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UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
W . N. DOAK, Secretary

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
CHARLES E. BALDWIN, Acting Commissioner

BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES)
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS)
WAGES

AND

HOURS

OF

M
*

LABOR

*

C gO

#
SERIES

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR
IN THE M ANUFACTURE OF
SILK AND RAYON GOODS: 1931

NOVEMBER, 1932

UNITED STATES
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON : 1932

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C,




Price 10 cents




Contents
P age

Trend of hours and earnings, 1910 to 1931____________________________
Average hours and earnings, 1931, by sex and State___________________
Average and classified earnings per hour, 1913 to 1931, by occupation___
Full-time hours per week and per day, 1910 to 1931___________________
Changes in full-time hours since January 1, 1929______________________
Changes in wage rates since January 1, 1929__________________________
Overtime and Sunday and holiday work, 1931________________________
Bonus systems_____________________________________________________
Index numbers of employment and of pay rolls, 1923 to 1931___________
Importance of the industry__________________________________________
Scope and method_____________________________ ____________________
General tables______________________________________________________
T a b l e A.— Average number of days on which wage earners worked,
average full-time and actual hours and earnings per week, average
earnings per hour, and per cent of full time worked, 1931, by occu­
pation, sex, and State_________________________________ _______
T a b l e B.— Average and classified earnings per hour in nine specified
occupations, 1931, by occupation, sex, and State________________
T a b l e C.— Average and classified full-time hours per week in nine
specified occupations, 1931, by occupation, sex, and State________
Appendix.— Factory terms of occupations, with definitions, and classifica­
tion by the Bureau of Labor Statistics_____________________________




m

1
6
7
11
15
15
18
19
22
23
24
27

28
37
43
49




BULLETIN OF THE

U.S.BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
WASHINGTON

n o . 568

N o v e m b e r , 1932

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR IN THE MANUFACTURE OF
SILK AND RAYON GOODS, 1931
In 1931 wage earners in the silk, ra^on, or mixed silk and rayon
goods manufacturing industry in the United States earned an average
of 40.6 cents per hour. Average full-time hours per week were 50.7
and average full-time earnings per week $20.58. These averages were
computed from wage figures for 49,036 wage earners of 340 representa­
tive mills in the 13 States in which the industry is of importance in
number of employees according to reports of the Census of Manu­
factures. The wage figures were collected by the United States
Bureau of Labor Statistics from the pay rolls and other records of the
mills. Studies of the industry were also made in the years 1910 to
1914, and 1919.
Trend of Hours and Earnings, 1910 to 1931
Summaries of average hours and earnings are shown in Table 1 for
the industry and for each of the important occupations in the industry
for each year in which studies have been made. Averages are also
shown for a group designated as “ other employees,” which includes
wage earners in all the other occupations in the industry and which
had too few workers to warrant separate tabulation as an occupation.
For the years 1910 to 1914 and 1919 the averages for the industry
are for wage earners in selected occupations only and are comparable
one year with another. For 1914 and 1931, they are for wage earners
in all occupations in the industry and are also comparable one year
with the other, but should not be compared with those for selected
occupations.
Index numbers of the averages, with the 1913 average taken as the
base, or 100 per cent, are also given in Table 1 for the industry and
for each occupation for which 1913 averages are available. These
indexes furnish comparable figures for the specified years from 1910
to 1931. For selected occupations only the index for any year is the
per cent that the average for the year is of the average for 1913. The
index for 1931 was computed by increasing or decreasing the 1914
index for selected occupations by the per cent that the 1931 average
for all occupations is in excess of or less than the 1914 average for all
occupations.
There was a decrease of 7.1 per cent in average full-time hours per
week for wage earners in all occupations in the industry from 1914—
when the average was 54.6— to 1931. Between 1910 and 1931 aver­




1

2

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR

age full-time hours decreased 10.2 per cent; between 1914 and 1919,
5.5 per cent; and between 1913 and 1931, 9 per cent. These decreases
are shown by the index numbers, which dropped from 101.3 in 1910
and 1911 to 100.4 in 1912, to 100.0 in 1913, to 98.0 in 1914, to 92.6 in
1919, and to 91.0 in 1931. In the various occupations in the industry
average full-time hours for males in 1931 ranged from 46.8 for reelers
to 58.9 for doublers, and for females from 48.2 for ribbon weavers to
52.1 for smash hands.
Between 1914 and 1931, average earnings per hour more than
doubled, increasing from 19.7 to 40.6 cents. The increases from year
to year are shown by the indexes—rising from 86.5 in 1910 to 100.0 in
1913, to 199.0 in 1919, and to 215.8 in 1931. The ranges in average
earnings per hour in 1931, by occupations, are from 19.7 cents for
redrawers to 74.6 cents for loom fixers for males, and from 26.0 cents
for enterers’ helpers to 47.6 cents for warpers for females.
Average full-time earnings per week have not increased in the same
proportion as have earnings per hour, due to the decrease in average
full-time hours per week. They rose, however, from $10.79 in 1914 to
$20.58 in 1931. For males, average full-time weekly earnings in 1931
ranged by occupations from $10.38 for redrawers to $38.05 for loom
fixers, and for females from $12.25 for redrawers to $23.99 for warpers.
T a b le

1.— Average hours and earnings, with index numbers, 1910 to 1931, by
occupation sex, and year
THE INDUSTRY

Occupation and sex

Index numbers
Aver­
(1913=100)
Aver­
Aver­ age
N um ­ N um ­
age
full­
age
ber of
full­
Full­
Year estab­ ber of time earn­ time Full­
earn­ time Earn­ time
wage
lish­ earners hours ings
per
ings hours ings
earn­
ments
per
per
per
ings
week hour week
per
per
week hour
week
1910
1911
1912
1913
U914
1919

42
42
51
59
63
33

All occupations______________________ 11914
1931

63
340

Selected occupations.............................-

18,293
9,415

56.4 $0.167
56.4
.172
55.9
.182
55.7
.193
.2 0 2
54.6
.384
51.6

$9.43
9.70
10.18
10.64
11.06
19.81

22,344
49,036

54.6
50.7

.197
.406

10.79
20.58

7,779
11,105
11,762
12,002

101.3
101.3
100.4

86.5
89.1
94.3

100.0

1 00.0

100.0

98.0
92.6

104.7
ly9.0

103.9
186.2

91.0

215.8

198.2

101.8

83.0
92.9
94.6

84.1
93.3
94.6

100.0

100.0

100.0

96.1
91.5
89.0

103.0
240.2
261.6

103.8
219.8
233.0

8 8.6

91.2
95.7

BY OCCUPATIONS
Winders, hard silk:
M ale____________________________

1931

14

61

Female............................................... 1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1919
1931

17
18
18
19

559
889
834
836
1,008
*1,069
5,105

21

29
183

51.9 $0.267 $13.86
57.3
56.8
56.2
56.3
54.1
51.5
50.1

.093
.104
.106
.1 1 2
.121

.269
.293

5.30
5.88
5.96
6.30
6.54
13.85
14.68

100.9
99.8

* 2 sets of averages are shown for the industry— 1 for selected occupations and the other for all occupations
in the industry. The averages from 1910 to 1919 for selected occupations only are comparable 1 year with
another, as are those in 1914 and 1931 for all occupations 1 year with the other.
* Includes soft silk winders.




3

MANUFACTURE OP SILK AND RAYON GOODS
T a b le

1.— Average hours and earnings, with index numbers, 1910 to 1981, by
occupation, sex, and 2
/ear— Continued
B Y O C C U P A T IO N S —Continued

Occupation and sex

Doublers:
M ale____________________________
Female...............................................

Spinners:
M ale...................................................

Female...............................................

Beelers:
M ale...................................................

Female...............................................

Laborers, dyehouse:
Male...................................................

Winders, rayon:
Male____________________________
Winders, soft silk:
M ale........ ........................ .................

Index numbers
(1913=100)
Aver­ Aver­ Aver­
age
N um ­ N um ­
age
full­
age
ber of
full­ earn­ time
Full­
Year estab­ ber of time
Full­
wage hours ings earn­ time Earn­ time
lish­
per
ings
ings
earners per
earn­
hours
ments
hour
per
per
ings
week
per
hour
week
per
week
week

1931

6

52

1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1919
1931

13

57.3
56.2
56.2
55.3
54.2
50.5
50.3

.094
.099
.097
.103
.107
.225
.287

5.37
5.56
5.41
5.70
5.80
11.36
14.44

103.6

33

255
316
302
249
304
148
372

1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1919
1931

16
16
14
14
16
9
109

327
396
327
262
300
107
1,794

57.5
57.5
57.3
56.6
54.7
53.9
54.2

.094
.095
.117
.119
.342
.344

5.40
5.47
5. 82
6.61
6.52
18.43
18.64

1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1919
1931

9

86

.091
.123
.124

5.15
6.90
6.92

82.7

369
395
340
437
372
2,346

56.9
56.5
56.0
56.3
54.2
50.3
50.2

101.1

12
12
11
12
8

100.4
99.5

112.7

.1 1 0

6 .2 0

1 00.0

100.0

.138
.274
.289

7.50
13.78
14.51

86.3
89.3
89.2

125.5
249.1
262.7

222.3
234.0

.091

5.27
5.80
5.92
7.43
7.22
13.96
14.93

103.0
101.4

68.9
76.5
78.8

70.9
78.1
79.7

100.0
1 00.0

100.0

1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1919
1931
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1919
1931

12
12
11

13
10

104

58.9 $0.350 $20.62

10
12
12
11

104
133
118
77
123

6
6

20

19

58.0
57.1
56.9
56.3
54.4
50.4
46.8

7

82
256
271
194
196
117
237

57.2
56.4
56.2
56.7
54.3
51.0
49.8
55.8
55.6
55.6
55.6
56.1
51.5
52.0

14

10
10
11
10
12

31

1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1919
1931

14
27
13

1,746
2,516
2,739
2,625
3,237
279
464

1931

2

30

8
11
12
12

.10 2

.101

.104
.132
.132
.277
.319
.094
.098
.096
.101

.119
.259
.287
.197
.201
.211
.2 1 0

5.34
5.53
5.39
5.73
6.44
13.21
14.29
10.99
11.15
11.68

11.67

.216
.546
.479

28.12
24.91

55.0

.375

6

22

57.3

1910
1911
1612
1913
1914
1919
1931

24
39
45
(*)
126

675
900
891
1,136
1,361
(s)
1,554

56.6
56.7
56.0
55.7
54.3
(3)
49.2

.119
.126
.130
.141
.150
(3
)
.340

6.74
7.14
7.25
7.83
8.14
(3
)
16.73

Redrawers:
M ale____________________________

1931

13

63

52.7

.197

10.38

Female...............................................

1931

113

1,887

5a 4

.243

12.25 |

•Included with “ winders, hard silk.”




94.2
97.5
94.9

100.0

98.0
91.3
91.0

103.9
218.4
278.6

1 00.0
101.8

101.6
101.6
101.2
100.0

80.3
81.2
87.2
100.0

96.6
95.2
95.8

101.7
292.3
294.0

101.1
100.0

111.8

199.3
253.3
81.7
82.8
8 8 .0
1 00.0

98.6
278.8
282.0
83.1
111.3
111.6
100.0
121.0

06.6
89.5
83.1

209.8
241.7

97.2
187.9
200.9

100.9
99.5
99.1

93.1
97.0
95.0

93.2
96.5
94.1

1 00.0

100.0

100.0

95.8
89.9
87.8

117.8
256.4
284.2

112.4
230.5
249.4

100.4

93.8
95.8
100.5

100.0
1 00.0
1 00.0

94.2
95.5

100.0

100.1
100.0

100.9
92.6
93.5

102.9
260.0
228.1

103.9
241.0
213.5

1 01.6
101.8

100.5

84.4
89.4
92.2

91.2
92.6

100.0

100.0

100.0

97.5

106.4

104.0

88.3

241.1

213.7

18.28

1931

22
22

91.3
96.2
94.2

20.63

12.12

.319

Female...............................................

101.6
101.6
100.0

86.1

4

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR

T a b le

1.— Average hours and earnings, with index numbers, 1910 to 1931, by
occupation sex, and year— Continued
B Y O C C U P A T IO N S —Continued

Occupation and sex

Warpers:
M ale...................................................

Female...............................................

Quitters:
M ale...................................................
Female...............................................

Coners:
M a l e . . . . . . _______ - - ____________

Index numbers
(1913=100)
Aver­ Aver­ Aver­
age
N um ­
age
Num ­ full­
full­
age
ber of
Full­
Year estab­ ber of time earn­ time Full­
ings earn­
Earn­ time
wage
lish­
time
ings
per
earners hours
ings
earn­
ments
per
hours
hour
per
per
ings
week
per
week week hour
per
week

1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1919
1931

166

1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1919.
1931

17
19
26
33
39
23
164

1931

62

1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1919
1931

23
23
23
41
46
26
238

7
7
13
14
22
8

51
50
79
152
175
71
993

56.6 $0,317 $17.88
.314 17.69
56.6
55.9
.318 17.72
55.3
.388 21.46
54.7
.359 19.65
50.7
.558 28.29
.648 33.11
51.1

102.4
102.4

290
508

56.3
56.7
55.9
55.7
54.1
51.9
50.4

.179
.186
.190
.205
.203
.354
.476

10.08
10.50
10.60
11.38
10.99
18.37
23.99

299

54.2

.250

13.55

340
638
528
735
980
460
1,934

56.2
56.2
56.4
55.3
54.1
51.3
50.0

.107

6.04
6.24
6.16
6.38
6 .53
12.16
13.25

666

849
1,084
536
1,974

.1 1 1
.1 1 1

.115
.1 2 1

.237
.265

81.7
80.9
82.0 .

83.3
82.4
82.6

101.1
100 .0

100.0

100 .0

98.9
91.7
92.4

92.5
143.8
167.0

91.6
131.8
154.3

101.1
1 01 .8

87.3
90.7
92.7

8 8 .6

100.4
1 00 .0

100 .0

1 00 .0

97.1
93.2
90.5

99.0
172.7
232.2

2 10 .8

101.6
101.6
1 00 .2
100 .0

93.0
96.5
96.5

94.7
97.8
96.6

100.0

100 .0

97.8
92.8
90.4

105.2
206.1
230.4

102.4
190.6
207.7

90.5
91.2
95.1

1931

7

161

52.1

.323

1931

18

528

50.4

.278

14.01

1931

20

41

51.7

.414

21.40

Female__________________________
Enterer’s helpers:
M ale..................................................

1931

73

376

50.8

.387

19.66

1931

15

30

51.5

.246

12.67

F e m a le ._____ __________ _______
Twisters-in, hand:
M ale___ ________________________

1931

39

154

50.8

.260

13.21

1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1919
1931

17

85
166
192
275
357
165
407

56.7
56.4
55.8
55.9
54.5
51.5
49.7

.256
.259
.274
.287
.295
.486
.634

14/49
14.60
15.23
16.01
16.08
25.03
31.51

101.4
100.9
99.8

89.2
90.2
95.5

1 00 .0

1 00.0
102 .8

92
99
76
67
91

.137
.139
.192
.205
.183
.329
.428

7.63
7.74
10.82
11.24
9.78
16.98

101 . 6
101.1

2 1.6 6

96.6
161.4

16.83

Female_________________________
Enterers:
M ale...................................................

92.3
93.1

Female................................................ 1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1919
1931
Twisters-in, machine:
M ale................................................... 1931
F e m a l e . . . . . . . . . _________________ 1931
Loom fixers:
M ale.................................................... 1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1919
1931
B obbin boys________________________ 1931




21

28
36
43
24
145

17
13
61

228

55.7
55.6
56.6
55.0
53.2
51.6
50.6

9
9
11
12

111

94

198

50.7

.615

97

51.5

.440

138
144
230
329
398
279
1,518
460

56.5
56.5
56.1
55.8
54.3
51.5
51.0
61.4

.289
.293
.307
.321
.330
.546
.746

16.28
16.56
17.20
17.89
17.92
28.12
38.05
11.41

100.0

100.4
156.3
196.8

102.9

67.8
93.7

67.9
68.9
96.3

1 00 .0

100 .0

1 00 .0

96.7
93.8
92.0

89.3
160.5
208.8

87.0
151.1
192.7

101 .3
101.3
100.5

90.0
91.3
95.6

91.0
92.6
96.1

6 6 .8

22.66

22
22

169.3
220.9

31.18

40

97.5
92.1
88.9

29
41
47
27
234
88

.2 2 2

100 .0

97.3
92.3
91.4

100 .0
102 .8

1 00.0
100 .2

170.1
232.4

157.2
212.7

5

MANUFACTURE OF SILK AND BATON GOODS

Table 1.— Average hours and earnings, with index numbers, 1910 to 1931, by
occupation, sex, and year— Continued
B Y O C C U P A T IO N S —Continued

Occupation and sex

Aver­ Aver­
N um ­ N um ­
age
age
ber of
full­ earn­
Year estab­ ber of time
ings
wage
lish­ earners hours
per
per
ments
hour
week

Weavers, broad silk:
M ale.................................................... 1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1919
1931
Female................................................ 1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1919
1931
Weavers, ribbon:
M ale........ .......................................... 1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1919
1931
Female...............................................

Smash hands:
M ale_____ —____________________

Index numbers
Aver­
(1913=100)
age
full­
time
Full­
Full­ Earn­
earn
time
time
ings earn­
ings
hours
per
per
ings
per
hour
week
per
week
week

100.5

34.2
84.6
87.4

1 0 0 .0

100 .0

8 6 .1
8 8 .0
100 .0

97.3
92.3
91.4

97.6
187.0
197.2

94.1
172.8
180.6

1 01.1
1 01.6
1 0 0 .0
1 00 .0

71.2
91.4
87.4

72.5
93.3
87.6

14
13
13
28
33
24
224

1,008
1,462
1,441
2,107
2,419
1,409
9,796

56.9 $0.213 $1 2.12
56.9
.214 12.18
.22 1
12.45
56.3
.253 14.15
56.0
.247 13.31
54.5
51.7
.473 24.45
51.2
.499 25.55

14

1,190
1,378
1, <
526
2,217
2,885
2,189
5,904

56.7
57.2
56.1
56.1
54.2
52.0
49.6

.141
.181
.173
.198
.189
.398
.422

10.32
9.69
11.06
10.58
20.70
20.93

353
426
720
997
1,116
323
332

55.3
55.2
54.9
54.9
53.9
50.2
47.3

.237
.246
.277
.289
.302
.498
.558

13.11
13.56
15.21
15.78
16.05
25.00
26.39

100.7
100.5

55.6
55.5
55.1
55.2
54.6
50.4
48.2

.226
.229
.231
.244
.242
.433
.444

12.53
12.70
12.71
13.46
13.14
21.82
21.40

11

19
28
33
24
203
8
8
12

16
17
7
15

1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1919
1931

6
12

591
683
638
777
904
293
272

10
10
11

15
15

8 .0 2

101.6
101.6

96.6
92.7
88.4

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

85.7

1 0 0 .0

1 00 .0

95.5
213.1

95.7
187.2
189.2

82.0
85.2
95.8

83.1
85.9
96.8

2 0 1 .0

1 00 .0

1 00 .0

8 6 .2

104.5
172.3
193.1

101.7
158.4
167.2

100.7
100.5
99.8

92.6
93.9
94.7

93.1
94.4
94.4

1 00 .0

100 .0

1 00.0

98.9
91.3
87.3

99.2
177.5
182.0

97.6
162.1
159.0

98.2
91.4

1931

29

116

51.5

.536

27.60

1931

9

16

52.1

.409

21.31

1931

21

64

52.0

.260

13.52

Female................................................ 1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1919
1931

19
17
25
36
40
24
183

394
503
570
659
898
335
1,062

56.7
56.8
55.9
56.0
54.3
51.7
49.8

.124
.150
.134
.151
.163
.298
.270

7.09
8.55
7.50
8.45

101.3
101.4
99.8
1 00 .0

1 00.0

100 .0

8 .8 6

15.41
13.45

97.0
92.3
88.9

107.9
197.4
178.8

104.9
182.4
159.2

27.49

Female_____ ____ _______________
Pickers, cloth:
M ale__________________ _________

Inspectors, cloth:
M ale____________________________

1931

68

160

51.1

.538

Female................. ............................. 1931
Packers:
M a le ..__________________________ 1931

57

208

50.6

.327

16.55

36

81

49.8

.355

17.68

Female................................................ 1931
Other employees:
M ale___________ ________________ 1914
1919
1931
Female..............................................

* N ot reported.




1914
1919
1931

23

70

49.5

.263

13.02

61

2,191

55.2

.2 1 2

(*
)

11.66

282

4,724

51.5

.434

22.35

(4
)

(<
)

(4
)

(<
)

52

1,860

53.5

.132

7.09

208

2,455

50.0

.276

13.80

(<
)

(4
)

(<
)

(<
)

(4
)

82.1
83.9
101 .2
99.3
88.7 I 8 8 .8

6

WAGES AND HOURS OP LABOR

Average Hours and Earnings, 1931, by Sex and State
In Table 2 are shown average hours and earnings for all of the
wage earners that were included in the study of the industry in each
State in 1931. The averages are for each sex separately and also for
both sexes combined, or the industry, in each State. Averages are
shown for South Carolina, Alabama, and Georgia as a group, to avoid
showing figures for one plant alone.
For males in the various States, average full-time hours per week
ranged from 47.5 for the State with the lowest to 56.8 for the one
with the highest average, and for all States covered in the report
averaged 51.5 per week. Averages for females ranged from 46.9 to
56.1 and for all States included in the report were 50 hours per week
or 1.5 hours per week less than for males. Averages for both sexes
combined, or the industry, ranged by States from 47.2 to 56.4 per
week.
Average earnings per hour of males ranged by States from 21.8 to
59.7 cents and for all States averaged 48.5 cents. Averages of
females ranged from 18.1 to 41.8 cents and for all States averaged
33.5 cents, or 15 cents per hour less than for males. Averages of
both sexes combined, or the industry, ranged from 19.6 to 50 cents
per hour.
For males, average full-time earnings per week ranged by States
from $12.38 to $28.36 and for all States averaged $24.98. Averages
of females ranged from $10.15 to $20.77 and for all States averaged
$16.75, or $8.23 less than for males. Averages for both sexes, or the
industry, ranged by States from $11.05 to $24.75. The greatest
difference between the averages for males and for females in any
State was $9.81 and the smallest difference was $2.23 per week.
T able 2.— Average hours and earnings, 1981, by sex and State

Sex and State

Number Number Average
Average
of estab­ of wage full-time Average full-time
earnings earnings
lish­
hours
earners per week per hour per week
ments

MALES

Connecticut____________ ________ __________________
M aryland__________________________________________
Massachusetts______________ ____________ __________
N ew Jersey_____________ ______ _____ _ ______ ____
_
N ew Y ork______________________ ____ ______ _______
North Carolina_______________________________ _____
Pennsylvania______________________________________
Rhode Island_________________ ______ ______________
South Carolina, Alabama, and Georgia........................
Tennessee______________________________ ____ ______
Virginia__________________________________ _________
Total............. ...........................................................

13
3

6
6

1,546
132
734
3,331
1,780
1,378
10,349
1,403
447
311
474

51.0
56.0
50.2
47.5
51.3
55.3
52.2
50.3
55.1
56.8
53.8

$0,522
.310
.459
.597
.502
.419
.474
.553
.294
.218
.323

$26.62
17.36
23.04
28.36
25.75
24.97
24.74
27.82
16.20
12.38
17.38

340

21,885

51.5

.485

24.98

13
3

6
6

1,429
381
776
3,764
3,047
809
14,250
1,170
428
511
586

49.3
50.0
47.6
46.9
48.7
55.2
50.5
49.7
55.6
56.1
54.1

.385
.230
.278
.410
.335
.314
.324
.418
.240
.181
.265

18.98
11.50
13.23
19.23
16.31
17.33
16.36
20.77
13.34
10.15
14.34

340

27,151

50.0

.335

16.75

12

97
37
10

131
20

5

FEMALES

Connecticut__________________ __________ ____ _____
M aryland________________________ ____ ____________
Massachusetts_____________ _________ _______ ______
N ew Jersey..........................................................................
N ew York............................................................................
North C arolina................................................................
Pennsylvania_____ ____ —...............................................
Rhode Island............. ............................................ .......... .
South Carolina, Alabama, and Georgia........................
Tennessee............................. ..............................................
Virginia................................................................................
Total..........................................................................




12

97
37
10

131
20

5

7

MANUFACTURE OF SILK AND RAYON GOODS
T a b l e 2 . — Average

hours and earnings, 1981, by sex and State— Continued

Sex and State

Number
of estab­
lish­
ments

Number Average Average Average
of wage full-time earnings full-time
hours
earnings
earners per week per hour per week

HALES AND FEMALES

Connecticut________________________________________
M aryland_______________________________ _____ ____
Massachusetts___________________ _________ ________
N ew Jersey____ . . . . ________________________________
N ew York______ . . . ________________________________
North Carolina__ _____________ ______ ___ ______ _
_
Pennsylvania______________________________________
Rhode Island__________________ ____ ______ ______
South Carolina, Alabama, and Georgia_____________
Tennessee________________________________ _________
Virginia_____ —____________________________________
T otal____ - ___________________________________

13
3

6
6

2,975
513
1,510
7,095
4,828
2,187
24,618
2,573
875
822
1,060

50.2
51.5
48.9
47.2
49.7
55.2
51.2
50.0
55.4
56.4
54.0

$0,459
.253
.367
.500
.400
.382
.392
.495
.268
.196
.292

$23.04
13.03
17.95
23.60
19.88
21.09
20.07
24.75
14.85
11.05
15.77

340

49,036

50.7

.406

20.58

12

97
37
10

131
20

5

Average and Classified Earnings per Hour, 1913 to 1931, by Occupation
Table 3 shows average and classified earnings per hour for the
wage earners of each sex in nine of the representative occupations in
the industry, for each of the specified years from 1913 to 1931 in
which studies have been made by the bureau. Thus the variations
in the trend and spread of average earnings per hour of wage earners
in all occupations in the industry are illustrated.
Average and classified earnings are shown for males only in 1, and
for both males and females in 8, of the 9 occupations. The figures
are for 14,610 males, or 67 per cent of the males, and for 21,766 females,
or 80 per cent of the females, in all occupations in the mills included
in the 1931 study, while the 36,376 males and females combined
form 74 per cent of the wage earners included in the study.
The showing of the wage earners in the nine occupations by class­
ified earnings groups is graphic in effect since it shows that the groups
with the highest earnings in 1913 and 1914 ended at or near where
those with the lower earnings in 1919 and 1931 began. This is illus­
trated by the figures for winders, hard silk, female. In 1913 and
1914 less than 1 per cent of these workers earned as much as an
average of 20 and under 25 cents per hour, and none earned as much
as 25 cents per hour. In 1919, 89 per cent, and in 1931, 90 per cent
earned an average of 20 cents or more per hour.




00

T able 3.— Average and classified earnings per hour in 9 specified occupations, 19IS to 1981, by occupation, sex, and year

Occupation and sex

19

U919
1931
Spinners:
M a l e . . . . . . . . —. . . ------------- -— 1913
1914
1919
1931
T oiyiqIa
P

1 T 1qIa
?A T

Redrawers:
'R'Amn.lA
Warpers:
M ale---------------- —

T attioIo
T




183
14
16
9
109

262
300
107
1,794

36
18

.1 1 2
.1 2 1

.117
.119
.342
.344

11
12
8

.269
OQ
Q

1931

$

22

39
45
(*)
\)
126

1,136
1.361
(6)
\)
1,554

. 141
.150
(«)
.340

1931

13

63

113

1,887

.243

1913
1914
1919
1931

14

152
175
71
993

34
1
1

1913
1914
1919
1931

22
8

166
33
39
23
164

849
1,084
536
1,974

.138
.274
.289

. 205
.203
.354
.476

1
6

3

3

10

4

13
14
7

1

1

2
1
8
1

3
15
3

3
11

4

2

23
18

13

16
17

22

19

24

3
17

* 20
15

9

30
23

5
12

82
5

2

23

27

14

5

3

0

20

17

7

0

14

5

5

5

25
24

12
22

8

7

5
7

1
2

1

2

3

7

15

22

5

8

5

46

13

6

7

9

33

22

14

4

1

5
3
3

7
13

1

3

6
6

3 18

1

7 88
7 81
4
4

6

7

10

9

15
9

22
20

74
78

1
1

1
1

25
24
9
3

17
5

22
8

18

3 24
15

13

3
1

0

7
7
0
0

0

9

3

5

1
11

1

5
7

0

0

11

3

8

1

1

18

15
0

g

2

21

27
27

12
0
0)

2

0

*3
4

24

11
22
20

12

11
10

1

7
14

31
26

7
3

26

0

0

2

16

19
14

32

35
28

0)

27
19

16

26

1

0

0

21
0)
0

12
12

2
1

388
.359
.558
.648

1913
1914
1919
1931

5
4

1
2

0

5

34
36

.197

1931

2

5

8

.319

1913
1914
1919
1931

2

9
13

0

0

.1 1 0

104

340
437
372
2,346

2
?6

10

9

0
0

0

1

1

0

6

4

1

0

1
0)

0

O LABOR
F

Winders, soft silk:

2

26
28

61 $0,267
836
1 008
1,069
5,105

HOURS

14

90
80
70
60
50
45
40
35
25
30
20
and and and and and and and and and and cents $1
under under under under under under under under under under and and
80
90 under over
60
70
50
45
40
25
30
35
cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents $1

AD
N

1931
1913

of wage earners whose earnings per hour were—

WAGES

W inders, hard silk:
M ale

Per cent
Aver­
N um ­ N um ­
age
ber of ber of earn­
18
16
12
14
10
Year estab­ wage
Un­ and and and and and
ings
lish­ earn­
per der 10 under under under under under
ers
ments
20
18
16
14
12
hour cents
cents cents cents cents cents

0

0

0

12

3

1

18
17

39
15

10
11

6
21

1
12

6

0

0

0

1

9

9

10

2

1

1

0

Qufllers:
M ale___________
Female................

Weavers, broad silk:
M aid..................
Female________
Pickers, cloth:
M ale___________
Female________

62

299

.250

1913
1914
1919
1931

41
46
26
238

735
980
460
1,934

.115
.121
.237

1919
1931

24
224

1,409
9,796

.473

1919
1931

24
203

2,189
5,904

.422

1931

21

64

.260

1913
1914
1919
1931

40
24
183

659
898
335
1,062

.151
.163
.298
.270

1913
1914
1919
1931

41
47
27
234

329
398
279
1,518

0

2

4

7

25
29

.321
.330
.546
.746

27
25

9

4
7

12
6

*2
2
0
0

0 0

7
0
1

1

1
1

6

13

13

9

16
16

12
1

3

6

U
?5
15
13

1

1

1

12

12

26
24

15

3
7

10 1
2

12

15
18

5
7

1
2

0
0

5

6

10

3 11

13

6

3

2

19

0

* 25
15

4

3

13
3

3

12

15
14

10

13

•1

>30

9

16

•1

12

0

3

3
13

1
1

0

•18
3

4

4
2

0
1

0

0

0
2

0
0

0
0

7 75
77
0

0

56

22

2

8

15

30

18

• Included with “ winders, hard silk.”
7 Classified in former bulletins as “ 30 cents and over.”
• Less than 1 per cent and classified for this year as “ 80 and over.”
• Classified for this year as “ under 14.”
u Classified for this year as “ 80 and over.”

11

10

AD
N

i Less than 1 per cent.
* Includes “ winders, soft silk.”
* Classified for this year as *‘ 40 and under 50 cents.”
4 Less than 1 per cent and classified in former bulletins as “ 30 cents and over.”
* Less than 1 per cent and classified in former bulletins as “ under 14.”

RAYON
GOODS




11

6

4
0

23

O S K
F IL

L oom fixers:
M ale__________

1931

CD

10

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR

Table 4 shows the number and per cent of wage earners of each sex
and of both sexes combined at each classified group of average earn­
ings per hour. The figures in this table include all wage earners in
the 340 mills covered by the 1931 study of the industry.
The largest number of males in any one group is 2,095, or 10 per
cent of the total, at 50 and under 55 cents; of females, 2,623, or 10
per cent, at 30 and under 32% cents; and of males and females com­
bined, 3,771, or 8 per cent, at 30 and under 32% cents. Approximately
8 per cent of the males earned 55 and under 60 cents, while 9 per cent
of the females and 7 per cent of the males and females combined
earned 25 and under 27% cents per hour.
T a b le

4.— Number and per cent of wage earners, by sex, earning each classified
amount per hour, 1981
Number

Per cent

Classified earnings per hour
Males

Females

1 and under 2 cents.........................................
2 and under 3 cents.........................................
3 and under 4 cents.........................................
4 and under 5 cents........................................
5 and under 6 cents.........................................
6 and under 7 cents.........................................
7 and under 8 cents.........................................
8 and under 9 cents.........................................
9 and under 10 cents......................................
10 and under 11 cen ts....................................
11 and under 12 cents.....................................
12 and under 13 cents.....................................
13 and under 14 cents....................................
14 and under 15 cents....................................
15 and under 16 cents.....................................
16 and under 17 cents................ .....................
17 and under 18 cents------ ------------- ------- 18 and under 19 cents.....................................
19 and under 20 cents....... .............................
20 and under 21 cents_______________ ____
21 and under 22 cents.............. ......................
22 and under 23 cents................ . . . ................
23 and under 24 cents.....................................
24 and under 25 cents...................................
25 and under 27H cen ts ..._______ ________
27H and under 30 cents..................... ...........
30 and under 32H cents..................................
32H and under 35 cents.............. ........... .......
35 and under 37H cents.— ........................ .
37H and under 40 cents___________ ______
40 and under 42H cents....... .........................
42yi and under 45 cents....... ..........................
45 and under 47H cents.............................. ...
47^ and under 50 cents.............................. .
50 and under 55 cents.....................................
55 and under 60 cents.................................. .
60 and under 65 cents.....................................
65 and under 70 cents....................................
70 and under 75 cents......................................
75 and under 80 cents......................................
80 and under 85 cents.....................................
85 and under 90 cents.....................................
90 and under 95 cents.............................. .......
95 cents and under $1....................................
$1 and under $1.10 ...........................................
$1.10 and under $1.20 ......................................
$1.20 and under $1.30......................................
$1.30 and under $1.40......................................
$1.40 and under $1.50........... ..........................
$1.50 and under $1.60______ _____ _______ _
$1.70 and under $1.80____________ _______ _
$1.80 and under $1.90......................................
$2.50 and under $2.75_____________________

194
358
178
328
183
253
826
622
1,148
810
1,008
932
1,323
924
1,163
952
2,095

Total.......................................................

21,885

* Less than X per cent.




1
2

5
6
10
8
10

17
22

50
42
60
59
76
120

143
164
212

1 ,686

1,450
1,092
918
787
476
292
309
116
294
94
44
14
5

2

3
3
9
11
21

26
45
38
70
74
214
151
320
288
465
415
782
421
954
564
954
771
993
2,555
2,170
2,623
1,832
1,971
1,347
1,399
946
876
640
1,176
781
546
283
129
131
59
26
20

13
25
3
3
3

1
1
1
1

Total

Males
3
5
8

15
21

29
36
62
60
120

116
274
210

396
408
608
579
994
615
1,312
742
1,282
954
1,246
3,381
2,792
3,771
2,642
2,978
2,279
2,722
1,870
2,039
1,592
3,271
2,467
1,996
1,375
1,047
918
535
318
329
129
319
97
48
17
5
1
1
1
1

27,151

49,036

Females

Total

0)
(0
0)
0)
0)
0)
0)
0)
0)
0)
0)
0)
0)

0)

(l)
0)
0)
0)
0)
0)
(l)
0)
0)
0)
0)

(i)
0)
0)
0)
0)
<*)
to
(*>
C)
1
0)

i
i
i
i

1
0

l

2

1
1
1
1
2
1

2
1
1
1
1

<9

4

3

l
l

2
2

1
1

3
2

3

8
10

4
3
5
4
5
4

2

4
3
4
9

6
8

2

3
7

7
7
5
5
3
3

6

4
5
4

5
6

5
6

4
4
3
7
5
4
3

2

10
8

4
3

7
5
4
4

2
1

2
1
1
1
1

(*)
0)
0)
( 1)
1)
0)

2
2
1
1
1

0)
0)
0)
0)

(9
( 1)
( 1)
0)
0)
0)

0)
1
0)
0)

(l)
(l)
(l)
0)
(l)
0)

1

(l)
100

100

100

11

MANUFACTURE OF SILK AND RAYON GOODS

Full-Time Hours Per Week and Per Day, 1910 to 1931
Full-time hours per week are the regular or customary hours of
operation when a mill is working its recognized standard hours as
established by a regular time of beginning and of quitting work on
each day of the week, not including the regular time off duty for
meals nor any overtime, and not deducting any time lost on any day
for any cause.
Table 5 shows for each specified year for each of nine representative
occupations in the industry the per cent of wage earners in each
classified group of full-time hours per week.
The full-time hours per week for the 559 winders, hard silk, female,
that were included in the 1910 study averaged 57.3 and the hours of
40 per cent of this number were over 54 and under 57; of 48 per cent,
57 and under 60; and of 13 per cent, 60 per week. Those included in
the study in 1912 averaged 56.2 per week and the full-time hours of
22 per cent of them were 54 per week as compared with none in the
occupation at 54 or less in 1910 or 1911. The average for the 5,105
included in the 1931 study was 50.1 per week, when the full-time
hours of only 6 per cent of them were more than 54 per week.
T a b le

5.— Average and classified full-time hours per week in 9 specified occupations,
1910 to 1931, by occupation, sex, and year

Occupation
and sex

Winders, hard
silk:
M ale____
Female—

Spinners:
M ale........

Female—

Winders, soft
silk:
M ale____
Female—

Per cent of wage earners whose full-time hours per week were—
AverNum ­ Num ­
ber of ber of m il
Over
Over
Over 51,
Over 57,
Year estab­ wage time Un­
54,
44,
40,
48, un­
lish­ earn­ hours der 40 un­ 44 un­
un­
48 un­ der 54 un­ der 60 Over
ments
per 40
ers
60
der
der
der 54
der
week
t
44
48
51
57 60

1931

14

61

51.9

1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
11919
1931

17
18
18
19
29
183

559
889
834
836
1,008
1,069
5,105

57.3
56.8
56.2
56.3
54.1
51.5
50.1

1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1919
1931

16
16
14
14
16
9
109

327
396
327
262
300
107
1,794

57.5
57.5
57.3
56.6
54.7
53.9
54.2

1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1919
1931

9

86

12
12
11
12
8

369
395
340
437
372
2,346

56.9
56.5
56.0
56.3
54.2
50.3
50.2

21

104

1931

6

22

24

675
900
891
1,136
1,361
(*)
1,554

56.6
56.7
56.0
55.7
54.3
(4
)
49.2

2

22
22

39
45
(*)
126

i Includes "winders, soft s ilk /'
* 50 hours.
* Over 50 and under 54.




18

1

(<)

(<)

5

(<)

6

3
« 61
70

13

10

22
5

2

aT

73
34

6

6

10
8

4

1

(«)

4

1

1

3

8

57.3

1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1919
1931

25

* 36
32

....

* 92
69 ’ Y
32

75
52
4

25
5
84
7
7

30

3

40
54
37
48
24

48
41
37
39

13
5

1

5

1

37
35
25
48
16

45
44
51
30
3

28

4

22

45
63
39
52
16

48
36
34
39

7
3
4

2

(4
)

4

1
6

(4
)

17

6

10

27

26
9
35
25

19
20

14
14
6

43
50
32
58
42

51
47
41
31

5

7

1

3

1

27

2

2

i

12

5

3
3

5
6

36

* Less than 1 per cent.
* Included with “ winders, hard silk."

2

12

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR

T able 5.— Average and classified full-time hours per week in 9 specified occupationst

1910 to 1981, by occupation, sex, and year— Continued

2 50 hours.
1 Over 50 and

< Less than 1 per cent.
under 54.

The hours per week and per day, Monday to Thursday, Friday, and
Saturday, in Table 6, are the regular or customary hours of operation




MANUFACTURE OF SILK AND RAYON GOODS

13

for day work for each of the 340 mills included in the 1931 study, and
for night work for each of the 163 mills that also operated a night shift.
Full-time hours per week of the wage earners for day work in the
340 mills ranged from 40 for the mill with the shortest to 66% for the
mill with the longest hours per week, and for night work ranged from
44 in two mills to 72 in one mill.
The hours per day for day work, Monday to Friday, ranged from
8 to 11#, and on Saturday in the 319 mills in which there was work on
that day from 3% to 10. Twenty-one mills were operated on the
5-day week basis, there being no work on Saturday.
The hours per night for night work on Monday to Friday ranged in
the 163 mills from 8 to 13. There was no night work on Saturday in
141 of these mills, while in the 21 mills that had night work on Satur­
day and 1 that had night work Sunday the hours ranged from 3}i to
12. The night force of each of the mills that had both day and
night shifts was less than the day force and usually limited to certain
departments or occupations.
The full-time hours per week of the day shifts of 103, or 30 per cent
of the 340 mills, were 50; of 50, or 15 per cent, were 44; of 42, or 12 per
cent, were 55; of 30, or 9 per cent, were 54; and of 24 mills, or 7 per
cent, were 48 per week. The hours of 74, or 45 per cent, of the 163
mills that operated night shifts were 55 per week.
T a b le

6

. — Number

of establishments in each State with specified number of fulltime hours per week and per day, 1981
DAY WORK

1

42

2
1

1

4
4
5
1

1
1

4
1

4

1

11
1

2
1
1

18
1

94

2
1

2
1

3
18

hours M onday.

131842°—32------2




14

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR

T a b le

6

.-

-Number of establishments in each State with specified number of full­
time hours per week and per day, 1981— Continued
D A T W O R K —Continued
Full-time hours per day

N umber of establishments in £

Full-time hours per week M onday
to
Thurs­ Friday
day

50H hou rs..
51 hours___

m
9
9H
m
m
9^2
9^2
9H
9%
m
m

51H hou rs..
52 hours___
52M2 hours.
hou rs..
52H hou rs..
53 hours___
53H hours. .
83% hou rs..

9h
9H
9»H2
10
10
10

54 hours.

54H hours.
55 hours_
_
55H hours.
56H hours.
57 h o u rs...
hours.
58 h o u rs...
60 hou rs.. .

66H hours .

10

f
I

10 H
10 H
10 H
10 ^

10%
10

11

11 H

9

8

30

Satur­
day

4H

1
1

6

94
V
m
9^2
9Ma
m
m
m
m
9
m
9f i
9H
9»H2
10
10
10
10
10H
10n

ion

10 ^
10 H

10

11

nn

4H
5
5
41H2
5
5
4
5H
4H
4H
5
9
5H
5
4?4
4H
4
4H
5
5H
5
5
4H
5
m

3
5
1
1

3
17

2
1
1
1

7
3
9
1

4
1

12
1

10

42
1
1
1

2

2
1

10
5
10

2
1
1

Total.................... .................................................. 13

3

12

97

37

10 131

20

5

6

6

340

N IG H T W O R K
8
8H
8
9

44 hours.. .
45 h o u r s...
46 hours.. .
46J4 hours.
48 h o u rs...

8

m
m
9

49H hours.

10

50 h o u rs...

m
9
10

51 h o u rs...
52 h o u rs...
52^ hours.
54 h o u rs...
55 h o u rs...
56 h o u rs...
56J4 hours.
57^ hours.
58^ hours.
60 h o u rs...
61% hours .
63 h o u rs...
65 h o u rs...
66 h o u rs...
72 h o u rs...

9H

10H
9

10 ^

10

11

m
m
9
m
m
9
10
9

m

m
io x
9
10 h
10

n

10

10

11 H

10*4
11H
UH
im

10H
HH
12
12H

12

12 H

11
13

11
13

12

12

11

11

1
1

4
0

5
0
*6
0

4H
4H




1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1

7tt

1
1
1

2

....

3
19

8
1

2

0

3

1

4

9

2
1

5

3
71

0
6

3H
5

1

6

1
1
1

1

0

5

1

1

3

0
6

2

5H

....

4

7

46

2
1
2

3

2

1

0
0
0
0
0

8
0

11

1

1
1

....

2

1
1

3

2
1

....
1

8

6

....

1

2

1

....
1

16

1
1
1

10

2

23
1
1

1

2

1
6
2
12

4

2
1
1

12

Total........................................................................ 10
* Sunday.

2

1

0

5

1
1
1

1
2
1

8

92

1
1

9

4

5

3

15

MANUFACTURE OF SILK AND RATON GOODS

Changes in Full-time Hours Since January 1, 1929
Only 11 of the 340 mills included in the 1931 study reported changes
in the regular full-time hours per week since January 1, 1929. Table
7 shows the hours per week and per day before and after the changes
were made for the 11 mills.
T able 7.— Hours per week and per day of mills before and after change between

January 1, 1929, and period of 1931 study
Hours after change

Hours before change
N um ­
ber of
mills

D ay or night work

Per week

44
48
54
44
m i
60
50
55
50
50
50
55

D ay w o ik ..
D o ........
D o ........
D o ........
D o ........
D o ........
Night work.
D ay w o r k ..
D o ........
D o ........
Night work.
D o ........

M onday
to
Friday

Saturday

0)
0)

0)

0)
0)

0)
0)

10
10
9

Per week

M onday
to
Friday

49^
55
44
50
40
55
56
54
51H
46
45
50

Saturday

9

10

5
4
5

8

0

10
10
10

5
6

W

4
5

8
8

5

10

0

6

* N ot available.

Changes in Wage Rates Since January 1, 1929
The 1931 report includes wage figures for 340 mills. Table 8
shows that between January 1,1929, and the period of the 1931 study,
189 mills made changes in the wage rates of all or a specified number
of their wage earners. All changes were decreases except in one mill
(near end of table) in which rates of winders were increased 2 cents
per hour.
The year in which changes were made was not reported for 25 mills.
One change only was made in the rates in 140 mills; two changes
were made in 20 mills and three in 3 mills; while in 1 mill there were
seven changes in rates.
T able 8.— Changes in wage rates in 189 mills in the silk and rayon industry

between January 1, 1929, and period of 1981 study

Num­
ber of
mills

Number of mills
making changes
in 1929

1
1
1

1930

0)

0)

2

1
2
1
1
1

53
4

A ll.......................................................................
____ do........ ........... ...........................................
____ d o_____________________ ________ _____
____ do_____________________ ______ _____
1 ____ d o____________________________________
____ d o____________________________________
0)
—.. . d o ____________________________________
0)
1 ____ d o ____________________ _____ _________
1 ........d o..................................................................
. . . . . d o ____________________________________
0)
24
0)
0)

2
2
8

0)
0)
1
1

0)

0)

0)

0)

29

Per cent or amount o f decrease

1931
1
1

3
1

Wage earners affected

l N ot reported.




35 per cent.
33H per cent.
30 per cent.
25 per cent.
20 per cent.
D o.
D o.
15 per cent.
12 H per cent.
12 per cent.
11 per cent.
10 per cent.

Do.

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR
ges in wage rates in 189 mills in the silk and rayon industry between
%uary 1, 1929, and period of 1981 study— Continued

nof
Is

Wage earners affected

A ll.
_do.
.d o..
.d o..
.d o..
.d o..
.d o..
.d o..
.d o .
.d o..
.d o..
.d o..
.d o..
.d o..
.d o..
.d o..
.d o..
.d o..
..do..
..do..
..do..
-d o.
..d o.
..d o.
..d o.
..d o.
..do..
.d o .
.d o .
.d o..

1

4
1
1
2

3
1
1
1

i
1
2

1

4
1
1

1
1
4
2

1
1
1

Weavers..... .............. ...............

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

9
1
1

1

3
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1

2




1

9 per cent.
8 per cent.
Do.
7M per cent.
6 per cent.
5 per cent.
4 per cent.
5 to 15 per cent.
5 to 10 per cent.
Do.
5 to 8 per cent.
15 per cent.
10 per cent.
15 per cent.
10 per cent.
Do.
D o.
5 per cent.
10 per cent.
6 per cent.
Do.
Do.
7 per cent.
Do.
$2 per week.
$1 per week.
5 cents per hour.
3 cents per hour.
2 cents per hour.
Do.

50 per cent.

Weavers, warpers, and winders..
23 per cent.
Piece workers................................ .
20 per cent.
Weavers and warpers.................. .
Do.
Weavers...........................................
D o.
d o ............................................. .
Do.
.d o..
D o.
.d o..
15 to 20 per cent.
Weavers, warpers, and quillers.................... 15 per cent.
Loom fixers, weavers, warpers, beamers, 11 per cent.
and winders.
Weavers.............................................................
Do.
Weavers and warpers................................... . 10 to 12 per cent.
A ll except 10 per cent..................................... 10 per cent.
do
Do.
All except 5 per cent.......................................
D o.
Weavers, warpers, winders, quillers, and
D o.
pickers.
D o.
Piece workers...................................................
D o.
Weavers.............................................................
do.
D o.
Warpers, weavers, and winders..
D o.
Do.
Winders...........................................
7 per cent.
Weavers...........................................
5 per cent.
35 per cent.
f___ d o.
30 per cent.
Warpers....................................
20 per cent.
Winders and twisters...........
10 per cent.
5 per cent.
30 per cent.
Quillers.....................................
15 per cent.
Loom fixers and pickers....... .
30 per cent.
(Night workers........................ .
10 per cent.
\Day workers.......................... .
25 per cent.
/W eavers and warpers........... .
20 per cent.
IA ll others................................
D o.
/L oom fixers.............................
10 per cent.
\Weavers..................................
20 per cent.
10 per cent.
,AU others................................
D o.
/N igh t workers........................
D o.
\Day workers...........................
/N igh t workers.......................
• Second reduction.
ID a y workers..........................

{

1

Per cent or amount of decrease

* First reduction.

MANUFACTURE OF SILK AND RAYON GOODS

17

T a b l e 8 . — Changes in

wage rates in 189 mills in the silk and rayon industry between
January 1, 1929, and period of 1981 study— C o n t in u e d

N um ­
ber of

Number of mills
making changes
in -

Wage earners affected

mills

1929

1930

1931
Night workers..............
D ay workers.................
Night workers..............
D a y workers.................
Piece workers...............
Loom fixers.................. .
Warpers.........................
Winders.........................
IWeavers.........................
\Time workers...............
/W eavers.........................
1Warpers.........................
(Warpers and weavers..
\Winders........... . ...........
do..
Warpers_____ ____ _____ _______
____do...............................................
Doublers, quillers, and winders..
Weavers............. ............ ................
— do...............................................
Spinners------------------------ ----------»1
Loom fixers......................................
Throwing department____ _____
>1
Weaving department....................

*1

Per cent or amount of decrease

*1

(,)3
1
1
0)

do.................... ................................
Warpers.................................................
Winders— ..........................................
Weavers.................................................
Loom fixers...........................................
Warpers and weavers.........................
Tim e workers. _...................................
'Maintenance department..................
W eave room help.................................
Warpers.................................................
Loom fixers...........................................
Weavers..................................................
A ll except mechanics.......... ................
A ll females— ........................................ .
Weavers..................................................
------ do..................................................... .
____do..............................
Winders.........................
Weavers and warpers.,
.do.
Winders, fillers and doublers. ...........
fAll receiving $17 or over per w eek....
IA ll receiving less than $17 per week..
'A ll receiving over $20 per week........ .
A ll receiving $20 or less per week___
.A ll piece workers.................... ............
Crepe weavers.......................................
Chiffon weavers....................................
Weavers..................................................
Winders................................................. .
Weavers..................................................
Q u illers................................................
Twisters..................................................
Weavers..................................................
Loom fixers............................................
Warpers..................................................
Weavers..................................................
do..
Warpers_________
.W inders................
/A ll time workers.
,Weavers-------------do..
Winders...
Weavers—.
L
Warpers...

i N ot reported.
* First reduction.
* Second reduction.




<Third reduction.
* Fourth reduction.
• Fifth reduction.

per cent.
per cent.
Do.
D o.
20 per cent.
5 per cent.
15 per cent.
12^ per cent.
D c.
10 per cent.
11 per cent.
10 per cent.
10 per cent.
5 per cent.
7 per cent.
10 per cent.
Do.
Do.
Do.
12 per cent.
10 per cent.
7 per cent.
10 per cent.
Do.
D o.
Do.
8 per cent.
7 per cent.
10 per cent.
7 per cent.
10 per cent.
5 per cent.
3yk per cent.
3H per cent.
10 per cent.
5 per cent.
H cent per yard.
$1.50 per week.
$2 per week.
H cent per yard.
1 cent per yard.
20 cents per 1,000 picks.
15 and 20 cents per 1,000 picks.
$1 per week.
1 cent per yard.
Vi cent per yard.
$2 per week.
$1.50 per week.
$1 per week.
D o.
50 cents per week.
19 per cent.
2 cents per yard.
1 cent per yard.
2 cents per yard.
2 cents per pound.
2 cents per yard.
$2 per week.
10 per cent.
3 cents per yard.
$5 per week.
2 cents per yard.
1 and 2 cents per yard.
H cent per yard.
1 cent per yard.
8 per cent.
1 cent per hour.
1 cent per yard.
Do.
$1 per week.
M cent per yard.
1 cent per 1,000 ends.
20
10

* Sixth reduction.
* Seventh reduction.

18

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR

T a b l e 8 .—

N um ­
ber of
mills

Changes in wage rates in 189 mills in the silk and rayon industry between
January 1, 1929, and period of 1931 study— Continued

Number of mills
making changes
in 1929

1930

Wage earners affected

1931
fW eavers.........................................
.Warpers..........................................
'Winders..........................................
Warpers.........................................
Weavers.........................................
.AH other except loom fixers____
/W eavers........................... .............
. . . . d o .............................................
Winders..........................................
5 B spinners...................................
Redrawers......................................
Spinners.........................................
Sweepers-.......................................
Helper........ — ................................
Twisters........................................
Winders and quillers...................
.Weavers.........................................
Quillers...........................................
31 Quillers, helper.............................
Weavers.........................................
Winders.........................................
'Weavers.........................................
Winders, warpers, and quillers Pickers............. ............ .................
Twisters-in____________________
Loom fixers........... .........................

8 First

Per cent or amount of decrease

reduction.

* Second reduction.

l cent per yard.
A

Vi cent per 1,000 ends.
(9
).
1 cent per 100 yards.
20 and 25 cents per 1,000 picks.
10 per cent.
15 cents per 1,000 picks.
20 cents per 1,000 picks.
$2 per week.
$3.50 per week.
$1.50 per week.
7H and 12H cents per hour.
$5 per month.
$2 per month.
$2 per week.
$1 per week.
A
l cent per yard.
$1 per week.
50 cents per week.
M cent per yard.
H cent per skein.
1Yt cents per yard.
3 cents per hour.
2 cents per hour.
$5 per week.
$7.50 per week.
• Increase of 2 cents per hour.

Overtime and Sunday and Holiday Work, 1931
Overtime is any time worked in excess of the regular full time per
day or per week, regardless of the rate paid for such time. Work on
Sunday and holidays is extra time only when worked by employees
whose regular hours per day and week do not provide for work on
those days.
In reply to inquiries concerning overtime and Sunday and holiday
work, 225 of the 340 mills covered in the 1931 study reported over­
time as having been worked during the pay period taken and 42
reported extra work on Sunday and holidays. Only 9 of the 225
mills in which there was overtime, and only 7 of the 42 in which
there was extra work on Sunday and holidays, paid a higher rate for
such work than for regular working time. In 216 mills in which
there was overtime and m 35 in which there was extra work on Sunday
and holidays the rate for such work was the same as for regular work­
ing time.
Table 9 shows the number of mills in which an extra rate was paid
for overtime, or for extra work on Sunday and holidays, the number
of times the regular rate that was paid for such work, and the wage
earners entitled to the extra rate.




19

MANUFACTURE OF SILK AND RAYON GOODS
T a b le

9.— Employees entitled to extra pay, and times regular rate paid for overtime
and for work on Sunday and holidays, 1981
Times regular rate fo rNum ber
of estab­
lish­
ments

Employees entitled

Overtime

All employees.....................................
Loom fixers, warpers, and twisters
Twisters-in........................................ .
D o ................................................ .
Tim e workers.....................................
D o ................................................
Dyehouse workers.............................
Tim e workers.....................................
All except foreman............ ..............
Mechanics and winders...................
i N o Sunday work.

W ork on
Sunday
and holi­
days

1H

m
m

m

2

lh
1h

m
m
i
i
2 Holidays

only; no Sunday work.

*1H

(0

m

* A nd Saturdays.

Bonus Systems
A bonus system is a plan whereby the earnings at basic time or
piece rates of all or of a part of the wage earners of a mill would be
increased under certain conditions. Example: A mill had a plan
which provided for the payment of a bonus of $3 per week to each
dyehouse laborer for attendance of 90 per cent or more of full time.
The full-time hours of operation of the mill were 48 per week. A dyehouse laborer in the mill whose rate was 40 cents per hour worked
43.5 hours or 0.3 hour more than 90 per cent of full time. His earn­
ings in the week were $17.40 at his basic rate plus $3 for attendance
or $20.40.
Fifty-five of the 340 mills included in the 1931 study reported
bonus systems in operation. The basis of the bonus, the wage earn­
ers entitled to the bonus payments, and the amount of and condi­
tions necessary to get the bonus are shown for each of the 55 mills in
Table 10.
The basis of the bonus in 8 mills was attendance; in 7, attendance
and efficiency; in 3, attendance and production; in 25, efficiency; in
1, efficiency and production; in 6, production; in 1, production and
time saving; in 3, service; and in 1, time saving.
T a b le

N um ­
ber
of
estab­
lish­
ments

Bonus based
on—

10.—Bonus systems in operation in 55 mills, 1981

Employees entitled
to bonus

A mount of or per cent
of earnings paid as
bonus

Necessary to get bonus

Dyehouselaborers. $3 per week....................... Attendance of 90 per cent or
more of full time.
$1 per week....................... Full-time attendance.
Quillers............. .
D o.
[Winders_________ ____ do______ ___________
D o.
1 ........do................. jSpinners, n ig h t ... 10 per cent of earnings at
basic rates.
1 ____ do_________ Weavers_________ ........do.................. ..............
D o.
D o.
1 ____ do................. W inders, doublers, 60 cents per week.............
spinners, reelers,
quillers,warpers,
fwisters-in, and
pickers.

1

Attendance___

1

........do................




20

WAGES AND HOTJRS OF LABOR
Table 10.— Bonus systems in operation in 55 mills, 1931— Continued

N um ­
ber
of
estab­
lish­
ments

Bonus based
on—

Employees entitled
to bonus

Amount of or per cent
of earnings paid as
bonus

Necessary to get bonus

A ttendance___ All piece workers.. 5 per cent of earnings at Full-time attendance.
basic rates.
10 per cent of earnings at
Do.
basic rates.

........do................ Piece workers in
winding, spin­
ning, redrawing,
and reeling de­
partments.
........do................ Weavers, warpers,
and loom fixers.
Attendance and Weavers.................
efficiency.
Loom fixers______

(

........do________

Weavers.

5 per cent of earnings at
basic rates.
10 per cent of earnings at
basic rates.
5 per cent of earnings at
basic rates.
per cent of earnings at
basic rates.

10

..d o ..............................
Attendance and
production.

..d o ____________

per cent of earnings at
basic rates.
of earnings at
Attendance----- Winders, warpers,
basic rates.
q u ille r s,
and 5 per cent of earnings at
pickers.
, basic rates.
Attendance and Weavers.................. 20 per cent of earnings at
efficiency.
basic rates.
15 per cent of earnings at
Efficiency.......... Loom fixers..
basic rates.
5 per cent of earnings at
Attendance------ Weavers____
basic rates.
A t t e n d a n c e ....... do______
10 per cent of earnings at
and efficiency.
basic rates.
Attendance----- Winders, coppers, Males— $2 per week and
redrawers, spin­
5 per cent of earnings
ners, and dou­
at basio rates; females
—$3 per week and 10
blers.
per cent of earnings at
basic rates.
$25 every 3 months____
5 B spinners..
Efficiency—
20

10 per cent

Attendance..
E fficien cy...
Production..
Attendance..
___ do______

$3 per week..................... .
One-half cent and 1 cent
per yard.
Loom fixers, night. 1 per cent of yard earn­
ings of weavers, night.
/W inders................ $1 per week......................
1 cent per yard................
\Weavers, night—
Winders, warpers, 5 per cent of earnings at
twisters-in, pick­
basic rates.
ers, inspectors,
sp in n e rs,
re­
drawers, doffers,
and reelers.
(Loom fixers, d a y.. 6.94 cents per 1,000 picks.
Quillers..
Weavers.

Production..
E fficiency....

[Loom fixers, night. 8.67 cents
Weavers, night.... $1 per w<

........do______

Spinners, night___

........do----------

1

___ do______
___ do__ . . . .




1,000

picks.

D o.
Full-time attendance and effi­
ciency of 90 per cent or more
of standard.
Full-time attendance and effi­
ciency of 80 per cent or more
of standard.
Full-time attendance and effi­
ciency of less than 4 poor cuts
in pay period.
Full-time attendance.
Production of not more than 120
but more than 100 yards per
loom per week.
Production of more than 120
yards per loom per week.
Full-time attendance for two
weeks.
Full-time attendance for 1 of 2
weeks.
Full-time attendance and effi­
ciency of set standard or more.
Efficiency b y looms o f set stand­
ard of quality.
Full-time attendance.
Full-time attendance and 100 per
cent efficiency in quality.
Full-time attendance.

Efficiency of set standard or
more in quality.
Full-time attendance.
Efficiency of 100 per cent in
quality.
Production b y looms of satis­
factory standard.
Full-time attendance.
Do.
D o.

Production b y looms o f satis­
factory standard.
D o.
Efficiency of 100 per cent in
quality.
Efficiency of 97 per cent or more
in keeping ends running.
Efficiency of highest quality in
month.

15 per cent of earnings at
basic rates.
loom fixer, 1 $5 per month__________
smash
piecer,
and 1 weaver in
each shift.
Redrawers
and 10 per cent of earnings at Efficiency of 100 per cent in
silk openers.
quality.
basic rates.
Loom fixers............ 6 cents per 100 yards.—. Efficiency of looms satisfactory
in quality.

MANUFACTURE OF SILK AND RATON GOODS
T able
N um ­
ber
of
estab­
lish­
ments

10.— Bonus systems in operation in 55 mills, 1981— Continued

Bonus based
on—

2 E fficien cy.

1 ____ d o________

Am ount of or per cent
of earnings paid as
bonus

Employees entitled
to bonus

Overseer (20 per
cent of total
bonus).
Each loom fixer 5 to 7 cents per 100 picks,
according to quality
(15 per cent of
(for entire group).
total bonus).
E ach
sm a sh
hand (10 per
cent of total
bonus).
Warper foreman __ 0.15 to 0.45 cent per 100
picks, according to
quality.
10 cents for each per cent
W eavers-----of efficiency above 80.
$1 per week......................
Loom fixers.
10

1

____do— ..........

1

____do________

cents per hour..

Foremen and loom
fixers.

5 cents per hour—

Loom fixers.

$2.50 per week___

........ do...................

5 cents per hour...

Foreladies and fix­
ers in warping
department.
Weavers........ ........

do.....................

$5 per week.......... .

10

1 ........d o................
1
1

.d o..
.d o..

4

-do..

cents per hour..

.d o ...

cents per yard............. .
5 per cent of earnings at
basic rates.
___ do_________
Three-eighths to H cent
per yard.
___ d o...................... One-half cent per y a rd ...
Loom fixers, loom 5 per cent of earnings at
inspectors, and
basic rates.
foremen.
A ll workers______ 5 cents for each defect
found.
Winders, spinners, 2 cents for each defect
redrawers, test­
found.
ers, and inspec­
tors.
W eavers................. 1 cent per yard..

.d o ...

------do_________

1

..do._

1
5

..d o...

1

21

..do—.

1

2

..— do.................

6

Production..

day weavers..

$2.50 per 2-week pay
period.

6

night weavers.

____do_________________

Blockers.

1

____d o______

1
1
1
1
1

____do........... .
____do______
____do______
. . . . d o ______
___ do______




S ew ers...

30 cents for 100 pieces
over average of 82H.
30 cents for 100 pieces
over average of 187^.
N ot reported....................

Weavers and loom
fixers.
Twisters-in, gutt­ Varies with grade of
lers, and pickers.
goods.
W e a v e r s a n d 10 per cent of earnings at
twisters-in.
basic rates.
Twisters-in_______ 4 cents for each 1,000
over 30,000 ends.
W inders.
3 to 5 cents per spool___

Necessary to get bonus

Efficiency of weavers of 70 per
cent or more of standard of 100.

D o.
Efficiency of 80 per cent or more
in quality.
Efficiency of 88 per cent or more
in guality.
Efficiency of 94.9 per cent or more
in quality.
Efficiency of 91.9 and under 94.9
per cent in quality.
Efficiency by looms of 95 per cent
or more in quality.
Efficiency of 92 and under 95 per
cent in quality.
Efficiency of 94.9 per cent or more
in quality.
Efficiency of 91.9 and under 94.9
per cent in quality.
Efficiency of 100 per cent in qual­
ity.
Do.
Do.
Do.
D o.
Efficiency of 85 per cent or more
in quality.
Efficiency in detecting defects in
yarn.
Do.

Efficiency of 100 per cent in
quality.
Efficiency of set standard in
quality.
The day weaver with highest
production in 2 -week pay
period.
The ] * weaver with highest
te night
production in 2 -week pay
period.
Production of an average of over
62H pieces per day.
Production of an average of over
187^ pieces per day.
N ot reported.
Production over set standard of
quantity.
Production of set standard or
more.
Twist over 30,000 ends.
W ind more than set standard.

22

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR
T able

N um ­
ber
of
estab­
lish­
ments

10.— Bonus systems in operation in 55 mills, 1981— Continued

Bonus based
on—

Employees entitled
to bonus

Amount of or per cent
of earnings paid as
bonus

Production-----

Certain groups of
workers.

One-half of 1 per cent of
earnings at basic rates
for each per cent over
set standard.
20 per cent of time served
at basic rates.
10 per cent of difference
between allotted time
and time taken at
basic rates.
1 per cent of earnings at
basic rates for each
year of service.
10 per cent of earnings at
basic rates.
All of time saved at
basic rates.

Tim e saving___ Tim e workers..

Service..

All in service 1
year or more.

A ll in service 2
years or more.
Tim e saving___ Machinists and
helpers.

____do...........

Necessary to get bonus

Production over set standard.

Complete work in less than
allotted time.
Complete work in not less than
90 per cent of allotted time.
Service of 1 year or more.
Service of 2 years or more.
Complete work
allotted time.

in less

than

Index Numbers of Employment and of Pay Rolls, 1923 to 1931
Index numbers of employment and of pay rolls in the silk goods
industry are presented in Table 11 for each month and year, January,
1923, to December, 1931. The indexes are as published by the
Bureau of Labor Statistics in monthly reports on “ Trend of Employment” in the United States.
During the period covered by the table, employment, by months,
was highest in December, 1925, with an index of 107.9 and lowest in
July, 1931, with an index: of 63.6 Pay rolls were highest at 109.1 in
December, 1925, and lowest at 55.6 in July, 1931.
By years, the index of 103.1 shows employment to be highest in
1925 and lowest (73.9) in 1931; pay rolls dropped from an index of
102.7 in 1925 to 64.5 in 1931.
T a b le

11.—Index numbers of employment and of pay rolls, January, 1928, to
December, 1981, by month and year
[Average for 1926-100]
Employment
M onth
1923

1925

July............................................
August.......................................
September.................................
October.....................................
N ovem ber.................................
Decem ber.................................

100.5
98.9
99.3
99.2
98.8
97.8
97.6

96.8
98.8
98.2
95.1
92.5
90.5
87.5
91.0
93.3
95.8
95.0
94.9

100.7
101.5
102.5
103.8
105.5
106.4
107.4
107.5
107.9

Average..........................

99.8

94.1

103.1

January.....................................
February...................................
M arch........................................
A pril..........................................
M a y .................................. ........




98.3
100.5

1924

102.2

102.5
102.1

95.9
98.4
100.2

1926

1927

1928

1929

98.7
99.2

97.0
100.5

101.1
1 01.0
100.1

101.6

94.2
97.0
97.1
95.3
89.3
78.6
78.0
76.2
79.8
83.4
82.5

81.6
84.3
83.2
80.7
76.9
67.4
63.6
65.3
69.5
73.0
70.7
70.9

86.5

73.9

99.7

97.6
96.5
97.5
97.9
97.0
95.9
98.0

96.8
96.9
96.0
92.7
93.5
95.0
98.1
96.9
97.9

95.2
97.9
99.9
100.5
99.2
97.9
97.8
98.3
98.1
98.1
96.7
96.1

1 00.0

98.4

96.9

98.0

107.8
107.0
103.8
100.4
97.4
95.2
94.3
96.1
97.7
100.1
1 00.0

1930

8 6 .2

1931

23

MANUFACTURE OP SILK AND RATON GOODS
T a b le

11.— Index numbers of employment and of pay rolls, January, 1928, to
December, 1981, by month and year—Continued
Pay roll
JVLOntD
1923

January____________________
February___________________
M arch______________________
A pril..........................................
M a y _______________________
June________________________
July.......................................... .
August_____________________
September__________________
October_________________ _
N ovem ber__________________
December__________________
Average______________

1924

1925

85.4
91.0
94.9
95.7
99.8
98.2
92.6
93.9
95.2
96.3
92.1
91.6

89.9
96.3
93.4
90.4

92.8
99.2

92.6

109.0
107.4
109.1

93.9

8 8 .6

102.7

102 .8

8 6 .6

83.5
76.5
84.8
87.0
93.4
8 8 .2

101.5
103.4
98.8
101.5
106.8
100.0

1926

1927

107.9
108.9
105.1
98.8
97.7
93.0
91.5
97.1
96.6
104.0
99.7
99.7

104.7
99.5
101.7
99.2
95.1
98.3
98.1
98.9
94.7

1 00 .0

95.7
102.8

1928

1929

94.4
104.3
106.6

92.8
103.7
106.4
106.7
105.1
102.9
98.8
101.3

100.1

1 0 1 .2

100.5
100.9
93.4
98.3
99.2
104.3
97.6
102.7

99.2

1 0 0 .2

1930

1931

95.5
95.2

90.2
96.1
98.1
92.8
83.7
79.9
67.7
72.1
70.2
75.9
76.4
77.8

70.8
78.6
76.2
71.9
66.9
58.1
55.6
58.9
59.2
62.4
57.2
57.9

100.9

81.7

64.5

100.6
101.8

Importance of the Industry
Table 12 shows for the industry the number of establishments,
average number of wage earners, the amount paid in wages, the cost
of materials, the value of products, and the value added by manufac­
ture, as published by the United States Census of Manufactures. The
figures are for the United States as a whole in each of the specified
years from 1919 to 1929. From the census figures the average per
wage earner of each item was computed, as was the per cent that
amount of wages was of the value added by manufacture.
Average annual wages per wage earner increased each census year
from $854 in 1919 to $1,097 in 1927, and then decreased to $1,093 in
1929. The increase between 1919 and 1921 was 9.4 per cent; between
1921 and 1923, 8.5 per cent; between 1923 and 1925, 6.3 per cent;
and between 1925 and 1927, 1.9 per cent. The decrease between 1927
and 1929 was 0.4 per cent.
In 1919 wages formed 36 per cent of the value added by manufac­
ture; 45 per cent in 1921, 1923, and 1929; 44 per cent in 1925; and 46
per cent in 1927.
Establishments, wage earners, wages, cost of materials, value of products,
value added by manufacture, and per capita earnings, etc., 1919 to 1929

T a b l e 1 2 .—

[From United States Census of Manufactures, 1927 and 1929]

Year

United States:
1919................................ .
1921..................................
1923..................................
1925..................................
1927..................................
1929..................................




Average
Number
number of
of estab­
lishments wage earners

1,369
1,565
1,598
1,659
1,648
1,434

126,782
121,378
125,234
132,509
127,643
126,060

Amount paid
in wages

$108,226,330
113, 395, 626
126,849,454
142,733,539
140,053,588
137,772,194

Cost of
materials

$388,469,022
337,558, 799
479, 038,263
484,122,527
445, 390,676
392,543, 268

Value of
products

$688,469,523
583,418,756
761,322,119
808,979,399
750,123,705
701,134,319

24

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR

T a b le 12.— Establishments, wage earners, wages, cos£ 0 materials, t>aZue 0/ 'products,
/
raZwe added by manufacture, and per capita earnings, e£c., 1919 to 1929— Con.

Year

United States:
1919.................................
1921.................................
1923.................................
1925.................................
1927.................................
1929.................................

Value added
b y manufac­
ture

$300,000,501
245,859,957
282,283,856
324,856,872
304,733,029
308,591,051

Average
annual
wages
per wage
earner

$854
934
1,013
1,077
1,097
1,093

Cost of
materials
per wage
earner

$3,064
2,781
3,825
3,654
3,489
3,114

Value of
products
per wage
earner

$5,430
4,807
6,079
6,105
5,877
5,562

Value
added b y
manufac­
ture per
wage
earner

$2,366
2,026
2,254
2,452
2,387
2,448

Per cent
wages are
of value
added

36
45
45
44
46
45

Scope and Method
In 1931, data as to days, hours, wage rates, and earnings of each
wage earner in each occupation in the industry were collected by agents
of the bureau from the pay rolls and other records of 340 representative
silk and rayon mills in 13 States. The States included in the study,
based on the 1927 report of the United States Bureau of Manufactures,
were the more important in number of wage earners.
The study, in 1931, was limited to mills the principal products of
Which were broad goods, dress goods, ribbons, linings, shirtings,
satins, georgettes, pongees, crapes, chiffons, and tie goods, made of
silk and/or rayon. Mills in which the principal products were velvets,
plushes, tapestries, upholstery goods, braids, specialties or small
wares, or goods of silk or rayon containing more than 25 per cent of
other fibers were not included. Mills making spun silk were not
included.
Except for a few mills, the data used in compiling the 1931 wage
figures were taken for one pay period in March, April, May, or June,
and therefore reflect conditions in the industry in those months.
Table 13 shows the number of mills covered in the 1931 study, the
per cent of the cloth of each mill made of silk yarn only; of rayon
yam only; of a mixture of silk and rayon; or of a cloth made of a
mixture of silk or rayon and other yarn; also the per cent silk, rayon,
and other yarn in cloth made of two or more yarns.
The first three lines of the table show that all or 100 per cent of the
cloth in 200 mills was made of silk yam only; in 26 mills of rayon
yam only ; and in 1 mill of a mixture of silk and rayon yams and
that the silk was 67 and the rayon 33 per cent of the mixture. Line
15 of the table shows that 7 per cent of the cloth made in one mill
was of silk yarn only and 93 per cent of rayon yam only.




25

MAmrPAOTTJRE OF SILK AND RAYON GOODS
T a b l e 1 3 . — Number

of mills, per cent of cloth made of silkt rayon, silk and rayon,
or silk or rayon and other fiber, and per cent of silk, rayon, and other fiber in cloth
cf a mixture, 1981
Per cent in mixture of—

Per cent of cloth made of—

N um ber of m ills included in 1031 study

100

mills..
26 m ills...
1 mUl____
8 mills___
1 m ill____
8 mills___
lm i l l .___
D o . ..
D o—
D o . ..
D oD o . ..
D o . ..
D o . ..
D o . ..
D o . ..
D o . ..
D o ...
D o ...
D o ...
D o ...
2 m ills ...
1 m ill___
D o ...
4 m ills ...
2 m ills.. _
lm ill....
D o ...
D o __
2 m ills ...
lm ill....
8 mills__
lm ill....
D o ..
Do__
D o ..
D o ..
D o ..
D o—
D o ..
D oD o—
D o ..
D o—
D oD o ..
D o ..
D oD o2 mills__
1 mill___
D o ..
D oD oD oD o ._
D o ._
Do D o ..
D o ..
D o ._
D oD oD oD oD o—
D oD o ..
85 m ills..
200

1 N ot

Silk
yarn
only

Rayon
yarn
only

100

Mixture
Mixture of silk
of silk or rayon
and
and
rayon
other

Silk
yarn

100
100
100
100

0)

100
100
100
100
100
100

Other
yarn

33
50
25
60

67
50
75
40

100

0)

75
20
7
40

"""5 5
60
(0

100

7
29
62
83

Rayon
yarn

20

"""'so'

0)

53

47

12

40
94
67
44
42
75
76
65
97
38
98
70
19
99
72
50
79
25
45
32
41
4
64
67
75
” 26
72
98
4
<*)

(*)

0)

(l)

0)

(*)

33
33
40

42

1

40
0)
0)

4

0)

3

0)
0)

0)

23
50
53
70

15

88
0)

reported.

* Less than 1 per cent.




0)

65
71
75
4

47
0)

(0

(0

* Part silk and mixtures, proportions not reported.

26

WAGES AND HOURS OP LABOR

Table 14 shows by States the number of wage earners in the industry
in the United States in 1927 according to the United States Census
of Manufactures. The number of mills from which the Bureau of
Labor Statistics obtained data for 1931 and the number of wage earn­
ers therein for whom data are presented in the various tables in this
report are also shown in the table. The 49,036 (21,885 males and
27,151 females) wage earners included in the 1931 study by the bureau
were 38 per cent of the total in the industry in 1927.
T able 14.— Number of wage earners in the industry in 1927, and number of

establishments and wage earners for which 1931 data are shown, by States

State

E sta blish m en ts and
wage earners for
w h i c h d a t a a re
Number of
shown for 1931 in
wage earners
this report
reported b y
United States
Census Bureau
Number of Num ber of
in 1927
establish­
wage
ments
earners

Connecticut__________________________________________________
M aryland____________________________________________________
Massachusetts________________________________________________
New Jersey___________________________________________________
New York___________________________________ ________________
North Carolina_______________________________________________
Pennsylvania. _________ _______________________________________
Rhode Island_________________________________________________
South Carolina, Alabama, and Georgia_________________________
Tennessee_____________________________________________________
Virginia___________________________ ___________________ _______
Other States...................... .................................................................

9,183
935
7,357
24,482
11,204
0)
59,608
6,500

Total..............................................................................................

127,643

13
3

6
6

2,975
513
1,510
7,095
4,828
2,187
24,618
2,573
875
822
1,060

340

49,036

12

97
37
10

131
20

5

(0

(i)
1,525
6,849

i N ot reported separately; included in “ Other States.”

Data for mills with a pay period of more than one week were
converted to a 1-week basis.
Because of the carry-over of incomplete cuts from one week to
another, wage figures for weavers were taken for two weeks in all
mills and reduced to a 1-week basis.
Average full-time hours per week were computed by dividing the
combined full-time hours per week of all wage earners in the occupa­
tion by the number of wage earners in the occupation in the week.
The full-time hours per week of each wage earner were used in arriving
at this average, even though some worked more or less than full time
on account of overtime, sickness disability, or other cause.
Where no record of actual hours worked by piece workers was
regularly kept, the officials of the mills, at the request of the bureau,
had a record of the actual hours worked kept for a representative pay
period.
Average earnings per hour include the earnings of both time
workers and piece workers and were obtained by dividing the total
earnings of all wage earners in an occupation in one week by the
total number of hours actually worked in that week by such wage
earners.
Average full-time earnings per week were computed by multiplying
the average earnings per hour of wage earners in the occupation by
their average full-time hours per week. This was done on the assump­




MANUFACTURE OF SILK AND RAYON GOODS

27

tion that the earnings for full time would have been at the same
average per hour as for the time that was actually worked in one
week.
The important occupations, as published in this bulletin, are
arranged below approximately in the order of manufacture and
followed by the group of “ other employees,” which includes wage
earners in occupations other than in the important occupations.
For definitions see page 49.
Winders, hard silk.
Doublers.
Spinners.
Reelers.
Laborers, dyehouse.
Winders, rayon.
Winders, soft silk.
Redrawers.
Warpers.
Quillers.
Coners.
Enterers.

Enterers’ helpers.
Twisters-in, hand.
Twisters-in, machine.
Loom fixers.
Bobbin boys.
Weavers, broad silk.
Weavers, ribbon.
Smash hands.
Pickers, cloth.
Inspectors, cloth.
Packers.
Other employees.

General Tables
In addition to the preceding text tables, three general tables and a
glossary of occupation terms are presented as follows:
T a b l e A.— Average number of days on which wage earners worked,
average full-time and actual hours and earnings per week, average
earnings per hour, and per cent of full time worked, 1931, by occupa­
tion, sex, and State.
The presentation in this table in parallel columns of “ average full­
time hours per week” and “ average hours actually worked in one
week” is for the purpose of easy comparison of the hours that would
have been worked in the week had all wage earners in the occupa­
tion worked no more nor less than full time, with the average hours
that were actually worked in the week. One shows the average
full-time hours under normal conditions, and the other the average
hours actually worked in the week for the wage earners in each occu­
pation in each State and in all States combined.
On page 36, near the end of the table, the figures show that the
21,885 males in the 340 mills worked on an average of 5.3 days in
one week. Their average full-time hours per week were 51.5 and they
worked an average of 48.4 hours in the week or 94 per cent of full
time. They earned an average of 48.5 cents per hour or $23.45 in
one week. Had they worked the average full-time hours, 51.5, at
the same average per hour as was earned in the 48.4 hours, they would
have earned $24.98 in the week.
The 27,151 females in these mills worked on an average of 5.2 days
in one week. Their average full-time hours per week were 50 and
they worked an average of 43.2 hours in the week or 86.4 per cent of
full time. They earned an average of 33.5 cents per hour or $14.46
per week. Had they worked the average full time of 50 hours per
week at the same average as was earned in the 43.2 hours they would
have earned $16.75.
The 49,036 wage earners in the 340 mills worked on an average of
5.2 days m one week. Their average full-time hours per week were
50.7 and they worked an average of 45.5 hours in the week or 89.7




28

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR

per cent of full time. They earned an average of 40.6 cents per hour
or $18.47 in the week. Had they worked their average full-time
hours of 50.7 per week at the same average rate per hour as was earned
in the 45.5 hours they would have earned an average of $20.58.
T a b l e B.— Average and classified earnings per hour in nine speci­
fied occupations, 1931, by occupations, sex, and State.
T a b l e C.— Average and classified full-time hours per week in nine
specified occupations, 1931, by occupation, sex, and State.
A,—Average number of days on which wage earners worked, average full-time
and actual hours and earnings per week, average earnings per hour, and per cent
of full time worked, 1981, by occupation, sex, and State

T a b le

Occupation, sex, and State

N um ­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments

Aver­
age
days
N um ­
on
ber of which
wage
wage
earners earners
worked
in one
week

Winders, hard silk, male:
Massachusetts......................... .
New Jersey................................
N ew Y ork ..................................
North Carolina.........................
Pennsylvania............................
Tennessee...................................
Virginia......................................

1
1
2
2
6
1
1

T otal........................................

14
5

142
140
158
449
771
94
3,034

Aver­
Aver­ Aver­
Aver­
age
Aver­
age
age
Per
age
full­
age
hours
cent
full­
actual
actu­
time
of full earn­ time earn­
ally
ings earn­
hours
time
ings
ings in one
per worked worked per
per
hour
week in one
week
week
week

46.9 $0,207
109.5
.300
78.8
.400
89.6
.197
91.9
.292
94.7
.205
105.5
.400

$9.94
13.20

9
18

3.0
4.9
4.6
4.8
5.6
5.7

1

6 .0

48.0
44.0
50.0
55.6
53.3
57.0
55.0

2 2.0 0

$4.65
14.44
15.78
9.79
14.34
11.08
23.20

61

5.1

51.9

48.7

93.8

.267

13.86

13.00

49.0
50.0
48.0
48.2
49.1
55.0
50.3
51.9

44.6
46.0
42.5
41.0
44.1
46.8
38.7
37.4

91.0
92.0
88.5
85.1
89.8
85.1
76.9
72.1

.375
.227

18.38
11.35

.2 2 2

1 0.6 6

.344
.337
.273
.284
.276

16.58
16.55
15.02
14.29
14.32

16.69
10.44
9.44
14.13
14.90
12.78

111

5.4
5.6
5.3
5.1
5.4
5.1
4.8
4.2

1

15
9
8

22.5
48.2
39.4
49.8
49.0
54.0
58.0

20.0 0

10.95
15.56
11.69

Winders, hard silk, female:
Connecticut...............................
M aryland...... ............................
Massachusetts......... ...............
N ew Jersey................................
New Y ork..................................
N orth Carolina.........................
Pennsylvania.............................
Rhode Island.............................
South Carolina, Alabama,
and Georgia........................ —
Tennessee...................................
Virginia...... ................................

25
33
3
92
9
4
3

19
91
96

5.4
5.2
5.3

57.5
55.2
54.0

55.3
43.3
49.8

96.2
78.4
92.2

.237
.168
.238

13.63
9.27
12.85

11.86

2
6

1

11.01

10.32
13.11
7.27

Total........................................

183

5,105

5.0

50.1

40.7

81.2

.293

14.68

11.94

Doublers, male:
N ew Y ork..................................
Pennsylvania.............................

1

3
49

5.0
5.6

55.0
59.1

47.3
58.5

8 6 .0

99.0

.174
.359

9.57

5

2 1 .2 2

8 .2 2
21.0 0

Total........................................

6

52

5.5

58.9

57.8

98.1

.350

20.62

20.26

5.0
5.1

40.7
41.4
0)
38.2
34.4
39.0
50.9
0)

84.1
82.8

.402
.2 1 1

19.46
10.55

4.7
4.5
4.5
5.7
0)

48.4
50.0
(l)
45.9
50.0
51.1
53.1
0)

16.39
8.73
0)
12.96
9.36

Doublers, female:
Connecticut...............................
M aryland...................................
Massachusetts...........................
N ew Jersey.................................
N ew Y ork..................................
Pennsylvania.............................
Ehode Island.............................
Virginia.......................................

4
2
1

3
3
17
2
1

33
40
0)

27
17

221

19
0)

0)

Total........................................

33

372

4.7

50.3

39.8

Spinners, male:
Connecticut—............................
M aryland...................................
Massachusetts...........................
N ew Jersey__________________
N ew Y ork.................... .............

3
3
3
17

49
56
54
162

11

202

4.5
4.8
5.1
5.2
5.1

53.4
58.0
52.1
51.5
54.9

42.8
52.6
52.2
52.0
53.9

>Data included in total.




0)

76.3
95.9
0)

(>)
.340
.272
.285
.265
0)

15.61
13.60
14.56
14.07
0)

79.1

.287

14.44

11.42

80.1
90.7

.426
.323
.282
.433
.406

22.75
18.73
14.69
22.30
22.29

18.22
16.99
14.69
22.53
21.89

83.2
6 8 .8

100 .2
101 .0

98.2

0

11.12

13.51
0)

29

MANUFACTURE OF SILK AND RATON GOODS

A.— Average number of days on which wage earners worked, average full-time
and actual hours and earnings per week, average earnings per hour, and per cent
of full time worked, 1981, by occupation, sea?,
— Continued

T a b le

Occupation, sex, and State

Spinners, male—Continued.
North Carolina..........................
Pennsylvania.............................
Rhode Island.............................
South Carolina, Alabama,
and Georgia............................
Tennessee...................................
Virginia.......................................
T otal........................................

Num­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments

Aver­
age
days
N um ­
on
ber of which
wage
wage
earners earners
worked
in one
week

Aver­
Aver­ Aver­
Aver­
age
Aver­
age
age
age
Per
hours
full­
age
cent
full­
actu­
earn­ time actual
earn­
time
of full
ally
ings earn­
hours worked time
ings
per
ings in one
per
in one worked hour
per
week
week week
week

24
1,117
32

4
59
3

5.0
4.6
5.3

57.1
54.2
53.5

55.1
48.4
52.1

96.5 $0,295 $16.84
89.3
.330 17.89
97.4
.381 20.38

$16.24
15.98
19.85

1

6

57.5
56.9
54.7

57.5
57.2
52.1

.22 0

33
59

5.0
5.7
5.3

100.0

3
2

100.5
95.2

.172
.275

12.65
9.79
15.04

12.65
9.84
14.32

109

1,794

4.8

54.2

49.9

92.1

.344

18.64

17.18

3
3
3

64
47
99
208
415
55
1,314
4

6 .0

48.2
50.0
48.0
47.9
48.8
55.0
50.6
48.0

48.7
44.8
45.1
44.7
46.0
49.9
40.6
27.5

101.0

.386
.246
.184
.346
.333
.271
.278
.237

18.61
12.30
8.83
16.57
16.25
14.91
14.07
11.38

18.82

5.3
5.6
5.4
5.6
5.4
4.8
4.3

1

3

Spinners, female:
Connecticut...............................
Maryland........................ - ........
Massachusetts...........................
New Jersey................................
N ew Y o rk ..................................
North Carolina..........................
Pennsylvania.............................
Rhode Island.............................
South Carolina, Alabama,
and Georgia............................
Tennessee...................................
Virginia...... ................................

3
54

12

6 .0

5.1
5.5

57.5
43.9
52.6

.2 1 0

70
58

57.5
55.1
55.0

100.0

1

79.7
95.6

.192
.265

12.08
10.58
14.58

12.08
8.42
13.91

20
12

1

89.6
94.0
93.3
94.3
90.7
80.2
57.3

11.00

8.30
15.44
15.33
13.51
11.27
6.51

Total........................................

104

2,346

5.1

50.2

43.1

85.9

.289

14.51

12.46

Heelers, male:
Connecticut...............................
New Jersey................................
Pennsylvania-...........................
Rhode Island.............................

1
2
2
1

2
10

5.5
5.5
4.3
6 .0

50.0
44.0
52.5
48.0

47.5
35.4
41.1
53.0

95.0
80.5
78.3
110.4

.676
.313
.257
.206

33.80
13.77
13.49
9.89

32.12
11.05
10.56
10.93

Total........................................

6

19

5.4

46.8

41.3

8 8 .2

.319

14.93

13.16

5.3
5.5
5.5
4.2
3.8
0)

49.0
44.0
49.8
51.0
48.0
0)

43.2
39.3
45.3
34.0
28.5
0)

8 8 .2

1
1

25
19
82
105
5
0)

89.3
91.0
66.7
59.4
0)

.320
.327
.296
.264
.194
0)

15.68
14.39
14.74
13.46
9.31
0)

13.82
12.85
13.40
8.99
5.52
0)

31

237

4.9

49.8

39.3

78.9

.287

14.29

11.30

5.4
5.0
5.3

48.0
46.8
0)
56.5

46.2
40.4
0)
59.1

96.3
86.3
0)
104.6

.541
.533
0)
.441

25.97
24.94
0)
24.92

24.97
21.50
0)
26.10

5.2

52.0

50.9

97.9

.479

24.91

24.36

4.3

55.0

47.4

8 6 .2

.375

20.63

17.77

0)

0)

0)
8 8 .2

0)

0)

0)
21.42
10.54

Reelers, female:
Connecticut...............................
New Jersey.................................
N ew York...................................
Pennsylvania.............................
Rhode Island.............................
Virginia.......................................
Total........................................
Laborers, dyehouse, male:
Connecticut...............................
N ew Jersey.................................
N ew York..................................
Pennsylvania.............................
Total........................................
Winders, rayon, male:
North Carolina..........................
Wih/1ai*c vovati famola*
V lUUeii), rctyUGj lCIIIaitt*
Y
Maryland...................................
New Jersey.................................
New York..................................
North Carolina..........................
Pennsylvania.............................
Rhode Island.............................
South Carolina, Alabama,
and Georgia........................
Total........................................
i Data included in total.

131842°—32----- 3




4
4
5
16

3
4
1

5
13

3
4

'

110

107
0)

232

464
30

2
1
2

5
4
7
3
1

23

0)

35
46

110

71
26
0)

372

0)

(0

5.3
5.2
4.4
5.5
5.5

0)

5.0

40.5
41.8
39.7
46.0
48.1

83.9
71.5
89.7
94.1

0)

0)

0)

0)

52.5

42.2

80.4

.295

45.9
49.8
55.5
51.3
51.1

.529
.252
.278
.298
.313

24.28
12.55
15.43
15.29
15.99
0)

15.49

11.02

13.70
15.05
0)

12.45

30

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR

Average number of days on which wage earners worked, average full-time
and actual hours and earnings per week, average earnings per hour, and per cent
of full time worked, 1931, by occupation, sex, and State— Continued

T a b l e A .—

Occupation, sex, and State

Aver­
age
Aver
Aver­ Aver­
Aver­
Aver­ age
days
age
Num ­
Per
age
age
Num ­
on
hours
age
full­
cent
ber of ber of which full­
actual
actu­
time
estab­
time
offuU earn­ earn­ earn­
wage
ally
ings
wage
lish­
time
hours
ings
ings in one
ments earners earners per worked worked per
worked week in one
hour
per
week
week
in one
week
week

Winders, soft silk, male:
Connecticut...............................
New Jersey.................................
Pennsylvania.............................
Rhode Island.............................
Tennessee.......... ~ .....................

1
1
2
1
1

Total........................................
Winders, soft silk, female:
Connecticut...............................
Massachusetts...........................
N ew Jersey................................
N ew York...................... ...........
North Carolina______________
Pennsylvania.............................
Rhode Island.............................
South Carolina, Alabama,
and Georgia............................
Tennessee...................................
Virginia......................................
Total........................................
Redrawers, male:
Connecticut_________________
M aryland...................................
New Y ork.................................
N orth Carolina______________
Pennsylvania.............................
South Carolina, Alabama,
and Georgia........................
Total........................................
Redrawers, female:
Connecticut...............................
M aryland...................................
Massachusetts...........................
New Jersey_________ ________
New York.................................
North Carolina______________
Pennsylvania.............................
Rhode Island.............................
South Carolina, Alabama,
and Georgia............................
Tennessee...................................
Virginia.......................................
Total........................................
Warpers, male:
Connecticut...............................
Massachusetts...........................
New Jersey............................. .
New York............................... .
North Carolina..........—............
Pennsylvania.............................
Rhode Island.............................
South Carolina, Alabama,
and Georgia............................
Tennessee...................................
Virginia.......................................

4

6.3
3.0
5.3

55.0
49.5
64.7
50.0
55.0

16.0
49.5
69.1
25.3
50.3

106.8
50.6
91.5

29.1 $0.253 $13.92
.389 19.28
.341 22.06
.350 17.50
.167
9.19

$104
19.28
23.59
8.84
8.41

6

22

5.4

57.3

52.4

91.4

.319

18.28

16.73

9
4
61
3

5.1
5.2
5.0
5.8
5.5
5.1
4.6

49.0
47.7
46.4
47.2
55.0
50.5
48.9

43.2
40.4
39.6
44.2
50.8
43.2
39.6

8 8 .2

6

125
28
445
35
53
715
117

84.7
85.3
93.6
92.4
85.5
81.0

.364
.327
.409
.390
.308
.304
.351

17.84
15.60
18.98
18.41
16.94
15.35
17.16

15. 75
13.19
16.23
17.25 ■
15. 65
13.14
13.88

2
1
2

7
9
20

5.9
4.4
4.4

55.0
57.5
55.0

60.4
50.1
41.0

109.8
0)
74.5

.235
.196
.174

12.93
11.27
9.57

14.22
9.81
7.13

126

1.554

5.0

49.2

42.2

85.8

.340

16. 73

14.38

1
1
1
1
8

1
1

6 .0
6 .0

50.0
51.0
46.0
34.5
50.0

92.0
62.7
95.1

.300
.215
.193
.145
.194

15.00
10.75
9. 65
7.98

54

5.0
3.0
5.3

50.0
50.0
50.0
55.0
52.6

100.0
102.0

3

10.20

15.00
10.95
8.89
5.02
9.72

1

3

5.0

57.5

57.5

100.0

.213

12.23

12.23

13

63

5.3

52.7

49.9

94.7

.197

10.38

9.83

3
3
4
16

29
61
33
174
257

5.1
5.2
5.3
5.6
5.5

40.1
42.5
42.7
45.4
44.9
55.0
39.3
47.9

81.8
85.0
90.5
94.0
91.8

16.22
12.60
12. C
O
12.99
13.20
7.46

13.25
10.69
11.40
12.19

77.2
98.2

.331
.252
.267
.2f>9
.270
.138
.229
.233

2

36

2

5
9
2

1

2 .0
6 .0

100.0

2

6 .0

64
3

1,215
21

4.7
5.4

49.0
50.0
47.2
48.3
48.9
55.0
50.9
48.8

2
2

14
18
63

5.1
5.1
5.6

57.1
57.1
53.1

49.5
49.6
50.2

86.7
86.9
94.5

.194
.187
.281

11.08

4

14.92

9.63
9.30
14.13

113

1,887

5.0

50.4

41.5

82.3

.243

12.25

10.08

8
10

34
26
218
125
50
477
23

5.6
5.1
5.2
5.3
4.8
5.1
5.2

51.7
49.4
47.9
51.1
55.2
51.8
50.9

49.8
42.1
43.6
46.6
48.4
45.0
46.7

96.3
85.2
91.0
91.2
87.7
86.9
91.7

.616
.613
.893
.701
.416
.588
.627

31.85
30.23
42. 77
35.82
22.96
30.46
31.91

30.67
25.79
38.98
32.68
20.15
26.45
29.27

11
1

53
21

5
54
9

100.0

11.66

11, 37
10.68

1 2.12

7.46
9.00
11.14

1

6

3
2

15
19

4.5
5.0
4.8

57.5
56.9
55.0

51.8
48.8
48.8

90.1
85.8
88.7

.253
.361
.299

14.55
20.54
16.45

13.08
17.63
14.57

Total........................................

166

993

5.1

51.1

45.4

8 8 .8

.648

33.11

29.42

Warpers, female:
Connecticut...............................
Massachusetts...........................
N ew Jersey........................ .........

9

135
50
231

5.3
5.1
4.8

50.6
47.8
45.7

45.9
39.8
37.5

90.7
83.3
82.1

.477
.497
.545

24.14
23.76
24.91

2 1 .8 8

38

JData included in totaf.




10

19.80
20.48

31

MANUFACTURE OF SILK AND RAYON GOODS

Average number of days on which wage earners worked, average full-time
and actual hours and earnings per week, average earnings per hour, and per cent
of full time worked, 1931, by occupation, sex, and State— Continued

T a b l e A .—

Occupation, sex, and State

Warpers, female—C ontinued.
N ew York...................................
North Carolina..........................
Pennsylvania.............................
Rhode Island.............................
South Carolina, Alabama,
and Georgia............................
Tennessee...................................
Virginia.......................................
T otal........................................
Quillers, male:
Connecticut............ ..................
M aryland...................................
Massachusetts—........................
N ew Jersey.................................
New York...................................
North Carolina..........................
Pennsylvania.............................
R hode Island.............................
South Carolina, Alabama,
and Georgia............................
Tennessee___________________
Virginia.......................................
Total........................................
Quillers, female:
Connecticut________ ________
M aryland...................................
Massachusetts...........................
New Jersey__________________
N ew York...................................
North Carolina_______ ______
Pennsylvania.............................
Rhode Island.............................
South Carolina, Alabama,
and Georgia............................
Tennessee........................ ..........
Virginia................. ....................

Num ­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments

i-------Aver­
age
Aver­ Aver­
Aver­ Aver­
days
age
age
Aver­
age
Per
age
on
N um ­
full­
age
hours
cent
full­
ber of which
actu­
earn­ time actual
time
of full
earn­
wage
wage hours
ally
ings earn­
ings
earners earners per worked time
per
ings in one
worked week in one worked hour
per
week
hour week
in one
week

15
5
62
14

58
128
1,113
163

4.9
5.4
5.2
4.4

48.6
55.0
50.7
49.4

39.2
52.3
44.3
37.1

80.7 $0.551 $26.78
95.1
.413 22.72
87.4
.465 23.58
75.1
.665 32.85

3
4
4

27
28
41

5.2
5.3
4.9

56.7
56.6
55.0

53.7
50.6
46.5

94.7
89.4
84.5

.239
.174
.334

15.25
9.85
18.37

14.45
8.81
15.54

164

1,974

5.1

50.4

43.5

86.3

.476

23.99

20.72

12
1

25
3
7
31
136
3

5.9
5.0
4.6
3.3
5.0
5.1
4.8
5.0

54.1
50.0
52.6
49.5
53.8
55.5
53.8
53.3

55.8
41.0
43.1
30.0
48.1
53.8
46.8
53.3

103.1
82.0
81.9
60.6
89.4
96.9
87.0
100 .0

.233
.273
.247
.285
.258
.244
.256
.327

12.61
13.65
12.99
14.11
13.88
13.54
13.77
17.45

10.65
8 .55
12.42
13.11
11.96
17.45

4.9
5.3
5.5

55.0
57.1
55.0

52.4
57.9
52.7

95.3
101.4
95.8

.224
.192
.422

12.32
10.96

1 1.10

3

63
9
9

2^21

22.24

62

299

4.9

54.2

49.2

90.8

.250

13.55

12.28

10
1
11

158

5.8

97.4

.314
.285
.193
.345
.291
.238
.240
.305

15.83
14.23
8.94
15.97
14.08
13.09

15.42
14.23
7.83
13.75

15.28

11.36
10.58
13.77

.2 2 2

3
1
6
1
2

3
36
2

3
2

$21.58
21.59
20.59
24.66

1.2.99
11.21

11.74

1

6 .0

84
15

96
316
129
60
906
94

5.2
5.0
5.3
5.1
5.4
5.0

50.4
50.0
46.3
46.3
48.4
55.0
50.4
50.1

49.1
50.0
40.5
39.9
44.2
47.8
44.1
45.1

3
3
5

91
26
57

5.3
5.2
5.2

55.3
56.9
54.8

48.5
48.3
49.0

87.7
84.9
89.4

.154
.275

12.28
8.76
15.07

10.75
7.42
13.46

1,934

5.3

50.0

44.2

88.4

.265

13.25

11.74

90.3

76
24
6

1 00.0

87.5
8 6 .2

91.3
86.9
87.5
90.0

12.10

12.88

Total........................................

238

Coners, male:
M aryland................... ...............
North Carolina..........................
Pennsylvania__________ _____

1
2

13
137

4.6
5.7
4.9

60.0
55.0
51.1

54.2
61.4
47.3

111.6

4

92.6

.312
.309
.326

18.72
17.00
16.66

16.89
18.95
15.40

Total........................................

7

161

4.9

52.1

48.8

93.7

.323

16.83

15.76

Coners, female:
Maryland...................................
New Jersey............. ...................
N ew Y ork..................................
North Carolina..........................
Pennsylvania.............................
Tennessee...................................

1
1
2
2
11
1

11.52

T otal........................................
Enterers, male:
Connecticut................................
Massachusetts..........................•
N ew Jersey.................................
N ew York...................................
North Carolina_________ ____
Pennsylvania.............................
Tennessee...................................
T otal........................................
i Data included in total.




18

11

16
(0

138
21

310
(0

528

(0

0

6 .0
(0

49.5
55.0
50.0
0)

45.1
)
47.7
53.4
40.1
0)

90.2
0)
96.4
97.1
80.2
0)

.256
0)
.297
.274
.276
(0

12.80
0)
14.70
15.07
13.80
0)

5.9

50.4

43.4

8 6 .1

.278

14.01

12.07

42.3
46.0
48.8
61.7
33.6
45.6
59.0

82.5
95.8
106.6
114.3
61.1
87.7
103.5

.296
.333
.402
.185
.437
.526
.193

15.18
15.98
18.41
9.99
24.04
27.35
11.0 0

12.55
15.30
19.62
11.43
14.69
23.97
11.39

46.7

90.3

.414

21.40

19.32

5.4
0)

5.8
5.8

3

5
5

10
1

20
1

6 .0

51.3
48.0
45.8
54.0
55.0
52.0
57.0

20

41

5.2

51.7

1
1

3
1

3

5.3

1
6

6 .0

50.0

5.3
6 .0

4.6
5.0

(0

14.1
14.61
11.09
0)

32

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR

T a b l e A . — Average

number of days on which wage earners worked, average full-time
and actual hours and earnings per week, average earnings per hour, and per cent
of full time worked, 1931, by occupation, sex, and State— Continued

Occupation, sex, and State

Enterers, female:
C/Onnftfitiniit, ___ _
____
Massachusetts_______________
N ew Jersey__________________
N ew Y ork___________________
North Carolina______________
Pennsylvania ................... .
R hode Island_________ ______
South Carolina, Alabama,
and Georgia_______________
Tennessee............................ ,
_______
Virginia
r

N um ­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments

5
5

Aver­
age
days
Num ­
on
ber of which
wage
wage
earners earners
worked
in one
week

Aver­
Aver­ A ver­
age
Aver­ age
Per
age
hours
age
full­
cent
full­
actu­
of full earn­ time
time
ally
earn­
ings
hours worked time
ings
worked per
per
per
hour
week in one
week
week

Aver­
age
actual
earn­
ings
in one
week

$15.71
20.84
25.58
15.11
17.39
16.77
14.61

7
32
4

16
13
16
30
54
183
44

4.3
5.7
5.3
5.4
5.3
5.1
4.4

49.6
48.0
48.9
48.3
55.0
50.5
48.1

35.4
44.7
44.4
43.3
45.6
43.6
36.3

71.4 $0,444 $2 2 .0 2
93.1
.466 22.37
90.8
.576 28.17
89.6
.349 16.86
82.9
.382 2 1.01
86.3
.385 19.44
75.5
.403 19.38

6
8

1

7

3

6

2

7

3.3
5.5
5.1

55.0
57.0
55.0

17.7
49.9
47.5

32.2
87.5
86.4

.328
.134
.144

18.04
7.64
7.92

5.81
6.71
6.83

Total______________________

73

376

5.1

50.8

42.4

83.5

.387

19.66

16.39

Enterers' helpers, male:
New Jersey_____________ ____
N ew York___________________
North Carolina______________
Pennsylvania___________ ____
Virginia_____________________

1
1
1
11
1

1
1
2

5.0

1 1.0 0

10.00

4.4

90.9
106.1
96.0
69.5

.22 0

25

40.0
52.5
52.8
35.7
55.0

.250

6 .0
6 .0

10.89
13.20
12.75
13.75

11.55
12. 65
8.85
13.75

Total________________ _____

15

12.67

9.40

15.54
12.28

15.66
12.06
10.83
13.50
10.93
0)
0)
3.57

Enterers' helpers, female:
Connecticut_________________
N ew Jersey__________________
N ew York___________________
North Carolina_________ ____
Pennsylvania
R hode Island________________
Tennessee_____________ _____
Virginia__________ __________
Total__ . . . . . . _____________
Twisters-in, hand, male:
Connecticut_________________
Massachusetts_______________
N ew Jersey__________________
N ew Y ork ..................................
N orth Carolina______________
Pennsylvania________________
Rhode Island________________
South Carolina, Alabama,
and Georgia_ . . . _________
_
Tennessee__________ ________
V ir g in ia ...__________________
Total........................................
Twisters-in, hand, female:
Connecticut___ _____________
Massachusetts_______________
N ew Jersey__________________
N ew Y ork___________________
North Carolina______________
Pennsylvania________________
Rhode Island________________
South Carolina, Alabama,
and Georgia_ ____________
_
Tennessee______ ____________
V irginia.. . . . . . . . . . . . . _______
T otal.................. .............
i Data included in total.




1

6 .0

44.0
49.5
55.0
51.4
55.0

1 00.0

.240
.248
.250

30

4.6

51.5

38.2

74.2

.246

6 .0

46.8
46.5
49.5
55.0
50.4
0)

100.9
98.1
91.3
75.8
83.9
0)
(i)
60.0

.332
.264
.240
.314
.258
0)
.108

17.27
13.00
0)
0)
5.94

.260

13.21

10.98

.456
.621

20.90
24.39
34.56
28.69
22.24
27.65
28.68

5
5

6

3.7

55.0

47.2
45.6
45.2
41.7
42.3
0)
0)
33.0

154

5.1

50.8

42.3

83.3

32

5.5
4.8
5.0
5.4
5.4
5.8
4.6

51.2
48.0
46.2
50.2
55.0
51.3
49.8

45.9
39.3
39.9
46.4
47.3
51.0
40.8

89.6
81.9
86.4
92.4
99.4
81.9

.618
.471
.542
.702

23.35
29.81
40.01
31.02
25.91
27.80
34.96

2

3
3
2

26
1
1
1

39
3
7
55
18
4
43

6

16
114
(0
0)

5.4
5.3
5.3
5.1
(i)
(0

8

(0

(0

11.88

10

131
36
16
139
32

2
2
1

7
3
3

5.6
4.3
6 .0

57.1
56.3
55.0

55.0
38.0
60.2

96.3
67.5
109.5

.250
.251
.399

14.28
a4. 13
21.95

13.73
9.54
24.02

145

407

5.3

49.7

45.6

91.5

.634

31.51

28.84

4

8
10

14
13

4.1
5.3
4.1
5.6

53.4
48.0
45.6
46.2
55.0
50.7
51.2

36.4
44.8
35.3
46.0
55.0
41.3
45.3

6 8 .2

2

9
7

81.5
88.5

.316
.352
.713
.465
.289
.433
.464

16.87
16.90
32.51
21.48
15.88
21.95
23.76

11.51
15.77
25.19
21.38
15.88
17.86

54.2
55.0
51.0

94.6

.2 1 0

100 .0

92.7

.227
.319

12.03
12.50
17.55

11.39
12.50
16.25

42.5

84.0

428

21.6 6

18.19

1

1

6 .0

25
9

141
25

5.3
5.5

2
1
1

10
1

5.4
6 .0

5

5.6

57.3
55.0
55.0

61

228

5.3

50.6

8 6 .0

93.3
77.4
99.6
100.0

.86 6

21.00

33

MANUFACTURE OP SILK AND BATON GOODS
T a b l e A* — Average

number of days on which wage earners worked, average full-time
and actual hours and earnings per week, average earnings per hour, and per cent
of full time worked, 1981, by occupation, sex, and State— Continued

Occupation, sex, and State

Twisters-in, machine, male:
Connecticut...............................
Massachusetts___
N ew Jersey...........
New York.............
North C arolina...
Pennsylvania____
Rhode Island........
Tennessee.............
Virginia.................
Total...................
Twisters-in, machine, female:
Connecticut...............................
New Jersey...........
N ew Y ork.............
North C arolina...
Pennsylvania____
Rhode Island........
South Carolina, Alabama,
and Georgia
Tennessee..............
Virginia.................
Total..................
Loom fixers, male:
Connecticut..........
Massachusetts
New Jersey...........
N ew Y ork........... .
North Carolina
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island........
South Carolina, Alabama,
and Georgia.
Tennessee.............
Virginia.................
Total...................
Bobbin boys:
Connecticut_____
M aryland.............
Massachusetts
New Jersey........... .
New Y ork............. .
North Carolina
Pennsylvania . ,
Tennessee............. .
Virginia................. .
Total....................
Weavers, broad silk, male:
Connecticut...............................
Massachusetts
.
N ew Jersey............
N ew Y ork..............
N orth Carolina ...
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island_____
South Carolina, Alabama,
and Georgia .
Tennessee...............
Virginia................. .
Total___________
1 Data

included in total




Aver­
age
Aver­
Aver­ Aver­
Aver­
days
age
Aver­
age
Num­
age
Per
age
on
N um ­
hours
age
full­
full­
ber of
cent
actual
actu­
earn­ time
estab­ ber of which time
earn­
of full
ally
wage
wage
ings earn­
lish­
time
hours
ings
ings
ments earners earners per worked worked per
hour
worked week in one
per in one
week
week
week
in one
week

28

5.2

6

6 .0

28
17

5.5
5.6
5.0
5.6
5.6
6.3

89.7 $0,696 $35.22
.765 36.72
114.0
98.1
.864 40.61
99.4
.629 32.20
.447 24.57
1 0 0 .0
96.9
.537 27.55
103.5
.685 35.55
103.5
.154
8.78
99.1
.441 24.26

45
5
3

104

1

2

6 .0

50.6
48.0
47.0
51.2
55.0
51.3
51.9
57.0
55.0

94

198

5.6

50.7

49.2

97.0

.6x5

31.18

30.27

5.5
5.2
5.8
5.7
5.1
5.5

50.4
49.8
50.3
55.0
51.2
48.6

46.3
42.5
48.1
46.6
43.1
43.8

91.9
85.3
95.6
84.7
84.2
90.1

.472
.619
.490
.478
.452
.439

23.79
30.83
24.65
26.29
23.14
21.34

21.81
26.27
23.55
22.27
19.51
19.23

8

4
16
11
1

2
8

3

2

2

4
3

5

2
22
2

7
59

6

10

45.4
54.7
46.1
50.9
55.0
49.7
53.7
59.0
54.5

$31.62
41.85
39.84
32.03
24.57
26.72
36.80
9.08
24.06

1
2
2

2

6 .0

4.0
4.8

55.0
57.0
55.0

55.0
40.0
42.0

1 00.0

3
4

70.2
76.4

.227
.153
.217

12.50
8.72
11.94

12.50
6.13
9.11

40

97

5.2

51.5

43.8

85.0

.440

2 2.66

19.30

10
12

138
58
210

5.8
5.2
5.5
5.6
5.3
5.7
5.3

49.6
49.2
47.1
49.4
55.0
51.9
50.3

49.6
44.2
45.9
48.8
54.6
51.3
49.5

1 0 0 .0

73
29

89.8
97.5
98.8
99.3
98.8
98.4

.769
.767
.934
.790
.564
.753
.794

38.14
37.74
43.99
39.03
31.02
39.08
39.94

38.14
33.91
42.83
38.51
30.81
38.64
39.28

99.5
96.7

73
16

126
104
672
104

5
4
4

6.5
5.4
5.7

54.7
56.8
53.4

54.4
54.9
54.6

1 02 .2

.409
.399
.499

22.37

40

26.65

22.23
21.92
27.27

234

1,518

5.6

51.0

50.2

98.4

.746

38.05

37.47

4
3

26

5.6
4.9

9
42
72

45.5
48.0
48.0
49.1
50.4
0)
47.9
57.7
50.3

93.2
89.6

2

93.2
100.5
92.8

.303
.243
.152
.219
.266
0)
.208
.125
.181

14. .9
13.02
7.31
11.04
13.65
(*)
10.69
7.18
9.81

13.78
11.65
7.31
10.75
13.42
(*)
9.96
7.24
9.08

8

46
20

22.66

2

8

6 .0

3

13

5.6

48.8
53.6
48.0
50.4
51.3
(>)
51.4
57.4
54.2

88

460

5.5

51.4

48.6

94.6

.2 2 2

10
12

70
17

779
477
1,669
796
710
3,964
930

5.7
4.7
5.2
5.1
5.0
5.2
5.1

52.2
50.4
47.9
51.0
55.0
51.7
50.6

50.8
40.9
43.3
45.9
50.6
48.1
46.7

97.3
81.2
90.4
90.0
92.0
93.0
92.3

.517
.456
.544
.496
.474
.504
.534

26.99
22.98
26.06
25.30
26.07
26.06
27.02

26.29
18.67
23.55
22.77
23.99
24.26
24.94

4
4
4

169
101
201

5.1
4.9
4.8

54.6
56.5
52.7

50.8
49.5
45.6

93.0
87.6
86.5

.325
.247
.294

17.75
13.96
15.49

16.51
12.24
13.43

224

9,796

5.2

51.2

47.0

91.8

.499

25.55

23.47

21

14
6
1

53

70
25
8

6 .0

5,5
5.9
0)

5.4

%

1 00 .0

97.4
98.2
0)

11.41

10.78

34

WAGES AND HOTJBS OP LABOR

A,— Average number of days on which wage earners worked, average full-time
and actual hours and earnings per week, average earnings per hour, and per cent
of fidl time worked, 1931, by occupation, sex, and State— Continued

T able

Occupation, sex, and State

Weavers, broad silk, female:
C onnecticu t............... ..............
Massachusetts_______________
N ew Jersey_________________
N ew York___________________
North Carolina,............. ....
Pennsylvania.......................
Rhode Island........................
South Carolina, Alabama,
and Georgia__________ _
Tennessee..........

Virginia ,

Total......................................
Weavers, ribbon, male:
New Jersey........... ......... ..........
Pennsylvania____ ____ ______
Total......................................
Weavers, ribbon, female:
New Jersey.................................
New York......... ........................
Pennsylvania________________
Total......................................
Smash hands, male:
Connecticut______ __________
Massachusetts_______________
N ew Jersey.................. .............
New York___________ _____
North Carolina_____________
Pennsylvania—______ _______
Rhode Island......... ......... ........
South Carolina, Alabama,
and Georgia._______ ______
Tennessee___________________
Total...................................... .
Smash hands, female:
Connecticut_____ __________
New York.................................
Pennsylvania_______________
Rhode Island......................... .
Tennessee...................................
Total......................................
Pickers, cloth, male:
Massachusetts. _____ ______
N ew Jersey._______ _________
N ew York..................................
North Carolina____ ____ ___
Pennsylvania....... .................. .
South Carolina, Alabama,
and Georgia_______________
Virginia_______________ _____

Aver­
age
days
N um ­
Num ­
on
ber of
estab­ ber of which
wage
wage
lish­
ments earners earners
worked
in one
week

Aver­
Aver­
Aver­
Aver­
age
Aver­ age
Per
age
age
hours
full­
age
cent
full­
actual
actu­
of full earn­ time earn­
time
ally
ings earn­
hours worked time
ings
per
ings
per
in one worked hour
per in one
week week
week
week

69
13

486
203
1,078
528
76
2,831
351

5.6
5.2
5.2
5.2
5.5
5.6
5.0

49.0
48.0
47.5
47.3
55.0
50.1
49.4

47.3
42.3
43.3
43.5
51.7
46.8
45.3

5
4
4

108
117
126

5.4
5.4
5.4

5o.4
56.6
53.8

51.1
51.7
49.2

92.2
91.3
91.4

.221

.319

15.40
12.51
17.16

14.20
11.44
15.70

203

5,904

5.5

49.6

46.0

92.7

.422

20.93

19.38

10

5

213
119

5.1
5.0

44.0
53.2

37.5
50.4

85.2
94.7

.614
:483

27.02
25.70

23.07
24.32

15

332

5.0

47.3

42.1

89.0

.558

26.39

23.51

5
5

90
65
117

5.6
5.7
4.8

44.0
49.8
50.5

40.3
47.3
42.2

91.6
95.0
83.6

.562
.348
.417

24.73
17.33
21.06

16.46
17.61

12

272

5.3

48.2

42.8

8 8 .8

.444

21.40

19.01

6

25
10
2

5.9
5.5
4.7
5.1
5.0
5.2

50.4
47.1
50.0
50.0
55.0
56.0
48.5

51.3
46.8
50.0
42.5
51.5
55.0
43.4

101.8

4

32.96
31.18
35.78
25.60

89.5

.654
.662
.716
.512
.416
.520
.662

28.60
32.11

33.55
31.00
35.78
21.73
21.42
28.60
28. 71

10

7
62
23
6

2

1
2

3
35

6 .0

96.5 $0,422 $2 0.6 8
.360 17.28
91.2
.493 23.42
.428 20.24
92.0
94.0
.396 21.78
93.4
.411 20.59
91.7
.501 24.75

8 8.1

99.4
1 0 0 .0

85.0
93.6

.278

2 2.88

$19.95
15.25
21.36
18.65
20.48
19.21
22.71

2 2.66

1

1

5

27

2
1

8

5

4.6
5.0

52.5
57.4

43.8
53.1

83.4
92.5

.301
.250

15.80
14.92

13.17
13.81

29

116

5.3

51.5

48.5

94.2

.536

27.60

25.98

1

3

3
4

2
1
2

2
1
6

6 .0
6 .0
6 .0

49.7
49.5
52.5
49.0
53.8

100.4
lOO.O
99.1

5.0
5.7

49.5
49.5
53.0
48.0
55.5

96.9

.472
.572
.464
.570
.233

23. 35
28.34
24.59
27.36
13.10

23.43
28.34
24.3)
27.92
12.69

9

16

5.8

52.1

51.5

98.8

.409

21.31

21.03

1
6

6 .0

48.0
25.7
42.5
51.0
39.3

1 00 .0

.313
.600
.449
.235

15.00
15.4i
19.10
11.98

1 00.0

102.1

3
3

3

3.5
5.0

1
11

1

6 .0

46

4.4

48.0
44.0
50.5
55.0
53.1

.221

15.00
26.40
22.67
12.93
11.74

1
1

4
3

4.8
4.3

50.0
55.0

47.5
41.7

95.0
75.8

.290
.165

14.50
9.08

13.78

Total........................................

21

64

4.4

52.0

39.1

75.2

.260

13.52

10.18

Pickers, cloth, female:
Connecticut_______ _________
Massachusetts_________ _____
New Jersey........... .................. .
N ew Y ork_____________ _____
North Carolina..........................
Pennsylvania.............................

74

11

66

193
124
13
442

5.4
5.2
5.2
5.0
5.5
5.2 1

49.7
46.7
46.2
49.0
55.0
51.1

46.9
41.4
40.1
41.3
43.5
43.5

94.4
88.7

47
24
4
62

.302 15.01
.229 1 10.69
.351 16.22
.279 13.67
.238 13.09
.242 12.37

14.16
9.48
14.05
11.53
10.34
10.54




1

9

58.4
84.2
92.7
74.0

8 6 .8

84.3
79.1
85.1

8 .6 8

6 .8 8

35

MANUFACTURE OF SILK AND RAYON GOODS

Average number of days on which wage earners worked, average full-time
and actual hours and earnings per week, average earnings per hour, and per cent
of full time worked, 1931, by occupation, sex, and State— Continued

T a b l e A *—

Occupation, sex, and State

Pickers, cloth, female—Contd.
R hode Island.............................
South Carolina, Alabama,
and Georgia............................
Tennessee...................................
Virginia.......................................
Total........................................
Inspectors, cloth, male:
Connecticut...............................
New Jersey.................................
New Y ork..................................
North Carolina..........................
Pennsylvania.............................
Rhode Island.............................
South Carolina, Alabama,
and Georgia............................
Tennessee..............- ...................
Virginia......................................
Total........................................
Inspectors, cloth, female:
Connecticut...............................
New Jersey........... ....................
N ew Y ork..................................
N orth Carolina..........................
Pennsylvania.............................
Rhode Island.............................
South Carolina, Alabama,
and Georgia............................
Tennessee................................. .
Virginia.......................................
Total............................. .........

Aver­
age
A ver­
Aver­ Aver­
age
Aver­
days
age
Num ­ Num­
age
Per
on
full­
age
hours
cent
ber of
full­
which time
actu­
time
estab­ ber of
of full earn­ earn­
wage
wage
ally
ings
lish­
hours
time
per
ings
ments earners earners per worked worked
per
worked week in one
hour
week
week
in one
week

Aver­
age
actual
earn­
ings
in one
week

14

85

5.6

49.3

46.3

93.9 $0,307 $15.14

$14.21

4
4
4

16
20

29

4.9
5.4
4.1

55.0
56.8
55.0

44.6
51.9
37.3

81.1
91.4
67.8

.208
.151
.165

11.44
8.58
9.08

9.28
7.84
6.17

183

1,062

5.2

49.8

42.9

8 6 .1

.270

13.45

11.58

2
11

2

6 .0

6

2

3
87
20

5.6
5.7
6.3
5.9
5.9

51.5
46.9
49.1
55.0
52.0
49.8

51.5
43.9
45.8
65.0
51.6
49.1

100.0

27

3

93.6
93.3
118.2
99.2
98.6

.536
.599
.748
.386
.533
.595

27.63
28.09
36.73
21.23
27.72
29.63

27.63
26.28
34.22
25.11
27.50
29.17

2 1.10

40
5

3

6 .0

3

1
11

5.0
5.5

57.5
57.0
55.0

59.5
45.0
53.0

103.5
78.9
96.4

.367
.141
.397

8.04
21.84

21.82
6.36
21.05

68

160

5.8

51.1

50.2

98.2

.538

27.49

27.03

2

5

6 .0

4
7

21
22
2

5.9
5.7

113

5.5
5.4

48.4
45.8
48.6
57.5
46.7
46.7

98.4
96.6
97.4

32
5

49.2
47.4
49.9
57.5
50.7
48.8

92.1
95.7

.272
.413
.361
.250
.331
.352

13.38
19.58
18.01
14.38
16.78
17.18

13.18
18.89
17.58
14.38
15.47
16.46

2

17
5

6 .0

3

1

6 .0

55.0
57.0
55.0

52.2
54.9
53.0

94.9
96.3
96.4

.216
.179
.280

11.88
1 0.2 0

1

15.40

11.27
9.85
14.83

57

208

5.6

50.6

47.7

94.3

.327

16.55

15.60

5

5.6

91.6

3

0)
6 .0

19.87
(*)
10.33

97.8
96.9
97.2
102.3

.388
0)
.215
.523
.378
.333
.272

2 1 .8 6

19.28
16.88
13.93

18.19
0)
10.33
21.35
18.69
16.42
14.24
17.22

1
1

1

22

6 .0

5.6

100 .0

Packers, male:
Connecticut...............................
M aryland................................ .
Massachusetts...........................
New Jersey.................................
N ew Y ork..................................
Pennsylvania............................
Rhode Island— - ......................

17
3

23
36
5

6 .0

51.2
0)
48.0
41.8
51.0
50.7
51.2

Total........................................

36

81

5.7

49.8

48.5

97.4

.355

17.68

1
2
1

1
12
1

6 .0

1 0.00

16.19
13.86

44
12

98.9
87.5
75.0
76.6

.208
.368
. 2 .0
.243

2

48.0
43.5
43.3
37.7
40.0

10.0 0

17

48.0
44.0
49.5
50.3
52.2

100 .0

5.9
5.0
4.6
4.6

.2 2 2

11.59

16.01
12.13
9.15
8.87

23

70

4.9

49.5

39.3

79.4

.263

13.02

10.34

12

298
39
55
468
328
340
2,649
213

5.7
5.7
5.5
5.5
5.6
5.2
5.6
5.6

49.3
53.6
48.8
47.2
51.0
55.9
51.8
48.9

50.3
51.9
48.3
45.2
50.6
51.6
51.7
48.1

102 .0

96.8
99.0
95.8
99.2
92.3
99.8
98.4

.432
.329
.369
.539
.460
.301
.453
.507

21.30
17.63
18.01
25.44
23.46
16.83
23.47
24.79

21.73
17.05
17.82
24.41
23.23
15.51
23.43
24.40

132
90

Packers, female:
Massachusetts...........................
New Jersey................................
N ew Y ork..................................
Pennsylvania.............................
R hode Island........................... .
Total........................................
Other employees, male:
Connecticut...............................
M aryland...................................
Massachusetts...........................
New Jersey................................
New York.................................
North Carolina.........................
Pennsylvania.............................
R hode Island.............................
South Carolina, Alabama,
and Georgia............................
Tennessee..................................
Virginia......................................
Total........................................
1 Data

included in total.




4
1
1
2
8

3
8

62
31
10

123
16

0)

8

5.6
5.6
5.7

46.9
0)

48.0
40.9
49.4
49.3
52.4

0)
100 .0

1 2.2 2

6
6

112

5.3
5.7
5.8

55.8
57.2
54.8

51.6
55.0
55.5

92.5
96.2
101.3

.254
.159
.330

14.17
9.09
18.08

13.09
8.75
18.31

282

4,724

5.6

51.5

50.8

98.6

.434

22.08

22.35

5

36

WAGES AND HOURS OP LABOR

A.—Average number of days on which wage earners worked, average full-time
and actual hours and earnings per week, average earnings per hour, and per cent
of full time worked, 1981, by occupation, sex, and Stale— Continued

T a b le

Occupation, sex, and State

Other employees, female:
Connecticut-., .... , _ ___
Maryland
Massachusetts_______________
N ew Jersey__________________
N ew Y ork___________________
North
___ ___
Pftnnsylvftr>if| ....
R hode Island.................... .........
South Carolina, Alabama,
and Georgia_____ __ ___...
Tennessee................ .................
Virginia_____ _______________
Total______________________
A ll employees, male:
Connecticut_________________
M aryland___________________
Massachusetts_______________
N ew Jersey__________________
N ew Y ork____ ______________
North Carolina.
_
Pennsylvania............................
R hode Island________________
South Carolina, Alabama,
and Georgia_______________
Tennessee___________________
Virginia.......................................
Total........................................
A ll employees, female:
Connecticut_________________
M aryland___________________
Massachusetts_______________
N ew Jersey__________________
N ew Y ork___________________
North Carolina______________
Pennsylvania________________
Rhode Island.............................
South Carolina, Alabama,
and Georgia_______ ____ _
_
Tennessee___________________
Virginia_______________ ____ _
Total______________________
A ll employees, male and female:
Connecticut_________________
M aryland___________________
Massachusetts_______________
N ew Jersey__________________
N ew Y ork___________________
North Carolina........................
Pennsylvania__________ _____
R hode Island.............................
South Carolina, Alabama,
and Georgia............................
Tennessee___________________
Virginia_ _________________
_
Total........................................




N um ­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments

8

3
4
38
23
9

Aver­
age
days
N um ­
on
ber of which
wage
wage
earners earners
worked
in one
week

119
61
15
422
301
117

5.2
5.3
6 .0

Aver­
Aver­ Aver­
Aver­
age
Aver­ age
age
Per
age
hours
age
full­
run­
cent
actual
actu­
of full earn­ time earn­
time
ally
ings
earn­
hours
time
ings
ings
worked worked per
per
in one
per in one
hour
week week
week
week

48.0
49.8
48.0
45.9
49.3
55.6
50.7
48.5

40.6
44.3
48.0
39.2
44.6
47.8
43.6
44.8

84.6 $0,320 $15.36
89.0
.207 10.31
.229 10.97
85.4
.307 14.09
90.5
.257 12.67
8 6 .0
.240 13.34
§6 .0
.291 14.75
$2.4
.288 13.97

1 00.0

100
8

1 ,200

59

5.2
5.4
5.1
5.3
5.3

5
4
6

29
71
61

5.5
5.1
4.8

55.9
57.0
53.2

53.1
47.8
42.4

95.0
83.9
79.7

208

2,455

5.2

50.0

43.3

13
3

1,546
132
734
3,331
1,780
1,378
10,349
1,403

5.6
5.1
4.9
5.2
5.3
5.1
5.3
5.2

51.0
56.0
50.2
47.6
51.3
55.3
52.2
50.3

6
6

447
311
474

5.2
5.4
5.2

340

21,885

13
3

$12.97
9.19
10.97
12.05
11.48
11.48
1 2.68

12.92

. 106
.203

11.24
6.04
10.80

10.67
5.06
8.59

8 6 .6

.276

13.80

11.95

49.7
51.7
43.0
43.7
48.1
51.2
49.5
47.1

97.5
92.3
85.7
92.0
93.8
92.6
94.8
93.6

.522
.310
.459
.597
.502
.419
.474
.553

26.62
17.36
23.04
28.36
25.75
24.97
24.74
27.82

25.92
16.01
19.71
26.06
24.14
21.44
23.45
26.04

55.1
56.8
53.8

51.7
53.0
50.2

93.8
93.3
93.3

.294
.218
.323

16.20
12.38
17.38

15.20
11.53
16.22

5.3

51.5

48.4

94.0

.485

24.98

23.45

1,429
381
776
3,764
3,047
809
14,250
1,170

5.5
5.4
5.3
5.2
5.4
5.2
5.1
4.9

49.3
50.0
47.6
46.9
48.7
55.2
50.5
49.7

45.7
44.5
42.4
41.3
44.4
47.8
42.4
42.6

92.7
89.0
89.1

.385
.230
.278
.410
.335
.314
.324
.418

18.98
11.50
13.23
19.23
16.31
17.33
16.36
20.77

428
511
586

5.3
5.3
5.2

55.6
56.1
54.1

49.0
48.1
47.6

8 8 .1

6
6

8 8 .0

.240
.181
.265

13.34
10.15
14.34

11.75
8.70
12.61

340

27,151

5.2

50.0

43.2

86.4

.335

16.75

14.46

13
3

2,975
513
1,510
7,095
4,827
2,187
24,599
2,573

5.6
5.3
5.1
5.2
5.4
5.1
5.2
5.0

50.2
51.5
48.9
47.2
49.7
55.2
51.2
50.0

47.8
46.3
42.7
42.4
45.8
49.9
45.4
45.0

95.2
89.9
87.3
89.8
92.2
90.4
88.7
90.0

.459
.253
.367
.500
.400
.382
.393
.495

23.04
13.03
17.95
23.60
19.88
21.09
24.75

21.91
11.71
15.64
21.23
18.31
19.06
17.81
22.29

6
6

875
822
1,060

5.2
5.3
5.2

55.4
56.4
54.0

50.4
49.9
48.8

91.0
88.5
90.4

.268
.196
.292

14.85
11.05
15.77

13.51
9.77
14.23

340

49,036

5.2

50.7

45.5

89.7

.406

20.58

18.47

12

97
37
10

131
20

5

12

97
37
10

131
20

5

12

97
37
10

131
20

5

8 8 .1

91.2
8 6 .6

84.0
85.7
85.7

.2 0 1

2 0 .1 2

17.56
1 0.2 2

11.79
16.94
14.90
15.00
13.71
17.80

T able

B .— Average and classified earnings per hour in 9 specified occupations, 1981, by occupation, sex, and State
N um ber of wage earners whose earnings (in cents) per hour were—

Occupation, sex, and State

N um ­
A ver­
ber of ber of
age
earn­ Un­ 10,
estab­ wage
lish­ earners ings per der un­
ments
hour
der
10

1
1
2
2
6
1
1

T otal..................................................

1

1

$0,207
.300
.400
.197
.292
.205
.400

14

61

.267

1

5

142
140
158
449
771
94
3,034

9
18

18,
un­
der
20

1
1

2
1
2

2

3

8

40,
un­
der
45

1
2

45,
un­
der
50

50,
un­
der
60

60,
un­
der
70

70,
un­
der
80

80,
un­
der
90

90,
un­
der
100

100 ,

un­
der

no

110 ,

un­ 120
and
der over
120

7

1

35,
un­
der
40

9
1

2

1

2
1
21
2

5
4
43
4

4
3

19
91
96

.237
.168
.238

9

8

6
6

21
1

11

5

3

6

7
3

183

5,105

.293

19

18

50

91

131

176

3
3
3
17

49
56
54
162

11

202

4
59
3

24
1,117
32

.426
.323
.282
.433
.406
.295
.330
.381

3
6
1

2

5

32
24
1

9

14

2

11

64

80
4

1
1

16

11
14
37
58
23
33
27
28
33
85
19
23
708 1,014
27
28

15
14
19

3
15
36

7

1

39

45

15
228
147
18
240
17

1

42
87

14

7

9
31

14

38

27

3

3

1

3

3

1

1

92
1

3
1

705

269

93

48

3
38

5
5

4

6
20

31
3
5
43
58

6

12

46
24

28
35

5
3

80

10
1

5

2

26

1
1

9

17

7
3
141

3
15

2
1

9

7
113
344
15
693
26

6

1

962 1,308 1,228

8

__

10

12

1

1

10

2

10
12

196
3

5
26
7
308

225

2

8

36

1

114
14

1

2

GOODS

111

.344
.337
.273
.284
.276

33

13

RAYON

1
20

.375
.227

3

AD
N

2

Total..................................................

10

30,
un­
der
35

1

.2 2 2

1

25,
un­
der
30

5

5

2
6

20 ,
un­
der
25

1

1

25
33
3
92
9




8

16,
un­
der
18

1

W inders, hard silk, female:
Connecticut.........................................
M aryland______ __________________
Massachusetts____________________
N ew Jersey...........................................
N ew Y ork ................................. ..........
N orth Carolina______________ ____
Pennsylvania............... .............. .........
R hode Island.......................................
South Carolina, Alabama, and
Georgia..............................................
Tennessee________________________
Virginia................................................

Spinners, male:
Connecticut......................... _............
M arylan d.............................................
Massachusetts...................... ..............
N ew Jersey..........................................
N ew Y ork _________ _______________
North Carolina______________ _____
Pennsylvania.................... ..................
Rhode Island.......................................

1

15
9

14,
un­
der
16

O S K
F IL

W inders, hard silk, male:
Massachusetts............... .....................
N ew Jersey_______ ________________
N ew Y ork __ ______________________
N orth Carolina........ ...........................
Pennsylvania________ _____________
Tennessee_________________________
Virginia................................................

12

12,
un­
der
14

3

00

T able

B.— Average and classified earnings per hour in 9 specified occupations, 1981, by occupation, sex, and State— Continued
Number of wage earners whose earnings (in cents) per hour were—

Occupation, sex, and State

N um ­ N um ­ A ver­
ber of
age
estab­ ber of
earn­ Un­ 10,
wage
lish­ earners ings per der un­
ments
hour
der

T otal..............................................

Total

_______________________

Winders, soft silk, female:
Connecticut_______________ ______
Massachusetts ____________________
N ew J e r s e y .____ _____ __________
N ew Y ork________________________




$0 .2 2 0
.172
.275

109

1,794

.344

3
3
3

64
47
99
208
415
55
1,314
4

.386
.246
.184
.346
.333
.271
.278
.237

20
12

3
54
1
1

16

5

8

30,
un­
der
35

4

8

50,
un­
der
60

60,
un­
der
70

70,
un­
der
80

13

25
426

305

268

159

78

25

20

4

2

73
127

24
41

16
4

1

56

34

17

3

287

119

41

6

4

3
1

2
1

1

1

3

18

3

85
3

28
3

7

16

28

213

1

10

3
9

33
13
19

7

15

1
1
20

1
1

13
4
42

21
11

4
4
45
145

34

314
4

24
62
27
459

6

4

2

11

321

1

12

12

.2 1 0

70
58

.192
.265

104

2.346

.289

1
1
2

5
9

2

4

.253
.389
.341
.350
.167

1

2

1

6

22

.319

1

3

1

9

125
28
445
35

.364
.327
.409
.390

1
2

3
1
Virginia

1
1

4
61
3

2

80,
un­
der
90

38

8

1

6

49

2

51 l 72

473

637

542

24
1

4

8

98

1

1

1

1

5
2

1
2

1

6

6

3

39
3
17

25
15
17

29

4

107

5
4
176

1

1

6

10

11

1
2

90,
un­
der

100 ,

110 ,

un­
der

100

110

un­ and
der over

3

15
256

19

2

1

45,
un­
der
50

6
2

52

9

40,
un­
der
45

18

1
1

35,
un­
der
40

120

120

2

2

2

O LABOR
P

Winders, soft silk, male:
C onnecticut______________________
N ew Jersey_______________________
Pennsy 1vani a_____________________
Rhode Island__ - __________________
T e n n ess ee____ ___________________

33
59

25,
un­
der
30

HOURS

Total___________________________

6

2

20 ,
un­
der
25

AD
N

Spinners, female:
C o n n e c ticu t___________ __ _
M aryland________________ _______
M assachusetts_____ __
N ew Jersey____________ __ _
N ew York
_ _
N orth C arolin a ____ ________
Pennsylvania___________________ _
R hode Island
___ _ _ _
South Carolina, Alabama, and
Georgia_________________________
T e n n essee _________ ________
__ ___________________

1

3

16, 18,
un­ un­
der der
18
20

WAGES

Spinners, male—Continued.
South Carolina, Alabama, and
G eorgia _________
_
Tennessee____________
Virginia______ _____

12

14,
un­
der
16

2

10

12 ,
un­
der
14

7
9

20

.235
.196
.174

Total..................................................

1,554

.340

1
1
1
1
8

1
1
3
1
54

.300
.215
.193
.145
.194

1

3

.213

13

63

.197

29
61
33
174
257
2
1,215

7
153
7

.331
.252
.267
.269
.270
.136
.229
.233

Redrawers, male:
Connecticut..................................—
M aryland............................................
N ew It ork........... ...............................
N orth Carolina...................................
Pennsylvania............................... —
South Carolina, Alabama, and
Georgia.........................................
T otal................................................ .

T otal....................................- ..........

21

Warpers, male:
Connecticut..................................... .
Massachusetts............... - ................ -.
N ew Jersey....................................... .
N ew Y ork ............................................
N orth Carolina...................................
Pennsylvania-............. ......................
Rhode Island..................................
South Carolina, Alabama, and
Georgia.............................................
Tennessee______ _________________
Virginia_________________ ________
T otal..................................................




1,887

.243

265

114

3

3

1
1

232

349

260
13

110

10

417

269

53

106

312

10

23

3

29

30

.194
.187
.281

34
26
218
125
50
477

113

20

.616
.613
.893
.701
.416
.588
.627

23
48

112

127

166 631

83

16 j
2

2

3

27
23

35
14

57
5

114
4

-77' _52" '33

’ 23’

5

4

2

167

149

114

87

2

7
2
3

11

41

23

11

4
4
16
41

6

1

2

60
7

10
2

GOODS

14
18

43

223
35

RAYON

Redrawers, female:
C onnecticut....................................... .
M arylan d.......................- ...................
Massachusetts...................................
N ew Jersey.......................... - ............ .
N ew Y ork ............................................
N orth Carolina...................................
Pennsylvania-...................................
R hode Island................................... .
South Carolina, Alabama, and
Georgia..........................................
Tennessee...........................................
V irginia.........................- ....................

10

AD
N

.304
.351

O S K
F IL

63
715
117

MANUFACTURE

N orth Carolina-.............................. .
Pennsylvania......................................
R hode Island......................................
8 outh Carolina, Alabama, and
Georgia.............................................
Tennessee............................................
V irginia................................................

.253
.361
166

.648

30

60

57

70

90
CO
CO

T able B.— Average and classified earnings per hour in 9 specified occupations, 1981, by occupation, sex, and State— Continued
Num ber of wage earners whose earnings (in cents) per hour were—
Occupation, sex, and State

N um ­
A ver­
ber of N um ­
age
estab­ ber of
earn­
10 ,
wage ings per Un­ un­
lish­
der der
earners hour
ments
10

14,
un­
der
16

18,
un­
der

2

20

"Warpers, female:
Massachusetts
N ew Jersey_____________________ __
N ew \ ork ________

P n
«n sylvan
ia

__

T otal.

....................................

Quillers, female:
C onnecticut______________________
M aryland___ _____________________
M assachusetts______ ______________
N ew Jersey__________________ _____
N ew Ynrlr
North Carolina_________ __________
Pennsylvania------------ ---------- ---------




3
4
4

27
28
41

.269
. 174
.334

1
2

4

164

1,974

.476

3

6

12
1

25
3
7
31
136
3

.233
.273
.247
.285
.258
.244
.256
.327

3

63
9
9

.224
.192
.422

62

299

.250

10
1
11

158

.314
.285
.193
.345
.291
.238
.240

3
1
6
1
2

3
36
2

3
2

76
24
6

84

1

96
316
129
60
906

U

40,
un­
der
45

1

8

3
4

2
1

5

i
3

2

3
4

1

5

17

11

230

114

11

27
159
7

6
2

6

1

7

4

il

157

237

287

248

I
5

1

18

84

65
8

2
1

3

4

9
3

4

2
6

1

2

15
172
4.
1

38

1

3

4
8
1

33
4

13

1
2

4

2

33

95

68

32

17

10

3

4

36

32

10

4

2

5

8

2
12

8
22

20
1
8

49

24

42
28
15
205

67
24
3
116

3
124
9
7
31

5
34

17
3

4
5

3

2

1

1

1

6
10

2

2

29

96

3
4

120
un­ and
der over
120

34
3
19
103 300

6

8

1

8

14

2

1
6

2

6

1

20
1

5
33

414

2

1

un­
der

1

2

2
11

2
6
10

2

80,
un­
der
90

7

99

8

49
3

12

20

19

33
29

21

1

28

6

1

4

17

118
33

2

12

9

16

37

110,

3

5

5
9

6

5
9

31
7

2

28

13

1

1

11

18
9
39
13

1

16
4
27
213

3

3

2

46
9
59
14
25
228
32

2

24

1

1

1
2

13

9
2
11

1

3

110

70,
un­
der
80

8

1

9

100

60,
un­
der
70

15
4
4

11

1

100 ,

50,
un­
der
60

5
5

?

90,
un­
der

45,
un­
der
50

O LABOR
F

Quillers, male:
Connecticut
M aryland
_ _
Massachusetts ___ _________ __
N ew J ersey___ ________ __________
New Y ork
N orth Carolina ___________
P ennsylvania__ ________________
R hode Island_____________________
South Carolina, Alabama, and
Georgia __ _____
_
_
Tennessee __________________ _
V irgin ia .._____________ ____. . . _

35,
un­
der
40

HOURS

T otal..................................................

$0,477
.497
.545
. 551
.413
.465
.665

5

30,
un­
der
35

1

135
50
231
58
128
1,113
163

62
14

25,
un­
der
30

AD
N

Rhode” Island.
Sooth Carolina, Alabama, and
Georgia
Tennessee
Virginia

9
10

38
15

20 ,
un­
der
25

WAGES

16,
un­
der
18

3

12

12 ,
un­
der
14

10
1

7

1

R hode Island—................. ........... .. .
South Carolina, Alabama, and
Georgia_________________ ________
Tennessee_________________________
Virginia____ _____________________
Total_________________ __________
Loom fixers, male:
Connecticut______________________
Massachusetts____________________
N ew Jersey_______________ _____
N ew Y ork_________ ______________
N orth Carolina___________________
Pennsylvania.................................
R h od e Island_____________________
South Carolina, Alabama, and
Georgia..............................................
Tennessee............................................
V irginia........ ..... ................................ .
Total................ ................................ .
W eavers, broad silk, male:
Connecticut______ _______________
Massachusetts____________________
N ew Jersey_______________________
N ew Y ork _____________ __________
N orth Carolina___________________
Pennsylvania_____________________
R hode Island.____________________
South Carolina, Alabama, and
Georgia_________________________
Tennessee________________________
Virginia................... ............................
Total..................................................
Weavers, broad silk, female:
Connecticut.........................................
Massachusetts______ _____________
N ew Jersey........ ................ .................
N ew Y ork ............................................
N orth Carolina___________________
Pennsylvania_____________________
R hode Island.......................................
South Carolina, Alabama, and
Georgia..... .......................................
Tennessee________________________
Virginia................................................

Total.....................................




T a b le

B .— Average and classified earnings per hour in 9 specified occupations, 1981, by occupation, sex, a n d

— C o n t in u e d

N um ber of wage earners whose earnings (in cents) per hour were—
Occupation, sex, and State

N um ­
A ver­
ber of N um ­
age
earn­ Un­ 10 ,
estab­ ber of
wage
lish­ earners ings per der un­
ments
hour
der
10
12

,

m
___ ______




$0,313
.600
.449
.235

46

.22 1

1

4
3

21

64

.260
.302
.229
.351
.279
.238
.242
.307

30,
un­
der
35

40,
un­
der
45

45,
un­
der
50

50,
un­
der
60

2
1

35,
un­
der
40

60,
un­
der
70

2
1

70,
un­
der
80

80,
un­
der
90

90,
un­
der

100 ,

100

110

1
1

1

1

4

6

7

8

6

1

7

3

1

2

3

2

16
3
74
14

1

4
1

4

2

47
24
4
62
14

193
124
13
442
85

4
4
4

20

.208
.151
.165

4

29

183

1,062

.270

30

6

1
11

5

9
26

15

23

20

34

10

8

16

12

7

5

22
1

9
15
25

6

8

25
39

21

2

36

115

6

66

8

1

10

74

6

8
1

9
11

16

25,
un­
der
30

1

.290
.165

1

20

20 ,
un­
der
25

12

54
16

2

2
2

9

3

5

3
4
4

2
1
8

7
3

20

29

37

66

102

1
2

34

3
13

4

2

1

15
3

5
15

23

2

24
3

156

120

un­ and
der over
120

1

1

47
28

22
12

17
6

13
4

143

141

66

37

5

1

1

207

110 ,

1

6

5

un­
der

5

O LABOR
F

Total___________________________

1

18,
un­
der

HOURS

Pickers, cloth, female:
Connecticut__ ____________________
Massachusetts____________________
N ew Jersey_______________________
N ew Y ork_________ . ______________
N orth Carolina_______ . ___________
Pennsylvania___________________ _
R hod e Island_____________________
South Carolina, Alabama, and
Georgia_________________________
Tennessee.. . . . . . . _____________ __
Virginia___________________________

1
11

1
6

3

16,
un­
der
18

AD
N

Tot^l™

1

3
3

14,
un­
der
16

WAGES

Pickers, cloth, male:
Massachusetts...__ _______________
N ew Jersey—____________ - _______
N ew Y ork _____ - __________________
No»th Hnroljpft.. _ ~
. r, . , „r
Pennsylvania_____________________
South Carolina, Alabama, and
Georgia_________________ _______
Virginia___ _______________________

12 ,
un­
der
14

T a b l e C .—

Average and classified full-time hours per week in nine specified occupations, 1981, by occupation, sex, and State
Num ber of wage earners whose full-time hours per week were—

Occupation, sex, and State

Winders, hard silk, male:
Massachusetts________________________
New Jersey___________________________
N ew Y ork ____________________________
N orth Carolina_______________ _______—
Pennsylvania................... ...........................
Tennessee........... .........................................
Virginia__________________ _____________

Over
51,
48,
under under
54
51

54

Over
57,
54,
under under
57

Over
60

55.6
53.3

14

19
91
96

49.0
50.0
48.0
48.2
49.1
55.0
50.3
51.9
57.5
55.2
54.0

5,105

50.1

3
3
3
17

49
56
54
162

11

202

4
59
3

24
1,117
32

53.4
58.0
52.1
51.5
54.9
57.1
54.2
53.5

04

3,034

111

108

15

19
140

‘ l58
160
47
24

23

.....

711

10

2,427

10

243
71

1
0

246

281

3,565

242

13
76

319

325
14

22

45
14
25
78

’ 13"
64
58

12

19

47

20
26

20

6

193

17
3

GOODS

142
140
168
449
771

15

51.9

RAYON

61

AD
N




48

0)
0)

T otal..........................................................

*Data included in total.

Over
44,
under
48

0)
(0
50.0

(0
0)

W inders, hard silk, female:
Connecticut............................. ...................
M aryland_____ _______________________
Massachusetts________________ - ............
N ew Jersey.............. ............ .......................
N ew Y o rk ____________________________
N orth Carolina________________________
Pennsylvania__________________ ______
R hod e Island...............................................
South Carolina, Alabama, and Qecrgia.
Tennessee............... .............. .......................
Virginia____________________ __________

Spinners, male:
Connecticut_____________ _____________
M aryland............................................ ........
Massachusetts.............. ..............................
N ew Jersey..................... .............................
N ew Y o r k ......... ............ ............................
N orth Carolina...........................................
Pennsylvania........................................... —
R hode Island............ ..................................

44

O S K
F IL

T otal..........................................................

Over
40,
under
44

Un­
der
40

MANUFACTURE

Number Number Average
of estab­ of wage full-time
lishments earners hours per
week

2

13

10

00

T able

C.— Average and classified full-time hours per week in nine specified occupations, 1981, by occupation, sex, and State— Continued
N um ber of wage earners whose full-time hours per week were—
Occupation, sex, and State

Number Number Average
full-time
of estab­ of wage hours per
lishments earners
week

T otal.......................................................................................

1,794

54.2

3
3
3

64
47
99
208
415
55
1,314
0)

48.2
50.0
48.0
47.9
48.8
55.0
50.6
0)
57.5
55.1
0)

48

57.5
56.9
54.7

109

Over
44,
under
48

20
12

3
54
1
1

12

3
1

T otal.......................................................................................

104

Winders, soft silk, male:
C onnecticut
_ _ __________________________________
N ew Jersey
_
_
Pennsylvania
_
______
_ __
_
R hode Island _ _______________________________________
Tennessee
_
_ _ _ _

1
1
2
1
1

70
0)

2,346
0)
0)

................................

6

22

64

47

581

57

10

9
4
61
3

125
28
445
35
53

49.0
47.7
46.4
47.2
55.0

T otal




2

60

Over
60

29
24
497

16
73

387

49

7
47

20

66

99
1

14

82
13

3
22

12

102

31

8

111

55
26

335
1,129

38

10
12

26

44
14

1

95

25

191

1,620

38

167

147

1

7

57.3

W inders, soft silk, female:
Connecticut
_ _________________ ________________
Massachusetts
_
_ ______
N ew Jersey
_ __________________ _ _ ____ _______
N ew York _ __________________________________________
N orth Carolina.............. .................................. ................. .....

Over
57,
54, under
under
60
57

6

4

(‘ )
(9
64.7
0)
0)

(*)
(i)

54

19

50.2

9

Over
51,
48,
under under
54
51

4

10
1

268

46
29

7
27
4

1

40

53

62

39
4

2

10

8

6

11
11

38

O LABOR
F

33
59

44

HOURS

Spinners, female:
Connecticut
M aryland
...
M! assachusetts
___________________
N ew Jersey
. . . . . ____ _
N ew York
__
N orth Carolina
Pennsylvania
_
____ _
R hode Island
South Carolina Alabama and Georgia
Tennessee . _________________________________________
Virginia _
. . . __ __________________________ .

6

2

Over
40,
under
44

AD
N

1

3

40

WAGES

Spinners, m ale-yContinued.

U n­
der
40

15
53

8

>zmvi

36

T o t a l.........................................................

126

Redrawers, male:
Connecticut........... .....................................
M aryland............... .....................................
N ew Y o r k . . ............... - ..............................
N orth C arolin a..........................................
Pennsylvania...............................................
South Carolina, Alabama, and Georgia.

1
1
1
1
8
1

T otal..........................................................

49.2

30

(9

54
3

4

14
18
63

113
-..... ....

1,887
------

50.4
..... ...........

8
10

34
26
218
125
50
477
23

3
3
4
16
11
1

64
3
2
2

21

1

6

3
2

15
19

51.7
49.4
47.9
51.1
55.2
51.8
50.9
57.5
56.9
55.0

166

993

51.1

53
21

5
54
9

286

2

54
16

10

7

94

158

14

10

382

81

116

2

1

25

30

7
60
24

415

25

49.0
50.0
47.2
48.3
48.9
(9
50.9
48.8
57.1
57.1
53.1

13

<7
0)

309

20

268

1

52.7

29
61
33
174
257
<9
1,215

99

(9
(9
(9
(9
52.6
57.5

63

21

2

1

26

98
223
17

909

16
111

3

191

4
2

--

4

15
61

91

1

92

17

57

3

1,330

12

18

24
10

1

3

26

1

---

9

39
114

9

25
3

202
1

105
4

47

7

12

12

62
98

207

21

30

10

5

11

10
12

8

70
1

g
47
55
5

2
2
22

2

2

3
4

13

1
2

6

19
105

30

33

372

149

86

163

45

GOODS

1 Data

1,554

(9

15

RAYON

Total..........................................................

20

20

50.5
48.7
55.0
<9
55.0

AD
N

T ota l............................................... .........
Warpers, male:
Connecticut.................................................
Massachusetts.............................................
N ew Jersey...................................................
N ew Y ork .....................................................
North Carolina............................................
Pennsylvania...............................................
R hode Island...............................................
South Carolina, Alabama, and Georgia.
Tennessee.....................................................
Virginia........................................ ................

715
117
7

O S K
F IL

Redrawers, female:
Connecticut..................................................
M aryland.....................................................
Massachusetts- ..........................................
N ew Jersey...................................................
N ew Y o r k ..................................................
N orth Carolina. .........................................
Pennsylvania...............................................
R hode I s la n d .............................................
South Carolina, Alabama, and Georgia.
Tennessee....................................................
Virginia............... .......... ..............................

6
2
1
2

MANUFACTURE

Pennsylvania...............................................
R hode Isla n d -.............................................
South Carolina, Alabama, and Georgia.
Tennessee............... ...................... .............
Virginia.........................................................

10

included in totsa.




O
x

T able

C.— Average and classified full-time hours per week in nine specified occupations, 1981, by occupation, sex, and State— Continued
Num ber of wage earners whose full-time hours per week were—
Occupation, sex, and State

T otal________________________________________________

164

1,974

50.4

12

3

7
31
136
3
63
9
9

54.1
<»)
52.6
0)
53.8
55.5
53.8
53.3
55.0
57.1
55.0

62

299

44

54.2

9
10

N ew Jersey___________._________________________________

Quillers, male:
Connecticut
_ _____________________________________
Maryland
__ __
_ __
_
______________
Massachusetts
_______ _ ___________ ________________
New Jersey. . ________________________________________
New Y o r k _____________________________________________
N orth Carolina
____
_
Pennsylvania__________________________________________
Rhode Island
___________________
______
South Carolina, Alabama, and Georgia ______
Tennessee
. _ _ _
_ _________ ___________
__
Virginia......................................................................................
T otal.......................................................................................
Quillers, female:
Connecticut
__ __ _
_________ _ _______________
Maryland
__ _ _
____ __
_____________
Massachusetts
____ __
_____________ _____________
New Jersey _ ________________________________________
New York
North Carolina _
_ .
_
________
Pennsylvania............................................................................




3
1
6
1
2

<*)
0)

3
36
2

3
2

10
1
11

76
24
6

84

25

96
316
129
60
906

0

46.3
46.3
48.4
55.0
50.4

Over
51,
48,
under under
54
51

48

10

37
49

30

160

4

8

7

58
46

10

25

3
104

708
4

1

5
1

4

54

38

Over
57,
54,
under under
60
57

60

Over
60

20
1

248
28

90

128
29

22

9
2

2

18
24

41
170

39

10

208

846

7

1

6

316

113

2

29

1

229

42

10

4

2

3

1

29

13

3
28
51

6

6

3
3

4

12

4

2

1

62
1

1
8

9
1

50.4

158
(*)

Over
44,
under
48

3
7
3

7

43

33

62

22

41

84
92

16

168

2

30

79

10

183
3

5

26
18

9

10

10

60
6

i6

14

33

523

207

87

20

15

O LABOR
F

50.6
47.8
45.7
48.6
55.0
50.7
49.4
56.7
56.6
55.0

Over
40,
under
44

HOURS

135
50
231
58
128
1,113
163
27
28
41

40

AD
N

_________________ __________________
North Carolina
Pennsylvania. _ ____________ _________________________
R hode Island
- South Carolina, Alabama, and Georgia _ __ _ _
Tennessee
____
_________
_i ___________
Virginia
.
__ __
__ _
___

38
15
5
62
14
3
4
4

Un­
der
40

WAGES

Waipers, female:

Average
Number Number full-time
of estab­ of wage hours per
lishments earners
week

15
3
3
5

94
91
26
57

50,1
55.3
56.9
54.8

T otal_______________________ ___________________

238

1,934

50.0

10
12

138
58

73
29

210

40

49.6
49.2
47.1
49.4
55.0
51.9
50.3
54.7
56.8
53.4

Loom fixers, male:
Connecticut.....................................................................
Massachusetts___________________________________
N ew Jersey_________________________________ _____
N ew Y ork __________________________________ _____
N orth Carolina_______________ ___________________
Pennsylvania.............. ..... ................................ ............
R hode I s l a n d .. .............................................................
South Carolina, Alabama, and Georgia___________
Tennessee.................. >
.....................................................
Virginia...... ......................................................................

8

73
16
5
4
4

126
104
672
104
46
20

10
12

70
25

779
477
1,669
796
710
3,964
930
169
101
201

52.2
50.4
47.9
51.0
55.0
51.7
50.6
54.6
56.5
52.7

224

9,796

51.2

10

486
203
1,078
528
76
2,831
351
108
117
126

49.0
48.0
47.5
47.3
55.0
50.1
49.4
55.4
56.6
53.8

5, £04

49.6

T otal..........................................................
Weavers, broad silk, female:
Connecticut..................................................
Massachusetts...........- ....................- ..........
N ew Jersey___________________________
N ew Y ork ____ _______________________
N orth Carolina...........................................
Pennsylvania.........................~ ..................
R hode Island...............................................
South Carolina, Alabama, and Georgia.
Tennessee__________________ __________
Virginia____________________ __________
T otal-------------------------- ----------------------

1Data included in total.




8

70
17
4
4
4

7
62
23
6

69
13
5
4
4
203
=====

15
80
1

16

15

16

200

2

101
2

82

198

736

267

32

52
32
5

20
1

10

62
69

2
2

296
5
9

124
15

9

11

22

26

1

8

7

19
7

52

112

256

7
6

82

8
12
8
101

3
3
18

52

14

12

8
12

81

17
33

46

107

146

4

212

85

173

462

160

88

60
27
476
408

12

130
32

tT

86
112

10

75

68

359
49

48
465

1,251
35
42

730
94

387
97

733

1,022

2,299

1,084

208

25
203
30

16

218

9
148
80

224
168
36
15

88

31
704
16

66

819

410
9

91
63

134
49

61

187
13

642

231

127

46

14
45

15
210

591

596

276

37

525
78

54
65

66

2

76
30

6

23
90
9
105

7
480

2,538

420
278

21

63

159
710
819
190
73
36
135

1,755

86

2,566

673

8

316

92

27

12

105

123

45

4

12

27

91

1
1

94
14
25
4
31

10

2

14

59

36

19

7

9
7

11

25

55

2

292

101

18

413

119

GOODS

51.0

17

RAYON

1,518

12

AD
N

234

48

O S K
F IL

T otal.............................................................................
Weavers, broad silk, male:
Connecticut_____________________________ ________
Massachusetts___________________________________
N ew Jersey_______________1
.......... ................................
N ew Y ork _______________________________________
N orth Carolina...............................................................
Pennsylvania..................................................................
R hode Island....... ...........................................................
South Carolina, Alabama, and Georgia...................

2

MANUFACTURE

Rhode Island............ ...................... .............................
South Carolina, Alabama, and Georgia___________
Tennessee________________________________________
Virginia__________________________________________

T able

C.— Average and classified full-time hours per week in nine specified occupations, 1981, by occupation, sex, and State— Continued

^

N um ber of wage earners whose full-time hours per week were—
Occupation, sex, and State

Number Number Average
of estab­ of wage full-time U n­
lishments earners hours per der
week
40

T otal.......................................................................................

21

(*)
3
46
4

0)

Over
57,
54,
under under
60
57

1

49.8

183

1

4
11

3

25

2

6

3

20

3

4

29

30
55

20

5

4

12
2

12

8

13

49
96

4

268
3

113

51

57

121

12

12

11

13
8
1

2

16
2

18

29
1

16

125

26

155

436

141

63

81

Over
60

18

O LABOR
F

1,062

____________________________________

20

1

15
4

60

HOURS

29

49.7
46.7
46. 2
49.0
55.0
51.1
49.3
55.0
56.8
55.0

66

193
124
13
442
85
16




54

6

53.1
50.0
0)

74

11

* Data included in total.

44.0
50.5

52.0

47
24
4
62
14
4
4
4

T otal_________

Over
51
48,
under under
54
51

48

0)

64

Pickers, cloth, female:
Connecticut___________________________________________
Massachusetts_________________________________________
N ew Jersey____________________________________________
N ew Y ork _____________________________________________
North Carolina________________________________________
Pennsylvania________ . . . _______________________
_
_
R hode Island__________________________________________
South Carolina, Alabama, and Georgia..______________
T eim essee..... . . . . . . ............... ..................... .
..........
Virginia___________ . . . ___ ___________________________

9

Over
44,
under
48

0)
6

(l)

44

AD
N

1
11
1
1

1

3
3

Over
40,
under
44

WAGES

Pickers, cloth, male:
Massachusetts_________________________________________
N ew Jersey____________________________________________
N ew Y ork .................................. ...............................................
N orth Carolina______________________________ _________
Pennsylvania__________________________________________
South Carolina, Alabama, and Georgia________________
Virginia......................................................................................

40

Appendix
Factory terms of occupations, with definitions, and classification by
Bureau of Labor Statistics

Ager operator..

Assistant foreman..
Automatic weaver _

Back tender.
Back winder.
Bale opener..
Bale piler.................
Baler, waste paper.
Bander......................

Banker---------------Beamer..................

Beltman................
Blacksmith...........
Block maker.........

Board filler............
Bobbin b oy ...........
Bobbin carrier___
Bobbin cleaner___

Bobbin doffer.......
Bobbin fixer-------Bobbin weigher...
Box loom weaver..
Box maker.............
Boxer, ribbon........
Breaker operator.
Broad-silk weaver.
Brasher, warp----Bundler..................




Regulates temperature, steam pressure, and ventila­
tion of machine, and speed at which cloth or yarn is
run through it. This application of moist heat de­
velops and fixes the colors on printed cloth or yam
and gives printed designs the appearance of being
woven in.
(See Foreman, assistant)................................................... .
Operates looms used for weaving broad silk in which
bobbins of filling are fed into them automatically.
The work of weaving is similar to that done b y other
broadcloth weavers.
Attends rear end of machines used for printing designs
or patterns on cloth goods, to see that cloth runs
from rolls properly.
(See R e w in d e r)................................................................. .
Cuts tie bands, removes covers, and opens bales of raw
silk received from importer. This work is often
done b y soakers.
M oves and piles bales of silk in receiving room or other
place about the plant.
(See Paper baler)
...
Laces bands through skeins b y hand on four sides of fly
to prevent them from becoming tangled when in proc­
ess of dyeing. This work is done after fly has been
placed on banding stand. W hen 12 skeins have
been banded, an identification check is tied on the

fly.

(See Creeler).........................................................................
Tends machine which transfers warp from large drums
or creels to smaller ones known as beams, and places
a layer of paper between threads at every turn of
beam.
Installs and repairs power-transmission belts through­
out the plant.
Does repair welding of metal parts b y hand, or forms
parts on anvil with hand hammer.
Uses a brush b y hand to cement cut parts of card­
board to make small forms or “ blocks” on which
ribbon is wound. M ay also operate a machine
which cuts these parts.
(See Creeler)..........................................................................
Collects and distributes bobbins, quills, or spools, and
sometimes cleans the em pty ones.
(See Bobbin b o y )........ ............................................. .........
Uses sand or emery paper to remove accumulated lint
or any other substance. This term also applies to
those who remove silk from partly filled bobbins left
b y warpers.
(See Doffer)...........................................................................
Uses sandpaper to smooth rough or cracked places or
may remove chipped or split ends and replace them
with new ones.
Places full bobbins of yam on scales to determine weight
of yam , as well as for payment of work of winding.
Operates loom containing 2 to 4 boxes on each side and
from 3 to 7 shuttles. His duties are very similar to
those of any other broadcloth weaver.
Constructs boxes in which product is shipped...............
Packs rolls of ribbons in boxes of specified sizes.............
Tends machine which removes hard and stiff condi­
tion of fabric, which was attained during finishing
process.
(See Weaver, broad-silk)....................................................
Uses hand brush to straighten warp ends for twister-in.
Twists 4 to 8 skeins of yam together in a roll and ties
about 20 of these rolls into a bundle to be sent to dyer
or to weaving mill.

Other employees.

Do.
Weavers, broad silk.

Other employees.
Rewinders.
Other employees.
Do.
D o.
D o.

Do.
D o.

D o.
Do.
Do.

Do.
Bobbin boys.
D o.
Other employees.

Do.
D o.
D o.
Weavers, broad-silk.
Other employees.
D o.
D o.
Weavers, broad-silk.
Other employees.
Do.

49

50

WAGES AND HOTJRS OP LABOR

Calender operator..........
Card cutter, Jacquard—
Card cutter’s helper,
Jacquard
Carpenter........................
Carpenter’s helper........
Carrier, general..............
Carrier, quills.................
Chain builder.................
Check clerk.....................
Checker_______ _______

Checker, stock............... .
C le a n e r h a n d (d y e
house).
Cleaner, cloth..................
Cleaner, harness............
Cleaner, loom s............... .
Cleaner, machine.......... .
Cleaner, quills............... .
Cleaner-up......................
Cloth cleaner...................
Cloth
Cloth
Cloth
Cloth
Cloth

examiner..............
inspector..............
picker...................
printer..................
stretcher...............

Color m a n ..
Color mixer.
Conditioner, silk.
Cone inspector___
Cone wrapper___
Coner..
Cop examiner..
Copper..............
Counter.........
Counter girl._
Crate maker.
Creeler...........
Cut-off m an ..

Cutters, cards, Jacquard.
Degummer.......................
Designer...........................
Distributor (general)___
Distributor (quills)..
D offer.........................
D ope mixer.
Doubler.......

Drawer-in...




Tends calender machine, which imparts glaze or soft
finish to fabric as it passes through it under pressure.
Operates punching machine for cutting designs in
cardboard used in Jacquard looms.
Works under supervision of the card cutter, Jacquard..
Makes changes and repairs in woodwork structure of
plant.
Assists carpenter in repair and upkeep of buildings and
does other work under his supervision.
(See Floor b o y ).....................................................................
(See Quill b oy).................................................................... .
Constructs steel chains used in looms for pattern weav­
ing.
(See Checker)...................................................................... .
Checks or counts picks of loom ends of warp, number
or weight of bobbins in winding or spinning. Also
records quantity of materials received, goods pro­
duced, etc.
(See Stock clerk)................................................................. .
Sweeps and scrubs dyehouse floors and cleans dyeing
machines, tanks, etc.
(See Cloth cleaner).............................................................
(See Harness cleaner)......................................................... .
(See Loom cleaner)............................................................. .
(See Machine cleaner).........................................................
(See Quill cleaner)....................................... ...................... .
Sweeps and cleans up around machines of the p la n t...
Uses cleaning preparations to remove spots of dirt,
grease, etc., from woven goods.
Inspects woven cloth for imperfections...........................
(See Inspector, cloth)...........................................................
(See Picker, cloth)..................................................... .........
(See Printer, cloth)...............................................................
Feeds and minds tentering machine in which width of
cloth is stretched while wet or steamed, b y means
of clips attached to two endless chains rotating at
specified distances apart, and is then dried under
tension; regulates heat of steam pipes or gas jets
which supply heat for drying.
(See Color mixer).................................................................
Prepares colors b y mixing specified pigments or other
ingredients for printing machines or dye tanks.
(See Silk conditioner)............... .........................................
Examines filled cones for irregularities.............................
Wraps filled cones in paper by hand to assure perfect
condition in transit.
Operates machine which winds spun yarn from bobbins
on to wooden receptacles in shape or form of cone for
use b y knitters of hosiery or underwear.
Inspects filled cops to see that they are properly
wound.
Operates machine which winds spun yarn from bob­
bins on to cops (paper tubes) instead of quills, for use
b y weavers as weft or filling in loom shuttles.
(See Measurer, cloth)......................................................... .
Hands out bobbins for distribution to machines where
needed.
(See Box m aker)................................................- .................
Keeps creels or racks supplied with full spools of yarn.
Because of the multiple number of ribbons woven on
each loom a special operator other than weaver, is
usually employed to cut off the completed lengths
of woven ribbon from the loom. This work is done
with a pair of hand shears.
(See Card cutter, Jacquard)-.............................................
(See Soaker)..........................................................................
Devises new patterns for weaving cloth on Jacquard
looms.
Carries goods in process of manufacture from one ma­
chine to another.
(See Quill b oy).................. ...................................................
Removes full bobbins from spinning or winding frames
and replaces them with em pty ones.
Prepares compound known as “ dope” or finishing solu­
tion used in finishing process.
Operates machine which draws two or more threads
from as many separate bobbins and winds them on
to a single one, at the same time twisting them into
a single thread.
Draws warp ends through the heddle eyes of harness
in loom.

Other employees.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Bobbin boys.
Other employees.
Do.
Do.

Do.
Laborers, dyehouse,
Other employees.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Inspectors, cloth.
Do.
Pickers, cloth.
Other employees.
Do.

Do.
D o.
Do.
D o.
D o.
Coners.
Other employees.
Quillers.
Other employees.
Do.
D o.
D o.
D o.

D o.
D o.
D o.
D o.
Bobbin boys.
Other employees.
D o.
Doublers.

Enterers.

MANUFACTURE OF SILK AND RAYON GOODS

(See Slasher)....................................................................
Threads each warp fiber through drop wires (attach­
ment to loom which causes it to stop when a thread
is broken).
Dry-room laborer (dye- Performs all kinds of common labor in dry room of
plant.
house).
Dyehouse laborer........... (See Laborer, dyehouse)................................................
Dye-machine hand......... Works at and around dye machine under supervision
of dyer. Operates machine, placing material on and
taking it off; gets chemicals from dyer and prepares
bath ready for materials; submits sample to dyer for
test and final result.
Dye-machine tender___ Operates dye machine, works at and around it, places
material on, takes it off, etc., under direction of dyer.
Dye-stuff keeper............ Has charge of dyes and other chemicals used in dyeing,
degumming, etc.
Dye tubman................... Works at or about tubs or vats of dyehouse, placing
materials in, working them around in tanks, and
removing them.
Dyer................................. Supervises work of degumming, dyeing, matching
colors, etc., in dyehouse.
Dyers’ assistant.............
Assists dyer in supervising work in dyehouse................
Edge warper................... (See Warper, edge)...................... ........................................
Electrician...................... Installs and maintains electrical equipment and wiring
of plant.
Electrician’s helper____ Assists electrican in making changes or repairs in
electrical equipment of plant.
Elevator operator.......... Operates elevator for hoisting or lowering employees or
materials from one floor to another.
Embroiderer................... (See Numberer)....................................................................
Enterer............................ Draws warp ends of a new warp through heddle eyes
of loom harness.
Enterer’s helper............. Assists enterer b y placing warp ends in proper position
to be drawn through heddle eyes of loom harness.
Enterer, machine..........
Operates machine which automatically separates each
warp end and threads it through each heddle eye of
loom harness.
Erector............................ Is a skilled workman who sets up machines for opera­
tion by others.
Errand girl...................... Carries messages, packages, and runs errands about
plant.
Examiners...................... (See Inspector, cloth)...........................................................
Examiner, cops.............. (See Cop examiner)..............................................................
Operates machine for extracting moisture from goods.
Extractor (dyehouse)—
Filling b oy...................... Carries full quills and cops of filling to weavers when
needed.
Filling superintendent. Has charge of work done in filling or weft department.
Finish m ix e r................
(See Dope mixer)..................................................................
Finisher, ribbon............. Operates machine which steams, presses, and produces
irregular waves or smooth finish to surface of ribbon
as it passes over or between various heated rolls.
(See Bobbin fixer).................................................................
Fixer, bobbins.
Repairs and keeps machines in various departments in
Fixer, general..
good running order.
Fixer’s helper...
Assists fixer in repairing various machines about plant.
(See Smash hand)................................................................
Fixer, smashes..
Fixer, warp____
(See Warp-machine fixer) ...................................................
Does general unskilled work about plant wherever
Floor b oy..........
needed.
Floor checker. .
(See Checker)........................................................................
(See Floor b o y ).....................................................................
Floor hand........
..i-d o
Floor helper . . .
..........do......................................................................................
Floor man........
Operates machine which folds and measures finished
Folder, clo th ...
cloth as it passes through machine in preparation for
the market. A ticket, showing number of yards, is
attached to each piece.
Assists foreman in supervising, also does considerable
Foreman, assistant..
productive work.
(See Foreman, assistant)...............................................
Foreman, sub_.
Cares for, cleans, polishes, lubricates, and makes minor
Garage m an ....
repairs on trucks and autos of plant.
Puts on and takes off back cloths which cover rolls of
Gray b o y .
printing machine. The cloths serve as a cushion to
absorb extra color from the silk.
Gray-cloth washer___
(See Gray-washer tender)..............................................
Loads and unloads gray cloths from truck to washer__
Gray-washer laborer.
Operates machine for washing gray cloth in printing
Gray-washer tender..
department. Gray cloth is backing used to absorb
excessive color from fabric as it is being printed. This
backing (gray) cloth is washed after each printing
operation to remove excessive color deposits.
Dresser, w arp ..
Drop-wire b o y .




..................................................................

51

Other employees.
D o.
Laborers, dyehouse.
D o.
D o.

Other employees.
Do.
Laborers, dyehouse.
Other employees.
D o.
Warpers.
Other employees.
Do.
D o.
D o.
Enterers.
Enterer’s helpers.
Other employees.
Do.
D o.
Inspectors, cloth.
Other employees.
Do.
Bobbin boys.
Other employees.
D o.
D o.
Do.
D o.
Do.
Smash hands.
Other employees.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.

Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.

52

WAGES AND HOURS OP LABOR

Factory term

Hander-in.__
H ander-up...
Handy man..
Hanger (dyehouse).

Hanger,
Hanger,
Hanger,
Hanger,

silk-------w a r p ..~
wet silk.
rib b o n ..

Hard-silk winder..
Harness b uilder...

Harness cleaner.
Harness maker____
Harness man...........
Hooker (dyehouse).
Hum idity man...
Inspector, cloth..
Inspector, cones..
Inspector, lo o m s ...
Inspector, process..
Inspector, quality..
Inspector, q u ills....
Invoicer.................. .
Jacquard fixer.......
Jacquard weaver..
Knotting-machine oper­
ator.
Knotting-machine opertor’s helper.
Labeller...........................
Laboratory assistant___
Laborer....................
Laborer, dyehouse..

Lacer..
Loom cleaner.
Loom fixer...................... .
Loom fixer’s apprentice
Loom fixer's helper____
Loom girl............
Loom inspector.
Lot maker and stitcher.
Lot maker-up..................
Machine cleaner............ .
Machine fixer..




Definition

(See Enterer’s helper)........................................................ .
____do.................................................................................... .
Is a workman of considerable skill, who has no specifio
duties, but is employed on various kinds of work
about plant.
Hangs skeins of yarn over pegs after dyeing or treating
processes for purpose of drying, shakes them well to
separate individual fibers and, when dry, rolls several
skeins together for subsequent handling.
(See Silk hanger)..................................................................
(See Warp hanger)
(See W et silk hanger)..........................................................
Operates machine which measures and cuts specified
lengths of ribbon.
(See Winder, hard silk).......................................................
Constructs new or remodels old harness for each new
pattern of cloth which is woven. T he harness is a
system of threads or wires (heddles with an eye in the
center of each), through which warp threads pass in
the loom. The alternate rising and falling of sections
of harnesses raises and lowers corresponding warp
threads, between which the shuttle carries the filling
and creates the weave of the cloth.
Makes minor repairs, dusts and cleans lint, etc.. from
all parts of loom harness before it is again used.
(See Harness builder)..........................................................
........do....................................................................................
Removes skeins of yarn from vats and hangs them on
hooks to drain or dry.
Regulates humidity of air in mill b y means of a sprin­
kler system.
Examines finished cloth for defects of any character
which may have passed the pickers.
Examines filled cones to ascertain if winding is propperly done.
(See Loom inspector)..........................................................
(See Process inspector)........................................................
(See Quality inspector)........................................................
(See Quill inspector)_____ ______________________ ____
Makes records of goods passing through mill or for ship­
ment.
(See Loom fixer)...................................................................
Operates loom used for weaving designs of various
shapes, figures, or colors into cloth.
Operates machine which ties old warp ends to those
of new warp.
Brushes out tangled ends of warp, in preparation for
knotting machine operator.
Pastes descriptive labels on finished rolls of ribbon or
other product.
W orks under direction of graduate chemist, in making
simple quality and quantitative tests.
Does heavy and unskilled work about plant and yard.
Does unskilled labor, such as placing skeins of silk
into “ degumming,” washing, or dyeing tanks; works
stock back and forth in any of the solutions; trans­
fers stock to various tanks, etc., under direction of
superiors.
Uses bands or laces to tie through several sections of
each skein on four sides of fly to prevent it from
becoming tangled when in process of dyeing.
Uses brush and cotton waste with cleaning prepara­
tion to remove dirt, lint, grease, etc., from various
parts of loom, and m ay oil same when necessary.
Is a highly skilled mechanic who sets up, repairs,
adjusts, and keeps looms in proper running order.
Works with loom fixer to learn duties of the occupation.
W orks under supervision of loom fixer in making re­
pairs and adjustments.
Helps weavers start looms, and assists smash hands
in mending broken warp, filling threads, etc.
Examines cloth on loom, which is in process of weav­
ing, to determine whether imperfections of filling
or warp are being eliminated.
Makes up and stitches lots for machine operations___
Prepares printed pieces into lots for steamer and ager.
Uses cleaning preparation on cotton waste to remove
dirt, lint, etc., from looms and other machines.
Makes minor repairs and keeps in good running order
machines in various departments of plant.

Classified b y bureau
under—
Enterers’ helpers.
Do.
Other employees.
Laborers, dyehouse.

Other employees.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Winders, hard silk.
Other employees.

Do.
Do.
Do.
Laborers, dyehouse.
Other employees.
Inspectors, cloth.
Other employees.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Loom fixers.
Weavers, broad-silk.
Other employees.
Do.
Do.
D o.
D o.
Laborers, dyehouse.

Other employees.
Do.
Loom fixers.
Other employees.
D o.
D o.
D o.
D o.
D o.
D o.
Do.

MANUFACTURE OF SILK AND RAYON GOODS

Machine reeder.

Machine repairer..
Machinist...............
Machinist's helper.,
Magazine b oy.........
M ail b oy..................
M atron...................
Measurer, c lo th ...
Measurer, ribbon.
M echanic......................
Mechanic for reelers___
Mechanic for winders..
Mechanic’s helper....... .

Millwright.................
Millwright’s helper.
Mixer, colors..
Mixer, dope...
M ovem an___
Numberer___
Oiler..
Oiler’ s helper____
Opener..................
Opener’s helper..
Other employees.

F a in te r........................
Palmer operator______
Paper baler................... .
Picker, cloth................. .
Picker, cloth, machine
Piece weighter________
Pinner, ribbon............. .
Pipe m an........................
Plum ber........................ .
Plumber's helper..........
Porter..............................
Preparer, ribbon...........

Printer, cloth........
Process inspector..

>lades or thin wires of reed frame which keep the
ends separate and in their proper places while weav­
ing.
(See Machine fixer).............................................................
Do.
Installs, moves, repairs, and adjusts machines, and
Do.
makes minor parts.
Assists machinist in setting up machines, making
Do.
repairs, and does any other work as directed b y him.
Keeps magazines of automatic looms filled with quills
Do.
or cops.
Collects and delivers mail or orders from and to desks
Do.
in various departments.
Looks after comfort of females who visit rest room___
Do.
Measures and cuts woven goods into commercial
Do.
lengths. Also makes record of yardage in each piece.
Operates machine for winding, measuring, and cutting
D o.
ribbon into specified lengths for the market.
(See Machine fixer).............................................................
Do.
(See Beeler mechanic).........................................................
Do.
(See Winder mechanic).......................................................
Do.
Assists mechanic in making repairs on machines in
D o.
various departments and keeping same in proper
running order.
Carries messages, packages, etc., from one department
Do.
to another.
Installs or moves machinery, shafting, etc., and makes
Do.
repairs not made b y fixers and machinists.
Assists millwright in installing machinery, shafting,
D o.
pulleys, etc.
(See Color mixer)..................................................................
Do.
(See Dope mixer)..................................................................
Do.
(See Truck pusher)..............................................................
Do.
Operates sewing machine for embroidering numbers
Do.
or other designs in edge of silk for identification after
being dyed.
Supply oil and grease to working parts of machines,
Do.
shafting, etc.
Works under supervision of oiler............... .......... ............
Do.
(See Bale op en er)................................................................
Do.
Assists in opening and removing contents of bales........
Do.
This group includes all occupations in the industry
Do.
other than the selected occupations. Each occupa­
tion had too few workers in number to warrant sep­
arate tabulation, and is defined and arranged alpha­
betically in this glossary.
Uses brush or spray to paint any part of factory build­
Do.
ing.
Feeds cloth into and operates machine which stretches
Do.
the goods to proper width and fixes the finish.
Files waste paper into machine which presses it into a
Do.
compact bundle. Wires are then fastened around to
hold it together.
Inspects cloth for imperfections as it comes from loom, Pickers, cloth.
picking out loose ends or knotted threads, removing
lumps and “ m ispicks,” cleaning spots, etc.
Do.
Operates machine which automatically removes loose
ends, knotted threads, lumps, or other foreign mat­
ter from cloth.
(See Tinman, dyehouse)..................................................... Other employees.
Do.
Fastens, with a pin, ends of each piece of ribbon to
block on which it is wound.
Cuts and fits new pipe where needed. Repairs and
Do.
maintains steaming, drying, and draining systems
of dyehouse and other departments.
Do.
Repairs and maintains plumbing throughout plant—_
Do.
Assists plumber b y passing tools or parts to be used in
repair work.
Do.
Does sweeping, cleaning, carrying goods from one de­
partment to another, and other common labor about
plant.
D o.
Arranges or winds ribbon which has been woven
(without color) into skeins or bundles of suitable
lengths for dyeing, depending on width, ranging from
60 yards for wide to 600 yards for narrow. These
skeins are laced or otherwise tied to prevent being
tangled during dyeing process.
Da
Operates machine which prints design or pattern on
woven cloth.
Do.
Examines for defects goods in process of manufacture—




53

54

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR

Production b o y ..........
Quality inspector___
Quetch operator.........

Quill b o y - - .................
Quill carrier................
Quill c le a n e r............
Quill distributor........
Quill inspector...........
Quiller.........................
Raw-stock tender___
Rayon winder............
Rebeamer...................
Reclaimer, soap tank.
Redrawer....................
Reed fixer....................
Reed maker................
Reed m an ..................
Reed repairer.............
Reeder.........................
Reel carrier.................
Reel stripper..............
Reeler mechanic------Reeler...........................
Rejoiner__..................
Reroller.......................
Rewinder....................
R ibbon boxer.............
R ibbon cleaner...........
R ibbon
R ibbon
R ibbon
R ibbon
R ibbon
R ibbon
R ibbon

finisher..........
hanker...........
pinner...........
preparer........
warper..........
weaver..........
winder...........

R oll handler...............
R ubber........................
Sampleman.................
Scrubber......................
Seamstress..................
Second hand...............
Section hand...............
Sewer...........................
Shaker.........................
Shearer, cloth.............
Shearer’s helper.........
Shipper........................
Shipping clerk............
Shook maker..............




(See Checker)........................................................................
Examines finished goods for quality test.........................
Runs machine which impregnates cloth with prepara­
tion known as finish sizing which is composed of
gelatines, softening oils, etc. It is used to fill body
of the cloth.
Supplies looms with full quills of filling yarn when­
ever needed.
(See Quill b oy)......................................................................
(See Bobbin cleaner).......................................................... .
(See Quill b oy)......................................................................
Examines quills of filled yarn for defects.........................
Operates machine which winds spun yarn from bob­
bins on to quills for use b y weavers as the weft or
filling in loom shuttles.
Has charge of raw-silk storage; gets out orders; and
maintains record of quantity in stock.
(See Winder, rayon)........................................................... .
Operates machine which transfers warp from one
beam to another.
(See Soap reclaim tankman)............................................. .
Operates machine which transfers yarn from one spool
to another.
Repairs and puts new metal blades or wires in reed
frame of loom.
Makes up new reed frames for looms or repairs old ones.
T he main function of loom reed frame is to keep warp
ends separate and to beat up the filling to cloth.
Cleans, stores, and gives out reed frames when needed—
(See Reed fixer)................................................................... .
Enters warp ends between metal blades or thin wires
of reed frame, which serves to keep the warp ends
separate and in proper place while weaving.
Carries full reels to hooks for stripping and replaces
them with em pty reels.
Removes full skeins of yarn from reels...........................
Makes repairs or adjustments on reeling machines.......
Operates machine which transfers yarn from spools to
skeins for purpose of dyeing in skeins.
Winds yarn from partly filled bobbins or spools to
make full ones.
Operates machine which transfers cloth from one roll
to another.
Operates machine which winds yarn from one spool
to another.
(See Boxer, ribbon)..............................................................
Uses liquid cleaning compounds to remove spots of
dirt, oil, grease, etc., from ribbon.
(See Finisher, ribbon)..........................................................
(See Hanker, ribbon)...........................................................
(See Pinner, ribbon)............................................................
(See Preparer, ribbon).........................................................
(See Warper, ribbon)...........................................................
(See Weaver, ribbon)..... .....................................................
Operates machine which winds finished ribbon on
paper blocks, and cuts it to specified lengths.
Loads and unloads rolls of cloth to and from hand
trucks and transfers them to various departments.
Uses prepared cleaning chemical to rub chafes, grease,
or oil spots from cloth.
Prepares samples of cloth for the trade............................
Uses mop with water to scrub factory floors...................
(See Stitcher)........................................................................
(See Foreman, assistant).....................................................
Supervises small group of workmen, as well as per­
forming some production labor.
(See Stitcher)........................................................................
Shakes and straightens out skeins of yam in process of
dyeing and before being placed on reels for winding.
Operates machine, with very sharp revolving knives,
which shears surface of cloth smooth as It passes
over, usually on velvet, plush, and pile fabrics.
Works under supervision of shearer, cloth......................
Supervises packing and shipping of goods and keeps
records of quantity, dates of shipments, destination,
etc.
Keeps records of goods shipped, dates, destination, etc.
Assembles and nails together into complete units
shipping boxes purchased in sections.

Other employees.
Do.
Do.

B obbin boys.
Do.
Other employees.
B obbin boys.
Other employees.
Quillers.
Other employees.
Winders, rayon.
Other employees.
D o.
Redrawers.
Other employees.
D o.
D o.
Do.
D o.
D o.
D o.
Do.
Reelers.
Redrawers.
Other employees.
Rewinders.
Other employees.
Do.
D o.
D o.
D o.
D o.
Warpers.
Weavers, ribbon.
Other employees.
D o.
Do.
D o.
D o.
D o.
D o.
D o.
D o.
Do.
D o.
D o.

D o.
D o.

MANUFACTURE OP SILK AND RAYON GOODS

Silk conditioner.

Silk h a n g er...
Silk opener___
Silk snapper __
Silk soaker___
Silk tester........
Silk throwster
Singeing-machine opera­
tor.
Sizer, warp......................
Skein straightener.........
Skein winder..................
Skeiner, ribbon..............
Skeiner, y a r n ................
Slasher.............................

Smash fixer.....................
Smash h a n d .................
Smash piecer..................
Snapper, silk..................
Soaker..............................
Soaker’ s helper...............
Soap reclaim tankman.
Soft-silk winder.............
Spare hand.....................
Spindle tester.................
Spinner............................

Spinner, 5 B ....................
Spool b o y ........................
Steamer...........................
Sticker (dyehouse)------

Stitcher............................
Stock b o y .......................
Stock checker.................
Stock clerk......................
Stockman.......................

Stock tender............
Stop-motion b o y .. .
Straightener, skeins.
Stretcher, cloth-----Stringer------------------




Draws samples of raw silk from bale, dries out all
moisture, weighs samples before and after drying, to
determine amount of moisture content. A sprink­
ling (damping) machine is then used to add suffi­
cient water to bring moisture content to 11 per cent,
which is the normal amount required for silk yarn.
Straightens out and hangs skeins of yarn on hooks for
drying after soaking process.
(See Bale opener)..................................................................
Straightens out skeins c f silk after soaking or dyeing.
Snaps and shakes them into shape.
(See Soaker).........................................................................
Examines threads in skeins of silk received from im­
porters or throwsters, for quality, weight, twist per
inch, etc.
Tends any of various ivisting and doubling machines,
pieces broken threads, reels spun yarn, which is to
be dyed in skeins, laces them to prevent tangling, etc.
Regulates speed of machine equipped with flaming
gas jets used for singeing loose ends and lint from
surface of woven goods as it passes through machine.
(See Slasher)..........................................................................
(See Silk snapper).................................................................
(See Heeler)...........................................................................
(See Preparer, ribbon)..... ...................................................
(See Heeler)...........................................................................
Operates machine which coats warp threads with
starchy substance known as “ size,” which gives it
strength and smoothness so that it will stand con­
tinued beating up of filling b y reed frame in loom.
(See Smash hand).................................................................
Repairs smashes or breaking of warp and filling
threads, crossing of threads, or other causes of serious
interruption of work of weaver.
(See Smash hand).................................................................
(See Silk snapper).................................................................
Places skeins of raw silk into softening tanks, works
them around in soap water or other chemicals, which
softens gum on the fiber.
Assists soaker in working skeins about in soaking
tanks.
Attends settling machine which reclaims soap from
degumming liquids after soaking operation.
(See Winder, soft silk)..... ...................................................
Is an extra workman with considerable skill who relaces those absent for any cause, generally in weavlg department.
Operates testing machine which determines whether
spindles are running at proper speed.
Operates machine which puts specified number of
twists per inch in thread, which binds fibers together
and gives more strength for manipulation. The
number of twists varies with purpose for which yarn
is to be used.
Takes 2 to 14 ends or strands of silk from bobbins and
combines them into one, with 2 ^ to 12 twists to the
inch.
(See Bobbin b o y )....... .................................. .....................
(See Ager operator)..............................................................
Handles rods, or sticks on which skeins of yarn are sus­
pended, works skeins back and forth in dye tanks,
and turns them on the rods, thereby causing color to
strike in uniformly.
Operates power sewing machine for stitching seams in
bags, making smocks, marking fabrics, etc.
Helps stockman in handling materials, counting books,
etc.
(See Stock clerk)...................................................................
Keeps record of inventory, stocks received and disposi­
tion of same.
Has charge of silk vault where dyed and woven goods,
also bales of raw silk are stored. Books are counted
and skeins bundled and prepared for soaking. Rec­
ords are kept of receipts and disposition of both raw
and finished materials.
(See Raw-stock tender)..... ................... .............................
(See Drop-wire b o y )............................................................
(See Silk snapper)................................................................
(See Cloth stretcher)...........................................................
Put strings or laces through skeins of yarn to hold them
in proper shape while in degumming baths.

S

55

Other employees.

Do*
D o.
Do.
D o.
D o.
D o.
D o..
Do.
D o.
Reelers.
Other employees.
Reelers.
Other employees.

Smash hands.
D o.
D o.
Other employees.
D o.
D o.
D o.
Winders, soft-silk.
Other employees.
Do.
Spinners.

Do.
Bobbin boys.
Other employees.
Laborers, dyehouse.

Other employees.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.

Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.

56

Stripper (dyehouse)___
Sweeper...........................
Tankman, soap reclaim
. ing.
Tenterer..........................
Tester..............................
Tester's helper...............
Tester, spindles.............
Tester, warp................. .
Throwster, silk............. .
T in weighter..................
T in whiz operator.........
Tinman, dyehouse—

Transferrer___
Truck d riv er..
Truck pusher .
Trucker, power.
T u b er.................
Tubm an (dyehouse)..
Twister mechanic____
Twister-------------------Twister-in, hand.......
Twister-in, m achine-

utility man___
Vaultman.........
Warp brasher..
Warp dresser...
Warp hanger...
Warp-machine fixer.
Warp sizer...
W arp tester..
W arper.

Warper, direct........
Warper, edge...........
Warper, hand.........
Warper, ribbon----Waste collector.......
Waste-paper baler..




WAGES AND HOURS OP LABOR

Places skeins of raw silk into “ degumming ” chemicals
and works them around in tanks until necessary
amount of gum has been removed from silk fibers.
Uses brooms or brushes to sweep factory floors and
removes refuse.
(See Soap reclaim tankman)..............................................
(See Cloth stretcher).......................................................... .
(See Silk tester)....................................................................
Assists tester in ascertaining weights of skeins, twists
per inch, and does any other work under his super­
vision.
(See Spindle tester)............................................................ .
(See Warp tester)................................................................ .
(See Silk throwster).......................................................... .
(See Tinman, dyehouse)....... .............................................
Operates machine which adds tin and extracts surplus
after time-limit fixation.
Works at and around special weighting machine which
rotates skeins or woven cloth through vat of tin or
other weighting solution to add desired weight;
places material into and takes it out of machine;
makes tests of weighted goods to determine per cent
of chemical gain, correct amount of tin or other
weightings, temperature of bath, etc., all under su­
pervision of dyer.
(See Redrawer) _ ................................................................. .
(See Trucker, power)...........................................................
Operates hand truck for transferring goods from one
department to another.
Operates power truck for transporting materials about
mill yard or from one department to another.
Operates machine which winds spun yarn from bob­
bins on to paper tubes for use b y weavers as weft or
filling in loom shuttles.
(See Sticker, dyehouse; also D ye tubm an)......................
Repairs and maintains twisting machines in good work­
ing condition.
Operates machine for twisting two or more threads
together into one, with 12 to 60 twists to the inch.
Joins ends of new warp (which is ready for loom) to
ends of old warp b y twisting motion of the fingers.
Operates automatic machine which twists old and new
warp ends together.
(See H andy man).................................................................
(See Stockman)....................................................................
(See Brasher, warp)...........................................................
(See Slasher).........................................................................
Lifts full beam from warping machine and replaces it
with em pty one. Also carries full warp beams to
looms when needed b y weavers.
Repairs and adjusts warping machines. (See Machine
fixer.)
(See Slasher)..........................................................................
Inspects warp after sizing to determine if it is in proper
condition for weaving.
Places spools or bobbins of organzine or warp threads
on creel, for purpose of grouping specific number of
desired length. The end of each thread is drawn
through a rack having a series of glass pins for guiding
thread to reed frame where it passes between blades
or wires of frame to keep it separate and in proper
place, and then is attached to the warping mill (a
drum-like cylinder). This drum is operated by
power. Constant watching is necessary to see that
threads are wound evenly over surface of drum. The
operator also repairs breaks, etc. M a n y warping
machines are now provided with automatic devices
which stop the machinery when a thread breaks.
Operates machine which winds the warp direct from
spools (bobbins) to warp beam of ribbon loom.
Operates machine specially adapted to winding the
warp for edges of ribbon and broad cloth.
Tends warp-winding machine which is operated b y
hand.
Operates machine which winds warp to beams of spe­
cial design for weaving ribbon.
Collects sweepings from various departments and
stores, same to be convenient for packing into bales.
(See Paper baler)..................................................................

Laborers, dyehouse.
Other employees.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.

Redrawers.
Other employees.
Do.
Do.
Redrawers.
Laborers, dyehouse.
Other employees.
Spinners.
Twisters-in, hand.
Twisters-in, machine.
Other employees.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Warpers.

Do.
Do.
D o.
D o.
Other employees.
D o.

MANUFACTURE OF SILK AND RAYON GOODS

Factory term

Weaver, automatic..
Weaver, broad-silk..

Weaver, ribbon.

Weighers (dyehouse)..
Weighmaster................
Weighter, cloth—
W eigh ts, pieces..
Weighter, skeins.

Weighter, tin_
Welder.............
Wet-silk ha nger...
Winder mechanic..
Winder, hard silk..

Winder, rayon.
Winder, r ib b o n ..
Winder, skeins—
Winder, soft-silk.

Working foreman.
Wrapper............—




57

Definition

Classified b y bureau
under—

(See Automatic weaver)...................................... ............. .
Operates loom for weaving broad goods, watches loom
to see that it is working properly, corrects defects in
fabric before they are carried too far, pieces broken
warp threads, and keeps shuttles filled. M ost looms
are provided with automatic devices which stop ma­
chinery when a thread breaks.
Operates ribbon loom on which 6 to 100 ribbons are
woven at the same time. The method of operation is
similar to that of broad silk, except for added duties
due to large number of shuttles to be kept filled.
Makes tests of weighted goods to determine per cent of
chemical gain, correct amount of tin or other weight­
ings.
Uses scales to weigh or check weights of yarns taken
from various machines to determine earnings of piece
workers.
(See Tinman, dyehouse)______________ ______________
.do.
Immerses skeins in tank containing weighting solution
such as tin, iron, gambia, etc., works them around in
solution and removes them when properly weighted.
M a y operate machines which are equipped with re­
volving arms which rotate skeins through bath.
(See Tinman, dyehouse).....................................................
Uses acetylene torch or electric-welding device to join
metal parts.
(See Silk hanger)...................................................................
Makes repairs or adjustments on winding machines___
Operates machine for winding raw silk from skeins onto
bobbins or spools. Constant watchfulness is neces­
sary to mend broken threads and replace full bobbins
with em pty ones.
Operates machine for winding rayon yarn from skeins
onto bobbins or spools. The work is similar to that of
winding hard and soft silk.
(See R ibbon winder)............................................................
(See Reeler)...........................................................................
Operates machine for winding onto bobbins or spools
silk from which at least some of the natural gum has
been removed and which m ay or m ay not have been
spun or doubled. The winding is done in a similar
manner as that of hard silk.
(See Foreman, assistant).....................................................
Uses thin paper in which to wrap various woven goods
for shipment.

Weavers, broad-silk.
Do.

Weavers, ribbon.

Other employees.
D o.
D o.
D o.
D o.

D o.
D o.
D o.
D o.
Winders, hard-silk.

Winders, rayon.
Other employees.
Heelers.
Winders, soft-silk.

Other employees.
D o.