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Wages and Related Benefits

1 9 5 6 -5 7

Earnings Trends
Intercity Com parisons
Occupational Earnings
Supplem entary Practices

Bulletin No. 1202

UNITED STATES DEPARTM ENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
O

Ewan Clague, Commissioner




4

4

Wages and Related Benefits
17 LABOR MARKETS




1956-57

0

Ea rn in gs T re n d s

0

Intercity C o m p a riso n s

S

O c cu p a tio n a l Ea rnings

#

S u p p le m e n t a r y

Practices

Bulletin No. 1202

UN ITED STA TES DEPARTM ENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREA U

O F LA B O R S TA TIS TIC S

Ew an Cl ague, Commissioner

November 1957

Fo r sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U . S. Government Printing O ffic e , W ashington 2 5 , D . C.

Price 50 cents




Preface

Contents

Page

The Community Wage Survey Program
The U. S. Department of Labor*s Bureau of Labor Sta­
tistics regu larly conducts areawide wage surveys in a number
of important industrial centers. The studies, made from late
fa ll to early spring, provide data on occupational earnings and
related supplementary benefits. A prelim inary report is availa­
ble on completion of the study in each area, usually in the
month following the payroll period studied.
The prelim in ary
report is supplied free of charge.
This is followed within
2 months by an area summary bulletin (for sale) that provides
additional data not included in the e a rlie r report.
These
include:
F or each occupation—areawide and selected indus­
try-group average earnings and employment and d is tri­
butions of workers by earnings intervals.
F o r each related ("frin g e ") benefit and supple­
m entary wage practice— selective distributions of f r e ­
quency of the practice and service requirements (where
pertinent) by areawide and industry-group proportions
of office and plant workers to whom applicable.
A scope table— showing the number of establish­
ments in scope, the number studied, and corresponding
office and plant worker employment, in the area and
industry groups, as defined.
This consolidated bulletin summarizes and analyzes
the results of the individual area bulletins fo r the surveys made
during late 1956 and early 1957. A list of the bulletins for
the areas surveyed appears on the last page.




Introduction ________________ _______ „____________________________________
In d u strial com position of the 17 a r e a s _________________________
C o m p a ra b ility of a re a d a t a ________________________________________
S u m m a r y _________________________________________________________________
T re n d s of occupational earn in gs, 1953-57 _________________________
M ovem ent of w a g e s, a ll in d u stries, 1956-57 _________________
M ovem ent of w a g e s, a ll in d u stries, 1953-57 _________________
C o v e ra g e and method of computing the indexes ______________
L im itatio n s of the d a t a _____________________________________________
Wage d iffe re n c e s am ong la b o r m ark ets ___________________________
Method of computing a r e a r e l a t i v e s _____________________________
In te ra re a c o m p a r is o n s _____________________________________________
Job groups ________________________________________________________
Industry grou ps _
_
O ccupational earn in gs _
_
W omen*s office occupations ______________________________________
M en*s office occupations __________________________________________
P r o fe s s io n a l and technical occupations ________________________
Skilled m aintenance w o r k e r s _____________________________________
C u sto d ial and m a t e ria l m ovem ent occupations ________________
Interindu stry c o m p a r is o n s ________________________________________
E stablish m en t p ra c tic e s and supplem entary w age p ro v isio n s _ _
Introduction __________________________________________________________
L a b o r-m a n a g e m e n t agreem en t co v erage _______________________
M inim um entrance ra tes fo r office w o rk e rs ___________________
Scheduled w o rk w eek s _______________________________________________
W orkw eeks under 40 hours ___________________________________
W orkw eeks o ver 40 hours ____________________________________
L a te -s h ift pay p ro v isio n s (m an u facturin g) _____________________
P a id holidays ________________________________________________________
T o tal holiday t i m e _______________________________________________
P a id v a c a t io n s _______________________________________________________
H ealth and in su ran ce plans _______________________________________
R etirem en t plans ___________________________________________________

1
1
2
5
7
7
7
8
8
13
13
13
13
14
17
17
17
17
17
18
18
35
35
35
36
36
36
36
36
38
38
39
40
41

C h arts:
1.
2.
3.

4.

R elative em ploym ent in selected industry d iv isio n s,
17 la b o r m ark ets ___________________________________________
R elative em ploym ent in selected m anufacturing
industry d iv isio n s, 17 la b o r m a r k e t s _____________________
P ro p o rtio n s of office and plant w o rk e rs subject to the
p ro v isio n s of hospitalizatio n and s u rg ic a l in su ran ce
plan s, 17 la b o r m a rk e ts, w in ter 1952-53 and
w in ter 1956-57 _______________________________________________
P ro p o rtio n s of office and plant w o r k e r s subject to the
p ro v isio n s of m ed ica l in su ran ce and re tirem en t
pension plans, 17 la b o r m ark ets, w in ter 1952-53 and
w in ter 1956-57 _______________________________________________

3
4

42

43

Contents - Continued

Contents - Continued

Page

P a ge

Tables: - Continued

T a b le s :
T re n d s of occupational earn in gs:
1. W age in dexes, office and plant _______________________________
2. P e rc e n t in c re a s e , office and plant __________________________
3. P a y r o ll p e rio d s c o v e r e d _______________________________________

9
10
11

W age d iffe re n c e s am ong la b o r m ark ets:
4. In te ra re a pay co m p a riso n s, office w o r k e r s _______________
5. In te ra re a pay c o m p a riso n s, plant w o r k e r s ________________

15
15

A.

O ccupational earn in gs:
A v e ra g e w eek ly earn in gs fo r selected office
occupations A - 1:
A l l in d u stries __________________________________________
A - 2:
M an ufactu rin g _________________________________________
A - 3:
N on m anufacturing _____________________________________
A - 4:
P u b lic utilities _________________________________________
A - 5:
W h o lesale trad e ________________________________________
A - 6:
R e ta il trad e ____________________________________________
A - 7:
Finance _______________
A - 8:
S e r v i c e s _________________________________________________

19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26

A v e r a g e h o u rly earn in gs fo r selected plant
occupations A - 9:
A l l in d u s t r i e s _____ _______
A - 10: M an u factu rin g _____
A - 11: N onm anufacturing _____________________________________
A - 12: P u b lic utilities _________________________________________
A - 13: W h o lesale trade ________________________________________
A - 14: R e ta il trad e ____________________________________________
A - 15: Finance __________________________________________________
A - 16: S e r v i c e s _________________________________________________

B.

27
28
29
30
31
32
33
33

E stab lish m en t p ra c tic e s and supplem entary
w age p ro v isio n s:
B - 1:
L a b o r-m a n a g e m e n t agreem en t co v erage _________

Schedules
B-4:
B - 5:
B -6:
B -7:
B -8:
B -9:
B - 10:

weekly hours A ll industries _______________________________________
Manufacturing _______________________________________
Public utilities ______________________________________
Wholesale trade _____________________________________
Retail trade _________________________________________
Finance ______________________________________________
Services ____________________________________________

47
48
49
50
50
51
51

Shift differentials, manufacturing B - 11: P r o v is io n s ___________________________________________
B -12: Practices ____________________________________________

52
53

Paid holidays B - 13: A ll industries _______________________________________
B - 13a: Paid holiday time ___________________________________
B - 14: Manufacturing _______________________________________
B - 15: Public utilities ______________________________________
B - 16: Wholesale trade _____________________________________
B - 17; Retail trade _________________________________________
B - 18: Finance ______________________________________________
B- 19: Services _____________________________________________

54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61

Paid vacations B-20: A ll industries __________________
B -2 1: Manufacturing _______________________________________
B -22: Public utilities _______________________________________
B -23: Wholesale trade _____________________________________
B -24: Retail trade _________________________________________
B-25: Finance ______________________________________________
B -26: Services _____________________________________________

62
63
64
65
66
67
68

Health, insurance, and pension plans B -27: A ll industries _______________________________________
B -28: Manufacturing ______________________________________
B -29: Public utilities ______________________________________
B - 30: Whole sale trade _____________________________________
B - 31: Retail trade _________________________________________
B-32: Finance ______________________________________________
B -33: Services _____________________________________________

69
70
71
72
73
74
74

Appendixes:
A: Occupational earnings - Milwaukee and
St. Louis ____________
B: Scope and method of survey ________________________________
C:
Occupational descriptions _________________________________

75
76
79

44

M in im um entrance ra tes fo r wom en office w o r k e r s B -2 :
A l l in d u stries __________________________________________
B -3 :
M anufactu ring __________________________________________




45
46

Wages and Related Benefits, 17 LaBor Markets, 1956-571
Introduction

The la rg e s t a r e a la b o r fo rc e (N e w Y o rk C ity p r o p e r ) is m o re
than 2 0 tim es the size of that in either of the sm a lle s t a r e a s (M em ph is
and B irm in g h a m ), and m o re than 10 tim es as la rg e a s that in either
A tlanta, D a lla s , P o rtlan d (O r e g .) , o r Seattle.
The 3 la rg e s t a r e a s
studied— C h icago , L o s A n g e le s -L o n g B each , and New Y o rk C ity —
account fo r m o re than h alf of both the m anufacturing and the nonm anu­
facturing em ploym ent in the 17 a r e a s com bined.

The U . S. D epartm ent of L a b o r*s B u re a u of L a b o r Statistics
conducted s u rv ey s of occupational earn in gs and re la te d p ra c tic e s in
17 im portant la b o r m ark et a r e a s during late 1956 and e a r ly 1957.2
These studies w e r e p art of a continuing p ro g ra m design ed to m eet a
variety of go vernm ental and nongovernm ental needs fo r in form ation on
occupational earn in gs, establish m ent p ra c tic e s, and re lated w age p r o ­
v isio n s. Occupations com m on to a v ariety of m anufacturing and non­
m anufacturing in d u stries a re studied on a com m unitywide b a s is in
selected a r e a s . The a r e a su rvey s p rovide earn in gs data fo r the f o l­
low ing types of occupations:
(a ) O ffice c le ric a l; (b ) p ro fe s s io n a l and
technical; (c ) m aintenance and pow erplant; and (d) custodial and m a ­
te ria l m ovem ent.
Data a r e a lso collected and su m m ariz ed on shift
operations and d iffe re n tia ls , w eek ly w o rk schedules, and supplem en­
ta ry w age ben efits such as paid vacations and paid h o lid ay s.
These
data, p resen ted in detail in the individual a r e a bu lletin s, a re sum ­
m a riz e d and an aly zed in this bulletin. 3

In d u strial C om p osition of the

The 17 a r e a s co v ered by this re p o rt had a com bined popu­
lation of about 35 m illio n in 1950— n e a rly a fourth of the Nation1s
total.
Sixteen States a re re p resen te d , p erm itting som e exam ination
of in te rre g io n a l as w e ll a s in tra re g io n a l v ariatio n s in pay le v e ls and
asso c ia te d p ra c tic e s.

E ach of the detailed a r e a bulletin s p resen ts are a w id e in fo rm a ­
tion com bining data fo r s ix m a jo r industry grou pin gs. Separate data
fo r each industry group a re pro vid ed w h ere fe a s ib le , depending la r g e ly
on the relative size and im portance of the industry group within a given
a r e a . Thus, the sam pling techniques perm itted computation of separate
data fo r m anufacturing and public utilities in each of the 17 a r e a s ;
re ta il trade and finance in 11; w h o lesale trade in 10; and s e rv ic e s in 5.

The individual industry division s have about the sam e r e la ­
tive im portance in the 17 a r e a s a s a group as in the Nation as a
whole (ch art l ) .
A m ong the 17 a r e a s , the in d u strial com position of
the in dividual a r e a s v a r ie s substantially.

The establish m en ts within the scope of the su rvey s in the
17 a r e a s p ro vid ed em ploym ent to an estim ated 7 m illio n w o r k e r s ,
of whom 5.7 m illio n w e r e plant and office w o r k e r s , a s defined on
page 76.

In each of th ree a r e a s — B u ffa lo , C lev e lan d , and P ittsb u rg h —
m o re w o rk e rs a re em ployed in m anufacturing in d u stries than in a ll
nonm anufacturing industry grou ps com bined. N e a rly h alf of the la b o r
fo rc e in P h ilad e lp h ia and C h icago is em ployed in m anufacturing (chart l).
On the other hand, Seattle, P o rtlan d ( O r e g . ), M em ph is, A tlanta, D a lla s ,
and San F r a n c is c o -O a k la n d a r e a r e a s in w hich m anufacturing em p lo y ­
ment is re la tiv e ly le s s im portant, em ploying ap p ro x im ately a th ird
of the la b o r fo rc e . M o r e o v e r, in the latter four a r e a s , em ploym ent
in m anufacturing establish m en ts is le s s than in w h o lesale and re tail
trad e esta blish m en ts.

1 P r e p a r e d by Otto H o llb e rg and H e rb e rt Schaffer in the D ivisio n
of W ages and In d u strial R elations of the B u re a u of L a b o r Statistics.
A r e a studies w e r e su p ervised by the B u r e a u s R egio n al W age A n a ly sts .
2 Since 1948, the B u re a u has conducted 1 o r m o re are a w id e
surveys in 51 la b o r m a rk e ts.
The e a r lie s t su rvey s co vered office
w o rk e rs only.
Surveys coverin g both o ffice and plant w o rk e rs w e re
conducted in 40 a r e a s in late 1951 and e a r ly 1952; in 20 a r e a s in
1952-53; and in 17 a r e a s in each of the last 4 y e a r s .
Some a r e a s
a re studied annually and others b ien n ially . A listin g of a r e a re p o rts
issu e d p re v io u sly , including item s co vered , is a v a ila b le in D ire c to ry
of Com m unity W age Su rveys; copies a re a v a ila b le upon requ est fro m
the U. S. D epartm ent of L a b o r , B u re a u of L a b o r Statistics, W ashington
25, D . C . , or fro m any of its 5 re gio n al o ffic e s .
3 See listin g of occupational w age su rvey bulletin s on last page.




17 A r e a s

S im ila r em ploym ent v ariatio n s a re evident am ong the co m ­
ponents of the b ro a d in dustry d iv isio n s.
Thus, m arked d iffe re n c e s
am ong the a r e a s a re shown in re lativ e em ploym ent in the v ario u s
industry grou ps within the m anufacturing division (chart 2).
The

(i)

2
group of re la te d in d u stries with the la rg e s t segm ent of the m anu­
facturin g la b o r fo rc e in m ost a r e a s w a s m ade up of m etals and m e t a l­
w o rk in g fir m s . The stron gest concentrations of em ploym ent in these
m anufacturing in d u strie s, rangin g fro m m o re than 50 to 75 percent,
a r e found in P ittsb u rgh , C leve lan d , B irm in gh am , Seattle, B u ffalo ,
L o s A n g e le s -L o n g B each , and C h icago .
T hose a r e a s showing the
w eak est concentrations of em ploym ent in the m etal in d u stries (le s s
than th re e -te n th s ) a re P o rtla n d (O re g . ), M em p h is, A tlanta, and N ew
Y o rk C ity .
The latter two a r e a s showed la r g e r p ro po rtio n s of e m ­
ploym ent in the te x tiles and a p p a re l in d u stries than in the m etals and
m etal produ cts in d u stries.




C o m p a ra b ility of A r e a Data
A re a w id e (a ll in d u strie s ) estim ate s of wage, le v e ls and r e ­
lated p ra c tic e s a r e affected to som e extent by the in d u strial com po­
sition of an a r e a . The pro po rtio n of em ploym ent accounted fo r, both
by the re sp ective b ro ad industry d iv ision s and th eir subgro up s, v a r ie s
c o n sid erab ly fro m a r e a to a r e a . The estim ate s m ust, th e re fo re , be
viewed in te rm s of these in te ra re a d iffe re n c e s . In a few a r e a s , a d d i­
tional lim itations on a r e a - t o - a r e a co m p ariso n s a r is e fro m incom plete
co verage of certain in du stries; these a re indicated in the footnotes to
the table in appendix B on page 78.

3

Chart I.

RELATIVE EMPLOYMENT IN 6 INDUSTRY DIVISIONS
17 LABO R M A R K E TS

UNITED STATES
17 AREAS COMBINED

Buffalo
Cleveland
Pittsburgh
Philadelphia
Chicago
Los Angeles-Long Beach
Birmingham
Boston
Minneapolis-St. Paul
Kansas City
New York City
Seattle
Memphis
Portland (Oreg.)
Atlanta
Dallas
San Francisco-Oakland
M a n u fa c tu rin g

C o n stru c tio n , Fin a n c e , P ub lic U t il it ie s , and S e rv ic e

T ra d e

Source: County Business Patterns, U.S. Department of Commerce. Employment in first quarter

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR SIA TISTIC S




of 1953 under Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Program.

4

Chart 2. RELATIVE EMPLOYMENT IN SELECTED MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY DIVISIONS
17 LABO R M A R K E TS
PERCENT

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

UNITED STATES
17 AREAS COMBINED
Pittsburgh
Cleveland
Birmingham
Seattle
Buffalo
Los Angeles-Long Beach
Chicago
Dallas
Kansas City
Minneapolis-St. Paul
San Francisco-Oakland
Philadelphia
Boston
Portland (Oreg.)
Memphis
Atlanta
New York City
■ | H
H IH H

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




M e ta ls and
M e ta l P ro d u c ts

W W W C T M a n u fa c tu rin g O th e r T h a n M e ta ls ,
w W w f l M e ta l P ro d u c ts , T e x t ile s and A p p a re l

F77777771 T e x t ile s and

v / / / A p p a re l
/ / o 2i

Source: County Business Patterns. U.S. Department of Commerce, Employment in first quarter
of 1953 under Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Program.

5
Summary

A continued rise in wage rates during the previous year was
reflected by the occupational wage studies conducted in 17 m ajor labor
markets during the winter of 1956-57.
Supplementary benefits, also,
w ere generally made available to increased proportions of workers.
Of the 17 areas, 10 that had been surveyed approximately a
year ea rlie r (winter 1955-56) provide earnings comparisons fo r 4
selected skill-occupational groupings.
Over approximately 12 months,
all-industry average weekly or hourly earnings for these groups in­
creased by amounts ranging from 2.1 to 7. 5 percent in individual
areas.
Simple, 10-area averages of the increases indicate a wage
rise of approximately 5 percent for each of the 4 groups. Sim ilarly,
simple averages of Bureau area indexes for these groupings in 14 areas
affording comparison, indicate that earnings in each group advanced
approximately 20 percent in the 4 years between 1953 and 1957.
How­
ever, among the individual groups there was a diversity of "4 -y e a r"
increases that ranged, among areas, between 14.4 and 28.6 percent.
The greatest variation in wage rise among areas Occurred in the
unskilled worker group— due partly, in a few areas, to the March 1,
1956, adjustment of rates to the $1 Federal minimum wage.
A verage earnings in individual occupations were generally
higher in manufacturing than in nonmanufacturing industries in the
17 areas.
Earnings in some occupations, however, averaged higher
in one or m ore nonmanufacturing groupings, most frequently public
utilities and wholesale trade.
Among areas, occupational earn­
ings tended to be higher in the la rg er western and North Central
areas and lowest in southern areas.
Office and maintenance jobs
showed much less geographical variation, as measured by the range
between the areas of highest and lowest pay, than did custodial and
m aterial movement jobs. The wage spreads between the highest and
lowest pay areas for both maintenance and custodial workers w ere
markedly greater in the combined nonmhnufacturing industries than
in manufacturing.
A 40-hour workweek applied to a m ajority of women office
workers in almost all areas.
N early a ll of the remainder worked
few er than 40 hours, 37Va hours being the most usual schedule.
Less
than 40-hour schedules for office workers w ere found m ore often in
nonmanufacturing industries than in manufacturing.
At least 4 out of
eve ry 5 plant workers in a m ajority of the areas worked 40 hours a
week.
Most other plant workers had schedules of m ore than 40 hours.
The great m ajority of manufacturing workers w ere employed in
firm s that have premium pay provisions for late-sh ift work, commonly
a uniform cents-per-hour addition to firs t-s h ift rates.
In terms of
those employed, from about a seventh to a third of the workers w ere
actually working on late shifts at the time of the survey.
Six paid full-day holidays was the most common provision in
a m ajority of the areas fo r both office and plant w orkers.
Seven




days was the next most common provision.
One or m ore paid half
holidays in addition to the full-day holidays w ere a frequent provision
in most areas.
When half-day holidays are combined with the full
days to a rrive at estimated total holiday time, 6 and 7 days remain the
2 most common provisions fo r office and plant workers.
Vacation pay is almost universally available in the industries
and areas surveyed, often after as little as 6 months1 service, and, to
the extent of a week’ s pay, to virtually all workers after 1 year*s
service.
A lm ost as many may qualify fo r 2 weeks* pay after 5 ye a rs1
service.
Three or more weeks* pay is available to a fourth after
10 years and to almost three-fourths after 15 years in most areas.
Every fourth office worker and 1 out of every 7 plant workers in a
m ajority of the areas can receive 4 w eeks1pay after 25 y e a rs1 service.
P a y-s ervic e provisions are typically m ore liberal fo r office than for
plant w orkers.
Pa rt or all of the cost of one or m ore types of employee
health, insurance, or pension plans is paid by em ployers of virtually
all office and plant w orkers.
On this'basis, life insurance is available
to 90 percent or m ore of the office workers and to 84 percent or
more of the plant workers in the great m ajority of areas.
H ospitali­
zation and surgical insurance is available to 70 to 90 percent or m ore
of both office and plant workers in all but 4 areas; and m edical insur­
ance to half or m ore in a m ajority of the areas.
Hospitalization
and surgical insurance are generally available to proportionately m ore
plant than office w orkers. During the preceding 4 years, both surgical
and m edical insurance became newly available to m ore office and plant
workers than did hospitalization.
Provisions for employee illn ess, in
the form either of paid sick leave or insurance benefits, applied to
as many or more workers in half the areas, as did hospitalization or
surgical insurance.
Plans for compensating for illness w ere m ore
prevalent in manufacturing than in any nonmanufacturing division ex­
cept public utilities.
Paid sick leave was the typical provision for
office workers and sickness and accident insurance for plant w orkers.
Catastrophe (extended m edical) insurance applied to a fourth to a half
of the office workers in 5 areas and to a tenth to a fifth in the remaining
areas, but to as many as a tenth of the plant workers in only 6 areas.
Retirement plans applied to m ore than 70 percent of the office workers
and to more than 50 percent of the plant workers in virtu ally all areas.
Establishments having a m ajority of their plant employees
covered by labor-management agreements accounted for at least twothirds of the plant worker employment in 14 areas, and almost half
of such employees in the remaining 3 areas. The proportion of office
workers in firm s with a m ajority of such workers covered by collective
bargaining agreements ranged between 10 and 20 percent in most areas.
Within areas, coverage of both office and plant workers was generally
highest in public utilities, followed by manufacturing, and lowest in
retail trade. Areas in the West generally had the highest proportions
of both plant and office workers under agreements.




7
Trends of Occupational Earnings, 1953-57

Movement of Wages, A ll industries,

1956-57

A verage pay levels for 4 selected occupational groups, as a
whole, rose about 5 percent during 1956 according to studies conducted
by the U. S. Department of Labor1 Bureau of Labor Statistics during
s
the winter of 1956-57.4
From the winter of 1955-56 to the winter of 1956-57 average
pay levels of women office workers increased 5.2 percent; industrial
nurses, 5.1 percent; skilled maintenance men, 4.9 percent; and un­
skilled men plant w orkers, 5.2 percent.
The increases in earnings
of women office and industrial nurses slightly exceeded those recorded
during 1955.5 In fact, earnings of women office workers increased
m ore during the past year than in any of the years studied since 1953.
Increases fo r skilled maintenance men and unskilled men plant workers
during 1956 w ere slightly below the 1955 rise in earnings. The amount
of increase during the year varied by area and job group as shown
below:
Percent increase in pay
during year
Job group

Lowest

Highest

Office w orkers --------------Industrial nurses -----------Skilled maintenance men —

3.4 - Atlanta
2. 1 - Portland
3. 4 - Dallas

Unskilled plant w o r k e r s ---

4. 0 - Chicago
Dallas

6. 5 - Philadelphia
6 . 9 - Dallas
7. 5 - San Francis coOakland
7. 2 - Memphis

Movement of Wages, A ll Industries,

Percen t increases in earnings levels during this period varied
substantially among areas. Largest increases w ere recorded in Kansas
City for office workers (23.6 percent), nurses (26.6 percent), and
skilled maintenance workers (24. 8 percent), whereas pay rates fo r
unskilled plant workers rose most (28. 6 percent) in Atlanta.
The
sm allest increases over the 4-year period w ere 15.2 percent fo r
office workers in Buffalo, 15.5 percent fo r nurses in Portland, and
16.4 and 14.4 percent for maintenance men and unskilled w orkers,
respectively, in Boston.7 Thus, the greatest variation in wage rise
occurred in the unskilled worker group.
The variation in amount of increase among the 4 job groups
was least in Los A ngeles-Lon g Beach and Philadelphia and greatest in
Atlanta where office pay rose 3 to 4 percentage points less than that
of nurses and maintenance men and 13 points less than pay rates
for unskilled w orkers. The la rg er increase noted in unskilled pay in
Atlanta and a few other areas reflects in part some adjustment of
rates to the $1 Federal minimum wage that went into effect in
March 1956.
It should be noted that increases and differentials re ferred
to in ea rlie r paragraphs are percentage increases or differentials.
Areas with the highest percentage increases w ere not n ecessarily the
areas with the highest increases in term s of cents per hour.
F or
example, during 1953-57, the earnings of unskilled plant w orkers
rose 25.6 percent in Memphis and 19.4 percent in San F ran ciscoOakland. These percentage increases w ere equivalent to about 26 cents
in Memphis, compared with about 31 cents in San Francisco-Oakland.

1953-57

Over a 4-year period, 1953-57, an all-industry average for
workers in the 4 occupational groups studied increased about 20 percent.
This rise in straight-tim e earnings approximated that of workers in
manufacturing industries.
A verage all-industry salaries for women
office workers rose 19. 7 percent and fo r women industrial nurses,

4 Ten of the 17 areas surveyed in 1956-57 w ere also studied in
the winter of 1955-56. The increase is a simple average of the p e r­
centage increases recorded in these 10 areas.
Increases within areas
w ere not measured over identical periods. In most instances, however,
the time span was 1 year.
(See table 3 .)
5 Comparisons are lim ited to those areas in the current study
which w ere also surveyed in the winters of 1954-55 and 1955-56.




21.5 percent; average hourly earnings fo r men in skilled maintenance
trades rose 20.3 percent and fo r unskilled men plant w orkers, 21.1
percent. 6

In 13 areas affording comparisons, the cents-per-hour d if­
ferences increased between the skilled and unskilled job groups. How­
ever, in 7 of these areas, the percentage differences m oderately
narrowed between these job groups.
6 Simple averages of percentage increases recorded in individual
areas.
The number of areas was lim ited to 14 since Pittsburgh,
Birmingham, and Seattle w ere not surveyed in 1953, the base year of
the index.
7 The n4-year period " covered only 41 months in Buffalo, 42
months in Boston, and 48 or m ore in other areas.
If the rates of
increase per month w ere compared, lowest rates of increase occurred
in Atlanta fo r office w orkers, New York City fo r skilled maintenance
w orkers, and in Dallas fo r unskilled plant w orkers.

8
Coverage and Method of Computing the Indexes
F o r office c lerica l w orkers and industrial nurses, the indexes
relate to average weekly salaries fo r normal hours of work, that is,
the standard work schedule fo r which straight-tim e salaries are paid.
F o r plant w orker groups, they measure changes in straight-tim e hourly
earnings, excluding premium pay for overtim e and fo r work on w eek­
ends, holidays, and late shifts.
The indexes are based on data fo r
selected key occupations and include most of the num erically important
jobs within each group. The office clerica l data are based on women in
the following 18 jobs: B ille rs , machine (billing machine); bookkeepingmachine operators, class A and B; Comptometer operators; clerks, file ,
class A and B; clerks, order; clerks, payroll; key-punch operators;
office girls; secretaries; stenographers, general; switchboard operators;
switchboard operator-receptionists; tabulating-machine operators; transcribing-machine operators, general; and typists, class A and B.
The industrial nurse data are based on women industrial nurses.
Men
in the follow ing 10 skilled maintenance jobs and 3 unskilled jobs w ere
included in the plant w orker data: Skilled— carpenters; electricians;
—
machinists; mechanics; mechanics, automotive; m illw rights; painters;
pipefitters; sheet-m etal w orkers; and tool and die makers; unskilled—
janitors, porters, and cleaners; laborers, m aterial handling; and
watchmen.
N early half of the women office employees in a ll industries
within the scope of the surveys w ere employed in the 18 occupations
used in constructing the office w ork ers1 index.
Less than a tenth
of a ll plant workers in the 17 areas w ere employed in the 13 occu­
pations used in computing the indexes fo r skilled and unskilled w orkers,
the m ajority of whom w ere unskilled. These jobs w ere not n ecessarily
representative of production workers m ore directly connected with
the actual manufacturing, processing, or of servicing jobs which va ry
w idely among plants and industries. A large m ajority of the skilled
maintenance w orkers covered by the index w ere employed in manufac­
turing establishments, whereas the unskilled w orkers w ere about




evenly divided between manufacturing and nonmanufacturing. A large
proportion of office workers w ere employed in nonmanufacturing
industries.
A verage weekly salaries or average hourly earnings w ere
computed fo r each of the selected occupations.
The average salaries
or hourly earnings w ere multiplied by the average of 1953 and 1954
employment in each job in the particular areas.
These weighted
earnings fo r individual occupations w ere totaled to obtain an aggregate
fo r each occupational group.
Finally, the ratio of these group a g g re ­
gates fo r a given year to the aggregate fo r the base period (survey
month, winter 1952-53) was computed and the result multiplied by the
base year index (100) to get the index fo r the given year.
Limitations of the Data
The indexes m easure, principally, the effects of ( l ) general
salary and wage changes; (2) m erit or other increases in pay received
by individual workers while in the same job; and (3) changes in the
labor fo rce such as labor turnover, force expansions, force reductions,
and changes in the proportion of workers employed by establishments
with different pay levels.
Changes in the labor force can cause in­
creases or decreases in the occupational averages without actual wage
changes.
F o r example, a fo rce expansion might increase the p ro ­
portion of lower paid workers in a specific occupation and result in
a drop in the average, whereas a reduction in the proportion of lower
paid w orkers would have the opposite effect.
The movement of a
high-paying establishment out of an area could cause the average
earnings to drop, even though no change in rates occurred in other
area establishments.
The use of constant employment weights eliminates the effects
of changes in the proportion of workers represented in each job included
in the data.
Nor are the indexes influenced by changes in standard
work schedules or in premium pay fo r overtim e, since they are based
on pay fo r straight-tim e hours.

Trends of Occupational Earnings
Ta b le 1:

Wage

9

ind exes, o ffic e and p la nt

(indexes of a v e ra g e w eekly earn in gs or av e ra g e hourly earn in gs 1 fo r selected occupational groups in 14 la b o r m a rk e ts,2 1955-57 3 )
(1953 = 100)
W om en office
w ork ers

In du strial n urses
(w om en)

Skilled maintenance trad es
(m en)

U n skilled plant w o rk e rs
(m en)

A rea
1955

1956

1957

1955

1956

1957

1955

1956

1957

1955

107.6
107.6
108. 1
109. 0

113.5
115. 5

114.4
118.2
119.6
120. 9

1956

1957

All industries

Northeast:
Boston
_
........................
B u ffalo ________________________________________
N ew Y o rk C i t y ............. .................................
P h iladelph ia .................... ............. ............. .

108.
105.
108.
110.

3
3
0
8

114. 3
114. 6

117.0
115.2
120. 3
122. 0

108. 1
107.9
109.9
110. 3

South:
Atlanta __
..........
D a lla s
........ ..
M em ph is ............. ...........................................

105.2
110.9
106.2

111.8
115. 3
113.2

115.6
122. 0
118. 0

109. 5
110.3

114. 3

114.2

108. 1
108. 5
110. 9

(4 )
(4 )

North C en tral:
Ch icago
_
.
.
.. .... _____ . . .
Cleveland
K an sas C ity
...
_ ...... . _
M in n eap o lis-S t. P a u l _____________ ______

109.9

114. 1

120. 5
122. 0
123. 6
121.3

West:
L,os A n g e le s -L o n g B e a c h __________________
P o r t la n d ______________________________________
San F ra n c is c o -O a k la n d
.........

108.4
110. 3
107.6

113.5
116. 0
112.7

120. 5
120.2
118. 3

(4 )

(4 )
(4 )

115. 5
115. 1

117.7
117. 1
121. 1
122.2

107.2
106. 7
109.7
111.9

113.4
116.4

116.4
119.5
117.7
122. 5

109.9
106. 8
114. 3

119.8
109.8
121.0

124.4
117.4
126. 1

108. 3
109.9
106. 5

114. 1
115. 0
115.2

119. 1
119.4
121.4

107.9
107. 1
108. 8

122. 6
112. 1
117.2

128. 6
116.6
125.6

110. 3
112.0

116. 9

109.8
110.1

115. 5

114.4

110.2

4
115.5

121.3
12 1.9
124. 8
121.7

109-4
111.6

118. 1

122. 8
124. 8
126.6
124.4

111. 6

117. 1

119. 0
124.7
124. 3
125. 1

112.8
113.2
113.8

119. 5
115. 5
121. 0

108. 7
109.8
106. 5

114. 8
115. 0
110.4

119.4
121.2
118. 6

109. 8
110.6
109. 3

113. 6
113.9
5 113.2

119. o
119. 1
119.4

(4 )

(4 )
(4 )

(4 )
(4 )

(4 )

(4 )
(4 )

(4 )

(4 )

(4 )
(4 )

(4 )
(4 )

Manufacturing

Northeast:
Boston ________________________________________
B u f f a l o ________________________________________
New Y o rk City _______________________________
P h ila d e lp h ia _________________________________

106. 8
106. 3
110.2
111. 6

5 116.0
114. 6

114. 6
116. 7
122.8
120.4

108. 0
107.8
115. 9
111.0

South:
Atlanta ________________________________________
D a l l a s _________________________________________
M em ph is
................

105. 8
108.4
106.2

110. 5
112.7
110. 7

116. 0
118. 9
117.0

108. 9
106. 7
116. 0

118.5
108, 1

109. 8
111.3

114.4
( 4)
113.3

120.6
123. 6
123. 1
119.3

110. 3
112. 0
(4)
114. 8

116.9

(4)

109. 0

113.7
114.6
112. 8

120.2
120.7
118. 1

109. 5
108. 6
111.6

North C en tral:
Ch icago
..
_ _
_..
___
C lev elan d ____________________________________
K an sas City
_
...... .. . .
M in n eap o lis-S t. P a u l ______________________

109. 6

W est:
L o s A n g e le s -L o n g B e a c h ...... ....................
P o rtla n d ___ _________________________________
San F r a n c is c o -O a k la n d ____________________

107. 0

no. o

(4 )
(4 )

(4)

(4)

117.6
117.7
127. 5
123. 6

107. 6
106. 7
109.6
111.4

113. 2
115. 7

117.1
119.5
119.4
122. 0

n 7.8
i :o. i

124. 4
116. 3
132. 8

108.2
110. 7
103.9

113. 6
114. 6
113.2

122. 8
124. 1
122. 3
123.4

109. 0
110. 1
(4)
108. 1

115.4

( 4)
117.2

114.2
114. 1
114. 5

120. 3
1 14. 8
122. 5

108.9
109.6
106. 3

(4 )

121.7
116. 5

(‘ )

(4)

1C. . 9

114. 5
113. 9

114.2
118. 9
123. 1
119. 0

118. 0
119. 3
118. 5

106. 7
113. 8
107.7

118. 9
115. 0
111.6

126. 7
121. 5
119.7

121.7
122. 0
124. 8
119.7

107.6
lOo. 9

113. 0

( 4)
113. 9

(4)

110. 9

(4)
115. 5

118. 5
121.2
126. 3
121.7

115.2
115. 1
110. 7

119.8
122. 3
120. 1

108. 6
112. 5
108. 5

112.9
116. 0
5111. 6

117.9
121. j
118.4

(4 )
(4 )

(4)

1C-. o

(4 )
(4 )

( 4)

1 A v e ra g e w eek ly earn in gs relate to standard s a la r ie s that a re paid fo r standard w ork schedules. A v e ra g e h ourly earn in gs a re straigh t-tim e hourly earn in gs, excluding prem ium pay fo r overtim e
and for w o rk on w eekends, holidays, and late shifts.
2 P ittsburgh, B irm in gh am , and Seattle, included in the cu rren t studies, w e re not surveyed in 1953 (the base y e a r of the in dexes), 1954, 1955, or 1956.
3 F is c a l y e a rs ending June 30. See table 3 fo r p a y ro ll p eriods c o v ered in each a re a .
4 Not surveyed this period .
5 R evised estim ate.
6 Insufficient data to w a rra n t presentation.




10
Ta b le

2

Percent increase, o ffic e and p la n t

(P e rc e n t of in c re a s e in a v e ra g e w eekly earnings or a v e ra g e h ourly earnings 1 fo r selected p eriods 2 and selected occupational groups in 11 la b o r m arkets 3)
In du strial n urses
(wom en)

W om en office
w o rk e rs
A rea

1953
to
1954

1954
to
1955

1955
to
1956

1956
to
1957

1953
to
1954

1954
to
1955

1755
to
1956

Skilled m aintenance trades
(men)
1956
to
1957

1953
to
1954

U n sk illed plant w o rk e rs
(men)

1954
to
1955

1955
to
1956

1956
to
1957

1953
to
19 54

1954
to
1955

1955
to
1556

195 i
to
1957

All industries
N orth east:
B o s t o n __________ __________________________
N ew Y o rk C ity ____________________________
Ph ilad elp h ia _______________________________

5. 2
4. 3
7. 1

2. 9
3. 5
3. 4

(4 )
5. 9
3. 4

(4)
5. 2
6. 5

6. 5
4. 2
7. 1

1. 5
5. 4
3. 0

( 4)
5. 1
4. 3

(4)
4. 9
6. 2

5. 3
4. 5
7. 2

1. 9
5. 0
4. 4

(4)
3. 4
4. 6

(4)
3. 8
5. 2

5. 1
5. 4
4. 5

2. 4
2. 6
4. 3

( 4)
5. 0
.. 0

(4)
5. 3
4. 7

South:
Atlanta
_
. _
D a lla s ______________________________________
M em phis ____________________________________

3. 0
5. 6
4. 1

2. 2
5. 0
2. 1

6. 3
4. 0
6. 5

3. 4
5. 8
4. 3

5. 3
(5)
6. 7

4. 3
7, 6
7. 1

9. 0
2. 8
5. 9

3. 8
6. 9
4. 2

5. 3
5. 9
3. 5

2. 9
3. 8
3. 0

5. 4
4. 6
8. 1

4. 3
3. 4
5. 4

5. 9
3. 6
5. 2

1. 8
3. 3
3. 5

13. 6
4. 7
7. 7

4. 9
4. 0
7. 2

M in n eap o lis-S t. P a u l ____________________

5. 8
6. 3

3. 6
3. 3

4. 3
3. 8

5. 4
6. 3

5. 9
9. 4

4. 2
4. 3

6. 0
3. 4

5. 0
5. 3

6. 3
6. 6

3. 3
3. 3

5. 1
4. 9

5. 0
5. 3

5. 7
6.4

3. 5
4. 9

4. 6
4 .9

4. 0
6. 8

W est:
L o s A n g e le s -L o n g B each
P o r t la n d ____________________________________
San F r a n c is c o -O a k la n d __________________

4. 6
4. 7
4. 4

3. 6
5. 4
3. 0

4. 7
5. 2
4. 8

6. 2
3. 6
5. 0

5. 4
1. 6
4. 3

2. 5
6. 9
6. 3

4. 3
4. 3
2. 6

6. 0
2. 1
6. 4

5. 5
5. 5
4. 0

3. 0
3. 9
2. 4

5. 6
4. 9
3. 7

4. 0
5. 5
7. 5

6. 0
4. 9
6. 1

3. 6
5. 4
3. 0

3. 4
3. 0
4. 4

5. 3
4. 6
5. 5

N orth C e n tra l:

Manufacturing

N orth east:
B o s t o n ______________ ______________________
N ew Y o rk C ity
Philad elp h ia _______________________________

4. 4
5. 2
6. 6

2. 3
4. 7
4. 6

(4 )
5. 3
2. 8

(4)
5. 9
5. 1

7. 2
8. 0
7. 9

0. 7
7. 4
2. 9

(4)
5. 0
5. 0

(4)
4. 8
6. 1

5. 6
5. 2
7. 2

1. 9
4. 2
3. 9

(4)
3. 2
3. 8

(4)
5. 5
5. 4

5. 5
6. 3
3. 3

3. 1
3. 8
4. 5

(4)
3. 8
5. 5

(4)
7. 5
4. 5

South:
Atlanta _____________________________________
D a lla s ______________________________________
M em phis ___________________________________

3. 8
3. 3
2. 3

1. 9
5. 0
3. 9

4. 4
3. 9
4. 7

5. 0
5. 5
5. 6

( 6)
(5)
( 6)

( 6)
9. 9
( 6)

8. 8
1. 4
( 6)

5. 0
7. 5
( 6)

4. 9
7. 0
1. 6

3. 1
3. 5
2. 3

5. 0
3. 5
8. 9

3. 9
4. 2
4. 8

4. 9
9. 5
3. 4

1. 7
4. 0
4. 2

11. 4
1. 1
3. 6

6. 6
5. 7
7. 3

N orth C e n tra l:
C h icago ____________________________________
M in n eap o lis-S t. P a u l ____________________

6. 2
5. 8

3. 4
3. 6

4. 2
3. 4

5. 4
5. 3

5. 9
9. 4

4. 2
5. 0

6. 0
2. 0

5. 0
5. 3

5. 8
6. 7

3. 1
1. 4

5. 8
5. 4

5. 5
5. 1

4. 8
5. 8

2. 7
4. 8

5. 0
4. 2

4. 9
5. 4

W est:
L o s A n g e le s -L o n g B each _______________
P o rtla n d ______________________ ___________
San F r a n c is c o -O a k la n d __________________

5. 2
4. 3
4. 5

3. 6
5. 6
2. 4

4. 3
4. 0
5. 4

5. 8
5. 3
4. 7

6. 8
.8
5. 1

2. 5
7. 8
6. 2

4. 3
5. 0
2. 6

5. 3
. 7
7. 0

5. 8
4. 6
4. 0

2. 9
4. 7
2. 2

5. 8
5. 1
4. 1

4. 0
6. 2
8. 5

4. 9
5. 5
4. 2

3. 5
6. 7
4. 2

3. 9
3. 1
4. 3

4. 4
4. 6
6. 0

for

overtim e

1
and fo r
2
3
4
5
6

A v e ra g e w eek ly earnings relate to standard s a la r ie s that a re paid fo r standard w o rk schedules. A v e ra g e hourly earnings are straight-tim e hourly earnings excluding prem iu m pay
w o rk on w eekends, h olidays, and late shifts.
See table 3 fo r p a y ro ll p eriods c o v e re d in each a re a .
B irm in gh am , B u ffalo , C levelan d , K ansas C ity, P ittsb u rgh , and Seattle w e re not surveyed in consecutive period s between 1953 and 1957.
Not su rvey ed in 1955-56
D e c r e a s e . This decline w as p ro b a b ly due to a change in em ploym ent rath er than to a decline in s a la r ie s .
Insufficient data to w a rra n t presentation.







11
Ta b le 3 :

P a y ro ll p e rio d s covered

(P a y r o l l periods covered in the community wage surveys,

Area

Northeast:
B o s t o n ____________________________________________
Buffalo ___________________________________________
Ne w Yo rk City _________________________________
Philadelphia ____________________________________
P i t t s b u r g h _______________________________________

1953

M ar ch 1953
A p r i l 1953
F e b r u a r y 1953
October 1952

17 labor markets,

1955

19 53-571)

1956

A p r i l 1955
September 19 54
M ar ch 1955
Nov e m b e r 1954

A p r i l 1956
Nov em be r 1955

South:
Atlanta _____________ _____________________________
Birmin gh am ____________________________________
Dallas ___________________________________________
Memphis _________________________________________

M ar ch 1953

Ma rc h 1955

A p r i l 1956

August 1952
January 1953

September 1954
F e b r u a r y 1955

October 1955
F e b r u a r y 1956

North Central:
Chicago __________________________________________
C l e v e l a n d ________________________________________
Kansas C i t y _____________________________________
Minneapolis-St. Paul _________________________

Ma rc h 1953
October 1952
October 1952
No v e m b e r 1952

A p r i l 1955
October 1954

A p r i l 1956

Nov e m b e r 1954

De c e m b e r 1955

F e b r u a r y 1953
September 1952
January 1953

M ar ch 1955
A p r i l 1955
January 1955

M a rc h 1956
Apr il 195 6
January 1956

West:
Los A n g e l e s - L o n g Beach _____________________
Portland _________________________________________
San F r a n c i s c o - O a k l a n d _______________________
Seattle ___________________________ ________ ________

*

F is c a l years ending June 30.

1957

September
September
A p r i l 1957
No v e m be r
D ec em ber

1956
1956
1956
1956

A p r i l 1957
January 1957
O ctober 1956
F e b r u a r y 1957

A p r i l 1957
October 1956
D ec em ber 1956
M ar ch 1957

M ar ch 1957
A p r i l 1957
January 1957
August 1956




13
Wage Differences Among Labor Markets

Occupational wage tables presented on pages 19 to 33 to p e r ­
mit a comparison of pay levels, fo r any of the jobs studied, among
industry divisions within a particular labor market as w ell as among
the various labor m arkets.
Estimates of pay relationships within and
among markets vary somewhat, depending upon the occupations selected
for comparison. By averaging the pay fo r groupings of occupations,
useful benchmarks can be provided fo r o ffice, skilled maintenance,
custodial, and m aterial movement w o rk e rs .8 Interarea pay relation ­
ships fo r these fields of employment w ill not n ecessarily agree with
measures based on averages fo r broader groups of workers or occu­
pational averages fo r a specific industry.
The use of data for the same jobs in each labor market,
together with the assumption of a constant employment relationship
between jobs in all m arkets, eliminates interarea differences in occu­
pational composition as a factor in examining pay levels.
Industrial
composition, however, varies substantially among labor markets.
This type of variation is necessarily reflected in and, in fact, tends
to explain the area pay relatives presented in tables 4 and 5.
Interarea differences in pay levels w ere most marked fo r
custodial and m aterial movement workers and least fo r office workers
and skilled maintenance crafts.
This variation in interarea wage
spread by job group is la rgely accounted fo r by the nature of the wage
structure in southern communities where most, but not all, of the
lowest job averages w ere recorded.
Pay levels for w hite-collar em ­
ployees and skilled plant workers in the South compare m ore favorably
with pay in other regions than is the case with sem iskilled and un­
skilled plant w orkers.
Method of Computing A rea Relatives
The following method was used in computing the data used in
the comparisons.
For each area, aggregates for a ll industries com ­
bined and for manufacturing and nonmanufacturing separately w ere
8
The office occupations covered 5 men*s and 13 women*s
Men— clerks, accounting, class A; clerks, accounting, class B; order
clerks; office boys; tabulating-machine operators; Women— b ille rs ,
machine (billing); bookkeeping-machine operators, class B; Comptometer
operators; accounting clerks, class A; accounting clerks, class B;
file clerks, class B; payroll clerks; key-punch operators; secretaries;
stenographers, general; switchboard operators; typists, class A; typists,
class B.
The plant jobs included 6 maintenance trades and 4 custodial
and 7 m aterial movement jobs: Maintenance— automotive mechanics,
carpenters, electricians, machinists, mechanics, and painters; Custodial— guards, janitors, janitresses, and watchmen; M aterial M ove­
ment— fo rk lift operators, m aterial handling laborers, order fille r s ,
shipping packers, shipping and receiving clerks; truckdrivers, medium;
and truckdrivers, heavy, tra iler type.




computed by multiplying the average standard weekly salary fo r each
of 18 office jobs and the average straight-tim e hourly earnings (ex­
cluding premium pay fo r overtim e and nightwork) fo r each of 17 plant
jobs by estimated total employment in the job in a ll industries and
areas combined.
The procedure assumed a constant employment
relationship between jobs in all areas— in manufacturing, nonmanu­
facturing, and fo r both groups combined.
F o r purposes of this comparison, aggregates for each occupa­
tional group and industry group are expressed as percentages of like
groups in New York City, adjusted for differences in survey timing.
Wage data fo r New York City relate to A p ril 1957, as did those for
Atlanta, Chicago, and Portland.
Most of the other areas were studied
ea rlie r— Seattle in August 1956, Boston and Buffalo in September,
Dallas and Cleveland in October, Philadelphia in Novem ber, and
Birmingham, Kansas City, and Pittsburgh in December.
The four
remaining areas w ere studied between January and March 1957.
The
adjustment for timing differences assumed that New York City wages in­
creased uniform ly over the 12-month period between annual studies and
that an intermediate level such as fo r August 1956 could be obtained
by adding the estimated wage increment to A p ril 1956 pay levels.
The comparisons in the present study are not comparable with sim ilar
but unadjusted analyses made in past years, in which the interim be­
tween the New York City survey and most other areas ranged from
1 to 6 months.
Interarea Comparisons
Jobs Groups. — The office clerica l pay level in Los Angeles Long Beach was 107 percent of the New York City level (table 4 ).9
Chicago, Cleveland, and San Francisco-Oakland pay levels w ere at
104-105 percent of New York City and pay relatives for other areas
ranged from 100 fo r Seattle to 85 fo r Memphis.
(See table 4). Pay
relatives for women closely followed this pattern, reflecting their
predominance in office clerica l employment.
F or men, however,
pay relatives ranged from 117 in Cleveland to 96 in Atlanta and
Boston and w ere 108 or m ore in the 4 western areas and in Buffalo,
jobs:
Chicago, Cleveland; and Pittsburgh.
All-industry averages fo r skilled maintenance workers (based
on 6 trades), expressed as percentages of the New York City level,
ranged from 112 in San Francisco-Oakland to 91 in Atlanta, Dallas,
and Memphis.
A reas as w idely dispersed geographically as Buffalo,
9
If comparisons of office worker pay w ere based on average
hourly earnings, New York City would rank firs t among these areas,
Whereas stenographers, for example, averaged a 36-hour workweek
in New York City, they worked from 38 to 40 hour s , on the average, in
other areas,

14
Birmingham, Cleveland, Kansas City, Minneapolis-St. Paul, Los
A ngeles-Lon g Beach* Portland, and Seattle had pay relatives of 104
to 107.
Custodial workers w ere highest paid in the San Francisco
Bay A rea (118 percent of New York City) and second highest, with a
relative of 112, in Pittsburgh.
Grouped at 106 to 109 percent (of
New York City) w ere Buffalo, Chicago, Cleveland, and the 3 West
Coast areas other than San Francisco-Oakland.
Reflecting the gen­
era lly lower pay level fo r unskilled w orkers in the South, custodial
w orkers in Atlanta, Dallas, and Memphis averaged 75-77 percent of
New York City pay.
Pay relatives fo r m aterial movement workers fe ll into the
same pattern of variation within and among regions.
In the West,
they ranged from 113 in the San Francisco Bay A rea to 105 in Portland;
among North Central areas from 109 in Cleveland to 99 in Kansas




City; in the Northeast from 109 in Pittsburgh to 92 in Boston; and in
the South from 80 in Birmingham to 75 in Memphis.
Industry Groups. — As shown below, the wage spreads between
the highest and lowest pay areas fo r office workers and m aterial
movement workers w ere about the same in manufacturing and non­
manufacturing but for maintenance and custodial workers w ere definitely
greater in nonmanufacturing.
Exclusion of the southern areas from the measure of wage
dispersion would not m aterially affect the estimates for office workers
in either industry group or fo r maintenance jobs in manufacturing; in
other cases, however, the estimates of wage spread outside the South
would decline sharply.
In the case of custodial workers in nonmanu­
facturing, fo r example, a 41-percent difference existed between high
and low wage areas, whereas inclusion of the South raised the spread
to 78 percent.

P e rcentage difference between
highiest and lowest area relatives
Job group
Office workers ----------Plant workers -----------Maintenance ---------C u stodial---------------M aterial movement —

Manufacturing

Nonmanufacturing

24
44
24
42
54

25
55
48
78
57

Wage Differences Among Labor Markets
Ta b le

4:

15

In te ra re a p a y com pa risons, o ffic e w o rk e rs

(Relative pay levels for office work er s in 17 la bor markets by industry division and sex, winter 1956-57)
(Ne w Yo rk City = 100)
All industries
L a b o r market

Manufacturing

Nonmanufacturing

Men
and
women

Men

Women

87
95
100
91
97

88
99
100
92
101

94
114
100
99
115

87
97
100
91
99

88
89
100
90
94

96
102
100
100
109

87
87
100
89
92

96
105
102
98

89
92
92
83

92
99
97
86

94
107
107
94

92
98
96
85

90
87
91
84

97
98
99
99

89
85
90
82

104
105
95
91

109
117
102
100

103
104
94
90

101
104
95
88

107
116
103
96

100
103
94
87

104
101
94
91

108
113
100
101

104
99
94
90

107
97
105
100

111
108
109
110

106
96
104
99

105
96
107
104

108
107
109
114

105
94
107
103

105
98
103
98

111
109
107
109

105
96
103
96

Men
and
women

Men

Northeast:
B o s t o n _________ ________ __ _____________
Buffalo _______________________________________
New Yo rk City __________ _____________ __
Philadelphia _________________________________
P i t t s b u r g h ---------------------------------------------------

88
97
100
92
99

96
112
100
101
115

South:
Atlanta __ ___________________________________
Birm ingh am ______ ____________________ __
Dallas __________ ___________________________
Memphis -----------------------------------------------------

90
93
93
85

North Central:
.. , _ _ .......
_
, _r„
r
C hie a g o _
.
C l e v e l a n d ____________________________________
Kansas C i t y _________________________________
Minneapolis-St. Paul ---------- -----------------West:
Los A n g e le s -L o n g Beach _________________
Portland
_____ ____________________________
San Fr an cis co -O ak la n d _ _________________
Seattle _ _________ _________________________

W omen

Ta b le 5 :

Men
and
women

W ome n

Men

In te ra re a pay com pa risons, p la n t w o rk e rs

(Relative pay levels for plant w or k e rs in indirect jobs in 17 lab or markets by industry division and wo rk category, winter 19 56-57)
(N e w Y o r k City = 100)
Manufacturing

A l l industries
L a b o r market

Maintenance,
custodial,
and
Maintenance
ma terial
movement

C ustodial

Material
movement

Maintenance,
custodial,
and
Maintenance
material
movement

C ustodial

Nonmanufacturing

Material
move ment

Maintenance,
custodial,
and
Maintenance
material
movement

Custodial

Mate rial
movement

Northeast:
B o s t o n ___________________________________ __
Buffalo ___ ________ ___ ___ ________________
_
Ne w Y o rk City
___________________________
Philadelphia _________________________________
P i t t s b u r g h _____ ____________________________

93
106
100
99
110

93
106
100
103
109

94
109
100
96
112

92
105
100
98
109

93
107
100
99
109

92
104
100
100
105

98
115
100
102
116

91
105
100
96
108

93
97
100
96
108

94
100
100
105
112

89
89
100
87
100

94
101
100
100
111

South:
Atlanta
_
---------- __ -------------------------Birm ingham _________________________ _____
D a l l a s ____________ ___ ________________ ______
Memphis _____________________________________

81
87
80
78

91
104
91
91

77
84
77
75

79
80
77
75

81
92
85
79

88
102
90
88

87
94
89
86

76
86
81
72

81
78
75
74

96
93
84
82

67
71
68
64

80
74
74
76

North Central:
Chicago ______ ______________________________
C l e v e l a n d __________________
______________
Kansas City
_________ __________ _________
Minneapolis-St. Pa ul
--------------------

105
108
99
103

111
106
104
105

106
108
95
103

102
109
99
103

103
108
103
102

104
104
101
101

108
114
109
106

100
107
101
99

108
104
95
105

121
105
105
111

103
90
81
98

105
111
98
106

West:
L os A n g e l e s - L o n g Beach _____ _________
Portland _____________________________________
San Fr an cis co -O ak la n d __ _________________
S e a t t le __
_
________ _________________

107
106
114
107

107
107
112
105

107
106
118
107

107
105
113
108

106
105
114
107

102
103
109
101

112
109
122
110

104
104
111
108

109
105
115
108

114
110
112
108

102
98
114
104

110
107
116
110







17
Occupational Earnings

Among the 17 areas surveyed, occupational pay levels for
women office workers w ere generally highest in Los Angeles-Long
Beach and fo r plant workers in San Francisco-Oakland. The lowest a v­
erages for office and plant workers w ere generally found in Memphis.1
0
Among the highest paid jobs studied w ere secretaries in wom ens
office jobs; class A accounting clerks in men*s office jobs; tool and
die makers in skilled maintenance jobs; and truckdrivers in custodial,
warehousing, and shipping jobs.
Wage differences among these areas
w ere sm aller for office workers than fo r plant w orkers, and within
the latter group, they w ere much greater for unskilled workers than
fo r skilled maintenance workers.
Pay rates of individual employees varied greatly in each
occupation and labor market studied.
In general, average earnings
of office and plant workers tended to be higher in manufacturing than
in nonmanufacturing.
Each of these groups, however, include a wide
variety of industries that d iffer in level of rates paid.
Such nonmanu­
facturing industries as public utilities and wholesale trade, fo r ex­
ample, are characterized by pay levels that frequently equal or exceed
manufacturing averages for comparable work in the same area.
Job
rate variation is also typical among and within establishments within
the same industry.
P articu larly in the case of office w orkers, length
of service influences individual pay rates within an occupation and
establishment.
Thus, in viewing the accompanying tables, it should
be noted that all figures are averages, and do not indicate either the
broad range of earnings that may occur within a given occupation or
the overlapping of pay rates between occupations.1
1
Woments Office Occupations
Secretaries and general stenographers w ere num erically among
the most important womenls jobs studied. Secretaries had the highest
average weekly salaries in 13 of the 17 areas; their average salaries
ranged from $65.50 in Memphis to $84 in Los A ngeles-Lon g Beach
and w ere over $75 in 9 areas including all 4 western areas (table A - l ) .
General stenographers averaged $60 or m ore in all areas except
Memphis ($56.50) and Boston ($58.50).
Among the 17 areas, the
difference between the salaries of secretaries and general stenog­
raphers ranged from $9 in Memphis and Boston to $16 in New York
City.
Class A accounting clerks had next to the highest salaries
among the womenT office jobs in 8 areas.
s
Although their salaries
w ere higher than those of secretaries in Birmingham and Kansas
City, they usually averaged $2 to $6 less in the other areas.
1 For a m ore detailed description of intercity wage differences,
0
see Wage Differences Among Labor M arkets, p. 13.
1 The distribution of workers by average hourly or weekly earn­
1
ings are presented in the bulletins fo r the various areas.
See last
page.




Among the lower paid office jobs, average salaries of office
girls ranged from $43.50 in Memphis to $56 in Los A ngeles-Long
Beach and San Francisco-Oakland.
Men*s Office Occupations
Class A accounting clerks had the highest weekly salaries
among the six menT office jobs studied.
s
Their average salaries
ranged from $80 in Boston to $98 in Pittsburgh, and in 10 of the 17
areas they w ere between $87 and $91.50. Men*s salaries w ere higher
than women*s in sim ilar occupations. Among areas, the median amount
of difference between salaries of men and women was as follow s:
Order clerks, $21; payroll clerks, $15.50; accounting clerks, class A,
$17; accounting clerks, class B, $13; and tabulating-machine oper­
ators, $7.50. By way of contrast, differences in averages for office boys
and office girls w ere sm all in most areas.
Among the factors that
may influence the higher pay position of men over women in the same
job classifications are differences in length of service or experience,
as w ell as differences in the establishments and type of industry
where they are employed.
Professional and Technical Occupations
Salaries of industrial nurses, the only womenls professional
occupation studied, ranged from $73 in Boston to $89 in Los A n gelesLong Beach (table A - l ) , and fe ll in the range of $75 to $85 in 12
areas.
Whereas in a m ajority of the areas nurses averaged $3 to
$7 m ore than secreta ries, they averaged $2.50 a week less in P o r t­
land and the same as secretaries in Cleveland. The greatest difference
in pay was noted in Birmingham where nurses averaged $84. 50 and
secretaries, $72.50.
Among men professional and technical w orkers, salaries of
senior draftsmen averaged $100 to $110 a week except in Dallas
($88.50), Seattle ($94), Pittsburgh ($113), Birmingham and Chicago
($115), and New York City ($117). Weekly salaries of junior draftsmen
ranged from $66.50 in Memphis to $83.50 in Portland.
Differences
in salaries between senior and junior draftsmen ranged from $17.50
in Portland to $45 in Birmingham.
Skilled Maintenance W orkers
Maintenance electricians and machinists a v e ra g e ! $2.30 or
more an hour in a ll areas except D a lla s.1
2 Hourly averages for
maintenance carpenters and mechanics fe ll below $2. 30 in Atlanta,
Boston, Dallas, and Memphis (table A -9 ). Maintenance painters earned
1
2
In addition to the wage data collected in 17 labor areas,
earnings fo r plant workers in Milwaukee and St. Louis are found in
appendix A.

18
somewhat less and averaged below $2 in Boston and Memphis, and
m ore than $2.30 in 9 areas, of which virtu ally all were located in
the North Central and West regions. Tool and die m akers, the highest
paid skilled maintenance workers studied, had average hourly earnings
ranging from $2.43 in Dallas to $2.97 in San Francisco-Oakland.
In Pittsburgh, Chicago, Cleveland, Kansas City, Los Angeles-Long
Beach, and Seattle, average hourly earnings in this trade w ere also
$2. 70 or m ore.
The San Francisco Bay A rea ranked firs t among the
highest pay areas fo r most of the skilled trades studied.
Custodial and M aterial Movement Occupations
The highest pay levels for most of the custodial and m aterial
movement jobs covered w ere also found in San Francisco-Oakland.
One of the exceptions was truckdrivers (one of the m ore important
jobs num erically), fo r which the highest average was recorded in
New York City ($2.47), 5 cents an hour m ore than in San FranciscoOakland.
A large portion of the truckdrivers in New York City manu­
facturing establishments w ere paid on a bonus basis, while in San
Francisco-Oakland the drivers w ere on an hourly rate.
In nonmanu­
facturing establishments, however, San Francisco-Oakland truckdrivers
averaged $2.40 compared with $2.36 in New York City.
The lowest
pay levels for this job (less than $2) w ere found in the South and Boston.
The all-industry averages for laborers engaged in m aterial
handling activities illustrate the geographic differences that exist in
unskilled w orker pay.
Among the 4 southern areas, averages for
laborers ranged from $1.32 in Memphis to $1.51 in Birmingham.
Laborers averaged $1.61 in Boston, $ 1. 72 in Philadelphia, and $1.80
or m ore in the other 11 areas.
The highest average ($2.07) was
recorded in San Francisco-Oakland and laborers averaged frorti $1.94
to $2 in the other western areas and in Cleveland, MinneapolisSt. Paul, and Pittsburgh.
Men janitors earned from 16 to 38 cents




an hour less than laborers.
A verages fo r watchmen w ere generally
between those of laborers and janitors.
Earnings data w ere collected for three womenrs nonoffice
jobs— operators of passenger elevators, packers fo r shipping,
and
janitresses (table A -9 ).
Of these, shipping packers w ere the highest
paid, with average hourly earnings ranging from $1.13 in Memphis
to $1.76 in Los A ngeles-Lon g Beach; they averaged m ore than $1.40
in most of the areas.
Janitresses1 earnings ranged from 76 cents
in Atlanta to $1.72 in San Francis co-Oakland; they averaged about
85 cents in the other southern areas and about $1.35 to $1.50 in
most of the remaining areas.
Earnings of women elevator operators
ranged from 55 cents in Atlanta to $1.75 in San Francisco-Oakland:
These operators averaged less than $1 in all southern areas and less
than $1.50 in the remaining areas.
Typically, men in sim ilar jobs
earned m ore than women.
Interindustry Comparisons
In the 17 areas studied, earnings of office and plant workers
w ere generally higher in manufacturing industries than in nonmanufac­
turing industries as a group.
However, manufacturing averages were
sometimes exceeded in 1 or m ore of the 5 broad nonmanufacturing
groups, particularly among office occupations.
F or example, average
salaries of secretaries w ere higher in public utilities than in manu­
facturing in 14 of the 17 areas; earnings of general transcribingmachine operators w ere higher in wholesale trade than in manufac­
turing in 5 of 8 areas where comparisons could be made.
Earnings
of carpenters w ere higher in retail trade than in manufacturing in
all six areas where comparisons were possible. Public u tilities, fo l­
lowed by wholesale trade, generally had the highest averages among
the nonmanufacturing groups surveyed.
Since the importance of the
various industry groups differs by area, this factor should be con­
sidered in evaluating interarea occupational wage differentials.

19

A : Occupational Earnings

T a b le A - l:

O ffic e o c c u p a tio n s - a ll in d u strie s

( A ve ra ge weekly earnings 1 for selected occupations studied in 6 broa d industry divisions)
Northeast
Sex, occupation, and grade
Boston2

Buffalo

New
Y or k
City2

South
Phila­
delphia2

Pitts­
burgh

Atlanta

Birm ing­
ham

West

North Central

Da llas M e m p h i s 2 Chicago 2

C le v e ­
land 2

Kansa s
City

Minneap o lis St. Paul

Lo s
AngelesLong
Beach2

Portland

San
FranSeattle2
ci s co Oakland2

Office clerical
Men
C le rk s:
Accounting, c la ss A _______________________
Accounting, c la ss B _______________________
O rd e r _______ ________________________________
P a y r o l l _______________________________________
Office boys ______________________________________
Tabulating-machine o p e r a t o r s _______________

$80. 00
59.50
76.00
78. 00
44. 50
68. 50

$86.00
80. 50
. 92.00
98. 50
52.50
82. 00

$87.50
68. 50
75. 50
79.00
49.50
7 3.50

$87.00
68. 50
76. 00
79. 00
4 o . 50
70. 00

$98. 00
84. 00
86. 50
91.00
53.00
82.50

$86.00
65. 50
7 1.50
7 7.50
48. 00
69. 00

$93.50
7 0. 50
76. 50
92. 06
46. 50
78. 50

56. 00
48.50

58. 50
53. 00

64. 00
65. 00

57.50
56. 00

57.00
55.50

56.00
54. 00

61.00
52.50

65.00
51.50

7 1.50
61.00

64. 00
53. 50

68. 50
53. 00

65.50
52.50
57.50
44.50
55.00
59. 00
54. 00

72.50
54. 00
58. 50
48. 00
57.00
66.00
57.00

Vo. 50
62.00
66.00
52.00
63. 50
73. 00
66.00

68. 50
55. 00
59.00
45.00
51.50
61.00
58. 50

49.50
54. 50
45. 00
67.50
58. 50
6?. 00
54. 50
55. 50
61.00

52.50
59. 00
47.00
76. 00
64. 00
u 9 . 50
53. 50
57-. 00
70. 00

58. 00
6 1.00
49. 00
82.50
66. 50
79.00
64. 50
64. 00
7 1.00

54. 50
55.50
48. 50

54. 00
61.50
52.50

132.50
100. 50
75. 00
56.50

73. 00

00
50
00
00
00
00

$88.00
69.00
66.50

54. 00
53. 00

62.00
56. 00

74.50
59.50
55. 50
49.50
59.00
72.00
62.00

52.50
53. 50
44.50
74. 00
60. 50
70. 00
57.00
55. 50
64. 00

52. 50
61.00
48. 00
79. 00
65.50
71.00
61.00
61.00
76. 00

66.50
64. 50
5b. 50

55.00
58. 00
49.50

138.50
108.50
78. 00
"

149.00
117.00
78. 50
72. 50

137.50
102.50
76.00
-

62. 00

86. 00

77.00

$90.
70.
73.
81.
46.
73.

$95.00
79. 00
87. 50
82. 50
56. 00
91.00

$88.50
70.00
73. 00
76. 00
47.00
76.50

$84.50
65. 50
82.00

44. 00
79.50

$91. 00
71. 50
89. 00
86. 50
55. 00
81.50

55. 50
54. 00

51.00
44. 50

65. 00
64. 50

61.50
67.00

67. 00
51. 00

63. 50
54. 00

62.00
51.50

77.00
65. 00

7 1.00
55. 00
56.00
45.50
53. 00
62.00
59.00

7b. 00
5 t . 00
66.00
50. 00
58. 00
63. 00
54. 00

68. 00
57.50
56. 00
44. 50
55. 50
62. 50
58. 50

64.50
52.50
53. 00
46.50
55. 50
58. 50
52.50

51. 50
56.00
48.50
73. 00
6 1. 00
53.50
55. 00
59.00

50. 50
59. 00
50. 50
72.50
62.50
53. 00
55. 00
63. 50

55.
44.
74.
64.
79.
51.
58.
66.

00
50
00
00
00
00
00
00

54. 50
55. 50
6 1.00
56. 00
52.00 : 48. 50

56. 00
63. 00
51. 00

149.00
113.00
82.50
79.50

145. 00
101.50
72.00
"

85.50

81.50

48. 50
74. 00

$89.50
76. 00
88. 00
90.50
58. 00
85. 00

$91.50
70.50
86. 00
84. 00
51.50
89. 00

$89.00
74. 50
86.50
87.50
54. 50
82. 00

$88. 50
77.50
84. 00
80. 00
49.50
80. 50

58.50
"

55.50
58.50

65. 00
70. 00

57.50
59. 00

70.00
63.50

59.50
65.50

74.50
59. 50

66. 00
56. 00

66.50
55. 50

79. 00
60. 00

75.00
55.50

76.00
60. 00

68. 50
57.00

79. 00
65. 00
66. 00
53.50
65. 50
73. 00
68. 50

76.
65.
66.
52.
63.
70.
66.

74. 50
57.00
60. 50
47.50
57.00
64.50
62. 50

71.50
55. 50
58.50
47.50
57.50
63.00
59.50

80. 00
67. 00
67. 00
55.50
73. 00
76.00
72. 50

74. 50
63. 00
62. 00
48.50
61. 50
66. 50
63. 50

77.00
65. 00
68.50
52.50
72.50
76.50
69.00

71.00
59.50
62.00
51.50
61.00
68. 00
64. 50

50
00
00
00
00
00
50
50
00

59.50
66. 00
52.50
83. 00
68. 00
77.50
64. 00
63. 50
74. 50

53.
60.
46.
74.
63.

00
50
00
00
00

56.50
54. 50
45. 00
72.00
60. 50

-

-

44. 50
54. 00
67.50

60.
67.
54.
83.
70.
78.
65.
66.
74.

55. 00
56.50
70. 00

58. 50
55.50
62. 50

63. 50
71.50
56. 00
84. 00
72. 00
82. 00
67.00
68. 00
82. 00

55.50
64. 50
47.50
77.00
65. 00
57.00
60.50
73.00

62.50
65.50
56.00
82.50
71.00
69. 00
66.00
66. 00
76. 50

53. 50
62.00
50. 00
77.00
66. 50
69. 50
62.00
61.00
67.50

53. 50
56. 50
49. 00

54. 00
55.50
45. 50

67. 50
67.50
58. 50

65. 00
68. 50
57.00

60.50
66. 00
51. 50

56.00
56.00
50. 50

63. 50
69. 00
59. 00

60. 00
62. 50
54. 50

66.00
66. 00
57. 00

58. 00
62.00
51. 50

114.00
88. 50
70. 00
55. 50

126.50
109.50
80. 00
-

_

106.50
66. 50
-

133.50
115.00
81.50
66. 00

.

115.00
70. 00
-

104.50
79. 00
-

101.50
77.00
63. 00

141. 50
103.50
83. 00
70. 00

101. 00
83.50
"

122.00
104.50
80.50
-

109.5C
94.00
73. 00

84. 50

77.50

75. 00

83.50

83. 00

81.00

79.00

89. 00

74.50

83. 50

83. 00

-

-

Women
B i l l e r s , machine:
Billing machine _____________________________
Bookkeeping machine
Bookkeeping-machine operators:
C l a s s A _______________________________________
C l a s s B _______________________________________
C ler ks:
Accounting, clas s A _______________________
Accounting, c la ss B
_
F ile , cla s s A ________________________________
Fi le , cla s s B ________________________________
O r d e r _________________________________________
P a y r o l l ...........................................................
Comptometer oper at ors
_ _
Duplicating-machine op erators
(mimeo grap h or d i t t o ) _______________________
Key-punch opera tor s
_
_
_____
Office gi rls ______________________________________
Secre taries ____________________________________
Stenographers, g e n e r a l ---------------------------------Stenographers, t e c h n i c a l ______________________
Switchboard op erators ________________________
Switchboard operato r-re ce ptio nis ts
Tabulating-machine o p e r a t o r s _______________
T ra n s cr it in g- m a c h in e ope rators,
gene ral _________________________________________
Typists, clas s A ________________________________
Typists, clas s B ________________________________

-

-

-

57.00
43. 50
65. 50
56.50
-

00
00
00
00
00
00
00

Professional and technical
Mon
Draftsmen, lea de r _____________________________
Draftsmen, senior _____________________________
Draftsmen, j u n i o r _____________________________
T r a c e r s _________________________________________

_

-

Women
N u rs es , industrial ( r e g i s t e r e d ) _____________

1 Earnings relate to standard sa la ri e s that are paid for standard work schedules.
2 Exceptions to the standard industry limitations are shown in footnotes 4 and/or 6 to the table in appendix B.
N O TE :




Dashes indicate no data or insufficient data to w a rr a n t presentation.

20
T a b le A -2 -

O ffic e O c c u p a tio n s - m a n u fa c tu rin g

(A v e r a g e weekly e a r n in g s 1 for selected occupations studied in manufacturing)
Northeast

South

Boston

Buffalo

Ne w
York
City

$83.
58.
76.
79.
45.
67.

50
00
50
50
00
50

$92.00
83. 50
97. 50
98. 50
53. 50
84. 00

$88.50
73. 00
79. 00
80. 00
52. 00
77. 50

$88. 00
76. 50
72. 00
80. 00
47. 00
71. 50

$101. 50
87. 00
87. 50
91. 50
56. 00
86. 50

$85.50
65. 50
70. 00
77. 50
47. 00
81. 50

55. 00
62. 00

62. 00
-

65. 50
64. 00

59. 50
64. 00

57. 50
-

66. 00
58. 00

72. 00
62. 50

73. 00
69. 00

64. 00
58. 50

68.
57.
58.
48.
55.
59.
58.

73. 50
61.00
69. 50
55. 50
61. 00
67. 00
63. 00

80.
64.
73.
56.
65.
73.
68.

00
50
00
50
00
00
50

73.
57.
62.
49.
53.
61.
61.

50. 50
56. 00
51.00
69. 50
61.00
63. 00
62. 50
57. 00
66. 50

52.
61.
49.
79.
67.
68.
68.
58.
75.

59.
65.
49.
86.
70.
83.
72.
65.
70.

50
50
50
50
00
50
00
00
00

54.
61.
46.
77.
62.
73.
66.
57.
71.

57. 00
55. 50
51.00

56. 00
65. 00
56. 50

67. 50
68. 50
61.00

134.50
97. 00
73. 00
-

138. 50
109.50
78. 00
-

73. 50

83. 00

Sex, occupation, and grade

Phila­
delphia

Pitts­
burgh

Atlanta

Birm ing­
ham

North Centr al

West
Minne apolis St. Paul

Lo s
AngelesLong
Beach

Portland

$89.00
74. 50
90. 50
86. 00
60. 50
84. 50

$88.50
94. 00
49. 50
-

San
FranSeattle
ci sc o Oakland

Chicago

Cleve­
land

Kansas
City

$88. 00
67. 50
65. 50
77. 50

$93.00
78. 50
88. 00
87. 00
55. 50
82. 50

$96. 50
81.50
94. 00
84. 00
55. 50
91. 50

$91.50
80. 50
74. 00
72. 00
48. 00
-

$82.00
67. 00
84. 00
47. 00
77. 50

57. 50
59. 00

52. 00
-

64. 00
-

63. 00
-

_
-

-

66. 50
73. 00

63. 50
_

73. 50
_

.
_

75. 00
60. 50

71.00
60. 00

58. 00

76. 50
69.00

74. 00
64. 00

60. 00

60. 50

79. 50
74. 50

77. 50
62. 00

75. 50
73. 00

_
65. 50

74. 00
58. 50
59. 50
57. 00
63. 00
67. 50

83. 50
62. 50
71.00
60. 00
61. 50
67. 50
64. 50

79.
62.
60.
55.
61.
63.
65.

67. 00
57. 00
51.00
50. 00
57. 50
61. 50
61. 00

81.
68.
66.
56.
68.
72.
71.

79.
70.
67.
55.
64.
72.
68.

00
50
00
50
00
00
50

80. 50
61. 00
_
49. 50
54. 00
65. 00
66. 50

71. 50
58. 00
56. 50
48. 00
62. 00
63. 00
61.00

81.00
68. 50
72. 00
63. 00
72. 00
75. 50
73. 50

74. 00
64. 50
_
55. 50
66. 50
66. 50
65. 50

83. 50
73. 50
73. 50
59. 50
74. 00
77. 00
71.00

82. 50
65. 50
_
64. 50
65. 00
70. 00
68. 50

50
00
00
00
50
00
00
00
50

69. 00
75. 50
62. 50
68. 50
54. 00
-

63. 00
77. 50
70. 50
68. 00
61. 50
-

65.
54.
77.
69.
64.
58.
75.

50
00
50

60. 50
44. 50
68. 50
59. 50
_
57. 00
-

59. 50
68. 00
55. 50
84. 50
70. 50
70. 50
67. 00
-

60. 50
67. 00
54. 50
85. 50
71. 00
70. 50
65. 50
79. 00

74. 00
69. 00
65. 00
55. 50
-

_
57. 50
46. 00
73. 50
61. 00
62. 50
57. 50
-

67. 50
73. 00
61.00
84. 00
74. 00
88. 50
74. 50
68. 50
82. 00

_
63. 50
52. 00
76. 00
68. 00
62. 00
-

62.
68.
58.
89.
75.
74.
68.
76.

50
00
00

_
64. 50
82. 50
70. 00
67. 50
62. 50
-

56. 50
62. 50
51. 50

61. 50
64. 00
56. 00

56. 00
67. 00
54. 50

59. 50
69. 00
57. 50

53. 50
62. 50
56. 00

53. 50
56. 00
49. 00

68. 00
68. 00
59. 50

66. 00
70. 50
59. 50

68. 50
54. 00

55. 00
56. 00
52. 00

61. 50
73. 50
63. 50

66. 50
68. 50
59. 00

71. 50
72. 00
62. 50

66. 50
58. 50

151. 50
108.00
72. 00
-

138.00
102. 50
78. 00
-

150.00
114. 00
84. 00
80. 50

99. 00
73. 00
-

_
116. 00
71. 00

108.50
69. 00
-

131. 00
113.00
80. 00
66. 00

130.00
109. 50
80. 50

106. 00
83. 00

-

-

101. 50
76. 00
58. 50

142. 00
101.00
79. 00
72. 00

101.50
84. 50

-

101.50
88. 00
70. 00
-

88. 00

78. 50

86. 00

84. 00

86. 00

78. 50

-

83. 50

82. 50

79. 50

79. 00

89. 00

73. 50

Dallas

Memphis

00
00
00
50
50
50

$97. 00
76. 00
77. 50
49. 50
83. 50

61.00
-

62. 50
-

60. 00

75. 50
60. 00

00
50
00
50
00
50
50

80.
69.
65.
56.
70.
73.
66.

50
00
50
00
50
00
50

00
00
00
00
50
50
00
00
00

54.
67.
50.
83.
69.
70.
71.
63.
77.

Office clerical
Men
C le rk s :
Accounting, class A _______________________
Accounting, class B ______________________
O rd er _________________________________________
P a y r o l l _______________________________________
Office boys ______________________________________
Tabulating-machine operators ______________

$98.
72.
84.
92.
49.
80.

$92.
79.
91.
92.
53.
87.

00
00
00
50
50
00

$88.50
_
_
78. 00
56. 50
-

Women
B il le r s , machine:
Billing machine _____________________________
Bookkeeping machine ______________________
Bookkeeping-machine operators;
C l as s A ______________________________________
C l a s s B ______________________________________
C le rk s :
Accounting, class A _______________________
Accounting, c la ss B _______________________
File, class A ____________________ ______ ___
File, class B _______________________________
O rd e r _________________________________________
P a y r o l l _______________________________________
Co mptometer operators _______________________
Duplicating-machine operators
(mimeograDh or ditto)
Key-punch operators __________________________
Office girls _____________________________________
S ecr eta rie s
_ ...... ...
.............
Stenographers, general ______________________
Stenographers, technical _____________________
Switchboard operators ________________________
Switchboard ope rato r-rece ption ists ________
Tabulating-machine operators ______________
Tr an scr ibi ng -m ac h in e operators ,
peneral
.
.... _ ........... ..
....
Typists, class A _______________________________
Typists, class R
_
.

00
00
00
50
00
00
50

50
00
00
00
50
50
50
50
00

50
50
50
50
50
00
50

00
00
50
50

50
00
50
00
00
50
00

50
00
50
50
00

Professional and technical
Men
Draftsmen,
Draftsmen,
Draftsmen,
Tracers . .

leader _____________________________
senior _____________________________
junior _____________ _____________
. .

_

_

_

_

_
-

_

121.00
107.50
82. 00
-

92. 50
70. 00

84. 50

84. 50

-

Women
N u r s e s , indust rial (re gi ste re d) _____________

1 Earnings
NOTE:




relate to standard sa la rie s

that are paid for standard w or k schedules.

Dashes indicate no data or insufficient data to

■rant presentation.

.

21
T a b le A - 3 :

O ffic e o c c u p a tio n s-n o n m a n u fa c tu rin g

(A v e r a g e weekly earnings 1 for selected occupations studied in nonmanufacturing)
South

Northeast
Sex, occupation, and grade
Boston2 Buffalo

Ne w
York
Ci ty 2

Pitts Phila­
delphia2 burgh

Atlanta

Birm ing­
ham

North Central

Dallas

Cleve­
land2

Kansas
City

50
50
00
00
50
00

$90.00
83. 50
57. 00

$86.
66.
72.
46.
74.

Memphis 2 Chicago2

West
Lo s
MinneA n ge le s apol is Long
St. Paul
Beach2

Portland

San
FranSeattle 2
cis co Oakland2

Office clerical
Men
Clerks:
Accounting, class A _______________________
Accounting, class B _______________________
O rd er
P a y ro l l __________
________________________
Office bovs
Tabulatinp-machine operators _
_ ___

$78.50
60. 50
76. 00
44. 50
69. 00

$75. 50
-

$87.00
67. 50
74. 50
78. 50
49. 00
73. 00

$86.00
64. 50
77. 00
46. 00
69. 00

$91. 00
81.00
83. 00
50. 50
76. 00

57. 00
46. 50

51. 50
52. 00

63. 50
65. 50

56. 50
52. 50

58. 50
50. 00

60. 00
48. 50

71.00
60. 00

64.
51.
57.
44.
55.
59.
52.

00
50
00
00
00
00
50

71.00
49. 00
50. 00
41. 50
50. 00
63. 50
52. 50

75.
61.
64.
51.
63.
73.
65.

48.
53.
43.
66.
57.
61.
52.
54.
59.

50
50
50
00
00
50
50
50
50

55. 00
43. 00
70. 00
57. 00
52. 00
54. 00
62. 00

56.
60.
49.
80.
65.
75.
63.
63.
71.

53. 00
55. 50
47. 50

$86.
65.
72.
77.
48.
66.

50
50
00
50
00
50

$84.00
68. 00
71.50
43. 00
75. 50

56. 50
54. 50

53. 50
53. 00

63. 50
52. 50

65. 50
51. 00

50
50
00
00
00
00
00

66.
54.
56.
43.
50.
59.
57.

69.
54.
49.
46.
55.
70.
59.

50
50
00
50
50
00
50
00
50

56. 00
43. 50
70. 50
58. 00
54. 00
54. 00
60. 00

48. 00
55. 00
45. 50
73. 50
60. 00
56. 50
59. 00
73. 50

51. 00
52. 50
46. 50

66. 00
63. 50
55. 50

54. 00
54. 50
48. 50

104.50
78. 50

98. 50
"

124. 50
82. 50

102. 50
68. 00

72. 00

-

84. 50

73. 50

$86.
64.
71.
76.
45.
68.

00
00
50
50
00
00

$88. 00
70. 50
66. 50
43. 00
81.00

$88.
68.
90.
85.
54.
81.

50. 50
50. 50

54. 50
52. 50

50. 50
44. 50

66. 00
63. 00

58. 50
55. 50

57. 00
49. 00

62. 00
52. 50

62. 50
49. 50

70.
54.
54.
44.
52.
61.
57.

70.
54.
56.
43.
54.
56.
49.

00
50
00
00
50
50
00

66.
56.
55.
44.
52.
62.
57.

00
00
00
00
00
00
00

53. 50
46. 50
72. 00
60. 50
50. 00
55. 50
56. 00

47. 50
55. 00
44. 00
69. 00
55. 00
47. 00
48. 50
61. 50

52.
42.
72.
60.
69.
49.
57.
62.

52. 00
54. 50
49..50

55. 50
55. 00
47. 50

56. 50
46. 50

99. 00
71. 50

105.50
71.00

67. 00

"

-

-

50
50

$86.50
64. 50
81. 00
49. 50
72. 00

$90.00
77. 00
87. 00
98. 50
56. 00
85. 00

$93. 50
68. 00
83. 50
52. 00
89. 50

$84.50
71.00
84. 50
82. 50
55. 00
79. 50

58. 50
-

58. 50
_

55. 00
58. 50

65. 00
67. 00

56. 00
58. 00

65. 50
63. 50

59. 00
65. 00

78. 00
64. 00

75. 50
58. 00

64. 00
55. 50

53. 50

78. 00
57. 50

73. 00
54. 50

76. 00
58. 00

68. 00
56. 50

63. 00
52. 00
46. 00
53. j O
55. 00
50. 00

78.
63.
65.
52.
64.
73.
67.

00
00
50
50
00
50
00

74. 00
59. 00
65. 00
49. 50
61.00
65. 00
61. 50

73.
56.
60.
47.
58.
64.
61.

00
50
00
50
00
00
00

71.
55.
60.
47.
r 5.
63.
59.

50
00
50
50
5,,
50
00

79.
65.
64.
50.
74.
77.
71.

00
50
50
50
50
50
50

75. 00
63. 00
62.00
47. 50
60. 00
66. 50
62. 50

76.
62.
67.
52.
71.
75.
67.

69.
59.
57.
48.
60.
66.
63.

50
00
50
00
00
00
50
00

55. 50
43. 00
64. 00
54. 50
43. 00
52. 50
-

62.
66.
53.
82.
70.
63.
65.
73.

50
00
50
00
00

52.
60.
45.
74.
59.
52.
57.
68.

50
00
50
50
50

50
50
50

61. 50
50. 00
79. 50
64. 00
59. 50
61. 00
69. 00

50
00
50

57. 00
53. 50
44. 50
71. 00
60. 00
57. 00
54. 50
60. 50

58.
69.
52.
84.
70.
76.
64.
67.
82.

50
50
50
00
00
50
00
00
00

53.
64.
46.
77.
64.
56.
59.
-

63. 00
64. 50
53. 50
79. 00
69. 00
64. 00
64. 50
76. 50

53. 50
60. 00
48. 00
73. 00
63. 00
60. 00
60. 50
61. 50

53. 50
54. 50
47. 50

54. 00
55. 50
44. 50

67. 00
67. 00
57. 50

63. 00
64. 00
54. 00

61. 00
63. 50
50. 00

56. 00
56. 00
49. 50

64. 00
64. 50
56. 00

58. 00
61.00
53. 00

64. 50
63. 50
56. 00

58. 00
57. 50
50. 00

_

_

100.00

122.50

98. 50

-

-

-

-

-

98. 50
78. 00

-

-

-

88. 50

-

00
50
00

$88.
75.
82.
47.
83.

50
50
50
50
00

Wome n
B il l e r s , machine:
Billing machine _____________________________
Bookkeeping machine ______________________
Bookkeeping-machine operators:
C l a s s A ___________ __________________________
C l as s B .......... ....... — — ___ _____ ________
Clerks:
Accounting, class A _______________________
Accounting, class B _______________________
File , class A ________________________________
File, class B ................................................
O r d e r _______ ________________ __________________
P a y r o l l _______________________________________
Comptometer o p e r a t o r s ... ................. ............
Duplicating-machine operators
(mimeograph or ditto) ...................................
Key-punch operators __________________________
Office girls _____________________________________
Sec retaries _____________________________________
Stenographers, general ______________________
Stenographers, technical _________ ______ ____
Switchboard operators ________________________
Switchboard op er at or-recep tionists ________
Tabulating-machine operators _____________ _
Tr ans cri bin g-m ac hin e operators,
general _________________________________________
Typists, class A _______________________________
Typists, class R
_ _
... ....

00
50
00
50
50
50
50

50
00
00
50
50
00
00

50
50
00
50
50
50
50

50
50
00
50
00
50
50

00
50
50
00
50
50
50

00
00
50
50
50
50
50

Professional and technical
Men
Draftsmen, senior _____________________________
Draftsmen, junior _____________________________

_

89. 50
70. 00

_
-

118. 00
87. 00

-

83., 50

_
-

Women
N u rs es , industrial (reg ist er ed ) _

1 Earnings relate to standard sa la rie s that are paid for standard wo rk schedules.
2 Exceptions to the standard industry limitations are shown in footnotes 4 and/or 6 to the table in appendix B.
NOTE:




Dashes indicate no data or insufficient data to w ar ra nt presentation.

-

-

22

Ta b le A -4 :
(A v e ra g e weekly e_.v- i

O ffic e occupations - public utilitie s *

1 for ^elected occupations studied in transportation, communication, and other public utilities)

Northeast
Sex, occupation, and grade
Boston2 Buffalo

Ne w
York
Ci ty 2

South
Phila­
delphia

Pitts burgh

$93. 50
45. 50

$104. 50
97. 50
48. 50

Atlanta

Birm ing­
ham

$101.00
84. 00
51. 50
71. 50

$42.00

North Central

Dallas

>C l e v e Me m p h is 2 Ch ic ag o2
land2

Kansas
City

West
Lo s
Minne­
Angeles apolis Long
St. Paul
Beach 2

Portland

San
FranSeattle2
ci s co Ou.ki_ nd 2

Office clerical
Men

C l e rk s, accounting, class A _________________
C le rk s , accounting, clas j B ___ ___________
Office boys _______'_______________________________
Tabulating-machine operators ______________

$89.00
43. 00

$87. 00
-

'

"

$96.00
79. 50
51. 50
84. 00

•

.

$87. 00
66. 50
44. 00
71.00

.
-

$96. 00
59. 50
88. 50

.
-

_

63. 00

"

$82.50
69. 50
83. 00

$63. 00

81. 50
61. 50
52. 50
60. 00
65. 00
65. 00
86. 00
62. 00
66. 00
-

$88. 00
72. 00
84. 50

$93. 50
_

71. 50

64. 50

_
60. 50
50. 50
64. 50
_
57. 00
_
74. 00
66. 00
69. 00
_
-

79.50
73. 50
65. 00
74. 50
68. 50
73. 50
.
88. 00
72. 50
73. 00
7b. 50

76. 50
69. 50
62. 50
82. 00
77. 50
73. 00
_
83. 00
7 3.00

-

68. 00
64. 50

81. 50
73. 00
57. 50
72. 50
.
63. 50
.
84. 00
( 7. 00
6b. 50
_
62. 50
61.00

73. 00
64. 00
56. 00
68. 50
_
68. 00
_
80. 50
65. 00
61. 00
59. 00

105.00

95. 00

.

-

-

$92.
81.
58.
85.

50
50
00
50

$87.00
_
_

Women

Bi ll er s, machine (billing machine) __________
C le rk s:
Accounting, clas s A _______________________
Accounting, cla ss R
__
Fil e, class B ________________________________
P a y ro l l _______________________________________
Comptometer operators ______________________
Key-punch operators
_
_ _
Office girls _____________________________________
Se cre tar ies _____________________________________
Stenographers, general
___
Switchboard operators __ __
_
. __
Switchboard op er at or-recep tionists _
_ ...
Tabulating-machine operators ______________
Typists, class A _______________________________
Typists, class B ___ ____ __________ ____________

.

_
69.
59.
45.
61.
59.

50
50
00
50
00

-

73. 50
6?. 50
84. 00
69. 00
65. 50
-

81. 00
60. 00
64. 00
55. 50
48. 00

53. 00

_

_

-

88. 00
71.00
55. 00
72. 50
70. 50
62. 50
47. 50
89. 00
67. 50
67. 00
69. 50
75. 00
63. 50
60. 00

54. 50
68. 50
63. 00
56.00
45. 50
85. 00
62. 00
63. 50
61.00
73. 50
55. 50
52. 00

84. 50
58. 50
51. 50
65. 50
64. 50
61. 50
88. 50
64. 50
64. 00
67. 00

60. 00
85. 50
61. 00
-

-

53. 50

-

104.50

110.00
69. 50

_

68. 00

-

-

70. 00
53. 00
57. 50
44. 50
99. 00
61. 50
66. 50
61. 00
64. 00
-

53. 50

85. 00
-

$75.50
68. 50
-

64. 50
69. 00
68. 50
89. 00
74. 00
72. 00
-

_
$57.50
62. 00
_
.
89. 50
65. 00
-

-

-

-

-

56. 00
49. 00

-

73. 50

"

*

62. 00
59. 50

76. 00

_

80.
63.
48.
63.
64.
60.
43.
76.
60.
59.
66.

00
50
50
50
50
50
50
00
50
00
50

-

-

58. 50

.

.

7 f .00
77.50
8 5.0 0

70. 50
61. 00

Professional and technical
Men

Draftsmen, senior ................................... ........
Draftsmen, junior ________ ______________ ______

68. 50

114.50
71. 50

.

1 Earnings relate to standard sa la r ie s that are paid for standard wo rk schedules.
2 1 or more utilities ar e m u n i c i p a l ^ operated, and therefore excluded fro m the scope of the studies.
* Transportation (excluding ra il ro a ds ), communication, and other public utilities.
NOTE:




Dashes indicate no data or insufficient data to w ar ra nt presentation.

112.00
94. 00

_

See footnote 4 to the table in appendix B.

-

23

T a b le A -5 :

O ffic e o c c u p a tio n s-w h o le sa le tra d e

(A v e r a g e weekly earnings 1 for occupations studied in wholesale trade)
Northeast
Sex, occupation, and grade
Boston

New
Yo rk
City

South

Phila­
delphia

Pitts­
burgh

Atlanta

North Ce ntral

Chicago

Cle ve land

West
Minne apolis St. Paul

Los
Angeles Long
Beach

San
Franci s co Oakland

O f f i c e clerical
Men
C le rk s :
Accounting, cl a ss A ______ _______________
Accounting, class B -------------- __ ________
O r d e r _____ __ _____ _______________________
Office boys ______________________________________
Tabulating-machine operators ______________

$83.
66.
76.
48.
75.

50
50
00
50
50

$88.
73.
74.
52.
77.

00
50
50
00
50

$92.
73.
76.
50.
80.

50
50
50
50
00

$96. 50
69.00
83. 00
48. 50
-

$85.
65.
73.
48.
73.

00
50
00
00
50

$89. 50
70. 00
91.00
53. 50
83. 50

$84. 00
-

$80. 50
80. 00
-

-

-

$91. 00
87. 00
56. 50
85. 00

$81. 50
84. 00
_
87. 50

Women
B il le r s , machine (billing machine) _________
Bookkeeping-machine operators:
C l a s s A __________ __________________________
C l a s s B — _________________________________
C le rk s:
Accounting, cla ss A _______________________
Accounting, cl a ss B _______________________
File , class A ________________________________
File, class B __________ ____________ ____
O rd er _________________________________________
P a y r o l l ------------------- -----------------------------------Comptometer operators ________________ ____
Key-punch operators __________________________
Office girls _____________________________________
Se cre tar ies ____________ ______________________
Stenographers, general _________ ___________
Switchboard operators ________________________
Switchboard ope rat or-receptionists ________
Tra nsc rib ing -m ac hi ne operators,
g e n e r a l _________________________________________
Typists, class A _______________________________
Typists, cla ss B
_ ____

1

60. 00

66. 50

-

54. 50

58. 50

68. 00

-

-

68. 50

-

63. 50
56. 50

72. 50
66. 50

63. 00

56. 50

66. 00
57. 50

78. 00
65. 00

62. 50

57. 00

80. 50
69. 50

7,.. 00
64. 00

71. 50
56. 00
66. 50
48. 00
61.00
67. 50
59. 00
60. 50
70. 00
62. 00
59. 00
59. 50

75.
67.
64.
53.
64.
77.
65.
63.
48.
80.
66.
67.
64.

50
00
00
50
50
00
00
00
50
50
50
00
00

71. 00
62. 50
49 . 00
64. 00
62. 00
72. 00
64. 00
63. 50
54. 50

6 1 . 50
50. 50
60. 00
63. 00
74. 50
63. 00
6 1 . 00

71.
58.
60.
49.
53.
65.
58.
55.
49.
72.
64.
56.

51. 50
62. 50
78. 50
67. 00
63. 50

56. 50
52. 50
71. 00
60. 00
-

50

81. 50
67. 00
66. 50
57. 00
69. 00
76. 00
72. 00
55. 50
85. 00
71.00
72. 50
66. 00

73. 50
64. 00
55. 50

78. 00
69. 00
70. 00
5 5.00
80. 50
79. 00
73. 00
74. 00
54. 50
82. 50
72. 00
68. 50
70. 00

77. 50
67. 50
70. 50
55. 00
84. 00
82. 50
67. 50
69. 50
83. 00
72. 00
66. 00
63. 50

58. 00
66. 00
51.00

69. 00
67. 50
59. 50

52. 00

56. 00
51.00

59. 50
58. 00
51.00

66. 00
72. 00
59. 00

55. 50

57. 00
54. 00

6u. 00
69. 50
62. 00

64. 50
65. 50
57. 50

Earnings relate to standard s a la ri e s that ar e paid for standard w or k schedules.

NOTE:




Dashes indicate no data or insufficient data to w ar ra nt presentation.

00
00
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50

-

24
Ta b le A -6 :

O ffic e o c c u p a tio n s- re ta il tra d e

( A ve ra ge weekly earnings 1 for selected occupations studied in retail t ra de )
South

Northeast
Sex, occupation, and grade
Boston

Office

New
York
City2

Phila­
delphia2

P it t s ­
burgh

Atlanta

North Central

D a lla s

Chicago

Minneap ol is St. P aul

v e st
V

Portland

San
Francis co Oakland

Seattle

cl er ic al

Men

C le rk s , accounting, cl a ss A
C le rk s , accounting, cl as s B

_

_ _ _
............

_

$84. 00
63. 50

_

.

“

"

.

_

.

_

$82. 00
65.50

$85.00
63.00

$87.0 0
70. 00

46. 00
-

50. 00

- .
57.00

$51.50
-

$46. 50
-

54.50

48.50

64. 00

57. 50

57. 50

68. 50

61.50

63.50
52.00
39.00
43.50
58.50
56.00
7 1. 00
56. 00
44. 50
52.50
48. 00

61.00
52.00
56.00
63. 50
6 2 . 00
78.50
66. 00
58. 50
56. 50

-

72. 50
57. 00
59. 00
59. 00
57. 00
66. 50
53. 50
53. 00
52.50
49. 00

76.50
64. 00
54. 00
60. 50
69.50
67.50
66.50
77. 00
69.00
64. 50
59. 00

63. 50
57. 00
50. 50
58. 00
66. 00
61. 00
70. 50
61. 50
60. 50
62. 50
57.00

-

■

Wom en

B i l l e r s , machine:
Billing machine
_ ..........
. .
.
Bookkeeping machine __________________ __
Bookkeeping-machine oper ato rs,
cla s s R
C le rk s:
Accounting, clas s A
Accounting, clas s B
__ _
_
F ile , c la s s B _______________________________
O rd e r ___ _________ _________ _____________
P a y r o l l _______________________________________
Comptometer op er at ors _______ _____________
Key-punch opera tor s __________________________
S e c r e t a r i e s __________________________ _______ _
Stenographers, g e n e r a l ________________________
Switchboard opera tor s ________________________
Switchboard o p e r a t o r - r e c e p t i o n i s t s _________
Typists, cla ss B ________ ___________ _________

$44.00

64. 00

$52. 00

49.50

63. 00

55. 00

60. 00
47. 00
42.00
46. 00
54. 00
50. 50
50. 00
65. 00
52.50
51.50
49. 00
48. 00

73. 50
56. 50
48. 00
57.50
68. 00
63. 00
56. 50
76. 00
63. 00
58. 50
60. 00
52. 50

66.50
52.50
40. 00
46.50
57. 00
55. 00
57.50
72. 00
58. 00
49. 00
55.50
50. 00

Earn ing s relate to standard s a la ri e s that a re paid for standard w or k schedules.
Excludes data fo r l im it e d- p ri c e variety stores.
NOTE:

Da sh e s indicate no data or insufficient data to w ar ra n t presentation.




$53. 50
69. 00
56. 00
49. 50
53. 50
65. 50
56. 00
54. 50
67.50
56.50
54. 50
49. 50

6 9.50
50. 50
41.50
48.50
56. 00
56. 50
48. 00
67. 00
55.50
46. 50
51. 00
45.50

53. 00
47.00
49. 50
60. 50
61.00
69. 00
57.00
53. 00
47.00

$65.00

$ 55.50
-

25

T a b le A - 7 :

O ffic e O c c u p a tio n s - fin a n c e '* *

(Av e ra g e weekly earnings 1 for selected occupations studied in finance, insurance, and r ea l estate)
Northeast
Sex, occupation, and grade
Boston

New
Y or k
City

P h i la delpnia

South
Pitts­
burgh

Atlanta

West

North Central

Dal las

Chicago

Cleve­
land

Minne ap ol is St. Paul

Lo s
Angele sLong
Beach

San
F rancis coOakland

Office clerical
M en
C le rk s , accounting, cl a ss A __________________
C le rk s , accounting, cl as s B __________________
Office boys _______________________________________
Tabulating-machine op erators ______________

50
00
00
00

$84. 50
62.50
49. 00
69.50

$84.00
55.50
45. 00
63. 50

$76.50
69.00

$ 75.50
57. 50
45. 50
62. 50

$ 80. 50
43. 50
66. 00

$ 86. 50
55. 00
76.50

$ 60. 50
-

$69.00

$ 86. 00
51.50
80. 00

$69. 00
54. 50
7 3. 00

57.00
47.50

70. 50
58.50

62. 00
50. 00

55.50
49.00

52.50

63. 00
49. 50

63. 00

56.50

50.50

55. 50

55. 50

63.50
50. 00
53.50
43. 50
58. 00
49.50
51.00
44.50
66. 00
55.50
53. 50
53.00
60. 00
51.50
53. 00
47.00

74. 50
59. 00
62.50
50. 00
74.50
64. 50
60. 00
49.50
81.50
64. 00
64. 00
60. 00
7 1.50
64. 50
60. 50
54. 00

64. 50
50. 00
53. 00
42. 50
56. 50
53. 50
42. 00
67.00
54. 00
55. 00
51. 00
59. 50
50. 50
53. 50
46. 50

65. 00
49. 00

62.
49.
52.
43.
56.
50.
45.
67.
55.
59.
4955.
53.
53.
46.

55. 50
49. 50
51.50
42. 50
60. 00
55. 50
48. 50
42. 50
72. 50
58. 50
57 00
56. 00
58. 50
51. 00
53. 00
45. 50

75. 00
61.50
65. 50
50. 50
76. 50
62. 00
64. 50
53. 50
80. 00
68. 00
68. 00
62.50
66. 00
65. 50
57. 00

49. 00
76. 00
60. 50
66. 00
52. 50

69. 00
4 6. 50
50. 50
43. 50
72. 00
57.00
60. 00
58. 00
55. 00
53. 00
48. 50

71. 00
57.50
58. 50
47.50
72. 00
61.50
49. 50
79. 00
67.00
62. 00
61. 00
77.50
61. 00
60. 50
54. 50

68. 50
57.50
65. 50
48. 50
71. 00
60. 50
51. 00
77.50
67.00
64. 00
62. 50
70. 50
64. 00
61. 00
54. 00

$68.
50.
44.
68.

-

Women
Bookkeeping-machine operators:
C l a s s A ________________________________________
C l a s s B _______________________________________
Clerk s:
Accounting, class A ________________________
Accounting, clas s B ________________________
F ile, cla ss A ____ ____ ________________________
F i l e , c l a s s B _________________________________
P a y r o l l _______________________________________
C om p t o m et e r o p e r a t o r s _______________________
Key-punch op erators ___________________________
Office gi rl s ______________________________________
Sec ret ari es _______________________________________
Stenographers, ge neral ________________________
Switchboard operators _________________________
Switchboard opera tor -re ce pt ion ist s _________
Tabulating-machine o p e r a t o r s ________________
Tran sc rib in g- m a c h in e operators, g e n e r a l __
Typists, class A _________________________________
Typists, cla ss B __ _________ ___________________

1 Earnin gs relate to standard sa la ri e s that ar e paid for standard w or k schedules.
* * Finance, insurance, and rea l estate.
NO TE :




Dashes indicate no data or insufficient data to w ar ra n t presentation.

-

44. 50
49. 00
46.00
67. 00
54. 00
55.50
-

53.00
47.00

CO
50
00
50
50
00
00
00
00
00
50
50
00
50
00




26
T a b le A -8 :

O ffic e occ u p a tio n s- se rvic e s

(A v e r a g e weekly earnings 1 for selected occupations studied in se rv ic e s )
North
Central

We st

P hi la dclp tia

Chicago

Lo s
A n g e le s Long
Beach2

-

$69. 50

$60. 50

62.00
53. 00
76. 00
82.50
73. 00
57.00
67.00
69.00
61. 50

80. 50
66. 00
52. 50
74. 50
79.50
68. 00
54. 00
63. 50
56. 00

Northeast
Sex, occupation, and grade
Boston

New
Yo rk
City

O ffice clerical
vVomen
Bookkeeping-machine operators, class B
Cler ks :
Accounting, c la ss A ___________________________
Accounting, cla ss B ___________________________
F il e , c la ss B .....................................................
P a y r o l l ____ ___________________ ___________________
Secr et ar ie s
________________________________________
Stenographers, ge neral __________________________
Switchboard op erators ____________________________
Switchboard o p e r a t o r - r e c e p t i o n i s t s _______ _____
Typists, cl a ss A ................. ............... ....................
Typists, clas s B ___________________________________

$66.5 0
54. 50
45. 00
59.50
60. 00
52. 00
45.50
52. 00
58. 00
45.50

$67.50
74.00
61.00
52. 00
7 1.50
78. 50
67.00
61. 00
62.50
67.50
58. 50

$ 59.00
44. 00
65. 00
58. 00
44. 50
51. 50
58. 50
50. 00

1 E ar ni ng s relate to standard sa la ri e s that ar e paid for standard work schedules.
2 Excludes motion-picture production and allied serv ic es; data for these industries
in dustries" and "nonmanufacturing."
NOTE:

Dash es indicate no data or insufficient data to warrant presentation.

ar e

included,

however,

in "a ll

27
Ta b le A -9 :

P la nt o c c u p a tio n s- a ll in d u strie s

(A v e r a g e hourly earn in gs 1 fo r selected occupations studied in 6 broad industry division s)
South

N orth east
Occupation 2
Boston*

B u ffalo

N ew
Y o rk
C ity*

P h ila ­
delphia*

P it t s ­
burgh

Atlanta

B ir m in g ­
ham

N o rth C e n tra l

D a lla s

M em phis* Chicago*

C le v e ­
land*

Kansas
C ity

W est
Los
M in n eA n g e le s a p o lis Lon g
St. P a u l
Beach*

P ortlan d

San
F ran Seattle*
c is c o Oakland*

Maintenance and powerplant
C a r p e n t e r s __ ____________ _____ __________
E le c tric ia n s ___________ _______________________
E n g in e e rs, s t a t io n a r y ___ ___________________
F ire m e n , stationary b o ile r __________________
H e lp e rs , trades ________________________________
M ach in e-tool o p e ra to rs, t o o lr o o m _________
M achinists ______________________________________
M echanics _______________________________________
M echanics, autom otive _______________________
M illw rig h ts _____________________________________
O ile rs
P a in te rs _________ ______________________________
P ip e fitte rs ______________________________________
P l u m b e r s ____ __ ______________________________
S h eet-m etal w o rk e rs __________________________
Tool and die m ak ers __________________________

$2.
2.
2.
1.
1.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
1.
1.
2.
2.
2.
2.

22
32
26
88
83
25
30
14
07
19
81
96
24
24
29
51

$2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
i:
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
2.

16
06
72
42
22
61
67
59
31
69
81
79
98
73
86
17

1.
1.
2.
1.
1.
1.
1.
2.
1.
1.
2.
2.
2.
1.
2.
2.

2.
1.
1.
1.

02
87
89
42

2.
2.
2.
1.

50
63
34
07
16
51
56
52
26
54
17
23
47

$2.
2.
2.
2.
1.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

38
40
56
00
89
34
56
42
30
44
00
18
42
17
45
69

$2.
2.
2.
1.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
1.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

48
47
16
99
05
37
55
38
32
36
84
23
53
31
43
58

$2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

50
66
43
16
09
58
71
55
49
63
13
33
50
30
52
78

24
07
03
70
27
86
95
06
54
92
01
01
13
99
07
20

1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
2.
1.
2.
2.
2.
2.

62
46
69
54
37
80
83
57
45
87
03
92
47
07
44
40

1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
2.
2.
2.
1.
2.
2.

48
21
68
49
17
72
87
66
33
80
03
02
21
96
19
31

l.
1.
2.
1.
1.
1.
2.
2.
1.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

72
34
15
68
41
96
06
00
66
05
16
02
37
26
40
51

.
1.
1.
.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
2.

21
07
15
61

2.
2.
2.
1.

73
26
16
65

2.
1.
1.
1.

20
94
84
52

2.
2.
2.
1.

26
03
40
79

1. 70
1. 24

-

2. 53
2. 69

$2. 08
2. 41
1. 93
1. 51
1. 63
2. 30
2. 06
2. 03
1. 55
2. 11
2. 52
~

$2. 50
2. 66
2. 47
1. 93
2. 04
2. 28
2. 89
2. 31
2. 04
2. 09
2. 25

$2.
2.
1.
1.
1.

16
18
86
59
48

$2.
2.
2.
1.
1.

26
12
97
25
77
04

43
07
96
35
91
90
46

-

61

$2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

65
77
75
20
11
59
75
49
59
60
09
76
68
78
69
92

-

$2. 47
2. 58
2. 52
2. 14
2. 12
2. 52
2. 59
2. 48
2. 43
2. 50
2. 12
2. 35
2. 54
2. 49
2. 71

2. 46

2. 14
2. 43

2.
2.
1.
2.
1.
1.
2.
2.

.
1.
1.
.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.

70
64
77
55
48
45
63

. 86
. 85
1. 72
1. 16
. 84
1. 33
1. 44
1. 33
1. 15
1. 71
1. 70
1. 76
1. 63
1. 46
1. 69
1. 66

.
.
1.
1.
.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.

74
56
80
14
85
32
37
38
13
58
73
73
63
09
60
76

1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

97
25
94
69
51
86
87
79
66
00
11
06
38
36
33
44

1.
1.
2.
1.
1.
1.
1.
2.
1.
2.
2.
2.
1.
2.
2.

2. 06
1. 74
1. 31

1. 61
1. 82
1. 20

1. 50
1. 53
1. 08

2.
2.
2.
1.

40
08
02
31

2. 09
2. 37
1. 60

-

2.
2.
1.
2.
1.
2.

13
37
09
22
33

-

$2.
2.
2.
2.
1.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

52
53
41
13
98

58
66
43
18
05
32
58
32
37
51
07
63
65

53
73

$2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
2.
1.
2.
2.

02
08
73
47
17
82
82
69
39
91
98
99
04
78
04
11

2. 04
1. 86
1. 50

53
40
31
58
03
56
58

60
65

$2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

52
67
64
23
09
60
68
46
46
60
05
41
62
59
61
78

$2. 63
2. 66
2. 44
2. 19
2. 05
2. 50
2. 61
2. 52
2. 42
2. 61
2. 07
2. 63
2. 5 6
2. 65
"

1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

42
34
93
57
36
94
87
89
41
02
07
03
18
19
16
20

1.
1.
2.
1.
1.
2.
2.
1.
1.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

33
36
02
64
38
00
03
92
76
09
14
14
26
01
22
30

1.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

98
15
07
19
02
14
29

2.
2.
1.
1.

20
06
99
64

2.
2.
2.
1.

35
14
13
72

2.
2.
2.
1.

20
08
19
7?

$2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

70
71
54
38
20
64
70
63
65
66
17
57
69
60
97

$2. 38
2. 51
2. 36
2. 07
1. 98
2. 48
2. 47
2. 43
2. 39
2. 09
2. 39
2. 37
2. 72

Custodial, warehousing, and shipping
E le v a to r o p e ra to rs, p a sse n g e r (men) ______
E levator o p e ra to rs, p a sse n g e r (w o m e n )___
G uards _____________________________________ ______
Janitors, p o rte rs , and c le a n e rs ( m e n ) _____
Janitors, p o rte rs , and cle a n e rs (w om en )__ _
L a b o r e r s , m a te ria l handling _________________
O rd e r fille r s ___________________________________
P a c k e r s , shipping (m en) ______________________
P a c k e r s , shipping (wom en) __________________
R eceivin g c le rk s ______ ______________________
Shipping c le rk s _________________________________
Shipping and rec e iv in g c le rk s _______________
T ru c k d riv e rs 5 _________________________________
L igh t (under \ l!z tons) _____________________
M edium ( 1 V2 to and including 4 t o n s ) ___
H eavy (o v e r 4 tons, t r a ile r type) ________
Heavy (o v e r 4 tons, other than
tr a ile r t y p e ) ______ __________________ ____
T ru c k e rs , pow er (fo rk lift) ___________________
T ru c k e rs, power (other than fo rk lift) ______
W atchm en _______________________________________

1
2
*
4
5

55
93
17
76
42
41
40
27
60
71
79
71
34
68
02

63
82
30
85
51
52
38

E xcludes p rem iu m pay fo r overtim e and fo r w o rk on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
Data lim ited to men w o rk e rs except w here o th erw ise indicated.
Exceptions to the standard industry lim itations are shown in footnotes 4 and/or 6 to the table in appendix B.
C erta in m anufacturing w o rk e rs included in e a r lie r rep o rts w e re r e c la s s ifie d and excluded. Had they been included the earnin
Includes a ll d r iv e r s , r e g a rd le s s of size and type of truck operated.

NOTE:




D ashes indicate no data or insufficient data to w a rra n t presentation.

24
12
03
67
30
98
96
01
52
04
13
28
97
26
31

s would have been $2. 13.

1. 21
2. 03
1. 61
1. 36
1. 99
1.97
1. 89
-

1. 62
1. 75
1. 85
1. 81
1. 72
4 2. 07
2. 10
1. 99
1. 64
2. 17
2. 19
2. 30
2. 42
2. 37
2. 39
2. 49
2.
2.
2.
1.

45
16
25
86

1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
2.
1.
1.
1.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

38
88
57
48
94
00
90
59
87
05
03
25
13
18
33

2.
2.
2.
1.

29
04
04
73

28

Ta b le A -1 0:

P la n t occupations - m a nufa cturing

(A v e ra g e hourly earn in gs 1 fo r selected occupations studied in m anufacturing)
South

N orth east
O ccupation 2
Boston

B u ffalo

N ew
Y o rk
C ity

P h ila ­
delphia

P it t s ­
burgh

Atlanta

B ir m in g ­
ham

N orth C e n tra l

D a lla s

M em phis

C h icago

C le v e ­
land

Kansas
C ity

W est
Los
M in n e­
A n geles a p o lis Lon g
St. P a u l
Beach

P o rtlan d

San
F ran c is c o Oakland

Seattle

M aintenance and powerplant
Carpqj^ters ______________________________________
E le c tric ia n s _______________ _________ ________
E n g in e e rs, station ary _ ________ ____________
F ire m e n , stationary b o ile r _____ ___________
H e lp e rs , trades ____________ _________________
M ach in e-tool o p e ra to rs, t o o lr o o m __________
M achinists ______ ______________________________
M echanics __________ __ __ _____ ____________
M echanics, autom otive ________________________
M illw rig h ts _____________________________________
O i l e r s _______ _________________ ___ _______ ____ __
P a in te rs __ _____ __ _____
______________ _
P ip e fitte rs ______ _____ _________ ____________
S h eet-m etal w o r k e r s _____ ____ __________ _
Tool and die m a k e rs _________ _______________

$2.
2.
2.
1.
1.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
1.
2.
2.
2.
2.

17
36
36
93
85
25
30
11
26
19
80
10
24
31
52

$2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

51
64
41
11
18
51
56
52
39
54
19
31
47
54
69

$2. 42
2. 57
2. 80
2. 31
1. 93
2. 34
2. 56
2. 48
2.41
2. 45
2. 10
2. 44
2. 48
2. 45
2. 69

$2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
1.
2.
2.
2.
2.

44
48
25
03
10
37
54
38
39
36
84
35
52
43
58

$2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

48
66
47
19
09
58
71
54
55
63
14
35
53
51
78

$2. 08
2. 41
2. 35
1. 54
1. 69
2. 28
1. 99
2. 05
1. 55
2. 34
2. 52
-

-

$2. 52
2. 68
2. 73
2. 02
2. 11
2. 28
2. 89
2. 32
2. 19
2. 09
2. 25
2. 46

$2. 20
2. 32
2. 16
1. 73
1. 57
2. 35
2. 15
1. 93
1. 77
2. 21
2. 43

$1. 99
2. 44
2. 22
1. 21
1. 26
2. 44
2. 10
1. 78
2. 35
2. 01
2. 14
2. 46
2. 61

$2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

47
72
67
11
09
59
74
48
50
60
06
50
64
69
92

$2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

45
59
56
15
16
52
59
49
45
50
12
42
54
49
71

$2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

55
55
59
23
11
56
39
34
58
04
53
59
53
73

$2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

56
62
42
21
01
32
57
31
39
51
07
60
64
60
65

$2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

46
63
64
36
09
60
67
46
42
60
04
38
62
60
77

$2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
-

56
65
45
14
03
50
63
53
40
61
07
62
57

$2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

66
74
77
43
25
64
71
65
68
66
17
64
69
97

$2. 37
2. 49
2. 32
2. 09
1. 97
2. 49
2. 46
2. 37
2. 39
2. 09
2. 33
2. 38
2. 72

'

Custodial, warehousing, and shipping
G u ards ___________________________________________
Jan ito rs, p o rte rs , and c le a n e rs (m en) ____
Jan itors, p o rte rs , and c le a n e rs (w om en )__
L a b o r e r s , m a te ria l handling ________________
O rd e r fille r s ____________________________________
P a c k e r s , shipping (m en) ______________________
P a c k e r s , shipping (wom en) __________________
R eceiving c le rk s _______________________________
Shipping c le rk s _________________________________
Shipping and re c e iv in g c le rk s _______________
T ru c k d riv e rs 4 _____ _________ _____ ________
Ligh t (under 1V2 tons) ______
__________
M edium ( 1 V2 to and including 4 t o n s ) ___
H eavy (o v e r 4 tons, t r a ile r type) ________
H eavy (o v e r 4 tons, other than
tr a ile r type) _______________________________
T ru c k e rs , po w er (fo rk lift) ___________________
T ru c k e r 8, pow er (other than fo rk lift) ______

1
2
3
4

1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
2.
1.
2.
2.

78
54
34
59
76
59
38
79
91
79
01
92
00
00

2.
1.
1.
1.
1.
2.
1.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

2.
1.
1.
1.

06
83
89
49

2.
2.
2.
1.

04
83
57
90
87
08
62
02
08
06
15
05
03

1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
2.
1.
2.
2.
2.
2.

87
57
53
88
64
55
43
92
08
82
66
14
62
47

1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
2.
1.
2.
2.
2.
2.

92
61
40
73
73
70
52
94
01
87
19
10
23
17

2.
1.
1.
1.
2.
2.
1.
2.
2.
1.
2.
2.
2.
2.

16
80
67
97
00
04
65
06
17
96
41
29
56
31

1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.

22
07
15
71

2. 95
2. 24
1. 58

2.
1.
1.
1.

17
92
83
61

2.
2.
2.
1.

22
00
39
83

1. 77
1.24

-

2.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.

07
38
10
40
39
55

1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.

71
79
94
41
42
26
85

2.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.

-

87
53
17
61
89
50

1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.

03
93
88
69
70
71
52

1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.

-

82
39
21
45
66
44

-

2. 06
1. 75
1. 37

98
87
82
57
44
42
78

1. 68
1. 94
1. 34

1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.

86
35
24
31
44
34
13
87
81
71
43
33
48
55

1. 65
1. 83
1. 14

1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

98
73
57
82
88
83
70
07
24
06
43
53
34
42

2. 08
2. 00
1. 69

2.
1,
1.
1.
2.
2.
1.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

05
80
63
94
00
04
58
05
13
20
06
18
31

2. 09
2. 37
1. 75

E xcludes p rem iu m pay fo r overtim e and fo r w o rk on w eekends, h olidays, and late shifts.
D ata lim ited to m en w o rk e rs except w h ere oth erw ise indicated.
C e rta in w o rk e rs included in e a r lie r re p o rts w e re r e c la s s ifie d and excluded. H ad they been included the earn in gs would have been $2. 13.
Includes a ll d r iv e r s , re g a r d le s s of size and type of truck operated.

NOTE:




D ashes indicate no data o r insufficient data to w a rra n t presentation.

2.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
2.
2.
1.
2.
-

09
71
58
88
83
93
55
98
98
01
07
76
13

2. 08
2. 06
1. 66

1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
-

_

97
68
54
89
87
86
48
08
06
05
18
26
14

2.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
2.
2.
2.
2.
1.
2.
2.

02
78
69
96
90
94
75
04
08
13
24
93
28
34

2.
2.
2.
2.
1.
2.
2.

26
22
17
22
98
17
30

1. 95
1. 98
1. 75

2.
2.
1.
1.

30
09
99
78

2.
2.
2.
1.

28
09
22
74

1.
1.
1.
2.
1.

77
46
97
13
83

-

2. 03
1. 96
1. 82
3 2. 01
2. 18
2. 02
2. 18
2. 17
2. 27
2. 50
2. 48
2. 51
2. 50
2.
2.
2.
1.

49
15
26
91

1. 91
1. 69
1. 93
2. 06
1. 90
1. 85
2. 10
2. 08
2. 35
-

2. 28
2. 38
2. 02
2. 04
1. 70

29

T a b le A-11:

P la nt o c c u p a tio n s- n o n m a n u fa c tu rin g

(A v e ra g e hourly earn in gs 1 fo r selected occupations studied in nonm anufacturing)
N orth east
O ccupation *
Boston 3

B u ffalo

New
Y o rk
C ity 3

South
P h ila ­
delph ia3

P it t s ­
burgh

Atlanta

B ir m in g ­
ham

North C e n tra l

D a lla s

M em ph is 3 C hicago 3

We st

C le v e ­
land 3

M in n eK an sas
a p o lis C ity
St. P a ul

$ 2 .5 6
2. 52
2.43
2. 02
1.71
2.42
2.21

$ 2 .4 3
2.42
2.25
1.76
2.46
2. 30
-

Los
A n g e le s Long
Beach3

P o rtland

San
F r a n - Seattle3
c is c o O akland3

M aintenance and pow erplant
C a rp e n te rs ________ _____________________________
E le c tric ia n s ______________________________________
E n g in e e rs, s t a t io n a r y __________________________
F ire m e n , stationary b o i l e r __
_____
H e lp e rs , trad es _______________________ ____ _____
M ach in ists _ _ ____
_
_ _______ ______
M ech an ics
_ _
___ M ech an ics, au to m o tiv e .__________ _____________
P a in te rs ___________________________________________
P lu m b e rs _________________________________________

$ 2 .3 1
2. 15
2.07
1.79
1.76
2.34
2.22
2.04
1.82

$ 2 .4 4
2.43
2. 12
1.73
1.87

$ 2 .6 0
2.4 3
1.97
1.78
1.89
2.38
2.29
2.09
2.23

$ 2 .6 1
2.68
2.31
1.97

2.21
1.86
“

$ 2 . 36
2.29
2.44
1.84
1.88
2.59
2 .2 6
2.28
2. 11
2. 13

1. 14
1.05
1.63
1. 31
1.20
1.65
1.63
1. 59
1.21
1.59
1.74
1.79
1.97
1.53
1.77
2.2 0

1. 18
1. 07
1.90
1.28
1. 11
1.74
2. 03
1.25
1.78
1.91
2. 12
2. 08
2. 18

1.61
1.46
1.65
1.53
1.36
1.70
1.92
1.59
i:4 6
1.84
1.99
2.01
2.36
2. 02
2.32
2. 38

1.45
1. 18
1.33
1.37
1. 12
1.71
1.96
1.45
1.23
1.63
2. 11
2.07
2.22
1.69
2. 17
2.33

1.69
1. 31
1.96
1.48
1.26
1.92
2. 10
1.87
2. 04
2. 14
2. 17
2.33
2.23
2. 17
2.57

. 55
1.49
1. 00
.70
1.43
1.42
1.28
1. 16
1.52
1.60
1.69
1.79
1.32
1.80
2. 04

2. 01
1.99
1. 32

2. 07
1. 35

2.57
2. 30
1.67

2.21
2. 03
1.37

2.35
2.52
1.62

1.50
1.25

'

-

-

2.82
2.44
2.25

$ 2. 08
2. 38
1.71
-

1.59
2.22
2.03
1.89
”

.

$2. 14
1.95
1.73
1. 37
1.98
1.97
1.91
■

$ 2 .27

-

$3. 01
2.98
2.83
2.42
2. 17
2 .90
2.55
2.63
3. 01
“

.63
1.04
.82
1. 32
1.25
1.22
1.42
1. 35
1. 37
1.44
1. 35
1. 32
1.93

.78
. 85
1. 39
1.00
. 80
1.24
1. 37
1.23
1.40
1.51
1.71
1.65
1.46
1.73
1.61

.66
. 56
.95
.75
1. 35
1. 34
1.40
1. 13
1.65
1.79
1.69
1.06
1.65
1.79

1.97
1.23
1.84
1.64
1. 50
1.91
1.87
1.72
1.48
1.93
1.94
2.05
2.37
2.23
2.33
2.44

1.24
1. 12
1.89
1.30
1. 19
2.03
1.93
1.75
1.99
2. 13
2. 30
1.93
2.29
2. 31

1.27
1. 11
1.76
1.82
1.62
1.27
1.84
1.97
1.97
2.03
1.79
2. 00
2. 12

1.25

1.52
1. 08

1. 19
.99

2.4 0
2. 14
1. 18

1. 32

1.22

$ 2 .2 9
1. 17
1.96
*

-

1.93
1.43
1.74
2.00
1.74

■

$ 2 .6 1
2.78
2.43
2. 15
2. 32
2. 37
2.66
"

$ 2 .6 9
2. 85
2.64
2. 11
2.82
2.47
2.46
2.50
2.79

1.40
1.33
1.75
1.50
1.29
1.98
1. 87
1.91
1. 32
1.93
2.09
2. 01
2. 18
2. 16
2.20

1. 35
1.33
2.05
1.51
1. 34
2.02
2. 06
1.90
2. 16
2.2 0
2. 15
2.27
2. 08
2. 19
2.27

2. 20
2. 16
1. 56

2. 38
2. 30
1.61

-

$ 2 .7 6
2.39
-

2. 39
2.43
2.65
■

$ 2 .8 0
2. 37
-

$ 2 .4 1
2.64
2.48
2.02
-

-

2.51
2.44
2.42
"

1.21
1.48
1. 35
2.01
1.95
1.90
1.90
2. 08
2.0 0
2. 18
2. 06
2. 13
2.29

1.61
1.72
1.63
1.74
1.71
2. 12
2. 07
1.96
1.74
2. 16
2.21
2. 32
2.4 0
2.3 0
2. 36
2.48

1. 38
1.75
1.50
1.42
1.95
1.99
1.89
1.52
1.93
2. 03
1.95
2.23
2. 10
2. 17
2. 33

2. 18
2. 08
1.63

2.44
2.20
1.78

2.29
2. 08
1.80

2.5 8
2.5 0
2.65
2.49

Custodial, warehousing, and shipping
E le v a to r o p e ra to rs, p a sse n g e r (m en ) _______
E le v a to r o p e ra to rs, p a s s e n g e r (w o m e n )-----G u ard s ____________________________________________
Janitors, p o rte rs , and c le a n e rs ( m e n ) ______
J an ito r8, p o rte rs , and c le a n e rs (w o m e n )___
L a b o r e r s , m a te ria l handling ....................... ....
O rd e r fille r s _____________________________________
P a c k e rs , shipping (m en ) ________________ ______
P a c k e r s , shipping (w o m e n )...... ............. .........
R eceivin g c le rk s _________________________________
Shipping c le rk s __________________________________
Shipping and re c eiv in g c le rk s _________________
T r u c k d r iv e r s 4 __________________________________
Light (under 1 Vz t o n s ) ______________________
M edium ( l ^ z to and including 4 ton s) ____
H eavy (o v e r 4 tons, t r a ile r type) _________
Heavy (o v e r 4 tons, other than
t r a ile r ty p e ) _________________________________
T ru c k e rs , p ow er (fo rk lift)
--------------------------W a tc h m e n _________________________________________

1
2
3
4

_

.

E xclu des p rem iu m pay fo r overtim e and fo r w o rk on w eekends, h olidays, and late shifts.
Data lim ited to m en w o r k e r s except w h ere otherw ise indicated.
Exceptions to the standard industry lim itations a re shown in footnotes 4 and/or 6 to the table in appendix B.
Includes a ll d r iv e r s , r e g a r d le s s of size and type of truck operated.

NOTE:




D a sh es indicate no data or in sufficient data to w a rra n t presentation.

.

-

30
Ta b le A -12:

P la n ! o c c up a tio ns- p ublic utilitie s *

(A v e r a g e h ourly earnings 1 fo r selected occupations studied in transportation, com m unication, and other public utilities)
N o rth east
O ccupation2
B oston3 B u ffalo

N ew
Y o rk
C ity 3

South

P h ila ­
delphia

P it t s ­
burgh

$2. 29

$2. 25
2. 15

Atlanta

B ir m in g ­
ham

N orth C e n tra l

D a lla s

M em p h is3 C h ic a g o 3

C le v e ­
land3

W est

Kansas
C ity

Los
M in n e­
A n g e le s a p o lis Lon g
St. P a u l
B each 3

P o rtlan d

F ran S eattle3
c is c o O akland3

M aintenance and powerplant
C a rp e n te rs ______________________________________
E n g in e e rs, station ary ________________________
H e lp e rs , trades ---------------------------------------------M ech an ics, autom otive _______________________
P a m te rs -----------------------------------------------------------

_

_

-

-

$1.95
2. 03
2. 12

$1. 90
2. 22

$2.39
2. 30
1. 88
2. 25
2. 33

-

1. 94
2. 27
2. 34

-

2. 42
2. 48

_
-

$1. 72
2. 10
"

_
$1.40
1. 99
-

_

_

_

_

_

_

$1. 91
1. 53
2. 11

$1. 71
2. 13
"

-

-

-

-

$2. 66
2. 59

$2. 37

$2. 31

$2. 33

"

"

“

$ 2 .3 4
-

_

$2. 53

-

2 .02
2. 46
2. 35

-

$2.43
■

2. 65
2.43

$2. 35
-

2. 43
“

Custodial, warehousing, and shipping
G uards ___ __ ____________________ ____________
J an itors, p o rte rs , and c le a n e rs (m e n ) ______
J an itors, p o rte rs , and c le a n e rs (w o m e n )__
L a b o r e r s , m a te ria l handling __________ ____
T ru c k d riv e rs 4 __________________________________
M edium (lV a to and including 4 t o n s ) ___
H eavy (o v e r 4 tons, t r a ile r type)
_____
H eavy (o v e r 4 tons, other than
t r a ile r type) ________________________________________
T ru c k e rs , p ow er (fo rk lift) ________________________

93
09
02
10

1.
1.
2.
2.
2.

2. 11

-

1.
1.
2.
2.
2.

59

-

1. 74

1
2
3
4
*

57
98
11
11
12

2. 08
1. 62

1. 93
1. 61
1. 92
2. 38
2. 41
2. 44
2. 28
-

1. 70

.
1. 72
1.41
1. 97
2. 17
2. 18
2. 24
2. 15
2. 04
1. 56

1. 60
1. 37
2. 20
-

2. 26
2. 12
1.

80

1.
1.
2.
2.
2.

29
93
10
11
08

-

1. 50

1. 30
1. 66
1. 93
-

1. 41

E xcludes p rem iu m pay fo r overtim e and fo r w o rk on weekends, h olidays, and late shifts.
D ata lim ited to m en w o rk e rs except w h ere oth erw ise indicated.
1 or m ore utilities a re m u n icipally operated, and th erefo re excluded fro m the scope of the studies.
Includes a ll d r iv e r s , r e g a r d le s s of size and type of truck operated.
T ran sp ortation (exclu d in g r a ilr o a d s ), com m unication, and other public utilities.

NOTE:




D ash es indicate no data o r insufficient data to w a rra n t presentation.

1. 32
1. 13
1. 55
1. 97
1. 96
1.95
-

1. 64

1.
1.
1.
2.
2.
2.

19
04
76
15
09
21

.

1.
1.
2.
2.
2.
2.
-

76
52
21
37
29
43

2. 22
2. 32
-

2. 33
-

-

-

1.
1.
2.
2.
2.
2.

-

-

2. 26

1.
1.
2.
2.
2.

62
49
05
16
11

98

See footnote 4 to the table in appendix B.

1.
2.
2.
2.

85
17
21
19

1. 75

92
75
11
20
18
19

-

1.
1.
2.
2.
2.
2.

68
49
11
15
12
25

2. 17
-

1. 69
1. 74
1. 58
2. 25
2. 37
2. 30
2.48

1.
2.
2.
2.
2.

2. 43
2. 19

-

68
06
16
15
23

31

T a b le A -13:

Pla nt oc c up a tio ns- w hole sa le tra d e

(A v e ra g e hourly e a r n in g s 1 for selected occupations studied in w h olesale tra d e )
South

N o rth east
Occupation 2
Boston

N ew
Y o rk
City

P h ila ­
delphia

P it t s ­
burgh

N orth C en tral

Atlanta

Chicago

$2.10
1.82

C le v e ­
land

W est
M in n e­
apolis St. P a u l

$2.58

Los
A n g e le s Long
Beach

San
F ra n c is c o Oakland

M aintenance and powerpiant
M echanics _________________________ ___________
M ech an ics, autom otive _______________________

$2.48
2. 12

_

"

_

$ 2.43

“

_

_

_

$2.48
2.43

_
'

Custodial, warehousing, and shipping
Janitors, p o rte rs , and c le a n e rs
_ _
L a b o r e r s , m a te ria l handling _________________
O rd e r fille r s ___________________________________
P a c k e r s , shipping ______________________________
R eceiving c le rk s _______________________ ______
Shipping c le rk s __________________________________
Shipping and re c eiv in g c le rk s
T ru c k d riv e r s 3 __________________________________
Ligh t (under IV 2 tons)
_
_
_ _
M edium (I V 2 to and including 4 tons) ___
Heavy (over 4 tons, t r a ile r type) ________
Heavy (over 4 tons, other than
tr a ile r t y p e ) _____
_ _
___
T ru c k e rs , pow er ( f o r k l i f t ) ____________________
_____ __ ______
_ _ _ ___
Watchm en

1.47
1.64
1.62
1.74
1.71
1.82
1.83
2. 11
1.64
1.86
2.37

$1.55
1.76
1.92
1.62
2. 16
2.03
2.06
2.35
2.29

2. 11
1.93
1.44

1.91

-

1.45
1.70
1.99
1.91
2. 33
2. 11
2. 32
-

2 .20
2.42
2. 31
-

1 E xclu des prem iu m pay fo r overtim e and for w o rk on w eekends, h olidays,
2 Data lim ited to m en w o rk e rs .
3 Includes a ll d r iv e r s , r e g a r d le s s of size and type of truck operated.
NOTE:




D ash es indicate no data or insufficient data to w a rra n t presentation.

$1.63
1.86
1.94
1.86
2.03
2.00
2.36
2.20
-

1.75

and late shifts.

1.30
1. 1 6
1.40
1.32
1. 59
1.67
1.69
1.45
1.28
1. 34
-

1.61
1.84
1.87
1.76
2.01
1.98
2. 10
2.42

1.36

2. 10

-

2.40
2.53

$1.56
1.83
1.92
1.81
2.24
-

-

$1.61
1.97
2.00
1.96
2.06
2.08
2.06
2. 14
-

2. 13
2.19
-

1.71
2.08
2.03
1.90
2.07
2. 18
2.28
2.28
2.00
2.24
2. 15

$1.85
2.00
2.06
1.99
2. 13
2. 19
2.40
2.39
2.29
2.33
-

2.41
2.28

2.45
2. 19

32

T a b le

AM:

P la n t o c c u p a tio n s- re ta il tra d e

(A v e ra g e h ourly earn in gs 1 fo r selected occupations studied in re ta il tra d e )
N orth east
O ccupation 2
Boston

N ew
Y o rk
C ity 3

South

N orth C e n tra l

P h ila ­
delp h ia3

P it t s ­
burgh

Atlanta

D a lla s

Chicago

$ 3. 06
2.81
2 .2 6
2.25
2.24

_
$ 2 .7 4
2.9 0
2.53

$ 2 .2 6
1.76
2. 15
1.66

$ 2. 30
1.68
1.71
1.58

$ 2 .8 5
2. 80
2.77
2.51

West

M in n ea p o lis St. P a u l

P o rtlan d

San
F ran c is c o Oakland

Seattle

M aintenance and powerplant
C a rp e n te rs ___________ _______ ___________________
E le c tric ia n s _____________________________________
E n g in e e rs , s t a t io n a r y _________________________
M ech an ics _____ __________________________________
M ech an ics, autom otive

$2. 50
2. 16
2. 00

$ 2 .5 4
2.56
2.61
"

_
-

_
$ 2 . 38

'

_
$ 2 .4 8
-

_
$ 2 .4 3
2.45

'

Custodial, warehousing, and shipping
E le v a to r o p e ra to rs, p a s s e n g e r (w o m e n )___
J an itors, p o rte rs , and c le a n e rs (m en )
J an itors, p o rte rs , and c le a n e rs (w o m e n )__
L a b o r e r s , m a te ria l h a n d lin g _________________
O rd e r fille r s _____________________________________
P a c k e r s , shipping (m en )
..... .
P a c k e r s , shipping (w o m e n )___________________
R eceivin g c le rk s .
Shipping c le rk s
_ _
___
Shipping and re c eiv in g c l e r k s _____ ________
T r u c k d r iv e r s 4 __________________________________
M edium
to and including 4 t o n ^ ____
H eavy (o v e r 4 tons, t r a ile r type)
T ru c k e rs , p o w er (f o r k l i f t ) ____________________
W atchm en
_ ___
. ....... .

1
2
3
4

.97
1.24
1. 03
1. 53
1.65
1.27
1.24
1.53
1.61
1.77
1.83
1.72
-

2.03
1.25

_
1.27
1. 33
1.59
1.89
1.53
1.45
1.63
1.91
2 .3 8
2. 06
-

1.50

1.22
1. 31
1. 06
1.63
1.90
1.42
1.24
1.50
2. 11
2. 18
2. 10
2.27
2. 05
1.42

_
1. 34
1. 16
1.97
2.28
1.91
2. 18
2. 10
2.5 0
2. 37
2.8 0
1.61

E xclu d es p rem iu m pay fo r overtim e and fo r w o rk on w eekends, h olidays, and late shifts.
D ata lim ited to m en w o r k e r s except w h e re oth erw ise indicated.
E xclu d es data fo r lim it e d -p r ic e v a riety sto re s.
Includes a ll d r iv e r s , r e g a r d le s s of size and type of truck operated.

NOTE:

D a sh e s indicate no data o r insufficient data to w a rra n t presentation.




.67
.90
1. 12
1.47
-

1. 11
1.48
1.43
1. 58
1.28
1. 19
1. 14

.90
.95
.71
1. 11
1.49
1. 13
1.40
1.47
1.50
1. 33
1.23
1. 15

1. 18
1.39
1.31
1.74
1. 87
1.58
1.91
1.84
1.86
2. 35
2.41
2.21
1.42

_
$ 1. 38
-

1.60
1. 85
2. 12
2. 17
-

1. 19
1.45
1. 13
1.79
1.95
1.84
2. 03
2. 18
2. 15
-

1.74
1.72
1.75
2 .20
2. 12
1. 89
2.21
2. 14
2.5 3
2. 53
-

1. 37
1.47
1.40
1.94
-

1. 89
1.97
2. 32
2. 10

33

T a b le A - l5 :

P la n t occupations

finance * *

(A v e ra g e h ou rly e a rn in gs 1 fo r selected occupations studied in finance, in su ran ce, and re a l estate)
N orth east
Occupation 2

South
Pitt s burgh

Atlanta

D a lla s

Chicago

$ 1.95

$2.36

-

$ 1.77

$ 2 .9 3

1.67
1.89
1.72
1. 37
1.86

1. 52
1.41
1.44
1.41
1. 14
1. 39

1.64
1. 36
“

C le v e ­
land

M in n ea p o lis St. P a u l

Los
A n g e le s Long
B each

-

P h ila ­
delphia

$ 2 .5 4

B oston

W est

N orth C e n tra l

N ew
Y o rk
City

-

-

-

$ 1.42
1.65
1.41
1. 30
1.45

San
F ran ­
c is c o Oak land

Maintenance and powerplant
E n g in e e rs, s t a t io n a r y _________________________

-

$2 .2 5

Custodial, warehousing, and shipping
E le v a to r o p e ra to rs, p a sse n g e r (m en ) ______
E le v a to r o p e ra to rs , p a sse n g e r (w o m e n )___
G u ard s ____________________________________________
Jan ito rs, p o rte rs , and c le a n e rs ( m e n ) ______
Jan itors, p o rte rs , and c le a n e rs (w o m e n )__
W atchm en
........................................................ .

$ 1.26
1. 18
1.59
1. 33
1.24
1.34

-

-

-

$ 0. 86
. 67
~

-

. 88
1.47
.95
. 78
"

$ 1.25
1.22
1. 39
1. 18
"

2.05
1.83
1.97
1.53

-

$ 1.52
-

1 E xclu d es p rem iu m pay fo r overtim e and fo r w o rk on w eekends, holidays, and late shifts.
2 D ata lim ited to m en w o r k e r s except w h ere o th erw ise indicated.
* * Fin an ce, in su ran ce, and re a l estate.
NOTE:




D ash es indicate no data o r insufficient data to w a rra n t presentation.

T a b le A-16:

Pla nt occupations - se rv ic e s

(A v e ra g e h ou rly earn in gs 1 fo r selected occupations studied in s e r v ic e s )
N orth east
Occupation 2

N orth C e n tra l

W est
Los
A n g e le s Long
B each 3

Boston

N ew
Y o rk
City

$ 1.55
1.48

$2. 30
1.70
1.92

$ 1.75
-

$2. 83
-

$ 2 .5 4
2.51

.94
1. 01
.90
1.40
1.44
1. 16

1.40
1.42
1.45
1. 35
2.00
1. 34

_
.97
1. 13
1.04
1.70
1.73
1. 04

_
1.43
1.49
1. 11

1. 15
1.41
-

P h ila ­
delphia

C h icago

Maintenance and powerplant
E n g in e e rs, s t a t io n a r y ____ ______ _____________
F ire m e n , stationary b o i l e r __________________
P a in te rs ________________________________________

Custodial, warehousing, and shipping
E le v a to r o p e ra to rs , p a sse n g e r (m en )
E le v a to r o p e ra to rs, p a sse n g e r (w o m e n )__
J anitors, p o rte rs , and c le a n e rs (m en )
J anitors, p o rte rs , and c le a n e rs (w o m e n )..
T r u c k d r iv e r s 4 ________________________________
Light (under 1^ tons) _____________________
Watchm en ------------------------------------------------------

-

1.53

E xclu des prem iu m pay fo r overtim e and fo r w o rk on w eekends, h o lid ay s, and late shifts.
2 D ata lim ited to m en w o rk e rs except w h ere oth erw ise indicated.
3 E xclu d es data fo r m otio n -p ictu re production and a llie d s e rv ic e s ; data fo r these in d u stries are included, how ever,
in d u strie s" and "nonm anufacturing. "
4 Includes a ll d r iv e r s , r e g a r d le s s of size and type of truck operated.
NOTE:

D ash es indicate no data o r insufficient data to w a rra n t presentation.

1. 75
1.68
1.76
1.75
~




35
Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions

Introduction
Data on the nature and prevalence of selected establishment
practices and supplementary wage provisions in 17 areas appear in the
series B tables which follow .
The scope of the data is described in
footnotes to the tables and under Scope and Method beginning on page 76.
Three of the areas— Birmingham, Pittsburgh, and Seattle—
w ere last surveyed during the winter of 1951-52.
Kansas City was
last studied in 1952-53; Boston, Buffalo, and Cleveland, 1954-55; and
the remaining 10 areas, in 1955-56.
Data in tables B-3 to B-33 for
two of the latter areas (Memphis and Minneapolis-St. Paul) relate to
a 1955-56 payroll period.
(See footnote 21, page 76. )
Labor-Management Agreem ent Coverage
Establishments with at least half of their plant or office w ork­
ers covered by collective agreements accounted fo r about four-fifths
of the plant workers and a sixth of the office workers employed in
large and m edium -sized firm s in the 17 labor m a rk ets.1
3 The p ro ­
portion of plant workers whose wages and working conditions w ere
governed by collective agreements exceeded 95 percent in San F ran ­
cis co-Oakland and Seattle and 80 percent in 8 other areas.
Los
Angeles-Long Beach, Seattle, and Pittsburgh w ere the only areas
studied in which as many as a fifth of the office workers w ere cov­
ered by union contracts.
Among the 17 areas, those in the West gen­
erally had the highest proportion of both plant and office workers under
agreements.
Plant worker coverage in Los A ngeles-Lon g Beach
(75-79 percent) was, however, exceeded in 4 of 5 areas in the North­
east and by 3 areas in the North Central region and equaled in B ir­
mingham.
Detroit, Milwaukee, N ew ark-Jersey City, and St. Louis
studied e a rlie r are also among the areas with the highest proportions
of plant workers under a greem en ts.1
4
Office worker coverage estimates did not differ greatly among
areas, nearly a ll falling between 10 to 20 percent.
Those outside
1 For this analysis, all plant or office workers w ere considered
3
to be covered by an agreement if the terms of one or m ore agreements
applied to a m ajority in the establishment. S im ilarly, if less than half
the workers in an establishment w ere covered by an agreement, that
establishment and all of its employees w ere classified as not being
covered by an agreement. The term "plant w ork ers" as used in these
studies includes working forem en and ail nonsupervisory employees
engaged in nonoffice functions.
"O ffice w ork ers" includes a ll office
clerica l employees and excludes adm inistrative, professional and tech­
nical personnel.
The minimum employment in establishments within
scope of the studies appears in the table in appendix B, p. 78.
1 See Wage Differences and Establishment Practices, 17 Labor
4
Markets, 1953-54, BLS Bull. 1173, p. 17.




this range w ere generally very close to it. In 2 of the 4 southern areas,
Atlanta and Dallas, where the proportion of plant workers under con­
tract was substantially less than in the northern areas, the office
worker coverage was almost as large as in other regions.
Among the
southern areas, Birmingham had the highest proportion of plant w ork­
ers under contract but ranked with Memphis in having the lowest p ro ­
portion of office worker coverage (table B - l).
In most of the areas, a high proportion (usually over half)
of office workers in public u tilities, w ere covered by agreements. 1
5
In other industry divisions, the variation among areas was consid­
erable. R elatively high proportions of retail trade office workers w ere
under agreement in Seattle, San Francisco-Oakland, and MinneapolisSt. Paul, even though all of these areas had relatively low coverage
of office workers m manufacturing.
In Atlanta, coverage of office
workers in manufacturing was as high as in public utilities.
Coverage fo r plant workers in industry divisions other than
public utilities and manufacturing was most often highest in the s e rv ­
ice industries and lowest in retail trade.
In a few areas, particularly
in the W est, the coverage in wholesale trade was substantial.
With the exception of public u tilities, there did not seem to
be any significant positive correlation between the extent of collective
bargaining agreements for office and plant w orkers.
A high coverage
of plant workers in a specific industry division was not n ecessarily
accompanied by relatively high coverage for office w orkers.
An ea r­
lie r (1953-54) study indicated, however, that when office workers w ere
covered by an agreement, about two-thirds of these contracts w ere
negotiated by the union that covered a m ajority of the plant workers in
the same establishment.
These estim ates, of course, do not represent the proportions
of workers belonging to labor organizations, since there are union
members in establishments not having labor-management agreements
and there are also workers who are not union members that are
working under terms of a labor-management agreement. Nor are the es ­
timates a measurement of the proportions of workers covered by con­
tracts within an area or industry division, since the establishments in
the study do not represent all industries in an area and do not include
representation of com paratively small establishments.
The excluded
establishm ent-size groups account for a much sm aller proportion of
employment in manufacturing and public utilities than in the other in­
dustry divisions.
M oreover, establishments with agreements lim ited
to maintenance crafts, comprising a m inority of the employees in the
establishment, w ere not included in the total of firm s having contracts
1
5
Municipally owned utilities w ere excluded from the scope of
the studies.
For cities with municipally operated u tilities, see foot­
note 4 to the table in appendix B, p. 78.

36

covering a m ajority of w orkers.
The construction and railroads in­
dustries which are typically covered by labor-management contracts
are also omitted from these surveys.
These estim ates, therefore,
are representative only of medium and large em ployers in the indus­
tries within the scope of the study and in the areas studied.
Minimum Entrance Rates fo r O ffice W orkers
Half of the establishments visited in 15 areas reported estab­
lished minimum entrance rate provisions for hiring inexperienced
typists (table B -2 ), a fifth had no set policy, the remaining three-tenths
either did not hire inexperienced workers or did not employ typists.
M ore than half of the establishments had a minimum hiring rate policy
for other inexperienced cle ric a l help.
Establishment entrance rates ranged from less than $40 to
$60 or m ore a week within each area. Median rates by area, how­
ever, exhibited the same pattern of salary differences among areas
noted in the e a rlie r discussion of office job pay: Median entrance rates
for typists of $42-$45 were paid in the southern and northeastern
areas (except New York City); $49-$ 50 medians w ere recorded in
New York City, Cleveland, Portland (O re g .), and Seattle with higher
medians prevailing in Chicago ($52), San Francisco-Oakland ($54),
and Los A ngeles-Lon g Beach ($54.50).
A ll-industry median entrance rates for other inexperienced
cle ric a l workers w ere slightly below typist rates.
Entrance rates in
offices of manufacturing concerns w ere also widely dispersed but the
general levels for both typists and others, as measured by medians,
w ere higher than all-industry levels by $2 or m ore in most areas.
Scheduled Workweeks
Slightly m ore than half of the women office workers in the 17
labor market areas combined had 40-hour workweeks. N early all the
remainder worked few er than 40 hours. A 37y2-hour workweek applied
to more women office workers in each area except Dallas and New
York City than did any other schedule of few er than 40 hours.
Alm ost five-sixth s of the combined plant (nonoffice) work force
in the 17 areas worked 40 hours a week.
Most plant w orkers not on
a 40-hour week had shorter schedules in 7 areas in the Northeast and
West, longer schedules in the 10 other areas studied.
Workweeks Under 40 H ours. — In a m ajority of the areas,
somewhat few er than a third of the women office workers had w ork­
weeks of less than 40 hours.
H owever, in Boston and Philadelphia
about two-thirds had workweeks of less than 40 hours; in New York
City all but about one-ninth of the women office workers worked few er
than 40, typically 35 hours per week (table B -4).
In the combined nonmanufacturing industries, 55 percent of the
women office workers worked few er than 40 hours a week. The p ro ­
portion ranged from 33 percent (reta il trade) to 75 percent (finance, in­
surance, and real estate) in these areas for which data w ere available.




Manufacturing industries, which accounted for slightly few er
than a third of the women office workers within the scope of the studies
in the 17 areas, reported 35 percent of their women workers at less
than 40 hours (table B-5).
Nine out of 10 women office workers in
New York City factories were scheduled to work few er than 40 hours
a week. In other areas, the proportion ranged from a half in P h ila ­
delphia, almost two-fifths in Boston and Chicago, a third in San Francisco-Oakland, to less than a fourth in 12 areas.
A 40-hour week applied to the overwhelming m ajority of plant
w orkers. Only 8 percent of the plant workers in the 17 areas com ­
bined had weekly schedules of less than 40 hours.
This proportion
was exceeded only in Boston, Philadelphia, San Francisco-Oakland,
and with the highest proportion (19 percent) in New York City.
F ew er than an eighth of the plant workers in any industry
division in the 17 areas combined worked less than 40-hour schedules.
In manufacturing, a fourth of the workers in New York City had sched­
ules under 40 hours. In only 3 other areas— Boston, Philadelphia,
and San Francisco-Oakland— were as many as 10 percent of the factory
plant workers operating on schedules of less than 40 hours per week.
In the combined nonmanufacturing industries 7 percent of the
plant workers had schedules of less than 40 hours— a proportion that
was exceeded only in Boston, Buffalo, New York City, and San F ra n ­
cisco -Oakland. In New York City, such shorter workweeks applied
to a fourth of the nonoffice w orkers in reta il trade and to a sixth in
wholesale trade; in Boston, to three-tenths in retail trade.
Workweeks O ver 40 H ours. — R ela tively few of the women o f­
fice workers in any area had longer than 40-hour work schedules. On
the other hand, such schedules applied to 1 out of every 9 plant workers
in the combined areas. Among areas, the highest proportions of office
workers at m ore than 40-hour schedules were recorded in Memphis
and Dallas.
The highest such proportions of plant workers were also
recorded in these two areas and Atlanta. Few plant workers were on
the longer schedules in Buffalo, New York City, Philadelphia, and the
four West Coast areas.
Among industry groups in the combined areas, the proportions
of o ffice and plant workers on the longer workweeks were highest in
retail trade and services.
Late-Shift Pay Provision s (Manufacturing)
The great m ajority of manufacturing workers in the combined
areas were employed in establishments having specific pay provisions
fo r second-shift work, either through a labor-management agreement
or by other form al means.
About 9 in every 10 workers covered
by second-shift provisions were also covered by third-shift provisions
(table B - l l ) .

37

Among areas, the proportion of manufacturing plant workers
in firm s having specified second-shift provisions ranged from approxi­
mately two-thirds in New York City to virtu ally a ll workers in P itts ­
burgh.
The proportion was above 90 percent in Buffalo, Birmingham,
Chicago, Cleveland, and the West Coast areas studied, and ranged
from 76 to 87 percent in the other cities. Typically, somewhat few er
workers in each area w ere covered by provisions fo r third-shift opera­
tions than fo r second shift.
Pay differentials fo r late-shift work w ere almost universally
specified in each area except Atlanta and Memphis. In these areas, the
shift provisions covering 14 and 21 percent respectively, of the workers
did not specify a pay differential.
The common form of differential in most areas fo r both second
and third shifts was a uniform cents-per-hour addition to first-sh ift
rates. The next most common provision, generally, was fo r a uniform
percentage addition to the day rates.
Percentage differentials w ere
the type most commonly specified fo r second-shift work in Philadelphia
and for third-shift work in Boston, Philadelphia, and Chicago. Secondshift pay provisions covering from a fifth to a third of the workers
in Portland, Seattle, and San Francisco-Oakland specified other types
of shift differentials such as a full day*s pay fo r reduced work hours,
or much m ore frequently, this provision in combination with a cents
or percentage differential.
Such "combination" type provisions for
third-shift work applied to between a third and three-fourths of the
plant workers in a ll four West Coast areas studied; about a fourth
in Atlanta and Dallas; and a tenth in Buffalo, Birmingham, and New
York City.
A wide variety of cents and percentage denominations was
in use in most areas.
No single denomination of either type of d if­
feren tial applied to a m ajority of the workers in establishments having
provisions in any area except Pittsburgh, Birmingham, and Seattle.
H owever, as few as 2 or 3 denominations taken together typically
covered a m ajority of the manufacturing plant workers who w ere
subject to shift provisions.
The following tabulation shows the two most common secondand third-shift differentials in each area. Each such pair of d iffe r­
entials in six areas (see footnote l ) was applicable to half or m ore of
the plant workers in establishments that had provisions fo r the indi­
cated shifts.
Half or m ore w ere also covered by the second-shift
pairs in Boston and Chicago, and by the third-shift pairs in Kansas
City and Portland.
In the remaining areas, the pairs applied to from
a third to a half of the w orkers.
It should be noted that the most
common third-shift differentials do not n ecessarily relate to the same
plants or w orkers as those shown for the second shift.
Cents differentials for second-shift work fo r a m ajority of the
workers w ere less than 9 cents an hour, except in Atlanta, Chicago,
Dallas, Los A ngeles-Lon g Beach, Minneapolis-St. Paul, New York




City, San Francisco-Oakland, and Seattle.
R elatively few workers
w ere covered by provisions for differentials of 13 cents or higher,
except in the San Francisco-Oakland area.
M ost com m on shift d iffe re n tia ls by rank
Second shift
C ity
1
B o s t o n ___________
B u ffalo __________
N ew Y o rk City
P h ilad elp h ia 1 __
P it t s b u r g h 1 ____

10
6
10
10
6

percent
cents
percent
percent
cents

A tlanta __________
B irm in gh am
D a lla s * ___
M em phis ___________________________

1?
6
12
5

cents
cents
cents
cents

C h icago ____________________________
C le v e la n d __________________________
K ansas C i t y _______________________
M in n eap o lis-S t. P a u l ___________

10
5
5
10

percent
percent
percent
cents

L o s A n g e le s -L o n g B each 1 _____
P o rtla n d ___________________________
San F r a n c is c o -O a k la n d __________
Seattle 1 ____________________________

12 cents
( 2)
( 2)
12 cents

2
10
5
10
5

cents
percent
cents
cents
-

1
10
9
10
10
9

percent
cents
cents
percent
cents

2
15
10
10
10

percent
percent
percent
cents
-

( 2)
9 cents
( 2)
3 cents

5 cents
10 cents
5 cents

10 cents
10 cents
5 cents
7 7 2 percent

10
10
10
10

9
10
10
15

10 cents
7 cents
10 cents
-

( 2)
( 2)
( 3)
( 2)

5 percent
5 cents
3 cents

percent
cents
cents
cents

cents
percent
percent
cents

_
7 cents
16 cents
-

1 D iffe re n tia ls liste d a re ap p licable to at le a st h alf of the plant w o rk e rs in
establish m en ts that had p ro v isio n s fo r the indicated shifts.
2 F u ll d ay's pay fo r reduced hours plus cents d iffe re n tia l.
3 F u ll day’ s pay fo r reduced hours plus percentage d ifferen tial.

Cents differentials fo r third-shift work w ere commonly 10 to
15 cents an hour in Chicago, Los A ngeles-Lon g Beach, MinneapolisSt. Paul, New York City, and Philadelphia; and 15 cents or higher
in San Francisco-Oakland. They w ere typically 9 cents in Birmingham
and Pittsburgh; 9 or 10 cents in Buffalo, Dallas, Cleveland, and
Kansas City; and generally less than 10 cents in other areas.
Percentage differentials w ere provided extensively in all
Northeast and North Central areas except Pittsburgh. In most areas,
the common amount was 10 percent fo r each shift. However, 5 p e r ­
cent was the predominant percentage differential for second-shift work
in Atlanta, Buffalo, Cleveland, Dallas, and Kansas City.
A t the time of the survey, the proportion of plant workers
actually working on late shifts ranged from about a seventh in Boston,
New York City, Kansas City, and Minneapolis-St. Paul, to a third
or m ore in Birmingham and Pittsburgh (table B-12).
Second-shift workers (evening) generally outnumbered thirdshift workers (night) by 2 or 3 to 1.
The ratio of evening to night
workers in individual areas, how ever, ranged from about 2 to 1 in
Birmingham, Memphis, Pittsburgh, and Portland, to 6 to 1 in
Minneapolis-St. Paul.

38
Paid Holidays
The most commonly paid holiday provisions fo r office workers
w ere 6 or 7 paid fu ll-day holidays in a m ajority of the areas.
How­
ever, in Memphis 5 paid fu ll-day holidays was the most common p ro ­
vision, and in Atlanta about as many received 5 as received 6. In
Boston and New York City, office workers most commonly received
11 paid fu ll-day holidays. The most common provisions for plant w ork­
ers w ere 6 or 7 full-day paid holidays in most areas studied.
In
Memphis, 5 days was most common; in Atlanta, the proportions r e ­
ceiving 5 and 6 days w ere about equal; in Dallas, provisions fo r 5,
6, or 7 fu ll-day holidays a ll covered sizable groups of w orkers.
Seven or m ore paid fu ll-day holidays w ere provided to almost
all office workers in Boston, New York City, San Francisco-Oakland,
and Seattle.
The proportion of office workers granted 7 or m ore paid
full-day holidays ranged between 50 and 75 percent in the other north­
eastern and western areas and in Birmingham. Among the remaining
areas, this proportion was lowest (20 to 30 percent) in the other south­
ern areas and in Cleveland.
The 4 areas that provided 7 or m ore
holidays to the highest proportion of office workers also led, along
with Pittsburgh, in providing 7 or m ore holidays to the highest p ro ­
portion of plant workers (approximately 75 to 85 percent), followed by
Birmingham and Philadelphia with about 60 percent.
The lowest p ro ­
portions of plant w orkers receivin g 7 or m ore paid full-day holidays
(10 to 25 percent) w ere recorded in the same areas as for office w ork­
ers.
Provisions fo r m ore than 8 paid full-day holidays w ere not
common for plant w orkers except in Boston and New York City, nor
for office w orkers except in these 2 areas and Philadelphia.
The most liberal holiday provisions w ere reported in the
northeast areas, particu larly Boston and New York City where 55 and
53 percent, respectively, of the office workers and 10 and 20 percent
of the plant workers received 11 or m ore holidays, and Philadelphia
where 22 percent of the office w orkers w ere provided m ore than 11 fullday paid holidays. W orkers in the 4 southern areas received the fewest
paid holidays, with large proportions of office workers (nearly 60 p e r­
cent in Memphis) receivin g 5 or few er paid holidays.
In 3 of the
southern areas, about 40 percent of the plant workers received few er
than 6 paid fu ll-day holidays and an additional 11 to 15 percent had
no paid holidays.
Six or 7 holidays w ere generally provided to both office and
plant w orkers in Buffalo, Birmingham, Los A ngeles-Long Beach, P itts­
burgh, Portland, and the 4 North Central areas. Among these areas,
Buffalo, Chicago, Kansas City, and Pittsburgh had appreciable numbers
of office and plant w orkers in establishments with provisions for eight
or m ore. Seven or 8 holidays w ere most common in Seattle and San
Francisco-Oakland, and in the latter area 9 days or m ore w ere fr e ­
quently granted to office w orkers.
In each of the m ajor industry groups surveyed, virtu ally all
office workers and the great m ajority of plant w orkers received one or
m ore paid fu ll-day holidays.
In a few industries and areas, m ore than




10 percent of the plant workers received no paid full-day holidays—
factory, public utility, and reta il trade workers in a few southern
areas, factory workers in Seattle and Portland (tables B-14 and B-15),
and plant workers in service industries in 4 of the 5 areas fo r which
data are presented (table B-19).
Manufacturing industries as a group usually did not provide
as many full-day paid holidays as most of the nonmanufacturing d iv i­
sions. In manufacturing establishments, the usual provision was 6 or
7 paid holidays, although substantial numbers received 8 or m ore in
5 areas and 9 or m ore in 2 of those areas.
By contrast, among the
nonmanufacturing industries, paid holiday practices w ere most liberal
in finance and public utility divisions, where the proportions of w ork­
ers receivin g 8 and 9 or m ore full-day holidays was greater than in
manufacturing in a number of areas.
Provisions in wholesale trade
also w ere m ore liberal than in manufacturing in nearly all of the
10 areas affording comparison. Information fo r retail trade in 11 areas
showed that the great bulk of office and nonoffice workers received
5 or few er full-day holidays in 2 (southern) areas, 6 fu ll-day holidays
in 5 areas scattered from the Atlantic to the P a cific , 7 in 3 areas in
the Northeast and West, and 7, 10, or 11 in Boston.
In 3 areas,
about 10 percent of the nonoffice workers in reta il trade received no
paid holidays.
Among service industries in 5 of the largest areas, most
office workers w ere provided just 6 full-day holidays in 3 of the areas,
8 or m ore in New York City, and 11 or m ore in Boston. H owever,
about a tenth of the plant workers in 3 areas, and a third of the plant
workers in Boston and Los A ngeles-Lon g Beach received no paid h oli­
days.
Less than 5 holidays in 1 area, and 6 full-day holidays in the
remaining 4 was the usual number received by plant w orkers.
Total Holiday T im e ,— M ore than a sixth of the office workers
and an eleventh of the plant workers in most areas now receive pay
fo r at least 1 half holiday in addition to their full holidays, 1 or 2 half
days being the usual amount.
Paid half holidays w ere most prevalent
in the Northeast and North Central areas studied.
One or m ore paid
half holidays w ere received by from 20 to 30 percent of the plant
workers in Boston, Buffalo, and Cleveland and by sim ilar propor­
tions of the office workers in these areas, as w ell as in MinneapolisSt. Paul and New York City.
Among industry divisions, paid half
holidays w ere most frequent among office workers in the finance and
manufacturing divisions, and among plant workers in manufacturing.
One or m ore half holidays w ere received by m ore than half the office
w orkers in Boston public utilities and retail trade and in Pittsburgh
finance, and by half the plant workers in Boston public u tilities.
To determine w o rk ers1 total paid holiday tim e, inclusive of
half holidays, the half-day holidays w ere added to the basic fu llholiday data shown in table B-13. F or example, workers receiving 7full
days and 2 half days were considered as having received 8 days of
paid holiday time.
These w orkers, added to those who received 8 full
days but no half days, provided a new estim ate---of workers who r e ­
ceived 8 days1 paid holiday tim e.
Estimates calculated in this
manner are presented in table B-13a in a cumulative form .

39

A m ajority of office workers in Boston and New York City
received total holiday time equal to 11 or m ore days.
A m ajority
received an equivalent of 8 or m ore days in Philadelphia and San
Francisco-Oakland and 6 or 7 or more days in all other areas except
Memphis (5 or m ore).
A m ajority of plant workers received the equivalent of 8 or
m ore days in Boston, l l/z or m ore in New York City and from 6 to
7 or m ore in all other areas except 3 in the South (5 or m ore).
B ir ­
mingham plant workers generally received 7 or m ore.
Paid Vacations
Vacation pay is granted to virtu ally all of the workers in the
industries and areas surveyed (table B-20).
The amount of pay is
generally graduated on a sliding scale, based on length of service,
ranging from as little as 1 day*s pay fo r a short length of em ploy­
ment to as much as 4 w eeks1 pay fo r long service with the em ployer.
In most areas, a m ajority of the office and as many as a third of the
plant workers in scope of the surveys are provided vacation pay after
as little as 6 months1 service.
As length of service increases,
workers in these areas may p rog ressively earn the following benefits:
Virtually all office and plant workers in each area can qualify for at
least 1 week*s vacation pay by completing a year*s service; 95 percent
or m ore (except plant workers in southern areas) can qualify for
2 w eeks1 pay after 5 ye a rs1 service; 3 or m ore w eeks1 pay is available
to a fourth after 10 years and to almost three-fourths after 15 yea rs1
service in most areas. At least 1 of every 4 office workers and 1 out
of every 7 plant workers in a m ajority of the areas can re ceive 4 or
m ore weeks* pay after 25 years* service.
F o r most w orkers, vacation pay is expressed in terms of
regular or average weekly earnings fo r a stated number of weeks,
depending on length of service with the em ployer. 1
6 Some plans of
this type also provide 1 day*s pay fo r each year of service as a means
of progression fo r intermediate years. Plans which expressed vacation
pay as a percentage of the worker*s annual earnings applied to higher
proportions of the plant than of the office w orkers. The great m ajority
of the workers within the scope of the survey who w ere covered by
percentage-type plans w ere employed in the production departments of
manufacturing firm s.
Although applicable to only a few workers in
some areas, the method applied to almost a third of the factory
workers in Philadelphia and to a fifth in Los A ngeles-Lon g Beach,
Memphis, and San Francisco-Oakland; 1 in every 6 in Atlanta; 1 in 7
in Boston; 1 in 10 in Buffalo and Pittsburgh; 1 in 11 in Dallas and
Kansas City; and 1 in 12 in Chicago, Minneapolis-St. Paul, and Seattle.
Flat-sum and other types of payment w ere most commonly
found in Cleveland, New York City, and Philadelphia, where they w ere
applicable to from 3 to 4 percent of the plant w orkers.
16

See listing of occupational wage survey bulletins on last page.




Typically, provisions were m ore liberal for office workers
as to the maximum amount of vacation pay they might eventually
re ceive, and as to the amount of pay granted fo r comparable service
or seniority, although some marked differences for both office and
plant workers w ere noted among the areas. F o r example, not a ll of
the areas that offered the most (or least) lib era l vacation provisions
fo r o ffice workers held the same relative rank with respect to plant
w orkers. To some extent, such variations re flect the local importance
of particular industries.
In New York City, fo r example, financial
institutions, and in Birmingham and Pittsburgh, the steel industry,
provide employment to an unusually high proportion of the total office
and manufacturing plant w orkers, respectively, in the area. 1 Thus,
7
vacation practices in these industries influenced the overa ll data for
those cities.
A ll areas had in common, however, the practice of at
least 1 w eekfs pay fo r 1 year*s service, applicable to the great
m ajority of the office and plant workers in each area.
F or the bulk of both plant and office workers in most areas,
vacation pay fo r 3 weeks was the maximum provided. The proportion
of plant workers fo r whom the maximum vacation pay provision was
2 weeks was somewhat greater than the proportion of office workers
with this maximum.
A greater proportion of office than plant workers
could expect eventually to receive vacation pay for 4 weeks or m ore.
Maximum pay of 4 weeks or m ore was available to about 20 to
30 percent of the office workers in most areas.
Although up to 17
percent (New York City) might qualify with 20 years* service, the
common requirement was 25 years.
The same service requirement
applied also to plant w orkers, but the 4 weeks* pay maximum was
available to a sm aller proportion of the plant than of the office workers
in each area.
Maximum vacation pay of 3 weeks (but Less than 4)
was offered to from 50 to 65 percent of the office w orkers in most
areas.
F ifte e n 1 years* service was required for the m ajority of the
8
workers in each area except New York City (10 years).
Fifteen years
was also the usual service requirement for plant workers with this
pay maximum.
The proportion of plant workers who had 3 weeks
as a maximum was on a level with that of office workers in almost
half the areas, trailed the office proportion by 10 to 15 percent in
4 areas, and exceeded the office proportion by from 7 to 35 percent
in the remaining areas.
Maximum vacation pay provisions of less than 3 weeks applied
generally to higher proportions of plant than of office w orkers.
The
proportion of office workers whose maximum was under 3 weeks ranged
by area from about 10 up to 50 percent.
The plant proportion was
the higher in 10 of the areas. However, in 5 areas the proportion
for both classes was about the same (about 10 percent).
In 2 areas,
1 See also charts 1 and 2, pp. 3 and 4.
7
1 It should be noted that in the tabulation of data to the sele c­
8
ted 5-, 10-, 15-, 20-, and 25-year service periods, workers with in ter­
mediate service provisions
w ere included in the datafor
nexthigher
selected year.
Thus, 15 years includes, technically 11, 12, 13, 14,
or 15 years.

40

the proportion of office workers with a maximum vacation of less
than 3 weeks was higher than the proportion of plant workers with
sim ilar maximum vacation pay provisions.
In respect to the amount of pay granted for comparable service
or seniority, the greatest differences between vacation pay benefits
fo r office and plant workers w ere in the provisions for service periods
up to 3 years.
Much la rg er proportions of office workers than of
plant w orkers, fo r example, qualified fo r vacation pay after 6 months,
and pay fo r 2 weeks or m ore after a year of service was much m ore
w idely granted to office w orkers.
Provisions fo r 2 weeks or m ore
w ere about the same fo r both groups for employees with 5 y e a rs 1
service except in Atlanta and Memphis.
However, vacation pay a r ­
rangements corresponding to 10, 15, 20, and 25 years of service
p ro g ress ively favor office workers in most areas, tending to provide
a higher proportion of such workers with 3 and 4 w eeks1 vacations.
Data are presented in (tables B-21 to B-26) fo r manufacturing
and public utilities in 17 areas, fo r wholesale trade, retail trade,
and the finance group in 10 or 11 areas, and for services in 5 areas.
Within these lim its 2 or m ore w eeks1 pay after 5 or few er years of
service was offered to virtu ally every office w orker in each industry
division.
The finance group led in the proportion of office workers
offered either a week or 2 weeks* pay fo r 6 months* service. Three
weeks or m ore could eventually be earned by higher proportions of
office workers in public utilities and finance than in other divisions.
Retail trade and finance generally led in offering 4 weeks* pay to 30 to
60 percent of their office workers in most areas.
Although generally
available only after 25 years* service, this pay amount was available
after 20 or few er years to from half to all the office workers in
establishments having 4-week plans in certain industries and areas:
Manufacturing— Los A ngeles-Lon g Beach; public u tilities— New York
City, Birmingham, Dallas, Memphis, Chicago, Kansas City and P o rt­
land; retail trade— Boston and Pittsburgh; finance—Minneapolis-St. Paul
and Los A n geles-Lon g Beach; services— Boston, New York City, and
Chicago.
Among the 5 industry divisions fo r which data are presented
for plant w orkers, public utilities led in the proportion (50 to 90
percent in most areas) who w ere offered a week*s pay fo r as little as
6 months* service. Two or m ore weeks* pay, ultim ately available to
the great bulk of plant workers in each area and industry division,
was generally available in public utilities and reta il trade fo r less
service than in other industries.
Three or m ore weeks* pay was
available in most areas to nine-tenths or m ore of the plant workers
in public u tilities, to three-fourths or m ore in trade and manufacturing,
and to about a fifth in services.
Public utilities w ere also in the
forefron t in providing nine-tenths or m ore of their plant w orkers in
most areas with 3 weeks* pay for 15 years* service.
However, retail
trade, next to lowest among industry divisions in the proportion of plant
w orkers who w ere offered 3 weeks or m ore, provides a third or m ore
in most areas with vacations of this length after 10 years* service.




Retail trade also led a ll divisions in offering 4 weeks* pay to a third,
or m ore of its nonoffice workers in most areas, as against a proportion
of a sixth or m ore in most areas in the next highest industry division—
public utilities.
Health and Insurance Plans
L ife insurance was the most common benefit provision.
It
was available to 90 percent or m ore of the office workers in each area
except Boston and Portland, and to 84 percent or m ore of the plant
workers in each area except Memphis and Portland (table B-27).
Provisions fo r hospitalization insurance and surgical insur­
ance applied to from 70 to 90 percent or m ore of both the office and
plant w orkers in each area except Philadelphia, Birmingham, Memphis,
and Seattle.
Among the latter areas, however, the proportionate cov­
erage of office workers in Memphis (85 percent) and of plant workers
in Seattle (90 percent) ranked among the highest of tKe 17 areas.
Medical insurance was available to half or m ore of the office and plant
workers in a m ajority of the areas.
Hospitalization, surgical, and m edical insurance have each
become increasingly available in recent years in a ll areas studied.
Between 1953 and 1957, hospitalization became newly available to an
additional 15 to 39 percent of the office workers in a third of the areas
and to an additional 15 to 68 percent of the plant workers in nearly
half the areas (chart 3).
Furtherm ore, during this 4-year span in
almost a ll of 14 areas affording comparison, m ore office workers
newly received surgical and m edical coverage than hospitalization.
In both 1952-53 and 1956-57, surgical plans were available
to higher proportions of plant than of office workers in about twothirds of 14 areas fo r which data are available (chart 3), and m edi­
cal in about half the areas (chart 4). Hospitalization, ea rlie r available
to m ore office than plant workers in a m ajority of the areas, is now
available to m ore plant than office workers in two-thirds of the areas.
The proportion of plant workers now receivin g hospitalization and sur­
gical exceeds that of office workers by 35 percent in Seattle and by
from 10 to 18 percent in New York City, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh,
and Birmingham.
In only 2 of the areas in which the office worker
coverage was the greater (Boston and Memphis) did the difference
between office and plant coverage exceed 5 percent.
Benefit provisions fo r employee illnesses may take the form
of sick leave with full or partial pay or insurance coverage.
Many
establishments provided both sickness insurance and sick leave.
In
about half of the areas, the proportions of office and plant workers
covered by at least some type of sickness pay equaled or exceeded the
proportions who are provided hospitalization and surgical insurance.

41

Sick-leave plans providing fo r full pay and requiring no w ait­
ing period w ere much m ore prevalent for office workers than for plant
w orkers. F or example, the area proportions of workers covered by
such plans ranged between 28 and 83 percent of the office workers as
against a maximum proportion of 36 percent of the plant workers (Los
Angeles-Long Beach).
On the other hand, sickness and accident in­
surance was m ore commonly provided for plant w orkers, fo r whom
the proportions covered ranged from 26 to 89 percent, as compared
with a range of 31 to 51 percent fo r office w orkers.
Lim ited-type
sick leave requiring a waiting period or providing partial pay or both
was provided to up to 15 percent of office and up to 23 percent of
plant w orkers. Illness plans were m ore prevalent in manufacturing e s ­
tablishments than in nonmanufacturing divisions except public utilities.
Catastrophe (extended m edical) insurance information, which
was fir s t collected in the winter of 1953-54, is available to from 25
to 40 percent of the office workers in Atlanta, Chicago, New York
City, Los Angeles-Long Beach, and San Francisco-Oakland, and to
10 to 20 percent in most other areas.
In 9 areas permitting com ­
parison, the 3-year increment in the proportion of office workers cov­
ered ranged between 12 and 35 percentage points.
Catastrophe insur­
ance is available to as many as 10 percent of the prlant workers in
only 6 areas, the 3-year increment in 9 comparable areas ranging
between 2 and 8 percentage points in 5 areas and between 10 and
24 points in the remaining 4 areas.




.Retirement Plans
Retirement plans w ere somewhat m ore prevalent for office
workers than fo r plant workers in 1956-57.
Pension coverage fo r o f­
fice w orkers ranged from 60-70 percent (in Birmingham, Dallas, and
Memphis) to 80-85 percent in Atlanta, Buffalo, Los A ngeles-Long
Beach, Philadelphia, and Pittsburgh. Plant w orker coverage ranged
m ore w idely, from about 40 percent in Memphis and 50-55 percent
in Boston, Dallas, and Portland, up to 74-75 percent in New York
City and Buffalo, and over 80 percent in Pittsburgh.
Coverage in individual areas varied w idely among industry
divisions.
R elatively m ore workers w ere covered in public utilities
than in the other m ajor industry groups studied.
Lowest pension plan
coverage was in services and reta il trade.
Between 1953 and 1957, pensions became available to addi­
tional office and plant workers in each area (chart 4).
The increment
in the proportion of office workers covered by pension provisions
ranged between 11 and 15 percent in half of the areas.
The increment
in plant workers covered by pension plans was generally greater than
that of office w orkers, ranging between 13 and 19 percent in most areas.

Chart 3. PROPORTIONS OF OFFICE AND PLANT WORKERS
SUBJECT TO THE PROVISIONS OF HOSPITALIZATION
AND SURGICAL INSURANCE PLANS
Winter 1952-53^ and Winter 1956-57^
17 LABOR M AR KETS
PERC EN T

H O SP IT A L IZ A T IO N
IN SU R A N C E

SU R G IC A L
IN SU R A N C E
PERC EN T

100
75
50
25
0
i--------------,-------------- 1
-------------- 1
--------------

NORTHEAST
Boston
Buffalo
New York City
Philadelphia
Pittsburgh
SOUTH
Atlanta
1
/

Birmingham
Dallas

m

Memphis
MIDDLE W EST
Chicago

wmmm

Cleveland

m
W ///7/7//////77//7/7//A

Kansas City
MinneapolisSt. Paul

mzm

V //////////////77777>

2

777777/777777/777777777777/77777/

Y 7 7 7 7 77 7 7 7 7 77 7 7/
7 7 7 ? 7 / 7 7 7 7 7 / 7 7 //

FAR W EST
Los AngelesLong Beach
Portland

77
7/
tl
Z

wmrnm

M///////7//////;;////////////A San FranciscoW7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 Z
777777777777777
Oakland
» i—
Seattle

v

JL/

JV

Estimates for Pittsburgh, Birmingham, and Seattle relate to winter 1951-52, except that

W in t e r 1 9 5 2 -5 3

information for Surgical insurance in these areas is not available for any early period.

-L /

? ////////////////*

Estimates for Memphis and M in ne ap ol is -S t. Paul relate to winter 1955-56.
No Ea rli e r Data.

UN ITED S TA TE S DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




/////s//r//s//sss*

O ffic e
P la n t

Inc re a se sinc e
1 9 5 2 -5 3
O ffic e
P la n t

Chart 4. PROPORTIONS OF OFFICE AND PLANT WORKERS
SUBJECT TO THE PROVISIONS OF MEDICAL INSURANCE
AND RETIREMENT PENSION PLANS
Winter 1952-53^and Winter 1956-57^
M E D IC A L
IN SU R A N C E

17 LABOR M AR KETS

R E T IR E M E N T
PE N SIO N

PERC EN T

P ER C E N T

M ID D L E W E S T

Chicago

—

Cleveland
Kansas City
MinneapolisSt. Paul
FA R W E S T

Los AngelesLong Beach
Portland
San FranciscoOakland
Seattle
Aj

mm.

Estimates for Pittsburgh, Birmingham, and Seattle relate to wi nte r 1951-52, except that
information for medical insurance in these areas is not available for any early period.

U

Estimates for M em ph is and Minneapolis-St. Paul relate to wi nter 1955-56.

JL/

No Earlier D a t a .

UNITED STA TES DEPARTM ENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




W in t e r 1 9 5 2 -5 3

'////////// ap ///.

/ /////////////a
'

Of f i c e

P la n t

I n c r e a s e si nce
1 9 52 -5 3
Office

P la n t

44

B: Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions
Ta b le B-l-

La b or-m a na g em e nt ag ree m ent coverage

(P e rc e n t of a ll office and plant w o r k e r s em ployed in l a r g e - and m ed iu m -size establishm ents in which a contract o r contracts covered a m a jo rity of w o r k e r s in the respective ca te g o rie s *)
P ercen t of office w o rk e rs em ployed in—
A rea

A ll
in dustries

P ercen t of plant w o r k e r s em ployed in—

M an u ­
facturing

P u blic
utilities 2

Whole sale
trade

R etail
trade

Finance 3

N ortheast:
Boston _______________________________________
B u f f a l o ... ............ ..........................................
N ew Y o rk City
P h ilad elp h ia ............ ......... ..........................
P ittsb u rgh __________________________________

15-19
15-19
10-14
15-19
20-24

20-24
15-19
10- 14
20-24
20-24

80-84
80-84
55-59
65-69
65-69

15-19
( 5)
5-9
0-4
10- 14

10- 14
( 5)
35-39
15- 19
25-29

0-4
( 5)
0-4
0-4
0-4

South:
Atlanta
_
. . . . . . . ___ ...
B irm in gh am _
_
_
.
.
..
D a lla s _______________________________ ________ _
.
M em ph is
_ _. .............. .

15-19
5-9
10-14
5-9

40-44
0-4
0-4
10- 14

40-44
35-39
45-49
45-49

5-9
(? )
( 5)
( 5)

0-4
( 5)
0-4
( 5)

0-4
( 5)
0-4
( 5)

North C en tral:
Chicago
_
......
C le v e la n d _
... ........
. ........
K an sas City _________________________________
M in n e a p o lis-S t. P a u l _____________________

15-19
10-14
15- 19
10-14

10- 14
5-9
15- 19
5-9

70-74
55-59
40-44
45-49

5-9
0-4
( 5)
5-9

20-24
(* )
( 5)
40-44

0-4
0-4
( 5)
0-4

W est:
L o s A n g e le s -L o n g B e a c h _________________
P o r t la n d _____________________________ _______ _
San F ra n c is c o -O a k la n d ___________________
Seattle _________ ___________________________

20-24
15-19
15-19
25-29

25-29
0-4
10- 14
5-9

80-84
55-59
70-74
75-79

10- 14
( 5)
0-4
( 5)

( 5)
35-39
60-64
90-94

0-4
( 5)
0-4
( 5)

S erv ices

A ll
in d u s trie s 4

M an u­
facturing

P u b lic
utilities 2

W holesale
trade

R etail
trade

S e rv ic e s

50-54
( S)
85-89
80-84
( 5)

0-4
( 5)
10-14
10- 14
( 5)

7 0-74
85-89
80-84
80-84
90-94

75-79
90-94
90-94
85-89
95+

95+
95+
95+
80-84
95+

50-54
( 5)
7 0-74
70-74
75-79

55-59
( 5)
55-59
55-59
45-49

( 5)

50-54
75-79
45-49
50-54

60-64
90-94
60-64
75-79

80-84
80-84
90-94
90-94

40-44

( 5)
( 5)

< »)
( 5)
( 5)

5-9
( 5)
5-9
( 5)

0-4
( 5)
(? )
( 5)

7 0-74
90-99
80-84
85-89

70-74
90-94
90-94
90-94

95+
95+
90-94
95+

65-69
75-79
( 5)
85-89

45-49
( 5)
( 5)
60-64

80-84
( 5)
( 5)
( 5)

75-79
80-84
95+
95+

75-79
90-94
95+
95+

95+
95+
95+
95+

80-84
( 5)
90-94
( S)

( 5)
60-64
85-89
95+

6 75-79

(J)

6 10-14
( 5)
(? )
( 5)

(
(
(
(

5)
5)
5)
5)

(? )
(* )
( 5)

1 A ll other office and plant w o r k e r s w e re em ployed in establish m en ts that either did not have la b o r-m an agem en t contracts in effect, o r had contracts that applied to fe w e r than half of their office
o r plant w o r k e r s . The estim ates a re not n e c e s s a rily represen tative of the extent to w hich a ll w o rk e rs in the a r e a m ay be c o vered by the p ro v isio n s of labo r-m a n a g e m e n t a g reem en ts, due to the e x ­
clusion of s m a lle r -s iz e establish m en ts. Data a re lim ited to establishm ents with 51 o r m ore em ployees except in the 8 la rg e s t a r e a s w h ere the m inim um size adopted w as 101 em ployees in m an u fac­
turing, public u tilities, and re ta il tra d e .
2 T ran sp o rtatio n (excluding r a ilr o a d s ), com m unication, and other public u tilities. M u n icipally owned utilities w e re excluded fro m the su rvey . A ll o r m a jo r lo c a l tran sit operations in Boston,
C h icago, C levelan d , N ew Y o rk C ity, San F ra n c is c o -O a k la n d , and Seattle w e re m u n icipally operated, as w e re ele c tric utility operations in L o s A n g e le s -L o n g B each and Seattle, and e le c tric and gas
operations in M em p h is.
3 F inance, in su ran ce, and r e a l estate.
4 Includes data fo r re a l estate in addition to those industry divisio n s shown sep arately .
5 Insufficient data to w a rra n t sep arate presentation.
6 E xclu des data fo r m otio n -p ictu re production and a llie d s e rv ic e s . D ata fo r these indu stries a re , h ow ever, included in " a l l in d u s t r ie s ."




45

Table B-2! Minimum entrance rates1far, women office w o rk e rs- all industries
(D istribu tio n of establishm ents studied by m inim um h irin g rate fo r selected occupations)
N orth east
M inim um rate
(w eek ly stra ig h t-tim e sa la ry )

E stablish m en ts s t u d ie d ____

________

Boston2 B uffalo

__ —

249

230

South

N ew Y o rk
C ity 2

P h ila ­
delphia2

553

322

P ittsb u rgh

222

Atlanta

195

N orth C e n tra l

B ir m in g ­
ham

D a lla s

110

179

W est

K ansas
C h ic a g o 2 C le v e la n d 2
C ity

433

Los
A n geles P o rtlan d
Lon g
B each 2

San
F ra n c is c o O akland2

Seattle2

235

184

301

148

250

133

125
1
10
11
18
17
33
9
8
10
3
1
3
1

92
1
1
27
12
16
12
9
2
2
4
2
3
1
-

-

-

152
1
2
5
13
9
28
22
13
17
10
6
8
7
2
9

60
3
1
9
7
10
1
5
3
3
10
1
4
1
1
1

117
1
5
15
10
23
8
15
12
9
7
3
7
2

64
2
4
14
5
9
12
2
2
3
5
5
1
-

-

235
2
7
6
17
29
72
26
31
14
19
4
4
1
3

Inexperienced typists
E stablish m en ts having a sp ecified
m in im u m 3 __ _____ _____ __ _ __ _ __
U nder $37. 50 ...........................................
$37. 50 and under $40. 00 __________ ____
$40. 00 and under $42. 50 __ ___ ______
$42. 50 and under $45. 00 ____________ __
$45. 00 and under $47. 50 .......................
$47. 50 and under $50. 00 ____________ __
$ 50.00 and under $52. 50 _________________
$52. 50 and under $55. 00 ____________ __
$55.00 and under $57. 50 ..........................
$57. 50 and under $60. 00 __ __ _ _______
$60. 00 and under $62. 50 _________________
$62. 50 and under $65. 00 _________________
$65.00 and under $67. 50 _________________
$67. 50 and under $70. 00 _________________
$70. 00 and under $72. 50 _________________
$72. 50 and over __ _________ _____________
E stablish m en ts having no sp ecified
m inim um ______________________________________
E stablish m en ts which did not em ploy
w o rk e rs in this c a t e g o r y ____________________
Inform ation not a v a ila b le _____ ___________

129
5
10
56
21
16
5
6
3
4
2
1
-

113
6
2
30
10
24
4
9
9
8
5
3
1
2
-

T

89
3
40
16
13
1
7
3
2
2
2
-

-

-

-

46
4
2
14
4
9
3
1
2
3
2
1
1
-

109

73

35

37

28

34

101

40

32

67

51

71

24

160
1

96
2

50
2

67
2

35
1

77
1

96
1

68
2

57
3

81
1

36
1

61
1

44
1

95
2
3
38
8
13
10
9
3
1
2
2
2
1
1
-

163
2
3
9
18
16
30
16
18
15
5
6
7
6
2
10

67
3
1
10
9
9
5
5
4
5
9
1
4
1
1

132
1
1
3
9
17
10
26
6
13
16
9
8
7
2
2
2

70
3
7
15
5
10
11
1
6
4
3
4
1
-

283
4
27
9
60
48
76
16
20
8
11
2
1
1
-

-

-

-

59

33

60
1

81
3

151
5
8
48
25
24
8
11
8
8
3
3
-

135
6
6
40
12
16
7
12
7
11
1
2
3
5
-

67
3
2
24
16
5
7
1
2
4
1
1
1
-

-

Other inexperienced clerical workers4
E stablish m en ts having a sp ecified
m in im u m 3 __ __ __ „ ______
__ --------U nder $37. 50 ...............................................
$37. 50 and under $40. 00 __ ------------------$40. 00 and under $42. 50 __ ____ _ ___
$42. 50 and under $45. 00 _________________
$45.00 and under $47. 50 ____ __________
$47. 50 and under $50. 00 __ ____ _______
$50. 00 and under $52. 50 __ __ _______
$52. 50 and under $55. 00 _________________
$55. 00 and under $57. 50 _________ ______
$57. 50 and under $60. 00 _________________
$60.00 and under $62. 50 _________________
$62. 50 and under $65. 00 _______________
$65.00 and under $67. 50 _____ __________
$67. 50 and under $70. 00 __ __
____
$70. 00 and under $72. 50 _________________
$72. 50 and o v e r ____________________________
Establishm ents having no sp ecified
m inim um ______________________________________
Establishm ents which did not em ploy
w o rk e rs in this c a t e g o r y ____________________
Inform ation not av a ila b le _____________________

1
2
3
4

142
9
13
71
12
16
4
4
2
8
2
1
-

-

130
9
3
39
13
25
7
8
7
9
6
1
1
2
-

312
10
56
27
80
38
53
12
17
6
11
1
1
-

-

161
8
14
62
19
23
7
7
9
7
2
2
1
-

146
8
5
41
16
21
7
11
6
14
1
2
3
10
1
-

96
3
4
43
15
11
2
7
5
3
1
2
-

50
4
3
17
8
5
1
5
1
2
2
2
-

79
5
5
35
12
4
6
4
1
6
1
-

-

-

141
3
19
18
14
17
33
9
16
6
1
2
3
-

-

250
2
13
11
35
31
71
23
21
13
17
4
6
3

-

-

-

-

71

39

106

89

34

48

27

34

109

36

43

68

45

71

22

35
1

58
3

134
1

70
2

40
2

49
2

32
1

65
1

73
1

56
2

43
3

69
1

35
1

46
1

40
1

L o w e st fo rm a lly establish ed s a la r y rate.
Exceptions to the standard industry lim itations a re shown in footnotes 4 and/or 6 to the table in appendix B.
R e g u la r straight-tim e s a la r y corresp on d in g to e m p lo y e e ^ standard w orkw eek. D ata are p resen ted fo r a ll w orkw eeks com bined.
Rates app licable to m e s s e n g e rs , office g ir ls , o r s im ila r s u b c le ric a l jobs are not co n sidered.




46

T a b le B-3* M inim um e ntra nce ra te s 1 fo r w om e n o ffic e w o rk e rs- m a n u fa c tu rin g
(D istribu tion of establish m en ts studied by m inim um hiring rate fo r selected occupations)
Northeast
M in im u m rate
(w eekly stra igh t-tim e s a la r y )

E stablish m en ts studied _______________________

B oston

84

B u ffalo

131

N ew Y o rk
City

177

South
P h ila ­
delphia

143

P ittsbu rgh

Atlanta

83

56

B ir m in g ­
ham

49

N orth C e n tra l

D a lla s

58

C hicago

171

C levelan d

W est

K an sas
City

Los
A n g e le s Long
B each

Portlan d

San
F ra n c is c o Oakland

Seattle

109

68

111

63

83

46

62
2
3
8
6
19
6
1
9
3
1
3
1
-

30
_
5
5
3
5
4
1
_
3
1
2
1
-

62
_
1
2
2
2
9
11
7
12
6
5
2
2
1

23
_
2
1
4
1
3
1
5
3
1
1
1

43

18

_
_
1
3
8
3
9
5
5
3
3
_
2
1

_
3
2
1
5
1
1
1
3
1
_
_
-

Inexperienced typists
E stablish m en ts having a specified
m inim um 2
. .
U nder $40. 00
. . . . . .
...............
$40. 00 and under $ 4 2 .5 0
$ 4 2 .5 0 and under $ 4 5 .0 0 _________________
$45. 00 and under $ 4 7 .5 0 „.........._
$ 4 7 .5 0 and under $ 5 0 .0 0
$ 50. 00 and under $ 5 2 .5 0
$ 52.5 0 and under $ 55.00 .
$ 5 5 .0 0 and under $ 5 7 .5 0
...
_
$ 5 7 .5 0 and under $ 60. 00 _________________
$ 6 0 .0 0 and under $ 6 2 .5 0 . . _
$ 62.5 0 and under $ 65.00 ......................
$65. 00 and under $ 6 7 . 5 0 .
$ 67.50 and under $ 7 0. 00 ___________ ___
$7 0.00 and under $ 7 2 .5 0 _________________
$ 7 2 .5 0 and o v e r ____________________________
E stablish m en ts having no specified
m inim um
_____ ___...
.
. .
E stablish m en ts which did not em ploy
w o r k e r s in this catego ry _ _ ______________
Inform ation not a v a ila b le ______________________

45
2
17
8
8
1
3
1
3
1
1
-

74
1
20
6
15
4
6
7
7
5
1
1
1
-

89
11
3
17
8
22
6
7
7
5
1
1
1
-

69
-

-

-

-

"

25

21

33

33

8

18

14

34
2

55
"

41
"

10
1

20
1

19
10
9
5
9
4
7
3
3
-

64
13
4
8
6
3
4
9
1
2
3
5
6
-

17
7
1
3
1
1
1
1
2
_
*

20
4
2
5
2
1
2
2
1
1
-

17
2
4
3
3
1
1
2
1
-

103
1
2
2
15
28
9
16
8
12
3
4
1
2

12

11

47

23

10

23

23

23

9

17
"

30
“

21
"

23
1

26
2

26

17

17

19
“

65
_
1
2
5
2
13
9
7
12
5
4
2
1
2

25
_
1
2
5
2
3
1
1
5
3
1
1

50
_
_

17
_
_

1
2
4
12
3
6
9
4
4
3
2

3
2
1
4
1
2
1
2
1
"

-

Other Inexperienced clerical w orkers3
E stablish m en ts having a specified
m in im u m 2 __________________ _________________
U n der $40. 00
.... . ..................
$40 .0 0 and under $ 4 2 .5 0
_ .
$42 .5 0 and under $ 4 5 .0 0
$45. 00 and under $ 4 7 .5 0 _________________
$ 4 7 .5 0 and under $ 50.00
$5 0. 00 and under $ 5 2 .5 0
.... . ..........
$52 .5 0 and under $ 55. 00 _____ __________
$ 5 5.00 and under $ 57.50 _________________
$ 5 7 .5 0 and under $ 6 0 . 0 0 _________________
$ 60. 0 0 and under $ 6 2 .5 0
......
$ 6 2 .5 0 and under $65. 0 0 _________________
$ 65.00 and under $ 67.50
$ 6 7 .5 0 and under $ 7 0. 00 _________________
$70. 0 0 and under $ 7 2 .5 0 _________________
$ 7 2 .5 0 and over ____________________________
E stablish m en ts having no specified
m in im u m _______________________________ ______
E stablish m en ts w hich did not em ploy
w o r k e r s in this catego ry ________ __________
Inform ation not a v a ila b le ______________________

50
3
23
7
7
2
2
4
1
_
1
-

74
1
21
8
15
4
7
4
6
5
1

27
7

75
1
24
10
13
4
6
6
6
2
2
1
-

66
_

1
1
-

95
1
16
6
19
7
22
5
6
4
7
1
1
-

23

35

43

8

32
2

47

25

12
7
10
6
2
4
9
1
2
3
10
-

8
1

-

20
_
4
3
4
1
2
1
1
2
2
“

18
_
4
2
2
4
4
2
-

10 2
_
1
5
7
15
26
9
12
7
10
3
5
2

73
_
4
5
7
9
21
7
10
4
1
2
3
-

28
_
5
4
4
4
4
2
1
1
2
1
"

23

13

13

44

19

17

23

17

21

9

21
2

23

21

12

20

20
_
8
3
3
1
1
1
1
2

12
1

16

27

25

‘

L o w est fo rm a lly e stab lish ed s a la ry rate.
R e g u la r straig h t-tim e s a la ry corresp on d in g to em p lo y ee's standard w ork w eek . D ata a re presented fo r a ll w ork w eek s com bined.
R ates a p p licab le to m e s s e n g e rs , office g ir ls , o r s im ila r su b c le ric a l jo b s are not co n sidered.




16
1

47
Table B-4: Scheduled weekly hours- a ll industries
(P e rc e n t of office and plant w o rk e rs em ployed in a ll establishm ents by scheduled hours of w o rk per w eek)
P lan t w o rk e rs 2

O ffice w o rk e rs 1
A rea

40
hours

O ver
40
hours

65
42
89
61
34

35
57
11
39
64

t

3

t
t

13

t
t

14
5
4
t

34
17
14
12

63
79
80
74

3
4
7
14

16
13
7
15

8
3
t
9

38
20
14
29

61
78
84
69

t
t
t

t
t

t

3

7
13
19
13

5

4
9
t

16
18
36
16

83
81
64
84

t
t

t
t
t
3

U nder 40 hours
35

3674

37Va

3834
/

T otal 3

N ortheast:
B o s to n 4 __
_ ______ _ _ __ __ __
B uffalo _____________ ________ ____ __________
N ew Y o rk C it y 4 ____________________________
P h ila d e lp h ia 4 __ __
_ __ __ ___
P it t s b u r g h ---------------------------------------------------

8
5
53
12
5

9
t
11
5
t

26
27
16
25
23

9
t
t
11
t

South:
A t l a n t a _____ _________ ________________________
B irm i n g h a m ________________ _______________
D a lla s
__ __ _
_ _______ ___
______
M e m p h is 4 — _ __ _ --------- _ --------- _

t
t
t
t

t
-

16
9
4
6

3
t
-

3
3
t

t

N orth C e n tra l:
C h ic a g o 4 _______
_
__ _________ _ __
C le v e la n d 4 ______________ __ ______ __________
K ansas C i t y _____ ____________________________
. M in n eap o lis-S t. P au l

W est:
L o s A n g e le s -L o n g B e a c h 4 __ ___
____
P o r t l a n d __
___ ____ _ __________ ____
San F ra n c is c o -O a k la n d 4 __________________
S e a ttle 4 __
_ ____ ______________
__

1
2
3
4
t

t

t
-

-

t

t

D ata relate to wom en office w o rk e rs only.
D ata fo r finance and insurance establishm ents a re excluded.
Includes w eek ly schedules other than those presented sep arately .
Exceptions to the standard industry lim itations a re shown in footnotes
L e s s than 2. 5 percent.




-

t

U nder 40 hours
U nder
37Va

37l/
a

44

45

75
85
74
85
89

12
7
7
6
10

5

t
t
t
t

t
t
t
t
t

t
t

71
85
59
67

25
13
38
32

t
t

t

3
t

t

t

6
7
5
6

83
75
80
77

10
18
15
17

t
t
t
t

t

92
95
86
95

6

t
t
t
t

t

13
8
19
9

t

t

t

-

4

4

t
t

t
t
t

t

"

4

4 and/or 6 to the table in appendix B.

3
5

t
t

O ver 40 hours
42

7
5
5
8

t

40
hours

Total 3

Total 3

t
t

t
3

10

13

t

4

t
t
t

-

3

4

t
t

48

3

t
t
t
6

4
3
7
8

12
11

t
3

4
5

t

t

t

6

4

t
t

t

-

t

t
t
t
t

8

3
3

-

7

t

O ver
48

t
t
t
t
t

4
4
6
t

f
4
3
3

t
-

48

Table B-5* Scheduled weekly hours - manufacturing
(Percent of office and plant workers employed in manufacturing establishments by scheduled hours of work per week)
O ffice w o rk e rs 1
U n der 40 hours

A re a
35

N o rth east:
Boston _
--------------B u ffalo _________ ,
_______ r. rr.
___
._
N ew Y o rk City ________________ ___ ____ _____
P h ila d e lp h ia ____
_____ __________ _____
Pittsbu rgh
_
_ _

South:
A t l a n t a __ ______
B irm in gh am _
_ . ..
D a lla s
__ —
_
M em phis
_

____
_
__
-

_

__

W est:
Eos A n g e le s - L o n g B e a c h
P o rtla n d
_
San F ran c is co -O ak lan d
S e a t t le __
_
_ „

36%

9
4
70
5

t

t

t

t

t

t

t
5
3

-

. -

N orth C e n tra l:
C h icago
.
_
. C le v e la n d _ -............ .
_________________________
K ansas City —
.
_ _
M inneapolis--St. P a u l
. . . .
_

_

-

“

-

t

t

-

-

“

"

t
3

-

-

37%

17
11
14
22
6

8
9
3
3

15
10

t

6

t
t

14

3

1 Data relate to women office workers only.
2 Includes weekly schedules other than those presented separately,
t Less than 2. 5 percent.




Plant worke rs

3834
/

8
4

t
20
4

.

t
-

14

t
t
4

-

Total 2

40
hours

O v er
40
hours

t

Under 40 hours
Under
37%

36
22
92
51
16

62
78
8
49
84

10
12
3
4

88
88
90
86

39
12

60
87
95
77

t
t
3

4

97
98
66
97

t
t

t
4
3
5

3
20

t

-

t

12

34

3

37%

3

7

10

-

t

-

26

t
t

t
t

t

t
t

7
10

t

-

Total 2

40
hours

O v e r 40 hours
T o t a l2

85
93
70
85
92

5
4
3
4
8

10

27
11

•

t

t

.
-

7

7

t

t
t
t

85
94
75
82

8
5
23
17

8
8
7
8

84
77
81
73

7
15
11
19

3
5

91
93
87
93

t
t

t
t

5

t

5

4
6

4
t

3
t
9

t

13
7

6

O ver
48

45

48

.

t
t
t
t

t
t
t

■

6

.
3
10
8

t
t

t
t

3

+

r
-

t

t

3
3

-

4
‘

4

4

t

-

5

9

5

5

t

t

t

-

-

5

-

49

T a b le B-6s

Scheduled w e e k ly h o u rs - p ub lic u tilitie s *

(P e rc e n t of office and plant w o rk e rs em ployed in public utilities establishm ents by scheduled hours of w ork p er week)
Plan t w o rk e rs

O ffice w o rk e rs 1
A rea

U nder 40 hours

40
hours

35

N orth east:
B o s to n 3 „ __________ ___
_ ___ _
____
B u ffalo ____________________________ ____________
N ew Y o rk C i t y 3 ................................................
Philad elp h ia ____________________________________
P it t s b u r g h --------------------------------------------------------

South:
Atlanta __ ____ ___ __ _ _____________________
B irm in gh am __ _________ _________ __ _ ___
Dallas __________ _____ __ _____________________
M em phis3 ----------------------------------------------------------

N orth C e n tra l:
C h ic a g o 3 _________________________ ___ __ __
C le v e la n d 3_____________ ______ __________ ___
Kansas C ity _
M in n eap olis-S t. P a u l ___________________ ____

W est:
L o s A n g e le s -L o n g B e a c h 3 _
______________
P o rtlan d _______ __ ---------------------------------------San F r a n c is c o -O a k la n d 3 ______ _____________
Seattle 3 _ --- ---------- ------------------------------------

1
2
3
t
*

37V2

3834
/

T o ta l2

3
t
63
14

-

"

61
70
14
59
68

63
72
78
74
71

37
28
22
26
29

8
-

58
42

66
44
3
60

O ver
40
hours

-

t

-

60

“

t

3

t

-

t
-

-

5
3
-

“

t

-

t

-

6
7

t

t

7

6
17

t

t

40
hours

t
12
4
t
25

4
5

t
t
t
"

7

64
80
62
67

36
20
38
33

t
3
4
11

8
3
7

5
4

100
100
90
98

10

-

t

-

"

~

96
100
97
100

4
-

-

t

-

3
t
-

3
t

98
88
93
99
75

33
54
93
33

t

-

-

94
96
100
99

t
t

99
94
83
100

-

5
7

-

-

-

"

"

-

-

t

See footnote 4 to table in appendix B.

Total 2

O ver
48

48

Total 2

t

O v er 40 hours
45

37VZ

D ata relate to wom en office w o rk e rs only.
Includes w eekly schedules other than those presented separately.
1 or m ore utilities a re m unicipally operated and, th e re fo re , excluded fro m the scope of the studies.
L e s s than 2. 5 percent.
T ran sp ortation (excluding r a ilr o a d s ), com m unication, and other public utilities.




U nder 40 hours

t

t

6
~

-

-

50

Table B-

7- Scheduled weekly hours -wholesale trade

(P e rc e n t of office and plant w o rk e rs em ployed in w h olesale trade establishm ents by scheduled hours of w o rk per week)
O ffice w o rk e rs 1

N orth east:
B o s t o n ---------------------------------------------------- —
N ew Y o rk C ity
_
.
_
P h ilad elp h ia ________________ ________________
P it t s b u r g h ___________________________________

_

Total 2

7
11

4
5
19
t

48
90
48
27

50
10
52
73

t

-

-

3

32
22
19
15

-

4
7
t

-

15

3

18

80

t

3

-

-

25
14
9

68
86
91

7
6

11
20

89
80

-

-

North C en tral:
C h icago __________________________________ ____
C levelan d
M inn eap olis-S t. P a u l ______________________

3
4

-

-

3

17
8
7

W est:
L o s A n g e le s -L o n g B each
San F ra n c is c o -O a k la n d __ __________

-

t
5

3
8

1
2
t

U nder
37V2

3834
/

-

___

U nder 40 hours

37%

50
8
3

_

40
hours

O ver
40
hours

36V4

35

South:
A tlanta _ _ _ _ _

Plan t w o rk e rs

U nder 40 hours

A rea

“

O v e r 40 hours

40
hours

Total 2

37V2

Total 2

O ver
48

44

45

48

_
_
_
7

13

3
11
t
-

3
17
8
t

75
83
86
88

22
6
11

4
_
4
-

_
_
_
-

7
_
_
4

-

6

6

60

34

8

-

7

7

-

t
5

83
94
97

t
t
-

6

t

-

t
5

16

-

_

_

3

-

t
"

_

_

-

~

-

-

-

-

-

-

~

“

6

t
3

94
94

t
6

5
"

3

.

D ata relate to w om en office w o rk e rs only.
Includes w eek ly schedules other than those presented sep arately ,
L e s s than 2. 5 percent.

T a b le B - 8 :

Scheduled

w e e k ly h o u r s - re ta il tra d e

(P e rc e n t of office and plant w o rk e rs em ployed in re ta il trade establishm ents by scheduled hours of w o rk p e r week)
O ffice w o rk e rs 1
Under 40 hours

A rea

__ ____ ____________ _
_
_____ ___________ _ _____

__ ___

W est:
P o rtland ___________ _______ _____________ __ _
San F ra n c isc o -O a k la n d
Seattle
_
_
.

1
2
3
t

3834
/

Total 2

11
15
7
3

6
17
-

6
4
8

-

18
29
11
8

71
71
33
12

29
29
66
78

10

-

8
-

5
7

-

13
14

78
74

9
13

-

t

t

-

-

4
7

-

5
12

93
86

-

-

12
~

97
88
100

t

~

11
“

D ata relate to wom en office w o rk e rs only.
Includes w eekly schedules other than those presented separately.
E xcludes lim it e d -p r ic e variety sto res,
L e s s than 2. 5 percent.




Under
37V2

37 V2

-

N ortheast:
B o s t o n ______ ______ __ ___________________
N ew Y o rk C ity 3 ____________________________
P h ila d e lp h ia 3 _______________ __ __ ______
P it t s b u r g h ____________________ __ ________

N orth C en tral:
Chicapo
M inneapolis -St. P a u l _ _ _______

40
hours

U nder 40 hours

36%

35

South:
A tlanta ________
D a lla s _________

Plan t w o rk e rs
O v er
40
hours

_

-

t

45

48

43
56
74
81

27
18
14
19

19

t
13
-

6
5
3
5

-

t

5
10

4

56
40

44
55

4
-

9
12

t

4
24

10
10

-

77
85

23
15

3

t

6

12

-

t

6

-

t

-

1?
"

14
"

98
84
96

t

-

-

-

-

30
26
11
-

-

4

t
t

-

-

3

t
■

t
8
t
-

-

O v er
48

44

16
14
7

-

Ofrer 40 hours
42

Total 2

t
t

40
hours

Total 2

37%

t
5

14

t

-

t

-

-

-

t

-

4

“

“

■

4

“

51

Ta b le B-9:

Scheduled w e e k ly h o u r s - fin a n c e * *

(P e rc e n t of office w o rk e rs em ployed in finance establishm ents by scheduled hours of w ork p er week)
O ffice w o rk e rs 1
U nder 40 hours

A re a
35

3 6l/
4

37V2

3 8%

N orth east:
B o s t o n ______________________ ____________________
N ew Y o rk C ity _ _______________________________
P h ilad elp h ia __ ___ ___________________________
P it t s b u r g h _______________________________________

7
51
24
21

18
18
13

30
9
25
54

15

South:
Atlanta ___________________________________________
D a lla s --------------------------------------------------------------

3
6

-

6
11

8
-

t

N orth C en tral:
C h icago ____________________________________ ___
C le v e la n d _________ _____________________________
M in n eap olis-S t. P a u l _________________________
W e st:
L o s A n g e le s -L o n g B each _____________________
San F r a n c is c o -O a k la n d _______________________

1
2
t
**

O ver
40
hours

40
hours

Total 2

-

“

90
94
90
78

10
6
10
22

8
-

42
10

53
25

47
75

t
t

31
25
36

9
15
23

69
57
62

31
43
38

-

3
“

18
30

15
11

46
52

54
48

-

t
-

-

t

t
3

-

-

Data re la te to wom en office w o rk e rs only.
Includes w eek ly schedules other than those presented sep arately ,
L e s s than 2. 5 percent.
Fin an ce, in su ran ce, and re a l estate.

Ta b le B-1Q*

Scheduled w e e k ly h o u r s - se rvic e s

(P e rcent of office and plant w o rk e rs em ployed in se rv ic e s establishm ents by scheduled hours of w o rk p er w eek)
O ffice w o rk e rs 1

Plant w o rk e rs

U nder 40 hours

A rea

40
hours

O v er
40
hours

35

36%

37%

Northeast:
Boston ____________________________________ ,___
N ew Y o rk C ity __________________ __________
P h iladelph ia __
__ _______

25
55
15

6
5

8

51
91
45

49
9
55

t

t

15
26
18

North C e n tra l:
C h icago -------------------------------------------------------

12

3

13

7

52

5

5

28

42

W est:
L os A n g e le s -L o n g B e a c h 3 __

1
2
3
t

___

_____

3834
/

-

Total 2

U nder 40 hours
Under
37%

37%

40
hours

O v er 40 hours
Total 2

44

t
t

5
4
3

61
86
87

34
9
10

20

t

5
4
-

46

t

7

t

9

66

57

t

“

t

t

89

-

D ata re la te to wom en office w o rk e rs only.
Includes w eekly schedules other than those presented sep arately .
Excludes m otion-picture production and a llie d se rv ic e s ; data fo r these industries a re included, h ow ever, in " a l l in d u s t r ie s ."
L e s s than 2. 5 percent.




Total 2

45

48

-

O ver
48

-

-

5

3
-

4

-

t

5

24

7

-

9

4

10

-

t

8

52

T a b le B - lli

S h ift d iffe re n tia l p ro v isio n s - m a nufa c turing

(T o ta l plant w o r k e r s in establish m en ts having fo rm a l p ro v isio n s fo r late shift o peration )
P e rcen t of m anufacturing plant w o rk e rs
N orth east

Shift operation and shiftpay d iffe re n tia l

South

North C en tral

Boston

B u ffalo

New
Y o rk
City

T o tal plant w o r k e r s in m anufacturing
establish m en ts _____________ __________________

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

Second shift _____ ______________________________
W ith sh ift-p ay d iffe re n tia l ________________
U n ifo rm cents (p er h o u r ) ______________
U n der 5 cents ________________________
5 and under 6 cents _________________
6 and under 7 cents _________________
7 and under 8 cents _________________
8 and under 9 cents _________________
9 and under 10 c e n t s ________________
10 and under 11 cents _________ ___
11 and under 12 cents ______________
12 and under 13 cents ______________
13 and under 14 cents .................... .
14 and under 15 cents ______________
15 and under 16 cents ______________
16 cents and o v e r ____________________
U n ifo rm percentage _____________________
U n der 5 percent _____________________
5 p e r c e n t ______________________________
O v e r 5 and under 10 percent ______
10 percent ____________________________
12, 12y*,or 15 p e r c e n t _____________
O ther 1 ____________________________________
N o sh ift-p ay d iffe r e n t ia l___________________

80.4
80.4
39.9
2 .4
8.6
7 .4
3. 1
1.5
11. 3
1. 1
.7
2. 1
1.7
37.5
4. 5
2. 3
29-4
1.4
2.9
-

91.5
91.0
62.4
1.5
4.7
21. 1
3.8
4 .6
3.4
12.9
.3
2 .0
.3
5.4
2 .4
22.4
.2
13. 5
1.4
7 .3
6. 1
.6

62.2
60. 6
33.7
4 .9
1.9
3. 0
1. 1
10. 3
.4
3.4
5.8
.5
2 .4
25.3
2. 1
3.4
13.8
5.9
1.6
1.5

83.4
79. 3
38. 0
.3
13. 5
2.7
3.2
5.6
1.5
7.2
4 .0
38.2
2 .9
5.2
30. 1
3. 0
4. 1

99.6
98. 0
88.2
5.7
2 .8
64.6
2.7
1. 1
5.0
2 .6
3. 8
9.5
1.2
.4
8. 0
.3
1.6

81.5
67. 1
50.7
5.6
7.9
3. 0
3.4
3.5
.8
6. 1
19.6
.8
14. 5
12. 8
1.7
1.9
14.4

93. 0
89.6
88. 7
1.9
4 .4
63.9
4.6
.4
1.2
1. 3
11. 0
.9
3.4

T h ird shift
__
__________________ ___________
With sh ift-pay d iffe re n tia l ________________
U n iform cents (p e r h o u r) _ ___________
U n der 5 cents ________________________
5 and under 6 cents _________________
6 and under 7 cents _________________
7 and under 8 cents _________________
8 and under 9 cents _________________
9 and under 10 c e n t s ________________
10 and under 11 cents ______________
11 and under 12 cents ______________
12 and under 13 cents
____________
13 and under 14 cents ______________
14 and under 15 cents ______________
15 and under 16 cents ______________
16 cents and o v e r ____________________
U n ifo rm percentage _____________________
U n der 7 percent _____________________
7 and under 8 percent ______________
8 and under 10 percent
___________
10 percent ____________________________
12, 1 2 ]^ ,o r 13 p e r c e n t _____________
15 percen t ____________________________
Othe r ^ ____________________________________
No sh ift-p a y d iffe r e n t ia l---------------------------

66.8
66. 8
29. 1
1.0
.9
6. 1
3. 1
2 .5
8.9
1. 1
.7

88. 0
88. 0
54. 0
1.0
-

52.7
51.8
23. 5
1. 1
.7
.8
11.7
.4
1.3
.4
.9
5. 3
.9
20. 3
3. 4 ,
9.9
6. 9
8. 0
.9

76. 1
74.7
32.3
2.6
.3
1.0
3.7
13.9
2 .5
.9
2 .5
4 .9
36. 1
1.5
6.0
1.3
25. 0
.5
1.9
6.3
1.4

97.4
97.4
88.2
1. 0
.5
5. 5
1.7
.5
65. 5
5. 3
2 .0
5.2
.5
.6
8.9
.8
8. 1
.3

73. 3
68. 0
31.5
8.8
1.5
3.6
2 .3
3.8
8.6

89.4
88. 0
76. 3
2. 8
2 .8
63. 8
5.7
-

-

2. 1
2 .8
36. 0
4 .0
-

22.5
9 .6
1.7
~

1.9
2 .6
24.4
14.7
3.7
.3
2 .0
3. 3
22.2
5.7
.7
15.8
11.7

t

P h ila ­
delphia

P it t s ­
burgh

Atlanta

-

1.4
1.5
12. 8
2. 1
2 .4
8. 3
23. 8
5. 3

B ir m in g ­
ham

-

1.2
11.7
1.4

San
F ran c is c o Oakland

Seattle

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

93.9
93.9
72.7
1.5
5.8
5.3
.6
1.5
.4
21.4
.8
31. 3
1.9
.2
1. 1
.8
12.0
3.7
2 .2
6.2
9. 3

93.7
86.9
58. 3
7.2
7 .2
6. 0
20. 5
.5
10. 3
3. 0
3.6
6. 3
1.3
5. 1
22.4
6.7

92.9
92.9
48. 5
2 .4
1.8
5. 0
3. 1
9.3
11.9
7. 3
2.5
5. 3
8.9
1.7
7. 1
35. 5
-

95.2
95.2
72.4
.5
5. 5
5. 5
2 .5
6. 8
49.8
1. 8
1.2
.6
.6
21.7
-

84. 6
84. 6
24. 3
. 1
3.9
1.2
1.2
7 .0
.7
.3
6 .4
3. 5
6 .0
.6
5.3
54.4

84.2
84.2
43.2
.2
21.4
1.0
6. 5
2 .8
.7
10.6
4.9
3.7
1.2
36. 1

92.0
92.0
35.8
.9
2 .4
1.0
5. 0
4. 1
1.9
.8
4 .6
15. 0
7.9
1.7
"
6.2
48.4

91.6
91.6
16.4
.8
2. 3
3. 0
1.2
3.7
4. 8
.6
1.2
.6
.6
74. 0

C hicago

C le v e ­
land

K an sas
City

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

78.9
76. 7
69.7
1.4
12.7
.5
9. 6
.6
11. 5
30.4
2. 0
.9
7 .0
7. 0
2 .2

76. 0
55. 0
39.9
13. 5
12.6
2.7
2.2
2 .5
4. 8
1.6
13.6
4 .9
1.3
7.4
1. 5
21.0

91.5
90. 5
44.9
.5
4.6
6.6
3.7
.9
4. 3
16.9
1.4
.9
.4
1.2
3. 3
4 1 .8
8.4
.5
31.0
1.9
3. 8
1.0

95.6
93. 5
59.7
10.2
9.9
11.8
3. 1
6.9
14.9
.4
2 .5
30.4
18. 8
1.8
9.9
3.3
2. 1

82.5
81.7
59.6
.7
13.2
11.4
5. 5
4 .2
7. 1
6 .4
.9
5.7
1. 8
.7
1. 8
21.7
13. 3
6 .4
2 .0
.5
.8

86.9
86.2
66.6
13.5
.4
2 .4
3. 5
7.7
28. 5
1.3
3.2
2. 1
3.3
.5
18.6
2 .3
10.4
5.9
.9
.7

67. 8
65.2
31. 3
2 .4
1.4
2. 3
.5
18. 1
1.4
2 .6
2. 6
5. 6
5. 6
28. 3
2. 6

67. 1
50. 3
35. 0
11. 1
8.9
1.3
2 .5
6.5
1. 1
2 .0
1.6
13.6
2 .4
3.8
7 .4
1.7
16.8

81.2
80.2
34. 8
.4
1. 1
. 1
1.0
.7
9.6
9 .0
.7
1.5
.9
.5
8. 0
1.4
38. 1
.6
3. 5
27.9
2. 1
4. 0
7.3
I. 0

84. 8
84. 3
51.3
1.4
1.7
.6
12. 5
21.8
3.4
1.0
2 .8
5.7
.4
28.2
.2
9 .0
18. 6
.5
4. 8
.5

72. 1
71.4
47.2
1.7
12.5
20.9
.8
4. 3
.9
2 .6
3. 3
21.7
2 .5
19.2
2 .5
.8

78.6
78.6
59.0
2 .5
1.3
1. 1
7.7
16.8
1.2
4. 5
.8
2 .8
10. 5
9 .8
18.6
2. 3
2.2
14. 1
.9

D a lla s

M em ph is

1 P a y at re g u la r rate fo r m o re hours than w ork ed , a paid lunch p erio d not given fir s t -s h ift w o rk e rs , a flat sum p e r shift, and other p ro v isio n s.
m ents w hich provided 1 such p ro v isio n in com bination with a cents or p ercen tage d iffe re n tia l fo r hours actually w orked.
■ L e s s than 0. 05 p ercen t.
f




West
Los
Minne A n g e le s a p o lis Long
St. P a u l
B each

P o rtlan d

M ost "o th e r" w o r k e r s , h ow ever, w e re in e s ta b lis h ­

53

T a b le B-12'.

S h ift d iffe re n tia l practices - m a nufa cturing

(W o r k e r s em ployed on late shifts at tim e of su rv ey )
P e rc e n t of m anufacturing plant w o rk e rs
N ortheast

Shift operation and shiftpay d ifferen tial

South

North C e n tra l

We st
Los
M in n e­
A n g e le s a p o lis Long
St. P au l
B each

San
F ran Seattle
c is c o Oakland

B oston

B u ffalo

New
Y o rk
City

T otal plant w o rk e rs in m anufacturing
establishm ents ________________________________

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

Second shift em ploym ent _____________________
With sh ift-pay d iffe re n tia l ________________
U n ifo rm cents (p er h o u r ) ______________
U nder 5 cents ________________________
5 and under 6 cents _________________
6 and under 7 cents _________________
7 and under 8 cents
8 and under 9 cents _________________
9 and under 10 c e n t s ________________
10 and under 11 cents ______________
11 and under 12 cents ______________
12 and under 13 cents ______________
13 and under 14 cents ...
14 and under 15 cents ______________
15 and under 16 cents ______________
16 cents and over ---------------------------.................
U n ifo rm percentage
U n d er 5 percent _____________________
5 p e r c e n t ...... ................. ....................
O v e r 5 and under 10 percent
10 p ercen t ____________________________
12, 12 y2, or 15 percent _____ ■
______
O ther 1 ____________________________________
N o sh ift-p ay d if f e r e n t ia l.................... ........

11.4
11.4
5.4
.3
1. 1
.7
.3
.1
1. 3
.6
.5
.4
.2
5. 8
.6
.2
4. 5
.5
.2
-

21.5
21. 5
13.7
.4
.8
5.2
.7
.7
.5
2.2
. 1
.4
-

11.4
11.2
8.2
1.0
.4
.8
.2
1.6
.2
.6
2.7
t
.7
2 .9
.4
.6
1. 1
.7
. 1
.1

15.7
14. 8
6.5
.1
2.6
.5
.6
1.0
. 1
.9
.7
7.2
.2
1. 1
5.8
1. 1
1.0

23.6
23. 2
20. 6
1.3
.7
15.9
.5
. 1
.9
.6
.7
2.6
.5
. 1
2 .0
. 1
.4

18. 8
15.0
13.4
1.0
1.0
1.0
.4
.2
t
.9
8.9
.8
.7
.1
.9
3.8

22.2
21.2
21. 1
. 1
1. 0
14. 6
1. 0
. 1
. 1
.4
3. 8
. 1
1. 0

16. 1
15. 6
13. 1
.4
1.9
. 1
1. 7
.6
7.7
.4
.2
2 .5
2. 5
.5

13.2
10.6
8.7
4.2
1.6
. 1
1.0
.2
.6
1.0
1.9
.1
.2
1.6
2 .6

19.2
18. 8
9.2
.1
.7
1.9
.9
.2
.5
3. 0
.4
.2
.2
.2
.9
8.6
2. 1
. 1
6. 0
.4
1.0
.4

20. 8
20. 6
13.4
1.2
2 .9
2 .8
.8
2. 1
3.2
-

11. 1
10.9
10. 1
.3
1.8
2 .6
.6
.7
.8
.7
.2
1. 1
.7
. 1
.4
.8
. 1
.8
.2

13.4
13.2
9 .8
2. 0
.4
.7
.1
4. 0
.1
.8
.4
1.0

17. 1
17. 1
13. 1
.4
.5
1.3
. 1
. 1

17.7
15.9
11.7
.9
.6
1.5
5. 1
-

t
4 .2
. 1
5. 3
.4
t
.5
.2
2 .2
.8
.7
.8
1.8
"

t
1. 5
1.2
1. 0
1.9
.5
1.4
2 .4
1.7

16.3
16. 3
9.7
.6
.3
1.2
.4
1.6
2.2
1.7
.8
.8
1.2
-

25. 0
25. 0
20. 8
. 1
.9
1. 1
.3
.8
17. 1
.5
.2
.2
4. 0
"

T h ird shift em ploym ent ______________________
With sh ift-pay d iffe re n tia l ________________
U n ifo rm cents (p e r h o u r ) ______________
U n der 5 c e n t s ________________________
5 and under 6 cents _________________
6 and under 7 cents _________________
7 and under 8 cents _________________
8 and under 9 cents _________________
9 and under 10 cents ________________
10 and under 11 cents ______________
11 and under 12 cents ______________
12 and under 13 cents ______________
13 and under 14 cents ______________
14 and under 15 cents ______________
15 and under 16 cents ______________
16 cents and over ____________________
U n ifo rm percentage _____________________
U n der 7 percent ____________________
7 and under 8 percent ______________
8 and under 10 percent _____________
10 percent ____________________________
12, 12
or 13 percent .................. .
15 percent ____________________________
Other
___ _____ ___________________________
No sh ift-p ay d if f e r e n t ia l___________________

2 .4
2 .4
1. 3
.3
.2
t
.4
. 1
t

7.9
7.9
5.7
-

2.9
2.7
1.7
-

5.4
5.4
2.9
.1
.1
. 1
.4
1.3
.3
.1
.5
1.7

14.4
14.4
13.8
.3
. 1
1. 1
. 1
10. 8
.6
.2
.3
.1
. 1

5. 5
4. 1
2 .0
1.0
.3
.5
. 1
-

11.4
11. 1
10. 6
.3
t

3. 7
3. 3
2. 0
-

6.8
5. 1
4.7
2 .8
.5
.1
t
1. 1
t
. 1
t
.4
t
.4

6. 1
6. 0
3.2
t

6.4
6.4
5. 1
. 1
. 1
T
2.3
1.8
.2
t
.4
.1
t
1.2

4. 0
3.9
3.9
-

2.3
2 .3
1.9
-

t
1.4
1.6
. 1
.3
. 1
.4
. 1

. 1
1. 1
t
t
f
. 1
.2
.3
.3

3.6
3.6
1.8
.9
. 1
.2
.3
t
t
. 1
.2
. 1

8.4
8.4
6.2
3.2
.4
1. 1
. 1
. 1
1.3
.2

. 1

.2

y2
,

*

1 See footnote 1, table B - l l .
t L e s s than 0. 05 percent.




. 1
.3
1. 1
. 1
.7

.4
-

t
2.3
.4
6.9
. 1
4 .4
.3
2. 1
.9
“

t
.1
.3
3.7
.9
. 1
t
.2
.4
1. 1
.3
. 1

.8
-

1. 0

t

t
. 1
.7
. 1
.1

.6

t
.2
t
. 1

-

t

.8
.2

P h ila ­
delphia

P it t s ­
burgh

-

.6
r
.6
-

.8

. 1

t

~

t

.2
.1
1.4

t

Atlanta

B ir m in g ­
ham

D a lla s

M em ph is

t
. 1
. 1
. 1
-

-

2 .0
1.4

9 .8
.3
.2
-

t
.3
.2
.2
.5
t
. 1
.7
.3

-

-

-

.3
-

.5
.3

-

1. 0
.4

______

-

1.7

C hicago

.2
.1
1.4
.6
t
.2
.1
.5
. 1
2. 1

-

.2
1.4
. 1
.3
.7
. 1

C le v e ­
land

K an sas
City

t
.5
6 .4
3.9
.3
2 .2
.8
.2

-

.9
.2

-

-

. 1

t

. 1

-

t

t

.1

3.2
. 1
1.9
1.2
.3
.3

t

-

t
-

-

Po rtlan d

-

t
.2
-

-

-

.2

1.7

2 .0

t
1.2
5.3
4. 8
4. 8
3.9
. 1
.6
.2
.8
t
.3
. 1
.2
1.
. 1
-

6

i'
t

.8

5.7
5.7
1. 5
.1
. 1
1.0
.3
t
. 1
.1

4. 1

54

Table B-13s Paid holidays - all Industries
(P e rc e n t of office and plant w o rk e rs em ployed in a ll establishm ents that provide paid holidays by num ber of paid holidays provided annually)
N o rth east
N u m b e r of paid holidays
B oston 1 B uffalo

N ew
Y o rk
C it y 1

South
P it t s ­
P h ila ­
d elp h ia1 burgh

Atlanta

B ir m in g ­
ham

D a lla s

N orth C e n tra l

M em p h is1 C h ic a g o 1

C le v e ­
land 1

Kansas
C ity

W est
Los
Minne A n g e le s a p o lis Long
St. P a u l
B each1

Po rtlan d

San
F ran S eattle1
c is c o O aklan d1

O ffic e w o r k e r s
W o rk e rs in establishm ents providing
paid holidays _
_______________________ ____
U nder 5 holidays ____
____________ __ __
5 holidays ___ __ ______________________
5 holidays plus 1 half d a y __ __ ________
5 holidays plus 2 o r m ore h alf d a y s ____
6 holidays
__ _ _________________ __ _
6 holidays plus 1 h alf d a y _________________
6 holidays plus 2 o r m o re h alf d a y s ____
7 holidays ___________________________________
7 holidays plus 1 half day _____ __ _ __
7 holidays plus 2 o r m o re h alf days ____
8 holidays ____________________________________
8 holidays plus 1 h alf d a y _________________
8 holidays plus 2 or m o re h alf days ____
9 holidays
__ _________ ___________________
9 holidays plus 1 h alf d a y _________________
9 holidays plus 2 o r m ore h alf days ____
10 holidays _____________________ ____________
10 holidays plus 1 h alf day _______________
10 holidays plus 2 o r m o re half d a y s ___
11 holidays _______ ___________ _
_ ____
11 holidays plus 1 h alf day _______________
11 holidays plus 2 or m ore h alf d a y s ___
O ver 11 holidays
___________ __ — ____
W o rk e rs in establishm ents p roviding
no paid holidays __ __ ____
_ _ _________

99
t
1
t
1
1
t
9
2
1
4
2
t
18
6
51
2
1
1

99
23
1
14
26
6
4
5
1
2
3
13
1

99
1
t
1
11
2
1
8
2
1
10
1
t
7
2
2
34
7
1
11

t

1

t

100
t
t
20
2
3
15
4
2
21
t
t
4
t
4
2
1
t
22
"

99
t
t
24
10
3
42
1
2
9
1
3
1
2
t
t
1
1

99
2
30
4
29
2
4
16
1
2
8
2
1
-

t

t

99
1
25
t
16
t
2
46
t
8
1

100
4
53
t
14
3
19
1
2
3
-

99
8
20
8
2
33
3
2
20
2
1
1
-

-

t
52
4
21
18
1
1
1
t
t
1
t

99
1
2
45
1
4
27
t
17
t
3
-

“

t

99
t
t
38
4
8
26
1
1
5
1
1
3
1
t
1
t
8
1
1
t

t

t

98
4
2

97
4
t

98
3
3

100
51
6
9
17
2
6
3
t
3
4
- •
-

100
-

99
-

t
43
1
4
22
7
t
15
1
1
1
1
1
2
t
1
-

t
45
39
10
5
1
-

“

t

■

98
1
1

95

89

-

-

-

95
3
4

47
1
10
24
8
1
1
-

61
9
3
16
1
2
5
1
■
■

44
2
5
25
2
t
14
t
“

51

6

-

■
“
-

"
■
-

3

2

2

5

99
-

2

100
t
t
2
t
47
1
1
31
2
1
9
2
1
t
1
2

100
_
1
t
54
1
37
3
t
3
-

P la n t w o rkers 2
W o rk e rs in establishm ents providin g
paid holidays __________________________________
U n der 5 holidays __ __ _ _____
_ .
5 holidays
_____
_____
___ _ ___ —
5 holidays plus 1 half d a y _________________
5 holidays plus 2 o r m ore h alf d a y s ____
6 holidays
____ ___ __ ___ ____ ____________
6 holidays plus 1 h alf d a y ______ _________
6 holidays plus 2 o r m o re half days ____
7 holidays
_____ . _________ ____________
7 holidays plus 1 h alf day __
___________
7 holidays plus 2 o r m ore h alf days ____
8 holidays __ ________
_ _______ _________
8 holidays plus 1 h alf d a y _________________
8 holidays plus 2 o r m ore half days ____
9 holidays __ _ ___________________ _____ ____ _
_
9 holidays plus 1 h alf day ____ __
9 holidays plus 2 or m ore h alf d a y s ____
10 h o lid a y s __________ _________ ______ ___
10 holidays plus 1 h alf day ___________ __
10 holidays plus 2 or m ore half d a y s ___
11 h o lid a y s _________ __ ______ __ _
____
11 holidays plus 1 h alf day ____________ _
11 holidays plus 2 or m ore h alf d a y s ___
O v e r 11 holidays ___________________________
W o rk e rs in establish m en ts p roviding
no paid holidays _________ _________ ________

85
8
30
1

94
4
12

89
17
22
2

85
12
32

-

-

19
1
1
63
1
2
7
1
1
1
-

28
1
6
9
1
t
1
-

18

18
1
4
22

19
4
16

42
1
12
28

46
2
27
16

3

15

97
5
t

99
2
1

97
1

-

-

9
,11
1
7
1
t
17
5
8
1
t
t

30
1
16
35
2
3
5
1
1
t
2
-

14
t
1
26
2
2
11
1
1
6
1
t
5
1
t
17
1
1
1

32
2
3
32
1
2
19
1
3
t
1
1
1
t

5

3

3

1

95
3
1
1

97
1

8
1
2
18

-

-

-

-

-

1
-

1
56

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
-

1
-

1
2
■
-

t
7
t
2
t
"
t
-

1
t
-

6

11

15

2

1 Exceptions to the standard industry lim itations a re shown in footnotes 4 and/or 6 to the table in appendix B.
2 Data fo r finance and in suran ce establishm ents are excluded,
t L e s s than 0. 5 percent.




-

-

-

1

1

1
1
-

-

-

1
51

-

32
4
"
-

-

■
-

t
“
"
■
-

11

5

1

t
28

1

93
5
t

1
-

4
t

-

50
1
32
-

■
*
■
7

55
Table B-I3a: Paid holiday time - all industries
(P e rc e n t of office and plant w o r k e r s em ployed in a ll establishm ents that provide paid holidays by sum of fu ll-d a y and h a lf-d a y holidays provided annually, 1 cum ulative)
N o rth east
T otal paid
holiday tim e
(d a y s )

B oston

B uff alo

New
Y o rk
City

South
P h ila ­
delphia

P it t s ­
bu rgh

Atlanta

B ir m in g ­
ham

W est

N orth C e n tra l

D a lla s

M em ph is

Chicago

C le v e ­
land

Los
M in n eK an sas
A n g e le s a p o lis Long
City
St. Pau l
B each

P ortlan d

San
F ran Seattle
c is c o Oakland

Office porkers
_

_

13 o r m o re _____________________________________
12 V* or m ore
.
.
_
_ .... . _
12 o r m o re _____________________________________
11
o r m ore ___________________________________
11 o r m o re _
.
....
..
... . .
lOt?, or m ore
_
_
_
_ _
10 o r m o re _____________________________________
9 tjj o r m ore
9 or m ore ____ ______ _________ _______________
8 Hz o r m o re
. ..
.....
8 or m ore _____________________________
_______
7
o r m o re
_
. ... ....... .
7 or m ore
6 1 , o r m o re
?
...
......
.
6 or m ore ____________ _____ _____________________
5 y , or m o re _
?
...
_ .
5 or m ore
. .

l
2
4
56
61
79
81
86
86
96
97
99
99
99
99
99

1
1
14
14
17
17
21
21
29
35
75
76
99
99
99

T
2
12
19
53
55
63
64
75
77
85
87
99
99
99
99
99

19
20
22
22
23
25
29
29
33
33
57
61
78
80
99
99
99

T otal rec e iv in g paid h olidays _____________

99

99

99

100

1
1
3
3
4
5
8
10
20
22
65
76
99
99
99

.
_
1
1
1
3
3
13
14
33
35
64
68
98

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
57
57
73
73
98

_
1
2
6
6
28
31
64
72
92

_
3
6
6
28
28
42
42
96

99

99

99

99

100

.

.
1
2
9
10
11
12
17
18
24
26
58
62
99
99
99

-

t
t
t
t
2
2
2
3
5
5
44
48
99
99
99

3
3
3
3
20
20
51
52
97
97
99

99

_
-

.
-

„
-

99

99

-

4
6
8
16
19
42
49
100
100
100

1
1
3
3
4
5
7
8
23
29
55
57
99
99
100

_
1
1
1
1
5
16
16
54
54
99
99
99

100

100

99

.

-

2
2
3
3
3
4
6
16
19
50
51
98
98
99
99
99

.

_
3
3
6
6
43
44
99
99
100
100
100

100

100

P la n t w o rk ers
.

.

.

„

_

_
_

-

-

-

_
_

-

_

11 o r m o r e ____ _
_
. .
_ _
lOtz or m ore _ _
_.
_ ___
10 o r m o re __
______________
_
9 h o r m o re ____________________________________
9 or m o r e ___ __
8 y* o r m o re _ _ _ _ _ _
_
.
_
8 or m ore _____________________________________
7
o r m o re _ _____ __
7 o r m ore ___
6
o r m ore
____ _____
or m ore __
_
____
5 h o r m o re
_ _
_ .
5 or m ore
4y* o r m o re
_
_
_
4 or m ore _
. . . . . . . .

10
15
32
33
41
41
61
62
81
82
90
91
92
92
93

2
2
2
2
5
5
13
15
65
66
96
96
96
96
96

19
20
26
27
34
36
48
51
78
78
93
93
93
93
93

1
2
4
4
7
7
28
29
63
65
97
97
98
98
98

1
1
1
1
2
2
11
12
76
77
96
96
96
96
96

1
1
1
2
17
17
45
47
77
78
81

2
2
59
59
77
78
90
90
93

1
1
28
28
46
49
71
72
85

T otal re c eiv in g paid h olidays

95

97

97

99

97

85

94

89

y
?
y
*

6

... . ............

t

.

.

.

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

t

1
8
8
27
36
97
97
97
97
97

t
14
16
46
48
92
92
93
93
93

-

98

95

22
22
41
41
73
73
81

t
t
2
2
9
9
48
50
91
91
93
93
94

1
1
44
46
93
93
93
93
95

1
1
2
2
10
10
43
44
91
91
95
95
96

85

98

97

98

3

t

-

-

t

_

_

_

-

-

4
4
36
36
87
87
88
88
88

1
30
31
82
82
88
88
92
92
92

32
33
83
83
87
88
88
88
89

89

95

93

____ ,
1 A ll com binations of fu ll and h alf days that add to the sam e amount a re com bined; fo r exam ple, the p roportion of w o rk e rs
days, 6 fu ll days and 2 h alf days, 5 fu ll days and 4 h alf days, and so on.
t L e s s than 0.5 percent.




-

-

t

receiv in g a total of 7 days includes those with 7 fu ll days and

.

no

half

56
Table B-14* Paid holidays - manufacturing
(P e rc e n t of office and plant w o rk e rs em ployed in m anufacturing establishm ents that provide paid holidays by num ber of paid holidays p rovided annually)
N o rth east
N u m b er of paid holidays
Boston

B uffalo

N ew
Y o rk
C ity

South
P h ila ­
delphia

Pitts burgh

Atlanta

B ir m in g ­
ham

N orth C e n tra l

D a lla s

M em phis

C h icago

C le v e ­
land

K ansas
C ity

W est
Los
M in n eA n g e le s a p o lis Long
St. P a u l
Beach

P o rtlan d

SiH
F ran c is c o Oakland

Seattle

O ffic e w o r k e r s
W o rk e rs in establish m en ts providing
paid holidays __
_
U n der 5 holidays _
5 holidays
_
_____
5 holidays plus 1 half d a y _________________
5 holidays plus 2 or m ore half days ____
6 holidays ___________________________________
6 holidays plus 1 half d a y ___
_
6 holidays plus 2 or m ore half days ____
7 holidays ________________________ __________
7 holidays plus 1 half day
7 holidays plus 2 or m ore half d a y s ____
8 holidays __
8 holidays plus 1 half day
8 holidays plus 2 or m ore half days
9 holidays
_ __
9 holidays plus 1 half day
9 holidays plus 2 or m ore half days
10 holidays
__________________________
10 holidays plus 1 half day _
10 holidays plus 2 or m ore h alf days __
11 holidays ____________________________ ____
11 holidays plus 1 half day . __ _________
11 holidays plus 2 or m o re h alf d a y s ___
O v er 11 holidays
___________
W o rk e rs in establishm ents providing
no paid holidays

100
l
t
l
4
1
13
6
2
9
t
27
5
27
2
2

100
16
1
24
41
4
8
4
2
t
~

100
1
t
3
7
3
t
15
2
1
15
1
t
19
3
4
16
2
1
4
"

100
-

99
-

t
22
2
6
23
2
6
29
t
5
t
2
1

t
14
3
5
68
2
8
t

99
1
22
58
3
9
5
t
2
1
-

99
1
6
20
2
70
1
-

99
5
15
t
19
1
8
50
1
-

■

t

t

1

100
5
31
1
22
4
28
3
5
-

t

t

L e s s than 0. 5 percent.




99
2
1
1
9
1
3
26
5
17
2
10
1
14
2
5
2
1

98
1
16
1
21
45
2
4
5
2
t
t
-

100
1
28
3
4
31
1
3
24
1
2
t
2

-

98
8
t
13
1
1
13
3
t
21
2
3
7
1
1
10
3
t
9
2
1
t

1

2

2

-

97
t
8
1
1
78
1
2
6
-

78
4
17
36
1
11
5
1
1
1
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

“

-

96
1
5
20
1
67
2
-

93
7
19
2
20
1
9
34
1
-

t
-

99
t
45
2
34
16
2
t
-

t

99
1
2
33
1
17
34
10
■
t
-

98
3
43
3
34
14
1
t
-

1

100
54
15
9
8
2
8
4
1
-

100
t
57
2
7
24
3
t
6
-

■

100
2
t
32
4
13
37
10
1
-

t

"
P la n t

W o rk e rs in establish m en ts p roviding
paid holidays _
U nder 5 holidays ____________________
5 holidays _____________________ ______ ____
5 holidays plus 1 half day
5 holidays plus 2 or m ore half days ____
6 holidays
6 holidays plus 1 half d a y _________________
6 holidays plus 2 o r m ore half days ____
7 holidays
__ ___________ _______ _______
7 holidays plus 1 half d a y _________________
7 holidays plus 2 o r m ore h alf days ____
8 holidays _ _
8 holidays plus 1 half d a y ___
8 holidays plus 2 o r m ore half days ____
9 holidays
9 holidays plus 1 half d a y _________________
9 holidays plus 2 or m ore half d a y s ____
10 h o lid a y s __________________________________
10 holidays plus 1 half day _______________
10 holidays plus 2 or m ore h alf d a y s ___
11 holidays _
__ _ _
11 holidays plus 1 h alf d a y ______________
11 holidays plus 2 o r m ore h alf days ___
O v e r 11 holidays ___________________________
W o rk e rs in establish m en ts providing
no paid holidays
_________________ _____

99
t
35
6
14
35
1
t
8
-

■

98
t
1
51
2
7
27
3
1
5
-

87
1
38
47
1
-

91
1
4
2
61
1
1
19
2
-

89
1
2
6
26
55
-

2

13

9

11

100
1
53
43
2
-

100
1
1
68
1
2
23
2
2
1
-

100
2
1
20
77
t
-

“

w o rk ers

88
7
23
28
6
20
1
3
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

22

4

7

12

100
1
5
32
2
17
29
12
2

-

-

-

-

98
1
54
17
4
11
1
9
2
-

2

“

2

57

Table B-15? Paid holidays- public utilities*
(P e rc e n t of office and plant w o rk e rs em ployed in public utilities establishm ents that provide paid holidays by num ber of paid holidays provided annually)
N orth east
N u m ber of paid holidays
B oston 1 B u ffalo

N ew
Y o rk
C it y 1

South
P h ila ­
delphia

Pitts burgh

Atlanta

B ir m in g ­
ham

W est

N orth C e n tra l

D a lla s

Me mphis

C h ic a g o 1

C le v e ­
land 1

Kansas
C ity

Los
M inneA n g e le s a p o lis Long
St. P a u l
Beach1

P o rtlan d

San
F ran S eattle1
c is c o Oakland1

O ffic e w o r k e r s
W o rk e rs in establishm ents p roviding
paid h o l i d a y s _
_ _
____
_
__
_______
U nder 5 holidays
5 h o l i d a y s _____ _____________________________
5 holidays plus 1 h alf day _ _______ _____
5 holidays plus 2 o r m o re half d a y s ____
6 holidays
___ _____
__ ___________
6 holidays plus 1 half day
6 holidays plus 2 o r m o re h alf days ____
7 holidays
7 holidays plus 1 half d a y _________________
7 holidays plus 2 o r m o re h alf days ____
8 holidays __
______ _ ____
_________
8 holidays plus 1 h alf day _ ____________
8 holidays plus 2 o r m ore h alf days ____
9 holidays _____________ _____________________
9 holidays plus 1 half day
__ _ __ ___
9 holidays plus 2 o r m ore h alf d a y s ____
10 holidays _
10 holidays plus 1 half d a y __ _ __ _ _
10 holidays plus 2 or m ore h alf d a y s ___
11 holidays ____________ ___________ ______
11 holidays plus 1 h alf day _______________
11 holidays plus 2 o r m o re half d a y s ___
_______________
O v e r 11 holidays _
W o rk e rs in establishm ents p rovidin g
no paid holidays
_
_
_ _

100
l
l
l
3
1
11
53
29
-

99
13
4
2
17
18
45
-

100
t
3
18
t
2
1
1
2
t
66
5
t
1

"

1

100
1
t
4
5
t
47
8
1
26
4
3

100
2
3
t
3
39
19
16
3
15
-

“

100
8
26
t
66
-

100
23
15
t
62
-

"

100
1
12
39
48
-

P la n t

W o rk e rs in establishm ents providing
paid holidays _ .
__ _ ______________ ___
U n der 5 holidays
5 holidays ____ _ __________________________
5 holidays plus 1 half d a y _________________
5 holidays plus 2 o r m ore h alf days ____
6 h o l i d a y s ___________________________________
6 holidays plus 1 half day ________________
6 holidays plus 2 o r m ore h alf days
7 h o l i d a y s .........
_
... _
7 holidays plus 1 half d a y _________________
7 holidays plus 2 o r m ore half days ____
8 holidays __________
______________________
8 holidays plus 1 half d a y _________________
8 holidays plus 2 or m ore h alf days ____
9 holidays ____ _________ __ __________________
9 holidays plus 1 half d a y _________________
9 holidays plus 2 or m ore half days ____
10 holidays _____ __________________________ __
10 holidays plus 1 half day _______________
10 holidays plus 2 o r m ore h alf d a y s ___
11 h o lid a y s ______ __________________________
11 holidays plus 1 half day
___________
11 holidays plus 2 or m ore h alf d a y s ___
O ver 11 holidays ______ _______ ______ __
W o rk e rs in establishm ents providing
no paid holidays ___________ ________________

100
3
5
7
8
2
6
48
21
-

99
39
t
7
10
16
27
-

100
t
5
25
3
t
65
1
t

"

1

~

-

100
5
2
42
22
4
t
14
8
-

100
15
10
2
7
36
10
8
11

-

-

-

4

-

-

100
1
20
23
56
-

“

~

“

100
1
14
41
44
-

1 1 or m ore utilities a re m unicipally operated and, th e re fo re , excluded fro m the scope of the studies.
t L e s s than 0. 5 percent.
* T ran sportation (excluding r a ilr o a d s ), com m unication, and other public u tilities.




100
14
1
60
3
1
21
-

100
21
79
-

99
19
50
25
5
-

100
35
1
38
26
-

100
5
12
83
-

99
36
31
32
-

100
2
23
2
69
1
3
-

100
3
1
84
13
-

"

100
14
5
33
46
2
-

“

"

1

"

■

1

_

“

98
33
39
25
-

98
33
66
-

100
33
48
13
6
-

98
44
t
42
12
-

95
12
20
64
-

97
40
37
20
-

100
7
24
70
-

97
1
3
1
87
5
-

2

2

2

5

3

w o rk ers

88
11
6
30
41
-

-

88
20
30
39
-

12

12

-

-

See footnote 4 to table in appendix B.

3

58

Ta b le B-16: Paid h o lid a y s - w h o le sa le tra d e
(P e rc e n t of office and plant w o rk e rs em ployed in w h o lesale trade establishm ents that provide paid holidays by num ber of paid holidays p rovided annually)
N orth east
N u m ber of paid holidays
Boston

N ew
Y o rk
C ity

South

P h ila ­
delphia

Pitts burgh

Atlanta

O ffic e
W o r k e r s in establish m en ts providin g
paid h o l i d a y s __________ __ ___________________
U nder 5 holidays __ __ _____________ _ _
5 holidays
_____ _ __ __ ____
______
5 holidays plus 1 half d a y _________________
5 holidays plus 2 o r m ore half d a y s ____
6 holidays
6 holidays plus 1 h alf day _ _____ _____
6 holidays plus 2 o r m ore h alf days ____
7 h o lid a y s ____________________________________
7 holidays plus 1 half d a y _______ __ ____
7 holidays plus 2 o r m o re h alf d a y s ____
8 holidays _
_
8 holidays plus 1 h alf day __ ___________
8 holidays plus 2 o r m o re h alf days ____
________ ____________ _________
9 holidays
9 holidays plus 1 half d a y _________________
9 holidays plus 2 or m o re half days ____
10 h o l i d a y s ________ _______ ___________________
10 holidays plus 1 h alf day __
______ __
10 holidays plus 2 or m o re h alf days __
11 h o l i d a y s __________________________________
11 holidays plus 1 h alf day _________ ____
11 holidays plus 2 or m ore h alf d a y s ___
O v e r 11 holidays
_ __ __
__ _
__ _
W o rk e rs in establishm ents providin g
no paid holidays _______________________________

100
2
1
2
3
40
49
4
"

100
1
15
5
t
9
2
1
19
3
8
6
3
22
2
t
4
"

100
1
19
5
1
23
9
35
6
1
-

100
t
31
t
48
10
10
-

■

~

N orth C e n tra l

C h icago

C le v e ­
land

W e st
M innea p o lis St. P a u l

Los
A n g e le s L on g
B each

100
42
3
44
5
6
-

100
31
2
5
34
6
22
-

San
F ran c is c o Oakland

w o rk ers

100
26
1
55
4
14
"

99
47
5
5
32
9
1
2
-

100
78
9
10
2
-

t

"

-

100
50
4
47
-

"

100
6
78
13
3
-

-

P la n t w o r k e r s
W o rk e rs in establish m en ts p rovidin g
paid holidays ____ _____
_ __ ____ _
_ _
U n d er 5 holidays _ __
__ ______ _
5 holidays
__________
__
____ _
5 holidays plus 1 h alf d a y ______ ______ ____
5 holidays plus 2 o r m o re h alf days ____
6 holidays ___ __ __
___________________
6 holidays plus 1 h alf d a y __ ____ ______
6 holidays plus 2 or m ore h alf days ____
7 holidays ______________________ ____________ _
7 holidays plus 1 half day __ ___ ________
7 holidays plus 2 or m ore h alf days ____
8 holidays __ ____________ ____________________
8 holidays plus 1 half day ________________ _
8 holidays plus 2 or m ore half days ____
9 holidays ___________________________________
9 holidays plus 1 half d a y __ ____________
9 holidays plus 2 o r m ore half days ____
10 holidays ___ __________ _______________ _
10 holidays plus 1 h alf day _________ ____
10 holidays plus 2 or m ore h alf days _._
11 holidays ___________________________________
11 holidays plus 1 half day _______________
11 holidays plus 2 or m ore half d a y s ___
O ver 11 holidays --------------------------------------W o rk e rs in establish m en ts providing
no paid holidays _____ __ ______________________

t

L e s s than 0. 5 percent.




t
6
1
30
2
5
6

95
9
22
20
1
23
3
15
1
-

97
3
29
45
6
14
-

98
39
2
39
3
15
-

97
2
62
2
4
20
4
2
t
-

96
57
6
30
3
-

“

5

3

2

3

4

100
7
4
4
8
2
42
31
2
-

100
2
21
1
2
7
3
14
-

“

98
29
3
45
1
20
2

100
4
55
41
-

59

T a b le B - W

Paid ho lid a y s - r e t a il tra d e

(P e rc e n t of office and plant w o rk e rs em ployed in re ta il trade establishm ents that provide paid holidays by num ber of paid holidays provided annually)
N o rth east
N um ber of paid holidays
Boston

N ew
Y o rk
C ity 1

South

P h ila ­
delphia 1

P it t s ­
burgh

Atlanta

D a lla s

O ffic e
W o rk e rs in establishm ents providing
paid holidavs __ ____________ _______________
U nder 5 holidays __________
__ ________
5 h o l i d a y s ___________________________________
5 holidays plus 1 half day ________________
5 holidays plus 2 or m ore half days ____
6 holidays _____________
____ _________
6 holidays plus 1 half d a y _________________
6 holidays plus 2 or m ore half days ____
7 holidays ___________________________________
7 holidays plus 1 half d a y _________________
7 holidays plus 2 o r m ore h alf days
8 holidays __ __ ______________________________
8 holidays plus 1 half d a y _________________
8 holidays plus 2 or m ore half days ____
9 holidays ___________________________________
9 holidays plus 1 half day __ _____________
9 holidays plus 2 or m ore half days ____
10 holidays __________________________________
10 holidays plus 1 half day _____ ________
10 holidays plus 2 o r m ore h alf d a y s ___
11 holidays _________ ___________ __________
11 holidays plus 1 half day _______________
11 holidays plus 2 o r m ore half d a y s ___
O v e r 11 holidays ___________ ___ _________
W o rk e rs in establishm ents p roviding
no paid holidays ______________________________

97
2
3
48
t
1
t
23
t
20
-

99
1
56
2
t
2
2
2
3
5
5
8
5
5
2
1

3

1

100
t
67
3
17
9
4
1
-

100
2
86
t
8
4
-

100
7
62
28
3
-

N orth C e n tra l

W est

M inne­
apolis St. P a u l

C hicago

Portlan d

San
F ran c is c o Oakland

Seattle

w o rk ers

99
39
35
2
23
-

100
96
t
2
1
t
t
-

100
93
6
1
-

99
96
2
-

t

"

■

1

100
3
82
12
2
1
-

90
3
87
-

99
16
4
60
2
17
-

98
6
92
-

“

10

1

2

100
t
t
3
82
7
5
2
-

100
100
■

P la n t w o r k e r s
W o rk e rs in establishm ents providing
paid holidays _ __ __ __ _____ __
__ ___
U nder 5 holidays
5 holidays
5 holidays plus 1 h alf d a y _________________
5 holidays plus 2 or m ore half days ____
6 holidays
. _
6 holidays plus 1 half day
6 holidays plus 2 or m ore h alf d a y s ____
7 holidays __________________________ ___
7 holidays plus 1 half day
_____
_______
7 holidays plus 2 or m o re half days ____
8 holidays
____ ______ ________ _________
8 holidays plus 1 half day _ ______________
8 holidays plus 2 o r m ore half days ____
9 holidays
____________
___________ ____
9 holidays plus 1 half day _
_ _________
9 holidays plus 2 or m ore half days
10 holidays __________________________________
10 holidays plus 1 h alf day _______________
10 holidays plus 2 o r m o re half d a y s __
11 holidays
11 holidays plus 1 h alf day _
_________
11 holidays plus 2 o r m o re h alf d a y s ___
O v er 11 holidays _______ __ ______________
W o rk e rs in establishm ents providing
no paid holidays
_
1 Excludes lim ited -p rice v a riety sto re s,
t L e s s than 0. 5 percent.




91
9
4
1
2
32
5
2
30
5
-

97
6
5
2
60
5
8
1
1
t
4
t
1

9

3
-

100
9
57
33
2
-

97
10
79
t
8
-

94
15
72
5
2
-

87
46
30
11
-

96
7
82
6
t
t
-

3

“

3

6

13

4

t

•

60

Tahlfi B-18: Paid holidays - finance #*
(P e rc e n t of office w o rk e rs em ployed in finance establishm ents that provide paid holidays by num ber of paid holidays p rovided annually)
South

N ortheast
N u m b er of paid holidays
Boston

N ew
Y o rk
C ity

P h ila ­
delphia

P it t s ­
burgh

Atlanta

N orth C e n tra l

D a lla s

C h icago

C le v e ­
land

W est
M innea p o lis St. P a u l

Los
A n g e le s Long
B each

San
F ran c is c o Oakland

O ffic e w o rk e rs

W o r k e r s in establish m en ts providing
paid holidays ____
__ _________ ___________
U nder 5 holidays __________________________
5 holidays
____ __ ___________ ___________
5 holidays plus 1 half day _ ____________
5 holidays plus 2 or m ore half days ____
6 holidays
. . .. .
6 holidays plus 1 half d a y _________________
6 holidays plus '2 or m ore half days ____
7 holidays _ _________________________________
7 holidays plus 1 half day
7 holidays plus 2 or m ore half days ____
8 holidays ___________________________________
8 holidays plus 1 half day _______________
8 holidays plus 2 or m ore h alf days ____
9 holidays
9 holidays plus 1 half d a y _________________
9 holidays plus 2 or m ore half days ____
10 holidays
_
.......... _
10 holidays plus 1 half day _______________
10 holidays plus 2 or m ore half d a y s ___
11 holidays _________________ _______________
11 holidays plus 1 h alf day _
11 holidays plus 2 o r m ore half d a y s ___
O v e r 11 holidays ___________________________
W o rk e rs in establishm ents providing
no paid holidays
_ .

t
**

L e s s than 0. 5 percent.
Fin an ce, in su ran ce, and re a l estate.




100
3
-

7

100
t
1
2
2
8

100
t
1
t
2
3
t
4
2

-

-

2

-

-

2
4

-

-

-

86
4

49
14
1
22

-

5
-

1
77

100
23
52
2
t
6
7
5
-

100
33
3
6
4
11
3
6
25
5
-

-

4

-

-

5

-

100
t
18
18
5
50
2
3
4
-

100
13
4
7
5
2
3
4
5
5
3
2
2
2
t

100
67
10
2
6
3
1

100
38
4
18
15
2
10
-

-

13

9

_

-

-

_
-

-

-

35
5
3

-

-

-

2

-

-

-

-

100
26
t

100
_
_
_
_

19
17
5
6
2
7

21
_
36
5
2
21
5
_
3

-

_
3
3
_
8
1
3
-

-

3
_
-

5

61
Ta b le B -1 9 i

Paid h o lid a y s - services

(P e rc e n t of office and plant w o rk e rs em ployed in s e rv ic e s establishm ents that provide paid holidays by num ber of paid holidays provided annually)
North C e n tral

N orth east
N u m ber of paid holidays
Boston

N ew
Y o rk
City

P h ila ­
delphia

W est

N orth east

C hicago

Los
A n g e le s Long
Beach1

N ew
Y o rk
C ity

Boston

100

100

100

99

100

-

-

-

1
-

-

2

7

1
-

16
5

48
16
2
22

64
4

2

-

2
1

5

-

1
17
-

8
-

44
-

12
11

67

-

2

46

66

31

49

-

-

1

1
15

t
3

-

-

27
-

14

51
t
1
18

9

5
-

1
5

-

-

8

2

18

4
4

6

-

5
3
-

-

-

-

23
1
t
6
t

-

1
13

3

t

11
-

12

3
5
-

36

1 Excludes m otion-picture production and a llie d se rv ic e s ; data for these industries are included, h ow ever, in " a l l in d u s trie s ."
t L e s s than 0. 5 percent.




88
52

-

5

Los
A n geles Long
B each 1

-

92

-

t
11

Ch icago

88
3

64

25
2
1
4

P h ila ­
delphia

W est

Plant w o rke rs

O ffice w orkers
W o rk e rs in establishm ents providing
paid holidays
____________ ________ _______
Under 5 holidays ________ _____ _ _______
5 holidays __________ _ -----------------------------5 holidays plus 1 half d a y _________________
5 holidays plus 2 o r m o re half days ____
6 holidays ________ _________________________
6 holidays plus 1 half d a y ____ __________
6 holidays plus 2 or m ore h alf days ____
7 holidays ___________________________________
7 holidays plus 1 half d a y _________________
7 holidays plus 2 or m ore h alf days ____
8 holidays __________________________________
8 holidays plus 1 half d a y _____________ __
8 holidays plus 2 or m ore half days ____
9 holidays _ ____________
________________
9 holidays plus 1 half d a y _________________
9 holidays plus 2 o r m ore half days ____
10 holidays ______________ __ _ ___ _____
10 holidays plus 1 h alf day _______________
10 holidays plus 2 or m ore h alf d a y s ___
11 h o lid a y s ____________________________ _______
11 holidays plus 1 half day _______________
11 holidays plus 2 or m ore half d a y s ___
O v er 11 holidays ___________________ ______
W o rk e rs in establishm ents providing
no paid holidays _ ___________________________

N orth C e n tra l

-

3

t

-

8

12

-

6
1
2
-

7

-

t
t
-

5
-

9
t
2
-

-

-

12

33

t

62

Table B-20: Paid vacations-all industries
(P e rc e n t of office and plant w o r k e r s em ployed in a ll establishm ents p roviding paid vacations by amount of vacation pay provided and by specified le n g t h -o f-s e r v ic e p e rio d s )
South

N ortheast
Am ount of vacation pay 1
and se rv ic e perio d

Boston 2 B u ffalo

New
Y o rk
C ity 2

P it t s ­
P h ila ­
delphia 2 bu rgh

Atlanta

B ir m in g ­
ham

N orth C en tral

D a lla s

C le v e ­
M e m p h is2 C h icago 2
land 2

K an sas
City

vVest
Los
M in n eA n g e le s a p o lis Long
St. P a u l
B each 2

P o rtlan d

San
F ra n Seattle 2
c is c o O akland'!

Office w o rk e rs
1 w eek o r m o re ________________________________
6 months
1 y e a r _________ _____________________________

100
85
100

100
68
100

99
86
99

99
68
99

99
60
99

100
58
100

100
61
100

99
56
99

100
54
100

99
64
99

100
67
100

99
39
99

99
57
99

100
51
99

100
50
100

100
66
100_

100
40
100

99
26
96
99
99
99

99
t
81
90
97
99

99
15
92
99
99
99

99
13
77
94
95
99

99
3
78
95
97
99

99
t
78
93
95
98

94
6
62
84
91
94

98
t
67
89
93
97

99
t
65
82
92
99

99
5
80
97
99
99

100
t
84
94
97
99

99
t
64
89
96
99

99
t
69
90
98
99

100
5
80
96
99
100

100
t
68
89
98
100

100
9
82
99
100
100

100
83
96
99
100

3 w eek s o r m ore
. . ...... . .....
3 y e a rs
5 y e a rs
____________________________________
10 y e a rs
_ ..................................
15 y e a r s _
.................
20 y e a rs _____________________________________
25 y e a rs

91
7
26
42
85
88
91

89
t
6
37
88
89
89

90
5
18
56
88
88
90

87

92
t
t
13
88
92
92

68
-

60
3
9
51
58
60

64
4
16
46
61
64

88
3
6
37
85
86
88

78

85

t
19
64
66
68

59
t
t
8
55
58
59

90

t
7
33
83
85
87

t
t
21
89
90
90

t
6
23
72
75
78

t
5
32
84
85
85

85
5
8
24
80
85
85

75
3
3
24
69
74
75

88
4
8
27
81
88
88

50
T
t
9
42
50
50

4 w eek s or m ore
_ .........
10 y e a rs _
____
15 y e a r s _____________________________________
20 y e a rs
25 y e a rs

29
4
4
10
29

26
-

49
t
5
17
49

32
t
t
4
32

26
5
26

7
t
7

16
t
16

15

32
t
t
11
32

14
-

31
-

18

21
4
21

24

t
3
14

29
t
t
7
29

t
t
5
24

22
5
22

2 w eek s o r m ore
6 months
1 year
2 y e a rs _ . . ... ....
3 y e a rs
5 y e a rs
... . .

_ .... ..................
_
_
_ _

t
7
26

15
t
3
15

t
t
3
15

t
6
31

t
t
7
18

Plant workers
1 w eek o r m o re
............
6 months
... ..
1 y e a r ________________________________________

99
38

100
16

99
37

99
24

99

99

99

99

100
5
100

96
22
95

98
8
98

98
15
98

98
16
97

2 w eek s or m ore _______________________________
6 months _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
1 y e a r _______________________________________
2 y e a rs ______________________________________
3 y e a rs _______________________________________
5 y e a rs
____________________________________

98
4
40
51
64
98

99

95

t
18
34
57
99

44
68
87
95

97
t
24
38
58
95

98
t
6
18
28
98

85
32
49
59
83

91
6
24
37
91

90
18
48
74
88

86
12
26
54
84

3 w eek s or m o r e ___ __
3 y e a rs ______________________________________
5 years
__ ________ _ __
._ _
10 y e a rs
15 y e a r s _____________________________________
20 y e a r s _____________________________________
25 y e a r s _

77

88
t
7
28
86
87
88

64
7
15
35
63
63
64

72
t
5
34
71
71
72

94
t
t
8
92
94
94

45
3
16
42
44
45

76
-

43

t
13
26
74
76
77

45
-

4 w eek s o r m o re
........... ...
10 y e a r s
15 y e a r s _____________________________________
20 y e a r s _____________________________________
25 y e a r s _____________________________________

16
7
7
9
16

22
-

14
t
4
6
14

18
3
18

11
-

12
7
12

t

7
22

3

t

5
11

t
4
73
76
76
t
-

t
t

99
14

99
10

99
13

99
11

99
21

99

99

99

99

99

100
5
100

100
29
100

99

99

99
11
22
33
99

97
19
38
63
97

99

t
18
51
72
98

t
18
45
79
99

98
t
38
73
90
98

100
13
36
68
100

100
26
82
92
100

97
43
68
80
97

84
4
7
30
82
84
84

89
t
t
15
87
87
89

65
4
12
65
65
65

76
t
6
27
72
73
76

76
4
12
25
76
76
76

55

88
6
11
31
87
88
88

72
t
t
39
71
72
72

11
4
11

20
-

23

11

17

t

9
-

t

3
23

T
t

t
t
3
38
41
43

t
6
39
41
45

8
-

6
-

24

t

10
24

T

8

b,

t

T

20

t

5
11

t
t
18
50
53
55
16
-

t

3
16

t

t

3
17

99
38

t,

t

9

1 Includes p e rc e n ta g e - o r fla t-s u m -ty p e paym ents converted to equivalent w eeks* pay. P e r io d s of se rv ic e w e re a r b it r a r ily chosen and do not n e c e s s a rily re fle c t the individual p ro v isio n s fo r p r o ­
g re s s io n s . F o r exam ple, the changes in p roportion s indicated at 10 y e a rs* se rv ic e include changes in p ro v isio n s o c c u rrin g between 5 and 10 y e a r s . E stim a te s a re cum ulative* Thus, the proportion
rec e iv in g 3 w eeks* pay or m ore a fte r 5 y e a rs includes those who rec e iv e 3 weeks* pay o r m o re a fte r fe w e r y e a r s of s e rv ic e .
2 Exceptions to the standard industry lim itations a re shown in footnotes 4 and/or 6 to the table in appendix B .
| L e s s than 2 .5 percent.




63

Table B-21* Paid vacations- manufacturing
(P e rc e n t of office and plcut w o r k e r s em ployed in m anufacturing establish m en ts p roviding paid vacations by amount of vacation pay provided and by specified le n g th -o f-s e rv ic e p e rio d s )
N ortheast
Amount of vacation pay 1
and se rv ic e p eriod

Boston

B u ffalo

New
Y o rk
City

South

P h ila ­
delphia

P it t s ­
bu rgh

Atlanta

B ir m in g ­
ham

North C en tral

D a lla s

M em phis

C hicago

C le v e ­
land

K an sas
City

vVest
Los
M in n eA n g e le s a p o lis Long
St. P a u l
Beach

P ortlan d

San
F ran Seattle
c is c o Oakland

O ffic e w o r k e r s
1 w eek o r m o re
6 months
1 year

_ _.

100
77
100

100
65
100

100
78
100

100
71
100

99
60
99

99
35
99

100
70
100

99
43
99

100
46
100

100
66
100

100
80
100

100
36
100

99
67
99

100
37
100

100
56
100

100
65
100

100
15
100

100
11
97
99
99
100

99
t
85
90
95
99

100
5
93
98
98
100

99
5
86
91
92
99

99
t
86
94
97
99

98

99
t
76
93
95
99

98

99

88
96
99
100

100
3
72
89
94
100

100

91
96
97
100

99
f
77
90
97
99

100

64
79
92
99

100
t
75
85
96
100

100

t
63
88
96
98

100
6
83
96
99
100

100

84
92
94
98

94
99
100
100

92
97
99
100

3 w eek s or m ore . ... _ _
3 y e a rs ____________________ _______ ___________
5 y e a rs
..
. .
10 y e a r s __ ______ ____________________ _________
15 y e a r s
._ . _
20 y e a rs
........
25 y e a r s ___
__ _
..
_ . ...

85
t
9
17
82
84
85

94

88
9
21
55
88
88
88

88

96

28

80

62

60

91
5
7
40
89
91
91

94
r
t
19
92
92
94

83

83

-

3
22
82
83
83

t
11
45
81
82
83

89
8
10
25
89
89
89

73
10
10
22
64
71
73

82
8
8
32
81
82
82

17
5
5
7
17
17
17

4 w eeks or m ore
___
10 y e a rs
_ _
15 y e a r s ...... ............... ...... ........................... .
2 0 y e a r s _____
... ........ _
25 years
.
_ _. _.

8
t
t
t
8

28
3
3
9
28

10

22

27

19

22

t

-

-

-

-

.... . . .
_ ._
.....................

2 w eeks or m ore _
6 months
... ._ .
I year _
... _
2 y e a r s ...........
3 y e a rs
. ...
5 y e a rs _
.

.

....... .

._ ...
_

..

.......... .

_

-

4
32
93
94
94
22
-

t
5
22

43
6
15
18
43

-

-

14
43
87
88
88

t
8
91
95
96

26
-

t
t
26

-

-

-

-

-

15
28
28
28

t
13
79
79
80

5
21
61
61
62

t
21
49
58
60

11

3

11

15

9

-

-

-

-

-

t
t
11

-

-

-

-

t
9

-

-

-

3

11

-

15

P la n t

-

-

t
10

22

t
t
27

10
t
t
5
10

100
16
100

100
t
100

99

100

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

t
19

5
22

f
t

100
29
100

99
50
99

99

97

w o rk ers

1 w eek o r m o re
6 months __
.. ...
_
... .
1 y e a r _________________________________________

100
23
100

100
10
100

100
25
100

100
28
100

100
t
100

2 w eek s or m ore
_.
.... . ............
6 months _ __ ..
_ _ .. ___
1 y e a r ..
. ....... . ..............
2 y e a rs ______ ________________________________
3 y e a rs ___ __ .
_
.... . ....... .... _
5 y e a rs
_ _ .
.........

98
t
19
26
47
98

99

90
t
40
55
73
90

98
t
28
29
50
96

99
3
6
12
99

26
36
43
81

3
18
28
97

11
36
74
90

t
10
40
82

12
38
61
98

7
11
19
99

17
24
50
100

8
25
67
99

42
67
87
99

8
15
47
100

24
69
85
99

5j
60
66
97

3 w eeks or m ore
. .
. _______
3 y e a rs _______________________________________
5 y e a rs _______________________________________
10 y e a r s ......... ................ ........................ .......
15 y e a rs ______________________________________
20 y e a r s ................................... ................... .
2 5 y e a r s _____ _
. _ _ ____ ______ ____

72
t
5
14
69
71
72

61
13
16
37
60
61
61

72

97

33

90

48

44
-

t
4
90
90
90

t
t
42
44
44

t
t
11
92
92
94

62
3

11
33
33
33

r
t
5
47
47
48

78
5
8
20
78
78
78

16
52
59
62

88
8
11
29
86
88
88

83

-

74
4
13
72
74
74

85

t
t
5
96
97
97

89
6
8
31
67
89
89

94

-

7
29
72
72
72

4 w eeks o r m o re
_____________________
10 y e a rs
.
..... . ...... ......
r . .. ____
15 y e a rs _____________ _______ _________________
20 y e a rs
______ __ ... . _______ __ ..
25 y e a rs ________________________________________

7
t
t
t
7

16
-

7
-

3
-

t

7
-

3
-

19
-

8
-

20
-

17
-

19
-

-

t
t

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

t

7

3

6
19

3
8

17

4
19

-

14
27
46
99
92
-

t
20
90
92
92
23
t
6
23

9
3
5
6
9

3
16

-

7

1 Includes p e rcen tage- o r fla t-s u m -ty p e paym ents converted to equivalent weeks* pay.
■ L e s s than 2 .5 percent.
f




95
8
94

99
3
99

98
4
98

99
7
97

99
11
99

100
8
100

100
6
100

100
7
100

82

97

90

84

99

99

100

100

-

-

-

-

See footnote 1, table B -2 0 .

-

-

-

-

-

20

-

t
8
35
82
83
85
25
t
5
25

-

8
r

t

4
8

-

j

r

-

-

t
3
57
82
83
83
t
T
t

64

Table B-22? Paid vacations - public utilities *
(P e rc e n t of office and plant w o rk e rs em ployed in public utilities establishm ents providing paid vacations by amount of vacation pay provided after sp ecified le n g t h -o f-s e r v ic e p erio d s)
N o rth east
Am ount of vacation pay 1
and se rv ic e p e rio d

B oston 2 B u ffalo

N ew
Y o rk
C it y 2

South
P h ila delphia

Pitts burgh

Atlanta

B ir m in g ­
ham

North C e n tra l

D a lla s

M em phis C h ic a g o 2

O ffic e
1 w e e k o r m o r e .... ,
_
6 months
____
1 y e a r ____ __ ___________________

_ .
_________

100
89
100

100
73
100

100
89
100

2 w eeks or m o re _______________________________
6 m o n th s _____________________________________
1 y e a r _ __ ________________ ______________
2 y e a rs _
........... _
3 y e a rs _______________________________________
5 y e a rs
_ .
.
_
_....... ...... _

100
53
96
99
99
99

100
t
72
95
100
100

100
17
97
100
100
100

3 weeks or m ore _______________________________
3 y e a rs . . . . .
. .. _ . . .........
5 y e a rs _______________________________________
10 y e a rs _
.._
_ ....
15 y e a rs _____
20 y e a rs _____________________________________
25 y e a rs -----------------------------------------------------

98
t
3
25
98
98
98

89
t
21
89
89
89

4 weeks o r m ore
....
_ _ . ...
10 y e a rs ___________________ ______________
15 y e a r s _ __ _
_
_
_ _ __
20 y e a rs __________________________________
25 y e a rs _____ ____ ______ ________ __

30
t
30

3
3

C le v e ­
land2

Kansas
C ity

W est
Los
M inne­
A n g e le s apolis Long
St. P a u l
B each 2

P o rtlan d

San
F ran Seattle2
c is c o O akland2

w o rk ers

100
60
100

100
56
100

100
69
100

100
54
100

100
73
100

100
64
99

100
53
100

100
14
100

100
69
100

100
7
100

100
48
100

100
43
100

100
60
100

100
65
100

100

100
49
98
98
100

100
54
93
100
100

100
19
51
88
100
100

100
41
87
98
98

100
28
66
98
100

100
88
98
100
100

100
t
54
93
95
100

98
_
70
87
95
98

100
29
89
97
100

100
7
91
99
100

100
47
83
100
100

100

47
99
99
100

38
93
100
100

100
_
85
89
95
100

95
5
8
24
95
95
95

97
t
12
96
96
97

97
3
96
97
97

96
t
19
89
96
96

68
8
68
68
68

93
-

90
3
90
90
90

90
t
t
3
90
90
90

89
15
89
89
89

93
50
92
93
93

93
_

t
75
92
93

92
6
24
91
92
92

t
93
93
93

78
3
3
38
78
78
78

93
3
17
23
93
93
93

76
3
3
14
72
76
76

8

5
5

36
_
36

12
4
12

5
5
5

7
7
7

20
6
7
20
20

25
18
25

36
t
36

24
16
24

26
26

25
25

12
12
12

29
r
r
H
t
2
<

-

t
T
5
8

3

P la n t

~

w o rk e rs

1 week or m o r e ___ ______ ___________________
6 m o n th s ____________ ________ ____________
1 y e a r ________ ___

100
80
100

100
56
100

100
88
100

100
33
100

100
42
100

100
53
100

100
49
100

99
54
99

100
43
95

100
5
100

100
14
100

100
61
100

100
7
100

100
48
100

100
26
100

100
74
100

100
55
100

2 weeks or m ore
_
.....
6 months ___________ ,______r _____ t,__
__
1 y e a r ___________ __________________________
2 y e a r s _____ ____
_ _ ____
_ _
3 y e a r s ___ _
_ _ _________________
___
5 y e a rs _______________________________________

100
47
89
92
93
100

100
t
49
56
99
100

100
19
80
94
100
100

100
4 23
64
70
100

100
13
86
91
100

100
31
73
99
100

100
_
34
79
99
100

99
_
30
69
88
99

100
25
63
90
100

100
32
70
100
100

100
37
69
98
100

100
48
73
87
100

100
22
72
96
100

99
11
C3
97
99

100
30
73
100
100

100
36
96
100
100

100
65
68
96
100

3 w eeks or m ore
...
... .. . _
3 y e a r s ___ _____________ ____ __ _______
5 y e a rs _______________________________________
10 y e a r s __ ___________________________________
15 y e a rs
__
... .. ____ . .. .
20 y e a r s _____________________ ____ ____ _____ _
25 y e a rs __ _ ______
_ ______

100
5
5
23
100
100
100

99
t
40
98
99

81
-

99

93
5
11
24
93
93
93

99
14
99
99
99

95
3
22
90
95
95

92
12
92
92
92

90
_
71
81
90

84
18
84
84
84

99
4
99
99
99

100
100
100
100

99
10
99
99
99

97
37
97
97
97

86
7
86
86
86

75
26
75
75
75

93
9
11
15
93
93
93

4 weeks or m ore _______________________________
10 y e a rs ________ __ _ _ _ _ _
_ _ _ _ _
15 y e a rs __
_____
_ __ ___________
20 y e a rs _
_
25 y e a rs ________ ______________ __
_____

25
25

17
17

3
3
3
3
3

20
t
20

22
22
22

12
12
12

14
14
14

10
10
10

55
t
48
55

56
29
56

26
19
26

12
12

22
22

13
13
13

18

1
2
3
4
t
*

t
33
81
81
81
9
-

9

Includes percen tage- o r flat-sum -type payments converted to equivalent w e e k s1pay.
See footnote 1,table B-20.
1 o r m ore utilities a re m unicipally operated and, th e re fo re , excluded fro m thescope
of thestudies.
See footnote 4 to table in appendix B.
E stim ate fo r previous study should re a d "5 2 " instead of " 9 1 ."
E stim ate fo r previous study should re a d "2 7 " instead of " 4 4 ."
L e s s than 2. 5 percent.
T ran sp o rtatio n (excluding r a ilr o a d s ), com m unication, and other public utilities.




18

67
t
T
16
67
67
67
-

65

Ta b le B -2 3 :

Pa id v a c a tio n s- w h o le sa le tra d e

(P e rc e n t of office and plant w o rk e rs em ployed in w h o lesale trade establish m en ts providing paid vacations by amount of vacation pay provided a fte r specified le n g th -o f-s e rv ic e p e rio d s )
Northeast
Amount of vacation pay 1
and se rv ic e perio d

Boston

New
Y o rk
City

South

P h ila ­
delphia

P it t s ­
burgh

Atlanta

N orth C en tral

Chicago

West

C le ve land

M in n ea p o lis St. P au l

Los
A n gele sLong
B each

San
F ran c is c o Oakland

O ffic e w o rk ers
1 w eek o r m ore _________________________________
6 months
1 year _

100
76
100

100
89
100

100
54
100

100
37
100

100
29
100

100
51
100

100
59
100

100
32
100

100
39
100

100
28
100

2 w eek s or m ore
6 months
.._ ......
1 y e a r _________________________________________
2 y e a rs __________________
__________________
3 y e a rs
5 y e a rs _______________________________________

98
7
97
98
98
98

100
13
97
100
100
100

95
6
81
89
92
95

100
78
94
98
100

100
_
85
97
98
98

100
_
74
93
98
100

100
_
77
84
100
100

100
63
82
100
100

100
_
65
99
100
100

100
_
69
100
100
100

3 w eeks or m o re _
3 y e a rs
_
. .
5 years
.
10 y e a r s ___________________ ______ _____________
15 y e a rs .........
20 y e a rs
2 5 y e a rs
.... _

80
t
t
31
73
73
80

84
6
51
83
84
84

72
t
7
37
72
72
72

94
t
t
21
94
94
94

69
5
21
65
66
69

76
3
37
75
75
76

80
t
25
74
80
80

85
31
85
85
85

80
t
6
36
76
79
80

78
11
78
78
78

4 w eeks or m o re
_ .. . ...
10 y e a r s ______________________________________
15 y e a r s ______________________________________
20 y e a r s ______________________________________
25 y e a r s ______________________________________

17
t
t
t
17

27
t
t
6
27

29
t
t
t
29

14
4
14

15
15

32
3
3
13
32

14
14

26
6
26

26
t
26

26
26

P la n t w o r k e r s
1 w eek o r m o re _________________________________
6 months _____________________________________
1 y e a r _________________________________________

100
55
100

100
66
100

84
16
84

100
12
100

96
19
96

98
22
97

92
25
92

100
18
100

98
17
98

100
10
100

2 w eek s or m o re
...... .... . _
... ... ..
6 months
1 y e a r _________________________________________
2 y e a rs _______________________________________
3 y e a rs ____________________________ ___________
5 y e a rs _________________ ____________________

92
7
68
82
87
92

100
t
75
94
96
100

80
28
37
62
80

87
36
55
68
87

89
38
73
81
88

98
42
72
84
98

89
47
62
70
89

100
31
70
95
100

98
32
90
95
98

100
21
100
100
100

....... _
3 w eeks or m ore
3 y e a rs ______________________________________
5 y e a rs __ ___________________________________
10 y e a rs _________ __________________________
15 y e a rs ______________________________________
20 y e a rs ______________________________________
25 y e a rs ______________________________________

80
7
7
25
75
75
80

77
3
19
42
75
77
77

48
-

47
-

80
-

26
48
48
48

93
22
93
93
93

t
10
38
45
47

t
40
78
78
80

65
t
15
63
65
65

89
29
88
88
89

87
T
45
83
85
87

100
5
5
27
100
100
100

4 w eeks or m ore ________________________________
10 y e a rs ______________________________________
15 y e a r s ______________________________________
20 y e a r s ______________________________________
25 y e a rs _ ___________________________________

16
7
7
7
16

19
t
19

11
11

12
3
12

6
6

33

25
25

16

12

“
16

~
4
12

15
"
"
6
15

_

1 Includes p erc e n ta g e - o r fla t-s u m -ty p e paym ents converted to equivalent w e e k s 1 pay.
| L e s s than 2 .5 percent.




See footnote 1, table B -2 0 .

t
t
8
33

66
T a b le B -2 4 :

Pa id v a c a tio n s- re ta il tra d e

(P e rc e n t of office and plant w o r k e r s em ployed in re ta il trade establish m en ts p roviding paid vacations by amount of vacation pay provided a fte r sp ecified le n g th -o f-s e rv ic e p e rio d s )
N orth east
Am ount of vacation pay 1
and se rv ic e perio d

Boston

New
Y o rk
City 2

South

P h ila ­
delphia2

P it t s ­
burgh

Atlanta

N orth C en tral

D a lla s

C h icago

M in n ea p o lis St. P a u l

West

P o rtlan d

San
F ran c is c o Oakland

Seattle

Office clerical
1 w eek o r m o re
.
___
6 months _____________________________________
1 y e a r _________________________________________

100
74
100

100
48
99

100
25
100

100
4
100

100
41
100

100
13
100

100
26
100

100
19
100

100

100
17
100

100
17
100

2 w eek s or m ore ________________________________
6 months _____________________________________
1 y e a r _________________________________________
2 y e a rs _______________________________________
3 y e a rs
.
. _
. .. .... .......
5 y e a rs _______________________________________

100
82
100
100
100

99
45
98
99
99

100
25
87
98
100

98
t
18
91
96
98

97
44
89
90
96

98
15
81
89
96

99
t
31
99
99
99

100
23
80
95
100

100
24
88
100
100

100
35
100
100
100

100
26
100
100
100

3 w eeks or m ore ________________________________
3 y e a rs _______________________________________
5 y e a rs _______________________________________
10 y e a r s _______________________________________
15 y e a r s ______________________________________
20 y e a r s __ __________________________________
25 y e a r s ______________________________________

96
47
66
92
95
96

81
4
28
73
81
81
81

91
5
48
89
89
91

89
3
11
85
89
89

76
12
52
68
76
76

50
-

38
46
50

87
3
59
84
87
87

73
5
10
71
72
73

44
13
44
44
44

90
11
33
90
90
90

82
t
11
82
82
82

4 w eeks or m ore ________________________________
10 y e a r s ______________________________________
15 y e a r s ______ ________ ________________________
20 y e a r s ______________________________________
25 y e a r s ______________________________*
________

56
35
35
38
56

39

54

73

46

30

19

45

“
“

"

"
”
t

t
t
11
39

t
t

36

60

32

-

-

7
54

20
36

-

-

19
60

-

32

12
73

100

T

46

t

30

19

45

t

Plant workers
99
37
99

100
7
100

100
_
100

97
47
97

96
15
96

100
31
100

100
20
100

100
100

100
6
100

98
14
98

99
_

99
_

94
_
12
60
90
94

90

42
99
99
99

98
_
13
56
90
98

92

79
98
98
99

98
t
36
90
93
98

100
38
79
98
100

99
10
66
99
99

100
19
95
96
100

98
18
94
98
98

88
_

53
7
8
49
52
53

31
17
31
31
31

89
18
42
89
89
89

69

4
64
82
82
88

76
_
26
74
76
76

3
14
69
69
69

36
4
36

38
6
35
38

29

15

18

29

■
t
29

"
15

~
4
18

1 w eek o r m o r e ___
6 months _______
1 y e a r _________

100
68
100

2 w eek s or m o r e __
6 months _______
1 y e a r ___________
2 y e a rs _________
3 y e a r s _________
5 y e a rs _________

96

3 w eeks or m o r e __
3 y e a rs _________
5 y e a rs _________
10 y e a r s ________
15 y e a r s ________
20 y e a r s ________
25 y e a rs ________

43
63
90
94
96

73
4
20
54
72
72
73

4 w eeks or m o r e __
10 y e a r s ________
15 y e a r s ________
20 y e a rs ________
25 y e a r s ------------

43
30
30
36
43

36
t
6
10
36

_

1 Includes p erc e n ta g e - o r fla t-s u m -ty p e paym ents converted to equivalent w e e k s ' pay.
2 E xclu des lim it e d -p r ic e variety sto re s.
"f L e s s than 2.5 percent.




-

-

53
75
82
87

19
66
76
88

59

30

-

-

12
37
56
59
59

t
t
17
25
30

81
9
40
77
81
81

37
22
37

10
10

41
17
41

See footnote 1, table B-20.

_

-

'
3
29

67
Table B-25: Paid vacations- finance **
(P e rc e n t of office w o rk e rs em ployed in finance establishm ents providing paid vacations by amount of vacation pay provided afte r sp ecified le n g th -o f-s e rv ic e p eriods)
South

N ortheast
Am ount of vacation pay 1
and s e rv ic e p erio d

Boston

N ew
Y o rk
C ity

P h ila ­
delphia

Pitts­
burgh

Atlanta

W est

N orth C e n tra l

D a lla s

Ch icago

C le v e ­
land

M inne­
apolis St. P au l

Los
A n geles Long
Beach

San
F ran c is c o Oakland

O f f ic e w o r k e r s

1 w eek or m o r e _________________________________
6 months __ _____ _ ____________ _________
1 y e a r _ _________ __ ---------------------- __ __

100
95
100

99
97
99

99
90
99

100
96
100

100
90
100

100
72
100

99
91
99

100
61
100

100
86
100

100
86
100

100
91
100

2 weeks or m ore _________________________ ___
6 months __________________________________ _
1 y e a r ...
, ....... .......... .... ...... —_______ _
2 y e a rs ______________ __ ______ ____________ _
3 y e a rs _______ ____________ ________ _____
5 y e a rs ___ _________________________________

100
45
100
100
100
100

99
25
98
99
99
99

99
38
95
99
99
99

100
12
98
100
100
100

100
9
96
96
96
100

100
t
100
100
100
100

99
11
98
99
99
99

100
6
92
95
100
100

100
t
97
100
100
100

100
22
100
100
100
100

100
24
100
100
100
100

3 w eeks o r m ore
_
_
_ __
__
3 y e a rs
„ __ ____
______________________
5 y e a rs
__ _____ __ _________ __ _______
10 y e a rs
____
__ ______
____ __ _
15 y e a rs __ _____ _____ __ _ __
____
20 y e a rs _ _________________________________
_
25 y e a rs __ _________ ____ ______ __ ___

100
12
43
60
87
93
100

96
4
16
61
92
93
96

91
t
17
75
84
91

82
20
76
82
82

83
10
79
79
83

53
3
6
44
53
53

94
3
31
89
89
94

98
3
26
98
98
98

94
20
91
94
94

87
3
7
20
69
85
87

94
t
t
19
75
94
94

4 weeks o r m o r e __
_____ _ ______ _______
10 y e a rs __ __________________ _____________
15 y e a rs __ __________________ __ _____ _
20 y e a rs _________ __ _______ __ _________
25 y e a rs __ ________ ______ _______________

47
14
47

77
t
24
77

49
7
49

10
3
10

50
10
50

21
3
21

30
t
9
30

18
6
18

36
18
36

27
3
18
27

28
8
28

1 Includes p e rcen tage- or fla t-s u m -ty p e payments converted to equivalent w eek s1 pay.
t L e s s than 2. 5 percent.
* * Finance, in suran ce, and re a l estate.




See footnote 1, table B -2 0 .

68
Table B-26s

Paid vacations- services

(P e rc e n t of office and plant w o rk e rs em ployed in s e rv ic e s establishm ents providing paid vacations by amount of vacation pay provided a fte r specified le n g t h -o f-s e r v ic e period s)
N o rth east
Amount of vacation p ay 1
and s e rv ic e p erio d
Boston

N ew
Y o rk
City

N orth C e n tra l
P h ila ­
delphia

W est

C h icago

Los
A n g e le s Long
B each2

N o rth east

Boston

N ew
Y o rk
C ity

North C e n tra l
P h ila ­
delphia

C h icago

W est
Los
A n geles Long
Beach2

P lant w o rke rs

Office workers
1 w eek or m o re
„ .
_
6 months _____________________________________
___________
1 y e a r ____ ____________ ____

100
81
100

100
82
100

100
53
100

100
57
100

100
51
99

97
8
97

99
17
99

100
9
100

99
5
99

9?
13
88

2 w eeks o r m ore
6 months
1 y e a r __ __ ________________________ ____
2 y e a rs ___________________ _ _______________
3 y e a rs _ ________ _____ ___________________
5 y e a rs ------------------------------------------------------------

100
13
85
96
97
100

100
8
87
95
100
100

98

99
75
99
99
99

100
t
80
85
99
100

97

96

3 w eeks o r m ore
____________
3 y e a r s ___ __ _____ ____
5 y ears
10 y e a rs ____ ____ _____ ________ ___ ____ __
15 y e a rs __ _________ _ __ _____ __
20 y e a rs „
__________ _________ _________
25 y e a rs _______
_ _ ____ ________ ___

74
25
44
64
74
74
74

77
5
37
64
76
77
77

60
17
26
48
56
57
60

51

5
36
62
63
64

12
31
51
51
51

4 w ee k s o r m o re
10 y e a rs _ _ ________ ____ __ ________ __
15 y e a rs ______________ _________ _ _______
20 y e a rs __ __ __ ________ _________
___
25 y e a rs _________ _ __ ____________ ____

9
9
9
9
9

26
7
12
19
26

t

10

27

t

t

4
5
10

T

t
79
90
90
98

64

t

-

t

t

t

t

t

16
54
60
97

16
35
93
96

84
9
40
48
82

98
12
58
90
98

89
4
31
61
83
89

26
7
15
26
26
26

29

16

22

t

t
t
t

t

20
5
5
12
20
20
20

-

27

1 Includes p erc e n ta g e - o r fla t-s u m -ty p e payments converted to equivalent weeks* pay.
See footnote 1, table B -2 0 .
2 E xclu des m otion-picture production and a llie d s e rv ic e s ; data fo r these in dustries a re included, h ow ever, in " a l l in d u s t r ie s ."
t L e s s than 2. 5 percent.




4
8
27
27
29

t
t
t
t
t

9
11
16

-

3
8
18
22
22

t
t
t
t
t

8
5
5
5
8

69
Table B-27: .Health, insurance, and pension plans- all industries
(P e rcent of office and plant w o rk e rs em ployed in a ll establish m en ts with fo rm a l p ro v isio n s other than le g a lly re q u ire d by type of plan
Insurance plans
A rea
L ife

A ccid en tal
death and
d is m e m ­
berm ent

H o sp ita li­
zation

Surgical

M e d ic a l

Catastrophe

in 17 la b o r m ark ets,

Sickness and accident insurance
and/or sick leave
Sick leave
Sick leave
Sicknes s
(fu ll pay and (p a rtia l pay
T otal 1
and accident
no waiting
or waiting
insurance
p e rio d )
p e r io d )

1956-57)

R etirem ent
pension
plan

No health,
insurance,
or pension
plans

O ffice workers
N ortheast:
B o s to n 2
_ _
B u ffalo
.
N ew Y o rk C it y 2
Ph ilad elp h ia 2
P ittsbu rgh

89
93
93
94
95

46
39
41
30
42

78
87
77
66
79

76
82
74
57
78

39
53
53
35
45

16
11
30
15
16

74
91
92
87
94

44
48
34
37
38

60
75
82
69
83

4
t
4
6
t

78
81
78
81
83

South:
A t la n t a _________________________________________
B irm in gh am
_
_
___
D a lla s
M em ph is 2
. _ .......

98
93
92
91

55
29
47
50

84
61
78
85

82
61
75
85

45
32
55
44

37
6
19
10

71
68
68
62

43
40
33
37

44
40
39
28

14
5
13
13

85
63
69
61

t
4
4

N orth C en tral:
Ch icago * ______________________________________
C le v e la n d 2
K an sas City __________________________________
M in n e a p o lis-S t. P a u l _______________________

95
93
91
91

41
45
56
45

80
74
75
76

80
71
75
75

53
33
58
60

24
14
20
10

80
72
79
70

46
49
51
42

39
44
45
42

15
6
15
4

75
74
74
74

t
4
4
6

W est:
L o s A n g e le s -L o n g B each 2
P o r t la n d _______________________________________
San F ra n c is c o -O a k la n d 2
Seattle 2 _____________________________________

97
88
94
98

68
44
40
73

89
83
80
55

89
82
80
55

74
74
68
48

43
18
27
15

80
70
72
93

42
43
31
40

68
39
53
60

3
9
7
9

80
74
72
72

t
4
t
t

_

t
t
t
t

T

PJant workers
N ortheast:
B oston 2
B u f f a l o ________________________________________
N ew Y o rk City 2 _________________ ______ _____
Ph ilad elp h ia 2 ________________________________
P ittsb u rgh ___________________________________

84
91
92
93
99

52
38
42
43
43

74
89
87
80
93

70
88
85
75
93

33
52
58
46
32

3
4
6
5
8

91
80
85
88
95

77
68
64
76
89

13
10
27
13
7

10
9
12
9
4

56
75
74
59
82

3
3
t
4
t

South:
Atlanta __________ _____ _______________________
B ir m in g h a m _________________________________
D a lla s _________________________________________
M em ph is 2 ___________________________________

94
89
86
72

56
23
49
41

82
76
79
66

81
72
77
64

33
22
46
32

17
t
13
5

72
80
58
60

57
69
45
48

16
10
9
11

13
6
11
11

59
61
54
42

3
7
6
20

N orth C en tral:
Chicago ^ _____________________________________
C le v e la n d 2 __________________________________
K an sas C ity __________________________________
M in n e a p o lis-S t. P a u l ______________________

92
95
84
88

47
52
50
48

88
76
72
78

87
79
72
76

59
40
53
53

10
5
13
4

89
85
77
88

75
79
65
70

5
5
15
16

15
t
14
13

65
67
59
58

t
4
9
4

W est:
L o s A n g e le s -L o n g B each 2 _______ _______
P o r t la n d _________________________ __________—
San F ra n c is c o -O a k la n d 2 __________________
S e a ttle 2 ______ _____________________ ______

93
71
94
93

70
47
49
52

92
79
84
90

92
79
84
90

79
72
80
85

28
6
19
6

67
74
55
91

40
63
26
83

36
7
16
6

10
9
23
7

62
51
63
63

t
11
t
3

.
1 Unduplicated total of w o r k e r s receiv in g sick leave o r sickn ess and accident insurance shown sep arately .
S ic k -le a v e plans a re lim ited to those
m inim um num ber of days* pay that can be expected by each em ployee. In fo rm a l sick -leave allo w an ces determ ined on an individual b a s is are excluded.
2 Exceptions to the standard industry lim itations are shown in footnotes 4 and/or 6 to the table in appendix B.
L e s s than 2. 5 percent.

t




which

definitely

establish

at

east

t e

70

Table

Health, insurance, and pension plans- manufacturing

(P e rc e n t of office and plant w o r k e r s em ployed in m anufacturing establish m en ts with fo rm a l p ro v isio n s other than le g a lly re q u ire d by type of plan in 17 la b o r m ark ets,
Insurance plans
A rea
L ife

A ccid en tal
death and
d ism e m ­
berm ent

H o sp ita li­
zation

S u rgical

M e d ic a l

C atastrophe

Sickness and accident insurance
and/or sick leave
Sick leave
Sick leave
Sickness
(fu ll pay and (p a rtia l pay
T otal 1
and accident
no waiting
or w aiting
insurance
p e rio d )
p e rio d )

1956-57)

R etirem en t
pension
plan

No health,
in su ran ce,
o r pension
plan

O ffic e w o rke rs
N ortheast:
Boston ________________________________________
B uffalo
... .. .
__ .
N ew Y o rk C i t y _______________________________
Ph ilad elp h ia
P ittsb u rgh ___________________________________

88
97
91
95
98

59
48
46
42
35

83
96
85
77
98

80
92
85
76
98

43
53
63
49
65

7
11
23
12
19

90
92
92
91
97

69
62
41
65
46

73
70
80
68
87

t
3
3
t

76
84
74
82
90

t
t
t
3
T

South:
Atlanta
_
_ ........ .
......
B ir m in g h a m __________________________________
D a l l a s __________ _______ _______________________
M em p h is
.
.
. . . . .

99
96
96
91

70
26
62
60

95
87
90
86

92
87
94
85

63
50
54
50

51

82
80
81
73

76
49
64
69

61
49
50
22

4
t

9
5

5

79
75
80
52

t
t
t
5

N orth C en tral:
Ch icago _______________________________________
C lev elan d ____________________________________
K an sas City __________________________________
M in n e a p o lis-S t. P a u l ______________________

99
96
92
95

49
49
57
54

85
84
90
85

85
86
89
82

61
45
71
58

14
14
13
10

88
85
84
82

67
66
74
71

44
55
52
36

8
3
9
t

79
78
76
70

t
t
4
f

West:
L o s A n g e le s -L o n g B e a c h __________________
P o r t la n d ______________________________________
San F ra n c is c o -O a k la n d ____________________
Seattle ________________________________________

99
84
90
96

90
54
57
88

98
84
88
26

98
82
88
26

83
74
81
24

61
7
32
4

86
72
64
95

60
53
26
16

73
45
53
85

t
t
t

82
65
72
83

t
10
t
t

-

r

-

Plant porkers
N ortheast:
Boston
. ....................
B u ffalo ________________________________________
N ew Y o rk C i t y _______________________________
Ph ilad elp h ia __________________________________
P ittsb u rgh ___________________________________

82
95
96
92
99

56
42
40
48
35

85
96
96
87
98

82
95
94
84
98

40
57
65
52
32

3
4
t
6
9

93
84
81
90
96

89
79
73
84
94

5
3
19
7
t

5
8
6
6
3

58
80
74
64
92

4
t
t
5
t

South:
Atlanta ________________________________________
B ir m in g h a m __________________________________
D a lla s __ _____________________________________
M em ph is _____________________________________

96
94
89
69

66
21
52
51

93
90
86
70

92
88
87
67

43
26
48
40

22
9
3

79
84
61
66

78
82
59
64

21
t
t
4

t
5
3
5

58
71
56
45

t
4
5
23

N orth C en tral:
C h ic a g o _______________________________________
C levelan d ____________________________________
K an sas City __________________________________
M in n e a p o lis-S t. P a u l ______________________

96
98
83
89

54
55
54
48

91
83
83
89

91
87
81
86

63
45
62
62

7
4
6
5

94
89
81
90

86
88
74
85

T
t

9
8

11
t
13
14

70
72
63
64

t
t
10
3

W est:
L o s A n g e le s -L o n g B e a c h -------------------------P o r t la n d _____________ _______________________
San F ra n c is c o -O a k la n d ____________________
Seattle -------------------- ------------------------------------

96
83
95
90

83
58
67
31

100
88
95
93

100
88
95
93

85
81
89
90

36
22
f

70
75
42
89

49
74
28
89

39
t
11

5
3
8

64
44
60
69

-

-

1 Unduplicated total of w o r k e r s re c e iv in g sick leave o r sickn ess and accident insurance shown se p arately .
S ick -le a v e plans a re lim ited to those which
m inim um num ber of days* pay that can be expected by each em ployee.
In fo rm a l s ic k -le a v e allow an ces determ ined on an individual b a s is a r e excluded.
"f L e s s than 2 .5 p ercen t.




definitely e sta b lish at

12
"

5

least

the

71
Table B-29: Health, insurance, and pension plans- public utilities*
(P e rc e n t of office and

iaat w o r k e r s em ployed in public utilities establish m en ts with fo rm a l p ro v isio n s other than le g a lly re q u ire d by type of plan in 17 la b o r m arket!
Insurance plans

A rea
L ife

A ccid en tal
death and
d is m e m ­
berm en t

H o sp ita li­
zation

S u rgical

M e d ic a l

Catastrophe

1956-57)

Sickness and accident insurance
and/ o r sick leave
R etirem ent
Sick leave
Sick leave
pension
Sickne ss
(fu ll pay and (p a rtia l pay
plan
T otal 1
and accident
no waiting
o r waiting
insurance
p e rio d )
p e rio d )

No health,
insurance,
or pension
plan

O ffice yvorkers
N ortheast:
B o s to n 2 ______________________________________
B u f f a l o ________________________________________
N ew Y o rk C it y 2 _____________________________
P h iladelph ia
P ittsb u rg h _________________________________ _
South:
A t la n t a ___________________________ ____________
B ir m in g h a m _________________________________
D a lla s _________________________________________

Memphis 2 ________________________________

-

98
96
96
99
99

36
3 11
40
82
64

44
50
52
14
45

44
50
49
9
40

7
38
38
7
17

t
18
35
t
16

98
97
99
98
100

26
3 8
19
30
26

88
94
92
87
99

t
t
6
9
-

94
88
94
95
94

100
100
99
100

34
12
44
34

50
62
43
59

50
62
42
59

23
38
35
37

11
15
10
7

89
86
76
85

48
10
15
47

30
45
29
27

39
37
40
42

90
90
87
59

t

96
95
97
96

22
13
3 65
19

44
36
69
32

44
36
69
32

22
3
48
26

26
23
39

92
94
95
95

30
16
3 53
24

33
44
25
84

50
45
58
6

88
91
84
77

t
4
3
r

99
85
95
98

24
7
13
35

40
58
42
42

40
58
42
42

39
58
42
39

18
29
15

96
96
92
93

18
28
39
33

78
52
56
21

14
20
32
53

98
80
82
79

t
T

100
88
99
100
100

30
3 26
26
65
44

31
34
34
29
59

52
29
50
25
11

87
87
97
80
90

-

t
f

N orth C en tral:

Chicago 2 _______________ _______________ _
Cleveland2 _______________________________
Kansas City ______________________________
Minneapolis-St. P a u l ____________________
West:
Los Angeles-Long Beach 2 ______________
P o rtla n d ____________ ____________________
San Francisco-Oakland 2 ________________
Seattle 2 ___________________________________

t

t

Plan! workers
Northeast:
Boston2 ________ _______
__
______
B u ffa lo .... .................................................
New York C ity 2 .......................................
Philadelph ia_______________ _____ _________
Pittsburgh ................................................

96
98
96
100
100

34
3 36
41
10
64

45
70
56
55
57

45
70
48
33
54

14
37
32
18
8

4
17
28
4
8

South:
Atlanta ......................................................
B irm in gham ................... .........................
D allas .......................................................
Memphis 2
........ ....... ................................ .

100
100
98
83

40
28
50
35

58
51
51
44

58
51
49
44

19
33
26
19

10
14
3

90
92
85
78

52
31
42
57

7
43
22
5

51
37
35
41

92
96
88
63

t
17

North Central:
Chicago a ..................................................
Cleveland2 ...............................................
Kansas City ...................................................
Minneapolis-St. Paul ............. .............. .

99
100
95
97

35
37
3 55
29

62
37
60
44

62
37
60
44

34
29
51
22

27
8
38
t

99
100
92
97

55
37
360
28

31
37
19
39

36
34
51
34

96
100
91
85

“
"
5

100

33
8
16
36

46
57

46
57
37
54

42
54
37
42

15
16
26

86
100

22

86

30

100

12
46
50
48

96
97
96
94

■
“
"

6

64
16
34
30

West:
Los Angeles-Long Beach 2 ......................
P o rtla n d ....................................................
San Francisco-Oakland 2 .......................
Seattle 2 _______________________ __________

74

95
95

37
54

-

44
44

1 Unduplicated total of workers receiving sick leave or sickness and accident insurance shown separately.
Sick-leave plans are limited to those which definitely establish at
minimum number of days' pay that can be expected by each employee.
Informal sick-leave allowances determined on an individual basis are excluded.
2 1 or more utilities are municipally operated and, therefore, excluded from the scope of the studies. See footnote 4 to table in appendix B.
3 Not comparable with estimate in last previous study,
t Less than 2. 5 percent.
* Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities.




least the

72
T a b le &-30i Health, insura nc e , and p ensio n p la n s - w h o le sa le tra d e
(P e rc e n t of office and plant w o r k e r s em ployed in w h o lesale trade establish m en ts with fo rm a l p ro v isio n s other than le g a lly re q u ire d by type of plan in 17 la b o r m ark ets,
Insurance plans
A rea
L ife

A ccid en tal
death and
d is m e m ­
berm en t

H o sp ita li­
zation

S u rgical

M e d ic a l

Cata strophe

Sickness and accident insurance
and/ o r sick leave
Sick leave
Sick leave
Sickness
(fu ll pay and (p a rtia l pay
T otal 1
and accident
no w aiting
o r waiting
insurance
p e rio d )
p e rio d )

1956-57)

No health,
in suran ce,
or pension
plan

R etirem ent
pension
plan

Office workers
Northeast:
Boston ________________________________________
N ew Y o rk City
__ . .
_
_
P h ila d e lp h ia _________________________________
P ittsbu rgh
_

82
88
84
89

40
45
36
52

84
69
74
70

81
65
61
68

38
44
44
34

15
17
15
23

63
88
85
93

40
41
34
61

55
82
75
79

t

3
“

62
73
76
64

t
t

South:
Atlanta

94

66

88

86

41

19

81

43

55

10

82

-

86
84
89

48
38
52

81
57
89

79
57
89

53
27
70

18
15
14

77
56
64

44
42
49

48
30
28

3
3
5

69
58
71

13
7

96
97

54
46

86
82

83
81

61
73

27
18

72
73

36
19

59
55

3
11

60
48

t
t

.... ......

__

N o rth C en tral:
Ch icago _
C levelan d
_______ ____
M in n e a p o lis-S t. P a u l

_.

........ . _
_

West:
L o s A n g e le s -L o n g B e a c h __________________
San F ra n c is c o -O a k la n d
_____

3

6
3

t

Plant w o rk e rs
Northeast:
Boston ________________________________________
N ew Y o rk C i t y ...............................................
P h ila d e lp h ia _________________________________
P ittsbu rgh ____________ _______ _______________

84
95
85
86

36
61
35
48

74
78
76
72

76
76
68
69

38
48
36
37

5
8
3
19

67
90
82
82

44
56
58
64

40
65
23
25

14
9
7
6

57
76
44
63

7
13

South:
Atlanta ________________________________________

94

59

85

83

30

10

69

45

22

9

56

t

N orth C en tral:
Chicago
_ _ ____
__________
C levelan d ____________________________________
M in n eap o lis-S t. P a u l ______________________

88
86
97

51
30
69

79
66
99

78
66
99

53
25
70

7
27
5

74
73
87

57
42
77

19
39
23

6
6
4

56
57
63

6
9
■

West:
L o s A n g e le s -L o n g B each _________________
San F ra n c is c o -O a k la n d ____________________

89
100

46
64

88
83

88
81

74
78

9
16

67
77

40
3

34
18

16
57

52
72

r

1 Unduplicated total of w o r k e r s re c e iv in g sick leav e o r sickn ess and accident insurance shown se p arately .
S ic k -le a v e plans a re lim ited to those which
m inim um num ber of days* pay that can be expected by each em ployee.
In fo rm al sic k -le a v e allo w an ces determ ined on an individual b a s is a r e excluded.
| L e s s than 2 .5 percen t.




definitely esta b lish

5
-

at

least

the

73
Table B-31: Health, insurance, and pensio n p la ns - re ta il tra d e
(P e rc e n t of office and plant w o r k e r s em ployed in re ta il trade establish m en ts with fo rm a l p rovision s other than le g a lly re q u ire d by type of plan in 17 la b o r m ark ets,
Insurance plans
A rea
L ife

A ccid en tal
death and
d ism e m ­
berm ent

H o sp ita li­
zation

Surgical

M e d ic a l

Catastrophe

Sickness and accident insurance
and/or sick leave
Sick leave
Sick leave
Sickness
(fu ll pay and (p a rtia l pay
T otal 1
and accident
no waiting
o r waiting
insurance
p e rio d )
p e rio d )

1956-57)

R etirem ent
pension
plan

No health,
insurance,
or pension
plan

Office iworkers
Northeast:
Boston
N ew Y o rk C it y 2
P h ila d e lp h ia 2 _
P ittsb u rg h
_

_

86
79
95
98

44
32
18
72

53
88
77
82

50
86
76
80

23
56
26
15

3
19
31
12

83
88
88
99

65
42
37
69

33
41
29
33

23
22
36
14

52
54
70
37

South:
Atlanta ________________________________________
D a lla s _________________________________________

93
89

34
65

88
78

85
73

3
59

37
43

72
64

8
20

12
16

54
40

82
58

4

North C en tral:
Ch icago _______________________________________
M in n e a p o lis-S t. P a u l
.... _ _ _ _

91
64

36
30

95
48

90
48

22
30

42
15

94
74

33
30

7
35

60
14

72
42

20

W est:
P o rtla n d
__
___
San F ra n c is c o -O a k la n d
__
.
_ .
Seattle ________________________________________

59
79
97

50
39
66

74
82
96

74
87
96

47
84
63

9
12
35

59
48
97

41
28
65

17
19
7

9
16
31

49
30
64

73
64
60
77

23
29
21
26

11
6
14
4

54
60
58
31

t
t

__

.
_ _
....... .

___

t

t

f

7
7

Plant workers
Northeast:
Boston
........... ..
N ew Y o rk City 2 _____________________________
P h iladelph ia 2 ..................... .............. ...........
Pittsbu rgh
_________________________________

88
84
94
93

48
37
36
71

55
94
71
82

52
94
70
81

23
62
31
28

t

39

4
6
3

85

South:
A t la n t a ............. ............ ..................................
D a lla s

90
79

49
52

79
71

77
66

5
45

17
25

59
43

18
21

11
12

32
20

60
44

5
9

N orth C en tral:
Ch icago _______________________________________
M in n eap o lis-S t. P a u l ______________________

78
77

29
48

90
60

84
60

45
44

17
4

76
80

46
50

24

t

34
6

50
41

3
11

West:
P o r t la n d ___________________ __________ ________
San F ra n c is c o -O a k la n d ____________________
Seattle _______________ ________________________

44
86
100

39
29
91

70
94
98

70
94
98

53
93
89

14
13
21

52
50
94

42
31
85

10
17
8

10
15
9

42
40
53

12

82

9
3

1 Unduplicated total of w o r k e r s receivin g sick leave o r sickness and accident insurance shown sep arately .
S ic k -le a v e plans are lim ited to those which
m inim um num ber of days* pay that can be expected by each em ployee.
In fo rm al s ic k -le a v e allow an ces determ ined on an individual b a s is a re excluded.
2 E xcludes lim ite d -p ric e v ariety sto res,
t L e s s than 2. 5 percent.




definitely establish at

-

7

t

least

the

74
Tn k U

B - 3 2 ' H e a lth , insura nc e , and pension pla ns - fina nc e **

(P e rcent of office w o rk e rs em ployed in finance establish m en ts with fo rm a l provision s other than le g a lly re q u ire d by type of plan in 17 la b o r m ark ets, 1956-57)
Insurance plans
A rea
L ife

A cciden tal
death and
d ism e m ­
berm ent

H o sp ita li­
zation

S u rg ic a l

M edical

Catastrophe

Sickness and accident insurance
and/or sick leave
Sick leave
Sick leave
Sickness
(fu ll pay and (p a rtia l pay
and accident
T o t a l1
no waiting
o r w aiting
insurance
p eriod)
period)

R etirem e nt
pension
plan

N o health,
in suran ce,
or pension
plan

Office workers
N o rth e a st:
B o s t o n _______________________________________
N e w Y o rk C i t y ______________________________
P h ilad elp h ia __ ______________________________
P it t s b u r g h ___________________________________

96
98
96
92

45
38
25
41

90
85
62
49

90
79
38
46

46
55
24
12

33
42
22
8

55
91
79
91

24
29
3
6

53
86
78
91

South:
A tlanta _______________________________________
D a lla s ________________________________________

100
83

55
36

88
84

85
77

55
67

54
22

58
57

33
15

53
41

N orth C e n tra l:
C h icago ______________________________________
C le v e la n d ____________________________________
M in n eap olis-S t. P a u l -------------------------------

98
94
97

38
59
45

83
80
87

86
48
85

70
15
82

41
10
12

62
22
50

28
6
15

48
20
47

t
-

95
100

46
37

92
86

92
86

77
63

29
34

69
80

23
41

63
59

W e s t:
L o s A n g e le s -L o n g B e a c h -----------------------San F r anc is c o - O a k la n d ------------------------ —

89
87
87
90

t
3

91
59

9

-

75
83
96

t
t
3

t
3

89
88

-

3
_

4

1 Unduplicated total of w o rk e rs rec e iv in g sick leave or sickn ess and accident insurance shown se p arately .
S ic k -le a v e plans are lim ited to those which definitely
m inim um n um ber of d a y s1 pay that can be expected by each em ployee. In form al sick -leave allow an ces determ ined on an individual b a sis a r e excluded,
t L e s s than 2. 5 percent.
* * Fin an ce, in su ran ce, and r e a l estate.

T a b le B - 3 3 :

Insurance plans

L ife

A cciden tal
death and
d ism e m ­
berm ent

at

le a st

t e

H e a lth , insurance* and pensio n p la n s - services

(P e rc e n t of office and plant w o rk e rs em ployed in s e rv ic e s establishm ents with fo rm a l provision s other than le g a lly re q u ire d by type of plan in 17 la b o r m ark ets,

A rea

e sta b lish

-

H o sp ita li­
zation

S u rg ic a l

M edical

C atastrophe

Sickness and accident insurance
and/or sick leave
Sick leave
Sick leav e
Sickness
(fu ll pay and (p a rtia l pay
T o t a l1
and accident
or waiting
no waiting
insurance
period)
period)

1956-57)

R etirem ent
pension
plan

N o health,
insu ran ce,
or pension
plan

t

Office workers
N orth east:
Boston
„ _____________________ „ __ ___
N e w Y o rk C ity
_______________________ _
P h ilad elp h ia _____ - _________
__________

60
88
72

13
44
19

46
63
69

40
63
56

36
47
51

75
98
68

24
33
20

45
85
62

10

14
-

-

56
58
32

N o rth C en tral:
C h icago __________

_

74

24

68

67

42

5

49

23

28

4

42

6

_ _______

93

57

83

83

75

26

49

14

39

■

56

4

12
22
21

4
4

t

8
75
4

t

_ __ __

W est:
L o s A n g e le s -L o n g B each 2.

__

__ __

t

-

7

Plant workers
N orth east:
B o s t o n ____ _____ __ _________ ____ ____
N e w Y o rk C ity ________ _________________ .
P h ilad elp h ia ___ _____
______________

82
89
94

68
54
71

80
82
75

51
82
53

28
63
66

t
-

84
81
64

69
71
55

N o rth C e n tra l:
C h i c a g o __ ______

84

30

85

83

73

t

78

74

11

t

25

9

7

13

7

34

13

_ _____________________

W est:
L o s A n g e le s -L o n g B e a c h 2 __

83

53

80

80

71

-

4

19

1 Unduplicated total of w o rk e rs re c eiv in g sick le a v e or sickness and accident insurance shown sep arately .
S ick -leave plans are lim ited
m inim um num ber of d a y s ’ pay that can be expected by each em ployee. In fo rm al sic k -le a v e allow an ces determ ined on an individual b a sis a re excluded.
2 E xcludes m otion-picture production and a llie d se rv ic e s ; data fo r these indu stries are included, h ow ever, in " a l l in d u s trie s ."
t L e s s than 2. 5 percent.




to those which

definitely

t

8

esta b lish at le a st

the

75

Appendix A: Occupational Earnings - Milwaukee and St. Louis
(A v e ra g e hourly earnings

fo r selected plant occupations studied in m anufacturing and public utilities in M ilw aukee and St. L o u is 2)

M ilw aukee

St. L o u is

M ilw aukee

Occupation 3
M anufacturing

M anufacturing

P u b lic utilitie s *

M aintenance and powerplant
C a rp e n te rs
. ...
E le c tric ia n s _________________________________________
E n g in e e rs, s t a t io n a r y _____________________________
F ire m e n , stationary b o ile r
. .
__ __
H e lp e rs , tra d e s
M a c h in e -to o l o p e ra to rs , toolroom _____________
M ach in ists
_ _
.
.
.
_
M ech an ics
_ __
_ _
...
_ ....
M ech an ics, autom otive
........
....
M illw rig h ts
O ile r s
_ _ ___ ___
__
P a in te rs
P i p e f i t t e r s ___________________________________________
S h eet-m etal w o rk e rs ______________________________
T ool and die m a k e rs
. _
. ..

St. L o u is

Occupation 3
M anufacturing

M anufacturing

P u b lic u tilitie s *

$ 1.78
1.58
1.99
1.99
1.97
1.66
2. 12
1.96

$ 1.67
1.41
1.81
1.80
1.82
1.41
2. 34
2.23

$ 1.67
1.47
1.99
-

Custodial, warehousing, and shipping
$ 2 .4 8
2.61
2. 51
2. 13
1.95
2.54
2.75
2.43
2. 50
2.46
2 .20
2.43
2. 57
2.61
2.82

$ 2 .5 4
2.63
2.65
2. 33
2. 17
2.55
2 .7 0
2.43
2.4 5
2 .6 0
2.22
2.52
2.63
2.60
2.83

_
$2 .5 1
2. 31
_

-

Janitors, p o rte rs ,
and c le a n e rs ( m e n ) _____
J an itors, p o rte rs , and cle a n e rs (w o m e n )___
L a b o r e r s , m a te ria l handling ___________________
O rd e r fille r s ______________________________________
P a r k e r s , s hip pin g (m e n )
P a c k e r s , shipping (w om en ) ___________________
T r u c k d r iv e r s 4
Light (under 1 y? tons)
M edium
to and
in c lu d in g 4 tons)
H eavy (o v e r 4 tons,
t r a ile r type)
T ru c k e rs , p ow er (fo rk lift)
____________________
T ru c k e rs , p ow er (other than
fo rk lift) .
...
. .
_ _

-

2.25

2.09

2. 38

2. 18

2.34
2. 08

2. 36
1.99

2.29

2. 03

1.93

1 E xclu d es prem iu m pay fo r overtim e and fo r w o rk on w eekends, holid ays, and late shifts.
Data relate to A p r il 1957 (M ilw au k ee) and F e b ru a ry 1957 (St. L o u is ). Inform ation, ba se d on telephone in qu iries by B u reau re p re se n ta tiv e s, w a s lim ited to straigh t-tim e h ourly earn in gs in
selected plant w o rk e r occupations in the m anufacturing and public utilities establish m en ts included in the fu ll-s c a le su rv ey s conducted in the w in ter of 1955-56 in these a r e a s .
3 Data lim ited to m en w o r k e r s except w h ere otherw ise indicated.
4 Includes a ll d r iv e r s , r e g a r d le s s of size and type of truck operated.
* T ran sp ortation (excluding r a ilr o a d s ), com m unication, and other public u tilities.
NOTE:




D a sh es indicate no data o r insufficient data to w a rra n t presentation.

76

Appendix B : Scope and Method of Survey 1
9
Industry and Establishment Limitations

Occupational Earnings

The area survey data are obtained by personal visits of Bureau
field agents 2 to representative establishments within six broad indus­
0
try divisions: ( l ) Manufacturing; (2) transportation (excluding r a il­
roads), communication, and other public utilities; (3) wholesale trade;
(4) retail trade; (5) finance, insurance, and real estate; and (6) s e ­
lected services.
Excluded from the scope of the studies, besides
railroads, are government institutions 2 and the construction and
1
extractive industries.

W orkers are classified by occupation on the basis of uniform
job descriptions designed to take account of minor inter establishment
variation in duties within the same job; these job descriptions are
listed in appendix B.

The scope of the studies is further lim ited within each of the
six m ajor industry groupings to establishments which employ m ore
than a specified minimum number of w orkers, as indicated in the
following table.
Sm aller establishments are omitted because they
furnish insufficient employment in the occupations studied to warrant
inclusion.
M ore than 4, 100 establishments w ere included in the Bureau!s
sample out of m ore than 21, 000 establishments within the scope of the
studies in the 17 areas.
To obtain appropriate accuracy at minimum
cost, a greater proportion of large than of sm all establishments was
studied.
In combining the data, however, all establishments were
given their appropriate weight.
Estimates are presented, therefore,
as relating to a ll establishments in the industry grouping and area,
but not to those below the minimum size studied; an exception, however,
is the tabulation of minimum entrance rates, which relates solely to
provisions in the establishments actually visited.
1 A m ore technical description of the methodology of community
9
and other types of earnings studies is included in Studies of Occu­
pational Wages and Supplementary Benefits, Monthly Labor Review,
March 1954 (p. 292).
2 Exceptions w ere made in a few areas.
0
In a partial resurvey
of Memphis, the data w ere obtained chiefly by m ail questionnaire; and
in Minneapolis-St. Paul, chiefly by telephone inquiries of Bureau
representatives.
F u ll-scale occupational employment and earnings
information (A -tab les) was obtained in each of the industry divisions,
from the same establishments that was included in the regular fu llscale surveys made in the winter of 1955-56 in these 2 areas.
How­
ever, no data w ere requested for current establishment practices or
supplementary wage provisions (B-tables). The Memphis and Minne­
apolis-St. Paul data presented in the B-tables relate, therefore, to
the last previous surveys (winter 1955-56).
In addition to the data
fo r the 17 areas, earnings estimates are also presented (in appendix A )
fo r St. Louis (manufacturing and public u tilities) and Milwaukee (manu­
facturing).
Data w ere compiled chiefly on the basis of general wage
changes in the establishments included in the regular fu ll-sca le surveys
of 1955-56. Information was obtained chiefly by telephone.
2 See footnote 4 to the table, p* 78, fo r areas in which public
1
utilities are municipally operated and have been excluded.




A verage earnings are presented in the A -tables, beginning on
page 19.
Data are shown fo r fu ll-tim e workers; i. e ., those hired to
work a fu ll-tim e schedule fo r the given occupational classification.
Earnings data exclude premium pay fo r overtim e and nightwork, and
fo r work on weekends and holidays.
Nonproduction bonuses are ex­
cluded also, but co st-of-livin g bonuses and incentive earnings are
included.
A verage weekly earnings for office clerica l, professional,
and technical occupations relate to the standard salaries that are paid
for standard work schedules; i. e. , to the straight-tim e salary c o rr e ­
sponding to the w ork ers1 normal weekly work schedule excluding all
overtim e hours.
W eekly earnings have been rounded to the nearest
half dollar.
Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions
Information is presented (in the B -series tables) on selected
establishment practices and supplementary benefits as they relate to
office and plant w orkers. The term "office w orkers, " as used in these
studies, includes all office c le rica l employees and excludes admin­
istra tive, executive, professional, and technical personnel.
"Plant
w ork ers" include working forem en and all nonsupervisory workers
(including leadmen and trainees) engaged in nonoffice functions. Adm in­
istra tive, executive, professional, and technical em ployees, and fo rce account construction employees who are utilized as a separate work
force are excluded.
Cafeteria workers and routemen are excluded
in manufacturing industries but are included as plant workers in non­
manufacturing industries.
Minimum Entrance Rates. — Tables B-2 and B-3 relate only to
the establishments visited.
They are presented on an establishment
rather than on an employment basis.
The detailed tables in the indi­
vidual area bulletins also present data for nonmanufacturing industries
as a group; the entrance rates are also presented in terms of the most
common workweeks fo r which they w ere recorded.
Shift-D ifferential Data. — Tables B - l l and B-12 are lim ited to
manufacturing industries. This information is presented both in terms
of (a) establishment p o lic y ,2 and (b) effective practices for workers
2
actually employed on extra shifts at the time of the survey. Tabulations

2
2
An establishment was considered as having a policy if it met
either of the following conditions: ( l ) Operated late shifts at the time
of the survey, or (2) had form al provisions covering late shifts.

77

relating to establishment policy are presented in terms of total plant
worker employment; estimates in the second tabulation relate only to
those workers actually employed on the specified shift.
Labor-management agreements; scheduled hours; paid holidays;
paid vacations; and health, insurance, and pension plans are treated
statistically on the basis that these are applicable to all plant or
office workers 2 if a m ajority of such workers are eligible or may
3
eventually qualify for the practices listed. Because of rounding, sums
of items in these tabulations do not necessarily equal totals.
The summary of vacation plans is lim ited to form al arran ge­
ments, excluding inform al plans whereby time off with pay is granted
at the discretion of the em ployer.
In the tabulations of vacation
allowances by weeks of pay and years of service, payments not on a
time basis w ere converted; for example, a payment of 2 percent of
annual earnings was considered as the equivalent of 1 weekls pay.
The
pay amounts and service periods for which data are presented are
typical but do not necessarily re flect the individual provisions fo r
progressions.
F or example, the changes in proportions indicated at
10 y e a rs1 service include changes in provisions occurring between
5 and 10 years.
Furtherm ore, estimates are cumulative.
Thus, the
proportion receiving 3 or m ore w eeks1 pay after 5 years includes
those who receive 3 or m ore w eeks1 pay after few er years of service.
Data for intermediate service periods w ere not tabulated.
Data on
employer practice in computing vacation payments, such as time pay­
ments, percent of annual earnings, or flat-sum amounts, are available
in the individual area bulletins.
These bulletins also present, for
selected industry divisions, the predominant pay amount corresponding
to each selected service period.

social security (tables B-2 7 to B-33).
Such plans include those under­
written by a com m ercial insurance company and those provided through
a union fund or paid directly by the em ployer out of current operating
funds or from a fund set aside fo r this purpose. Death benefits are
included as a form of life insurance.
Sickness and accident insurance is lim ited to that type of
insurance under which predetermined cash payments are made directly
to the insured on a weekly or monthly basis during illness or accident
disability.
Information is presented for a ll such plans to which the
em ployer contributes.
However, in New York and New Jersey, which
have enacted tem porary disability insurance laws which require em ­
ployer contributions,2 plans are included only if the em ployer ( l ) con­
4
tributes m ore than is legally required, or (2) provides the employee
with benefits which exceed the requirements of the law. Tabulations
of paid sick-leave plans are lim ited to form al plans which provide
full pay or a proportion of the w o rk er^ pay during absence from
work because of illness. Separate tabulations are provided according
to ( l ) plans which provide full pay and no waiting period, and (2) plans
providing either partial pay or a waiting period.
Sick-leave plans
include only those which definitely establish at least the minimum
number of daysT pay that can be expected by each employee. Inform al
sick-leave allowances determined on an individual basis are excluded.
In addition to the presentation of the proportions of workers who are
provided sickness and accident insurance or paid sick leave, an un­
duplicated total is shown of workers who receive either or both types
of benefit.

Catastrophe insurance, sometimes re ferred to as extended
m edical insurance, includes those plans which are designed to protect
employees in case of sickness and injury involving expenses beyond
the normal coverage of hospitalization, m edical, and surgical plans.
Medical insurance refers to plans providing for complete or partial
Data are presented fo r all health, insurance, and pension plans
payment of doctors1 fees.
Such plans may be underwritten by com ­
for which at least a part of the cost is borne by the em ployer, exm ercia l insurance companies or nonprofit organizations or they may
cepting only legal requirements such as workm en^ compensation and
be self-insured.
Tabulations of retirem ent plans are lim ited to
those plans that provide monthly payments for the remainder of the
2
3
Scheduled weekly hours for office workers (first section w ork er’ s life.
of
tables B-4 to B-10) are presented in terms of the proportion of women
office workers employed in offices with the indicated weekly hours for
2
4
The tem porary disability laws in California and Rhode Island
women w orkers.
do not require em ployer contributions.




78
M in im u m -siz e establishm ent and estim ated n u m ber of w o rk e rs in establishm ents within scope of su rv e y by in dustry division
fo r 17 la b o r m arkets studied by the B u reau of L a b o r Statistics, w in ter 1956-67
__ __________________________ (in^thousandsl
M in im u m N u m b er of w o rk e rs in establishm ents within scope of studies 2
P a y r o ll
size
e sta b lish ­
p erio d
A ll industrie s
M anufacturin
Nonm an ufacturing^
O ffice
ment
Total
Plant
Total
O ffice
Plan t
Total
O ffice
P lan t

Labor m a rk et1

N o rth east:
B o s t o n _________________________

P h ilad elp h ia __________________
P it t s b u r g h _____________________
South:
Atlanta ___ ___________________
D a lla s _________________________
N o rth C e n tra l:
C h icago _______________________
C le v e la n d _____________________

W est:
L o s A n g e le s -L o n g B e a c h ___
P o rtlan d
San F r a n c is c o -O a k la n d _____
Seattle

Septem ber
Septem ber
A p r il 1957
N ovem ber
D ecem ber

1956
1956

51

1956
1956

Pi
(5>

Total

411.
262.
1, 394.
547.
419.

4
2
2
9
3

87.
32.
415.
91.
60.

8
1
8
3
4

250.
186.
631.
357.
301.

2
9
8
3
6

212.
188.
434.
322.
301.

3
3
0
4
1

27.
18.
85.
36.
32.

7
5
5
1
3

151.
140.
262.
233.
234.

3
6
1
1
6

199.
73.
960.
225.
118.

1
9
2
5
2

60.
13.
330.
55.
28.

1
6
3
2
1

98.9
46. 3
369. 7
124. 2
67. 0

3 2.
18.
195.
52.
30.

6
9
8
9
9

P u b lic utilitie s 4
O ff ic e
P lan t
6.
2.
41.
9.
5.

6
6
7
0
8

20.
11.
85.
33.
18.

2
3
6
5
9

4.9
1. 6
5. 3
1.0

11.
4.
10.
4.

3
2
7
6

A p r il 1957
January 1957
O ctober 1956
F e b r u a r y 1957

51
51
51
51

164.
101.
160.
80.

6
5
2
3

34.
14.
33.
11.

4
5
1
1

102.
71.
95.
56.

0
7
5
8

75.
68.
71.
39.

5
1
7
7

7.
6.
7.
3.

9
7
8
1

56.
53.
48.
31.

3
1
9
7

89.
33.
88.
40.

1
4
5
6

26.
7.
25.
8.

5
8
3
0

45.
18.
46.
25.

7
6
6
1

21.
8.
20.
7.

7
0
4
1

A p r il 1957
O ctober 1956
D e c e m b e r 1956
M a rc h 1957

(5)
( 5)
51
51

1, 130. 8
361.9
176. 8
227. 3

235.
54.
33.
46.

8
0
4
6

708.
239.
112.
140.

4
7
6
9

657. 0
258. 5
85. 8
113.2

96.
32.
9.
16.

3
9
0
2

472.
187.
64.
77.

9
7
7
2

473.
103.
91.
114.

8
4
0
1

139.
21.
24.
30.

5
1
4
4

235.
52.
47.
63.

5
0
9
7

90.
30.
23.
25.

6
8
8
8

24.
4.
5.
4.

1
7
2
5

46.
12.
12.
16.

6
1
4
4

M a rc h 1957
A p r il 1957
January 1957
A ugust 1956

( 5)
51
( 5)
51

973. 5
99.4
326. 3
141.8

204.
17.
82.
29.

8
3
1
0

592.
65.
183.
87.

2
4
6
5

604.
47.
132.
75.

9
7
8
2

101. 5
3.9
22. 4
12. 3

396.
36.
91.
50.

8
9
3
2

368.
51.
193.
66.

6
7
5
6

103.
12.
59.
16.

3
4
7
7

195.
28.
92.
37.

4
5
3
3

80.
15.
57.
15.

5
0
4
5

16.
2.
9.
2.

9
9
0
6

48.
8.
32.
7.

5
2
2
4

Plan t

Total

R etail trade 6
O ffice

9. 3
T
33. 9
12. 4
6. 5

65.
30.
190.
74.
38.

5
5
6
4
1

27. 6
9. 6
3. 3

137. 3
57. 0
31. 3

27.
12.
29.
13.

1
0
0
9

3. 7
t
3. 4
t

20. 1

Total
N o rth east:
B o s t o n ___________________________
B u ffalo ___ ____________________
N ew Y o rk C ity ________________
P h ilad elp h ia
P it t s b u r g h ______________________
South:
Atlanta __________ _____________
B irm in g h a m ____ _____ ___ ____
D a lla s ________ _________ ______
M em phis
__
_
N o rth C e n tra l:
C h icago
C le v e la n d ____ __ __ _____ __
K ansas C ity
M inneapolis-St. P a u l
______
W «ef.
w est.
L o s A n g e le s -L o n g B each ____
P o rtla n d ________________________
San F ra n c is co-O akland _______
S e a t t le ___________ ____________ —

_ .

.

25. 3
7. 5
133. 1

.
_
28. 5

16

. 6

W h o le sa le trade
O ffice
7.9

t
53.9
7. 9
5. 1

9
8
3
7

5. 8
t
t
f

7. 7

25. 1
18. 6

40. 8
4. 9

17. 1

5.9

136. 3
8. 5
t
6. 8

60. 0

18. 7

25. 9

16.
4.
11.
8.
85. 3
16. 2

__________

t

8. 8
31. 7
9. 1

t

t
i'
i

t

9. 7

13. 5

t

t

24. 2
25. 2
31. 5
42. 1
84.
17.
43.
24.

2
1
5
6

7. 8
t

97. 4
t

t
5. 5

Finance 7
Total
O ff ic e

Total

45.
7.
247.
42.
16.

7
8
0
6
8

30.
9.
193.
27.
15.

22. 6
f

14.
5.
16.
4.

1
0
9
0

t
f
32. 0

81. 1
14. 9
10. 6
18.4

51. 1
8. 0

63.
6.
39.
10.

45. 7

P lan t
51. 8
t

t

t

t

2. 0
6. 0
3. 1

13. 2
32. 6
18. 7

5
8
1
3

32. 2
t

163. 4
24. 8
10. 1
9. 8

t
11.4

t

t

13. 3

t
30. 8

t

0
2
7
1
8

9. 3
3. 6
10. 9
6.9

S e rv ic e s 8
O ffice
5. 6

Plant
15. 3

t

t

43. 7
3. 9

91. 2
18. 3

t

t

t
t

t
t
t
t

t

t

80. 5
13.9
8. 9
10. 7

15. 0
T

t
t

t
t
t

9 58.4
4. 0
21. 8
7. 1

11.0

32. 0

t
t
t

t
t
t

42. 1

1 Standard m etropolitan a r e a s , with the follo w in g exceptions: N ew Y o rk C ity A r e a (B ro n x , N ew Y o rk , K ings, Q ueens, and Richm ond Counties); P h ilad elp h ia A r e a (P h ilad elp h ia and D e la w a re
C ounties, P a . ; and C am den County, N. J . ); C h icago A r e a (C ook County).
2 Totals include executive, technical, p ro fe ssio n a l, and other w o rk e rs excluded fro m the sep arate office and plant c a te g o rie s.
3 Includes data fo r 5 b ro a d nonm anufacturing industry groups shown sep arately .
4 T ran sp o rtatio n (excluding r a i lr o a d s ), com m unication, and other public u tilities.
T a xicabs and se rv ic e s incidental to w ater transportation a re a lso excluded, as a re m unicipally operated
establish m en ts. A ll o r m a jo r lo c a l tran sit operations in Boston, C h icago, C le v e la n d , N ew York C ity, San F ra n c is c o , and Seattle w e re m unicipally operated, as w e re ele c tric utility operations in L o s
A n g e le s and Seattle, and ele c tric and gas operations in M em phis.
5 M in im u m -size establish m en t (in term s of em ploym ent) w as 51 w o rk e rs in the w h olesale trade, finance, and s e rv ic e s industry groups; and 101 in the m anufacturing, public u tilities, and re ta il
trad e.
6 E stim ates fo r N e w Y o rk C ity and P h ilad elp h ia exclude lim ite d -p ric e va rie ty sto re s ; those fo r C le v e la n d and L o s A n g e le s -L o n g B each, departm ent s to re s. In each instance, h ow ever, the
re m a in d e r of re ta il trade is ap p ro p ria te ly re p re se n te d in the A - and B -tab le estim ates fo r a ll industries com bined, and w h ere presen ted, nonm anufacturing.
7 Fin an ce, in su ran ce, and r e a l estate. D ata fo r nonoffice (plant) w o rk e rs in finance and insurance establishm ents a re excluded fro m the total, as w e ll as fro m the B -table estim ates for a ll
in du stries com bined, and nonm anufacturing. D ata fo r plant w o rk e rs in re a l estate, not presented se p arately , h o w ev er, a re included.
8 H otels; p erso n a l s e rv ic e s ; b u sin ess s e rv ic e s ; autom obile r e p a ir shops; rad io broad castin g and television ; motion p ictu res; nonprofit m em bersh ip o rgan ization s; and engineering and
arch ite c tu ra l s e r v ic e s .
9 E xclu des data fo r m otion-picture production and a llie d s e r v ic e s ; data fo r these industries a re included, h ow ever, in " a l l in d u strie s" and "n o n m an u factu rin g."
f This industry division is re p resen ted in estim ates for " a l l in d u strie s" and "nonm anufacturing" although c o v e ra g e was insufficient to ju stify sep arate presentation of data.




NOTE:

The "w o r k e r s within scope of study" estim ates shown in this table provide a re a so n a b ly accurate
of the la b o r fo rc e included in the su rv e y s. The estim ates a re not intended, h o w ev er, to s e rv e as
em ploym ent indexes to m easu re em ploym ent trends o r le v e ls since (1) planning of w age su rv ey s
com piled co n sid e ra b ly in advance of the pay p erio d studied, and (2) s m a ll establishm ents a r e

descrip tion of the siz e and com position
a b a sis of com p arison with other a re a
re q u ire s the use of establish m en t data
excluded fro m the scope of the study.

79

Appendix C: Occupational Descriptions

The prim ary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau*s wage surveys is to
assist its field staff in classifying into appropriate occupations w orkers who are employed under
a variety of payroll titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment
and from area to area.
This is essential in order to perm it the grouping of occupational wage
^•ates representing comparable job content.
Because of this emphasis on inter establishment and
interarea comparability of occupational content, the Bureau*s job descriptions may d iffer sign ifi­
cantly^ from those in use in individual establishments or those prepared for other purposes.
In
applying these job descriptions, the Bureau*s field representatives are instructed to exclude work­
ing supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped workers, part-tim e,
tem porary, and probationary w orkers.
Office

B ILLE R , MACHINE
Prepares statements, bills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electrom atic typew riter. May also keep records
as to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerica l work in­
cidental to billing operations.
F o r wage study purposes, b illers,
machine, are classified by type of machine, as follows:
B ille r, machine (billing machine) - Uses a special billing
machine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, e t c ., which
are combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and
invoices from customers* purchase orders, internally prepared
orders, shipping memoranda, etc.
Usually involves application
of predeterm ined discounts and shipping charges and entry of
necessary extensions, which may or may not be computed on the
billing machine, and totals which are automatically accumulated
by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number of
carbon copies of the bill being prepared and is often done on a
fanfold machine.
B ille r, machine (bookkeeping machine) - Uses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, e t c ., which
may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare customers*
bills as part of the accounts receivable operation.
Generally
involves the simultaneous entry of figures on customers* ledger
record.
The machine automatically accumulates figures on a
number of vertical columns and computes and usually prints auto­
m atically the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowl­
edge of bookkeeping. Works from uniform and standard types of
sales and credit slips.
BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR
Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott
Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash R egister, with or with­
out a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions.




BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATO R - Continued
Class A - Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge of
and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and fam iliarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used.
D eter­
mines proper records and distribution of debit and credit items
to be used in each phase of the work.
May prepare consolidated
reports, balance sheets, and other records by hand.
Class B - Keeps a record of one or more phases or sections
of a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic book­
keeping.
Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll,
customers* accounts (not including a simple type of billing described
under b iller, machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, etc.
May check or assist in preparation of tria l
balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department.
CLE RK, ACCOUNTING
Class A - Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has responsibility for keeping one or more sections of a com­
plete set of books or records relating to one phase of an establish­
m en ts business transactions. Work involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or ac­
counts payable; examining and coding invoices or vouchers with
proper accounting distribution; requires judgment and experience
in making proper assignations and allocations.
May assist in
preparing, adjusting, and closing journal entries; may direct class
B accounting clerks.
Class B - Under supervision, perform s one or more routine
accounting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers,
accounts payable vouchers; entering vouchers in voucher registers;
reconciling bank accounts; posting subsidiary ledgers controlled
by general ledgers.
This job does not require a knowledge of
accounting and bookkeeping principles but is found in offices in
which the more routine accounting work is subdivided on a func­
tional basis among several workers.

80
CLERK,

F IL E

Class A - Responsible for maintaining an established filing
system. C lassifies and indexes correspondence or other m aterial;
may also file this m aterial. May keep records of various types
in conjunction with files or supervise others in filin g and locating
m aterial in the files .
May perform incidental clerica l duties.
Class B - P erfo rm s routine filing, usually of m aterial that
has already been classified, or locates or assists in locating ma­
teria l in the files . May perform incidental clerica l duties.
CLE RK, ORDER
R eceives customers* orders for m aterial or merchandise by
m ail, phone, or personally.
Duties involve any combination of the
follow ing; Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet
listing the items to make up the order; checking prices and quantities
of items on order sheet; distributing order sheets to respective de­
partments to be filled .
May check with credit department to deter­
mine credit rating of customer, acknowledge receipt of orders from
customers, follow up orders to see that they have been filled , keep
file of orders received, and check shipping invoices with original
orders.
C LE RK,

KEY-PU N C H OPERATOR
Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
b ilities, records accounting and statistical data on tabulating cards
by punching a series of holes in the cards in a specified sequence,
using an alphabetical or a numerical key-punch machine, following
written information on records.
May duplicate cards by using the
duplicating device attached to machine.
Keeps files of punch cards.
May verify own work or work of others.
OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
P erfo rm s various routine duties such as running errands,
operating minor office machines such as sealers or m ailers, opening
and distributing mail, and other minor c lerica l work.
SECRETARY
P erfo rm s secretarial and clerica l duties fo r a superior in an
administrative or executive position. Duties include making appoint­
ments for superior; receiving people coming into office; answering
and making phone calls; handling personal and important or confi­
dential m ail, and writing routine correspondence on own initiative;
taking dictation (where transcribing machine is not used) either in
shorthand or by stenotype or sim ilar machine, and transcribing dicta­
tion or the recorded information reproduced on a transcribing machine.
May prepare special reports or memoranda for information of superior.

PAYRO LL
STENOGRAPHER, G ENERAL

Computes wages of company employees and enters the neces­
sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve; Calculating workers*
earnings based on time or production records; posting calculated data
on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker*s name, working
days, tim e, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. May
make out pay checks and assist paymaster in making up and d is­
tributing pay envelopes.
May use a calculating machine.

P rim a ry duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by stenotype or sim ilar machine, involving a
normal routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this dictation on a type­
w riter. May also type from written copy. May also set up and keep
files in order, keep simple records, etc.
Does not include tran­
scribing-machine work (see transcribing- machine operator).

COM PTOM ETER OPERATO R

STENOGRAPHER,

P rim a ry duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathe­
matical computations.
This job is not to be confused with that of
statistical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of
a Comptometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to
perform ance of other duties.

P rim a ry duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by stenotype or sim ilar machine, involving a
varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or
reports on scientific research and to transcribe this dictation on a
typew riter. May also type from written copy. May also set up and
keep files in order, keep simple records, etc.
Does not include
transcribing-machine w ork.

TEC H NICAL

DUPLICATING-M ACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)
SWITCHBOARD O PERATOR
Under general supervision and with no supervisory respon­
sibilities, reproduces multiple copies of typewritten or handwritten
matter, using a mimeograph or ditto machine. Makes necessary ad­
justment such as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed.
Is not required to prepare stencil or ditto master. May keep file of
used stencils or ditto masters.
May sort, collate, and staple com­
pleted material.




Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard.
Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or office
calls.
May record toll calls and take messages.
May give infor­
mation to persons who call in, or occasionally take telephone orders.
For workers who also act as receptionists see switchboard operatorreceptionist.

81
SWITCHBOARD O PER ATO R-REC EPTIO NIST
tion
type
This
time

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE O PERATOR, GENERAL, - Continued

In addition to perform ing duties of operator, on a single posi­
or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may also
or perform routine clerica l work as part of regular duties.
typing or clerica l work may take the m ajor part of this worker*s
while at switchboard.

TA BU LATING -M ACH INE O PERATOR
Operates machine that automatically analyzes and translates
information punched in groups of tabulating cards and prints trans­
lated data on form s or accounting records; sets or adjusts machine;
does simple wiring of plugboards according to established practice
or diagrams; places cards to be tabulated in feed magazine and starts
machine. May file cards after they are tabulated. May, in addition,
operate auxiliary machines.
TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR,

included. A worker who takes dictation in shorthand or by stenotype
or sim ilar machine^ is classified as a stenographer, general.
TY PIS T
Uses a typew riter to make copies of various m aterial or to
make out bills after calculations have been made by another person.
May do clerica l work involving little special training, such as keep­
ing simple records, filing records and reports or sorting and d is­
tributing incoming m ail.
Class A - P erform s one or m ore of the follow ing; Typing
m aterial in final form from very rough and involved draft; copy­
ing from plain or corrected copy in which there is a frequent
and varied use of technical and unusual words or from foreignlanguage copy; combining m aterial from several sources, or
planning layout of complicated statistical tables to maintain uni­
form ity and balance in spacing; typing tables from rough draft in
final form .
May type routine form letters, varying details to
suit circumstances.

G ENERAL

Prim a ry duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal
routine vocabulary from transcribing machine records.
May also
type from written copy and do simple clerica l work. W orkers tran­
scribing dictation involving a varied technical or specialized vocabu­
lary such as legal briefs or reports on scientific research are not

Professional

DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR
(Assistant draftsman)
Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by drafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing pur­
poses. Uses various types of drafting tools as required. May p r e ­
pare drawings from simple plans or sketches, or perform other duties
under direction of a draftsman.
DRAFTSM AN,

LEADER

Plans and directs activities of one or more draftsmen in
preparation of working plans and detail drawings from rough or p re ­
lim inary sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing
purposes. Duties involve a combination of the follow ing: Interpreting
blueprints, sketches, and written or verbal orders; determining work
procedures; assigning duties to subordinates and inspecting their work;
perform ing m ore difficult problems. May assist subordinates during




Class B - P erfo rm s one or m ore of the follow ing: Typing
from relatively clear or typed drafts; routine typing of form s,
insurance policies, etc. ; setting up simple standard tabulations, or
copying more complex tables already set up and spaced properly.

a nd

Technical

DRAFTSMAN,

LEADER - Continued

em ergencies or as a regular assignment, or perform related duties
of a supervisory or administrative nature.
DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR
P repares working plans and detail drawings from notes,
rough or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manu­
facturing purposes.
Duties involve a combination of the follow ing:
Preparing working plans, detail drawings, maps, cross-sections, etc.,
to scale by use of drafting instruments; making engineering computa­
tions such as those involved in strength of m aterials, beams and
trusses; verifyin g completed work, checking dimensions, m aterials
to be used, and quantities; writing specifications; making adjustments
or changes in drawings or specifications. May ink in lines and letters
on pencil drawings, prepare detail units of complete drawings, or
trace drawings.
Work is frequently in a specialized field such as
architectural, electrical, mechanical, or structural drafting.

82
NURSE, IND USTRIAL (REGISTERED)

NURSE, INDUSTRIAL, (REGISTERED) - Continued

A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
em ployees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on
the prem ises of a factory or other establishment.
Duties involve a
combination of the follow ing: Giving firs t aid to the ill or injured;
attendingto subsequent dressing of employees* injuries; keeping records
of patients treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or
other purposes; conducting physical examinations and health evaluations
of applicants and em ployees; and planning and carrying out program s
involving health education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant

environment, or other activities affecting the health, w elfare, and
safety of all personnel.

Maintenance

TRACER
Copies
tracing cloth or
Uses T-square,
simple drawings

and

plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing
paper over drawing and tracing with pen or pencil.
compass, and other drafting tools.
May prepare
and do simple lettering.

Powerplant

C A R PE N TE R , M AINTENANCE

ENGINEER, STATIO N AR Y

P erfo rm s the carpentry duties necessary to construct and
maintain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins,
cribs, counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings,
and trim made of wood in an establishment. Work involves most of
the follow ing: Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, draw­
ings, models, or verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter*s
handtools, portable power tools, and standard measuring instruments;
making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work;
selecting m aterials necessary for the work. In general, the work of
the maintenance carpenter requires rounded training and experience
usually acquired through-a form al apprenticeship or equivalent train ­
ing and experience.

Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or elec trica l) to sup­
ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, re fr ig e r a ­
tion, or air-conditioning.
Work involves; Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, a ir com pressors, generators, m o­
tors, turbines, ventilating and refrigeratin g equipment, steam boilers
and b o iler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; keeping a
record of operation of machinery, tem perature, and fuel consump­
tion. May also supervise these operations. Head or chief engineers
in establishments employing m ore than one engineer are excluded.

E LE C TR IC IA N , M AINTENANCE
P erfo rm s a variety of electrica l trade functions such as the
installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generating,
distribution, or utilization of elec tric energy in an establishment.
Work involves most of the follow ing: Installing or repairing any of
a variety of electrica l equipment such as generators, transform ers,
switchboards, controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units,
conduit systems, or other transm ission equipment; working from blue­
prints, drawings, layout, or other specifications; locating and diag­
nosing trouble in the electrica l system or equipment; working standard
computations relating to load requirements of wiring or electrica l
equipment; using a variety of electrician*s handtools and measuring
and testing instruments.
In general, the work of the maintenance
electrician requires rounded training and experience usually ac­
quired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.




FIREM AN, STATIO N AR Y BOILER
F ire s stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam.
Feeds fuels to fir e by hand
or operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or o il burner; checks water
and safety valves.
May clean, oil, or assist in repairing b o ilerroom equipment.
H ELPE R,

TRADES, M AINTENANCE

A ssists one or more w orkers in the skilled maintenance
trades, by perform ing specific or general duties of less er skill, such
as keeping a worker supplied with m aterials and tools; cleaning w ork­
ing area, machine, and equipment; assisting w orker by holding ma­
teria ls or tools; perform ing other unskilled tasks as directed by jo u r­
neyman. The kind ofvwork the helper is perm itted to perform varies
from trade to trade;
some trades the helper is confined to sup­
plying, lifting, and holding m aterials and tools and cleaning working
areas; and in others he is perm itted to p erform specialized machine
operations, or parts of a trade that are also perform ed by w orkers
on a full-tim e basis.

83

M A C H I N E -T O O L O P E R A T O R ,

TOOLROOM

S p e c ia lize s in the operation of one o r m o re types of machine
tools, such as jig b o r e r s , c y lin d rical o r su rface g rin d e rs , engine
lathes, o r m illin g m achines in the construction of m ach in e-sh op tools,
gauges, jig s , fix tu re s , or d ies. W ork in volves m ost of the fo llo w in g :
Planning and p e rfo rm in g d ifficult m achining operations; p ro c e s s in g
item s re q u irin g com plicated setups or a high d egre e of acc u ra cy ;
using a variety of p re c is io n m easu rin g instrum ents; selecting feeds,
speeds, tooling and operation sequence; m aking n e c e s sa ry a d ju st­
ments during operation to achieve requ isite to lera n ces o r d im ension s.
M ay be re q u ire d to reco gn ize when tools need d re s s in g , to d re s s tools,
and to select p ro p e r coolants and cutting and lu bricatin g o ils .
For
c ro s s -in d u s tr y w age study p u rp o ses, m ach in e-to o l o p e ra to rs, toolroom ,
in tool and die jobbing shops a re excluded fro m this c lassificatio n .

M A C H IN IS T ,

M E C H A N IC ,

M A IN T E N A N C E

R e p a irs m ach inery o r m ech anical equipment of an e s ta b lis h ­
ment.
W ork in volves m ost of the fo llo w in g ; E xam ining m achines
and m ech anical equipment to d iagn ose source of trouble; dism antling
o r p artly dism antling m achines and p e rfo rm in g r e p a irs that m ainly
involve the use of handtools in scrapin g and fitting p a rts; re p lacin g
broken or defective p a rts with item s obtained fro m stock; o rd e rin g the
production of a replacem ent p art by a m achine shop o r sending of
the machine to a m achine shop fo r m a jo r r e p a ir s ; p re p a rin g w ritten
specifications fo r m a jo r re p a ir s o r fo r the production of p arts o rd e re d
fro m m achine shop; re a s se m b lin g m achines; and m aking a ll n e c e s sa ry
adjustm ents fo r operation.
In gen e ra l, the w o rk of a m aintenance
m echanic re q u ire s rounded train ing and ex p erien ce usu ally acq u ire d
through a fo rm a l apprenticesh ip o r equivalent train ing and e x p erien ce .
E xcluded fro m this c la s s ific a tio n a re w o rk e rs w hose p r im a r y duties
involve setting up or adjusting m ach ines.

M A IN T E N A N C E
M IL L W R IG H T

P ro d u c e s replacem en t p arts and new p arts in m aking re p a ir s
of m etal p arts of m ech anical equipment operated in an establish m ent.
W ork in volves m ost of the fo llo w in g; Interpreting w ritten in stru c ­
tions and specification s; planning and laying out of w ork ; using a v a ­
riety of m a c h in is t s handtools and p re c is io n m easu rin g in strum ents;
setting up and operating standard machine tools; shaping of m etal
p arts to close to le ra n c e s; m aking standard shop computations r e la t ­
ing to d im ension s of w o rk , tooling, feeds and speeds of m achining;
knowledge of the w orking p ro p e rtie s of the com m on m etals; selecting
standard m a t e ria ls , p a rts, and equipment re q u ire d fo r his w ork; fitting
and a s s e m b lin g p a rts into m echanical equipment.
In gen e ra l, the
m a c h in is t s w o rk n o rm a lly re q u ire s a rounded train ing in m ach ineshop p ractice usu ally acq u ire d through a fo rm a l apprenticesh ip or
equivalent train ing and exp erien ce.

In sta lls new m achines or heavy equipment and d ism an tles and
in stalls m achines o r heavy equipment when changes in the plant la y ­
out a re re q u ire d .
W ork in volves m ost of the fo llo w in g : Planning and
laying out of the w ork ; in terpretin g bluep rin ts o r other specificatio n s;
using a variety of handtools and riggin g; m aking standard shop co m ­
putations relatin g to s tr e s s e s , strength of m a t e ria ls , and cen ters of
gravity; alining and balancing of equipm ent; selecting standard to o ls,
equipment, and p arts to be used; in stallin g and m aintaining in good
o rd e r p ow e r tra n s m is s io n equipm ent such as d riv e s and speed r e ­
d u c e rs . In gen eral, the m illw r ig h t s w o rk n o rm a lly re q u ire s a rounded
train in g and exp erien ce in the trad e ac q u ire d through a fo rm a l ap p re n ­
ticeship o r equivalent train ing and ex p erien ce.

O IL E R

M E C H A N IC , A U T O M O T IV E (M A I N T E N A N C E )

R e p a irs au tom obiles, b u s s e s , m o to rtru ck s, and tra c to rs of
an establish m ent.
W o rk in volves m ost of the fo llo w in g;
E xam in ing
autom otive equipm ent to diagnose source of tro u ble; d is a s s e m b lin g
equipm ent and p e rfo rm in g re p a ir s that involve the use of such handtools as w re n ch es, gauges, d r ills , o r s p e c ia liz e d equipment in d is ­
a s s e m b lin g o r fitting p a rts; replacin g brok en o r defective p a rts fro m
stock; grinding and adjusting v alv es; re a s s e m b lin g and in stallin g the
v ario u s a s s e m b lie s in the vehicle and m aking n e c e s s a ry adjustm ents;
alining w h ee ls, adjustin g b ra k e s and ligh ts, o r tightening body bolts.
In gen eral, the w o rk of the autom otive m echanic re q u ir e s rounded
train ing and exp erien ce usu ally acq u ire d through a fo rm a l a p p ren tice­
ship or equivalent train in g and exp erien ce.




L u b ric a t e s , with oil o r g r e a s e , the m oving p a rts o r w e a rin g
s u rfa c e s of m ech anical equipm ent of an establish m ent.

P A IN T E R ,

M A IN T E N A N C E

P a in ts and re d e c o ra te s w a lls , w oodw ork, and fix tu res of an
establish m ent.
W ork in volves the fo llo w in g : K now ledge of su rface
p e c u lia ritie s and types of paint re q u ire d fo r differen t application s;
p re p a rin g su rface fo r painting by rem oving old finish or by placin g
putty o r f i ll e r in nail holes and in te rstic e s; applying paint with spray
gun o r b ru sh .
M ay m ix c o lo rs , o ils , white lead , and other paint
in gred ien ts to obtain p ro p e r co lo r o r consistency.
In g e n eral, the
w o rk of the m aintenance painter re q u ir e s rounded train ing and e x ­
p erien ce usu ally a c q u ire d through a fo rm a l apprenticesh ip o r eq u iv a­
lent train ing and exp erien ce .

84
P IP E F IT T E R ,

M A IN T E N A N C E

S H E E T -M E T A L W O R K E R ,

In s ta lls o r r e p a ir s w a te r, steam , gas, o r other types of pipe
and pipefittings in an establish m ent. W ork in volves m ost of the fo l­
lo w in g : L ay in g out of w o rk and m easu rin g to locate position of pipe
fro m d raw in gs o r other w ritten specificatio n s; cutting vario u s sizes
of pipe to c o rr e c t lengths with ch isel and h am m er o r oxyacetylene
torch o r p ip e-cu ttin g m achine; threading pipe with stocks and dies;
bending pipe by h an d -d riv en or p o w e r -d r iv e n m ach ines; assem b lin g
pipe with couplings and fastening pipe to h an gers; m aking standard
shop com putations relatin g to p r e s s u r e s , flow , and size of pipe r e ­
q uired; m aking standard tests to d eterm ine w hether finished p ipes m eet
specificatio n s.
In ge n e ra l, the w o rk of the m aintenance p ip efitter
re q u ir e s rounded train ing and exp erien ce u su ally a c q u ire d through a
fo rm a l ap pren ticesh ip o r equivalent train ing and e xp erien ce . W o rk ers
p r im a r ily engaged in in stallin g and re p a irin g building sanitation or
heating system s a r e exclu d ed .
PLUM BER,

M A IN T E N A N C E

K eep s the plum bing system of an establish m ent in good o rd e r.
W ork in volves: Know ledge of sanitary codes re g a rd in g in stallation of
vents and trap s in plum bing system ; in stallin g o r re p a irin g pipes and
fix tu res; opening clo gged d rain s with a p lu n ger o r p lu m ber*s snake.
In gen e ra l, the w o rk of the m aintenance p lu m b er re q u ir e s rounded
train in g and exp erien ce u su ally acq u ire d through a fo rm a l a p p ren tice­
ship o r equivalent train in g and exp erien ce.
S H E E T -M E T A L

W ORKER,

M A IN T E N A N C E

F a b r ic a te s , in sta lls , and m aintains in good re p a ir the sheetm etal equipment and fix tu re s (such a s m achine gu ard s, g r e a s e pans,
sh elves, lo c k e rs, tanks, ven tilato rs, chutes, ducts, m etal ro o fin g)
of an establish m ent. W ork in volves m ost of the fo llo w in g : Planning

Custodial

ELEVATO R

OPERATOR,

and

T ra n s p o rt s p a s s e n g e r s between flo o r s of an office building,
apartm ent house, departm ent store, hotel o r s im ila r establish m ent.
W o rk ers who operate e le v a to rs in conjunction with other duties such
as those of s ta rte rs and ja n ito rs a re excluded.
GUARD
P e r fo r m s routine p olic e duties, either at fixed post or on
tour, m aintaining o rd e r, using a rm s or fo rc e w here n e c e s s a ry . In ­
cludes gatem en who a re stationed at gate and check on identity of
em p loyees and other p e rs o n s en te rin g .




- Continued

and laying out a ll types of sh eet-m etal m aintenance w o rk fr o m b lu e ­
p rin ts, m o dels, or other specificatio n s; setting up and operatin g a ll
a v a ila b le types of sh e e t-m e ta l-w o rk in g m ach ines; using a v ariety of
handtools in cutting, bending, fo rm in g, shaping, fitting, and a s s e m ­
bling; in stalling sh eet-m etal a r tic le s as re q u ire d .
In gen e ra l, the
w o rk of the m aintenance sh eet-m etal w o rk e r re q u ir e s rounded train in g
and exp erien ce u su ally acq u ire d through a fo rm a l apprenticesh ip or
equivalent train ing and e x p erien ce .
T O O L A N D D IE M A K E R
(D ie m ak er;

jig m ak er;

to o lm ak er;

fix tu re m ak er;

gauge m a k e r)

C on stru cts and r e p a ir s m ach in e-sh o p to o ls, gau ges, jig s , fix ­
tu res o r d ies fo r fo rg in g s , punching and other m e t a l-fo rm in g w o rk .
W ork in volves m ost of the fo llo w in g : P lann ing and laying out of w o rk
fro m m o d e ls, blu ep rin ts, d ra w in g s, o r other o ra l and w ritten s p e c ifi­
cations; using a v ariety of tool and die m a k e r, s handtools and p re c is io n
m easu rin g instrum ents; understanding of the w ork ing p ro p e rtie s of
com m on m etals and a llo y s ; setting up and o perating of m achine tools
and re lated equipment; m aking n e c e s sa ry shop com putations relatin g
to d im ension s of w o rk , speeds, fee d s, and tooling of m ach ines; h eattreatin g of m etal p a rts during fa b ric a tio n as w e ll as of finished tools
and dies to achieve re q u ire d q u alities; w ork in g to clo se to le ra n c e s;
fitting and a s s e m b lin g of p a rts to p r e s c r ib e d to le ra n c e s and a llo w ­
an ces; selecting ap p ro p riate m a t e ria ls ,
to o ls, and p r o c e s s e s .
In
g e n e ra l, the tool and die m a k e r1s w o rk re q u ire s a rounded train in g
in m ach in e-sh o p and to o lro o m p ra c tic e u su ally ac q u ire d through a
fo rm a l apprenticesh ip o r equivalent train ing and exp erien ce .
F o r c ro s s -in d u s tr y w age study p u rp o se s, tool and die m ak ers
in tool and die jobbing shops a r e excluded fr o m this classific a tio n .

Material

PASSENGER

M A IN T E N A N C E

Movement

J A N IT O R ,

PORTER,

OR C L E A N E R

(S w eeper; charw om an; ja n it r e s s )
C le a n s and keeps in an o rd e rly condition facto ry w ork ing
a r e a s and w a sh ro o m s, or p re m is e s of an o ffice, apartm ent house,
o r c o m m e rc ia l or other establish m ent. Duties involve a com bination
of the follow in g: Sweeping, m opping, or scru bbin g, and p olishing flo o r s7
rem ovin g chips, trash , and other re fu s e ; dusting equipment, fu rn itu re,
or fix tu re s; polishing m etal fix tu re s or trim m in g s; p roviding supplies
and m inor m aintenance s e rv ic e s ; cleaning la v a to r ie s , sh o w ers, and
r e s t ro o m s .
W o rk e rs who s p e cializ e in window w ashing a re excluded.

85
LABORER,

M A T E R IA L , H A N D L IN G

S H IP P IN G A N D R E C E IV IN G C L E R K

(L o a d e r and un load er; handler and stacker; sh elver; tru ck er;
stockm an o r stock h elp er; w areh o u sem an o r w areh o u se h e lp e r)

- Continued

other re c o rd s ; checking fo r shortages and rejectin g dam aged goods;
routing m erch an d ise o r m a t e ria ls to p ro p e r departm ents; m aintaining
n e c e s sa ry re c o rd s and file s .

A w o rk e r em ployed in a w areh o u se, m anufacturing plant,
store, o r other establish m ent whose duties involve one or m ore of
the fo llo w in g; L oadin g and unloading va rio u s m a t e ria ls and m erch an dise on o r fr o m freigh t c a r s , truck s, o r other tran sp ortin g d evice s;
unpacking, shelving, o r placing m a te ria ls o r m erch an d ise in p ro p e r
storage location; tran sp ortin g m a te ria ls or m erch an d ise by hand truck,
c a r, o r w h e e lb a rro w . Lon gsh orem en , who load and unload ships a re
excluded.

F o r w age study p u rp o se s, w o rk e rs a re c la s s ifie d as fo llo w s:
R ec eivin g c le rk
Shipping c le rk
Shipping and re ceiv in g c le rk

T R U C K D R IV E R
ORDER F IL L E R
(O rd e r p ic k e r;

stock s electo r; w areh o u se

stockm an)

F i lls shipping o r tr a n s fe r o rd e r s fo r finished goods fro m
stored m erch an d ise in accordance with specifications on sales slip s,
cu stom ers* o r d e r s , o r other instructions. M ay, in addition to fillin g
o rd e rs and indicating item s fille d or omitted, keep re c o rd s of out­
going o r d e r s , re qu isitio n additional stock, o r re p o rt short supplies
to s u p e rv is o r, and p e rfo r m other re lated duties.

PACK ER,

S H IP P IN G

P r e p a r e s finished products fo r shipment o r sto rage by placing
them in shipping containers, the specific operations p e rfo rm e d being
dependent upon the type, size, and num ber of units to be packed, the
type of container em ployed, and method of shipment. W ork re q u ire s
the placing of item s in shipping containers and m ay involve one or
m o re of the fo llo w in g : Know ledge of v a rio u s item s of stock in o rd e r
to v e rify content; selection of ap p ro p riate type and size of container;
in serting e n c lo su res in container; using e x c e ls io r or other m a te ria l to
preven t b re ak ag e or d am age; clo sin g and sealin g container; applying
la b e ls or entering identifying data on container.
P a c k e r s who a lso
m ake wooden bo xes o r c rates a re excluded.

D r iv e s a truck within a city o r in d u strial a r e a to tran sp o rt
m a t e ria ls , m erch an d ise, equipment, or m en betw een v ario u s types of
establish m en ts such as; M anufacturing plants, freigh t depots, w a r e ­
h ouses, w h o lesale and re ta il establish m en ts, or betw een re ta il e s t a b ­
lishm ents and cu sto m ers* houses or p la c e s of b u s in e s s .
M ay a l s o
load or unload truck with or without h e lp e rs , m ake m in or m ech anical
r e p a ir s , and keep truck in good w ork ing o rd e r. D r iv e r -s a le s m e n and
o v e r -t h e -r o a d d r iv e r s a r e excluded.
F o r w age study p u rp o se s, tru c k d riv e rs a r e c la s s ifie d by size
and type of equipment, as fo llo w s:
(T r a c t o r - t r a ile r should be r a t e d
on the b a s is of t r a ile r capacity. )
T ru c k d riv e r (com bination of sizes listed s e p a ra t e ly )
T ru c k d riv e r, light (under lVa tons)
T ru c k d riv e r, m edium (IV 2 to and including 4 tons)
T ru c k d riv e r, heavy (o v er 4 tons, t r a ile r type)
T ru c k d riv e r, heavy (o v er 4 tons, other than t r a ile r type)
TRUCKER,

O p erates a m anually controlled g a s o lin e - o r e le c t ric -p o w e re d
truck o r tra c to r to tra n sp o rt goods and m a te ria ls of a ll kinds about
a w areh o u se, m anufacturing plant, or other establishm ent.

S H IP P IN G A N D R E C E IV IN G C L E R K
truck,
P r e p a r e s m erch an d ise fo r shipment, o r re c e iv e s and is r e ­
sponsible fo r incom ing shipment of m erch an d ise or other m a t e ria ls .
Shipping w o rk in v o lv e s : A knowledge of shipping p ro c e d u re s , p r a c ­
tices^ rou tes, a v a ila b le m eans of tran sp ortatio n and ra tes; and p r e ­
p arin g re c o rd s of the goods shipped, m aking up b ills of lading, p o s t­
ing w eight and shipping c h a rg e s , and keeping a file of shipping re-cords.
M ay d ire ct o r a s s is t in p re p a rin g the m erch an d ise fo r shipment.
R eceivin g w o rk in v o lv e s : V e rify in g o r d ire ctin g others in verify in g
the c o rre c tn e s s of shipm ents against b ills of lading, in voices, or




POW ER

F o r w age study p u rp o ses, w o rk e rs a r e c la s s ifie d by ty p e of
as fo llo w s:
T ru c k e r,
T ru c k e r,

p ow e r (fo rk lift)
p ow er (other than fo rk lift)

W ATCHM AN
M ak es rounds of p r e m is e s p e rio d ic a lly in protecting p ro p e rty
again st fir e , theft, and ille g a l entry.

i r U . S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1957 O -449635




."a
22
C
O

Occupational Wage Survey

o
o
o

The U. S. Department of Labor’ s Bureau of Labor Statistics
has released the last of this year’ s occupational wage surveys for
major labor markets. The studies cover 17 areas and were conducted
during the winter 1956-57. The individual bulletins provide earnings
information on about 60 jobs selected from several categories: Office
clerical, professional and technical, maintenance and powerplant,
and custodial and material movement.

Atlanta
Birmingham
Boston
Buffalo
Chicago
Cleveland
Dallas
Kansas City
Los Angeles-Long Beach
Memphis
Minneapolis-St. Paul
New York City
Philadelphi a
Pittsburgh
Portland (Greg.)
San Francisco-Oakland
Seattle




April 1957
January 1957
September 1956
September 1956
April 1957
October 1956
October 1956
December 1956
March 1957
February 1957
March 1957
April 1957
November 1956
December 1956
April 1957
January 1957
August 1956

1202-16
1202-10
1202-4
1202-2
1202-15
1202-3
1202-5
1202-6
1202-11
1202-13
1202-14
1202-17
1202-7
1202-9
1202-12
1202-8
1202-1

25
20
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
20
20
25
25
25
25
25
25

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Address _

Cents

Bureau of Labor Statistics 18 d iv e r Street, Boston, Mass.
341 Ninth Avenue, New York, N. Y.
50 Seventh Street, N. E., Atlanta, Ga.

The areas covered, survey date, bulletin number, and price
are as follows:

O*
.2 2

or

Also presented for all areas except Memphis and Minneapolis-St. Paul are data for paid holidays; paid vacations; scheduled
weekly hours; health, insurance, and pension plans; minimum en­
trance rates; and shift differential practices.

g
P

Superintendent of Documents
Government Printing O ffice
Washington 25, D. C.

In addition to areawide averages and distributions of work­
ers by earnings classes for each job, information is provided wher­
ever possible by major industry division, including manufacturing,
public utilities, finance, trade, and services.

03

-Q