2.20
2.00
1.51
2.12

2.07
2.50
2.05

2.13
_
2.49
-

1.30
2.08
1.96
1.97
1.36
2.04
2.19

1.15
1.95
1.96
1.83
-

2.29
-

1:98
2.05
2.32
2. 13

1.34
1.90
1.79
1.59
_
1.70
r. 84
2. 11
2.05
1.87

2.35
2.21

2.12

1.88
-

1.72
1.84

2.21
1.86
_
-

.16

$2.67
2.43
-

$2.83
2.95
2.50

$2.54
2.55
2. 15
1.48
1.97
_
_
2.41
_
_
-

$2.81
2.91
2.64
_
2.23
2.99
2.71
2.61
2.57
_
-

$2.84
_
2.59
_
_
2.60
2.53
2.57
_
_
-

$2.91
_
2.52
_
_
2.73
2.75
2.74
2.65
_
-

$2.55
2.81
2.55
_
_
_
2.41
2.59
2.58
_
-

_
2.51
2.70
-

2.39
2.41
2.78
_
-

_
_
$2.16
2.52
2.44
_
_
-

-

1.45

1.13

_

1.44

_

1.69

_

1.35
1.78

1.15
1.39

1.07
1:52

1.40
2.07

1.30
_

1.81
1.70

1.45
1.80

1.61

1.57

1.82

1.58

1.45
2.11
2. 16
2.03
_
2.22
2. 31

1.46
2. 10

1.80
2.24
2.21
2. 10
1.73
2.27
2.38
2.45
2.49
2.42

1.50
2.03
1.95
1.62
2.00
2.08
2.02
2.03
2.29
2. 11

-

2.21
-

Custodial, w
arehousing, a d shipping
n
Elevator operators,
passenger (men)_________ ,_________
Elevator operators,
passenger (women)____________ ___
Guards
Janitors, porters, and
cleaners (men)___ ._________________
Janitors, porters, and
cleaners (women)_____
-___ _ _
Laborers, material handling ________
Order fillers _____ ____
Packers, shipping (men) ____
Packers, shipping (women)_____ ____
Receiving clerks . _ ___ .. .________
Shipping clerks _________,___ .. .______t
Shipping and receiving c le rk s_______
Truckdrivers4 .. .. — ... __ _
Light (under 1V ton s)_____ ______
a
Medium (lVx to and including
4 tons) .
—
,
—
^ _
Heavy (over 4 tons,
trailer type)_ _________________
_
Heavy (over 4 tons, other than
trailer type)_______ _____ „
_______
Truckers, power (forklift)__________
Watchmen _____ _________ ____ ________

1
2
3
4

1.20
1.10

1.45

1.68

1.50

1.67

1.25
1.89

1.55
1.72

1.23
1.25

.60
1.67

1.36

1.57

1.61

1.43

1.02

1.09

1.04

1.29
2.03

1.16

.77
1.53
1.52
1.38

.94

1.21

2.37
1.77

2.03
1.37

2.01
_

.83
1.34
1.42
1.28
1.45
1.56
1.72
1.79
1.52

1.73
1.77
1.12

.72
1.38
1.43
1.31
.92
1.47
1.51
1.79
1.63
1.40

,

_

1.00

1.24
1.70
1.70
1.65
1.36
1.69
1.81
1.85
2.07
1.58

1.74
1.33
2.08
2.39
_

1.46
1.77
1.99
1.69
1.55
1.91
2.09
2.08
2.44
2.14

1.85

2.33

2.37

2.33

2. 14

1.94

1.94

1.71

1.54

2.47

2.52

2.30

2.29

2.24

2.05

2.29

2.20

2.48

2.21

2.30

2.57

2.41

2.49

2.31

2. 31

1.61

1.82

1.52

2.60

2.49

2.59

2.33

2.37

2.20

2.39

2.33

2.57

2.41

2. 14
2.03
1.39

2.42
2.25

2.72
2.39
1.73

2.16

2.38

_
1.56
1.30

2.00
1. 19

_

2.01
1.52
1.06

2.59
2.25
1.25

2.66

2.46
2.32

2.28
2.27

2. 15

1.99

2.46
2.34
1.63

2.27

2.38
1.46

2. 16

2.49
2.29
1.82

2. 16

2.11

2.12

1.55

1.84
2.07
1.52
1.27
1.75
2.14

2.22

1.43

1.26

1.57
1.70

1.88

1.66

1.64
1.46
1.34
1.65
1.82
1.97

_

-

1.58
1.09

.76
1.37
1.30
1.38
.

1.61

1.20
.98

Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
Data limited to men workers except where otherwise indicated.
Exceptions to the standard industry limitations are shown in footnotes 4 and/or 7 to the table in appendix B.
Includes all drivers, regardless of size and type of truck operated.

NOTE: Dashes indicate no data reported or data that do not meet publication criteria.




2.01

2.21
2.05
1.86
-

2.11
2.22

2.11

1.62

2.00

-

1.20

2.01
1.47

2.22

2.01

2.03
1.98
2.16
2.08
2.25

1.74

2.37

30

Table A-12. Plant occupations-public utilities*
j*
(A verage hourly earnings 1 for selected occupations studied in transportation, communication, and other public u tilities, winter 19 5 7 -5 8 )
Northeast
Occupation 2

N ew arkB oston3
J ersey
City

New
York
C ity3

South
P h ila­
delphia

Atlanta

B a lti­
m ore

_
-

_
-

$ 1.63

$ 1.91

D allas

North Central

M em p his3

New
C le v e ­
Chicago3
Orleans
land3

/7est

M inneMilw au­
a p o lis- St. Louis
kee
St. Paul

Denver

San
Los
A n g e le sF ran Portland
Seattle3
Long
c is c o B each3
Oakland3

M
ainten ce a d pow
an
n
erplan
t
C arpenters __ ___________ __ ___
E le ctrician s _ __ __ ________
__ _
E ngin eers, stationary __ ___ __ __
F ire m en , stationary b oiler
__ _
H elp e rs, trades
____________
___ _
M echanics _________________ ______________
M ech anics, automotive
Painter s ..
........
......... . .

_
-

$2.75
-

$2. 03
2.41
2. 13

2. 63
2.26
2. 05
2.67
-

2. 59

"

$2. 58
2.47
2.41
2. 09
2. 05
2. 52
2. 37
2.46

$2.45

2.66
-

2. 03
-

2.41
2.48

-

2.21

-

2.28

_
-

1.65
-

2.23

_
-

$2. 03
-

2.40

-

.
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

$2.76
2.75

$2. 55

$2.57

$2.40

-

$2. 02

-

-

.

_

_

_

$2. 18
-

2.59
2.28

_
-

_
-

$2.58
2.85
-

-

$2.64

$2.51

-

-

$2.23
2.65
2.43

$2.41

2. 60

$2. 58

-

-

2.49

"

-

_

_

2.01

_

1.

80

1.74

1.

82

1.55

1.63
2.34
2.45

2. 17
-

2.74

2. 59
-

Custodial, w
arehousing, a d shipping
n
G u a r d s __ ___
__
_____
_ ________
J anitors, p o r te r s, and
clean ers (men)
_____
__
_ _ _
Janitors, p o rte rs, and
clean ers (women)
____
L a b o r e rs, m aterial handling _
T r u c k d r iv e r s4
_ ___
Medium ( I 1 to and including
/*
4 tons) __ __
__ ___ __
Heavy (over 4 tons,
___
tra ile r typ e)
_
Heavy (over 4 tons, other than
tra iler type) .......
T r u ck e r s, power (forklift)
Watchmen

1
2
3
4
f

_

_

1.63
-

1. 86
-

1.94

1.68
-

1.79
1.51
2. 13
2.32

_

1.30
-

2. 01
2. 16
2. 10

2. 16
2.44
2.34

2.45

2.38

2.37

2. 17

2.52

2.47

2.41

2.41

2.31

2.30

2.

1.

16
81

-

2.23
1.72

2. 10
2.44

_

-

1.77

-

1. 65

2. 07
2.36

-

1. 56

_

1.61
1.45
-

1.38

1.25

1.21

1. 10

1.70
2.23

1.92
2.30

-

2 .2 2

2.25

-

2. 08

2. 06

-

2. 14
1. 58

-

1.74

1. 02

Excludes prem ium pay for overtim e and for work on weekends, holidays, and late sh ifts.
Data lim ited to m en w ork ers except where otherw ise indicated.
1 or m ore utilities are m unicipally operated, and, th erefore, excluded from the scope of the studies.
Includes a ll d r iv e r s , r eg a r d le ss of size and type of truck operated.
Transportation (excluding r ailroad s), communication, and other public u tilities.

NO TE :

D ash es indicate no data reported or data that do not m eet publication c r ite ria .




1.24
-

1. 85

1.77

1.58
2.34
2.53

1.44
2. 51
2.57

-

1.33
2.34
2. 58

_

1. 78
-

1.78
1.52
2. 08
2.33

1.60
-

1.84
-

_

1.75
-

1.93

2.43

-

2. 53

2.33

2.24

2. 15

2.28

2.21
2.21
2.20

2.41

2.22
2.20

1. 51

2.57

2.58

2.63

2. 34

2. 36

2.21

2.31

2.24

2. 54

2.31

2.31
2.33

2.26

2.47
2.30

1. 57
1.97

-

1. 52
1. 13

-

-

2. 64
-

See footnote 4 to the table in appendix B .

2.30
2.32

-

2.34
1.79

-

1.70

2. 13
2. 17

2. 17
2.30

-

2.20

2.20

2. 14

-

31

Table A-13. Plant occupations-wholesale trade
(Average hourly earnings 1 for selected occupations studied in w holesale trade, winter 19 5 7 -5 8 )
Northeast
Occupation

2
Boston

N ew arkJ ersey
City

South

New
York
City

P hila­
delphia

Atlanta

North Central

West
Los
A n g e le sLong
Beach

San
F ran c is c o Oakland

C le v e ­
land

_

_

_

_

$ 2 . 67

B a lti­
m ore

M innea p o lisSt. Paul

-

-

-

$ 1.57

1. 85

$ 1 .9 4

1. 86
1 .9 8
1. 85
1 .9 4
2 . 01
2 . 05
2 .3 7
-

2. 22
2. 14
2. . 03
2. 15
2. 30
2. 34
2. 36
2. 08

2 . 13
2 .2 0
2. 14
2 .2 6
2. 38
2. 52
2 .4 8
2 .3 5

Chicago

I

St. Louis

Maintenance and powerplant
M echanics
__ __ __ __ ________
M ech anics, autom otive
__

__

_

____

$ 2 .6 4
2 .2 2

_

_

_

$ 2 . 60

•

$ 2 . 53

$ 2 .2 6
1 .8 6

1 .5 9

1 .7 6

$ 1. 58

1. 58

1.3 6

1 .3 8
1 .7 2
1 .9 8
1 .6 8
2 . 16
2 . 16
2 . 08
2 .4 3

1. 18
1. 81
2 . 10
1 .5 6
2 . 03
2 .3 1
2 . 12
2 .4 6

_

$ 2 . , 82
2.,62

_
-

Custodial, warehousing, and shipping

Janitors, p orte rs, and
clean ers (men) __ ________________ _
Janitors, p o r te r s, and
cleaners (women)
__ ______ __ _
L a b o r e rs, m aterial handling ________
Order fille r s
___
_
P a c k e rs, shipping
__
__ „
_
Receiving clerk s
_
Shipping clerk s _ __ __ __ __ __
Shipping and receiving clerk s __
_
___ __________ _
T ru ck d rivers
Light (under I V tons)
__ __
M edium ( 1 V2 to and including
4 tons)
__ ______
__________
Heavy (over 4 tons,
tra iler type) ___ __
Heavy (over 4 tons, other than
tra ile r type) _____________________________
T ru ck ers, power (forklift) ______________
Watchmen
__ __ __ __ ______
__ __ _

3

2

1 .6 8
1 .6 8
1.83
1 .7 6
1 .9 1
1 .9 9
2 .2 1
1 .6 6

-

2 . 09
2 . 04
1.7 3
-

2 . 08
2 .4 9
-

-

2 .3 8
2 . 81

-

2 . 54

-

2 .2 3
1 .9 8
1.4 9

2 .4 5

-

2 .4 8

-

-

1 .7 5

1 E xcludes p rem iu m pay for overtim e and for work on weekends, holidays, and late sh ifts.
2 Data lim ited to m en w ork ers except where otherwise indicated.
3 Includes a ll d r iv e r s, r e g a rd le ss of size and type of truck operated.
NO TE:

D ashes indicate no data reported or data that do not m eet publication c r ite ria .




1 .5 0

1 .9 1

-

2 . 38

1.2 2
1 .4 8
1.4 1
1.6 1
1 .7 4
1. 83
1 .5 9
1.3 2

2 .5 6

1 .4 9

2 .3 5

-

-

1.4 3
1 .4 1

$ 1. 35

1 .7 1

$ 1 .8 9

$ 1. 73

-

1 .2 6
1 .9 5
1 .9 9
1 .7 8
2 . 13
2 . 14
2 . 13
2. 56
-

-

-

1 .6 9
1. 56
-

-

2 . 03
-

1 .9 5
2. 03
1 .9 2
2 . 07
2 . 17
2 .4 1
-

2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

07
06
00
13
17

-

2 .2 6
-

1. 86

2 . 56

2 .4 6

2 .2 3

2 .2 8

2. 34

2 .4 3

2. 36

2 .7 0

2 .3 9

2 .3 1

2 .4 6

2. , 38

2. 63

2.,53
2.,34

2 .5 0
2 .2 6

-

-

2 .2 3
1 .3 1

-

-

2. 15

-

2 . 16

32
Table A-14.
(A v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s 1 fo r

Plant occupations-retail trade

s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s s t u d ie d in r e t a i l t r a d e ,

Northeast
Occupation 2
B oston

w in te r

N ew arkJ ersey
C ity3

New
York
City 3

_
$ 2 .9 7
2 .4 3

$ 2 .6 2
2 .6 2
2 .7 7
-

P hila­
delphia3

Atlanta

B a lti­
m ore

1 9 5 7 -5 8 )

North
C entral

South

D allas

New
Orleans

C hicago

$ 2 .9 5
2 .9 6
2 . 82
-

West

Denver

Portland

San
F ra n c is c o Oakland

Seattle

M ten ce a d pow
ain an
n
erplan
t
C arpenters _ __
E le ctrician s
E n gin eers, stationary
M echanics
M ech anics, automotive

________________

$ 2 .6 6
-

.

_ _

_ ...

2 . 19
2 . 10

-

$ 2 .3 8

_

$ 2 .3 5

$ 2 .5 2

-

$ 3 .3 2
2 . 95
2 .4 2
2 .4 0
2 .4 2

-

-

-

2 . 03
2 .2 8

$ 2 .0 3

1 .7 4
1 .9 1
1.6 2

2 .2 9
-

_

_

.

_

-

-

-

-

$ 2 . 65
-

$ 2 .5 7

-

-

$ 2 . 52

Custodial, w
arehousing, a d shipping
n
E levator op erators, passen ger
(women)
Janitors, p orte rs, and
clean ers (men) _________________________
Janitors, p o rte rs, and
clean ers (women)
__ __ _____ _____
L a b o r e rs, m aterial handling
O rder fille r s
________ _____ __ __ __
P a c k e r s, shipping
Receiving clerk s ________________________
Shipping clerk s _ __
__ ____________
Shipping and receiving clerk s ________
T r u c k d r iv e r s4
__
_____ __ __
M edium ( 1 V2 to and including
4 tons) _
T r u c k e r s, power (forklift)
Watchmen
__ __
_____________________

1
2
3
4

1. 04

1. 13

1 .2 8

.6 9

.8 8

.8 5

.7 3

1 .2 4

$1. 14

1 .2 0

1 .7 4

1 .3 8

1 .3 1

1 .3 7

1 .3 6

-

1. 37

.9 3

1. 05

.9 8

.8 6

1.4 3

1. 11

1 .5 6

1.7 7

1.5 3

1. 07
1 .5 9
1 .7 5
1 .2 6
1 .6 4
1 .6 4
1. 85
1.9 5

1. 13
1 .7 2
2. 19
1 .7 9
2 .3 7

1 .4 0
1 .7 0
2 . 01
1 .6 3
1 .7 1
1 .9 5
2 .5 9

1. 08
1. 76
2 . 01
1 .4 6
1 .6 6
2 .3 3
2 .3 5

.7 9
1.2 7
1 .6 6
1 .2 6
1 .5 4
1 .5 8
1.7 7
1.4 7

. 87
1. 54
1 .7 4
1 .2 8
1.5 6
1.7 9
1.93

.7 2
1. 15
1.5 7
1.2 3
1 .4 8
1 .5 9
1 .6 0
1. 36

.6 8
1. 19
1.2 7
1. 16
1 .3 1
1.4 7
1 .6 5
1 .4 1

1 .3 2
1.8 5
2 . 00
1 .7 1
2 . 02
1 .9 3
1 .9 0
2 .4 9

1. 16
1 .6 9
1 .6 6
1 .5 9
2. 00

1. 87
2 . 00
1 .9 1
2 . 10
2 .2 7

2 .3 2
2 .2 4
2. 03
2 .3 1
2 .2 9
2 .6 6

1 .4 0
2 . 02
1 .9 8
2. 02
2 .3 9

1. 82
2 . 05
1.3 3

2 .2 2
2 .3 1

2. 09
1 .5 3

2 .2 1
1 .4 6

1.4 3
1 .7 8
1. 19

1.6 6
1. 11

1.2 3
1. 19

1 .4 8
1 .4 0
.9 9

2 .2 7
1 .4 8

1 .9 1
1 .3 2

2 .2 4
-

2 .6 6
-

2 . 17

E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m p a y fo r o v e r tim e an d fo r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s ,
D a ta lim it e d to m e n w o r k e r s e x c e p t w h e r e o th e r w is e in d ic a te d .
E x c l u d e s d a ta f o r l i m i t e d - p r i c e v a r i e t y s t o r e s .
In c lu d e s a ll d r i v e r s , r e g a r d le s s o f s iz e an d ty p e o f tr u c k o p e r a te d .

NOTE:

an d la te

sh ifts.

D a s h e s in d ic a t e no d a ta r e p o r t e d o r d a ta th a t d o n o t m e e t p u b lic a t io n c r i t e r i a .




-

33
Table A-15.

Plant occupations-finance*

(A verage hourly earnings 1 for selected occupations studied in finance, insurance, and real estate, winter 1957-58)
N ortheast
Occupation

2

New arkJersey
C ity

Boston

South

New
York
C ity

P h ila­
delphia

Atlanta

North C entral

B alti­
m ore

W est
Los
A n g e le s Long
Beach

San
F ran c is c o Oakland

_
-

_
-

Chicago

Minne ap o lisSt. Paul

$3. 44
3. 36
3. 06
-

D allas

C le ve land

$2. 94
2. 40

_
-

_
-

$1. 17

$1.49

$1. 84

1. 15
1. 38

1. 49
1. 71

1. 76

St. Louis

M
aintenance a d pow
n
erpian
t
-

_
-

$2. 48
2. 54
2. 60
2. 38

_
$2. 05
2. 02
1. 88

_
-

$1. 30

C a r p e n te r s __ ___________________________
Electrician s _______________________________
E n gineers, stationary ______________ __
Painters ---------------------------------------------

_
-

_
$1.85
-

Custodial, w
arehousing, a d shipping
n
Elevator op erators,
passenger (men) ____________________
Elevator op erators,
passenger (women) ________ ______
Guards __
_______________________
Janitors, p o rte rs, and
clean ers,(m en ) __________ __________
Janitors, p o rte rs, and
clean ers (women) _____ __ ________
Watchmen

-

1. 74

1. 57

-

-

2. 09

1. 33

-

1. 59

$1. 74

1. 93

1. 48
1. 51

-

$0. 98
-

. 92
1.46

1. 87

1.95

$1. 77

1. 35

1. 55

1. 75

1. 44

$0.93

1.09

1.00

2. 02

1. 52

1. 59

1. 14

1. 50

1. 85

1. 26
1. 40

1. 53

1. 47
1. 93

- 1. 19
•
1. 43

"

.92
1. 04

. 77
'

1. 57
■

1. 29
1. 42

1. 33
_

1. 11
1. 18

1. 39
1. 4 9

1. 83
-

-

1 Excludes p rem iu m pay for overtim e and for work on weekends, holidays, and late sh ifts.
2 Data lim ited to men w orkers except where otherw ise indicated.
* Finance, insurance, and r e a l estate.
NOTE:

Dashes indicate no data reported or data that do not m eet publication c r ite ria .




Table A - 16.

Plant occupqtlons-services

(A verage hourly earnings 1 for selected occupations studied in s e r v ic e s , winter 19 57-58)
N o rth C e n tr a l

N o rth ea st
O c c u p a tio n 2
B o sto n

N ew
Y ork
C ity

P h ila ­
d e lp h ia

C h ic a g o

$ 1 . 86

Los
A n g e le s Long
B each3

$ 2 . 90

-

W est

-

Maintenance and powerpiant
E n g i n e e r s , s t a t i o n a r y ____________________________________________
P a i n t e r s ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

_
$ 1 . 53

$ 2 . 40
1. 9 2

$ 2 . 44
2 . 61

C u stodial, w arehousing, and shipping
E l e v a t o r o p e r a t o r s , p a s s e n g e r ( m e n ) __________________
E l e v a t o r o p e r a t o r s , p a s s e n g e r ( w o m e n ) _________________
J a n i t o r s , p o r t e r s , a n d c l e a n e r s ( m e n ) ____________________
J a n i t o r s , p o r t e r s , a n d c l e a n e r s ( w o m e n ) ________________
T r u c k d r i v e r s 4 ____________________________ _________________________
________
_
L i g h t ( u n d e r 1 V2 t o n s ) _________________________
W a tch m e n

_____________

____________

____

________________________

1. 0 4
1. 13
1. 39
1. 47

1.
1.
1.
1.
2.
-

46
53
58
44
08

1. 40

-

.9 8
1. 16

1. 49

1. 33
1. 17
1. 56

1.
1.
1.
1.

1. 57
-

1. 4 4
-

1. 18

1. 56

02
67
68
05

1 Excludes prem ium pay for overtim e and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
2 Data lim ited to m en w orkers except where otherw ise indicated.
5
Excludes data for m otion-picture production and allied s e r v ic e s; data for these industries are included, however,
and "n on m an u factu rin g."
4
Includes a ll d r iv e r s, regard less of size and type of truck operated.
NOTE:

D ashes indicate no data reported or data that do not m eet publication c r ite ria .

in "a l l in d u stries"




35
Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions
Introduction
Data on the nature and prevalence of selected establishment
practices and supplementary wage provisions for office and plant work­
ers in 17 areas1 appear in the B -series tables which follow.
3
Analy­
ses of trends, however, are based on 18 identical areas, as explained
in footnote 4, page 5.
The scope of the data is described in footnotes
to the tables and under Scope and Method beginning on page 84.
Where the estimates relate to the availability of certain bene­
fits to the overall groups of office or plant workers, data are limited
to plans under which the employer contributes at least part of the
cost.
The provisions have been treated statistically on the basis that
they are applicable to all plant or office workers if a majority of such
workers are eligible or may eventually qualify for the benefits.
For
each benefit, aside from the factor of cost allocation, there is a wide
(but unmeasured) range in the dollars-and-cents value to the worker
of the benefits specified.
Varying length-of-service (seniority) re ­
quirements are an obvious factor in evaluating the extent to which in­
dividual workers participate or benefit by a particular supplementary
benefit.
Thus, length of service is a limiting factor, both as to the
number of workers who receive the benefit in any given period and
the amount of the benefit.
Relatively long seniority requirements, as
in the case of retirement programs, limit the number of workers who
ultimately qualify, or, as in the case of paid vacations, limit the
number who receive 3 - or 4-week pay amounts at any given time.
Labor-Management Agreement Coverage
Among the 17 areas for which data were collected, the pro­
portion of plant workers whose wages and working conditions were gov­
erned by collective agreements exceeded 95 percent in San FranciscoOakland and St. Louis, and 80 percent in 8 other areas; Atlanta arid
New Orleans were the only areas with fewer than half of their plant
workers covered by labor-management agreements (table B - l ) . 1
4

1 In 2 of the 19 areas— Dallas and Seattle— data collection was
3
limited to occupational earnings.
14 For this analysis, ail plant or office workers were considered
to be covered by an agreement if the terms of one or more agree­
ments applied to a majority in the establishment.
Similarly, if fewer
than half of the workers in an establishment were covered by an agree­
ment, that establishment and all of its employees were classified as
not being covered by an agreement.




Newark-Jersey City, Milwaukee, and Los Angeles-Long Beach
were the only areas studied in which as many as 20 percent of the
office workers were covered by union contracts; from 10 to 19 per­
cent of the office workers were covered in the other areas except
Memphis and New Orleans.
In these 2 areas, less than 10 percent
of the office workers were in establishments with agreements covering
a majority of the office workers.
Among industry divisions, labor-management agreement cov­
erage was highest in public u tilities.15 Ninety-five percent or more
of the plant workers in public utilities were covered by collective
agreements in 12 of the 17 areas.
High proportions of office workers
were also covered in public utilities— more than half in all areas ex­
cept Denver and the four southern areas.
Manufacturing industries
had the next highest coverage, but Atlanta was the only area in which
coverage of office workers was as high in manufacturing as in public
utilities.
Relatively high proportions of retail trade office workers
were working under agreements in New York City, Minneapolis-St.
Paul, Portland, and San Francisco-Oakland and in other areas, office
coverage in retail trade was generally higher than in wholesale trade,
finance, or services. Among plant workers, coverage was lowest in
retail trade.
With the exception of public utilities, there seemed to be no
significant positive correlation between the extent of collective bar­
gaining agreements for office and plant workers.
A high coverage of
plant workers in a specific industry division was not necessarily ac­
companied by relatively high coverage for office workers.
These estimates, of course, do not represent the proportions
of workers belonging to labor organizations, since there are union
members in establishments not having labor-management agreements
and there are also workers who are not union members who are work­
ing under terms of a labor-management agreement.
Nor are the e s­
timates an exact measurement of the proportions of workers covered
by contracts within an area or industry division, since the establish­
ments in the study do not represent all industries in an area and do
not include representation of comparatively small establishments. The
excluded establishment-size groups account for a much smaller pro­
portion of employment in manufacturing and public utilities than in the
other industry divisions.
Moreover, establishments with agreements
limited to maintenance crafts, comprising a minority of the employees
in the establishment, were not included in the total of firms having

1
5
Municipally owned utilities were excluded from the scope of
the studies.
For cities with municipally operated utilities, see foot­
note 4, to the table in appendix B, p. 86.

36

contracts covering a majority of workers.
The construction and rail­
roads industries which are typically covered by labor-management
contracts are also omitted from these surveys.
These estimates,
therefore, are representative only of medium and large employers
in the industries within the scope of the study and in the areas studied.
Minimum Entrance Rates for Office Workers
About half of the establishments visited reported established
minimum entrance-rate provisions for hiring inexperienced women
typists (table B -2).
A fifth had no specified minimum and the re ­
maining firms either did not hire inexperienced workers or did not
employ typists. Interarea differences in entrance rates followed about
the same pattern as differences in occupational averages.
Lowest
median entrance rates for inexperienced typists ($4 0 -$ 4 5 ) were found
in Atlanta, Memphis, Minneapolis-St. Paul, and New Orleans; $ 45$50 medians were recorded in Baltimore, Boston, Denver, Milwaukee,
Philadelphia, and St. Louis. The 4 highest median entrance rates for
typists were found in Chicago and Cleveland ($ 5 2 .5 0 —
$55) and in Los
Angeles-Long Beach and San Francisco-Oakland ($55— 57.50).
$
Median entrance rates for other inexperienced clerical work­
ers were generally slightly below typist rates.
Manufacturing estab­
lishments (table B-3) generally reported higher entrance rates than
nonmanufacturing establishments.
Types of Wage Payment Plans
More than four-fifths of the office and plant workers within
the scope of the Bureau's community wage studies in 17 labor m ar­
kets were employed in establishments with formal rate structures.
Workers paid under incentive plans comprised about a fourth of the
plant workers in such establishments and even though this analysis is
concerned mainly with the nature of the rate structures for time­
rated workers, information is also presented on the incidence of in­
centive pay plans in manufacturing industries.
Single Rate and Rate Range Plans. — Formal rate structures
providing single rates or a range of rates for each job category have
been widely adopted in industry— particularly in manufacturing and
public utilities— and more commonly for plant than office w orkers.1
6
The proportion under formal plans ranged from about two-thirds of
the time-rated plant workers in Memphis to nearly all plant workers
in all the Western areas except Denver.
In 14 of the areas studied,
between 60 and 77 percent of the office workers were in establish­
ments with formal rate structures. The proportions in Memphis, New
Orleans, and Denver ranged between 37 and 47 percent.
Thus, in
some areas, pay rates for considerable proportions of the office and
1
6
structures.




See footnote

1, table B -4 , for definition of types

plant workers were, nevertheless, determined primarily with refer­
ence to the qualifications of the individual workers. Individually deter­
mined rates were more common in smaller organizations and this
occurence is probably understated in that the surveys related only
to plants above a certain size. 1
7
Formal rate structures were more common in manufacturing
than in nonmanufacturing industries as a group.
However, public
utilities had higher proportions of both office and plant workers em­
ployed under formal plans than did the other broad industry divisions
studied.
In this division, formal plans applied to about four-fifths or
more of the office workers in all areas except Memphis and New
Orleans where about two-thirds were covered.
Virtually all plant
workers in public utilities were covered by formal plans.
Manufac­
turing industries had the second highest proportion of plant workers
under formal plans in most of the areas, with 13 areas having such
plans applying to nine-tenths or more of the plant workers. For office
workers, however, the proportions covered by formal plans in finance
exceeded manufacturing in 5 areas and were equal in 2 other areas
out of the 12 areas in which comparisons were possible.
Formal rate structures covering office departments typically
provided a range of rates for each job category.
Boston and San
Francisco-Oakland were the only areas in which as many as 5 per­
cent were in establishments with structures which provided single
rates.
In the other areas, such plans applied to only 3 percent or
less of the office workers. In plant departments, however, plans pro­
viding for a range of rates were predominant in only 5 of the 17 areas.
Single rate plans applied to four-fifths of the plant workers in San
Francisco-Oakland, two-thirds in Portland, and from two- to threefifths in all other areas except Boston and Atlanta where about a third
of the plant workers were covered.
Among manufacturing industries, both single rate and rate
range plans were fairly common in most areas, with single rate plans
applying to a majority of the time-rated plant workers under formal
plans in 13 areas.
However, even though a majority of the manufac­
turing plant workers in these 13 areas were covered by single rate
plans, rate ranges applied in establishments employing from 25 to
47 percent of the plant workers in 10 of these areas.
Single rate
plans were clearly the predominant type of wage payment plans in only
New Orleans, Denver, Portland, and San Francisco-Oakland.
Los
Angeles-Long Beach was the only Far West area in which structures
involving a range of rates predominated.
This is partially due to the
importance of the aircraft industry in this area; rate structures in the
aircraft industry nearly always involve rate ranges.
Plant workers
in public utilities in 14 of the 17 areas were most commonly employed
under rate range plans.
In service industries, single rate plans pre­
dominated whereas in the trade industries there was no consistent
pattern, with about an equal number of areas in which single rate
and range of rate plans dominated.
1
7
See table on scope of surveys in appendix B for minimum
rate
size of establishments included in the survey.

37

Incentive Wage Systems. — Proportions of plant workers re­
ceiving incentive payments under wage plans in manufacturing in­
dustries (table B -5) ranged from slightly less than a tenth in San
Francisco-Oakland to more than two-fifths in Milwaukee. 1
8 Propor­
tions of workers on incentives were lowest in the Far West and high­
est in the North Central region. Incentive systems applied to 30 per­
cent or more of the plant workers in 4 of the 5 North Central areas
surveyed and in 2 of the 4 Northeastern areas.
Variations among areas in prevalence and type of incentive
wage plans were traceable to some extent to industry differences
among the areas.
Use of incentive methods of pay are more char­
acteristic of some manufacturing industries than others. For example,
cotton and synthetic textile industries and such apparel industries as
women’s dresses, men’s shirts, suits and coats, hosiery, and foot­
wear all employ a high proportion of incentive workers, usually piece­
w orkers.1
9 On the other hand, industries such as motor vehicles,
chemicals, and petroleum refining rarely have incentive plans. In the
machinery industries, both piece rate and bonus plans are fairly com­
mon. Metalworking industries account for a large proportion of the
employment in Milwaukee, the area with the highest proportion of
incentive paid workers.
Scheduled Workweeks
Workweeks of 40 Hours. — Three-fifths or more of all office
workers were on a 40-hour workweek in each of 13 labor market areas
for which these data were obtained in the South, North Central States,
and West (table B-6). Among 4 Northeast areas, however, a 40-hour
schedule applied to only a tenth in New York City and from a third
to two-fifths in the other areas.
The proportion of plant workers with the 40-hour schedules
exceeded that for office workers in all except 4 areas— Cleveland,
Denver, Memphis, and New Orleans. A 40-hour workweek applied to
about two-thirds of the plant (nonoffice) workers in New Orleans,
seven-tenths in Atlanta, and to about three-fourths or more in the
other areas.
Workweeks Under 40 Hours.— In a majority of the areas, a
fourth or more of all office workers had workweeks of fewer than
40 hours, the proportion ranging up to about three-fifths in 3 North­
east areas and nine-tenths in New York City. Such workers typically
worked
hours a week except in New York City (35 hours) and
Atlanta (383/4 hours).
18 Proportions on incentives may be understated, owing to the
minimum size of establishment covered. In New York City, for ex­
ample, many apparel plants with high proportions of workers on piece­
work would be excluded.
1 Incentive wage plans in manufacturing industries are of 2 main
9
types: Piece rate plans under which payments are made in direct
proportion to total units produced and production bonuses which pro­
vide for extra payments for production in excess of a quota or for
completion of a job in less than standard time.




.
In manufacturing industries (table B -7), the proportions of
office workers with work schedules of fewer than 40 hours ranged
from fewer than a tenth in 6 areas, to about nine-tenths in New
York City.
In 2 nonmanufacturing industries— finance, insurance, and
real estate and services—the proportion of office workers who worked
fewer than 40 hours generally was higher than in manufacturing, rang­
ing from about 40 to 95 percent of the workers in finance and services
in the areas affording comparison. Proportions in retail trade with
workweeks of less than 40 hours were generally the lowest of any in­
dustry division. (See tables B -7 to B-12*)
Proportions of plant workers with workweeks of fewer than
40 hours were highest (10 to 20 percent) in Boston, New York City,
Philadelphia, Chicago, Cleveland, and San Francisco-Oakland.
The
proportions of workers with workweeks of fewer than 40 hours in
manufacturing were higher than in the combined nonmanufacturing in­
dustries in each area except Boston, ranging as high as an eighth to
a fourth of the manufacturing plant workers in 8 areas. Weekly work
schedules of fewer than 40 hours for plant workers in public utilities
were recorded in only 4 areas. The highest proportions in nonmanu­
facturing industries were recorded in New York City, where such
shorter workweeks applied to a fourth of the nonoffice workers in re­
tail trade and to a fifth in wholesale trade; and Boston, to three-tenths
in retail trade.
Workweeks Over 40 Hours.— Relatively few of all office work­
ers in any area had workweeks of more than 40 hours, the propor­
tion being highest in New Orleans (12 percent).
On the other hand,
such schedules applied to 5 percent or more of the plant workers in
all but the 3 Pacific Coast areas, ranging from 12 to 33 percent in
Denver and each southern area.
Among industry groups, the proportions of office and plant
workers on the longer workweeks were highest in retail and wholesale
trade.
Trends.— In the combined 18 areas selected for trend pur­
poses, tEe proportions of women office workers with weekly work
schedules of 40 hours and of more than 40 hours were both 2 per­
centage points lower in the winter of 1957-58 than in the winter of
1952-53.
Correspondingly, the proportions with less than 40-hour
schedules were higher by 4 percentage points. (See table, page 39. )
The latter increases were attributable chiefly to the proportions of
manufacturing office workers who had schedules of 35 and 383/4 hours
in 1957-58, each of which group had increased by 6 percentage points.
The proportions of manufacturing office workers at 40 hours and at
more than 40 hours were 4 and 3 percentage points lower, respec­
tively, than in 1952-53.

38

Over the same 5-year period in the 18 areas, the proportion
of plant workers with workweeks in excess of 40 hours declined by
almost 12 percentage points and those at 40 and fewer than 40 in­
creased by about 8 and 4 percentage points, respectively.
Corre­
sponding movements in manufacturing industries amounted to a de­
crease of almost 12 percentage points in the proportion of workers at
over 40-hour schedules, balancing increases of 61/2 and 5 points in
those working 40-hour and less than 40-hour schedules.

of the office workers in these areas were in establishments that pro­
vided premium pay for weekly overtime (table B -13). Proportionately,
more office than plant workers in most areas were covered by these
provisions. A much larger proportion of both office and plant work­
ers were covered by provisions for weekly overtime than for daily
overtime.

Overtime Pay Provisions

The great majority of office and plant workers in each of the
areas studied in 1957-58 were employed in firms which provided pay
at time and one-half the regular rate for work beyond 40 hours in the
workweek. In some areas, in which large proportions of workers were
employed on workweeks of fewer than 40 hours, proportions ranging
up to almost a fourth of the office, and up to a seventh of the plant
workers were provided premium pay for hours worked beyond these
shorter workweeks.
However, the great majority of office workers
on shorter workweeks received no additional pay, or pay at regular
rates, for work during the hours between the scheduled workweek and
40 hours.
In contrast, except in Cleveland and Milwaukee, most of
the plant workers whose work schedule was less than 40 hours re­
ceived pay at premium rates for time worked in excess of their regu­
lar workweek.

Time worked beyond the regular hours of employment estab­
lished by union agreement, by employer or industry practice, or by
law, is commonly called "overtime. M The number of hours worked
20
before overtime is paid varies, but the great majority of the workers
in industry are paid overtime rates after hours worked in excess of
8 a day or 40 a week, except in industries or areas where schedules
of less than 8 hours a day or 40 hours a week are prevalent.
Although overtime work is typically compensated at premium
rates there are some exceptions. The worker may have the option of
taking time off at equal (or extra) time, or he may be required to
take time off in order to spread the work. The Fair Labor Standards
Act permits seasonal overtime work at straight-time rates in some
industries, and in others, not covered by the act, premium overtime
may not be legally required. Lost time made up on regular days off
may be permitted at regular rates, or may be prohibited under work­
ing rules except at premium rates, depending, in some establishments,
on the reason for the lost time. In some firms with work schedules
of less than 8 hours a day or 40 hours a week, the hours at pre­
mium pay may be preceded by a stipulated amount of "overtim e" either
without any additional compensation, or pro rata based on the regular
rate of pay. 2
1
Payment of premium rates for daily or weekly overtime was
the general practice in the industries and establishments surveyed
during the winter of 1957-58 in the 17 labor market a r e a s .22 Seventynine percent or more of the plant workers and 93 percent or more
20 Penalty pay for work before or after specified hours was
considered as "overtime pay;" e. g., "time and one-half before 8 a. m.
and after 4:30 p. m. " was considered daily overtime.
2 Such practices were classified in earlier BLS studies as
1
"other premium pay. " In the current studies, they are classified by
the first premium rate, if any (see footnote 1, table B -13).
Thus,
substantial increases occur in the proportions of workers reported at
time and one-half when compared with earlier studies.
22 For results of the last previous survey of this subject in
most of the same labor market areas, see Wage Differences and E s­
tablishment Practices, 17 Labor Markets, 1953-54, BLS Bull. 1173
(pp. 35-3 7), and for more detailed treatment of the data in individual
areas, see Wages and Related Benefits, Major Labor Markets, 1953-54,
BLS Bulls. 1157-1, 1157-2, and 1157-3.




Weekly Overtime

In some industry divisions, significant proportions of the
office workers were provided premium rates after fewer than 40 hours
of work— 15 to 25 percent in most industry divisions in the Northeast
areas; a third in public utilities in Atlanta, Memphis, and New Orleans;
a sixth in retail trade in San Francisco-Oakland; an eighth in finance
in Atlanta, Baltimore, and Minneapolis-St. Paul; a fourth in services
in Chicago; and a tenth in Los Angeles-Long Beach. In public utilities
and retail trade in the areas cited, these proportions generally con­
stituted two-thirds or more of the office workers who had shorter
workweeks.
Variations from the usual overtime pay provision of time
and one-half after 40 hours were less frequent for plant than for
office workers. The proportions of plant workers who received pre­
mium overtime pay after fewer than 40 hours ranged, at their high­
est, from 7 to 14 percent in the Northeast areas, Minneapolis-St.
Paul, and San Francisco-Oakland.
Premium rates for fewer than
40 hours’ work were provided to the greatest extent for plant work­
ers in manufacturing and trade.
Premium pay at time and one-half provided only after em­
ployees worked some time in excess of 40 hours at the regular
rate, was the basis of overtime pay for a token number of plant work­
ers in most areas.
This practice applied to 8 percent of the plant
workers in New Orleans and 10 percent in Denver. Premium over­
time pay on this basis, related to specific industry groups, was pro­
vided chiefly in retail trade and services, covering as many as 7 to

39
18 percent of the nonoffice (plant) workers in retail trade in 7 of
the 12 areas for which separate estimates were available for this
industry division.

5 years earlier, as measured in 18 identical areas. 23 The extent of
the decline and the changes in the proportions of workers at 40 hours
and less than 40 hours is as indicated in the following tabulation:

New Orleans, Portland, and San Francisco-Oakland were the
only areas where double time was applicable to an appreciable pro­
portion of plant workers (chiefly in manufacturing in each area, and
also in public utilities in Portland).
Graduated scales of overtime,
whereby the workers received time and one-half for a specified num­
ber of hours of overtime and double time thereafter, were also found
in scattered instances.

Proportions of office and plant workers in 18 identical areas,
winters of 1952-53 and 1957-58, by scheduled weekly hours
and hours after which premium overtime is paid
Women office workers
Less
than
40
hours

40
hours

Scheduled hours:
Winter 1952-53 ___________ .
Winter 1957-58 ___________

44
48

53
51

Weekly hours beyond which
premium overtime is paid:
Winter 1952-53 ___________
Winter 1957-58 ___________

10
12

84
83

Daily Overtime
Provisions for the payment of premium rates for daily over­
time were not as prevalent as for weekly overtime. In 7 of the areas,
fewer than half of the office workers were covered by provisions for
premium rates for daily overtime; and in the areas of highest inci­
dence of such provisions— the 3 West Coast areas— from 83 to 92 per­
cent were covered.
Provisions were applicable to higher proportions
of the plant than of the office workers in each area.
From 45 to
50 percent of the plant workers in Atlanta, Memphis, and New Orleans,
and 79 percent or more in the remaining areas were covered by
premium-pay provisions for daily overtime. Among the major in­
dustry divisions, the greatest proportionate coverage of both office and
plant workers was recorded in public utilities, and, to a lesser ex­
tent, in manufacturing.
By far the greatest proportion of office and plant workers
covered by provisions for daily overtime were provided pay at time
and one-half for work beyond 8 hours. Premium overtime rates effec­
tive after fewer than 8 hours applied, however, to from 13 to 23 percent
of the office workers in the 4 Northeastern areas, and 9 percent in
Atlanta; and to from 8 to 12 percent of the plant workers in the
4 Northeastern areas and San Francisco-Oakland.
Premium rates that began after more than 8 hours, and rates
in excess of time and one-half were not applicable to significant pro­
portions of workers in the combined total of the 6 industry divisions
in any area.
The former policy applied almost exclusively to plant
workers and applied to significant proportions of those workers only
in public utilities in New Orleans, wholesale trade in Baltimore and
retail trade (applicable to both office and plant workers) in MinneapolisSt. Paul.
Where provided in the 17 areas, premium rates typically
became effective after 8 l!z or 9 hours of work, or for some plant
workers, after 10 hours.
Provisions for double time (typically after
8 hours) covered over a fifth of the office workers in public utilities
in Portland; and, of the plant workers, as many as a sixth in manu­
facturing in San Francisco-Oakland, a seventh in manufacturing and
public utilities in Portland, and a tenth in wholesale trade in Milwaukee.
Trend of Scheduled Hours and Overtime Premium Pay Since
Winter 1962-53. —-Fewer women office workers, and plant workers had
work schedules of more than 40 hours in the 1957-58 survey than




Item

1

Plant workers
Less
than
40
hours

40
hours

3

6
10

74
82

(!)
(!)

4

6

86

Over
40
hours

1

87

Over
40
hours

20
8

5

2

Less than 0.5 percent.

What part of these changes was attributable to economic
changes in the 5 -year period is open to question.
That at least some
of the reductions in the workweek may be permanent is suggested by
the increased proportions of workers who are covered by provisions
for the payment of weekly overtime at premium r a t e s of pay after
fewer than 40 hours of work.
Late-Shift Pay Provisions (Manufacturing)
From 63 percent (New York City) to 96 percent (Cleveland) of
the plant workers in manufacturing industries in 17 areas were em­
ployed in establishments that had specific provisions for second-shift
work, either through a labor-management agreement or by other for­
mal means (table B -15).
A great majority of the workers who were
covered by second-shift provisions were also covered by third-shift
provisions.
23
The data in table B-6 relate to all office workers but a test
comparison revealed that although these proportions sometimes differ
significantly from those of women office workers in individual areas
and industry groups, the proportions in ail industries combined in
18 areas were virtually identical.

40

Most common differentials by rank

Pay differentials for late-shift work were almost universally
specified in all areas except Atlanta, Memphis, and New Orleans,
In these areas, the shift provisions covering 10 to 17 percent of the
workers did not specify a pay differential.
A uniform cents-per-hour addition to first-shift rates was the
common form of differential in most areas for both second and third
shifts.
The next most common provision was a uniform percentage
addition to the day rates.
Percentage differentials were the most
common provision for second-shift work in Newark-Jersey City and
Philadelphia, and for third-shift work in these two cities and in Boston
and Chicago.
For second-shift work, other types of pay differential covered
from 11 to 39 percent of the manufacturing plant workers in Baltimore
and the 3 West Coast areas.
For third-shift work, the other provi­
sions applied to from 10 to 20 percent in 5 areas, and from 33 to
74 percent in the West Coast areas.
The differential pay provisions
for the great majority of these workers consisted of pay for more
hours than worked, in combination with either a cents- or percentagetype differential, or, less commonly, a flat-sum amount per shift.
A wide variety of cents and percentage denominations was in
use in most areas. No single denomination of either cents or percent­
age differential applied to a majority of the workers in establishments
having shift provisions in any area.
However, as few as 2 or 3 de­
nominations taken together typically covered a majority of the manu­
facturing plant workers who were subject to shift provisions.
The following tabulation shows the two most common secondand third-shift differentials in each area.
Each such pair of differ­
entials in two areas (see footnote 1 to the following tabulation) was
applicable to half or more of the plant workers in establishments that
had provisions for operating the indicated shifts.
Half or more were
also covered by the second-shift pairs in Newark-Jer sey City, Chicago,
and Minneapolis-St. Paul. Except in New York City, Atlanta, Memphis,
and New Orleans, the pairs applied to from a third to a half of the
workers.
It should be noted that the most common third-shift differ­
entials do not necessarily relate to the same plants or workers as
those shows for the second shift.
A majority of the workers with cents-per-hour differentials
for second-shift work had differentials of less than 10 cents an hour
in 9 areas. 24
Cents-per-hour differentials for the third shift were commonly
10 to 15 cents an hour, and 15 cents or higher in San FranciscoOakland.
They were typically 8 cents in New Orleans, 9 or 10 cents
inCleveland, 9cents in Baltimore, 7 cents in Boston, and were 10 cents
or less in Atlanta, Memphis, and Portland.

Second shift

1

Area

Third shift

2

—

Boston------------------------------Newark-Jersey C i t y --------New York C i t y -----------------Philadelphia---------------------

10 percent
10 percent
10 percent
10 percent

10 cents
10 cents
10 cents
5 cents

Atlanta ----------------------------Baltimore-------------------------Memphis ---------------------------New O rleans---------------------

12 cents
6 cents
5 cents
6 cents

5 percent
10 percent
6 cents
10 cents

Chicago ---------------------------Cleveland -----------------------Milwaukee -----------------------Minneapolis-St. P a u l-------St. Louis --------------------------

10 percent
5 percent
10 cents
10 cents
5 cents

10 cents
10 cents
12 cents

Denver -----------------------------Los AngelesLong Beach ------------------Portland (Oreg.) -------------San FranciscoOakland 2------------------------

iy 2

percent

10 cents

10 cents

6 cents

12 cents

10 cents

( ')

7 cents

(3)

10 cents

1

—

2

10 percent
10 percent
10 cents
10 percent

10 cents
10 percent
10 cents

(')
9 cents
5 cents
9 cents

10 percent
10 percent
10 cents
12 cents

10 percent
10 cents
10 cents
10 cents
10 cents

10 cents
10 percent
12 cents
12% percent
(3)
6 cents

10 cents

15 percent

(*)

10 cents

( ')

7 cents

(3)

16 cents

Pay for more hours than worked, plus cents differential.
Differentials listed are applicable to at least half of the plant workers in
establishments that had provisions for operating the indicated shifts.
^ Pay for more hours than worked, plus percentage differential.
2

Percentage differentials on second and third shifts were pro­
vided extensively in all Northeast and North Central areas except
Milwaukee, and in Baltimore.
In most areas, the common amount
was 10 percent for each shift.
However, 5 percent was the predomi­
nant percentage differential for second-shift work in Atlanta, Cleve­
land, and Milwaukee; 7l/z percent in Minneapolis-St. Paul; and 7 per­
cent in St. Louis.

At the time of the survey, the proportion of plant workers
working on late shifts ranged from about a tenth in Boston, and a
seventh in New York City and Minneapolis-St. Paul to a fourth or
more in Baltimore and St. Louis (table B -16).
Generally, there were
2 to
24
The comparison in this paragraph excludes the cents or per­ 3V2 times as many workers employed on second-shift (evening)
work as on third-shift (night) work.
centage differentials that are included in combination type differentials.




41

Trend of Shift Differentials Since Winter 1952-53
Since the winter of 1952 -5 3,
establishments having provisions for
the second shift increased from 84 to
for third-shift work increased from 75
following tabulation:

the proportions of workers in
a pay differential for work on
87 percent; sim ilar proportions
to 80 percent, as shown in the

Paid Holidays
In the 17 areas studied in the winter of 1957 -5 8, paid holi­
days w ere provided to virtually all office w orkers, and to 90 percent
or m ore of the plant workers in all areas except New Orleans (79 per­
cent) and Atlanta (87 percent) (table B -1 7 ).
The number of paid holi­
days varied widely within and among areas.

Percent of plant workers, 18 major labor markets, *
_________ winter of 1952-53 and 1957-58_________
Second sh ift
Pro v isio n s for shift operation
and sh ift pay differential

Third sh ift

1953 1958

1953

1958

A ll plant w orkers_____________________

100

100

100

100

In firms with provisions for:
Shift o p e ra tio n ----------------------------------Shift differential ___________________
Uniform cents per h o u r __________
Under 7 c e n t s _____ __________
7 and under 10 cents ________
10 cents and o v e r ___________
Uniform percentage _____________
Under 10 percent ____________
10 p e r c e n t__________________
Over 10 p e r c e n t _ __________
_
Other type differential (ch ie fly
com bination-type)______________

87
84
46
22
13
11
34
17
16
1

89
87
48
14
9
25
35
19
15
1

76
75
36
6
11
20
30
14
13
3

81
80
35
2
7
25
31
7
20
3

3

. 5

9

14

See footnote 4, p. 5.

In both periods, shift differentials applied to nearly all workers cov­
ered by provisions for shift operation.
The proportions covered by
the several types of differentials (cen ts, percentage, or other) were
essentially unchanged from 5 years ea rlier, except for a tendency
toward combination-type differentials; the latter proportions increased
2 and 5 percent for second- and third-shift work, respectively.

The level of the cents differential provided was generally
higher, in the latter period^ lor workers on both shifts.
For ex­
am ple, the proportion of workers in firm s with a second-shift dif­
ferential of less than 7 cents an hour decreased from 22 to 14 per­
cent; with differentials of 7 and under 10 cents, from 13 to 9 percent;
whereas the proportion of workers with differentials of 10 cents
or more increased from 11 to 25 percent of the plant workers in the
combined 18 a re as.
A sim ilar but less extensive shift to higher
than 10-cents differentials was noted in the provisions for thirdshift operation.




For third-shift work with a percentage differential, the pro­
portions who were provideda differential of under 10 percent decreased
from 14 to 7 percent; a corresponding increase from 13 to 20 per­
cent was recorded in the proportions who were provided a differential
of 10 percent of the day rate.

Total -Holiday T im e. — In order to determine total paid holi­
day time for w orkers, data on half-day holidays and full-day holi­
days w ere added.
For example, workers receiving 7 full days and
2 half days (or 6 full days and 4 half days, and so on) were consid­
ered as having received 8 days of paid holiday tim e.
These w orkers,
added to those who received 8 full days but no half days, provided
an estimate of workers who received a total of 8 days' paid holi­
day tim e .
The m ost liberal holiday provisions were reported in the
Northeast area where a majority of the office workers in Boston and
New York City received 11 or more days, and a m ajority of the plant
workers in Boston, N ew ark-Jersey City, and New York City received
8 or m ore days total paid holiday time (table B -1 7 a ).
More than half
of the office workers in N ew ark-Jersey City received an equivalent
of 9 or more days, and more than half in Philadelphia and San
Francisco-Oakland received an equivalent of 8 or m ore days; an equiv­
alent of 7 or more days were provided in 9 other areas for the m a­
jority of office w orkers.
A majority of the plant workers received
7 or m ore holidays in all areas except Atlanta, Denver, M em phis,
M inneapolis-St. Paul, New Orleans, and Portland.
The m ost common full-holiday provision was for 6 full-day
holidays for both office and plant workers but in only 4 North Central
areas were as many as half the office and plant workers covered by
such provisions.
Seven full-day holidays was the most common fu llholiday provision for office workers in 4 a reas, and for plant workers
in 7.
Eleven or more full-day holidays were provided to a m ajority
of the office workers in Boston and to about two-fifths in NewarkJersey City and New York City.
Five days were as commonly granted
as 6 or 7 days in 2 of the southern areas.
The great majority of workers were provided full-day holi­
days only.
However, 1 or more paid half holidays in addition were
provided to more than a sixth of the office workers and to a sm aller
proportion of the plant workers in m ost a reas.
Paid half holidays
were m ost prevalent in the Northeast and North Central areas studied—
1 or m ore paid half holidays were received by as many as a fifth to
a third of the plant workers in 5 of these 9 areas and by similar

42

proportions of office w orkers in 6 a re a s.
Among industry divisions
(tables B - 18 to B -2 3 ), paid half holidays were most frequent among
office workers in the finance and manufacturing divisions, and among
plant workers in manufacturing.
One or m ore half holidays were
received by about half of the office workers in Boston public utilities
and retail trade, Cleveland manufacturing, and New Orleans public
utilities, and by about half of the plant workers in Boston public
utilities.
Common Holidays. — New Y e a r 's Day, July 4th, Labor Day,
Thanksgiving, Christm as7 and Decoration Day (except in 3 southern
areas) were paid holidays for virtually all office workers in the
17 areas ( t a b l e 6 .)
Each of these holidays was provided to m ore
than nine-tenths of the plant workers in a m ajority of a re a s, and to
no fewer than seven-tenths in any area, except for Decoration Day
in 3 southern a re as.
A few other paid holidays were provided to a
m ajority of the office or plant workers in certain areas (table 6);
Lincoln's Birthday, to office workers in New York City; Washington's
Birthday, to office workers in areas in the northeast, B altim ore, and
San Francisco-Oakland, and to plant workers in all but 2 of these
areas; Good Friday, to office workers in N ew ark-Jersey City and
Philadelphia; Columbus Day, to office workers in 3 of the areas in the
northeast; Election Day, to office workers in Newark-Jer sey City and
New York City; Veterans Day, to office workers in 3 northeast
areas and St. Louis.
Other holidays that were provided to a m a­
jority of office or plant workers are listed in footnotes 2 and 3 to
table 7.
These 6 basic holidays were usually provided to as high
or higher proportions of the office and plant workers in manufacturing
compared with nonmanufacturing industries as a group, although the
proportions in manufacturing were generally equaled or exceeded by
those in public utilities and finance, and less frequently by those in
wholesale and retail trade.
Other paid holidays for which the pro­
portions in manufacturing exceeded that of the combined nonmanufac­
turing industries for both office and plant workers included Good
Friday, the day after Thanksgiving, Christm as E ve, a half day on
Christm as Eve, and a half day on New Y e a r 's E ve.
Two holidays—
Washington's Birthday and Veterans Day—were provided to the greatest
extent in nonmanufacturing industries, particularly to office workers
in finance and public utilities and plant workers in public utilities
and wholesale trade.
Trends. — More paid holiday time was provided in the winter
of 1957-f>S than 5 years e a rlier.
(See chart 3 .)
The gain occurred
chiefly in the proportion of w orkers receiving 7 or 8 holidays.
The
37 percent of office workers whose paid holiday time totaled 6 days
in the winter of 1952-53 declined to 19 percent in 1 9 5 7 -5 8 , while in­
creases to 28 and 15 percent, respectively, were recorded in the pro­
portions provided 7 or 7 1
/zt and 8 or S1 z days. Sim ilarly, the 55 per­
/
cent of plant workers in firm s providing total paid holiday time of
6 days declined to 26 percent, and the proportions getting 7 or 7l/ and
z
8 or 8V 2, advanced to 41 and 13 percent, respectively, from 16 and
10 percent.




Paid Vacations
One w eek's pay or m ore after a y e a r's service was an a l­
most universal provision for office and plant workers in each of the
17 labor markets surveyed in the winter of 1957-58 (table B -2 4 ).
Two w eek s' pay after 5 y e a r s' service was available to alm ost as
many workers except for plant workers in the southern a re a s, ex­
cept B altim ore. A fifth to a half of plant and office workers were
eligible for 3 or m ore w eeks' pay after 10 y ea rs, and three-fourths
to nine-tenths after 15 y ea rs, in m ost a re a s.
Four w eeks' pay was
generally available to from a fourth to a half of the office and a
sixth to two-fifths of the plant w orkers, with 25 y e a r s ' serv ice.
Three w eeks' vacation pay was the maximum provided for
the bulk of both plant and office workers in most a re a s.
Provisions
limiting maximum vacation pay to 2 weeks applied to a somewhat
greater proportion of plant workers than office w orkers.
A greater
proportion of office than plant workers could expect eventually to r e ­
ceive vacation pay for 4 weeks or m o re.
The maximum vacation pay attainable and the amount of pay
for comparable service were more liberal for office workers in the
great m ajority of the areas and in individual industry divisions.
The
greatest difference between the benefits for office and plant workers
was in the provisions for service periods up to 3 y ea rs.
Much larger
proportions of office w orkers, for exam ple, qualify for vacation pay
after 6 months.
A ls o , pay of 2 weeks or m ore after a year of serv ­
ice was much m ore widely granted to office w orkers.
Provisions
were about the same for both groups for employees with 5 years*
serv ic e , except in 2 southern a re a s, where the proportion receiving
2 w eek s' vacation was lower for plant em ployees than for office
w o rk ers.
However, vacation pay arrangements pertaining to 10, 15,
20, and *25 years of service progressively favor office workers in
most a reas, tending to provide an increasingly higher proportion of
such w orkers with 3 or 4 weeks* vacations.
Some marked differences for both office and plant workers
were noted among the areas not only in respect to maximum vaca­
tion pay offered, but also in regard to len gth -o f-service requirem ents.
M oreover, not all of the areas that offer the m ost (or least) liberal
vacation provisions for office w orkers held the same relative rank
with respect to plant w orkers.
To some extent, such variations r e ­
flect the local importance of particular industries.
For exam ple, in
New York City, financial institutions provide employment to an un­
usually high proportion of the total office workers in the area. Thus,
vacation practices in this industry influence the overall data for New
York City.
L en gth -of-service requirem ents were generally m ore liberal
for plant workers in the public utilities industry than for such workers
in the other industry divisions for which data are available (tables
B -25 to B -3 0 ). Among 5 industry divisions (excluding finance), public
utilities led in the proportions of plant workers who were offered a
w eek's pay for as little as 6 m onths' serv ice.
The proportions of

43
Chart 3»

I N C R E A S E S

IN

C O V E R A G E

O F

B E T W E E N

S U P P L E M E N T A R Y

1952-53

A N D

W A G E

P R O V I S I O N S

1957-58

OFFICE W O R K E R S

PLANT

WORKERS
PERCENT

PERCENT
100
I




80

60

40

20

20

40_

60

3 or M ore W e e k s 9
P a id V a c a tio n A fte r
10 Y e a r s 9 S ervice

7 or M o re
P a id H o lid a y s

H o sp ita lizatio n
Insurance

Surgical
Insurance

M e d ic a l
Insurance

R etirem ent
P ension P lans

m

1 9 5 2 -5 3

#

m
TOTAL

B8888I

1 9 5 7 -5 8

PAI D

I NCLUDING

HOLIDAY
HA L F

TI ME

DAYS

1 9 5 2 -5 3

_______
R&8B1

1 9 5 7 -5 8

80

100

44
T a b le 6 . M a jo r p aid h olid ays
(P ercen t of office and plant w orkers to whom provided, 17 labor m ark ets, winter I 9 e 7 - I
'
'8)
N ortheast
M ajor paid holidays 1
B o sto n 2

N ew arkJ erse y
C ity

New
York
City

South
P hila­
delphia

Atlanta

B alti­
m ore

North Central

Memphis

New
Chicago
Orleans 3

C lev e­
land

M ilw au­
kee

W est

M inne­
a p o lisSt. Louis
St. Paul

Denver

Los
San
A n g e le sFran Portland
Long
c is c o B each 4
Oakland 5

Office workers

New Y e a r 's Day ----------------------------------L in coln's Birthday ------------------------------Washington's Birthday -----------------------Good Frid ay -----------------------------------------Half day, Good F r i d a y -----------------------E aster Monday -----------------------------------D ecoration Day (M em orial Day)6 -----July 4th .............................................................
Labor Day ---------------------------------------------Columbus D a y --------------------------------------E lection D a y -----------------------------------------A r m istice Day (V eterans Day) ---------•
Thanksgiving D a y ---------------------------------Day after Thanksgiving ----------------------C hristm as Eve -------------------------------------Half d ay, C hristm as Eve ------------------C hristm as ---------------------------------------------Half d ay, New Y e a r 's Eve -----------------

99
***
92
***
***
***
99
99
99
81
4
86
99
***
***
13
99
3

99
44
89
51
***
***

99
99
99
51
51
50
99
4
***
13
99
10

99
60
96
22
12
***
99
99
99
66
69
52
99
3
***
11
99
5

100
24
54
50
8
10
100
99
99
29
26
37
100
3
7
8
100
***

99
***
17
6
***
3
62
99
99
***
***
16
99
5
13
7
99
3

99
3
53
46
5
3
99
99
99
12
***
25
99
13
***
5
99
***

97
***
8
***
3
***
29
99
98
***
***
10
99
***
7
9
100
3

99
***
***
26
20
***
4
99
99
***
***
9
99
***
***
16
99
9

99
13
32
23
5
***
99
99
99
12
***
16
99
3
5
15
99
8

99
***
14
15
***
**%
99
99
99
3
5
3
99
***
6
32
99
28

99
***
12
7
10
***
99
99
99
***
***
5
99
5
20
26
99
***

100
3
21
14
12
***
100
100
99
***
***
12
100
***
4
25
100
10

99
***
29
9
***
***
98
99
99
***
***
50
99
5
***
6
99
***

100
***
37
4
***
***
97
100
100
*♦*
***
31
100
5
6
3
100
***

100
5
36
***
9
***
100
100
93
3
***
26
100
5
4
8
100
4

99
***
30
***
***
***
99
99
99
***
***
36
99
3
***
1
99
***

100
3
90
7
12
***
100
100
100
3
***
24
100
3
***
3
100
***

95
***
7
14
***
***
96
94
95
***
3
***
96
4
5
34
96
34

95
***
4
5

99
***
7
5
***
***
99
99
98

98
***
13
12
***
***
96
98
98
***
***
37
98
8
***
7
98
4

89
***
13
4
***
***
90
89
89
***
***
12
89
***
9
***
89
***

92
***
30
3
***
***

88
***
16
4
***
***
89
89
89
***
***
12
90
7
***
***
90
***

90
***
74
6
***
***
90
91
94
***
3
17
97
***
***
3
97

Plant workers

New Y e a r 's Day ----------------------------------Lin coln 's B ir th d a y ------------------------------W ashington's B ir th d a y -------------- r-------Good F rid ay -----------------------------------------Half day, Good F riday ---------------------E a ster M o n d a y ------------------------------------Decoration Day (M em orial D a y )6 ----July 4th -------------------------------------------------Labor Day ---------------------------------------------Columbus Day --------------------------------------Election Day -----------------------------------------A r m istic e Day (V eterans Day) -------Thanksgiving Day ---------------------------------Day after Thanksgiving ----------------------C hristm as Eve -------------------------------------Half day, C hristm as Eve -----------------C hristm as ____ - ______- _- _______ ._-__ _
Half day, New Y e a r 's E v e ------------------

94
***
65
***
***
***
93
88
95
44
5
49
95
***
***
7
94
***

98
14
68
24
***
3
98
95
98
16
25
17
97
6
4
16
97
12

94
29
85
5
***
***
98
93
95
31
37
22
93
***
***
6
95
3

97
***
27
26
3
20
98
97
96
4
6
9
98
6
7
8
99
***

80
***
3
***
***
***
43
82
84
***
***
5

82
***

14
10

85
7

96
***
23
30
***
4
92
95
95
***
***
4
95
10
***
5
97
***

75
***
***
5

***
***
34
84
84
***
***
6
85
***
16
5
87
3

72
***
***
23
4
***
***
71
71
***
***
6
71
***
5
3
77
***

96
***
12
12
***
***
95
95
96
***
***
5
95
3
7
13
97
11

#**
***

95
95
96
***
***
***
95
6
23
24
95
***

*#*

***
9
98
***
7
18
99
9

91
92
92
***
***
13
93
7
4
7
94
4

1 L im ited to paid holidays provided annually. A number of holidays and half day holidays other that those listed here or in footnotes, w ere provided.
In general, they applied to few er than 5 p e r ­
cent of the office or plant w ork ers, and w ere represented in few er than half of the a rea s.
2 A ls o , P a trio t's
Day:
O ffice, 84 percent; plant, 45 p ercent; and Bunker H ill Day:O ffice,
45 percent; plant,
11percent.
3 A ls o , M ardi G ras: O ffice, 99 percent; plant, 67 percent; and A ll Saints Day: O ffice, 21percent; plant, 11percent;
and half day, A ll Saints Day: O ffice, 20 percent; plant, 3 percent.
4 A ls o , A d m ission Day:
O ffice, 21 percent; plant, 4 percent.
5 A ls o , A d m ission Day:
O ffice, 42 percent; plant, 12 percent.
6 Data for Atlanta include Southern M em orial Day: O ffice, 34 percent; plant, 17 percent.
* * * L e s s than 2.
percent.




45
plant workers to whom 2 or more weeks* pay was available after a
year's service were also highest in public utilities or wholesale trade
in most areas affording comparison:
Likewise 2 weeks or more pay
after 2 and 3 y e a r s' service was generally available to the greatest
extent in public utilities and retail trade.
Three or m ore w eeks' pay
after 10 y e a r s ' service was available to plant workers to the greatest
extent in retail trade and after 15 y e a r s' service, in public utilities
(tables B -2 6 and B -2 8 ).
Public utilities led all divisions in offering 4 weeks* pay to a
fourth to two-thirds of its plant workers in m ost areas; this was the
only division in which such proportions were generally higher for plant
than for office w orkers.
The 1957-58 surveys indicate that for most w orkers, vacation
pay is expressed in term s of regular or average earnings, graduated
on a sliding scale from as little as 1 day's pay after a short length
of employment to as much as 4 weeks* pay after long service.
Some
plans of this type also provide 1 day's pay for each year of service,
thus providing progression for intermediate years.
Another type of
graduated plan expresses vacation pay as a percentage of the w orkers'
annual earnings.
This latter type applied to higher proportions of
plant than of office w orkers; a great majority of these workers were
production employees of manufacturing firm s. This practice applied to
alm ost a third of the factory workers in Philadelphia, a fifth in Atlanta,
Denver, and Milwaukee, and from 8 to 16 percent in alm ost all other
a reas. Other types of payment, including flat-sum payments, were un­
usual; they applied to as many as 3 or 4 percent of the plant workers
in only 3 a reas.
T ren ds. — During the past 5 years3 the lim its on maximum
vacation pay were raised for both office and plant workers. (See
chart 3, page 4 3 .)
In the winter of 195 2 -5 3 , maximum vacation pay
of 2 weeks was available to 28 percent of the office workers in
18 areas combined;25 a maximum of 3 w eeks' pay to 52 percent, and
4 weeks to 19 percent.
By the winter of 1 9 57 -5 8, the proportion with
a 2 -week maximum had decreased to 12 percent of the office w orkers,
and the proportion with a maximum of 4 or m ore w eeks' pay had in­
creased to 35 percent.
In this 5 -year period, plant workers with a
maximum of 2 w e ek s’ paid vacation decreased from 37 to 19 percent,
those with a maximum of 3 weeks increased by 9 percentage points to
60 percent, and those with 4 weeks increased from 7 to 19 percent.
In the winter of 1957-58, for many workers in these same
areas, a larger amount of vacation pay was available than was pro­
vided for comparable service 5 years ea rlier.
For example, 3 or
more w eeks' pay, available to 22 percent of the office workers after
10 y e a r s' service in the earlier period, was available to 42 percent
in 195 7 -5 8 , for comparable service (chart 3).
25

See footnote 4,




p. 5.

Health and Insurance Plans
Life insurance coverage was available to 87 percent or more
of both plant and office workers in each area, except plant workers
in Denver, Mem phis, New O rleans, and Portland (72 to 76 percent)
(table B - 3 l ) .
As measured in 18 areas com bined,26 life insurance
coverage was extended to an additional 6 percent of office and 3 per­
cent of plant workers between the winters of 1952-53 and 1955 -5 6.
Increases in coverage between 1955-56 and 1957-58 have averaged
1 percent for both office and plant w orkers.
Among the 18 areas,
the 5 -y e a r increase in the proportions of workers provided life in­
surance coverage ranged from 3 to 29 percent for office workers and
from 2 to 17 percent for plant w orkers.

Provisions for hospitalization insurance and surgical insu r­
ance applied to 70 to 90 percent of both the office and plant workers
in m ost areas with lower coverage recorded for one or both employee
groups in Baltim ore, Denver, M em phis, New Orleans, and Philadelphia.
Medical insurance was available to m ore than half of the office and
plant workers in a m ajority of the a reas.
Hospitalization, surgical, and medical insurance have each
become increasingly available in recent y ears. Between the winters of
1952-53 and 1 9 55 -5 6, hospitalization coverage of office workers in­
creased from 66 to 77 percent with a corresponding increase from
73 to 84 percent for plant w orkers.
Subsequent increases (to the
winter of 1957-58) extended coverage to an additional 3 percent of
office and 2 percent of plant w orkers.
(See chart 3, page 4 3.)
In
this 5 -y ear period, increases in both o ffice- and plant-worker cov­
erage have varied widely among a re a s, ranging between 6 percent in
Boston and 37 percent in Portland for office workers and between
9 percent in Atlanta and Los A ngeles-L ong Beach and 36 percent in
Portland for plant w orkers.
Furtherm ore, during this 5 -year span, surgical and medical
coverage grew more rapidly than hospitalization. Surgical and medical
insurance in the winter of 1952-53 were available to 58 and 39 per­
cent, respectively, of the office workers in the 18 areas combined.
Increases in coverage of 21 percentage points (surgical) and 19 per­
centage points (medical) brought surgical coverage to within 1 point
of the 1957-58 hospitalization coverage (80 percent) of office w orkers.
For plant w o rk ers, 5-y ea r coverage increases of 18 percentage points
(surgical) and 16 percentage points (medical) resulted in surgical cov­
erage for 84 percent and medical for 60 percent of the plant w orkers,
compared with 86 percent hospitalization coverage of such workers in
these a reas.
In the winter of 1957 -5 8, catastrophe (extended medical) in­
surance was available to between 30 and 50 percent of the office

zf>

Ibid.

46

workers in Atlanta, Chicago, Los A n geles-L on g Beach, New York
City, Portland, and San Francisco-Oakland, and between 14 and
29 percent of the office workers in other areas.
Plant-worker cov­
erage in the winter of 1957-58 ranged from less than 10 percent in
7 areas to 29 percent in Los A ngeles-L ong Beach and 25 percent in
San Francisco-Oakland. In the combined areas permitting comparison
with the winter of 195 3 -5 4 , when information was first collected;
catastrophe insurance coverage increased fr o m 2 to 30 percent of the
office workers in the combined a re as, the increment ranging between
13 and 40 percent of the office workers in individual a re as.
Cov­
erage rose from 2 to 11 percent of the plant workers in the com ­
bined areas, with increments ranging between 2 and 25 percent of
the plant workers in individual a reas.

Income protection against employee illn esses (sickness and
accident) may take the form of sick leave with full or partial pay,
or insurance benefits.
In the great m ajority of the areas surveyed
during the winter of 1 9 5 7 -5 8 , income protection against illness ex­
tended to 70 to 95 percent of both office and plant w orkers.
In about
half the a re as, the proportions of plant workers so protected equaled
or exceeded the proportion who were provided hospitalization.
Among
a re a s, up to a third of the office and up to a fifth of the plant workers
were employed in firm s that provided both illness insurance and sickleave pay.
Sick-leave plans providing for full pay and requiring no wait­
ing period were much m ore prevalent for office workers than for plant
w orkers.
On the other hand, sickness and accident insurance was
m ore commonly provided for plant w orkers.
Lim ited-type s i c k
leave requiring a waiting period or providing partial pay or both was
provided up to about a fourth of both office and plant w orkers.
Tables
B -32 to B -3 7 present data for prevalence of health and insurance plans
by major industry groupings.

Retirement Plans

Retirement plans were somewhat more prevalent for office
workers than for plant workers in each area studied in the winter
of 1957 -5 8.
Pension coverage for office workers ranged from 57 per­
cent in New Orleans to 86 and 87 percent in N ew ark-Jersey City and
Baltim ore, respectively. Plant-w orker coverage ranged m ore widely,
from 37 percent in New Orleans, to between 75 and 80 percent in
Baltim ore, Newark-Jer sey City, and New York City.




Coverage also varied widely among industry divisions. R ela­
tively m ore workers were covered in public utilities than in other
major groups studied; public utilities was al f o the only division in
which retirem ent plans were generally m ore prevalent for plant than
for office w orkers.
Lowest pension plan coverage was in services
and retail trade.

The 1957-58 surveys also provided insight into the type of
pension coverage provided.
The great majority of the pension plans
were of the actuarial type, i. e. , specific payments were required of
the em ployer, and specific and regular payments to retirees for the
remainder of their lives (table 7).
In the 17 areas combined, about
6 percent of the office and 3 percent of the plant workers were cov­
ered by a profit-sharing type of pension plan providing for the pur­
chase of a life annuity, upon retirem ent.
P rofit-sharing coverage
extended to as many as 7 percent of the office workers in New York
City and Philadelphia; 9 percent of the plant workers in Portland;
from 7 to 10 percent of both office and plant workers in Atlanta,
B altim ore, and Memphis; and from 1 to 6 percent of the office and
plant w orkers in these and other a re as.
In manufacturing industries,
such coverage amounted to more than 6 percent of the office workers
in Atlanta, B altim ore, M inneapolis-St. Paul, and Portland. Coverage
of the profit-sharing type generally extended to higher proportions of
office and plant workers in manufacturing than in any nonmanufactur­
ing division, except retail trade.
In the latter division, coverage
of profit-sharing type plans extended to 22 percent of the office and
to 10 percent of the plant workers in the combined areas.
A minor
proportion (fewer than 1 percent of office or plant workers in the com ­
bined areas) were covered by both an actuarial and a profit-sharing
type pension plan.
Among a re a s, the proportion of workers under
such combination coverage did not exceed 2 percent, except f o r office
w orkers in Milwaukee (3 percent) and Baltim ore (6 percent).
Trends. — Between 1952-53 and 195 7 -5 8 , the proportions of
workers covered by pension provisions increased from 66 to 79 per­
cent of the office workers and from 53 to 68 percent of the plant
w orkers.
(See chart 3, page 43. )
The gain covered between 10 and
20 percent of the workers in most a re a s, with slightly larger increases
in coverage noted for plant than for office workers in a m ajority of
the a re a s.
Since the winter of 1 9 5 5 -5 6 , the proportion of office
workers covered by retirem ent pension plans has not increased greatly
in any area except Los A ngeles-L ong Beach (17 percentage points).
However, increases of from 8 to 18 percentage points in the propor­
tions of plant workers covered by pension plans were recorded in
Denver, Los A ngeles-L ong Beach, New York City, Philadelphia,
Portland, and San Francisco-Oakland.

47

T a b le 7 . T y p e s o f retirem ent p ension plan
(Percent of office and plant w orkers covered,

17 labor m ark ets, winter 1 9 57 -58 )

Office w ork ers
A rea

A ctu arial
plan 1

P r o fitsharing
plan 2

Both
types
of
plan

Plant w ork ers
No
retirem ent
pension
plan

A ctu arial
plan 1

P r o fitsharing
plan 2

Both
types
of
plan

No
retirem ent
pension
plan

N ortheast:
B oston __________________________________________
New York City _________________________________
N e w ark -J e rsey City __________________________
Philadelphia ___________________________________

74
75
85
75

3
5
1
6

( 3)

23
19
14
18

55
77
75
60

3
1
1
3

( 3)

2
1

1
-

41
21
25
37

South:
Atlanta __________________________________________
B altim ore ______________________________________
M em phis ________________________________________
New O rleans _________________ _________________

74
77
50
52

7
4
11
4

2
6
( 3)
1

16
13
39
43

53
73
36
34

6
5
10
3

1
2
( 3)
( 3)

40
20
54
63

North Central:
Chicago ______•
________________ -_________________
C leveland _______________________________________
Milwaukee _____________________________________
M in n e ap olis-S t. Paul _________________________
St. Louis _______________________________________

67
77
73
74
76

6
2
3

( 3)
3
1
"

26
21
21
21
22

56
68
60
61
66

4
1

4

( 3)
1

40
31
35
37
33

W est:
Denver __________________________________________
L os A n g e le s-L o n g Beach ____________________
Portland ________________________________________
San F ran cisco-O aklan d ______________________

62
75
69
75

2
1
1
1

35
19
26
20

46
62
48
66

1
2

4
2

1
5

4
4

1
( 3)

( 3)

1
3

1
2
1

9
( 3)

"

52
34
43
33

Specific payments required of em p loy er, specific and regular payments to r e tir e e s for the rem ainder of their liv e s .
Definite form ula for computing the p ro fit-sh a re to be set asid e, and regular payments to the retiree for life through provision s in the plan for pur­
chase of an annuity with the accum ulated funds to his cred it.
E xcludes plans under which payments are made in a lump sum , or spread over a specified
number of y e a r s.
L e ss than 0 . 5 percent.




3

48
B:

E s t a b li s h m e n t P r a c t i c e s a n d S u p p l e m e n t a r y W a g e

P r o v is io n s

T ab le B-l. L ab or-m an a ge m e n t a g r e e m e n t c o v e r a g e
^Percent of all office and plant workers employed in large- and medium-size establishments in which a contract or contracts covered a majority of workers in the respective categories,1 winter 1957-58)
I‘ercent of office workers employed in—
Area

Percent of plant workers employed in—

All
industries

Manu­
facturing

Public
utilities t

Wholesale
trade

Retail
trade

Finance*

Northeast:
Boston3 __
Newark-Jersey City3 ____________
New York City 3 __________________
Philadelphia3 _____________________

15-19
25-29
10- 14
15-19

20-24
30-34
10-14
25-29

75-79
50-54
55-59
65-69

15-19
5-9
5-9
5-9

10-14
20-24
30-34
15-19

South;
Atlanta _____ ________ _
Baltimore _ __
_
Memphis3 ______ ____ __ __ _ _
New Orleans_____________________

15-19
10- 14
5-9
5-9

5 40-44
15-19
10-14
0-4

40-44
30-34
40-44
3 0-34

5-9
0-4
(4 )
(4 )

North Central:
__ ___ _ _
_
Chicago3 ____
Cleveland3 __ ____
_ ___ _
Milwaukee ______
Minneapolis-St. Paul
_ __ __ _ ______
_
St. Louis3

15-19
10- 14
25-29
10- 14
10-14

10-14
5-9
10-14
0-4
5-9

60-64
60-64
90-94
60-64
75-79

West:
Benver
_ _ _ _ _
_
Los Angeles-Long Beach3
____
Portland
San Franci sco-Oakland 3 __________

10- 14
20-24
15-19
15-19

5-9
25-29
0-4
10- 14

10-14
80-84
60-64
75-79

Services

All
industries 2

Manu­
facturing

Public
utilitie s t

Wholesale
trade

Retail
trade

Services

(4 )
10- 14
0-4
0-4

0-4
(4 )
10- 14
10- 14

70-74
85-89
80-84
80-84

75-79
85-89
90-94
85-89

90-94
95+
95+
80-84

50-54
85-89
7 0-74
65-69

60-64
50-54
55-59
50-54

50-54
(4 )
85-89
80-84

0-4
15-19
(4 )
0-4

0-4
0-4
(4)
(4)

(4 )
(4)
(4 )
(4)

45-49
65-69
50-54
40-44

60-64
80-84
75-79
50-54

7 0-74
60-64
85-89
95+

35-39
45-49
( 4)
( 4)

5-9
30-34
(4)
5-9

( 4)
4
4
( 4)

5-9
0-4
(4 )
5-9
5-9

20-24
(4 )
(4 )
30-34
(4)

0-4
0-4
(4 )
0-4
0-4

0-4
(4 )
4)
4)
(4 )

7 0-74
90-94
80-84
80-84
95+

70-74
90-94
90-94
90-94
95+

95+
95+
95+
95+
95+

65-69
80-84
(4)
85-89
80-84

50-54
( !)
(4 )
60-64
(4)

80-84
(4)
(4)
(4)
(4)

<4 )
10- 14
(4 )
0-4

20-24
(4 )
35-39
60-64

(4)
0-4
(4)
0-4

4 (4 )
6 5-9
(4 )
(4 )

65-69
80-84
80-84
95+

75-79
75-79
85-89
95+

95+
95+
95+
95+

(4 )
75-79
(4)
85-89

45-49
(4)
60-64
85-89

4 (4 )
6 65-69
(4 )
(4 )

1 All other office and plant workers were employed in establishments that either did not have labor-management contracts in effect, or had contracts that applied to fewer than half of their office or plant
workers. The estimates are not necessarily representative of the extent to which all workers in the area may be covered by the provisions of labor-management agreements, owing to the exclusion of smaller size
establishments. Data are limited to establishments with 51 or more employees except in the 10 largest areas where the minimum size adopted was 101 employees in manufacturing, public utilities, and retail trade.
2 Includes data for real estate in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
3 Exceptions to the standard industry limitations are shown in footnotes 4 and/or 7 to the table in appendix B.
4 Insufficient coverage to warrant separate presentation of data.
5 Estimate reflects mainly such coverage in 1 large establishment.
6 Excludes data for motion-picture production and allied services. Data for these industries are, however, included in "all industries."
t Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities.
* Finance, insurance, and real estate.




49
T ab le B-2. M inimum e n tra n c e rates 1 for w o m e n o ffic e w o r k e r s -a ll industries
(Distribution of establishments studied by minimum hiring rate for selected occupations, winter 1957-58)
Northeast
Minimum rate
(weekly straight-time salary)

Establishments studied --------------------

NewarkBoston* Jersey
City*
249

New
York
City*

277

551

South
Phila­
delphia*
323

Atlanta

Balti­
more

191

180

North Central

New
Memphis* Orleans
131

159

Chicago*

435

Minne­
apolis- St. Louis* Denver
St. Paul

West
Los
AngelesPortland
Long
Beach*

San----FranciscoOakland*

Cleve­
land*

Milwau­
kee

235

178

241

230

146

319

148

251

128
1
3
34
34
20
11
6
7
4
4
1
1
1
1
-

133
1
24
16
21
17
11
12
12
8
2
5
4
“

65
1
12
3
14
9
13
3
2
6
1
1
•

156

58
1
5
6
9
3
6
2
4
6
5
1
5
1
1
2
1

123
1
8
9
26
9
12
17
9
5
9
4
6
7
1

—
In
experienced ty ists
p
Establishments having a specified
minimum 3 -------------------------------------Under $37. 50 ....................- -------$37. 50 and under $40. 00 -----------$40. 00 and under $42. 50 -----------$42. 50 and under $45. 00 -----------$45. 00 and under $47. 50 -----------$47. 50 and under $50. 00 -----------$50.00 and under $52. 50 -----------$52.50 and under $55.00 -----------$55. 00 and under $57. 50 -----------$57. 50 and under $60. 00 -----------$60. 00 and under $62. 50 -----------$62. 50 and under $65. 00 -----------$65. 00 and under $67. 50 -----------$67. 50 and under $70. 00 -----------$ 70. 00 and under $ 72 . 50 -----------$72.50 and under $75.00 -----------$ 75. 00 and ov e r-------------------------Establishments having no specified
minimum --------------------------------------Establishments which did not employ
workers in this category---------------Information not available------------------

130
6
3
23
30
30
12
11
3
3
4
1
3
1
-

155
4
18
5
24
20
32
8
15
11
6
5
5
2
-

262
1
10
9
36
28
86
22
36
16
6
6
3
2
1

162
2
5
31
17
35
14
27
7
9
4
5
2
4
-

89
1
31
16
14
8
4
4
4
1
2
2
1
1
-

89
2
19
11
23
5
5
8
2
1
4
5
3
1
-

64

37

118

73

41

54

84
1

171
-

86
2

60
1

1

51
7
20
7
4
1
4
3
1
2
1
1

56
6
1
19
9
7
3
4
3
2
2
-

234
3
4
2
9
19
57
27
36
22
19
7
14
2
2
7
4

121
4
4
8
9
24
18
15
12
6
8
2
3
2
5
1

91
1
8
11
17
12
19
8
6
3
1
4
1
"

14

16

27

101

42

36

67

66

39

64

50

70

76
1

64
■

76
■

100

71
1

51

46
“

31

42

99

40

58

131
1
5
48
27
22
5
6
6
4
3
1
1
1
1
“

143
4
33
19
20
17
11
12
9
7
2
5
2
1
1
“
“

70
3
13
4
17
7
11
4
6
3
1
1
■
■
“
“

166
1
2
10
8
14
27
16
17
20
10
5
7
8
10
3
8

68
“
1
9
5
10
3
10
2
7
5
6

136
*
"
■
4
13
7
25
14
11
16
15
8
8
6
4
3
2

‘

2
5
3
13
16
19
24
21
11
6
8
5
10
5
9

'

O er inexperienced clerical w
th
orkers4
Establishments having a specified
minimum 3 -----------------------------------Under $37. 50 ...................................
$37. 50 and under $40. 00 -----------$40.00 and under $42.50 -----------$42. 50 and under $45. 00 -----------$45. 00 and under $47. 50 -----------$47. 50 and under $50. 00 -----------$50. 00 and under $52. 50 -----------$52.50 and under $55.00 -----------$55. 00 and under $57. 50 -----------$57. 50 and under $60.00 -----------$60. 00 and under $62. 50 -----------$62. 50 and under $65.00 -----------$65. 00 and under $67. 50 -----------$67:50 and under $70.00 -----------$70. 00 and under $72 . 50 -----------$ 72 . 50 and under $ 75. 00 -----------$ 75. 00 and ov e r-------------------------Establishments having no specified
minimum --------------------------------------Establishments which did not employ
workers in this category---------------Information not available------------------

97
1
2
41
16
10
9
6
1
3
3
1
2
1
1
-

102
7
2
31
14
16
8
3
6
3
5
5
2
-

54
7
23
7
4
2
5
2
2
1
1

62
8
3
20
10
5
3
6
2
2
2
1
-

251
3
9
4
24
24
64
32
30
14
13
6
13
3
1
8
3

132
2
9
9
13
9
19
17
13
12
15
1
3
5
5
“

92

44

24

25

33

113

42

45

64

68

41

67

44

68

60
2

49
1

53
1

52

64

71

60
1

28

46

19

35

86

36

47

138
8
6
31
32
27
10
8
4
3
3
1
3
1
1
-

167
1
5
23
12
28
17
31
10
12
8
9
6
1
2
2

289
5
29
17
67
28
70
17
26
13
8
6
1
2
-

169
2
9
46
15
33
17
19
7
7
5
4
2
3
-

73

49

124

37

60
1

138
"

1

1 Lowest formally established salary rate.
* Exceptions to the standard industry limitations are shown in footnotes 4 and/or 7 to the table in appendix B.
3 Regular straight-time salary corresponding to employee's standard workweek. Data are presented for all workweeks combined.
4 Rates applicable to messengers, office girls, or similar subclerical jobs are not considered.




105
1
1
21
13
17
14
17
7
6
2
1
1
4
“

6
1
1

50
Table B-3. Minimum entrance rates1 for women office workers-manufacturing
(Distribution of establishm ents studied by minim um hiring rate for selected occupations, winter 1 9 5 7 -5 8 )
Northeast
M inim um rate
(weekly ‘stra igh t-tim e sa la ry )

E stablishm ents studied

_________

South

B oston

New arkJ ersey
City

New
York
C ity

P hila­
delphia

Atlanta

B alti­
m ore

84

144

176

144

57

66

North Central

M em phis

52

West

Denver

Los
A n g e le sLong
Beach

Portland

San
F ran c is c o Oakland

New
O rleans

Chicago

C le v e ­
land

M ilw au­
kee

M innea p o lisSt. Paul

52

168

109

88

91

104

46

111

62

83

63
_
_
1
4
1
7
11
8
6
6
7
2
3
1
5
1

49
_
3
5
10
7
9
6
3
1
1
4
_
-

43
_
9
13
5
7
3
1
3
_
1
1
-

68
1
5
10
7
9
6
9
8
7
1
2
3
-

22
_
2
1
4
4
5
2
1
2
1
-

63
_
_
2
1
1
5
4
10
14
7
4
4
3
4
1
3

22
_
2
1
3
2
3
_
1
2
1
1
3
1
1
1

41
_
_
_
_
_
2
_
10
10
4
3
5
2
2
2
1

St. Louis

Inexperienced typists
E stablishm ents having a specified
minimum 2 _________
Under $ 4 0 . 00 _ _
.......
................
$ 4 0 . 00 and under $ 4 2 . 50
$ 4 2 . 50 and under $ 4 5 . 00 _________
$ 4 5 . 00 and under $ 4 7 . 5 0 _________
$ 4 7 . 50 and under $ 50 . 00
$ 50. 00 and under $ 52. 50
$ 52. 50 and under $ 55. 00
$ 55. 00 and under $ 57. 50
$ 57 . 50 and under $ 6 0 .0 0
___
$ 60 . 00 and under $ 62. 50 _________
$ 62. 50 and under $ 65. 00
_ ___
$ 65 . 00 and under $ 6 7 .5 0
$ 67. 50 and under $ 7 0 . 00 _________
$ 7 0. 00 and under $ 72. 50
$ 72 . 50 and under $ 75 . 00
$ 7 5. 00 and over
E stablishm ents having no specified
m in im u m __ __
_ _ _ _ _ _ __ __ __
E stablishm ents which did not em ploy
w ork ers in this category _
Inform ation not available

47
1
7
9
15
3
4
1
1
3
2
1
-

89
_
7
3
15
11
18
3
11
8
4
3
4
2
_
-

83
4
1
14
8
19
6
12
9
1
3
3
2
1

76
11
8
13
6
17
3
5
4
3
2
4
-

16
_
6
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
-

36
4
2
9
1
3
5
1
3
5
2
1
-

17
_
5
4
2
_
3
1
_
_
1
_
1

14
_
6
2
1
1
1
1
_
2
_
-

102
_
_
2
4
23
11
15
9
11
6
9
2
7
3

27

16

35

34

23

7

7

11

45

21

24

30

27

15

21

23

24

10
■

39
“

58

34
"

17

23

28
-

27
■

21

24
1

15
_

18
■

9
~

9
"

27

17
"

18
“

25
2
3
3
6
2
2
1
1
3
1
1

49
1
4
5
8
7
10
4
2
2
3
1
2

1

Other inexperienced clerical workers 3
E stablish m en ts having a specified
m in im u m 2
__
Under $ 4 0 . 00 ________________________
$ 4 0 . 00 and under $ 4 2 . 50
$ 4 2 . 50 and under $ 4 5 . 00 _________
$ 4 5 .0 0 and under $ 4 7 .5 0
$ 4 7 . 50 and under $ 50. 00 _________
$ 50. 00 and under $ 52. 50
$ 5 2 . 5 0 and under $ 5 5 . 00 _________
$ 5 5 . 00 and under $ 5 7 .5 0
$ 57. 50 and under $ 6 0 .0 0 _________
$ 60. 00 and under $ 62 . 50
$ 62 . 50 and under $ 65. 00 ________ _
$ 65 . 00 and under $ 6 7 .5 0
$ 6 7 .5 0 and under $ 7 0 . 00 _________
$ 7 0. 00 and under $ 7 2 . 50
$ 72 . 50 and under $ 7 5 . 00 _________
$ 75 . 00 and o v e r _____________________
E stablishm ents having no specified
m inim um
__ __ ___
E stablishm ents which did not em ploy
w ork ers in this c a te g o r y __________ ___
Information not available ______________

48
2
10
11
10
5
3
1
2
1
2
1
-

93
10
4
19
8
17
6
8
7
6
4
1
2
1

91
10
4
19
7
18
7
9
7
2
5
1
2
-

79
1
18
7
14
8
11
3
5
5
2
2
3
-

19
8
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
-

34
5
7
5
2
2
4
2
5
2
_

19
6
4
3
3
1
1
1

15
6
2
2
1
1
1
2
-

101
-•
6
5
28
10
14
6
8
5
7
1
1
8
2

69
4
1
3
2
10
11
6
5
14
1
3
4
5
"

53
6
5
11
8
9
4
4
1
1
4
“

41
9
12
9
2
3
1
3
1
1
"

66
1
7
9
7
9
5
8
6
7
1
2
2
1
1
”

20
1
1
7
2
4
1
1
2
1
“
“

64
2
2
12
6
8
11
6
5
3
4
3
“
2

28

25

37

42

25

12

11

16

44

22

28

25

28

15

21

17

21

26

20

13

8

26
“

48

23
“

12
1

20

22

21

23

17
1

1 Low est form ally established salary rate.
2 Regular stra igh t-tim e salary corresponding to em ployee’ s standard w orkweek. Data are presented for a ll workweeks combined.
3 Rates applicable to m e sse n g e r s, office g ir ls, or sim ilar su bclerical jobs are not considered.




7

25

10

11

51
Table B-4. Rate structure characteristics
(P ercent of office and tim e -r a te d plant w orkers covered by form al and in form al wage plans, by type of rate structure,1 winter 19 5 /- 5 8 )
A ll industries
Labor m arket

F o rm a l plan
Range
of
rates

Single
rate

Manufacturing

Individual
rates

F o rm a l plan
Range
of
rates

Single
rate

Public utilities t

Individual
rates

F o rm a l plan
Range
of
rates

Single
rate

W holesale trade

Individual
rates

F o rm a l plan
Range
of
rates

Single
rate

Retail trade

Individual
rates

F o rm a l plan
Range
of
rates

Single
rate

Finance *

Individual
rates

F orm a l plan
Range
of
rates

Single
rate

Service s

F o rm a l plan
Individual Range
Single
rates
of
rate
rates

Individual
rates

Office workers

Northeast:
B o sto n 2 ____________________ ________
N ew ark- J ersey City 2 _____________
New York City 2 ......................................
Philadelphia 2 _______________________
South:
Atlanta
B altim ore ____________________________
M em phis 2_____________________________
New O rleans ________________________
North Central:
C h ic a g o 2 ____________________________
C lev e la n d 2 ___________________________
Milwaukee _ _________________________
M in neapolis-S t. Paul
St. L o u is 2 _ _ _ _
W est:
Denver
_____________________________
L os A n g e le s-L o n g Beach 2 _______
Portland _____________________________
San F ran cisco-O aklan d 2

-

61
71
59
62

5
2
1
2

33
27
40
36

5/
66
65
69

12
3
1
3

32
31
34
28

86
86
80
89

6
2
5

8
12
20
6

43
48
45
45

4
2
2
(4 )

53
50
53
54

45
32
45
75

10
5
1

44
68
50
24

69
87
65
47

67
66
41
36

2
3
1
1

31
31
58
63

63
76
34
23

3
6
2

34
19
66
75

90
91
64
64

2
1
5
* 1

8
9
31
35

58
57
( 3)
( 3)

3
5
( 3)
( 3)

39
38
( 3)
( 3)

51
35
( 3)
12

2
( 3)

49
63
( 3)
88

79
56
( 3)
( 3)

72
74
69
67
63

2
3
3
2
1

26
23
28
31
36

77
73
79
74
68

1
4
3
1

21
23
21
23
32

89
88
59
79
84

31
2

11
12
9
21
14

38
50
( 3)
31
50

3
5
( 3)
7
2

60
45
( 3)
62
48

81
( 3)
( 3)
59
( 3)

1
( 3)
( 3)
3
( 3)

18
(3)
( 3)
38
( 3)

76
93
( 3)
79
67

( 3)

46
73
61
61

1
1
1
5

53
25
39
34

88
93
87
87

3
3
6

( 3)
46
( 3)
42

58
( 3)
68
44

( 3)
17

42
( 3)
32
39

66
79
32
67

3
(4 )
1

31
20
68
32

12
3
10
7

( 3)
54
( 3)
57

( 3)
(4 )
( 3)
1

-

31
13
35
53

52
( 3)
30
53

( 3)
3
1

48
( 3)
67
46

21
44
( 3)
( 3)

( 3)
( 3)
( 3)
( 3)

( 3)
( 3)
( 3)
( 3)

( 3)
( 3)
( 3)
( 3)

-

22
7
( 3)
21
33

39
( 3)
( 3)
( 3)
( 3)

9
(3)
( 3)
( 3)
( 3)

52
( 3)
( 3)
( 3)
( 3)

( 3)
75
( 3)
60

( 3)
1
( 3)
3

( 3)
24
( 3)
38

( 3)
*43
(?)
( 3)

( 3)
5 2
(?)
( 3)

( 3)
5 55
(?)
( 3)

(?)
(?)
(? )

(?)
(?)
(?)
( 6)

8
( 3)
11
16

62
( 3)
61
64

31
( 3)
28
19

(4 )
( 3)
( 3)
2
-

Time-rated plant workers
Northea st:
B o sto n 2 _______________________________
N e w a rk -J e rsey C it y 2 _______________
New Y ork City 2 ........................................
Philadelphia 2 ________________________
South:
Atlanta
______________________________
B altim ore ______ ___________________
M e m p h is2 _____ ___________________
New O rleans __________________________
North C entral:
C h ic a g o 2 _____________________________
C lev e la n d 2 ___________________________
Milwaukee
_____ ___________________
M in n eap olis-S t. Paul _______________
St. L o u is 2 ____________ ____________
West:
Denver ___ _____
_____ ________
L o s A n g e le s-L o n g B e a c h 2 _________
Portland ______________________________
San F ran cisco-O akland 2 ___________

45
39
33
38

32
51
45
52

23
10
22
10

51
37
28
38

35
54
54
53

14
8
18
9

81
<2
79
51

35
43
42
55

28
18
35
27

32
40
25
13

52
53
56

16
7
19
10

74
70
47
38

26
30
49
61

54
42
48
45
41

40
51
44
50
54

6
7
9
5
5

59
41
48
47
36

38
57
46
50
59

3
2
6
3
5

68
79
56
55
74

32
21
44
45
26

32
52
30
18

53
45
68
81

15
3
1
1

20
59
25
3

72
38
75
97

8
3
-

60
74
35
61

40
26
65
39

(4 )

35
27
36
20

30
62
34
60

35
10
30
20

31
29
29
48

19
40
30
39

49
31
41
13

( 6)

(? )
(? )
(?)
( 6)

(4 )

36
32
( 3)
( 3)

23
29
( 3)
( 3)

41
39
( 3)
( 3)

31
28
( 3)
19

6
13
( 3)
27

63
59
( 3)
54

(? )
(? )
(? )
( 6)

(?)
(? )
(? )
( 6)

(? )
(?)
?)
( 6)

(?)
(? )
)
( 3)

(?)
?)
(?)
( 3)

( 3)
(? )
( 3)
( 3)

37
37
( 3)
28
52

46
51
( 3)
72
43

18
12
( 3)

58
( 3)
( 3)
52
( 3)

31
( 3)
( 3)
36
( 3)

11
( 3)
( 3)
12
( 3)

(? )
(?)
(?)
(?)

(?)
?
(?)

( 6)

( 6)

(? )
(?)
(?)
(? )
( 6)

14
(?)
(?)
( 3)
( 3)

75
(? )
(?)
(?)
( 3)

(? )
(? )
( 3)
( 3)

( 3)
44
( 3)
23

( 3)
45
( 3)
77

( 3)
10
( 3)

31
( 3)
51
26

47
( 3)
43
69

22
( 3)
6
5

(? )
(? )
(?)
( 6)

(?)
?
?
( 6)

(?)

( 3)
5 14

( 3)
*83

, (3 )
3 3

(?)
( 6)

(? )
( 3)

(? )
( 3)

(?)
( 3)

49

37
40
23
18

n

19
28
21

4
1
-

(4 )
(4 )
-

-

5

V

11

.

1 B ecause of technical considerations, a ll t im e -r a te d w ork ers (plant or office) in an establishm ent w ere c la ssified to the predominant type of rate structure applying to tnese w ork ers.
The 3 b asic types of rate structure for tim e -r a te d w ork ers w ere defined a s: ( l ) A (form al) range of rates for the sam e job, with the specific rates within the range determ ined by m e rit, length of serv ic e,
o r a combination of various concepts of m e rit and length of se r v ic e . Autom atic p rogression from the m inim um to the m axim um is com m on; (2) a (form al) single rate which is the sam e for a ll w orkers in the
sam e job c lassifica tion , and under which the individual w orker on a job rec eiv e s the same rate during the entire tim e that he is holding the job . Individual w ork ers may occasion ally be paid above or below the
single rate for sp ecial r eason s, but such payments are regarded as exceptions to the usual rule; and (3) individual rates—in establish m en ts in which there is no form al rate structure (either job rates or rate ranges),
the rates paid being set on an individual b a s is . Th ese rates m ay be based in a loose way upon the job being done, or may be related to the training, ability or sk ill of the individual w ork er.
2 E xceptions to the standard industry lim itations are shown in footnotes 4 a n d /o r 7 to the table in appendix B .
3 Insufficient coverage to w arrant separate presentation of data. T h is industry d ivision is appropriately represented in "a l l in d u s tr ie s ."
4 L e ss than 0 .5 percent.
5 Excludes data for m otion -p ictur production and allied s e r v ic e s . Data for these industries are included in "a l l in du stries. "
6 Data w ere collected for rea) ^state establishm ents only; this industry is appropriately represented in the estim ates for "a l l in du stries. "
f Transportation (excluding r a -’ roads), communication, and other public u tilities.
* Finance, insurance, and tea J estiLc.
.
NO TE :

B ecause of roundir.g, .sum s of individual item s do not n ec essa rily add to 100 p ercen t.







Table B-5. Method of w age payment (plant w orkers)-m anufacturing
(P ercent distribution of plant w orkers in manufacturing industries
.by m ethod of wage payment, 1 winter 1 9 5 7 -5 8 )

Incentive w orkers
T im ew orkers

Labor m arket

Piecew ork

Bonus work

N ortheast:
Boston
_
___
___ - —
____
N e w a rk -J e rsey C i t y ___________________________
New York City ...............................................................
Philadelphia
______ ___________________________

64
71
76
66

20
12
18
22

16
17
6
11

South:
Atlanta _________________________
______ _____
Baltim o r e ______ _______ _____ __________ ________
___
Mem phis
New Orleans _____________________________ _ __

77
70
76
85

18
7
21
8

5
22
3
7

North C entral:
Chicago ___ ______________________________________
C le v e la n d ________________ ____ ________________
Milwaukee
_______
_____
_
_ __
M in neapolis-S t. Paul __________________________
-------------------- ------------------------------St. Louis

67
70
57
80
71

12
17
18
6
15

21
13
25
13
15

W est:
Denver
________ __
________ _____
L os A n g e le s-L o n g Beach ___ ___
P o r t l a n d ___ _.......______ _____ _. , . ..... _
----San F ran cisco-O akland

80
87
90
93

15
3
7
4

4
10
3
4

.

__
__
----

1
P roportions of time and incentive w ork ers directly refle ct em ployment under each pay sy stem .
However,
because of technical consideration s, in centive-w ork er em ployment w as c la ssifie d according to the predominant type
of incentive plan (piecew ork or bonus w ork) in each establishm ent.
P iecew ork is defined as work for which a
predeterm ined amount is paid for each unit of output.
Bonus w ork is w ork for which an extra payment is made for
production in e x c e ss of a quota or for the com pletion of a job in le s s than standard tim e.
Both types of payment
m ay be based on individual or group output.

53

Table B-6 j Scheduled weekly hours-all industries
(P ercen t of office and plant w orkers em ployed in a ll establishm ents by scheduled hours of work per week, winter 19 57-58)
Office w orkers 1
A rea

Plant w orkers 2

Under 40 hours

40
hours

Over
40
hours

Under 40 hours
Under
37VZ

40
hours

Over 40 hours
Over
48

35
Northeast:
B osto n 4 __________ ___________________
N e w ark -J e rsey C ity 4 ________________
New York C it y 4 ______________________
P hiladelphia4 _______________________
South:
Atlanta _________________________________
Baltim ore _____________________________
Memphis 4 _________ __________________
New O rleans __________________________
North C en tral:
C h ic a g o 4 ______________________________
C lev e la n d 4 ____________________________
Milwaukee _____________________________
M in neapolis-S t. Paul ________________
St. L o u is 4 ____________________________
W e st:
Denver _________________________________
L os A n g e le s-L o n g B ea c h 4 -------------Portland _______________________________
San F ran cisco-O akland 4 ____________

1
2
3
4
5

36V4

3 7 72

383
/4

Total 3

8
16
56
It)

10
3
ib
3

25
29
16
26

8
10
1
11

66
63
90
59

34
37
10
41

1
(S)
1
(5)

2
6
13
2

8
2
5
8

12
8
19
10

79
87
76
85

9
5
5
5

2
1
1
1

1
(5)
1
1

1
_
2
1

4
2
(5)
(5)

2
(5)
(5)

2
8
3
2

1
1

15
10
6
11

16
4
1
1

34
29
11
21

63
70
81
67

3
1
8
12

3
2
2

4
2
1
1

8
5
2
2

69
82
75
65

23
12
23
33

1
1
2

6
2
1
2

3
2
4
8

7
5
10
15

3
?
3
3

3
2
(5)
1
4

5
1
(5)
1

16
14
10
17
9

9
3
4
8
4

39
25
16
31
19

61
74
84
68
80

1
1
(5)
1
1

9
14
3
5
2

4
5
2
4
4

12
20
7
9
6

80
73
88
86
88

8
7
5
5
6

1
2
(5)
(5)
3

1
2
1
2
1

?
(S)
2
1

3
2
(5)
(5)
2

1
1
1
1

1
1
(5)
2

3
2

5
6
7
15

(5)
4
4
10

11
15
17
32

86
85
82
68

4
(5)
1
"

2
4
3
3

3
1
1
10

5
4
4
13

76
91
94
86

18
4
3
1

2
1
2

4
(5)

1
1

-

-

■

"

(5)

-

1

1

3772

T o ta l3

Total 3

42

44

45

-

48

9
2
I
(5)

-

?
-

“

Data relate tfo all office w orkers arid are not com parable with e a rlier studies. See appendix B , p. 85.
Data for finance and insurance are excluded.
Includes weekly schedules other than those presented separately.
Exceptions to the standard industry lim itations are shown in footnotes 4 and/or 7 to the table in appendix B.
L e ss than 0. 5 percent.

Table B-7. Scheduled weekly hours-manufacturing
(Pe rcent of office and plant w orkers em ployed in manufacturing establishm ents by scheduled hours of work per week, winter 19 57-58)
Plant w orkers

Office w orkers 1
Under 40 hours

A rea
35
N ortheast:
B o s to n _________________________________
N e w a rk -J e rsey C i t y _________________
New York C ity -----------------------------------Philadelphia __________________________
South:
Atlanta _________________________________
B altim ore _____________________________
Memphis _______________________________
New O rleans __________________________
North C en tral:
Chicago ________________________________
C leveland ______________________________
Milwaukee ___ ________________________
M in neapolis-S t. Paul _______________
St. Louis ______________________________
W est:
Denver __
_____________________
Los A n g e le s-L o n g Beach ----------------Portland _______________________________
San F r a n c isc o -O a k la n d -------------- —

36V4

Over
40
hours

Under 4p hours

40
hours

Over 40 hours
Over
48

Under
37 7 2

37 V 2

2
7
26
2

7
2
2
10

9
9
28
12

84
85
69
86

7
5
3
2

1
1
-

1
-

1
1
1

4
2
1
-

2
.
1
-

3
2
3
18

6
2
3

7
2
2
2

13
5
3
5

81
88
90
83

6
7
7
12

1
1
-

3
-

2
2
10

1
4
2
3

1
1
-

37V.

383
/4

Total 2

36
46
91
48

63
54
9
52

2
(3)

89
85
92
68

Total 2

Total 2

42

44

45

48

9
8
68
5

2
3
7
2

15
15
14
23

9
20
1

1
3
1

-

7
5
4
7

4
6

9
13
5
14

14
11
4
5
8

15
1
3
5
3

38
20
8
20
13

62
80
92
78
87

(3)
(3)
2
(3)

13
18
3
8
1

6
6
2
5
5

19
24
8
13
6

78
75
90
84
88

3
1
2
3
6

3

1
1

1
1
2
-

1
(3)
2
.

(3)
1
1
1
*

1
1
3
27

98
99
95
73

(3)
(3)
2

5
6
5
5

8
1
1
8

13
7
6
13

81
90
91
87

6
3
2

2
2

-

2
1
-

4
-

-

1
1
-

(3)
2
-

(3)

18

-

(3)
1

-

-

_

-

-

-

1
-

-

2

~

(3)
2
9

1

12

Data relate to all office workers and are not com parable with ea rlier studies.
Includes weekly schedules other than those presented separately.
L e ss than 0. 5 percent.




40
hours

See appendix B,

p.

85.

54
Table B-8. Scheduled weekly hours-public utilities f
(Percent of office and plant w ork ers em ployed in public utilities establishm ents by scheduled hours of work per week, winter 19 5 7 -5 8 )
Office w ork ers 1
A rea
35
Northeast:
B o sto n 3 .. ..............
N e w ark -J e rsey City ______ _______
New York C it y 3 _ __ __ ____________
P h ila d e lp h ia __________________________
South:
Atlanta _______ __ __ ______________
B altim ore
M em phis 3 ____________________________
New Orleans
North Central;
Chicago 5
C lev e la n d 3 ___________________________
Milwaukee _____________________________
M in n eapolis-S t. P aul
______ _____
St. Louis
West:
Denver _
L o s A n g e le s-L o n g Beach 3 _________
Portland ______________________________
San F ran cisco-O ak lan d 3

1
2
3
4
5
t

Plant w ork ers

Under 40 hours
36%

37

y2

38%

Total 2

40
hours

Over
40
hours

Under 40 hours
Under
37%

37%

T o t a l2

3
59
52
13

2

55
(4 )
16
49

2
1

58
61
69
64

42
39
31
36

-

-

7
1
6

-

46
32
39
32

2
-

53
38
39
48

46
62
58
51

1
3
1

_
-

2
-

-

5
1
-

1
2
-

8
3
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

(4 )
2

-

(4 )
10

-

3

92
97
100
99
90

-

98
99
97
84

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

2

4

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

1

“

3
7

1
3
16

-

6

1

4
-

Over 40 hours
Total 2

42

44

45

48

Over
48

4
(4 )

98
99
93
99

2
1
4
1

_
I
-

_
-

_
4
-

2
_
1

_
_
_
_

83
98
87
89

17
2
13
5 11

_
.
-

4
_
(4 )

_
_
4
-

8
2
8
-

5
_
_
_

100
100
93
98
96

7
2
4

5

-

-

_
2

_
_

-

2

_
-

94
98
100
97

6
2

-

-

-

-

-

-

“

■

_

_

-

-

-

-

(4 )

(4 )

-

-

-

■

40
hours

-

-

2
-

-

-

1

“

6
2
-

-

“

Data relate to a ll office w ork ers and are not com parable with ea rlie r studies. See appendix B , p. 85.
Includes w eekly schedules other than those presented sep arately.
1 or m ore utilities are m unicipally operated, and, th erefore, excluded from the scope of the studies. See footnote 4 to the table in appendix B .
L e ss than 0 .5 percent.
Includes 11 percent at 4 1 % hours.
Transportation (excluding railroad s), communication, and other public u tilities.

Table B-9. Scheduled weekly hours-wholesale trade
(P ercent of office and plant ^workers em ployed in w holesale trade establish m en ts by scheduled hours of work per week, winter 19 5 7 -5 8 )
Plant w orkers

Office w ork ers 1
A rea

Under 40 hours

Under 40 hours
Under
37%

37 %

Total 2

40
hours

Over 40 hours
48

Over
48

8
11
12
-

31
21
24
21

4
4
5
23

51
44
93
48

49
56
7
52

-

1
6
7

2
11
1

4
1
19
8

74
99
81
87

322
1
6

-

1
3

-

7
-

-

-

3

15
6

11
8

26
17

73
83

1
-

5

5
-

5
5

62
79

32
16

-

2
-

5
12

7
-

12
-

2
3
-

3
3
-

20
12
8
9

1
-

27
20
11
10

69
80
89
90

4

6
-

1
6
-

1
12
-

83
87
97
97

17
1
3
3

2
-

1
-

5
3
-

3
-

3
-

-

1

6
8

8
7

15
19

85
81

6

2
6

94
94

5

-

3

-

-

-

4

-

See appendix B , p. 85.

-

-

-

42

45

Total 2

8
50
4

T o t a l2

44

38%

36%

Data relate to a ll office w ork ers and are not com parable with ea rlie r studies.
Includes weekly schedules other than those presented sep arately.
Includes 10 percent at 42 % and 5 percent at 47 % h ours.




Over
40
hours

37 %

35
Northeast:
B oston
__ _____ „ __ _______
N e w ark -J e rsey City ______ __
New Y ork C i t y _
___
_________
Philadelphia
________________ _____
South:
Atlanta
_____ _____ ____________
B altim ore
_______ __ __ _______
North C en tral:
C hicago __ ___ __ ___
C leveland ________ _________________ _
M in neapolis-S t. Paul ____ _____ __
St. Louis _ „ ____________ __ ----West:
L os A n g e le s-L o n g Beach ________ _
San F ran cisco-O akland ____________

40
hours

-

-

55
Table B-10, Scheduled weekly hours-retail trade
(P ercent of office and plant w orkers employed in retail trade establishm ents by scheduled hours of work per week, winter 19 5 7 -5 8 )
Office w orkers 1
A rea
35
Northeast:
Boston
— ------------- ----- ----- — ______
N e w a rk -J e rsey C ity 3 --------------------New York C ity 3 -------------------------------P hiladelphia3 ----------------------------------South:
Atlanta __ __ __ ______ ___ ___ _________
B a lt im o r e ------------------------------------------New Orleans -------------------------------------North Central:
C h ic a g o ----------------------------------------------M in neapolis-S t. P a u l---------------------W est:
Denver -----------------------------------------------Portland -------------------------------------------San F r a n c is c o -O a k la n d ------------------

Plant workers

Under 40 hours
36V 4

377a

12
8
16
8

7
19
-

19
24
35
15

4

-

5
(4)
2

-

-

-

(4)
-

-

-

(4)
1
_____________

3 8 3U

Total 2

Under 40 hours
Under
3 77a

Over 40 hours

40
hours

3 7Va

T o ta l2

15
3
15
8

30
6
26
13

T o ta l2

58
87
64
74

42

44

45

12
6
10
13

5
1
7

-

-

1
4
5

3
-

78
35
79
38

22
64
20
61

1
1
(4)

5
8
4

82
92
67

13

-

-

-

51
57
39

49
34
5 61

5

17
11
4

10

-

29

-

9

2

-

-

6
7

6
4

13
14

86
86

1
-

-

-

-

76
91

24
9

3
1

1
8

2
11

3
19

78
98
81

19
2

2

12

14

68
98
84

32
2
2

7
2

6
-

3
8

-

1 Data relate to a ll office w orkers and are not com parable with e a rlier studies.
2 Includes weekly schedules other than those presented sep arately.
3 Excludes lim ite d -p r ic e variety sto r e s.
4 L ess than 0. 5 percent.
5 Includes 8 percent at 43 hours.




40
hours

Over
40
hours

See appendix B ,

2
8
1

-

Table B-ll. Scheduled weekly hours-finance *
(P ercent of office w orkers employed in finance establishm ents by scheduled hours of work per w eek, winter 19 5 7 -5 8 )
Office w orkers 1
A rea

Under 40 hours
35

N ortheast:
Boston --------------------------------------------------------------N e w ark -J e rsey City ---------------------------------------New York City -------------------------------------------------Philadelphia -----------------------------------------------------South:
A tla n ta ------------- -- --------- —_____________ —---------—
B altim ore ---------------------------------------------------------North C entral:
Chicago -------------------------------------------------------------Cleveland ----------------------------------------------------------M in neapolis-S t. P a u l--------------------------------------St. L o u is ---------------------------- ------------------ — —-----W est:
Dos A n g e le s-L o n g Beach ------------------------------San F ran cis co-Oakland ---------------------------------

3674

3 77a

383/ 4

T o ta l2

40
hours

Over
40
hours

9
19
58
19

22
5
13
9

28
62
10
30

11
1
3

94
99
96
86

6
1
4
14

-

4
27

4

12
16

45
5

60
60

40
40

(3)
-

7
8
4
15

15
2

26
31
43
17

9
11
21
11

67
57
68
47

33
43
32
53

-

(3)

6

15
24

11
11

39
44

61
56

-

'

1 Data relate to all office w orkers and are not com parable with ea rlier studies.
2 Includes weekly schedules other than those shown sep arately.
3 L e ss than 0. 5 percent.
* Finance, insurance, and real estate.

See appendix B,

p. 85.

Over
48

6
3
(4)
1

2
-

9

2
9
30

7
7
5

2
7

5
-

12
-

-

-

-

18
1

5
-

"

p. 85 .

48

-

"

-

"




Table B-l2, Scheduled weekly hours-services
(P ercen t of office and plant w orkers employed in ser v ic e s establishm ents by scheduled hours of work per week, winter 1 9 5 7 -5 8 )
Office w orkers 1
A rea

Under 40 hours
35

Northeast:
Boston --------------------- ------------------------New Y ork C i t y ----------------------------------Philadelphia ------- ------------------------------North C en tral;
Chicago — ----- -------------- ---------------------W est:
Cos A n g e le s-L o n g B e a c h 3 -------------

6
5
2

19
62
11

13
21
21

9
3

12

3
4

56
93
52
49

26

43
7
48
48

2

43

-

16

12

Over
40
hours

40
hours

T o ta l*

383/ 4

37Vs

36V 4

56

2

1
1

Plant w orkers
---------------------------------------------------------------------- T
Under 40 hours
Under
37Va
N ortheast:
Boston -----------—•
-----------------New York C i t y --------------------Philadelphia ----------------------North C en tral:

W ^8
est:1
Los A n g e le s-L o n g B e a c h 3

371/*

Total *

40
hours

Over 40 hours
T o ta l*

42

44

2
5
-

10

5
(3)

2
1
1

7
1
3

76
90
76

17
9
21

5

1

7

72

22

-

8

-

2

2

90

9

*

-

1 Data relate to a ll office w ork ers and are not com parable with e a rlie r studies. See appendix B* p. 85.
* Includes w eekly schedules other than those presented sep arately.
3 E xcludes m otion -p icture production and allied se r v ic e s; data for these industries are included, however,
*
L e s s than 0. 5 p ercen t.

45

'a ll in d u s tr ie s ."

Over
48

4
-

4
(4 )
4

-

9

5

8

-

11
-

48

1

-

7

Table B-13. Overtime premium p a y -a ll industries
(P ercent of office and plant w orkers in establishm ents with p rovisions for prem ium p a y 1 for daily or w eekly overtim e
by rate of pay and hours after which effective, winter 1957*58)
D aily overtim e

A rea
Total

W eekly overtim e

Tim e and on e- Half
effective after
L e ss
M ore
than
8
than
8
hours
8
hours
hours

Other
prem ium
rate

Total

Tim e and one-half
effective after—
L ess
M ore
than
than
40
40
40
hours
hours
hours

prem ium
rate

Office workers
N ortheast:
B o sto n * -----------------------------------------------------------N e w a rk -J e rsey C ity * ----------------------------------New Y ork C ity * --------------------------------- ----------Philadelphia * ------------------------------------------------South:
A tlanta --------------------------------------------------- --------B altim ore ------------------------------------------------------Mem phis * ------------------------------------------------------New O r le a n s --------------------------------------------------North C entral:
Chicago "2 --------------------------------------------------------C leveland * -----------------------------------------------------M ilw a u k e e ------------------------------------------------------M in n eapolis-S t. Paul ----------------------------------St. Louis * ------------------------------------------------------W e st:
Denver ------------------------------------------------------------Los A n g e le s-L o n g B each * ------------------------P o r tla n d -----------------------------------------------------------San F ran cis co-Oakland * -----------------------------

-

48
72
34
56

14
23
13
19

32
49
21
37

35
48
24
19

9
2
5
6

26
46
19
13

-

50
58
62
33
57

5
(3)
3
6
5

45
58
59
27
51

(3)

58
83
90
92

(3)
3
(3)
5

58
80
86
86

(3)

2
(3)
-

97
98
93
96

21
15
23
23

75
82
70
73

(3)
(?)
(3)

-

94
96
93
93

10
5
6
9

83
90
87
68

(3)

1

98
97
99
98
98

8
3
4
6
5

88
94
94
92
92

(3)
(3)

5 4
"

96
96
95
99

(3)
4
(3)
6

95
92
91
93

1
(3)
(3)

(3)
5 4
<3)

(3)
(3)

(*)
1
(3)

(3)
(3)

1

(3)
1
4 15
1
(3)
1

Plant workers

Northeast:
B oston* -----------------------------------------------------------N e w a rk -J e rsey C i t y * ----------------------------------New York C i t y * ......................................................
Philadelphia * ------------------------------------------------South:
Xtlanta ------------------------------------------------------------B altim ore ------------------------------------------------------M em phis * ------------------------------------------------------New Orleans -------------------------------------------------North C entral:
Chicago 2 - -------- __ ——— _ _ ____
C levelan d* ----------------------------------------------------M ilw a u k e e ------------------------------------------------------M in neapolis-S t. Paul ----------------------------------St. Louis * -----------------------------------------------------W e st:
Denver ------------------------------------------------------------Los A n g e le s-L o n g B e a c h * --------------------------Portland ---------------------------------------------------------San F ran cisco-O akland * ----------------------------

80
90
81
86

8
8
12
8

72
81
67
77

2
(3)

(?)
3
(3)

97
98
97
94

7
8
14
8

89
89
81
84

1
1
2
1

(3)
(3)

50
84
45
49

4
2
2
(3)

46
81
43
44

1
1
1

(3)
(3)
5 3

89
95
79
82

4
3
2
1

80
89
76
69

4
3
1
8

(3)
(3)
5 4

79
87
89
85
93

6
1
3
6
5

73
85
84
75
87

1
1
1
4
(3)

(3)
1
(3)

97
96
96
98
99

6
5
3
7
5

88
88
90
89
92

2
2
2
2
2

2
1
1
(3)

85
96
96
99

4
3
3
12

80
93
82
79

1
-

93
98
97
99

4
3
3
12

79
94
83
75

10
1
(3)
(3)

-

-

-

(3)
*10
5 8

, (3)
*10
’ 12

1 Graduated provisions are cla ssified to the fir s t effective prem ium rate.
F o r exam p le, a plan calling for tim e and on e-h alf after 8 and double time after
10 hours a day would be considered tim e and o n e-h alf after 8 h ours.
S im ila rly , a plan calling for no pay or pay at regular rate after 371/* and tim e and onehalf after 40 hours would be considered as time and on e-h alf after 40 h ours.
* Exceptions to the standard industry lim itations are shown in footnotes 4 and/ or 7 to the table in appendix B.
3 L e ss than 0. 5 percen t.
4 Applicable chiefly to finance w orkers on a fluctuating w orkweek.
5 Double tim e.







Table B-14. Overtime premium pay-manufacturing
(P ercen t of o ffic e and plant w ork ers in establish m en ts with provisions for prem ium p a y 1 for daily or weekly overtim e
by rate of pay and hours after which effe ctive, winter 1 9 5 7 -5 8 )
Daily overtim e

A r ea
Total

Weekly overtim e

Tim e and o n e-h alf
effective after—
L e ss
M ore
8
than
than
8
8
hours
hours
hours

Tim e and o n e-h alf
effective after—

Other
prem ium
rate

Total

L e ss
than
40
hours

40
hours

M ore
than
40
hours

Other
prem ium
rate

Office workers

N ortheast:
___
___
__
Boston __ __ _
N e w a r k -J e r se y C i t y _____ _______________ _______
New York City
_________
___ ___ _ __
Philadelphia
South:
Atlanta
_ _ __
__ __
B altim ore
M em phis
------ -----------New Orleans
North C entral:
Chicago
_ _ _ _ _
Cleveland -----... _______
Milwaukee
M in n eap olis-S t. Paul
_ _ _
_____ __
-St. Louis
W e st:
Denver
____________
_
__
_
L os A n g e le s-L o n g B e a c h _____________________
Portland
San Fr anci s co - Oakland

70
82
45
77

7
15
18
20

63
67
27
57

_
-

1
-

99
99
95
98

12
18
20
25

87
81
75
72

_
_
_
-

(2)

66
69
43
23

65
69
43
19

-

_
2

96
98
97
97

(2)
3
3

96
95
97
91

_
_
_
-

(2)

to
2

67
70
80
53
72

6
(2)
2
10
6

61
70
78
43
65

_
-

_
-

100
100
100
100
100

8
1
3
2
7

92
99
97
98
93

_
_
_
_
-

_
_
_
_
_

90
94
92
94

1
6

90
93
92
86

98
98
96
99

1
1

_
-

6

98
97
96
91

-

_
_
2

8
9
25
10

90
90
73
85

-

-

_
_
3 7

-

-

-

-

2

"

-

-

_
(2)

_
3

Plant workers

N ortheast:
Boston
___
__ _____
_ _
_________
N e w a r k -J e r sey City
_ __________
__
New Y ork C i t y __________________________________
Philadelphia
_ ____
__
_______ __ _____
South:
A tlanta .. ......
__ ________________
Baltim or e ___ _
,,
M e m p h i s __
_________ __ ___
New O rleans
_ _____ _ _
__
_____
North C en tral:
Chicago
___________ ______ __ _____
_____
Cl eveland
,
,
. ,,,
.
Milwaukee
_
_ .
M in n eap olis-S t. Paul _
__
___
St. Louis
_ _ _
_
W e st:
Denver
__ _ _____
_ _ ___ __ _ _
L os A n g e le s-L o n g Beach
__ _____ __ __
Portland _ _
_
-----San F r a n c is c o -O a k la n d ________________________

85
95
89
95

8
9
23
10

77
85
64
85

68
95
69
60

7
3
3
-

86
97
96
93
98
97
99
98
100

-

_
_

-

-

2

-

-

-

99
99
98
95

61
91
65
55

1
2
-

_
3 5

98
99
99
99

8
4
3
2

90
95
96
90

_
-

10
1
4
8
6

77
95
91
85
92

1
(2)

(2)
-

9
6
4
10
6

89
93
96
90
94

( 2)
_

-

100
100
100
100
100

-

-

11
5
6
13

86
93
77
72

-

_

89
95
79
64

_

,(*>
3 15
3 16

11
5
6
13

_

-

100
100
100
100

-

, (*)
3 15
3 23

-

-

-

-

-

1
1
(2)

1 Graduated provisions are c la ssified to the fir st effective p rem iu m ra te.
For exam ple, a plan calling for tim e and on e-h a lf after 8 and double tim e after
10 hours a day would be considered tim e and on e-h a lf after 8 h ou rs.
S im ila rly , a plan calling for no pay or pay at regular rate after 37V2 and tim e and o n ehalf after 40 hours would be consid ered as tim e and on e-h a lf after 40 h ours.
2 L e s s than 0 .5 p ercen t.
3 Double tim e.

59

Table B-15. Shift differential ppovisions-manufactoring
(Total plant workers in establishments having formal provisions for late shift operations, winter 1957-58)
Percent of manufacturing plant workers
North sa.st

Shift operation and shiftpay differential
Boston

Total plant workers in manufacturing
establishments --------------------------------Second shift--------------------------------------With shift-pay differential-----------Uniform cents (per hour) -------Under 5 cents --------------------5 and under 6 cents ------------6 and under 7 cents ------------7 and under 8 cents------------8 and under 9 cents ------------9 and under 10 cents ----------10 and under 11 cents ---------11 and under 12 cents ---------12 and under 13 cents---------13 and under 14 cents---------14 and under 15 cents ---------15 and under 16 cents ---------16 cents and over .............. —
Uniform percentage ----------------Under 5 percent -----------------5 percent ---------------------------Over 5 and under
10 percent ------------------------10 percent --------------------------12, 127a. or 15 percent-----Other 1 ------------------------------------No shift-pay differential -------------Third shift ---------------------------------------With shift-pay differential-----------Uniform cents (per h ou r)--------Under 5 cents --------------------5 and under 6 cents ------------6 and under 7 cents ------------7 and under 8 cents ------------8 and under 9 cents ------------9 and under 10 cents ----------10 and under 11 cents---------11 and under 12 cents---------12 and under 12Va cents-----12 V and under 13 cents-----a
13 and under 14 cents ---------14 and under 15 cents ---------15 and under 16 cents ---------16 and under 17 cents---------1 7 and under 20 cents ---------20 cents and over --------------Uniform percentage ----------------Under 7 percent -----------------7 and under 8 percent---------8 and under 10 percent ------10 percent --------------------------12, 121 or 13 percent-----/*,
15 percent--------------------------Other1 -----------------------------------No shift-pay differential --------------

NewarkJersey
City

South

New
York
City

Phila­
delphia

North Central

West

Los
San
New
Cleve­ Milwau­ MinneMemphis
apolis- St. Louis Denver Angeles- Portland Fran- Seattle
Orleans Chicago
land
kee
Long
ciscoSt. Paul
Beach
Oakland

Balti­
Atlanta more

Dallas

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100,0

100. 0

100. 0

78.9
76. 7
69. 7
1.4
12. 7
.5
9. 7
.6

71.8
54.8
51. 1
4.4
8. 3
20. 1
8.2
8.4
1.7
2. 1
2. 1
-

91.6
90.4
44.8
.4
4. 1
6.4
3.4
1. 7
.7
20. 5
1.0
1.0
.3
1.2
4.0
41.4
8. 5

95.5
94. 1
58.9
9.9
9. 7
7. 8
5.2
6. 1
15.4
2.4

95.4
94. 6
79.5
.6
11. 7

87.2
86. 5
66. 8
.6
11.0
1.0
3.8
6.3

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

81.6
81.6
41.8
2.4
8. 1
6.9
3.0
2.3
9. 6
1.1
5.1
3.2
36. 8
4. 1

88.8
87. 8
40.0
.3
6.2
1. 7
3.9
3.1
1.0
14.4
4.8
1.3
2.3
1.0
45. 5
.1
3. 5

62. 8
61.3
36. 1
.2
5.2
2 .4
3. 6
.4
10.8
1.2
5. 6
.4
5.3
1.0
23.4
2. 1

83.0
79.0
36.8
11.6
3.3
4.2
6.3
.l
7.4
.7
2 .4
.7
39.4
1.8

83.4
66.8
49.1
6.9
7.4
2.1
4.9
3.8
9.2
14.2
.7
15.8
14.1

89.4
88. 0
47. 8
3.6
4. 0
31.8
1.6
1. 7
4. 0
1. 1
28.4
2. 4
2.9

11.5
30.4
•
2.0
.9
7. 0
7.0

72.2
61.7
43.2
1.9
12.4
9. 7
2. 6
3.4
9.3
..
1.7
2.2
13.1
4.1

2.8
28. 6
1. 3
3. 1
-

3.5
38. 5
2.3
1.0

4.0
11.8
5.4
1.8
1. 5

8.0
29. 6
2.8
4.0

1.7
1.9
16. 6

9.3
1 3. 8
11.7
1.4

•
2.2

1.4
7. 6
5.4
10. 5

1.6
17. 0

69. 0
69.0
29.2
1. 0
.8
5. 7
3.0
1.3
8.4
1.0
2. 1
•
2.4
.8
2.3
.4
38. 1
1.0
4.5
23. 1
9.5
1. 7
~

80. 6
80.4
36.8
.3
.8
1.3
10.0
.2
1.9
3.4
.4
7. 6
4. 0
4.8
2. 1
40.2
.2
2.5
.4
33.6
1. 1
2.5
3.4
.2

52. 6
51.5
24. 1
1.0
.8
1.5
1.0.9
1.9
1.0
2. 6
.4
2. 7
1.4
19.4
4. 1
8. 7
6.6
8.0
1. 1

77.4
74. 7
31. 6
1.9
2.0
.9
2. 6
14.2
~
2. 7
.7
1.8
4. 1
.7
35.4
.5
6. 7
.7
25. 1
.5
1.8
7. 7
2. 7

73. 0
65.8
33.1
8. 7
1.7
3.2
2. 8
2. 1
9.3
2.9
.8
1.6
14. 1
.5
2 .4
11.2
18. 7
7.2

84. 7
83. 1
45. 7
2. 5
1. 7
.7
32. 5
2.9
.9
2. 4
1.0
1. 1
25. 6
7. 8
16.2
1.6
11. 7
1.6

67. 8
65.2
31.3
2. 4
1.4
2.3
.5
18. 1
1.4
2. 6
.6
2. 1
5.6
5.6
28.3
2.6

66.3
55.8
37.3
12. 0
9.6
9. 7
1.2
2.6
2. 7
13.1
1.4
4. 1
7.6
5.4
10.5

58. 0
46.8
41. 5
1.9
2. 4
2. 5
7. 0
8.2
1.0
3.2
7. 8
5. 6
1.9
5.3
11.2

100. 0

100. 0

90.9
90.9
51.2
3. 6
17. 0
6. 6
.5
3. 7
3.1
13. 8
.6

94.2
94.2
69.2
.9
7. 1
5. 1
.6
2.0
.4
18.4
2.3
26.3
2. 7
.1
1.6
1.6
13.8
3. 8

94.2
89.1
61.6
6.3
8.0
4.3
20. 7
1.5
_
11.5

2.4
32. 6
19.3

7.2
9. 7
6.9
17. 1
.4
16.2
2. 3
4. 6
2. 7
14. 0
7. 6

32.0
3.4
1.5
2.8
2.2
2.2
19. 7
2.0

2.2
33.9
.6
8. 1

.5
30. 4
1.9
4. 3
1.2

1. 7
11. 6
2. 7
1.3

5. 7
.7
1.1
.8

13. 1
4. 6
.8

15. 8
9.4
5. 8
-

2. 1
8. 0
-

3. 6
6. 5
11.0
-

80.4
79. 3
34.2
.2
.8
.2
1.3
.7
6.2
11.4
.2
1.3
1.0
1.3
7.9
.7
1.0
36. 8
.5
2. 7
27. 5
2.0
4. 1
8.3
1.2

82. 8
82.2
49.4
.8
1.3
.8
10. 0
21.1
3. 5
3. 3
7.2
1.3
29.0
8.2
20. 1
.7
3. 8
.6

88. 3
87. 7
63.0
.5
.6
20. 7
2.2
12. 6
2.4
3. 5
10. 5
1.5
3. 1
5. 6
14.0
5. 7
8.3
10. 7
.6

78.0
78.0
59.2
3. 5
.4
.8
23. 6
1.0
7. 6
.9
2. 7
10. 8
3. 4
4.5
18.8
2.0
1. 1
.8
15.0
~

89. 1
89. 1
48. 7
3. 6
2. 1
4.3
22.9
.3
6.9
5.3
2.2
1.0
19. 5
.6
1.2
.3
13.8
1.9
* 1.7
20.9
”

78. 8
78. 8
62.9
13.0
2. 3
21. 8
4. 3
2.8
4. 7
9.2
1.2
3. 7
1.5
1.5
14.4

82.4
82.4
27. 1
.1
3. 0
1.2
2. 3
9. 1
.5
.3
5.8
1. 7
.5
2. 6
7. 3
.6
.5
6.2
48. 1
-

1 Includes 0.6 percent with differential of more than 15 percent.
* Pay at regular rate for more hours than worked, a paid lunch period not given first-shift workers, a flat sum per shift, and other provisions.
lishments which provided 1 such provision in combination with a cents or percentage differential for hours actually worked.




100.0

86. 8
86.8
74.4
9.1
15.3
8.2
2. 3
21.9
10. 8
3. 7
3.0
4.4
2.3

100.0

100.0

100. 0

92.9
92.9
49.5
2.5
1.9
4.8
1.0
12. 5
_
13.4
7.4

95.2
95.2
72.4
.5
5.5
5.5

2.3
3. 7
4. 6
1.7

2.5
_
6. 8
49. 8
1.8
1.2
.6

5.9
19.9
5. 0

2.9
38. 7
-

.6
21. 7
-

85.9
85.9
47. 3
22.9
1. 6
4. 3
3. 1
.8
12.5
.7
1.5
5.9
4.4
1.5
32. 6
~

92.0
92.0
36.4
.9
2. 5
1.0
~
4. 8
2. 7
5. 1
6. 1
7. 4
6. 0
3. 8
1. 7
2.0
51.8
■

91.6
91.6
16.4
.8
2. 3
3. 0
1. 2
3. 7
4. 8
.6
1.2
.6
.6
74. 0
“

1.2
2. 1
4.4
1.5
7. 6
1. 7

Most "other" workers, however, were in estab­

60

Table B-16. Shift differential practices-manufacturinp
(Workers employed on late shifts at time of survey, winter 1957-58)
Percent of manufacturing plant workers
Shift operation and shiftpay differential
Boston

total plant workers in manufacturing
establishments
____ ________

South

Northeast
NewarkJersey
City

New
York
City

Phila­
delphia

Atlanta

Balti­
more

North Central

Memphis

New
Orleans

Chicago

Cleve­
land

Milwau­
kee

Minneapolis- St. Louis
St. Paul

Denver

West
Los
Angeles Portland
Long
Beach

San
FranciscoOakland

100. 0

100.0

100. 0

100.0

100.0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100.0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100.0

100. 0

100. 0

1O e 0
O

Second shift
With shift-pay differential______
Uniform cents (per hour) . __ _
Under 5 cents ___
_ __
5 and under 6 cents
__
6 and under 7 cents
_ _ _
_
7 and under 8 cents _______
8 and under 9 cents
„ _
9 and under 10 c e n ts _____ _
10 and under 11 cents_____ _
11 and under 12 cen ts______
12 and under 13 cents ___ _
13 and under 14 cents ______
14 and under 15 cen ts_____
15 and under 16 cents ______
16 cents and over __ _
— _
Uniform percentage __
Under 5 percent
__ __ ___
5 percent____ ____ __ ___
Over 5 and under
10 percent _______________
10 percent _________________
12, 12 Va* or 15 percent_____
Othe r *
____ _______ ____ _
No shift-pay differential_________

7.8
7.8
5.3
.3
1. 0
.3
.2
.4
1.3
.6
.4
.8
2. I
.3

15.0
15.0
7.4
.1
1.2
.4
.7
.5
.3
2. 6
1. 0
.3
.2
. 1
7. 1
( 1)
.6

12.2
12. 1
9. 1
.1
1. 0
.6
.7
(X
)
2. 0
.4
3.2
(X
)
1. 1
(X
)
2.6
.4

15.2
14.3
6.3
2.2
.6
.7
1.0
(X
)
.8
.1
.7
.1
7.2
.1

14.2
9.8
8.7
1. 1
.7
.6
.7
.2
1.3
4. 0
.2
-

18.8
18.4
10.7
.8
.6
8.3
.4
.1
.6
.1
5. 0
.6
.2

12.9
11.6
7.9
.3
.8
2.9
.2
.6
1. 8
.2
1. 1
2.2
"

15.3
12.4
11.8
.7
1.3
5. 1
1.5
2.2
1. 0
.6
.6
“

17. 8
17.4
9. 0
(X
)
.8
1. 8
.9
.4
.1
2.9
.3
.3
.1
.3
1. 0
7.3
2. 0

15.4
15.2
10.4
.8
2. 1
1.6
.9
1.8
1.9
1. 0
.2
4.6
2.7

17.2
16.9
14.3
.2
2. 0
1.7
1.3
1.4
1.8
4.7
. 1
.7
.4
2. 1
1.2

12. 1
11.8
8.7
1.5
.1
.4
1. 0
2. 6
.9
.2
.7
.4
.9
3. 1
-

18.4
18.4
10.2
1. 1
3. 1
1.4
(X
)
.9
.8
2.5
.4
7. 1
.2
.7

13.7
13.7
13.0
1.2
3.9
1.7
.2
2.6
2. 0
.2
1.0
.3
“

18.4
18.4
13. 6
.2
.7
1.2
.2
.2
(X
)
2.6
.4
6.6
.6
( x)
.5
.4
2. 6
“
.8

16. 1
14.9
11.8
.5
1.0
.9
4.9
.2
1.5
.1
1. 1
.7
.4
1. 1
"
.5

16.3
16. 3
10. 0
.6
.3
.7
.3
2.2
2. 8
1.7
.7
.7
.1

.3
1. 1
.4
.3
-

.6
5.9
.5
(X
)

.8
.9
.4
.4
. 1

1.6
5.5
.8
.9

2. 0
2.2
2.6
.4

. 1
2. 1
1. 5
1. 3

2.9

.1
4.9
.3
1. 1
.4

1.9
.2
.2

1. 0
(X
)
.4
.3

1.9
1.2
.3

4.6
1.7
1. 0
‘

.3
.5
"

1. 0
.8
2.2
"

.5
2. 1
1.2

.1
“
6. 1
“

Third shift ___ ____ _ ____ __ ___
_
With shift-pay differential_______
Uniform cents (per hour)______
Under 5 cents
5 and under 6 cents _______ _
6 and under 7 cents ________
7 and under 8 cents ________
8 and under 9 cents ______
9 and under 10 cents ______
10 and under 11 cents______
11 and under 12 cents _ ___
12 and under 12 V cents ____
a
12 Va and under 13 cents ____
13 and under 14 cents _ __ _
14 and under 15 cen ts______
15 and under 16 cen ts_____
16 and under 17 cen ts_____
17 and under 20 cents ______
20 cents and over
______
Uniform percentage
Under 7 percent
_________
7 and under 8 percent______
8 and under 10 percent ____
10 percent _________________
12, 12Va# or 13 percent____
15 percent________ ____ _
Other _ _
_
No shift-pay differential _
_ __ _

2. 5
2. 5
1.3
.2
.2
(*)
.3
(*)
.2
. 1
( 1)
.3
1. 1
(J)
i 1)
.7
.4
“

4.3
4.3
3.2
.1
.1
.6
. 1
.2
.2
.1
.3
.4
.8
.3
.7
( l)
( l)
.5
.1
.4
(X
)

2. 8
2. 8
1. 8
( X
)
.2
.6
.1
.1
.1
( x)
.4
.2
.1
. 1
( x)
.8
( x)

5.4
5.4
2.8
.1
.1
.1
.4
1. 1
.4
(X
)
.5
.1
1.7
(X
)
.2
1.5
(X
)
.9

8.6
8.5
6.2
.4
.4
( 1)
4.6
.2
.1
.1
.2
.2
2. 1
.5
1.6
( x)
.2

6.2
5. 3
4.7
.7
2.4
1.4
. 1
( 1)
( x)
.4
(X
)

4.8
4.3
4.3
.4
1.5
1.4
.1
.4
.3
.2
.5

5. 0
5. 0
2. 6
(X
)
■
*
.2
(X
)
1. 0
.5
.1
.2
.4
.1
1.6
■
.1
1. 0
.2
.4
.7
.1

4.8
4.7
4. 0
(X
)
(X
)
1.6
1.6
.1
.5
.1
(X
)
.6
■
.4
■
.2
“
( !)

4.2
4. 1
2. 6
.1
.7
.5
•1
.2
.5
.1
.4
.4
~
”
.3
.1
■
1.2
. 1

2.8
2.8
2.2
(X
)
1.2
.2
.1
.2
.5
.1
.6
”
■
( x)
■
.5
-

8. 1
8. 1
6. 1
1. 1
.1
.6
2. 0
(X
)
.9
■
“
.9
.4
~
.1
.4
"
”

3.9
3.9
3.7

3.4
3.4
2. 1
~
"
.7
.1
.3
.3
-

7.6
7. 6
6. 3
“
■
~
3.2
.5
.7
.1
“
“
.1
“
“
1. 4
■
.3

4. 6
4. 6
4. 1
"
.1
.6
.2
■
.5
(X
)
“
“
■
.8
“
.2
1. 0
"
.7

Less than 0. 05 percent.
See footnote 1, table B- 15.




-1
.1
.9
4.4
4. 0
2. 5
1. 6
.8
. 1
.2
.1
.2
. l
.1
.9
1.5

*1

-

.4
.2
.9

( x)

.3
/ i\
( )
~
1. 6

2. 5
.4
.2
.1
.1
~
.1
.1
.2
~

(X
)
"
.1
.2
.1
.2
.1

(X
)

.6

“

~
~

.1

.b

“
.2

1. 3

.7

(

M
.4

61

Table, B-17. Paid holidays-all industries
(Percent of office and plant workers employed in all establishments that provide paid holidays by number of paid holidays provided annually, winter 1957-58)
South

Northeast
Number of paid holidays

NewarkBoston1 Jersey
City1

New
York
City1

Phila­
delphia1 Atlanta

Balti­
more

North Central

Memphis1

New
Orleans

Chicago1 Cleve­
land 1

Milwau­
kee

West
Los
San
MinneFranapolis- St. Louis1 Denver Angeles- Portland ciscoLong
St. Paul
Oakland1
Beach1

O
ffice w
orkers
Workers in establishments providing
paid holidays ___ _____________________
Under 5 holidays_______________________
5 holidays _______________________ __ _
5 holidays plus 1 half day______________
5 holidays plus 2 or more half d a y s____
6 holidays ______________________________
6 holidays plus 1 half day____________ __
6 holidays plus 2 or more half days ____
7 holidays ________ ______ ________ _
7 holidays plus 1 half day______________
7 holidays plus 2 or more half d a y s____
8 holidays _________
______
_
_
8 holidays plus 1 half day _ _______ _
_
8 holidays plus 2 or more half days ____
9 holidays ________ ________ ___ ___
9 holidays plus 1 half day
9 holidays plus 2 or more half d a y s____
10 holidays
___
_ _ _ _ _
_ _
10 holidays plus 1 half d a y _____________
10 holidays plus 2 or more half days___
11 holidays
11 holidays plus 1 half day _____________
11 holidays plus 2 or more half days___
Over 11 holidays _______________________
Workers in establishments providing
no paid holidays _________________________

100
(2)
1
1
2
(2
)
8
2
(2)
1
5
2
(2)
19
6
(2)
43
7
1
2

99
2
(2)
1
20
(2
)
3
13
2
4
9
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
37

99
(2)
_
1
(2)
1
9
1
2
8
2
2
9
1
1
6
2
2
31
6
3
13

“

(2
)

96
2
1
1
9
2
18
(2)
10
9
1
1
7
2
(2)
18
5
8
1

100
(2)
15
2
3
17
4
3
22
1
(2)
4
<*),
4
2
1
1
1
22

100
(4
55
3
1
13
3
2
13
2
1
3
1
-

99
(2)
1
(3
(2)
14
2
2
37
1
(2
)
11
_
2
14
14
(2)
1

(2)

(2)

(2)

98
5
(2
)
10
(2
)
1
28
3
2
12
2
2
8
(3
(2
)
6
1
(2)
17
1
1
1

99
1
1
23
1
3
32
1
3
26
1
3
(2
)
2
1
1
-

90
13
33
(2)
18
(2
)
3
19
(2
)
1
2
_
-

-

-

(2)

87
8
32
2
17
(2
)
7
18
1
1
1
-

97
2
4
(2)
25
1
2
51
2
_
7
(2
)
3
1
-

(2)

98
(2)
(2)
1
7
(2
)
2
32
3
5
18
4
5
7
1
1
3
(2)
4
(2)
1
5

-

4

2

2

1

13

3

99
(2)
(2)
_
38
1
21
15
1
1
13
3
5
2
1
(2)
-

99
_
37
4
8
21
2
1
10
1
1
4
(3
(2)
1
(2)
_
8
1
1
_

99
(2)
(2)
31
2
29
26
(2)
1
6
_
1
(2)
2
(2)

99
(2)
28
6
21
33
1
1
1
4
3
(2)
_
_

100
44
8
8
17
3
6
8
3
1
4
(2)
-

99
_
1
23
4
3
39
1
(2)
26
(2
)
2
1

99
(2)
2
38
2
(2)
29
28
(2)
_
_

(2)

99
1
29
5
(2)
19
1
4
27
(2)
2
7
(2)
3
1
-

(2)

(2)

(2)

-

(2)

(2
)

99

98
_
1
1
33
(2
)
5
41
1
13
3
-

90
(2
)

2

100
(2
)
33
1
2
27
1

(2)
17
2
(2)
3
1
1
1
2
(2
)
1
-

99
_
(2)
_
_
42
_
38
(2)
1
13
4
_
_
1
-

100
(?)
(2)
1
(2)
39
1
1
35
7
1
7
4
1
1
(2)
2

(2)

"

56
J3
(2
)
22
10
-

94
2
1
35
1
4
29
3
(2
)
18
(3
(2)
-

90
1
2
49
33
1
5
_
-

97
3
7
5
1
50
1
(2
)
28
1
(2
)
1
-

10

6

10

3

P
lant w ers
ork
Workers in establishments providing
paid holidays __ _ _____ _ __ _____
_
Under 5 holidays
5 holidays__ _
_
____ __ __ ____
5 holidays plus 1 half day ______________
5 holidays plus 2 or more half days____
6 holidays
.... _____
_
_ _____
6 holidays plus 1 half day
6 holidays plus 2 or more half days____
7 holidays___________________________ _
7 holidays plus 1 half day
___
_ _
7 holidays plus 2 or more half days____
8 holidays _ _________________ __ __
_
8 holidays plus 1 half d a y ______________
8 holidays plus 2 or more half days____
9 holidays____ ___________
. . ____
9 holidays plus 1 half day _ __ ____
9 holidays plus 2 or more half days____
10 holidays — ____ ________________ _ _
_
10 holidays plus 1 half day_____________
10 holidays plus 2 or more half days _
_
11 holidays_____ _____ ____ _
__
11 holidays plus 1 half day_____________
11 holidays plus 2 or more half days___
Over 11 holidays ______ _ __ __
_
Workers in establishments providing
no paid holidays
_ __

(
3

-

98
3
1
41
2
11
28
(3
(2
)
10
(2)
2
(2)
(2)
-

98
4
27
1
32
30
1
2
_
-

96
(2)

-

79
8
5
30
1
4
19
(2
)
9
(2
)
3
-

-

(2)
_
55
9
7
18
1
2
7
1
-

10

21

2

2

4

1

1 Exceptions to the standard industry limitations are shown in footnotes 4 and/or 7 to the table in appendix B.
2 Less than 0.5 percent.




35
1
23
30
(2)
2
4
(2)
-

0

62

Table B-17a. Paid holiday time-all industries
(Percent of office and plant workers employed in all establishments that provide paid holidays by sum of full-day and half-day holidays provided annually, 1 cumulative, winter 1957-58)
Northeast
Total paid
holiday time
(days)

Boston

NewarkJersey
City

South

New
York
City

Phila­
delphia

Atlanta

Balti­
more

North Central

Memphis

New
Orleans

Chicago

Cleve­
land

Milwau­
kee

Minneapolis- St. Louis
St. Paul

West
Los
San
FranDenver Angeles- Portland
Long
ciscoOakland
Beach

Office w
orkers
13 or more days____________________
12 V or more days__________________
2
12 or more days_____________________
IIV2 or more days________ ______
11 or more days__________ __ ______
IOV2 or more days__________________
_____ __
10 or more days ______
9V or more days ________ __ _
2
9 or more days _________ ____ _
_ _
8 V or more days ___________
2
___
8 or more days ____ __ _ —
____
7V or more days __ ________________
2
7 or more days _____________________
6 V or more days ___________________
2
6 or more days _____________________
5 V or more days ___________________
2
5 or more days _____________________

1
2
3
10
54
60
79
80
86
86
96
97
99
99
99
99
99

2
4
38
39
43
43
45
47
58
60
76
77
98
98
99
99
99

Total receiving paid holidays________

100

99

1
3

_

23
55
56
63
65
75
78
87
88
99
99
99
99
99

19
20
23
23
24
25
30
30
34
35
60
63
82
85
99
99
100

1
4
4
4
4
13
14
44
45
65
70
98

(!)
(2)
1
l
1
1
15
15
32
32
43
45
83
85
99
99
99

99

100

99

99

16

_
1
5
7
22
25
38
41
96
100

66
68
99
99
99

.
(2)
3
7
7
10
11
65
71
99
99
99

1
1
4
5
8
8
21
25
48
56
100
100
100

1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
29
30
72
76
98
98
99

_
28
28
57
60
97
97
99

_
1
1
3
4
5
5
8
10
28
37
66
67
99
99
100

_
_
_
1
1
1
1
5
19
19
57
57
99
99
99

2
2
2
2
2
3
4
7
15
22
58
59
99
99
99
99
99

99

99

100

99

99

100

99

100

-

(2)
(*
(2)
(2)
4
4
6
6
60
61
95
95
95
95
95
96

.

.

.

(2)
1
7
12
28
31
60

(?

99
99
99

1
2
10
10
11
12
18
19
29
31
59
63
99
99
99

99

99

61

0
0

(2)

3
3
4
4
11
12

P
lant w
orkers

12 or more days____________________
IIV2 or more days ___________ ___ _
11 or more days ________ ______ ___
10 V or more days _
2
_
__
10 or more days _____________________
9 V or more days _________________ _
2
9 or more days _____ _____________
8V or more days _______ _______ __
2
8 or more days _____________________
7 V or more days ___________ ____ __
2
7 or more days
_
__
6 V or more days ___________ ______
2
6 or more days
_
_ __ __ _ _ _
5 lh or more days _
_ ________ __ __
5 or more days _____________________
4V or more d a y s__
2
______________
4 or more days _____________________

(2
)
3
11
16
34
36
44
45
63
63
83
83
92
93
94
94
95

6
6
10
10
14
16
26
30
53
56
90
90
97
97
97
97
98

2
2
20
21
27
28
36
38
51
54
82
83
93
93
93
94
94

(*)
(2
)
2
2
4
4
8
8
37
38
73
74
97
97
98
98
98

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1
1
2
27
28
45
47
78
78
82

1
1
4
4
11
13
65
66
91
91
95
95
96

2
3
24
24
43
43
76
77
83

3
3
14
14
35
36
66
66
72
72
72

(2)
3
3
12
12
51
53
94
94
95
95
95

4
4
66
67
93
93
93
93
96

Total receiving paid holidays

96

98

98

99

87

97

90

79

98

98

13
0

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

10
10
32
33
89
89
89
39
89

Sl
a
(2)
(2
)
19
22
55
56
91
91
93
93
93

6
6
38
38
87
87
89

1
2
30
31
82
82
37
37
94
94
94

90

94

90

97

99
99
99
99

3
3
15
16
62
63
96
97
98
98
98

99

98

1
1
1
1
10
10
35
44
99

89

89

-

1 All combinations of full and half days that add to the same amount are combined; for example, the proportion of workers receiving a total of 7 days include those with 7 full days and no half days,
6 full days and 2 half days, 5 full days and 4 half days, and so on. Proportions were then cumulated.
2 Less than 0.5 percent.




63

Table B-18. Paid holidays-manufacturing
(P ercent of office and plant w ork ers em ployed in manufacturing establish m en ts that provide paid holidays by number of paid holidays provided annually, winter 1 9 5 7 -5 3 )
South

N ortheast
Number of paid holidays
Boston

N ew arkJ ersey
City

New
York
City

P hila­
delphia

Atlanta

B alti­
m ore

North Central

Memphis

New
Orleans

Chicago

C lev e­
land

M ilwau­
kee

est

M inne­
a p o lisSt. Paul

St. Louis Denver
i

Los
A n g e le sLong
Beach

Portland

ban
F ran c is c o Oakland

Office workers
W ork ers in establish m en ts providing
paid holidays ________ _______________________ _
Under 5 holidays ___________________________
5 holidays ________ ______ ______________ _
5 holidays plus 1 half d a y _________ ______
5 holidays plus 2 or m ore half d a y s _____
_____
___________________
6 holidays
6 holidays plus 1 half d a y ________ _____
6 holidays plus 2 or m ore half d a y s _____
7 holidays ___________ ____________________
7 holidays plus 1 half d a y _________________
7 holidays plus 2 or m o r e half d a y s _____
3 holidays __ „ _____
_________________
3 holidays plus 1 half d a y _________________
8 holidays plus 2 or m ore half d a y s _____
9 holidays _________
_____ ___
9 holidays plus 1 half d a y _________________
9 holidays plus 2 or m ore half d a y s _____
__
_ _ __
10 holidays _
__ __ _
10 holidays plus 1 half day
_ __ _______
10 holidays plus 2 or m ore half d a y s ____
___
__ __ _____
11 holidays _ __ ____
11 holidays plus 1 half day ________________
11 holidays plus 2 or m ore half d a y s ____
Over 11 holidays ___________________________
W ork ers in establish m en ts providing
no paid holidays ______________________________

100
2
1
5
1
12
4
1
2
10
1
28
5
25
1
2
-

100
3
3
32
(‘ )
6
27
2
8
5
3
2
2
2
(*)
1
3

100
(j)
4
8
3
l 1)
16
3
1
14
2
1
17
4
4
14
1
2
4

100
I1)
19
2
5
22
1
7
33
(‘ )
6
(*)
3
1
-

~

99
2
17
(M
1
16
2
10
49
1
2
1
_
-

99
l 1)
1
11
2
2
71
2
10
(')
1
-

100
5
19
2
31
4
26
7
3
4
-

99
1
32
16
21
1
11
8
5
4
-

99
31
7
13
35
3
l 1)
10
1
-

99
(1)
15
1
45
31
1
2
5
-

I1)

(*)

-

1

(‘ )

1

100
(*)
17
2
31
43
2
6
-

100
43
19
6
8
5
5
12
(*)
1
-

100
2
26
1
4
52
2
9
1
3
-

“

100
-

100

36
1
54

51
2
5
26
3
11
2
(*)
-

9
■

’

100
1
51
43
3
2
-

100
1
1
56
3
3
31
2
1
2
I1)
-

■

l1
")

■

90
1
36
49
2
1
-

96
1
6
4
2
56
1
1
23
1
1

10

4

"

Plant workers
W ork ers in establish m en ts providing
paid holidays ____________________ ________ __
Under 5 holidays __________________ ___ _____
5 holidays ____________________________________
5 holidays plus 1 half d a y _________________
5 holidays plus 2 or m ore half d a y s _____
6 h o li d a y s __________________ „ ______________ 6 holidays plus 1 half d a y ____ ______ _ _
6 holidays plus 2 or m o re half d a y s __ _
7 holidays _ ____________________________ __
7 holidays plus 1 half day __
_ _ ______
7 holidays plus 2 or m ore half d a y s _____
8 holidays ____________ _______________ _______
8 holidays plus 1 half d a y _____ __
____
8 holidays plus 2 or m ore half d a y s _____
9 holidays .
__________ _________ _____
9 holidays plus 1 half d a y ____ _ ________
9 holidays plus 2 or m ore half days -------10 holidays
----------------- ---------------10 holidays plus 1 half day ______________ _
10 holidays plus 2 or m ore half d a y s ___
11 h o lid a y s ___ _____ _________ ___ _________ _
11 holidays plus 1 half day ____ _ __
11 holidays plus 2 or m ore half d a y s -----Over 11 holidays __________ __ _________ _
W ork ers in establish m en ts providing
no paid holidays ______________________________

L e ss than 0 .5 percent.




99
2
1
8
3
27
7
13
1
1
10
2
14
2
6
2
1

99
1
7
3
32
2
3
24
5
6
5
1
1
3
(*)
2
2
2

99
10
(*)
3
1
1
19
3
19
3
3
12
1
10
2
1
11
1
1
(1)

1

1

(1)

-

100
17
2
4
39
2
4
25
1
3
l1)
2
-

79
6
18
16
1
14
21
2
1
1
-

21

99
l
2
21
1
2
63
2
6
1

91
7
19
1
26
5
28
1
1
3
-

71
3
6
19
1
29
7
6
-

99
l
l
28
2
17
39
l 1)

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

(1)
9
1
(*)
-

I1)

9

29

1

-

99
3
16
1
43
33
1
1
-

1

100
1
21
1
30
39
3
5
-

100
(1)
43
16
12
14
(*)
12
2
-

100
1
1
27
(*)
6
46
1
12
4
-

95
44
1
36
14
-

98
(l)
2
42
1
7
32
4
9
-

5

2

i 1)

-

(')
-

-

64
T p b le B-19. P aid h olielaY S -p u b J ic utilities f
(Percent of office and plant workers employed in public utilities establishments that provide paid holidays by number of paid.holidays provided annually, winter 1957-58)
N ortheast
Num ber o f paid holidays

N ew arkB oston1 J e rse y
City

South

New
Y ork
C ity1

Ph ila­
delphia

Atlanta

B alti­
m o re

N orth Central

New
M em phis1
O rleans

C le ve ­
C h icago1
land1

M ilwau­
kee

W est

Minne­
a p o lis St. Paul

St. j^ouis

Lbs
A n gelesDenver
Long
B each1

P ortland

San
F ran c is c o Oakland1

Office workers
W orkers in establishm ents providing
paid h o l id a y s _____ ____ ___________ _ ______
_
-------------------------Under 5 holidays ----------- r
5 holidays
__
_ ____
5 holidays plus 1 half day ______ ________
5 holidays plus 2 o r m o re half d a y s ____
6 holidays
_
___ _
6 holidays plus 1 half day ______ __
6 holidays plus 2 o r m o re half days ----7 holidays __, ____ ________________________
_
7 holidays plus 1 half day . . . .
7 holidays plus 2 o r m o re half d a y s ____
8 h o l i d a y s __
___
—
___
8 holidays plus 1 half day _
__ __
8 holidays plus 2 o r m o re half d a y s ____
9 h o l i d a y s ____ _ __________
9 holidays plus 1 half d a y ________________
9 holidays plus 2 o r m o re half days
10 holidays _____ ____
~
10 holidays plus 1 half d a y __ _ _
10 holidays plus 2 o r m o re half days ____
1 1 holidays —..... ................ ..... — _________ __
11 holidays plus 1 half d a y __ ___ .
11 holidays plus 2 o r m o re half d a y s ____
O ver 11 holidays .
____
W ork ers in establishm ents providing
no paid holidays ___________________________

100
1
1
2
3
(2)
10
54
28
-

100
1
(2)
2
1
49
6
41

"

100
3
17
4
1
(2)
2
(2)
61
6
3
1
"

100
1
( 2)
2
5
47
(2)
8
2
26
5
3

100
11
24
(2)
59
6
-

100
(2)
5
6
32
56
( 2)

~

~

■

100
(2)
10
32
57
"

100
7
2
27
31
3
9
16
6
(2)
“

100
12
6
17
3
36
23

100
10
34
56
-

100
-

2
-

100
19
67
14
-

100.

32
1
48
19
1
-

(2)
18
1
43
37
-

~

"

“

"

-

100
1
25
64
9
-

99
46
19
32
-

100
16
3
38
43
-

100
4
10
2
84
-

99
28
39
1
31
-

“

(2)

~

98
8
28
1
62
-

97
7
37
33
19
■-

100
7
26
67
-

-

■
‘

-

100
1
21
2
74
1
*
1
-

Plant workers
W ork ers in establishm ents providing
paid h o l i d a y s _____ __ ____ ________ _
Under 5 h o l i d a y s __ __ ___ __ _ __ ____
____
______________
__
5 holidays
5 holidays plus 1 half d a y ________________
5 holidays plus 2 o r m o re half days _____
6 holidays
— ______
_ ___
6 holidays plus 1 half d a y __ -_____________
6 holidays plus 2 o r m o re half d a y s ____
7 holidays _________
_____________
7 holidays plus 1 half d a y ____ _________ _
7 holidays plus 2 o r m o re half d a y s ____
8 holidays . _________ ____ .
______
8 holidays plus 1 half day _
.
______
8 holidays plus 2 o r m o re half d a y s ____
9 holidays ______ ____________ ______ _______
9 holidays plus 1 half day ________________
9 holidays plus 2 o r m o re half d a y s ____
10 holidays T
,____ _,________________________
10 holidays plus 1 half day ____________ __
10 holidays plus 2 o r m o re half days
11 holidays - ___ - ___ _. __________ _____
11 holidays plus 1 half day ______________
11 holidays plus 2 or m pre half d a y s _ _
_
O ver 11 holidays ____ _________________________
W o r k e r s in establishm ents providing
no paid holidays ___ ___________________ Z----- --------

100
2
5
10
_
8
2
6
45

98
1
3
20
23
-

-

21

17

-

34

-

2

100
(2)
5
17
13
(2)
-

64
1

100
3
29
2
36
4
( 2)
15
7
-

-

-

-

( 2)

5

99
1
16

38
43
-

99
(*)
2
27
34
35
-

98
-

92
3
17
34
38
-

90
7
20
(2)
39
22
1
-

-

-

-

8

10

100
44
(2)
45
11
-

100
2
33
30
35
•
*
-

94
*
-28
4
33
30
-

2

29
7
41
-,
22
*
-

-

2
-

-

■
“

1 or more utilities are ^nunicipally operated, and, therefore, excluded from the scope of the studies.
Less than 0.5 percent.
Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public Utilities.




-

6

“

t
See footnote 4 to the table in appendix B.

■

2

3

65

Table B>20. Paid holi^lays-whole$ale trade
(Percent of office and plant workers employed in wholesale trade establishments that provide paid holidays by number of paid holidays provided annually, winter 1957-58)
N ortheast
Number o f paid holidays
Boston

N ew arkJ e rs e y
City

South

New
Y ork
City

P h ila ­
delphia

Atlanta

North Central
B alti­
m ore

Chicago

C lev e­
land

M inne­
a p o lis St. Paul

W est
St. Louis

Los
A n geles Long
Beach

San
F ran c is c o Oakland

100
_
_
_
_
4
_
_
69
_
_
23
_
_
4
_
-

Office workers
W orkers in establishm ents providing
paid holidays _
_____
Under 5 holidays __ __
___ _
5 h o l id a y s _________ _________________ ______
5 holidays plus 1 half day ______
5 holidays plus 2 or m o re half d a y s ____
6 holidays ________ ________
- ___ _ _
6 holidays plus 1 half day
______ __ _
6 holidays plus 2 o r m o r e half d a y s ____
7 holidays _
_ ________
______
7 holidays plus 1 half day
7 holidays plus 2 o r m o re half d a y s ___ _
8 holidays ________________________________
8 holidays plus l half day
— __ ________
8 holidays plus 2 o r m ore half d a y s _____
9 holidays _______ __
__ __ __ _ ___
9 holidays plus 1 half d a y ________________
9 holidays plus 2 o r m o re half d a y s ____
10 h o lid a y s ............. ..... . . ,
__ . ...............
10 holidays plus 1 half day ______________
10 holidays plus 2 or m o re half d a y s ____
11 h o lid a y s ________________ __ ______ _____
11 holidays plus 1 half day _____ _
11 holidays plus 2 o r m o r e 'h a lf d a y s ____
O ver 11 holidays _________________________
W orkers in establishm ents providing
no paid holidays
_ _____ _____
_ __

100
2
1
6
34
3
47
3
4
-

100
8
4
17
2
8
14
6
(*)
20
21

100
1
12
4
4
7
4
7
18
2
2
10
1
2
16

3
4
5
-

100
21
5
*4
21
7
30
5
1
4
-

100
20
2
46
3
24
5
-

99
50
1
9
23
14
1
2
-

100
_
-

-

-

100
3
14
11
6
26
5
10
5
20
-

98
_
_
.
25
_
1
54
_
17
.
-

100
_

53
9
4
18
.
15
*
.
-

100
35
11
31
2
3
18
-

(>)

-

•

2

-

"

95
59
1
6
18

98
42
5
2
25

100
39
12
33

100
30
5
55

100
( l)
-

-

-

-

-

2
7
2
-

23
-

3
13
-

10
-

99
23
3
2
39
4
2
26
1
-

-

-

■
■

■
“
■
“
■

“
*
■

_
_
27
6
1
30
8
2
24
_
2
.
-

-

Plant workers
W orkers in establishm ents providing
paid holidays
___
_
_
Under 5 holidays __ __ _
_
5 h o l id a y s ------- __--- ------------ ------ ----------------5 holidays plus 1 half day
5 holidays plus 2 o r m o re half d a y s ____
6 holidays ____ _________ __,,,______6 holidays plus 1 half day
_ __ ---6 holidays plus 2 o r m o re half days _____
7 holidays _ _
__
___
7 holidays plus 1 half day
__ __
7 holidays plus 2 o r m o re half days ______
8 holidays
_ _ _ _ _ _
_ _
8 holidays plus 1 half day
—___________
8 holidays plus 2 o r m o re half days ____
9 holidays _____ ___ ______________________
9 holidays plus 1 half d a y ________________
9 holidays plus 2 o r m o re half d a y s ____
10 holidays _ __ ------- i,------------------------------10 holidays plus 1 half day ---------------------10 holidays plus 2 or m ore half d a y s ____
11 holidays ______________________________
11 holidays plus 1 half day ______________
11 holidays plus 2 or m ore half d a y s ___
O ver 11 holidays
_______________________
W orkers in establishm ents providing
no paid holidays ___________________________

Less than 0.5 percent.




100
7
4
4
4
1
5
11
35

96
26
5
13
-

1
2
15
5

-

-

28

19

2

-

-

11

4

100
2
17
1
2
11
3

95
6
21
15
1

98
38
4
33
3
21

-

-

31

l1)

16
5

1
-

95
14
19
4
3
31
2
14
8
-

l1
)
-

-

-

-

I1)
-

-

5

2

5

5

2

14
1
1
6
27
3
5
7

-

-

-

-

-

54
-

43
3
-

66

Table B>21. Paid holidays-retail trade
(Percent of office and plant workers employed in retail trade establishments that provide paid holidays by number o f paid holidays provided annually, winter 1957-58)
N ortheast
Num ber o f paid holidays
Boston

N ew arkJ e rs e y
C ity1

South

New
Y ork
City*

P h ila ­
delphia1

Atlanta

Balti­
m o re

North Central
New
O rleans

W est

Chicago

M innea p o lis St. Paul

100

100

-

86
8

Denver

Portland

99
1
2

99

San
F ran c is c o Oakland

Office workers
W ork ers in establishm ents providing
_ _
__ paid h o l id a y s ______ ____
Under 5 holidays
________ . .
_
5 holidays ____
.
____
. .
5 holidays plus 1 half d a y ___
______
5 holidays plus 2 or m o re half d a y s ____
6 holidays
_____ ____ __ _____ ____
6 holidays plus 1 half d a y ________________
6 holidays plus 2 o r m o re half days -----7 h o l id a y s .. ......
........................ . ... .
7 holidays plus 1 half d a y ________________
7 holidays plus 2 o r m o re half d a y s ____
8 holidays ______ _____ ______________ ___ _
8 holidays plus 1 half day
________
8 holidays plus 2 o r m o re h alf days ____
9 holidays __ _________________________ _
9 holidays plus 1 half day
_____ __ _
9 holidays plus 2 o r m o r e half d a y s ____
10 holidays _______________________________
10 holidays plus 1 half day __________ _
10 holidays plus 2 o r m o re half d a y s ____
11 holidays _______________________________
11 holidays plus 1 half day _____________
11 holidays plus 2 o r m o re half d a y s ____
O ver 11 holidays _______________________
W ork ers in establishm ents providing
no paid holidays
__________________________

-

96
-

1

5

-

3

-

(*)
-

-

55
2

51
1

1
44
10

51

-

-

-

1

1
2
3
7
2
4
5
9
6
6
2

4
1

100
2

(a)

1
-

24
(a)
18
-

-

2
3
-

15
-

7
8
-

4

99
1

100
-

100
(*)
-

99
(a)
-

-

2

41

2

60

70

-

-

2
2
27

5

1

-

6
-

2

-

la)

“

-

100
5
62
31

-

2
-

5

-

-

”

■

92

3

5

-

-

90

97

-

2
-

5

21

1

1

-

0
(a)
-

-

2
-

la)

“

“

1

-

-

100
ijj
l )
4
-

75
7
-

11
-

2
-

1

~

91

99
16
4
~
62
2

Plant workers
Workers in establishments providing
paid holidays ____________________________
Under 5 holidays _______________________
5 holidays __ ___________________________
5 holidays plus 1 half day______________
5 holidays plus 2 or more half d a y s____
6 holidays __ ___________________________
6 holidays plus 1 half day_______________
6 holidays plus 2 or more half d a y s ____
7 holidays ______________________________
7 holidays plus 1 half day ______
7 holidays plus 2 or more half d a y s ____
8 holidays __ ________________________
8 holidays plus 1 half day_______________
8 holidays plus 2 or more half d a y s____
9 holidays__ _____________ _________ _
9 holidays plus 1 half day _____________
9 holidays plus 2 or more half d a y s ____
10 holidays -------------- -------------------10 holidays plus 1 half day -----------------10 holidays plus 2 or more half days___
11 holidays --------------------------------------------11 holidays plus 1 half day _____________
11 holidays plus 2 or more half days _ _ _
Over 11 holidays _______________________
Workers in establishments providing
no paid holidays ________________________

1
2

Excludes lim ite d -p r ic e variety s to r e s.
L e ss than 0. 5 percent.




94
5
2
9
1
2
29
5
2
36
4
-

92
4
la
)
3
1
50
13
15
3
la
)
3
-

97
5
5
2
59
5

6

8

3

7

1
1
2
4
(*)
(*)
1
(a
)
2
1

100
7
48
3
13
29
-

100
13
77
8
2
"

90
7
2
57
1
23
-

83
15
58
2
-

8
~
"

99
4
89
-

6

■
(2
)
-

(a
)
"
-

-

■
■
■

10

17

i

n
-

100
i
83
13
2
1
(2
)
■
"
"
"

85
83
2
■
“
_
_

4

87
“
■
■

16
~
■
■
~

"

_

■
“
“
■

15

9

~
~
~
~
1

67

Table B-22. Paid holidays-finance*
(Percent of office workers employed in finance establishments that provide paid holidays by number of paid holidays provided annually, winter 1957-58)
Northeast
Number of paid holidays
Boston

NewarkJersey
City

South

New
York
City

Phila­
delphia

Atlanta

North Central
Balti­
more

Chicago

* Cleve­
land

West

Minne apolisSt. Paul

St. Louis

Los
AngelesLong
Beach

San
FranciscoOakland

100
_
4
34
23
4
5

100
19
30
16
1
16
9

O
ffice w
orkers
Workers in establishments providing
paid holidays __________________ _______ _
Under 5 holidays __ ___________ _____
5 holidays _
__
___
______ ___
5 holidays plus 1 half day______________
5 holidays plus 2 or more half days ____
6 holidays _____________________________
6 holidays plus 1 half day _______________
6 holidays plus 2 or more half days ____
7 holidays ________ __________________
7 holidays plus 1 half day______________
7 holidays plus 2 or more half days ____
8 holidays ______________________________
8 holidays plus 1 half day______________
8 holidays plus 2 or more half days ____
9 holidays _ ______ ___________________
9 holidays plus 1 half day______________
9 holidays plus 2 or more half days ____
10 holidays _________________________ __
10 holidays plus 1 half day _____________
10 holidays plus 2 or more half days___
11 holidays _____________________________
11 holidays plus 1 half day _____________ '
11 holidays plus 2 or more half days___
Over 11 holidays _______________________
Workers in establishments providing
no paid holidays __ ____________________

1 Less than 0.5 percent.
* Finance, insurance, and real estate.




100
1
3

9
-

67
18
2

-

100
4
2
94

100
(*)
1
2
1
(*)

100
(*)
1
(‘ )
1
3
(*)
3
-

8

3

-

(‘ )
4
-

2

(*)
44
12

2

3

5

27

77

100
36
5
7
4
12
7
16
10
4
-

100
2
2
10
32
50
1
3

100
14
5
3
5
4
2
4
5

100
65
3
8
2
9
1
11
-

3
6
2
2
2

(*)
35
5
3

-

*

1

100
_
35
4
15
14
l1
)
4
4
8

4
13
-

100
_
3
8
2
7
77
3

2

10
3

4
7

1
4
-

2
2

5

68

Table B-23. Paid holidays-services
(Percent of office and plant workers employed in services establishments that provide paid holidays by number of paid holidays provided annually, winter 1957-58)
North
Central

Northeast
Number of paid holidays
Boston

New
York
City

Phila­
delphia

Chicago

West
Los
AngelesLong
Beach1

Boston

New
York
City

Office w
orkers
Workers i.i establishments providing
paid holidays ___________ _ ______ ______
Under 5 holidays__ _________________ ...
_
5 holidays_ ___ ____. . . __________ ______
5 holidays plus 1 half day_______________
5 holidays plus 2 or more half d a y s____
6 holidays______ ______ _______ _______
6 holidays plus 1 half d a y ____. . . _ _____
_
6 holidays plus 2 or more half days ____
7 holidays _______. . ..._________.. ._______
7 holidays plus 1 half day . ____________
7 holidays plus 2 or more half d a y s____
______ ______ ....
8 holidays . . . . ____
8 holidays plus 1 half day_______________
8 holidays plus 2 or more half d a y s____
______________ :
9 holidays ___ _ .. .___
9 holidays plus 1 half day .. .____________
9 holidays plus 2 or more half d a y s ____
10 holidays_____ ______________________ _
10 holidays plus 1 half day ________ _
_
10 holidays plus 2 or more half days___
11 holidays ______ _______ _____ .. .----11 holidays plus 1 half day _____________
11 holidays plus 2 or more half days___
Over 11 holidays _ _______ ___________
_
Workers in establishments providing
no paid holidays ________________________

100
2
2
2
1
1
2
17
14
-

38
22

100
7
1
14
3
9
22
7
3
6
2
3
1
15
2
6

100
44
15
1
25
8
(2)
7
-

Phila­
delphia

Chicago

West
Los
AngelesLong
Beach1

P
lant w ers
ork
99
70
(2)
1
14
1
5
5
3
-

100
53
(2)
(2
)
17
2
19
9
-

t2)

1 Excludes motion-picture production and allied services; data for these industries are included, however, in ’’all industries.
* Less than 0.5 percent.




North
Central

Northeast

67
5
36
11
4
1
4
6
(2)

92
40
(2)
23
1
(2)
11
l2)
(2
)
3
1
6
7
-

86
29
53
1
2
I2)
(2
)
"
(2
)
-

70
3
4
40
2
19
-

()

88
3
65
12
4
3
-

33

8

12

14

30

~

-

I2)
1
-

69

Table B-24. Paid vacations- all industries
(Percent of office and plant workers employed in all establishments providing paid vacations by ampunt of vacation pay provided after specified length-of-service periods, winter 195/-58)
Nortl least
Amount of vacation pay 1
and service period

NewarkBoston 2 Jersey
City*

South

New
York
City*

Phila­
delphia 2 Atlanta

Balti­
more

North Central

New
Memphis 2 Orlea ns

Chicago2 Cleve­
land 2

Milwau­
kee

Minne­
apolis- iSt. Louis 2 Denver
St. Paul

(Vest
Los
San
Angeles- Portland
Frar.Long
ciscoBeach2
Oakland2

Office w
orkers
1 week or more __. __.. ____ .. .______
6 months .. ..________. . ... ... .____ ...
1 year ----------- -------------------- ---------

100
82
100

100
76
99

99
88
99

99
68
99

99
58
99

99
55
99

2 weeks or more .. ._____ .. ..________
_
6 months ____________ ______ ......
1 year ,
— — ...................................
2 years ______ ___________________
3 years .. .---------------- ...._________ _
5 years _ _____ _____________ _
_

99
27
96
99
99
99

99
5
93
97
97
99

99
15
93
99
99
99

99
12
79
94
96
99

99
2
77
93
95
99

99
3
68
83
85
99

3 weeks or more _______________ ____
3 y e a r s ____________________ ______
5 years _ — ------------------------- ----...
10 years ___________________ _____
15 years .. .. -------------------- -------------20 years ______ ___________________
25 years
__....______________ .....

91
7
28
47
86
89
91

91
1
11
32
89
90
91

90
5
20
58
88
89
90

89
( 3)
8
37
85
87
89

70
2
21
68
69
70

4 weeks or m o r e _ ____ ____________
_
____ ______ . . . ______ ___
10 years
15 years _____.. ..________________
20 years ,__ .__ ____
n _
25 years
_ ____________ _________
_
30 or more years __________ ____

38
4
4
12
35
38

39
1
6
24
39
39

57

41
(?)
( 3)
10
40
41

32
10
29
32

l

6
21
56
57

99
69
99

99
65
99

99
65
99

100
51
100

100
54
100

99
57
99

100
29
100

99
53
99

100
46
100

100
66
100

98
( 3)
61
81
92
98

96
3
75
87
91
96

99
5
80
98
99
99

99
_
85
95
98
99

100
1
52
92
96
100

99
1
71
90
99
99

99
3
70
88
95
99

99
_
59
83
91
99

99
6
78
96
99
99

100
( 3)
68
89
98
100

100
9
81
99
100
100

87
3
4
23
81
83
87

62
1
4
25
42
58
62

45
1
5
16
40
45
45

89
4
7
40
86
88
89

92
1
2
29
91
92
92

92
1
6
26
88
88
92

90
1
6
39
88
90
90

88
1
5
26
84
86
88

79
2
23
74
79
79

86
4
9
29
83
85
86

80
3
3
37
75
80
80

93
4
8
36
86
92
93

28
( 3)
4
27
28

14
( 3)
1
5
14
14

18
( 3)
10
18
18

40
2
3
14
38
40

20
1
8
19
20

41
( 3)
3
14
41
41

48
( 3)
1
17
44
48

23
4
12
23
23

20
1
8
19
20

27
1
2
10
19
27

29
10
25
29

27
( 3)
( 3)
10
23
27

100
11
100

99
21
99

100
8
100

100
30
100

100
50
100

P
lant w ers
ork
1 week or more
_ ________. . ..___ _
_
6 months . . . _ _________________ _
_
1 y e a r ---- -—.— ._ _ ,________ ___
_

100
36
100

2 weeks or more _________ __________
6 months___ ____________ .. ..__ ...
1 year .........______. . ..____ ________
2 years -------------------------- -----------3 years _ ___ __ ______________
_
5 years ---------------------------------------

99
4
41
52
67
99

3 weeks or more ____ ________ _______
_
3 years _____... _ _______ _______
5 years _. ___________ ____ _______
10 years _____ .. ...___________ ...
15 years _______ _______ _ ________
20 yea rs................. ...........................
25 years ______ _____ _____________
4 weeks or more — . . __- ___ _________
.
10 years ------------------------------------15 years __________________ ____
20 years -------------------- ------ ------- 25 years ____ ________ _____ ______
30 or more years ___________ ____

100
29
100

99
38
99

99
21
99

98
24
96

99
14
99

99
15
97

91
23
91

100
15
99

99
10
99

99
10
99

99
12
99

99
12
99

98
( 3)
30
46
63
97

95
3
44
70
88
95

97
1
24
38
61
96

86
33
49
59
84

94
( 3)
14
31
43
93

90
.
13
29
57
90

78
( 3)
26
39
55
77

99
_
21
55
77
98

99
13
24
37
99

99
_
8
26
48
9?

99
( 3)
18
46
85
99

99
12
35
70
99

95
( 3)
19
46
77
95

98
34
75
92
98

100
16
38
80
100

99
26
82
91
99

79
2
14
29
77
78
79

82
5
9
29
81
81
82

66
7
16
38
65
65
66

78
( 3)
6
38
77
77
78

49

76
1
2
17
74
76
76

52
4
15
44
46
52

33
2
3
9
31
33
33

85
5
8
34
83
84
85

89
1
3
18
87
87
89

88
( 3)
7
24
87
88
88

84
1
7
30
81
82
84

87

2
17
48
49
49

3
22
87
87
87

61
( 3>
4
14
60
60
61

77
4
14
30
77
77
77

66
2
2
21
62
64
66

92
6
12
43
92
92
92

20
7
7
10
20
20

25
2
5
9
25
25

19
2
4
8
18
19

23

14

12

23

8
14
14

( 3)
8
16
16

42
( 3)
4
16
42
42

35

7
22
23

28
(?)
( 3)
11
27
28

16

-

n
4
11
11

10

-

16
( 3)
2
16
16

12
2
2
6
11
12

21
6
21
21

19
(?)
( 3)
8
19
19

-

-

2
12
12

-

2
6
10
10

-

}

-

-

2
11
34
35

2
10
22
23

1 Includes percentage- or flat-sum type payments converted to equivalent weeks' pay. Periods of service were-arbitrarify chosen and do not necessarily reflect the individual provisions for progressions.
For example, the changes in proportions indicated at 10 years' service include changes in provisions occurring between 5 and 10 years. Estimates are cumulative. Thus, the proportion receiving 3 weeks' pay or
more after 5 years include those who receive 3 weeks' pay or more after fewer years of service.
2 Exceptions to the standard industry limitations are shown in footnotes 4 and/or 7 to the table in appendix B.
3 Less than 0.5 percent.




70

Table B-25. Paid vacationer-manufacturing
(Percent of office and plant workers employed in manufacturing establishments providing paid vacations by amount of vacation pay provided after specified length-of-service periods, winter 1957-58)
Northeast
Amount of vacation pay 1
and service period

Boston

NewarkJersey
City

New
York
City

South
Phila­
delphia

Atlanta

Balti­
more

North Central

Memphis

New
Orleans

Chicago

Cleve­
land

Milwau­
kee

MinneapolisSt. Paul

St. Louis Denver

West
Los
AngelesPortland
Long
Beach

San
FranciscoOakland

O
ffice w
orkers
1 week or more _____________________
6 months_______ ________________
1 year___ ______________ _______

100
78
100

100
82
99

99
84'
99

100
72
100

99
33
99

100
36
100

100
43
100

99
55
99

100
68
100

100
77
100

100
48
100

100
59
100

99
57
99

100
16
100

100
37
100

100
51
100

100
61
100

2 weeks or more ____________________
6 months __________ ___________
1 year___________________________
2 years __________________________
3 years __________________________
5 years ______________________ _

100
12
95
98
98
100

100
4
90
94
95
99

99
4
94
99
99
99

99
5
86
92
94
99

98
83
89
92
98

99
2
61
68
71
99

99
63
83
95
99

91
4
80
82
91

100
7
84
97
99
100

100
92
97
97
100

100
46
90
95
100

99
77
90
97
99

99
3
75
87
93
99

100
56
67
75
100

99
86
96
99
99

100
2
75
90
95
100

100
_
94
99
100
100

3 weeks or more _
_
3 years _______________ _________
5 years _______________________ _
10 yea rs__ ____ _______________
15 years _________________________
20 y ea rs________ _______________
25 years _________________________

87
3
11
20
84
86
87

91
3
6
26
90
90
91

87
10
22
60
86
87
87

90
14
44
90
90
90

36
16
36
36
36

90
3
4
20
88
90
90

63
2
32
52
61
63

40
4
25
38
39
40

91
6
9
45
89
91
91

95
( 2)
1
27
94
94
95

94
6
20
94
94
94

88
2
13
49
87
87
88

93
2
5
24
93
93
93

89
8
25
89
89
89

88
9
10
29
88
88
88

69
9
9
31
63
67
69

92
8
9
36
92
92
92

4 weeks or more __________________
10 years ________________________
15 years ________________________
20 years ________________________
25 years ________________________
30 or more years _____________ _

16
2
2
3
15
16

21
3
5
9
21
21

46
5
16
25
46
46

30
( 2)
11
30
30

4
4
4

15
4
15
15

13
1
13
13

21
1
11
21
21

36
4
4
14
35
36

15
1
7
15
15

43
5
10
43
43

47
1
1
22
47
47

23
5
10
23
23

35
5
7
35
35

13
( 2)
1
9
13
13

20
2
20
20

28
19
27
28

100
8
100

99
2
99

100
9
100

99
9
99

100
7
100

100
15
100

100
5
100

100
34
100

<5

P
lant w
orkers
1 week or more
6 months ________________________
1 y ea r..................................................

100
19
100

100
18
100

99
25
99

100
24
100

96
11
95

100
9
100

98
6
97

92
13
92

100
13
100

2 weeks or more
6 months
_
__ ___ _ _
1 y ea r____________________________
2 years __________________________
3 years _________________________
5 years __________________________

99
( 2)
20
28
51
99

98
18
35
53
96

91
1
40
56
74
91

97
1
29
30
53
97

83
27
33
40
82

99
1
10
21
30
99

89
3
11
44
89

85
12
19
48
83
85

9915
41
67
98

99
8
13
22
99

99
4
9
33
97

100
8
26
75
99

99
11
27
62
99

100
15
35
71
100

99
38
69
90
99

100
11
20
64
100

99
23
71
83
99

3 weeks or more _______ ___________
3 years ___________________________
5 years __________________________
10 years _
15 years _
_ _ _ _ _
20 years _____ _____ ______________
25 years _________________________

74
2

85
5

55
-

39
-

80
6

78
3

94

5

8

3

25
84
85
85

32
78
78
78

55

35
38
39

90
90

36
83
84
86

19
78
78
78

23
80
80
80

22

50
51

12
91
92
95

94
3
4
20
94
94
94

78
-

2
8

95
7
15
95
95
95

86
2

2
8

90
8
10
35

95
1

2

17
73
73
74

40
11
40
40
40

80
1

7

65
14
17
41
62
65
65

78
-

7

11
30
94
94
94

13
1
1

22

12

21
9
21
21

5
5
5

7
7
7

14
4
8
14
14

11
1
4
11
11

41
5
12
41
41

36
-

21
-

2

10
36
36

9
21
21

27
( 2)

9
( 2)
( 2)
4
9
9

22

3

4 weeks or more
10 years
15 years _______ ________________
20 years _________________________
25 years _________________________
30 or more years

3

13
13

3

3

4
6

5
8
12
12

22
22

8

1 Includes percentage- or flat-sum-type payments converted to equivalent weeks' pay.
2 Less than 0.5 percent.




9
79
80
80
9
2

9
9

See footnote 1, table B-24.

88

23

6
21
23

2

7

3

27
27

72
15
78
1
22
22

8

21
"
11
21
21

71

Table B-26. Paid vacations-public utilities |
(Percent of office and plant workers employed in public utilities establishments providing paid vacations by amount of vacation pay provided after specified length-of-service periods, winter 1957-58)
Northeast
Amount of vacation pay 1
and service period

NewarkBoston 2 Jersey
City

New
York
City 2

South
Phila­
delphia

Atlanta

Balti­
more

North Central

New
Memphis2
Orleans

Chicago 2 Cleve­
land2

vVest

MinneMilwau­ apoliskee
St. Paul

St. Louis

Denver

Los
San
AngelesF.ranPortland
Long
ciscoBeach2
Oakland2

O
ffice w
orkers
1 week or more ____________________
6 months _________________________
1 year ___________________________

100
89
100

100
99
100

100
88
100

100
60
100

100
68
100

100
95
100

100
70
100

100
89
100

100
46
100

99
13
99

100
32
100

100
7
100

100
52
100

100
20
100

100
51
100

100
37
100

100
64
100

2 weeks or more
____
6 months _________________________
1 year ___________________________
2 years _________ _______ ________
3 years _________________________
5 years _________________________

100
55
97
99
99
99

100
98
100
100
100

100
17
97
100
100
100

100
50
99
99
100

100
51
90
98
100

100
_
92
96
99
100

100
_
33
73
98
100

100
7
65
94
99
100

100
3
85
98
100
100

99
_
55
97
99
99

100
_
36
96
100
100

100
26
92
100
100

100
_
20
94
99
100

100
_
44
97
97
100

100
_
7
90
99
100

100
43
85
99
100

100
_
33
94
100
100

3 weeks or more
__
3 years ________________________
5 years __________________________
10 years _________________________
15 years _________________________
2 0 years ......................................... ....
25 years _________________________

98
1
3
39
98
98
98

98
7
14
98
98
98

94
4
10
27
94
94
94

98
3
14
98
98
98

98
11
90
98
98

95
( 3)
2
95
95
95

84
5
16
84
84
84

83
16
17
83
83
83

95
( 3)
12
95
95
95

94
1
2
16
94
94
94

97
46
97
97
97

90
42
89
90
90

91
35
91
91
91

88
4
88
88
88

91
12
91
91
91

86
3
5
40
86
86
86

95
3
14
38
95
95
95

4 weeks or more ____________________
10 years ...... ......................................
15 years _________________________
2 0 years ________________ _________
25 years _________________________
30 or more years ________________

29
1
28
29

37
2
36
37

33
1
2
10
30
33

34
33
34

12
3
9
12

58
56
58

13
5
6
12
12
13

20
11
19
20

31
28
29
31

34
33
34

49
38
49
49

31
2
10
29
31

41
33
40
41

3
3
3
3

36
24
36

36
33
35
36

27
1
1
1
25
27

_

P
lant w ers
ork
1 week or more _____________________
6 months
_
. _
1 year ___________________________

100
79
100

100
79
100

100
86
100

100
34
100

100
53
100

99
72
99

100
41
93

99
29
99

100
5
100

100
15
100

100
21
100

100
8
100

100
38
100

100
17
100

100
48
100

100
25
100

IC
G
67
100

2 weeks or more ____________________
6 months _________________________
1 year __________________________
2 years __________________________
3 years __________________________
5 years __________________________

100
45
89
92
93
100

100
( 3)
77
81
100
100

100
18
80
94
100
100

100
22
63
68
100

98
34
71
95
98

99
72
87
99
99

100
19
56
86
100

88
40
66
77
88

100
29
77
100
100

100
41
77
99
100

100
21
82
97
100

100
22
72
96
100

100
17
84
98
100

100
30
70
79
100

100
11
77
98
100

100
33
76
100
100

100
47
96
100
100

3 weeks or more ____________________
3 years _________________________
5 years
_
_ _
10 years ________________________
15 years ________________________
20 years ________________ ______
25 years ________________________

100
5
5
35
100
100
100

95
15
21
38
95
95
95

93
5
12
25
93
93
93

100

99
( 3)
( 3)

4

100
-

14
78
78
78

98
5
52
98
98
98

97
37
97

92
24
92

80
10
80
80
80

77
26

100
100
100

100
10
100
100
100

99
47

99
99
99

81
25
81
81
81

78
-

50
100
100
100

90
15
85
90
90

77
77
77

92
10
12
31
92
92
92

4 weeks or more
10 years ________________________
15 years ________________________
20 years ______________________ _
25 years „ _____________________
30 or more years _______________

27
24
27

47
-

35
3
3
12
30
35

32
28
32

18
14
14
18

50
50
50

28
25
25
28

17
13
14
17

52
1
48
49
52

54
-

67
58
65
67

25
14
25

29
26
26
29

1
2
3
f

2

45
47

2
2

2

4

22

51
54

Includes percentage- or flat-sum type payments converted to equivalent weeks' pay. See footnote 1, table B-24.
1 or more utilities are municipally operated, and, therefore, excluded from the scope of the studies. See footnote 4 to the table in appendix B.
Less than 0.5 percent.
Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities.




97

99
99

97

99

92

46
-

61
40
59
61

-

8

32
43
46

92

23
2
2
2

20
23

72

Table B-27, Paid vacations-wholesale trade
(Percent of office and plant workers employed in wholesale trade establishments providing paid vacations by amount of vacation pay provided after specified length-of-service periods, winter 1957-58)
Northeast
Amount of vacation pay 1
and service period

Boston

Newark Jersey
City

South
New
York
City

Phila­
delphia

Atlanta

North Central
Balti­
more

Chicago

Cleve­
land

MinneapolisSt. Paul

West
St. Louis

Los
AngelesLong
Beach

San
FranciscoOakland

O
ffice w
orkers
1 week or more _____________________
6 months ________________________
1 yea r------------------- -----------------------

100
67
100

100
71
100

100
85
100

100
54
100

100
33
100

99
42
99

100
59
100

100
60
100

100
33
100

100
53
100

100
44
100

100
41
100

2 weeks or more __________________
6 months _____-_____ __ __________
1 year___________________________
2 years ________________________
3 years __________________________
5 years ________________________

98
6
97
98
98
98

100
93
96
96
100

100
13
97
100
100
100

100
5
83
90
92
100

100
84
99
100
100

94
6
85
88
92
94

100
<9
93
98
100

100
76
87
100
100

100
66
80
100
100

100
63
84
99
100

100
69
97
100
100

100
71
100
100
100

3 weeks Or more ___________ .
3 years ________________________
5 years ________________________
10 years_____ ____________ ,_____
15 years _________________________
20 years_________________________
25 years----------- ------ --------------------

75
30
73
73
75

89
3
9
36
86
86
89

85
11
55
85
85
85

75
2
10
39
75
75
75

74
6
33
72
72
74

64
54
64
64
64

75
7
28
73
74
75

81
2
32
76
81
81

89
50
89
89
89

70
19
61
67
70

80
2
6
45
79
80
80

86
27
88
86
88

4 weeks or more __________________
10 years_________________________
15 yea rs_________________________
20 yea rs..............................................
25 yea rs__*______________________
30 or more years _______________

16
13
16
16

32
3
6
11
32
32

36
1
1
13
36
36

30
2
2
22
30
30

28
24
28
28

37
4
36
37
37

33
4
4
13
31
33

15
9
15
15

47
2
22
47
47

22
15
22
22

21
8
21
21

29
11
29
29

P
lont w ers
ork
1 week or more ____________________
6 months ____________ ____________
1 yea r___________________________

100
48
100

100
44
100

100
70
100

86
14
86

98
23
98

100
19
100

100
26
100

94
21
94

100
24
100

100
32
100

99
20
99

100
12
100

2 weeks or more _ ________________
_
6 months ______________ ,_________
1 year_________ __________________
2 years __________________________
3 years __________________________
5 years __________________________

92
7
68
81
87
92

100
67
86
95
100

100
1
80
95
98
100

86
26
31
57
86

92
39
75
84
92

75
1
38
40
48
75

100
45
73
90
100

90
43
60
73
90

100
39
73
95
100

100
34
63
95
100

99
32
88

100
15

99
99

100

3 weeks or m ore................................. .
3 years __________________________
5 years __________________________
10 years _________________________
15 years ______ ___________________
20 yea rs.......................... ...................
25 yea rs_________________________

77
7
7
24
74
74
77

90
1
31
55
88
90

78
7
22
45
78
78
78

57
29
57
57
57

48
2
18
46
46
48

59
24
59
59
59

79
3
37
75
78
79

82
1
39
81
82
82

97
48
97
97
97

67
14
60
67
67

84
1
45
82
84
84

100
21
100
100
100

4 weeks or more ........................... ........
10 years________ ________________
15 years ......................... ....................
20 years_________________________
25 years _________________________
30 or more years _______________

17
7
7
17
17
17

40
1
29
37
40
40

21
4
21
21

11
10

12
11

13
13

*
4

13

12

13

46
6
14
46
46

8

12

31
27
31

7
7

11
11

36
1
1
10
36
36

7
7

8
8

15
“
9
15
15

88

1 Includes percentage- or flat-sum type payments converted to equivalent weeks* pay.




See footnote 1, table B-24.

31

99
99

73

Table B-28. Paid vacations-refail trade
(Percent of office and plant workers employed in retail trade establishments providing paid vacations by amount of vacation pay provided after specified length-of-service periods, winter 1957-58)
Northeast
Amount of vacation pay 1
and service period

Boston

NewarkJersey
City*

South
New
York
City2

Phila­
delphia 2

Atlanta

Balti­
more

North Central
New
Orleans

West

Chicago

MinneapolisSt. Paul

Denver

Portland

San
FranciscoOakland

Office workers
1 week or more
__________________
6 months ________________________
1 year __________________________

100
75
100

100
71
100

100
54
100

100
22
100

100
41
100

100
9
100

100
48
100

100
29
100

100
19
100

100
7
100

100
4
100

100
18
100

2 weeks or more
_____
6 months _____ _________________
1 year _____________ .____________
2 years ______________ _________
3 years ________________________
5 years __________________________

100
82
100
100
100

100
65
93
98
100

99
_
53
99
99
99

100
_
24
85
99
100

96
4<
91
92
96

99
13
90
94
99

88
_
50
74
76
88

99
33
99
99
99

100
_
28
78
96
100

97
18
76
95
97

100
24
81
100
100

100
35
99
100
100

3 weeks or more ___________________
3 years __________________________
5 years __________________ *______
10 years ________________________
15 years ________________________
20 years ________________ ______
25 years ________________________

97
47
80
94
97
97

57
19
55
57
57
57

86
4
34
75
86
86
86

89
5
82
86
86
89

73
11
55
72
73
73

80
1
53
79
80
80

15
1
1
13
13
15
15

90
3
60
88
90
90

88
9
36
88
88
88

65
3
11
59
64
65

70
17
70
70
70

94
13
84
94
94
94

4 weeks or more ____________________
10 years ________________________
15 years ________________________
20 years ________________________
25 years ________________________
30 or more years _______________

57
36
37
41
57
57

46
12
37
46
46

49
1
2
15
49
49

53
7
53
53

62
21
62
62

42
1
42
42

12
12
12

75
13
75
75

51
7
51
51

37
3
37
37

34
34
34

20
2
19
20

Plant workers
1 week or more
__________________
6 months ________________________
1 year __________________________

100
70
100

100
65
100

99
36
99

100
8
100

100
49
100

100
13
100

87
32
87

100
31
100

100
19
100

100
10
100

100
4
100

100
6
100

2 weeks or more __________________
6 months ________________________
1 year __________________________
2 years __________________________
3 years ________________________
5 years ________________________

99
80
99

100
70
94
100

98
42
98
98
98

98
14
56
93
98

93
55
78
84
85

91
6
54
80
84

64
26
46
49
64

98
35
88
93
98

100
36
80
100
100

94
14
48
90
94

100
13
58
100
100

100
19
96
97
100

3 weeks or more ___________________
3 years ________________________
5 years _______________________ _
10 years ________________________
15 years ________________________
20 years ________________________
25 years ________________________

97
40
64
91
95
97

66
18
50
66
66
66

74
4
20
54
74
74
74

88
4
71
81
81
88

65
11
38
64
65
65

73
5
61
67
73
73

14
6
6
10
10
14
14

83
11
48
80
83
83

86
10
16
86
86
86

39
5
8
35
35
39

37
18
37
37
37

95
21
87
95
95
95

4 weeks or more ___________________
10 years
_______________________
15 years ________________________
20 years ________________________
25 years ________________________
30 or more years ________________

41
28
30
35
41
41

34
15
30
34
34

35
2
6
10
35
35

34
4
34
34

41
25
41
41

13
5
13
13

5
5
5

47
20
47
47

34
7
34
34

15
2
15
15

19
4
19
19

19
4
17
19

99
99

99

1 Includes percentage- or flat-sum type payments converted to equivalent weeks1 pay.
* Excludes lim ited-price variety stores.




See footnote 1, table B-24.

74

Table B-29. Paid vacations-finance*
(Percent of office workers employed in finance establishments providing paid vacations by amount of vacation pay provided after specified length-of-service periods, winter 1957-58)
South

Northeast
Amount of vacation pay 1
and service period

Boston

NewarkJersey
City

New
York
City

Phila­
delphia

Atlanta

North Central
Balti­
more

Chicago

West

Cleve­
land

MinneapolisSt. Paul

St. Louis

Los
AngelesLong
Beach

San
FranciscoOakland

Office workers
1 week or more ____________________
6 months ________________________
1 year ___________________________

100
89
100

100
63
100

99
97
99

99
90
99

100
90
100

100
92
100

99
90
99

100
62
100

100
86
100

100
80
100

100
86
100

100
86
100

2 weeks or more
6 months
_
_
_
1 year ___________________________
2 years ________ __________________
3 years ________________________
5 years ________________________

100
45
100
100
100
100

100
9
100
100
100
100

99
25
98
99
99
99

99
33
96
99
99
99

100
7
96
96
96
100

100
8
92
100
100
100

99
7
97
99
99
99

100
91
95
100
100

100
3
96
100
100
100

100
9
99
100
100
100

100
20
98
100
100
100

100
23
100
100
100
100

3 weeks or more ____________________
3 years -------------------------------------5 years ________________________
10 years_________________________
15 years_______________________ .
20 years ______ ___________________
25 yea rs---------------------------------------

100
13
48
65
88
93
100

96

95
4
18
62
93
94
95

92

82

87
2
15
70
74
87

94
( 2)
3
37
90
90
94

98
3
35
98
98
98

99
24
92
99
99

91

21
40
94
96
96

7
21
78
83
91

90
8
23
82
87
90

94
2
2
25
77
92
94

4 weeks or more ____________________
10 years _________________________
15 yea rs_________________________
20 years_________________________
25 years _________________________
3 0 or more years ____________ , ___

64
-

71
10
57
71
71

81
2
25
81
81

34
-

43
-

35
11
30
35

61
18
45
61

24
8
10
24
24

50
-

29
8
20
29

-

16
58
64

-

-

-

2
18
76
85
92

11
78
78
82

65
-

59
10
54
59

-

9
59
65

1 Includes percentage- or flat-sunn type payments converted to equivalent weeks' pay.
2 Less than 0.5 percent.
* Finance, insurance, and real estate.




3
33

34

See footnote 1, table B-24.

3

11
38
43

-

3

18
23
50

75

Table B-30. Paid vacatiocu-seryices
(Percent of office and plant workers employed in services establishments providing paid vacations by amount of vacation pay provided after specified length-of-service periods, winter 1957-58)
-------- RorTE--------Central

Northeast
Amount of vacation pay 1
and service period

Boston

New
York
City

Phila­
delphia

Chicago

West
Los
AngelesLong
Beach2

North
Central

Northeast
Boston

New
York
City

Office workers

Phila­
delphia

Chicago

West
Los
AngelesLong
Beach 2

Plant workers

1 week or more _ __________•
________
6 months ________________________
1 year __________ _ ----------------- _

100
85
100

100
83
100

100
49
100

100
58
100

99
52
98

100
14
100

99
17
99

100
4
100

100
9
99

87
20
87

2 weeks or more __________________
6 months _____ _________________
1 year ___________________________
2 years ________________________
3 years ---------------------------------------5 years __________________________

100
15
89
96
97
100

100
6
89
96
100
100

98
79
90
90
98

100
1
75
99
100
100

99
6
78
88
99
99

100
1
17
55
62
100

96
( 3)
20
42
96
96

84
4
42
48
82

99
13
56
91
99

87
35
61
83
87

weeks or more ____________________
3 years __________________________
5 years ________________________
10 years_________________________
15 years _________________________
20 years _________________________
25 years_____ __________________

71
26
40
60
71
71
71

76
8
38
68
75
76
76

75
6
33
73
74
75

6
8
19
27
52
61
62
68

62
6
18
43
62
62
62

29
( 3)
7
16
29
29
29

33
( 3)
5
13
30
30
33

27
1
1
6
20
22
27

24
( 3)
2
8
14
19
24

33
5
5
26
33
33

3
3

37
7
14
22
37
37

3
(?)

17
2
8
9
15
17

31
6
6
6
29
31

5
5
5

2
( 3)
1
1
2
2

5
-

2
( 3)
( 3)
( 3)
2
2

10
5

3

4 weeks or more ____________________
10 years_________________________
15 years _________________________
20 years_________________________
25 years _________________________
30 or more years _______________

3

3
3
3

i( l3)
l
2
3

1 Includes percentage- or flat-sum type payments converted to equivalent weeks' pay. See footnote 1, table B-24.
2 Excludes motion-picture production and allied services; data for these industries are included, however, in "all industries. "
3 Less than 0.5 percent.




-

5

33

5

5
10
10

76
Table B-31. Health, insurance, and pension plan$-all industries
i

(Percent of office and plant workers employed in all establishments with formal provisions other than legally required by type of plan, winter 1957-58)
Insurance plans
Area
Life

Accidental
death and
dismem­
berment

Hospitali­
zation

Surgical

Medical

Catastrophe

Sickness and accident insurance
and/or sick leave
Sick leave
Sick leave
Sickness
Total1
and accident (full pay and (partial pay
no waiting
or waiting
insurance
period)
period)

Retirement
pension
plan

No health,
insurance,
or pension
plan

Office workers
Northeast:
Bos ton * -------------------------------------Newark-Jersey C ity * ----------------New York C ity*-------------------- ----Philadelphia * ----- ---- -----------------South:
Atlanta --------------------- ■
—-—--------Baltimore ---------------------------------Memphis * —-—
--------—
---------- ___-New Orleans------------------—
—— —North Central:
Chicago * ------- -------------- -----------Cleveland*------------------------—
------Milwaukee -------------- ---------— —
—
--------Minne&polis-St. Paul ----- —
St. Louis * --------------------------------West:
Denver --------------------------- ----------Los Angeles-Long' Beach*---------Portland —------------------ —
-----------San Francisco-Oakland * ------------

90
94
93
95

51
48
41
36

80
76
77
67

79
75
75
60

52
57
54
36

29
14
31
18

77
(4)
96
85

42
51
32
36

63
(4)
89
68

3
7
2
5

77
86
81
82

(3)
!>
(3)
2

98
91
91
92

55
37
46
48

84
68
82
70

83
67
81
65

44
29
37
39

47
16
25
25

72
93
65
54

42
37
40
27

44
54
29
25

15
24
14
10

84
87
61
57

(3)
1
2
3

95
95
95
93
94

44
49
51
42
56

82
78
90
81
75

82
74
89
80
76

55
38
67
63
68

32
20
18
27
23

80
70
83
71
77

47
48
64
40
52

41
44
39
44
53

15
6
6
3
6

74
79
79
79
78

1
3
1
3
2

87
97
88
95

37
5 64
49
41

69
89
81
81

69
89
82
81

51
75
73
70

17
48
32
36

73
80
71
76

34
35
40
33

47
69
44
54

13
4
8
10

65
81
74
80

6
1
3
(3)

Plant workers
Northeast:
Boston*--------------------------------------Newark-Jersey City*------------------New York City*--------------------------Philadelphia*------------------------------South:
Atlanta — —
— ____________ __.. ..___
Baltimore ---------------------------------Memphis * ----------------------------------New Orleans ----------------------------North Central:
Chicago*-------------------------------------Cleveland * ----------------------------- -—
Milwaukee ---------------------------------Minneapolis-St. Paul ----------------St. Louis *----------------------------------West:
Denver --------------------------------- — —
Los Angeles-Long Beach*— — -—
Portland ------------------------- ----- ----San Francisco-Oakland * ------- -----

1
number
*
3
4
*

88
92
93
93

59
52
45
45

78
86
87
81

74
84
84
75

45
61
59
42

3
11
5
7

94
81
85
89

79
71
67
77

14
19
25
12

11
7
11
9

59
76
79
64

1
2
2
3

94
89
73
76

54
40
43
40

80
75
70
59

79
75
68
51

28
17
34
30

15
4
10
11

72
89
62
60

55
71
48
50

14
7
14
8

15
20
10
8

61
80
46
37

3
5
15
15

93
97
92
87
93

48
55
53
49
69

87
80
94
82
87

86
81
92
80
85

56
43
71
57
71

12
9
5
5
12

89
88
88
91
92

74
81
78
73
81

5
6
6
16
20

15
3
7
12
9

60
69
66
63
67

2
1
2
2
3

76
92
72
93

43
74
52
50

65
91
83
87

65
91
83
87

48
80
72
84

11
29
16
25

72
67
81
54

52
33
69
24

17
34
6
17

19
14
13
22

48
66
57
67

12
2
8
(3)

Unduplicated total of workers receiving sick leave or sickness and accident insurance shown separately. Sick-leave plans are limited to those which definitely establish at least the minimum
of days’ pay that can be expected by each employee. Informal sick-leave allowances determined on an individual basis are excluded.
Exceptions to the standard industry limitations are shown in footnotes 4 and/or 7 to the table in appendix B.
Less than 0. 5 percent.
Information not available.
Not comparable with estimate in last previous study.




77
T a b le B -3 2 . H e a lth , insurance, an d p en sion p la n s-m a n u fa c tu rin g
(Percent of office and plant workers employed in manufacturing establishments with formal provisions other than legally required by type of plan, winter 1957-58)
Insurance plans
Area
Life

Accidental
death and
dismem­
berment

Hospitali­
zation

Surgical

Medical

Catastrophe

Total

1

Sickness and accident insurance
and/or sick leave
Sick leave
Sick leave
Sickness
and accident (full pay and (partial pay
no waiting
or waiting
insurance
period)
period )

Retirement
pension
plan

No health,
insurance,
or pension
plan

Office workers
Northeast:
sI o n ----------------- ---- ---- --— -----Newark-Jersey C ity--------— --------—
New York City--------------—---- --------Philadelphia —---- ------------------ -----South:
Atlanta —
~
-—
Baltimore--------------------------- -----,
—
Memphis----------------—----- ----- — ---New Orleans —
------------------------- ---North Central:
--------- ——
----------------Chicago —
Cleveland -------------- ------------------- —
Milwaukee — ----------------------- --------Minneapolis-St. Paul-------------------St. Louis------------------ ,------------------West:
Denver------------------.—----- — — ---- .
Los Angeles-Long B each------ ------Portland---- ---------------------- — ------San Francisco-Oakland — ---------- —

60

89
95
91
95

59
62
42
42

85
83
84
78

83
82
84
77

65
58
68
49

12
14
23
14

93
(a)
96
91

64
77
39
59

73
(*)
86
71

4
3
3
2

73
85
78
84

1
(3)
1
4

98
96
91
85

72
57
66
50

95
83
88
73

94
85
88
72

61
32
55
39

51
9
9
19

85.
97
75
78

80
58
69
50

62
51
21
33

4
30
7
5

83
91
54
68

1
1
4
3

99
98
98
95
97

54
48
67
49
71

87
88
99
91
91

86
89
99
88
90

63
46
80
57
81

25
22
7
13
28

88
81
94
81
84

67
63
92
68
68

44
55
39
38
58

9
3
1
1

74
82
79
73
81

(3)
2
(3)

92
99
80
90

70
90
54
57

82
98
79
90

82
98
79
90

56
81
71
83

4
66
11
37

87
88
73
73

66
46
48
29

41
74
46
62

25
3
3
2

63
81
59
79

5
(3)
9
(3)

1

Plant workers
Northeast:
Boston —-------- -------- ----- ,---------------Newark-Jersey City —
----- —
----------New York City ----------- -— ——
------ —
Philadelphia --------------------------------South:
Atlanta-------------------- ---- --------------Baltimore -— ------------ ,----- „ ------—
—
-------------- -—
Memphis --------- -— -—
New Orleans--------- — -----— ---------—
North Central;
—
Chicago--------------------------------- — .
Cleveland —— ----------------------------—
Milwaukee —
-----------------— —
— -----Minneapolis-St. Paul ---------— ------St. Louis —
-------------------------------- West:
Denver —
--------— ------ ------------------- Los Angeles-Long Beach----------—
Portland--------------- --------------------—
San Francisco-Oakland ------- -— —

87
93
95
92

59
55
40
47

88
91
95
89

87
90
93
85

53
64
65
46

4
13
2
8

94
81
81
91

89
79
74
86

5
14
16
6

7
3
5
7

59
79
80
67

1
1
1
4

95
94
73
74

63
45
53
42

92
86
81
68

92
86
77
62

37
16
47
31

18
3
4
12

81
93
67
76

81
83
65
69

15
1
4
6

2
19
3
4

60
86
50
40

3
3
12
12

98

91
84

60
49
78
63
76

95
88
93
92
94

87
87
92
87
88

1
1
1

92
93

91
87
98
89
90

10

95
89
95

57
55
63
49
73

18

10
1
1
11
7

65
75
68
67
71

1
1
<
3)
2
-

87
96
81
95

50
86
60
67

74
100
88
94

74
100
88
94

61
88
83
88

1
39
3
29

83
70

73
42
73
27

6
36
1
10

24

49
62
51
63

6
12

98

99

9

4
4
13

77

42

9

7

6
9

1
Unduplicated total of workers receiving sick leave or sickness and accident insurance shown separately. Sick-leave plans are limited to those Which definitely establish at least the minimum
number of days' pay that can be expected by each employee. Informal sick-leave allowances determined on an individual basis are excluded.
* Information not available.
3 Less than 0. 5 percent.




78
T a b le B -3 3 . H ea lth , insurance, a n d p e n s b n p la n s -p u b lic utilities

(Percent of office and plant w orkers employed in public utilities establishm ents with form al provisions other than legally required, by type of plan, winter 1 9 5 7 -5 8 )

Insurance plans
A rea
Life

A ccidental
death and
d ism e m ­
berm ent

H ospitali­
zation

S urgical

M edical

Catastrophe

Sickness and accid ent insurance
a n d /o r s ick leave
Sick leave
Sick leave
Sickness
(full pay and (partial pay
T o t a l1
and accident
no waiting
or waiting
insurance
p eriod )
p eriod )

Retirem ent
pension
plan

No health,
insurance,
or pension
plans

Office workers
Northeast:
B oston 2 -----------------------------------------N ew a rk -J ersey C i t y ---------------------New Y ork City 2 ---------------------------P h ila d elp h ia -----------------------------------South:
A tlan ta-------------------------------------------B altim ore -------------------------------------M emphis 2 -------------------------------------New O rleans ---------------------------------North Central:
C h ic a g o 2 --------------------------------------Cleveland 2 ------------------------------------Milwaukee ------------------------------------M inneapolis-St. Paul ------------------St. Louis --------------------------------------West:
Denver ------------------------------------------Los A n g eles-L o n g B e a ch 2 -----------P o r tla n d -----------------------------------------San F ran cisco-O ak lan d 2 --------------

96
98
95
100

89
56
64
58

42
18
53
16

42
18
50
11

9
12
39
9

4 13
1

100
100
100
99

30
3
28
14

47
9
61
70

47
9
61
66

19
3
42
49

30
17

96
99
99
94
93

30
55
48
19
20

54
38
57
45
53

54
38
57
45
53

31
29
41
28
47

96
99
86
96

34
59
46
12

53
39
53
54

53
39
54
54

52
37
53
54

6

25
36
33
32

90
(3)
92
86

1
49
5
9

95
95
95
95

87
100
94
64

44
5
56
12

32
44
31
30

44
56
39
28

91
93
78
73

-

31
24
31
I
27

93
97
94
94
96

37
19
39
21
24

41
46
51
84
40

42
47
41
6
47

85
90
93
78
82

1

1
2
3

34
28
28
30

93
92
96
92

31
13
23
31

83
79
70
46

7
12
10
44

85
99
80
87

4
1
“

34
31
38
30

50
43
47
26

88
95
99
95

-

89
99
81
76

9
6

99
(3)
98
98

-

31
-

.

-

1
-

Plant < orkers
w
N ortheast:
B oston 2 ..................................................
N ew a rk -J ersey City ---------------------New Y ork C it y 2 ----------------------------Philadelphia ----------------------------------South:
Atlanta ------------------------------------------B altim ore -------------------------------------M emphis 2 -------------------------------------New O rleans ----------------------------------North Central:
C h ic a g o 8 ---------------------------------------Cleveland 2 --------------------------— ------Milwaukee ------------------------------------M inneapolis-St. Paul ------------------St. Louis ---------------------------------------W est:
Denver ------------------- ----------------------Los A n g eles-L on g B e a ch 2 ---------Portland ---------------------------------- —
San F ran cis co-O akland 2 -------------

1

93
100
94
100

78
27
67
29

44
48
57
54

44
48
49
33

17
36
34
18

1
4 11
3

100
97
99
100

28
51
39
65

15

41
15
64
37

9
35
8
14

48
35
36
24




-

98
100
91
94

34
15
44
35

52
30
55
54

52
30
55
51

13
15
18
38

8
22

99
100
100
97
100

30

63
48
28
41

54
51
75
56
69

54
51
75
56
69

29
33
62
32
50

21
6
19
(5)
17

99
100
99
97
100

48
31
47
28
47

28
41
7
31
32

44
37
64
42
36

96
100
97
97
93

-

100
98
77
94

49
69
40
19

70
45
63
59

70
45
63
59

67
41
60
59

28
22
14
42

85
81
99
84

40
16
49
37

32
66
17
41

30
11
48
39

88
98
97
97

-

-

Uncuplicated total of w orkers receiving sick leave or sickn ess and accident insurance shown sep arately.
S ick -leav e plans are lim ited
number of d ays' pay that can be expected by each em ployee. Inform al s ic k -le a v e allow ances determined on an individual b a sis are excluded.
* 1 or m ore utilities are m unicipally operated, and, therefore, excluded from the scope of the studies. See footnote 4 to the table in appendix B.
Information not available.
Not com parable with estim ates in ea rlier su rveys.
L ess than 0 .5 percent.
t Transportation (excluding railroad s), com m unication, and other public u tilities.

3
4
5

-

87
85
86
68

to those

which definitely

establish

at least

the minimum

79
T a b le B -34. H ealth, in su ran ce, a n d p ension p la n s -w h o le s a le tr a d e
(Percent of office and plant workers employed in wholesale trade establishments with formal provisions other than legally required by type of plan, winter 1957-58)
Insurance plans
Area
Life

Accidental
death and
dismem­
berment

Hospitali­
zation

Surgical

Medical

Catastrophe

Total 1

Sickness anti accident insurance
and/ or sick leave
Sick leave Retirement
Sick leave
Sickness
pension
pay and (partial pay
plan
and accident (fullwaiting
or waiting
no
insurance
period)
period)
|

No health,
insurance,
or pension
plan

Office workers
Northeast:
Boston
_
__
’
Newark-Jersey City
_
_ ____ _ i
New York City __ ---------------- ----Philadelphia ____________________
South:
Atlanta__________________________
Baltimore
_____________________
North Central:
Chicago__ __ __ ________________
Cleveland ____ _______ ______
Minneapolis-St. Paul ____________
_
_
St. Louis
_ __ _ _
West:
Los Angeles-Long Beach
____ _
San Francisco-Oakland __________

85
97
90
86

44
83
47
37

81
85
70
69

83
83
66
55

41
68
45
40

24
24
26
23

72
( 2)
97
86

41
58
32
33

94
72

3
1
2

65
67
76
72

94
85

53
47

92
86

90
84

49
37

21
3

73
87

38
28

51
60

10
11

81
79

( 3)

86
89
89
93

50
43
46
77

83
59
88
81

81
59
88
81

58
35
78
76

27
25
28
10

79
60
66
81

45
47
44
53

51
28
32
57

3
3
5
3

71
65
69
61

1
7
6
3

95
97

57
48

91
77

88
75

68
67

32
29

73
76

34
18

57
63

1
10

62
62

( 3)
1

70
( a)

-

2
-

3
-

Plant workers
Northeast:
Boston
________________________
Newark-Jersey City ------------------New York City __________________
Philadelphia ____________________
South:
________________________
Atlanta
Baltimore
_______ ' _____________
North Central:
Chicago _________________________
Cleveland
__ __________________
Minneapolis-St. Paul ___________
St. Louis ___ __________________
West:
Los Angeles-Long Beach
______
San Francisco-Oakland _____ ___

1
number
2
3

84
96
96
83

40
67
63
34

70
79
77
76

79
76
69

37
64
43
43

9
9
12
5

69
77
93
87

45
62
57
67

43
18
64
22

10
8
10
3

55
70
81
55

6
4

95
68

49
34

87
75

83
66

36
22

9
( 3)

59
58

35
34

22
20

9
9

67
44

2
18

88
91
96
89

50
41
69
66

81
66
93
75

80
67
91
75

57
31
71
60

11
37
14
11

72
79
92
80

56
47
73
59

18
35
31
57

5
7
4
7

65
61
59
68

9
-

90
100

51
62

86
79

86
76

75
74

14
25

73
86

43
5

35
18

18
68

63
88

75

-

7

5
11
1

Unduplicated total of workers receiving sick leave or sickness and accident insurance shown separately. Sick-leave plans are limited to those which definitely establish at least the minimum
of days' pay that can be expected by each employee. Informal sick-leave allowances determined on an individual basis are excluded.
Information not available.
Less than 0. 5 percent.




80
T a b le B -35. H ealth, in suran ce, a n d p en sion p la n s -re la il tra d e
(Percent of office and plant workers employed in retail trade establishments with formal provisions other than legally required by type of plan, winter 1957-58)
Insurance plans
Area
Life

Accidental
death and
dismem­
berment

Hospitali­
zation

Surgical

Medical

Catastrophe

Total 1

Sickness ana accident insurance
and/ or sick leave
Sick leave
Sick leave
Sickness
(full pay and (partial pay
and accident
no waiting
or waiting
insurance
period)
period)

Retirement
pension
plan

No health,
insurance,
or pension
plan

Office workers
Northeast:
Boston __________________________
Newark-Jersey City 2 ____________
New York City2
__
__ _
Philadelphia2 ___________________
South:
Atlanta
_______________________
Baltimore _______________________
New Orleans . __ ___________
North Central:
Chicago __ ____ ________________
Minneapolis-St. Paul
_________
West:
Denver
_ < _______ „ __ ___
_ __
Portland
_____________________
San Francisco-Oakland _______ _

70
52
53
41

45
( 3)
44
29

21
5
13
37

54
65
66
72

_
3
1

82
100
62

16
55
31

13
14
22

56
36
15

81
79
30

9

43
30

90
85

32
45

8
35

56
10

65

62

1
9

37
40
13

81
77
44

50
42
22

35
30
19

16
13
16

56
58
37

5
1
“

86
80
86
99

48
34
25
21

61
88
88
76

55
81
86
72

34
61
69
24

3
24
22
31

95
86
90

36
44
51

84
66
52

82
66
40

17
33
33

39
41
16

93
79

36
44

95
61

90
59

23
30

78
71
78

44
59
37

62
69
87

62
69
87

27
39
84

97
( 3)
89
91

-

Plant workers
Northeast:
Boston __________________________
Newark-Jersey City 2 _ -----------New York City2 _________________
Philadelphia 2 ___________________
South:
Atlanta
............................................
Baltimore
_ „ __ __ „ „ _
New Orleans ____________________
North Central:
Chicago
_
_ ____ _
_ ______
Minneapolis-St. Paul ______
_
West:
Denver
__ ___________________ _
Portland ____
__ ____ __ __ _
San Francisco-Oakland __________

1
number
2
3

90
75
91
98

52
34
36
39

65
86
95
70

60
80
93
69

40
61
67
30

1
16
5
6

97
85
85
86

79
52
67
65

26
43
26
21

9
8
4
16

61
68
71
53

6
2
2

94
76
74

54
35
40

78
54
45

76
54
32

18
28
24

16
9
5

67
91
44

21
52
33

15
18
8

34
28
11

59
70
22

2
22

83
79

29
46

92
68

87
66

45
48

19
9

79
89

52
59

4
26

29
5

45
50

3
2

59
52
86

40
42
29

51
81
94

51
81
94

24
42
93

17
51
14

57
80
50

36
67
21

24
3
20

10
14
15

38
54
48

19
-

Unduplicated total of workers receiving sick leave or sickness and accident insurance shown separately. Sick-leave plans are limited to those which definitely establish at least the minimum
of days' pay that can be expected by each employee. Informal sick-leave allowances determined on an individual basis are excluded.
Excludes limited-price variety stores.
Information not available.




T a b le B -3 6 . H ealth, insurance,

81

a n d p e n sio n p la n s -fin a n c e *

(Percent of office workers employed in finance establishments with formal provisions other than legally required, by type of plan, winter 1957-58)
Insurance plans
Area
Life

Accidental
death and
dismem­
berment

Hospitali­
zation

Surgical

Medical

Catastrophe

Total 1

Sickness and accident insurance
and/ or sick leave
Sick leave
Sick leave
Sickness
pay and (partial pay
and accident (fullwaiting
no
or waiting
insurance
period)
period)

Retirement
pension
plan

No health,
insurance,
or pension
plan

( 2)

Office workers
Northeast:
Boston
_________________________
Newark-Jersey City ____________
New York City __________________
Philadelphia___________ ______ ___
South:
------------------------------------Atlanta
Baltimore _______________________
North Central:
Chicago _________________________
Cleveland _______________________
Minneapolis-St. Paul ___________
St. Louis ________________________
West:
Los Angeles-Long Beach ________
San Francisco-Oakland _______ _

1
number
2
3
4
*

-

96
96
98
98

46
21
36
28

93
85
83
64

93
85
81
50

59
72
53
27

58
16
45
26

54
( 3)
96
72

22
16
26
3

52
( 3)
94
71

-

-

89
92
88
87

100
88

58
15

87
66

87
62

43
32

75
26

61
80

29
7

51
75

-

83
92

( 2)

99
95
96
99

38
58
39
27

83
81
90
49

87
55
90
58

70
21
90
54

47
11
51
25

64
24
52
52

29
8
14
28

49
19
49
49

2
( 3)

83
84
99
89

( 2)
( 2>
( 2)

96
100

4 25
43

92
88

92
88

84
67

36
44

71
81

26
46

67
57

2
3

89
94

-

-

Unduplicated total of workers receiving sick leave or sickness and accident insurance shown separately. Sick-leave plans are limited to those which definitely establish at least the minimum
of days* pay that can be expected by each employee. Informal sick-leave allowances determined on an individual basis are excluded.
Less than 0.5 percent.
Information not available.
Not comparable with estimate in last previous study.
Finance, insurance, and real estate.
__
T a b le B -3 7 . H ea lth , insurance^ a n d pension p la n s -s e r v ic e s
(Percent of office and plant workers employed in services establishments with formal provisions other than legally required, by type of plan, winter 1957-58)
Insurance plans
Area
Life

Accidental
death and
dismem­
berment

Hospitali­
zation

Surgical

Medical

Catastrophe

Total 1

Sickness and accident insurance
and/or sick leave
Sick leave
Sick leave
Sickness
(full pay and (partial pay
and accident
no waiting
or waiting
insurance
period)
period)

Retirement
pension
plan

No health,
insurance,
or pension
plan

58
63
41

( 2)
5

Office workers
Northeast:
Boston ________________________
New York City __________________
Philadelphia ____________________
North Central:
Chicago _________________________
West:
Los Angeles-Long Beach 3 ______

60
86
71

16
38
18

72

21

94

56

50
67
72

43
63
61

38
53
46

68

68

44

91

91

75

8
26
10

52
94
55

( 2)

22

32

4

39

10

17

46

■

65

4

11
22
19

4
3
2

16
73
10

1
6
( 2)

90
99
63

32
29
34

12

51

35

52

-

Plant workers
Northeast:
Boston
________________________
New York City __________________
Philadelphia ____________________
North Central:
Chicago ________________________
West:
Los Angeles-Long Beach3 ______

1
number
2
3

90
89
97

77
51
67

82

25

87

84

51

82

79
86
74

23
63
63

(7
-

90
83
64

78
73
50

85

75

4

75

70

13

1

17

10

82

76

7

22

8

13

9

34

14

49
83
51

Unduplicated total of workers receiving sick leave or sickness and accident insurance shown separately. Sick-leave plans are limited to those which definitely establish at least the minimum
of days1 pay that can be expected by each employee. Informal sick-leave allowances determined on an individual basis are excluded.
Less than 0. 5 percent.
Excludes motion-picture production and allied services; data for these industries are included, however, in "all industries."







83
A p p e n d ix A : O c c u p a tio n a l Earnings, B u ffa lo , N .Y .
(Average hourly earnings 1 for selected plant occupations studied in manufacturing and public utilities in Buffalo*)
Occupation3

Manufacturing

Public utilities t

Maintenance and powerpiant
Carpenters---------------------------------Electricians -------------------------------Engineers, stationary----------------Fir-Semen, stationary b o ile r --------Helpers, tra d e s-------------------------Machine-tool operators, toolroom
Machinists---------------------------------Mechanics ---------------------------------Mechanics, automotive---------------Millwrights --------------------------------O ile r s ----------------------------------------Painters-------------------------------------Pipefitters ---------------------------------Sheet-metal workers------------------Tool and die m ak e rs-------------------

Occupation 3

Manufacturing

Public utilities t

Custodial, warehousing, and shipping

-V

$2. 64
2. 78
2. 53
2.22
2.32
2.64
2.69
2. 66
2.51
2.69
2.32
2. 45
2.59
2. 66
2.84

$2.04

Janitors, porters, and cleaners (men)----------Janitors, porters, and cleaners (women)-------Laborers, material handling ------------------------Order fillers -------------------------------------------------Packers, shipping (men)--------------------------------Packers, shipping (women) ----------------------------Receiving clerks -------------------------------------------Shipping clerks----------------------------------------------Shipping and receiving clerk s------------------------Truckdrivers 4 ----------------------------------------------—
Light (under 11/% to n s)------------------------------Medium (lV» to and including 4 tons)--------Heavy (over 4 tons, trailer type) --------------Heavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer type)
Truckers, power (forklift)-----------------------------Truckers, power (other than forklift)-------------Watchmen ------------------------------------------------------

$2. 17
1.94
1. 67
2. 00
1.99
2. 19
1. 73
2. 14
2.21
2. 18
2.27
2. 12
2. 14
-

2.35
2.20
2.27
1.80

_
$1.65
2. 13
-

2.22
-

2.24
2.25
-

2.22
-

1. 69

1 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
* Data relate to September 1957. Information, based on telephone inquiries by Bureau representatives, was limited to straight-time hourly earnings in selected plant worker occupations
in the manufacturing and public utilities establishments included in the full-scale survey conducted in September 1956 in this area.
3 Data limited to men workers except where otherwise indicated.
4 Includes all drivers, regardless of size and type of truck operated.
f Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities.
NOTE: Dashes indicate no data reported or data that do not meet publication criteria.




84

Appendix B: Scope and Method of Survey 2
7
Industry and Establishment Limitations

Occupational Earnings

The area survey data were obtained by personal visits of
Bureau field agents2 to representative establishments within six broad
8
industry divisions: (l) Manufacturing; (2) transportation (excluding
railroads), communication, and other public utilities; (3) wholesale
trade; (4) retail trade; (5) finance, insurance, and real estate; and
(6) selected services. Excluded from the scope of the studies, besides
railroads, were government institutions29 and the construction and ex­
tractive industries.

Workers were classified by occupation on the basis of uni­
form job descriptions designed to take account of minor interestab­
lishment variation in duties within the same job; these job descriptions
are listed in appendix C.

The scope of the studies was further limited within each of
the six major industry groupings to establishments which employed
more than a specified minimum number of workers, as indicated in
the following table.. Smaller establijhments were omitted because they
furnished insufficient employment in the occupations studied to warrant
inclusion.
More than 4,500 establishments were included in the Bureau's
sample out of more than 23,000 establishments within the scope of the
studies in the 19 areas. To obtain appropriate accuracy at minimum
cost, a greater proportion of large than of small establishments was
studied. In combining the data, however, all establishments were
given their appropriate weight. Estimates are presented, therefore,
as relating to all establishments in the industry grouping and area,
but not to those below the minimum size studied; an exception, how­
ever, is the tabulation of minimum entrance rates, which relates solely
to provisions in the establishments actually visited.
27 A more technical description of the methodology of community
and other types of earnings studies is included in Studies of Occu­
pational Wages and Supplementary Benefits, Monthly Labor Review,
March 1954 (p. 292).
28 Exceptions were made in 2 areas. In partial resurveys of
Dallas and Seattle, the data were obtained chiefly by mail question­
naire, from the establishments visited by field agents in the regular
full-scale survey made in the winter of 1956-57. Personal visits were
made to nonrespondents and to those respondents reporting unusual
changes since the previous survey. Full-scale employment and earn­
ings information (A-tables) were obtained in each of the industry di­
visions, for occupations reported in the earlier study, but no data
were requested for current establishment practices or supplementary
wage provisions. In addition to the earnings data for the 19 areas,
earnings estimates are also presented (in appendix A) for Buffalo
manufacturing and public utilities. Data were compiled chiefly on the
basis of general wage changes in the establishments included in the
regular full-scale survey of September 1956. Information was obtained
chiefly by telephone.
29 See footnote 4 to the table, p. 86, for areas in which public
utilities were municipally operated and have been excluded.




Average earnings are presented in the A-tables, beginning on
page 19. Data are shown for full-time workers; i. e. , those hired
to work a full-time schedule for the given occupational classification.
Earnings data exclude premium pay for overtime and nightwork, and
for work on weekends and holidays. Nonproduction bonuses are ex­
cluded also, but cost-of-living bonuses and incentive earnings are
included. Average weekly earnings for office clerical, professional,
and technical occupations relate to the standard salaries that were
paid for standard work schedules; i. e ., to the straight-time salary
corresponding to the workers' normal weekly work schedule excluding
all overtime hours. Weekly earnings were rounded to the nearest
half dollar.
Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions
Information is presented (in the B-series tables) on selected
establishment practices and supplementary benefits as they relate to
office and plant workers. The term "office workers, " as used in these
studies, includes working supervisors and nonsupervisory workers
performing clerical functions and excludes administrative, executive,
and professional personnel. "Plant workers" include working foremen
and all nonsupervisory workers (including leadmen and trainees) en­
gaged in nonoffice functions. Administrative, executive, and profes­
sional employees, and force-account construction employees who were
utilized as a separate work force were excluded. Cafeteria workers
and routemen were excluded in manufacturing industries but were
included as plant workers in nonmanufacturing industries.
Minimum Entrance Rates. — Tables B-2 and B-3 relate only
to the establishments visited. They are presented on an establish­
ment rather than on an employment basis. The detailed tables in the
individual area bulletins also present data for nonmanufacturing indus­
tries as a group; the entrance rates are also presented in terms of
the most common workweeks for which they were recorded.
Shift-Differential Data.— Tables B-15 and B-16 are limited to
manufacturing industries. This information is presented both in terms
of (a) establishment policy,3 presented in terms of total plant worker
0
employment, and (b) effective practice presented on the basis of work­
ers actually employed on the specified shift at the time of the survey.
3
0
An establishment was considered as having a policy if it met
either of the following conditions: (l) Operated late shifts at the time
of the survey, or (2) had formal provisions covering late shifts.

85
In establishments having varied differentials, the amount ap­
plying to a majority was used or, if no amount applied to a majority,
the classification "other" was used. In establishments in which some
late-shift hours are paid at normal rates, a differential was recorded
only if it applied to a majority of the shift hours.
Overtime pay practices; paid holidays; paid vacations; and
health, insurance, and pension plans are treated statistically on the
basis that these are applicable to all plant or office workers if a
majority of such workers are eligible or may eventually qualify for
the practices listed. Scheduled hours, wage structure characteristics,
and labor-management agreements are treated statistically on the
basis that these are applicable to all plant or office workers if a ma­
jority are covered.3 Because of rounding, sums of individual items
1
in these tabulations do not necessarily equal totals.
With reference to wage structure characteristics, proportions
of time and incentive workers directly reflected employment under
each pay system. However, because of technical considerations, all
time-rated workers (plant or office) in an establishment were classi­
fied to the predominant type of rate structure applying to these work­
ers. Incentive-worker employment was classified according to the
predominant type of incentive plan in each establishment.
Graduated provisions for premium overtime pay were classi­
fied to the first effective premium rate. For example, apian calling
for time and one-half after 8 and double time after 10 hours a day
was tabulated as time and one-half after 8 hours. Similarly, a plan
calling for no pay or pay at regular rate after 37y2 hours (regular
weekly schedule) and time and one-half after 40 was considered as
time and one-half after 40 hours.
The paid holidays tables present the number of whole and
half holidays actually provided. Table B-17a (all industries) com­
bines whole and half holidays to show total holiday time. Table 6
(page 45) presents a list of the major paid holidays and the propor­
tions of workers to whom they are granted annually.
The summary of vacation plans is limited to formal arrange­
ments, excluding informal plans whereby time off with pay was granted
at the discretion of the employer. In the tabulations of vacation
allowances by weeks of pay and years of service, payments not on a
time basis were converted; for example, a payment of 2 percent of
annual earnings was considered as the equivalent of 1 week's pay. The
pay amounts and service periods for which data are presented are
typical but do not necessarily reflect the individual provisions for
progressions. For example, the changes in proportions indicated at
3 In earlier years, scheduled weekly hours for office workers
1
(first section of tables B-6 to B-12) were presented in terms of the
proportion of women office workers employed in offices with the in­
dicated weekly hours for women workers.




10 years1 service include changes in provisions occurring between
5 and 10 years. Furthermore, estimates are cumulative. Thus, the
proportion receiving 3 or more weeks' pay after 5 years includes
those who receive 3 or more weeks1 pay after fewer years of service.
Data for intermediate service periods were not tabulated. Data on em­
ployer practice in computing vacation payments, such as time pay­
ments, percent of annual earnings, or flat-sum amounts, are available
in the individual area bulletins.
Data are presented for all health, insurance, and pension
plans for which at least a part of the cost was borne by the employer,
excepting only legal requirements such as workmen's compensation and
social security (tables B-31 to B-37). Such plans included those under­
written by a commercial insurance company and those provided through
a union fund or paid directly by the employer out of current operating
funds or from a fund set aside for this purpose. Death benefits were
included as a form of life insurance.
Sickness and accident insurance data are limited to that type
of insurance under which predetermined cash payments were made
directly to the insured on a weekly or monthly basis during illness or
accident disability. Information is presented for all such plans to
which the employer contributes. However, in New York and New
Jersey, which have enacted temporary disability insurance laws which
require employer contributions, 2 plans were included only if the em­
ployer (l) contributed more than was legally required, or (2) provided
the employee with benefits which exceed the requirements of the law.
Tabulations of paid sick-leave plans are limited to formal plans which
provided full pay or a proportion of the worker's pay during absence
from work because of illness. Separate tabulations are provided ac­
cording to (1) plans which provided full pay and no waiting period,
and (2) plans providing either partial pay or a waiting period. Sickleave plans include only those which definitely established at least
the minimum number of days' pay that could be expected by each em­
ployee. Informal sick-leave allowances determined on an individual
basis were excluded. In addition to the presentation of the proportions
of workers who are provided sickness and accident insurance or paid
sick leave, an unduplicated total is shown of workers who received
either or both types of benefit.
Catastrophe insurance, sometimes referred to as extended
medical insurance, includes those plans which were designed to pro­
tect employees in case of sickness and injury involving expenses
•beyond the normal coverage of hospitalization, medical, and surgical
plans. Medical insurance refers to plans providing for complete or
partial payment of doctors' fees. Such plans might be underwritten
by commercial insurance companies or nonprofit organizations or they
might be self-insured. Tabulations of retirement plans are limited to
those plans that provided monthly payments for the remainder of the
worker's life.
32 The temporary disability laws in California and Rhode Island
did not require employer contributions.

86

Labor m a r k e t1

M in im u m -siz e establishm ent and estim ated number of w ork ers in establishm ents within scope of survey by industry division
for 19 labor m ark ets studied by the Bureau of Labor S tatistics, winter 1 9 57 -58
(in thousands)
M in im um Number of w ork ers in establishm ents within scope of studies 2
P ayroll
size
estab lish A ll in du stries
period
Manuka c tur ing
Nonmanufacturing 3
“ Total
Plant
'------------5 M c e -------* " ■
ment
Plant
“ TotaT

N ortheast:

Boston_____________
N e w ark -J e rsey City .
New Y ork City ___
P h ila d e lp h ia ____
South:
Atlanta __________
B altim ore ______
D a lla s6 _________
Mem phis .
New O r le a n s _____________
North C en tral:
Chicago ___________________
C le v e la n d _________________
Milwaukee ________________
M in neapolis-S t. Paul ___
St. Louis __________________
W e st:
D e n v e r_____________________
Los A n ge le s-L on g Beach
Portland ___________________
San F ran cisco-O akland .
S eattle6 __________________

September 1957
Decem ber 1957
A p ril 1958
October 1957
May 1958
August 1957
October 1957
January 1958
February 1958

<5)
( )
(5)
(5)
51
(5)
51
51
51

4 1 4 .7
3 8 8 .8
1 ,3 7 6 .0
5 3 7 .7

8 6 .3
7 1 .9
4 1 2 .4
9 3 .2

2 4 9 .2
2 4 6 .5
615. 1
344. 1

157. 3

3 4 .4
43. 3
33. 1
1 1 .3
19. 1

9 5 .0
1 8 6 .4
9 5 .5
5 8 .6
8 0 .6

230. 1
54. 3
4 1 .5
5 0 .9
5 3 .6

6 3 2 .9
1 9 4 .6

2 1 .9

6 4 .4
5 3 8 .2

277.8

160.2
8 3 .7
1 2 6 .6

A p ril 1958
June 1958
May 1958
January 1958
Novem ber 1957

(J
(5)
51
51
(5)

1 ,0 5 3 . 1
3 0 9 .7
2 3 7 .9
2 3 9 .3
3 2 6 .9

D ecem ber 1957
M arch 1958
A p ril 1958
January 1958
August 1957

51
(5)
51
(5)
51

1 0 7 .2
934. 1
9 5 .3
3 3 8 .2
14 1 .8

201.2
17. 1
S 3 .2
2 9 .0

161.8

1 3 9 .6
2 1 6 .7

61.6

1 7 9 .7
8 7 .5

212. 1

2 6 .6
3 2 .1
8 3 .9
37. 1

149. 1
183. 1
2 4 6 .3
2 2 3 .4

7 .2
1 9 .3
7 .8
3. 1
3 .6

4 9 .3
1 3 0 .9
4 8 .9
3 0 .7
3 4 .6

220.1

9 2 .2
3 2 .9
2 3 .4
1 7 .0
2 6 .8

3 7 .8
5 2 9 .2
4 5 .7
1 3 3 .3
7 5 .2

5 .0
8 9 .4
4 .1
2 2 .7
1 2 .3

2 5 3 .5
4 1 9 .2
3 1 4 .2

66.6
178. 1
7 1 .7
3 9 .2
4 3 .2
5 8 1 .7

212.6
1 6 2 .7
1 1 7 .3

lo le sa le trade

Northeast:
B o s to n ________________
N e w a rk -J e rsey City .
New Y ork City ______
P h ila d e lp h ia _________
South:
Atlanta
B altim ore
D a lla s 6____
Mem phis .
New O rleans .
North C en tral:
Chicago
C le v e la n d ______
Milwaukee _____
M in neapolis-S t. Paul _______________
St. L o u i s ______
W e st:
Denver _________
Los A n g e le s-L o n g Beach .
Portland ____________________
San F ran cisco-O aklan d .
Seattle6____________________

2 5 .1
1 8 .4
1 3 1 .0
3 0 .9
1 8 .8

10.6
1 1 .3
8.8
12.1
86. 1
1 7 .3
7 .6
1 9 .2

20. 1
11.0
6 2 .7
8.0
3 1 .9
9. 1

7 .9
4. 3
5 3 .4

8.6
6 .3

2.2
(1 )
0
(i°)
(i°)
2 5 .9
4 .6

(1 )
0
6.6
6.1
(i°)
1 8 .3
(i°)
9
(1.7
0
)

8 .5
4 .9
(1 )
0
(i°)
(i°)
3 8 .5
7 .6

(1
°)
7 ,2
8 .5
( 10)

26.1
(1 )
0
1 3 .6
(1 )
0

6.6

10 0 .1
6 3 .4
3 6 8 .8
1 2 0 .7

3 3 .8
3 4 .8
19 5 .9
5 1 .7

9 0 .7
9 9 .7
8 8 .5
4 4 .5
8 3 .4

2 7 .2
2 4 .0
2 5 .3

2 3 .0
2 2 .9
2 0 .4

15 .5

4 5 .7
5 5 .5
4 6 .6
2 7 .9
4 6 .0

4 0 1 .1
1 4 6 .8
1 1 6 .2
7 5 .5
1 6 2 .3

4 7 1 .4
97. 1
7 5 .2

1 3 7 .9
2 1 .4
1 8 .1
3 3 .9
2 6 .8

2 3 1 .8
4 7 .8
4 5 .6
64. 1
5 4 .4

8 7 .6
2 7 .8
1 7 .7
2 6 .8
3 2 .3

20.8

2 5 .6
3 2 9 .9
3 4 .2
8 9 .7
5 0 .2

6 9 .4
4 0 4 .9
4 9 .6
2 0 4 .9

16 .9

3 8 .8
2 0 8 .3
2 7 .4
9 0 .0
3 7 .3

1 8 .7
8 9 .0
1 4 .0
6 2 .5
15 .5

4. 1
1 7 .9
3 .0

Finance *
~
Office

Total

6 7 .7
2 5 .6
1 8 b .7
7 1 .7

7 .5
2 .7
2 5 .3
9 .2

25. 5
3 7 .1

3 .5
4 .9
3 .4

29.0
16.8

Public utilities *
Office
Plant

5 9 .7
3 9 .8
3 2 8 .5
56. 1

R etail trade
O ffice

9 .2
8 .3
3 3 .6
13. 1

202.6

TotaT

(i°)

1 3 5 .3
9 5 6 .8
2 2 3 .5

122.0
106.8

66.6

Plant

5 4 .4

20.1
1 3 5 .7
5 5 .3

111.8
1 3 .0
6 5 .5
1 6 .7

4 7 .3
3 1 .1
250. 1
4 2 .5

3 2 .5
2 1 .5
1 6 4 .8
2 5 .5

8.2

27. 1

2 8 .7
2 5 .4
193. 1
2 6 .7

5 .0
4 .6
5 .3
1„2
4. 1

4 .8
4 .2
5 .2
5 .5

11.8
2.6

5 .2

(1
°)
4 2 .9
3 .8

10.0
11.0
1 1 .4
(i°)
(i°)

9 .3
1 1 .5
1 0 .9
7 .2

(10)
( 10>

(1 )
0
(i°)
3 2 .5
(1 )
0

8 1 .4
1 5 .4
9 .9
2 0 .7
18 .6

5 1 .0

1 4 .5

(i°)

7 9 .3
1 3 .0
9 .5

1 5 .1
1 0 .4

1 4 .3

(1°)

1 9 .8

7 .2
7 4 .0
6 .7
43. 1
1 0 .3

22.6
(i°)

3 .0

2 2 .9

1 3 7 .0
2 3 .6
3 0 .5
4 2 .7
2 1 .5

2 5 .7

(1 )
0
(i°)
5 .5
(i°)

9 6 .7

2 5 .1
9 5 .4
1 6 .7
4 4 .7
2 4 .6

(1
°)

2 .5

1 .9

(i°)
12.8

3 .1

3 3 .7
1 8 .7

8.6

(1 )
0
(i°)
3 4 .1
(!0
)

5 1 .7

8.2

12.6

7 .4
u 6 5 .1
4 .2
2 2 .7
7. 1

2 0 .7
2 0 .5
8 5 .6
3 1 .4

11.6
1 3 .2
1 0 .7
4 .9

10.2
48. 1
1 1 .3

11.0
1 5 .8
1 7 .7

9 .3
5 2 .6

8.0

2 7 .8
7 .4

Serv ic es 9
Office

14. 1
17 .6
1 6 .9
3 ,5
7 .4

1 9 .2
2 8 .6

2 8 .6

6.0

8.2

7 .6
42. 1
9 .0

(10)

(1 )
0
(i°)
(1
°)
(1°)

1 2 .5
(i°)

(i°)
(i°)

1 4 .5
(10)
9 3 .4
1 8 .0
(10)

(1
°)
(1 )
0
(1
°)
(i°)
4 0 .1
( 10)

(1
°)
(1
°)
(1 )
0
(i°)
3 5 .5
(i°)
( 10)
(1 )
0

1 Standard m etropolitan a r e a s , with the following exceptions: New Y ork City A rea (B ronx, New Y ork , K ings, Queens, and Richmond Counties); Philadelphia A r e a (Philadelphia and Delaw are Counties, P a .;
and Camden County, N . J . ); Chicago A r e a (Cook County).
2 Totals include executive, technical, p rofessio n a l, and other w ork ers excluded fr o m the separate office and plant c a te g o ries.
3 Includes data for 5 broad nonmanufacturing industry groups shown sep arately.
4 Transportation (excluding r a ilr o a d s), com m unication, and other public u tilities.
Taxicabs and ser v ic es incidental to w ater transportation are also excluded, as are m unicipally operated estab lish m en ts.
A ll or m ajor local-tran sit operations in B oston, C hicago, C leveland, Los A n g e le s-L o n g B each, New York City, San Fran cisco-O aklan d , and Seattle w ere m unicipally operated as w ere elec tric utility operations in
Los A n g e le s-L o n g Beach and Seattle, and e lec tric and gas operations in M em p his.
5 M in im u m -siz e establishm ent (in te r m s of em ploym ent) w as 51 w ork ers in the w holesale trade, finance, and se r v ic e s industry groups; and 101 in the manufacturing, public u tilities, and retail trade grou ps.
6 P ayroll period relate s to occupational data in the se r ie s A -t a b le s . E stim ates shown here relate to October 1956 (D allas) and August 1956 (Seattle).
7 E stim ates for N e w a rk -J e rsey C ity, New Y ork C ity, and Philadelphia exclude lim ite d -p r ic e variety sto res; those for C leveland and L os A n g e le s-L o n g Beach, departm ent sto r e s, and for St. L ou is, depart­
ment and lim ite d -p r ic e variety sto r e s . In each instance, how ever, the rem ainder of re ta il trade is appropriately represented in the A - and B -tab le estim ates for all industries combined, and where presented,
nonmanufacturing.
* Finance, insurance, and real esta te. Data for nonoffice (plant) w ork ers in finance and insurance establishm ents are excluded from the total, as w ell as from the B -ta b le estim ates for a ll industries c om ­
bined, and nonmanufacturing. Data for plant w ork ers in r ea l estate, not presented sep arately, how ever, are included.
9 H otels; personal se r v ic e s ; busin ess se r v ic e s ; auto r e p a i r
shops; radio broadcasting and television; motion p ictures; nonprofit m em bership organizations; and engineering and architectu ral se r v ic e s.
10 This industry division is rep resented in estim ates for "a l l in d u str ie s" and "n onm anufacturing" although coverage was insufficient to ju stify separate presentation of data.
11 Excludes data for m otion -p icture production and allied s e r v ic e s; data for these in du stries are included, how ever, in "a l l in d u str ie s" and "n on m an u factu rin g."
N O T E : The "w o r k e r s within scope of study" estim ates shown in this table provide a reasonably accurate description of the size and com position of the labor force included in the su rv e y s. The estim ates are
not intended, how ever, to serve as a b a sis of com parison with other area em ployment indexes to m easure em ployment trends or le v e ls since ( l ) planning of wage su rveys req u ires the use of establishm ent data
com piled considerably in advance of the payroll period studied, and (2) sm all establish m en ts are excluded from the scope of the study.




87

Appendix C :

Occupational Descriptions

The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau*s wage surveys is to
assist its field staff in classifying into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under
a variety of payroll titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment
and from area to area.
This is essential in order to permit the grouping of occupational wage
rates representing comparable job content.
Because of this emphasis on inter establishment and
interarea comparability of occupational content, the Bureau*s job descriptions may differ signifi­
cantly from those in use in individual establishments or those prepared for other purposes. In
applying these job descriptions, the Bureau*s field representatives are instructed to exclude work­
ing supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped workers, part-time,
temporary, and probationary workers.
Office
BILLER, MACHINE
Prepares statements, bills, a . r A invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records
as to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerical work in­
cidental to billing operations.
For wage study purposes, billers,
machine, are classified by type of machine, as follows:
Biller, machine (billing machine) ---- Uses a special billing
machine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, e tc ., which
are combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and
invoices from customers* purchase orders, internally prepared
orders, shipping memoranda, etc. Usually involves application
of predetermined discounts and shipping charges and entry of
necessary extensions, which may or may not be computed on the
billing machine, and totals which are automatically accumulated
by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number of
carbon copies of the bill being prepared and is often done on a
fanfold machine.
Biller, machine (bookkeeping machine)---- Uses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, e tc ., which
may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare customers*
bills as part of the accounts receivable operation.
Generally
involves the simultaneous entry of figures on customers* ledger
record.
The machine automatically accumulates figures on a
number of vertical columns and computes and usually prints auto­
matically the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowl­
edge of bookkeeping. Works from uniform and standard types of
sales and credit slips.
BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR
Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott
Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or with­
out a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions.




BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR---- Continued
Class A — Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge of
—
and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used.
Deter­
mines proper records and distribution of debit and credit items
to be used in each phase of the work.
May prepare consolidated
reports, balance sheets, and other records by hand.
Class B — Keeps a record of one or more phases or sections
of a set o£ records usually requiring little knowledge of basic book­
keeping.
Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll,
customers* accounts (not including a simple type of billing described
under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, etc.
May check or assist in preparation of trial
balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department.
CLERK, ACCOUNTING
Class A ---- Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has responsibility for keeping one or more sections of a com­
plete set of books or records relating to one phase of an establish­
ment's business transactions. Work involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or ac­
counts payable; examining and coding invoices or vouchers with
proper accounting distribution; requires judgment and experience
in making proper assignations and allocations.
May assist in
preparing, adjusting, and closing journal entries; may direct class
B accounting clerks.
Class B ---- Under supervision, performs one or more routine
accounting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers,
accounts payable vouchers; entering vouchers in voucher registers;
reconciling bank accounts; posting subsidiary ledgers controlled
by general ledgers.
This job does not require a knowledge of
accounting and bookkeeping principles but is found in offices in
which the more routine accounting work is subdivided on a func­
tional basis among several workers.

88
CLERK, FILE
Class A—- Responsible for maintaining an established filing
system. Classifies and indexes correspondence or other material;
may also file this material. May keep records of various types
in conjunction with files or supervise others in filing and locating
material in the files.
May perform incidental clerical duties.
Class B----- Performs routine filing, usually of material that
has already been classified, or locates or assists in locating ma­
terial in the files. May perform incidental clerical duties.
CLERK, ORDER
Receives customers* orders for material or merchandise by
mail, phone, or personally.
Duties involve any combination of the
following: Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet
listing the items to make up the order; checking prices and quantities
of items on order sheet; distributing order sheets to respective de­
partments to be filled.
May check with credit department to deter­
mine credit rating of customer, acknowledge receipt of orders from
customers, follow up orders to see that they have been filled, keep
file of orders received, and check shipping invoices with original
orders.

KEY-PUNCH OPERATOR
Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
bilities, records accounting and statistical data on tabulating cards
by punching a series of holes in the cards in a specified sequence,
using an alphabetical or a numerical key-punch machine, following
written information on records.
May duplicate cards by using the
duplicating device attached to machine.
Keeps files of punch cards.
May verify own work or work of others.
OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
Performs various routine duties such as running errands,
operating minor office machines such as sealers or m ailers, opening
and distributing mail, and other minor clerical work.
SECRETARY
Performs secretarial and clerical duties for a superior in an
administrative or executive position. Duties include making appoint­
ments for superior; receiving people coming into office; answering
and making phone calls; handling personal and important or confi­
dential mail, and writing routine correspondence on own initiative;
taking dictation (where transcribing machine is not used) either in
shorthand or by stenotype or similar machine, and transcribing dicta­
tion or the recorded information reproduced on a transcribing machine.
May prepare special reports or memoranda for information of superior.

CLERK, PAYROLL
STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
Computes wages of company employees and enters the neces­
sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers*
earnings based on time or production records; posting calculated data
on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker*s name, working
days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. May
make out pay checks and assist paymaster in making up and dis­
tributing pay envelopes.
May use a calculating machine.

Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by stenotype or similar machine, involving a
normal routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this dictation on a type­
writer. May also type from written copy. May also set up and keep
files in order, keep simple records, etc.
Does not include tran­
scribing-machine work (see t ran s c r ibing - ma chine ope rat or ).

COMPTOMETER OPERATOR

STENOGRAPHER, TECHNICAL

Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathe­
matical computations.
This job is not to be confused with that of
statistical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of
a Comptometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to
performance of other duties.

Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by stenotype or similar machine, involving a
varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or
reports on scientific research and to transcribe this dictation on a
typewriter. May also type from written copy. May also set up and
keep files in order, keep simple records, etc.
Does not include
transcribing-machine work.

DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
Under general supervision and with no supervisory respon­
sibilities, reproduces multiple copies of typewritten or handwritten
matter, using a mimeograph or ditto machine. Makes necessary ad­
justment such as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed.
Is not required to prepare stencil or ditto master. May keep file of
used stencils or ditto m asters.
May sort, collate, and staple com­
pleted material.




Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard.
Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or office
calls.
May record toll calls and take messages.
May give infor­
mation to persons who call in, or occasionally take telephone orders.
For workers who also act as receptionists see switchboard operatorreceptionist.

89

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST
tion
type
This
time

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL---- Continued

In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single posi­
or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may also
or perform routine clerical work as part of regular duties.
typing or clerical work may take the major part of this worker1s
while at switchboard.

TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR
Operates machine that automatically analyzes and translates
information punched in groups of tabulating cards and prints trans­
lated data on forms or accounting records; sets or adjusts machine;
does simple wiring of plugboards according to established practice
or diagrams; places cards to be tabulated in feed magazine and starts
machine. May file cards after they are tabulated. May, in addition,
operate auxiliary machines.

included. A worker who takes dictation in shorthand or by stenotype
or similar machine is classified as a stenographer, general.
TYPIST
Uses a typewriter to make copies of various material or to
make out bills after calculations have been made by another person.
May do clerical work involving little special training, such as keep­
ing simple records, filing records and reports or sorting and dis­
tributing incoming mail.
Class A-----Performs one or more of the following: Typing
material in final form from very rough and involved draft; copy­
ing from plain or Corrected copy in which there is a frequent
and varied use of technical and unusual words or from foreignlanguage copy; combining material from several sources, or
planning layout of complicated statistical tables to maintain uni­
formity and balance in spacing; typing tables from rough draft in
final form.
May type routine form letters, varying details to
suit circumstances.

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal
routine vocabulary from transcribing machine records.
May also
type from written copy and do simple clerical work. Workers tran­
scribing dictation involving a varied technical or specialized vocabu­
lary such as legal briefs or reports on scientific research are not

Professional

DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR
(Assistant draftsman)
Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by drafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing pur­
poses. Uses various types of drafting tools as required. May pre­
pare drawings from simple plans or sketches, or perform other duties
under direction of a draftsman.
DRAFTSMAN, LEADER
Plans and directs activities of one or more draftsmen in
preparation of working plans and detail drawings from rough or pre­
liminary sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing
purposes. Duties involve a combination of the following: Interpreting
blueprints, sketches, and written or verbal orders; determining work
procedures; assigning duties to subordinates and inspecting their work;
performing more difficult problems. May assist subordinates during




Class B -----Performs one or more of the following: Typing
from relatively clear or typed drafts; routine typing of forms,
insurance policies, e t c . ; setting up simple standard tabulations, or
copying more complex tables already set up and spaced properly.

and

Technical

DRAFTSMAN, LEADER---- Continued
emergencies or as a regular assignment, or perform related duties
of a supervisory or administrative nature.
DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR
Prepares working plans and detail drawings from notes,
rough or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manu­
facturing purposes.
Duties involve a combination of the following:
Preparing working plans, detail drawings, maps, cross-sections, etc.,
to scale by use of drafting instruments; making engineering computa­
tions such as those involved in strength of materials, beams and
trusses; verifying completed work, checking dimensions, materials
to be used, and quantities; writing specifications; making adjustments
or changes in drawings or specifications. May ink in lines and letters
on pencil drawings, prepare detail units of complete drawings, or
trace drawings.
Work is frequently in a specialized field such as
architectural, electrical, mechanical, or structural drafting.

90
NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)

NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED) — Continued

A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
employees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on
the premises of a factory or other establishment.
Duties involve a
combination of the following: Giving first aid to the ill or injured!!
attending to subsequent dressing of employees* injuries; keeping records
of patients treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or
other purposes; conducting physical examinations and health evaluations
of applicants and employees; and planning and carrying out programs
involving health education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant

environment, or other activities affecting the health, welfare, and
safety of all personnel.

Maintenance

TRACER
Copies plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing
tracing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or pencil.
Uses T-square, compass, and other drafting tools.
May prepare
simple drawings and do simple lettering.

a nd

Powerplant

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

ENGINEER, STATIONARY

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and
maintain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins,
cribs, counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings,
and trim made of wood in an establishment. Work involves most of
the following; Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, drawingB, models, or verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter*s
handtools, portable power tools, and standard measuring instruments;
making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work;
selecting materials necessary for the work. In general, the work of
the maintenance carpenter requires rounded training and experience
usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent train­
ing and experience.

Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning.
Work involves; Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air compressors, generators, mo­
tors, turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers
and boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; keeping a
record of operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consump­
tion. May also supervise these operations. Head or chief engineers
in establishments employing more than one engineer are excluded.

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE
Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generating,
distribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishment.
Work involves most of the following: Installing or repairing any of
a variety of electrical equipment such as generators, transformers,
switchboards, controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units,
conduit systems, or other transmission equipment; working from blue­
prints, drawings, layout, or other specifications; locating and diag­
nosing trouble in the electrical system or equipment; working standard
computations relating to load requirements of wiring or electrical
equipment; using a variety of electrician*s handtools and measuring
and testing instruments.
In general, the work of the maintenance
electrician requires rounded training and experience usually ac­
quired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.




FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER
Fires stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam.
Feeds fuels to fire by hand
or operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; checks water
and safety valves.
May clean, oil, or assist in repairing boilerroom equipment.
HELPER, TRADES, MAINTENANCE
A ssists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance
trades, by performing specific or general duties of lesser skill, such
as keeping a worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning work­
ing area, machine, and equipment; assisting worker by holding ma­
terials or tools; performing other unskilled tasks as directed by jour­
neyman. The kind of work the helper is permitted to perform varies
from trade to trade; In some trades the helper is confined to sup­
plying, lifting, and holding materials and tools and cleaning working
areas; and in others he is permitted to perform specialized machine
operations, or parts of a trade that are also performed by workers
on a full-time basis.

91
MACHINE-TOOL, OPERATOR, TOOLROOM

MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE

Specializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such a 8 jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine
lathes, or milling machines in the construction of machine-shop tools,
gauges, jigs, fixtures, or dies. Work involves most of the following:
Planning and performing difficult machining operations; processing
items requiring complicated setups or a high degree of accuracy;
using a variety of precision measuring instruments; selecting feeds,
speeds, tooling and operation sequence; making necessary adjust­
ments during operation to achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions.
May be required to recognize when tools need dressing, to dress tools,
and to select proper coolants and cutting and lubricating oils.
For
cross-industry wage study purposes, machine-tool operators, toolroom,
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classification.

Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establish­
ment.
Work involves most of the following; Examining machines
and mechanical equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling
or partly dismantling machines and performing repairs that mainly
involve the use of handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing
broken or defective parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the
production of a replacement part by a machine shop or sending of
the machine to a machine shop for major repairs; preparing written
specifications for major repairs or for the production of parts ordered
from machine shop; reassembling machines; and making all necessary
adjustments for operation.
In general, the work of a maintenance
mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
Excluded from this classification are workers whose primary duties
involve setting up or adjusting machines.

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE
MILLWRIGHT
Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs
of metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment.
Work involves most of the following: Interpreting written instruc­
tions and specifications; planning and laying out of work; using a va­
riety of m achinists handtools and precision measuring .instruments;
setting up and operating standard machine tools; shaping of metal
parts to close tolerances; making standard shop computations relat­
ing to dimensions of work, tooling, feeds and speeds of machining;
knowledge of the working properties of the common metals; selecting
standard materials, parts, and equipment required for his work; fitting
and assembling parts into mechanical equipment.
In general, the
machinists work normally requires a rounded training in machineshop practice usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

Installs new machines or heavy equipment and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant lay­
out are required. Work involves most of the following: Planning and
laying out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specifications;
using a variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop com­
putations relating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers of
gravity; alining and balancing of equipment; selecting standard tools,
equipment, and parts to be used; installing and maintaining in good
order power transmission equipment such as drives and speed re­
ducers. In general, the millwright*s work normally requires a rounded
training and experience in the trade acquired through a formal appren­
ticeship or equivalent training and experience.
OILER

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)
Repairs automobiles, busses, motortrucks, and tractors of
an establishment.
Work involves most of the following: Examining
automotive equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassembling
equipment and performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches, gauges, drills, or specialized equipment in dis­
assembling or fitting parts; replacing broken or defective parts from
stock; grinding and adjusting valves; reassembling and installing the
various assemblies in the vehicle and making necessary adjustments;
alining wheels, adjusting brakes and lights, or tightening body bolts.
In general, the work of the automotive mechanic requires rounded
training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprentice­
ship or equivalent training and experience.




Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing
surfaces of mechanical equipment of an establishment.
PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
Paints and redecorates walls, woodwork, and fixtures of an
establishment.
Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface
peculiarities and types of paint required for different applications;
preparing surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing
putty or filler in nail holes and interstices; applying paint with spray
gun or brush.
May mix colors, oils, white lead, and other paint
ingredients to obtain proper color or consistency.
In general, the
work of the maintenance painter requires rounded training and ex­
perience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiva­
lent training and experience.

92
PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE---- Continued

Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe
and pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves most of the fol­
lowing: Laying out of work and measuring to locate position oi pipe
Irom drawings or other written specifications; cutting various sizes
of pipe to correct lengths with chisel and hammer or oxyacetylene
torch or pipe-cutting machine; threading pipe with stocks and dies;
bending pipe by hand-driven or power-driven machines; assembling
pipe with couplings and fastening pipe to hangers; making standard
shop computations relating to pressures, flow, and size of pipe re­
quired; making standard tests to determine whether finished pipes meet
specifications.
In general, the work of the maintenance pipefitter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a
formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. Workers
primarily engaged in installing and repairing building sanitation or
heating systems are excluded.

and laying out all types of sheet-metal maintenance work from blue­
prints, models, or other specifications; setting up and operating all
available types of sheet-metal-working machines; using a variety of
handtools in cutting, bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assem ­
bling; installing sheet-metal articles as required. In general, the
work of the maintenance sheet-metal worker requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order.
Work involves; Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of
vents and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber’ s snake.
In general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded
training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprentice­
ship or equivalent training and experience.
SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing)
of an establishment. Work involves most of the following: Planning

Custodial

and

(Diemaker; jig maker; toolmaker; fixture maker; gauge maker)
Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gauges, jigs, fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching and other metal-forming work.
Work involves most of the following: Planning and laying out of work
from models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specifi­
cations; using a variety of tool and die maker’ s handtools and precision
measuring instruments; understanding of the working properties of
common metals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools
and related equipment; making necessary shop computations relating
to dimensions of work, speeds, feeds, and tooling of machines; heattreating of metal parts during fabrication as well as of finished tools
and dies to achieve required qualities; working to close tolerances;
fitting and assembling of parts to prescribed tolerances and allow­
ances; selecting appropriate materials, tools, and processes.
In
general, the tool and die maker’ s work requires a rounded training
in machine-shop and toolroom practice usually acquired through a
formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classification.

Material

ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER
Transports passengers between floors of an office building,
apartment house, department store, hotel or similar establishment.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such
as those of starters and janitors are excluded.
GUARD
Performs routine police duties, either at fixed post or on
tour, maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. In­
cludes gatemen who are stationed at gate and check on identity of
employees and other persons entering.




TOOL AND DIE MAKER

Movement

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER
(Sweeper; charwoman; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working
areas and washrooms, or premises of an office, apartment house,
or commercial or other establishment. Duties involve a combination
of the following: Sweeping, mopping, or scrubbing, and polishing floor s ;
removing chips, trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture,
or fixtures; polishing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies
and minor maintenance services; cleaning lavatories, showers, and
restrooms.
Workers who specialize in window washing are excluded.

93
LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker;
stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)
A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant,
store, or other establishment whose duties involve one or more of
the following: Loading and unloading various materials and merchan­
dise on or lrom freight cars, trucks, or other transporting devices;
unpacking, shelving, or placing materials or merchandise in proper
storage location; transporting materials or merchandise by hand truck,
car, or wheelbarrow. Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are
excluded.

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK— Continued
other records; checking for shortages and rejecting damaged goods;
routing merchandise or materials to proper departments; maintaining
necessary records and files.
For wage study purposes, workers are classified as follows:
Receiving clerk
Shipping clerlT"
Shipping and~eceiving clerk
TRUCKDRIVER

ORDER FILLER
(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)
Fills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from
stored merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips,
customers* orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling
orders and indicating items filled or omitted, keep records of out­
going orders, requisition additional stock, or report short supplies
to supervisor, and perform other related duties.
PACKER, SHIPPING
Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the specific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, size, and number of units to be packed, the
type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires
the placing of items in shipping containers and may involve one or
more of the following: Knowledge of various items of stock in order
to verify, content; selection of appropriate type and size of container;
inserting enclosures in container; using excelsior or other material to
prevent breakage or damage; closing and sealing container; applying
labels or entering identifying data on container.
Packers who also
make wooden boxes or crates are excluded.
SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is re­
sponsible for incoming shipment of merchandise or other materials.
Shipping work involves: A knowledge of shipping procedures, prac­
tices^ routes, available means of transportation and rates; and pre­
paring records of the goods shipped, making up bills of lading, post­
ing weight and shipping charges, and keeping a file of shipping records.
May direct or assist in preparing the merchandise for shipment.
Receiving work involves; Verifying or directing others in verifying
the correctness of shipments against bills of lading, invoices, or




Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport
materials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types of
establishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, ware­
houses, wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail estab­
lishments and customers* houses or places of business.
May also
load or unload truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical
repairs, and keep truck in good working order. Driver-salesmen and
over-the-road drivers are excluded.
For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are classified by size
and type of equipment, as follows: (Tractor-trailer should be rated
on the basis of trailer capacity.)
Truckdriver (combination of sizes listed separately)
Truckdriver, light (under IV2 tons)
Truckdriver, medium (IV2 to and including 4 tons)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, trailer type)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer type)
TRUCKER, POWER
Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-powered
truck or tractor to transport goods and materials of all kinds about
a warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.
For wage study purposes, workers are classified by type of
truck, as follows:
Trucker, power (forklift)
Trucker, pcTwer (other than forklift)
WATCHMAN
Makes rounds of premises periodically in protecting property
against fire, theft, and illegal entry.







* U S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1959 0 —498090
.

Zone _____________ State _________________ ..
City -

Address _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

Name

..

Number of copies
Bulletin number and title

25
25
25
25
25
20
25
25
25
25
25
25
20
25
25
25
25
25
20

Please send me copies of BLS bulletins as indicated:

1224-17
1224-3
1224-2
1224-14
1224-19
1224-4
1224-7
1224-13
1224-9
1224-18
1224-10
1224-12
1224-11
1224-15
1224-6
1224-16
1224-8
1224-5
1224-1

Twenty-five percent discount for bundle order of 100 or more copies of any one bulletin.

May 1958
August 1957
September 1957
April 1958
June 1958
October 1957
December 1957
March 1958
January 1958
May 1958
January 1958
December 1957
February 1958
April 1958
October 1957
April 1958
January 1958
November 1957
August 1957

__________________________ in ___________________ check _______________________ money order.

Atlanta _____________________
Baltimore __________________
B o sto n -------------------------------Chicago -------------------------------C levelan d ---------------------------Dallas --------------------------------Denver ______________________
Los Angeles-Long B e a c h __
M em p h is__- ________________
Milwaukee _________________
Minneapolis-St. Paul --------Newark-Jersey City
New Orleans ----------------------New York C it y --------------------Philadelphia _______________
Portland (O r e g .)-----------------San Francisco-Oakland-----St. Louis ---------------------------S e a ttle ---------------------------------

$

Cents

Enclosed find

The areas covered, survey date, bulletin number, and price
are as follows:

Order Form

Also presented for all areas except Dallas and Seattle are
data for paid holidays; paid vacations; scheduled weekly hours;
health, insurance, and pension plans; minimum entrance rates ior
women office workers; shift differentials; overtime pay; wage struc­
ture characteristics; and labor-management agreements.

or

In addition to areawide averages and distributions of work­
ers by earnings classes for each job, information is provided wher­
ever possible by major industry division, including manufacturing,
public utilities, finance, trade, and services.

Superintendent of Documents
Government Printing Office
Washington 25, D. C.

The U. S. Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics
has released the last of this year's occupational wage surveys for
major labor markets. The studies cover 19 areas and were conducted
during the winter 1957-58. The individual bulletins provide earnings
information on about 60 jobs selected from several categories: Office
clerical, professional and technical, maintenance and powerplant,
and custodial and material movement.

Bureau of Labor Statistics 18 Oliver Street, Boston, Mass.
341 Ninth Avenue, New York, N. Y .
1371 Peachtree Street, N. E ., Atlanta, Ga.
105 West Adams Street, Chicago, 111.
630 Sansome Street, San Francisco, Calif.

Occupational W Survey
age