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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
R OYAL M E E K E R , Commissioner

BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES 1
/WHOLE
BUREAU OF LA B O R S T A T I S T I C S / - ' ‘ \ N U M B E R £ £ J
WAGES

AND

HOURS

OF

LABOR

SE R IE S:

NO.

WAGES AND H O U RS OF LABOR
IN THE LUMBER, MILLWORK, AND
FURNITURE INDUSTRIES, 1 9 1 5




FEBRUARY, 1918

WASHINGTON
G O V E R N M E N T P R I N T I N G O FF ICE
1918

26




A D D IT IO N A L COPIES
OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE PROCURED FROM
THE SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
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AT

25 CENTS PER COPY

C O NTENTS.
Page.

Introduction............................................................................................................
5,6
Lumber manufacturing..........................................................................................
7-245
Wages and hours of labor in sawmill operation, 1907 to 1915....................
7-67
Summary..................................................................................................
7-14
Fluctuations in employment during year.............................................
14-24
Chart A.—Fluctuations in number of employees, total pay rolls,
and monthly earnings per employee.................................................
16
Table A.—Average and classified full-time hours per week and
rates of wages per hour, and average full-time weekly earnings, in
the United States, by years, 1907 to 1915.........................................
25-29
Table B.—Average and classified full-time hours per week and
rates of wages per hour, and average full-time weekly earnings
in each State, by years, 1913 and 1915...........................................
30-46
Table C.—Average and classified full-time hours per week and
rates of wages per hour, and average full-time weekly earnings, by
States, 1915.................... . ....................... ...........................................
47-53
Table D.—Average full-time hours, average hours actually worked,
and number of employees working each classified per cent of full
time, by States, 1915..........................................................................
54-67
Productivity and cost of labor in the lumber industry............................ 68-146
Introduction.............................................................................................
68-85
Classification of processes and distribution of time and wages.........
86-93
Logging............................................................................. ...............
88-90
Sawmill.............................................................................................
90-92
Yard...................................................................................................
92, 93
93
Subsidiary and supplementary processes.................... .................
Output records and bases used in computing c o s t ........ ...................
93-98
Logging................................. .................................
94,95
Sawmill...........................................................................................
95,96
96
Green-lumber yard..................................... ..................................
Planing m ill.....................................................................................
96, 97
Dry k i l n ............................................................. ............................
97
Summary....................................................................... ............. ..
97,98
Detailed table of productivity and co sts............................................. 99-146
Description of processes and occupations in the lumber industry......... 147-192
Processes and occupations in logging operations................................. 147-169
Camp and general activities........................................................... 148-150
Felling and log making.................................................................... 150,151
Skidding, yarding, and loading...................................................... 151-158
Transportation and unloading......................................................... 158-160
Glossary of occupation terms used in logging operations............. 160-169
Processes and occupations in sawmill operations............................... 169-192
General............................................................................. ............... 175,176
Log pond or yard..............................................................................
176
Sawmill............................................................................................. 176-185
Sorting green lumber.......................................... .......................... 185,186
Green-lumber yard....................................................................... 186,187
Dry-lumber yard........... ...............................................................
187
Subsidiary or supplementary processes........................................ 188-191
Shipping............. .............................. .............................................
192
Logging wages and hours of labor.................................................................. 193-245




3

4

CONTENTS.
Page.

Millwork.................................................................................................................. 24ft-273
Summary.......................................................................................................... 246-249
Fluctuations in employment during year.................................................... 249-259
Chart B.—Fluctuations in number of employees, total pay rolls, and
biweekly earnings per employee...............................................................
251
Description of industry and principal productive occupations................. 259-261
Bench hands............................................................................................
260
Laborers....................................................................................................
261
Machine hands.........................................................................................
261
Table A.—Average and classified full-time hours per week and rates of
wages per hour, and average full-time weekly earnings, in the United
States, by years, 1907 to 1915.................................................................... 262, 263
Table B.—Average and classified full-time hours per week and rates of
wages per hour, and average full-time weekly earnings, in each State,
by years, 1913 and 1915.............................................................................. 264-267
Table C.—Average and classified full-time hours per week and rates of
wages per hour, and average full-time weekly earnings, by States,
1915............................................................................................................... 268,269
Table D.—Average full-time hours, average hours actually worked, and
number of employees working each classified per cent of full time,
by States, 1915............................................................................................. 270-273
Furniture manufacturing....................................................................................... 274-314
Summary.......................................................................................................... 274-278
Fluctuations in employment during year.................................................... 279-287
Chart C.—Fluctuations in number of employees, total pay rolls, and
biweekly earnings per employee...............................................................
281
Description of industry and principal productive occupations................. 287-293
Cabine tmakers..........................................................................................
289
Carvers, hand...........................................................................................
290
Carvers, machine.....................................................................................
290
Chair assemblers...................................................................................... 290,291
Finishers................................................................................................... 291, 292
Machine hands.........................................................................................
292
Upholsterers.............................................................................................
292
Yeneerers.................................................................................................. 292, 293
Table A.—Average and classified full-time hours per week and rates of
wages per hour, and average full-time weekly earnings, in the United
States, by years, 1907 to 1915.................................................................... 294-296
Table B.—Average and classified full-time hours per week and rates of
wages per hour, and average full-time weekly earnings, in each State,
by years, 1913 and 1915.............................................................................. 297-303
Table C.—Average and classified full-time hours per week and rates of
wages per hour, and average full-time weekly earnings, by States,
1915............................................................................................................... 304-307
Table D.—Average full-time hours, average hours actually worked, and
number of employees working each classified per cent of full time,
by States, 1915.......................................................................: ................ .. 308-314




BULLETIN OF THE

U. S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
WHOLE NO. 225.

WASHINGTON.

FEBRUARY, 1918.

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR IN THE LUMBER, MILLWORK, AND
FURNITURE INDUSTRIES, 1915.
INTRODUCTION.
Rates of wages per hour, hours of labor per week, and full-time
weekly earnings in the lumber, millwork, and furniture industries of
the United States are presented in this report for the year 1915,
together with comparable figures for 1913 and summary figures for
each year from 1907 to 1913, inclusive, repeated from Bulletins 129
and 153.1 Data were not collected for 1914. The report also shows
the time actually made by individual employees in each industry
during the representative pay period taken for 1915, and the fluctua­
tions in employment during the year ending May 31, 1915.
Each industry is presented separately:
Lumber, including logging and a study of labor productivity,
pages 5 to 245.
Millwork, pages 246 to 273.
Furniture, pages 274 to 314.
Summary figures for each industry appear on the opening pages of
each section of the report.
The figures as to rates of wages and hours of labor are for one pay­
roll period in each year, the period ending nearest May 15, except in a
few establishments where conditions in May were not representative
or figures for that period were not available. Nearly all of the pay
rolls copied covered one or two weeks, except in lumber, where more
of the pay-roll periods are for one-half month or one month. All
data were taken from the books of representative establishments by
special agents of the bureau.
Full-time hours per week are the regular hours during which, under
normal conditions, employees in an occupation are on duty. The
full-time hours per week do not in any way indicate the extent of
unemployment. Employees may work overtime, or broken time, or
1 Previous reports of wages and hours of labor in lumber, millwork, and furniture manufacturing have
been published by the bureau as follows: Nineteenth Annual Report, covering 1890 to 1903; Bulletin No.
59 (July, 1905), covering 1903 and 1904; Bulletin No. 65 (July, 1906), covering 1904 and 1905; Bulletin No. 71
(July, 1907), covering 1905 and 1906; Bulletin No. 77 (July, 1908), covering 1906 and 1907; Bulletin No. 129
(August, 1913), covering 1907 to 1912; and Bulletin No. 153 (May, 1914), covering 1912 and 1913.




6

W A G E S , ETC.-- L U M B E R , M I L L W 0 R K , A N D F U R N IT U R E .

be laid off; or a temporary reduction may be made in working hours
without affecting the full-time hours per week as here presented.
The rates of wages per hour appearing in the tables include the
wages of timeworkers and the earnings of pieceworkers. All time
rates, b y the day, week, or month, have been reduced to rates per hour,
and the earnings of pieceworkers and of persons working at both
time and piece rates have been reduced to rates per hour b y dividing
the earnings b y the hours worked. Comparatively few pieceworkers
are found in these industries. Where there was no record regularly
kept by establishments of the actual time worked by employees
the firms, at the request of the bureau, kept a special record for the
pay period selected.
The full-time weekly earnings are the earnings per week of employ­
ees working full time or the earnings on broken time reduced to
equivalent earnings for a full week.
The averages of full-time hours per week, rates of wages per hour,
and full-time weekly earnings are computed by adding the data for
individual employees and dividing the totals b y the number of
employees.
In selecting establishments from which to secure data the bureau
undertook to represent all States in which these industries are of
material importance, the measure of importance being the number of
employees as reported by the United States Census of Manufactures.
For the years 1907 to 1913 the bureau’s reports as to these indus­
tries covered the principal occupations only, but for 1915 all employ­
ees in each establishment are included, those in occupations not
shown previously being tabulated as u Other employees.”
The establishments vary from year to year, as firms go out of busi­
ness or cease to be representative, and new ones must be substituted.
Data for a group of establishments in any year will not be precisely the
same as for a different group in the same year, even though nearly all
of the establishments may be common to both groups. In using the
actual figures in this report, comparison from year to year should be
made only between data coming from identical establishments. In
the tables the data from identical establishments are grouped
together.
The reader who desires an extended explanation of the methods
used in compiling the figures herein presented is referred to Bulletin
153.
An exhaustive study of unemployment in these industries was not
attempted, but in connection with the wage report information was
gathered concerning the volume and regularity of employment during
the year ending May 31,1915, so far as indicated by the number of
days each plant was in operation, the number of employees on the
pay roll, and the amount of the pay roll for each pay period of the year.




LUMBER MANUFACTURING.
The information relating to the lumber industry is presented under
four general topics:
Wages and hours of labor in sawmill operation, 1907 to 1915,
pages 7 to 67.
Productivity and cost of labor in the lumber industry, pages 68
to 147.
Description of processes and occupations in the lumber industry,
pages 147 to 192.
Wages and hours of labor in logging, 1915, pages 193 to 245.
WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR IN SAWMILL OPERATION,
1907 TO 1915.
SUMMARY.

The lumber-manufacturing industry was much depressed in 1915.
The average rate of wages per hour of employees in sawmill operation
in 1915 was 9 per cent lower than in 1913, 6 per cent lower than in
1912, 4 per cent lower than in 1911, and 3 per cent lower than in 1910;
the average full-time hours per week were but slightly changed since
1910. Full-time weekly earnings in 1915, therefore, bore practically
the same relation to those of preceding years that the average rate
of wages per hour did to the average of preceding years.
The number of lumber-manufacturing establishments included or
summarized in this report has varied considerably since 1907, as
follows:
1907 to 1910.............................. .....................40 identical establishments.
1910 and 1911..................................................245 identical establishments.
1911 and 1912..... ...........................................301 identical establishments.
1912 and 1913..................................................361 identical establishments.
1913 and 1915..................................................324 identical establishments.

In addition to the 324 establishments furnishing information for
1913 and 1915, data were secured from 24 establishments for 1915
only, making a total of 348 establishments for which data for 1915
are presented.
The salient facts concerning the several occupations are summarized
in Table 1 which follows. Direct comparison can be made between
the figures for different years only when they are from identical
establishments. For 1915 all employees in each establishment are
covered by this report, those in occupations other than the selected
occupations included in previous reports being grouped in one class
and tabulated as 4‘ Other employees.7 In this table the occupations
’
are arranged in wage-rate groups.




7

8
T

L U M B E R M A N U F A C T U R IN G .

1 .—A V E R A G E A N D CLASSIFIED FULL-TIM E HOURS PER W E E K A N D R A T E S OF
W A G E S PER H O U R , A N D A V E R A G E FULL-TIM E W E E K L Y EA R N IN G S IN T H E PRIN­
CIPAL OCCUPATIONS, 1907 TO 1915.

able

[The figures opposite each group of years are for identical establishments. When a second line is shown
for 1915 it contains all data secured for 1915 whether or not comparable data for 1913 were available.]
Per cent of employees
Per cent of em­
w hose f u ll-t i m e
ployees whose
h o u rs p e r w e e k
rates of wages
Aver­ per hour were—
were—
Num­ Average
ber iS ?
rate
full­
Occupation, and number of Year. of
of
14' 18
Over
em­ time
establishments.
wages Un­ and and 25
ploy­ hours Un­
60
per
per
ees.
and
Over hour. der un­ un­ cts.
week. der 60. un­ 66 .
14 der der and
66.
60.
cts. 18 25 over.
der
cts. cts.
66 .
Doggers:
273 establishments............

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

1911
1912

852
869

61.5
61.4

2
2

72
72

5
5

21
20

$0,179
.180

24

31
33

38
40

8

20

1912
1913

973
939

61.4
61.2

2

72
74

5
5

20

4

16

.181
.184

19
15

34
36

40
39

8
11

321 establishments............

1913
1915

935
1,033

61.1
61.2

4
3

74
73

6

7

15
15

.192
.178

14
25

35
30

35
34

17 1 1.6 8
11 10.84

345 establishments............
Laborers:
41 establishments..............

1915

1,099

61.3

3

71

8

17

.178

26

29

33

12

1907
1908
1909
1910

4,097
3,662
3,910
4,582

60.5
60.6
60.5
60.5

3
5
5
5

87
83
84
85

5
7

.183
.167
.171
.183

16
19
17
14

34
51
46
28

45
28
36
54

5 11.07

5

4
4
4
3

245 establishments............

1910 20,327
1911 19,256

61.3
61.3

3
3

74
74

5
5

18
18

.166
.166

29
29

31
34

37
34

3 1 0 .1 2
3 10.1 0

299 establishments............

1911 26,784
1912 25,506

61.4
61.5

1
2

73
72

7
7

18
19

.162
.164

31
31

37
37

29
28

3 9.91
4 10.04

361 establishments............

1912 29,365
1913 28,835

61.5
61.1

2

72
76

5

21

3

6

14

.164
.171

32
27

37
35

27
32

4 10.03
6 10.40

1913 28,555
1915 34,506

61.0
61.1

76
77

6

2

5

13
14

1
2

.173
.158

26
36

34
34

32
25

4

10.49
9.62

2

.157

37

33

25

4

9.58

.179
. 185

17
14

43
40

28
33

12

334 establishments___

324 establishments............

4

6

$10.96
7 11.03
11.06
1 1 .2 2

10.83

2 1 0 .1 2
2 10.35

4 11.07

8

1915 36,569

61.3

2

75

6

16

1911
1912

1,156
1,165

61.3
61.1

2
1

75
79

6
6

17
15

1912
1913

1,548
1,531

61.4
61.1

1

74
76

5
5

20

.181
.186

15

37
39

31
30

12

15

1
1

20

3

1913
1915

1,525
1,573

61.0
61.1

77
78

5
5

13
15

1
1

.190
.177

14
25

39
33

28
29

19 11.53
13 10.79

1915

1,679

61.2

1

76

6

16

1

.176

27

32

29

13 10.74

1907
1908
1909
1910

72
72
74

60.7
60.7
60.7
60.7

3
3
3
3

83
82
83
82

4
4
4
5

7
7
7
7

3
3
3
3

.207
.196
.197
.197

10
10
8
8

15
29
31
20

56
41
42
49

19
19
19
23

1910
1911

503
485

61.0
61.0

2
2

79
79

3
3

15
15

.209

11
11

18
19

46
44

25 12. 71
27 12.85

294 establishments............ 1911
1912

479
441

61.3
61.3

1
2

76
75

5
5

17
17

.209
.2 1 0

11
10

20
21

42
43

27 12.77
26 12.84

346 establishments............ 1912
1913

511
538

61.2
61.0

2

76
78

4
4

17
14

.209
.217

10
8

23

4

20

43
42

24 12.73
29 13.20

316 establishments............ 1913
1915

510
521

61.0
61.0

4
4

76
75

6
6

14
13

.218
.204

7
13

21
22

42
43

22

1915

564

61.1

4

74

7

14

.203

14

21

43

22

348 establishments............
Machine feeders, planing mill:
178 establishments. . . .
253 establishments............
241 establishments............
269 establishments............
Trimmer operators:
37 establishments..............

228 establishments............

345 establishments............




68

3
1

.211

1

10.94
13 11.27
11.07
15 11.34

12.56
11.90
11.96
11.96

30 13.29
12.37
12.34

9

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR IN SA W M IL L OPERATION.

1 .—AVE R A G E A N D CLASSIFIED FULL-TIM E HOURS PER W E E K A N D R A TE S OF
W AG ES PER H OU R , A N D A V E R A G E FULL-TIM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S IN TH E P R IN ­
CIPAL OCCUPATIONS, 1907 TO 1915.—Continued.

T a b le

Per cent of employees
Per cent of em­
w hose f u ll-t im e
ployees whose
h o u rs per w eek
rates of wages
Aver­ per hour were—
were—
Num­ Aver­
age
age
ber full­
rate
Occupation, and number of Year. of
of
time
Over
em­ hours
establishments.
20 25
wages
ploy­ per Un­
60
per Un­ and and 30
ees. week. der
and 66. Over hour. der un­ un­ cts.
60. un­
66.
20 der der and
60.
der
cts. 25 30 over.
66.
cts. cts.
Carriage men:
41 establishments.............. 1907
1908
1909
1910

208

60.7
60.8
60.8
60.7

4
4
5
4

81
81
79
82

6

195
215

245 establishments............ 1910
1911
Edgermen:
41 establishments.............. 1907
1908
1909
1910

1,327
1,298

61.4
61.3

2
2

73
74

5
5

20

79
78
77
84

60.7
60.7
60.7
60.7

3
4
4
4

82
81
81
82

6
6

6
6

1910
1911

585
569

61.2
61.2

2
2

76
76

6

299 establishments............ 1911
1912

684

686

61.3
61.2

1
2

76
76

1912
1913

751
754

61.2
61.0

2
4

324 establishments............ 1913
1915

701
720

61.0
61.0

348 establishments............ 1915
Sawyers, resaw:
98 establishments............. 1911
1912

756
149
147

138 establishments............ 1912
1913

197
192

125 establishments............ 1913
1915

169
182

152 establishments............ 1915
Setters:
301 establishments............ 1911
1912

201

7
7

6

7

5
5

6
5
18

7

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

3 $0.218
3 .207
4 .212
3 .220

31
43
36
28

33
30
32
36

21

6 12.59

24
30

6 13.35

1
1

.211

44
42

26
26

18

12 12.76

20

13 12.94

3
3
3

.254
.246
.248
.265

19

21
21
17

15

21

19
17

41
42
40
36

25 15.42
17 14.93
20 15.05
31 16.09

7 $13.23
7 12.89

6

6

5

17
16

.255
.259

16
15

19
19

37
37

27 15.58
30 15.79

6

17
15

.260
.260

14
14

19
18

38
38

29 15.86
29 15.87

76
77

6
6

16

12

.262
.268

13
13

18
15

39
38

29 15.97
34 16.28

4
4

76
77

6
6

12
12

.269
.252

12

16

19

22

38
32

35 16.34
27 15.32

61.0

4

75

6

13

.252

20

21

31

27 15.32

60.7
60.7

1 86
1 86

5
5

8
8

.252
.256

15
13

29
27

30
31

26 15.24
29 15.48

60.7
60. 7

1 85
2 85

4
4

10
9

.254
.261

14
13

28
25

31
32

27 15.41
31 15.77

60.8
60.8

2

83
80

6

3

9
9

.259
.238

13
24

24
30

36
25

22 14.40

215

60.9

3

77

8

11

.240

22

30

25

23 14.57

714
713

61.3
61.3

1 75
2 75

6
6

17
16

1
1

.251
.252

16
16

22
21

34
36

28 15.30
27 15.37

361 establishments............ 1912
1913

780
782

61.3
61.0

2

75
78

6
6

16

3

12

1
1

.250
.258

16
13

22
21

38
38

24 15.29
29 15. 79

324 establishments............ 1913
1915

681
640

61.0
61.0

4
4

76
75

6
6

13
13

1
2

.256
.240

12

20

19

28

43
35

26 15.59
18 14.59

348 establishments............

687

61.2

3

73

7

15

2

.239

21

27

34

18 14.56

245 establishments............

361 establishments...........

1915

5

7

2

.209

30

27 15.69

25 30
and and 40
un­ un­ cts.
der der and
30 40 over.
cts. cts.
----- ----- ----.271
67 33
.256 33| 50 17
.258 33! 33 33
.264 17 50 33
Un­
der
25
cts.

Sawyers, gang:
5 establishments...............

1907
1908
1909
1910

6
6
6
6

60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0

100
100
100
100

52 establishments.............. 1910
1911

64
60

61.4
61.6

75
72

5
5

20

.309
.301

22

22

23

23

23

33
33

20 18.42

66 establishments.............. 1911

74
75.

61.6
61.6

72
71

3
4

26
25

.306
.306

19
15

27
31

31
32

23 18. 77
23 18.74




1912

16.26
15.36
15.48
15.84

23 18.88

10

LUMBER M ANUFACTURING.

T able 1.—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER W E E K AND RATES OF
WAGES PER HOUR, AND A VERAG E FULL-TIME W E E K L Y EARNINGS IN THE P R IN ­
CIPAL OCCUPATIONS, 1907 TO 1915.—Concluded.

Num­ Aver­
age
ber full­
Occupation, and number of Year. of
establishments.
em­ time
ploy­ hours
per
ees.
week.

Per cent of employees
Per cent of em­
w hose f u ll-t i m e
ployees whose
h o u rs p er w eek
rates of wages
Aver­ per hour were—
were—
age
rate
of
Over
25
wages Un­ and 30
60
Un­
per der un­ and 40
un­ cts.
der 60. and 66. Over hour.
un­
66.
25 der der and
60.
der
cts. 30 40 over.
66.
cts. cts.

Sawyers, gang—Concluded.
71 establishments.............. 1912
1913

79
80

61.7
61.4

1913
1915

77
79

61.5
61.7

4

1915

93

61.8

1

1 $0,307
1 .311

70
69

3
3

25
23

4

69
65

3
8

23

22

3

.322
.291

3

63

6

24

3

.289

1

1907
1908
1909
1910

71
69
69
73

60.8
60.8
60.8
60.7

3
3
3
3

85

6

7

86
86
86

4
4
4

7
7
7

.490
.481
.489
.501

203 establishments............ 1910
1911

429
432

61.2
61.2

2
2

75
75

7
7

17
16

.543
. 554

243 establishments............ 1911
1912

508
492

61.2
61.2

2
2

76
77

6
6

16
15

288 establishments............ 1912
1913

561
554

61.1
60.9

2

77
78

5

4

267 establishments............ 1913
1915

534
539

60.9
60.9

4
4

78
78

286 establishments............ 1915
Sawyers, circular:
12 establishments.............. 1907
1908
1909
1910

572

61.0

4

76

7

14
14
13
14

61.3
61.3
61.3
61.3

7
7

71
71
69
71

7

1910
1911

81
78

61.9
62.0

1 67
1 65

2

1911
1912

95
94

62.6
62.5

1
1

57
59

1912
1913

119
123

62.4
62.0

3

58
64

8

3

66 establishments.............

1913
1915

89

2

86

62.5
61.9

76 establishments.............

1915

98

62.1

58 establishments.............
72 establishments.............
92 establishments.............

8
7

5
-

6

15
14

29
28

35
39

20 $18.86
20 19.02

9
28

30
24

35
34

26 19.70
14 17.80

30

22

33

15 17.74

Un­
der
40
cts.

5

'

Sawyers, band:

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

11

63.3

50 j
and: 60
un­ cts.
der and
60 over.
cts.

12

32
29
28
29

39
41
36
34

25 30.41

8

21

7

19

34
32

38 33.18
42 33.79

. 550
.551

8

17
19

35
34

39 33.61
40 33.64

16
13

.546
.557

20
18

35
34

38 33.47
42 33.90

13

12 C
1)

. 561
.537

7
7
-

6

19
29

31
32

45 34.14
34 32.61

13 C
1)

7 -----

8
7

14
14

7

17 29.79
16 29.24

22 29.73

.539

6

29

31

34 32.75

14
14
15
14

.545
. 519
. 525
.550

7

21

7

8

36
31
36

43
29
38
29

29
29
23
36

4

33.41
31.81
32.18
33.72

26
27

4

.496
.498

11
12

32
29

40
41

17 30.66
18 30. 77

35
30

3
6

.504
.509

12
15

28
19

42
47

18 31.42
19 31.70

25
18

7
7

.499
.513

19
15

20
21

41
37

20 31.03

7

10
8

21
24

10
9

.505
.459

16
31

24
28

38
23

22 31.44

5

56
53

4

51

10

27

8

.462

33

26

23

18 28.27

3

4
4

Un­
der
14
cts.
Other employees: 2
348 establishments............ 1915 16,513

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

2

61

6

17

15

.214

23

14
and
un­
der

26 31.71
17j 27.97

20

and 30
un­ cts. 1
der and
20 30 overcts. cts.
24

35

18 13.44

1 Less than 1 per cent.
a This group, taken in 1915 for the first time, includes all occupations not specifically named above.




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR IN SA W M IL L OPERATION.

11

In 1915 the average full-time weekly earnings of employees in the
selected occupations shown varied from $9.58 for laborers to $32.75
for band sawyers. The full-time hours of employees in the different
establishments ranged from 48 to 70. An exception to this is the
regular time of a few laborers* and of watchmen, firemen, and some
others who are included in “ Other em ployees/’ whose hours are often
as high as 84, or in some instances, 91 or 98 per week. The pre­
dominant hours were 60 per week and the average full-time hours
per week of all employees for 1915 were 61.1.
As wages and hours differ in different establishments, the inclusion
or exclusion of any establishment in a group may raise or lower the
average for the group, so that exact comparisons can not be made
between the actual wages shown for different years unless the data
for the several years are from identical establishments. To illus­
trate: In the last column of Table 1 under doggers it will be seen
that the full-time weekly earnings of employees in 334 establish­
ments increased from $11.06 in 1912 to $11.22 in 1913. In 321
establishments there was a decrease from $11.68 in 1913 to $10.84
in 1915, but, because of the change in the number of establishments
and of the difference in the average for 1913 in the two groups of
establishments, it would not be a proper comparison to state that
weekly earnings had decreased from $11.06 in 1912 to $10.84 in 1915.
To aid in making comparisons where the establishments are changing
more or less from year to year, relative (or index) numbers have been
computed from the averages in Table 1 for full-time hours per week,
rates of wages per hour, and full-time weekly earnings, for each occu­
pation and for the industry, for the years 1910 to 1915, inclusive.
These relative numbers, which are shown in Table 2, following, are
simply percentages in which the figures for 1915 are taken as the
base, or 100 per cent. Thus the facts for each preceding year are
brought into direct comparison with the facts for the latest year
available, namely, 1915. The relative for each year preceding 1915
is the per cent that the average for that year is of the average for
1915. For example, the table shows that the relative full-time
weekly earnings of band sawyers in 1910 were 101 per cent of the
weekly earnings in 1915. In 1911 they had increased to 103 per cent,
in 1912 they remained the same as in 1911, and in 1913 they had
increased to 105 per cent of the earnings in 1915. The relative
number being 100 in 1915 indicates the drop as compared with 1913.
The relative numbers (in heavy-faced type) in the table may all be
read in like manner.
In addition to the relative numbers in Table 2, percentages have
been computed showing the per cent of increase or decrease in 1915
as compared with each preceding year back to 1910, while in another
column is given the per cent of increase or decrease in each year com­




12

LUMBER M ANUFACTURING.

pared with the year immediately preceding. Referring, for example,
to the weekly earnings of edgermen, it is seen that in 1915 they were
7 per cent lower than in 1913, 5 per cent lower than in 1912, etc.;
and in the next column that they were 2 per cent higher in 1911 than
in 1910, the same in 1912 as in 1911, and so on.
2 .—R EL ATIV E FULL-TIM E HOURS PER W E E K , R ATES OF W AG ES PER HOUR,
AND FULL-TIME W E E K L Y EARN IN GS, 1910 TO 1915, TO G ETH ER W IT H PER CENT OF
INCREASE OR DECREASE IN SPECIFIED Y E A R S , IN THE PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS
AND THE IN D U ST R Y.

T a b le

Hours per week.

Occupation and year.

Doggers:
1911
1912.....................................
1913.....................................
1915.....................................
Edgermen:
1910.....................................
1911......................................
1912.....................................
1913......................................
1915......................................
Laborers:
1910.
1911......................................
1912......................................
1913......................................
1915......................................
Machine feeders, planing mill:
1911...............
.
1912.....................................
1913......................................
1915......................................
Sawyers, band:
1910 . . .
1911.....................................
1912.....................................
1913.....................................
1915.. ..
Sawyers, circular:
1910.....................................
1911.....................................
1912.....................................
1913......................................
1915.....................................
Sawyers, gang:
£910
1911.....................................
1912.....................................
1913........... .....................
1915
....
Sawyers, resaw:
1911
1912.....................................
1913.....................................
1915......................................




Rela­
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week
(1915
= 100).

100
100
100
100

Wages per hour.

Rela­
Rela­
tive
tive
full­
Each rate of
Each
time
1915 as speci­ wages 1915 as speci­
weekly
com­
com­
fied
per
fied
pared year as hour
pared year as earn­
ings
with
with
com­
com­
(1915
(1915
each
each
pared
pared = 100).
= 100).
with
speci­
with
speci­
fied
fied
year
year
year.
year.
pre­
pre­
ceding.
ceding.

(i)
C
1)
A)

(i)
(i)
(i)

—1
—1
0

100
100
101
100
100

(x>
<
l>
-i
0 )

101
100
100
100

-1

100
100
100
100

)

(Ii i
o)
(*)

(,i i

-1
)

0

)
C
1)

-1

0

(*)
0)

C
1)

1
w
0)

102
102
102
101
100
100
100
100
100
100

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease (—)
in—

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in—

101
101
100
100
100

100
100
100
100
100

Weekly earnings.

-2
-2
-2
-1

0)
I1)
11)
C
1)

0

)

0)
0)

(l)

100

-

0

)

-1
-1

6
6
7

103
104
104
107

-

3
4
4
7

104
104
105

—
-

4
4
5
9

-

110
100

101
104
107

4
7

100

100
102
102
105

100

e>a
- 2
- 5

106
106
107

-

110
100

6
6
7
9

109
109

V)
ll)

111
100

—11
- 8
- 8
-1 0

(l)
(!)

104
106
109

-

0

)

h

i No change.

100

4

6
8

Each
1915 as speci­
com­
fied
pared year as
with
com­
each
pared
speci­
with
fied
year
year.
pre­
ceding.

+ 2
- 7

+ 1
(1>o
+ 3
- 7
)
+ 1
+ 5
- 9

0

+ 3
+ 3
- 7

106
106
108

— 6
- 6
- 7

103
105
105
107

—
-

3
5
5
7

104
104
105
109

—
—
—
-

4
4
5

101

i1)

1

100

112

0)

C
1)

V)

106
106
108

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease (—)
in—

— 1
- 4
- 7

100

+ 3
— 5

)
+ 1
+ 3
- 9

0

100

104
107

- 3
)
+ 2

-1 0

+ 2
+ 3
- 8

0

0

8

103
103
105

100
109
109

110
112
100

110
110
111
100
105
107
109

100

+ 2
)
+ 2
— 7
)
+ 1
+ 4
- 8
+ 3
+ 3
- 7

100

113
0

+ 2
- 7

100

101
+ 2

0)

0)

1

-

3
3
5

-

9

8
8

-1 1

+ 2
(1) 2
+ «
— 5
0

)
+ 1
+ 2

-1 1

—12
-

9
9

-

5
7

-1 0

8

- 3
(l)
+ 1

-1 0

+ 2
+ 2
- 8

13

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR IN SAWMILL OPERATION.

TABLE 3 .—R E L A TIV E FULL-TIM E HOURS PER W E E K , R ATES OF W A G E S P ER HO U R ,
A N D FULL-TIM E W E E K L Y EAR NING S, 1910 TO 1915, TO G ETH E R W IT H PER CENT OF
INCREASE OR DECREASE IN SPECIFIED Y E A R S , IN T H E PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS
AN D THE IN D U ST R Y —Concluded.

Hours per week. .

Occupation and year.

Setters:
1911......................................
1912.....................................
1913.....................................
1915 ...................................
Trimmers:
1910.....................................
1911......................................
1912.....................................
1913.....................................
1915 ...................................
The industry:
1910.....................................
1911.....................................
1912.....................................
1913.....................................
1915.....................................

Rela­
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week
(1915
= 100).

101
101
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

Wages per hour.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease (—)
in—

Rela­
tive
Each
rate of
1915 as speci­
wages
com­
fied
per
pared year as hour
com­
with
(1915
each
pared
speci­
with = 100).
fied
year
year.
pre­
ceding.

-1
-1

- 3
— 3
- 7

102

—
-

(>)
(1)
(1)
A)
(1
)

0)
0)

C
1)
0)

100

(i)
m
m
>n

103
103
107

100

103
104
106

0)
\l)

1
4

110
100

C
1)

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease (—)
in -

Rela­
tive
Each
Each
full­
1915 as speci­
time 1915 as speci­
com­
fied
weekly com­
fied
pared year as earn­
pared year as
com­
com­
with
with
ings
each
pared
each
(1915
pared
speci­
with = 100). speci­
with
fied
fied
year
year
pre­
year.
pre­
year.
ceding.
ceding.

103
103
107

C
1)

Weekly earnings.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in—

—
—
—
-

2
3
3
7
3
4

6

9

104
104
107

-

4
4
7

102

( l )4
+ „
— 7

—
—
—
—

3
4
7

100

+ 1

103
104
107

(1> ,
+ 4
- 7

100

1
2

104
105
106

2

+
+
+
-

—
—
—
-

110
100

4
9

4
5

6
9

0)

+ 3
— 7

+
+
+
—

3
7

I

+
+
+
—

4
9

1

1
1

1 No change.

There was, in fact, a slight reduction in hours in the industry,
but too small to be reflected in the relative numbers appearing
above. The effect, however, was sufficient to make a difference of
one point between the relative numbers for wages per hour and
weekly earnings in 1910 and 1911.
The method of computing these relative numbers from the averages
of the hours and wages shown in Table 1 is as follows. The rates of
wages of edgermen are taken as an example.
Number
of estab­
lish­
ments.
Rates of wages per hour.................................

Relative rates of wages per hour
..................

245
299
361
324

Year.
1910

1911

$0.255

$0.259
.260

103

104

1912

$0,260
.262
104

1913

$0,268
.269
107

1915

$0,252

100

The rate per hour for 1915 is taken as the base (100). Then $0,269
divided by $0,252 equals 107, the relative for 1913. The ratio of
1912 to 1913 is that of $0,262 to $0,268. The relative for 1913, just
determined (107), multiplied by $0,262 and the result divided by
$0,268 equals 104, the relative for 1912. The ratio of 1911 to that of




14

LUMBER M ANUFACTURING.

1912 is that of $0,260 to $0,260, that is, there is no difference between
the relatives for 1911 and 1912. The ratio of 1910 to 1911 is that of
$0,255 to $0,259. The relative for 1911 (104) multiplied b y $0,255
and the result divided by $0,259 equals 103, the relative for 1910.
For greater accuracy the relative numbers were carried to one decimal
place in the processes of computation, but are entered in the table to
the nearest whole numbers.
The reasons for using the data for the most recent year available
as the base for relative numbers are: First, .the most recent data are
probably the most accurate and representative; second, compari­
sons are more often made between recent years than between any
others; and third, this method permits the inclusion of new or addi­
tional occupations that it may be found desirable to introduce, and
the computing of relatives for such occupations for the years for
which data are available, on the same base as that upon which the
relatives for other occupations are computed.
FLUCTUATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT DURING YEAR.

Reports as to the volume of employment during the year ending
May 31, 1915, were obtained from 303 of the 348 sawmill establish­
ments furnishing wage data for 1915.
Table 3 shows for these establishments the average number of
days the plants were in operation, the total number of employees,
the total amount of pay rolls, and the average earnings per employee
in each month during the year. It also shows the percentages that
the number of employees, amount of pay rolls, and earnings per
employee, respectively, for each month, are of the averages for the
year. These data are given on a monthly basis because in a large
number of establishments the pay-roll periods cover one month, and
it was not practicable to separate the figures so as to show them for
a shorter period; but for the establishments with weekly, biweekly,
or semimonthly pay rolls the wage payments were combined so as
to bring all establishments to a monthly basis. The column “ aver­
age days in operation ” has reference to the establishment as a whole and
not the number of employees shown in the next column. These aver­
age days are based on the running days of the several establishments
regardless of the number of employees in each. The average days
in operation of all plants during a given month may have been 24.7
while the employees who worked in the establishments actually in
operation during that month may have averaged more or less time
depending upon the different number of employees in the several
establishments, upon broken time worked individually, and upon the
plants shut down.
The figures in this table show considerable fluctuation in the volume
of employment during the year. Taken in connection with the facts
shown in Tables 4 and 5, they seem to indicate that while the low




FLUCTUATIONS IN EM PLOYM ENT DURING YEAR.

15

per cents shown during the winter months were due in part to seasonal
conditions, the industry was more or less affected throughout the
year by business depression which caused ,a good deal of “ slack
work.”
3 .—A V E R A G E D A Y S ESTABLISH M ENTS W E R E IN OPERATIO N , EM PLOYEES,
TO TAL P A Y ROLLS, AND A V E R A G E EARNINGS PE R EM PLO YEE IN ONE M ONTH, FOR
THE Y E A R ENDING A P P R O X IM A T E L Y M A Y 31, 1915, B Y MONTHS.

T a b le

Month ending
approximately—

Average
days in
opera­
tion.

1914.
June 30..........................
July 31..........................
August 31.....................
September 30...............
October 31....................
November 30...............
December 31................

24.7
24.1
24.4
23.8
23.8

1915.
January 31....................
February 28.................
March 31.......................
April 30.........................
May 31..........................

17.9
19.2
23.2

Average for year

Employees.

Number.

Percent
of average
for year.

Per cent
of average Amount.
for year.

Amount.

83

23.8

44,402
47,122
51,269
52,850
54,720

96
99
103

1,688,393.06
1,772,252.65
2,170,612.51
2,205,534.29
2,297,045.59

22.2

53,262

100

2,192,744.63

18.0

22.8

92
83

88

$43.34
42.93
43.10
42.13
42.53
38.22
37.34

106
105
105
103
104
93
91

38.03
37.61
42.34
41.73
41.98

93
92
103

100

115
118
113
107

101

121

Per cent
of average
for year.

105

$2,653,723.88
2,687,357.41
2,600,610.802,409,057.09
2,295,326.60
1,876,101.08
1,656,920.64

61,228
62,604
60,338
57,179
53,975
49,088
44,373

20.2

Average earnings per
employee in one
month.

Total pay rolls.

40.94

123
119

110
105

86
76
77
81
99

101

102
103

100

The accompanying graphic chart is based on the percentages of
Table 3 and presents at a glance the trend of the items shown.
The change in the volume of employment during the year ending
with May, 1915, so far as this may be brought out by the pay rolls,
is still further developed in Table 4.
T a b le

4 . —NUM BER OF ESTABLISH M ENTS H AV IN G LARGEST AND SMALLEST P A Y
ROLLS IN MONTHS SPECIFIED.
Number

Month.

1914.
.Tm
ifi ____
July..................................................
August............................................
Sfintfimhfir________________
October, ..
November..
December..

of establishments
having—.

Largest Smallest Smallest
actual
pay roll pay roll full-time
pay roll
in
in
in
specified specified specified
months. months.1 months.

55
84
55

10

11
7

6

16
3

10
22
22

Januarv
February........................................
March..............................................
April................................................
Mav________________ _________
Total

3

6
1

26
50

23
9
23

12
21

104
19
26
29

303

1915.

13
16
47
81

303

2 299

28

6

23
5

Number of establishments entirely close I
down in the month for—

1 week.

5
17
7

12
12
20

2 weeks. i 3 weeks. ! 4 weeks.

1
6 :
1 1
4

6
13

58

11

18
19
13

11

1
5
l
3
4
5
5

8

15
26
55

I

13

20

12
16

7

6

8
2
2

13
7

4
5
i

................. 1
..................

1 Not including pay-roll periods during which mill was idle all the time.
2 Not including 4 establishments having no full-time pay rolls during the year.

100531 °—18— Bull. 225------ 2




3
3
7

63
42
25
17
5

CHART A.—FLUCTUATIONS IN NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES, TOTAL PAY ROLLS, AND MONTHLY EARNINGS PER EMPLOYEE.

LUMBER
MANUFACTURING.




17

FLUCTUATIONS IN EM PLOYM ENT DURING YEAR.

Table 4 shows for 303 establishments the months during which the
largest pay roll, the smallest full-time pay roll, and the smallest
actual pay-roll periods occur, and the number of establishments
closed down entirely for one or more weeks each month.
The distribution of these figures indicates a low ebb in the volume
of business during the winter months, and with the year closing in
lower condition than that in which it began.
Attention is called to the fact that the same month may show a
considerable number of both large and small pay rolls, because in
many of the establishments each pay-roll period covers only one
or two weeks, or one-half month, so that it is possible for an establish­
ment to have a large pay roll and a small pay roll in the same month.
Table 5 shows the number o f days that each of 303 establishments
reporting was in operation during the year and the number of days
idle, by specified causes. It will be seen that in addition to holidays
and vacations, whioh are the result of custom or of an accepted policy
of the establishments, the principal causes of idleness per establish­
ment were 29.4 days on account of slack work, 7.3 days on account of
winter shutdown, and 7.4 days for miscellaneous causes. The total
average days idle during the year were 48.
T a b le

5 .—NUM BER OF D A Y S ESTABLISH M ENTS W E R E IN O PER ATIO N , AND N U M BER
OF D A Y S ID L E , B Y SPECIFIED CAUSES, D U R IN G Y E A R .

Number of week days idle during year on account
of—

State.

Days in
Estab­
operation
lishment during
number.
Holidays Strikes
year.
and
and va­
cations. lockouts.

Alabama.

215
290
300
270
300
295
189
283
302
225
310
283
310
291
289
291
303
310
277
308
306
294
291
299
297
304
276

Arkansas.

* Repairs.
* Change in ownership.
* Fite and rebuilding.




1
5
3
4

6
3
4
3
5

Winter
shut­
down.

Slack
work.

97

12

1 10
i 39

7
15
16

8

2

3
4
3

Other
causes.

Total
week
days idle
during
year.

* 104
i 19
i6

*86

17
13
43
13
18
124
30

1
1
8
8
3

25

11
6

11
12

4
4
3
4
5
A
4
3
5
3
4
4

3
6G

8 31
9
16
9
13

2

25

*I

16
i 15

2
2
24
2
2
1
0

*1

3
36

13
i6

7
19

*3

13
i8

< Inventory.
‘ Including time closod for repairs.
• Including time closed on account of car shortage.

6

2
2
14
16
9
37

18
T

able

LUMBER M ANUFACTURING.
5 .—NUMBER OF D A Y S ESTABLISHMENTS W E R E IN OPERATION, AND NUMBER
OF DAYS ID LE , B Y SPECIFIED CAUSES, DURING Y E A R —Continued.

Number of week days idle during year on account
Days in
Estab­
lishment operation
number. during Holidays Strikes
year.
and
and va­
cations. lockouts.

State.

279
223
278

California.

200
260
283
303
295
292
305
306
180
296

Florida......................

of—

Total
Winter
shut­
down.

Slack
work.

18
78
33
107
19

Georgia.

Idaho........
Louisiana.

18
15
32
130




i 12
U 09

34
90
35
113
53
30

10

18

21
8

7
133
17

111

67

79

i2
125

5
5
37

* 63
i5

6

65
7

2

f>7
i7
6 75
72
* 16
*51

10]4

i 13
s 10
ii 96
17
i2
103

20
98

6
10
29

i3
14
i4
* 14
*9

121
137

i 19
5
15

21

i5

12
4
43
44

68
9

10
78
5
17
53
95
16
14
98
9
4
106

22
100
5
9

6
10
16

12
14
39

20

9
17
9
23

8

4

I Repairs.
a Repairs, 2 days; log shortage, 8 days.
» Log shortage, 1 day; breakdown, 1 day.
* Repairs, 56 days; not reported, 7 days.
6 Not reported.
®Log shortage and minor repairs, 23 days; not reported, 52 days.
7 Log shortage.
* Repairs, 11 days; log shortage and minor repairs, 5 days.
* Log shortage and minor repairs.
Repairs, 8 days; flood, 6 days.
II Repairs, 89 days; log shortage, 7 days.
12 Death.
J Repairs, 6 days; death of president, 1 day.
3
i* Repairs and car shortage.

i8
2 10

13
i 26
i 24

202
308
308
276
311
248
306
245
304
303
235
308
296
200
218
267
299
215
304
309
207
291
213
308
304
307
303
297
301
299
274
293
304
296
304
290
305
304
309
260
302
266
246

Other
causes.

days idle
during
year.

n 45
16 8
ii9

9
4
53
1]
47
67




IN EM PLOYM ENT DURING YEAR.
OF DAYS ESTABLISHMENTS W E R E IN OPERATION, AND N
IDLE, B Y SPECIFIED CAUSES, DURING Y E A R —Continued.

Number of week days idle during year on account
Days in
Estab­
lishment operation
number. during Holidays Strikes
year.
and
and va­
cations. lockouts.
84
85

8
6
87
8
8

89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110

11
1
12
1

113
114
115
116
117
118
119

10
2
121
12
2
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150

159
185
147
189
167
283
183
259
186
233
154
165
184
151
171
216
168
173
274
231
257
308
307
309
307
181
308
297
308
191
307
282
183
307
275
257
308
209
232
309
229
309
157
233
157
309
298
267
310
304
245
309
311
305
279
309
306
307
306
313
263
306
275
182
243

of—

Winter
shut­
down.

Slack
work.

2
1

150
126
150
108
144

4
1
3
2
1
4
1
3
5
8
1
3
2
3
2
4
6
5
5

128
49
122
73
153
123
78
138
127
62
131
137
18

Other
causes.

12
i1
2 16
a 12
11
4 27
14
11
16

13
2 20
6 43
®23
*12
8 33
* 11
11

1017

76
n 51

4

5
5

127

6

110

5
5

132
5
16
5

122

117

6
6

1 125
*

6

5
5
5

31
130

i233

5

1 25
2

38
56
5
104
5
17
81
4
84
4
156
80
156
4
15
46
3
9

51

6

4

6

100

5
5
5
4
5
4
4
5
5
4
3
4
2
2
5
2
2
2

1 12
i*76
n 79
152
75
151
12

6

7
26
2

1*36
U

6
8
4
2
8

i»37

6
34

4
2
5
3
3
4
2
3
2

5

34
4

6

1 1
6

4
47
3
36
128

68
9 Repairs, 5 days; moving crew to oth
days.

ing ho t pond, 32 days.

154
128
166
124
146
30
130
54
127
80
159
148
129
162
142
97
145
140
39
82
56
5

6
C

6
4
6

irs.
m pond, 23 days.
;; repairs, 5 days.
i; high water, 4 days.
high water, 7 days; repairs, 4

lg

1 Repairs, 3 days; installing new boiler, ]
0
1 Including time closed for repairs,
1
1 Inventory and repairs.
2
1 Including time closed for inventory.
3
1 Repairs, 16 days; mill burned, 20 days.
4
1 Repairs, 7 days; log shortage, 30 days.
6
Storm.

7

“ 50
7
38
131
70

,

1 6
1
3.




LUMBER M ANUFACTURING.
OF DAYS ESTABLISHMENTS W ER E IN OPERATION , AND N
IDLE, B Y SPECIFIED CAUSES, DU RING Y E A R —Continued.

of week days idle during year on account
of—

Days in
Estab­ operation
lishment during
number.
Holidays Strikes
year.
and
and va­
cations. lockouts.
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202

203
204
205
206
207
20S
209
210
211
212

213
214
215
216
217
218
219

301
272
298
265
305
255
285
173
301
298
298
298
303
226
294
289
284
257
284
261
298
243
301
294
310
310
147
306
306
288
308
309
309
311
308

3
5
4

M3

2

136

4
3

8

64

21

72
i 12
39

6

8 10
&8

5
2
2
2

4
2
2
6

14
5
7
3
5
3
3
4
4
4
4
3
4
4

311
308
311
311
308
297
310
299
239
288
298
295
275
219
130
142
253
234
163
196
211

296
269
274
292
245
167
160
125
240
285
248
227

>rtage.
it reported, 2 days.
ed on account of log shortage.
ot reported.

41

6

2

3
4
2

4

3 13
3 17
3 12

72

8
9 27
51

1
.................

10
63
9
14
7
3
3

5 155

21
2

2
1
1

3
3
5
4
2
2
2
1
2

4
2
2
2

8

58
28
L
40

1
2
15
15
15

1
0

87
19
24
29
56
29
52
15
70

62

70
16
36
91
181
167
56
77
H9
»116
93
9 14

1 14
0
32
1 11
1
32
i223
io 13

1 fi
3
w 39

35
19

2
5
2
2

5
16
3
14
74
25
15
18
38
94
183
171
60
79
150
117

12
0
17
44
39

2
1
6
8

66

144
128
186
69
9 26
63
48

19
3
3
166
7
7
25
5
4
4
5
91

1

3

2

1
2

41
15
48

2

!

2
87

2
1

4
4

B

1
2

3

3

33

6 23

38

2
2

2
2
2
2
2

L
lie

Other
causes.

19
1 16
a 10
33
32
5 12

22

3
3

222

Tnot reported, 1 day.
\
;

Winter
shut­
down.

Slack
work.

in

6 24

6 36

8 Repairs and not reported.
• Including time closed for repairs.
1 Log shortage and repairs.
0
1 Repairs and bad weather.
1
1 Repairs, 17 days; log shortage, 6 days
2
i* Inventory.
u Inventory and repairs.

146
153
188
73
28
65

8
6

IN EM PLOYM ENT DURING YEAR.
OF DAYS ESTABLISHMENTS W ER E IN OPERATION, AND N
IDLE, B Y SPECIFIED CAUSES, DURING Y E A R —Continued.

Number of week days idle during year on account
Days in
Estab­ operation
lishment during
number.
Holidays Strikes
year.
and
and va­
cations. lockouts.

20
2
21
2
22
2
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
230
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261

22
G
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282

306
190
275
280
305
302
260
171
299
270
78
300
303
292
307
301
259
288
282
239
305
311
299
175
284
195

21
2
21
2

281
255
184
297

Winter
shut­
down.

Slack
work.

Other
causes.

2
33

248
267
278
293
304
304
297
236
302
286
292
263
299
257
300
248
251
215
300
167
286
176
300
300
171
236
286
307
305

21
0
21
0

of—

i 59
26
3 32

6 14

4 17
<6
66

9
9
16
77

572

78
6 22
* 17
247

3
45
91

1

i«»63
*60
97
3 11
3%
25

140

11

&135
6 11

5
5 140
5 75
5 25
4
105

1
1
27
2
1
50
14
50

1
3

65
62
98
13
146
27
137
13
7
142
77
27

123
38
33

121

35
31
73

9
5 51
140

8
1
1

53
142
14
43
235
13

12

41
233
11
8

19
4
9
52
23
29
71
&6

3
5
2
0

0
8
12
1
12
1

6

5 110
5

1
0
2
1
6
1
2

|

5 12
5 136
6 27
5 116
&90
90
5 30
&56
123
6 14

1Fire.
2 weather.
8Bad shortage.
4Log
for reDairs
I [ncluding time closed for repairs.and on account of log shortage,
6rncluding time closedweather, 7 days.
Repairs, 7 days; bad
7Repairs.
8Repairs and log shortage.
9
1 Death. time closed on account of log shortage.
0
1 [ncluding days; log shortage, 12 days.
1Repairs, 13




05
40

54
25
31
74

8
2

75

14
138
29
118
92
92
32
58
129

1
6

22

LUMBER M ANUFACTURING.

T able

5.—NUMBER OF DAYS ESTABLISHMENTS W E R E IN OPERATION, AND NUMBER
OF DAYS ID LE , B Y SPECIFIED CAUSES, DURING Y E A R —Concluded.

Number of week days idle during year on account
of—

State.

Days in
Estab­
lishment operation
during Holidays Strikes
number.
year.
and va­
and
cations. lockouts.

West Virginia.............
(Concluded).

283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
29G
297
298
299
300
301
302
303

■Wisconsin....................

Average.............

304
295
18G
281
280
293
309
204
205
306
154
143
157
310
297
180
297
258
272
307
306
265.0

1

Repairs.

2
2
2
2
2

Winter
shut­
down.

Slack
work.

Total
week
days idle
during
year.

Other
causes.

1

9
18
127
32
33

7

16
125
230
2 31
16
2

2

4

20

6

10

5
i
5
3

50
37

4
109
108
7
159
170
156
3
16
133
16
55
41

1

6

2

2

5
3
5

104
105

2

157
105
152

2

5
4
3
3
5

3.4

1 13

128

i

4
.3
2 Including

29.4

7
7.3

7.4

48.0

time closed for repairs.

As stated on page 5, data have been secured showing, for 1915, the
hours actually worked by employees. Table 6, which is a summary
of General Table D, shows the number and per cent of employees
working certain classified percentages of full time, by States. This
table is divided into three sections, one relating to employees whose
time was reported for one week, one relating to those whose time was
reported for one-half month, and the third relating to those whose
time was reported for one month. The figures of necessity are pre­
sented in three sections, as data for one week only can not be segre­
gated from the semimonthly and monthly pay-roll data. Thirteen
establishments having biweekly pay rolls and 7 establishments whose
records were incomplete are omitted altogether from this table.




23

FLUCTUATIONS IN EM PLOYM ENT DURING YEAR.
T able

6.—NUMBER AND PER CENT OF EM PLOYEES WORKING
PER CENT OF FULL TIME, B Y STATES.

EACH CLASSIFIED

[This table includes data from all establishments from which information was secured for 1915 except 13
establishments having biweekly pay rolls and 7 establishments whose records were incomplete.]

O n e -w e e k pay r o lls.

State.

Employees working each classified per cent of full time.
NumI ber Num­
Under 75
Under 50
ber
100 per cent
Under 100
Under 25
of
per cent.
per cent.
per cent.
and over.
per cent.
estab- of em­
|lish- ployees.
ments
Num- Per Num- Per Num- Per Num- Per Num- Per
ber. cent. ber. cent. , ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent.

Alabama......... .
Florida.............
Georgia.............
Louisiana.........
Maine................
Michigan...........
Minnesota.........
Mississippi.......
North Carolina.
South Carolina.
Tennessee.........
Texas................
Virginia........... .
Wisconsin....... .

438
167
410
2,062
1,995
173
311
1,212
2,240
590
650
165
705
167

196
123
145
1,316
1,580
158
830
1,313
301

382
927
289
430
73
350
26

Total___

11,285

6,981

10
0
2
2

242
44
265
746
415
15

10
0

21
1
20
2
92
355
141

62

4,304

53
13
35

95
230
172
7
72
123
366

9

6
8 3
94
5
1
2
1 C
1
)

51
169
33
87
33
79

140
54
182
7

18

720

11
0

33

1
2
8

312

5
13

6
1

2

1,671

1
4
2

S e m im o n th ly pay ro lls.
Alabama....................
Arkansas....................
Florida.......................
Georgia......................
Idaho. ■ ................
Louisiana..................
Michigan....................
Minnesota..................
Mississippi.................
North Carolina.........
Pennsylvania...........
South Carolina........
Tennessee..................
Washington...........
West Virginia...........
Wisconsin..............
Total..............

1

120

15
3
3

4
]
7

3,788
784
571
199
1,834
1,821
294
1,433
332
935
84
51
426
54
1,226

76

13,952

1

7
12
1

7
2
10
1
1

517

55
4
42

48
2,680
331
356
126
1,243
1,032
79
897
249
600
72
50
193
52
709

5,235

38

8,

72
1,108
453
215
73
591
789
215
536
83
335
12
1

233
2

60
29
58
38
37
32
43
73
37
25
36
14
2

717

40
71
42
62
63

98
45
96
58

29
710
156
171
40
417
300
43
317
97
182
47
32
75
26
174

62

2,816

68

57
27
63
75
64
86

24
19

16
296

20

86

30
23
16
15

84
27
213
169
29

22

110

29
19
56
63
18
48
14

55
96
16
18
45

20

13

2

2

8
11

150
38
40
5
83

4
5
7
3
5
4
7
3
7
5

15
14
12

9
10
8

17
10

19
35

68
21

37
23
49
9

11

11

12
20

22
111

41
9

13
39

24
5
24
3

20

1,393

10

609

4

53
27
23
39
44
31
28
13
26

244
186
342
344
497
123

17
17
15
25
30
23
18
7

105

7
9
7
14
18
9
9
3
4
3

32

M o n th ly pay r o lls.
Alabama....................
Arkansas....................
California...................
Florida.......................
Georgia......................
Idaho..........................
Louisiana..................
Michigan....................
Minnesota..................
Mississippi.................
Montana....................
North Carolina.........
Oregon........................
Pennsylvania...........
South Carolina.........
Tennessee..................
Texas..........................
Virginia......................
Washington...............
West Virginia...........
Wisconsin..................
Total................




145
207
615
316
243
192
248
536
231
195
264
189
250
35
214
101

13

588
330
1,388
528
255

22
20

5

1,470
1,087
2,239
1,359
1,679
525
1,235
1,656
692
831
583
1,040
1,414
312
1,826
756
2,711
1,687
4,739
2,177
1,029

164

31,047

7,070

6

4
12
6

14
2

5
6
2

4
3
4
6
6

5
8
11

14
21
20

1

1,325
880
1,624
1,043
1,436
333
987

90
81
73
77

1 ,1 2 0

68

67
77
55
82
82
89

29
24
25

461
636
319
851
1,164
277
1,612
655
2,123
1,357
3,351
1,649
774

87
78
80
71
76
75

786
292
518
525
738
163
340
216
177
167
106
363
520
93
819
286
915
606
1,517
629
184

23

23,977

77

9,960

10

19
27
23
14
37
20

32
33
23
45
18
18
11
12

86

63
80

88

Less than 1 per cent.

20

18
35
37
30
45
38
34
36
32
29
18

221

123
58
71
70
244
291
62
495
180
510
324

8

102

154
192
294
46
111

46
31

9

22

12

323

27
24
19
19
19
15

102

10

45
138
136
28
255
106
277
177
511
172
39

5,696

18

2,987

886

23
21
20

8

13
10

9
14
14
10
10
11
8

4
10

24

LUMBER MANUFACTURING.

Table 7 shows, by States, the number of employees in the industry
as reported by the United States Census of 1910, the number of
establishments from which the bureau secured data for 1915, and
the number of employees for whom data are shown in this report:
T a b l e 7 . — TOTAL

N UM BER OF EM PLO YEES IN LUM BER M AN U FACTU RIN G A N D NUM ­
BER OF EM PLOYEES FOR W HICH D A T A AR E SHOW N FOR 1915.

State.

Establishments and
employees for which
Number of
data for 1915 are
employees
shown in this report.
reported
by United
States Cen­ Number of
Number of
sus, 1910.
establish­ employees.
ments.

Louisiana...........................
Washington......................
Mississippi.........................
Arkansas............................
North Carolina.................
Virginia..............................
Michigan............................
Wisconsin..........................
Texas*..................................
Alabama............................
Tennessee..........................
Georgia...............................
Florida...............................
West Virginia...................
Minnesota..........................
Pennsylvania....................
California............................
South Carolina.................
Oregon...............................
Maine..................................
Idaho..................................
Montana.............................
Other States....................

43,996
41,684
32,106
31,404
30,534
29,758
27,325
25,445
21,519
20,949
19,233
18,110
17,842
17,629
16,650
15,707
15,614
13,586
13,460
13,203
5,046
3,028
73,350

23
25
17
19

19
3
3

5,131
5,165
3,588
4.875
3,612
2.510
4,083
2.876
2.876
2,658
1.510
2,795
2,918
2,231
1,297
1,265
2,239
2,500
1,414
1,995
724
583

Total........................

547,178

348

58,845

21
21

25
17
12

14
25
22
12
21

4
17
12
10
6

According to the census for 1910 more than 86 per cent of the total
number of employees in the industry are found in the States in which
the establishments furnishing information to the Bureau of Labor
Statistics are located. The number of employees for whom the bu­
reau secured 1915 data and for whom detailed information for 1915 is
presented in this report is equal to nearly 11 per cent of the total num­
ber in the industry in 1909 (the year to which the census figures apply.)
In addition to the text tables already shown four general tables are
presented as follows:
Table A .— Average and classified full-time hours per week and rates
of wages per hour, and average full-time weekly earnings, in the
United States, by years, 1907 to 1915.
Table B .— Average and classified full-time hours per week and rates
of wages per hour, and average full-time weekly earnings, in each
State, b y years, 1913 and 1915.
Table C.— Average and classified full-time hours per week and rates of
wages per hour, and average full-time weekly earnings, by States, 1915.
Table D .—Average full-time hours, average hours actually worked,
and number of employees working each classified per cent of full time,
by States, 1915.




T a b ^ e A . -AVERAGE

AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK AND RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AND AVERAGE
FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1915.

[The figures opposite each group of years are for identical establishments.

Num­
ber
Occupation and number Year. of
of establishments.
em­
ploy­
ees.

195
215

1910
1911

2
2
2
2

1,327
1,298

61.4
61.3

.209 12.76
.2 1 2 12.94

6
6

1911
1912

852
869

61.5
61.4

.179 10.96
.180 11.03

1
2

334 establishments...

1912
1913

973
939

61.4
61.2

.181 11.06
.184 11.22

321 establishments...

1913
1915

935
1,033

61.1
61.2

.192 11.68
.178 10.84

Doggers:
273 establishments...

201

1
2

cts.

1
2

and
un­
der
14
cts.

1
2

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
IS
cts.

18
and
un­
der

2
0

cts.

2
0

and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

4
4

5
15
16

9
9
9
9

11
11
11
11

7
7
7
7

18
19
18

16
15
13
13

2
0

6

4
4
4
4

28
29
19

60
63
78

62
42
47
64

22
22

967
959

12
12

50
51

261
239

9
9

173
151

116
126

192
170

349
332

244
261

151
163

14
15

610
628

4
6

37
39

178
171

8
8

171
148

116
128

146
162

274
278

64
62

702
691

11
11

37
39

193
150

12
12

154
119

152
172

174
162

315
296

72
92

34
17

693
750

12

40
60

139
156

12

10
1

150
116

176
193

59

11
1

266
241

10
1

124

117

244

10
0

50
and 60
un­ cts.
der and
60 over.
cts.

46
28

197

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

14
13
14
13

34
19
14
23

7

17

777

15
17

67

186

151

16
16

1,099
79
78
77
84

60.7
60.7
60.7
60.7

.254
.246
.248
.265

15.42
14.93
15.05
16.09

1
1
1
1

1
2
2
2

65
63
62
69

2
2
2
2

3
3
3
3

5
5
5
5

2
2
2
2

245 establishments... 1910
1911

585
569

61.2
61.2

.255 15.58
.259 15.79

3
3

8
8

442
433

5
5

25
26

99
91

299 establishments... 1911
1912

684

61.3
61.2

.260 15.86
.260 15.87

1
2

8

686

9

521
524

3
3

33
38

1912
1913

751
754

61.2
61.0

.262 15.97
.268 16.28

1

13
29

569
581

8
8

35
36




.178 10.83

1
0

cts.

1
0

and
un­
der

169
162
155
176

6
6

345 establishments... 1915
Edgermen:
41 establishments___ 1907
1908
1909
1910

361 establishments__

61.3

Un­
der

18
36

60.7 $0,218 $13.23
60.8 .207 12.59
60.8 .2 1 2 12.89
60.7 .2 2 0 13.35

245 establishments...

208

Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—

35

91

157

2

1
2

TABLES.

1907
1908
1909
1910

Employees whose full-time hours per week
were—
Aver­
Aver* age
age
full­
rate
Over
of time
63
57
60
week­ Un­ 54
and
wages
and and
Over
ly
der un­ un­ 60. and un­
66 .
per earn­
66 .
un­
hour.
54. der der
der der
ings.
66 .
57. 60.
63.

GENERAL

Carriage men:
41 establishments___

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week.

When a second line is shown for 1915 it contains all data secured for 1915 whether or not comparable data
for 1913 were available.]

2
7

4
3
4

16
15
14

32
33
31
30

3
3

26

2
1

114
107

217
208

151
162

114
106

4
4

23
25

129
124

257

185
184

120

6
6

28
23

136
114

295
287

93

7

33

1
2

230

2
2

to

Cn

Table A.-AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK AND RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AND AVERAGE
FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1915—Continued.

Num­
ber
Occupation and number Year. of
em­
of establishments.
ploy­
ees.

Employees whose full-time hours per week
were—
Aver­
age
full­
Over 63
54
57
time
60
and
week­ Un­ and and
Over
der un­ un­ 60. and un­
ly
6.
6
un­
earn­ 54. der der
der
der 6 .
6
57. 60.
ings.
63.

35

26 . 536
18
551

8
6

61.0 $0.269 $16.34
61.0 .252 15.32

1915

756

61.0

.252 15.32

1907
1908
1909
1910

4,097
3,662
3,910
4,582

60.5
60.6
60.5
60.5

.183
.167
.171
.183

10.35
11.07

185 3,027
171 3,278
228 3, —

50
51
52
53

1910 20,327
1911 19,256

61.3
61.3

.166 10.12
.166 10.10

556 15,008
450 14,176

207
226

1911 26,784
1912 25,506

61.4
61.5

.162 9.91
.164 10.04

388 19,567
355 18,336

145 1,601 4,872
145 1,531 4,851

361 establishments..

1912 29,365
1913 28,835

61.5
61.1

.164 10.03
.171 10.40

483 21,015
914 21,901

324 establishments..

1913 28,555
1915 34,506

61.0
61.1

.173 10.49
.158 9.62

818 21,839
353 26,534

348 establishments..
Machine feeders, plan­
ing mill:
178 establishments..

1915 36,569

61.3

.157

9.58

27,325

1911
1912

1,156
1,165

61.3
61.1

.179 10.94
.185 11.27

871
918

1912
1913

1,548
1,531

61.4
61.1

.181 11.07
.186 11.34

1,143
1,158

302
233

1913
1915

1,525
1,573

61.0
61.1

.190 11.53
.177 10.79

40 1,178
9 1,225

230

1915

1,679

61.2

.176 10.74

9 l,277j
|

270.

245 establishments..
299 establishments..

253 establishments..
241 establishments...
269 establishments...




11.07
1 0.12

18

10

1
0

cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

12

and
un­
der

Un­
der

and
un­
der
14
cts.

12

cts.

1G
and
un­
der
18
cts.

1

3

12
0

9

20

16

11

32

23
32

33

37

18
and
un­
der
20

cts.

20

and
un­
der
25
cts.

34
45

109
158

46

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

263
227

161

234

181

214
54

7

68

2
2

199

3

12
1

543 2,822 2,600 2,522 3,760 2,162 5,309
299 2,664 2,638 2,566 3,963 2,072 4,440

580
574

29
40

263

20
0

519 3,649 4,238 4,510 5,312 2,274 5,469
346 3,291 4,303 4,257 5,179 1,927 5,121

746
911

67
153

336 1,104 6.050
381 1,261 4.050

377
312

397 3,809 5,084 4,993 5,757 2,130 5,895 1,128
199 2,590 4,858 5,043 5,028 2,545 6,788 1,532

158
235

397 1,279 3,710
, 4,771
365 1

313
186 2,585 4,774 4,757 4,838 2,442 6,613 2,076
638 2,177 5,538 4,653 5,697 6,197 3,082 5,704 1,240

265
207

6,058 4,817 5,890 6,313 3,146 6,047 1,390

211

4

147
148
152
158

52
51
52
51

801
801 3,443

171
188
193
187

5,799

409

114

19

15

77
113

163
227
226
252

392
370
328
312

11
0
62

638

21
0
170

22
0

65

1

440
948
578 1,280
402 1,375
321
950

| 40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

206
174

378 1,478
612
426
732
676
816 1,667

568

11 3,544
2

Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—

48
27

152
138

203
162

288
300

84
119

240
267

122

18

131

20

21

2

15

3

65
48

242
179

208
262

363
339

148
134

335
330

160
173

25
62

15

3
23

44
133

165
245

246
236

349
282

121

22

131

309
320

217
152

70
49

22 |

32|

156J

262

244.

289

145

337

161

51

26

50
and 60
un­ cts.
der and
60 over.
cts.

M A N U F A C T U R IN G ,

701
720

348 establishments..
Laborers:
41 establishments...

1913
1915

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

LUMBER

Edgermen—
-Concluded.
324 establishments..

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week.

to
c*

Sawyers, band:
34 establishments—

1907
1908
1909
1910

71
69
69
73

60.8
60.8
60.8
60.7

.490
.481
.489
.501

29.79
29.24
29.73
30.41

2
2
2
2

203 establishments...

1910
1911

429
432

61.2
61.2

.543 33.18
.553 33.79

25
26

243 establishments...

1911
1912

508
492

61.2
61.2

.550 33.61
.551 33.64

30
27

288 establishments...

1912
1913

561
554

61.1
60.9

.546 33.47
.557 33.90

267 establishments...

1913
1915

534
539

60.9
60.9

.561 34.14
.537 32.61

5
5
5
5

.
.
.
.

9

21

28
28
25
25

29
28

89
83

146
140

162
178

35
31

88

179
165

200

73 .

25
25

87 .
71 .

32
29

114
100

196
186

213
232

23
29

6.
8
63

23
28

99
157

166
170

241
181

75

30

167

176

196

3
5
4
5

6

4
5
4

4
4
3
5

1
0
1
0

71 .

23
20

19

92

12
11

15
18

199

1915

572

61.0

.539 32.75

1907
1908
1909
1910

14
14
13
14

61.3
61.3
61.3
61.3

.545
.519
.525
.550

58 establishments___

1910
1911

81
78

61.9
62.0

.496 30.66
.498 30. 77

2
1
2
1

26
23

32
32

14
14

72 establishments___

1911
1912

95
94

62.6
62.5

.504 31.42
.509 31.70

33
28

27
18

40
44

17
18

92 establishments___

1912
1913

119
123

62.4
62.0

.499 31.03
.513 31.71

2
2

establishments___

1913
1915

89
86

62.5
61.9

.505 31.44
.459 27.97

2
1

1915

98

62.1

.462 28.27

1907
1908
.1909
1910

6
6
6
6

1910
1911

64
60

61.4
61.6

.309 18.88
.301 18.42

13 .
14 .

1911
1912

74
75

61.6
61.6

.306 18.77
.306 18.74

1912
1913

79
80

61.7
61.4

.307 18.86
.311 19.02

286 establishments...
Sawyers, circular:
12 establishments___

66

76 establishments___
Sawyers, gang:
5 establishments.

52 establishments___
66

establishments___

71 establishments___




1
1

33.41
31.81
32.18
33.72

30

13
13

24
26

49
46

24
32

19

9
14

21

34

20

24

20

15

17

25

23

18

2

60.0 -.271 16.26
60.0 .256 15.36
60.0 .258 15.48
60.0 .264 15.84

2
2
1
1
1
1
1

4
3

2
3

2.
1.
2.
2.

14
14

2
1
2
0

13

19 .
19 .

2
0

23
24

17
17

2
0

23

18

23

2
2

12

15
14

1
2

T a b l e A .— AVERAGE

AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK AND RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AND AVERAGE
FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1915—Concluded.

Num­
ber
Occupation and number Year. of
of establishments.
em­
ploy­
ees.

Employees whose full-time hours per week
were—
Aver­
age
full­
Over 63
time
54
57
60 and
week­ Un­ and and
Over
ly
der un­ un­ 60. and un­
66 .
un­ der
earn­ 54.
66 .
der der
der 66 .
ings.
57. 60.
63.

10

Un­
der
10

cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

12

and
un­
der

and
un­
der
14
cts.

12

cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der

20

and
un­
der
25
cts.

20

cts.

1913
1915

77
79

61.5 $0,322 $19.70
61.7 .291 17.80

2

53
51

1
1

5

18
17

1
2

1
1

3

2
2

1
1

1

1

81 establishments___
Sawyers, resaw:
98 establishments___

1915

93

61.8

.289 17.74

1

2

59

1

5

22

3

1

3

4

1

1911
1912

149
147

60.7
60.7

.252 15.24
.256 15.48

2
2

128
126

7
7

12
12

5
5

9

138 establishments...

1912
1913

197
192

60.7
60.7

.254 15.41
.261 15.77

2

168
164

1
1

7
6

19
17

8
6

1913
1915

169
182

60.8
60.8

.259 15.69
.238 14.40

1
2

2

140
146

1
1

2

9

7
14

7

12

16
17

7

4

8

1915

215

60.9

.240 14.57

3

4

166

2

16

24

2

9

17

1911
1912

714
713

61.3
61.3

.251 15.30
.252 15.37

1
2

8

3
3

38
39

121

6

9

537
537

116

7

1
1

19
15

1912
1913

780
782

61.3
61.0

.250 15.29
.258 15.71

1

14
24

588
607

6
6

37
37

126
96

9
U

1
1

1913
1915

681
640

61.0
61.0

.256 15.59
.240 14.59

3
3

10

20
11

516
482

8
6

32
35

89
82

11

3

1
10

1915

687

61.2

.239 14.56

3

10

11

502

8

39

103

11

4

72

60.7
60.7
60.7
60.7

.207
.196
.197
.197

1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1

6t)

1
1
1
2

2
2
2
2

5
5
5
5

2
2
2
2

152 establishments...
Setters:
301 establishments...
361 establishments...
324 establishments...
348 establishments...
Trimmer operators:
37 establishments___




1907
1908
1909
1910

68

72
74

12.56
11.90
11.96
11.96

4

4

56
60
61

1

9

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and 60
un­ cts.
der and
60 over.
cts.

4

15

23
19

27
27

16
9

2

2

17

20

31

12

2

8
6

43
40

45
46

38
41

1
1

9

8

8

9

56
47

60
61

48
55

5
5

40
54

61
45

41
39

5

10

10

10

64

53

49

1

33
36

35
27

25
32

160
152

244
260

196
189

1
1

16
13

36
23

30
35

39
27

169
162

299
297

189
203

1
21

9

18
35

29
40

24
22

133
179

293
227

166
109

8

11

13

13

40

43

31

183

235

121

4

2
2
2
2

5
5
4
4

1
6

33
18
18
27

9
9
9
9

5
4
5

3
1
1

9

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

5
3

8

10

7

14
17

10
12

12

9

2

8

1

4

MANUFACTURING.

125 establishments...

3

Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—

LUMBER

Sawyers, gang—Concld.
67 establishments___

Aver­ Aver­
age age
full­ rate
time
of
hours wages
per
per
week. hour.

00

228 establishments...

1910
1911

503
485

61.0
61.0

.209 12.71
.211 12.85

4
4

5
5

397
383

5
5

294 establishments...

1911
1912

479
441

61.3
61.3

.209 12.77
.210 12.84

1
2

5

362
331

3

6

2

1
2
1
2
2
1
2
1

1912
1913

511
538

61.2
61.0

.209 12.73
.217 13.20

1

U
18

387
420

5
5

17
16

1913
1915

510
521

61.0
61.0

.218 13.29
.204 12.37

1
1

16
16

387
393

6

4

24
27

1915

564

61.1

.203 12.34

1

4

16

418

6

1915 16,513

63.3

.214 13.44

27

85

194 10,117

221

346 establishments...
316 establishments...
345 establishments...
Other employees:
348 establishments...

5

45
43

15
15

31

37

54
54

192
185

25
24

42
44

39
27

176
165

85

36
34

10
0

25
25

84

15
14

70
7

38

57
54

58
56

29
26

0
2 2 10
0

190

85

33
51

13
19

73

23
41

53
48

54
69

26
52

188
171

90
67

59
43

2
0

47

49

72

56

186

74

45

2,741 2,399 1,525 1,176 1,090

1,529 1,222 3,375

216

89

general
tables.




1

1
1
1
0

77
73

to

C
D

T able

B.—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS'PER WEEK AND RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AND AVERAGE
FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH STATE, BY YEARS, 1913 AND 1915.

co
°

[The figures for both years are for identical establishments.)

DOGGERS.

Arkansas:
19 establishments___
California:
11 establishments___
Florida:
10 establishments___
Georgia:
15 establishments___
Idaho:
3 establish ments.......
Louisiana:
23 establishments___
Maine:
17 establishments___
Michigan:
25 establishments___




Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Employees whose full-time hours per week
were—
Aver­
age
full­
Over
time
54
57
63
60
week­ Un­ and and
and and
Over
ly
66 .
der un­ un­ 60. un­ un­
earn­ 54. der der
66 .
der
der
ings.
57. 60.
66 .
63.

1913
1915

43
47

65.1 SO.140 $9.11
65.4 .116 7.57

1913
1915

72
93

60.0
59.6

.174 10.42
.169 10.07

1913
1915

31
28

60.0
60.0

.228 13.68
.229 13.72

42
43

63.9
63.9

.153 9.74
.130 • 8.30

15
15

1913
1915

38
42

63.3
64.9

.144

9.16
7.82

19

1913
1915

20

.297 17.82
.285 17.12

1913
1915

96
117

60.3
60.3

.189 11.40
.183 11.04

1913
1915

33
36

62.4
62.6

13.82
.216 13.51

1913
1915

71
63

60.0
60.0

.215 12.89
.207 12.40

10

cts.

12

and
un­
der

and
un­
der
14
cts.

12

cts.

7
15

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

22

7

16

18
and
un­
der

20

and
un­
der
25
cts.

20

cts.

.12 0

8

4

5
7
8

63
85

8
8

10

2

5

10
21

42
54

12
8

25

5

4
4

11

23

10

15
4
5

2
10

13

4

8

8

17

26
14

4

16
4

6
1

21

80

2

16
15
71
63

1

4

3

3

6

3

111

10

1

16
19

50
and 60
un­ cts.
der and
60 over.
cts.

1
1

15
4

2

i

27
37
2
1

2

5

5
9

27
28

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

8
10

2
2

13

.22 2

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

2

1

10

9

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

6

20

13

60.0
60.0

10

Un­
der

31
28

1913
1915

27
30

Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—

MANUFACTURING,

Alabama:
13 establishments—

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week.

9

13
22

5
6

5
15

50
45

2

17
23

7
5

64

2

22

15

2
1

LUMBER

State and number of
establishments.

Num­
ber
of
Year.
em­
ploy­
ees.

i

100531°—18—Bull. 225-

Minnesota:
4 establishments........ 1913
1915
Mississippi:
17 establishments___ 1913
1915
Montana:
3 establishments........ 1913
1915
North Carolina:
1913
19 establishments—
1915
Oregon:
6 establishments....... 1913
1915
Pennsylvania:
16 establishments___ 1913
1915
South Carolina:
8 establishments....... 1913
1915
Tennessee:
22 establishments— 1913
1915
Texas:
12 establishments—
1913
1915
Virginia:
19 establishments___ 1913
1915
Washington:
1913
24 establishments—
1915
West Virginia:
20 establishments___ 1913
1915
Wisconsin:
15 establishments___ 1913
1915
Total:
321 establishments...! 1913
11915




I

90
17

60.0
60.0

.310 18.62
.277 16.64

72
67

60.0
60.0

.154
.145

8
14

56.3
58.3

.317 17.86
.314 18.23

42
50

62.0
62.8

.146
.130

20
18

60.0
60.0

.255 15.30
.231 13.86

25
24

62.4
61.8

.215 13.37
.225 13.86

31
34

61.4
61.2

.138
.129

34
37

61.1
61.1

.166 10.14
.164 10.01

42
63

60.0
59.6

.187 11.23
.176 10.50

52
63

63.9
63.4

.145
.133

65
76

60.0
60.2

.220 13.35

33
42

61.2
61.3

.210 12.83

45
46

60.0
60.0

.226 13.56
.206 12.36

935
1,033

61.1
61.2

.192 11.68
.178 10.84

9.21
8.71

9.05
8.15

8.47
7.91

9.24
8.41

.247 14.82
.217 13.33

T a b le

B.—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK AND RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AND AVERAGE
FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH STATE, BY YEARS, 1913 AND 1915—Continued.

Co

to

EDGEBMEN.

State and number of
establishments.

California:
11 establishments...
Florida:
10 establishments...
Georgia:
17 establishments...
Idaho:
3 establishments___
Louisiana:
23 establishments...
Maine:
17 establishments...
Michigan:
25 establishments...

Minnesota:
4 establishments-----




1913
1915
1913
1915

.256
.256

6
2

64.710.201 $12.91
5.5

1913
1915

30

.......

7
3

Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—

10
10

12

and
un­
der

Un­
der

and
un­
der
14
cts.

12

cts.

cts.

20

18
and
un­
der

20
cts.

1

14
17

4
4

1

5

3
3

1

45
54

4

1

5
5

7
5

6
1

1

10
12

39
39

3
5

20

30
26

60.0
60.0
.......

.240
.204

6

1913
1915

63.8

1913
1915

63.9
65.1

.208
.172

1913
1915

60.0
60.0

.321
.312

1913
1915

60.7
60.3

.265

1913
1915

62.0
61.7

.291
.287

1913
1915

60.0
60.0

.252

65
57

1913
1915

60.0
60.0

.336 20.16
18.45

36
30

2

30
40
50
and and and 60
un­ un­ un­ cts.
der der der and
40
50
60 over.
cts. cts. cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

and
un­
der
25
cts.

3
4

2

2
1

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

10
11

5

8

2

8

4

3

13

3

2
2

1

2

2

2

7
5

3
4

3
5

3

4
5

5
3

3
3

2

4

1

4

6

48
67
18
16

1

4

17
7

7
14

24
28

32
26

4
5

13
17

14
7

2

9
15

50
32

5
5

1
1

4

26

11
6

2
2

3

2

17
17. C ........

25

1

4
4

1

1
2

12
11
4

36

MANUFACTURING.

Arkansas:
19 establishments...

Employees whose full-time hours per week
AverAver- Aver*
age
full­ rate
Over
54
time
63
of time
57
60
week­ Un­ and and
and
hours
ly
der un­ un­ 60. and un­
per
per
66. Over
earn­
un­
66.
hour,
54. der der
der der
ings.
57. 60.
66.
63.

LUMBER

Alabama:
13 establishments...

Num­
ber
of
Year. empi°y-

Mississippi:
17 establishments.
Montana:
3 establishments..
North Carolina:
19 establishments.
Oregon:
6 establishments..
Pennsylvania:
17 establishments.
South Carolina:
8 establishments..
Tennessee:
22 establishments.

60.0
60.0

1913
1915

7

11

57.4
58.4

.420 24.05
.389 22.60

1913
1915

29
32

62.3
62.7

.177 11.00
.175 10.96

1913
1915

10
13

60.0
60.0

.385 23.10
.354 21.25

1913
1915

25
24

62.4
61.8

.265 16.54
.262 16.15

1913
1915

17
18

61.4
60.8

.208 12.70
.189 11.42

1913
1915

28
28

61.4
61.3

.235 14.47
o233 14.31

1913
1915

30
40

60.0
59.9

.270 16.19
.246 14.73

1913
1915

33
34

63.5
63.0

.200 12.67

1913
1915

31
33

60.0
60.1

.383 22.97
.343 20.60

1913
1915

35
40

61.3
61.2

.291 17.83
.282 17.24

1913
1915

52
51

60.0
60.0

.271 16.29
.258 15.48

1913
1915

701
720

61.0
61.0

.269 16.34
.252 15.32

1

.225 13.52

.202 12.11

5

3
3

12 establishments.

Washington:
24 establishments.
West Virginia:
20 establishments.
Wisconsin:
15 establishments.
Total:
324 establishments..




23
17

15

6

3
3

]

2
1

3

2

10

1

9

2

1

3

3

1

9

6

12

5

3
4

4
3

1

1
2

4

3

6
1
1

5

3
3

2
2

2

5

2

2

11

1

8
12

11
6
20

3

2

7
7

3

4

2
2

21
16

9

12

3

2

8

2
2

6
10

10
3

1
2
2

1

3

8

26
18

9

6

35
39

7
5

2

1

86
88

7

4
3

7
3

3

3

14
23

1

5

20

7

1
3

9

16

11

20
32

23
32

6

15
15
206
174

17

19
15

16

6
8

2

3
5

2

1

2

1

3
5

17

7

8

2

5

2
2

1

6

6

6

4
4

1

4
3
3

16
19

3

2
3

2

2

6

7
3

2

.181 11.34

2
1
6

Texas:
Virginia:
19 establishments.

4
16

TABLES.

48
48

GENERAL

1913
1915

20

30
15

34
45

109
158

263
227

34

2

22

CO
CO

T a b l e B .— AVERAGE

AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK AND RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AND AVERAGE
FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH STATE, BY YEARS, 1913 AND 1915—Continued.

co

LABOREBS.

State and number of
establishments.

Aver­
age

Employees whose full-time hours per week
were—

Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—

full­

time
54
57
week­ Un­ and and
ly
der un­ un­
earn­ 54. der der
ings.
57.

6.
0

Over 63
60
and
and un­
un­ der
der
63.

1
0
6.
6

Over

Un­
der

1
0

cts.

1
2

and
un­
der

and
un­
der
14
cts.

1
2

cts.

677
84 1,231

205 1,949
3,160

51

1,742

64.$ $0,126 $ 8.12
65.2 .106 6.91

1913
1915

2,205
3,242

60.0
60.0

.156
.156

1913
1915

1,323
1,342

60.0
60.1

.207 12.39
.198 11.92

1,323
1,330

967
1913
1915
Georgia:
17 establishments.. . . 1913 1,153
1915 1,327
Idaho:
675
1913
3 establishments..
1915
Louisiana:
23 establishments.... 1913 2,360
1915 3,167
Maine:
931
17 establishments___ 1913
1915 1,001
Michigan:
25 establishments... . 1913 1,771
1915 2,611

63.7
63.0

.134
.115

8.55
7.24

372
774

63.6
64.9

.131
.106

8.31
6.82

512
312

60.0
60.0

.247 14.82
.226 13.56

562
228

62.1
61.9

.185 11.48
11.70

60.0
60.0

.179 10.74
.171 10.28

1,771
2,611

921
790

60.0
60.0

.236 14.18
.210 12.62

921
790

Florida:
10 establishments.. .

Minnesota:
4 establishments....... 1913




1915

.163
.155

9.33
9.36

9.92
9.37

46
60

2
0

cts.

2
0

and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

2

140
44

23
13

5
7

256 1,157
523 1,457

540
871

123
143

104
181

4
16

62
299

170
326

957
575

124
115

71

19

1

4
4

2

3

1
1
1

16

21
0

755
913

823
971

11
0
131

283

2
1

27
113

363
259

279
284

224
272

24
48

27
692
464 1,051

537

356
371

14

675

California:
11 establishments.. .

1,122

18
and
un­
der

35

1913
1915

Arkansas:
19 establishments.. .

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

509
536

38
837

2
1
1
0

107

21
1

238
36

410
658

196
259

6}

1
0

306

764

219 1,707
2,885
62

188
265

124
146

23

201
635

384
456

278
115

2
1

19
371

264
756

552
168

247

57

139
400

255
437

386
400

1
2

159

2
1

6
1

105

4

174

482

140
27

640
487

1

22
0
116

and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and 60
un­ cts.
der and
60 over.
cts.

MANUFACTURING,

257
116

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

LUMBER

Alabama:
13 establishments...

Num­
ber
of
Year. em­
ploy-

Aver­ Aver­
age age
full­ rate
time
of
hours wages
per
per
week. hour.

Mississippi:
17 establishments___

8.17
7.61

60.1
60.6

.136
.126

286
352

55.8
57.3

.276 15.39
.272 15.57

1,649
1,740

61.7
62.6

.127
.114

7.81
7.04

,068
895

842
922

60.0
60.0

.235 14.11
.204 12.21

61.8
62.0

.195 12.05
.200 12.39

495
460

144
248

889
1,151

61.0
61.3

.115
.107

7.00
6.56

656
743

51
49

746
820

61.4
61.7

.148
.147

9.09
9.06

1,398
1,832

60.2
60.1

.172 10.35
.157 9.41

1,248
1,320

63.8
63.2

.136
.124

2,383
3,204

60.0
60.1

.230 13.80
.199 11.96

5,383
1,145

1,051
1,235

61.4
61.0

.196 12.00
.189 11.71

746
936

1,734
1,682

60.0
60.0

.186 11.18
.174 10.43

Total:
324 establishments... 1913 28,555
1915 34,506

61.0
61.1

.173 10.49
.158 9.62

270 1,033
742 1,083

842
922

852
898

1.

.




52.

103
87

199
158

6
6

134
164

113

198
407

818 21,839
353 26,534

23
4.
231

371 .
*35

22
1
41
402

463
834

794
343

144 .

283
99

60
41

9
17

120.
11.
0

527
473

236
231

475
505

486
556

316
166

26
32

20
0

402
355

117

18
5

460
811

594
439

46
174

248

345
641

370
231

302
215

139
100

16
26

715.
516

31 .
3.

47 .

1 10
2 1

59.
29

46

2
0

36.
138
281

12.

19
16

19
281

288
85

1
1
1
1

19

176

181 .
250

84
85

106

54 1,537
483 1,397

559
353

1
0

235
343

518
390

27
40

469
342

60

165

216

6
1
1

233 .
213 .

397 1,279 3,710
4,771
365

313

46
74 .

1
1
0

24
25

45
381

16
26

286

24

125

196.
192.

8.67
7.82

136
54 .

1.

532
527
14

561
303

7

2
0

TABLES.

2,049
2,192

GENEBAL

1913
1915
Montana:
3 establishments........ 1913
1915
North Carolina:
19 establishments___ 1913
1915
Oregon:
6 establishments........ 1913
1915
Pennsylvania:
17 establishments___ 1913
1915
South Carolina:
8 establishments. .. 1913
1915
Tennessee:
22 establishments___ 1913
1915
Texas:
12 establishments___ 1913
1915
Virginia:
19 establishments___ 1913
1915
Washington:
24 establishments___ 1913
1915
West Virginia:
20 establishments___ 1913
1915
Wisconsin:
15 establishments___ 1913
1915

450
247

75
62
430

717
673

108
67.

2
1

2,442 6,613 2,076
186 2,585 4,774 4,757 4,!
4,653 5,697 6,197 3,082 5,704 1,240
2,177

265
207

CO

C
n

T a b le

B.—
AVERAGE

AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK AND RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AND AVERAGE
FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH STATE, BY YEARS, 1913 AND 1915—Continued.

O
o
05

MACHINE FEEDERS, PLANING MILL.

State and number of
establishments.

California:
8 establishments___
Florida:
10 establishments...
Georgia:
12 establishments...
Idaho:
3 establishments___
Louisiana:
22 establishments...
Maine:
13 establishments...
Michigan:
11 establishments...

Minnesota:
3 establishments-----




Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Employees whose full-time hours per week
were—
Aver­
age
full­
time
Over
57
54
Un­
60
week­ Un­ and and
Over der
and and
ly
der un­ un­
un­ un­
earn­ 54.
1
0
der
der der
der
cts.
ings.
6.
6
57. 60.
63.

1913
1915

78
91

1913
1915

206
220

59.7
60.0

.163 9.73
.173 10.35

1913
1915

43
35

60.0
60.0

.226 13.57
.226 13.55

1913
1915

42
62

63.9
63.2

.155
.138

9.89
8.69

1913
1915

55
49

63.4
64.7

.148
.124

44
24

60.0
60.0

189
197

60.7
60.3

.185 11.24
.173 10.45

1913
1915

28
33

63.3
63.0

67

60.0
60.0

.195 11.70
.190 11.41

67

68

1913
1915

31
36

60.0
60.0

.243 14.55
.233 13.97

31

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der

2
0

cts.

2
0
and
un­
der
25
cts.

.2 2 0

1913
1915

1
2

cts.

1
2

and
un­
der
14
cts.

.272 16.31
.284 17.01

1913
1915

1
0
and
un­
der

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

8 .0 1

1913
1915

Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—

65.6 $0.136 $8.87
65.9 .123 8.08
16

185

20
2
35

1
0

9.36

16
146
187

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and 60
un­ cts.
der and
60 over.
cts.

MANUFACTURING.

Arkansas:
19 establishments...

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week.

LUMBER

Alabama:
12 establishments.. .

Num­
ber
of
Year.
em­
ploy­
ees.

18

13.94
.225 14.18

33

Mississippi:
17 establishments—
Montana:
3 establishments.

1913
1915

118
120

60.0
60.6

.160
.143

9.60
8.69

22

57.3
58.1

.300 17.17
.289 16.76

1913
1915

102
101

61.4
62.1

.148
.133

1913
1915

66

64

60.0
60.0

.281 16.84
.253 15.15

1913
1915

14
18

63.1
62.2

.235 14.78
.225 13.97

1913
1915

36
42

62.3
62.9

.138
.114

1913
1915

93
118

60.0
60.1

.184 11.02
.161 9.66

1913
1915

47
4J

63.8
63.6

.155
.148

1913
1915

131
131

60.0
60.0

.255 15.30
.235 14.12

1913
1915

40
38

62.1
61.5

.2 1 0 13.00
.209 12.82

1913
1915

71
57

60.0
60.0

.196 11.74
.188 11.30

1913
1915

6
6

6 6 .0
6 6 .0

.170 11.20
.178 11.75

Total:
241 establishments... 1913
1915

1,525
1,573

61.0
61.1

.190 11.55
.177 10.79

Oregon:
6 establishments.......
Pennsylvania:
8 establishments____
South Carolina:
6 establishments____
Texas:
12 establishments___
Virginia:
13 establishments___
Washington:
23 establishments___

Wisconsin:
10 establishments___
Other States:
2 establishments...




27

9.09
8.24

1
2

8.58
7.16

9.83
9.31

13
18
59

TABLES.

West Virginia:
14 establishments___

18

GENERAL

1913
1915

North Carolina:
14 establishments___

2
1

22
0
230

44
133

165
245

246
236

349

11
2

131

217
152

CO

T a b l e B .— AVERAGE

AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK AND RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AND AVERAGE
FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH STATE, BY YEARS, 1913 AND 1915—Continued.

CO
00

SAWYERS, BAND.

State and number of
establishments.

California:
11 establishments...
Florida:
6 establishments___
Georgia:
8 establishments___
Idaho:
3 establishments___
Louisiana:
17 establishments...
Maine:
11 establishments...
Michigan:
23 establishments.. .
Minnesota:
4 establishments___




Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

1.
0

1913
1915
1913
1915

3

$36.

1
2

33

1913
1915

Employees whose full-time hours per week
were—
Aver­
age
full­
Over 63
time
57
54
60
week­ Un­ and and
and
and
ly
der un­ un­ 60.
un­
66. Over
un­
66.
earn­ 54. der der
der der
ings.
66.
57. 60.
63.

2
2

.631

3

2

30
35

6
9

Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—

10
Un­
der

10

cts.

12

and
un­
der

and
un­
der
14
cts.

12

cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

13
and
un­
der

20

cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

1

0
0

1913
1915

.581 36.29
34.13

7
4

60.

.622 37.
.565 33.91
.657

8

32
29

12

6

9

7

4

8

3

6

5

2

7
9

6
2
1$
2

6

18
13

60.3

5
7

11

6

.618
.549

1913
1915
1913
1915

41.
45

.512
.513

1913
1915
1913
1915
1913
1915

60.

7

7

3

2

2

4

4

6

28
43

3

18
14

1

2
2

7
7

.505
.490

27

21

1

1

35
37

15

11

4
5

13

26

10

20

. ..

7

6

22

4

7

2

51
46

.752

4

4

8
6

22

1913
1915

50
and 60
un­ cts.
der and
60 over.
cts.

1
1

1

26

.537
.540

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

27
4 *” i7

MANUFACTTJBING,

Arkansas:
17 establishments...

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week.

LUMBEB

Alabama:
7 establishments___

Num­
ber
Year. of
em­
ploy*

Mississippi:
12 establishments..
Montana:
3 establishments...
North Carolina:
15 establishments..
Oregon:
5 establishments...
Pennsylvania:
16 establishments.
South Carolina:
7 establishments...

Texas:
10 establishments..
Virginia:
19 establishments..

West Virginia:
20 establishments..
Wisconsin:
15 establishments..
Total:
267 establishments..




1913
1915

1
0

' ........!..........
i . .. ...

iO
.O

»0
.0

1
2

1913
1915
1913
1915

60.0
60.0

!
!
»
>

1913
1915

15
13

61.4
61.2

1913
1915

27

4

61.2
61.1

1913
1915

31
34

1913
1915

32
30

60.0
60.1

1913
1915

33
37

61.6
60.8

1913
1915

37
33
534
539

0.9

1
1

2
2

7
6

7
7

1
1

2
2

16
16

1
1

6

9

6

4
g

1

16

10

5

1

2
2

23

1
1

7

60.0
60.0

1913
1915

7
3

6
6

63.5
62. (

1

15
7

3

1
2

3
3

2
2

2
0

1913
1915

6

9
10

4
13
1

2
1

62.4
61.8

4
14

2

15

5

12

21

5
8

1

5

1
2

417
418

6
6

23
29

68

63

2

1
2

4
1

3
4

23
28

10

6

9

18
26

10
6

3
13

1

16

12
8

1

17

20
9

6
1
0

62.5
63.0

25
24

6
10

t

57.0
58.2

1913
1915

3

24
9

99
157

166
170

17
15

TABLES.

Washington:
17 establishments..

27
24

GENERAL

Tennessee:
21 establishments..

1913
1915

1
0
1
1
241
181

O
o

T a b l e B .— AVERAGE

AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK AND RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AND AVERAGE
FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH STATE, BY YEARS, 1913 AND 1915—Continued.
SAWYERS, CIRCULAR.

State and number of
establishments.

Georgia:
9 establishments.
Louisiana:
7 establishments.
Maine:
6 establishments.
Michigan:
4 establishments.
Mississippi:
5 establishments.
North Carolina:
5 establishments.
Texas:
4 establishments.

W
ashington:

8 establishments.




Employees whose full-time hours per week
were—
Aver­
age
full­
rate time
Over
54
of week­
63
57
Un­
60
Un­ and and
and and
ly
un­
66. Over der
per earn­ der un­ un­ 60.
10
un­
66.
54. der der
der
hour.
der 66.
cts.
ings.
57. 60.
63.

1913
1915

65.1 $0,480
.384
65.!

1913
1915

66.0
66.0

1913
1915

1
1

6

67.1

1913
1915
1913
1915

........

2

.573

.

1913
1915

61.0
60.5

.278
.272

1913
1915

60.0
60.0

.560
.535

1913
1915

60.0
60.0

.567 34.01
.503

6

12
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

20

18
and
un­
der

20
cts.

1

4
4

1
1

7

2

..

5
4

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

and
un­
der
25
cts.

1

1
5

2
1
1

1
1

.

1

3
3

2
2

2
6

3

2

1
2
1
2

5
4

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

1

11
8

.507
.507
.581

5
7

1

.441
.414

60.0
53.0

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

7

1

1913
1915

10
and
un­
der

6

60.6

1913
1915

5

.524
.408
.450

64.3
63.3

Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—

Aver-

5
4

2
1

7

3

6

2

2

4

2

2

1
1

2
3

1

3

1

5
5

10
11

1

1
5

50
and 60
un­ cts.
der and
60 over.
cts.

MANUFACTURING.

Florida:
4 establishments.

Average
full­
time
hours
per
week.

LUMBER

Alabama:
7 establishments.

Num­
ber
of
Year. employ-

Other States:
7 establishments........ 1913
1915
Total:
66

establishments___

1913
1915

8

7
89
86

61.6
62.0

.557 33.96
.488 29.88

1

62.5
61.9

.505 31.44
.459 27.97

?

4
4
50
46

2
2

1
1

2

8

19

9

7

1

2
2

1

21

8

2

i

5

3
7

9
14

3
1

2
2

21

34

20

24

20

15

SAWYEBS, GANG.
Alabama:
9 establishments.......




1913
1915

65.5 $0,236 $15.41
65.7 .227 14.90

9
2

7
7

59.5
60.0

.327 19.46
.324 19.47

6
6

65.0
63.0

.275 17.85
.262 16.34

7
8

60.6
60.0

.389 23.57
.318 19.05

5
4

60.0
60.0

.367 2 2.02
.318 19.05

60.0
60.0

.314 18.86
.322 19.33

60.0
60.0

.270 16.20
.260 15.62

60.9
61.1

.350 21.25
.304 18.51

1

2

77
79

61.5
61.7

.322 19.70
.291 17.80

1

2

1

5

1

5

2
2

5
4

29
29

1
1

2

3
4

7
7

5
4

1
1

5
4

7
7

11

2

1

l
2

5
7

3

1

i

5
3

1

3
5

1

1

2
1

3

2
2

3
3
3
3

1

8

3

2

3
2

1

4
5

2
2
1

2

4

4

1

1
1

2

24
18

1
1

3

53
51

1
1

5

1

4
3

1

18
17

1
2

1

1
1

7
5

10

8

3

4

14

3

1

23
19

27
27

16
9

2

1
1

1
1

1

3

2
2

1
1

i

2

15

4

TABLES.

Total:
67 establishments___

11

14

GENEBAL

1913
1915
Arkansas:
7 establishments........ 1913
1915
Florida:
5 establishments........ 1913
1915
Louisiana:
7 establishments....... 1913
1915
Minnesota:
3 establishments........ 1913
1915
Mississippi:
7 establishments........ 1913
1915
Wisconsin:
4 establishments........ 1913
1915
Other States:
25 establishments___ 1913
1915

T a b l e B .— AVERAGE

AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEfiK AND BATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AND AVERAGE
FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH STATE, BY YEARS, 1913 AND 1915-Continued.
SAWYERS, BESAW.

State and number of
establishments.




9
6

Employees whose full-time
were—
Aver­
age
full­
time
Over
57
54
60
week­ Un­ and and
ly
60. and
der un­ un­
un­
earn­ 54. der der
der
ings.
57. 60.
63.

hours per week

Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—

10

63
and
un­
der
66 .

Over
66 .

66 .

Un­
der
10

cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

12

and
un­
der

and
un­
der
14
cts.

12

cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20

cts.

.245 15.21
.239 14.93

31

60.0
60.0

2
1

7
4

60.0
60.0

2
2

3
3

1

1
2

8

8

7

14

4
4

.257 15.43
.250 15.00

11

14

62.5
62.1

.189 11.80
.163 10.09

11
10

60.0
60.0

.314 18.82
.301 18.05

10
8

62.2
61.8

.240 14.88
.236 14.54

7
11

61.1
60.2

.215 13.07
.181 10.67

6
6

61.0
61.0

.217 13.25
.189 11.58

14
14

63.0
63.6

.194 12.21
.172 1 0.8 6

21

3
3
3

1

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

2
1

1
1

.254 15.21
.233 13.96

7
6

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

5
4

60.0 $0,256 $15.37
60.0 .256 15.37
62.1
62.3

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

20

and
un­
der
25
cts.

7
4
1
1

4
4

1
2

2
2
1
1

2
2

1

1
2

1

1
1

]
6
6

3
4

2

1

1
1

2
1

4
3

5
5

1

4

2

5

2
1
1
1

2

2

2
2

1

2

2

2

4
3

1

3

1

3

4
4

1
2

3

1

6

5

2

3

5

2

I

50
and 60
un­ cts.
der and
60 over.
cts.

MANUFACTURING,

California:
4 establishments........ 1913
1915
Maine:
5 establishments........ 1913
1915
Michigan:
16 establishments___ 1913
1915
Minnesota:
3 establishments....... 1913
1915
North Carolina:
11 establishments___ 1913
1915
Oregon:
6 establishments, , , 1913
1915
Pennsylvania:
7 establishments........ 1913
1915
South Carolina:
6 establishments....... 1913
1915
Tennessee:
6 establishments........ 1913
1915
Virginia:
11 establishments___ 1913
1915

Aver­ Aver­
age age
full­ rate
of
time
hours wages
per
per
week. hour.

LUMBER

Num­
ber
of
Year.
em­
ploy­
ees.

2

Washington:
19 establishments..
West Virgi]
7 estal'
Wisconsin:
10 establishments..
Other States:
14 establishments..
Total:
125 establishments.

25
28

1913
1915

25
29

60.0
60.1

.340 20.41
.313 18.83

1913
1915

7
10

60.7
60.5

.268 16.29
.250 15.08

1913
1915

18
17

60.0
60.0

.259 15.57
.248 14.89

1913
1915

16
16

60.3
61.1

.257 15.41
.226 13.64

1
1

1913
1915

169
182

60.8
60.8

.259 15.69
.238 14.40

1
2

1
1

3

1

3

5

1
1

2

4
4

1
2

1
1

5

11

5
8

5

•
7
3

2

8

1
1

40
54

61
45

41
39

5

6

5

13

1
1

11

4

140
146

2

1

18
17

2

90

1

1

1
1

9

1

3

1

1

1

9

22

7
14

7

9

8

10

4

3

5

5

2

2

5

2

7
5

2
1

10

18

24
27

1
2

8
11

16
17

7

2

1

12

15
9

3

9
3

3
4
8
1

1

Alabama:
13 establishments.
Arkansas:
19 establishments..

Florida:
10 establishments.,
Georgia:
17 establishments.,
Idaho:
3 establishments...
Louisiana:
23 establishments..
Maine:
17 establishments.,
Michigan:
25 establishments..

Minnesota:
4 establishments....




21
22

65.1 10.197 $12.78
65.5 .165 10.76

4

1913
1915

35
48

60.0
59.5

.252 15.12
.248 14.76

1913
1915

26
23

60.0
60.0

.270 16.20
.265 15.88

1913
1915

18

64.0
63.9

.214 13.69
.183 11.64

6

12

20

7

13

19il3
1915

24
24

64.3
65.5

.203 12.92
.176 11.44

9
4

1913
1915

20

60.0
60.0

.302 18.12
.307 18.42

20

13

1913
1915

53
52

60.9
60.3

.257 15.63
.251 15.12

1913
1915

34
32

61.6
61.8

.277 17.06
.275 16.99

1913
1915

65
53

60.0
60.0

.277 16.64
.261 15.64

65
53

1913
1915

40
28

60.0
60.0

.331 19.86
.305 18.29

40
28

3
5

2

31
43

13
14

4
4

26
23

2

1

2
2

8

13

5
3

1

5
5

3

3

1

3

3
5

1

2

1

6

3

1

4

3

9

2

1

4

39
49

7

23
18

3
3

11
12

11

2

19

1

SI
25

2
2

9
7

17
19

15

47
24

14

1

18
14

8

20

2

18
9

2

13
4

1

TABLES.

California:
11 establishments.

1913
1915

GENERAL

SETTERS.

11

40
CO

T a b l e B . -AVERAGE

AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK AND RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AND AVERAGE
FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH STATE, BY YEARS, 1913 AND 1915—Continued.
SETTERS—Concluded.

State and number of
establishments.

North Carolina:
19 establishments.
Oregon:
6 establishments..
Pennsylvania:
17 establishments.
South Carolina:
8 establishments.

22 establishments.
Texas:
12 establishments.
Virginia:
19 establishments.

Washington:
24 establishments.




Employees whose full-time hours per week
were—
Aver­
Aver­
age
age
■full­
rate time
Over
of
54
57
63
60
week­ Un­ and and
and
ly
der un­ un­ 60. and un­
per
66. Over
un­
66.
hour. earn­ 54. der der
der der
ings.
66.
57. 60.
63.

60.0 $0,228

10
cts.

12

and
un­
der

and
un­
der
14
cts.

12
cts.

1913
1915

57.0
58.0

.403
.380

1913
1915

62.0
62.9

.188
.175

1913
1915

60.0
60.0

.298
.280

1913
1915

62.3
61.7

.261

1913
1915

61.5
60.9

.208
.181

61.1
61.1

.211

2

20

.208

3

18

1913
1915

59.6
59.3

.255
.235

23

3

23
26

2

1913
1915

63.5
62.7

.204
.187

87

6

2
2

1913
1915

60.0
60.1

.269

37
32

.211

27

10
Un­
der

4
3

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

1

1913
1915

1913
1915

Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—

2

5

18
and
un­
der

20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

2
2

18
16

6

2

9

3

17
16

10

2

1

2
2

3

9

4

10

10

6

6

5

3

10
8

2

3

1

4

13
13

U

47
41

6
2
2

3
3

6
6

4
7

16

10

3

19
16

1
1

1

1
2

4

1

2
8

6

1
2

7
5

2

9
9

11
8

10

2
2

6
11

6
6

14

4

1
2

20

15

2

11

1

3

2

10
8

3
5

2

4

4

6
8

7
3

1
1

6

2
2
2

U

2

1
5

6

77

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

2

12

3
3

16

4

2
1

75

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

1

19

20
10

5

14

24
19i

50
and 60
un­ cts.
der and
60 over.
cts.

MANUFACTURING.

Montana:
3 establishments..

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week.

LUMBER

Mississippi:
17 establishments.

Num­
ber
of
Year.
em­
ploy­
ees.

West Virginia:
20 establishments___

1913
1915

34
34

61.7
61.2

.269 16.58
.267 16.32

1913
1915

41
34

60.0
60.0

Total:
324 establishments... 1913
1915

681
640

61.0
61.0

.256 15.59
.240 14.59

9
7

.263 15.78
.246 14.73

Wisconsin:
15 establishments___

516
482

89
82

9
11

9

3

1
10

11

2

1
2

8
10

18
29
35 * 40

24
22

8
8

17
8

12
6

133
179

293
227

166
109

5

32
35

20
20

13

10

8
6

6
6
12
20

1

26

11

5
4

8

4

TRIMMER OPERATORS.
Alabama:
13 establishments___

California:
11 establishments___
Florida:
10 establishments—

Idaho:
3 establishments.......
Louisiana:
23 establishments—
Maine:
11 establishments___
Michigan:
25 establishments___
Minnesota:
4 establishments.......
Mississippi:
17 establishments___
Montana:
3 establishments.......




17
19

64.8 SO.147 $9.48
65.3 .131 8.51

1913
1915

27
29

59.9
59.7

.187 11.23
.184 10.97

1913
1915

23
25

60.0
60.0

1913
1915

14
16

64.7
63.8

.153
.144

9.87
9.13

1913
1915

18
17

64.0
65.3

.155
.135

9.85
8.74

1913
1915

8

5

60.0
60.0

30
32

61.0
60.6

.219 13.30
.199 12.06

1913
1915

31
27

61.5
61.6

.192 11.83
.192 11.84

1913
1915

50
60

60.0
60.0

.2 2 0 13.21
.205 12.29

1913
1915

35
25

60.0
60.0

25
24

6S.0
60.0

.170 10.19
.156 9.34

1913
1915

5
5

58.8
58.8

.323 18.99
.321 18.84

3
3

1

5
9

5
4

.252 15.13
.242 14.54

1913
1915

4

.283 16.95
.278 16.66

1913
1915

3
3

.272 16.31
.263 15.77

2

10
12

2

7

1

27

6

5

11
10
1
1

8
11

1
2
2

1

3
5

2

10
10

2
2

3
4

1
1

2
1

3

6

2

2

3

3

1
1

2
1

1
6

1

6

4
3
1

3
3

3
5

9
9

1
1

2

1

1

4

5

16
13

12

5

12

9

1

16

1
6

2
11

42
38

8

4

5
3

7

7
5

10
8

4

11

5
1

19

14
2

1
1
1

12

1

2
1

TABLES.

Georgia:
17 establishments___

1913
1915

GENERAL

Arkansas:
19 establishments—

1

2

5
5

cn

T a b l e B . — AVERAGE

AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK AND RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AND AVERAGE
FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH STATE, BY YEARS, 1913 AND 1915—Concluded.

£
0:1

TRIMMER OPERATORS— Concluded.

State and number of
establishments.

Num­
ber
of
Year.
em­
ploy­
ees.

Total:
316 establishments. . .




1913
1915

1

9.55
8.54

24
25

62.3
62.7

.154
.136

13
15

fin n
n

.219 19.15
. an9 18.12

26
27

62.3
61.4

.231 14.34
.226 13.83

12
11

61.4
61.0

.176 10.75
.152 9.22

23
22

61.1
60.8

.191 11.71
.177 10.78

20
?9

59.6
59.7

.214 12.81
.200 11.95

22
26

63.1
62.6

.181 11.43
.167 10.38

31
30

60.0
60.1

.341 20.44
.316 19.02

22
27

61.8
6L7
60.0
60.0
61.0
61.0

.218 13.29
.204 12.37

3
5

10
and
un­
der
12
cts.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

7
7

3
2

*

3
7

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

10
6

5
1

1
1

4
5

12
14
1
1

1

16
16
6
9

2
2

1
1

2
2

4
5

2
2

1
2

4

6
6

3
4

12
9

2

1

1
2

1
1

16
14

2

2
6

1
3

10
8

3
3

1
5

3
3

6
4

3
2
23
19

5
6

l
4

16
16

387
393

•U
.

1

5
7

1

1
2

10
14

8
9

3
1

3
17

18
8

4
2

5
2

54
69

26
52

188
171

90
67

59
43

1

14
18

1

6
8

34
35

1

3
3

1
1

4
6

31
29

1 '

15
14

1

2

5
4

6
5

24
27

70
68

5
7

8

13
19

50
and 60
un­ cts.
der and
60 over.
cts.

10
10

1

10
10

2

1

2
2

•
1
1

3

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

1
1

1
2

7
3

16
15

2
1

1
2

2
3
1
1

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

2

3
2

13
12

8
6

1

.224 13.45
.200 12.00

510
521

Un­
der
10
cts.

13
15

.245 15.11
.230 14.17

34
35

Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—

MANUFACTURING,

1913
1915
Oregon:
6 establishments....... .1913
1915
Pennsylvania:
17 establishments___ 1913
1915
South Carolina:
8 establishments___
1913
1915
Tennessee:
22 establishments___ 1913
1915
Texas:
12 establishments___ 1913
1915
Virginia:
19 establishments___ 1913
1915
Washington:
22 establishments___ 1913
1915
West Virginia:
20 establishments___ 1913
1915
Wisconsin:
15 establishments___ 1913
1915

Employees whose full-time hours per week
were—
Aver­
age
full­
Over 63
57
54
time
60
week­ Un­ and and
and and
66. Over
der un­ un­ 60. un­ un­
ly
66.
earn­ 54. der der
der der
66.
57. 60.
ings.
63.

LUMBER

North Carolina:
19 establishments___

Aver­ Aver­
age age
full­ rate
time
of
hours wages
per
per
week. hour.

23
41

53
48

4
3

T a b le

C.—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK AND RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AND AVERAGE

8 1 — 0 I 8 SOOI

-2Zo ‘t t ^ a —

FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, BY STATES, 1915.
[This table includes all data secured for 19X5 whether or not comparable data for 1913 were available.]

Aver­ Aver­
age
age
full­ rate
time
of
hours wages
per
per
week. hour.

DOGGERS.

State.




93
39
54
51
13
117
17
67
14
55
18
24
42
41
63

6
6

81
44
49
345 1,099

65.3 $0,116
59.6 .169
60.0 .241
64.3 .133
65.1 .116
60.0 .285
60.3 .183
62.7 .219
60.0 .207
60.0 .277
60.0 .145
58.3 .314
63.0 .128
60.0 .231
61.8 .225
62.1 .125
61.0 .165
59.6 .176
63.3 .133
60.2 .222
61.2 .209
60.0 .205
61.3

$7.54
10.07
14.47
8.57
7.57
17.12
11.04
13.70
12.40
16.64
8.71
18.23
8.O
'7
13.
13,
7.74
10.06
10.50
8.44
13.35
12.76
12.32

.178 10.83

Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—

10

Un­
der
10

cts.

12

and
un­
der

and
un­
der
14
cts.

12

cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20

cts.

........4

11

6
21

14
19

22

4

1

10

39
32

8

16

16

30

16

1

37

22

1

6

7
15
4

54

&

20

and
un­
der
25
cts.

10
21

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

15

10

6
21

2

9

23

33
7

6

4

2

2

45
23

2
6

22
2

15
8

5

19

3

4

17

5

3

8

6

4
6

.....

15

i

17

5

67
17

25

2

20

10

13
4
4

22

2

1

34

16

9

1

12

6

3

3

8

21

9

4
17
13

41

11

4

6

6

2

13
3
15

2
11

ii

23

11

9

5

1
2

17

26
7
3

5

197

117

244

100

34

28

6

9
186

16

35

91

157

124

6
20

40
50
and and 60
u n -; un­ cts.
der der and
60 over.
50
cts. cts.

TABLES,

T otal....,

Num­
ber
of
em­
ploy*

GENERAL

Alabama..........
Arkansas.........
California.........
Florida.............
Georgia.............
Idaho................
Louisiana.........
Maine...............
Michigan..........
Minnesota........
Mississippi.......
Montana..........
North Carolina,
Oregon.............
Pennsylvania..
South Carolina.
Tennessee........
Texas...............
Virginia...........
Washington___
West Virginia..
Wisconsin........

Num­
ber
of
estab­
lish­
ments

Employees whose full-time hours per week
were—
Averago
full­
time
Over 63
57
54
60
week­ Un­ and and
and
and un­
Over
ly
der un­ un­
66 .
66 .
un­ der
earn­ 54. der der
der 66 .
ings.
57. 60.
63.

T a b le

C AVERAGE AND
.—

CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK AND RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AND AVERAGE
FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, BY STATES, 1915—Continued.

00

EDGERMEN.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—

State.

348

756

61.0

1
2

1
2

and
un­
der
14

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

cts.

18
and
un­
der

2
0

cts.

2
0

and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

17

.252 15.32

18

568

33

37

46

161

234

44
228
523 1,457

13
871
299

7
143
326

4
181
712

16
144

LABORERS.
Alabama..
Arkansas..
California..




14 1,813
19 3,242
12 1,508

65.1 $0,106 $6.87
60.0 .156 9.36
60.ll .201 12.06

46

116
3,160

1/""

155 1,231

1

.... 2

664
3

853
41

2

6

50
40
30
and and and 60
un­ un­ un­ cts.
der der der and
4 50 60 over.
0
cts. cts.

MANUFACTURING,

Total___

1
0

cts.

1
0

and
un­
der

17

65*0 $0,168
59.8 .256
60.0 .338
64.1 .228
65.3 .162
60.0 .312
60.3
61.8
60.0 .252
60.0 .308
60.0 .202
58.4 .389
62.9 .170
60.0 .354
61.8 .262
61.5 .186
61.1 .232
59.9 .246
62.9 .183
60.1 .346
61.1 .281
60.0

Alabama..........
Arkansas.........
California.........
Florida.............
Georgia.............
Idaho................
Louisiana.........
Maine...............
Michigan.........
Minnesota........
Mississippi.......
Montana..........
North Carolina
Oregon.............
Pennsylvania..
South Carolina
Tennessee.. ..
Texas...............
Virginia...........
Washington...
West Virginia.
Wisconsin.......

Un­
der

LUMBER

Employees whose full-time hours per week
were—
Aver­
age
ber full­
full­
ber
Over
rate time
of
of
54
57
time
60
of
estab­ em­ hours
week­ Un­ and and
and
Over
and un­
der un­ un­
lish­ ploy­ per wages ly
per
un­ der
6.
6
ments ees. week. hour. earn­ 54. der der
der
57. 60.
6.
6
ings.

N vNum­ Aver­ Aver­
am
age
age

.115 7.30
.103 6.67
.226 13.56
.155 9.37
.191 11.86
.171 10.28
.21 0 12.62
.126 7.61
.272 15.57
.113 7.02
.204 12.21
.20 0 12.39
.105 6.48
.148 9.07
.157 9.41
.126 7.91

1,954
1,634
3
398
23 3,167
19 1,106
25 2,611
790
17 2,192
3
352
21 1,869
6
922
898
17
10 1,394
950
25
12 1,832
21 1,402
25 3,414
21 1,288
17 1,833

63.6
65.1
60.0
60.6
62.0
60.0
60.0
60.6
57.3
62.8
60.0
62.0
62.1
61.5
60.1
63.1
60.1
60.9
60.0

.173 10.40

Total....... . ..............

348 36,569

61.3

.157

r.......

12
22

62

1

158
64
70
66

42
14
29

.202 12.11
.189 11.68

9.58

86

61

774
312
398
2,885
579
2,611
790
2,089
192
895
922
460
743
88
657
1,624 ’ *192
445 129
3,355
989
1,833

353 27,325

211

1,180
965
259

146
23

307
593
9

944
819

152
21
1

400
5
12

437
7
159

913
116
464
8

103
1

4
2
16
131
314
537
72

7
1
201

231

644

4

742 1,083

120

419
250
516

35

445

915

346
1
8

29

567

1
2
2

83

1

1

5

303

21

2

69
14
116

13

2

1
2

1

212
2

74

597
26
19
646
5
7
27

181
323
281
266
233
13
24

99
2

17
33
428
811
218
216
75
506

43
229
86
11

142
439
123
450
389
700

10

125
231
1
6

85
46

4
4

174
26
483
354
184

4
3

3

9
473
505
4
17
99
34
1,508
405
365

4

2

10

2

6

22

638 2,684 6,058 4,817 5,890 6,313 3,146 6,047 1,390

211

213
2

448
41

r

MACHINE FEEDERS, PLANING MILL.

Total

..................




13
19
8
11

17
3
23
16
14
3
17
3
18
6
10

7

94
220

35
69
60
24
199
36
97
36
120
22

125
64
20

12

48
118
42
138
41
61

4

10

12

14
24
15

269 1,679

65.8 $0 ,1 2 2
60.0 .173
60.0 .226
63.5 .140
65.0 .1 2 0
60.0 .284
60.3 .173
62.9 .228
60.0 .191
60.0 .233
60.6 .143
58.1 .289
62.6 .130
60.0 .253
62.0 .229
63.3 .115
60.1 .161
63.6 .147
60.0 .236
61.4 .207
60.0 .187
65.4 .171
61.2

$8.03
10.35
13.55
8.87
7.78
17.01
10.44
14.30
11.49
13.97
8.69
16.76

5

73

13

40

12

21

35
29
3

11

7
4

8.11

15.15
14.15
7.27
9.66
9.27
14.17
12.67
11.23
11.16

.176 10.74

3

5

33

53

20

21

16

25

13
4

220

1

2
2

24
189
15
97
36
114
15
58
64

9 1,277

3

9

4
1

1

46
17

3
7

2
1
2

2

1

16

4

52
16
39

25
7
4
3

5
4

1

4

3

11

14

16
9
24

11

10

45

35

26

1

2
1

8

48

25

3
3

1

4
28

23

10

11

8

71

28
28

35

1

7
15
4

6

3

23

6

6

21-

3

9

22

13

15
17
14

32
2
1
2

270

46
5

4

2

262

244

289

5
65

22

32

156

i

1

5
2

8

2

10
8
20
1

10

9
29

2

13

38

47

1

6

1

7

3

2
10

21

12

15
103
9
138
26
61

40
43

3
71

18
4
4
10

17

5
2

52
13
14

i
63
6

5

2

145

1
8
2

1

337

161

51

2

1

TABLES.

Alabama............................
Arkansas...........................
California...........................
Florida...............................
Georgia____________
Idaho.................................
Louisiana..........................
Maine.................................
Michigan...........................
Minnesota.........................
Mississippi........................
Montana............................
North Carolina.................
Oregon.............................
Pennsylvania...................
South Carolina.................
Texas
...........................
Virginia . ........................
Washington......................
West Virginia...................
Wisconsin
..................
other States . . . . .

1

2
1

69
4
3

2

409 1,698 5,799

1

140

283
311
371
487
4

1

248
49
281
59

27
7
35
971
268
1,051
105
54

66

1

3

462

513
189

GENERAL

Florida...............................
Georgia...............................
Tdahn..................................
Louisiana...........................
Maine.................................
Michigan...........................
Minnfisnta.....................
Mississippi.........................
MonfayifC.,
North Carolina.................
Oregon...............................
Pennsylvania...................
South'Carolina.................
Tennessee..........................
TVSflS . . . . ___t ,
Virginia.............................
Washington......................
West. Virginia
Wisconsin.........................

T able

C.—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK AND RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AND AVERAGE
FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, BY STATES, 1915—Continued.
SAWYERS, BAND.
Employees whose full-time hours per week
were—

State.

Num­
ber
of
estab­
lish­
ments

Aver­ Aver­ Aver­
Num­ age
age age
ber full­ rate full­
time
of
57
time
of
54
em­
hours wages week­ Un­ and and
ploy- per
ly
per
der un­ un­
earn­
week. hour. ings. 54. der der
57. 60.
65.1 la 514
59.7 .632
60.0 .564
63.9 .586
64.1 .533
60.0 .565
60.3 .657
61.4 .521
60.0 .490
60.0 .662
60.0 .553
58.2 .797
63.3 .467
60.0 .605
61.8 .402
62.4 .519
61.0 .447
59.4 .550
62.8 .447
60.1 .586
60.7 .439
60 0 .538

Alabama..........
Arkansas.........
California.........
Florida.............
Georgia.............
Idaho...............
Louisiana........
Maine...............
Michigan..........
Minnesota........
Mississippi___
Montana..........
North Carolina
Oregon.............
Pennsylvania..
South Carolina.
Tennessee........

Texas..............
Virginia...........
Washington...
West Virginia.
Wisconsin........
Total—

572

61.0

Over
60
and
un­
der
63.

60.

1

3
33.87
37.45
34.13
33.91
39.61
31.95
29.42
39.71
33.16
46.41
29.41
36.29
24.75
32.17
27.30
32.66
28.03
35.22
26.
32.27

. 539 32.75

63
and
un­
der
66 .

2

37
26
7
4
13

Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—

10

Over
66 .

66 .

10

cts.

12

and
un­
der

and
un­
der
14
cts.

12

cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der

20

and
un­
der
25
cts.

20

cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

9

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

'8
6

3

13
4

6

1

2

1

7

4

3
6
2

6

3

10

4
17
9

4

1

7

3
7

12

3

31
32
35

12

436

8
1

14

8
1

1

i

6

7

1

16
7

75

6
4

5
S

11
1
22
6

28

6
10

1
11

30

167

176

196

7

3

1
1

14
31

6
6

5

5

•

5
7

]

4

12

2

2

1

J
l
|

2|
____

14
9
9

17

SAWYERS, CIRCULAR.
Alabama............................
Florida..............................




8

4
|

12
7

65.4 $0.377 $24.60
66.01 .408 26.90

.....J

1

2

5
7

4

1

I

1

......... |
.......... ).......... |

s
3
0
K
►

9
£

10

,1

2

S

37

23
4

2

o
2

12

6

20

19

2

7

11

2

8
12

7

11
10
2
2

20

24
7
15
3

’ **3i

9
7
9
11

1

43

7

15
47
21

3

50
and 60
un­ cts.
der and
60 over.
cts.
7

1

2
2

Un­
der

2

1

B
Q

Georgia.........

Louisiana........
Maine...............
Michigan.........
Mississippi___
North Carolina
Texas...............
Washington...
Other States.. .
T otal....

14
7
7
4

6

5
4

16

8
7
8

9
5
5

1
1
1
0

66.8
60.8
63.6
60.0
53.8
60.5
60.0
60.0
61.4

1.1
2

76

.573
.434
.507
.607
.272
.535
.503
.532

1[
2
1.

7.

2.
8.
7.
2.
5.
1.
1
7.

1
0

.462 28.27

17

26

25

23

1
8

SAWYERS, GANG.

Total..

3.

65.8 $0,220 $14.48
60.0 .324 19.47
63.4 .257 16.18
60.0 .321 19.27
60.0 .318 19.05
60.0 .306 18.37
60.0 .260 15.
61.4 .307 18.70
81

93

61.8

2

3.
4

GENERAL

Alabama___
Arkansas___
Florida.........
Louisiana...
Minnesota...
Mississippi..
Wisconsin.. .
Other States.

1
1
1.

16

2
2

17.74

17

31

TABLES,

SAWYERS, RESAW.
California...........................
tyfoirm
.................................
ffiflhignn...........................
Minnesota.........................
North Carolina.................
Oregon...............................
Pennsylvania...................
South Carolina.................
Tennessee..........................
Virginia.............................
Washington......................
West Virginia...................
Wisconsin.........................
Other States......................
Total.......................




9

6
8

11

16
4
13

31
5
16

6

10
8

7
8

7
12
20
8

13
7
15
31

15

11
22

22

26

152

215

2

.240 14.57

3

60.9

4

1

3

1

1
2

5
7

4
14
5

6

1

2

2
1

3

5
3
3
4

2
2
1
1

1

5

3
14

6

9

60.0 $0,279 $16.75
63.1 .251 15.79
60.0 .233 13.96
60.0 .255 15.30
62.5 .163 10.19
60.0 .301 18.05
61.8 .236 14.54
.183 11.03
6 1.1
60.9 .198 12.06
63.5 .171 10.74
60.1 .314 18.88
61.0 .252 15.35
60.0 .246 14.75
61.0 .237 14.31

2

7

2

31
5
9

1

fi1

2

2

10
1

4

2

1

8
6

1

1

3

i

3

3

1

1

1

1
6

1

4
30

1

4

3

3

1

166

1
1

2

18
4

4

8
22
1
2

5

16

24

1

1
2

1

1

2

9

17

10

10

-

1

24

12

3
5

5
3

1

64

53

49

1

T a b le

C AVERAGE AND
.—

CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK AND RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AND AVERAGE
FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, BY STATES, 1915—Concluded.

C7I

to

SETTEES.

State.

Num­ Num­
ber
ber
of
of
estab­ em­
lish­ ployments

Michigan.........
Minnesota.......
Mississippi.......
Montana..........
North Carolina
Oregon.............
Pennsylvania..
South Carolina
Tennessee........
Texas...............
Virginia...........
Washington...
West Virginia.
Wisconsin.......

.211

61.

.380
.172
.280
.259
.180

.210

61.
348

687

.235
.187
.271
.267
.246

61.2

2

1 .6
28
2 .0
21

3

10.84
16.77
15.97
11.30
12.81
13.96
11.63
16.28
16.28
14.74

3

10

cts.

12

cts.

4

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

12

and
un­
der
14
cts.
5

2

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.
3

18
and
un­
der
20

cts.
5

2
1

1

5
18

2

17
19

1

5

4

5

3

3

2

1

3
5

3
3

27
9

5
9

6
1

19

1

13

4
25

9
7

20

12

14

24

14

2

5

2

16

8
6

20
1

11

7

6

5

2
8

3

16

1

1

5

16

3

13
2

3

8
21

26

11

2

2

2

2

2

1

12

1

502

6
1

3
13
6

4

43
28
36

11

2
12

2

3

7

10

1

6
2

3
5

9
3

3

12

2
6

2

7
39

103

11

4

13

13

40

43

8
8
10

15

2

8

5

31

1
10
6
21

183




14
19
12
12

21

29
31
18

65.1 $0.128
59.7 .184
60.0 .264
64.0 .152|

$8.30
10.97
15.
9.71

1
2
1
2

4

9
14
10

14
9

21
8
6

235

121

17

4

22

TRIMMER OPERATORS.
Alabama...........................
Arkansas...........................
California...........................
Florida..............................

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

1

11

43
32
7
4
13
49
19
53
28
32
11

10

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

20

and
un­
der
25
cts.

6

3

14.56

14

10

and
un­
der

Un­
der

1
0

4

50
and 60
un­ cts.
der and
60 over.
cts.

MANUFACTURING,

Main 0 .................

3

2

5

Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—

LUMBER

65. $0.164 $ 0 8
1 .6
14.76
17.32
.193 12.37
.167 10.88
.307 18.42
.251 15.12
.276 17.05
.261 15.64
.305 18.29

Alabama..........
Arkansas.........
California.........
Florida.............
Georgia.............
Idaho................
Louisiana.........

T otal....

Employees whose full-time hours per week
were—
Aver­ Aver­ Average
age
full­ rate
54
time
57
Over 63
time
of
Un­ and and
60 and
hours wages
iy der un­ un­ 60. un­ un­ 66 . Over
per
per earn66 .
54. der der
der der
week. hour.
57. 60.
66 .
63.

Idaho.
Louisiana........

Ur in.........
ka e

38

’Mfohigan..........

Minnesota.......
Mississippi.......
Montana..........
North Carolina
Oregon.............
Pennsylvania..
South Carolina.
Tennessee........
Texas...............
Virginia...........
Washington...
West Virginia.
Wisconsin.......
345

564

.128 8.29
.278 16.66
12.06

.167
.319
.229
.197

61.1

.203 12.34

.205
.242
.156
.321
.136
.302
.226
.148
.181

.200

3.
5.
29 .

13
26 .
38
14

2.
1

12.11

60.
25 .
24.
4.

12.29
14.54
9.34
18.84
8.54
18.12
13.83
9.17
10.99
11.95
10.39
19.14
14.09
11.85

2.

12.

2

15.
14.

10.

14

6

'io*

18.
16

14.
5

1
0

31 .
19 .
4016

3.

1.
1

2
2
0
34

418

2
0

78

72

56

34
170

44
97
29
46
53

74

45

29
151
144
95
50
69
192
152
182
77

33
150
150
96
40

OTHER EMPLOYEES.
Alabama..........
Arkansas.........
California.........
Florida.............
Georgia.............
Idaho...............
Louisiana........
Maine...............
Michigan.........
Minnesota.......
Mississippi.......
Montana..........
North Carolina
Oregon.............
Pennsylvania..
South Carolina,
Tennessee........
Texas...............
Virginia...........
Washington...
West Virginia.
Wisconsin.......
Total....




25 1,338
702
17
741

62.6
62.6
65.2
67.7
61.4
63.0
63.1
62.1
61.0
61.8
58.9
65.4
60.8
63.9
64.5
62.7
61.8
65.1
61.2
62.4
61.8

$0.158 $10.48
.234 14.65
.283 17.70
.20 0 13.01
.143 9.62
.306 18.79
.235 14.80
.232 14.81
.226 14.04
.250 15.23
.198 12.37
.344 20.21
.142 9.22
.299 18.15
.247 15.75
.152 9.74
.194 12.14
.227 14.11
.172 11.12
.282 17.33
.233 14.52
.217 13.43

348 16,513

63.3

.214 13.44

14
591
19 1,128
526
741
931
3
245
23 1,428
665
19
25 1,053
4
341
17 1,061
157
3
21 1,412
6
346
17
213
922
10
25
385

12
12
22

12
21

740
847

21

6 6 .6

44
909
424
273
169

2
2

35
5
7
376
76

21
1

1,054
348
35
861
285
854
84
514
37
307
72
432
204

548
242
1,202
37
27

“*
8
247

15
140
95
46

49
30

2
1

117

221

132

89

88

53

12
1

20

67

122
6

1

62
281

22

33
42

2
102

142

122

73
233
19
154

107
83
117
30
61

108
3

50

55

99
82
36
409
225
282
132
176
5
92

4

4

88

2

89

94
84

79
250

13
25
57
113

16
41
16
91
47
59

75

95
166
.........
34
272 ’ ***50 “ *’ 49
32
3
8
192
26
72
61
207

139

1.49

454

201

122
1

77
5
18

15
69

2

2

101

174
87
114

9
52
34

2

12

1

1

7

3

26
18
104
25
19

2,741 2,399 1,525 1,176 1,090 1,239 1,529 1 ,222 3,375 2,391 2,069

592

233
126
294

100

2

311
23
4
112
1

5

160
19
16
174
3
23
2

93
26
29
99
14
14
5

64
78
43
81
36
18
110

86

42
65
152

111

113

88

87
215
104
342
227
160

111

38

1
2

23

28
14
29
14

95
41
55
24
82
53
298
76
92

291

5
3

7
4
28

114
58
59
42
104
70
376
126
84

8

199
30
18
121
29
106
112
128
71

8

12

28
75

68

522

1

29

22
8

66
86
88
68

i5
5

439
641

194 10,117

94

114
187
95

TABLES.

49

2
1
1.
2.

1

15

GENERAL

Total—

65.4
60.0
60.6
61.7
60.0
60.0
60.0
58.8
62.9
60.0
61.4
62.1
60.7
59.7
62.5
60.1
61.7
60.0

20
21'
6

17
11

1

18

5

10

2
2
7

3
10

4
5
2 .......
13
4
3
50 " i z
8

4

3

1

216

89

Ol
CO

T a b l e D .— AVERAGE

FULL-TIME HOURS, AVERAGE HOURS ACTUALLY WORKED, AND NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES WORKING
EACH CLASSIFIED PER CENT OF FULL TIME, BY STATES, 1915.

^

{This table includes data from all establishments irom which information was secured for 1915, except from 13 establishments having biweekly pay rolls and from 7 establishments
whose records were incomplete.!}

ONE-WEEK PAY BOLLS.
D OG GERS,

3
3
U
19
5
15
4
15
6
6

21

Total...................................................................................

87

16

65.8
65.3
60.5
62.7
60.0
62.1
61.2
59.8
63.5
61.5

56.9
56.0
58.7
60.5
60.2
58.4
61.5
50.1
51.4
57.3

238

61. V

57.4

10
8

49
39
22

35
13
25

Employees working each classified per cent of full time in one week.

Under 25
per cent.

25 and
under 50
per cent.
1

50 and
under 75
per cent.
1
1

3
i
3
3
1

1
6
1

5

16

1

2

75 and
under 100
per cent.

100

per cent.

4

4

6
10
6
2
12

31
31
18
15

4
15
7
66

1

6
6

6
10

Total.............

8S




3
11

19
5
15
4
15

10
22

65.8
60.0
61.8
60.0
62.2
61.0
59.7
62.9
61.5

64.8
56.2
59.9
55.5
61.9
53.1
45.8
56.4
61.7

163

61.4

57.5

5
28
33
18
24
6

17

5
1
2

5
3

7
14
133

EDGERM EN.

Alabama...........
Louisiana.........
Maine................
Mississippi____
North Carolina.
South Carolina.
Tennessee.........
Virginia............
Other States...

Over 100
percent
(overtime).

2

16
29

1
1
2

14
3
3

1
5
93

16

MANUFACTURING,

Alabama.................................................................................
Georgia...................................................................................
Louisiana...............................................................................
Maine......................................................................................
Mississippi.............................................................................
North Carolina , ,.
........................
, „ 1J.
South Carolina......................................................................
Tennessee...............................................................................
Virginia..................................................................................
Other States..........................................................................

Average
hours
worked
per em­
ployee in
one week.

LUMBER

Occupation and State.

Average
full-time
Number of Number of hours of
establish­
employees. establish*
ments.
ments
per week,

LABORERS.
Alabama.................................................................................
Georgia...................................................................................
Louisiana...............................................................................
Maine......................................................................................
Michigan................................................................................
Mississippi.............................................................................
North. Carolina......................................................................
South Carolina......................................................................
Tennessee...............................................................................
Virginia..................................................................................
Other States..........................................................................
Total...................................................................................

3
4
2

110

5
15
4
15
4

739
1,187
264
420
414
510

66.3
65.5
61.1
62.0
60.0
60.2
61.7
61.2
59.8
62.5
61.3

88

6,584

61.7

11

19

6

301
241
1,292
1,106

14
38
38

16
52
7
26
28
25

54.3

232

198
116
65

34
7
108
35
4
37
142
33
16
27

1,751

3,208

75

31
4
14
18
7

29
26

10
2
6

2

6

5

13

4
5

23

89

156

44

2
1

22

8

18
27

79
67
632
813
93
416
486
64
104
150
304

1
11

25

53.6
53.2
55.8
57.3
58.4
54.3
53.9
52.8
47.9
51.4
53.7

13
23
15

2

187
344

41
28
17

36
35
126
55
4
56
105
39
35
65
69

295

625

1

27
58
11

105
110

370
138
8

110

M A C H IN E F E E D E R S , P L A N I N G M IL L .

13
72
36
45
93

4
9

13
34

67.3
60.0
62.9
60.0
62.0
62.0
62.2
61.8

2

10

62

316

61.6

2
11

63.3
57.9
58.2
57,5
60.3
55.9
61.1
55.5
5S.6

1
1

1
1

2

2

1

1
1

2
2
2
2

3

3

8

22

57
3

14

SAW YERS, BAND.

Louisiana...............................................................................
Maine....................................................................................
North Carolina......................................................................
Tennessee....................
...................... .........................
Virginia..................................................................................
Other States..........................................................................
Total...................................................................................

7
12
11

17
24
21

14

16

6

10

13

27

63

115

60.7
61.4
62.7
59.6
62.9
60.8

60 5
61.2
56.9
53.9
60.8
60.8

61.

59.2

4
1

6
2

8
8

27
1

2

1

15

94

2

2

3

25

3

S A W Y E R S , C IR C U L A R .

All States...............................................................................




27

33

62.3

61.7

TABLES,

Total...................................................................................

16
5
13

GENERAL

Alabama...............................................................................
Louisiana...............................................................................
Mflinft......................................................................................
Mississippi.............................................................................
North Carolina......................................................................
South Carolina.....................................................................
Virginia,..................................................................................
Other States..........................................................................

T a b le

D .—
AVERAGE FULL-TIME HOURS,

AVERAGE HOURS ACTUALLY WORKED, AND NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES WORKING
EACH CLASSIFIED PER CENT OF FULL TIME, BY STATES, 1915—Continued.

g;

ONE-WEEK PAY BOLLS— Concluded.
SA W Y E R S, GANG.

Occupation and State.

11

13

Average
hours
worked
per em­
ployee in
one week.

61.8

Employees working each classified per cent of full time in one week.

Under 25
per cent.

25 and
under 50
per cent.

50 and
under 75
per cent.

75 and
under 100
per cent.

100

per cent.

1

64.5

9

Over 100
per cent
(overtime).
3

Maine...........................................................
North Carolina...................................................................
Tennessee.........................................................
Other States.............................................................
Total...................................................................

8

11

7
5
12

9
5
13

63.1
61.2
60.0
62.2

62.4
59.3
51.7
59.9

32

38

61.9

59.4

1

10

5

1
1

3
3
3

7

2

2

10

23

3

1

1

SE TTE RS.

Alabama......... .
Georgia........... .
Louisiana....... .
Maine................
Mississippi____
North Carolina.
South Carolina.
Tennessee.........
Virginia.......... .
Other States...
Total.............




3

6
6

18

65.8
66.4
60.5
61.9
60.0
62.4
61.0
59.7
62.9
60.7

88

154

61.6

1
11

19
5
15
4
15

5
5
22

34
11

24
6

18
11

58.8

3

63.0
55.7 ,
59.8
60.6
61.8
61.7
53.3
51.7
52.3
60.7

2

13
30
9

1
1
1

5
4
18

1
0

29

96

16

MANUFACTURING,

SAW YERS, R E SA W .

LUMBER

All States..........................................................................

Average
full-time
Number of Number of
hours of
establish­
employees. establish­
ments.
ments
per week.

T R IM M E R O P E R A T O R S .

Louisiana.................................................
....................
Maine......................................................................................
Mississippi.................................. ..........................................
North Carolina......................................................................
Tennessee...............................................................................
Virginia..................................................................................
Other States..........................................................................
Total*.................................................................................

11

13
38
9

17

27

60.5
61.7
60.0
62.4
59.6
62.5
62.0

88

130

61.4

19
5
15
15
6

20

15
8

52.2
58.9
59.7
62.9
51.0
49.5
60.0

1
1

57.6

2

2

3
5
1

5

6

1

32
7
9
4
3

1
6
1

1
2

1
1
1

8

5

20

1

3

5

29

81

10

19
47
95
80

46
46
330
494
36
241
394
117
45
128
129

47
•6
44
123
58
23
13
26

2,006

466

O TH E R EM PLOYEES.

3
4

63.2
63.1
61.8
62.2
64.6
63.8
60.9
67.3
62.9

63.7
57.1
61.9
60.1
61.7
60.5
58.5
59.9
54.5
59.8
59.3

88

3,501

63.9

59.8

19
Michigan................................................................................
Mississippi.............................................................................
North Carolina......................................................................
South Carolina......................................................................
Tennessee...............................................................................
Virginia..................................................................................
Other States..........................................................................
Total...................................................................................




2

5
15
4
15
6

69.0
6 8 .0

2
6

3

8

6

7
7

3
17

18
23

1

1
6

27

29

2

12

3
12

7
7

4

2

24
30

51
163
63
44
30
17

71

93

256

609

20
1
10

85
26
11

15
10
101

TABLES.

4

93
133
559
665
44
353
821
278
133
214
208

11

GENERAL

Alabama.................................................................................
Georgia...................................................................................
Louisiana...............................................................................

O
r
«<
r

T a b l e D .— AVERAGE

FULL-TIME HOURS, AVERAGE HOURS ACTUALLY WORKED, AND NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES WORKING
EACH CLASSIFIED PER CENT OF FULL TIME, BY STATES, 1915—Continued.

Ol

00

SEMIMONTHLY PAY BOLLS.
D OG GERS.

Occupation and Stale.

Numbe*
of estab­
lishments.

Number
of em­
ployees.

129.3
138.4
138.3
130.8
130.0
130.0
143.0
134.0
130.0
130.0
130.0
76

242

111.4

Under 25
percent.

25 and
under 50
per cent.

50 and
under 75
per cent.

75 and
under 100
per cent.

19

28

111

100 per
cent.

Over 100
percent
(overtime).

118.3
120.4
124.3
108.6
112.7

131.5

Employees working each classified per cent of full time in one-half month.

103.3
131.2

111.1

109.3
112.3

112.8

58

19

63

23

EDGERM EN.

Arkansas___
Florida..........
Georgia..........
Louisiana___
Michigan.......
Mississippi...
Pennsylvania
Washington..
Wisconsin___
Other States.
Total...........




129.7
137.4
137.8
130.5
130.0
130.0
134.0
130.0
130.0
132.5
76

190

119.0
138.2
128.7
116.2
118.2
123.4
124.1
125.0
120.2
114.2

131.1

120.1

27

MANUFACTURING,

Total.............

Average
hours
worked
per em­
ployee in
one-half
month.

LUMBER

Arkansas..........
Florida.............
Georgia.............
Louisiana.........
Michigan..........
Mississippi.......
North Carolina.
Pennsylvania..
Washington___
Wisconsin........
Other States.. .

full-time
hours of
establish­
ments per
half month.

LABORERS.
2,521
478
322
1,088
1,129
864
175
660
268
781
498

Arkansas........ .
Florida.............
Georgia.............
Louisiana.........
Michigan......... .
Mississippi.......
North Carolina.
Pennsylvania..
Washington....
Wisconsin........
Other States. . .
Total.............

76

130.2
138.2
137.0
130.7
130.0
130.3
143.5
134.5
130.0
130.0
130.0

108.7
116.9

8,784

131.5

109.6

124

102.1

103.9

110.6
115.7
107.5

111.6

111.9

112.1
103.9
465

114
35
31
88
61
50
. 21
42
19
50
47
558

422

113

122

100

46
65

1,415
137
125
539
498
391
90
306
88
365
141

319
206
24
163
62
267
153

46
62
25
52

1,042

4,095

2,009

615

55
59
137
98
141
26
61

21

59

212

19
57
94
46

1

15
3
7
7
7
7
3
5
5

Total..........

61

2

175
16
53
50
17
13
26
35

130.0
135.7
137.8
130.5
130.0
130.0
134.6
130.0
130.0
131.5

481

130.7

113.6

12

114.2
127.6
108.0 .
115.8
102.3
109.4 .
120.9
105.8

10
86

1

10
1
5

5
9

8
1
0
2
2
1

110.2

125.6 .

10

24

50

2
1
9
6

35
7

17
19

246

93

6
2

2
9

2
1
3
2

TABLES.

Arkansas____
Florida..........
Georgia..........
Louisiana___
Michigan.......
Mississippi...
Pennsylvania
Washington..
Wisconsin___
Other States.

GENEBAL

M A C H IN E F E E D E R S , P L A N I N G M I L L .

23

3
5
5
3

58

SA W 7E R S, BAND.

129.6
137.4
130.0
130.0
130.0
133.9
130.0
134.3

Arkansas____
Florida..........
Louisiana___
Michigan.......
Mississippi...
Pennsylvania
Wisconsin___
Other States.,
Total..........




6
8

137

131.4

118.6

1
2
1

111.7
129.1
115.5
118.1
130.4
124.4
118.7
117.7

5
15

8

11

1
0

52
Or

CO

T a b l e D .— AVERAGE

FULL-TIME HOURS, AVERAGE HOURS ACTUALLY WORKED, AND NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES WORKING
EACH CLASSIFIED PER CENT OF FULL TIME, BY STATES, 1915—Continued.

°

SEMIMONTHLY PAT BOLLS—Concluded.
S A W Y E R S , C IR C U L A R .

9

Occupation and State.

11

Number
of em­
ployees.

Average
hours
worked
per em­
ployee in
one-half
month.

122.4

12

110.6

Employees working each classified per cent of full time in one-half month.

Under 25
per cent.

25 and
under 50
per cent.

75 and
under 100
per cent.

3

3

5

1

1

11

6

8

8
1

Over 100
per cent
(overtime).

per
cent.

100

SA W Y E R S, GANG.

All States...............................................................................

25

26

131.0

129.4

SAW YERS, RE SA W .

Arkansas..............................................................................
Michigan.........................................
Pennsylvania.......................................................................
Wisconsin..............................................................................
.
. .
Other States...........................
Total...................................................................................

3

117.2
123.8
123.3
124.3

1
2
1
1
2

4
7
3
2

4

12

128.5
130.0
132.8
130.0
134.3

5

2

3

50

131.1

121.2

7

21

15

7

6
10

17

5

6

8

6
10

37

7

121.1

SETTERS.

Arkansas..
Florida___
Georgia...
Louisiana.
Michigan..
Mississippi




15
3
3
7

33
6
6

12

15
24

7

11

129.6
138.7
138.7
130.9
130.0
130.0

116.7
140.5
117.4
127.1
123.3
117.7

2
0

7
5
13
4

1

MANUFACTURING,

50 and
under 75
per cent.

LUMBER

All States...............................................................................

Number
of estab­
lishments.

Average
full-time
hours of
establish­
ments per
half month.

Pennsylvania
Washington..
Wisconsin —
Other States.
Total..........

126.4
115.3

145

131.5

121.6

2

10
1
2
6

2
2
10
2

3

2

11

62

49

19

1

14

1

6
12

1

76

2
1
1
2

1
1
1

133.9
130.0
130.0
133.7

122.5

8

17
5
14
14

10

4
7

121 .2

1
1

3

T R IM M E R O P E R A T O R S .

7

8

10

7
16

Total...................................................................................

74

15
7

22
11

12

30
19
19
24

129.5
131.2
130.0
130.0
134.1
130.0
133.8

116.2
115.5
121.9
123.5
129.9
109.4
129.1

133

131.3

1 21.2

4

5
4

1

11

5
1
2

9
7

6
11

4

1

5

6

63

45

13

53

303
74

160
114
35

139
194
167
36
47
49
129
74

110
88

1,298

764

O TH ER EM PLOYEES.

Arkansas................................................................................
Florida...................................................................................
Georgia...................................................................................
Louisiana...............................................................................
Michigan....... ; .......................................................................
Mississippi....................... - ...................................................
North Carolina......................................................................
Pennsylvania........................................................................
Washington..........................................................................
Wisconsin..............................................................................
Other States..........................................................................
Total...................................................................................




15
3
3
7

6

876
248
205
554
490
441
129
164
117
322
206

136.1
140.5
142.3
137.0
134.7
134.9
147.0
138.5
132.2
133.6
132.1

76

3,752

136.5

12

7
2
10

4
7

126.6
137.1
125.0
118.9
125.7
123.9
121.4
127.4
127.5

16

15

8
10

12
10

25
5
7

33
28
16

10

11

7
3

13
14

329
28
45
194
159
132
43
50
16
116
39

257

1,151

114.4

8
20

4
5
14
15

124.5

119

163

122.1

12

19
53
16
46
14
13

4

86

73
15
43

40
42
44

TABLES.

3
5

2

1
1
2

11

i

GENERAL

Ar'lra.ngfl.s................................................................................
Louisiana..............................................................................
Michigan................................................................................
Mississippi.............................................................................
Pennsylvania.......................................................................
Wisconsin..............................................................................
Other States.........................................................................

T a b l e D .— AVERAGE

FULL-TIME HOURS, AVERAGE HOURS ACTUALLY WORKED, AND NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES WORKING
EACH CLASSIFIED PER CENT OF FULL TIME, BY STATES, 1915—Continued.

«>
60

MONTHLY PAT BOLLS.
D OG GERS.

Occupation and State.

216.0
189.5
186.7
241.6
221.5
164.8
214.1
225.0
225.7
216.2
241.8
226.5
197.9
226.4
170.8
198.5
198.0
198.9
196.2
234.7

3

5

206.1

40

24
22

13

39
25
30

2

Louisiana...............................................................................
Michigan................................................................................
Minnesota....................... .......................................................
Mississippi.............................................................................
Montana.................................................................................
North Carolina......................................................................
Oregon....................................................................................
Pennsylvania.......................................................................
South Carolina......................................................................
Tennessee.................... ..........................................................

6

4
12
6

11

5

282.6
255.5
260.3
280.8
282.2
260.0
260.0
260.0
260.0
260.0
252.6
276.7
260.0
264.6
271.7
276.2
258.3
274.2
260.9
265.9
260.0
265.5

Virginia..................................................................................
Washington...........................................................................
West Virginia........................................................................
Wisconsin.............................................................................

21
20

5

37
25
U
18
14
14
18
7
27
13
58
43
75
43
18

Total............................................................................

163

572

6
2

4
3
4
6
6

5
s
11

14

Under
25
per cent.

25
and under
50
per cent.

50
and under
75
per cent.
13

1

4
1
2

3

2
6
1
2
2
1

4
4
4
7

75
and under

100

100

100

per cent.

per cent
(overtime).

2

1
6
1

per cent.
9
14
22




6

4
12

14
13
29

283.1
256.2
260.3

1

2

4

3

28
17

3

6

2

1

14

2
1

10

4

2
2

7

1

3

6

2

1
6

2
2
10

8
8

2
1

1
1

4

2 22.8

218.9
215.0
206.4

2

14
19

8

10

8
7
8

1

2

3

8
6

13
7
32

86

3
4

32

12

20

3

4

15
51

3

1
2
1
6

20

315

EDGERM EN.

Alabama.
Arkansas.
California

Over

1
0

17

1

4
4
2

30

50

MANUFACTURING,

Average
hours
worked
per
employee
in one
month.

LUMBER

Alabama................ ................. .............................................
Arkansas....................................... ........................................
California.............................
.........................................
Florida...................................................................................
Georgia...................................................................................

Employees working each classified per cent of full time In one month.

Average
Number of Number of full-time
hours of
establish­ employees. establish­
ments.
ments per
month.

Hi
Q
§
co
*
“£
;
J.

r
5
a
•

Total........

21
20

14
13
38
25
31
40

5

21

281.3
283.3
260.0
260.0
260.0
260.0
260.0
252.9
274.9
260.0
265.3
267.6
275.6
258.3
271.6
260.4
266.0
260.0

164

371

264.7

6

11

14

17

2

8

5

16

6
2

20
12
12
11

4
3
4
6
6

5
8
11

14

7
13
6

265.2
2 2 2 .8

1

1
2

225.1

8

18

83
85
133
160
208
32
96
40
27
18
32
62
104
24
171
80

119
70
153
126
136
47
90
59
15
38

2
1

1

3
1

3

5

13
17

2

2

7

9
5
7
5
3
7

2

2

3
2

4

2

1

2
1
1

10
22
10

2
2
2

2

13
20
12

4
5
3

6

48

207

44

46

415
81
125
138
155
25

346
409
801
345
433
94
423

8

47
42
162
108
50
16
77
62

3
1

5

1

1

8
10
1

1

3

5

4

1

2
2
1

6
6
8

5
6

5

51
LABO RERS.

Alabama.................................................................................
Arkansas................................................................................
California...............................................................................
Florida...................................................................................
Georgia...................................................................................

5

1,018
721
1,508
895
1,006
278
787
1,085
429
512
352
507
922
226
1,075
452
1,727
937
3,146
1,256
638

280.6
258.9
260.8
279.4
282.8
260.0
260.1
260.0
260.0
268.6
248.5
277.9
260.0
266.8
270.6
275.4
260.3
273.1
260.2
264.4
260.0

187.6
191.0
204.5
184.7
177.8
186.8
189.6
221.3
212.9
216.6
207.2
175.3
185.5
199.4
174.3
182.9
185.1
195.4
194.7
203.7
214.6

164

19,477

265.6

194.1

6

4
12
6

14
2

Louisiana..............................................................................
Michigan................................................................................
Minnesota..............................................................................
Mississippi.............................................................................
Montana.................................................................................
North Carolina......................................................................
Oregon....................................................................................
Pennsylvania........................................................................
South Carolina......................................................................
Tennessee...............................................................................
Texas.....................................................................................
Virginia..................................................................................
Washington...........................................................................
West Virginia.......................................................................
Wisconsin..............................................................................
Total............................................................................




5
6
2

4
3
4
6
6

5
8
11

14
21
20

20

60
114
29
159

88

81
85
78
30
61
163
22

666

172
300
133
273
453
136
470

396
115
29

179
82
304
97
48

213
63
305
187
509
205
73

796
427
1,282
632
380

2,237

2 ,0 0 0

3,102

9,193

221
121

55

222

34
134
18
24
64
13
177
119
39
96
17
24
2
11

19
109
38
246
95

TABLES,

205.8
233.9
226.9
234.4
224.7
251.7
260.4
196.7
253.4
199.7
240.0
191.5
236.3
230.1
229.4
258.7

GENERAL

T

Florida...............
Georgia...............
Idaho..................
Louisiana...........
Michigan............
Minnesota..........
Mississippi.........
Montana............
North Carolina..
Oregon................
Pennsylvania...
South Carolina..
Tennessee...........
Texas..................
Virginia..............
Washington.......
West Virginia...
Wisconsin..........

11

39
41
34
64
13
51
13
117
82
409
112

11

97

1,298

1,647

a
co

T a b l e D .— AVERAGE

FULL-TIME HOURS, AVERAGE HOURS ACTUALLY WORKED, AND NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES WORKING
EACH CLASSIFIED PER CENT OF FULL TIME, BY STATES, 1915—Continued.

^

MONTHLY PAY BOLLS— Continued.
M A C H IN E F E E D E R S , P L A N I N G M I L L .

Occupation and State.

Total...................................

5
5
3
3
4
(}
4

1
1
9
2
1
15
4
133

45
45
35
34
39
15
41
37

Average
hours
worked
per
employee
in one
month.

28
64
34
114
27
125
41
25
30

285.1
260.0
260.3
278.4
285.1
260.0
260.0
260.0
274.9
251.7
278.6
260.0
277.6
260.5
277.9
260.0
268.3
260.0
268.3

164.7
229.9
213.8
235.1
241.3
198.9
232.5
231.9
256.3
223.4 .
245.8
199.6
200.5
215.2
216.5
230.2
223.6

822

260.1

220.3

2
1
2
2

21
1 .2
231.9

Employees working each classified per cent of full time in one month.

Under
25
per cent.

1
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
3
5

1
5
2
2
1
29

25
and under
50
per cent.

2
3
3

2
2
1
2

50
and under
75
per cent.

2
0
2
4
1
9
2
4

1
5
4
4

1
6
1
2
38

4
24
9
24

6

9
7

1

127

75
and under

10
0

Over

10
0

per cent.

per cent.
23
28
27

2
0
2
2
1
1
18
26
18

1
2

16
26
14
63
15
74

2
2
19
23

4

1
1
1
1
1
1
5
1
3

3

2

7
5
3

2

477

50

7
3
14

3
9

10
0

per cent
(overtime).

7

1
8
5

6
7
2
3
6

5
4
15

2

24
4

2
11
0

SAW YERS, BAN D.

Alabama.
Arkansas.
California
Florida...
Georgia..
Idaho___




5
4

1
2
2
5
2

9

1
0
6
8
1
1
26

282.9
255.0
260.4
277.3
281.8
260.0

223.6
251.3
251.3
208.3
206.6
179.2

2
2

2
2

2
1
1
1

2

3

2

4

4

2
1

3

MANUFACTURING,

Virginia...........................................
......
Washington...........................
....
West Virginia..................
...............................
Wisconsin..............................................................................
Other States..........................................................................

6
4
8
6
1
0
2

Average
full-time
hoiirs of
establish­
ments per
montnj

LUMBER

Alabama................................................................................
Arkansas.........................................................................
California...............................................................................
Florida...................................................................................
Georgia......................................................................
Idaho.......................................................
I'Ouisiana...............................................................................
Michigan................................................................................
Mississippi.............................................................................
Montana.................................................................................
North Carolina......................................................................
Oregon.........................................
......
South Carolina......................................................................

Number of
establish­ Number of
employees.
ments.

Louisiana......
M
ichigan.......
Minnesota......
Mississippi---

200.0

mo
mo

264.4

229.5

mo
mo

Montana.........
North Carolina.
Oregon..............
Pennsylvania..

252.2
274.9

mo

264.6
274.3
273.9
237.8
271.3
260.4

South Carolina,

Tennessee.........
Texas................
Virginia............

Washington....
W Virginia..
est
W
isconsin......
T otal.....

215.3
235.2
229.4
245.0
228.9
249.7
194.3
237.9
231.4
235.1
229.0
229.8
235.5
227.1
252.2

200.0

140

292

12

29

149

57

2

2

6

20

J1

8

18

8

2

8
6

S
5

All States..............................................................................

34

48

270.6

233.1

GENERAL

SAWYERS, CIRCULAR.

SAWYERS, GANG.
All States...............................................................................

40

47

269.2

240.1

1

12

SAWYERS, RESAW.
6

9

4

11
10

South Carolina......................................................................
Virginia... ...........................................................................
Washington...........................................................................
West Virginia........................................................................
Wisconsin..............................................................................
Other States..........................................................................

4
7
18

28

8

11

5

9

18

20

261.1
260.0
m o
265.6
273.1
260.5
267.0
260.0
2G6.2

Total............................................................................

76

117

263.5

California...............................................................................
Michigan................................................................................

6




9
10

236.9
251.6
217.9
224.1
242.3
238.0
242.3
267.0
237.0
239.2

1

2
1

7

1
1
1

8

2
1
1
1

3

4

1

4
1

17
5
3

4

3

11

3

2
6
2

11

72

11

19

2

TABLES.

10

T a b l e D .~~ AVERAGE

FULL-TIME HOURS, AVERAGE HOURS ACTUALLY WORKED, AND NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES WORKING
EACH CLASSIFIED PER CENT OF FULL TIME, BY STATES, 1915—Concluded.
MONTHLY PAY BOLLS—Concluded.
SETTERS.

Occupation and State.

Number of Number of
establish­
ments.

Alabama...........
Arkansas..........
California.........
Florida..............
Georgia.............
Idaho................
Louisiana.........
Michigan..........
Minnesota........
Mississippi.......
Montana...........
North Carolina.
Oregon..............
Pennsylvania..
South Carolina.
Tennessee.........
Texas................
Virginia............
Washington___
West Virginia..
Wisconsin.........
Total.......

Average
full-time
hours of
establish­
ments per
month.

282.3
253.3
260.3
279.5
284.4
260.0
260.0
260.0
260.0
260.0
251.3
274.9
260.0
264.6
275.2
275.2
257.3
269.8
261.3
265.6
260.0
164

357

264.8

Average
hours
worked
per
employee
in one
month.




6

11

4

7
31
9

12
6

281.1
256.4
260.6
283.1

Under
25
per cent.

25
and under
50
per cent.

50
and under
75
per cent.

75
and under
100
per cent.

100
per cent.

Over
100
per cent
(overtime).

220.
157.
228.
246.
232.
205.
240.
214.
238.
240.
257.
192.
233.
130.
249.
206.
228.
235.
231.
249.

220.7

235.0
209.2 ,
233.8
240.1

d
g
W
m
w
>
cl
►
a
d
w
M

222.

T R IM M E R O P E R A T O R S .

Alabama.
Arkansas.
California
Florida...

Employees working each classified per cent of full time in one month.

Q

17

21

43

204

35

37

Georgia........... .
Idaho.............. .
Louisiana....... .
Michigan..........
Minnesota........
Mississippi____
Montana......... .
North Carolina.
Oregon............ .
Pennsylvania..
South Carolina.
Tennessee.........
Texas................
Virginia............
Washington....
West Virginia..
Wisconsin........
Total......

13
2

13
4

5

8

5

12

282.8
260.0
260.0
260.0
260.0
260.0
254.8
273.0
260.0
265.3
271.7
274.4
258.8
270.0
260.4
268.3
260.0

6
2

18

163

268

265.3

4
3
4
6
6

5
8
11

14
21
20

8
6

5
4
15
6

9
8

18
19
30
27

7

253.5
221.3
244.9
244.3
244.1
225.7
259.1
265.3
207.6
231.1
195.5
232.5
234.7
226.4
233.2
245.0
247.1 .
234.6

1
6
13
1
6

2
3
5
5
4
7
11
8
15
11
146

30

21
10

18
7
22
21

72
16
38
34
61
13

131

16
28
80

25
40
116
58
64
29
60
146
41
29
58
69
54

45

OTHER EMPLOYEES.
Alabama................................................................................
Arkansas................................................................................
California...............................................................................
Florida..................................................................
.......
Georgia...................................................................................
Idaho......................................................................................
Louisiana...............................................................................
Michigan................................................................................
Minnesota..............................................................................
Mississippi.............................................................................
Montana................................................................................
North Carolina.................................................... <...............
Oregon....................................................................................
Pennsylvania........................................................................
South Carolina......................................................................
Tennessee....................................................... ......................
Texas......................................................................................
Virginia..................................................................................
Washington...........................................................................
West Virginia.......................................................................
Wisconsin..............................................................................
Total..................................................................




21
20

1,221

5

281

288.5
267.5
272.5
285.8
296.0
266.6
269.3
272.6
264.7
275.0
256.1
287.5
263.9
274.0
281.7
278.3
268.4
278.3
265.7
271.7
269.0

164

8,676

274.5

6

4
12
6

14
2

5
6
2

4
3
4
6
6

5
8
11
14

325
252
526
356
532
186
315
424
184
243
157
462
346
47
626
236
696
575

686

233.7
243.2
251.1
244.1
217.0
237.1
243.8
263.8
333.1
260.0
233.3
211.4
228.3
236.3
215.9
215.8
235.8
224.8
238.0
231.4
249.0
234.4

8
11

63
19
15
15
10

21
12
20

74
28
4
62
25
44
52
98
49
7

9
5
44
24
3
72
17
33
46
53
44
14

15
5
52
26
4
84
35
55
63
79
59
7

638

554

771

3
3
4
11

111

174
116
183
54
134
133
82

58
68

20

2

160
99
81
63
74
115
28
74
36
52
87
14

265
251
240
365
270
135

55
31
139
94
231
149
67

28
174
80
395
115
51

3,216

1,557

1,940

112

42
171
127
100

88

TABLES.

33

GENERAL

10

PRODUCTIVITY AND COST OF LABOR IN THE LUMBER
INDUSTRY.
BY BENJAMIN M. SQUIBES.

INTRODUCTION.

Beyond a general description of selected occupations, previous
reports on lumber manufacture issued by the United States Bureau
of Labor Statistics attempted to do no more than to give the hours of
labor and rates of wages.1 In this report an attempt has been made to
go somewhat further and show what return the workmen give for the
wages received; in other words, the productivity of labor is shown
in addition to wages and hours.
Wages and hours are, of course, the most conspicuous elements in
the labor records of any establishment and have been most often
used as an index of the well-being of labor. When compiled over a
period of years they show the trend in given industries and not only
serve as a guide in the making of wage contracts but tend in no small
measure to preserve established wage differentials as between indus­
tries and industrial centers.
Considered independently of other factors, however, wages and
hours reflect only superficially the well-being of the employee. Of
even greater importance to him is the question of what he must do
during the hours of labor and what he can buy with the wages
received. It is evident that if prices of consumption goods rise and
money wages do not keep pace with the increase in prices, the em­
ployee will not be able to buy as much as he has been in the habit
of buying. Or, if the expenditure of energy is so great that his work­
ing years are cut short, his total earnings as a worker will be reduced
even though he receives a higher wage rate. In other words, an
increase in money wages does not necessarily mean an increase
either in real wages (that is, the necessities and comforts purchasable
with money wages) or in total earnings during the period of produc­
tivity.
It is at this point that wages and hours studies usually fall short.
They show what the employee receives per hour and the number of
hours of service required, but they take no account of the amount of
work done or what the money wages will purchase of the necessities
of life. As a consequence it is impossible to determine from such
studies whether an employee is able to maintain or to improve upon
1 A study of production "by hand and machine methods was begun in 1894 by the United States Bureau
of Labor under authorization of Congress and was published in 1898 as a part of the Thirteenth Annual
Keport of the Commissioner of Labor. In a section of this report, devoted to the manufacture of lumber
and shingles, labor cost was shown for eaeh process of manufacture. Emphasis was placed, however,
rather upon the relative total productivity by hand and machine methods than upon a comparison between
identical processes in different establishments or the determination of standards of productivity.

6
8




PRODUCTIVITY AND COST OF LABOR.

69

his standards of living, or whether more or less is required of him in
return for increased wages and shorter hours.
Two additional elements are thus necessary in determining, as
between successive periods of time, whether the employee in a given
industry is relatively worse or better off— the purchasing power of
his money wages and the energy expended in return for those wages.
The purchasing power of money wages is, of course, dependent on
the retail prices of commodities. Expressed in terms of the purchas­
ing power of a dollar1 it enables one to convert money wages into
real wages. Considered with the amount and character of the work
performed it shows the true significance of increases in the money
wage.
Unfortunately there is no way of accurately measuring the human
energy expended in a given occupation, and much less the effect upon
the worker of such expenditure. The nearest approach to a measure
is found in the quantity of work done, expressed in terms of the prod­
uct. Even this will be of little significance in industries undergoing
frequent changes in methods of production. For any industry, how­
ever, in which the methods of production have become somewhat
standardized, it is possible to determine a rough standard of produc­
tivity or output for each process and occupations connected there­
with, and thus to show with sufficient accuracy what is expected of
the workers in these different occupations.
In arriving at standards of productivity, two records are essential:
A record of time and a record of output or of work performed. The
time record is conveniently expressed in one-man hours; the output
record, in terms of the unit of the industry, as 1,000 board feet of
lumber, a pair of shoes, a ton of pig iron. The number of one-man
hours necessary to produce a given quantity of output is the time
cost; the quantity of output produced in a given time is the produc­
tivity of labor. For purposes of comparison it is better to express
both time and output in standard unit terms; thus, for the lumber
industry, the time cost of 1,000 board feet of lumber is the number
of one-man hours necessary to produce it; the productivity of labor
is the number of board feet produced each one-man hour. There is
no such thing as a standard working day, hence the necessity of
expressing working time in hours.
It will be observed that the time cost and productivity of labor
are quite distinct from the labor cost which is the total wages paid
in the production of a given output. Labor cost may appear as an
aggregate of wages over a productive period, as a day, a month, or a
year, or it may be expressed in terms of a unit of product, as the total
wages paid in the production of 1,000 feet of lumber.
i United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bulletin No. 197, p. 371; Bulletin No. 228, p. 426.




70

LUMBER MANUFACTURING.

A comparison of total hours worked and wages paid with total
output enables the employer to express his cost in terms of the unit
of the industry and to compare total labor with other costs for his
own and other establishments in the same industry. This is not of
value, however, in determining the relative efficiency of employees or
of machines connected with the various processes entering into the
finished product. In other words, total labor cost and total pro­
ductivity show merely the average efficiency of employees or of
machines.
If the employer wishes to determine whether the cost of any process
is too great or is capable of reduction, the records of time, of wages,
and of output must be kept in such a manner that the cost of each
process will be shown separately. That is to say, the employer must
know what labor costs and what labor produces in each process.
This necessitates: First, a classification of processes; second, a dis­
tribution of time and of wages in accordance with such a classifica­
tion; and, third, a record of the work done in each process. Further­
more, if costs are to be compared as between establishments, the
classification of processes must be uniform for those establishments.
Such a record consistently kept even by a small percentage of the
establishments in an industry will go a long way toward building up
standards of cost and of productivity for that industry. ‘
Thus far no attempt has been made to link the interests of the
employer with those of the employee. It is important to both, how­
ever, to determine the standards of labor productivity and labor cost
in each process of manufacture. To the employee it is important
because it restores his individuality as a producer and shows him
what he does or what is expected of him in return for the wages paid
for his job. Moreover, it presents the facts necessary for him if he is
to get a complete picture of the processes of production in the industry
and the relation of his job to other jobs and to the final product. It
is important to the employer because it enables him to measure the
relative efficiency of the component parts of his establishment, to
apportion his costs properly and to meet competition intelligently.
The need for a determination of standards of productivity and of
cost has become more keenly felt because of the recent rapid rise
in the prices of all commodities and of the demands generally made
by labor for higher wages and better working conditions. It is
further emphasized at this time by the possible speeding up of pro­
duction during the war emergency and by the tendency of employers
in different industries and in the same industry to bid against one
another for labor and pass the increased cost on to the consumer.
Moreover, in placing contracts and in embarking on a policy of
price regulation in those industries vital to the prosecution of the




PEODUCTIYITY AND COST OF LABOR.

71

war and to the well-being of the nation, the Government has defi­
nitely committed itself to the policy of “ cost plus reasonable profits,”
labor cost being predicated upon the maintenance of standards of
living and standards of employment already existing.
In the study of productivity and cost of labor in the lumber
industry an analysis has been made of wages, hours, and output in
the different processes of manufacture for a selected period of opera­
tion in 27 establishments representative of the different forest areas
of the United States. In 10 of these establishments figures are
given for both logging and sawmill operations; in 16 only sawmill
operations are shown, and in 1 only logging operations. For each
establishment there is shown by occupation, process, and machine,
the full-time positions, total one-man hours, total wages, total output
in board feet, output in board feet per one-man hour, wage cost per
one-man hour, and the cost per 1,000 board feet produced, in oneman horns and in wages.
The work was complicated by a lack of uniformity as between
establishments in the classification of processes, by an inadequate
distribution of time and of wages, by variations in methods of manu­
facture, and by incomplete records of output. It should be stated,
too, that the unit of output— 1,000 board feet— represents a variable
quantity of labor on account of differences in the prevailing sizes of
trees, in the dimensions of lumber sawed, in the kinds of timber, and
in the methods of manufacturing and handling the finished product.
In order, therefore, that a comparison might be made as between
establishments it was necessary (1) to adopt rather arbitrarily a
classification of processes and to determine what occupations or
machines should be included in each process; (2) to select those
establishments in which a distribution of time and of wages was
made and a record of output kept; and (3) to indicate for each
establishment the equipment in machines and the character of the
output.1
It is realized that to attempt to express the amount of work done
by a man who is felling trees in the forests, or is sawing these trees
into log lengths after they are felled, in terms of board feet in the
lumber pile does not give a very clear idea of the amount of work
performed by the man in the logging camp. An attempt has, there­
fore, been made to secure data as to the average yield, in board feet,
per tree. While this information could not be ascertained for all
establishments, it was secured for a sufficient number to make the
matter fairly clear. Estimates were also furnished by the United
States Bureau of Forestry, the method by which such estimates were
obtained being explained as follows: “ The average diameter and
i For a description of the classification of processes, the distribution of time and wages, and the output
bases used in computing costs in this study, see pages 86-98.




72

LUMBER M ANUFACTURING.

merchantable length were determined by the inspection of volume
tables which give the number of trees of each diameter measured in
various regions where actual logging operations were being conducted.
Since these trees were measured under these circumstances, they tend
to appear in the table in about the proportion in which they were used
by the loggers. The average diameter and merchantable length hav­
ing been found, the corresponding contents in board feet were found
from the same tables.”
In the table which follows, these estimates are shown for the prin­
cipal kinds of timber in the United States:
T a b l e 8 .— ESTIM ATED A V E R A G E T R E E

SIZES AND M ER CH AN TABLE LUMBER PER
T R E E IN TH E D IF F E R E N T FOREST SECTIONS OF TH E U N ITED STATES.

Estimates of logging com­
panies on timber holdings.
Average
EsAverage length in
tabyield per
feet of
treem
fishportion
ment board feet,
of tree
num­ lumber
used for
ber.
measure.
lumber.
5
(2)

175

38

300

48

13

474.4

14
23

750
550

3
660
18 1,200-2,000
13
496
235
(2)
(2)
350
(2)
600
13
222

18
2,500
6,962
<2)
21 7,000-8,000
18
2,500
18
500

60 ’
80-90
48
50-70
<•)
64
24
50
65
42

<8)
140
80-85
(3)
(3
)

Estimate of United States Bureau
of Forestry.

Kind of timber.

White spruce............................................
Red spruce...............................................
Eastern white p in e ................................
Norway pine...........................................
Western yellow pine:
Rocky Mountains............................
California...........................................
"Western white pine................................
Long-leaf yellow pine............................
Short-leal y ellow pine.............................
Eastern hemlock.....................................
Western hemlock....................................
Larch.. .*
....................................................
White oak.................................................
Poplar, yellow.........................................
Cvpress................................................
Western fir...............................................
Douglas fir:
Rocky Mountains............................
California, Oregon...........................
Oregon................................................
Washington......................................
Redwood..................................................
Western red cedar..................................
Incense cedar...........................................

1 Diameter outside bark 4.5 feet above ground.
2 Company for which cost figures are not shown.

Average
yield per
treem
board feet,
lumber
measure.

Average
length in
Average
feet of
portion of diameter of
tree, in
tree used
inches.1
for
lumber.

150
350
350

40
64
64

14
18
18

500
3,000

66
110

22
36

400
370
500
650

50
64
50
88

20
18
24
22

560
1,000
750

48
64
72

24
33
28

500
3,000

64
120

22
36

4,000
800
650

144
80
G
4

40
33
30

3 Not specified.

In order to show more concretely the significance of output figures
in terms of log lengths and diameters, one of the several tables of log
contents in use in different forest areas is reproduced here in full.




73

PRODUCTIVITY AND COST OF LABOR,
T a b l e 9 . — CLAR K 'S

IN T E R N A T IO N A L LOG RULE.*

{Formula: (D2X .22)—.71DX.904762 for 4-foot sections; taper allowance, £ inch per 4 feet lineal: Standard
scale for saws cutting a i-inch kerf.]

Length of log in feet.
Diam­
eter of

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

incites.
Contents of log in board feet.
4............
5.............
6.............
7............
8............
9............
10...........

5
10
10
15
20
30

5
10
15
20
25
35

5
5
10
15
20
30
35

5
5
10
15
25
30
40

5
10
15
20
25
35
45

5
10
15
20
30
40
50

5
10
15
25
35
45
55

5
10
20
25
35
45
60

5
10
20
30
40
50
65

5
15
20
30
40
55
70

5
15
25
35
45
60
75

10
15
25
35
50
65
80

10
15
25
40
50
70
85

11...........
12...........
13...........
14..........
15...........

35
45
55
65
75

40
50
60
70
85

45
55
70
80
95

50
65
75
90
105

55
70
85
100
115

65
75
90
105
125

70
85
100
115
135

75
90
105
125
145

80
95
115
135
160

85
105
125
145
170

95
110
135
155
180

100
120
140
165
195

105
125
150
175
205

16...........
17...........
18...........
19.
20...........

85
95
110
125
135

95
110
125
140
155

110
125
140
155
175

120
135
155
175
195

130
150
170
190
210

145
165
185
205
230

155
180
200
225
250

170
190
215
245
270

180
205
230
260
290

195
220
250
280
310

205
235
285
300
330

220
250
280
315
350

235
265
300
335
370

21...........
22...........
23...........
24...........
25...........

155
170
185
205
220

175
190
210
230
250

195
215
235
255
280

215
235
260
285
310

235
260
285
310
340

255
285
310
340
370

280
305
335
370
400

300
330
360
395
430

320
355
390
425
460

345
380
415
455
495

365
405
445
485
525

390
430
470
515
560

410
455
495
545
590

26...........
27...........
28...........
29...........
30

......

240
260
280
305
325

275
295
320
345
370

305
330
355
385
410

335
365
395
425
455

370
400
430
465
495

400
435
470
505
540

435
470
510
545
585

470
505
545
590
630

500
540
585
630
675

535
580
625
670
720

570
615
665
715
765

605
655
705
755
810

640
690
745
800
860

31...........
32...........
33...........
34...........
35...........

350
375
400
425
450

395
420
450
480
510

440
470
500
535
565

485
520
555
590
625

530
570
605
645
685

580
620
660
700
745

625
670
715
760
805

675
720
765
815
865

720 *
770
820
875
925

770
825
875
930
990

820
875
930
990
1,050

870
925
985
1,050
1,115

915
980
1,045
1,110
1,175

36...........
37...........
38...........
39...........
40.............

475 i
505
535
565
595

540
570
605
635
670

600
635
670
710
750

665
700
740
785
825

725
770
810
855
900

790
835
885
930
980

855
905
955
1,005
1,060

920
970
1,025
1,080
1,140

980
1,040
1,095
1,155
1,220

1,045
1,110
1,170
1,235
1,300

1,115
1,175
1,245
1,310
1,380

1,180
1, 245
1,315
1,390
1,460

1,245
1,315
1,390
1,465
1,540

41...........
42...........
43...........
44...........
45...........

625
655
690
725
755

705
740
780
815
855

785
825
870
910
955

870
910
955
1,005
1,050

950
995
1,045
1,095
1,150

1,030
1,085
1,140
1,195
1,250

1,115
1,170
1,230
1,290
1,350

1,200
1,260
1,320
1,385
1,450

1,280
1,345
1,410
1,480
1,550

1,365
1,435
1,505
1,580
1,650

1,450
1,525
1,600
1,675
1,755

1,535
1,615
1,695
1,775
1,855

1,620
1,705
1,785
1,870
1,960

46.............

47...........
48...........
49...........
50...........

795
830
865
905
940

895
935
975
1,020
1,060

995
1,040
1,090
1,135
1,185

1,100
1,150
1,200
1,250
1,305

1,200
1,255
1,310
1,370
1,425

1,305
1,365
1,425
1,485
1,550

1,410
1,475
1,540
1,605
1,675

1,515
1,585
1,655
1,725
1,795

1,620
1,695
1,770
1,845
1,920

1,730
1,805
1,885
1,965
2,045

1,835
1,915
2,000
2,085
2,175

1,940
2,030
2,115
2,205
2,300

2,050
2,140
2,235
2,330
2,425

51...........
52...........
53...........
54...........
55...........

980
1,020
1,060
1,100
1,145

1,105
1,150
1,195
1,245
1,290

1,235
1,285
1,335
1,385
1,440

1,360
1,415
1,470
1,530
1,585

1,485
1,545
1,605
1,670
1,735

1,615
1,680
1,745
1,815
1,885

1,745
1,815
1,885
1,960
2,035

1,870
1,945
2,025
2,100
2,185

2,000
2,080
2,165
2,245
2,330

2,130
2,215
2,305
2,395
2,485

2,265
2,355
2,445
2,540
2,640

2,395
2,490
2,590
2,690
2,790

2,525
2,625
2,730
2,835
2,945

56...........
57...........
58...........
59...........

1,190
1,230
1,275
1,320
1,370

1,340
1,390
1,440
1,490
1,545

1,495
1,550
1,605
1,660
1,720

1,645
1,705
1,770
1,830
1,895

1,800
1,865
1,930
2,000
2,070

1,955
2,025
2,100
2,170
2,250

2,110
2,185
2,265
2,345
2,425

2,265
2,345
2,430
2,515
2,605

2,420
2,510
2,600
2,690
2,785

2,575

2,735
2,835
2,935
3,040
3,145

2,895
3,000
3,105
3,215
3,325

3,050
3,165
3,275
3,390
3,510

.....

6 0 .......




\

i By permission of Mr. Judson F. Clark.

2,670

2,770
2,865
2,965

74

LUMBER MANUFACTURING.

As an example of the scope of the study, the productivity and
cost figures for one establishment, selected from the detailed table
appearing later,1 are presented here in full. The logging operations
of this establishment are shown in the following table:
T a b le

1 0 .—P R O D U CTIVITY AND COST OF LABO R IN LOGGING O PE R ATIO N S: ESTAB­
LISHM ENT NO. 21.

[Number cf logs hauled, 6,257; log scale, 7,886,129 board feet (no other output record); kinds of timber:
redwood, 70 per cent; white pine, 28 per cent; fir, 2 per cent.]

Occupation.

Full­ Total
onetime
posi­ man
tions. hours.

Foremen, scalers, general:

Total
wages.

Cost per 1,000
Output
board feet
in
Wage
produced.
Total
board cost per
output in feet per oneoneOneboard feet.
man
man
hour.
man Wages.
hour.
hours.

2
5

540
1,170

$317.20
332.80

5.938.255
5.938.255

7

1,710

650.00

5,938,255

3,472

55 13,775
33 8,295
20 5,060
2
550

4,029.90
1,946. 20
1,366.15
220.00

5.938.255
5.938.255
5.938.255
5.938.255

T o ta l.....................................
Skidding, yarding, and loading:
Engineers...................................
Firemen
................................
Wood buckers...........................
Chunk sawyers..........................
Pump men.................................
Powder men..............................
Mucker. . . ................................
Splicers.......................................
Spool tenders............................
Signalmen ................................
Chasers........................................
Itisr^ers
...................... ’........
Hook tenders ...........................
Hook tenders, landing.. . . . . .
Night watchmen......................
Machinists..................................

110 27,680

7,562.25

Total........................................
Transportation and unloading:
Engineers...................................
Firemen......................................
Conductors,...............................
Brakemen..................................
........................................
Wiper..........................................
Lineman.....................................

91 22,955

Total........................................
Felling and log making:
Choppers and fellers.................
Peelers a.....................................
Sawyers (buckers)...................
Filers...........................................

7
6
10
3
3
2
1
2
4
4
2
22
8
12
3
2

1,947*
1,370
2 ,472i
675
812^
552i
165
515
1,102-|
1,185
4121
5,447*
2,050
2,717*
940
590

3
846
856
3
3
892
7 1,898
1 Hostler
310
1
310
1
270

10,997 SO 5874
.
5,075
.2844

0.0909
.1970

$0.0534
.0560

.3801

.2880

.1095

431
716
1,174
10,797

.2926
.2346
.2700
.4000

2.3197
1.3969
.8521
.0926

.6786
.3277
.2301
.0370

5,938,255

215

.2732

4.6613

1. 2734

730.30
342. 45
559.15
168. 70
183.25
165.75
33.00
154.50
361.45
238.75
123. 75
1,710.60
897.25
863.50
211. 45
221.60

5.938.255
5.938.255
5.938.255
5.938.255
5.938.255
5.938.255
5.938.255
5.938.255
5.938.255
5.938.255
5.938.255
5.938.255
5.938.255
5.938.255
5.938.255
5.938.255

3,049
4,334
2,402
8,797
7,309
10,748
35,989
11,531
5,386
5,011
14,396
1,090
2,897
2,185
6,317
10,065

.3750
.2500
.2261
.2499
.2255
.3000
.2000
.3000
.3278
. 2015
.3000
.3140
. 4377
.3178
. 2249
.3756

.3280
.2307
.4164
.1137
.1368
.0930
.0278
.0867
.1857
. 1996
.0695
.9174
.3452
.4576
. 1583
.0994

.1230
.0577
.0942
.0284
.0309
.0279
.0056
.0260
.0609
.0402
.0208
.2881
. 1511
. 1454
. 0356
.0373

6,965.45

5,938,255

259

. 3042

3. 8656

1.1730

380.70
231.10
356.80
569. 40
85.00
50.00
94.50

5.938.255
5.938.255
5.938.255
5.938.255
5.938.255
5.938.255
5.038.255

7,019
6,937
6,657
3,129
19.156
19.156
21,994

.4500
.2700
.4000
.3000
.2742
.1613
.3500

.1425
.1442
.1502
.3196
.0522
.0522
.0455

.0641
.0389
.0601
.0959
.0143
.0084
.0159

1,103

.3284

.9063

.2976

1.2436 i

.2582

Total........................................

19

5,382

1,767.50

5,938,255

Maintenance of transportation___

28

7,385

1,533.10

5,938,255

804 j .2076

a Only the redwood timber is peeled, but the cost is here spread over all the timber cut.

In the logging operations of this establishment redwood, white
pine, and fir were being cut. Under “ Felling and log making” in
the table above it is seen that there were 55 2 choppers and fellers,
whose job it is to notch the trees and saw them down.3 During the
1 Pages 99-146.
2 The number of different employees working at a given occupation is seldom the same as the number
of full-time positions. To count an employee once in each occupation at which he worked would show
a total of employees in excess of the number actually employed in the establishment. If, on the other
hand, each employee was counted only in the occupation at which he worked the greater part of his time,
other occupations might not be fairly represented m number of employees and some might conceivably
be filled by employees none of whom worked a sufficient time to be counted as employees. For these
reasons it has seemed best to show the number of full-time positions to be filled irrespective of the number
of employees working in those positions.
3 For a complete description of processes and occupations in logging and sawmill operations, see pages
147-192.




75

PRODUCTIVITY AND COST OF LABOR.

period under investigation choppers and fellers worked a total of
13,775 hours; the average hourly wage was 29J cents; the trees out
during the period yielded 5,938,255 board feet when manufactured
into lumber. This amounted to 431 board feet per one-man hour
in the occupation of chopping and felling. In other words, each
chopper and feller in each hour he worked did his part on what
would be 431 board feet of lumber in the pile when all the other
operations had been performed by other men. Expressing the pro­
ductivity of the chopper and feller in terms of 1,000 board feet, it is
found that the time cost of felling the trees is practically 2J hours
one-man time per 1,000 board feet of sawed lumber. In other words,
each member of the crew required on the average two and one-third
hours to fell trees enough to make eventually 1,000 board feet of
sawed lumber. The labor cost in wages of felling trees is seen to be
$0.6786 per 1,000 board feet of lumber.
In a similar manner the productivity and cost of labor are shown
for each process and occupation necessary in converting the tree into
logs and delivering them at the log pond or yard of the sawmill.
The productivity and cost of labor in succeeding processes by
which the logs are converted into lumber and the lumber is piled in the
yard are shown for the same establishment in the following table:
T a b l e 1 1 . — PR OD UCTIVITY

AN D COST OF LABOR IN SAW M ILL OPERATION: ESTAB­
LISHM ENT NO. 21.

[Equipment.—Two single-cut bandsaws; 1 double-cut band saw; 1 sash gang saw; 3 edgers; 3 trimmers.
Material.—Number of logs, 4,623; log scale, 7,927,000 board feet; log average, 1,713.9 board feet; kinds of
timber: redwood 64.1 per cent; white pine, fir, and spruce, 35.9 per cent. Prod net.—-Lumber tally,
5,975,000 board feet; prevailing sizes, four and eight quarter in stock widths.]

Full­ Total
time
oneOccupation, process, or machine. posi­ man
tions. hours.

Total
wages.

Output
Wage
in
Total out­
cost
board
put in
per
feet per oneboard
onefeet.
man
man
hour.
hour.

Cost per 1,000
board feet pro­
duced.
Oneman
hours.

Wages.

0.0452
.4124

$0.0310
.1093

Sawmill: Foreman..........................
Log pond or yard............................

1
9

270
2,464

$185.00
652. 90

5.975.000
5.975.000

22,130 $0. 6852
2,425
.2650

Sawmill deck:
Scalers.........................................
Splitter........................................
Drag-saw m en..........................

2
1
2

351
296
536

147. 20
88. 80
131. 35

5.975.000
5.975.000
5.975.000

17,023
20,186
11,147

.4194
.3000
.2451

.0587
.0495
.0897

.0246
.0149
.0220

Total........................................

5

1,183

367. 35

5,975,000

5,051

.3105

.1980

.0615

Band saw No. 1:
Sawyer........................................
Setter...........................................
Dogger.........................................
Tail sawyer................................

1
1
1
1

266
266
266
266

125. 00
73.15
73.15
66.50

1.877.055
1.877.055
1.877.055
1.877.055

7.057
7.057
7.057
7.057

.4699
.2750
.2750
.2500

. 1417
.1417
.1417
.1417

.0666
.0390
.0354
.0354

Total........................................

4

1,064

337.80

1,877,055

1,764

.3175

.5668

.1800

Band saw No. 2:
. Sawyer........................................
Setter..........................................
Dogger.........................................
Tail sawyer................................

1
1
1
1

266
266
266
266

118. 40
73.15
59. 85
66.50

1.716.147
1.716.147
1.716.147
1.716.147

6.652
6.652
6.652
6.652

.4451
.2750
.2250
.2500

. 1550
.1550
. 1550
.1550

.0690
.0426
.0349
.0387

Total........................................

4

1,064

317.90

1,716,147

1,613

.2988

.6200

. 1852




76

LUMBER M ANUFACTURING.

T a b l e 1 1 .—PRODUCTIVITY AND COST OF L A BO R IN SAWMILL OPERATION: ESTAB­

LISHMENT NO. 21—Continued.

Full­ Total
time oneOccupation, process, or machine. posi­ man
tions. hours.

Band saw No. 3 (double-cut):
Sawyer...................................
Setter.....................................
Dogger...................................
Tail sawyer..........................

Total
wages.

Output Wage
in
cost
Total out­ board
per
put in.
feet per
oneboard
oneman
feet.
man
hour.
hour.

1
1
1
1

270
270
270
270

$162.60
74.25
6a 75
67.50

2,381,798
2,381,798
2,381,798
2,381,798

8,821 $0.6000
8,821
.2750
8,821
.2250
8,821
.2500

Cost per 1,000
board feet pro­
duced.
Oneman
hours.

Wages.

a 1134
.1134
.1134
.1134

3a 0680
.0312
.0255
.0283

Total..

4

1,080

364.50

2,381,798

2,205

.3375

.4534

.1530

Total band saws:
Sawyers..........
Setters.............
Doggers...........
Tail sawyers..

3
3
3
3

802
802
802
802

405.40
220.55
193.75
200.50

5,975,000
5,975,000
5,975,000
5,975,000

7,450 ! .5055
7,450
.2750
.2416
7,450
7,450
.2500

.1342
.1342
.1342
.1342

.0678
.0369
.0324
.0336

Total..

12

3,208

1,020.20

5/975,000

1,863

.3180

.5369

.1707

1
4

270
1,080

81.00
222. 75

5,975,000
5,975,000

22,130
5,532

.3000
.2063

. 0452
.1808

.0133
. 0373

,ng saw:
Sawyer..................
Sawyer's helpers.
Total.............................

5

1,350

303. 75

5,975,000

4,426

.2250

.2259

.0503

Total sawing (band, gang, resaw).

17

4,558

1,323.95

5,975,000

1,311

.2905

.7628

.2216

1
2

266
532

86.45
113. 05

1,877,055
1,877,055

7,057
3,528

.3250
.2125

.1417
.2834

.0461
.0602

3

798

199.50

1,877,055

2,352

.2500

.4251

.1063

1
2

266
532

86.45
113.05

1,716,147
1,716,147

6,652
3,226

.3250
.2125

.1550
.3100

.0504
.0659

3

798

199.50

1,716,147

2,151

.2500

.4650

.1162

1
2

270
540

87.75
114. 75

2,381,798
2,381,798

8,821
4,411

.3250
. 2125

. 1134
.2267

.0368
.0482

3

810

202.50

2,381,798

2,940

.2500

.3401

.0850

3
6

802
1,604

260.65
340.85

5,975,000
5,975,000

7,450
3,725

. 3250
.2125

.1342
.2685

.0436
.0570

9

2,406

601.50

5,975,000

2.483

.2500

.4027

.1007

1
1

266
266

73.15
62. 51

1,877,055
1,877,055

7,057
7,057

.2750
.2350

.1417
.1417

.0390
.0333

532

135. 66

1,877,055

3,528

.2550

.2834

.0723

266
266

66.50
53.20

1,716,147
1,716,147

6,452
6,452

.2500
.2000

.1550
.1550

.0387
.0310

532

119. 70

1,716,147

3,226

.2250

.3100

.0697

1

1

270
270

74.25
54.00

2,381,798
2,381,798

8,821
8,821

.2750
.2000

. 1134
.1134

.0312
.0227

Edger No. 1:
Edgerman.......................
Edgerman's helpers___
Total..
Edger No. 2:
Edgerman.................
Edgerman's helpers.
Total..
Edger No. 3:
Edgerman................. .
Edgerman's helpers..
Total..
Total edging:
Edgermen.................. .
Edgerman’s helpers.
Total..
Trimmer No. 1:
Operator.................
Operator's helper.
Total............ .
Trimmer No. 2:
Operator.................
Operator's helper -

1
1

Total..
Trimmer No. 3:
Operator.................
Operator's helper.

2

540

12a 25

2,381,798

4,411

. 2375

.2267

.0533

Total trimming:
Operators.................
Operator's helpers..

3
3

802
802

213. 90
169. 71

5,975,000
5,975,000

7,450
7,450

.2667
.2116

.1342
.1342

.0353
.0284

TotaL....................

6

1,604

383. 61

5,975,000

3,725

.2392

.2635

,0642

Total-




77

PRODUCTIVITY AND COST OF LABOR.

T able 11 ^ -P R O D U C T IV IT Y AND COST OF L A B O R IN SA W M ILL O P E R A T IO N : ESTAB­
LISH M EN T NO. 21—Concluded.
-— — --- —^ ------- --r-a

Full­ Total
oneOccupation, process, or machine. time
posi­ man
tions. hours.

Total
wages.

Output Wage
in
Total out­ board
cost
put in
per
feet per oneboard
oneman
feet.
man
hour.
hour.

Cost per 1,000
board feet pro­
duced.
Oneman
hours.

Wages.

Refuse—slasher, hog, burner..........
Filers..................................................
Power and oiling..............................
Repair................................................
Nigfet watch and fire protection...
Clean-up and miscellaneous................

2
4
22
5
5
10

540
1,080
5,965
1,382
1,280
2,767

$114.75
621.00
1,757.35
505.60
288.00
498.44

5.975.000
5.975.000
5.975.000
5.975.000
5.975.000
5.975.000

11,065 $0.2125
5,532
.5750
.2946
1,002
4,323
.3658
4,668
.2250
2,159
.1801

0.0904
.1808.9983
. 2313
.2142
.4631

9Q 0192
.
.1089
.2941
.0846
.0482
.0834

Sorting green lumber:
Foreman.....................................
Tallyman...................................
Graders.....................................
Sorters and loaders...................

1
1
4
41

270
270
1,060
11,017

100.00
87.75
304.50
2,488.55

5.975.000
5.975.000
5.975.000
5.975.000

22.130
22.130
5,637
542

.3704
.3250
.2873
.2259

.0452
.0452
.1774
1.8438

.0167
.0147
.0510
.4165

Total........................................

47

12y6l7

2 ,89a 80

5,975,000

474

.'m i

2.1116

.4838

Yard—green lumber:
Forem an...................................
Transferring............................
Piling...........................................

1
5
46

270
1,345
12,378

115.00
298.30
2,485.97

5.975.000
5.975.000
5.975.000

22,130
4,442
483

4259
2218
.2008

.0452
. 2251
2.0716

.0192
.0499
.4161

.
.

In the summary table which follows there is shown the pro­
ductivity and cost of labor for processes in manufacture from tree
to lumber pile for six establishments selected from different forest
areas. Occupation detail, total hours, total wages, and total output
are omitted. For each process there is shown the output in board
feet and the wage cost per one-man hour, and the cost in time and
in wages per 1,000 board feet produced.
It will be observed that in Establishment 21, and for the period
selected, 19.6860 hours of one man’s time would be required to
produce 1,000 board feet of lumber if he performed all the processes
from the standing tree to lumber in the pile. The output in board
feet per one-man hour from tree to lumber pile was 58 board feet.
The average wages paid per one-man hour to all occupations through­
out the processes was $0.2693. The cost in wages of all labor neces­
sary to produce 1,000 board feet of lumber was $5.3024.
TABiE 1 3 .—SU M M AR Y OF PR O D U CT IVIT Y AN D COST OF LABO R FOR
L U M B ER -P ILE OPERATIONS IN S IX ESTABLISHMENTS.

Establishment No. 21.

T R E E -TO

Redwood, white pine, and fir.
Cost per 1,000 board
feet prc>duced.

Output in
board feet
per oneman hour.

Wage cost
per oneman hour.

Logging:
Foremen, sealers, general................................................
FeJrM and log
ng
Skidding, yarding, and loading....................................
Transportation and unloading.......................................
Maintenance of transportation......................................

3,472
215
259
1,103
804

$0.3801
.2732
.3012
.3284
.2076

0.2880
4.6613
3.8656
.9063
1.2436

10.1095
1.2734
1.1730
.2976
.2582

Total logging.................... *............................................

91

.2338

10.9648

3.1117

Occupation, process, or machine.




One-man
hours.

Wages.

78

LUMBEB MANUFACTURING.

F a b le

1 2 . —-SUM M ARY

OF P R O D U C T IV IT Y A N D COST OF L A B O R FOR T R E E -TO L U M B ER -P ILE O PER ATIO NS IN S IX E STABLISH M EN TS—Continued.

Establishment No. 21.

Redwood, white pine, and fir—Concluded.

Occupation, process, or machine.

Output in
board feet Wage cost
per oneper oneman hour. man hour.

Cost*per 1,000 board
feet produced.
One-man
hours.

Wages.

Log pond or yard................................

2,425

10.2650

0.4124

$0.1093

Sawmill:
Foremen.........................................
Deck................................................
Sawing—head, gang, and resaw
Edging............................................
Trimming......................................
Refuse—slasher, hog, burner . . .
Filing..............................................
Power and oiling..........................
Repair............................................
Night watch and fire protection
Clean-up and miscellaneous___

22,130
5,051
1,311
2,483
3,725
11,065
5,532
1,002
4,323
4,668
2,159

.6852
.3105
.2905
.2500
.2392
.2125
.5750
.2946
.3658
.2250
.1801

.0452
.1980
.7628
.4027
.2685
.0904
.1808
.9983
.2313
.2142
.4631

.0310
.0615
.2216
.1007
.0642
.0192
.1039
.2941
.0846
.0482
.0834

Total sawmill............................

259

.2855

3.8553

1.1124

Sorting...................................................

474

.2291

2.1116

.4838

Yard—green lumber:
Foremen.........................................
Transferring..................................
Piling..............................................

22,130
4,442
483

.4259
.2218
.2008

.0452
.2251
2.0716

.0192
.0499
.4161

Total yard.................................

427

Total, tree to lumber pile------

58

Establishment No. 2.

.2072
.2693 |
I

2.3419

.4852

19.6860

5.3024

White oak, poplar, and miscellaneous hard woods.

Logging:
Foremen, scalers, general................................................
Felling and log making..................................................
Skidding, yarding, and loading.....................................
Transportation and unloading......................................
Maintenance of transportation......................................
Total logging..................................................................

1,750
102
116
327
315

4Q
J

$0.2708
.1598
.1744
.2372
.1649

0.5715
9.8043
8. 6305
3.0621
3.1785

$0.1548
1.5667
1.5054
.7262
.5242

.1795

25.2469

4.4773

Log pond or yard.....................................................................

1,804

.1874

.5543

.1039

Sawmill:
Foremen..............................................................................
Deck.....................................................................................
Sawing—head, gang, and resaw’ ...................................
Edging................................................................................
Trimming...........................................................................
Refuse—slasher, hog, burner.........................................
Filing...................................................................................
Power and oiling...............................................................
Repair.................................................................................
Night watch and fire protection...................................
Clean-up and miscellaneous...........................................

8,918
4,459
689
2,234
2,973
4,367
3,252
1,417
901
6,776
1,276

.6094
.2427
.2779
.1750
.2000
. 1653
.4667
.2383
.2379
.1750
.1591

.1121
.2243
1.4507
.4477
.3364
.2290
.3075
.7056
1.1094
.1476
.7837

.0683
.0544
.4032
.0783
.0673
.0379
.1435
.1681
.2639
.0258
.1247

Total sawmill.................................................................

171

. 2444

5.8540

1.4354

Sorting........................................................................................

960

.1926 |

1.0415

.2006

Yard— green lumber:
Foremen.............................................................................
Transferring......................................................................
Piling...................................................................................

8,870
1,809
576

.4000
.1740
.1949

.1127
.5528
1. 7374

.0451
.0962
.3386

Total yard......................................................................

416

.2007

2. 4029

.4799

Total, tree to lumber pile...........................................

29

.2266

35.0996

6.6971




79

PRODUCTIVITY AND COST OF LABOR.
TABLE

1 3 . — SUM MARY

OF PR ODU CTIVITY AN D COST OF LABO R FOR T R E E -TO LU M B ER -P ILE OPERATIONS IN S IX E STABLISH M EN TS—Continued.

Establishment No. 13.

Western yellow jyine and larch.

Occupation, process, or machine.

Cost per 1,000 board
feet produced.

Output in
board feet
per oneman hour.

Wage cost
per oneman hour.

2,168
394
118
1,257
2,505

$0.4512
.3089
.3062
.4293
.6550

0.4613
2.5381
8.4705
.7958
.3992

$0.2082
.7839
2.5941
.3417
.2615

Logging:
Foremen, scalers, general................................................
Felling and log making..................................................
Skidding, yarding, and loading....................................
Transportation and unloading......................................
Maintenance of transportation......................................

One-man
hours.

Wages.

Total logging..................................................................

79

.3308

12.6649

4.1894

Log pond or yard....................................................................
Sawmill:
Foremen.............................................................................
Deck....................................................................................
Sawing—head, gang, and resaw...................................
Edging.................................................................................
Trimming...........................................................................
Refuse—slasher, hog, burner.........................................
Filing.................................................................. ...............
Power and oiling...............................................................
Repair.................................................................................
Night watch and fire protection...................................
Clean-up and miscellaneous...........................................

9,365

.2929

.1068

.0313

19,263
6,421
1,494
2,158
1,482
19,263
7,173
2,560
2,390
4,352
9,631

.7099
.3148
. 4508
.3173
.2646
. 3055
.8338
.3840
.3997
.3441
.3032

.0519
.1557
.6694
.4634
.6749
.0519
.1394
.3907
.4184
.2298
.1038

.0369
.0490
.3018
.1470
.1786
.0159
.1163
.1500
.1672
.0791
.0315

Total sawmill................................................................

299

.3790

3.3493

1.2733

Sorting........................................................................................
Yard—green lumber:
Foremen.............................................................................
Transferring............................ .........................................
Piling...................................................................................

647

. 2781

1.5466

.4300

37,986
2,385
581

.6000
.3352
.3107

.0263
.4192
1.7202

.0158
.1405
.5304

Total yard......................................................................

462

.3290

Total, tree to lumber pile.........................................

50

Establishment No. 17.
Logging:
Foremen, scalers, general...............................................
Felling and log making...................................................
Skidding, yarding, and loading....................................
Transportation and unloading......................................
Maintenance of transportation....................................

.3363 |

2.1657

.6867

19.8333

6.6107

Douglas fir.
1,122
283
222
782
212

$0.3599
.2967
.3242
.4413
. 1989

0.8910
3.5288
4.5073
1.2783
4. 7274

$0.3207
1.0469
1.4614
.5641
.9403

Total logging.................................................................

67

.2902

14.9328

4.3334

Log pond or yard....................................................................
Sawmill:
Foremen.............................................................................
Deck....................................................................................
Sawing—head, gang, and resaw .................................
Edging................................................................................
Trimming..........................................................................
Refuse—slasher, hog, and burner................................
Filing..................................................................................
Power and oiling..............................................................
Repair................................................................................
Night watch and fire protection...................................
Clean-up and miscellaneous..........................................

3,045

.2853

.3284

.0937

12,459
18,938
1,060
3,948
3,510
5,205
6,009
1,304
3,773
3,410
2,876

.5032
.2354
. 2649
.2598
.2489
.2069
.4711
.2919
.2881
.2390
.2170

.0803
.0528
.9431
.2533
.2849
. 1921
.1669
. 7665
.2650
.2933
.3477

.0404
.0124
.2498
.0658
.0709
.0397
.0784
.2237
.0764
.0701
.0754

Total sawmill................................................................

274

.2752

3.6459

1.0030

535 |

.2221

1. 8706

.4155

.5000
.2212
.2314

.0268
.5311
2. 4586

.0134
.1175
.5863

Sorting.......................................................................................
Yard—green lumber:
Foremen.............................................................................
Transferring.......................................................................
Piling..................................................................................

37,327
1,883
407

Total yard......................................................................

332

Total, tree to lumber pile............................................

100531°— 18— Bull. 225------ 6




42 |

.2329

3.0165

.7172

.2669

23.7942

6.5628

80

LUMBER M ANUFACTURING.

T a b le

1 3 .—SUM M AR Y OF P R O D U C T IV IT Y AN D COST OF LABO R FOR T R E E-TO LU M B ER -P ILE O PER ATIONS IN S I X ESTABLISH M EN TS—Concluded.

Establishment No. 22.

Cypress and gum.
Output in Wage costboard feet
per oneper oneman hour. man hour.

Occupation, process, or machine.

Logging:
Felling and log rna.Tnnp'.
________
Skidding, yarding, and loading....................................

Cost per 1,000 board
feet produced.
One-man
hours.

Wages.

1,752
264
148
566
216

$0.2989
.2422
.2023
.2116
.1777

0.5708
3.7932
6.7596
1. 7677
4.6309

SO 1706
.
.9187
1.3675
. 3740
.8231

Total logging..................................................................

57

.2085

17. 5223

3. 6539

Log pond or yard.....................................................................

1,881

.1995

.5316

.1061

Sawmill:
Foremen.............................................................................
Deck....................................................................................
Sawing—head, gang, and resaw....................................
Edging................................................................................
Trimming...........................................................................
Refuse—slasher, hog, and. burner................................
F ilin g.................................................................................
Repair.................................................................................
Power and oiling..............................................................
Night watch and fire protection...................................
Clean-up and miscellaneous...........................................

6,521
2,717
815
815
2,717
1,996
4,076
2,115
1,102
1,778
1,412

.6400
.2167
.3250
.1310
.2-087
.1622
.5000
.2200
.2687
.1689
.2004

.1533
. 3681
1.2208
1.2268
.3681
.5010
. 2454
.4728
.9073
.5623
. 7080

.0981
. 0707
.3987
. 1608
. 0768
.0813
.1227
. 1040
.2438
.09-50
. 1419

Total sawmill.................................................................

148

.2378

6. 7399

1. 6028

Sorting.......................................................................................

773

.1711

1. 2933

.2213

.3850 ^
. 1601 1
. 3750

.1534
1.1579
1.4004

. 0590
. 1853
.5252

Yard—green lumber:
Foremen.............................................................................
Piling...................................................................................

6,521
864
714

Total yard......................................................................

369

Total,tree to lumber pile............................................

35

T ran sferring......................................................................................

Establishment No. 26.

.2838

2. 7117

. 7695

28.7988

6,3536

$0.2049
.2256
.2283
.2483
. 1631

0.9754
2.4622
.6624
4.1869
4. 8194

$0.1998
. 5555
1.5124
1.03^3
. 78o2

.2183 I

Short-leaf yellow pine.

Logging:
Foremen, sealers, general................................................
Felling and log making...................................................
Skidding, yarding, and loading....................................
Transportation and unloading......................................
Maintenance of transportation......................................

1,025
406
151
239
207

Total logging..................................................................

52

. 2206

13.1063

4.0937

Log pond or yard.....................................................................
Sawmill:
Foremen.............................................................................
Deck....................................................................................
Sawing—head, gang, and resaw....................................
Edging................................................................................
Trimming..........................................................................
Refuse—
slasher, hog, burner..........................................
Filing..................................................................................
Power and oiling..............................................................
Repair.................................................................................
Night watch and fire protection...................................
Clean-up and miscellaneous...........................................

3,291

.2050

.3038

. 0523

16,457
8,228
823
2,743
4,114
6,583
5,485
1,371
3,827
3,501
2,006

.5830
.2625
.2635
.2167
.1763
.1560
.6667
.3273
.2768
.1489
.1594

.0608
. 1215
1.2153
. 3646
.2431
.1519
.1823
.7292
.2613
.2856
.4983

.0351
.0319
.3203
.0790
.0428
.0237
.1215
. 2387
.0723
.0425
.0794

Total sawmill................................................................

242

.2644

4.1139

1.0875

Sorting.......................................................................................
Yard—green lumber:
Foremen.............................................................................
Transferring................................k....................................
Piling...................................................................................

694

.1729

1.4402

.2491

16,457
1,349
713

.2750
.1757
.184*1

.0608
.7413
1.4035

.0167
.1302
.2588

Total yard......................................................................

467

.1839

2.2056

.4057

Total,tree to lumber pile............................................

47

.2232

21.1G
9S

5.8983




81

PRODUCTIVITY AND COST OP LABOR.

The two following tables summarize the productivity and cost of
labor by processes for each of the 27 establishments covered by the
investigation. Table 13 shows logging operations; Table 14, sawmill
operations.1
T a b le

Establishmenfc
No.

1 3 .—SUM M ARY OF P R O D U CTIVITY AND COST OF L A BO R IN 11 LOGGING ESTAB­
LISHM ENTS, B Y PROCESSES.

SkidTrans­
Mainte­
Felling
ding,
porta­
and log yarding, tion and nance of
transpor­
making. and load­ unload­
tation.
ing.
ing.

Productivity and cost.

Fore­
man,
scaler,
general.

2

Output per one-man hour............. board feet..
Cost per one-man hoar...........................wages..
Cost per 1,000 board feet \ / One-man hoars..
produced...................... / ' W ages.................

1,750
$0.2708
.5715
$0.1548

102
$0.1598
9.8043
$1.5067

13

Output per one-man hour............. board feet..
Cost per one-man hour...........................wages..
Cost p r 1,000 board feet \ / One-man hours..
ea
produced...................... j**\W ages.................

2,168
$0.4512
.4613
$0.2082

17

Output per one-man hour............. board feet..
Cost per one-man hour...........................wages..
Cost per 1,000 board feet \ i One-man hours..
produced...................... /"\ W a g e s .................

18

116
$0.1744
8.3305
$1.5054

327
$0.2372
3.0621
$0.7262

315
$0.1649
3.1785
$0.5242

$0.3080
2.5381
$0.7839

118
$0.3062
8.4705
$2.5941

1,257
$0.4293
.7968
$0.3417

2,505
$0.6550
.3992
$0.2615

1,122
$0.3599
.8810
$0.3207

283
$0.2967
3.5288
$1.0469

222
$0.3242
4.5073
$1.4614

782
$0.4413
1.2783
$0.5641

212
$0.1989
4.7274
$0.9403

Output per one-man hoar............. board feet..
Cost per one-man hoar.......................... wages
Cost per 1,000 board feet \ / One-man hours..
prcxiuced......................./ ' "\Wages.................

7,265
$0.4524
.1376
$0.0623

862
$0.3451
1.1598
$0.4003

243
$0.3124
4.1084
$1.2838

820
$0.3415
1.2199
$0.4166

724
$0.2704
1.3821
$0.3737

19

Output per one-man hour............. board feet..
Cost per one-man hour.......................... wages..
Cost per 1,000 board feet \ / One-man hoars..
produced......................./ - W ages.................

5,006
$0.4121
.1998
$0.0823

599
$0.2844
1.6692
$0.4747

288
$0.2879
3.4751
$1.0005

3,360
$0.3654
.2977
$0.1088

3,713
$0.2958
.2693
$0.0796

20

Output per one-man hour............. board feet..
Cost per one-man hour...........................wages..
Cost per 1,000 board feet \ /One-man hours..
produced...................... J- -\Wages.................

2,971
$0.4061
.3366
$0.1337

108
$0.2706
6.4843
$1.7543

113
$0.2912
8.8731
$2.5842

1,465
$0.2873
.6826
$0.1961

1,671
$0.2453
.5984
$0.1468

21

Output per one-man hour............. board feet..
Cost per one-man hour...........................wages..
Cast per 1,000 board feet \ fOne-man hours..
produced...................... /* *\Wages.................

3,472
$0.3801
.2880
$0.1096

215
$0.2732
4,6613
$1.2734

259
$0.3042
3.8656
$1.1730

1,103
$0.3284
.9063
$0.2976

804
$0.2076
1.2436
$0.2582

22

Output per one-man hour............... board feet..
Cost per one-man hour...........................wages..
Cost per 1,000 board feet \ fOne-man hours..
produced...................... J *"\W ages.................

1,752
$0.2£89
.5708
$0.1708

264
$0.2422
3.7932
$0.9187

143
$0.2023
6.7596
$1.3675

5m
$0.2116
1.7677
$0.3740

216
$0.1777
4.6310
$0.8231

Output per one-man h o a r ........b o a r d feet..
Cost per 1,000 board feet \ / One-man hoars..
produced.......................j'*\ W a g e s.................

6,987
$0.5255
.1431
$0.0752

446
$0.1763
2.2442
$0.3957

276
$0.18*8
3.7723
$0.6879

1,131
$0.1654
.8841
$0.1462

1,379
$0.2183
.7252
$0.1583

Output per cme^nan hour___ ___ board feet..
Cost pea: one-man hour..........................wages..
Cost per 1,000 board feet \ fOne-man hours. .
produced............... . . . / * *\Wages.................

1,025
$0.20*9
.9754
$0.1998

406
$0.2256
2.4622
$0.5555

151
$0.2283
.6624
$1.5124

239
$0.2483
4.1869
$1.0398

207
$0.1631
4.8194
$0.7862

Oatp at per one-man hour............. board feet..

15,925
$0.8269
.0628
$0.0519

1,231
$0.3128
.8122
$0.2540

211
$0.3082
4.1542
$1.2804

1,542
$0.3084
.6487
$0.2000

10,131
$0.2128
.9871
$0.2100

24

m

27

Cost per 1,000 board feet \ JOne-man hours..
produced...................... j'*\ W age s.................

m

1 Occupation and other detail lor these establishments is shown in Table 16, pages 99-146.




82

LUMBER MANUFACTURING.
T a b le

EstabJishment
No.

1 4 .—SU M M ARY OF P R O D U C T IV IT Y A N D COST OF

P roductive and cost.

Saw­
mill
fore­
man.

Log
Saw­
pond or mill
yard.
deck.

Sawing:
head, Edging. Trim­
gang,
ming.
resaw*.

1

10.941
2,761
6,119
Output per one-man hour............. board feet..
2,492
6,119
1,035
Cost per one-man hour...........................wages.. $0.8000 $0.1697 $0.2125 $0.3569 $0.2602 $0.3000
.0914
.3621
.1634
.9659
.4012
Cost per 1,000 board feet \ ( One-man hours..
.1634
produced............... \W ages................................ $0.0731 $0.0615 $0.0347 $0.3447 $0.1044 $0.0490

2

1,804
4,459
8,918
2,234
2,973
Output per one-man hour............. board feet..
689
Cost per one-man hour...........................wages.. $0.6094 $0.1874 $0.2427 $0.2779 $0.1750 $0.2000
.1121
.5543
.2243 1.4507
.4477
Cost per 1,000 board feet \ /One-man hours..
.3364
produced...................... / " \W ages................... $0.0683 $0.1039 $0.0544 $0.4032 $0.0783 $0.0673

3

11,739
2,890 11,739
Outnut per one-man hour............. board feet..
1,098
2,935
2,935
Cost per one-man hour...........................wages.. $0.4231 $0.2335 $0.2692 $0.3064 $0.2550 $0.2671
.0852
.3407
.3407
Cost per 1,000 board feet \ /One-man hours..
.0852
.3460
.9108
produced....................... / •' \W ages.................. $0.0360 $0.0808 $0.0229 $0.2791 $0.0869 $0.0910

4

2,713
4,634
4,634
1,159
2,317
2,317
Output per one-man hour............. board feet..
Cost per one-man hour.......................... wages.. $0.3819 $0. 2200 $0.2450 $0.3082 $0.2473 $0.2575
.3686
. 8631
Cost per 1,000 board feet\ fOne-man hours..
.2158
.4316
.2158
.4316
produced..................../••\Wages..................... $0.0824 $0.0811 $0.0529 $0.2660 $0.1067 $0.1111

6

Output per one-man hour............. board feet..
Cost per one-man hour...................... wages___
Cost per 1,000 board feett f One-man hours..
produced...................../•*\Wages....................

6

3,202
12,807
3,202
Output per one-man hour............. board feet..
985
2,135
2,135
Cost per one-man hour...........................wages.. $0.3551 $0.1846 $0. 2308 $0.2964 $0.2538 $0.2538
. 3123 1.0151
.3123
.0781
Cost per 1,000 board feet \ /One-man hours..
. 4685
.4685
producea...................... /**\Wages.................. $0.0277 $0.0577 $0.0721 $0.3009 $0.1189 $0.1189

7

2,883
1,922
721
1,441
Output per one-man hour............. board feet..
5,766
2,883
Cost per one-man hour.......................... wages.. $0.4807 $0.1750 $0.3000 $0.2563 $0.2875 $0.3000
Cost per 1,000 board feet\ / One-man hours..
.1734
.3469
.5203 1.3875
.3469
.6937
produced...................... / ■*\W ages................... $0.0834 $0.0607 $0.1561 $0.3555 $0.0997 $0.2081

8

8,284
2,452
8,284
1,069
Output per one-man hour............. board feet..
1,744
3,673
Cost per one-man hour...........................wages.. $0.4196 $0.2424 $0.2650 $0.3961 $0.2985 $0.2699
.1207
.1207
Cost per 1,000 board feet \ fOne-man hours..
.4078
.9355
.5734
.2723
produced....................../* *\Wages.................. $0.0507 $0.0989 $0.0320 $0.3706 $0.1711 $0.0735

9

5,841 12,464
997
Output per one-man hour............. board feet..
16,850
2,106
4,212
Cost per one-man hour...........................wages.. $0.4231 $0. 2450 $0.3847 $0.3491 $0.2916 $0.2875
.0802 1.0030
.1712
Cost per 1,000 board feet \ fOne-man hours..
.0593
.2374
.4748
produced......................./ ’ ' \W ages.................. $0.0251 $0.0419 $0.0309 $0.3501 $0.1384 $0.0682

10

19,333 1 2,682
6,536
940
Output per one-man hour............. board feet..
1,401
3,222
Cost per one-man hour...........................wages.. $0.3846 !$0.2486 $0.2851 $0.3186 $0.1800 $0.2500
Cost per 1,000 board feet\ /One-man hours..
.0517 | .3728
.1530 1.0641
.7138
.3104
produced...................... /• *\Wages................... $0.0199 $0.0927 $0.0436 $0.3390 $0.1285 $0.0776

11

3,800
7,887
1,010
Output per one-man hour............. board feet.-.
10,808
2,231
2,817
Cost per one-man hour.......................... wages.. $0.4321 $0.2572 $0.2588 $0.3704 $0. 2794 $0.2438
.2632
.1268
.9903
.4482
Cost per 1,000 board feet \ / One-man hours..
.0925
.3550
produced............... . . . . / * * \W ages................... $0.0400 $0.0677 $0.0328 $0.3668 $0.1252 $0.0866

12

Output per one-man hour............. board feet..
5,454
5,454
5,454
1,363
2,727
2,727
Cost per one-man hour...........................wages.. $0.5833 $0.3085 $0. 2940 $0.4655 $0.3515 $0.3050
Cost per 1,000 board feet \ /One-man hours..
.1834
.1834
.1834
.7334
.3667
.3667
produced...................... / ' ' \W ages.................. $0.1070 $0.0566 $0.0539 $0.3634 $0.1289 $0.1118

13

6,421
1,494
Output per one-man hour............. board feet..
19,263
9,365
2,158
1,482
Cost per one-man hour...........................wages.. $0. 7099 $0.2929 $0.3148 $0.4508 $0.3173 $0.2646
.1557
Cost per 1,000 board feet \ /One-man hours..
.0519
.1068
.6694
.4634
.6749
produced......................./* *\Wages.................. $0.0369 $0.0313 $0.0490 $0.3018 $0.1470 $0.1786

14

Output per one-man hour............. board feet..
Cost per one-man hour.......................... wages..
Cost per 1,000 board feet\ fOne-man hours..
produced...................../ ” \W ages..................

15

Output per one-man hour............. board feet..
12,179
4,102 12,327
1,419
3,078
2,985
Cost per one-man hour...........................wages.. $0. 4733 $0.3058 $0.2833 $0.3216 $0.2961 $0. 2930
Cost per 1,000 board feet\ / One-man hours..
.0821
.2438
.0811
.7047
.3350
.3249
produced...................... j**\W ages.................. $0.0389 $0.0746 $0.0230 $0.2267 $0.0963 $0.0981




2,777
3,703
11,109
926
1,851
2,777
$0.4615 $0.1846 $0. 2423 $0. 2721 $0. 2500 $0.2432
.3601
.2701 1.0802
.0900
.5401
.3601
$0.0415 $0.0665 $0.0654 $0.2939 $0.1350 $0.0873

3,091
4,452
13,135
1,383
1,947
2,452
$0.6916 $0.3243 $0.3002 $0.3882 $0.2882 $0.2540
.0761
.3236
.2246
.7233
.5136
. 4079
$0.0527 $0.1049 $0.0674 $0.2807 $0.1480 $0.1036

83

PRODUCTIVITY AND COST OF LABOR.
LABOR IN 26 SAWMILL ESTABLISHMENTS, B Y PROCESSES.

Night Clean-up
EsYard Transfer, Piling
Sorting
watch
taband mis­ green foreman, green
green.
and fire cella­
lishgreen
lumber. lumber. lumber. iumoer. ment
protec­
neous.
tion.
No.

Refuse:
slasher,
hog,
burner.

Filing.

Power
and
oiling.

12,238
$0.2250
.0817
$0.0184

6,119
$0.7000
.1634
$0.1144

1,863
$0.3153
.5367
$0.1692

1,252
$0.2513
.7990
$0.2008

8,239
$0.2038
.1214
$0.0247

3,462
$0.1943
.2888
$0.0561

1,430
$0.2240
.6992
$0.1566

10,941
$0.5000
.0914
$0.0457

1,384
$0.1788
.7224
$0.1292

700
$0.1967
1.4280
$0.2809

1

4,367
$0.1653
.2290
$0.0379

3,252
$0.4667
.3075
$0.1435

1,417
$0.2383
.7056
$0.1681

901
$0.2379
1.1094
$0.2639

6,776
$0.1750
.1476
$0.0258

1,276
$0.1591
.7837
$0.1247

960
$0.1926
1.0415
$0.2006

8,870
$0.4000
.1127
$0.0451

1,809
$0.1740
.5528
$0.0962

576
$0.1949
1. 7374
$0.3386

2

3,750
$0.2066
.2667
$0.0551

3,854
$0.3753
.2595
$0.0974

2,489
$0.2601
.4017
$0.1045

2,396
$0.3889
.4174
$0.1623

7,131
$0. 2200
.1402
$0.0309

978
$0.2162
1.0229
$0.2212

1,273
$0. 2228
.7854
$0.1750

11,739
$0.3846
.0852
$0.0328

1,659
$0.2265
.6029
$0.1366

777
$0.2376
1.2863
$0.3057

3

2,251
$0.2200
.4442
$0.0977

3,862
$0.5708
.2589
$0.1478

1,324
$0.2462
.7552
$0.1859

4,181
$0.3200
.2392
$0.0765

3,835
$0.2450
.2607
$0.0639

3,476
$0.2331
.2877
$0.0671

927
$0.2186
1.0789
$0.2358

1,448
$0.2307
.6905
$0.1593

580
$0.2397
1.7236
$0.4132

4

2,777
$0.1962
.3601
$0.0706

3,703
$0.4231
.2701
$0.1143

1,383
$0.2201
.7229
$0.1591

791
$0.2128
1.2648
$0.2692

3,337
$0.1946
.2997
$0.0583

1,701
$0.1820
.5879
$0.1070

1,182
$0.1887
.8463
$0.1597

22,217
$0.2631
.0450
$0.0118

3,087
$0.1844
.3239
$0.0597

529
$0.1809
1.8916
$0.3422

5

1,830
$0.1846
.5466
$0.1009

6,404
$0.9231
.1562
$0.1442

2,081
$0.2730
.4805
$0.1312

1,968
$0.2488
.5081
$0.1264

10,953
$0.2072
.0913
$0.0189

1,632
$0.1917
.6127
$0.1174

1,159
$0.1974
.8625
$0.1702

10,953
$0.3224
.0913
$0.0294

2,135
$0.1846
.4685
$0.0865

608
$0.1855
1.6457
$0.3054

6

2,883
$0.2000
.3469
$0.0694

5,766
$0.8000
.1734
$0.1387

1,797
$0.2860
.5564
$0.1592

1,521
$0.2654
.6576
$0.1745

2,471
$0.2375
.4047
$0.0961

935
$0.1922
1.0695
$0.2056

961
$0.2458
1.0406
$0.2558

1,441
$0.2500
.6937
$0.1734

961
$0.2250
1.0406
$0.2341

7

6,543
$0.2651
.1528
$0.0405

4,142
$0.5916
.2414
$0.1428

2,771
$0.2627
.3609
$0.0948

5,021
$0.3283
.1992
$0.0654

8,054
$0.2017
.1242
$0.0250

2,420
$0.2341
.4132
$0.0967

738
$0.2506
1.3559
$0.3399

16,568
$0.4911
.0604
$0.0296

1,349
$0.2204
.7413
$0.1634

632
$0.2478
1.5829
$0.3922

8

3,651
$0.2398
.2739
$0.0657

5,617
$0.6767
.1780
$0.1205

3,228
$0.2606
.3079
$0.0807

7,112
$0.2944
.1406
$0.0414

2,923
$0.2501
. 3421
$0.0856

1,452
$0.2029
.6889
$0.1398

935
$0.2583
1.0692
$0.2762

15,107
$0.2948
.0662
$0.0195

2,206
$0.2225
.4533
$0.1009

783
$0.2596
1.2764
$0.3314

9

5,230
$0.2250
.1912
$0.0430

7,733
$0.6600
.1293
$0.0853

3,751
$0.2631
.2666
$0.0701

6,765
$0.3637
.1478
$0.0538

14,915
$0.2284
.0670
$0.0153

3,515
$0.2508
.2845
$0.0714

1,152
$0.2530
.8684
$0.2197

38,665
$0.5128
.0259
$0.0133

1,952
$0.2537
.5124
$0.1300

831
$0.3178
1.2034
$0.3825

10

3,722
$0.2250
.2687
$0.0604

5,612
$0.5750
.1782
$0.1025

2,924
$0.2829
.3420
$0.0968

6,610
$0.3225
.1513
$0.0488

13,265
$0.2244
.0754
$0.0169

2,915
$0.2123
.3430
$0.0728

1,216
$0.2471
.8222
$0.2031

22,448
$0.3205
.0445
$0.0143

1,473
$0.2359
.6790
$0.1602

702
$0.2998
1.4243
$0.4271

11

2,689
$0.3413
.3718
$0.1269

5,454
$0.6784
.1834
$0.1244

1,745
$0.3896
.5732
$0.2233

26,735
$0.4069
.0374
$0.0152

7,791
$0.2971
.1283
$0.0381

4,110
$0.3131
.2433
$0.0762

1,120
$0.2891
.8926
$0.2581

10,100
$0.3704
.0990
$0.0367

1,801
$0.3140
. 5552
$0.1743

1,788
$0.4828
.5592
$0.2700

12

19,263
$0.3055
. 0519
$0.0159

7,173
$0.8338
.1394
$0.1163

2,560
$0.3840
.3907
$0.1500

2,390
$0.3997
.4184
$0.1672

4,352
$0.3441
.2298
$0.0791

9,631
$0.3032
.1038
$0.0315

647
$0.2781
1. 5466
$0.4300

37,986
$0.6000
.0263
$0.0158

2,385
$0.3352
.4192
$0.1405

581
$0.3107
1.7203
$0.5304

13

6,709
$0.2510
. 1490
$0.0374

5,254
$0.6600
.1903
$0.1142

2,894
$0.2913
.3455
$0.1006

6,468
$0.4835
.1546
$0.0747

9,242
$0.4915
.1082
$0.0532

6,567
$0.2628
.1523
$0.0400

Q4Q

26,270
$0.4423
. 0381
$0.0168

1,658
$0.2765
.6032
$0.1668

1,054
$0.3532
.9486
$0.3351

14

$0.2724
1.0534
$.2870

12,327
$0.2583
.0811
$0.0210

6,365
$0.5205
.1571
$0.0818

2,741
$0.3630
.3649
$0.1325

5,539
$0.4143
.1805
$0.0748

7,854
$0.2875
,1273
$0.0366

1,739
$0.2511
.5751
$0.1444

1,450
$0.2958
.6897
$0.2040

31,438
$0.3846
.0318
$0.0122

2,891
1,013
$0.2758 $0.3470
.3159
. 9873
$0.0954 i $0.3426

15




Repair.

84

LUMBER M ANUFACTURING.
T a b l e 1 4 . — SUM M ARY

Estab
lishment
No.

OF PR O D U CT IVIT Y AND COST OF L A B O R

Productivity and cost.

Saw­
mill
fore­
man.

Saw­
Log
pond or mill
yard.
deck.

Sawing:
head, Edging, Trim­
: gang,
ming.
resaw.

1,931
19,423
6,668
9,395
1,025
2,639
$0.6522 $0.2763 $0.3960 $0.2778 $0.2709 $0.2518
.1064
.9759
.1500
.0515
.5180
.3789
$0.0336 $0.0414 $0.0421 $0.2711 $0.1403 $0.0954

16

Output per one-man hour............. board feet..
Cost per one-man hour...........................wages..
Cost per 1,000 board feet\ /One-man hours..
produced...................... j*-\W ages..................

17

3,045 18,938
1,060 , 3,948
3,510
12,459
Output per one-man hour............. board feet..
Cost per one-man hour...........................wages.. $0.5032 $0.2853 $0.2354 $0.2649 $0.2598 $0. 2489
.0528
.3284
.9431
.0803
.2849
Cost per 1,000 board feef\ fOne-man hours..
.2533
produced...................... J**\Wages.................. $0.0404 $0.0937 $0.0124 $0.2498 $0.0658 $0.0709

18

4,869 13,434
Output per one-man hour............. board feet..
26,645
1,219
2,416
2,770
Cost per one-man hour...........................wages.. $0.5729 $0.3083 $0.2845 $0.3072 $0.2774 $0.2806
.2054
.0744
.8204
.4139
.3611
Cost per 1,000 board feet "I fOne-man hours..
.0375
produced...................... /'' \W ages.................. $0.0215 10.0633 $0.0212 $0.2520 $0.1148 $0.1013

19

Output per one-man hour............. board feet..
14,068 10.326 11,078
1,167
2,771
3,694
Cost per one-man hour...........................wages.. $0.4271 $0.2366 $0.2561 $0.3606 $0.2803 $0. 2583
.0903
.2707
.8573
Cost per 1,000 board feet\ f One-man hours..
.0711
.0968
.3609
produced...................... /**\W ages.................. $0.0304 $0.0229 $0.0231 $0.3091 $0.1012 $0.0699

20

3,172
1,189
Output per one-man hour............. board feet..
18,784
2,790
1,5S6
2,379
Cost per one-man hour...........................wages.. $0.4630 $0.2651 $0.2416 $0.3005 $0.2633 $0. 2437
.3585
.3152
.8410
.4204
Cost per 1,000 board feet\ fOne-man hours..
.0532
.6306
produced......................./"\ W a g e s .................. $0.0246 $0.0950 $0.0762 $0.2527 $0.1660 $0.1024

21

1,311
2,483
3,725
Output per one-man hour............. board feet.. 22,130
2,425
5,051
Cost per one-man hour...........................wages.. $0.6852 $0.2650 $0.3105 $0.2905 $0.2500 $0.2392
Cost per 1,000 board feet\ / One-man hours..
.4124
.4027
.0452
.1980
.7628
. 2685
produced...................... f " \W ages.................. $0.0310 $0.1093 $0.0615 $0.2216 $0.1007 $0.0642

22

Output per one-man hour............. board feet..
Cost per one-man hour...........................wages..
Cost per 1,000 board feet f 1One-man hours..
produced.......................\**\Wages..................

23

4,034
Output per one-man hour............. board feet..
8,564
5,178
1,121
2,892
1,840
Cost per one-man hour...........................wages.. $0.6250 $0.1755 $0.2006 $0.2822 $0.2259 $0.1786
.2479
.1931
Cost per 1,000 board feefl /One-man hours..
.5434
.1168
.9881
.3458
produced...................... j "\ W a g e s .................. $0.0730 $0.0435 $0.0387 $0.2789 $0.1228 $0.0618

24

Output per one-man hour............. board feet..
9,314
2,194
4,903
986
1,822
3,553
Cost per one-man hour...........................wages.. $0.4045 $0.1555 $0.1542 $0. 2410 $0.1976 $0.1917
Cost per 1,000 board feet\ fOne-man hours..
.1074
.4559
.2040 1.0145
.2814
.5490
produced...................... / ' * \W ages.................. $0.0434 $0.0709 $0.0314 $0.2445 $0.1085 $0.0539

25

Output per one-man hour............. board feet..
8,763
2,340
6,669
767
1,819
2,858
Cost per one-man hour...........................wages.. $0.4007 $0.1674 $0.1700 $0.2205 $0.1765 $0.1576
Cost per 1,000 board feet) /One-man hours..
.4273
.1141
.1499 1.3045
.5498
.3499
produced...................... /" ( W a g e s .................. $0.0457 $0.0716 $0.0255 $0. 2877 $0.0970 $0.0551

26

16,457
3,291
Output per one-man horn:............. board feet..
8,228
823
4,114
2,743
Cost per one-man hour...........................wages.. $0.5830 $0.2050 $0.2625 $0.2635 $0. 2167 $0.1763
Cost per 1,000 board feetl / One-man hours..
.0608
.3038
.1215 1. 2153
.3646
.2431
produced...................... j**\W ages.................. $0.0354 $0.0623 $0.0319 $0.3203 $0.0790 $0.0428




2,717
2,717
6,521
1,881
815
815
$0.6400 $0.1995 $0. 2167 $0.3250 $0.1310 $0.2087
.5316
.1533
.3681
.3681 1.2268 1.2268
$0.0981 $0.1061 $0. 0797 $0.39S7 $0.1608 $0.0768

85

P R O D U C T IV IT Y A N D C O S T OF L A B O R .
IN 26 SA W M ILL ESTABLISH M ENTS, B Y PROCESSES—Concluded.

Refuse:
slasher,
hog,
burner.

Night Clean-up
EsYard Transfer, Piling
watch
taband mis­ Sorting foreman, green
green
and fire cella­
green
lishgreen
protec­ neous. lumber. lumber. lumber. lumber. ( ment
tion.
No.

Piling.

Power
and
oiling.

Repair.

4,425
$0.2608
.2260
SO. 0589

5,598
$0.4288
.1786
$0.0766

3,243
$0.2601
.3083
$0.0802

1,174
$0.3425
.8515
$0.2917

3,384
$0.2415
.2955
$0.0713

1,963
$0.1915
.5095
$0.0976

549
$0.2268
1.8207
$0.4129

15,870
$0.3000
.0630
$0.0189

1,743
$0.2137
.5737
$0.1226

£64
$0.2081
1.5065
$0.3136

16

5,205
$0.2069
.1921
$0.0397

6,009
$0.4711
.1664
$0.0784

1.305
$0.2919
.7666
$0.2237

3,773
$0.28S1
.2650
$0.0764

3,410 , 2,876
'
$0.2390 1 $0.2170
.3477
.2933
$0.0701 $0.0754

535
$0.2221
1.8706
$0.4155

37,327
$0.5000
.0268
$0.0134

1,883
$0.2212
.5311
$0.1175

407
$0.2314
2.4586
$0.5863

17

9,281
$0.2491
.1077
$0.0268

7,066
$0.5851
.1415
$0.0828

2,764
$0.3083
.3619
$0.1116

1,230
$0.3441
.8130
$0.2798

20,628
$0.2581
.0485
$0.0125

1,366
$0.2494
.7318
$0.1825

534
$0.2393
1.8718
$0.4478

24,595
$0.3846
.0407
$0.0156

1,430
$0.2619
.6994
$0.1831

782
$0.2361
1.2787
$0.3018

18

3,680
$0.2499
.2717
$0.0679

5,023
$0.4663
.1991
$0.0928

3,282
$0.3137
.3047
$0.0956

4,785
$0.4842
.2090
$0.1012

6,551
$0.2719
. 1526
$0.0415

2,829
$0.2193
.3535
$0.0775

1,382
$0.3007
.7237
$0.2176

36,060
$0.4630
.0277
$0.0128

1,274
$0.2448
.7848
$0.1921

1,112
$0.4433
.8989
$0.3985

19

3,172
$0.1983
.3153
$0.0625

6,343
$0.7430
.1576
$0.1171

1,144
$0.2456
.8739
$0.2146

3,687
$0.3438
.2712
$0.0932

2,172
$0.2266
. 4604
$0.1043

2,131
$0.2006
.4693
$0.0942

583
$0.20S5
1.7153
$0.3576

20,616
$0.3528
.0485
$0.0171

9,392
$0.2500
.1065
$0.0266

497
$0.2019
2.0106
$0.4060

20

11,065
$0.2125
.0904
$0.0192

5,532
$0.5750
.1808
$0.1039

1,002
$0.2946
.9983
$0.2941

4,323
$0.3658
.2313
$0.0846

4,668
$0.2250
.2142
$0.0482

2,159
$0.1801
.4631
$0.0834

474
$0.2291
2.1116
$0.4838

22,130
$0.4259
.0452
$0.0192

4,442
$0.2218
.2251
$0.0499

483
$0.2008
2.0716
$0.4161

21

1,996
$0.1622
.5010
$0.0813

4,076
$0.5000
.2454
$0.1227

1,102
$0.2687
.9073
$0.2438

2,115
$0.2200
.4728
$0.1040

1,778
$0.1689
.5623
$0.0950

1,412
$0.2004
.7080
$0.1419

773
$0.1711
1.2933
$0.2213

6,521
$0.3850
. 1534
$0.0590

864
$0.1601
1.1579
$0.1853

714
$0.3750
1.4004
$0.5252

22

3,374
$0.1787
.2964
$0.0530

5,060
$0.5125
.1976
$0.1012

1,999
$0.2808
.5003
$0.1405

7,091
4,123
$0.3802 ; $0.2146
. 2425
.1410
$0.0922 $0.0303

2,020
$0.1666
.4949
$0.0824

1,447
$0.1879
.6912
$0.1299

12,579
$0.3846
.0795
$0.0306

1,438
$0.1521
.6953
$0.1058

515
$0.1907
1.9423
$0.3703

23

2,896
$0.1453
.3454
$0.0502

5,242
$0.4984
.1907
$0.0951

2,479
$0.2117
.4034
$0.0854

3,282
$0.2329
.3047
$0.0710

5,711
$0.2107
.1751
$0.0369

1,270
$0.1614
.7873
$0.1271

844
$0.1475
1.1852
$0.1747

11,070
$0.3346
.0903
$0.0347

1,230
$0.1500
.8130
$0.1220

692
$0.1874
1. 4457
$0.2709

24

4,860
$0.1475
.2058
$0.0304

5,002
$0.5300
. 1999
$0.1060

1,116
$0.1995
.8963
$0.1788

4,257
$0.2933
.2349
$0.0689

17,150
$0.2643
.0583
$0.0154

2,287
$0.1424
.4373
$0.0623

789
$0.2674
1.2670
$0.3387

17,324
$0.3250
.0577
$0.0188

1,171
$0.1155
.8543
$0.0987

560
$0.1452
1. 7846
$0.2591

5,485
6,583
$0.6667
$0.1580
. 1519 i
.1823
$0.0237
$0.1215

1,371
$0.3273
.7292
$0.2387

3,827
$0.2788
.2613
$0.0723

3,501
$0.1489
.2856
$0.0425

2,006
$0.1594
.4983
$0.0794

694
$0.1729
1.4402
$0.2491

16,457
$0.2750
.0608
$0.0167

1,349
$0.1757
.7413
$0.1302

713
$0.1844
1.4035
$0.2588




25

26

86

LUMBER M ANUFACTURING.

CLASSIFICATION OF PROCESSES AND DISTRIBUTION OF TIME AND
WAGES.

As previously explained,1 any refinement of labor productivity
and cost figures beyond total cost or productivity necessitates a
classification of processes and a distribution of time and of wages
in accordance with such classification. And, further, if such figures
are to have a comparable value as between establishments, the
classification of processes must be uniform so that each item under
consideration will have the same significance in the records of each
establishment. This is especially true in the lumber industry where
methods of manufacture vary widely, not only as between forest
areas but between establishments in the same area as well.
Although any classification of manufacturing processes for the
purpose of apportioning labor costs implies a distribution of time
and wages, a word needs to be said concerning the practical difficulties
in making such a distribution in logging and sawmill operations.
The general principle may be laid down that a distribution of time
becomes increasingly difficult in the degree (1) that the work is not
highly specialized and permits of the shifting of labor from one
process to another, (2) that the processes are widely separated in point
of time and place, and (3) that the processes are not necessarily con­
tinuous or do not require a rigid complement of labor force.
Anyone familiar with the lumber industry will recognize that all
these difficulties are met with in that industry. Except in a few
positions calling for a peculiar skill, each employee has a variety of
work to perform. Logging operations are carried on, sometimes
many miles from the sawmill, and extend over a large forest area.
One logging orew may be building or repairing roads while several
miles away other crews are felling the timber or moving the logs to a
point accessible to a transportation agency. Even the sawmill
plant with its storage sites for logs and lumber may cover many acres.
As a consequence the physical task of accurately checking the time
at different kinds of work is a large undertaking. The task would
be less difficult, however, if each operation required a constant
number of full-time employees. Then it might be assumed that an
operation, carried on for a certain number of hours, would require a
number of one-man hours equal to the product of the complement
and the number of hours of operation and, since the class of work
generally determines the wage rate, any shifting of positions would
not disturb the total wages for the operation and could be disregarded.
This is true, however, for but a comparatively small number of the
processes in lumber manufacture. Although continuous operation
necessitates a certain balance between the crews in the woods, in the
sawmill, and in the lumber yard, and a normal complement may be




1 See page 70.

PRODUCTIVITY AND COST OF LABOR.

87

arrived at, the number of full-time men employed is variable from
month to month and even from day to day, particularly in logging
operations and in handling lumber in the yard.
The other difficulty mentioned is rather inherent in any industry
in which considerable time is required to convert the raw material
into finished product and in which material and product are not
constant in character. Several months may elapse between the
time of felling the trees and their manufacture into lumber. If treeto-lumber-pile costs are computed for, let us say, one month of
operation, it is certain that not all the lumber piled during the month
was manufactured from trees felled, skidded, or transported during
the same month. Thus, while tree-to-lumber-pile costs rather imply
progressive operations during which raw material— timber— of a
definite character is transformed into a pile of lumber, such costs, if
computed for a short period of operation, may contain this error:
that the timber from which the lumber is manufactured during that
period may be of a different character and may have been logged
under different conditions than the timber which enters into the treeto-lumber-pile cost for the period. This can only be avoided b y an
accurate distribution of time, a record of output in each process when
the work is actually performed, and an averaging of costs over a long
period of production.
None of the difficulties named are insurmountable. Many lumber
companies, however, feel that the industry does not lend itself to any
considerable subdivision of labor costs and that the expense would
not be justified. This probably explains why few lumber establish­
ments have attempted to make time studies of production. A num­
ber of establishments, it is true, distribute time and wages over a
large number of items. Even such establishments, however, seldom
distribute less than one-half hour of time and many disregard, for
purposes of distribution, any time less than one-half day. Moreover,
no two independent lumber manufacturing establishments apportion
costs in exactly the same way. A striking illustration of this is the
extreme variation in the cost of specific items reported by individual
establishments to the lumber associations of which they are members.
That these associations are requesting their members to submit
statements of cost in accordance with a uniform classification of
departments or processes is evidence that the need for subdivisions
of total cost on a comparable basis is recognized-.
The present study does not purport to be a system of accounting
and no attempt is made to show other than labor cost and produc­
tivity. It is believed, however, that despite the differences in
methods of manufacture, in the material, or in the output, all oper­
ations and occupations connected with lumber manufacture may
quite properly be classified under group processes common to all
establishments. Because of the lack of uniformity in the classi­




88

LUMBER MANUFACTURING.

fication of processes used by the several establishments, it was neces­
sary to define boundaries for each process. The question of where
these boundaries should be drawn seemed less important than that
they be drawn uniformly for all establishments and that each group
be made large enough to ovrecome a large part of the shifting of
occupation. In other words, if an employee is shifted about in a
number of occupations without a distribution being made of his time,
it is necessary to draw boundaries that will include at least the
greater part of his time. The classification of processes used in this
study is explained below. A detailed description of these processes
and occupations included therein will be found in a subsequent
section.1
LOGGING.

Logging operations have been considered as extending from the
tree to the log pond or yard at the sawmill. In general, these opera­
tions vary with the kind and size of timber and with the climate and
topography of the forest region, but for comparative purposes they
may be grouped as follows:
Foremen, scalers, general.
Boarding house.
Felling and log making.
Skidding, yarding, and loading
Transportation and unloading.
Maintenance of transportation.
Construction of transportation facilities.
Foremen, scalers, general.—The term “ woods foreman has been
used here to designate one immediately associated with operation, or,
in other words, one who personally supervises logging operations, as
*
distinct from general managers or woods superintendents acting in
more of an executive capacity. Timekeepers have been omitted
because their work is purely clerical. The occupation of log scaler,
although involving more or less clerical work, belongs distinctly to
the logging industry and has been included. The term “ general”
has been used to cover miscellaneous operations not otherwise
specified, such as camp improvement, fire protection, and burning
of brush.
Boarding house.— Some arrangement for feeding and housing em­
ployees is essential to logging operations. This may be provided by
the logging company and men either pay for board at a stipulated
price or receive board in addition to wages. When the boarding house
is thus operated it is intended that it shall be self-supporting, and log­
ging operations should be charged or credited only with the net loss
or profit. Unless the boarding house is maintained by the logging
company it can not be considered in any way a part of logging cost.
1 See “ Description of processes and! occupations in the lumber industry,” pages 147-192.




PRODUCTIVITY AND COST OF LABOR.

89

la order, therefore, that the same cost items might be presented for
all establishments, the boarding-house costs have been excluded. If,
however, board is furnished in addition to wages to other than boarding­
house employees, actual cost to the company of such board has been
added to the money wages paid.
Felling and log making.— Under the operations of felling and log
making have been included the clearing of brush about the tree pre­
paratory to felling; notching, chopping, or sawing the standing tree;
knotting and limbing the felled tree and bucking it into log lengths*
Filing has been included in felling and log making, even though
some of such work may be done for other logging processes.
Skidding, yarding, and loading.—The moving of logs to a landing
or other assembling place from which they may be transported to the
sawmill, and the loading of logs for such transportation have been
considered in one group process. In power skidding a yarding engine
is sometimes used for loading, and the time is not distributed as
between the two operations. Loading, therefore, has been included
with skidding and yarding. Road building for skidding purposes,
though construction work, seems to be rather inseparably connected
with operations in a limited area, and for this reason it has been
included in operating costs. Maintenance and repair have also been
included.
Transportation and unloading.— Transportation includes the moving
of logs, after being loaded, to a point immediately accessible to the saw­
mill. Unloading is frequently done by the transportation crew, and
for that reason has been included. Where the logs are dumped into
a river some distance from the sawmill, or, when transportation is by
water and the logs are left by boom drivers to be worked into the
pond as needed, the movement of the logs to the pond has been
included in transportation.
Many companies have their own transportation facilities from the
woods to the sawmill. Others have spur lines and pay for the use
of main lines or pay freight for main-line hauling. These main-line
charges are not included and in such cases the entire time cost and
money cost of transportation are not shown.
Maintenance o f transportation.—All repairs to transportation
equipment have been included under maintenance of transportation.
For logging railroads the term has been used to include section crews,
roundhouse men, railroad shopmen, and watchmen.
Construction o f transportation facilities.— The construction of facili­
ties for transporting logs approaches more nearly an operating than
an overhead cost; but as it partakes in part of overhead cost, as does
the construction of the mill, the item has not been included. It should
be stated, however, that construction of roadbed, bridges, and log
chutes are items of considerable expense which must be “ charged off”




90

LUMBER M ANUFACTURING.

by the time the timber is removed. It is often necessary to construct
expensive roads which are useful only for logging operations in a
limited forest area.
S A W M IL L .

Sawmill operations, as distinct from logging operations, are more
uniform than the latter and labor time is usually distributed over a
greater number of items. For the most part, however, 110 effort is
made to distribute the time within the sawmill. Men work at
different machines without a change being made in designation of
occupation, and, as a consequence, the time to be charged to a given
occupation has been a matter calling for arbitrary ruling. Thus,
it has been assumed that when a machine is operated, certain posi­
tions about the machine must be filled for the entire time of opera­
tion. Moreover, the operation of a machine such as the head saw
calls for the operation of an edger and a trimmer, and, as no pro­
vision is made on the sawmill floor for storing output while one
machine is idle, a head saw, an edger, and a trimmer may be con­
sidered as a unit for purposes of operation. A study has been made
of each plant to ascertain which machines made up different units
and gaps in basic positions have been filled with the time of extra
or spare men appearing on the sawmill payroll and receiving the
rates called for by the position. Men designated as live-roll and
transfer men have been assigned, so far as practicable, to some par­
ticular machine and charged to the same. The number of men to
be charged to each machine has been determined by the work done
and the arrangement of the mill rather than by the exact position
of the men on the mill floor.
In this study sawmill operations have been classified as follows:
Sawmill foremen.
Log pond or yard.
Sawmill deck.
Sawing— circular or band head, gang, resaw.
Edging.
Trimming.
Refuse—hog, slasher, burner.
Filing.
Power and oiling.
Repair.
Night watch and fire protection.
Clean-up and miscellaneous.
Sorting.
Sawmill foremen.— Only those who personally supervise the opera­
tion of the sawmill as a whole are included under sawmill foremen.




PRODUCTIVITY AND COST OF LABOR.

91

Log pond or yard.— The log pond or yard is defined elsewhere1 as a
place immediately adjacent to the sawmill so arranged that logs stored
therein are readily accessible. The work connected with the pond
or yard does not include the unloading of logs nor any part of the
transportation prior to their being placed in the pond or yard. It
has to do solely with the sorting of logs in the pond or yard and
moving them to a chain or other device for pulling them to the deck
of the sawmill.
Sawmill deck.— The scaler and other men engaged in hauling up
the logs and rolling them on to the saw carriages have been charged
to the sawmill deck.
Sawing.— Sawing has been considered under three divisions: Head
(circular or band), gang, and resaw. The occupations included are
circular and band head sawyers, setters, doggers, tail sawyers, rock
sawyers, gang sawyers, resawyers, and helpers. For individual estab­
lishments each machine has been shown in detail; but in the summary
tables the machine has been disregarded and only the process, sawing,
has been considered. In doing this the composite work of a head
saw, gang saw, and resaw has been considered identical in nature with
the work of a single head saw which does not have the complements
of gang saw and resaw.
Edging.— Both single and double machines are used for edging.
One man on a single edger and two men on a double edger, adjusting
the saws and feeding the machine, have been called edgermen. Other
men, lining up boards for the edger, catching the strips as they come
from the edger, or transferring the product to or from the edger, have
been called helpers.
Trimming.— The process of trimming calls for an operator and
helpers. The man adjusting the saws has been designated the oper­
ator and those straightening the lumber or loading the chains for
transferring the lumber to the saws have been called helpers.
Refuse— hog, slasher, burner.— Employees required to operate the
slasher saws, feed the hog, or keep refuse from clogging the conveyor
chains leading to the burner are necessary for the disposition of waste
and have been included, but others engaged in picking stock from the
conveyor chains have been considered as connected with a subsidiary
product—lath, table squares, or other dimension stock— and have not
been included.
Filing.— Only that part of filing chargeable to the sawmill has been
included in sawmill costs.
Power and oiling.— For plants carrying on subsidiary operations, such
as planing mill, dry kiln, lath mill, or factory, the charge for power is
proportionally higher per unit of output than for those where power
is furnished only for the sawmill, but, unless power plants are distinct




i See page 169.

92

LUMBER MANUFACTURING.

for each department, any distribution would be simply an approxi­
mation and has not been undertaken. Where light was furnished
for commercial use employees installing fixtures or repairing meters
have been omitted. Night firemen are required even where light is
not furnished, and it is assumed that their number would not be mate­
rially increased when light is furnished to the town or village.
Mill oilers seem more properly to belong to u pow er/7 and have been
included therein.
Repair.— It is the practice with some establishments to distribute
the repair charge as against the sawmill and planing mill and as
against buildings and machines. Others carry only a millwright
account, which includes all building repair. For this study it has
seemed best to keep repair to buildings and machinery distinct from
repair to yard, but not to attempt further distribution of the time
and earnings of repair crews. Variation in this cost may be expected
since considerable repair may be made during an output period with­
out materially affecting the operation of the plant.
Night watch and fire protection.— In addition to the night watchmen
for the sawmill and yard, those having to do with the upkeep of hy­
drants, filling water barrels, or affording other protection against fire,
have been included in this charge. No attempt has been made to
distribute the cost.
Clean-up and miscellaneous.— Undistributed time charged to the
sawmill, as well as the time of those who are regularly employed in
cleaning about the mill, has been charged to clean-up and miscella­
neous.
Sorting.— The time of tallymen, markers, graders, pullers, and
loaders in handling the green lumber as it comes from the trimmer
saws and until it is loaded for transfer to the yard, has been charged
to sorting.
YARD.

A greater interchangeability of positions is found in the yard than
in the sawmill, and a greater variation in the classification of
charges. Some companies keep a distribution of time as between
green lumber and dry lumber and a lumber transfer account as dis­
tinct from piling or shipping. More frequently, however, men are
classed as yardmen irrespective of the yard work performed. In
this study only the green-lumber yard has been considered. Three
items have been included in yard operations: Green-lumber foremen;
green-lumber transfer; and green-lumber piling. Shipping has been
considered as a distinct process, having nothing to do with manu­
facture.




PRODUCTIVITY AND COST OF LABOR,

93

Green-lumber foremen.— The time of green-lumber foremen is, in
part, chargeable to shipping and dry kiln, as well as to green-lumber
transfer and green-lumber piling, but to avoid arbitrary distribution
all the time has been charged to the green-lumber yard.
Green-lumber transfer.— If shipment is made directly from the
chains, or if lumber is kiln dried before air drying, and distribution
can not be readily made, transfer to the shipping platform or to
the dry kiln has been considered as equivalent to green-lumber trans­
fer to pile. Repairs to trucks, trams, cranes, electric locomotives, or
other transfer agency have been included in the transfer charge.
Green-lumber piling.— Repairs to pile foundations and the stacking
of green lumber have been included in the piling charge.
SU B SID IA R Y A2TD SU P P L E M E N T A R Y PROCESSES.

Planing mill.— No attempt has been made to adopt a uniform
classification of processes for the planing mill on account of the varia­
tion in work performed and in the equipment. For several establish­
ments it was possible to secure records of output, and the labor cost
in such establishments is presented in this report with as much detail
of occupation as was shown in the records kept.
Dry kiln.— The dry kiln is properly chargeable with transfer of
lumber to the kiln, and stacking the lumber for kiln drying, as well
as with a portion of the labor of the power plant and with the labor
of kiln maintenance. Labor time is seldom distributed in this manner,
however, and the dry-kiln costs shown in this report are intended to
be illustrative rather than comparative.
OUTPUT RECORDS AND BASES USED IN COMPUTING COSTS.

An accurate record of output is quite as essential in the determi­
nation of costs as is an accurate distribution of time and of wages.
Two kinds of output records are usually kept— a log scale and a
lumber tally. The log scale is a measure of log contents; the lumber
tally, or board measure as it is sometimes called, is a measure of the
manufactured lumber. It will be apparent that the log scale can
never be more than a close approximation of the quantity of lumber
that the log actually yields. For practically all timber there is an
“ overrun” in manufacture, that is, the lumber tally exceeds the log
scale. Redwood is an exception to this rule and usually shows an
“ underrun” on account of imperfections not apparent until the log
is being sawed into lumber. The kinds and sizes of lumber manu­
factured make for differences in the underrun or overrun but as be­
tween establishments in the same forest area such differences should
not be marked.




94

LUMBER M ANUFACTURING.

The unit of output for either logging or sawmill operations is
1,000 board feet. This unit, although standard in quantity, repre­
sents, as previously stated, a variable quantity of labor on account
of differences in prevailing sizes of trees, hi the kinds of timber, in
the dimensions of lumber sawed, and in the methods of manufacture.1
Thus it may be assumed that logging operations carried on with the
aid of power-driven machinery and in virgin forests of fir and red­
wood will show a greater output per one-man hour than operations
confined to cut-over forests of hardwood and carried on largely with
hand and animal power. Similarly in sawmill operations, a mill
working on small oak or chestnut logs, sawing to order or turning
out chiefly four-quarter boards, will produce less per one-man hour
than a mill with like equipment working on large fir logs and cutting
considerable timber stock. It is probable, too, that logs and prod­
uct being similar for each, a mill equipped with head saw, resaw and
gang saw will produce more per one-man hour than a mill equipped
with one saw doing the work of all three machines.
In the present study an effort has been made to show for each
establishment the number, kind and scale of logs, the lumber tally,
the prevailing sizes of lumber and, for the sawmill, to show clearly
the equipment in machines. Not all establishments, however,
keep a record of the sizes and kinds of logs and few keep an accurate
tally of the sizes of lumber. Moreover, hi the tallying of lumber as
it comes from the sorting chains, it is not unusual to tally combina­
tions of pieces. Thus, two 2 x 6 ? might be tallied as one 4 x 6 .
s
The prevailing methods of determining output in logging and saw­
mill operations, and the output bases used in computing costs in
the present study are explained in the following paragraphs:
LOGGING.

Logs are usually scaled but once for logging records. This is the
scale made when logs are loaded for transportation or unloaded at
the log pond or yard of the sawmill. In lieu of these the log scale
at the sawmill deck— a record usually kept in sawmill operations—
may be used for computing logging costs. Some establishments
omit the log scale entirely and compute logging, as well as sawmill,
costs on the basis of the lumber tally. Still others use a yearly
inventory in connection with logs loaded in the woods or delivered
at the mill to arrive at a yearly output.
It is very evident that the scale of logs loaded for transportation or
brought to the deck of the sawmill during a given period of opera­
tion may bear little relation to the number of feet of logs felled,
bucked, or skidded during the same period. This is more emphati­




PRODUCTIVITY AND COST OF LABOR.

95

cally true with timber that is peeled before skidding and which is
consequently felled some little time before being transported to the
mill or manufactured into lumber. Output based on the yearly
inventory of logs in the woods and the records of logs delivered to
the mill, although constituting a reasonably accurate basis for the
yearly cost of all logging operations, is not so desirable as separate
records of logs felled, bucked, skidded, loaded and transported.
If the cost of operations from tree to lumber pile are to enter into
a total, either a log scale must be used throughout as a base, or else
the log scale must be converted into lumber measure on the basis of
the underrun or overrun of the mill. For this study the log scale
has been converted into lumber measure on the basis of the overrun
or underrun of the sawmill for the period selected, and lumber measure
has been used as a base in computing costs. If the records of any
establishment showed the number of feet skidded or cut as distinct
from the number of feet loaded, the cost of each of these processes
has been figured on the basis of actual output expressed in lumber
measure. If only a loading record was kept, such record— converted
into lumber measure—has been used as the base in the cost of all
woods operations.
SAW M ILL.

Most establishments figure the cost of all sawmill operations on
the basis of total log scale or lumber tally though it is not uncommon
to rely upon monthly and yearly inventories of lumber on hand and
the records of sales. Indeed some establishments hold that both
the log scale and the tally of lumber as it is manufactured are so
inaccurate as to be useless for cost purposes. A log scale at the deck
is usually the only record kept of the material handled by each head
saw, and no records are kept of the number of board feet that pass
through each gang saw, resaw, edger, or trimmer. The attempt is
seldom made to determine the cost of each machine, either on the
basis of the log scale or the lumber tally.
In this study the entire output of the sawmill, expressed in lumber
measure, has been used as a base in computing costs for each of the
following process groups: Sawmill foremen; log pond or yard; saw­
mill deck; refuse— hog, slasher, and burner; filing; power and oiling;
repair; night watch and fire protection; clean-up and miscellaneous;
and sorting green lumber.
100531°— 18— Bull. 225--- 7




96

LUMBER M ANUFACTURING.

Sawing— head, gang,resaw.—As stated above, when a mill is equipped
with more than one head saw, a log scale at the deck is usually the
only indication of the work of each machine. In this study, in order
to arrive at costs for each saw, the log scale at the deck has been con­
verted into lumber measure on the basis of the overrun or underrun
of the mill for the period selected. Gang saws and resaws have been
charged with the entire output of the mill or with the output of the
head saw with which they form a composite machine or direct
process part. The total of all sawing— head, gang, and resaw— has
been charged with the entire output of the mill.
Edging.— If more than one edger was used, each machine has been
charged with the output of the head saw in connection with which
the edger was operated. It has been assumed that the entire product
passes over the edger saws.
Trimming.— It has been assumed that all lumber must be trimmed
as well as edged. If more than one trimmer was used, each machine
has been charged w^ith the output of the head saw for which the
trimmer saw was operated.
GR EEN-LUM BER Y A R D .

As stated previously, there is considerable interchangeability of
work in the yard. In the transfer of lumber, it is difficult to keep
distinct the transfer of green and dry lumber. This is especially
true as regards lumber of special sizes for export and in cutting to
order where some of the product is loaded directly from the chains.
The number of feet piled is seldom a matter of record unless piling
is done by contract. With many companies all yard labor, whether
trucking, loading, piling, or repair, is a yard charge based upon the
output of the mill.
In this study the foreman of the green-lumber yard has been charged
with the entire output of the sawmill for the period selected, and,
unless deduction is made for green lumber transferred to. the dry
kiln or shipping platform and charged to these departments, the
entire output of the sawmill has been charged to green-lumber transfer
and to green-lumber piling.
PLANING MILL.

An accurate comparison of planing-mill costs as between establish­
ments is practically impossible on account of the variability in work
performed. In some establishments the work done in the planing
mill consists chiefly in surfacing lumber. In other places the work
includes resawing, tonguing and grooving, and the manufacture of
ceiling and flooring and special shapes and sizes. As a consequence
the unit of output— 1,000 board feet—has a different significance in
different establishments and. represents a variable quantity of labor.




PRODUCTIVITY AND COST OF LABOR,

97

It is necessary, therefore, to consider the nature of the output in
interpreting planing-mill costs. Such an interpretation, however,
is often impossible, because in many cases the records of work per­
formed are based upon the records of shipments or appear simply as a
total of board feet delivered to the planing mill.
In this report only those establishments are shown that keep a
record of work performed. The entire output of the planing mill
has been used as a base in determining occupation costs, and the
output record has been shown for each establishment in as great
detail as was possible from the records kept.
D R Y K ILN.

Dry kiln costs are often incomparable on account of undistributed
items of power, transfer, and maintenance. An additional difficulty
is encountered in establishments manufacturing and kiln-drying
shingles as well as lumber. The unit of output of shingles is the
equivalent of a specified number of pieces of uniform size; conse­
quently, a combination can not be made of the number of board feet
and the number of thousands of shingles in order to secure one com­
mon base for labor cost. The work of transferring to the kiln is not
kept distinct for each product, and different products may be dried
at the same time.
Many establishments do not keep a record of the quantity of product
kiln-dried and compute dry-kiln costs on the basis of total mill
output. For the establishments shown in this report, the number of
board feet of lumber kiln-dried has been used as a basis in computing
costs, and any subsidiary products, such as lath or shingles, which
were kiln-dried during the same period have been disregarded.
T a b le

1 5 .—SUM M ARY OF CLASSIFICATION OF PROCESSES A N D OUTPUT BASES USED
IN THIS ST U D Y.

Logging.
Process.

Occupations included.

Output bases used for computing costs.

Foremen, scalers, gen­
eral-

Woods foremen, assistant foremen,
sealers, brush burners, improvement
men, fire protection men.

Log scale at landing converted into
lumber measure on the basis of the
overrun or underrun of the sawmill
for the period selected.
Number of feet felled and bucked, or,
in lieu thereof, the scale at the landing
expressed in lumber measure.
Number of feet actually handled in
each process, or, if a record is not
kept, the scale at the landing ex­
pressed in lumber measure.

Felling and log making.. Notchers, choppers, sawyers, buckers,
knotters, filers, water boys.
Skidding, yarding, and
loading.

Transportation and un­
loading.
Maintenance of trans­
portation.




Teamsters, blacksmiths, swampers,
road monkeys, limbers, hookers,
tong hookers, gophers, snipers, squir­
rels, engineers, firemen, water boys,
wood bucks, pump men, loaders,
chasers, lever men, riggers, night
watchmen, chute men, grab drivers.
Engineers, firemen, conductors, brakemen, unloaders, boom men, team­
sters.
Section bosses and laborers, bridge re­
pair men, shopmen, hostlers, round­
house men, night watchmen.

Number of feet.loaded at landing ex­
pressed in lumber measure.
Do.

98

LUMBER M ANUFACTURING.

T able 1 5 .—SUM MARY OF CLASSIFICATION OF PROCESSES AN D O U TPU T BASES USED
IN THIS ST U D Y —Concluded.

Sawmill.
Process.

Occupations included.

Output bases used for computing costs.

Sawmill foremen.

Foremen and assistant foremen............

Log pond or yard
Sawmill deck-----

Pond, log, boom, or slip men.................
Lever men, scalers, roll-on men, deck
men, cut-off men, splitters.

Entire lumber tally of mill for the
period selected.
Do.
Do.

Sawing:
Head saw s...

Sawyers, setters, doggers, tail sawyers,
rock sawyers.

Entire lumber tally of mill for the
period selected, or, in lieu thereof,
log scale of material handled by saw
converted into lumber measure on
the basis of overrun or underrun of
mill for period selected.
Output, expressed in lumber measure,
Resaws...................... Sawyers, helpers.
of the head saw which cuts for the re­
saw.
Gang saws................. Sawyers, cranemen, cant setters, engi­ Output, expressed in lumber measure,
neers, helpers.
of the head saw which cuts for the
gang.
Edging.............................. Edgermen, helpers, tail edgers, edging Entire lumber tally of mill or the out­
catchers, line-up men, kickers, trans­
put of the head saw for which the
fer men, live-roll men.
edger is operated.
Trimming......................... Trimmer operators, helpers, loaders, Entire lumber tally of mill or output
straighteners, transfer men.
of head saw for which the trimmer is
operated.
Refuse—hog,
slasher, Hogmen, slashers, burner men, con­ Entire lumber tally of mill for the
and burner.
veyor men.
period selected.
Filing................................. Filers and helpers.....................................
Do.
Power and oiling............. Engineers, firemen, fuel men, electri­
Do.
cians, helpers, mill oilers and helpers.
Do.
Repair............................... Millwrights, helpers, carpenters, shop­
men, helpers.
Night watch and fire Night watchmen, pipe fitters, water
Do.
protection.
carriers (to barrels).
Clean-up and miscella­ Clean-up men, roustabouts, extra men,
Do.
water boys.
neous.
Sorting............................... Foremen, markers, graders, tally men,
Do.
pullers, and loaders.

Green-lumber yard.
Green-lumber foremen.

Foremen, assistant foremen...................

Green-lumber transfer..

Teamsters, cranemen, monorail men,
truckers, pushers, repair men.

Green-lumber piling..

Pilers, stackers, tippers, pile-foundar
tion men.

Entire lumber tally of mill for the
period selected.
Entire lumber tally of mill for period
selected, less any deductions made for
green lumber transferred to dry kiln
or shipping platform.
Do.

Planing mill.
Not classified.

Transfer men, feeders, filers, knife
grinders, off-bearers, bundlers, tiers,
graders, foremen, engineers.

Entire output of the planing mill for
the period selected.

Dry Iciln.
Not classified....................




1

Transfer men, stackers, unstackers, | Quantity of lumber kiln-dried during
sorters, graders.
1 the period selected.
!

99

PRODUCTIVITY AND COST OF LABOR,

DETAILED TABLE OF PRODUCTIVITY AND COST.

In the following table the productivity and cost of labor is shown
by occupations for each establishment. An identity of process
classification has been preserved for purposes of comparison but as
much occupation detail within each process has been shown as was
possible from the records kept by the establishments. A prefatory
note to each establishment states the quantity and character of the
output during the selected period of operation. Figures are shown
for 11 logging establishments, 26 sawmill establishments, 5 drykiln establishments and 8 planing-mill establishments in the order
named.
T a b le

1 6 .— P R O D U C T IV IT Y AND COST OF L A B O R , B Y OCCUPATIONS AN D ESTAB­
LISHM ENTS.
LOGGING.

Establishment No. 2.
{Number of logs cut, 16,164; number of feet cut, log scale, 1,606,711; number of logs skidded, 17,218; number
of feet skidded, log scale, 1,711,469; number of logs loaded and hauled, 22,293; number of feet loaded and
hauled, log scale, 2,217,453; kinds of timber: hard woods (oak, maple, and chestnut), 75 per cent; poplar,
hemlock, basswood, and miscellaneous, 25 per cent.]

Output
in
board
feet
per
oneman
hour.

Full­
time
posi­
tions.

Total
oneman
hours.

2
1
2

630
250
514

$215.50 2,439,198
75.00 2.439.198
86.97 2.439.198

Total.......................................

5 I 1,394

377.47 2,439,198

1,750

Felling and log making:
Foremen.....................................
Cutters, knotters, and buckers
Water ooy s ................................
Filers..........................................

6 1 1,445
60 14,926
6
1,333
2
600

280.81
2,382.51
120.28
141.25

1.866.942
1.866.942
1.866.942
1.866.942

Occupation, process, or machine.

Foremen, scalers, general:
Foremen.....................................
Scaler..........................................
Miscellaneous............................

Total........................................

74

18,304

Skidding, yarding, and loading:
Barn bosses...............................
Teamsters..................................
Grab drivers..............................
Tong hookers............................
Logging road makers...............
Loaders......................................
Water boys................................

3
12
10
4
24
6
5

900
3,066
2,388
935
6,037
1,555
1,333

Total
wages.

Total
output
in board
feet.

Wage
cost
per
oneman
hour.

3,872 S . 3421
O
9,757
.3000
4,746
.1692

Cost per 1,000
board feet
produced.
Oneman Wages.
hours.

0.2583
.1025
.2107

$0.0883
.0807
.0357

.2708

.5715

.1548

1,292
125
1,401
3,112

.1943
.1596
.0902
.2354

.7740
7.9949
.7140
.3214

.1504
1.2762
.0644
.0757

2,924.85 1,866,942

102

.1598

9.8043

1.5667

1.878.679
1.878.679
1.878.679
1.878.679
1.878.679
1.878.679
1.878.679

2,087
613
787
2,009
311
1,208
1,409

.1667
.1832
.1691
.2500
.1520
.2836
.0902

.4791
1.6320
1.2711
.4977
3.2134
.8277
.7095

.0798
.2990
.2149
.1244
.4884
.2348
.0640

150.00
561.77
403.80
233.75
917.48
441.07
120.29

Total.......................................

64

16,214

2,828.16 1,878,679

116

.1744

8.6305

1.5054

Transportation and unloading___

26

7,469

1,771.37 2,439,198

327

.2372

3.0621

.7262

Maintenance of transportation:
Section bosses...........................
Section laborers.......................
Water boys................................
Shopmen....................................

4
23
2
3

1,004
5,615
354
780

2,429
. 434
6,890
3,127

.2062
.1500
.1277
.2362

.4116
2.3020
.1451
.3198

.0849
.3453
.0185
.0755

Total.......................................

32

7,753

315 1 .1649

3.1785

.5242




207.05
842.20
45.20
184.25

2,439,198
2.439.198
2.439.198
2.439.198

1,278.70 2,439,198

10 0
T

LUMBER M ANUFACTURING.

able

16.—PRODU CTIVITY AND COST OF L A B O R , B Y OCCUPATIONS AND ESTABLISHME N TS—Continued.
LOGGING—Continued.

Establishment No. 13.
[Number of logs hauled, 57,542 (no other output record); log scale, 4,821,190 board feet; kinds of timber:
white pine, 75 per cent; fir, 20 per cent; larch, 5 per cent.]

Occupation, process, or machine.

Full­
time
posi­
tions.

Total
oneman
hours.

Total
wages.

2 ,378| $1,073.20 5,155,780

Wage
cost
per
oneman
hour.

Cost per 1,000
board feet
produced.
Oneman Wages*
hours.
0.4613

$0.2082

3,836.15 5.155.780
205.50 5.155.780

411
9,548

.3058
.3806

2.4334
.1047

.7440
.0399

54 13,086

4,041.65 5,155,780

394

.3089

2.5381

.7839

48 10,507J
15 3,262*
40 9,031-|
4
855
2
562|
2
540
35 8,761
18 4,218$
6 1,431
4
891
15 3,611i

3,392.70
1,056.30
2.364.60
280.05
175.50
156.00
2,737.55
1,265.85
440.75
281. 70
1,223.50

491
1,580
571 ’
6,030
9,166
9,548
588
1,222
3,603
5,787
1,423

.3229
.3238
.2618
.3275
.3120
.2889
.3125
.3001
.3080
.3162
.3388

2.0380
.6328
1.7517
.1658
.1091
.1047
1.6993
.8183
.2776
.1728
.7004

.6580
.2049
.4586
.0543
.0340
.0303
.5310
.2455
.0855
. 0546
.2373

13,374.50 5,155,780

118

.3062

8. 4705

2.5941

937.50 5.155.780
149.14 5.155.780
674.85 5.155.780

2,767
13,462
2,776

.5032
.3894
.3634

.3613
.0743
.3602

. 1818
.0289
.1309

52 12,546
2
540

Total..................... — ............

Total ......................................

Output
in
board
feet
per
oneman
hour.

2,168 50.4512

10
Felling and log making:
Sawyers and buckers..............
Filers...........................................

Skidding, yarding, and loading:
Swampers..................................
Skidwaymen.............................
Teamsters..................................
Blacksmiths..............................
Stablemen..................................
Roadmen...................................
Chute men.................................
Chainmen...................................
Landing thati............................
Brush burners..........................
Loaders......................................

Total
output
in board
feet.

189 4a, 672

5.155.780
5.155.780
5.155.780
5.155.780
5.155.780
'5,155,780
5.155.780
5.155.780
5.155.780
5.155.780
5.155.780

Transportation and unloading:
Railroad operation...................
Unloading..................................
River...........................................

8
2
8

1,863
383
1,857

Total........................................

18

4,103

1,761.49 5,155,780

1,257

. 4293

.7958

. 3417

9

2,058

1,348.07 5,155,780 | 2,505

.6550

.3992

.2615

Maintenance of transportation— |

Establishment No. 17.
[Number of logs hauled, 6,060 (no other output record); log scale, 2,744,761 board feet; kinds of timber: fir,
70 per cent; cedar, 15 per cent; hemlock, 15 per cent.]
Foremen, scalers, general:
Foremen.....................................
Sealer..........................................
Watchmen.................................
Miscellaneous............................

3
1
3
2

900
250
843
575

$495. 74
85.00
225.24
118.35

2,881,999
2,881,999
2,881,999
2,881,999

Total........................................

9

2,568

924.33

2,881,999

1,122

Felling and log making:
Fellers.........................................
Buckers......................................
Filers..........................................

17
21
2

4 ,372|
5,287*
510

1,369.91 2,881,999
1,464.26 2,881,999
182.86 2,881,999
3,017.03

Total........................................
Skidding, yarding, and loading:
Engineers...................................
Firemen......................................
Wood bucks..............................
Signalmen..................................
Chaser.........................................
Riggers.......................................
Sniper.........................................
Blacksmiths..............................
Repair m en ..............................
Choker men...............................
Lever men.................................
Hookers......................................
Total.......................................




40 10,170
6
4
5
3
1
9
1
4
2
7
5
5

1,425
1,057*
l,397i
647*
255
2,303
230
1,035
302* 1,862
1,275
1,200

52 12,990

3,202 $0.5508
11,528
.3400
3,419
.2672
5,012
.2058

0.3123
.0867
.2925
.1995

$0.1720
. 0295
.0782
.0411

.3599

.8910

. 3207

659
545
5,651

.3133
.2769
.3585

1.5172
1.8347
.1770

.4753
.5081
.0634

2,881,999

283

.2967

3.5288

1.0469

463.11
293.24
366.56
160.68
76.50
803.59
63.25
360.25
101.06
534.19
566.09
423.36

2,881,999
2,881,999
2,881,999
2,881,999
2.881.999
2.881.999
2,88i;999
2,881,999
2.881,999
2,881,999
2,881,999
2,881,999

2,022
2,725
2y062
4,451
11,302
1,251
12,530
2,785
9,527
1,548
2,260
2,402

.3250
.2773
.2623
.2482
.3000
.3489
.2750
.3481
.3341
.2869
.4440
.3528

.4944
.3669
.4849
.2247
.0885
.7991
.0798
.3591
.1050
.6461
.4424
.4164

.1607
.1017
.1272
.0553
.0265
. 2788
.0219
.1250
.0351
.1854
.1964
.1469

4,211.88

2,881,999

222

.3242

4.5073

1. 4614

10 1

PRODUCTIVITY AND COST OF LABOR.
Table 1 6 .—PR O D U CTIVITY AN D COST OF L A B O R , B Y
LISHMENTS—Continued.

OCCUPATIONS AN D ESTAB-

L O G G IN G — Continued.

Establishment No. 17—Concluded.

Occupation, process, or machine.

Full­
time
tions.

Transportation and unloading:
Engineers...................................
Conductors................................
Firemen.....................................
Brakemen..................................
Unloaders..................................

Total
oneman
hours.

Total
wages.

Total
output
in board
feet.

2
603£
$295.31 2.881.999
539
496.92 2.881.999
2
2
549|
178.58 2.881.999
745
3
225.19 2.881.999
4 1,166
403.60 2.881.999
1
81
26.20 2.881.999
Dump m an................................

Output
in
board
feet
per
oneman
hour.

Wage
cost
per
oneman
hour.

Cost per 1,000
board feet
produced.
Oneman Wages.
hours.

4,775 $0.4893
5,347
.9219
5,245
.3250
3,868
.3023
2,472
.3461
.3235
35,580

0.2094
.1870
.1907
.2585
.4046
.0281

$0.1025
.1724
.0620
.0781
.1400
.0091

Total........................................

14

3,684

1,625.80

2,881,999

782 j .4413

1.2783

.5641

Maintenance of transportation:
Repair men, log dump...........
Repair men, sluice gate.........
Repair men, railroad..............

4
15
36

961
3 ,738i
8,925

336.25
1,208.65
1,164.95

2,881,999
2.881.999
2.881.999

2,999
.3499
771 ! .3233
.1305
323

.3334
1.2971
3.0968

.1167
.4194
.4042

55 13,624*

2,709.85

2,881,999

4. 7274

.9403

Total.......................................

212

. 1989

Establishment No. 18.
[Number of logs hauled, 4,677 (no other output record); log scale, 7,595,870 board feet; kinds of timber: fir,
94 per cent; hemlock, 6 per cent.]
Foremen, scalers, general:
Foremen.....................................
Scaler..........................................
Watchman.................................

2
1
1

625
200
244

$350.10
62.65
70.90

7.766.777
7.766.777
7.766.777

12,427 $0.5602
38,834
.3133
31,831
.2906

0.0805
.0258
.0314

$0.0451
.0081
.0091

Total.......................................

4

1,069

483.65

7,766,777

7,265

.4524

.1376

.0623

Felling and log making:
Fellers........................................
Buckers.....................................
Filers..........................................

15
18
3

3,918
4,282
808

1,358.85
1,452.05
298.20

7.766.777
7.766.777
7.766.777

1,982
1,814
9,612

.3468
.3391
.3691

.5045
.5513
.1040

.1750
.1870
.0384

Total.......................................

36

9,008

3,109.10

7,766,777

862

.3451

1.1598

.4003

Skidding, yarding, and loading:
Engineers...................................
Firemen.....................................
W ood bucks..............................
Snipers......................................
Chasers.......................................
Signalmen..................................
Climber.......................................
Pump m en................................
Powder man.............................
Hookers.....................................
Chokers.......................................
Riggers........................................
Chunkers...................................
Loaders......................................
Others.........................................

10
10
10
6
12
5
1
4
1
6
20
9
4
15
16

2,656
2,459
2,678
1,514
2,932
1,200
104
1,152
297
1,693
4,933
2,262
910
3,498
3,629

940.65
638.05
696. 75
415.85
911.50
279. 75
52.00
307.25
88.70
837.90
1,501.20
776.10
261.45
1,226.75
1,036.95

7.766.777
7.766.777
7.766.777
7.766.777
7.766.777
7.766.777
7.766.777
7.766.777
7.766.777
7.766.777
7.766.777
7.766.777
7.766.777
7.766.777
7.766.777

2,924
3,159
2,900
5,130
2,649
6,472
74,681
6, 742
26,151
4,588
1,574
3,434
8,535
2,220
2,140

.3542
.2595
.2602
.2747
.3109
.2331
.5000
.2667
.2987
.4949
.3043
.3431
.2873
.3507
.2857

.3420
.3166
.3448
.1949
.3775
.1545
.0134
.1483
.0381
.2180
.6351
.2912
.1172
.4504
.4672

.1211
.0822
.0897
.0535
.1174
.0360
.0087
.0396
.0114
.1079
.1933
.0999
.0337
.1579
.1335

Total.......................................

129

31,917

9,970.85

7,766,777

243

.3124

4.1084

1.2833

Transportation and unloading:
Engineers...................................
Brakemen..................................
Pump m an................................
Sandmen....................................
Dispatchers...............................
Boommeu..................................
Tug men.....................................

5
10
1
2
2
10
10

1,232
2,521
140
346
350
2,626
2,260

559.25
970.30
35.00
59.80
87.50
856.70
666.85

7.766.777
7.706.777
7.766.777
7.766.777
7.766.777
7.766.777
7.766.777

6,304
3,081
55,477
22,447
22,191
2,958
3,437

.4539
.3849
.2500
. 1728
. 2500
. 3262
.2951

.1586
.3246
.0180
.0445
.0451
.3381
.2910

.0720
.1249
.0045
.0077
.0113
.1103
.0859

Total.......................................

40

9,475

3,235.40

7,768,777

820

.3415

1.2199

.4166

Maintenance of transportation___
Shopmen............................................

35
9

8,630
2,105

2,146. 20
756.85

7.766.777
7.766.777

900
3,690

. 2487
.3595

1.1111
.2710

.2763
.0974

Total.......................................

44

10,735

2,903.05

7,766,777

724

. 2704

1.3821

.3737




10 2

LUMBER M ANUFACTURING.

T able

1 6 .—PR O D U C T IVIT Y AN D COST OF L A B O R , B Y OCCUPATIONS A N D
LISHM ENTS—Continued.

E ST A B ­

L O G G IN G — Continued.

Establishment No. 19.
[Number of logs hauled, 53,793 (no other output record); log scale, 11,699,590 board feet; kind of timber:
chiefly white pine.]

Total
output
in board
feet.

Full­
Occupation .process, or machine. time
posi­
tions.

Total
oneman
hours.

Total
wages.

Foremen, scalers, general:
Foremen.................................
Scalers....................................
Repair men, camp...............

4
3
2

1,080
710
580

$600.00
201.54
175.04

11,864,540
11.864.540
11.864.540

9

2,370

976.58

11,864,540

17 6.728
49 12,186
4
890

2,019.00
3,286.62
327.00

70 19,804
24 5,989
26 6,672
5 1,380
31 7,752i7 1 915
12 3! 002\
6 1 561
1
*235
1
270
2
651
10 2,435
954
4
5 1,207J
1
212
13 3,349
862
3
678
2
2
555
6 1,550
161 41,230J

Total....................................
Felling and log making:
Fellers.....................................
Buckers...................................
Filers.......................................
Total....................................
Skidding, yarding, and loading:
Swampers..............................
Limbers..................................
Riggers...................................
Teamsters...............................
Gophers...................................
Hookers...................................
Hook tenders........................
Signalman..............................
Pump m an............................
Night watchmen..................
Cranemen...............................
Wheel and cart loaders........
Blacksmiths..........................
Landing m an........................
Loaders...................................
Engineers...............................
Firemen..................................
Wood bucks..........................
Others......................................
Total....................................
Transportation and unloading:
Engineers...............................
Firemen..................................
Conductors.............................
Brakemen..............................
Watchman.............................
Landing men.........................

2
2
2
2
1
3

Output
in
board
feet
per
oneman
hour.

Wage
cost
per
oneman
hour.

Cost per 1,000
board feet
produced.
Oneman Wages.
hours.

10,986 $0.5556
.2839
16,711
.3018
20,456

0.0910
.0598
.0489

$0.0500
.0170
.0148

5,006

.4121

.1998

.0823

11,864,540
11*864,540
11,864,540

1,763
974
13,331

.3001
.42697
.3674

.5671
1.0271
.0750

.1702
.2770
.0276

5,632.62

11,864,540

599

.2844 I 1.6692

.4747

1,536.42
1,734.85
414.00
2,322.66
478.75
900.75
429.26
58.75
65.00
175.49
805.45
262.35
407.38
58.30
1,132.79
368. 09
186.45
145.50
388.12
11,870.36

11.864.540
11.864.540
11.864.540
11.864.540
11.864.540
11.864.540
11.864.540
11, 864,540
11.864.540
11.864.540
11.864.540
11.864.540
11.864.540
11.864.540
11.864.540
11.864.540
11.864.540
11.864.540
11,864,540
11,864,540

1,981
.2565
.2600
1,778
8,597 ’ .3000
.2996
1,530
6,196
.2500
.3000
3,952
7,601
.2750
50,487
.2500
.2407
43,943
.2696
18,225
.3308
4,873
12,437
.2750
9,826
.3374
55,965
.2750
.3382
3,543
13, 764
.4270
17,499
.2750
.2622
21,378
. 2504
7,655
288
.2879

629|
585
585
612
310
810

278. 77
175.50
307.50
183.60
75.00
270.16

11.864.540
11.864.540
11.864.540
11.864.540
11.864.540
11.864.540

18,848
20,281
20,281
19,387
38,273
14,648

1,290.53

11,864,540

944.98

11,864,540

Total.....................................

12

3,531J

Maintenance of transportation..

13

3,195

.5048
.5623
.1163
.6534
.1614
.2531
.131,6
.0198
.0228
.0549
.2052
.0804
.1018
.0179
.2823
.0727
.0571
.0468
.1306
3.4751

.1295
.1462
.0349
. 1958
.0404
.0759
.0362
.0050
.0055
.0148
.0679
.0221
.0343
.0049
.0955
.0310
.0157
.0123
.0327
1.000

.4428
.3000
.5256
.3000
.2419
.3335

.0531
.0493
.0493
.0516
.0261
.0683

.0235
.0148
.0259
.0155
.0063
.0228

3,360

.3654

.2977

.1088

3,713

.2958

.2693

.0796

Establishment No. 20.
[Number of logs felled, 248; number of feet felled, log scale, 217,508; number of logs bucked, 382; number
of feet bucked, log scale, 335,083; number of logs loaded and transported, 435; number of feet loaded
and transported, log scale, 381,971; kinds of timber: redwood, 90 per cent; white pine, 5 per cent; fir
and spruce, 5 per cent.]
Foremen, scalers, general:
Foremen........................
Scalers............................
Total...........................
Fellmg^and log making:

5
4
9

50
40
90

$26.55
10.00
36.55

267,380
267,380
267,380

Buckers.........................
Peelers...........................

46
53
30

455
525
295

123.00
145.75
76.25

152,256
234,559
234,559

335
447
795

.2703
.2776
.2585

129 |1,275

345.00

234,559

108

Total.........................




5,348 $0.5310
6,685
.2500
2,971
.4061

0.1870
.1496
.3366

$0.0993
.0374
.1367

2.9884
2.2382
1.2577

.8078
.6214
.3251

.2706 |6.4843

1.7543

10 3

PRODUCTIVITY AND COST OF LABOR.
-TABLE 1 6 * — PR O D U CT IVIT Y

AN D COST OF L ABO R , B Y OCCUPATIONS A N D E S T A B ­
LISHM ENT S—Continued.
L O G G IN G — Continued.

Establishment No. 20—Concluded.

Full­
time
Occupation, process,or machine. posi­
tions.

Total
oneman
hours.

Total
output
in board
feet.

Total
wages.

Skidding, yarding, and loading:
Skid roadmen........................
Yardmen.................................
Loaders...................................

36
139
63

352*
1,390
630

$102.24
404.18
184.55

267,380
267,380
267,380

Output
in
board
feet
per
oneman
hour.

Wage
cost
per
oneman
hour.

Cost per 1,000
board feet
produced.
Oneman Wages.
hours.

759 $0.2900
192
.2908
424
.2929

1.3183
5.1986
2.3562

$0.3824
1.5116
.6902
2.5842

Total....................................

238

2,372*

690.97

267,380

113

.2912

8.8731

Transportation and unloading..

14

182|

52.44

267,380

1,465

.2873

.6826

.1961

Maintenance of transportation..

2

160

39.25

267,380

1,671

.2453

.5984

.1468

Establishment No. 21.
[Number of logs hauled, 6,257 (no other output record); log scale, 7,886,129 board feet;kinds of timber: red­
wood, 70 per cent; white pine, 28 per cent; fir, 2 per cent.J
Foremen, scalers, general:
Foremen..................................

2
5

540
1,170

$317.20
332.80

5,938,255
5,938,255

7

10,997 $0.5874
5,075
.2844

0.0909
.1970

$0.0534
.0560

1, 710

650.00

5,938,255

3,472

.3801

.2880

.1095

Felling and log making:
Choppers.................................
Peelers.................................
Sawvers (buckers).................
Filers.......................................

55 13,775
33 8,295
20 5,060
2
550

4,029.90
1,946.20
1,366.15
220.00

5,938,255
5,938,255
5,938,255
5,938,255

431
716
1,174
10,797

.2926
.2346
.2700
.4000

2.3197
1.3969
.8521
.0926

.6786
.3277
.2301
.0370

Total.....................................

110 27, 680

7,562.25

5,938,255

215

.2732

4-6613

1.2734

730.30
342.45
559.15
168.70
183.25
165.75
33.00
154.50
361.45
238.75
123.75
1,710.60
897.25
863.50
211.45
221.60

5,938,255
5,938,255
5,938,255
5,938,255
5,938,255
5,938,255
5,938,255
5,938, 255
5,938,255
5,938,255
5,938,255
5,938,255
5,938,255
5.938.255
5.938.255
5,938,255

3,049
4,334
2,402
8, 797
7,309
10,748
35,989
11,531
5,386
5, 011
14, 396
1,090
2,897
2,185
6, 317
10,065

.3750
.2500
.2261
.2499
.2255
.3000
.2000
.3000
.3278
.2015
.3000
.3140
.4377
.3178
.2249
.3756

.3280
.2307
.4164
.1137
.1368
.0930
.0278
.0867
.1857
.1996
.0695
.9174
.3452
.4576
.1583
.0994

.1230
.0577
.0942
.0284
.0309
.0279
.0056
.0260
.0609
.0402
.0208
.2881
.1511
.1454
.0356
.0373

91 22,955

6,965.45

5,938,255

259

.3042

3.8656

1.1730

Total....................................

Skidding, yarding, and loading:
Engineers................................
Firemen..................................
Wood bucks..........................
Chunk sawyers......................
Pump men............................
Powder men..........................
Mucker....................................
Splicers...................................
Spool tenders.........................
Signalmen..............................
Chasers....................................
Riggers....................................
Hook tenders.........................
Hook tenders,landing.........
Night watchmen...................
Machinists..............................
Total....................................

7
6
10
3
3
2
1
2
4
4
2
22
8
12
3
2

1,947*
1,370
2 ,472|
675
812§
552*
165
515
1,102*
1,185
412|
5,447*
2,050
2,717*
940
590

Transportation and unloading:
Engineers................................
Firemen..................................
Conductors.............................
Brakemen...............................
Hostler....................................
Wiper......................................
Lineman.................................

3
3
3
7
1
1
1

846
856
892
1,898
310
310
270

380.70
231.10
356.80
569.40
85.00
50.00
94.50

5,938,255
5,938,255
5,938,255
5,938,255
5,938,255
5,938,255
5,938,255

7,019
6,937
6,657
3,129
19,156
19,156
21, 994

.4500
.2700
.4000
.3000
.2742
.1613
.3500

.1425
.1442
.1502
.3196
.0522
.0522
.0455

.0641
.0389
.0601
.0959
.0143
.0084
.0159

Total....................................

19

5,382

1, 767.50

5,938,255

1,103

.3284

.9063

.2976

Maintenance of transporta­
tion..........................................

28

7,385

1,533.10

5,938,255

804

.2076

1.2436

.2582




10 4

LUMBER M ANUFACTURING.

T able

1 6 . — PR O D U CTIVITY

AN D COST OF L ABOR , B Y
LISHM ENTS—Continued.

OCCUPATIONS A N D ESTAB­

L O G G IN G — Continued.

Establishment No. 22.
[Number of logs cut, 1,762 (no other output record); log scale, 53,622 board measure; kinds of timber:
cypress, 80 per cent; gum, 20 per cent.]

Occupation, process, or machine.

Full­
time
posi­
tions.

Total
oneman
hours.

Total
wages.

Output
in
Total
board
output
feet
per
in board
onefeet.
man
hour.

Oneman Wages.
hours.
0.5708

$0.1706
.9187

.2944
.2456
.2750
.1724
.1750
.2173
.2000
. 1654

.8286
1.1002
.2578
.1703
.4235
.2394
.2394
3.5004

.2440
.2702
.0709
.0294
.0741
.0520
.0479
.5790

148

.2023

6. 7596

1. 3675

566

.2116

1. 7677

.3740

.1777

4.6310

.8231

2

310

$92.65

543,080

Felling and log making..................

15

2,060

498. 95

543,080

264

Skidding, yarding, and loading:
Lever men..................................
Riggers.......................................
Tong men..................................
Trailer.........................................
Firemen.....................................
Watchman.................................
Pump man................................
Laborers................................. .

4
4
1
1
2
1
1
15

450
597£
140
92*
230“
130
130
1,901

132.50
146. 75
38.50
15.95
40.25
28.25
26.00
314. 45

543,080
543,080
543,080
543,080
543, 800
543,080
543,080
543,080

1,207
909
3,879
5,871
2,361
4,178
4,178
286

Total........................................

29

3,671

742. 65

543,080

7

960

203.10 | 543,080

20

2,515

447.00 | 543,080

216

Maintenance of transportation_
_

Cost per 1,000
board feet
produced.

.2422 | 3.7932

Foremen, scalers, general..............

Transportation and unloading

Wage
cost
per
oneman
hour.

1,752 $0.2989

Establishment No. 24*
{Number of logs skidded, 2 *,428; number of feet skidded, log scale, 2,442,808; number of logs loaded, 20,515;
number of feet loaded, log scale, 2,951,581; kind of timber: short-leaf yellow pine.]
Foremen, scalers, general:
Foreman.....................................
Scaler...........................................

1
1

260
230

$211. 50 3.423.833
46.00 3.423.833

13,169 $0. 8135
14,886
.2000

0. 0759
.0672

$0. 0618
.0134

Total........................................

2

490

257. 50 3,423,833

6,987

.5255

.1431

.0752

Felling and log making:
Sawyers......................................
Filer............................................

25
1

6,144
240

1,071.60 2.844.654
54.00 2.844.654

463
11,853

.1744
.2250

2.1598
.0844

.3767
.0190

.1763 i| 2.2442

.3957

Total........................................

26

6,384

1,125. 60 2,844,654

446

Skidding, yarding, and loading:
Swampers...................................
Teamsters...................................
Loaders.......................................

16
19
8

4,108
4,820
2,170

574.44 2.844.654
919.44 2.844.654
557.50 3,423,833

692
590
1,578

.1398
.1908
.2569

1.4441
1.6944
.6338

.2019
.3232
.1628

Total........................................

43

11,098

2,051. 38 3,423,833

276

.1848

3. 7723

.6879

3,027

500.60 3,423,833

1,131

.1654

.8841

.1462

2,483

542.12 3,423,833

1,379

.2183

.7252

.1583

Transportation and unloading.. .
Maintenance of transportation. . .

10

Establishment No. 26.
[Number of logs felled, 570; number of feet felled, log scale, 97,921; number of logs skidded, 341; number
of feet skidded, log scale, 85,273; number of logs loaded and hauled, 92; number of feet loaded and hauled,
log scale, 25,796; kinds of timber: short-leaf yellow pine, 55 per cent; oak, 25 per cent; gum, 20 per eent.j
Foremen, scalers, general...............
Felling and log making..................
Skidding, yarding, and loading. . .
Transportation and unloading_
_
Maintenance of transportation.. .




10
26
73
14
16

103
260
727
139
160

$21. 10
58. 66
165. 98
34. 52
26. 10

105,595
105,595
109,746
33,199
33,199

1,025 $0.2049
406
.2256
.2283
151
239
.2483
207
.1631

0. 9754
2.4622
6. 6243
4.1869
4.8194

$0.1998
.5555
1. 5124
1. 0398
.7862

PRODUCTIVITY AND COST OP LABOR.
T a b le

1 6 .—

PR O D U C T IVIT Y AN D COST OF LABO R, B Y
LISHMENTS—Continued.

105

OCCUPATIONS AND ESTAB­

LOGGING—Concluded.

Establishment No. 27.
[Number of logs hauled, 3,059; log scale, 3,583,052 board feet; kind of timber, chiefly fir.]

Occupation, process, or machine.

Full­
time
posi­
tions.

Total
oneman
hours.

Total
wages.

Total
output
in board
feet.

Foreman, scalers, general...............

1

270

$223.25 4,299,662

Felling and log making:
Fellers.........................................
Buckers......................................
Filer.............................................

5
7
1

1,240
1,982
270

389.76 4.299.662
594. 60 4.299.662
108.00 4.299.662

Total........................................

13

3,492

1,092.36 4,299,662

3

743
1,017
2,190
2,790
1,326*
299
482
1,511£
284
307*
4,437
3m
817~
1,332

169.83
244.60
723. 50
681. 21
593.47
74.80
179.65
461.11
142.00
6a 30
1,34ft 23
98.26
314. 83
413.72

Skidding, yarding, and loading:
Wood trucks...............................
Signalmen..................................
Engineers...................................
Firemen......................................
Hook tenders.............................
Spool tender...............................
Riggers.......................................
Chasers.......................................
Climber......................................
Pump man................................
Choker men..............................
Deck man..................................
Loaders.....................................
Others.........................................
Total......................................
Transportation and unloading. . .
Maintenance of transportation. . .

4

8
10
5
1
2
6
1
1

18
1

3
5

4.299.662
4.299.662
4.299.662
4.299.662
4.299.662
4.299.662
4.299.662
4.299.662
4.299.662
4.299.662
4.299.662
4.299.662
4.299.662
4.299.662

Output
in
board
feet
per
oneman
hour.

Wage
cost
per
oneman
hour.

Cost per 1,000
board feet
produced.
Oneman Wages.
hours.

15,925 10.8269

0.0628

SO 0519
.

3,467
2,169
15,925

. 3143
.3000
.4000

. 2884
.4610
.0628

.0906
. 1383
.0251

1,231

.3128

.8122

. 2540

5,787
4 228
1,963
1,541
3,241
14,380
8,920
2,845
15,140
13,983
969
13,169
5,263
3,228

.2286
.2405
.3304
.2442
.4474
.2502
.3727
.3051
.5000
.2221
.3021
.3009
. 3853
.3106

.1728
.2365
.5092
. 6489
.3085
.0695
. 1121
.3515
.0661
.0715
1.0319
.0759
.1900
.3098

.0395
. 0569
. 1683
. 1584
. 1380
.0174
.0418
.1072
. 0330
. 0159
. 3117
. 0229
.0732
.0962
1. 2304

68 17,883

5,505.51 4,299,662

241

.3082

4.1542

10

2,789

860. 06 4,2997662

1,542~

.3084

.6487

. 2000

18

4,244

903.10 4,299,662

1,013

.2128

.9871

.2100

SAW M ILL,

Establishment No. 1.
[Equipment.—Three single-cut band saws; 2 edgers; 1 trimmer. Material.—Number of logs, 16,984; log

scale, 2,342,683 board feet; log average, 137.9 board feet; kind of timber: oak, 33 per cent; chestnut, 32
per cent; poplar, 12 per cent; maple, 9 per cent; hemlock, 7 per cent; basswood, 2 per cent; miscella­
neous, 6 per cent. Product.—Lumber tally, 2,735,227 board feet; prevailing sizes, four quarter, 60 per
cent; bills, 20 per cent; five to eight quarter, 12 per cent; other, 8 per cent.]

Sawmill foreman............................
Log pond or yard...........................

1
4

250
9m

Sawmill deck;
Scaler........................................
Lever man..............................

1
1

223$

$200.00
168.11

2,735,227
2,735,227

10,941 10.8000
2,761
.1697

223|

5a 28
44.70

2,735,227
2,735,227

12,238
12,238

0.0914
.3621

$0. 0731
. 0615

.22.50
.2000

.0817
.0817

.0184
.0163

Total......................................

2

447

94.98

2,735,227

6,119

.2125

.1634

. 0347

Band saw No. 1:
Sawyer......................................
Setter.........................................
Dogger......................................
Tail sawyer..............................

1
1
1
1

223i
223|
223i
223|

157.03
67.05
50.28
44. 70

1,055,173
1,055,173
1,055,173
1,055,173

4,721
4,721
4, 721
4, 721

.7020
.3000
.2250
.2000

.2118
.2118
.2118
.2118

.1483
. 0635
.0477
. 0424

T otal.....................................

4

894

319. 06

1,065,173

1,180

.3569

. 8473

. 3024




106
T a b le

LUMBER MANUFACTURING.
1 6 .— PR O DU CTIVITY AND

COST OF LABOR, B Y OCCUPATIONS AND ESTAB­
LISHMENTS—Continued.
SAWMILLr-Continued.

Establishment No. 1—Concluded.

Full­
time
Occupation, process, or machine. posi­
tions.

Band saw No. 2:.
Sawyer............
Setter...............
Dogger............
Tail sawyer...
Total.

Total
oneman
hours.

Total
wages.

Total
output
in board
feet.

Output
in
board
feet
per
oneman
hour.

Wage
cost
per
oneman
hour.

Cost per 1,000
board feet
produced.
Oneman Wages.
hours.

0.2114
.2114
.2114
.2114

$0.1485
.0634
.0476
.0423

.3569

.8456

.3018

1
1
1
1

213*
213*
213*
213*

$150.01
64.05
48.03
42. 70

1,009,883
1,009,883
1,009,883
1,009,883

4,730 $0.7026
4,730
.3000
4,730
.2250
4,730
.2000

4

854

304.79

1,009,883

1,183

1

Band saw No. 3:
Sawyer..........
Setter.............
Dogger...........
Tail sawyer..

1
1
1

223*
223*
223*
223*

157.03
67.05
50.28
44.70

670,171
670,171
670,171
670,171

2,999
2,999
2,999
2,999

.7026
.3000
.2250
.2000

.3335
.3335
.3335
.3335

* .2343
.1000
.0750
.0667

Total.

4

894

319.06

670,171

750

. 3569

1.3340

.4761

Total band saws:
Sawyers..........
Setters.............
Doggers...........
Tail sawyers..

3
3
3
3

660*
660*
660*
660*

464.07
198.15
148.59
132.10

2,735,227
2, 735,227
2, 735,227
2,735,227

4,141
4,141
4,141
4,141

.7026
.3000
.2250
.2000

.2415
.2415
.2415
.2415

.1697
.0724
.0543
.0483

Total.

12

942.91

2,735,227

1,035 ! .3569
|

.9659

.3447

Edger No. 1:
Edgerman...............
Edgerman’s helper.
Total.
Edger No. 2:
Edgermen................ .
Edgerman’s helper.
Total.
Total edging:
Edgermen.................
Edgerman’s helpers.
Total.
Trimming:
Operator.................
Operator's helper..
Total.
Refuse—slasher, hog, burner----Filing.............................................
Power and oiling.........................
Repair............................................
Night watch and fire protection
Clean-up and miscellaneous____
Sorting green lumber:
Grader...................... .
Sorters and loaders.
Total.
Yard—green lumber:
Foreman................
Transferring.........
Piling.....................




2,642

1
1

2131
213*

64.05
42. 70

1,009,883
1,009,883

4,730
4, 730

.3000
.2000

.2114
.2114

.0634
.0423

2

427

106. 75

1.009,883

2,365

.2500

.4228

.1057

2
1

447
223J

134.10
44.70

1,725,344
1,725,344

3,860
7, 720

.3000
.2000

.2591
.1295

.0777
.0259

3

670* |

178.80

1, 725,344

2,573

.2667

.3886

.1036

3
2

660*
437

198.15
87.40

2,735,227
2, 735,227

4,141
6,259

.3000
.2000

.2415
.1598

.0724
.0320

5

1,097*

285. 55

2,735,227

2,492

.2602

.4012

.1044

1
1

223*
223*

78.22
55. 87

2,735,227
2, 735,227

12,238
12,238

.3500
.2500

.0817
.0817

.0286
.0204

2

447

134.09

2, 735,227

6,119

.3000

.1634

.0490

1
2
6
10
1
3

223*
447
1,468
2,185*
332
790

50.28
312.90
462. 80
549.32
67.67
153.50

2, 735,227
2,735,227
2, 735,227
2, 735,227
2, 735,227
2, 735,227

12,238
6,119
1,863
1,252
3,462

.2250
.7000
.3153
.2513
.2038
.1943

.0817
.1634
.5367
.7990
.1214
.2888

.0184
.1144
.1692
.2008
.0247
.0561

1
8

223*
1,689

85.00
343.38

2,735,227
2, 735,227

12,238
1,619

.3803
.2033

.0817
.6175

.0311
.1255

9

1,912*

428. 38

2, 735,227

1,430

.2240

.6992

.1566

1
8
16

250
1,976
3,906

125.00
353. 38
768.35

2, 735,227
2, 735,227
2, 735,227

10,941
1,384
700

.5000
.1788
.1967

.0914
.7224
1.4280

.0457
.1292
.2809

.

8,239

10 7

PRODUCTIVITY AND COST OF LABOR.
T a b le

1 6 .—

PR O D U CTIVITY AND COST OF LABOR , B Y OCCUPATIONS A N D
LISHM ENTS—Continued.

ESTAB­

SA W M ILL —Continued.

Establishment No. 2.
[Equipment.— Three single-cut band saws; 2 edgers; 1 trimmer. Material.—Number of logs, 22,278; log
scale, 2,217,453 board feet; log average, 99.5 board feet; kind of timber: oak, maple,and chestnut con­
stitute 75 per cent; poplar, hemlock, basswood, and miscellaneous constitute 25 per cent. Product.—
Lumber tally, 2,439,198 board feet; prevailing sizes, four quarter, 62 per cent; five to eight quarter, 30
per cent; miscellaneous, 8 per cent.]

Total
output
in board
feet.

Output
in
board
feet
per
oneman
hour.

Full­
time
posi­
tions.

Total
oneman
hours.

Total
wages.

Sawmill foreman..
Log pond or yard.

1
5

273*
1,352

$166.66 2,439,198
253.42 2,439,198

Sawmill deck:
Scaler...............
Lever m a n ...

1
1

273*
273*

85.00 2,439,198
47.76 2,439,198

8,918
8,918

Occupation, process, or machine.

Wage
cost
per
oneman
hour.

8,918 $0.6094
1,804
.1874

Cost per 1,000
board feet
produced.
Oneman Wages.
hours.
0.1121
.5543

$0.0683
.1039

.3108
.1746

.1121
.1121

.0348
.0196

Total.

2

547

132. 76 2,439,198

4,459

.2427

.2243

.0544

Band saw No. 1:
Sawyer..........
Setter.............
Doggers.........
Tail sawyer..

1
1
2
1

272*
272b
545
272*

136.25
68.12
88.56
54.50

906,245
906,245
906,245
906,245

3,326
3,326
1,663
3,326

.5000
.2500
.1625
.2000

.3007
.3007
.6014
.3007

.1503
.0752
.0977
.0601

Total.

5

1,362*

347.43

906,245

665

.2550

1.5035

.3834

Band saw No. 2:
Sawyer..........
Setter.............
Dogger..........
Tail sawyer..

1
1
1
1

270*
270*
270|
270*

135.25
74.40
50.04
54.10

763,541
763,541
763,541
763,541

2,823
2,823
2,823
2,823

.5000
.2750
.1850
.2000

.3543
.3543
.3543
.3543

.1771
.0974
.0655
.0709

Total.

4

313. 79

763,541

706

.2900

1.4171

.4110

Band saw No. 3:
Sawyer........ .
Setter...........
Dogger........ .
Tail sawyer.,

1
1
1
1

136. 75
75.21
55. 60
54. 70

769,412
769,412
769,412
769,412

2,813
2,813
2,813
2,813

.5000
.2750
.2033
.2000

.3555
.3555
.3555
.3555

.1777
.0977
.0723
.0711

Total............

1,082
273i
273*
273*
273*

4

1,094

322.26

769,412

703

.2946

1.4219

.4188

3
3
4
3

816*
816*
1,089
816*

408. 25
217. 73
194.20
163.30

2,439,198
2,439,198
2,439,198
2,439,198

2,987
2,987
2,240
2,987

.5000
.2667
.1783
.2000

.3347
.3347
.4465
.3347

.1674
.0893
.0796
.0669

13

3,53SJ

983.48 2,439,198

689

. 27.79

1.4507

.4032

1
1

272|
272*

54.50 1,219,599
40. 87 1,219,599

4,476
4,476

.2000
.1500

.2234
.2234

.0447
.0335

2

545

95.37 1,219,599

2,238

.1750

.4469

.0782

1
1

273*
273*

54.70 1,219,599
41.02 1,219,599

4,459
4,459

.2000
.1500

.2243
.2243

.0449
.0336

2

547

95. 72 1,219,599

2,230

.1750

.4485

.0785

2
2

546
546

109.20 2,439,198
81.89 2,439,198

4,467
4,467

.2000
.1500

.2238
.2238

.0448
.0336

4

1,092

191.09 2,439,198

2,234

.1750

.4477

.0783

Total band saws:
Setters.
Doggers.........
Tail sawyers.
Total.
Edger No. 1:
Edgerman...............
Edgerman’ s helper.
Total.
Edger No. 2:
Edgerman...............
Edgerman’s helper.
Total.
Total edging:
Edgermen.................
Edgerman’s helpers .
Total.......................
Trimming:
Operator..................
Operator’s helpers.

1
2

273*
547

61.54 2,439,198
102.56 2,439,198

8,918
4,459

.2250
.1875

.1121
.2243

.0252
.0420

Total..................

3

8201

164.10 2,439,198

2,973

.2000

.3364

.0673




10 8

LUMBER MANUFACTURING.

Table 16.— PR O D U C T IVIT Y AN D COST OF

L ABOR , B Y
LISHMEN TS—Continued.

OCCUPATIONS AND ESTAB-

SAW M ILL—Continued.

Establishment No. 2—Concluded.
Output
in
board
Total
output
feet
in board
per
feet.
oneman
hour.

Cost per 1,000
board feet
produced.

Wage
cost
per
oneman
hour.

Full­
time
posi­
tions.

Total
oneman
hours.

Refuse—slasher, hog, burner........
Filing..................................................
Power and oiling..............................
Repair.
Night watch and fire protection..
Clean-up and miscellaneous..........

2
3
7
10
1
7

558§
750
1,721
2,706
360
1,911§

$92.33
250.00
410.03
643.77
63.00
304.08

2.439.198
2.439.198
2.439.198
2.439.198
2.439.198
2.439.198

4,367 $0.1653
3,252
. 4667
1,417
.2383
901
.2379
6,776
. 1750
1,276
.1591

Sorting green lumber:
Graders........... ...........................
Tallyman...................................
Lever man.................................
Sorters and loaders..................

2
1
1
6

548
274|
274
1,444

140.00
54.90
47.95
246.38

2.439.198
2.439.198
2.439.198
2.439.198

4,451
8,886
8,902
1,689

Total........................................

10

2,540^

489.23 2, 439,198

Yard—green lumber:
Foreman...................................
Transferring...............................
Piling...........................................

1
5
12

275
1 ,348J
3,281

110.00 2.439.198
234.70 2.439.198
639.39 1,888,461

Occupation, process, or machine.

Total
wage.

Oneman Wages.
hours.
0.2290
.3075
.7056
1.1094
.1476
. 7837

$0.0379
. 1435
. 1681
.2639
.0258
.1247

. 2555
.2000
.1750
.1706

.2247
.1125
.1123
.5920

.0574
.0225
.0197
.1010

960 | .1926

1.0415

' . 2006

.1127
.5528
1.7374

.0451
.0962
.3386

I

8,870
1,809
576

.4000
.1740
.1949

Establishment No. 3.
[Equipment.—Two single-cut band saws; 1 horizontal band resaw; 2 edgers: 1 trimmer.

Material.—
Number of logs, &,521; log scale, 1,190,456 board feet; log average, 125.0 board feet; kind of timber: hem­
lock, 95.5 per cent; all others 4.5 per cent. Product.—Lumber tally, 1,526,050 board feet; prevailing
sizes, 74 per cent lour and eight quarter.]

Sawmill foreman..............................
Log pond or yard...........................
Sawmill deck....................................

1
4
1

130
528
130

$55.00 1,526.050
123.31 1,526; 050
35.00 1,526,050

Band saws (2):
Sawyers.......................................
Setters.........................................
Doggers.......................................
Tail sawyers..............................

2
2
2
2

250
250
250
250

112.50
82. 75
64.05
61.25

Total........................................

8

Horizontal resaw:
Resawyer...................................
Resawyer's helpers.................

1
2

11,739 SO.4231
2,890
. 2335
11,739
.2692

0.0852
.3460
.0852

$0.0360
.0808
.0229

1,526,050
1,526,050
1,526,050
1,526,050

6,104
6,104
6,104
6,104

.4500
.3310
.2562
.2450

.1638
.1638
.1638
.1638

.0737
. 0542
.0420
.0401

1,000

320.55 1,526,050

1,526

.3206

. 6553

.2101

130
260

41.60 1,526,050
63. 70 1,526,050

11,739
5,869

.3200
.2450

.0852
.1704

.0273
.0417

Total........................................

3

390

105.30 1,526,050

3,913

.2700

.2556

.0690

Total sawing (head, resaw)..........

11

1,390

425.85 1,526,050

1,098

.3064

.9108

.2791

Edging (2 machines):
Edgermen..................................
Edgerman’s helpers.................

2
2

260
260

78.00 1,526,050
54.60 1,526,050

5,869
5,869

.3000
. 2100

. 1704
.1704

.0511
.0358

Total........................................

4

520

132. 60 1,526,050

2,935

. 2550

.3407

.0869

Trimming:
Operators...................................
Operator's helpers....................

2
2

260
260

71.50 1,526,050
67.37 1,526,050

5,869
5,869

.2750
.2591

.1704
.1704

.0469
.0441

Total........................................

4

520

138.87 1,526,050

2,935

.2671

.3407

.0910

Refuse—slasher, hog, burner........
Filing..................................................
Power and oiling..............................
Repair................................................
Night watch and fire protection..
Clean-up and miscellaneous.........

4
3
4
5
2
10

407
396
613
637
214
1,561

84.10
148.60
159.45
247.73
47.08
337.54

3,750
3,854
2,489
2,396
7,131
978

.2066
.3753
.2601
.3889
.2200
. 2162

.2667
.2595
.4017
.4174
.1402
1.0229

.0551
.0974
.1045
.1623
.0309
.2212




1,526,050
1,526,050
1,526,050
1,526,050
1,526,050
1,526,050

PRODUCTIVITY AND COST OF LABOR.
T a b le

109

16.—PR O D U CTIVITY AN D COST OF LABO R , B Y OCCUPATIONS AN D E STA BLISHM ENTS—Continued.
SAW M ILL—Continued.

Establishment No. 3—Concluded.
Output
m
board
feet
per
oneman
hour.

Full­
time
posi­
tions.

Total
oneman
hours.

Sorting green lumber:
Counter.......................................
Sorters and loaders...................

1
8

130
1,068-i

$32.50 1,526,050
234.57 1,526,050

Total........................................

9

1 ,198J

267.07 1,526,050

1,273

Yard—green lumber:
Foreman.....................................
Transfer......................................
Piling...........................................

1
7
14

130
920
1,963

50.00 1.526.050
208.40 1.526.050
466.48 1.526.050

11,739
1,659
777

Occupation, process, or machine.

Total
wage.

Total
output
in board
feet.

Wage
cost
per
oneman
hour.

11,739 $0.2500
1,428
.2195

Cost per 1.000
board feet
produced.
Onaman W ages,
hours.

0.0852
.7002

$0.0213
. 1537

.2228

. 7854

.1750

.3846
.2265
.2376

. 0852
. 6029
1. 2863

.0328
. 1366
. 3057

i

Establishment No. 4.
[Equipment.—One single-cut band saw; ledger; 1 trimmer.

Material.—Number of logs, 4,937; log scale 9
402,682 board feet; log average, 81.6 board feet; kind of timber; hemlock, 99.3 per cent, miscellaneous,
0.7 per cent. Product.—Lumber tally, 556,109 board feet; prevailing sizes, approximately 75 per
cent four and eight quarter.]

Sawmill foreman..............................
Log pond or yard............................
Sawmill deck....................................

1
2
1

120
205
120

$45.83
45.10
29.40

556,109
556,109
556,109

4,634 $0.3819
2,713
.2200
.2450
4,634

Band saw:
Sawyer........................................
Setter..........................................
Dogger.........................................
Tail sawyer................................

1
1
1
1

120
120
120
120

52.54
33.00
33.00
29.40

556,109
556,109
556,109
556,109

4,634
4,634
4,634
4,634

0. 2158
. 3686
.2158

$0.0824
.0811
.0529

.4378
.2750
.2750
.2450

.2158
.2158
.2158
.2158

.0945
. 0593
.0593
.0529

Total........................................

4

480

147.94

556,109

1,159

.3082

.8631

.2660

Edging:
Edgerman..................................
Edgerman’s helper...................

1
1

120
120

32.95
26.40

556,109
556,109

4,634
4,634

. 2746
.2200

. 2158
.2158

.0593
.0475

Total........................................

2

240

59.35

556,109

2,317

.2473

.4316

.1067

Trimming:
Operator.....................................
Operator’s helper.....................

1
1

120
120

32.40
29.40

556,109
556,109

4,634
4,634

.2700
. 2450

.2158
.2158

. 0583
.0529

Total........................................

2

240

61.80

556,109

2,317

.2575

.4316

.1111

Refuse—slasher, hog, burner........
Filing..................................................
Power and oiling..............................
Repair................................................
Night watch and fire protection..
Clean-up and miscellaneous.........

2
1
3
1
1
2

247
144
420
133
145
160

54.34
82.20
103.40
42.56
35.52
37.30

556,109
556,109
556.109
556,109
556,109
556,109

2,251
3,862
1,324
4,181
3,835
3,476

.2200
.5708
.2462
.3200
.2450
.2331

. 4442
.2589
.7552
. 2392
.2607
.2877

.0977
.1478
.1859
.0765
.0639
.0671

Sorting green lumber:
Counter.......................................
Sorters and loaders...................

1
4

129
471

31.60
99.53

556,109
556,109

4,311
1,181

.2450
.2113

.2320
.8470

.0568
.1790

Total........................................

5

600

131.13

556,109

927

.2186

1.0789

.2358

Yard—green lumber:
Transfer......................................
Piling...........................................

2
8

384
958£

88.57
229.80

556,109
556,109

1,448
580

.2307
.2397

.6905
1.7236

. 1593
. 4132




110
T

LUMBER MANUFACTURING.

able

1 6 .—PR O D U C T IV IT Y AN D COST OF LA B O R , B Y
LISHM ENTS—Continued.

OCCUPATIONS A N D ESTAB«

SAWMILL—Continued.

Establishment No. 5.
[Equipment.—Four single-cut handsaws; 4 horizontal band resaws; 4 edgers; 4 trimmers.
Material.—
Number of logs, 9,601; log scale, not kept; kind of timber, practically all spruce. Product.—Lumber
tally, 1,444,125 board feet; prevailing sizes, approximately 75 per cent four and eight quarter.]

Output
in
Total
board
feet
output
in board
per
onefeet.
man
hour.

Full­
time
posi­
tions.

Total
oneman
hours.

Sawmill foremen..............................
Log pond or yard............................

2
8

130
520

$60.00 1.444.125
96.00 1.444.125

Sawmill deck:
Dimension men........................
Lever men.................................
Roll ons......................................

2
2
2

130
130
130

42.00 1.444.125
27.00 1.444.125
25.50 1.444.125

Occupation, process, or machine.

Total
wage.

Wage
cost
per
oneman
hour.

Cost per 1,000
board feet
produced.
Oneman Wages.
hours.

11,109 $0.4615
2,777
.1846

0.0900
.3601

$0.0415
.0665

11.109
11.109
11.109

.0231
.2077
.1962

.0900
.0900
.0900

.0291
.0187
.0177

Total.......................................

6

390

94.50 1,444,125

3,703

.2423

.2701

.0654

Band saw No. 1:
Sawyer........................................
Setter..........................................
Doggers........*.............................
Tail sawyer...............................

1
1
2
1

65
65
130
65

33.00
16.50
25.50
15.00

367.007
367.007
367.007
367.007

5.646
5.646
2,823
5.646

.5077
.2538
.1962
.2308

.1771
.1771
.3542
.1771

.0899
.0450
.0695
.0409

Total.......................................

5

325

90.00

367,007

1,129

.2769

.8855

.2452

Horizontal resaw No. 1:
Resawyer...................................

1

65

15.00

367,007

5,646

.2308

.1771

.0409

Total, band saw No. 1 and
resaw No. 1.........................

6

390

105.00

367,007

941

.2692

1.0627

.2861

Band saw No. 2:
Sawyer.......................................
Setter..........................................
Doggers.......................................
Tail sawyer...............................

1
1
2
1

65
65
130
65

33.00
16.50
27.00
15.00

384.367
384.367
384.367
384.367

5.913
5.913
2,957
5.913

.5077
.2538
.2077
.2308

.1691
.1691
.3382
.1691

.0859
.0429
.0702
.0390

Total.......................................

5

325

91.50

384,367

1,183

.2815

.8455

.2381

Horizontal resaw No. 2:
P*esawyer...................................

1

65

15.00

384,367

5,913

.2308

.1691

.0390

Total, band saw No. 2 and
resaw No. 2........................

6

390

106.50

384,367

986

.2731

1.0147

.2771

Band saw No. 3:
Sawyer.......................................
Setter..........................................
Doggers......................................
Tail sawyer...............................

1
1
2
1

65
65
130
65

33.00
16.50
27.00
15.00

362.659
362.659
362.659
362.659

5.579
5.579
2,790
5.579

.5077
.2538
.2077
.2308

.1792
.1792
.3585
.1792

.0910
.0455
.0745
.0414

Total.......................................

5

325

91.50

362,659

1,116

.2815

.8962

.2523

Horizontal resaw No. 3:
Resawyer...................................

1

65

15.00

362,659

5,579

.2308

.1792

.0414

Total, band saw No. 3 and
resaw No. 3.........................

6

390

106.50

362,659

930

.2731

1.0754

.2937

Band saw No. 4:
Sawyer.......................................
Setter..........................................
Doggers..................................... .
Tail sawyer.............................. .

1
1
2
1

65
65
130
65

33.00
16.50
27.00
15.00

330.092
330.092
330.092
330.092

5.078
5.078
2,539
5.078

.5077
.2538
.2077
.2308

.1969
.1969
.3938
.1969

.1000
.0500
.0818
.0454

Total.......................................

5

325

91.50

330,092

1,016

.2815

.9846

.2772

1

65

15.00

330,092

5,078

.2308

.1969

.0454

6

390

106.50

330,092

846

.2731

1.1815

.3226

Horizontal resaw No. 4:
Resawyer..................................
Total, band saw No. 4 and
resaw No. 4.........................




Ill

PRODUCTIVITY AND COST OP LABOR.
T a b le

1 6 . — P RODU CTIVITY AND COST OF LABOR, B Y

OCCUPATIONS AND ESTAB­

LISHMENTS—Continued.
SAWMILL—Continued.

Establishment No. 5—Continued.

Full­
time
posi­
tions.

Total
oneman
hours.

Total band saws:
Sawyers..........
Setters.............
Doggers...........
Tail sawyers..

4
4
8
4

260
260
520
260

Total.

20

1,300

Occupation, process, or machine.

Total resaws:
Resawyers.

Total
wage.

$132.00
66.00
106.50
60.00

Total
output
in board
feet.

Output
in
Wage
board
cost
per
feet
per
oneman
oneman
hour.
hour.

1,444,125
1,444,125
1,444,125
1,444,125

5,554 $0.5077
5,554
.2538
2,777
.2048
5,554
.2308

364.50 1,444,125

1,111

.2804

Cost per 1,000
board feet
produced.
Oneman Wages.
hours.

0.1800
.1800
.3601
.1800

$0.0914
.0457
.0737
.0415

.9002

.2524

4

260

60.00 1,444,125

5,554

.2308

.1800

.0415

Total sawing (head, resaw).

24

1,560

424.50 1,444,125

926

.2721

1.0802

.2939

Edger No. 1:
Edgerman..................................
Edgerman’s helpers................

1
2

65
130

18.00
28.50

367,007
367,007

5,646
2,823

.2769
.2192

.1771
.3542

.0490
.0777

Total.

3

195

46.50

367,007

1,882

.2385

.5313

.1267

Edger No. 2:
Edgerman...................
Edgerman’s helpers.

1
2

65
130

18.00
30.00

384,367
384,367

5,913
2,957

.2769
.2308

.1691
.3382

.0468
.0781

Total.........................

3

195

48.00

384,367

1,971

.2462

.5073

Edger No. 3:
Edgerman.
Edgerman’s helpers.

1
2

65
130

18.00
33.00

362,659
362,659

5,579
2,790

.2769
.2538

.1792
.3585

.0496
.0910

3

195

51.00

362,659

1,860

.2615

.5377

.1406

1
2

65
130

18.00
31.50

330,092
330,092

5,078
2,539

.2769
.2423

.1969
.3938

.0545
.0954

3

195

49.50

330,092

1,693

.2538

.5907

.1500

4
8

260
520

72.00 1,444,125
123.00 1,444,125

5,554
2,777

.2769
.2365

.1800
.3601

.0499
.0852

195.00 1,444,125

1,851

.2500

.5401

.1350

5,646
5,646

.2769
.2077

.1771
.1771

.0490
.0368

Total.
Edger No. 4:
Edgerman...................
Edgerman’s helpers.
Total.
Total edging:
Edgermen...................
Edgerman’s helpers.
Total.

.1249

12

780

Trimmer No. 1:
Marker....... .
Operator___

1
1

65
65

18.00
13.50

Total____
Trimmer No. 2:
Marker.......
Operator...

130

31.50

367,007

2,823

.2423

. 3542

.0858

1
1

65
65

18.00
13.50

384,367
384,367

5,913
5,913

.2769
.2077

.1691
.1691

.0468
.0351

130

31.50

384,367

2,957

.2423

.3382

.0820

65
65

18.00
13.50

362,659
362,659

5,579
5,579

. 2769
.2077

.1792
.1792

.0496
.0372

130

31.50

362,659

2,790

.2423

.3585

.0869

1
1

65
65

18.00
13.50

330,092
330,092

5,078
5,078

.2769
.2077

.1969
.1969

.0545
.0409

2

130

31.50

330,092

2,539

.2423

.3938

.0954

4
4

260
260

72.00 1,444,125
54.00 1,444,125

5,554
5,554

.2769
.2077

.1800
.1800

.0499
.0374

8

520

126.00 1,444,125

2,777

.2423

.3601

.0873

Total____
Trimmer No. 3:
Marker.......
Operator___
Total.
Trimmer No. 4:
Marker.........
Operator___
Total.
Total trimming:
Markers........
Operators. . .
Total.............................

100531°— 18— Bull. 225-




1
1

367,007
367,007

LUMBER M ANUFACTURING.

112
T a b le

1 6 .— PRODU CTIVITY AND

COST OF LABOR, B Y OCCUPATIONS AND ESTAB­
LISHMENTS—Continued.
SAWMILL—Continued.

Establishment No, 5—Concluded,

Occupation, process, or machine.

FuUtima
posi­
tions.

Total
oneman
hours.

520

Total
wage.

$102.00
m oo
229.77
388.76
$4.23
154.50

Total
outout
in board
feet.

Output
Wage
in
cost
board,
per
feet
oneper
man
onehour.
man
hour.

1.444.125
1.444.125
1.444.125
1.444.125
1.444.125
1.444.125

2,777 $0.1962
3,703
*4231
1,383
.2201
791
,2128
3,337
* 1946
1,701
. 1820

Refuse—slasher, hog, burner........
Filing.................................................
Power and oiling..............................
Repair............. . ..................._.........
Night wateh and fir© protection..
Clean-up and miscellaneous..........

8
6
16
28
6
13

1,044
i.s m
432f
849

Sorting green lumber:
Checkers.....................................
Sorters and loaders..................

4
15

260
962|

60.00 1.444.125
170.60 1.444.125

5,554
1,501

Total........................................

19

1,2221'

23a 60 1,444,125

1,182

Y ard—green lumber:
Foreman....................................
Transfer.....................................
Piling..........................................

1
7
42

65
467|
2,73i f

17.10 1.444.125
86.25 1.444.125
494.25 1.444.125

22,217
3,087
529

390

Cost per 1,000
board feet
produced.
Oneman Wages.
hours.
0. 3601
.2701
.7229
1.2648
.2997
.5879

*0.0706
.1143
.1591
.2692
.0583
.1070

.2308
.1773

.1800
.6663

.0415
.11S1

. 1887

.8463

.1597

.2631
.0450
.1844 * .3239
.1809 1.8916

.0118
.0597
.3422

Establishment No. 6.
[Effutpmmt.— Two double-cut band saws;

1 pony single-cut band saw; Sedgers; 3 trimmers. Material.—
Number of logs, 8,119; log scale, not kept; kind of timber, practically all spruce. Product—Lumber
tally, 832,455 board feet; prevailing sises, two inches and under in thickness.]

Sawmill foreman........................ .
Log pond or yard.......................

1
4

65
260

$23.08
48.00

832,455
832,455

12, 807 $0.3551
3,202
.1846

Sawmill deck:
D imeaision man— .............
Lever m an............................
Roll downs...........................

1
1
2

65
65
130

24.00
10.50
25.50

832,455 12,807
.3692
832,455 12,807
.1615
832,455 , 6,404 , .1962

.0781
.0781
.1562

.0288
.0126
.0305

0.0781 $0.0277
.3123 .
.0577

4'

260

60.00

832,455

3,202

.2308 '

.3123 '

.0721

Band saw, No. 1 (double-cut):
lawyer
Setter.....................................
Doggers..................................
Tail sawyer..........................

..... .....

1
1
2
1

65;
65
130
65

33.00
21.00
27.00
15.00

357,229
357,229 .
357,229
357,229

5,496
5,496
2,748
5,496

.5077
.3231
.2077
.2308

.1820
.1820
.3639
.1820

.0924
.0588
.0756
.0420

Total...................................

TotaL.................................

5

325

96.00

357, 229

1,099

.2954

.9098

.2687

Band saw, No. 2 (double-cut):
Sawyer...................................
Setter.....................................
Doggers.................................
Tail sawyer..........................

1
1
2
1

65
65
130
65

33.00
2L00
27.00
15.00

365,512 !
365,512
365,512
365,512

5,623
5,623
2,812
5,623

.5077
.3231
.2077
.2308

.1778 ■
.1778 '
.3557
.1778

.0903
.0575
.0739
.0410

Total...................................

5

325

96.00

365,512

1,125

.2954

.8892

.2626

Pony band saw;
Sawyser...................................
Roll on and dogger.............
Tail sawyer..........................

1
1
1

65
65
65

30.00
15.00
13.50

109,714
109,714
109,714 .

1,688
1,688
1,688

. 4615
. 2308
.2077

.5924
.5924
.5924

.2734
.1367
.1230

Total...................................

3

195

58.50

109,714

563

.3000

1. 7773

.5332

Total band saws:
Sawyers.................................
Setters
Doggers.................................
Tail sa w y e rs.....................

3
2
5
3

130
325
m '
■

96.00
42.60
69.00
43.50

832,455
832,455
832,455
832,455

4,269
6,404
2,561
4,269

.4923
.3231
.2123
.2231

13 ;

845:

250.50

832,455

985

..........

Total..................................




m

.2342
. 1562
.3904!
.2342

.2964 ; 1.0151

.1153
.0505
.0829
.0523
.3009

113

PRODUCTIVITY AND COST OF LABOR.
T a b le

16.— PR O DU CTIVITY AND COST OF LABOR, B Y OCCUPATIONS AND

ESTAB­

LISHMENTS—Continued.
SAWMILL;—Continued.

Establishment No. 6—Concluded.

Occupation, process, or machine.

Full­
time
posi­
tions.

Total
oneman
hours.

Edger No. 1:
Edgerman................
Edgerman's helper.
Total.,

Total..

Total..

5.496 $0.3000
5.496

0.1820
.1820

34.50

357,229

2,748

.2654

.3639

19.50
15.00

365.512
365.512

5.623
5.623

.3000
. 2308

.1778
.1778

.0533
.0410

34.50

365,512

2,812

.2654

.3557

.0944

16.50
13.50

109.714
109.714

1,688

.2538
.2077

.5924
.5924

.1504
.1230

130

30.00

109,714

844

1.1849

.2734

196
195

55.50
43.50

832.455
832.455

4,269
4,289

.2846
. 2231

.2342
.2342

.0667
.0523

390

99.00

832,455

2,135

.2538

.4685

.1189

18.00
15.00

357.229
357.229

5.496
5.496

.2760
.2308

.1820
.1820

.0504
.0420

33.00

357,229

2,748

.2538

.3639

.0924

19.50
15.00

365.512
365.512

5.623
5.623

.3000
.2308

.1778
.1778

. 0533
.0410

34.50

365,512

2,812

.2654

.3557

18.00
13.50

109.714
109.714

.2769
.2077

.5924
.5924

.1641
. 1230

1.184#

.2871

130

130

Trimmer No. 1:
Operator.................
Operator's helper.
Total....................

130

Trimmer No. 2:
Operator.................
Operator’s helper..
Total...................

130

Trimmer No. 3:
Operator.................
Operator's helper..
Total..
Total trimming:
Operators.................
Operator's helpers..
Total..

Oneman
hours.

357.229
357.229

Edger No. 3:
Edgerman................
Edgerman's helper..

Total edging:
Edgermen..................
Edgerman’s helpers.

Cost per 1,000
board feet
produced.

$19.50
15.00

Edger No. 2:
Edgerman................
E dgermttn*s helper.
Total..

Total
wage.

Output
in
Wage
Total
board
cost
per
feet
output
per
inboard
onefeet.
oneman
man
hour.
hour.

109, 714

130
195
195

1,688

$0.0546
.0420

55.50
43.50

832.455
832.455

4.269
4.269

.2846
.2231

.2342
.2342

.0667
.0523

390

►
9.00

832,455

2,135

.2538

.4685

.1189

Refuse—slasher, hog, burner.......
Filing................................................
Power and oiling............................
Repair..............................................
Night watch and fire protection.
Clean-up and miscellaneous........

455
130
400
423
76
510

84.00

109.20
105.25
15. 75
97. 75

832.455
832.455
832.455
832.455
832.455
832.455

1,830
6,404
2,081
1,968
10,953
1,632

.1846
.9231
.2730
.2488
.2072
.1917

.5466
.1562
.4805
.5081
.0913
.6127

.1009
.1442
.1312
.1264
.0189
.1174

Sorting green lumber:
Checkers....................
Sorting and loading.

195
523

45.00
96. 70

832.455
832.455

4,289
1,592

.2308
.1849

.2342
.6283

.0541
.1162

718

141. 70

832,455

1,159

76
390
1,370

24.60
72.00
254.20

832.455
832.455
832.455

10,953
2,135
608

.3224
. 1846
.1855

.0913
.4685
1.6457

.0294
. 0805
.3054

Total..
Yard—green lumber:
Foreman...............
Transfer................
Piling.....................




120.00

114

LUMBER MANUFACTURING.

T a b le

1 6 .—PR O D U CT IVIT Y AN D COST OF L ABO R , B Y
LISHM ENTS—Continued.

OCCUPATIONS AN D

ESTAB.

SAWMILIr—Continued.

Establishment No. 7.
[Equipment.—One single-cut band saw; 1 horizontal band resaw; 1 edger; 1 trimmer.

Material.—Number
of legs, 3,315; log scale, not kept; kind of timber: 97 per cent spruce; 2 per cent hemlock: 1 per cent pine.

Product.— Lumber tally, 345,957 board feet; prevailing sizes, 13 per cent timbers; 87 per cent two and
four quarter.)

Output
in
Wage
board
cost
Total
per
feet
output
per
in board
oneman
onefeet.
man
hour.
hour.

Cost per 1,000
board feet
produced.

Full­
time
posi­
tions.

Total
oneman
hours.

Log pond or yard..............*-...........

1
2

60
120

$28. 84
21.00

345.957
345.957

5,766 $0. 4807
.1750
2,883

0.1734
.3469

$0.0834
.0607

Sawmill deck:
■nimeTisioTi.................................
Roll on........................................

2
1

120
60

36.00
18.00

345.957
345.957

2,883
5,766

.3000
.3000

.3469
.1734

.1041
.0520

Total........................................

3

180

54.00

345,957

1,922

.3000

.5203

.1561

Setter..........................................
Dogger.........................................
Tail sawyer................................

1
1
1
1

60
60
60
60

42.00
18.00
18.00
15.00

345,957
345.957
345.957
345.957

5.766
5.766
5.766
5.766

.7000
.3000
.3000
.2500

.1734
.1734
.1734
.1734

.1214
.0520
.0520
.0434

Occupation, process, or machine.

Band saw:

Total
wage.

Oneman Wages.
hours.

Total........................................

4

240

93.00

345,957

1,441

.3875

.6937

.2688

Horizontal band resaw:
Resawyer...................................
Resawyer’s helpers...................

1
3

60
180

21.00
40.50

345.957
345.957

5,766
1,922

.3500
.2250

.1734
.5203

.0607
.1171

Total........................................

4

240

61.50

345,957

1,441

.2563

.6937

.1778

Total sawing (head, resaw).........

8

480

123.00

345,957

721

.2563

1.3875

.3555

Edging:
Ed german..................................
Edgerman’s helper..................

1
1

60
60

21.00
13.50

345.957
345.957

5,766
5,766

.3500
.2250

. 1734
.1734

.0607
.0390

Total........................................

2

120

34.50

345,957

2,883

.2875

.3469

.0997

Trimming:
Markers.......................................
Operator.....................................
Operator's helper.....................

2
1
1

120
60
60

43.50
15.00
13.50

345.957
345.957
345.957

2,883
5.766
5.766

.3625
. 2500
.2250

.3469
.1734
.1734

.1257
.0434
.0390

Total........................................

4

240

72.00

345,957

1,441

.3000

.6937

.2081

Refuse—slasher, hog, burner.........
F ilin g...............................................
Power and oiling..............................
Repair................................................
Night watch and fire protection..
Clean-up and miscellaneous..........

2
1
3
3
2
7

120
60
192i
227|
140
370

24.00
48.00
55.06
60.37
33.25
71.12

345.957
345.957
345.957
345.957
345.957
345.957

2,883
5,766
1,797
1,521
2,471
935

.2000
. 8000
.2860
.2654
.2375
.1922

.3469
. 1734
.5564
.6576
.4047
1.0695

.0694
.1387
.1592
.1745
.0961
.2056

Sorting green lumber:
Checker.......................................
Sorters and loaders...................

1
5

60
300

19.50
69.00

345.957
345.957

5,766
1,153

.3250
.2300

.1734
.8672

.0564
.1994

Total............................... ........

6

360

88.50

345,957

961

.2458

1.0406

.2558

Yard—green lumber:
Transfer......................................
piling...........................................

4
6

240
360

60.00
81.00

345.957
345.957

1,441
961

.2500
.2250

.6937
1.0406

.1734
.2341




115

PRODUCTIVITY AND COST OF LABOR.
T able

1 6 . — PR O D U C T IVIT Y

AN D COST OF LABOR, B Y OCCUPATIONS A N D ESTAB­
LISHM ENT S-Continued.
SAW M ILL—Continued.

Establishment No. 8.
[ Equipment.—Six single-cut band saws; 1 sash gang saw; 2 horizontal band resaws; 6 edgers; 3 trimmers.
Material.—Number of logs, 24,753; log scale, 1,605,460 board feet; log average, 64.9 board feet; kind of
timber: chiefly white pine, some balsam, spruce, Norway pine, and tamarack. Product.—Lumber tally,
2,319,501 board feet; prevailing sizes, four to eight quarter.]

Total
output
in board
feet.

Output
in
Wage
board
cost
per
feet
per
oneoneman
man
hour.
hour.

$117.50 2,319,501
229.34 2,319,501
74.21 2,319,501

8,284 $0.4196
2,452
.2424
8,284
.2650

Full­
time
posi­
tions.

Total
oneman
hours.

Sawmill foreman...................
Log pond or yard.................
Sawmill deck.........................

4
13
4

280
946
280

Band saws (3):
Sawyers...........................
Setters..............................
Doggers............................
Tail sawyers...................

3
3
4
3

210
210
280
210

157.50
75.60
88.85
55.65

1,338,165
1,338,165
1,338,165
1,338,165

6,372
6,372
4,779
6,372

Occupation, process, or machine.

Total
wage.

Cost per 1,000
board feet
produced.
Oneman Wages.
hours.
0.1207
.4078
.1207

$0.0507
.0989
.0320

.7500
.3600
.3173
.2650

.1569
.1569
.2092
.1569

.1177
.0565
.0664
.0416

Total.............................

13

910

377.60 1,338,165

1,471

.4149

.6800

.2822

Band saws (3):
Sawyers...........................
Setters..............................
Doggers............................
Tail sawyers...................

3
3
3
3

210
210
210
210

157.50
75.60
75.60
55.65

981,336
981,336
981,336
981,336

4,673
4,673
4,673
4,673

.7500
.3600
.3600
.2650

.2140
.2140
.2140
.2140

.1605
.0770
.0770
.0567

Total.............................

12

840

364.35

981,336

1,168

.4338

.8560

.3713

Total band saws:
Sawyers...........................
Setters..............................
Doggers............................
Tail sawyers...................

6
6
7
6

420
420
490
420

315.00
151.20
164.45
111.30

2,319,501
2,319,501
2,319,501
2,319,501

5,523
5,523
4,734
5,523

.7500
.3600
.3356
.2650

.1811
.1811
.2113
.1811

. 1358
.0652
.0709
.0480

Total.............................

25

1,750

741.95 2,319,501

1,325

.4240

.7545

.3199

Gang saw:
Sawyer.............................
Sawyer's helpers...........

1
2

70
140

22.05 1,338,165
40.60 1,338,165

19,117
9,558

.3150
.2900

.0523
.1046

.0165
.0303

Total.............................

3

210

62.65 1,338,165

6,372

.2983

.1569

.0468

1
2 !

70
140

20.65
34.30

981,836
981,336

14,019
7,010

.2950
.2450

.0713
.1427

.0210
.0350

54.95

Resaw:
Resawyer........................
Resawyer’s helpers___
Total.............................

981,336

4,673

.2617

.2140

.0560

31

2,170

859.55 2,319,501

1,069

.3961

.9355

.3706

Edging (3 machines):
Edgermen.......................
Edgerman’s helpers___

5
6

350
420

126.00 1,338,165
102.60 1,338,165

3,823
3,186

.3600
.2443

.2616
.3139

.0942
.0767

Total sawing (head, gang, resaw).

3 |

210

Total.............................

11

770

228.60 1,338,165

1,738

.2969

.5754

.1708

Edging (2 machines):
Edgermen.......................
Edgerman’s helpers..

4
4

280
280

100.80
67.55

981,336
981,336

3,505
3,505

.3600
.2413

.2853
.2853

.1027
.0688

Total.............................

8

560

168.35

981,336

1,752

.3006

.5707

.1716

Total edging:
Edgermen........................
Edgerman's helpers___

9
10

630
700

226.80 2,319,501
170.15 2,319,501

3,682
3,314

.3600
.2431

.2716
.3018

.0978
.0734

Total.............................

19

1,330

396.95 2,319,501

1,744

.2985

.5734

. 1711

Trimming (2 machines):
Operators........................
Operator’s helpers........

2
4

140
280

37.80 1,338,165
75.60 1,338,165

9,558
4,779

.2700
.2700

.1046
.2092

.0282
.0565

Total..........................

6

420

113.40 1,338,165

3,186

.2700

.3139

.0847




116

LUMBER M ANUFACTURING.

T a b le

16*— PRODUCTIVITY

AND COST OF LABOR, BY OCCUPATIONS AND ESTAB*
LISHMENTS—Continued.
SAWMILL —Continued.

Establishment N o .8 — Concluded.

Occupation, process, or machine.

Full­
time
posi­
tions.

Total
oneman
hours.

Total
wage.

Output
in
Total
board
output
feet
per
in board
onefeet.
man
hour.

Trimming (1 machine):
Operator.....................................
Operator’s helpers...................

1
2

70
1414

$20.65
36.38

981.336
981.336

57.03

981,336

4,640

Total........................................

3

211*

(Total trimming:
Operators...................................
Operator’s helpers...................

3
6

210
421}

58.45 2.319.501
111.98 2.319.501

Wage
cost
per
oneman
hour.

14,019 $0.2950
6,935
.2571

Cost per 1,000
board feet
produced.
Oneman Wages.
hours.

0.0713
.1442

$0.0210
.0371

.2696 ' .2155

.0581

11,045
5,503

.2783
.2657

.0905
.1817

.0252
.0483

Total........................................

9

631}

170.43 2,319,501

3,673

.2699

.2723

.0735

Refuse—slasher, hog, burner.........
Filing..................................................
Power and oiling..............................
Repair................................................
Night watch and fire protection. Clean-up and miscellaneous..........

5
8
11
6
4
13

354}
560
837
462
288
958}

93.97
331.31
219.84
151.69
58.08
224.38

2.319.501
2.319.501
2.319.501
2.319.501
2.319.501
2.319.501

6,543
4,142
2,771
5,021
8,054
2,420

.2651
.5916
.2627
.3283
.2017
.2341

.1528
.2414
.3609
.1992
. 1242
.4132

.0405
.1428
.0948
.0654
.0250
.0967

Sorting green lumber:
Foremen.....................................
Graders.................. ...............
Markers.......................................
Sorters and loaders...................

2
3
3
36

140
220
215
2,570

49.00
59.40
51.88
628.01

2.319.501
2.319.501
2,319,361
2.319.501

16,568
10,543
10,788
903

.3500
.2700
.2413
.2444

.0604
.0948
.0927
1.1080 i

.0211
.0256
.0224
.2708

Total........................................

44

3,145

788. 29 2,319,501

738

.2506

1.3559

.3399

Yard—green lumber:
Foremen.....................................
Transfer......................................
Piling..........................................

2
24
52

140
1,719.}
3,671}

68.75 2.319.501
378.98 2.319.501
909.64 2.319.501

16,568
1,349
632

.4911
.2204
.2478

.0604
.7413
1.5829

.0296
. 1634
.3922

Establishment No. 9.
[ Equipment.—Two single-cut band saws; 1 sash gang saw; 1 horizontal band resaw; 2 edgers; 1 trimmer.
Material.—Number of logs, 66,285; log scale, 4,166,700 board feet; log average, 62.9 board feet; kind of
timber: white pine, 95 per cent; miscellaneous, 5 per cent. Product.—Lumber tally, 4,380,981 board
feet; prevailing sizes, four to eight quarter in stock widths.]
Sawmill foreman..............................
Log pond or yard............................
Sawmill deck....................................

1
- 3
2

Band saws (2):
Sawyers......................................
Setters.........................................
Doggers.......................................
Tail sawyers..............................

2
2
2
2

520
520
520
520

260
750
351}

$110.00 4.380.981
183.75 4.380.981
135.23 4.380.981
390.00
188.13
187.20
137.80

16,850 $0.4231
5,841
.2450
12,464
.3847

0.0593
.1712
.0802

$0.0251
.0419
.0309

4.380.981
4.380.981
4.380.981
4.380.981

8.425
8.425
8.425
8.425

.7500
.3618
.3600
.2650

.1187
.1187
.1187
.1187

.0890
.0429
.0427
.0315

Total........................................

8

2,080

903.13 4,380,981

2,106

.4342

.4748

.2061

Gang saw:
Sawyer........................................
Sawyer's helpers......................

1
3

260
795

91.00 4.380.981
211.41 4.380.981

16,850
5,511

. "500
.2659

.0593
. 1814

.0208
.0483

Total........................................

4

1,055

302.41 4,380,981

4,153

.2866

. 2408

.0690

Resaw:
Resawyer...................................
• Resawyer's helpers...................

1
4

260
999

83.20 4.380.981
245.06 4.380.981

16,850
4,385

.3200
.2453

.0593
.2279

.0190
.0559

Total.................. ..................... :
Total sawing (head, gang, resaw).




5

1,259

328.26 4,380,981

3,480

.2607

.2874

.0749

17

4,394

1,533.80 4,380,981

997

.3491

1.0030

.3501

117

PRODUCTIVITY AND COST OF LABOR.
T a b le

1& —

PR O D U CTIVITY AN D COST OF LABOR, B Y OCCUPATIONS A N D
LISHMENTS—Continued.

ESTAB.

SAW M ILL—Continued.

Establishment No. 9—Concluded.
Output
in
Total
board
output
feet
in board
per
feet.
oneman
hour.

Full­
time
posi­
tions.

Total
oneman
hours.

Edging (2 machines):
Edgermen...................................
' Edgerman’s helpers.................

4
4

1.040
1.040

$350.00 4.380.981
256.49 4.380.981

Occupation, process, or machine.

Total
wage.

Wage
cost
per
oneman
hour.

4.212 $0.3365
4.212
.2466

Cost per 1,000
board feet
produced.
Oneman Wages.
hours.

0.2374
.2374

$9.0799
.0585

Total........................................

8

2,080

606.49 4,380,981

2,106

.2916

.4748

.1384

Trimming (1 machine):
Operators...................................
Operator’s helpers....................

2
2

520
520

153.40 4.380.981
145.60 4.380.981

8.425
8.425

.2950
.2800

.1187
.1187

.0350
.0332

Total........................................

4

1,040

299.00 4,380,981

4,212

.2875

.2374

.0682

Refuse—slasher, hog, burner........
Filing..................................................
Power and oiling..............................
Repair................................................
Night watch and fire protection..
Clean-up and miscellaneous..........

3
4
2
5
12

1,200
780
1,357
616
1,499
3,018

287.73
527.80
353.67
181.37
374.85
612.40

4.380.981
4.380.981
4.380.981
4.380.981
4.380.981
4.380.981

3,651
5,617
3,228
7,112
2,923
1,452

.2398
.6767
.2606
.2944
.2501
.2029

.2739
.1780
.3097
. 1406
.3421
.6889

.0657
.1205
.0807
.0414
.0856
.1398

Sorting green lumber:
Graders.......................................
Sorters and loaders...................

2
16

515
4,169

139.05 4.380.981
1,070.79 4.380.981

8,507
1,051

.2700
.2568

.1176
.9515

.0317
.2444

Total........................................

18

4,684

1,209.84 4,380,981

935

.2583

1.0692

.2702

Yard—green lumber:
Foreman.....................................
Transfer......................................
Piling........................................

1
7
20

290
1,986
5,592

85.50 4.380.981
441.84 4.380.981
1,451.88 4.380.981

15,107
2,206
783

.2948
.2225
.2596

.0662
.4533
1.2764

.0195
.1009
.3314

Establishment No. 10.
[Equipment.—Two single-cut band saws; 1 sash gang saw; 1 horizontal band resaw; 3 edgers; 2 trim­
mers. Material.—Number of logs, not kept; log scale, not kept; kind of timber: white pine, 70 per cent;
Norway pine, 15 per cent; spruce, 12 per cent; tamarack, 3 per cent. Product.—Lumber tally, 5,026,488
board feet; prevailing sizes, four to eight quarter.]
Sawmill foremen..............................
Log pond or yard............................
Sawmill deck....................................

2
14
6

260
1,874
769

Band saws (2, day and night):
Sawyers......................................
Setters.........................................
Doggers.......................................
Tail sawyers..............................

4
4
4
4

520
520
520
520

$100.00 5.026.488
465.95 5.026.488
219.21 5.026.488
416.00
169.00
169.00
130.00

19,333 $0. 3846
2, 682
.2486
6,536
.2851

0.0517
.3728
.1530

$0.0199
.0927
.0436

5.026.488
5.026.488
5.026.488
5.026.488

9.666
9.666
9.666
9.666

.8000
.3250
. 3250
.2500

.1035
.1035
.1035
. 1035

.0828
.0336
.0336
.0259

Total.......................................

16

2,080

884.00 5,026,488

2,417

.4250

.4138

.1759

Gang saw (1, day and night):
Sawyers......................................
Sawyer's helpers.....................

2
15

260
1,965J

104.00 5,026,488
481.28 5,026,4'88

19,333
2,557

.4000
.2449

.0517
.3910

.0207
.0957

Total........................................

17

2,225J

585.28 5,026,488

2,259

.2630

.4428

.1164

Resaw (1, day and night):
Resawyers.................................
Resawyer's helpers.................

2
6

260
783

65.00 5.026.488
169.62 5.026.488

19,333
6,420

.2500
.2166

.0517
.1558

.0129
. 0337

Total........................................

8

1,043

234.62 5,026,488

4,819

.2249

.2075

.0467

Total sawing (head, gang, and
resaw)..............................................

41

1,703.90 5,026,488

940

.3186

1.0641

.3390




5,348J

118

LUMBER MANUFACTURING.

T a b le

16.—PRODU CTIVITY AND COST OF LABO R, B Y OCCUPATIONS AND ESTAB­
LISHMENT S—Continued.
SAWMILL—Continued.

Establishment No. 10—Concluded.

Occupation, process, or machine.

Full­
time
posi­
tions.

Total
oneman
hours.

Total
wage.

Output
in
board
Total
output
feet
per
in board
onefeet.
man
hour.

Edging (3 machines, day and
night):
Edgermen.................................
Edgerman’s helpers.................

10
18

1,300
2,288

$172.24 5.026.488
473.64 5.026.488

Wage
cost
per
oneman
hour.

3,867 $0.1325
2,197
.2070

Cost per 1,000
board feet
produced.
Oneman Wages.
hours.

0.2586
.4552

$0.0343
.0942

Total........................................

28

3,588

645.88 5,026,488

1,401

.1800

.7138

.1285

Trimming (2 machines, day and
night):
Operators...................................
Operator’s helpers...................

4
8

520
1,040

130.00 5.026.488
260.00 5.026.488

9,666
4,833

.2500
.2500

.1035
.2069

.0259
.0517

Total........................................

12

1,560

390.00 5,026,488

3,222

.2500

.3104

.0776

Refuse—slasher, hog, burner........
Filing..................................................
Power and oiling..............................
Repair................................................
Night watch and fire protection..
Clean-up and miscellaneous..........

7
5
10
6
2
11

961
650
1,340
743
337
1,430

216.22
429.00
352.58
270.23
76.98
358. 70

5.026.488
5.026.488
5.026.488
5.026.488
5.026.488
5.026.488

5,230
7,733
3,751
6,765
14,915
3,515

.2250
.6600
.2631
.3637
.2284
.2508

.1912
.1293
.2666
.1478
.0670
.2845

.0430
.0853
.0701
.0538
.0153
.0714

Sorting green lumber:
Graders.......................................
Sorters and loaders...................

6
27

802
3,563

240.60 5.026.488
863.72 5.026.488

6,267
1,411

.3000
.2424

.1596
.7088

.0479
.1718

Total........................................

33

4,365

1,104.32 5,026,488

1,152

.2530

.8684

.2197

Yard—green lumber:
Foreman...................................
Transfer....................... ..............
Piling...........................................

1
16
37

130
2,070
4,862

66.66 5,026,488
525.19 4.040.150
1,545.32 4.040.150

38,665
1,952
831

.5128
.2537
.3178

.0259
.5124
1.2034

.0133
.1300
.3825

Establishment No. 11.
[ Equipment.—1 wo single-cut band saws; 1 horizontal band resaw; 2 edgers; 1 trimmer. Material.—Number
T
• of logs, not kept; log scale, not kept; kind of timber: white pine, 71 per cent; Norway pine, 15 per cent;
spruce, 10 per cent; tamarack, 4 per cent. Product.—Lumber tally, 2,918,229 board feet; prevailing sizes,
four to eight quarter.]
Sawmill foremen..............................
Log pond or yard............................
Sawmill deck....................................

2
6
3

270
768
370

Band saws (2, day and night):
Sawyers.......................................
Setters.........................................
Doggers.......................................
Tail sawyers..............................

4
4
4
4

520
520
520
520

Total........................................

16

Resaw (1, day and night):
Resawyers.................................
Resawyer’s helpers.................

2
4

$116.66 2.918.229
197.50 2.918.229
95. 75 2.918.229

10,808 SO 4321
.
.2572
3,800
7,887
.2588

0.0925
.2632
.1268

SO 0400
.
.0677
.0328

2.918.229
2.918.229
2.918.229
2.918.229

5.612
5.612
5.612
5.612

.8000
.3250
.3250
.2500

.1782
.1782
.1782
.1782

.1426
.0579
.0579
.0445

2,080

884.00 2,918,229

1,403

.4250

.7128

.3029

260
550

65.00 2.918.229
121.50 2.918.229

11,224
5,306

.2500
.2209

.0891
.1885

.0223
.0416

416.00
169.00
169.00
130.00

Total........................................

6

810

186.50 2,918,229

3,603

.2302

.2776

.0639

Total sawing (head, resaw)...........

22

2,890

1,070.50 2,918,229

1,010

.3704

.9903

.3668

Edging (2 machines, day and
night): *
Edgermen..................................
Edgerman’s helpers.................

6
4

780
528

253.50 2.918.229
111. 92 2.918.229

3,741
5,527

.3250
.2120

.2673
.1809

.0869
.0384

Total........................................

10

1,308

365.42 2,918,229

2,231

.2794

.4482

.1252




119

PRODUCTIVITY AND COST OF LABOR.
TABLE 1 6 ,—P R O D U CTIVITY AN D COST OF L ABO R , B Y OCCUPATIONS AN D
LISHM ENTS—Continued.

ESTAB­

SAW M ILL—Continued.

Establishment No. 11—Concluded.

Occupation, process, or machine.

Full­
time
posi­
tions.

Total
oneman
hours.

Total
wages.

Output
in
Total
board
output
feet
per
in board
onefeet.
man
hour.

Trimming (1 machine, day and
night):
Operators...................................
Operator’s helpers...................

2
6

260
776

$65.00 2.918.229
187.60 2.918.229

Wage
cost
per
oneman
hour.

11,224 $0 2500
3,761
.2418

Cost per 1,000
board feet
produced.
Oneman Wages.
hours.

0.0891
.2659

$0.0223
.0643

Total.. . . ....... , ..........

8

1,036

252.60 2,918,229

2,817

.2438

.3550

.0866

Refuse—slasher, hog, burner........
Filing..................................................
Power and oiling..............................
Repair................................................
Night watch and fire protection..
Clean-up and miscellaneous..........

6
4
7
3
2
8

784
520
998
441*
220
1,001

176.39
299.00
282.34
142.39
49.37
212.51

2.918.229
2.918.229
2.918.229
2.918.229
2.918.229
2.918.229

3,722
5,612
2,924
6,610
13,265
2,915

.2250
.5750
.2829
.3225
.2244
.2123

.2687
.1782
.3420
.1513
.0754
.3430

.0604
.1025
.0968
.0488
.0169
.0728

Sorting green lumber:
Graders.......................................
Sorters and loaders...................

4
14

532
1,867*

153.10 2.918.229
439.71 2.918.229

5,485
1,563

.2878
.2355

.1823
.6399

.0525
.1507

Total.......................................

18

2,399*

592.81 2,918,229

1,216

.2471

.8222

.2031

Yard—green lumber:
Foreman.....................................
Transfer......................................
Piling...........................................

1
12
24

130
1,533
3,216

41.66 2,918,229
361,62 2.257.883
964.31 2.257.883

22,448
1/473
702

.3205
.2359
.2998

.0445
.6790
1.4243

.0143
.1602
.4271

Establishment No. 12.
[Equipment.— One single-cut band saw; 1 edger; 1 trimmer.

Material.—Number of logs, 7,665; log scale,
2,019,240 board feet; log average, 263.4 board feet; kind of timber: yellow pine, 60 per cent; fir and larch,
20 per cent; white pine, 10 per cent; spruce, 10 per cent. Product.— Lumber tally, 2,726,944 board feet;
prevailing sizes, 59.8 per cent under 2 inches in thickness.]

Sawmill foremen...........
Log pond or yard.........
Sawmill deck.................

2
2
2

500
500
500

Band saw (day):
Sawyer................... .
Setter...................... .
D ogger ................... .
Tail sawyer.............

1
1
1
1

260
260
260
260

$291.66 2,726,944
154. 25 2,726,944
147.00 2,726,944

5,454 $0.5833
.3085
5,454
5,454
.2940

0.1834
.1834
.1834

$0.1070
.0566
.0539

1,446,795
1,446,795
1,446,795
1,446,795

5,565
5,565
5,565
5,565

.8900
3900
.3900
.3000

.1797
.1797
.1797
.1797

.1599
.0701
.0701
.0539

512.20 1,446,795

1,391

.4925

.7188

.3540

231.40
101.40
101.40
78.00

Total.....................

4

1,040

Band saw (night):
Sawyer................... .
Setter...................... .
Dogger....................
Tail sawyer.............

1
1
1
1

240
240
240
240

213.60
93.60
93.60
78.00

1,280,149
1,280,149
1,280,149
1,280,149

5,334
5,334
5; 334
5,334

.8900
.3900
.3900
.3250

.1875
.1875
.1875
.1875

.1669
.0731
.0731
.0609

Total.....................

4

960

478.80 1,280,149

1,335

.4988

.7499

.3740

Total band saw:
Sawyers.................. .
Setters......................
Dc^gers...................
Tail sawyers...........

2
2
2
2

500
500
500
500

445.00
195.00
195.00
156.00

2,726,944
2,726,944
2,726,944
2,726,944

5,454
5,454
5,454
5,454

.8900
.3900
.3900
.3120

.1834
.1834
.1834
.1834

.1632
.0715
.0715
.0572

Total.....................

8

2,000

991.00 2,726,944

1,363

.4955

.7334

.3634

r(day):
Edgerman..............
Edgerman’s helper

1
1

260
260

114.40 1,446,795
71.50 1,446,795

5,565
5,565

.4400
.2750

.1797
.1797

.0791
.0494

Total..................

2

520

185.90 1,446,795

2,782

.3575

.3594

.1285




120

LUMBER MANUFACTURING.

T a b le

16.—PRODU CTIVITY AND COST OF LABOR, B Y OCCUPATIONS AND ESTABLISHME N TS—Continued.
SAWM ILL—Continued.

Establishment No. 12—Concluded.

Occupation, process, or machise.

Full­
time
posi­
tions.

Edging (night):
Edgerman..................................
E4german,s helper..................

1
1

Total
oneman
hours.

s

Output
in
board
Total
feet
Total j output
per i
wages. • in board
onefeet.
man
hour.

Wage
cost
per
oneman
hour.

240
240

$99.60 1,280,149
66.00 1,280,149

5,334 $0.4150
5,334
.2750

Cost per 1,000
board feet
produced.
Oneman Wages.
hours.

0.1875
.1875

$0.0778
.0516

Total........................................

2

480

1-65. m 1,280,149

2,667

.3450

.3750

.1294

Total edging:
Edgermen..................................
Edgerman’s helpers.................

2

500

2

m

214.D0 2,726,944
137.-K) 2,726,944

5,454
5,454

.4280
.2750

.1834
.1834

.0785
.0504

2,727 | .3515

.3667

.1289

Total-.....................................

4

1,000

35L50 2,726,944

Trimming (day):
Operator.....................................
Operator’ s helper.....................

1
1

260
260

87.10 1,446,795
71.50 1,446,795

5,565
5,565

.3350
.2750

.1797
.1797

.0602
.0494

TataJ.......................................

2

520

178.60 1,446,795

2,782

.3050

.3594

.1096

Trimming (night):
Operator............. , .....................
Operator’s helper.....................

1
1

240
240

SO. 40 1,280,149
66.00 1,280,149

5,334
5,334

.3350
.2750

.1875
.1875

.0628
.0516

Total........................................

2

480

146.4© 1,280,149

2,667

.3050

.3750

.1144

Total trimming:
Operators............. .....................
Operator's helpers...................

2
2

500
500

167.50 2,736,944
137.50 2,726,944

5,454
5,454

,5350
.2750

.1834
.1834

.0614
.0504

2,727

Total........................................

4

1,000

305.00 2,726,944

.3050

.3667

.1118

Refuse—slasher, hog, burner........
Filing..................................................
Power and oiling.............................
Repair................................................
Night watch and fire protection. . .
Clean-up and miscellaneous...........

4
2
6
1
2
3

1,014 ;
500
1,563
102
350
663J

346.08 2,726,944
2,689
mao 2,726,944 5,454
608.92 2,726,944
1,745
41.50 2,726,944 1 26,735
104.00 2,726,944
7,791
207.73 2,726,944
4,110

.3413 •
.6784:
.3896
.4069
.2971
.3131

.3718
.1834
.5732
.0374
.1283
.2433

.1269
.1244
.2233
.0152
.0381
.0762

Sorting preen lumber:
Graders.......................................
Sorters and loaders...................

2
7

500
1,934

150.00 2,726,944
553.74 2,726,944

5,454
1,410

.3000
.2863

.1834
.7092

.0550
.0231

Total........................................

9

2,434

703.74 2,726,944

1,120

.2891

.8926 :

.2581

Yard—green lumber:
Foreman.....................................
Transfer......................................
Piling..........................................

1
6
6

270
1,514 ‘
1,525

moo 2,726,944
475. 43 2,726,944
736.27 2,726,944

10,100
1,801
1,788

. 3704
.3140
.4828

.0990
. 5552
.5592

.0367
.1743
.2700

Establishment No. 13.
[ Equipment.—One double-cut band saw; 2 singie-cut band saws; 3edgers; 2 board trimmers; 2 timber
trimmers. Material.—Number of logs, 77,054; log scale, 8,880,310 board feet; log average, 115.4 board
feet; kind of timber, pine, 77.9 per cent; fir, 18.6 per cent; larch, 3.5 per cent. Prodvxt.— Lumber tally,
9,496,449 board feet; prevailing sizes, 3 inches and larget, 58.7 per cent; under 3 inches, 41.3 per cent.]
Sawmill foremen.
Log pond or yard

2
4

493
1,014

$350.00 9,496,449
297.01 9,496,449

Sawmill deck:
Scaler.............
Deckmen___

4
2

986
493

328.66 9,496,449
136.94 9,496,449

9,631
19,263

Total.........

6

1,479

465.60 9,496,449

6,421




19,263 $0.7099
9,365
.2929

0.0519
.1068

$0.0369
.0313

.3333
.2778

.1038
.0519

.0346
.0144

.3148

. 1557

.0490

12 1

PRODUCTIVITY AND COST1 OF LABOR.
T a b le 1 6 ^ -P R 0 B U € T I V I T Y AN D COST OF L ABO R , B Y

OCCUPATIONS A N D

ESTAB­

LISH M EN TS—Contaimed.
SA W M ILL—Continued.

Establishment No. 13—Continued.

Full­
time
posi­
tions.

Total
oneman
hours.

Better..........................................
T)oggf>r..... .....- - _____- _ Tail sawyer...............................

1
1
1
1

247
247
247
247

Tottal.......................................

4

988 '

Occupation, process, or machine.

Band saw No. 1:

_

Band saw No. 2:
Sawyer........ - .................. . . . .
Setter..........................................
Dogger........................................ .
Tail sawyer................................

Output
in
board
Total
output
feet
Total
wage. : inboard
per
onefeet.
man
hour.

$192.10
96.06
96.06
75.47

Wage
cost
per
oneman
hour.

6,262 $0.7777
.3889
6,262
6,262
.3889
6,262
.3055

1.546.775
1.546.775
1.546.775
1.546.775

459.69 1,546,775 [ 1,566

Cost per 1,000
board feet
produced.
Oneman Wages.
hours.

0.1597
.1597
.1597
.1597

10.1242
.0621
.0621
.0488

.4653

.6387

.297a

1

1
1
1
1

242
242
242
242

183.20
94.11
94.11
73.94

1.436.959
1.436.959
1.436.959
1.436.959

5.938
5.938
5.938
5.938

.7777
.3889
.3889
.3055

.1684
.1684
.1684
.1684

.1310
.0655
.0655
.0515

4

968

45a36 ‘ 1,436,959

1,484

.4652

.€736

.3134

Setter........................................
Dogger........................................
Tail sawyer................................

1
1
1
1

243
243
243
243

moo 1.320.265
101.25 1.320.265
101.25 1.320.265
74.25 1.320.265

5.433
5.433
5.433
5.433

.7778
.4167
.4167
.3056

.1841
.1841
.1841
.1841

.1432
•0767
.0767
.0562

Tostal.......................................

4

972

465.75 1,320,265

1,358

.4792

.7362

.3528

Band saw No. 4:
Saw yer.....................................
Setter..........................................
Dogger........................................
Tail sawyer............................

1
1
1
1

246
246
246
246

191.35
102.50
102.50
75.15

1.362.490
1.362.490
1.362.490
1.362.490

5.539
5.539
5.539
5,539

.7778
.4167
.4167
.3055

.1806.
.1806
.1806
.1806

.1404
.0752
.0752
.0552

Total.......................................
Band saw No. 3:

4

984

471.50 1,362,490

1,385

.4792

.7222

.3461

Band saw No. 5:
Sawyer.......................................
Setter...................................
Doggers......................................
Tail sawyer...............................

1
1
2

243
243
486
243

189.00
94.50
148.50
74.25

1,806,720
1.806, 720
1.806, 720
1.806, 720

7.435
7.435
3, 718
7,435

.7778
.3889
.3056
.3056

.1345
.1345
.2690
.1345

.1046
.0523
.0822
.0411

Total.......................................

5

1,215

506.25 1,806,720

1,487

- 4167

.6725

.2802

1

246
246
492
246

2.023.240
2.023.240
2.023.240
2.023.240

8.225

2

8.225
4,112
8,225

.7778
.3888
.3055
.3055

.1216
.1216
.2432
.1216

.0946
.0473
.0743
.0371

£

1,230

512.45 2,023,240

1,645

.4166

.6079

.2533

6
6
8
6

1.467
1.467
1,956
1.467

1,141.00
584.07
692.72
448.21

9.496.449
9.496.449
9.496.449
9,49*6,449

6.473
6.473
4,855
6.473

.7778
.3981
.3542
.3055

.1545
.1545
. 2000
. 1545

.1202
.0615
.0729
.0472

Total................................

Band saw No. 6:
Sawyer.......................................
Setter.....................................
Doggers.......................................
Tail sawyer..............................
Total....................................
Total band saws:
Sawyers.....................................
Setters........................................
Doggers......................................
Tail sawyers..............................

1

1
1

191.35
95.65
150.30
75.15

26

6,357

2,866.00 9,496,449

1,494

.4508

.6694

.3018

Edger No. 1:
Edgerman..................................
Edgerman’s helpers..............

1
2

247
494

102.90 1.546.775
123.50 1.546.775

6,262
3,131

.4166
.2500

.1597
.3194

.0665
.0798

Total........................................

3

741

226. 40 1,546,775

2,087

.3055

.4791

.1463

1•
2

242
484

100.83 1.436.959
121.0® 1.436.959

5,938
2,969

.4167
.2500

. 1C84
. 33G3

. 0702
.0842

3

726 |
i

221.83 1,436,959

1,979

.3056

.5052

.1544

Total......................................

Edger No. 2:
Edgerman..................................
Edgerman ;s helpers.................
Total.......................................




122

LUMBER MANUFACTURING.

TABLE

16.—PR O D U C TIV ITY AND COST OF LABO R, B Y OCCUPATIONS AND ESTAB­
LISHMENT S—Continued.
SAWMILL—Continued.

Establishment No. 18—Continued.

Occupation, process, or machine.

Full­
time
posi­
tions.

Edger No. 3:

Total
oneman
hours.

Total
wages.

Output
in
Wage
Total
board
cost
output
per
feet
per
in board
oneman
feet.
oneman
hour.
hour.

1
f 101.25 1.320.265
243
121.50
2Edgerman’s helpers 1.320.265
486

.................

5,433 $0.4167
2,717
.2500

Cost per 1,000
board feet
produced.
Oneman Wages.
hours.

0.1841
.3681

$0.0767
.0920

3

222.75 1,320,265

1,811

.3056

.5522

.1687

246
492

102.50 1.362.490
123.00 1.362.490

5,539
2,769

.4167
.2500

.1806
.3611

.0752
.0903

3

738

225.50 1,362,490

1,846

.3056

.5417

.1655

1
2

Total........................................
Edger No. 5:
Edgerman..................................

729

1
2

Total........................................
Edger No. 4:
Edgerman..................................

243
486

114.75 1.806.720
133.65 1.806.720

7,435
3,718

.4722
.2750

.1345
.2690

.0635
.0740

Total........................................

3

729

248.40 1,806,720

2,478

‘ .3407

.4035

.1375

Edger No. 6:
Edgerman..................................
Edgerman’s helpers.................

1
2

246
492

116.15 2.023.240
135.30 2.023.240

8,225
4,112

.4722
.2750

.1216
.2432

.0574
.0669

Total........................................

3

738

251.45 2,023,240

2,742

.3407

.3648

.1243

Total edging:
Edgermen..................................
Edgerman’s helpers................

6
12

1,467
2,934

638.38 9,496,449
757.95 9,496,449-

6,473
3,237

.4352
.2583

.1545
.3090

.0672
.0798

Total........................................

18

4,401

1,396.33 9,496,449

2,158

.3173

.4634

.1470

Trimmer No. 1:
Operator.....................................
Operator’s helpers....................

1
2

247
494

82. 35 1.584.306
123. 50 1.584.306

6,414
3,207

.3334
.2500

. 1559
.3118

.0520
.0780

Total........................................

3

741

205.85 1,584,306

2,138

.2778

.4677

.1299

Trimmer No. 2:
Operator.....................................
Operator’s helpers....................

1
2

246
492

82.00 1,879,509
123.00 1,879,509

7,640
3,820

.3333
.2500

.1309
.2618

.0436
.0654

Total........................................

3

738

205.00 1,879,509

2,547

.2778

.3927

.1091

Trimmer No. 3:
Operator.....................................
Operator’s helper......................

1
1

247
247

75.45 1,584,306
61.75 |1,584,306

6.414
6.414

. 3055
.2500

.1559
.1559

.0476
.0390

Total........................................

2

494

137.20 !l. 584.306

3,207

.2777

.3118

.0866

Trimmer No. 4:
Operator.....................................
Operator’s helper......................

1
1

246
246

75.15 1,879,509
61.50 1,879,509

7.640
7.640

.3055
.2500

.1309
.1309

.0400
.0327

Total........................................

2

492

136. 65 1,879,509

3,820

.2777

.2618

.0727

Timber trimmer (2 machines):
Operators...................................
Operator’s helpers...................

2
6

494
1,482

150.90 1.505.148
355. 68 1.505.148

3,047
1,016

.3055
.2400

.3282
.9846

.1003
.2363

8

1,976

506.58 1,505,148

762

.2564

1.3128

.3366

Timber trimmer (2 machines):
Operators...................................
Operator’s helpers....................

2
6

492
1,476

150.30 1.163.671
354.24 1.163.671

2,365
788

.3055
.2400

.4228
1.2684

.1292
*3044

Total........................................

8

1,968

504. 54 1,163,671

591

.2564

1. 6912

.4336

Total........................................




.

12 3

PRODUCTIVITY AND COST OF LABOE.
T a b le

1 6 . — P R O D U CT IVIT Y AN D COST OF

LA B O R , B Y
LISHM EN TS—Continued.

OCCUPATIONS A N D

ESTAB­

SAW M ILL—Continued.

Establishment No. 13—Concluded.

Total
output
in board
feet.

Full­
time
posi­
tions.

Total
oneman
hours.

Total trimming:
Operators...................................
Operator’s helpers....................

8
18

1,972
4,437

$616.15 9,496.449
1,079.67 9 ,496j 449

Occupation, process, or machine.

Total
wages.

Output
in
board
feet
per
oneman
hour.

Wage
cost
per
oneman
hour.

4,816 $0.3124
2,140
.2433

Cost per 1,000
board feet
produced.
Oneman Wages.
hours.

0.2077
.4672

10.0649
. 1137

Total........................................

26

6,409

1,695.82 9,496,449

1,482

.2646

.6749

.1786

Refuse—slasher, hog, burner........
Filing..................................................
Power and oiling.............................
Repair............. ............... ..................
Night watch and fire protection..
Clean-up and miscellaneous..........

2
6
15
16
7
4

493
1,324
3,710
3,973
2,182
986

150.60
1,104.00
1,424.55
1,588.12
750.83
298. 93

9.496.449
9.496.449
9.496.449
9.496.449
9.496.449
9.496.449

19,263
7,173
2,560
2,390
4,352
9,631

.3055
.8333
.3840
.3997
.3441
.3032

.0519
.1394
.3907
.4184
.2298
.1038

.0159
.1163
. 1500
. 1672
.0791
.0315

Sorting green lumber:
Tallymen...................................
Graders.......................................
Sorters and loaders..................

4
2
55

816
489
13,382

272.00 9,496,449
182.95 9.496.449
3,628.85 9.496.449

11,638
19,420
710

.3333
.3741
.2712

.0859
.0515
1.4092

.0286
.0193
.3821

Total........................................

61

14,687

4,083.80 9,496,449

647

.2781

1.5466

.4300

Yard—green lumber:
Foreman.....................................

1

250

150.00 9,496,449

37,986

.6000

.0263

.0158

Transfer:
Hauling..................................
Tram repair...........................
Stable......................................

11
1
3

2,719
171
841

830.75 9.496.449
65.00 9.496.449
288. 87 9.496.449

3,493
55,535
11,292

.3055
.3801
.3435

.2863
.0180
.0886

.0875
.0068
.0304

Total....................................

15

3,731

1,184.62 9,496,449

2,385

.3352

.3929

.1247

Piling:
Stacking..................................
Repair.....................................

35
4

8,496
1,067

2,591. 30 5,283,939
380.33 9,496,449

622
8,900

.3050
.3564

1.6079
.1124

.4904
.0400

Total....................................

39

9,563

2,971.63 9,496,449

581

.3107

1.7203

.5304

Establishment No. 14.
[Equipment.—Two single-cut band saws; 2 edgers; 2 trimmers; 1 sash gang saw.

Material.— Number of
logs, 32,407; log scale, 3,015,410 board feet; log average, 93.0 board feet; kind of timber: chiefly white
pine but some yellow pine, spruce, and cedar. Product.—Lumber tally, 3,415,050 board feet; pre­
vailing sizes, approximately 80 per cent four quarter.]

Sawmill foremen..............................
Log pond or yard.............................
Sawmill deck....................................

2
9
6

260
1,105
767

Band saws (2, day):
Sawyers......................................
Setters.........................................
Dogger.........................................
Tail sawyers..............................

2
3
1
2

260
390
130
260

Total........................................

8

1,040

Band saws (2, night):
Sawyers......................................
Setters.........................................
Doggers.......................................
Tail sawyers..............................

2
2
2
2

260
260
260
260

Total........................................

8

1,040




$179.81 3,415,050
358.35 3,415,050
230.27 3,415,050

13,135 $0. 6916
3,091
.3243
4,452
.3002

0.0761
.3236
.2246

$0.0527
.1049
.0674

2,063,425
2,063,425
2,063,425
2,063,425

7,936
5,291
15,873
7,936

.7000
.3250
.2750
.2750

.1260
.1890
.0630
.1260

.0882
.0614
.0173
.0347

416.00 2,063,425

1,984

.4000

.5040

.2016

1,351,625
1,351,625
1,351,625
1,351,625

5,199
5,199
5,199
5,199

.7000
.3250
.2750
.2750

.1924
.1924
.1924
.1924

.1347
.0625
.0529
.0529

409.50 1,351,625

1,300

.3938

.7694

.3030

182.00
126. 75
35.75
71.50

182.00
84.50
71.50
71.50

124

LUMBER M ANUFACTURING.

T a b le 16 .—P R O D U C T IV IT Y AN D COST OF L A B O R , B Y

OCCUPATIONS AN D

ESTAB­

LISH MEN T S—Continued.
SAW M ILL—Continued.

Establishment No. 14—Concluded.

Total
output
in board
feet.

Output
in
board
feet
per
oneman
hour.

Full­
time
posi­
tions.

Total
oneman
hours.

Setters.........................................
Doggers.......................................
Tail .sawyers________________

4
5
3
4

520
650
390
520

Total........................................

16

2,080

825.50 3,415,050

1,642

1
2

130
260

65.00 2.063.425
6& 25 2.063.425

Occupation, process, or machine.

Total band saws:

Gang saw:
Others..*...................................
Total........................................
Total sawing

gang)_____

.

Edging (2 machines, day):
Edgermen.. . ............................

Total
wages.

$364.00
211.25
107.25
143.00

3.415.050
3.415.050
3.415.050
3.415.050

Wage
cost
per
oneman
hour.

Cost per 1,000
board feet
produced.
Oneman Wages.
hours.

0.1523
.1903
.1142
.1523

$0.1066
.0619
.0314
.0419

.3969

.6091

.2417

15,873
7,936

.5000
.2625

.0630
.1260

.0315
.0331

6,567 $0.7000
5,254
.3250
8,757
.2750
6,567
.2750

3

390

133.25 2,063,425

5,291

.3417

.1890

.0646

19

2,470

958.75 3,415,050

1,383

.3882

.7233

.2807

4
6

520
724

170.70 2.063.425
187.50 2.063.425

3,968
2,850

.3283
.2590

.2520
.3509

.0827
.0909

Total........................................

10

1,244

358.20 2,063,425

1,659

.2879

.6029

.1736

Edging (2 machines, night):
Edgermen..................................
Edgerman’s helpers.................

2
2

260
250

91.00 1.351.625
56.25 1.351.625

5,199
5,407

.3500
.2250

.1924
.1850

.0673
.0416

Total........................................

4

510

147.25 1,351,625

2,650

.2887

.3773

.1089

Total edging:
Edgermen..................................
Edgerman’s helpers.................

6
8

780
974

261.70 3.415.050
243.75 3.415.050

4,378
3,506

.3355
.2503

.2284
.2852

.0766
.0714

Total........................................

14

1,754

505.45 3,415,050

1,947

.2882

.5136

.1480

Trimming (2 machines, day):
Operators.................................
Operator’s helpers....................

2

5

260
662

78.00 2.063.425
165.50 2.063.425

7,936
3,117

.3000
.2500

.1260
.3208

.0378
.0802

Total........................................

7

922

243.50 2,063,425

2,238

.2641

. 44G8

.1180

Trimming (2 machines, night):
Operators..................................
Operator’s helpers....................

2
2

260
211

68.50 1.351.625
41.77 1.351.625

5,199
6,406

.2635
.1980

.1924
.1561

.0507
.0309

Total........................................

4

471

110.27 1,351,625

2,870

.2341

.3485

.0816

Total trimming:
Operator.....................................
Operator’s helpers....................

4
7

520
873

146.50 3.415.050
207.27 3.415.050

6,567
3,912

.2817
.2374

. 1523
. 2556

.0429
.0607

Total.......................................

11

1,393

353.77 3,415,050

2,452

. 2540

.4079

.1036

Refuse—slasher, hog, burner........
Filing..................................................
Power and oiling..............................
Repair................................................
Night watch and fire protection..
Clean-up and miscellaneous..........

4
5
8
4
3
4

509
650
1,180
528
369J
520

127.75
390.00
343.71
255.27
181. 62
136.63

6,709
5,254
2,894
6,468
9,242
6,567

.2510
.6000
.2913
.4835
.4915
.2628

.1490
.1903
.3455
. 1546
. 1082
.1523

.0374
.1142
.1006
.0747
.0532
.0400

Sorting green lumber:
Graders.......................................
Tallymen....................................
Sorters and loaders..................

3
1
24

390
130
3,077*

126.24 3.415.050
55.25 3.415.050
798.51 3.415.050

8,757
26,270 :
1,110

.3237
.4250
.2595

.1142
.0381
.9012

.0370
.0162
.2338

Total........................................

28

3,597£

980.00 3,415,050

949

.2724

1.0534

.2870

Yard—green lumber:
Foreman.....................................
Transfer......................................
Piling.......................................

1
16
26

130
57.50 3.415.050
2,060
569. 60 3; 415,050
3,239^ 1,144.30 3.415.050

26,270
1,658
1,054

.4423
. 2765
. 3532

.0381
. 6032
.9486

.0168
. 1668
.3351




3.415.050
3.415.050
3.415.050
3.415.050
3.415.050
3.415.050

125

PRODUCTIVITY AND COST OF LABOR.
T a b l e 1 & — P R O D U C T IV IT Y AN D

COST OF LABO R , B Y OCCUPATIONS A N D
LISHM ENTS—Continued.

ESTAB­

SAW M ILL—Continued.

Establishment No. 15.
[Equipment.—One double-cut band saw; 1 single-cut band saw; 2 horizontal band resaws; 1 sash gang saw;
3 eagers; 3 trimmers. Material.—Number of logs, 10,842; log scale, 8,227,736 board feet; log average,
758.9 board feet; kind of timber: fir, 84.0 per cent; hemlock, 14.5 per cent; spruce, 1.5 per cent. Product.—
Lumber tally, 9,134,246 board feet; prevailing sizes, four and eight quarter predominate.!

Full­
time
posi­
tions.

Total
oneman
hours.

Sawmill foremen___ „
Log pond or yard.............................
Sawmill deck.. . ..........,

3
9
3

750
2,227
741

Band saw:
Sawyer........................................
Setter..........................................
Doggers.......................................
Tail sawyer................................
Rock sawyer..............................

1
1
2
1
1

247
247
494
247
247

Occupation, process, or machine.

Total......................................

6

1,482

Band saw (double-cut):
Sawyer........................................
Setter..........................................
Doggers.......................................
Tail sawyer................................
Rock sawyer.............................

1
1
2
1
1

247
247
494
247
247

Total........................................

6

1,482

Total band saws:
Sawyers......................................
Setters.........................................
Doggers.......................................
Tail sawyers..............................
Rock sawyers...........................

2
2
4
2
2

494
494
988
494
494

Total
output
in board
feet.

Output
in
Wage
board
cost
per
feet
per
oneman
onehour.
man
hour.

$355.00 9.134.246
681.03 9.134.246
209.94 9.134.246

12,179 $0.4733
4,102
.3058
12,327
.2833

Total’
wages.

Cost per 1,000
board feet
produced.
Oneman Wages.
hours.
0.0821
.2438
.0811

$0.0389
.0746
.0230

4.944.071
4.944.071
4.944.071
4.944.071
4.944.071

20,016
20,016
10,008
20,016
20,016

.7000
.3250
.2875
.3250
.2751

.0500
.0500
.0999
.0500
.0500

.0350
.0162
.0287
.0162
.0137

543.41 4,944,071

3,336

.3667

.2999

.1098

4.190.175
4.190.175
4.190.175
4.190.175
4.190.175

16.964
16.964
8,482
16.964
16.964

.7000

.3250
.2750
.3000
.2500

.0589
.0589
.1179
.0589
.0589

.0413
.0192
.0324
.0177
.0147

524.86 4,190,175

2,827

.3542

. 3535

.1253

9.134.246
9, i34,246
9.134.246
9.134.246
9,134,246

18.490
18.490
9,245
18.490
18.490

.7000
.3250
.2812
.3125
.2626

.0541
.0541
.1082
.0541
. 0541

.0379
.0176
.0304
.0169
.0142

172.90
80.27
142.02
80.27
67.95

172.90
80.27
135.84
74.10
61.75

345.80
160.54
277. 86
154.37
129.70

Total........................................

12

2,964

1,068.27 9,134,246

3,082

.3604

. 3246

.1170

Resaws (2):
Resawyers..................................
Resawyer’s helpers...................

2
4

494
988

172.90 9.134.246
231.50 9.134.246

18,490
9,245

.3500
.2343

.0541
.1082

.0189
.0253

Total...........................

6

1,482

404.40 9,134,246

6,163

.2729

.1623

.0442

Gang saw:
Sawyer........................................
Sawyer’s helpers.......................

1
7

240
1,751

moo 9.134.246
489.69 9.134.246

38,059
5,217

.4500
.2797

.0263
.1917

.0118
.0536

Total........................................

8

1,991

597.69 9,134,246

4,588

.3002

.2180

.0654

Total sawing (head, gang, resaw).

26

6,437

2,070.36 9,134,246

1,419

.3216

. 7047

.2267

Edging (3 machines):
Edgermen..................................
Edgerman's helpers.................

3
9

741
2,227

296.41 9.134.246
582. 43 9.134.246

12,327
4,102

.4000 .0811
.2615

.2438

.0325
.0638

12

2,968

878.84 9,134,246

3,078

.2961

.3249

.0963

3
9

741
2,319

246.99 9.134.246
649.73 9.134.246

12,327
3,939

.3333
.2802

.0811
.2539

.0270
.0711

12

3; 060

896.72 9,134,246

2,985

.2930

.3350

.0981

3

741
1,435
3,333
1,649
1,163
5,253

1 1.42
9
746.90

12,327
6,365
2,741
5,539
7,854
1,739

.2583
.5205
.3630
.4143
.2875
.2511

.0811
.1571
.3649
.1805
.1273
. 5751

.0210
.0818
.1325
.0748
.0366
.1444

Total................................
Trimming (3 machines):
Operators................................
Operator's helpers....................
Total......................................
Refuse—slasher, hog, burner.. . . .
Filing..........................................
Power and oiling..........................
Repair..............................................
Night watch and fire protection..
Clean-up and miscellaneous........




6

12
7
4
20

1,209.89
683.10
334.42
1,318.83

9.134.246
9.134.246
9.134.246
9.134.246
9.134.246
9.134.246

12 6

LUMBER M ANUFACTURING.

T a b l e 16.—PRODU CTIVITY AND

COST OF LABO R, B Y
LISHMENT S—Continued.

OCCUPATIONS AND ESTAB­

SAWMILL—Continued.

Establishment No. 15—Concluded.
Output
in
Total
board
output
feet
in board
per
feet.
oneman
hour.

Full­
time
posi­
tions.

Total
oneman
hours.

Sorting green lumber:
Tallymen....................................
Markers.......................................
Sorters and loaders...................

2
2
22

414
495
5,391

$120.19 9.134.246
160.87 9.134.246
1,582.28 9.134.246

Total........................................

26

6,300

1,863.34 9,134,246

1,450

Yard—green lumber:
Foreman.....................................
Transfer......................................
Piling..........................................

1
11
27

260
2,827
6,939

100.00 8.173.943
779.80 8.173.943
2,408.07 7,028,055

31,438
2,891
1,013

Occupation, process, or machine.

Total
wages.

Wage
cost
per
oneman
hour.

22,063 $0.2903
18,453
.3250
1,694
.2935

Cost per 1,000
board feet
produced.
Oneman Wages.
hours.

0.0453
.0542
.5902

$0.0132
.0176
.1732

.2858

.6897

.2040

.3846
.2758
.3470

.0318
.3459
.9873

.0122
.0954
.3426

Establishment No. 16.
[Equipment.—One single-cut band saw; 1 double-cut band saw; 1 horizontal band resaw; 2edgers; 1 trim­
mer. Material.—Number of logs, 4,486; log scale, 4,283,970 board feet; log average, 954.9 board feet;
kind of timber, chiefly fir. Product.—Lumber tally, 4,467,337 board feet; prevailing sizes, approximately
60 per cent, 2 inches and under.]
Sawmill foreman..............................
Log pond or yard............................
Sawmill deck....................................

1
3
2

230
670
475*

Band saws (2):
Sawyers......................................
Setters........................................
Doggers......................................
Tail sawyers..............................
Rock sawyers............................

2
2
4 '
2
2

456
456
912
456
456

Total.......................................
Resaws:
Resawyers.................................
Resawyer’s helpers..................

12 |2,736
2
5

462
1,161*

$150.00 4.467.337
185.10 4.467.337
188.28 4.467.337

19,423 $0. 6522
6,668
.2763
9,395
.3960

0.0515
.1500
.1064

$0.0336
.0414
.0421

4.467.337
4.467.337
4.467.337
4.467.337
4.467.337

9.797
9.797
4,898
9.797
9.797

. 5346
.2750
.2500
.2250
.2250

.1021
. 1021
.2041
.1021
.1021

.0546
.0281
.0510
.0230
.0230

802.40 4,467,337

1,633

.2933

.6124

.1796

144.37 4.467.337
264.23 4.467.337

9,670
3,846

.3125
.2275

.1034
.2600

.0323
.0591

243.80
125.40
228.00
102.60
102.60

Total........................................

7

1,623*

408. 60 4,467,337

2, 752

.2517

.3634

.0915

Total sawing (head, resaw)...........

19

4,359*

1,211.00 4,467,337

1,025

.2778

.9759

.2711

Edging:
Edgermen..................................
Edgerman’s helpers................

2
8

462
1,852

161.69 4.467.337
465.19 4.467.337

9,670
2,412

.3500
.2512

.1034
.4146

.0362
.1041

Total.......................................

10

2,314

626.88 4,467,337

1,931

.2709

.5180

.1403

Trimming:
Operator.....................................
Operator’s helpers...................

1
6

231
1,461*

75.07 4.467.337
351.18 4.467.337

19,339
3,057

.3250
.2403

.0517
.3272

.0168
.0786

Total........................................

7

1,692*

426.25 4,467,337

2,639

.2518

.3789

.0954

Refuse, slasher, hog, burner.........
Filing.................................................
Power and oiling.............................
Repair................................................
Night watch and fire protection..
Clean-up and miscellaneous..........
Sorting green lumber:
Markers.......................................
Sorters and loaders..................

4
3
5
15
5
9

1,009*
798
1,377*
3,804
1,320
2,276

263.30
342.17
358. 28
1,303.03
318. 74
435. 87

4.467.337
4.467.337
4.467.337
4.467.337
4.467.337
4.467.337

4,425
5,598
3,243
1,174
3,384
1,963

.2608
.4288
.2601
.3425
.2415
. 1915

.2260
.1786
.3083
.8515
.2955
.5095

.0589
.0766
.0802
.2917
.0713
.0976

2'
34

468*
7,665

262.86 4.467.337
1,581.70 4.467.337

9,535
583

.5611
.2064

.1049
1. 7158

.0588
.3541

36

8,133*

1,844.56 4,467,337

549

.2268

1. 8207

.4129

1
11
27

281*
2,563
6,730

84.45 4.467.337
547.79 4.467.337
1,400.83 4.467.337

15,870
1,743
664

.3000
.2137
.2081

.0630
.5737
1.5065

.0189
.1226
.3136

Total.......................................
Yard—green lumber:
Foreman.....................................
Transfer.....................................
Piling..........................................




12 7

PRODUCTIVITY AND COST OF LABOR.
T a b l e 1 6 .— P R O D U C T IV IT Y A N D

COST OF LABO R , B Y OCCUPATIONS AN D EST AB ­
LISHM ENT S—Continued.
SAW M ILL—Continued.

Establishment No. 17.
[Equipment.—One single-cut band saw; 1 double-cut band saw (used as a resaw); 1 vertical band roller
resaw; 1 edger; 1 trimmer. Material.—Number of logs, 13,289; log scale, 8,882,369 board feet; log aver­
age, 668.4 board feet; kind of timber: fir, 71.8 per cent; cedar, 15.5 per cent; hemlock, 11.8 per cent; spruce,
0.9 per cent. Product.—Lumber tally, 9,331,817 board feet; prevailing sizes, four and eight quarter
predominate.]
Output
in
Total
board
feet
output
per
in board
feet.
oneman
hour.

Full­
time
posi­
tions.

Total
oneman
hours.

Total
Wages.

Sawmill foremen..............................
Log pond or yard............................
Sawmill deck...................................

3
12
2

749
3,064*
492f

1376.90 9.331.817
874.16 9.331.817
115.99 9,331,817

Band saw (day):
Sawyer........................................
Setter..........................................
Doggers.......................................
Tail sawyer................................
Rock sawyer..............................

1
1
2
1
1

244
244
488
244
244
1,464

Occupation, process, or machine.

Total.......................................

6

Band saw (night):
Sawyer.......................................
Setter..........................................
Doggers.......................................
Tail sawyer...............................
Rock sawyer..............................

1
1
2
1
1

248f
248f
497*
248f
248f

Total.......................................

6

1,492*

Total band saw:
Sawyers....................................
Setters........................................
Doggers.......................................
Tail sawyers..............................
Rock sawyers............................

2
2
4
2
2

492|
492|
985*
492!
492|

Wage
cost
per
oneman
hour.

12,459 $0.5032
.2853
3,045
18,938
.2354

Cost per 1,000
board feet
produced.
Oneman Wages.
hours.
0.0803
.3284
.0528

$0.0404
.0937
.0124

4.476.529
4.476.529
4.476.529
4.476.529
4.476.529

18.346
18.346
9,173
18.346
18.346

.5500
.2800
.2350
.2500
.2300

.0545
.0545
.1090
.0545
.0545

.0300
.0153
.0256
.0136
.0125

434.32 4,476,529

3,058

.2967

.3270

.0970

4.855.298
4.855.298
4.855.298
4.855.298
4.855.298

19.519
19.519
9,759
19.519
19.519

.5000
.2806
.2300
.2400
.2100

.0512
.0512
.1025
.0512
.0512

.0256
.0144
.0236
.0123
.0108

420.54 4,855,298

3,253

.2818

.3074

.0866

9.331.817
9.331.817
9.331.817
9.331.817
9.331.817

18.938
18.938
9,469
18.938
18.938

.5247
.2803
.2325
.2450
.2199

.0528
.0528
.1056
.0528
.0528

.0277
.0146
.0246
.0129
.0116

854. 86 9,331,817

3,156

.2891

.3168

.0916

134.20
68.32
114.68
61.00
56.12

124.37
69.81
114.42
59.70
52.24

258.57
138.13
229.10
120.70
108. 36

Total.......................................

12

2,956*

Band saw (double-cut, day):
Sawyer.......................................
Setter........................................
Dogger........................................
Tail sawyer...............................

1
1
1
1

244
244
244
244

114.67
65.88
56.12
56.12

4.476.529
4.476.529
4.476.529
4.476.529

18.346
18.346
18.346
18.346

.4700
.2700
.2300
.2300

.0545
.0545
.0545
.0545

.0256
.0147
.0125
.0125

Total........................................

4

976

292.79 4,476,529

4,587

.3000

.2180

.0654

Band saw (double-cut, night):
Sawyer.......................................
Setter........................................
Dogger........................................
Tail sawyer................................

1
1
1
1

248!
2481
248|
248!

4.855.298
4.855.298
4.855.298
4.855.298

19.519
19.519
19.519
19.519

.4000
.2700
.2300
.2300

.0512
.0512
.0512
.0512

.0205
.0138
.0118
.0118

Total.......................................
Total band saw (double-cut):
Sawyers......................................
Setters........................................
Doggers.......................................
Tail sawyers..............................

4

995

281.08 4,855,298

4,880

.2825

.2049

.0579

2
2
2
2

492|
492!
492!
492f

214.17
133.04
113.33
113.33

9.331.817
9.331.817
9.331.817
9.331.817

18.938
18.938
18.938
18.938

.4346
.2700
.2300
.2300

.0528
.0528
.0528
.0528

.0230
.0143
.0121
.0121

Total........................................
Roller resaws (day):
Resawyer...................................
Resawyer’s helpers..................

8

1,971

573.87 9,331,817

4,735

.2912

.2112

.0615

1
7

244
1,670

82.96 4.476.529
365.28 4.476.529

18,346
2,681

.3400
.2187

.0545
.3731

.0185
.0816

Total........................................
Roller resaws (night):
Resawyer...................................
Resawyer’s helpers..................

8

1,914

448.24 4,476,529

2,339

.2342

.4276

.1001

1
7

248|
l,710i

84.58 4.855.298
369.27 4.855.298

19,519
2,839

.3400
.2159

.0512
.3522

.0174
.0761

Total.......................................

8

1,959

453.85 4,855,298

2,478

.2317 1 .4035

.0935

100531°—18— Bull. 225------ 9




99.50
67.16
57.21
57.21

12 8

LtJMBEB MANUFACTURING.

T able 16.—PRODUCTIVITY AND COST OF LABOR, B Y OCCUPATIONS AND ESTABLISHMENTS—Continued.
SAWMILL—Continued.

Establishment No. 17—Concluded.

Occupation, process, or machine.

Total roller resaws:
Resawyers..................................
Resawyer's helpers..................

Output
in
Total
board
output
feet
per
in board
onefeet.
man
hour.

Full­
time
posi­
tions.

Total
oneman
hours.

Total
wages.

2
14

492|
3,380*

$167.54 9.331.817
734.55 9.331.817

Wage
cost
per
oneman
hour.

18,938 $0.3400
2,761
.2173

Cost per 1,000
board feet
produced.
Oneman Wages.
hours.

0.0528
.3622

$0.0180
.0787

Total........................................

16

3,873

902.09 9,331,817

2,409

.2329

.4150

.0967

Total sawing (head, resaw)..........

36

8,800*

2,330.82 9,331,817

1,060

.2649

.9431

.2498

Edging (day):
Edgerman ................... . „_
_
Edgerman’s helpers.................

1
4

244
968*

85.40 4,476,529
210.77 4,476,529

18,346
4,622

.3500
.2176

.0545
.2164

.0191
.0471

Total.......................................

5

1,212*

296.17 4,476,529

3,692

.2443

.2709

.0662

Edging (night):
Edgerman..................................
Edgerman’s helpers.................

1
4

2481
1,002*

84.58 4.855.298
233.34 4.855.298

19,519
4,843

.3400
.2328

.0512
.2065

.0174
.0481

Total........................................

5

1,251*

317.92 4,855,298

3,880

.2541

.2577

.0655

Total edging:
Edgermen..................................
Edgerman’s helpers.................

2
8

492f
1,971

169.98 9.331.817
444.11 9.331.817

18,938
4,735

.3450
.2253

.0528
.2112

.0182
.0476

Total........................................

10

2 ,363f

614.09 9,331,817

3,948

.2598

.2533

.0658

Trimming (day):
Operator.....................................
Operator’s helpers....................

1
4

244
995

85.40 4.476.529
228.84 4.476.529

18,346
4,499

.3500
.2300

.0545
.2223

.0191
.0511

Total........................................

5

1,239

314.24 4,476,529

3,613

.2536

.2768

.0702

Trimming (night):
Operator.....................................
Operator’s helpers....................

1
5

248|
1,171

82.09 4.855.298
265.43 4.855.298

19,519
4,146

.3300
.2267

.0512
.2412

.0169
.0547

Total.......................................

6

1,419|

347.52 4,855,298

3,420

.2448

.2924

.0716

Total trimming:
Operators...................................
Operator’s helpers....................

2
9

492f

2,166

167.49 9.331.817
494.27 9.331.817

18,938
4,308

.3399
.2282

.0528
.2321

.0179
.0530

661.76 9,331,817

3,510

.2489

.2849

.0709

9.331.817
9.331.817
9.331.817
9.331.817
9.331.817
9.331.817

5,205
6,009
3,773
1,305
3,410
'2,876

.2069
.4711
.2881
.2919
.2390
.2170

.1921
.1664
.2650
.7666
.2933
.3477

.0397
.0784
.0764
.2237
.0701
.0754

Total........................................

11

2 ,658|

Refuse—slasher, hog, burner..
Filing.................................................
Repair................................................
Power and oiling.............................
Night watch and fire protection..
Clean-up and miscellaneous..........

7
6
10
28
10
12

1 ,792f
1,553
2,473*
7,153*
2 ,736f
3,245

Sorting green lumber:
Markers.......................................
Tallymen...................................
Sorters and loaders..................

5 1,174
6 1,597
60 14,685*

316.48 9.331.817
466.91 9.331.817
3,093.67 9.331.817

7,949
5,843
635

.2696
.2924
.2107

.1258
.1711
1.5737

.0339
.0500
.3315

Total........................................

71 17,456*

3,877.06 9,331,817

535

.2221

1.8706

.4155

125.00 9,331,817
930.45 7,921,484

37,327
1,883

.5000
.2212

.0268
.5311

.0134
.1175

1,439.37 9.331.817
670.03 1,869,225

1,454
687

.2243
.2463

.6876
1.4551

.1542
.3585

687.13 9.331.817

3,166

.2331

.3159

.0736

2,796.53 9,331,817

407

.2314

2.4586

.5863

Yard—green lumber:
Foreman.....................................
Transfer......................................
Piling:
Sorting.................................
Piling...................................
Clean-up and miscella­
neous ................................
Total................................




1
17

250
4,207

26
11

6,416*
2,720

18

2,947f

55 12,084

370.89
731.62
712.57
2,087.98
654.22
704.04

12 9

PRODUCTIVITY AND COST OF LABOR.
T a b le

1 6 .— P R O D U C T IV IT Y AN D COST OF LA B O R ,

BY
LISHM ENTS—Continued.

OCCUPATIONS AND

E STA B­

SAW M ILL—Continued.

Establishment No. 18.
[Equipment.—'Two single-cut band saws; 1 sash gang saw; lband gang saw; 1 horizontal band resaw; 3edgers;
3 trimmers. Material.—Number of logs, 3,930; log scale, 6,384,000 board feet; log average, 1,624.4 board
feet; kind of timber: fir 94.1 per cent; hemlock 5.4 per cent; cedar, 0.5 per cent. Product.—Lumber tally,
6,394,802 board feet; prevailing sizes, four and eight quarter predominate.]

Full­
time
posi­
tions.

Total
oneman
hours.

Total
wages.

Sf^wmi 1
1

1
5
2

240
1,3131
476

$137.50 6.394.802
405.00 6.394.802
135.40 6.394.802

Band saw No. 1:
Sawver........................................
Setter..........................................
Doggers.......................................
Tail sawyer...............................

1
1
2
1

239*
239*
479
239J

Occupation, process, or machine.

Sawmill fnrAman .

Log pond or yard............................

167.65
77.82
131.70
62.27

Total
output
in board
feet.

Output
in
board
feet
per
oneman
hour.

Wage
cost
per
oneman
hour.

26,645 $0.5729
4,869
.3083
13,434
.2845

Cost per 1,000
board feet
produced.
Oneman Wages.
hours.
0.0375
.2054
.0744

$0.0215
.0633
.0212

4.020.202
4.020.202
4.020.202
4.020.202

16.786
16.786
8,393
16.786

.7000
.3249
.2749
.2600

.0596
.0596
.1191
.0596

.0417
.0194
.0328
.0155

439.44 4,020,202

3,357

.3670

.2979

.1093

Total........................................

5

1,197* |

Band saw No. 2:
Sawyer........................................
Setter..........................................
Doggers.......................................
Tail sawyer................................

1
1
2
1

168*
168*
337
1681

103.85
54.78
92.70
43.81

2.374.600
2.374.600
2.374.600
2.374.600

14.093
14.093
7,046
14.093

.6163
.3251
.2751
.2600

.0710
.0710
.1419
.0710

.0437
.0231
.0390
.0184

Total.......................................

5

842*

295.14 2,374,600

2,819

.3503

.3548

.1243

Total band saws:
Sawyers......................................
Setters........................................
Doggers.......................................
Tail sawyers..............................

2
2
4
2

408
408
816
408

271.50
132.60
224.40
106.08

6.394.802
6.394.802
6.394.802
6.394.802

15.674
15.674
7,837
15.674

.6654
.3250
.2750
.2600

.0638
.0638
.1276
.0638

.0425
.0207
.0351
.0166

2,040

734.58 6,394,802

3,135

.3601

.3190

.1149

Total........................................

10

Band gang saw:
Sawyer......................................
Sawyer’s helpers......................

1
3

239*
759

95.80 3.197.401
184.52 3.197.401

13,350
4,213

.4000
.2431

.0749
.2374

.0300
.0577

Total........................................

4

998*

280.32 3,197,401

3,202

.2807

.3123

.0877

Sash gang saw:
Sawyer........................................
Sawyer’s helpers.......................

1
2

239*
596*

105.78 3.197.401
138.10 3.197.401

13,350
5,360

.4417
.2315

.0749
.1866

.0331
.0432

Total........................................

3

836

243.88 3,197,401

3,825

.2917

.2615

.0763

Total gang saws:
Sawyers......................................
Sawyer’s helpers......................

2
5

479
1,355*

201.58 6.394.802
322.62 6.394.802

13,350
4,718

.4208
.2380

.0749
.2120

.0315
.0505

Total........................................

7

1,834*

524.20 6,394,802

3,486

.2857

.2869

.0820

Horizontal band resaw:
Resawyer...................................
Resawyer’s'helpers.................

1

6

182
1,189*

72.80 2.374.600
279.85 2.374.600

13,047
1,996

.4000
.2353

.0766
.5009

.0307
.1179

7

1,371*

Total sawing (head, gang, resaw).

Total.......................................

24

5,246

352.65 2,374,600

1,731

.2571

.5776

.1485

1,611.43 6,394,802

1,219

.3072

.8204

Edging (3 machines):
Edgermen..................................
Edgerman’s helpers.................

.2520

6
6

1,130*
1,516

379.19 6.394.802
354.98 6.394.802

5,657
4,218

.3354
.2342

.1768
.2371

.0593
.0555

2,646*

734.17 6,394,802

2,416

.2774

.4139

.1148

Total........................................

12

Trimming (3 machines):
Operators...................................
Operator’s helpers....................

6

648
1,661

223.65 6.394.802
424.15 6.394.802

9,869
3,850

.3451
.2554

.1013
.2597

.0350
.0663

Total........................................

9

2,309

647.80 6,394,802

2,770

.2806

.3611

.1013




3

130
T a b le

LUMBER MANUFACTURING.
1 6 .—PR O D U CTIVITY AND COST OF L ABO R , B Y
LISHME N TS—Continued.

OCCUPATIONS A N D E STA B-

SAW M ILL—Continued.

Establishment No. 18—Concluded.

Occupation, process, or machine.

Full­
time
posi­
tions.

Total
output
in board
feet.

Output
in
board
feet
per
oneman
hour.

Wage
cost
per
oneman
hour.

Cost per 1,000
board feet
produced.

Total
oneman
hours.

Total
wages.

689
905
2,314
5,199
310
4,680

. $171.60
529.55
713.40
1.789.15
80.00
1,167.12

6.394.802
6.394.802
6.394.802
6.394.802
6.394.802
6.394.802

9,281 $0.2491
.5851
7,066
2,764
.3083
.3441
1,230
.2581
20,628
.2494
1,366

0.1077
.1415
.3619
.8130
.0485
.7318

$0.0268
.0828
.1116
.2798
.0125
.1825

Oneman Wages.
hours.

Refuse—slasher, hog, burner........
Filing....
.................................
Power and oiling..............................
Repair................................................
Night watch and fire protection..
Clean-up and miscellaneous..........

2
4
9
20
1
18

Sorting greon lumber:
Foreman.....................................
Tallyman...................................
Marker........................................
Sorters and loaders..................

1
240
1
410*
2
239*
45 11,080

84.00
148.40
83.85
2,547.60

6,394,f802
6.394.802
6.394.802
6.394.802

26,645
15,578
26,701
577

.3500
.3615
.3501
.2299

.0375
.0642
.0375
1.7327

.0131
.0232
.0131
.3984

49 11,970

2,863.85 6,394,802

534

.2393

1.8718

.4478

1
18
35

100.00 6.394.802
1,171.20 6.394.802
1,930.20 6.394.802

24,595
1,430
782

.3846
.2619
.2361

.0407
.6994
1.2787

.0156
.1831
.3018

Total........................................
Yard—green lumber:
Foreman.....................................
Transfer......................................
Piling..........................................

260
4,472*
8,177

Establishment No. 19.
[Equipment.—Two single-cut band saws; 1 circular saw; 1 sash gang saw; 1 horizontal band resaw; 2 edger s
2 trimmers. Material.—Number of logs, 53,793; log scale, 11,699,600 board feet; log average, 217.5 board
feet; kind of timber: white pine, fir, cedar, and redwood. Product—Lumber tally, 11,864,540 board feet;
prevailing sizes, practically all of product is 2 inches and under in thickness.]

Sawmill foremen..............................
Log pond or yard............................
Sawmill deck....................................

4
4
4

843*
1,149
1,071

Band saw (day):
Sawyer........................................
Setter..........................................
Doggers.......................................
Tail sawyer................................

1
1
2
1

260
260
520
260

Total........................................

5

1,300

Band saw (night):
Sawyer........................................
Setter..........................................
Doggers.......................................
Tail sawyer................................

1
1
2
1

275
275
550
275

$360.26 11,864,540
271.85 11,864,540
274.24 11,864,540

14,066 $0.4271
.2366
10,326
11,078
.2561

0.0711
.0908
.0903

$0.0304
.0229
.0231

2,895,684
2,895,684
2,895,684
2,895,684

11,137
11,137
5,569
11,137

.7000
.3500
.2500
.2750

.0898
.0898
.1796
.0898

.0629
.0314
.0449
.0247

474.50 2,895,684

2,227

.3650

.4489

.1639

3,102,275
3,102,275
3,102,275
3,102,275

11,281
11,281
5,641
11,281

.7000
.3500
.2500
.2750

.0886
.0886
.1773
.0886

.0621
.0310
.0443
.0244

2,256

.3650

.4432

.1618

.7000 • .0892
.3500
.0892
.2500
.1784
.0892
.2750

.0624
.0312
.0446
.0245

182.00
91.00
130.00
71.50

192.50
96.25
137.50
75.62

Total........................................

5

1,375

501.87 3,102,275

Total band saw:
Sawyers......................................
Setters.........................................
Doggers.......................................
Tail sawyers..............................

2
2
4
2

535
535
1,070
535

374.50
187.25
267.50
147.12

5,997,959
5,997,959
5,997,959
5,997,959

11,211
11,211
5,606
11,211

976.37 5,997,959

2,242

.3650

.4460

.1628

2,948,673
2,948,673
2,948,673
2,948,673

10,921
10,921
5,461
10,921

.7000
.3500
.3000
.2750

.0916
.0916
.1831
.0916

.0641
.0320
.0549
.0252

519. 75 2,948,673

2,184

.3850

.4578

.1763

Total........................................

10

2,675

Circular saw (day):
Sawyer........................................
Setter..........................................
Doggers.......................................
Tail sawyer................................

1
1
2
1

270
270
540
270

Total.......................................

5

1,350




189.00
94.50
162.00
74.25

131

PRODUCTIVITY AND COOT OF LABOR.
T a b le

16.— PRODU CTIVITY AND COST OF LABO R, B Y

OCCUPATIONS AND ESTAB­

LISHMENT S—Continued.
SAWMILL—Continued.

Establishment No. 19— Continued.

Full­
time
posi­
tions.

Total
oneman
hours.

Circular saw (night):
Sawyer....................................
Setter.......................................
Doggers...................................
Tail sawyer............................

1
1
2
1

265!
265!
531
265!

Occupation, process, or machine.

Total
wages.

$185.85
92.92
159.30
73.01

Total
output
inboard
feet.

Output
in
Wage
board
cost
feet
per
per
oneoneman
man
hour.
hour.

2,917,908
2,917,908
2,917,908
2,917,908

10,990 $0.7000
10,990
.3500
5,495
.3000
10,990
.2750

Total....................................

5

1,327!

511.08 2,917,908

Total circular saw:
Sawyers...................................
Setters.....................................
Doggers...................................
Tail sawyers..........................

2
2
4
2

535!
535^
1,071
535§

374.85
187.42
321.30
147.26

2,677!

Total....................................

10

Pony band saw (day):
Sawyer....................................
Setter.......................................
Dogger....................................
Tail sawyer............................

1
1
1
1

270
270
270
270
1,080

Total....................................

4

Pony band saw (night):
Sawyer...................................
Setter......................................
Dogger.....................................
Tail sawyer’s ........................

1
1
1
1

Total....................................

4

Total pony band saw:
Sawyers..................................
Setters.....................................
Doggers................................. .
Tail sawyers..........................

2
2
2
2

265!
265!
265!
265!
1,082
535!
535|
535!
535!

Cost per 1,000
board feet
produced.
Oneman Wages.
hours.

0.0910
.0910
.1820
.0910

$0.0637
.0318
.0546
.0250

2,198

.3850

.4549

.1752

5,866,581
5,866,581
5,866,581
5,866,581

10,955
10,955
5,478
10,955

.7000
.3500
.3000
.2750

.0913
.0913
.1826
.0913

.0639
.0319
.0548
.0251

1,030.83 5,866,581

2,191

.3850

.4564

.1757

2,948,673
2,948,673
2,948,673
2,948,673

10,921
10,921
10,921
10,921

.7000
.3500
.3500
.2500

.0916
.0916
.0916
.0916

.0641
.0320
.0320
.0229

445.50 2,948,673

2,730

.4125

.3663

.1511

2,917,908
2,917,908
2,917,908
2,917,908

10,990
10,990
10,990
10,990

.7000
.3500
.3500
.2496

.0910
.0910
.0910
.0910

.0637
.0318
.0318
.0227

437.96 2,917,908

2,748

.4124

.3640

.1501

5,866,581
5,866,581
5,866,581
5,866,581

10,955
10,955
10,955
10,955

.7000
.3500
.3500
.2498

.0913
.0913
.0913
.0913

.0639
.0319
.0319
.0228

189.00
94.50
94.50
67.50

185.85
92.92
92.92
66.27

374.85
187.42
187.42
133. 77

Total....................................

8

2,142

883.46 5,866,581

2,739

.4124

.3651

.1506

Horizontal band resaw (day):
Resawyer...............................
Resawyer’s helper...............

1
1

260
260

100.10 2,895,684
55.83 2,895,684

11,137
11,137

.3850
.2147

.0898
.0898

.0346
.0193

Total....................................

2

520

155.93 2,895,684

5,569

.2999

.1796

.0538

Horizontal band resaw (night)
Resawyer............................ .
Resawyer’s helper...............

1
1

275
275

96.95 3,102,275
61.87 3,102,275

11,281
11,281

.3525
.2250

.0886
.0886

.0313
.0199

Total.................................. .

2

550

158.82 3,102,275

5,641

.2888

.1773

.0512

Total horizontal band resaw:
Resawyers.............................
Resawyer’s helper............. .

2
2

535
535

197.05 5,997,959
117.70 5,997,959

11,211
11,211

.3683
.2200

.0892
.0892

.0329
.0196

Total....................................

4

1,070

314.75 5,997,959

5,606

.2942

.1784

.0525

Gang saw (day):
Sawyer.................................. .
Sawyer’s helpers..................

1
2

270
540

108.00 2,948,673
135.00 2,948,673

10,921
5,461

.4000
.2500

.0916
.1831

.0366
.0458

Total...................................

3

810

243.00 2,948,673

3,640

.3000

.2747

.0824

Gang saw (night):
Sawyer.................................. .
Sawyer’s helpers..................

1
2

265!
531

86.28 2,917,908
132.75 2,917,908

10,990
5,495

.3250
.2500

.0910
.1820

.0296
.0455

Total...............................

3

796!

219.03 2,917,908

3,663

.2750

.2730

.0751




13 2

LUMBEft

T a b le

m a n u f a c t u r in g .

1 6 .— PRODU CTIVITY AND COST

OF LA BO R, B Y OCCUPATIONS AND ESTABLISHMEN T S—Continued.
SAWMILL—Continued.

Establishment No. 19— Continued.

Occupation, process, or machine.

Total gang saw:
Sawyers.......................................
Sawyers’s helpers.....................
Total........................................
Total sawing (head, gang, resaw).

Total
output
in board
feet.

Full­
time
posi­
tions.

Total
oneman
hours.

Total
wages.

2
4

535§
1,071

$194.28 5,866,581
267.75 5,866,581

6

1,606*

38 10,171

Output
in
board
feet
per
oneman
hour.

Wage
cost
per
oneman
hour.

10,955 $0.3628
5,478
.2500

Cost per 1,000
board feet
produced.
Oneman Wages.
hours.

0.0913
.1826

$0.0331
.0456

462.03 5,866,581

3,652

.2876

.2738

.0788

3,667.44 11,864,540

1,167

.3606

.8573

.3091

Edger No. 1 (day):
Edgerman..................................
Edgerman’s helpers.................

1
3

270
810

108.00 2,895,684
195.75 2,895,684

10,725
3,575

.4000
.2417

.0932
.2797

.0373
.0076

1,080

303.75 2,895,684

2,681

.2813

.3730

.1049

102.22 3,102,275
192.49 3,102,275

11,685
3,895

.3850
.2417

.0856
.2567

.0330
.0620

Total........................................

4

Edger No. 1 (night):
Edgerman..................................
Edgerman’s helpers.................

1
3

265*
796£

Total........................................

4

1,062

294.71 3,102,275

2,921

.2775

.3423

.0950

Edger No. 2 (day):
Edgerman..................................
Edgerman’s helpers.................

1
3

260
780

104.00 2,948,673
188.50 2,948,673

11,341
3,780

.4000
.2417

.0882
.2645

.0353
.0639

Total........................................

4

1,040

292.50 2,948,673

2,835

.2813

.3527

.0992

Edger No. 2 (night):
Edgerman..................................
Edgerman’ s helpers.................

1
3

275
825

110.00 2,917,908
199.37 2,917,908

10,611
3,537

.4000
.2417

.0942
.2827

.0377
.0683

Total........................................

4

1,100

309.37 2,917,908

2,653

.2812

.3770

.1060

Total edging:
Edgermmen...............................
Edgerman’s helpers.................

4
12

1,070*
3,211*

424.22 11,864,540
776.11 11,864,540

11,083
3,694

.3963
.2417

.0902
.2707

.0358
.0654

Total........................................

16

4,282

1,200.33 11,864,540

2,771

.2803

.3609

.1012

Trimmer No. 1 (day):
Operator.....................................
Operator’s helpers...................

1
2

270
540

74.25 2,895,684
141. 76 2,895,684

10,725
5,362

.2750
.2625

.0932
.1865

.0256
.0490

Total........................................

3

810

216.01 2,895,684

3,575

.2667

.2797

.0746

Trimmer No. 1 (night):
Operator.....................................
Operator’s helpers...................

1
2

265*
531

73.01 3,102,275
139.38 3,102,275

11,685
5,843

.2750
.2625

.0856
.1712

.0235
.0449

Total...................................

3

796*

212.39 3,102,275

3,895

.2667

.2567

.0685

Trimmer No. 2 (day):
Operator.....................................
Operator’s helpers...................

1
2

260
520

71.50 2,948,673
123.50 2,948,673

11,341
5,671

.2750
.2375

.0882
.1764

.0242
.0419

Total........................................

3

780

195.00 2,948,673

3,780

.2500

.2645

.0661

Trimmer No. 2 (night):
Operator.....................................
Operator’s helpers...................

1
2

275
550

75.62 2 917,908
130.62 2,917,908

10,611
5,305

.2750
.2375

.0942
.1885

.0259
.0448

Total........................................

3

825

206.24 2,917,908

3,537

.2500

.2827

.0707

Total trimming:
Operators...................................
Operator’s helpers..................

4
8

1,070£
2,141

294.38 11,864,540
535.26 11,864,540

11,083
5,542

.2750
.2500

.0902
.1805

.0248
.0451

Total....................................

12

3,211*

829.64 11,864,540

3,694

.2583

.2707

.0699




13 3

PRODUCTIVITY AND COST OF LABOR.
T a b le

1 6 .— PRODU CTIVITY AND

COST OF LABOR, B Y OCCUPATIONS AND ESTAB­
LISHMENTS—Continued.
SAWMILL—Continued.

Establishment No. 19— Concluded.

Occupation, process, or machine.

Full­
time
posi­
tions.

Total
oneman
hours.

Total

Output
in
board
Total
feet
output
per
inboard
onefeet.
man
hour.

Refuse—slasher, hog, burner___
Filing................................................
Power and oiling............................
Repair..............................................
Night watch and fire protection.
Clean-up and miscellaneous........

3,224
2,362
3,615
2,479*
1,811
4,194%

$805.60
1,101.50
1,134.00
1,200.65
492.44
919.68

Sorting green lumber:
Markers.....................................
Sorters and loaders...............

1,255
7,331

397.25 11.864.540
2,184.92 11.864.540

9,454
1,618

11.864.540
11.864.540
11.864.540
11.864.540
11.864.540
11.864.540

Wage
cost
per
oneman
hour.

3,680 $0.2499
5,023
.4663
3,282
.3137
.4842
4,785
6,551
.2719
2,829
.2193

Cost per 1,000
board feet
produced.
Oneman
hours.
0.2717
.1991
.3047
.2090
.1526
.3535

$0.0679
.0928
.0956

.3165
.2980

.1058
.6179

.0335
.1842

.1012

.0415
.0775

Total......................................

8,586

2,582.17 11,864,540

1,382

.3007

.7237

.2176

Yard—green lumber:
Foreman...................................

270

125.00 9,736,310

6,060

.4630

.0277

.0128

Transfer:
Hauling to piles...............
Stable.................................
Tram repair......................

4,920
270
2,452

1,170.00 9.736.310
80.00 9.736.310
620.45 9.736.310

1,979
36,060
3,982

.2378
.2963
.2530

.5053
.0277
.2518

.0082
.0637

Total..............................

29

.1202

7,642

1,870.45 9,736,310

1,274

.2448

.7848

.1921

5,545
3,207

Piling (contract).....................
General labor...........................

3,112.48 9.736.310
767.32 9.736.310

1,756
3,036

.5613
.2393

.5695

.3197
.0788

Establishment No. 20.
[Equipment.—
-Three single-cut band saws; 1 vertical band-roller resaw; 3 edgers; 2 trimmers.

Material.—
Number of logs, 7,497; log scale, 6,593,035 board feet; log average, 879.4 board feet; kind of timber: red­
wood, 90 per cent; white pine, 5 per cent; fir and spruce, 5 per cent. Product.—Lumber tally, 5,071,566
board feet; prevailing sizes, four and eight quarter in stock widths.]

Sawmill foreman..
Log pond or yard..

1
7

270
1,818

$125.00 5,071,566
482.00 5,071,566

Sawmill deck:
Scaler...............
Deckmen........
Drag saw man

1
3
2

266*
799*
533

66.60 5,071,566
193.15 5,071, 566
126.55 5,071,566

19,030
6,343
9,515

386.30 5,071,566

Total.............

6

Band saw No. 1:
Sawyer.............
Setter...............
Dogger............
Tail saw yer...

1
1
1
1

Total.............

4

Band saw No. 2:
Sawyer.............
Setter...............
Dogger.............
Tail saw yer...

1
1
1
1

1,599
266*
266*
266*
266J
1,066
266*
266*
266*
266*

Total.............

4

Band saw No. 3:
Sawyer.............
Setter...............
Doggers...........
Tail sawyer. . .

1
1
2
1

266*
266*
533
266*

Total............

5

1,332*




1,066

18,784 $0.4630
2, 790
.2651

0.0532
.3585

$0.0246
.0950

.2499
.2416
.2374

.0525
.1576
.1051

.0131
.0381
.0250

3,172

.2416

.3152

.0762

1,802,528
1,802,528
1,802,528
1,802,528

6,764
6,764
6, 764
6,764

.5499
.2749
.2250
.2250

.1478
.1478
.1478
.1478

.0813
.0406
.0333
.0333

339.70 1,802,528

1,691

.3187

.5912

.1885

146.55
73.25
59.95
59.95

1,873,676
1,873,676
1,873,676
1,873,676

7,031
7,031
7,031
7,044

.5499
.2749
.2250
.2254

.1422
.1422
.1422
.1420

.0782
.0391
.0320
.0320

339.70 1,873,676

1,758

.3188

.5686

.1813

146.55
73.25
119.90
59.95

1,395,362
1,395,362
1,395,362
1,395,362

5,236
5,236
2,618
5,236

.5499
.2749
.2250
.2250

.1910
.1910
.3820
.1910

.1050
.0525
.0859
.0430

399.65 1,395,362

1,047

.2999

.9550

.2864

146.55
73.25
59.95
59.95

13 4
T

LUMBER MANUFACTURING.

able

1 6 r-P R O D U C T IV IT Y AND COST OF LABO R, B Y OCCUPATIONS AND ESTAB­
LISHMENTS—Continued.
S A W M I L L — Continued.

Establishment No. 20—Continued.

Occupation, process, or machine.

Full­
time
posi­
tions.

Total
oneman
hours.

Total
wages.

3
3

$439.65
219.75
239.80
179.85

Output
in
Total
board
output
feet
per
in board
onefeet.
man
hour.

Total band saws:
Sawyers.......................................
Setters.........................................
Doggers.......................................
Tail sawyers..............................

3

799*
799*
1,066
799*

Total........................................

13

3,464*

1,079.05 5,071,566

1,464

Resaw:
Resawyer...................................
Resawyer’s helpers.................

1
2

266*
533

93.30 5.071.566
109.25 5.071.566

19,030
9,515

4

Total........................................

3

Total sawing (head, resaw)..........

16

Edger, resaw:
Edgerman..................................
Edgerman’s helpers.................

1
2

5,071,566
5,071,566
5.071.566
5.071.566

Wage
cost
per
oneman
hour.

6.343 $0.5499
.2749
6.343
4, 758
.2250
6,343
.2250

Cost per 1,000
board feet
produced.
Oneman Wages.
hours.

0.1576
.1576
.2102
.1576

$0.0867
.0433
.0473
.0355

.3115

.6830

.2128

.3501
.2050

.0525
.1051

.0184
.0215

202.55 5,071,566

6,343

.2533

.1576

.0399

1,281.60 5,071,566

1,1$)

.3005

.841,0

.2527

266*
533

90.60 5.071.566
119.90 5.071.566

19,030
9,515

.3400
.2250

.0525
.1051

.0179
.0236

799*
4,265

Total........................................

3

799*

210.50 5,071,566

6,343

.2633

.1576

.0415

Edger No. 1:
Edgerman..................................
Edgerman’s helpers.................

1
2

266*
533

90.60 1.802.528
119.90 1.802.528

6,764
3,382

.3400
.2250

.1478
.2957

.0503
.0665

Total........................................

3

799*

210. 50 1,802,528

2,255

.2633

.4435

.1168

Edger No. 2:
Edgerman..................................
Edgerman’s helpers.................

1
2

266*
533

90.60 1.873.676
119.90 1.873.676

7,031
3,515

.3400
.2250

.1422
.2845

.0484
.0640

Total........................................

3

799*

210.50 1,873,676

2,344

.2633

.4267

.1124

Edger No. 3:
Edgerman..................................
Edgerman’s helpers.................

1
2

266*
533

90.60 1.395.362
119.90 1.395.362

5,236
2,618

.3400
.2250

.1910
.3820

.0649
.0859

799*

210.50 1,395,362

1,745

.2633

.5730

.1508

Total........................................

3

Total edging:
Edgermen...................................
Edgerman’s helpers.................

4
8

1,066
2,132

362.40 5,071,566
479.60 5,071,566

4,758
2,379

.3400
.2250

.2102
.4204

.0715
.0946

3,198

842.00 5,071,566

1,586

.2633

.6306

.1660

73.25 2,535,783
186.50 2,535, 783

9,515
3,172

.2749
.2333

.1091
.3153

.0289
.0735

259.75 2,535,783

2,379

.2437

.4204

.1024

73.25 2,535,783
186.50 2,535, 783

9,515
3,172

.2749
.2333

.1051
.3153

.0289
.0735

Total........................................

12

Trimmer No. 1:
Operator.....................................
Operator’s helpers...................

1
3

Total............................. ..........

4

Trimmer No. 2:
Operator.....................................
Operator’s helpers....................

1
3

266*
799*
1,066
266*
799*

Total........................................

4

1,066

259.75 2,535,783

2,379

.2437

.4204

.1024

Total trimming:
Operators...................................
Operator’s helpers....................

2
6

533
1,599

146.50 5.071.566
373.00 5.071.566

9,515
3,172

.2749
.2333

.1051
.3153

.0289
.0735

Total........................................

8

2,132

519.50 5,071,566

2,379

.2437

.4204

.1024

Refuse—slasher, hog, burner........
Filing..................................................
Power and oiling..............................
Repair................................................
Night watch and fire protection..
Clean-up and miscellaneous..........

6
3
15
5
9
9

1,599
799*
4,432
1,375*
2,335
2,380

3.172
6,343
1,144
3,687
2.172
2,131

.1983
.7430
.2456
.3438
.2266
.2006

.3153
.1576
.8739
.2712
.4604
.4693

. 0625
. 1171
.2146
.0932
.1043
.0942




317.12
594.00
1,088.37
472.85
529.00
477.51

5.071.566
5.071.566
5.071.566
5.071.566
5.071.566
5.071.566

135

PRODUCTIVITY AND COST OF LABOR.
T able

1 6 .—

PR O D U C T IV IT Y AN D COST OF LABO R , B Y
LISHM ENT S—Continued.

OCCUPATIONS AN D ESTAB­

S A W M I L L — Continued.

Establishment No. 20—Concluded.
Output
in
board
Total
output
feet
in board
per
feet.
oneman
hour.

Full­
time
posi­
tions.

Total
oneman
hours.

Sorting green lumber:
Graders.......................................
Sorters and loaders...................

2
30

523
8 ,176|

$156.35 5.071.566
1,657.29 5.071.566

Total........................................

32

8,699£

1,813.64 5,071,566

583

1
246
2
540
58 15,515*

86.80 5.071.566
135.00 5.071.566
3,133.25 7,717,000

20,616
9,392
497

Occupation, process, or machine.

Yard—green lumber:
Foreman.....................................
Transfer......................................
Piling...........................................

Total
wages.

Wage
cost
per
oneman
hour.

9 697 $0.2989
620
.2027

Cost per 1,000
board feet
produced.
Oneman Wages.
hours.

0.1031
1.6122

$0.0308
.3268

.2085

1.7153

.3576

.3528
.2500
.2019

.0485
.1065
2.0106

.0171
.0266
.4060

Establishment No. 21.
[Equipment.—Two single-cut band saws; 1 double-cut band saw; 1 sash gang saw; 3 edgers; 3 trimmers.
Material.—Number of logs, 4,623; log scale, 7,927,000 board feet; log average, 1,713.9 board feet; kind of
timber: redwood, 64.1 per cent; white pine, fir, and spruce, 35.9 per cent. Product.— Lumber tally,
5,975,000 board feet; prevailing sizes, four and eight quarter in stock widths.]
Sawmill foreman....................
Log pond or yard...................

1
9

270
2,464

$185.00 5,975,000
652.90 5,975,000

Sawmill deck:
Scalers...............................
Splitter..............................
Drag-saw m en .................

2
1
2

351
296
536

147.20 5,975,000
88.80 5,975,000
131.35 5,975,000

17,023
20,186
11,147

Total..............................

367.35 5,975,000
125.00
73.15
73.15
66.50

5

1,183

Band saw No. 1:
Sawyer...............................
Setter................................. .
Dogger............................... .
Tail sawyer...................... .

1
1
1
1

266
266
266
266

Total.............................. .

4

1,064

Band saw No. 2:
Sawyer..............................
Setter:............................
Dogger............................... .
Tail sawyer...................... .

1
1
1
1

266
266
266
266

Total.............................. .

4

1,064

Band saw No. 3 (double-cut)
Sawyer.............................. .
Setter................................. .
Dogger............................... .
Tail sawyer......................

1
1
1
1

270
270
270
270

22,130 $0.6852
2,425
.2650

0.0452
.4124

$0.0310
.1093

.4194
.3000
.2451

.0587
.0495
.0897

.0246
.0149
.0220

5,051

.3105

.1980

.0615

1,877,055
1,877,055
1,877,055
1,877,055

7,057
7,057
7,057
7,057

.4699
.2750
.2750
.2500

.1417
.1417
.1417
.1417

.0666
.0390
.0390
.0354

337.80 1,877,055

1,764

.3175

.5668

.1800

118.40
73.15
59.85
66.50

1,716,147
1,716,147
1,716,147
1,716,147

6,652
6,652
6,652
6,652

.4451
.2750
.2250
.2500

.1550
.1550
.1550
.1550

.0690
.0426
.0349
.0387

317.90 1,716,147

1,613

.2988

.6200

.1852

162.00
74.25
60.75
67.50

2,381,798
2,381,798
2,381,798
2,381,798

8,821
8,821
8,821
8,821

.6000
.2750
.2250
.2500

.1134
.1134
.1134
.1134

.0680
.0312
. 0255
. 0283

364.50 2,381,798

2,205

.3375

.4534

. 1530

405.40
220.55
193. 75
200.50

5,975,000
5,975,000
5,975,000
5,975,000

7,450
7,450
7,450
7,450

.5055
.2750
.2416
.2500

.1342
.1342
.1342
.1342

.0678
.0369
.0324
.0336

Total.............................. .

4

1,080

Total band saws:
Sawyers............................. .
Setters............................... .
Doggers..............................
Tail sawyers......................

3
3
3
3

802
802
802
802

Total.............................. .

12

3,208

1,020.20 5,975,000

1,863

.3180

.5369

.1707

Gang saw:
Sawyer.............................. .
Sawyer’ s helpers..............

1
4

270
1,080

81.00 5,975,000
222. 75 5,975,000

22,130
5,532

.3000
.2063

.0452
.1808

.0136
.0373

Total..............................

Total sawing (head, gang)__




5

1,350

303. 75 5,975,000

4,426

. 2250

.2259

.0508

17

4,558

1,323.95 5,975,000

1,311

.2905

.7628

.2216

136
T

LUMBER MANUFACTURING.

able

16.—PRODU CTIVITY AND COST OF LABOR, B Y OCCUPATIONS AND ESTAB­
LISHMENT S—Continued.
SAWMILL—Continued.

Establishment No. 21— Concluded.

Total
output
in board
feet.

Output
in
board
feet
per
oneman
hour.

Wage
cost
per
oneman
hour.

Cost per 1,000
board feet
produced.

Full­
time
posi­
tions.

Total
oneman
hours.

Edger No. 1:
Edgerman..............................
Edgerman’s helpers.............

1
2

266
532

$86.45 1,877,055
113.05 1,877,055

7,057 $0.3250. 0.1417
.2834
3,528
.2125

Occupation, process, or machine.

Total
wages.

Oneman Wages.
hours.

$0.0461
.0602

Total....................................

3

798

199.50 1,877,055

2,352

.2500

.4251

.1063

Edger No. 2:
Edgerman..............................
Edgerman’s helpers..............

1
2

266
532

86.45 1,716,147
113.05 1,716,147

6,652
3,226

.3250
.2125

.1550
.3100

.0504
.0659

Total....................................

3

798

199.50 1,716,147

2,151

.2500

.4650

.1162

Edger No. 3:
Edgerman..............................
Edgerman’s helpers.............

1
2

270
540

87.75 2,381,798
114.75 2,381,798

8,821
4,411

.3250
.2125

.1134
.2267

.0368
.0482

Total....................................

3

810

202.50 2,381,798

2,940

.2500

.3401

.0850

Total edging:
Edgermen...............................
Edgerman’s helpers..............

3
6

802
1,604

260.65 5,975,000
340.85 5,975,000

7,450
3,725

.3250
.2125

.1342
.2685

.0436
.0570

Total....................................

9

2,406

601.50 5,975,000

2,483

.2500

.4027

.1007

Trimmer No. 1:
Operator.................................
Operator’s helper..................

1
1

266
266

73.15 1,877,055
62.51 1,877,055

7,057
7,057

.2750
.2350

.1417
.1417

.0390
.0333

532

135.66 1,877,055

3,528

.2550

.2834

.0723

266
266

66.50 1,716,147
53.20 1,716,147

6,452
6,452

.2500
.2000

.1550
.1550

.0387
.0310

532

119.70 1,716,147

3,226

.2250

.3100

.0697

Total....................................
Trimmer No. 2:
Operator.................................
Operator’s helper..................

1
1

Total....................................
Trimmer No. 3:
Operator.................................
Operator’s helper..................

1
1

270
270

74.25 2,381,798
54.00 2,381,798

8,821
8,821

.2750
.2000

.1134
.1134

.0312
.0227

Total....................................

2

540

128.25 2,381,798

4,411

.2375

.2267

.0538

Total trimming:
Operators...............................
Operator’s helpers................

3
3

802
802

213.90 5,975,000
169.71 5,975,000

7,450
7,450

.2667
.2116

.1342
.1342

.0358
.0284

383.61 5,975,000

Tot'll....................................

6

1,604

3,725

.2392

.2685

.0642

Refuse—slasher, hog, burner.. .
Filing..............................................
Power and oiling..........................
Repair............................................
Night watch and fire protection
Clean-up and miscellaneous___

2
4
22
5
5
10

540
1,080
5,965
1,382
1,280
2,767

114.75
621.00
1,757.35
505.60
288.00
498.44

5,975,000
5,975,000
5,975,000
5,975,000
5,975,000
5,975,000

11,065
5,532
1,002
4,323
4,668
2,159

.2125
.5750
.2946
.3658
.2250
.1801

.0904
.1808
.9983
.2313
.2142
.4631

.0192
.1039
.2941
.0846
.0482
.0834

Sorting green lumber:
Foreman.................................
Tallyman...............................
Graders...................................
Sorters and loaders...............

1
1
4
41

270
270
1,060
11,017

100.00
87.75
304.50
2,488.55

5,975,000
5,975,000
5,975,000
5,975,000

22,130
22,130
5,637
542

.3704
.3250
.2873
.2259

.0452
.0452
.1774
1.8438

.0167
.0147
.0510
.4165

Total....................................

47

12,617

2,890.80 5,975,000

474

.2291

2.1116

.4838

Yard—green lumber:
Foreman.................................
Transfer..................................
Piling.......................................

1
5
46

270
1,345
12,378

115.00 5,975,000
298.30 5,975,000
2,485.97 5,975,000

22,130
4,442
483

.4259
.2218
.2008

.0452
.2251
2.0716

.0192
.0499
.4161




13 7

PRODUCTIVITY AND COST OF LABOR.
T able 1 6 .—P R O D U C T IV IT Y

AN D COST OF LA B O R , B Y
LISHM ENT S—Continued.

OCCUPATIONS A N D E ST A B ­

S A W M I L L —Continued

Establishment No. 22.
[Equipment.— Two single-cut band saws; 1 edger; 1 trimmer.

Material.—Number of logs, 1,243; log scale,
314,791 board feet; log average, 253.3 board feet; kind of timber: cypress, 98.8 per cent; gum, 1.2 per cent.
Product.—Lumber tally, 391,249 board feet; prevailing sizes, principally eight quarter and under.]

Output
in
board
Total
output
feet
per
in board
feet.
oneman
hour.

Wage
cost
per
oneman
hour.

Cost per 1,000
board feet
produced.

Full­
time
posi­
tions.

Total
oneman
hours.

Sawmill foreman..............................
Log pond or yard.......................
Sawmill deck....................................

1
4
3

60
208
144

$38.40
41.50
31.20

391,250
391.250
391.250

6,521 $0.6400
1,881
.1995
2,717
.2167

0.1533
.5316
.3681

$0.0981
.1061
.0797

Band saw No. 1:
Sawyer........................................
Setter...........................................
Doggers.......................................
Tail sawyer................................

1
1
2
1

48
48
96
48

33.60
15.60
20.40
9.60

195,625
195.625
195.625
195,625

4.076
4.076
2,038
4,076

.7000
.3250
.2125
.2000

.2454
.2454
.4907
.2454

.1718
.0797
.1043
.0491

Occupation, process, or machine.

Total
wages.

Oneman Wages.
hours.

Total........................................

5

240

79.20

195,625

815

.3300

1.2268

.4049

Band saw No. 2:
Sawyer........................................
Setter...........................................
Doggers.....................................
Tail sawyer................................

1
1
2
1

48
48
96
48

31.20
15.60
20.40
9.60

195,625
195,625
195.625
195.625

4,076
4,076
2,038
4,076

.6500
.3250
.2125
.2000

.2454
.2454
.4907
.2454

.1595
.0797
.1043
.0491

Total........................................

5

240

76.80

195,625

815

.3200

1.2268

.3926

Total band saws:
Sawyers......................................
Setters.........................................
Doggers.......................................
Tail sawyers..............................

2
2
4
2

96
96
192
96

64.80
31.20
40.80
19.20

391.250
391.250
391,250
391,250

4,076
4,076
2,038
4,076

.6750
.3250
.2125
.2000

.2454
.2454
.4907
.2454

.1656
.0797
.1043
.0491

Total........................................

10

480

156.00

391,250

815

.3250

1.2268

.3987

Edging:
Edgermen..................................
Edgerman’s helpers................

2
4

96
384

32.40
30.50

391,250
391,250

4,076
1,019

.3375
.0794

.2454
.9815

.0828
.0780

Total.............................

6

480

62.90

391,250

815

.1310

1.2268

.1608

Trimming:
Operator.....................................
Operator's helpers...................

1
2

48
96

13.25
16.80

391, 250
391,250

8,151
4,076

.2760
.1750

.1227
.2454

.0339
.0429

.2087

Total........................................

3

144

30.05

391,250

2,717

.3681

.0768

Refuse—slasher, hog, burner........
Filing..................................................
Power and oiling..............................
Repair................................*...............
Night watch and fire protection..
Clean-up and miscellaneous..........

4
2
7
4
4
6

196
96
355
185
220

277

31.80
48.00
95.40
40.70
37.15
55.50

391.250
391.250
391.250
391.250
391.250
391.250

1,996
.1622
.5010
.2454
4,076 • .5000
1,102
.2687
.9073
2,115
.2200 . . 4728
1, 778
.1689
.5623
1,412
.2004
.7080

.0813
.1227
.2438
.1040
.0950
.1419

Sorting green lumber:
Tallyman...................................
Grader.........................................
Sorters and loaders...................

1
1
8

48
53
405

12.00
14.60
60.00

391,250
391.250
391.250

8,151
7,382
966

.1227
.1355
1.0351

.0307
.0373
.1534

Total........................................

10

506

86.60

391,250

773

.1711 | 1.2933

.2213

Yard—green lumber:
Foreman.....................................
Transfer......................................
Piling..........................................

1
8
9

60
453
548

23.10
72.50
205.50

391.250
391.250
391.250

6,521
864
714

.3850
.1601
.3750

.0590
.1853
.5252




.

.2500
.2755
.1481

.1534
1.1579
1.4004

138
T

able

LUMBER MANUFACTURING.
16.—PRODU CTIVITY AND COST OF LABO R, B Y OCCUPATIONS AND ESTAB­
LISHMENT S—Continued.
SAWMILL—Continued.

Establishment No. 28.
fEquiprhent —Three single-cut hand saws; 1 sash gang saw; 3 edgers; 2 trimmers. Material.—Number of
logs, 11,452; log scale, 1,789,682 board feet; log average, 156.3 board feet; kind of timber: 35 per cent shortleaf yellow pine; 65 per cent long-leaf yellow pine. Product.—Lumber tally, 2,226,586 board feet; pre­
vailing sizes, four and eight quarter predominate.]

Occupation, process, or machine.

Full­
time
posi­
tions.

Total
oneman
hours.

Total
wages.

Total
output
in board
feet.

Output
in
board
feet
per
oneman
hour.

8,564 $0.6250
4,034
.1755
5,178
.2006

Sawmill foremen.................
Log pond or yard...............
Sawmill deck.......................

2
5
4

260
552
430

Band saw No. 1:
Sawyer......................... .
Setter.............................
Doggers.........................
Tail sawyer................. .

1
1
2
1

110
110
220
110

77.00
27.50
36.30
18.15

615,682
615,682
615,682
615,682

5,597
5,597
2,799
5,597

$162.50 2,226,586
96.89 2,226,586
86.25 2,226,586

Wage
cost
per
oneman
hour.

Cost per 1,000
board feet
produced.
Oneman W ages.
hours.
0.1168
.2479
.1931

$0.0730
.0435
.0387

.7000
.2500
.1650
.1650

.1787
.1787
.3573
.1787

.1251
.0447
.0590
.0295

Total..........................

5

550

158.95

615,682

1,119

.2890

.8933

. 2582

Band saw No. 2:
Sawyer..........................
Setter.............................
Doggers..........................
Tail sawyer................. .

1
1
2
1

110
110
220
110

77.00
27.50
44.00
19.25

894,842
894,842
894,842
894,842

8,135
8,135
4,067
8,135

.7000
.2500
.2000
.1750

.1229
.1229
.2459
.1229

.0860
.0307
.0492
.0215

167.75 | 894,842
I

1,627

.3050

.6146 I

.1875

6,510
6,510
3,255
6,510

.7000
.2545
.1650
.1650

.1536
.1536
.3072
.1536

.1075
.0391
.0507
.0253

716,062 | 1,302

.2899

.7681

.2227

6,747
6,747
3,374
6,747

.7000
.2515
.1767
.1683

.1482
.1482
.2964
.1482

.1037
.0373
.0524
.0249

486.15 2,226,586 | 1,349

.2946

.7410

.2183

8,135
2,034

.4500
.1938

.1229
.4917

.0553
.0953

894,842 | 1,627

Total......................... .

5

550

Band saw No. 3:
Sawyer..........................
Setter.............................
Doggers........................ .
Tail sawyer..................

1
1
2
1

110
110
220
110

36.30
18.15

Total..........................

5

550

159.45

1
3 I
3 1
6
3 1

330
330
660
330

231.00
83.00
116.60
55.55

Total band saws:
Sawyers....................... .
Setters...........................
Doggers........................ .
Tail sawyers............... .
Total..........................

15

1,650

Gang saw:
Sawyer..........................
Others.......................... .

1
4

110
440

Total......................... .

5

550

Total sawing (head, gang)

20

2,200

Edger, No. 1:
Edgerman...................
Edgerman’s helpers ..

1
2

110
220

3

Total.........................
Edger, No. 2:
Edgermen...................
Edgerman’s helpers ..
Total.........................

77.00

28.00

49.50
85.25
134.75

716,062
716,062
716,062
716,062

2,226,586
2,226,586
2,226,586
2,226,586

894,842
894,842

.2450

.6146

.1506

620.90 2,226,586

1,121

.2822

.9881

.2789

33.00
35.75

716,062
716,062

6,510
3,255

.3000
.1625

.1536
.3072

.0461
.0499

330

68.75

716,062

2,170

.2083

.4609

.0960

2
2

220
220

66.00
36.30

615,682
615,682

2,799
2,799

.3000
.1650

.3573
.3573

.1072
.0590

4

440

102.30

615,6^2

1,399

.2325

.7147

.1662

Edger No. 3:
Edgermen...................
Edgerman’s helpers ..

2
2

220
220

66.00
36.30

894,842
894,842

4,067
4,067

.3000
.1650

.2459
.2459

.0738
.0406

Total.........................

4

440

102.30

894,842

2,034

.2325

.4917

.1143

Total edging:
Edgermen...................
Edgerman’s helpers..

5
6

550
660

165.00
108.35

2,226,586
2,226,586

4,048
3,374

.3000
.1642

.2470
.2964

.0741
.0487

11

1,210

273.35

2,226,586

1,840

.2259

.5434

.1228

Total.....................




PRODUCTIVITY AND COST OF LABOR.

139

T a bl e 1 6 .—P R O D U C T IVIT Y AND COST OF

L ABOR , B Y OCCUPATIONS AN D ESTAB­
LISHM EN T S—Continued.
SAW M ILL —Continued.

Establishment N o. 28 — Concluded.

Occupation, process, or machine.

Full­
time

Total
oneman
hours.

tions.

Trimmer No. 1:
Operator.....................................
Operator’s helpers................
Total......................................
Trimmer No. 2:
Operator.....................................
Operator’s helpers...................
Total......................................
Total trimming:
Operators..
Operator’ s helpers...................
Total.......................................

Total
wages.

Total
output
in board
feet.

Output
in
board
feet
per
oneman
hour.

Wage
cost
per
oneman
hour.

1
2

110
220

$19.25
24.75

716.062
716.062

6,510 $0.1750
.1125
3; 255

3

330

44.00

716,062

2,170

1
3

110
330

27.50
66.00

1.510.524
1.510.524

4

440

93.50

2
5

220
550

Cost per 1,000
board feet
produced.
Oneman Wages.
hours.

0.1536
.3072

$0.0269
.0346

.1333

.4609

.0614

13,732
4,577

.2500
.2000

.0728
.2185

.0182
.0437

1,510,524

3,433

.2125

.2913

.0619

46.75 2.226.586
90.75' 2.226.586

10,121
4,048

.2125
.1650

.0988
.2470

.0210
.0408

7

770

137.50

2,226,586

2,892

.1786

.3458

.0618

Refuse—slasher, hog, burner........
Filing..................................................
Power and oiling..............................
Repair................................................
Night watch and fire protection..
Clean-up and miscellaneous..........

6
4
8
5
2
10

660
440
1,114
540
314
1,102

117.95
225.50
312.78
205.33
67.40
183.54

2.226.586
2.226.586
2.226.586
2.226.586
2.226.586
2.226.586

3,374
5,060
1,999
4,123
7,091
2,020

.1787
.5125
.2808
.3802
.2146
.1666

.2964
.1976
.5003
.2425
.1410
.4949

.0530
.1012
.1405
.0922
.0303
.0824

Sorting green lumber:
Graders.......................................
Sorters and loaders.................

3
11

330
1,209

49.12
240.11

2.226.586
2.226.586

6,747
1,842

.1488
. 1986

.1482
.5430

.0221
.1078

Total.......................................

14

1,539

289.23

2,226,586

1,447

.1879

.6912

.1299

Yard—green lumber:
Foreman.....................................
Transfer......................................
Piling..........................................

1
10
29

130
1,137
3,176

50.00
172.98
605.59

1.635.213
1.635.213
1.635.213

12,579
1,438
515

.3846
.1521
.1907

.0795
.6953
1.9423

.0306
.1058
.3703

Establishment No. 24.
[Equipment.—One single-cut band saw; 1 sash gang saw; 3 edgers; 1 trimmer. Material. —Number of logs,
25,033; log scale, 2,481,147 board feet; log average, 99.1 board feet; kind of timber, all short-leaf yellow
pine. Product.—Lumber tally, 2,878,131 board feet; prevailing sizes, four quarter.]
9,314 $0. 4045
2,194
.1555
4,903
.1542

Sawmill foreman.................
Log pond or yard...............
Sawmill deck.......................

1
5
2

309
1,312
587

$125.00
204.00
90. 49

2,878,131
2,878,131
2,878,131

Band saw:
Sawyer...........................
Setter.............................
Doggers..........................
Tail sawyers.................

1
1
2
2

270
270
540
540

189.00
72.24
93.10
93.15

2,878,131
2,878,131
2,878,131
2,878,131

.10,660
10,660
5,330
5,330

Total..........................

6

1,620

447.49

2,878,131

Gang saw:
Sawyer..........................
Cant setter....................
Liner............................ .
Swampers............ ____
•

1
1
1
2

260
260
260
520

78.00 2,878,131
50. 70 2,878,131
42.90 2,878,131
84.50 2,878,131

0.1074
.4559
.2040

$0.0434
.0709
.0314

.7000
.2676
.1724
.1725

.0938
.0938
.1876
.1876

.0657
.0251
.0323
.0324

1,777

.2762

.5628

.1555

11,070
11,070
11,070
5,535

.3000
.1950
.1650
.1625

.0903
.0903
.0903
.1807

.0271
.0176
.0149
.0294

Total..........................

5

1,300

256.10

2,878,131

2,214

.1970

.4516

.0890

Total sawing (head, gang)

11

2,920

703.59

2,878,131

986

.2410

1.0145

.2445

Edging (3 machines):
Edger men................... .
Edger man’s helpers..

3
3

790
790

197.50
114. 70

2,878,131
2,878,131

3,643
3,643

.2500
.1452

.2745
.2745

.0686
.0399

6

1,580

312.20 |2,788,131

1,822

.1976

.5490

.1085

Total.......................




140
T

LUMBER M ANUFACTURING.

able

16.—PR O D U C TIV IT Y AND COST OF LABO R, B Y OCCUPATIONS AND ESTAB­
LISHMENT S—Continued.
S A W M I L L — Continued.

Establishment N o. 24 — Concluded.

Occupation, process, or machine.

Full­
time
posi­
tions.

Trimming:
Operator.....................................
Operator’s helpers....................

1
2

Total
oneman
hours.

Total
wages.

Output
in
board
Total
feet
output
per
in board
feet.
oneman
hour.

270
540

$47.25
108.00

2.878.131
2.878.131

Wage
cost
per
oneman
hour.

10,660 $0.1750
5,330
.2000

Cost per 1,000
board feet
produced.
Oneman Wages.
hours.

0.0938
.1876

$0.0164
.0375

Total........................................

3

810

155.25

2,878,131

3,553

.1917

.2814

.0539

Refuse—slasher, hog, burner........
Filing..................................................
Power and oiling..............................
Repair................................................
Night watch and fire protection..
Clean-up and miscellaneous..........

4
2
3
4
2
8

994
549
1,161
877
504
2,266

144.41
273.60
245.80
204.25
106.20
365.70

2.878.131
2.878.131
2.878.131
2.878.131
2.878.131
2.878.131

2,896
5,242
2,479
3,282
5,711
1,270

.1453
.4984
.2117
.2329
.2107
.1614

.3454
.1907
.4034
.3047
.1751
.7873

.0502
.0951
.0854
.0710
.0369
.1271

Sorting green lumber:
Grader.........................................
Sorters and loaders...................

1
12

259
3,152

45.32
457.71

2.878.131
2.878.131

11,112
913

.1750
.1452

.0900
1.0952

.0157
.1590

Total............ ..........................

13

3,411

503.03

2,878,131

844

.1475

1.1852

.1747

Yard—green lumber:
Foreman.....................................
Transfer......................................
Piling...........................................

1
9
• 16

260
2,340
4,161

100.00
351.00
779.60

2.878.131
2.878.131
2.878.131

11,070
1,230
692

.3846
.1500
.1874

.0903
.8130
1.4457

.0347
.1220
.2709

Establishment No. 25.
[Equipment.—Three single-cut band saws; 1 sash gang saw; 3 edgers; 2 trimmers. Material.—Number of
logs, 7,247; log scale, 1,322,125 board feet; log average, 182.4 board feet; kind of timber, chiefly long-Ieaf
yellow pine. Product.—Lumber tally, 1,200,484 board feet; prevailing sizes, principally 1-inch boards;
approximately 11 per cent timbers.]
8,763 $0.4007

Sawmill foremen..............................

2

137

$54.90

1,200,484

Log pond or yard:
Foreman.....................................
Pond men..................................

0.1141 $0.0457

1
7

70
443

21.00
64.90

1,200,484
1,200,484

17,150
2,710

.3000
.1465

.0583
.3690

.0175
.0541

Total........................................

8

513

85.90

1,200,484

2,340

.1674

.4273

.0716

Sawmill deck:
Scalers and haul ups...............

3

180

30.60

1,200,484

6,669

.1700

.1499

.0255

Band saw No. 1:
Sawyer.......................................
Setter...........................................
Doggers.......................................
Tail sawyer................................

1
1
2
1

60
60
120
60

39.00
15.00
18.00
9.60

401,894
401,894
401,894
401,894

6,698
6,698
3,349
6,698

.6500
.2500
.1500
.1600

.1493
.1493
.2986
.1493

.0970
.0373
.0448
. 0239

Total........................................

5

300

81.60

401,894

1,340

.2720

.7465

.2030

Band saw No. 2:
Sawyer.......................................
Setter..........................................
Doggers.......................................
Tail sawyer................................

1
1
2
1

60
60
120
60

39.00
15.00
18.00
9.60

364,342
364,342
364,342
364,342

6,072
6,072
3,036
6,072

.6500
.2500
.1500
.1600

.1647
.1647
.3294
.1647

.1070
.0412
.0494
.0263

Total........................................

5

300

81.60

364,342

1,214

.2720

.8234

.2240

Band saw No. 3:
Sawyer.......................................
Setter..........................................
Doggers.......................................
Tail sawyer............... ................

1
1
2
1

60
60
120
60

30.90
15.90
19.80
9.90

434,248
434,248
434,248
434,248

7,237
7,237
3,619
7,237

.5150
.2650
.1650
.1650

.1382
.1382
.2763
.1382

.0712
.0366
.0456
.0228

Total........................................

5

300

76.50

434,248

1,447

.2550

.6908

. 1762




141

PRODUCTIVITY AND COST OF LABOR.
T a b le

16. — PR O D U C TIV ITY AND COST OF LABOR, B Y OCCUPATIONS AND ESTAB-

LISHME NTS—Continued.
SAWMILL—Continued.

Establishment No. 25—Continued.

Occupation, process, or machine.

Full­
time
posi­
tions.

Total
oneman
hours.

Total
wages.

Total
output
in board
feet.

Output
in
board
feet
per
oneman
hour.

Wage
cost
per
oneman
hour.

Total band saws:
Sawyers........
Setters...........
Doggers.........
Tail sawyers.,

3
3
6
3

180
180
360
180

$108.90
45.90
55.80
29.10

1,200,484
1,200,484
1,200,484
1,200,484

6,669 $0.6050
6,669
.2550
3,335
.1550
6,669
.1617

Total.

15

900

239.70

1,200,484

1,334

Gang saw:
Sawyer...........
Band setters..
Craneman........
Helpers............

1
4
1
5

60
240
60
306

16.50
33.90
11.10
44.15

798,590
798,590
798,590
798,590

13,310
3,327
13,310
2,610

Cost p€)T 1,000
boarcI feet
prodiiced.
Oneman Wages.
hours.

0.1499
.1499
.2999
.1499

$0.0907
.0382
.0465
.0242

.2663

.7497

. 1997

.2750
.1413
.1850
.1443

.0751
.3005
.0751
.3832

.0207
.0424
.0139
.0553

Total...........................

11

666

105.65

798,590

1,199

.1586

.8340

.1323

Total sawing (head, gang).

26

1,566

345.35

1,200,484

767

.2205

1.3045

.2877

Edger No. 1:
Edgerman.....................
Edger man’s helpers. . .

1
3

60
180

15.00
19.50

401,894
401,894

6,698
2,233

.2500
.1083

.1493
.4479

.0373
.0485

4

240

34.50

401,894

1,675

.1438

.5972

.0858

2
1

120
60

28.50
8. 50

364,342
364,342

3,036
6,072

.2375
.1417

.3294
.1647

.0782
.0233

3

180

37.00

364,342

2,024

.2056

.4940

.1016

2
2

120
120

27.00
18.00

434,248
434, 248

3,619
3,619

.2250
.1500

.2763
.2763

.0622
.0415

4

240

45.00

434,248

1,809

.1875

.5527

.1036

5
6

300
360

70.50 1,200,484
46.00 1,200,484

4,002
3,335

.2350
.1278

.2499
.2999

.0587
.0383

Total.....................

11

660

116.50 1,200,484

1,819

.1765

.5498

.0970

Trimmer No. 1:
Operator.................
Operator’s helpers.

1
2

60
120

9.00
18.00

401,894
401,894

6,698
3,349

.1500
.1500

.1493
.2986

.0224
.0448

3

180

27.00

401,894

2,233

.1500

.4479

.0672

2
2

120
120

27.00
22.20

798,590
798,590

6,655
6,655

.2250
.1850

.1503
.1503

.0338
.0278

4

240

49. 20

798,590

3,327

.2050

.3005

.0616

3
4

180
240

36.00 1,200,484
30.20 1,200,484

6,669
5,002

.2000
.1258

.1499
.1999

.0300
.0252

7

420

66.20 1,200,484

2,858

.1576

.3499

.0551

4
4
17
4
1
8

247
240
1,076
282
70
525

4,860
5,002
1,116
4,257
17,150
2,287

.1475
.5300
.1995
.2933
.2643
.1424

.2058
.1999
.8963
.2349
.0583
.4373

.0304
.1060
.1788
.0689
.0154
.0623

Total.
Edger No. 2:
Edgermen.................
Edgerman’ s helper..
Total.
Edger No. 3:
Edgermen...................
Edgerman’s helpers.

Total.
Total edging:
Edgermen.................
Edgerman’s helpers.

Total.
Trimmer No. 2:
Operators................
Operator’s helpers..
Total.
Total trimming:
Operators............... .
Operator’s helpers..
Total.
Refuse—slasher, hog, burner.
Filing...........................................
Power and oiling.......................
Repair.........................................
Clean-up and miscellaneous.




36.44
127.20
214.65
82.70
18.50
74.75

1,200,484
1,200,484
1,200,484
1,200,484
1,200,484
1,200,484

14 2
T

LUMBER M ANUFACTURING.

able

16.—PR ODU CTIVITY

COST OF LABO R, B Y OCCUPATIONS AND ESTAB­
LISHM ENT S—Continued.

AND

SAWMILL—Continued.

Establishment No. 25—Concluded.

Occupation, process, or machine.

Full­
time
posi­
tions.

Total
oneman
hours.

Total
wages.

Output
in
board
Total
output
feet
in board
per
feet.
oneman
hour.

Wage
cost
per
oneman
hour.

Cost per 1,000
board feet
produced.
Oneman
hours.

Wages.

0.0500
. 1000
l v1170

$0.0162
.0170
.1556

Sorting green lumber:
Foreman.....................................
Graders.......................................
Sorters and loaders...................

1
2
23

60
120
1,341

$19.50 1.200.484
20.40 1.200.484
186.74 1.200.484

Total........................................

26

1,521

406.64 1,200,484

789

.2674

1.2670

.3387

Yard—green lumber:
Foreman......................................
Transfer................ .....................
Piling...........................................

1
15
31

60
888
1,855

19.50 1.039.445
102.55 1.039.445
269.32 1.039.445

17,324
1,171
560

.3250
.1155
.1452

.0577
.8543
1.7846

.0188
.0987
.2591

20,008 $0.3250
10,004
. 1700
895
.1393

Establishment No. 26.
[Equipment.— Two band saws; 1 gang saw; 2 edgers; 1 trimmer.

Materials—N umber of logs, 1,249; log
scale, 126,589 board feet; log average, 101.3 board feet; kind of timber, chiefly short-leaf yellow pine.

Product.—Lumber tally, 164,565 board feet; prevailing sizes, principally four and eight quarter.]
Sawmill foremen...
Log pond, or yard..
Sawmill deck___ «,

10
50
20

15.83
10.25
5.25

164.565
164.565
164.565

16,457 10.5830
3,291
.2050
8,228
.2625

0.0608
.3038
.1215

$0.0354
.0623
.0319

Band saw No. 1:
Sawyer..........
Setter.............
Doggers..........
Tail sawyer..

1
1
3
1

10
10
30
10

7.00
2.75
6.25
2.00

100.938
100.938
100.938
100.938

10.094
10.094
3,365
10.094

.7000
.2750
.2083
.2000

.0991
.0991
.2972
.0991

.0693
.0272
.0619
.0198

Total.

6

60

18.00

100,938

1,682

.3000

.5945

.1782

Band saw No. 2:
Sawyer..........
Setter.............
Doggers..........
Tail sawyer..

1
1
2
1

10
10
20
10

7.00
2.25
4.00
2.00

63,627
63,627
63,627
63,627

6,363
6,363
3,181
6,363

.7000
.2250
.2000
.2000

.1572
.1572
.3143
.1572

.1100
.0354
.0629
.0314

Total.

5

50

15.25

63,627

1,273

.3050

.7858

.2397

2
2
5
2

20
20
50
20

14.00
5.00
10.25
4.00

164,565
164,565
164,565
164,565

8,228
8,228
3,291
8,228

.7000
.2500
.2050
.2000

.1215
.1215
.3038
.1215

.0851
.0304
.0623
.0243

11

110

33.25

164,565

1,496

.3023

.6683

.2021

1
8

10
80

4.00
15. 45

164,565
164,565

16,457
2,057

.4000
.1931

.0608
.4861

.0243
.0939

Total band saws:
Sawyers..........
;ers..........
sawyers.
Total.
Gang saw:
Sawyer.............................
Sawyer’s helpers............
Total.............................

9

90

19. 45

164,565

1,828

.2161

.5469

.1182

Total sawing (head, gang).

20

200

52.70

164,565

823

.2635

1.2153

.3203

Edger No. 1:
Edgerman.......................
Edgerman’s helpers___

1
2

10
20

2.75
4.00

100,938
100,938

10,094
5,047

.2750
.2000

.0991
.1981

.0272
.0396

3

30

6.75

100,938

3,364

. 2250

.2972

.0669

1
2

10
20

2.50
3. 75

63,627
63,627

6,363
3,181

.2500
.1875

.1572
.3143

.0393
.0589

3

30

6.25

63,627

2,121

.2083

.4715

.0982

Total.
Edger No. 2:
Edgerman..................
Edgerman’s helpers..

Total.....................




PRODUCTIVITY AND COST OF LABOR.
T able 1 6 .— P R O D U C T IV IT Y AND COST OF L ABO R , B Y

143

OCCUPATIONS A N D

EST AB ­

LISHM ENTS—Continued.
SAW M ILL—Concluded.

Establishment N o. 26 — Concluded.

Occupation, process, or machine.

Total edging:
Edgermen..................................
Edgerman’s helpers.................

Output
in
board
Total
output
feet
per
in board
onefeet.
man
hour.

Wage
cost
per
oneman
hour.

Full­
time
posi­
tions.

Total
oneman
hours.

2
4

20
40

$5.25
7.7

164.565
164.565

8,228 $0.2625
4,114
.1938

Total
wages.

Cost per 1,000
board feet
produced.
Oneman Wages.
hours.

0.1215
.2431

$0.0319
.0471

6 !

60

13.00

164,565

2,743

.2167

.3646

.0790

Trimming:
Operator.....................................
Operator’s helpers...................

1
3

10
30

2.25
4.80

164.565
164.565

16,457
5,485

.2250
.1600

.0608
.1823

.0137
.0292

Total........................................

4

40

7.05

164,565

4,114

.1763

.2431

.0428

25
30
120
43
47
82
237

3.90
20.00
39.28
11.90
7.00
13.07
41.00

164.565
164.565
164.565
164.565
164.565
164.565
164.565

6,583
5,485
1,371
3,827
3,501
2,006
694

.1560
.6667
.3273
.2768
.1489
. 1594
.1729

.1519
.1823
.7292
.2613
.2856
.4983
1.4402

.0237
.1215
.2387
.0723
.0425
.0794
.2491

10
122
160

2.75
21. 43
29.50

164.565
164.565
114,000

16,457
1,349
713

.2750
.1757
. 1844

.0608
.7413
1.4035

.0167
.1302
.2588

1,787 $0.3000
1,7S7
.2800
876
.2000

0.5596
.5596
1.1416

$0.1679
.1567
.2283

.2446

2.2608

.5529

5,304 $0.3025
1,081
.2499
1,184
.2547

0.1885
.9248
.8449

$0.0570
.2311
.2152

.2570

1.9582

.5033

5,649 $0.2487
296
.2250

0.1770
3.3776

$0.0440
.7601

3.5546

.8041

Total........................................

Refuse—slasher, hog, burner..........
Filing..................................................
Power and oiling..............................
Repair................................................
Night watch and fire protection
Clean-up and miscellaneous..........
Sorting green lumber......................
Yard—green lumber:
Foreman.....................................
Transfer......................................
Piling...........................................

1
8
15

D R Y K ILN .

Establishment N o. 1.
[Output, 446.740 board feet.]
Dry kiln:
Foreman.....................................
Grader.........................................
Loaders.......................................

1
1
2

250
250
510

$75.00
70.00
102.00

446,740
446,740
446,740

Total........................................

4

1,010

247.00

446,740

442

Establishment N o. 15.
[Output, 3,140,000 board feet.]
Dry kiln:
Foremen.....................................
Stacker.......................................
Unstackers.................................

2
11
10

592
2,904
2,653

$179.10 3,140,000
725.57 3,140,000
675.85 3,140,000

Total......................................

23

6,149

1,580.52 3,140,000

511

Establishment N o. 17.
[Output, 2,316,100 board feet.]
Dry kiln:
Truckers.....................................
Stackers and unstackers.........
Total.......................................

1

2
30

410
$101.96 2,316,100
7,822| 1,760.41 2,316,100

32

8 ,232| 1,862.37 2,316,100

100531°— 18— Bull. 225-------10




281

.2262

14 4

LUMBER M ANUFACTURING.

T a b u ; 16.—PR ODU C TIV ITY AND COST OF LA BO R, B Y OCCUPATIONS AND ESTAB*
LISHMENTS—Continued.
D R Y KILN—Concluded.

Establishment No. 19.
[Output, 1,860,071 board feet.]

Occupation, process, or machine.

Dry kiln.............................................

Full­
time
posi­
tions.

22

Total
oneman
hours.

Output
in
board
Total
feet
output
per
in board
onefeet.
man
hour.

Total
wages.

5,582! $1,465.63 1,860,071

Wage
cost
per
oneman
hour.

Cost per 1,000
board feet
produced.
Oneman Wages.
hours.

333 $0.2625

3.0012

$0.7879

9,505 $0.3250
4,550
.2250
.2041
398

0.1052
.2198
2.5128

$0.0342
.0494
.5130

.2102

2.8377

.5966

15,572 $0.4464
7,786
.3125
14,342
.2700
4,719
.2450
1/514
.2771
1,475
.2397

0.0642
.1284
.0697
.2119
.6605
.6780

$0.0287
.0401
.0188
.0519
.1831
.1625

.2676

1.8127

.4851

21,201 $0.5128
6,524
.2831
18,375
.2750
18,375
.2250
2,158
.2557
1,509
.2366

0.0472
.1533
.0544
.0544
.4633
.6629

$0.0242
.0434
.0150
.0122
.1185
.1569

.2578

1.4355

.3702

4,705 $0.3686
2,091
.2747
1,259
.1265

0.2125
.4783
.7946

$0.0783
.1314
.1005

1,4854

.3102

Establishment No. 21.
[Output, 2,566,481 board feet.]
Dry kiln:
Foreman.....................................
Transfermen..............................
Stackers......................................

1
2
24

270
564
6,449

$87.75 2,566,481
126.90 2,566,481
1,316.50 2,566,481

Total........................................

27

7,283

1,531.15 2,566,481

352

P L A N IN G M IL L .

Establishment No. 8.
[Output, 1,090,014 board feet.]
Planing mill:
Foreman.....................................
Engineers...................................
Filer............................................
Truckers.....................................
Feeders.......................................
All others...................................

1
2
1
3
10
10

70
140
76
231
720
739

Total........................................

27

1,976

$31.25
43.75
20.52
56.59
199.54
177.12

1,090,014
1,090,014
1,090,014
1,090,014
1,090,014
1,090,014

528.77 1,090,014

552

Establishment No. 10.
[Output, 2,756,182 board feet.]
Planing mill:
Foreman.....................................
Filers...........................................
Engineer.....................................
Fireman......................................
Feeders.......................................
All others....................................

1
3
1
1
10
14

130
422!
150
150
1,277
1,827

Total........................................

30

3,956!

$66.66
119. 59
41.25
33.75
326.48
432. 35

2,756,182
2,756,182
2,756,182
2,756,182
2,756,182
2,756,182

1,020.08 2,756,182

697

Establishment No. 11.
[Output, 1,286,857 board feet.3
Planing mill:
Foreman and assistant...........
Feeders.......................................
All others...................................

2
5
8

273!
615!
1,022!

$100.80 1,286,857
169.10 1,286,857
129. 36 1,286,857

Total........................................

15

1,911!

399.26 1,286,857




673

.2083

145

PRODUCTIVITY AND COST OF LABOR.
Table

1 6 .-— PR O D U C T IVIT Y

AN D COST OF L A B O R , B Y OCCUPATIONS A N D ESTAB­
LISHM ENTS—Continued.
PLANING H ILL —Continued.

Establishment No. 13.
Output:
Board feet.
Surfaced on one side....................................................................................................
42,263
Surfaced on two sides.................................................................................................. 2,543,508
Surfaced on two sides and. one edge.........................................................................
9,809
Surfaced on two sides and two edges......................................................................
123,226
Dressed and matched..................................................................................................
827,056
Rip sawed......................................................................................................................
596,814
Resawed.........................................................................................................................
262,593
Total........................................................................................................................... 4,405,269

Occupation, process, or machine.

Full­
Total
time
oneposi­
man
tions. ‘ hours.

Planing mill:
Foreman.....................................
Feeders......................................
Tallyman...................................
Knife grinder.............................
Repair m en...............................
Others..........................................

1
10
1
1
5
6

284
2,894
299
243
1,204
1,583

Total.......................................

24

6,507

Total
wages.

Output
in
board
Total
output
feet
in board
per
feet.
oneman
hour.

Wage
cost
per
oneman
hour.

Cost per 1,000
board feet
produced.
Oneman Wages.
hours.

15,512 $0.6058
1,522
.3424
14,733
.3610
.3611
18,129
3,659
.3925
2,783
.2499

0.0645
.6569
.0679
.0552
.2733
.3593

$0.0391
.2249
.0245
.0199
.1073
.0898

677

.3422

1.4771

.5055

2,925,266
2,925,266
2,925,266
2,925,266
2,925,266
2,925,266
2,925,266
2,925,266

22,502
19,502
19,502
22,502
3,859
2,527
4,643
3,370

0.5769
.4000
.3000
.4000
.2970
.2947
.2397
.2440

0.0444
.0513
.0513
.0444
.2591
.3957
.2154
.2967

$0.0256
.0205
.0154
.0178
.0770
.1166
.0516
.0724

1,160.96 2,925,266

736

.2922

1.3582

.3969

39,491 $0.7000
35,901
.3000
39,491
.2750
39,334
.5000
38,416
.3500
18,082
.3661
13,270
.2420
25,122
.2128
2,128
.2809

0.0253
.0279
.0253
.0254
.0260
.0553
.0754
.0398
.4699

$0.0177
.0084
.0070
.0127
.0091
.0202
.0182
.0085
.1320

$172.04
990.90
107.95
87.75
472.59
395.58

4.405.269
4.405.269
4.405.269
4.405.269
4.405.269
4.405.269

2,226.81 4,405,269

Establishment No. 14 .
[Output, 2,925,266 board feet.]
Planing mill:
Foreman.....................................
Engineer.....................................
Fireman.....................................
Filer............................................
Graders......................................
Machine men............................
Transfer men.............................
Others.........................................

1
1
1
1
6
9
5
7

Total.......................................

31

130
150
150
130
758
1,157*
630
868
3,973

$75.00
60.00
45.00
52.00
225.15
341.06
151.00
211.75

Establishment No. 15.
[Output, 9,872,815 board feet.]
Planing mill:
Foreman.....................................
Electrician.................................
Oiler............................................
Filer............................................
Belts...........................................
Set-ups.......................................
Clean-ups...................................
Transfer......................................
Feeders.......................................
Feeders, helpers, and offbearers.....................................
Repair........................................
General.......................................
Total.......................................




1
1
1
1
1
2
3
2
18

250
275
250
251
257
546
744
393
4,639

$175.00
82.50
68.75
125.50
89.95
199.87
180.07
83.65
1,303.17

9,872,815
9,872,815
9,872,815
9,872,815
9,872,815
9,872,815
9,872,815
9,872,815
9,872,815

14
4
4

3,332
1,186
915

813.77 9,872,815
421.47 9,872,815
250.89 9,872,815

2,963
8,324
10,790

.2442
.3554
.2742

.3375
.1201
.0927

.0824
.0427
.0254

52

13,038

3,794.59 9,872,815

757

.2910

1.3206

.3843

LUMBER MANUFACTURING.

146
T able

16.—PR ODU CTIVITY AND COST OF LABO R, B Y OCCUPATIONS AND ESTAB­
LISHMENTS—Concluded.
PLANING HILL—Concluded.

Establishment No. 17.
Output:
Board feet.
Tongued and grooved................................................................................................ 1,998,228
Surfaced, clear.............................................................................................................
577,177
Surfaced, common...................................................................................................... 3,532,285
Resawed........................................................................................................................ 4,253,609
Ripsawed and cut off............................................................. ............. ..................... 1,221,048
Total........................................................................................................................... 11,582,347

Occupation, process, or machine.

Full­
time
posi­
tions.

Total
oneman
hours.

Planing mill:
Foreman and assistant...........
Filers.........................................;
Truckers....................................
Tallymen and markers...........
Repair m an...............................
Feeders.......................................
Others.................... ....................

1
10 2 688*
76 18*953*

Total........................................

101 34,253*

2
4

4
4

505|
1,048*
9,952
959*

Total
wages.

$239.51
423.73
2,230.88
233.71
40.87
670.33
3,985.75

Total
output
in board
feet.

11.582.857
11.582.857
11.582.857
11.582.857
11.582.857
11.582.857
11.582.857

7,824. 78 11,582,857

Output
in
board
feet
per
oneman
hour.

Wage
cost
per
oneman
hour.

Cost per 1,000
board feet
produced.
Oneman
hours.

Wages.

22,902 $0.4736
.4041
11,047
1,164
.2242
12,072
.2436
79,607
.2809
4,308
.2493
611
.2103

0.0437
.0905
.8502
.0828
.0126
.2321
1.6363

$0.0207
.0366
.1926
.0202
.0035
.0579
.3441

.2284

2.9572

.6755

338

Establishment No. 21.
Board feet.
Delivered to planing mill...................................................................................................2,713,577
Output:
Surfaced..........................................................................................................................
419,580
250,519
Surfaced, tongued, and grooved...............................................................................
Tongued and grooved..................................................................................................
35,761
Shijplap............................................................................................................................
38,257
Sizing, ripping, battens, trimming, and resawing................................................ 1,005,554
Drop bevel siding.........................................................................................................
772,891
Trimming, clear............................................................................................................
87,400
103,615
Trimming, rough.........................................................................................................
Total............................................................................................................................ 2,713,577
Planing mill:
Delivering lumber—
Foreman..............................
Tallymen............................
Teamsters...........................
Stackers..............................

1
2
3
11

270
312
892
2,909

$94. 50
85.90
200. 70
570.35

2.713.577
2.713.577
2.713.577
2.713.577

Total................................

17

4,383

951.45 2,713,577

Dressing lumber—
Foremen..............................
Filer.....................................
Feeders................................
Graders................................
All others............................

2
1
8
2
18

549
270
1,609
676
4,724

262.65
114.75
400.85
165.60
870.85

Total................................

31

Total........................................

48




10,050 $0.3500
8,697
.2753
3,042
.2250
.1961
933

0.0995
.1150
.3287
1.0720

$0.0348
.0317
.0740
.2102

619

.2171

1.6152

.3506

2.713.577
2.713.577
2.713.577
2.713.577
2.713.577

4,943
10,050
1,686
4,014
574

.4784
.4250
.2491
.2450
.1843

.2023
.0995
.5929
.2491
1.7409

.0968
.0423
.1477
.0610
.3209

7,828

1,814.70 2,713,577

347

.2318

2.8848

.6687

12,211

2,766.15 2,713,577

222

.2265

4.5000

1.0194

DESCRIPTION OF PROCESSES AND OCCUPATIONS IN THE
LUMBER INDUSTRY.
B Y BEN JAM IN M . SQU IRES.

PBOCESSES AND OCCUPATIONS IN LOGGING OPERATIONS.

While logging is a part of the lumber industry as a whole and is
intimately connected with sawmilling, the conditions under which
logging is carried on differ much more widely in different sections of
the country than do the conditions at the sawmill. Sawmill opera­
tions may differ in the extent of equipment and volume of output,
but log making and transportation vary also with topography,
climate, and kind and size of timber. In the Northern States, where
transportation is by water or by sled, felling and log making may be
restricted to the fall and early winter months. If transportation,
however, is largely by railroad, felling may continue throughout the
year. In the southern pine areas and on the Pacific coast the
weather permits logging operations to be carried on the entire year.
Some species of hardwood are damaged by fungi which develop
more rapidly in summer; consequently the felling of such timber is
restricted to the winter months. Oak and hemlock, the bark of
which is a valuable by-product, must be cut in the early summer
months.
The size of the timber as well as the climate and the topography of
the forest area and the scale of logging operations determines the
method of handling logs. Power-driven machinery is used almost
exclusively on the Pacific coast and in swampy or mountainous regions
for moving the logs to an assembling point for transportation to the
sawmill. Railroads are now used extensively in all forest regions for
transporting logs considerable distances, animal power being restricted
to small-scale operations or to moving logs short distances and water
transportation being much less used than in former years.
Labor in the woods, for the most part, is extremely shifting, an
entire change of crews from two to five times a year being not
uncommon. In some sections, notably the Appalachian and south­
ern, native labor is relied upon chiefly. In other sections much of the
labor is foreign.
The management of logging operations is quite as varied as the
operations, ranging from an independent logging company— the logs
being sold in the open market— to a central management of everything
connected with the industry, and even including many of the utilities
of the town in which the sawmill plant is located. Contract cutting
is quite common, the tools and equipment being furnished either by
the contractor or by the logging company.




147

14 8

LUMBER MANUFACTURING.

Logging, as distinct from sawmill operations, begins at the tree and
ends at the log pond or yard of the sawmill. Although, as previously
stated, methods differ widely, operations may be grouped as follows:
1. Camp and general activities.
2. Felling and log making.
3. Skidding, yarding, and loading.
4. Construction and maintenance of skidding, yarding, and loading
facilities.
5. Transportation and unloading.
6. Construction and maintenance of transportation and unloading
facilities.
In a brief description of logging operations it would be impossible
to include all the terms in use in different forest areas or to describe
in detail operations peculiar to a limited area. Emphasis has been
placed, therefore, upon methods and occupations in general use.
Continuity of process has been given precedence over occupations
which in the explanation have been incorporated as a part of such
process. In order to explain briefly, however, the occupation terms
appearing in the wages and hours study of this report, a glossary
of terms thus used is appended to this description of logging opera­
tions. In preparing the glossary use has been made, whenever
possible, of Bulletin No. 61 of the United States Bureau of Forestry,
Terms Used in Forestry and Logging.
CAMP AND GENERAL ACTIVITIES.

Inasmuch as logging camps are so generally a prerequisite to other
logging operations, they may be taken as a starting point in logging.
The functions of a camp are twofold: Feeding, housing, and other­
wise caring for men and animals; and the maintenance of equipment.
The location of a camp is dependent chiefly upon accessibility to
timber and supplies. Drainage and available pure water are other
factors determining the location.
The arrangement of the camp varies with the location and the scope
of the logging operations, but in general the camp consists of the
following buildings— most frequently built of logs and one-storied:
1. An office, or store and office, with sleeping quarters for foremen,
clerks, and scalers, though a separate bunk house may be provided
for this purpose. The store is stocked with clothing and other per­
sonal supplies used by woodsmen.
2. A cookhouse with dining room for the men, provided with long
tables and benches for seats, and a sleeping room or bunks for the
cook and helpers.
3. A bunk house or room in which the men may sleep. This usually
includes a lounging room. Ventilation is most frequently provided
for by an opening in the roof, fitted with an adjustable cover. Stoves




DESCRIPTION OF PROCESSES AND OCCUPATIONS.

14 9

are used to heat the room and wires or poles are put up to dry clothing.
A sink or other place for the men to wash is a part of the equipment.
Bunks are usually double-decked and provided with mattresses or,
in lieu thereof, with hay or straw. Blankets may be furnished by
the men or provided by the company. Benches, sometimes called
“ deacons’ seats,” are placed in front of the bunks.
4. Stables for teams. These are rough shelters with bins for grain,
stalls for horses, and hooks for harnesses.
5. Storehouses for quantities of food.
6. A blacksmith shop with tools for the maintenance of equip­
ment. A grindstone for sharpening axes is sometimes placed here,
but is more often in the bunk room.
Floating camps, portable camps, car camps, and permanent camps
are some of the types used, depending upon location, needs, and the
permanence of operations.
Camp employees.— The location, building, and repair of camp
buildings are indirectly supervised by the woods foreman or super­
intendent, but are in the direct charge of an improvement man.
The camp employees having to do with the feeding and housing
of the men consist of a cook, a second cook, one or more cookees,
flunkeys, and bull cooks, the last named being called variously, porter,
flunkey, roustabout, chore boy, and lobby hog. The cook has entire
charge of the feeding of the men and is boss of the kitchen force. He
must be efficient, know how to cook well and economically, and is a
high-paid employee. The second cook is the first assistant, and the
cookee might be considered a second assistant to the cook. The
flunkey washes dishes and does odd jobs about the kitchen and dining
room. The bull cook scrubs the floors, carries water, and takes care
of the bunk house. In small camps there may be only a cook and
flunkey, or a cook, cookee, and flunkey or bull cook. With most
companies these employees are given board in addition to their wages.
Their hours are long and the work is somewhat exacting.
The stable is in direct charge of a stable boss, who, with his assist­
ants, sees that the teams are properly cared for. Usually the teams
are fed, watered, cleaned, and harnessed in the morning by the stable
employees but are cared for at iright by the teamsters. A harness
man keeps the harness in repair, unless this is done by the bam
employees.
At the blacksmith shop a smith and helper repair equipment. If a
horseshoer is not employed, the smith and helper attend as well to
the shoeing of the horses. Here, or in a room set apart for this
purpose, a saw filer fits the saws used in the woods by sharpening
the teeth and adjusting the cutting angle to prevent binding.
One or more timekeepers keep a record of the time worked by each
employee. A scaler keeps records of the number and kind of logs




150

lum ber

m a n u f a c t u r in g

.

and the number of board feet contained therein. The measure of
board feet in a log is termed the log scale, and the record is usually
made when logs are skidded or loaded for transportation. Some
companies dispense with the scale in the woods and scale at the log
pond or yard or on the deck of the sawmill, or the log scale may be
dispensed with altogether and only a lumber tally used.
FELLING AND LOG MAKING.

The operations of felling and log making include cutting down
the standing tree, removing knots and limbs, and clearing away
the brush about the tree for convenience in bucking and skidding.
Deadening as preliminary to felling may be resorted to for timber
that will not float when green or that binds the saw when lumber is
manufactured from green logs. The operation consists in removing
a ring of outer bark near the base of the tree, cutting in so far as to
penetrate the heartwood. It usually precedes felling by several
months.
A subforeman or saw boss designates the territory, specifies log
lengths, and has general supervision over the sawing and felling crews.
In the Pacific coast region log-making operations and skidding are
performed by separate crews, all under one foreman. Whether per­
formed by distinct crews or by one crew, the work of log making
is essentially the same.
Notching.— In order to direct the fall of the tree and prevent
splitting, a wedge-shaped notch or undercut is made on the trunk.
This is cut so that a horizontal base extends slightly beyond the
center of the tree— if felling is entirely by means of an ax— or less
if the remainder of the cut is by means of a saw. The lean of the
tree is also a factor in determining the depth of the undercut. The
slope of the undercut may be from below in order to avoid waste of
timber. The height of the undercut is determined by the butt of
the tree and on some of the Pacific coast timber it is made several
feet above the ground, spring boards or scaffolding being used to ele­
vate the notcher to the desired height.
Notching requires considerable skill and is done either by the felling
crew or by a distinct notching crew. The following factors must be
kept in mind:
1. The lean of the tree.
2. Avoidance of rocks and trees in falling.
3. Convenience for skidding after being felled.
An ax is the chief tool used in notching, though a saw may be used
for the horizontal base.
Felling.— Felling is sometimes done with the ax alone after the
undercut is made, but more frequently with a crosscut saw.
The cut is made on the side opposite and on a level with or a little
above the undercut. Sawyers work in pairs, pulling the saw alter-




DESCRIPTION OF PROCESSES AND OCCUPATIONS.

151

nately back and forth. If a stump of considerable height is to be
loft, springboards or platforms must be used as in notching. Metal
or hardwood wedges are used to drive into the saw cut, directing
the fall of the tree and preventing the binding of the saw.
The work is considered hazardous, as rotten timber, timber leaning
heavily, or high winds may change the direction of the fall, cause the
tree to split or otherwise endanger the workmen. Skill and judg­
ment on the part of the fellers may prevent accident and avoid a
waste of timber.
Bucking.— When the tree has been felled, that portion— called the
bole— to be used for logs must be freed from limbs and knots and
marked into log lengths. The former may be done by one known
as a knot bumper, or knotter, who works with an ax similar to the
one used for notching. The latter, requiring a knowledge of market
conditions and how best to utilize all of the tree and avoid defects
such as knots and crooks, is done by the foreman, by a marker, or by
the buckers.
The next step consists in cutting the tree into the lengths indicated,
and the work is called bucking. This may be done by men working
in pairs with a crosscut saw or by one man working with a slightly
stiff er one-handled saw. Sometimes with large logs a platform must
be built for the buckers to stand upon, but this is more often avoided by
using only one man, who may stand on the ground and saw at an angle.
Several things are to be taken into consideration in bucking up a
tree, chief among which are: The use of wedges at the proper time to
prevent binding the saw and removing the “ set” ; the placing of
supports under the tree where the bole is supported at one end, to
avoid splitting; the exercise of care, when felled trees are sprung
between stumps or standing trees, to prevent their breaking with
force when bucked and possibly injuring workmen.
For both felling and bucking, power machines have been used.
These, in the main, have been unpractical on account of inconvenience
in moving about. The most common in use are the drag or crosscut
saw and the endless-chain saw operated by steam or gasoline engines.
The bole may be left as long as can be skidded conveniently and
bucked into desired log lengths with a drag saw at the landing or at
the deck of the sawmill.
SKIDDING, Y A R D IN G , AN D LOADING.1

After felling and bucking, logs are moved either directly to the
mill or to a skidway or landing readily accessible by 'whatever
transportation agency is used. The term “ skidding and yarding” is
applied to the work of moving the logs to a skidway or landing.
Loading is usually performed by skidding and yarding crews, and
for that reason has not been described as a distinct process.
i Including the construction and maintenance of skidding, yarding, and loading facilities.




152

LUMBER MANUFACTURING.

In actual operation the work of skidding, yarding, and loading
is rather inseparably connected, both in point of time and in em­
ployees involved, with the construction and maintenance of such
facilities. In order, therefore, to preserve a continuity of process,
a brief description of construction and maintenance will be incorpo­
rated in the description of skidding, yarding, and loading operations.
Swamping.— The road work preparatory to skidding depends upon
the method by which logs are to be moved to the skidway, landing, or
assembling place, and upon the topography. The roads may be mere
trails over which logs are snaked and may range from these to expen­
sively constructed chutes and roads more or less permanent in
character. Common to all operations, however, is the work of
swamping, which consists essentially in clearing away the brush
about the tree or along the line of skidding. A head or buck swamper
directs the work, which is low-grade labor, performed generally by
men inexperienced in the woods. The term “ swampers” may also
be used to designate road builders and those clearing the right of
way for a railroad. Those repairing skid roads are termed road
“ monkeys.”
Rossing, barlcing, peeling.— Large logs when skidded over dry
ground offer considerable friction. To reduce this, the bark is fre­
quently removed from one side of the log and it may be necessary
also to straighten small crooks by cutting away enough wood to
flatten the log. Redwood logs axe entirely peeled because, in the
manufacture of lumber, fine particles of bark would be drawn into
the cut and tend to bind the saw or retard its speed. They are
peeled before being bucked into log lengths for skidding, in order
that the thick bark may not interfere with log making or with the
attachment of skidding devices. The bark is removed with a broadax,
a spud, or a peeler, and the employee is known as a barker, a rosser,
or a peeler.
Sniping .— In order to prevent the log from catching on obstruc­
tions while being skidded, the front end is sniped or nosed. This
means rounding off the under side or entire front end of the log.
The work is done with an ax slightly heavier than the notching or
bumping ax, and the employee is called a sniper. Swampers some­
times do this work, however, as may one of the felling or bucking
crews.
Slcidding and yarding methods.— The work of skidding and yard­
ing varies more widely than any other of the logging operations. In
some sections it is done entirely by animal power, to supply which
mules, horses, and oxen are used. In the northern forests, horses
are used. In the southern and in mountainous forests, oxen and
mules are used. Employees driving the animals may be called team­
sters, drivers, or by some term that will more specifically designate the




DESCRIPTION OF PROCESSES AND OCCUPATIONS.

153

work, such as ox driver, wheel-cart driver, four-horse driver. The
work is considered more difficult than ordinary labor, and to require
a peculiar “ knack” not possessed by all employees.
Manual labor, power-driven machinery, overhead tramways, in­
clined railways, and log slides are other forms of skidding in use
in different forest areas.
Hand skidding.— More or less handwork is necessary in moving
logs about preparatory to applying animal or other power. A cant
hook or a peavey is the tool used in handling logs by human power.
This consists of a curved hook attached to or near one end of a handle
5 to 8 feet in length. In use it is hooked about the log and the
handle is used as a lever for turning or moving the log. The peavey
has a sharp pike driven into the lower end of the handle or attached
to a socket into which the handle is fitted. It is used chiefly in
handling logs. The cant hook, used for handling timbers at the mill
as well as for handling logs in the woods, has a metal clip or toe instead
of the pike. Only in mountainous regions, such as the Appalachian
forests; and with small timber are logs moved considerably by hand.
It is sometimes necessary to work the logs down steep slopes to a
point accessible by animal or other power. This is called “ brutting” or “ ballhooting,” and the men are termed “ brutters” or
“ b allhooters.” It is low-grade work, requiring considerable strength
and endurance.
Skidding with animal power.—Animal snaking is practiced in many
sections where power machinery is not in use and where the timber
is not excessively large. Logs are snaked down trails 6 to 8 feet in
width which have been cleared of obstructions and banked with
logs and poles on the edges. In crossing swamps, a corduroy road—
logs laid close together crosswise—is used, and streams are bridged.
Other forms of snaking where snow forms the hauling base involve
the use of a sled, with two runners, called a “ go-devil,” upon which
the front end of the log is placed. This is a crude affair, made by
the camp blacksmith. For snaking over soft ground a similar type
of sled, called the “ lizard,” is used. A yarding sled for hauling
several logs at a time is a modification of the go-devil, as is also the
“ jumbo,” which latter is equivalent to two go-devils fastened
together. The essential advantage of this type of sled is that
little road work is necessary and the logs are moved more readily
than when they rest entirely upon the ground.
Wheeled vehicles take the place of the above where snow is not
available as a hauling base. In the South a low, two-wheeled vehi­
cle, called a “ bummer,” is used much as the go-devil of the North.
It is operated as a self-loader by means of a chain extending over
the end of a V-shaped tongue. In operation the tongue is elevated
and tongs at the end of a chain are hooked about the log. "When




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LUMBER MANUFACTURING.

the tongue is lowered, the log is elevated and may be placed readily
on the bunk by swinging the tongue about. Other types of wheeled
vehicles have larger wheels and the end of the log is swung below
the curved axle.
Various devices are in use for fastening chains or cables on the
logs. A choker is a chain or cable for passing around the log to be
handled and has a hook on one end for making a loop. The man who
adjusts this device may be called a choker man. Instead of the hook, a
ring or a hook that grips the chain may be used for completing the loop.
Tongs, somewhat resembling ice tongs, may take the place of the
chokers, the operator being called a tong man. Several types of grabhooks are also used, the essential principle being hooks for driving into
the log, so arranged that the pull tightens their hold. The term
“ grabhook man” designates the one who adjusts these hooks. A
wooden maul or sledge hammer is used for driving the grabs into
the log and a pointed sledge, often known as the “ skipper,” is used
for removing them.
Power sTcidding.— Wherever logging is done on an extensive scale
power furnished by some type of engine is used. Roads for power
skidding are expensive, though machinery, increasingly powerful,
lessens the amount of road building. As much as possible hand
labor is replaced by donkey engines in filling ravines, leveling hills,
or removing debris. In general power skidding follows one of the
three methods: Cableway, snaking, slack rope. The power in any
case is furnished by a steam or gasoline engine mounted on a sled
or car, capable of being anchored securely and having from one to
four drums or spools of different sizes which, in revolving, wind up
or pay out steel cable to which rigging devices are attached for
handling the logs.
The cdbleway system.— In the cableway system an elevated wire cable
extends from a “ head spar” tree along the logging railroad to “ tail”
trees from 600 to 1,500 feet distant. A cableway skidder with a
heavy steel spar is sometimes used. This skidder is mounted on a
car, may be readily moved from one point to another on the railroad,
and obviates the need of a “ head spar” tree. A smaller skidding
cable extends from a trolley running on the main cable to the drum
of the skidding engine. Tongs or*other rigging devices are fastened
to the logs to be skidded, after which the logs are elevated to the
carrying cable and drawn to the railroad. A circular area of ground,
approximating 25 to 30 acres, may be skidded from one central
point. Extra drums on the skidder car, operated b y another engine,
may be used for loading the skidded logs onto log cars.
Snaking system.— Power snaking differs from animal snaking in that
the logs are dragged over the ground by means of a donkey engine
having usually but one drum. The cables are dragged out to the logs




DESCRIPTION OF PROCESSES AND OCCUPATIONS.

155

by animals or by men. Less work is required in road building and
heavier loads may be drawn than with animals.
Slack-rope system— The slack-rope system is used most extensively
in power skidding, and will be described in greater detail. Different
types of machines are in use. In the South, in marshy regions, a
i ipull boat” is anchored in canals or lakes from which roads radiate in
a half circle. Engines for pulling the logs are placed on the pull boat.
On the Pacific coast two machines are in common use— a yarder
and a roader. The former is used to skid logs to a central point,
the latter to bring them from the yarder to a point where
they may be reached by a loader. For distances not exceeding
1,000 feet a yarder may be all that is necessary, and in either case
spools and derricks used in connection with the yarder or roader may
be used for loading. The roader is the heavier and more powerful
engine, and capable of operating at greater distances than the yarder.
The yarder is a donkey engine equipped with two drums of unequal
size. The larger drum is used to carry the trip line for pulling the
main cable back to the logs to be skidded, the smallerfor hauling in the
logs. Cable and trip line are fastened together to make a continuous
line from the yarder to the skidding area. Except for greater weight,
larger boilers, and possibly more drums, the roader does not differ
essentially from the yarder. Both may be moved by their own
power by the use of cables and blocks.
Skidding and yarding crews.— Assuming a crew of the following for
felling, bucking, swamping, and sniping or rossing—

4 fellers,
5 buckers,
1 sniper or rosser,

1 knotter,
1 swamper,

a well-balanced skidding and yarding crew, to keep up with the output
of the above, would consist of the following:
1 side boss,
1 chaser,
1 hook tender,
1 signalman,
2 choker men,
1 spool tender,
1 rigging slinger,
1 engineer,
1 watchman,
1 fireman,
1 landing man,
1 wood buck.
1 block maker,
In case the distance to be skidded necessitates a roader there would
be added to this crew another engineer, fireman, and wood buck,
with possibly another chaser and signalman. Road conditions
might necessitate one or more water bucks, a pump man, a water
slinger, and a block man.
The side boss in such an operation is the foreman of the felling and
yarding crews, and has general supervision over felling and bucking
as well as skidding.




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LUMBER M ANUFACTURING.

The hook tender is boss of the yarding crew, directs the swampers
in the clearing of roads, indicates logs to be skidded, and directs the
rigging slingers. Upon him more than upon any other man of the
crew depends the amount of work done.
The rigging slinger is assistant to the hook tender. He places the
blocks or devices for carrying the cables where the hook tender
directs.
The choker men put the chokers or other rigging devices about the
logs and attach them to the butt or end of the main cable.
Inasmuch as a slack cable may cause grabs, tongs, or chokers to
loosen, some loggers prefer to bore holes in the ends of the logs and
insert cylindrical plugs, called “ puppies,” to which chains may be
fastened securely. These, as other of the rigging devices, may be
used for fastening several logs together, end to end. For such work a
couple-up man or hooker is employed. Considerable skill is required
to adjust chokers and other rigging devices so they will not slip or
give way under the tremendous strain of power skidding.
The chaser follows the logs to the landing or yard, sees that they are
not hung up on the way, and signals the engineer in case there is need
to stop the engine. He usually rides in a rigging sled behind the logs.
Wherever an angle is made in the pull a block is anchored for carrying
the cable. The chaser must signal the engineer to stop when such a
block is reached, detach the choker from the line and attach it again
ahead of the block. At the landing the chaser aids in removing
grabs and chokers, places them in the sled, and returns with them to
the skidding point. He must be active and exercise care in prevent­
ing logs from fouling.
One or more landing men are employed at the point where the
logs are delivered by the skidder. They help to remove the rigging
and may assist in loading.
A signalman stands near the hook tender and— usually by means
of a wire attached to the whistle of the engine— signals to the engineer
the orders of the hook tender. This work is not strenuous but calls
for attentiveness.
When engines are located some distance from a water supply it
becomes necessary to transport water for their use and for wetting
the skid roads to make them slippery. If the water can be
piped a pump is installed, operated by steam from the engine, and
is in charge of a pump man. Water for wetting the road may be
placed in barrels and water slingers use buckets to throw water upon
the road. If it is not feasible to pump the water, it is carried in
canvas sacks on mules driven by water bucks. Boys usually serve
as drivers.
Employees about the engine are engineer, fireman, wood buck,
spool tender, watchman, head loaders, and loaders.




DESCRIPTION OF PROCESSES AND OCCUPATIONS.

157

The engineer has charge of the operation of the engine. Levers
controlling the movement of the drums are usually operated by the
engineer, and he must be responsive to signals.
On smaller engines the engineer may do his own firing, but on large
engines a fireman does this work and, by familiarity with the engine,
becomes eligible for the position of engineer.
The wood buck, as the name implies, cuts wood for the engine.
Defective logs are used for this purpose.
A watchman may be employed to guard the engine at night and
to keep up fire if necessary.
Miscellaneous forms of sTcidding.— Aerial tramways are in use for
bringing logs up or down steep slopes. The essential features are
main cables, upon which run trolleys carrying the loads, drums for
controlling the speed, and power for hauling. Gravity is made use
of wherever possible for moving the load. For attaching the cables
or rigging to trees men called squirrels use climbers similar to those
used by telegraph linemen. The work is attended with some danger.
Both earth and timber slides are in use for skidding logs in moun­
tainous regions and are used occasionally for moving logs short dis­
tances in flat areas. Earth slides are simply furrows in the earth.
Timber slides are troughs made of timbers supported on cross skids
and are built by chute men or chute builders. Logs are moved by
gravity or by animal power.
To a limited extent inclined railways are used for removing timber
from valleys. A stationary engine at the top pulls up the loaded
car or lowers it to an accessible point on the other side of the divide.
Landings and sTcidways.— Where logs are not moved directly to the
mill a storage point is necessary, the kind and place of which must
be determined by the method of handling and by the topography.
Foremen generally select these points at the time log roads are laid
out. If the transport is by water, they may be simply landings on
the edge of a stream or lake or, in cold areas, on the ice. When
floods are relied upon, the logs may be dumped into the stream and
left there until high water.
If the logs are to be loaded by animal power and hauled by railroad,
they are usually placed parallel with the railroad track on a skidway.
If a power loader is used, they may be dumped promiscuously within
reach of the loader. For animal power loading logs are usually
decked to a height of 20 feet or more. Four or five men and one
team constitute a decking crew for animal loading. In elevating
logs onto the deck they are brought to the rear of the skidway and
rolled by hand to the base of the logs already decked. Skid poles
are placed against the deck, a chain with a grab hook is passed
around the center of the log, and the hook fastened to a deck log
near which the new log is to be placed. The free end of the chain




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LUMBER MANUFACTURING.

is passed over the skidway and attached to the doubletree either
directly or by means of block and tackle. Ground loaders direct the
log up the skids, using cant hooks. A top loader stands on the pile
of logs and directs the teamster. He designates the position of the
log and frees the grabhook if necessary.
Loading.— Power loading is in use in more extensive operations,
generally where logs are loaded on cars. A special engine, a yarder,
or a roader may furnish the power. A spool-shaped device on the
end of the engine shaft is used chiefly in loading. Unlike the drums,
the movement of which is controlled by levers, the spool revolves
whenever the engine is running. The spool tender wraps the cable
about the spool and controls the speed of the cable and the pull of
the spool by slacking or reducing the number of turns, thus permitting
the cabje to slip. The spool tender, as well as the loading men, may
assist the loaders in their work. A choker, tong, or other device is
attached to the log. The cable runs from this over a crane derrick
to the spool of the engine. The log is hoisted and swung on to the
car. Logs must be chained on so they will not slip in transit. A
second and third layer may be placed on the first. Top loaders and
loaders, who usually work in pairs, place the logs in position and
bind them in place. The work is dangerous, especially that of top
loading, and calls for skill and dexterity.
Landings are not always used, their places sometimes being taken
by artificial ponds into which the logs are dumped, a car being run
into the pond until it is submerged. The logs are then floated over
the car bunks, and fastened, and the car is pulled out.
Donkey engines are also used in loading by the crosshaul, and in
some sections a chute similar to the log chute at the sawmill is used
to elevate the logs to the car.
Block makers are engaged in making stakes for holding the logs
on the logging cars.
TRANSPORTATION AND UNLOADING.*

The term “ transportation” is applied to the work of moving logs, by
whatever method, from a skidway, landing, or assembling place, to
the log pond or yard of the sawmill. Unloading is usually performed
in part by the transportation crews and is described in connection
with transportation. Transportation by rail is not peculiar to the
logging industry, and no attempt has been made to describe in detail
the construction and maintenance of railroads or the operation of
trains. For transportation by other agencies than rail a brief
description of construction and maintenance accompanies the expla­
nation of transportation method.
For animal-power hauling from the landing or skidway to the
sawmill two heavy bobsleds or wagons are used. Roads are
* Including the construction and maintenance of transportation facilities.




DESCRIPTION OP PROCESSES AND OCCUPATIONS.

15 9

constructed with considerable care as to grade, an upgrade being
carefully avoided for the loaded wagon or sled. In the northern
woods the roads are grooved for runners and iced. On such roads
a four-horse team may haul as much as 8,000 feet at one load. For
wagon roads 600 to 800 feet may constitute a load for a four-horse
team. For both wagon and sled roads tractors are in use in some
logging operations, and much larger loads may be hauled than where
animals are used.
Tram roads have been used with animal tractive power, but the
grade is limited to 3 per cent for loaded cars drawn by eight horses
and to H per cent for loaded cars with two horses.
Tram roads or spurs for locomotive tractive power are now built
as far into the large forest tracts as grades will permit. This work,
as well as main-line construction, is under the direction of an engi­
neer, under whom grading, steel, and bridge crews work with their
respective foremen. Either curves or switchbacks are used to lessen
the grade of inclines. A peculiarity of logging-railroad construction
is that after a maximum grade has been determined upon and reached
at any point in the survey, fills to reduce the grade at any other
point are an unnecessary expense, since a maximum load is deter­
mined by the maximum grade at any one point. Except for engi­
neers, foremen, and bosses the labor required in railroad construc­
tion is largely unskilled. The maintenance of logging railroads calls
for the usual section crews, and the maintenance of equipment
requires shops, roundhouse men, and hostlers. Several types of rod
and geared engines are in use on logging railroads, and with these it
is possible to make grades as steep as 7 per cent with loaded cars.
A regular train crew of engineer, fireman, conductor, and one or
more brakemen is used for the logging train.
When timber is located near a stream, lake, or other body of water,
rafting and floating are still common methods of_ transporting logs,
which may be floated singly as in a drive, loaded on a raft, or inclosed
in a cigar-shaped framework of timbers called a cradle. The current
of the stream or a tugboat furnishes the motive power. Peavies
(previously described) and pike poles are used for handling logs in a
boom or drive. A pike pole consists of a light but strong wooden
handle from 10 to 20 feet long, on one end of which a screw pike and
hook is attached. Employees directing the course of the logs are
known as drivers, boom men, river men, or rafters, according to the
work done.
It is sometimes most practicable to build flumes to carry logs to
mills or to a point otherwise accessible. The essential feature of a
flume is a box through which a stream of water will run, so con­
structed as to avoid excessive curves. Crews are stationed along the
flume to feed in water and prevent jams. Sluices are larger than
flumes, and are used chiefly to aid stream transport through gorges
100531°— 18— Bull. 225--- 11




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LUMBER MANUFACTURING.

or over streams where low banks cause logs to scatter over the low­
lands during floods.
If transportation of logs is by water, the boom, raft, or drive is
left at a point from which the logs may be sorted and worked into
the log pond of the sawmill as needed. If the transportation is by
land, both power and hand unloading methods are used. In rail­
road transportation cars are run on an incline to facilitate unloading,
and logs are dumped directly into a pond. The transportation crews
do most of the unloading, but they may be aided by the pond men.
G L O S S A R Y O F O C C U P A T I O N T E R M S U S E D I N L O G G IN G O P E R A T I O N S .

Air-saw man.—One who operates a saw driven by compressed air to cut logs into
shorter lengths.
Axman.—One who cuts logs with an ax. Specifically, one who works at the con­
struction of a chute or slide used in moving logs.
Baker.—One who does the baking at the camp cookhouse. In small camp3 the
work is done by the cook.
Banker, yard.—One who piles the logs at the landing, log yard, or storage place.
Barker (peeler, spudder).—One who peels the bark from trees, the bark of which may
be used for tanning purposes.
Bark fitter (ringer).—One who girdles or cuts a ring around the log to mark the
length for the tanbark to be removed.
Bark scaler.—One who measures the tanbark removed from the logs.
Barn boss (corral man, feeder, hostler, lot man).—One who has charge of the stables
in a logging camp.
Bam man (feed mixer, horse tender, team tender, stableman, oxman, ox tender).—One
whose duty is to aid in feeding and caring for the teams used in logging operations.
Bell boy. (See Signalman.)
Blacksmith (shoer).—One who does general metal repair work at the camp blacksmith
shop and who may shoe horses if a horseshoer is not employed for this purpose.
Blaster. (See Dynamiter.)
Blazer.—One who indicates the location of a chute or skidding road by means of
blazes or marks made on trees with an ax.
Block greaser.—One who greases the skidding tackle.
Boat tender.—One who operates a supply boat between the log camp and the saw­
mill in sections where log canals form a part of logging operations.
Boom man.—One who binds logs together to be towed to the sawmill or releases
them at the log pond of the sawmill.
Brakeman (trainman).—One who operates the brakes on the log train.
Bridge builder (carpenter, bridge; bridgeman).—A mechanic engaged in bridge con­
struction work.
Bridgeman. (See Bridge builder.)
Brush burner (bush burner).—One who burns the brush and the branches removed
from felled trees as a protection against forest fires, for greater convenience in han­
dling logs, or to clear the land for agricultural purposes.
Brush cutter. (See Swamper.)
Brutter.—One of a crew which rolls logs down slopes too steep for teams.
Bucker (log maker, crosscutter).—One who saws felled trees into logs.
Buckert head.—The foreman of men who saw the felled trees into logs.
Bull cook (chore boy, chore man, cleaner, clean up> flunkey, janitor, lobby hog, lobby
man, porter, shanty boss).—One who cleans the sleeping quarters and stable in a
logging camp, cuts firewood, builds fires, and carries water.




DESCRIPTION OP PROCESSES AND OCCUPATIONS.

16 1

Burner. (See Brush burner.)
Bush cutter. (See Swamper.)
Camp man. (See Improvement man.)
Canter.—One who uses the cant hook in handling logs.
Car builder.—One who builds cars used in the transportation of logs.
Car checker.—One who keeps a record of logging cars. (See Inspector.)
Car greaser.—One who supplies grease to the bearing boxes of the log cars.
Car inspector (car checker).—One who inspects and reports upon the condition of
logging cars.
Car knocker. (See Car repairer.)
Car loader.—One who loads cars for transportation to the sawmill.
Carpenter. (See Improvement man.)
Carpenter, bridge. (See Bridge builder.)
Car repairer (car knocker).—One who repairs damaged cars.
Carrier, rails and ties.—A laborer placing railroad ties at points where they are to
be used.
Chainer. (See Chainman.)
Chainman (chainer).—One who adjusts chains to logs preparatory to skidding.
Chainman, surveying.—One who, by the use of a chain, measures distances laid
out by the surveyor.
Chain puller. (See Rider.)
Chain tender. (See Sled tender.)
Chain tender, second.—One who assists the chain tender.
Chaser. (See Sled tender.)
Choker. (See Choker man.)
Choker, head. (See Hook tender.)
Choker hooker. (See Choker man.)
Choker man (choker, choker hooker).—The member of a yarding or skidding crew
who fastens the choker on the logs.
Choker, second.—One who assists the choker.
Chopper (chopper, second; cutter).—One who makes the undercut or notch to direct
the felling of the tree or fells the tree when this work is done entirely with an ax.
Chopper, head.—Foreman of a chopping crew.
Chopper, second. (See Chopper.)
Chore boy. (See Bull cook.)
Chore man. (See Bull cook.)
Chunk buncher.—One who aids in clearing the skid road.
Chunk sawyer.—1. (See Wood buck); 2. One who clears the skidding way of
obstructions.
Chute builder (chute peeler).—One who builds a trough of logs or timber used to
transport logs down a slope.
Chute peeler.—One engaged in the work of chute building. Specifically, one who
peels the logs used in the chute. (See Chute builder.)
Chute tender.—One who keeps the chute in repair.
Civil engineer helper.—One who assists the civil engineer in making profiles for
the construction of logging roads and in making plans and specifications for camp
buildings.
Cleaner.—One doing miscellaneous cleaning in the camp. (See Bull cook.)
Climber.—One who fastens skidding cable to trees; sometimes called squirrel man.
Commissary man (cook, camp manager, steward, warehouseman).—One who has charge
of the food supply of the camp and in some instances manages the camp supply store.
Conductor.—One who has charge of the operation of the log train.
Cook.—One who prepares the food for logging employees.




16 2

LUMBER MANUFACTURING.

Cookj first. (See Cook, head.)
Cooky head (cook, first).—One in charge of the cooking for logging employees.
Cook, second. (See Cookee.)
Cook, third. (See Cookee.)
Cookee (cookhouse employee, cookhouse man, hasher).—An assistant cook and dish­
washer in a logging camp.
Cookhouse employee (cookhouse man). (See Cookee.)
Corral man. (See Barn boss.)
Counter. (See Tallyman.)
Coupler. (See Grab driver.)
Craneman.—A lever man operating a crane in grading for railroad construction or
in elevating logs.
Cruiser (timber man, timber rider).—One who estimates land and timber values.
Cutter. (See Chopper.)
Cutter, piling (sawyer, piling).—One who fells the trees and cuts them into lengths
for piling to be used in railroad or pond construction.
Deck builder.—One who builds the log deck or skidway at the landing or storage
place.
Decker (deck man).—One who rolls logs upon a skid way or log deck.
Deck man. (See Decker.)
Dishwasher (washer).—One who washes the dishes in a logging camp.
Dogger.—One who attaches the dogs or barbs to a log to secure the skidding cable.
Donkey tender.—One who supplies fuel and water for the donkey engine.
Driver (driver, team; driver, wagon; hauler; snaker; teamster).—One who drives
animals in logging operations. *
Driver, line horse. (See Rider.)
Driver, loading.—One who drives a team in loading logs for transportation.
Drum man (drum tender).—One who operates a power driven drum for skidding logs.
Drum puller.—One who returns a cable after a log has been skidded.
Drum tender. (See Drum man.)
Dumper.—The laborer who dumps the scraper used in railroad construction.
Dynamiter (powder man, blaster).—One who uses dynamite to remove obstructions
along the line of skidding or railroad construction.
Dynamo man.—One in charge of the operation of a dynamo where electric light is
used at the logging camp.
Engineer.—An operator of any one of the various types of locomotive or donkey
engines used in logging.
Engineer, crane.—One operating a crane used in loading logs or in railway construc­
tion work.
Engineer, head.—One in charge of engineers.
Extra man.—One who is competent to take the place of employees who may be
temporarily absent from their work.
Faller (chopper, feller, sawyer).— One who fells trees.
Faller, second.—The subordinate in a crew of fallers.
Feeder. (See Bam boss.)
Feed mixer.—One who prepares the feed for the animals used in logging. (See
Barn boss.)
Feller. (See Faller.)
Filer (fitter).—One who files the crosscut saws used in the woods and adjusts the
angle of the cutting edge to prevent binding.
Fireman.—The stoker of the furnace of any one of the various types of donkey or
locomotive engines used in logging operations.
Fitter.^-1. One who notches the tree for felling and after it is felled marks the log
lengths into which it is to be cut; 2. One who cuts limbs from felled trees and rings
and slits the bark preparatory to peeling tan bark; 3. Ono who adjusts the cutting
teeth of saws. (See Filer.)




DESCRIPTION OF PROCESSES AND OCCUPATIONS.

16 3

Flagman.—1. The trainman who transmits signals to the locomotive engineer; 2.
(See Signalman.)
Flunkey.—1. An assistant usually either to the engineer of a donkey engine or to
the cook in a logging camp; 2. (See Bull cook).
Foreman.—The overseer of a body of workmen.
Foreman, assistant.—One who aids the foreman and works under his direction.
Foreman, general.—One who is in charge of all logging operations.
Fuel man.—One who prepares and supplies fuel for the various machines and for
the camp. (See Wood buck.)
Gopher.—One who removes the earth from beneath the log at a point where the skid­
ding cable or chain is to be passed around the log.
Grab driver (grab setter, coupler).—One who couples logs together end to end, by
means of a short chain having in each end a dog which is driven into the log.
Grabhooher (hooker, hook-on man).—One who hooks the skidding or loading chain
about the log and fastens it with a grabhook.
Grab setter. (See Grab driver.)
Grade man. (See Grader.)
Grader (grade man).—One who works at fills and cuts in railroad construction.
Greaser (roadmonkey).—One whose duty is to keep a logging road in proper condition.
Groundman.—One who remains on the ground and assists in the placing of telephone
wires and Overhead skidding cables.
Handy man.—One who has experience or is handy at various kinds of work.
Harness maker (harness man).—One who makes and repairs harness for the logging
teams.
Harness man. (See Harness maker.)
Hasher, cookhouse.—A general helper in the cook house. (See Cookee.)
Hauler. (See Driver.)
Hauling crew.—A body of men who use teams to assemble logs at a skidway or
landing; sometimes applied to the transportation crew of a railroad.
Helper (assistant, second, third).—One who aids in work of any kind under the
direction of another employee.
Hoister. (See Loader.)
Hooker. (See Grabhooker; also Tong hooker.)
Hook-on man. (See Grabhooker; also Tong hooker.)
Hook tender (choker, head, yard boss, yarder boss).—The foreman of a yarding crew;
specifically, one who directs the attaching of the cable to the log preparatory to
skidding.
Horse tender. (See Bam man.)
Hostler. 1. (See Barn boss); 2. One who works in the roundhouse inspecting and
repairing logging locomotives.
Hostler, assistant (roundhouse employee, wiper).—A helper at the roundhouse.
Improvement man (camp man; carpenter; repairer, camp).—One doing general repair
work about the camp buildings.
Inspector.—One who examines property and reports on the quantity or value of the
same. (See Inspector, land.)
Inspector, land.—One who examines and estimates the value of timber land.
Inspector, ties and wood.—One who grades railroad ties and measures wood.
Jackscrew man.—One who operates a jackscrew in lifting.or moving heavy objects.
Jammer.—One who operates an improved form of gin mounted on a movable frame­
work used to load logs on sleds and cars by horse power.
Janitor. (See Bull cook.)
Knot bumper. (See Limber.)
Knotter. (See Limber.)




16 4

LUMBER MANUFACTURING.

Laborer.—One doing miscellaneous unskilled work in connection with logging
operations.
Landing man (rollway man).—One who arranges logs at the landing preparatory to
loading for transportation.
Lever man.—One who controls the operation of a donkey engine or other mechanical
device by means of a lever.
Lever man, first.—One who is in charge of other lever men.
Limber (knot bumper, knotter).—One who cuts the limbs from felled trees.
Lineman (line setter).—One who puts the logs, blocks, and cables in place prepara­
tory to skidding.
Lineman, telephone (telephone man).—One who constructs telephone lines and keeps
them in repair.
Line puller. (See Rider.)
Line setter. (See Lineman.)
Loader man (loader).—One who loads logs on sleds, wagons, or cars, or in slides
or chutes by hand or machine power.
Loader man, head.—Foreman of a loading crew.
Loader, second.—An assistant loader.
Loading crew (loading employees).—Employees at the skidway loading logs by steam
or animal power.
Loading employees. (See Loading crew.)
Loading men. (See Loading crew.)
Lobby hog. (See Bull cook.)
Lobby man. (See Bull cook.)
Log buncher.—One who collects logs in one place for loading.
Log maker. (See Bucker.)
Log rigger.—One who cuts the tops from trees to which guy lines are attached in
overhead skidding.
Log roller.—One who places logs in position for skidding or loading.
Logway man. (See Skid way man.)
Lot man. (See Barn boss.)
Mechanic. (See Machinist.)
Machine-shop employee. (See Machinist.)
Machine-shop man. (See Machinist.)
Machinist (machine-shop employee, machine-shop man, mechanic, repair man).—One
who makes or repairs machines and is experienced in the use of metal-working tools.
Manager, cook camp.—One who is in charge of buying, preparing, and supplying
food to the logging employees. (See Commissary man.)
Marker.—One who marks felled trees for cutting into log lengths.
Mucker.—One who keeps the log landing free from bark or other debris to facilitate
loading the logs for transportation to the mill.
Notcher (timber fitter, undercutter).—One who makes a notch or an undercut in a
tree preparatory to felling.
Office man.—Bookkeeper, clerk, or other employee in the camp office.
Oil boy.—One who carries oil to the sawyers for use on the saws to prevent binding.
Oiler.—A workman employed to oil engines or machinery.
Ox feeder. (See Barn man.)
Oocman. (See Barn man.)
Ox tender. (See Barn man.)
Pack boy. (See Packer.)
Packer.—One who drives a pack animal in transporting supplies for logging opera­
tions.
Painter.—One who paints the camp buildings. (See Improvement man.)
Path cutter. (See Swamper.)




DESCRIPTION OF PROCESSES AND OCCUPATIONS.

165

Pattern maker.—One who makes patterns for molds in the repair shop.
Peeler. (See Barker.)
Pick-wp.—One who collects logs which have broken away from a raft or boom.
Pile driver.—One engaged in the work of driving piles for foundations, or to inclose
an area of water in which to store logs.
Piler.—One who assembles logs along the line of skidding or piles them at the log
landing.
Pipe fitter.—One who cuts, fits, and installs iron pipes for steam or water.
Pipeman.—One who lays water pipe.
Poler (road poler).—One engaged in building corduroy roads over which logs are to
be skidded.
Porter. (See Bull cook.)
Porter, warehouse.—A laborer about the warehouse or commissary.
Pulp piler.—One who piles pulp wood.
Pumper. (See Pump man.)
Pump man (pumper, water pumper).—One who takes care of a pump and its
operation.
Rafter (raftman).—A workman engaged in assembling logs for shipment by water.
Raftman. (See Rafter.)
Repair man. (See Machinist.)
Repair man, log equipment.—One making general repairs to logging equipment.
(See Machinist.)
Repair man, trestle.—A mechanic engaged in repair work on trestles.
Repairer, camp.—One who repairs camp buildings. (See Improvement man.)
Rider (chain puller; driver, line horse; line puller; mule rider; rigging puller; skinner;
slack man).—One who rides a horse or mule used to draw the skidding chains back
to the skidding area after a log is delivered at the landing.
Rider, mule. (See Rider.)
Rigger (rigging man, rigger man, log rigger).—One who is skilled in the work of
installing skidding apparatus.
Rigger, first (rigger, head).—A foreman rigger.
Rigger, head. (See Rigger, first.'
Rigger man. (See Rigger.)
Rigger, second.—An assistant to the rigger.
Rigging man. (See Rigger.)
Rigging puller. (See Rider.)
Rigging puller, head.—One who has charge of the work of returning the rigging
device and cables to the skidding area. (See Rider.)
Rigging slinger.—1. A member of a yarding crew whose chief duty is to place
chokers or grabs on logs. 2. One who attaches the rigging to trees in steam skidding.
(See Rigger.)
Right of way man.—One who works at clearing bushes and trees preparatory to
building log roads.
Ringer. (See Bark fitter.)
Road builders (road men).—That portion of the crew of a logging camp who cut out
logging roads and keep them in repair.
Road cutter.—One who clears away brush and trees for a skid road or path. (See
Swamper.)
Roader splitter.—One who splits wood for the roader engine used in skidding. (See
Wood buck.)
Roadman. (See Road builder.)
Roadmmter.—One who is in charge of the maintenance of logging roads.
Road monkey. (See Greaser.^
Road poler. (See Poler.)




166

LUMBER MANUFACTURING.

Rodman.—One who carries a surveyor’s leveling rod.
Rollway man. (See Landing man.)
Rope man.—One who returns the cable and tongs after each delivery of the logs at
the landing. (See Rider.)
Roper. (See Tong hooker.)
Roundhouse employee. (See Hostler, assistant.)
Roustabout.—A common laborer.
Run back.—One who hooks the tongs to the log in the operation of loading the same
on logging cars.
Run cutter. (See Swamper.)
Sand burner. (See Sand drier.)
Sand drier (sand burner).—One who dries sand for use in the sand box of a locomotive.
Sand hauler.—One who hauls sand for use in the sand box of a logging locomotive.
Sawyer.—One who uses a crosscut saw in felling trees or cutting logs. (See Faller.)
Sawyer, head.—The foreman of a sawing crew.
Sawyer, piling. (See Cutter, piling.)
Scaler (log scaler).—One who determines the volume of logs.
Scavenger.—One who gathers and removes dirt from the streets and vaults about
camp buildings.
Scraper man.—The man who holds the scraper used in grading while it is being
loaded.
Section hand (section man).—A laborer in railroad maintenance.
Section man. (See Section hand.)
Setter, piling.—One who is engaged in setting pilings for the pile driver. (See Pile
driver.)
Shoer.—One whose work is that of shoeing horses for use in logging operations.
(See Blacksmith.)
Shovelman.—One who holds a hand scraper or who operates a power grader in the
work of grading for railroad construction. (See Lever man.)
Signalman (flagman, bell boy, whistle boy, whistle punk).—One who transmits orders
from the foreman of a yarding crew to the engineer of the yarding donkey in skidding
and yarding operations.
Skid adzer.—One who uses an adz to fit timbers in constructing log chutes or
other skidding devices.
Skidder. (See Skidder man.)
Skidder crew (skidding employees).—The entire body of men who work in connection
with the skidding machine.
Skidder man.—1. One who skids logs; 2. One who operates a donkey engine, usu­
ally from a railroad track, which skids logs by means of a cable; 3. The foreman of a
crew which constructs skid roads.
Skidding employees. (See Skidder crew.)
Skid-road man.—One who works at the construction and maintenance of skid roads.
Skid sawyer.—One who saws skids over which logs are to be moved.
Skidway man (logway man).—One who works at the log skidway where logs are stored
preparatory to moving to the sawmill.
Skinner. (See Rider.)
Slack man.—1. One who prevents the cable from becoming slack, and thus allowing
skidding chains to fall from the logs; 2. (See Rider).
Sled tender (chain tender, chaser, trailer, zoogler).—1. One who assists in loading and
unloading logs or skidding with a dray; 2. A member of the hauling crew who accom­
panies the turn of logs to the landing, unhooks the grabs, and sees that they are returned
to the skidding area.
Slip driver.—One who drives the animals attached to a scoop used in grading for
railway construction.




DESCRIPTION OF PROCESSES AND OCCUPATIONS.

16 7

Slip dumper.—One who dumps the earth from the scoop used in grading for railway
construction.
Slip filler. (See Slip man.)
Slip man (slip filler).—One who operates the scoop used in grading for railway con­
struction.
Smitter.—One who keeps the logs moving straight on the skids when loading is done
by animal power.
Snaker.— One who draws logs to the skidding path or to the landing by means of
animal power. (See Driver.)
Sniper.—One who noses or rounds off the ends of logs, so they will skid more easily.
Snubber.—One who checks, usually by means of a snub line, the speed of logging
sleds or logs on steep slopes.
Spike peddler.—One who delivers spikes to the spikers or places them at points on
the railroad where they are to be used.
Spiker.—One who drives the spikes which hold the rails to the crossties of a logging
railroad.
Splicer.—One who mends the skidding cables.
Spool runner. (See Spool wright.)
Spool tender.—One who operates the spool of a donkey engine in loading logs.
The work consists in placing several turns or wraps of the logging cable around the
spool when it is desired to make a pull.
Spool wright.—One who hews or adzes out a place on stumps or logs along a skid
road on which to place a spool for the purpose of guiding the main skidding line.
Spudder. (See Barker.)
Stableman. (See Barn man.)
Stake cutter.—One who prepares the stakes to hold the logs on logging cars.
Staker (staker, right o f way).—One who sets stakes to indicate the limits of the
right of way.
Staker, right o f way. (See Staker.)
Stave-block loader.—One who loads blocks from which staves are to be manufac­
tured at the sawmill.
Stave-block roller.—One who rolls and stacks stave blocks preparatory to loading.
Stave-block splitter.—One who splits stave blocks for greater convenience in han­
dling at the sawmill.
Steam-shovel man.—The lever man who operates a steam shovel. (See Lever man.)
Steel man.—A laborer in the steel crew in railroad construction.
Steward. (See Commissary man.)
Straw boss.—A subforeman in a logging camp, sometimes called the head push.
Stripper.—A laborer engaged in the construction of roads for steam skidding.
Stull hewer.—One who hews stulls or timbers which are used in mines.
Stumper.— One who removes stumps from the skid road or landing place.
Supply-house man.—One who is in charge of the tools used in logging operations.
Swamper (brush cutter; bush cutter; path cutter; road cutter; swamper, second).—One
who clears ground or underbrush, fallen trees, and other obstructions preparatory to
constructing a logging road.
Swamper', buck.—The foreman of a stumping crew.
Swamper, head. (See Swamper, buck.)
Swamper, second. (See Swamper.)
Switchman.—The trainman who has charge of the switches in railroad operation.
Tail down.—One who rolls the logs on the skids to a point where they can be reached
by the loading crew.
Tallyman (counter).—One who records or tallies the measurements of logs as they
are called off by the scaler.
Teamster. (See Driver.)




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LUMBER MANUFACTURING.

Teamster, loading.—The driver of a loading team at the yard or landing. (See
Driver.)
Team tender. (See Barn man.)
Telephone man. (See Lineman, telephone.)
Tie distributer.—A laborer engaged in placing ties along the right of way of the
railroad.
Timber fitter. (See Notcher.)
Timber hewer.—One who shapes timbers with an ax for log chutes or landings.
Timberman. (See Cruiser.)
Timber rider. (See Cruiser.)
Timekeeper.—One who keeps a record of the time worked by the logging employees.
Toggle knocker.—A yarding man who detaches the tackle chains when the logs are
unloaded.
Toggler.—One who fastens chains over the logs loaded for transportation to hold
them in place during transit.
Tommie.—One who adjusts the block through which the cable runs where an angle
is made in skidding.
Tonger. (See Tong hooker.)
Tong hooker (hooker, hook-on man, tong man, tong setter, roper).—One who sets the
tongs on the log preparatory to either skidding or loading.
Tong hooker, second.—One who assists the tong hooker.
Tong man. (See Tong hooker.)
Tong puller. (See Rider.)
Tong setter. (See Tong hooker.)
Tong shaker.—One who detaches the tongs from the log after it is delivered.
Top loader.—That member of a loading crew, sometimes called a sky hooker, who
stands on the top of a load and places the logs as they are sent up.
Top man, jammer.—One who places the logs on a skidding sled when the loading is
done by means of a jammer or horse loader.
Topper.—One who cuts the tops from felled trees.
Track dresser.—A laborer engaged in ballasting a railroad track.
Trackman.—A laborer on the maintenance of way.
Trackmaster.—The foreman of a crew repairing logging roads. (See Roadmaster.)
Trackwalker.—A watchman who examines the railroad tracks to locate defects which
might result in wrecks.
Trail cutter. (See Swamper.)
Trailer. (See Sled tender.)
Train loader.—One who loads logs on logging cars for railroad transportation.
Trainman. (See Brakeman.)
Train master.—One who directs the movements of logging trains.
Transfer crew (transfer men).—A body of men transferring logs from narrow gauge to
standard gauge cars.
Transfer man. (See Transfer crew.)
Tripper, ditcher. (See Lever man.)
Undercutter.—A skilled woodman who chops the undercut in trees so that they will
fall in the proper direction. (See Notcher.)
TJnloader (unloader, landing; yard man).—One who unloads logs either at the log
pond or yard of the sawmill or at the landing where logs are stored preparatory to
being transported to the sawmill.
Unloader, coal.—One who unloads cars of coal for use at the camps.
Unloader, landing. (See Unloader.)
Wagon crew (wagoners, wagon men).—The entire body of men working in connection
with skidding wagons. (See Driver.)
Wagoner. (See Driver.)




DESCRIPTION OF PROCESSES AND OCCUPATIONS.

16 9

Wagon man. (See Driver.)
Waiter.—A male employee who places food on the table at the logging camps.
Waitress.—A female employee who places the food on the table at the logging
camps.
Warehouseman.—One who is in charge of supplies at a camp warehouse. (See Com­
missary man.)
Washer. (See Dish washer.)
Watchman.—One who guards logging equipment.
Watchman, bridge.—One who guards bridges used in logging operations.
Watchman, tower.—A signal man at a railroad crossing.
Water boy. (See Water buck.)
Water buck (water boy).—One who carries water.
Water hauler.—One who transports water when the source of supply is at a distance
from the camp.
Water pumper. (See Pump man.)
Water slinger.—One who throws water on the skid roads to make them slippery and
to prevent wear.
Whistle boy. (See Signalman.)
Whistle punk. (See Signalman.)
Winch man.—One who operates a winch or email drum used in loading logs.
Wiper. (See Hostler, assistant.)
Wood boy. (See Wood buck.)
Wood buck (chunk sawyer, roader splitter, yarder splitter, wood boy, wood chopper,
wood cutter, wood getter, wood man, fuel man).—One who cuts and carries wood for use
at the camp or in donkey engines.
Woodchopper. (See Wood buck.)
Woodcutter. (See Wood buck.)
Wood getter. (See Wood buck.)
Wood hauler.—One who transports wood by team for camp use.
Wood loader.—One who loads wood for transportation, either for camp or for com­
mercial use.
Woodman. (See Wood buck.)
Yard boss. (See Hook tender.)
Yarder boss. (See Hook tender.)
Yarder splitter. (See Wood buck.)
Yardman. (See Unloader.)
Zoogler. (See Sled tender.)
<3

PROCESSES AND OCCUPATIONS IN SAWMILL OPERATIONS.

For the purposes of this study sawmill operations will be considered
as beginning at the log pond or yard where the logs have been depos­
ited by railroad, sled, truck, scow, or other log transportation agency,
and as ending with the loading of the finished product for shipment.
A consideration of the sawmill plant as a whole will simplify the
description of detailed processes of manufacture.
Essentially the plant consists of a place to store logs, buildings to
house the sawmill machinery, and a yard to store the lumber. A
power plant, although not peculiar to a sawmill, is a necessary part
of its operations.
The log pond or yard may be defined as a place immediately
adjacent to the sawmill, so arranged that logs stored therein are




170

LUMBER MANUFACTURING.

readily accessible. It may be a pond or yard, as indicated by the
name, or it may be part of the surface of a river or lake set off as a
pond. Where water is used as a storage place the logs are easily
sorted, the dirt collected during skidding is washed off, and, if the
pond is limited in size and steam is used for power, the steam from
the exhaust pipe is sometimes turned into the pond in cold weather
to keep timber from freezing or thaw to frozen timber. Large sta­
tionary mills generally use a pond, and, with due consideration to
the more important factors of accessibility to timber and to shipping
facilities, water available for a pond is one of the factors determining
the location of the mill.
Facilities for the housing of sawmill machinery range from a mere
shelter to a m odem fire-proof building, in which the employees are
well protected from the extremes of weather and climate.
The range in equipment and in the methods of handling material
is quite as varied. In the smallest mills the equipment is limited to
a small circular saw and one cut-off saw used as a trimmer. Except
for the power necessary to run the saws all the work is performed by
manual labor, and the output of such a mill will not exceed 3,000
feet of lumber per day. In modem plants power-driven mechanical
devices are used to handle the material, so that the manual labor
involved consists chiefly in operating such devices. Thus, the prod­
uct is transferred from one machine to another by power-driven
rolls and chains. Even the transferring of the product from the mill
and the work of stacking it for yard or dry kiln may be accom­
plished through power-driven equipment. Large band or circular
head saws, supplemented by gang saws and resaws, replace the
small circular saw of the elementary mill, and the daily output of
each head saw may exceed 100,000 board feet.
In this description only the modern mill will be considered in
detail. In such a mill the building which houses the machinery is
usually a two-story structure, but in some instances a third story is
added for the purpose of housing a filing room. The lower story is
given over to the bases for the heavier machines and to various belts,
driving rods, and other mechanisms for the transmission of power to
the machines on the sawmill floor and for the removal of waste ma­
terial. The second story is known as the sawmill floor, and is usually
from 10 to 20 feet above the ground or pond level. A 1‘ V ” or “ U ”
shaped trough, known as the log slip or chute, leads from the pond
to one end of this story. If the mill has two head saws the chute is
in the center; if but one head saw, the chute is at the side. In either
case the end of the mill to which the chute leads is called the log
deck and is raised a few feet above the level of the floor on which the
machines rest. A continuous chain, called the bull chain, runs
lengthwise of the slip. This chain has projections on its outer side




DESCRIPTION OF PROCESSES AND OCCUPATIONS.

171

for holding the logs as they are elevated, or hooks for the attach­
ment of a cable and tongs in elevating very large logs.
The log deck is constructed so that it slopes toward the head saw,
or if two head saws are used it slopes toward each side. At its
highest point is a trough-like depression, in reality a continuation of
the log slip or chute, which serves as a receptacle for the logs as
they are brought up from the pond. The rest of the sawmill floor
is given over to machinery for converting the logs into lumber and
for removing waste. Although such machinery varies with the size
of the mill, the size and class of logs, and the nature of the output,
that is, whether mainly boards or timbers, or a general mill run of
various sizes, it consists essentially of saws and their operating
mechanism for reducing the log to lumber, removing rough edges
from boards or reducing them to desired widths and thicknesses,
squaring the ends of boards or reducing them to desired lengths,
cutting slabs and worthless product into lengths convenient for han­
dling as by-products or waste, and mechanism for automatically trans­
ferring the product from one machine to another. A brief descrip­
tion of these machines is given in preparation for a more complete
description of work performed.
For converting the log into boards or timbers of desired thicknesses
head saws, alone or supplemented by resaws and gang saws, are
used. Either band or circular saws are used for head saws. The
band saw is a thin steel band or belt with a cutting edge. In what
is known as a double-ciit band each edge is a cutting edge. The saw
is operated over two large pulleys, one above and the other below the
sawmill floor. It is held firmly in place by saw guides which may be
adjusted to accommodate different diameters of logs. The circular
saw is a disk with the cutting teeth on the perimeter. It is thicker
than the band saw, the waste in sawdust is greater, and it is too lim­
ited in size for extensive use, being more frequently placed in small
mills or used other than as a head saw. It is sometimes fitted with
removable teeth, and the skill and expense required for upkeep are
less than for a band saw. If large logs are cut with a circular head
saw, a second saw is sometimes set above the first.
The resaw is generally a vertical or horizontal band saw, smaller
than the head saw, and is used for sawing thick planks into boards
of desired thickness, reducing irregular boards to standard thickness,
or sawing boards from thick slabs. The horizontal saw is used for
slabs, the vertical saw for resawing planks, though circular saws
may be used for this latter purpose. Heavy rolls hold the plank or
slab in position. The purpose of the resaw is to increase the capacity
of the mill, and when used less care need be exercised to avoid waste
in slabs removed by the head saw.




172

LUMBER MANUFACTURING.

The gang saw may be one of two types. In what is known as the
sash gang, a set of parallel straight saws is placed in a vertical frame
which operates up and down. Like the resaw it is used only in con­
nection with the head saw, and for the purpose of increasing the out­
put of the mill. The saws are adjustable for desired thicknesses of
boards, and as many as 40 boards may be cut at one time. The
other type of gang saw is in less general use and is known as the
band gang. It consists of two or three band saws arranged one in
front of the other, and with sidewise adjustment to give the thick­
ness of board desired. To take the place of the gang saw or the
resaw a single or double cut band saw, smaller than the head saw,
is sometimes used and the portion of the log to be reduced to smaller
sizes is moved repeatedly against the cutting edge.
For removing the rough edges from boards and reducing them to
standard widths a machine called the edger is used. The edger con­
sists of a number of small circular saws adjustable as to distance be­
tween them and having heavy rollers for holding the board in position.
Both single and double edgers are used, the double edger consisting
essentially o f two single edgers placed side by side.
Boards are cut into specified lengths, the ends are squared and
imperfections cut out by means of a set of small circular saws known
as trimmer saws. These saws are set at intervals of two feet in a
horizontal line. With the exception of the two end saws, which
always remain in a cutting position, the saws are placed just below
or above a trimmer table over which the product to be trimmed is
carried b y transfer chains. The length o f the table and the number
of saws depend upon the longest board which it is desired that the
mill shall produce. B y means of ropes, levers, or compressed air,
the saws are raised or lowered to cut desired board lengths. When
released the saws return automatically to a noncutting position.
In order to convert slabs and other waste into lengths convenient
for handling, a set of circular saws similar to trimmer saws is
used. These are placed at intervals of four feet, and their position is
fixed. Collectively they are known as the slasher.
For transferring the product from one machine to another live
rolls and transfer chains are used. The transfer chains are endless,
and are used for the transverse or sidewise carrying of product, whereas
live rolls are used for endwise carrying. Both live rolls and transfer
chains are power driven, and are adjustable to different speeds to
accommodate the quantity of material to be carried.
It is customary to speak of each head saw as a ‘ ‘side.” Gang saws
and resaws are considered as supplements of the head saws, and a
head saw, with its complements of edger and trimmer, constitutes a
unit.




DESCRIPTION OF PROCESSES AND OCCUPATIONS.

173

All the operations of the sawmill and yard should be regarded in
the light of a continuous process, with machines so arranged in num­
ber and position, and the working force of men so organized that
operations at any point need not wait upon the removal of product.
Indeed, so closely coordinated are the processes that a breakdown of
machinery at any point halts the greater part of the entire operation.
The following summary of subprocesses and occupations connected
therewith has been arranged as nearly as may be in process order and
will serve as an outline for the more detailed description. In the
larger plants each process group has its foreman, subforeman, or
assistant foreman. To the extent that the work of such men is super­
visory in character it has not been given consideration in the descrip­
tion, and the occupations have not been included in the outline.
G eneral.

Supervision, buildings, and repairs:
Superintendent.
Sawmill foreman.
Millwright and helper.
Carpenter and helper.
Machinist and helper.
Blacksmith and helper.
Power, light, and oiling:
Engineer.
Fireman.
Oiler.
Electrician and helper.
Fire protection:
Night watchman.
Hydrant man.
Water carter.

Loo

Pond o r Y a rd .

Pond or boom man.
Slip man.
Yardman.
Sa w m il l .

Log deck:
Lever man.
Scaler.
Deck man.
Dimension cutter.
Head sawing, band or circular:
Head sawyer.
Dogger.
Setter.
Rock sawyer.
Tail sawyer.
Live rolls and transfer chains:
Transfer man, live-roll man or lever man.
Resawing:
Resawyer.
Resawyer’s helper.
Resaw tailer.




174

LUMBER MANUFACTURING.

Gang sawing:
Cant setter or gang helper.
Gang sawyer.
Gang tailer.
Gang oiler.
Gang engineer.
Edging:
Edgerman.
Edgerman’s helper.
Edger tailer.
Trimming:
Trimmer loader or helper.
Trimmer operator.
Timber trimmer.
Refuse—slasher, hog, and burner:
Slasher man and helper.
Hog man.
Conveyor man.
Cleaning, oiling, and miscellaneous sawmill work:
Cleaner or sweeper.
Mill oiler.
Extra or spare man.
Filing:
Filer.
Filer’s helper.
S o r t in g G r e e n L u m b e r .

Grader.
Grader’s helper.
Tallyman.
Transfer man.
Sorter, puller, and loader.
G r e e n -L u m b e r Y

ard.

Trucker.
Tipper.
Stacker or piler.
D

r y -L u m b e r

Y

ard.

Unstacker.
Trucker.
Stacker.
Su b s id ia r y

or

Dry kiln:
Sorter.
Stacker.
Trucker.
Unstacker, sorter, and loader.
Grader.
Planing mill:
Trucker.
Machine setter.
Feeder.
Feeder’s helper.
Tailer.
Grader.
Bundler, tier, and loader.




Supplem entary P rocesses.

DESCRIPTION OF PROCESSES AND OCCUPATIONS.

175

Lath, stave, and heading mills:
Picker.
Bolter.
Puller.
Feeder.
Off bearer and tier.
Shingle mill.
Clapboard mill.
S h ip p in g .

Unstacker.
Trucker.
Timber sizer.
Grader.
Tallyman.
Loader.
GENEBAL.
SUPER VISIO N, BUILDINGS, A N D REPAIR.

AH of the operations in the manufacture of lumber are under the
direction of a superintendent, but the immediate personal super­
vision of the sawmill is in the hands of a sawmill foreman, who must
be a practical mill man.
Millwrights have charge of the installation and repair of equipment,
and must be familiar with sawmill machinery and with the con­
struction and alteration of sawmill buildings.
Carpenters, blacksmiths, and machinists do general repair and
construction work about the plant and are assisted by helpers.
PO W ER , LIGHT, AN D OILING .

In most sawmill operations the machinery is driven by steam power,
and the power plant is a necessary part of such operations. A num­
ber of large mills convert the steam into electric power and attach
motors to the various machines. A few mills purchase electric power
tu t use boilers to generate steam for dry kilns. Sawmill refuse is
used for fuel in power plants and is usually ground into pieces small
enough to be used in mechanical firing devices.
Nearly all power plants are equipped with dynamos to supply light
to the mills and yard and sometimes to the town in which the plant
is located.
The duties of engineers, firemen and oilers, dynamo men, electri­
cians, and helpers employed in the operation of the sawmill power
plant are identical with the duties of such employees in the power or
electric light plants of other industries.
FIRE PROTECTION.

The large amount of combustible material about a sawmill plant
makes it imperative that some sort of fire protection be provided.
The prevailing method is to place barrels conveniently about the
100531°— 18— Bull. 225----- 12




176

LUMBER MANUFACTURING.

yard and employ water carriers to keep them filled with water. If
the operation is near a water-works system, or sufficiently large to
warrant the installation of a pressure system, hydrants are installed
and inspected b y hydrant men. All companies employ one or more
watchmen to make the rounds of the plant at night and guard against
fires and trespassers.
LOG PO N D O R Y A R D .

Pond men.— One or more men, known as pond or boom men, release
the logs in the pond, sort and move them to the foot of the slip or
chute, and start them on the chain which carries them to the log deck
of the sawmill. They stand on a board walk barely above the surface
of the pond, on a small fiatboat or raft, or even on the floating logs
themselves, which requires considerable agility. For hand moving
and sorting a pike pole is used. The pike pole consists of a long, light
pole, with a screw spike inserted in one end. For the purpose of
raising sunken logs a rowboat or a small raft may be used. Some­
times a small donkey engine is stationed at the foot of the slip and
is used for raising “ sinkers,” towing them to the foot of the slip,
raising large logs so they may be started up the slip, and for releasing
logs that have become jammed in the pond. The man operating the
engine is known as the hoister.
Slip man.— The man who “ noses” the logs up to the chain, or
starts them up the slip, is sometimes called the slip man. He may
also operate the donkey engine and assist the pond men with the
logs, or, if a cable is used in pulling large logs up the slip, he assists in
hooking the tongs onto the logs.
Yardman.— If a yard is used instead of a pond, logs are rolled on­
to a moving car or rolls, snaked b y means of a cable and drum, or
rolled on a skidway directly to the saw carriage. Men thus em­
ployed use cant hooks or peavies, and are called yardmen, log handlers,
and skidway men.
S A W M IL L .

LOG DECK.

Deck man.— One or more men are employed on the log deck. The
work involves elevating the logs over the slip or chute and so placing
them on the incline of the deck that they may be readily moved into
position for sawing. The bull chain used to elevate the logs is power
driven, and one deck man, sometimes called a lever man, operates
a lever controlling the movement of the chain. The deck man may
also operate a mechanical kicker for rolling the logs to the incline
of the deck, or a bull wheel and cable for turning the logs. An ax
is used to cut out rocks which have become embedded in the bark
during the process of skidding and which might damage the saw if
not removed. On logs with deep bark fissures a pick is used to




DESCRIPTION OF PROCESSES AND OCCUPATIONS.

177

locate embedded rocks. Some mills have an arrangement for direct­
ing a stream of water at high pressure against the log while it is
being pulled up the chute, and in this way clear the log of much
stone and grit. A cut-off saw may be used to cut long logs into
shorter lengths, and an upright saw may be used to “ split” large
logs for greater convenience in handling. Logs must be kept straight
on the incline of the deck, cant hooks and peavies being used for
rolling or sliding the logs down the incline. The work of the deck
man calls chiefly for agility and strength.
Scaler.— It is the practice in most sawmill operations to measure
the logs as they reach the log deck, to determine diameter, length,
and board feet. This measure is termed the log scale, and is made by
one of the deck men or b y a scaler. In the log scale an allowance
is made for waste in manufacture, which allowance is usually higher
than the actual waste. As a consequence the log scale is less than
the lumber tally, and the difference is known as the overrun. Red­
wood is an exception to the rule, and because of imperfections which
can not be predetermined the lumber tally is less than the log scale.
When accuracy is required the work of the scaler requires judg­
ment, a knowledge of timber, and carefulness in measurements.
Often, however, the scale is only a mental estimate, little relied
upon in larger mills as a basis for computing costs.
Dimension cutter (bed sawyer).— In some operations a dimension
man, who is experienced in lumber manufacture and grades, is
employed at the log deck to examine the logs and indicate the
product into which they shall be cut. In this way a higher grade of
product can be obtained with less waste of time, because defects are
more readily observed when the log is on the deck than after it is
placed in position for sawing into lumber.
H EA D SA W IN G .

At the foot of the incline of the log deck are iron log checks, which
are lowered to release one log, returning automatically to hold back
the other logs. A mechanical kicker, called the “ nigger,” is used to
push and turn the logs forward into position for sawing, and a “ grab
arm” is used to turn the logs back toward the deck. Parallel to
the log deck, and on a line with the head saw, is a steel track upon
which rims a power-driven car called the saw carriage. This carriage
is for the purpose of moving the log endwise against the cutting
edge of the saw, and is constructed with a movable top fitted with
steel blocks, adjustable sidewise, so that the log may be moved to any
width of cut desired. The log is held firmly against the blocks by
dogs or barbs which form a part of the blocks. A downward move­
ment of a lever forces the dog into the log, and an upward movement
releases the dog when the log is to be turned. With the single-cut saw




178

LUMBER. M ANUFACTURING.

a cut is made only in the forward movement of the carriage, an auto­
matic setback being used to move the log slightly away from the saw
when the carriage is returned. With the double-cut saw a cut is made
during both the forward and the backward movements of the carriage.
The operation of a head saw necessitates a head sawyer, a setter,
a dogger, and a tail sawyer. To these must be added a rock sawyer
in some operations and, when long logs are cut, a second dogger.
The head sawyer, rock sawyer, and tail sawyer are stationed near
the saw. The doggers and setters, sometimes called carriage men
or carriage riders, ride on the carriage.
Head sawyer.— By means of a lever, usually operated by a foot
treadle, the head sawyer releases the check holding the logs in place
on the log deck. The weight of the released log reverses the check,
permitting but one log to roll onto the carriage. The movement of
the nigger and grab arm and the forward and reverse movement of
the carriage are controlled by levers operated by the head sawyer.
A deck man, or “ roll-on” man, or the dogger may assist in handling
a log that can not be put in position with the nigger and grab arm.
It is essential that the manipulation of the log check, nigger, and
grab arm be timely and certain and the movement of the carriage
prompt and uniform. Upon his ability to do this, as well as to get
from a log the most lumber of the highest marketable quality,
depends the efficiency of the sawyer. By means of signals he indi­
cates to the setter the width of cut desired, and to both dogger and
setter the disposition he intends to make at any time of the remaining
portion of the log.
The head sawyer must think and act quickly, be able to cut for
special sizes, and to regulate the movement of the carriage in accord­
ance with the cutting capacity of the saw. Except for the filer, he
is the highest paid employee of the sawmill. He generally serves
several years in the capacity of setter before being promoted to
sawyer.
Dogger.— When the log has been placed in such a position on the
carriage that the side from which the sawyer desires the first slab
to be cut is turned toward the deck, the dogger sees to it that the
blocks are against the log and operates the lever which forces the
dogs into the log. Whenever the remaining portion of the log is
to be turned, in order to cut from different sides of the log, he releases
the dog to permit turning and may need to assist with a cant hook
or peavey in adjusting the log on the carriage, after which the blocks
are again moved to the log and secured with the dogs. In cutting
long logs two doggers may be employed. The position of dogger
requires strength, dexterity, and attentiveness to the signals of the
sawyer, and the work is considered a training for the position of
setter.




DESCRIPTION OF PROCESSES AND OCCUPATIONS.

179

Setter.— After the dogger has inserted the dogs which fasten the
log to the blocks, the setter operates the lever which moves blocks
and log sidewise toward the saw to the width of cut indicated by
the sawyer. In order that the distance moved may conform accu­
rately to the width of cut indicated, the lever is attached to a ratchet
device with graduated dial and indicator, which is connected with
the blocks by a shaft and cogs. If the logs rest securely on the car­
riage and against the blocks, the sidewise adjustment may precede
or be simultaneous with the insertion of the dogs. The work is
usually performed b y hand, but in some mills the ratchet is moved
b y steam power, the setter controlling the movement by means of a
lever. Sometimes the setter does the work of the dogger at the front
end of the carriage, or the setter and dogger may work interchange­
ably.
The setter is not subjected to severe physical strain, but he must
be alert to interpret and carry out the signaled directions of the
sawyer. An experienced setter frequently substitutes for the
sawyer and may be promoted to that position.
Rock sawyer.— Small stones which have become embedded deep
in the bark of large logs during the process of skidding are not easily
located b y the deck men and if not removed are a source of possible
damage to the head saw. Moreover, the thick bark is apt to be
dragged into the cut and bind the saw. To avoid damage to the
more expensive band and circular head saws, a small circular saw,
called the rock saw, is placed just in front of and in line with the
head saw. Its position is adjusted vertically by means of a lever,
operated sometimes by a head sawyer, but more often by a rock
sawyer, so that it will cut a groove through the bark on the upper
side of the log directly in front of the head saw. Stones on the
under side of the log do not damage the saw, since they are thrown
out rather than forced in by the teeth. The work of the rock sawyer
is not strenuous and but little skill is required.
Tail sawyer.— All the product of the head saw is removed over
a series of live rolls. A tail sawyer or off-bearer has a place where
the product drops from the head saw, and it is his duty to see that
the material is started straight on the rolls and so placed that it
will move smoothly. A sharp-pointed hook attached to a short
handle is used to turn the slab or board. Slabs do not run well
with the bark side down and the tail sawyer using this hook gives the
slab a quick pull from the lower edge just as it is cut off, causing it
to fall sawed side down on the rolls. Very wide boards are apt to
split in falling on the rolls, and in some operations mechanical arms
are used to lower the boards to the rolls. In moving large timbers
to the rolls the tail sawyer is assisted b y the carriage man and by
the rock sawyer. In band head-saw operations the saw tailer usually




18 0

LUMBER MANUFACTURING.

adjusts the saw guides to accommodate the log. He may also oper­
ate levers to shunt the product to a particular machine, but this is
usually done by other employees. The work of the tail sawyer
requires constant attention, but the physical demand is not severe.
LIVE ROLLS AN D TR ANSFER CHAINS.

Prompt disposition must be made of the head-saw product, the
method of disposition and also the nature of the product depending
upon the equipment of the mill. If a horizontal resaw is used the
log will be slabbed rather heavily, and the slabs will pass over the
resaw. If a gang saw forms part of the equipment, slabs and several
boards may be cut from two sides of the log by the head saw, and the
remaining portion, called the “ cant,” be passed on to the gang saw.
Assuming a mill equipped with both resaw and gang saw, the product
of the head saw will be transferred as follows: Slabs from which
boards can be cut to the resaw; slabs suitable only for fuel or for
by-products to the slasher saws; boards to be edged or ripped into
narrower widths to the edger; boards that do not need to be edged
directly to the trimmer saws; cants to the gang saw; and timbers
may be sent to timber trimmers and sizers.
Transfer man (live-roll man, lever man).— The line of live rolls
extending from the head saw is usually so arranged that the product,
if undisturbed, passes directly to the trimmer or to rolls which carry
it from the mill. In order that the product may reach any other
machine, transfer chains must be lifted to remove it from the rolls.
Levers are used for this purpose and chains are elevated directly,
or a stop block is raised which bars the progress of the slab, board,
or other product, the force of the impact elevating the chains suf­
ficiently to lift the product from the rolls.
In operations where
most of the product is edged, however, a stop block is so arranged
that all product is automatically shunted to the edger unless the block
is lowered. The location of levers for the transfer of product, as
well as their operation, depends largely upon the arrangement of the
mill and the organization of the working force. In some operations
a lever man occupies an elevated position and has levers at his com­
mand for all transfer chains. In other operations the tail sawyer
operates the lever shunting products to the edger. The usual prac­
tice, however, is to have levers located within reach of the operators
of each machine and to station helpers, called live-roll or transfer
men, at intervals along the rolls.
R E S A W IN G .

Resawyer.— Whether horizontal band^ vertical band, or circular
resaws are used the work of the resawyer is essentially the same, and
consists in feeding the slabs from which boards are to be cut, or plank




DESCRIPTION OF PROCESSES AND OCCUPATIONS.

18 1

to be reduced in thickness, through rollers designed to hold the
product in position until it is sawed. The work of the resawyer is not
difficult, but acquaintance with timber is necessary, and a degree of
intelligence higher than for ordinary labor is required.
Resawyer1 helper (line-up man, transfer man).— One or more helpers
s
to the resawyer are sometimes necessary to place the slabs or other
product in position on the resaw table. The term “ line-up man” or
“ transfer man” may be used to designate more specifically the work
performed. The requirements of a resawyer’s helper are slightly above
those of a common laborer.
Resaw tailer.—As the product comes from the resaw it falls upon
live rolls which automatically carry it to transfer chains leading to
the trimmer saws. Waste product must be pushed from these rolls
to conveyor chains leading to the slasher saws. If the resawyer
indicates that another board can be cut from the slab, it is placed on
a conveyor and returned to the front of the resaw. The resaw tailer
stands behind the resaw and, usually by means of a short pike pole,
pushes the product not to be trimmed from the rolls. Dexterity and
the physical requirements of a common laborer are necessary.
GANG SA W IN G .

Cant setter.—Cants and timbers to be cut into boards by the gang
saw are transferred from the line of rolls leading from the head saw,
usually over dead rolls, into position for the gang saw. Cant hooks
and peavies are used when the work is done b y hand and a steam or
electric crane if power is used. The operator of a crane is called a
craneman. Men placing the cants in position are called cant setters.
The term “ gang helpers” may be applied to the cant setters or to others
assisting in moving the cant into position. If the cants are small
they may be piled one on top of another and side by side to the full
capacity of the machine. The work is considered slightly above
common labor.
Gang sawyer.— Two sets of rolls form part of the gang-saw equip­
ment. At the lower part of the frame which holds the saws is a set of
feed rolls used to force the cants toward the cutting edges of the saws;
near the top of the frame is another set of rolls used to press firmly
on the top of the cants and hold them in position during the sawing.
It is the duty of the gang sawyer to adjust the pressure rolls and to
regulate the feed of the machine, which he does by means of levers.
He must be able to gauge the cutting capacity of the saws and he has
immediate supervision over all the operations of the gang sawing.
Gang-saw tailer.— The men who work behind the gang saw and
dispose of the output as it comes from the machine are called gang
tailers. They sort out the shims, bark, and other waste material,
pushing it to conveyor chains leading to the slasher or to chains that




182

LUMBER M ANUFACTURING.

carry it from the mill, and keep the boards in position as the cant is
fed through the machine. After the cant is sawed the boards are
transferred from live rolls to the edger. Common labor is required
for the work of gang tailing.
Gang oiler.— One man about the gang saw may be designated the
gang oiler, and it is his duty to keep the oil cups filled with oil.
Gang engineer.— The gang saw, in infrequent instances, may be
operated by a distinct engine placed on the floor below the saw, and
a gang engineer be employed to operate the engine.
ED G ING .

Edgerman7 helper (edger liner, line-ujp man).— Boards from the head
s
saw, resaw, and gang saw that require edging are transferred from
live rolls to chains which carry them to an edger table in front of
the edger. One or more edger helpers place the boards in position
on the edger table so that the edgerman may inspect them and de­
termine widths. The work calls chiefly for manual labor, but there
is an opportunity for promotion to the position of edgerman.
Edgerman.— The duties of the edgerman are to inspect the boards
to determine the widths into which they may economically be cut,
to operate levers adjusting the saws laterally to the width determined
upon, and to feed the boards into the edger. The boards are held
in position as they pass through the machine by feed and pressure
rolls, subject to lever control. The edgerman must know something of
lumber grades and be able to estimate accurately the widths of
boards.
Edger tailer (edging catcher, strip picker).— The product from the
edger consists of boards to be trimmed and strips or edgings to be
passed to the slasher saws or disposed of as waste. Edger tailers
direct the progress of the boards along the rolls and push the edgings
onto conveyor chains. The work is not strenuous but it requires
dexterity.
TRIM M ING.

Trimmer loader (trimmer helper, line-up man).— Practically all of
the output of the mill needs to be cut into standard lengths, or to be
squared at the ends by the trimmer saws. Trimmer loaders, some­
times called trimmer helpers or line-up men, are stationed at the
front of the trimmer and place the lumber in such a position on the
trimmer table that it will be carried against the trimmer saws at a
right angle to their cutting edge. The capacity of the trimmer is
limited only by the quantity of lumber that trimmer loaders and
operators can handle. If not more than two head saws are used
one trimming machine may take care of the entire product, and in
this case the work of the trimmer loaders is strenuous. On the




DESCRIPTION OF PROCESSES AND OCCUPATIONS.

183

other hand, if a trimming machine is used for each head saw, the
work of the trimmer loaders is not exacting.
Trimmer operator.— It is the duty of the trimmer operator to
bring into position the proper saw for cutting each board as it is
carried over the trimmer table. Many boards need only to be
squared at both ends but some boards may have knots or other
imperfections which, if not removed, would affect the grade of the
board. By trimming out a portion of the board two shorter boards
of higher grade are produced. The work of the trimmer operator
requires a knowledge of lumber grades and the demands of the mar­
ket as well as a quick judgment in the manipulation of the saws.
In some operations men of equal grade work interchangeably at trim­
ming and loading.
Timber trimmer.— If timbers form a considerable part of the
product of the mill a timber trimmer may be used to square the
ends or to cut timbers to specified lengths. The trimmer consists
usually of one or two circular saws arranged opposite dead rolls
over which the timbers are pushed by hand; or a circular saw, called
a jump saw, may be so placed below the rolls that it can be raised
by a lever. If timbers form but a small part of the output a cross­
cut saw, pulled by hand, may be used to trim them. Timber may
be trimmed in the mill, but more often the work is done in the yard
or at the dock. The operators are known as timber trimmers,
jump-saw men, and cut-off men.
R EFU SE— SLASHER, H OG , A N D B U R N E R .

The manufacture of lumber results in a large amount of refuse
or waste product in the form of sawdust, slabs, bark, edgings, and
ends of boards or defective parts removed by the trimmer. It is
important that this refuse be removed promptly from different
machines and from the rolls or transfer chains used to convey the
lumber and that it be disposed of when thus removed. It is removed
by being pushed onto transfer chains, as stated previously, by men
stationed at or near each machine, or, in the case of sawdust and
ends from trimming boards, it may fall into a chute and be carried
along by a chain having block-like projections. It is disposed of in
four ways: by being used as fuel in the power plant, by being
burned as refuse, by being cut into stove lengths and sold as wood,
and by being utilized as a by-product, which will be described later,
under “ Lath, stave, and heading mills.”
Slasher man.— Slabs and edgings to be used for power-house fuel,
or for wood and other by-products, are carried transversely by
chains over the slasher saws and cut into 4-foot lengths. A slasher
man is stationed near the saws and keeps the material moving evenly




18 4

LUMBER M ANUFACTURING.

along the chains. He may have a helper in large operations, but
the work of either slasher man or helper is that of a common laborer.
Hog man.— All the fuel for the power plant is supplied from the
waste of the sawmill or subsidiary plants. All modern power plants
in sawmill operations are provided with automatic feeding devices,
and it is necessary that the fuel be reduced to particles small enough
to be fed in this way. Sawdust is carried directly to the furnaces,
but other sawmill waste used for the furnaces is ground in a machine
called the hog. The hog man must see that the waste is fed evenly
into the hopper and that nothing is put in which might choke the
machine.
Conveyor man.— Waste that is not used for any other purpose is
carried over a conveyor chain to a point come distance from the mill
and burned, usually in a tall cylindrical sheet-iron burner fitted
with a wire-mesh top to prevent the escape of sparks. The quantity
of refuse burned in this way depends upon the extent to which waste
is utilized in by-products, but it is always considerable. One or
more conveyor men are stationed along the conveyor chains leading
to the burner or to the hog, to keep the waste from clogging the
chains.
CLEA N IN G , OILING, A N D M ISCELLANEOUS SAW M ILL L A BO R .

Cleaner or sweeper.— Common laborers, called sw eepers or cleaners,
are employed to prevent the accumulation of dust and small particles
of bark and wood about the machines and on the sawmill floor.
Most of the work is done at night or between shifts, but some cleaning
is necessary while the mill is running.
Mill oiler.— It is the duty of the mill oilers to oil the bearings
not supplied with automatic lubricators, to keep lubricator cups
filled with oil, and to examine all bearings at regular intervals to
see that they do not become heated. The oiler must have a knowl­
edge of sawmill machinery, but he is not a skilled employee.
Extra or spare man.—Most mills employ several extra or spare
men to do miscellaneous work about the sawmill and to fill positions
temporarily vacated by regular employees. Thus, if an edgerman is
not working, an edger helper may take his place and an extra man
will be used to fill the helper’s place.
FILING.

Filer.— The work of the filer is highly skilled, and usually the
highest paid of mill labor. Upon him more than upon any other
employee depends the uninterrupted operation of the mill and the
quality of the output. The teeth of saws must be ground and fitted
or widened at the cutting point to prevent binding; the entire saw
must be hammered to give it the tension necessary to stand the
strain of operation and to cause it to run true. If a band saw breaks




DESCRIPTION OF PROCESSES AND OCCUPATIONS.

185

or is damaged, it may be repaired for further use by grinding the
broken ends at an angle and brazing them together, or b y cutting out
the damaged portion and brazing in another piece. A considerable
part of the filing-room work is done by machinery, but some hand­
work is necessary. It may be necessary to change band head saws
as often as four times a day in the usual course of sawmill operations,
and for convenience in changing the filing room is directly above the
head saw. The head-saw crew usually assist in changing saws.
Filer’s helper.— In some operations filing is done by contract, the
head filer employing and paying his helpers or assistants. In other
operations helpers are paid by the company, and may be designated
as round-saw filers or lath-mill filers, but the work is that of a helper
and is a necessary training for the position of head filer.
S O R T IN G

GREEN LU M BER.

The chains which carry the product over the trimmer saws deposit
it outside the mill on another set of transfer chains running length­
wise of a platform called the sorting table. The table is the width
of the trimmer saws, and from 50 to 100 feet or more in length,
depending on the quantity of product to be handled. It has a roof
over it, for protection from the weather, but the sides are not
inclosed.
Grader.— The grader stands at the head of the sorting table and
marks the boards with chalk or pencil to indicate the grade and
disposition to be made of them. He must know lumber grades and
be able to inspect and decide quickly upon the grade of each board.
A marker may be employed whose duty it is to mark the grades
indicated by the grader, but this work is more often done by the
grader or by a helper. If an output record is kept of lumber passing
over the chains, the grader measures the boards for lumber feet con­
tents. This is called the lumber measure or tally, as distinct from the
log scale at the log deck. It is a more correct measure of the quan­
tity of output than the log scale, but the rapidity with which boards
must be measured is apt to result in a mental estimate instead of an
accurate measurement.
Grader’s helper.— Sometimes a grader's helper is provided whose duty
is to turn the board when necessary for inspection by the grader, or to
mark the designated grades. This work may be strenuous if much
of the product is low-grade stock, requiring an inspection of both
sides of the boards.
Tallyman.— If lumber is measured at the chains, a tallyman is
employed to record the grades and sizes of boards as indicated by
the grader.
Transfer man (camel-back man, lever man).— In some operations
the sorting table is so arranged that a device called the camel back




18 6

LUMBER MANUFACTURING.

can be elevated b y means of a lever and the product shunted to
another sorting table. The operator is called a camel-back man,
lever man, or transfer man.
Sorter and loader.—Men known as sorters and loaders are stationed
along the table to pull the product from the chains and load it on
trucks, dollies, or other transportation agency for transfer to the
yard, dry kiln, planing mill, or shipping platform. Each sorter is
responsible for but one grade, which has been previously indicated
by the grader.
G R E E N -L U M B E R Y A R D .

Trucker (teamster, driver, electrician, engineer).— The disposition
made of the green lumber after sorting and loading at the sorting
table will depend upon the nature of the product, the scope of
operations, the method of shipment, and market conditions. In
practically all operations, however, use is made of a green-lumber
yard, to which some portion of the product is transferred for air
drying.
The transfer of lumber to the green-lumber yard is but a part
of a general transfer system for moving green or dry lumber to any
part of the yard, to the dry kiln, planing mill, shed, or shipping
platform. The point to which the product is moved is seldom a
matter of pay-roll record, all such work being charged to lumber
transfer. Methods of transfer vary widely. In most common use,
however, is a tramway system, and lumber is moved on tramcars
over steel or wooden rails. In such a system the vicinity of the
sorting table is a miniature railroad yard. Tracks radiate from
switching centers and run at right angles to the sorting table. These
tracks are sufficient in number so that enough cars to receive the
different grades of lumber are within reach of the sorters and loaders.
In some operations a break is made in the tracks by a troughlike
depression a short distance from the sorting table and parallel to
it. Tracks are placed at the bottom of this depression, upon which
a transfer car, carrying a short connecting track, is moved by transfer
men in order to place an empty car carried on it in position at the
table or to remove a loaded car.
Other methods of transfer involve the use of plank or dirt drive­
ways, tracks for locomotive cranes, or framework for overhead
monorails. A series of dead rolls may be used for the moving of
heavy timbers.
Hand, animal, and electric power is used to move the cars, trucks,
or loads away from the sorting table. Hand trucking is in use where
labor is cheap or the distance to be moved is not great. Two­
wheeled carts are commonly used in hand trucking. In some opera­
tions the tramway system is built on an inclined plane leading from
the mill to the yard and the tramcars are pushed by hand. Animals




DESCRIPTION OF PROCESSES AND OCCUPATIONS.

187

may be used to pull the empty cars back to the sorting chains or
to pull loaded cars on tramways which are not constructed on the
gravity system. Two-wheeled animal-drawn vehicles are in common
use for trucking lumber in operations where there is no tram­
way system. Teamsters or drivers in animal trucking may care
for the teams at the barn, or a barn man may be employed for
this purpose.
In large operations an electric tractor, a locomotive crane, an
electric locomotive, or a monorail system is used for transferring
lumber. The electric tractor and electric locomotive take the place
of hand or animal power in hauling loads. In using the locomotive
crane, and in the monorail system, large loads are first stacked at
the sorting chains, then lifted, transferred, and deposited in a pile
without further work of unloading or piling.
Tipper, stacker, or piler.— For air drying boards are placed in layers
with strips between the layers to permit the circulation of air.
Lumber stacks or piles vary in size, but approximate eight feet in
width, and are built as high as it is convenient to pass the lumber,
usually not exceeding 20 feet. The foundations for outdoor stacks
are permanent and are constructed on an incline, so that the top of
the stack will shed water. A covering of low-grade lumber is placed
over the top of the stack for protection to the lumber beneath.
Stacks are arranged in rows, with sufficient space between alternate
rows for driveways, tramways, or railroad. Lumber may also be
stacked on end, at a slight angle from the perpendicular. For hand
stacking in the yard men work in pairs. One man, called the tipper,
stands on the ground and, using one end of the board as a lever
and a cart wheel or a pyramid shaped device as a fulcrum, tips the
other end of the board up to the pile, where it is put in place by the
piler. Pilers and tippers are usually paid more than hand truckers,
but the work is considered common labor. In many operations
piling is done by contract, the contractors employing their own
helpers.
D R Y -L U M B E R Y A R D .

Unstacker.—Lumber in drying often discolors or checks so that
regrading is necessary. Unstackers tear down piles for such regrad­
ing, or for the purpose of combining two or more small piles.
Trucker.— Lumber which has been air dried is sometimes trans­
ferred to dry-lumber sheds or to other points in the yard. This
work, and also the transfer of dry-kiln and planing-mill product to
the dry sheds, is termed dry-lumber trucking.
Stacker.— Outdoor stacking of dry and green lumber is identical
in method. When dry lumber is stacked in sheds, however, strips
are not used between the layers of boards and the boards are fre­
quently stacked on end.




188

LUMBER MANUFACTURING.
S U B S ID IA R Y O R S U P P L E M E N T A R Y P R O C E S S E S .
D RY KILN .

In every sawmill operation some of the product must be shipped
very soon after manufacture and, if the shipment is b y rail, the
greater weight of green lumber due to the presence of sap is a con­
siderable item in freight charges. Moreover, some kinds of lumber
will discolor or check in the slow process of air drying. To avoid
unnecessary freight charges and depreciation in grade b y air drying,
kilns are used in many operations for the rapid drying of lumber by
artificial heat. Different materials are used in dry-kiln construction,
but the essential principle is to retain the heat used in drying. The
kilns are usually divided lengthwise by one or more walls, and car
tracks run through each section. Steam pipes connected with the
power plant are placed below the tracks.
Sorter.— With the exception of lumber that may be partly air dried
before kiln-drying, lumber for the dry kiln is sorted as it comes from
the trimmer saws of the sawmill. Sorting for the dry kilns differs
from green-lumber sorting for yarding or shipping in that the lumber
is not graded before sorting. Mechanical devices are in common use,
however, in operations where all the product is kiln-dried. In all such
devices bins are used into which the different lengths of boards are
dropped either directly from transfer chains or through slots in the
sorting table.
Stacker.— Stacking for the kiln is done either by hand or by a
mechanical stacker, but in both methods the boards are placed in
layers with cross strips between successive layers as in yard stacking.
In the mechanical stacker the boards are carried sidewise over a
transfer chain and dropped into a perpendicular groove the width of
which corresponds to the thickness of the board. When the groove is
filled the machine is stopped, strips are laid, and the layer of boards is
pushed over b y means of a lever to make room for another layer of
boards. This process is repeated until the stack is completed, when
it is placed on a car for the kiln. In hand stacking men work in pairs
and the stack is built on a truck or tramcar.
Trucker.— Trucking to or from the dry kiln is similar to yard truck­
ing. The cars upon which the stacks are placed are pushed into the
kiln b y hand or drawn b y animal power. In the monorail system a
stack is lifted bodily and transferred to the kiln. The lumber remains
on the car or in the stack until removed from the kiln.
Unstacker.— When the cars have been removed from the kilns the
lumber is unstacked preparatory to storing in the shed, transferring
to the planing mill, or delivery on cars for shipment. If done by
hand, two or more men work at one car. The lumber is placed directly
on trucks or dollies, or it is put on transfer chains and sorted in the
same manner as green lumber. A mechanical unstacker which
reverses the action of the stacker is sometimes used.




DESCRIPTION' OF PROCESSES AND OCCUPATIONS.

189

Grader.— In the process of kiln-drying the grade of lumber may be
altered, and for that reason lumber is graded when unstacked from
the kiln. The work involved is the same as in green-lumber grading.
PLANING MILL.

The planing mill varies in scope from a single machine used to sur­
face low-grade and common stock to a plant more properly de­
scribed as a factory, in which a considerable portion of the output of
the sawmill is used in filling orders for special sizes and shapes.
Usually a planing mill is housed in a separate building. Power for
operation is supplied b y the sawmill power plant or by a distinct plant.
In either case planing-mill refuse, most of which is in the form of fine
shavings or dust, is used for power-house fuel. Hoods are placed over
the machines to catch the dust, which is removed through pipes b y a
vacuum process and blown to the power plant. One or all of the
following machines, depending on the scope of operation, are used in
the planing mill: Green-lumber and dry-lumber surfacers, cut-off
saws, edgers, ripsaws, resaws, tonguing-and-grooving machines, and
molding machines. Employees may be classed as truckers, machine
setters, feeders and helpers, tailers, bundlers, tiers, and graders. To
these should be added a filer, if such work is not done in the filing
room of the sawmill.
Trucker.— Trucking to the planing mill may be from dry kiln, yard,
dry shed, or sorting chains. The work is similar to yard or kiln
trucking.
Machine setter.— One or more machinists, known as machine set­
ters or machine men, keep the machines in repair, remove, sharpen,
and replace planer knives, and adjust the machines.
Feeder.— The term “ feeder” m a ybe applied to any employee who
directs the product through a machine, but it is more often used to
denote one who operates a surfacer, a tonguer and groover, or a
molder. Some machines are equipped with automatic feeding devices
so that the feeder simply takes the material from the truck or dolly
and places it in line for the machine. The work necessitates a knowl­
edge of lumber grades in order to work up the boards to the best
advantage in filling orders.
Feeders helper.— When heavy stock is being surfaced, or a fast
machine is used, the feeder may have an assistant called a helper.
The helper aids the feeder in placing the lumber in position for the
machine, and by familiarity with the machine may succeed to the
position of feeder.
Tailer (off-bearer).— The tailer or off-bearer stands behind the ma­
chine and removes the product.
Grader.— When the material is to be graded after passing through
the machine, the grader stands behind the machine and marks the
boards for separation into grades, or he may himself sort the grades.




19 0

LUMBER MANUFACTURING.

Bundler, tier, and loader.— If the work of sorting is not done by the
grader, a bundler sorts such material as molding, ceiling, siding, and
flooring and places it in racks in the desired quantity for a bundle. A
tier secures it with pieces of tarred cord and places it on a truck for
transfer to the shed or to the shipping platform. The work of loading
the product on the trucks may be done by an employee called a loader.
LA TH , S T A V E ,

A N D H EA D IN G MILLS.

A considerable portion of what would otherwise be waste in the
manufacture of lumber may be converted into salable by-products
in the form of laths, pickets, table squares, staves, and barrel heads.
Slabs, edgings, and cull boards are thus used after being cut into
4-foot lengths by the slasher as previously described in sawmill
operations. In some sections such by-product is called dimension
stock, and the place of manufacture, which is usually beneath the
sawmill floor, is called the dimension mill. The work may be done
under the direction of a foreman employed by the company, or it
may be managed by a contractor who. pays his own employees and
receives a gross amount from the company. Machines used in the
manufacture of these by-products are not identical for all products,
but the processes of manufacture are similar.
Picker (stoclc picker, conveyor man).—Men known as pickers, stock
pickers, or conveyor men are stationed along the conveyor chain
leading from the slasher saws of the sawmill to pick out material
suitable for by-product. This material is piled: beside lath and
other by-product machines or placed in chutes or on conveyor
chains that carry it to a point readily accessible to the operators
of such machines.
Bolter.— A bolting saw is used to reduce the material to “ bolts”
or blocks of a width and thickness suitable for conversion into the
desired by-product. The employee who pushes the material over
this saw is called a bolter.
Puller.— Off-bearers or tailers of the bolting machines are called
pullers. They remove the bolts as they are sawed and see that
waste does not accumulate.
Feeder.— Bolts are pushed over small circular or band saws and
cut into laths or other by-product. A cylinder-shaped saw, with the
teeth on one circular edge, is used to cut barrel staves. Operators of
machines are called feeders.
Off-hearer and tier.— Men behind the saws are called off-bearers
or tailers. Laths and other product to be handled in bundles is
bunched, usually by a machine, and tied by the off-bearer or by a tier.
SHINGLE MILL.

In manufacturing shingles on a large scale an entire plant is
devoted to that purpose. Many companies, however, operating




DESCRIPTION OF PROCESSES AND OCCUPATIONS.

19 1

plants intended primarily for the manufacture of lumber find it
profitable to install shingle-making machinery in order to utilize
butts of logs or entire logs, the timber of which is more valuable
in the form of shingles than in the form of lumber. Although such
machines vary in type to suit the kind and size of logs used, all
are adapted to the following processes: Cutting the logs into blocks
16 inches in length, the blocks being called stock; removing the bark
from the blocks with a barking machine; slabbing the blocks and
cutting slabbed blocks into shingles by means of circular or upright
saws; and sorting and bunching the shingles for the market. Cutting
the slabbed blocks into shingles and bunching them for the market
are the processes most peculiar to the shingle mill. In cutting
shingles the block is held at either end b y a ratchet so constructed
that it automatically sets over first the top and then the bottom
of the block, giving the familiar wedge shape to the shingle. The
bunching of shingles is a weaving process, the shingles being placed
in layers or courses so that the ends of the bunch expose the butts
or thickened base of the shingles, the thinner ends of alternate
layers overlapping in the middle. The employees are called shingle
weavers or packers, and usually work at piece rates.
CLAPBOAKD MILL.

The manufacture of clapboards is peculiar to New England mills,
and is usually carried on as a process supplementary to sawmill
operation.

Selected spruce and hemlock logs are used for stock, and butts or
entire logs are cut into lengths of 49 inches. The usual practice is
to make the selection of stock from logs brought to the sawmill deck
in the manufacture of other lumber. The blocks are conveyed to
the clapboard mill, which is usually beneath the sawmill floor, and
permitted to accumulate until the quantity is sufficient for several
weeks’ operation. The clapboard mill may be operated by a clap­
board sawyer who employs his own crew and goes from mill to mill,
or by employees of the sawmill company who perform other work
during the accumulation of stock.
Unlike the manufacture of other lumber, the blocks are not slabbed
prior to being sawed into boards. Instead, the bark is removed, leav­
ing a cylindrical block which is sawed lengthwise into wedge-shaped
sections radiating from a central core, the block being fastened at
the ends and turned on its longitudinal axis for successive cuts.
When the block has been revolved completely, it is removed from
the machine, the boards are pried and split loose from the core,
dressed on the thick edge and one side, trimmed at the ends, and
tied in bundles. The finished clapboard is 48 inches long, 7 inches
wide, one-half inch thick at one edge, and tapers to the other edge.
100531°— 18— Bull. 225----- 13




192

lum ber

m a n u f a c t u r in g

.

SHIPPING.

Some o f the output of the sawmill and subsidiary plants is often sold
locally, and the company may maintain a retail yard with salesmen
and graders and facilities for local delivery. The term u shipping,” as
distinct from local delivery, is applied to the transportation of the
product either by railroad or water to a point outside the city or town
in which the sawmill is located.
The method of handling the product for shipping is determined
somewhat by the means of transportation. In either railroad or
water shipments, however, the lumber must be transferred to a ship­
ping platform or to a dock, from which it is loaded.
Unstacker.—Green lumber shipped from the sorting chains is
loaded at the chains for transfer to the dock or shipping platform.
If lumber is shipped from yard piles or dry sheds, it must be unstacked
and loaded upon trucks or cars for transfer to a point from which it
may be loaded for shipping.
Trucker.— The transfer of the product for shipping is a part of
the transfer system for moving the product from the sawmill, and
the work may be done by employees who also transfer lumber to the
yard, dry kiln, planing mill, or dry shed.
Timber sizer.—The heavy strain to which the head saw is subjected
and the speed of head saw and carriage operations may result in
product which is irregular in size. To correct such irregularity in
timbers for export, which must conform closely to order specifica­
tions, timbers are sawed slightly larger than such specifications and
reduced to exact sizes by a heavy planer called the timber sizer. The
timber sizer is sometimes housed in the sawmill, convenient to the
timber trimmer previously described. More often, however, both
sizer and trimmer are placed in the yard or at the dock, and timbers
are moved to them over dead rolls.
Grader.— Lumber is graded before it is loaded for shipment. The
grader must be able to grade and scale accurately in order to protect
the company and to fill special orders. For export trade an associa­
tion of mills generally maintains an inspection bureau. Each mill
pays for cargo inspection, and the association certifies as to grade and
scale.
Tallyman*
—The tallyman makes a record of the grade and scale
indicated by the grader.
Loader.— In loading lumber for shipment care must be taken to
secure it so that its position will remain fixed during transit. Em­
ployees called loaders are used in rail shipments. In water ship­
ments cranes and derricks are used to transfer the product from the
wharf or dock to the vessel. Lumber handlers, longshoremen, and
stevedores are employed in handling the lumber.




LOGGING WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR.

193

LOGGING WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR.
As an additional feature of the lumber investigation, information
was secured in 1915 relating to the wages and hours of labor in logging.
In securing data for this part of the report the Bureau confined
itself to those establishments which did both logging and sawing and
whose records as to logging were accessible at or near the mill, so the
agents who secured the data relating to sawmills could also get infor­
mation relating to logging without much additional expense.
Under these limitations some States represented in the sawmill
section of this report will not be found in the logging section. Log­
ging schedules were obtained as follows:
Establishments.

Alabama.................. ...........................
Arkansas............. ....................
California............ ...........................
Florida................ ............................
Georgia................ ...........................
Idaho................... ...........................
Louisiana............ ...........................
Mississippi.......... ............................
Montana.............. ...........................
North Carolina. . ............................

4

9
11

3
10

3
14
9
3

Establishments.

Oregon.................. .........................
South Carolina . . ...................
Tennessee............. ...................
Texas.................... ....................
Virginia...................... ...........................
Washington.............. ...........................
West Virginia. . . ............................

1

8
4
6
7
6

9
--------

Total. . . . . . ...........................

118

11

The conditions under which logging is carried on, being done in
the open where the men are exposed to the weather, render the
work more or less irregular. Table 17 shows for 79 logging
camps the number of days each was in operation, and the num­
ber of days idle, by causes of idleness, during the year. It will be
observed that the average days idle on account of slack work was 21.9
and on account of weather conditions, 11.3. The total average days
idle during the year was 42.1.
T able 1 7 .—NUM BER OF D AY S ESTABLISHMENTS W E R E IN OPERATION AND NUMBER
OF D A Y S ID L E , B Y SPECIFIED CAUSES, DU R IN G Y E A R .
Number of week days idle during year
on account of—
State.

Alabama.
Arkansas.




Estab­
lishment
No.

Days in
opera­
tion
during
year.

259
310
310
275
272
278
256
304
235
260
261
279
242

Holidays
and va­
cations.

Slack
work.

Seasonal
and
weather
con­
ditions.

34

i Including time dosed on account of bad weather.

Other
causes.

Total
week
days idle
during
year.

54
3
3
38
41
35
57
9
78
53
52
34
71

LUMBER. M ANUFACTURING.

194
T able

17.—NUMBER OF DAYS ESTABLISHMENTS W E R E IN OPERATION AND NUMBER
OF DAYS IDLE, B Y SPECIFIED CAUSES, DURING Y E A R —Concluded.
Number of week days idle during year
on account of—
Estab­
lishment
No.

California...

248
171
i 315
245
175
168
240
296
189
265
180
295
303
307
279
304
246
298
291
248
191
279
309
287
310
300
297
311
299
270
303
307
298
313
263
311
273
231
298
287
217
279
246
269
294
228
250
265
295
298
293
291
235
284
269
270
299
298
270
244
294
280
281
295
218
300

Florida___
Louisiana.

Mississippi.

Montana............
North Carolina.

South Carolina.
Texas.................

Virginia.

Washington. . .
West Virginia.




Holidays
and va­
cations.

Seasonal
and
weather
con­
ditions.

Slack
work.

4
1
2
2
2
1

9
3
5

Sundays.

65
142

136
144
70

138
145
73
17
124
48
133
18

2
6
8

66

3
6
1

Other
causes.

Total
week
days idle
during
year.

61
141

11

123
39

130
13

10

4
4

2 2

30

2 7

2

4
4
4
9
4
3
4

52

2 11
2 11

18
56
18

3 100

<31

2
2

24

5

21

3

10

2
2
2

16 .................
i2
41

4

3
2
1
2
2
2
2

3
4
4
2
2

4
2

3
3
3
3
5
3
8
8

34
4
26
3
13
16

1
0
6
15

1

47

50

39
80

40
82
15
26
96
34
67
44
19
85
63
48
18
15

2

5 13
5 24
54

90
18

5 13
5 63
M0

72
37
46

17
11

5 22
59
56

59
6 21

74

* 40

62
27
41

« 11

* 12
< 38

4 66
5 11

25
30

2

5

4

2
2
65
12
2

2

6

9
9
11
1
2
2

1
0
6

34
9
67
15

14
43

6

14

18

91

2

* 11

3.7

Average.
1 Including four
2 Repairs.
3 Fire at mill.

Days in
opera­
tion
during
year.

21.9

11.3

5.2

4 Including time closed on account of bad weather.
6 Cause not reported.
6 Bad weather and cause

not reported.

2
0
2
2

78
29
44
43
14
15
43
69
19
33
32
18
95
13
42.1

LOGGING WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR.

195

Many logging camps are located so far from any facilities for board
and lodging that it is necessary for the employer to furnish them.
In the case of certain employees, such as those engaged in the cook­
house, it is customary to furnish board in addition to the money wage
paid. Sometimes this is furnished to other employees. It is more com­
mon, however, to pay employees (other than those who work in the
cookhouse) a certain wage, and then charge them for board, the
amount being deducted from their wages. When board is furnished
in addition to the money wage, the fact is noted in the wage table.
A common custom in some sections is to arrange with outside parties
to conduct the boarding house, making their own price arrangements
with the men. In such cases the employer usually sees to it that the
boarding-house management does not lose anything through default
in payment of board by the employees. Many companies maintain
a general supply store, employees being given trading checks or books
redeemable at the store. Each employee has a board and a store
account, and quite frequently a hospital and medical service account—
which last is a uniform charge against each employee— and a settle­
ment for wages is made in cash on regular pay days.
The value placed upon the board, or the amount charged for it,
differs so widely in different camps, even in the same locality, that it
is very difficult to arrive at any satisfactory basis of comparison. In
some camps the value is based upon the cost to the company, and in
others upon what would be considered a fair charge if the employee
had to board elsewhere.
Table 18 shows the number of camps reported as operating a board­
ing house or “ cookhouse,” and the range of values of board as
reported by the company.
T a b l e 1 8 .—NU M BER OF LOGGING CAMPS OPER ATIN G “ COOK HOUSES” A N D R AN G E

OF V A L U E S OF B O A R D .

State.

Number
of estab­
lish­
Range of values
ments
of board per
reported
week as reported
as oper­
by company.
ating
“ cook­
house.”

Alabama............................................
Arkansas............................................
California...........................................
Florida...............................................
. Georgia..............................................
Idaho..................................................
Mississippi.........................................
Montana............................................
North Carolina.................................
Oregon................................................
South Carolina.................................
Washington......................................
West Virginia...................................

3
3
9
3

6
6

2.77 to
5.25 to
4.20 to

$2.80
4.20
5.25
3.50
3.50
6.30
3.50
6.30
4.15
5.25
3.50
5. 50
4.41

Total........................................

50

1.05 to

6.30




2

3
3
3
4

$2 .77
4.15
2.70
1.05
3.46

to
to
to
to
to

5.25 to
2.80 to

1

4

LUMBER M ANUFACTURING.

196

In Table 19 are shown, for each State from which data were
secured, the number of employees, the full-time hours per week, the
wage rates, and the equivalent rates per hour, by occupations.^
On account of the many differences in organization, nomenclature,
and conditions, no attempt has been made to summarize these figures.
The nature of the industry necessitates certain general processes de­
fined in the description of processes and occupations, pages 147 to 169.
Except in a few instances where one occupation is common to more than
one process group, all occupations fall naturally into the groups used.
The occupations are arranged alphabetically under each classifi­
cation and no attempt has been made to combine those which, while
having different names, indicate the same or similar work. It has
been thought better to use the nomenclature in vogue in the locality
and in the establishment from which the data were secured. This
will account for the appearance in the same State and classification
of different terms meaning nearly if not exactly the same thing.
It will be noticed that the prevailing hours per week are 60 or 66,
either 10 or 11 hours per day being the usual working time. Cook­
house employees and some others are required to work 7 days per
week as noted. The wage rates and the equivalent rates per hour are
the actual money wages paid. When an employee receives board in
addition to wages the fact is shown by a note.
In some occupations, notably cutters or sawyers, piece rates of
pay often prevail. Usually in such cases the hours worked by such
employees were not a matter of record, so that it was not possible to
compute hourly earnings. Occasionally, however, the time worked
was on record and in such cases the equivalent hourly rate has been
computed and appears in the table. This explains why in some cases
of piece rates an hourly equivalent appears while in other cases the
note “ pieceworkers” is given.
T a b l e 1 9 .—N UM BER OF EM PLO YEES, F U L L -T IM E HO U R S PER W E E K , AN D

R ATES

OF W AG ES IN TH E LOGGING IN D U S T R Y , B Y OCCUPATIONS, 1915.
ALABAM A.

[In the wage-rate column “ h ” stands for “ per hour,” “ d ” for “ per day,” “ w ” for “ per week,” and “ m ”
for “ per month.” For glossary of occupations see pp. 160-169.]
No.
Classification and
of
occupation of em­ em­
ployees .
ploy­
ees.

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

Wage
rate.

1
1
1
1

66
66
66
66

$2.25 d.
1 1.35 d.
i 1.17 d.
i 1.15 d.

1
1
1

66
66
66

General.
Blacksmiths.............
D o.......................
Do.......................
D o.......................
Blacksmiths’ help­
ers ...........................
Car repairers.............
Do.......................




Cents.

i

1.35
1 .2 2
1 .0 0

And board.

d.
d.
d.

20.5
1 12.3
i 1 0 .6
1 10.5
12.3
1 1.1

9.1

No.
Classification and
of
occupation of em­ em­
ployees.
ploy­
ees.

Full­
time
his.
per
wk.

Wage
rate.

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

General—Contd.
Cooks.........................
D o.......................
Do.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Do.......................
Cooks’ helpers..........
Dft___________
2 Seven

1
1
1
1
1
1
1

days.

d.
d.
11.25 d.
2 77 i 27.00 m.
68
1.85 d.
2 77 i 2 0 .0 0 m.
2 77
1. 68 J d.
03
i.50 d.
66
66
66

1 82.09
1 1.50

Cents.
113.2
i 13.6
i 11.4
i 8 .1
i 7.7
i6
i 6 .2
i 4.5

LOGGING WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR.

197

T a b l e 1 9 . — NUMBER

OF EM PLOYEES, FULL-TIME HOURS PER W EE K , AND RATES
OF W AGES IN THE LOGGING IN DU STRY, B Y OCCUPATIONS, 1915—Continued.
ALABAM A—Concluded.

No.
Classification and
of
occupation of em­ em­
ployees.
ploy­
ees.

Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

Wage
rate.

General—Concld.

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
liour.

Cents.

Filers......... .............
Flunkeys................. .
D o.....................
Do......................
Repair men..............
Timber riders..........
Timekeepers........... .
Not reported.......... .

1 $1.15

17.7

11.00

<)
2

19.1
16.8

i 11.4
23.6
15.7

(3
)

Cutting, etc.

2.00

Foremen...................
Do.....................
D o.....................
Foremen, assistant.
Sawgers...................

1.75
1 1.50
1.25
il.OO
1.90

(2
)

do: : : : : : : : : ; : ; :

18.2
15.9
1 13.6
11.4
i 9.1
18.2

(3
)

Hauling, skidding,
and loading.
Brakemen...............
Deck builders........
Do.....................
Deckers...................
Drivers......................
Do.....................
Do.......... ...........
Drivers, go-devil_
_
Drivers, ox.............
Do..................... .
Drivers,
swing
wagon....................
Do.....................
Do..................... .
Engineers.................
Do......................
D o..................... .
Engineers, loader...
Firemen....................
Foremen...................
Do..................... .
Do..................... .
Do......................
Do..................... .
D o......................
Foremen, teams___
Do.......................
Hook men............... .
Loaders................... .
Do..................... .
Do..................... .
Do......................
Do......................
Do..................... .
Do..................... .
Loaders, go-devil...
Loaders,
swing
wagon....................
Do..................... .
Do..................... .
Pump men...............
Skidding crew.........
Do............ .........
D o......................
Snakers.....................

1 And board.




11.10

1.80
1.45
1.35
i 1.05

11.00
1.85
1.25
1.60
1.25
1.25
1.15

1.00

6
6

Full­
time
Iirs.
per
wk.

E quivalent
rat?
per
hour.

Wage
rate.

Hauling, skidding,
and loading—Cld.

1 10.5

1.85
1.75
i 1.25
2.60
45.00

No.
Classification and
of
occupation of em­ em­
ployees.
ploy­
ees.

12.25
i 2.00
i 1.75
i 75.00
i LOO
i 75.00
165.00
156.25

2.00

15 0. 00
1 1.75

2.25

2.00

1.50
1.26* d.
1.25 d.
il.OO d.
1 -0 0 d.
.90 d.
1.85 d.
.85 d.
1.25 d.
1.45
1.25
1.15

11.00
1 1.50
i 1.00
i.85
1.60

i 10
16.4
13.2
12.3
i 9.5
19.1
17.7
11.4
14.5
11.4
11.4
10.5
9.1
i 20.5
118.2
i 15.9
26.2
i 9.1
i 26.2
122.7
119.7
18.2
i 17.5
i 15.9
20.5
18.2
13.6
11.5
11.4
19.1
9.1
8 .2

17.7
7.7
11.4
13.2
11.4
10.5
i 9.1
113.6
i 9.1
i 7.7
14.5

s $0.35 to $0.49 per day.

Teamsters.................
Top leaders..............
Do.......................
Do.......................
D o.......................
Water boys...............

Cents.
4
26

66
66
66
66
66
66
66

$1 . 3o
i 1 .0 0
1.65
1.60
i 1.50
1.30
.60

5

66

1

66

1

66

1

66

1
1
1

1
1

4
1
2

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

12.3
i 9.1
15
14.5
i 13.6

1 1.25

d.

1 11.4

2.25

d.

20.5

1 1 .8

5.5

Railroad construc­
tion and mainte­
nance.
Bridgemsn................
Engineers,
con­
struction................
Firemen, construc­
tion .........................
Foremen, bridgemen........................
Foremen, construc­
tion .........................
Foremen, mainte­
nance .....................
Do.......................
Foremen, section...
Foremen, track........
D o.......................
Laborers-.................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Laborers, mainte­
nance .....................
Do.......................
Section bosses..........
D o.......................
Section hands..........
D o ......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
D o.......................
Do.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Straw bosses.............
Swampers.................
Do.......................
Water boys...............
Do.......................
D o.......................

4
1
1
1

4
1
6

7
3
2
2
6

32
2

16
1
22
2

45
3
3
25
1
1

4
3
1
1
2

(4) d.

13.4

1 2 .0 0

d.

i 18.2

66

2.05

d.

18.6

66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66

1.60
1.50

d.
d.
2 .0 0 d.
1.62 d.
1.25 d.
.93 d.
.83 d.
.80 d.

14.5
13.6
18.2
14.7
11.4
8.5
7.5
7.3

.90
1.85
.80
.75
.70
.65
i 1.50
1.85
1.75
.60
.50
1.40

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d ..

i 7.7
7.3
6. S
6.4
5.9
i 13.6
i 7.7
16.8
5.5
4.5
13.6

1.60
3.20
2.75
2.25
45.00
1.80
1.35
1.25
1.35

d.
d.
d.
d.
m.
d.
d.
d.
d.

14.5
29.1
25
20.5
15.7
16.4
12.3
11.4
12.3

66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66

i.m
.90“
i 1.75
1.75
1.60
1.25
1.15
(4)
1 . 12 *
il.OO

66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66

1 .0 0

1 0 .2
8 .2

i 15.9
15.9
14.5
11.4
10.5
10.4
1 0 .2

i 9.1
9.1
8 .2

Railroad operation.
Brakemen............. .
Engineers.................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Firemen....................
Do.......................
D o.......................
Not reported............

3$0,032 to $0,045.

1
1
1
2
1
1

3
1
1

4 More than one rate.

LUMBER MANUFACTURING.

198

19.—NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES, FULL-TIME HOURS P E R W E E K , AND R A T E
OF WAGES IN THE LOGGING INDUSTRY, B Y OCCUPATIONS, 1915-Continued.

T able

ARKAN SAS.

No.
Classification and
of
occupation of em­ em­
ployees.
ploy­
ees.

Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

Wage
rate.

General.
Barn bosses............
Barn men...............
D o.....................
Blacksmiths............
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
Carpenters..............
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
Car repairers...........
D o.....................
Car repairers’ help­
ers..........................
D o .....................
Chainmen, survey­
ing.........................
Cookees....................
Cooks.......................
D o.....................
D o.....................
Cooks, assistant___
Feeders, assistant...
Filers..........................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Flunkeys...................
Foremen...................
D o.......................
Foremen, carpen­
ters..........................
Foremen, woods----Foremen,
woods,
assistant.................
D o.......................
Helpers, shop...........
Laborers...................
D o.......................
D o .......................
Machinists................
D o.......................
Machinists, assist­
ant..........................
Machinists' helpers.
Roadmasters............
Saw bosses and
filers.......................
Scalers.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o .......................
D o.......................
D o .......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Stablemen.................
Do.......................
D o .......................
D o.......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o.......................
Surveyor’s helpers..
Team bosses.............
D o.......................
D o .......................
1 Seven days.
2 And board.




Cents.
i 70
i 70
i 70
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60

$54.00
60.00
55.00
3. 50
3.00
.30
75.00
. 270
. 225
2. 25

m.
m.
m.
d.
d.
h.
m.
h.
h.
d.
2 .0 0 d.
.2 0 h.
.18 h.
. 175 h.
.30 h.
.25 h.
h.
J.
h

.2 0

.15

60
1.75 d.
2 1 .0 0 d.
i 70
2 2 .0 0 d.
i 70
i 70 2 60.00 m.
i 70 2 50.00 m.
2 1 .0 0 d.
i 70
55.00 m.
i 70
3.00 d.
60
60
2.50 d.
.225 h.
60
. 210 h.
60
2. 500 d.
i 70
60 150.00 m.
2.50 d.
60

17.8
19.8
18.1
35
30
30
28.8
27
22.5
22.5
20
20

18
17.5
30
25
20

15
17.5
210
2 20

U 9.8
216.5
210

18.1
30
25
22.5
21

25
57.7
25

60
60

3.50
115.00

d.
m.

35
44.2

60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60

112. 50
. 433
1 . 20
(3)
. 160
1.50
125.00
.25

m.
h.
d.
h.
h.
d.
m.
h.

43.3
43.3
21.4
16
15
48.1
25

(3) m.
1.50 d.
80.00 m.

30.8
15
30.8

60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
i 70
i 70
i 70
i 70
i 70
60
60
60
60
60
60

.30
.29
2. 50
.25
63.00
. 212
2 .0 0
.2 0

50.00
85.00
2.25
65.00
2 . 00
.18
.18
(3)
.150
80.00
. 277
67.50

h.
h.
d.
h.
m.
h.
d.
h.
m.
m.
d.
m.
d.
h.
h.
h.
h.
m.
h.
m.

12

30
29
25
25
24.2
2 1 .2
20
20

19.2
28
22.5
21.4
20

18
18
16.5
15
30.8
27.7
26

No.
Classification and
of
occupation of em­ em­
ployees.
ploy­
ees.

Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

Wage
rate.

1

60

$58.50 m.

2
1
1
2

eo
i 70
i 84
i 84

22
1
1
1

60
eo
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
eo
60
60
60
60
60

(4
)
. 216
.213
.206
. 196
. 194
. 193
. 184
. 177
. 175
.174
.173
.167
. 157
. 154
. 152
. 147
. 145
.08
3.00
2.50
2.50
2.25

60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60

.175
. 275
. 225
. 205

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

General—Concld.
Team bosses............
Unloaders and bark
Watchmen...............
D o.......................
D o.......................

d.
(3) m.
.18 h.
1.50 d.
2 .0 0

Cents.
22.5
20

20.5
18
12.5

Cutting, etc.
Cutters......................
Fellers........................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Do.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Foremen...................
D o.......................
Sawyers....................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Water boys...............
Not reported............

1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2

9
36
1

9
72
2

39

h.
h.
h.
h.
h.
h.
h.
h.
h.
h.
h.
h.
h.
h.
h.
h.
h.
h.
d.
d.
d.
d.
2 .0 0 d.
. 175 h.
.15 h.
(<)
1 .0 0 d.
(6) d.

(4
)
2 1 .6

21.3
2 0 .6

19.6
19.4
19.3
18.4
17.7
17.5
17.4
17.3
16.7
15.7
15.4
15.2
14.7
14.5
8

30
25
25
22.5
20

17.5
15
(<)
10

(6)

Hauling, skidding,
and loading.
Brakemen and oil­
ers ...........................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Drivers, ox...............
Engineers.................
Engineers, loader...
Engineers, locomo­
tive .........................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Firemen....................
D o.......................
Firemen, loader___
D o..........*...........
D o.......................
Firemen, locomotive
D o.......................
D o.......................

* More than one rate.
* Pieceworkers.

1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60

.2 0

. 198
.19
. 188
.186
. 184
.181
2.25
67.50
70.00
(3
)
85.00
3.00
(3)
58.50
.2 0

36.00
75.00
. 203
1.75
2.25
2 .0 0
.2 0

5 $1.50 to $2 .
6 $0.15 to $0.20.

h.
h.
h.
h.
h.
h.
h.
h.
h.
h.
h.
d.
m.
m.
d.
m.
d.
d.
m.
h.
m.
m.
h.
d.
d.
d.
h.

17.5
27.5
22.5
20.5
20

19.8
19
18.8
18.6
18.4
18.1
22.5
26
26.9
32.9
32.7
30
23.6
22.5
20

13.8
28.8
20.3
17.5
22.5
20
20

LOGGING WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR.

199

T a b l e 1 9 . — NUMBER

OF EM PLOYEES, FULL-TIME HOURS PER W E E K , AND RATES
OF W AGES IN THE LOGGING INDUSTRY, B Y OCCUPATIONS, 1915—Continued.
ARKAN SAS—Continued.

No.
Classification and
of
occupation of em­ em­
ploy­
ployees.
ees.

Full­
time
hrs.
per

Equiv­
alent
rate
per

Wage
rate.

w k.

h ou r.

Hauling , skidding,
and loading— Cld.

Foremen................
D o...................
Foremen, teams. . .
Laborers................
D o...................
D o...................
D o ................... .
Laborers, loading...
Loadermen.............
D o .....................
D o .....................
D o .....................
D o .....................
Loaders, head.........
D o.....................
D o .....................
Loaders, machine...
Team bosses............
D o.....................
Teamsters...............
D o .....................
D o .....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
Tong hookers..........
do: : : ; : : : : ; : ; : :

D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
Top loaders.............
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
Unloaders................

Cents.
). 35
j. 00

00
L 75
.
).

0)
0)

L 50
.
.15
00
40
34
75. 00
175 h.
50* m,
00 m,
277 h.
110. 00
h.
>.00 m.
2.00 d.
.2 0 h.
0) h.
. 185 h.

0) b.

.18
L 75
.
. 175
.16
. 159
. 158
.157
. 146
.2 2

.208
. 204
8.00

.20
0 )
1.90
.189
0 )
.183

0)

1 25
.

0 )
.215
J 0
.0
.2 0

. 144

h.
d.
h.
h.
h.
h.
h.
h.
h.
h.
h.
d.
h.
h.
d.
h.
d.
h.
d.
d.
d.
h.
d.
h.
h.

35
25
30.8
17.5
15.4
15.2
15
15
40
40
34
28.8
17.5
43.3
42.3
27.7
42.3
40
25
20
20
19.4
18.5
18.5
18
17.5
17.5
16
15.9
15.8
15.7
14.6
22

20
.8

20.4
20
20
19.5
19
18.9
18.4
18.3
17.8
22.5

21.6
21.5




1.80
1. 75

18
17.5
17.4
20

0 ) d.
1.75 d.

18.4
17.5

2.00

20

0)
.20

0)
0)
2. 00
3.60
92.00
.30
75.00
2. 75
67. 50

19.4
23.5
20
36
35.4
30
28.8
27.5
26

Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

Wage
rate.

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

Railroadconstruction
and maintenance—
Continued.
Foremen...................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Do.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Foremen, section...
D o.......................
D o.......................
Grade men...............
D o.......................
,Do.......................
Laborers....................
Do.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Do.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Right-of-way men..
Sawyers....................
D o.......................
Section men.............
D o.......................
D o.......................
Slip men...................
Teamsters.................
Trackmen.................
D o.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................

20

20
14.4

Railroad construction
and maintenance.

Axmen....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
Bridgemen..............
Carriers, rails and
ties........................
D o .....................
Engineers, locomo­
tive.......................
Firemen..................
Firemen, locomotive
D o . .............
Foremen............
D o................
D o................
D o ................
D o................
D o................

No.
Classification and
of
occupation of em­ em­
ployees.
ploy­
ees.

Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
D o.......................

1More than one rate.

60
60
1
60
1
60
8
60
2
60
6
60
2
60
3
60
1
60
1
60
2
60
4
60
1
60
1
60
1
60
1
60
7
60
1
60
20 1 60
1
60
3
60
5
60
1
60
1
60
2
60
1
60
1
60
41
60
1
60
9
60
4
60
1
60
7
60
17
60
1
60
38
60
2
60
10
60
7
60
1
60
6
60
3
60
2
60
1
60
1
60
11
60
12
60
1
60
1
60
1
60
1
60
1
60
1
60
3
60
1
60
1
60
1
60
1
60
16
60
1
60
1
60
2
60
1
60
1
60
2
60
2
60
2
60
60
26
1

3

$0.26
2.50
60.00
2.25
. 225
. 203
2 .0 0
.2 0

50.00
1.90
.18
1.75
. 175
2.50
60.00
2.25
2 .0 0

. 175
. 165
.15
2 .0 0

1.75
.175

(l)
)
)
)
)
1.50
.15
.135
1.50
,
1.75
1.60
0 )
1.50
0
0
0
0

2 .0 0

1.85
2 .0 0
0 )
.2 0

1.90
. 185
.183
0)
1.75
. 175
0 )
C
1)
0 )
0 )
1.65
.165
0 )
(x)
C
1)
.161
1.60
.16
C
1)
. 158
, 157
0)
1.55
. 154
. 152
0 )
1.50

h.
d.
m.
d.
h.
h.
d.
h.
m.
d.
h.
d.
h.
d.
m.
d.
d.
h.
h.
h.
d.
d.
h.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
h.
h.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
h.
h.
d.
h.
h.
h.
d.
li.
hh.
h.

h.

d.
h.
d.
h.
h.
h.
d.
h.
h.
h.
h.
h.
d.
h.
h.
d.
d.

Cents.
26
25
23.1
22.5
22.5
20.3
20
20

19.2
19
18
17.5
17.5
25
23.1
22.5
20

17.5
16.5
15
20

17.5
17.5
16.6
16.4
15.9
15. 6
15.2
15
15
13.5
15
18.3
17.5
16
15.2
15
20

18.5
20
2 2 .2
20

19
18.5
18.3
18.3
17.5
17.5
17.4
17.1
16.8
16.7
16.5
16.5
16.4
16.3
16.2
16.1
16
16
15.9
15.8
15.7
15.6
15. 5
15.4
15.2
15.1
15

LUMBER MANUFACTURING.

200

T able 19.—NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES, FULL-TIME HOURS P E R WEEK!, AND RATES
OF W AGES IN THE LOGGING IN DU STRY, B Y OCCUPATIONS, 1915—Continued.
ARKAN SAS—Concluded.
No,
Classification and
of
occupation of em­ em­
ploy­
ployees.
ees,

Full­
time
lirs.
per
wk.

Equiv­
alent

Wage
rate.

rate

per
hour.

No. Full­
Classification and
of time
occupation of em­ em­ hrs.
ploy­ per
ployees.
ees. wk.

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

Wage
rate.

Railroad operation—

Railroad construction
and maintenance —

Concluded.

Concluded.

Cents.
$0.15
. 148
. 146
. 144
1.40
.14
.135
.13
. 129
. 128
. 126
1.25
.125
.175

Trackmen.................
Do.......................
D o . . . .................
D o.......................
Do.......................
D o.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
D o.......................
D o...............
Do.......................
Do.......................
D o.......................
Trackwalkers...........
Water boys.............

.10

li.
h.
h.
h.
d.
h.
h.
h.
h.
h.
h.
d.
h.
h.
h.

15
14.8
14.6
14.4
14
14
13.5
13
12.9

1 .8
2
1 .6
2

12.5
12.5
17.5

1
0

Railroad operation.

Brakemen.................
Do.......................
Do.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Do.......................
Conductors...............
Do.......................
Engineers.................
Do.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Do.......................
D o .. . .................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
D o.......................
Firemen....................
Do.......................

2 .0 0

d.

.20 h
.

1.75 d.
. 175 h.
0 ) d.
.17 li.
1.65 d.
. 162 h.
83.33
.30
.45
4. 25
3.60
80.00
3.00
.30
.299 h.
76.50 m.
75.00 m.
. 277 h.
2.75 d.
70.00 m.
67.50 m.
.26 h.
.225 h.
.30 h.
.25 h.

2
0
2
0

’17.5
17.5
17.1
17
16.5
16.2
32.1
30
45
42.5
36
30.8
30
30
29.9
29.4
28.8
27.7
27.5
26.9
26
26
22.5
30
25

Firemen..................
D o . ...................
D o . ....................
D o.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
D o.......................
Hostlers...................
Do.......................
D o . . ..................
D o.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
D o . . . . '. .............
Do.......................
D o.......................
Do.......................
Do......................
Do..................... .
Hostlers’ helpers___
Oilers.........................
Pum pmen...............
Pump men’s help­
ers...........................
Switchmen...............
Do......................
Do......................
Do..................... .
D o..................... .

60
60
60
60
60
60
60
2 70
2 84
60
2 70
2 77

Cents.

$2.25

22.5

2
1
2
0

2 .1 0
.2 0

.18
1.75

18
17.5
16.5
15.8
25
25

<
l)

. 158 h.
2.50 d.
3.00

21
.1
2
0
2
0

(l)
2.00
.20
27
0 60.00
60
0)
2 84
2.00
60
60

27
0
2 91
28
4

1.75
1.65
. 157 h.
. 093 h.
2 .0 0 d.
.18 h.

60
60
60
60
60
60

19.8
19.2
16.7
17.5
16.5
15.7
9.3
16.7
18
19.5

1.75 d.
.25 h.
0 ) d.
.2 0 h.
1.90 d.
1.50 d.

60
60

C d.
)

17.5
25
24

2
0
19
15

Road construction
and maintenance.
Strippers..................
Swampers............... .
D o..................... .
Do.....................
D o.....................
Do..................... .
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do..................... .
Water boys.............

2 .0 0

. 192
. 186
1.75
.175
1.60

2
0

d.
h.
h.
d.
h.

19.2
18.6
17.5
17.5
16
16
15.9
15.7
15
13.6
13.5

0) h
.
0) b.
0) h
.

.15 h.
. 136 h.
. 135 h.
1 .0 0 d.

1
0

CALIFO R N IA.

General—Continued.

General.
Bam bosses..............
Barn men.................
Do.......................
Blacksmiths.... .........
Do.......................
D o.......................
Do.......... ............
D o.......................
D o.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Blacksmith’s help­
ers ...........................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
1 Mere

4
1
1
6
1

3
1

5
1
1
1
1

3
1

4
1

60 $75.00 m.
2 70
2. 25 d.
2 70 3 55.00 m.
60
.40 h.
60
3.70 d.
60
3.50 d.
60
.338 h.
60
3.25 d.
60
80.00 m.
60
3.00 d.
60 8 m o o m.
60
60
60
-60
60

2.75
.275
2.40
2.25
55.00

than one rate.




d.
h.
d.
d.
m.

28.8
22.5
3 18.1
40
37
35
33.8
32.5
30.8
30
3 26.9
27.5
27.5
24
22.5
2 1 .2

Blacksmith’s help­
ers ............. ..........
D o.......................
Bull cooks.................
Camp men................
D o.......................
D o.....................
Carpenters................
D o.......................
D o .......................
B o ... . .................
D o...................
D o ...................
D o.......... ...........
D o.......................
D o . . . , .............
D o .......................
even days.

$0,204 h.
60
60
.19 h.
7 2 70 s 40.00 m.
1 2 70
2.75 d.
1
60
2.75 d.
1 2 70
2.50 d.
1
60
85.00 m.
1
60
3.25 d.
1
60 8 3.00 d.
1
60
.30 h.
2
60
2.75 d.
2
60
.275 h.
1
60
0 ) h.
1
60 3 65.00 m.
1
60
.2 2 h.
1
60 s 40.00 m.
1
2

3

And board.

20.4
19
3 13.2
27.5
27.5
25
32.7
32.5

23
0
30

27.5
5

27.5
26.6
25

2
2

3 15.4




201

LOGGING WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR.

EMPLOYEES, FULL-TIME HOURS PE R W E E K , AND RtATES
.
LOGGING INDUSTRY, B Y OCCUPATIONS, 1915—ContinuedL
CALIFORNIA—Continued.
Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

W age
rate.

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

Cents.

60 $50.00
i 70 2 30.00
i 70 2100.00
i 70 2 90.00
i 70 2 75.00
i 70 2 70.00
i 70 2 2.00
i 70 2 60.00
i 70
(3)
i 70 2 50.00
i 70
(3)
i 70 2 40.00
i 70
(*)
i 84 2 45.00
i 84 2 40.00
i 70 2100.00
i 70 2 9 5 .0 0
i 82* 2105.00
i 82* 2 85.00
1 82? 2 80.00
i 82V 2 65.00
184 2 55.00
i 70 2100.00
i 70 2 90.00
i 70 2 60.00
i 82-j 2 70.00
1821 2 65.00
170 2 50.00
i 82J 2 50.00
1 82] 2 55.00
i 70 2 30.00
i 70 2 45.00
i 70 2 40.00
i 70 2 30.00
4.00
60
.40
60
.37i
60
60
3.50
60
.35
60
3.25
60 2 80.00
3.00
i 70
2 .0 0
60
.281
60
.28
60
60
.27
60
70.00
60
.25
.2 2
60
60 2150.00
60 150.00
60 135.00
60 125.00
60
4.00
60 102.00
60 100.00
60
87.00
60
82.00
60 200.00
60 158.60
60 185.00
60
.20
60
.18
60
55.00
i 70 2 55.00
i 82J 2 40.00
i 821- 2 35.00
i 821 2 25.00
60
2.50
60
90.00
60
4.00

m.
19.2
m.
2 9.9
m. 233
m. 2 29. 7
m. 2 24.7
m. 223.1
d.
2 20
m. 2 19.8
m. 2 17
m. 2 16.5
m. a 14
m. 2 13.2
m. 2 13
m. 2 12.4
m. 2 11
m. 2 33
m. 2 31.3
m. 2 29.5
m. , 2 2-3.9
m. 2 22.4
m. 2 18.2
m. 2 15.1
m. 2 33
m. 2 29.7
m. 2 19.8
m. 2 19.6
m. 2 18.2
m. 2 16.5
m. 3 14
m. 2 15.4
m. 2 9.9
m. 2 14.8
m. 2 13.2
m. 2 9.9
d.
40
h.
40
h.
37.5
d.
35
h.
35
d.
32.5
m. 2 30.8
d.
30
d.
30
28.1
h.
h.
28
h.
27
m.
26.9
h.
25
22
h.
m. 2 57.7
m.
57.7
m.
51.9
m.
48.1
d.
40
m.
39.2
m.
38.5
m.
33.5
m.
31.5
m.
76.9
m.
61
m.
71.2
h.
20
h.
18
m.
21.2
m.
*18.1
m. 211.2
m.
2 9 .8
27
m.
d.
25
m.
34.6
d.
40

No.
Classification and
of
occupation of em­ em­
ployees.
ploy­
ees.

Equiv­

Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

Wage
rate.

alent

rate
per

hour.

General—Concld.
Machinists. . . . . ___
Do.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Managers, camp___
Powder men.............
Repair men..............
Scalers.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Scalers and time­
keepers...................
Stewards...................
D o.......................
Timekeepers............
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Waiters......................
Do.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Do.......................
D o.......................
Do.......................
Waitresses................
D o.......................
Watchmen...............
D o.......... ............
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Water boys...............
Wood bucks.............
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Do.......................
Woodcutters............
Do.......................

1
60
$0.40 h.
1
60
3.75 d.
2
60
.35 h.
1
60
3.00 d.
1 1 82J 2 85.00 m.
1
60
3.00 d.
1
60
3.00 d.
1
60
.30 h.
1
60
65.00 m.
2
60
.25 h.
1
60
60
1
1 1 70
1
60
2
60
1
60
3
60
2
60
1
60
1
60
1 1 70
6 1 70
10 1 70
1 1 70
1 1 84
22 1 70
1 1 84
1 1 70
6 1 70
1
60
1
60
3 1 70
2 184
1 1 84
1 1 70
2 1 70
1 1 84
2 1 70
2 1 84
5 1 84
1
60
2
60

.281 h.
2 150.00 m.
2 6 0.00 m.
85.00 m.
80.00 m.
77.00 m.
75.00 m.
73.60 m.
70.00 m.
65.00 m.
2 55. 00 m.
2 45.00 m.
2 40.00 m.
2 35. 00 m.
2 40. 00 m.
2 30.00 m.
2 30. 00 m.
2 35.00 m.
2 LOO d.
.30 h.
2. 50 d.
2. 25 d.
2.50 d.
70.00 m.
2 40. 00 m.
2 2.50 d.
2 45.00 m.
2 30.00 m.
2 35.00 m.
2 30.00 m.
60.00 m.
50.00 m.

Cents.

40
37.5
35
30
2 23.8
30
30
30
25
25
28.1
57.7
2 19.8
32.7
30.8
29.6
28.8
28.3
26.9
25
«18.1
a 14.8
2 13.2
2 11.5

2

21
1

2 9.9
2 8 .2
2

11.5

21
0

30
25
22.5
2 0 .8

2
2
2

19.2
13.2
25
12.4
2 9.9
2 9. 6
2 8 .2

23.1
19.2

Cutting, etc.
Air-saw men.............
D o . . . .................
Buckers............ ........
D o .......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Do.......................
D o . . . .................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Do.......................
Chopper bosses........
Choppers...................
Do.......................
D o.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
D o . . . .................
Do.......................

3 More than 1 rate, and board,
4 More than one rate.

1

3
26
1

1
1
52
21
58
2
6
1
2
42
2
1
1
1
4
1
1
1

84
2
1

60
3.50 d.
60
3 .0 0 d.
60
.18 h.
60
3.15 d.
60
2. 80 d.
60
(4) d.
60
2.75 d.
60
2. 70 d.
60
.27 h.
60
2.50 d.
60
.242 h.
60
2.20 d.
60
.22 h.
60
.20 h.
60
.18 h.
60
3.25 d.
60 2 65. 00 m.
60
4.00 d.
60
3.50 d.
60
(4) d.
60
3.00 d.
60
<4) d.
60
3.00 d.
60
( 4) d.
60
(4 d.
)

5 Including

bonus.

35
30
18
31.5
28
27.7
27.5
27
27
25
24.2

2
2
2
2
2
0

18
32.5
2 25
40
35
35
5 33. 8
30.2
30.0
28.6
28.5




LUMBER MANUFACTURING.
)F EM PLOYEES, FULL-TIME HOURS PER W E E K , AN D K
5E LOGGING IN DU STRY, B Y OCCUPATIONS, 1915—Continued
CALIFORNIA—Continued.
Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

Wage
rate.

Cents.
281
75
(i)
262
23

h,
d.
d.
h.
h.

28.1
27.5
27.2
26.2
23

22

2 50.

2 19.2
2 17.7

3.

32.5
32
30
28.1
27.5
27
32.7
30.8
30
30
28.6
25
23.1
32.7
45.6
42.3
26
25
24
2 19.2
28.3
4 27. 6
27.5
26.8
4 26. 6
26. 4
25.7
4 25. 6
4 25.4
25
24.2
23.4
22.5
22.3
20
19.2
2 15.4
22.5
30
27
23.1

242 h.

(0 d.

2. 25 d.

223 h.

i. 00

50. 00
2 40. 00
2. 25
3. 00
2. 70
60. 00
55. 00
2 40. 00
3. 00
80. 00
00
.60 m.
.262 h.

2

15.4
30
30.8
30
28.3
26.2

2 15.

4
27.5
30
30
22.5
2 15.4
2 28.8
2 17.3

2 40.

2.

3.
3.

2.

2 40.
2 75.
2 45.

3.50

C)
1

*te.

21.2

35
27.7

No.
Classification and
of
occupation of em­ em­
ployees.
ploy­
ees.

Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

luivlent
ate
per
our.

Wage
rate.

Railroad construction
and maintenance—
Concluded.
Firemen, pile driver.
Foremen...................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Foremen, graders...
Foremen, pile drivForemen, section. . .
D o.......................
D o.......................
Foremen, steel gang
Foremen, track........
D o.......................
Foremen, assistant,
pile driver.............
Graders.....................
Laborers...................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Linemen...................
Packers.....................
Pile drivers...............
Railroad bosses........
Rodmen....................
D o.......................
Section bosses..........
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Section men.............
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Do.......................
Trackwalkers...........
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Not reported............

1
1

60
60
60
60
60

$2 .0 0
4.00
3.25
75.00
85.00

2
1
2
1
1
2
1

60
60
69
60
60
60
60

5.00 d.
.40 h.
.35 h.
3.00 d.
4.00 d.
80.00 m.
75.00 m.

2
1

3

1
20
1

5
1

28
44
1
1

9
1
1
1
2
1
1
1

4
56
3
2
8
2

48
20

27
12
1
1

9
2
1
2
1

5

3. 50
60
1. 75
60
2. 75
60
2. 50
60
60
C
1)
2. 25
60
2 .0 0
60
3.50
60
60
70.00
3. 25
60
60 2 65.00
60
62.40
60
61.80
60
3.50
60
80.00
60
3.00
70.00
60
2. 75
60
.25
60
60.00
60
2. 25
60
60
2 .0 0
60
50.00
60
1.85
60
1. 75
60
45.00
.16
60
60 2 40.00
60
(3)
60 2 35. 00
60
.275
72
2.50
2 . 00
60
60
.2 0
60
(?)

d.
d.
d.
m.
m.

ents.
20
40
32.5
28.8
32.7
50
40
35
30
40
30.8
28.8

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
m.
d.
m.
m.
m.
d.
m.
d.
m.
d.
h.
m.
d.
d.
m.
d.
d.
m.
h.
m.
m.
m.
h.
d.
d.
h.
m.

20
20
(6
)

d.
h.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
m.
m.
d.
m.
h.
d.
m.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

30
30
27.5
25.7
25
25
25
24.5
21.2
40
35.7
35
34.8
34.6
34,5
32.5
32.1
31.3
27.5

35
17.5
27.5
25
24.2
22.5
20
35
26.9
32.5
25
24
23.8
35
30.8
30
26.9
27.5
25
23.1
22.5

20

19.2
18.5
17.5
17.3
16
15.4
14.2
13.5
27.5
20.8

Railroad operation.
Brakemen.................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Conductors...............
D o.......................
Do.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Do.......................

3 More than one rate, and hoard.
4 Including bonus.

10
1
2

66

3
3

60
60

3. 00
.30
2. 75
3.08
3.00
2.50
0)
70.00
55.00
4.00

1

66

1 02.00

3

63
60
60
72
60
60
72
60

5
3
1

3
5

1
1
1
2
1

5
1

60
60
60
72
72
69
60

.35
C
1)
90.00
4.15
3. 25
C
1)
3. 75
2. 75

&
$45 to $65.
6 $0,173 to $0.25.

203

LOGGING WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR.
T a b l e 1 9 . — NUMBER

OF EMPLOYEES, FULL-TIME HOURS PE R W EEK, AND RATES
OF WAGES IN THE LOGGING IN DU STRY, B Y OCCUPATIONS, 1915—Continued.
CALIFORNIA—Continued.

No.
Classification and
of
occupation of em­ em­
ploy­
ployees.
ees.

Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

Wage
rate.

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

Concluded.

3
1
2
2
1

5
3
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
1

7
3
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
1

72
60
60
72
60
60
60
72
60
66

60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
72
60
72
60
60
66

60
60
60
60
60
60
2 84
72
60
60
60
60

$4.00 d.
4.50 d.
.45 h.
5.00 d.
4.00 d.
1 00 .00 m.
3. 75 d.
4. 25 d.
3.50 d.
100 .00 m.
85.00 m.
60.00 m.
2. 25 d.
3. 50 d.
.30 h.
( 0 h.
2. 75 d.
2. 70 d.
C h.
1)
3. 08 d.
65.00 m.
3.00 d.
2.50 d.
C d.
1)
70.00 m.
60.00 m.
2. 25 d.
55.00 m.
2 .0 0 d.
150.00 m.
100 .00 m.
3.00 d.
2.50 d.
50.00 m.
75.00 m.
60.00 m.
50.00 m.

33.3
45
45
41.7
40
38.5
37.5
35.4
35
35
32.7
23.1
22.5
35
30
29.1
27.5
27
26.8
25.7
25
25
25
24.9
24.5
23.1
22.5
2 1 .2
20

57.7
38.5
25
2 0 .8

19.2
28.8
23.1
19.2

Swampers.................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Do.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................

15
1
2
2

4
1
1
1
1

4
1

55
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Do.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Swampers, head___
Do.......................
D o.......................
Do.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Swampers, second..
Do.......................
Do.......................
D o.....................
D o.......................

12
1
2
1

3
4
6

7
23
8
1
2

3
1

5
2
1
2
1
1
2
2
1
1

3

60
$2.25 d.
60
.223 h.
60
2 .1 0 d.
60
2 .1 0 d.
2 .1 0 d.
60
.2 2 h.
60
60
2 .1 0 d.
60
C d.
1)
60
2 .1 0 d.
60
55.00 in.
2 .1 0 d.
60
60
2 .1 0 d.
60
.204 h.
60
<*) m.
60
2 .0 0 d.
60
.2 0 h.
60
50.00 m.
60
1.85 d.
60
.18 h.
60
45.00 m.
60
.16 h.
60 4 35. 00 m.
60
1.25 d.
60 4 30.00 m.
60
4.25 d.
60
4.00 d.
60
4.00 d.
60
90.00 m.
60
3.25 d.
60.25 h.
60
.23 h.
.2 2 h.
60
60
3.75 d.
60
3.50 d.
60
3.25 d.
60
3.25 d.
60
3.25 d.

Cents.
22.5
22.3
3 22.2
3 22.1
3 22
22

3 21.8
2 1 .8

3 21.7
2 1 .2
3 21.2
21

20.4
20
20
20

19.2
18.5
18
17.3
16
4 13.5
12.5
4 11.5
42.5
3 41.8
40
34.6
3 33.7
25
23
22

37.5
35
3 34
3 33.4

32.5

Yarding, hauling,
and loading.
1

7
3
2

2
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

69
1
1
1
1
1
1

60
3.00 d.
2. 75 d.
60
2.50 d.
60
60
3.25 d.
3.00 d.
60
2. 75 d.
60
2. 50 d.
60
3. 25 d.
60
60
0 ) d.
3. 25 d.
60
2. 75 d.
60
G
O
2. 50 d.
60
2 .0 0 d.
.30 h.
60
60 4 65. 00 m.
60
3.00 d.
60
0 ) d.
60
2.75 d.
60
0 ) d.
60
0 ) d.
.262 h.
60
60
2.50 d.
60
.25 h.
60
2.45 d.
60
0) d'
60
0 ) d.
60.00 m.
60
60
C d.
1)
60
.23 h.

i More than one rate.




Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

Wage
rate.

Concluded.

Cents.
1
2

Road construction
and maintenance.
A xm en, c h u te
building.................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Chute builders.........
D o.......................
Do.......................
D o.......................
Engineers, donkey..
Do.......................
D o.......................
Do.......................
Greasers....................
Roadmen..................
Swamper bosses___
D o.......................
Swampers.................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Do.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Do.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
D o.......................

Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

Road construction
and maintenance—

Railroad operation—
Dispatchers, tele­
phone .....................
Engineers.................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Engineers, crane___
Firemen....................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Foremen...................
Hostlers....................
D o.......................
Laborers...................
Oilers.........................
Watchmen...............
Wipers......................
D o.......................

No.
Classification and
of
occupation of em­ em­
ployees.
ploy­
ees.

2

30
27.5
25
32.5
30
27.5
25
3 34.1
33.4
32.5
27.5
25
20

30

4 25

30
27.5
27.5
27.2
26.5
26.2
25
25
24.5
24.5
23.2
23.1
23.1
23

Seven days.

Boat tenders............
D o.......................
D o.......................
Block greasers.........
Brush cutters...........
Burners.....................
Car loaders...............
D o.......................
Chain tenders..........
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Do.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Chain tenders, head.
D o.......................
Do.......................
D o.......................
Chain tenders, sec­
ond .........................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Chasers......................
D o.......................

1
1
2
1
2
1

3
2
1
1
1

4
1
1
1
1
1
1

3
1

13
1
1

17
1
1
2
6

D o....................... 1 17
s Including bonus.

60
.25 h.
60
.23 h.
.2 2 h.
60
60
2.25 d.
60
45.00 in.
60 4 35.00 m.
60
.262 h.
60
.18 h.
60
3.50 d.
60
C d.
1)
60
C d.
1)
60
3.25 d.
.321
60
60
( 0 d.
60
2. 75 d.
2. 75 d.
60
60
2.50 d.
60
4.00 d.
60
4.25 d.
60
G) d.
60
4.00 d.

ll#

60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60

3.50
3.50
3.50
C
1)

d.
d.
d.
d.
0 ) d.
3.50 d.
3.50 d.
3.00 d.

4 And board.

25
23
22

22.5
17.3

4 13.5
26.2
18
35
35
34.3
32.5
32.5
29.4
s 28.2
27.5
25
3 45.1
42.5
40.9
40
3 37.1
3 36.7

35
34.2
43.7
s 36
35
30

3

204
T

LUMBER M ANUFACTURING.

1 9 . — NUMBER OF EM PLOYEES, FULL-TIME HOURS PE R W E E K , AND RATES
OF W AGES IN THE LOGGING IN DU STRY, B Y OCCUPATIONS, 1915—Continued,

able

CALIFORNIA—Continued.
No.
Classification and
of
occupation of em­ em­
ploy­
ployees.
ees.

Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

Wage
rate.

Yarding, hauling,
and loading—Ctd.
Chasers...................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
Chasers, head..........
Choker men.............
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
Chokers......... ..........
D o.....................
D o.....................
Chokers, head.........
Chokers, se c o n d ___
Chunk saw vers.......
D o . . . / . .......
D o.....................
D o.....................
Chute peelers..........
D o.....................
D o.....................
Chute tenders.........
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
Couplers..................
D o .....................
D o.....................
D o .....................
D o .....................
D o .....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
Couple-up men.......
D o .....................
D o .....................
Cranemen................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o . . .................
D o .....................
Donkey bosses........
D o .....................
Donkey tenders___
D o .....................
D o .....................
D o .....................
Drivers, line-horse..
Engineers................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o .....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o .....................
D o .....................
D o .....................
D o .....................
1 And board.




75

d.

00

m.

00 m.
22 h.
00 m.

0
i 50. 0 m.
4. 25 d.
26
.25
.23

.22
.20
.18
.16

i 55. 0
0
i 50. 00
i 45. 0
0
70. 00
0
65. 0

2 . 75
2. 70
2 . 50
(2
)

h.
h.
h.
h.
h.
h.
h.
m.
m.
m.
m.
m.

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

1.75

(2
)

2.25
3. 50
3. 00
21.75
.
2!. 50
.
2. 75
2 . 75

(2)
1.75
(2)
!. 50

d.

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

(i) f

!. 50 d.
f. 60 d.

1.00 m.
!. 50 d.

.22 h.
.20 h.
.18 h.
.40 h.
.35 h.
.30 h.
.27-1 h.
.25 h.
1 0 00 m.
1.
i 95. 00 m.
4. 50 d.
4. 00 d.
4. 00 d.

2 . 00 d.
2. 75 d.
m.

1 0 00
0.
3. 50
3. 50
90. 00
3. 25

d.
d.

m.

d.
.25 d.
'.00 m.
1.00 d.
. 281 h.
2 75 d.
2. 75 d.

.

70. 00 m.
262 h.

i 6 ! 00
5

m.

2 . 50 d.

Cents.

No.
of
Classification and
occupation of em­ em­
ploy­
ployees.
ees.

Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

Wage
rate.

Yarding} hauling,
and loading—Ctd.

27.5
26.9
23.1

Engineers.................
D o .......................
D o.......................
2
2
D o .......................
2 .2 I
1
D o.......................
i 19.2
D o.......................
42.5
Engineers, crane___
26
Engineers, donkey..
25
D o.......................
23
D o.......................
2
2
D o.......................
D o.......................
2
0
18
D o.......................
D o.......................
16
121.2
D o.......................
1 19.2
D o.......................
D o.......................
117.3 [
D o.......................
26.9
D o.......................
25
D o.......................
27.5
D o.......................
27
D o.......................
25
D o.......................
21.6
Engineers, loader.. .
27.5
D o.......................
23.8
D o .......................
22.5
D o.......................
35
Engineers, skidder..
30
D o.......................
27.5
D o.......................
25
D o.......................
3 32.5
D o.......................
3 29.4
Engineers, spool,
27.7
donkey...................
27.5
Engineers, yard.......
27.5
D o.......................
3 26.8
D o.......................
26.7
Engineers, yarder...
3 26.6
D o.......................
26
D o.......................
25
Engineers, head.......
25
2
2 Firemen....................
D o.......................
2
0
D o.......................
1
8
D o.......................
40
D o.......................
35
D o.......................
30
D o.......................
27.5
D o.......................
25
D o.......................
42.3
D o.......................
136.5
D o........ ; ............
45
D o.......................
34
2
D o.......................
40
D o.......................
2
0
D o.......................
27.5
D o .......................
38.5
D o.......................
3 35.9
D o.......................
35
D o.......................
34.6
Firemen, donkey_
_
3 34.3
Firemen, loader.......
32.5
D o.......................
130.8
Firemen, skidder.. .
30
28.1 1 Firemen, yard..........
3 28
D o.......................
D o .......................
27.5
D o.......................
26.9 |
Flagmen....................
26.2
1 25
Foremen...................
25
D o .......................

2 More than one rate.

1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
6
1
1
5
1
4
1
1
3
1
6
1
1
3
9
3
5
1
2
1
1
1

60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
63
60
63

1
1
1
1
1
11

60
60
60
60
63
63
63
60
63
63
60
60
60
60
63
60
60
60

1
1
7
1
1
1
13
1
1
1
11
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

C
O
60
60
60
60
60
63
63
63

60
63
60
60
60
60
60
63
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60

$0.242
60.00
60.00
155.00
55.00
1 50.00
.425
4.00
3.75
1

(2)

3.25
3.50

(2)

3.25
80.00

(2)

3.00

n
2 .7 5

(2)

.2 6
2.50
.20
.425
3.50
.35
2. 75
125. 00
2. 75
.25
.23
.22

h.
m.
m.
m.
m.
m.
h.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
m.
d.
d.
d,
d.
d.
h.
d.
h.
h.
d.
h.
d.
m.
d.
h.
h.
h.

Cents.
24.2
123.1
23.1
1 21.2
21.2
1 19.2
42.5
40
37.5
37.1
s 36.1
35
35
32.5
30.8
30.7
30
28.3
27.5
27
26
25
20
42.5
35
35
27.5
48.1
27.5
25
23
22

d.
27.5
30.4
(2) d.
d.
s 35.9
d.
35
h.
26
h.
25
h.
23
m.
32.7
d.
32.5
(2)
2. 75 d.
26.2
2.50 d.
25
25
(2) d.
2.25 d.
3 21.7
2.25 d.
3 23.8
2.50 d.
23.3
23.6
(2) d.
23.4
(2) d.
2. 25 d.
3 23.1
2.25 d.
22.5
2.25 d.
21.4
55.00 m.
2 1 .2
2 .1 0 d.
21
2 .0 0 d.
20
150.00 m. 1 19.2
50.00 m.
19.2
.18 h.
18
140.00 m. 1 15.4
2 .0 0 d.
3 2 1 .2
.275 h.
27.5
2.25 d.
22.5
.30 h.
30
2.25 d.
3 23. 8
2.25 d.
3 23.1
2. 25 d.
22.5
(2) d. ’ 2 0 .8
2. 75 d.
27.5
155. 00 m.
50.6
150.00 mJ
57.7
2.75

3.50
3.50
.2 6
.25
.23
85.00

eluding bonus.




205

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR.

>F EM PLOYEES, FULL-TIME HOURS P E R W E E K , AND R
tATES
IE LOGGING IN DU STRY, B Y OCCUPATIONS, 1915—Continued .
L
CALIFORNIA—Continued.

u
.
if
tt-

>y

Full­
time
hrs.
per

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

Wage
rate.

iS wk.
.

No.
Classification and
of
occupation of em ­ em ­
ployees.
ploy­
ees.

FuHtime
hrs.
per
wk.

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

Wage
rate.

Yarding, hauling,
and loading— Ctd.

0 m
0 .

1
1
1
1
1
1

($135.
4. 00
377
338
415
358
25

9
8

d.
h.
h.
h.
h.
h.

2

2

1
2
LI
1
L8
1
1
2
1

50
25

d.
d.

3.50 d.
3.00 d.
(2) d.
2.75 d.
275 h.
2 , 70 d.
3 70. 00 m.
(2) d.
.25 h.
.23 h.
.22 h.

4
L
3
3

1
1

2
5

1
1
1

.20 h.

2. 25
L

d.

65. O
i.O
60.00 m.
55.00 m.
. 185 li.

3

2

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

75
75
.40

d.
d.

i.O O

.22 h.

55.00

5
4
40

m

.20 h.

.18 h.
.16 h.
40.00 m.
3.50 d.
3.50 d.
3.25 d.
3.25 d.

2
7

1
8
1
4
1
9
1
8
1
1
2
1
2
1
4
2
1
1
6
4
1
2
4
1
2
1

(2 d.
)

3.00

d.

(2) d.

. 75 d.
00

m.

(2) d.
.0 0

m.

25 d.
00

m.

Cents.
51.9
40
37.7
33.8
41.5
35.8
25
30
26.9
50
i 49.9
i 46.3
45
42.5
40
39.2
35
30
27.8
27.5
27.5
27
3 26.9
26.6
25
23

Pack boys...............
Pipemen.................
D o.....................
Pipemen’s helpers.
Polers......................
Powder men...........
D o .....................
D o .....................
Pump men.............
D o .....................
D o .....................
D o.....................
D o .....................
D o .....................
D o.....................
Riggers....................

22

D o .....................
Riggmg pullers —

2
0

22.5
25
23.1
21.2
18.5
30
i 29.3
i 28.3
27.5
40
30

22

21.2

2
0

18
16
3 15.4
i 37.4
35
133.4
32.5
31.4
30
29.4
27.5
26.9
25.9
23.1
22.5

21.2

.00 d.

20

. 00 m,

.25 h.
.23 h.

* 19.2
35
28.8
26.9
25
23

.20 h.

20

50 d.

.00 m,

.00 d.

.22 h.

.18 h.
2.65 d.

2.00 d.
3.00 d.
aus.

2
2

18
26.5
20
30

D o !!!!!!!!!!!!
D o .....................
D o .....................
D o.....................
D o .....................
D o .....................
Riggers, head.........
Rigging men...........

D o” ” ! ” ! ! ! ! !
D o .....................
D o.....................
D o .....................
D o .....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o .....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o .....................
D o.....................
Rigging p u l l e r s ,
\ead.....................
D o .....................
Rig.
»o.
D o............
Signalmen___
D o ............
D o............
D o ............
Skid adzers...
D o............
D o............
D o ............
Skid sawyers.
Sled tenders..
Snipers...........
D o............
D o............
D o............

2 More than one rate.

1
10
1
1
6
1
2
1
6
4
4
1
2
1
1
11
1
2
12
1
1
1
1
3
7
26
3
1
1
1
2
1
1
27
1
4
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
59
1
1
8
2
1

$2.25
60
2.50
60
2.25
60
2.10
60
2.50
60
3.00
60
2.50
60
2.10
60
2.75
60
2.50
60
2.25
60
2.00
60
.20
60
.18
60
60 3 30.00
.30
60
.281
60
. 262
60
.242
60
60.00
60
. 223
60
55.00
60
60 .
(2)
70.00
60
3.00
60
2.75
60
2.50
60
3.25
60
2.75
60
2.75
60
2.75
60
60
(2)
2.75
60
3.00
60
2.75
60
2.75
60
2.75
60
60
(2)
2.75
60
2.75
60
60
(2)
2.75
60
2.75
60
2.75
60
60
(2)
2.75
60
60
(2)
60
(2)
2.50
60
.25
60
60
(*)

5
1
5
10
1
4
3
15
5
1
2
1
1
1
3
1
4
1
6

60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60

3.50
(2)
3.00
2.75
( 2)
2.00
.20
.18
.16
2.75
3.00
2.75
2.50
2.50
.23
(*)
3.50
3.00
3.25
Lboard.

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
h.
h.
m.
h.
h.
h.
h.
m.
h.
m.
m.
m.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
h.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
h.
h.
h.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
h.
d.
d.
d.
d.

Cents.
22.5
25
22.5
21
25
30
25

21
27.5
25
22.5

20

2
0
18
3 11.5
30
28.1
26.2
24.2
23.1
22.3

21.2

20.3
28.9
30
27.5
25
32.5
i 31.3
i 31.2
i 31.1
30.9
i 30.5
30
i 29.1
i 28.8
i 28.6
23.6
i 28. 5
i 28.?
28
i 27.9
i 27.8
i 27.7
27.6
27.5
27.5
27
25
25
23.4
35
35
30
27.5
27

20
20
18
16
i 30
30
27.5
25
25
23
40.5
35
i 33.3
32.5




LUMBER MANUFACTURING.
OF EM PLOYEES, FULL-TIME HOURS P E R W E E K , AND I
HE LOGGING IN DU STRY, B Y OCCUPATIONS, 1915—Continued
CALIFORNIA—Concluded.
Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

Wage
rate.

Cents.
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
6060
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60

$3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
(2)
2.75
.25
.242

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
h.
h.
.2 2 h.
350.00 m.
.18 h.
3.00 d.
3.25 d.
3.75 d.
3.00 d.
S. 00 d.
S. 00 d.
3.00 d.
3.00 d.
(2) d.
2.75 d.
2.75 d.
2.75 d.
(2) d.
2.75 d.
.27! h.
(2) d.
(2) d.
65.00 m.
.25 h.
. 242 h.
60.00 m.
.2 2 h.
55.00 m.
.2 0 h.
3 50.00 m.
. 18 h.
3 45. 00 m.
3 40.00 m.
3. 50 d.
3.00 d.
(2) h.
.30 h.
(2) h.
2. 75 d.
.27A h.
2. 50~ d.
2.25 d.
.25 h.
3 50. 00 m.
3 45.00 m.
.35 h.
100 .00 m.
3.00 d.
2.50 d.
2.25 d.
2 .0 0 d.
.18 h.
1.75 d.
3 45.00 m.
.16 h.
3 35.00 m.
4.00 d.
8 More

131.7
131.5
i 30.8
30
27.9
27.5
25
24.2
22
3 19.2

18
30
32.5
37.5
i 34.3
i 32.1
i 31.6
131
30
29.7
i 29.3
i 29.2
i 28.3
28.2
27.5
27.5
26.3
25.2
25
25
24.2
23.1
22
2 1 .2
20

19.2
18
3 17.3
3 15.4
35
30
33.9
30
28.2
27.5
27.5
25
22.5
25
3 19.2
8 17.3
35
38.5
30
25
22.5
3

20

18
17.5
3 17.3
16
3 13.5
i 43

than 1 rate.

No.
Classification and
of
occupation of em­ em­
ployees.
ploy­
ees.

Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

Wage
rate.

Equi
aleni
rate
per
hour

Yarding, hauling,
and loading—Ctd.
Water slingers.........
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Wheel loaders..........
Whistle boys............
Do.......................
Do.......................
D o .;...................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Winch men.............
Do.......................
Wood bucks.............
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................

Centi
1
1
11
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
1

13
1
1
1
2
1
1
10
1
1
2
2
1

4
3
1
1
2
1
1
10

3
1
1
1

17
1
1

9
3
4
12

Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................

13
1
1

4
2
1

15
2

9
2

9
Do.......................
Do.......................
Yard bosses..............
Do.......................
Yarder bosses..........
Zooglers............; ____
Do.......................
Do.......................
s And board.

2
1
1
1
1
1
1

9

60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60

$4.00
4.25
4.00
(2)
3.75
(2)
2.75
.223

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
h.
.2 2 h.
.2 0 h.
.18 h.
3 35.00 m.
.27J h.
.25 h.
2.25 d.
2 .0 0 d.
55.00 m.
2 .0 0 d.
.204 h.
2 .0 0 d.
(2) d.
1.90 d.
. 185 h.
45.00 m.
3 30.00 m.
2.75 d.
2.50 d.
2.50 d.
2.75 d.
2.70 d.
2.50 d.
(2) d.
2.50 d.
.25 h.
(2) d.
. 242 h.
60.00 m.
2.25 d.
.2 2 h.
(2) d.
55.00 m.
2 .0 0 d.
. 204 h.
2 .0 0 d.
.2 0 h.
1.85 d.
(2) d.
1.90 d.
(2) d.
’ (2) d.
1.85 d.
.185 h.
.18 h.
1.75 d.
.16 h.
3 40.00 m.
3 35.00 m.
135.00 m.
liO-.OO m.
,3 95.00 m.
3.25 d.
2.75 d.
2.75 d.

4 And bonus.

i 42.
42.
40
39.
37.
30.
27.

2.
2
2
2
2
0

18
3 13.
27.
25

2.
2
i2
2
2.
1
i 2.
0
2.
0
2
0
19.
19
18.
17.

31 .
1
27.
25

* 27.
27.
27

*26.

2.
0

25
25
24.
24.
23.
22 .
22

2.
1
2.
1
«2 .
0
2.
0
2
0
2
0

4 19.
19.
19
19
18.
18.
18.
18
17.
16
3 15.
3 13.
51.
42.
3 36.
32.
4 29.
27.

207

LOGGING WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOB.
T

19.—NUMBER OF EM PLOYEES, FULL-TIME HOURS PE R W E E K , AND RA TE S
OF WAGES IN THE LOGGING^ INDUSTRY, B Y OCCUPATIONS, 1915—Continued.

able

FLORIDA.
No. Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

Classification and
of
occupation of em­ em­
ploy­
ployees.
ees.

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

W age
rate.

General.
Barn men...........
D o................
Blacksmiths___
D o................
D o................
D o ................
Blacksmiths’ helpers
D o .....................
D o.....................
Carpenters...............
Carpenters’ helpers.
D o.....................
Car repairers...........
Chore boys..............
D o.....................
D o.....................
Coolis.......................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
Cooks, first..............
Cooks, second..........
D o .....................
Cooks’ helpers.........
Feed mixers............
Filers.......................
D o.....................
Foremen..................
Foremen, ca m p .. . .
D o.....................
Foremen,
camp,
assistant........
Helpers, cookhouse.
Janitors...................
Machinists...............
D o ....................
D o . . . . ..............
Ox feeders...............
Oxmen.....................
Pumpers..................
Scalers.....................
D o.....................
Sealers’ helpers.......
Tallymen................
Watchmen..............
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
Water boys.............
Woodcutters...........
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
Yardmen.................

177
1 77
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
177
1 77
1 77
1 77
1 77
1 77
1 77
1 77
1 77
1 77
1 77
1 77
1 77
66
66
66
66
66
66
1 77
1 77
1 77
66
66
66
1 77
66
66
66
66
66
66
1 77
1 77
1 77
1 77
66
66
66
66
66
66
66

Cents.
2

$1 .1 0
2 1 .0 0
2 3.00

2 2.55
2 2.50
2 2 .0 0
2 1.50

2 1.25
2 1 .1 0
2 2.50

2 1.75
2 1.50
2 2 .0 0

2.90
2.75
2.50
2 2.50
2 1.50
2 45.00
2 40.00
2 35.00
2 70.00
2 1.25
2 1 .0 0

2.75
2.90
2 1.50
2 1.35
2 1 1 0 .0 0

2150.00
2 65.00

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
m.
m.
m.
m.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
m.
m.
m.

2 90.00 m.
(3) d.
d.
2 1 .0 0
2.75 d.
4.00 d.
1.85 d.
1.65 d.
2 . 75 d.
2 1. 25 d.
2 1 .0 0
d.
2 75.0 0
m.
2 70.00 m.
d.
2 2 .0 0
d.
2 2 .0 0
48.00 m.
2 1.50 d.
(4) d.
(4) d.
2.50 d.
(4) d.
(4) d.
(4) d.
(4) d.
d.

60

2 1.15

d.
d.

2 10

2 .9
2 27.3
2 23.2
2 22.7
2 1 8 .2

2 10
2 22.7

2 15.9
2 13.6
2 1 8 .2
2 8 .2
2 6 .8

2 4.5
22.7
13.6
2 13.5

2
2

2 12
2 10.5
2 21
2 11.4

2 9.1
2 6 .8
2 8 .2

13.6
12.3
2 38.5
2 52.4
2 22.7

2
2

2 31.5
2 1 0 .6
2 9 .I
2 6 .8

36.4
16.8
15
2 6 .8

11.4
2 9.1
2 26.2
2 24 5
2 18.2
2 18.2
14.4
2 13. 6
2 11.9
2 9. 2
2 4.5
2 9 .)
2 8.9
2

2 8 .8
2 7.9
2 6.9
2 6 .8

2 11.5

D o .. .
D o ...
D o ...
D o ...
D o ...
D o ...
D o ...
D o .. .
1

Seven days.

2

66
66
66
66
66
66
66
2 And

75.00

m.

2 2.50
2 2 .0 0
2 1.75

66
66
66
66

d.

2

(4)
1.25

0)

2 1.15
2 1 .0 0

board.

(0

(4)

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

26.2
22.7
18.2
2 15.9
2 1 1 .5
2 11.4
2 10.7
2 10.5
2 9.1
2
2
2

d.
d.

2

8 More

100:31°—18— Bull. 225- -1 4




2 8 .6

8.4

Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

Wage
rate.

Hauling, skidding,
and loading.
Brakemen, lo a d e r..
Deckers.......................
Drivers........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................

2 13.6
211.4

Cutting, etc.
Foreman.
Sawyers..

No.
Classification and
of
occupation of em­ em­
ployees.
ploy­
ees.

Cents.
1
2
2
2
1
1

66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66

46
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
Drivers, o x .................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
Drummen...................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
Engineers
and
riggers......................
Engineers, loader. . .
D o .........................
Engineers, skidder..
Extra hands..............
Firemen, loader____
D o .........................
Firemen, skidder.. .
D o .........................
D o .........................
Foremen, drivers. . .
Foremen, loader___
D o .........................
D o .........................
Foremen, skidder...
F oremen, teamsters.
Hookers.......................
Hookers, head...........
Hookers, assistant..
Laborers.....................
D o .........................
Landing m en............
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
Levermen...................

1
1
12
1
1

13
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
1 77

1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

23
1
1
1
1
1
1

Linemen...................
Loaders.......................
D o .........................

1
1

15
D o .........................
O x tenders.................
Riders, m ule.............
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................

1
1
1
1

66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66

1
1

Riggers, head............
Teamsters...................
Tongers.......................

1
1
1
1
1
2

D o .........................
Top loaders................

3

D o .....................
D o .....................

2
2

than one rate, and board.

66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66

1

*

d.
d.
d.
d.
2 1.50 d.
1.35 d.
2 1.25 d.
2 1 .2 0
d.
2 1.15 d.
2 1 .0 0
d.
(4) d.
(4) d.
2 1 .0 0
d.
(4) d.
1. 90 d.
(4) d.
2 1.75 d.
(4) d.
(4) d.
2 1.50 d.

2

$0.90

2 1 .1 0
2 2 .0 0
2 1.75

2 2.75
2 2.35
2 1.75
2 3 .OO
(4)
(4)

2 1 .0 0

1.75
1.50
1.25
2 70.00
2 90.00
2 75.00
2. 65
2 65.00
2
2
2

2 1 0 0 .0 0
2
2
2

(4
)
1.75
2. 75
1.50
1.30

2 1 .0 0

(4)
(4)
(4)
(4
)
2.75
(4)
2 1.75
2 1.25
(4)
1.80
1.70
2 1.50
( 4)
(4)
(4)
2.75
(4)
2 1.75
2 1.50
2 2.75

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
m.
m.
m.
d.
m.
m.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

d.

d.
d.
(4) d.
2 1.25 d.
(4) d.

2 1 .0 0

2 1 .2 0
2 1 .1 0

d.
d.

2.40
2 1 . 75

2 8 .2
2 10
2 18.2
2 15.9

2 13.6
12.3
2 11.4
2 10.9
2 1 0 .5
2 9 .I
2 8.9
2 13.8

2 9.1
2 8.3
2 8 .2
27
2 15.9
2 15.8
2 14.6
2 13.6

2 25
21.4
15.9
2 27.3

2
2

2 1 0 .9
2 9 .4
2 9 .1
2 15.9
2 13.6
2 1 1 .4

2 24.5
2 3 1 .5
2 2 6 .2

24.1
2 22.7
2 35
2 2 0 .7
2 15.9

2 25
2 13.6
2 1 1 .8
2 9 .I
2 8 .5
2 8 .1
2 7.7
2 7 .6
2 6 .8
2 6 .8
2 15.9
2 11.4

17.2
16.4
15.5
2 13.6
2 7.8
2 8.7
2 6 .9
2 6 .8
2 6 .8

2 15.9
2 13.6
2 25
2 09.1
2 11.7
8 11.4
2 11.3
2 10.9

d.
d.
d.

2

1.60

More than one rate.

2 10

2 1 .8
2
2

15.9
14.5

LUMBER MANUFACTURING.

208

19 .—NUMBER OF EM PLOYEES, FULL-TIME HOURS P E R W E E K , AND R A TE S
OF WAGES IN THE LOGGING INDUSTRY, B Y OCCUPATIONS, 1915—Continued.

T able

FLORIDA—Concluded.
No.
Classification and of
occupation of em­ em­
ploy­
ployees.
ees.

Full­
time

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

Wage
rate.

hrs.
per

w
k.

Raft building.

Cents.
1 $1.25

d.
il.OO d.
11.75 d.

Boom men..............
D o.....................
Foremen.................

111.4
i 9.1
1 15.9

Railroad construc­
tion and mainte­
nance.
Bridgemen..............
D o.....................
Flagmen..................
Foremen.................
D o.....................
Foremen, grading.
Foremen, ox teams
Foremen, right-ofway ......................
Foremen, section..
D o.....................
D o.....................
Laborers.................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o ....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
Section hands........
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................

1 11.4

U .2 5

11.00
11.00
10 0
0 .0
i 1.50
i 1.80
i 1.40
i 1.25

19.1

19.1
35
1 13.6
i 16.4
i 12.7

i 11.4
17
14.1
12.3
18.4
16
15.9
15
15
14.9
14.6
14.5
13.6
13.4
13.1
13
12.7
12.4
12.3
12.3

1.70
1.55
1.35
52. 50

(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)

1.65

1.60
1.50

8
(2)

(2
)

1.35

(2)
<2)

1
2
11.8

1.30
(2)
1.25
.90
1 1.50
(2)
1.25

11.7
11.4

5.2
1
2
i 11.4
1
1
1
0
1 13.6

i

1.10
1.00
i 1.00
(3
)
(3
)
(3
)
1
.70

No.
Classification and
of
occupation of em­ em­
ploy­
ployees.
ees.

Full-!
time
hrs.
per
wk.

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

Wage
rate.

Railroad operation.
Cents.

n. 8
5

Brakemen...............
Do.....................
D o.....................
D o .....................
D o.....................
D o .....................
Conductors.............
D o.....................
D o.....................
Engineers................
D o .....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
Firemen...................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
Flagmen..................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
Greasers...................
D o.....................
Hostlers...................
Hostlers’ helpers...
Switchmen.............

16.8
16.3
15.9

(2)
1.75

1
.20

1
2
11.5
8.2
2
1
20.6
2
0

1.15
.90

2.10
(2
)
2.00

3. 75
2.85
i 3.00
3.00
12. 75
1

34.1
28.5
1 27.3

27.3
25
24.5
1 22.7
21.4
1

C)
2

2. 50
2.35

2.20
2.00

2
0

i 1.75

1

i 1.50
1.30
1.20
i 1.25
i 1.00
1.00

i 11.4
i 9.1
9.1

15.9
18.2
1 13.6
13.0

1
2

8.2
1 '
2

.90
. 85

1.20
(a
)
(2
)

i

9 .6
7.3
7.2
15.9
1 11.4
12.3

(2)
1. 75
1.25
1.35
.90
.85

8.2
8.5

Road construction
and maintenance
Swampers...............
D o.....................
D o.....................

1 2 .0 0

11.25
il.OO

d.
d.
d.

i IS. 2
i 11.4
i 9.1

i 9.1
8.3
7.2
7.1

1
1
1

GEORGIA.

General—C'ontd.

General.

i And board.




m.
d.
d.
d.
d.

38.5
21.5
22.7
20.5
16.7

1
1

60 $ 100.00
2 . 70
66
2. 50
66
2.25
66
66
(2)

1
1

Blacksmiths.............
D o..................... .
D o..................... .
D o..................... .
D o..................... .
Blaeksmiths and
machinists............
D o..................... .
Blacksmiths’ help­
ers ......................... .
D o . . , ............... .
Do..................... .
D o .. , .............
D o.....................
D o..................... .

66
66

3.60 d.
2.50 d.

32.7
22.7

60

.155
1.50
1.25
(2)

15. 5
13.6
11.4

1
1

3

2
1

4
1
1
1
2

66
66
66
66
66

1 .1 0
1 .0 0

h.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

More than one rate.

1 1 .1
1 0 .0

9.1

Blacksmiths’ and
machinists’ heip-

6
6
m
m
£
6

1

Garpenters................
Car repairers............
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Cooks.........................
D o.......................
Feeders......................
Filers.........................
Foremen...................

2
1
2
1
-2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

£6

m
m

6
6

477
477

47
-7
m

3 More than one rate, and board.

m

$1.25
1.50
2.25

20
.Q
1.75
1.50
1. 25
.80

i 1.10
11.00
1.25
.1
8
2.00
4Seven .days.

11.4
13.6
20.5
18.2
15.9
13.6
11.4
7.3

10
1
19.1
11.4
18
18.2

209

LOGGING WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR.

Table 19.—NUMBER OF EM PLOYEES, FULL-TIME HOURS P E R W EE K , AND RATES
OF W AGES IN THE LOGGING IN DU STRY, B Y OCCUPATIONS, 1915-Continued.
G E O R G I A —Continued.

No.
Classification and
of
occupation of em­ em­
ployees.
ploy­
ees.

Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

fate.

No.
Classification and
of
occupation of em­ em­
ployees.
ploy­
ees.

Cents.

Wage

Hauling, skidding,
and loading—Ctd.

General— Concld.

Foremen, camp___
Helpers, shop..........
DoIIZIIIIIIIIII
Laborers..................
D o.....................
Linemen, telephone
Linemen’s helpers,
telephone..............
D o.....................
Lot men...................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
Machinists...............
D o.....................
Repairers, camp___
Scalers.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
Stablemen...............
D o.....................
Watchmen..............
D o .....................
D o.....................
Watchmen, bridge..
Watchmen, tow er..
Water boys..............
D o ....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................

6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
177
l 77
l 77
i 77

6
6
6
6
6
6
6
0
6
0
6
6
6
6
l 77
6
6
i 77
6
6
6
6
14
8
14
8
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6

$90.00
1.75
1.50
1. 25
1.50

31.5
15.9
13.6
11.4
13.6
9.1
18.2

1.35

1.35
1. 35
1.25
1. 50
1.35

12.3
9.1
14.5
13.6
12.7
11.4
7.3
31.5
26.2
13.6
25.8
22.5
20.5
18.2
11.4
9.1
12.3
12.3
11.4
12.5
11.3

.90
.80
.50
.50

7.3
4.5
4.5

1.00
2.00
1.00

1.60
1. 50
1.40
1. 25
.80
90.00
75.00
1.50
67.00
.225
2. 25

2.00
1. 25
1.0
0

1.10

1
0
8.2

B oom .

Engineers.
Foremen..
Laborers. .
D o ....
D o ....
D o ....

1.50
2. 25
1.50
(2)

13.6
20.5
13.6
12.9
12. 7
11.4

(2
)

1.25

Cutting, etc.

1
0
(3
)

1.1
0
(3
)

Axmen......................
Blazers......................
Choppers..................
Cutters, piling.........
D o..................... .
Foremen...................
Do..................... .
D o..................... .
Foremen, sawing...
Foremen, assistant.
Sawyers....................
Do.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
Sawyers, piling____

1.50

13.6

1.75
1.50
2. 50
2. 25

15.9
13.6
22.7
20.5
18.2
29.6
15.9

2
.00

77.00
1. 75

1.20
(2
)
1.10
(3
)
0
1.50

d.

1
2
10.3
1
0
(3
)
(3
)
(3
)
13.6

H auling , skidding,
and loading.

Chainers...
Chasers___
Doggers...
Engineers.
D o ....

1.50 d.
d.
1.50 d.
d.
1.7 d.
o

1.00
1 Seven




days.

2

13.6
9.1
13.6
18.6
15.9

Engineers.................
1
Do.......................
2
Engineers, loader...
1
Engineers, skidder..
1
D o.......................
1
D o.......................
1
Firemen.....................
4
Do.......................
3
D o.......................
1
D o.......................
1
D o.......................
1
D o.......................
1
Firemen, skidder...
1
D o.......................
1
Flagmen....................
3
D o.......................
1
D o.......................
2
D o.......................
14
D o.......................
5
Foremen...................
2
D o.......................
2
D o.......................
1
D o.......................
1
D o.......................
1
D o.......................
3
D o.......................
1
Foremen, skidder...
1
D o.......................
1
D o.......................
1
Foremen, wagon___
1
D o.......................
1
Laborers.................... i 6
D o.......................
3
D o.......................
1
D o.......................
9
D o ......................
1
Levermen.................
1
D o.......................
1
D o.......................
1
D o.......................
2
Levermen, loader...
1
D o.......................
1
D o.......................
3
Levermen, skidder. 5
Loaders.....................
2
D o.......................
10
D o.......................
1
D o.......................
1
D o.......................
1
D o.......................
2
D o.......................
1
D o.......................
1
D o.......................
1
Loaders, wagon.......
1
D o.......................
5
D o.......................
1
D o.......................
13
D o.......................
3
Pump men...............
1

60
60
66
66
66
68
66
66

60
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66

60
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66

60
60
60
66

60
66

60

2

3

D o.......................
Riggers.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Riggers, head...........
D o.......................
1 Riggers, second........

60

7
1

66

24

60
60

2
1
2

66

4

60
60

1

66

3
3

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour®

Wage
rate.

Cents.
66
66
66
66
66
66

66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66

2

More than one rate.
i

Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

60

(2)
$1. 50
1. 75
2. 50
2.25
1.50
.225
. 155
1. 50
(2)
1. 25
1 .0 0
1 . 80

1.50
. 155
1.50
1.35
1.25
1 .00
100 . 00

3.00
2.50
2. 25
(2)
1.80
(2)
3.50
75.00
2. 50
2.50
2. 25
1. 50
1.35
1.35
1 . 25
1.0 0

1.75
1.35
(2)
1 .0 0

2.70
.245
.225
.360
2. 50
.2 0
2 .0 0

.18
(2)
1.75
1.50
(2)
1.35
1.75
1.50
1.35
1.25
1 .0 0

.80
1.25
1 .0 0
2 .0 0

.180
(2)
.155
.145
1.50
. 135
.315
3.00
.225

Pieceworkers.

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
h.
h.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
h.
d.
d.
d.
d.
m.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
m.
d.
d.
d.
d.
tf.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
h.
h.
h.
d.
h.
d.
h.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
h.
d.
h.
h.
d.
h.
h.
d.
h.

15.6
13.6
15.9
22.7
20.5
13.6
22.5
15.5
13.6
1 2 .1

11.4
9.1
16.4
13.6
15.5
13.6
12.3
11.4
9.1
35
27.3
22.7
20.5
2 0 .2

16.4
15.9
31.8
26.2
22.7
22.7
20.5
13.6
13.5
12.3
11.4
9.1
15.9
12.3
12.3
9.1
24.5
24.5
22.5
36.7
22
20

18.2
18
16.7
15.9
13.8
13
12.3
15.6
13.3
12.9
11.4
9.1
7.3
11.4
9.1
18.2
18
15.8
15.5
14.5
13.6
13.5
31.5
27.3
22.5

210
T

LUMBER MANUFACTURING.
1 9 . — NUM BER OF EM PLOYEES, FULL-TIME HOURS P E R W E E K , AND RATES
OF W AGES IN TH E LOGGING IN DU STRY, B Y OCCUPATIONS, 1915—Continued.

able

GEORGIA—Continued.
No.
Classification and
of
occupation of em­ em­
ployees.
ploy­
ees.

Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

Wage
rate.

Hauling, skidding,
and loading—Cld.

D o.......................
Do .....................
Do .....................
Thin rntters..............
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Skidder men............
Skidder men’s helpTeamsters.................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Teamsters, loading.
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Teamsters’ helpers..
D o.......................
Togglers.....................
Tongers.....................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Tongers* helpers----Tong hookers............
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Tong hookers, sec­
ond .........................
Tong men.................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Tong pullers.............
D o.......................
Top loaders..............
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Train loaders............
W agoners..................
Watchmen................
Water boys..............
Woodmen............

Cents.

Foremen...................
Raftmen....................

1

m

3

4

66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66

1

60
60

7
9
17

66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66

1
1
2
1

3
1
1
1
1

12

4
22
1
8
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

3
1
6
1
1

4
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

3
3
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

7
5
1
1
1

60
66
66

60
60
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
2 77
66
66

$1.70
1.40
0 )
1.35
1.30
1.25
1.50
1.60
1.35
1.30
1.25

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
1 .1 0 d.
. 225 h.
. 225
1.50
1.35
1.25

h.
d.
d.
d.
1 .1 0 d.
1 .0 0 d.
1 .0 0 d.
1.50 d.
1.25 d.
0 ) d.
1 .0 0 d.
1 .0 0 d.
.90 d.
1.50 d.
2.50 d.
1.75 d.
1.50 d.
1.50 d.
. 225 h.
2.25 d.
2 .0 0 d.
.18 h.
. 155 h.
1.50 d.
1.40 d.
0 ) d.
0 ) d.
0 ) d.
1.25 d.
0 ) d.
(0

1.75
1.50
1.25
.90
1.50
1.35
1.75
0 )
0 )
1.50
1.25
0 )
1.30
1.25
.80
.75
.80

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

15.5
12.7
12.5
12.3
1 1 .8

11.4
13.6
14. 5
12.3




Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

Wage
rate.

1
1
1
1
12

66
66
66
66
66

2.50
1.50
1.45
0 )
1 .0 0

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

i More than one rate.

Cents.

6 .8

7.3

22.7
13.6
13.2
11.9
9.1

1

4

66
66

$2 .0 0
1.25

60

d.
d.

. 175
76.50
2.50
. 225
2.25

18.2
11.4

Railroad construc­
tion and mainte­
nance.

Firemen...................
Foremen
.. .
D o.......................
1 1 .8
D o.......................
11.4
D o.......................
10
D o.......................
22.5
D o.......................
D o.......................
22.5
F o r e m e n , pile13.6
driver .....................
12.3
D o ................
11.4
Foremen, right-of10
way .................
9.1
D o ..................
9.1
Foremen, section. . .
13.6
D o.......................
11.4
D o.......................
9.4
D o.......................
9.1
Hammer men, pile9.1
driver .....................
8. 2
Laborers
13.6
Do
22.7
Do
15.9
Do
13.6
Do
13.6
D o.......................
22.5
Do . .
20.5
Do
18.2
Do
18
Do
15.5
Do
13.6
Do
12.7
Do . .
12.4
Do
11.9
D o .......................
1 1 .8
Do
11.4
Laborers, right-of10.9
way .....................
D o .......................
12.4
Laborers, section.. .
15.9
D o.......................
13.6
Do . . .
11.4
D o .......................
8 .2 i
D o.......................
13.6 ;
D o.......................
12.3
D o.......................
15.9
D o.......................
14.9
Levermen.................
14.2
L e v e r m en , pile13.6
driver .....................
11.4
Setters, piling..........
10.7
Teamsters.................
10
Teamsters’ helpers..
11.4
Water boys...............
7.3

Pile driving.
Foremen...................
Laborers....................
D o .......................
D o.......................
D o.......................

Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

Raft building.

1

Riggers, second___
Riggers’ helpers-----

No.
Classification and
of
occupation of em­ em­
ployees.
ploy­
ees.

1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2

66
66

60
66

60
66
66

h.
m.
d.
h.
d.
.2 0 h.
2 .0 0 d.
1.75 d.

17.5
26.7
22. 7
22.5
20.5
20

18.2
15.9

3

60

1

66

2 .0 0

. 275 h.
d.

27.5
18.2

2
1
2
8

66
66
66
66
66
66

2 .0 0

d.
d.
d.
2 .0 0 d.
1.75 d.
1.50 d.

18.2
13.6
20.5
18.2
15.9
13.6

66

2 .0 0

d.
h.
h.
h.
d.
h.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

18.2
18
15.5
14.5
13.6
13.5
12.3

3
1
1
2

9
4

60
60
60

1

66

16
9
1

30
1
1
1
1

26
3
1

50
42
1

3
12
1

62
1

26
3
1
1
2
1
1
1
1

60
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66

60
60
66
66
66
66

1.50
2.25

.180
. 155
.145
1.50
.135
1.35
(0

1.25
0)
0 )
0 )
.C 1)
f. 10
0)
(0
1 .0 0
1 .0 0

.90
1.25
1.15
O)
1 .0 0

.90
.80
.75
.50
0 )

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
h.

1 1 .6

11.4
11.4
11.3
10.9
10.4
10

9.8
9.2
9.1
9.1
8 .2

11.4
10.5
10

9.1
8 .2

7.3
6 .8

4. 5
18.4

. 225 h.
1.75 d.
d.
d.
.50 d.

22.5
15.9
9.1
9.1
4.5

.135
0 )
1.25
1.25

13.5
11.9
10.4
11.4
8.3
25.8
24.5
22.7

1 .0 0
1 .0 0

Railroad operation.
Brakemen.................
D o.......................
Do.......................
Car greasers..............
D o.......................
Engineers...............
D o.......................

6
1

5
1
1

60
72
72
66

4

72
60

1
2

66
66

2 Seven days.

h.
d.
d.
d.
1 .0 0 d.
67.00 m.
2.70 d.
2.50 d.

LOGGING WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR,

211

19.—NUMBER OF EM PLOYEES, FULL-TIME HOURS P E R W E E K , AND RATES
OF W AGES IN T H E LOGGING IN DU STRY, B Y OCCUPATIONS, 1915-Continued.

T able

GEORGIA—Concluded.
No.
Classification and
of
occupation of em­ em­
ploy­
ployees.

Full­
time
hrs.
per

Wage
rate.

ees. wk.

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

Railroad operation —

N o. Full­
of
Classification and
occupation of em­ em­
ployees.
ploy­
ees.

time
hrs.
per
wk.

Wage
rate.

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

Railroad operation—
Concluded.

Continued.

Cns
et .

Cents.

20.8

$2.50
2.25

Engineers...................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
Firemen......................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
Flagm en.....................
D o .........................
D o .........................
Forem en.....................
Hostlers......................
D o .........................
D o .........................

2.00
2.00
1.80
1.00

1.75
. 155 h.

0) d
.
0) d.
0) d..
h
1.50
. 135 h.
1.35 d.

0)
1.20
1.25
1.10
1
.00
1.25

20.5
18.2
18.2
16.4
9.1
15.9
15.5
14.6
14.5
14
13.6
13.5
12.3
11.5
11.4
10.9
10.4

1
0
9.1
8.2

.90
1.25

1.00
1.00

3.00
.225 h.
2.25 d.
1.50 d.

11.4
9.1
9.1
25
22.5
20.5
13.6

Hostlers....................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Signalmen.................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Switchmen...............
D o.......................
Trainmen.................
D o.......................

$1.25

11.4

1.10
1.00
1.50
0)
1.25

1
0

9.1
13.6
12.7
11.4
12.3
11.4
11.4
9.1

1.35
1.25
1.25

1.0
0

Road construction
and maintenance.
Blazers......................
Foremen...................
Laborers...................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o .......................
Logway men............
Swampers.................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Trail cutters.............
D o.......................

1.00

16.4
20.5
13.6
9.1

0)
1.00

6
6

1.80
2. 25
1.50

4.1
11.4
13.6
12.5
11.4
9.1

8.2

.90
.45
1.25
1. 50
1.25

6.8

.75
1.50
1.40

13.6
12.7

IDAHO.

General—Contd.

General.
Barn bosses..............
Do.......................
Barn men.................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Blacksmiths.............
Do.......................
Do.......................
Blacksmiths' help­
ers ...........................
Brush burners.........
Bull cooks.................
D o.......................
Do.......................
D o.......................
Cookees.....................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Cookhouse employ­
ees ..........................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Cooks.........................
Do.......................
Cooks, second..........
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o......................
D o......................
1 More than

2
1
1

2 70
2 70
2 70

3

2 70
2 70
2 70
60
60
60

2
2
1
1
1
1
2
1
1

270

3 2 70
5 2 70
1 2 70
1 2 70
1 2 70
9 2 70

3 14. 8
3 26.9
3 25
25

d?
d.
d.
d.
m.
m.
m.
m.
m.
m.

20.4
20
s 27.3
3 20.8
3 11.5
39.9
? 30. 6
3 28.7
3 13.2
3 9. 9

0)
2 .0 0

(4)
(<)
3 35.00
330.00
(4)
(4)
3 40.00
3 30. 00

2 2 70 3 100.00 m.
3 2 7 0 3 90.00 m.
(4) m.
1 2 70
1 2 70 3 85. 00 m.
1 2 70
(4) m.
2 2 70 340.00 m.
6 2 70 3 35. 00 m.
23 2 70 3 30. 00 m.
1 2 70
O) m.
8 2 70 3 100.00 m.
1 2 70
(4) m.
1 2 70 3 75.0 0 m.
1 2 70 3 40.00 m.
2 2 70 3 35. 00 m.
1 2 70 3 30.00 m.

one rate.




60
60
2 70

d.
d.
d.
d.
2 .0 0 d.
345.00 m.
370.00 m.
32.50 d.
2.50 d.
$2.50
2. 25
2.50
2. 25

2

Seven days

25
22.5
25
22.5
20

3 33
329.7
3 28.6
3 28
322
3 13.2
3 11.5
3 9.9
3 46.8
3 33
34 2

3 24.7
3 13.2
3 11.5
3 9.9

Cruisers.....................
Flunkies....................
Do.......................
Foremen...................
Do.......................
Foremen, assistant.
D o.......................
Do.......................
Inspectors.................
D o.......................
Do.......................
Inspectors, land___
Do.......................
Do.......................
Laborers...................
Machine-shop em­
ployees...........
Do.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Painters.....................
Scalers.......................
Scalers and clerks...

3And board.

*

1
60 3$85. 00 m.
9
60
2.50 d.
1
60
0 ) d.
1 2 70 3 35. 00 m.
2 70 3 30.00 m.
1
60
4.00 d.
60 3 100.00 m.
11
1
60 3100.00 m.
60
3. 50 d.
1
1
60
3.00 d.
1
60
4.00 d.
1
60
3.50 d.
60 3 70. 00 m.
1
2
60
2.50 d.
2
60
2.25 d.
10
60
2.00 d.
2
60
2.00 d.
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
6
5
1
6
1

60 3 115.00
60
4.00
60 3 100.00
60
3. 75
60
0)
60
3.50
60
0)
60
3.00
60
ix)
60 3 75.00
60
2. 75
60 3 70.00
60
2.50
60
2. 25
60
2.00
4.00
60
60 3 70.00
60 3 75. 00

m.
d.
m.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
m.
d.
m.
d.
d.
d.
d.
m.
m.

3 32.7
25
24.7
3 11.5
3 9.9
40
338.5
3 38.5
35
30
40
35
3 26.9
25
22.5
20
20
3 44.2
40
3 38.5
37.5
37.5
35
35
30
29.9
3 28.8
27.5
3 26.9
25
22.5
20
40
»26.9
3 28.8

More than one rate, and board.

LUMBER MANUFACTURING.

212

OF E M P L O Y E E S , F U L L -T IM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , A N D RATES
O F W A G E S IN T H E L O G G IN G I N D U S T R Y , B Y O C C U P A T IO N S , 1915—Continued.

T a b le 1 9 .— N U M B ER

IDAHO —Continued.
No.
of
Classification and
occupation of em­ em­
ploy­
ployees.
ees.

Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

Wage
rate.

General—Concld.
Scalers and clerks..
Straw bosses............
D o.......................
Warehousemen........
D o.......................
D o.......................
Watchmen...............
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Wood bucks.............
D o.......................

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

Cents.
60 i$70.00 m.
3.50 d.
60
2. 50 d.
60
60 i 75. 00 m.
2. 75 d.
60
2. 25 d.
60
2. 50 d.
2 70
70.00 m.
2 70
2. 25 d.
2 70
2 .0 0 d.
16 2 70
30.00 m.
1 2 70
2. 25 d.
60
1
4
2 .0 0 d.
60
8
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
1

i 26.9
35
25
i 28.8
27.5
22.5
25
23.1
22.5
20

9.9
22.5
20

Cutting, etc.
3
Sawvers.....................
1
Do.......................
1
D o.......................
1
D o.......................
1
D o.......................
1
Do.......................
D o....................... 242
1
D o.......................
1
D o.......................
3
D o.......................
3
D o.......................
2
D o.......................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................

D o.......................
Undercutters...........
D o.......................

2
2

2
1

3
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
2

5
12

60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60

2. 50
(3)
(3
)
(3)
(3)
(3)
2. 25
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3
)
(3)
(3)
(3)

(3
)

(3
)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(s)

i 45.00

i 40.00
2.50
2. 25

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
m.
m.
d.
d.

25
25
23.6
23.2
22.9
2 2 .8

22.5
22.4
22.3
2 2 .2
2 2 .1
22

21.9

2 1 .8

21.7
2 1 .6

21.4
21.3
2 1 .1

20.9
20.7
20.5
20.4
1 17.3
115.4
25
22.5

Hauling, ski ding,
and loading.
Chainers....................
Chasers......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Chute and skidway
men........................
Deck men.................
D o.......................
Engineers.................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Engineers, donkey..
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o .........................
D o .........................

Engineers, hoisting.
Firemen....................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................

Hoisters....................
D o .........................
D o .........................
1 And

board.




N o.
Classification and
of
occupation of em­ em ­
ployees.
ploy­
ees.

1
1
1
2

1
1
1
2

5
1
1
1
11
2

1
1
1
1
8

13
1
1
1

60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60

60
60
60
60

d.
(3) d.
(3) d.
2 .0 0
d.
2 .0 0

2. 25
2. 25
2 . 00

5.00
3.50
3. 25
(3)
4.00
3.50
3. 25
3.00
(3)
4.00
(3
)
( 3)
2. 25
2 .0 0

(3)
2.50
2. 25

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
3 Seven

20

24.4
23.5

D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
Loading employees.
D o ............... '........
D o ......................... !
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................

Riggers.......................
D o ..........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................

D o . . . .................
D o.......................
Skidding employees
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................

2 1 .8

40

35
32.5
30
28.8
40

23.5
23

22.5
20

25.9
25
22.5
days.

1
1

13
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
2
20
1
1
1
1
6
2
1

9
2

4
2
2
i
i

l
i

17
1
1
1
1
2
1

Q
1
1
1
1
1

44
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
10
1

3

20

50

35
32.5

rate.

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

Cents.
Hookers.......................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
Hook tenders............
D o .........................
D o .........................
Landing m en............

20

22.5
22.5

W age

Hauling, skidding,
and loading— Ctd.

D o .........................
D o .........................
D o . — ..................

13

Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

D o .........................

D o.......................
D o ......................
D o.......................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o ..........................

D o.......................
D o.......................

1
1
1
1
6
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

4
4

3 Morei than

60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60

( 3)
( 3)
$2. 25
( 3)
( 3)
( 3)
( 3)
( 3)
( 3)
(3
)

(3
)

2 . 00

( 3)
( 3)
3. 50
(')
3. 25
2 .0 0

2. 75
2. 50
( 3)
2. 25
5. 00
4.50
3. 50
3. 25

(3)
( s)
3. 00
( 3)
( 3)

(3)

2. 75
2.50

(3
)

60

2. 25
.75
(3)
(3)
(s)
(3)
2. 50
(3)
(3)
( 3)
(3)
(3)
(3)

60

5 -0 0

60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60

4-00
3 - 75
3- 50
( 3)
3 * 25
( 3)
(3)
(3)
i 3*00

60

60
60
60
60

60
60

60

60
60
60

60
60
60
60
60

3 -0 0

( 3)
(3
)
(3)
i 75-00
(3)
( 3)
(3)
( 3)
( 3)

(3)

i 65- 00
2-50

one rate.

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
m.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
m.
d.

29.9
26.4
22.5
22.4
22

21.9
2 1 .8

21.7
21.5
20.9
2 0 .2
20

19.2
18.6
35
33.1
32.5
20

27.5
25
23
22.5
50
45
35
32.5
31.7
31.4
30
29.9
28.2
27-8
27.5
25
23.7
22.5
7.5
45-1
27-5
27-4
27
25
23-3
23-2
2 2 .6

22.5
20-4
18
50
40
37-5
35
32.6
32-5
31-6
30-6
30-5
*30
30
29-4
29.1
28.9
128.8
28.3
27.5
27
26.7
25.5
.25.1
125
25

LOGGING WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR.

213

T ab le 1 9 .—N U M B E R OF E M P L O Y E E S , F U L L -T IM E H O U R S P E R W E E K :, A N D R A T E S
OF W A G E S IN T H E LO G G IN G IN D U S T R Y , B Y O C C U PA TIO N S, 1915—Continued.
ID A H O —Concluded.

N o.
Classification and
of
occupation of em ­ em ­
ployees.
ploy­
ees,

Fulltime
iirs.
per
wk.

E q uiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

W age
cate.

TIauling, skidding,
and loading— Cld.
Cents.
Skidd mg employees
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o ........................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
Skidway m e n ...........
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
Snubbers....................
D o .......................
Teamsters..................
D o .......................
D o .......................
Top loaders................
D o .......................
D o .......................
W histle punks..........
D o .......................
D o .......................
W ood bucks...............
D o .......................
D o .......................

(») d,
0 ) d.
d.
d*
0 ) d.
C d.
1)
(l ) d.
0 ) d.
$2.25 d.

29

0)
0) d
.
0) d.
C
1)
C
1)
(i)
0 )

d.
d.
d.
d.
2 . 0 0 d.
2.50 d.
2.25
C
1) d.
0 ) d.

40

2.00

2.50
2.25
2.25

C
1
)
2.00
3.00
0)
C d.
1)
C d
1 .
)
2.25

2 .0 0
0 )
2 .0 0

1. 75

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

22.1
2
2
2
0

25
22.5
22.3
20.7

2
0

25
22. 5
22.5

2
1
2
0

30
29.3
21.3
24. 8
22. 5

2
0
22.2
2
0
17.5

4.00
2 3. 50
3.50
3.00
3.25
3. 00

40
2 35
35
30
32.5
30

2. 75
4. 00
3.25
3.00
2. 50

27.5
40
32.5
30
25
23.2
22.5

0)

2.25

Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

Wage
rate.

Railroad construction
and maintenance—

Concluded.
24.9
24. 8
Laborers......................
24.7
D o .......................
24.4
D o .......................
24
D o .......................
23.8 1
D o .......................
23.3
D o .......................
22.7
Laborers, construc22.5
22.3
D o .......................
D o .......................
Laborers, mainte­
21.7
nance........................
21.5
D o .......................
21.4
Section hands...........
21.3

Railroad construction
and maiMenance.
Bridge builders.........
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
Foremen, laborers. .
D o .......................
Foremen, mainte­
nance........................
Laborers.....................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................

N o.
Classification and
of
occupa tion of em ­ em ­
ployees.
ploy­
ees.

Cents.
3
46
1
1
1
8

60

60
60
60
60

60

31

60

( 1)
1 2 .0 0
2 50.00
C
1)
C
1)
1.75

d.
d.
m.
d.
d.
d.

21
20

219.2
18.5
18.4
17.5

1

60

15

2.25
0 )

60

2 .0 0

d.
d.
d.

7
11

60
60
60

2. 25
2 . 00
1. 75

d.
d.
d.

20

5

5

60
60

d.
d.
d.
d.
h.
d.
d.
d.
d.

25
25
35
30.9
50
40
25. 6
25
24.6
50
45
30
27.5

22.5
2 0 .1
20

22.5
17.5

Railroad operation.
Brakemen...................
D o .......................
Conductors.................
D o .......................
Engineers...................
D o .......................
Firemen.......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
Roundhouse
em­
ployees .....................
|
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
Not reported.............

3

60

1

60

4
1

60
60

2. 50
C
1)
3.50
(l)
.50
4.00
0 )
2. 50
(x)

1
1
1
1
1
11

60
60
60
60
60
72

5.00
4.50
3.00
2 . 75
2 . 00
(3)

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

1

60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60

C
1)
2. 25
C
1)

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

1
2
1
1

60
60
60

20

O)

Road construction
and maintenance.
Swampers..................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................

9
2
1
1

3
3
1
1
1

60

225

60
60
60
60
60
60
60

1
1
1
1
2
2
1

60
60
60
&70
60
60
60

5
2
1
1
1

(l)
)
C
1)
0 )
0 )
C
1)
(x)
0 )
C
1)
C
1)
C
1)
(!)
0

2 . 00

24.2
22.5
2 2 .2
22

21.7
2 1 .6

21.4
21.3
2 1 .1

20.9
2 0 .8

20.7
20.5
2 0 .4
20.3
20

L O U IS IA N A .

Geneml— Contd.
Blacksmiths,
D o ...........
D o ...........
D o...........
Do...........
Do...........
Do...........
D o...........

1 More than one rate.




60
60
s 70
60
60
60
60
60

SO. 35
3.00
90.-00
76.50
.27
.245
2.25
2 .0 0

h.
d.
m.
m.
h.
h.
d.
d.

2 A nd board.

35
30
29.7
29.4
27
24.5
22.5
20

Blacksmith’ s helpD o .........................
D o ..........................
D o ..........................
D o ..........................
Carpenters..................
D o..........................

3 $3.25 to $4.50.

4 $0,271 to $0,375.

$0.25
2 .0 0

1.80
1.60
.16
2.50
2.25

h,
d.
d.
d.
h.
d.
d.

25
20

18
16
18
25
22.

&Seven days.

214
T

LUMBER M ANUFACTURING.
19.—NUM BER OF EM PLOYEES, FULL-TIME HOURS P E R W E E K , AND RATES
OF W AGES IN THE LOGGING IN D U STRY , B Y OCCUPATIONS, 1915-Continued.

able

LOUISIANA—Continued.
No.
Classification and
of
occupation of em­ em­
ploy­
ployees.
ees.

Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

Wage
rate.

General—Contd.
Carpenter.................
Car repairer..............
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Car repairer’s help­
ers ..........................
Clean-up men...........
Corral men................
Do.......................
Engineers, pump. . .
Extra men................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Filers.........................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Foremen...................
Foremen, camp.......
Foremen, woods___
Do..................
Do..................
Do..................
Do.......................
Foremen and black­
smiths....................
Foremen and scalers
Fuel men..................
Do.......................
Laborers...................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Machinists................
Do.......................
Machinist’ s helpers.
Mechanics...........
Oilers....................
Painters...............
Pump men.........
Do..................
Scalers..................
Do..................
Do..................
Do..................
D o.................
Do..................
Do..................
Do..................
Do..................
Do..................
Scalers and filers___
Stablemen...........
Do..................
Do..................
Do..................
Teamsters...........
Timekeepers.......
Warehousemen..
Watchmen..........
Do..................
D o.................
Do..................
Do..................
Do..................
Do..................
Do..................
Do..................
Do..................
Do.................

Cents.

Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

Wage
rate.

General—Coneld.

$0.225 h.
2.50 d.
58.50 m.
2 .0 0 d.
.2 0 h.

22.5
25
22.5
20
20

Watchmen...............
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Wood getters...........

60
60
i 70
i 70
i 70
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
i 70
60

1.50 d.
.175 h.
.30 h.
67.50 m.
2 .0 0 d.
.2 0 h.
(2 h.
)
(2) h.
.15 h.
3.00 d.
.30 h.
2.75 d.
2.50 d.
2.35 d.
90.00 m.
202.50 m.
165.00 m.
150.00 m.
4.00 in.
103.50 m.
75.00 m.

15
17.5
30
22.3
20
20
17.3
16.9
15
30
30
27.5
25
23.5
34.6
77.9
63.5
57.7
40
34.1
28.8

i 70
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
i 70
60
i 70
i 70
60
60
60
i 70
60
60
1 70
60
i 70
i 70
i 70
i 70

125.00 m.
2.25 d.
2.05 d.
1.80 d.
1.75 d.
1.60 d.
1.40 d.
.36 h.
2.75 d.
.18 h.
4.00 d.
.18 h.
. 225 h.
2 .0 0 d.

41.2
22.5
20.5
18
17.5
16
14
36
27.5
18
40
18
22.5
20
15.4
30
30
29.4
27.7
27.5
27
25
25
22.5

Cents.

Cutting, etc.

i 70

i Seven days.




No.
Classification and
of
occupation of em­ em­
ploy­
ployees.
ees.

(3) h.

3.00
.30
76.50
72.00
2.75
2.70
2.50
.25
2.25
2 .0 0

3.00
2 .0 0
2 .0 0

d.
h.
m.
m.
d.
d.
d.
h.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

1.75
.15
.225 h.
3.00
3.00
2.25

8
2.00
2.00

17.5
15
22.5
30
30
22.5
21.2
20.3

2
0
2
0
2
0

.20
(2 )

2
0
30
2
0
2
0

h

1.80 d.
.18 h.
.18 h.

(2) h.

19.2
18
18
18
17.8

1
1
1
1

4

60
Cutters......................
Foremen...................
1
1
Do.......................
Do.......................
1
Do.......................
1
Do.......................
1
Saw bosses................
1
Sawyers....................
11
Do....................... 334

i 70
i 70
66

70
60

60
60
60
60
60
66

60
66

60

(2)
$0.16
45.00
1.50
2 .0 0

(3)
1 0 0 .0 0

. 35
3.33
81.00
82.50
75.00
(3)
(3)

h.
h.
m.
d.
d.

16.9
16
15.7
15

m.
h.
d.
m.
m.
m.

(3)
38.5
35
33.3
31.2
28.8
28.8
(3)

20

(3
)

Hauling, skidding,
and loading.
Brakemen.................
Bunchers..................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Deckers.....................
Do.......................
Do.......... ............
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Drivers......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Drivers, ox...............
D o.......................
Do.......................
Drummen................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.............. .
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
D o.......................
Engineers.................
D o.......................
Extra men................
D o.......................
Firemen.....................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Firemen, loader___
D o.......................
D o.......................
Firemen, skidder. . .
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Flagmen....................

2
1

3
4
1
1
1
8

7
1
1
2
2
1

5
12

19
5
1
1
1
1

9
1
1

7
1

5
8
1
1
1
1
1
1

3
1
1

4
5
1

3
2
1
1
2
2

60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
69
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
170
60
60
60
60
60
60

1.75
2. 50
2.25
1.80
(2)
(2
)
(2)
2 .0 0
.2 0

(2
)
(2
)
1.80
.18
(2)
2.50
2. 25
2 .0 0

1.75
1.50
2.25
(2
)
2 .0 0

2.75
(2
)
(2)
.25
(2)
2.25
.225
(2)
(2
)
3. 00
2. 75
2 .0 0

1.50
.25
2. 25
. 225
1.80
1. 75
4.00
2 .0 0

.18
3.00
2. 50
2.50
.2 0

2. 25
1.80
D o.......................
.18
D o.......................
1
(2)
a one rate.
3 Pieceworkers.
3
3
4

d.
d.
d.
d.
h.
d.
h.
d.
h.
h.
h.
d.
h.
h.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
h.
h.
d.
h.
h.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
h.
d.
h.
d.
d.
d.
d.
h.
d.
d.
d.
h.
d.
d.
h.
h.

17.5
25
22.5
18
21.5
20.1

20
.1
2
0
2
0
18.5
18.3
18
18
14.9
25
22.5
20
17.5
15
22.5
22.2
20
27.5
27.4
26.8
25
24.4
22.5
22.5

22
21.5
30
27.5
20
15
25
22.5
22.5
18
17.5
40

20

18
30

25

1
I

25
20
22.5
18
18
17.7

LOGGING WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR.
T

215

1 9 . — NUMBER OF EM PLOYEES, FULL-TIME HOURS PE R W E E K , AND RATES
OF WAGES IN THE LOGGING IN DU STRY, B Y OCCUPATIONS, 1915—Continued.

able

LOUISIANA—Continued.
No.
Classification and
of
occupation of em­ em­
ployees.
ploy­
ees.

Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

Wage
rate.

Hauling, skidding,
and loading—Ctd.

No.
Classification and
of
occupation of em­ em­
ploy­
ployees.
ees.

Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

Wage
rate.

Hauling, skidding,
and loading—Cld.
Cents.

Flagmen...................
Foremen...................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Do.......................
Foremen, drivers...
Foremen, hauling...
Foremen, loader___
D o.......................
D o .......................
Foremen, skidder...
Do.......................
Foremen, skidder
and loader.............
Foremen, assistant.
D o.......................
Fuel men...................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Do.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Fuel men, loader. . .
D o.......................
Fuel men, skidder..
Do.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Grab setters.............
D o.......................
Kellers, general----D o !!!!!!!!!* .!!!
Helpers, loader........
Horse changers........
Laborers....................
D o.......................
Lever men, first.. - Lever men, second..
Loader men.............
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
D o.......................
Do.......................
D o.......................
Loaders.....................
Lot m en ...................
Riders........................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Riggers, head...........
Riggers, first.............
Riggers, second........
Skidder m en...........
Skidway men...........
Slack men.................
D o.......................
D o . . : .................
D o.......................
D o . . . . ...............

i Seven days.




60
60
1 70
60
i 70
60
60
60
60
60
1 70
60
1 70
69
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60

6
6

60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60

$1.75
1.60
125.00
.35

10 0
0 .0
67.50
2. 25
90.00
112.50
4.00

10 0
0 .0

125.00
125.00 m.
.60
2.75
. 245
.25
2. 05

2.00
1 . 80
(2
)
(2
)
.16
(2
)
(2
)

1.50
2. 50

(2
)
(2
)

1. 75

(2
)

*
1.50
1.80

(2
)

1.60
1.50

.20
(2
)

1.60
3. 50
2.25
150.00
145.00
5.00
.50
112. 50

10 0
0 .0
3.50
90.00
3.00
75.00
2.50

2.00
2.00
2.00

1.80
1.60
1. 50
.15
1.45
3.00
3.00
1. 75
2. 25
1 . 60

(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)

(2
)

h.
d.
h.
h.

17.5
16
41.2
35
33
26
22.5
34. 6
43.3
40
33
48.1
41.2
60
27.5
24.5
25
20.5

2
0

18
16.7
16.6
16

1 .1
2
15.8
15
25
17.8
17.6
17.5
15.2
15
18
17.3
16
15

2
0

16.4
16
35
22.5
57.7
55. 8
50
50
43.3
38.5
35
34.6
30
28.8
25
18.2

2
0
2
0

Slack men................
D o.......................
Stablemen.................
Stake cutters...........
Teamsters.................
D o.......................
Do.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Teamsters’ helpers..
Tongers.....................

Cents.
1
8
1
1
2
1
1

4
15
9
26
1

3

60
60
i 70
60
60
60
60
60
60
66

60
6.0
66

2
12
2

D o.......................
Tong hookers...........
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Tong setters.............
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Tong shakers...........
D o.......................
Top loaders...............
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Water boys...............
Woodcutters.............
D o.......................
Woodmen.................
D o.......................
D o.......................

18
16
Railroad construction
and maintenance.
15
15
Bankers, grading. . .
14.5
Bridgemen...............
30
Carriers, rails and
30
ties..........................
17.5
D o.......................
22.5
16
D o.......................
18.9
Dumpers..................
18.8
Dynamiters..............
18.4
D o.......................
17.9
17.8 1 Engineers.................
one rate.

60
60

2

D o.......................
Tongers and skid-

60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
eo
60
60
eo
60
60
60
60
60

7
2
10

7
11
1
1
1

4
1
1
1
1
12
2
1
1
8
1

9
1
1
6
10
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
2
1
1

3

4
1
1

24
1

9
1
1
1
1
8

66

66

60
60
60
60
60
.60
60

(2)
$1.75
2. 25
( 3)
2. 75
2. 50
2.25
2.05
2 . 00
1.80
1. 75
1. 60
1.50
2. 75
2. 25
1.80
2 . 00
1.75
2. 50
.25
2. 25
.225
(2
)
(2)
2 .0 0
.2 0

.188
(2)
(2
)
(2
)
1.75
.175
.165
(2)
2. 50
(2
)
2. 25
(2
)
2 .0 0
.2 0

1.80
(2
)
(2)
(2)
3.00
2. 70
2.50
1.80
1.60
1.50
.25
1.80
(2
)
(2)
. 16

d.
d.
d.

17.7
17.5
22.5

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

27.5
25
22.5
20.5

20

d.
d.
d.
h.
d.
h.
h.
d.
d.
h.
h.
d.
d.
d.
d.
h.
h.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
h.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
h.
d.
h.
h.
h.

20

16.4
17.5
16
13.6
27.5
22.5
16.4
20

17.5
25
25
22.5
22.5
21.7
21.5
20
20

18.8
18
17.9
17.7
17.5
17.5
16.5
25.9
25
2 2 .6

22.5
21.4
20
20

18
17
16.7
16.1
30
27
25
16.4
16
15
25
18
17
16.3
16

60
60

1.75 d.
(2) d.

17.5
18.7

60
60
60
60
60
60
60

(2 d.
)
1.60 d.
1.50 d.
1.40 d.
.2 0 h.
.30 h.
(2 d.
)
C . 00 m.
O

16.7
16
15
14

€0

Pieceworkers.

20

30
18.4
34.6

LUMBER MANUFACTURING.

216
T a b le 1 9 .— N U M B E R

OF E M P L O Y E E S , F U L L -T IM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , A N D R A T E S
O F W A G E S IN T H E L O G G IN G IN D U S T R Y , B Y O C C U PA TIO N S , 1915—Gontinued.

LOUISIANA—Continued.
No.
Classification and
of
occupation of em­ em­
ployees.
ploy­
ees,

Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

Wage
rate.

No.
Classification and
of
occupation of em­ em­
ployees.
ploy­
ees.

Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

Wage
rate.

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

Railroad construction
and maintenance—
Continued.

Railroad construction
and maintenance—
Continued.
1
G
O S3.00 d.
Engineers.................
D o.......................
1 i 70
90.00 m.
eo
67.50 m.
1
D o.......................
C
O
D o.......................
1
(2) m.
60
1.50 d.
Engineers7 helpers..
1
Firemen.....................
60
1
(2) d.
D o.......................
1
60
2 .0 0 d.
D o.......................
60
.18 h.
1
D o.......................
1 i 70
(2) h.
D o.......................
1
.16 h.
60
Foremen...................
1
2.70 d.
60
.225 h.
D o....................... • 5
60
Foremen, construc­
tion .........................
1
60
76.50 m.
Foremen, g r a d e
crew........................
60
.30 h.
1
Foremen, grading ..
2
60
81.00 m.
1
60
75.00 m.
D o.......................
D o.......................
63.00 m.
1
60
.225 h.
D o.......................
60
1
2
D o.......................
60
2 .0 0 d.
Foremen, r e p a ir
crew........................
2
60
.25 h.
D o.......................
1
60
2 .0 0 d.
D o.......................
1
60
1.65 d.
Foremen, right-of2. 75 d.
way........................
1
60
1
60
1.80 d.
D o.......................
Foremen, section...
1
60
75.00 m.
2
60
2.50 d.
D o.......................
60
62.50 m.
D o.......................
1
60
60.00 m.
D o.......................
1
60
58.50 ni.
D o.......................
3
60
1
2.25 d.
D o.......................
60
.225 h.
D o.......................
1
60.00 m.
1
66
D o.......................
54.00 in.
D o.......................
1
60
D o.......................
2 .0 0 d.
3
G
O
1
.2 0 h.
D o.......................
60
1
66
1.60 d.
D o.......................
D o.......................
66
1
40.00 m.
1
.40 h.
Foremen, steel crew.
60
1
60 100 .00 m.
D o.......................
1
60
90.00 m.
D o.......................
D o.......................
1
60
3.25 d.
D o.......................
1
60
81.00 m.
D o.......................
1
76.50 m.
60
D o.......................
1
60
75.00 m.
60
72.00 m.
D o.......................
1
D o.......................
3
eo
2.50 d.
D o.......................
2 .0 0 d.
1
00
Grade men...............
1
60
2 .0 0 d.
2
D o.......................
60
(2) d.
D o.......................
2
60
<2) d.
D o.......................
60
1
(2) d.
D o.......................
10
G
O
1.50 d.
Laborers....................
1
60
.2 0 h.
D o .......................
60
1
(2) h.
D o.......................
5
60
. 16 h.
D o .......................
12
G
O
1.45 d.
Laborers, grading...
G
O
1
1.75 d.
13
60
D o.......................
1.50 d.
D o.......................
11
60
1.35 d.
Laborers, section. . .
48
60
1. 75 d.
D o.......................
5
60
1.60 d.
D o.......................
60
1
( 2) d.
D o.......................
60
29
1.40 d.
D o.......................
8
60
1.25 d.
D o.......................
12
G
G
1.25 d.
D o.......................
6G
7
1.15 d.




Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

i Seven days.

Cents.
30
29.7
26
24.2
15
18.4
20

18
16.5
10

27
22.5
29.4
30
31.2
28.8
24.2
22.5
20

25

Laborers, steel crew.
D o.......................

2

D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Right-of-way m en..
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Slip men...................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Spike peddlers.........
. D o.......................
D o.......................

9
29

D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Steel men..................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
D o.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Teamsters.................
Do.......................
Do....................... j
Do....................... !
Do....................... !
Do....................... |
Do....................... !
Do....................... j
Do.......................
Trackmen................. 1
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................

3
14
4

2

20

16.5
27.5
18
28.8
25
24
23.1
22.5
22.5
22.5
21
2 0 .8
20
20

14.5
14
40
38.5
34.6
32.5
31.2
29.4
28.8
27.7
25
20
20

17
1G.9
16.5
15
20

17
16
14.5
17.5
15
13.5
17.5
16
15.8
14
12.5
11.4
10.5

9

2 More

1
1
2
2
1

60
60
60
C
O
60
C
O
G
O
60
C
O
i

5
1
1
1
1

16
3
1
2

4
1
1
1
1

1
8
2

25
1
1

28
12
1
1
1
1
1

34
16
23
1
1
1
2
1

4
l
l
l
27
4
2

13
1
1
1
1
1

4
2
1
1
1

27
33
1

13

than ono rate.

60

C
O
60
60
C
O
C
O
60
60
60
60
60
G
O
60
60
60
60
60
60
G
O
G
O
60
60
63
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
G
O
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
G
O
60
60
60
60
60
G
O
60
60
60
G
O
60
60
60

$1.75
1.65
1.50
1.40
1.35
1.30
1.25
.25
.225

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
h.
h.
2 .0 0 d.
.2 0 h.
(2) h.
(2) h.
(2) d.
1.80 d.
1.574 d.
1.40" d.
2 .0 0 d.
.2 0 h.
1.75 d.
(2) d.
1.15 d.
.90 d.
2 .0 0 d.
(2) d.
1.75 d.
1.70 d.
(2) d.
1.60 d.
2 .0 0 d.
.2 0 h.
(2) h.
(2) d.
1.75 d.
. 175 li.
(2) d.
(2) h.
(2) h.
1.70 d.
(2) d.
1. G d.
O
. 1G h.
1.57* d.
(2) h.
. 15 h.
(2) d.
(2) h.
1.75 d.
. 175 h.
(2) d.
(2) d.
(2) d.
1.60 d.
1.40 d.
1.75 d.
. 175 h.
(2) d.
(2 h.
)
1.65 d.
(2) h.
(2) h.
1.60 d.
(2) h.
(2) h.
(2) d.
(2) h.
1.50 d.
.15 h.
( 2) d.
1.42J d.

Cents.
17.5
1G.5
15
14
13.5
13
12.5
25
22.5
20
20

18.9
18.6
18.5
18
15.8
14
20
20

17.5
13.6
11.5
9
20

18.3
17.5
17
17
16
20
20

18
17.9
17.5
17.5
17.4
17.3
17.2
17
18.9
16
16
15.8
15.3
15
19.2
18.5
17.5
17.5
17.1
16.9
16.7
16
14
17.5
17.5
10 .7
16.6
16.5
16.3
16.3
16
15.7
15.6
15.4
15.1
15
15
14.4
14.3

217

LOGGING WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR.

T able *19*—NU-MBER O F E M P L O Y E E S , F U L L -T IM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , A N D R A T E S
OF W A G E S IN T H E L O G G IN G IN D U S T R Y , B Y O C C U P A T IO N S , m 5 —Continued.

LOUISIANA—Concluded.
N o. Full­
Classification and
of -time
occupation of em­ em­ hrs.
ployees.
ploy­ per
ees. wk.

E q uiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

W age
rate.

No
Classification and
of
occupation of em­ em­
ployees.
ploy­
ees,

Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

W age
rate.

Railroad operation —

Railroad constr uction
and maintenance'

Concluded.

Cents.

Concluded.

Cents.
Trackmen.........

60

6
0

D o .................
Trackwalkers.. .
D o .................
D o .................
D o .................
W ater 'boys........
D o .................
W oodehoppers.

60
2 70
60
60
60
60

)
SI. 40
2.50
2.25
.18
1.60

11..2

d.
d.
d.
d.
li.
d.

14
25
22.5
18
16

. 75 d.
.25 li.

7.5
25

0

.10 li.

0
0

1
0

Railroad operation.

eo

Brakem en...
D o ......... .
D o..........
D o...........
D o ..........
D o ...........
D o .........
D o .........
D o ..........
D o ..........
D o ..........
D o .........
Conductors.
D o .........
D o .........
Engineers..
D o .........
D o..........
D o.........
D o..........
D o..........
D o.........
D o..........
D o.........
D o..........
D o.........
D o.........
D o..........
D o..........
D o .........
D o ..........
D o.........
D o.........
D o ..........
D o.........
D o .........
D o .........
D o ..........
-Firemen___
D o .........
D o .....
D o .........

60
60
60
60

27
0
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60

2 77

60
60
60

25
25
22.5
22.5
22.5
20.5
20.5

2.50

0)

2.25
58.50
2.25
2.05

20)
.0
0

2
0

18
18
17.5
16
48.5
34.6
27.5
53.8

1.80
.18
1.75
1.60
126.00
90.00
2.75
140.00
112.50
4.00

43.3
40

27 1 0 0
0 2 .0
0 .0
60 1 0 0
60
6G
2 70
2 70
60
60
277

6
6

60
2 70

6
6
60
6
6
60
60

2

7
0
6
6

60
60
60
2 70
2 70

39.6
38.5
35
33.2
33
32.6
32.1
31.2
30
30
30
29.7
28
28
26.2
25.4
25
23.1
22.7
22.5
30
27.5
25
22.5

3.50
95. 00

10 0
0 .0
99.00
83.35
81.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
90.00
80.00
2.80
75. 00

(l)

2.50
70.00
65.00
2.25
3.00
2.75

2C
.O
2.25

Firem en......................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
Flagmen.....................
Fu«l men....................
D o .........................
Hostlers......................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o ....................... .
D o .........................
D o .........................
Hostlers, assistant..
Oilers......................... .
D o ....................... .
D o ....................... .
D o....................... .
D o .......................
Pum p m en...............
Switchmen..............

60
60
60
2

7
0
60
60
60
60
60

6
6
60
60
2

6
6
7
0

60
60
2 70
2

7
0

2 70
60
2

7
0

2 70
2 70
2

7
0

2 70
2 70
60
60
60

6
0
60
60
60

22.5

$2.25
54.00

C)
1
2.05
2.00
0)

. 185
1.80
1.75
1.80
1.60
,
1.60
1.80
1.80
1.55
2.25
2.05

20.8
20.6
20.5
2
0
19.3

h.
d.
d.
d.
d.

C h
1 d..
)

18.5
18
17.5
16.4
16
15.7
14.5

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

18
15.5
22.5
20.5

20
.0
20
.0
.20

1.80
.18
46. 80
1.50
. 15

1
8

2
0
2
0
2
0

18
18
15.4
15
15
21.3

0)
2.0
0
.2
0
0)
1.75

2
0
2
0

19.2
17.5

15

1.50
1.75

17.5

Road
construction
and maintenance.

10 0
0 .0

Swampers.
D o ____
D o ____
D o ____
D o ____
D o ........
D o ....
D o ____
D o ........
D o ____
D o ....
D o ....

90.00
80.00
3.00
59.60
2.25

d.

2.00

38.5
34.6
30.8
30
22.9
22.5

2
0

19.2
17.8
17.5
15.5
15

50.00
0 )
1.75
0 )
1.50

Unloading.
Rollway m e n ...
D o .................
D o .................

2.50
2.25

d.
d.

25
22,5
19.2

d.
d.
d.
d.

26
25
22.5

d.
d.
d.
d.

18
16

C) d.
1

MISSISSIPPI.
General.

General— Contd. ■

Barn bosses..

1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
2

Barn m en___
D o ............
D o ...........

D o ..........
Blacksmiths.
D o ...........
D o ...........
D o ...........

2

60
60
2 70
60
60
60
2 70
60

$1.80
50.00
1.80
1.80
1.75
3.25
3.15
3.00
3.-00

1 M than one rate.
ore




d.
m.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

15
19.2
18
18
17.5
32.5
5 1.5
30
30

Blacksm iths..............
D o .........................
D o .........................
Blacksmiths’ help­
ers..............................
D o .........................
Car inspectors...........

2 -Seven days.

1
2
1
1

60
60
60
60

$2.60
2.50
2.25

1
1

60
60
60
60

1.80
1.60
1.50

3
1

2 .0 0

2 .0 0

3 Of 10 hours.

2
0

1
5
2
0

218

LUMBER MANUFACTURING.
19.—NUMBER OF EM PLOYEES, FULL-TIME HOURS PE R W E E K , AND RATES
OF W AGES IN THE LOGGING IN DU STRY, B Y OCCUPATIONS, 1915—Continued.

T able

MISSISSIPPI—Continued.
No.
Classification and
of
occupation of em­ em­
ployees.
ploy­
ees.

Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

Wage
rate.

Cents.
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
1

3
6
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

3
2
1
1
1
1
1

3
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1

4
1
1
2
6
1

3
1
1

60
60
60
60
60

$2.05
1.60
2.75
2.25
1.75

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

20.5
16
27.5
22.5
17.5

d.
m.
d.
m.
d.
d.
m.
d.
d.
d.
m.
d.
d.
m.
m.
m.
m.
d.
d.
m.
m.
m.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
m.
d.
d.
d.
d.
h.
d.
d.
d.
in.

17.5
2 24.7
15
2 10.7
2 6.5
25
2 11.3

75.00 m.
1.25 d.
1 .0 0 d.
2.25 d.
65.00 m.
2 .0 0 d.
1.40 d.
1.40 d.
1.60 d.
1.50 d.
1.40 d.
1.25 d.
1.25 d.
1.15 d.
1.60 d.

28.8
12.5
18.8
17.9
16.7
14
14
13.3
12.5
11.7
10.4
12.5
11.5
16

60 100 .00 m.
60
3.00 d.
60 a 76.50 m.

i Seven days




1
1
1

Foremen...................
Foremen and filers..
Foremen and log
checkers.................
Foremen and scalers
Knot choppers.........
Do.......................
Sawyers....................

38.5
30
3 29.4

1.75
2 90.00
1.50
2 32. 50
2 .65
2 .50
2 41.00

60
i 84
i 70
i 70
i 70
i 70
184
1 .1 0
i 70
i 84 2 1 .0 0
1.75
60
80.00
60
2. 75
60
2.50
60
60 115.00
60 100.00
67.50
60
50.00
60
.50
60
1.40
60
60 115.00
60 1 00.00
60 2 90.00
60
3.15
2.50
1 70
2.50
60
2.50
1 84
1.80
1 70
60
2.25
1.40
60
1.80
1 70
60
1.25
1.50
60
2. 75
60
60
2.25
55.00
60
60
2.05
60
2 .0 0
60
1.75
60
1.60
.14
60
2.05
60
1.50
60
3.00
60
60.00
60
60
60
60
i 84
i 84
i 84
170
60
i 84
i 84
i 84
i 84
60
60
60

11

2 8.3
17.5
30.8
27.5
25
44.2
38.5
26
19.2
5
14
44.2
38.5
2 34.6
31.5
25
25
2 0 .8

18
22.5
14
18
12.5
15
27.5
22.5
2 1 .2

20.5
20

17.5
16
14
20.5
15
30
23.1

10

Cutting, etc.
Foremen...................
Do.......................
D o.......................

Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

Wage ’
rate.

1
1

60
60

$65.00 m.
2.25 d.

25
22.5

1

60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

22.5

Cutting, etc.—Cld.

General—Concld.
Carpenters................
D o.......................
Car repairers.............
D o.......................
D o.......................
Civil engineers' help­
ers ..........................
Cooks.........................
Do.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Do.......................
Cooks’ helpers.........
D o.......................
D o......................
Dynamo men...........
Filers.........................
D o.......................
Do.......................
Foremen...................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Horse tenders..........
Landing men...........
Machinists................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Machinists' helpers.
Oilers.........................
Pipe fitters...............
Pipe fitters' helpers.
Pump men...............
Scalers....*.................
Do.......................
Do.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
D o.......................
Shoers........................
Tallymen..................
Timekeepers.............
D o.......................
Timekeepers and
scalers....................
Unloaders, coal........
Washers....................
Watchmen...............
Do.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Water hoys...............
D o.......................
Woodmen.................

No.
Classification and
of
occupation of em­ em­
ployees.
ploy­
ees.

2 And

board.

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

Cents.

4
2

5
7
29

Do.......................
10
D o.......................
4
D o.......................
16
D o.......................
2
D o....................... 186
Water boys...............
1
Hauling, skidding,

2.25
2 .0 0

(3)
1.40
1.60
1.50
1.40
1.35
1.25
1.15
(*)

20

16
14
16
15
14
13.5
12.5
11.5
(4)

1 .0 0

d.

1.40
1.50
1.25
1.15
1.40
1.50
1.50
(3)
1.60
(3)
1.15

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

14
15
12.5
11.5
14
15
12.5
18
16

1.50 d.
1.35 d.
(3) d.
1 .2 0 d.
2.25 d.
2.05 d.
2 .0 0 d.
(3) d.
1.75 d.
1.50 d.
1.60 d.
90.00 m.
1.50 d.
2 .0 0 d.
1.75 d.
2.83 d.
3.00 d.
2 .0 0 d.
1.80 d.
1.80 d.
1.75 d.
.175 h.
1.25 d.
1.40 d.
1 .2 0 d.
.14 h.
1.25 d.
1.40 d.
125.00 m.
1 00.00 m.
3.50 d.
2 90.00 m.
85.00 m.
2 .8 8 d.
2.83 d.
70.00 m.
2.25 d.
2 .0 0 d.
50.00 m.
1.90 d.
1.50 d.

15
13.5
12.9

10

and loading.

Axmen......................
Cant-hook men___
Deckers and chokers
D o.......................
Deck men.................
Drivers......................
D o.......................
Drivers, ox...............
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Drivers and bunchD o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Drummen...............
D o.......................
D o.......................
Do.......................
D o.......................
Do.......................
D o.......................
Engineers.................
Extra men................
Feeders......................
D o.......................
Firemen....................
D o .......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o .......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Do.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Firemen’s helpers. .
Flagmen...................
D o .......................
Foremen...................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o ......................
D o.......................
D o......................
D o......................
D o.......................
D o.......................

1More

than one rate.

1

5
1

4
4
4
1
1
8
1

14
2
1
2
1

5
5
4
3
1
1
6
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
10
2
2

4
2
1
1

4
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1

60
60
60
60
60
60
72
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
72
60
60
60
60
60
72
60
1 70
60
60
60
60
72
72
60
60
72
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
72
60

1 .0 0

* Pieceworkers.

12

11.5
10

12

22.5
20.5
20

19
17.5
15
13.3
34.6
15
20

17.5
28.3
25
20

18
18
17.5
17.5
12.5
11.7
10

14
12.5
11.7
48.1
38.5
35
2 34.6
32.7
28.8
28.3
26.9
22.5
20

19.2
15.8
15

219

LOGGING WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR.
T

1 9 . — NUMBER OF EM PLOYEES, FULL-TIME HOURS PE R W E E K ; AND RATES
OF WAGES IN THE LOGGING IN DU STRY, B Y OCCUPATIONS, 1915—Continued.

able

MISSISSIPPI—Continued.
No.
Classification and
of
occupation of em­ em­
ployees.
ploy­
ees.

Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

Wage
rate.

Hailing, skidding,
and loading—Ctd.
Foremen...................
Foremen, loader___
D o .......................
Foremen, skidder. . .
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
Foremen, teamsters.
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
Handym en.............
Haulers.....................
Laborers...................
D o .......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
Linemen...................
Line setters..............
D o.......................
Loadermen.............
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Loaders.....................
D o.......................
Do.......................
Loaders, assistant. .
Loaders, bummer...
D o.......................
Loaders, bummer,
and swampers----D o.......................
D o.......................
Oilers.........................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Riders........................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Do.......................
D o.......................
Roustabouts............
Skidder men............
Skinners....................
Splicers.....................
Tail-down men........
Teamsters.................
Do.......................
Do.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o......................
Teamsters, head___
D o......................
D o.......................
Tongers.................




Cents.
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

7
1
1
1

28
5
2

32
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
10

7
1
2
1
1
1

3
1
2
1
1

5
1

3
1
2
1

3
1

4
2
6
11

15
7
10

14
9
12
1

3
1
8

60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
72
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
72
60
72
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
72
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
72
60
60
60
60
60

d.
d.
d.
m.
d.
m.
d.
m.
m.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
h.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

13.6
41.3
22.5
42.3
40
38.5
17.5
28.8

d.
0 ) d.
1 .2 0 d.
2 .0 0 d.
1.75 d.
C d.
1)
1.55 d.
1.50 d.
C d.
1)
1.35 d.
1 .0 0 d.
1 .0 0 d.
2.25 d.
1.25 d.
2.05 d.
1.50 d.
2 .0 0 d.
1.80 d.
1.75 d.
1.65 d.
1.60 d.
1.50 d.
. 1351 h.
1.50 d.
1.25 d.
.2 0 h.
. 175 h.
.15 h.
1.80 d.

13.6
12.4

(0

$4.13
2.25
1 1 0 .00

4.00
1 0 0 .00

1.75
75.00
55.00
2.50
2.05
2 .0 0

1.25
1.15
1.75
1.50
1.40
1.35
0 )
1.25
1.15
1 .1 0
1 .0 0

1.60
1.75
1.50
5.00
.50
4.25

(l)

3.50
2.83
2.50
2 .0 0

2.25
1.75
1.50
1.15
2 .0 0

1.50
1.35

0)

i More than one rate.

2 1 .2
2 0 .8

20.5
20

12.5
11.5
17.5
15
14
13.5
13
12.5
11.5
11
10

16
17.5
15
50
50
42.5
41.3
35
28.3
2 0 .8
20

18.8
17.5
15
11.5
20

15
13.5*

12
20

17.5
13.8
15.5
15
14.3
13.5
8.3
10

22.5
12.5
20.5
15
20

18
17.5
16.5
16
15
13.5
12.5
12.5
20

17.5
15
18

No.
Classification and
of
occupation of em­ em­
ploy;
ployees.
ees.

Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

Wage
rate.

Hauling, skidding,
and loading—Cld.
Cents.
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Tong setters.............
Top loaders..............
D o.......................•
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Water boys...............
Wood getters...........
D o.......................
Woodmen.................
D o.......................

18
17.8
17.7
17.5
17.4
16
15
14.8
14
13.5
13.2
12.5
11.7

$0.18
0 )
0 )
1.75
C
1)
1.60
1.50
0 )
1.40
1.35
C
1)
1.25
1.40
1.30

2

60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
72
72
60
72
60
60
60
60
60
72
60
60
60
72
72

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60

d.
d.
d.
d.
1 .0 0 d.
3.50 d.
75.00 m.
55.00 m.

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

60
72
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60

5

66

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

60
60
G
O
60
60
60
60

2. 25
1.65
1.25

d.
d.
m.
d.
d.
h.
m.
d.
d.
d.
d.
h.
h.
d.
m.
d.
m.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

1

60

1.15

d.

11.5

1

60

2 .0 0

d.

20

1
1

60
60
60

1 . 75

17.5
12.5

1 .0 0

10

1
1
1
12
1

29
6
1

16
13
1
1

4
6

3
1
1
1
1
1
1

9
2

4

1 .0 0

1.50
.25
2.25
1.75
0)
1.50
1.50
.75
1.50
1.40
1.60
1.40

h.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
h.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

1 0 .8
10

12.5
25
22.5
17.5
17
15
12.5
7.5
15
14
13.3
11.7

Railroad construction
and maintenance.
Bridgemen...............
D o.......................
Engineers.................
Firemen....................
Foremen...................
Do.......................
D o.......................
Foremen, construcD o.......................
Foremen, grading...
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Foremen, section. . .
Do.......................
Do.......................
D o.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
D o.......................
Foremen, steel gang.
D o . ....................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Foremen,track crew
D o.......................
D o.......................
Foremen, construc­
tion, assistant___
Foremen, grading,
assistant................
Foremen, section,
assistant................
Laborers...................
D o.......................
2 And

4

41
board.

66
66

2.50
1.40
1.35
2.50

2 .0 0

1.75
85.00
3.00
2.25
. 175
75.00
2.50
2.30
2.25
2 .0 0
.2 0

.185
1.80
80.00
3.00
75.00
2 2.70
2.55
2 .0 0

d.
1.25 d.
d.

25
14
13.5
25
10

35
28.8
2 1 .2
20

14.6
32.7
30
22.5
17.5
28.8
25
23
22.5
20
20

18.5
16.4
30.8
30
28.8
227
25.5
18.2
20.5
16.5
12.5

220

LUMBER MANUFACTURING.
X9.—NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES, FULL-TIME HOURS P E R W E E K , AND R A TE S
OF W AGES IN THE LOGGING INDUSTRY, B Y OCCUPATIONS, 1915-Contimi&d.

T able

MISSISSIPPI—Conclud ed.
No.
Classification and
of
occupation of em ­ ■em
­
ployees.
ploy­

Full­
time

hrs.
per

W age
rate.

ees. wk.

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

No.
Classification and
of
occupation of em­ em ­
ploy­
ployees.
ees.

Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

W age
rate.

Railroad operation—

Railroad construction
and maintenance—

Concluded.

Cents.
30

Concluded.

Cents.

Laborers, construc­
tion ...........................
D o .........................
Laborers, grad ing...
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o . . .................
Laborers, section. . .
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
Laborers,steel-gang.
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
Laborers, track........
D o .........................
Loaders, slip .............
Pile drivers................
Teamsters..................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
Trackdressors..........
D o .........................
Trackwalkers............
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
W ater b o y s................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................

$1.40

11.7

1.35
1.30
1.15

13.5
13
11.5

1
.00
.11

1.30
1.25
1.15

.11
1.10
1.00
.10
1.50
1.40
1.35

0)
1.25
1.20
1.15
1.10
.11
1.15
1.00
1.10
1.00

1.35
2. 25
1.75
1.50
1. 35
1.50
1. J5
1.45
1.25

.11
1.20
1.25
1.20

1
0
1
1

13
12.5
11.5

1
1
1
0
1
0
1
0

15
14
13.5

12.8
12.5
1
2
11.5
1
1
1
1
10.5
1
0
1
0
1
0
13.5
18.8
17.5
15
13.5
12.5
11.5
14.5
12.5

1
1

10.9
10.4

1
0

1.05
.90
.80
.80
.2 5

10.5

1.80

18
16.7
16
15
13.5
13

7.3
2.5

Engineers..................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................

7

D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
I
D o .........................
j Engineers'helpers..
i Extra m en .................
Firemen......................
!
D o .........................
(
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o . . .....................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
Flagm en.....................
D o .........................
Hostlers......................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
•Hostlers' help ers.. .
D o .........................
D o .........................
Train masters...........

2
1
1

1
1
1

3

4
1

4
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
1

5
2
1

3
1
1
1

3
2
1
1

3
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

60
60
60
2 70
72
60
72
60
72
60
60
60
60
2 70
60
60
60
2 70
60
60
1 72
| 2 70
60
72
2 70
72
72
60
72
72
60
2 70
72
60
2 70
2 70
284

4
1
1

4
1

72
72
72
60
60
60
60

$3.00
75.00
2 . 75
2 . 70
3.00
2. 50
. 225
2.25
.2 0
2 .0 0

1.75
1.40
1.25
2.25
(0
2 .0 0

C
1)
1.80
1.80
1.75
2 . 00
1. G
O
1.50
1. 75
1.40
.135
.13
1.30
. 126
1.50
1. 25
1.80
. 125
2. 25
1.80
1. 65
1. 75
1. 75
.1 1

1.25
2. 50
1. 75
1.40
2.50

d.
m.
d.
d.
d.
d.
h.
d.
h.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
h.
h.
d.
h.
d.
d.
d.
h.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
h.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

!
!

1

!
i
,
1

!

28.8
27.5
27
25
25
22.5
22.5
20
20

17.5
14
12.5
2 2 .5
20.9
20

18.2
13
18

!
;
1
!

17.5
16.7
16
15
14.6
14
13.5
13
13
1 2 .6

12.5
12.5
18
12.5
22.5
13
16.5
14.6
14.6
11

10.4
25
17.5
11

25

Road construction
cmd maintenance.

Railroad operation.
Brakemen...................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
Car greasers...............
Car knockers.............
Conductors.................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
Engineers...................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................




60
72
2 70
60
60
C
O
72
60
72
60
60
72
2 70
60
60
2 70
60
2 70
60
- 70

2.00
1.60
1. 50
1.35
1.30
1.50
1.25
1.25
1. 50

2.00

125.00
3.50
3.50

0)
1.80
10 0
0 .0
3.60
3.50
3.15

1 More than one rate.

12.5
12.5
10.4
15

2
0

40.1
35
-35
28.8
18

.3 .5
8
36
3
5
31.5

Swampers..................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
Tim berm en...............

1

60
60
60
72
60
60

1
6
1
1
1

60
60
60
60
60

3

€0

1
1
2

60
60
60

1.35
1.30
1.50
1.50
50.00
1.30
1.50
1. 65
1.30

1

60

1.35

10
11
1

4
40

1.35
1.25
1.15
1.30
2.60

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.'

26

d.
d.
d.
d.
m.
d.
d.
d.
d.

13.5
13
15
15
19.2
13
15
16.5
13

d.

13.5

1 .0 0

13.5
12.5
11.5
1 0 .8
10

Wood-machine crew.
Axm en and wood
stockers...................
D o .........................
Block setters.............
Firemen......................
Foremen.....................
Off-bearers.................
Sawvers......................
Splitter m en ..............
Trash burners and
yardm en.................

2 Seven days.

LOGGING WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR.

221

T ab le 19.—N U M B E R O F E M P L O Y E E S , F U L L -T IM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , A N D R A T E S
OF W A G E S IN T H E L O G G IN G IN D U S T R Y , B Y O C C U PA TIO N S, 1915—Continued.
M ONTANA.

No.
Classification and
of
occupation of em ­ em ­
ployees.
ploy­
ees.

Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

E q u iv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

W age
rate.

General.

N o.
Classification and
Of
occupation of em ­ em­
ployees.
ploy­
ees.

Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

W age
rate.

Cutting, etc.— Cld.
Cents.

Barn bosses................
Blacksmiths..............
D o .........................
B ulleooks...................
D o .........................
Cookees........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
Cookhouse employ­
ees..............................
D o ..........................
D o .........................
Cooks............................
D o .........................
D o .........................
Cooks, second............
Filers............................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
Firemen.......................
Flunkeys.....................
D o .........................
Foremen.....................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
Hand y m en ...............
Harness m en .............
Hoisters......................
Powder m en..............
Scalers.........................
D o .........................
Shopmen.....................
D o .........................
Stablemen..................
Timekeepers..............
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
W atchm en.................
D o .........................
D o .........................
N ot reported.............

1
1
1
1
1
1

3
4
2
1

5
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

i 70
60
60
163
i 70
i 63
i 63
1 63
70
i 70
i 70
1 63
1 70
i 70
i 63
54
60
60
60
60
54
1 70
1 70
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
1

00
1
1
1
1

54
54
60
54
54
00

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

19

54
54
54
54
54
60
60
60
60
i 63
i 63
54

$1. 45
2 2.90
2 75.00
2 50.00
2 1.61
(3)
2 50.00
2 45.00

d.
d.
m.
m.
d.
m.
m.
m.

2 14.5
2 29
2 28. S
2 18.3

m.
m.
m.
m.
2 1 0 0 .0 0 m .
2 3. 22 d.
2 60.00 m.
3. 50 d.
3.25 d.
(8) d.
(3) d.
2 65. 00 m.
(3)
2 45.00 m.
2 1.45 d.
2 6 .44 d.
2166. 67 m .
2150.00 m.
m.
2 1 0 0 .0 0
2 85.00 m .
2 3. 22 d.
2 2. 43 d.
3. 25 d.
3.00 d.
(4) d.
2. 25 d.
(3) d.
(<) d.
2 65.00 m.
2 1 0 0 .0 0 m.
2 50.00 m.
2 50.00 m .
2 1 0 0 .0 0 m .
2 75.00 m.
2 2. 43 d.
2 60.00 m.
2 50.00 m.
3. 00 d.
2 60.00 m.
2 50.00 m.
(3) d.

2 29.7
2 14.8
2 13.2
2 45.8
2 33
2 32.2
2 22

2

90.00
45.00
40.00
2125.00
2
2
2

1 Seven days.

1

31
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
20
1
1
1
1

32
2
1
2
1
1

54 2 1 0 0 .0 0 m.
54
2. 75 d.
54
(3) d.
54
(3) d.
54
( 3) d.
54
(3) d.
54
( 3 d.
)
54
(3) d.
60
(3) d.
2.75 d.
60
60
( 3) d.
60
( 3 d.
)
60
(3) d.
60
(3) d.
2.50 d.
60
60
(3) d.
60
(3 d.
)
60
(3) d.
60
(3) d.
60
(3) d.

2 A nd board.




2
1
1
1

54
54
54
54

1
1
1
1
2

54
54
54
54
54

3

00

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

60

(3) d.

29.8
29.6
29.5
29.3

d.

31.3
30
30
29.8
29.6
27.5
25
59
49.2
38.5
45
27.5
32.5
30
33.3
32.4
31
30
45
29.8
37.5
35
30
27.5
25.7
25
24.8
27.5
42.5
39.1
38.5
37.7
35
33.3
32.5
31.8
28. 9
28.1
27.5
25
22.5
31.1
29.8
2 27.8
27.5
27
2 2 0 .4
25.8
25.7
25.5
2 25.5
25
2 24.6
2 24.3

(3) d.
(3) d.
(3) d.

2 1 0 .1

2 23.4
18.3
10.5

2
2

38.9
32.5
28.9
28.8
2 25
2 35.6
2 14.8
2 14.5
2 64. 4
2 64.1
2 57.7
2 38.5
2 32. 7
2 32.2
2 24.3
32.5
33.3
2 33.9
22.5
33
2 28. 6
2 25
2 42.7
2 21.4
2 21.4
2 42.7
2 32.1
2 24.3
2 23.1
2 19.2
30
2 22
2 18.3

(&
)

Cutting, etc.
Boss sawyers.............
Sawyers......................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................

Cents.
Stull hewers...............
D o .........................
D o .........................

2

42.7
30.6
30.6
30.3
30.2
29.9
29.8
29.7
27.9
27.5
26.3
26.2
26
25.7
25
24.9
24.3
24.2
24
23.9

3 More than one rate.

Handing, skidding,
and loading.
Chainmen...................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
Doggers.......................
D o .........................
Engineers...................
D o .........................
D o .........................
Engineers, donkey..
Engineers’ helpers..
D o .........................
Hookers.......................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
Hook tenders.............
Jammers.....................
Loaders.......................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
Skidder crew .............
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................

Teamsters.................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................

D o......................
D o......................

G
O

2
1
1
1
1
8
1
1
1
1

60
60
60
60
60
60
54
51
54
60
60
54
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
eo
60
54
54
60
60
54
60
60

1

00

1
20
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
10
2
1
1
1
1

54
60
54
54
60
54
60
54
54
60
54
54
54
54
54

3
1
1
1
2
2

3
1

9
1

7
1
1
2
1

4
1

3
1
1
1

3

4 More than one rate, and board.

(8
)
$2. 70

(3)
(3)
(3
)
2. 75
2.50
5.90
4.92
1 0 0 .0 0

4. 50
2. 75
3.25
3.00
3.00
(3)
(3)
3.00
4. 50
( 3)

3. 75
3.50
3. 00
2. 75

(3
)

2. 50
( 3)

2. 75
4. 25
( 3)

1 0 0 .0 0
( 3)

3. 50
( 3)

3. 25
(3)
(3)
( 3)
2. 75
2. 50
2. 25
( 3)

( 3)
« 2. 50
2.75

(3)
(4)
(3
)
(3
)
(3)
(4)
2.50
(4)
(4)
(3)
(4)
(3)
(4)
(4)
2.25
( 4)
( 4)
( 4)
(4)
(4)

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
m.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
m.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
n.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

2 1 .2

23.9
23.5
2 23.4
2 22.7

2

22.5
2
2

22.5
22.3

2 2 2 .2
2 2 2 .1
2 2 1 .8

5 $0,203 to $0,323.

222
T

LUMBER MANUFACTURING.
1 9 . — NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES, FULL-TIME HOURS P E R W E E K , AND RATES
OF W AGES IN THE LOGGING IN DU STRY, B Y OCCUPATIONS, 1915—Continued.

able

MONTANA—Concluded.
No.
Classification and
of
occupation of em­ em­
ploy­
ployees.
ees.

Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

Wage
rate.

Hauling, skidding,
and loading—Cld.
Teamsters.................
D o......................
D o .......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Topinen, jammer...
Whistle punks.........
Wood bucks.............
D o.......................
D o .......................
D o.......................
D o .......................

2
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
6
1
1
1

54
0)
54
0 )
54
(1)
54 2 $50.00
54
C
1)
54 245.00
54
5.00
2.50
60
2.75
60
2.50
60
60
(3
)
60
(3)
2.25
60

d.
d.
d.
m.
d.
m.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

2 21.7
2 2 1 .6
2 21.5
2 21.4
2 21.4
2 19.2

55.6
25
27.5
25
24.4
24.2
22.5

1
6
1
2
1
1
68
1
1
68

60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
54

(3
)
2.50
(3
)
(3)
(3
)
(3)
2.25
(3
)
(3)
(<)

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

25.6
25
23.8
23.7
23
22.9
22.5
22.5
21.7
(5)

Railroad construc­
tion, maintenance,
and operation.
Laborers....................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o......................
Not reported............

Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

Wage
rate.

Railroad operation.
Cents.

Railroad construction
and maintenance.
Laborers...................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o.......................
D o .......................
Not reported............

No.
Classification and of
occupation of em­ em­
ployees.
ploy­
ees.

1

19
1
8
1

60
60
60
60
60

3.00
2.75
(3)
2.50
(3)

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

30
27.5
25.6
25
33.9

Brakemen...............
Engineers...............
Firemen..................
Not reported..........

Cents.

! 1
i 2
j 1
! 18

54
54
54
60

2 $113.60
2 5.00
2 113.60

(6)

m.
d.
m.
d.

1
1
1
1

54
60
60
54
54
54
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
54
60
60
60
54
54
54
60
60
60
60
60

(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
2.50
(3
)
(3
)
2.75
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
<3
)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3
)
2.50
(3
)
(3)
(3
)
(3)
(3)
(3
)
(3)
2.25

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

30.3
29.1
28.6
28.3
27.8
27.6
27.5
27.5
27.3
27.2
27.1
27
26.9
26.7
26.6
26.5
26.2
26.1
26
25.8
25.7
25
24.7
24.6
23.8
23.6
23.5
23.4
23.2
22.5

1
1
1
2
2
2
1
1
2
2
1

8 77

2 $16. 00

60
60
60
8 77
60
60
60

1.80
1.25
1. 35
.90
.30
. 25

2 4.8
18
12.5
13.5

3

60

1
1

66

m.
d.
d.
d.
d.
h.
h.
h.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
h.
m.
m.
m.
d.
h.
m.
d.
m
m.
m.

1

48.5
55.6
48.5
(7)

2
2
2

Road construction
and maintenance.
Swampers...............
D o .....................
D o .....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o .....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o .....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o .....................
D o.....................
D o . . . ...............
D o.....................

25
1
1

14
2
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

30
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

16

NO R TH CAROLINA.

General.
Blacksmiths.............
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o...................
D o.......................
D o...................
Blacksmiths’ help­
ers .....................
D o.......................
Carpenters............
D o.......................
D o.......................
Cookees.....................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Cooks.........................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Cooks, assistant___
D o.......................

1
1
1
1
1
1
1

60
60
60
66

60
66

60

$0.30 h.
. 27A h.
2. 50 d.
2. 48 d.
.2 0 h.
2 .0 0 d.
1.80 d.

60
1.35
60
1 .0 0
60
.25
.2 2
60
60
1.80
8 70
0 )
8 70 2 45.50
8 70 2 45.00
3 8 70 2 90.50
1 8 70
0 )
1 8 70 2 75.50
1 8 77 2 40.00
4 8 77 2 35. 00
2 8 77
2.90
1 8 77 2 2 0 .0 0
2 8 77 2 18.00
2
1
1
1
1
1
6
1

i More than one rate, and board.
» And board.
8 More than one rate.




30
27.5
25
22.5
20

18.2
18

d.
d.
h.
h.
d.
m.
m.
m.
m.
m.
m.
m.
m.
d.
m.
m.

13.5
10

25
22

18
2 18.5

2 15
2 14.8
2 29.8
2 26.7
2 24.9
2 12
2 10.5
2 8 .2

26
5.4

General—Contd.
Cooks, assistant. . .
Counters.................
D o.....................
Feeders...................
D o.....................
Filers.......................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
Foremen.................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
Laborers..................
Landing builders..
Lobby men............
Mechanics.............
Office men............
D o.....................
Pump men.............

« From $2.40 and board to $4.55.
c From $0,268 and board to $0,506.
• $2.70 and board to $4.50.

3
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
2

66

60
66

60
60
63
60
63
60
60
60
66
66

60

.2 0
2 .0 0
1. 80
1. 80

1.50
(3)
.40
100 .00
100 . 00

15.00
1.50
.25
45. 50
1. 80
67. 50
65.00
36.00

i $0,270 to $0,450
8 Seven

days.

8.2

30
25

2
0

18.2
18
16.4
15
13.2
40
38.5
36.6
25
14.3
25
17.5
18
23.6
22.7
13.8

223

LOGGING WAGES- AND HOURS OF LABOR.

19.—NUMBER OF EM PLOYEES, FULL-TIME HOURS PE R W E E K , AND RATES
OF WAGES IN THE LOGGING INDUSTRY, B Y OCCUPATIONS, ^15—Continued.

T able

NORTH CAROLINA—Continued.
No.
Classification and
of
occupation of em­ employees.
ploy-

General—Concld.
Repair m en, log
equipment............
D o ......................
D o.......................
Scalers.......................
D o.......................
Do.......................
Shopmen..................
D o !!!!!!!!!!!!!
D o................. .
Do.......................
Stablemen................
D o.......................
Telephone men.......
Timekeepers............
Do.......................
D o.......................
Water boys..............
D o.......................
Woodcutters............
Not reported............
D o.......................

Wage
rate.

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

No.
Classification and
of
occupation of em­ em­
ployees.
ploy­
ees.

Cents.

Fulltime
hrs.
per
wk.

Sawyers.....................

66
60
i 70
60
60
66

60
60
60
60
66

l 77

$3.00 d.
2 .0 0 d.
1.50 d.
1.80 d.
1.50 d.
1.35 d.
2.70 d.
2.35 d.
2.25 d.
1.50 d.
1.35 d.
55.00 m.
55.00 m.
.15 h.
67.50 m.
2 .2 0 d.
1 .0 0 d.
.80 d.
.50 d.
1 .1 0 d.
(2) d.
(4)

27.3
18.2
13.6
18
15
13.5
24.5
21.4
20.5
13.6
12.3
21.2
18.1
15
26
20
10
8
5

11
(3)

(5
)

.22
(6
)
(6
)
.20

2
2

Water boys...............
D o.......................
Not reported............
Hauling, skidding,

Cents.
136
G
6

66

1
1

66
66
66

7

.

100531°—18— Bull. 225— -1 5




60

(7)
(7)
(6) d.
$0.75 d.
(9) d.

(7)
(7i
7.3
6 .8

( 10)

and loading.
Canters......................
Chainers....................
Chain pullers...........
Choker men..............
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Deckers.....................
Drivers......................
D o.......................
Do.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Drivers, loading___
D o.......................
Drivers, tram...........
Drivers, wagon........

1
1
1
1

5
8
1

7
1

7
1
6

3
12
2
1
1
1
1
1
1

21.7
20.8
20
1. 35
12.9
D o.......................
1.25
12.5
Do.......................
1
. 12| h.
12.5
D o.......................
1
1.25 d.
D o.......................
11.9
1
D o.......................
1.15 d.
11.5
1
Drum pullers...........
1.10 d.
11
1
Engineers.................
1.00 d.
10
Do.......................
1
(7)
(7)
D o.......................
1.50 d.
14.3
1
Do.......................
22.7
2.50 d.
D o.......................
1
2. 30 d.
20.9
D o.......................
8 2.25 d.
8 20.5
1
D o.......................
20.5
2.25 d.
1
D o.......................
18.2
1
2.00 d.
Do.......................
18
1
1.80 d.
1
17
D o.......................
1.70 d.
Engineers, skidder..
.20 h.
20
1
D o.......................
19.1
1
(6) h.
Firemen....................
19
19 h.
4
D o.......................
lSi h. 18.5
D o.......................
18
.18 h.
4
17
1
D o.......................
.17
D o.......................
15. 6
(6)
10
D o.......................
1.00
22
D o.......................
1
.22
1
21.7
Do.......................
(6)
1
D o.......................
20.7
D o'.!!
(6)
Firemen, skidder. . .
1
20.6
D o ...
(6)
20.5 i Flagmen....................
58.50
D o ...
D o.......................
1
.20
20
D o ...
Foremen...................
1
14
1.40
D o ...
D o.......................
13.5
1. 35
D o ...
3
D o.......................
13.5
.13| h.
D o ...
1
Do.......................
12.5
1.25 d.
D o ...
1
D o.......................
. 12 § h.
12.5
D o ...
11.4 1
Do.......................
1.25 d.
D o ...
1
11.2
D o.......................
D o ...
(6) d.
D o.......................
10.9
1 .2 0 d.
D o ...
1
D o.......................
10.5
1.15 d.
D o ...
2
9.5
D o.......................
1.05 d.
D o .. .
2
D o.......................
8.2
.90 d.
D o ...
5 $0,045 and board to $0.18 and
1 Seven days,
board,
a $1.25 to $4.67.
e More than one rate.
3 $0,114 to $0,425.
* Pieceworkers.
4 $0.50 per dav and board to $60
per month and board.

D o !!!
D o ...
D o ...
D o ...
D o ...
D o ...
D o ...
D o ...
D o ...
Cutters. . .
Fellers___
Foremen..
D o ...
D o ...
D o ...
D o ...
D o ...
D o ...
Limbers..
D o ...
D o ...
D o ...
D o ...
D o ...
D o .. .
D o ...
Sawgers..

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

Wage
rate.

Cutting, etc.-—
Cld.

Cutting, etc.
Choppers.

Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

60
63
63
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60

1.80 d.
18
1.25 d.
11.9
1.45 d.
13.8
26.4
(6) h.
.25 h.
25
. 22b h.
22.5
2 2 .1
(6 d.
)
.2 0 h.
20
.15 h.
15
1 .0 0 d.
10
.50 d.
5
66
1.35 d.
12.3
66
1.26 d.
11.5
66
1.25 d.
11.4
66
1 .2 1 d.
11
60
.07-1 h.
7.5
63
1 .0 0 d.
9.5
63
.90 d.
8 .6
60
1.25 d.
12.5
60
1.75 d.
17.5
63
1.50 d.
14.3
60
1.35 d.
13.5
63
1.40 d.
13.3
12.9
63
1.35 d.
60
1.25 d.
12.5
60
1 .1 0 d.
11
1.25 d.
60
12.5
60
.40 h.
40
34.5
00
(6) h.
. 32J h.
60
32.5
.30 h.
30
60
28. 7
60
(6) h.
.171
60
17.5
16.4
66
1.80 d.
15.9
66
1.75 d.
66
1.50 d.
13.6
66
1.35 d.
12.3
60
.30 h.
30
.2 0 h.
60
20
60
. m h.
22.5
60
1.50 d.
15
66
1.50 d.
13.6
60
1.25 d.
12.5
12i h.
12.5
60
66
1.26 d.
11.5
1.25 d.
11.4
66
66
1 .2 1 d.
11
9.1
1 .0 0 d.
66
60
.2 0 h.
20
1.25 d.
11.4
66
1 .0 0 d.
10
60
60 115.50 m.
44.4
2.50 d.
25
60
66 8 67.50 m.
8 23.6
2.60 d.
23.6
66
66
2.50 d.
22.7
60
2.25 d.
22.5
66
8 2.25 d.
8 20.5
20
60
2 .0 0 d.
.2 0 h.
20
60
2 .0 0 d.
18.2
66
17.5
60
1.75 d.
8 And board.
9 $1.25 to $3.
$0,114 to $0,273.

h.

.

LUMBER MANUFACTURING.

224
T a b le 1 9 .— N U M BER

O F E M P L O Y E E S , F U L L -T IM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , A N D R A T E S
O F W A G E S IN T H E LO G G IN G IN D U S T R Y , B Y OC C U P A T IO N S, 1915—Continued.

NORTH C ABOLXN A—Continued.
No.
Classification and
of
occupation of em­ em­
ployees.
ploy­
ees.

Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

alent
rate
per
hour.

Wage
rate.

No.
Classification and
of
occupation of em­ em­
ployees.
ploy­
ees.

i' uiltime
hrs.
per
wk.

E.quivW age
rate.

Cents.

D O . . . : ..................

D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o ..........................
Loaders, wagon____
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o ............... ..




rate
per
hour.

Hauling, skidding ,
and loading— Ctd.

Hauling, slddding,
and loading—Ctd.
Foremen, loader___
Foremen, skidder...
D o .......................
D o .......................
Foremen, teamsters.
Foremen, transfer
m en ........................
D o .......................
Foremen, w a g o n
m en ........................
Hauling crew...........
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
Helpers...................... .
H ook tenders............
Laborers.....................
D o ....................... .
D o ........................
D o .......................
D o ........................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o ....................... .
D o ....................... .
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
Landing m en ......... .
D o ....................... .
D o .......................
Leverm en.................
D o ....................... .
Levermen, lo a d e r..
D o ....................... .
D o .........................
Levermen, skidder..
D o .......................
Loadermen, woods..
D o ....................... .
D o ....................... .
D o .........................
D o ....................... .
Loaders.....................
D o ....................... .
D o .......................
D o ....................... .
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o ....................... .
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o ....................... .
D o .........................

a le n t

$1.92
.40
.30
3.15
2.75

17.5
40
25

2 .0 0

d.
1.92 d.

18.2
17.5

2.15
1.50
1.35
1.25

19.5
13.6
12.3
11.4
10.3
9.1
12.5
22.5
13.5
13.
12.5

0)
1.00

1.25
. 22 * h.
1.35
1.30
1.25

1.2
0
1.15
1.25

C
1
)
0)
1.1
0
1.0
0
C
1
)
1.00
C1 h
) .
.2
2
0) d.
.20 h.
2.00 d.

1.50
1. 75
1.50
1.25
2. 25

20
.0
1.75
1.45
1.25

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
h.

1.20
1.0
0
.30
0 d..
.) h
2. 25
2.20 d.
2.00 d.
1.75
1.50
.14

C
1
)

1.30
1.35
1.30
1.26
1.25

11
.2
1.20
1.15
1.12
1.10
1.00
1.0
0

. 75
1.40
1.35
1.25

11
.2

d.
d.
h.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

1
2

11.5
11.4
10.9
10.3

1
0
1
0

9.8
9.1
8.9
22.5
21.9

2
0
2
0

15
15.9
13.6
11.4
20.5
18.2
15.9
13.2
11.4
10.9
9.1
30
26.6
22.5

2
2
2
0

17.5
14.3
14
13.1
12.4
12.3

11
.8
11.5
11.4

1
1

10.9
10.5

10
.2
1
0
1
0
9.1
6.8

13.3
12.9
11.9

1
1

Loading crew...........
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Do.......................
Log bunchers...........
D o.......................
Log rollers.................
Riggers......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Riggers, second........
Rigging slingers-----D o ......................
D o.......................
Sienalmen...............
Do.......................
Skidders....................
D o.......................
Snakers....................
Do .....................
D o.......................
D o .....................
D o.......................
Do.......................
Teamsters.................
D o......................
Do .....................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Tongers.....................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Tong hookers..........
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o .......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Tong men.................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
Top loaders............
D o.....................
D o.......................
D o.....................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Transfer men..........
D o .......................
D o..................
D o...................
D o.....................
D o..............
D o..............
Wagon men..............

i More than one rate.

2
1
2
1
1
1
1
1

3
1
1
1
1
1
1

5
1
2

5
1
1

3
4
1
1
2

4
4
1
1

3
27

66
66
66
66
66

63
63
63
66
66
66

60
66

60
60
60
60
60
60
60
63
60
66
66
66

60
60
63
66
68
66

60

1
1
1

66

5
7

66
66
66

2
8

4
2

37
3
1
2
1
1

3
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1

3
1

4
2

7
1
1
1

60
60

60
66

60
60
60
60
66
66
66
66
66
66

60
66
66
66
66
66
66

60
60
60
66

63
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66

m.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
2 .0 0 d.
0 ) d.
1.50 d.
1.25 d.
.30 h.

$8 8 .0 0
0 )
1.50
0 )
0 )
1.35
1.25
1.35
2.25

h

. 22% h.
99.1
. 20 “

55.00
1.25
1. 50
1. 25
1.35
1.26
1. 25
1 .0 0

1.50
1. 50
1. 50
1.45
1.40
1. 25
1.35
1 . 20
1.15
1. 25
1 .2 0
1 .1 0
1 .0 0
1 .0 0

fa
h.
m.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d..
d.

1.50
1. 2.5
. 19.1 h .
.1 0 h.
2 .0 0 d.
1.75 d.
0 ) d
1. 25 d.
0 ) d.
1.00 d.
1.50 d.
1.35 d.
1 . 26 d.
1.25 d.
1 .2 1 d.
0 ) d.
0) d.
.30 h.
0) h.
1.50 d.
1.50 d.
1.35 d.
1. 25 d.
1.92 d.
1.35 d.
1. 30 d.
1. 25 d.
1 . 20 d. i
1 .1 2

. 75
1.57

Cents.
23.8
17.5
13.6
13.2
10.4
12.9
11.9
12.9
20.5
18.2
17.4
15
11.4
30
25
22.5
22.5

2
0
21.2
12.5
14.3
12.5
12.3
11.5
11.4

1
0

15
14.3
13.6
13. 2
12.7
12.5
12.3

1
2

11.5
11.4
10.9

1
0
1
0

9.1
15
12.5
12.5

1
0

18.2
15.9
13.3
11.4
11.4
9.1
15
12.3
11.5
11.4

1
1
1
1

10.9
30
23
15
13.6
12.9
11.4
17.5
12.3

1
1.8

11.4
10.9

1
0.2
S-1 6.8
2:1 14.3

LOGGING WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR,

225

T a b le 1 9 .—N U M B ER

OF E M P L O Y E E S , F U L L -T IM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , A N D R A T E S
OF W A G E S IN T H E L O G G IN G I N D U S T R Y , B Y O C C U P A T IO N S, 1915—Continued.
N O R T H CAROLINA—Continued.

N o.
Classification and
of
occupation of em ­ em­
ployee s.
ploy­
ees.

Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

E q u iv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

W age
rate.

Hauling, skidding,
and loading— Cld.

No.
Classification and
of
occupation of em­ em ­
ploy­
ployees.
ees.

3
W agon m en ...............
D o .........................
2
D o ..........................
19
D o .........................
1
D o ..........................
8
2
D o .........................
2
D o .........................
D o ..........................
2
W ater bo vs................
1
D o ..........................
1
D o ..........................
1
W ater pum pers. . . .
1
1
Yardm en.....................
N ot reported.............. 208

Railroad construction
umi maintenance.

1*5-.....................

1
1
1
1
1

1
1

G
o
60

$ 1 . 3o
1.30
1.25

d.
d.
d.
1 .2 0
d.
1.15 d.
d.
1 .1 0
d.
1 .0 0
.75 d.
d.
1 .2 1
L 15 d.
.90 d.
1.25 d.
1.25 d.

Concluded.

Cents.

12.3

30
Laborers.....................
11.4
D o .........................
66
4
66
10.9
D o .........................
29
66
10.5
D o .........................
1
10
|
66
D o .........................
1
66
9.1 !
D o .........................
1
-66
6 .8 |
1
•66
D o .........................
5
11
10.5 1
G
6
D o .........................
1
8 .2 j
66
D o .........................
4
60
12.5 1
D o .........................
2
60
12.5
D o .........................
3
66
D o .........................
13
0 )
(4)
D o .........................
19
D o .........................
9
D o ......................... 134
D o .........................
2
18.2
3 77
2 .0 0
d.
D o .........................
1
d.
18.2
66
2 .0 0
D o .........................
1
■
60
4.50 d.
45
D o .........................
3
Laborers, construc18.2
66
d.
2 .0 0
tk m ...........................
3
3 77
13.6
1.50 d.
D o .........................
1
60
d.
1.25
12.5
D o .........................
6
Laborers, grading...
2
-66
1 .0 0
d.
3 .1
B~>._.....................
2
27.5
2.75 4 . •O
G
D o ______ _______
1
’G
O
22.5
3/25 d.
D o .........................
1
22.3
■ • '€3.7 5 m.
‘64-D o .........................
1
4 60.00 m. 4 21
66
31
D o .........................
66
21
2.31 d.
D o .........................
2
20.5
66
2. 25 d.
D o .........................
32
20
2 .tf0 d.
D o .........................
43
00
20
60
. 2 0 h.
D o .........................
1
d.
19.1
66
2 .1 0
D o .........................
3
18.2
66
2 . 00 d.
Laborers, mainte60
17.5
jrmnoe........................
•17| h.
4
16.4
1.-80 d.
66
Laborers, tracklay15.9
66
1.75 d.
1
.............................
15.5
66
1.70 d.
D o .........................
5
15
D o .........................
66
1.65 d.
13
14.4 I
66
D o .........................
1
1.58 d.
40.00 m .
14
-66
Repair men, trestle.
10
13.6
•66
1
1.50 d.
D o .........................
11.4
Section m en ..............
2
'66
1.25 d.
D o .........................
21
20
2 . 1 0 d.
63
1
D o .........................
2 .0 0
d.
19
63
D o .........................
1
35
60
.35 h.
D o .........................
2
60
.30 b .
30
D o .........................
3
60
25
.25 b .
D o .........................
1
20
60
2 .0 0
d.
D o . . .....................
7
17.5
60
1.75 d.
D o .........................
51
17.3
€0
45.00 m.
D o .........................
4
1.50 d.
14.3
=63
D o .........................
1
11.4
>66
1.25 d.
Stafcers,
right-of1
w ay ...........................
23.1
60
Tie d is tr ib u te s .___
60.00 m .
15
18.2
2 .0 0
d.
Trippers, ditc&er___
1
■66
11.4
•66
W ater boys................
1.25 d.
2
66
17. 5
2
1.92 d.
D o .........................
d.
15
D o .........................
2
66
1.65
15
60
1.50 d.
N ot reported.............
20
13.5
60
b.
.13*
13.4
‘66
Radlrmd operation.
(5) d.
12.5
•60
1.25 d.
Brakemen...... ............
12.5
1
>60
. 124 h.
10
D o .........................
1.35 d.
12. 3
*66
1
D o .........................
11. 9
t63
1.25 d.

D o ..........................
1
D o .,.......................
1
D o .........................
1
D o .........................
D o .........................
1
1
D o ............. ............
D o .........................
1
D o .........................
D o .........................
1
D o ..........................
D o ..........................
1
D o ..........................
1
D o .........................
1
D o .........................
1
D o ............. ............
D o ..........................
D o .........................
1
Foremen, construc­
1
tion ...........................
1
D o .........................
1
Foremen, grading.. .
1
D o ................. ..
D o .........................
1
Foremen, section. . .
D o .........................
D o .........................
1
D o .........................
1
D o .........................
Foremen, track lay­
1
in g .......................
1
Foremen, assistant.
D o .........................
1
Laborers......................
D o .........................
1
1
D o .........................
D o ..........................
1
D o .........................
D o .........................
1
D o ................. ........
2
D o .........................
2
D o .........................
i $0.50 per day to 9 8 0 per month.
s $0,045 to 90.28.




Equiv­
< alent
rate
per
hour.

W age
rake.

Railroad construction
and maintenance—
'Cents.

Engineers...................
D o ..........................
Engineer's, ditcher. .
Engineers, st-eam-shovel.......................
Firemen.......................
Firemen, ditcher. . .
Firemen,
steamshovel.........- ...........
Foremen............... .

Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

3

Sevan days.

* A n d board.

5

More than one rate,

s I I to 12.94.

$1.26
1.15
1.25
(5)
(5)

66

1 1 .8

60
66
66
66
1

!
!

C
O
60

1 .1 0
.1 1
1 .2 0

66
66
66
G
6
66
66

( 6)
1.17
1.15
1 .1 2
1 .1 0
1 .0 0
.1 0
1 .0 0

i 60
60
66
66
66
66

.95
.90
O)
. 75'

63
63
63
63
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
C
O
60
60

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
h.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
h.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

11.5
11.5
11.4
11. 1
11.3

12.9
12.4
11..9
25
20.5

11
11

10.9
10.7
1 0 .6

10.5
1 0 .2
10
10
10

9.1
8 ,6
8 .2

7.6
6 .8

.1 0

d.
d.
d.
h.
h.
b.
b.
h.
h.
m.
h.
h.
h.
h.

63

1.25

d.

11.9

C
O
60
60
60
C
O
60
60
60

.171
.16"
.15
.14
1.25

h.
h.

17.5
16
15
14
12.5

66
66
66
66
66
66

1.35
1. 25

1.35
1.30
1.25
. 25
(5)
.2 0

( 5)
(5)
. 17’
45.£0“
.16
. 15
.14

1 .0 0

.15
.1 1

1 .2 0

1.15
1 .1 2
1 .1 0
1 .0 0
1 .0 0

60
66
66

.75

20

18
17.6
17.5
17.5
16
15
14
10

h.
h.
d.
d.
h.
h.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

10

15
14
12.3
11.4
10 .9
10.5

!
1
1

j
!

66
66
66
66

d.
d.
1 .0 0
1.25 d.
1 .0 0
d.
.90 d.
.60 d. !
(s) d.

60
60
90 I

2 .00'

1 0 .2
10
10

9.1
6 .8

1. 50

60
60
60

.25 h.
. 17i h.
d. 1

11.5
10

12.5
9.1
8 .2

5.5
(7)

25
17.5
13.3

7 $0,091 to 90.207.

LUMBER MANUFACTURING.

226
T a b l e 1 9 . — NUMBER

OF EM PLOYEES, FULL-TIME HOURS PE R W E E K , AND R A TE S
OF WAGES IN THE LOGGING IN DU STRY, B Y OCCUPATIONS, 1915—Continued.
NORTH CAROLINA—Concluded.

No.
Classification and
of
occupation of em­ em­
ployees.
ploy­
ees.

Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

W age
rate.

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

No.
Classification and
of
occupation of em­ em­
ploy­
ployees.
ees.

Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

Wage
rate.

Railroad operation—

Railroad opcration-

Concluded.

Continued.

Cents.
$1.25
1.15
.35
.32|
.30

Engineers.................
D o ......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
Firemen....................
D o . . . . ' . ............
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
Flagmen...................
D o .......................
Foremen...................
Hostlers....................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................

d.
d.
h.
h.
h.

2.50
2.70
2.25
. 22 J
2.25

Car greasers..............

d.
d.
d.
h.
d.

O b.
)

2.00
0)
50.00
(J
)

2 65.00
2 50.00
50.00
40.00

.20 h.
.18* h.
0) h
.

. 17J h.
1.50 d.
.15
.14
1.35
1.35
1.15
1.25

.17|
1.50
1.40
1.35

2
0

19.6
18.3
17.7
17.5
17
2 16.7

2.65
1.75

11
.2
1.50
10
.0
1.0
0
1.25
10
.0
1.35
1.00
10 0
0 .0
.20

11.4
10.5
35
32.5
30
25.8
25
24.5
22.5
22.5
20.5

21 .8
2
1 .8
2
10.3
2
0
18.5
17.8
17.5
15
15
14
12.9
12.3
11.5
11.4

1
1
1
0
1
0

9.1
8.3
6.7
12.3

h.
d.
d.
d.

1
0
38.5
2
0

17.5
13.6
13.3
12.9

Hostlers.....................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Switchmen...............
D o.......................
Trainmen..................
Not reported............
D o.......................

Cents.
1
1
1
1
1
1

3 77
66
3 77

23

66
3 77

90
90
60

2

$1.40
1.35
1.25
1.25
0 )
.14
(4)
(6
)

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
h.
d.
d.

12.7
12.3
11.4
8.3
7.3
14
(5
)
(7
)

d.
d.
d.
h.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
h.
h.
h.
h.
h.
h.
h.
h.
h.
h.
h.
h.

13.5
12.9
12.5
12.5
11.9
11.5
11.5
11.4

Road construction
and maintenance.
Road cutters............
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Roadmen.................
Swampers.................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................

C
O
63
C
O
60
03

2
1
2
1

4
2
1

66

3
4

66
66
66

60

1
12
2
1
2
1
1
1

1.35
1.35
1.25
. 12 |
1.25
1.26
1.15
1.25
1 .2 1

1.15

60
60
60
C
O
C
O
60
C
O
60
C
O
C
O
60
C
O
C
-0
G
O

1 .0 0
1 .0 0

2
1
1
2
2

G
3
C
O
. G
O
63
63
4
C
3

2 .0 0

3
1
1
1

C 2
O $125.00
G 2 100.00
O
60
4.00
60
2.50

1
1
2

60
60
C
O

1
1
1
1
1

60
60
60
60
60

13
13
1

3
4
6
1

C
1)

•22 J
.2 2
C)
1
.21
.2 0

.19
0)

.m

.18
.17|
.16

11

10.5
10
10

24
22.5
22

21.3
21
20

19
18.9
18.5
18
17.5
16

Unloading and raft­
ing.
Foremen, landing..
Rafters......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Unloaders, landing.

.174
1.50
1.50
1.35
1.40

d.
h.
d.
d.
d.
d.

19
17.5
15
14.3
12.9
13.3

OREGON.

General.
Blacksmiths........... .
Blacksmith’s help­
ers...........................
D o.......................
Bull cooks.................
Carpenters................
D o.......................
Cooks.........................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Cooks, second..........
D o.......................
Dishwashers.............
Filers..........................
Flunkeys...................

General—Concld.
2

$3.60

d.

36

3
3
4

60
60
3 70
60
60
3 70
3 70
3 70
3 70
3 70
3 70
3 70
60
3 70

2.75
2.50
2 30.00
3.00
0)

d.
d.
m.
d.
d.
m.
m.
m.
m.
m.
m.
m.
d.
m.

27.5
25
2 9.9
30
26.5
2 33
2 21.4
2 19.8
2 16.5
2 11.5
2 9.9
2 9.9
35
2 9.9

1
1
1
1
1
1
1

3
10

1 More than one
2 And board.




60

rate.

2100.00

2 65.00
2 60.00
2 50.00
2 35.00

2 30.00
2 30.00
3.50
2 30.00

8 Seven days.
* $1.22 to $2.75.

Foremen...................
D o.......................
Machinists................
Powder men.............
Scalers and time­
keepers...................
Timekeepers.............
D o.......................

m.

m.
d.
d.

150.00 m.
m.
m.

2 55.00
2 50.00

M
8.1

2 38.5

40
25
57.7

221.2
2

19.2

Cutting, etc.
Buckers.....................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
6 10.111

to $0,250.
®$1.50 to $1.70.

7

3.00
0)
2. 75
0)
0 )

d.
d.
d.

6.
d.

$0,130 to $0,155.

30
28.8
27.5
27.3
26.3




LOGGING WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR.
3F EM PLOYEES, FULL-TIME HOURS P E R W E E K , AND E
HE LOGGING IN DU STRY, B Y OCCUPATIONS, 1915—Continued
OREGON—Concluded.
Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

Wage
rate.

Cents.

0)
0)

26
25.4
25
23.7
23
30
28.5
27.5
27.1
26.4
30
27.5
25.8

$2.50
0)
2.30
3.00

0)
0)

2. 75

( 1)

3.00
2. 75

0)

25
37.5
30
38.5
32.7

2.50
3.75
3.00

10 0
0 .0
2

85.00
125.00
3.25
3.00
2. 75
2.50

2 48.1

32.5
30
27.5
25

O
)

31.9
30
27.5
26.5
20.1
18.9
17.7
17
16.7
16.5
16
27.5
27.3
25

3.00
2. 75
2.65

0)
0)
0)
1.70
0)
0)

1.60
2. 75

0)

2.50
2.00

20

3.60

36
33.6
32
40
32.6
29
21.3
20.6

0)

3.20
4.00

(0
(0
0)
0)

3.20
2.50

d.
d.

i More than one rate.

32
25

No.
Classification and
of
occupation of em­ em­
ployees.
ploy­
ees.

Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

jut

lern
ate
per
our

Wage
rate.

Yarding, hauling,
and loading—Cld.
enti

Chainmen...............
D o.....................
D o.....................
Chasers....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
Choker setters........
D o.....................
D o .....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o .....................
D o.....................
D o .....................
D o .....................
D o.....................
Engineers................
D o.....................
Engineers, donkey.
Engineers, loader..
D o.....................
Engineers, roader..
D o.....................
Engineers, steam
shovel...................
Engineers, yard.. .
Firemen...................
D o.....................
Flagmen..................
Foremen, bridge...
Gophers...................
Hook tenders..........
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
Instrument men...
Loaders...................
D o.....................
D o.....................
Loaders, head........
Loaders, second. . .
D o.....................
Riggers.....................
D o .....................
D o.....................
D o .....................
Riggers, second___

2 $45.00
2 40.00
2 35.00

8

2.50

;i)

0) d.
?>

8

)
2.40
0 )
0

0)

0 )
3.50
3.00
3.00
(l)
2.75
3.00
0 )

3.00
3.50
2.25

0)

1.75
4.00
2.25

0)

4.50
4.00
0)
70.00
0 )
3.00
0)
3.60
3.20
3.00
2. 75
2.50

O
)
O
)
0)
1.75

2.50

Signalmen...............
Snipers....................
D o .....................
Pump men.............
D o.....................
* D o .....................
Water bucks...........
W ood bucks...........
D o.....................
D o .....................
D o .....................
D o .....................
2 And

m.
m.
m.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

2.25

0)

2. 75

0)

2.25
2.00

C
1
)
C
1
)
C
1
)
2.00
C
1
)

board.

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

d.

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

17.
15.
13.
26.
25.
25
25.
24.
24.
24.
24.
24.
24
23.
23.
23
35
30
30
29.
27.
30
28.
30
35

22

19.
17.
40
22 .
75.
45
40
28.
26.
33.
30
27.
30
32
30
27.
25
24.
19.
25
24.
17.
22 .
17.
27.

22

.

22.

20
23
20
20
20

18.

LUMBER MANUFACTURING.

228
T

1 9 . — NUMBER OF E M PL O Y E E S, FULL-TIME HOURS P E R W E E K , AND RATES
OF WAGES IN THE LOGGING IN D U STRY , B Y OCCUPATIONS, 1915—Continued.

able

SOUTH CAROLINA.

No.
Classification and
of
occupation of em­ em­
ployees.
ploy­
ees.

Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

Wage
rate.

1 Seven days.




Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

Wage
rate.

General—Concld.

General.
Blacksmiths.............
D o.......................
D o .......................
D o.......................
D o ......................
D o ......................
Do.......................
D o ......................
D o..................... .
D o......................
D o......................
Do.......................
Blacksmiths’ help­
ers..........................
D o..................... .
D o..................... .
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o .....................
.D o .......................
Boiler makers. . .
D o.................
Car builders........
Car builders’ helpers
D o.......................
Car inspectors..........
Carpenters.................
D o .......................
Car repairers.............
D o .......................
D o.......................
D o .......................
D o.......................
D o .......................
Cleaners, camp........
D o.......................
D o.......................
Commissary men. . .
Do........................
D o .......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o .......................
Cooks7 helpers..........
Cooks, assistant.......
D o .......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
Feeders......................
Fillers........................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Foremen...................
D o.......................
D o .......................
Foremen,
black­
smith shop............
Foremen, camp.......
D o.......................
Foremen, shop........

No.
Classification and
of
occupation of em­ em­
ployees.
ploy­
ees.

Cents.

Cents,
60

S3.75

66

1 0 0 .00

60
60

3. 50
2. 50
2.45
2. 50
2. 25

66
66

60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
66

60
60
60
66

60
60
66

60
60
60
66
66
66

60
60
66

60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
66

70
70
70
98
70
98
70
77
70
70
70
70
70
77
98
77
66

60
60
66
66

60
60
66

60
60
66

60
2

2 .0 0

1.80
1.50
1.35
1.25

d.
m.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
a.
d.
d.
d.
d.

1.50 d.
1.35 d.
1.25 d.
1.25 d.
1 . 12 | d.
1 .1 0 d.
1 .0 0 d.
1 .0 0 d.
.90 d.
.80 d.
.85 d.
.60 d.
3.75 d.
3.50 d.
2 .0 0 d.
1.50 d.
.60 d.
1.50 d.
2 .0 0 d.
2 . 00 d.
2. 50 d.
2.25 d.
2 .0 0 d.
1.75 d.
1.50 d.
1.40 d.
1.15 d.
1 .0 0 d.
.95 d.
50.00 m.
2 40.00 m.
2 1 .0 0 d.
1 .0 0 d.
2 1.35 d.
2. 95 d.
2 1 .0 0 d.
2.70 d.
2.75 d.
s. 70 d.
2.95 d.
2.90 d.
2. 75 d.
2. 65 d.
2. 50 d.
2.50 d.
1.35 d.
2. 25 d.
1 . 80 d.
1. 75 d.
1.75 d.
1.50 d.
76.50 m.
75. 00 m.
2.75 d.
4. 50
76. 50
2.50
3. 00

d.
m.
d.
d.

And board.

37.5
35
35
25
22.3
22.7
22.5
20

18
15
13.5
12.5
15
13.5
12.5
11.4
11.3
11
10

9.1
9
8

7.7
6

37.5
35
18.2
13.6
5.5
15
20

18.2
25
22.5
20

17.5
15
14
11.5
10

9.5
17.5
2 13.2
2 10
10
2 9.6

2 9.5
2 7.1

27
2 6 .8
27

2 9.5
29
2 7,5
2 6.5

2 4.5
2 3 .6

12.3
20.5
18
17.5
15.9
13.6
29.4
28.9
25
45
29.4
22.7
30

Foremen, woods___
Fuel men..................
Harness makers___
Helpers, cookhouse.
Helpers, shop...........
D o !!!!" '!!" "
D o .......................
D o.......................
Hostlers....................
D o.......................
Inspectors, ties and
wood.......................
Laborers....................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Laborers, shop.........
D o.......................
D o .......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Laborers, telephone
line..........................
Linemen, telephone.
Machinists................
D o.......................
Porters, warehouse.
Pump men.........
D o.................
Scalers..................
D o.................
D o.................
D o .................
D o.................
D o.................
D o .................
Scavengers..........
Stablemen...........
D o.................
D o.................
D o.................
D o.................
Supply-house men..
Team tenders___
Timekeepers.......
Watchmen..........
D o.................
D o.................
D o.................
D o..................
D o..................
D o..................
Cutting, etc.
Choppers.............
Foremen...................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Do.......................
D o................. .
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Foremen, choppers.
Foremen, sawing. . .
Oil boys....................
D o.......................
D o.......................

3 More than one rate.

60 $112. 50
1 .0 0
60
63.00
60
2. 50
1 70
2 .0 0
C
O
1.75
60
1.50
60
1.40
60
1.25
60
1 77
1. 25
1 .0 0
1 70

m.
d.
m.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

58.50

m.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

60
60
60
60
66
66

60
66
66

60
66
66

60
60
60
60
60
66
66

60
60
60
60
66
66

60
60
1 70

170
170
1 98
170
60
184
60
170
66
1 70
1 84
1 84

60
60
60
54
66

60
60
60
54
66

54
66

60
60
60
60
60

1 .0 0

. 65
.60
1.75
1.65
1.50
1.50
1.40
1.25
1.25
1 .0 0
1 .0 0

1.50
3.50
3.00
.95
1.25
1 .0 0
2 .0 0

50.00
49.50
45.00
1.75
1.50
30.00
.95
45.00
1.35
1.15
1.25
.70
1.35
1.35
83.25
(3)
1.25
1.13
1.13
1 .0 0
2 0 .0 0

15.00
(*)
2.50
3.00
2.50
2 . 47i
2.25
2 .0 0

2.25
1 . 6621. 75
2.25
58.50
.71
.70
.60

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
m.
m.
m.
d.
d.
m.
d.
m.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
m.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
m.
in.

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
m.
d.
d.
d.

4 Pieceworkers.

43.3
10

24.2
25
20

17.5
15
14
12.5
11.4
10

22.5
10

6.5
6

15.9
15
15
13.0
12.7
12.5
11.4
9.1
10

15
35
20

9.5
11.4
9.1
20

19.2
19
17.3
15.9
13.6
11.5
9.5
14.8
13.5
11.5
8.9
7
13.5
11.3
32
1 2.1

11.4
11.3
9.4
8.3
7.7
5.8
)
27.8
27.3
25
24.8
22.5

0

2 2 .2

20.5
18.5
15.9
22.5
22.5
7.1
7
6




LOGGING WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR.
)F E M P L O Y E E S , F U L L -T IM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , A N D E
HE L O G G IN G IN D U S T R Y ', B Y O C C U PA TIO N S, 1915—Continued

TE S

S O U T H C A R O L IN A —Continued.
Full­

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

W age
rate.

$0. 50
1.25
1.30
1.25
1.35

No.
Classification and
of
occupation of em­ em ­
ployees.
ploy­
ees.

Cents.

time
hrs.
per
wk.

Hauling, skidding,
and loading—Ctd.

5
13.9
13
12.5
12.3
12
11.7
11.3

1.20
0)
1.13
1.10
0)
1.20
1.09
C
1
)
1.15
1.10
1.0
0
1.0
0
.80
(*)
1.35
0)
1.13
1.10

11
11
10.9
10.9
10.7
10.5

10
10
9.1

8
(2)

13.5
11.5
11.3

11
(2)

(2)
1.50
1.35
1.25

1
5

13.5
12.5

1.20

12
11.3
7.1

1.13
.71
.60
.50
.50
.40
1.25

6

5.6
5
4.4
12.5
12

1.20
1.10
1.15
1.00
1.00

11
10.5
10
9.1
7.7
7.5

.85
.75
.75
.50

6.8
5

12.5

1.25

1
0

1.00
.90

1
0
1
0

1 . 10

1.10
1.0
0
1.25
1.00

1.50
1.85
1.80
1.50
1.25
2.70
2.25
1.75
1.35
2.70
1.50
1. 35
1. 2
5
1. 25

1.12* d.

1 .1 0

d.

i More than one rate.

9.1
12.5
9.1
13.6
18.5
18
13.6
11.4
27
22.5
17.5
13.5
24.5
13.6
13. 5
12. 5
11.4
11.3

1
1

Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

W age
rate.

:miylent
ato
per
bur.

ents.
4
Firemen, loader____
D a .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
Firemen, skidder. . .
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
Firemen’s helpers . .
D o .........................
Flagmen.....................
D o .........................
D o .........................
!
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
i
D o .........................
D o .........................
!
D o .........................
;
Do
i
D o . . . ..................
!
D o .........................
j
D o .........................
1
D o .........................
i Foremen.....................
j
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
I
D o .........................
li
D o .........................
j Foremen, hauling ..
S
D o .........................
! Foremen, loader----!
D o .........................
|
D o .........................
i
D o .........................
|
D o .........................
D o .........................
'
D o .........................
I
D o .........................
D o .........................
! Forem en,skidder...
j
D o .........................
!
D o .........................
|
D o .........................
D o .........................
!
D o .........................
!
D o .........................
j
D o .........................
D o .........................
i Foremen,teamsters.
|
D o .........................
j Foremen, wagon___
Grab catchers...........
D o .........................
Ground loaders........
Hauling crew............
D o .........................
1
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o.........................
Helpers........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
Hostlers......................
Laborers......................
D o .........................

.............

2

2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

4
11
1
1
1
1

3
6

3
7
1
1
1
6
2
1
1
1

4
2
2
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

4
2
2
1
1
1

3
4
1

60
60
60
66

60.
60
66

C
O
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
66

60
66

60
66
66
66

60
60
66
66

60
66

60
60
60
60
60
66
66

60
60
60
66

60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
66
66

60
66
66.

7

60

1
1
1
10
1
1

66
66
66
66
66
66

5
13

60
60
60

8
2

4
1

66

60
60

Pieceworkers.

d.
d.
d.
d.
1 .0 0 d.
1 .1 0
d.
1 .0 0
d. !
2 .0 0
d. I
1.35 d. i
1.30 d.
1. 25 d.
1 .0 0 d.
. 75 d.
1 .S 0 d.
1. 50 d.
1.40 d.
1.35 d.
1.25 d.
1 .2 0
d.
1.13 d.
1 .2 0
d.
0 ) d.
1.15 d.
1 .0 0 d.
d.
1 .1 0
1 . 00 d.
.75 d.
2. 75 d.
2. 50 d.
2 . 70 d.
2.50 d.
2.25 d.
2.25 d.
2. 25 d.
1.80 d.
2. 75 d.
2. 70 d.
2. 47J d.
2. 25 d.
2 . 00 d.
1. 5S d.
1.57 d.
1.50 d.
1. 50 d.
4. 50 d.
112.50 m.
4.00 d.
90.00 m.
2.70 d.
67.50 m.
2.50 d.
2 . 47-J d.
d.
2 .2 0
2.50 d.
d.
2 .0 0
1.80 d.
d.
1 .0 0
.90 d.
1.26 d.
2.25 d.
1.50 d.
1.25 d.
.91 d.
.77 d.
.73 d.
1.25 d.
d.
1 .1 0
LOO d.
1. 25 d.
1. 25 d.
1 .2 0
d.
SI. 00
1.40
1.15
1.25

1
0

14
11.5
11.4

1
0
10

9.1

20

13.5
13
12.5

10
7.5
18
15
14
13.5
12.5

12
11.3
10.9
10.9

10
.5
10
10

9.1

6.8
27.5
25
24.5
22.7
22.5
20.5

22.5

1
8

27.5
27
24.8
20.5
18.2
15.8
15.7
15
13.6

45

43.3
40
34.6
27
26
25
24.8

22
22.7
18.2
18
9.1

8.2
12.6
20.5
13.6
11.4
8.3
7

6.6

12.5

11

10
11.4
12.5

12

LUMBER MANUFACTURING.

230
T a b l e 1 9 .— NUMBER

OF EM PLOYEES, FULL-TIME HOURS P E R W E E K , AND RATES
OF W AGES IN THE LOGGING IN DU STRY, B Y OCCUPATIONS, 1915—Continued.
SOUTH CAROLINA—Continued.

No.
Classification and
of
occupation of em­ em­
ployees.
ploy­
ees.

Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

Wage
rate.

Hauling, skidding,
and loading—Ctd.
Laborers.................
Laborers, hauling..
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Laborers, loading..
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Laborers, skidding.
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Levermen...............
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Loaders...................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................




No. Full­
Equiv­
Classification and
of time
alent
occupation of em- em­ hrs.
rate
ploy­ per
ployees.
per j
hour.
ees. wk.
1
1

$ .0
10

Cents.

1
0

1.35
1.31
1.30
1.26
1.25

13.5
13.1
13

1.17
1.15
1.14
1.13

11.7
11.5
11.4
11.3

1
.22
12
.1
1.20
1.12
1.10
1.05
1
.00
.95
.90

12.6
12.5
12.2
1 .1
2
1
2
11.2
1
1
10.5
1
0
9.5

.8 6

.85
.80
.75
.71
.70
.65
.60
.50
1.57
1.35
1.26
1.25

1.22
11
.2
1
.20
1.15
1.13

1.10
1.05
1
.00
1
.10
1
.00
.90
. 65
.50
1.75
1. 70
1. 65
1.50
1.40
1.35
1.25
1.15

10
.1
1.0
0
.75
.65
.50

2.0
0
2.00
1.75
1.75
1.60
1.50
1.35
1.26

1.00
1.75
1.70
1.67
1.60

1 More than one rate.

8.5

8

7.5
7.1
7
6.5

6

5
15.7
13.5

12.6
12.5
12.2
1 .1
2
1 ;
2
11.5
11.3

1
1
10.5
1
0
1
0
9.1
8.2
6.5
5
17.5
17
16.5
15
14
13.5
12.5
11.5

1
1
1
0
7.5
6.5
5
2
0
18.2
17.5
15.9
14.5
13.6
13.5

1 .6
2
1
0
17.5
17
16.7
16

Wage
rate.

Hauling, skidding,
and loading—Ctd.
Loaders.....................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Loaders, wagon____
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Loading crew...........
Do.......................
Do.......................
Log riggers...............
Do.......................
Riders........................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do..................... -.
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Riggers......................
do: : : : : : : : : : : : :
Do.......................
Riggers’ helpers___
Road cutters............
D o.......................
Rope men.................
Run backs................
Do.......................
Skidding crew.........
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
D o.......................
Do.......................
D o.......................
Slack pullers............
Smitters....................
Snakers........ ...........
Stablemen.................
Tallymen..................
Teamsters.................
Do.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Teamsters’ helpers..
Do.......................
Tongers.....................
Do.......................
D o.......................
Tong hookers...........
D o.......................
Tong men.................
D o....................... 1
Do....................... J

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

CcnU.
3
3
1
2
8
2
2
1

5
1
2
1

5
7
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
2
1

7
3
2
1

5
15
7
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

3
13
1

3
6
1
1
1
2
1
1
1

5
1
1
1

60
60
60
60
60
60
60
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66

60
66
66

60
60
66

60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
66
66

60
60
60
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66

60
60
60
2 70
60
66

60
60
66

60

16
4

66
66

1
1
8
1
1
1
1
1

60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
C
O
60

2 Seven (

3
1

$1.50
1.45
1.44
1.40
1.35
1.30
1.25
1.25

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
1 .2 0 d.
1.15 d.
1 .1 0 d.
1 .0 0 d.
1 .1 0 d.
1 .0 0 d.
.90 d.
.75 d.
1.80 d.
1.50 d.
1.35 d.
1 .1 0 d.
1 .0 0 d.
1 .0 0 d.
1 .0 0 d.
.85 d.
.75 d.
i1) d.
.75 d.
.65 d.
.60 d.
.50 d.
.40 d.
2.25 d.
1.80 d.
1.75 d.
1.50 d.
1.50 d.
1 .2 0 d.
1 .1 0 d.
1.13 d.
1.35 d.
1.30 d.
81.00 m.
1.80 d.
1.50 d.
1.35 d.
1. 25 d.
1.15 d.
1 .1 0 d.
1 .0 0 d.
.80 d.
1.25 d.
1.35 d.
1.35 d.
.90 d.
2 .0 0 d.
1.50 d.
1.3ft d.
1 . 12 A d.
1 .2 0 d.
LOO d.
1 .1 0 d.
1 .0 0 d.
.70 d.
.60 d.
1.67 d.
1.35 d.
1 .2 0 d.
1.85 d.
1.50 d.
2 .0 0 d.
1.50 d.
1.40 d.

15
14.5
14.4
14
13.5
13
12.5
11.4
10.9
10.5

1
0
9.1
1
0
9.1
8.2
6.8
16.4
13.6
12.3

1
0
9.1
1
0

9.1
7.7
7.5
7.4

6.8
6

6.5

5
4
22.5
18
17.5
15
15
10.9

1
0

11.3
13.5
13
28.3
16.4
13.6
12.3
11.4
10.5

1
0

9.1
7.3
12.5
13.5
13.5
9

2
0

13.6
13.5
11.3
10.9

1
0
1
0

9.1
7

6

16.7
13.5

1
2

18.5
15

2
0
15
14

231

LOGGING WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR.
T

1 9 . — NUM BER OF EM PLOYEES, FULL TIME HOURS PE R W E E K , AND RATES
OF WAGES IN THE LOGGING IN DU STRY, B Y OCCUPATIONS, 1915-€ontinued.

able

SOUTH CAROLINA—Continued.
No.
Classification and
of
occupation of em­ em­
ployees.
ploy­
ees.

Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

Wage
rate.

Ha'jbling, skidding,
and loading—Cld.
Cents.
Tong men.................
D o " ” ! ” ! ! ! ” .*
Top loaders..............
D o......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Wagon crew.............
Wagon helpers........
Watchmen...............
Water boys..............
D o.......................
Do......................
Do......................
D o......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
D o.......................
Wood hovs...............
D o . / . .................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
W oodchoppers........

13.5
12.5
12.3
15
14
13.5
11.4
10.9

$1.35
1.25
1.35
1.50
1.40
1.35
1.25

10
.2
1.1
0
10
.0
1.25
1.0
0
1.0
0
1.0
0

1
1
1
0
12.5
1
0
9.1
9.1
7.5
6.4

.75
.70
.60
.65
.55
.50
.50

6

5.9
5.5
5
4.5

1.0
0

1
0

.90
.80
.75
.70
.65
.70

7.5
7
6.5

6.4

Raft building.
Foremen...................
Laborers...................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Do.......................
Raftmen....................
D o.......................
Do.......................
D o.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................

15
13.5
12.5

1.50
1.35
1.25

10
.1
10
.0

1.40
1.35
1.25
1.35
1 . 12 J d.
1 .0 0 d.

1
1
1
0

14
13.5
12.5
12.3
11.3

1
0

Railroad construction
and maintenance.
Brush cutters...........
Carpenters................
Foremen...................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Foremen, construc­
tion .........................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Foremen, mainte­
nance......................
Do.......................
D o.......................
Foremen, right of
way...........
Foremen, ripping
crew........................
D o.......................
Do.......................




10
.1

1
0

2.00
2.00

2
0

13.6
25
20.5

1.50
2.50
2.25

18.2
18
17.5
15.9
15
13.5

1.80
1.75
1.75
1.50
1.35

76.50
2.25
2.25
1.75

29.4
22.5
20.5
17.5

2.03
1.80
1.75

20.3
18
17.5

1.35
2.25
1.75
1.75

d.

13.5
22.5
17.5
15.9

No.
of
Classification and
occupation of em­ em­
ployees.
ploy­
ees.

Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

Y/age
rate.

Railroad construction
and maintenance—
Continued.
Foremen, section...
1
1
Do.......................
1
D o.......................
1
Do.......................
1
Do.......................
Foremen, track-lay1
ing..........................
1
D o.......................
9
Laborers...................
9
D o.......................
2
D o.......................
2
Do.......................
10
Do.......................
95
D o.......................
2
D o.......................
15
D o.......................
D o.......................
3
Do....................... 1J3
5
D o.......................
6
Do.......................
1
D o.......................
6
Do.......................
1
D o.......................
2
Do.......................
1
D o.......................
Laborers, construc­
1
tion .........................
1
D o.......................
1
D o .......................
28
Do.......................
18
Do.......................
14
Do.......................
1
Do.......................
* Do.......................
11
3
Do.......................
9
Do.......................
11
Do.......................
1
Do.......................
1
D o ......................
1
Do.......................
1
Do.......................
Laborers, mainte­
3
nance.....................
1
Do.......................
2
Do.......................
5
Do.......................
5
Do.......................
7
Do.......................
1
Do.......................
Laborers, ripping
1
crew........................
14
Do.......................
7
D o.......................
20
Do.......................
7
Do.......................
11
Do.......................
2
Do.......................
16
Do.......................
2
Do.......................
5
Do.......................
1
Do.......................
1
Laborers, section.. .
2
Do.......................
1
Do.......................
6
Do.......................
3
Do.......................
2
Do.......................
12
Do.......... ............
7
Do.......................
9
Do.......................
4
Do.......................

Cents.
66

60
66

60
66

60
60
60

60
66

60
60
60
66
66

60
66

60
66

60
66

60
60
66

60
69
60
60
60
60
66

60

$2.25 d.
50.00 m.
2 .0 0 d.
1.75 d.
1.80 d.

20.5
19.2
18.2
17.5
16.4

76.50
1.50
1.25
1.15
1.25
1 . 12 *

m.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

29.4
15
12.5
11.5
11.4
11.3

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

16.5
15
13.5
12.5

1 .1 0
1 .0 0
1 .1 0
1 .0 0

.90
.90
.80
.80
.70
.75
.65
.60
.50
1.65
1. 50
1. 35
1.25
1 .2 0

1.15
1.25

66
66

1 .1 0
1 .2 0
1 .0 0
1 .1 0
1 .0 0

60
60
60

.90
.75
.60

60
60
60
60
60
60
60

1.25

60
60
60
60
60
60

1.35
1.25

66

60

66
66

60
60
60
66

60
66

60
60
66
60
66

60
66 1

d.
1 .2 0 d.
1.15 d.
1.13 d.
1 .1 0 d.
1 .0 0 d.
.75 d.

1 .2 0

1.15
1 .1 0
1 .0 0
1 .1 0
1 .0 0

.85
.75
.50
1.50
1.25
1. 35
1 .2 0

1.15
1. 25
1 .1 0

1.15
1 .0 0
1 .1 0

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

11
10
10

9.1
9
8 .2
8

7.3
7
6 .8

6.5
6

4.5

12

11.5
11.4
11

10.9
10
10

9.1
9
7.5
6

12.5
12

11.5
11.3
11
10

7.5
13.5
12.5
12

11.5
11
10
10

9.1
8.5
7.5
5
13.6
12.5
12.3
12

11.5
11.4
11

10.5
10
10

2.82

LT7MBEB M A N U F A C T U R IN G .

T ab le
N U M B E R OF E M PLO Y E E S ., F U L L -T IM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , A N D R A T E S
OF W A G E S IN T H E LO G G IN G IN D U S T R Y , B Y O C C U PA TIO N S, 1915—Continued.

SOUTH CA2LQLIKA—Concluded.
N®.
Classification and •of
occupation of em­ ■em­
ployees.
ploy­
ees.

Full­
time
Iirs.
per
wk.

Equiv­
alent
• rate
per
liour.

W age
rate.

Cents.
$1.05

66
66
66

1

22
1
2
6
1

1 .0 0

.90
.75
.80
.60
1.35
1. 25

60
66

60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60

3
5
1

15
2
8
1
2
1
1
1
1

1 .2 0

1.15
1 .1 0
1 .0 0

.90
.80
.75

66
66
66

3

2 .0 0
1 .0 0

.90
.75
.70
.70
.60
.55
.60
.50
..50

60
60

1
2
6
1
2

66

60
60
66

60

5
4

66

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d. r
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

9.5
9.1
8 .2

7.5
7.3
6

13.5
12.5
12

11.5
11
10

9
8

7.5
18.2
9.1
8 .2

7.5
7
6.4
6

5.5
5.5
5
4.5

Rmlroad operation.
Brakemen.................
Car-greasers.............
D o .......................
D o.......................
Car inspectors...........
Do.......................
Engineers..................
Do.......................
D o .......................
D o.......... ...........
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
D o.......................

Wage
rate.

Concluded.

Concluded.

Teamsters.................
Do.......... ............
Water boys..............
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................

Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

Equiv:aient
rate
per
hour.

Railroad operation—

Railroad construction
and maintenance—
Laborers, section...
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do......................
Do.......................
Laborers, track........
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
D o .....................
Do.......................
Do.......................
D o . . . .................
Do........... ............

No.
Classification and •of
occupation of em­ em­
ploy­
ployees.
ees.

72

1 .1 0

•66
66

1
1
1
1

1 .0 0

1,25

ffi

.75

60
60
72

1
1
1

2 .0 0

1. 50
3.374
3.00
70.00
81.00
67. 50
72. 00
2.50
2. 75
67.50

66

16

60
72
60

1
1
1
1
1
2

66

60
66
66

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
in.
m.
m.
m.
d.
d.
m.

9.2
11.4
9.1
6 .8

20
15
28.1
27. 3
.26.9

26
26

25.2

25
25
23.6

Engineers.................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Firemen....................
Do.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
D o.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Flagmen...................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
D o.......... ...........
Do.......................
Hostlers.....................
Do.......................
Pump meoa...............
Switchmen...............
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
D o.......................
D o .......................
D o.......................
D o.......................

13

72
60

1
1

66
66

$2.50 d.
2. 25 d.
2.25 d.
2 . 00 d.
1. 75 d.
1. 75 d.
1.50 d.
1. 50 d.
1.25 d.
1. 50 d.
1.35 d„
C d.
1)
L25 •d
.
1. 12 J d.
1 . 00 d.
1 .1 0 d.
1. 00 d.
1. 50 d.
1. 25 d.
1.25 d.
1 .0 0 d.
1 .1 0 d.
1 .0 0 d.
.80 d.
1. 35 d.
1. 00 d.
2 .0 0 d.
1. 50 d.
1. 50 d.
1.25 d.
1. 50 d.
1. 25 d.
1. 35 d.
1 .0 0 d.
1 .1 0 d.
1 . 00 d.

5

66
66
66
66

d.
d.
.90 d.
1. 50 d.

1
2
2
1
1
1

15

69
60
66
66
66.

60
60

1

66

1

60
72
66

1

72

7

66

1

60
60

1
1

66
66
66

60
=66
1
10
1
1

60
66
66

60
66
2 70

1
1
1
1

60
60
60
60
72
66

1

Cents.
22.7
22.5
20.5
18.2
15.9
17.5
15
13.6
12.5
12.5
12.3
1 1 .6

11.4
11.3
10
10

9.1
13.6
12.5
11.4
10
1*0

9.1
8

12.3
10
20

15
15
12.5
12.5
11.4
11.3
10
10

9.1

Road construction
and maintenance.
Path cutters.............
D o.......................
Do.......................
Swampers.................

8
1
1

1 .1 0
1. 00

10

9.1
8 .2

13 6

TENNESSEE.

General—Concld.

General.
Blacksmiths______ J
D o ....................... 1
D o .......................
D o.......................
Car repairers_______;
D o ..................... j
Oookees......................*
D o....................... [
Go©ks......................... :
D o....................... !
Filers.........................
D o.......................;
Foremen...................
D o ....................... ;
D o ....................... ;
D o ....................... !
D o ......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o.......................

2
1
2
2
1
2
1
1
1
2
2

60
66
66
66
66
66

:

70
70
2 70
2 70
2

*

66

3

60

2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

66
66

60
66

60
66
66
66

:

2.70 d.
2.75 d.
2.50 d.
2 . 35 d.
2 . 02 | d.
2 .0 0 d.
3 1.60 d.
3 1.50 d.
3 67.50 m.
3.65.00 m.
2.25 d.
2 .0 0 d.
90.00 m.
C d.
1)
75.00 m.
3.00 d.
3 67.50 m.
2.75 d.
2.70 d.
2.50 d.

1 More than one rate.




27
25
22.7
51.4
18.4
18.2
316
315
322.3
3-21.4
20.5

20
SI. 5
31.1
28.8
27.3
326
25
24.5
22.7

Foremen, .camp___
Foremen, genera/l. . .
Foremen, road_____
Harness makers____
Helpers, shop______
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o .......................
Ho&tlers....................
Landing builders. . .
Lobby hogs..............
Machinists................
Pattern makers____
Stablemen................
D o .......................
Telephone men........
Timekeepers............
Watchmen. .............
D o .......................
3ven

days.

60
2.50 d.
60 3112.50 m.
60
2.50 d.
2.50 d.
66
66
2 .0 0 d.
1.94 d.
66
1.75 d.
66
66
1.67 d.
1.57 d.
66
1 2 77
2.50 d.
60
1.50 d.
1
60
1.50 d.
1
2.50 d.
66
1
3.00 d.
68
1 2 77
1.80 d.
1 2 70
C d.
1)
1
50.00 m.
66
1
75.00 m.
66
1
66
0 ) m.
1
66
0 ) m.
1
66
0 ) m.
3 And board.

1
1
1
1
1
1
1

25
M 3.3
25
22.7
18.2
17.6
15.9
15.2
14.3
22.7
15
15
22.7
27.3
16-4
15.2
17.5
26.2
17.8
14.6
13.7

LOGGING WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR.

233

T a b l e 1 9 . — N U M BER

OF E M PLO YEES, FU LL-TIM E HOURS PER W E E K , AN D R AT ES
OF W AG ES IN T H E LOGGING IN D U ST R Y , B Y OCCUPATIONS, 1915—Continued.
T E N N E S S E E — Continued.

No.
of
Classification and
occupation of em­ em­
ploy­
ployees.
ees.

Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

Equiv­
No. Full­
alent 1 Classification and
of time
rate J occupation of em- em­ his.
per i plovees.
ploy­ per
hour.
ees. wk.

W age
rate.

Cutting, etc.

Cents.
3

Cutters......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Do.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Do
...............
D o.......................
Do
Do ...................
Do
Do
D o.......................
Foremen cutters----Peelers......................
Sawyers....................
Do.......................
Stave-block loaders.
D o.......................
Stave-block rollers..
Do
Do
D o.......................
Stave-block splitters
Do.......................
D o.......................
Do
Timber fitters..........

60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60

10

4
1
1
1
1

3
62

66
66
66

2
1
2

7
1

4
1
1
1

•

66
66
66
66
66
66

60
1
1

23
3
2

5
o
1
1
1
A
■
1

7

1
1
2

5
1
1

66

60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
A
O
ou
ou
60
60
60
60
60
60

SI. 60 d

20

2 .0 0

1.90 d
C d
1)
(0 d
(x) d
C d
1)
1.75 d
1.80 d
C) d
C d
1)
C d
1)
C d
1)
1.75 d
0 ) d
0 ) d.
0 ) d
0 ) d.
0 ) d
1 50 d
C d
1)
2.50 d.
1.60 d.
1.50 d.
1.50 d.
1.60 d.
1.50 d.
1.50 d.
0 ) d.
1.75 d.
2 .0 0 d,
1.70 d.
1.60 d*
1.50 d.
1.90 d.
1.85 d.
1.75 d.
1.50
1.50 d!

19
19
18.5
18.4
18.3
17.5
16.4
16.3
16.2
16
15.9
15.9
15.8
15.6
15 5
15.2
15 1
15
1 1.2

25
16
15
15
16
15
1

17.8
17.5
20

17
16
15

19

18.5
17.5
15
15

Hauling, skidding,
and loading.
Foremen, skidder ..
D o.......................
Foremen, teamsters.
Grab drivers............
Do ...................
Laborers...................
Do .....................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Do .....................
Landing; men...........
D o.......................
D o.......................
Do.......................
D o.......................
Loadennen.............
Do .....................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Do
..........
Do ...................
Loader operators —
Teamsters .............
Do
Do
. . ..
D o.......................
Do
D o.......................




3

66

1
1
1

60
60
60
60

1
1
1
1

66
66
66
66
68

4
1

60
60

1
1

66
66
66
66

1
1

60
60
66

1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1

60
60
66
66

60
60
60
60
60
60
66

Hauling, skidding,
and loading—Cld.

16

(1

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

Wage
rate.

3.60
60.00
2.15
1.60
1.50
3.00
2. 75
2.50
0 )
2.25
1.50
1.50
0 )
1.55
(x)
1.50
4.00
100.00

4.00
75.00
2.50
(0

2.25
3.00
2.60
55. 50
2 .0 0

1.90
C
1)

2 .0 0

d.
m.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
m.
d.
m
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
m.
d.
d.
d.
d.

32.7
23.1
21.5
16
15
27.3
25
22.7
22.5
20.5
15
15
14.2
14.1
13.8
13.6
40
38.5
36.4
28.8
25
24.7
20.5
30
26
21.3
20

19
18.4
18.2

Teamsters.................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.................
D o..........
D o.................
Ton? hookers. . .
D o___
D o..............
Top loaders...

Cents.
16
1

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d
2 .0 0 d.
2.25 d. |

16.4
16.1
16
16
15.5
15
14.5
25
20.5

d.
d.
4. 00 d.
2 . 00 d.
3.00 d.

32.7
18.2
36.4

66

2.25
2 . 00
3.00
2. 7o

d.
d.
d.
d.

20.5
18.2
30
25

66

2 .0 0

60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60

1. 50
1. 25
C
1)
0 )
0 )
, (1)
1. 50
1.25

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

18.2
15
12.5
17.7
16.4
15.4
15.2
15
12.5

d.
d.
d.
1.65 d.
1. 55 d.
0 ) d.

2a 5
18.2
16.4
15
14.1
13.7

50 d.
d.
d.
2 .0 0 d.

13.6
9.1
36.4
18.2

66
66

5

60

1
1

68
66

7
1

3

60
66

60

2
2
1

66

1
2
1
2
1

66
66
G
6

1
1
1
1

66
66

60
63

SI. 80
0 )
1.60
C
1)
0 )
1.50
0 )
2.50
2.25

20

20.5

Railroadconstruction
and maintenance.
Blacksmiths.............
Carpenters, bridge..
Cranemen.................
Foremen...................
Foremen, bridge___
Foremen, construc­
tion. . ...................
D o.......................
Foremen, grade___
1
D o.......................
Foremen, mainte­
nance......................
Graders..................
D o.......................
; Laborers............
!
D o.......................
|
Do.......................
!
Do....................
j
D o.......................
j
D o.......................
: Laborers, construcj tion.........................
|
D o.......................
!
D o...................
|
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Laborers, mainte­
nance......................
D o.......................
Steam-shovel men..
D o...................
Watchmen, steam
shovel...................

4
34
1
1
1
2

3
9
1
1

4
4

1
20
1

43

60
66

60

66
66
66
66
66
66

3.60
2 .0 0

2.25

2 .0 0
1. 80

20

27.3

1
1
1

66
66
66
66

4.00

1

66

2 .0 0

d

IS. 2

6
1
1
2

66

2.25
2 .0 0
0 )
2 .0 0

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
m.
d.
d.
m.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
m.
d.

20.5

60
60

1 .0 0

Railroad operation.
Brakemen.................
Do ...............
D o.....................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Engineers.................
D o.......................
D o.....................
D o.......................
Engineers, yard___
Firemen.....................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o..................... .
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Do.
...............
Firemen, yard.........
Foremen, train........
Hostlers..................... 1

i More than one rate.

66

5

60

1
1

66
66

3
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

3
1
1
1

60
66
66
66

60
60
66
66

60
66
66
66
66
66

1. 75
0 )
2. 75
65.00
2. 30
2. 75
60.00
0 )
2 .0 0
0 )

2. G
O
1. 75
0 )
1. 85
1. 85
90.00
J 1.80

20

18.6
18.2
17.5
31.7
25
25
20 . 9
25
21

20.9
20

19.5
18.2
17.5
17.2
16.8
16.8
31.4
16.5

LUMBER MANUFACTURING.

234

1 9 .— NUMBER OF EM PLOYEES, FULL-TIME HOURS PE R W E E K , AND RATES
OF WAGES IN THE LOGGING IN DU STRY, B Y OCCUPATIONS, 1915—Continued.

T a b le

TENNESSEE—Concluded.
No.
Classification and
of
occupation of em­ em­
ploy­
ployees.
ees.

Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

Wage
rate.

Road construction
and maintenance.

6
6

Buck swampers___
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Road builders..........
Swampers.................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Do.......................
D o.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

Cents.
$2.25

No.
Classification and
of
occupation of em­ em­
ployees.
ploy­
ees.

Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

2 .1
0

19.5
18.7
18.3
17.4
17.5
20.5
18.1
17.5
17.4
16
15.5
15
14.8

1.75
2. 25

0)
0)
1.60
0)
1.50
0)
1. 75

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

Road construction
and maintenance—
Concluded.

20.5

0)
0)
0)
C
1
)
C)
1

Wage
rate.

0) d.

Swampers.
Do----D o ....
D o ....
D o ....
D o ....
D o ....
D o ....
D o ....
D o ....
D o ....
D o ....
D o ....
D o ....

) d.
SI. 45 d.
(i) d.
C
1) d.
(i) d.
1.55 d.
1.40 d.
(i) d.
(i) d.
0 ) d.
1.50 d.
0 ) d.
1.25 d.
0

Cents.
14.7
14.6
14.5
14.5
14.4
14.2
14.1
14
14
13.9
13.7
13.6
13.4
12.5

T E X A S.

General—Concld.

General.
Blacksmiths..............
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
Car checkers..............
Carpenters..................
D o .........................
D o .........................
Car repairers..............
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
Car repairers’ help­
ers ..............................
Cranemen...................
Feeders and shop­
men ...........................
Filers............................
D o ...............
Foremen.....................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
Foremen, shop.........
Foremen, woods___
D o .........................
Foremen, assistant.
Helpers, general___
Helpers, shop............
Laborers.....................
D o .........................
D o .........................
Machinists..................
Machinists’ helpers.
Sand burners............
Scalers.........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
Scavengers.................
Shopm en.....................

60
60
60
60
60
2 70
60
60
60
60
60
60
2 70

70
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60

1.75 d.
C d.
1)

17.5
27.6

2. 25
2.50
2.25
2 .0 0

2.50
2.25
2 . 00
2 .0 0

2. 25
C
1)
.225
3. 25
81.00
3.00
2.50
(3)
2. 25
2 . 00
1.90
3.40
125. 00
3.40
0 )
1. 50
1. 75
0 )
1. 75
1.50
3. 50
0 )
.75
3. 00
.30
2. 75
2.25
2 .0 0
.2 0

27.00
0 )
1.50

1 More than one rate.




34.6
30
29.3
27.5

2 .0 0

60
60
2

m.
d.
h.
h.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

$90.00
3.00
0 )
.275

d.
h.
h.
d.
m.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
m.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
h.
d.
d.
d.
Ji.
m.
d.
d.

Stablemen................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................

20

22.5
25
22.5
20

25
22.5
20
20

22.5
27.2
22.5
32.5
31.2
30
25
2 2 .6

22.5
20

19
34
48.1
34
20.9
15
17.5
18
17.5
15
35
15.5
7.5
30
30
27.5
22.5
20
20

10.4
16.5
15

D o.......................
D o.......................
Stablemen’s helpers.
D o.......................
Stake cutters...........
Team bosses.............
Timekeepers............
Watchmen...............
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Water boys...............
Water haulers..........
Woodcutters............
Wood haulers..........
Wood loaders...........

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

2 70
2 70
2 70
2 70
2 70

2 70
2 70
2 70
2 70
60
60
60
2 70
2 70
60
2 70
2 70
60
60
60
60
60
60

0 ) h.
2.25 d.
.2 0 h.
1.80 d.
1. 75 d.
1. 55 d.
1.50 d.
.225 h.
C h.
1)
1.75 d.
.225 h.
74.00 m.
1.80 d.
1.70 d.
1.50 d.
1.50 d.
1. 40 d.
1.50 d.
1.50 d.
2 .0 0 d.
2 .0 0 d.
C d.
1)
1. 50 d.

23.5
22.5
20

18
17.5
15.5
15
22.5
21.3
17.5
22.5
28.5
18
17
15
15
14
15
15
20
20

19.8
15

Cutting, etc.
Foremen...................
2
Foremen, saws........
1
D o.......................
1
Saw bosses................
1
Sawyers..................... 159

60
60
60
6*0

60

.27 h.
2. 25 d.
0 ) d.
2.50 d.
(3)

27
22.5
2 2 .2

25
(3)

Hauling, skidding,
and loading.
Chainmen.................
D o.......................
Do.......................
Drivers......................
Do.......................
Engineers.................
Firemen....................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Firemen, loader___
D o.......................
D o.......................

* Seven days.

1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1

60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
2 70
60
60
60

0 )
(>)
C
1)
1.90
1.50
.27
.225
.18
1. 75
1. 70
0 )
C
1)
0 )
0 )

3 Pieceworkers.

K.
h.
h.
d.
d.
h.
h.
h.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

18.8
14.4
14.2
19
15
27
22.5
18
17.5
17
15.5
19.4
19
18

235

LOGGING WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR.

T able 19.—NUMBER OF EM PLOYEES, FULL-TIME HOURS P E R W E E K , AND RATES
OF WAGES IN TH E LOGGING IN DU STRY, B Y OCCUPATIONS, 1915—Continued.
T E X A S—Continued.
No.
of
Classification and
occupation of em­ em­
ploy­
ployees.
ees.

Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

Wage
rate.

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

D o !!!!!!!!!!!!
Foremen, skidder..
D o.....................
Foremen, teamster
Grab setters...........
D o.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
D o...............
Horse changers____
Hostlers...................
Loadermen.............
Do.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
Loadermen, head..
Loaders...................
D o.....................
Do.....................
D o.....................
Ropers.....................
Skidders..................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
Do.....................
Skidway men.........
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Teamsters...............
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Tong hookers.........
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................




Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

Wage
rate.

Hauling, skidding,
and loading—Cld.

Hauling, skidding,
and loading—Ctd.
Firemen, loader...
D o.....................
Flag-men..................

No.
Classification and
of
occupation of em­ em­
ployees.
ploy­
ees.

Cents.
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60

27
0
0
0
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60

$1.75
1.70

0)
0)
1. 50

3.00

0)
O
)
0)
0)
C
1
)
0)
.14

2.50

. 125 h.
0 ) d.
46.00
.45

10 0
0 .0
90.00
3.00
125.00

2.00
(O
1.75
C)
1
1. 75
1.90

0)
0)
1.75
0)
0)
1.50
2.00
0)
V)
0)
0 )
1.75

C
1
)

)
1.65
0 )
0 )
(*)
0 )
C
1)
0 )
1.50
.15
0 )
0

2.00
.20
(O
(l)
. 195 h.
(O
1.85
(O
.18

0)
0)
(O
2.25
2.00
0)
0)

* More than one rate.

17.5
17
15.4
15.2
15
30
16.5
25
18.5
15.6
14.8
14.4
14.3
14
12.5
17
15.2
45
38.5
34.6
30
48.1
20

19,6
17.5
15.3
17.5
19
18.7
17.7
17.5
16.8
16.6
15
20

19.3
18.9
18.2
17.9
17.5
16.7
16.7
16.5
16.3
36.1
16
15.6
15.4
15.1
15
15
14.7
20
20

19.7
19.6
19.5
19.5
18.5
18.1
18
17.7
17.4
16.8
16
15.5
22.5
20

19.8
19.2

Tong hookers............
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Top loaders..............
Do.......................
Water boys...............

Cents.

1
1
1
1
1

60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60

- (O
$0.19
0 )
.18
1.75
0 )

h.
h.
h.
h.
d.
h.
0) d.
C) d.
1
1.75 d.
.165 h.

19.1
19
18.5
18
17.5
17
16.7
21.9
17.5
16.5

1
1
1
1
1

60
60
60
60
60

1.70
1.65
1.50
0 )
2.50

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

17
16.5
15
13.5
25

1
1
1

60
60
60

0 ) d.
.155 h.
0) h.

16.9
15.5
14.8

60

.27

27

1
1
1
1
1
1
1

60
60
60
60
60
60
60

h.
.18 h.
1.50 d.
.2 0 h
1.75 d.
2. 70 d.
2 .0 0 d.

1

60

C
O

1
1
1
1

60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60

.32 h.
2 .0 0 d.
.2 0 h.
.18 h.
.225 h.
2 .0 0 d.
. 18 h.
3.43 d.
0 ) h.
.225 h.
2 .0 0 d.
3.00 d.
2 .0 0 d.
(O d.
1.75 d.
1.50 d.
.14 h.
0 ) d.
1.75 d.
(O d.
1.50 d.
2 .0 0 d.
.2 0 h.
< 0 d.
.18 h.
1.75 d.
C) d.
(l) h.
1.65 d.
.165 h.
0 ) d.
1.50 d.
.14 h.
.16 h.

2
2
1

5
4

Railroad construction
and maintenance.
Axmen......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Bridge builders
B r id g e builders'
helpers...................
Car loaders...............
Do.......................
Engineers, locomo­
tive.........................
Firemen, locomo­
tive.........................
Do.......................
Flagmen...................
Foremen...................
Do.......................
Foremen, grade
Do.......................
Foremen, r e p a ir
crew.......................
Foremen, right of
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Foremen, scction.. .
Do.......................
Do.......................
Foremen, steel crew.
D o ......................
D o ......................
Do.......................
Foremen, track.......
Do.......................
Do.......................
Grade men...............
Do.......................
Do.......................
Laborers...................
Laborers, grade.......
Do.......................
Do.......................
Right-of-way m en..
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do..................... .
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Section men.............
2

1
1
1
1
1
1
1

4
1
1

10
15

1
1
1

36
1
1
11
1
1
1
12
1
20

7
2

Seven days.

h.

0)

h.

20.3
18
15
20

17.5
27
20

17.7
32
20
20

18
22.5
20

18
34.3
25.9
22.5
20

30
20

19.8
17.5
15
14
13.8
17.5
15.6
15
20
20

18.2
18
17.5
17.3
16.8
16.5
16.5
16.3
15
16
14

2M

LUM BER

M A N U F A C T U R IN G .

T able l a —NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES., FULL-TIM E HOURS P E R W E E K , AND RATES
OF W AGES IN TH E LOGGING IN DU STRY, B Y OCCUPATIONS* 1915—Continued.
T’-EXAS —Concluded.
No.
Classification and
of
occupation of em­ em­
ployees.
ploy­
ees

Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

Wage
rate.

No.
Classification and
of
occupation of em­ em­
ployees.
ploy­
ees.

Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

Wage
rate.

Railroad operation—

.Railroad construction
and maintenance—

Concluded.

Cents.

Concluded.

Cents.

0)
$0.14

Section men...........
Do.....................
D o.....................
Shovelmen..............
D o.....................
D o.....................
Slip drivers.............
D o.....................
Slip dumpers.........
Slip tillers...............
Spike peddlers.......
Steel men................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
D o.....................
D o .....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
D o .....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Teamsters...............
Trackmen...............
Do.....................
Do.....................
Trackwalkers.........

15.3
14
12.5
16
15
12.5
16
12.5
15
16.5
9
Do.......................
19.9
D o.......................
17.9
D o.......................
17.5
17.4
D o.......................
D o.......................
17.3
16.3
D o .......................
Do.......................
16.7
D o.......................
16.5
15.5
Hostlers.....................
15.4
Do.......................
15
D o.......................
D o.......................
18
15
Hostlers’ helpers___
13.5 ! Oilers.........................
Pump men..............
12.5
D o.......................
14

1.25
1.60
1.50
1.25
1.60
1.25
1.50
1.65
.09

0)
0)
C
1
)
(x
)
0)
(1
)
,165

1.75

,
li.
. 155 h.

C d.
1
)

1.50
.18
1.50
.135
1.25
1.40

d.
h.
d.

h.
d.
d.

Railroad operation.
Br&keraen...............
D o.....................
Do.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
B o .......................
Engineers................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................

60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
2 70
60

Engineers.................
Do.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Do.......................
Firemen....................
Do.......................
Do.......................
D o ......................
D o.......................
D o .......................

29
18.5
18
17.6
17.5
17
35
34.6
30
30
29
27.5

.2 0 h.
1.85 d.
.18 h.
(l) d.
1.75 d.
1.70 d.
.35 h.
90.00 m.
3.00 d.
.30 h.
2.90 d.
.275 h.

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

60
60
60
*70
2 70
60
60
60
60
2 70
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
2 70
2 70
2 70
2 70
2 70
60
60
60

§0.27
C
1)
2.50
2.50

h.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
h.
h.
d.
d.
h.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
h.
d.
h.
d.
h.
d.
h.
h.
h.
d.

27
25.2
25
25

0 ) h.
.18 h.
0 ) d.
0 )

18.1
18
17.5

2 .0 0

2.50
0 )
.225
C)
1
0)

2 .0 0
.2 0

C
1)
0)
0 )
0)
0)
1.85
.18
1.75
.255
2.25
.2 0

1.65
.18
(0
.2 0

1.70

20

25
24.8
22.5
2 2 .2
2 0 .2
20
20

19.8
19.5
19.2
19.1
19
18.5
18
17.5
25.5
22.5
20

16.5
18
25
20

17

Road construcli3n
and maintenance.
Swampers.................
Do.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Do.......................
D o.......................
Do.......................
Do.................
D o . ,...................

1

15
1
1
1

I
1

I
2
2
1

.

60
60
60
60
60
60
60

60
60
60
60

O)
<A
)
1.60
1.50
<A
)
.14

d.
d„
d.
d.
d,
h.

2

16.6
16.3
16.2
16
15
14.2
14

VXFvGOTIA.

General.
Bam bosses..............
Blacksmiths.............
D o.....................
D o .....................
Cooks..........................
D o.....................
Filers.......................... 1
D o.....................
D o.....................
Do_....................
Foremen...................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o .....................
D o.....................
F o r e m e n , assist­
ant ..........................
Foremen, woods___
Log scalers................
D o.....................
Machine-shop m en..

General—:C02icld.
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1

2 70

$45.00
60
.35
.30
60
C
O
.15
2 70
50.00
270
35.00
60
.25
60
2.35
60
1.50
1.50
66
60
75.00
60
.25
60
.2 0
60
0 )
60
1.75

1
1
1
1
1

i More than one rate.




60
60
60
60
66

m.
h.
h.
h.
m.
m.
h.
d.
d.
d.
m.
h.
h.
m.
d.

.174 h.
m.
75.00 m.
0 ) 111
90.00 m.

1 0 0 .0 0

.

2

14.8
35

30

15
16.4
11.3
25
2-3.5
15
13.6
28.9
25
20

17.8
17.5
17.5
38.5
28.8
18
31.5

Seven days.

Machine-shop men. .
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
Machinists.................
Sand dryers..............
Shopmen...................
D o.....................
D o.....................
Stablemen.................
D o.....................
Watchmen...............
D o.....................
Do......................
Water boys...............
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
Not reported............
3 $40 and $60.

3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
10
1

66
66
66
66
66

60
60
60
66
66

60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60

$2.75 d.
1.30
1 .1 0

.60
.25
1 0 0 .0 0

.75
2.50
2.03
1.57
.2 0

•174
2.75
1.75
. 174
1.25
1 .0 0
.8 8

d.
d.
d.
d.
m.
d.
d.
d.
d.
h.
h.
d.
d.
h.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
m

.75
.50
66
(3)
4 $0.140 and $0. 210.

25
1 1 .8
10

5.5
2.3
38.5
7.5
25
18.5
14.3
20

17.5
27.5
17.5
17.5
12.5
10

8.5
7-8
5

(4)

LOGGING WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR.

237

1 9-—N U M B E R O F E M P L O Y E E S , F U L L -T IM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , A N D R A T E S
OF W A G E S IN T H E L O G G IN G IN D U S T R Y , B Y O C C U PA TIO N S, 1915—Continued.

T a b le

VIRGINIA—Continued.
No.
Classification and
of
occupation of em­ em­
ployees.
ploy­
ees.

Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

Cutting, etc.
Bark laborers.......... .
D o .....................
D o .....................
D o .....................
Cutters.......................
D o .....................
D o .....................
D o .....................
D o .....................
D o .....................
D o .....................
D o .....................
D o .....................
D o .....................
D o .....................
D o .....................
Foremen, bark la­
borers .....................
Peelers.......................
D o .....................
D o .....................
D o .....................
D o .....................
D o .....................
Sawyers.....................
D o .....................
D o .....................
D o .....................
D o .....................
D o .....................
D o .....................
Not reported...........

$0.20

No.
Classification and
of
occupation of em­ em­
ploy­
ployees.
ees.

Cents.

Wage
rate.

Hauling, skidding,
and loading—Cld.

2
0

.16
.14

16
14

1
0
2
0

.10
2.00
1.90
1.75

19
17.5
16.8
16
16
15.5
15
15
14
12.5

0)
1.60
.16

0)

1.50
.15
1.40
1.25

(2
)
2
0

(2
)
.20
G
)
0)

18
16.8
15
14
12.5

1.50
1.40
1.25

1
0

1.00
.16
0)
1.50

16
16
13.6
12.7
12.3
11.4
(2)

1.40
1.35
1.25
(2)

0)

(3
)

Hauling, skidding,
and loading.
Brutters.................
D o .................
D o .................
D o .................
D o .................
D o .................
D o .................
Chainmen.............
D o .................
Drivers...................
D o .................
D o .................
D o .................
D o .................
Engineers, skidder..D o .................
Extra m en...........
Firemen.................
Foremen...............
Foremen, loader___
Foremen, skidder...
Foremen, teamsters.
D o ........................
Foremen, woods___
Foremen,
woods,
assistant................
Grab drivers............
D o ......................
Hauling crew...........
D o .....................
D o .....................
D o .....................
D o......................
D o .....................
D o .....................
D o .....................
D o .....................
D o .....................
1 More than one rate.
2 Pieceworkers.




0) h
.
0

) h.

0 ) h.

1.50 d.
.15 h.
1.25 d.
712% h.
1.35 d.
.H i h.
.15 h.
. 12 * h.
1.35 d.
1.25 d.
.06| h.
75.00 m.
1.50 d.
1.25 d.
1.50 d.
2 .0 0 d.
70.00 m.
60.00 m.
3.32* d.
65.00 m.
5.00 d.
2.75
1.60
1.50
180.00
126.00
2.89
1.55
1.35
1.25
1 .2 0

1.15
1 .1 0
1 .0 0

d.
d.
d.
m.
m.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

16.4
16.3
15.5
15
15
12.5
12.5
12.3
11.3
15
12.5
12.3
11.4
6.7
28.9
13.6
11.4
13.6
18.2
26.9
23.1
33.3
25
45.5
25
16
15
62.9
44.1
26.3
14.1
12.3
11.4
10.9
10.5
10

9.1

3 $1.15 to $3.50.
4 $0,105 to $0,318.

Full-,!
time!
hrs. |
per
wk.

Equiv­
alent

Wage
rate.

rate

, per
hour.

Cents.
Hauling crews........
Loaders.....................
D o .....................
D o .....................
D o .....................
D o ................... .•
D o .....................
D o .....................
D o .....................
D o .....................
Loaders, cart...........
Loaders, w a g o n ....
Loading crew...........
D o .....................
D o .....................
D o .....................
D o .....................
D o .....................
D o .....................
D o .....................
D o .....................
Log rollers................
Path cutters............
Riders........................
R opem en.................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
Skidders.-................
D o .......................
D o .......................
Snakers.....................
D o .......................
D o .......................
Teamsters. ...............
D o .......................
D o .......................
Tong hookers..........
do:

;;;::;:;;;;
Tong m en.................
Top loaders..............
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
Top loaders, assist­
ant ..........................
Transfer crew..........
D o ................. ..
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
Wagon crew............
do:

:;;;:;;;;;;
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o ............. ..
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
W ater boys..............
W oodcutters...........
D o .......................
D o .......................
Not reported...........
5
6

Seven days.
$0.80 to $1.75.

2

66

3

60
60
60
60
60
60
60

1
1
2
2
1
6
1
1
2

5
1
2
11
2

15
4
6
1

4
1

3
1

4
4
2

7
2
1

3
1
1
1
12

15
1

4
3
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
2

13
1
1
1
1
1

3
4
7
2

18
8

3
1
1
1
1
1
1
2

24

66
66

60
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
€6
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66

60
60
60
60
66
66

60
60
60
60
60
60
66
66

60
66

60
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
5 77
66
66
86
66
66
66
66

d.
d.
m.
d.
h.
h.
h.
h.
d.
d.
h.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
1 .2 0 d.
1.15 d.
1 .1 0 d.
1 .0 0 d.
1.25 d.
1. 25 d.
.75 d.
1.50 d.
1.40 d.
1. 35 d.
1.25 d.
.21 h.
(i) h.
. m h.
.15 h.
1.40 d.
1.35 d.
1.75 d.
. 17* h.
1.50 d.
2. 40 d.
.2 0 h.
C h.
1)
1. 50 d.
1.25 d.
.25 h.
1.40 d.
. 12* h.
1.35 d.

$0.90
3.00
75.00
2.40
.17*
0 )
.16
. 15
1.40
1.25
•1 U
1.25
2.43
1.75
1.35
1.30
1.25

.75
2.25
2 .0 0

1.35
1.25
.75
100.00

85.00
2 .0 0

1. 75
1.40
1.30
1.25
1 .2 0

1.15
1 .1 0
1 .0 0
1 .0 0

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
m.
m.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

.60
.40
.75
1.50
1.35
1.25
(f)
c
7$0,073 to $0,159

8.1

30
28.9
24
17.5
17.2

16
15
12.7
11.4
11.3
11.4

22.1
15.9

12.3

11.8
11.4
10.9
10.5

1
0

9.1

11.4
11.4

6.8

13.6
12.7

12.3
11.4

2
0

19.3
17.5
15
12.7
12.3
17. 5
17.5
15
24
2)
16.5
13.6
11.4
25
12.7
12.5
12.3

6.8

20.5
18.2
12.3
11.4

6.8

35
29.7
18.2
15.9
12.7

11.8

li. 4
10.9
10.5

1
0

9.1
9.1
5.5
3.6

6.8

13. 6
12.3
11.4

(7
)

LUMBER MANUFACTURING.

238
T a b l e 1 9 . — NUMBER

OF EM PLOYEES, FULL-TIME HOURS PER W EE K , AND RATES
OF WAGES IN THE LOGGING IN DU STRY, B Y OCCUPATIONS, 1915—Continued.
VIRGINIA—Conclud ed.

No.
Classification and
of
occupation of em­ em­
ployees.
ploy­
ees.

Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

Wage
rate.

No.
Classification and
of
occupation of em­ em­
ployees.
ploy­
ees.

Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

Wage
rate.

Railroad construction
and maintenance—

Railroad construction
and maintenance.

Cents.
$0.35
2.90
2. 75
2. 25
.15
3. 46
.30
70.00
2.15
50.00

Foremen.....................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
Foremen, section .. .
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
Foremen, steel gang.
Laborers.....................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
Laborers, steel gang.
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
Road builders...........
D o .........................
D o .........................
Section hands...........
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................

i.eo

2.00

2.40
1.50
1.40
. 12 * h.
1.35 d.
1.25 d.
.1 1 1 h.

1
.20
1.15
1
.10
.10
1
.00
1.90
0)
1.50

1
0
1
0

1.25

0)
.171 h.

.15
.07*
. 17*
.15
1.42*
0 )
1.40
.14
1.35
1.25
1.15

35
26.4
25
20.5
15
31.5
30
29.2
21.5
19.2
19
18.2
24
13.6
12.7
12.5
12.3
11.4
11.3
10.9
10.5

h.
h.
h.
h.
d.
h.

1.10
.10
1.00

9.1
19
15.8
15
12.5
9.8
17.5
15
7.5
17.5
15
14.3
14.2
14
14
12.3
11.4
10.5

1
0
1
0

9.1

Concluded.
Section hands.........
D o.......................
Not reported............

Cents.
1
1

47

60
60
60

7.5
5
(3)

50.00
1.75
1.50
1.25
2.15
85.00
80.00
3.00
75.00
2.75
.25
2.42
52.25
1.75
1.50
2.85

66

1

$0.07* h.
.05 h.
(2)

60
60

19.2
17.5
15
11.4
21.5
32.7
30.8
30
28.9
27.5
25

Railroad operation.
Brakemen.................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Conductors...............
Engineers.................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Firemen....................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Sand haulers............
Train masters..........
Not reported............

5
1
1

4

66

1
1
2
1

60
60
60
60
60

3

00

1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
2
1
2
1
1
1

60
66

60
66
66

60
60
60
60
60
60

.2 0

50.00
1.85
1.75
. 16!
1.50
1.25

66
66

60
60

42

(0

95.00 m.
(4)'

66

Roadmen.................
2
D o . . ...................
1
4
D o.......................
1
D o............ T........
1
D o .......................
21
Swampers.................
D o....................... 1 2
D o....................... I 4
D o....................... 1 1

m.
d.
d.
d.
d.
m.
m.
d.
m.
d.
h.
d.
m.
d.
d.
d.
h.
m.
d.
d.
h.
d.
d.

60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60

22
2 0.1

15.9
13.6
28.5
20

19.2
18.5
17.5
16.7
13.6
11.4
32.5
36.5
(B
)

Road construction
and maintenance.
1.60
1.50
.15
1.25
. 12 *
.15
.14
.l li
.1 0

d.
d.
h.
d.
h.
h.
h.
h.
h.

16
15
15
12.5
12.5
15
14
11.3
10

W ASHINGTON.

60
3. 75 d.
60
0 ) d.
60
2 . £0 d.
6 70
7 2. 25 d.
6 70
7 2 .0 0 d.
6 70 7 30. 00 m.
1 6 70
30.00 m.
1
60
3. 00 d.
00
2. 75 d.
1
60
2. 50 d.
6 70 7 40. 00 m.
4 e 70
7 1 .0 0 d.
1 6 70 7 30. 00 m.
1 6 70 7 110 .00 m.
2
1
1
1
1

1 More than one rate.
2 10.75 per day to S K per month.
IC )
» $0,068 to $0,350.




1

General—Contd.

General.
Blacksmiths..
D o..........
Blacksmiths’ helpers
Bull cooks.........
D o...............
D o...............
D o...............
Carpenters.........
D o...............
D o...............
Cookhouse men.
D o...............
D o...............
Cooks.................

37.5
36.9
25
7 22.5
7 20
7 9.9
9.9
30
27.5
25
7 13. 2 ,
7 10
i
7 9.9
7 36.3 j

D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Cooks, head..............
Cooks, second..........
D o.......................
D o.......................
Engineers..................
Filers..........................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................

4 $0.75 per day to
6 $0,068 to $0 ,2 02 .

2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1

$75 per month.

6 70
6 70
6 84
6 84
6 70
6 84
6 70
6 84
6 84
00

790.00
775.00
775.00
72.42
760.00
72. 42
745.00
735.00
7 1. 13
2. 75
4.00
60
60
3. 75
60
3.50
60
2 .6 8

m.
m.
m.
d.
m.
d.
m.
m.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

e Seven days.
7 And board.

7 29.
7 24.
7 20 .
7 20 .
7 19.
7 20.
7 14.
7 9.
7 9.
27.
40
37.
35
26.




LOGGING WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR.
OF EMPLOYEES, FULL-TIME HOURS PER W E E K , AND E
HE LOGGING IN DU STRY, B Y OCCUPATIONS, 1915—Continued
WASHINGTON—Continued.
Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

Wage
rate.

No.
Classification and
of
occupation of em­ em­
ployees.
ploy­
ees.

Cents.

Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

Railroad construction
and maintenance—

60

2.50

d.

25

60
60
60
170
170
* 70
1 84
184
60
60
60
60
170
1 70
60
60
60
1 70
60
60
60
60
60
1 70
60
60
60
1 70
60
60
1 70
1 70
60
60
1 84

$82.87
2.50
2.00
2 2. 25
2 35.00
2 30.00
2 1.00
2.97
2180.00
2 150.00
150.00
2130.00
4. 82
136. 81
2112.50
2125.00
2. 50
2 1.00
2.00
290.00
2. 50
2.50
3. 25
91.87
2 72.00
2 2.75
2 67.50
2.43
2 2. 25
2. 25
60.00
50.00
2.00
1.50
1. 76

m.
d.
d.
d.
m.
m.
d.
d.
m.
m.
m.
m.
d.
m.
m.
m.
d.
d.
d.
m.
d.
d.
d.
m.
m.
d.
m.
d.
d.
d.
m.
m.
d.
d.
d.

31.9
25
20
2 22.5
2 11.5
2 9.9
2 8.3
2 8.1
2 69.2
2 57.7
57.7
2 50
48.2
45.1
2 43.3
2 48.1
25

60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60

3.50
3.»25
3.00
2.75
2. 50
3. 75
3. 50
(8)
3. 25
(3)
3.00
2. 75
2. 50
3.00
2. 75
3.00
2.50
3.50
2. 25
(3)

60
60
60
170
1 70
60
60

board.

2.75
2.75
2.75
4.82
4. 81
3.50
3. 25

2 10

20
2 34.6
25
25
32.5
30.3
2 27.7
2 27.5
2 26

24.3
2 22.5
22.5
19.8
16.5
20
15
14.7

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

35
32.5
30
27.5
25
37.5
35
32.6
32.5
30.2
30
27.5
25
30
27.5
30
25
35
22.5
21.4

27.5
27.5
27.5
48.2
48.1
35
32.5

Wage
rate.

Foremen...................
D o.......................
Foremen, construc_
Foremen, section_
Handym en..............
Laborers...................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Laborers, construc­
tion.........................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Riggers......................
Section men.............
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Timekeepers.............
Wood bucks.............
Not reported............

2
1

60
60

iui\
lent
ate
oer
OT
U.

Concluded.
$3.00 d.
2.75 d.

1
60 100.00 m.
2.50 d.
60
3
2.75 d.
1 1 70
2.25 d.
60
2
2.00 d.
60
2
1.60 d.
54
60

ents
30
27.
47.
25
27.

22.

20
16

2. 75
2. 50
(3)
(3)
2. 25
(3)
2. 50
(3)
(3)
(3)
1.80
1. 75
3. 21
2.00
(<)

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

6
)

1
1

2.50
60
3.00
60
2.80
60
2.70
60
60 112. 50
3.69
60
3.15
60
3.15
60
3.00
60

d.
d.
d.
d.
m.
d.
d.
d.
d.

25
30
28
27
43.
36.
31.
31.
30

1
2
2

60
60
60

1. 75 d.
2.80 d.
2.25 d.

17.
28

60
2
2
60
60
1
1
60
19
60
60
1
60
1
60
1
1
60
1
60
60
13
12
60
1 1 70
8
60
60
2

27.
25
23.

22.
22.

21.
25

21.

19.
19.
18
17.
32.
20

Railroad operation.
Brakemen.................
Conductors...............
D o.......................
D o.......................
Engineers.................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Engineers, donkey..
D o.......................
Engineers, helper,
donkey...................
Firemen.....................
D o.......................

4
1
2
1
1
1

22.

Road construction
and maintenance.
Foremen...................
Do.......................
Foremen, train........
Laborers....................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Skid-road men.........
Swampers.................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Swampers, head___

1
2
1
1
15
7
9
12
1
1
1
1

2.75 d.
60
2.50 d.
60
60 100.00 m.
60
(8) d.
2.00 d.
60
1.80 d.
60
1.50 d.
60
2. 50 d.
60
3.00 d.
60
60
(3) d.
C
O
(3) d.
3.50 d.
60

20
18
15
25
30
29.
29.
35

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

28.
25.
25
28
27.
30
32.
25
35

27.
25
38.

21.

Skidding, overhead.
Choker men.............
Do.......................
Do.......................
Firemen.....................
Do.......................
Hookers, head.........
Hook-ons...................
Do.......................
Hook tenders...........

3M than one rate,.
ore

-Bull. 225-------16

Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

1
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
1

* $2.50 and $3.75.

60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60

(3)
(3)
2.50
2.80
2. 75
3.00
3.25
2.50
3.50

6$0.25 and $0.c

240

LUMBER MANUFACTURING.

T a b l e 1 9 . —NUM BER OF EM PLOYEES, FULL-TIME HOURS PEP. W E E K , AND RATES

OF WAGES IN THE LOGGING IN DU STRY, B Y OCCUPATIONS, 1315—Continued.
WASHIH-GT02T—Concluded.

----!g
No. FullClassification and
of time
occupation of em­ em- hrs.
ployees.
ploy- per
wk.

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

Wage
rate.

Skidding, overhead—
Concluded.
Knotters..............
Levermen............
Do.................
Levermen, head___
Loaders, head..........
Loaders, second___
Do.......................
Riggers.......................
Riggers, head...........

Doiiiiiiirinii

Riggers, second____
Signalmen...........
Unhookers...........
Do.................
Wood bucks........
Do.................
Do.................

$2.25
4.18
4.00
4.25
3.75
2.80
2.50
2.50
5.44
5.38
5.28
3.25
2.00

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

2.50 i
2.50 d.
2.25 d.
2.00 d.

Cents.

22.5
41.8
40
42.5
37.5
28
25
25
54.4
53.8
52.8
32.5

20

25.4
25
25
22.5

20

Yarding, hauling,
and loading.
Boom m en.............
Chasers.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
D o.....................
Choker men............
D o.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
Choker setters........
Do.....................
Do.....................
Chunk buckers____
Climbers..................
Coupling men.........
Deck men...............
Drum tenders........
Do.....................
Engineers................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Engineers, donkey..
Engineers, loader..
Engineers, roader..
D o.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Engineers, skidder.
Do.....................
Do.....................
Engineers, yarder..,
Do.....................
Kremen...................
Do.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
Do.....................
Do..................... .




27.5
35
32.5
30
27.5
25

22.6

22.5
32.5
31.1
30
29.5
26.7
25
27.5
25
22.9
30
40
25
27.5
27.3
25
32.5
30
28.5
28.4
27.5
25
27.5
35
40
35
32.5
30
35
30
25
40
32.5
30
26.1
25
23.6

22.6

22.5
21.9

21.2

Classification and
occupation of em­
ployees.

No. Full­
of time
em- hrs.
>loy- per
ees. wk.

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hoar.

Wage
rate.

Yarding, Muling,
and loading—Cld.
Firemen, donkey..
Firemen, roader.. .
Firemen, skidder..
Firemen, yarder...
Flagmen..................
D o’. ' ' . ' ' ; . * / / / . !
Groundmen.............
Handymen..........
Hook-on men.........
D o.....................
Do.....................
Hook tenders.........
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
D o.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
D o.....................
Laborers..................
D o.....................
Landing men.........
Levermen..............
D o.....................
Loaders...................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do................. .
Do.....................
Loaders, head........
Do.....................
Loaders, second___
D o.....................
Pick-ups..................
Powder men...........
Pump men.............
Do.....................
Do............ .
Riggers....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Do.....................
Riggmg men...........
Rigging stingers.*.".
Roader splitters.. .
Scraper men...........
Signalmen...............
D o.....................
Skidders..................
Skidders, head___
Snijgrs.....................
D o !!!!!!!!!!!!
D o.....................
Spool tenders..........
Do.....................
D o.....................
Teamsters...............
Whistle boys..........
Wood bucks...........
Do.....................
Do.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
Yarder splitters.. .

i More than one rate.

1
2
1
2
1
4
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
5
3
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
4
2
2
o
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
5
11
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
4
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
8
4
1
5
1

60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
C
O
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
63
60
60
60

$2.00
2.50
2.50
2.50
3.00
2.50
2.00
2.50
3.00
3.00
2.75
2.50
5.75
5.50
4.00
S. 75
3.50
3.00
2.75
0)
2.00
1.75
2.00
3.92
3.40
4.50
4.00
C)
3.09
2.75
2.50
2.25
5.00
3.50
2.80
2.50
2.25
3.00
2.75
2.25
1.80
4.00
<*)
2.75
2.50
3.50
2.50
3.50
2 .8
5.50
2.50
2. C
O
5.50
5.00
3.25
(*)
2.50
C
1)
P)
2.75
2.50
2.25
2.00
2.75
2.50
2.25
(l)
2.00
2.75

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

Cents.
20
25
25
25
30
25
20
25
30
30
27.5
25
57.5
55
40
37.5
35
30
27.5
19.4
20
17.5
20
39.2
34
45
40
31.1
30
27.5
25
22.5
50
35
28
25
22.5
30
27.5
22.5
18
40
37.6
27.5
25
35
25
oo
25.4
25
55
25
20
55
50
32.5
27.9
25
24.3
28.1
27.5
25
22.5
20
27.5
25
22.5
21
20
27.5

241

LOGGING WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR.
T

19.—NUMBER OF EM PLOYEES, FULL-TIME HOURS PE R W E E K , AND RATES
OF W AGES IN THE LOGGING IN D U ST R Y , B Y OCCUPATIONS, 191&-Continued.

able

W EST VIRGINIA.
No. Full­
of time
Classification and
occupation of em­ em­ hrs.
ploy­ per
ployees.
ees. wk.

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

Wage
rate.

General.
59
60

64
0
59

60

66
§0

80J
60

66
60
59

66

59
66
60
66
59
60
60
72
60
370
3 77
3 70
370
3 70
370
- 7
3 70
370

DoIIIIIIIIIIIII
Do......................
Carpenters’ helpers
Car repairers...........
Do......................
Cfaoreboys..............
Cookees....................
Do......................
Do......................
Do......................
Do......................
Do......................
Do......................
Do......................
Do......................
Do......................
Do......................
Do......................
Cooks........................
Do......................
Do......................
Do......................
Do......................
Do......................
Do......................
Do......................
Filers........................
Do......................
Do......................
Do......................
Do......................
Do......................
Do......................
Do......................
Do......................
Do......................
Do......................
Do......................
Do......................
Foremen..................
Do......................
Do......................
Do......................
Do......................
Do......................
Do......................
Do......................
Do......................
Do......................
D o,....................
Do......................
Harness makers___
Do......................
Improvementmen.




Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

Wage
rate.

General—Concld.

Bakers......................
Barn bosses.............
Do......................
Blacksmiths............
Do......................
Do......................
Do......................
Do......................
Do......................
Do......................
D o....... ..............
Do......................
Do......................
Do......................
Do......................
Do......................
Carjgnters...............

i And board.

No. Full­
Classification and
of time
occupation of em­ em­ hrs.
ployees.
ploy­ per
ees. wk.

1 $1.60

1.80
11.50
2.75
13.25
12.50
2.50
12.75
2.50
12.50
2.35
2.50
2.25

66
60
60
60

1
25

25
124.9
23.5
22.7
22.5
121.4
20.5
16.3
25

12.00
2.10

120

11.60
11.75
2.70
(4) d.
1 .0 0 d.
(4 d.
)
11.75 d.
d.
. 1$ d.
i 45.00 m.
(4 d.
)
i 45.00 m.

19.1
U 6 .3
117.5
27
16.6

1
0

119.3
1 15.9
115.7
115
114.8
114.8
U 3 .5

2
(4 d. 11 .1
)

12.88
12.50
12.50
2.40
2.25

(2
)
(3
)

2.38
12.30
2.25

m.
d.
d.
m.
m.
m.
d.
d.
d.
m.
m.
m.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
w
d
m.
m.

11.5
111.4
1

110

18.2
128
127
125
125
122.7
119.8
118
113.2
130.6
127.4
126.2
i 25.4
124.9
24
22.5
22.4

22.2

21.6

120.9
20.5

2.00
2
0
135.00
51.9
U
00.00
139.1
1 0 .0 m 138.3
10 0 .
190.00
90.00
76.50
175.00
75.00
180.00
175.00
12.50
2.35

13.00
12.00

12.25
s

35.1
132.5
125.4
25.4

2.25
1.60
2.75

135.00
11.25
370
11.60
3 70
125.00
370
185.00
377
i 90.00
3 77
12.75
3 70
12.50
'7
12.50
370 i 60.00
377
160.00
370
40.00
59
13.00
60J
12.75
59
604
60
60
60
60
66
66

1 1 4 .9

12.10

377

66

Cents.
1 16.3
18

m.
m.
m.
m.
m.
m
m.
d.
d.
d.
d.

d.

More than one rate.

1 34. 6
34.6
29.4
128.8
28.8
128

125.2

125.4
23.5
129.9
1 18.2
122.9*

Improvement men..
Do........................
Do........................
Do........................
Inspectors.................
Do........................
Janitors......................
Laborers....................
Landing builders. . .
Lobby hogs...............
Do........................
Do........................
Do........................
Do........................
Do........................
Do........................
Do........................
Do........................
Do........................
Do........................
Do........................
Do........................
Stablemen.................
Do........................
Timekeepers.............
Do........................
Do........................
Watchmen...............
Do........................
Do........................
Do........................

1
1

3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

5

601 1 $2.25
59
1.80
59
11.50
59
i l . 35
601
(4)
59
12.25
370
11.75
60
40.00
601
1 2 .0 0
370
135.00
370
i l . 15
370
1 1 .0 0
3 70
11.35
59
1 2 .0 0
66
185.00
60
12.60
59
1 2 .50
60
65.00
60
160.00
60
1 55.0 0
59
1 2 .0 0
60
2 .0 0
601
1 2 .0 0
60} 150.00
601 1 1.90

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2 377
1 370
1
66
1
60
59
1
66
1
66
1
3 377

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
m.
d.
m.
d.
d.
d.
d.
m.
d.
d.
m.
m.
m.
d.
d.
d.

Cents.
122.4
18.3
15.3
13.7
23.7
22.9
17.5
15.4
19.9
11.5
11.5

1
0

13.5
20.4
29.7
26
25.4
25
23.1

21.2

20.4

20

19.9
19.2
18.9
19.1
15
27.3
21.2
20.4
20.5
18.2
18.2
15.9

m.

2

66

d.
2 .1 0 d.
11.50 d.
3.00 d.
1 55.00 m.
1 2 .0 0 d.
2.25 d.
2 .0 0 d.
2 .0 0 d.
1.75 d.

1

1

59
59
59
60
59
60
60

175.00 m.
12.50 d.
12.25 d.
2.25 d.
2 .0 0 d.
2 .0 0 d.
1.90 d.

2

60

4
3

66
66
66

Cutting, cic.
Bark scalers.............
Choppers...................
Do........................
Do........................
Do........................
Do........................
Choppers and saw­
yers.........................
Cutters......................
Do........................
Do........................
Fitters........................
Do........................
Do........................
Do........................
Do.......................
D o.......................
Do........................
Do........................
Knot bumpers.........
Do.......................
D o.......................
D o .......................
D o .......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o .......................
D o.......................
D o .......................
D o.......................
D o .......................

*-Seven days.

5
I
1
1

14

20

16
15
19
1
1
1
1
1
10
1
1
1

18
1
1
1
10
2
1
1
1
1
1

59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
60
601
60
59
60
60
601
59
601
601
601
601
69}
60}

1 2 9 .3

125.4
122.9
22.5
20.4

1.85
2.15

d.
d.
2 .1 0 d.
1 1.50 d.
12.50 d.
12.40 d.
12.25 d.
12.15 d.
1 2 .0 0 d.
11.50 d.
i l . 35 d.
(4 d.
)
12.50 d.
12.50 d.
12.50 d.
(4) d.
12.40 d.
(4) d.
(4) d.
(4) d.
1 2.25 d.
0 ) d.
(4) d.
(4 d.
)
(4) d.
(4 d.
>
4) d.

4 More than one rate, and board.

2
0
19

18.5
19.5
19.1
13.6
25.4
24.4
22.9
21.9
20.4
15.3
13.7
10.1

25.4
25
21.9
24.8
24.4
24.3
24.2
23.1
22.9

22.2
21.3

21.2
21.1
2 0 .9

20.8

LUMBER MANUFACTURING.

242
T a b l e 1 9 .— NUM BER

OF EM PLOYEES, FULL-TIME HOURS P E R W E E K , AND RATES
OF WAGES IN THE LOGGING IN DU STRY, B Y OCCUPATIONS, 1915—Continued;
W EST VIRGINIA—Continued.

Classification and
occupation of em­
ployees.

rate.

CiUting, etc.—Cld.
Knot bumpers.
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o . . ...................
D o .. ..................
D o ....................
D o..................... .
D o..................... .
Peelers.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o .....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o........ ............
D o........ ............
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
DO.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
Peelers and team­
sters......................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
Sawyers...................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o .....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
Spudders.................
D o.....................
D o.....................

4

2
1

126
1

4
1

15
59
1

2
1

38
1
1
1

4
9
3
1

7
1
1
1
1

2
2
2
1
2
2
2

6*
0
66
60
60
60
60
60
60*
60
60
60
59
60
66
60*
60

i $2 .0 0

(2
)
i 2.00
2.00
(2)
i 1.75
i 1.60
1.75
i 3.00

(2
)
(2
)

i
i
i
i
i
i

6£
0
60*
6*
0
60*
59
60*
60*
66
60*
60*

(2)
2. 75
2. 75
(2)
(2)
2.60
2.50
2.50
2.75
2.50

(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)

(2)
i 2.25
i 2.25

(2
)

2.35
(2)

(2
)
6
6
2.25
i 2.00
59
6
2.10
2 6
2.00
6
3 6
6 60i i 1.75
2 60* i 1.60

12
1

1

4

2

114

i And board.




59
60*
60
60
60*
60*

1
1
1

4
1

7

2
1
6
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1

74

2

37
4

11

70
13
3

20

17

59
60*

i 1.50
i 1.50

60
60
60
60
60
60
60
59
60*
59
60*
60*
59
60*
60
60*
60*
60*
60*
60
59
60
60*
60

i 2.00
2.00
(3
)
(3
)
(3
)
(3
)
(8)
i 2.50
(2)
i 2.40
(2)
(2)
i 2.25

(2
)

2.25
(2)
(2)
(2)

(2
)
2.10
i 2.00
2.00
i 2.00

6
6
66
6
6

i
i
i
i

59
59
59

2

1.90
1.90
1.75
1.50
2.50
2. 40
2.25

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

No.
Classification and
of
occupation of em­ em­
ploy­
ployees.
ees.

Cents.

No. Fullof time
em- hrs.
pi°y- per
wk.

Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

Hauling, skidding,
and loading.

i 20.4
i 20.3
i 20
20

18.5
i 17.4
i 15.9
15.9
i 30
i 29.2
i 28.6
i 28.3
i 27.5
i 27.4
i 27
i 26.7
i 26
i 25.4
i 25
25
i 24.9
i 24.2
23.5
i 23.4
i 23
i 22.9
i 22.9
i 22.4
21.7
21.4
i 21
1 20.7
20.5
i 20.4
19.1
18.2
i 17.4
i 15.9
i 15.3
i 14.9
1 20
20

19.6
18.5
18.3
18.2
17.8
i 25.4
i 24.7
i 24.4
i 23.8
i 23.3
i 22.9
i 22.7
22.5
i 22.5
i 22.3
i 2 1 .6
i 21.3
21

i 20.4
20

Bell boys...................
D o.......................
Chokers.....................
D o.......................
Engineers..................
Engineers, loader. . .
Firemen.....................
D o.......................
Foremen....................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Foremen, assistant.
D o.......................
Foremen, skidder...
D o.......................
Grab drivers............
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Grab drivers and
swampers..............
Grabhook men........
Hostlers.....................
Laborers....................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Landing m en ..........
Levermen.................
D o.......................
Loader men..............
D o .......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Loaders.....................
D o.......................
Loaders' helpers___
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o .......................
D o.......................
D o .......................
D o.......................
Pulp pilers...............
Rigger men...............

i 19.9
19
17.3
15.9
D o .......................
i 13.6
D o.......................
i 25.4
Do.......................
i 24.4
D o .......................
i 22.9 l Skidder men............

More than one rate, and board.

2
2
2
11
1
1
2
1
2
2
1
1
2
1
2

59
66

59
59
59
60
59

1 $2 .0 0
2 .0 0
1 1.35

i 2.50
1 2 .0 0

59

3.00
3.60
13.75
i 2 .0 0

66

2 .0 0

60
60
59
59

1.50
5.00
14.05
90.00
3.50
2.75
3.00
2.50
2.50
3. 75
2.25

66

66

3

60

1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
8
1
2
10

66

59
66

60
66
66
66

59
60*
59
60
66
66

5 .0 0

4.25
i 2.25
(2)
i 2 .0 0
2 .0 0

2.15
2 .1 0

4
7

60
60*

1.90
i 1.75

46
16

60

2
1
1
8

59
60
60
60
60
59
60
60
59
59
60
59

1.75
2.25
i 1.80
2. 75
60.00
2. 25

3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
2
2

7
4
1
1

5
2
1
1
1
1
2

66

66

60
60
72
60
59
66

72
72
72
72
72
72
72
72
72
59

3

66

1
1
1
2
2
1

59
66

59
59
59
59

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

Wage
rate.

2 .0 0

1.90
(3)
1.75
1.60
i 1.50
(2)
14.05
4.00
4.50
4.00
4.00
3.20
1 2.70
4.00
4.05
(3)
(3)
2.57
(3)

(3)
(3)

(3)
(3)
12.35
3.75
13.00
3.25
i 2.50
i 2. 25
i 2 .0 0
i 2 .0 0

Cents.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
m.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

i 20.4
18.2
1 13.7
i 25.4
i 20.4
30
36.6
i 34.1
i 20.4
18.2
15
50
i 41.2
35.2
31.8
27.5
27.3
25.4
22.7
37.5
20.5
45.5
38.6
i 22.9
i 2 2 .2
i 20.4

d.
d.
d.
d.
m.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

17.5
20.5
i 18.3
27.5
23.1
22.5

3 More than one rate.

20

19.5
19.1
19
i 17.4

20

19.3
18.8
17.5
16.3
i 15.3
i 24.4
i 41.2
36.4
45
40
33.3
32
i 27.5
36.4
33.8
30.1
23.1
21.4
2 1 .2
2 1 .1
21

17.9
17.1
i 23.9
34.1
130.5
29.5
i 25.4
i 22.9
i 20.4
l 20.4

243

LOGGING WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR.

19.—NUMBER OF EM PLOYEES, FULL-TIME HOURS PER W E E K , AND RATES
OF W AGES IN THE LOGGING IN DU STRY, B Y OCCUPATIONS, 1915—Continued.

T a b le

W E ST VIR G IN IA—Continued.
No. Full­
Classification and
of time
occupation of em­ em­ hrs.
ploy­ per
ployees.
ees. wk.

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

Wage
rate.

Hauling, skidding,
and loading—Cld.
Cents.
Skidder m en...........
D o .......................
Skidway men..........
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Teamsters.................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o .......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o . . . .................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Tong hookers...........
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o ......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
D o.......................
D o .......................
Top loaders..............
D o.......................
Unloaders.................
Yardmen..................
D o................... :

3

1 $1.60
59
i 1.50
59
i 2. 75
60
i 2.50
f>0
1.90
G
O
3 G
1.75
6
1
i 2.50
59
1 G
58.50
O
3 59
i 2 .1 0
1 G
O
(2)
1 G i
O
(2)
1
1 2 .0 0
59
2 .0 0
6
G
O
1
601 i 2 .0 0
4 G
2 .1 0
6
1
G
O
(3)
1
G
O
( 3)
11
1 1.75
14 C i i 1. 75
O
9 66
1.90
1ft G
i 1.70
O
28 60
40.00
1
i 40.00
66
i 1.54
16 66
1
i 1.35
59
1
i 1. 50
66
1
60
(3)
7 G
2. 75
O
1
60
(3)
i 2.50
6 59
G 66
2. 75
1
2.50
60
7 66
2. G
5
4 72
2. 75
1
2. 25
60
i 2 . 00
2
59
2 .0 0
8
59
1
2 . 00
G
0
1
66
(3)
1
1.80
59
1
1. 75
60
1
2. 90
66
2
2 . 60
66
2. 48
2
72
1 72
90.00
1
2. 70
72
1
1
1
1

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
m.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
m.
m.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
m.
d.

1 16.3
1 15.3
1 27.5
1 25
19
15.9
1 25.4
22. 5
1 21.4
1 21 . 2

2.50 d.
2. 25 d.
2 .0 0 d.
2 .0 0 d.
1.75 d.
40.00 m.
2.50 d.
1.80 d.
3 85.00 m.
4 3.00 d.
90.00 m.
2. 75 d.
2. 75 d.
3 2. 75 d.
3.00 d.
70.00 m.
2 . 60 d.
2 . 50 d.
2 . 75 d.

22.7
22.5

1 2 1.1
1 20 .4
20

i 19. 9
19.1
18. 2
17. 9
1 17. 8
1 17. 4
17. 3
1 17
15.4
1 14
1 14
1 13.7
i 13. 6
11. 3
27.5
26. 6
3 25.4
25
25
24.1
22.9
22. 5
i 20.4
20.3
20

19.3
18. 3
17.5
26.4
23. 6
20 . 6
28. 8
22. 5

Railroad construction
and maintenance.
Bridgemen...............
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Engineers..................
Firemen....................
Foremen...................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Do.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................

3

66

1
6
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

60
60

4
2

66
66

60
66
66

60i
60i
66

59
60
C i
O
66

60
59
59
G
6

20

18.2
15.9
15.4
22.7
16. 4
3 32. 6
* 29.9
31.5
28
27. 5
3 27.4
27.3
26.9
26.4
25. 4
25

1 And board.
2 More than one rate, and board.




Classification and
occupation of em­
ployees.

No. Full­
of time
em- hrs.
>loy- per
ees. wk.

Wag€u
rate.

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

Railroad construction
and maintenance—
Concluded.
Foremen...................
Do.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o...................
D o.....................
D o .. .
D o .. .
D o..................
D o...................
Foremen, assistant.
D o.......................
D o.......................
Foremen, general...
Foremen, graders...
Foremen, laborers .
D o___
Foremen, section. . .
Do.....................
Do . .
Foremen, steel gang
Laborers___
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Do . .
D o.......................
D o.......................
Do.......................
Do
D o .......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Do ...................
D o .................
Do . . .
D o.......................
D o ..............
D o .....................
D o.......................
D o .......................
D o .....................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o.......................
Laborers, steel gang.
D o.......................
D o.......................
Section men.............
D o...............
Survey gang.............
Water boys..............
D o.......................
D o.......................

Cents.
1
2
1
1

15
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
1

I
1
2
2

3
2
1
1

5
7
1
2

47
2

48
27

59

66

$2. 35
2.60
2. 35
2.25
2.25
2. 25
2.15
55.00
2.25

60

2 .0 0

66

60
59
60
60|
601G
O
66

59
66
66

60
60
C
O
66

G
O
60
C
O
59
C i
O
66

C i
O
C i
O
59
66

60
CJ
O

12

66

17
32
4
47
4
49
4
63

59
60
60
59
60
66

60i
66

60
C
O
C
01
60
60
3 59
1
60i
1
60
1
60
14
60
1
60
60
1
1 i 60
7
60
6
60
1

15
1
86
2

1
1
1

66
66
66

2
2
1
1

59
60
60
59

3
9
3

66

3.00
2.25
2 .0 0

5.00
2.25
2.50
2 .0 0

2.75
2.25
2 .0 0

65.00
2. 25
2 .0 0
2 .1 0

1.90
1.85
1.80
2 . 00
1.75
1. 75
1. 85
1.65
1. 65
.161
1.60
.16
1.75
i 1.60
1. 65
1.50
.15
1.50
1. 45
1. 35
1.25
1.25
•l l i
1 .0 0

1.75
1. 50
1 .0 0
2 .0 0

1.65
2 .0 0

1. 40
1 .1 0

.75

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
m.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
m.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
h.
d.
h.
d.
d.
d.
d.
h.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
h.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

23.9
23.6

23.5
22.9
22.5
22.4
21.4
2 1 .2

20.5
20

27.3
22.9
18.2
45.5
22.5
25
20

25
22.5
20

25
22.9
19.9
19.1
18.9
18.4
18.3
18.2
17.5
17.4
16.8
16.8
16.5
16.5
16.3
16
15.9
i 15.9
15
15
15
14.9
14.5
13.5
12.7
12.4
11.5
10

17.5
15
10
20

16.5
20

12.7
10
6 .8

Railroad operation.
Brakemen...............
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.......................
D o.......................
D o .................
D o.......................
8 More

1

59
60
72

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
2 .0 0 d.
2 .0 0 d.
(3) d.

2.25
2. 25
(3)
(3)
2. 25

than one rate.
* And rent 19 cents per day.

22.9
22:5
20. S

20.8

20.5
20.3
20

19.8

244

LUMBER MANUFACTURING.
1 9 .—N U M B E R O F E M P L O Y E E S , F U L L -T IM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , A N D R A T E S
O F W A G E S IN T H E LO G G IN G IN D U S T R Y , B Y O C C U P A T IO N S , 1915—Continued.

T a b le

W EST VIRGI2TIA—Continued.
No.
Classification and
of
occupation of em­ em­
ployees.
ploy­
ees.

Full­
time
hrs.
per
w k.

W age
rate.

No. Full­
E q u iv -;
Classification and
of time
alent
rate
occupation of em­ em­ hrs.
ploy­ per
per
ployees.
ees. wk.
hour.

Railroad operation—

Railroad operation—

Concluded.

Continued.
B rak em en ...
D o ...........
D o ...........
D o ...........
D o ...........
D o ...........
D o ...........
D o ...........
D o ...........
D o ...........
D o ...........
D o ...........
D o ...........
D o ...........
D o ...........
D o ...........
D o ...........
D o .. . . . .
Conductors..
D o ...........
D o ...........
D o ...........
D o ...........
D o ...........
D o ...........
D o ...........
D o ...........
D o ...........
D o ...........
D o ...........
D o ...........
Dispatchers .
Engineers—
D o ...........
D o ...........
D o ...........
D o ...........
D o ...........
D o ...........
D o ...........
D o ...........
D o ...........
D o ...........
D o ...........
D o ...........
D o ...........
D o ...........
D o ...........
D o ...........
D o ...........
Firem en........
D o ...........
D o ...........
D o ...........
D o ...........
D o ...........
D o ...........
D o ...........
D o ...........
D o ...........
D o ...........
D o ...........
D o ...........
D o ...........
D o ...........
D o ...........
D o ...........
D o...........
D o ......... .
D o ...........

C)
1
C)
1
$2.21
2.03
0)
2.00
0)
0)
0)
(r
(r
o:
2.03
0)
C)
1
0)
l)
C)
1

i More than one rate.




Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

W ag*)
rate.

3. 50

2 . 75

2.70
3. 00
85. 00
3.15
2.75
2.25
65.00
2. 50
2. 70
2.48

0)

3. 50
3.00
2. 95
3. 25
3.51
75.00
2. 75
2. 70
3. 00
3. 25

C
1
)

(1)
2. 50
2. 75

0)
0)

2.93

2.50

2.70

0)
2. 25
0)
2. 25

2. 00
2.00

0)
0)
0)
2.21
0)
1.80
2.00
0)
0)
2.03
2.00
1.80

0)
C
1
)

Cents.

Cents.

19.3
18.5
18.4
18.4
18.3
18.2
18.2
18
17.7
17.6
17.4
17
16.9
16.9
16.2
15.9
15.8
15.5
35
27.5
27.5
27.3
27 .2
26.3
25
22.9
22.7
22.7
22.5

Hostlers......................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o ..........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
Train masters...........
D o .........................
Train masters, as­
sistant ......................
Unloaders...................

i
,

i
j

21

20.5
20.3
20

19.5
19.1
18.5
18.4
18.4
18.3
18.2
17.6

1 0 0 .0 0

72
72

117.00
2.75

m.
d.

37.5
22.9

2 ■

60

2.15

d.

21.5

1
2

60

) d.
2. 25 d.

29.7
22.5

2
1

60

2.25 d.
C d.
1)

22.5
20.7

1

60
60

C d.
1)
C d.
1)
d.
2.15 d.
2. 50 d.
0 ) d.
C d.
1)
2. 25 d.
C
1) d.
3. 00 d.
0 ) d.
C d.
1)
0 ) d.
0 ) d.
0 ) <L
0 ) d.
0 ) d.
0 ) d.
2.25 d.
0 ) d.
2 .0 0
d.
65. 00 m .
2.25 d.
3.00 d.
0 ) d.
0 ) d.
0 ) d.
2.25 d.

24.1
23
22.5
21.5
25
24.8
24.7
22.5

3
2
1
1
1

3
1
1
1
2
1
1
1

59
2 70
72
72
72
72
72
72
72
72
72
72

2
2

Braliemen..................
Brakemen and load­
ers..............................
D o .........................
Brakemen and tong 1
hookers....................
D o .........................
Brakemen and top
loaders.....................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o..........................
Conductors................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o ......................... 1
Engineers................... !
D o ..........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
Firemen.......................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................
Foremen, train.........
D o . . . . - .................
Loaders.......................
D o .........................
D o .........................
D o .........................

60
60

60
1

60

7

60

1
1
1

60
60

i

5
1

60
60
60

60
60

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

3
;
;

$2.50
2.25
2 .0 0
2 .0 0

C
1)
0 )
C
1)
2.03
2 .0 0

)
C
1)
)
)
180.00
0

0
0

25.4
20.5
20.3
20
20

18.3
17.7
16.9
16.7
15.9
15.4
15.1
14.1
57.7
35

60
60

60
60
60

60
60

60
60
60
2 84
60
60
60
60
60

0

2 . 25

20

30
29.7
29.5
29.3
28.8
28
25. 8
23.8
22.7
22.5
20.9
20

25
18.8
30
29.7
29.4
27.9
22.5

Road construction
and maintenance.

; Buck swampers____
D o .........................

!
17
I
16.9
16.7 1

1

2

D o.......................

4
13

D o .......................

1
1
1
1

D o .........................
16.4
15.2
Foremen, swampers
13.9 li Road builders...........
2

66

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
m.
m.

66

Railroad operation
and loading.

2 0 .6
2 0 .2

31.8
30
30
29.5
29.3
28.9
27.5
27.5
27.3
27.1
27
26
25.4
25
24. 6
24.4
23.8
22.7
22.5
37.4
22.9

59

1
1

Seven days.

60
60
60

3 2.75
3 2 . 60
3 2.50

60
60

2.15
C)

60

60]
Ci
0
3 An d

C
1)

3 2. 50
3 2.00
board.

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

3 27.5
5 26
3 25
21.5

20.7
2 0 .6

3 24.9
3 19.9

245

LOGGING WAGES AND HOUES OF LABOR.
T a b l e 1 9 .— N U M B E R

OF E M P L O Y E E S , F U L L -T IM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , A N D R A T E S
OF W A G E S IN T H E LO G G IN G IN D U S T R Y , B Y O C C U PA T IO N S , 1915—Concluded.

W EST VIRGINIA—Concluded.
N o.
Classification and
of
occupation of em­ em ­
ployees.
ploy­
ees.

Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

Equiv­
alent
rate
per
hour.

rate.

Road
construction
and maintenance—

Concluded.
Roadmen...............
D o ...................
D o ...................
D o ...................
D o ...................
Road monkeys___
D o...................
D o...................
D o ...................
D o ...................
D o...................
D o ...................
D o...................
Road polers...........
Swampers..............
D o...................
D o...................
D o...................
D o...................
D o...................
D o...................
D o...................
D o...................
D o...................
D o...................
D o ...................
D o...................
D o...................
D o ...................
D o...................
D o...................
D o...................
D o...................
D o...................
D o...................
Do.,.................
D o...................
D o...................
D o...................
D o...................
D o...................
D o...................
D o...................
D o...................
D o...................
D o...................
D o...................
D o...................

19.1

2.00

18.2

17.7

1.95
1.85
i 1.50
59
60
6 Gi
59

6
6

59
60J
59
60:

6
0

60i
59
60
59
60
59
60
60
60
60i
59

16.8
U 3 .6
20.4
19
i 16.8
i 16.3
15.9
1 15.3
i 14.9
i 13.7
i 16.8
125
i 23.7
122.9
22.5
121.4
i 20.9
120.4
i 20
20
19.5
i 19.4
i 19.3
i 19.1
19.1

2.00
1.90
i 1.75
1 1.60
1.75
1 1.50
1 1.50
i 1.35
i 1.75
12.50

(2
)

i 2.25
2.25

i 2.10
(2
)
12.00
12.00
2.00
1. 95
(2
)
i 1. 90
6 12.10
6
6 2.10
6

60
60
59

6
6
60

60
6o:
59

66
60:
59
60.159
66

66
59
59

19

1.90
i 1.85

(2
)

1.85
i 1 . 80

2. 00
1.

80

(2
)

i 1. 75
i 1. 75
i 1 . 60
1. 75
i 1.60
i 1. 50
i 1. 50
i 1.35
i 1.50
i 1. 40
i 1. 25
(2) d.

1 And board.
2 More than one rate, and board.




Cents.

$2.10

i 18.8
1 18.5
18.5
i 18.3
18.2
18
i 17. 7
i 17.5
i 17.4
i 16. 3
15.9
i 15.9
i 15. 3
i 14.9
i 13. 7
i 13. 6
i 12.7
i 12. 7

3 More

N o.
Classification and
of
occupation of em­ em ­
ployees.
ploy­
ees.

Full­
time
hrs.
per
wk.

EquiV"
alent
rate
per
hour.

W age
rate.

Tramroad construc­
tion and mainte­
nance.

Foremen,
bridge
crew......................
Foremen,
grade
crew.......'..............
Foremen, steel crew.
Laborers..................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
Laborers,
bridge
crew......................
D o.....................
Laborers, steel crew.
D o .....................
Surveyors’ helpers..
d o ........... : ........
D o .....................

Cents.
1

60

$85.00

m.

32.7

2
1
1
1
1

60
60
60
60
60
60
60

2.75
3.00

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

27.5
30

60
60
60
60
60
60
60

2.25

d.
d.
1.85 d.
1.75 d.
2.70 d.
67.50 m .
2.25 d.

22.5

2 .0 0

20

1
1
1
1

60^
60i

4

60i
60^
60j

(2) d.
<2) d.
d.
d.
i 1.75 d.
i 1.50 d.
(2) d.

i 22.5
120.9
19.1
18.2
i 17.4
i 14.9
i 11.9

60 1 1 0 0 .0 0 m .
60 i 75.00 m .
60
12.75 d.
i 2. 50 d.
60
60
2.50 d.
60
(3) d.
i 2 .0 0 d.
59
59
i 1.80 d.
59
i 1. 70 d.
1.65 d.
60
59
i 1.60 d.
59
i 1.50 d.
60
i 1.50 d.
60
1.50 d.
60
1.25 d.
1 .0 0
60
d.
2 0 .0 0 m .
60
60
(4) d.

1 3 8 .5
i 28.8
i 27.5
i 25
25
24.4
i 20.4
i 18.3
i 17.3
16.5
i 16.3
i 15.3
i 15
15
12.5

29
1

4
1

5
15
1
1
1

2 .0 0

1.80
1.75
1.70
1.65

20

18
17.5
17
16.5

18.5
17.5
27
26
22.5

Unloading.

Landing men..........
D o .....................
D o .....................
D o .....................
D o .....................
D o.....................
D o .....................

1
1

66
66

2 .1 0
2 .0 0

Unclassified.

Foremen..................
D o .....................
D o .....................
Laborers..................
D o .....................
D o .....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o.....................
D o .....................
D o .....................
D o .....................
D o .....................
D o .....................
D o .....................
D o .....................
Not reported...........

than one rate.
* $1.35 to $3.50 and board.

1
1
1
1

4
1
1

5
3
1
2
2
1

3
1
2
2
111

5 $0,135

to $0.35 and board.

10

7.7
(3)

MILLWORK.
SASH, DOORS, BLINDS, FRAMES, FIXTURES, AND TRIM.

SUMMARY.
The full-time weekly earnings of employees engaged in millwork
in 1915 were 2 per cent lower than in 1913, the same as in 1912, 2
per cent higher than in 1911, and 4 per cent higher than in 1910.
Full-time hours per week were the same in 1915 as in 1913, and 1
per cent lower than in 1910, 1911, and 1912.
The average rate of wages per hour in 1915 was 1 per cent lower
than in 1913* 1 per cent higher than in 1912, 4 per cent higher than
in 1911, and 5 per cent higher than in 1910.
The number of establishments from which data were secured has
differed during the period covered by the report as follows:
1907 to 1910..................................................... 62 identical establishments.
1910 and 1911................................................. 232 identical establishments.
1911 and 1912................................................. 269 identical establishments.
1912 and 1913..................................................344 identical establishments.
1913 and 1915..................................................340 identical establishments.

In addition to the 340 establishments furnishing information for
1913 and 1915, data were secured from 7 establishments for 1915
only, making a total of 347 establishments for which data for 1915
are presented. Figures based upon data for all establishments
covered for 1915 are included in certain tables, as indicated by
prefatory notes.
The salient facts concerning the several occupations included in
this report are summarized in Table 1 which follows. In this table
direct comparisons can be made between the data for different years
only when the data are from identical establishments. The compar­
able data for different years are grouped together.
246




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR---- SUM M ARY.

247

1.—AVE R A G E AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIM E HOURS PER W E E K AN D RATES OF
W AG ES PER H O UR , AND A V E R A G E FULL-TIM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S,IN THE PRIN­
CIPAL OCCUPATIONS, 1907 TO 1915.

T a b le

[The figures opposite each group of years are for identical establishments. When a second line is shown
for 1915 it contains all data secured for 1915 whether or not comparable data for 1913 were available.]

Occupation and num­
ber of establishments.

Num­
ber of
Year. em­
ploy­
ees.

Per cent cf employees
whose full-time hours
Aver­
Aver­
per week were—
age
age
rate
full­
Over
Over
time
cf
54
wages
48
hours 48
60
per and and 54. and and per
un­
week. un­ un­
hour.
der. der
der over.
54.
60.

Laborers:
C establishments.. 1907
O
1908
1909
1910

1,578
1,300
1,451
1,522

58.5
58.2
58.0
58.3

4
5

223 establishments.. 1910
1911

4,885
4,762

57.6
57.6

4
5

6

4

4
3
3
5

7
9
10

9

6

13

5

12

Per cent of employ­
ees whose rates of
wages per hour Aver­
age
were—
full­
time
14
16
Un­ and and 18 week­
ly
der un­ un­ cts.
14 der der and earn­
cts. 16
18 over. ings.
cts. cts.

14
16
16
16

71 $0.155
66 ; . 155
65 . 159
66
.161

29
34
31
29

26
24

21
21

55!
56;

16
16

20
20,

.171
.m

31
26
29
32

20

17

i

13 $9.07
16 9.02
19 9.22
22
9.39

33
33

31
31

34
36

32 9.86
37 10.15

9.73
9.79

253 establishments.. 1911
1912

4,456
4,121

57.6
57.4

5
4

4
7

14
17

21

57
55

.172
.178

14

20

17

10

17

319 establishments.. 1912
1913

4,641
5,144

57.0
56. 7

6
6

8
11

18
17

21
20

47! .179
46 .186

S

17 1

6

11

37
36

38 10.15
48 10.47

317 establishments.. 1913
1915

5,267
5,018

56. 8
56. 6

6
6

10
10

16
18

21

25

46 1 .183
42,! . 184

5
9

11
14

36
27

48 10.34
51 10.37

329 establishments... 1915

5,224

56.7

5

10

17

25

43

.184

9

14

26

51 10.40

20

Un­ and
der un­
der
20
cts. 30
cts.
Bench hands:
62 establishments. .

226 establishments - .
267 establishments..
343 establishments..
339 establishments..

1907
1908
1909
1910
1910
1911
1911
1912
1912
1913
1913
1915
1915

346 6 stabli shments..
Machine hands:
62 establishments.. . 1907
1908
1909
1910
232 establishments.. 1910
1911
268 establishments.. 1911
1912
342 establishments.. 1912
1913
339 establishments.. 1913
1915
347 establishments.. 1915

1,076
945
1,041
1,083
3,695
3,553
4,131
4,148
4,947
5,033
5,119
4,874
4,931

55.6
55.6
55.7
55.5
55.1
55.2
55.1
54.8
54.6
54.5
54.4
54.2
54.3

13
14
13

7

12

11

12

10

14
14
15
17
17
18
17
17

9

1,508
1,372
1,488
1,580
5,438
5,363
5,615
5,054
5,970
6,074
6,154
5,835
5,973

56.9
57.1
57.2
57.3
57.0
56.8
56.7
56.2
55.8
55.5
55. 6
55. 4
55. 5

12
11
10
10
6
10

6

7

11

16
15
17
17
18
18
3
2
2

3
7
6

10
12

6
10

14
14
14
13

10
12

12

12

13
13

26
28
29
26
29
28
29
24
24

13
10
10
11
21
21

18
17

22

20
21

21
20

22
22

19

23

20
20

11
10
10
10

18
19
18
16
17
16
17
18
16
17
17

19
19
19
19
21

23
24
26
26

41
42
42
41
28
29j
28,
28
24
23
23
23
23

.298
.294
.294
.305
.307
.309
.310
.311
.311
.315
.318
.318
.317

55
57
58
60
50
49
48
43
37
33
33
32
32

.253
.249
.251
.257
.255
.261
.261
.270
.273
.286
.294
.284
.283

9
9
9
8
6

5
6

7;
6i

5:
51
5!
5'
i
271
30:
28!
25!
28
25
25
21

19
15
15
15
15

49
49
51
44
44
42
40
38
37
37
37
37

38
50
48
50
49
45
45
43
43
42
42
43
43
43

30
and 40
un­ cts.
der and
40 over.
cts.
27
28
28
34
39
41
43
44
45
37
37
36
36

14
14
14
14

15
14
15
18

14.40
14.22
7 14.36
8 14.73
6 14.28
7 14.55
7 14.63
8 14.88
8 14.97
12 15.57
12 16.09
13 15.47
12 15.46

12
11
11
12
12
21
22
21
21

22

24
25
28
32
31
30
30
30

16.57
16.35
16.38
16.93
16. 51
16. 74
16.76
16.74
16.68
16.90
17.00
16.92
16.91

8
8

14
20
Un­ and and 30
der un­ un­ cts.
14 der der and
cts. 20
30 over.
cts. cts.
Other employees:
345 establishments.. 1915




5,821

57.6

10

9

19

23

40

.247

17

19

35 " 5

14.11

248

M ILL W QBEL.

In 1915 the average full-time weekly earnings of employees in the
three selected occupations shown varied from $10,40 for laborers to
$16.91 for bench hands. Machine hands received an average of
$15.46 per full week. The full-time hours in the different establish­
ments ranged from 44 to 60. An exception to this is the regular
time of watchmen, firemen, and some others, who are included in
“ other em ployees/7 and whose hours are often as high as 84, or in
some instances 91, per week. The average full-time hours per week
of all employees for 1915 was 55.4.
As wages and hours differ in different establishments, the inclusion
or exclusion of a given establishment in a group may raise or lower
the average for the group, so that exact comparisons <?an not be
made between the actual wages shown for different years, unless the
data for the several years are from identical establishments. This
is brought out on page 11. To aid in making comparisons, where
the establishments are changing more or less from year to year,
relative, or index, numbers have been computed from the averages
in Table 1 for full-time hours per week, rates of wages per hour, and
full-time weekly earnings for each occupation and for the industry
for the years 1910 to 1915, inclusive. These relative numbers,
which are shown in Table 2, following, are simply percentages in
which the figures for 1915 are taken as the base, or 100 per cent.
Thus the facts for each preceding year are brought into direct com­
parison with the facts for the latest year available, namely, 1915.
The relative for each year preceding 1915 is the per cent that the
average in that year is of the average for 1915. For example, the
table shows that the relative full-time weekly earnings of machine
hands in ID10 were 96 per cent of the weekly earnings in 1915.
In 1911 they had increased to 98 per cent; in 1.912, to 100 per cent,
and in 1D13, to 104 per-cent of the earnings in 1915.
The relative number for full-time hours per week of machine
hands decreased from 102 in 1910 to 100 in 1915. That is, the aver­
age full-time hours of work per week in 1910 were 102 per cent of the
average full-time hours in 1915. The heavy-faced figures of the
table are relative numbers, and may all be read in like manner.
The method of computing these relative numbers from the averages of
the hours and wages shown in Table 1 is explained on pages 13 and 14.
In addition to the relative numbers in this table, percentages have
been computed showing the per cent o f increase or decrease in 1915
as compared with each preceding year back to 1910, while in another
column is given the per cent of increase or decrease in each year,
compared with the year immediately preceding.
Referring, for example, to the weekly earnings of laborers, it is
seen that in 1915 they were the same as in 1913, 3 per cent higher
than in 1912, etc., and that they were 1 per cent higher in 1911 than
in 1910, 3 per cent higher in 1912 than in 1911, and so on.




249

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— SU M M ARY.

2 _ R E L A T I V E F U L L -T I M E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R ,
_
A N D F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S , 1910 T O 1915, T O G E T H E R W I T H P E R C E N T
O F IN C R E A S E O R D E C R E A S E IN S P E C IF IE D Y E A R S , IN T H E P R I N C I P A L O C C U P A ­
T IO N S A N D T H E I N D U S T R Y .

T a b le

Occupation and year.

Bench hands:
1910..........................................
1911..........................................
1912..........................................
1913.........................................
1915.........................................
Laborers:
1910....... ..................................
1911.........................................
1912.........................................
1913.........................................
1915.........................................
Machine hands:
1910.........................................
1911.........................................
1912.........................................
1913.........................................
1915.........................................
The industry:
1910.........................................
1 9 1 1 ......................................
1912.........................................
1913.........................................
1915.......................................

Rela­
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week
(1915=
100 ) .

im
m

Rela­
tive
rate of
Each
wages1915 as speci­
com­
per
fied
pared year as hour
(1915=
com­
with
each
pared
1 0 0 ).
speci­
with
fied
year
year.
pre­
ceding.

—1
-1
0
0

)
)

100
101
101
101
100
100

—1
-1
-1
0

)
- 1

100
100

( 1)
C)

92
92
96
99

-1

0

-1
-1

)

94
98
99
104

)

0
0

)
)

95
98
99

0

-1

(0
0
1 No

)

101
100

C
1)
+1
+ 1

)
•
+9
-f 9
+4
+ 1

0

)

98
99
99
lfiO

im
93
94
97

-fG
4-4
+ 1
-4
+5
+ 4
+ 1

—
1

0

)
+4
+3
+ 1

100

+ 2
+3
+ 5

100

104

—4

100

0

)
—1
-1
-1

+2
+ 2
+1

1 00

0

—2
-2
-1

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in -

Rela­
tive
full­
Each
time
1915 as speci­ weekly 1915 as
com­
com­
fied
earn­
pared year as
pared
ings
com­
with
with
(1915= :
each
pared
each
1 0 0 ),
speci­
with
speci­
fied
fied
year
year.
pre­
year.
ceding.

98
93
99

)
)

0
0

)

100
101
101
101
100
100

0

C
1)

102
102
101

100

Per eent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in -

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in—

101
101

W eekly earnings.

W ages per hour.

Hours per week.

100

0

—
1

+1
0

)

+ 8

+6

+1

+3
G)

+3

100

0

96
98

+3
)

+ 4
+ 2

0

96
98
102
1 00

+1

C
1)

)

100

+ 1
+3
+ 4

+ 2
+ 1
+ 1

Each
speci­
fied
year as
com­
pared
with
year
pre­
ceding.

)
—4

+2
+2

+4
—4

+ 4
+ 2
0

)

-2

+2
+2
+2
—1

change.

The general tendency of the 6-year period is toward a reduction
of hours and an increase in wages, but as Table 2 shows, there was
no change in the hours between 1913 and 191o, and there was a
decrease in the average wages per hour and earnings per full week
between these two years.
FLUCTUATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT DURING YEAR.
Data were obtained from 322 establishments concerning the
number of days the plant was in operation, the number of em­
ployees on the pay roll, and the amount of the pay roll for each
pay-roll period for a year; also a statement of the number of days
the plant was closed during the year by causes. Table 3 shows
these facts and also shows the percentages that the number of em­
ployees, amount of pay rolls, and earnings per employee, respec­
tively, for each two weeks are of the averages for the year. These
data are given on a two-week basis, because in a large number of
establishments the pay-roll periods c<wer two weeks and it was not




250

M ILLW ORK.

practicable to separate the figures so as to show them for one week;
but for establishments with a weekly pay roll the wage payments for
two consecutive weeks were combined so as to place all establish­
ments upon the same basis. The column “ Average days in operation ”
has reference to the establishment as a whole and not to the number
of employees shown in the next column. These average days are
based on the running days of the several establishments regardless
of the number of employees in each.
The figures reflect considerable uniformity in the volume of employ­
ment during the first part of the year ending with May, 1915. But,
beginning with December, 1914, there was a considerable reduction
in the number of employees and in the total pay rolls, from which the
industry did not recover during the remainder of the year shown.
The fluctuations in the amount of earnings per employee during the
year were not so great as in the number of employees and in the
total pay rolls. In only four pay-roll periods during the year did the
average earnings in two weeks fall below $24, while $24.82 was the
average for the year.
3 .—A V ER AG E D A Y S EST ABL ISH M EN T S W E R E IN O PER ATIO N , EM PLO YEES
T OTAL P A Y ROLLS, AND A V E R A G E EAR N IN GS PER E M P L O Y E E , B Y T W O -W E E K
PERIODS, FOR TH E Y E A R END IN G A P P R O X IM A T E L Y M A Y 29, 1915.

T a b le

Employees.
Two-week period end­
ing approximately—

1914.
June 13..............................
June 27..............................
July 1 1 ..............................
July 25..............................
August 8 ...........................
August 22.........................
September 5....................
September 19..................
October 3..........................
October 17........................
October 31........................
November 14..................
November 28...................
December 12....................
December 26....................
1915.
January 9 .........................
January 23.......................
February 6 ......................
February 20.....................
March 6 ............................
March 20...........................
April 3 ..............................
April 17............................
May 1 ................................
May 15..............................
May 29..............................
Average for year..

Average
days
in
opera­
tion.

11.5
11.9
10.9
11.9
11.9
11.9
1 1 .8
1 1 .0

11.9
1 1 .8

11.9
11.7
1 1 .0
1 1 .6

10.5

Number.

24,243
24,4S3
24,553
25,295
25,342
25,271
25,354
24,830
2i, 733
24,467
24,141
23,772
23,413
22,893
21,927

Per cent
of
average
for
year.

107
108
109
112
112
112
112
110

109
108
107
105
104
101

97

Amount.

$615,428.79
626,984.83
597,559.6 6
647,573.94
646,985.25
650,089.95
643,068.56
598,815.18
641,722.50
629,288.27
614,947.22
597,907.24
558,805.80
566,034.69
498,924.54

78
84
84

11.7
11.4
11.3
11.3
11.3

17,731
18,912
19,043
19,503
21,710
21,061
22,133
20,706
20,550
20,654
21,130

96
93
98
92
91
91
93

377,600.48
460,731.60
466,566.21
472,403.79
512,397.99
520,724.14
542,399.57
498,220.19
520,654.52
534,998.38
547,573.31

11.4

22,610

100

561,092.57

9.3
11.4
11.4
11.3
1 1 .2
1 1 .6

Average earnings per
employee.

Total pay rolls.

86

Per cent
of
average
for
year.

Amount.

Per cent
of
average
for
year.

89

$25.39
25.60
24.34
25.60
25.53
25.72
25.36
24.12
25.95
25.72
25.47
25.15
23.87
24.73
22.75

67
82
83
84
91
93
97
89
93
95
98

21.30
24.36
24.50
24.22
23.60
24.72
24.51
24.06
25.34
25.90
25.91

100

100

24.82

100

110
112

106
115
115
116
115
107
114
112
110

107
100
101

102

103
98
103
103
104
102

97
105
104
103
101

96
100

92
86

98
99
98
95
99
97
102

104
104

The accompanying graphic chart is based on the percentages given
in Table 3, and presents at a glance the trend of the items shown.




Ch a r t

B.— F L U C T U A T I O N S IN N U M B E R O P E M P L O Y E E S , T O T A L P A Y ROLLS, A N D B I W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S P E R E M P L O Y E E .
FLUCTUATIONS
I
N
EMPLOYMENT
DURING
YEAR.

251




252

M ILLW G BK.

The change in the volume of employment during the year ending
with May, 1915, so far as this may be brought out by the pay rolls,
is still further developed in Table 4.
T a b l e 4 .— N U M B E R

O F E S T A B L IS H M E N T S H A V IN G L A R G E S T
R O L L S IN M O N T H S S P E C IF IE D .

Num ber of establishments
having—

Month.

Largest
pay roll in
specified
months.

1914.
June..........................................
July...........................................
A u gu st.....................................
Septem ber............................
O ctober...................................
N ovem ber...............................
D ecem ber...............................

53
37
44
42
49
19
17

Smallest
actual
pay roll in
specified
m onths .1

Smallest
full-time
pay roll in
specified
months.

9

19
11

9
9

SM ALLEST

PAY

Number of establishments entirely closed
down in the m onth for— "

8
2

11
1 01

AND

Two
weeks.

One
week.

Three
weeks.

2
1

Four
weeks.

1
1

4
8

9
7
18

40

5

11
6
2
1
1

6
2
1
1

1915.
January...................................
February.................................
M arch. - ...................................
A p ril............ ............................
M ay .............. ............................

10

62
58
23

7
34

22
8

75
77
38
33
23

T o ta l.............................

322

322

322

1

5
5

2
1
1

3

2
1
11
10

N ot including pay-roll periods during which shop was idle all the time.

The table shows for 322 establishments the months during which
the largest pay-roll, the smallest full-time pay-roll, and the smallest
actual pay-roll periods occur, and the number of establishments
closed down entirely for one or more weeks each month.
As will be seen the figures in this table bear out the facts shown in
Table 3, in that during the first part of the year the largest and
smallest pay rolls are so distributed through the various months
as to indicate a general uniformity of •
employment. During the
last part of the year, however, the decided falling off in the number
of largest pay rolls, and the corresponding increase in the number of
smallest pay rolls seem to show a falling off in industrial activity
and consequently in volume of employment. The figures indicate
that in May, 1915, conditions had returned more nearly to those
of the latter half of 1914.
Attention is called to the fact that the same month may show a
considerable number of both large and small pay rolls, because, as a
rule, each pay-roll period covers only one week or at most two weeks,
so that it is possible for an establishment to have a very large and a
very small pay roll in the same month.
Table 5 shows the number of days that each of the 322 establish­
ments reporting was in operation during the year and the number
of days idle, by specified causes. It will be seen that in addition




253

FLUCTUATIONS IN EM PLOYM ENT DURING YEAR.

to holidays and vacations, which are the result of custom or of an
accepted policy of the establishments, there was an average idle­
ness per establishment of 6 days on account of slack work, and of
1.9 days on account of strikes and lockouts. The latter, however,
were confined to a few establishments in Illinois and Ohio. The total
average number of days idle during the year was 16.
T a b l e 5 . — N U M B E R O F D A Y S E S T A B L I S H M E N T S W E R E IN O P E R A T I O N A N D N U M B E R

O F D A Y S I D L E , B Y S P E C IF IE D C A U SE S , D U R IN G Y E A R .

State and establishment
number.

Number of week days idle during year of 52 weeks
on account of—
Days in
operation
during
year of Holidays Strikes
In­
Other
Slack
52 weeks. and vaand
ventory.
work.
lockouts.

California:

1.....

2 .......
3
4
5

6
7 .........
9.

1.
0
1.
1
12.
13.
14.
15. ..
Georgia:

304
304
262
305
301
295
301
302
301
218
2 317
284
300
299
300

283
301
224
261
294
300
303
266
303
252
300
301
283
297

17*.!!
1 8 ...
1 9 ...

2 0 ...
2 1 ...
22. . .
23. ..
24. ..
25. ..
2 6 . ..

21 ...

28. . .
29. . .
Illinois:
3 0 ...
3 1 ...
32. . .

303
240
249
260
258
259
259
290
306
258
278
259
301
254
275
303
279
293
256
257
259
307
287
304
306
303

34.
35.

3
6.

37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.
55.
1

Repairs.

2 Including 10 Sundays on which mill was operated.




Total
week
days idle
during
year.

8

8
50
7

11
17

10 I

5i

11
10

11

4 i
81 |

94
5
28
13
13

12

29

24

11
84 1
41 j
14 I

i6
i8

i4
i 10
i5

88
51
.18
12
9
46
9
60
12

35
23

11

‘Vis'

29
15
9
72
63
52
54
53
53

22
6

12

i4

54
34
53
11
53
37
9
33
19
56
55
53
5
25

8
6
9
Not specified.
* Inventory and repairs.

3

MILLWORK.

254

T a b l e 5 .—NUM BER OF D AY S ESTABLISH M ENTS W E R E IN O PER A TIO N AN D NUM BER

OF D AYS ID LE, B Y SPECIFIED CAUSES, DURING Y E A R —Continued.

State and establishment
number.

Illinois—Concluded.
56...............................................
57...............................................
58...............................................
59...............................................
Iowa:
60...............................................
61...............................................
62...............................................
63...............................................
64...............................................

Number of week days idle during year of 52 weeks
on account of—
Days in
operation
during
year of Holidays Strikes
In­
Other
Slack
52 weeks. and va­
and
ventory. causes.
work.
cations. lockouts.

306
297
297
300

6
8
6
6

305
295
307
296
297
289
298
297
287
301
302
303

7
5
5
6
6
7
9
7
6
8
5
8

66...............................................
67...............................................
68...............................................
69.............................................
70.............................................
71..............................................
Massachusetts:
72...............................................
306
73...............................................
306
74...............................................
301
75...............................................
303
76.............................................
307
77...............................................
301
7 8 ..
..
. . . .
306
79...........................................
299
80...........................................
297
81...............................................
306
82.............................................
305
304
83...............................................
84...........................................
302
.. . .
85...................
305
8 6 ..
304
87...........................................
301
88..................................... .
303
301
8 9 ...
90...........................................
301
.........................................
91
303
Michigan:
92...............................................
300
93...........................................
292
9 4 ...........................................
306
95...............................................
305
96...............................................
300
97...............................................
289
98...............................................
297
99...............................................
294
100
307
304
101 .
102.........................................
306
1 0 3 ...........................................
305
104 .
306
105.............................................
297
106 . .
307
305
107 ...........
299
108.........................................
301
109.............................................
110
. . . .
302
302
111.
..
. .
112.............................................
306
306
113..
114.............................................
304
299
115..
307
116
117
...................
307
308
118
308
118
285
120.............................................
291
121
. . .
. .
301
122.............................................
306
123.............................................
i Repairs.
2 Inventory and repairs.




6
6
9
6
5
9
6
12
6
6
7
8
9
7
8
8
6
8
9
9

2
2

Total
week
days idle
during
year.

i7
i7
i4

212

2 10
9
16
2

33
i8
i 11

8
3
5 r
. .J

1

........

!
*' ' _____ 1" \
3

.

i2

!
j.

i2

!
8 1
1
I
1

i1
i1

.. .

......

i1
l
i
________ i _______
i . .......... I
i

__

______

10
2
17
3
6
7
6
18
4
9
6
12
6
5
8
4
2
7
6
6
5
6
9
4
8
10
, ; . . i .................
10
6
6 ............. ; t
8
7
5

6

i3
i3
i3
i2

*1

9
»1
13

6

R

4 _________
4
10
3
6
6

6
15
15
12
7
17
5
16
15
23
14
15
25
11
10
9
6
6
11
9
5
11
6
13
15
6
7
8
10
7
8
11
1
19
16
1
12
20
6
7
12
23
15
18
5
8
6
7
6
15
5
7
13
11
10
10
6
6
8
13
5
5
4

4

14
18

8 Death of member of firm.

27
21
11
6

3
5
4 Funeral.

255

FLUCTUATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT DURING YEAB.

T a b l e 5 . —NUMBER OF DAYS ESTABLISHMENTS W ER E IN OPERATION AND NUM BER

OF DAYS IDLE, B Y SPECIFIED CAUSES, DURING Y E A R —Continued.

State and establishment
number.

Number of week days idle during year of 52 weeks
on account of—
Days in
operation
during
year of Holidays Strikes
In­
Slack
Other
52 weeks. and va­
and
ventory. causes.
work.
cations. lockouts.

Minnesota:
12 4
12 5
12 6
12 7
12 8
12 9
13 0
13 1
13 2
New York:
133.4.. .
13 4
13 5
13 6
13 7
13 8
13 9
14 0
14 1
14 2
14 3
14 4
14 5
14 6
14 7
14 8
14 9
15 0
15 1
15 2
15 3
15 4
15 5
15 6
15 7
15 8
15 9
16 0
161____
162____
16 3
16 4
16 5
16 6
16 7
16 8

289
302
306
298
305
261
304
307
307
302
304
301
290
283
302
305
267
306
305
300
268
305
299
300
300
297
271
307
304
300
307
265
300
298
296
306
300
298
296
305
289
289
299
297
300
299
303
307
307
294
279
306
306
296
300
292
289
290
305
303
292
303
286
299
309
267
267
305
299
270
306

170.
171.
172.
173.
174.
175.
176.
177.
178.
179.
180.
181.
182.
183.
184.
185.
186.
187.
188.
189.
190.
191.
192.
193.
194.
i Repairs.

7
8
6
9
5
10
7
7
6
7
4
10
7
8
8
8
10
10
5
7
10
5
8
12
9
7
6
11
10
9
7
7
11
8
8
12
10
9
5
5
7
5
6
6
9
6
6
7
8
7
6
4
7
5
6
3
5
6
7
7
5
6

a Moving.

100531°— 18— Bull. 225-




5
6
6
6
6
6
5
5
5

a Fire.

-17

i 18
4

Total
week
days idle
during
year.

23

10
6

8
1
45
3

14

7
51

8
5
5

1
3
5
13
1

11

»23

22
29

10

7

35

4
5
6

3

3
34

i5

12
44

7
i5
4
i4
»1

4
31

13

12

12

15
41

1
2
39
5
2

47

12
4

43

1
4
7
ii
12

14
16

6
12
14
16

7

5

7

23
23
13
15

3

13

11
28

5
18
33
6

5

12

6
7
6
12
16
14

16

12

20

2

23

22
7
2

8

i1
i8
62

21
1

i6

40
39

9
20
9
26
13
3
45
45

7
6
31

4 Death.

13

6
« Not specified.

4
2

256

MILLWORK.

T able 5 .—NUMBER OF DAYS ESTABLISHMENTS W ERE IN OPERATION AND NUMBER!
OF DAYS IDLE, B Y SPECIFIED CAUSES, DURING Y E A R —Continued.

State and establishment
number.

Number of week days idle during year of 52 weeks
on account of—
Days in
operation
during
year of Holidays Strikes
In­
Other
Slack
52 weeks. and va­
and
ventory. causes.
work.
cations. lockouts.

New York-Concluded.
19 5
19 6
19 7
19 8
Ohio:
19 9
20 0
201..............................
202..............................
205.
206.
207.
208.
209.
210.
211.
212.
213.
214.
215.
216.
217.
218.
219.
220.
221.
222.
223..
224..
225.
226..
227.
228.
229.
230.
231.
232..
Pennsylvania:
235.
236.
237.
238.
239.
240.
241.
242.
243.
244.
245.
246..
247..
248..
249..
250..
251..
252.
253..
254..
255..
256.
257.
258.
259.
260.
261.

1 Not specified.
2 Repairs.
* Inventory and slack work.




272
278
302
300
303
299
299
308
306
304
304
304
305
305
307
303
304
270
305
266
272
297
305
290
303
304
247
302
306
302
281
305
305
254
304
293
306

31
25
3

7

1
0
1
2

12
27

6

4
5

22

7
7
5
7

6
7
6
9
8
8
8
5
1
0
6
8
6
67
4
6

7
7
5
9

2

8
6
7
5
5

13
13
4

1

8
8
6

31
9

26
19

8

5
26
3 11
9

*5

2 10

6

51
7
60

22

22

43

307

22
2

289
304
302
306
307
307
306
296
305
306
304
305
300
306
306
302
300
307
288
306

< Plant destroyed by fire.
Death.

42
7
46
40
15
7

2
2
9
8

9
17
65

1
0
6
1
0

2

304
299
306
298
303
292
308

6

40
34

1

6

Total
week
days idle
during
year.

3

31
7
7
58

3
9
2

7

6

8
6

2
8

13

9
?3
15
25
87
17
1

4
9
3
5
90
23

8
1
0
6

2

4

5
5

2

5

14
9

2
0

6

16
7

4

1
6

63
5
18

e Holidays and inventory.

i Death m family.

6
8
7
1
2
6
6
1
0
1
2
5

257

FLUCTUATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT DURING YEAR.

T a b l e 5 .—NUM BER OF D A Y S ESTABLISH M ENTS W E R E IN O PER ATIO N AN D NU M BER

OF D AY S ID L E , B Y SPECIFIED CAUSES, DURING Y E A R —Concluded.

State and establishment
number.

Pennsylvania—Concluded.
265.............................................
266.............................................
267.............................................
268.............................................
269.............................................
270.............................................
271.............................................
272.............................................
273.............................................
274.............................................
275.............................................
276.............................................
277.............................................
278.......................
.. .
279.............................................
280.............................................
281................
282...................
. .
283.............................................
284...................
285.............................................
286.............................................
287.............................................
288.............................................
289.............................................
290..............
291.............................................
292...................
.
. .
293.............................................
294..........
295.............................................
296.............................................
297.............................................
298................................
299.............................................
300.............................................
3 0 1 ...
....................
302.............................................
3 0 3 ...
3 0 4 ...
305.............................................
306...........................................
307................
...............
Wisconsin:
3 0 8 ...
309.............................................
310.............................................
3 1 1 ...
3 1 2 ...
313 . .
3 1 4 ...
. .
. . . .
315.............................................
316.............................................
3 1 7 ...
. . .
.
318.............................................
3 1 9 ...
3 2 0 ...
.. . .
321.................
3 2 2 ...
Average...............................




Number of week days idle during year of 52 weeks
on account of—
Days in
operation
during
year of Holidays Strikes
In­
Slack
Other
52 weeks. and va­
and
ventory. causes.
work.
cations. lockouts.

305
306
301
306
306
307
307
306
307
306
300
307
307
305
305
307
306
305
302
305
300
305
306
308
305
304
305
306
297
295
306
306
284
278
308
306
306
298
299
291
305
305
301

5

257
304
294
305
263
301
300
303
300
260
298
296
305
304'
301

5
6
6
5
5
6
6
5
6
6
7
7
5
6
6

296.0

6.4

5
6
5
6
6
5
5
6
5
6
4
5
5
6
7

2
6

8
1

5
6
5
8
7
5
7
6
4
7
8
5
6
7
6
6
5
7
5
4
6
6
7
7
8

2
2
7

2
8
11
1
21
29

7
6
13
2
2

5
5

* Repairs.
■

16

1
46
1
9

2
12
2
23
5
6
4
5
6
2
2
5

1.9

6.0

0.8

7
6
11
6
6
5
5
6
5
6
12
5
5
7
7
5
6
7
10
7
12
7
6
4
7
8
7
6
15
17
6
6
28
34
4
6
6
14
13
21
7
7
11
55
8
18
7
49
11
12
9
12
52
14
16
7
8
11

50

21

Total
week
days idle
during
year.

0.8

16.0

258

MILLWORK.

As stated on page 5, data have been secured showing, for 1915,
the hours actually worked by employees. Table 6, which is a sum­
mary of General Table D, shows the number and per cent of em­
ployees working certain classified percentages of full time, b y States.
This table is divided into two sections, one relating to employees
whose time was reported for one week; the other relating to those
whose time was reported for two weeks, in such a way that it could
not be divided. Three establishments having monthly pay rolls are
omitted altogether from this table.
T a b l e 6 .—NUM BER AN D PER CE N T OF EM PLO YEES W O R K IN G EA C H CLASSIFIED PER

C E N T OF F U LL TIM E, B Y STATES.

One-week pay rolls.
[This table includes data from all establishments from which information was secured for 1915, except 3
establishments having monthly pay rolls.]

Employees working each classified per cent of full time.

State.

Num­ Num­
ber of ber of
estab­ emlish­ ployments.

100 per cent
and over.
Num­
ber.

California..........
Georgia..............
Illinois...............
Iowa...................
Massachusetts..
Michigan...........
Minnesota.........
New York........
Ohio...................
Pennsylvania..
Wisconsin.........

1,143
1,110
991
577
539
3,756
1,494
1,540
392

687
307
297
727
807
360
420
2,379
942
1,064
186

Total.......

229 12,917

8,176

Per
cent.

Under 100
per cent.
Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

Under 75
per cent.
Num­
ber.
145
113
58
105
65
44
25
328
97
113
144

456
532
239
383
184
217
119
1,377
552
476
206
63

4,741

Per
cent.

37

1,237

Under 50
per cent.
Num­
ber.

Under 25
per cent.

Per
cent.

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

81
25
31
65
44
17

1
1

125
38
61

1
0

1
0

508

198

Two-week pay roUs.
California..........
Illinois...............
Iowa...................
Michigan...........
Minnesota.........
New York........
Ohio...................
Pennsylvania..
Wisconsin.........

1
20
2
18
5
2
11
43
11

284
1,404
499
1,187
429
122
358
1,313
2,788

152
449
129
530
201
28
113
589
454

54
32
26
45
47
23
32
45
16

132
955
370
657
228
94
245
724
2,334

46
68
74
55
53
77
68
55
84

57
206
35
127
46
16
34
108
327

20
15
7
11
11
13
9
8
12

39
90
15
71
22
7
22
42
130

14
6
3
6
5
6
6
3
5

15
35
2
41
11
4
11
12
39

Total.......

113

8,384

2,645

32

5,739

68

956

11

438

5

170

5
2
0)

3
3
3
3
1
1
2

i Less than 1 per cent.

Table 7 shows, by States, the number of employees in the industry,
as reported by the United States Census Office, 1910, the number of
establishments from which the bureau secured data for 1915, and the
number of employees for whom data are shown in this report:




FLUCTUATIONS IN EM PLO YM EN T DURING YEAR.

259

T aple 7.—TO TAL N U M BER OF EM PLO Y EES IN M IL L W O R K IN D U ST R Y A N D NUM BER
OF EM PLO Y EES FOR W H IC H D A T A A R E SH O W N FOR 1915.

State.

Number of
employees
reported
by United
States Cen­
sus, 1910.

Establishments a n d
employees for which
data for 1915 are
shown in this report.
Number
of estab­
lishments.

Number
of em­
ployees.

New York..........................
Pennsylvania....................
Illinois................................
Michigan............................
Wisconsin....................
California............................
Ohio.....................................
Iowa....................................
Georgia...............................
Massachusetts...................
Minnesota..........................
Other States......................

15,126
9,267
8,710
6,793
6,673
6,341
5,846
3,440
3,410
3,296
3,154
40,336

67
86
33
33
15
18
38
12
15
21
9

3,889
2,853
2,132
1,764
3,180
1,845
1,879
1,609
839
991
968

Total............................

112,392

347

21,949

According to the census of 1910 more than 64 per cent of the total
number of employees in the industry are found in the States in which
the establishments furnishing information to the Bureau of Labor
Statistics are located. The number of employees for whom the
bureau secured 1915 data, and for whom detailed information for
1915 is presented in this report, is equal to 19.5 per cent of the total
number in the industry in 1909 (the year to which the census figures
apply).

DESCRIPTION OP INDUSTRY AND PRINCIPAL PRODUCTIVE
OCCUPATIONS.
This industry, as treated in this report, includes establishments
engaged in the manufacture of sash, doors, blinds, window frames,
doorframes, moldings, stair material, newels, mantels, store fixtures,
and all kinds of builders’ trim or finish.
A large number of the establishments are comparatively small and
confine their operations wholly to custom work. Many of them are
operated in connection with a retail lumber business. Some are run
by contractors who carry on large building operations, and manufac­
ture trim mostly for their own use. Some custom mills in the larger
cities are quite extensive and employ a large number of workmen.
A few establishments manufacture for the general market. Such
establishments, as a rule, employ a larger number of workmen than
do the custom mills or factories, have their work better systematized,
and pay somewhat lower wages. The latter fact may be accounted
for by the greater division of labor whereby an employee, while
being expert in the operation of a particular machine or in perform­
ing certain work, is not an all-round skilled workman, and so can
not command as high wages.




260

MILLWORK.

There is hardly such a thing as a typical factory in this industry
in the sense that there is a typical sawmill or cotton factory. The
work may be done in a part of a building, the power being rented
with the room; or the factory may consist of one or more large
buildings with so much machinery that a considerable force of
machinists is regularly employed to keep the machines in order.
Nor is there any regular or established ratio between the number of
employees in different occupations. One establishment may have
an approximately equal number of benchmen, machine woodwork­
ers, and laborers; another will have three or four times as many
benchmen as machine men; and in another the proportion will be
reversed, depending on the particular class of work the factory
turns out. The arrangement of the factory and machines will
depend upon the class of work done, the space at the disposal of the
management, and the latter’s ideas as to convenience and economy.
The differences that are found are between establishments rather
than between different sections of the country or different localities.
The work in these factories resolves itself into three general classes—
bench work, common labor, and machine work, and the occupa­
tional terms used in this report are bench hands, laborers, and machine
hands. Practically all the work is done by males. A few females
are employed in a limited number of establishments, but the extent
of their work is so insignificant that data relating to females are
omitted from this report. A brief description of the terms used
follows.
BENCH HANDS.

The men engaged in this occupation are known also as benchmen,
bench carpenters, shop carpenters, inside carpenters, and cabinet­
makers. Most of the work is done with hand tools at a bench, as
distinguished from building or outside carpentering work. These
employees make doors, sash, blinds, window frames, cabinets, etc.,
fitting and putting together the parts that have previously been pre­
pared by machine hands. The better grades of the articles are united
at the joints by gluing each mortise and tenon and by forcing the
pieces together with clamps, using a square and a hammer to make the
joints true and tight. On other grades the joints are fastened with
steel or wooden pins instead of being glued. Bench hands also shape
and form such articles as can not be made by machines. In some
shops work is done by hand that in other establishments is done by
machinery. In some establishments men are employed who are
able to work interchangeably at the bench and at the machines.
Carpenters or bench hands differ greatly in ability, some being able
to do all kinds of difficult work, while others can do only the simpler
kinds of work or, perhaps, only one kind or, at most, a few kinds.




DESCRIPTION OF PRINCIPAL PRODUCTIVE OCCUPATIONS.

261

LABORERS.

The work of those engaged in this occupation about the factory is
of a miscellaneous character, such as handling lumber, material,
and the finished product, and assisting other workmen, particularly
machine hands. They bring material to the machines and take it
away after it has been worked, assemble parts that are to be put
together, pack goods in the storehouse or load them on wagons or in
cars for shipment, and do any other common or unskilled work about
the shop or yard. The number of laborers, as compared with that
of the other employees, is usually larger in establishments employing
a large number of machine hands.
MACHINE HANDS.

By the use of various machines employees in this occupation plane
the lumber, saw it into lengths, widths, and shapes, mortise and
tenon the parts of doors, sash, blinds, etc., make moldings, turn
spindles, posts, and balusters, sandpaper or smooth material or
finished product, etc. The principal machines used in millwork
are the automatic dovetail glue jointer, boring machine, dovetailer,
molding machine, mortiser, mitering machine, sander, shaper,
sticker, tenoner, etc. A first-class machine hand is able to operate
any of the machines usually found in a factory, and is supposed also
to be able to keep his machines in order. In the smaller establish­
ments, and in the shops doing a high grade of work, the machine
hands often, if not generally, actually use different machines, as
the character of their work may require, one man doing all the ma­
chine work on a given piece of work. In larger establishments,
where there is a greater division of labor, a man will be employed
continuously on one machine and may know nothing about the
operation of any other. It has been found impracticable to separate
these two classes of machine hands.
In addition to the text tables already shown four general tables
are presented as follows:
Table A .— Average and classified full-time hours per week and rates
of wages per hour, and average full-time weekly earnings, in the
United States, by years, 1907 to 1915.
Table B .— Average and classified full-time hours per week and rates
of wages per hour, and average full-time weekly earnings, in each
State, by years, 1913 and 1915.
Table C.—Average and classified full-time hours per week and rates of
wages per hour, and average full-time weekly earnings, by States, 1915.
Table D .— Average full-time hours, average hours actually worked,
and number of employees working each classified per cent of full
time, by States, 1915.




A.—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK AND RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AND AVERAGE
FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1915.

[The figures opposite each group of years are for identical establishments.

Occupation and number of
establishments.

Bench hands:
62 establishments..

Num­ Aver- Average
ber
full­ rate
of
Year.
of
time
emhgurs
ploy- per
per
week. hour.

When a second line is shown for 1915 it contains all data secured for 1915, whether or not comparable data
for 1913 were available.]

Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—
Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
Aver­
age
full­
1 1 14 16 18 20 25 30 40 50
0 2
Over
Over 57
time
Un­ and and and and and and and and and and 60
51
48
54
week­ and
and
and
Over der un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
54.
and under 60.
un­ and under
! 60.
1 der der der der der der der der der der and
0
under
earn­ der. under
2 14 16 18 20 25 30 40 50 60 over.
cts. 1
54.
51.
57.
ings.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

ly

283

196
185
212
188

336
277
314
291

294
262
286
367

42
46
63
74

108
86
78
79

996

292

441
443 1,027

15
12

118
115

72
65

718
653

908 1,440
842 1,461

233
262

162
119

29
24

332
254

113 1,215
975
419

285
333

471 1,115
1,173

15
26

149
159

74
92

730
710

924 1,772
867 1,808

297
304

146
175

24
2

838
847

324
344

405 1,185
512 1,127

475
438

515 1,205
603 1,162

29
17

176
140

96
97

828
872

999 2,219
999 1,875

395
782

195
242

2
7

914

353
717

518 1,052
961
155

480
549

650 1,152
534 1,132

16
48

147
124

101
92

878 1,002 1*,869
764 1,053 1,779

783
767

296
242

25
3

717

155

961

554

562 1,156

48

126

94

781 1,072 1,792

769

243

4

495
342
427
491

67
70
110
136

99
84
94
140

20
28
29
25

20
25
39
29

143
132
131
129

1910
1911

3,
3,553

55.1
55.2

.307 16.51
.309 16.74

458
490

267 establishments,

1911
1912

4,131
4,148

55.1
54.

.310 16.76
.311 16.74

561
612

343 establishments,

1912
1913

4,947
5,033

54.
54.5

.311 16.68
.315 16.90

339 establishments.

1913
1915

5,119
4,874

54.4
54.2

.318 17.00
.318 16.92

346 establishments,

1915

4,931

54.3

.317 16.91

1907
1908
1909
1910

1,578
1,300
1,451
1,522

58.5
58.2
58.0
58.3

.155
.155
.159
.161

9.07
9.02
9.22
9.39

56

223 establishments.

1910
1911

4,885
4,762

57.6
57.6

.171
.171

9.73
9.79

253 establishments.

1911
1912

4,456
4,121

57.6
57.4

.172 9.86
.178 10.15

75
104

8 1,056
6

113

48
32
31
38
236
164

615

21
0

80
93

642
704

181

158
173
163
129

313

416
313
296
259

376

667 2,711
632

281

21
2

520
542

988 1,604
936 1,571

476
467

721
739

231
231

64
55

371
323

557 2,514
388 2,246

201

429

898 1,493
700 1,494

492
510

675
663

201
257

67
69

12
2

147
140

186

39

228 1,114
859
206
941
233
239 1,006

118

216
240

115
95
104

303
265

8

2

MILLWORK,

19
25
31
35

3

16

64
54
50
42

55.6 $0,298 $16.57
55.6 .294 16.35
55.7 .294 16.38
55.5 .305 16.93




278

14
10
7
5

1,076
945
1,041
1,083

Laborers:
60 establishments..

2
1

436
393
433
446

1907
1908
1909
1910

226 establishments,

262

T a b le

1912
191?

4,641
5,144

57.0
56.7

.179 10.15
.186 10.47

265
325

126
210

240
353

842
881

590 2,201
631 2,352

1913
1915

5,267
5,018

56.8
56.6

.183 10.34
.184 10.37

308
282

203
414

337
112

853
882

2,438
740 2,092

3

1915

5,224

56.7

.184 10.40

283

414

112

887

783 2,242

3

Machine hands:
62 establishments............. 1907
1908
1909
1910

1,508
1,372
1,488
1,580

56.9
57.1
57.2
57.3

.253
.249
.251
.257

14.40
14.22
14.36
14.73

175
148
153
152

38
33
37
33

7

297
273
275
294

157
136
156
153

1910
1911

5,438
5,363

57.0
56.8

.255 14.28
.261 14.55

348
511

289
229

79
100

993
850

1911
1912

5,615
5,054

56.7
56.2

.263 14.63
.270 .14.88

541
588

249
193

99
298

934
831

502

1912
1913

5,970
6,074

55.8
55.5

.273 14.97
.286 15.57

846
872

315
339

284 1,028
400 1,088

6,154
5,835

55.6
55.4

.294 16.09
.284 .15.47

878
742

342
595

368 1,012
161
989

775

347 establishments...........

1915

5,973

55.5

.283 15.46

742

595

161

813 1,935

5,821

57.6

.247 14.11

571

399

131 1,091

62
1
719

266
318

72
83

8
15

58
154

223
262

586 1,877
715 1,332

746
639 1
,

304
338

85
58

15

11
27

179

267

1,340

641 1,626

358

59

197

90
116
125

378
344
364
382

223
191
220
279

38
41
45
53

71
55
57
61

9
9
9

755

1,159 1,204
397 1
305 1,264 1,135 1,272

199
242

89
98

29
28

313 1,282 1,149 1,394
268 1,116 1,045 1,438

253
257

108

559

112

34
36

426

286 1,279 1,208 1,897
340 1,243 1,319 1,874

306
553

121
136

38
36

445
391

353 1,
1,348 1,816
304 1,202 1,285 1,747

546
571

153
138

38
24

157

397

314 1,227 1,330 1,783

574

138

24

320

477

291 1,128

408

189

57

1

1915

797 1,701
557 1,824

1

Other employees:
345 establishments...........

256
198

732
791

1913
1915

106
88

621
639

319 establishments...........
317 establishments...........
329 establishments...........

232 establishments...........
268 establishments...........
342 establishments...........
339 establishments...........




992

3

11
0

826
‘ 782
867
941

98
81
69

5
6
6
3

14

779

180

230
229
240

3

1
,

410

177

235
218

20
1

390

2
2

436

214
125

6
6

926 1,022

8

to
a
co

AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK AND RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AND AVERAGE
FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH STATE, BY YEARS, 1913 AND 1915.

264

T a b l e B — AVERAGE

[The figures for both years are for identical establishments.)

BENCH HANDS.

Num­ Aver­ Average
ber
full­ rate
State and number of estab­
of
Year. em­ time
of
lishments.
hours
ploy- per
per
week. hour.

Georgia:
11 establishments.
Illinois:
33 establishments.
Iowa:
12 establishments.
Massachusetts:
21 establishments.
Michigan:
33 establishments.
Minnesota:
9 establishments..
New York:
66 establishments.
Ohio:
38 establishments.
Pennsylvania:
85 establishments.




1913
1915

349
274

50.7 $0,466
52.1 .430

194
100

1913
1915

130

56.8

.265
.266

.. . .
.....

1913
1915

643
651

53.5
52.1

.367
.372

1913
1915

275
317

58.1
58.

.259
.259

1913
1915

277
228

51.1

.345
.344

54.8
54.8

.322
.320

1913
1915

29

105
162
31
27

37
429

363

45
48

106
81

16

93
90

41

52.3
52.1

.326
.341

541
491

439
418

55.2
55.2

.297
.307 16.87

7
5

856
835

54.1
53.1

.298 16.01
.304 16.05

110
132

36

40

1913
1915

1,156
970

1913
1915
1913
1915

167
86

26
20

58
33

40
£8

76
70

93
109

438
436

2
3

7
14

87
96

72
99

91
95

6

24
28

39
44

130
96

70
51

95
127

6
9

76
60

3

1
1

2

.

176
252

39
20

17
12

81
40
73
61

1

56
44
117
171

6
2

133
149

2
4

34
34

64
59

1

6
2

7
7

30
31

65
79

163
202

33
36

83
69

.262
.266

1913
1915

81
81

2

7
14

31
33

54
11

86
88

72
58
62
98

2

21
12

143
216

2
1

1
9

1
2

61
62

68
96

43
82

2

2
4

3
2

7
11

221
144

178
170

556
418

57
87

111
134

3

41
45

169
147

202
200

17
18

7
5

22
10

166
132

157
198

383
365

85
92

1
1

4

110
74

79
65

257
208

129
128

20
29

37
40

173
128

74
104

75
66

53
46

1

1

i

51
100

77
75

301
330

171
139

71
18

75
41

1

8
6

34
30

19

MILLWORK.

California:
16 establishments.

Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—
Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
Aver­
age
full­
25
18
30
12
16
20
40
50
10
14
Over
time
Un­ and and and and and and and and and and 60
48 Over 51
57
54
48
week­ and
Over der un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
and
and
54.
and under 60.
ly
60.
un­ and under
10 der der der der der der der der der der and
under
earn­ der. under 54.
18
30
25
50
40
20
60 over.
60.
14
16
cts. 12
51.
57.
ings.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

Wisconsin:
15 establishments..

1913
1915

469
457

59.8
59.4

.225 13.43
.221 13.11

1913
1915

5,119
4,874

54.4
54.2

.318 17.00
.318 16.92

Total:

914
826

353
717

518 1,052
155
961

480
549

'

13
3

191
171

113
103

35
35

2

878 1,002 1,869
764 1,053 1,779

783
767

78
66

48
47

2
2

16
48

147
124

101
92

2

10

20

4
44

10
42

148
147

51
113

143
83

28
17

2
8

1

1

1

17
46

206
104

104
99

15

45
87

181
154

22
28

4
29

7
1

440
404

4
33

5

16
50

650 1,152
534 1,132

296
242

25
3

LABORERS.
California:
16 establishments..
Georgia:
11 establishments..

Iowa:
^establishments..

Michigan:
31 establishments..
Minnesota:
9 establishments...
New York:
63 establishments..
Ohio:
38 establishments..
Pennsylvania:
71 establishments..
Wisconsin:
15 establishments..
Total:
317 establishments.

17

1913
1915

224
233

56.5
55.4

.125
.117

1913
1915

551
391

55.7
53.5

.192 10.68
.187 9.99

1913
1915

398
467

58.7
59.0

.180 10.55
.179 10.54

1913
1915

182
210

51.1
50.9

.195 9.92
.208 10.53

1913
1915

339
450

57.5
57.4

.190 10.86
.182 10.41

1913
1915

261
270

59.7
59.8

.187 11.15
.187 11.21

1913
1915

756
698

55.0
56.2

.186 10.13
.185 10.38

120
102

26
U

100
29

116
73

1913
1915

362
353

55.4
55.7

.195 10.79
.197 10.95

3
2

36
30

34
48

1913
1915

383
388

55.9
54.6

.177
.178

2
24

25
35

11
14

1913
1915

1,351
1,046

59.9
59.8

.158 9.48
.169 10.12

1913
1915

5,267
5,018

56.8
56.6

.183 10.34
.184 10.37

7.09
6.49

9.89
9.68

40
98
31
201

183

57
52

8

61
100
7
37

9

64
40

73
62

239
268

99
151

113
147

203
414

337
112

23
12

78
78

93
129

1
3

31
8

41
19

68
125

15
28

2

13
33

119
147

33
44

158
176

12
10

89
92

169
205

136
185

97
70

63
62

75
87

1

15

28
27

99
81

22
15

106
104

6
18

3

17
14

115
122

186
177

147
81

259
275

31
29

12
16

90
87

61
29

185
205

8
11

3

2
14

24
34

56
63

142
85

71
72

85
99

3
18

2

24
59

250
256

817
437

179
159

75
119

2
9

58
154

223
262

746 1,373
639 1,509

304
338

54
54

123
134

90
107

37
22

95
52

853
882

686 2,438
740 2,092

10

1

1

6 1,331
1 1,004

442
493

1

3

11

15

5

1

199
240

14
41
308
282

196
129

4
7

10

129
32

62
30

21

1

80
47

3
24

47
31

151
98
87
146

72
53
45
46

74
37

no
97

203
200

6
2

68
73

586 1,877
715 1,332

85
58

15

265




52.9 $0,258 $13.55
53.6 .231 12.32

TABLES.

Massachusetts:
20 establishments..

460
512

GENERAL

Illinois:
31 establishments..

138
108

237
331

1913
1915

B AVERAGE AND
.—

CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK AND RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AND AVERAGE
FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH STATE, BY YEARS, 1913 AND 1915—Concluded.

266

T a b le

BENCH HANDS.

Occupation and number of
establishments.

California:
17 establishments.

Illinois:
33 establishments.
Iowa:
12 establishments.
Massachusetts:
21 establishments.
Michigan:
33 establishments.
Minnesota:
9 establishments..
New York:
66 establishments.
Ohio:
38 establishments.




Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—
Aver­
age
full­
1 1 14 16 18
0 2
25
30
40
50
time
Over
48 Over 51
57
Un­ and and and and and and and and and and 60
week­ and
48
54
Over der un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
and
and and
54.
and under 60.
ly
un­
60.
1 der der der der der der der der der der and
0
earn­ der. under under
under
2 14 16 18 2 25 30 40 50 60 over.
54.
60.
0
cts. 1
51.
ings.
57.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

1913
1915

411
412

51.6 $0,404 $20.46
392 20.14
52.2

1913
1915

169

56.6
55.5

523
577

54.2
52.7

.351 18.82
.354 18.36

1913
1915

422
421

58.6
59.0

.237 13.86
.240 14.11

1913
1915

306
250

50.6
49.8

.329 16.53
16.45

1913
1915

422
446

56.8
56.4

.275 15.48
.271 15.15

1913
1915

247
246

59.

.246 14.70
14.80

1913
1915

1,237
1,048

53.2
53.8

.302 15.76
.301 15.91

1913
1915

552
521

55.5
55.9

.307 16.95
16.56

162
166

124
187

6
6

34
24

.222 12.59
.218 12.06

1913
1915

21
1
173

2
0

12
0

255

337

92

84
138
123

53
87
105

MILLWOBK,

Georgia:
11 establishments.

Num­ Aver­ Average
ber
full­ rate
of
of
Year. em­ time
ploy- hours per
per
week. hour.

215
245

144
143

11
2
11
0

54

1 0 12
0 1

48

141
109

126
114
148
151

81
107

36

329

2

139
138

22
0
219
506
391

114
87

123
116

280
264

158
165

147

133
93

11
1
11
2

13

79

12
2

231

70

271
258

592
471'
245
266

15
18

10
5

Pennsylvania:
84 establishments..

1913
1915

812
819

54.6
54.0

.279 15.15
.281 15.10

1913
1915

1,033
926

59.9
59.6

Total:
339 establishments. 1913
1915

6,154
5,835

55.6
55.4

.294 16.09
.284 15.47




878
742

45
81

342
595

59
39

279
329

368 1,012
161
989

79
50

3
8

16
19

49
40

25
32

157
135

219
225

306
318

18
79

.262 15.68
.204 12.14

Wisconsin:
15 establishments..

65
66

11 1,004
5
842

4
6

46
72

227
196

221
162

357
330

149
124

29
36

633
729

864 2,057
775 1,843

22
22

131
151

445
391

353 1,302 1,348 1,816
304 1,202 1,285 1,747

197
215

88
39

31
39

6
3

546
571

153
138

38
24

to

05

AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK AND RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AND AVERAGE
FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, BY STATES, 1915.

268

T a b l e C .— AVERAGE

[This table includes all data secured for 1915, whether or not comparable data for 1913 were available.]

BENCH HANDS.

State.

Aver- Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
No. Num­ Aver­ Aver­
age
age
of
ber full­
rate
es­
of
Over
time
Over
of
51
57
em­ time
48
54
and
Over
hours wages week­ and
and
and under 54.
and under
ploy- per
ly
per
un­
60.
ments
earn­
under 54.
under
week. hour.
der.
ings.
51.
57.

tab­
lsih

California.......
Georgia...........
Illinois............
Iowa...............
Massachusetts
Michigan........
Minnesota___
New York___
Ohio................
Pennsylvania.
Wisconsin___

290
105
651
317

Total...

346 4,931

$0,423
.260
.372
.259
.344
.320
.266
.341
.307
.304
.221

252
975
418
852
457
54.3

10
0

162
27
81
58
40
61

429
90
36
491
5
132

.317 16.91

74
128
330

10
0
717

1
2

Un­
der

and
un­
der
14
cts.

1
2

cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

127
65
104
139
50

34
36
208

2
0

18
and
un­
der

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

and
un­
der
25
cts.

2
0

cts.

2

28
14
44
171

961

155

Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—

33

28
33
96
28
31
62
145
45
140
171

48

1
2

14

1
1
4
1
6

59
216
133
46
41
404
1,156

2
0

40
70
99
44
79
96
172
147

22
0
103

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.
159
29
109
95
96

22
0

17
646
15
281
31
391
12
467
20
210
32
451
9
270
65
705
38
353
75
404
15 1,046

Total...

329 5,224




54.9 $0,230 $12.55
56.0 .114 6.37
53.5 .187 9.99
59.0 .179 10.54
50.9 .208 10.53
57.4 .182 10.42
59.8 .187 11.21
56.3 .185 10.38
55.7 .197 10.95
54.7 .178 9.68
59.8 .169 10.12
56.7

.184 10.40

108

46

21
0
10
0
37

2
1

103

73
70
138

2

24
283

331
98
52
53
40
32

414

12
1

104

92
62
107
41
500

31
98
146
151
30
205
87
34

1

207
47
32
268

2

164

1
0

147
240
191
54
52
1,004

783 2,242

206

267

2
0

19
46
87
28
33
27
123
16
72
256

94

47

42

258

104
154

99
78
19
44
15
81
29
74
159

129
129
125
177
104
280
205
99
119

8

147
81
178
87
89
437

727 1,340

1

641 1,626

1

51
60

134
5
3

366
35

126

1

2
0
436

20
0

781 1,072 1,792

8

50
cts.
and
over.

82
419

LABORERS.
California.......
Georgia...........
Illinois............
Iowa...............
Massachusetts
Michigan........
Minnesota___
New York___
Ohio................
Pennsylvania.
Wisconsin___

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

219

48

358

59

769

247

r1
r
*
o
w
W

MACHINE HANDS.

T rm
W fc

______
.
Io w a ........................................
Massachusetts. ___. . . . _.
Michigan. , _____________
Minnesota, - - -____ _______
New York.................................
Ohio...........................................
P^nnpylyftTiift.
Wisconsin.............................
Total...............................

1 48
8 8
1 16
5 9
3 57
3 7
1 41
2 2
2 20
1 5
3 46
3 4
9 26
4
6 1,057
7
3 51
8 2
8 85
6 4
1 96
5 2
3 7 5,973
4

53.4$0,3 5$1 .6
7 96
55.9 .210 11.73
52.7 .354 18.36
59.0 .240 14.11
49.8 .332 16.45
56.4 .271 15.15
59.8 .248 14.80
53.9 .301 15.91
55.9 .298 16.56
54.1 .280 15.07
59.6 .204 12.14
55.5 .283 15.46

13
7
15
0
31
9
7
6
6

37
3
11
0
3
4
5
3
7
8
1

4
8
1
9
5
5
3
9

72 55 11
4
9 6

18
2
17
8
1 1
6
3 8
7
5 3
6
1 5
5
4 4
0 8
25
4
5
3
13
2
4
4
0
1
4 10 12 19
3 0
2 29
7 1
7
6
8 16 2 4 14
7 1
6
12 9 11 8
2
3 2
2 5
0
32 25 6
3
1
4
7
9
5 82
9 2 7 4 8 3 1,935
9
3
1

2
8 8 16 7
3 9
0 11
3
7
0
1 2
8 4
3
4 2
2
3
7 5
8 9 39
9 6
2
2 2
2 5
1
5 1
3
6 4
8 4
5
0 2 13 1 8 6
2 4 1 4 *‘ “ 5 ...... i
6
9 1
1
7 2
5 5
6 3
1
9
8 0
6 2 17 8 11 2
5 4
6 1
7 9
6
3 6
9 1
2 2 4 3 “ "Si .....4
6
1
1 1
9
7
7 0
3 1 21
5
8
0 5
6
3 7 15 26 1
4
3
9 4
2
3
8 1
1
3 3 12 2 0 3 2 4
7 4
2 9
2
6
6 7 1 6 1 2 3 0 14 3
6
3
6
,7 3 7
1
2 1 7 3 7 3 4 1,227 1,330 1 8 5 4 1 2
9 5
9
1
1
1
3

1
1

Total...............................

0
2
2
6
4 1
9
53.3$0,3 8$ .4 1 9
5
6 1
6 19 7 4
26
0
58.2 .166 9.67
3 9
0 2
7 5
3 2
2 1
0
2 2
0
6 10 1
7 1
7 4
1 8
56.5 .278 15.65
12
8
8 9
1 9
9 4
2 1
8 5
3 2
3 4
2 1
8 7
5
0 1
8 5
4 1
2
7 7
59.2 .222 13.10
5
4 4
2 9 17 1
3 9
6 6
0 2
9
6
4
1
8
3
6 1
5 3
2
4.76 7 io9
0
2 2
8 4
1 8
5 1
52.7 .282 1
6
6 1
41
1
3 1
6 3 *7
6 26 4
3 2
5 5
2 3 18
60.3 .241 1 .5
4 3
0 6
6 3
8 2
2 10 1
2 6
4 1
61.2 .240 14.68
3 1
8
4 3
8
0 1
0
4
5
2
57.2 .250 14.18 2 0 1 5 1 3 9i 2 1 2 0 1 4 1 6 9
4
3 8
4 6 22
6
0 7
8 4
9 3
1 1
9 3
0 1
3 3
1 5
57.6 .258 14.71 1
6 4 4 11 7 14 9
1
3 0
2 8
7 1 18
6 8
9 4 15 4
8 0
4 8
56.2 .225 12.65 6
0 6
9 8
2 4 19
3 4
6 4
0 1 31 17 7
7 0
1
3
2 2
4 4
60.8 .203 12.36 1
0
4
4
7 6 8 5 13 8
6 8
0 5 18
5 3
1
57.6 .247 14 1 5 1 3 9 1 1 1,091 5 6 7 9 1,894 4 0 5 7 4 6 3 0 4 7 2 1 1,128
.1
7
3
4
6
3
9
7
9
2
7

3
9
16 16 4
1
5
1
4 3
3
6
7
9 9
5 8
6
9 1
7
7 6
5
2 7
8 3
3
4 1
13 7
1
7
7
2
7 5
7
11 18 9
2
8
5
6 3
6
18 9
1
14 9
0
6 4
6
8
15 10 1
0
0
0
9 6 1,022 4 8
2

8
7
1
2
4
4
1
4
7
2
6
5
2
2
1
8
2

26
4

269




1 41
8 2
1 27
5 5
3 53
3 1
1 44
2 0
2 33
1 0
3 41
3 8
9 20
0
6 1,152
7
3 57
8 8
8 72
4 5
1 71
5 5
3 5 5,821
4

TABLES.

California..................................
Georgia......................................
Illinois......................................
Iowa..........................................
Massachusetts.........................
Michigan..................................
Minnesota................................
New York................................
Ohio..........................................
Pennsylvania...........................
Wisconsin................................

GENERAL

OTHEB EMPLOYEES.

D .-A VE RA G E FULL-TIME HOURS, AVERAGE HOURS ACTUALLY WORKED, AND NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES WORK­
ING EACH CLASSIFIED PER CENT OF FULL TIME, BY STATES, 1915.

270

T a b le

[This table includes data from all establishments from which information was secured for 1915, except 3 establishments having monthly pay rolls.]

ONE-WEEK PAY BOLLS.
BENCH HANDS.

State.

California...............................................................................
Georgia...................................................................................
TPjnnis.................................................................................
Iowa........................................................................................
Massachusetts........................................................................
Michigan......................................................................*
.........
Minnesota..............................................................................
New York..............................................................................
Ohio........................................................................................
Pennsylvania....................................................................
Wisconsin...........................................................................
Total............................................................................

Number of
establish­ Number of
employees.
ments.

Average
Average
full-time
hours
hours per worked per
week of
employee
establish­
in one
ments.
week.

Employees working each classified per cent of full time in one week.

Under 25
per cent.

25 and un­
der 50 per
cent.

50 and un­
der 75 per
cent.

75 and un­
der 100 per
cent.

11
8
11
3
8
6
3
47
13
17
13

24
53
63
51
27
46
35
282
119
119
25

95
34
59
151
167
60
115
554
150
284
10

97
7
23
5
15
1
1
49
60
55

100 per
cent.

Over 100
per cent
(overtime).

13
15
12
10
21
15
4
64
26
43
4

240
105
163
212
228
113
157
949
348
504
48

51.5
55.9
53.6
58.9
49.8
56.6
59.9
52.2
55.1
53.0
59.9

50.9
50.1
47.7
57.3
47.2
53.8
57.7
49.0
50.5
46.9
50.3

6
2
6
1
4

7
1
1
1
7

2
8
2
6

1
9
4
23

227

3,067

53.8

50.0

37

54

140

844

1,679

313

10
2
4
18
5
3

18
13
7
16
12
3
3
29
9
8
1

21
44
4
15
7
4
6
52
16
12
54

105
144
22
82
26
22
23
207
69
43
14

82
66
13
165
118
45
120
272
100
90
58

51
12
20
9
42
22
4
100
.58
40
2

119

235

757

1,129

360

LABORERS.
California...............................................................................
Georgia...................................................................................
Illinois....................................................................................
Iowa........................................................................................
Massachusetts........................................................................
Michigan.................................................................................
Minnesota................................
....
New York..............................................................................
Ohio........................................................................................
Pennsylvania........................................................................
Wisconsin..............................................................................

13
15
11
10
20
15
4
63
26
39
4

287
281
70
305
210
99
156
676
258
203
129

51.7
56.0
55.2
59.1
50.9
57.3
59.9
56.1
56.0
55.3
60.0

45.9
47.8
47.6
51.8
47.9
53.6
57.3
50.6
52.0
50.6
50.6

Total.............................................................................

220

2,674

55.9

50.3




16
6
10
74

F
*
O
w
w

MACHINE HANDS.

100531°— 18— Bull. 225-

California...............................................................................
Georgia...................................................................................
Illinois....................................................................................
Massachusetts........................................................................
mffohigan.................................................................................
Minnesota...............................................................................
New York..............................................................................
Ohio........................................................................................
Pennsylvania........................................................................
Wisconsin..............................................................................
Total............................................................................

14
15
12
10
21
15
4
65
26
43
4

329
196
139
304
250
159
131
1,009
433
441
119

50.8
55.9
53.9
59.0
49.8
57.3
59.9
53.7
55.7
53.9
60.0

49.0
50.4
48.5
54.9
48.2
54.3
57.8
49.6
52.8
51.7
50.1

229

3,510

54.6

51.1

78
14
17
6
16
16

111
106
47
92
30
66
27
357
142
133
10

106
56
60
184
191
68
98
506
180
225
59

58
82
63
1

33

74

198

1,121

1,733

351

11
3
4
5
3
9

19
19
4
12

71
116
49
53
36
39
9
203
125
68
13

129
77
82
166
202
121
75
721
162
205
55

49
41
23
41
56
27
7
119
150
102
1

782

1,995

616

OTHER EMPLOYEES.
California...............................................................................
Georgia...................................................................................
Illinois....................................................................................
Massachusetts........................................................................
Michigan................................................................................
Minnesota...............................................................................
New York..............................................................................
Ohio........................................................................................
Pennsylvania........................................................................
Wisconsin..............................................................................

14
15
12
10
21
15
4
65
26
42
4

287
257
164
289
303
206
95
1,122
455
392
96

51.8
58.2
57.2
59.1
52.7
60.0
61.1
57.1
57.8
56.4
60.4

48.2
54.1
53.5
55.2
51.8
56.9
59.5
54.7
56.4
55.7
52.4

8
1
2
12
5
1
‘2
15
3
2
3

18
4
5
1

9
2
46
11
10
23

Total............................................................................

228

3,666

56.9

54.4

54

63

156




1

TABLES.

13
17
8
10
5
8
3
58
19
13
44

GENERAL

2
9
3
1
1

16
1
5
9
3
1
1
21
7
6
4

5
2
2
3
5

fc
O
<1

FULL-TIME HOURS, AVERAGE HOURS ACTUALLY WORKED, AND NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES WORK­
ING EACH CLASSIFIED PER CENT OF FULL TIME, BY STATES, 1915—Concluded.

272

T a b l e D .— AVERAGE

TWO-WEEK PAY BOLLS.
BENCH H AN D S.

State.

Average
Average
hours
full-time
Number of
Number of hours per worked per
establish­
employees. two weeks employee
ments.
of establish­
in two
ments.
weeks.
20
2
18
5
2
11
43
11
1

Total.............................................................................

113

Under 25
per cent.

25 and un­
der 50 per
cent.

50 and un­
der 75 per
cent.

75 and un­
der 100 per
cent.

28
2
11
6
1
2
18
21

233
73
125
38
10
46
163
312
4

103
26
71
47
8
1
110
37
13

16
1
50
1

100 per
cent.

Over 100
per cent
(overtime);

87.8
107.1
99.9
108.8
92.7
106.5
101.6
106.4
99.9

15
1
6
1

64
348
409
22

104.0
116.2
108.2
119.0
103.0
111.9
107.7
118.8
108.0

4
3
1

21
2
10
2
1
1
4
11
1

1,752

110.7

100.0

31

53

89

1,004

416

159

10

45
33

42
9
63
26

416
105
273

95
20

14
49
25
3

LABORERS.
Illinois.....................................................................................
Iowa........................................................................................
Michigan.................................................................................
Minnesota...............................................................................
New York..............................................................................
Ohio..................................
........................
Pennsylvania........................................................................
Wisconsin...............................................................................
Other States..........................................................................

19
2
17
5
2
11
36
11
1

282
162
352
114
29
91
201
917
152

107.2
117.6
114.8
119.5
117.4
109.7
108.2
119.6
108.0

92.3
105.6
104.8
108.2
97.4
99.8
98.6
104.0
92.3

21
5
2
3
3
11
9

12
7
13
5
1
6
10
35
6

37
11
23
4
2
4
12
65
15

136
102
164
37
21
53
98
737
50

37
3
2
28
37
50

23
50
32
22

Total.............................................................................

104

2,300

115.0

101.5

64

95

173

1,398

303

267




68

MILLWOEK,

Illinois....................................................................................
Iowa........................................................................................
Michigan.................................................................................
Minnesota...............................................................................
New York..............................................................................
Ohio........................................................................................
Pennsylvania........................................................................
Wisconsin...........................................................................
Other States......................................................................

Employees working each classified per cent of full time in two weeks.

MACHINE HANDS.

Iowa........................................................................................
Michigan.................................................................................
Minnesota..............................................................................
New York..............................................................................
Ohio........................................................................................
Pennsylvania........................................................................
Wisconsin..............................................................................
Other States..........................................................................
Total............................................................................

20
2
18
5
2
11
43
11
1

397
117
287
115
43
77
404
807
31

105.8
117.7
111.8
119.4
115.9
112.9
108.6
119.0
108.0

90.7
108.3
107.0
107.0
96.7
106.8
100.0
105.2
103.3

113

2,278

113.5

102.1

7
5
1
2
1
3
5

14
2
3
3
1
9
21
1

31
4
12
7
3
3
22
64

241
98
150
67
34
57
228
615
10

85
13
81
34
4
2
94
64
14

19
36
3
13
48
38
6

24

54

146

1,500

391

163

3
1
9
4

20
3
10
7
3
3
14
47
3

139
62
91
40
13
55
127
343
11

115
31
89
36
12
20
118
131
24

24
16
72
17
1
38
92
90
20

110

881

576

370

OTHER EMPLOYEES.
309
115
275
105
30
126
360
655
79

113.4
119.0
120.8
122.5
120.7
113.3
111.9
121.6
108.0

104.3
112.5
115.4
114.1
108.3
108.3
109.0
109.3
88.0

7
2
20
5

8
2
4
1
1
3
7
24
16

Total.............................................................................

112

2,054

117.4

108.9

51

66




TABLES.

20
2
18
5
2
11
42
11
1

GENERAL

Illinois....................................................................................
Iowa........................................................................................
Michigan.................................................................................
Minnesota...............................................................................
New York..............................................................................
Ohio........................................................................................
Pennsylvania........................................................................
Wisconsin...............................................................................
Other States..........................................................................

to
-J

CO

FURNITURE MANUFACTURINGSUMMARY.
The full-time weekly earnings of employees engaged in furniture
manufacturing in 1915 were 1 per cent higher than in 1913, 3 per
cent higher than in 1912, 4 per cent higher than in 1911, and 5 per
cent higher than in 1910.
Full-time hours per week in 1915 were 1 per cent lower than in
1913, 2 per cent lower than in 1912, and 3 per cent lower than in
1911 and 1910.
The average rate of wages per hour in 1915 was 2 per cent higher
than in 1913, 5 per cent higher than in 1912, 8 per cent higher than
in 1911, and 11 per cent higher than in 1910.
The number of establishments from which data were secured has
varied considerably during the period covered as follows:
1907 to 1910...................................................
1910 and 1911................................................
1911 and 1912................................................
1912 and 1913................................................
1913 and 1915................................................

52 identical establishments.
128 identical establishments.
199 identical establishments.
231 identical establishments.
232 identical establishments.

In addition to the 232 establishments furnishing information for
1913 and 1915, data were secured from 8 establishments for 1915
only, making a total of 240 establishments for which data for 1915
are presented. Figures based upon data for all establishments
covered for 1915 are included in certain tables, as indicated by
prefatory notes.
Summary figures for the several occupations included in this
report are given in Table 1 which follows. In this table direct
comparisons can be made between the data for different years only
when the data are from identical establishments. The comparable
data for different years are grouped together.
274




2 75

WAGES AND HOUKS OF LABOR— SU M M ARY.

T a b l e 1 .— A V E R A G E A N D CLASSIFIED FULL-TIM E H OURS PER W E E K A N D R A T E S OF

W A G E S PER HOUR, A N D A V E R A G E FULL-TIM E W E E K L Y EARN IN G S, IN T H E PRIN­
CIPAL OCCUPATIONS, 1907 TO 1915.
[The figures opposite each group of years are for identical establishments. When a second line is shown
for 1915 it contains all data secured for 1915, whether or not comparable data for 1913 were available.]

Num­
Occupation and number Year. ber
of em­
of establishments.
ploy­
ees.

Cabinetmakers:
50 establishments.. .

Per cent of employ­
Per cent of employ­
ees whose full-time
ees whose rates of
hours per week
wages per hour
Aver­
Aver­
were—
were—
age
age
full­
rate
time
of
Over
16 20 25
57
hours
wages Un­ and and and 30
54 and
per Un­
60
per der un­ un­ un­ cts.
and un­ and
week. der 54.
hour. 16 der der der and
un­ der
54.
over.
der
cts. 20 25 30 over.
57. 60.
cts. cts. cts.

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

890
632
771
862

56.7
57.1
56.9
56.7

15
13
14
11

18
16
16
18

11
7
11
16

9
21
18
18

47 $0,235
44
.229
42
.228
37
.237

11
14
12
12

16
17
16
15

37
34
38
33

17
15
17
21

19 $13.32
20 13.08
17 12.97
19 13.44

112 establishments.. 1910 1,801
1911 1,846

58.0
57.7

7
8

9
6

12
16

15
21

58
49

.231
.232

14
13

15
13

38
39

19
21

13
13

13.28
13.29

169 establishments.. 1911 2,455
1912 2,427

58.3
58.1

6
6

4
4

12
20

19
14

58
57

.233
.232

14
11

16
16

37
37

21
25

11
11

13.46
13.43

199 establishments.. 1912 2,939
1913 3,184

58.1
57.2

6
6

4
25

18
9

17
18

55
42

.228
.234

11
11

20
19

38
33

22
25

10
11

13.20
13.30

171 establishments.. 1913 2,811
1915 2,735

57.2
56.9

5
9

29
26

8
10

12
13

45
42

.233
.239

10
7

19
17

33
34

26
26

13
15

13.24
13.54

203 establishments.. 1915 3,176
Carvers, hand:
25 establishments.. . 1907
169
1908
127
1909
151
1910
148

57.0

7

27

11

13

43

.240

6

16

35

27

16

13.62

54.2
54.5
53.0
52.7

30
28
35
39

29
26
32
32

2
3
2
3

15
25
20
15

24
17
11
11

.311
.314
.326
.338

1
1

3
4
3
2

9
9
9
8

21
29
22
18

65
58
66
71

16.86
17.11
17.28
17.81

1907
1908
1909
1910

65 establishments.. .

1910
1911

315
345

55.7
55.5

18
22

17
13

9
13

19
18

37
34

.313
.322

....

3
3

13
13

17
14

68
71

17.36
17.57

76 establishments.. .

1911
1912

367
334

56.2
56.3

13
18

17
12

12
19

19
11

38
40

.312
.315

---

1

2
1

13
10

17
22

68
67

17.28
17.52

82 establishments.. .

1912
1913

350
355

56.3
55.1

17
13

11
51

19
3

16
18

37
15

.313
.319

1

10
8

23
17

66
75

17.44
17.41

80 establishments.. .

1913
1915

352
290

55.2
55.2

10
14

54
47

3
6

14
10

20
24

.317
.325

2
3

11
9

21
21

66
67

17.32
17.77

97 establishments. . .
Chair assemblers:
6 establishments___

1915

321

55.5

12

43

1910
1911

165
141

57.7
58.0

15 establishments... 1911
1912

227
237

58.3
57.8

2
7

23 establishments.. . 1912
1913

453
519

57.8
57.3

23 establishments.. . 1913
1915

562
497

57.5
57.5

31 establishments. . . 1915
591
Finishers:
52 establishments.. . 1907 1,217
1908
927
1909 1,127
1910 1,164

4
4

18
18

20
18

128 establishments . 1910 3,132
1911 3,206

58.5
58.0

2
3

7
7

14
21

192 establishments.. 1911 4,407
1912 4,357

58.5
58.1

2
4

5
5

228 establishments.. 1912 5,290
1913 5,287

58.2
57.2

4
2

4
29




5

11

28

.322

3

10

22

65

17.73

52
45

24
22

24
33

.193
.202

32
18

36
36

21
31

10
14

1
2

11.16
11.73

....

31
34

18
17

48
42

.202
.206

25
21

25
30

30
28

16
15

3
7

11.77
11.86

7

4 *i4'

20
15

44
56

28
11

.193
.199

24 37 25
22 33 29

10
11

4
5

11.10
11.32

4 13
4 n

14
14

51
47

19
23

.197
.211

23
18

30
30

29
29

11
12

6
12

11.27
12.06

57.6

4

9

17

42

28

.211

19

27

29

12

13

12.09

57.3
57.5
57.3
57.3

4 21
4 18

17
17

18
22
20

40

.197
.201

24

.195

.199

29
29 32
28 29
30 29

12
13

39
36

24
21
26
23

5
5
5
7

11.29
11.56
11.17
11.40

19
22

58
47

.195
.198

24
21

37
36

28
31

8
8

3
4

11.40
11.43

15
24

20
15

59
53

.194
.200

21 34

25

37

29
33

6
8

2
3

11.31
11.55

21
10

22
24

50
34

.197
.207

21
15

34
31

32
37

9
14

3
4

11.44
11.81

40

31

12

12

2 76

FURNITURE MANUFACTURING.

T a b l e 1.—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER W E E K AND R ATES OF

WAGES PE R HOUR, AND AV E R AG E FULL-TIME W E E K L Y EARNINGS, IN THE PRIN­
CIPAL OCCUPATIONS, 1907 TO 1915—Concluded.
Per cent of employ­
Per cent of employ­
ees whose full-time
ees whose rates of
hours per week Aver­
wages per hour
Aver­
were—
were—
Num­ age
age
ber full­
rate
of
Occupation and number Year. of em­ time
Over 57
ploy­ hours
16 20 25
wages
of establishments.
54 and 60
ees.
per Un­
per Un­ and and and 30
week. der 54. and un­ and hour. der un­ un­ un­ cts.
un­ der over.
54.
16 der der der and
der 60.
cts. 20 25 30 over.
57.
cts. cts. cts.
Finishers—Concluded.
219 establishments.. 1913 5,132
1915 5,000

57.3
56.9

238 establishments.. 1915 5,300
Machine hands:
51 establishments.. . 1907 1,347
1908 1,047
1909 1,153
1910 1,239
121 establishments. . 1910 3,151
1911 3,107

2
5

32
32

9
12

15
14

42 $0,206
38
.208

56.9

4

31

13

14

38

.208

16

27

35

17

5

11.80

58.2
58.1
57.9
57.4

4
5
5
4

10
9
10
10

14
11
13
17

18
26
26
30

54
48
47
39

.211
.212
.214
.219

15
17
16
15

24
21
21
18

33
33
34
33

18
18
18
22

9
11
12
13

12.28
12.32
12.39
12.57

58.7
58.3

2
3

4
4

13
17

21
25

60
51

.212
.216

17
16

22
21

36
34

18
20

8
8

12.39
12.55

192 establishments.. 1911 4,855
1912 4,797

58.8
58.4

2
2

2
3

13
21

20
16

62
58

.211
.216

17
15

23
23

35
34

19
21

6
8

12.35
12.39

226 establishments.. 1912 6,212
1913 6,700

58.5
57.6

3
3

3
21

17
10

26
28

52
39

.211
.218

16
13

24
22

33
34

19
22

7
9

12.30
12.50

1913 6,686
1915 5,561

57.8
57.5

2
3

23
23

8
13

19
16

48
45

.217
.224

14
11

22
21

34
32

22
24

8
11

12.49
12.82

232 establishments.. 1915 5,817
Upholsterers:
19 establishments... 1907
383
1908
310
1909
307
1910
325

57.5

3

22

14

15

46

.223

53.6
53.5
53.8
53.8

26
27
26
23

53
53
52
54

5
5
5
9

7
12
13
10

8
3
3
5

223 establishments..

14
16

29
28

37
35

15
17

4
5

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

11.79
11.76

13

21

32

24

11

12.74

.300
1
.298
4
.296
.311 . . . .

5
4
8
4

17
13
10
14

32
28
32
27

46
51
50
55

16.08
15.94
15.92
16.73

38 establishments... 1910
1911

501
518

55.0
54.7

15
21

43
45

16
8

7
11

20
15

.297
.312

3
2

5
3

15
11

28
29

48
55

16.20
16.90

49 establishments...

1911
1912

558
552

55.8
55.5

9
14

42
35

12
16

18
18

20
18

.300
.307

3
1

3
5

13
13

29
26

52
56

16.55
16.85

54 establishments...

1912
1913

583
635

56.4
55.8

7
7

32
44

15
11

31
29

15
9

.291
.296

2
2

9
8

17
18

27
24

45
49

16.33
16.42

43 establishments...

1913
1915

493
480

56.2
56.1

8
8

34
34

11
17

31
22

16
19

.295
.283

2
4

8
12

16
22

27
22

46
41

16.46
15.78

62 establishments... 1915
Veneerers:
58 establishments... 1910
1911

755

55.3

8

47

333
317

58.8
58.4

94 establishments... 1911
1912

430
407

58.7
58.3

1

123 establishments..

1912
1913

563
698

58.3
57.2

2
3

117 establishments..

1913
1915

687
610

57.3
57.1

124 establishments.. 1915

640

16

15

13

.312

3

8

17

19

53

17.12

20
26

20
24

59
49

.200
.202

16
15

31
31

43
40

7
11

3
3

11.75
11.81

21
33

23
12

56
54

.206
.219

12
4

27
23

43
48

15
19

3
5

12.10
12.74

1
31

28
9

17
16

53
41

.213
.218

10
10

24
23

44
39

17
22

5
6

12.36
12.45

1
1

32
33

9
11

14
16

43
38

.217
.216

9
15

23
21

40
33

22
23

5
8

12.43
12.25

57.0

2

34

12

16

37

.218

14

21

33

23

9

12.34

Other employees, male:
240 establishments.. 1915 8,560 58.2
Other employees,female:
33 establishments. . 1915
325 j 54.1

3

23

12

15

47

.191

42

21

17

10

12

11.14

8

62

24

1

5

.145

64

23

9

2

1

7.83

In 1915 the average full-time weekly earnings of employees in the
selected occupations shown varied from $11.80 for finishers to $17.73
for hand carvers. The full-time hours in the different establishments




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— SUMMARY.

277

ranged from 44 to 60. An exception to this is the regular time of
watchmen, firemen, and some others who are included in “ other
em ployees/' and whose hours are often as high as 84, or in some
instances, 91 per week. The average full-time hours per week of all
employees for 1915 was 57.1.
In the years 1907 to 1912 it was not possible to get the wage data
for individual employees from all of the establishments canvassed,
hence the wage rates of employees in such establishments could not
be included in the tabulation of classified rates although included in
the average rates. The wage-rate percentages in the above table
are based on the employees for whom individual rates were secured.
As wages and hours differ in different establishments, the inclusion
or exclusion of any establishment in a group may raise or lower the
average for the group, so that exact comparisons can not be made
between the actual wages shown for different years unless the data
for the several years are from identical establishments. This is
Brought out on page 11. To aid in making comparisons where the
establishments are changing more or less from year to year relative
(or index) numbers have been computed from the averages in Table 1
for full-time hours per week, rates of wages per hour, and full-time
weekly earnings for each occupation and for the industry, for the
years 1910 to 1915, inclusive. These relative numbers, which are
shown in Table 2, following, are simply percentages in which the
figures for 1915 are taken as the base, or 100 per cent. Thus the facts
for each preceding year are brought into direct comparison with the
facts for the latest year available, namely, 1915. The relative for
each year preceding 1915 is the per cent that the average in that year
is of the average for 1915. For example, the table shows that the
relative full-time weekly earnings of machine hands in 1910 were 94
per cent of the weekly earnings in 1915. In 1911 they had increased
to 96 per cent, in 1912 they remained the same as in 1911, and in
1913 they had increased to 97 per cent of the earnings in 1915.
The relative number of full-time hours per week of machine hands
decreased from 104 in 1910 to 100 in 1915. That is, the average
full-time hours of work per week in 1910 were 104 per cent of the
average full-time hours in 1915. The heavy-faced figures of the
table are relative numbers, and may be read in like manner. The
method of computing these relative numbers from the averages of
the hours and wages shown in Table 1 is explained on pages 13 and 14.
In addition to the relative numbers in this table, percentages have
been computed showing the per cent of increase or decrease in 1915
as compared with each preceding year back to 1910, while in another
column is given the per cent of increase or decrease in each year
compared with the year immediately preceding.
Referring, for example, to the weekly earnings of finishers, it is
seen that in 1915 they were the same as in 1913, and 3 per cent higher




278

FURNITURE MANUFACTURING.

than in 1912, etc.; that they were 2 per cent higher in 1912 than in
1911, 3 per cent higher in 1913 than in 1912, and so on.
T a b l e « ^ -R E L A T IV E FU LL-TIM E HOURS PER W E E K , R A T E S OF W A G E S PER HOUR

AND FULL-TIM E W E E K L Y EARN IN GS, 1910 TO 1915, T O G E TH ER W IT H PER CENT OF
INCREASE OR DECREASE IN SPECIFIED Y E A R S , IN T H E PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS
AND T H E IN D U ST R Y .

Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Percent of in­
crease ( + ) or de­
crease ( —) i n -

Occupation and year.

Cabinetmakers:
1910.....................................
1911.....................................
1912.....................................
1913.....................................
1915.....................................
Carvers, hand:
1910......................................
1911......................................
1912.....................................
1913.....................................
1915.....................................
Chair assemblers:
1910.....................................
1911.....................................
1912.....................................
1913.....................................
1915.....................................
Finishers:
1910.....................................
1911.....................................
1912 ...................................
1913.....................................
1915......................................
Machine hands:
1910......................................
1911.....................................
1912.....................................
1913.....................................
1915.....................................
Upholsters:
1910 ...................................
1911.....................................
1912.....................................
1913.....................................
1915......................................
Veneerers:
1910.....................................
1911.....................................
1912.....................................
1913......................................
1915 .................................
The industry:
1910....................................
1911......................................
1912.....................................
1913.....................................
1915
...............................

Relar
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week
(1915=
100).

-3
—2
—2
—1

103
102
102
100
100

-3
—2
—2
0)

104
103
102
101
100

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or de­
crease ( —) in—

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or de­
crease ( —) i n -

Relar
Rela­
tive
tive
full­
Each
Each
Each
rate of 1915 as
1915 as speci­
time 1915 as speci­
speci­
wages
com­
weekly com­
fied
com­
fied
fied
per
pared year as
pared year as earn­
pared year as
hour
with
with
com­ (1915=
with
ings
com­
com­
each
each
each
pared
pared
pared (1915=
100).
speci­
speci­
with
speci­
with
100).
with
fied
fied
fied
year
year
year
year.
year.
pre­
year.
pre­
pre­
ceding.
ceding.
ceding.

103
102
102
101
100

101
102
101
100
100

Weekly earnings.

—2
_i
0)
_Q
—2
-—
1

104
103
102
101
100

-4
-3
—2
—1

102
102
101
100
100

—2
-2
-1

0)

104
103
102
100
100

-4
-3
-2
(*)

103
103
102
101
100

-3
-3
-2
-1

95
95
95
98
100

+
+
+
+

5
5
5
2

(,i 2
o

92
95
96
98
100

+
+
+
+

9
5
4
2

+i
—i
—i
0)

85
89
91
93
100

+18
+ 12
+10
+ 8

—1
—1
—1
—1

90
91
94
99
100

+ 11
+ 10
+ 6
+ 1

90
92
94
97
100

+ 11
+ 9
+ 6
+ 3

95
100
102
104
100

+ 5
0)

92
92
98
101
100

+
+
+
-

90
93
95
98
100

+11
+ 8
+ 5
+ 2

—i
—1

—i

—i

—i
—i

—l

(1! i
-1
0)
-1
-1
-2

0)
(,i l

-1
—1

- 2
—4
9
9
2
1

0)
(1)
+3
+2

97
97
97
98
100

+
+
+
+

3
3
3
2

+3
+1
+2
+2

95
96
98
98
100

+
+
+
+

5
4
2
2

+5
+2
+2
+8

86
91
92
93
100

+ 16
+ 10
+ 9
+ 8

95
95
97
100
100

+ 5

+ 1
+3
+5
+ 1

+ 5
+ 3
0)

+2
+2
+3
+3

94
96
96
97
100

+ 6
*f" 4
+ 4
+ 3

98
102
104
104
100

+ 2
- 2

+3
-1

95
96
101
102
100

+
+
-

5
4
1
2

+3
+2
+3
+2

95
96
97
99
100

+
+
+
+

5
4
3
1

+5

+2
+2
—4

{1K
+7

- 4
— 4

0)

(l)

+1
+2

+i

+2
C
1)
+2
+6
+ 1
+ 1
+8
(1)+ 2
„
+3

C
1)
+2

0)

+1
+3
+4
+2

0)- 4
+1
+5
+1
—2
+ 1
+ 1
+2
—1

* No change.

The general tendency is toward a reduction of hours and an increase
in wages. On account of reduced hours the increase in the full-time
weekly earnings is a little less than in the hourly rates.




FLUCTUATIONS IN EM PLO YM EN T DURING YEAR.

279

FLUCTUATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT DURING YEAR.
Data were obtained from 232 establishments concerning the
number of days the plant was in operation, the number of employees
on the pay roll, and the amount of the pay roll for each pay-roll
period for a year; there is also a statement of the number of days the
plant was closed during the year, by causes. Table 3 shows these
facts and also the percentages that the number of employees,
amount of pay rolls, and earnings per employee, respectively, for each
two weeks, are of the averages for the year. These data are given on
a two-week basis, because in a large number of establishments the
pay-roll periods cover two weeks and it was not practicable to sepa­
rate the figures so as to show them for one week; for establishments
with a weekly pay roll the wage payments for two consecutive weeks
were combined so as to place all establishments upon the same basis.
The column “ average days in operation” has reference to the estab­
lishment as a whole and not to the number of employees shown in the
next column. These average days are based on the running days of
the several establishments regardless of the number of employees in each.
The figures reflect considerable uniformity in the volume of employ­
ment during the first part of the year ending with May, 1915. The
low figures for the two-week period ending July 11 are probably caused
by the general shutdown over July fourth. But, beginning with the
latter part of December, 1914, there is shown a reduction in the num­
ber of employees, which extends throughout the remainder of the year
included in the table with the exception of the latter part of March
and the first of April. The fluctuations in the amount of earnings per
employee during the year are not so great as in the number of
employees and in the total pay rolls. In only four pay-roll periods
during the year do the average earnings in two weeks fall below $20,
while $20.65 is the average for the year.
T a b l e 3 .— A V E R A G E D A Y S

ESTABLISH M EN TS W E R E IN O PE R A T IO N , EM PLOYEES*
T O TA L P A Y R O LLS, A N D A V E R A G E EAR N IN G S PER EM P LO Y E E IN T W O W E E K S ,
FOR T H E Y E A R EN D IN G A P P R O X IM A T E L Y M AY 29, 1915, B Y T W O -W E E K PER IO D S.

Employees.
Average
Two-week period ending days in
approximately—
operation.
Number.

1914.
June 13...........
June 27...........
July 11............
July 25............
August 8........
August 22—
September 5 ..
September 19.
October 3.......




11.1
11.1
8.8
10.9
11.3
11.2
11.2
10.6
11.3

28,507
28,146
26,508
27.442
28,456
28,252
28,269
28,159
28,654

Average earnings per
employee in two
weeks.

Total pay rolls.

Per cent
of aver­
age for
year.

104
103
97
100
104
103
103
103
105

Amount.

$589,524.95
579,961.48
460,343.18
573,284.96
604,461.96
595,759.85
599,020.15
571,973.34
617,899.21

Per cent
of aver­
age for
year.

104
103
81
101
107
105
106
101
109

Amount.

$20.68
20.61
17.37
20.89
21.24
21.09
21.19
20.31
21.56

Per cent
of aver­
age for
year.

100
100
84
101
103
102
103
98
104

280

FURNITURE MANUFACTURING.

T a b l e 3.-— V E R A G E
A

D A Y S ESTABLISH M ENTS W E R E IN O P E R A T IO N , EM PLO YEE S!
TO TAL P A Y R O LLS, A N D A V E R A G E EAR N IN G S PE R E M P LO Y E E IN T W O W E E K S ,
FOR TH E Y E A R EN D IN G A P P R O X IM A T E L Y M A Y 29,1915, B Y T W O -W E E K PERIODS—
Concluded.

Two-week period ending Average
days in
approximately—
operation.
Number.

Average earnings per
employee in two
weeks.

Total pay rolls.

Employees.

Per cent
of aver­
age for
year.

Per cent
of aver­
age fQr
year.

Amount.

Per cent
of aver­
age for
year.

Amount.

1914.
October 17.........................
October 31........................
November 14...................
November 28...................
December 12....................
December 26....................

11.2
11.2
10.8
10.2
10.9
9.5

28,669
28,408
27,919
27,910
27,580
26,313

105
104
102
102
101
96

$622,523.86
616,904.94
584,929.29
554,779.66
587,423.45
512,606.34

110
109
103
98
104
91

$21.71
21.72
20.95
19.88
21.30
19.48

105
105
101
96
103
94

1915.
January 9 .........................
January 23.......................
February 6 ......................
February 20................. ..
March 6 ............................
March 20..........................
April 3 ............................
April 17.............................
May 1................................
May 15..............................
May 29..............................

7.2
10.5
10.7
11.0
10.9
11.2
11.1
11.1
11.1
11.1
11.1

23,970
25,991
26,792
26,892
27,152
27,341
27,270
26,993
26,531
26,028
26,120

88
95
9.8
98
99
100
100
99
97
95
96

369,092.54
523,027.93
560,812.27
577,116.09
572,632.77
591,275.16
589,587.84
573,391.81
560,631.96
552,363.83
553,045.49

65
93
99
102
101
105
104
101
99
98
98

15.40
20.12
20.93
21.46
21.09
21.63
21.62
21.24
21.13
21.22
21.17

75
97
101
104
102
105
105
103
102
103
103

Average for year..

10.7

27,318

100

565,168.24

100

20.65

100

The accompanying graphic chart is based on the percentages shown
in Table 3, and presents at a glance the trend of the items shown.
The change in the volume of employment during the year ending
with May, 1915, so far as this may be brought out b y the pay rolls,
is still further developed in Table 4.
TABLE 4 .—NU M BER OP ESTABLISH M ENTS H AV IN G LAR G E ST AN D

SM ALLEST P A Y

R OLLS IN M ONTHS SPECIFIED .

Number of establishments having— Number of establishments entirely closed
down in the month for—
Month.

Smallest
Smallest
Largest
jpay full-time
pay roll in actualm
roll
pay roll in
specified
specified
specified
months.
months.1 months.

One
week.

Two
weeks.

1914.
June.......................................
July ...................................
August.................................
September...........................
October................................
November............................
December............................

39
22
20
18
43
15
18

17
49
3
8
1
13
63

29
31
9
11
2
7
17

7
45
3
3
7
2
71

2
13
1
1
2
3
9

1915.
January................................
February..............................
March...................................
April.....................................
May.......................................

3
10
17
7
20

42
8
5
9
14

26
28
13
19
25

41
4
2
3
4

10
5
1
1
1

Total..........................

232

232

Three
weeks.

2 217

1

1

1
3
3

1
1

3
1
1

1 Not including pay-roll periods during which factory was idle all the time,
a Not including 15 establishments having no full-time pay rolls during the year.




Four
weeks.

1

C h art

C —FLUCTUATIONS IN NUMBER OP EMPLOYEES, TOTAL PAY ROLLS, AND BIW EEKLY EARNINGS PER EMPLOYEE.

FLUCTUATIONS
I EMPLOYMENT
N
DURING
YEAR.
281




282

FURNITURE MANUFACTURING.

The table shows for 232 establishments the months during which
the largest pay-roll, the smallest full-time pay-roll, and smallest
actual pay-roll periods occur, and the number of establishments
closed down entirely for one or more than one week each month.
Attention is called to the fact that the same month may show a
considerable number of both large and small pay rolls, because as a
rule each pay-roll period covers only one week or at most two weeks,
so that it is possible for an establishment to have a very large and a
very small pay roll in the same month.
Table 5 shows the number of days that each of the 232 establish­
ments reporting was in operation during the year and the number of
days each was idle, by specified causes. It will be seen that in addi­
tion to holidays and vacations, which are the result of custom or
of an accepted policy of the establishments, there was an average
of 25.2 days idleness per establishment on account of slack work.
This, taken in connection with the facts brought out by Table 3,
indicates a dullness in the industry which extended throughout the
year covered by the report. The total average days idle during the
year was 35.4.
T a b l e 5 .—N U M BER OF D A Y S ESTABLISH M EN TS W E R E IN O PE R A TIO N A N D NU M BER

OF D A Y S ID L E , B Y SPECIFIED CAUSES, D U R IN G Y E A R .

State and establishment
number.

Days in
operation
during
year of 52
weeks.

Illinois:
1............................................
2............................................
3............................................
4 ..........................................
5............................................
6............................................
7............................................
8............................................
9 ............................................
10............................................
11............................................
12............................................
13............................................
14............................................
15............................................
16............................................
17............................................
18............................................
19..........................................
20............................................
21............................................
22............................................
23............................................
24............................................
25............................................
Indiana:
26............................................
27............................................
28............................................
29............................................
30............................................
31............................................
32............................................
33............................................




1 Repairs.

Number of week days idle during year of 52
weeks on account of—
Holidays
and
vacations.

304
306
292
277
305
306
272
306
273
306
307
277
307
306
253
250
267
250
284
301
306
276
302
304
299

6
6
6
6
5
6
6
5
5
6
5
6
5
6
6
6
6
6
6
7
5
6
6
6
7

251
289
295
286
254
277
270
266

7
6

4
4
6
5
6
7

Slack
work.

Inventory.

Other
causes.

8

2
12
25

2
4
2

29
1
31

2
3

2i

3

i5

47
53
37
54
19

6
3
2
2
3
1

i3

1
27
3
42
5
9
19
40
23
31
27

Total
week days
idle during
year.

13

3
4
2
3
6

i6

212

4
3
12
7
2
6

* Inventory and repairs.

13
16

6
20
35
7
6
40
6
39
6
5
35
5
6
59
62
45
62
28
11
6
36
10
8
N13
61
23
17
26
58
35
42
46

283

FLUCTUATIONS IN EM PLO YM EN T DURING YEAR.
T

able

5

.—NUMBER OF DAYS ESTABLISHMENTS W ER E IN OPERATION AND NUMBER
OF DAYS IDLE, B Y SPECIFIED CAUSES, DURING Y E A R —Continued.

State and establishment
number.

Indiana—Concluded.
34............................
35.
36.
37.
40.
41..
42.
43.
44.
45..
46.
47..
4 9
5 0
Maryland:
5 1
5 2
5 3
5 4
5 5
5 6
5 7
5 8
Massachusetts:
5 9
60.
61.
62.
63.
64.
65.

66
.

67..
7 0
Michigan:
7 1

7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7

2
3
4
5

6
7
8
9

80

81........
83.
84.
85.

8.
6
87.

Missouri:
9 0
9 1
9 2
94.
95.
96.
97.

Days in
operation
during
year of 52
weeks.

Number of week days idle during year of 52
weeks on account of—
Holidays
and
vacations.

264
236
271
239
271
292
289
248
290
257
248
256
229
220
229
288
270

Inventory.

2 10

’ Vig
52
4 12

»11

31
52
42
50

a 21

66
8

'**2
6

59
18
26

249
275
307
305
243
303
283
307
271
302
304
289
245
304
230
285
275
295
299
266

«6
ai8

42

25

2

48
76
41
73
41

2
0

23
64
22
55
64
56
83
92
83
24
42

63
37
5
7

2

59

22
a1

44
• 18

41
10

8

23
67

8

82
27
37
17
13
46

52
10
26
47
24
65
15
42
34
60

260
302
286
265
288
247
297
270
278
252
306
272
289
275
306
237
295
262
286
256
227
275
245
224
300
302
219
217

Other

i 63

6

40
23
37

6

26
71
2
3
2

1
1

i Packing, moving,and resetting,60 days; death,3 <
* Repairs.
* Repairs and vacation.
« Not specified.




Slack
work.

Total
week days
idle during
year.

75
17
50
26

24

56
85
37
67
88

5
4

81
79

Si:
6 ’.

10 L

t Slack work and repairs,
>
e Repairs and installing new boiler.
7 Inventory and repairs.

1
2

10
93
95

284
T a b le

FURNITURE MANUFACTURING.
5.—NUMBER OF DAYS ESTABLISHMENTS W ER E IN OPERATION AND NUMBER
OF DAYS ID LE , B Y SPECIFIED CAUSES, DURING Y E A R —Continued.

State and establishment
number.

Days in
operation
weeks.

New York:
9 9
10 0
101.................
102.................
10 3
10 4
10 5
10 6
10 7
10 8
10 9
11 0

Holidays
and
vacations.

Slack
work.

Inventory.

301
277
272
293
287
305
300
298
276
302
291
305
261
266
298
302
286
303
256
289
296
293
302
299
284
300
243
302
285
291
276
299

6
5
5
6
6
6
6
8
7
6
7
8
6
8
6
8
7
5
7
7
5
7
10
6
7
6
5
6
8
7
3
6
6
8
5
8
5
8
5
6
5
5
6
6
8

236
271
203
195
173
229
265
229
179
224
184
223
182
247

3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3

301
280
200
303
277
270
266
285
178
278

1 1
1

21
3
6
7
17
22
41
10
6
84
19
3
10

2
12
12

23
28
6
8

6
4
6
4 12

1
9
24

6
7
4
6
5
6
6
9
5
5

25
102
3
16
36
40
15
111
27

4

1
2

29

2
0

i7
*1

5
*3

40
19
2
19
45
10
6
7
2
3
15
3
6 42
5
12
28
5

6
5
7

1
2

1
0
2
1
32

*2

7

7
51
46
14

1
0

26
9
56
23
16
19

1
0

5
5
4
21
12
3
1

1
1

14
36

5

5
22
6

23
13
23
28
55
19
15
90
26
16
16
35
40
19
25
7

15

13
28

«10

1
2
69
1
0
27
2
1
35
13

76
41
109
117
139
83
47
83
133

8
8

128
89
130
65

1
1

5

« Inventory and slack work.
&Slack work, Saturdays, etc.
6 Installing new machines, 7 days; death, 3 days.




Other
causes.

Total
week days
idle during
year.

73
38
106
114
136
80
44
80
130
85
125
86
*127
62

283
292
289
299
289
284
257
293
297
222

11 2
11 3
11 4
11 5
11 6
11 7
11 8
11 9
12 0
121.................
122.................
12 3
12 4
12 5
12 6
12 7
12 8
12 9
13 0
13 1
13 2
13 3
13 4
13 5
13 6
13 7
138...............
13 9
14 0
14 1
14 2
14 3
North Carolina:
14 4
14 5
14 6
14 7
14 8
14 9
15 0
15 1
15 2
15 3
15 4
15 5
15 6
15 7
Ohio:
15 8
15 9
16 0
161.................
162.................
16 3
16 4
16 5
16 6
167.................
i Fire.
* Repairs.
8 Death.

Number of week days idle during year of 52
weeks on account of—

6
14
3
12
2

26

7 Slack work and repairs.

32
112
9
35
42
46
27
134
34

285

FLUCTUATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT DURING YEAR.

T able 5.—NUMBER OF DAYS ESTABLISHMENTS W ERE IN OPERATION AND NUMBER
OF DAYS IDLE, B Y SPECIFIED CAUSES, DURING Y E A R —Concluded.

State and establishment
number.

Ohio—Concluded.
168...........................................
169...........................................
170..........................................
171...........................................
172...........................................
173..........................................
174..........................................
175..........................................
176...........................................
177..........................................
178..........................................
179..........................................
180..........................................
181..........................................
182..........................................
183..........................................
184..........................................
Pennsylvania:
185..........................................
186..........................................
187..........................................
188..........................................
189...........................................
190..........................................
191..........................................
192..........................................
193..........................................
194..........................................
195..........................................
196..........................................
197..........................................
198..........................................
199..........................................
200..........................................
201..........................................
202..........................................
203...........................................
204...........................................
205...........................................
206...........................................
207...........................................
208...........................................
20 9 .........................................
210..........................................
211..........................................
212...........................................
Tennessee:
213...........................................
214...........................................
215..........................................
216..........................................
217..........................................
218...........................................
Wisconsin:
219..........................................
220..........................................
221..........................................
222..........................................
223..........................................
224..........................................
225..........................................
226..........................................
227..........................................
228..........................................
229..........................................
230..........................................
231..........................................
232..........................................
Average.............................

Days in
operation
during
year of 52
weeks.

Holidays
and
vacations.

Slack
work.

Inventory.

284
273
290
243
272
270
305
300
288
274
219
273
298
260
297
297
284

10
6
6
5
6
6
7
6
6
6
6
5
7
6
8
4
6

1 17
22
10
45
34
31

301
301
305
306
306
220
283
298
305
305
235
276
300
254
297
260
306
304
279
302
299
299
307
305
294
303
296
296

5
7
7
3
6
6
5
7
7
7
5
5
5
5
4
5
6
8
5
5
5
7
5
5
5
4
10
6

268
289
308
302
200
205

3
3
3
3
4
3

41
20
1
7
108
104

307
281
297
294
297
307
302
259
303
299
274
309
299
304

4
5
4
6
6
5
5
6
5
6
6
2
5
6

1
26

276.6

5.9

25.2

Other
causes.

6
4

i Slack work and inventory.




Number of week days idle during year of 52
weeks on account of—

21
21
6
12

27

13
6
18
1

26

6

*1

72
31
7
53
5
47

8
27

1
2

33

1
0

6
2

13
13
5
7
18
9
16
16

2
7
5
8

44
23
4

1
0

112
107

5
31
15
18
15
5

ii
12

9

8 Repairs.

92
29
14
7
7
77
36
58
15
52

6

6

28
1
6

24
38
93
39
14
52
15
15
28

7

28
5
8
6

2
47
4

69
40

1
1
1
1
3

86
16

29

2
2
4
2
7
1
2

5
6

18
19
75
16
6
46
7
11
15

Total
week days
idle during
year.

1
0

3

53
9
13
38
3
13

7
4
2
2
3.1

1.2
3 Death.

35.4

286

FURNITURE MANUFACTURING.

As stated on page 5, data have been secured showing, for 1915,
the hours actually worked by employees. Table 6, which is a sum­
mary of General Table D, shows the number and per cent of employees
working certain classified percentages of full time, b y States. This
table is divided into two sections, one relating to employees whose
time was reported for one week, and the other relating to those
whose time was reported for two weeks in such a way that it could
not be divided. Two establishments having monthly pay rolls are
omitted altogether from this table.
T a b l e 6 .—NU M BER A N D PER CENT OF EM PLO YEES W O R K IN G EACH CLASSIFIED P ER

CENT OF FU LL TIM E, B Y STATES, 1915.
[This table includes data from all establishments from which information was secured for 1915, except 2
establishments having monthly pay rolls.]

O n e -w e e k pay r o lls .

Employees working each classified per cent of full time.

State.

Num­ Num­
ber of ber of
estab­ em­
lish­ ploy­
ments. ees. #

100 per cent
ana over.

Under 100
per cent.

Under 75
per cent.

Under 50
per cent.

Under 25
per cent.

Num­
ber.
Illinois...............
Indiana..............
Maryland..........
Michigan...........
Missouri.............
North Carolina.
Ohio...................
Pennsylvania..
Wisconsin.........
Massachusetts..
New Y ork........
Tennessee.........
Total.......

Per
cent.

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

Num­
ber.

1,260
2,408
443
2,583
91
63
1,431
1,748
561
1,398
4,129
458

712
416
184
283
11
6
588
659
256
405
1,577
161

57
17
42
11
12
10
41
38
46
29
38
35

548
1,992
259
2,300
80
57
843
1,089
305
993
2,552
297

43
83
58
89
88
90
59
62
54
71
62
65

142
587
55
321
35
50
250
324
84
312
579
117

11
24
12
12
38
79
17
19
15
22
14
26

58
100
23
37

5
4
5
1

11
34
4
12

4

4

86
60
18
93
139
37

6
6
3
3
7
3
8

12
22
5
30
42
17

6
1
1
1
2
1
4

163 16,573

5,258

32 11,315

68

2,856

17

655

4

193

1

9
24

7
14
2
1
25
14
4
12
45
6

Per
cent.
1
1
1
0)

T w o -w e e k pay r o lls .

Illinois...............
Indiana.............
Maryland _____
Michigan...........
Missouri............
North Carolina.
Ohio...................
Pennsylvania..
Wisconsin.........
Total

16
1
1
6
7
16
4
14
10

1,584
495
186
1,025
514
1,157
289
1,424
2,070

151
10
21
220
201
32
19
216
670

10
2
11
21
39
3
7
15
32

1,433
485
165
805
313
1,125
270
1,208
1,400

90
98
89
79
61
97
93
85
68

452
99
16
169
180
663
33
527
239

29
20
9
16
35
57
11
37
12

172
21

11

4

19
6

1
1

92
14
179
18
156
82

2
9
3
15
6
11
4

16
7
52
9
33
29

2
1
4
3
2
1

75

8,744

1,540

18

7,204

82

2,378

27

738

8

171

2

4

1 Less than 1 per cent.

Table 7 shows, b y States, the number of employees in the industry
as reported by the United States Census Office, 1910, the number of
establishments from which the bureau secured data for 1915, and the
number of employees for whom data are shown in this report:




FLUCTUATIONS IN EM PLO YM EN T DURING YEAR.

28 7

T a b l e 7 .— T O T A L N U M B ER OF EM PLO Y EES IN F U R N IT U R E M AN U FACTU R IN G , AN D

NU M BER OF E M P LO Y E E S FO R W H IC H D A T A A R E SH O W N FOR 1915.

State.

Establishments a n d
employees for which
Number of
data for 1915 are
employees
shown in this report.
reported by
united
States
Number of
Census,
establish­ Number of
1910.
employees.
ments.

New York..........................
Michigan............................
Illinois................................
Indiana...............................
Wisconsin..........................
Pennsylvania....................
Ohio.....................................
Massachusetts...................
North Carolina.................
Missouri..............................
Tennessee..........................
Maryland............................
Other States......................

19,619
15,171
13,310
10,745
10,583
9,733
8,019
7,148
5,533
3,368
2,303
1,856
16,038

45
20
25
25
16
28
29
12
17
9
6
8

4,129
3,608
2,887
2,903
2,854
3,172
1,720
1,398
1,220
605
458
622

Total........................

123,426

240

25,576

According to the census of 1910 more than 87 per cent of the total
number of employees in the industry are found in the States in which
the establishments furnishing information to the Bureau of Labor
Statistics are located. The number of employees for whom the
bureau secured 1915 data, and for whom detailed information for
1915 is presented in this report, is equal to 20.7 per cent of the total
number in the industry in 1909 (the year to which the census figures
apply).
DESCRIPTION OF THE INDUSTRY AND THE PRINCIPAL
PRODUCTIVE OCCUPATIONS.
This report includes only data from establishments manufacturing
household furniture, including bedroom, dining-room, and parlor
suites, library and hall pieces, tables, chairs, etc., and in a few instances
from those making office desks, tables, and chairs. Establishments
manufacturing metallic furniture and those which make a specialty
of expensive made-to-order articles have not been included.
Apart from the varying character of the output, which is influenced
to some extent by local conditions as to timber and labor supply as
well as by local market demands, few differences are found in furnituremanufacturing establishments in different sections of the country.
Much the same processes and much the same kinds of machinery are
employed everywhere. A workman from a furniture factory in one
of the North Atlantic or North Central States would find little
difficulty in adapting himself to conditions in a similar establishment
located in a South Central or South Atlantic State, and vice versa.
The occupation terms and the operations embraced under such terms
are practically identical in all sections.
100581°— 1S— Bull. 225----- V,0




288

FURNITURE MANUFACTURING.

The work of furniture making, as observed everywhere, falls
roughly into three principal divisions: Machine work, cabinetmaking, and finishing. Upholstering forms another division of
work in many establishments, while the increasing amount of veneered
furniture being turned out has led to the creation of veneering
departments in some of the larger plants.
In the machine department the rough lumber is cut and dressed,
and the various parts which enter into the completed piece are
fashioned. Employees in this department are classed either as
machine hands or helpers, in many cases the line of demarcation
between the two classes being a very vague one, since it is often the
practice gradually to promote helpers to positions as machine opera­
tors as they develop sufficient skill for the work. In addition to the
helpers on machines there is usually a number of common laborers,
whose work consists in handling heavy materials, sweeping floors,
and making themselves generally useful. Regarding the pay of
machine woodworkers it has been observed that length of service
with the establishment and general proficiency are as a rule more
important factors in determining the wages of a workman than is
the mere fact that he happens to be operating a particular kind of
machine. For this reason a classification of machine hands according
to machines operated would be of little, if any, value.
In the cabinetmaking department the pieces of furniture are assem­
bled or set up. In some lines of product, as in the manufacture of
extension tables of the cheaper grades, the work of the cabinetmaker is
quite simple and requires little skill, consisting merely in fitting together
the parts of tops, pedestals, etc. Men engaged in this kind of work,
while not cabinetmakers in the strict sense of the term, are generally
so designated in the trade. In some localities the term “ case fitters ”
is applied to men doing cabinetwork. In chair factories the duties of
the chair assembler correspond in a general way to those of the cabi­
netmaker in case-goods establishments. This work consists in gluing
and fitting together the different parts of the chair, a frame being used
to hold the parts in proper shape until the glue is dry. A variety of
terms, such as “ framers,” “ stoolers,” “ chair makers,” “ drivers up,”
etc., is used to describe this class of workmen in different establish­
ments. In many factories, particularly those making the heavier
and more expensive grades of chairs, as at Grand Rapids, the desig­
nation cabinetmakers, instead of chair assemblers, is in common use.
It should be emphasized in this connection that few all-round, skilled
cabinetmakers, as the term was formerly employed, are now found in
furniture-manufacturing establishments, the introduction of improved
labor-saving machinery and the modern tendency toward speciali­
zation in industry, with the desire to effect a lowering of the cost of




DESCRIPTION OF PRINCIPAL PRODUCTIVE OCCUPATIONS.

289

production, having caused such workmen to be replaced in large
measure by a cheaper type of labor.
The finishing department, as the term implies, is where the assem­
bled j&ace of furniture is given its final treatment before being packed
for shipment. The finishing process includes staining, filling, sanding,
varnishing, and, in furniture of the better grades, rubbing and
polishing. In a few establishments there has been noticed a tendency
to restrict the term “ finisher” to the men doing varnish work only,
but in the vast majority of furniture plants it is now used to include
all persons in the finishing department except those classed as
“ common labor.” In some factories located in the North Central
States women and girls have been found among the workers in the
varnishing room, but this work is usually performed by males.
Practically all of the work of the other occupations is done by
males. The few females employed are shown in the tables under
4 other employees.” Detailed data are shown in this report for
4
eight occupations. Brief descriptions of these occupations and
processes follow:
CABINETMAKERS.

These men assemble the parts that have been cut and dressed in
the machine department. They are often designated as “ bench
hands” or “ carpenters.” Their w;ork is necessarily done by hand,
though in some cases clamps or other devices are used for forcing
joints up tight. These joints are held together with glue, or iron
braces screwed to each section at point of union. The work consists
in fitting together the parts that form a complete piece of furniture.
This occupation includes also builders of heavy and expensive
chairs. They are known as cabinetmakers on the pay rolls, and
the class of work would give them that designation, as such work is
of a much higher class than the construction of many other pieces
of furniture. The good construction of high-grade chairs is con­
sidered a test of workmanship.
On the simple kinds of work, such as is found in table factories
and any large plant, specializing is practiced to a great extent.
This enables the operator to become thoroughly acquainted with
every necessary movement. He can therefore accomplish more
than if he were shifted from one kind of work to another; but with­
out the knowledge of other kinds of work, he is of less value to his
employer.
There are now very few all-round cabinetmakers, in the sense in
which the term was formerly used.
Very little manual labor is connected with this occupation, but
considerable skill and experience are required on certain classes of
work, the simpler kinds going to the less capable men.




290

FURNITURE MANUFACTURING.

CABVEBS, HAND.

This occupation is being largely superseded by machine carving,
though in establishments producing high-grade furniture many hand
carvers are still employed. Hand carving requires a high degree of
skill and some artistic ability. It consists in carving or fashioning de­
signs in wood for ornamental purposes, as the arms and backs of chairs,
the posts and headboards of beds, the feet of cabinets, panels in
sideboards, etc. The work is done with highly tempered steel
chisels, or knives with curved, straight, or “ V-shaped” edges, and
a mallet. Carved work is often roughed out on a machine and
finished by hand. Hand carvers usually command good wages.
CABVEBS, MACHINE.

The carving machine is usually arranged to hold four new pieces
and the pattern. The copies are derived from the original pattern,
by causing this pattern to control the movements of the revolving
tools (one against each new piece). The operator traces every
outline of the pattern and in doing so the revolving tools of the
other four pieces make the same impressions, curves, etc., as shown
by the pattern.
This machine enables the carver to reproduce the pattern any num­
ber of times in succession. The work is usually gone over by hand
carvers for slight imperfections.
Other devices, operated on the order of a lathe, holding only one
piece of wood, are used; this revolves against set chisels that are
guided by automatic slide rests. These rests force the chisels into
or guide them from the material, thus giving a square, round, or
varied product according to the set pattern of the slides.
One of the most skilled machine hands is generally assigned to
these machines. There is practically no labor attached to the work.
CHAIR ASSEMBLERS.

In the manufacture of chairs the work of the chair assembler
corresponds in a general way to that of the cabinetmaker in case
goods. In many of the factories producing the finer grades of
chairs this work is called cabinetmaking, and such employees have
been so classified in this report. “ Chair assembling,” as applied
to lower grade chairs, is an appropriate term to indicate the kind of
work done, although this term is not in common use. Most of the
shaping operations on the different parts of the chair are performed
in the machine department. The chair assembler, however, usually
does some machine work, as boxing, mortising, etc., the amount of
which depends on the extent to which division of labor is carried.
Ordinarily chair assembling is done by a group of several men work­
ing together. When all parts of the chair have finally been shaped




DESCRIPTION OF PRINCIPAL PRODUCTIVE OCCUPATIONS.

291

and fitted, tiie dowel pins are glued in and the different pieces are
put together and placed in a press or clamp, which holds them
firmly in place until the glue has had time to harden. In the case
of flush joints the chair assembler shaves or trims the parts forming
the joint until they are smooth. Frame makers, who may be in­
cluded with chair assemblers, fit up and put together the frames
for chair seats. Much of their work, as sawing, boring, mortising,
etc., is done on machines.
The skill and experience required for this work depend upon the
grade of chair which is being built and upon whether the materials
have been properly cut and fitted in the machine department.
Very little manual labor is necessary.
FINIS HER S •

The term ‘ ‘finisher/’ as used in this report, includes all classes of
skilled or semiskilled workmen in the finishing department. Ordi­
narily the first operation in finishing is staining, which is done by
dipping the piece into a vat of stain or, if the piece is large, rubbing
the stain in with a brush or rag. The piece is next filled to close up
the pores. This is done by rubbing in a mineral filling with a rag.
Staining and filling are usually regarded as semiskilled occupations,
although in many establishments the work is done largely by unskilled
help. After the filling is completed the article is sanded, to make
it smooth. This is generally done by boys or unskilled men. It is
next treated with shellac and then sanded again, after which it is
ready for the vamisher. Usually from one to three coats of varnish
are applied, depending on the degree of “ finish” desired. Between
coats of varnish it is rubbed with oil or water and rotten stone, or
is sandpapered. Polishers or rubbers, who do the final finishing, are
often highly skilled men and are well paid. In some establishments
the rubbing of flat surfaces is done by machines. The rubbing or
polishing device has a rapid b ack-and-forth movement and may be
shifted at will by the operator. It makes the work much easier than
when done by hand. Spraying machines for applying varnish by
means of compressed air have been found in use in a few factories.
The above operations, with some variations, comprise the finishing
work in all furniture establishments. In the treatment of chairs and
tables of the cheaper grades the varnish is usually applied by dipping.
Grain printing, which may be considered a finishing process, is done
by running the piece to be grained, if it is flat, between two rollers,
one of which is made of gelatin, with its surface so prepared that it
prints an imitation grain upon the part coming in contact with it.
Irregular surfaces and edges are grained by being held against the
roller. An inking device keeps the gelatin roller constantly inked.
Usually the parts that have been grained are shellacked and allowed




292

FURNITURE MANUFACTURING.

to dry thoroughly before being put together. Hand sanders and all
other unskilled employees have been excluded from finishers in the
present report.
MACHINE HANDS.

These men operate various types of power-driven machines and
often shift from one machine to another, according to the exigencies
of their work. The principal machines used in furniture manufac­
ture are the boring machine, carver, dovetailer, jointer, or facer,
molding machine, mortiser, planer, router, sander (belt or drum), saw
(band, cut-off, jig, miter, rip, etc.), scraper, sticker, tenoner, and
turning lathe. A machine called the “ universal woodworker,”
built on the plan of a planer or jointer, is used in some factories. This
machine is adapted to a number of different uses, as grooving, rabbet­
ing, crosscutting, ripping, dadoing, routing, panel raising, etc.
In the collection of data on the wages and hours of labor of machine
hands, for inclusion in the present report, care was taken to confine
the information entirely to men engaged in the actual operation of
machines; persons classed as helpers, learners, unskilled laborers, etc.,
being omitted in all cases.
UPHOLSTERERS.

There is much specialization in this occupation at the present time,
and few all-round upholsterers are now found. In many establish­
ments the work is divided into processes, all more or less simple, in
which much unskilled labor can be employed. Thus, spring setting,
pad making, sewing, etc., represent distinct subdivisions of upholster­
ing in many chair and lounge factories. The persons doing this work,
usually boys or women, can not be regarded as upholsterers in the
strict sense of the term and are not included as such in this report.
The all-round upholsterer cuts the materials, puts in the springs and
fillings, makes the tufts, and performs all the other operations of
upholstering. He is usually assisted by one or more helpers. Only
men of this class rank as regular upholsterers. In many lounge
factories a tufting device is now used which enables this work to be
done much more quickly and easily than by hand.
VENEERERS.

The work of veneering is that of overlaying or facing wood of a
less expensive quality with a thin piece of a finer or more beautiful
kind.
The processes in the veneering department include the cutting,
matching, and jointing of the veneer, the spreading of the glue either
by hand or by machine (usually a roller of gelatine revolving in a glue
tank) on the piece, the laying on of the veneer, and the placing of the
veneered pieces in a press which forces the veneer down tight against




DESCRIPTION’ OF PRINCIPAL PRODUCTIVE OCCUPATIONS.

293

the solid wood, and finally the shifting of the press load to a retainer,
where it is left until the glue is thoroughly dried. Owing to the grow­
ing scarcity of woods and the improvement in methods of veneering,
this occupation is becoming a very important one in the furniture
industry. Many establishments now have distinct veneering depart­
ments, employing a considerable number of men at good wages.
Cutting and matching the veneer is considered highly skilled work,
and is usually done by a man who does nothing else. Common labor­
ers, employed solely to handle materials, are not regarded as veneerers
and have not been included.
Under “ other employees ” are included lumber handlers, machinehand helpers, truckers, packers or craters, laborers, and all employees
not included in the selected occupations described above.
In addition to the text tables already shown four general tables are
presented as follows :
Table A .—Average and classified full-time hours per week and rates
of wages per hour, and average full-time weekly earnings, in the
United States, by years, 1907 to 1915.
Table B .—Average and classified full-time hours per week and rates
of wages per hour, and average full-time weekly earnings, in each
State, by years, 1913 and 1915.
Table C.—Average and classified full-time hours per week and rates
of wages per hour, and average full-time weekly earnings, by States,
1915.
Table D .—Average full-time hours, average hours actually worked,
and number of employees working each classified per cent of full time,
by States, 1915.




AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK AND RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AND AVERAGE
FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1915.

294

T a b l e A .— AVERAGE

The figures opposite each group of years are for identical establishments. When a second line is shown for 1915 it contains all data secured for 1915, whether or not comparable
data for 1913 were available. Complete data for years prior to 1913 not available from all establishments. See Table 1 and explanation following.!

Num­
ber
of
Year. employ-

156
99
121
154

102
45
85
140

77
130
138
155

58.0
57.7

.231 13.28
.232 13.29

161
114

209
302

271

17
24

2,455
2,427

58.3
58.1

.233 13.46
.232 13.43

108
106

481

478
331

24
23

1912
1913

2,
3,184

58.1
57.2

13.20
13.30

125
127

106
801

537
272

489

58

23
20

1913
1915

2,811
2,735

57.2
56.9

.233 13.24
13.54

97

37
109

823
718

230
285

346
342

20

632
771

112 establishments

1910
1911

1,801
1,846

169 establishments

1911
1912

171 establishments
203 establishments,
Carvers, hand:
25 establishments..

65 establishments..
76 establishments..
82 establishments..
80 establishments..
97 establishments..




1915
1907
1908
1909
1910

3,176
127
151
148

54.2
54.5
53.0
52.7

13.62

57.0

1910
1911
1911
1912

315
345
367
334

56.1
55.5
56.2
56.3

1912
1913
1913
1915

350
355
352
290

56.3
55.1
55.2
55.2

1915

321

55.5

.311
.314
.326
.338
.313
.322

.312 17.28
.315 17.
.313 17.44
.319 17.41
.317 17.32
.325 17.77
.322 17.73

19

850

335

404

49
33
48
48
52
45
64
40

109

16.86
17.11
17.28
17.81
17.36
17.57

4
4
3
4

61
62

67
41
42

207
142
150

313
263
284

220
201

728
940

916
715

323
341

31
70

1
11
11

234 1,105

856

408

74

39
27
31

75
62

200
161

72

176

24
18
19

26
32
30
22

27
45

5
11

45
64

40
180

10
16

1
1
1
1

65
10

190
135
139

12

1
2
3

5
6
6

8
14
14

MANUFACTURING.

56.7 $0,235 $13.32
13.08
57.1
12.97
56.9
56.7 .237 13.44

1907
1908
1909
1910

199 establishments

Aver­ Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—
age
full­
16
18
30
40
20
12
14
time
25
Over 57
48 Over 51
50
Un­ and and and and and and and and
54
week­
48
and
and
and
Over der under under under under under under under under cents
54
and under
and
ly
and
12
per earn- un­
under
60.
50
18
30
16
40
20
25
14
under 60.
hour.
der. under 54.
cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. over.
57.
51.

Aver­
age
rate
of

FURNITURE

Cabinetmakers:
50 establishments.

Average
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Chair assemblers:
6 establishments...

1910
1911

165
141

57.7
58.0

.193 11.16
.202 11.73

15 establishments..

1911
1912

227
237

58.3
57.8

.202 11.77
.206 11.86

5
5

11

23 establishments..

1912
1913

453
519

57.8
57.3

.193 11.10
.199 11.32

22
20

11

23 establishments..

1913
1915

562
497

57.5
57.5

.197 11.27
.211 12.06

20
21

31 establishments..
Finishers:
52 establishments..

1915

591

57.6

.211 12.09

1907
1908
1909
1910

1,217
927
1,127
1,164

57.3
57.5
57.3
57.3

.197
.201
.195
.199

11.29
11.56
11.17
11.40

21
19
16
19

21
14
27
22

1910 3.132
1911 13,206

58.5
58.0

,195 11.40
.198 11.43

19
17

45
51

40
31

40
46

71
81

41
41

no
99

1
73

91
76

201
293

127
57

72
55

76
71

285
236

109
114

9
3

48
37

74
49

113
103

58
45

164
142

62
58

33
52

1
6

2

8

55

51

109

53

173

68

64

7

3

78
82

172
131

473
579

832
788

681 1,879
599 1,756

788
831

222
219

7
10

5

94

147

610

816

630 1,834

903

251

10

5

32
31

214
158

685
445

955
758

496 2,248 1,495
409 1,778 1,348

536
583

24
39

1
12

32

191

523

782

418 1,839 1,387

594

39

12

55

101

247

187

256
164
200
210

201
159
220
210

223
200
230
284

489
368
434
419

23

214
224

442
662

584 1,787
718 1,473

41
38

647
202
207 1,054

21
6
3

1911
1912

4,407
4,357

58.5
58.1

.194 11.31
.200 11.55

17
17

48
49

19
94

884 2,552
646 2,253

38
37

228 establishments.

1912
1913

5,290
5,287

58.2
57.2

.197 11.44
.207 11.81

17
6

83
68

193 1,088 1,164 2,611
97
554 1,273 1,772
49 1,536

37
29

219 establishments.

1913
1915

5.132
5,000

57.3
56.9

.206 11.79
.208 11.76

6
22

39
97

472
584

767 2,147
716 1,880

29

108 1,667

37 1,635
108 1,593

238 establishments.
Machine hands:
51 establishments..

1915

5,300

56.9

.208 11.80

22

97

665

741 2,000

1907
1908
1909
1910

1,347
1,047
1,153

h

58.2
58.1
57.9
57.4

.211
.212
.214
.219

12.28
12.32
12.39
12.57

10
9
10
9

34
36
38
38

7
8
3
3

135
97
117
127

192
116
149
214

246
273
299
369

121 establishments.

1910
1911

3,151
3,107

58.7
58.3

.212 12.39
.216 12.55

9
9

49
49

3
35

135
109

422
.525

648 1,817
788 1,515

68
77

192 establishments.

1911
1912

4,855
4,797

58.8
58.4

.211 12.35
.216 12.39

9
7

67
49

19
63

107
155

634
987

995 2,947
761 2,694

77
81

226 establishments.

1912
1913

6,212
6,700

58.5
57.6

.211 12.30
.218 12.50

7
8

93
82

168 1,062 1,589 3,149
63
665 1,844 2,542
100 1,401

81
58

223 establishments.

1913
1915

6,686
5,561

57.8
57.5

.217 12.49
.224 12.82

8
11

46
90

73 1,551
78 1,268

525 1,242 3,183
734
879 2,501

58

232 establishments.

1915

5,817

57.5

.223 12.74

11

•90

78 1,293

787

TABLES.

192 establishments.

GENEBAL

128 establishments.

85
64

879 2,679

295




723
508
537
479

AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK AND RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AND AVERAGE
FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1915—Concluded.
Num­
ber
of
Year. employ-

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—

Employees whose full-time hours per week were—

4 Over 51
8 48
and
and
un­ and under
der. under 54.
51.

Over 57
54
and
and under
under
57.

54

Over
60.

383
310
307
325

53.6 $0,300
53.5 .298
53.8 .296
53.8 .311

204
163
161
174

38 establishments.

1910
1911

501
518

55.0
54.7

.297
.312

216
231

79

49 establishments...

1911
1912

558
552

55.8
55.5

.300
.307

233
192

87

97

111
100

54 establishments...

1912
1913

.291

635

56.4
55.8

184
279

88
71

182
183

43 establishments___

1913
1915

493
480

56.2
56.1

.283

167
165

56
83

154
104

1915

755

55.3

.312 17.12

356

123

112

1910
1911

333
317

58.4

.200
.202

1911
1912

430
407

58.7
58.3

.206
.219

1912
1913

563

58.3
57.2

.213
.218
.217
.216

62 establishments___
Veneerers:
58 establishments...
94 establishments-..
123 establishments...
117 establishments...
124 establishments..,
Other employees, male:
240 establishments...
Other employees, female:
33 establishments___




20

1
1

67
84
49

218

155
62

94
111

221
203

64
68

1913
1915

610

57.3
57.1

1915

640

57.0

.218

4

215

75

1915

8,560

58.2

.191

100

1,940

325

54.1

.145

22

201

78

225
210

131

20

181
150

142

257

1
120

22

16

274
280
233

5

74

68
57

274
204

153
139

35
46

237

5

78

59

214

144

52

3

351 1,437

1,155 1,181

576 1,418

823

719

187

30

7

2

996

1915

101

135
105

186
140

89
133
45

104

100

16

62

104

72

33

47

29

1

101

MANUFACTURING.

1907
1908
1909
1910

16
18
12
14
20
30
40
25
50
Un­
and and
and and
der and and and under under and under under cents
under
and
12 under under under
50
18
40
14
16
30
20
25
over
cents.
cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents.

FURNITURE

Upholsterers:
19 establishments...

Average
full­
time
hours
per
week.

296

T a b l e A.— AVERAGE

T a b l e B .— AVERAGE

AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK AND RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AND AVERAGE
FULL-TIJitE WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH STATE, BY YEARS, 1913 AND 1915.
[The figures for both years are for identical establishments.]

CABINETMAKERS.

State and number of estab­
lishments.

Indiana:
20 establishments.

Massachusetts:
7 establishments..
Michigan:
16 establishments.
Missouri:
5 establishments..
New York:
35 establishments.
North Carolina:
11 establishments.
Ohio:
17 establishments.
Pennsylvania:
20 establishments.

58.1 $0,272
57.4 .272

1913
1915

59.0
58.2

.224
.243

56.5
55.5

294

14
26

.206
.204

1913
1915

116
96

50.7
50.1

485
426

54.2
54.1
60.0
58.1

6
14

3

24
21

21
20

12

.222
.240

1913
1915

526
480

55.
55.7

.240
.243

1913
1915

172
131

59.9
60.0

158
134

58.9
56.5

.244

1913
1915

312

58.5
58.6

.220
.207

83
58

12
20

78
92

93
100

98
90

6
17

1

1
2

15
10

48
23

27
16

119
126

61
88

23
37

200
165

3

22
13

5

2

2

11
7

13
12

8
5

22
16

14
13

2
1

1
3

6
1

22
21

24
10

44
20

18
34

1
7

20
2

171
115

222
186

68
111

1
11

1

7
2

11
2

7
7

11
14

10
11

9
8

1

12
4

20

1

37
19

51
42

193
197

182
173

46
44

5
1

53
30

58
31

42
36

5
11

9
14

6
4
411
376

74
50
1

57
30

14
1.52

9
7

199
207

24
94

13
8

13
48

153
99

40
45

10
4

162
127

25
29

13
46

116
33

2

1
3

8
4

5
3

71
59

52
52

19
13

65
101

110
75

137
217

1
2

39
34

75
83

34
38

111
170

43
50

9
15

.150
.156

1913
1915

14
26

2
3

3

15
14
32
28

.257
.277

1913
1915

70
15

8

.312
.351

1913
1915

68

1

2

12
10

23

308
277

4
1

5
9

1

297




1913
1915

330

Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—
Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
Aver­ Aver­
age
age full­
rate
12
16
18
14
20
30
40
25
time
Over 57
Un­
48 Over 51
of
50
48
and and and and and and and and cents
54
wages week­ and
Over der
and
and
54
under under under under under under under under
and under 60
ly
12
per
un­ and under
60.
and
18
14
16
20
30
40
50
25
under
cents.
hour. earn­ der. under 54.
60.
cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. over.
57.
ings.
51.

TABLES.

Maryland:
6 establishments..

1913
1915

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week.

GENERAL

Illinois:
17 establishments.

Num­
ber
of
Year. em­
ploy-

B.—
AVERAGE AND

CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK AND RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AND AVERAGE
FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH STATE, BY YEARS, 1913 AND 1915—Continued.

298

T a b le

CABINETMAKERS— Concluded.

State and number of estab*
lishments.

Num­
ber
of
Year. em­
ploy­
ees.

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

240
268

59.9
59.8

2,811
2,735

57.2
56.9

.233 13.24
.239 13.54

Over 57
54
and and
under under
60.
57.

54

.192 11.49
.197 11.80

Total:
171 establishments. 1913
1915

48 Over 51
48
and and and
un­
under under
54.
der.
51.

83
67

I
12
16
18
14
20
25
30
40
Un­
50
and and and and and and and and
Over der
cents
12 under under under under under under under under and
60.
14
16
18
25
20
30
40
50
cents.
cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. over

60

97
98

37
109

823
718

230
285

18
10

222
249

346 1,244
342 1,157

20

5
11

16
12

12
11

5
9

35
25

7
4

46
36

54
63

40
47

74
91

20
28

5
2

1

207
142

313
263

220
201

916
940

728
715

323
341

31
70

1
11

1

1
4

7
3

18
17

40
59

6
1

1

2

5
2

2
2

10
6

1

1

4
2

4
3

9
5

8
12

2
2

9

1

8
5
1

83
67

60.0 $0.187 $11.22
60.0 .184 11.02

14
26

Employees whose rates of wages per hour wera—

3
5

95
67

3
5

1

1

12
9

23
16

39
18

2
4

1

6
2

7
7

1
2

2
1

67
41

CARVERS, HAND.
Illinois:
15 establishments.............

1913
1915
Indiana:
7 establishments............... 1913
1915
Massachusetts:
5 establishments............... 1913
1915
Michigan:
14 establishments............. 1913
1915
New York:
18 establishments............. 1913
1915
Ohio:
7 establishments............... 1913




1915

72
86

4
10

56.3 $0,310 $17.37
56.1 .313 17.54

20
10

56.1
56.8

.276 15.50
.283 16.11

25
23

45.3
46.7

.431 19.31
,472 21.79

103
80

54.0
54.0

.334 18.06
.342 18.45

77
47

56.5
56.6

.301 16.91
.299 16.81

17
13

59.8
58.2

.274 16.40
.290 16.90

3
3

22
15

1
6

’ 38
36

30
37

9

2
3

4

1
1

6
3
1
1

103
80
4
5

35
15

1
4

33
17

4
6

4
8

13
5

1

MANUFACTURING,

Tennessee:
5 establishments............... 1913
1915
Wisconsin:
12 establishments............. 1913
1915

Employees whose full-time hours per week were—

FUBNITUBE

Aver­ Aver­
age
age
full­ rate
time
of
hours wages
per
per
week. hour.

Pennsylvania:
10 establishments............
Wisconsin:
3 establishments...........

1913
1915

25
19

57.1
57.9

.277 15.84
.271 15.72

5

9
9

1913
1915

U
10

59.9
59.5

.289 17.34
.286 17.03

1

2
2

59.5
55.0

.229 13.63
.237 13.01

2

352
290

55.2
55.2

.317 17.32
.325 17.77

1913
1915
Total:
80 establishments.. 1913
1915

.

10
9

1

2

22
15

5
16

8
9

190
135

10
16

5
7

11
5

9
5

1

2
1

5
8

1

Other States:

6
2

6
7

2
1

1
1

1
1

1
1
1
2

69
69

48
30

5
6

39
27

75
62

200
161

24
18

8
14

40
32

20

79
70

6
12

3
20

6

1

1

CHAIR ASSEMBLERS.

Total:
23 establishments.. 1913
1915

57.4 $0,191 $10 93
57.1 .224 12.75

20
21

18

126
89

55.2
55.1

.232 12.80
.234 12.86

61
45

84
56

58.3
58.0

.189 10.92
.205 11.83

11
10

57
40

58.6
58.7

.137
.131

36
32

58.7
58.7

62
93

124
94

2*!
37

5
2

16

2

14
14

22
12

39
25

34
23

14
15

13
1

17
12

24
17

7
7

8
5

9
8

6
6

7
5

9
10

9
8

65
44
73
46
11
9

19
12

13
3

33
28

7
3

25
29

17
5

8
3

.227 13.29
.232 13.56

30
25

6
7

2

5
5

3
3

1
1

59.5
59.2

.184 10 95
.184 10.90

20
51

42
42

14
17

23
35

5
11

19
29

1
1

25
17

57.5
57.5

.214 12.30
.269 15.47

25
17

2

3
1

4

12
8

3
.4

1
3

562
497

57.5
57.5

.197 11.27
.211 12.06

113
103

58
45

164
142

62
58

33
52

8.02
7.67

20
21

72
55

76
71

285
236

109
114

9
3

48
37

74
49

1
1
6

2

299




172
170

TABLES.

___ 1913
1915
Michigan:
4 establishments............... 1913
1915
New York:
3 establishments............... 1913
1915
North Carolina:
4 establishments............... 1913
1915
Ohio:
3 establishments............... 19-13
1915
Wisconsin:
3 estab