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UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Frances Perkins, Secretary
B U R E A U OF L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S
Isador Lubin, Commissioner

W ages, H ours, and W o rk in g Conditions
in U nion Bakeries, June 1, 1939

♦

Prepared by

INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS DIVISION
FLORENCE P E T E R SO N , Chief

Bulletin Tsfo. 673

U N IT E D S T A T E S
G O V E R N M E N T P R IN T IN G OFFICE
W A S H IN G T O N : 1940

For sale by the Superintendent o f Documents, Washington, D . C,




-

Price 10 cents




CONTENTS

Page
Preface________________________________
Average wages_________________________________________________________________
Distribution of membership according to hourly wage rates________________
Overtime rates____ ____________________________________________________________
Hours___________________________________________________________________________
Changes between 1938 and 1939______________________________________________
Scope and method of study___________________________________________________
Provisions in agreements______________________________________________________
Parties to agreements____________________________________________________
Duration of the agreements______________________________________________
Union status and hiring__________________________________________________
Wage regulations__________________________________________________________
Hours and leave provisions______________________________________________
Holidays and vacations___________________________________________________
Seniority___________________________________________________________________
Working rules_____________________________________________________________
Apprentices________________________________________________________________
Health, safety, and welfare______________________________________________
Adjustment of disputes___________________________________________________
Aids to enforcement______________________________________________________
Wages and hours in each city_________________________________________________




HI

v ii
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1
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2
3
4
5
5
5
6
7
9
10
11
11
12
12
12
15
16




Letter o f Transmittal

U n it e d S t a t e s D

epartment

B ureau

of

of

L abor,

L a b o r S t a t is t ic s ,

W a sh in g to n , D . C ., F eb ru a ry 1 0 , 1 9 4 0 .

M a d a m S e c r e t a r y : I have the honor to transmit herewith a report
covering a study made by the Bureau of Labor Statistics of wages,
hours, and other provisions in the union agreements for the bakery
industry, as of June 1, 1939.
This survey was under the general direction of Florence Peterson,
Chief of the Industrial Relations Division, of the Bureau. F. S.
McElroy was in immediate charge of both the field work and the
preparation of the bulletin.
I sa d o r L u b i n , C o m m is sio n e r .
Hon. F r a n c e s P e r k i n s ,




Secretary o f L a bor.




PR EFAC E

The Bureau of Labor Statistics has made surveys of union wage
rates and hours in the bakery trades each year since 1907. In the
earlier surveys 39 cities were visited, and effective union rates were
reported in 29. The number of cities visited was gradually increased.
This report includes rate quotations from 60 of the 72 cities visited in
1939.
The local unionization of bakery workers began as early as 1880,
and assumed national character in 1886 when delegates from 17 cities
met in Pittsburgh, Pa., to form the Journeymen Bakers’ National
Union of America. Later, when its jurisdiction had been extended to
include candy and ice cream makers, this organization adopted its
present name, the Bakery and Confectionery Workers’ International
Union of America. The Bureau’s surveys, however, have never
included the candy and ice cream workers.
The earlier bakery unions were composed of workers in small shops
where most work was done by hand, and relatively few job distinc­
tions were drawn. With the growth of the factory-type bakery, the
unions extended their membership to include the newly created
occupations or divisions of old occupations. In recent years the
tendency has been to include not only workers who actually prepare
bakery products, but also other workers in the bake shops.
This changing character of the industry and of its unionization is
apparent in the gradually lengthening lists of occupations and union
wage rates published from time to time as part of the Bureau’s studies.
The earlier reports listed rates for only ovenmen, mixers, and benchmen, sometimes termed first, second, or third hands. The present
report lists union rates for a great variety of occupations, including
in some cases maintenance men, janitors, and elevator operators.
The present report not only presents a study of the wage and hour
scales of union bakery workers, but also includes a detailed analysis
of the other provisions found in the agreements of bakery unions such
as vacation and leave provisions, seniority and apprenticeship regula­
tions, and methods of settling disputes.
I sador L u b i n ,

Commissioner o f Labor Statistics.
F ebr uar y

1940.




VII

DISTRIBUTION OF MEMBERS IN UNION BAKERIES
BY HOURLY WAGE RATES

UNITEO STATES BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




Bulletin 7s£o. 673 o f the
United States Bureau of Labor Statistics

W ages, H ours, and W o rk in g Conditions in U nion
Bakeries, June 1, 1939
A v era g e W ages
The average hourly rate of union bakery workers in 60 cities was
$0,769 on June 1, 1939. This represented an increase of 1.2 percent
over June 1, 1938. The actual rates ranged from $0.25 per hour for
woman novices in Portland, Maine, to $1,667 per hour for cake
foremen under one of the New York City agreements.
Wage payments under the bakery agreements are universally estab­
lished on a time basis. Agreements with large factory bakeries
generally specify hourly rates, whereas those with the smaller shops
specify daily or weekly rates. In order to achieve comparability,
these daily and weekly wage scales have been converted to an hourly
basis and are so presented throughout this report. The averages
cited include all of the occupations specified in the agreements, except
apprentices. Variations in the descriptive terminology applied to
particular occupations and in the duties assigned to workers in the
various classifications prevent the computation of averages by job
classifications.
D istrib u tio n o f M em bership A ccord in g to
H o u r ly W age R ates
Rates of $1.00 or more per hour were reported for 17.6 percent of
the total membership. A considerable majority (73.2 percent) of the
membership, however, were receiving between 40 and 90 cents per
hour. Only 1.5 percent of the total membership had contractual
rates of less than 40 cents per hour. The distribution of the member­
ship according to hourly rates is shown in table 1.
1

212973°— 40-




-2

2

WAGES AND HOURS IN U NIO N BAKERIES
T a b l e 1 .—Distribution

of union m bers in the bakery
em
trades, by hourly rates, June 1, 1939
Classified hourly rates

1939

Average hourly rate__________ ____ ___________________

$0.769

Percent of members whose hourly rates were—
Under 40 cents____________ ____ ________________
40 and under 50 cents_______________________ _____
50 and under 60 cents________________________ ____
60 and under 70 cents_____________________________
70 and under 80 cents______ ____ __________________
80 and under 90 cents....................................................
90 cents and under $1.00__________________________
$1.00 and under $1.10------------------------ ------ ------------$1.10 and under $1.20....... ........... ....................... .........
$1.20 and under $1.30___ _____ ____________________
$1.30 and under $1.40_____________________________
$1.40 and under $1.50....................................................
$1.50 and under $1.60________ ______ _____ _______
$1.60 and under $1.70-------------- ------------------------------

1.5
13.2
13.6
15.5
16.3
14.6
7.7
5.0
3.3
2.6
2.2
2.4
1.4
.7

O v e rtim e R ates
Time and one-half or time and one-third were most frequently
specified as the overtime rates in the bakery agreements. The
time and one-half rate was provided for 60.8 percent of the
members and time and one-third for 25.2 percent. Generally any
overtime work was discouraged except in emergencies, and frequently
definite limitations were placed upon the amount of overtime per­
mitted. These restrictions ranged from 1 to 8 hours in any week,
2 to 4 hours being the maximum most frequently specified. The
overtime rates provided and the proportions of the union membership
to which each applied are shown below.
N u m b er o f
q u o t a t io n s

No overtime rate provided______________________
5
Straight time__________________________________ 52
Time and one-third____________________________ 259
Time and one-half_____________________________ 792
Double time___________________________________
7
Specified amounts, not a multiple of regular rate__ 19
Overtime prohibited____________________________ 26

P ercen ta g e
o f u n io n
m em bers
a f fe c t e d

0. 2
4. 3
25. 2
60. 8
1. 8
1. 1
6. 6

H o u rs, 1939
The average maximum workweek provided in the union agreements
for bakery workers on June 1, 1939, was 41.6 hours. A 40-hour week
was specified for 60.1 percent of the members; 44 hours were specified
for 11.5 percent; and 11.6 percent were allowed 48 hours. A small
group (0.1 percent) worked under 54-hour week provisions and, at
the other extreme, a limit of 30 hours was specified for 0.3 percent of
the members.




CHANGES BETWEEN
T

able

2 .—

19 3 8 AND

3

19 3 9

D istrib u tion o f u n ion m em bers in the bakery trades
b y hours p e r w eek

,

June

1,

,

1 93 9

’ Classified weekly hours

1939

Average weekly hours.. _____________________________

41.6

Percent of members whose hours per week were—
30 hours______
_
__
__ __
32hours________ ___ ___
_ _______
35 hours_________________________ _______ _____
36 hours____________ ____________________________
373^ hours_______________________ _______ _______
39 hours__________________________________ _____
_ _ _
40 hours_____________________ ___
42 hours___________ ______________________________
44 hours_____________________________ _
______
45 hours______ ________________ __ ______
47 hours_____________________________ __________
48 hours___________________________________ _____
54 hours_________________________________________

0.3
.5
.7
3.0
.5
.2
60.1
3.3
11.5
8.1
.1
11.6
.1

Changes B e tw e e n 1938 and 1939
W a g e rates .— Nearly a fourth (24 percent) of the union members
whose rates were reported for both 1938 and 1939 had pay increases
during the year. The few rate reductions reported affected only 0.1
percent of the membership. The increases appeared in 185, or 22.8
percent, of the quotations which gave data for both years. Eight
quotations, not quite 1 percent, showed decreases.
The amounts of the increases reported ranged as high as 16 percent,
although the number of advances exceeding 10 percent of the 1938
rates was comparatively small. The largest percentage increases
were those of bakeshop helpers in Cleveland pie plants, whose rate
rose from $0,500 per hour in 1938 to $0,580 in 1939, and of ovenmen
in one Scranton, Pa., hand shop, whose rate rose from $0,375 to $0,438.
Half of the members who benefited by rate increases received pay
increases of between 5 and 10 percent, and nearly half received
increases of less than 5 percent. Of the total quotations showing rate
increases there were 92 indicating advances of under 5 percent, 87 of
5 to 10 percent, and 6 of 10 percent and over.
N u m b er o f
q u o t a t io n s

Increase______________________________________
Under 5 percent__________________________
5 and under 10 percent____________________
10 and under 15 percent___________________
15 percent and over_______________________
Decrease_____________________________________
No change____________________________________
1L th o e tenth of 1 p
ess an n
ercen
t.




185
92
87
4
2
8
618

P e rc en ta g e o f u n io n
m e m b e r s a f fe c t e d

24.0
11.8
12.0
.2
(*)
.1
75.9

4

WAGES AND HOURS IN U NIO N BAKERIES

W eek ly hours v— Changes in hour scales during the year affected
relatively few union members. Reductions in the maximum weekly
hours were reported in 34 quotations, applying to 2.1 percent of the
members for whom comparable 1938 and 1939 data were available.
In three quotations increases in weekly hours were reported, but
these increases affected less than 0.1 percent of the membership. For
97.9 percent of the members the workweek remained the same in 1939
as in 1938.
N u m b er o f
q u o ta tio n s

Increase______________________________________
Decrease_____________________________________
No change____________________________________

3
34
774

P erc en ta g e o f u n io n
m e m b e r s a f fe c t e d

(*)
2.1
97.9

1Less than on tenth of 1 p
e
ercen
t.

Scope and M eth o d o f S tu d y
The wage and hour data summarized above are based on informa­
tion obtained by the Bureau of Labor Statistics as of June 1, 1939.
This study is one of a series of annual surveys started in 1907, cover­
ing union scales in various trades in the principal cities of the United
States. The early studies included 39 cities. The coverage has been
gradually extended and now includes 72 cities. Effective union
agreements providing wage and hour scales for bakery workers were
reported in only 60 of these cities in 1939.
Agents of the Bureau visited 110 union representatives, obtaining
1,160 quotations of scales, 811 of which included comparable data for
both 1938 and 1939. The union membership covered by these con­
tractual scales of wages and hours was 48,844, of which 40,021 were
included in the reports which gave comparable rates and hours for

1938.
A verages .— The averages and percentages of change given in this
report are based upon aggregates which are weighted according to
the number of members in the various local unions. Thus the aver­
ages reflect not only the actual rates and hours provided in the union
agreements but also the number of persons presumably benefiting
from these scales. The membership weights used in both of the
aggregates from which the percent of change over the year was com­
puted are those reported for the second year.
Changes in coverage.— In the previous studies relating to bakery
workers, only those engaged principally in bread baking were included.
The present study has been extended to include all types of baking
and to cover all occupations included under the bakery unions’ agree­
ments. The averages given in this report, therefore, are not com­
parable with those shown in previous reports. As the percentages of
change are based entirely upon comparable quotations for the two
years considered in each report, they are not affected by changes in




PROVISIONS IN BAKERY AGREEMENTS

5

coverage and may be compared with those in previous reports for the
purpose of determining the trend of union wage rates and hours in
the bakery trades.
P rovision s in B a k ery A g reem en ts 1
The following discussion of provisions in agreements entered into
by bakery unions and employers is not restricted to the agreements in
the cities from which wage and hour data were obtained but is based
upon all of the bakery agreements (175) in the Bureau's files.
PARTIES TO THE AGREEM ENTS

The bakery locals almost invariably sign their agreements with each
shop separately. The agreements with small and medium-size shops
are usually uniform throughout the locality, but those with the large
factory bakeries frequently vary between shops.
The agreements with the smaller firms are frequently negotiated
with associations of employers. If no association of employers exists,
the union usually consults with several employers before drawing up
the agreement which it then asks each individual employer to sign.
The agreements with factory bakeries are negotiated either with
associations or separately with each firm. Frequently the associations
do not include all of the employers. Under these circumstances it is
customary for the union to offer identical terms to the nonassociation
shops.
About two-fifths of the agreements are negotiated with employers'
associations. Two-thirds of these associations are permanent organi­
zations. The others are temporary groups assembled only for union­
negotiating purposes. About two-fifths of the associations include
all of the union employers in the district; about one-fourth include 75
percent of the employers; and only about 5 percent include less than
half of the employers in the locality.
Approximately 10 percent of the agreements provide either that no
more favorable terms shall be granted to any other employer in the
district or that, if such terms are granted, they shall immediately
become effective for all employers.
DURATION OF THE AGREEMENTS

The great majority of the bakery agreements are for a term of 1
year, with provisions for continuance pending the signing of a new
agreement or in the absence of notice by one of the parties that its
termination is desired. The standard termination clause specifies
that the sanction of the international office must be obtained before
the local union may request the termination of the agreement, and
1 In addition to wage and hour scales analyzed above.




6

WAGES AND HOURS IN U NIO N BAKERIES

that the terms of any new agreement consummated after the stated
expiration date shall be retroactive to that date.
UNION STATUS AND HIRING

The closed sh o p . — Bakery agreements almost universally provide
that union membership shall be a requisite for continued employment
in the production departments of signatory shops. The membership
requirement, usually expressed as “ members in good standing,” is
sometimes amplified by a clause requiring the employer to discharge
any worker who may be suspended or expelled by the union.
W o r k in g e m p lo y e r s , fo r e m e n , a n d excluded e m p lo y e e s. — One-third of
the agreements specifically provide that not more than one partner
or official of a firm may work in the bake shop. A small number
provide further that the working member of the firm must belong to
the union. Generally it is specified that working employers must
observe all of the working rules, including the restrictions on hours
per day or week. In 1-man shops the owner is frequently required
either to belong to the union or to employ a union member at least
half time in order to qualify to use the union label. ,
Preference in obtaining employment by purchase of stock is fre­
quently denied through a clause prohibiting any member from going
to work for a firm in which he owns stock, unless such employment is
obtained in the regular manner through the union office.
Foremen who regularly work with the product are included under
the agreements. Those whose work normally is entirely supervisory
are generally excluded.
Packers, shippers, porters, janitors, and sometimes elevator opera­
tors are included, when such exist. Office workers and supervising
officials are specifically excluded in many agreements, and are never
mentioned in any of the wage-rate sections. As a rule, the coverage
clause merely states that all of the occupations listed in the rate
section of the agreement shall be subject to the provisions of the
contract.
U n io n h irin g . — Sixty percent of the agreements specify that all
hiring shall be through the union office. In some it is definitely stated
that the employer must accept the workmen sent by the union. A
few stipulate that the employer’s request for a particular individual
will be honored if he is available. Usually a clause is included pro­
viding that if the union is unable to supply the help requested, the
employer may engage nonmembers upon condition that they make
application for union membership within a specified time. The time
limit is sometimes set as low as 24 hours, but is most frequently 2
weeks or a month.




PROVISIONS IN BAKERY AGREEMENTS

7

A few agreements specifically permit the employer to hire anyone
he chooses, but require that all nonmembers apply for membership
within a short time after starting work.
C h eck -o ff .— The check-off system of paying union dues and assess­
ments is not often found in the bakery agreements. Only 5 of the
175 agreements examined contain this provision.
U n io n label .— Nearly three-fourths of the agreements contain pro­
visions regarding the use of the union label upon products of the
signatory shops. The great majority of these make its use manda­
tory, about 15 percent providing that its use shall be optional. In all
cases it is required that the labels be obtained from the union, except
when permission has been granted to print the label upon wrappers,
and it is definitely specified that ownership of the labels remains in
the union. The fee for furnishing labels is most frequently set at 15
cents per 1,000 for plain labels, with slightly higher fees for those in
color. Continued use of the label is usually made contingent upon
strict observance of all agreement provisions.
W A G E REGULATIONS

S e x d ifferen tia ls .— Many of the bakery agreements specifically des­
ignate certain occupations, such as icing cakes or hand wrapping,
as women’s work. Differentials in pay for identical work, however,
are not found in any agreement. A few, about 4 percent, definitely
prohibit such differentials.
N ig h t d ifferen tia ls .— Most of the agreements do not distinguish
between day and night work. About one-fifth specify somewhat
higher rates for night work than for day work. Most frequently the
night rate applies to work between 6 p. m. and 6 a. m., in some cases
being applied to all of the work on any shift which either starts or
ends between those hours. Some agreements specify a higher differ­
ential for work between midnight and 6 a. m. than for the hours from
6 p. m. to midnight. The differentials generally range from 5 to 10
cents per hour.
T ra n sfer rates .— About 17 percent of the agreements, mostly those
with the large bakeries, contain provisions regarding the pay of an
employee temporarily working at an occupation not his own. Gen­
erally it is required that he be paid his regular rate or that of the
temporary work, whichever is higher. Some agreements, however,
provide that he shall continue to receive his regular rate, if the tem­
porary assignment is of only a few hours’ duration. Several agree­
ments require an employee who regularly performs work in more
than one rate classification to be paid for his entire time at the rate
of the highest-paid classification. A few specify that the classifica-




8

WAGES AND HOURS IN U NIO N BAKERIES

tion occupying 51 percent of an employee’s time shall determine his
rate, and several provide that the highest-rated occupation requiring
as much as one-third of his time shall establish his full-time rate.
P a y g u a ra n ties.— Minimum-pay guaranties are frequently included
in the agreements with hand and small machine shops. Agreements
with the factory bakeries do not, as a rule, contain guaranties since
the work in these shops is more regular. A few, however, provide
for a minimum of 30 hours pay per week for regular employees.
The guaranties for regular employees are most common in agree­
ments which provide higher pro rata rates for part-time workers
than for regular workers. These guaranties are usually either pay
for the full week or for 1 day less than a full week. Part-time
workers are generally guaranteed a minimum for each time they
are asked to report, ranging from 2 hours’ to 2 full days’ pay. A
number of the agreements specify that any regular employee who
works less than a designated time in any week must be paid at the
part-time rate.
A comparatively common provision in the agreements provides
that should any law require that the agreed-upon working hours be
reduced, this reduction shall be made without any reduction in the
weekly pay. A similar protection against reduction in purchasing
power is found in a few agreements, which provide that the wage
scales shall be adjusted in the event of monetary inflation. Employees
who, at the time of the adoption of the agreement, were receiving
higher pay than specified in the contract, are usually protected by a
clause prohibiting the reduction of their rates.
S h a re-th e-w ork r u le s .— The equal distribution of available work in
slack times is guaranteed in a number of agreements, especially with
factory bakeries, which require rotation among the employees in
each classification rather than lay-offs. A few agreements grant the
union the privilege of restricting the number of days a member may
work during slack times so as to insure rotation.
W a g e p a y m e n t .— Nearly half of the agreements specify the day of
the week which shall be pay day. The majority of these require
payment in full for the week, including the pay day. A few allow
the employer 1 or 2 days after the end of the workweek in which to
make up the pay roll. Part-time workers are generally required to
be paid at the end of each day’s work. About 10 percent of the
agreements require wage payments to be made in currency.
R o o m , board , a n d allow a n ces .— To discourage the old custom of
bakery workers’ being required to accept room and board as part
payment of wages, more than half the agreements covering hand or
small machine shops contain restrictions upon this practice. In




P R O V IS IO N S

IN

BAKERY

AGREEM ENTS

9

most cases the workers are specifically prohibited from accepting pay
in such form ; a few, however, merely state that it shall not be required
that any member room or board with his employer.
A few agreements specifically grant the employees the right to
take designated amounts of the shop’s product for their own use.
These allowances usually amount to about 20 or 30 cents’ worth of
baked goods per day. Such provisions are most frequently included
in agreements covering Hebrew baking.
HOURS AND L E AV E PROVISIONS

H o u r s p e r d a y .— The variations in the demand for baked goods on
certain days of the week, and particularly just before holidays, neces­
sitates deviations from a uniform workday in some bakeries. This
is most frequently true in the smaller shops.
Nearly all of the agreements with the large factory bakeries specify an
8-hour day. The 8-hour day is generally designated as the normal day
in the agreements with the smaller shops, but these frequently include
a tolerance in the form of a minimum and a maximum number of hours
that may constitute a workday, subject in all cases to the specified
maximum weekly hours. In a few agreements particular days are
named on which longer or shorter than normal hours may be worked.
D a y s p e r w e e k .— The hand-shop agreements as a rule allow 6 days’
work each week. In machine shops the maximum weekly hours
allowed are frequently less than in hand shops and the workweek
generally is restricted to 5 or 5% days.
O vertim e .— Generally the agreements specify a penalty rate, most
frequently time and one-half, for work in excess of either the daily or
weekly maximum hours. It is frequently provided that overtime
shall be worked only in emergencies, and in a few instances overtime is
prohibited entirely. Nearly a fifth of the agreements set the maximum
amount of overtime that any employee may work during a week.
The maximums range from 1 to 8 hours, 2 hours being specified most
frequently. In a few cases it is provided that in extraordinary cir­
cumstances special permission to exceed the specified maximum may
be secured from the union. A few agreements require that overtime
be spread among all of the employees in the shop.
R eg u la tion o f sh ifts .— Split shifts are commonly prohibited in the
bakery agreemen ts by a provision that the working hours in each day
be continuous. A few agreements specify that a designated number
of hours must intervene between the time an employee finishes one
shift and starts work on another. In some cases a day’s notice is
required when an employer wishes to change a workman from one
shift to another.

212973°— 40-




>
3

10

WAGES

AND

HOURS

IN

U N IO N

B A K E R IE S

L ea ve o f a bsen ce .— Leave without pay is not commonly provided in
the bakery agreements. A few, however, allow an employee to take an
occasional day off, upon advance notice, and one agreement permits
& leave of absence up to 90 days. Reinstatement after an absence
caused by sickness or injury is required in a number of agreements.
HOLIDAYS AND VACATIONS

A n n u a l va ca tion s .— Vacations with pay after a year’s continuous
employment with one firm are provided in over half of the agreements.
Generally, the vacation allowed is 1 week, although a few agreements
provide that after a longer term of service (3 to 5 years) 2 weeks shall
be allowed. Many of the agreements state that the employees must
take the vacation and may not accept additional pay in lieu of the
time off. Some agreements provide that vacations may be given at
any time during the year, but more commonly the summer months are
designated, and preference in the choice of time is granted to the
employee oldest in service.

A frequent provision, in agreements which specify higher rates for
part-time workers than for regular employees, is that substitutes for
men on vacation or absent because of illness shall be paid only the
rate of the regular employees.
H o lid a y s .— Nearly all of the agreements specify certain holidays
that are to be observed. The number specified ranges from 1 to 10,
6 being most frequently listed. Those usually specified are New Year’s
Day, Decoration Day, Independence Day, Labor Day, Thanksgiving,
and Christmas. Less frequently Lincoln’s Birthday, Washington’s
Birthday, Armistice Day, May First, and various local holidays, such as
Admission Day in California, are included. The agreements covering
Hebrew baking generally specify certain religious holidays, the most
frequently specified being Rosh Hashonah and Yom Kippur.
Over half the agreements, including most of those that specify pay
on a weekly basis, provide that the holidays shall be paid for at the
regular rate. Generally it is provided that the maximum weekly
hours allowed without overtime shall be reduced in holiday weeks.
In a few cases it is provided that the employees shall work 1 or 2 hours
additional on the day before a holiday without additional pay. This
allowance usually occurs only when pay is specified on a weekly basis
and no deduction is allowed for the holidays.
Generally provision is made for necessary work on holidays, but
only upon payment of a penalty rate, which is most frequently double
time. Several agreements particularly specify that no work shall be
done under any circumstances on the morning of Labor Day, so that
no member shall be compelled to give up his participation in the
parades or activities of that holiday.




P R O V IS IO N S

IN

BAKERY AGREEM ENTS

11

SENIORITY

Seniority provisions are included in about one-third of the agree­
ments. M ost of these relate to lay-offs and rehiring. A number of
the agreements with large bakeries, however, extend the principle of
seniority to include promotions. The application of seniority in
lay-offs and rehiring is generally mandatory, but in the case of pro­
motions it is usually specified as a preferential factor to be given con­
sideration by the employer. In respect to lay-off and rehiring, the
agreements usually specify that its application shall be within the
respective classifications or occupations of employees. In the case of
promotions, plant-wide seniority is to be observed.
WORKING RULES

Shop restrictions.— A common provision in bakery agreements
restricts the work to be expected of any member to that of his own
craft. This is generally expressed by prohibiting the employer from
requiring members to load or unload trucks, or to perform any other
work not directly connected with baking.
A very small number of agreements specify the maximum number
of batches of dough that a “ set” or crew shall be required to complete
during a shift. Several machine-shop agreements specify the mini­
mum number of workers to be employed on particular machines or
ovens, and a number provide for the periodic relief of workers on
certain machines through exchange of jobs with other workers.
Part-time workers.— Part-time workers in bakeries are termed
“ jobbers,” and their wage rates are generally specified on a daily basis.
Frequently the daily rate provided for jobbers is higher than the
equivalent rate for regular or full-time employees. A number of the
agreements define a jobber as one who is employed less than 4 days in
any 1 week, and some provide that any regular employee working
7 days in 1 week shall receive the jo b b e d rate for the seventh day.
Discharges.— About half of the agreements contain provisions relat­
ing to discharges. As discharge is customarily considered a matter
which any member may request his union to take up as a grievance,
only a small number of the agreements specifically state this as a right.
Advance notice of discharge is required in most cases. The period
ranges from 1 day to a full week. A few agreements specify that
the notice shall be in writing and some require that a copy setting
forth the reasons be furnished to the union. Failure to give the
required notice is usually subject to a penalty amounting to the
employee’s pay for the required period of notice.
A number of agreements specify that no employee shall be dis­
charged other than at the end of the workweek, and a few covering




12

W AGES A N D

HOURS

IN

U N IO N

B A K E R IE S

Hebrew baking prohibit discharges during specified periods before
designated religious holidays.
Very few of the agreements mention specific reasons for discharge,
intoxication being the only cause listed in more than one or two agree­
ments.
Relatively few agreements grant the employer an unrestricted right
to discharge. In these cases the employers agree to exercise their
right of discharge in a fair and just manner and to avoid arbitrary
action.
Quit notices.— All of the agreements that require advance notice of
discharge place a similar requirement of notice upon employees who
desire to quit their jobs. Failure to give this notice subjects the
employee to a penalty equivalent to his pay for the required period
of notice.
APPRENTICES

Only a very few agreements specify the term of apprenticeship,
the manner in which apprentices should be trained, or the method
by which their qualifications for journeymanship should be tested.
In about half of the agreements a wage scale for apprentices is
established, and in about one-third the maximum number of appren­
tices allowed in any one shop is specified. One apprentice to each
shift is frequently the limit, although the majority of the agreements
specify the allowance as a ratio to the number of journeymen em­
ployed. These ratios range from 1 apprentice to 3 journeymen, to
1 to 10 journeymen, with ratios of 1 to 4, 5, or 6 predominating.
H E A L T H , S AFE TY, AND W EL F A R E

In most cities the laws covering sanitation in shops which prepare
food for the public are sufficiently strict to make the inclusion of such
rules in union agreements comparatively superfluous. Nevertheless,
over half of the agreements do contain provisions requiring the
employer to maintain his shop in a sanitary condition. A number of
these also require each employee to maintain his personal cleanli­
ness under penalty of union discipline.
About a third of the agreements require the employers to provide
adequate lockers. Cool drinking water, comfortable ventilation,
dressing rooms, and washrooms are also required under a number
of agreements.
ADJUSTMENT OF DISPUTES

TJnion-management negotiations.— About one in every five of the
agreements contain provisions for the appointment of shop stewards.
More than half of these provide that the steward shall be appointed
by the union, some specifying that he shall be elected by the employees
in the shop. In all cases it is understood or specifically stated that




P R O V IS IO N S

IN

BAKERY

AGREEM ENTS

IS

the steward is to be one of the regular employees of the shop. In most
cases it is specifically stated that there shall be no discrimination
against the steward because of his activity as such.
Generally the.provision is for one steward in each shop. Occasion­
ally a steward is required only for the larger shops employing five or
more workers. Some of the large factory-bakery agreements call for
a steward in each department of the plant. In some of the factory
bakeries there are shop committees to supplement and assist the shop
stewards.
The steward’s duty is to see that the agreement is observed and to
report any violations to the business agent of the local union. A few
agreements with factory bakeries authorize the steward to take up
grievances with the lesser officials of the firm.
In the majority of the agreements it is either implied or definitely
stated that some union official, or the union’s adjustment committee,
shall represent the employees in grievance discussions with the manage­
ment. Frequently, especially in the smaller shops, the specified union
official is the business agent.
The factory-bakery agreements more frequently specify a series of
successive steps to be followed in reaching the settlement of a griev­
ance. A number specify that the steward and the aggrieved employee
shall first present the case to the foreman and then to the superin­
tendent. If satisfaction is not obtained, the matter is then referred to
the union officers who carry the discussion to the higher company
officials. In a few agreements it is provided that the shop committee
shall succeed the steward after he has contacted the foreman or
superintendent, and that the union officers shall participate only when
the committee has failed to reach agreement with any of the manage­
ment officials. Others of the factory agreements provide that the
committee shall conduct all of the preliminary grievance discussions,
the union officers assuming charge thereafter, if necessary.
M any of the agreements impose time limits at various stages of
grievance discussion. It is frequently required that grievances be
raised within a specified time after the occurrence of the event to which
exception is taken and, when a sequence of procedure is specified, a
time limit is often imposed upon the discussion at each stage.
A very small number of agreements specify that grievance discus­
sions shall take place outside of working hours. Generally, however,
the time for such meetings with the management is not mentioned.
Special handling of discharges.— M ost of the agreements do not pro­
vide specific regulations covering disputes over discharges other than
those applying to ordinary grievances. A few agreements, however,
definitely state that a discharged employee may appeal through the
regular grievance procedure and a small number specifically state that
discharge cases may be arbitrated if all other methods of settlement




14

W AGES AN D

HOURS

IN

U N IO N

B A K E R IE S

fail. A few set a definite time limit on appeals from discharge and
some require a written statement of the reasons for discharge so that
the employee may prepare his defense.
Arbitration.— Over half (99) of the 175 agreements, studied provide
for arbitration. A majority (58) of these specify that arbitration shall
be resorted to after all attempts at direct settlement of grievances
shall have failed. The others make no reference to previous negotia­
tions.
M ost of the arbitration clauses imply or specifically state that all
grievances or disputes arising over the interpretation or application of
the present agreement shall be subject to arbitration. Five agree­
ments state that disputes over the terms of succeeding agreements
shall also be arbitrated. One agreement restricts arbitration to dis­
charge cases; one to new agreements only; and one excludes wages,
hours, the system of substitutes, and the union shop from arbitration.
The great majority of the arbitration agreements provide for the
creation of temporary arbitration boards as disputes arise. Only 13
require the appointment of permanent boards. Nearly all of these
are agreements with employers’ associations, covering all or most of
the bakeries in a locality.
In most cases it is provided that the arbitration board shall con­
sist, from the start, of an equal number of union and employer
appointees, plus an impartial member who shall be chairman. Twenty
agreements, however, specify that the board of equal union and
employer members shall first attempt to reach an agreement and
that the impartial member shall be appointed only upon their
failure to settle the dispute.
The impartial member of the arbitration board is generally selected
by the other members who are appointed by the union and the
employers. Some agreements provide that in the event of failure to
agree upon the impartial member, he shall be named by a specified
outsider, usually a judge or public official. A few agreements con­
tain only the reference to arbitration and do not specify how the
arbitration board shall be constituted.
Requests for arbitration may come from either party. A few
agreements specify that such requests must be in writing.
M ost of the agreements (66) having provisions for arbitration
specify time limits. These include the requirement that each party
appoint his arbitrators within a specified time after arbitration has
been requested; that the impartial member be selected prom ptly;
that each side present its case to the board immediately upon being
called; and that the board render its decision within a specified time
after the closing arguments have been presented.




P R O V IS IO N S

IN

BAKERY

AGREEM ENTS

15

Strikes and lock-outs.— Various restrictions are placed upon strikes
and lock-outs in 71 of the 175 agreements. In 18 they are prohibited
without reservation for the term of the agreement, and in 52 they
are prohibited pending arbitration of disputes. Three agreements
exempt general bakery strikes or lock-outs from the restrictions, and
16 specifically permit sympathetic strikes in support of other crafts
employed in the same shops. In some cases a sympathetic strike is
permitted only when the employer has refused to arbitrate with the
other craft; two agreements specifically prohibit all sympathetic
strikes. One agreement requires a week’s notice before a strike or
lock-out may be called.
Eight agreements provide that the employer shall not ask any
union man to cross a picket line, and a considerable number require
the employer not to furnish baked goods to any shop at which a
strike or lock-out is in progress.
In addition to the restrictions upon strikes incorporated in the
agreements, each local union is bound by the restrictions contained
in the constitution of the Bakery and Confectionery Workers’ Inter­
national Union of America. These provide that every effort possible
must be made to settle disputes without striking, and that a strike
may be called only upon the affirmative vote of three-fourths of the
members present at a meeting called for the specific purpose of voting
upon the strike. It is further required that every member of the
local must have been given advance notice, either in writing or in
person, of the time, place, and purpose of the meeting. Any local
union desiring strike assistance from the international union is fur­
ther required to submit full details to, and to secure advance approval
from, the international’s general executive board.
AIDS TO ENFORCEMENT

Nearly all of the bakery agreements require that a signed copy of
the contract be conspicuously posted in each shop, so that its terms
may be familiar to all workers in the plants.
About four-fifths of the agreements specifically permit union offi­
cials to enter the shops to interview union members during working
hours. Generally it is only required that proper credientals be shown.
A small number require that the employer’s permission be requested.
Four agreements specifically provide that pay-roll records shall be
open to inspection by the union.
Nearly all of the agreements, which include provisions concerning
use of the union label, provide that this right may be withdrawn by
the union upon the employer’s violation of any of the agreement
terms.




16

W AGES

AND

HOURS

IN

U N IO N

B A K E R IE S

Wages and Hours in Each C ity
The hourly wage rates and hours per week for union bakery workers
in the cities covered in the survey on June 1,1939, are shown in table 3.
T

able

3 . — U n io n sca les o f w a ges a n d h ou rs in the b a k e r y tra d es , J u n e I , 1 9 3 8 , a n d
June 1

, 1939

June 1, 1939
City, type of baking, and occupation

June 1, 1938

Rates of Hours Rates of Hours
wages
wages
per hour per week per hour per week

Atlanta, Oa.

Company A :1
Mixers or ovenmen_______ _____ ___ _ _. ___ _____
Dividers, molders, or wrapping-machine operators. __ _____
Packers or bench hands.______ __________
_________
Machine catchers or general helpers. ____________________
Porters___ ___ _________ __
.. . __________
leers or wrappers, female______ __ _______ _________
Company B (crackers and cookies):
Dough mixers, rate B __
___ ___ ________ __
Machine captains
_ . . . . . __________
Bakers or ovenmen
. _ . ______ ____
Rollermen or stackers _ ____
______ ___
Hot-pan men __ __ _ _____ ___ __-____ ________
Bakery helpers _ __ ___. . . ___ - _____- _____ Supervisors, female___ ________ __
______ ____
Helpers, female _ _____________ _ ______________ _
Company C:
Dough mixers
- . . _______ _ _ ____________
Bakers
- __ _________ _____________________
H elpers_______________ - _________________________
Packers or slicers, female. _____ _____________________

Baltimore, Md.

$0.650
.600
.550
.500
.400
.375
.950
.900
.850
.800
.750
.700
.650
. 550
.530
.460
.580
.510
.400
.350

40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40

Shop A:2
40
Ovenmen
. _____________________ _ 1.000
40
.988
Shipping clerks
_ _____ __- ___ ___ ____ __.956
40
Mixers
__ __ ____ ___ __________ _
.863
40
Divider men. _ ______ ___ ___ ___ _ _____ __ ______
40
Steam-box men _
___
__. . . _ _______
.838
.763
40
Wrapping-machine operators or molders ______ ___
40
Doughnut-machine operators or flour blenders ___ _ _
.750
.725
40
Pan greasers ________ _ _____ _ ___ ___ __ _ _
.713
40
Pan rackers. __________ _________ __ __ _____ __
.700
40
Material scalers, pan washers, or general bakery helpers---.681
40
Oven feeders _____ _______ ______ _ . _ ____
.675
40
Bread packers______ _ _ _ ______ _____ __________
.663
40
Molders’ helpers.
___ _ _ ____ __
.660
40
Porters _ _ _ _ . ______ ___ ________ ____ __________
.625
40
General or mixers’ helpers. ______ ____ _ _________ _ _
.619
40
Bread rackers _ _ _______ _________ _ . . . ___
.500
40
Doughnut packers, female________________ ... ________
Shop B :2
40
.775
Mixers
___ ____________________ - - ____ ____
.725
40
Divider men____________ ___ __ __ _________
Oven feeders, dumpers, or stock-room men. ... _ _ __ ___
.700
40
.625
40
Doughnut-machine operators or mixers’ helpers ________
.600
40
Molders
________ __ _ _ ______ __
.550
40
Molders’ helpers or steam-box men
__ _ _______
.525
40
Bread packers, pan rackers, or greasers
._ __ ______
.375
40
Porters, general helpers, or doughnut packers, female_____
Shop C :2
3 40
.775
Mixers, dividers, or ovenmen _______ ______________
.700
3 40
Wrapping-machine operators____________________ ____ _
.675
3 40
Formulae workers________________ _ __ _ ________ _
.625
3 40
Oven feeders or dumpers.__ ______ ____ _______ ___ _
Steam-box men, pan rackers or greasers, molders, shipping
3 40
.575
clerks, molders’ or mixers’ helpers
_ ______ _____ _
3 40
.550
Flour blenders
______ _ __ __________________
.420
3 40
Pan washers _ ____ _____ ___ _____________________
.382
44
General helpers or porters_________ ___________ _______
1 1 week vacation with pay after 1 year of service, or 2 weeks vacation after 3 years.
2 1 week vacation with pay after 1 year of service.
2 44 hours of straight time permitted.




$0,950
.900
.850
. 800
. 750
.700
.600
. 550
. 530
.460
. 550
. 500
.400
.350

40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40

W AGES AN D
T

able

HOURS

IN

EACH

17

C IT Y

3 . — Union scales o f wages and hours in the bakery trades , J une 1 , 1 9 3 8 , and
J u n e I , 1 9 3 9 — C o n tin u ed

June 1, 1939
City, type of baking, and occupation

Baltimore, Md.—Continued
Cake:2
Mixers. _______ _____ _____ ______ ... . . . __________
leers______________ ______ _ ________
_________
Scalers or mixers’ helpers... _______ __________ _________
leers’ helpers____________ ______ ___________________
Wrappers, foreladies___ . . . .
___ ____ ___ ____ _
Pan greasers; oven helpers; clean-up men; wrappers, female.
Hebrew baking:
Union A:
Foremen or ovenmen____ . _____ ____ _____ ______
Second hands________ _____ ____________________
Union B:
Dough mixers____ ____... ______ ____ _________
Bakers, journeymen _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _________
Apprentices___ __ __ . ________________________
Helpers__________________________ _______________
Birmingham, Ala.

Union A :2
Dough mixers______ _ _ _ _ .. ___ _____________
Ovenmen____________ ______ ___ __________ _______
Mixers’ helpers__ _______ ___________________ _______
Icing mixers or dividers _ _________________ ___ _______
Feeders and dumpers___________ ______ __ _________
Molders.
_______________ _______ ______________
Bake-shop helpers or assistant head packers ______ _______
Wrapping-machine operators_______ __ _____ _________
Packers and order fillers ___ _ _ __________ ___________
leers and wrappers, fem ale_______ _________ __________
Beginners, girls, first 8 weeks___ ____ . __ __________
Machinists _ . _ _______________ _____________
Machinists’ helpers.. _______ ___ ___________ ___ _______
Utilitym en______ _ _______________________________
Garagemen _
__ _______________ __________ _____
Oilers _ __ ____________ ______ _______________
Porters and cleaners_______________________ ___________
Union B ‘
,
Head mixers__ __ _________ ________________ _______
Mixers, head rollers, or ovenmen, rate A________________
Dough rollers or ovenmen, rate B__ __ _____ ___ _
Cracker stackers___________ _ ________________ _______
Machinemen.. _ __ _____ ______ ____ __________ _
Icing mixers, scalers, or conveyor men_.
__ _
Checkers, maintenance helpers, machine wrappers, packers,
machine girls, cappers and baggers, wrappers _

Boston, Mass.

Hand shops:
Foremen. _
_
_ ____ ______ __________
Ovenmen or dough mixers
_________
Benchmen__
_ ____ _____ _ _ ___________
Frosters_____ __ ________ ___ _ __ ... ________
Cleaners___ ____ ___ ____ ___________________
Head shipper. ___ ____ _ _________ __________ __
Assistant shipper. _ ______________ ________________
Machine shops:
Company A :2
Mixers_____ ______ ____ ____ ___________________
Dividermen..
. _
_____
Mixers’ helpers, ingredient scalers, moldermen, or oven
feeders.
_ _ ________ _ ________ __
Flour blenders._ _ __ ______________ ________ ___
Wrappers
Molders’ helpers, pan greasers, or rackers_ _________
Packers _
_____
_______ _ _ _ _____
Company B :2
Dough m ixers.___________________________________
Bakers, first class._________ ___________ _________
Doughnut men or ovenmen _ ___ ____ __ ____
Bakers, second class, or bench hands_____ ________
Scalers. _____ ____ _ ________________________
Bakers, third class, or helpers_______________________
Bakers, fourth class
__ ___ _____________
Helpers, female. ..................................................................
week vacation with pay after year of service.
44 hours of straight time permitted.
21
3




1

June 1, 1938

Rates of Hours Rates of Hours
wages
wages
per hour per week per hour per week
$0.864
.614
.477
.432
.386
.364

44
44
44
44
44
44

1.188
1.125
.729
.625
.521
.500

48
48
48
48
48
48

.650
.550
.505
.500
.475
.450
.400
.370
.350
.340
.290
.875
.550
.500
.400
.380
.350
.670
.500
.450
.420
.400
.380
.350

340
3 40
3 40
3 40
3 40
3 40
3
3 40
340
3 42
3 42
3 42
3 42
342
3 42
3 42

.833
.688
.625
.375
.354
.521
.458
.900
.780
.730
.680
.680
.630
.630
.833
.667
.604
.583
.542
.417
.375
.313

$1.188
1.125

48
48

48
48
48
48
48
48
48

.833
.688
.625
.375
.354
.521
.458

48
48
48
48
48
48
48

3 40
3 40
3 40
340
3 40
3 40
340
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48

.880
.760
.710
.660
.610

40

342

44
44
44
44
44
44
44

.833
.667
.604
.583
.542
.417
.375
.313

340
40
3 40
3 40
3 40

3

48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48

18

WAGES AND HOURS IN U NIO N BAKERIES

T a b l e 3 . — Union scales o f wages and hours in the bakery trades , J u n e 1, 1 9 3 8 , and
J u n e I , 193 9 — C o n tin u ed

June 1, 1939
City, type of baking, and occupation

Rates of Hours Rates of Hours
wages
wages
per hour per week per hour per week

Boston, Mass.—Continued
Machine shops—Continued.
Company C :2
Mixers___________________________________________ $0.735
Benchmen, divider or molder operators, mixers’ helpers,
or ovenmen_____________________________________
.630
Molders’ helpers___________________________________
.600
Rackers and helpers, or pan greasers_________________
.525
All-round bakers__________________________________
.630
All-round bakers’ helpers___________________________
.550
Mixers and doughnut-machine operators_____________
.500
Helpers, female____________________________________
.350
Shipping:
Wrapping-machine operators__________________
.630
Wrapping-machine floormen__________ _________
.473
Packers, strippers, and baggers, or porters................
.450
Company D :2
Mixers___________________________________________
.850
Benchmen________________________________________
.750
Dividers or moldermen_____________________________
.725
Flour blenders, ingredient scalers, oven feeders, or wrap­
pers________________________________ ______ _____
.700
Packers, mixers’ or moldermen’s helpers..... .....................
.650
Pan greasers, rackers, or helpers.........................................
.600
Company E (cake): 2
Mixers or ovenmen________ ________________________ 8.650
Dough mixers or ingredient scalers...... ..........................
8.550
Stockmen, chute men, or helpers........................................ 8.500
Table heads______________________________________
.500
Cleaners, greasers, icers, wrappers, or packers........ ........ 8.400
Company F (cake):
Chief ovenmen.................................................... ...............
.690
Senior ovenmen or pie men__-----------------------------------.550
Ovenmen or benchmen_____________________________
.520
Ingredient scalers, icing mixers, or chief general helpers. _
.500
Assistant ovenmen-------------------------------------------------.480
Beltmen or general helpers_________________________
.420
Assistant pie men, beltmen’s helpers, stamp or class A
girls-------------------------------------------------------------------.400
Beginners, less than 6 months_______________________
.370
Hebrew baking:
Foremen_____________________________________________
1.323
Second hands--------------------------------------------------------------- 1.219
Third hands_____________________ ______ ______________
1.115
Buffalo, N. Y.

June 1, 1938

440
440
440
440
440
440
440
440
440
440
440

3 40
3 40
3 40
3 40
3 40
3 40
3 40
3 40
3 40
3 40
3 40
44
44
44
44
44
44
44
44
48
48
48

$0. 735
.630
.600
.525
.630
.630
.525
.400
.630
.473
.450
.850
.750
.725
.700
.650
.600
8.650
8.550
8.500
.500
8.400

3 40
340
3 40
3 40
3 40
3 40
3 40
3 40
3 40
3 40
3 40

1.271
1.167
1.063

48
48
48

.771
.729
.375
.950
.875
.825
.775
.725
.650
.600
.575
.375
.875
.800
.750
.700

48
48
48
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
740
7 40
7 40
740

Union A
Hand and small machine shops:
Oven hands or mixers..........................................................
.771
48
Bench hands______________________________________
.729
48
Helpers___________________________________________
.375
48
Machine shops:
Foremen_____________________ ____ ________________ 6.950
40
Oven hands or mixers---------------------------------------------- 6.875
40
Bench hands______________________________________ 6.825
40
Scalers------------------ ------------------------------------------------ 6.775
40
Ingredient stock men----------------------------------------------.725
40
Oven dumpers____________________________________
6.650
40
Helpers, pan greasers, packers, checkers, flour dumpers
and blenders, or porters__________________________
40
6.600
Bread and pan stackers____________________________
40
.575
Icers or wrappers, female_____ ____ _________________
40
.375
Union B. —Machine shops:
Foremen, bread.................................................................... ........
740
.950
Foremen, cake________________________________________
740
.900
Mixers, peel oven men, assembly men, or ingredient scalers.
.800
740
Divider men, bench hands, or traveling-oven men________
.750
7 40
740
Machine or moldermen___________________ __________
.700
week vacation with pay after year of service,
s 44 hours of straight time permitted.
48 hours of straight time permitted.
5 For first 5 years; 5 cents additional from 5 to 10 years; additional 5 cents after 10 years.
per week increase after July , 1939.
42 hours of straight time permitted.

440
440
440
440
440
440
440
440
440
440
440

: 2

2

2 1

1

4

6 $1
7




2

WAGES AND HOURS IN EACH CITY

19

T a b l e 3 . — Union scales o f wages and hours in the b a k ery trades, J u n e 1, 1 9 3 8 , and
J u n e I , 1 9 3 9 — C o n tin u e d

June 1, 1939
City, type of baking, and occupation

Rates of Hours Rates of Hours
wages
wages
per hour per week per hour per week

Buffalo, N. Y.—Continued
Union B. 2—Machine shops—Continued.
Forewomen, cake__ ______ ___________________________
$0.675
Wrapping-machine operators, assembly or mixers’ helpers..
.650
Bench, oven, wrapping or slicing helpers, flour handlers,
fried-cake-machine men, yeast doughnut men, checkers,
orutilitymen________________________ _ ______ ...
.600
Pan greasers, packers, or machine-hand helpers__________
.550
Roll wrappers, fried packers, icers or packers; female_____
.430
Elevator men. _ ___ ________________________________
.600
Janitors or warehouse men..........................................................
.550
Union C.—Biscuit workers:
Baking department:
Head mixers............................................................................
.850
Machine captain........................ ...........................................
.840
Peelers------------------ ------------------------- ------------------.800
Sponge mixers, traveling or peel ovenmen....................
.770
Cuttermen........................................ ...................................
.750
Sweet mixers or sponge rollermen_____ _____ _________
.740
Mixers’ helpers _. _ _ _________________ _________
.710
Sponge drawmen____________ _____________________
.700
Oven firemen........................................................................
.690
Scalers........ .............................................. .................. .
.675
Clerks............... ....................................................................
.670
Flour dumpers.................................................................... .
.620
Icing department:
Head mixers____________________________________
.770
Mixers.................... ..............................................................
.720
Machine set-up..................................................................
.700
Machine men....................................................................... _
.650
W ork supervisors........ ......................................................
.560
Machine operators________________________________
.480
Packers, feeders or handlers________________________
.470
Clerks................... ............... ..............................................
.510
Cone department:
Mixers................................................................................ .
.680
Supervisors or clerks....................................................... .......
.600
Bakers or packers................................................ .................
.550
Ritz baking:
Machine captain................................ ...............................
.780
Bakers_____________________ ___________________ _
.720
Mixers or rollermen________________________________
.680
Spray-machine operators, oven feeders, take-out men,
scrapmen, spreaders, pan feeders, or stackers.. ____
.620
Packing department:
Checkers or truckers___________________________ ...
.620
Supervisors or repack girls________________________
.570
Sponge packers---------------------------------------------------- _
.520
Tally clerk------------------------------------------------------------.490
Handbundlers_______ __________________ _______
.480
Carton formers, hand; Q formers and stitchers, machine
operators, retail store clerks, sweet packers, sealing
and weighing, carton closers, or filling-machine
operators-------------------------------- ------------------------.470
Shipping department:
Loading foremen___________________________ ____ _
.770
A ssemblers................................ ............................................
.700
Carloaders........................................ ................... .................
.650
Porters...................................................................................
.590
Warehouse department:2
Receiving clerks_____ __ -------------- --------- -----------.750
Paper stock men, elevator operators, or general......... .
.670
Assembly department:2
Division head________________________________ __ _
.690
General assemblymen........... ...............................................
.670
Cafeteria department:
Cook________ . ... ........... .............................................
.560
Kitchen helpers or matrons..................... ............................
.450
Maintenance department:
Machinist, 1st class........ ................... ...................................
.950
.920
Painters........................................................... ........................
Electricians. __ __________________________________ * .900
week vacation with pay after year of service.
42 hours of straight time permitted.
21
7




1

June 1, 1938

7 40
7 40

$0. 675
.650

7 40
7 40

7 40
7 40
7 40
7 40
7 40

.600
.550
.430
.600
.550

7 40
7 40
7 40
7 40
740

40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40

.850
.840
.800
.770
.750
.740
.710
.700
.690
.675
.670
.620
.770
.720
.700
.650
.560
.480
.470
.510
.680
.600
.550
.780
.720
.680
.620
.620
.570
.520
.490
.480

40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40

40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40

.470
.770
.700
.650
.590
.750
.670
.690
.670
.560
.450
.950
.920
.900

40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40

20

W AGES

AND

HOURS

IN

U N IO N

B A K E R IE S

T a b l e 3 . — Union scales o f wages and hours in the bakery trades , J u n e I , 1 9 3 8 , and
J u n e I , 1 93 9 — C o n tin u ed

June 1, 1939
City, type of baking, and occupation

40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40

2

2

Chicago, III.

Union A:
First hands, ovenmen, or spongers----------------------------------Second hands________________________________________
Helpers-----------------------------------------------------------------------Union B
Retail bakeries:
First hands___________________________ ____ ___
Second hands.. _ _____ _ __
--------------- __
Wholesale bakeries:
First hands, ovenmen, or spongers________________
Second hands--------------- ----------------------------------------Union C
Mixers, ovenmen, or divider men-------------------------------- Traveling-oven feeders, bench hands, or moldermen--------Traveling-oven dumpers_______________________________
Mixers’ helpers__________. .. __ ---------------------------------Bake-shop helpers_____________ ___ _______________
Porters__________ _________________________________ Pie-machine operators, female_____________ _______Bohemian baking:
Small shops:
First hands-------------------------- ------------------------------Second hands---------------------------- ----------------------------Large shops
First hands... ------------- ---------. . . ------ ---------...
Second hands_____________________________________
Greek baking—hand shops
First class or ovenmen-------------------------------------------- -Second class, mixers, or bench hands____________________
Hebrew baking:
Foremen or first hands----------------------------------------------- -Second hands. _ -------------------------------------------------------Third hands______________________ _____ ________ _____
Italian baking
Hand shops:
First-class ovenmen or mixers_______________________
Second class or benchmen_________________________
Machine shops:
First class ovenmen or mixers. - __________________
Second class________ ... _____________ _____ ______
Polish baking
Retail shops, South Side:
Daywork:
Foremen or spongers----------------------------------- —
Second hands________ ____ ______ ____________
week vacation with pay after year of service.
Minimum of 36 hours; maximum of 42 hours.

$0. 870
.850
.820
.800
.750
.720
.590
.550

40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40

40
40

.750
.867
.822

48
48
45
45

37H
37^

Butte, Mont.

2

1

Rates of Hours Rates of Hours
wages
wages
per hour per week per hour per week

Buffalo, N. Y —Continued
Union C.—Biscuit workers—Continued
Maintenance department—Continued.
Head carpenters___________ . ______ _____________
$0. 870
Machinists, 2d class___________ _______________ _ _
.850
.820
Maintenance___________ _ _ . _ _ _ _________
Carpenters’ or pipefitters’ helpers___________________
.800
Machinists’ and electricians’ helpers___________ _____
.750
Oilers. .................................... ................. .........................
.720
Sweepers__________________________ _____________
.590
Junior mechanics. __________ _______________ ____
.550
Polish and Hebrew baking:
Day work:
.775
First hands_______________________________________
.713
Second hands_____________________________________
Night work:
First hands. . . . . ------------ -----------------------------------.880
.827
Second hands. _ . ------------------------------ ------- -------Foremen or doughmixers ....... ............................................. . -Ovenmen ________ _________ _ ... ___________ _______- Bench hands ................ ..................................................................

June , 1938

.6 8 8

1.179
1.143
1.048

42
42
42

1.179
1.143
1.048

42
42
42

.900
.850
.700

48
48
48

.900
.850
.700

48
48
48

.833
.792
.850
.800
.800
.750
.700
.650
.550
.500
.460

48
48
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40

.833
.792
.850
.800
.800
.750
.700
.650
.550
.500
.460

48
48
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40

48
48
40
40
48
48
48
48
48

.833
.771

: 2

: 9

: 2

: 2

.854
.792
1.025
.950
.646
.583
1.208
1.146
1 .0 0 0

8
8

.925
.646
.583
1.188
1.125

1 .0 0 0

1 .0 0 0

8
8

48
48
40
40
48
48
48
48
48

: 2

.631
.825
.758

48
48
40
40

.875
.750

48
48

.6 8 8

.631
.825
.758

48
48
40
40

.875
.750

48
48

.6 8 8

: 2

21
8

1

•W vacation w pay after 2 years of service.
eek
ith




W AGES AND

HOURS

IN

EACH

21

C IT Y

T a b l e 3 . — Union scales o f wages and hours in the bakery trades , J u n e 1 , 1 9 3 8 , and
J u n e 1 9 1 93 9 — C o n tin u ed

June 1, 1939
City, type of baking, and occupation

Chicago, III.—Continued
Polish baking —Continued.
Retail shops, West Side:
Daywork:
Foremen or spongers.................................... .................
Secondhands
_________ ____________
Night work:
Foremen or spongers____________________ ___
Secondhands_______________ __________ _ _ .
Wholesale bakeries:
Daywork:
Foremen or spongers________ ____ ____________ Second hands________________________________ Nightwork:
Foremen or spongers. ________________________
Second hands. _ ___________________ __ _

June 1, 1938

Rates of Hours Rates of Hours
wages
wages
per hour per week per hour per week

2

Cincinnati, Ohio

$0.896
.833
1.096
1. 033

48
48
48
48

$0.875
.750

48
48

1. 063
.938
1. 263
1.138

32
32
32
32

1.063
.938

32
32

.945
.863
.800
. 625
. 620
. 520
. 480
. 470
. 450
. 400

40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40

.945
.863
.800
. 625
.620
.520
.480
. 450
.400

40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40

.875
.813

48
48
48
48
48
48

.854
.792
.667
.833
.750
.667

48
48
48
48
48
48

40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40

.820
.760
.710
.650
.600
.430
.820
.760
.710
.650
.600
.430
.700
.600
.500
.470
.380
.792
.750
.646
1.167
1.063
.875
.583

40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
45
45
45
45
45
48
48
48
48
48
48
48

2

Foremen or first hands ____ . . . ___ ________________
Ovenmen or mixers__ _ . . . . _ ________ ...
_____ _
Bench or machine hands. ... ... _______________ _____ .
Helpers ... .. . _ _______ .. . _ _____________ ... ...
Machine operators._ ________ ... _ ____________ _______
Packers or shippers ___ ____ _____________________ _
Chute men or machine helpers. _ ______________________ _.
Utility helpers_____ ___ ___ ____ ____ _______ ___
Porters ___ _ ______ ___ _ ________ ________ _ _ _
Helpers, female____________ _____ ______________________

Cleveland, Ohio

Hand shops
Union A-Retail bakeries:
First hands... ______ _____ _________ _ _________
Second hands__________________________________ _
Third hands_______________ ________ ________
Union B:
First hands____ _______________________________ ...
Secondhands__________ _________________ ... .
Helpers.. _____________ __________________________
Machine shops
Medium-sized shops:
venmen, mixers, ingredient men, or cake decorators
Bench or machine hands_________ _____ . . . ____
Mixers’ helpers____ _______ _______ __ _____________
Oven feeders, dumpers, or helpers_______________________
Bake-shop helpers or slicers. ____ _ __________ .. ...
_________ _________
Bake-shop helpers, female.
Larger shops
Ovenmen, mixers, ingredient men, or cake decorators___
Bench or machine h a n d s._____... .
Mixers’ helpers _______ _ _ . ___________ _____
Oven feeders, dumpers, or helpers.. . _________ _____
Bake-shop helpers or slicers __ _ _ _ ________ ____
Shop helpers, female ______ ... _____________
Pie makers
Ovenmen, fruit cookers, or dough mixers _______________
Dough cu tters____ ____ ._ _____ ______ _______
Bake-shop helpers__ ____ .. _ _________ ____________
Machine girls. _ .. . __ _. . _______ ___________ .
Wrapper girls. __ ____ _ _ ________________ __________
Bohemian baking:
First hands ____________ _____ . ------------------ -Second hands------------ -----------------------------------------------Third hands ________________________ ____________
Hebrew baking:
First hands ................ . . . ---------- -------------------------Second hands---------------- ------------------------- ----------------Bakers, cake.. ------------- ---------------- .. ------- ..
Helpers.. ---- --------------. . . --------- . .. ........................
week vacation with pay after year of service.
week vacation with pay after years of service.
2 cents per hour increase after June 12, 1939.

10

10
10

10
10

: 2

.6 8 8

.854
.771
.6 8 8

: 9

0

: 9

: 9

21
9 1
19




1
2

.850
.800
.710
.650
.600
.430
.820
.760
.710
.650
.600
.430
.730
.580
.580
.470
.400
.854
.792

44
44
44
44
44

48
48

.6 8 8

48

1.244
1.133
.933
.644

45
45
45
45

22
T

able

W AGES

AND

HOURS

IN

U N IO N

B A K E R IE S

3 . — Union scales o f wages and hours in the bakery trades, J u n e 1 , 1 93 8 , and
J u n e I , 1 9 3 9 — C o n tin u ed

June 1, 1939
City, type of baking, and occupation

June 1, 1938

Rates of Hours Rates of Hours
wages
wages
per hour per week per hour per week

,

Dallas Tex.

Hand shops:
Foremen-,-_______ ___________ ____ __________________
Helpers____________________ _____ ___________ _________

,

$0.875
.625

48
48

.740
.690
.530

44
44
44

.833

$0.875
.625

48
48

.833
.896
.750

48
48
48
48

.975
.880
.825
1.050
.955
.900
1.013
.918
.938
.894
.871
.653

40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
48
48
48
48

Davenport Iowa

(See Rock Island (111.) district.)
Dayton, Ohio

Mixers_____________ _ ________ _____________________
Ovenmen or machine men _ ___________________________
Helpers, porters, or clean-up men_____________ _____________

Denver, Colo.

Hand shops:
Day work:
Foremen__________________________ _______________
Bench or machine hands___ ______ _____________
Night work:
Foremen. __ _________ _____ ______________________
Machine operators_________________________________
Machine shops:
Day work:
Forem en___________ ______ _________________
Dough mixers or ovenmen ___ _ ___ _ _______
Bench or machine hands________________ ________
Night work:
Foremen __ _ ______________ _ __ _____________
Dough mixers or ovenmen__________ ____________
Bench or machine hands____ _____________ _______
Part day and part night work:
Forem en__________ _________ __ _ __ _ __ __ _
Dough mixers or ovenmen_________ _ ______ ______
Hebrew baking:
Foremen _ ____
_ _ _ ___ ____ _______
Second hands_____________ _ __ - - - _________
Bench hands_______ ________
_________ . ___Helpers___________ ___________________________________

.896
.750

48
48
48
48

.975
.880
.825
1.050
.955
.900
1.013
.918
.938
.894
.871
.653

40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
48
48
48
48

Hand shops
First hands or foremen_____________ _____________ _ __
Second hands___________________________ ___________
Third hands or helpers___________________________ _____
Machine shops:
Foremen _____ ______ _______ ____________ _ Dough mixers, ovenmen, pan setters or dumpers. _______
Benchmen___________ _____________________________
Machine men_________ _____________________________
Helpers or pan greasers_______________________ ______
Hand wrappers or packers __________
__________
Biscuit:
Peelers
_ _ __________ ______________ _ ________.
Mixers
- __________ _______- _____________________
Rollers or feeders. ____ _________________________ _
Stackers _________ .. - . _____________________

.604
.542
.850
.750
.700
.650
.575
.525
.700
.650
.590
.580

Des Moines, Iowa

.6 8 8

: 2

.6 8 8

48
48
48
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40

.6 8 8

.6 8 8

.604
.542
.850
.750
.700
.650
.575
.525

48
48
48
40
40
40
40
40
40

Detroit, Mich.

Union A 2—Machine shops:
Mixers or senior bakers___________________ ____________
Bakers, mixers’ helpers, dividers, twisters, panners, friedcake men___ ... ______ _ _________ ___________
Stockmen, flour blenders, make-up helpers, wrappers, ship­
ping clerks.. ............. . ---------- ---------------------------------Pan cleaners___ ______________ . . . ___________ . . . _____
Fried-cake helpers, wrapper girls, bakers’ helpers, female..
Union B:
Mixers or ovenmen__ __________ ____________________
Blenders, scalers, dividers, molders, mixers’ helpers, benchmen, oven feeders or dumpers._________ . ______
Helpers, m ale.._ ._ ... ___________ __________ _____
Helpers, female............................................................................
week vacation with pay after year of service.
21




1

.800
.750
.700
.650
.550
.800
.700
.550
.450

44
44
44
44
44
44
44
44
44

.800
.750
.700
.650
.550
.800
.700
.550
.450

44
44
44
44
44
44
44
44
44

23

WAGES AND HOURS IN EACH CITY

T able 3.—

U n io n sca les o f w a g es a n d h ou rs in th e b a k e r y tra d es , J u n e
J u n e 1 , 1 9 3 9 — Continued

June 1,1939
City, type of baking, and occupation

Detroit, Mich.—Continued
Cake, pie or cookies:
Dough mixers_________________ _______________ _______
Flour blenders, ingredient scalers, icing mixers, dividers,
peel ovenmen, or benchmen_______________ ____ ______
Helpers, male_________ ____ ________. . . _______________
Helpers j female_________ ____________ ____________ _ .
Hebrew* baking:
First hands:
ovens________________________ _____ ____ __ .. __
oven. ______ _____ ______ ___________ ______
Second hands________ _____ _________ _________
__
Helpers.. ... ___________ __ _______________ _______
Balrers (cake)__ _________ ____ _ _______ ______ ___
Polish baking:
First hands, ovenmen or mixers_____________________
Second dough mixers__________ ________ _____ ____ _
Second hands or benchmen. _ _ __________ __________
Third hands_______. . . ____ ... _. _________ _________

1, 1 9 3 8 , a n d

June 1,1938

Rates of Hours Rates of Hours
wages
wages
per hour per week per hour per week
$0.800
.700
.550
.450

44
44
44
44

$0,800
.700
.550
.450

44
44
44
44

1.400
1.356
1.289
ii. 667
1.356
.958
.875
.813
. 521

45
45
45
45
45
48
48
48
48

1.400
1.356
1.289
.667
1.356
.958
.875
. 813
.521

45
45
45
45
45
48
48
48
48

Daywork:
Foremen.. _____ _ ____ ___ ______ _____________ __
Dough mixers, or ovenmen_______________ ___ ____ ____
Bench hands 1 _______ _ _ ______ ___________
Machine men _ __ _ _ _____________ __ __ ._ _ ____
Helpers (after year)_____ _ ___ _________________
Night work:
Foremen_____ _ __ _ ___ _________________ ___ _
Dough mixers or ovenmen. _______ _____ ________ _
Bench hands __
__ ____ _______ __ _____ _
Machine men. __ _ ______ _________ _____ _ ___
Helpers (after year)______ ___ _________ ________ _

.910
.800
.750
.625
.985
. 875
.825
.763
.700

40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40

.910
.800
. 750
. 625
.985
. 875
.825
.763
. 700

40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40

Ovenmen or mixers__ ___ _____ _ _ ___________ __
Bench or machine men __ _ __ _____ ________
__
Men-in-charge, wrapping machines. _ _ _ ________ __ ... _
Bake-shop or oven helpers, slicing machine operators.____ _ __

.650
. 550
. 500
.450

44
44
44
44

.650
. 550
.500
.450

44
44
44
44

.813
.646
.604
.705
.659
.580
.568

48
48
48
44
44
44
44
44

.841
.659
.614
.534
.523

44
44
44
44
44

.700
. 650
.625
.500
. 700
.600
.450
.700
.650
.500
.450
.450

40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
44

.700
.650
.625
.500
.700
.600
.450
.700
.650
.500
.450
.450

40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
44

2
1

Duluth, Minn.

1

1

Erie, Pa.

Houston, Tex.

Handshops:
Foremen_____ ________ ____________ ______ ____
Dough mixers or ovenmen. _ _ _______ _______
Benchmen__________ ____ _____ _ ______ ____
Machine shops:
Foremen
______ ___________
. .. __ ____
Dough Imixers, ovenmen or spongers____________________
Counters, bench or machine men __ ___________ ______
Wrappers
_. ____________ _
_________ ________
Helpers ___________________________________________ _
2

.6 8 8

2

Indianapolis, Ind.

Union A:
Company A:
Bread shops:
Dough mixers. ______ _______________ _ ._ .. .
Ovenmen, divider or molder operators___________
Oven dumpers, mixers’ helpers, wrapping-machine
operators.__________________________________
Helpers, rackers, greasers, or relief men________ _
Cake shops:
Mixers or ovenmen__ ______ _________________
Bench or machine hands________________________
leers or wrappers.
________________________
Roll shops:
Dough mixers, ovenmen or first bench hands ____
Second bench hands____________________ _____
Helpers. _ _ ____ _____________ ____________
leers or wrappers_____ ___ ___ ____ _ __________
General helpers: Stock room, porters, or pan washers...
21 week vacation with pay after 1 year of service.
11 $3 per week increase after Sept. 1,1939.




.8 8 6

.6 8 8

24

WAGES AND HOURS IN UNION BAKERIES

T able 3.—

U n io n scales o f w a g es a n d h ou rs i n th e b a k e r y tra d es , J u n e
J u n e 1 , 1 9 3 9 — Continued

June 1, 1939
City, type of baking, and occupation

Indianapolis, Ind.—Continued
Union A—Continued.
Company B:
Bread shops:
Mixers, ovenmen, or oven operators_____________
Oven feeders, dumpers, bench or machine hands,
head wrappers or slicers_______________________
Bake-shop helpers, wrappers, or packers__ _____
Assistant head' checkers_____ ___ __________
Flour dumpers_____ __ _____________________
Porters __ ___ _______________ _
_ ______
Cake shops:
Cake mixers or assistant foremen, _________ _ __
Pastry mixers, bench or oven hands,
_____
Wrappers or icers, female; panboys, helpers, or
doughnut-machine operators.. _ __________ .
Company C:
Mixers, molders, or dividers,____ _________ _ _ _
Stock-room men______ _ _____ __________ _ ,
Traveling-oven men, rate A ________ ______________
Traveling-oven men, rate B, or mixers’ helpers_______
Wrapping machine operators_______ _____ _______
______
Bake-shop helpers, __
__
Bread rackers or slicing-machine operators____ ____
Porters ______
__________ _______ _ __ _
Union B:
Foremen.. _ _________ ___ _ ____ _____ _ ___
Mixers or ovenmen... ________________ ________ _
Help-out-jobs__________________________________ ___
Benchmen or machinemen_______ ____________________
Jacksonville, Fla.

Bread shop:
Mixers or head ovenmen
____ _ _ _________
Molders, dividers, or wrappers
_ _ _____
Dumpers, panners, rackers, or greasers__________________
Porters_____________ ____ _______ _________ _____
Cake shop:
Mixers
_ _ _________________________________
Wrappers or icers, female _________ ___________________

Kansas City, Mo.

1 938, and

June 1, 1938

Rates of Hours Rates of Hours
wages
wages
per hour per week per hour per week

.750
is .550
.700
.682
.600
.620
.550
.500
.409
.950
.850
.800
.750

40
40
40
40
3 40
40
3 40
3 40
40
3 40
44
3 40
40
40
40
40
44
48
48
48
48

.600
.550
.450
.400
.600
.300

3
3

40
40
40
40
40
40

$0. 850
.750
.655
I2.650
.600
.550
1 .0 0 0

.6 8 0

3

3
3

3

3

3

3
3
3
3

Union A (bread):
Daywork:
40
Foremen_____________ __________ _____________ _ 1.063
40
Mixers, spongers, ovenmen, or drawers_____________
.975
40
.913
Bench hands_______ _ __ _______ _____________
40
.450
Helpers, male.. ________________________________
40
.400
Helpers, female____________ _ _ ________ _ __ __ __
Night work:
40
Foremen_________________________ _ ____________
1.188
40
Mixers, spongers, ovenmen, or drawers_________ _ _ _
40
Bench hands. _______ _______________ ______ __ 1.038
Union B (crackers and cookies):
44
Machine captain. ______ ___ ______ _____ ________ _
.850
44
.790
Mixers. ___________ ______________ _ ____ ____
44
.780
Peelers __ __________________ _______________________
44
Bakers. ________________ _____ ____________ _______
.750
44
Rollermen .. . ______ ______ _ ______ ___________
.730
44
Cuttermen, drawmen, or spongers _______ __________ _
.720
44
Mixers’ helpers or dough feeders. _ ___ ______ _______ _
.670
44
Flour dumpers or stackers ___ __ __
___
.620
44
Pan cleaners, sweepers or conveyormen__ _
.570
Icing department:
Mixers
___________ _ _ ____ ___ _ _ _____ _
.670
44
44
Mixers’ helpers _ _ ____ ___ _ _ __ _ __ _
.650
44
Working supervisors, female _____ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
.600
44
Helpers, female _ _ ___ _ ________ __________ ___
.440
Cone department:
.720
Machine captain or bakers___________ _ _ _ _
44
.670
44
Mixers_______________ ___________ _______________
.570
44
Packers__________________ ____ _______________ ...
3 44 hours of straight time permitted.
12 5 cents per hour increase after June 10, 1939.
is 10^ cents per hour increase, after June 10,1939, for doughnut-machine operators.




I,

1 .1 0 0

$0.850
.750
.655
.650
.600
.550
1 .0 0 0

.750
.550
.700
.682
.680
.600
.620
.550
.480
.409
.950
.850
.800
.750

1.063
.975
.913
.450
.400
1.188
1.038
1 .1 0 0

40
40

40
40
3 40
40
40
3 40
40
3 40
44
40
40
40
3 40
40
44
48
48
48
48
3

3

3

3

3

3
3
3
3

40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40

25

WAGES AND HOURS IN EACH CITY

T able 3.— U n io n

scales o f w a ges a n d h ou rs i n th e b a k e r y tra d es , J u n e
J u n e I, 1 9 3 9 — Continued

June 1,1939
City, type of baking, and occupation

Kansas City, Mo.—Continued
Union B (crackers and cookies)—Continued.
Packing department*
Supervisors (working)____________________ _ ... ___
Sealers or weighers._ __ ________ _ __ __ _____ _
Sponge packers ______________ __ ... ______ _
Helpers^ female________________ _ _________
Union C (crackers and cookies):
Sponge baking:
Machine m en.__ __ _ __ _ ________ ____ ______ _
Head mixers___ _ ___ ________ _____ _________
Peelermen_____ ___ _ __
__ .
Rollermen or relief rollermen__ _ ____
Ovenmen or night mixers _____ __ ____ ___ _
Helpers
_
__________ __ _ _______
Overmen’s helpers_____ ___ _ _.
Reliefmen, while on floor_____ _ _ _ _
Pan boys______ __ _______ _ ___ __________ _
Floormen_____________ _____________ __ _______
Sweet side baking:
Machine men__ ______ _ _____ __ __ __ ___
Head mixers .. _________ ____________ __ _
Ovenmen or assistant mixers __ ___ _______ _ __ __
Helpers _ __________ __ __ _ ___________________
Dough feeders___________ _______ ______ _______
Reliefmen __ _________________ ____ _________
Pan feeders or fig grinders._ __________ _ ____ __
Pan greasers___________ ____ __ _____________ _____
Hebrew baking:2
Foremen_______________ ___________ _ _ __ ------------Mixers, ovenmen, or drawers... ___ ______________ _____
Benchhands______ _________________________
Little Rock, Ark.

Bread shops:
Mixers or ovenmen_____________ ____________________
Head checkers______ ____ _______________ ___ _ _
Dividers. _ ___________. . . ____ _________________ _
Benchmen, molders, or machine operators _____ __ _ __
Stock-room clerks. __________ _ _ _________________
Assistant checkers__ _
__ __. ___ ___ _ _
Wrapping-machine operators __ _ ___ __ __ _ _
Tw isters_____ _ __________ ____ ______ __
Helpers (after 6 months)------------ -------------------------------Cakeshops:
Mixers
__ ____ ___ ______ ___________________
Ovenmen, ingredient men or scalers________ __________
Helpers __
__ _ ___ _______ _____ _

Los Angeles, Calif.

J,

1 9 3 8 , and

June 1, 1938

Rates of Hours Rates of Hours
wages
wages
per hour per week per hour per week

$0.620
. 570
.480
.460

44
44
44
44

.830
.818
.750
.720
.700
.650
.630
.575
.550
.500
.830
.780
.700
.650
.595
.570
.550
.500
.927
.854
.802

40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
48
48
48

.750
.750
.700
.650
.625
.600
.600
.550
.500
.620
.550
.450

1 440

i*40
u 40
40
14 40
14 40
40
14

154 0
14

1440

$0.989
.911
.856

45
45
45

.750
.750
.700
.650
.625
.600
.600
.550
.500

40
48
40
40
40
48
40
40
40

16 40
16 40
16 40

Union A (bread):2
Hand shops:
17. 909
44
.909
Dough mixers. -------------- ------ ------- ----------44
.864
Ovenmen... _______ ____ _ _________ . . . __ __ 17.864
44
17. 773
.773
Benchhands------------------------ ----------------------------Machine shops:
1.050
40
Foremen__________________________________________ 1.050
1.000
40
Dough mixers--------------------------------------------------------- 17 1. 000
17.950
40
.950
Ovenmen______________ _ ------- -- . . . ___... ...
.850
40
Machine or bench hands__________ __ . . . _____ . 17. 850
40
.750
Mixers’helpers___ _____ _ ... ._. _ _ _ _ _ _ ------ 17. 750
.700
40
Machine men or checkers--- -- ---------- _ __ . ... 17. 700
17. 675
.675
40
Machine or bench hands’ helpers----- --------- _ _ ____
.600
40
Helpers------------------------------ -------------------------------- 17. 600
17. 600
40
Pan wash firs or greasers
Union B (crackers):2
Mirers or maniline men
__
_ __
.963
40
40
.913
Peelers, ovenmen, or relief men
__
_____
40
.848
Rollermen
_
. __ ___ ____. _ _ _
40
.815
Mixers’ helpers_____ ______________________ -- ---- -21week vacation with pay after 1 year of service.
1 Minimum of 40 hours; maximum of 44 hours.
4
4 Minimum of 40 hours; maximum of 48 hours.
5
1 Minimum of 36 hours; maximum of 44 hours.
6
1 $2 per week increase for male employees; $1 increase for female employees after July 9,1939.
7




44
44
44
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40

26
T

able

WAGES AND HOURS IN U NIO N BAKERIES
3 . — U n i o n s c a le s o f w a g e s a n d h o u r s i n t h e b a k e r y t r a d e s , J u n e I , 1 9 3 8 , a n d
J u n e i , 1 9 3 9 — C o n t in u e d

June 1, 1939
City, type of baking, and occupation

June 1, 1938

Rates of
wages
per hour

Hours
per week

$0. 750
.618

40
40

. 530
.495
.455

40
40
40

1. 313
1.188

40
40

$1.313
1.188

40
40

Machine shops:
F o rem en ... _______ . . . . . . .
. . . _______________ ___
Ovenmen, mixers, or spongers. _ _ _____________ __________
M a c h in e m e n ._____ _____ . . . _____ ______ ______ __ __________
Bench hands__________ . . . __________ _____ _____________ . . .
Helpers. ----------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------

.938
.838
.813
.784
.675

48
40
40
40
40

.938
.838
.813
.784
.675

48
40
40
40
40

M a n ch ester , N . H .
Bread shops:
Foremen_________________________________________ . . . _______
Second hands......... ............ . . . . . . __________ __ _________ __ _
Bench h a n d s ___ ______ _______________________________________

.792

48
48
48

.792

.625

.688
.625

48
48
48

. 563
.375
.313

40
40
40

. 563
.375
.313

40
40
40

.830
.750
.730
.650
.700
.550
.460
.430

40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40

.880
.830
.760
.750
.730
.650
.700
.600
.460
.570
.530
.460
.430
.660
.630
.580
.625
.550

3 40
3 40
3 40
3 40
3 40
3 40
3 40
3 40
3 40
3 40
3 40
3 40
3 40
3 40
3 40
3 40
44
44

.771
.667
.625
.583
.521

48
48
48
48
48

.771
.667
.625
.583
.521

48
48
48
48
48

.925
.800
.750
.625

40
40
40
40

.925
.800
.750
.625

40
40
40
40

Rates of
wages
per hour

Hours
per week

L os A n geles, Calif .— Continued

Union B (crackers)2 Continued.
—
Warehousemen and all other helpers in baking shops..........
Truckers or general h elp ers_______________________________
Females:
Supervisors_______________ _____ ______________________
_
Packers or bundlers _ ______ ___________ _______ _____ __
Scalers, carton formers, or sweet packers________________
Hebrew baking:
First hands___________ ________ __ ___ ______________________
Second hands_________________________________________________
M a d ison , W is.

.688

M e m p h is, Ten n.

Bread shops:
Mixers, ovenmen, second hands, bench hands, or machine
men . . ______ ___ ________
__ _______
_ _ _____
Helpers_______________________ ________________________________
Wrapping-machine operators, female.__ _
. . . _______. . .
Cake shops:
_
. ___
Machine captain_ _____ __ „ ____________ __
P eelers_ __________________ . . . ____________ __ _ __
_
__ _
Ovenmen, rate A _______________ __ _____ _______ ____ _______
Ovenmen, rate B __________ __ _ _ ______ ___________________
Rollers
__________ __________ ____ ______ _____ ________ __
Pan greasers, bake-shop helpers___ ________________ _______
Packers, rate A ________ _________ ______ ____
_____________
Packers, rate B ______ ________ ________ ____ _______ ___ _____
Cracker shops:
Head mixers ____ __ __ ________ _____________________ _ .
Machine ca p ta in ___ _____ __ ________ ______ ______ __________
Sponge setter, second man . _________ ____ _________ __ _
_
Peelers or assemblymen _____ _______ _____ ________ __ _ _
Ovenmen, rate A ____________ ______________________ ______ __
Ovenmen, rate B
____________ _______ __________ _________
Rollermen _ ___________________ ____
_
. . ___________ _____
_ _________
Helpers, rate A
__ _______________ ________ __
Helpers, rate B
_ _ _____ __________________________________
Assemblymen’s helpers
___________ ____ _______ _____ __ . . .
Packers, floor ladies._ ______________________ __________ . .
Packers, female, rate A ____ ______ __ _______ ________
______
Packers, female, rate B ____ ___________________________ ______
Head warehousemen. __________ ________ __________ _______
Warehousemen, rate A ___________ _________ _ _____ _____
_
Warehousemen, rate B ___________ ____ ____ ____________ ____ __
Head shippers
. ______ __ __________________ .
Shippers (cake and crackers)_ ____ _______________________ _
_
M ilw aukee, W is.

Hand shops:
Foremen___________ . . . ___________ _____________________ . .
First bakers___________________________________________________
Second bakers __________ __ _______________________________ .
Third bakers______________
__ _______ . . . _______________
Helpers---------------------- ---------------- ---------------------------------------------Machine shops:
Foremen.----------------------------------- --------------------------------------- . .
Mixers or ovenmen, class 1 . . . ---------- --- ----------------... .
Bench hands or ovenmen, class 2-----------------------------------------Helpers______________________________________________ _________

2 1 week vacation with pay after 1 year of service.
* 44 hours of straight time permitted.




W AGES

AND

HOURS

IN

EACH

27

C IT Y

T a b l e 3 . — U n i o n s c a le s o f w a g e s a n d h o u r s i n t h e b a k e r y t r a d e s , J u n e 1 , 1 9 3 8 , a n d
J u n e 1 , 1 9 3 9 — C o n tin u e d

June 1, 1938

June 1, 1939
City, type of baking, and occupation

Rates of
wages
per hour

Hours
per week

Rates of
wages
per hour

$0. 872
.787
.702

47
47
47

$0. 872
.787
.702

47
47
47

.902
.817
.732

47
47
47

.902
.817
.732

47
47
47

.844
.711
.667

45
45
45

.844
.711
.667

45
45
45

.935
.785

7 40

7 40

.900
.750

7 40
7 40

.735
.680
.575

7 40
7 40
7 40

.700
.650
.550

7 40
7 40
7 40

1.354
1.250

48
48

1.354
1. 250

48
48

1.050
.925
.775
.675
.625
.575
.425

40
40
40
40
40
40
40

1.050
.925
.775
.650
.600
.550
.425

40
40
40
40
40
40
40

1.354
1.250

48
48

1.354
1.250

48
48

.750
.713
.675

48
48
48

.750
.713
.675

48
48
48

1.083

48
48
48

1.083

.625

.625

48
48
48

.635
.593
.530
.500
.450
.350

48
48
48
48
48
48

.625
.583
.520

48
48
48

1.000

40
40
40

1.000

40
40
40

Hours
per week

M ilw au k ee, TFis.— Continued

Hebrew baking:
D ay work:
Bench hands, first ----------------- ----------------------------------Bench hands, second- _ ________________________________
Bench hands, third_________________________________ _ _
Night work:
Bench hands, first________________________________________
_______________________________
Bench hands, second___
Bench hands, third
___ __ ___ _ ____________________
M in n ea p olis , M i n n .
Hand shops:
Foremen___ __
___ __ _ ___________ _
------------ - . . .
Mixers or ovenmen______ _________ _ ___ ______ __________
Bench hands __ _______
_________
_____________ __
Machine shops: 2
Foremen
___ __
_ _
_ ________________ - _. . _ ___
Sponge and dough mixers, ovenmen, or oven operators. _ __
Bench hands, dividers, molder men, automatic-bun-machine operators_____ ____ __ . . . ---------------------------------- -Dough-room men or traveling-oven feeders or dumpers. __ .
Twisters, molders, dough panners, or bench hand helpers..
M o lin e, III.

(See Rock Island (111.) district.)
New ark, N . J .

Union A (bread):
First ovenmen_______
___________ ______ __________________
Second hands or bench m en .. . __________ ______ ____________
Union B (cake and bread):
Foremen, ovenmen, or dough mixers------------------------------------Bench hands__________ ______________________________________
Third hands_____________________________________________ . . .
Mixers’ or oven helpers
___ ______ _______________________
Bench hand helpers _ _____________ ___________ — . . . . . .
Pan greasers, machine-packers or slicers-------------------------------Wrappers, female____________ ________ _________________
Hebrew baking (bread):
Foremen or ovenmen __ ------------ ---------------------------------Second hands or mixers_____ __ __________ _______ __________
N e w H aven, Conn.

Hand shops: 2
Foremen or mixers_____________ _____ ______ __________ _______
O v e n m e n ________ _______ _________________________ _ __
Benchraen_______ __________ __________________________________
Hebrew baking:
Foremen or ovenmen__________________________________ _ . . .
Second hands. _
_ ___________ _ ------------------------------------- _
Bench hands---------- ------------------------ -----------------------------------------

1. 000

1.000

N ew Orleans, La.

___ __
___ __ ______ ____________________ _
Foremen
__
Mixers, ovenmen—feeders. .
------- --- --------------- ------------------Bench hands or divider men . . . ________ ______________________
Ovenmen— take out.
__ _ ___
_ ________ _______________
Molder men or twisters
______ _____ __ _ _______________
Wrapping machine operators
_ __ _
_ _ _______________ _
N e w York, N . Y .

Union A :
Small bakeries:
First hands. _. ______________________________ _____ _____
Second hands. _
...
____________________________
H elpers.. . . . _______
________________________ _____
“ 5 day” large bakeries:
Foremen____ _____ __ __ _________ __________ _____
. .
Ovenmen or mixers
_ . . . _ . . . ------------------------- . . .
Bench hands„ ------- --------------- ---------- -----------------------Helpers. _
. . .
.
___ .
----------------------------- 1

2 1 week vacation with pay after 1 year of service.
7 42 hours of straight time permitted.




.900
.700
1.250

1.100
1. 050
.750

40
40
40
40

.900
.700
1.250

1.100
1.050
.750

40
40
40
40

28
T

able

WAGES

AND

HOURS

IN

U N IO N

B A K E R IE S

3 . — U n i o n s c a le s o f w a g e s a n d h o u r s i n t h e b a k e r y t r a d e s , J u n e I , 1 9 3 8 , a n d
J u n e 1 , 1 9 3 9 — C o n t in u e d

June 1, 1939

City, type of baking, and occupation

June 1, 1938

Rates of
wages
per hour

Hours
per week

Rates of
wages
per hour

$0.970
.810
.720

40
40
40

$0,950
.740
.680

40
40
40

.800
.750
.700
.525
.450

40
40
40
40
40

.800
.750
.700
.525
.450

40
40
40
40
40

1.100
1.000

40
40
40

1.050
.950
.750

40
40
40

1.000

35
35

1.000
.929

35
35

1.214
1.143

35
35

1.143
1.071

35
35

.975
.875
.800
.775

40
40
40
40

. 750
.725
.700
.675
.625

40
40
40
40
40

. 950
. 775
. 750
. 725
.700
. 650
.625
.463

40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40

Hours
per week

N e w York, N . Y — Continued

Union A — Continued.
“ 6 day” large bakeries:
Ovenmen or mixers______________________________________
Bench hands, A __________________________________________
Bench hands, B __________________________________________
Pie shops:
Oven workers_____________________________________________
Bench hands, A __________________________________________
Bench hands, B __________________________________________
Bake shop helpers________________________________________
Helpers—packing, etc____________________________________
Union B (bread and cake)— Brooklyn:
First hands___________________________________________________
Second hands_________________________________________________
Helpers_______________________________________________________
Union C (bread) : 3
Small shops:
First hands_______________________________________________
Second hands or bench hands___________________________
Large shops:
First hands_______________________________________________
Second hands or bench hands___________________________
Union D :
Company A :
Bread department:
Mixers or ovenmen__________________________________
Benchmen or divider men___________________________
Molder operators____________________________________
Soft-bun molder operators___________________________
Mixers’ helpers, oven feeders, soft-roll scalers, head
machine wrappers_________________________________
Checkers_____________________________________________
Oven dumpers or pan greasers______________________
Flour dumpers or general helpers___________________
Rack pusher, bread or restaurant wrappers________
Cake department:
Mixers or ovenmen__________________________________
Icing makers_________________________________________
Dough scaler, mixers’ helpers, or oven feeders______
Ingredient scalers or milk men______________________
Scalers’ helpers, cake or oven dumpers______________
leers’ helpers or tray men___________________________
Tray boys____________________________________________
Cake wrappers, female employees___________________
Company B : 2
Mixers or ovenmen______________________________________
Bench w orkers-.:________________________________________
Scalers____________________________________________________
Packers or wrappers______________________________________
Helpers___________________________________________________
Company C: 2
Ovenmen, mixers, or scalers_____________________________
Bench workers___________________________________________
Helpers____________________________________________________
Wrappers_________________________________________________
Packers___________________________________________________
Wrappers, female________________________________________
Company D : 2
Mixers____________________________________________________
Ovenmen or scalers----------------------------------------------------------Benchmen________________________________________________
Helpers, packers, or wrappers___________________________
Union E 19 (crackers and cookies):
Peelers or machine captains__________________________________
Mixers________________________________________________________
First bakers or ovenmen, rollermen or breakermen, or
mixers’ helpers_____________________________________________
Second bakers, sponge or flour blenders_____________________
Stackers— 1 per oven, conveyormen, flour dumpers, or
dough cutters_______________________________________________

.800
1.071

.950
.850
.800
.675
.625

1840

is 40
is 40

1840
is 40

.975
.850
.675
.650
.625
.450

40
40
40
40
40
40

.975
.950
.850
.650

40
40
40
40

.930
.850

40
40

.830
.800

40
40

700

40

3 1 week vacation with pay after 1 year of service
18 M inim um of 40 hours; maximum of 42 hours.
191 week vacation with pay after 1 year of service. This local has other cooky and cracker agreements
which provide different rates; the scales given, however, apply to 83 percent of the membership.




29

WAGES AND HOURS IN EACH CITY

T a b l e 3 . - - U n i o n s c a le s o f w a g e s a n d h o u r s i n th e b a k e r y t r a d e s , J u n e I , 1 9 3 8 , a n d
J u n e 1 , 1 9 3 9 — C o n t in u e d

June 1, 1939
City, type of baking, and occupation

Rates of
wages
per hour

June 1, 1938

Hours
per week

Rates of
wages
per hour

Hours
per week

N e w York, N . Y .— Continued

Union E 19 (crackers and cookies)— Continued.
Pan feeders or assemblymen_______ _____ ____________ ______
Stackers— 2 per ove n .__ ____________________ . . . ________ __
Icing department:
Chocolate temperers______________________________ . . . _
Mixers________________________________________ ____ __
Mixers’ helpers____________________ _____ __________ _
Feeders___r_______________________ __ ___ __
Tray handlers...___________________ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
. . . . ______
_________ _______ __ . . . _
General___
Sugar-wafer department:
Spreading-machine captains
._ _ ______ ________
M ix e rs... . . . ._ __ _ __
____ . . .
_ .
_
Mixers’ helpers, trimmers, or spreaders. __ __ _. _
Shipping and miscellaneous departments:
Checkers, carloaders, or assemblymen
__ . . . __
Paste or broken crackermen . .
_ ____________ __
Supervisors or inspectors— female
_ _ __
Packers. . . .
...
__ ___ __
Hand bundlers, carton closers, bundlers, sponge packers or labeling-machine operators.
„
_ _
Carton formers or miscellaneous helpers..
_ _
Chute feeders _______ _________ . . .
Plant men:
First-class machinists, clock-time foremen, or powerplant engineers _
_ _____ __________ . ___
Electricians or millwrights _ _______ _______
Second-class machinists or maintenance m e n ___ _
Firemen
__ _______ _________ _____ __
_ _ __
Machinists’ helpers______ ______
__
____________
Painters.
_ . . . _ ______________________ __
_
Oilers or warehouse laborers_________________ __ _ _
Laundry workers
. . . _ _. ________________ . . .
Male helpers in washrooms ______________ . . .
Dressing-room attendants _ ___________ ______ _
Matrons__________ __ ._ _ ______ _____ _________ __
Union F:
Cake, retail:
First hands_______ _ _____ _______ ___ __ . . . . . . .
Second hands_____ ______ ________________________ .
Third hands___________
____________
________________
Cake, wholesale:
Foremen. ___________
. . . ____
_______ __
Benchmen, ovenmen, mixers, or finishers___
_ .
Helpers __ ________
___ _______ . . .
______ __ _
French baking— Hand shops: 2
Agreement A :
D ay work:
First h a n d s ... _ ______ __
. . . __ _________ __ . . .
Second hands..
_. . . . .
__ . . . _______
Third hands or helpers_________ _____ . . . __ __ _
Night work:
First hands__________
___ . . . ______
Second hands_______________________
_____________
Third hands or helpers____ _______________ _________
Agreement B— D ay and night work:
F o rem en _______________ . __________ __________________
First or second hands. __ _______ _______ _____________
Third or bench hands___
. . . _______„__________ __
German-American baking:
Union A (bread and cake):
Hand shops:
Ovenmen or first hands_____ _ ______________
Second hands______
_ . . . _________ __________ _
Third hands or helpers___________________
____
_
Machine shops: 2
Foremen. . _ . . . ___ __
. . . ______ ._ __
Ovenmen or mixers __
. _____ __
Bench hands.__ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
_______ __
_ _ .
Helpers__________ _________ _________ ____
...

$0. 680
.650

40
40

. 880
.850
.800
. 750
.680
. 530

40
40
40
40
40
40

. 850
.800
. 750

40
40
40

. 750
. 680
. 600
. 580

40
40
40
40

.550
. 530
. 480

40
40
40

1.000

40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40

. 950
.900
. 830
. 800
. 750
. 700
.650
. 630
. 550
. 500

1. 600
1. 333
.933

45
45
45

$ 1. 600
1. 333
.933

45
45
45

1.667
.933
.400

45
45
45

1. 667
.933
.400

45
45
45

.933
.889
.845

45
45
45

.960
.889
.845

371/3
371/3
37i/3

1.029
.952
.905

35
35
35

1.000
.952
.905

42
42
42

.956
.867
.778

45
45
45

.933
.844
.756

45
45
45

.950
.850
.750

40
40
40

.950
.850
.750

40
40
40

1.075
.875
.775
.625

40
40
40
40

1.050
.850
.750
.600

40
40
40
40

2 1 week vacation with pay, after 1 year of service.
191 week vacation with pay after 1 year of service. This local has other cooky and cracker agreements
which provide different rctes; the scales given, however, apply to 83 percent of the membership.




30

WAGES

AND

HOURS

IN

U N IO N

B A K E R IE S

T a b l e 3 . — U n i o n s c a le s o f w a g e s a n d h o u r s i n t h e b a k e r y t r a d e s , J u n e I , 7 9 3 8 , a n d
J u n e I , 1 9 3 9 — C o n t in u e d

June 1, 1939
City, type of baking, and occupation

June 1, 1938

Rates of
wages
per hour

Hours
per week

Rates of
wages
per hour

$ 1,000
.938
.625

40
40
40

$1,000
.938
.625

40
40
40

1.400
1.267

45
45
45

1. 333
.933

45
45
45

1.000

45
45
45

1.467
1. 333
.933

45
45
45

1.643
1. 500
1.071

42
42
42

1. 571
1.429

1.000

42
42
42

1.467
1.333
.933

45
45
45

1.467
1.333
.933

45
45
45

1. 571
1.429
.933

42
42
42

1. 571
1.429
.933

42
42
42

1.288
1.125
.900
1. 225

40
40
40
40

1.238
1.075
.850
1.175

40
40
40
40

1.542
1.458

48
48

1. 542
1.458

48
48

.933
.889
.844

45
45
45

.933
.889
.844

45
45
45

1.000

42
42
42

1..000

.952
.905

.952
.905

42
42
42

.648
.481

54
54

.900
.800
.700
.600

40
40
40
40

.900
.800
.700
.600

40
40
40
40

1.025
.875
.775

40
40
40

1.025
.875
.775

40
40
40

.800
.700
2i . 650

22 4 4
2244
22 4 4

.800
.700
.650

44
44
44

2i .600

22 4 4

.600

44

’ i . 500
2i . 370

22 4 4
22 4 4

.500
.370

44
44

Hours
per week

N e w York, N . Y .— Continued

German-American baking— C ontinued.
Union B (bread and cake)— Hand shops:
First hands_________________
__________________ ______
Second ha n d s,______ _______ _ __ ____________________
_
Helpers__________ ___________ __________ ________ ________
Hebrew baking:
Union A — Hand shops (bread):
First hands or ovenmen____________________________
_ _
Second hands_____________________________________________
Third hands or helpers, _________________________________
Union B:
Hand shops:
First hands______ ____________________________________
Second hands_______ ______________________ _______ _
Third hands or helpers _________________________ _
Machine shops:
First hands_____________________ _______________ ____
Second hands____________________________________ __
Third hands_________________ ______________________ _
Union C:
Hand shops (bread):
First hands___________________________________________
Second hands_________________________________ ______
Helpers_________________________ _____________________
Machine shops:
First hands __ ______________ ____________________
Second hands ________ _ _____
___________________
Helpers
__ _________ ____________ ______ __
Union D (bread and cake)— Semi-Hebrew baking:
Foremen or first hands __
_
_
_
_ _________
Second hands. ___________ ________ _____ _______ ______
Helpers. ____________ _ ___
___
______________
_.
Mixers or oven workers________________ ___________ __ .
Union E (Beigel):
F o rem en __ _________ __ ________________________________
Second or third hands_________________________________ _
Italian baking:
Union A :
D ay work:
Foremen
__ ______________________________________
Second hands_______________________________________
Third hands _______________________________________
Night work:
Foremen
______________________________________ _
Second h a n d s.________ ___________________ ____ _______
Third hands_________ _____ ___________________ _ ___
Union B— Long Island— Hand shops:
First hands
_______ __
_ __ _____________________
Second hands
_. ______ __ . ________________________

1.000
1.533
1.400

1.200

Oklahoma C ity, Okla.w

D ay work (bread):
Foremen __ _
_
_ _ _
_ ______________________________
Dough mixers or ovenmen ____
________________________
Bench or machine men
__ ___________________ _________
Helpers (1 year service or lon ge r)_________________________ _
Night work:
Foremen
__ _ _ _______ __________________________
Dough mixers or ovenmen __ ______ ___________________ ____
Bench or machine men _ ___
____________________ ______
Omaha, Nehr.

Foremen.
_
_ __
_
__ ______ _________ ______________
Dough mixers or ovenmen _ _ _ _ __ __ _ _____ __
_
______
Cake mixers or bench men _
_
_
___________ . . .
Dough-room helpers, machine men, order checkers, or oven
dum pers._ ______ _
__
_ _ _.
__ __ _______
Ingredient scalers, stock-room men, or bake-shop helpers over
1 year _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___ _________
. . . ___ __
. . .
Hand wrappers and icers over 1 y e a r ... ________ _ ________

20 One-half week vacation with pay after 1 year of service.
21 5 cents per hour increase after July 1, 1939.
22 Decrease of 2 hours after Oct. 24, 1939.




W AGES

AND

HOURS

IN

EACH

31

C IT Y

T a b l e 3 . — U n i o n s c a le s o f w a g e s a n d h o u r s i n t h e b a k e r y t r a d e s , J u n e I ,

19 38, and

J u n e I , 1 9 3 9 — C o n t in u e d

June 1 1939
.,
City, type of baking, and occupation

June 1, 1938

Rates of
wages
per hour

Hours
per week

Rates of
wages
per hour

$0.911
.733

45
45

$0.911
.733

45
45

1. 025
.900
.825

40
40
40

.976
.875
.786

42
42
42

.800
.775
.750
.710
.700
.680
.660
.650
.625
.550
.540
.530
.410
.425

40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40

.800
.775
.750
.710
.700
.680
.660
.650
.625
.550
.540
.530
.410
.425

40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40

.800
.750
.600
.500
.450
.400
.375
.825

40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40

.800
.750
.600
.500
.450
.400
.375
.825

40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40

1.031
.859
.844
.703
.510
.844

23 32
23 32
2 32
3

.875
.820
.750
.700
.500

40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40

Hours
per week

Peoria, III.2

Hand shops:
Foremen____________ ________________
__ _______________
Bench men _ _________ _________ ___ _______ ___ ___
_
Machine shops:
Foremen______________ _____ __________________ ___ __________
Spongers or ovenmen________________________ _______________
Bench men or machine operators_________ _._ ___________ __
Philadelphia, P a.

Union A (bread) 2 machine shops:
—
Traveling-oven supervisors__________________________________
Peel-oven feeders or dumpers________ ^-------------------------------Mixers _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___
_ _ _
__ _______ _________ __
Bench men, divider or molder operators_____ _ _ _ _ _ ___
Ingredient scalers______________________ _____________________
Depositor operators. _
_ _
_______ _______ __________
Traveling-oven helpers or oil oven firemen__ ___ ________ __
Mixers’ helpers_________ ____________________________________
Route packers.____________________ ___ ___________ _________
Flour blenders or pilers________________________________ ____
Wrapping-machine m en_____
_______________ __ __ . __
Pan greasers or porters.
___ ____________ _ ________ __ __
Twisters. _________________ __________________ _ _ ___________
Cake wrappers or icers, female______
__________ ____ __
Union B (crackers and cookies):
Company A :
Machine captain
_____________
_____________ ________
Bakers-------------------------------------------------------------------------------Dough mixers------------- ---------------------------- ----------------------Dough mixers’ helpers_____ _ _ _ ------___ _ ___'. ___
General helpers. _ ________________ _________________ ._ _
Packers and bundlers, female___________________________
Carton makers, female; or helpers on odd jobs . . . __ __
Mechanics______ _________ . . . _. _ _. __. __ _ _. __
Company B :
_
_
__________ ______
Dough mixers.
._
Bakers. ______ __ __ _______ __ _______ _____ ______ __
Dough mixers’ helpers
_______ __
_ _ _ __
_
General helpers
_
_ _ _ _ _
Packers, carton makers, or bundlers, female
_ _ _ _
Stevedores
_
__
_
_ _
_
_ _
Mechanics or maintenance men
__ _ _ _ _ _ _
Company C :
Machine captains.________ ______ __ __ ____________ . . .
P eelers___ _____ __ ._ ---------- --- .... ___ - ------------ _
Bakers, class A ___ ______________ _______ _______ __ _
Bakers, class B__
_________ __ _
Icing-machine operators, female___ __ _
_____________
Dough mixers . . .
_ . . . ________ . . . __ . . . ___ . . .
Dough mixers’ helpers _ _ _ _________ ________________
Icers, female _
____________________ _ _ _
------- . . .
Truck loaders._________ ____________ _ . _. ___________
P ackers... _________ _______________ __________ ________ __
Sackers, bundlers or carton makers, female_____________
Hebrew baking:
Bread:
First hands, foremen or ovenmen
_______________ __ _
Second hands or dough mixers ._ _ _ _________________
____ __ ________ _____ ________ __
Third hands ____ __
_ ________ . . . .__ _
Fourth hands.. ______ ___
Cake:
First hands or foremen
_
. . .
Second hands
_
_
_ _
___
__
Third hands
_________ ____ ______ _______ _________
Fourth hands
_ _ _ _____ ________ ________
Polish baking 2 Hand shops (bread):
—
First hands or ovenmen..
. . . _ -------------- ._ --------Second h an ds._ . . .
_
_______________ _______ __

(24)

.875
.820
.750
.700
.500

23 3 2
23 30
23 32
23 32
40
40

40

.770
.660
.510

40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40

1.309
1.247
1.143
.727

45
45
45
45

. 781
.656
.531
.448

48
48
48
48

.875
.750

40
40

(25)
(25)
(25)

2 1 week vacation with pay after 1 year of service.
22 40 hours of straight time permitted for male employees; 3 7^ hours for females.
2 $30 per week minimum, average of $34.50.
4
2 Rates vary with individuals.
8




(25)
(25)
(25)

.770
.660
.510

45

1. 309
1.247
1.143
.727

45

.875
.750

40
40

45

45

32

WAGES AND HOURS IN U NIO N BAKERIES

T a b l e 3 . — U n i o n s c a le s o f w a g e s a n d h o u r s i n t h e b a k e r y t r a d e s , J u n e 1 ,

1 9 3 8 , and

J u n e I , 1 9 3 9 — C o n t in u e d

June 1, 1939
City, type of baking, and occupation

Rates of
wages
per hour

June 1, 1938

Hours
per week

Rates of
wages
per hour

Hours
per week

Philadelphia, P a .— Continued

Polish baking 2 Hand^shops (bread)— Continued.
—
Shippers_______ ____________________________________ _ _ _____
Third hands ___________ _____ __________
___________________
Bakers— cake _______________________ _____ ________ __________
Phoenix , A r iz .
Hand shops:
Foremen___ ____________________ ____ __ ____________________ _
Dough mixers ____________ ____________
_________ ________
Ovenmen. _______________ ________ ______ ________________ _
Benchmen___________ _______________ _________ ______ ______
Helpers___________________
_ ____ __ _ ___________ _______
_
Machine shops:
_____ __ ______ __
Foremen ______________________ ______ __
Dough mixers______________ _ _ _ ___ __________ _________
Ovenmen______ _________________ __ _________ _________ __ __
Machine m e n _ _ ________ __ _________ __ ________ ____ __
_
Ovenmen’s helpers _ ______________ _____ __ _ __ _______
Helpers______________ _____ __ ___ _ _____________ __
___

$0.625
.500
.750

40
40
40

.875
.833
.795
.729
.521

48
48
48
48
48

1.050
1.000
.955
.875
.750
.625

40
40
40
40
40
40

.800
.750
.700
.650
.600
.530
.420

40
40
40
40
40
40
40

$0,625
.500
.750

40
40
40

.800
.750

40
40

.650
.600
.630
.420

40
40
40
40

Pittsburgh, P a .

Mixers or ovenmen 9______________________________________________
Benchmen or machine hands 9 _________________ ________ _______
Traveling-oven feeders or dumpers 9______________ ______ ______ __
Helpers 9____________ _____ ____________________ ___________ ____ __
Checkers 9 ______
_______________________
__ _________ __ .
Packers 9 __ _ _ ________________ ____________ _______
_______
Helpers, female 9____________ ____________ ________ ________ __ __
Hebrew baking:
First hands or ovenmen. _ ___
___________________________
Second hands or mixers ________________
_________________
Third or bench hands _ ___ __ ________ ___
________
Shippers. _________
_____
.
------- ----------- ___
______ . . . ___ ________ _
Cake bakers’ helpers________
Pan greasers___ _______________ _ __ _______ _______________
Wrappers, female ___ ------------------- ------------------------------------Porters or stock handlers___________ ___ ___________________
Polish baking:
First hands _________________________________________________
Second hands. _ ___
_____________ ______________________
Third hands----------------------------- ------------------------------------------Helpers....... ................. ....... _
__.
-------------------------------------

1.422
1. 356
1.267
.542
.530
.468
.333
.500

2 37^
6
2 37^
6

26 Z7V2
48
48
48
48
48

2 Z7H
6

1.422
1. 356
1.267
.542
.530
.468
.333
.500

37H
37^
37M
48
48
48
48
48
37M
37^
37H
37^

.933
.889
.844
.556

2 37H
6
2 37^
6
2 37^
6

.933
.889
.844
.556

.909
.716
.500
.386

2744
2744
2744
2 44
7

.909
.716
.500
.386

2 44
7
2 44
7

.250
.318
.341
.364
.386

2744
2 44
7
2 44
7
2 44
7
2 44
7

.250
.318
.341
.364
.386

2 44
7
2 44
7
2 44
7
2 44
7
2 44
7

.568
.500
.341

4 44
4 44
4 44

.568
.500
.341

4 44
4 44
4 44

1.050
1.000
.900

40
40
40

1.050
1.000
.900

40
40
40

Portland, M a in e

Machine shops:
Shop A :
Foremen_______________________________________________ _
First hands______________________________________ _____ _ _
Second hands________________
______________
_______
Helpers_____ ______________________________________________
W om en:
Novices __________________________ _ --------------------First year___ ______________________________
. ___
Second year_____ ____________________________________
Third year. _ _ _______ _______ __________ ________ _
After 3 years. _ _ _ _ --------------------------------- -----------Shop B :
First hands _ ___ ________ __ ___ __ _____________
___
Second hands_____ __ --------------------------------------- --------Helpers. __ _______________ ________________ _____ ________

2744
2744

Portland, Oreg.

Hand shops:
Foremen . ___________________ ___ _______________ ________ __
Ovenmen or mixers_________ _________ ____________ __________
Bench hands._. _. __ . . . ______________ __________________ __

3 1 week vacation with pay after 1 year of service.
4 48 hours of straight time permitted.
9 1 week vacation with pay after 2 years of service.
2 45 hours of straight time permitted.
6
2 40 hours per week for 12 weeks following Christmas, then 44 hours until July 1, and 48 hours from July
7

1 until Christmas, all at same weekly pay; 4 hours of overtime at straight pay permitted.




WAGES

AND

HOURS

IN

EACH

33

C IT Y

T a b l e 3 . — U n i o n s c a le s o f w a g e s a n d h o u r s i n t h e b a k e r y t r a d e s , J u n e 1 ,

1 9 38, and

J u n e 1 , 1 9 3 9 — C o n t in u e d

June 1, 1939
City, type of baking, and occupation

Rates of
wages
per hour

June 1 1938
.,

Hours
per week

Rates of
wages
per hour

36
36
36
36
36

$ 1. I l l
1.056

.875
.800
.750
.700

40
40
40
40
40

1.000
.875
.800
.750
.700

40
40
40
40
40

.650
.600

40
40

.650
.600

40
40

.900
.800
.750
.650
.625
.500

2 40
8
2 40
8
28 40
2 40
8
28 40
2 40
8

.900
.800
.750
.650
.625
.500

2 40
8
28 40
2 40
8
2 40
8
2 40
8
28 40

.835
.760
.665
.620
.570
.475
.430
.410

I640
1 40
6
1 40
6
1 40
6
1 40
6
1 40
6
1 40
6
1 40
6

.835
.760
.665
.620
.570
.475
.430
.410

1 40
6
1 40
6
1 40
6
1 40
6
1 40
6
1 40
6
1 40
6
1 40
6

.938
.875

48
48

.938
.875

48
48

.694
.619
.559

40
40
40

.644
.619
.509

40
40
40

1.000
.750
.700
.675
.650
.625
.500
.750
.400

40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40

.975
.725
.675
.650
.625
.600
.475
.725
.375

40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40

.833
.760
.729

48
48
48

.833
.760
.729

48
48
48

.885
.813
.781

48
48
48

.885
.813
.781

48
48
48

Hours
per week

Portland, Or eg — Continued

Machine shops:
Foremen___________ _
_ _ __________________ ___ _ _ _ _____
Ovenmen or mixers__________________________________________
Bench hands or machinemen _______
________________ .
____________ _____ __________
Flour blenders__________ ___
Pan greasers______ __________ ___ ___________ __ _________ _
Providence , R . 1.
Machine shops:
Company A : 2
Head dough mixers ____________ _____ ______________
Second dough mixers ____________ _
__ . _ _______
Ovenmen or divider operators. ___________ _____ _____
Molder-machine operators _ __
_
___________
First benchmen__T_________________ _________ ______ __
Mixers’ , molders’ , or henchmen’s helpers, or pan
catchers. _ . _ _ __________ _______
_________ __ __
Bread packers________ __________ ___ ______________
__
Company B :
Dough mixers. __ ______ _________ ______________ _________
Ovenmen, dividers, or benchmen__ . _____________ __
Molders, ingredient scalers, or assistant dough mixers. _
Dough mixers’ helpers. _ ____________________ . . . ___
Molders’ or ovenmen’s helpers, or flour dumpers
Pan greasers __ ___________________ .
_______________
Company C (cake) : 2
M i x e r s .__________ _______ _ ________ . . . ______ . . . _ __
Ovenmen____________________ _______ _________ _________
Machine operators, or fried-cake mixers________ __
Fryers________ ________ ________________ _ . . . __ _______
Floormen.
____ _____
____________
_ ________ __
Fryers’ helpers or beginners __ _ _ _____________ _____
Girls— experienced__________ ______________ _ __ __ ___
_
Girls, 1 to 12 weeks______ _______ ______ __
_._
Hebrew baking:
Foremen or ovenmen_________ __
___ __ _______________
Second hands, bench hands, or mixers. _______________ ____

$ 1. I ll
1.056

1.000
.833
.778

1.000

1.000
.833
.778

36
36
36
36
36

Reading, P a .

Bread:
Dough mixers
___
_
___ __________ ________ _______
Head paekers, bench hands, ovenmen, or mechanics___ __
Helpers______________ ________ _______ __ ___ _______________
R ichm ond , V a.
Foremen
.
_________
_ _ _
Dough mixers or divider operators___________
____________ __
Molder operators __________ _______ _______ _______ _________
Oven feeders or wrapper operators. _____ ______ ____ _ _________
Molders’ helpers._ _ _ ____________________
_
______ _________
Oven helpers or bread packers. _____ _____________
_
___ __
Flour blenders____________ __ _______ _____ __ __ ____________
Mechanics
_____ ____ ____ ____ _ ______ _____ _ __________
Helpers or porters_____________ _____ ________ _______ ___________
Rochester, N . Y .

Union A (bread):
Hand shops:
D ay work:
Foremen or first hands___ ____ ______________________
Second hands, oven workers, or dough mixers______
Third hands, bench hands, or machine hands ______
Night work:
Foremen or first hands_____________ _______ _________
Second hands, oven workers, or dough mixers______
Third hands, bench hands, or machine hands...........

2 1 week vacation with pay after 1 year of service.
1 M inimum of 36 hours; maximum of 44 hours.
6
2 36 hours per week guaranteed.
8




34

WAGES AND HOURS IN U NIO N BAKERIES

T a b l e 3 . — U n i o n s c a le s o f w a g e s a n d h o u r s i n t h e b a k e r y t r a d e s , J u n e 1 ,

19 38 , and

J u n e 1 , 1 9 3 9 — C o n tin u e d

June 1, 1939
City, type of baking, and occupation

June 1, 1938

Rates of
wages
per hour

Hours
per week

Rates of
wages
per hour

$0.909
.830
.795
.750

44
44
44
44

$0,909
.830
.795
.750

44
44
44
44

.966

44
44
44
44

.966

.852
.807

.852
.807

44
44
44
44

.870
! 820

40
40

. 850
!800

40
40

.770
.720

40
40

.750
.700

40
40

.620
.620
.570
.570
.720
.670

40
40
40
40
40
40

.600
.600
.550
.550
.700
.650

40
40
40
40
40
40

1.109
1.018
.896
.784

48
48
48
48

1.109
1.018
.896
.784

48
48
48
48

.850
.750
.700

48
48
48

.850
.750
.700

48
48
48

.850
.750
.700

44
44
44

.850
.750
.700

44
44
44

.600

44

.600

44

.500
.500
.550
.350
.385

44
44
44
44
44

.500
.500
.550
.350
.385

44
44
44
44
44

.625
.600
. 575
. 550
.525
.500
.475
.450
.350

44
44
44
44

44
44
44
44
44

.833
.750

48
48

.833
.750

48
48

1.210
1.100

40
40
40
40

1.155
1.050
.998
.971

40
40
40
40

Hours
per week

Rochester, N . Y — Continued

Union A (bread)— Continued.
Semimachine shops:
D ay work:
Foremen or first hands_______________________________
Second hands, ovenmen, or dough mixers . . .
_
Benchmen___________ ________ _____ ______ ______ . . .
Dum pers. ___________________________________________
Night work:
Foremen or first hands_______________________ _____
Second hands, ovenmen, or dough mixers__________
Benchmen or machine hands______________________ _
Dum pers.
__________ __ _ ________________________
Union B — Large machine shops: 2
Divider m en___ ______ . . . ___________ _____ ______________ ._
Machinemen, moldermen, bench hands, ovenmen, assemblymen, or b a tch m en ... ________________________________
Flour blenders. . . _______________________ _________________
Pan greasers, flour handlers, oven helpers, machine hands’
helpers, bench helpers, wrapping machine operators,
bread rackers, or checkers. _ . . . ._ ______________________
Packers, rate A _ ________
. . . _________ ___________ _ .
Packers, rate B _______
_______________________
_______
Wrappers’ and slicers’ helpers______________________________
Maintenance, rate A _______ __________________ ____________
Maintenance, rate B _______________ ________________________
Hebrew baking:
Ovenmen _______________ ______________________________ ______
Dough mixers or bench hands___________________________
__
Cake bakers.. ____________________________________ _____ _____
Third h ands.- . ______
_____ ________________________
..

.886

.886

Rock Island (III.) district

Union A : 2
Hand shops:
F o rem en ---------- --- -------------- -------------------------------------------Ovenmen or m ixers.__ ______________ ______
... . ...
Benchm en.. . . . . . .
__________________________
...
Machine shops:
Foremen------- ------------ ------------ -------------. . . ---------- . .
Dough mixers, peel-oven men, or bench foremen______
Machinemen, benchmen, or mechanical-oven men_____
Wrapping and stockroom foremen, wrapping-machine
operators, or checkers. _ _______________
_. ________
Stockroommen, packers, wrapping-machine helpers or
truck loaders.__ . . . ____ __ . . . . . . . ________ . . . .
Helpers, first 6 m onths._
_ . ______ _______ . . .
Helpers, after 6 months____
_
________ _______
Hand wrappers or icers, female; first 6 months . . . . . . .
Hand wrappers or icers, female; after 6 m o n th s... _ .
Union B 2 Davenport, Iowa (crackers and cookies):
—
Mixers__ __
...
_
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _________ _________ __
Peelers or drawers _ _____________ __
_
__
_ _____
_
Weighers or order m e n ___
__ _ _
_____________ ____
Rollermen or mixers’ helpers___ ___________
_________ ____
Special helpers or unloaders. _ _ _________ ______ _____ __
_
Wrappers, sugar-wafer mixers or stackers. _ ___________ ___
General workers or helpers ______ _______
_ __ ______ ____
_
Helpers in baking or icing departments_____ __ __ _
Helpers, female ______ ____________ ___________ ________ __
St. L ouis, M o .

Hand shops: 2
9
Foremen____ ___________ _ ----------------- -------------------------------Second hands or benchmen________________ ____________ __
Machine shops: 2
Foremen___________________________________________________
_
Ovenmen or spongers_______ ____________________ ________
__
Assistants pongers_____ _______________________________________
First bench hands _. _._ __ __________ ___________ ___ _ ._

2 1 week vacation with pay after 1 year of service.
2 2 weeks vacation with half pay after 1 year of service.
9




1.045
1.018

WAGES
T

able

AND

HOURS

IN

EACH

35

C IT Y

3 . — U n i o n s c a le s o f w a g e s a n d h o u r s i n t h e b a k e r y t r a d e s , J u n e I , 1 9 3 8 , a n d
J u n e I , 1 9 3 9 — C o n tin u e d

June 1, 1939
City, type of baking, and occupation

June 1, 1938

Rates of
wages
per hour

Hours
per week

$0.990
.825
.798
.625
. 575
.525

40
40
40
40
40
40

$0.945
.788
.761

40
40
40

.500

40

1.210
1.100
.990
.798
.761
.500
.400

40
40
40
40
40
40
40

1.155
1.050
.945
.761
.725

40
40
40
40
40

.950
.700
.625

40
40
40

1.104
.938
.875

48
48
48

1.104
.938
.875

48
48
48

.729
.667
.646
.475

48
48
48
48

.729
.667
.646
.475

48
48
48
48

.935
.785
.785
.735
.735
.680
.680
.630
. 575
. 500
. 500
. 525
.400
.450

40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40

.900
.750

40
40

.700

40

.700
.650
.600

40
40
40

.935
. 735
.735

40
40
40

.900

40

.700

40

.630

40

. 600

40

.630
.500
.500
. 525
.400
.450

40
40
40
40
40
40

.781
.677
.625

48
48
48

.781
.677
.625

48
48
48

.909
.800
.700
.500

30 44
30 44
30 44
30 44

.909
.800
.700
.500

30 44
30 44
30 44
30 44

Rates of
wages
per hour

Hours
per week

S t. L o u is , M o .— Continued

Machine shops— Continued.
Bench hands or machine hands
_ __ _________________ _ _
Bread counters.,.
___________ _______ _______
Helpers_______________________________________________________
Miscellaneous helpers_________ ___ __ ______________________
Bread packers____ . . .
Wrapping or slicing machine operators. __ ___________ . . .
Cake department:
Foremen_____________ __ _ _ _ ____________ ________ _
Ovenmen or mixers ________ _____ __ __ __ . . . ______ .
Machine hands. _ _________ _ ___________ _______ __ _ __
Helpers________ __
_
__________ ____________________
Icing mixers or ingredient scalers ____ _ ________
Foreladies____ _______ __ _ ___________ _. _______ . _
Helpers, female _ __ __ . . . _____________ _ ______ __ .
Shipping department:
Foremen
. . _ _ _____ __
_
_ _________ __
Shippers or receivers________ . . . ______ __ ________
Freight handlers_ ____ ________ ______ __
_
...
Hebrew baking 2 Hand shops:
—
Foremen, bakers, or ovenmen_________ _. __ . . . _______
Second hands_______ __
_ ________ . . . ____________ . . .
Bench hands____________ _______
__________________________
St. P a u l , M i n n .
Hand shops: 2
Foremen___
.... ______ . . . . . __ __ .
__ . . .
__ _
Ovenmen or mixers ________ _ _
_______ ______________ __
Bench hands
________ __________ __ . . . __________ . . . .
Helpers__________ ________ _______ __________ . . . ________ ._
Machine shops: 2
Bread:
F o rem en ___________ . . . ___________ ______ _____ __
Spongers or dough mixers________________________________
Oven operators or o v e n m e n ____ __ __ ___________ __
Bench hands, dividers, or molders ______ ___________
Bun-machine operators
_ __________
... .
Dough-room men
. _
__ _______________ _
Oven feeders or dumpers ___ _. _____________________
Slicing-machine or wrapping-machine operators. .
Oven or bench hand helpers, twisters, or dough panners.
Floor women or girls-in-charge . . .
___ __
_
_
Helpers, first 6 months _______
__
_________ __
_____
Helpers, after 6 months _
Hand wrappers or icers, female; first 6 m o n t h s ______ _
Hand wrappers or icers, female; after 6 months __
Cake : 2
Foremen.
_ _ _ _ _ _ ___
_ ____
_ _ _ _______
Mixers, icing or batter; or ovenmen___
Bench h a n d s .___ __
_______
Wrapping-machine operators, ingredient scalers, dough­
nut-machine operators.
________
Fruit cookers or depositors and/or drop-machine opera­
tors _ _ _ _ _ _ _
_
_ _
__
_ _ _ _ _ ___ __
Floorwomen.
_
__ _______
_ __
_
______
Helpers, first 6 months.
_ _ _____________________ __
Helpers, after 6 months
_
_
_
_
Hand wrappers or icers, female; first 6 months_ _
Hand wrappers or icers, female; after 6 months______ _
Salt Lake City, Utah

Hand shops:
Foremen, _
___ ________ __ _ ___ __ ___ __ ____________
Ovenmen or doughmen________ __ __ __________ ___________
Bench hands ___ ________________________ _________ _________
Machine shops:
Forem en... _______________ ________
______ ___ _________
Dough mixers or ovenmen ______ __ _______________ _____
Machinemen or bench hands_________________
____________
Helpers, first year. _____________ __ ____________ ___ __

2 1 week vacation with pay after 1 year of service.
3 40 hours per week guaranteed.
o




36

W AGES

AND

HOURS

IN

U N IO N

B A K E R IE S

T a b l e 3 .— U n i o n s c a le s o f w a g e s a n d h o u r s i n th e b a k e r y tr a d e s , J u n e I , 1 9 3 8 , a n d
J u n e J, 1 9 3 9 — C o n tin u e d
June 1,
City, type of baking, and occupation

San Francisco , Calif.
Union A (bread):
Small shops (retail):
Foremen, ovenmen, or mixers___________________________
Bench hands_____________________________________________
Large shops (wholesale):
Foremen or ovenmen____________________________________
Dough mixers____________________________________________
Bench hands_____________________________________________
Flour blenders___________________________________________
Helpers (after 1 year)____________________________________
Union B (crackers) : 3
1
Machinemen, head mixers, or receiving foremen___________
Mixers, peelers, relief men, ovenmen, or wrapping-machine
operators___________________________________________________
Rollermen____________________________________________________
Sponge-oven helpers or mixers’ helpers_____________________
leers__________________________________________________________
Sponge stackers, wrapping-machine helpers, shippers, conemachine men, cone mixers, icing helpers (sugar wafers),
sweet-dough feeders, pan feeders, or assemblymen_______
Benchmen____________________________________________________
Oven feeders_________________________________________________
Pan greasers__________________________________________________
W om en’s auxiliary:
Supervisors______________________________________________
Weighers, carton formers, sponge packers, wrappers, or
bundlers_______________________________________________
Can renovators, icing (sugar wafers), or sweet packers.
Elevator operators______________ ____________________________
French and Italian baking:
Hand shops:
Foremen, ovenmen, or mixers___________________________
Bench hands_____________________________________________
Machine shops:
Foremen, ovenmen, or mixers__________________________
Bench hands____________________________________________
Scranton , P a .
Hand shops: 2
Company A :
First hands______________________________________________
Benchmen or ovenmen__________________________________
Cake mixers_____________________________________________
Wrappers________________________________________________
Benchmen’s helpers_____________________________________
Company B :
First hands______________________________________________
Second hands____________________________________________
Bench hands____________________________________________
Ovenmen________________________________________________
Wrappers or helpers_____________________________________
Company C:
Foremen, first or second hands_________________________
Bench hands____________________________________________
Semimachine shops: 2
Bread and variety department:
Mixers___________________________________________________
Peel-oven or bench men_________________________________
Dividers_________________________________________________
M olders__________________________________________________
Traveling-oven men_____________________________________
Helpers__________________________________________________
Cake department:
Mixers or peel-oven men________________________________
Helpers__________________________________________________
Shipping department:
Clerks___________________________________________________
Wrappers________________________________________________

2 1 week vacation with pay after 1 year of service.
31 2 weeks vacation with pay after 1 year of service.




June 1,1938

tates of
wages
er hour

Hours
per week

Rates of
wages
per hour

$0.970
.910

42
42

$0.935
.874

42
42

1.178
1.178
1.092
1.017
.853

36
36
36
36
36

1.157
1.072
1.017
.853

36
36
36
36
36

1.110

Hours
per week

1.058

40

1.000
.933
.895
.880

40
40
40
40

.825
.770
.743
.693

40
40
40
40

.530

40

.494
.459
.770

40
40
40

.980
.881

42
42

.962
.864

42
42

1.056
.949

39
39

1.036
.931

39
39

.771
.583
.521
.333
.292

48
48
48
48
48

.656
.594
.531
.438
.333

48
48
48
48
48

.625
.563
.500
.375
.292

48
48
48
48
48

.708
.604

48
48

.688

48
48

.667
.563
.521
.500
.438
.417

48
48
48
48
48
48

.458
.438

48
48

.583
.479

48
48

.583

W AGES

AND

HOURS

IN

EACH

37

C IT Y

T a b l e 3 .— U n i o n s c a l e s o f w a g e s a n d h o u r s i n t h e b a k e r y t r a d e s , J u n e I , 1 9 3 8 , a n d
J u n e 1 , 1 9 3 9 — C o n tin u e d

June 1, 1939
City, type of baking, and occupation

Rates of
wages
per hour

June 1, 1938

Hours
per week

Rates of
wages
per hour

Hours
per week

Scranton, P a .— Continued

Machine shops :3
Company A :
Peel-oven m e n .. __________ _ __
Molder operators____________ __________________________
Mixers_______ _ __ __ ___
_____. . . __
Divider operators. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Flour blenders._ ________
___
_.
_ _
_
Pan greasers ___ _______ _______ _
_
Mixers’ helpers. ______
___
Pan setters ___________
_
_
_ __
__
_
_
_
_
Traveling-oven men___ _
_ ___
__
_
_
Molders’ helpers._ __ __ ___ ___ __ _ __ __
___
_
Shipping department:
Shipping clerks
_ _ _ _ _ _ _____ _ _ __ ___ __
Assistant shippers. . ________ ____ _______
___
W ra p p e rs____________ ______ ___ . . . ________ __
Wrappers’ helpers..
... _
_________ _____
Maintenance department:
Maintenance men. ______ ____ __ _
______ __
Firemen__ _________ _ ____ ____ ___ _ ______ __
_
Janitors. __ __ _ __ _______ _ __ _______ ________
Company B :
Utility m en. __ ___ __ ___ __ ___ _________
___ . . .
Peel-oven tenders __ _ _ _ _ _
_ . . . . . . ___ __
Molders__
_________
_____ . . . _
_
Mixers__ __
_ _
_ _ _ _ _
__________ _ . . . . . .
Flour blenders, dividers, or firem en.. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Mixers’ helpers
_
_
________ __
__ ______
Pan setters or pan greasers. _ __
_ ____
Molder-machine helpers.
___ ______ _____ __ _ _ ___
Bench hands or wrappers_____ _________ ____________ ___
Extra helpers ________ __ _ _____
_ ____ _______
_
Shipping clerks _
_ _
_
_
_ ________________ _ _
Janitors_
_
______ _ ______ __ _________________ _
_

$0.875
.875
.825
. 775
. 740
.694
.685
.660
.625
.625

3 40
3 40
3 40
3 40
3 40
3 40
3 40
3 40

.953
.650
.600
.550

3 40
3 40
3 40
3 40

1.000
.745
.675

3 40
3 40

$0,865
.815
.760
.710
.710
.660
.685
.660
.575
.600

3 40
3 40
3 40
3 40
3 40
3 40
3 40
3 40
3 40
3 40

.928

3 40

.575

3 40

3 40
3 40
3 40

.990
.710
.675

3 40
3 40
3 40

.875
.865
.815
. 760
.710
.685
.660
.600
.575
.500
.928
.675

3 40
3 40
3 40
3 40
3 40
3 40
3 40
3 40
3 40
3 40
3 40
3 40

.875
.865
.815
.760
.710
.685
.660
.600
.575
.500
.928
.675

3 40
3 40
3 40
3 40
3 40
3 40
3 40
3 40
3 40
3 40
3 40

1.236
1.176
1.106

36
36
36

1.180

1.120
1.050

36
36
36

.827
.938

36
36

.772
.883

36
36

.797
.908

36
36

.742
.853

36
36

.688

48
48

.688
.625

48
48

3 40

Seattle, Wash.

Foremen________ ________ _ _ _______ __
______________________
Dough mixers, ovenmen or machinemen _ ____________________ _
Bench hands.
__
__
_
_
_________ ______ __
Helpers (day work):
1 year’s experience________________________________________
2 years’ experience __________________________________________
Helpers (night work):
1 year’s experience
_ ____ _
_
_
_______ _____
2 years’ experience _ _
_ ______________________________
South Bend, Ind.

Small shops:
_
_ ____________________
First hands_____________ ____
Second hands. _ ___________ ____ _____ _____ _________________ _
Large shops: 9
Mixers, head benchmen, divider men, or traveling-ovenmen
______
_ __ _______ __ _ _ _________ ____ ___
_
Molder men
_____________
_____ _ _ _ _ _
Bench hands..
_
_
__ __ _ __ _
_
_ ______
Traveling-oven feeders. _ __ _______ __
_
__
Mixers’ helpers, molders’ helpers, or traveling-oven dumpers
Checkers.- _ _ ____ ______
___
_____ __
_
__
Bake-shop helpers or conveyor m en________
__ ____ __
Packers or hand wrappers..
__
__
__
___
Slicers
__
_
__ __
_____
_____ __ _
Stale checkers.
_
_
____________ _________________

2 1 week vacation with pay after 1 year of service.
3 44 hours of straight time permitted.
7 42 hours of straight time permitted.
9 1 week vacation with pay after 2 years service.




.625
.700
.67.0
.650
.610
.570
.550
.530
.480
.420
.400

740

7 40
7 40
7 40
7 40
7 40
7 40
7 40
7 40
44

.700
.670
.650
.610
.570
.550
.530
.480
.420
.400

7 40
7 40
740
740
740
740
7 40
7 40
7 40
48

38

WAGES

T able 3.—

U n io n

AND

HOURS

IN

U N IO N

s c a le s o f w a g e s a n d h o u r s i n

B A K E R IE S

th e b a k e r y tr a d e s, J u n e

I,

19 3 8 , and

J u n e 1 , 1 9 3 9 — C o n tin u e d

June 1, 1939
City, type of baking, and occupation

Rates of
wages
per hour

June 1, 1938

Hours
per week

Rates of
wages
per hour

Hours
per week

Spokane, Wash.

Union A :
Foremen, mixers, or ovenmen
___ _ ___ __ __ __________
Machine hands ____________ _____________________
_________
Bench hands___ ____________________________ _ ____________ _
Shipping clerks, stock clerks, flour blenders, or packers____
Helpers_______
_ _________________
_________ __ __ __
Bread wrappers, after 2 months____________
___
_______
Cake and cooky wrappers, female; after 2 months ___________
Union B (crackers): 2
Machinemen____ __________ _______ ___ ___ _ ______________
Mixers__________
_________________ __ ___ ____ ______ __
Peelers___
_ __ _
_
_ _
_____ ___________________ ____
Ovenmen
_ ______ _
_
______
_________ __ _ __
Rollermen __
___
__ _______ __ ___________ __________ __
Scale men or wrappers___
__ _ _
_____ ____________ ____
Ovenmen’s h elp ers___ _______ __
_
_ ___ _ _ ______
Mixers’ helpers
_ __ _
__________ _
___ ____ __ __ __
Sugar-wafer m e n _
_ ___ ____ _ _ __________ __________ __ _ _
Rollermen’s helpers ____ ________________________ _________
Stackers
___
_______ __
__
__ ___
_ __
_
Icing helpers, pan cleaners, feeders, sweepers, and other
helpers _____ __________ __ _______
___ __ _________ _ _
Receiving clerks ___ __
____ __
____________________ ___

3240
3240

$1.100
1.050
1.000
.750
.700
.650
.480

3 40
2
3 40
2
3 40
2
3 40
2
3 40
2

.838
.800
.775
.725
.690
.688
.680
.650
.625
.600
.580

40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40

.575
.750

40
40

.977
.864
.750

3240
3240

$1.100
1.050
1.000
.750
.700
.650
.480

3 40
2
3 40
2
3 40
2
3 40
2
3 40
2

44
44
44

.977
.864
.750

44
44
44

.952
.833
.786
.762
.714
.667
.643
.571
.381

42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42

.909
.795
.750
.727
.682
.636
.614
.500
.364

44
44
44
44
44
44
44
44
44

1.042
.938
.625

48
48
48

1.042
.938
.625

48
48
48

.810
.760
.760
.760
.710

44
44
44
44
44

.750
.680
.750
.700
.660

44
44
44
44
44

.660
.610
.560

44
44
44

.660
.610
.560

44
44
44

1.050
.650

40
40

1.050
.600

40
40

1.250
.750

40
40

1.250
.700

40
40

.583
.521
.417
.375

48
48
48
48

.583
.521
.417

48
48
48

Springfield, M a ss.

Hand sh o ps:2
Foremen.______________
- ______________ __________
Second hands, mixers, or ovenmen. __ ___.................... ___
Bench h a n d s _________ __________________________ ______ ______
Machine sh o ps:2
Foremen.
_
_________ ___ ______________________________
Second hands or dough mixers_______________________________
Assistant foremen__________
______________________________
Peel-oven men..
------------ ----------- ----------------------------------- _
Bench hands. _ _ ______________ _ _ ___•___________________
Dividers or scalers_____ __
__ ____________________________
Conveyor ovenmen. -------------------------------------------Wrapping-machine men, checkers, or helpers----------------------Girls
_ _
_
_ _ ______
______ __ _________________ _
Hebrew baking:
Foremen ____
____ _____ ______________________________
Second hands or dough mixers_________ ________ ______ ______
Bench hands__________ . . . -----------------------------------------------Toledo, Ohio

First mixers___
. _ _________ _______________________________
Bench hands, rolls_____ ___
_
_______________________ ______
Runner-in m e n ___ __ _
-------------------------------------------------- -----Bench hands, bread___ __ _ ._ ________________________ ___
Second mixers___ ______ ______ _________
___ ___________________
Peeler-out men, traveling-oven men, dividers, molders, or
mixers’ helpers. _ __ ___ ________ ________ _____________ ___
Molders’ helpers, peel-oven helpers, or wrapping-machine men__
All other helpers in bake shop, packing or shipping_____________
Washington, D . C .

D ay w o rk :2
Journeymen______________________________ ___________ ________
Helpers___________________________________ ____________________
Night w o rk :2
Journeymen-------- ------------ --------------------------------------------------- --Helpers_________________________________________________ ______
Wichita, K a n s.

Hand shops:
First bakers................ ........................................................................
Second bakers____ _ _______ _____ __________ _______ ________
H elpers._______ __ ________ __________
_ __________ ______
Wrappers. _ _ ___ __ ___ _ __ ___
______________ _
2 1 week vacation with pay after 1 year of service.
32 M inim um of 36 hours; maximum of 40 hours.




39

WAGES AND HOURS IN EACH CITY
T able 3.—

U n io n

s c a le s o f w a g e s a n d

h ou rs

in

th e b a k e r y tr a d e s , J u n e

1, 1 9 3 8 , and

J u n e I , 1 9 3 9 — C o n t in u e d

June 1, 1939
City, type of baking, and occupation

June 1, 1938

Rates of
wages
per hour

Hours
per week

Rates of
wages
per hour

$0.875
.700
.650
.500

40
40
40
40

$0.875
.700
.650
.500

40
40
40
40

1.042
.938

48
48

1.042
.938

48
48

.780
.720
.660
.425
.360

48
48
48
48
48

.780
.720
.660
.425
.360

48
48
48
48
48

.800
.725
.670
.630
.620
.600
.560
.480

40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40

.800
.725
.670
.630
.620
.600
.560
.480

40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40

.925
.850
.738

48
48
48

.925
.850
.738

48
48
48

Hours
per week

Wichita, K a n s .- Continued

Machine shops:
Foremen
_
. . . __
__ __
___________ _______ __
Mixers or ovenmen
_________ _ ___
_ ___ _____________
Machinemen or bench hands ________
________________ __
H e l p e r s ,._______ ___________________
___________________
Worcester, M a,ss.

Hebrew baking:
Foremen___________________________________ ___________________
Second hands. _ ________________
__________ _____ __________
Yovmgstown, Ohio

Hand shops (bread):
Foremen____________ __ ______ __ __ _____________________ _
Ovenmen or mixers . . . ______ __
_ ___ ______________
Bench hands _ _ ____ __________ _ ________________________ _
First helpers, female. ____ _____ __ __________ _____________
Second helpers, female _______________ ________ ____________
Machine shops: 9
___
___ . . . __________ ________
Mixers or ovenmen
Mixers’ helpers, bench hands, or machine hands _________
Dumpers or feeders _ _______________
___________________
E ake-shop helpers____________________________________________
Checkers___ _________ __ _______ _______ ________ . . . . ____
____
Chute men or head slicers and wrappers ________
Packers or slicing- and wrapping-machine operators________
Hand wrappers, female. ___ _______
_ ___ __ __ __ __ _
Hebrew baking:
O venm en .. . ___ __ ______________________________________
Mixers. . . . __ _
. . . --------- _ ------------------------------------_______ ___ __
. . . ___ __ ________ _
Bench hands

9 1 week vacation with pay after 2 years of service.




O