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UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
W . N. DOAK, Secretary

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
ETHELBERT STEWART, Commissioner

BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES \
BUREAU OF LABO R ST A T IST IC S /

TT
k

p -o O

................ IlO e O O L

W A G E S A N D H O U R S OF L A B O R S E R I E S

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR IN THE
CIGARETTE MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY
1930

FEBRUARY, 1931

UNITED STATES
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON s 1931

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D, C.




-

Price 10 cents




CONTENTS
Page

Average hours and earnings, by occupation and sex______________________
Average hours and earnings, by sex and State___________________________
Average and classified earnings per hour, by occupation and sex_________
Full-time hours___________________________________________________________
Bonus systems____________________________________________________________
Changes in wage rates since March 1, 1929_______________________________
Pay for overtime and for work on Sunday and holidays__________________
Growth of the industry___________________________________________________
Method of computation___________________________________________________
Classified earnings per hour:
Male laborers, by State_______________________________ __________ ____
All employees, by sex and State______________________________________
Occupations__________________ _____________________________________________
Description of occupations and machines_________________________________
General tables:
Table A.— Average number of days on which employees worked, aver­
age full-time and actual hours and earnings per week, average earn­
ings per hour, and per cent of full time worked, by occupation, sex,
and State__________________________________________________________
Table B.— Average and classified earnings per hour, by occupation,
sex, and State______________________________ _____ __________________




m

1
2
3
5
6
6
6
7
7
8
8
9
10

15
19




BULLETIN OF THE

U. S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
no.

S32

WASHINGTON

Fe b r u a r y , m i

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR IN THE CIGARETTE MANUFACTURING
INDUSTRY, 1930
This report presents the results of a study in 1930 by the Bureau
of Labor Statistics of wages and hours of labor of wage earners in
the cigarette manufacturing industry in the United States. The data
cover all employees—6,187 males and 8,079 females—engaged in the
preparation of the tobacco and the manufacture, packing, and ship­
ping of cigarettes in the 13 representative establishments in three
States covered in the study. The figures were obtained directly from
the pay rolls and other records of the establishments and are for
representative pay-roll periods in March, April, and May, of this year.
AVERAGE HOURS AND EARNINGS, BY OCCUPATION AND
SEX

Average full-time hours per week, average earnings per hour, and
average full-time earnings per week are presented in Table 1 for each
of the principal occupations in the industry, for a group of miscel­
laneous workers listed as “ other employees,” and for the industry as
a whole. The group designated as “ other employees” includes wage
earners in occupations whose number was too small to warrant
tabulation as an occupation.
Average full-time hours per week for males in all occupations, for
females, and for both sexes, that is, for the industry, were 49.9.
Average earnings per hour for males in all occupations were 37.8
cents, for females 26.8 cents, and for both sexes combined 31.8 cents.
Average full-time earnings per week for males in all occupations were
$18.86, for females $13.37, and for both males and females together
$15.87.
The range in average full-time hours per week for males as between
the several occupations was from 49.8 to 50.0, or only two-tenths of
an hour between the lowest and the highest, and for females from
49.7 to 50.7, making 1 hour difference between the lowest and the
highest occupation.
Average earnings per hour for males ranged from 22.1 cents for
hand stemmers to 69 cents for mechanics, and for females from 19
cents for laborers to 41.8 cents for glassine wrapping-machine
operators.
Average full-time earnings per week for males ranged from $11.05
for hand stemmers to $34.36 for mechanics, and for females from
$9.48 for laborers to $20.90 for glassine wrapping-machine operators.
Because of the narrow range in full-time hours, the lowest and the
highest average full-time earnings per week for both males and females
occurred in the same occupations as average earnings per hour.




1

2

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR
T a b l e 1.— Average hours and earnings, by occupation and sex
Number Number Average Average Average
of estab­ of em­ full-time earnings full-time
hours
lish­
ployees per week per hour weekly
ments
earnings

Occupation

Sox

Stemming-machine feeders..............................
Ptemmers, hand .............. r ,,.,-

Female___
Male____
Female___
Male........
Female___
Female___
Male........
Male........
Male
Male____
Male........
Female___
Male____
Female_
_
Female_
_
Male........
Male........
Female___
Male........
Female_
_
Female_
_
Female___
Female_
_
Male........
Female___
Male
Male
Male____
M aleFemale_
_
Male .
Female_
_
Male____
Female_
_

Strip searchers___ _______ ____________ ____
Turkish pickers................................................
Wetters, casers, and driers_________________
Cutter feeders____________________________
TTrrifft changfirs . . . . . . __ .. . _ __
TTnifft grind firs
_ ... _ _
Making-machine operators..............................
Hopper feeders___________________________
Catchers............................................................
Machine fixers___________________________
Inspectors________________________________
Packing-machine operators............................
Packers, hand...................................................
Qlassine wrapping-machine operators............
Carton packers.................................................
Carton banders or wrappers_______________
Case packers
Carton-making-machine operators____ _____
Mechanics_______________________ __ _____
Laborers_________________________________
Other employees__________________________
All employees______________ ____ ____

658
8
9
328
1,913
9
5
39
1,075
10
87
6
44
12
11
206
13
54
13
19
13
1,143
7
126
130
9
24
3
8 » 608
230
13
3
10
13
379
10
240
10
377
5
476
314
8
13
543
7
32
100
10
12
113
12
70
11
224
13
2,303
504
13
1,002
13
13
895
13
6,187
8,079
13
14,266
13

All employees, male and female............

49.7
50.0
49.8
50.0
49.7
49.7
49.9
49.8
50.0
49.9
49.9
49.8
49.9
50.7
50.1
49.9
50.0
49.9
49.9
49.9
49.8
50.0
49.8
49.8
49.9
49.9
49.9
49.8
49.9
49.9
50.0
50.1
49.9
49.9
49.9

$0.202
.221
.192
.286
.198
.195
.484
.326
.374
.398
.429
.372
.311
.245
.298
.573
.423
.367
.415
.381
.363
.418
.390
.354
.322
.344
.415
.690
.301
.190
.427
.290
.378
.268
.318

$10.04
11.05
9.56
14.30
9.84
9.69
24.15
16.23
18.70
19.86
21.41
18.53
15.52
12.42
14.93
28.59
21.15
18.31
20.71
19.01
18.08
20.90
19.42
17.63
16.07
17.17
20.71
34.36
15.02
9.48
21.35
14.53
18.86
13.37
15.87

AVERAGE HOURS AND EARNINGS, BY SEX AND STATE

Average full-time hours per week, earnings per hour, and full­
time earnings per week are presented in Table 2 for wage earners of
each sex and for both sexes combined in each of the three States
covered, and for all States.
Average full-time hours by States for males were 49.9,50.0, and 51.7;
for females, 49.8,49.9, and 51.6; and for both sexes, 49.8,49.9, and 51.7.
Average full-time earnings per week by States for males were
$17.86, $21.25, and $23.89; for females, $12.95, $14.09, and $14.67;
and for both sexes, $15.09, $17.91, and $18.41.
T a b l e 2 . — Average hours and earnings, by sex and State

Sex and State

Males
North Carolina
Virginia......................... ...............................................
Kentucky....................................................................
Total....................................................................
Females
North Carolina—
Virginia________
Kentucky......................................................................
Total....................................................................
Males and females
North Carolina
Virginia..........................................................................
Kentucky......................................................................

Total............................................................




Average
Number Number full-time Average
of em­
of estab­
earnings
hours
lishments ployees per week per hour

Average
full-time
earnings
per week

7
4
2
13

4,390
1,694
103
"6,187

49.9
50.0
51.7
49.9

$0.358
.425
.462
.378

$17.86
21.25
23.89
18.86

7
4
2
13

5.965
1.966
148
8,079

49.8
49.9
61.6
49.9

.260
.294
.273
.268

12.95
14.67
14.09
13.37

7
4
2
13

10,355
3,660
251
14,266

49.8
49.9
61.7
49.9

.303
.359
.356
.318

15.09
17.91
18.41
15.87

3

CIGARETTE MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED EARNINGS PER HOUR, BY
OCCUPATION AND SEX

Table 3 presents a percentage distribution of average earnings per
hour of the employees by occupations. The percentage is the nearest
whole per cent in each group. For example, if 6.6 per cent of the
employees fall in a group, it is shown as 7 per cent.
Approximately 18 per cent of the employees earned under 20 cents
per hour and approximately 6 per cent earned 50 cents or more per
hour. The majority of the employees, therefore, earned between 20
cents and 50 cents per hour.
T a b l e 3 . — Average hourly earnings and per cent earning each classified amount

per hour, by occupation and sex

Occupation.......................... |

Stemmingmachine
feeders

Sex____ ___________________

P.

Stemmers,
hand

M.

F.

Strip searchers

M.

F.

WetTurk­ ters, Cutter Knife
ish
casers, feeders chang­
pickers and
ers
driers
M.

F.

M.

M.

Establishments____________

8

9

9

5

10

6

12

11

13

Employees________________

658

328

1,913

39

1,075

87

44

206

54

$0,198

$0.195

$0,484

$0,326

$0,374

Average earnings per hour—. $0,202

*Less than 1 per cent.




$0.192 $0,286

Per cent earning each classified amount per hour

CLASSIFIED EARNINGS

4 and under 5 cents_______
5 and under 6 cents_____,___
6 and under 7 cents________
7 and under 8 cents________
8 and under 9 cents________
9 and under 10 cents_______
10 and under 11 cents______
11 and under 12 cents______
12 and under 13 cents______
13 and under 14 cents_____
14 and under 15 cents______
15 and under 16 cents______
16 and under 17 cents______
17 and under 18 cents______
18 and under 19 cents______
19 and under 20 cents______
20 and under 21 cents______
21 and under 22 cents____
22 and under 23 cents______
23 and under 24 cents______
24 and under 25 cents______
25 and under 27^ cents_____
27^£ and under 30 cents_____
30 and under 32U cents_____
32J4 and under 35 cents_____
35 and under 37H cents_____
37J4 and under 40 cents_____
40 and under 42^$ cents.........
42J4 and under 45 cents_____
45 and under 47^ cents_____
47H and under 50 cents.........
50 and under 55 cents_______
55 and under 60 cents....... ....
60 and under 65 cents_______
65 and under 70 cents_______
70 and under 75 cents—.........
85 and under 90 cents......... —
100 and under 110 cents_____

$0,221

<l)

1
1
2
5
5
5

5
6
6
3
5

1

3
27
8
35
12
3
1
4
7

2

5
4
3
2
5
2

9
6
5
5
2
2
1

(*)

0)

1
1
1

0)
0)

1
3
3
4
5
6
5
6
6
4
5
4
4
5
5
5
4
3
8
6
3
2
1
* 1
0)
0)

(l)
1
(,\

3

27
7
45
13

(,)2
31
3
59
5

(,)3
(>)
(•)

18
36
3
30

1

1
6
12
11
7
7
21
21
2
9
5
5
2
7
2
2

2
4
43
37
10
2
1

9
6
15
19
7
20
6
11
2

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR
T a b l e 3*— Average hourly earnings and per cent earning each classified amount

per hour, by occupation and sex— Continued
Knife
Ma­
Catch­ chine
Making-ma­
Occupation...........................j grind­ chine operators Hopper feeders
ers
ers
fixers

Inspectors

Sex..........................................

M.

M.

F.

M.

F.

F.

M.

M.

Establishments____________

13

13

7

9

3

8

13

3

13

Employees......... ...................

19

1,143

126

130

24

608

230

10

379

$0,429

$0.372

$0.311

$0,245

$0,298

$0.573

$0,423

$0.367

Average earnings per hour... $0,398

Per cent earning each classified amount per hour

CLASSIFIED EARNINGS

20 and under 21 cents............
21 and under 22 cents_______
22 and under 23 cents_______
23 and under 24 cents............
24 and under 25 cents______
25 and under 27M cents.........
27^2 and under 30 cents.........
30 and under 32H cents.........
32^ and under 35 cents.........
35 and under 37H cents.........
37H and under 40 cents.........
40 and under 42^ cents.........
42J4 and under 45 cents.........
45 and under 47H cents.........
47^ and under 50 cents.........
50 and under 55 cents............
55 and under 60 cents............
60 and under 65 cents...........
65 and under 70 cents...........
70 and under 75 cents.._____
75 and under 80 cents.._____
80 and under 85 cents............
90 and under 95 cents............
100 and under 110 cents.........

Occupation.._____________

F.

1
1
1

5
5
11
11
26
16
11
5

2
2

8

11
32
19
8
7
9
2
1

11

12
30
25
15
16
2

1
2
48
35
11
2

13
13
17
8
42
8

0)
0)

(l)

I1
)

3
2
10
13
57
13

10
1

30

2
1
8
10
30
15
8
7
12
4
2

0

40

1

0)
0)
0)

Packing-machine operators

Pack­
ers,
hand

0)
W 2
4
6
11
32
17
24
2
1
(l)

20

0)

1

GlassCartonine
making
wrapping- Carton Carton banders Case
ma­
ma- packers or wrappers
packers chine
opera­
ehine
tors
opera­
tors

Sex_______________________

M.

P.

F.

F.

F.

M.

F.

M.

M.

Establishments____________

10

10

5

3

13

7

10

12

12

Employees________________

240

Average earnings per hour___ $0,415

1Less than 1 per cent.




476

314

543

32

100

113

70

$0,363

$0,418

$0,390

$0.354

$0.322

$0.344

$0.415

Per cent earning each classified amount per hour

CLASSIFIED EARNINGS

15 and under 16 cents....... .
16 and under 17 cents....... .
18 and under 19 cents.......
19 and under 20 cents.......
20 and under 21 cents.......
21 and under 22 cents.......
22 and under 23 cents.......
23 and under 24 cents.......
24 and under 25 cents.......
25 and under 27H cents...
27^ and under 30 cents...
30 and under 32^ cents...
323^ and under 35 cents__
35 and under 37^ cents__
3 7 and under 40 cents_
_
40 and under 42J^ cents__
42M and under 45 cents—.
45 and under 47H cents...
47^6 and under 50 cents...
50 and under 55 cents.......
55 and under 60 cents....... .
60 and under 65 cents....... .
65 and under 70 cents.......

377
$0,381

0)
8.

(0

(»
)
1
5
5
13
12
20
16
12
10
5
)
<) 1
*

3
2
5
19
50
19
2
1

0)
10
6

9

11

40
4
6

4
3

1
1

4

5

CIGARETTE MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

T a b l e 3.— Average hourly earnings and per cent earning each classified amount

per hour, by occupation and sex— Continued
Occupation............ ............... { Mechan­
ics
Sex_ —___________________
_

M.

Laborers

Other employees

F.

M.

M.

F.

All employees
M.

F.

Total

1
3

Establishments____________

11

13

13

13

13

13

13

Employees________________

224

2,303

504

1,002

895

6,187

8,079

14,266

$0.690

$0.301

$0.190

$0,290

$0,378

$0,268

$0,318

Average earnings per hour___
CLASSIFIED EARNINGS

$0,427

Per cent earning each classified amount per hour

4 and Tinder 5 cents ...
5 and under 6 cents. _
fi and iindflp 7 rants

(9

Rand under 9 Cftntf*....
Aand under 10 nent$.
10 and under11 rants. _
11 and under 12 cents..
12 and under 13 cents_______
13 and under 14 rants
14 and under 15 rants
1
! ____
16 and under 16 cents_______ •
________
16 and under 17 cen ts...
I_______
17 and under 18 cents_______ 1
________
18 and under 19 cents_______ '________
19 and under 20 cents_ * _ !_________
_
1
20 and under 21 cents_______ 1
..............
21 and under 22 rants
!
<9
1
22 and under 23 cents. ______
1
23 and under 24 cents_______
1
24 and under 25 cents.............
23
25 and under 27H cents_____
10
27J£ and under 30 cents.____
44
30 and under 32^ cents_____
8
323^ and under 35 cents.
7
35 and under 37J^ cents.
3
373^ and under 40 cents. _
1
40 and under 42^6 cents_____
(9
4 -M and under 45 cents_____
2 s
(9
3
45 and under 47K cents_____
0)
47J4 and under 50 cents_____
(9
6
50 and under 55 cents_
_
(9
55 and under 60 cents _
13
60 and under 65 cents..
8
65 and under 70 cents_______
27
70 and under 75 cents_______
27
75 and under 80 cents____ _
4
80 and under 85 cents_______
3
85 and under 90 cents _
1
90 and under 95 cents_______
95 and under 100 cents _
(9
100 and under 110 cents_____
110 and under 120 cents_____

(9
(9
(9

<9
(9
(9

0)

(9
(0

(9

9
7
8
28
3
35
4
1
3
2

(9
(9
(l)
(9

(*)
1

(9

1

<9
(1)

0)
(9

(9

(9
(9

1
2
2

2

(9
2
6
3
36
5
10
4
11
3
5
2
8
3
5
2
4
2
1
1
1

(9

l
2
l
2
1
1
16
2
1
2
7
12
12
7
8
6
13
1

(9
(9
(9
(9

(9
(9
(9
8
(9
(9
(9
(9
(9
(9
(9
(9
(9

(9
(9

(9
(9
(9
(9
(9
(9

1

1
l
1
1
11
6
23
7
8
5
10
5
4
3
5
2
2
1
2
2

(9
<9
<9

1
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
2
2
9
3
15
4
2
2
2
6
5
8
4
8
7
6
1
2
2

(9
(9
(9
(9
(9

(9

1
1
l
1
1
1
2
1
2
5
2
9
3
1
2
1
8
5
15
5
8
6
8
3
3
2
2
1
1
1
1

(9
(9
(9
(9
(9
0)

* Less than 1 per cent.

A very wide range of hourly earnings is seen in Table 3 especially
among hand stemmers. This is mostly a piecework occupation.
Some employees in this occupation are content with small earnings
and do not exert themselves. Others are naturally either slow or rapid
in turning out work and the slow pieceworker naturally earns less
than the rapid worker. A similar condition but of less extent is found
in other occupations.
FULL-TIME HOURS

The full-time hours herein presented are the regular customary
working hours of the factory with lunch time excluded and with no
overtime and no loss of time.
2 1468°— 31------- 2




6

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR

Table 4 shows the regular full-time hours per week and per day of
each of the 13 estabhshments covered. While all the factories were
on a 6-dajr basis each had a short Saturday. These figures represent
the factories as units. In a few instances the hours of individual
workers were more or less than the usual hours of the establishment.
Two establishments with 2 per cent of the total number of employees
covered in this report had a full-time week of 48 hours, 3 establish­
ments with 25 per cent had 49K hours, 7 establishments with 71
per cent had 50 hours, and 1 establishment with 1 per cent 55 hours
er week. The remaining 1 per cent of employees had full-time
ours ranging from 53 % to 73 % per week.

E

T a b l e 4 . — Classification of establishments in each State by full-time hours per

week and per day
Full-time hours
per day

Number of establishments
having specified hours

Full-time hours per week
Monday
to Friday Saturday Kentucky
48 hours____________________ _____ ______________
48 hours______________ ______ _____________ ______
49H hours_____________________ _______ __ ____
______________________ __ _____ ________
60 hours..
55 hours_________________________ _______________

9
m
9
9
10

Total....................................................................

3
4H
m
5
5

North
Carolina

Vir­
ginia

1

1
2

1

3
4

3

7

4

BONUS SYSTEMS

Only 3 of the 13 estabhshments had bonus systems in effect at
the time of the study.
In one establishment an attendance bonus of $1 per week was
paid to each employee who was on hand every day and was not tardy
during the week. The amount was increased to $1.25 per week for
full-time attendance for four consecutive weeks. This bonus applied
to all employees except those who were paid weekly or monthly rates.
Two estabhshments paid a production bonus to employees in
certain occupations in the cutting department.
CHANGES IN WAGE RATES SINCE MARCH 1, 1929

Only one establishment reported any change in wage rates between
March 1, 1929, and the period of the study. This establishment
decreased the piece rates of hand packers nearly 19 per cent.
No changes m regular hours were reported.
PAY FOR OVERTIME AND FOR WORK ON SUNDAY AND
HOLIDAYS

Overtime is generally considered as time worked in excess of the
regular full-time hours per day and per week and is sometimes paid
for at a higher rate. Only 7 of the 13 establishments covered reported
extra pay for overtime and for work on Sunday and holidays. Of
these, 5 paid time and a half, 1 paid time and a quarter, and 1 paid
time and a half after 6 p. m. from Monday to Friday and after 1 p. m.




CIGARETTE MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

Saturday. Five establishments paid time and a half and one paid
time and a quarter for work on Sunday and holidays, while one paid
time and a half for work on holidays and double time for all Sunday
work.
GROWTH OF THE INDUSTRY

Table 5 shows the number of cigarettes manufactured in each
of the specified calendar years, 1900 to 1925, and the fiscal year 1930.
These figures were taken from the reports of the Commissioner of
Internal Revenue.
The production of cigarettes increased very little between the
years 1900 and 1905, but doubled from 1905 to 1910. It more
than doubled again from 1910 to 1915 and also between 1915 and
1920. The production steadily increased to 82 billions in 1925 and
to approximately 120 billions in 1930.
T a b l e 5 . — Production of cigarettes, by weight, in specified years, 1900 to 19SO
[From reports of Commissioner of Internal Revenue]

1900_
1905..
1910.
19151920.
1925_
19301

Weighing more
than 3 pounds
per 1,000

Weighing not more
than 3 pounds
per 1,000

Cigarettes
4,585,675
6,913,138
19,374,077
15,816,210
28,038,552
17,428,807
9,041,735

Calendar year

Cigarettes
3,254,130,630
3,666,814,273
8,644,335,407
17,964,348,272
47,430,105,055
82,247,100,347
119,935,433,267

Total

Cigarettes
3,258,716,305
3,673,727,411
8,663,709,484
17,980,164,482
47,458,143,607
82,264,529,154
119,944,475,002

i For fiscal year ending June 30,1930.

METHOD OF COMPUTATION

This report covers wage workers only and does not include any
data for executives, supervisors, nor clerical and office force.
Average earnings per hour of wage earners in each occupation,
as presented in the various tables m this report, were computed
by dividing the combined earnings of all wage earners in the occu­
pation by the total hours worked by them.
Average full-time hours per week of wage earners in each occupa­
tion were obtained by dividing the aggregate full-time hours of
all wage earners in the occupation by the number of wage earners.
The full-time hours per week of each wage earner were used in
arriving at this average, even though some employees may have
worked more or less than full time on account of overtime, sickness,
disability, or other cause.
Average full-time earnings per week of wage earners in each
occupation were computed by multiplying the average earnings
per hour by the average full-time hours per week. This shows
what the earnings would have been had all wage earners in the
occupation worked full time, no more nor less, at the same average
earnings per hour as in the one week covered in the 1930 study of
the industry.




8

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR

CLASSIFIED EARNINGS PER HOUR
MALE LABORERS, BY STATE

Table 6 shows for each of the three States included in this report
and for the three together the per cent of male laborers earning each
classified amount per hour. None of them earned less than 20 cents
per hour, approximately 4 per cent earned less than 25 cents per hour,
33 per cent earned 25 and under 30 cents, and 63 per cent of them
earned 30 cents or more per hour. The highest earnings were 50 and
under 55 cents per hour.
T a b l e 6.— Classified earnings per hour of male laborers, by State
Per cent of male laborers
Classified earnings per hour

20 and nnHar 21 cents______________________________________
21 and under 22 cents______________________________________
22 and under 23 cents______________________________________
23 and under 24 cents______________________________________
24 and under 25 cents______________________________________
25 and under 27^ cents____________________________________
27^ and under 30 cents......... ......... ..............................................
30 and under 32^6 cents____________________________________
32^ and under 35 cents____________________________________
35 and under 37H cents____________________________________
37^and under 40 cents____________________ ______________
40 and under 42H cents________________________ ____________
42^ and under 45 cents_____________________________ _______
45 and under 47H cents___________________________ ______
47H and under 50 cents____________________________________
50 and under 55 cents______________________________________

North
Carolina
1
1
1
1
1
30
13
41
5
6
1

8
0)
0)

Ken­
tucky

Vir­
ginia

Total
1

0)

3
33
44
11

a

3

(9

(,) 2
1
2
5
2
52
17
10
6
2
W X

1
1

i
1
1
23
10
44
g
7
3

1

0)

8
(0

i Less than 1 per cent.

ALL EMPLOYEES, BY SEX AND STATE

Table 7 shows for each of the three States included in this report
and for the three States together the per cent of males, of females,
and of males and females in all occupations combined, earning each
classified amount per hour.




9

CIGARETTE MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY
T

able

7.— Classified earnings per hour of employees in all occupations in the

industry combined, by sex and State
Per cent of males in all
occupations

Per cent of females in
ail occupations

Classified earnings per
hour

4 and under 5 cents........ .
5 and under 6 cents_____
6 and under 7 cents_____
7 and under 8 cents_____
8 and under 9 cents_____
9 and under 10 cents____
10 and under 11 cents___
11 and under 12 cents___
12 and under 13 cents___
13 and under 14 cents___
14 and under 15 cents___
15 and under 16 cents___
16 and under 17 cents___
17 and under 18 cents___
18 and under 19 cents......
19 and under 20 cents___
20 and under 21 cents___
21 and under 22 cents___
22 and under 23 cents___
23 and under 24 cents___
24 and under 25 cents___
25 and under 27H cents..
27H and under 30 cents...
30 and under 32^ cents...
32)4 and under 35 cents...
35 and under 37M cents...
37H and under 40 cents...
40 and under 42H cents—.
42^ and under 45 cents...
45 and under 473^ cents—
.
47M and under 50 cents...
50 and under 55 cents___
55 and under 60 cents___
60 and under 65 cents___
65 and under 70 cents___
70 and under 75 cents___
75 and under 80 cents___
80 and under 85 cents___
85 and under 90 cents___
90 and under 95 cents___
95 and under 100 cents....
100 and under 110 cents...
110 and under 120 cents...

Per cent of males and fe­
males in all occupations

J
?

(9
(9
(9

(0
(9

8

(9
(9

l

8l
<9

l
l

(9

14
7
24
5
8
4
12
6

3
2
4

1
1
2
1

2

<9
<9
(9

1
1
1
1
1

(\
>

(9
(9
(9
(9
(9
(9

l

1

8 81
8ll ll

16
1
5
1
1

(9

8
4
6

3
5
5
8
3
3

1

4
4

(9

2
2

l
U

5

6

6

23
7
8
5
10
5
4
3
5

10
9
7
8
6

2
2

3
1

2

<9
(9

2

1

2
2

8

1

2
1
2
5
2

l
l
l

2
2

(9

l
4
2
23
11

l
l
l
l
(9
l

1
1
1
3

(9
(9

(9
(9
(9

<9
(9

<9

(9
(9

9

20

15

9
1
3
1
1
1
1
5
4
16
10
7

9
3

1
2
1
8

5
15
5
8

6
6

2

3
4
4
2
1
1
2
2

(9

8

(*
\

i Less than 1 per cent.

OCCUPATIONS

The occupations for which data are presented in this bulletin are
arranged below as nearly as possible in order of manufacture:
Stemming-machine feeders
Stemmers, hand
Strip searchers
Turkish pickers
Wetters, casers, and driers
Cutter feeders
Knife changers
Knife grinders
Making-machine operators
Hopper feeders
Catchers




Machine fixers
Inspectors
Packing-machine operators
Packers, hand
Glassine wrapping-machine operatois
Carton packers
Carton banders or wrappers
Case packers
Cairton-making-machine operators
Mechanics
Laborers

10

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR

Wage figures are also presented in this report for a group designated
as “ other employees.” This group includes employees in all occupa­
tions in the industry other than listed above, but each too few in
number of employees to warrant publishing as an occupation.
DESCRIPTION OF OCCUPATIONS AND MACHINES

Ordering men.—Tobacco must be pliable to be worked. Usually
the ordering machine is essentially a steam filled chamber into which
the tobacco is fed through rollers and is carried along by a slowly
moving belt, the steam penetrating and softening the tobacco. The
chamber is divided so that the steam is confined in one end. While
the tobacco is hot in passing through this end it cools somewhat in
going through the other end. As the tobacco comes out of the
machine on the belt it is placed in receptacles to be carried to other
departments. The ordering man is in charge of the machine. He
must know the required temperature and amount of steam and directs
the laborers as to the proper feeding of the tobacco into the machine.
Frequently the ordering man is also a foreman or subforeman who is
paid a high rate commensurate with his whole duties. Since there are
so few that are clearly confined to the one duty this occupation has
been combined with wetters, casers, and driers.
Stemming-machine feeders.—Stemming machines are of several
types. In all, the machines engage the butt of the midrib or stem of
the leaf and draw it between revolving rolls which remove the leaf
from the stem. The stemming-machine feeders untie the bundles of
tobacco and place the leaves in position to be handled by the stemming
machine. The part separated from the stem is known as the “ strip.”
The stems and the strips fall into separate places. The machines will
stem about 85 per cent of the tobacco fed to them. The leaves which
the machine does not catch fall into a receptacle apart from the
strips and are later stemmed by hand. Some leaves will break and
get into the strips with too much stem. Strip searchers are employed
to remove these parts of stems. Almost invariably the stemming
machines are fed by female time workers.
Stemmers, hand.—Both males and females work at this occupation,
though females predominate in most establishments. They stem
the leaves which for various reasons are not put through the machines
and also those leaves missed by the machines. Strip searchers also
go through those strips to see that the work is properly done. Hand
stemming is almost all piecework.
There is a very marked difference in the earnings of individual
hand stemmers. This is due in a measure to the character of the
employees generally found in this occupation. Many of them are
people who are indifferent to the opportunities of earning and work
only fast enough to get a certain small sum of money each week.
A considerable number in this occupation are employees who have
lost their usefulness in other occupations and the management
hesitates to turn them off entirely. Against these are some who are
active and ambitious and who work to earn as much as they can.
Strip searchers examine the “ strips” to make sure the leaves have
been properly stemmed, not too much stem left in, that strips have
not been unduly wet, and that foreign matter has not been put in




CIGARETTE MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

11

with the strips. They remove any parts of stems they may find.
Female time workers largely predominate in the occupation.
Turkish 'pickers.—When Turkish tobacco is received it is in a very
hard pressed bale, the leaves adhering tightly to each other. The
picker separates the leaves from each other. The workers stand at
tables fitted with belt conveyors which carry the tobacco along the
table and into a hamper. Males in this occupation are too few to be
shown separately in the tabulation and are included with “ other
employees.”
Welters and casers.—Casing is the treatment which gives the dis­
tinctive flavor to each brand. The casing liquid is prepared under
laboratory formulas. Sometimes a dipping and wringing process and
sometimes a spraying process is employed to apply the liquid. The
tobacco is left to “ draw” for some time after casing so that the flavor
may permeate thoroughly and evenly. The caser is in charge of this
process.
Driers.—When the dipping process is employed for casing, the strips
are partially dried through long revolving heated drums before cut­
ting, and the cut tobacco is further partially dried in similar machines.
Driers are in charge of the drying machines, regulating the tempera­
ture and the length of time the tobacco must remain in the machine.
For the reason stated under ordering men and also because the caser
may also be the drier the occupations are shown together.
Cutter feeders.—The cutting machine has a hopper into which the
strips are placed by the cutter feeder, and from which they are drawn
by rolls and solidly packed and forced through an opening or slot two
or more inches wide and several inches long. A knife operates rapidly
over the slot and cuts the tobacco into shreds. The cut tobacco falls
on a conveyor. As but a few females are found in this occupation
data for them are included in the group of “ other employees.”
Knife changers are stationed at the cutting machine opposite the
hopper. The knife operates vertically at high speed. The changer
watches the cut tobacco and the worldng of the knife. The knives
must be changed and ground frequently. If the knife becomes dulled
it is changed for a sharp one. Some factories have the knives changed
at regular intervals.
Knife grinders sharpen the cutting-machine knives on a grinding
wheel. Some skill is required to preserve the proper cutting angle
on certain machines. However, a majority of the grinding machines
are so arranged that the angle is preservea automatically.
Dressing-out-machine operators.—The cut tobacco is placed in the
dressing machine. This is a long revolving drumlike device with lugs
inside which tumble and break up any solid masses and thoroughly
mix the whole into an even fluffy mass and deposit it into receptacles
to go to the making room. The operators of these machines were
sometimes found to perform other work. The number performing
the work of operators only were too few to warrant tabulation as an
occupation, and consequently data for them are included in the group
of “ other employees.”
Making-machine operators.—The shredded tobacco is placed in a
hopper on the upper part of the machine. Below the hopper are rolls
which draw the tobacco down and scatter it evenly on a belt which
carries it onto the paper. The paper is in a large roll of tape at the




12

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR

side of the machine and feeds into a narrow troughlike device. One
roll of paper will make 40,000 cigarettes. The machine has a device
which prints the name of the brand on each cigarette length of paper.
As the tobacco is deposited on the paper the edges of the paper are
bent upward and at the same time a device deposits paste on one
edge of the paper and this edge is pressed down, slightly overlapping
the other edge. The length of cigarette is then cut off by a rapidaction knife, and the cigarettes fall on a moving belt from which they
are either removed and placed in a tray by a worker called the catcher
or they are automatically deposited in the tray.
When a catcher is employed the operator of the machine usually
fills the hopper. When the machine is of the automatic catcher type
the operator must give more attention to the catching device, and a
hopper feeder is then employed to fill the hoppers of several machines.
Usually an operator tends only one machine, but in a few cases he
tends two and occasionally three machines. The machines can be
equipped with a device which will put a cork or a glassine tip on the
cigarette. The capacity of each machine is from 700 to 1,000 ciga­
rettes per minute. Both males and females are employed as operators.
The operator watches the machine, puts on new rolls of paper, and
makes minor adjustments.
Hopper feeders keep the hoppers of the making machines filled with
tobacco when such work is not done by the operator. Each one has
several machines to tend. Both sexes are found in this occupation but
males are more numerous.
Catchers are stationed at the end of the machines where the ciga­
rettes come out. As the cigarettes drop on a moving belt the catcher
gathers them up by handfuls and places them in a tray. This work,
which is done exclusively by females, is not heavy but requires strict
attention. Besides handling the cigarettes the catcher must observe
if they are being properly made, though she is not primarily an
inspector. Some machines do not require catchers as the cigarettes
are automatically deposited in the tray.
Machine fixers.—Each fixer usually has several machines in charge.
They make adjustments to machines which are not working properly.
They are not necessarily machinists who can make or repair a machine
part. Vacancies in this occupation are most frequently filled by pro­
moting especially competent operators. Making-machine fixers and
packing-machine fixers are combined. Males only are employed in
this occupation.
Inspectors observe the product at any and all stages for imperfection
at any point. Only a few males are found in this occupation.
Packing-machine operators operate and make minor adjustments to
the packing machines.
Most cigarettes are packed in packages of 20, 7 cigarettes in the
two outside rows and 6 in the middle row. The tray filled at the
making machine is carried to the packing machine. Most of the
machines feed automatically from the tray but some machines must
be fed by hand, one feeder (female) feeding two machines. Data for
feeders are not shown except in “ other employees.”
The machine is fitted with a roll of paper and foil rolled together.
The machine automatically counts the cigarettes and places them on
this paper and then cuts off and wraps the paper and foil around the




CIGARETTE MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

13

cigarettes, folding the ends of the paper and foil. Before one end is
folded an electrical device contacts with the ends of the cigarettes.
If the package has not the proper number of cigarettes or if any
cigarette is too short or the end too soft or broken, the package is
automatically scored so that it may be detected as it leaves the
machine. At another place on the machine the printed outside
wrappers or labels are in a pile. A fingerlike device places this label
in position, and it is wrapped around the paper and foil wrapped
package. Another type of machine forms the printed label into a cup
shape, and the paper and foil wrapped package is pushed into the cup.
As the package leaves the machine another fingerlike device places
the revenue stamps over the center of the package and the stamp is
pressed down and stuck. Some older-type machines make the cup
and wrap the cigarettes on separate machines and they are then put
through a third machine to be stamped. Besides the package of 20,
machines will also pack packages of 10 and 12 cigarettes. Both
males and females operate the packing machines.
Puckers, hand.—Flat tins, cans, and some cardboard packages are
packed by hand. The revenue stamp is put on later, generally by
machine. On a comparatively few packages the stamp is pasted by
hand. All hand packing is done by females.
Glassine wrapping-machine operators and carton packers.—A glassine
wrapper is used on many packages to prevent change of moisture in
the cigarettes. Two employees work together at one machine. One
feeds the packages into an upright chute, from the bottom of which
they are automatically placed on the glassine which is fed from a roll.
The glassine is cut off and wrapped around the package and is pasted,
closing one end. The other employee puts the finished package into
the carton by hand. These employees frequently change positions.
The data for each of these occupations, however, are shown separately.
Carton banders or wrappers.—Some establishments place a band
lengthwise around the carton. Others wrap the carton entirely in a
waxed-paper wrapper. The bands or the waxed paper feed from rolls
and are automatically pasted and sealed. Both males and females
tend these machines.
Case packers.—The cartons are placed in the shipping cases or con­
tainers by hand, usually by men. Females in this occupation are too
few to show data for and are included, with “ other employees.” The
containers when full are put on a belt conveyor. This is fitted with a
pair of lugs which fold up the flaps of the container. A strip of
adhesive paper is then pasted over the closing.
Carton-making-machine operators.—The cardboard from which car­
tons are made is in a large roll or web. As this feeds into the machine,
dies cut and crease the carton and bend up and fasten the sides and
ends. One-piece cartons are left open on one side. Of the 2-piece
carton, one part is slightly larger than the other and is the cover for
the latter. Each operator has one or two helpers, shown only as
“ other employees,” who nest the cartons conveniently for the carton
packers. There are also machines which make cartons from sheets of
cardboard instead of web.
Rippers operate and feed machines which are fitted with knives
set close together. Faulty cigarettes are fed into this machine and
21468°— 31------- 3




14

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR

the paper is slit from end to end. The tobacco and slit paper are
carried out of the machine by a belt. Some machines have a winnow
which blows most of the paper away from the tobacco. What is
not blown away must be hand picked. The tobacco is sifted to
remove the finest particles and the good tobacco is then redressed
and used. This occupation was not found in sufficient number to
warrant showing.
Mechanics are skilled workers familiar with machine tools who
repair worn or broken parts of machines or make new parts.
Laborers are male or female workers who do various unskilled work
or work requiring no training. They unload or load freight cars, truck
or roll hogsheads, open and unpack hogsheads, pack and close hogs­
heads, push hampers or trucks, distribute tobacco or other materials
to the various machines, sweep floors, fork tobacco onto conveyors
or into ordering, drying, or dressing drums, clean scrap or stems,
bulk tobacco, do yard work, line hogsheads, strip bales, load trucks,
wreck hogsheads, pick up tobacco or waste, feed ordering machines,
fill hampers, scrub floors, dump tobacco, stack tubs, sift and pick
shorts, pick strips, spread tobacco, stack containers, shake out
tobacco, cover hampers, feed shorts, bale stems, search scrap, feed
dipping machines, feed butting machines, etc.
Other employees are employees in occupations each too few in number
to warrant showing separately. Occupations included in the group
of “ other employees” are elevator operators, paper and stamp
cutters, stock keepers, cup makers, electricians, carpenters, electric
truck operators, bad work repairers, cuppers, stampers, selectors,
painters, learners, old or young people not capable of doing the work
of any occupation, tray boys, carton nesters, steam and pipe fitters,
bricklayers, leaf weighers, casing cookers, rehandlers of cigarettes,
coopers, helpers if not laborers, truck chauffeurs, oilers, mill­
wrights, stencilers, hand carton wrappers, cigarette weighers, tobacco
examiners, hot sealers, air conditioners or humidifier operators,
tinners, solderers, nail pullers, hoopers, band sawyers, head matchers,
instructors, blacksmiths, special sticker pasters, printers, air-hoist
operators, packing-machine feeders, sliver pickers, string cutters,
belt makers, etc.
GENERAL TABLES

In addition to the text tables already shown in this bulletin, two
general tables are presented, as follows:
T a b l e A.—Average number of days on which employees worked,
average full-time and actual hours and earnings per week, average
earnings per hour, and per cent of full time worked, by occupation,
sex, and State.
T a b l e B . —Average and classified earnings per hour, by occupa*
tion, sex, and State.




15

CIGARETTE MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

T a b le A .— Average number of days on which employees worked, average full-time

and actual hours and earnings per week, average earnings per hour, and per cent
o f full time worked, by occupation, sex, and State

Occupation, sex, and State

Aver­ Aver­ Aver­
Aver­ Aver­
Num­ Num­
age
age
age
Per
Aver­
age
age
ber of ber of number full­
hours cent of
age
full­
actual
estab­
of days time actually full
earn­
time
em­
earn­
lish­
worked hours worked time ings per earn­ ings per
ments ployees
per
per
per
worked hour ings per
week
week
week
week
week

Stemming-machine feeders,
female:
North Carolina...............
Virginia................. .........
Kentucky........................

4
3
X

508
147
0)

5.3
4.2
0)

49.7
49.9
0)

44.5
31.4
0)

89.5
62.9
<
*)

658

5.1

49.7

41.5

243
74

5.0
4.3
0)

49.9
49.4
0)

Total.............................

8

Stemmers, hand, male:
North Carolina...............
Virginia...........................
K en tu cky......................

5
3
1

0)

$0,200
.209
(l)

$9.94
10.43
0)

$8.92
6.58
0)

83.5

.202 . 10.04

8.40

42.7
34.5
0)

85.6
69.8
0)

.212
.201
0)

10.58
9.93
0)

9.05
6.94
0)

Total............................

9

328

4.9

50.0

41.2

82.4

.221

11.05

9.13

Stemmers, hand, female:
North Carolina...............
Virginia...........................

5
4

1,720
193

5.1
4.3

49.9
49.3

43.3
34.6

86.8
70.2

.193
.184

9.63
9.07

8.35
6.36

Total.............................

9

1,913

5.0

49.8

42.4

85.1

.192

9.56

8.15

Strip searchers, male:
North Carolina...............
Virginia...........................

2

3

31
8

4.9
4.5

50.0
50.0

44.2
36.1

88.4
72.2

.285
.291

14.25
14.55

12.58
10.52

39

4.8

50.0

42.6

85.2

.286

14.30

12.16
8.98
7.17
0)

Total.............................

5

Strip searchers, female:
North Carolina...............
Virginia...........................
Kentucky........................

6
3
1

(9

927
137

5.3
4.9

49.7
49.9

45.2
39.0

90.9
78.2

.199
.184

9.89
9.18

0)

0)

0)

0)

0)

5.3

49.7

44.4

89.3

.198

9.84

4.8
5.6

49.9
50.0

41.8
46.3

83.8
92.6

.187
.183

9. 33
9.15

0)

<)
*

0)

0)

0)

0)

Total............................

10

1,075

Turkish pickers, female:
North Carolina...............
Virginia. .........................
K en tu cky......................

3
2
1

0)

40
37

0)

8.78
7.81
8.50

0)

Total.............................

6

87

5.2

49.7

44.1

88.7

.195

9.69

8.61

Wetters, casers, and driers,
male:
North Carolina...............
Virginia...........................
Kentucky........................

4
2

6

26
15
3

5.6
5.5
5.7

49.8
49.6
52.7

52.8
48.7
51.0

106.0
98.2
96.8

.438
.586
.410

21.81
29.07
21.61

23.14
28.54
20.92

Total—.........................

12

44

5.6

49.9

51.3

102.8

.484

24.15

24.83

Cutter feeders, male:
North Carolina________
Virginia...........................

7
4

154
52

5.3
5.3

49.8
49.9

46.4
45.1

93.2
90.4

.323
.336

16.09
16.77

14.96
15.16

Total............................

11

206

5.3

49.8

46.0

92.4

.326

16.23

15.01

Knife changers, male:
North Carolina...............
Virginia...........................
K entucky......................

7
4
2

33
18
3

4.5
6.5
5.7

49.8
49.9
52.7

47.5
40.0
50.5

95.4
80.2
95.8

.393
.328
.401

19.57
16.37
21.13

18.67
13.13
20.24

90.4

.374

18.70

16.91

Total............................

13

54

5.2

50.0

45.2

Knife grinders, male:
North Carolina—............
Virginia......... .... .............
K entucky......................

7
4
2

9
8
2

5.3
5.0

49.8
49.8

47.1
42.1

94.6
84.5

.402
.394

51.5

54.5

105.8

.395

20.02
19.62
20.34

18.96
16.61
21.55

Total............................

13

19

5.3

49.9

45.8

91.8

.398

19.86

18.24

1Data included in total.




6.0

16

WAGES AND HOURS OP LABOR

T a b le A ,— Average number of days on which employees worked , average full-time

and actual hours and earnings per week, average earnings per hour, and per cent
of full time worked, by occupation , sex , and State— Continued

Occupation, sex, and State

Aver­ Aver­ Aver­
Aver­ Aver­
Num­ Num­
age
age
age
Per
Aver­
age
age
ber of ber of number full­
hours cent of
full­
age
estab­
of days time actually full
earn­
time actual
em­ worked hours worked time ings per earn­
earn­
lish­
ments ployees per
per
per
worked hour ings per ings per
week
week
week
week
week

Making-machine operators,
male:
North Carolina________
Virginia.—____ ________
Kentucky................. ......

7
4
2

820
313
10

5.2
5.3
4.4

49.8
50.0
53.6

44.9
45.7
40.2

90.2
91.4
75.0

$0.410
.476
.394

$20.42
23.80
21.12

$18.43
21.77
15.82

Total....... ..................

13

1,143

5.3

49.9

45.1

90.4

.429

21.41

19.33

Making-machine operators,
female:
North Carolina...............
Virginia...........................
Kentucky........................

3
2
2

71
49
6

5.9
5.1
4.3

49.5
50.0
52.7

47.3
40.4
41.0

95.6
80.8
77.8

.368
.383
.335

18.22
19.15
17.65

17.41
15.50
13.74

Total............................

7

126

5.5

49.8

44.3

89.0

.372

18.53

16.49

Hopper feeders, male:
North Carolina...............
Virginia...........................
Kentucky........................

5
3
1

97
31

5.1
5.3
0

49.8
49.9
0)

43.9
42.9
0)

88.2
86.0
0

»302
.336
0

15.04
16.77
0

13.26
14.44
0

Total!...........................

9

130

5.1

49.9

43.3

86.8

.311

15.52

13.48

Hopper feeders, female:
Virginia...........................
Kentucky........................

1
2

9

0
4.4

0
51.9

0
42.2

0
81.3

0
.252

0
13.08

0
10.63

0

0

Total............................

3

24

4.2

50.7

33.3

65.7

.245

12.42

8.16

Catchers, female:
North Carolina...............
Virginia...........................
Kentucky........................

3
3
2

403
187
18

49
4.8
4.3

50.0
49.9
52.7

43.3
39.6
41.6

86.6
79.4
78.9

.295
.310
.261

14.75
15.47
13.75

12.76
12.25
10.85

Total............................

8

608

4.8

50.1

42.1

84.0

298

14.93

12.54

Machine fixers, male:
North Carolina...............
Virginia...........................
Kentucky........................

7
4
2

163
59
8

5.3
5.4
6.0

49.9
50.0
51.5

48.7
49.6
52.0

97.6
99.2
101.0

.541
.647
.648

27.00
32.35
33.37

26.33
32.12
33.70

13!

230

5.4

49.9

49.0

98.2

.573

28.59

28.07

4

0
4.5

0
50.0

0
39.3

0
78.6

0
.500

(0
25.00

0
19.65

Total............................
Inspectors, male:
North Carolina...............
Virginia...........................

1
2

Total............................

3

10

4.8

50.0

42.4

84.8

.423

21.15

17.96

Inspectors, female:
North Carolina...............
Virginia...........................
Kentucky........................

7
4
2

263
105
11

5.3
4.9
4.5

49.9
50.0
50.5

46.3
40.4
41.1

92.8
80.8
81.4

.373
.362
.269

18.61
18.10
13.58

17.26
14.64
11.06

13

379

5.1

49.9

44.5

89.2

.367

18.31

16.35

Packing-machine operators,
male:
North Carolina...............
Virginia...........................
Kentucky........................

7
2
1

186
5.1
0

5.1
5.0
0

49.9
49.9
0

47.0
44.2
0

94.2
88.6
0

.393
.492
0

19.61
24.55
0

18.50
21.74
0

Total............................

0

Total............................

10

24Q

5.1

49.9

46.4

93.0

.415

20.71

19.27

Packing-machine operators,
female;
North Carolina...............
Virginia...........................
Kentucky........................

6
3
1

257
111
0

5.4
5.2
0

49.7
50.0
0

45.6
43.8
0

91.8
87.6
0

.386
.375
0)

19.18
18.75
0

17.59
16.44
0

Total.............................

10

377

5.3

49.9

44.9

90.0

.381

19.01

17.10

* Data included in total.




17

CIGARETTE MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

T able A . — Average number of days on which employees worked. average full-time

and actual hours and earnings per weekaverage earnings per hour} and per cent
of full time worked, by occupation, sex, and State— Continued

Occupation, sex, and State

Aver­ Aver­
Aver- Aver­ Aver­
Aver­
Per
age
Num­ Num­
age
age
age
full­
hours cent of
age
ber of ber of number full­
earn­
time actual
of days time actually full
estab­
em­ worked hours worked time ings per earn­
earn­
lish­
worked hour ings per ings per
per
per
per
ments ployees
week
week
week
week week

Packers, hand, female:
North Carolina...............
Virginia...........................

3
2

339
137

5.3
5.5

49.9
49.7

47.0
45.1

94.2
90.7

$0,349
.399

$17.42
19.83

$16.40
18.03

Total............................

5

476

5.4

49.8

46.5

93.4

.363

18.08

16.87

Glassine wrapping-machine
operators, female:
North Carolina...............
Virginia...........................
Kentucky........................

4
3
1

171
142

4.9
5.5

50.0
50.0

43.6
45.9

87.2
91.8

.424
.412

21.20
20.60

18.50
18.91

Total.............................

8

314

5.1

50.0

44.6

89.2

.418

20.90

18.66

Carton packers, female:
North Carolina...............
Virginia...........................
Kentucky........................

7
4
2

413
123
7

5.4
5.0
4.4

49.7
49.9
52.0

45.7
41.3
42.0

92.0
82.8
80.8

.385
.415
.282

19.13
20.71
14.66

17.60
17.13
11.86

0

0)

0)

C
1
)

<
*
)

(0

(0

0)

Total............................

13

543

5.3

49.8

44.6

89.6

.390

19.42

17.42

Carton banders or wrappers,
male:
North Carolina—............
Virginia...........................

5
2

28
4

5.1
4.8

50.0
49.0

47.8
41.9

95.6
85.5

.348
.400

17.40
19.60

16.63
16.74

Total............................

7

32

5.0

49.8

47.0

94.4

.354

17.63

16.64

Carton banders or wrappers,
female:
North Carolina—............
Virginia...........................
K entucky......................

5
3
2

60
37
3

5.3
5.2
4.3

49.8
50.0
52.7

45.6
43.2
41.7

91.6
86.4
79.1

.329
.313
.274

16.38
15.65
14.44

15.01
13.55
11.42

Total............................

10

100

5.2

49.9

44.6

89.4

.322

16.07

14.36

Case packers, male:
North Carolina...............
Virginia.............. *...........
K entucky......................

7
3
2

87
24
2

5.1
5.3
4.5

49.8
50.0
51.5

46.5
46.6
47.5

93.4
93.2
92.2

.328
.394
.374

16.33
19.70
19.26

15.26
18.35
17.78

Total............................

12

113

5.2

49.9

46.4

93.0

.344

17.17

15.96

Carton-making-machine op­
erators, male:
North Carolina...............
Virginia...........................
Kentucky........................

7
3
2

50
18
2

5.4
5.2
4.5

49.7
50.0
51.5

46.5
45.4
42.5

93.6
90.8
82.5

.391
.482
.408

19.43
24.10
21.01

18.20
21.87
17.33

Total............................

12

70

'5.3

49.9

46.1

92.4

.415

20.71

19.12

Mechanics, male:
North Carolina...............
Virginia...........................
Kentucky........................

6
4
1

133
86
0)

5.8
6.0
0)

49.8
49.9
(0

52.0
53.5
0)

104.4
107.2
0)

.655
.740
0)

32.62
36.93
0)

34.09
39.61
0)

Total.............................

11

224

5.9

49.8

52.6

105.6

.690

34.36

36.29

Laborers, male:
North Carolina...............
Virginia...........................
Kentucky........................

7
4
2

1,626
641
36

5.3
5.2
5.1

49.9
49.9
51.1

47.0
45.6
46.6

94.2
91.4
91.2

.290
.324
.385

14.47
16.17
19.67

13.63
14.79
17.92

Total............................

13

2,303

5.3

49.9

46.6

93.4

.301

15.02

14.02

Laborers, female:
North Carolina...............
Virginia...........................
Kentucky........................

7
4
2

280
215
9

5.1
4.7
4.8

49.9
50.0
49.6

44.3
38.2
43.8

88.8
76.4
88.3

.193
.181
.264

9.63
9.05
13.09

8.55
6.92
11.58

13

504

4.9

49.9

41.7

83.6
.190
■ -----------

9.48

7.91
T' 1
,1
1

Total............................
* Data included in total.




"----- -• .... '

--------- ——--- .......

18

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR

T a b l e A .— Average number of days on which employees worked, average full-time

and actual hours and earnings per week, average earnings per hour, and per cent
of full time worked, by occupation, sex, and State— Continued

Occupation, sex, and State

Aver­ Aver­ Aver­
Aver­ Aver­
age
age
Per
Aver­
age
Num­ Num­
age
age
hours cent of
age
fwlber of ber of number full­
of days time actually full
earn­
time actual
estab­
earn­
em­ worked hours worked time ings per earn­
lish­
per worked hour ings per ings per
per
ments ployees per
week
week
week
week
week

Other employees, male:
North Carolina________
Virginia.—......................
Kentucky_______ ______

7
4
2

698
288
16

5.5
5.3
5.8

49.9
50.3
50.6

49.1
46.8
50.6

98.4
93.0
100.0

$0,402
.487
.495

$20.06
24.50
25.05

$19.74
22.82
25.03

Total............................

13

1,002

5.4

50.0

48.5

97.0

.427

21.35

20.73

Other employees, female:
North Carolina...............
Virginia...........................
Kentucky........................

7
4
2

513
331
61

4.9
4.8
4.5

50.0
49.9
52.8

44.0
39.3
43.0

88.0
78.8
81.4

.297
.280
.275

14.85
13.97
14.52

13.04
10.99
11.84

Total............................

13

895

4.9

50.1

42.2

84.2

.290

14.53

12.22

All employees, male:
North Carolina...............
Virginia...........................
K entucky......................

7
4
2

4,390
1,694
103

5.3
6.3
5.3

49.9
50.0
51.7

46.8
45.7
47.8

93.8
91.4
92.5

.358
.425
.462

17.86
21.25
23.89

16.79
19.42
22.09

Total.............................

13

6,187

5.3

49.9

46.5

93.2

.378

18.86

17.60

All employees, female:
North Carolina________
Virginia...........................
Kentucky— ...................

7
4
2

6,965
1,966
148

6.2
4.9
4.5

49.8
49.9
51.6

44.5
39.6
42.4

89.4
79.4
82.2

.260
.294
.273

12.95
14.67
14.09

11.56
11.64
11.59

Total............................

13

8,079

5.1

49.9

43.2

86.6

.268

13.37

11.68

All employees, male and fe­
male:
North Carolina ____ —
Virginia_______________
K entucky.......................

7
4
2

10,355
3,660
251

5.2
5.0
4.8

49.8
49.9
51.7

45.5
42.4
44.6

91.4
85.0
86.3

.303
.359
.356

15.09
17.91
18.41

13.78
15.24
15.90

Total________________

13

14,266

5.2

49.9

44.7

89.6

.318

16.87

14.19

iData included in total.




T a b l e B.— Average and classified earnings per hour, by occupation, sex, and State
M 1" " --- ----, . ....-..................
sau,"

Occupation, sex, and State

1
26

180
47

290
67

37
7
(l)

8

658

.202

27

227

357

47

Stemmers, hand, male:
North Carolina........ ........... ........
Virginia.........................................
Kentucky______________ _

5
3
1

• 243
74
(l)

.212
.201
(i)

1
2

5
7

20
12

23
9

34
6

18
8

20
3

45
9

42
4

26
7

8
4
<9

(9

(9

Total..........................................

9

328

.221

3

12

32

32

40

26

23

54

46

33

13

5

4

3

North Carolina________ _______
Virginia.........................................

5
4

1,720
193

.193
.184

19
11

77
37

158
23

192
20

203
14

164
9

151
8

400
25

1,913

.192

30

114

181 212

217

173

109

‘iZO

26
7
Q
Q
66

2

9

84
11
Q
R

2

Total.....................................

242
28
0iV
*A
Z7)

2

2 ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ------

31
8

.285
.291

1

11
2

20
5

1

13

25

642
15

23
3
0)
O
A
O
O

Total........ ............................

-------J
|

1
1

(9

1

1

(9
------

2

Stemmers, hand, female:

Strip searchers, male:
North Carolina........ ....................
Virginia.....................................
Total..........................................
Strip searchers, female:
North Carolina_______________

Virginia

Kentucky.........

........................

Total__________________

3
2
5

39
=====

.286

6
3
1

927
137
(9

.199
.184
(l)

10

1,075

.198

—
===== ■

— ■

------

----

8
4

7
1

246
114

12

8

—

1
-------------- -------------- -------------- --------------

1
=

oou

00/

I

1

-----------

—

1
•
—

-------===== = _ _ =

.

_
===== _

_
_

__ __

..... ___ __ __ __ __ __

C)
1

—

—

— -

= =

=

=

=

=

—

—

INDUSTRY

508 $0,200
147 .209
\r)
\
l)

no,
un­
der
120
cts.

MANTJFACTURING

4
3

100,
un­
der
no
cts.

CIGARETTE

Stemming-machine feeders, female:
North Carolina_______________
Virginia........................................

Number of employees whose earnings per hour were—
Num­ Num­ Aver­
age
ber of ber of
10, 12, 14, 16, 18,
8,
20,
25,
30,
35,
40,
45, 50, 55, 60, 70, 80, 90,
estab­ em­ earn­
lish­ ploy­ ings Un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
per der 8 der der der der der der der
der
der
der
der der der der der der der der
ments ees
hour cts. 10
12 14
16 . 18
20
25
35
30
40
45
50
55 60 70
80 90 100
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

—

—

—

—

1 Data included in total.




CD

T able B . — Average and classified earnings per hour, by occupation, sex, and State— Continued

Occupation, sex, and State

T otal_____________ _____

3
2
1

40 $0,187
.183
37
0)
0)

16

3
31

21
6

16

34

27

0)

.195

Wetters, casers, and driers, male:
North C arolina...................... .
Virginia........................................
Kentucky....... ........... .................

6
4
2

26
15
3

.438
.586
.410

3
2
5

4

6

9

10

120
45

20
4

1

165

24

1

6
5

10
2
2

11

11

14

14

3

1
5
1

1
1

T otal.........................................

12

44

.484

Cutter feeders, maJe:
North Carolina......... ........ .........
Virginia........................................

7
4

• 154
52

.323
.336

Total.........................................

11

206

.326

Knife changers, male:
North Carolina............................
Virginia........................................
Kentucky....................................

7
4
2

33
18
3

.393
.328
.401

!
3 i

Total____________ _____ ____

13

54

.374

3 |

5

Knife grinders, male:
North Carolina............................
Virginia____________ _____ ____
Kentucky____________________

7
4
2

9
8
2

.402
.394
.395

!

1

T otal_______ _______________

13

19

.398

1

3

7

Making-machine operators, male:
North Carolina_______________
Virginia........................................

7
4

820
313

.410
.476

7

42
1

178
31

H
2 !
1
2 | 14

5

1

1

2
2

1
1

1
2

3

1

l|1

4

2

3

3

1

1|
i
____j__
.... 1........
....... 1
i

6
1

....... I........
!

7
1

1
1

5

1

2

493
84

76
87

23
75

25

1
9

i
1

LABOR

9

O
F

6
3

2

HOURS

87

AN
D

10

6




110,
un*
der
120
cts.

WAGES

Turkish pickers, female:
North Carolina............................
Virginia.......... ..............................
Kentucky....... .............................

Number of employees whose earnings per hour were—
Num­ Num­ Aver­
ber of ber of age
10, 12, 14, 16, 18,
8,
25,
30,
35,
40,
45, 50, 55, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100,
estab­ em­ earn­ Un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ 20,
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
lish­ ploy­ ings der 8 der der
per
der
der der der der der
der
der
der der der der der der der der der
ments ees
14
12
30
hour cts. 10
35
25
40
16
18 20
50 55
60
45
70
80 90 100 110
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

Kentucky..................................

10

.394

1,143

.429

Making-machine operators, female:
North Carolina..........................
Virginia.......... ............................
Kentucky.-—________________

71
49

.368
.383

Total.......................................

126

Total.......................................

13

6

97
31

163

Inspectors, male:
North Carolina.........................
Virginia......................................

230

(9

Total.......................................

.295
.310
.261

26
37

1

1

20

(9

52

20

285
138

140

426

4

.541
.647
.648
.573

40

22

36
4

(9

(9

.500

11

.373
.362
.269

17
7

379

.367

25

(9

(9

13

70

16
14

15
19

33

35

1

.423

105
13

10

12

10

Inspectors, female:
North Carolina____ __________
Virginia_____________________
Kentucky___________________

17

25

(9

116

11

1

16

98

INDUSTRY

13

12

51

164

MANUFACTURING

Total.......................................




(9

.298

187
18

Machine fixers, male:
North Carolina..........................
Virginia......................................
Kentucky...................................

1Data included in total.

(9

.252

54

.245

Total......... .............................

Total______________________

10

.311

<9

Catchers, female:
North Carolina______ ________
Virginia......................................
Kentucky...................................

Total.......................................

44

(9

130

Total........ ...... ................ ........
Hopper feeders, female:
Virginia.......................................
Kentucky_________ ____ _____

31
4

.302
.336

577

104

(9

218

CIGARETTE

Hopper feeders, male:
North Carolina..........................
Virginia.......................................
Kentucky.............................. ....

43

1

31
33

1

160
25

26

185

95

to

T a b l e B . — Average and classified earnings per hour, by occupation, sex, and State— Continued

Occupation, sex, and State

23

58
1

85
2

18
35

240

.415

2

23

59

87

53

6
3
1

257
111
0)

.386
.375
0)

9
15

171
89

74
6

3

2

10

377

.381

11

24

260

79

3

3
2

339
137

.349
.399

1

1
2

32
7

83
11

36
21

88
27

64
32

25
21

7
6

1
8

1
2

5

476

.363

1

3

39

94

57

115

96

46

13

9

3

Glassine wrapping-machine opera­
tors, female:
Vnfth flarnlina
VlTOinift
TTftntnplrv

4
3
1

171
142
(»)

.424
.412
0)

1

7
1

13
5

34
65

35
29

81
35

7

Total.........................................

8

34
1

.418

1

9

18

99

64

116

7

7
4
2

413
123
7

.385
.415
.282

1

18
14
6

16
21
1

256
13

40
31

82
39

5

13

543

.390

1

38

38

269

71

121

5

10

Total

Total..........................................

Carton packers, female:

Vnrth Hftrftlina'
Virginia
Xo frnnlnr
Tn

Total_______________________




2
0)

12

1

3

---- ----

(9

===
==

(0

O
F

Packers, hand, female:
North Carolina
Virginia

1

AN
D

Total
Packing-machine operators, female:
North Carolina
Virginia
TTAntimkv

10
0)

__

LABOR

2

7
2
1

HOURS

186 $0.393
.492
51
(l)
0)

Kentucky

110,
un­
der
120
cts.

WAGES

Packing-machine operators, male:

Number of employees whose earnings per hour were—
Num­ Num­ Aver­
ber of ber of age
45, 50, 55, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100,
35,
40,
25,
30,
20,
10, 12, 14, 16, 18,
8,
estab­ em­ earn­ Un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
lish­ ploy­ ings der 8 der der der der der der der
der der der der der der der der der der
der
der
per
ments ees
55
80
90 100 110
60
70
35
45
50
40
25
30
12
14
18 20
16
hour cts. 10
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

Carton banders or wrappers, maie:
North Carolina______________
Virginia.......................................
Total.
Carton banders or wrappers, female:
North Carolina..........................
Virginia......................................
Kentucky............ .......................

Total.

Total.
Mechanics, male:
North Carolina,
Virginia..... ........
Kentucky______
Total__

Total__
Laborers, female:
North Carolina.

Virginia______

Kentucky—____
TotaL.
i Data included in total.




.348
.400

3

1
2
1

6
1.

7

32

.354

3

13

7

5
3

60
37
3

.329
.313
.274

4

1

6

9
3

26
16

28

2
1
0

10
0

.322

4

1

18

42

7
3

2
1
2

87
24

2

.328
.394
.374

1
0
2

49
7

113

.344

1
2

56

7
3

50
18

2

.391
.482
.408

1
0
1

70

.415

1
1

2
1
2

1

1
1

3

2

1

29

3

2

1

2
1
1
2
2

6
1
1
1

4

18

5

7

28

4
3

1
1

1

4

14

31

7

2

1

4

4

1
1

14

2

42
5

16

47

6
1

2
1
1

6 133 .655
8 .740
6
1 0)
0)
1 224 .690
1
4

1

2

3

1

2

7
4

1,626
641
36

.290
.324
.385

60
27

705
45

750
441

98
99
28

13

2,303

.301

87

750 1,192

225

7
4

280
215
9

.193
.181
.264

1

13

504

.190

1

2

7

1
8

2
1

43
29

29
126

179
38

3

2

7

45

72

155

219

1
0

24

1
1
1

2

6

9

3

1
6

27

15

7

1 1
2 1
6 1

14

51
65

0)
11
2

9

6
15

1
3
4

INDUSTRY

Laborers, male:
North Carolina.
Virginia-...........
Kentucky..........

28
4

MANUFACTURING

Carton-making-machine operators,
male:
North Carolina______________
Virginia_____________________
Kentucky___________________

5

CIGARETTE

Total.
Case packers, male:
North Carolina..
Virginia________
Kentucky______

2

T a b l e B . — Average and classified earnings per houry by occupation, sex and State— Continued

Number of employees whose earnings per hour were—
Num­ Num­ Aver­
age
ber of ber of earn­
estab­ em­
ings Un­
lish­ ploy­
per der 8
ments ees
hour cts.

Occupation, sex, and State

7
4
2

25,
un­
der
30
cts.

30,
un­
der
35
cts.

35,
un­
der
40
cts.

40,
un­
der
45
cts.

45, 50, 55, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110,
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der der der der der der
80 90 100 110 120
55
60 70
50
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

3
1

?
1

8
1

10
1

28
10
1

72
23

156
60
1

99
33
6

103
31
2

54
14

60
22

26
6

43
29
2

25
35
1

4
7
3

1
3

2
6

1

3

1

2

82

32

74

61

14

4

8

1

9

11

1

39

95

217

138

136

68

513
331
51

.297
.280
.275

9
26

3
5

3
1

6
1

1
18

15
10

11
6

53
89
24

63
107
6

91
32
3

110
11
2

2
3

895

.290

i
35 !

146
22
16

8

4

7

19

25

17

184

166

176

126

123

5

.358
.425
.462

4
3

7
8

20
14

23
12

42
7

28
9

21
3

134
52
1

910 1,272
92
576
2

515
208
53

763
151
16

212
162
6

162
127
5

63
51
2

103
66
6

9]
123
7

13
16
5

3
6

3
8

1

13

6,187

.378

7

15

34

35

49

37

24

187 1,002 1,850

776

930

380

294

116

175

221

34

9

11

1

5.965
1.966
148

.260
.294
.273

28
37

80
42

161
24

200
21

236
61

8,079

.268

65

122

185

221

297

565
370
13

925
293
7

395
153
2

197
103

7
20

1
8

1
2

322

887

948 1,225

550

300

27

9

3

275 612 1,846 1,499 1,837 1,440 1,158
304
301
946
501
266
84 337
18
89
15
60
38

409
265
6

169
147
5

64
59
2

104
68
6

91
123
7

13
16
5

3
6

3
8

1

359 979 2,150 1,889 2,798 2,001 1,480

680

321

125

178

221

34

9

11

1

955 1,963

-

7 10,355
4 3,660
2
251

.303
.359
.356

32
40

87
50

181
38

223
33

278
68

13 14,266

.318

72

137

219

256

346

LABOR




589
209
89

O
F

247 621 1,712
75 334
214
37

i

i Data included in total.

HOURS

Virginia__________________________

Kentucky
r

3

i

AH employees, male and female:
North Carolina_______________

—

2

13

Total

3

7

Total_______________________
All employees, female:
North Carolina.
Virginia
Kentucky

4

4
2

All employees, male:
North Carolina_______________
Virginia___________________
Kentucky

.427

7 4,390
4 1,694
2
103

TotaL

1,002

13

Other employees, female:
North Carolina
VirginiaKentucky

13

AD
N

698 $0,402
.487
288
.495
16

4
2

Total_______ _______________

Total__ _

20,
un­
der
25
cts.

WAGES

Other employees, male:
North Carolina.. ,
Virginia__________ ___
Kentucky _ _

10, 12, 14, 16, 18,
8,
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der der der
18 20
16
12
14
10
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.