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Wages and Related Benefits
17 LABOR MARKETS
1954-55

Bulletin No. 1172
November 1955

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner


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Contents
Page

Page
In tr o d u c tio n _____________________________________________________________
In d u s tria l c o m p o s it io n o f the 17 a r e a s __________________________
C o m p a r a b ilit y o f a r e a d a t a -----------------------------------------------------------S u m m a r y -------------------------T r e n d s o f o c c u p a t io n a l e a r n in g s _____________________
M o v e m e n t o f w a g e s ____________________________ ;----------------------------C o v e r a g e and m e th o d o f com p u tin g the i n d e x e s _______________
L im ita tio n s o f the d a t a ___________________________________________
O cc u p a tio n a l e a r n in g s _________________________________________________
W o m e n 1s o f f i c e o c c u p a t io n s -----------------M en 1s o f f i c e o c c u p a t i o n s .________________________________________
S k ille d m a in te n a n ce o c c u p a t io n s _________________________________
U n s k ille d la b o r __________________________________________
In te r in d u s tr y c o m p a r is o n s _______
P a y v a r ia t io n s w ith in in d iv id u a l o c c u p a t io n s ___________________
W age d if f e r e n c e s a m on g la b o r m a r k e ts _____________________________
M eth od u s e d in co m p u tin g d a t a _____ ____________
In te r a r e a c o m p a r i s o n s ___________________1_______________________
J ob g r o u p s ____________________________________________________
In d u stry g r o u p s _______________________________________________
I n t r a -a r e a c o m p a r i s o n s __________________________________________
E s ta b lis h m e n t p r a c t i c e s and su p p lem en ta ry w age p r o v i s i o n s _____
S c h e d u le d w e e k ly h o u r s ___________________________________________
M in im u m e n tr a n c e r a t e s _________________________________________
L a t e -s h ift p a y p r o v i s io n s (m a n u fa c tu r in g )_____________________
F r e q u e n c y o f p a y _______________________________
P a id h o lid a y s _____________________
P a id v a c a t io n s ___________________________ ___________________________
H ealth , in s u r a n c e , and p e n s io n p la n s __________________________

T a b le s : - C on tinu ed

1
1
2
5
7
7
10
10
11
11
11
11
12
12
12
33
33
33
33
34
34
37
37
37
37
38
38
39
39

A:

W age d iffe r e n c e s a m on g la b o r m a rk e ts :
A - 17:
I n te r c ity pa y c o m p a r is o n s , o f f ic e
w o r k e r s _________________________________________
A - 18:
In te r city pa y c o m p a r is o n s , plant
w o r k e r s _________________________________________
A - 19:
N on m a n u fa ctu rin g - m a n u fa ctu rin g pay
c o m p a r i s o n s ___________________________________
B:

C h a r ts :
1.
2.

R e la tiv e e m p lo y m e n t in s e le c t e d in d u stry d iv is io n s ,
17 la b o r m a r k e t s ___________________________________________
R e la tiv e e m p lo y m e n t in s e le c t e d m a n u factu rin g
in d u s tr y g r o u p s , 17 la b o r m a r k e t s _______________________

3
4

T a b le s :
T r e n d s o f o c c u p a t io n a l e a r n in g s :
1.
W age in d e x e s , o f f ic e and plant (1953 = 1 0 0 )______ . . .
2.
P e r c e n t i n c r e a s e , o ffic e and p la n t ___________________
3.
P a y r o ll p e r io d s c o v e r e d _______________________________
4.
W age in d e x e s , o f f ic e (1950 = 1 0 0 )____________________
A:

O c c u p a tio n a l e a r n in g s :
A v e r a g e e a r n in g s f o r s e le c t e d o ffic e o c cu p a tio n s A - 1: A l l in d u s tr ie s ____________________________________
A - 2: M a n u fa c t u r in g ____________________________________
A - 3: N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g ________________________________
A - 4 : P u b lic u t i l i t i e s ___________________ i______________
A - 5: W h o le s a le tr a d e
_______________________________
A - 6: R e t a il t r a d e ___________________________
A - 7: F in a n c e ___________________________________________
A - 8: S e r v ic e s __________________________________________




O ccu p a tion a l e a rn in g s: - C on tinu ed
A v e r a g e e a r n in g s fo r s e le c t e d plant o c c u p a tio n s A - 9:
A ll i n d u s t r i e s __________________________________
A - 10: M a n u fa ctu r in g ___________________________________
A - 11: N on m a n u fa ctu rin g ________________________ '--------A - 12: P u b lic u t i l i t i e s __________________________________
A - 13: W h o le sa le tra d e ________________________________
A - 14: R e ta il t r a d e _____________________________________
A - 15: F i n a n c e __________________________________________
A - 16: S e r v i c e s ________________________

8
9
9
9

15
17
19
21
22
22
23
23

E s ta b lis h m e n t p r a c t ic e s and su p p le m e n ta ry w age
p r o v is io n s :
B - 1:
S ch ed u led w e e k ly h o u r s (a ll i n d u s t r i e s ) _____
B -2 :
S ch ed u led w e e k ly h o u r s (m a n u fa ctu rin g )_____
B -3 :
M in im u m e n tra n ce r a te s f o r w om en o ffic e
w o r k e r s (a ll in d u s t r ie s ) ______________________
B -4 :
M in im u m e n tr a n ce r a te s fo r w om en o ffic e
w o r k e r s (m a n u fa ctu rin g )______________________
B -5 :
Shift d iffe r e n t ia l p r o v is io n s
(m a n u fa c tu r in g )__ _____________________________
B -6 :
Shift d iffe r e n t ia l p r a c t ic e s
(m a n u fa c tu r in g )________________________________
B -7 :
F r e q u e n c y o f w ag e p a ym en t
(all in d u s t r ie s ) _________________________________
B -8 :
P a id h o lid a y s ____________________________________
B -9 :
P r o v is io n s fo r p a id h o lid a y s o c c u r r in g on
n on w ork d a y s (a ll in d u s t r ie s ) _________________
B -1 0 :
P a id v a c a tio n s (all i n d u s t r i e s ) _______________
B - 11:
P a id v a c a tio n s (m a n u fa c tu r in g )______________
B - 12:
P a id v a c a tio n s (p u b lic u t i l i t i e s ) ______________
B - 13;
P a id v a c a tio n s (w h o le s a le t r a d e ) _____________
B - 14:
P a id v a c a tio n s (r e ta il t r a d e ) __________________
B - 15:
P a id v a c a tio n s ( s e r v i c e s ) _____________________
B - 16:
P a id v a c a tio n s (fin a n c e )_______________________

24
26
28
30
31
31
32
32

35
35
36

41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
58

A p p e n d ix e s :
A:

B:
(iii)

S c o p e and m eth od o f s u r v e y __________________________________
In du stry and e sta b lis h m e n t lim ita tio n s _______________
O ccu p a tion a l e a r n in g s __________________________________
E s ta b lis h m e n t p r a c t ic e s and su p p le m e n ta ry w age
p r o v is io n s ____________________
O ccu p a tion a l d e s c r ip t io n s ____________________________

59
59
59
59
63




W ages and Related Benefits, 17 Labor Markets, 1954-551
Introduction
The esta b lish m en ts within the scop e of the surveys in
the 17 a re a s p rov id ed em ploym en t to an estim ated 6 .8 m illion
w o r k e r s , o f w hom 5 .6 m illio n w e re plant and o ffic e w ork e rs ,
a s defin ed on page 59.

The U. S. D ep a rtm en t o f L abor*s B ureau o f L a b or Sta­
t i s t i c s , in p u rsu a n ce o f its p r o g r a m o f com m unity wage stu d ies,
con d u cted su r v e y s o f o ccu p a tio n a l earn in gs and rela ted p r a c tic e s
in 17 im porta n t la b o r m a rk e t a re a s during late 1954 and e a rly
1955. 2 T h e se stu d ies a r e d esig n ed to m eet a v a riety o f g o v e rn ­
m en tal and n on g overn m en ta l n eeds fo r in form ation on occu pation al
e a rn in g s, e sta b lish m e n t p r a c t ic e s , and rela ted w age p r o v is io n s .
O ccu p a tion s co m m o n to a v a rie ty o f m anufacturing and nonm anu­
fa ctu rin g in d u strie s a r e studied on a com m unityw ide b a s is in s e ­
le c te d a r e a s .
The a r e a su rv e y s p ro v id e earnings data fo r the
fo llo w in g ty p es o f o c c u p a tio n s: (a) O ffice c le r ic a l; (b) p r o fe s s io n a l
and te ch n ica l; (c ) m ain ten an ce and pow erplant; and (d) cu stod ia l
and m a te r ia l m o v e m e n t. Data a re a ls o c o lle c te d and su m m a rized
on shift o p e ra tio n s and d iffe r e n tia ls , w eekly w ork sch ed u les, and
su p plem en ta ry w age b e n e fits such as paid vacations and paid h o li­
d a y s. T h e se data, p r e s e n te d in deta il in the individual a re a b u l­
le tin s , a r e su m m a riz e d and an alyzed in the p resen t b u lle t in .3

Industrial C om p osition o f the 17 A r e a s
The 17 a re a s c o v e r e d by this re p o rt had a com bined
population of about 36 m illio n in 1950— a lm o st a fourth of the
N ation*s tota l. Sixteen States a re re p re se n te d , perm itting som e
exam ination of in te rre g io n a l as w ell a s in tra reg ion a l variation s
in pay le v e ls and a s s o c ia te d p r a c t ic e s .
The individual industry grou ps have about the sam e r e la ­
tiv e im p orta n ce in the 17 a re a s as a group, as in the Nation as
a w hole (se e chart l).
M anufacturing, con stru ction , and trade
a r e som ew hat m o r e im portant in the N ation than in the 17 a re a s;
the r e v e r s e ap p lies to pu blic u tilitie s , fin an ce, and s e r v ic e s .
A m ong the 17 a r e a s , the in d u strial co m p o s itio n of the individual
a re a s v a r ie s substantially.

E a ch o f the d e ta ile d a re a bulletins p re se n ts a rea wide
in fo rm a tio n com b in in g data fo r 6 m a jo r industry g rou p in gs. S ep ­
a ra te data fo r the in d u stry grou ps a re p rovided only w h ere fe a ­
s ib le , depending la r g e ly on the rela tiv e size and im p orta n ce of
the in du stry grou p w ithin a given a r e a .
Thus, the sam pling
tech n iq u es p e rm itte d com pu ta tion o f separate data fo r m a n u fa c­
turing and p u b lic u tilitie s in each o f the 17 a re a s; finance in 13;
w h o le sa le and re ta il tra d e in 12; and s e r v ic e s in 5.

In 3 a re a s— B u ffa lo, C levelan d , and N e w a rk -J e rs e y City—
m o r e w o r k e rs a re em p loy ed in m anufacturing in d u stries than in
a ll nonm anufacturing industry grou ps com b in ed .
N early half of
the la b o r fo r c e in B a ltim o re , C h ica g o, P hiladelphia, and St. L ouis
a r e em p loy ed in m anufacturing (se e chart l). On the other hand,
A tlanta, D a lla s, D en ver, M em ph is, P ortlan d , and San F r a n c is c o Oakland a re a re a s in w hich m anufacturing em ploym ent is r e la ­
tiv e ly le s s im portan t, em ployin g le s s than a th ird o f the labor
fo r c e — few er w o r k e rs , in fa ct, than in the area*s w h olesale and
re ta il trad e esta b lish m en ts.

1 P r e p a r e d in the B u r e a u s D ivision of W ages and Indus­
t r ia l R ela tio n s by Otto R . B . H ollb erg and A lexan d er N. J a r r e ll,
under the d ir e c t io n o f J a m es F . W alker. A rea studies w ere c o n ­
du cted by the B u re a u 1s R e g io n a l Wage A n a lysts.
2 S in ce 1948, the B u rea u has conducted one or m o re such
a re a w id e su rv e y s in 51 la b o r m a rk e ts.
The e a r lie s t su rv ey s
c o v e r e d o ffic e w o r k e r s on ly.
S u rveys co v e rin g both o ffic e and
plant w o r k e r s w e re con d u cted in 40 a re a s in late 1 9 5 1 -ea rly 1952;
in 20 a re a s in 1 9 52-53 ; and in 17 a re a s in each o f the last 2
years.
Som e a r e a s a re studied annually and oth ers bien n ia lly .
A lis tin g of a r e a r e p o r ts issu e d to date, including item s c o v e re d ,
is a v a ila b le in D ir e c t o r y o f C om m unity Wage S u rveys; co p ie s
a re a v a ila b le upon re q u e st fr o m the B ureau of L abor S ta tistics,
W ashington 25, D . C . , o r any o f its 5 region al o ffic e s .
3 See lis tin g o f o ccu p a tion a l wage survey bu lletin s on last
p a g e.



S im ila r em ploym en t v a ria tion s a re evident am ong the
subgroup com pon en ts of the b roa d industry d iv is io n s .
Thus,
m ark ed d iffe r e n c e s am ong the a re a s a re shown in rela tiv e e m ­
p loym en t in the v a riou s m anufacturing industry groups (chart 2).
M etals and m etalw orkin g fir m s em p loy the la r g e s t segm ent of
the m anufacturing la b o r fo r c e in m ost a re a s — fr o m 50 to 75 p e r ­
cent in B a ltim o re , B u ffa lo, C h ica g o, C levelan d, L os A n g eles,
and St. L o u is.
In 5 a re a s in which the m eta ls in du stries e m ­
p loy ed few er than a th ird of the m anufacturing w o rk e rs , equal
o r la r g e r p ro p o rtio n s w e re em p loy ed in other in d u stries o r groups
o f in d u stries— ap p arel in d u stries in New Y ork C ity; tex tiles and
ap p arel in Atlanta; food , ru b b er, and printing in d u stries in Den­
v e r; lu m b er, fu rn itu re, and pap er in P ortla n d and M em phis.
1

2

C om p a ra b ility o f A r e a Data
A rea w id e (all in du stry) e stim a te s o f w age le v e ls and
related p r a c t ic e s a re a ffe c te d to som e extent by the in du strial
co m p o sitio n o f an a r e a .
D iffe r e n c e s in e stim a tes m ust, th e r e ­
fo r e , be view ed in te r m s of in te ra re a d iffe r e n c e s in the p r o ­
p ortion o f em ploym en t a ccou n ted fo r both by the re s p e ctiv e b roa d
industry d iv is io n s and th e ir su b grou ps. In a few a r e a s , additional
lim ita tion s on a r e a - t o - a r e a co m p a r is o n s a r is e fr o m in com p lete
co v e ra g e o f ce rta in in d u strie s; th ese a re in dicated in the footn otes
to tables beginning on page 22.
The e x c lu s io n fr o m the cu rre n t studies of ta x ica b s and
s e r v ic e s in ciden tal to w ater tra n sp o rta tio n had no n o ticea b le e f­




fe ct on earnings estim a tes in any a r e a . In a few a r e a s , h o w e v e r,
the e ffe ct on nonwage rela ted p r a c t ic e s w as g rea t enough to w a r ­
rant the footnoting of one o r m o r e of the p u blic u tilitie s e s t i­
m ates in the a rea bulletin, although in no in stan ce w as the a l l ­
in d u stries estim ate a ffe cte d m a te r ia lly .
The la r g e s t a rea la b o r f o r c e (New Y ork C ity p r o p e r ) is
m o r e than 20 tim e s the s iz e o f that of the sm a lle st a re a (M e m ­
p h is), and m o re than 10 tim e s as la r g e a s that in eith er A tlanta,
D a lla s, D enver, o r P ortla n d .
The 4 la r g e s t a r e a s ---- C h ica g o ,
New Y ork C ity, L os A n g e le s , and P h ilad elp h ia— a ccou n t fo r m o re
than h alf of both the m anufacturing and the nonm anufacturing e m ­
ploym en t in the 17 a re a s co m b in e d .

3

Chart I. RELATIVE EMPLOYMENT IN SELECTED INDUSTRY DIVISIONS
17 Labor Markets
PERCENT

O

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

lO O

U N IT E D STATES
17 A R E A S C O M B IN E D

B u ffa lo
C le v e la n d
N e w a r k - J e r s e y City
Sf. Louis
P h ila d e lp h ia
C h ic a g o
B a ltim o re
Los A n g e le s
B o sto n
M in n e a p o lis -S t. P a u l
N e w Y o r k C ity
M e m p h is
P o rtla n d
A tla n ta
D a lla s
S a n F r a n c is c o -O a k la n d
Denver

Manufacturing

Construction. Finance,
Public Utilities, and
Service

Source:

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU of

LABOR STATISTICS




[n

Trade

County Business Patterns. U S. Department of Commerce.
Employment in first Quarter of 1953 under Old-Age and
Survivors Insurance Program.

4

Chart 2. RELATIVE EMPLOYMENT IN SELECTED MANUFACTURING
INDUSTRY GROUPS
17 Labor Markets
O

10

20

30

40

PERCENT

50

60

70

80

90

U N ITED STATES
17 A R E A S C O M B IN E D

C le ve la n d
B u ffa lo
Los A n g e le s
B altim ore
C h ica go
St. Louis
D a lla s
N e w a r k -J e r s e y City
M in n e a p o lis-$ t. Paul
S a n F r a n c is c o -O a k la n d
P h ila d e lp h ia
Boston
P ortland
Denver
M e m p h is
A tla n ta
N e w Y o r k C ity
Metals and
Metal Products

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




Manufacturing other
than Metals, Metal
Products, Textiles and
Apparel

Textiles and
Apparel

Source: County Business Patterns. U- S. Department of Commerce.
Employment in first quarter or 1953 under Old-Age and
Insurance Program Survivors

100

5

The o ccu p a tio n a l wage studies m ade by the B ureau in 17
la b o r m a rk e ts during the w in ter o f 1954-55 r e fle cte d a continued
r is e in wage r a t e s . T h ey in d ica te an av era ge in c re a s e of about
3 l / z p e r c e n t o v e r the p r e v io u s y ea r fo r w om en o ffic e w o rk e rs ,
sk ille d m en m ain ten an ce w o r k e r s , and u n skilled m en plant w o rk ­
e r s . G re a te r in c r e a s e s o c c u r r e d in each o f the 2 p re v io u s years
when ea ch o f these o ccu p a tio n a l groups had average in c re a s e s of
m o r e than 5 p e r c e n t.
The 19 5 4 -5 5 rate o f in c r e a s e fo r o ffic e w o rk e r s a la rie s
w as lo w e r than fo r any p e r io d sin ce 19 4 9 -5 0 . Although c o m p a r a ­
b le fig u r e s a r e not a v a ila b le fo r the plant w ork er g ro u p s, it a p ­
p e a rs that th eir pay a dju stm en ts a lso w ere c h a r a c te r iz e d b y the
lo w e s t ra te o f in c r e a s e s in c e that tim e .
A m on g the wom en* s o ffic e occu pation s stu d ied , s e c r e ­
ta r ie s had h ig h e st a v e r a g e s a la r ie s — about $75 a w eek in the
h ig h e r-p a y in g a r e a s and m o r e than $65 in m ost oth er a r e a s .
R outine file c le r k s a v e r a g e d a little le s s than $50 in the h ig h e r­
paying a re a s and about $40 in the lo w e r-p a y in g a r e a s .
Indus­
tr ia l n u rse s a v e r a g e d fr o m $67 to $80 w eek ly .
C la ss A a ccou n tin g c le r k s g en e ra lly had the highest s a l­
a r ie s am on g the fe w o ffic e occu p a tion s studied fo r m en .
They
a v e r a g e d about $80 in m o s t a r e a s , $10 to $20 m o r e in m ost
c a s e s than w om en in the sa m e occu p a tio n . O ffice b o y s , on the
o th er hand, r e c e iv e d little if any m o re than o ffic e g ir ls , both
g e n e r a lly a v e ra g in g a little m o r e than $40 a w eek .
E x p r e s s e d in te r m s o f pay le v e ls p rev a ilin g in New
Y o rk C ity , p a y r e la tiv e s fo r o ffic e w o rk e rs (m en and w om en)
ra n g ed fr o m 1 05-106 in C h ica g o , L os A n g e les, and San F r a n c is c o -O a k la n d to 85 in M e m p h is.
C lu stered at 88-92 p ercen t
o f the New Y o rk C ity le v e l w ere Atlanta, B a ltim o re , B oston ,
D a lla s , D e n v e r, M in n e a p o lis -S t. P a u l, and P h ilad elp h ia.
p o r te d

M o st o f the esta b lish m en ts included in the su rv ey s r e ­
a m in im u m h irin g rate p o lic y fo r in e x p e rie n ce d c l e r ­




ic a l w o rk e rs but the rates v a rie d co n s id e ra b ly betw een area s and
betw een estab lish m en ts within an a r e a . In m o r e than half o f the
c it ie s , h o w e v e r, the m o s t co m m o n hirin g rate range fo r in e x ­
p e rie n ce d w o rk e rs was betw een $40 and $ 4 2 .5 0 a w eek.
S k illed m aintenance occu p a tion s a v era g ed m o re than $2
an hour ex cep t fo r a few c la s s ific a tio n s in the 4 Southern a r e a s .
T o o l and die m a k ers g e n e ra lly a v era g ed m o re than $ 2 .4 0 an
h o u r. In the u n sk illed grou p, ja n ito rs g en era lly averaged about
$1 an hour le s s than tool and die m a k e r s , and m a teria l hand­
ling la b o r e r s a v era g ed about 20 cents m o re than ja n itors in m ost
a r e a s . D iffe re n c e s betw een sk ille d and u n sk illed rates w ere u su ­
a lly g re a te r in the Southern a r e a s .
A v era g e
ranged fr o m 109
to 87 p e rce n t in
fo r cu stod ia l and

pay fo r the sk ille d m aintenance occupations
p e rce n t o f the New Y ork C ity rate in C hicago
M em p h is.
G re a te r wage sp read s w ere noted
m a te ria l m ov em en t occu p a tion s betw een cities,,

M anufacturing esta b lish m en ts g en era lly paid higher rates
than those in nonm anufacturing in both o ffic e and plant job c l a s ­
s ific a tio n s .
Am ong the nonm anufacturing in d u strie s, earning
le v e ls w ere g e n e ra lly the highest in public u tilities and w h ole­
sale tra d e .
T h ese in d u stries freq u en tly had higher o ccu p a tion ­
al a v e ra g e s than m a n u factu rin g.
N ea rly a ll w o rk e rs r e c e iv e d 6 o r m o re paid h olid a y s.
P a id v acation s w ere even m o re u n iv e rs a l.
P lant w ork ers u su ­
a lly r e c e iv e d 1 o r m o re weeks* pay and o ffic e w ork ers r e ­
c e iv e d 2 o r m o r e w eeks a fter 1 y ea r o f s e r v ic e .
F o r lon ger
p e rio d s o f s e r v ic e the b en efits w ere g re a te r and m o re often
equal fo r plant and o ffic e w o r k e r s .
The su rv ey s show ed that m o s t o ffic e w ork ers w ere paid
e v e r y 2 w eeks o r tw ice a m onth, w h ereas 7 o f 8 plant w ork ers
w ere paid each w eek . A continued trend tow ard sh orter w eekly
hours fo r o ffic e w o rk e rs was noted a ls o .




7

Trends of Occupational Earnings,
E c o n o m ic co n d itio n s sin ce W orld War II have stim ulated
a s e r ie s of g en era l w age in c r e a s e s which have m ade both e m ­
p lo y e r s and e m p lo y e e s m o r e keen ly aw are of the im p orta n ce of
w ages in the A m e r ic a n e c o n o m y . They a re in terested , not only
in the le v e l of w a g e s, but a ls o in wage tren d s in d iffe re n t in ­
d u s tr ie s , g e o g r a p h ic a l a r e a s , and occu pation al g rou p s.
W ide­
sp rea d dem and fo r such in fo rm a tio n led the Bureau of L abor
S ta tis tics to c o n str u c t w age in d ex es fo r se le cte d grou ps o f w o r k ­
e r s , b a s e d on data fr o m B LS com m unity wage su rv ey s in 17
la r g e la b o r m a rk et a r e a s .
The su rv e y s w e r e in itiated in 1948 for o ffice w o r k e rs
and la te r w e re exten ded to a num ber of ty p ical plant jo b s in
m an u factu rin g and nonm an u factu rin g in d u strie s. The in dexes a re
lim ite d to the p e r io d 1952 to 1955, when data w ere c o lle c te d fo r
the 3 g rou p s o f w o r k e r s c o v e r e d : W om en o ffic e w o r k e rs , sk illed
m en m ainten an ce w o r k e r s , and u n sk illed m en plant w o r k e rs (see
table 1).
F o r o ffic e w o r k e r s , the in dexes rela te to a v era ge w eek ly
s a la r ie s fo r n o rm a l h o u rs o f w ork , that is , the standard w ork
sch ed ule fo r w h ich s tr a ig h t-tim e sa la r ie s a re paid. F o r the plant
w o rk e r g ro u p s, the in d e x e s m e a su re changes in stra ig h t-tim e
a v e ra g e h ou rly e a rn in g s, exclu d in g prem iu m pay fo r o v e rtim e and
fo r w ork on w eek en d s, h o lid a y s , and late shifts.
The m ethods
u sed in con stru ctin g the in d ex es and the lim ita tion s o f the data
a r e ex plain ed on page 10.
M ovem en t o f W ages,

1952-55

O ccu p a tion a l w age le v e ls in the 17 a rea s studied during
late 1954 and e a r ly 1955 d iffe r e d w idely among a re a s and o c ­
cupational g r o u p s .4 L a rg e in te ra re a d iffe r e n ce s w e re a ls o o b ­
s e rv e d in e a r lie r s u r v e y s . D esp ite th ese v a ria tion s, the in d ex es
fo r the 3 g rou p s o f w o r k e r s d is c lo s e a b roa d s im ila rity in wage
m ov em en ts o v e r the la st 3 y e a r s . Thus, a verage standard s a l­
a r ie s fo r w om en o ffic e w o r k e r s and stra ig h t-tim e a v era g e hou rly
ea rn in gs fo r the sk ille d and u n sk illed plant groups each ro s e
about 16 p e rce n t on the a v e r a g e fr o m 1952 to 1955. 5

1952-55

M ost of the earn in gs in c r e a s e s in a r e a -jo b groups ranged
betw een 14 and 18 p e rce n t (tabl>e 2 ). The s m a lle st in cre a se was
11 p e rce n t in the a v e ra g e s a la r ie s o f w om en o ffic e w o rk e rs in
Atlanta and M em ph is.
The la r g e s t in c r e a s e — 22 p ercen t— o c ­
c u r r e d in the s tra ig h t-tim e h ou rly earn in gs o f unsk illed men
plant w o r k e rs in D en v er. The pay p e r io d s studied v a ried among
the a r e a s , and d iffe r e n c e s in su rv ey tim ing cou ld account fo r
som e of the in te ra re a v a ria tion (table 3).
The sm ille s t annual in c r e a s e fo r a ll 3 grou ps of w o rk e rs
o c c u r r e d in the 1954-55 su rvey p e r io d — about 3 Va p e rcen t. B e ­
tw een 1952 and 1953, the in c r e a s e s a v e ra g e d about 6 p ercen t,
and fr o m 5 to 6 p e rce n t betw een 1953 and 1954.
F o r the en tire p e rio d su rv ey ed (1 9 5 2 -5 5 ), despite the
g en era l s im ila rity of re la tiv e in c r e a s e s fo r the 3 occupational
g rou p s in a ll a re a s com b in ed , d ev ia tion s fr o m this o v e ra ll trend
w e re n o ticea b le am ong individual a r e a s .
F o r exam ple, in the
14 a re a s c o v e re d in both 1952 and 1955, u n sk illed w o rk e rs r e ­
ce iv e d the highest p e rcen ta g e in c r e a s e s in 6 areas-; sk illed w ork ­
e r s 1 in c r e a s e s w ere h igh est in 5 a r e a s , and o ffic e w o rk e rs out.
gained plant w o r k e rs in the 3 rem ain in g a r e a s .
T h ese com p a ra tiv e ra tes of in c r e a s e fo r sk illed and un­
sk illed w o r k e rs rela te only to the la st 4 y e a r s , as in dicated.
E a r lie r studies have shown a n a rrow in g of re la tiv e d ifferen tia ls
betw een w ag es paid to sk illed and u n sk illed w o r k e rs ov er a lon ger
p e r io d o f t i m e .6 M ore recen t s u r v e y s 7 in dicate a slowdown in
th is tren d and a som ew hat g re a te r tendency to m aintain p e r c e n t­
age d iffe re n tia ls am ong o ccu p a tio n s.
The wage le v e l and the g eog ra p h ic p o s itio n of p a rticu la r
a re a s did not of th e m s e lv e s se e m to in flu en ce a p p recia b ly the
m ovem en t of w ages o v e r this p e r io d .
L ow est percen tag e in ­
c r e a s e s fo r w om en o ffic e w o r k e rs w ere found in such w idely
s ca tte re d poin ts as Atlanta, M em p h is, B oston , San F r a n c is c o Oakland, and New Y ork C ity. L ow est ra tes of in c re a s e fo r sk illed
w o r k e rs w e re found in B oston , San F ra n cis co -O a k la n d , M em phis,
and N e w a r k -J e r s e y C ity, w h erea s B oston , M em phis, New Y ork
C ity, and C h ica go show ed the lo w e st in c r e a s e s for unskilled

4
See O ccu p a tion a l E a rn in gs, p. 11, and Wage D iffe re n c e s
6 F o r a sum m ary of lo n g -t e r m tre n d s , see Monthly L abor
A m ong L a b o r M a rk e ts, p. 33.
R ev iew , N ovem b er 1953 (p. 1171).
® S im ple a v e r a g e s , b a se d on the 14 a rea s studied in both
7 See, fo r ex a m p le, W ages and R elated P r a c tic e s in the
1952 and 1955, w e re a s fo llo w s :
O ffice w o r k e rs , 15.2 p e rce n t;
M ach in ery In d u stries, 1953-54, M onthly L a b or Review, June 1954
sk illed m aintenance w o r k e r s , 15.9 p e rce n t; and unsk illed plant
w o r k e r s , 16.6 p e r c e n t.
(p. 649).




8
Trends

of O c c u p a t i o n a l

Earn ing s

Table 1: Wage Indexes, Office and Plant
(Indexes of average weekly earnings or average hourly earnings 1 for se lected occupational groups in 17 labor markets, 1952-55)
(1953 = 100)
All industries

Manufactur ing

Ar ea
1952

1953

1954

1955

1953

1954

1955

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

1952

103.8
(2)
104.4
( 2)
106.2
( 2)
103.3
105.8
105.2
102.3
105.8
105.9
105.2
106.6
104. 3
105.5
104.5

105.8
114.2
106.8
106.3
109.8
111.3
108.4
109.8
109.0
106.2
109.6
109.8
110.2
111.6
110. 1
108.8
107.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

104.9
(2 )
105.6
( 2)
105.8
( 2)
107.0
109.2
105.8
101.6
106.7
105.5
105.2
107.2
104.6
107.0
104.0

108.2
116.7
107.6
106.7
109.0
110. 1
110.7
112.5
108.9
103.9
108.1
109.4
109.6
111.4
109.6
110.0
106.3

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

104.9
(2 )
105.5
( 2)
104.8
( 2)
109.5
112 .4
104.9
103.4
105.8
107.8
106.3
103.3
105.5
107.4
104.2

106.7
117.1
108.8
107.8
107.6
108.9
113.8
118.9
108.6
107.7
110.9
112.3
110.3
107.9
112.5
110.2
108.5

Women office workers
Atlanta
.....
_ _
Baltimore .......
Boston _______________________________________________________
B u f f a l o ___
Chicago ... . _ ........
Cleveland
. .
Dallas
_ __
D e n v e r __________________
_
_
Los Angeles
Memphis
____
Minneapolis-St. Paul
N e wa rk -J er se y City
_
_
New York City __________
Philadelphia
... _____
Portland (Oreg. )
St. Louis .. _ _ .. _ _ ...
San Fr an cis co -O akl and . _

94.8
(2 )
95.9
91. 5
94.7
92.9
( 2)
92.7
93 .3
95 .5
93.7
9 3. 4
94.8
95.6
(2)
94.0
95.1

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

103.0
(2)
105.2
( 2)
105.8
(2)
105.6
105.7
104.6
104. 1
106.3
105.7
104.3
107.1
104.7
105.7
104.4

105.2
112.9
108.3
105.3
109.5
110.3
110.9
108.8
108.4
106.2
109.9
109.8
108.0
110.8
110.3
110.1
107.6

94. 2
(2)
94. 8
91.6
95. 1
93.1
(2 )
97.1
92.2
95.2
91.7
94. 2
94.7
95. 1
(2)
92.9
9 3. 5

Skilled maintenance trades
Atlanta
Baltimore _______________
Boston
_
_
B u f f a l o _____ ____ . ....
Chicago _ _ _ . ___
Cleveland __________________ _
_ _______ __
D a l l a s _____ ____________________________ ______
.......... .
Denver
Los Angeles . .. . ..
Memphis
___
Minneapolis-St. Paul ..
N ew ar k- Je rs ey C i t v _____________
New Yo rk City
_
..... .
Philadelphia _ ...
_
Portland ( O r e g . )
... .
St. Louis _____________________________________________________
San F r an cis co -O akl and

93.2
( 2)
9 5. 4
93. 0
93.9
94.2
( 2)
93.8
94. 1
93.8
92.7
96. 2
94. 3
95.2
(2)
95. 2
9 4. 5

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

105.3
(2 )
105.3
( 2)
106.3
( 2)
105.9
108.1
105.5
103.5
106.6
105.6
104.5
107.2
105.5
107.1
104.0

108.3
115.7
107.2
106.7
109.8
110.1
109.9
113.0
108.7
106.5
110.2
109.5
109.7
111.9
109.6
110.5
106.5

(men)

93.6
(2)
95.6
93 .3
94.2
94.3
( 2)
91.9
93.7
93.8
91 .4
96.1
94.7
95. 2
(2)
95. 2
94 .5

Unskilled plant w orkers (men)
Atlanta
_
_
Baltimore
______________
Boston _
... ..... ... ..
_ ...............
Buffalo ___________________
___
Chicago
___
Cleveland
._
_
Dallas _________________________________
Denver
_________________________
Lo s Aneeles _____ __________________
Memphis _
_
. . . . . . .
Minneapolis-St. Paul ___________________
N ew ar k- Je r s ey C i t v _______ ________
New Yor k City
Philadelphia __________
...
_______________
Portland ( O r e g . ) ______________________ ______
St. Louis _______ ___________________________
San Fr an cis co -O akl and _
___

9 3. 4
(2 )
96 .0
92 .5
95. 3
96. 0
(2)
93.6
92.7
96 .3
9 2. 5
93.6
95.5
93.2
(2 )
95.7
93. 6

100.0
100.0
100.0
100 .0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

105.9
(2 )
105. 1
( 2)
105.7
( 2)
103.6
108.0
106.0
105.2
106.4
107.1
105.4
104; 5
104.9
108.5
106. 1

1 Avera ge we ekly earnings relate to standard sal ar ies that are paid for standard work schedules
anid for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
this per io d.

surveyed during
Not


107.9
115.2
107.6
107.6
109.4
111.6
107.1
114.2
109.8
108.8
111.6
111.5
108.1
109.0
110.6
111.7
109.3

92. 2
(2)
96.6
92. 9
93. 8
94.9

(2)

97.1
93 .0
95. 2
93 .3
92 . 4
96. 2
91 . 4
(2)
9 5. 4
93. 6

Av e ra ge hourly earnings are straight-time hourly earnings excluding p r e m iu m pay for o ve r t im e

9

Table 2:

Percent Increase, Office and Plant

(P e rce n t o f in cre a se in average w eekly earnings or average hourly e a r n in g s 1 fo r s e le cte d occupational groups in 14 labor m ark ets, 2 1952-55)
M anufacturing

A ll in du stries
Women
o ffic e
w o rk e rs

Atlanta
_________________________
Boston ......... ......................... ................
Buffalo ____________________________
Chicago ___________________________
Cleveland ______________________
Denver __________________________
Lori An geles .. .... _
.
M em phis ______ ___ ________________
M in neapolis-St. P a u l_______ _____
N e w a rk -J e rse y City _____________
New Y ork C i t y _____________ _
Philadelphia _ _ ..... _ . _ ... _
St. Louis ____________________ ___
San F ran cisco-O ak lan d .....
........

U nskilled
w o rk e rs
(m en)

W om en
o ffic e
w o rk e rs

Skilled
m aintenance
w ork ers
(m en)

U nskilled
w o rk e rs
(m en)

11.0
13.0
15. 1
15.7
18.7
17.3
16.2
11.3
17.2
17.5
13.9
15.9
17.0
13. 1

A rea

Skilled
m aintenance
w o rk e rs
(m en )
1 6.3
1 2.5
14.7
17.1
16.9
2 0 .5
15.5
13 .5
18.8
13.8
16.2
17.5
16.1
12.6

15.5
12.1
16.3
14.8
16.2
2 2 .0
18.5
13.0
2 0 .6
19.2
13.2
16.9
16.7
16.7

12.3
12.7
16.0
15.5
19.4
13.1
18.2
11.5
19.6
16.6
16.3
17.3
17.0
14.5

15.5
12.6
14.4
15.7
16.9
2 2 .4
16.2
10.7
18.3
13.9
15.9
17.1
15.6
12.5

15.7
12.6
16.0
14.7
14.7
2 2 .5
16.8
13. 1
18.8
2 1 .5
14.6
18.1
15.5
16.0

1 A vera ge w eekly earnings relate to standard s a la rie s that are paid for standard w ork sch ed u les.
ings excluding prem ium pay for overtim e and for w ork on w eekends, h olid ays, and late sh ifts.
2 B a ltim ore, D allas, and Portland w ere not studied in the 1952 s e r ie s o f su rv e y s.

Table 3:

A v era ge hourly earnings are stra ig h t-tim e hourly earn ­

Payroll Periods Covered

(P a y ro ll p e rio d s c o v e r e d in the com m unity wage su r v e y s , 17 labor m ark ets, 195 2 -5 5 *)
1952

A rea
Atlanta _
______ _
B a lt im o r e __. . . __________________ __
B o ston _ _ _ ....................................... _
Buffalo ___
Chicago
_ .
__ _ ___ .. __
Cleveland ....................... . „ ____ __
Dallas
Denver .. ..... .
... .. ..... ...
L os An geles ..... ................. ............... .
M em phis ..
.... . _ _
_ _ .....
M in neapolis-St. Paul „ . . __ __ _
N ew a rk -J e rse y C i t y ______________
New Y ork C it v ____ ____
_______
Philadelphia
_
_
Portland (O reg. ) .
_ . ... ........ .
St. L o u is ___________________________
San F r a n c is c o -O a k la n d ___________

1953

M arch 1952
_

A p ril 1952
January 1952
M arch 1952
O ctober 1951
-

N ovem ber 1951
January 1952
N ovem ber 1951
N ovem ber 1951
N ovem ber 1951
January 1952
O ctober 1951
-

January 1952
January 1952

1955

1954

M arch 1953
O ctober 1952
M arch 1953
A p ril 1953
M arch 1953
O ctober 1952
August 1952
N ovem ber 1952
F eb ru ary 1953
January 1953
N ovem ber 1952
N ovem ber 1952
F eb ru ary 1953
O ctober 1952
Septem ber 1952
D ecem ber 1952
January 1953

M arch 1954
M arch 1954
-

M arch 1954
_

Septem ber 1953
D ecem ber 1953
M arch 1954
January 1954
N ovem ber 1953
D ecem ber 1953
F eb ru ary 1954
O ctober 1953
Septem ber 1953
January 1954
January 1954

M arch 1955
A p ril 1955
A p ril 1955
Septem ber 1954
A p r il 1955
O ctober 1954
Septem ber 1954
D ecem ber 1954
M arch 1955
F eb ru ary 1955
N ovem ber 1954
D ecem ber 1954
M arch 1955
N ovem ber 1954
A p ril 1955
F eb ru ary 1955
January 1955

1 F is c a l years ending June 30.

Table 4:

Wage Indexes, Office

(indexes o f average w eekly earnings 1 o f w om en o ffic e w o rk e rs in 8 la b o r m ark ets, 1949-55)
(1950 = 100)
A ll industries

Manuf actur ing

A rea
1949
Atlanta
..... ___ _
.............. .
B oston
_ ______
_ ........ ........
C h icago .... ____
___
D e n v e r . ___ ... ___
L os A n geles . ... _ ................. ...
New Y ork C it y _
_
P h iladelphia
San F ran cisco-O ak lan d _________




1950

1951

1952

1953

1954

1955

1949

1950

1951

1952

1953

1954

1955

97. 3
98. 0
98.3

100. 0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

105.6
108.8
107.4
108.8
.
105.8

112.7
116.4
114.2
112.5
110.6
111.6
110.9
110.0

119.2
121.4
120.6
121.6
118.6
117.7
116.1
115.7

122.8
127.7
127.6
128.4
124.0
122.8
124.4
120.8

125.5
131.5
132.2
132. 1
128.6
127.0
128.7
124.4

96 .2
9 9 .6
99 .2
_
9 6 .4
97.7
9 7 .2
-

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

108.6
107.9
107.4
110.7
.
105.8

118. 1
115. 7
114.0
121.3
109.7
110.6
110.5
109.2

124. 1
122. 1
119.9
126.7
118.9
116.8
116.3
116.7

130.0
127.4
127.5
134.2
125.1
122.9
124.0
121.9

131.8
130. 1
131.7
139.2
129.9
128.3
129.6
124.6

-

9 7.8
96.7
97.7
'

.

106.8

A v era ge w eekly earnings relate to standard s a la rie s that are paid fo r standard w ork schedules

_

105.8

10

w ork e rs o v e r the 3 -y e a r p e r io d .
Thus, in each co m p a riso n ,
widely sca tte re d a re a s and a re a s with both high and low wage
le v e ls app ea r.
On the w h ole, the d iffe r e n c e in in c r e a s e s fo r m an u fac­
turing and th ose fo r all in d u stries com bin ed w ere rela tiv ely
slight, a s shown in table 2.
In m ost c a s e s , the d iffe r e n c e in
the amount of in c re a s e o v e r the 3 y e a r s betw een m anufacturing
and all in d u strie s w as le s s than 1 p e rcen ta g e point.
In addition to the in dexes p resen ted fo r 1952 to 1955,
separate in d ex es a re shown fo r w om en o ffic e w o rk e rs in 8 a re a s ,
1949-55 (see table 4 ).
T h ese data continue an index as p r e ­
sented in an e a r lie r p u b lica tion . 8
C ov era ge and M ethod o f Com puting the Indexes
N ea rly half o f the w om en o ffice e m p loy ees in in d u stries
within the sco p e o f the su rv ey s in the 17 a re a s w ere em ployed
in the 18 o ccu p a tion s used in con stru ctin g the o ffice w o rk e rs
index.
The 10 jo b s used fo r the sk illed m aintenance index in ­
clude all the n u m e rica lly im portant m aintenance jo b s .
In c a l ­
culating the index fo r u n sk illed m en plant w o r k e rs , only 3 jo b s
w ere in clu ded, but th ese a re am ong the m ost im portant u nsk illed
jo b s n u m e rica lly .
N ea rly a tenth of all plant w o rk e rs in the
17 a re a s w e re em p loy ed in the jo b s used in com puting the in­
dexes fo r sk illed and u n sk illed w o r k e rs , the m a jo rity of th ese,
of co u r s e , being in u n sk illed jo b s .
About th re e -fo u rth s of the
sk illed m aintenance w o r k e rs c o v e re d by the index w ere em ployed
in m anufacturing e sta b lish m en ts, w h erea s the unsk illed w o rk e rs
w ere about even ly divid ed betw een m anufacturing and nonm anufactu rin g . F o r o ffic e w o r k e r s , the p ro p o rtio n in nonm anufacturing
estab lish m en ts was n ea rly tw o -th ir d s .
A v e ra g e w eekly s a la r ie s or a v era ge hou rly earn in gs w ere
com puted fo r the sp e c ifie d occu p a tion s in each a r e a . 9 The a v e r ­
age s a la rie s o r h ou rly earn in gs fo r each occu p ation w ere then
m ultip lied by the a v era ge of 1953 and 1954 em ploym en t in each
jo b in the p a rticu la r a r e a . T h ese a g g reg a tes fo r individual o c ­
cupations w e re then added to get an a ggregate fo r each o c c u p a ­
tional grou p. F in a lly , the ra tio of these group a g g re g a te s fo r a
given y e a r to the a g greg a te fo r the ba se y ea r (1953) was c o m ­
puted and the resu lt w as m u ltip lied by the base y ea r index (100)
to get the index fo r the given y e a r , as fo llo w s :
Index fo r y e a r Y = A g greg a te fo r y e a r Y
x 10Q
A g greg a te fo r b ase y ea r




L im itation s of the Data
The indexes of av erage sa la rie s and hourly earnings
m ea su re p rin cip a lly the e ffe cts of (l) general salary and wage
changes; (2) m e rit or other in c re a s e s in pay r e ce iv e d by individual
w o rk e rs w hile in the sam e jo b ; and (3) tu rn ov er, or fo r c e ex ­
pansion or redu ction that may change the p rop o rtio n of w ork ers
at d ifferen t pay le v e ls within an occu pation .
Thus, extensive
la y o ffs of w o rk e rs , with resultant in c re a s e s in the p rop ortion of
h igh er paid sen ior w ork m en in a s p e c ific occupation, would p r o ­
duce a ris e in the index. The indexes are a lso a ffected by shifts
in the p rop ortion of w o rk e rs em ployed by establish m en ts with
d ifferen t pay le v e ls .
F o r exam ple, the m ovem ent of a highpaying establishm ent out of an area would cause the index to
d rop , even though no change in rates o c c u r r e d in other area
estab lish m en ts.
The use of constant em ploym ent w eights elim in ates the
e ffe c ts of changes in the p rop o rtio n of w o rk e rs rep resen ted in
each jo b included in the index. To illu stra te, an in cre a se in the
p rop ortion of o ffice w o rk e rs em ployed as s e c r e ta r ie s sim u lta­
n eou sly with a d e c r e a s e in the rela tiv e num ber of stenographers
w ould not cause the index to r is e , despite the fact that s e c r e ­
ta r ie s r e ce iv e la rg e r s a la r ie s .
N or are the indexes influenced
by changes in standard w ork sch ed ules or in p rem iu m pay for
o v e rtim e , since they a re based on pay fo r stra ig h t-tim e h ou rs.

8 See S ala ries of W om en in O ffice W ork, 1949 to 1954, in
the Monthly L abor R ev iew , Septem ber 1954, p. 972. In co n s tru ct­
ing the new indexes fo r sk illed m aintenance w o rk e rs and unskilled
w o r k e r s , data w ere not available fo r su fficien t a re a s to presen t
in dexes b e fo re 1952. T h e r e fo r e , a 1953 base w as used fo r these
in dexes and new o ffice w ork er in dexes a ls o w ere p rep a red with
that base fo r com p a ra b ility .
9 The 1952 a v e ra g e s published in the com m unity wage bu l­
letin s w ere not used, since they w e re based on a b roa d er range
o f establishm ent size groups than w e re the subsequent su rv ey s.
In o r d e r to make the su rvey a v e ra g e s com p a ra b le, a v e ra g e s for
1952 w ere recom pu ted , using only re p o rts fro m establish m en ts
in the sam e size ranges as w ere u sed beginning in 1953.

11

Occupational

•nings,

1954-55

A v e ra g e ea rn in gs o f w om en in 24 o ffice and 2 plant o c ­
cu p a tion s, and o f m en w o r k e r s in 9 o ffice and 31 plant ca te g o rie s
a re p re s e n te d in the ta b les beginning on page 15. These occu pation s
w e re ch o se n fo r th eir im p o rta n ce as b en ch m a rk s, eith er becau se
o f th eir p o s itio n in the h ie r a r c h y o f earnings le v e ls , or b eca u se
they a re r e p r e se n ta tiv e o f e s p e c ia lly la rg e segm ents o f w o rk e rs
in ea ch a re a . M en g e n e r a lly earn ed m o r e than w om en w o rk e rs
in co m p a ra b le jo b s . E a rn in gs fo r both o ffice and plant jo b s w ere
u su ally h igh er in m a n u fa ctu rin g.
A w ide v a riation was usually
re p o r te d in ea rn in gs fo r w o r k e r s em p loy ed in the sam e jo b and
area.

a lly a v e ra g e d a little m o r e than those
r e v e r s e was true in a few a r e a s .

W o m e n rs O ffice O ccu pation s

E arnings fo r m en w ere studied in 6 o f the o ffice c le r ic a l
occu p a tion s a lso studied fo r w om en; in 5 of these m e n ’ s sa la rie s
a v era g ed h igh er in all o f the a r e a s .
M en accounting cle rk s
g e n e ra lly earn ed $10 to $15 m o r e a w eek than did w om en; o rd e r
c le rk s u s u a lly ’ ea rn ed $15 to $21 m o r e ; p a y ro ll c le rk s $13 to
$20 m o r e ; and m en tabu latin g-m ach in e o p e r a to r s , fro m $5 to
$10 m o r e .
O ffice b oy s g e n e ra lly earn ed fro m 50 cents to $4
m o r e than o ffic e g ir l s , although the latter had the higher e a rn ­
ings in A tlanta, B oston , and St. L ou is.

S e c r e t a r ie s g e n e r a lly a v era ged the highest w eek ly sa la ry
am ong the w o m e n ’ s o ffic e occu pa tion s in the 17 la b o r m a rk e ts.
In 5 o f th e se — L o s A n g e le s , C h ica go, New Y ork C ity, C levelan d,
and San F r a n c is c o -O a k la n d — th eir a v era g es w ere clu s te r e d within
a $2 s p re a d , ranging fr o m $74 to $76 a w eek.
In m o st other
a re a s the a v e r a g e s ra n g ed fr o m $65 to $70.
C la s s A a ccou n tin g c le r k s had equal or sligh tly higher
s a la r ie s than s e c r e t a r ie s in B a ltim o re , M em ph is, and P ortla n d ,
although in m o s t oth er a r e a s they earn ed fro m $2 to $ 3 .5 0 le s s
a w eek than s e c r e t a r ie s . Sten ograph ers capable o f handling s p e ­
c ia liz e d te ch n ica l s u b je ct m a tter g en era lly earned $4. 50 to $7
le s s than s e c r e t a r i e s , e x ce p t in L os A n g e le s , w here th eir a v erage
w as as high.

o f o ffic e

g ir ls

but the

Industrial n u r s e s , the only w o m e n ’ s p ro fe s s io n a l o c c u ­
pation studied, ea rn ed $80. 50 in L os A n g eles and $78 in New
Y ork C ity, and about $75 a w eek in B a ltim o re , B u ffalo, C h icago,
C levelan d , and San F ra n cisco -O a k la n d .
N u r s e s 1 s a la rie s a v e r ­
aged lo w e r in oth er a r e a s , and w ere low est ($67 to $68) in
B oston , D en v er, M em p h is, and St. L o u is.
M e n !s O ffice O ccupations

A m ong tech n ica l w o r k e r s , se n io r draftsm en a v eraged
$ 1 0 5 .5 0 a w eek in New Y ork C ity, and about $100 in C h icago,
C levela n d , and P hilad elph ia. T h eir earnings in m ost other a rea s
w e re betw een $90 and $95 a w eek . Junior draftsm en a v eraged
fro m $20 to $30 a w eek le s s than sen ior d ra ftsm en in m o st a re a s.
Skilled M aintenance O ccupations

G e n e ra l ste n o g ra p h e rs earn ed fro m $ 8 .5 0 to $ 1 4 .5 0 a
w eek le s s than s e c r e t a r i e s , averagin g fr o m $64 to $65 a w eek in
C h ica g o , L o s A n g e le s , and San F ra n cisco -O a k la n d , and $62 in
C lev ela n d . E x ce p t fo r the $ 5 1 .5 0 a w eek a verage in M em p h is,
th e ir earn in gs in the oth er a re a s ranged betw een $ 5 4 .5 0 and
$ 5 9 . 50.
O ccu pa tion s at lo w e r le v e ls o f average earnings are
b e s t re p r e s e n te d b y the n u m e rica lly im portant routine typists
(c la s s B ).
E a rn in gs o f th ese w o r k e rs w e re at or n ear $52 a
w eek in C h ica g o , C le v e la n d , L os A n g e le s , and San F r a n c is c o Oakland; at $48 to $50 in B u ffa lo, N e w a rk -J e rs e y C ity, New
Y ork C ity, and P o rtla n d ; $47 in D en ver, M in n ea p olis-S t. P au l,
and St. L o u is; $44 in A tlan ta, B a ltim o re , B oston , D a lla s, and
P h ilad elph ia ; and $41 in M em p h is.
In m o s t a r e a s the earn in gs o f routine file c le r k s w e re
about $4 b e lo w th ose o f routine ty p ists. A v e ra g e earn in gs ranged
fr o m the $48 to $49 le v e l in la rg e M iddle W est and F a r W est
a re a s to $39 to $41 in Southern a r e a s .
T h eir earnings g e n e r ­



T o o l and die m a k ers w ere g e n e ra lly the highest paid
w o rk e rs in the sk ille d m aintenance occu pation s studied in the 17
a r e a s . T h e ir s tra ig h t-tim e a v era g e h ou rly earnings w ere about
$ 2 -6 5 in C h icago and San F r a n c is c o -O a k la n d , and ranged b e ­
tween $ 2 .4 0 and $ 2 .5 5 in m o st other a r e a s ; low est earn in gs,
betw een $ 2 .1 7 and $ 2 .2 4 , w e re r e c o r d e d in D a lla s, D en ver, and
M em p h is.
T o o l and die m a k ers g e n e ra lly earn ed betw een 10
and 15 cen ts m o r e an hour than w o rk e rs in the next highest paid
m aintenance cr a ft.
10
It should be noted that the earnings rela te to the av era ges
fo r jo b s as they a re found in an a re a .
E arnings relation sh ip s
betw een jo b s as they o c c u r in the sam e estab lish m en t are analyzed
in O ccupational W age R elationsh ip s in M anufacturing, 1952-53,
Monthly L a b or R ev iew , N ovem b er 1953 (p. 1171). A b r ie fe r anal­
y s i s , but a ls o including public u tilitie s , is contained in W ages and
R elated B e n e fits , 20 L a b o r M a rk e ts, 1952-53 , Appendix A , BLS
B u ll. 1116, p r ic e 55 ce n ts.

12

A m on g other sk ille d m aintenance w o rk e rs studied, e l e c ­
tr ic ia n s , m a ch in is ts, p ip e fitte r s , and s h e e t-m e ta l w o rk e rs gen ­
e ra lly ea rn ed m o r e than c a r p e n te r s , au tom otive m e c h a n ic s , m i l l ­
w rig h ts, and p a in te rs.
M aintenance e le c tr ic ia n s w e re h ighest paid in C h icago—
$ 2 .4 9 an h ou r. They a v e ra g e d about $ 2 .4 0 in the 3 W est C oast
a rea s and in M in n e a p o lis-S t. P au l, with the lo w e st pay— $2. 10
to $2. 14— in B oston , D a lla s, D en v er, and M em p h is.
A u tom otive m e ch a n ics a v e ra g e d m o r e than $2 an hour
in m ost a r e a s , the h igh est, $ 2 .4 5 and $ 2 .4 0 , in San F r a n c is c o Oakland and C h ica go. A v e ra g e s w e re about $ 2 .2 5 in L os A n g e le s ,
P ortlan d, and C levelan d; about $ 2 . 10 in 7 other a r e a s ; sligh tly
le s s than $2 in B a ltim o re and B oston ; and betw een $ 1 .7 0 and
$ 1 .8 0 an hour in 3 Southern a r e a s .
U nskilled L a b or
J a n ito rs, m a te ria l handling la b o r e r s , and w atchm en, in
the o rd e r n am ed, w e re the m o st n u m erou s o f the u n sk illed plant
w ork ers studied.
M en ja n ito rs a v e ra g e d about $ 1 .6 0 an hour in San F ra n cisco -O a k la n d and C h ica go, fro m about $ 1 .3 5 to $ 1 .5 0 in m ost
nonsouthern a r e a s , $ 1 .2 5 in B a ltim o re and D en v er, and $ 1 to
$ 1 .0 6 in 3 Southern a r e a s . Janitors* earn in gs e x ce e d e d those o f
ja n itre s s e s by am ounts ranging fr o m 10 cents an hour (D enver
and San F ra n cisco -O a k la n d ) to about 35 cen ts (Atlanta, B a ltim o re ,
B u ffalo, and C levela n d ), and a v e ra g e d about 25 cents an hour
higher in the other a r e a s .
Janitors* earn in gs w e re slig h tly h igh er than w atchm en’ s
in m ost o f the a r e a s .
An e x tre m e d iffe re n ce in earnings fo r
w atchm en and ja n ito rs w as found in C h icago w h ere they a v era g ed
$ 1 .2 4 and $ 1 .5 9 , r e s p e c t iv e ly .
The a ll-in d u s try a v era ge fo r
ja n ito rs in C h icago r e fle c te d the c o m p a ra tiv e ly high rates paid
in o ffice building s e r v ic e ; watchm en*s earnings on the other
hand, a v e ra g e d 10 to 30 cen ts an hour le s s than in other M iddle
W est a r e a s .
L a b o r e r s ’ earn in gs ranged fr o m about $ 1 .2 0 in 3 South­
ern areas to about $ 1 .8 5 in the W est C oast a re a s and N ew ark J e rs e y C ity. T h ese w o r k e rs w e re engaged in loading and unload­
ing, unpacking, sh elvin g, sto rin g , and tra n sp ortin g m a te ria ls and
m erch a n d ise by hand tru ck .
They a v e ra g ed about 10 cents an
hour m o re than ja n ito rs in Atlanta and C h ica g o, about 15 cents
m o r e in Southern a rea s oth er than A tlanta, 20 cents in m o st
N ortheast a r e a s , and 25 to 30 cen ts in M iddle W est a rea s other
Digitized than C hicago and the F a r W est.
for FRASER


Interindustry C om p a rison s
In g en era l, earnings fo r o ffic e and plant w o r k e rs tended
to be higher in m anufacturing than in nonm anufacturing as a
grou p. M anufacturing a v e ra g e s w e re freq u en tly e x c e e d e d , h o w ­
e v e r , in one or m o re of the 5 b ro a d nonm anufacturing g r o u p s ,
p a rticu la rly am ong o ffice o ccu p a tio n s. F o r e x a m p le , s e c r e t a r ie s ’
earnings w ere g en era lly h igh er in p u b lic u tilitie s than in m an u ­
fa ctu rin g .
P a y ro ll cle rk s in m a n u factu rin g w e re lo w e r than in
w h olesa le trade in 6 o f 8 a r e a s , in pu b lic u tilitie s in 5 o f 13
a r e a s , in finance in 4 o f 6 a r e a s , and in s e r v ic e s in 3 o f 4
a rea s in w hich co m p a riso n s w e re a v a ila b le .
A few other jo b s w e re u su a lly h ig h er paid in one or m o r e
of the b roa d nonm anufacturing in d u stry g ro u p s.
T h ese in clu d ed
accounting cle rk s and routine ty p is ts , as w e ll as au tom otive
m ech a n ics and la b o r e r s .
Such e x ce p tio n s o c c u r r e d m o s t often
in A tlanta, B oston , C h ica g o, New Y ork C ity, and P h ilad elp h ia.
M ost o f the h ig h er-th a n -m a n u fa ctu rin g a v e ra g e s w e re found in
public u tilitie s, follow ed by w h o le sa le trad e and, c h ie fly in plant
jo b s , reta il trade.
P ay V ariations Within Individual O ccu pation s
Straigh t-tim e earn in gs v a r ie d c o n s id e r a b ly am ong in d i­
vidual w o rk e rs who w ere em p lo y e d at the sam e jo b in the sam e
a re a . A cco rd in g to the jo b and a r e a , h igh est in dividual earn in gs
in a given job m ight e x c e e d the lo w e st earn in gs by as little as
20 p e rce n t or by 300 p e rce n t o r m o r e . 11 Som e sp re a d in ra tes
paid w o rk e rs in the sam e jo b is a ccou n ted fo r by in terin d u stry
d iffe re n ce s in pay.
H ow ev er, w ide v a ria tio n s in pay ra tes fo r
the sam e job are often r e p o rte d not only am ong esta b lish m en ts
in the sam e in du stry, but a ls o am ong w o r k e rs in the sam e e s ­
tablishm ent.
These sp read s re su lt fr o m a v a r ie ty o f fa c t o r s .
Im portant in this re s p e ct a re the w age setting p r a c t ic e s o f in d iv id ­
ual fir m s (single ra te s, or fo r m a l rate ra n g e s , in individual j o b s ;
rate determ ination on an individual b a s is ; in cen tiv e s y s t e m s 12),

1 Using as exam ple 2 a re a s taken at random : In A tlanta
1
o ffice jo b s , the highest individual s a la ry ty p ica lly e x c e e d e d the
low est by 150 p e rce n t, and the h igh est s tra ig h t-tim e h ou rly e a r n ­
ings ty p ica lly e x ce e d e d the lo w e st 125 p e r c e n t am ong m ain ten an ce ,
150 p ercen t among m a teria l m o v e m e n t, and 200 p e rce n t am ong
cu stod ial jo b s . In San F r a n c is c o -O a k la n d the c o rre s p o n d in g p r o ­
p ortion s w ere:
O ffice jo b s — 100 p e r c e n t; m ain ten an ce— 50 p e r ­
cent; cu stod ial— 75 p e rcen t; m a te r ia l m ov em en t— 50 p e r c e n t.
12 P rod u ction bonus sy ste m s w e re an im portan t d eterm in in g
fa cto r in the av erage earn in gs o f tr u c k d r iv e r s in N e w a r k -J e r s e y
City and New Y ork C ity.

13
the a r e a ’ s in d u stria l c o m p o s itio n (type o f industry within the m a jo r
in d u stry g r o u p s , s iz e o f e sta b lish m e n t), the co m p o s itio n o f the
la b o r f o r c e , and the extent to w hich em p loy ees m a y b e c o v e r e d
by c o lle c t iv e ba rga in in g a g r e e m e n t s .1
3
In any a r e a , b e ca u se o f the va ria tion in individual e a rn ­
ings in a p a r tic u la r jo b , it is com m on p la ce that som e o f the
w o r k e r s in jo b s re q u irin g l e s s e r sk ill or training r e c e iv e h igh er
s a la r ie s o r a v e ra g e h o u rly earn in gs than those r e c e iv e d by som e
w o r k e r s in jo b s re q u irin g h igh er standards o f aptitude and e x p e ­
r ie n c e . 14 A s an e x a m p le , in New Y ork City m anufacturing in du s­
t r i e s , g e n e ra l ste n o g ra p h e rs a v era ged $63 a w eek and routine
file c le r k s a v e r a g e d $50; but as shown by the overlap pin g d is ­
trib u tion s fo r th ese jo b s , 7 p e rce n t o f the file c le r k s , with
s a la r ie s o f $50 o r o v e r , w e r e h igh er paid than 2 p e rce n t o f the
ste n og ra p h e rs w h ose s a la r ie s w ere le s s than $50; 3 p e rce n t of
the file c le r k s , w ith s a la r ie s o f $60 o r m o r e , r e c e iv e d h igh er




s a la r ie s than did 11 p e rce n t o f the sten og ra p h ers.
S im ila rly ,
although to o l and die m a k e rs a v e ra g e d 70 cents an hour higher
than m aintenance tra d es h e lp e rs in New Y ork City m anufacturing
in d u s trie s , earn in gs o f 7 p e rce n t o f the h e lp e rs equaled or e x ­
ce e d e d $ 2 .2 0 an h o u r, w h erea s 8 p e rce n t o f the tool and die
m a k e rs ea rn ed le s s than this am ount.
1 D is c u s s io n s o f la b o r-m a n a g e m e n t ag reem en t co v e ra g e by
3
s iz e o f esta b lish m en t, w age stru ctu re (types o f wage
paym ent
plan s) fo r plant and o ffic e w o r k e r s , and m eth od o f wage paym ent
fo r plant w o r k e r s , as they rela te to the m a jo r industry d iv i­
sion s app ear in Wage D iffe re n c e s and E stab lish m en t P r a c t ic e s ,
17 L a b or M a rk e ts, 195 3 -5 4 , BLS B ull. 1173, p r ic e 35 cen ts.
14 F re q u e n cy distrib u tion s p re s e n te d in the area bulletins
show the range fro m the low est to the high est rates paid in the
in d u stries studied, fo r w ork at co m p a ra b le ta sk s.




15
A:

O c c u p a t io n a l

E a r n in g s

Table A-l: Office Occupations (All Industries)
(A v e ra g e w e e k ly e a rn in g s 1 f o r s e le c t e d o c c u p a tio n s studied in 6 b r o a d in d u stry d iv is io n s )
South

N o rth e a s t
S ex, o c c u p a t io n , and g rad e
B oston

B u ffa lo

N e w a rk J e r s e y C ity

New Y o r k
C ity

P h ila d e lp h ia

A tlanta

D allas

M em phis

50
50
50
50
50
00

$ 7 9 . 50
63. 00
64. 00
72. 00
4 1 .0 0
6 6 .5 0

$79.
61.
63.
69.
42.
72.

B a ltim o re

Office clerical
M en
C le r k s :
A c c o u n t in g , c la s s A __
— __ — __ _ ____
A c c o u n t in g , c la s s B _
__ __ __ _____
____
O r d e r ____ ____________________________________________
__
___ __ __ __
__ ____
P a y r o ll __ __
O ffic e b o y s __ __
__ __ __
_____ __ _____ __ _
T a b u la tin g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s _ __ __ __ __ _ _____

$78.
60.
69.
72.
41.
67.

00
50
00
50
50
00

$78.
59.
70.
70.
41.
63.

00
00
50
00
00
50

$81.
68.
75.
80.
42.
64.

50
00
00
50
50
00

$ 7 3 .0 0
58. 00
73. 00
76. 50
4 1 .5 0
6 5 .0 0

$ 8 1 .5 0
74. 50
80. 50
86. 50
46. 50
74. 00

$84 . 00
73. 50
77. 50
77. 50
4 4 .0 0
68. 00

5 0 .5 0
47. 50

50. 50
52. 00

56. 50
56. 00

60. 00
60. 00

53. 50
53. 00

53. 00
50. 00

5 3 .0 0
50. 00

50. 00
50. 50

49. 00
44. 50

5 8 .0 0
4 9 .0 0

59. 00
45. 50

59. 00
53. 00

64. 00
55. 50

6 1 .0 0
48. 00

56. 50
50. 50

60. 00
45. 00

57. 00
48. 00

60. 00
46. 50

6 0 .5 0
48. 50
5 1 .0 0
40. 50
52. 00
55. 50
50. 50

66.
51.
53.
46.

58. 00
53. 50

68.
56.
56.
46.
58.
61.
60.

50
00
50
50
50
00
50

69.
55.
59.
46.
57.
65.
60.

50
00
50
50
50
00
00

59. 50
49. 50
53. 00
4 0 .5 0
48. 50
56. 50
52. 50

64. 00
5 1 .5 0
53. 50
4 1 .5 0
49. 50
56. 00
53. 50

67. 00
49. 00
5 3 .5 0
40. 50
4 8 .5 0
57. 00
55. 50

62. 50
53. 00
4 9 .5 0
3 9 .5 0
49. 50
57. 00
55. 50

60.
47.
47.
39.
49.
53.
48.

47. 00
4 9 .0 0
42. 00
63. 00
54. 50
56. 50
50. 50
5 1 .0 0
55. 50
50. 00
5 1 .0 0
44. 50

47. 50
54. 00
42. 00
69. 00
58. 50
66. 00
5 5 .5 0
52. 00
63. 50
52. 50
57. 00
48. 50

50.
56.
43.
72.
59.
64.
57.
55.
62.
54.
57.
49.

00
00
50
00
50
50
00
50
00
50
50
00

5 1 .5 0
54. 50
43. 00
74. 00
5 9 .5 0
6 9 .5 0
59. 00
56. 50
62. 50
59. 00
57. 50
50. 50

46. 50
5 1 .5 0
39. 50
68. 00
54. 50
6 4 .0 0
53. 00
50. 50
57. 50
5 1 .5 0
5 2 .5 0
44. 50

4 7 .0 0
4 9 .5 0
4 1 .5 0
6 6 .0 0
56. 50

4 6 .0 0
50. 50
39. 50
65. 50
55. 50

50.
51.
40.
67.
58.

50. 50
38. 50
60. 50
5 1 .5 0

45. 50
50. 50
5 6 .0 0
5 0 .5 0
51. 50
43. 50

50. 00
52. 50
57. 00
52. 00
55. 50
4 3 .5 0

121. 00
9 2 .0 0
69. 50

123 .0 0
95. 00
74. 00

1 1 2 .5 0
97. 00
71. 00

1 44 .50
1 05 .50
7 1 .5 0

1 2 2 .0 0
10 0 .0 0
6 8 .5 0

1 2 2 .0 0
8 9 .0 0
66. 50

67. 00

75. 50

7 3 .5 0

7 8 .0 0

69. 50

7 2 .0 0

$79.
61.
74.
72.
44.
68.

50
00
00
00
00
00

W om en
B i l l e r s , m a c h in e :
B illin g m a c h i n e ___ _____ _ ___
B ook k eep in g m a c h in e _
_____
'B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s :
C la s s A _
_______

__ __ _
_ _ __ ____

C le r k s :
A c c o u n t in g , c la s s A __
__
_
_____ __ _ __ _____ _
A c c o u n t in g , c la s s B __
F i l e , c la s s A _
__ __
____ _ _ _ _ _
F i l e , c la s s B __ __ __
_ _ _____ __ ____
O r d e r _ __ __ __
__
___ __ _____ __ __ __ _
P a y r o ll ------ ----- _ _ _ _ _
______
C o m p to m e te r o p e r a t o r s _ _
D u p lic a tin g -m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s (m im e o g r a p h
__ _ __
__ _
o r d itto) _ __ __ __ __ _____
K e y -p u n ch o p e r a t o r s ___________________________________
O ffic e g i r ls __
_ _
_____
__ _
S e c r e t a r ie s _ __
_ _ _ _ _ _ _
S te n o g r a p h e r s , g e n e r a l _
S te n o g r a p h e r s , t e c h n i c a l ______________________________
S w itch b o a rd o p e r a t o r s _________________________________
S w itch b o a rd o p e r a t o r -r e c e p t i o n i s t s _ __
T a b u la tin g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ________________________
T r a n s c r ib in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , g e n e r a l __________
T y p is t s , c la s s A _
__ __
__
__ _ _
_ . _
T y p is t s , c la s s B __________________________________ ______

00
50
50
50

_

-

00
00
50
50
00

-

48.
50.
62.
49.
50.
45.

50
50
00
00
50
00
00

-

-

50
00
50
50
50
00

40. 00
48. 00
47. 50
48. 00
40. 50

10 9 .5 0
91. 50
63. 00

1 03 .50
83. 00
58. 00

9 1 .0 0
64. 50

7 5 .0 0

70. 50

68. 00

-

Professional and technical
M en
D r a f t s m e n , le a d e r
D r a f t s m e n , s e n io r
D r a f t s m e n , ju n io r

.
_

.. .......... _ _

...

. .......

. . .

..........

......

W om en
N u r s e s , in d u s t r ia l / r e g is t e r e d )

S ee footn ote at end o f table




_

.

___

_
_

16
Table A-l: Office Occupations (All Industries) - Continued
(A v e r a g e w e e k ly e a rn in g s 1 fo r s e le c t e d o c cu p a tio n s stu died in 6 b r o a d in d u stry d iv is io n s )
F a r W est

M id d le W est
S ex , o c c u p a tio n , and gra d e
C h ica g o

C le v e la n d

M in n e a p o lis St. Paul

St. L o u is

D en ver

Los
A n g e le s

P o r tla n d

San
F r a n c is c o O akland

$73 .
60.
65.
68.
42.
70.

00
00
50
00
50
50

$ 8 1 . 50
69. 50
79- 50
81. 50
5 2 .0 0
79. 00

$82.
71.
76.
78.
46.
80.

50
00
50
00
50
00

$ 8 1 .0 0
6 8 .5 0
83. 00
8 1 .5 0
50. 00
73. 50

Office clerical
M en
C le r k s :
A cc o u n tin g , c la s s A __ ___________________ __ __ _
A cco u n tin g , c la s s B __ __ __ __
__ __ __ __ _
O rd er — ________ _____ ________ ________ ____
P a y r o ll ________ - _______ ______ ________________
O ffice b o y s __ ____________ ______ ___ ____________ _
T a b u la tin g -m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s _______

$83.
65.
81.
78.
50.
74.

50
00
00
00
00
50

50
00
50
50
00
50

$ 7 6 . 50
60. 00
7 2 .0 0
_
43. 00
66. 50

$ 8 2 . 00
64. 50
7 1 .5 0
76. 00
45. 00
73. 00

60, 00
5 7 .0 0

56. 50
56. 50

49. 50
54. 00

56. 00
-

52. 00
53. 00

59. 00
64. 00

55. 50
53. 00

60. 00
59. 50

71. 50
60. 00

68. 50
54. 50

61. 50
4 9 .5 0

62. 50
50. 00

6 1 .0 0
50. 00

72. 00
55. 50

66. 50
52. 50

69. 50
57. 00

73. 00
58. 50
5 9 .5 0
49. 00
59. 50
65. 50
62. 50

70.
57.
59.
48.
55.
64.
60.

50
50
50
00
50
00
00

63.
49.
52.
42.
50.
57.
54.

00
00
00
00
50
00
00

68.
52.
57.
43.
52.
56.
56.

00
50
00
50
50
50
50

6 1 .0 0
53. 00
52. 00
43. 50
51. 50
55. 50
5 1 .5 0

73.
60.
63.
49.
66.
68.
65.

72.
58.
60.
46.
57.
62.
57.

50
00
00
50
00
50
50

7 1 .0 0
59. 00
62. 00
48. 00
66. 50
68. 00
63. 00

55. 50
60.^50
49. 00
75. 00
64. 00
68. 00
59. 50
5 9 .0 0
6 6 .5 0
60. 00
62: 50
53. 00

51.
58.
46.
74.
62.
67.
59.
57.
64.
59.
60.
52.

50
50
50
00
00
00
50
50
50
00
50
00

48. 50
49. 50
40 . 00
65. 50
54. 50
61. 00
5 3 .5 0
50. 50
56. 50
51. 00
52. 50
46. 50

50.
54.
46.
70.
56.
61.
53.
53.
67.
52.
56.
47.

00
00
50
00
50
00
00
00
50
00
50
50

54. 50
42. 00
67. 00
57. 00
62. 00
48. 50
5 2 .0 0
63. 00
53. 50
53. 50
47. 00

57. 50
65. 00
4 8 .5 0
76. 00
64. 50
7 6 .0 0
61. 00
61. 50
73. 50
58. 00
60. 50
52. 50

51. 50
57. 00
42. 00
72. 00
58. 50
52. 50
55. 00
58. 50
5 5 .0 0
57. 00
5 0 .0 0

5 7 .0 0
60. 00
4 9 .5 0
74. 00
65. 00
5 9 .5 0
5 9 .5 0
70. 00
6 1 .0 0
60. 00
5 2 .0 0

1 2 7 .0 0
101. 00
7 4 .0 0

1 12 .00
99. 00
77. 00

_

_

88. 00
73. 00

93. 00
73. 00

1 25 .00
90. 00
6 6 .5 0

1 2 4 .5 0
95. 00
79. 50

94. 50
76. 00

9 0 .5 0
7 8 .0 0

75. 00

7 4 .5 0

72. 50

68. 50

67. 50

80. 50

70. 00

7 6 .5 0

$82 .
68.
81.
77.
52.
82.

W om en
B i l le r s , m a ch in e:
B illin g m a c h i n e ______________________________________
______ „ _____
B ook keeping m a ch in e _ __
B ook k eep in g-m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s :
C la s s A __ __________
C la ss B __ __ __ __
______ _____ __ ________ _
C le r k s :
A c c o u n tin g , c la s s A
_ _
... . . .
A cco u n tin g , c la s s B
._ _
F ile , c la s s A __
__ _
_
F ile . c la s s B ___ ____
O r d e r ------------------ __ __ __ „ _____ __ _____ __ _
P a y r o l l ___ _
..
... ........ ...
C om p tom eter o p e r a t o r s
_
_
D u p lica tin g -m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s (m im e o g r a p h
o r ditto) _ _________ __
K ey-pu n ch o p e r a t o r s ________________ ____________ _______
O ffice g ir ls __ _____ __
..
.
S e c r e t a r ie s _____ __ __ __ _____ _____
__ ______ _
S te n o g ra p h e rs, g e n e r a l _ _ _ _ _
_ ... . .
S te n o g r a p h e r s, te c h n ic a l
_ _
S w itch boa rd o p e r a t o r s _
. .... _
S w itch boa rd o p e r a t o r - r e c e p t i o n i s t s ______ ____________
T a b u la tin g -m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s _
___
T r a n s c r ib in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , g e n e r a l
T y p is t s , c la s s A __
T y p is ts , c la s s B __ __ ___ ________ _____
___ __ _

50
50
50
00
00
00
50

Professional and technical
M en
D ra fts m e n , l e a d e r _______
___
D ra fts m e n , s e n i o r . ___ _____
D ra fts m e n , ju n io r _

__

_ _

_

... ..

_

_

W om en
N u r s e s , in d u s tria l (r e g is t e r e d )

_

__

T

..........

1 E a rn in g s r e la te to stan dard s a la r ie s that a r e p a id fo r stan dard w o rk s c h e d u le s .
N O TE:

D ash es in d ica te no data o r in s u ffic ie n t data to w a r ra n t p r e s e n ta tio n .




17
Table A-2* Office Occupations (Manufacturing)
(A v e r a g e w e e k ly e a rn in g s 1 f o r s e le c t e d o c c u p a tio n s studied in m an u factu rin g)
N o rth e a st
S e x , o c c u p a tio n , and g rad e

N e w a rk J e r s e y C ity

B o s to n

B u ffa lo

$79.
71.
42.
62.

50
50

$85 . 00
77. 00
8 2 .0 0
86. 50
46. 50
-

49. 50
56. 50

55. 00
-

55. 00
5 8 .0 0

61.

00
55. 00

65. 00
56. 00

62.
52.
51.
45.
52.
55.
54.

50
50
50
50
00
50
00

47.
50.
46.
66.
56.
57.
60.
52.
58.
52.
53.
47.

South
N ew Y o r k
C ity 2

P h ila d e lp h ia

A tlanta

B a lt im o r e

D allas

M em phis

Office clerical
M en
C le r k s :
A c c o u n tin g , c la s s A _________________________________
A c c o u n tin g , c la s s B ________________________________
O r d e r _________________________________________________
P a y r o l l __ — ----------------------------------------------------------------O ffic e b o y s _________ ___________________________________
T a b u la tin g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ________________________

00

$81.
65.
78.
77.
46.
72.

50
50
00
00
00
50

$80.
62.
70.
75.
45.
70.

50
50
00
50
00
00

50
00
50
00
50
00

$ 7 7 . 00
6 2 .0 0
73. 50
67. 00
40. 50
-

$80. 50
65. 00
_
8 1 .0 0
43. 50
67. 50

$ 8 7 . 50
67. 50
69. 50
74. 50
4 2 .0 0
73. 00

$82 . 50
_
.
_

60. 50
58. 00

54. 00
60. 00

53. 50
-

55. 50
-

56. 00
-

5 1 .0 0
-

63. 50
59. 00

68. 00
62. 00

63. 00
53. 00

57. 50

61. 50
53. 50

59. 50
5 5.00

58. 50
53. 50

69. 00
56. 50
62. 50
53. 00
59. 50
57. 00

72.
57.
58.
50.
62.
61.
61.

72.
57.
64.
50.
60.
65.
63.

63.
51.
57.
47.
53.
56.
55.

64. 50
52. 50

69.
54.
59.
45.
56.
58.
59.

69. 00
56. 00

00
50
00
00
00
00
00
00
50
50
50
50

49. 00
56. 00
44. 00
7 1 .0 0
6 1 .0 0
66. 50
63. 50
53. 50
67. 50
54. 00
60. 50
52. 50

57. 00
45. 50
72. 00
6 1 .0 0
62. 50
61. 50
55. 50
66. 00
5 5 .0 0
58. 50
5 1 .0 0

124 .00
91. 50
70. 00

1 2 6 .0 0
96. 00
75. 00

67. 50

76. 00

50

$78 .
62.
70.
73.
43.
70.

-

W om en
B i l l e r s , m a c h in e :
B illin g m a ch in e ---------------------------------------------------------B o o k k e e p in g m a c h in e ______________ ________________
B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s :
C la s s A _______________________________________________
C la s s B _________ ________________ _____________ _____
C le r k s :
A c c o u n tin g , c la s s A ________________________________
A c c o u n t in g , c la s s B _________________________________
F ile , r la s s A
F i l e , c la s s B ___ _____ ______________________________
O r d e r _____ __________________ ________________________
P a y r o l l ______________________________ _____________ ___
C o m p t o m e t e r o p e r a t o r s _________ ________ ____________
D u p lic a t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s (m im e o g r a p h
o r ditto) ______________________________________________ _
K e y -p u n c h o p e r a t o r s _________________________________
O ffic e g i r ls _________ _____________________________________
S e c r e t a r ie s __ _____ ___________________________________
S ten og ra p h ers, gen eral _
_ _
..
.....
___
S t e n o g r a p h e r s , t e c h n ic a l
. _ . .
S w itc h b o a rd o p e r a t o r s
..................... ....... . ...................
S w itc h b o a rd o p e r a t o r -r e c e p t i o n i s t s
T a b u la tin g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ________________________
T r a n s c r ib in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , g e n e ra l __________
T y p is t s , c la s s A ______ _________________________________
T y p is t s , c la s s B ___ _____________________________________

00
00
50
00
50
50
50

50
00
00
00
50
00
50

50
00
00
00
50
50
50

48.
52.
58.
60.

50
50
50
50

50
00
00
50
00
50
00

49. 50
57. 50
56. 50
-

63. 00
53. 00
46. 50
43. 50
50. 00
55. 50
5 5 .0 0

55. 00
68. 50
6 1 .0 0
59. 50
52. 00
55. 50
6 0 .0 0
49. 00

5 9 .0 0
50. 00
69. 00
63. 00
58. 50
50. 50
5 2 .0 0

5 3 .0 0
64. 50
54. 50
51. 50
47. 50
47. 00
42. 50

52. 50
59. 00
44. 50
7 7 .5 0
63. 00
70. 00
64. 00
57. 00
60. 50
60. 00
54. 00

49. 00
55. 00
42. 50
72. 00
57. 50
65. 50
61. 00
5 1 .0 0
63. 50
55. 50
56. 00
48. 50

43. 50
66. 00
67. 50
59. 00
49. 00
49. 00
70. 50
52. 50
64. 00
46. 50

9 6 .0 0
70. 00

141. 00
1 0 0 .5 0
72. 50

1 2 1 .5 0
1 0 0 .5 0
6 8 .0 0

88. 00
6 6 .0 0

1 1 0 .0 0
91. 50
63. 50

80. 00
58. 50

92. 50
66. 00

73. 50

80. 00

70. 50

73. 50

7 6 .0 0

7 2 .0 0

6 9 .0 0

Professional and technical
M en
D r a ft s m e n , l e a d e r _____________________________ _ _____
D r a ft s m e n , s e n io r
_ ..................... _
D r a ft s m e n , ju n io r ______________________________________

_

_

W om en
N u r s e s , in d u s tr ia l (r e g is t e r e d ) _____

S ee fo o tn o te s at end o f table,




_______________

18

Table A-2- Office Occupations (Manufacturing) - Continued
(A v e r a g e w e e k ly e a rn in gs 1 fo r s e le c t e d o cc u p a tio n s studied in m anufacturing)
M id dle W est
S ex, oc c u p a tio n , and g rad e
C h ic a g o

C le v e la n d

F a r W est

M in n e a p o lis St. P aul

St. L o u is

D en ver

Los
A n g e le s

P o r tla n d

San
F r a n cis c o O akland

O ffic e c le r ic a l
M en
C le r k s :
A ccou n tin g , c la s s A __________________ ___________
A ccou n tin g , c la s s B ------------------------------------------------O rd er _________________________________________________
P a y r o ll ............................. ............................................ .......
O ffice boys ___ _____ ____ _____________________________
T a b u la tin g-m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s — _____________________

$85.
71.
79.
78.
50.
76.

00
00
00
00
00
50

$84.
71.
87.
78.
52.
84.

00
50
50
50
00
50

$ 7 5 . 50
63. 00
72. 00
_
43. 00
72. 00

$83.
65.
74.
76.
47.
72.

50
50
00
00
00
50

$ 6 9 . 00
59. 50
70. 00
68. 00
-

$80.
67.
85.
77.
55.
78.

00
00
00
00
00
50

$ 8 3 . 50
89. 00
-

$82.
72.
83.
88.
50.
76.

50
50
50
50
00
00

W om en
B ille r s , m ach in e:
B illin g m ach in e _________________ ____ ________________
B ook k eep in g m a ch in e _______________________________
B o o k k e e p in g -m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s :
C la s s A ______________________________________________
C la s s B _____ __________________ _____________________
C le r k s :
A ccou n tin g , c la s s A __ ____ _________ ________________
A ccou n tin g , c la s s B -----------------------------------------------F ile , c la s s A
____________________________ ____ ______
F ile , c la s s B ___ ___________________________________
O rd er _________________________________________________
P a y r o ll ________ ______ _______________ ____ __ _______
C o m p to m e te r o p e r a t o r s _________ _______________ _______
D u p lica tin g -m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s (m im e o g r a p h
o r ditto) _ ____________ ______ ____________________ ____
K ey-pu n ch o p e r a t o r s ------_____________________ —
O ffic e g ir ls ________ ____________ _______ ___________
S e c r e t a r ie s __________________ _____________________________
S ten og ra p h ers, g e n e r a l -----------------------------------------------S te n o g ra p h e rs, te c h n ica l __ _________________________
S w itch boa rd o p e r a t o r s _________________________________
S w itch boa rd o p e r a t o r -r e c e p t io n is t s ____ ___________
T a b u la tin g -m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s ________________________
T r a n s c r ib in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , g e n e r a l __________
T y p is ts , c la s s A _________ ___ ________________________
T y p is ts , c la s s B . . . ------------------------------------------------------

59. 50
-

56. 50
-

-

58. 00
-

-

60. 00
65. 50

-

72. 50
63. 50

67. 50
58. 50

64. 00
5 5 .0 0

55. 50

56. 00

73. 00
67. 00

59. 00

73. 50
65. 00

75. 00
6 1 .0 0
60. 50
50. 50
63. 00
65. 50
64. 00

7 1 .0 0
6 0 .0 0
6 0 .0 0
50. 00
55. 50
65. 50
63. 00

63.
51.
53.
42.
54.
57.
55.

68. 00
55. 00
57. 50
45. 00
5 3 .0 0
54. 50
56. 50

62. 50
52. 50
48. 00
50. 00
56. 50
56. 00

73.
62.
67.
57.
65.
67.
66.

50
50
50
50
50
00
00

7 1 .0 0
57. 50
52. 00
57. 00
63. 00
58. 50

76.
65.
65.
56.
68.
69.
64-.

55. 00
60. 50
50. 00
76. 50
65. 00
64. 00
59. 50
59. 50
63. 50
54. 00

53. 50
60. 00
48. 00
77. 00
64. 00
63. 50
59. 50
68. 00
6 1 .0 0
61. 50
5 4 .0 0

52. 50
4 1 .0 0
68. 00
56. 50
58. 50
51. 50
50. 00
53. 00
49. 00

49.
53.
48.
71.
57.
61.
60.
53.
64.
52.
57.
48.

50
50
00
00
00
50
00
00
00
50
50
50

55. 00
69. 50
57. 50
58. 50
5 1 .0 0
54. 50
49. 50

60.
68.
54.
76.
67.
77.
67.
61.
73.
57.
66.
58.

00
50
00
00
00
00
50
50
50
00
50
50

57. 00
45. 00
72. 50
60. 00
57. 00
59. 50
61. 50
53. 50

58. 50
62. 00
53. 00
79. 50
69. 00
6 9 .0 0
62. 00
69. 50
63. 50
64. 50
57. 00

97. 50
72. 50

1 1 4 .0 0
99. 50
77. 00

_
87. 50
72. 00

_
91. 50
68. 50

85. 50

_
94. 50
76. 50

_
95. 00
76. 50

88. 00
77. 50

75. 00

74. 50

73. 50

68. 50

8 1 .0 0

69. 50

77. 00

00
50
00
50
00
00
50

-

65. 50
-

50
50
50
00
00
00
00

Professional and technical
M en
D ra ftsm en , le a d e r _ __ _______ __ _____________ ____
D ra fts m en , s e n i o r _______ __________ ______ _____ ____
D ra fts m e n , j u n i o r ---------------------------------------- --------------

_

61.

00

_

W om en
N u r s e s , in d u stria l (r e g is t e r e d ) __________

1 E a rn in gs r e la te to stan dard s a la r ie s that a r e paid f o r standard w o rk s c h e d u le s .
E stim a tes a r e g e n e r a lly not c o m p a r a b le to those in p r e v io u s stu dies due to the in c lu s io n o f data fo r c e n tr a l o f fi c e s .
N O TE:

D ashes in d ica te no data ox in s u ffic ie n t data to w a rra n t p re se n ta tio n .




See text, p.

33.

19
Table A -3 ‘ Office Occupations (Nonmanufacturing)
(A v e ra g e w e e k ly e a rn in g s 1 fo r s e le c t e d o c c u p a tio n s stu died in n o n m an u fa ctu rin g)
N o rth e a st
S ex, o c c u p a tio n , and grade
B oston

B u ffalo

N e w a rk J e r s e y C ity

$ 7 1 .0 0
58 .0 0
7 3 .5 0

$ 7 2 .5 0

$ 8 6 .5 0

South
New Y o r k
C ity

P h ila d e lp h ia

A tlanta

B a ltim o r e

D allas

M em phis

$ 7 9 .0 0
6 0 .5 0
7 5 .5 0
7 0 .5 0
4 3 .5 0
6 8 .0 0

$ 7 7 .0 0
5 9 .5 0
6 8 .0 0

$ 7 8 .5 0
5 7 .5 0
6 8 .5 0

$ 8 2 .5 0
7 2 .5 0
7 4 .5 0

$ 7 7 .5 0
6 0 .5 0
6 2 .0 0

-

-

-

3 9 .5 0
6 3 .5 0

4 1 .0 0
6 0 .5 0

4 1 .5 0
6 1 .5 0

$ 7 5 .5 0
5 8 .0 0
6 2 .5 0
7 0 .0 0
4 1 .0 0
6 3 .5 0

Office clerical
M en
C le r k :
A c c o u n tin g , c la s s A _________________________________
A c c o u n tin g , c la s s B
O rd er
..........
................ ....... ........
P a y r o ll
O ffic e b o y s
_
......
T a b u la tin g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s
._ _

-

-

-

7 7 .0 0

-

-

-

4 1 .0 0
6 6 .5 0

-

4 2 .5 0

5 1 .0 0
4 6 .0 0

4 4 .0 0
4 9 .5 0

5 7 .5 0
5 4 .0 0

6 0 .0 0
6 0 .5 0

5 3 .5 0
4 9 .5 0

5 2 .5 0
4 9 .5 0

4 9 .0 0
4 8 .0 0

4 9 .0 0
5 0 .0 0

4 7 .5 0
4 4 .5 0

5 6 .0 0
4 7 .0 0

5 1 .0 0
4 2 .5 0

5 5 .0 0
5 1 .0 0

6 3 .0 0
5 4 .5 0

5 8 .0 0
4 7 .0 0

5 5 .0 0
4 9 .5 0

_
4 2 .5 0

5 7 .0 0
4 7 .0 0

6 0 .5 0
4 5 .0 0

6 0 .0 0
4 7 .0 0
5 1 .0 0
39.5 0
5 1 .5 0
5 5 .5 0
4 9 .0 0

6 3 .0 0
4 7 .0 0
4 4 .5 0
3 8 .0 0

6 3 .5 0
5 5 .0 0
5 5 .5 0
4 5 .0 0
5 4 .5 0
•60.00
6 0 .0 0

6 8 .5 0
5 4 .5 0
5 8 .5 0
4 5 .5 0
5 6 .0 0
6 5 .0 0
5 9 .0 0

5 7 .5 0
4 9 .0 0
5 1 .0 0
3 9 .0 0
4 5 .0 0
5 6 .0 0
5 1 .5 0

6 4 .0 0
5 1 .0 0
4 9 .0 0
4 0 .5 0
4 9 .0 0
5 4 .0 0
5 2 .5 0

6 6 .0 0
4 7 .0 0
5 0 .5 0
3 9 .0 0
4 1 .0 0
5 5 .0 0
5 2 .5 0

6 0 .5 0
5 2 .0 0
4 7 .5 0
3 9 .0 0
4 7 .0 0
5 7 .5 0
5 3 .5 0

5 9 .0 0
4 6 .5 0
4 7 .5 0
3 8 .5 0
4 9 .0 0
5 0 .5 0
4 5 .0 0

4 9 .0 0
5 4 .5 0
4 3 .0 0
7 2 .5 0
5 7 .0 0
6 6 .0 0
5 4 .5 0
5 5 .0 0
5 8 .5 0
5 4 .0 0
5 5 .5 0
4 7 .5 0

5 1 .0 0
5 3 .5 0
4 3 .0 0
7 3 .0 0
5 8 .5 0
6 9 .0 0
5 8 .0 0
5 6 .5 0
6 1 .5 0
5 8 .5 0
5 7 .0 0
4 9 .5 0

4 2 .5 0
4 9 .5 0
3 7 .0 0
6 4 .0 0
5 1 .5 0

_

4 6 .5 0
4 1 .5 0
6 5 .5 0
5 5 .5 0

4 4 .5 0
4 8 .0 0
3 8 .5 0
6 2 .5 0
5 1 .5 0

4 7 .5 0
4 9 .0 0
3 9 .0 0
6 6 .5 0
5 5 .0 0

4 8 .5 0
3 9 .5 0
5 8 .5 0
4 9 .0 0

1 0 1 .5 0
7 6 .5 0

-

-

4 2 .0 0
7 0 .5 0

W om en
B i l le r s , m a c h in e :
B illin g m a ch in e
B ook k eep in g m a ch in e
B o o k k e e p in g -m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s :
C la s s A
.
C la s s B _
C le r k s :
A c c o u n tin g , c la s s A
A c c o u n tin g , c la s s B _ _ . ...
_ ........
F ile , c la s s A
_
____
F ile , c la s s B
_
...... . _ _
O rd e r ...
P a y ro ll
. . . . . .
C o m p to m e te r o p e r a t o r s
D u p lic a tin g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s (m im e o g r a p h
o r d itto) _________________________________________________
K e y -p u n c h o p e r a t o r s
.... .
..............
O ffic e g i r ls
S e c r e t a r ie s
. ._ . _
S te n o g r a p h e r s , g e n e r a l
__ _
S te n o g r a p h e r s , te c h n ic a l
.............
S w itch b o a rd o p e r a t o r s
.
S w itc h b o a rd o p e r a t o r - r e c e p t i o n i s t s
. _.
T a b u la tin g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s
.. ........
T r a n s c r ib in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , g e n e r a l
T v p is t s , c la s s A
..... .
................
T y p is t s , c la s s B

_

5 3 .0 0
4 8 .5 0

-

_

4 8 .5 0
4 0 .0 0
6 1 .5 0
53 .5 0
5 6 .0 0
4 8 .5 0
5 0 .5 0
5 4.50
4 8 .5 0
4 9 .5 0
4 3 .5 0

5 0 .5 0
3 9 .0 0
6 5 .0 0
5 1 .5 0
-

5 0 .0 0
4 9 .5 0
5 8 .0 0
4 7 .5 0
4 8 .5 0
4 1 .5 0

-

-

-

-

-

4 9 .5 0
5 0 .0 0
5 4 .0 0
4 9 .0 0
4 9 .5 0
4 2 .5 0

4 5 .0 0
5 1 .5 0
5 0 .5 0
5 0 .5 0
5 0 .5 0
4 3 .0 0

4 7 .0 0
5 2 .5 0
5 3 .5 0
4 9 .0 0
5 0 .0 0
4 1 .5 0

4 6 .5 0
5 0 .0 0
6 1 .5 0
4 9 .5 0
4 9 .0 0
4 2 .5 0

3 8 .5 0
4 5 .0 0

1 0 9 .0 0
6 9 .0 0

9 5 .5 0

9 0 .5 0
6 7 .5 0

9 2 .5 0

8 7 .0 0
5 5 .5 0

7 6 .5 0

6 6 .5 0

Professional and technical
M en
D ra fts m e n , s e n io r
D ra fts m e n , ju n io r ______________________________________

9 3 .0 0
6 6 .5 0

8 8 .5 0

-

-

W om en
N u r s e s , in d u s tr ia l ( r e g is t e r e d )

See fo o tn o te at end o f table




6 6 .5 0

-

-

-

4 7 .5 0
4 8 .5 0
4 0 .0 0

20

Table A-3: Office Occupations (Nonmanufacturing) - Continued
(A v e r a g e w e e k ly e a r n in g s 1 fo r s e le c t e d o c c u p a tio n s studied in nonm an ufacturing)
M id d le W est
Sex, o c c u p a tio n , and grad e
C h ica g o

C le v e la n d

F a r W est

M in n e a p o lis St. Paul

San
F r a n c is c o O akland

St. L o u is

D enver

L o s A n g e le s

P o r tla n d

$ 7 9 .0 0
6 4 .0 0
6 8 .5 0

$ 7 6 .0 0
6 0 .0 0
6 2 .5 0

$ 8 1 .5 0
7 3 .5 0
_
4 7 .5 0
8 2 .0 0

$ 7 9 .5 0
6 5 .5 0
8 3 .0 0
7 4 .0 0
5 0 .5 0
7 3 .0 0

O ffic e c le ric a l
M en
C le r k s :
A ccou n tin g , c la s s A
A ccou n tin g , c la s s B
Or de r
P a y r o ll .
.. __........... _
O ffic e b oys
.
.
.
.
T a b u la tin g -m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s

t

.....
.. ....

_ .........
...

_,
,

.............

$ 8 2 .0 0
6 1 .0 0
8 2 .0 0
7 7 .0 0
4 9 .5 0
7 3 .0 0

$ 7 9 .0 0
7 9 .0 0
5 2 .0 0

$ 7 7 .0 0
5 8 .0 0
7 2 .5 0
-

-

-

-

4 2 .5 0
6 3 .0 0

4 3 .5 0
7 3 .5 0

4 2 .5 0
7 1 .50

$ 8 4 .0 0
7 1 .0 0
7 7 .5 0
8 8 .0 0
5 0 .5 0
7 9 .5 0

6 0 .0 0
5 7 .0 0

5 7 .0 0
-

4 8 .0 0
5 4 .0 0

5 4 .0 0
-

5 1 .5 0
-

5 9 .0 0
6 2 .5 0

5 3 .5 0
5 2 .5 0

5 7 .0 0
5 9 .0 0

7 1 .0 0
5 8 .0 0

7 0 .0 0
5 2 .5 0

6 0 .5 0
4 7 .5 0

6 0 .0 0
4 7 .5 0

6 1 .0 0
4 9 .0 0

7 1 .5 0
5 3 .5 0

6 6 .5 0
5 1 .5 0

6 7 .5 0
5 6 .0 0

7 2 .0 0
5 7 .5 0
5 8 .5 0
4 8 .5 0
5 7 .5 0
6 6 .0 0
6 1 .5 0

6 9 .5 0
5 5 .0 0
5 9 .0 0
4 6 .0 0
5 4 .5 0
5 9 .5 0
5 6 .5 0

6 3 .0 0
4 9 .0 0
5 1 .5 0
4 2 .0 0
4 8 .5 0
5 7 .0 0
5 3 .5 0

6 8 .5 0
5 1 .0 0
5 5 .5 0
4 2 .5 0
5 2 .5 0
6 1 .5 0
5 6 .5 0

6 0 .5 0
5 3 .0 0
5 2 .0 0
4 3 .0 0
5 2 .0 0
5 5 .0 0
5 0 .0 0

7 4 .0 0
5 9 .5 0
6 0 .0 0
4 5 .5 0
6 6 .0 0
6 9 .0 0
6 5 .0 0

7 3 .5 0
5 8 .5 0
6 0 .0 0
4 5 .0 0
5 7 .0 0
6 2 .0 0
5 7 .0 0

7 0 .5 0
5 7 .5 0
6 0 .5 0
4 7 .5 0
6 5 .5 0
6 7 .5 0
b 2 .0 0

-

4 7 .5 0
4 8 .0 0
4 0 .0 0
6 3 .5 0
5 3 .5 0
5 2 .0 0
4 9 .5 0
5 4 .0 0
5 1 .5 0
5 1 .5 0
4 5 .0 0

5 0 .5 0
5 4 .5 0
4 3 .0 0
6 8 .5 0
5 5 .5 0
5 0 .5 0
5 2 .5 0
7 1 .00
5 1 .5 0
5 5 .5 0
4 7 .0 0

-

5 4 .0 0
4 1 .5 0
6 6 .0 0
5 7 .0 0
4 6 .5 0
5 2 .5 0
6 1 .0 0
5 3 .0 0
5 3 .5 0
4 b . 50

5 4 .0 0
6 3 .0 0
4 5 .0 0
7 6 .0 0
6 2 .5 0
7 5 .0 0
5 8 .5 0
6 2 .0 0
7 3 .5 0
5 8 .5 0
5 6 .0 0
4 9 .5 0

5 0 .0 0
5 7 .0 0
4 1 .0 0
7 1 .5 0
5 8 .0 0
.
5 2 .0 0
5 3 .5 0
5 7 .0 0
5 3 .5 0
5 o . 00
4 8 .5 0

5 5 ,5 0
5 9 .5 0
4 o .5 0
7 1 .5 0
6 3 .0 0
.
5 7 .5 0
5 8 .0 0
7 0 .0 0
5 9 .5 0
5 8 .5 0
5 1 .0 0

9 3 .5 0
7 0 .0 0

1 0 0 .5 0
9 2 .5 0

-

W om en
B i l le r s , m a ch in e:
B illin g m ach in e
_
_ _.
B ook k eepin g m a ch in e
.
_
B ook k eep in g -m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s :
C la ss A . . ...
C la s s B
_ ... ... .. .
_.
___ _
C le r k s :
A cco u n tin g , c la s s A
A ccou n tin g , c la s s R
F i l e , c la s s A
...
.......
_ _ __
F ile , c la s s B _________
O rd er ___________________
P a y r o ll
.. . ..
_
.
C om p tom eter o p e r a t o r s _
D u p lica tin g -m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s (m im e o g r a p h
o r ditto) ...
_
K ey-p u n ch o p e r a t o r s ..
O ffic e g ir ls
S e c r e t a r ie s ______________________________________________
S ten og ra p h ers, g e n e r a l
..
.
S ten og ra p h ers, t e c h n ica l
_
Sw itch boa rd o p e r a t o r s _
_ _ _
Sw itch boa rd o p e r a t o r -r e c e p t io n is t s
T a b u la tin g -m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s
T r a n s c r ib in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , g e n e r a l
........
T y p is ts , c la s s A ________ _
__
T y p is ts , c la s s B
_
_

5 6 .5 0
6 0 .5 0
4 9 .0 0
7 4 . 50
6 3 .5 0
-

5 8 .0 0
5 8 .5 0
6 8 .5 0
6 0 .0 0
6 2 .0 0
5 2 .5 0

5 5 .0 0
4 3 .5 0
6 9 .0 0
5 8 .5 0
5 6 .0 0
5 5 .0 0
6 1 .0 0
5 5 .0 0
5 7 .0 0
5 0 .0 0

Pro fessio nal a n d te ch n ical
M en
D ra ftsm en , s e n io r ______________________________________
D ra ftsm en , ju n io r
. ... _

1 06 .50
8 0 .0 0

9 2 .0 0

W om en
N u r s e s, in d u stria l (r e g is t e r e d )

7 5 .5 0

1 E a rn in g s r e la te to stan dard s a la r ie s that a re paid fo r stan dard w o rk s c h e d u le s .
N O TE:

D ash es in d ica te no data o r in s u ffic ie n t data to w a rra n t p r e s e n ta tio n .




7 7 .0 0

9 7 .5 0
7 9 .0 0

21

Table A-4*- Office Occupations (Public Utilities)*
(A v e r a g e w e e k ly e a r n in g s 1 fo r s e le c t e d o c c u p a tio n s stu died in tr a n s p o r ta tio n , c o m m u n ic a tio n , and o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s )
N o rth e a st
S ex , o c c u p a t io n , and g rad e
B oston

B u ffa lo

$ 8 0 .5 0

South
P h ila d e lp h ia

A tlanta

$ 8 5 .0 0
7 7 .5 0

$ 7 7 .5 0

J e r s e y C ity

N ew Y o r k
C ity

$ 8 1 .5 0
7 1 .5 0

$ 8 6 .5 0
6 3 .5 0

7 6 .5 0
6 3 .5 0
5 2 .5 0
6 1 .0 0
6 4 .5 0
56 . 50
8 0 .5 0
5 8 .5 0
6 1 .0 0
5 6 .5 0
5 4 .0 0

6 6 .5 0
6 3 .0 0
5 0 .0 0
5 4 .0 0
6 0 .0 0
5 5 .0 0
8 5 .5 0
5 8 .5 0
6 2 .0 0
5 4 .5 0
5 2 .5 0

7 6 .5 0

5 3 .0 0
7 5 .0 0
5 9 .5 0
5 5 .0 0
_
4 7 .0 0

St. L o u is

D en ver

B a ltim o re

D allas

M em phis

O ffic e c le ric a l
M en
C le r k s , a c c o u n tin g , c la s s A
T a b u la tin g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s

$ 7 7 .0 0
6 6 .5 0

W om en
C le r k s :

F i l e , c la s s B
P a y r o l l _______________________________________________
C o m p to m e te r o p e r a t o r s
K e y -p u n c h o p e r a t o r s ___________________________________
S te n o g r a p h e r s , g e n e r a l
S w itch b o a rd o p e r a t o r s _
T y p is t s , c la s s A
. ..
T y p is t s , c la s s B

6 3 .0 0
4 9 .0 0
4 5 .0 0
59.0 0

6 1 .5 0

_
$ 5 5 .0 0

................

-

-

-

54.0 0
7 6 .5 0
5 8 .5 0
5 8 .0 0
_

6 0 .5 0
7 7 .5 0
6 1 .0 0

8 0 .0 0
5 9 .0 0

"

....

6 0 .5 0

-

4 5 .5 0

_

-

_
5 2 .5 0

4 7 .0 0
5 4 .5 0
-

-

_

5 6 .5 0
5 2 .0 0
43. 50

M id dle W est
C h ica g o

C le v e la n d

M in n e a p o lis St. P a u l

5 9 .0 0
4 4 .5 0
_
_
5 5 .0 0
6 9 .5 0
5 5 .0 0
5 2 .0 0
5 2 .0 0
44. 50

_
$ 5 8 .5 0

_
_
_
$ 6 3 .0 0

_

F a r W est
L o s A n g e le s

P o rtla n d

San
F r a n cis c o O akland

O ffic e c le ric a l
M en
C le r k s , a c c o u n tin g , c la s s A ___________________________
T a b u la tin g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s

$ 8 7 .0 0

$ 8 6 .0 0
7 8 .5 0

_

$ 8 3 .0 0
7 9 .5 0

W om en
C le r k s :
A c c o u n tin g , c la s s A _ __ __
___
A c c o u n tin g , c la s s B
... ..
F ile , c la s s B
.
.
.
.
P a y r o ll
_
_
C o m p to m e te r o p e r a t o r s
_______
K e y -p u n c h o p e r a t o r s _____________________________________
S e c r e t a r ie s
S te n o g r a p h e r s , g e n e r a l
S w itc h b o a rd o p e r a t o r s ___________________________________
T v o is t s . c la s s A
T y p is t s , c la s s B
__
.

_

5 8 .5 0
..............

_________

6 6 .5 0
6 4 .5 0
8 1 .0 0
6 9 .5 0
6 7 .0 0
6 5 .5 0

1 E a rn in g s r e la te to stan d ard s a la r ie s that a r e paid fo r standard w o rk s c h e d u le s .
* T r a n s p o r t a t io n (e x c lu d in g r a ilr o a d s ), co m m u n ica tio n , and o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s .
NOTE:

D a s h e s in d ica te no data o r in s u ffic ie n t data to w arra n t p r e s e n ta tio n ,




_

$ 5 4 .5 0
5 6 .0 0
6 0 .5 0
5 5 .5 0
7 8 .0 0
6 0 .0 0
5 8 .0 0
5 2 .5 0

$ 5 1 .5 0
4 6 .0 0
5 6 .5 0
5 2 .5 0
6 6 .0 0
5 8 .5 0
6 1 .5 0
5 9 .5 0
5 0 .0 0

$ 7 4 .5 0
5 7 .0 0
4 8 .0 0
6 2 .0 0

$ 6 6 .0 0
5 3 .0 0

6 1 .5 0
7 6 .5 0
6 1 .5 0

5 4 .5 0
7 3 .5 0
5 7 .0 0

_
5 4 .0 0

5 3 .0 0

_
4 9 .5 0

7 5 .0 0
6 7 .5 0
5 7 .5 0
6 4 .0 0
5 9 .5 0
6 8 .0 0
8 0 .0 0
64 . 50
6 6 .5 0

$ 6 5 .5 0
6 7 .5 0

_
8 0 .0 0
6 2 .0 0
6 1 .5 0

_

5 7 .5 0

5 4 .5 0

6 6 .0 0
5 5 .5 0
7 2 .5 0
6 6 .5 0
6 8 .0 0
7 5 .5 0
6 4 .5 0
6 3 .0 0
6 4 .5 0
5 3 .0 0

22

Table A - 5

Office Occupations (Wholesale Trade)

(A v e r a g e w e e k ly e a rn in g s 1 fo r s e le c t e d o c c u p a tio n s stu d ied in w h o le s a le tra d e )
N o rth e a st
S ex, o c c u p a tio n , and gra d e
B o sto n

N e w a rk J e r s e y C ity

$8 0 .
60.
74.
46.

$ 7 6 . 50
39. 00

South

N ew Y o rk
C ity

P h ila d e lp h ia

A tlanta

M id d le W est

B a ltim o re

C h ica g o

C levela n d

$ 9 5 . 00
82. 00
-

$82 . 50
_
83. 50
50. 50

_
$78 . 50
-

M in n e a p o lis St. P aul

F a r W est
St. L o u is

Los
A n g e le s

San
F r a n cis c o O akland

M en
C le r k s :
A c c o u n tin g , c la s s
A cc o u n tin g , c la s s
O r d e r ------- ------O ffic e b o y s __ __ __

A
.
B — __
__ __________________
__
_________________
_____ _
„ __ _
__ __ ________ ____

50
00
50
50

$82.
70.
76.
44.

00
50
00
00

$ 8 1 . 00
6 1 .0 0
69. 00
44. 00

$78 .
58.
69.
43.

50
50
00
50

$ 7 1 . 50
_
73. 00
-

_
_
_
-

$ 8 3 . 00

_

77. 00
5 1 .0 0

$ 7 7 .5 0
65. 50
83. 50
51. 50

W om en
B i l le r s , m a ch in e (b illin g m a ch in e ) ___________________
B o o k k e e p in g -m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s :
C la s s A _______________________________________________
C la s s B __ __ _ __ __ __ _______________ _______
C le r k s :
A cc o u n tin g , c la s s A __ _ __ ________ _____
A c c o u n t in g , c la s s B _________________________________
_
_____
F ile , c l a s 8 A __ _____ __ ____ __
F i l e , c la s s B ____________ _______________________
O r d e r ____ ___ ___ ___ ___ __ ________ ___ ______ __ _
P a y r o l l ___ __ __ __ __ __ __
__ _ _____
C o m p tom eter o p e r a t o r s _______________________________
K ey-pu n ch o p e r a t o r s __ __ „ __ __ _____
______
O ffic e g ir ls _ ___
S e c r e t a r ie s ____ _____ _
S te n o g r a p h e r s, g e n e r a l ________________________________
S w itch boa rd o p e r a t o r s _________________________________
S w itch boa rd o p e r a t o r - r e c e p t i o n i s t s _______________ - __
T r a n s c r ib in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , g e n e r a l T y p ists , c la s s A
T y p is ts , c la s s B __ __

53. 50

_

5 9 .0 0

_

53. 50

_

60. 00

_

_

6 1 .0 0

57. 50

54. 50

55. 50

69. 00
60. 00

53. 00

56. 00
54. 00

-

7 1 .0 0
60. 00

56. 00

5 1 .5 0

_
$ 5 2 .5 0

73. 00
62. 00

69. 50
61. 50

66. 00
50. 50
60. 00
43. 50
56. 00
61. 50
55. 00
55. 00
64. 50
60. 50
56. 00
55. 00
54. 50
60. 50
49. 00

58. 00
44. 50
56. 00

71. 50
56. 50
60. 50
49. 00
56. 50
68. 50
60. 00
59. 00
75. 00
61. 50
62. 00
56. 50
60. 00
63. 00
54. 50

67. 00
55. 50
5 6 .5 0
44. 00
46. 50

64. 50
5 2 .5 0
53. 00
46. 00
52. 50
57. 50
53. 00
47. 00
46. 00
66. 50
58. 00
54. 00
53. 50
55. 50
46. 00

67. 00
58. 50
46. 00
6 1 .5 0
64. 00
62. 00
53. 00
52. 50

73. 50
59. 50
59. 00
5 0 .5 0
67. 00
62. 50
49. 50
77. 00
64. 50
62. 50
59. 50
60. 50
63. 50
53. 50

_
47. 50
57. 50
68. 00
60. 00
56. 00
52. 00

_
48. 50
_
45. 50
6 1 .5 0
53. 00
65. 00
56. 00
_
5 0 .5 0
53. 00
49. 00

_
55. 00
_
46. 00
_
63. 00
54. 50
_
_
68. 50
56. 00
_
_
_
5 1 .5 0

77. 50
62. 00
62. 00
53. 00
70. 50
66. 00
64. 50
64. 00
49. 50
75. 50
64. 50
6 1 .5 0
64. 00
60. 00
60. 50
55. 00

75. 50
63. 00
_
49. 00
72. 50
70. 50
63. 00
65. 50
46. 50
73. 50
66. 50
6 1 .5 0
56. 50
6 1 .5 0
6 1 .5 0
54. 00

-

62. 50
7 1 .5 0
57. 00
57. 50
50. 00

-

55.
55.
64.
56.
54.
51.
53.
52.
46.

50
00
50
50
50
00
50
00
00

_

1 E a rn in g s re la te to stan dard s a la r ie s that a re paid fo r stan dard w o rk s c h e d u le s .
N O TE:

D ashes in d ica te no data o r in s u ffic ie n t data to w a rra n t p r e s e n ta tio n .

Table A-6: Office Occupations (Retail Trade)
(A v e r a g e w e e k ly e a rn in g s 1 fo r s e le c t e d o ccu p a tio n s studied in r e ta il tra d e )

B oston

N e w a rk J e r s e y C ity

New Y o rk
C ity 2

Philadelphia2

A tlanta

F a r W est

M iddle W est

South

N o rth e a st
S ex, o c c u p a tio n , and grad e

M in n e a p o lis St. Paul

B a ltim o re

D allas

C h icago

D enve r

P o rtla n d

$44 . 50
_

$48 . 00
48. 50

$57 . 00

$ 5 1 . 00

$ 5 4 .0 0

$ 5 5 .0 0

73. 00
55. 00
50. 50
52. 00
62. 00
6 1 .0 0
58. 00
70. 50
57. 50
56. 00
_
5 1 .5 0

59. 00
48. 50
41. 00
43. 50
54. 00
54. 50
_
60. 50
5 1 .0 0
47. 00

52. 50
49. 50
46. 00

54. 00

San
F r a n c is co O akland

W om en
B i l le r s , m a ch in e (b ook k eep in g m a c h i n e ) ____________
B o o k k e e p in g -m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s , c la s s B ___________
C le r k s :
A cc o u n tin g , c la s s A
A c c o u n tin g , c la s s B _
F ile , c la s s R
O rd er
P a y ro ll
C om p to m e te r o p e r a t o r s
K ey-pu n ch o p e r a t o r s
S e c r e t a r ie s .
S te n o g r a p h e r s, g en era l
S w itch boa rd o p e r a t o r s
S w itch boa rd o p e r a t o r -r e c e p t io n is t s
T y p is t s , c la s s A
.....
T y p is t s , c la s s B __

$ 4 3 . 00
47. 00
58. 00
43. 50
38. 00
43. 50
50. 50
47. 00
44. 50
61. 00
48. 50
48. 00
47. 00
_
43. 50

_

_
_
$ 5 3 . 00
-

49. 00
_
56. 00
_

65. 00
54. 00
48. 50
_
_

45. 50

$56 . 00
56. 50
66.
50.
45.
54.
61.
57.
52.
69.
56.
55.
54.
56.
48.

00
00
00
00
50
00
00
00
50
50
00
50
00

1 E a rn in g s re la te to stan dard s a la r ie s that a r e pa id fo r stan d ard w o rk s c h e d u le s .
2 E x clu d e s data fo r lim i t e d -p r i c e v a r ie t y s t o r e s .
N FRASER
Digitized forOTE: D ash es in d ica te no


data o r in s u ffic ie n t data to w a rra n t p r e s e n ta tio n .

_

$ 5 0 . 00
50. 00

$48 . 50

57. 00
46. 50
37. 50
44. 00
50. 50
49. 50
50. 50
64. 00
50. 50
46. 00
52. 00
45. 00

6 1 .0 0
48. 00
40. 50
44. 00
51. 50
52. 00
46. 50
62. 50
50. 50
48. 00
_
52. 00
4 4 .5 0

58.
42.
34.
38.
52.
50.

00
00
00
00
00
50

60. 00
43. 00
38. 00
4 1 .0 0
55. 00
52. 00

-

-

59. 00
52. 00
43. 50
50. 50
43. 50

65. 50
5 1 .5 0
42. 00
46. 00
44. 50

_

_

-

43. 00

_

-

52. 00
49. 50
-

6 1 .0 0
53. 00
45. 50
47. 00
53. 00
48. 00

_

-

56. 50
56. 50
63. 50
50. 50
48. 00
47. 00

$ 5 9 .5 0
60. 00
69. 00
56. 00
50. 50
55. 00
62. 50
61. 00
_
69. 00
63. 00
56. 00
59. 50

-

-

45. 00

54. 00

23
Table A-7: Office Occupations (Finance)**
(A v e r a g e w eek ly e a rn in g s 1 fo r s e le c t e d o c cu p a tio n s stu died in fin a n ce , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l estate)
N o rth e a st
S e x , o c c u p a tio n , and g ra d e
B o s to n

N ew arkJ e r s e y C ity

South

New Y o r k
C ity

P h ila d e lp h ia

A tlanta

M id dle W est

B a lt im o r e

D a lla s

C h ic a g o

C le v e la n d

M in n eapolis St. P aul

F a r W est
St. L ou is

L os
A n geles

San
F r a n c is c o Oakland

M en
C l e r k s , a c c o u n tin g , c la s s A __________________________
O ffic e b o y s _______________________________________________
T a b u la tin g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s _________________________

$ 6 2 .5 0
40. 50
62. 00

$ 7 9 . 50
42. 50
-

44. 00
57. 50
46. 00
47. 00
38. 50
44. 50
45. 50
60. 50
51. 00
49. 50
49. 50
54. 00
47. 00
46. 50
42. 50

_

_

_

-

_

$ 7 6 . 50
44. 00
64. 00

$ 7 3 . 00
38. 50
58. 50

$ 7 6 . 50
38. 50
53. 50

$ 6 9 . 00
40. 50
52. 50

$ 6 4 . 50
40. 00
62. 00

$ 8 1 .0 0
49. 00
69. 50

$ 5 3 . 00
-

$5 9 . 00

49. 00

5 3 .0 0

45. 00

46. 50

41. 00

46. 50

57. 50

51. 50

44. 00

55. 00
52. 50
43. 00
73. 00
54. 00
54. 50
51. 50
53. 00
45. 50

66.
53.
55.
43.
67.
59.
52.
42.
72.
56.
58.
54.
60.
57.
54.
47.

54. 00
45. 00
49. 50
38. 00
57. 50
45. 50
47. 50
3 5 .0 0
62. 00
47. 50
50. 50
52. 00
46. 50
48. 00
40. 50

56.
45.
48.
38.

61.
42.
48.
37.

47. 00
45. 00
47. 50
38. 00
60. 50
51. 50
46. 50
38. 50
68. 50
53. 50
54. 00
49. 50
63. 50
49. 00
48. 50
41. 00

71. 00
57. 50
58. 00
46. 50
68. 50
57. 50
58. 50
48. 00
73. 00
62. 00
6 2 .0 0
54. 50
58. 50
59. 50
51. 50

-

-

$ 7 6 . 00
48. 00
77. 50

$ 8 2 . 00
49. 50
71. 50

51. 50

53. 50

68. 00
52. 00
53. 00
42. 00
60. 00
56. 50
4 2 .0 0
70. 50
59. 50
54. 00
55. 00
69. 00
5 5 .0 0
53. 50
47. 50

64. 50
53. 00
57. 50
45. 00
65. 00
55. 50
57. 00
45. 50
70. 50
62. 50
59. 50
58. 00
66. 50
59. 00
56. 50
4 9 .0 0

W om en
B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , c la s s B ___________
C le r k s :
A c c o u n tin g , c la s s A _________________________________
A c c o u n tin g , c la s s B _________________________________
______________________________
F ile , c la s s A _______
F ile , c la s s B _____ __________________________________
P a y r o ll _____ ___________________________________________
C o m p t o m e t e r o p e r a t o r s ________________________________
K e y -p u n c h o p e r a t o r s ___________________________________
O ffic e g ir ls ______________________________________________
S e c r e t a r ie s ____________________________________________
S te n o g r a p h e r s , g e n e r a l ________________________________
S w itc h b o a rd o p e r a t o r s __________________________________
S w itc h b o a rd o p e r a t o r -r e c e p t i o n i s t s _________________
T a b u la tin g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s -----------------------------------T r a n s c r ib in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , g e n e r a l __________
T y p is t s , c la s s A ________________________________________
T y p is t s , c la s s B _ _____________________________________

50
00
50
50
00
00
00
50
50
50
50
00
50
00
00
50

50
50
00
00

50
50
00
50

-

-

50. 00
43. 00
39. 50
61. 50
53. 00
5 0 .0 0
46. 50
46. 50
48. 50
47. 00
4 0 .0 0

45. 50
59. 50
48. 00
47. 50
49. 50
44. 50
46. 50
39. 50

-

63. 50
-

-

-

46. 50

4 1 .0 0
47. 00
38. 50
65*. 00
51. 50
53. 50
52. 50
50. 50
49. 50
42. 50

-

67. 50
56. 50
56. 00
47. 50

1 E a rn in g s r e la te to sta n d a rd s a la r ie s that a r e paid fo r standard w o r k s c h e d u le s .
** F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e sta te .
N OTE:

D a s h e s in d ica te no data o r in s u ffic ie n t data to w a r ra n t p re se n ta tio n .




Table A-8:

Office Qccupations (Services)

(A v e r a g e w e e k ly e a rn in g s 1 f o r s e le c t e d o c cu p a tio n s stu died in s e r v ic e s )
M id dle W est

N o rth e a st
S e x , occu p a tio n , and g rad e
B o s to n

N ew Y o r k
C ity

P h ila d e lp h ia

F a r W est

C h ic a g o

L os
A n g e le s 2

W om en
C le r k s :
A c c o u n t in g , c l a s s A
....
A c c o u n t in g , c l a s s R _
.........
F ile , c l a s s R
...
. .
P a y r o ll
...
S e c r e t a r ie s
..
.
.
S te n o g r a p h e r s, g e n e r a l _
S w it c h b o a r d o p e r a t o r s

.
............... _
... .. _
.
. ...
.

_
...
....

_

_

S w itch b o a rd o p e r a t o r -r e c e p t io n is t s ....
T y p is t s , c la s s A
_ ........... .
T y p i s t s , c la s s B _ ...... ...

_ ...

_

$62.
51.
40.
56.
55.
49.
43.
48.
55.
41.

50
00
50
00
00
00
00
00
50
00

$ 6 6 . 50
55. 50
46. 00
65. 50
70. 00
58. 50
55. 00
5 6 .0 0
61. 50
51. 50

1 E a rn in g s r e la te to stan d ard s a la r ie s that a r e pa id f o r stan d ard w o r k s c h e d u le s .
2 E x clu d e s data f o r m o tio n p ic tu r e p r o d u c tio n .
NOTE:

D ash es in d ica te no data o r in s u ffic ie n t data to w a r ra n t p r e s e n ta tio n .

$ 6 0 . 50
48. 50
>

6 1 .0 0
51. 50
40. 00
48. 50
52. 50
42 . 00

$73.
59.
49.
65.
77.
64.
52.
62.
64.
54.

50
00
50
00
00
50
00
00
50
00

$ 7 1 .5 0
59. 50
-

7 1 .0 0
75. 00
62. 50
51. 50
5 8 .0 0
-

47. 00

$ 4 3 . 50
-

46. 00
52. 00
40: 50
50. 50
59. 50
51. 50
48. 50
42. 00

24
Table A-9:

Plant Occupations (All Industries')

(A v e r a g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1 fo r s e le c t e d o c cu p a tio n s stu died in 6 b r o a d in d u stry d iv is io n s )
!

N o rth e a st

O ccu p a tion 2

N ew arkJ e r s e y C ity

B o s to n

B u ffa lo

$ 2 . 02
2. 12
2. 09
1. 76
1. 71
2. 05
2. 07
2. 01
1 .9 6
2. 02
1. 69
1. 80
2. 08
1 .9 9
2. 10
2. 30

$ 2 . 19
2 .2 8
2. 11
1. 84
1 .8 7
2. 29
2. 28
2. 25
2. 07
2. 28
1.91
2. 02
2. 24
_
2. 31
2. 43

$2 . 29
2. 37
2. 48
1. 99
1. 90
2. 25
2. 32
2. 27
2. 13
2. 23
1 .9 2
2. 15
2 .4 1

South
N ew Y o r k
C ity

P h iladelph ia

Atlanta

B a lt im o r e

D a lla s

M em p h is

$2. 29
2. 25
1. 98
1. 72
1. 82
2. 09
2. 29
2. 19
2. 07
2. 18
1. 66
2. 05
2. 28
2. 05
2. 18
2.41

$ 1 .9 2
2. 23
1. 71
1. 34
1. 50
2. 11
1.9 2
1. 74
_
1. 38
1.93
2. 25
_
_

$ 2 . 06
2. 18
1. 94
1. 70
1. 70
2. 06
2. 28
2. 14
1 .9 8
2. 17
1. 80
1 .9 2
2. 21
_
2. 20
2. 37

$ 1 .9 8
2. 10
1. 75
1. 55
1 .4 4
_
2. 05
1 .9 4
1. 80

2. 37
2. 40

$ 2 . 19
2. 25
2. 30
1. 86
1. 75
2. 32
2. 31
2. 27
2. 15
2. 21
1. 83
2. 08
2. 31
2. 06
2. 25
2. 47

1 .6 2
1. 89
_
2. 02
_
2. 24

$ 1 . 84
2. 12
1 .9 4
1. 14
1. 19
2. 04
2. 09
1. 89
1. 70
1. 95
1. 68
1. 80
2. 12
_
_
2. 17

Maintenance and powerplant
C a r p e n t e r s __ ____________ _____ ____________ ______
E le c t r ic ia n s _ _____ __ __ _____ _______
_______ _
E n g in e e rs , sta tion a ry ___ ___ __________ _____ _ __ _
F ir e m e n , s ta tion a ry b o i le r _ __ __ __ ____________ _
H e lp e r s , tra d es __ __ ____________ __ ______________
M a c h in e -to o l o p e r a t o r s , t o o lr o o m ___________________
M a c h i n i s t s __ _____ __ _____ __ __ __________________
M ech a n ics
_ _
M e c h a n ic s , a u tom otiv e __ __ „ _____ __ __ __ ____
M illw rig h ts _
_
...
..
..
..
O ile r s ____________________________________________________
P a in te rs
.
......
P ip e fitte r s
____ _
..
.
. _ .
P lu m b ers
S h eet-m eta l w o r k e r s
__ _
T o o l and die m a k e r s
_

-

-

Custodial, warehousing, and shipping
G uards ______ __ __ __ ________ __ _______________
J a n ito r s , p o r t e r s , and c le a n e r s (m en )
J a n ito r s , p o r t e r s , and c le a n e r s (w om en )
L a b o r e r s , m a te r ia l handling
_ .
O rd er f ille r s
____ __
..
P a c k e r s , shipping (m en ) _ __
..
P a c k e r s , shipping (w om en )
.
. _
R e ce iv in g c le r k s
.
.
Shipping c le r k s _ __ _____ __ __ __ __ __
_______
Shipping and r e c e iv in g c le r k s __
T r u c k d r iv e r s :
Light (under 1
ton s)
__ „ __ _____ __
_ _
M edium (IV 2 to and in clu d in g 4 t o n s ) _____________
H eavy (o v e r 4 to n s , t r a ile r type) _________________
H eavy (o v e r 4 to n s , o t h e r than t r a ile r t y p e ) _____
T r u c k e r s , p o w e r (fo r k lift )
... _
T r u c k e r s , p o w e r , (oth er than fo r k lift) _____________
W atchm en

xz
/

See footn otes at end o f ta b le.




1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.

58
33
15
52
55
52
20
53
64
65

1. 83
1. 53
1. 15
1. 70
1.71
1. 87
1. 33
1. 77
1. 86
1. 82

1. 74
1. 53
1. 25
1. 80
1. 83
1 .6 8
1.31
1. 85
1. 89
1. 81

1. 62
1.41
1. 23
1. 62
1.65
1.47
1. 27
1. 70
1. 80
1. 73

1.62
1. 36
1.07
1. 55
1. 57
1.53
1.22
1.65
1. 78
1. 78

1. 77
1. 06
. 72
1. 15
1. 29
1. 25
1. 18
1.42
1. 48
1. 56

1. 71
1 .2 6
.9 1
1 .4 4
1. 43
1. 57
_
1. 56
1. 69
1. 62

1. 63
1. 06
. 79
1 .2 3
1. 27
1. 23
_
1. 53
1. 54
1. 53

1. 56
1-. 00
. 74
1. 14
1. 16
1. 13
.9 5
1.51
1 .4 9
1. 59

1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.

57
70
94
83
75
77
34

1. 76
1. 78
1.9 0
1. 87
1. 86
1.91
1 .46

_
2. 43
2. 46
2. 23
1.91
1. 86
1.43

1.96
2. 14
2. 22
2. 55
2. 03
_
1 .4 4

1.
1.
2.
1.
1.
1.
1.

1.21
1. 25
1.44
1. 28
I. 43
_
1.03

1 .6 9
1.6 5
1. 88
1. 76
1. 79
1. 81
1. 10

1. 32
1.4 3
1.4 9
1 .4 8
1 .6 0
1. 06

.9 3
1. 33
1 .4 8

72
87
01
87
71
68
33

_

1. 32
.9 3

25
Table A-9* Plant Occupations (All Industries) - Continued
(A v e ra g e h o u r ly e a rn in g s 1 f o r s e le c t e d o c cu p a tio n s stu d ied in 6 b r o a d in d u stry d iv is io n s )
F a r W est

M id d le W est
O ccu p a tio n 2

M in n e a p o lis St. P aul

St. L o u is

C h icago

C le v e la n a

$ 2.5 1
2 .4 9
2.52
2. 05
1.8 8
2. 37
2 .4 7
2.24
2. 4 0
2. 2 7
1.90
2 .5 5
2. 4 0
2.64
2 . 37
2. 67

$ 2 . 22
2. 32
2 . 29
1. 9 4
1. 89
2.27
2.28
2 . 29
2 . 22
2 . 23
1. 90
2 . 13
2 . 28
2 . 24
2.46

2 . 42
2.44

2 . 37
2 . 52

1.72
1.59
1.43
1.68
1.72
1.66
1.45
1.90
1.94
1.90

1. 83
1. 53
1 . 18
1. 75
1. 84
1. 83
1. 31
1 . 88
1.91
1.95

1. 75
1.41
1.2 2
1.7 2
1. 67
1. 71
1. 27
1. 83
1. 87
1. 84

1. 74
1. 36
1 . 08
1. 67
1. 73
1. 65
1.26
1. 84
1. 87
1. 83

2. i 9
2 . 11
2.24
2 . 19
1. 87
1.84
1.24

1. 87
2 . 04
2 . 09

1.91
1. 92
1. 93
1.91
1. 87
1. 75
1. 54

1. 86
2 . 02
2 . 08

D en ver

P o rtla n d

San
F r a n c is c o Oakland

$ 2 . 30
2.42
2 . 34
1.95
1. 90
2 . 34
2.43
2 . 21
2 . 27
2 . 36
1. 85
2 . 22
2. 33
2 . 33
2.40
2 . 55

$ 2 . 38
2 . 38
2 . 25
2 . 03
1. 9 4
2 . 28
2 . 35
2 . 26
2 . 23
2 . 29
1.93
2 . 32
2.

$ 2.48
2 .4 0
2 . 28
2 . 09
1.99
2 . 33
2. 4 0
2 . 31
2. 45
2. 3 0
1.95
2 . 34
2. 4 0

86
1.51
1. 27
1. 84
1. 86
1. 73
1 . 61
1. 92
2 . 02
1.97

79
1.49
1. 30
1. 85
1. 85
1. 77

L os
A n g e le s

Maintenance and powerplant
C a rp e n te r s
__
E le c t r ic ia n s _ __ __ ___ ___ _____ __
___
_____
E n g in e e r s , s ta tio n a r y _________________________________
F ir e m e n , s ta tio n a r y b o i le r _ __ __ __ ------- ---------H e lp e r s , t r a d e s _________________ _____________________
M a c h in e -t o o l o p e r a t o r s , t o o lr o o m ______ __
M a c h i n i s t s __ _____ ________ — — ___
__________
M e c h a n ic s
__ __ __ ------ __ —
------------- — —
M e c h a n ic s , a u to m o tiv e ------------ — ------- -------------- _ —
__
----------- ------------ M illw r ig h ts — — -----------------O ile r s _ — — ----------- ----------- ----- ---------— — —
P a in t e r s ____ _______________ _____ — ______ ______
-------------------------------P i p e f i t t e r s __ — _ _ _____ __
P lu m b e r s _ — ------------------------- ----------- __ _ _
---------- ------S h e e t -m e t a l w o r k e r s _____ ___________ _________ ___ ____
____
__ __ __ __ ___
T o o l and die m a k e r s ______

$ 2 . 38
2 . 38
2 . 16
1. 92
1. 85
2. 17
2 . 31
2 . 12
2 . 10
2 . 24
1 . 86
2.42
2.45

-

-

$ 2 . 27
2 . 35
2 . 37
2.09
1.9 3
2 . 25
2. 41
2. 15
2 . 13
2 . 27
1.99
2 . 29
2 . 39
-

$ 2.
2.
2.
1.
1.

16
14
03
66
70

-

2 . 09
2 . 01
2 . 07
-

1. 75
2 . 03
2 . 16
-

2. 19

Z
9

-

2 . 50

-

2. 3 9
2. 65

Custodial, warehousing, and shipping
G u ards _ _______ __ _____ _ _ ____
____ ________
J a n it o r s , p o r t e r s , and c le a n e r s (m e n ) _ __ __ __
J a n it o r s , p o r t e r s , and c le a n e r s ( w o m e n ) ___________
L a b o r e r s , m a t e r ia l h a n d li n g __
__
_____
____
__ ___
__ __ _ ___
O r d e r f i l l e r s ________
P a c k e r s , sh ip p in g (m en ) _ _ _____
_ _
_ __
P a c k e r s , sh ippin g (w om e n )
_ _
__ ______
___ __
R e c e iv in g c l e r k s __
Shipping c le r k s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ __
Shipping and r e c e iv in g c le r k s ____ ___ ___ ________
T r u c k d r iv e r s :
L igh t (u n der 1V2 t o n s ) ___ __ _ __ _ ________
M ed iu m (IV 2 to and in clu d in g 4 t o n s ) _______________
H eavy} (o v e r 4 t o n s , t r a il e r ty p e ) ______________________
H eavy (o v e r 4 t o n s , o th e r than t r a il e r t y p e ) _____
T r u c k e r s , p o w e r (fo r k lift ) _______ _ _
„
_____
T r u c k e r s , p o w e r (o th e r than fo r k lif t )
W atch m en ___ _____
......
__

-

1. 92
2. 00
1.43

1 E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r tim e and fo r w o rk on w e e k e n d s, h o lid a y s , and late s h ifts .
2 D ata lim it e d to m e n w o r k e r s e x c e p t w h e re o th e r w is e in d ica te d .
NOTE:

D a sh es in d ica te n o data o r in s u ffic ie n t data to w a rra n t p r e s e n ta tio n .




-

81
80
1. 34
1 .

1 .

1. 68
28
1. 17
1.55
1.53
1.4 0
1. 17
1. 53

1 .

1.6 2

1.67
1.5 6
1. 70
1. 70
1. 70
1.66
-

1. 28

1 .

1.91
2.03
2 . 15
2 . 10
1 .9 8
1.9 3
1. 50

1 .

1 . 88
1.93
1.95
1 . 88
2 . 00
2 . 18
2 . 04
1. 94

-

1.59

1. 72
1.6 4
1.53
1.94
1.93
1. 85
1.47
1.97
2 . 06
2. 09
2 . 15
2. 19
2 . 29
2 . 21
2.04
1.95
1.62

26

Table A-10:

Plant Occupations (Manufacturing)

(A v e r a g e h o u rly e a r n in g s 1 fo r s e le c t e d o c c u p a tio n s stu d ie d in m an u factu rin g)
N o rth e a st
O ccu p a tio n 2

N e w a rk J e r s e y C ity

South
N ew Y o r k
C ity

P h iladelph ia

B o s to n

B u ffalo

Atlanta

$ 2 .0 0
2 .1 6
2 . 17
1.81
1 .7 3
2 .0 5
2 .0 6
1 .9 9
2 .0 5
2 .0 2
1 .6 2
1 .97
2 .0 8
2 .1 1
2 .3 0

$ 2 .2 1
2 .2 9
2 . 17
1.91
1 .89
2 .2 9
2 .2 8
2 .2 6
2 . 17
2 .2 8
1 .9 3
2 . 13
2 .2 3
2 .3 2
2 .4 3

$ 2 .2 5
2 .3 3
2 .5 2
2 .0 1
1 .92
2 .2 5
2. 31
2 .2 9
2 .2 5
2 .2 1
1.91
2 . 17
2 .3 9
2 .3 6
2 .4 0

$ 2 . 19
2 .3 9
2 .5 0
2 .0 7
1.77
2 .3 2
2 .2 9
2 .3 1
2 .2 2
2 . 19
1 .9 4
2 .2 6
2 .3 3
2 .2 2
2 .4 7

$ 2 .2 1
2 .2 6
2 .0 3
1.7 5
1.88
2 .0 9
2 .2 7
2 .1 9
2 .0 9
2. 18
1.66
2. 15
2 .2 8
2. 17
2 .4 1

$ 1 .9 1
2 .2 1
2 .2 3
1 .43
1.53
_
2. 11
1.88
1 .7 4

1 .6 5
1 .45
1.27
1 .5 3
1 .6 4
1 .5 3
1 .2 3
1.6 5
1 .7 4
1.68

1 .8 4
1 .6 4
1 .4 6
1 .7 3
1.71
1 .89
1.41
1 .8 4
1 .89
1.8 6

1 .76
1 .58
1.41
1.7 9
1.7 6
1.71
1.31
1.88
1.86
1.78

1.67
1.46
1.39
1.6 5
1 .5 4
1.48
1 .26
1 .8 0
1.88
1 .6 4

1.71
1.45
1.27
1.58
1.59
1.62
1 .43
1.79
1.81
1.78

1.72
1 .8 2
1.91
1.8 9
1 .72
1.77
1 .4 0

1 .9 3
1 .8 4

2 .2 0
2. 14
2 .2 9
2 .8 8
2 .0 2

1 .8 3
1 .93
1 .9 5
2 .0 1
1.71
1.68
1.42

B a lt im o r e

D a lla s

M em p h is

Maintenance and powerplant
C a rp e n te rs
_
_
_
E le c t r ic ia n s _____________________________________________
E n g in e e rs , sta tion a ry
F ir e m e n , s ta tion a ry b o i le r _ _
H e lp e r s , t r a d e s _________________________________________
M a c h in e -to o l o p e r a t o r s , t o o lr o o m ___________________
M a ch in ists
. .
.......................
M ech a n ics
.....................
M e ch a n ics , a u tom otiv e
M illw rig h ts
_
... . _ _
O ile r s
P a in te r s
. . .
P ip e fit t e r s
_
... .
S h eet-m eta l w o r k e r s
T o o l and die m a k e r s ____________________________________

$ 2 .0 9
2 . 19
2 .0 2
1 .7 1
1 .7 3
2 .0 6
2 .2 9
2 . 15
2 .0 9
2 . 17
1 .81
2 .0 9
2 .2 1
2 .2 2
2 .3 7

$ 2 .0 6
2 . 15
1 .8 8
1.6 6
1 .4 5
_
2 . 13
1 .9 8
1 .8 0
_
1 .6 3
2 .0 3
_
_
2 .2 4

$ 1 .7 2
2 .1 7
1 .9 6
1. 14
1 .2 0
2 .0 7
2 .0 9
1 .9 3
1 .6 6
1 .9 5
1 .7 4
1 ,8 5
2 .1 2
_
2 . 17

_
1.22
.91
1.16
1 .25
1.29
_
1.43
1.57
1.67

1 .8 0
1 .4 5
1. 15
1 .5 2
1 .4 6
1 .6 6
_
1 .6 9
1 .7 5
1 .6 3

1 .7 2
1 .3 0
1 .0 6
1.37
1 .5 3
1.3 7
_
1 .81
1 .6 6
1 .6 0

1 .6 0
1 .1 8
.9 3
1 .1 9
1 .2 0
1. 16

1.27
1.04
1.37
_
1.50
_
.98

1 .8 0
1 .6 7
1 .6 4
1 .9 6
1 .7 9
1 .8 2
1 .1 6

1 .2 6
1 .4 9
1 .5 3
_
1 .5 6
1.7 7
1 .1 6

-

1.38
2. 11
2 .2 4
_
-

Custodial, warehousing, and shipping
G uards _
.
J a n itors , p o r t e r s , and c le a n e r s (m en ) ______________
J a n ito rs , p o r t e r s , and c le a n e r s ( w o m e n ) ____________
L a b o r e r s , m a t e r ia l handling
O rd er f il l e r s
P a c k e r s , shipping (m en )
P a c k e r s , shipping ( w o m e n ) ____________________________
R e ceiv in g c le r k s
. . . . .. ...
Shipping c le r k s
_
.........
Shipping and r e c e iv in g c le r k s
T r u c k d r iv e r s :
Light (under I 1 ton s)
/*
_
M edium ( 1V2 to and in clu d in g 4 t o n s ) _____________
H eavy (o v e r 4 to n s , t r a il e r typ e)
... _
_
H eavy (o v e r 4 to n s , oth er than t r a ile r t y p e ) _____
T r u c k e r s , p ow er ( fo r k lift )
T r u c k e r s , p ow er (o th e r than fo r k lift)
. _
W a t c h m e n _______________________________________________

See fo o tn o te s at end o f table




-

1 .8 5
1 .86
1.91
1 .5 4

_

2 .8 3
2 .6 1
2 .2 3
1.8 9
1 .7 5
1.46

_

1.41

_

1 .7 4
1 .47
1 .5 9
1 .1 3
1 .2 9
1 .4 5
_
1 .4 9
1 .0 3

27
Table A-10: Plant Occupations (Manufacturing) - Continued
(A v e r a g e h o u rly e a r n in g s 1 fo r s e le c t e d o c c u p a tio n s stu died in m an u factu rin g)
M id d le W est
O cc u p a tio n 2

F a r W est
Los
A n g e le s

C le v e la n d

M in n eap oli s St. P a u l

St. L o u is

D en ver

$ 2 .2 5
2 .3 8
2 .41
1.97
1.85
2.37
2 .4 6
2 .2 3
2 .2 8
2.27
1.87
2 .2 5
2 .3 5
2 .37
2 .67

$ 2 .2 1
2 .3 2
2 .3 1
1 .9 4
1.91
2 .2 7
2 .2 8
2 .3 0
2 .2 2
2 .2 3
1.91
2 . 17
2 .2 8
2 .2 4
2 .4 6

$ 2 .2 2
2 .3 4
2 . 18
1 .92
1 .8 2
2 . 17
2 .3 1
2. 10
2 .1 1
2 .2 3
1 .8 6
2 .3 3
2 .4 2
2 .4 2
2 .4 4

$ 2 .2 5
2 .3 4
2 .4 0
2 .0 9
1 .9 4
2 .2 5
2 .4 2
2. 15
2 .2 3
2 .2 7
1 .9 9
2 .2 7
2 .3 9
2 .3 7
2 .5 2

$ 2 .1 5
2. 14
2 .0 9
1 .8 2
1 .68
_
2 .0 8
2 .0 1
2 .0 1
_
1 .7 5
2 .1 1
2 . 16
_
2 . 19

$ 2 .2 5
2 .3 7
2 .3 5
2 .0 1
1.91
2 .3 4
2 .4 2
2 .2 1
2 .2 5
2 .3 5
1 .8 5
2 .2 0
2 .3 8
2 .3 5
2 .5 4

1.74
1.58
1.42
1.65
1.72
1.69
1.45
1.93
2 .0 2
1.90

1 .8 4
1 .6 4
1 .4 3
1 .7 3
1.91
1 .9 0
1 .3 8
1 .9 0
1 .8 9
1 .9 5

1 .7 8
1.57
1.37
1.7 0
1 .6 8
1.67
1 .3 3
1 .8 8
1 .8 8
1 .8 3

1 .78
1.4 9
1 .2 8
1 .6 5
1 .6 9
1.61
1.27
1 .8 3
1 .8 5
1 .79

1 .8 0
1 .45
1 .3 4
1.57
1.5 8
1.47

1.87
1.6 2
1.5 6
1 .8 4
1.77
1 .7 3
1.61
1 .9 0
1 .9 5
1.97

2 .3 2
2 .1 2
2 .2 0

1 .9 5
1 .9 9
2 .0 6

2. 11
1.97

1 .9 3
2 . 12
2. 14

1.57
1.76

C h icago

P o r tla n d

San
F r a n cis c o Oakland

M a in te n a n c e a n d p o w e rp lan t
C a r p e n t e r s _____________ ________ __ ________ _____ .
E l e c t r ic i a n s
_
_
___
E n g in e e r s , sta tio n a r y
.. ...
F ir e m e n , sta tio n a r y b o ile r
H e lp e r s , t r a d e s ________________________________________
M a c h in e -t o o l o p e r a t o r s , t o o l r o o m ___________________
M a c h in is ts _______________________ _____________________
M e c h a n ic s _______________________ ________ ___________
M e c h a n ic s , a u to m o tiv e _______________________ _______
M illw r ig h ts .
.
.
O ile r s
.
P a i n t e r s _____________ ________ ___________________
P ip e f it t e r s _________ _____ __ _________________________
S h e e t-m e ta l w o r k e r s --------------------- -----------------------------___ ____________ ______________
T o o l and die m a k e r s

$ 2 .3 4
2 .3 5
2 .2 6
2 .0 2
1 .9 3
2 .2 8
2 .3 6
2 .2 7
2 .2 3
2 .2 9
1 .9 0
2 .3 2
2 .3 1
_
2 .5 0

$ 2 .4 1
2 .4 1
2 .4 3
2. 14
2 .0 1
2 .3 2
2 .4 0
2 .3 1
2 .4 4
2 .3 0
1.93
2 .3 3
2 .3 9

_

2 .6 5

C u s to d ia l, w a re h o u sin g , an d shipping
G uards _________________________________________ _________
J a n it o r s , p o r t e r s , and c le a n e r s ( m e n ) _______________
J a n it o r s , p o r t e r s , and c le a n e r s (w om en ) ___________
L a b o r e r s , m a t e r ia l han dling _______________________ _
O rd e r f i l l e r s _____________________________________________
____
__ __ __ ___________
P a c k e r s , sh ippin g (m e n )
P a c k e r s , sh ippin g ( w o m e n ) ____________________________
R e c e iv in g c le r k s
Shipping c le r k s
Shipping and r e c e iv in g c le r k s __ _____ __ _____ __ _
T r u c k d r iv e r s:
L ig h t (u n d er 1V2 to n s )
_____ ___________ _______
M ed iu m ( 1 V2 to and in clu d in g 4 to n s) _____________
H eavy (o v e r 4 to n s , t r a il e r ty p e )
H eavy (o v e r 4 t o n s , o th e r than t r a ile r t y p e ) _____
T r u c k e r s , p ow er (fo r k lift ) _____ __ __ __ ___________
T r u c k e r s , p ow er (o th e r than f o r k l i f t ) ________________
W atchm en

-

1.86
1.80
1-51

-

1 .9 2
2 .0 0
1 .5 5

1 E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m pay fo r o v e r tim e and fo r w o rk on w e e k e n d s, h o lid a y s , and late s h ifts .
2 D ata lim it e d to m e n w o r k e r s e x ce p t w h ere o th e r w is e in d ica te d .
NOTE:

D a sh es in d ica te no data o r in s u ffic ie n t data to w arra n t p r e s e n ta tio n .




-

1 .8 5
1 .7 4
1 .6 2

-

1 .8 0
1 .8 0
1 .5 2

-

1 .6 5
1 .6 5
1 .66

-

1 .6 4
-

1 .3 5

1 .7 9
2 .0 8
2. 17
2 .0 1
1 .9 3
1.81
1 .5 3

_
1 .62
_
1 .8 4
1 .9 4
1.71
_

2 .0 2
1 .9 3
1.9 2
1 .9 0
2 . 15
2 .2 0
2 . 17
1 .9 3
_

1 .6 3

1.88
1.77
1.66
1.92
1.98
1.86
1.46
1.98
2. 10
2 .0 4
2 .3 1
2 .2 9
2 .2 3
2 . 19
2 .0 2
1.99
1.68

28

Table A-11:

Plant Occupations (Nonmanufacturing)

(A v e r a g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1 f o r s e le c t e d o c c u p a tio n s stu died in nonm anufacturing)
N o rth e a st
O ccu p a tion 2

N e w a rk J e r s e y C ity

B o s to n

B u ffa lo

$ 2. 06
2. 00
1. 96
1. 71
1. 6 6
2. 05
1. 94
1. 67

$ 2. 10
2. 16
1. 93
1. 55
1. 66
2. 03
1. 73

$ 2. 51
2. 66
2. 42

1 .4 9
1 . 23
1. 13
1. 50
1. 50
1. 50
1 . 16
1. 41
1. 56
1. 64

1. 75
1. 14
1 . 01
1. 58
1. 70

1. 68
1. 43
1 . 18
1. 83
1 . 88

South
N ew Y o rk
C ity

P h ila d elp h ia

A tlanta

B a lt im o r e

D a lla s

M em ph is

M a in te n a n c e a n d po w erp lant
C a rp e n te rs _ ________ _________________________________
E le c tr ic ia n s _ ________
_ __ _____
E n g in e e rs , s ta tio n a ry _________________________________
F ir e m e n , s ta tion a ry b o ile r
H e lp e r s , tra d es _______________ _______________________
M ech an ics
M ech a n ics, a u t o m o t iv e ____ __________________________
P a in ters
________ _____ ______________________________

-

1. 84
2. 06
2. 11
-

91
95
64

$ 1. 94

43
71
81
78

17
56
71
74

$ 1. 93
2. 30
1. 45
1 .4 8
2. 04
1. 74
1. 79

1.
2.
1.
1.

1. 60
1. 39
1. 22
1. 58
1. 71
1 .4 6
1. 29
1. 64
1. 74
1 . 80

1. 33
1. 25
1 . 02
1 . 49
1. 57
1. 30
1. 07
1. 45
1. 65
1 . 79

1. 38
. 92
. 67
1. 14
1. 30
1. 23
1 . 11
1. 41
1. 37
1. 50

1. 57
. 97
. 84
1 . 28
1. 42
1. 37

1. 36
. 90
. 72
1. 13
1 . 16
1 . 10

1. 15
1 . 10

1.45
1 . 59
1 . 60

1. 26
1. 38
1. 48

1 . 39
1.51
1 . 60

1 . 86
2. 15
2. 21
2. 40
2. 06
1 .4 5

1.
2.
1.
1.
1.

1.
1.
2.
1.
1.
1.

1. 35
1.4 1
1. 47

.90
1. 34
1. 50

1. 34
. 96

1 . 06
. 81

19
18
20
74
74
14
14
04

$ 2.
2.
1.
1.
1.
2.
2.
1.

$ 1. 93
2. 08
1. 69

50
22
90
54
69
19
06
91

$ 2.
2.
2.
1.
1.
2.
2.
2.

-

57
06
93
61

$ 1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.

-

1.
1.
1.
1.
1.

92

C u sto d ial, w a re h o u sin g , an d shipping
G uards _______________________________________________ ___
J a n ito r s , p o r t e r s , and c le a n e r s (m en) ______________
J a n itors, p o r t e r s , and c le a n e r s (w om en)
L a b o r e r s , m a te r ia l handling __________ __________ __
O rd er f il l e r s __________________________________________
P a c k e r s , shipping (m en) _______________________________
P a c k e r s , shipping (w om en) _______________ ____ _
_
R ec e iv in g c le r k s _____________________ ____________
Shipping c le r k s ________________________________
Shipping and r e c e iv in g c l e r k s _________________________
T r u c k d r iv e r s :
Light (under 1V2 tons) ______________ ________________
M edium ( 1V2 to and in clu d in g 4 tons) _____________
H eavy (o v e r 4 to n s , t r a il e r type) ____________
H eavy (o v e r 4 to n s , o th e r than t r a ile r type) ____
T r u c k e r s , p ow er (fo r k lift) ______________________
W atchm en _____________________________________

See fo o tn o te s at end o f table,




1. 4 5
1 . 60
1. 95
1 . 82
1 . 82
1.23

-

-

1. 53

1. 75

1. 73

1. 84

-

1. 55
1. 76
1 . 88

-

1 . 79
1. 25

-

2.
2.
2.
1.
1.

02
40
23
97
36

83
02
84
71
23

1 . 20
1. 31
1. 50

-

1 . 28
1 . 11

-

59
65
00
71
68
02

-

-

. 84
. 68
1 . 10
-

-

29
Table A -ll: Plant Occupations (Nonmanufacturing) - Continued
(A v e r a g e h o u r ly e a rn in g s 1 f o r s e le c t e d o c c u p a tio n s stu d ied in n on m an ufacturing)
M id d le W est
O cc u p a tio n 2
C h ica g o

C le v e la n d

F a r W est

M in n e a p o lis St. P a u l

Los
A n g e le s

San
F r a n cis c o Oakland

St. L o u is

D e n v er

-

$ 2. 18
2. 13
1. 76
1. 28
1. 72
2. 08

$ 2. 44
2. 67
2. 33
1. 86
2. 17
2. 28
2. 26

$ 2. 47
2. 61
2. 21
2. 20
2. 24
2. 33

2. 19
2. 31
2.45
2. 35

P o rtla n d

M ain te n an ce a n d p o w e rp lan t
C a r p e n t e r s _______________________________________________
E le c t r ic ia n s _____________________________________________
E n g in e e r s , s ta tio n a r y ________________________________
F ir e m e n , s ta tio n a r y b o i le r _________ ________________
H e lp e r s , tr a d e s ________________________________________
M e c h a n ic s ________________________________________________
M e c h a n ic s , a u to m o tiv e ____________________________ __
P a in t e r s _________________________________________________

$ 3.
2.
2.
2.
1.
2.
2.
2.

00
89
63
22
99
35
44
85

1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.

68
59
43
73
72
61
42
87
83
90

1.
2.
2.
2.
1.
1.

96
10
24
20
95
11

$ 2. 33
2. 30
2. 23
1. 90
1. 57
2. 22
2. 07

$ 2. 52
2. 56
2. 15
1. 93
2. 16
2. 10
2.48

$ 2 . 08
1. 84
2 . 16
2. 12
-

-

$ 2. 57
-

C u sto d ia l, w a re h o u sin g , an d shipping
G u ards ___________________________________________________
J a n ito r s , p o r t e r s , and c le a n e r s (m en) ______________
J a n ito r s , p o r t e r s , and c le a n e r s (w om en) ___________
L a b o r e r s , m a t e r ia l han dling
O rd er fille r s
P a c k e r s , sh ippin g (m en ) _______________________________
P a c k e r s , sh ippin g (w om en ) ___________________________
R e c e iv in g c le r k s ________________________________________
Shipping c le r k s --------------------------------------------------------------Shipping and r e c e iv in g c le r k s
T r u c k d r iv e r s :
L ig h t (u n der 1 V2 ton s) __________________________ __
M ed iu m (l V2 to and in clu d in g 4 tons)
H eavy ( o v e r 4 to n s , t r a il e r type)
________ ____
H eavy (o v e r 4 to n s , o th e r than t r a ile r type) _____
T r u c k e r s , p o w e r (fo r k lift ) ____________________________
W a tch m en ________________________________________________

1. 82
2. 01
1. 94

1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.

60
28
16
74
67
75
19
77
85
84

1. 32
1. 12
1. 00
1. 70
1. 77
1. 73
1. 84
1.93
1. 87

1. 32
1. 14
1. 15
1. 54
1. 51
1. 2 9
1. 47
1. 60
1. 68

1. 85
1.41
1. 22
1. 84
1. 88
1. 73
1. 94
2. 09
1. 96

_
1. 37
1. 29
1. 85
1. 83
1. 78
1. 83
1. 93
1. 98

1. 53
1. 58
1. 51
1. 96
1. 91
1. 84
1. 55
1. 97
2. 01
2. 12

1. 78
2.06
2. 10
1. 16

1. 90
1. 92
1. 90
1. 90
1. 48

1. 78
1.95
2. 07
1. 85
1. 08

1. 56
1. 6 6
1. 69
1. 72
1. 69
1. 21

1.
2.
2.
2.
2.
1.

1. 85
1. 98
2. 15
2. 00
1. 95
1.47

2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
1.

1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.

74
19
06
77
78
49

1 E x clu d e s p r e m iu m pay f o r o v e r tim e and f o r w o rk on w e e k e n d s, h o lid a y s , and la te s h ifts .
2 D ata lim it e d to m e n w o r k e r s e x ce p t w h ere o th e rw ise in d ica te d .
NOTE:

D a s h e s in d ica te no data o r in s u ffic ie n t data to w arra n t p r e s e n ta tio n .




97
01
14
15
08
45

07
17
30
21
09
58

30
Table A-12:

Plant Occupations (Public Utilities)*

(A v e r a g e h o u rly e a r n i n g s 1 fo r s e le c t e d o c c u p a tio n s studied in tr a n s p o r ta tio n , co m m u n ica tio n , and oth er p u b lic u t ilit ie s )
N orth ea st
O ccu p a tio n 1
2
B o s to n

BuifaLo

J e r s e y C ity

South
New Y o r k
C ity

P h iladelph ia

Atlanta

B a lt im o r e

D a lla s

M em p h is

Maintenance and powerplant
C a rp en ters _____ ___________ ____ _________________________
E le c t r ic ia n s
_ _ _ _ _
H e lp e r s , tr a d e s
„ _
_ _ _ _ _
M e c h a n ic s , a u tom otiv e _________ ________ ___________
P a in te r s

$ 2 .2 6
1.77
2. 10
2 .2 2

$2. 10
2 .2 3
1.71
2 .0 4
2. 13

$ 1 .5 8
1.78

1.61
1.92

1.58
1.79

1.56
1. 33
1.66

2 .4 0

2. 16
1.57

1.79
1.76
1.32

-

-

-

_
$ 1 .7 7
1 .92
2 .0 0

$ 2 .4 0
1.67
2 .0 3
-

$ 1.81
-

1 .4 9
_

1 .4 8
1 .7 3
1 .7 8
1 .8 2
1.5 6

-

-

-

-

-

$ 1.66
1 .9 5
-

_
$ 1 .8 5
-

$ 1 .4 3
1 .7 5
-

1. 16
_
1.31

1 .3 0
1. 15
1 .3 9

1. 18
1 .0 4
1 .26

.9 9
.9 4
1 .2 0

1 .4 4
1.45
1.29

1.7 8
1 .3 8

1 .5 8
1 .4 3
1.11

1. o9
.8 4

-

-

Custodial, warehousing, and shipping
J a n ito rs , p o r t e r s , and c le a n e r s (m en ) ______________
J a n itors , p o r t e r s , and c le a n e r s ( w o m e n ) ___________
L a b o r e r s , m a te r ia l handling
T r uc kdr iv e r s :
M edium (1 V2 to and in clu d in g 4 ton s) _____________
H eavy (o v e r 4 to n s , t r a ile r typ e)
......... .
T r u c k e r s , p ow er ( fo r k lift )
_
_ _
_
W atchm en _

"
1.7 8
_
-

-

F a r W est

M iddle W est
C h ica g o

C le v e la n d

Maintenance and powerplant
C a ro e n te r s
E le c t r ic ia n s
H e lp e r s , tra d es .__ _
M e c h a n ic s , a u tom otiv e
P a in te r s

M in n e a p o lis St. P aul

$ 2 .3 7
___
_ .

„__ _ __ .
_

_

P o r tla n d

San
F r a n c is c o O akland

St. L ou is

D enver

L o s A n g e le s

_
$ 2 .1 1
_

_
$ 1 .7 3
2 .0 8
_

$ 2 .2 8
2 .4 4
2 .2 7
2 .2 1

$ 2 .3 0

$ 2 .3 2

2 .2 5
_

_
2 .4 5
2 .2 3

_
$ 2 .4 6
_

2 .1 7
_

_
$ 2 .0 6
_

1 .6 8
1 .4 3
1 .9 2

_
_
1.89

1.57
_
1.85

1.52
1.28
1.80

.1.32
_
1 .6 4

1 .5 8
_
1 .9 0

.
_
1 .96

1. 58
1 .4 3
2 .0 3

2 .0 9
2 .2 2
-

_
2 .0 7

1.90
1.62

1.96
2.08
1.42

1.68
1.70
1.75

1.9 7
2 .0 2
2 .0 3

1 .9 6
-

2 . 13
2 .3 1
2 . 15

Custodial, warehousing, and shipping
J a n ito rs , p o r t e r s , and c le a n e r s (m en ) __ ._ . _
J a n ito rs , p o r t e r s , and c le a n e r s (w om en )
L a b o r e r s , m a te r ia l handling _ _._ _ _
_
T r u c k d riv e r s:
M edium ( 1 V2 to and in clu d in g 4 ton s)
H eavy (o v e r 4 ton s, t r a ile r typ e) ________________ ____
T r u c k e r s , p ow er (fo r k lift )
.... ....
W atchm en
_
.
___ _ _
...... ____ _ _ ---------- ----- - ■
J

-

1 E x clu d e s p r e m iu m pay fo r o v e r t im e and fo r w o rk on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , and late sh ifts .
Data lim ite d to m en w o r k e r s e x c e p t w h e re o th e r w is e in d ica te d .
T r a n sp o rta tio n (ex clu d in g r a ilr o a d s ), co m m u n ic a tio n , and o th er pu b lic u t ilit ie s .

*
N OTE:

D ash es in d ica te no data o r in s u ffic ie n t data to w a rra n t p r e s e n ta tio n .




-

31
Table A-13:

Plant Occupations (Wholesale Trade)

(A v e r a g e h o u r ly e a rn in g s 1 fo r s e le c t e d o c c u p a tio n s stu d ie d in w h o le s a le trade)
N orth ea st
O cc u p a tio n 13
2
B o sto n

South

N e w a rk N ew Y o r k
P h ila d e lp h ia
J e r s e y C ity
C ity

A tlanta

F a r W est

M id dle W est

B a lt im o r e

C h ic a g o

C le v e le n d

M in n ea p olis St. L ou is
St. P aul

L os
A n geles

San
F r a n C is co Oakland

M a in te n a n c e an d p o w e rp lan t
M e c h a n ic s , a u t o m o t iv e ____

__________________________

$2 . 13

$ 2 . 41

1. 39
1. 52
1.46
1. 59
1. 57
1. 64
1. 51

1. 48
1. 85
1. 83

1.
2.
1.
1.
1.

1. 96
2. 42
2. 32

$ 2 . 18

$ 2 . 27

$ 2 . 16

C u sto d ia l, w a re h o u sin g , an d shipping
J a n ito r s , p o r t e r s , and c le a n e r s ______________________
L a b o r e r s , m a t e r ia l han dling _________________________
O rd e r f i l l e r s _______________________ _________ ___________
P a c k e r s , sh ippin g ______________________________________
R e c e iv in g c le r k s ________________________________________
Shipping c le r k s __________________________________ ____
Shipping and r e c e iv in g c le r k s _________________________
T r u c k d r iv e r s :
M ediu m
to and in clu d in g 4 tons) ______ _______
H eavy (o v e r 4 to n s , t r a il e r typ e ) __________________
H eavy (o v e r 4 to n s , o th e r than t r a ile r type) _____
T r u c k e r s , p o w e r (fo r k lift) ____________________________
W a tch m en ________________________________________________

{I'H
z

65
05
95
77
36

-

1. 69

$ 1 .4 3
1. 72
1. 68
1. 47
1. 83
1. 78
1. 78

1. 28
1 .4 9
1 .4 8
1. 34
1. 57

2. 20
-

1. 88
2. 12
1. 95

-

-

-

1. 59

“

“

-

1. 03

$ 1 . 14
1. 00
1. 25
1. 26
1 .4 2
1. 48
1. 60
1. 07
-

1. 19
1. 18

1. 08
1. 27
1. 42

“

-

$ 1 . 45
1 .6 9
1. 71
1. 63
1. 98

-

-

-

1. 59
1. 59
2. 17
1. 73
-

1. 06

2. 13
-

$ 1 .4 0
1. 77
1. 79
1. 79
1. 88
1. 90
1. 93

-

1. 89
1. 93

$ 1 .4 2
1. 71
1. 77
1. 55
-

$1 .
1.
1.
1.
1.
2.
1.

32
62
77
73
80
00
86

1 .9 7

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

“

1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
2.

58
85
83
73
88
09

-

2. 03
2. 18
2. 18
2. 08
■

$1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
2.

77
91
91
87
97
99
19

2. 13
-

2. 20
2. 03
1. 65

1 E x clu d e s p r e m iu m pay f o r o v e r tim e and fo r w o rk on w e e k e n d s, h o lid a y s , and late s h ifts .
2 D ata lim it e d to m e n w o r k e r s .
NOTE:

D a sh es in d ica te no data o r in s u fficie n t data to w arra n t p r e s e n ta tio n .

Table A-14:

Plant Occupations (Retail Trade)

(A v e r a g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1 f o r s e le c t e d o c c u p a tio n s stu d ied in r e t a il trade)
South

N orth ea st
O cc u p a tio n 2
B o sto n

Maintenance and powerplant
C a r p e n t e r s ___________________________________________ __
E n g in e e r s , s ta tio n a r y _________________________________
M e c h a n ic s ______________________________ ________________
M e c h a n ic s , a u t o m o t iv e _______ _____________________

$2 . 24

-

2 .0 4
1. 89

New Y o r k
N ew a rk P h ila d e lp h ia
C ity
J e r s e y C ity

-

-

$ 2 . 34
2. 37
-

-

-

$2 .
2.
2.
2.

89
08
09
00

A tlanta

$ 2 . 03

-

1. 85
1 .4 5

B a lt im o r e

-

$ 1 . 79
-

F a r W est

M id dle W est
D alla s

-

$ 1 . 56

C h ic a g o

$ 2 . 77
2. 60
2 .4 1

M in n e a p o lis St. P aul

-

"

D en ver

"

P ortla n d

-

"

San
F r a n cis c o O akland

$ 2 . 30
-

Custodial, warehousing, and shipping
J a n ito r s , p o r t e r s , and c le a n e r s (m en) ..........
J a n ito r s , p o r t e r s , and c le a n e r s (w om en)
L a b o r e r s , m a t e r ia l han dling _________________________
O rd e r f i l l e r s .. ..
P a c k e r s , sh ip p in g
_ .... ___
.. . _
R e c e iv in g c le r k s
Shipping c l e r k s ___ _____________________________________
Shipping and r e c e iv in g c le r k s
T r u c k d r iv e r s :
M ed iu m 1
to and in clu d in g 4 tons)
__
H eavy (o v e r 4 to n s , t r a il e r type) _________________
W atch m en ___ __________________________________________

(V
?r

1. 17
.9 3
1 .44
60
1. 23
1. 34
1.46
1. 71

$1. 26
1. 08
1. 59

1. 57
1. 87
1. 19

2. 01

1.

1. 65
■

1. 28
1. 23
1. 41
1. 83
1 .4 5
1 .4 9
1. 65

1.- 88

1. 35

1. 19
. 96
1. 44
1. 53
1. 23
39

1.1. 79

1. 77
1. 32

1 E x clu d e s p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r tim e and f o r w o rk on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , and la te s h ifts .
2 D ata lim it e d to m e n w o r k e r s e x c e p t w h ere o th e rw is e in d ica te d .
3 E x clu d e s data f o r lim i t e d - p r i c e v a r ie ty s t o r e s .
N OTE:

D a s h e s in d ica te no data o r in s u ffic ie n t data to w arra n t p r e s e n ta tio n .




.
.
.
1.

83
66
95
36

1 .4 2
1. 22

.
.
1.
1.

91
83
25
43
18
1 .4 1
1. 56

1.

1. 34

-

.9 4

1. 41

-

1. 05

. 91

. 84
. 62
02
1. 35
99
22

1.
.
1.-

1. 15

1. 06

1. 30
1. 19
60

1.1.-

1. 54
82

2. 25

$ 1 . 21
1. 50
1. 38
1. 41

161
1. 96
"

$ 1 . 04
1. 07
1 .4 8
1. 37
1. 17
1. 35

-

$ 1 . 33
1. 64
1. 83

1. 88
1. 78

1. 67

2. 01

1. 17

1. 30

-

-

1. 60
1. 54
2. 01
90
1. 73
1 .9 7

1.

-

2. 00
2. 32

“

32
Table A-l5:

Plant Occupations (Finance)**

(A v e r a g e h o u r ly e a rn in g s 1 f o r s e le c t e d o c cu p a tio n s stu died in fin a n c e , in s u ra n ce , and re a l estate)
South

N o rth e a st
O ccu p a tio n 2
B o s to n

N e w a rk J e r s e y City

N ew Y o r k
C ity

P h ila d e lp h ia

Atlanta

F a r W est

M id d le W es t

B a lt im o r e

D allas

C h ic a g o

$1. 39
. 84
. 68

M in n e a p o lis C le v ela n d
St. L o u is
St. P a u l

$ 1. 68
1. 91
1. 47

L os
A n g e le s

San
F r a n c is c o Oakland

Custodial, warehousing, and shipping
(iiiards
J a n ito rs , p o r t e r s , and c le a n e r s (m en)
J a n itors, p o r t e r s , and c le a n e r s (w om en) ____________
W atchm en _______________________________ ______ ________

$1.
1.
1.
1.

48
22
18
22

$1.
1.
1.
1.

$ 1 .4 9
1. 37
1. 16
1. 38

67
56
28
57

$1 .
1.
1.
1.

30
27
03
20

$ 1 .4 3
. 80

$ 0 . 88
. 79
. 89

$ 1 . 60
1. 37

$ 1 . 33
1. 07

1 E x clu d es p r e m iu m pay fo r o v e r t im e and fo r .w ork on w e e k e n d s, h o lid a y s , and la te s h ifts .
2 D ata lim ite d to m en w o r k e r s e x c e p t w h e re o th e r w is e in d ica te d .
** F in a n ce , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s ta te .
N O TE:

D ash es in d ica te no data o r in s u ffic ie n t data to w a rra n t p re s e n ta tio n .




Table A-16:

Plant Occupations (Services)

(A v e r a g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1 fo r s e le c t e d o ccu p a tio n s stu died in s e r v ic e s )
M iddle
•West

N orth ea st
O ccu p a tio n 2
B o s to n

New Y o rk
C ity

$ 1 . 86
1. 55

$ 2 . 08
1. 65

$1. 75

. 96
. 84
1. 04

1. 23
1. 12
1. 24

1. 04
. 94

P h iladelph ia

C h ica g o

F a r W est
Los
A n g e le s 3

Maintenance and powerplant
E n g in e e rs , s ta tio n a ry ______________ ____ ______________
F ir e m e n , s ta tio n a ry b o ile r _____________ ___ ______

$ 2 . 26

Custodial,warehousing, and shipping
J a n ito r s , p o r t e r s , and c le a n e r s (m en)
___ _
J a n it o r s , p o r t e r s , and c le a n e r s (w om en) ____________
W atch m en _______________________________________________

1 E x clu d e s p r e m iu m pay f o r o v e r t im e and fo r w o rk on w eek en d s, h o lid a y s , and late s h ifts.
2 D ata lim it e d to m en w o r k e r s e x c e p t w h e re o th e r w is e in d ica te d .
5 E x clu d e s data fo r m o tio n p ic tu re p ro d u c tio n .
NOTE:

D a sh e s in d ica te no data o r in s u ffic ie n t data to w a rra n t p re s e n ta tio n .

$1. 34
1. 37

1. 31
-

$ 1 . 30
. 99
. 98

$1 . 24
1. 14

$ 1. 62
1. 58
1. 53

33
Wage Differences
P ay fo r o ffic e w o r k e r s and sk illed m aintenance w o rk e rs
v a r ie d far le s s am ong v a r io u s se ctio n s o f the United States than
w as the c a s e w ith pay fo r cu stod ia l w o r k e rs and th ose in m a te ­
r ia l m ov em en t jobs* P a y fo r o ffic e and m aintenance w o r k e rs in
the highest w age city e x c e e d e d that ;n the low est wage city by a
fou rth ; the w age sp re a d fo r cu stod ia l and fo r m a teria l m ovem en t
jo b s am ounted to t w o -t h ir d s .
E xcluding the 4 Southern a re a s ,
the m ax im u m w age advantage fo r w o rk e rs in any city am ounted
to a fifth fo r o ffic e and m aintenance w o rk e rs and a fourth fo r
cu sto d ia l and m a te r ia l m ov em en t w o r k e r s . Pay le v e ls fo r w h itec o lla r e m p lo y e e s and s k ille d plant w o rk e rs in the South g e n e ra lly
co m p a re m o r e fa v o r a b ly with pay in other section s than is the
c a s e with u n sk ille d and s e m is k ille d w o r k e r s .
O ccu p a tion a l data p re se n te d in the tables beginning on
page 15 p ro v id e d a b a s is fo r m ea su rin g these d iffe r e n c e s in pay
le v e ls am ong the la b o r m a rk ets studied. M easu res o f in tera rea
w age re la tio n s h ip s draw n fr o m wage data for the types o f jo b s
in clu d ed in th ese com m u n ity w age studies w ill not n e c e s s a r ily
a g re e w ith m e a s u r e s b a s e d on a v e ra g e s fo r b ro a d e r g rou ps of
w o r k e r s — such as a ll plant w o rk e rs com b in ed . H ow ev er, the use
o f data fo r the sam e jo b s in ea ch a re a elim in ates the d iffe r e n c e s
in occu p a tio n a l c o m p o s itio n o f the la b o r fo r c e as a fa cto r in e x ­
am ining pay l e v e l s .
A s in dicated by the ch arts shown on p ag es 3
and 4 , in d u stria l c o m p o s itio n v a r ie s substantially am ong the 17
a r e a s . T h is type o f v a r ia tio n is n e c e s s a r ily r e fle c te d in and, in
fa ct, tends to ex p la in the city pay r e la tiv e s presen ted in this study.
M ethod U sed in C om puting Data
u sed

The fo llo w in g m eth od was used in com puting the data
in the c o m p a r is o n s .
F o r each a re a , a g g reg a tes fo r all

5
,ong Labor Markets 1
in d u stries com b in ed and fo r m anufacturing and nonm anufacturing
w ere com p u ted by m ultiplying the a v era g e standard w eekly sa la ry
for each o f 18 o ffic e jo b s and the av era g e stra ig h t-tim e h ourly
earnings (ex clu d in g p rem iu m pay fo r o v e rtim e and nightw ork) fo r
each o f 17 plant jo b s by estim a ted total em ploym ent in the job
in all in d u stries and a re a s c o m b in e d .1
6 The p roced u re assu m ed
a constant em p loy m en t rela tion sh ip betw een jo b s in all a r e a s — in
m an u factu rin g, nonm anufacturing, and fo r both groups com bin ed .
A g g re g a te s fo r ea ch fie ld o f w ork and industry group are
e x p r e s s e d as p e rce n ta g e s o f like grou ps in New Y ork C ity. Wage
data fo r New Y o rk City w e re ava ila b le fo r M arch 1955.
The
p e rio d studied in other a re a s d iffe r e d fr o m the survey month by
2 m onths or le s s ex cep t in B uffalo and D allas (Septem ber 1954),
C levelan d (O cto b e r 1954), M in n ea p olis-S t. Paul and P hiladelphia
(N ovem ber 19 54), and D enver and N e w a rk -J e rs e y City (D ecem b er
1954).
The tim ing o f wage adjustm ents v a r ie s among in du stries
and e sta b lish m e n ts . E stim a tes o f com p a ra tiv e pay p osition , p a r ­
ticu la rly fo r a re a s in w hich the w age studies w ere conducted in
late 1954, should be v iew ed in the light o f this variation in p ay ­
r o ll c o v e r a g e .
Xnterarea C o m p a riso n s
Job G ro u p s. — O ffice c l e r ic a l w eek ly pay le v e ls in C h i­
ca g o, L o s A n g e le s , and San F r a n c is c o -O a k la n d area w ere 105-106
p e rcen t o f New Y ork C ity le v e ls (table A - 17). P ortlan d (O r e g .)
and N e w a r k -J e r s e y C ity w e re r e c o r d e d at 99 p ercen t o f the New
Y ork City le v e l.
C lu ste re d at the 8 8 -9 2 p ercen t le v e l w ere
Atlanta, B a ltim o re , B oston , D alla s, D enver, M in nea polis-S t.
P aul, and P h ila d elp h ia .
P a y r e la tiv e s fo r other a reas studied
ranged fr o m 103 fo r C levelan d to 85 fo r M em p h is.

15
E a r lie r e s tim a te s o f wage d iffe re n ce s am ong la b o r m a r ­
Owing to d iffe r e n c e s am ong a re a s in scheduled w eek ly
kets are a v a ila b le in W age D iffe re n c e s and E stablish m en t P r a c ­
hours o f w ork , o ffic e -w o r k e r tabulations b a sed on hourly rates
t ic e s , 17 L a b o r M a rk e ts, 1953-54 , BLS B ull. 1173, p r ic e 35
w ould re su lt in a som ew hat d ifferen t ranking o f a rea pay le v e ls .
ce n ts .
F o u rte e n a r e a s w e r e in both studies, 3 a re a s (D etroit,
The a re a s that w ould be a ffe cte d p r im a r ily a re suggested by the
M ilw aukee, and New O r le a n s ) w ere included only in the e a r lie r
follow in g lis tin g o f a v era g e w eek ly h ou rs fo r sten og ra p h ers: New
study, and 3 a r e a s (B a ltim o r e , B u ffalo, and C levelan d) in the
Y o rk C ity— 36 h ou rs; B oston and P h ilad elph ia— 38 h ours; B a lti­
cu rre n t study w e r e not in clu d ed in the 1953-54 study.
Although
m o re and N e w a r k -J e r s e y C ity— 3 8 .5 h ou rs; and all o th e rs— fro m
a ll-in d u s tr y r e la tiv e s ( o ffic e and plant) in this study are c o m p a r a ­
39 to 40 h o u r s .
ble with data fo r 1 9 5 3 -5 4 , city r e la tiv e s fo r m anufacturing and
nonm anufacturing in the tw o studies a re not com p a ra b le owing to
the in clu sio n , in the m o r e re c e n t New Y o rk City study, o f cen tra l
o ffic e s in the a p p ro p ria te in du stry d iv isio n .
This change had the
1
6
The o ffic e occu p a tion s c o v e r e d 5 m e n fs and 13 wom en*s
e ffe c t o f ra isin g m a n u factu rin g a v e ra g e s in New Y ork C ity su f­
jo b s,a n d the plant jo b s in cluded 6 m aintenance trades and 4 c u s ­
fic ie n tly to lo w e r r e la tiv e s fo r other a rea s by 2 o r 3 points in
todial and 7 m a te ria l m ov em en t jo b s , all o f w hich w ere men*s
the c a s e o f o f f ic e pay and by 1 o r 2 points for cu stod ia l pay.
occu p a tion s e x ce p t fo r ja n itr e s s e s in the cu stod ia l group.




34
P a y le v e l v a ria tio n s am ong the 3 plant jo b grou ps d iffe re d
both in m agnitude and in rank p o sitio n o f a re a s in the wage
la d d er.
A v e ra g e pay fo r the 6 sk ille d m aintenance tra d e s—
e x p re ss e d in te r m s o f New Y o rk C ity pay— ranged fr o m 109 p e r ­
cent in C h icago to 87 p e rce n t in M em phis (table A -18). C ustodial
w ork ers (g u a rd s, ja n ito r s , ja n it r e s s e s , and w atchm en) in the
San F r a n c is c o Bay a re a a v e ra g e d 116 p e rcen t o f the New Y ork
City pay le v e l, C h ica go ranked se co n d with 109, and L os A n g eles
and P ortla n d w e re tied fo r th ird at 107.

Job group pay r e la tiv e s fo r m an u factu rin g and nonm anu­
factu rin g d iffe r e d som ew hat fr o m th eir com b in ed a ll-in d u s tr y
re la tio n s h ip s.
O ffice and plant pay le v e ls in C h ica g o nonm anu­
factu rin g esta b lish m en ts, fo r ex a m p le , ran k ed h igh er in the in te r ­
city s ca le than did m anufacturing pay in fhe a r e a . The r e v e r s e
o f this was found in B u ffalo.
In M in n e a p o lis -S t. P a u l, St. L ou is
and som e other a re a s , pay r e la tiv e s fo r the two in du stry g rou p s
c o r r e s p o n d e d ex a ctly o r v e r y c lo s e l y with a ll in du stry e s tim a te s .

The m e a su rem en t o f in te r city w age d iffe r e n c e s fo r m a te ­
ria l m ovem en t jo b s w as b a sed on a v e ra g e s fo r fo r k -lift o p e r a to r s ,
m a teria l handling la b o r e r s , o r d e r f i ll e r s , shipping p a c k e r s , sh ip ­
ping and r e c e iv in g c le r k s , and tr u c k d r iv e r s .
San F r a n c is c o Bay
area w o r k e rs had the highest g en era l le v e l— 114 p ercen t o f New
Y ork C ity and N e w a r k -J e r s e y C ity w o r k e rs held secon d p osition
(110), la r g e ly b e ca u se o f the r e la tiv e ly high earn in gs o f tru ck d riv e rs in the a r e a .

In tra -a re a C om p a rison s

P a y fo r cu sto d ia l w o r k e r s and m a te ria l m ovem en t w o r k ­
e r s in A tlanta, D a lla s, and M em phis w as grou p ed at 70-76 p e r ­
cent o f New Y o rk C ity le v e ls . A ls o b elow New Y o rk C ity but at
the 8 7 -9 5 le v e l fo r these g rou p s w e re B a ltim o re , B oston , D en­
v e r , and P h ila d elp h ia .
Industry G r o u p s . — P a y re la tio n sh ip s are a lso shown s e p ­
arately fo r m anufacturing and nonm anufacturing in ta b les A-17 and
A-18. M axim um in te ra re a d iffe r e n c e s in pay le v e ls w e re s im ila r
fo r o ffice w o r k e rs in the two, b ro a d in dustry g ro u p s.
A m ong
plant jo b s — p a r tic u la r ly in m aintenance and cu stod ia l w ork — the
wage sp read w as g r e a te st in non m an u factu ring.

Job group

P ercen t d ifferen ce between highest
and low est area rela tives
Manufactur ing

Nonmanufacturing

A ll 17 areas:
O ffice w ork ers _________________
Plant w ork ers _________________
Maintenance
Custodial
M aterial m ovem ent

23
47
24
51
61

27
64
54
81
69

A reas (13) excluding South:
O ffice w ork ers
Plant w ork ers _________________
M ain ten an ce_________________
Custodial
M aterial m ovem ent __

20
22
16
21
24

19
27
33
40
29




P ay le v e ls in nonm anufacturing in d u strie s a re e x p r e s s e d
as p e rce n ta g e s o f m anufacturing pay in ta b le A - 19. O ffice w o r k e r
a v e ra g e s for all nonm anufacturing ran ged fr o m 85 p e rce n t (B u f­
fa lo ) to 97 p e rcen t (C h ica g o) o f pay fo r co m p a ra b le w o rk in m a n ­
u factu rin g .
The low er sa la ry le v e l in n onm anufacturing w as
p artly o ffse t by sh orter standard w o rk w e e k s .
W eekly h ou rs fo r
s e c r e ta r ie s and sten og ra p h ers, fo r e x a m p le , a v e ra g e d fr o m a
half hour to 2 h ours le s s in non m an u factu rin g in m o s t a r e a s .
Skilled m aintenance w o r k e r s 1 pay in n onm anufacturing
equaled or e x ce e d e d that in m an u factu rin g in 11 o f 17 a r e a s .
A r e a r e la tiv e s (to m anufacturing) ran g ed fr o m 8 9 -9 2 in B a lti­
m o r e , B u ffalo, D alla s, and M em ph is to 115 in C h ica g o .
M an u facturing-nonm anufacturing w age d iffe r e n c e s w e re
g re a te st for the cu stod ial jo b g ro u p .
In the 4 Southern a re a s
and in B u ffalo, C levelan d, and St. L o u is , w o r k e rs in th ese jo b s
in nonm anufacturing a v era g ed fo u r -fift h s o r l e s s than th eir co u n ­
te r p a r ts . O nly in New Y o rk C ity and C h ica g o w e re the r e la tiv e s
as high as 95.
M aterial m ovem ent w o r k e r s a ls o a v e ra g e d lo w e r h ou rly
pay in nonm anufacturing but the w age s p re a d betw een m a n u fa c­
turing and nonm anufacturing w as on ly a few points in m o s t a r e a s .

Wage Differences Among Labor Markets
Table A-l7:

35

Intercity Pay Comparisons, Office Workers

(R e la tiv e pay l e v e ls fo r o f fic e w o r k e r s in 17 la b o r m a r k e ts by in d u stry d iv is io n and s e x ,

195 4-5 5)

(N ew Y o r k C ity = 100)
A ll in d u s tr ie s
M en
and
w om en

N o rth e a s t:
B o s to n ___________________________________
B u ffa lo
N e w a r k - J e r s e y C ity ____________________
N ew Y o r k C i t y ___________________________
P h ila d e lp h ia
_

88
96
99
100
91

South:
A tlanta ___________________________________
B a lt im o r e
D a lla s
_ ____
M em p h is
. . .

M anuf a ctu r ing

M en

L a b or m ark et

M id d le W est:
C h ic a g o _
_
C le v e la n d
M in n e a p o lis -S t . P a u l
S t. L ou i s
. .

....................

F a r W est:
D en v er ___________________________________
L o s A n g e le s
.
. _
..........
_
_
P o r tla n d
San F r a n c is c o -O a k la n d _______________

N on m anufacturing

W om en

M en
and
w om en

M en

W om en

M en
and
w om en

M en

95
107
105
100
97

88
96
99
100
90

89
100
97
100
92

96
109
104
100
99

88
100
96
100
91

88
88
99
100
88

94
100
106
100
94

87
86
98
100
87

91
91
92
85

96
101
96
97

90
90
91
83

93
96
96
87

99
102
103
101

92
96
95
85

90
88
90
83

95
102
92
95

90
86
90
82

105
103
91
95

108
111
97
102

105
102
90
94

103
105
90
93

109
114
98
104

102
105
89
91

105
99
90
95

107
106
96
100

105
98
89
94

92
106
99
105

94
109
107
108

92
106
98
104

91
106
98
107

92
110
108
110

91
106
97
107

93
105
100
104

95
110
107
107

92
104
99
103

Table A-18:

W om en

Intercity Pay Comparisons, Plant W orkers

(R e la tiv e pay le v e ls fojr plant w o r k e r s in in d ir e c t jo b s in 17 la b o r m a r k e ts by in d u stry d iv is io n and w o rk c a t e g o r y ,

19 5 4 -5 5 )

(N ew Y o r k C ity - 100)
M an u factu rin g

A ll in d u s tr ie s
M a in te n a n ce ,
cu s to d ia l,
and
m a te r ia l
m ovem ent

L a b or m ark et

N o rth e a s t:
B o s to n ___________________________________
B u ffa lo
N e w a r k -J e r s e y City_._
N ew Y o r k C ity .
P h ila d e lp h ia

M aintenance

C u sto d ia l

M a te r ia l
m ovem ent

M a in te n a n c e ,
c u s to d ia l,
and
m a t e r ia l
m ovem ent

M ain ten an ce

N onm anufacturing

C u sto d ia l

M a te r ia l
m ov em en t

M a in te n a n c e ,
c u s t o d ia l,
and
m a t e r ia l
m ovem ent

M ain ten an ce

C u stod ial

M a te r ia l
m ovem en t

92
102
107
100
95

91
99
102
100
99

94
105
106
100
95

92
101
110
100
94

93
104
107
100
96

90
98
100
100
96

98
112
106
100
98

93
102
112
100
95

91
91
106
100
93

92
92
106
100
102

89
86
101
100
87

91
93
108
100
91

77
90
78
74

89
95
88
87

76
87
76
71

71
88
75
70

77
93
85
77

87
94
88
84

82
97
88
79

71
90
82
72

75
83
72
69

93
91
83
79

68
73
67
62

71
83
70
68

M id d le W est:
C h ic a g o __________________________________
C le v e la n d
M in n e a p o lis -S t . P a u l __________________
St. L o u is
.

106
105
101
100

109
102
102
102

109
106
102
96

103
106
101
101

103
105
102
100

101
99
97
99

106
112
107
101

102
105
101
100

109
100
102
98

122
104
109
106

108
88
95
80

105
104
102
103

F a r W est:
D en ver _
L o s A n g e le s ________________ __ ______
__
P o r tla n d
San F r a n c is c o -O a k la n d _ _ _

92
107
107
113

94
104
104
108

93
107
107
116

90
108
109
114

93
107
107
113

91
100
101
104

99
111
109
119

92
108
109
114

89
108
106
113

95
110
108
109

o4
103
101
112

89
109
109
115

South:
A tlanta
B a lt im o r e
D a lla s _
M em p h is

_ .
.




.......
_ _

_
_
......... .
.........

Table A-19:

Nonmanufacturing - M anufacturing Pay Comparisons

(P a y l e v e ls in n on m an u fa ctu rin g in d u s tr ie s a s p e r c e n t a g e s o f m an u factu rin g pay le v e ls by jo b gro u p ,

17 la b o r m a r k e ts ,

1 9 5 4 -5 5 )

(M a n u factu rin g pay in e a c h a r e a and jo b group = 100)
P lan t w o r k e r s in in d ire c t jo b s

O ffic e
w ork ers

M ain ten an ce,
c u s to d ia l,
and
m a te r ia l
m ovem ent

M aintenance

C u stodial

N orth ea st:
B o s t o n ___________________________________
B u f fa lo ___________________________________
N e w a r k -J e r s e y C ity ___________________
N ew Y o r k C it y __________________________
P h ila d e lp h ia
.....
... _ . ...

93
85
96
94
90

94
86
96
97
94

98
90
102
96
101

87
74
90
95
84

97
91
96
99
95

South:
A tlanta _ ________________________________
B a lt im o r e
_
_
D a ll a s ____________________________________
M em phis _________________________________

92
88
88
90

95
87
83
87

102
92
90
89

79
73
72
74

101
92
85
94

M id dle W est:
C h ic a g o __________________________________
C l e v e l a n d ________________________________
M in n e a p o lis -S t. P a u l __________________
St. L o u is ________________________________

97
92
95
96

103
92
97
95

115
100
107
102

97
76
85
75

102
98
101
102

F a r W est:
D en v e r __________________________________
L o s A n g e le s
_
P o r t l a n d ........... .................... .... ................. ....
San F r a n c i s c o -O a k l a n d ________________

96
93
96
91

93
98
96
97

101
105
102
100

81
88
87
89

97
101
99
101

L a b o r m a rk e t




M a te r ia l
m ovem ent

37

Establishment Practices and

upplementary Wage Provisions

17

Scheduled W eek ly H ours

M inim um E ntran ce Rates

A m a jo r it y o f the o ffic e w o rk e rs in the 17 a re a s c o m ­
bined w ork ed 40 h ou rs a w eek at the tim e of the su rv e y , with
m o s t o f the oth ers on s h o r te r sch edules (table B - l ) . A m ong in ­
d u stry d iv is io n s , the p r o p o r tio n w orking le ss than 40 hours ranged
fr o m 28 p e r c e n t (re ta il tra d e ) to 70 p e rce n t (finance, in su ra n ce,
and re a l e sta te ).
M anufacturing in du stries rep orted 36 perce'nt
o f its o ffic e la b o r f o r c e w ork ed le s s than 40 h ou rs, but this p r o ­
p o rtio n in in dividu al a r e a s ranged fro m 90 p ercen t in New Y ork
C ity to le s s than 3 p e r c e n t in L os A n g e le s.
In N e w a rk -J e rs e y
C ity and P h ila d elph ia the p r o p o r tio n ranged between 45 and 50
p e r c e n t; in B oston and C h ica g o , fro m 35 to 40 p e rce n t; in B a l­
tim o r e , M in n e a p o lis -S t. P a u l, and San F ra n cisco -O a k la n d , b e ­
tw een 20 and 30 p e r c e n t. In B u ffalo, C leveland, St. L o u is, and
a il the s m a lle s t a r e a s , 15 p e rce n t o r le ss of the m anufacturing
o ffic e w o r k e rs w o rk e d fe w e r than 40 h ou rs.

O ver half of the 4 ,2 0 0 estab lish m en ts v isited rep orted
esta b lish ed m inim um entrance rates fo r h irin g in exp erien ced
w o rk e rs fo r typing o r other c le r ic a l jo b s .
The r e s t of the e s ­
tablish m en ts w e re a lm o st equally divid ed betw een establishm ents
w hich did not h ire in ex p e rie n ce d w o rk e rs and th ose w hich had no
s p e cifie d m inim um rates fo r these jo b s . F o r m a l com pany p r a c ­
tic e s fo r h irin g in ex p e rie n ce d c l e r i c a l w o r k e rs w ere m o st c o m ­
m on in B a ltim o re , B uffalo, C levelan d, D a lla s, N e w a rk -J e rs e y
C ity, an<j New Y ork C ity.

In 7 o f the a r e a s , 15 p e rce n t o r le ss of the com bin ed
m an u factu rin g and nonm anufacturing o ffic e w ork ers w ere on
w e e k ly sch ed u les o f le s s than 40 h ou rs, and in 6 other a rea s the
p r o p o r tio n ranged fr o m 23 to 36 p e rce n t. In New Y ork C ity the
p r o p o r tio n w as 88 p e r c e n t and about 60 p e rce n t in 3 oth er N orth ­
ea st a r e a s . The la tte r p r o p o r tio n s r e fle c t the com bin ed e ffe ct of
r e la tiv e ly la rg e p r o p o r tio n s of finance w o rk ers and the la rg e
n u m bers o f su ch w o r k e r s who w ork le ss than 40 hours a w eek.
E igh ty p e r c e n t o f the com bin ed plant w ork fo r c e in the
17 a r e a s w ork ed 40 h ou rs a w eek; m o st other plant w o rk e rs had
lo n g e r w o rk s c h e d u le s . W eek ly hours in e x ce ss o f 40 a ffe cte d a
tenth o f the plant w o r k e r s in w h o le sa le tra de, and a fou rth in r e ­
ta il trad e and s e r v i c e s . A m on g a r e a s , the lon ger w ork sch ed u les
a ffe cte d betw een 20 and 40 p e rce n t in D enver and the Southern
areas.
In m a n u fa ctu rin g, 85 p e rce n t of the plant w o rk e rs had
4 0 -h o u r w o rk s ch e d u le s; m o s t o f the rem a in d er had sh o rte r w o r k ­
w e e k s. W ork w eek s o f le s s than 40 hours a ffected as m any as a
fou rth o f the m a n u factu rin g plant w o rk e rs in New Y ork C ity, and
about a tenth in 7 oth er a r e a s . A s m any as a fifth of the w o r k ­
e r s in D allas and M em ph is w ork ed m o r e than 40 h o u rs.
*

The m inim um h irin g sa la ry fo r both in exp erien ced typists
and oth er in e x p e rie n ce d c l e r ic a l w o rk e rs ranged from le s s than
$30 to m o r e than $65 a w eek am ong the m o r e than 2, 000 fir m s
rep ortin g an esta b lish ed m in im u m . The m o st com m on entrance
s a la r ie s in the 17 a re a s ranged betw een $ 3 7 .5 0 and $ 4 7 .5 0 a
w eek . M inim um s a la rie s below $ 4 2 .5 0 w e re re p o rte d m o s t f r e quently by the fir m s in B oston , P h ilad elph ia, the 4 Southern a rea s!
and M in n e a p o lis -S t.- P aul.
M inim um s a la r ie s ranging betw een
$ 4 2 .5 0 and $ 5 2 .5 0 w ere re p o rte d by a substantial m a jo rity o f the
fir m s in C h ica go, C levelan d , L os A n g e le s , and San F r a n c is c o Oakland. The m inim um o f m o s t fir m s in oth er a rea s was within
the $ 3 7 .5 0 to $ 4 7 .5 0 ran ge.
L a te-S h ift P ay P ro v is io n s

(M anufacturing)

M ore than 85 p e rce n t of the m anufacturing plant w ork ers
in the com bin ed a rea s w ere em ployed in establish m en ts having
s p e c ific pay p r o v is io n s fo r a secon d shift eith er through a la b o r m anagem ent a g reem en t o r by other fo r m a l m ean s.
About 75
p e rce n t w e re in fir m s with s im ila r p r o v is io n s relating to the
op era tion o f a third shift (table B -5 ).
A m ong a r e a s , the p ro p o rtio n of m anufacturing plant
w o rk e rs in fir m s having s p e c ifie d s e c o n d -s h ift p ro v isio n s ranged
fro m 60-70 p e rce n t in New Y ork C ity and M em phis to about 90
p e rce n t in B u ffalo, N ew ark, B a ltim o re , and a ll M iddle W est and
F a r W est a re a s ex cep t D enver and about 80 in a ll other c itie s .
T y p ica lly , som ew hat few er w o rk e rs w e re c o v e r e d by p ro v isio n s
fo r th ird -s h ift op era tion than fo r secon d shift.

The la te -s h ift p r o v is io n s fo r m o s t w o rk e rs s p e cifie d a
pay d iffe re n tia l. The com m on p r o v is io n was fo r a c e n ts -p e r-h o u r
addition to fir s t -s h ift ra te s. E xcept in F a r W est area s the next
17
A n a ly sis rela tin g to the individual m a jo r in du stry g r o u p ­
m o st co m m on p r o v is io n was fo r a u n iform p ercen ta g e added to
ings is lim ite d to th ose a r e a s fo r w hich the in du stry data a re
the day ra te s .
p re s e n te d (se e text, p. l) .



38

S e c o n d -s h ift pay p r o v is io n s c o v e r in g up to 30 p e rce n t of
the m anufacturing plant w o r k e rs in F a r W est a re a s s p e cifie d
other sh ift d iffe re n tia ls such as a fu ll d a y 's pay fo r red u ced w ork
hours o r this p r o v is io n in com b in a tion with a cents o r p e rcen ta g e
d iffe re n tia l. ' F o r th ir d -s h ift w o rk in th ese a rea s and in D allas
even m o r e w o r k e rs w e re su b ject to such "co m b in a tio n " type
p r o v is io n s .
A s m any as a fifth o f a ll m an u facturing plant w o rk e rs
in the 17 a re a s w e re a ctu a lly em ployed on late shifts at the tim e
of the su rv e y (table B -6 ). A m ong a r e a s , the p ro p o rtio n o f la te shift w o r k e rs ranged fr o m about an eighth o f the plant w ork
fo r c e in B oston and New Y ork C ity to a fourth in B a ltim o re ,
B uffalo, C levela n d , and P ortla n d .
E vening-shift w o r k e rs g e n e ra lly outnum bered n ig h t-(th ird )
shift w o rk e rs by 3 to 1. The ra tio o f evening to n igh tw ork ers in
individual a r e a s , h o w e v e r, ranged fr o m le s s than 2 to 1 in B a l­
tim o re , M em p h is, and P ortla n d , to 5 to 1 in D a lla s, L os A n g e le s ,
and M in n e a p o lis-S t. P aul.
F req u en cy o f Pay
In form a tion on the fre q u e n cy o f the pay p e r io d fo r both
o ffice and plant w o rk e rs was obtained fo r the fir s t tim e in this
s e r ie s o f annual su rv e y s (table B -7 ).
A bout 44 p e rce n t o f o ffic e w o r k e rs w e re paid w eek ly , 22
biw eek ly, and 33 p e rce n t sem im on th ly.
A m ong in du stry d iv i­
sio n s, w eek ly pay p r o v is io n s p r e v a ile d fo r a m a jo r ity of o ffic e
w ork e rs in s e r v ic e s , m an u factu rin g, and re ta il tra d e.
A m ong
a r e a s , about 50 to 60 p e rce n t o f the o ffic e w o rk e rs in the N orth ­
east a r e a s , B a ltim o re , and C h icago w e re paid w eek ly . The p r o ­
p ortion in other a re a s a v e ra g e d betw een 11 p e rce n t (San F r a n ­
c i s c o - Oakland) and 41 p e rce n t (L os A n g e le s ).
In c o n tra st, 7 out of 8 plant w o rk e rs w ere paid each
w eek.
Only in pu b lic u tilitie s did m o r e than a fou rth of the
plant w o r k e rs r e c e iv e th eir pay le ss freq u en tly . A m ong a r e a s ,
pay was p ro v id e d w eek ly to v irtu a lly a ll plant w o rk e rs in N orth ­
east a re a s and B a ltim o re ; in Southern and m o st M iddle W est
a rea s the p r o p o r tio n paid w eek ly ranged betw een 76 and 89 p e r ­
cent; and betw een 43 and 72 p e rce n t in F a r W est a re a s and
C levelan d.
Paid H olidays
R egu la r pay fo r som e h olid ays not w ork ed was an a lm o st
u n iv ersa l p r a c t ic e , exceptin g only a few plant w o r k e r s . W ithin
a re a s , o ffic e w o r k e rs u su ally r e c e iv e d m o r e holid ays than plant
w ork ers in each m a jo r in du stry d iv is io n studied (table B -8 ).



A ll but 3 p e rce n t o f the o ffic e w o r k e r s in the 17 a re a s
com b in ed r e c e iv e d 6 o r m o r e paid h o lid a y s ; 7 o r m o r e h olid a ys
w ere re ce iv e d by 2 out of e v e r y 3 w o r k e r s ; 8 o r m o r e by 2 out
of 5; and 11 o r m o r e by 1 in e v e r y 4.
The granting of 6 o r m o r e paid h olid ays to o ffic e w o r k ­
e rs was a gen eral p r a c tic e in each o f the in d u stry d iv is io n s and
a re a s studied, except fo r a la r g e p r o p o r tio n of w o r k e rs in m o s t
in du stry d iv ision s in A tlanta, D a lla s, and M em phis who r e c e iv e d
fe w e r than 6.
The granting o f 7 o r m o r e paid h olid a ys to at
le a st 80 p ercen t of the o ffic e w o r k e rs (and 70 p e r c e n t of the
plant w o rk e rs ) in each of the in d u stry d iv is io n s (ex cep t s e r v i c e s )
was re c o r d e d only in B oston , N e w a r k -J e r s e y C ity, New Y o rk
C ity, and San F ra n cis co -O a k la n d . In the fir s t 3 of th ese a re a s
and in P hiladelphia, a fou rth to a h alf of the o ffic e w o r k e rs r e ­
ce iv e d 11 or m o r e h olid a y s, ow ing c h ie fly to p re v a ilin g p r a c t ic e s
in public u tilitie s, w h olesa le tra d e , and fin a n ce e sta b lish m e n ts .
Although 9 of e v e ry 10 plant w o r k e rs in the 17 a r e a s
com b in ed w ere granted 6 o r m o r e h o lid a y s , the p ro p o rtio n s r e ­
ce iv in g m o re than 6 w ere c o n s id e r a b ly lo w e r than th ose o f o ffic e
w ork ers.
About 2 out of 5 plant w o r k e rs got 7 o r m o r e h o li­
days, 1 out of 5 got 8 or m o r e , and on ly 1 out o f 30 got 11 o r
m o r e . In only the public u tilitie s and w h o le s a le trad e in d u stries
did a substantial p ro p o rtio n o f the plant w o r k e rs get m o r e than 7
paid holid ays.
The p ro p o rtio n of plant w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g 6 o r m o r e
holid ays ranged betw een 40 and 45 p e r c e n t in Southern a re a s
ex cep t B a ltim ore, about 85 p e r c e n t in B oston and F a r W est a re a s
except Los A n g eles, and betw een 90 and 95 p e r c e n t in oth er a r e a s .
Inquiry was m ade a ls o as to the pay p o lic ie s in e s ta b ­
lish m en ts prov id in g paid h o lid a y s , with r e s p e c t to h olid a ys fa llin g
on nonw orkdays, i. e. , h olid a ys fa llin g on Saturday, Sunday, o r
during the w o r k e r 's vacation p e r io d .
Such in fo rm a tio n was not
c o lle c te d in e a r lie r com m u n ity su rv e y s (table B -9 ).
E m p loy ers o f a su bstan tial p r o p o r tio n o f both the plant
and o ffic e w o rk e rs in the 17 a r e a s had fo r m a l p r o v is io n s f o r each
of these situations— m o st fre q u e n tly fo r Sunday h o lid a y s , and
le a st frequ en tly fo r Saturday.
About 95 p e rcen t o f the o ffic e w o r k e rs and 82 p e r c e n t of
the plant w ork ers w e re in fir m s w h ich p r o v id e an oth er day o ff
with pay when a holid ay fa lls on Sunday. M ost oth er o ffic e w o r k ­
e rs w e re in fir m s which eith er had no fo r m a l p o lic y o r w h ich,
as a m atter of p o lic y , p rov id e fo r no paiyfor the h o lid a y . M ost oth er
plant w o rk e rs w ere em p loy ed in fir m s that p ro v id e d an extra,
d a y 's pay.
T hese p r o v is io n s a pp lied to a p p ro x im a te ly s im ila r
p ro p ortion s of the o ffic e and plant w o r k e r s in ea ch o f the a r e a s .

39
P r o v is io n s f o r h olid a ys fa llin g during va ca tion s ca lle d
f o r an add ition a l day o ff w ith pay fo r 70 p e rce n t o f the o ffic e
w o r k e r s , no p r o v is io n o r no pay fo r 15 p e rce n t, and an extra
d a y ’ s p a y (with no added tim e o ff) fo r m o s t o th ers. P lant w o rk e r
p r o v is io n s d iffe r e d som ew h at fr o m this pattern— only 42 p e r ­
cen t of the w o r k e r s w e r e in fir m s w hich p rov id ed another day
o ff with pay; about 30 p e r c e n t w ere entitled to an extra d a y ’ s
pay, and m o s t o th e rs r e c e iv e d no pay o r an option o f the fir s t
two p r o v is io n s .

V acation b en efits w ere g e n e ra lly m o r e lib e r a l fo r o ffic e
than fo r plant w o r k e r s .
C om p a red with a cu sto m a ry 1 w e e k ’ s
pay fo r plant w o r k e rs a fte r 1 y e a r ’ s s e r v ic e , the p ro v is io n fo r
m o s t o ffic e w o rk e rs was 2 w e e k s ’ pay.
H ow ev er, a lm ost as
high a p r o p o r tio n o f plant as o ffic e w o rk e rs w ere c o v e re d by a
p r o v is io n o f 2 w e e k s ’ pay a fte r 5 y ea rs of s e r v ic e .
At lea st
tw o-th ird s o f the o ffic e w o r k e r s , ex cep t in A tlanta, D a lla s, M e m ­
p h is, P ortla n d , and San F ra n cis co -O a k la n d w e re co v e re d by p r o ­
v is io n s fo r a third w eek of paid v acation a fte r 15 y e a r s ’ s e r v ic e .

P r o v is io n s fo r h olid a ys fa llin g on Saturday w e re sligh tly
le s s freq u en t than fo r the two other types of nonw orkday h o li­
d a y s. In p a rt this w as due to the fa ct that a m od era te p ro p o rtio n
o f o ffic e and plant w o r k e r s w o rk on Saturday as p art o f the s c h e d ­
u led w ork w eek . In ad d ition , com p en sa tion fo r a Saturday h olid ay
is a ls o m u ch le s s co m m o n fo r the o ffic e w ork ers fo r whom S atur­
day is a non w ork day— o v e r h a lf o f the o ffic e w o rk e rs in the 17
a r e a s a r e e m p lo y e d in fir m s that have no pay p r o v is io n s ; m o st
o f the rem a in in g 40 p e r c e n t r e c e iv e another day off with pay.
Only 20 p e r c e n t o f the plant w o rk e rs a re in firm s with no pay
p r o v is io n s ; 40 p e r c e n t get an extra d a y ’ s pay; m o s t oth ers get
another day o ff w ith p a y .
P r o v is io n s fo r Saturday v a rie d c o n ­
s id e r a b ly betw een a r d a s . S om e o f the v a ria tion was due to the
p r o p o r tio n o f w o r k e r s who w ork ed on Saturday which was m ost
co m m o n in the Southern a r e a s , and in B uffalo and D en v er.

The p r o p o r tio n of plant w o rk e rs c o v e r e d by p ro v isio n s
fo r 3 weeks* pay a fte r 15 y e a r s ’ s e r v ic e was a p p rox im a tely equal
to o r g re a te r than that of o ffic e w o rk e rs in 8 a r e a s — B a ltim o re ,
B u ffalo, C h ica g o, C levelan d , M em p h is, N e w a r k -J e r s e y C ity, St.
L ou is, and San F r a n c is c o -O a k la n d .
In m o s t other a rea s the
o ffic e p erce n ta g e fig u re was 10 to 15 points h igh er than the plant
p e rce n ta g e .

P aid V acation s
V irtu a lly a ll w o r k e r s in the in du stries included within the
s c o p e of the su r v e y w e r e entitled to vacation s with pay. Som e of
the esta b lish m e n ts that did not have fo r m a l a rra n g em en ts, r e ­
p o rte d in fo rm a l plans w h e re b y tim e off was granted at the d i s ­
c r e tio n o f the e m p lo y e r o r s u p e r v is o r . M ost w o rk e rs not p r o ­
vid ed fo r m a l v a ca tio n s w e re em ployed in plant departm ents of
sm a ll m a n u fa ctu rin g, w h o le s a le , o r s e r v ic e s esta b lish m en ts,
g e n e ra lly in the s m a lle s t a r e a s studied.
With few e x c e p tio n s , the plans p rov id ed fo r a s p e c ifie d
tim e o ff at re g u la r p a y, graduated a cc o r d in g to va riou s qualifying
p e r io d s of s e r v i c e . P lan s w h ich p ro v id e fo r other types o f p a y ­
m e n ts, such as a s p e c ifie d p e rce n ta g e of annual earnings o r a
fia t-s u m paym en t, w e r e co n v e rte d to th eir equivalent in term s of
w e e k s 1 pay in table B -1 0 . The p e rce n ta g e -ty p e plans w e re a p p li­
ca b le m o r e fre q u e n tly to plant than to o ffic e w o r k e rs , and w ere
the b a sis of v a ca tio n pay f o r a tenth to a fourth of the plant
w o r k e rs in A tlan ta, L os A n g e le s , M em ph is, P h ilad elph ia, and
San F r a n c is c o -O a k la n d , as w e ll as to le s s e r p ro p o rtio n s of o ffic e
and plant w o r k e r s in oth er a r e a s . A lm o st a ll paym ents of this
type, and fla t-s u m p a y m e n ts, w ere lim ited to m anufacturing
Digitized s trFRASER
in d u for ie s .


The d isp a rity betw een o ffic e and plant w o rk e r co v e ra g e
fo r 3 w e e k s ’ a fte r 25 y e a r s ’ s e r v ic e was even g re a te r, and o ffic e
p ro p o rtio n s w e re a p p rox im a ted by the plant w o rk e rs in only B u f­
fa lo and the 3 M iddle W est a re a s a b ov e.
F ou r w e e k s ’ pay a fter 25 y e a r s ’ s e r v ic e was a p r o v i­
sion in fir m s em ployin g about a fou rth o f the o ffic e w o rk e rs in
the com b in ed a r e a s , but this p ro p o rtio n was ex ceed ed in only
3 a r e a s — N e w a r k -J e r s e y C ity (28 p e rce n t), New Y ork C ity (41
p e r c e n t), and C h icago (28 p e r c e n t). E lev en to 23 p e rce n t of the
o ffic e w o rk e rs in oth er a rea s w ere c o v e r e d .
Plant w o rk e r p ro p o rtio n s c o v e re d fo r 4 w e e k s ’ pay a fter
25 y ea rs w ere highest in C h ica go (20 p e r c e n t), and ranged fro m
5 to 15 p e rce n t in other a r e a s .
Health,

In su ra n ce,

and P en sion Plans 18

The p re c e d in g y e a r ’ s su rv ey (w inter 1953-54) show ed that
m o s t w o rk e rs in 1 7 la b o r m ark ets w ere c o v e re d by one o r m o r e
types of p riv a te health, in su ra n ce, o r p en sion b en efits, under
w hich the e m p lo y e r paid at lea st part o f the c o s t o f financing.

18
H ealth, in su ra n ce, and p en sion plans w e re om itted fro m
the sco p e of the cu rre n t s u rv e y s .
The above text su m m a rizes
a p r e v io u s ly p u blish ed a n aly sis of plans in the 17 area s included
in last y e a r ’ s studies (see M onthly L abor R ev iew , N ovem ber 1954,
p.
1228).
This and other a n a ly ses of item s not resu rv ey ed
cu rre n tly — including pay p ro v is io n s fo r daily and w eek ly o v e r ­
tim e— a re a ls o in cluded in BLS B ull. 1173 (see footnote 15).

40

A bout 9 o f e v e r y 10 plant and o ffic e w o rk e rs w e re c o v ­
ered by life in su ra n ce p o lic ie s .
H ospital in su ran ce w as a v a ila ­
ble to about 8 o f 10 w o r k e r s , with m o s t of th ese plans a ls o
p rov id in g fo r s u r g ica l attention. A som ew hat s m a lle r p ro p o rtio n ,
but still a m a jo r it y of a il w o r k e rs w e re lik e w ise p ro te cte d by
p ro g ra m s p ro v id in g fo r s ick n e ss and a ccid e n t in su ra n ce o r paid
s ic k leave and fo r m e d ic a l c a r e . A ccid e n ta l death and d is m e m ­
berm en t in su ra n ce was p ro v id e d by e stab lish m en ts em ployin g
sligh tly le s s than h alf o f a ll plant and o ffic e e m p lo y e e s .
R e­
tirem en t o r pen sion plans (e x c lu siv e o f th ose p rov id ed by law)
w e re a v a ila b le to 6 o f e v e r y 10 w o r k e r s .
The p r o p o r tio n o f o ffic e and o f plant w o rk e rs c o v e r e d by
each s p e c ific b en efit did not v a r y g re a tly ; the g re a te st d iffe re n ce




was fo r pension plan s, under w hich 71 p e r c e n t o f o ffic e w o r k e rs
and 56 p e rce n t o f plant w o r k e rs w e r e c o v e r e d .
In m o st in sta n ces, c o v e r a g e f o r both o ffic e and plant
w o rk e rs was g re a te r in m an u factu rin g than in n onm anufacturing
in d u strie s.
H ow ev er, under p e n s io n p r o g r a m s , a h igh er p r o ­
p o rtio n of o ffic e w o rk e rs in non m an u factu rin g w e re c o v e r e d than
in m anufacturing in d u strie s.
N oncontributory life in su ra n ce was p ro v id e d to a m a jo r ­
ity of a ll c o v e re d w o r k e r s .
E m p lo y e rs o f th r e e -fo u r th s o f the
w o r k e r s , in fir m s with p en sion p la n s, re p o rte d n on co n trib u to ry
p la n s.
E m p loy er financing o f life in su ra n ce and o f p e n sion s was
r e la tiv e ly m o r e p rev a len t fo r plant than f o r o ffic e w o r k e r s .

B:

E sta b lish m e n t

P ra ctice s

and

S u p p le m e n ta ry

W age

41

P ro v isio n s

Table B-l: Scheduled W eekly Hours (All Industries)
(P e r c e n t o f o ffic e and plant w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d in a ll e sta b lis h m e n ts by s c h e d u le d h o u r s o f w o r k p e r w eek )

O ffic e w o r k e r s 1
A r e a o r in d u s tr y d iv is io n

Plant w o r k e r s 2

U nder 40 h o u rs
40 h o u rs
35

371
/*

383 4
/

T otal 3

O ver
40
h o u rs

U nder 40 h o u r s

O ver 40 h ou rs
40 h o u r s

37l/a

T o ta l3

8

81

11

A

4

85
74
92
86
64
76
63

6
19
7
11
26
20
26

A
4
A
4
5
A
4

A
7
A
A
8
10
12

T o ta l3

45

48

17 a r e a s c o m b i n e d ----------------------------------------------------------

17

16

5

48

51

A

4

M a n u fa c t u r in g --------- ------ ---- -------------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g ------- — __ -------- --------------------------P u b lic u t ilit ie s
— __________________ ____________
W h o le s a le tr a d e
___
___________________ _______
R e ta il tra d e __________________________________________
F in a n ce ** _— __ ____ __________
___________ _
S e r v ic e s __ __ — __ ------- __ ------------- -----------------

14
18
24
16
5
19
26

11
18
15
16
14
21
18

6
4
A
A
A
8
A

36
54
40
42
28
70
59

63
45
59
56
69
30
36

A
A
A
A
3
A
5

4
4
A
A
6
4

9
7
A
4
10
5
11

N o rth e a s t:
B o s t o n ____ _________ _
B u ffa lo
__ __ — __ __
N e w a r k - J e r s e y C i t y __
N ew Y o r k C i t y ________
P h ila d e lp h ia _
___ __

__ _ _____________________
__ ____________ ___________
_____
_________ _____
____________________________
________ _______________ _

9
A
15
51
10

27
19
29
18
25

8
3
7
A
9

62
27
62
88
59

38
71
38
11
41

A
A
A
A
A

7
3
4
5
6

13
6
7
18
9

72
84
85
74
85

15
10
8
8
7

_
3
A
5
A

A
A
A
3
A

South:
A tlan ta _
__ _
_
_______
B a lt im o r e ____________________________________________
D a lla s _ „ _____ _____ ____
________ ___________
M e m p h i s -----------------------------------------------------------------------

A
6
A

5
3
A
A

23
25
13
9

73
72
75
76

4
3
12
15

A
A

A
4
4
A

74
77
57
62

24
19
39
37

3
3
7
8

10
6
12
16

13
11
14
8

A
A
4

3
5
3
5

29
7
A
A

A
A
A

*

-

-

15
12
A
6

M id d le W est:
C h ic a g o _________ __
__ __ ____ __ __
__ — _
C l e v e l a n d _____________________________________________
M in n e a p o lis - St. P a u l _
________ __ __ __
St. L o u is -------------------------------------------------------------------- -

3
A
A
A

15
9
14
7

8
A
7
3

36
14
26
14

62
84
73
85

A
A
A
A

3
A
5
4

7
4
6
6

80
85
80
87

F a r W est:
D enver
_ _
L o s A n g e le s _ _______

A
A

4
7
9
10

3
3
5
11

14
12
15
34

80
86
84
66

6
A
A
A

A
A
A
11

3
A
5
13

68
90
94
86

P o r t la n d .

_ _
..

___

San F r a n c i s c o - O a k l a n d __

1
2
3
A
*
**

___

__ ____________ _

.......

__ ____________ __ ____

_

3

D ata r e la te to w o m e n o f fi c e w o r k e r s only.
D ata f o r fin a n c e and in s u r a n c e e sta b lis h m e n ts a r e e x clu d e d .
In clu d e s w e e k ly s c h e d u le s o th e r than th o se p r e s e n te d s e p a r a te ly .
L e s s than 2. 5 p e r c e n t .
T r a n s p o r t a t io n (e x c lu d in g r a i lr o a d s ) , co m m u n ic a tio n , and o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s .
F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s ta te .




-

A

-

12
4
A
A

42
Table B-2: Scheduled W eekly Hours (Manufacturing)
(P e r c e n t o f o f fi c e and plant w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d in m a n u fa ctu rin g e s ta b lis h m e n ts by sch e d u le d h o u rs o f w o r k p e r w eek )

O ffic e w o r k e r s 1
A rea

P lan t w o r k e r s

U nder 40 h o u rs

O ver
40
h o u rs

37%

63

A

4

9

85

6

A

A

33
16
45
92
49

66
83
54
8
51

A
A
A
A

7
A
5
A
7

10
A
8
25
11

84
94
86
71
86

6
4
6
4
4

A
A
A
A

A
A
A

"

10
19
3
A

87
79
92
91

3
A
4
7

4
3
A

4
4
A
A

90
88
78
73

5
9
20
25

A
7
4

A
4
A
15

14
7
5
3

11
3
A

39
7
3 22
6

60
92
76
94

A
A
A
-

4
7
6

9
5
8
6

81
91
84
90

10
4
8
3

A
3
5
-

A
A
A
A

A
A
9

A
_
11

5
A
3
27

89
97
96
73

6
A
A

4
3
A
11

6
3
8
13

85
89
92
87

9
8
-

A
A
-•

4
3
-

40 h o u rs
35

3 ?ya

38%

T otal 23

17 a r e a s c o m b in e d ______________________________________

14

n

6

36

N orth ea st:
B oston _
_ _ _ _ _ _____________________________
B u ffalo ______________________________________________
N e w a r k -J e r s e y C ity — __ _
__ __
----------N ew Y ork C ity _
_______ __ ___
_____ __ ____
P h ilad elp h ia _ _ _ _ _ _
------- ------- ------- __

8
A
4
69
3

17
8
15
16
21

5
4
16
A
17

South:
A tlanta ______________________________________________
B a ltim o re
__ __
_____ __
__ __ _____ _
D alla ft ...
_____ __
__ ___
___
M em ph is

3
A
-

8
12
A
A

A
3
-

M id d le W est:
C h ica g o __ _ __
__
__
__ __ __
C levela n d
_
__
__ __
__ __
M in n e a p o lis -S t. P aul _ __ __ _ __ __
St. L ou is _ _
_________
_ _

3
A
A

F a r W est:
D en ver _______________________________________________
L o s A n g e le s ____
_
__ ________ _ _
P ortla n d _
_ _ _ _ _
__ ________
San F r a n c is c o -O a k la n d
__ __

_
A

1
2
3
A

Data re la te to w om en o ffic e w o r k e r s on ly.
Inclu des w e e k ly sch e d u le s o th e r than th ose p r e s e n t e d s e p a r a te ly .
Inclu des 13 p e r c e n t at 3 9 Y4 h o u r s .
L e s s than 2. 5 p e r c e n t .




U nder 40 h ou rs

O v er 40 h ou rs
40 h o u r s

T otal 2

T o ta l 2

45

48

-

43

Table B-3: Minimum Entrance Rates1 for Women Office W orkers (All Industries)

E s ta b lis h m e n ts s tu d ie d

_______________

_____ ___

250

224

263

539

317

190

171

17 1

132

427

228

237

229

140

296

144

248

61

115

_
4
2
3
20
9
8
2
6
4
2
1

_
1
1
1
13
15
20
13
15
14
4
8
4
5
1

ypists
Inexperienced 1
E s ta b lis h m e n ts havin g a s p e c ifie d m in im u m 2 __
U nder $30
_________
$30 and under $ 3 2 .5 0
$ 3 2 .5 0 and u nd er $35
$35 and under $ 3 7 .5 0
$ 3 7 .5 0 and under $40
$4 0 and under $ 4 2 .5 0
$ 4 2 .5 0 and u nd er $45
$4 5 and under $ 4 7 .5 0
$ 4 7 .5 0 and u n d er $50
$ 5 0 and under $ 5 2 .5 0
$ 5 2 .5 0 and under $ 5 5
$ 5 5 and under $ 5 7 .5 0
$ 5 7 .5 0 and u nd er $60
$ 6 0 and under $ 6 2 .5 0
$ 6 2 .5 0 and u nd er $65
$6 5 and o v e r

_ . .
____
__________________________
_ __ ..... .
__ _ .. ...

____________ _____ __
.
_ .

131
1
9
7
38
26
25
8
6
4
3
3
1

159

297

_

_

_

9
6
25
12
22
11
20
5
8
1
2
2

1
1
19
29
79
37
80
11
25
6
6
2
1
-

_

_

_

-

1
-

5
3
13
12
48
22
26
8
9
6
3
2
1
1
-

_

________________________
............ _
.

124

_

171

_
9
16
31
28
40
13
15
7
9
2
1

91

_
11
9
14
6
24
9
10
5
1

86

69

57

237

114

124

132

58

164

_
8
9
16
6
17
9
8
3
3

_
4
6
13
5
25
7
7
1
_

3
10
6
6
4
16
1
5
3
1

_

1
_
_
3
5
26
19
32
7
12
4
4
1

6
2
6
30
16
36
8
11
5
3

_

.

_

-

_

-

1
1

5

1

-

-

-

1
1

_

_

1

_

_

-

_

-

_

_

-

-

1

-

2
2
3
_
25
26
59
39
51
12
7
2
5
2
2

_

_

_

_

-

-

_
4
8
10
12
41
19
15
10
5
4
1
1
1
1
-

_

1

-

.
1
2
6
15
21
25
17
25
8
13
9
7
8
7

3
_
7
6
18
4
9
8
2
_

1
_
_
_

_
_

-

E s t a b lis h m e n ts havin g no s p e c ifie d m in im u m ___
E s t a b lis h m e n ts w h ic h d id not e m p lo y
w o r k e r s in th is c a t e g o r y
In fo rm a tio n not a v a ila b le

53

39

41

103

73

45

18

26

21

87

44

72

67

36

65

40

60

65
1

'59
2

61
2

135
4

72
1

52
2

67
-

75
1

53
1

102
1

69
1

38
3

29
1

45
1

66
1

42
1

71
2

E s ta b lis h m e n ts havin g a s p e c ifie d m in im u m 2 ___

145

129

159

325

189

95

91

89

63

259

131

123

145

70

163

58

126

U nder $30 . ________ ._
$30 and under $ 3 2 .5 0
.........
$ 3 2 .5 0 and un d er $35
. ... _
................
$35 and under $ 3 7 .5 0
$ 3 7 .5 0 and un d er $40
$ 4 0 and under $ 4 2 .5 0
$ 4 2 .5 0 and und er $45
$4 5 and under $ 4 7 .5 0 __________________________
$ 4 7 .5 0 and u nd er $5 0
__ __ __ __ __ __ „
$ 5 0 and under $ 5 2 .5 0
$ 5 2 .5 0 and u n d er $55
$5 5 and under $ 5 7 .5 0
..
................. .
$ 5 7 .5 0 and un d er $60
$6 0 and under $ 6 2 .5 0
__
$ 6 2 .5 0 and un d er $65
$65 and o v e r _ _ ..

1
11
9
42
29
29
9
4
4
4
2
1

2
12
6
19
13
31
15
15
4
9
1

_

_

1
16
15
13
7
23
7
6
4
1

2
19
11
11
8
17
9
4
1
3

4
10
12
14
10
17
8
8
3
2

4
10
9
7
6
13
1
5
4
2

_

1
5
3
4
3
35
21
27
12
12
4
4

7
2
14
26
15
32
9
10
4
3

_

.

E s ta b lis h m e n ts h avin g no s p e c ifie d m in im u m ___
E s ta b lis h m e n ts w h ic h did n o t e m p lo y
w o r k e r s in th is c a t e g o r y ___
I n fo rm a tio n not a v a ila b le
......

Other inexperienced clerical workers4

_

-

_

_

1

_

1
1

4

_

-

1
1

_

_

_

2

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
2
7
3
38
37
67
36
42
9
7
2
3
3
1

45

98

81

53

21

23

27

57

112
4

46
1

40

59
~

58
1

41
1

_
_

_

-

1
-

7
3
17
13
53
22
19
4
8
7
2
1
1
2
-

66

43

38
1

50

_

_

1

2

_

2

1
5
40
42
107
33
62
8
13
8
6

22
14
42
28
38
15
12
6
9
3
_

2

8
9
18
11
41
23
12
10
4
4
1
3
1

-

68

39

63

64
1

46
1

57

-

1

-

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

101

42

69

70

36

66
1

54
1

42
3

13
1

33
1

_
_

_
_

_

]
1
2
5
13
17
21
13
16
14
9
7
3
3
1

_

1
2
12
17
19
22
16
20
13
11
11
5
5
9

L o w e s t f o r m a l l y e s t a b lis h e d s a la r y r a t e . In e x p e r ie n c e d w o r k e r s a r e by d e fin itio n e x c lu d e d f r o m the s c o p e o f o c c u p a tio n a l e a r n in g s ta b u la tion s (S e r ie s A ta b le s ),
R e g u la r s t r a ig h t -t im e s a la r y c o r r e s p o n d in g to e m p lo y e e s sta n d a rd w o r lw e e k . D ata a r e p r e s e n t e d fo r a ll w o rk w e e k s c o m b in e d .
R a tes a p p lic a b le to m e s s e n g e r s , o ffic e g i r l s , o r s im ila r s u b c le r ic a l jo b s a r e not c o n s id e r e d .




3
3
10
7
23
9
4
7_
2
1
1

_

_

5
3
6
10
10
6
2
10
2
2
2
_
_

2

44
Table B-4: Minimum Entrance Rates
N ort hea st

/

M in im u m rate
(weekly s t r a ig h t - t i m e s al ar y)

/
/
/

Esta bl is hm ent s s t u d i e d 2

........................

. .

85

Mi

L

i
«
o
^

/

for Women Office Workers (Manufacturing)

/

r

*

/
7

i
/

*

/

/
/

1

'
/

175

139

59

/

/

-7

/
64

53

/
/
/

V

/

^

/

1

r

o

/

I

Mid dle West

/

-3
^

/

141

130

South

/

/

r

/

o ;

^7

/
/
/
/

s*
•

c

^

F a r West

*7
*
a
^
*
7

^

/

/

/

'
50

167

105

89

1

/

1

/

/ o
/ <
■
>
/ .«
/<7 c
Ot
J
/
A n *
/aO
^

46

r

1 10

b0

81

I n e x p e r i i e n c e d typ i s t s
Esta bl is hm ent s having a s p e c i f i e d m in im u m

43

87

94

100

85

21

35

18

21

100

61

44

66

21

70

21

46

1
1
10
8
10
2
4
3
2
1
1
_

_
7
6
29
12
19
5
7
5
1
2
1

_
6
5
26
12
24
5
10
4
6
1
1

2
1
10
14
23
7
13
5
7
2
1
-

_
1
2
4
9
6
4
1
2
4
2

_
3
7
3
4
_
1
_

2
1
2
1
9
_
3
2
1
*

_
_
1
12
10
17
6
8
4
2
1
-

_
2
5
4
19
5
5
2
1
_
1
-

2
1
.
7
2
4
4
_
.
1
_

-

_
7
9
25
17
29
7
1
1
4

_
3
1
5
21
12
9
8
4
2
1
_

-

1
1
4
1
3
3
4
1
1
1
1
-

-

-

_
1
_
2
3
5
11
9
17
6
7
6
3

_
_
_
_
8
5
3
1
2
_
1
1
-

_
_
.
2
4
8
5
5
10
3
6
3

23

32

30

17

7

10

7

42

23

37

35

10

18

15

14

24
-

20
1

22
-

25
-

22
-

24
‘ 1

21
-

8
-

6
-

14
1

22
-

24
-

20
1

86

20

43

66

21

70

20

48

1
_
2
1
9
2
1
3
.
1
1
_

.
1
_
_
3
6
2
1
3
1
1
2
-

_
_
1
2
4
9
b
4
10
7
2
3

-

_
3
18
8
18
9
17
5
5
1
2
1

Esta bl is hme nts having no s p e c i fi e d m i n i m u m
Est ab lis hm ent s wh ich did not e m p l o y
w o r k e r s in this c a t e g o r y ___________________ ____
In formati on not ava il ab le .
...........

22

18

20
-

24
1

23
1

41
2

Esta bl is hm ent s having a s p e c i fi e d m in im u m

51

81

91

107

1
2
12
8
22
11
12
4
6
1
_
1
1

_
_
9
4
31
14
13
3
6
6
2
1
2

_
.
13
9
34
9
21
3
7
5
6
-

___
$30 and under $ 3 2 . 5 0
_
$ 3 2 .5 0 and under $35 ______ __________________
$35 and under $ 3 7 . 5 0 ___ _____________________
$ 3 7 . 5 0 and under $40
_____ __________________
$40 and under $ 4 2 . 5 0
$ 4 2 . 5 0 and under $45
_____ __________________
$45 and under $ 4 7 . 5 0 _
...........
$ 4 7 . 5 0 and under $50
$50 and under $ 5 2 . 5 0 _
$ 5 2 . 5 0 and under $55 ______ „ ____________ _
$55 and under $ 5 7 . 5 0
$ 5 7 . 5 0 and under $60
$60 and ov er

Other inexperienced clerical workers3
$30 and under $ 3 2 . 5 0
$ 3 2 . 5 0 and under $35
_
_
$35 and under $ 3 7 . 5 0
. . . . .
$ 3 7 . 5 0 and under $40
$40 and under $ 4 2 . 5 0
$ 4 2 .5 0 and under $45
. .
$45 and under $ 4 7 . 5 0
$ 4 7 . 5 0 and under $50
„ _
$50 and under $ 5 2 . 5 0
$ 5 2 . 5 0 and under $5 5 ___________________________
$55 and under $ 5 7 . 5 0
$ 5 7 . 5 0 and under $60
__ __ __ __ _____ __ _
$60 and ov er
... ...

2
2
12
11
12
3
2
3
3
.
1
_

-

Est ab lis hm ent s having no s p e c i fi e d m i n i m u m ___
Esta bl is hm ent s wh ich did not e m p l o y
w o r k e r s in this c a t e g o r y
_ _
Information not ava il ab le
___
.. .

23

21

24

31

11
-

27
1

25
1

35
2

-

.

3
1
16
14
21
7
10
4
8
2
.
-

32

22

2
_
3
5
8
5
2
_
1
4
2

1
2
2
1
4
3
5
1
2
1
-

-

2
_
3
1
5
1
4
1
1
_
1
1
-

-

35

24

8

10

18

14
1

24
"

21
-

24

101

_

73

_

-

_
_
_
10
14
27
15
23
6
1
1
4

1
7
6
17
4
5
1
1
_
1
-

_
3
3
4
20
16
6
7
3
2
1
1
-

9

40

20

3b

36

10

18

14

13

17

25
1

12
-

10
-

5
~

14
1

22

26
-

19
1

Low es t f o r m a l l y es t a b l is h e d s a l a r y r at e . In e x p e r i e n c e d w o r k e r s a r e by defin iti on e x c l u d e d f r o m the s c op e o f occ upa ti ona l e ar ni ngs tabulations ( S e r i e s A t a b l e s ) .
Hours r e f l e c t the w o r k w e e k for wh ich e m p l o y e e s r e c e i v e their r e g u l a r s t r a ig h t - t i m e s a l a r i e s . Data ar e p r e s e n t e d f or all w o rk w ee k s c o m b in ed .
Rates a pp lic ab le to m e s s e n g e r s , o f fi c e g i r l s , o r s i m i l a r s u b c l e r ic a l j o b s ar e not c o n s i d e r e d .




_

3
1
.
1
14
16
17
8
7
3
1
2
-

2
3
2
1
9
3
3
1
_
-

-

1
_
2
5
8
5
9
14
9
8
6
3

45
Table B-5: Shift Differential Provisions (Manufacturing)
(Total plant w o r k e r s in e s t a b l is h m e n t s having f o r m a l p r o v i s i o n s f o r late shift oper at io n)
P e r c e n t of m anu fa ct uri ng plant w o r k e r s
N o rth e a s t
/
/
/
/

Shift o p e r a t i o n and shift
pay d i ff e r e n t i a l
/

®

/

*
*
fs.

/

/

/

#
<
0
/
o
J
r
fl) /

°
3

/

/

/

^

/
/

li>(0 //l
/ £ *
*
1 4* /

South

/

^
^
O
N
*
i?

/

-i?

/
/
J
'

J'

^
£

1

<
u
o

/

tt?
' lt
e
J I ■?
V 1

/
/

/
/
/
1

/

-

/
/

/

05

/
/

/

0
1

1

1

Mid dle West

F a r West
/

/ O
/ w

®

u
1 a 3 // V7 / ® // <® / 'o / 81
o
^
/
^
/ cS
/
^
1 O 1 i) I v fa I H f/ C
£
l < /' C 1 o
U
^
f 1
O / /' a i 1*
0
l $ /
I p / * / Q j <-7 / , r

1

w

/

o

/

g

/

1S 1

r co

Tot al plant w o r k e r s in m an uf ac tu rin g
e s t a b l is h m e n t s _________________________________

100.0

100.0

10 0. 0

100 .0

100. 0

100 .0

100 .0

100 .0

100 .0

10 0. 0

100 .0

10 0. 0

100 .0

100.0

100.0

S ec on d shift ______________________________________
With shift pay d i ff e r e n t i a l __________________
U n if o r m c en t s ( pe r h o u r ) ________________
Under 5 ce nt s
. _ .....
5 c e n t s .............. .
6 cents
7 o r 7 V2 c en ts
8 ce nts
9 cent s
.
..... _
O v e r 5 and under 10 c e n t s , other;___
10 c en ts ________________________________
O v e r 10 and under 15 c en ts
15 c en t s and o v e r
U n if o r m p e r c e n t a g e
. __
Under 5 p e r c e n t
5 p e r c e n t ______________________________
O v e r 5 and under 10 p e r c e n t
10 p e r c e n t _____________________________
O v er 10 and under 15 p e r c e n t
15 p e r c e n t .
Othe r
_
____
No shift pay d i ff e r e n t i a l _______________ ___

85.9
83 . 9
51.1
1.6
9.8
8.2
4.8
5.3
2.5
A
12.9
3.4
2. 6
27.7
.1
6.5
2.8
17.4
.5
.5
5. 1
2.0

78 . 8
76.6
3 6. 3
1.5
9.2
.9
6.6
2.5
1. 4
_
9.3
2.0
2.9
3 7. 1
5.7
1.1
28.9
1.5
_
3 .2
2.2

90.0
88.8
61.8
2. 7
9.2
16.8
11.7
.8
1.9
.2
8.1
3. 6
6.8
2 3. 7
15.5
1.2
7.0
_
‘
3.3
1.1

91.9
91.9
43.2
1. 0
11.7
3. 7
4.5
.4
1.8
.4
16 . 3
2.0
1.4
46.1
.3
3.8
3.8
37 . 8
.4
_
2.6
-

62.6
61.4
33. 5
4. 8
1.9
1 .9
.9
1.0
.2
• 1 0. 2
9.9
2.6
26.4
1. 8
3. 2
16. 2
1.2
4.0
1.5
1. 1

82.2
75.8
33.9
.5
1 1. 3
6.0
5.5
.4
6.8
3.3
3 7. 1
6 00
7.4
2 3. 7
4.8
6.4

77.7
63.9
47.5
5 .9
11 .4
2.7
2.5
18.7
_
2.3
3.0
1.0
14.8
13.3
1.5
_
1.6
13.8

88.0
83.4
48.6
5.2
8.0
27.2
2.6
4.4
1.2
23.3
1. 1
4.5
4.9
12.9
_
11. 5
4.6

78.2
74.8
68.5
2. 1
14.0
1. 1
7.2
20.8
23.2
6.3
6.3
_
3.4

68.5
58.4
42.6
15.9
15.4
1.3
2.6
2.5
3. 1
1.8
14 .3
5.8
1.2
7.3
_
1.5
10. 1

9 2. 7
91.5
49.2 *
.6
10.2
7.2
2 .7
5.4
.5
15.6
1 .4
5. 7
41.3
6.5
1.5
3 1. 6
1.3
.4
1.0
1.2

90.2
89.0
60.5
.6
13. 2
13.8
15. 1
3.7
3 .6
_
8.6
_
1.9
27.2
17. 1
1 .4
8. 7
_
1.2
1.2

88.1
87.4
69.3
_
14. 6
_
4.6
4.8
7.0
_
29.2
4.8
4. 3
17. 8
2. 1
10 .9
4.9
_
.3
.7

88.2
88.2
61.8
3.2
15 .5
9.3
6.5
.3
5.8
_
18.8
.3
2.1
22.6
.7
8.5
5.9
7.5
_
_
3.8
-

84.6
84.6
74.4_
7.3
21.4
14. 1
9.6
10. 1
_
4. 1
7.7
_
_
_
_
10.2
-

94.5
94.5
73.6
1.3
6.3
8. 1
2 .1
32 .2
_
_
19. 4
2. 7
1.5
9.6
4.5
_
5. 1
_
_
11.2

89.4
81.1
55. 7
3. 2
8 .7
20.5
4.0
_
.5
_
13. 1
2. 7
3.0
4.3
_
_
4. 3
_
_
21.0
8.3

T h i r d shift _______________________________________
With shift pay d i ff e r e n t i a l
U n i f o r m c en ts ( per ho ur )
_____________
Under 5 ce nt s
5 c ent s _________________________________
6 c en ts
_ .............. . .....
7 o r 7 V2 c en ts
8 cent s
9 ce nt s .
O v e r 5 and under 10 c e n t s , o t h e r ___
10 ce nt s
_
. .... .
12 ce nt s
_ ...
O v e r 10 and under 15 c e n t s , other,__
15 ce nt s ________________________________
O v er 15 ce nt s __ __ ____________ ___
Uniform percentage .
Under 7 V2 p e r c e n t ___________________
7 V2 p e r c e n t _________ ________ ______
O v e r 7 V2 and under 10 p e r c e n t _____
10 p e r c e n t
O v e r 10 and under 15 p e r c e n t ______
15 p e r c e n t
Othe r 1 _____________________________________
No shift pay d i ff e r e n t i a l ____________________

77.3
76.3
37.1
.3
2. 1
1. 4
2.5
1.3
7.1
.1
11.9
2.8
1.9
4. 1
1.5
24 . 3
1.8
4.6
.1
14.0
.8
2.9
14.8
1.0

69.5
69.5
3 3. 2
1.3
_
7.1'
3.4
2.3
1.0
12. 2
1.1
_
1.2
3.7
34 . 5
2.2
2.4
_
21.3
8.6
1.8
-

86.4
86.1
51 .7

82.0
82.0
40.8
2.5
.9
1. 2
.1
1. 0
14.4
5.8
6.1
8.4
.5
38.5
1.8
4.9
.5
27.9
1. 3
2.1
2.6

77.2
75.3
30 . 6

65.6
56.3
41.3
8 .7
1.9
2.6
17. 8
2.7
_
4.6
_
_
_
3.0
13 .3
1. 1
12.2
_
_
_
_
1.7
9.3

82 . 7
80.0
46.2
.9
2.0
3.2
.7
3. 2
26.2
2.3
2.1
1.8
2.7
1.2
20.5
2.6
3.0

66.5
65.6
30.4

61.6
54.4
39 .7
11. 0
11. 6
2.2
1. 4
2.5
1.2
7.0
1.0
_
1.8
13.2
1.2
4.7
7.3
- 1.5
7.2

82.3
81.1
38.5
.6
2.5
_
.8
.5
1 1. 4
12.6
1. 4
2. 1
5.0
1.7
36 . 0
1.0
3.7
25. 1
1.3
4.8
6.6
1.2

81.5
81.1
51.3
.6
2. 1
.1
8.2
2.0
13. 1
_
17 .3
2.5
3. 1
2.3
_
25. 1
2.6
12. 5
9.4
.5
4.7
.4

79.7
79.0
60.9
_
3. 1
_
1.6
1.1
7.0
_
17.4
8.3
5.4
8.3
8.8
17 .8

84.5
84.5
5 1. 7
.3
_
2.6
1.9
2.3
10.7
_
21.4
4.4
.8
5.3
2.0
16.7
.9
5.6
.4
8.9
_
1. 0
16.1
-

71.4
71.4
51.5
_
_
15. 5
_
1. 4
10. 1
_
6.7
5.9
9. 1
_
2.7
_
_
_
_

82 .7
82. 7
22 . 8
_
_
3 .5
1.7
_
.7
_
8. 1
2.3
.4
4.9
1.2
7.5
_
3.6
_
3.4
.5

19 .9
-

52 . 4

-

2.4
.3
10. 0
1.4
17. 1
A
12. 2
2.2
3.4
.7
1.9
23 . 7
.7
13. 5
1.6
7.7
.2
10.7
.3

-

49.7
48.8
19 .2
-

-

2.0

2.9
.4
1.5
.6
2. 1
15. 8
4.3
1.0
1.6
.4
35 . 6
6.7
3.3

-

1.0
_
1.9
7.5
.4
.6
5.7
_
20.2
2.6
.6
_
10 . 0
6.9
9.4
.9

-

23.8
1. 8
9.2
1.9

-

13.7
_
1.2
13. 3
2.7

1 P a y at r e g u l a r r at e f o r m o r e h o u r s than w o rk e d, or a paid lunch p e r i o d not gi ven f i r s t - s h i f t w o r k e r s ,
a c en t s o r p e r c e n t a g e d i ff e r e n t i a l f o r h o ur s actu al ly w ork ed.
A L e s s than 0 . 0 5 p e r c e n t .




-

7.5
2. 1
.5
14. 2
3. 1
.9
2.0
4.8
-

4.8
-

30.4
.9

100 .0

-

2. 1
- .
. 1.8
14 .0
.3
.7

100.0

_
_

-

_

-

85.7
83.2
47.4
_
.6
16.8
4.5
2.3
6.6
_
4.4

_
_

12. 3
_
4.9
_
_
_
3.4

_

1.5
30 . 9
2.5

100.0
89 . 6
89 . 6
40.3
1.5
6.9
15. 1
1.0
1.6
_
_
7 07
5. 6
1. 1
20 . 0
-

6.2
_
13.8
_
_
2 9. 2
88 . 6
88 . 6
3 3. 3
.
1.0
?.4

L
5 .6
.
6. 7
8.6
3.5
3. 5
2.1
20.0
_
4.5
_
3. 6

_

12.0
35 .2
-

M os t " O t h e r " w o r k e r s , h o w e v e r , w e r e in es t a b l is h m e n t s which p r o vi d ed , in addition,

46
Table B-6: Shift Differential Practices (Manufacturing)
( W o r k e r s e m p l o y e d on late shifts at t im e of s ur vey )
P e r c e n t o f manufacturing plant w o r k e r s
South

Shift o p e r a t i o n and shift
pay d i ff e r en t ia l

/
1 P
l v

/
/
/

/

*
^

o

/
/

/

J

^

//
/

/

°

3
^

^

/
Total plant w o r k e r s in manuf act urin g
e s t a b l i s h m e n t s ----------- ------- -------------------------------Se co nd shift e m p l o y m e n t __________________________
With shift pay d i f f e r e n t i a l ____________________
Under 5 c e n t s ______________________ ____ _
5 c e n t s -----------------------------------------------------6 c e n t s ___________________________________
8 cents __________________________________
9 cents __________________________________
Over 5 and under 10 c e n t s , o t h e r _____
10 ce nts ______________ ____ ______________
Over 10 and under 15 c en ts ___________
15 ce nts and o v e r _______________________
U ni f o r m p e r c e n t a g e ________________________
Under 5 p e r c e n t _________________________
5 p e r c e n t _________ ___________ ____ _____
Over 5 and under 10 p e r c e n t __________
10 pprr pnt
....
.....
Over 10 and unde r 15 p e r c e n t ------------1^ p = f rpnt
<»
O th e r1
^

No shift pay d iff er en ti al

--------------------------------

Th ird shift e m p l o y m e n t _______________________ —
With shift pay di ff er en t i al ___________________
Unif or m rpnts ( per hour)
Under 5 c e n t s ___________________________
5 c e n t s ___________________________________
6 cents
_
_
____ _
7 o r 7 X c e n ts
/z
fi r p n t s

_

____

_

9 cents __________________________________
Over 5 and under 10 c e n t s , o t h e r ------10 ce nts
_
____ _ _
1? r e n t s

.

.

Ov er 10 and under 15 c e n t s , o t h e r -----| 5 c e n ts

Cyt 1 R c e n t s
yp
-T
._
_ _
U n ifo r m p e rc e n ta g e
. .
Under ll/ p e r c e n t ---------------------------------z

percent
.
O ver 7\4 and under 10 p e r c e n t _______
10 p e r c e n t _______________________________

O v e r 10 an d u n d e r 1 5 p e r c e n t
15 p e rc e n t
O th e r *

No shift pay d i ff e r en t ia l

1 See fo otn ote 1, p r e c e d i n g table,
A L e s s than 0 . 0 5 p e r c e n t .




/

/

*
o
N
*
*

-3

/

^

isS /
/
f t //

/
/

/
/

/

/

s
*

/

^

*
*

v

/

J
V

/

j?
t?
*

/

/

*

/
/

05

-0
3

/

o

/
/

/

/

^

/

^
£
5

Middle West

/
/
/
/
/

/
/
/
/
/
/

o
00
°
-c?
U

/

/

"o
<
7
*
a/
^
0
^

0
5

/

^

/
/

/
/

1 ^ *;
/

/

/
/
/
/

o
^

^

/

^
G
Q

*

/
//
/
/
/

/
/
/
/
/

00
^
o
q

/

°

/
"o
£
/ o £
^
£
o
/ ^ *
^
/ c O
/ 10

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

15 . 4
14. 9
9. 9
.4
1. 5
1.7
1. 0
1.4
. 3

10. 3
9. 7
4. 7
.2
.9
. 1
.6
.2
. 1
.9
1. 1
. 5
5. 0
.6
. 1
3. 8
.5

18. 5
18. 3
10. 4
.6
1. 0
1.4
2. 5
. 1
.4

12. 7
12. 7
6. 6
,2
1.4
. 5
1. 0
.3

10; 1
10. 0
7. 5

14. 8
13.4
6. 2
. 1
2. 3
1. 2
1 .0
1. 0
.7
5. 9
1. 1
1. 2
3. 6

15. 5
12. 0
11. 2
1. 0
1.6
.9
.6
6. 4
-

17. 8
16. 8
10. 3
1. 5
1.2
6. 7
_
.2
.6
. 1
3. 8
.2
.5
.8
2. 2

17.4
16. 7
14 . 4
.7
2. 1
. 1
1. 5
2. 3
7. 7
2. 3
2. 3
_

11. 6
10. 4
8. 3
4. 0
2. 3
.3
_
.1
.5
1. 1
2. 1
.1
.2
1.9

18. 2
18. 0
13. 5
.2
1. 5
4. 0
4. 1
1. 2
.7
1. 6
. 3
4.4
2. 5
.2
1. 8

11. 8
11 . 5
8. 4

15. 2
15. 2
11.7
. 8
2. 9
2. 2
1.4
. 1
. 3
3. 7
.4
3. 0
. 3
1.2
. 8
.6

12. 0
12. 0
11.4

18. 7
18. 7
15. 7
.2
.6
1.7
. 3
8. 5
3. 2
.6
.6
1. 2
.7
. 5

17.4
15. 0
12. 1
.8
.9
4. 7
1. 1
. 1
2.4
1 .0
. 1 .1
. 5
.5

15. 0
15. 0
8. 7
.4
1 .0
2. 9
_
. 1
2. 0
2. 1
.4
2. 4
. 1
2. 3

-

-

1. 4
1. 4

.6
3. 5

17. 1
16. 7
9. 9
. 1
2. 2
1. 7
.8
.8
.2
2.4
. 5
1. 2
6. 5
1 .4
. 1
4.9
.2
. 1
.3
.4

. 1
.2

. 1
. 3

.6

.7

6. 7
6. 7
5. 8
. 1
. 1
1. 1
2. 5
1. 5
. 1
.2

2. 4
2. 4
1.9

A

2. 0
1. 0
. 6
4. 1
A

1. 1
.4
2. 4
. 1
, 1
.8
.5
4. 9
4. 8
3. 4
. 1
.1
.3
.2
. 1
.9
A

.
.
.
.
.
.

9
3
2
3
1
7

A
.1
.4
. 1
.7

A

A

2.
.
.
5.

8
3
1
5

A

A

.7
.2
. 1
A

_
-

-

.5
A

.6

.6
.2

2. 7
2. 7
1. 6

5. 0
5. 0
2. 8

_
.2
. 2

.2

A
A
.7
.2

A
.3
1. 1

A
A

A
A

.5
. 5
4. 5
A

A

1.2
.8
2.4
7. 2
4. 9
.2
2. 1

. 3
. 3
.4
.2
.2
. 1
1. 5
3. 9
.7
2. 4
.2
. 5
1. 2

.8
_
. 3
_

A

.5
. 1
.9

A
.3
.2
.2
_
.2
1. 3

A
.4
.1
.8
_

_

.9
. 1

.6

A

-

. 1

3. 9
3. 9
3. 2
. 2
. 1
_
_
. 1
- 8

2. 6
2. 4
1. 5
_

.6

A

.6

.8
_
. 5

A
_

A

_
. 3
.7
. 1
.4
_
.2
-

A

4. 5
4. 5
2. 4
.2
. 1
.2
. 2
.2
.8
.5
.2
_
.6
. 1
. 1

A
. 5
-

A
. 2

.2
_
.7
. 2

.5
_
1.4

A

4. 6
2. 9
2. 8
.8
. 1
.3
.8
.4
. 1
_
.3
_
_
_
. 1
1. 7

2. 7
1.0
9.
9.
7.
.
.
.
.

6
1
5
1
1
6
2

.7

1. 2

3. 2
3. 2
2. 1

6.0
5. 1
4. 7
2. 4
.7
. 1
. 1

5. 9
5. 8
3. 7
.J

A

1. 5
1. 3

-

A

.4
.5
. 1
. 3
.2
. 1
.6
.2
.2
-

.5
.5

.9
A

.6

5. 0
. 3
.2
A

. 2
.2
1. 1
.1
1. 0
-

1. 3
A

.4
.4
.9

-

. 1
A

A

.2
.3
.2
1.4

A

.9

A

A

.4
.7

.5
.3
-

A

. 3
.7
. 1

2. 0
. 5
. 7
. 1
3. 0
.8
1. 1
3. 0
. 1
2. 0
.9

-

. 1
-

•1

~

1. 1
. 1
. 1
. 1
. 3
.4
_
A

A

. 1

. 3
. 1

A

A

A

1.4
5. 0
2. 0
. 7
.7
. 3
1. 3
_

-

-

-

1. 7

3. 8

5. 3
5. 3
4. 5

-

"

2. 4
2. 4

1
1
4
1

4. 4
4. 4
4. 1

3. 2
3. 2
1. 5

9. 0
8. 5
7. 1

-

■

.9
. 3
.4
1. 1
"
2. 2
.4

3. 1
. 1
"
. 2
.6
. 1
"
■
. 3
-

-

7.
7.
6.
.
-

A

.9
. 1
. 3
“
. 1
. 1
.4
-

.7

A

. 1
. 3
. 1
A

. 1
. 1
. 1
"
A

•1
"
1. 5
-

"

2. 8
.4
.5
1. 3
“
. 3
1.8
.1

“

-

. 1
.6
-

1. 0
.5
1.2
A

.2
.8
A

. 1

“
-

1. 3
. 5

A

-

.8
-

47
Table B-7: Frequency of W age Payment (All Industries)
( P e r c e n t o f o f fi c e and plant w o r k e r s e m p l o y e d in all e s t a b l is h m e n t s b y f r e q u e n c y o f pay)

O ffice w orkers

Plant w orkers

A rea or industry division
Weekly

17 areas com bined ---------------- __ ____

__ _

_

44

Biw eekly

22

S em i­
monthly

33

Monthly

Other
frequency

A

A

87

9

_
A
A
-

91
79
66
77
87

M anu factu ring-------- __ __ __ _______ __ ________
N onm anufacturing____ ____________________________
P ublic utilities * ___ __ „ __ _______ „
__ __
W holesale trade ___ __ __ __ _ __
_____
R etail trade __ __ __ __ __ __ __ ___________
Finance * * ________________________________________
S erv ices ____ __ __ ------------ -------- _ ____ __

56
38
44
40
77
22
50

11
28
41
13
11
38
6

33
33
15
44
12
38
44

A
A
A
3
A
A
A

N ortheast:
B o s t o n _________________ __ ___________________
B uff a l o ____________________________________________
N ew a rk -J ersey C ity________
_____ ___ ______
New York C it y _____ __ __ __________ _ _____
P h ilad elp h ia______________________________________

59
58
63
49
59

23
17
23
25
19

13
24
15
25
19

5
A
A
3

South:
Atlanta ___ ____ __ __ __ ----------------- -------------B a lt im o r e ______________________________________ __
D allas _ __ __ ____ __ __ ____ __ ____
M e m p h is ________ __ __________
_
__ — __

38
58
21
36

28
23
26
25

33
18
53
38

A
A

-

-

A

-

Middle West:
C hicago _____ __ ------- __ -------- ----------------------C le v e la n d _____________________________ __________
M inneapolis-St. P a u l__ _ _ __ _ ___ __
St. Louis __ __ _ ------- ------ --- __ __ ___ ___

47
15
30
37

19
25
22
12

34
58
47
50

A
A
A

F ar W est:
D e n v e r_______ __ ___________ __ _
L os A ngeles __ __ ------ „ __
P ortla n d --- ------ ------------ __ __ San F ra n cisco-O ak la n d
______ __

22
41
17
11

35
21
13
18

40
36
59
71

___ _
__ _
-------„ __

___
___ _
__ —
__ __

x x x N u m b e r o f plant w o r k e r s t oo s m a l l to ju sti fy p r e s e n t a t i o n o f data.
A
L e s s than 2 . 5 p e r c e n t .
T r a n s p o r t a t i o n ( exc lud ing r a i lr o a d s ) , co m m u n ic a t i on , and o th er p u b lic ut i li t ie s .
**
F i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , and r e a l esta te .

*




A
A

S em i­
monthly

Monthly

Other
frequency

4

A

A

7
13
29
13
6

A
8
5
10
6

A
A
A
-

A
A
_
_
A

xx x
-

xxx

A

_
_
-

-

-

Biw eekly

xxx

xxx

xxx

-

79

4

16

-

99
99
98
98
99

A
A
A
A
A

A
A
A
A
A

85
98
76
89

11
A
11
6

4
A
13
5

-

87
67
82
82

10
25
13
15

3
A
5
3

-

68
72
43
61

13
20
26
25

19
8
29
14

-

-

-

A

12

W eekly

A

A

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

A

-

6
-

-

3

-

-

A
A

48
Table B-8; Paid Holidays
(P e r c e n t o f o f fi c e and plant w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d in e s ta b lis h m e n ts that p r o v id e p a id h o lid a y s

b y in d u stry d iv is io n and nu m ber o f p a id h o lid a y s p r o v id e d 1)

O ffice w orkers
A rea or industry division

17 areas com bined _ _ _ _ _

_ __

Manufacturing _
__ __ __
Nonmanufacturing __
Public utilities *
WlmlftBalo. trade
Retail trade _
Finance **
S ervices
Northeast:
Boston
Buffalo
N ew ark-Jersey City
New York City
Philadelphia
South:
Atlanta
Baltim ore
Dallas
Memphis

_

-----

.

Middle West:
Chicago
Cleveland
M inneapolis.St. Paul
St. Louis

Total
with
holidays

___ _

Under
5
days

5
days

6
days

99

A

A

32

99
99
99
99
99
99
99

A
A
A
A
3
A
A

A
3
A
3
5
3
A

99
99
99
99
100

A

A

7
days

Plant w ork ers
10
days

Over
11
days

9
days

19

11

5

5

19

6

95

3

49
23
15
29
50
13
32

23
17
24
27
27
8
25

12
10
20
11
4
7
13

4
6
8
6
A
6
5

6
5
6
9
5
4
3

4
26
24
14
4
41
15

A
9
A
A

97
92
98
97
91

A
7
A
A
9

18
3

XXX

XXX

81

12

9
24
27
13
27

3
4
13
10
16

6
A
11
10
4

23
3
A
10
5

54
12
4
45
A

A
A
35
9
22

94
96
99
96
97

5
A
4
A

A
5

_

_

_

_

13
9

-

79
98
86
84

7
A
21
11

97
92
97
97

5
A
A

11
days

\

A

99
100
99
99

A
A
9

37
A
35
48

43
30
25
22

8
26
18
10

8
11
3
3

A
13
A

12

-

99
99
99
99

A
A

A

_

_

A

_

_

_

A

6
A
8
24

3
A
4

-

18
9
17
34

10

-

61
87
71
39

A
A

_

"

-

A

-

_

A
A
A

50
64
51
12

36
13
34
53

11
17
14
17

A
A

A
A
A

4

_

_

_

_

3

3

12

_

5

_

Over
11
days

6
days

7
days

8
days

9
days

10
days

3

47

23

10

3

A

3

A

A
4
3
5
4

53
36
25
38
40

23
24
19
25
30

11
8
18
11
3

A
3
7
3
A

A
3
5
4
A

A
7
19
9
A

A
A
A
A

XXX

XXX

X XX

XXX

6

39

16

4

A

A

3

A

3
A
A

27
23
38
27
35

8
4
19
14
14

8
A
9
7
A

21
A
3
6
3

8
A
4
18

A

A

14
66
22
21
41

30
4
22
32

36
57
26
34

4
23
17
5

A
7

_

_

-

_

4

A

_

A

A
A

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

A

66
83
77
48

16
7
11
35

68
65
54
13

10
16
23
49

5
days

11
days

All industries

A

_

A

Under
5
days

8
days

A
54
8
3
23

-

A

Total
with
holidays

-

"

_

_

A
4

6

XXX

XXX

XXX

-

XXX

-

3
A
A

A

A

A

-

-

_

-

-

_

5
10

A

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

F ar West:
L os Angeles
Portland
San F rancisco-O akland

99
100
99
100

A
A

A

See footnote at end of table.
* Transportation (excluding railroad s), communication, and other public utilities.
* * Finance, insurance, and real estate.




_

_

87
94
85
95

.

A
3
4

A
A
A

5

9
11

-

-

_

A

-

-

-

4

-

-

-

-

25

-

A

49
Table B-8: Paid Holidays - Continued
( P e r c e n t o f o f fic e and plant w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d in e s ta b lis h m e n ts that p r o v id e p aid h o lid a y s

b y in d u stry d iv is io n and n u m ber o f paid h o lid a y s p r o v i d e d 1)

O ffice w orkers
A rea

Total
with
holidays

Under
5
days

5
days

6
days

7
days

Plant w orkers

8
days

9
days

10
days

11
days

Over
11
days

Total
with
holidays

Under
5
days

5
days

6
days

7
days

8
days

9
days

10
days

11
days

Over
11
days

M a n u factu rin g
Northeast:
Boston ____________________________ ___
Buffalo _______ ____________________ _
N ew ark-Jer sey City
New York C it y __________ ____________
Philadelphia __________________________

100
99
100
100
100

_
A

_
A
A

4
63
13
3
29

19
33
45
14
45

6
4
25
25
20

13
11
15
A

30
A
A
24
3

26
A
18
-

A
A
A
A

100
98
100
96
98

A
_
6
-

4
A
A

20
64
24
24
37

33
30
38
12
42

12
4
24
25
16

11
8
12
-

14
A
3
9
A

4
_
A
8
-

A
A
A
-

South:
Atlanta
B altim ore
Dallas ________
M em phis

99
100
99
100

A
_
66
7

21
3
13
33

71
36
40
41

3
45
40
12

3
7
A
5

5
A

_
4
_
-

-

-

73
99
93
88

6
_
9
8

16
A
21
21

45
62
40
50

3
28
23
7

3
5
A
A

_
A
-

_
A
_
-

_
_
-

_
_
-

Middle West:
Chicago
C le v e la n d _____ __ __ __ __ __ __ ___
M inneapolis-S t. Paul __ __ _ _ _ _ _ _
St. Louis

99
99
99
100

A
-

A
_
3

76
96
84
46

15
4
10
40

8
5
11

A
A
-

-

-

-

99
95
97
100

A
A
-

3
A
3

68
88
77
50

18
6
9
37

8
10
10

A
-

-

A
-

-

Far West:
Denver ________________________________
L os A ngeles ________ ___________ _ _
P ortland _________ ___________ ______
San F ra n cisco-O ak la n d _____________

100
100
100
100

A
_

_
A
A

84
84
72
18

9
10
25
60

7
5
A
21

A

A

-

-

91
98
83
93

A
3
3

A
A

72
79
48
18

9
11
30
53

10
6
A
19

-

-

-

-

.

_

- .......

______________________

P u b lic utilities*
N ortheast:
B o s t o n __ __
____
__ __ __
Buffalo ____ ____ __ __ ____ __ ___
N ew ark-Jer sey C i t y __________
New Y ork City
______________ _ _ __
Philadelphia

100
99
100
100
100

_
_
_
_
-

_
_
_
-

A
20
A
5
12

A
3
4
12
6

6
17
A
40

A
23
49
A
8

55
_
6
31

35
37
7
75
-

_
38
A
A

100
99
100
99
100

A
-

A
-

7
45
20
13
39

9
3
3
13
14

10
3
20

9
18
26
3

52
21

21
23
22
72
-

28
4

South:
Atlanta ____
____ ________ __ ___
B altim ore
Dallas __ _______ ____ ____________
Mem phis ____ __ __ __ ____ ______

100
100
100
99

_
_
A
-

14
_
17
15

64
4
37
74

22
7
42
10

_
36
3
-

_
51
-

-

-

A
-

98
100
85
92

3
-

26
15
23

59
21
28
68

13
9
40
A

29
-

40
-

-

-

A
-

100

_
_

-

-

-

-

A

40
47
26
36

32

-

-

29
50
61
15

-

-

15

-

-

11
-

27
-

A

98
97
98
98

-

-

60
54
10
49

25
-

100

13
46
84
14

A

100

-

-

“

-

100
100

_
_

-

18
14
32

43

-

-

-

-

-

31
20

31

29
64
21
63

-

-

-

-

Middle W est:
C hicago
___
____ ______
C le v e la n d __ ____ __ __ __ __ ____
M inn eapolis-S t. Paul ________________
St. L ouis __ ____ ____ __ __ __ ---Far W est:
D e n v e r_________________________________
L os A ngeles ________ ____ __ ______
Portland _ . . .
San F ranc is co-O akland ______________

100

99

100

3

6

38
25

5

35

A
-

39
80
29

A

6
6

See fo otn ote at end o f t ab le .
* T r a n s p o r t a t i o n (e x c lu d in g r a i l r o a d s ) , c om m u ni c at io n, and ot her pub lic u t i li t ie s .




-

6

92
93
85
100

3

31
7

8
33

27

50

Table B-8: Paid Holidays -

Continued

(P e r c e n t o f o f fic e and plant w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d in e s ta b lis h m e n ts that p r o v id e p a id h o lid a y s

b y in d u stry d iv is io n and n u m b e r o f p a id h o lid a y s p r o v i d e d 1 )

Plant w orkers

O ffice w orkers
A rea

Total
with
holidays

Under
5
days

5
days

6
days

7
days

8
days

9
days

10
days

11
days

Over
11
days

Total
with
holidays

Under
5
days

5
days

6
days

7
days

_

Over
11
days

8
days

9
days

10
day 8

11
days

4
16
23
32

3
A
14
22

8
15
8
9

35
10
12
A

38
20
35
-

9
4
-

_

_

_

_

25

7

"

-

“

6

_
_

A

_

_

_

“

-

.

_

-

-

-

W h o le sa le trad e
Northeast:
Boston
N ew ark-Jersey City _
New York City _
Philadelphia

100
100
100
100

South:
Atlanta
Baltimore

100
100

Middle West:
Chicago _
Cleveland
M inneapolis-St. Paul
St. Tenuis ................

100
100
100
98
100
100

-

...........

_ .

Far West:
L os Angeles
__________ ._________
San Francisco-O akland

-

-

_

_

-

A
21
3
15

21
14
52

A
A
19
23

5
9
12
9

-

30
4

55
36

13
15

A
8

_

_

21

_
_
-

_

_

-

17
6
43
57

4

-

77
94
48
39

9
A

-

-

.

47
A

34
89

19
7

A

-

_

"

-

50
15
33
-

19
3
"

16

-

-

_
_

A

-

_
_

-

-

-

43
14
17
A

-

-

_

_

-

7

8
25
3
22

92
86

4
-

30
11

47
32

11
11

100
86
97
100

_
_

A

-

-

5

78
76
57
34

14
10
39
60

A

"

96
100

_

_

“

-

52
3

28
65

16
32

91
95
94
98

23
4
8
-

A

.

14

11
10
60

31
72
66
21

A
A
A
3

A
3
4
-

31

_
_

A
-

4
3
4
-

85
96
85

8
9
52

6
64
7

_

_

17
“

6
-

_
_

_
_

_
_

_

25

-

-

-

"

92
98

3
4

-

83
86

5
8

A
-

_

_

89
92
98

.

A

8
15

_

_

A

87
84
A

_

9

_

_

_

95
95
99
93

_

-

-

_

_
-

_

_
-

-

_

R e ta il trad e
Northeast:
Boston
N ew ark-Jersey City*
New York City*
Philadelphia*

98
98
98
100

17
A

A
A

-

_

South:
Atlanta
Baltimore
Dallas

99
100
100

4
A
51

Middle West:
Chicago
M inneapolis-St. Paul

99
100

Far West:
Denver
Portland
San F rancisco-O akland

99
98
100

35
46
61
18

A
3
7
3

A
5
6
-

24

15
A
78

84
A
28

11
85
21

A
11
-

-

-

A
-

-

-

_

-

95
90

3
10

A
-

-

.
_

A

4
_

_
_

_

A

A

93
98
8

83

8

-

-

_

_

14
-

18
27
9
-

-

_
_

_
_

•

_

-

_
-

_

-

-

_

_

-

"

.
_

_
_

-

-

“

-

-

-

71
_

_

_
_
-

-

-

_

-

-

-

_
_

_

_
_

_

66

14

-

-

-

-

12
32
4

6
9
4

A
A
-

3
A
-

A
7
-

A
A

"

Seryices
Northeast:
100
99
100

_

_.
_

_

-

5
11
45

A
32
25

8
19
5

7
7
-

9
5
-

58
22
25

11
3
-

47
94
86

7

-

14
44
70

A

-

70

19

A

4

-

3

-

83

58

-

23

A

A

A

-

A

-

59

31

7

4

72

5

A

57

5

A

A

*

“

"

'

R o n to n
N e w Y o r k C it y
P h ila d e lp h ia
_

'

_
_

_
_

-

_

Middle West:
C h ic a g o

99

F ar West:
L oa A n g e le s 3

See footnotes at end of table.




100

*
*
'

'

51

Table B-8: Paid Holidays - Continued
(P e r c e n t o f o f fic e w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d in e s ta b lis h m e n ts that p r o v id e paid h o lid a y s

b y in d u s tr y d iv is io n and n u m b er o f paid h o lid a y s p r o v i d e d 1)

O ffic e w o r k e r s

A rea

Total
with
holidays

Under
5
days

5
days

6
days

7
days

8
days

13
days

t>ve r
13
days

10
days

11
days

12
days

3
A
12
5

8
_
A
A

89
_
67
5

93
19
13

_

-

_

_

63

-

9
days
Finance**

Northeast:
Rostnn
.... _ ___
Npwa T*k-.T#»r s#»y C ity
YnrV r.it-y
Philadelphia
South:
Atlanta
RalHmorft .
... ,.
Dali a n

_

.... _ ....
...... .

...

Middle W est:
C hicago
__ __
Cleveland
, , ................
M inneapolis - S t , Paul
S tr

-

- _

. ..
............... .......................

I iO llifi

F ar W est:
T,ns Angelas
.
.
San Franr.isr.o-Oakl.and

1
2
3
xxx
A
**

___ ____________________

_

_

_____________ ___
___ ____________

100
100
100
100

_
_

100
100
100

___ __ __________ ___
. . ..............
_____...
..........
. . ..

_
_
_

_
A
A

6
_
5

_
A
5

37
_
59

18
4
8

9
9
A

26
13
5

5
17

3
6

_

_

51

_

A

_

_

-

-

-

26

98
100
100
100

_
_
3

27
66
63
17

12
7
7
4

9
8
17
73

A
A
13
_

6
15
_

42
-

3

_
_

-

3

-

-

-

_

100
100

_

_

49
16

10
32

17
4

6

7
7

17
34

-

-

-

A

Data lim ited to full-day holidays provided annually.
E xcludes data fo r lim ited -p rice variety stores.
E xcludes data fo r m otion-picture production; these data a re included, how ever, in " a ll in d u s trie s."
Num ber o f plant w orkers too small to justify presentation of data.
L ess than 2 .5 percen t.
F inance, insurance, and real estate.




-

52

Table B-9: Provisions for Paid Holidays Occurring on Nonworkdays 1 (All Industries)
Northeast

I

T
/

P rov ision s

,

~
r

South

Middle West

~ T ~

F a r West

/

A A t i l l A AT A A A fw
/

hi
i* *

5

O ffic e w o rk e rs

....... ...

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

W orkers in establishm ents providing paid
holidays to o ffice w ork ers
_______ ____________________

99

99

99

99

99

100

99

100

99

99

42
27
S
A
A

30
21
6
A
A

53
24
25
3
5

59
29
10
7
A

34
21
4
A
-

52
38
11
A
A

58
53
4
A
6

32
21
10
A
3

62
48
8
6
18

43
35
7
A
28

56

70

42

40

66

48

35

65

20

28

50

With provisions for holidays falling on Sunday 2 _______
_
_
_ _ ...
Another day off with pay
Extra day's pay .
___ _
Option of another day off or extra day's p a y ________
No provisions (or no pay) for holidays falling
on Sunday _
...
_
_
_ .... ___

97

96

97

98

99

99

94

99

92

85

93

95

96

94
3

97

98

96
4

92

96

92

82

90

With provisions for holidays falling during va ca tion 2
.__
Another dav off with pay . . . ... _ . ... . __
Extra day's pay _
Option of another day off or extra day's pay ________
No provisions (or no pay) for holidays falling
during vacation
_

All office w orkers __

_ _

With provisions for holidays falling on Saturday1 ______
2
Another day off with pay
...................
_ . .. ...
Extra day's pay ______________ ______ ___________ __
Option of another day o ff or extra day's p a y ________
Saturday is a scheduled workday for all w o r k e r s ______
No provisions (or no pay) for holidays failing
on Saturday
_
___
.. _ ..
___ .

A
A

A

3

4

85
70
9
4

84
73
6
5

77
52
19
6

15

16

100

100

A

A
A

A
A

A

A

100

100

-

A
A

A
A

A
-

A

A

5

A

79
6
7

90
83
3
4

89
77
5
7

77
57
18

22

7

10

11

22

17

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

93

A

83
62
11

A

100

100

100

100

99

99

99

48
26
14
A
A

29
20
7
A

47
32
7
A
A

70

A
A

A
-

7

14

6

53
45
7

65
53
6
6
34

A
46

100

100

99

99

53
29
12
6
A

26
20
3
A
8

51

46

66

87

95

95

98

99

99

96

87

93

93

98

97

99

96

A
-

100

100

100

99

100

51
42
7
A
A

40
25
11
3
3

16
12
4
A
3

49

57

81

A
A

A
-•

A
A

A
-

A
-

A
A

13

4

5

A

A

A

4

82
70
7
4

79
66
11
3

89
63
24

79
58
13
4

81
70
5
6

87
53
27
8

77
66
4
7

83
76
4

17

20

11

20

18

13

22

17

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

A

A

Plant workers
All plant workers
W orkers in establishm ents providing paid
holidays to plant w orkers
...

95

94

96

99

96

97

79

98

86

84

97

92

97

97

87

94

85

95

With provisions for holidays falling on Saturday2 _____
Another day off with pay
. . . .
_ _
Extra d ay's pay —______ _____ ________ ___ — — —
Option o f another day o ff or extra day's pay
Saturday is a scheduled workday for all w o r k e r s ______
No provisions (or no pay) for holidays failing
on Saturday
_ ...
_. _
_

70
25
40
3
5

60
24
31
3
5

77
17
57

83
23
52
5

81
26
44
8

83
28
53

51
32
18

66
20
44

72
20
46

62
15
47

69
30
36

76
16
55

25
11
11

A

A

27

68
39
25
3
6

58
25
32

11

39
19
17
3
30

41
18
18
3
9

20

29

9

15

15

With provisions for holidays failing on Sunday 2 .
_ ...... _ _ _ . ..
Another day off with pay . ...........
Extra day's pay _ _ ... ___ ... ________..... _
Option of another day o ff or extra day's pay ______
No provisions (or no pay) for holidays falling
on Sunday
.. .

90
82
7

86
83

95
91
4

97
86
8
A

94
77
12
4

4

4

A

A

3

5

7

6

6

8

5

11

5

6

A

A

With provisions for holidays failing during vacation2___
Another day off with p a y _________ ___________________
Extra dav's pay
_ ... _ .. .
. . ...
Option of another day o ff or extra day's p a y ________
No provisions (or no pay) for holidays falling

84
42
32
8

74
41
24
8

85
27
52
6

90
38
38
13

90
45
33
11

85
44
29
11

64
33
27
3

82
37
36
3

52
33
17

66
45
16
5

88
46
30
7

79
36
39
A

91
49
35
7

84
29
44
7

79
55
16
8

87
38
37
12

75
43
25
8

81
60
14
8

11

21

11

8

7

12

16

16

34

18

9

14

6

13

7

7

9

14

d u r in g v a c a t io n

A

A
A

A

A

14

11

52
34
15
3
25

15

14

21

9

92
84
8

71
66
4

92
81

80
76
4

A
A

A

A

A

A

9
A

-

A

A
A

A

-

A

4

5

3

A

15

21

26

25

20

34

21

24

46

76
67
5
3

92
82
7

81
78
3

92
85
3

91
80
10

84
82

A

-

-

82
68
13
A

88
84

-

92
86
5
A

A
A

A
3

A

A
A
6

1 Lim ited to p rovisions in establishm ents having a form al p olicy applying when holidays o ccu r on nonworkdays; som e of the estim ates would be slightly higher if p ra ctice s determ ined inform ally as the
situation occu rs were included.
2 Includes p rovision s other than those shown separately.
A L ess than 2 .5 percen t.




53

Table B-10: Paid Vacations (All Industries)
(P ercen t of o ffice and plant w orkers employed in all establishm ents providing paid vacations

~T

uA.A.A.A.A. 1 A A L
AA
T

N o r th e a st

“

7

~

M id d le W e s t

S ou th

T

/

F a r W est

"

77,
1
*
/

h

/

__________

A m ou n t o f v a c a tio n p a y 1
an d s e r v ic e p e r io d

by amount of vacation pay provided after specified le n g th -o f-s e rv ic e p eriods)

i

Office workers

1 w eek or m ore:
1 y e a r _______________

____________________________________

99

100

100

100

99

99

99

99

2 w eeks or m ore:
1 y e a r __ __ _____________________________________________
2 y e a r s ____ ________________ ____________ ______________
__
3 y e a r s ____ ________________________________________
5 y e a r s ____ _______________________ ___________________

83
96
98

95
98

77
88
96

92
97
98
99

76
92
94
98

68
81
82

99

93
99
99
99

80
93
95

99

99
99

99

89
93
97

3 w eeks or m ore:
3 y e a r s ___________________________________________________
5 years
___ ___
1 0 y e a r s _ _ ___
_
1 5 y e a r s _________________________________________ ________
2 0 y e a r s __________________________________________________
25 y e a r s

3
9
27
75
80
82

7
26
37
80
84
87

A
5
20
78
80
83

A
6
20
79
85
87

3
16
44
82
83
86

4
7
51
58
59

A
A
12
71
77
81

A
4
50
54
56

4 w eeks or m ore:
1 0 y e a r s ___ __ __ __
______________________________
1 5 y e a r s __________________________________________________
2 0 y e a r s ___ _______________________
_ ______________
2 5 y e a r s ------------------------------------------------------------------------------

A
A
8
25

3
3
10

A
A
4
20

A
A
18
28

A
5
13
41

-

-

21

99

5
25
74
81
83

-

4

A
3
17

A
23

A
16

99

99

100

100

99

99

99

67

64
84
94
97

80
98
99
99

80
93
98

70
90
97

69
87
94

61
86
95

99

99

99

99

A
3
7

A
A
10
81
83
84

A
4

39
55
57

4
6
23
78
83
84

29
80
81
81

3
5
19
76
77
78

A
A
A
17

A
3
8
28

-

-

-

A
A
11

A
6
20

-

11

99

99

100

77
95
98
99

63
83
98
100

82
99
100
100

4
4
16
70
71
75

6
7
17
68
79
80

3
3
15
61
70
70

19
63

3
5
12

A
A
4
14

A
A
5
14

A
3
15

A
A
3
14

•

.

3
7

79
80

Plant workers
1 w eek or m ore:
1 y e a r --------- ----------------------2 w eeks or m ore:
1 y e a r _____ ______
2 y e a r s . ______ __
3 y e a r s ____
_
5 years
__

__

-----------

_

__

_____

99

99

99

99

99

99

92

98

93

95

99

99

98

99

99

99

99

100

______ _________ _______________
__ __ ____ _________ ___________
_________ __ _____ . . . __ __
_
.. .....

26
50
69
95

40
52
65
98

14
33
61
98

30
46
62
97

43
68
85
95

24
35
52
94

31
47
58
76

14
30
43

16
41
66
80

13
27
48
83

19
52
70
97

11
22
40
97

17
42
75
97

14
27
60
98

18
43
70
95

36
69
86
98

14
39
70

28
74
90

99

99

A
6
18
64
66
67

A
12
22
67
69
71

A
4
14
81
82
84

A
7

A
3
22
60
62
65

-

A
A
4
34
36
41

4
7
21
78
81
81

A
3
11
80
81
81

A
6
27

A
A

-

5
7
36
39
39

A
A
8
65
68
68

-

19
73
76
76

5
11
24
53
54

69
70
72

3
6
14
56
57
58

A
A
8
38
42
43

11
60
61
61

A
A
3
11

7
7
8
13

A
A
4
14

A
A
6
21

-

A

A
5

.A
10

A
A
A
6

-

A

A
6
15

6

9

91

3 w eeks or m ore:

1y e a r s

.... ................. ............................

5 y e a r s ________ . . .
. . .
10 y e a r s .
.
.
1 5 y e a r s ____
_
_ _
20 y e a r s
2 5 y e a r s __________ ______ __
4 w eeks or m ore:
1 0 y e a r s __
_ __
1 5 y e a r s ____________
20 y e a r s
_ _ _
2 5 y e a r s ______ __________

_____

__

__________

___________

_________

__

__________

__

.

_

. . .

-

55

A
3
4
11

1 In c lu d e s p e r c e n t a g e - o r fla t - s u m -t y p e paym ents c o n v e r te d to eq u iv a le n t w eeks* p ay.
A L e s s than 2. 5 p e r c e n t .




A
9

See text,

A
A
34
37
39

-

-

-

A
3
7

-

-

-

5

5

p . 39.

A
8

A

13
78
78
79

-

A
7
52
54
55

-

3

-

9

10

5

7

A
A

54

Table B-ll: Paid Vacqtions (Manufacturing)
(P e r c e n t o f o f fi c e and plant w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d in a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts p r o v id in g p a id v a c a tio n s

by am ount o f va ca tio n pay p r o v id e d a fte r s p e c ifie d l e n g t h - o f - s e r v i c e p e r i o d s )

Office workers
1

w eek o r m o r e :
1 y e a r ______

99

100

100

100

99

100

99

100

99

100

100

100

99

99

100

100

97

100

2

w eeks o r m o r e :
1 y e a r _________
2 years
3 y e a r s —____,_________
5 y e a r s _______________

84
94
96
99

96
98
99
100

81
88
95
98

89
95
97
98

92
98
99
99

83
92
93
99

80
88
91
96

58
68
68
99

65
89
93
97

63
80
94
99

83
98
99
100

89
97
97
99

76
90
95
98

72
85
92
99

70
83
91
100

86
96
98
99

68
85
94
100

92
100
100
100

w eeks o r m o r e :
3 y e a r s ____
5 y e a r s ______
10 y e a r s ------15 y e a r s _____
20 y e a r s _____
25 y e a r s _____

5
9
23
81
83
83

A
8
15
76
79
80

A
18
88
91
91

A
4
17
87
88
88

9
23
41
82
83
83

8
31
82
84
84

A
3
24
24
24

3
11
81
81
81

A
4
62

A
4
9
38
49
49

7
7
24
85
88
88

A
A
4
87
87
87

A
10
44
75
76
77

4
5
16
81
82
82

A
A
14
69
69
69

10
11
20
84
85
85

10
10
18
51
61
64

8
8
20
74
77
78

w eeks o r
10 y e a r s
15 y e a r s
20 y e a r s
25 y e a r s

A
3
4
14

A
A
A
6

6
11
12
27

A
A
6

-

-

A
14

-

4
7
9

3

4

m orls:
-------_____
_____
_____

-

-

4
14

62

62

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

A
7

A

12

12

5
5
9
21

7

A
11

-

-

-

13

A
7

5
7

A
10

-

Patw r e s
ln o k r
1 week or m ore:
1 year -------------

99

98

100

99

99

99

91

98

97

97

99

100

98

99

100

100

98

100

2 weeks or m ore:
1 year ________
2 years _______
3 years _______
5 years _____

20
36
57
96

20
25
47
97

11
27
55
99

19
36
53
96

37
53
69
89

23
25
43
97

24
31
46
74

8
19
31
99

9
32
70
86

3
10
34
85

13
40
60
98

7
13
29
99

7
23
63
95

11
17
52
99

13
26
59
100

42
62
83
98

11
22
53
98

27
56
83
100

3
6
16
71

A
4
14
64
68
68

A
6
17
79
80
81

8
11
25
49
49
51

3
18
64
64
67

A
4
32
32
32

A
7
70
72
72

-

A
A
38
43
43

6
8
24
85
87
87

A
A
9
85
86
86

A

A
11
89
90
91

7
32
77
80
81

3
3
8
84
84
84

12
62
64
65

5
8
16
68
69
69

3
3
7
37
44
44

10
10
16
61
63
63

-

A

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

A

4

-

-

-

A

A

_

A

A

3

3

3

11

3
8

-

5

5
17

-

15

A
8

_

15

A
A
3
6

11

5

A

13

3 weeks or m ore:
3 years -------5 years ----------

years _____
years _____
20 years ______
2 5 years ______
10
15

4 weeks or m ore:
10 years _____
15 years
_____
20 years _____
2 5 years
_____

iz

72
A
A

A
9

In clu d es p e r c e n t a g e - o r fla t -s t u n -ty p e pa ym en ts
A L e s s than 2. 5 p e r c e n t .




A
A
A
6

_

45
45
45

-

_

c o n v e r t e d to eq u iv a le n t w e e k s ' p ay.

See t e x t, p .

39.

A

55

Table B-12: Paid Vacations (Public Utilities)
(P e r c e n t o f o f f i c e and plant w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d in a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts p r o v id in g pa id v a c a tio n s

by am ount o f v a c a tio n pay p r o v id e d a ft e r s p e c ifie d l e n g t h - o f - s e r v ic e p e r io d s )

O ffice w o rk e rs

1w e e k o r m o r e :
1 y e a r ---------------------------------------------------------------2 w eeks or m ore:
1y ea r
_
_
2 years
...
__
... _ .............
3 years
5 years

__
_
______________

_____

__ ______ __

10
0

10
0

10
0

69
95
99
99

10
0
10
0

99
99

67
92
96

10
0

A
4

A
3

A
A

3 w eeks or m ore:
3 years
. . .
. _ .........
5 y e a r s ________________________________________
years
15 y e a r s ______________________________________
y e a r s ______________________________________
____
.
_
25 y e a r s

1
2
8
6

4 w eeks or m ore:
y e a r s ______________________________________
15 y e a r s ______________________________________
years
_ ..............
25 y e a r s
_ . _ _
_

A
A
A

1
0
20

1
0
20

91
91

1
0

1
2
96
96
96

A
4

6
84
8
6
8
6
-

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

99

10
0

10
0

10
0

99

87
98
99

52
91
95

46
87
97
98

30
72
99

10
0

92
99
99

10
0

29
70
99

10
0

28
89
98

10
0

10
0
10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

19
93

50
98
98*

5
90
98
99

10
0
10
0

10
0
10
0

A

3
80
90
90

4
4
37
76
76
76

.
16
16
85
85
85

_
_

_
_
23

_
_

A
A
A
5

10
0
10
0

10
0
10
0
10
0

10
0

10
0

90
96
99
99

_
9
92
92
92

9
17
93
93
94

A
18
92
92
92

_
3
3
82
90
90

A
3
3
94
98
98

_
58
74
75

5
15
85
85
85

A
72
91
91

A
A
3
92
92
92

_
41
94
94
94

32
92
94
94

_
A
A

A
A
A
A

-

A
A

_

-

7
9
9
9

_
A
30

-

1
1

_
_

_
A
30

99
99

7

-

-

10
0

86
86
86

-

40
81

-

10
0
41
95

P la n t w o rk e rs

1w e e k o r m o r e :
1y e a r
... ....
2 w eeks o r m o re :
1y e a r
2 years

99

...
................ . .
_
3 years
5 y e a r s --------------------------------------------------------------

3 w eeks or m ore:
3 years
5 years
... _
years
_
... ... _
15 y e a r s
_
years
. . . .
25 y e a r s

1
0
20

_

_

10
0

91
92
94

44
49
64

10
0

51
81
93
99

10
0

10
0

10
0
10
0

A
3

A
A

A
A

6
6

1
6
___

4 w eeks o r m o re :
years
. . .
15 y e a r s .................
y e a r s ______________________________________
25 y e a r s
___

1
0
20

10
0

1
2

2
0

85
89
89

94
94
94

91
91
91

79
79

24
84
84
84

10
0

10
0

10
0

89
93

43
60
70

48
82
92

10
0
10
0
5

1
0
2
0
95
95
95

10
0

3
3
69
75
75

92

10
0

10
0

10
0

70
91

33
62
80
96

23
64
85

40
77
97

18
53
95

70
80

3
3
3
96
96
96

-

.

10
0

10
0

2
2

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

34
87

29
76
90

13
84
89
90

10
0
10
0

10
0
10
0

10
0

32
72

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

76
76
76

4
76
98
98

5
99
99
99

34
96
96
96

45
96
98
98

7
76
84
84

31
67
67
67

-

58
67
78

1
0

A
70
70
70

A

-

-

-

A

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

A

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

-

-

5
19
49

-

_

A
A
A

-

_

-

-

3

-

-

A
27

-

-

-

1
0

7

In clu d e s p e r c e n t a g e - o r f la t -s u m -t y p e p aym en ts c o n v e r te d to e q u iv a le n t w e e k s ' p a y .
* T r a n s p o r t a t io n (e x c lu d in g r a i lr o a d s ) , c o m m u n ic a tio n , and o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s .
A L e s s than 2 . 5 p e r c e n t .




94

10
0
10
0

10
0

A
A
39
83
83
83

10
0

8

See te x t, p .

39-

7

-

15

-

10
0
36
96

10
0
10
0
.
A
A
79
79
79

A
A
A
A

56

Table B-13: Paid Vacations W h o le sa le Trade)
(P e r c e n t o f o f fi c e and plant w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d in a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts p r o v id in g pa id v a c a tio n s by am ount o f v a ca tio n pay p r o v id e d axter s p e c ifie d le n g t h - o f - t im e p e r io d s )

1 In clu d es p e r c e n t a g e - o r f la t - s u m -t y p e paym en ts c o n v e r t e d to eq u iv a le n t w e e k s ' pay.
A L e s s than 2. 5 p e r c e n t .




See te x t, p .

39.

57

Table B-14*. Paid Vacations (Retail Trade)
( P e r c e n t o f o f f i c e and plant w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d in a ll e sta b lis h m e n ts p r o v id in g p aid v a c a tio n s by am ount o f v a c a tio n pay p r o v id e d a fte r s p e c ifie d le n g t h - o f - s e r v ic e p e r io d s )

1 Includes p ercen ta g e- o r flat-sum -typ e payments converted to equivalent w eeks' pay.
2 E xcludes lim ite d -p rice variety stores.
A L ess than 2. 5 percen t.




See text, p. 39.

58

Table B-15: Paid Vacations (Services^

Table B-16: Paid Vacations (Finance)
(Percent of o ffice and plant w orkers employed in all establishm ents
providing paid vacations by amount of vacation pay provided a fter
specified le n g th -o f-s e rv ice p eriod s)

(P ercent of office and plant w ork ers em ployed in all establishm ents
providing paid vacations by amount of vacation pay provided after
specified le n g th -o f-s e rv ic e p eriod s)

Amount of vacation
pay 1 and service
period

Office workers

Office worker*
1 w eek o r m o r e :
1 year _

99

100

99

100

100

100

2 w eek s o r m o r e :
1 y e a r ---------,_______
2 y e a r s _ _ ______
3 y e a r s ____________
5 years _

79
90
96
99

81
95
95
100

88
93
99
99

75
87
87
92

73
98
99
99

76
82
98
98

3 w eek s o r m o r e :
3 y e a r s ____________
5 y e a r s ____________
10 y e a r s __________
15 y e a r s __________
20 y e a r s --------------25 y e a r s __________

7
23
45
55
57
59

26
55
62
69
69
70

A
29
55
62
63
63

3
43
43
69
71

4 w eek s o r m o r e :
10 y e a r s __________
15 y e a r s __________
20 y e a r s __________
25 y e a r s __

5
5
6
16

10
10
10
10

7
8
10
26

-

-

-

24
24
44
50
52

55

4
15
22
46
46
46

5
5
5
8

4
4
4
21

93

93

1 w eek or m o re :
1 year
2 w eeks o r m ore:
1 y e a r ---------------------2 y e a r s --------------------3 y e a r s __ _________
c> y e a r s

3 w eeks o r m o re :
3 y e a r s _____________
5 y e a r s _____________
10 y e a r s ____________
15 y e a r s _ _____ __
20 y e a r s ____________
25 y e a r s -----------------4 w ee k s o r m o r e :
10 y e a r s - _________
15 y e a r s _ _____ —
20 y e a r s ____________
25 y e a r s ------------------

99

100

100

99

99

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

98
99
99
100

100
100
100
100

100
100
100
100

99
99
99
99

92
99
99
99

95
95
95
100

94
100
100
100

94
100
100
100

95
100
100
100

92
96
100
100

99
100
100
100

99
99
100
100

99
100
100
100

100
100
100
100

3
10
35
73
86
90

13
44
59
86
93
100

12
27
69
87
93

3
13
54
89
92
96

3
14
62
80
82

3
52
62
68

17
50
71
87

3
6
55
58
58

29
75
80
85

4
16
69
83
91

16
88
91
91

6
10
14
76
76
81

4
4
17
46
85
87

23
46
87
89

-

17
34

51
61

3
22
69

-

-

-

-

8

-

-

7

15

18
34

17

16

3
34

6
9

32

3
9
26

4

-

14

24

21

A
16
44

44

A

P a t workers
ln
1 week or m ore:
1 year ---------2 weeks or m ore:
1 year ---------2 years _____
3 years -------5 years -------3 weeks or m ore:
3 years _____
5 years _____
10 years ___
15 years
___
20 years ___
2 5 years
___

96
16
45
74
86

A
A
5
14
15
17

99

15
59
61
96

100

33
61

79

A
A
4
19
19
22

6
6
9
15
15
15

4 weeks or m ore:
10 years ____
15 years
___
20 years ___
2 5 years
___

1
Includes percen tage- or flat-su m -typ e payments converted to
equivalent w eeks' pay. See text, p. 39.
a E xcludes m otion-picture production.
A L ess than 2 .5 percen t.




1 Includes percen tage- o r flat-sum -typ e payments converted to equivalent w e e k s ’ pay.
A L ess than 2. 5 p ercen t.
** Finance, insurance, and real estate.

See text,

-

A
A

_

59

Appendix A: Scope and Method of Survey

i

In d u stry and E sta b lish m en t L im ita tio n s. — The a rea s u r ­
v e y data a re ob ta in ed b y p e rso n a l v is its o f B ureau fie ld agents
to re p re s e n ta tiv e esta b lish m e n ts within 6 broad in d u stry d iv is io n s :
(1) M an ufactu rin g; (2) tra n sp orta tion (excluding r a ilr o a d s ), c o m ­
m u n ication , and oth e r p u b lic u tilitie s; (3) w h olesale trade; (4) r e ­
tail trad e; (5) fin a n c e , in su ra n ce , and real estate; and (6) s e l e c ­
ted s e r v i c e s .
E x clu d e d fr o m the scop e of the stu d ies, b e s id e s
r a ilr o a d s , a r e g ov e rn m e n t in stitu tion s, and the co n stru ctio n and
e x tra ctiv e i n d u s t r i e s .2

A v e ra g e earn in gs a re p resen ted in the A -ta b le s b e g in ­
ning on page 15. Data a re shown fo r fu ll-tim e w o r k e rs , i . e . , those
h ire d to w ork a fu ll-tim e schedule fo r the given occu pation al
c la s s ific a t io n . E arn in gs data ex clu d e p rem iu m pay fo r ov e rtim e
and n ightw ork, and fo r w ork on w eekends and h olid a y s. N on p ro­
duction b on u ses a re ex clu d ed a ls o , but c o s t -o f-liv in g bonuses and
in centive earn in gs a re in clu d ed .
A v era g e w eek ly earnings fo r
o ffic e c l e r ie a l, p r o fe s s io n a l and tech n ica l occu p ation s relate to
standard s a la r ie s that a re paid fo r standard w ork sch ed u les;
these have been rounded to the n e a re st 50 ce n ts.

The sc o p e o f the studies is fu rth er lim ite d within each
o f the 6 m a jo r in d u stry groupings to estab lish m en ts w hich e m ­
p lo y m o re than a s p e c ifie d m inim um num ber of w o r k e r s , as in ­
d ica te d in the fo llo w in g ta b le . S m a ller esta b lish m en ts a re o m it ­
ted b e ca u se they fu rn ish in su fficie n t em ploym ent in the o c c u p a ­
tions studied to w a rra n t in clu sio n .

E sta b lish m en t P r a c t ic e s and Supplem entary Wage P r o ­
v is io n s . ------I n f o r m a t i o n is p re se n te d on s e le c te d establishm ent
p r a c tic e s and su p plem en tary b en efits as they relate to o ffic e and
plant w o r k e r s .3 The te r m , ’ ’ o ffic e w o r k e r s ,” as used in these
stu d ies, in clu d es a ll o ffic e c l e r ic a l e m p lo y e e s and exclu d es a d ­
m in is tra tiv e , e x e cu tiv e , p r o fe s s io n a l, and tech n ica l p e rs o n n e l.
"P la n t w o r k e r s " in clu d e w orking fo re m e n and a ll n on su p erv isory
w o rk e rs (including lead m en and tra in ees) engaged in n on office
fu n ction s.
A d m in istra tiv e , e x e cu tiv e , p r e fe s s io n a l, and te ch ­
n ica l e m p lo y e e s , and fo r c e accou n t co n stru ctio n em p loy ees who
a re u tilized as a sep a ra te w ork fo r c e a re ex clu d ed .
C afeteria
w o rk e rs and rou tem en a re ex clu d ed in m anufacturing in du s­
t r ie s , but a re in clu d ed as plant w o rk e rs in nonm anufacturing
in d u s tr ie s .

O v e r 4 ,2 0 0 e sta b lish m en ts w ere included in the B u ­
r e a u ’ s sa m p le out o f m o r e than 2 1 ,4 0 0 estab lish m en ts within
the sco p e o f the stu d ies in the 17 a r e a s . T o obtain a p p rop ria te
a c c u r a c y at m in im u m c o s t , a g re a te r p ro p o rtion o f la rg e than
o f s m a ll e sta b lish m e n ts w as studied.
In com bining the data,
h o w e v e r, a ll e sta b lish m e n ts w ere given their ap p rop ria te w eight.
E stim a tes a r e p r e s e n te d , th e r e fo r e , as relating to a ll e s ta b lis h ­
m ents in the in d u stry grou pin g and a r e a , but not to those b elow
the m in im u m s iz e stu died; an e x cep tion , h o w ev er, is the tabu ­
lation of m in im u m e n tra n ce ra te s, w hich re la tes s o le ly to p r o ­
v is io n s in e sta b lish m e n ts a ctu a lly v is ite d .
O ccu p a tion a l E a r n in g s .— W ork ers are c la s s ifie d by o c ­
cupation on the b a s is o f u n iform job d e scrip tion s d esig n ed to
take a ccou n t o f m in o r in te r estab lish m en t v a riation in duties w ith­
in the sam e jo b ; th ese jo b d e s crip tio n s are lis te d in appendix B .

1 A m o r e te ch n ica l d e s crip tio n of the m eth odology o f c o m ­
m unity and oth er types o f earn in gs studies is in clu d ed in Stud­
ie s o f O ccu p a tion a l W ages and Supplem entary B e n e fits, M onthly
L a b or R ev iew , M a rch 1954 (p. 292).
2 See footn ote 4 to table on p. 61 fo r a re a s in which pub­
lic u tilities a r e m u n icip a lly op era ted and have been ex clu d ed . It
should be noted that ta x ica b s and s e r v ic e s incidental to tr a n s p o r ­
tation, although p a rt o f the pu blic u tilities group in e a r lie r stu ­
Digitized s , FRASER x clu d e d fr o m the cu rren t su rv e y s.
d ie for a re e


S h ift-d iffe re n tia l data (table J«-5) a re lim ited to m anu­
factu rin g in d u s tr ie s . T his in form a tion s p re s e n te d both in term s
o f (a) esta b lish m en t p o l i c y 4 and (b) e ffe ctiv e p r a c tic e s fo r w o rk ­
e r s a ctu a lly em p loy ed on extra shifts at the tim e of the su rv ey .
T abulations relatin g to esta b lish m en t p o lic y a re p resen ted in
te rm s o f total plant w o rk e r em ploym en t; estim a tes in the s e c ­
ond tabulation rela te on ly to those w o rk e rs actu ally em ployed on
the s p e c ifie d sh ift.
M inim um en tran ce ra tes fo r w om en o ffic e w ork ers (table
B -3 ) r e fe r to the lo w e st s a la ry rate fo r m a lly estab lish ed
fo r
hirin g in e x p e rie n ce d w o rk e rs fo r typing o r oth er c le r ic a l jo b s .

3 H ealth, in su ra n ce , and pen sion plans w ere not studied
in the cu rre n t s u r v e y s .
L a st y e a r ’ s resu lts are su m m a rized
on p. 39.
4 An esta b lish m en t was co n s id e r e d as having a p o lic y if it
m et eith er o f the follow in g con d ition s:
( l ) O perated late shifts
at the tim e o f the su rv e y , o r (2) had fo r m a l p ro v is io n s co v e rin g
late sh ifts.

60
The deta iled ta b les in the in dividu al a re a b u lletin s a ls o p re s e n t
data fo r nonm anufacturing in d u strie s as a g rou p ; the entrance
rates a re a lso p re s e n te d in te rm s o f the m o st com m on w o rk ­
w eeks fo r w hich they w ere r e c o r d e d .
Su pplem entary p r a c t ic e s , oth er than m inim um entrance
rates fo r w om en o ffic e w o r k e r s , and shift d iffe r e n tia ls , a re
treated s ta tis tic a lly on the b a s is that these a r e p ro v id e d to a ll
w ork ers e m p loy ed in o ffic e s o r plant dep artm en ts that o b s e r v e
the p ra c tic e in q u estion . 5 B e ca u se o f v a ryin g e lig ib ility r e q u ir e ­
m ents, the p r o p o rtio n a ctu a lly r e c e iv in g the s p e c ific b en efits
5
Sch edu led w eek ly
tion o f tables B - l and B - 2 ) a re
portion o f w om en o ffic e w o rk e rs
dicated w eekly h ours fo r w om en




m ay be s m a lle r .
M o r e o v e r , a p r a c t ic e w as c o n s id e r e d as a p ­
p lica b le to a ll o ffic e o r plant w o r k e rs in an e sta b lish m en t if it
a p p lied to a m a jo rity o f such w o r k e r s .
B e ca u se o f rounding,
sum s o f individual item s in th ese tabu lation s do not n e c e s s a r ily
equal tota ls.

The su m m ary o f v a ca tion plans (table B -1 0 ) is lim ite d to
fo r m a l a rra n g em en ts, exclu d in g in fo rm a l plans w h ereb y tim e o ff
with pay is granted at the d is c r e t io n o f the e m p lo y e r o r the su ­
p e r v is o r . The area bulletins p ro v id e sep a ra te e stim a te s a c c o r d ­
ing to em p loy er p r a c tic e in com p u tin g v a ca tion p a y m en ts, such
as tim e paym ents, p e rce n t o f annual e a rn in g s , o r fla t-s u m
hou rs fo r o ffic e w o rk e rs (fir s t s eam ou n ts. H ow ever, in the tabulations o f v a ca tion a llo w a n ce s by
c­
p re se n te d in te rm s o f the p r o ­
y e a rs o f s e r v ic e , paym ents not on a tim e b a s is w ere co n v e rte d ;
fo r ex a m p le, a paym ent o f 2 p e r c e n t o f annual earn in gs was c o n ­
e m p lo y e d in o ffic e s with the in ­
w ork ers.
s id e r e d as the equivalent o f 1 w e e k 1s p a y .

61

M in im u m s iz e e sta b lish m e n t and e stim a te d n u m b e r o f w o r k e r s in e s ta b lis h m e n ts w ithin s c o p e o f s u r v e y s b y in d u s tr y d iv is io n fo r 17 la b o r m a r k e ts studied
b y the B u re a u o f L a b o r S t a t is tic s , w in te r 1 9 5 4 -5 5
_________________________________________________________________________________ (In th ou san d s)
M in im um
N u m ber o f w o r k e r s in e s ta b lis h m e n ts w ithin s c o p e o f s tu d ies 2
P a y ro ll
s iz e
L a b or m ark et 1
3
2
N on m an u factu rin g 3
A ll in d u s tr ie s
M anufacturin g
P u b lic u tilitie s 4
p e rio d
esta b T otal
P lan t
T otal
P lan t
O ffic e
T ota l
O ffic e
Plant
O ffic e
O ffice
T o ta l
Plant
lish m e n t
N o rth e a s t:
B o s t o n ___ __ ------- _ -------B u ffa lo ------------- -----------------N e w a r k - J e r s e y C i t y ________
N ew Y o r k C i t y --------------------P h il a d e l p h i a _________________
South:
A tlan ta ---------------------------------B a lt im o r e ___________________
D a lla s -----------------------------------M em p h is _____________________
M id dle W es t:
C h i c a g o _____________________
C l e v e l a n d ________________ ____
M in n e a p o lis -S t. P a u l ______
St. L o u is ____________________
F a r W e s t:
D e n v e r ___ _________________
L o s A n g e le s ------------------------P o r t la n d _____________________
San F r a n c is c o -O a k la n d ___

A p r il 1955
S e p te m b e r 1954
D e c e m b e r 1954
M arch 1955
N o v e m b e r 1954

(5 *
)
2
0
1
9
7
51
(5)
(5)
(5)

390. 1
254. 2
3 8 7 .6
1 ,3 8 8 . 5
5 5 9 .4

M arch 1955
A p r il 1955
S e p te m b e r 1954
F e b ru a r y 1955

51
(5)
51
51

148. 1
249. 5
1 4 9 .4
75. 8

A p r il 1955
O cto b e r 1954
N o v e m b e r 1954
F e b ru a r y 1955

(5)
(*)
51
(5)

1 ,0 6 0 .7
3 3 0 .0
225. 3
3 1 1 .4

D e c e m b e r 1954
M arch 1955
A p r il 1955
January 1955

51
(5)
51
(5)

91.
813.
97.
317.

5
6
0
2

81. 8
31. 1
69. 2
3 9 7 .9
95. 7

26. 3
1 8 .9
32. 1
78. 7
38. 6

139. 5
137. 0
1 9 0 .4
264. 5
252. 2

191.
68.
126.
912.
214.

3
8
3
7
8

8. 0
19. 0
7 .9
3. 0

5 3 .9
118. 7
46. 2
29. 1

76.
89.
83.
38.

0
9
8
8

5
2
1
2
1

98. 0
45. 4
61. 8
3 6 5 .9
116. 6

31. 2
1 5 .9
33. 0
192. 7
50. 7

20. 7
21. 7
25. 0
7 .9

40. 1
5 1 .9
43. 9
24. 5

55.
12.
37.
319.
57.

94.
170.
90.
53.

0
6
1
6

72.
159.
65.
37.

217. 2
48. 8
4 6 .6
51. 8

680.
225.
139.
212.

9
7
7
0

618. 1
237. 9
1 1 4 .6
210. 6

87.
30.
16.
26.

2
7
1
3

452 . 8
1 7 5 .9
79. 3
1 5 8 .4

442.
92.
110.
100.

6
1
7
8

130.
18.
30.
25.

0
1
5
5

228. 1
49. 8
6 0 .4
53. 6

18.
173.
16.
82.

56.
506.
65.
176.

7
9
5
2

33.
478 .
45.
127.

4. 1
8 2 .6
3. 5
22. 9

25. 0
321. 2
3 7 .4
86. 9

5 7 .9
335. 1
51. 2
189. 7

14.
91.
13.
59.

7
3
1
3

31.
185.
28.
89.

T otal

R e ta il tra d e
O ffic e

P lan t

F in a n ce
T ota l
O ffic e

8
9
7
2

_____________

26.
7.
16.
133.
29.

1
6
6
0

6
5
8
5

w:hole s a le trad e
O ffic e
P lan t

7
7
2
3

6
3
3
6
1

2 0 .0
10. 5
1 9 .9
86. 3
33. 0

18. 6
20. 5
19. 1
6 .9

4. 1
3 .9
5. 0
.9

10. 0
12. 9
10. 8
4 .4

80. 8
6
24. 7
30. 2

20. 3
4 .9
4. 7
5 .9

44. 2
11. 3
15. 1
1 7 .9

1 6 .9
70. 8
1 4 .9
55. 6

4.
16.
3.
8.

8. 7
42. 6
7 .4
29. 8

26.

1

T ota l

2
1
2
6
5

8. 0
A
4. 0
5 6 .0
7. 8

9 .4
A
7 .1
34. 6
14. 0

62. 3
2 9 .4
9 2 6 .6
9 1 83 .9
9 6 6 .5

6. 5
A
2. 4
26. 4
8 .9

50. 1
A
21. 3
132. 0
50. 6

42.
7.
28.
223.
44.

8
3
5
0
3

30. 7
A
20. 3
154. 7
27. 9

1 3 .0
10. 2
11. 3
8. 3

__________ ______

.

198. 8
1 8 5 .4
261. 3
6425. 8
344. 6

7
7
9
9

28.
40.
32.
10.

T o ta l
N o rth e a s t:
B oston
_______ _____ _____
B u f f a l o __ __ __ __ _________
N e w a r k - J e r s e y C it y _______
N ew Y o r k C i t y ____ _________
P h ila d e lp h ia
__ ____________
South:
A tlan ta
B a lt im o r e _
_ ........... _ .
D a lla s __________ ______
M em ph is _____________________ ..
M id dle W es t:
C h ic a g o .
. _ .
C le v e la n d ______ ____________
M in n e a p o lis -S t. P a u l
St. L o u is _ _ _
. ............ ..
F a r W es t:
D e n v e r _________ __ _________
L o s A n g e le s __________________
P o r t l a n d _______ ____________
San F r a n c is c o -O a k la n d ____

237. 5
1 8 2 .4
252. 2
6 3 0 .4
368. 8

4 .4
2. 6
A
A

5. 7
5. 0
A
A

2 5 .9
3 2 .4
26. 2
13. 3

3. 8
3. 7
3. 1
A

1 8 .4
2 5 .4
20. 3
A

10.
16.
17.
3.

7
1
1
7

6. 8
10. 4
11. 8
A

7. 8
10. 7
1 0 .0
6. 6

3
0
2
1

134. 5
10 2 4 .2
39. 6
11 2 0 .5

24. 0
A
5 .2
A

96. 7
A
29. 7
A

7 9 .9
11. 2
17. 8
16. 7

49.
5.
13.
9.

70.
13.
10.
14.

A
26. 7
A
12. 3

21. 1
10 8 4 .8
1 6 .9
4 2 .4

2. 5
A
2. 1
6. 1

1 5 .7
A
13. 1
31. 2

5 .4
54. 5
5. 6
37. 3

A
39. 7
A
2 8 .9

7 6 .9
16. 5
18. 6
19. 2

22.
4.
6.
5.

8.
58.
9.
32.

A
16. 3
A
11. 8

6
0
3
9

0
1
3
8

35.
8.
7.
9.

1
8
1
2

28.
9.
22.
179.
23.

8
1
0
5
8

5.
2.
7.
42.
9.

4
1
0
8

S e r v ic e s *
O ffic e

P lan t

4. 7
A
A
39. 5
3. 4

15. 7
A
A
92. 8
16. 3

A
A
A
A

A
A
A
A

5
6
0
2

14. 6
A
A
A

41. 7
A
A
A

5 .9
12 5 0 .0
4. 5
21. 5

A
8. 3
A
A

A
3 1 .4
A
A

1 Stan d ard m e t r o p o lit a n a r e a s , with the fo llo w in g e x c e p tio n s : N e w a r k -J e r s e y C it y A r e a ( E s s e x , H udson, and U nion C o u n tie s ); N ew Y o r k C ity A r e a (B r o n x , K in gs, N ew Y o rk , Q u een s, and R ic h ­
m ond C o u n tie s ); P h ila d e lp h ia A r e a (P h ila d elp h ia and D elaw are C o u n tie s , P a . ; and C a m d e n C ou n ty, N. J . ); C h ic a g o A r e a (C o o k C ou n ty).
2 T o ta ls in clu d e e x e c u t iv e , te c h n ica l, p r o fe s s io n a l, and o th e r w o r k e r s e x c lu d e d f r o m the s e p a r a te o f fic e and plant c a t e g o r ie s .
3 In clu d e s data fo r 5 b r o a d n onm an ufacturing in du stry g ro u p s show n s e p a r a te ly .
4 T r a n s p o r t a t io n (e x c lu d in g r a ilr o a d s ), co m m u n ica tio n , and o th e r pu b lic u t ilit ie s . A ls o e x c lu d e s t a x ic a b s , and s e r v ic e s in cid e n ta l to w a ter tr a n s p o r ta tio n in clu d ed in e a r l ie r stu d ies.
M u n ici­
p a lly o p e r a t e d e s ta b lis h m e n ts a r e e xclu d e d . A ll o r m a jo r lo c a l tr a n s it o p e r a tio n s in B o s to n , C h ic a g o , C le v e la n d , N ew Y o r k C ity , and San F r a n c i s c o w ei;e m u n ic ip a lly o p e r a t e d , as w e re e le c t r i c u tility
o p e r a tio n s in L o s A n g e le s , and e l e c t r i c and gas o p e r a tio n s in M e m p h is.
5 M in im u m e s ta b lis h m e n t s iz e (e m p lo y m e n t-w is e ) was 51 w o r k e r s in the w h o le s a le tr a d e , fin a n c e , and s e r v ic e in d u s try g r o u p s ; and 101 in m a n u fa ctu rin g , pu b lic u tility , and r e ta il trade g r o u p s .
4 In e a r l ie r stu d ies c e n t r a l o ffic e s w e re tre a te d as a se p a ra te in d u stry d iv is io n in N ew Y o r k C ity . In the c u r r e n t study they a r e in clu d e d in the in d u stry d iv is io n c o r r e s p o n d in g to the e s t a b lis h ­
m ents* n o r m a l in d u s tr ia l c la s s if ic a t io n ; m o s t w e re c la s s ifie d in m a n u fa ctu rin g ; the r e m a in d e r w e re in r e t a il tra d e , p u b lic u t ilit ie s , and w h o le s a le tr a d e .
7 F in a n ce , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e sta te .
* H o te ls ; p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s ; b u s in e s s s e r v ic e s ; au tom obile r e p a ir s h o p s ; r a d io b r o a d c a s t in g and te le v is io n ; m o tio n p ic t u r e s ; n o n p ro fit m e m b e r s h ip o r g a n iz a t io n s ; and e n g in eerin g and a r c h i t e c ­
tu ral s e r v i c e s .
9 E x clu d e s data fo r l im i t e d -p r i c e v a r ie ty s t o r e s .
1 E x clu d e s data f o r d e p a rtm e n t s t o r e s .
0
1 E x c lu d e s data f o r d e p a rtm e n t and lim i t e d -p r i c e v a r ie ty s t o r e s .
1
1 E x clu d e s data f o r m o t io n -p ic t u r e p ro d u ctio n ; these data a r e in clu d e d , h o w e v e r , in the " a l l in d u s t r ie s " and "n o n m a n u fa ctu rin g " f ig u r e s .
2
A T h is in d u s tr y d iv is io n is r e p r e s e n te d in e s tim a te s fo r " a l l in d u s t r ie s " and "n o n m a n u fa ctu rin g , " although c o v e r a g e w as in s u ffic ie n t to ju s tify s e p a r a te p r e s e n ta tio n o f data.




N O T E : The " w o r k e r s w ithin s c o p e o f s tu d y" e s tim a te s show n in this ta b le p r o v id e a r e a s o n a b ly a c c u r a t e d e s c r i p ­
tion o f the s iz e and c o m p o s it io n o f the la b o r f o r c e in clu d e d in the s u r v e y s .
The e s tim a te s a r e not in tended, h o w ­
e v e r , to s e r v e as a b a s is o f c o m p a r is o n w ith o th e r a r e a e m p lo y m e n t in d e x e s to m e a s u r e e m p lo y m e n t tren d s o r
le v e ls s in c e ( l) planning o f w age s u r v e y s r e q u ir e s the use o f e sta b lis h m e n t data c o m p ile d c o n s id e r a b ly in ad va n ce
o f the pay p e r io d stu d ied , and (2) s m a ll e sta b lis h m e n ts a r e e x c lu d e d f r o m the s c o p e o f the s u r v e y .




63

Appendix B: Occupational Descriptions

The prim ary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau's wage surveys is to
a ssist its field staff in classifying into appropriate occupations w orkers who are employed under
a variety of payroll titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment
and from area to area.
This is essential in order to permit the grouping of occupational wage
rates representing comparable job content. Because of this emphasis on inter establishment and
interarea comparability of occupational content, the Bureau*s job descriptions may differ signifi­
cantly from those in use in individual establishments or those prepared for other purposes. In
applying these job descriptions, the Bureau*s field representatives are instructed to exclude work­
ing supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped w orkers, part-tim e,
tem porary, and probationary w orkers.
Office
BILLER, MACHINE
P repares statements, bills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electrom atic typewriter. May also keep record s
as to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerica l work in­
cidental to billing operations.
For wage study purposes, billers,
machine, are cla ssified by type of machine, as follows:
B ille r, machine (billing machine) - Uses a special billing
machine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, e t c ., which
are com bination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and
invoices from custom ers* purchase orders, internally prepared
ord ers, shipping memoranda, etc. Usually involves application
of predeterm ined discounts and shipping charges and entry of
n ecessa ry extensions, which may or may not be computed on the
billing machine, and totals which are automatically accumulated
by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number of
carbon copies of the bill being prepared and is often done on a
fanfold m achine.
B ille r, machine (bookkeeping machine) - Uses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, etc. , which
may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare customers*
bills as part of the accounts receivable operation.
Generally
involves the simultaneous entry of figures on customers* ledger
record .
The machine automatically accumulates figures on a
number of vertical columns and computes and usually prints auto­
m atically the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowl­
edge of bookkeeping. Works from uniform and standard types of
sales and credit slips.
BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR
Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott
F ish er, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash R egister, with or with­
out a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions.



BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR - Continued
Class A - Keeps a set of record s requiring a knowledge of
and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used. Deter­
mines proper records and distribution of debit and credit items
to be used in each phase of the work.
May prepare consolidated
reports, balance sheets, and other records by hand.
Class B - Keeps a record of one or m ore phases or sections
of a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic book­
keeping.
Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll,
customers* accounts (not including a simple type of billing described
under b iller, machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, etc.
May check or assist in preparation of trial
balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department.
CLERK, ACCOUNTING
Class A - Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has responsibility for keeping one or more sections of a com ­
plete set of books or records relating to one phase of an establish­
m ent's business transactions. Work involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or a c­
counts payable; examining and coding invoices or vouchers with
proper accounting distribution; requires judgment and experience
in making proper assignations and allocations.
May assist in
preparing, adjusting, and closing journal entries; may direct class
B accounting clerk s.
Class B - Under supervision, perform s one or more routine
accounting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers,
accounts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers;
reconciling bank accounts; posting subsidiary ledgers controlled
by general ledgers.
This job does not require a knowledge of
accounting and bookkeeping principles but is found in offices in
which the m ore routine accounting work is subdivided on a func­
tional basis among several w orkers.

64
CLERK, FILE
C lass A - Responsible for maintaining an established filing
system . C la ssifies and indexes correspondence or other m aterial;
may a lso file this m aterial. May keep record s of various types
in conjunction with files or supervise others in filing and locating
material- in the file s .
May perform incidental cle rica l duties.
C lass B - P erform s routine filing, usually of m aterial that
has already been classified, or locates or assists in locating ma­
terial in the file s . May perform incidental clerica l duties.
CLERK, ORDER
R eceives cu stom ers1 ord ers for m aterial or m erchandise by
mail, phone, or personally.
Duties involve any combination of the
following: Quoting p rice s to custom ers; making out an Order sheet
listing the item s to make up the order; checking p rice s and quantities
of items on order sheet; distributing order sheets to respective de­
partments to be filled.
May check with credit department to deter­
mine credit rating of custom er, acknowledge receipt of orders from
custom ers, follow up orders to see that they have been filled, keep
file of orders received , and check shipping invoices with original
orders.

KEY-PUNCH OPERATOR
Under general supervision and with no supervisory resp on si­
bilities, records accounting and statistical data on tabulating cards
by punching a series of holes in the cards in a specified sequence,
using an alphabetical or a num erical key-punch machine, following
written information on record s.
May duplicate cards by using the
duplicating device attached to machine.
Keeps files of punch cards.
May verify own work or work of others.
OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
P erform s various routine duties such as running errands,
operating minor office machines such as sealers or m ailers, opening
and distributing mail, and other minor c le ric a l work.
SECRETARY
P erform s secretarial and cle rica l duties for a superior in an
administrative or executive position. Duties include making appoint­
ments for superior; receiving people coming into office; answering
and making phone calls; handling personal and important or con fi­
dential mail, and writing routine correspondence on own initiative;
taking dictation (where transcribing machine is not used) either in
shorthand or by stenotype or sim ilar machine, and transcribing dicta­
tion or the recorded information reproduced on a transcribing machine.
May prepare special reports or memoranda for inform ation of superior.

CLERK, PAYROLL
STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
Computes wages of company em ployees and enters the n eces­
sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating w ork ers1
earnings based on time or production record s; posting calculated data
on payroll sheet, showing inform ation such as w orkerf s name, working
days, tim e, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. May
make out pay checks and assist paymaster in making up and d is­
tributing pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.

Prim ary duty is to take dictation from one or m ore persons,
either in shorthand or by stenotype or sim ilar machine, involving a
normal routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this dictation on a type­
w riter. May also type from written copy. May also set up and keep
files in order, keep simple re co rd s, etc.
Does not include tran­
scribing-m achine work (see transcribing-m achine operator).

COMPTOMETER OPERATOR

STENOGRAPHER, TECHNICAL

P rim ary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathe­
matical computations.
This job is not to be confused with that of
statistical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of
a Comptometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to
perform ance of other duties.

Prim ary duty is to take dictation from one or m ore persons,
either in shorthand or by stenotype or sim ilar machine, involving a
varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or
reports on scientific research and to transcribe this dictation on a
typewriter. May also type from written copy. May also set up and
keep files in order, keep simple record s, etc. Does not include
transcribing-m achine w ork.

DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
Under general supervision and with no supervisory respon­
sibilities, reproduces multiple copies of typewritten or handwriting
matter, using a m im eograph or ditto machine. Makes necessary ad­
justment such as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed.
Is not required to prepare stencil or ditto m aster. May keep file of
used stencils or ditto m asters.
May sort, collate, and staple com ­
pleted m aterial.



Operates a single- or m ultiple-position telephone switchboard.
Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or office
ca lls.
May record toll calls and take m essages.
May give in for­
mation to persons who call in, or occasionally take telephone ord ers.
For w orkers who also act as receptionists see switchboard operatorreceptionist.

65
S W IT C H B O A R D O P E R A T O R -R E C E P T I O N I S T

tio n
ty p e
T h is
tim e

T R A N S C R I B I N G -M A C H I N E

In a d d it io n t o p e r f o r m i n g d u t ie s o f o p e r a t o r , o n a s in g le p o s i ­
o r m o n i t o r - t y p e s w it c h b o a r d , a c t s a s r e c e p t i o n i s t a n d m a y a l s o
o r p e r f o r m r o u t in e c l e r i c a l w o r k a s p a r t o f r e g u l a r d u t ie s .
t y p in g o r c l e r i c a l w o r k m a y ta k e th e m a j o r p a r t o f t h is w o r k e r 1s
w h ile a t s w i t c h b o a r d .

T A B U L A T I N G -M A C H I N E

OPERATOR

O p e r a t e s m a c h in e th a t a u t o m a t ic a lly a n a l y z e s a n d t r a n s l a t e s
in f o r m a t i o n p u n c h e d in g r o u p s o f ta b u la tin g c a r d s a n d p r i n t s t r a n s ­
la t e d d a ta o n f o r m s o r a c c o u n t in g r e c o r d s ; s e t s o r a d ju s t s m a c h in e ;
d o e s s i m p le w i r i n g o f p lu g b o a r d s a c c o r d i n g t o e s t a b l i s h e d p r a c t i c e
o r d i a g r a m s ; p l a c e s c a r d s t o b e ta b u la te d in f e e d m a g a z in e a n d s t a r t s
m a c h in e . M a y f i l e c a r d s a f t e r th e y a r e ta b u la te d . M a y , in a d d it i o n ,
o p e r a te a u x ilia r y m a c h in e s .

T R A N SC R IB IN G - M A C HLNE O P E R A T O R ,

T Y P IS T
U s e s a t y p e w r i t e r t o m a k e c o p i e s o f v a r io u s m a t e r i a l o r to
m a k e ou t b ills a ft e r c a lc u la tio n s h a v e b e e n m a d e b y a n oth er p e r s o n .
M a y d o c l e r i c a l w o r k in v o lv in g l i t t l e s p e c i a l t r a i n in g , s u c h a s k e e p ­
in g s i m p le r e c o r d s , f ili n g r e c o r d s a n d r e p o r t s o r s o r t i n g a n d d i s ­
t r ib u t in g in c o m in g m a i l .
C l a s s A - P e r f o r m s o n e o r m o r e o f th e f o l l o w i n g :
T y p in g
m a t e r i a l in f in a l f o r m f r o m v e r y r o u g h a n d in v o l v e d d r a ft ; c o p y ­
in g f r o m p la in o r c o r r e c t e d c o p y in w h ic h t h e r e i s a fr e q u e n t
and v a r ie d u se o f t e c h n ic a l and u n u su al w o r d s o r fr o m f o r e ig n la n g u a g e c o p y ; c o m b in in g m a t e r i a l f r o m s e v e r a l s o u r c e s ,
or
p la n n in g la y o u t o f c o m p l i c a t e d s t a t i s t i c a l t a b l e s t o m a in ta in u n i­
f o r m i t y a n d b a la n c e in s p a c in g ; ty p in g t a b l e s f r o m r o u g h d r a ft in
fin a l f o r m .
M a y ty p e r o u t in e f o r m l e t t e r s , v a r y in g d e t a ils to
su it c i r c u m s t a n c e s .

P r i m a r y d u ty i s to t r a n s c r i b e d ic t a t io n in v o lv in g a n o r m a l
r o u t in e v o c a b u l a r y f r o m t r a n s c r i b i n g m a c h in e r e c o r d s .
M ay a ls o
ty p e f r o m w r it t e n c o p y a n d d o s im p le c l e r i c a l w o r k . W o r k e r s t r a n ­
s c r i b i n g d ic t a t io n in v o l v in g a v a r i e d t e c h n ic a l o r s p e c i a l i z e d v o c a b u ­
la r y su ch a s le g a l b r ie fs o r r e p o r t s on s c ie n tific r e s e a r c h a r e not

DRAFTSM AN,

J U N IO R

(A s s is ta n t d r a fts m a n )
D r a w s to s c a l e u n it s o r p a r t s o f d r a w in g s p r e p a r e d b y d r a f t s ­
m a n o r o t h e r s f o r e n g i n e e r i n g , c o n s t r u c t io n , o r m a n u fa c t u r in g p u r ­
poses.
U s e s v a r i o u s t y p e s o f d r a ft in g t o o l s a s r e q u i r e d .
M ay p r e ­
p a r e d r a w in g s f r o m s i m p le p la n s o r s k e t c h e s , o r p e r f o r m o t h e r d u t ie s
u n d er d ir e c t io n o f a d r a fts m a n .
DRAFTSM AN,

LEADER

P la n s a n d d i r e c t s a c t i v i t i e s o f o n e o r m o r e d r a f t s m e n in
p r e p a r a t i o n o f w o r k in g p la n s a n d d e t a il d r a w in g s f r o m r o u g h o r p r e ­
l i m i n a r y s k e t c h e s f o r e n g in e e r in g , c o n s t r u c t io n , o r m a n u fa c t u r in g
p u r p o s e s . D u t ie s in v o l v e a c o m b i n a t io n o f th e f o l l o w i n g : I n t e r p r e t in g
b l u e p r i n t s , s k e t c h e s , a n d w r it t e n o r v e r b a l o r d e r s ; d e t e r m i n i n g w o r k
p r o c e d u r e s ; a s s i g n i n g d u t ie s t o s u b o r d in a t e s a n d in s p e c t in g t h e ir w o r k ;
p e r f o r m i n g m o r e d i f f i c u l t p r o b l e m s . M a y a s s i s t s u b o r d in a t e s d u r in g




G E N E R A L - C o n tin u e d

in c l u d e d . A w o r k e r w h o t a k e s d i c t a t i o n in s h o r th a n d o r b y s t e n o t y p e
o r s i m i l a r m a c h in e i s c l a s s i f i e d a s a s t e n o g r a p h e r , g e n e r a l.

GENERAL

P ro fe ssio n a l

OPERATOR,

C l a s s B - P e r f o r m s o n e o r m o r e o f th e fo llo w in g :
T y p in g
f r o m r e l a t i v e l y c l e a r o r typed, d r a f t s ; r o u t in e ty p in g o f f o r m s ,
i n s u r a n c e p o l i c i e s , e t c . ; s e t tin g up s i m p le s t a n d a r d t a b u la t io n s , o r
c o p y i n g m o r e c o m p l e x t a b l e s a l r e a d y s e t up a n d s p a c e d p r o p e r l y .

and

T echnical

DRAFTSM AN,

LEADER

- C o n tin u e d

e m e r g e n c ie s o r a s a r e g u la r a s s ig n m e n t, o r
o f a s u p e r v i s o r y o r a d m in is t r a t iv e n a t u r e .
DRAFTSM AN,

p e r fo rm

r e l a t e d d u t ie s

S E N IO R

P r e p a r e s w o r k in g p la n s a n d d e t a il d r a w in g s f r o m n o t e s ,
r o u g h o r d e t a ile d s k e t c h e s f o r e n g in e e r in g , c o n s t r u c t i o n , o r m a n u ­
f a c t u r in g p u r p o s e s .
D u t ie s in v o l v e a c o m b i n a t io n o f th e f o l l o w i n g :
P r e p a r i n g w o r k in g p la n s , d e t a il d r a w in g s , m a p s , c r o s s - s e c t i o n s , e t c . ,
t o s c a l e b y u s e o f d r a ft in g in s t r u m e n t s ; m a k in g e n g in e e r in g c o m p u t a ­
t i o n s s u c h a s t h o s e in v o l v e d in s t r e n g t h o f m a t e r i a l s , b e a m s an d
t r u s s e s ; v e r i f y i n g c o m p l e t e d w o r k , c h e c k in g d im e n s io n s , m a t e r i a l s
t o b e u s e d , a n d q u a n t it ie s ; w r it in g s p e c i f i c a t i o n s ; m a k in g a d ju s t m e n t s
o r c h a n g e s in d r a w in g s o r s p e c i f i c a t i o n s . M a y in k in li n e s a n d l e t t e r s
o n p e n c i l d r a w in g s , p r e p a r e d e t a il u n it s o f c o m p le t e d r a w in g s , o r
t r a c e d r a w in g s .
W o r k i s f r e q u e n t ly in a s p e c i a l i z e d f i e l d s u c h a s
a r c h i t e c t u r a l , e l e c t r i c a l , m e c h a n i c a l , o r s t r u c t u r a l d r a ft in g .

66
NURSE,

N URSE,

IN D U S T R IA L (R E G I S T E R E D )

e n v ir o n m e n t , o r o th e r a c t i v i t i e s
s a fe t y o f a ll p e r s o n n e l .

A r e g i s t e r e d n u r s e w h o g i v e s n u r s in g s e r v i c e t o i l l o r in ju r e d
e m p l o y e e s o r o t h e r p e r s o n s w h o b e c o m e i l l o r s u f f e r an a c c id e n t on
th e p r e m i s e s o f a f a c t o r y o r o t h e r e s t a b lis h m e n t .
D u t ie s in v o l v e a
c o m b in a t io n o f th e f o l l o w i n g :
G iv in g f i r s t a id to th e i l l o r in ju r e d ;
a tte n d in g to s u b s e q u e n t d r e s s i n g o f e m p lo y e e s * i n j u r i e s ; k e e p in g r e c o r d s
o f p a t ie n t s t r e a t e d ; p r e p a r in g a c c id e n t r e p o r t s f o r c o m p e n s a t io n o r
o t h e r p u r p o s e s ; c o n d u c t in g p h y s i c a l e x a m in a t io n s a n d h e a lt h e v a lu a t io n s
o f a p p lic a n t s a n d e m p l o y e e s ; a n d p la n n in g a n d c a r r y i n g ou t p r o g r a m s
in v o lv in g h e a lt h e d u c a t io n , a c c id e n t p r e v e n t i o n , e v a lu a t io n o f p la n t

M aintenance

CARPENTER,

M A IN T E N A N C E

P e r f o r m s th e c a r p e n t r y d u t ie s n e c e s s a r y to c o n s t r u c t an d
m a in ta in in g o o d r e p a i r b u ild in g w o o d w o r k a n d e q u ip m e n t s u c h a s b i n s ,
c r i b s , c o u n t e r s , b e n c h e s , p a r t it io n s , d o o r s , f l o o r s , s t a i r s , c a s i n g s ,
a n d t r i m m a d e o f w o o d in a n e s t a b lis h m e n t .
W o r k in v o l v e s m o s t o f
th e f o l l o w i n g : P la n n in g a n d la y in g ou t o f w o r k f r o m b l u e p r in t s , d r a w ­
in gs^ m o d e l s , o r v e r b a l in s t r u c t io n s ; u s in g a v a r i e t y o f c a r p e n t e r * s
h a n d t o o ls , p o r t a b le p o w e r t o o l s , a n d s t a n d a r d m e a s u r i n g in s t r u m e n t s ;
m a k in g s t a n d a r d sh o p c o m p u t a t io n s r e la t in g to d im e n s io n s o f w o r k ;
s e l e c t in g m a t e r i a l s n e c e s s a r y f o r th e w o r k . In g e n e r a l, th e w o r k o f
th e m a in te n a n c e c a r p e n t e r r e q u i r e s r o u n d e d t r a in in g a n d e x p e r i e n c e
u s u a lly a c q u i r e d th r o u g h a f o r m a l a p p r e n t i c e s h ip o r e q u iv a le n t t r a i n ­
in g an d e x p e r i e n c e .

E L E C T R IC IA N ,

M A IN T E N A N C E

P e r f o r m s a v a r ie t y o f e l e c t r i c a l t r a d e fu n c t io n s s u c h a s th e
in s t a lla t io n , m a in t e n a n c e , o r r e p a i r o f e q u ip m e n t f o r th e g e n e r a t in g ,
d is t r ib u t i o n , o r u t ili z a t io n o f e l e c t r i c e n e r g y in a n e s t a b lis h m e n t .
W o r k in v o l v e s m o s t o f th e f o l l o w i n g :
I n s t a llin g o r r e p a i r i n g "any o f
a v a r ie t y o f e l e c t r i c a l e q u ip m e n t s u c h a s g e n e r a t o r s , t r a n s f o r m e r s ,
s w it c h b o a r d s , c o n t r o l l e r s , c i r c u i t b r e a k e r s , m o t o r s , h e a tin g u n it s ,
c o n d u it s y s t e m s , o r o t h e r t r a n s m i s s i o n e q u ip m e n t ; w o r k in g f r o m b l u e ­
p r i n t s , d r a w in g s , la y o u t , o r o t h e r s p e c i f i c a t i o n s ; lo c a t in g a n d d i a g ­
n o s in g t r o u b le in th e e l e c t r i c a l s y s t e m o r e q u ip m e n t ; w o r k in g s t a n d a r d
c o m p u t a t io n s r e la t in g t o lo a d r e q u i r e m e n t s o f w ir i n g o r e l e c t r i c a l
e q u ip m e n t ; u s in g a v a r ie t y o f e l e c t r i c i a n * s h a n d t o o ls a n d m e a s u r i n g
a n d t e s t in g in s t r u m e n t s .
In g e n e r a l, th e w o r k o f th e m a in t e n a n c e
e l e c t r i c i a n r e q u i r e s r o u n d e d t r a in in g a n d e x p e r i e n c e u s u a lly a c ­
q u ir e d th r o u g h a f o r m a l a p p r e n t i c e s h ip o r e q u iv a le n t t r a in in g an d
e x p e rie n c e .




IN D U S T R IA L (R E G I S T E R E D ) - C o n t in u e d
a ffe c tin g

th e

h e a lt h ,

w e lfa r e ,

and

TRACER
C o p i e s p la n s an d d r a w in g s p r e p a r e d b y o t h e r s , b y p la c i n g
t r a c in g c lo t h o r p a p e r o v e r d r a w in g a n d t r a c i n g w ith p e n o r p e n c i l .
U s e s T - s q u a r e , c o m p a s s , a n d o t h e r d r a ft in g t o o l s .
M ay p r e p a r e
s i m p le d r a w in g s a n d d o s i m p le l e t t e r i n g .

a

d

Powerplant

E N G IN E E R ,

S T A T IO N A R Y

O p e r a t e s an d m a in ta in s a n d m a y a l s o s u p e r v i s e th e o p e r a t i o n
o f s t a t io n a r y e n g in e s an d e q u ip m e n t ( m e c h a n i c a l o r e l e c t r i c a l ) t o s u p ­
p ly th e e s t a b lis h m e n t in w h ic h e m p l o y e d w ith p o w e r , h e a t , r e f r i g e r a ­
tio n , o r a ir -c o n d itio n in g .
W o r k i n v o l v e s : O p e r a t in g a n d m a in ta in in g
e q u ip m e n t s u c h a s s t e a m e n g in e s , a i r c o m p r e s s o r s , g e n e r a t o r s , m o ­
t o r s , t u r b in e s , v e n t ila t in g a n d r e f r i g e r a t i n g e q u ip m e n t , s t e a m b o i l e r s
a n d b o i l e r - f e d w a te r p u m p s ; m a k in g e q u ip m e n t r e p a i r s ; k e e p in g a
r e c o r d o f o p e r a t io n o f m a c h i n e r y , t e m p e r a t u r e , a n d fu e l c o n s u m p ­
tio n . M ay a ls o s u p e r v is e th e s e o p e r a t io n s . H ea d o r c h ie f e n g in e e r s
in e s t a b lis h m e n t s e m p lo y in g m o r e th a n o n e e n g in e e r a r e e x c l u d e d .
F IR E M A N ,

S T A T IO N A R Y B O I L E R

F i r e s s t a t io n a r y b o i l e r s t o f u r n is h th e e s t a b lis h m e n t in w h ic h
e m p lo y e d w ith h e a t, p o w e r , o r s t e a m .
F e e d s f u e l s to f i r e b y h a n d
o r o p e r a t e s a m e c h a n ic a l s t o k e r , g a s , o r o i l b u r n e r ; c h e c k s w a t e r
a n d s a fe t y v a l v e s .
M a y c le a n , o i l , o r a s s i s t in r e p a i r i n g b o i l e r r o o m e q u ip m e n t .
HELPER,

TRADES,

M A IN T E N A N C E

A s s i s t s o n e o r m o r e w o r k e r s in th e s k i l l e d m a in t e n a n c e
t r a d e s , b y p e r f o r m i n g s p e c i f i c o r g e n e r a l d u t ie s o f l e s s e r s k i l l , s u c h
a s k e e p in g a w o r k e r s u p p lie d w ith m a t e r i a l s a n d t o o l s ; c le a n in g w o r k ­
in g a r e a , m a c h in e , a n d e q u ip m e n t ; a s s i s t i n g w o r k e r b y h o ld in g m a ­
t e r i a l s o r t o o l s ; p e r f o r m i n g o t h e r u n s k ille d t a s k s a s d i r e c t e d b y j o u r ­
n e y m a n . T h e k in d o f w o r k th e h e l p e r i s p e r m i t t e d to p e r f o r m v a r i e s
f r o m t r a d e to t r a d e :
In s o m e t r a d e s th e h e l p e r i s c o n f in e d t o s u p ­
p ly in g , lift in g , an d h o ld in g m a t e r i a l s a n d t o o l s a n d c le a n in g w o r k in g
a r e a s ; a n d in o t h e r s h e i s p e r m i t t e d t o p e r f o r m s p e c i a l i z e d m a c h in e
o p e r a t i o n s , o r p a r t s o f a t r a d e th a t a r e a l s o p e r f o r m e d b y w o r k e r s
on a fu ll-tim e b a s is .

67
M A C H I N E -T O O L , O P E R A T O R ,

TOOLROOM

S p e c i a l i z e s in th e o p e r a t io n o f on e o r m o r e t y p e s o f m a c h in e
t o o l s , s u c h a s j i g b o r e r s , c y l i n d r i c a l . o r s u r f a c e g r i n d e r s , e n g in e
la t h e s , o r m i l l i n g m a c h i n e s in th e c o n s t r u c t ib n o f m a c h i n e - s h o p t o o l s ,
g a u g e s , j i g s , f i x t u r e s , o r d i e s . W o r k in v o l v e s m o s t o f th e f o l l o w i n g :
P la n n in g a n d p e r f o r m i n g d i f f i c u l t m a c h in in g o p e r a t i o n s ; p r o c e s s i n g
i t e m s r e q u i r i n g c o m p l i c a t e d s e t u p s o r a h ig h d e g r e e o f a c c u r a c y ;
u s in g a v a r i e t y o f p r e c i s i o n m e a s u r i n g in s t r u m e n t s ; s e l e c t i n g f e e d s ,
s p e e d s , t o o l i n g a n d o p e r a t i o n s e q u e n c e ; m a k in g n e c e s s a r y a d ju s t ­
m e n t s d u r in g o p e r a t i o n to a c h i e v e r e q u is i t e t o l e r a n c e s o r d i m e n s i o n s .
M a y b e r e q u i r e d t o r e c o g n i z e w h e n t o o l s n e e d d r e s s i n g , to d r e s s t o o l s ,
a n d t o s e l e c t p r o p e r c o o l a n t s an d c u ttin g a n d lu b r ic a t i n g o i l s .
For
c r o s s - i n d u s t r y w a g e s tu d y p u r p o s e s , m a c h i n e - t o o l o p e r a t o r s , t o o l r o o m ,
in t o o l a n d d ie jo b b i n g s h o p s a r e e x c lu d e d f r o m t h is c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .

M A C H IN IS T ,

M E C H A N IC ,

M A IN T E N A N C E

R e p a i r s m a c h i n e r y o r m e c h a n ic a l e q u ip m e n t o f a n e s t a b l i s h ­
m en t.
W o r k i n v o l v e s m o s t o f th e fo llo w in g :
E x a m in in g m a c h in e s
a n d m e c h a n ic a l e q u ip m e n t t o d ia g n o s e s o u r c e o f t r o u b le ; d is m a n t lin g
o r p a r t ly d is m a n t lin g m a c h in e s a n d p e r f o r m i n g r e p a i r s th at m a in ly
in v o l v e th e u s e o f h a n d t o o ls in s c r a p in g a n d fit t in g p a r t s ; r e p la c in g
b r o k e n o r d e f e c t i v e p a r t s w ith i t e m s o b t a in e d f r o m s t o c k ; o r d e r i n g th e
p r o d u c t i o n o f a r e p l a c e m e n t p a r t b y a m a c h in e sh o p o r se n d in g o f
th e m a c h in e t o a m a c h in e s h o p f o r m a j o r r e p a i r s ; p r e p a r in g w r it t e n
s p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r m a j o r r e p a i r s o r f o r th e p r o d u c t i o n o f p a r t s o r d e r e d
f r o m m a c h in e s h o p ; r e a s s e m b l i n g m a c h in e s ; a n d m a k in g a l l n e c e s s a r y
a d ju s t m e n t s f o r o p e r a t i o n .
In g e n e r a l , th e w o r k o f a m a in te n a n c e
m e c h a n ic r e q u i r e s r o u n d e d t r a in in g a n d e x p e r i e n c e u s u a lly a c q u ir e d
t h r o u g h a f o r m a l a p p r e n t i c e s h ip o r e q u iv a le n t t r a in in g an d e x p e r i e n c e .
E x c l u d e d f r o m t h is c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a r e w o r k e r s w h o s e p r i m a r y d u tie s
in v o l v e s e t tin g up o r a d ju s t in g m a c h i n e s .

M A IN T E N A N C E
M IL L W R IG H T

P r o d u c e s r e p l a c e m e n t p a r t s a n d n e w p a r t s in m a k in g r e p a i r s
o f m e t a l p a r t s o f m e c h a n i c a l e q u ip m e n t o p e r a t e d in a n e s t a b lis h m e n t .
W o r k i n v o l v e s m o s t o f th e f o l l o w i n g :
I n t e r p r e t in g w r it t e n i n s t r u c ­
t i o n s a n d s p e c i f i c a t i o n s ; p la n n in g an d la y in g ou t o f w o r k ; u s in g a v a ­
r i e t y o f m a c h in is t * s h a n d t o o ls a n d p r e c i s i o n m e a s u r in g in s t r u m e n t s ;
s e t t in g up a n d o p e r a t i n g s t a n d a r d m a c h in e t o o l s ; sh a p in g o f m e t a l
p a r t s t o c l o s e t o l e r a n c e s ; m a k in g s ta n d a r d sh o p c o m p u t a t io n s r e l a t ­
in g t o d i m e n s i o n s o f w o r k , t o o l i n g , f e e d s a n d s p e e d s o f m a c h in in g ;
k n o w le d g e o f th e w o r k in g p r o p e r t i e s o f th e c o m m o n m e t a l s ; s e l e c t i n g
s t a n d a r d m a t e r i a l s , p a r t s , a n d e q u ip m e n t r e q u ir e d f o r h i s w o r k ; fit t in g
a n d a s s e m b l i n g p a r t s in t o m e c h a n ic a l e q u ip m e n t .
In g e n e r a l , th e
m a c h in is t * s w o r k n o r m a l l y r e q u i r e s a r o u n d e d t r a in in g in m a c h i n e s h o p p r a c t i c e u s u a ll y a c q u i r e d th r o u g h a f o r m a l a p p r e n t i c e s h ip o r
e q u iv a le n t t r a i n in g a n d e x p e r i e n c e .

I n s t a lls n e w m a c h i n e s o r h e a v y e q u ip m e n t a n d d is m a n t le s an d
i n s t a l l s m a c h in e s o r h e a v y e q u ip m e n t w h e n c h a n g e s in th e p la n t l a y ­
o u t a r e r e q u i r e d . W o r k i n v o l v e s m o s t o f th e f o llo w in g ; P la n n in g a n d
la y in g ou t o f th e w o r k ; in t e r p r e t in g b l u e p r in t s o r o t h e r s p e c i f i c a t i o n s ;
u s in g a v a r i e t y o f h a n d t o o ls a n d r i g g i n g ; m a k in g s t a n d a r d sh o p c o m ­
p u t a t io n s r e la t in g t o s t r e s s e s , s t r e n g t h o f m a t e r i a l s , a n d c e n t e r s o f
g r a v it y ; a lin in g a n d b a la n c in g o f e q u ip m e n t ; s e l e c t i n g s ta n d a r d t o o l s ,
e q u ip m e n t , a n d p a r t s t o b e u s e d ; in s t a ll in g a n d m a in ta in in g in g o o d
o r d e r p o w e r t r a n s m i s s i o n e q u ip m e n t s u c h a s d r i v e s a n d s p e e d r e ­
d u c e r s . In g e n e r a l , th e m i l l w r i g h t s w o r k n o r m a l l y r e q u i r e s a r o u n d e d
t r a i n in g a n d e x p e r i e n c e in th e t r a d e a c q u i r e d th r o u g h a f o r m a l a p p r e n ­
t i c e s h i p o r e q u iv a le n t t r a in in g a n d e x p e r i e n c e .

O IL E R

M E C H A N IC , A U T O M O T I V E (M A I N T E N A N C E )

R e p a ir s a u to m o b ile s , b u s s e s , m o to r tr u c k s , an d t r a c t o r s o f
a n e s t a b lis h m e n t .
W o r k i n v o l v e s m o s t o f th e fo llo w in g ;
E x a m in in g
a u t o m o t iv e e q u ip m e n t t o d ia g n o s e s o u r c e o f t r o u b le ; d i s a s s e m b l i n g
e q u ip m e n t a n d p e r f o r m i n g r e p a i r s th at in v o lv e th e u s e o f s u c h h a n d t o o l s a s w r e n c h e s , g a u g e s , d r i l l s , o r s p e c i a l i z e d e q u ip m e n t in d i s ­
a s s e m b l i n g o r fit t in g p a r t s ; r e p l a c i n g b r o k e n o r d e f e c t i v e p a r t s f r o m
s t o c k ; g r in d in g a n d a d ju s t i n g v a l v e s ; r e a s s e m b l i n g a n d in s t a ll in g th e
v a r i o u s a s s e m b l i e s in th e v e h i c l e a n d m a k in g n e c e s s a r y a d ju s t m e n t s ;
a lin in g w h e e l s , a d ju s t i n g b r a k e s a n d l i g h t s , o r tig h te n in g b o d y b o l t s .
In g e n e r a l , th e w o r k o f th e a u t o m o t iv e m e c h a n ic r e q u i r e s r o u n d e d
t r a i n in g a n d e x p e r i e n c e u s u a l l y a c q u i r e d th r o u g h a f o r m a l a p p r e n t i c e ­
s h ip o r e q u iv a le n t t r a i n i n g a n d e x p e r i e n c e .




L u b r i c a t e s , w ith o i l o r g r e a s e , th e m o v in g p a r t s o r w e a r in g
s u r f a c e s o f m e c h a n i c a l e q u ip m e n t o f a n e s t a b lis h m e n t .

P A IN T E R ,

M A IN T E N A N C E

P a i n t s a n d r e d e c o r a t e s w a l l s , w o o d w o r k , a n d f ix t u r e s o f a n
e s t a b lis h m e n t .
W o r k in v o l v e s th e fo llo w in g ;
K n o w le d g e o f s u r fa c e
p e c u l i a r i t i e s a n d t y p e s o f p a in t r e q u i r e d f o r d i f f e r e n t a p p lic a t io n s ;
p r e p a r i n g s u r f a c e f o r p a in t in g b y r e m o v in g o ld f i n i s h o r b y p la c in g
p u tty o r f i l l e r in n a il h o l e s a n d i n t e r s t i c e s ; a p p ly in g p a in t w ith s p r a y
gun o r b ru sh .
M a y m i x c o l o r s , o i l s , w h ite l e a d , a n d o t h e r p a in t
i n g r e d ie n t s t o o b t a in p r o p e r c o l o r o r c o n s i s t e n c y .
In g e n e r a l, th e
w o r k o f th e m a in t e n a n c e p a in t e r r e q u i r e s r o u n d e d t r a in in g a n d e x ­
p e r i e n c e u s u a ll y a c q u i r e d th r o u g h a f o r m a l a p p r e n t i c e s h ip o r e q u iv a ­
le n t t r a in in g a n d e x p e r i e n c e .

68
P IP E F IT T E R ,

M A IN T E N A N C E

S H E E T -M E T A L W O R K E R ,

I n s t a lls o r r e p a i r s w a t e r , s t e a m , g a s , o r o t h e r t y p e s o f p ip e
a n d p ip e fi t t i n g s in a n e s t a b lis h m e n t . W o r k i n v o l v e s m o s t o f th e f o l ­
lo w in g : L a y in g ou t o f w o r k a n d m e a s u r i n g to l o c a t e p o s i t i o n o f p ip e
f r o m d r a w in g s o r o t h e r w r it t e n s p e c i f i c a t i o n s ; c u ttin g v a r io u s s i z e s
o f p ip e t o c o r r e c t le n g t h s w ith c h i s e l a n d h a m m e r o r o x y a c e t y le n e
t o r c h o r p i p e -c u t t i n g m a c h in e ; t h r e a d in g p ip e w ith s t o c k s a n d d i e s ;
b e n d in g p ip e b y h a n d - d r i v e n o r p o w e r - d r i v e n m a c h in e s ; a s s e m b li n g
p ip e w ith c o u p l in g s a n d fa s t e n in g p ip e t o h a n g e r s ; m a k in g s t a n d a r d
sh o p c o m p u t a t io n s r e la t in g t o p r e s s u r e s , f lo w , a n d s i z e o f p ip e r e ­
q u ir e d ; m a k in g s t a n d a r d t e s t s t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r fin is h e d p ip e s m e e t
s p e c ific a tio n s .
In g e n e r a l , th e w o r k o f th e m a in t e n a n c e p i p e f i t t e r
r e q u i r e s r o u n d e d t r a in iiig a n d e x p e r i e n c e u s u a lly a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h a
f o r m a l a p p r e n t i c e s h ip o r e q u iv a le n t t r a in in g a n d e x p e r i e n c e . W o r k e r s
p r i m a r i l y e n g a g e d in in s t a llin g a n d r e p a i r i n g b u ild in g s a n ita tio n o r
h e a tin g s y s t e m s a r e e x c l u d e d .
PLUM BER,

M A IN T E N A N C E

K e e p s th e p lu m b in g s y s t e m o f a n e s t a b lis h m e n t in g o o d o r d e r .
W o r k i n v o l v e s : K n o w le d g e o f s a n it a r y c o d e s r e g a r d i n g in s t a ll a t i o n o f
v e n ts a n d t r a p s in p lu m b in g s y s t e m ; in s t a ll in g o r r e p a ir in g p ip e s a n d
f i x t u r e s ; o p e n in g c l o g g e d d r a in s w ith a p lu n g e r o r p lu m b e r * s s n a k e .
In g e n e r a l, th e w o r k o f th e m a in t e n a n c e p lu m b e r r e q u i r e s r o u n d e d
t r a in in g a n d e x p e r i e n c e u s u a lly a c q u i r e d th r o u g h a f o r m a l a p p r e n t i c e ­
sh ip o r e q u iv a le n t t r a in in g a n d e x p e r i e n c e .
S H E E T -M E T A L

WORKER,

M A IN T E N A N C E

F a b r i c a t e s , i n s t a l l s , a n d m a in t a in s in g o o d r e p a i r th e s h e e t m e t a l e q u ip m e n t a n d f i x t u r e s (s u c h a s m a c h in e g u a r d s , g r e a s e p a n s ,
s h e lv e s , l o c k e r s , t a n k s , v e n t i l a t o r s , c h u t e s , d u c t s , m e t a l r o o f in g )
o f an e s t a b lis h m e n t . W o r k in v o l v e s m o s t o f th e f o l l o w i n g : P la n n in g

Custodial

ELEVATOR OPERATOR,

and

T r a n s p o r t s p a s s e n g e r s b e t w e e n f l o o r s o f a n o f f i c e b u ild in g ,
a p a r tm e n t h o u s e , d e p a r t m e n t s t o r e , h o t e l o r s i m i l a r e s t a b lis h m e n t .
W o r k e r s w h o o p e r a t e e l e v a t o r s in c o n ju n c t io n w ith o t h e r d u t ie s s u c h
a s th o s e o f s t a r t e r s a n d ja n i t o r s a r e e x c lu d e d .
GUARD
P e r f o r m s r o u t in e p o l i c e d u t ie s , e it h e r a t f i x e d p o s t o r on
t o u r , m a in ta in in g o r d e r , u s in g a r m s o r f o r c e w h e r e n e c e s s a r y . In ­
c lu d e s g a t e m e n w h o a r e s t a t io n e d a t g a te a n d c h e c k o n id e n t it y o f
e m p lo y e e s a n d o t h e r p e r s o n s e n t e r i n g .




- C o n t in u e d

a n d la y in g out a l l t y p e s o f s h e e t - m e t a l m a in t e n a n c e w o r k f r o m b l u e ­
p r i n t s , m o d e l s , o r o t h e r s p e c i f i c a t i o n s ; s e t t in g u p a n d o p e r a t in g a l l
a v a i la b le t y p e s o f s h e e t - m e t a l - w o r k i n g m a c h i n e s ; u s in g a v a r i e t y o f
h a n d t o o ls in c u t tin g , b e n d in g , f o r m i n g , s h a p in g , fit t in g , a n d a s s e m ­
b l in g ; in s t a llin g s h e e t - m e t a l a r t i c l e s a s r e q u i r e d .
In g e n e r a l , th e
w o r k o f th e m a in te n a n c e s h e e t - m e t a l w o r k e r r e q u i r e s r o u n d e d t r a in in g
a n d e x p e r i e n c e u s u a lly a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h a f o r m a l a p p r e n t i c e s h i p o r
e q u iv a le n t tr a in in g a n d e x p e r i e n c e .
T O O L A N D D IE M A K E R
(D ie m a k e r ;

jig m a k e r;

to o lm a k e r ;

fix tu r e m a k e r ;

gauge m a k er)

C o n s t r u c t s an d r e p a i r s m a c h i n e - s h o p t o o l s , g a u g e s , j i g s , f i x ­
t u r e s o r d ie s f o r f o r g i n g s , p u n c h in g a n d o t h e r m e t a l - f o r m i n g w o r k .
W o r k in v o l v e s m o s t o f th e f o l l o w i n g : P la n n in g a n d la y in g o u t o f w o r k
f r o m m o d e l s , b l u e p r in t s , d r a w in g s 7 o r o t h e r o r a l a n d w r it t e n s p e c i f i ­
c a t i o n s ; u s in g a v a r ie t y o f t o o l a n d d ie m a k e r f s h a n d t o o ls a n d p r e c i s i o n
m e a s u r i n g in s t r u m e n t s ; u n d e r s t a n d in g o f th e w o r k in g p r o p e r t i e s o f
c o m m o n m e t a ls a n d a l l o y s ; s e t t in g up a n d o p e r a t in g o f m a c h in e t o o l s
a n d r e la t e d e q u ip m e n t; m a k in g n e c e s s a r y s h o p c o m p u t a t io n s r e la t in g
t o d im e n s io n s o f w o r k , s p e e d s , f e e d s , a n d t o o l in g o f m a c h i n e s ; h e a t t r e a t in g o f m e t a l p a r t s d u r in g f a b r i c a t i o n a s w e l l a s o f f in is h e d t o o l s
a n d d i e s to a c h ie v e r e q u ir e d q u a l i t i e s ; w o r k in g t o c l o s e t o l e r a n c e s ;
fit t in g an d a s s e m b li n g o f p a r t s t o p r e s c r i b e d t o l e r a n c e s a n d a l l o w ­
a n c e s ; s e l e c t in g a p p r o p r ia t e m a t e r i a l s ,
t o o ls , and p r o c e s s e s .
In
g e n e r a l , th e t o o l a n d d ie m a k e r * s w o r k r e q u i r e s a r o u n d e d t r a in in g
in m a c h in e - s h o p an d t o o l r o o m p r a c t i c e u s u a ll y a c q u i r e d th r o u g h a
f o r m a l a p p r e n t ic e s h ip o r e q u iv a le n t t r a in in g a n d e x p e r i e n c e .
F o r c r o s s - i n d u s t r y w a g e s tu d y p u r p o s e s , t o o l a n d d ie m a k e r s
in t o o l a n d d ie jo b b in g s h o p s a r e e x c lu d e d f r o m t h is c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .

M aterial

PASSENGER

M A IN T E N A N C E

M o v e m e nt

JA N IT O R ,

PORTER,

OR C L E A N E R

(S w e e p e r ; c h a r w o m a n ; j a n i t r e s s )
C le a n s , an d k e e p s in a n o r d e r l y c o n d i t io n f a c t o r y w o r k in g
a r e a s , and w a s h r o o m s , o r p r e m is e s o f an o f f ic e , a p a r tm e n t h o u s e ,
o r c o m m e r c i a l o r o t h e r e s t a b lis h m e n t . D u t ie s in v o l v e a c o m b i n a t io n
o f th e fo llo w in g : S w e e p in g , m o p p in g , o r s c r u b b in g , a n d p o li s h in g f l o o r s ;
r e m o v in g c h ip s , t r a s h , a n d o t h e r r e f u s e ; d u s t in g e q u ip m e n t , f u r n i t u r e ,
o r f i x t u r e s ; p o lis h in g m e t a l f i x t u r e s o r t r i m m i n g s ; p r o v i d in g s u p p l ie s
a n d m i n o r m a in te n a n c e s e r v i c e s ; c le a n in g l a v a t o r i e s , s h o w e r s , a n d
re stro o m s.
W o r k e r s w h o s p e c i a l i z e in w in d o w w a s h in g a r e e x c l u d e d .

69
LABORER,

M A T E R I A L H A N D L IN G

(L o a d e r and
stock m a n o r

S H IP P IN G A N D R E C E IV IN G C L E R K

u n lo a d e r ; h a n d le r an d s t a c k e r ; s h e l v e r ; t r u c k e r ;
sto ck h e lp e r ; w a re h o u se m a n o r w a re h o u se h e lp e r )

- C o n tin u e d

o t h e r r e c o r d s ; c h e c k in g f o r s h o r t a g e s a n d r e j e c t i n g d a m a g e d g o o d s ;
r o u t in g m e r c h a n d i s e o r m a t e r i a l s to p r o p e r d e p a r t m e n t s ; m a in ta in in g
n e c e s s a r y r e c o r d s and file s .

A w o r k e r e m p l o y e d in a w a r e h o u s e , m a n u fa c t u r in g p la n t ,
s t o r e , o r o t h e r e s t a b l i s h m e n t w h o s e d u t ie s in v o lv e o n e o r m o r e o f
th e f o l l o w i n g : L o a d in g a n d u n lo a d in g v a r io u s m a t e r i a l s a n d m e r c h a n ­
d i s e o n o r f r o m f r e i g h t c a r s , t r u c k s , o r o t h e r t r a n s p o r t in g d e v i c e s ;
u n p a c k in g , s h e lv in g , o r p l a c i n g m a t e r i a l s o r m e r c h a n d i s e in p r o p e r
s t o r a g e l o c a t i o n ; t r a n s p o r t i n g m a t e r i a l s o r m e r c h a n d i s e b y h an d t r u c k ,
c a r , o r w h e e l b a r r o w . L o n g s h o r e m e n , w h o lo a d an d u n lo a d s h ip s a r e
e x c lu d e d .

F o r w age

stu d y p u r p o s e s , w o r k e r s a r e

c la s s ifie d a s fo llo w s ;

R e c e iv in g c le r k
S h ip p in g c l e r k
S h ip p in g a n d ~ r e c e iv in g c l e r k

T R U C K D R IV E R
ORDER

F IL L E R

(O rd e r p ic k e r ;

stock

s e le c to r ; w areh ou se

stock m a n )

F i l l s s h ip p in g o r t r a n s f e r o r d e r s f o r fin is h e d g o o d s f r o m
s t o r e d m e r c h a n d i s e in a c c o r d a n c e w ith s p e c i f i c a t i o n s on s a l e s s l i p s ,
c u s t o m e r s * o r d e r s , o r o t h e r in s t r u c t io n s . M a y , in a d d it io n t o f ill in g
o r d e r s a n d in d ic a t in g i t e m s f i l l e d o r o m it t e d , k e e p r e c o r d s o f o u t ­
g o in g o r d e r s , r e q u i s i t i o n a d d it io n a l s t o c k , o r r e p o r t s h o r t s u p p lie s
t o s u p e r v i s o r , a n d p e r f o r m o t h e r r e la t e d d u t ie s .

PACKER,

S H IP P IN G

P r e p a r e s f in is h e d p r o d u c t s f o r s h ip m e n t o r s t o r a g e b y p la c i n g
t h e m in s h ip p in g c o n t a i n e r s , th e s p e c i f i c o p e r a t io n s p e r f o r m e d b e in g
d e p e n d e n t u p o n th e t y p e , s i z e , a n d n u m b e r o f u n its t o b e p a c k e d , th e
t y p e o f c o n t a in e r e m p l o y e d , a n d m e t h o d o f s h ip m e n t . W o r k r e q u i r e s
th e p l a c i n g o f i t e m s in s h ip p in g c o n t a in e r s an d m a y in v o l v e on e o r
m o r e o f th e f o l l o w i n g ; K n o w le d g e o f v a r io u s it e m s o f s t o c k in o r d e r
t o v e r i f y c o n t e n t ; s e l e c t i o n o f a p p r o p r ia t e ty p e an d s i z e o f c o n t a in e r ;
i n s e r t i n g e n c l o s u r e s in c o n t a i n e r ; u s in g e x c e l s i o r o r o t h e r m a t e r i a l to
p r e v e n t b r e a k a g e o r d a m a g e ; c l o s i n g an d s e a lin g c o n t a in e r ; a p p ly in g
l a b e l 8 o r e n t e r in g id e n t ify in g d a ta o n c o n t a in e r .
P a c k e r s w ho a ls o
m a k e w o o d e n b o x e s o r c r a t e s a r e e x c lu d e d .

D r i v e s a t r u c k w ith in a c it y o r in d u s t r ia l a r e a to t r a n s p o r t
m a t e r i a l s , m e r c h a n d i s e , e q u ip m e n t , o r m e n b e t w e e n v a r io u s t y p e s o f
e s t a b lis h m e n t s s u c h a s ; M a n u fa c t u r in g p la n t s , f r e i g h t d e p o t s , w a r e ­
h o u s e s , w h o l e s a l e a n d r e t a i l e s t a b lis h m e n t s , o r b e t w e e n r e t a i l e s t a b ­
l is h m e n t s a n d c u s t o m e r s * h o u s e s o r p l a c e s o f b u s i n e s s .
M ay a ls o
lo a d o r u n lo a d t r u c k w ith o r w ith o u t h e l p e r s , m a k e m i n o r m e c h a n ic a l
r e p a i r s , a n d k e e p t r u c k in g o o d w o r k in g o r d e r . D r i v e r - s a l e s m e n an d
o v e r - t h e - r o a d d r i v e r s a r e e x c lu d e d .
F o r w a g e stu d y p u r p o s e s , t r u c k d r i v e r s a r e c l a s s i f i e d by s iz e
a n d ty p e o f e q u ip m e n t , a s f o l l o w s ;
( T r a c t o r - t r a i l e r sh o u ld b e r a t e d
o n th e b a s i s o f t r a i l e r c a p a c i t y . )
T r u c k d r iv e r ,
T r u c k d riv e r ,
T r u c k d riv e r ,
T r u c k d r iv e r ,

TRUCKER,

tru ck ,




POW ER

O p e r a t e s a m a n u a lly c o n t r o l l e d g a s o l i n e - o r e l e c t r i c - p o w e r e d
t r u c k o r t r a c t o r t o t r a n s p o r t g o o d s an d m a t e r i a l s o f a l l k in d s a b o u t
a w a r e h o u s e , m a n u fa c t u r in g p la n t , o r o t h e r e s t a b lis h m e n t .

S H IP P IN G A N D R E C E I V I N G C L E R K
P r e p a r e s m e r c h a n d i s e f o r s h ip m e n t, o r r e c e i v e s a n d i s r e ­
s p o n s i b l e f o r i n c o m in g s h ip m e n t o f m e r c h a n d i s e o r o t h e r m a t e r i a l s .
S h ip p in g w o r k i n v o l v e s ;
A k n o w le d g e o f s h ip p in g p r o c e d u r e s , p r a c ­
t ic e s ^ r o u t e s , a v a i l a b l e m e a n s o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n an d r a t e s ; an d p r e ­
p a r in g r e c o r d s o f th e g o o d s s h ip p e d , m a k in g up b i l l s o f la d in g , p o s t ­
in g w e ig h t a n d s h ip p in g c h a r g e s , an d k e e p in g a f i l e o f s h ip p in g r e c o r d s .
M a y d i r e c t o r a s s i s t in p r e p a r i n g th e m e r c h a n d i s e f o r s h ip m e n t .
R e c e iv in g w o rk in v o lv e s ;
V e r i f y i n g o r d ir e c t in g o t h e r s in v e r i f y i n g
th e c o r r e c t n e s s o f s h ip m e n t s a g a in s t b i l l s o f la d in g , i n v o i c e s , o r

lig h t (u n d e r 1 V 2 t o n s )
m e d iu m ( l l7z to a n d in c lu d in g 4 t o n s )
h eavy (o v e r 4 ton s, tr a ile r ty p e )
h e a v y ( o v e r 4 t o n s , o t h e r th a n t r a i l e r t y p e )

F o r w age
a s fo llo w s ;
T ru ck er,
T ru ck er,

stu d y p u r p o s e s , w o r k e r s a r e c l a s s i f i e d b y ty p e o f

pow er
pow er

(fo r k lift)
(o t h e r th a n f o r k l i f t )

W ATCHM AN
M a k e s r o u n d s o f p r e m i s e s p e r i o d i c a l l y in p r o t e c t in g p r o p e r t y
a g a in s t f i r e , th e ft, a n d i l l e g a l e n t r y .




CO

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Occupational W age Surveys

a*

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The a re a s

covered,

s u r v e y d a te ,

b u lle tin n u m b e r ,

an d p r i c e

a re as

fo llo w s :
C e n ts
A t la n ta
_ _
_ . ....
B a l t i m o r e __________________
B o s t o n _______________________
B u ffa lo
C h i c a g o _____________________
C l e v e l a n d ___________________
D a l l a s _________________________
D e n v e r _________________________
L o s A n g e l e s _______________ —
M e m p h i s ____________________ ...
M in n e a p o lis -S t . P a u l ____
N e w a r k - J e r s e y C it y
N e w Y o r k C i t y _____________ ...
P h i l a d e l p h i a _______________
P o r t la n d ( O r e g . ) __________...
S t. L o u i s ___________________
San F r a n c i s c o - O a k l a n d
__

*

O ut o f p r in t .




M a r c h 1955_________
A p r i l 1955 __________ ___
A p r i l 1955 __________
S e p t e m b e r 1954
A p r i l 1955 __________ — O c t o b e r 1954
_ ....
S e p t e m b e r 1954
D e c e m b e r 1 9 5 4 ____
M a r c h 1955______
F e b r u a r y 1955 _____
N o v e m b e r 1954
D e c e m b e r 1954 ____
M a r c h 1955 _________
N o v e m b e r 1954
A p r i l 1955 ___________
F e b r u a r y 1955
J a n u a ry 1955 _______

1 1 7 2 - 11
1 1 7 2 -1 5
1172-17*
1 1 7 2 -1
1 1 7 2 -1 4 *
1 1 7 2 -2 *
1 1 7 2 -3 *
1 1 7 2 -6
1 1 7 2 -1 2
1 1 7 2 -9
1 1 7 2 -5 *
1 1 7 2 -8
1 1 7 2 -1 3
1 1 7 2 -4
1 1 7 2 -1 6
1 1 7 2 - 10
1 1 7 2 -7

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A d d ress

A l s o p r e s e n t e d a r e d a ta f o r p a id h o lid a y s , p a id v a c a t i o n s , s c h e d u le d
w e e k ly h o u r s , f r e q u e n c y o f w a g e p a y m e n t, m in im u m e n t r a n c e r a t e s , and s h ift
d iffe r e n t ia l p r a c t ic e s .

or

In a d d it io n to a r e a w id e a v e r a g e s and d is t r ib u t io n s o f w o r k e r s b y e a r n ­
in g s c l a s s e s f o r e a c h j o b , in f o r m a t io n is p r o v id e d w h e r e v e r p o s s i b l e b y m a jo r
in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n , in c lu d in g m a n u fa c t u r in g , p u b lic u t ili t ie s , fin a n c e , t r a d e , and
s e r v ic e s .

S u p e r in te n d e n t o f D o c u m e n t s
G o v e r n m e n t P r in t in g O f f i c e
W a s h in g to n 2 5 , D . C .

T h e B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s h a s r e l e a s e d th e la s t o f th e 1 9 5 4 -5 5
o c c u p a t io n a l w a g e s u r v e y s f o r m a jo r la b o r m a r k e t s .
T h e s t u d ie s c o v e r 17
a r e a s a n d w e r e c o n d u c t e d d u r in g th e w in te r 1 9 5 4 -5 5 . T h e in d iv id u a l b u lle t in s
p r o v i d e e a r n in g s in f o r m a t i o n on a b o u t 60 j o b s s e l e c t e d f r o m s e v e r a l c a t e g o r i e s :
O f f i c e c l e r i c a l , p r o f e s s i o n a l a n d t e c h n ic a l , m a in te n a n c e an d p o w e r p la n t , and
c u s t o d ia l an d m a t e r i a l m o v e m e n t .

U. S. D e p a r tm e n t o f L a b o r , B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s
18 O liv e r S t r e e t , B o s t o n , M a s s .
341 N in th A v e n u e , N ew Y o r k , N . Y .
105 W est A d a m s S t r e e t , C h ic a g o , 111.
630 S a n s o m e S t r e e t , San F r a n c i s c o , C a l i f .

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i f U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1956 O— 3 7 0 4 3 4