View original document

The full text on this page is automatically extracted from the file linked above and may contain errors and inconsistencies.

U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
ROYAL MEEKER, Commissioner

/WHOLE
1 NUMBER

BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES )
BU REA U OF LABOR STA TISTICS J
W AG ES

AND

HOURS

OF

LABOR

S E R IE S :

No.

154
13

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR IN THE
BOOT AND SHOE AND HOSIERY AND
UNDERWEAR INDUSTRIES: 1907 TO 1913




MAY 22, 1914

WASHINGTON
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
1914




CONTENTS.
Page.

Boot and shoe manufacturing................................................................................... 5-76
Summary.............................................................................................................. 5-14
Explanation of scope and method.................................................................... 14-25
Description of the principal productive occupations..................................... 25-35
Table I.—Average rates of wages per hour, average full-time weekly earn­
ings, and average and classified full-time hours of work per week in the
United States, by years, 1907 to 1913............................................................ 35-49
Table II.—Average rates of wages per hour, average full-time weekly earn­
ings, and average and classified full-time hours of work per week in each
year, by States, 1912 and 1913....................................................................... 50-62
Table III.—Average rates of wages per hour, average full-time weekly earn­
ings, and average and classified full-time hours of work per week in each
State, by years, 1912 and 1913...................................................................... 63-70
Table IV.—Average full-time hours of work per week, and average and
classified rates of wages per hour, by States, 1913...................................... 71-76
Hosiery and underwear manufacturing................................................................. 77-118
Summary............................................................................................................. 77-83
Explanation of scope and method.................................................................... 83-87
Description of the principal productive occupations..................................... 88-93
Table I.—Average rates of wages per hour, average full-time weekly earn­
ings, and average and classified full-time hours of work per week in the
United States, by years, 1907 to 1913......................................................... 94-103
Table II.—Average rates of wages per hour, average full-time weekly earn­
ings, and average and classified full-time hours of work per week in each
year, by States, 1912 and 1913................................................................... 104-109
Table III.—Average rates of wages per hour, average full-time weekly earn­
ings, and average and classified full-time hours of work per week, in each
State, by years, 1912 and 1913................................................................... 110-114
Table IY .—Average full-time hours of work per week, and average and
classified rates of wages per hour, by States, 1913................................... 115-118
Appendix.—Relative full-time hours per week and* relative rates of wages per
hour in boot and shoe manufacturing and hosiery and underwear manufac­
turing, 1890 to 1912............................................................................................. 119-131




3




BULLETIN OF THE

U. S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
WHOLE NO. 154.

WASHINGTON.

MAY 22, 1914.

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR IN THE BOOT AND
SHOE AND HOSIERY AND UNDERWEAR INDUSTRIES:
1907 TO 1913.
BOOT AND SHOE MANUFACTURING.
SUMMARY.

This report, based on information obtained from representative
establishments, shows the full-time weekly earnings, the full-time
hours of labor per week, and the rates of wages (or earnings) per hour
in the principal occupations in the boot and shoe industry in the
United States. Figures relating to full-time hours of labor per week
and rates of wages (or earnings) per hour are presented for the years
1907 to 1913, inclusive, and for full-time weekly earnings for the
years 1910 to 1913, inclusive.
Earlier reports of this Bureau present wages and hours of labor in
the industry from 1890 to 1912.1
Briefly summarized, the average full-time weekly earnings of
employees engaged in boot and shoe manufacturing in 1913 were 7.4
per cent higher than such earnings in 1912; 6.7 per cent higher than
in 1911; and 8.9 per cent higher than in 1910. The full-time hours
of labor per week in this industry in 1913 were 0.9 per cent lower than
in 1912, and 2.4 per cent lower than in 1911, and 2.6 per cent lower
than in 1910. Rates of wages or earnings per hour in boot and shoe
manufacturing in 1913 were 8.1 per cent higher than in 1912; 8.9
per cent higher than in 1911; and 11.4 per cent higher than in 1910.
The summary figures concerning the occupations covered by this
report are presented in Table I (pp. 35-49). The data for the years
i Previous investigations of wages and hours of labor in boot and shoe manufacturing have been made
and published by the Bureau, as follows: Nineteenth Annual Report, covering 1890 to 1903; Bulletin No. 59
(July, 1905), covering 1903 and 1904; Bulletin No. 65 (July, 1906), covering 1904 and 1905; Bulletin No. 71
(July, 1907), covering 1905 and 1906; Bulletin No. 77 (July, 1908), covering 1906 and 1907; and Bulletin No.
134 (August, 1913), covering 1907 to 1912.




5

6

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

1907 to 1911 were secured in 1911. Owing to the difficulty of finding
establishments haying records extending back for a period of years
and also owing to the amount of work involved, data for 1907 to 1909
were secured from a smaller number of establishments, some of them
perhaps less representative, than have furnished data for the later
years.
According to the plan of the table, direct comparisons can be
made properly only between two or more successive years where the
data are for identical establishments. Data from identical establish­
ments for successive years are indicated by a brace before each
group of years.
The data are for one pay-roll period in each year, the period ending
nearest February 15 being selected, except in a very few establish­
ments in which conditions in February were abnormal.
The figures for the years 1907 to the first presentation for 1912 are
reproduced from Bulletin No. 134, except the average full-time
weekly earnings, which figures have been computed for this Bulletin
from the data gathered for the earlier years. The average full-time
weekly earnings have not been computed for the period 1907 to 1910
owing to the lack of funds. It will be observed that the average full­
time weekly earnings are not exactly the same as the product of the
average rate of wages per hour and the average full-time hours per
week. This difference is explained and illustrated on pages 17 and 18.
Referring to Table I (pp. 35-49), it is seen that in 1913 the average
full-time weekly earnings of males engaged in boot and shoe manufac­
turing, represented by 29 occupations, varied from $14.46 for assem
biers to $27.60 for Goodyear welters. The average full-time weekly
earnings of females, represented by 10 occupations, varied from
$8.56 for treers or ironers, hand, to $13.45 for vampers.
The full-time hours of labor per week in 1913 in the several establish­
ments did not exceed 60, and the average was about 55.
Wages and hours of labor differ in different establishments. Hence
the inclusion or exclusion of an establishment in a group, if the
wages and hours therein differ considerably from the average, may
raise or lower the average for the group. In Table I it is seen that
data for cutters of cloth lining, for instance, are reported for 31 iden­
tical establishments for 1911 and 1912, and 72 identical establish­
ments for 1912 and 1913. The average full-time weekly earnings in
this occupation increased from $14.87 in 1911 to $15.23 in 1912, in 31
establishments, and increased from $15.89 in 1912 to $16.99 in 1913
in the 72 establishments reported. As the two groups of establish­
ments do not show the same average earnings for 1912, it would not be
correct to state that earnings had increasedfrom$14.87 in 1911 to $16.99
in 1913. The movement from one year to another is indicated with
the greater degree of certainty by the figures for identical establish


7

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1907 TO 1913— BOOTS AND SHOES.

ments. The difference between $14.87 and $15.23 represents the
change between 1911 and 1912, and the difference between $15.89 and
$16.99 represents the change between 1912 and 1913, as nearly as can
be determined from the data available.
Owing to the change in the number of establishments from year to
year it is difficult to make a comparison of the actual data over a
period of several years which will give an exact measure of the
changes. To aid in the making of such a comparison relative (or
index) numbers have been computed from the averages in Table I
for full-time hours per week, rates of wages per hour, and full-time
weekly earnings for each occupation for the years 1910 to 1913,
inclusive. These relative numbers are simply percentages in which
the figures for 1913 are taken as the base or 100 per cent. The
relative for each year is the per cent that the average in that year is
of the average for 1913, as determined by the method explained on
page 20. Thus, in the table below, the full-time weekly earnings of
cutters, lining, cloth, in 1911 were 91.3 per cent of the full-time
weekly earnings in 1913.
It will be observed that the general tendency of the several occupa­
tions is toward a reduction of working hours and an increase in
rates of wages per hour and of earnings per full week. No data are
available to show the amount of work afforded employees each year
or the variation from year to year. The relative full-time hours per
week indicate the change in the hours of labor of employees working
full time, but do not reflect in any way the greater or less amount
of full-time work afforded. This point is further discussed on
page 16.
R E LA TIV E FULL-TIME HOURS PE R W E E K , R ATES OF W AGES P E R HOUR, AND FULL,
TIME W E E K L Y EARNINGS IN THE PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS IN BOOT AND SHOE
MANUFACTURING, 1910 TO 1913.

(1913

= 100.0.)

Cutting department.
Cutters, lining, cloth,
male.
Year.

1910..
1911..
1912..
1913..

Rela­
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week.

C
1)
102.6
101.5
100.0

Cutters, vamp and whole Cutters, vamp and whole
shoe, hand, male.
shoe, machine, male.

Rela­ Rela­
Rela­
tive
tive
tive
full­
full­
rate of time
time
wages weekly hours
per
per
earn­
hour.
week.
ings.

0)
89.1
92.3
100.0




C
1)
91.3
93.5
100.0

102.8
103.1
100.9
100.0

Rela­
Rela­
tive
tive
full­
rate of time
.wages weekly
per
earn­
hour.
ings.

89.4
88.9
91.6
100.0

92.2
91.6
92.3
100.0

i No data.

Rela­
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week.

104.7
103.6
100.9
100.0

Rela­ Rela­
tive
tive
full­
rate of time
wages weekly
per
earn­
hour.
ings.

95.5
95.1
96.9
100.0

99.3
98.5
97.7
100.0

Skivers, upper,
machine, male.

Rela­
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week.

100.7
100.7
100.4
100.0

Rela­
Rela­ tive
tive
full­
rate of time
wages week­
per
ly
hour. earn­
ings.
87.8
95.7
94.5
100.0

88.9
96.5
94.9
100.0

BU LLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

8

R E L A T IV E FULL-TIM E HOURS PE R W E E K , R ATES OF W AGES PE R HOUR, AND F U LL­
TIME W E E K L Y EARNINGS IN THE PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS IN BOOT AND SHOE
M AN UFACTU RIN G, 1910 TO 1913—Continued.
Cutting departmentconcluded.

Fitting or stitching
department.

Sole-leather department.

Skivers, upper, machine, Channelers, insole and
outsole, male.
female.

Cutters, outsole, male.

Backstay stitchers,
female.

Year.
Rela­
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week.
1910..
1911..
1912..
1913..

103.7
104.2
100.7
100.0

Rela­
Rela­ Rela­
tive
tive
tive
full­
full­
rate of time
time
wages weekly hours
per
earn­
per
hour.
ings. week.
84.2
84.7
92.2
100.0

87.8
88.0
93.0
100.0

102.5
102.4
100.9
100.0

Rela­ Rela­ Rela­
tive
tive
tive
full­
full­
rate of time
time
wages weekly hours
per
per
earn­
hour.
ings. week.
86.8
89.5
90.2
100.0

84.7
87.3
89.4
100.0

Rela­ Rela­ Rela­
tive
tive
tive
full­
full­
rate of
time
time
wages weekly hours
per
earn­
per
hour.
week.
ings.

102.0
101.8
101.4
100.0

89.3
90.5
93.0
100.0

91.0
92.1
94.4
100.0

103.1
103.1
100.7
100.0

Rela­
Rela­ tive
tive
full­
rate of time
wages week­
per
ly
hour. earn­
ings..
92.4
94.4
96.3
100.0

95.1
97.1
97.1
100.0

Fitting or stitching department—Continued.
Button fasteners,
female.
1910..
1911..
1912..
1913..

0)
101.8
100.9
100.0

0)
76.2
88.7
100.0

0)
77.7
89.3
100.0

Buttonhole makers,
female.
0)
102.4
100.7
100.0

0)
90.5
92.8
100.0

0)
91.9
93.1
100.0

Closers-on, female.

104.8
104.8
101.1
100.0

92.5
92.1
95.7
100.0

96.7
96.3
96.6
100.0

Lining makers, female.

103.5
103.5
100.7
100.0

87.6
86.6
89.3
100.0

90.0
88.9
89.7
100.0

Fitting or stitching department—Concluded.
Tip stitchers, female.

1910..
1911..
1912..
1913..

lS .5
100.4
100.0

C
1)
90.2
95.0
100.0

C
1)
91.2
95.1
100.0

Top stitchers or under­
trimmers, female.
104.0
103.8
100.5
100.0

94.1
95.4
94.2
100.0

90.7
92.2
93.9
100.0

Vampers, male.

101.1
101.5
100.4
100.0

93.8
97.2
95.7
100.0

94.7
98.5
95.9
100.0

Vampers, female.
103.7
103.3
100.7
100.0

95.5
95.6
93.6
100.0

99.1
98.8
94.3
100.0

Lasting department.
Assemblers, for pulling- Bed-machine operators, Hand-method lasting
machine operators, male.
male.
over macnine, male.
1910..
1911..
1912..
1913..

(*)
101.6
100.5
100.0

C
1)
94.2
91.0
100.0

(*)
95.7
91.4
100.0

102.4
101.8
100.7
100.0

94.2
97.4
91.5
100.0

92.3
95.9
90.9
100.0

103.1
102.9
100.7
100.0

1910..
1911..
1912..
1913..

103.2
101.6
100.7
100.0

93.1
92.6
88.9
100.0




96.3
94.1
89.5
100.0

Turn lasters, male.

C
1)
0)
101.1
100.0

0)
P)
88.8
100.0

90.3
91.2
91.5
100.0

102.0
101.6
100.0
100.0

87.5
92.8
94.9
100.0

89.2
94.1
94.8
100.0

Bottoming department.

Lasting department—Concluded.
Pullers-over, machine,
male.

87.9
88.8
91.0
100.0

Pullers-over, hand,
male.

S .7
100.0

1No data.

Buffers, male.

0)
101.3
101.3
100.0

C)
1
86.9
90.7
100.0

C
1)
87.9
91.6
100.0

Edge setters, male.

101.8
101.8
100.9
100.0

87.9
89.5
91.7
100.0

89.4
91.0
92.4
100.0

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1907 TO 1913— BOOTS A STD SHOES.

9

R E LA T IV E FULL-TIME HOURS PE R W E E K , RATES OF W AGES P E R HOUR, AND FU LL­
TIME W E E K L Y EARNINGS IN THE PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS IN BOOT AND SHOE
MANUFACTURING, 1910 TO 1913—Concluded.
Bottoming’department—Continued.
Edge trimmers, male.

Year.

Rela­
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week.

1910..
1911..
1912..
1913..

101.6
101.3
100.9
100.0

Goodyear stitchers,
male.

Rela­ Rela­ Rela­
tive
tive
tive
full­
full­
rate of time
time
wages weekly hours
per
per
week. earn­
ings. week.
91.5
93.5
92.6
100.0

92.9
94.4
93.3
100.0

101.8
101.3
101.3
100.0

Goodyear welters,
male.

Rela­ Rela­ Rela­
tive
tive
tive
full­
full­
rate of time
time
wages weekly hours
per
earn­
per
hour.
ings. week.
91.3
94.8
94.3
100.0

93.1
96.2
95.4
100.0

101.6
101.3
100.9
100.0

Heel breasters, male.

Rela­ Rela­ Rela­
tive
tive
tive
full­
full­
rate of time
time
wages weekly
hours
per
per
hour. earn­ week.
ings.
83.4
88.5
89.0
100.0

84.7
89.5
89.7
100.0

C
1)
101.6
100.9
100.0

Rela­
Rela­ tive
full­
tive
rate of time
wages week­
per
ly
hour. earn­
ings.
C
1)

90.9
94.4
100.0

C
1)
91.8
94.7
100.0

Bottoming department—Continued.
Heel burnishers, male.
1910.
1911.
1912.
1913.

0)

101.6

101.3
100.0

C
1)
91.4
93.3
100.0

92.5
94.3
100.0

Heelers, male.

I& 6
101.4
100.0

C
1)
92.0
89.0

100. t)

Heel scourers, male.
0)
93.8
90.4

100.0

C
1)
99.8
101.1

100.0

C)
91.0
92.0
100.0

C
1)
92.0
92.7
100.0

Heel-seat nailers, male.

101.6
100.0

(*)
96.0
86.9

100.0

C
1)
97.5
88.3
100.0

Bottoming department— Continued.

Heel sluggers, male.

1910.
1911.
1912.
1913.

C
1)

(*)
89.3

0)

100.9

91.0
100.0

100.0

101.1

100.0

89.7
91.5

Heel trimmers or
shavers, male.
102.2
102.0

101.1

100.0

Bottoming depart­
ment—Concluded .
Rough rounders, male.

1910..
1911..
1912..
1913..

102.4
102.0
101.3
100.0

80.8
87.1
87.6

100.0

82.4
88.6

88.5
100.0

92.6
93.8
93.7
100.0

94.2
95.4
94.5
100.0

Levelers, male.

C)
1
101.5
101.3
100.0

C)
1
90.6
94.3
100.0

(*)
91.4
95.0

100.0

McKay sewers, male.

102.0

101.3
100.9
100.0

92.7
92.8
89.6
100.0

94.0
93.4
90.4
100.0

Finishing department.

Treers or ironers, hand,
male.
100.7
101.1
100.9

100.0

95.8
96.1
100.0

96.2
96.7
•95.0
100.0

Treers or ironers, hand,
female.
106.8
106.6
99.6

90.7
91.1
97.0

96.9
97.2

100.0 100.0 100.0

1No data.

A like table of relative numbers is next shown for the industry as a
whole, as determined by a combination of the data for the several occu­
pations covered. Data were obtained for the principal occupations
of the industry but not for all occupations. The method of comput­
ing this table is explained on page 11.




10

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

R E LA TIV E FULL-TIME HOURS PER W EE K , RATES OF W AGES PER HOUR, AND FU LL­
TIME W E E K L Y EARNINGS IN BOOT AND SHOE M ANUFACTURING, 1910 TO 1913.

( 1913= 100.0.)

Year.

1910...................................
1911...................................
1912..................................
1913...................................

Relative
full-time
hours
per week.
102.7
102.5
,100.9
100.0

Relative
rate of
wages per
hour.
89.8
91.8
92.5
100.0

Relative
full-time
weekly
earnings.
91.9
93.7
93.1
100.0

From the table it is to be seen that the relative or index number for
full-time hours per week in the boot and shoe industry as a whole
decreased from 102.7 in 1910 to 100 in 1913, or, in other words, full­
time hours per week were. 102.7 per cent in 1910 of what they were in
1913. The relative or index number for rate of wages per hour in­
creased from 89. 8 in 1910 to 100 in 1913. Owing to the reduction of
hours the increase in full-time weekly earnings was somewhat less
than the increase in wages per hour, it being from an index of 91.9 in
1910 to 100 in 1913.
In examining the relative or index numbers for the several occupa­
tions on pages 7 to 9 and for the industry as a whole in the table above,, it
will be observed that they have been computed with 1913 taken as a
base or 100 per cent. In the preceding reports of the Bureau, relat­
ing to this industry, relative numbers for rates of wages per hour and
for hours of labor per week were presented back to 1890 and the base or
100 per cent was not the average rate of wages per hour or the average
full-time hours per week in any one year, but the average rate of wages
per hour and the average full-time hours per week for the 10-year pe­
riod, 1890-1899. The table of such relative numbers for the years
1890 to 1912 appears in the Appendix, page 119.
There are several reasons for changing the base to the most recent year.
The primary reason for changing the base to the last available year
is that as the scope of the inquiry has been enlarged in recent years it
has seemed necessary in order to represent the industry adequately to.
include additional occupations. As no data were available for these
occupations for 1890 to 1899, no relatives or index numbers could be
computed for them with such period as a base. By using the last year
as a base, however, it is possible to compute relatives for such addi­
tional occupations.
Again, relative or index numbers are most frequently used to com­
pare the present year with different preceding years, and generally with
the few years immediately preceding. Probably comparison between
1913 and 1912 will be made more often than between any other two
years, and a comparison of any relative number with 100 conveys a
clearer idea than a comparison with any other number. For ex­
ample, the ratio 99.4 :100 is more clearly grasped than the equal
ratio 154.4:155.4.



WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1907 TO 1913— BOOTS AND SHOES.

11

A third reason for a change of base from 1890-1899 to 1913 is that
any imperfections, due, for example, to a small number of estab­
lishments, in the data for earlier years are continued when additions
are made from year to year to an old series of index numbers. The
data for 1913 are the most comprehensive and satisfactory that have
been gathered in any year and the data back to 1910 are more satis­
factory than in the earlier years. This reason for the change of base is
further explained on page 18.
For this bulletin relative numbers have been computed back to the
year 1910 on the basis of 1913 equal to 100 per cent. They were not
computed for earlier years because data were available from a consid­
erably smaller number of establishments, and further because of the
large amount of work involved. The relative numbers for the several
occupations were computed in both the old and the new series by the
same process, which is explained on page 20. The relative numbers
for the occupations shown in the new series here presented differ
from those of the old series, shown in preceding reports, because of
the change of the base; but the ratio existing between any two years
is the same in both series. The relative numbers for the industry
as a whole have likewise been recomputed with 1913 as the base.
In addition to making a change of the base year, a change has also
been made in the method of computing the industry relatives; and,
because of this change, the relatives for the industry as a whole here
presented not only differ from the relatives computed by the old
method but show a slightly different ratio of change from year to year.
In Bulletin No. 129, the relative numbers for this industry were
averages of the relative numbers of the several occupations. For each
year, for example, the relative rate of wages per hour of each occupa­
tion was multiplied (weighted) by the number of employees in that
occupation. The products thus computed for all occupations were
added, and the sum divided by the total employees.
In computing the relative numbers from 1910 to 1913 for the indus­
try as a whole, as presented in this Bulletin, a combination was made,
not of the relative numbers for the several occupations, but of the
actual hours and wages of the several occupations. For each year
the average hours and wages were computed for all employees in all
occupations and the average for each preceding year was compared
with the average for 1913 to determine the index.
It was deemed necessary to make this change in method because
a change in the industry is not always accurately reflected by the
relative computed by averaging the occupation relatives. The reason
is more fully explained on page 21.
In addition to the relative numbers shown for the several occu­
pations and for the industry three tables are here presented showing
the percent of increase or decrease in full-time hours of labor per week,
rates of wages per hour, and full-time weekly earnings in 1913, as



12

BU LLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

compared with each preceding year back to 1910. The figures of
these tables are computed from the relative numbers shown on pages 7
to 10, and simply reverse the method of comparison. Each of the
three tables also shows the increase or decrease in 1912 as compared
with 1911, and in 1911 as compared with 1910.
Referring to the second line of the first table, it is seen that the full­
time hours of labor of cutters, vamp and whole shoe, hand, in 1913
were 2.7 per cent lower than in 1910, 3 per cent lower than in 1911,
and 0.9 per cent lower than in 1912. Further, it is seen that the full­
time hours of labor in this occupation were 2.1 per cent lower in 1912
than in 1911 and 0.3 per cent higher in 1911 than in 1910. The other
figures of the table are read in like manner.
P E R CENT OF INCREASE OR DECREASE IN FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK, 1913 COM­
PA R E D W ITH EACH OF THE 3 Y E A R S PRECEDING, 1912 COMPARED W ITH 1911, AND
1911 COMPARED W IT H 1910.
Per cent higher ( + ) or lower ( —)
in 1913 than in —
Occupation.
1910
Cutting department:
Cutters, lining, cloth, m ale...................
Cutters, vamp and whole shoe, hand,
male.....................................................
Cutters, vamp and whole shoe, ma­
chine, male..........................................
Skivers, upper, machine, male.............
Skivers, upper, machine, female..........
Sole-leather department:
Channelers, insole and outsole, male...
Cutters, outsole, male............................
Fitting or stitching department:
Backstay stitchers, female.....................
Button fasteners, female........................
Buttonhole makers, female...................
Closers-on, female...................................
Tuning makers, female...........................
Tip stitchers, female..............................
Top stitchers or undertrimmers, female
Vampers, male.......................................
Vampers, female.....................................
Lasting department:
Assemblers, for pulling-over machine,
male......................................................
Bed-machine operators, m ale...............
Hand-method lasting machine oper­
ators, male..........................................
Pullers-over, hand, male........................
Pullers-over, machine, male..................
Turn lasters, hand, m ale......................
Bottoming department:
Buffers, male..........................................
Edge setters, male..................................
Edge trimmers, male.............................
Goodyear stitchers, male.......................
Goodyear welters, male.........................
Heel breasters, male..............................
Heel burnishers, male............................
Heelers, male..........................................
Heel scourers, male................................
Heel-seat nailers, male...........................
Heel sluggers, male................................
Heel trimmers or shavers, male............
Levelers, male.........................................
McKay sewers, male..............................
Rough rounders, male...........................
Finishing department:
Treers or ironers, hand; male................
Treers or ironers, hand, female..............
The industry.......................................




1No data.

1911

Per cent higher ( + ) or
lower ( —) in —
1912 than
in 1911

1912

1911 than
in 1910

—2.5

—1.5

—1.1

—2.7

—3.0

— .9

—2.1

+0.3

—4.5
— .7
—3.6

—3.5
— .7
—4.0

— .9
— .4
— .7

—2.6
— .3
—3.4

—1.1
(2)
+ .5

—2.4
—2.0

—2.3
—1.8

— .9
—1.4

—1.5
— .4

— .1
— .2

—3.0
0)
(i)
—4.6
—3.4

— .7
— .9
— .7
—1.1
— .7
— .4
— .5
— .4
— .7

—2.3
— .9
—1.7
—3.5
—2.7
—1.1
—3.2
—1.1
—2.5

(2)

(1
—3.8
—1.1
—3.6

—3.0
—1.8
—2.3
—4.6
—3.4
—1.5
—3.7
—1.5
—3.2

(' i , 3

—1.6
—1.8

— .5
— .7

—1.1
—1.1

0)
— .6

—3.0
—2.0
—3.1
0)

—2.8
—1.6
—1.6
(*)

— .7

«—1.1
.7

—2.1
—1.6
— .9
0)

— .2
— .4
—1.6
0)

0)
—1.8
—1.6
—1.8
—1.6
0)
0)
(*)

(,i z o
—2.3

—1.3
—1.8
—1.3
—1.3
—1.3
—1.6
—1.6
—1.6
+ .2
—1.6
—1.1
—2.0
—1.5
—1.3
—2.0

—1.3
— .9
— .9
—1.3
— .9
— .9
—1.3
—1.4
—1.1
—1.6
— .9
—1.1
—1.3
— .9
—1.3

— .7
—6.4

—1.1
—6.2

— .9
+ .4

— .2
—6.6

+ .4
— .2

—2.6

—2.4

“

—1.6

— .2

C)
1

i1)

(1)
0
—2.2

2 No change.

-9

(a . 9
i
— .4

«— .4
.7
— .3
— .2
+1.3
(S . 2
1
— .9
— .2
— .4
— .7

0)

(!)
(2)
(2)
0)
— .2
+ .4
— .4

C
1)
(2)
— .3
— .5
— .3
C
1)
C
1)
i1)
m
c1)
— .2

(,)- . 7
— .4

13

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1907 TO 1913— BOOTS AND SHOES.

PER CENT OF INCREASE OR DECREASE IN BATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, 1913 COM­
P A RE D W ITH EACH OF THE 3 Y E A R S PRECEDING, 1912 COMPARED W ITH 1911, AND
1911. COMPARED W IT H 1910.

Per cent higher ( + ) or lower ( —)
in 1913 than in —

Per cent higher ( + ) or
lower ( —) in —

Occupation.
1910

Cutting department:
Cutters, lining, cloth, m ale...................
Cutters, vamp and whole shoe, hand,
m ale....................................................
Cutters, vamp and whole shoe, mafihine, m ale______ ______ _________
Skivers, upper, machine, male.............
SlrivATSj nppftr; maohinAj famalft _f____
Sole-leather department:
Channelers, insole and outsole, m ale.. .
Cutters, outsole, male............................
Fitting or stitching department:
■Rartirstay stitchers, female...................Button fasteners, female........................
■RifttnnhnlA malrers, female _ ________
Closers-on, female...................................
Lining makers, female
...........................
Tip stitchers, female...............................
Top stitchers or undertrimmers, female
Vampers, male.......................................
Vampers, female.....................................
Lasting department:
Assemblers, for pulling-over machine,
male.....................................................
Bed-machine operators, male................
Hand-method lasting machine, oper­
ators, m ale..........................................
Pullers-over, hand, male.......................
Pullers-over, machine, male..................
Turn lasters, hand, male........................
Bottoming department:
Buffers, male..........................................
Edge setters, male..................................
Edge trimmers, male.............................
Goodyear stitchers, male.......................
Goodyear welters, male.........................
Heel breasters, male...............................
Heel burnishers, male............................
Heelers, male..........................................
Heel scourers, male................................
Heel-seat nailers, male...........................
Heel sluggers, male................................
Heel trimmers or shavers, male............
Levelers, male.........................................
McKay sewers, male..............................
Rough rounders, male...........................
Finishing department:
Treers or ironers, hand, male.................
Treers or ironers, hand, female.............
The industry.......................................




1911

1912

1912 than
in 1911

1911 than
in 1910

C
1)

+12.2

+ 8.3

+ 3.6

+11.9

+12.5

+ 9.2

+ 3.0

—0.6

+ 4.7
+13.9
+18.8

+ 5.2
+ 4.5
+18.1

+ 3.2
+ 5.8
+ 8.5

+ 1.9
— 1.3
+ 8.9

— .4
+9.0
+ .6

+18.1
+12.0

+14.5
+10.5

+11.9
+ 7.5

+ 2.4
+ 2.8

+3.1
+1.3

+ 8.2
C
1)
C
1)
+ 8.1
+14.2
(*)
+10.3
+ 6.6
+ 4.7

+ 5.9
+31.2
+10.5
+ 8.6
+15.5
+10.9
+ 8.5
+ 2.9
+ 4.6

+ 3.8
+12.7
+ 7.8
+ 4.5
+12.0
+ 5.3
+ 6.5
+ 4.5
+ 6.8

+ 2.0
+16.4
+ 2.5
+ 3.9
+ 3.1
+ 5.3
+ 1.8
— 1.5
— 2.1

+2.2
C
1)
0)
— .4
—1.1
C)
1
+ 1.7
+3.6
+ .1

0)
+ 8.3

+ 6.2
+ 4.3

+ 9.9
+10.0

— 3.4
— 5.2

0)

+13.8
+14.3
+ 7.4
C)
1

+12.6
+ 7.8
+ 8.0
0)

+ 9.9
+ 5.4
+12.5
+12.6

+ 2.5
+ 2.3
— 4.0
C
1)

+23.8

+15.1
+11.7
+ 7.0
+ 5.5
+13.0
+10.0
+ 9.4
+ 8.7
+ 9.9
+ 4.2
+12.0
+ 6.6
+10.4
+ 7.8
+14.8

+10.3
+ 9.1
+ 8.0
+ 6.0
+12.4
+ 5.9
+ 7.2
+12.4
+ 8.7
+15.1
+ 9.9
+ 6.7
+ 6.0
+11.6
+14.2

+
+
—
—
+
+
+
—
+
—
+
—
+
—
+

+ 4.4
+10.3

+ 4.1
+ 9.8

+ 6.0
+ 3.1

— 1.9
+ 6.5

+ .3
+ .4

+11.4

+ 8.9.

+ 8.1

+

+2.2

? 1 ,8
+ 9.3
+ 9.5
+19.9
C)
1
0)
0)
0
0)
0)
+ 8.0

1 No data.

4.4
2.5
1.0
.5
.6
3.9
2.1
3.3
1.1
9.5
1.9
.1
4.1
3.4
.6

.8

(*) .

+3.9

+1.0
+6.1
— .5
0)
(° + , 8
+2.2
+3.8
+6.1
0)

(i)

C
1)
0)
(V

s

(,)+ . l
+7.8

14

BU LLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

PER CENT OF INCREASE OR DECREASE IN FULL-TIME W EEKLY EARNINGS, 1913
COMPARED W IT H EACH OF THE 3 Y E A R S PRECEDING, 1912 COMPARED W ITH 1911,
AND 1911 COMPARED W ITH 1910.

Per cent higher ( + ) or lower ( —)
in 1913 than in —

Per cent higher ( + ) or
lower ( —) in —

Occupation.
1910

Cutting department:
Cutters, lining, cloth, m ale...................
Cutters, vamp and whole shoe, hand,
male......................................................
Cutters, vamp and whole shoe, manhinftj mala - r„, ____ _______ _____
Skivers, upper, machine, m ale.............
f!lriv«rs, 11 T TnarVhvpA, ffirnala . . . . . . .
PPP ,
Sole-leather department:
Channelers, insole and outsole, m ale...
Cutters, outsole, male............................
Fitting or stitching department:
Bank^tay stit^nfirs, female.___________
Button fasteners, female........................
Buttonhole jnakers, fem ale..................
Closers-on, female. / . ...............................
Lining makers, female...........................
Tip stitchers, female..............................
Top stitcher or undertrimmers, female..
Vampers, male.......................................
Vampers, female.....................................
Lasting department:
Assemblers for pulling-over machine,
m ale....................................................
Bed-machine operators, male................
Hand-method lasting machine oper­
ators, male...........................................
Pullers-over, hand, male........................
Pullers-over, machine, male..................
Turn lasters, hand, male........................
Bottoming department:
Buffers, male..........................................
Edge setters, male..................................
Edge trimmers, male.............................
Goodyear stitchers, male.......................
Goodyear welters, male.........................
Heel breasters, male...............................
Heel burnishers, male............................
Heelers, male..........................................
Heel scourers, male................................
Heel-seat nailers, male...........................
Heel sluggers, male................................
Heel trimmers or shavers, male............
Levelers, male........................................
McKay sewers, male..............................
Rough rounders, male...........................
Finishing department:
Treers or ironers, hand, male................
Treers or ironers, hand, female..............
The industry.......................................
1No data.

1911

1912

1912 than
in 1911

1911 than
in 1910

C
1)

+ 9.5

+ 7.0

+ 2.4

+ 8.5

+ 9.2

+ 8.3

+

.8

- 0 .7

+ .7
+12.5
+13.9

+ 1.5
+ 3.6
+13.6

+ 2A
+ 5.4
+ 7.5

— .8
— 1.7
+ 5.7

— .8
+8.5
+ .2

+15.2
+ 9.9

+11.7
+ 8.6

+10.9
+ 5.9

+ .8
+ 2.5

+3.1
+ 1.2

+ 5.2
C
1)
C
1)
+ 3.4
+11.1
0)
+ 6.3
+ 5.6
+ .9

+ 3.0
+28.7
+ 8.8
+ 3.8
+12.5
+ 9.6
+ 4.8
+ 1.5
+ 1.2

+ 3.0
+12.0
+ 7.4
+ 3.5
+11.5
+ 5.2
+ 6.2
+ 4.3
+ 6.0

(2)
+14.9
+ 1.3
+ .3
+ .9
+ 4.3
— 1.3
— 2.6
— 4.6

+2.1
(0
(1)
— .4
—1.2
0)
+1.4
+ 4.0
— .3

0)
+ 6.2

+ 4.5
+ 2.7

+ 9.4
+ 9.3

— 4.5
— 6.1

0)

+10.7
+12.1
+ 3.8
0)

+ 9.6
+ 6.3
+ 6.3
C)
1

+ 9.3
+ 5.5
+11.7
+11.5

+ .3
+ .7
— 4.9
C
1)

+ 1.0
+5.5
—2.3
0)

+ 9.2
+ 8.2
+ 7.2
+ 4.8
+11.5
+ 5.6
+ 6.0
+10.6
+ 7.9
+13.3
+ 9.3
+ 5.8
+ 5.3
+10.6
+13.0

+
+
—
—
+
+
+
—
+
—
+
+
—
—

0)

(l)
+ 6.4
+21.4

+13.8
+ 9.9
+ 5.9
+ 4.0
+11.7
+ 8.9
+ 8.1
+ 6.6
+ 8.7
+ 2.6
+11.5
+ 4.8
+ 9.4
+ 7.1
+12.9

+ 4.0
+ 3.5

+ 3.4
+ 3.2

+ 5.3
+ 2.9

— 1.8
+ .3

+ .5
+ .3

+ 8.9

+ 6.7

+ 7.4

— .6

+2.0

% .9
+ 7.6
+ 7.4
+18.1
(0
(0
C)
1
0)
C)
1

4.2
1.5
1.2
.8
.2
3.2
1.9
3.6
.8
9. 4
2.0
.9
3.9
3.2
.1

0)

+3.4

+1.8
+ 1.6
+ 3.3
i +5.7

(i)
i1)

n\

+1.3
0)
— .6
+7.5

2No change.

EXPLANATION OF SCOPE AND METHOD.

This report on boot and shoe manufacturing includes establish­
ments whose principal or only products are shoes made by the welt,
McKay, or turn process. Men’s, women’s, and children’s shoes are
included in the product of these factories. No data are included from
establishments whose main or sole products are nailed, screwed, or
pegged shoes, or specialties such as slippers, leggings, felt boots, etc.,
nor from establishments doing only fitting or making sole stock.




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1907 TO 1913— BOOTS AND SHOES.

15

All information in this report was secured from pay rolls of the
various establishments by the agents of the Bureau. The number of
establishments for which data were secured varied considerably during
the period included in this report, as follows:
1907 to 1910...................................................... 26 identical establishments.
1910 and 1911................................................... 60 identical establishments.
1911 and 1912................................................... 81 identical establishments.
1912 and 1913................................................... 88 identical establishments.

The data for 1907 to 1911 were secured in 1911 and the number of
establishments included for the full period for 1907 to 1910, inclusive,
was limited owing to the difficulty of finding establishments that had
preserved complete records for those years and also owing to the
large amount of work involved. Data were not secured from a
greater number of establishments in the more recent years because
of the limited funds available for the purpose.
The establishments vary from year to year as establishments go
out of business or cease to be representative and new establish­
ments must be substituted in the wage study. Occasionally occu­
pations are dispensed with in a factory or new occupations introduced
and sometimes data are not available for all occupations desired from
a factory. Data for a group of establishments in any year will
not be precisely the same as for a different group in the same
year, even though nearly all of the establishments may be common
to both groups. In using the actual figures in this report comparison
from year to year should be made only between data coming from
identical establishments. In the tables the data from identical
establishments are bracketed together. Data from an establishment
are not included in the report unless the information for at least two
years is available.
In selecting establishments from which to secure data the Bureau
undertook to represent all States in which boot and shoe manufac­
turing is of material importance, the measure of importance being the
number of employees reported by the United States Census of Manu­
factures. The table which follows shows by States the number of em­
ployees in boot and shoe manufacturing, as reported by the United
States Census Office, 1910; the total number on the payroll in the
establishments from which the Bureau secured data for 1913; and
the number in the selected occupations for whom data for 1913 are
shown.




16

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

TO TAL NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES IN BOOT AND SHOE MANUFACTURING, AND NUM­
BER OF EM PLOYEES IN ESTABLISHMENTS FOR WHICH DA TA A R E SHOWN FOR
1913.

State.

Establishments for which data are
shown by the Bureau of Labor
Statistics for 1913.
Number of
employees
reported
by United
Number of employees—
States Cen­
sus Office, Number of
establish­
1910.
For whom
ments.
data are
°rn
oBay
shown.

Massachusetts.....................................................................
New Y ork...........................................................................
Missouri..............................................................................
Ohio....................................................................................

74,710
20,545
16,336
15,693

27
U
11
7

22,515
7,412
5,683
5,611

7,597
2,504
1,834
1,728

New Hampshire.................................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................................
Maine..................................................................................
Illinois.................................................................................

13,042
10,576
6,508
5,588

7
8
5
4

5,046
3,944
3,033
2,815

1,722
1,406
886
1,103

Wisconsin...........................................................................
New Jersey.........................................................................
Virginia...............................................................................
Other States1.....................................................................

5,081
4,084
2,677
10,276

2
4
2

1,245
1,299
592

410
491
229

Total..........................................................................

185,116

88

59,195

19,910

i Includes States having less than 2,675 employees in 1910.

According to the census of 1910 more than 94 per cent of the total
number of employees in the industry are found in the States in which
the establishments furnishing information to the Bureau of Labor
Statistics are located.
The number of employees in the establishments from which the
Bureau obtained 1913 data was equal to 32 per cent of the total in the
industry in 1910; and the number of such employees for which the
Bureau presents detailed information for 1913 was equal to 10.8 per
cent of the total in the industry in 1910.
The pay-roll period taken each year was the one nearest February
15, except in a very few establishments where abnormal conditions
made it desirable to take a pay roll for some other time of the year.
The full-time hours of labor per week shown in the tables of the re­
port are the regular full-time hours of work of the occupation under
normal conditions in the establishment. The working time is the
hours on duty including intervals of waiting for work. The full-time
hours per week and the relatives based thereon do not in any way
indicate the extent of unemployment. Employees may work over­
time, or broken time, or be laid off, or a temporary reduction may be
made in working hours, without such change affecting the full-time
hours per week as presented in this Bulletin.
The rates of wages per hour appearing in the tables include the
wages of time workers and the earnings of pieceworkers. All time




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR,

TO 1913— BOOTS AND SHOES.

17

rates by the day or week have been reduced to rates per hour, and the
earnings of pieceworkers or of persons working at both time and
piece rates have been reduced to rates per hour, by dividing the earn­
ings by the hours worked. The time workers and pieceworkers of
each occupation are combined as one group.
The majority of boot and shoe employees are paid at piece rates.
In a considerable number of establishments visited in preceding
years the records of the hours worked by individual pieceworkers
were so inadequate that it was not deemed advisable to attempt to
tabulate classified rates of wages or earnings per hour.
In 1913, however, where there was no record regularly kept in the
factory, of the actual time worked by pieceworkers the firms at the
request of the Bureau kept a special record for the pay period taken,
making it possible to present the classified rates shown in Table IV.
The importance of such a record for factory purposes is causing more
firms each year to keep a record of time worked by all employees.
A change in the earnings per hour of pieceworkers does not of
necessity indicate a change in piece rates. Without a change in
piece rates, a change in methods or of machinery, a speeding up, or
more steady work resulting from greater volume of business may
increase the hourly earnings; or, on the other hand, changes in
methods, a slowing down in speed, or a lull in business may reduce
the hourly earnings. Varying intervals of waiting for work while
on duty may also affect hourly earnings.
The full-time weekly earnings tabulated are the earnings per week
of employees working full-time, or the earnings on broken time
reduced to equivalent earnings for a full week. In considering
changes in full-time earnings per week notice should also be taken of
changes in full-time hours of labor per week. A reduction in the
hours of a pieceworker may reduce his earnings in a week and leave
his earnings per hour unchanged, while a reduction of hours for a
week worker will, if his weekly rate remains the same, increase his
rate per hour.
The averages of full-time hours per week, rates of wages per hour,
and full-time weekly earnings are computed by adding the data for
each individual employee and dividing the total by the number of
employees.
It will be observed that the average full-time weekly earnings gen­
erally are not exactly the same as the result that would be obtained
by multiplying the average rate per hour by the average hours
per week, owing to the fact that hourly rates for individual em­
ployees are based on varying hours per week, which has the effect




18

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

of changing the relative weighting of the wages of the several em­
ployees. A hypothetical illustration shows the difference:
Employees.

Full-time
hours per
week.

Rates of
wages per
week.

Rates of
wages per
hour.

1 .....................
1 .....................
1 .....................
1 .....................

48
54
54
60

$15.00
14.00
16.00
12.00

$0.3125
.2593
.2963
.2000

Total......................

216

57.00

1.0681

54

14.25

.2670

Average.................

The product of $0.2670 multiplied by 54 is $14.42, while the
average earnings per week is $14.25.
The change of the basis of comparison in computing the relative
or index numbers from the average of 1890-1899 to 1913 is in part
explained on page 10.
One of the reasons for the change of the base from 1890-1899 to the
last year is that any imperfections in the data for earlier years are
continued and compounded in the relative numbers when additions
are made from year to year to an old series of relative numbers.
The data for the period 1890-1899 were obtained mostly in 1901
from old and often incomplete pay rolls, and it was sometimes diffi­
cult to classify the employees into the several occupations.
For the 10-year period, 1890-1899, data were obtained from only
46 establishments, while data were obtained for 1912 and 1913 from
88 establishments. The number of establishments varied in the
intervening years. While the average of 46 establishments possibly
might have been a fairly acceptable base, the average of nearly twice
as many establishments recently canvassed becomes more nearly
representative of the industry, and thus a more satisfactory base.
Data are available from 81 establishments for 1911 and 1912 and
from 60 establishments for 1910 and 1911.
Were the relative numbers for the occupations recomputed back
to 1890 with 1913 as the base, any imperfections in the data for the
earlier years would, of course, be carried into the relative numbers
for those years, but would not appear in the relative numbers for the
later years.
With either period as the base the relative numbers would show
with the same degree of accuracy the trend from one year to the
next. With 1890-1899 as the base, however, any fault in the data
for the early years is continued, and the relative for 1913 will be at
fault. But with the last year as the base the relative number for any
of the recent years is as nearly accurate and representative as the
data collected for such years, and does not contain in itself any im­
perfections that may have been in data gathered in earlier years.



WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1907 TO 1913— BOOTS AND SHOES.

19

In one series the relative number, if beginning in fault, continues
in fault even though the data of later years be entirely satisfactory.
In the other series with the data for 1913 as the base, any imper­
fections in data for the earlier years will not appear except in such
years.
To illustrate the change in the relatives produced by the change of
base, relative full-time hours of labor and relative rates of wages per
hour of female vampers for the years 1910 to 1913 are given in the
table following, computed with 1913 as the base, and with the aver­
age 1890-1899 as the base, so that the relative numbers computed on
the two bases may be compared.
RE LA TIV E FULL-TIME HOURS PER W E E K AND RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR OF
FEMALE VAMPERS COMPUTED ON TWO BASES: AVERAGE 1890-1899=100; AND
AV E R AG E F O R 1913=100.
Relative full-time
hours per week.
Year.

1910..............
1911..............
1912..............
1913..............

Relative rate of wages
^per hour.

Relative,
Relative,
Relative,
Relative,
average
average
1913
1913
1890-1899 equals 100. 1890-1899 equals 100.
equals 100.
equals 100.
97.5
97.2
94.8
94.1

103.7
103.3
100.7
100.0

130.3
130.5
127.8
136.5

95.5
95.6
93.6
100.0

The first column of relative numbers indicates that the hours per
week in 1910 were 97.5 per cent of the average hours in the period
1890-1899, while the next column shows the hours in 1910 to be 103.7
per cent of the hours in 1913. Both series of relatives indicate prac­
tically the same change from 1910 to 1913, the first making a decrease
of 3.49 per cent and the other a decrease of 3.57 per cent. Allowing
for decimals dropped in computing the relatives, the results would be
identical.
The first series of relative wages per hour shows an increase from
relative 130.3 in 1910 to relative 136.5 in 1913, an increase of 4.76
per cent. The second series shows an increase from 95.5 in 1910 to
100 per cent in 1913, an increase of 4.71 per cent. Here again, allow­
ing for terminal decimals, the results would be identical.
The relative rates of wages per hour and the relative full-time hours
per week from 1890 to 1912 on the basis of 1890-1899, equal to 100
for the industry and for the several occupations published in Bulletin
No. 134, are reproduced in this Bulle’tin, on pages 119 to 126.
Relative or index numbers for the several occupations and for the
industry as a whole from 1910 to 1913 are presented on pages 7 to 10.




20

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

The method of computing such relative or index numbers for an
occupation can best be explained by an illustration. The rates of
wages per hour of bed-machine operators are taken as an example:
Number
of iden­
tical es­
tablish­
ments.
f
Rates of wages per hour................................................ \
1
Relatives rates of wages per hour computed therefrom
Rates of wages per hour in identical establishments
covering the full four years.......................................
Relative rates of wages per hour computed therefrom.

1912

1913

1910

1911

35
54
65

$0.3108

$0.3229
.3210

92.4

95.9

$0.3042
.3004
90.9

$0.3304
100.0

29

.3129
95.4

.3268
99.7

.3025
92.3

.3279
100.0

The rate per hour for 1913 is taken as the base (100), then $0.3004
divided by $0.3304 equals 90.9, the relative for 1912. The ratio of
1911 to 1912 is $0.3210 to $0.3042. The relative for 1912 just deter­
mined, 90.9 multiplied by $0.3210, divided by $0.3042 equals 95.9, the
relative for 1911. The ratio of 1910 to 1911 is $0.3108 to $0.3229.
The relative for 1911, 95.9, multiplied by $0.3108, divided by $0.3229
equals 92.4, the relative for 1910.
The method of computing relative numbers over a period of years,
as illustrated above, is used because of the changes of establishments
which occur.
Any method of computing a series of relative numbers should take
into account changes in establishments from year to year, as changes
naturally occur, some establishments discontinuing operations or
ceasing to be representative, and new establishments entering the field.
The method explained above, bringing in the new establishments, has
been followed in computing the relatives in this report. Otherwise
no use could have been made in the relative or index of the data from
the additional establishments obtained for the later years.
Of the 35 establishments reporting data for 1910-11, 6 dropped out
later and only 29 reported for the entire period. The average rates
of wages per hour for the 29 establishments reporting for the entire
period are shown also in the above table, with relatives computed
therefrom. As might be expected, these relatives differ from the
relatives based on the greater number of establishments. Pre­
sumptively they are not as nearly representative as are the relatives
based on the greater number of establishments, but they are given
here as an illustration of the difference shown by relatives based on
different amounts of data.
Data concerning rates of wages and hours of labor for the period
1907 to 1910, being available from a preceding Bulletin, are here
reproduced, but, as before stated, owing to the small number of estab­
lishments in that period, and limited funds, it has not been deemed




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1907 TO 1913---- BOOTS AND SHOES.

21

advisable to compute relative numbers therefor, and average full­
time weekly earnings have not been computed for that period.
A word of caution is given as to the use of relative numbers. The
per cent of increase or decrease from one year to another is not the
difference between the relative numbers for the years. Thus, in the
table above, the relative rate of wages per hour increased from 92.4
in 1910 to 100 in 1913, an increase in the relative of 7.6 over the rela­
tive 92.4, making an increase of 8.2 per cent, 7.6 being 8.2 per cent
of 92.4, the relative from which comparison is made.
While the base for the computation of the relative numbers for the
several occupations has been changed from the average of 1890-99
to 1913, the method of computation has remained the same.
The relative numbers for the industry as a whole, however, have
been computed for this Bulletin not only with a change of base but
in a different manner than for preceding bulletins and hence may be
expected to show some variations in results. The change is referred
to on page 10. The relative numbers for the industry published in
Bulletin No. 134 were computed from the relative numbers of the
several occupations. The relative numbers for the industry here
presented, covering 1910 to 1913, are computed directly from the
average hours of labor, rates of wages per hour, and weekly earnings
of all employees in all occupations combined. In other words, the
relatives for the industry as a whole have been computed for this
report in the same manner as the relatives for each occupation.
It was deemed necessary to make this change in method, because
by computing the industry relative from the relatives of the occupa­
tions, the change in the industry is not accurately reflected by the
relative thus computed.
The following table for a hypothetical industry illustrates how a
change in the industry as a whole may not be reflected by a com­
bination of the relatives of the occupations:
1912
Occupation.

Actual wages:
Occupation A .........................................
Occupation B .........................................
Total....................................................
Average..................................................
Relative..................................................

Em­
ployees.

Rate of
wages
per day.

20
20

$1.20
$3.60

20
20

Total....................................................
Average..................................................

40




90
90

Em­
ployees.

Rate of
wages
per day.

$24.00
$72.00

30
10

$1.33$
$4.00

$96.00
$2.40
120.0

40

Relative wages:
Occupation A .........................................
Occupation B .........................................

1913

40

1,800
1,800

30
10

3,600
90.0

40

Aggre­
gate.

Aggre­
gate.

$40.00
$40.00
$80.00
$2.00
100.0

100
100

3.000
1.000
4.000
100.0

22

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

In this hypothetical table it is assumed that there were two occu­
pations, A and B. Each occupation received an advance of wages in
1913, but there was a change in the number of employees in the two
occupations, a larger proportion of lower skilled employees being
employed.
The average rate of wages of both occupations combined in 1912
was $2.40, and in 1913 it was $2. Taking 1913 as the base, the
relative for the industry for 1912 would be 120. On the other hand,
computing the relative for each occupation, combining the relatives,
and making the average thereof, the relative for 1912 is 90 as against
100 for 1913. Computed from occupation relatives, the relative rate
of wages for the industry appears to increase from 90 to 100, while
the relative for the industry as a whole, computed from the average
rates, because of the change in number of employees in the occupa­
tions, actually decreased from 120 to 100.
The general tendency of many industries is toward an increase in
the proportion of unskilled or low-skilled employees to highly skilled
employees, because of specialization and the increasing efficiency of
machinery.
Even though it were possible to cover the same number of estab­
lishments each year, it would not be possible to cover identical estab­
lishments for a considerable number of years, as firms go out of
business or for some reason it becomes impossible to get acceptable
data from some firms. The desire of the Bureau is to enlarge the
scope of the study from time to time by covering a larger number of
establishments. In computing the relative from year to year, it is
necessary, therefore, to use the method described on page 20, grouping
the data for identical establishments in groups of two or more years
as available. This method is necessary whether the industry relative
be computed from the actual average wages and hours of all occu­
pations or an average of the relatives of all occupations.
In the necessary use of the method described, a material statistical
error may result if the industry relative is computed from the rela­
tives of the occupations instead of the average for the industry. If
the establishments should remain identical through a period of a few
years and wages and hours in a later year return to the same wages
and hours as in a preceding year, industry relatives computed from
actual averages will be the same for the same averages occurring in
the different years. If, however, the industry relative be computed
from the relatives of the several occupations, like averages will not
be represented by like relatives.




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1907 TO 1913— BOOTS AND SHOES.

23

The subject is illustrated in the table below showing a hypothetical
industry of three occupations, A, B, and C, of one employee each:
1912

1911
Occupation.

Em­
ployees.

(1)

(2)

Rate of Relative Rate of Relative Rate of Relative
wage, as
wage, as
wages compared wages compared wages
wage.
per day. with 1912. per day. with 1913. per day.
(3)

(4)

$1.00
2.00
3.00

100.00
80.00
66.67

6.00
Total..................................
3
2.00
Average.......................................
Relative computed from occu aation rekitives by
method described. 1913 equal s 100...
Relative average rate 1911 ($2) compared vrith averagrft rate 1912 (12.6631________
Relative computed from average rate of all occupa­
tions. 1913 equals 100.............. ................................

246.67
82.22

Occupation A ..............................
Occupation B ..............................
Occupation C ..............................

1
1
1

1913

102.78

(5)
$1.00
2.50
4.50
8.00
2.66|

(6)

(7)

(8)

100.00
125.00
150.00

$1.00
2.00
3.00

100.00
100.00
100.00

375.00
125.00

6.00
2.00

300.00
100.00

125.00

100.00

133.33

100.00

75.00
100.00

In this table column 7 shows the wages of each employee in 1913,
and the average wages, $2. Columns 3 and 5 show the detailed wages
and the average wages in 1911 and 1912, respectively. Column 8
shows the relative wages with 1913 as the base (100). Column 6
shows the relative' wage of each occupation for 1912 as compared with
1913 and the average of such relatives, namely, 125. Column 4 shows
the relatives for 1911 as compared with 1912 and the average of such
relatives based on 1912, namely, 82.22.
Below the line of the average is the relative for the industry as
computed from the averages of the several occupation relatives by
the method explained on page 20, with 1913 equal to 100. The
relative for 1912 is 125 as compared with 1913. Computing 82.22
per cent of 125 produces the relative 102.78, the relative for 1911 on
the basis of 1913 equal to 100. Thus, the relatives for the industry
computed from the relatives of the occupations for 1912 beginning
with 1913 as 100 and working back to 1911, are: 1913 equals 100;
1912 equals 125; 1911 equals 102.78. The actual average wages, how­
ever, are: $2, $2.66§, and $2. Thus, the same average wage for
the industry is not represented by the same relative.
Comparing $2.66§, the average rate for 1912, with $2, the average
rate for 1913, the relative is found to be 133.33. Comparing the
average rate for 1911 ($2) with the average rate for 1912 ($2.66§), the
relative is 75, and 75 per cent of 133.33, the relative for 1912, is 100,
the relative for 1911 on the basis of 1913 equal to 100, as computed by
the described method from the average wages of the industry.
Thus, the illustration shows that the industry relative computed
from the average wages for the industry by the described method in
identical establishments gives like industry relatives for like industry
averages, but that if the industry relative be computed from the



24

BU LLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

relatives of the several occupations, the industry relative may not be
the same for the same average wages for the industry in another year.
The industry relatives given in this bulletin have been computed
from the actual average full-time hours per week, rates of wages per
hour, and full-time weekly earnings for all employees reported for the
industry in the same manner as for each separate occupation. While
this method always produces like relatives to represent like actual
wages and hours when applied to the data for two groups of establish­
ments, both having one and the same average for any year, it must not
be understood that the like relatives will appear for the same concrete
numbers when the relatives are computed from data where different
groups of establishments show different averages for one and the
same year.
Thus, on page 20 it is shown that the relative rate per hour in 1910
as computed through successive pairs of comparable data is 92.4,
although $0.3108, the average rate for 1910 in 35 establishments, is
94.1 per cent of $0.3304, the average rate shown for 1913 in 65
establishments.
The relative numbers for the boot and shoe manufacturing industry
as a whole, computed by both methods, are brought into comparison
in the table given below.
It will be observed that the results obtained by the two methods
differ to some extent.
R ELA TIV E FULL-TIME HOURS P E R W EE K AND RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN
THE BOOT AND SHOE MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY COMPUTED ON TW O BASES:
1913 = 100; AND AVERAGE 1890-1899 = 100.

Method used in this report (1913
equals 100).

Method used in pre­
ceding report (aver­
age 1890-1899 equals
100).

Relative
full-time
hours per
week.

Relative
rates of
wages per
hour.

Relative
full-time
weekly
earnings.

Relative
full-time
hours per
week.

102.7
102.5
100.9
100.0

89.8
91.8
92.5
100.0

91.9
93.7
93.1
100.0

95.5
95.3
93.9
0)

Year.

1910.................................................................
1911................................................................
1912.................................................................

Relative
rates of
wages per
hour.
129.6
131.7
132.8
0)

i Not computed.

The figures computed according to the present method show a
decrease of relative hours of labor from 102.7 in 1910 to 100.9 in 1912,
a decrease of 1.8 per cent. The figures by the other method show a
decrease of relative hours from 95.5 in 1910 to 93.9 in 1912, or 1.7
per cent.
Relative rates of wages per hour computed by the present method
show an increase from relative 89.8 in 1910 to 92.5 in 1912, an
increase of 3.0 per cent. According to the figures by the other
method, the increase was from 129.6 in 1910 to 132.8 in 1912, an



WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR; 1907 TO 1913— BOOTS AND SHOES.

25

increase of 2.5 per cent. Relative full-time earnings were not com­
puted by the other method.
Four general tables are presented for the boot and shoe industry,
as follows:
Table I.—Average rates of wages per hour, average full-time weekly
earnings, and average and classified full-time hours of work per week
in the United States, by years, 1907 to 1913.
Table II.—Average rates of wages per hour, average full-time
weekly earnings, and average and classified full-time hours of work
per week in each year, by States, 1912 and 1913.
Table III.—Average rates of wages per hour, average full-time
weekly earnings, and average and classified full-time hours of work per
week in each State, by years, 1912 and 1913.
Table IV.—Average full-time hours of work per week, and average
and classified rates of wages per hour by States, 1913.
In Table I, in addition to actual data, percentages computed there­
from are given.
When sufficient data for a State are available to warrant presenta­
tion such data are presented by States in Tables II, III, and IV.
Table III repeats the data for the several States given in Table II,
rearranged for the convenience of the reader.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PRINCIPAL PRODUCTIVE OCCUPATIONS.

The kinds of boots and shoes manufactured by the establishments
furnishing data for this report are given on page 14.
So far as the staple products covered by this report are concerned,
the processes of manufacture are practically standardized, and the
operations are highly specialized. In a modern shoe factory there
are more than 100 separate operations, each generally performed by
a different person.
Of these 100 or more operations, more than 50 may be performed
by machines. The number of operations, both hand and machine,
varies with the process and product and the equipment of the factory.
A shoe factory usually has the following departments: Cutting, soleleather, fitting or stitching, lasting, bottoming, finishing, and packing.
In the cutting department are cut the several parts of the uppers,
the lining, and the trimmings. These parts pass to the fitting or
stitching department, where they are sewed together, forming the
whole upper.
In the sole-leather department the soles are cut, and heels, counters,
and boxes made. Frequently these parts are bought ready-made
from factories making a specialty of such manufacture.
In the lasting department the upper, insole, counter, and box are
assembled and fitted together on the shoe last. From this depart­



26

B U LLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

ment the lasted shoe is sent to the bottoming department, where the
welt (in welt shoes) is sewed on, the outer sole sewed on, the heel
attached, and the heel and the edge of the sole trimmed to shape
and finished.
In the finishing department the shoe is smoothed with a hot iron,
scratches rubbed down, stains removed, and the shoe given a final
cleaning and inspection. From this department the shoes go to the
packing department, where they are boxed and cased for shipment.
Figures as to wages and hours of labor are presented in this report
for 36 of the principal occupations of the industry. Hand and
machine work on the same process are presented as separate occupa­
tions, except in lining cutting, in which occupation they are combined.
The sex of the employees is shown for each occupation. Some occu­
pations include both males and females in such numbers that data
are presented for both sexes. Other occupations are filled largely or
entirely by one sex; the few employees of the other sex in such occu­
pations are not reported. Of the 36 occupations tabulated, data are
shown for males alone in 26 occupations, for females alone in 7 occu­
pations, and for both males and females in 3 occupations.
Nine of the 10 occupations represented by females are machine
operations. Of all the employees reported for 1913, 27 per cent were
females.
The occupations for which data are shown are here listed in alpha­
betical rather than process order, under each department. The
departments, however, are listed in process order.
Cutting department:
Cutters, lining, cloth, male.
Cutters, vamp and whole shoe, hand,
male.
Cutters, vamp and whole shoe, ma­
chine, male.
Skivers, upper, machine, male.
Skivers, upper, machine, female.
Sole-leather department:
Channelers, insole and outsole, male.
Cutters, outsole, male.
Fitting or stitching department:
Backstay stitchers, female.
Button fasteners, female.
Buttonhole makers, female.
Closers-on, female.
Lining makers, female.
Tip stitchers, female.
Top stitchers or undertrimmers, fe­
male.
Vampers, male.
Vampers, female.
Lasting department:
Assemblers, for pulling-over machine,
male.
Bed-machine operators, male.



Lasting department—Concluded.
Hand-method lasting machine oper­
ators, male.
Pullers-over, hand, male.
Pullers-over, machine, male.
Turn lasters, hand, male.
Bottoming department:
Buffers, male.
Edge setters, male.
Edge trimmers, male.
Goodyear stitchers, male.
Goodyear welters, male.
Heel breasters, male.
Heel burnishers, male.
Heelers, male.
Heel scourers, male.
Heel-seat nailers, male.
Heel sluggers, male.
Heel trimmers or shavers, male.
Levelers, male.
McKay sewers, male.
Bough rounders, male.
Finishing department:
Treers or ironers, hand, male.
Treers or ironers, hand, female.

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1907 TO 1913---- BOOTS AND SHOES.

27

CUTTING DEPARTMENT.

All operations of the cutting department here shown are usually
performed by men, except skiving, on which operation women also
are employed.
CUTTERS, LINING, CLOTH.

Included in this occupation are the men who cut the cloth lining
of the upper of the shoe. The work may be performed by hand or
machine. The hand cutter receives the cloth folded 8 to 12 thick.
He lays his patterns on the cloth and draws a knife along the edge
of the pattern, cutting through the several thicknesses of cloth. The
machine operator uses a die which, under the pressure of a power
machine, cuts 24 to 32 thicknesses at one time.
CUTTERS, VAMP AND WHOLE SHOE, HAND.

This occupation includes the men who cut by hand the entire top
or outside of the shoe. It covers the men who cut the vamp and
possibly some or all of the other parts of the top also, but does not
include cutters of minor parts only. The vamp is the most important
part of the upper and requires the greatest skill in cutting. It con­
sists of the part or parts of the upper attached to the sole. The
upper, according to the style of the shoe, may have other parts also,
as quarters, tongue, tip, backstay, and foxing. The operator has a
bench upon which he spreads the skin; he lays the pattern in the
desired place and draws a knife along the edge of the pattern, cutting
the part to the desired shape. For each different part of the upper
there is a separate pattern. Incidental to the outside cutting care
must be exercised in selecting like qualities and weights of stock for
the same parts in a pair of shoes.
CUTTERS, VAMP AND WHOLE SHOE, MACHINE.

These operators cut the same part or parts as the hand cutters
described above. Instead of patterns and a knife they use dies
operated by a power press. Different dies are required for each
part of each style and size of shoe. The cutting board is similar to
that used by the hand worker, but has a beam over it which can be
swung either to the left or right and to any position over the board.
The cutter places the die in the desired position on the leather, grasps
the handle of the beam of the machine and swings it over the
die, with a downward pressure. A clutch is placed in operation,
which brings the beam downward, pressing the die through the
leather. After the cut the beam automatically returns to its full
height and remains there until the handle is pressed again.




28

BU LLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
SKIVERS, UPPER, MACHINE.

Skiving consists of cutting away, on the flesh side, the edge of a
piece of leather, so that the edge may be turned and pasted back,
thus giving a finished rather than a raw edge of the same thickness as
the other parts of the leather. The machine used has a sharp-edged
revolving disk so shaped as to cut the desired bevel or shoulder on
the leather fed to it.
SOLE-LEATHER DEPARTMENT.

The two operations of this department for which data are shown
are performed by men.
CHANNELERS, INSOLE AND OUTSOLE.

The operator has a machine that cuts a slit near the edge of a welt
insole or a McKay outsole. The slit extends only part way through
the sole and is cut at an acute angle. The lip or lid of the channel
is turned back by a channel turner. The channel in the outsole of
the welt shoe is cut by the rough rounder. The channel in the welt
insole avoids a seam inside the shoe and permits the insole, the welt,
and the upper to be stitched together while on the last. In the
outsole the channel permits the seam to be countersunk or embedded
in the sole. After the outsole is stitched on, the lip of the channel is
cemented down on the thread, protecting it from wear.
CUTTERS, OUTSOLE.

The operator cuts the outsole from a side of leather by means of a
die and a heavy descending power beam. The leather is laid upon
the cutting table, the cutter places the die, and with his foot presses
a lever, releasing the beam, which comes down upon the die with
sufficient force to press it through the leather. The operator sets
the die so as to have as little waste leather as possible, and to have
the same quality of leather throughout the sole.
FITTING OR STITCHING DEPARTMENT.

Women are employed so generally in this part of the manufacture
of a shoe that data are shown for females alone in all occupations
reported except vamping, in which occupation wages are shown for
both sexes. All of these are machine operations.
BACKSTAY STITCHERS.

The back of the shoe is usually strengthened by an additional strip
running all or part of the way from the top to the sole of the shoe.
This stay is sewed on over the back seam. This work is also called
back stripping.




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1907 TO 1913— BOOTS AND SHOES.

29

BUTTON FASTENERS.

This is an automatic machine operation. The buttons are fastened
on the shoe by either thread or wire. The upper comes to the oper­
ator with the place marked for each button. The operator has
only to put the top of the shoe in position and start and stop the
machine.
BUTTONHOLE MAKERS.

The upper is received by the operator with the position of each
buttonhole marked. The machine cuts and works the buttonhole
automatically. The operator has only to hold the upper in position
and control the machine.
CLOSERS-ON.

This operation consists of stitching the lining to the top of the
upper, both of these parts having been made previously. The work
is also called inseaming. This operation is not performed on all
shoes. In some shops it is omitted entirely; in others the lining is
pasted on to hold it to the top until the upper is top-stitched.
LINING MAKERS.

These employees are sewing-machine operators who sew together
the several parts of the shoe lining. In some shops the work is sub­
divided, two or more persons doing a part of the work on each lining.
This operation of sewing the cloth lining requires less skill than the
leather-sewing operations, to which lining makers are usually ad­
vanced as they acquire skill.
TIP STITCHERS.

The tip is a separate piece of leather generally put over the toe of
the shoe. It is stitched to the vamp by machine.
TOP STITCHERS OR UNDERTRIMMERS.

When the lining has been closed on to the top of the upper, it is
folded inside of the upper covering the closing-on seam and passed
to the top stitcher who stitches, by machine, the edge of the folded-in
seam. This operation is also called undertrimming. In some shops
this top stitching is done without a previous closing-on, the lining
being held in position or previously pasted.
VAMPERS.

The vamp is the part of the upper to which the sole is attached.
Vamping is the process of sewing together the vamp or lower part of
the shoe upper and the top part, known as top or quarter. Pumps or
slippers having no tops or quarters do not require vamping. Vamp­
ing is the most important and best-paid operation in the fitting room.



30

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

The operator uses either a single or double needle power vamp sew­
ing machine. Either males or females may operate the machine;
women’s shoes being light can be vamped by females, but men’s shoes
being heavier are usually vamped by men; however, in many plants
making men’s shoes only, there are women vampers.
LASTING DEPARTMENT.

Men are employed almost exclusively in the operations of the last­
ing room.
ASSEMBLERS, FOR PULLING-OVER MACHINE.

The assembler receives the last with the insole tacked on it. He
wets the leather, shellacs the toe box or the tip or both, places the
toe box and counter between the lining and the upper, and then puts
the last inside the upper. Having centered the upper on the last,
he places the last on the spindle of the assembling machine. By
pressing a lever the machine automatically drives small tacks through
the upper and insole into the bottom of the last at the toe, the heel,
and either side, the tacks holding the upper in place temporarily.
The shoe goes from the assembler to the machine puller-over. When
the pulling-over is a hand operation, the assembling is done by the
hand puller-over.
BED-MACHINE OPERATORS.

Lasting is the next operation after the shoe has been pulled over
the last. The bed-machine operator places the shoe on the ma­
chine and by levers moves a series of wipers (friction pullers) which
draw the upper over the edge of the insole at the toe and heel.
Some factories designate this as toe and heel lasting. The shoe is
placed with the sole up and the operator determines whether the shoe
is properly lasted by placing his hand under the toe or heel. The
wipers are kept in motion until the operator is satisfied that the upper
has been wiped into the desired position. Under the welt system, the
operator drives a tack through the upper and insole and partly into
the last at one side and passes a fine wire from it around the drawn-in
upper at the toe to the opposite side of the last and drives a tack,
around which he winds the wire. The wire holds the toe of the upper
in position as drawn in over the last. Under the McKay system,
instead of the wire used on the toe of welt shoes, tacks are used. The
upper at the heel is fastened by tacks driven in by hand. In case the
side is lasted by the bed-machine laster the side or instep is lasted
by hand with pincers. The operator draws the upper tightly over the
last so that there are no wrinkles and tacks it down by hand. Last­
ing is one of the most important operations in the making of a shoe.




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1907 TO 1913— BOOTS AND SHOES.

31

HAND-METHOD LASTING MACHINE OPERATORS.

In this method of lasting, which is done on a machine known either
as “ consolidated” or “ niggerhead,” the operator holds the edge of
the shoe so that the pincers of the machine grasp the upper and draw
it evenly and closely about the last. Immediately following the
pincers as fast as the upper is drawn into position, there is a device on
the machine that drives tacks automatically into the last to hold the
upper in its proper place. In case any part of the shoe has not been
properly lasted, the operator pulls the tacks and does the work over.
Under the welt system this machine is often used to last only the side
or instep while the bed machine lasts the toe and heel, thus cutting
out the operation of hand lasting the side or instep, which is necessary
in plants using only the bed machines.
PULLERS-OVER, HAND.

The hand puller-over is his own assembler, which occupation is
described above. With the parts assembled, he takes hand pincers
and draws the upper over the last and insole, taking care that the
upper keeps its proper position, and drives a tack at the toe and two
on either side to hold the upper in position for the laster.
PULLERS-OVER, MACHINE.

Where shoes are pulled over by machine, they are first assembled
and put over the last by the assembler. The machine puller-over
places the shoe in the machine and the pincers of the machine grasp
the leather at different points on each side of the shoe. The operator
stands so that he can see when the upper is properly centered. He
presses a foot lever closing the pincers, which draw the leather securely
against the last. The machine stops at this point and the operator
can start or stop the machine at will. The operator now examines
the shoe to see whether all the parts have been evenly pulled over the
last. Where a part has not been properly pulled over it can be
adjusted to the desired point by levers. When satisfied that the shoe
is properly adjusted, the operator presses a foot lever, the pincers
move toward each other, drawing the leather around the last, and
at the same time the machine automatically drives two tacks on each
side and one at the top through the upper and insole into the last to
hold the upper in position.
TURN LASTERS, HAND.

The turn laster, working by hand, uses only hand tools, as pincers,
hammers, etc. He pulls the upper, inside out, over the last upon
which he has already placed the outsole. When he has pulled the
upper smoothly over the last he tacks it to the sole. Sometimes the
work is divided between first and second lasters. After the opera­



32

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

tions described above, which are performed by the first laster, the
shoe goes to the Goodyear stitching-machine operator to be sewed.
After sewing, all tacks are removed and all surplus upper stock
trimmed off. The last is then removed and the shoe turned right
side out. The second laster straightens out the upper and lining
and inserts a shank piece which extends from the back of the heel
to the ball of the shoe. He drives one tack into this shank piece and
sticks it to the sole with glue. This is to stiffen the shank. He then
inserts a last and smoothes the shoe.
BOTTOMING DEPARTMENT.

All operations in the bottoming department are usually performed
by men.
BUFFERS.

After the shoe has been bottomed, the buffer removes stains from
the sole and gives it a smooth, finished appearance by holding it
against a revolving roll or wheel covered with sandpaper or emery
paper.
EDGE SETTERS.

The edge setter holds the edge of the sole against a machine having
hot irons shaped to fit the edge of the sole, which irons vibrate rapidly
and give a lasting polish to the edge.
EDGE TRIMMERS.

The operator holds the edge of the sole against a machine having
a series of revolving knives that trim the edge smooth and to the
desired shape. This operation comes after the bottom has been
sewed on and precedes edge setting.
GOODYEAR STITCHERS.

The operator uses a Goodyear outsole lock-stitch machine to stitch
the outsole to the welt. The seam is run in the channel in the out­
sole through both outsole and welt on the outside of the shoe. The
stitches show on the upper surface of the welt and are covered on the
under surface of the sole by cementing down the lip of the channel.
GOODYEAR WELTERS.

The welt is a narrow strip of leather to which the outsole is to be
stitched. It extends around the edge of the sole as far back as the
breast o f’the heel. By one operation of the machine both the upper
and the welt are sewed to the insole, the thread passing through the
lip of the channel in the insole. The outsole is stitched to the welt
in a later operation.




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1907 TO 1913— BOOTS AND SHOES.

33

HEEL BREASTERS.

The heel breaster operates a machine having a knife which cuts to
shape and trims evenly the breast or front surface of the heel, cutting
down to the outsole, but not cutting into it.
HEEL BURNISHERS.

The final operation on the heel is the burnishing. The operator
holds the shoe with his hand in such position that the heel comes in
contact with a wheel on the burnishing machine, which gives it a hard,
smooth surface. Hot wax is carried to the heel by a small disk and
applied by a series of rubbing blows, which beat the wax thoroughly
into the heel. A revolving brush on the same machine brings the
heel to a perfectly smooth surface.
HEELERS.

The heels come to the heeler ready-made, except for the top lift or
last layer of leather. A helper sticks nails into a steel plate. The
helper places the shoe on a jack or metal last, puts the heel in position,
swings the nail plate into place over the heel when the nails are
dropped into another plate over the heel. By operating a foot lever
another part of the machine drives the nails down through the heel,
the insole, and- the upper folded between the insole and the heel, and
clinches the nails back into the leather of the insole. The nails pro­
trude slightly above the unfinished heel. The top lift, coated with
cement, is then pressed down by the machine on the protruding nails.
HEEL SCOURERS.

This operator holds the shoe by hand so the heel, trimmed but yet
not smooth, comes in contact with rolls covered with sandpaper,
which smooth the heel. The next operation on the heel is burnishing.
HEEL-SEAT NAILERS.

The heel seat is the heel end of the sole. The insole, the outsole,
and the part of the upper brought in between them are nailed together
by machine. Small brass nails are driven automatically through the
parts and clinched on the insole side. The shoe is placed on a jack
and the work of the operator is to guide it during the nailing.
HEEL SLUGGERS.

The slugger operates a machine which drives small pieces of brass
or other metal, called “ slugs,” into the toplift of the heel to protect
it from wear. The operator of this machine adjusts the plate so as
to place accurately the desired number of slugs, and the machine
automatically cuts off and drives the slugs as they are drawn from a
coil of wire.
45968°— Bull. 154— 14------3




34

BU LLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
HEEL TRIMMERS OR SHAVERS.

The heel, when the shoe is received from the heeler, is rough and
larger than the required size. The trimmer or shaver holds the shoe
by hand in such position that the heel comes in contact with a series
of revolving knives on his machine which cut away the heel to conform
to the desired contour, as indicated by the top lift, which is of exact
size when put on by the heeler. The machine has two sets of knives.
With the first set the trimmer shaves that part of the heel from the
top lift to the sole, then with the other set he trims the edge of the
sole, taking care not to cut the upper.
LEVELERS.

The operation of leveling to correct any unevenness in the bottom
of the shoe is done with an automatic sole-leveling machine. The
operator places the shoe on a jack or metal last, which he attaches to
the machine, where it is securely held by the spindle and a toe rest.
He presses a foot lever and the shoe passes automatically beneath a
roll under heavy pressure. This roll moves with a vibrating motion
over the middle of the sole of the shoe from the toe down to and into
the shank and passes back again to the toe. The roll then cants to
the right and repeats the operation on that side of the sole, returning
to the toe as before. It then cants to the left, repeating the operation
on that side, after which the shoe automatically drops forward and
is relieved from the pressure. While one shoe is under pressure the
operator is preparing another shoe for the operation.
McKAY SEWERS.

This operator uses a McKay sewing machine to sew together the
outsole, the upper, and the insole— the three parts being sewed
together in one operation, except the heel seat, which is nailed.
No welt is used in the McKay process, the seam being embedded in
the channel of the outsole; the opposite side of the seam is on the
inside of the shoe instead of on the top of the welt outside the shoe,
as in the welt process of manufacture.
ROUGH ROUNDERS.

This operation consists of trimming by machine the edge of the
outsole and welt so that they will extend a uniform distance from
the upper. It is the first operation on the edge of the sole in the
Goodyear process. The machine also cuts a channel in the outsole,
in which the thread is embedded, when the Goodyear stitching is
done later.




35

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 190*7 TO 1913---- BOOTS AND SHOES.

FINISHING DEPARTMENT.
TREERS OR IRONERS, HAND.

The treer places the shoe on a form, the shape of a last, supported
on a frame. By pressing a foot lever the form is expanded so that
the shoe fits tight over it. The tools of the treer are a hot iron,
brush, cloth, etc. The treer brushes the shoe, cleans spots and dis­
colorations, remedies any slight cut or blemish, and rubs the upper
with a hot iron to take out wrinkles and produce a smooth surface.
As females are engaged in this occupation to a considerable extent,
data are shown for both sexes.
I . —AVERAGE RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AVERAGE FULL­
TIME W EEKLY EARNINGS, AND AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL­
TIME HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK IN THE UNITED STATES, BY
YEARS, 1907 TO 1913.

T able

[The figures set opposite each bracketed group of years are for identical establishments.]
N U M BER.

Occupation, sex, and num­
ber of establishments.

Employees whose full-time hours
Aver­
per week were—
Num- Aver­ Aver­
age
age
age
full
lullfull­
rate
of
time
Year. em­ time
of
Over
week­ Over 51
57
48
54
ploy­ hours wages
and
and
ly
per
per
and under 54
and under 60
ees. week. hour. earn­ under
under
54
ings.
60
51
57

C u ttin g D epartm ent.
Cutters, lining, cloth, male:
31 establishments.............. / 1911
\ 1912
1912
72 establishments.............. / 1913
\
Cutters, vamp and whole
shoe, hand, male:
f 1907
1 1908
20 establishments
1 1909
( 1910

115 55.4 $0.2701 $14.87
128 54.8
.2800 15.23

16
20

7
12

27
43

17
14

45
34

3
5
40
7

297 55.2
258 54.4

.2902
.3143

15.89
16.99

35
37

18
18

90
110

66
49

48
37

919
907
907
852

54.9
54.8
54.7
54.7

.3250
.3323
.3399
.3448

C
1)
(i)
(v
C)
1

11
6
14
13

157
175
159
176

343
331
346
278

252
283
286
291

156
112
102
94

1,650
48 establishments.............. / 1910 1,602
\ 1911

56.0
56.2

.3188
.3169

17.86
17.75

13
14

176
158

405
425

395
398

319
311

342
296

1911
64 establishments.............. / 1912 2,066
\
1,906

56.2
55.0

.3127
.3222

17.50
17.63

217

158
162

589
720

587
272

384
323

348
212

/ 1912 1,995
\ 1913 1,987

55.0
54.5

.3215
.3511

17.58
19.05

242
231

162
224

738
803

297
364

336
313

220
52

/ 1910
\ 1911

235
226

57.8
57.2

.3013
.3000

17.23
17.09

13
15

70
75

98
102

54
34

/ 1911
\ 1912

270
300

57.0
55.5

.3126
.3186

17.69
17.54

29

24

59
69
113 .........

87
85

55
49

1912
33 establishments.............. / 1913
\
Skivers, upper, machine,
male:
/ 1910
19 aofo K 1oH Qn
1 * m * fo
\ 1911

490
549

55.8 ! .3134
.3234
55.3

17.36
17.77

29
32

24
27

186
213

41
117

124
121

86
39

74
79

54.7
54.7

.2878
.3139

15.80
17.15

49
52

13
21

12
6

O oQfohlicthmDTifa
ft

/ 1911
\ 1912

136
146

54.8
54.6

.2921
.2885

15.98
15.73

10

92
100

24
11

20
24

1

32 establishments

/ 1912
\ 1913

156 54.7
134 54.5

.2824
.2987

15.41
16.23

10
11

105
87

11
24

29
12

1

71 establishments..............
Cutters, vamp and whole
shoe, machine, male:
17 establishments..............
O oafahllohmanfc
A




1Not com
puted.

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

36

I . —AVERAGE RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AVERAGE FULLTIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, AND AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL­
TIME HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK IN THE UNITED STATES, B Y
YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—Continued.

T able

N U M BE R —Continued.

Occupation, sex, and num­
ber of establishments.

Employees whose full-time hours
Aver­
per week were—
Num­ Aver- Aver­
age
age
ber
full­
rate
of
time Over
Year. em­ time
of
Over 57
week­ 48
51
54
ploy­ hours wages
and
ly
per
per
and under 54
and and
60
ees. week. hour. earn­ under
under under
54
ings.
60
51
57

C u ttin g D epartm ent—Con.
Skivers, upper, machine, fe­
male:
13 establishments..............

1907
1908
1909
1910

74
70
79
85

49 establishments..............

1910
1911

338
314

57.0
57.3

.1749
.1757

$9.94
9.97

1
2

60 establishments..............

1911
1912

374
345

57.0
55.1

.1758
.1914

9.97
10.54

67 establishments..............

1912
1913

371
439

55.0
54.6

.1925
.2088

10 establishments..............

1907
1908
1909
1910

23
23
23
23

55.1
55.1
54.7
54.7

.2829
.2962
.3057
.3004

n\
(I)

44 establishments..............

1910
1911

138 56.3
140 56.2

.2963
.3056

57 establishments..............

1911
1912

157 56.3
149 55.5

.2889
.2956

1912
1913

200 55.9
196 55.4

10 establishments..............

1907
1908
1909
1910

50 54.8
47 54.5
49 54.5
54 54.4

31 establishments..............

1910
1911

143
129

36 establishments..............

1911
1912

42 establishments..............

1912
1913

56.1 $0.1875
56.5
.1918
.1914
56.3
56.0
.1954

8
7
11
8

37
27
31
35

29
36
37
42

30
25

40
25

81
84

86
94

100
84

9

25
26

33
158

113
50

108
91

95
11

10.58
11.38

9.
12

26
32

179
231

59
104

87
60

11

(l)

(1)

4
4
4
4

8
8
10
10

2
2
2
2

9
9
7
7

16.61
17.12

4
4

7
7

39
37

22
31

48
48

18
13

16.21
16.35

7
12

46
61

38
30

45
39

21
7

.2979
.3334

16.62
18.42

12
17

63
71

52
59

57
44

16
5

.3144
.3075
.3065
.3089

C
1)
(i)

38
35
37
42

5
10
10
10

7
2
2
2

56.6
56.5

.2735
.2770

15.44
15.62

48
40

29
34

46
39

20
16

146
161

56.6
56.4

.2784
.2861

15.70
16.09

2

43
56

43
34

39
48

21
21

177
196

56.2
55.4

.2813
.3025

15.75
16.69

2
16

66
83

39
46

49
51

21

81 56.6
78 56.5
91 56.3
95 56.2

.1708
.1858
.1770
.1793

n\
0)

15
13
21
16

18
23
25
25

48
42
45
54

C
1)
C
1)

C
1)

0)

Sole-leather Department.
Channelers, insole and out­
sole, male:

75 establishments..............
Cutters, outsole, male:

Fitting or Stitching
Department.
Backstay stitchers, female:

I1)

16 establishments..............

1907
1908
1909
1910

49 establishments..............

1910
1911

307
299

56.6
56.6

.1765
.1802

9.95
10.16

1
1

32
28

35
36

88
79

84
99

67
56

67 establishments..............

1911
1912

392
378

56.5
55.2

.1854
.1893

10.42
10.42

11

28
8

69
203

110
41

121
97

64
18

78 establishm
ents...........

1912
1913

426
389

55.1
54.7

.1874
.1945

10.31
10.62

12
11

8
12

231
208

48
114

109
44

18




1 Not computed.

37

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1907 TO 1913---- BOOTS AND SHOES.
T a b l e I . — AVERAGE

RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AVERAGE FULL­
TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, AND AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL­
TIME HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK IN THE UNITED STATES, BY
YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—Continued.
N U M BE R —Continued.

Occupation, sex, and num­
ber of establishments.

Num­ Aver- Aver­
age
ber
rate
&
of
Year. em­ time
of
ploy­ hours wages
per
per
ees. week. hour.

Employees whose full-time hours
Aver­
per week were—
age
full­
time
Over 57
week­ Over 51
48
54
and
ly
and under 54
and and
60
earn­ under
under under
54
ings.
60
51
57

F itting or S titch in g De­
p artm en t—Continued.
Button fasteners, female:
/ 1911
26 establishments............ . \ 1912

55
70

/ 1912
\ 1913

205
232

56.4 $0.1572
55.9
.1831

$8.88
10.21

55.3
54.8

.1768
.1993

9.78
10.95

/ 1911
\ 1912

108 56.3
168 55.4

.1757
.1801

9.83
9.96

/ 1912
\ 1913

468 55.1
517 54.7

.1796
.1936

9.87
10.60

18 establishments.,

1907
1908
' 1909
1910

104 55.3
100 55.1
101 55.1
95 55.0

.2003
.1901
.2072
.1979

(i)
(v
(i)
(i)

49 establishments..

/ 1910
\ 1911

262
277

57.1
57.1

.1784
.1776

10.13
10.09

65 establishments..

/ 1911
\ 1912

350
331

56.9
54.9

.1796
.1865

/ 1912
\ 1913

344
349

55.0
54.4

72 establishments............
Buttonhole makers, female:
33 establishments............
74 establishments..
Closers-on, female:

74 establishments...
Lining makers, female:
19 establishments__

1907
1908
1909
1910

5
6

9
28

12
2

26
34

3

15
17

101
127

19
22

58
56

9

2
17

29
79

23
8

48
64

6

27
41

257
306

41
70

111
94

20

17
20
19
23

25
21
19
19

34
41
45
34

28
18
18
19

1
1

23
5

34
36

57
89

60
72

87
74

10.18
10.21

15

5
16

62
178

108
36

88
71

87
15

.1857
.1941

10.17
10.53

15
18

16
1.7

182
206

40
73

76
35

15

124 56.2
112 56.1
122 56.0
154 55.9

.1754
.1654
.1730
.1634

(i)
(i)
(i)
(i)

24
24
28
33

44
42
46
55

56
46
48
66

3
10

12
6

53 establishments.,

/ 1910
\ 1911

585
576

56.5
56.5

.1639
.1619

9.19
9.08

2
3

88
81

76
75

145
162

141
154

133
101

72 establishments..

/ 1911
t 1912

721
706

56.5
55.0

.1656
.1709

9.28
9.36

21

81
39

136
373

190
85

189
161

125
27

/ 1912
\ 1913

764
854

55.0
54.6

.1699
.1902

9.31
10.38

21
29

39
47

391
469

98
199

188
110

27

/ 1911
\ 1912

134
137

55.8
55.2

.2049
.2157

11.38
11.87

10
12

38
68

32
17

49
40

5

/ 1912
79 establishments..
\ 1913
Top stitchers or undertrim­
mers, female:
f 1907
I 1908
17 establishments..
1 1909
I 1910

335
337

54.9
54.7

.2076
.2186

11.36
11.94

17
27

186
175

48
78

68
47

6

151
144
156
164

56.3
56.3
56.3
56.0

.1849
.1898
.1957
.2002

C
1)

30
31
31
32

45
41
47
49

76
72
78
83

53 establishments.

/ 1910
\ 1911

721
742

56.9
56.8

.1884
.1915

10.69
10.83

3
4

64
63

111
109

148
169

192
232

203
165

73 establishments..

/ 1911
\ 1912

911
950

56.7
54.9

.1941
.1978

10.95
10.82

29

63
81

183
521

212
80

268
212

185
27

82 establishments..

/ 1912 1,033
\ 1913 1,070

29
25

81
96

572
573

96
237

228 ....2 7
139

80 establishments..
Tip stitchers, female:
36 establishments .




10
10

h

C)
1

.1976 10.81
54.9
.2104 11.47
54.6
i Not computed.

BU LLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

38

I . — AVERAGE RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AVERAGE FU LL­
TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, AND AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL­
TIME HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK IN THE UNITED STATES, B Y
YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—Continued.

T able

N U M BE R —Continued.

Occupation, sex. and num­
ber of establishments.

Employees whose full-time hours
Aver­
per week were—
Num­ Aver­ Aver­
age
age
age
full­
ber full­
rate
time
of
of
fear. em­ time
Over 57
week­ Over 51
48
54
and
ploy­ hours wages
ly
per
per
and under 54
and and
60
ees. week. hour. earn­ under
under under
54
ings.
60
51
57

Fitting or Stitching De­
partment-Concluded .
Vampers, male:

(i)
(n
m
(l)

13 establishments............

1907
1908
1909
1910

167
99
150
134

54.9 $0.3175
55.2
.2869
54.6
.2867
54.5
.2941

33 establishments..

1910
1911

263
249

55.5
55.7

.2927 $16.24
.3034 16.88

51 establishments..

1911
1912

343
435

55.5
54.9

.3147
.3100

17.42
16.97

1912
1913

483
554

55.0
54.8

.3059
.3195

22 establishments.,

1907
1908
1909
1910

351
321
391
366

55.7
55.9
55.5
55.5

53 establishments..

1910
1911

863
909

71 establishments..
79 establishments.............

7
18
58
48

119
41
51
46

9
15
21
18

32
25
20
22

48
21

67
69

63
81

57
53

28
25

15

21
56

138
199

94
57

61
93

29
15

16.76
17.47

15
12

56
74

215
227

67
164

112
72

18
5

.2463
.2424
.2526
.2570

(J)
w
(i)

4
3
5
6

54
18
77
39

56
60
66
67

105
119
123
129

132
121
120
125

56.9
56.7

.2378
.2382

13.46
13.43

20
26

39
45

125
138

206
229

241
268

232
203

1911 1,124
1912 1,019

56.5
55.1

.2384
.2334

13.46
12.84

21
15

45
66

191
546

291
107

315
237

261
48

1912 1,088
1913 1,072

55.1
54.7

.2305
.2462

12.68
13. 45

15
14

66
72

575
620

121
216

263
150

48

1911
1912

218
228

55.4
54.8

.2739
.2645

15.14
14.45

31

93
102

69
37

49
47

7
11

1912
1913

542
532

55.8
55.5

.2376
.2611

13.21
14.46

31
14

26
31

174
201

96
134

131
121

84
31

15 establishments............

1907
1908
1909
1910

246
300
307
300

54.7
54.8
54.8
55.0

.3497
.3336
.3424
.3214

C
1)
(i)
C)
1

54
23
31
15

126
194
189
169

22
31
34
36

44
52
53
80

35 establishments..

1910
1911

513
568

56.4
56.1

.3108
.3229

17.50
18.09

15
26

169
172

77
159

153
113

99
98

54 establishments..

1911
793
1912 1,004

56.1
55.5

.3210
.3042

17.96
16.88

26
99

263
438

201
151

183
218

120
98

1912 1,127
. 1913 1,220

55.6
55.2

.3004
.3304

16.67
18.21

99
123

446
502

216
354

246
200

120
41

39
48
39
51

60
41
36
29

66 establishments..
Vampers, female:

Lasting Department.
Assemblers, for pulling-over
machine, male:
17 establishments............
50 establishments............
Bed-machine operators, male:

65 establishments.............
Hand-method lasting ma­
chine operators, male:

i1)

6 establishments..

1907
1908
1909
1910

99
89
75
80

57.1
56.6
56.7
56.1

.3111
.3070
.3088
.3223

C
1)
(0
C
1)
(1)

33 establishments..

1910
1911

325
352

57.4
57.3

.3062
.3094

17.49
17.65

4
5

39
45

90
94

86
107

106
101

39 establishments..

1911
. 1912

477
478

57.0
55.8

.3164
.3242

17.96
18.03

26

94
184

137
86

112
97

134
85

41 establishments..

•1912
. 1913

456
449

.3251 18.05
55.7
.3572 19.72
55.3
1Not computed.

26
13

167
200

102
144

83
66

78
26




39

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1907 TO 1913— BOOTS AND SHOES.
T a b l e I . — AVERAGE

RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AVERAGE FULL­
TIME W EEKLY EARNINGS, AND AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL­
TIME HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK IN THE UNITED STATES, BY
YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—Continued.
N U M BE R —Continued.

Occupation, sex, and num­
ber of establishments.

Num­ Aver­ Aver­
age
age
ber full­
rate
of
of
Fear. em­ time
ploy­ hours wages
per
per
ees. week. hour.

Employees whose full-time hours
Aver­
per week were—
age
full­
time
Over
week­ Over 51
57
48
54
and
ly
and under 54
and and
60
eam- under
under under
54
C
O
51
57

L asting D epartm ent—Con.
Pullers-over, hand, male:

77
74
111
105

13 establishments..............

1907
1908
1909
1910

345
330
366
384

56.6 $0.2558
.2490
56.6
.2867
56.2
55.9
.2763

35 establishments..............

1910
1911

784
784

56.4
56.2

.2913 $16.38
.3809 17.28

45 establishments..............

1911
1912

897
899

56.3
55.4

.3121
.3190

1912 1,036
1913
937

55.3
55.3

1910
1911

251
266

43 establishments..............

1911
1912

60 establishments..............
Turn lasters, hand, male:
28 establishments..............

73
63
82
99

195
193
173
180

5
7

19
27

207
204

178
206

228
234

147
106

17.50
17.62

24

27
111

263
297

234
188

219
212

154
67

.3155
.3326

17.41
18.37

24

111
65

343
342

287
332

195
190

76
8

57.4
56.5

.3204
.3188

18.37
17.95

50
77

36
91

85
47

80
51

328
305

56.1
55.6

.3253
.3124

18.18
17.31

15

34

110
113

120
43

52
47

46
53

1912
1913

402
421

55.8
55.4

.3124
.3513

17.39
19.42

7
5

34
19

148
183

64
107

82
82

67
25

1912
1913

452
524

55.6
55.0

.2573
.3100

15.25
17.00

106
140

56
122

74
89

127
149

89
24

1911
1912

174
170

55.8
55.8

.2940
.3068

16.37
17.06

5
5

51
52

49
48

67
58

2
7

1912
1913

338
354

56.0
55.3

.2889
.3186

16.09
17.57

21
23

107
123

67
134

105
57

38
17

18 establishments.............

1907
1908
1909
1910

134
142
150
163

56.0
56.2
56.1
55.9

.3999
.3509
.3806
.3852

31
29
35
34

50
48
53
58

53
65
62
71

54 establishments.............

1910
1911

560
573

56.3
56.3

.3733
.3800

20.94
21.31

97
113

142
148

146
147

100
101

G establishments..............
8

1911
1912

722
698

56.3
55.8

.3800
.3892

21.29
21.63

191
257

170
149

177
142

124
98

7S establishments.............
Edge trimmers, male:

1912
1913

789
815

55.8
55.3

.3785
.4129

21.05
22.78

273
300

190
276

171
148

103
?

23 establishments.............

1907
1908
1909
1910

283
302
287
305

55.3
55.1
55.2
55.0

.4043
.3863
.3975
.4010

93
67
113 * 79
93
83
97
83

77
62
65
67

55 establishments.............

1910
1911

573
615

56.4
56.2

.3818
.3899

21.44
21.80

117
139

137
175

137
140

121
102

71 establishments.............

1911
1912

765
751

56.1
55.9

.3890
.3855

21.73
21.48

220
264

200
146

174
192

116
98

81 establishments.............

1912
1913

827
838

55.9
55.4

.3797
.4100

21.15
22.66

285
314

176
285

214
160

101
30

52 establishments..............
Pullers-over, machine, male:
31 establishments..............

B ottom in g D epartm ent.
Buffers, male:
36 establishments..............
72 establishments.............
Edge setters, male:




i Not computed.

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

40

I . —AVERAGE RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AVERAGE FULL­
TIME W EEKLY EARNINGS, AND AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL­
TIME HOURS OF W ORK PER WEEK IN THE UNITED STATES, BY
YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—Continued.

T able

N U M BE R —Continued.

Occupation, sex, and num­
ber of establishments.

Employees whose full-time hours
Aver­
per week were—
age
Num­ Aver­ Aver­
age
age
ber full­
full­
rate
of
time
Over 57
Year. em­ time
of
week­ Over 51
54
48
ploy­ hours wages
and
ly
per
per
and and
and under 54
60
ees. week. hour. earn­ under
under under
54
60
ings.
51
57

B o tto m in g D epartm ent—
Continued.
Goodyear stitchers, male:

(i)
(i)
(i)
0)

93
92
76
77

45
59
66
70

54
42
53
56

88
106

96
118

89
81

69
62

38

184
221

133
103

no
105

74
95

60

232
267

125
184

128
119

104
12

0)

22
23
27
29

19
18
21
20

26
29
26
32

24.49
25.88

79
78

62
79

61
52

52
51

.4520
.4544

25.21
25.27

132
162

93
68

77
84

63
57

55.8
55.3

.4453
.5006

24.75
27.60

177
188

91
139

98
85

60
16

76
77

56.1
55.7

.2906
.3017

16.23
16.74

20
23

20
19

31
23

3
4

163
171

55.9
55.4

.2952
.3127

16.36
17.27

48
57

38
56

40
34

21
7

106
108

55.6
55.4

.3062
.3127

16.97
17.31

42
45

27
25

34
30

1
3

/ 1912
74 establishments.............. \ 1913
Heelers, male:
/ 1911
31 establishments.............. \ 1912

254
268

56.1
55.4

.2921
.3130

16.31
17.29

84
108

57
83

63
51

37
11

115
124

55.8
55.7

.4034
.3906

22.52
21.71

33
46

26
25

44
39

2
6

/ 1912
\ 1913

254
269

56.2
55.4

.3777
.4242

21.17
23.41

87
114

49
83

69
52

40
8

/ 1911
\ 1912

125
154

54.8
55.5

.2908
.2940

16.12
16.25

44
59

30
24

42
52

2
4

/ 1912
\ 1913

342
364

56.0
55.4

.2885
.3135

16.09
17.35

116
123

67
122

89
66

50
17

/ 1911
\ 1912

43
43

55.8
55.8

.2987
.2706

16.61
15.04

17
19

10
9

15
13

1
2

/ 1912
72 establishments.............. \ 1913
Heel sluggers, male:
/ 1911
34 establishments.............. \ 1912

141
135

56.4
55.5

.2537
.2918

14.22
16.11

40
47

26
38

43
33

22
5

77 55.9
79 55.8

.2848
.2901

15.79
16.11

27
31

19
17

28
27

3
4

182 56.0
179 1 55.5

.2817
.3097

15.65
17.10

57
61

43
65

48
37

22
7

1907
1908
21 establishments............. ' 1909
1910

215
214
221
224

55.3 $0.4034
55.1
.3759
.3944
55.3
55.2
.3875

/ 1910
45 establishments.............. \ 1911

366
398

56.3
56.0

.3739 $20.97
.3879 21.65

/ 1911
61 establishments.............. \ 1912

529
562

55.9
55.9

.3868
.3847

21.56
21.40

/ 1912
70 establishments.............. \ 1913
Goodyear welters, male:
1907
1908
14 establishments.............. ' 1909
1910

627
642

55.9
55.2

.3757
.3986

20.96
21.96

67
70
74
81

55.9
56.0
55.7
55.6

.4087
.4087
.4435
.4222

0)
C
1)

/ 1910
45 establishments.............. \ 1911

275
289

56.2
56.0

.4373
.4637

/ 1911
60 establishments.............. \ 1912

392
411

56.0
55.8

/ 1912
70 establishments.............. \ 1913
Heel breasters, male:
/ 1911
35 establishments.............. \ 1912

466
472

/ 1912
75 establishments.............. \ 1913
Heel burnishers, male:
/ 1911
33 establishments.............. \ 1912

67 establishments..............
Heel scourers, male:
35 establishments..............
•
78 establishments..............
Heel-seat nailers, male:
28 establishments..............

/ 1912
78 establishments.............. \ 1913




V)

i Not computed.

10

20

41

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1907 TO 1913— BOOTS AND SHOES.

I . —AVERAGE RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AVERAGE FULL­
TIME W EEKLY EARNINGS, AND AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL­
TIME HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK IN THE UNITED STATES, BY
YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—Continued.

T able

NUMBER—Continued.

Occupation, sex, and num­
ber of establishments.

Num
ber
of
Year. employ-

Employees whose full-time hours
per week were—
Aver- Aver­ Aver­
age
age
age
full­
full­
rate
time Over
Over 57
time
of
51
54
hours wages week­ 48
and
ly
and under 54
per
per
and and
60
under under
week. hour. eara- under 54
60
57
51

B o tto m in g D e p a r tm e n tConcluded.
Heel trimmers or shavers,
male:

25
15
12
17

24
22
22
21

29
29
28
31

21
18
20
22

17
16

27
29

54
59

50
52

40
36

23.32
23.10

16
18

47
70

80
56

60
63

43
32

.4199
.4482

23.39
24.74

18
30

75
90

61
91

66
59

32
7

55.8
55.7

.3090

16.49
17.13

7
7

32
37

23
22

37
30

3
6

1912
1913

55.9
55.2

.3037

15.90
16.74

25
35

80
95

63
90

62
62

38
7

5 establishments...............

1907
1908
1909
1910

55.2
55.3
55.7
55.2

.3113
.2737
.2787

11
9
8
7

9
7
11
9

28 establishments............ .

1910
1911

95
107

57.1
56.7

.2897
.2900

16.46
16.35

30 establishments............ .

1911
1912

129 56.5
128 56.3

.2956
.2854

1912
1913

131
136

56.1
55.6

.2856
.3186

15 establishments....... .

1907
1908
1909
1910

48
49
54
56

56.0
56.0
55.8
55.5

.3874
.3683
.4342
.4115

44 establishments..............

1910
1911

165
167

56.7
56.5

.4056
.4375

22.85
24.56

60 establishments.............

1911
1912

56.3
55.9

.4364

248

24.44
24.41

69 establishments..............

1912
1913

273
265

55.9
55.2

.4352
.'4967

24.21
27.37

17 establishments..............

1907
1908
1909
1910

381
364
377
444

54.7
54.5
54.6
54.5

.3047
.2941
.2925
.2876

44 establishments..............

1910
1911

832
786

55.9
56.1

.2594

63 establishments..............

1911 1,006
1912 1,076

56.0
55.9

73 establishments.............

1912 1,143
1913 1,110

55.8
55.3

55.1 $0.4382
55.2
.4387
.4465
55.3
55.2
.4430

23 establishments............ .

1907
1908
1909
1910

91

55 establishments............

1910
1911

189
193

56.6
56.5

.4096 $23.03
.4152 23.34

71 establishments............ .

1911
1912

246

56.5
56.0

.4154
.4148

1912
1913

252
277

56.0
55.4

1911
1912

102
102

81 establishments............ .
Levelers, male:
36 establishments............ .
75 establishments............ .
McKay sewers, male:

32 establishments..............
Rough rounders, male:

221

1
1

14
9
9
10
10
13

5
7

24
29

30
43

25
14

16.63
16.10

13
3

9
24

49
40

43
50

15
11

16.00
17.70

3
5

26
35

42
62

52
30

8
4

13
13
18
19

15
16
16
16

20
20
20
21

41
39

40
59

44
33

39
35

2
23

65
88

68
50

43
50

43
37

23
27

93
99

60
84

56
47

41
8

107
107
105
173

153
132
124
110

72
102
113
114

49
23
35
47

14.42
14.50

173
100

140
156

225
250

150
141

144
139

.2668
.2618

14.84
14.57

100
115

265
334

311
239

181
239

149
149

.2817

14.76
15.54

115
125

385
407

263
319

220
220

160
39

1
1

1
1

F in ish in g D epartm ent.
Treers or ironers, hand, male:




Not computed.

42

BU LLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T able I . —AVERAGE RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AVERAGE FULL­
TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, AND AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL­
TIME HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK IN THE UNITED STATES, BY
YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—Continued.
N U M B E R —Concluded.

Occupation, sex, and num­
ber of establishments.

Employees whose full-time hours
Aver­
per week were—
Num­ Aver­ Aver­
age
age
age
full­
ber full­
rate
time
of
Year. em­ time
of
Over 57
week­ Over 51
54
48
and
and
ploy­ hours wages
ly
per
and under C
O
per
and under 54
ees. week. hour. eam- under
under
54
51
57

Finishing D epartm entConcluded.
Treers or ironers, hand, fe­
male:
8 establishments..............

1910
1911

11 establishments............

1911
1912

105

58.1
54.3

.1446
.1539

8.32
8.35

13 establishments............

/ 1912
\ 1913

108
110

54.4
54.6

.1530
.1578

8.32
8.56

57.8 $0.1432
57.7
.1439

$8.19

8.21

25

20
22
37

11

PER CENT.
Cutting Department.
Cutters, lining, cloth, male:
31 establishments............

1911
1912

115
128

55.4 $0.2701 $14.87
54.8
.2800 15.23

13.9
15.6

6.1
9.4

23.5
33.6

14.8
10.9

39.1
26.6

2.6
3.9

1912
1913

297
258

55.2
54.4

.2902
.3143

11.8
14.3

6.1
7.0

30.3
42.6

22.2
19.0

16.2
14.3

13.5
2.7

1907
1908
1909
1910

919
907
907
852

54.9
54.8
54.7
54.7

.3250
.3323
.3399
.3448

1.2
.7
1.5
1.5

17.1
19.3
17.5
20.7

37.3
36.5
38.1
32.6

27.4
31.2
31.5
34.2

17.0
12.3
11.2
11.0

......
......

48 establishments..

1910 1,650
1911 1,602

56.3
56.2

.3188
.3169

17.86
17.75

.8
.9

10.7
9.9

24.5
26.5

23.9
24.8

19.3
19.4

20.7
18.5

64 establishments..

1911 2,066
1912 1,906

56.2
55.0

.3127
.3222

17.50
17.63

11.4

7.6
8.5

28.5
37.8

28.4
14.3

18.6
16.9

16.8
11.1

1912 1,995
1913 1,987

55.0
54.5

.3215
.3511

17.58
19.05

12.1
11.6

8.1
11.3

37.0
40.4

14.9
18.3

16.8
15.8

11.0
2.6

1910
1911

235
226

57.8
57.2

.3013
.3000

17.23
17.09

5.5
6.6

29.8
33.2

41.7
45.1

23.0
15.0

1911
1912

270
300

57.0
55.5

.3126
.3186

17.69
17.54

8.0

21.9
37.7

25.6

9.7

32.2
28.3

20.4
16.3

1912
1913

490
549

55.8
55.3

.3134
.3234

17.36
17.77

5.9
5.8

4.9
4.9

38.0
38.8

8.4
21.3

25.3
22.0

17.6
7.1

1910
1911

74
79

54.7
54.7

.2878
.3139

15.80
17.15

66.2
65.8

17.6
26.6

16.2
7.6

28 establishments.,

1911
1912

136
146

54.8
54.6

.2921
.2885

15.98
15.73

6.8

67.6
68.5

17.6
7.5

14.7
16.4

.7

32 establishments..

1912
1913

156
134

6.4
8.2

67.3
64.9

7.1
17.9

18.6
9.0

.6

72 establishments.
Cutters, vamp and whole shoe,
hand, male:
20 establishments..

71 establishments.........
Cutters, vamp and whole shoe,
machine, male:
17 establishments.........
20 establishments.
33 establishments.........
Skivers, upper, machine, male:
12 establishments.........




15.89
16.99

(1)
A
)
(1)
h

.2824 15.41
54.7
54.5
.2987 16.23
1Not computed.

......

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1907 TO 1913— BOOTS AND SHOES.

43

I . — AVERAGE RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AVERAGE FULL­
TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, AND AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL­
TIME HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK IN THE UNITED STATES, BY
YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—Continued.

T able

P E R CEN T—Continued.

Occupation, sex, and num­
ber of establishments.

Num­ Aver­ Aver­
age
age
ber full­
rate
of
of
Year. em­ time
ploy- hours per
per
week. hour.

Employees whose full-time hours
Aver­
per week were—
age
fuUtime
Over 57
week­ Over 51
48
54
ly
and and
and and
earn­ under under 54 under under 60
54
ings.
60
51
57

Cutting Departm entConcluded.
Skivers, upper,
female:

machine,

13 establishments............

1907
1908
1909
1910

74
70
79
85

49 establishments............

1910
1911

338
314

57.0
57.3

.1749
.1757

$9.94
9.97

0.3

60 establishments............

1911
1912

374
345

57.0
55.1

.1758
.1914

9.97
10.54

67 establishments............

1912
1913

371
439

55.0
54.6

.1925

10.58
11.38

10 establishments.........

1907
1908
1909
1910

23
23
23
23

55.1
55.1
54.7
54.7

.2829
.2962
.3057
.3004

44 establishments..

1910
1911

138
140

56.3
56.2

.2963
.3056

16.61
17.12

57 establishments..

1911
1912

157
149

56.3
55.5

.2956

1912
1913

200

196

55.9
55.4

.2979
.3334

10 establishments..

1907
1908
1909
1910

50
47
49
54

54.8
54.5
54.5
54.4

.3144
.3075
.3065

31 establishments..

1910
1911

143
129

56.6
56.5

.2735
.2770

15.44
15.62

36 establishments..

1911
1912

146
161

56.6
56.4

.2784
.2861

15.70
16.09

42 establishments.

1912
. 1913

177
196

56.2
55.4

.2813
.3025

15.75
16.69

1907
1908
1909
1910

81
78
91
95

56.6
56.5
56.3
56.2

.1708
.1858
.1770
.1793

0)

16 establishments............

49 establishments..

1910
1911

307
299

56.6

.1765
.1802

9.95
10.16

67 establishments..

1911
1912

392
378

56.5
55.2

.1854

10.42
10.42

78 establishments..

1912
1913

426

56.1 $0.1875
56.5
.1918
.1914
56.3
.1954
56.0

10.8
10.0
13.9
9.4

50.0
38.6
39.2
41.2

39.2
51.4
46.8
49.4

8.9
8.0

11.8
8.0

24.0
26.8

25.4
29.9

29.6
26.8

2.6

6.7
7.5

8.8
45.8

30.2
14.5

28.9
26.4

25.4
3.2

2.4
2.7

7.0
7.3

48.2
52.6

15.9
23.7

23.5
13.7

3.0

34.8
34.8
43.5
43.5

8.7
8.7
8.7
8.7

39.1
39.1
30.4
30.4

5.1
5.0

28.3
26.4

15.9
22.1

34.8
34.3

13.0
9.3

16.21
16.35

4.5
8.1

29.3
40.9

24.2
20.1

28.7
26.2

13.4
4.7

16.62
18.42

6.0
8.7

31.5
36.2

26.0
30.1

28.5
22.4

8.0
2.6

76.0
74.5
75.5
77.8

10.0
21.3
20.4
18.5

14.0
4.3
4.1
3.7

33.6
31.0

20.3
26.4

32.2
30.2

14.0
12.4

1.2

29.5
34.8

29.5
21.1

26.7
29.8

14.4
13.0

1.1
8.2

37.3
42.3

22.0
23.5

27.7
26.0

11.9

18.5
16.7
23.1
16.8

22.2
29.5
27.5
26.3

59.3
53.8
49.5
56.8

10.4
9.4

11.4
12.0

28.7
26.4

27.4
33.1

21.8
18.7

Sole-Leather Department.
Channelers, insole and outsole,
male:

72 establishments..
Cutters, outsole, male:

17.4
17.4
17.4
17.4
2.9
2.9

Fitting or Stitching De­
partment.
Backstay stitchers, female:




8

0)

.1874 10.31
55.1
.1945 10.62
54.7
i Not computed.

7.1
2.9

2.1

17.6
53.7

28.1
10.8

30.9
25.7

16.3
4.8

2.8
2.8

1.9
3.1

54.2
53.5

11.3
29.3

25.6
11.3

4.2

BU LLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

44

AVERAGE RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AVERAGE FULL­
TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, AND AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL­
TIME HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK IN THE UNITED STATES, BY
YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—Continued.

T able I . —

P E R CEN T—Continued.

Occupation, sex, and num­
ber of establishments.

Employees whose full-time hours
Aver­
per week were—
Num­ Aver­ Aver­
age
age
age
full­
ber full­
rate
time
of
Year.
Over 57
of
week­ Over 51
em­ time
48
54
and
ploy­ hours wages
ly
per
and under 54
per
and and
60
ees. week. hour. earn­ under
under under
54
ings.
60
51
57

F itting or S titch in g De­
p artm ent—Continued.
Button fasteners, female:
/ 1911
26 establishments............ 1 1912

55
70

/ 1912
\ 1913

56.4 $0.1572
.1831
55.9

$8.88
10.21

9.1
8.6

16.4
40.0

21.8
2.9

47.3
48.6

5.5

205
232

55.3
54.8

.1768
.1993

9.78
10.95

7.3
7.3

49.3
54.7

9.3
9.5

28.3
24.1

4.4

/ 1911
\ 1912

108
168

56.3
55.4

.1757
.1801

9.83
9.96

1.9
10.1

26.9
47.0

21.3
4.8

44.4
38.1

5.6

/ 1912
\ 1913

468
517

55.1
54.7

.1796
.1936

9.87
10.60

5.8
7.9

54.9
59.2

8.8
13.5

23.7
18.2

4.3

18 establishments..

f 1907
1 1908
1 1909
I 1910

104
100
101
95

55.3
55.1
55.1
55.0

.2003
.1901
.2072
.1979

0)
0)
C
1)
(1)

16.3
20.0
18.8
24.2

24.0
21.0
18.8
20.0

32.7
41.0
44.6
35.8

26.9
18.0
17.8
20.0

49 establishments..

/ 1910
\ 1911

262
277

57.1
57.1

.1784
.1776

10.13
10.09

.4
.4

8.8
1.8

13.0
13.0

21.8
32.1

22.9
26.0

33.2
26.7

65 establishments..

/ 1911
\ 1912

350
331

56.9
54.9

.1796
.1865

10.18
10.21

4.5

1.4
4.8

17.7
53.8

30.9
10.9

25.1
21.5

24.9
4.5

/ 1912
\ 1913

344
349

55.0
54.4

.1857
.1941

4.4
5.2

4.7
4.9

52.9
59.0

11.6
20.9

22.1
10.0

4.4

.1754
.1654
.1730
.1634

10.17
10.53
(!)
C
1)
(1)
m

19 establishments..

f
J
1
I

1907
1908
1909
1910

124
112
122
154

56.2
56.1
56.0
55.9

19.4
21.4
23.0
21.4

35.5
37.5
37.7
35.7

45.2
41.1
39.3
42.9

53 establishments..

/ 1910
\ 1911

585
576

56.5
56.5

.1639
.1619

9.19
9.08

.3
.5

15.0
14.1

13.0
13.0

24.8
28.1

24.1
26.7

22.7
17.5

72 establishments..

/ 1911
\ 1912

721
706

56.5
55.0

.1656
.1709

9.28
11.2
9.36 "3*0* 5.5

18.9
52.8

26.4
12.0

26.2
22.8

17.3
3.8

/ 1912
\ 1913

764
854

55.0
54.6

.1699
.1902

9.31
10.38

5.1
5.5

51.2
54.9

12.8
23.3

24.6
12.9

3.5

/ 1911
\ 1912

134
137

55.8
55.2

.2049
.2157

11.38
11.87 .........

7.5
8.8

28.4
49.6

23.9
12.4

36.6
3.7
29.2 .........

/ 1912
79 establishments............ \ 1913
Top stitchers or undertrim­
mers, female:
1907
1908
17 establishments............
1909
1910

335
337

54.9
54.7

.2076
.2186

11.36
11.94

5.1
8.0

55.5
51.9

14.3
23.1

20.3
13.9

151
144
156
164

56.3
56.3
56.3
56.0

.1849
.1898
.1957
.2002

(i)
C
1)
0)
(i)

19.9
21.5
19.9
19.5

29.8
28.5
30.1
29.9

50.3
50.0
50.0
50.6

53 establishments..

/ 1910
•\ 1911

721
742

56.9
56.8

.1884
.1915

10.69
10.83

.4
.5

8.9
8.5

15.4
14.7

20.5
22.8

26.6
31.3

28.2
22.2

73 establishments..

/ 1911
’ \ 1912

911
950

56.7
54.9

.1941
.1978

10.95
10.82

3.1

6.9
8.5

20.1
54.8

23.3
8.4

29.4
22.3

20.3
2.8

82 establishments..

/ 1912 1,033
' \ 1913 1,070

54.9
54.6

.1976
.2104

10.81
11.47

2.8
2.3

7.8
9.0

55.4
53.6

9.3
22.1

22.1
2.6
13.0 .........

72 establishments..........
Buttonhole makers, female:
33 establishments..........
74 establishments..
Closers-on, female:

74 establishments...
Lining makers, female:

80 establishments..
•Tip stitchers, female:
36 establishments..




i Not computed.

1.5
4.3

2.6
1.2

2.7
3.4

3.0
3.0

1.8

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1907 TO 1913-----BOOTS AND SHOES.

45

I . —AVERAGE RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AVERAGE FULL­
TIME W EEKLY EARNINGS, AND AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL­
TIME HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK IN THE UNITED STATES, BY
YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—Continued.

T able

F lill CEN T—Continued.

Occupation, sex, and num­
ber of establishments.

Employees whose full-time hours
Aver­
per week were—
Num­ Aver­ Aver­
age
age
age
ber full­
full­
rate
of
time
Fear.
Over 57
of
em­ time
week­ Over 51
54
48
ploy­ hours wages
and
ly
per
per
and and
and under 54
60
ees. week. hour. earn­ under
under under
C
O
54
ings.
57
51

Fitting or Stitching De­
partment-Concluded.
Vampers, male:

4.1
18.2
38.7
35.8

71.3
41.4
34.0
34.3

5.4
15.2
14.0
13.4

19.2
25.3
13.3
16.4

55.5
55.7

.2927 $16.24 ......... 18.3
8.4
.3034 16.88

25.5
27.7

24.0
32.5

21.7
21.3

10.6
10.0

343
435

55.5
54.9

.3147
.3100

17.42
16.97

3.4

6.1
12.9

40.2
45.7

27.4
13.1

17.8
21.4

8.5
3.4

1912
1913

483
554

55.0
54.8

.3059
.3195

3.1
2.2

11.6
13.4

44.5
41.0

13.9
29.6

23.2
13.0

3.7
.9

22 establishments............ .

1907
1908
1909
1910

351
321
391
366

55.7
55.9
55.5
55.5

.2463
.2424
.2526
.2570

16.76
17.47
(!)
(i)

1.1
.9
1.3
1.6

15.1
5.6
19.7
10.7

16.0
18.7
16.9
18.3

29.9
37.1
31.5
35.2

37.6
37.7
30.7
34.2

53 establishments.............

1910
1911

863
909

56.9
56.7

.2378
.2382

13.46
13.43

2.3
2.9

4.5
5.0

14.5
15.2

23.9
25.2

27.9
29.5

26.9
22.3

71 establishments.............

1911 1,124
1912 1,019

56.5
55.1

.2384
.2334

13.46
12.84

1.9
1.5

4.0
6.5

17.0
53.6

25.9
10.5

28.0
23.3

23.2
4.7

79 establishments.............

1912 1,088
1913 1,072

55.1
54.7

.2305
.2462

12.68
13.45

1.4
1.3

6.1
6.7

52.8
57.8

11.1
20.1

24.2
14.0

4.4

1911
1912

218
228

55.4
54.8

.2739
.2645

15.14
14.45

42.7
13.6 ......... 44.7

31.7
16.2

22.5
20.6

3.2
4.8

1912
1913

542
532

55.8
55.5

.2376
.2611

13.21
14.46

4.8
5.8

32.1
37.8

17.7
25.2

24.2
22.7

15.5
5.8

15 establishments............

1907
1908
1909
1910

246
300
307
300

54.7
54.8
54.8
55.0

.3497
.3336
.3424
.3214

C
1)
i1)
m
t1)

22.0
7.7
10.1
5.0

51.2
64.7
61.6
56.3

8.9
10.3
11.1
12.0

17.9
17.3
17.3
26.7

35 establishments............

1910
1911

513
568

56.4
56.1

.3108
.3229

17.50 .........
18.09

2.9
4.6

32.9
30.3

15.0
28.0

29.8
19.9

19.3
17.3

54 establishments............

1911
793
1912 1,004

56.1
55.5

.3210
.3042

17.96
16.88 : : : : : :

3.3
9.9

33.2
43.6

25.3
15.0

23.1
21.7

15.1
9.8

65 establishments............

1912 1,127
1913 1,220

55.6
55.2

.3004
.3304

16.67 ......... 8.8
18.21
10.1

39.6
41.1

19.2
29.0

21.8
16.4

10.6
3.4

13 establishments............ .

1907
1908
1909
1910

167
99
150
134

54.9 $0.3175
55.2
.2869
54.6
.2867
.2941
54.5

33 establishments.............

1910
1911

263
249

51 establishments..............

1911
1912

66 establishments.............
Vampers, female:

(J)
n\
n\

Lasting Department.
Assemblers, for pulling-over
machine, male:
17 establishments............ .
50 establishments............ .
Bed-machine operators, male:




iN o tc !ompute<1.

5.7
2.6

46

B U LLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T a b l e I . — AVERAGE

RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AVERAGE FULL­
TIME W EEKLY EARNINGS, AND AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL­
TIME HOURS OF WORK PER W EEK IN THE UNITED STATES, BY
T
YEARS, 1907 TO 191.3—Continued.
P E R CEN T—Continued.

Occupation, sex, and num­
ber of establishments.

Num­ Aver­ Aver­
age
age
ber full­
rate
of
Year. em­ time
of
ploy­ hours wages
per
per
ees. week. hour.

Employees whose full-time hours
Aver­
per week were—
age
full­
time
Over 57
week­ Over 51
48
54
ly
and and
and and
earn­ under under 54 under under 60
ings.
54
60
51
57

L asting D epartm ent—Con,
Hand-method lasting ma­
chine operators, male:

(i)
(i)

39.4
53.9
52.0
63.8

60.6
46.1
48.0
36.3

12.0
1.2
1.4 ......... 12.8

27.7
26.7

26.5
30.4

32.6
28.7

19.7
38.5

28.7
18.0

23.5
20.3

28.1
17.8

36.6
5.7
2.9 ......... 44.5

22.4
32.1

18.2
14.7

17.1
5.8

22.3
22.4
30.3
27.3

21.2
19.1
22.4
25.8

56.5
58.5
47.3
46.9

2.4
3.4

26.4
26.0

22.7
26.3

29.1
29.8

18.7
13.5

3.0
2.7* 12.3

29.3
33.0

26.1
20.9

24.4
23.6

17.2
7.5

.3155
.3326

17.41
2.3 10.7
18.37 ......... 6.9

33.1
36.5

27.7
35.4

18.8
20.3

7.3
.9

57.4
56.5

.3204
.3188

18.37
17.95

19.9
28.9

14.3
34.2

33.0
17.7

31.9
19.2

328
305

56.1
55.6

.3253
.3124

18.18
33.5
17.31 *4.9* * ii.T 37.0

36.6
14.1

15.9
15.4

14.0
17.4

f 1912
( 1913

402
421

55.8
55.4

.3124
.3513

17.39
19.42

8.5
4.5

36.8
43.5

15.9
25.4

20.4
19.5

16.7
5.9

f 1912

452 *55.6
524 55.0

.2753
.3100

15.25
23.5
17.00 ......... 26.7

12.4
23.3

16.4
17.0

28.1
28.4

19.7
4.6

174
170

55.8
55.8

.2940
.3068

16.37
17.06 .........

2.9
2.9

29.3
30.6

28.2
28.2

38.5
34.1

1.1
4.1

16.09
17.57 .........

6.2
6.5

31.7
34.7

19.8
37.9

31.1
16.1

11.2
4.8

23.1
20.4
23.3
20.9

37.3
33.8
35.3
35.6

39.6
45.8
41.3
43.6

1907
1908
1909
1910

99
89
75
80

( 1910

t 1911

325
352

57.4
57.3

.3062 $17.49
.3094 17.65

1911
( 1912

477
478

57.0
55.8

.3164
.3242

17.96
18.03

5.4

f 1912

1913

456
449

55.7
55.3

.3251
.3572

18.05
19.72

13 establishments............

1907
1908
1909
1910

345
330
366
384

56.6
56.6
56.2
55.9

.2558
.2490
.2867
.2763

0)
0)
0)
(i)

35 establishments............

f 1910
(. 1911

784
784

56.4
56.2

.2913
.3089

16.38
17.28

45 establishments............

r 1911
( 1912

897
899

56.3
55.4

.3121
.3190

17.50
17.60

f 1912 1,036
937
t 1913

55.3
55.3

f 1910

1911

251
266

| 1911
( 1912

6 establishments..............

33 establishments............
39 establishments............
41 establishments............
Pullers-over, hand, male:

52 establishments............
Pullers-over, machine, male:
31 establishments............
43 establishments............

60 establishments............
Turn-lasters, hand, male:
28 establishments............

( 1913

57.1 $0.3111
56.6
.3070
.3088
56.7
.3223
56.1

0)
I1)

.6
.9

1.7
1.2

B o tto m in g D epartm ent.
Buffers, male:
36 establishments............ . f 1911
1912
f 1912
72 establishments............ . L 1913
Edge setters, male:
r 1907
I 1908
18 establishments.............
1909
[ 1910

338
354

56.0
55.3

.2889
.3186

134
142
150
163

56.0
56.2
56.1
55.9

.3999
.3509
.3806
.3852

(i)

54 establishments.............. r 1910
L1911

560
573

56.3
56.3

.3733
.3800

20.94
21.31

.5
.7

12.9
10.5

17.3
19.7

25.4
25.8

26.1
25.7

17.9
17.6

r 1911
68 establishments.............. k 1912

722
698

56.3
55.8

.3800
.3892

21.29
21.63 .........

8.3
7.4

26.5
36.8

23.5
21.3

24.5
20.3

17.2
14.0

1912
78 establishments............. r 1913
.

789
815

55.8
.3785
55.3 1 .4129

21.05
22.78 .........

6.6
7.9

34.6
36.8

24.1
33.9

21.7
18.2

13.1
3.3




0)
C)
1

(i)

1 Not computed.

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1907 TO 1913— BOOTS AND SHOES.

47

T a b l e I ___ AVERAGE

RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AVERAGE FULL­
TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, AND AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL­
TIME HOURS OF W ORK PER WEEK IN THE UNITED STATES, BY
YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—Continued.
P E B CE N T—Continued.

Occupation, sex, and num­
ber of establishments.

Employees whose full-time hours
Aver­
per week were—
Num­ Aver­ Aver­
age
age
age
ber
full­
rate
full­
of
time Over
Year. em­ time
Over 57
of
51
week­ 48
54
ploy­ hours wages
and
ly
per
per
and under 54
and and
C
O
ees. week. hour. earn­ under
under under
60
54
ings.
57
51

Bottoming Department—
Continued.
Edge trimmers, male:
23 establishments..............

1907
1908
1909
1910

283
302
287
305

55.3 $0.4043
.3863
55.1
55.2
.3975
55.0
.4010

16.3
15.9
16.0
19.0

32.9
37.4
32.4
31.8

23.7
26.2
28.9
27.2

27.2
20.5
22.6
22.0

55 establishments..

1910
1911

573
615

56.4
56.2

.3818 $21.44
.3899 21.80

10.1
8.9

20.4
22.6

23.9
28.5

23.9
22.8

21.1
16.6

71 establishments..

1911
1912

765
751

56.1
55.9

.3890
.3855

21.73
21.48

7.2
6.8

28.8
35.2

26.1
19.4

22.7
25.6

15.2
13.0

81 establishments___

1912
1913

827
838

55.9
55.4

.3797
.4100

21.15
22.66

6.2
5.8

34.5
37.5

21.3
34.0

25.9
19.1

12.2
3.6

21 establishments........

1907
1908
1909
1910

215
214
221
224

55.3
55.1
55.3
55.2

.4034
.3759
.3944
.3875

0)
C)
1
(L
)
0)

10.7
9.8
......... 11.8
9.4

43.3
43.0
34.4
34.4

20.9
27.6
29.9
31.3

25.1
19.6
24.0
25.0

45 establishments..

1910
1911

366
398

56.3
56.0

.3739
.3879

20.97
21.65

5.7
7.0

24.0
26.6

26.2
29.6

24.3
20.4

18.9
15.6

61 establishments..

1911
1912

529
562

55.9
55.9

.3868
.3847

21.56
21.40

5.3
6.8

34.8
39.3

25.1
18.3

20.8
18.7

14.0
16.9

1912
1913

627
642

55.9
55.2

.3757
.3986

20.96
21.96

6.1
9.3

37.0
41.6

19.9
28.7

20.4
18.5

16.6
1.9

14 establishments..

1907
1908
1909
1910

67
70
72
81

55.9
56.0
55.7
55.6

.4087
.4087
.4435
.4222

0)
0)
(i)
(i)

32.8
32.9
36.5
35.8

28.4
25.7
28.4
24:7

38.8
41.4
35.1
39.5

45 establishments..

1910
1911

275
289

56.2
56.0

.4373
.4637

24.49
25.88

6.9
9.3

28.7
27.0

22.5
27.3

22.2
18.0

18.9
17.6

60 establishments.,

1911
1912

392
411

56.0
55.8

.4520
. 4544

25.21
25.27

6.9
9.7

33.7
39.4

23.7
16.5

19.6
20.4

16.1
13.9

1912
1913

466
472

55.8
55.3

.4453
.5006

24.75
27.60 .........

8.6
9.3

38.0
39.8

19.5
29.5

21.0
18.0

12.9
3.4

1911
1912

76
77

56.1
55.7

.2906
.3017

16.23
2.6
16.74 ......... 10.4

26.3
29.9

26.3
24.7

40.8
29.9

3.9
5.2

1912
1913

163
171

55.9
55.4

.2952
.3127

16.36
17.27 .........

9.8
9.9

29.4
33.3

23.3
32.7

24.5
19.9

12.9
4.1

1911
1912

106
108

55.6
55.4

.3062
.3127

16.97
17.31 .........

1.9
4.6

39.6
41.7

25.5
23.1

32.1
27.8

.9
2.8

Goodyear stitchers, male:

70 establishments___
Goodyear welters, male:

70 establishments..
Heel breasters, male:
35 establishments..
75 establishments...
Heel burnishers, male:
33 establishments...

m
m
0)
0.5
.7

.8
.8
•

.7
.7

1912
1913

254
268

56.1
55.4

.2921
.3130

16.31
17.29 .........

5.1
5.6

33.1
40.3

22.4
31.0

24.8
19.0

14.6
4.1

Heelers, male:
31 establishments..

1911
1912

115
124

55.8
55.7

.4034
.3906

22.52
21.71

8.7
6.5

28.7
37.1

22.6
20.2

38.3
31.5

1.7
4.8

67 establishments..

1912
1913

254
269

56.2
55.4

.3777
.4242

21.17
23.41 .........

3.5
4.5

34.3
42.4

19.3
30.9

27.2
19.3

15.7
3.0

74 establishments.,




1Not computed.

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

48

I . —AVERAGE RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AVERAGE FULL­
TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, AND AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL­
TIME HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK IN THE UNITED STATES, BY
YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—Continued.

T able

P E R CE N T—Continued.

Occupation, sex, and nun
ber of establishments.

Employees whose full-time hours
Aver­
per week were—
Num­ Aver­ Aver­
age
age
age
ber full­
full­
rate
time
of
Over 57
STear. em­ time
of
week­ Over 51
54
48
ploy­ hours wages
ly
per
and and
per
and and
ees. week. hour. earn­ under under 54 under under 60
54
ings.
60
57
51

Bottoming Departm entConcluded.
Heel scourers, male:
35 establishments............ .
78 establishments............ .
Heel-seat nailers, male:
28 establishments............ .

1911
1912

125
154

1912
1913

342- 56.0
364 55.4

5.6
9.7

33.6
33.8

1.6
2.6

33.9
33.8

19.6
33.5

26.0
18.1

14.6
4.7

39.5
44.2

23.3
20.9

34.9
30.2

2.3
4.7

28.4
34.8

18.4
28.1

30.5
24.4

15.6
3.7

35.1
39.2

16.09
17.35

24.0
15.6

24.7
21.5

36.4
34.2

3.9
5.1

6.6
5.0

31.3
34.1

23.6
36.3

26.4
20.7

12.1

25.3
17.9
14.6
18.7

.2885
.3135

35.2
38.3

5.8

54.8 $0.2908 $16.12
55.5
.2940 16.25

24.2
26.2

29.3
34.5
34.1
34.1

21.2
21.4
24.4
24.2

9.0
8.3

14.3
15.0

30.6

26.5
26.9

21.2
18.7

6.5
7.5

19.1
29.3

32.5
23.4

24.4
26.4

17.5
13.4

1911
1912

43
43

55.8
55.8

.2987
.2706

16.61
15.04

72 establishments............
Heel sluggers, male:
34 establishments............

1912
1913

141
135

56.4
55.5

.2537
.2918

14.22
16.11

1911
1912

77
79

55.9
55.8

.2848
.2901

15.79
16.11

78 establishments............
Heel trimmers or shavers,
male:
23 establishments............

1912
1913

182
179

56.0
55.5

.2817
.3097

15.65
17.10 .........

1907
1908
1909
1910

99
84
82
91

55.1
55.2
55.3
55.2

.4382
.4387
.4465
.4430

55 establishments..

*1910
1911

189
193

56.6
56.5

.4096
.4152

23.03
23.34

71 establishments..

1911
. 1912

246
239

56.5
56.0

.4154
.4148

23.32
23.10 .........

81 establishments.,
Levelers, male:
36 establishments.,

1912
. 1913

252
277

56.0
55.4

.4199
.4482

23.39
24. 74

7.1
10.8

32.5

24.2
32.9

26.2
21.3

12.7
2.5

1911
k 1912

102
102

55.8
55.7

.2968
.3090

16.49
17.13

6.9
6.9

31.4
36.3

22.5
21.6

36.3
29.4

2.9
5.9

75 establishments.
McKay sewers, male:

r 1912
■ 1913

268
289

55.9
55.2

.2864
.3037

15.90
9.3
16.74 ......... 12.1

29.9
32.9

23.5
31.1

23.1
21.5

14.2
2.4

5 establishments.,

1907
1908
1909
, 1910

34
25
28
26

55.2
55.3
55.7
55.2

.2880
.3113
.2737
.2787

41.2
36.0
......... 32.1
......... 38.5

32.4
36.0
28.6
26.9

26.5
28.0
39.3
34.6

28 establishments..

r 1910
L1911

95
107

57.1
56.7

.2897
.2900

16.46
16.35

10.5
12.1

5.3
6.5

25.3
27.1

31.6
40.2

26.3
13.1

30 establishments.,

r 1911
l 1912

129
128

56.5
56.3

.2956
.2854

16.63
10.1
16.10 ......... 2.3

7.0
18.8

38.0
31.3

33.3
39.1

11.6

r 1912
I 1913

131
136

56.1
55.6

.2856
.3186

16.00
17.70

19.8
25.7

32.1
45.6

39.7

6.1
2.9

15 establishments.

f 1907
1 1908
I 1909
[ 1910

48
49
54
56

56.0
56.0
55.8
55.5

.3874
.3683
.4342
.4115

27.1
26.5
33.3
33.9

31.2
32.7
29.6

41.7
40.8
37.0
37.5

44 establishments.

r 1910
[ 1911

165
167

56.7
56.5

.4056
.4375

22.85
24.56

24.8
23.4

24.2
35.3

26.7
19.8

23.6
21.0

60 establishments.,

f 1911
L1912

221
248

56.3
55.9.

.4364
.4388

24.44
24.41

.9
9.3

29.4
35.5

30.
20.2

19.5
20.2

19.5
14.9

69 establishments..

r 1912
, 1913

273
265

55.9
55.2

.4352
.4967

8.4
10.2

34.1
37.4

22.0

31.7

20.5
17.7

15.0
3.0

32 establishments...
Rough rounders, male:




1Not computed.

7.1

0.5
.5

1.1
.9

2.3
3.7

.6

22.1

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1907 TO 1913---- BOOTS AND SHOES.

49

I . —AVERAGE RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AVERAGE FULL­
TIME W EEKLY EARNINGS, AND AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL­
TIME HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK IN THE UNITED STATES, BY
YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—Concluded.

T able

P E R CENT—Concluded.

Occupation, sex, and num­
ber of establishments.

Employees whose full-time hours
Aver­
per week were—
Num- Aver­ Aver­
age
age
age
full­
full­
rate
of
time
Year. em­ time
of
Over 57
week­ Over 51
48
54
ploy­ hours wages
ly
per
per
and and
and and
ees. week. hour. earn­ under under 54 under under 60
54
ings.
60
51
57

F in ish in g D ep artm en t.
Treers or ironers, hand, male:

f 1907
1 1908
17 establishments.............. 1 1909
I 1910

381
364
377
444

54.7 $0.3047
54.5
.2941
54.6
.2925
54.5
.2876

44 establishments.............. / 1910
\ 1911

832
786

63 establishments.............. / 1911 1,006
\ 1912 1,076

28.1
29.4
27.9
39.0

40.2
6.3
32.9
24.8

18.9
28.0
30.0
25.7

12.9
6.3
9.3
10.6

55.9
56.1

.2594 $14.42
20.8
.2602 14.50 ......... 12.7

16.8
19.8

27.0
31.8

18.0
17.9

17.3
17.7

56.0
55.9

.2668
.2618

14.84 ......... 9.9
14.57
10.7

26.3
31.0

30.9
22.2

18.0
22.2

14.8
13.8

1912 1,143
1913 1,110

55.8
55.3

.2656
.2817

14.76
15.54

33.7
36.7

23.0
28.7

19.2
19.8

14.0
3.5

1910
19U

74
70

57.8
57.7

.1432
.1439

8.19
43.2
29.7
8.21 ......... ......... 32.9 ......... 35.7

27.0
31.4

1911
11 establishments.............. / 1912
\

85
105

58.1
54.3

.1446
.1539

8.32 .........
27.1
29.4
43.5
8.35 ......... *io.*5* 63.8 *1 .*4* 13.3 .........
.2

13 establishments.............. / 1912
\ 1913

108
110

54.4
54.6

.1530
.1578

8.32 ......... 10.2
18.2
8.56

/
73 establishments.............. \
Treers or ironers, hand, female:
8 establishments............... /
I

0
m)
(i)
m

1 Not computed.

45968°—Bull. 154— 14------ 4




10.1
11.3

62.0 12.0 15.7 .........
55.5 ......... 26.4 .........

50

BULLETIN" OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I I . —AVERAGE RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AVERAGE FULL­
TIME W EEKLY EARNINGS, AND AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL­
TIME HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK IN EACH YEAR, BY STATES, 1912
AND 1913.

T able

[The figures are for identical establishments in both years.]
C U TTIN G D E PA RTM E N T.

Num­ Num
ber of berof
Occupation, sex, year, and estab­ emState.
lish­ ployments.

Number of employees whose full-time
hours per week were—
Aver­ Aver­
age
age
full­
time rate of time Over 51
Over 57
54
hours
per weekly 48
and
per hour. earn­ and under 54
and and
60
week.
ings. under 54
under under
60
51
57
Aver-

CUTTERS, LINING, CLOTH,MALE.

1912.
120
56
121

53.2 $0.3337 $17.69
.3061 16.80
54.9
57.2
13.67

35

12

297

55.2

.2902

15.89

35

18

108
51

52.9
54.0
56.2

.3321
.2845

17.51
17.93
15.93

258

54.4

.3143

16.99

37

872
111
296
191
525

53.1
59.5
54.6
56.4
56.7

.3371
.2992
.3467
.3218

17.83
17.81
18.87
18.15
16.19

242

71 1,995

55.0

.3215

17.58

855
112
324
204
492

53.0
56.8
53.9
55.6
56.5

.3608
.3241

216

.3723
.3195

19.06
18.31
19.92
20.62
17.98

71 1,987

54.5

.3511

19.05

231

191
84
63
75
77

53.6
58.4
57.3
55.3
57.9

.3621
.2452
.3019
.3406
.2501

19.42
14.26
17.29
18.63
14.47

29

490

55.8

.3134

17.36

29

201
85
116
67
80

53.6
57.8
56.1
53.3
57.5

19.80
14.85
16.79
19.40
15.80

32

.2591
.2997
.3647
.2754

549

55.3

.3234

17.77

32

Massachusetts.
New York.......
Other States...
72

Total.

2
6
32
90

48

40

1913.
Massachusetts.
New York.......
Other States...
72

Total.

10

18

110

49

37

100

446
9
160
112
11

54

17

” 62

24
5
214

19

*306'

162

738

297

336

167

385
60
232
102
24

63

24

35
10
256

77
212

364

313

52

23
18

CUTTERS, VAMP AND WHOLE
SHOE, HAND, MALE.

1912.
Massachusetts.

Missouri...........

New York.......
Ohio................
Other States...
Total.

13
102
31
74
220

1913.
Massachusetts.
Missouri..........
New York.......
Ohio................
Other States...
Total.

15

’ *57

224

CUTTERS, VAMP AND WHOLE
SHOE, MACHINE, MALE.

1912.
Massachusetts—
Missouri...............
New Hampshire..
New York............
Other States........
Total.

33

139
19

22
45

24

28
19

40

24

186

41

124

144
29

24

1913.
Massachusetts_
_
Missouri..............
New Hampshire.
New Y ork..........
Other States........
Total.




33

27

40

27

213

39
72
"21
117

121

51

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1907 TO 1913— BOOTS AND SHOES.

I I . —AVERAGE RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AVERAGE FULL­
TIME W EEKLY EARNINGS, AND AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL­
TIME HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK IN EACH YEAR, BY STATES, 1912
AND 1913—Continued.

T able

CUTTING DEPARTMENT—Concluded.

Num­
ber of
Occupation, sex, year, and estab­
State.
lish­
ments.

SKIVERS,

Aver­
Num­ age
ber of full­
em­ time
ploy­ hours
ees. per
week.

Number of employees whose full-time
hours per week were—
Aver­ Aver­
age
age
full­
rate of time Over
Over 57
wages weekly 48
51
54
per
and
earn­ and under 54
and and
60
hour. ings. under
under under
54
60
51
57

UPPER, MACHINE,
MALE.

1912.
MassaoTiusetts..........................
Other States.............................

17
15

114
42

54.1 $0.2932 $15.87
56.2
.2532 14.16

10

Total...............................

32

156

54.7

105

8
3

29

105

11

29

1

.2824

15.41

10

98 54.2
.3053
Massachusetts..........................
17
.2806
Other States.............................
15
36 55.5

16.53
15.42

1
10

85
2.

9
15

3
9

16.23

11

87

24

12

20

69
40

6

28
41

1

1

1

58

46

59

87

34

11

1

1913.

32

134

54.5

.2987

Massachusetts..........................
...................................
Missouri
New Hampshire......................
New York................................
Ohio..........................................
Other States...........................

18
6
5
9
6
23

98
40
40
47
41
105

53.5
54.0
57.2
55.2
54.0
56.4

.2017
.1856
.1898
.2168
.1697
.1856

10.85
11.94
9.17
10.45

Total..............................

67

371

55.0

.1925

10.58

9

26

179

Massachusetts.........................
...................................
Missouri
New Hampshire....................
New York................................
Ohio.........................................
Other States............................

18
6
5
9
6
23

113
57
45
54
49

.2252
.1831
.2056
.2537
.1857
.1960

12.06
9.89
11.46
13.56
9.99

7

27

79
57

3
2

5

121

53.6
54.0
55.7
53.6
53.8
56.3

1 1 .0 2

46
47
2

70

49

Total..............................

67

439

54.6

.2088

11.38

12

32

231

104

60

55.1 $0.3236 $17.85
.3066 16.58
54.4
.2704 15.42
57.1

5
7

43
9
11

28
3
21

12
1
44

3
13
16

Total...............................
SKIVERS,

UPPER, MACHINE,
FEMALE.

1913.
10.77

9

1 0 .0 2

40
11

11

1913.

SOLE-LEATHER DEPARTMENT.
CHANNELERS,
INSOLE
OUTSOLE, MALE.

AND

1912.
25
10
40

88
23
89

75

200

55.9

.2979

16.62

12

63

52

57

Massachusetts.........................
New York................................
Other States............................

25
10
40

85
24
87

54.4
53.6
56.9

.3649
.3428
.3001

19.85
18.33
17.05

10
7

46
14
11

27
3
29

42

5

Total..............................

75

196

55.4

.3334

18.42

17

71

59

44

5

Massachusetts..........................
New York................................
Other States............................
Total..............................

,

1913.




2

52

BU LLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOE STATISTICS.

I I . —AVERAGE RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AVERAGE FULL­
TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, AND AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL­
TIME HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK IN EACH YEAR, B Y STATES, 1912
AND 1913—Continued.

T able

SOLE-LEATHER .DEPARTMENT—Concluded.

Num­
ber of
Occupation, sex, year, and estab­
State.
lish­
ments.

Aver­
Num­ age
ber of full­
em­ time
ploy­ hours
ees. per
week.

Number of employees whose full-time
hours per week were—
Aver­ Aver­
age
age
full­
rate of time Over
Over 57
51
wages weekly 48
54
per
and
earn­ and under 54
and and
60
hour. ings. under
under under
60
54
57
51

CUTTERS, OUTSOLE, MALE.

1913.
Massachusetts..........................
Missouri...................................
Other States............................

16
2
24

82
26
69

Total..............................

42

177

56.2

.2813

Massachusetts..........................
Missouri....................................
Other States............................

16
2
24

86
44
66

54.6
55.6
56.2

Total..............................

42

196

55.4

54

19

2

12

20

9
12
28

14
7

15.75

- 2

66

39

49

21

.3187
.3243
.2668

17.34
18.00
14.97

14

22
42
30
11 ' ' *24

8
14
29

.3025

16.69

16

83

51

54.9 $0.3039 $16.64
.2893 17.23
59.5
.2515 14.13
56.5

1913.

2

46

FITTING OR STITCHING DEPARTMENT.
BACKSTAY STITCHERS, FEMALE.

1912.
159
25
Massachusetts..........................
Missouri...................................
27
8
New Hampshire......................
57
6
................................
New York 52
9
32
Ohio.........................................
6
99
Other States............................
24
Total..............................

53.7 $0.2095 $11.26
54.0
.1469
7.93
57.1
.1661
9.49
56.0
.1730
9.61
.1774
9.58
54.0
56.5
.1860 10.50

11

4

144
27

1

4

26
32
2

48

49

48

109

57
3

78

426

55.1

.1874

10.31

12

8

231

Massachusetts..........................
Missouri...................................
New Hampshire......................
New York................................
Ohio.........................................
Other States.............................

25
8
6
9
6
24

130
37
58
30
32
102

53.6
54.0
55.4
53.7
53.9
56.3

.2183
.1693
.1791
.1784
.1708
.1941

11.72
9.14
9.94
9.53
9.20
10.91

8

10

112
37

51

7

3

2

27
30
2

63

37

Total..............................

78

389

54.7

.1945

10.62

11

12

208

114

44

Massachusetts..........................
Missouri...................................
New York................................
Ohio.........................................
Other States.............................

23
7
10
6
28

130
48
86
55
149

53.8
54.0
54.9
54.0
57.0

.2164
.1620
.1659
.1564
.1696

11.64
8.75
9.06
8.45
9.68

5

17

7

10

108
48
46
55

Total..............................

74

468

55.1

.1796

9.87

12

27

257

Massachusetts..........................
Missouri...................................
New York................................
Ohio.........................................
Other States.............................

23
7
10
6
28

157
52
88
57
163

53.8
54.0
53.5
53.9
56.8

.2166
.1844
.1897
.1563
.1897

11.66
9.96
10.13
8.42
10.81

3

27

3

12
2

127
52
72
55

Total..............................

74

517

54.7

.1936

10.60

6

41

306

18

18

1913.

BUTTONHOLE MAKERS,
FEMALE.

1912.

1

2

40

109

41

111

1913.




1
69

94

70

94

20

20

53

WAGES AND HOTJBS OP LABOR, 1907 TO 1913-----BOOTS AND SHOES.

I I . —AVERAGE RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AVERAGE FULL­
TIME W EEKLY EARNINGS, AND AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL­
TIME HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK IN EACH YEAR, B Y STATES, 1912
AND 1913—Continued.

T able

FITTING OB STITCHING DEPARTMENT—Continued.

Num­
Occupation, sex, year, and ber of
estab­
State.
lish­
ments.

Number of employees whose full-time
. hours per week were—
Aver- Aver­ Aver­
Num­
age
age
ber of f X
full­
em­ time rate of time Over
Over 57
51
ploy­ hours wages weekly 48
54
per
and
ees. per hour. earn­ and under 54
and and
60
week.
ings. under 54
under under
60
51
57

CLOSERS-ON, FEMALE.

1913.
Massachusetts..........................
Missouri....................................
New Hampshire......................
New York................................
Ohio.........................................
Other States.............................

23
8
5
11
5
22

99
33
21
69
31
91

74

344

55.0

.1857

10.17

15

16

182

Massachusetts..........................
Missouri...................................
New Hampshire......................
New York................................
Ohio.........................................
Other States.............................

23
8
5
11
5
22

98
46
17
72
28
88

53.6
54.0
55.4
53.2
53.9
56.3

.2165
.1717
.1739
.1928
.1903
. 1869

11.60
9.27
9.64
10.21
10.25
10.52

9

6

83
46

9

9
2

51
26

Total..............................

74

349

54.4

.1941

10.53

18

17

206

Massachusetts..........................
Missouri...................................
New Hampshire......................
New York................................
Ohio.........................................
Other States.............................

26
6
6
11
6
25

260
42
77
95
80
210

53.8
54.0
57.1
54.9
54.0
56.5

.1941
.1557
.1288
.1661
.1698
.1595

10.43
8.41
•7.37
9.03
9.17
9.01

13

18

229
42

8

21

34
80
6

Total..............................

80

764

55.0

.1699

9.31

21

39

391

26
6
6
11
6
25

283
60
91
109
94
217

53.7
54.0
55.4
53.0
54.0
56.6

.2124
.1684
.1585
.1989
.1830
.1792

11.44
9.09
8.80
10.59
9.87
10.11

11

28

244
60

18

16
3

71
91
3

115

99

80 ’ 854

54.6

.1902

10.38

29

47

469

199

no

Total..............................

53.7 $0.2096 $11.25
8.53
54.0
.1580
57.3
.1839 10.55
9.90
54.5
.1839
.1742
9.41
54.0
9.96
.1756
56.8

7

3

89
33

8

13

29
31

2

21
2

38

53

40

76

15
3

2

15

15

1913.

55

33

73

35

2

77
3

96

108

98

188

80
4

11

LINING MAKERS, FEMALE.

1912.

27

27

1913.
Massachusetts.........................
Missouri...................................
New Hampshire......................
New York.............................
Ohio.........................................
Other States.............................
Total...........................
TIP STITCHERS, FEMALE.

1912.
Massachusetts..........................
Other States....................

25
54

122
213

53.8
55.5

.2409
.1885

12.96
10.44

6
4

12
5

101
85

3
45

68

6

Total..............................

79

335

54.9

.2076

11.36

10

17

186

48

68

6

25
54

114
223

53.7
55.1

.2473
.2040

13.29
11.25

5
5

21
6

88
87

78

47

79

337

54.7

.2186

11.94

10

27

175

78

47

1913.
Massachusetts........................
Other States...........................
Total..............................




54

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I I . —AVERAGE RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AVERAGE FULL­
TIME W EEKLY EARNINGS, AND AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL­
TIME HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK IN EACH YEAR, B Y STATES, 1912
AND 1913—Continued.

T able

F IT T IN G O R S T IT C H IN G D E P A R T M E N T —Concluded.
i
Num­
ber of
Occupation, sex, year, and estab­
State.
lish­
ments.

TOP

Aver­
Num­ age
ber of full­
em­ time
ploy­ hours
ees. per
week.

Number of employees whose full-time
hours per week were—
Aver­ Aver­
age
age
full­
rate of time Over
Over
51
wages weekly 48
57
54
per
and
earn­ and and
54
and under 60
hour.
under
ings. under 54
under
60
51
57

STITCHERS OR UNDERTRIMMERS, FEMALE.

1912.
53.7 $0.2189 $11.76
.1715
54.0
9.26
57.1
.1608
9.18
54.9
.2097 11.42
.1832
9.89
54.0
.1872 10.60
56.7

24

63

318
93

5

18

61
97
3

1

107
2

95

119

82 1,033

54.9

.1976

10.81

29

81

572

96

228

375
102
144
117
98
234

53.7
54.0
55.6
53.4
53.9
56.6

.2310
.1951
.1653
.2294
.1992
.2067

12.41
10.53
9.19
12.22
10/74
11.70

16

77

282
102

9

15
4

92
94
3

115
1

29

121

110

82 1,070

54.6

.2104

11.47

25

96

573

237

139

Massachusetts_
_
New Hampshire.
New Y ork..........
Other States........

22
6
10
28

304
63
38
78

54.0
57.2
54.6
57.2

.3215
.2404
.3325
.2849

17.35
13.74
18.08
16.28

15

40

207

33

16

4
4

7
27

5
63
11
33

14

Total.

66

483

55.0

.3059

16.76

15

56

215

67

112

18

22
6
10
28

310
65
39
140

53.9
55.7
54.3
56.3

.3443
.2488
.3456
.2902

18.57
13.88
18.78
16.32

12

59

192

15

10
25

39
50
14
61

8
15
49

5

66

554

54.8

.3195

17.47

12

74

227

164

72

5

25
8
6
9
6
25

327
98
106
141
136
280

53.8
54.0
57.1
55.6
54.0
56.8

.2464
.2189
.2171
.2506
.2126
.2197

270
98

79 1,088

55.1

.2305

14
13.23
43
11.82
12.39
1
13.84
23
11.48
12.45 .........1.........
i
12.68
15
66

25
8
6
9
6
25

312
110
117
140
142
251

53.7
54.0
55.4
53.7
53.9
56.8

.2654
.2457
.2264
.2764
.2195
.2302

14.26
13.27
12.56
14.83
11.83
13.07

13

49

250
110

1

17
6

121
136
3

79 1,072

54.7

.2462

13.45

14

72

620

Massachusetts___
Missouri..............
New Hampshire.
New Y ork..........
Ohio....................
Other States........
Total.,

26
8
6
11
6
25

405
93
107
114
97
217

27

27

1913.
Massachusetts___
Missouri...............
New Hampshire..
New Y ork.......... .
Ohio.....................
Other States........
Total......................

26
8
6
11
6
25

VAMPERS, MALE.

1913.
4

1913.
Massachusetts___
New Hampshire..
New Y ork.......... .
Other States........
Total......................
VAMPERS, FEMALE.

1912.
Massachusetts___
Missouri...............
New Hampshire..
New Y ork.......... .
Ohio.....................
Other States........
Total.

1

106

68
136
3

120

157

575

121

263

100
1

17

115

133

216

150

1

1913.
Massachusetts___
Missouri...............
New Hampshire..
New Y ork.......... .
Ohio.....................
Other States........
Total.




48

48

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1907 TO 1913---- BOOTS AND SHOES.

55

I I . —AVERAGE RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AVERAGE FULL­
TIME W EEKLY EARNINGS, AND AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL­
TIME HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK IN EACH YEAR, B Y STATES, 1912
AND 1913—Continued.

T able

LASTING DEPARTMENT.

Num­
ber of
Occupation, sex, year, and estab­
State.
lish­
ments.

Aver­
Num­ age
ber of full­
em­ time
ploy­ hours
ees. per
week.

Number of employees whose full-time
hours per week were—
Aver­ Aver­
age
age
full­
rate of time Over
Over 57
51
wages weekly 48
54
per
and and
and and
hour. earn­ under under 54 under under 60
ings.
54
60
51
57

ASSEMBLERS, FOR PULLINGOVER MACHINE, MALE.

1912.
14
8
3
5
4
16

188
71
55
91
35
102*

53.9 $0.2781 $15.00
58.5
.2103 12.36
57.4
.2171 12.47
54.6
.2375 12.90
57.3
.2156 12.31
57.1
.2005 11.46

31

50

542

55.8

.2376

13.21

Massachusetts___
Missouri...............
New Hampshire..
New York.......... .
Ohio.....................
Other States........

14
8
3
5
4
16

165
82
44
89
43
109

54.2
56.7
56.6
53.7
57.1
57.0

.3208
.2293
.2326
.2346
.2509
.2316

Total.

50

532

55.5

21
5
4
9
5
21

543
62
112
131
59
220

Massachusetts_
_
Missouri..............
New Hampshire.
New York.......... .
Ohio.....................
Other States........
Total..

2
5
55

93
17

59

3
49

26

51
9
4

8
29

69

31

26

174

96

131

84

17.38
12.98
13.18
12.60
14.33
13.22

14

6

82
44

58

5
7
23

31

.2611

14.46

14

54.4
59.9
57.2
54.7
57.9
56.6

.3037
.2735
.2297
.3458
.3297
.3011

65 1,127

55.6

21
5
4
9
5
21

560
92
132
134
58
244

65 1,220

14
18

1913.

25

64
9
2

‘ "2 1

9
46

25*
61

31

201

134

121

31

16.52
16.38
13.14
18.87
19.04
17.00

58

383

76

13
57

41

46
14
3

20
8
112

13
5
112
11
105

.3004

16.67

99

446

216

246

120

54.3
57.1
55.8
54.0
55.9
56.6

.3428
.3300
.2522
.3572
.3600
.3226

18.63
18.80
14.09
19.28
20.11
18.22

84

361
44

89

74
19
4

26
7
35

41

39

97
21
21
126

18
114

55.2

.3304

18.21

123

502

354

200

BED-MACHINE
OPERATORS,
MALE.

1912.
Massachusetts........................ .
Missouri...................................
New Hampshire.................... .
New Y ork.............................. .
Ohio.........................................
Other States............................
Total..............................

i.3
37

1913.
Massachusetts....... .
Missouri................. .
New Hampshire_
_
New Y ork...............
Ohio........................
Other States.......... .
Total.............




41

56

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I I , —AVERAGE RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AVERAGE FULL­
TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, AND AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL­
TIME HOURS OF W
rORK PER WEEK IN EACH YEAR, BY STATES, 1912
AND 1913—Continued.

T able

L A S T IN G D E P A R T M E N T —Continued.

Num­
ber of
Occupation, sex, year, and estab­
State.
lish­
ments.

Aver­
Num­ age
ber of full­
em­ time
ploy­ hours
ees. per
week.

Number of employees whose full-time
hours per week were—
Aver­ Average
tS rate of time
Over
wages weekly Over 51
57
54
48
per
and
earn­ and and
54
and under 60
hour. ings.
under
under 60
under 54
51
57

HAND-METHOD LASTING M A­
CHINE OPERATORS, MALE.

1912.
Massachusetts........................
Missouri..................................
New Hampshire....................
New York..............................
Ohio........................................
Other States...........................

12
6
2
3
6
12

194
66
33
46
56
61

53.9 $0.3441 $18.57
.2877 16.91
58.7
57.0
.2911 16.59
55.9
.3529 19.54
.3365 18.69
55.6
57.4
.2916 16.73

26

Total.............................

41

456

55.7

.3251

18.05

26

167

Massachusetts........................
Missouri..................................
New Hampshire....................
New Y ork..............................
Ohio........................................
Other States...........................

12
6
2
3
6
12

149
72
39
44
66
79

54.2
56.2
55.0
54.2
54.9
57.6

.3749
.3306
.2766
.3782
.3766
.3599

20.31
18.51
15.21
20.49
20.63
20.74

13

75
46

61

37
42

39
7
15
22

9
57

Total.............................

41

449

55.3

.3572

19.72

13

200

144

66

26

17
2
7
5
21

543
70
73
65
285

54.3
57.0
54.2
58.8
56.4

.3209
.2620
.3355
.3232
.3115

17.37
14.93
18.18
18.96
17.54

24

110
28
70
2
59
12
13
9 ‘ i65* **'95'

8

52 1,036

55.3

.3155

17.41

24

99
14

69

25
29

8
14
11
102

52
‘ *'33*

i3
13

50
83

78

1913.

i

26

PULLERS-OVER, HAND, MALE.

1912.
Massachusetts........................
New Hampshire....................
New York..............................
Ohio........................................
Other States...........................
Total.............................

111

262

52
16

111

343

287

195

224

134
27
5
5
161

22

72
31
15

39
129

8

342

332

190

8

121
5

35

3
44

34

12
10

5
24

4
5
31
2
40

76

1913.
Massachusetts........................
New Hampshire....................
New York..............................
Ohio.......................................
Other States...........................

17
2
7
5
21

445
27
77
75
313

54.4
55.0
54.1
56.7
56.4

.3413
.2686
.3598
.3390
.3177

18.57
14.77
19.48
19.24
17.91

65

Total.............................

52

937

55.3

.3326

18.37

65

Massachusetts........................
Missouri..................................
New Hampshire....................
New York..............................
Other States...........................

19
8
4
8
21

170
54
31
65
82

54.4
59.4
57.2
54.8
56.9

.3139
.2970
.2649
.3650
.2958

17.04
17.64
15.15
19.89
16.79

7

Total.............................

60

402

55.8

.3124

17.39

7

34

148

64

82

67

Massachusetts........................
Missouri..................................
New Hampshire.....................
New York...............................
Other States...........................

19
8
4
8
21

173
59
38
45
106

54.3
57.0
55.8
53.9
56.8

.3699
.3277
.2968
.3771
.3428

20.09
18.59
16.59
20.33
19.43

5

7

115
29

38

25

12

28
11

"*28*
5
36

8
5
10
59

Total...........................

60

421

55.4

.3513

19.42

5

19

183

107

82

PULLERS-OVER, MACHINE,
MALE.

1912.

12
8

1913.




25

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1907 TO 1913— BOOTS AND SHOES.

57

I I . —AVERAGE RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AVERAGE FULL­
TIME W EEKLY EARNINGS, AND AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL­
TIME HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK IN EACH YEAR, B Y STATES, 1912
AND 1913—Continued.

T able

LASTING DEPARTMENT—Concluded.

Num­
ber of
Occupation, sex, year, and estab­
State.
lish­
ments.

AverNum­
ber of &
em­ time
ploy­ hours
ees. per
week.

Number of employees whose full-time
hours per week were—
Aver­ Aver­
age
age
full­
rate of
time
Over 57
wages weekly Over 51
54
48
per
earn­ and and
54
and and
60
hour. ings.
under under
under under
54
60
51
57

TURN LASTERS, HAND, MALE.

1912.
Massachusetts..........................
Missouri...................................
New Y ork................................
Ohio.........................................
Other States.............................

*

Total...............................

4
3
7
3
11

39
74
150
27
162

53.8 $0.3379 $18.18
.2444 14.66
60.0
.3224 16.92
52.7
57.3
.2625 15.08
.2330 13.28
56.6

16

22

90

20
27
12
2 "*46

’ iii'

28

452

55.6

.2753

15.25

106

56

74

127

4
46 54.1
3
79 55.8
7 173 52.2
36 56.4
3
190 57.2
States
11

.3437
.3234
.3220
.3312
.2814

18.64
17.95
16.77
18.78.
16.07

21
119

8
55
37
19
3

17
55

17
132

524

.3100

17.00

140

122

89

149

24

9
2
54

3
24

1

74
13

15
89

1913.
Massachusetts..........................
Missouri...................................
New York................................
O h i o .....................................
...........................
Other
Total..............................

28

55.0

17

24

BOTTOM ING DEPARTMENT.
BUFFERS, MALE.

1913.
Massachusetts.................
Missouri...........................
New Hampshire...............
New York.........................
Ohio..................................
Other States.................... .

26
8
6
6
6
20

344
30
54
24
29
57

54.9 $0.3190 $17.46
59.1
.2395 14.12
.2509 14.34
57.1
.3527 18.68
52.7
56.4
.2707 15.21
.2570 14.70
57.1

5

79
4

48

16

7
15
2

1
3
15 ' ‘ ’ 40

11

72

338

56.0

.2889

16.09

21

107

67

38

Massachusetts................. .
Missouri........................... .
New Hampshire...............
New York.........................
Ohio..................................
Other States.................... .

26
8
6
6
6
20

141
38
55
25
32
63

54.6
57.1
55.4
53.0
55.2
56.6

.3530
.2691
.2646
.3871
.3365
.2827

19.25
15.25
14.71
20.62
18.49
16.04

11

71
18

12

Total.......................

72

354

55.3

.3186

17.57

Massachusetts..................
Missouri............................
New Hampshire...............
New York.........................
Ohio..................................
Other States......................

26
8
6
9
6
23

324
64
72
94
73
162

54.6
59.5
57.1
54.7
56.8
56.6

.4101
.3276
.3047
.4104
.3540
.3606

22.36
19.52
17.42
22.37
20.00
20.33

Total.......................

78

789

55.8

.3785

21.05

Total......................

105

1913.
50.

9*

3
8

17

12
19
3

47
1
7
29

6
31

23

123

134

57

17

32

184
4

92

5
53

20

52
30
3

9
11
78

11
7
72
81

273

190

171

EDGE SETTERS, MALE,

1913.




___

52

i.3
32
10.3

B U LLETIN OP TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

58

T a b l e I I . — AVERAGE

RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AVERAGE FULL­
TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, AND AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL­
TIME HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK IN EACH YEAR, BY STATES, 1912
AND 1913—Continued.
B O T T O M IN G D E P A R T M E N T —Continued.

AverNum­ Num­ age
ber of ber of full­
Occupation, sex, year, and estab­ em- time
State.
lish­ pioy- hours
per
ments.
week.

Number of employees whose full-time
hours per week were—
Aver­ Average
fS f.
rate of time Over
Over 57
51
wages weekly 48
54
and
per
60
and and
earn­ and under 54
hour. ings. under
under under
54
51
57

e d g e s e t t e r s , m a l e — con­

cluded.

1913.
311 54.4 *0.4520 $24.59
.3866 21.94
65 57.0
.3107 17.26
88 55.5
.4531 24.43
96 53.9
.4039 22.50
78 55.9
.3867 21.86
177 56.7

Massachusetts........................
Missouri..................................
New Hampshire....................
New York..............................
Ohio........................................
Other States...........................

48

158
32

91

27

16

27

78

815

55.3

.4129

22.78

64

300

276

Massachusetts_
_
Missouri...............
New Hampshire..
New York.......... .
Ohio....................
Other States........

26

54.7
59.3
57.2
55.3
56.9
57.0

.3877
.3249
.3417
.4178
.3784
.3818

21.15
19.26
19.56
22.95
21.46
21.62

30

211
6

102

25

366
58
92
92
64
155

Total.

81

827

55.9

.3797

21.15

51

26

334
70
94
69
172

54.5
57.1
55.5
54.0
55.9
56.9

.4307
.3731
.3298
.4958
.3844
.3944

23.45
21.30
18.35
26.80
21.46
22.38

838

55.4

.4100

22.66

266
61
60
69
58
113

54.4
59.9
57.2
55.4
56.8
56.6

.3954
.3337
.2717
.4479
.2946
.4046

20.00

55

15.56
24.51
16.66
22.76

17
26

627

55.9

.3757

20.96

Massachusetts_
_
Missouri..............
New Hampshire.,
New Y ork..........
Ohio.....................
Other States........

52
71
67
53
131

54.3
§5.9
55.8
53.9
55.8
56.7

.3585
.2839
.4646
.3124
.4210

23.25
19.99
15.82
25.00
17.34
23.77

Total.,

642

55.2

Total............................

148

EDGE TRIMMERS, MALE.

1912.
45

21

19
29
101

285

1913.
_
Massachusetts_
Missouri..............
New Hampshire.
New York..........
Ohio...................
Other States.......
Total.............................

81

182
32

314

285

177

49

104

55

30

160

30

GOODYEAR STITCHERS, MALE.

1912.
Massachusetts___
Missouri...............
New Hampshire..
New York............
Ohio.....................
Other States........
Total.,

70

21.66

55
38

232

125

128

104

1913.




21.96

155
35
48

60

57
*52"
4
14
57

267

184

12

119

12

59

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1907 TO 1913---- BOOTS AND SHOES.

I I . —AVERAGE RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AVERAGE FULL­
TIME W EEKLY EARNINGS, AND AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL­
TIME HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK IN EACH YEAR, B Y STATES, 1912
AND 1913—Continued.

T able

B O T T O M IN G D E P A R T M E N T —Continued.

Num­
ber of
Occupation, sex, year, and estab­
State.
lish­
ments.

GOODYEAR

Aver­
Num­ age
ber of M iem­ time
ploy­ hours
ees. per
week.

Number of employees whose full-time
hours per week were—
Aver­ Aver­
age
age
full­
rate of time Over
Over
51
57
wages weekly 48
54
and
per
and and
earn­ and under 54
hour. ings. under
under 60
under
54 .
60
51
57

W ELTEBS, UALE<

1912.
220
39
42
40
40
85

54.4 $0.4687 $25.49
.4396 26.36
59.9
57.2
.3520 20.16
54.8
.5218 28.46
56.7
.3755 21.14
.4304 24.30
56.7

30

141

New York................................
Ohio..........................................
Other States.............................

22
6
4
9
6
23

10

15
18
3

Total...............................

70

466

55.8

.4453

24.75

40

177

91

98

60

Massachusetts..........................
Missouri....................................
Nfiw Hampshire. .....................
New York................................
Ohio..........................................
Other States...........................

22
6
4
9
6
23

201
40
50
47
40
94

54.3
56.8
55.7
54.1
55.6
56.8

.5513
.4936
.3623
.5367
.4034
.4920

29.97
27.90
20.23
29.03
22.34
27.82

34

115
21

44

8
3
12

16

Total...............................

70

472

55.3

.5006

27.60

44

188

139

85

16

Massachusetts..........................
Other States.............................

26
49

66
97

54.7
56.7

.3250
.2749

17.77
15.41

8
8

32
16

22
16

3
37

1
20

Total..............................

75

163

55.9

.2952

16.36

16

48

38

40

21

Massachusetts..........................
Other States............................

26
49

66
105

54.5
56.0

.3514
.2883

19.17
16.07

11
6

30
27

21
35

4
30

7

Total..............................

75

171

55.4

.3127

17.27

17

57

56

34

7

Massachusetts..........................
Missouri....................................
New Hampshire......................
New York................................
Ohio..........................................
Other States.............................

26
8
6
8
6
20

108
24
29
26
22
45

54.7
59.1
57.3
55.4
57.1
56.8

.3257
.2168
.2441
.3296
.2827
.2655

17.81
12.79
14.00
18.15
16.17
15.07

5

62
3

35

2
17

8

9
8
2

2
3
17

4
4
29
26

Total..............................

74

254

56.1

.2921

16.31

13

84

57

63

37

Massachusetts..........................
Missouri...................................
New Hampshire.....................
New York................................
Ohio.........................................
Other States.............................

26
8
6
8
6
20

111
29
24
29
29
46

54.5
57.0
55.5
53.8
56.4
57.0

.3540
.2540
.2586
.3528
.2857
.2717

19.30
I
14.32
i
14.40
18.96 ....... 1
16.18
15.46

7

61
14

38

11

8

5
4
4

Total..............................

74

2G
8

55.4

.3130

17.29

!

15

40

5
4
3
36
42
7
5 ....... 3
5
17
39 ‘ **43*

1913.

10

***38*
28
9
21
8
3
40

11
51

HEEL BREASTERS, MALE.
1912.

1913.

HEEL BURNISHERS, MALE.
1912.

i

7
11

1913.




’ ” 26'
1
20
11
5
2
19

13
25

83

51

108

11

60

BU LLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

AVERAGE RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AVERAGE FULL­
TIME W EEKLY EARNINGS, AND AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL­
TIME HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK IN EACH YEAR, B Y STATES, 1912
AND 1913—Continued.

T able H . —

B O T T O M IN G D E P A R T M E N T —Continued.

Occupation, sex, year, and
State.

Num­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments.

Num­
ber of
em­
ploy­
ees.

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Aver­
age
rate of
wages
per
hour.

Number of employees whose full-time
Aver­
hours per week were—
age
full­
time Over
Over 57
51
weekly 48
54
and
earn­ and and
54
and under 60
ings. under under
under 60
54
57
51

HEELERS, MALE.

1912.
Massachusetts..........................
Missouri....................................
New Y ork................................
Ohio..........................................
Other States.............................

22
8
8
6
23

96
25
29
29
75

Total..............................

67

Massachusetts..........................
Missouri....................................
New York................................
Ohio..........................................
Other States.............................
Total...............................

54.8 $0.4013 $21.96
.3514 20.87
59.4
.3823 20.99
54.7
57.2
.3425 19. 51
.3681 20.94
57.2

8
1

53
2
22
10

27
..

5
3
3

3
20
2
15

4
17

58

254

56.2

.3777

21.17

9

87

49

69

40

22
8
8
6
23

96
30
38
32
73

54.6
56.1
54.3
55.9
56.5

.4783
. 3859
.4467
.3595
.3853

26.08
21.48
24.26
19.98
21.74

11

49
19
30
14
2

30
--

6
3

8

7
39

11
32

67

269

55.4

.4242

23.41

12

114

83

52

8

Massachusetts..........................
Missouri....................................
New Hampshire......................
New York................................
Ohio..........................................
Other States.............................

25
8
6
9
6
24

127
34
49
38
32
62

54.5
59.2
57.1
55.4
56.5
56.6

.3150
.2365
.2263
.3439
.2655
.2897

17.16
13.99
12.94
18.92
15.07
16.35

15

76
4

29

2
26

5

18
16
2

6
3
29

5
4
49

Total...............................

78

342

56.0

.2885

16.09

20

116

67

89

50

Massachusetts..........................
Missouri....................................
New Hampshire......................
New York................................
Ohio..........................................
Other States............................

25
8
6
9
6
24

127
41
43
41
36
76

54.4
57.1
55.4
53.8
55.7
56.7

.3498
.2822
.2357
.3829
.2732
.2953

19.04
15.98
13.07
20.63
15.31
16.88

23

59
19

38

17

13

7
5
6

Total..............................

78

364

55.4

.3135

17.35

22
50

48
93

54.5
57.3

.3098
.2248

72
'

141

56.4

22

47
88
135

1913.

1

HEEL SCOURERS, MALE.

1912.

31

9
13

1913.

HEEL-SEAT

23
19
3

37
5
6
36

11
37

36

123

122

66

17

16.87
12.85

8
2

26
14

11
15

2
41

1
21

.2537

14.22

10

40

26

43

22

54.5
56.0

.3257
.2737

18.02
15.23

7
5

25
22

12
26

3
30

*’ *5

55.5

.2918

16.11

12 1

47

38

33

5

NAILERS, MALE.

1912.
Massachusetts..........................
Other States.............................
Total...............................
1913.

..
I

Massachusetts.......................... !
Other States.............................
1
Total...............................




60

61

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1907 TO 1913— BOOTS AND SHOES.

I I . —AVERAGE RATES OP WAGES PER HOUR, AVERAGE FULL­
TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, AND AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL­
TIME HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK IN EACH YEAR, B Y STATES, 1912
AND 1913—Continued.

T able

BOTTOMING DEPARTMENT—Continued.

Num­
ber of
Occupation, sex, year, and estab­
State.
lish­
ments.

Num­
ber of
em­
ploy­
ees.

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Aver­
age
rate of
wages
per
hour.

Number of employees whose full-time
hours per week were—
Aver­
age
full­
time Over
Over 57
51
weekly 48
54
and
earn­ and under 54
and and
60
ings. under 54
under under
60
51
57

HEEL SLUGGERS, MALE.

1912.
6
6

41
16

23
20

3
45

2
20

15.65

12

57

43

48

22

.3749
.2725

20.46
15.18

5
4

35
26

21
44

4
33

7

55.5

.3097

17.10

9

61

65

37

7

97
31
124

54.7
55.0
57.3

.4399 24.04
.4715 '25.74
.3913 22.28

11
7

49
13
13

30
4
27

4
3
59

3
4
25

81

252

56.0

.4199

23.39

18

75

61

66

32

Massachusetts..........................
New York................................
Other States...........................

26
10
45

97
34
146

54.4
54.0
56.3

.4948
.5623
.3906

26.94
30.37
21.98

21
9

43
20
27

28
5
58

54

7

Total...............................

. 81

277

55.4

.4482

24.74

30

90

91

59

7

Massachusetts..........................
New York................................
Ohio.........................................
Other States.............................

23
10
6
36

85
43
35
105

54.8
53.6
56.5
57.4

.3209
.3358
.2462
.2516

17.54
18.00
13.85
14.41

7
18

41
18
17
4

31
4
4
24

4
58

2
3
14
19

Total...............................

75

268

55.9

.2864

15.90

25

80

63

62

38

Massachusetts..........................
Npw Yorlr
. T .
,
Ohio.........................................
Other States
................

23
10
6
36

92
54
27
116

54.6
53.1
55.9
56.6

.3331
.3241
.2826
.2759

18.18
17.31
15.80
15.55

13
22

40
29
11
15

33
3
7
47

9
47

7

Total...............................

75

289

55.2

.3037

16.74

35

95

90

62

7

Massachusetts..........................
Other States.............................

26
52

75
107

54.7 $0.3067 $16.74
.2642 14.87
56.8

Total...............................

78

182

56.0

.2817

Massachusetts..........................
Other States.............................

26
52

65
114

54.6
56.1

Total...............................

78

179

Massachusetts..........................
New York................................
Other States.............................

26
10
45

Total...............................

1913.

HEEL TRIMMERS OR SHAVERS,
MALE.

1912.

1913.
5

LEVELERS, MALE.

1912.

1913.




6

62

B U LLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T a b l e I I . — AVERAGE

RATE OF WAGES PER HOUR, AVERAGE FULL­
TIME W EEKLY EARNINGS, AND AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL­
TIME HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK IN EACH YEAR, BY STATES, 1912
AND 1913—Concluded.
B O T T O M IN G D E P A R T M E N T —Concluded.

Occupation, sex, year, and
State.

Num­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments.

Num­
ber of
em­
ploy­
ees.

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Number of employees whose full-time
hours per week were—
Aver­ Aver­
age
age
full­
rate of time Over
Over
wages weekly 48
51
57
54
per
and and
and and
60
hour. earn­ under under 54
under under
ings.
54
60
51
57

MCKAY SEWERS, MALE.

1912.
54.9 $0.3073 $16.85
.2735 15.53
56.8

3

10
16

32
10

2
50

8

131

56.1

.2856

16.00

3

26

42

52

8

10
22

51
85

54.8
56.1

.3409
.3052

18.66
17.13

5

12
23

32
30

2
28

4

32

136

55.6

.3186

17.70

5

35

62

30

4

22
6
4

54.5
59.9
57.2
54.9
56.5
56.3

.4741
.3690
.3799
.4663
.3158
.4582

25.84
22.12
21.76
25.48
17.79
25.71

11

66

24

i2

10
13
4

5
4
27

3
2
2
23
26
3 ....... 5
11
22

Massachusetts......................
Other States.........................

10
22

47
84

Total...........................

32

Massachusetts......................
Other States.........................
Total...........................

1913.

ROUGH ROUNDERS, MALE.

1912.
Massachusetts......................
Missouri................................
New Hampshire...................
New York.............................
Ohio......................................
Other States.........................

6
22

106
25
26
35
28
53

Total...........................

69

273

55.9

.4352

24.21

23

93

60

56

41

Massachusetts......................
Missouri................................
New Hampshire...................
New York.............................
Ohio......................................
Other States.........................

22
6
4
9
6
22

103
20
28
33
24
57

54.3
56.9
55.6
53.9
55.9
56.5

.5353
.4542
.3795
.5355
.3889
.5226

29.11
25.70
21.17
28.92
21.61
29.39

16

60
10

23

8

11

4
2
6

Total...........................

69

265

55.2

.4967

27.37

9

1913.

17
10
2

22
5
6
28

8
27

27

99

84

47

8

94

359

153

11
86

21

13
13

7
8
95

10
12
76
122

FIN ISH IN G DEPA RTM E N T.
TREERS OR IRONERS, HAND,
MALE.

1912.
Massachusetts..........................
Missouri....................................
New Hampshire......................
New York................................
Ohio.........................................
Other States.............................
Total...............................

25
7
5
7
6
23

627
98
76
57
68
217

54.4 $0.2808 $15.28
59.9
.2165 12.96
57.4
.2321 13.34
55.5
.2693 14.78
58.3
.2127 12.39
56.8
.2712 15.31

16
47

73 1,143

55.8

.2656

14.76

115

385

263

220

160

25
7
5
7
6
23

569
104
81
52
72
232

54.3
56.9
56.3
53.7
56.1
56.8

.2996
.2687
.2425
.2519
.2225
.2823

16.27
15.11
13.70
13.50
12.50
15.98

104

298
52

146

21
13
34

39

73 | n o
1,

55.3

.2817

15.54

1913.
Massachusetts..........................
Missouri....................................
New Hampshire......................
New Y ork................................
Ohio.........................................
Other States.............................
Total...............................




21

” *47’
5
26
26
19
5
102

27
125

125

407 j 319

220

39

63

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR; 1907 TO 1913— BOOTS AND SHOES.
T a b l e I I I . — AVERAGE

RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AVERAGE FULL­
TIME W EEKLY EARNINGS, AND AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL­
TIME HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK IN EACH STATE, B Y YEARS, 1912
AND 1913.
[The figures set opposite each bracketed group of years are for identical establishments.]
C U T T IN G D E P A R T M E N T .

Occupation, sex, State, and
number of establishments.

Number of employees whose full-time
Aver­
hours per week were—
Num­ Aver- Aver­
age
age
full
lullber
rate
as.
time Over
of
Over 57
Year. em­ time
of
51
54
hours wages week­ 48
and
ploy­ per
ly
and under 54
and and
per
60
ees., week. hour. earn­ under
under under
54
ings.
60
57
51

CUTTERS, LINING, CLOTH, MALE.

Massachusetts:
26 establishments............
New York:
11 establishments............

12
10

54
44

10
15

7
3

2

6
8

22
31

19
12

3

6

100
167

446
385

54
63

17
24

13

1912
1913

120
108

1912
1913

56
51

54.9
54.0

.3061
.3321

16.80
17.93

1912
1913

872
855

53.1
53.0

.3371
.3608

17.83
19.06

1912
1913

111
112

59.5
56.8

.2992
.3241

17.81
18.31

/ 1912
V 1913

296
324

54.6
53.9

.3467
.3695

18.87
19.92

1912
1913

191
204

56.4
55.6

.3218
.3723

18.15
20.62

1912
1913

191
201

53.6
53.6

.3621
.3696

19.42
19.80

1912
1913

84
85

58.4
57.8

.2452
.2591

14.26
14.85

1912
1913

63
116

57.3
56.1

.3019
.2997

17.29
16.79

1912
1913

75
67

55.3
53.3

.3406
.3647

18.63
19.40

24
27

28
40

1912
1913

114
98

54.1
54.2

.2932
.3053

15.87
16.53

1

105
85

1912
1913

98
113

53.5
53.6

.2017
.2252

10.77
12.06

20
27

69
79

1912
1913

40
57

54.0
54.0

.1856
.1831

10.02
9.89

1912
1913

40
45

57.2
55.7

.1898
.2056

10.85
11.46

1912
1913

47
54

55.2
53.6

.2168
.2537

11.94
13.56

3

1912
1913

41
49

54.0
53.8

. 1697
.1857

9.17
9.99

2

53.2 $0.3337 $17.69
.3332 17.51
52.9

35
36

CUTTERS, VAMP AND WHOLE
SHOE, HAND, MALE.

Massachusetts:
26 establishments............
Missouri:
5 establishments..............
New York:
11 establishments............
Ohio:
6 establishments..............

242
216

102
52

9
60
62
57

160
232

24
35

19

15

112
.102

5
10

77

29
32

139
144

22
24

1
1

31
74

CUTTERS, VAMP AND WHOLE
SHOE, MACHINE, MALE.

Massachusetts:
13 establishments............
Missouri:
5 establishments..............
New Hampshire:
2 establishments..............
New York:
5 establishments..............
SKIVERS,

72

45
39

63
44
23

UPPER, MACHINE,
MALE.

Massachusetts:
17 establishments............
SKIVERS,

20
17

19
29

8
9

3

34

40
11

1

1

1

UPPER, MACHINE,
FEMALE.

Massachusetts:
18 establishments............
Missouri:
6 establishments..............
New Hampshire:
5 establishments..............
New York:
9 establishments..............
Ohio:
6 establishments...............




9
7

40
57

6
5

28
46
41
47

11

64

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I I I . — AVERAGE RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AVERAGE FULL­
TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, AND AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL­
TIME HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK IN EACH STATE, BY YEARS, 1912
AND 1913—Continued.

T able

SOLE-LEATHER DEPARTMENT.

Occupation, sex, State, and
number of establishments.

CHANNELERS, INSOLE
OUTSOLE, MALE.

Number of employees whose full-time
Averhours per week were—
Num­ Aver- Aver­
age
age
ber full­
rate
time Over
of
Year. em- time
of
Over 57
51
hours wages week­ 48
54
pioy- per
ly and and 54 and and 60
per
week. hour. earn­ under under
under under
54
ings.
51
57

AND

Massachusetts:
25 establishments............
New York:
10 establishments............

1912
1913

85

1912
1913

55.1 $0.3236 $17.85
54.4
19.85
54.4
53.6

.3066
.3428

16.58
18.33

54.9
54.6

.3039
.3187

16.64
17.34

.3243

17.23
18.00

14

CUTTERS, OUTSOLE, MALE.

Massachusetts:
16 establishments............
Missouri:
2 establishments..............

1912
1913

82

1912
1913

59.5
55.6

14
14

30

FITTING OR STITCHING DEPARTMENT.
BACKSTAY STITCHERS, FEMALE.

Massachusetts:
25 establishments..............
Missouri:
8 establishments...............
New Hampshire:
6 establishments...............
New York:
9 establishments...............
Ohio:
6 establishments...............

1912
1913

159
130

1912
1913

27
37

54.0
54.0

.1469
.1693

7.93
9.14

1912
1913

57
58

57.1
55.4

.1661
.1791

9.49
9.94

1912
1913

52
30

56.0
53.7

.1730
.1784

9.61
9.53

1912
1913

32
32

54.0
53.9

.1774
.1708

9.58
9.20

1912
1913

130
157

53.8
53.8

.2164
.2166

11.64
11.66

1912
1913

48
52

54.0
54.0

.1620
.1844

8.75
9.96

1912
1913

86
88

54.9
53.5

.1659
.1897

9.06
10.13

1912
1913

55
57

54.0
53.9

.1564
.1563

8.45
8.42

1912
1913

99
98

53.7
53.6

.2096
.2165

11.25
11.60

1912
1913

33
46

54.0
54.0

.1580
.1717

8.53
9.27

1912
1913

21
17

57.3
55.4

.1839
.1739

10.55
9.64

1912
1913

69
72

54.5
53.2

.1839
.1928

9.90
10.21

’ 1912
1913

31
28

54.0
53.9

.1742
.1903

9.41
10.25

53.7 $0.2095 $11.26
.2183 11.72
53.6

11
8

4
10

144
112
27
37
51

1
3

4

26
27

2

32
30

17
27

57
7
3

18

108
127

1
1

2

20

15

21
2

2
3

2

BUTTONHOLE MAKERS, FE­
MALE.

Massachusetts:
23 establishments............
Missouri:
7 establishments............
New York:
10 establishments..........
Ohio:
6 establishments............

5
3

48
52
10
12

46
72

2

7
3

55
55

3
6

89
83

CLOSERS-ON, iE M A L E .

Massachusetts:
23 establishments.........
Missouri:
8 establishments..........
New Hampshire:
5 establishments..........
New York.:
11 establishments........
Ohio:
5 establishments..........




7
9

33
46

8
9

13
9
2 1

29
51
31
26

15

WAGES AN D HOURS OF LABOR, 1907 TO 1913— BOOTS AND SHOES.

65

I I I . —AVERAGE RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AVERAGE FULL­
TIME W EEKLY EARNINGS, AND AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL­
TIME HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK IN EACH STATE, BY YEARS, 1912
AND 1913—Continued.

T able

F IT T IN G O B S T IT C H IN G D E P A R T M E N T —Concluded.

Occupation, sex, State, and
number of establishments.

Number of employees whose full-time
Aver­
hours per week were—
Num­ Aver­ Aver­
age
age
age
#,iY
i
ber full­
lullrate
time Over
of
Year. em­ time
Over
of
51
57
hours wages week­ 48
54
and
and
ploy­ per
ly
and under 60
per
and under 54
ees. week,
earn­ under
under 60
hour. ings.
54
51
57

LINING MAKERS, FEMALE.

Massachusetts:
/ 1912
26 establishments.............. \ 1913
Missouri:
f 1912
\ 1913
New Hampshire:
/ 1912
\ 1913
New York:
/
11 establishments.............. \ 1912
1913
Ohio:
/ 1912
\ 1913

260
283

53.8 $0.1941 $10.43
53.7
.2124 11.44

42
60

54.0
54.0

.1557
.1684

57.1
55.4

.1288
.1585

54.9
53.0

.1661
.1989

9.03
10.59

80
94

54.0
54.0

.1698
.1830

122
114

53.8
53.7

.2409
.2473

12.96
13.29

/ 1912
\ 1913

405
375

53.7
53.7

.2189
.2310

11.76
12.41

f 1912
\ 1913

93
102

54.0
54.0

.1715
.1951

9.26
10.53

/ 1912
\ 1913

107
144

57.1
55.6

.1608
.1653

9.18
9.19

/ 1912
\ 1913

114
117

54.9
53.4

.2097
.2294

11.42
12.22

/ 1912
\ 1913

97
98

54.0
53.9

.1832
.1992

9.89
10.74

304
310

54.0
53.9

.3215
.3443

17.35
18.57

63
65

57.2
55.7

.2404
.2488

13.74
13.88

38
39

54.6
54.3

.3325
.3456

18.08
18.78

327
312

53.8
53.7

.2464
.2654

13.23
14.26

no 54.0

98

54.0

.2189
.2457

11.82
13.27

106
117

57.1
55.4

.2171
.2264

12.39
12.56

141
140

55.6
53.7

.2506
.2764

13.84
14.83

136
142

54.0
53.9

.2126
•2195

11.48
11.83

42
60

9.17
9.87

1912
1913

229
244

7.37
8.80

95
109

18
28

8.41
9.09

77
91

13
11

80
21
16

34
71

3

12
21

101
88

24
16

63
77

2
4

3

80
91

6
5

77
11

318
282

8
18

27

TIP STITCHERS, FEMALE.

Massachusetts:
25 establishments
TOP

STITCHERS OR TJNDERTRIMMERS, FEMALE.

Massachusetts:
O aqtfthl ichm Anf q
A
Missouri:
8 establishments
New Hampshire:
fi ft^tflhlkhTnAntc
New York:
11 establishments..............
Ohio:
6 establishments

.3

93
102
115
61
92

207
192

2

27

33
39

5
8

4

63
15

97
94

40
59

1
1

50

18
15
4

5
9

107
29

VAMPERS, MALE.

Massachusetts:
22 establishments..... ........ ( 1912
I 1913
New Hampshire:
/ 1912
fi A t.Q 1icthitiah+q
Q h
\ 1913
New York:
/ 1912
10 establishments
\ 1913

15
12

16
15

4
10

43
49

270
250

7
14

11

v am p ers, fe m a le .

Massachusetts:
25 establishments.. . . . . . . . / 1912
\ 1913
Missouri:
/ 1912
\ 1913
New Hampshire:
/ 1912
1 1913
New York:
1912
9 establishments............... / 1913
\
Ohio:
6 establishments............... / 1912
\ 1913

45968°— Bull. 154— 14------ 5



14
13

98
110
100
1

1

23
17

68
121

6

136
136

1

1

106
17
48

66

BU LLETIN OP THE BUREAU OF LABOB STATISTICS.

T a b l e I I I . — AVERAGE

RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AVERAGE FULL­
TIME W EEKLY EARNINGS, AND AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL­
TIME HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK IN EACH STATE, B Y YEARS, 1912
AND 1913—Continued.
LA ST IN G DEPA RTM E N T.

Occupation, sex, State, and
number of establishments.

Number of employees whose full-time
Aver­
hours per week were—
Num- Aver­ Aver­
age
age
age
full
lullfull­
rate
of
time
Year. em­ time
of
Over 57
week­ Over 51
48
54
ploy­ hours wages
and
ly
per
and under 54
per
and and
60
ees. week. hour. earn­ under
under under
ings.
54
60
51
57

ASSEMBLERS, FOR PTJLLINGOVER MACHINE, MALE.
Massachusetts:
14 astfthl ish m atits.............. / 1912
\ 1913
Missouri:
/ 1912
\ 1913
New Hampshire:
/ 1912
\ 1913
New York:
/ 1912
\ 1913
Ohio:
/ 1912
\ 1913
BED-MACHINE OPERATORS,
MALE.

188
165

53.9 $0.2781 $15.00
54.2
.3208 17.38

31
14

6

93
82

2
5

3

5
7

59
58

49
31

71
82

58.5
56.7

.2103
.2293

12.36
12.98

55
44

57.4
56.6

.2171
.2326

12.47
13.18

91
89

54.6
53.7

.2375
.2346

12.90
12.60

35
43

57.3
57.1

.2156
.2509

12.31
14.33

/ 1912
\ 1913

543
560

54.4
54.3

.3037
.3428

16.52
18.63

/ 1912
\ 1913
New Hampshire:
1912
4 establishments............... / 1913
\
New York:
/ 1912
Qaqto hi icT mati
i
\ 1913
Ohio:
/ 1912
aofo K iclityiontc
1
\ 1913
HAND-METHOD LASTING MA­
CHINE OPERATORS, MALE.

62
92

59.9
57.1

.2735
.3300

16.38
18.80

112
132

57.2
55.8

.2297
.2522

13.14
14.09

131
134

54.7
54.0

.3458
.3572

18.87
19.28

59
58

57.9
55.9

.3297
.3600

19.04
20.11

Massachusetts:
12 establishments..........
Missouri:

/ 1912
\ 1913

194
149

53.9
54.2

.3441
.3749

18.57
20.31

/ 1912
\ 1913
New Hampshire:
2 establishments............... / 1912
\ 1913
New York:
/ 1912
\ 1913
Ohio:
/ 1912
6 establishments............... \ 1913

66
72

58.7
56.2

.2877
.3306

16.91
18.51

33
39

57.0
55.0

.2911
.2766

16.59
15.21

46
44

55.9
54.2

.3529
.3782

19.54
20.49

25
37

8
7

56
66

55.6
54.9

.3365
.3766

18.69
20.63

29
42

14
15

9

/ 1912
\ 1913

543
445

54.3
54.4

.3209
.3413

17.37
18.57

262
224

110
134

28
22

/ 1912
\ 1913

70
27

57.0
55.0

.2620
.2686

14.93
14.77

/ 1912

73
77

54.2
54.1

.3355
•3598

18.18
19.48

59
72

12
5

2

\ 1913

1912
1913

65
75

58.8
56.7

.3232
.3390

18.96
19.24

13
31

5

39

Massachusetts:
01
irianfo
Missouri:

17
44
21
26
25

55
23
14

51
64

18

9
9

58
84

8
9

25

383
361

76
89

13
26

13

5
7

57
41

44
97
20
21

11

8
21

18

99
75

26
13

46
74
14
19

41
39

112
35

69
61

13
37

14
46

52
26
33
39
13
13

PULLERS-OVER, HAND, MALE.
Massachusetts:
17 establishments..............
New Hampshire:
2 establishments...............
New York:
7 establishments...............
Ohio:
5 establishments...............




24

111
65

27

8

70

52

67

WAGES AN D HOUBS OF LABOR, 1907 TO 1913— BOOTS AND SHOES.
T a b l e I I I . — AVERAGE

RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AVERAGE FULL­
TIME W EEKLY EARNINGS, AND AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL­
TIME HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK IN EACH STATE, B Y YEARS, 1912
AND 1913—Continued.
L A S T IN G D E P A R T M E N T —Concluded.

Occupation, sex, State, and
number of establishments.

Num­
ber
of
Year. employ-

Aver- Average
full­
rate
time
of
hours
per
per
week. hour.

Aver-

Number of employees whose full-time
hours per week were—

time
week­ Over 51
48
ly
and and
earn­ under under
54
ings.
51

54

Over 57
54
and and
under under
60
57

PULLERS-OVER* MACHINE,
MALE.

Massachusetts:
/ 1912
19 establishments............ \ 1913
Missouri:
1912
8 establishments.............
1913
New Hampshire:
1912
4 establishments.............
1913
New York:
1912
8 establishments.............
1913

170
173

121
115

54.4 $0.3139 $17.04
54.3
20.09

44
25

54
59

59.4
57.0

.2970
.3277

17.64
18.59

31
38

57.2
55.8

.2649

15.15
16.59

65
45

54.8
53.9

.3650
.3771

19.89
20.33

53.8
54.1

.3379
.3437

18.18
18.64

22

60.0
55.8

.2444
.3234

14.66
17.95

55

52.7
52.2

.3224

16.92
16.77

57.3
56.4

.2625
.3312

15.08
18.78

12

TURN LASTERS, HAND, MALE.

Massachusetts:
1912
4 establishments..............
1913
Missouri:
1912
3 establishments..............
1913
New York:
/ 1912
7 establishments............. \ 1913
Ohio:
1912
3 establishments..............
1913

150
173

74
24

90
119

13

17

15

B O T TO M IN G DEPA RTM E N T.
BUFFERS, MALE.

Massachusetts:
26 establishments.
Missouri:
8 establishments.........
New Hampshire:
6 establishments.........
New York:
6 establishments.........
Ohio:
6 establishments.........

1912
1913

144
141

1912
1913

30
38

59.1
57.1

.2395
.2691

14.12
15.25

1912
1913

54
55

57.1
55.4

.2509
.2646

14.34
14.71

1912
1913

24
25

52.7
53.0

.3527
.3871

18.68
20.62

1912
1913

29
32

56.4
55.2

.2707
.3365

15.21
18.49

1912
1913

324
311

54.6
54.4

.4101
.4520

22.36
24.59

1912
1913

64
65

59.5
57.0

.3276
.3866

19.52
21.94

1912
1913

72
88

57.1
55.5

.3047
.3107

17.42
17.26

1912
1913

94
96

54.7
53.9

.4104
.4531

22.37
24.43

1912
1913

73
78

56.8
55.9

.3540
.4039

20.00
22.50

54.9 $0.3190 $17.46
54.6
.3530 19.25

50
24
17
47

11

EDGE SETTERS, MALE.

Massachusetts:
26 establishments____
Missouri:
8 establishments.........
New Hampshire:
6 establishments.........
New York:
9 establishments.........
Ohio:
6 establishments.........




184
158
27
72
13

27

68

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T a b l e I I I . — AVERAGE

RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AVERAGE FULLTIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, AND AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL­
TIME HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK IN EACH STATE, BY YEARS, 1912
AND 1913—Continued.
B O T T O M IN G D E P A R T M E N T-C ontinued.

Occupation, sex, State, and
number of establishments.

!
Number of employees whose full-time
hours per week were—
Aver­ Aver­ Aver­
Num­ age
age
age
full­
ber full­
rate
time Over
of
Year. em- time
of
Over 57
51
wages week­ 48
54
and
ploy- hours per
ly
per
and under 54
and and
60
earn­
week. hour. ings. under 54
under under
60
51
57

EDGE TRIMMERS, MALE.

Massachusetts:
26 establishments..........
Missouri:
8 establishments............
New Hampshire:
6 establishments............
New York:
10 establishments..........
Ohio:
6 establishments............

1912
1913

1912
1913

92

1912
1913

►
.3877 821.15
.4307 23.45
.3249
.3731

19.26
21.30

57.2
55.5

.3417
.4178
.4958

22.95
26.80

211
182

19.56
18.35

55.3
54.0

1912
1913

54.7
54.5
59.3
57.1

366
334

1912
1913

64

56.9
55.9

.3784
.3844

266

54.4
54.3

.3954
.4263

21.66

1912
1913

59.9
55.9

.3337
.3585

57.2
55.8

.2717
.4479
.4646

24.51
25.00

56.8
55.8

.2946
.3124

8

7
8

45
30

16.66
17.34

41
66

6
10

5

24
29

21
18

92
16

11
18

22

177
155

55
57

7
11

6

6
5

55
12

15.56
15.82

55.4
53.9

15
17

83

20.00

1912
1913

102
104

6
32

21.46
21.46

1912
1913

30
31

19
29

GOODYEAR STITCHERS, MALE.

Massachusetts:
23 establishments............
Missouri:
6 establishments..............
New Hampshire:
4 establishments..............
New York:
8 establishments..............
Ohio:
6 establishments..............

1912
1913

67

1912
1913

23.25

21
45

19.99

35
52

60
19

25
48

10
4

26
23

17
15

17

6
14

16

141
115

40
44

5
8

4

3
3

36
16

26

GOODYEAR WELTERS, MALE.

Massachusetts:
22 establishments............
Missouri:
6 establishments..............
New Hampshire:
4 establishments..............
New York:
9 establishments..............
Ohio:
6 establishments..............

1912
1913

220
201

54.4
54.3

.4687
.5513

25.49
29.97

1912
1913

40

59.9
56.8

.4396
.4936

27.90

1912
1913

57.2
55.7

.3520
.3623

20.16
20.23

1912
1913

54.8
54.1

.5218
.5367

28.46
29.03

1912
1913

56.7
55.6

.3755
.4034

21.14
22.34

54.7
54.5

.3250
.3514

17.77
19.17

30
34

21
38

42
12

15
28

7
9

5

18
21

10
10

5
8

11

32
30

22
21

3
4

3
1

HEEL BREASTERS, MALE.

Massachusetts:
26 establishments..........




1912
1913

66

8
11

1

69

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1907 TO 1913— BOOTS AN D SHOES.

I I I . —AVERAGE RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AVERAGE FU LL­
TIME W EEKLY EARNINGS, AND AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FU LL­
TIME HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK IN EACH STATE, BY YEARS, 1912
AND 1913—Continued.

T able

BOTTOMING DEPARTMENT—Continued.

Occupation, sex, State, and
number of establishments.

Num- Aver­ Aver­
age
age
rate
full­
of
Year. em­ time
of
hours wages
ploy­ per
per
ees. week. hour.

Aver-

Number of employees whose full-time
hours per week were—

time Over
week­
51
48
ly
and and
earn­ under under
ings.
54
51

54

Over
57
54
and
and under
under
60
57

60

HEEL BURNISHERS, MALE.
Massachusetts:
ishm A r»

/ 1912
\ 1913
Missouri:
8P
f4a.hlishTriATi*R________ / 1912
\ 1913
New Hampshire:
/ 1912
\ 1913
New York:
/ 1912
\ 1913
Ohio:
/ 1912
\ 1913

108
111

54.7 $0.3257 $17.81
54.5
.3540 19.30

24
29

59.1
57.0

.2168
.2540

12.79
14.32

29
24

57.3
55.5

.2441
.2586

55.4
53.8

.3296
.3528

18.15
18.96

22
29

57.1
56.4

.2827
.2857

16.17
16.18

96
96

54.8
54.6

.4013 21.96
.4783 ’ 26.08

25
30

59.4
56.1

.3514
.3859

20.87
21.48

29
38

54.7
54.3

.3823
.4467

20.99
24.26

29
32

57.2
55.9

.3425
.3595

19.51
19.98

/ 1912
\ 1913

127
127

54.5
54.4

.3150
.3498

17.16
19.04

/ 1912
\ 1913

34
41

59.2
57.1

.2365
.2822

13.99
15.98

/ 1912
\ 1913

49
43

57.1
55.4

.2263
.2357

12.94
13.07

/ 1912
\ 1913

38
41

55.4
53.8

.3439
.3829

18.92
20.63

/ 1912
\ 1913

32
36

56.5
55.7

.2655
.2732

15.07
15.31

Massachusetts:
/ 1912
22 establishments.............. \ 1913

48
47

54.5
54.5 ,

.3098
.3257

16.87
18.02

75
65

54.7
54.6

.3067
.3749

16.74
20.46

62
61

14.00
14.40

26
29

5
7

3
14
20

4
5

2

4
4

35
38

17
11

29
4

9
20

2
1

8
11

8
8

3
5

13

53
49

27
30

5
6

3

3
3

20
8

3

2

7
11

HEELERS, MALE.
Massachusetts:
/ 1912
22 establishments.............. \ 1913
Missouri:
/ 1912
\ 1913
New York:
/ 1912
8 establishments
\ 1913
Ohio:
/ 1912
\ 1913

8
11

2
19
22
30

1
7

10
14

1
1

4
7

11

76
59

29
38

5
7

2

4
5

26
17

15

HEEL SCOURERS, MALE.
Massachusetts:
O AQfnhl IflhmA ltfl
K
T
Missouri:
New Hampshire:
New York:
Qao+oKIicshtnanf!Q
Ohio:

15
23

4
19
37

49
6

18
23

6
5

16
19

3
6

11

8
7

26
25

11
12

2
3

1

6
5

41
35

23
21

3

2

5
13

9
13

HEEL SEAT NAILERS, MALE.

HEEL-SLUGGERS, MALE.
Massachusetts:
j 1912
26 establishments.............. \ 1913




4

70

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I H . —AVERAGE RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AVERAGE FULL­
TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, AND AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL­
TIME HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK IN EACH STATE, BY YEARS, 1912
AND 1913—Concluded.

T able

BOTTOM ING DEPARTMENT—Concluded.

Occupation, sex, State, and
number of establishments.

Num­
ber
of
Year. em­
ploy­
ees.

Number of employees whose full-time
hours per week were—
Aver­ Aver­ Aver­
age
age
age
full­
full­
rate
time Over
Over
time
of
51
57
54
hours wages week­ 48
ly
per
per
and and
and and
earn­ under under 54 under under 60
week. hour. ings.
54
60
51
57

HEEL TRIMMERS OR SHAVERS,
MALE.

Massachusetts:
f 1912
26 establishments............ . ) 1913
New York:
10 establishments............ . 1912
1913

54.7 $0.4399 $24.04
54.4
.4948 26.94

30

55.0
54.0

.4715
.5623

25.74
30.37

1912
1913

54.8
54.6

.3209
.3331

17.54
18.18

/ 1912
\ 1913

53.6
53.1

.3358
.3241

18.00
17.31

/ 1912
\ 1913

56.5
55.9

.2462

13.85
15.80

1912
1913

54.9
54.8

.3073
.3409

16.85
18.66

54.5
54.3

.4741
.5353

25.84
29.11

56.9

.4542

22.12
25.70

57.2
55.6

.3799
.3795

21.76
21.17

.5355

25.48
28.92

5

.3158

17.79
21.61

11

LEVELERS, MALE.

Massachusetts:
23 establishments............ .
New York:
10 establishments............ .
Ohio:
6 establishments...............

2

31
18

3
14

MCKAY SEW ERS, MALE.

Massachusetts:
10 establishments.............

32

ROUGH ROUNDERS, MALE.

Massachusetts:
1912
22 establishments.............
1913
Missouri:
1912
6 establishments...............
1913
New Hampshire:
/ 1912
4 establishments............... \ 1913
New York:
1912
9 establishments.. ..•........
1913
Ohio:
1912
6 establishments...............
1913

106
103

28

54.9
53.9
56.5
55.9

22

FINISHING DEPARTMENT.
TREERS OR IRONERS, HAND,
MALE.

Massachusetts:
25 establishments............
Missouri:
7 establishments.............
New Hampshire:
5 establishments........ .
New York:
7 establishments..............
Ohio:
6 establishments..............




1912
1913

627
569

54.4 $0.2808 $15.28
54.3
16.27

1912
1913

104

59.9
56.9

.2165
.2687

12.96
15.11

1912
1913

57.4
56.3

.2321
.2425

13.34
13.70

1912
1913

55.5
53.7

.2693
.2519

14.78
13.50

58.3
56.1

.2127
.2225

12.39
12.50

1912
1913

72

94
104

359

52
47
21
21

10
21

11

12
13

153
146

86

76
34

13
26

16

13
19

27

47

71

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1907 TO 1913— BOOTS AND SHOES.

I V , — AVERAGE FULL-TIME HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK, AND
AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, BY
STATES, 1913.

T able

C U TTIN G DEPA RTM E N T.

Aver­
Num­ Num­ age
ber
ber full­
Occupation, sex, and of esof
State.
tab- em­ time
lish- ploy­ hours
per
ments. ees. week.

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per ]hour.

Aver­
age
rate
6
8 10 12
of
wages and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­
per
hour. der der der der
8 10 12 14
cts. cts. cts. cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

2

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and 50
un­ cts.
der and
50 over.
cts.

28
9
28

34
30
42

29
4
1
7
3
1.......
5
39;

Cutters, lining, cloth,
male:
Massachusetts.......
New York.............
Other States.........

26
11
35

108
51
99

52.9 $0. 3332
54.0 .3321
56.2 .2845

1

1

2

1
1
2

10
3
5 "16

Total..................

72

258

54.4

.3143

1

1

4

4

8

Cutters, vamp and
whole shoe, hand,
male:
Massachusetts.......
Missouri.................
New Y ork.............
Ohio......................
Other States.........

26
5
11
6
23

855
112
324
204
492

53.0
56.8
53.9
55.6
56.5

.3608
.3241
.3695
.3723
.3195

1

5

1

1

1
3
16

20 104 573
5 32 64
1 13 40 162
1 13 26 85
16 102 88 164

88
11
99
63
81

8
13
24

25

19 153 290 1048 342

108

Total..................

71 1,987

54.5

.3511

2

Cutters, vamp and
w h o le s h o e , m a ­
chine, male:
Massachusetts.......
Missouri.................
New Hampshire..
New Y ork.............
Other States.........

13
5
2
5
8

201
85
116
67
80

53.6
57.8
56.1
53.3
57.5

.3696
.2591
.2997
.3647
.2754

1

2
8
1
1 ***2
3
3

Total..................

33

549

55.3

.3234j

1

7

Skivers, upper, ma­
chine, male:
Massachusetts.......
Other States.........

17
15

98
36

54.2
55.5

. 3053I
.2806

2

Total..................

32

134

54.5

18
6
5
9
6
23

113
57
45
54
49
121

53.6
54.0
55.7
53.6
53.8
56.3

.2252
.1831
.2056
.2537
.1857
.1960

Total..................

67

439

54.6

.2088

65 106

63

6
4
2
4

3
25
21
8
19

12 169
20 19
33 46
6 22
24 21

14
5
10
14
5

13

16

76

95 277

48

16

3

4

3
1

2
10

32
2

53
8

7
3

1
3

2

. 2987j

Skivers, upper, ma­
chine, female:
Massachusetts.......
Missouri................
New Hampshire..
New Y ork.............
Ohio......................
Other States.........

25

3

4

4

12

34

61

10

4

11
12
9
4
8
13

14
13
27
24
13
43

27
6
4
12
5
12

18

2

7

2

57 134

66

31

4

1

2

4
4

7
6
1

9
4
1

1

4
8

4
8

8
11

21
10
3
5
7
19

3

20

26

33

65

3

.

12

6

SO LE -L EA T H E R DEPA RTM E N T.
Channelers, insole and
outsole, male:
Massachusetts.......
New York.............
Other States.........

25
10
40

85
24
87

Total..................

75

Cutters, outsole, male:
Massachusetts.......
Missouri.................
Other States.........
Total..................




54.4 $0.3649
53.6 .3428
56.9 .3001

1
2j

17

15
5
24

44
16
34

20
3
7

5

2

196

55.4

.3334

2

2

18

44

94

30

6

16
2
24

86
44
66

54.6
55.6
56.2

.3187
.3243
.2668

33
i

20

22

48
44
20:

5

3;

42

196

55.4

.3025

3j

1

20

55 112

5

|

1

72

BU LLETIN OF TH E BUBEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T able I V . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK, AND
AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, B Y
STATES, 1913—Continued.
FITTING OR STITCHING DEPARTMENT.

Aver- Aver-

Occupation, sex, and
State.

Num­ Num­
ber
ber
rate
8 10 12
6
of
of es­
time
em­ hours of
and and and and
tab­
un­
lish- ploy- per
per un­ un­ der un­
ments.
week. hour. der der 12 der
14
8 10
cts. cts. cts. cts.

Backstay
stitchers,
female:
Massachusetts.......
Missouri................
New Hampshire..
New Y ork.............
Ohio......................
Other States.........
Total.
Button fasteners, fe­
male:
Total................
Buttonhole makers,
female:
Massachusetts___
Missouri...............
New Y ork...........
Ohio....................
Other States.......
Total.

25

24

130
37
58
30
32

102

65

72

54.8

.1993

27

33

30

53.
54.0
53.5
57 *53.
163 56.8

.2166
.1844
.1897
.1563
.1897

54.7

.1936

53.
54.0
55.4
53.2
53.9
56.3

.2165
.171'
.1739
.1928
.1903

157
52
88

74

517

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

24

55

18

40

21

15

27
16

43

63

56 110

67

12
60

10

10

10
23

11

22

349

54.4

283
60
91
109
94
217

53.7
54.0
55.4
53.0
54.0
56.6

854

54.6j . 1902;

114
223

53.7
55.1

.2473
.2040

79

337

54.7

.2186

18

26

375
144
117
98
234

53.7
54.0
55.6
53.4
53.9
56.6

.2310
.1951
.1653
.2294
.1992
.2067

21

82 1,070

54.6

.2104

310
65
39
140

53.
55.7
54.3
56.3

.3443

554

54.8

.3195

74

Tip stitchers, female:
Massachusetts___
Other States.......

102

Vampers, male:
Massachusetts___
New Hampshire.,
New Y ork ...........
Other States.......




25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

15

57

Total.,

Total..

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

10
35

Lining makers, fe­
male:
Massachusetts......
Missouri................
New Hampshire..
New Y ork............
Ohio.................... .
Other States.. —

Total.,

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

39

.1945

Missouri................

Top stitchers or un­
dertrimmers, female:
Massachusetts___
Missouri...............
New Hampshire..
New Y ork...........
Ohio....................
Other States.___

53. 6 $0. 218S
1693
54.0
55.4
1791
1784
53.7
53.9
1708
1941
56.3

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

54.7

New Hampshire.
New Y ork...........
Ohio....................
Other States.......
Total.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

78

Closers-on, female:
Massachusetts....

Total.

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.

66

.2124
.1684
.1585
.1989
.1830
. 1792

43

48

39

15

46

41

18

30
4

75

29

20

97

81 105 107 226

47

11

46

48

45

21
124 114 131 307 176

.3456
.2902

73

23

2 11 17

115 227

12

WAGES AND HOUBS OF LABOR, 1907 TO 1913— BOOTS AND SHOES.

73

I V . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK, AND
AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, BY
STATES, 1913—Continued.

T able

F IT T IN G O R S T IT C H IN G D E P A R T M E N T —Concluded.

Occupation, sex, and
State.

Vampers, female:
Massachusetts.......
Missouri................
New Hampshire .
New Y ork.............
Ohio............
Other States
Total........

ber
of establishments.

25
g
6
9
6
25

ber
of
em­
ploy­
ees.

Average
full­
time
hours
per
week.

312
110
117
140
142
251

79 1,072

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.

Average
rate
6 8 10 12
of
wages and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­
per
hour. der der der der
8 10 12 14
cts. cts. cts. cts.

53.7 $0.2654
54.0 .2457
55.4 .2264
53.7 .2764
53.9 .2195
56.8 .2302
54.7

.2462

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

19 101
15 39
23 37
11 32
19 54
23 67

85
21
25
31
25
48

67
24
13
31
9
37

13

1

13
1
5

3

86 110 330 235 181

32

4

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

1
4
7

3
2
5
19

7
1
3
5
11
25

18
10
13
11
14
20

12

30

52

1

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

40
and 50
un­ cts.
der and
50 over.
cts.

L A ST IN G DEPA RTM E N T.
Assemblers, for pullingover machine, male:
Massachusetts.......
Missouri................
New Hampshire..
New Y o r k ............
Ohio......................
Other States.........

14
8
3
5
4
16

165
82
44
89
43
109

54.2 $0.3208
56.7 .2293
56.6 .2326
53.7 .2346
57.1 .2509
57.0 .2316

Total..................

50

532

55.5

.2611

21
5
4
9
5
21

560
92
132
134
58
244

54.3
57.1
55.8
54.0
55.9
56.6

65 1,220

12
6
2
3
6
12

Bed-machine
tors, male:

4

5

4

1
1

3
1
1

4
1
10

2
7
2
7
1
6

6

10

19

25

.3428
.3300
.2522
.3572
.3600
.3226

2

1
2

55.2

.3304

2

149
72
39
44
66
79

54.2
56.2
55.0
54.2
54.9
57.6

.3749
.3306
.2766
.3782
.3766
.3599

5
4
5
8
5
17

22
23
25
32
15
41

86
5
2
9
7
12

25
1

44 158 120 121

29

35 153 254
6 21 54
51 34 24
6 20 76
4 11 27
23 62 112

86
10
1
26
13
34

28

29 125 301 547 170

40

25
29
10
25
11
20

1
2

opera­

Missouri................
New Hampshire..
New Y ork ............
Ohio......................
Other States.........
Total..................
Hand-method lastingmachine operators,
male:
Massachusetts.......
Missouri................
New Hampshire..
New Y ork ............
Ohio......................
Other States.........
Total.................

3
6

4
is
1
6

16
16
13
6
4
5

80
48
12
18
35
39

37
5

11

1

5
3
11
3
4
12

12
19
19

5
4
3

1

3

38

60 232

92

23

11

1

34 106 213
7
9 11
7
7 41
9
8 43
54 63 133

80

1

16
13
43

4
1
5
21

1

2

41

449

55.3

.3572

Pullers-over,
hand,
male:
Massachusetts.......
New Hampshire..
New Y ork ............
Ohio.................... .
Other States.........

17
2
7
5
21

445
27
77
75
313

54.4
55.0
54.1
56.7
56.4

.3413
.2686
.3598
.3390
.3177

1

1
1

5

8

Total................ .

52

937

55.3

.3326

1

3

6

9 113 195 437 152

Pullers-over, machine,
male:
Massachusetts___
Missouri...............
New Hampshire.
New Y ork...........
Other States.......

19
8
4
8
21

173
59
38
45
106

54.3
57.0
55.8
53.9
56.8

.3699
.3277
.2968
.3771
.3428

1

1
2

2
1

1

60

421

55.4

.3513

1

Total...............




5
3
4

1

1
1

3

3
8
7
2
7

4

6

27

96
15
15
22
51

43
14
2
13
21

9
2
1
4
3

71 199

93

19

22
17
9
4
19

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

74

I Y . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK, AND
AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, BY
STATES, 1913—Continued.

T able

L A S T IN G D E P A R T M E N T —Concluded.
Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.

AverNum­ Num­ Averber
ber
rate
10 12
of
Occupation, sex, and of estime
of
em­ hours wages and and and and
tabState.
un­ un­ un­ un­
lish- ploy­ per
per
ments. ees. week. hour. der der der der
8 10 12 14
cts. cts. cts. cts.
Turn lasters, hand,
male:
Massachusetts___
Missouri...............
New Y ork .............
Ohio.................
Other States. . .
Total.............

79
173
36
190
28

55.0

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

5

17

1
1

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25 30
and and
un­ un­
der der
30 40
cts. cts.

54.1 $0.3437
55.8 .3234
52.2 .3220
56.4 .3312
57.2 .2814

524

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

63

.3100

63 144 252

30

6
14
19
1
4
13

24
7
19
4
6
13

79
11
14
6
13
11

26
1

3

8
5
12

4
2

73 134

52

9

76 122
16 37
51
4
28 39
32 29
71 39

92
1
*27
10
26
156

B O T TO M IN G D E PA RTM E N T.
Buffers, male:
New Hampshire..
New Y ork.............
Ohio......................
Other States.........

26
8
6
6
6
20

141
38
55
25
32
63

54.6 $0.3530
57.1 .2691
55.4 .2646
53.0 .3871
55.2 .3365
56.6 .2827

2

l

2

1

3

2
4
3
1
2
5

2

l

2

1

6

17

57

2

2
2
6

1

Total..................

72

354

55.3

.3186

Edge setters, male:
M assachusetts.......
Missouri................
New Hampshire..
New Y ork............
Ohio......................
Other States.........

26
8
6
9
6
23

311
65
88
96
78
177

54.4
57.0
55.5
53.9
55.9
56.7

.4520
.3866
.3107
.4531
.4039
.3867

2

2

2
10

19
9
25
2
5
27

Total..................

78

815

55.3

.4129

2

4

22

87 274 270

Edge trimmers, male:
Massachusetts.......
Missouri................
New Hampshire..
New Y ork.............
Ohio......................
Other States.........

26
8
6
10
6
25

334
70
99
94
69
172

54.5
57.1
55.5
54.0
55.9
56.9

.4307
.3731
.3298
.4958
.3844
.3944

3

3

12
3
11

|

2

Total..................

81

838

55.4

.4100

1

5

7

Goodyear stitchers,
male:
Massachusetts.......
Missouri................
New Hampshire..
New Y ork.............
Ohio......................
Other States.........

23
6
4
8
6
23

268
52
71
67
53
131

54.3
55.9
55.8
53.9
55.8
56.7

.4263
.3585
.2839
.4646
.3124
.4210

2

1
1

Total..................

70

642

55.2

.3986

Goodyear w e l t e r s ,
male:
Massachusetts ...
Missouri................
New Hampshire...
New Y ork.............
Ohio......................
Other States.........

22
6
4
9
6
23

201
40
50
47
40
94

54.3
56.8
55.7
54.1
55.6
56.8

.5513
.4936
.3623
.5367
.4034
.4920

Total..................

70

472

55.3

.5006




18

4

1
___i___
3

2

27
16
22
1
6
24

79 132
26 23
39 23
21 29
39 23
60 38

43
1
30

44

96 264 268

154

3
7
15
1
3
7

9 107 95
54
5 25
4
8
28 27
7 19 *i5 "” 24
5
23 22
20 42 27 ’ *35

36

92 242 146

121

7
4
28
5
17
19

56
10
16
10
15
18

138
24

1
1

1
4
3
3
10

5

21

80 125

241

1
2

78
2

29
4
46

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1907 TO 1913— BOOTS AND SHOES.

75

I V . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK, AND
AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, BY
STATES, 1913—Continued.

Table

B O T T O M IN G D E P A R T M E N T —Continued.

Num­ Num­
ber
ber
Occupation, sex, and of esof
State.
tab- em­
lish- ployments.

Aver- Aver-

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.

rate
10
time
of
and and and
hours
un­ un­ un­
per
per
week. hour. der der der
10 12
cts. cts.

Heel breasters, male:
Massachusetts.......
Other States.........

26

66
105

75

171

55.4

55.4

.3130

22

54.
56.1
54.3
55.9
56.5

.4783
.3859
.4467
.3595
.3853

55.4

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

51

.3540
.2540
.2586
.3528
.2857
.2717

74

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

.3127

54.5
57.0
55.5
53.8
56.4
57.0

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

26

.4242

50
cts.
and
over.

54.5 $0.3514
56.0

Total..................

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

Heel burnishers, male:
Massachusetts.......
Missouri................
New Hampshire...
New Y ork.............
Ohio.................... .
Other States....... .
Total..................
Heelers, male:
Massachusetts___
Missouri..............
New Y ork...........
Ohio.....................
Other States.......

111

29
24
29
29
46

23

Total................
Heel scourers, male:
Massachusetts___
Missouri..............
New Hampshire..
New Y ork...........
Ohio....................
Other States.......

22

14
16

41

52

95
42
8
11
6
16

10
60

25

127
41
43
41
36
76

54.4
57.1
55.4
53.8
55.7
56.7

.2822
.2357
.3829
.2732
.2953

78

364

55.4

.3135

47

54.5
56.0

.3257
.2737

135

55.5

.2918

65
114

54.6
56.1

.3749
.2725

179

55.5

.3097

97
34
146

54.4
54.0
56.3

.5623

277

55.4

.4482

92
54
27
116

54.6
53.1
55.9
56.6

.3331
.3241
.2826
.2759

Total................

55.2

.3037

McKay sewers, male:
Massachusetts___
Other States.......

54.8
56.1

.3409
.3052

14

55.

.3186

20

Total................
Heel-seat nailers, male:
Massachusetts___
Other States.......
Total................

72

Heel sluggers, male:
Massachusetts___
Other States.......
Total................

78

Heel trimmers or shav­
ers, male:
Massachusetts___
New Y ork...........
Other States.......
Total................
Levelers, male:
Massachusetts___
New Y ork........... .
Ohio....................
Other States.......

Total.................




81

136

55

85

26
4
10

25
20

15

29

14

48
21
31
14

30

100

18
20
15

12

45

58

31

35

50

23

12

76

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T able T V .—AVERAGE FULL-TIME HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK, AND
AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, BY
STATES, 1913—Concluded.
BOTTOMING DEPARTMENT—Concluded.

Occupation, sex, and
State.

Num­
ber
of establishments.

Aver­
Num­ age
ber full­
of
time
em­ hours
ploy­ per
ees. week.

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
Aver­
age
rate
of
6
8 10 12 14 16 18 20 25 30 40
wages and and and and and and and and and ■and and 50
per un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
hour. der der der der der der der der der der der and
8 10 12 14 16 18 20 25 30 40 50 over.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

Bough rounders, male:
Massachusetts.......
Missouri................
New Hampshire..
New Y ork.............
Ohio......................
Other States.........

22
6
4
9
6
22

103
20
28
33
24
57

54.3 $0.5353
56.9 .4542
55.6 .3795
53.9 .5355
55.9 .3889
56.5 .5226

1

Total..................

69

265

55.2

1

1

2

2
1
4
4

12
2
18
11
8
7

31
8
8
4‘"
9
12

5

12

58

72

117

4

2
1

.4967

59
g
i6
3
31

FINISHING DEPARTMENT.
Treers or ironers, hand,
male:
Massachusetts.......
Missouri................
New Hampshire...
New Y ork.............
Ohio......................
Other States .
Total..................
Treers or ironers, hand,
female:
Total..................




25
7
5
7
6
23

569
104
81
52
72
232

19 119 163 218
8 24 13 44
7 28 24 12
4 15
2 12
7 12 14 10
15 47 59 57

5
1
13

10

1

21

27

55

60 245 275 353

59

14

5

29

24

13

14

1

73 1,110

55.3

13

54.6

.1578

1

.2817

no

4
11
8
8
13
11

39
1

1
6
13

3
2
2
4
9
7

54.3 $0.2996
56.9 .2687
56.3 .2425
53.7 .2519
56.1 .2225
56.8 .2823

2

8

9

4

2

HOSIERY AND UNDERWEAR MANUFACTURING.
SUMMARY.

In this report, based on information obtained from representa­
tive establishments, are shown the full-time weekly earnings, the
full-time hours of labor per week, and the rates of wages (or earnings)
per hour in the principal occupations of the hosiery and underwear
industry of the United States. Figures relating to full-time hours
of labor per week and rates of wages (or earnings) per hour are pre­
sented for the years 1907 to 1913, inclusive, and for full-time weekly
earnings for the years 1910 to 1913, inclusive.
Earlier reports1
-of this Bureau have presented wages and hours
of labor in the industry from 1890 to 1912 under the designation
Hosiery and Knit Goods. The data, however, in those reports were
secured from establishments whose product was principally hosiery
and underwear.
Summarized briefly, the average full-time weekly earnings of the
employees in this industry in 1913 were 5.5 per cent higher than in
1912, 9.8 per cent higher than in 1911, and 10.4 per cent higher than
in 1910.
The average full-time hours of labor per week in 1913 were 1.8 per
cent lower than in 1912, 3.5 per cent lower than in 1911, and 3.7 per
cent lower than in 1910.
The average rates of wages or earnings per hour in 1913 were 7.5
per cent higher than in 1912, 14.3 per cent higher than in 1911, and
14.7 per cent higher than in 1910. Owing to the reduction of hours,
the increase in full-time weekly earnings between 1910 and 1913 was
not so much as in rates of wages per hour.
The summary figures concerning the several occupations covered by
this report are presented in Table I (pp. 94-103). The data for the
years 1907 to 1911 were secured in 1911. Owing to the difficulty of
finding establishments having records extending back for a period of
years and also owing to the amount of work involved, data for 1907
to 1909 were secured from a smaller number of establishments, some
of them perhaps less representative than have furnished data for the
later years.
i Previous investigations of wages and hours of labor in hosiery and underwear manufacturing
been made and published by the Bureau, as follows: Nineteenth Annual Report, covering 1890 to
Bulletin No. 59 (July, 1905), covering 1903 and 1904; Bulletin No. 65 (July, 1906), covering 1904 and
Bulletin No. 71 (July, 1907), covering 1905 and 1906; Bulletin No. 77 (July, 1908), covering 1906 and
and Bulletin No. 134 (August, 1913), covering 1907 to 1912.




77

have
1903;
1905;
1907;

78

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

According to the plan of the table, direct comparisons can be made
properly only between two or more successive years where the data
are for identical establishments. Data for successive years from iden­
tical establishments are indicated by a brace before each group of
years.
The data are for one pay-roll period in each year, the period ending
nearest May 15 being selected, except in a very few establishments
in which conditions in May were abnormal.
The figures for the years from 1907 to the first presentation for
1912 are reproduced from Bulletin No. 134, except"the average full­
time weekly earnings, which figures have been computed for this
Bulletin from the data gathered for the earlier years. The average
full-time weekly earnings have not been computed for the period 1907
to 1910, owing to the lack of funds. It will be observed that the
average full-time weekly earnings generally are not exactly the same
as the product of the average rate of wages per hour and the average
full-time hours per week. This difference is explained and illustrated
on pages 17 and 18.
Referring to Table I (pp. 94-103), it is seen that in 1913 the average
full-time weekly earnings of males engaged in the industry, repre­
sented by 7 occupations, varied from $8.67 for knitters, footers or
toppers, hosiery, to $13.96 for knitters, web or tube, underwear.
The average full-time weekly earnings of females in 1913, repre­
sented by 16 occupations, varied from $7.80 for fine menders of
hosiery to $10.69 for buttonhole makers on underwear.
Wages and hours of labor often differ materially in different estab­
lishments. Hence the inclusion or exclusion of an establishment in a
group, if the wages and hours therein differ greatly from the aver­
age, may raise or lower the average for the group. In Table I it is
seen that the average full-time weekly earnings of boarders in 32
establishments increased from $10.74 in 1911 to $12.04 in 1912. In
41 establishments there was an increase from $11.92 in 1912 to $12.15
in 1913. Therefore, the inclusion of 9 additional establishments,
changed the average weekly earnings for 1912 from $12.04 to $11.92.
Consequently it would not be correct to state that the increase was
from $10.74 in 1911 to $12.15 in 1913. The movement from one
year to another is indicated with a greater degree of certainty by
the figures for identical establishments. The difference between
$10.74 and $12.04 represents the increase from 1911 to 1912, and
the difference between $11.92 and $12.15 represents the change
between 1912 and 1913 as nearly as can be determined from the
data available.
Owing to the change in the number of establishments from year to
year, it is difficult to make a comparison of the actual data over a




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1907 TO 1913— K N IT GOODS.

79

period of several years, or to get an exact measure of the changes.
To aid in the making of such a comparison, relative (or index) numbers
have been computed from the averages in Table I for full-time hours
per week, rates of wages per hour, and full-time weekly earnings for
each occupation for the years 1910 to 1913, inclusive.
These rela­
tive numbers are simply percentages in which the figures for 1913 are
taken as the base, or 100 per cent. The relative for each year is the
per cent that the average in that year is of the average for 1913, as
determined by the method explained on page 20. Thus in the table
below the full-time weekly earnings of boarders in 1910 were 89.1
per cent of the full-time weekly earnings in 1913.
It will be observed that the general tendency of each occupation
is toward a reduction of working hours and an increase in rates of
wages per hour and of earnings per full week. No data are available
to show the amount of work afforded employees each year or the varia­
tion from year to year. The relative full-time hours per week* indi­
cate the change in the hours of labor of employees working full time,
but do not reflect in any way the greater or less amount of full-time
work afforded. This point is further discussed on page 16.
R E LA TIV E FULL-TIME HOURS PER W EE K , RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AND FU LL­
TIME W E E K L Y EARNINGS IN THE PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS IN H O SIE R Y AND
U N D E R W E A R MANUFACTURING, 1910 TO 1913.

(1913=100.0.)
Boarders, male.

Year.

1910..
1911..
1912..
1913..

Rela­
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week.

102.3
102.3
100.0
100.0

Rela­ Rela­
tive
tive
full­
rate of time
wages weekly
per
earn­
hour.
ings.
86.8
85.3
98.0
100.0

89.1
87.5
98.1
100.0

Cutters, hand, under­
wear, female.
1910..
1911..
1912..
1913..

104.1
104.1
100.9
100.0

84.2
85.3
93.9
100.0

88.1
89.1
95.0
100.0

Knitters, footers or
toppers, hosiery, female.
1910..
1911..
1912..
1913..

102.1
102.1
100.2
100.0

89.7
91.1
93.0
100.0




91.7
93.2
93.3
100.0

Buttonhole makers,
underwear, female.

Rela­
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week.
105.5
105.8
104.2
100.0

Rela­ Rela­ Rela­
tive
tive
tive
full­
full­
rate of time
time
wages weekly hours
per
earn­
per
hour.
week.
ings.
82.2
84.2
85.9
100.0

86.9
89.2
89.3
100.0

Finishers, underwear,
female.
106.4
106.2
104.4
100.0

82.7
82.5
85.6
100.0

88.5
88.2
89.6
100.0

Knitters, “ lady hose,”
male.
102.3
101.9
99.5
100.0

Button sewers, under­
wear, female.

89.8
90.1
97.2
100.0

91.7
91.8
96.8
100.0

106.6
107.0
105.1
100.0

Cutters, hand, under­
wear, male.

Rela­
Rela­ Rela­
tive
tive
tive
full­
full­
rate of time
time
wages weekly hours
per
earn­
per
hour.
week.
ings.
86.7
85.6
86.4
100.0

92.7
91.7
90.8
100.0

107.1
106.4
106.4
100.0

Rela­
Rela­ tive
full­
tive
rate of time
wages week­
per
ly
hour. earn­
ings.
88.5
91.2
84.6
100.0

94.5
96.9
90.0
100.0

Inspectors and folders, Knitters, footers or
toppers, hosiery, male.
female.
104.5
104.7
102.9
100.0

87.9
88.0
90.5
100.0

92.0
92.3
93.3
100.0

Knitters, “ lady hose,”
female.
101.5
101.5
99.8
100.0

99.3
100.4
115.1
100.0

100.9
101.9
115.2
100.0

100.3
100.0
99.5
100.0

93.5
96.4
103.7
100.0

94.4
96.7
103.3
100.0

Knitters, rib, hosiery,
male.
102.5
102.3
100.7
100.0

90.4
90.6
96.0
100.0

92.5
92.5
96.4
100.0

80

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

R E LA T IV E FULL-TIME HOURS PE R W EE K , R ATES OF W AGES PE R HOUR, AND FU LL­
TIME W E E K L Y EARNINGS IN THE PR IN C IPA L OCCUPATIONS IN H O SIE R Y AND
U N D E R W E A R M ANUFACTURING, 1910 TO 1913—Concluded.

(1913=100.0.)
Knitters, rib, hosiery,
female.

Year.

1910..
1911..
1912..
1913..

Rela­
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week.

103.1
103.4
99.8
100.0

Knitters, web or tube,
underwear, male.

Rela­ Rela­ Rela­
tive
tive
tive
full­
full­
rate of time
time
wages weekly hours
per
per
earn­
hour.
week.
ings.

7*4
93.0
90.9
100.0

82.0
96.4
91.1
100.0

105.7
105.9
104.2
100.0

Knitters, web or tube,
underwear, female.

Rela­ Rela­ Rela­
tive
tive
tive
full­
full­
rate of time
time
wages weekly hours
per
per
earn­
hour.
week.
ings.
78.4
83.9
90.3
100.0

83.1
88.9
94.2
100.0

104.2
103.5
100.7
100.0

Menders, fine, hosiery, Menders, rough, hosiery,
female.
female.
1910..
1911..
1912..
1913..

102.5
102.5
99.6
100.0

96.9
98.5
101.3
100.0

99.4
101.3
101.0
100.0

Seamers, underwear,
female.
1910..
1911..
1912..
1913..

105.9
106.3
105.3
100.0

81.9
81.2
86.4
100.0

87.2
87.0
91.1
100.0

101.1
101.1
100.2
100.0

91.4
91.8
98.2
100.0

92.5
92.9
98.4
100.0

84.8
88.0
99.4
100.0

116.2
110.5
92.3
100.0

117.6
114.7
93.1
100.0

Pressers, male.
103.2
103.2
101.6
100.0

Welters, female.

102.5
102.5
100.2
100.0

Rela­ Rela­
tive
tive
full­
rate of
time
wages weekly
per
earnhour.
ingi.

81.1
84.9
89.0
100.0

Loopers, female.

Rela­
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week.

102.0
102.0
100.2
100.0

Rela­
Rela­ tive
tive
full­
rate of time
wages week­
per
ly
hour. earn­
ings.
92.1
89.8
97.6
100.0

94.7
92.3
98.1
100.0

Press hands, female.

83.7
87.6
90.3
100.0

106.3
105.9
103.0
100.0

78.3
78.1
80.9
100.0

82.7
82.4
83.2
100.0

Winders, female.

87.5
90.7
99.8
100.0

105.7
105.5
102.9
100.0

84.6
86.3
92.8
100.0

89.8
91.4
95.9
100.0

A like table of relative numbers is next shown for the industry
as a whole, as determined by a combination of the data for the
several occupations.
Data were obtained for the principal occupations of the industry
but not for all occupations. The method of computing this table
is explained on page 11.
R E LA TIV E FULL-TIME HOURS PER W E E K , RATES OF W AGES PER HOUR, AND F U L L ­
TIME W E E K L Y EARNINGS IN H O SIE R Y AND U N D E R W E A R MANUFACTURING, 1910
TO 1913.

(1913=100.00

Year.

1910..................................
1911..................................
1912..................................
1913...................................

Relative
full-time
hours ^ r
week.
103.8
103.6
101.8
100.0

Relative
rates of
wages per
hour.
87.2
87.5
93.0
100.0

Relative
full-time
weekly
earnings.
90.6
91.1
94.8
100.0

From the table it is seen that the relative or index number for full­
time hours per weekan the industry as a whole decreased from 103.8
in 1910 to 100 in 1913, or, in other words, full-time hours per week




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1907 TO 1913— K N IT GOODS.

81

were 103.8 per cent in 1910 of what they were in 1913. The relative
or index number for rates of wages per hour increased from 87.2
in 1910 to 100 in 1913. Owing to the reduction of hours the increase
in full-time weekly earnings was slightly less than the increase in
wages per hour, the increase being from an index of 90.6 in 1910
to 100 in 1913.
In examining the relative or index numbers for the several occupa­
tions on pages 79 and 80, and for the industry as a whole in the table
above, it will be observed that they have been computed with 1913 taken
as the base, or 100 per cent. In the preceding reports of the Bureau
relating to this industry, relative numbers for rates of wages per hour
and for hours of labor per week were presented back to 1890 and the
base, or 100 per cent, was not the average rate of wages per hour
or the average full-time hours per week in any one year, but the
average rate of wages per hour and the average full-time hours
per week for the 10-year period 1890-1899. The table of such
relative numbers for the years 1890 to 1912 appears in the appendix,
page 127.
The reasons for changing the base of the relative numbers to the
most recent year are stated on pages 10 and 18. The relative numbers
for the occupations shown in the new series here presented differ from
those of the old series, shown in preceding reports, because of the
change of the base, but the ratio existing between any two years
is the same in both series. The relative numbers for the industry
as a whole have likewise been recomputed with 1913 as the base.
In addition to making a change of the base year a change has also
been made in the method of computing the industry relatives, and
because of this change the relatives here presented for the industry
as a whole not only differ from the relatives computed by the old
method, but show a slightly different ratio of change from year
to year.
In Bulletin No. 134 the relative numbers for this industry were
averages of the relative numbers of the several occupations. For
each year, for example, the relative rate of wages per hour of each
occupation was multiplied (weighted) by the number of employees
in that occupation, the products thus computed for the several occu­
pations were added, and the sum divided by the total employees.
In computing the relative numbers from 1910 to 1913 for the
industry as a whole as presented in this Bulletin, a combination was
made, not of7the relative numbers for the several occupations, but
of the actual hours and wages of the several occupations. For each
year the average hours and wages were computed for all employees
in all occupations and the average for each preceding year was com­
pared with the average for 1913 to determine the index. It was
45968°— Bull. 154— 14------ 6




82

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

deemed necessary to make this change in method because a change
in the industry is not always reflected by the relative computed
by averaging the occupation relatives. This reason is more fully
explained on page 18.
In addition to the relative numbers shown for the several occupa­
tions and for the industry, three tables are here presented showing
the per cent of increase or decrease in the full-time hours of labor
per week, rates of wages per hour, and full-time weekly earnings
in 1913 as compared with each preceding year back to 1910. The
figures of these tables are computed from the relative numbers shown on
pages 79 and 80, and simply reverse the method of comparison. Each
of these tables also shows the increase or decrease in 1912 as com­
pared with 1911, and in 1911 as compared with 1910. Referring
to the second line of the first table, it is seen that the full-time hours
of buttonhole makers, underwear, in 1913 were 4 per cent lower than
in 1912, 5.5 per cent lower than in 1911, and 5.2 per cent lower than
in 1910. Further, it is seen that the full-time hours of labor in this
occupation were 1.5 per cent lower in 1912 than in 1911 and 0.3 per
cent higher in 1911 than in 1910. The figures of the several tables
are read in like manner.
PE R CENT OF INCREASE OR DECREASE IN FU LL-TIM E HOURS P E R W EEK, 1913
COMPARED W IT H EACH OF THE 3 Y E A R S PRECEDING, 1912 COMPARED W ITH 1911,
AND 1911 COMPARED W IT H 1910.
Per cent higher ( + ) or lower (—)
in 1913 than i n -

Per cent higher ( + ) or
lower ( —) in—

Occupation.

Boarders, male............................................ .
Buttonhole makers, underwear, female___
Button sewers, underwear, female............ .
Cutters, hand, underwear, male................ .
Cutters, hand, underwear, female...............
Finishers, underwear, female......................
Inspectors and folders, female.................... .
Knitters, footers or toppers, hosiery, m ale..
Knitters, footers or toppers, hosiery, female.
Knitters, “ lady hose,” male...................... .
Knitters, “ lady hose,” female................... .
Knitters, rib, nosiery, male........................ .
Knitters, rib. hosiery, female......................
Knitters, wet) or tube, underwear, m ale...
Knitters, web or tube, underwear, female.
Loopers, female.............................................
Menders, fine, hosiery, female.................... .
Menders, rough, hosiery, female..................
Pressers, male...............................................
Press hands, female.....................................
Seamers, underwear, female........................
Welters, female.............................................
Winders, female.......................................... .
The industry..................................... .




-

2.2

-5.2
-

6.2
6.6

-3.9
-

6.0

-4.3
- .3
-

2.1
2 .2

-1.5
-2.4
-3.0
-5.4
-4.0
-

2.0

2.2
- 5 .5
-6 .5
-

-

6.0

- 3 .9
- 5 .8
-4 .5
0)
-

2.1

- 1 .9
-1 .5
-

2 .2

-3 .3
- 5 .6
-3 .4

0)
- 4 .0
- 4 .9
-

6 .0

- .9
- 4 .2
- 2.8
+ .5
-

.2

+ .5

+ .2
-

.7

+ .2

- 4 .0
- .7

-3 .5

1.8

(1
—3.1
- 1 .7
- 1 .7
- .5
- 1 .9
- 2 .4
- 1 .7
- 1.6
- 3 .5
- 1.6
- 2 .3

1911 than
in 1910
0)
+0.3
+ .4
- .7
0)
-

.2

+ .2

0)
C)
-

.4
.2

+ .3
+ .2
- .7

- .9

-

- 3 .7

-

-

1.1

+ .4

-

-3 .1
- 5 .6
- 5 .9
-2 .4
-5 .2

2.2

- 1 .5

.2

2.0

-2 .4

-

-

.2

-

-2.4
- 1.1
-3.1
-5.9
-5.6
-2.4
-5.4

i No change.

1912 than
in 1911

1912

1911

1.6

- 2 .9
- 5 .0
-

.2

-

1 .6

- 2.8

-

1.8

2.8
1.6

- 2 .7
- .9
-

2 .2

- 2 .5

-1.7

- .4
+ .4
C)
1
-

.2

-

.2

83

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1907 TO 1913---- KNIT GOODS.

P E R CENT OF INCREASE OR DECREASE IN RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, 1913 COM­
P A RE D W IT H EACH OF THE 3 Y E A R S PRECEDING, 1912 COMPARED W ITH 1911, AND
1911 COMPARED W IT H 1910.
Per cent higher ( + ) or lower ( —)
in 1913 than in—

Per cent higher ( + ) or
lower ( —) i n -

Occupation.
1910

1911

1912

1912 than
in 1911.

1911 than
in 1910

Boarders, male..............................................
Buttonhole makers, underwear, female____
Button sewers, underwear, female..............
Cutters, hand, underwear, male..................
Cutters, hand, underwear, female...............
Finishers, underwear, female......................
Inspectors and folders, female.....................
Knitters, footers or toppers, hosiery, male. .
Knitters, footers or toppers, hosiery, female.
Knitters, “ lady hose,” male........................
Knitters, “ lady hose,” female.....................
Knitters, rib, hosiery, male..........................
Knitters, rib, hosiery, female.......................
Knitters, web or tube, underwear, m ale...
Knitters, web or tube, underwear, female..
Loopers, female.............................................
Menders, fine, hosiery, female......................
Menders, rough, hosiery, female..................
Pressers, male................................................
Press hands, female......................................
Seamers, underwear, female.........................
Welters, female..............................................
Winders, female............................................

+15.2
+21.7
+15.3
+13.0
+18.8
+20.9
+13.8
+ 7.0
+11.5
+11.4
+ .7
+ 10.6
+25.9
+27.6
-1 3 .9
+ 8.6
+ 3.2
+ 9.4
+23.3
+27.7
+ 22.1
+17.9
+18.2

+17.2
+18.8
+16.8
+ 9.6
+17.2
+ 21.2
+13.6
+ 3.7
+ 9.8
+ 11.0
— .4
+10.4
+ 7.5
+19.2
- 9.5
+11.4
+ 1.5
+ 8.9
+17.8
+28.0
+23.2
+13.6
+ 15.9

+ 2.0
+16.4
+15.7
+18.2
+ 6.5
+16.8
+10.5
- 3.6
+ 7.5
+ 2.9
—13.1
+ 4.2
+ 10.0
+10.7
+ 8.3
+ 2.5
— 1.3
+ 1.8
+12.4
+23.6
+15.7
+ .6
+ 7.8

+14.9
+ 2.0
+ .9
— 7.2
+ 10.1
+ 3.8
+ 2.8
+ 7.6
+ 2.1
+ 7.9
+14.6
+ 6.0
— 2.3
+ 7.6
-1 6 .5
+ 8.7
+ 2.8
+ 7.0
+ 4.8
+ 3.6
+ 6.4
+13.0
+ 7.5

— 1.7
+ 2.4
— 1.3
+ 3.1
+ 1.3
— .2
+ .1
+ 3.1
+ 1.6
+ .3
+ 1.1
+ .2
+17.1
+ 7.0
- 4.9
— 2.5
+ 1.7
+ .4
+ 4.7
— .3
— .9
+ 3.8
+ 2.0

The industry.......................................

+14.7

+14.3

+ 7.5

+ 6.3

+

.3

PER CENT OF INCREASE OR DECREASE IN FULL-TIME W EEKLY EARNINGS, 1913,
COMPARED W ITH EACH OF THE 3 YE A R S PRECEDING, 1912 COMPARED W ITH 1911,
AND 1911 COMPARED W ITH 1910.
Boaders, male................................................
Buttonhole makers, underwear, female___
Button sewers, underwear, female..............
Cutters, hand, underwear, male..................
Cutters, hand, underwear, female................
Finishers, underwear, female.......................
Inspectors and folders, female......................
Knitters, footers or toppers, hosiery, male. .
Knitters,footers or toppers, hosiery, female.
Knitters, “ lady hose,” male........................
Knitters, “ lady hose,” female......................
Knitters, rib, hosiery, male..........................
Knitters, rib. hosiery, female.......................
Knitters, web or tube, underwear, m ale...
Knitters, web or tube, underwear, female..
Loopers, female.............................................
Menders, fine, hosiery, female......................
Menders, rough, hosiery, female..................
Pressers, male................................................
Press hands, female.......................................
Seamers, underwear, female.........................
Welters, female..............................................
Winders, female............................................

+ 12.2
+15.1
+ 7.9
+ 5.8
+13.5
+13.0
+ 8.7
+ 5.9
+ 9.1
+ 9.1
- .9
+ 8.1
+ 22.0
+20.3
-1 5 .0
+ 5.6
+ .6
+ 8.1
+19.5
+20.9
+14.7
+14.3
+11.4

+14.3
+ 12.1
+ 9.1
+ 3.2
+ 12.2
+13.4
+ 8.3
+ 3.4
+ 7.3
+ 8.9
- 1.9
+ 8.1
+ 3.7
+12.5
- 12.8
+ 8.3
- 1.3
+ 7.6
+ 14.2
+21.4
+14.9
+10.3
+ 9.4

+ 1.9
+ 12.0
+ 10.1
+ 11.1
+ 5.3
+ 11.6
+ 7.2
- 3.2
+ 7.2
+ 3.3
-1 3 .2
+ 3.7
+ 9.8
+ 6.2
+ 7.4
+ 1.9
- 1.0
+ 1.6
+10.7
+ 20.2
+ 9.8
+ .2
+ 4.3

+ 12.1
+ .1
- 1.0
- 7.1
+ 6.6
+ 1.6
+ 1.1
+ 6.8
+ .1
+ 5.4
+13.1
+ 4.2
- 5.5
+ 6.0
-1 8 .8
+ 6.3
- .3
+ 5.9
+ 3.1
+ 1.0
+ 4.7
+ 10.0
+ 4.9

The industry.......................................

+10.4

+ 9.8

+ 5.5

+ 4* 1 |

- 1.8
+ 2.6
- 1.1
+ 2.5
+ 1.1
- .3
+ .3
+ 2.4
+ 1.6
+ .1
+ 1.0
C
1)
+17.6
+ 7.0
- 2.5
- 2.5
+ 1.9
+ .4
+ 4.7
- .4
- .2
+ 3.7
+ 1.8
+

.6

i No change.

EXPLANATION OF SCOPE AND METHOD,

This report on hosiery and underwear manufacturing includes estab­
lishments engaged primarily in the manufacture of hosiery or under­
wear. No data are included from establishments whose main prod­
ucts are mittens, gloves, caps, mufflers, athletic goods, shawls, special­




84

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

ties, etc. All information in this report was secured, from pay
rolls of the various establishments by the agents of the Bureau.
The number of establishments from which data were secured has
varied considerably during the period included in this report, as
follows:
1907 to 1910....................................................
1910 and 1911.................................................
1911 and 1912.................................................
1912 and 1913.................................................

15 identical
62 identical
62 identical
69 identical

establishments.
establishments.
establishments.
establishments.

The data for 1907 to 1911 were secured in 1911 and the number
of establishments included in the full period from 1907 to 1910,
inclusive, was limited owing to the difficulty of finding establish­
ments that had preserved records for those years and also to the
large amount of work involved. Data were not secured from a greater
number of establishments in the more recent years because of the
limited funds available for the purpose. The establishments vary
from year to year, as establishments go out of business or cease
to be representative and new establishments must be substituted
in the wage study. Occasionally occupations are dispensed with
in a factory or new occupations are introduced, and sometimes data
are not available for all occupations in a factory.
Data for a group of establishments in any year will not be precisely
the same as for a different group in the same year, even though
nearly all of the establishments may be common to both groups.
In using the actual figures in this report comparison from year to
year should be made only between data coming from identical estab­
lishments. In the tables the data from identical establishments are
bracketed together. Data from an establishment are not included in
the report unless the information for at least two years is available.
In selecting establishments from which to secure data the Bureau
undertook to represent all States in which hosiery and underwear
manufacturing is of material importance, the measure of importance
being the number of employees as reported by the United States
Census of Manufactures. The table which follows shows, by States,
the number of employees in this industry as reported by the United
States Census Office, 1910; the total number on the pay roll in the
establishments from which the Bureau secured data for 1913; and the
number in the selected occupations for whom data for 1913 are shown.




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1907 TO 1913-----K N IT GOODS.

85

TOTAL NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES IN HOSIERY AND U N D E R W E A R MANUFACTUR­
ING AND NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES IN ESTABLISHMENTS FOR WHICH DATA ARE
SHOWN FOR 1913.

State.

Establishments for which data are
shown by the Bureau of Labor
Statistics for 1913.
Number of
employees
reported
by United
Number of employees—
States Cen­ Number
sus Office, of estab­
1910.
For whom
lishments.
data are
!
shown.

°?o
r

Pennsylvania.....................................................................
New Y ork...........................................................................
Massachusetts.....................................................................
North Carolina...................................................................
..................................................... .....................
W isconsin
Connecticut........................................................................
Ohio....................................................................................

38,133
35,613
9,935
5,151
4,263
3,338
3,142

14
18
3
4
4
3
5

7,796
7,963
5,426
1,336
1,516
1,154
793

4,131
3,501
2,759
813
902
554
504

Tennessee............................................................................
New Hampshire................................................................
Illinois.................................................................................
Georgia................................................................................
Michigan.............................................................................
Indiana...............................................................................
Other States 1.....................................................................

3,117
3,067
2,885
2,743
2,537
1,933
12,851

2
3
3
3
3
2
2

985
1,068
630
940
767
1,769
480

672
534
320
631
521
456
199

Total.........................................................................

128,708

69

32,623

16,497

i Includes States having less than 2,500 employees (except as entered in detail) in 1910.

According to the census of 1910, more than 90 per cent of the total
number of employees in the industry are found in the States in which
the establishments furnishing information to the Bureau of Labor
Statistics are located. The number of employees in the establish­
ments from which the Bureau secured 1913 data was equal to 25.3
per cent of the total in the industry in 1910, and the number for
which the Bureau presents detailed information for 1913 was equal
to 12.8 per cent of the total in the industry in 1910. The pay-roll
period taken each year was that ending nearest May 15, except in a
very few establishments where abnormal conditions made it desirable
to take a pay roll for some other time of the year.
The full-time hours of labor per week shown in the tables of the
report are the regular hours of work of the occupations under normal
conditions in the establishments. The working time is the hours on
duty, including intervals of waiting for work. The full-time hours
per week and the relatives based thereon do not in any way indicate
the extent of unemployment. Employees may work overtime,
broken time, or be laid off, or a temporary reduction may be made in
working hours without such change affecting the full-time hours per
week as presented in this Bulletin.
The rates of wages per hour appearing in the tables include the
wages of time workers and the earnings of pieceworkers. All time
rates by the day or week have been reduced to rates per hour, and the
earnings of pieceworkers or of persons working at both time and piece




86

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

rates have been reduced to rates per hour, by dividing the earnings by
the hours worked. The time workers and pieceworkers of each
occupation are combined as one group.
A majority of the employees in this industry are paid at piece rates.
In a considerable number of establishments visited in preceding years
the records of the hours worked by individual pieceworkers were so
inadequate that it was not deemed advisable to attempt to tabulate
classified rates of wages or earnings per hour.
In 1913, however, where there was no record regularly kept in the
factory of the actual time worked by pieceworkers, the firms at the
request of the Bureau kept a special record for the pay period taken,
making it possible to present the classified rates shown in Table IV.
The importance of such a record for factory purposes is causing more
firms each year to keep a record of time worked by all employees.
A change in the earnings per hour of pieceworkers does not of neces­
sity indicate a change in piece rates. Without a change in piece
rates, a change in methods or of machinery, a speeding up, or more
steady work resulting from greater volume of business may increase
the hourly earnings; or, on the other hand, changes in methods, a
slowing down in speed, or a lull in business may reduce the hourly
earnings. Varying intervals of waiting for work while on duty may
also affect hourly earnings.
The full-time weekly earnings tabulated are the earnings per
week of employees working full time, or the earnings on broken time
reduced to equivalent earnings for a full week. In considering
changes in full-time earnings per week, notice should also be taken
of changes in full-time hours of labor per week. A reduction in the
hours of a pieceworker may reduce his earnings in a week and leave
his earnings per hour unchanged, while a reduction of hours for a
week worker will, if his weekly rate remains the same, increase his
rate per hour.
The averages of full-time hours per week, rates of wages per hour,
and full-time weekly earnings are computed by adding the data for
each individual employee and dividing the total by the number of
employees.
It will be observed that the average full-time weekly earinngs gen­
erally are not exactly the same as the result that would be obtained
by multiplying the average rate per hour by the average hours per
week, owing to the change in the relative weight of the items. This
point is illustrated on pages 17 and 18.
The change of the basis of comparison in computing the relative
numbers from the average of 1890-1899 to 1913 is referred to on page
81. A more extended explanation is also given on pages 11 and 18.
The relative rates of wages per hour and the relative full-time hours
per week from 1890 to 1912 on the basis of 1890-1899 equals 100,




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1907 TO 1913---- KNIT GOODS.

87

published in Bulletin No. 134, are reproduced in this Bulletin on
pages 127 to 131.
The method used in computing the relative or index numbers for
the several occupations is explained and illustrated on page 20.
A word of caution is given as to the use of relative numbers. The
per cent of increase or decrease from one year to another is not the
difference between the relative numbers for the years. Thus, as
shown in the table on page 80, the full-time weekly earnings in this
industry increased from 90.6 in 1910 to 100 in 1913, an increase of
9.4 in the relative for 1913 over the relative for 1910, which number
(9.4) is 10.4 per cent of 90.6, thus making the increase in full-time
earnings per week of 10.4 per cent in 1913 over 1910.
The base for the computation of the relative numbers of the several
occupations, as stated above, has been changed from the average of
1890-1899 to 1913. The same change of base has been made in
computing the relative numbers for the industry as a whole. In
addition to the change of base in computing the relative numbers for
the industry, a change has been made in the method of computation.
The relative numbers for the industry here presented, covering 1910
to 1913, are computed directly from the average hours of labor, rates
of wages per hour, and weekly earnings of all employees in all occu­
pations combined. In other words, the relatives for the industry as
a whole have been computed for this report in the same manner
as the relatives for each occupation. This change of method is
explained and illustrated on pages 20 to 24.
Four general tables are presented for the hosiery and underwear
industry, as follows:
Table I.—Average rates of wages per hour, average full-time weekly
earnings, and average and classified full-time hours of work per week
in the United States, by years, 1907 to 1913.
Table II.—Average rates of wages per hour, average full-time
weekly earnings, and average and classified full-time hours of work
per week in each year, by States, 1912 and 1913.
Table III.—Average rates of wages per hour, average full-time
weekly earnings, and average and classified full-time hours of work
per week in each State, by years, 1912 and 1913.
Table IV.—Average full-time hours of work per week, and average
and classified rates of wages per hour by States, 1913.
In Table I, in addition to actual data, percentages computed there­
from are given.
When available data for a State are sufficient to warrant presenta­
tion such data are presented by States in Tables II, III, and IV.
Table III repeats the data for the several States given in Table II,
rearranged for the convenience of the reader.




88

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PRINCIPAL PRODUCTIVE OCCUPATIONS.

The data presented in this Bulletin were obtained from establish­
ments whose sole or main products are hosiery or underwear or both.
Figures are shown for 18 occupations: Seven are common to the
making of both hosiery and underwear; 5 pertain to hosiery mak­
ing only, and 6 to underwear making only. While some of the mills
do their own spinning and nearly all do dyeing, figures are not shown
for such departments. The wages of spinning*and dyeing are fairly
covered in an earlier Bulletin on the cotton and woolen industries.
The principal departments or subdivisions in order of work in a
hosiery mill are usually winding, knitting, looping, mending, board­
ing, pressing, and folding. In an underwear mill the principal de­
partments in order are usually winding, knitting, cutting, seaming,
finishing, boarding, pressing, and folding.
The occupations for which data are presented in this report are:
Boarders, male.
Buttonhole
makers,
underwear,
female.
Button sewers, underwear, female.
Cutters, hand, underwear, male.
Cutters, hand, underwear, female.
Finishers, underwear, female.
Inspectors and folders, female.
Knitters, footers or toppers, hosiery,
male.
Knitters, footers or toppers, hosiery,
female.
Knitters, “ lady hose, ” male.
Knitters, “ lady hose, ” female.

Knitters, rib, hosiery, male.
Knitters, rib, hosiery, female.
Knitters, web or tube, underwear,
male.
Knitters, web or tube, underwear,
female.
Loopers, female.
Menders, fine, hosiery, female.
Menders, rough, hosiery, female.
Pressers, male.
Press hands, female.
Seamers, underwear, female.
Welters, female.
Winders, female.

Hosiery and underwear manufacturing is to a very great extent a
woman’s industry. Many occupations are filled entirely or mainly
by females.
Of the 18 occupations reported 11 are so largely filled by women
that wages are presented for females only. In 5 of the occupations
the number of each sex warrants the presentation for each sex sepa­
rately. Two of the occupations, boarders and pressers, require such
heavy labor that men are employed almost exclusively.
BOARDERS.

While this occupation occurs in the manufacture of both hosiery
and underwear, it belongs mainly to hosiery. Practically all hosiery
is boarded, while comparatively little underwear is boarded. The
hosiery boarder receives the hose damp from the dyehouse. He draws
the hose by hand, while yet damp, over a board shaped to the outline
of the human foot and leg. When he has drawn the hose smooth over
the board, he sets several boards in a rack and puts the rack in a hot



WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1907 TO 1913— K N IT GOODS.

89

drying kiln. When the hose are dry he takes the rack from the kiln
and removes the hose from the boards. The hose keep the shape
given by the board. While racks of hose are drying others are being
filled. Underwear boarding is similar to hosiery boarding. The
board is shaped to the outline of the human body. Boarding is hard,
hot work, and is always done by men.
BUTTONHOLE MAKERS, UNDERWEAR.

The operator uses a special power sewing machine which works and
also cuts the buttonhole. The operator usually marks the place
for the buttonhole, but the marking may be done by another person.
Women are usually employed on this work.
BUTTON SEWERS, UNDERWEAR.

The operator uses a special power machine. The button is placed
in position in the machine by hand, and the operation of the machine
sews the button on the garment. Usually the operator marks the
place for the button. The work is usually done by women.
CUTTERS, HAND, UNDERWEAR.

The material comes to the cutter in the form of a long flat tube
or double thick web, or, in other words, a cylinder flattened down,
rolled in a bundle. A portion of the web is spread on a long table.
The cutter examines the material for defects, and then cuts off a
section of this web to garment lengths, lays a pattern on the section,
marks the pattern on the goods, and cuts out the garment with a
pair of shears.
Or the process may be varied. Several sections of garment lengths
may be put in a pile and all cut at one time with a large hand-operated
knife worked up and down vertically through a slot in the table.
Both men and women are employed on this work. In some mills
machines are used to cut several thicknesses at one time, but the
wage data shown in this report do not include the operators of such
machines.
FINISHERS, UNDERWEAR.

After the garment has been sewed together by the seamer and the
seam has been covered by the cover seamer, the garment is ready
for the finisher. The finisher uses a power sewing machine. This
work consists in stitching straps, suspender tapes, and bands on
drawers, stitching facings on shirts, and also various reseaming
operations to strengthen or ornament the garment. Women are
employed on this work.




90

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

INSPECTORS AND FOLDERS.

The occupations of inspecting and folding are here combined, for
the reason that in a considerable number of mills employees are
engaged on both interchangeably. Inspecting in this case consists
in looking the garment over for defects in work or for holes in mate­
rial. In many cases the inspectors also mend the imperfections found,
and they also cut off threads or little pieces of material, such as tapes,
bands, etc. The finished article is then folded to the size desired for
packing in a box. Inspecting and folding are done by women.
KNITTERS, FOOTERS OR TOPPERS, HOSIERY.

This knitter is sometimes called a footer, a topper, or a transfer
knitter. The operator starts his work with a section of ribbing pre­
viously knit on a rib machine. This section may be but 3 or 4 inches
long, as placed at the top of men’s or children’s hose, or it may be a
leg length of children’s hose. The knitter first sets up the section of
ribbing stitch by stitch, by hand, on the quills of a cylinder fitted to
his machine, and transfers the stitching from the quills to the needles
of his machine. The machine is then started. Automatically it
knits onto the ribbing the remainder of the leg and the foot of the
hose. The setting of the rib top on the quills preparatory to knitting
is done in some instances by a boy or girl helper. A knitter can
operate from six to nine machines when the quilling is done by a
helper; doing both the transferring and the knitting, the knitter can
operate from one to three machines. The machine knits the hose
complete and seamless, except an opening across the toe, which must
be looped together by another operation. Women greatly outnumber
men in this occupation. This occupation is not found in the making
of women’s hose.
All knitters in this and other operations receive their yarn on cones.
Their duties are to prepare the machines for work and see that they
run properly and produce a perfect fabric, to tie broken yarn, and to
replace empty cones, etc.
KNITTERS, “ LADY HOSE.”

This is a term quite generally applied to persons operating machines
knitting women’s seamless hosiery. The operation is also known
as string work. The operator can attend from 10 to 16 machines,
which knit the hose from the top to the toe, one hose after another,
automatically. The machine drops and picks up stitches to knit the
heel, and, after knitting the foot, again drops and picks up stitches to
form the toe. The machine knits the hose complete and seamless,
except an opening across the toe, which must be looped together by




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1907 TO 1913---- KNIT GOODS.

91

another operation. Men and women are found in this occupation
in about equal numbers.
KNITTERS, RIB, HOSIERY.

This knitter operates a machine which knits the rib that is used later
as the top of men’s and children’s hose. One person can attend 20 or
more machines. The rib is knit as a long cylinder or tube. Stitches
are dropped at intervals to indicate where the rib is to be cut later
in lengths for hose tops. Both men and women are employed on these
machines. These tops when cut go to a knitter, known as a footer
or topper.
KNITTERS, WEB OR TUBE, UNDERWEAR.

The knitting machines are cylindrical in shape and vary in size
according to the size of garment to be made from the knit fabric.
They knit a tube or cylinder which, when laid flat, forms a continuous
piece of goods of double thickness and as wide as the garment to be
cut therefrom. The knitter attends from 10 to 15 machines. These
machines are either of the latch or spring needle type. The spring
needle is one used for light or what is known as flat work; the latch
needle is used for the heavier or rib work, which is more elastic and
will stretch more than the flat fabric. In all mills it was not possible
to separate the latch and spring needle knitters. Usually they do
not work interchangeably, but in several mills where they have a few
of each class of machines an operator can run either machine. Both
men and women are employed at these machines.
LOOPERS.

In hosiery mills this operation consists of looping together the open
edges at the toe of the hose as left to this extent unfinished by the
knitter. Each edge is set up, stitch by stitch, by hand, on the points
of a looping machine, stitches exactly opposite in the opening being
placed on the same point. The open edges are then fastened together
by the machine. This work requires care and nimble fingers and it
takes some time to learn to become an expert operator. Each
machine requires an operator. This operation is necessary whether
the hose was knit by a footer or topper or a “ lady hose” knitter.
Females are usually employed on this work.
In an underwear factory this operation consists of looping cuffs to
the sleeves of shirts and the ankles of drawers, and in a few cases
attaching sleeves to shirts. Mills generally, however, sew on these
parts rather than loop them.




92

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

MENDERS, FINE HOSIERY.

This work is performed after the hose has been dyed, boarded, and
pressed. It consists of examining the hose and correcting by hand
with needle and yarn the little faults disclosed by such inspection.
The work is done by women. Pairing is sometimes done in connec­
tion with this work.
MENDERS, ROUGH, HOSIERY.

This work, sometimes termed first mending or white mending, is
usually performed next after the hose has been looped. The hose is
first stretched over a board shaped like a leg and foot. The mender
examines the hose and corrects the defects found, by hand, using a
needle and yarn.
PRESSERS.

Both hosiery and underwear are pressed to give them a smooth
finished appearance. Generally the presser receives the hosiery or
underwear after they have been piled for pressing by a press hand.
The presser places the pile of garments in the press, removes it when
sufficiently pressed and returns it to the press hand. This is heavy
work and is nearly always done by men. In some mills the presser
also does the work of the press hand, which is described below. The
presses are of various kinds, running from the old-style hand lever or
screw press to the modern power, steam, or hydraulic press.
PRESS HANDS.

Press hands, usually women, lay up the hose or underwear pre­
paratory to pressing and strip out the garments after they have been
pressed.
In laying up hose several hose are spread on a large pasteboard,
and a pile built up of alternate layers of pasteboard and hose.
In laying up underwear the garment is put on a pasteboard,
another board is laid on and the protruding arms of the shirt or legs
of the drawers are folded over, and a pile made of alternate layers
of pasteboards and garments. The piles are laid up as high as can
be handled by the presser, who receives the pile from the press hands
and puts it on the press.
After being pressed a sufficient time the piles of hosiery or under­
wear are returned to the press hands, who remove the garments from
between the pasteboards.
SEAMERS, UNDERWEAR.

This term is here used to include cover seamers also, as in many
mills the operators work interchangeably. The operators, usually
women, use power sewing machines. The seamer receives the parts



WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1907 TO 1913— K N IT GOODS.

93

of the garment from the cutter and stitches them together. The
cover seamer then takes the garment and with a double-needle ma­
chine runs over the same seams. This operation covers and strength­
ens the seam. Other terms applied to this work are felling, cannon­
ing, double needling, etc.
WELTERS.

This is a sewing machine operation also known as hemming. A
power machine is used. The tops of stockings and bottoms of under­
shirts are turned back and stitched. This prevents raveling and gives
strength to the top of the stocking and a finish to the shirt. Women
usually do this work.
WINDERS.

Winders operate machines that wind yam onto cones for the
knitting machines. The cones hold from 2 to 3| pounds of yarn.
The winding machine brushes out knots and the tension reveals weak
spots in the yarn by breaking it. From 10 to 24 cones are attended
by one person, who sees that the machines work properly, puts on
and removes bobbins and cones, and ties breaks in the yarn. Wind­
ing is usually done by women.




94

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I . —AVERAGE RATES OP WAGES PER HOUR, AVERAGE FU LL­
TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, AND AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL­
TIME HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS,
1907 TO 1913.

T a b le

[The figures set opposite each bracketed group of years are for identical establishments.]
NUMBER.

Occupation, sex, and num­
ber of establishments.

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Aver­ Aver­ Aver­
age
Num­ age
age
ber full­ rate full­
Over 51
Over 57
time
Over
of
Year.
time
of
54 and
G
O
em­ hours wages week­ Un­ 48 and
ploy­ per
ly
per earn­ der and un­ 54 and un­ 60 and
un­ der
un­ der
un­
ees. week. hour.
ings. 48 der 54
der 60
der
63
51
57

Boarders, male:
8 establishments..........

1907
1908
1909
1910

33 establishments.........

1910
1911

32 establishments.........

1911
1912

41 establishments.........
Buttonhole makers, under­
wear, female:
21 establishments.........

203
210
220
237

58.4 $0.2180
58.1 .2111
58.2 .2037
57.1 .2186

168
196
206

35
14
14
14

397
428

C
1)
C
1)
0)
C
1)

239
239

138
152

127

57.0
57.0

.1926 $10.97
.1893 10.77

56.9
55.6

.1891 10.74
.2173 12.04

38
307

435
454

266

959

123
126

1912
1913

1,153
1,172

55.8
55.8

.2145 11.92
.2189 12.15

310
319

531
539

156
168

149
138

1910
1911

178
167

57.8
58.0

.1624
.1663

9.41
9.66

27 establishments.........

1911
1912

191
194

58.0
57.1

.1640
.1672

9.53
9.54

28 establishments.........
Button sewers, underwear,
female:
21 establishments.........

1912
1913

196
205

57.0
54.7

.1675 9.55
.1951 10.

1910
1911

159
151

58.1
58.3

.1490
.1471

8.57,.

27 establishments.........

1911
1912

171
182

58.2
57.2

.1457
.1471

1.50'.
i. 42 .

28 establishments.........
Cutters, hand, underwear,
male:
12 establishments.........

1912
1913

183

57.2
54.4

.1471
.1702

1910
1911

130
123

59.3
58.9

12.82
.2236 13.15

18 establishments.........

1911
1912

138
162

58.
58.6

.2265 13.26
.2101 12.32

1912
1913

148
158

58.5
55.0

.2145 12.56
.2535 13.95

4 establishments...........

1907
1908
1909
1910

90

58.6
57.9
58.0
56.5

.1441
.1570
.1448
.1436

10 establishments.........

1910
1911

182
154

56.5
56.5

.1374
.1391

7.79
7.

14 establishments.........

1911
1912

161
192

56.4
54.7

.1387
.1527

7.85
8.37

118

129
45

12 establishments........

1912
1913

193
202

54.7
54.2

.1521
.1620

8.33
8.77

121
165

45
37

18 establishments.........
Cutters, hand, underwear,
female:




10

47
150
58
57
39
171

11

26

19
27
14
57
106

.. 7
7
83

1Not computed.

11

144
122
14

14

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1907 TO 1913— K N IT GOODS.

95

T a b l e I . — AVERAGE

RATES OP WAGES PER HOUR, AVERAGE PULLTIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, AND AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULLTIME HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK IN THE UNITED STATES, B Y YEARS,
1907 TO 1913—Continued.
N U M B E R —Continued.

Occupation, sex, and num­
ber of establishments.

Finishers, underwear, fe­
male:

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Aver­
Num­ Aver­ Aver­ age
age
age
ber full­ rate full­
Over
Over
of
time
Over
Year. em­ time
of
57
60
54
48 51
hours wages week­ Un­ and and
and and 60 and
ploy- per
ly
per earn­ der un­ un­ 54 un­ un­
un­
hour. ings. 48 der der
der
der der
54
63
51
57

5 establishments...........

1907
1908
1909
1910

555
516
533
519

23 establishments.........

1910
1911

1,443
1

57.
57.8

.1500 $8.71
.1497

27 establishments.........

1911
1912

1,533
1,715

57.9
56.9

.1479
.1533

8.73

1912
1913

1,
1,934

57.0
54.6

.1540
.1800

8.79
9.81

1910
1911

1,241
1,—

57.7
57.8

.1256
.1258

7.25
7.27

52 establishments.........

1911
1912

1,311
1,354

57.6
56.6

.1261
.1297

7.26
7.34

56 establishments.........
Knitters, footers or toppers,
hosiery, male:
4 establishments...........

1912
1913

1,411
l,r „

56.7
55.1

.1299
.1435

7.37
7.90

1910
1911

152
133

58.2
58.0

.1359
.1400

7.
8.07

12 establishments.........

1911
1912

172
209

57.8
57.5

.1465
.1576

8.43
9.01

14 establishments.........
Knitters, footers or toppers,
hosiery, female:

1912
1913

257
314

57.7
58.0

.1558
.1503

78
113

1907
1908
1909
1910

154
175
145
116

58.1
58.1
58.1
56.1

.1234
.1337
.1332
.1328

145
166
136

32 establishments.........

1910
1911

1,851
1,740

57.5
57.5

.1213
.1232

6.96
7.07

577
510

697
653

463
465

33 establishments.........

1911
1912

2,174
2,208

57.2
56.1

.1348
.1376

7.71
7.72

294 1,114

532

400
231

1912
1913

2,
2,905

56.1
56.0

.1490

7.77
8.33

1910
1911

235

57.6
57.4

.1746 10.01
.1753 10.04

13 establishments.........

1911
1912

215
278

57.4
56.0

.1757 10.09
10.64

16 establishments........

1912
1913

324 55.7
307 56.0

29 establishments.........
Inspectors and folders, fe­
male:
47 establishments.........

3 establishments...........

37 establishments.........
Knitters, "lady hose,”
male:
12 establishments.........




58.7 $0.1579
58.6 .1508
58.7 .1480
57.8 .1541

349
350
342

206
166
191
204

599
615

252

509
511

49
33

627
301

295
313

550

33

473
1,476

301
255

313
197

671

19
31

530
522

238
235

396
400

58
38

31
347

534
304

265
174

439
471

38

320
242

213
130

481
126

0)

8

315

0)
23

22
19

85
54
38

112

37

.1880 10.45
.1934 10.80..........................

1 Not computed.

294 1,585
1,439

140
127

90

9
9
4

279
261
128
122

67
110

100
125

115
55

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

96

I . — AVERAGE RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AVERAGE FULL­
TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, AND AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL­
TIME HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS,
1907 TO 1913—Continued.

T a b le

N U M BE R —Continued.
Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Aver­
Num­ Aver- Aver­ age
age
age
ber full­ rate full­
Over 51
Over
of
Occupation, sex, and num­ Year.
time
of week­
em- time
ber of establishments.
48
54 57
ploy- hours wages ly Un­ and and 54 and and
per
per
der
earn­ 48 un­ un­
un­ un­
week. hour. ings.
der der
der der
54
60
51
57
Knitters, “ lady hose,” fe­
male:
12 establishments.........

1910
1911

277

56.2 $0.1540 $8.62
56.2 .1557 8.70

11 establishments.........

1911
1912

252

55.
54.9

.1615
.1852 10.17

12 establishments.........
Knitters, rib, hosiery, male:
17 establishments.........

1912
1913

328

55.2
55.3

.1886 10.43
.1638 9.05

56.6
56.5

.1992 11.23
.1996 11.23

21 establishments.........

1911
1912

92

57.3
56.4

.1892 10.81
.2004 11.26

21 establishments.........
Knitters, rib, hosiery, fe­
male:
14 establishments.........

1912
1913

102
110

56.8
56.4

.1944 10.99
.2025 11.40

1910
1911

57.4
57.6

.1299
.1520

7.45
8.76

13 establishments.........

1911
1912

57.1
55.1

.1473
.1440

8.43
7.97

16 establishments.........
Knitters, web or tube, un­
derwear, male:

1912
1913

55.9
56.0

.1414
.1556

1910
1911

111
104
60

104
183
217
152

10

4 establishments..........

1907
1908
1909
1910

101
107
110
100

58.5
58.3
58.5
57.0

.2194
.2087
.2131
.2135

14 establishments.........

1910
1911

212
209

58.0
58.1

.2012 11.
.2153 12.51

106
99

22 establishments.........

1911
1912

253
261

57.9
57.0

.2111 12.24

105
58

1912
1913

246
219

56.9
54.6

.2309 13.15
.2557 13.96

1907
1908
1909
1910

101
113
109
96

58.3
58.4
58.5
56.9

.1433
.1448
.1316
.147:

0)
0)
0)
C)
1

16 establishments.........

1910
1911

245
205

57.4
57.0

.1721
.1636

9.59
9.36

145
130

19 establishments.........

1911
1912

216
181

56.9
55.4

.1618
.1352

9.23
7.49

138
35

14 establishments........

1912
1913

176
166

55.3
54.9

.1344
.1456

7.43
7.

20 establishments.........
Knitters, web or tube, un­
derwear, female:
3 establishments..........




74

.2273 12.97!

1 computed.
Not

74
142

75

77
106

84

97

WAGES AND HOURS OP LABOR, 1907 TO 1913— K N IT GOODS.

I . — AVERAGE RATES OP WAGES PER HOUR, AVERAGE FULL­
TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, AND AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL­
TIME HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK IN THE UNITED STATES, B Y YEARS,
1907 TO 1913—Continued.

T able

N U M BE R —Continued.

Num­ Aver­
age
ber fall­
of
Occupation, sex, and num­ Year.
time
em­ hours
ber of establishments.
ploy­ per
ees. week.

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Aver­
age
full­
Over
Over 57
Over
time
51
54
week­ Un­ 48 and
60
and un­ 54 and and 60 and
ly
un­ un­
earn­ der un­ der
un­
der
48 der
ings.
der 60
der
54
57

Loopers, female:
9 establishments.........

1907
1908

610

57

58.4 $0.1403
58.2 .1279
58.2 .1385
57.5 .1389

582

1910
1911

2,013
1,904

57.3
57.3

.1326 $7.59
.1293 7.40

44 establishments....... .

1911
1912

V
2,262

57.1
56.1

.1343
.1459

7.
8.17

1912
1913

2,524
2,542

56.1
56.0

.1464
.1500

8.21

1907
1908
1909
1910

112

8 establishments......... .

58.5
57.9
57.8
57.5

30 establishments....... .

1910
1911

385

57.2
57.2

.1320
1342

27 establishments....... .

1911
1912

359
297

57.2
55.6

.1344
.1382

28 establishments....... .
Menders, rough, hosiery,
female:

1912
1913

326
276

55.4
55.

.1424
.1406

5 establishments.........

1907
1908
1909
1910

147
134
123

122

58.4
58.3
58.4
57.5

29 establishments....... .

704
648

57.0
57.0

.1219
.1225

30 establishments....... .

1911
1912

728
681

56.9
56.4

.1318
.1409

35 establishments....... .
Pressers, male:

1912
1913

782
813

56.5
56.4

.1408
.1434

7 establishments..........

1907
1908
1909
1910

32
35
40
33

59.2
59.1
58.9

34 establishments....... .

155
151

58.0
58.0

.1774
.1856

33 establishments.......

1911
1912

151
157

57.7
56.8

.1874
.1964

39 establishments.......

1912
1913

204

56.9
56.0

.1846 10.45
.2075 11.57

759
722

401
375

.1910
.1670
.1714
.1850

1910
1911

103

800
734

.1108
.1260
.1276
.1216

1910
1911

446
539
507
277

.1446
.1324
.1313
.1375

1

132
115

110

202

Not computed.

45968°— Bull. 1 5 4 -1 4 -




164

202

1910

43 establishments....... .

49 establishments....... .
Menders, fine, hosiery, fe­
male:

63

8.37

48

1,021

12
12
14

486 1,159
6191,094

924 317
4131 318
520
514!

335
289

80

130
113j
87

7.53

136
156

181
155

15
105

127
125

151

128
107

132
103

25
14

7.67

13

116

112
100
40

45;.

31 .
221.
23 j.
27j.

357
325

145
147

171
148

114

332
273

252
174

107
108

114

306

224
218

126
133

12

20

16
19
18

21

36

60

23

48

19
15

5

21

2 Sixty-three hours per week.

21

98

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I . —AVERAGE RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AVERAGE FULL­
TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, AND AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL­
TIME HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK IN THE UNITED STATES, B Y YEARS,
1907 TO 1913—Continued.

T able

N U M BE R —Concluded.
Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Aver­
Num­ Aver­ Aver­ age
age
age
ber full­ rate full­
Over 51
time
Over 57
of
Over
Occupation, sex, and num­ Year.
time
of
em­ hours wages week­ Un­ 48 and
ber of establishments.
54 and
60
ploy­ per
ly
per earn­ der and un­ 54 and un­ 60 and
ees. week. hour.
un­ der
un­ der
un­
ings. 48 der
der 60
der
54
51
57
63
Press hands, female:

( 1907
I 1908
1 1909
I 1910

100
107
115
94

58.0 $0.1188
58.0 .1182
58.0 .1055
56.0 .1281

13 «jstq.hlishmftT»ts_____ / 1910
\ 1911

207
208

57.7
57.5

.1186 $6.83
.1183 6.80

4
5

100
111

45
33

45
52

13
7

/
12 establishments......... \ 1911
1912

196
206

57.4
55.8

.1157
.1198

6.65
6.72

5
95

108
49

22
12

54
50

7

/ 1912
10 establishments......... \ 1913
Seamers, underwear, fe­
male:
1907
1908
5 establishments..........
1909
1910

207
196

55.8
54.2

.1197
.1480

6.70
8.05

91
158

57
22

12
13

47

390
426
439
433

58.6
58.5
58.6
57.2

.1443
.1564
.1576
.1436

0)
)i)
m

269
323
307

121
103
132
135

23 establishments......... / 1910
\ 1911

1,181
1,197

57.8
58.0

.1429
. 1417

8.26
8.24

/ 1911
\ 1912

1,280
1,265

58.1
57.6

.1411
.1501

8.22
8.61

29 establishments......... / 1912
\ 1913
Welters, female:
/ 1910
\ 1911

1,321
1,371

57.2
54.3

.1487
.1721

8.52
9.35

250
282

57.6
57.6

.1205
.1250

6.95
7.20

/
23 establishments......... \ 1911
1912

288
303

57.4
56.1

.1272
.1437

7.30
8.03

26 establishments......... / 1912
\ 1913
Winders, female:
1907
1908
6 establishments..........
1909
1910

302
334

56.1
56.0

.1445
.1454

8.08
8.10

266
276
262
276

58.8
58.7
58.6
57.5

.1403
.1625
.1515
.1492

C)
1
C)
1
(i)
(*)

/ 1910
38 establishments......... \ 1911

1,020
960

58.0
57.9

.1292
.1318

7.51
7.64

45 establishments......... / 1911
\ 1912

1,001
982

57.8
56.4

.1302
.1400

7.54
7.91

15

2
2

i 1912
53 establishments......... \ 1913

1,099
1,119

56.4
54.8

.1392
.1500

7.87
8.21

15
3

2
2




0)
C
1)
0)

i Not computed.

94

3

298

100
107
115

22
28

524
508

163
149

408
453

64
59

14

28
330

514
162

170
205

509
554

59

14

372
1,137

176
162

205
69

554
3

2
3

107
122

76
80

65
77

2

3
110

135
99

92
25

58
67

2

111
151

85
70

36
46

67
67

166
177
177

100
99
85
104

411
41
-1

243
217

246
254

119
77

12
265

408
311

250
115

252
274

77

269
690

386
280

122 305
106
38

1

172
1
1

99

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1907 TO 1913— KNIT GOODS.

I . — AVERAGE RATES OP WAGES PER HOUR, AVERAGE FULL­
TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, AND AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL­
TIME HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK IN THE UNITED STATES, B Y YEARS,
1907 TO 1913—Continued.

T able

P E R CENT.
Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
AverNum­ Aver­ Aver­
age
age
ber full­ rate
Over 51
Over 57
time
Occupation, sex, and num­ Year.
of
Over
time
of
54
60
em­ hours wages week­ Un­ 48 and
ber of establishments.
and
and and 60 and
ploy­ per
ly
per
ees. week. hour. earn­ der un­ un­ 54 un­ un­
un­
ings. 48 der der
der der
der
60
54
51
57
63
Boarders, male:
8 establishments..........

1907
1908
1909
1910

203
210
220
237

58.4 $0.2180
58.1 .2111
58.2 .2037
57.1 .2186

33 establishments.........

/ 1910
\ 1911

808
862

57.0
57.0

.1926 $10.97
.1893 10.77

32 establishments......... / 1911
\ 1912

869
959

56.9
55.6

.1891 10.74 .......
.2173 12.04

0.2

.8 4.4 50.1 30.6 14.2
.4 32.0 47.3 6.9 13.1

/ 1912
\ 1913

1,153
1,172

55.8
55.8

.2145 11.92 .......
.2189 12.15

.3
.3

.3 26.9 46.1 13.5 12.9
.4 27.2 46.0 14.3 11.8

/ 1910
\ 1911

178
167

57.8
58.0

.1624
.1663

9.41 ....... .......
9.66

3.4 43.3 16.3 31.5
3.0 38.9 16.2 36.5

5.6
5.4

/ 1911

191
194

58.0
57.1

.1640
.1672

9.53 .......
9.54
"*2.‘ i

2.6 37.7 15.7 39.3
23.2 22.7 12.4 39.7

4.7

/ 1912
28 establishments......... \ 1913
Button sewers, underwear,
female:
/ 1910
?1 establishments.........
I 1911

196
205

57.0
54.7

.1675 9.55 .......
.1951 10.69

159
151

58.1
58.3

.1490
.1471

8.66 ....... ....... .......
8.57

1.3 40.9 16.4 36.5
2.6 34.4 16.6 39.1

5.0
7.3

1911
27 establishments......... / 1912
\

171
182

58.2
57.2

.1457
.1471

8.50
....... 2.3 33.3 16.4 41.5
8.42 : : : : : *’ 2.7
20.9 20.9 14.3 41.2

6.4

/ 1912
28 establishments......... \ 1913
Cutters, hand, underwear,
male:
12 establishments......... / 1910
\ 1911

183
208

57.2
54.4

.1471
.1702

8.42 .......
9.27

130
123

59.3
58.9

.2168 12.82
.2236 13.15

24.6 11.5 43.1 20.8
30.1 11.4 47.2 11.4

18 establishments......... j 1911
\ 1912

138
162

58.6
58.6

.2265 13.26
.2101 12.32

34.8 13.8 41.3 10.1
3.1 21.0 10.5 65.4

18 establishments......... / 1912
\ 1913
Cutters, hand, underwear,
female:
f 1907
4 establishments........... I 1908
1 1909
I 1910

148
158

58.5
55.0

.2145 12.56
.2535 13.95

82
90
98
96

58.6
57.9
58.0
56.5

.1441
.1570
.1448
.1436

0)
0)
C
1)
(l)

72.0 28.0
7.8 83.3 8.9
7.1 80.6 12.2
86.5
13.5

1910
10 establishments......... /\ 1911

182
154

56.5
56.5

.1374
.1391

7.79
7.88j

79.1 10.4 10.4
79.2 9.1 11.7

14 establishments......... / 1911

\ 1912

161
192

56.4
54.7

.1387
.1527

7.85*
8.37.......

80.1
3.6 ....... 61.5 23.4

12 establishments........ / 1912
\ 1913

193
202

54.7
54.2

.1521
.1620

8.33!.......
8.77! .

3.6 ....... 62.7 23.3 .......
81.7 18.3

41 establishments.........
Buttonhole makers, under­
wear, female:
21 establishments.........

27 establishments......... \ 1912




82.8 17.2
93.3 6.7
93.6 6.4
53.6 40.5 5.9

C
1)
O)
C
1)
(!)

i Not computed.

.......

0.6
.6

3.6 49.1 29.6 17.1
4.4 49.7 27.7 17.6

2.0 ....... 24.0 22.4 12.2 39.3 .......
73.2 13.2 13.2
.5

2.7 ....... 21.3 20.8 14.2 41.0 .......
82.2 9.1 8.2
.5

3.4 23.0 11.5 62.2
.6
56.3 28.5 14.6

8.7 11.2
11.5 .......
10.4 .......

100

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T a b l e I . — AVERAGE

RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AVERAGE FULL­
TIME W EEKLY EARNINGS, AND AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL­
TIME HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS,
1907 TO 1918—Continued.
P E R CEN T—Continued.

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Aver­
Num­ Aver­ Aver­ age
age
age
ber full­
full­
rate time
Over
Over 51
of
Over
Occupation, sex, and num­ Year.
time
of week­
57
54
em­ hours
48
ber of establishments.
60
Un­ and and
and and 60 and
ploy­ per
ly
per earn­ der un­ un­ 54 un­ un­
ees.
un­
week. hour. ings.
der der
der der
der
54
60
51

Finishers, underwear, fe­
male:
5 establishments.........

1907
1908
1909
1910

555
516
533
519

23 establishments.......

1910
1911

1,443
1,439

27 establishments....... .

1911
1912

29 establishments.......
Inspectors and folders, fe­
male:
47 establishments....... .

1912
1913

57

63

58.7 $0.1579
58.6 .1508
58.7 .1480
.154]
57.

62.9 37.1
67.8 32.2
64.2 35.8
39.3
60.7

57.9
57.8

.1500
.1497

1.6 41.5 18.2 35.3
1. 42.7 17.5 35.5

1,533
1,715

57.9
56.9

.1479
.1533

1.8 40.9 19.2 35.9
27.3 17.6 18.3 34.0

1,8
1,9

57.0
54.6

.1540
.1800

26.2 16.6 17.3 37.1 . . .
.3
76.3 13.2 10.2

1910
1911

1,241
1,226

57.7
57.8

.1256
.1258

7.25
7.27

1911
1912

1,311
1,354

57.
56.6

.1261
.1297

7.26
7.34

1912
1913

1,411

56.7
55.1

.1299
.1435

7.37
7.90

1910
1911

152
133

58.2
58.0

.1359
.1400

7.
8.07

12 establishments...

1911
1912

172
209

57.8
57.5

.1465
.1576

8.43
9.01

44.8 23.8 31.4
18.2 19.6 23.0 39.2

14 establishments...
Knitters, footers or toppers,
hosiery, female:

1912
1913

257
314

57.7
58.0

.1558
.1503

8.96
8.67

14.8 16.0 30.4
8.0 16.2 36.0

;8.9

1907
1908
1909
1910

154
175
145
116

58.1
58.1
58.1
56.1

.1234
.1337
.1332
.1328

C
1)

94.2
94.9

5.8
5.1

0)

32 establishments.......

1910
1911

1,851
1,740

57.5
57.5

.1213
.1232

6.96
7.07

1.4
1.5

33 establishments.......

1911
1912

2,174
2,208

57.2
56.1

.1348
.1376

7.71
7.72

1.6 4.0 33.5 42.5 18.4
1.7 13.3 50.5 24.1 10.5

37 establishments.......
Knitters, “ lady hose,”
male:
12 establishments.......

1912
1913

2,

56.1
56.0

.1386
.1490

7.77
8.33

1910
1911

235

220

57.6
57.4

.1746 10.03
.1753 10.04

26.0 54.5 16.2
3.6 29.5 55.5 11.4

13 establishments.......

1911
1912

215
278

57.4
56.0

.1757 10.09
.1895 10.64

3.7 31.2 53.5 11.6
30.9 39.
19.8 9.7

16 establishments.......

1912
1913

324
307

55.7
56.0

.1880 10.45
.1934 10.80

43.2 27.8 19.4 9.
41.4 21.5 23.1 14.0

52 establishments.......
56 establishments.......
Knitters, footers or toppers,
hosiery, male:
4 establishments___

3 establishments.........




1,

2,905

1.5 42.7 19.2 31.9
2.5 42.6 19.2 32.6
1.4

1.6

1.3

1.6
.1

0.3 2.4 40.7 20.2 33.5
1.3 25.6 22.5 12.9 34.

1.2 24.0 22.7 15.1 34.1
63.9 17.3

96.6

.2

1.0

9.0
55.
51.1

44.1
48.9

8

1Not computed.

9.3

6.2
3.4

4.8 31.2 37.7 25.0
37.5 26.7
4.9

1.3 10.2 54.8 24.1
1.3 15.1 49.5 23.9

9.7
9.0

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1907 TO 1913— K N IT GOODS.

101

I . —AVERAGE RATES OP WAGES PER HOUR, AVERAGE FULL­
TIME W EEKLY EARNINGS, AND AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL­
TIME HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS,
1907 TO 1913—Continued.

T able

P E R CE N T—Continued.

Occupation, sex, and num­
ber of establishments.

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Aver­ Aver­ Aver­
age
Num­ age
age
ber full­ rate fuilOver 57
Over 51
time
Over
ol
Year. em­ time
oi
54
60
48
wages week­ Un­ and and
and and 60 and
ploy­ hours per
ly
per
ees. week. hour. earn­ der un­ un­ 54 un­ un­
un­
der
48 der der
der 60
ings.
der
54
51
57
63

Knitters, “ lady hose/’
female:
12 establishments.......

1910
1911

277
260

56.2 10.1540 $8.62
56.2 .1557 8.70

11 establishments.......

1911
1912

252
269

55.8
54.9

.1615 8.99
.1852 10.17 .......

1912
1913

328
282

55.2
55.3

.1886 10.43
.1638 9.05

1910
1911

55
47

56.6
56.5

.1992 11.23
.1996 11.23

7.3 56.4 16.4 20.0
10.6 53.2 19.1 17.0

1911
1912

92
86

57.3
56.4

.1892 10.81
.2004 11.26

5.4 25.0 58.7 10.9
12.8 38.4 40.7 8.1

1912
1913

102
110

56.8
56.4

.1944 10.99
.2025 11.40

9.8 32.4 45.1 12.7
18.2 31.8 49.1
.9

1910
1911

49
38

57.4
57.6

.1299
.1520

7.45
8.76 ....... .......

1911
1912

45
52

57.1
55.1

.1473
.1440

6.7
8.43
26.7 51.1 15.6
7.97 ....... ....... 25.0 **i.*9 57.7 7.7 7.7 .......

1912
1913

68
64

55.9
56.0

.1414
.1556

7.92
8.69 .......

4 establishments.........

1907
1908
1909
1910

101
107
no
100

58.5
58.3
58.5
57.0

.2194
.2087
.2131
.2135

I1)
I1)

14 establishments.......

1910
191

212
209

58.0
58.1

.2012 11.69
.2153 12.51

22 establishments.......

1911
1912

253
261

57.9
57.0

.2111 12.24
6.3 41.5 10.3 35.6 6.3
.2273 12.97 ....... ***.*4 ....... 28.4 22.2 9.2 39.8 .......

1912
1913

246
219

56.9
54.6

.2309 13.15
.2557 13.96

3 establishments.........

1907
1908
1909
1910

101
113
109
96

58.3
58.4
58.5
56.9

.1433
.1448
.1316
.1477

(i)
C
1)
0)
(1)

85.1 14.9
78.8 21.2
77.1 22.9
78.1
21.9

16 establishments.......

1910
1911

245
205

57.4
57.0

.1721
.1636

9.59
9.36

59.2 18.0 17.1
63.4 17.1 17.6

19 establishments.......

1911
1912

216
181

56.9
55.4

.1618
.1352

9.23
1.4 63.9 16.2 16.7 1.9
7.49 ....... ‘ *7*7 ....... 42.5 19.3 14.9 15.5 .......

14 establishments.......

1912
1913

176
166

55.3
54.9

.1344
.1456

7.43
7.98

12 establishments.......
Knitters, rib, hosiery,
male:
17 establishments.......
21 establishments.......

21 establishments.......
Knitters, rib, hosiery,
female:
14 establishments.......
13 establishments.......
16 establishments.......
Knitters, web or tube, un­
derwear, male:

20 establishments.......
Knitters, web or tube, un­
derwear, female:




17.0 40.1 34.7
18.8 40.0 31.5

"3*i

4.0 19.4 41.3 32.5
3.7 23.4 68.0 1.9

2.8
3.0 .......

3.0 18.9 66.2 9.5
2.8 24.1 53.9 19.1

.....

2.4

2.0
2.6

19.1
6.3

---

34.7 36.7 26.5
31.6 34.2 31.6

1.5 44.1 22.1 13.2
60.9 18.8 10.9 .......
73.3 26.7
83.2 16.8
76.4 23.6
74.0
26.0

C
1)
(i)

1Not computed.

8.3
9.6

50.0 10.8 32.5
47.4 10.5 34.4

30.1 23.6
64.8 27.4

8.0

6.6
7.7

9.8 36.6
7.8

43.8 19.9 14.2 14.2
63.9 20.5 13.3 2.4

5.7
2.0

102

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I . —AVERAGE RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AVERAGE FULL­
TIME W EEKLY EARNINGS, AND AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL­
TIME HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS,
1907 TO 1913—Continued.

T able

P E R CENT—Continued.

Occupation, sex, and num­ Year.
ber of establishments.

Loopers, female:

Num­
ber
of
em­
ploy­
ees.

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Aver­ Aver- Aver­
age
age
full­
full­ rate
Over
Over 57
time
51
time
of week­
54
Un­ 48 and
hours
and and
ly
per earn­ der and un­
per
un­ der
un­ un­
week. hour. ings. 48 der
der der
60
51 54
57

58.4 $0.1403
58.2 .1279
58.2 .1385
57.5 .1389

9 establishments..

1907
1908
1909
1910

610
637
603
582

43 establishments..

1910
1911

2,013
1,904

57.3
57.3

.1326 $7.59
.1293 7.40

44 establishments..

1911
1912

2,089
2,262

57.1
56.1

.1343
.1459

7.69
8.17

3.2 36. 44.2
21.5 45.1 18.3

1912
1913

2,524
2,542

56.1
56.0

.1464
.1500

8.21
8.37

19.3 45.9 20.
24.4 43.0 20.2

1907
1908
1909
1910

112
132
115
110

58.5
57.9
57.
57.5

.1446
.1324
.1313
.1375

i 1)

8 establishments..

30 establishments..

1910
1911

385
399

57.2
57.2

.1320
.1342

7.53
7.67

1.3
1.3

27 establishments.

1911
1912

297

57.2
55.6

.1344
.1382

7.
7.67

1.9 4.2 35.4 42.1
1.7 35.4 42.1 4.4

1912
1913

326
276

55.4
55.6

.1424
.1406

7.S
7.8

39.3 40.5
1.8 38.8 37.3

5 establishments.

1907
1908
1909
1910

147
134
123
122

58.4
58.3
58.4
57.5

.1108
.1260
.1276
.1216

0)
C
1)
(l)
0)

29 establishments..

1910
1911

704

57.0
57.0

.1219
. 1225

6.93
6.96

3.6 50.7 20.6
3.5 50.2 22.7

30 establishments..

1911
1912

728
681

56.
56.4

. 1318
.1409

7.49
7.

1.
3.2 45.6 34.6
1.8 16.7 40.1 25.6

1912
1913

782
813

56.5
56.4

.1408
.1434

7.94
8.07

1907
1908
1909
1910

32
35
40
33

59.3
59.2
59.1
58.9

.1910
.1670
.1714
.1850

0)

7 establishments..

34 establishments.

1910
1911

155
151

58.0
58.0

.1774 10.23
.1856 10.70

1.3 31.6 25.2
1.3 31.8 23.8

33 establishments.

1911
. 1912

151
157

57.7
56.8

.1874 10.75
.1964 11.09

1.3 40.4 19.2
6.4 47.
6.4

39 establishments.

1912
1913

204
202

56.9
56.0

.1846 10.45
.2075 11.57

5.4 47.5 10.8
30.7 39.1 12.4

49 establishments..
Menders, fine, hosiery, fe­
male:

28 establishments.
Menders, rough, hosiery,
female:

35 establishments.
Pressers, male:




73.1
84.6
84.1
34.7 47.6
0.2
.4

71.4
98.5
98.3
20.0 79.1

0)
0)
C
1)

St
0)

1Not computed.

2.4 39.7 37.7
3.5 38.6 37.9

3.6 35.3 47.0
3.8 39.1 38.8

7.7
5.1
78.9
83.6
81.3
32.8

1.0

1.5 14.6 39.1 28.6
1.6 16.4 37.9
37.5
45.7
47.5
54.5

WAGES AND HOURS OP LABOR, 1907 TO 1913---- KNIT GOODS.

103

T a b l e I . — AVERAGE

RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AVERAGE FULL­
TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, AND AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL­
TIME HOURS OF W ORK PER WEEK IN THE UNITED STATES, B Y YEARS,
1907 TO 1913—Concluded.
P E R C E N T —Concluded.

Num­ Aver- Aver­
age
ber
Occupation, sex, and num­ Year.
of time rate
of
em­
ber of establishments.
hours wages
ploy- per
per
week. hour.

Press hands, female:

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Aver­
age
full­
Over 51
time
Over 57
Over
54
week­ Un­ 48 and
60
and and 60 and
ly der and un­
un­
un­ der
earn 48 un­ der
un­
der 54
der 60
der
51
57
63

1907
1908
1909
1910

100
107
115
94

58.0 $0.1188
58.0 .1182
58.0 .1055
56.0 .1281

13 establishments........

1910
1911

207

57.7
57.5

.1186 $6.83
.1183 6.80

1.9 48.3 21.7 21.7
2.4 53.4 15.9 25.0

6.3
3.4

12 establishments........

1911
1912

196
206

57.4
55.8

.1157
.1198

6.65
6.72

2.6 55.1 11.2 27.6
46.1 23.
5.8 24.3

3.6

1912
1913

207
196

55.8
54.2

.1197
.1480

6.70
8.05

44.0 27.5
80.6 11.2

5 establishments..........

1907
1908
1909
1910

390
426
439
433

58.6
58.5
58.6
57.2

.1443
.1564
.1576
.1436

23 establishments....... .

1910
1911

1,181
1,197

57.8
58.0

.1429
.1417

8.26
8.24

1.9 44.4 13.8 34.5
2.3 42.2 12.4 37.8

27 establishments....... .

1911
1912

1,265

58.1
57.6

.1411
.1501

8.22
8.61

2.2 40.2 13.3
26.1 12.8 16.2 43.8

29 establishments....... .
Welters, female:
23 establishments....... .

1912
1913

1,321
1,371

57.2
54.3

.1487
.1721

8.52
9.35

13.3 15.5 41.9
11.
.2
5.0

1910
1911

250

57.6
57.6

.1205
.1250

6.95
7.20

42.

23 establishments....... .

1911
1912

57.4
56.1

.1272
.1437

26 establishments....... .
Winders, female:

1912
1913

302
334

56.1
56.0

.1445
.1454

6 establishments.........

1907
1908
1909
1910

266
276
262
276

58.8
58.7
58.6
57.5

.1403
.1625
.1515
.1492

38 establishments.......

1910
1911

1,020

960

58.0
57.9

.1292
.1318

7.51
7.64

40.3 23.8 24.1
42.8 22.6 26.5

45 establishments.......

1911
1912

1,001

57.8
56.4

.1302
.1400

7.54
7.91

1.2 40.8 25.0 25.2
27.0 31.7 11.7 27.9

53 establishments.......

1912
1913

1,099
1,119

56.4
54.8

.1392
.1500

7.87
8.21

24.5 35.1 11.1 27.
61.7 25.0 9.5 3.4

2 establishments..........

10 establishments....... .
Seamers, underwear, fe­
male:




100.0

100.0
(l)
0)

100.0
100.0

5.8 22.7
6.6
69.0 31.0
75.8 24.3
69.9 30.1
31.2

30.4 26.0
28.4 27.3

1.0 46.9 31.9 20.1
36.3 32.7 8.3 22.1
8.08
8.10

36.8 28.1 11.9 22.2
45.2 21.0 13.8 20.0
I
62.4 37.61
.
64.1 35.9.
67.6; 32.4.
37,7.
62.3

Not computed.

104

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS.

I I . — AVERAGE RATES OP WAGES PER HOUR, AVERAGE FULL­
TIME W EEKLY EARNINGS, AND AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME
HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK IN EACH YEAR, B Y STATES, 1912 AND 1913.

T able

[The figures are for identical establishments in both years.]
BOARDERS: Male.

Num­ Num­ Aver- Aver­
ageage
ber
ber fullof
of
time rate of
estab­ em­ hours wages
per
lish­ ploy­ per
ments. ees. week. hour.

Year and State.

1912.
Georgia................................
Massachusetts.....................
North Carolina...................
Pennsylvania......................
Wisconsin...........................
Other States........................
Total.........................
1913.
Georgia................................
Massachusetts.....................
North Carolina...................
Pennsylvania......................
W isconsin...........................
Other States........................
Total.........................

3
3
4
11
3
17

62
273
89
364
72
293

58.5 $0.1456
54.0 .2164
59.7 .1669
55.3 .2478
55/0 .2590
56.6 .1893

Number of employees whose full-time hours
per week were—
Aver­
age
full­
time
Over 51
Over
Over 57
week­ Un­ 48 and
54
60
and un­ 54 and and 60 and
ly
earn­ der un­ der
un­ un­
un­
der
ings. 48 der 54
der der
60
51
57
63

$8.53
11.69
9.97
13.70
14.24
10.67

3
3

41 1,153

55.8

.2145 11.92

3
3
4
11
3
17

58.6
54.0
59.7
55.1
55.0
56.3

.1509
.2180
.1579
.2537
.2865
.2001

64
272
102
368
56
310

41 1,172

55.8

8.81
11.77
9.42
13.99
15.76
11.22

.2189 12.15

273

8

27

27
84
12

4

3
34

5
352
69
97

129

26

4

310

531

156

149

8

26

30

272

3

5

47

6
368
56
101

96

3

5

319

539

168

138

142

12

BUTTONHOLE M AKERS, UNDERWEAR: Female.
1912.
New York...........................
Other States........................

16
12

108
88

58i 9 $0.1712 $10.08
54.8 .1630 8.91

4

47

22
22

9
15

77

Total..........................

28

196

57.0

.1675

4

47

44

24

77

New York...........................
Other States........................

16
12

112
93

54.4
55.1

.2035 11.08
.1849 10.23

103
47

27

9
18

1

Total..........................

28

205

54.7

.1951 10.69

150

27

27

1

9.55

1913.

BUTTON SEWERS, UNDERWEAR: Female.
1912.
New York...........................
Other States........................

16
12

111
72

58.7 $0.1499 $8.79
54.8 .1429 7.84

39

26
12

10
16

75

5

Total..........................

28

183

57.2

.1471

8.42

5

39

38

26

75

New York...........................
Other States........................

16
12

128
80

54.0
55.2

.1725
.1664

9.32
9.18

128
43

19

17

1

Total.........................

28

208

54.4

.1702

9.27

171

19

17

1

1913.




105

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1907 TO 1913— K N IT GOODS.
T a b l e I I . — AVERAGE

RATE OF WAGES PER HOUR, AVERAGE FULL­
TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, AND AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME
HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK IN EACH YEAR, BY STATES, 1912 AND 1913—
Continued.
CUTTERS, HAND, UNDERWEAR: Male.

Year and State.

Num­ Num­ Aver- Aver­
ageage
ber fullber
of
of
time rate of
estab­ em­ hours wages
per
lish­ ploy­ per
ments. ees. week. hour.

Number of employees whose full-time hours
per week were—
Aver­
age
full­
time
Over 51
Over 57
Over
week­ Un­ 48
60
54
and and 54 and and 60 and
ly
der
earn­ 48 un­ un­
un­ un­
un­
der der
der der
der
ings.
54
60
51
57
63

1912.
New York...........................
Other States........................

11
7

126
22

59.0 $0.2121 $12.52
55.5 .2283 12.76

5

22
12

13
4

91
1

Total..........................

18

148

58.5

.2145 12.56

5

34

17

92

11
7

132
26

54.9
55.5

.2517 13.81
.2628 14.63

84
5

29
16

19
4

1

55.0

.2535 13.95

89

45

23

1

67
114
120
12

6
665

473

161
104
36

473

301

313

671

6

1913.
New York...........................
Other States........................
Total..........................

18

158

FINISHERS, UNDERWEAR: Female.
1912.
Connecticut........................
New York...........................
Pennsylvania......................
Other States........................
Total..........................

3
16
3
7

123
940
224
521

29 1,808

54.8 $0.1552 $8.50
59.0 .1606 9.48
56.6 .1258 7.13
54.2 .1537 8.33

50

.1540

50

57.0

8.79

1913.
48

Total..........................

29 1,934

54.6

.1800

1,016

9.81

1,476

55

131
76

129
13

255

197

6

9

Connecticut........................
3
109 56.8 .1723 9.80
New York...........................
16 1,016 54.0 .1935 10.45
Pennsylvania......................
3
260 56.5 .1488 8.41
Other States........................
7 549 54.2 .1715 9.31

41
21

20
38

116

63

359

460

INSPECTORS AND FOLDERS: Female.
1912.
Connecticut........................
Georgia................................
Massachusetts.....................
New York...........................
...................
Ohio.....................................
Pennsylvania......................
Other States........................
Total..........................

3
3
2
16

83
68
281
538

56.4 $0.1321 $7.44
58.7 .1009 5.92
54.0 .1363 7.36
58.8 .1346 7.90

North Carolina
4
49 59.9
62 50.9
5
10
155 55.7
175 56.1
13
56 1,411

56.7

22
281

1

.1271
.1062
.1244
.1296

7.61
5.41
6. S3
7.28

19

.1299

7.37

19

4

39

48

13
22

19

122
72

17

339

320

213

481

13
8

22
23

31
36

33
55

16

1913.
Connecticut.........................
Massachusetts.....................
...........................
New York
North Carolina...................
Ohio.....................................
Pennsylvania......................
Other States........................
Total..........................




66 58.3 .1486
3
3
67 58.7 .1154
Georgia................................
292 54.0 .1416
2
511 54.0 .1531
16

8.65
6.79
7.64
8.27

292
511

50
72
156
184

59.9
53.8
55.7
56.0

.1321
.1200
.1418
.1421

7.91
6.45
7.90
7.95

2

56 1,398

55.1

.1435

7.90

2

4
5
10
13

4

66

1

49

25
4

122
98

34
51

10

894

242

130

126

106

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

AVERAGE RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AVERAGE FULL­
TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, AND AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME
HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK IN EACH YEAR, BY STATES, 1912 AND 1913—
Continued.

T able I I . —

KNITTERS, FOOTERS OR TOPPERS, HOSIERY: Female.

Year and State.

Num­
ber
of
estab­
lish­
ments.

Number of employees whose full-time hours
per week were—
Aver- Aver­ Aver­
age
Num­ agefull­
ber fullage
Over 57
time
Over 51
Over
of
time rate of week­
48
60
em­ hours
Un­ and and 54 54 and
per
and un­ 60 and
ploy­ per
ly
un­
der
un­ der
un­
ees. week. hour. earn­ 48 un­ der
der 54
der
der
ings.
51
57
63

1912.
116
127
144
152

59.1 $0.1476 $8.69 .
57.1 .1161 6.61 .
59.0 .1029 6.07 .
54.0 .1353 7.31 .

Michigan..............
New Hampshire..
North Carolina.. .
Ohio......................

127
134
120
52

53.7
58.0
59.1
53.6

.1487
.1371
.1027
.1223

7.99 .
7.95 .
6.04 .
6.56.

Pennsylvania.......
Tennessee............
Wisconsin............
Other States........

1,390
195
219
115

55.5
58.5
55.0
55.5

.1470
.1308
.1474
.1336

8.17.
7.65 .
8.10 .
7.41 .

Total..........

37 2,891

56.1

.1386

7.77

Connecticut.........
Georgia.................
Illinois..................
Massachusetts___

111
130
166
195

59.1
57.3
55.6
54.0

.1568
.1094
.1279
.1470

9.25
6.27
7.12
7.94

Michi:
New
North Carolina
Ohio...............

141
132
138
63

53.7
58.0
59.2
51.0

.1433
.1526
.0890
.1265

7.6
8.8
5.23
6.46

Pennsylvania.
Tennessee___
Wisconsin___
Other States..

1,311
186
195
137

55.6
58.
55.0
55.9

.1659
.1388
.1483
.1361

9.23
8.14
8.16
7.

T otal...

37 2,905

56.0

.1490: 8.33

Connecticut,........
Georgia.................
Illinois..................
Massachusetts___

54
152

54
46
101

100
42

21
1,193

134

197
147

48

2i9
37

294 1,585

279

1913.

113
195

50

110
‘ *2i

132
115

23
1,078
195

233
126

60

44
28

439 1,439

261

KNITTERS, “ LADY H OSE” : Male.

1912.
126
55
70
73

Massachusetts___
New Hampshire..
Pennsylvania___
Other States.........
Total..........

16

54.0 $0.1864 $10.07
58.0 .1650 9.57
55.4 .2222 12.30
57.3 .1751 10.01

126
14

70.
20

324

55.7

.1880 10.45

140

90

63

.1920 10.37
.1796 10.42
13.23
.1794 10.25

113

.1934 10.80

127

66

71

55
31
31

1913.
2
2
2

Massachusetts___
New Hampshire..
Pennsylvania.......
Other States.........

10

113 54.0
64 58.0
48 55.4
57.7

Total..........

16

307




56.0

14

43
43

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1907 TO 1913— K N IT GOODS.

107

I I . -A V E R A G E RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AVERAGE FULL­
TIME W EEKLY EARNINGS, AND AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME
HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK IN EACH YEAR, BY STATES, 1912 AND 1913—
Continued.

Table

KNITTERS, “ LADY HOSE” : Female.

Num­ Num­ Aver- Aver­
age­
ber
ber full­
age
of
of
time rate of
estab­ em­
hours wages
lish­ ploy­ per
per
ments. ees. week. hour.

Year and State.

Number of employees whose full-time hours
^per week were—
Aver­
age
full­
Over 51
Over 57
time
54 and
week­ Un­ 48 and
ly der and un­ 54 and un­
un­ der
earn­ 48 un­ der
der 54
der 60
ings.
57
51

19 12.
Pennsylvania..
Wisconsin.......
Other States...

120
97
111

10

120
97
62.......

31

328

55.2

.1886 10.43

10

62

31

61
91
130

12

Total...........

55.3 $0.2001 $11.06
55.0 .1729 9.51
55.4
10.53!

55.3
55.0
55.5

.1411
.1681
.1716

7.81
9.24
9.50

282

55.3

.1638

9.05

217

19 13.
Pennsylvania..
Wisconsin.......
Other States...
Total.

12

54
152

54

KNITTERS, WEB OR TUBE, UNDERWEAR: Male.
1912.
New York...........................
Other States........................

13
7

128
118

59.1 $0.2363 $13.99
54.5 .2251 12.24

74

18
40

20
4

90

Total..........................

20

246

56.9

.2309 13.15

74

58

24

90

New York...........................
13
113 54.7 .2744 15.01
Other States........................
7
106 54.6 .2357 12.84

85
57

15
45

13
*
4

142

60

17

6

48
33
63

1913.

Total..........................

20

219

54.6

.2557 13.96

IiOOPERS: Female.
1912.
Connecticut.........................
Georgia................................
Illinois.................................
Indiana................................
Massachusetts.....................

3
3
3
2
3

90
75
80
94
404

57.6 $0.1707 $9.83
58.7 .1364 7.99
59.1 .1116 6.59
55.0 .1403 7.72
54.0 .1413 7.63

Michigan.............................
New Hampshire.................
New York............... ...........
North Carolina...................

2
3
3
4

72
129
89
190

53.9
58.0
58.4
59.6

.1638
.1429
.1689
.1224

8.83
8.29
9.88
7.29

Pennsylvania......................
Tennessee............................
Wisconsin...........................
Other States........................

13
2
3
5

961
108
182
50

55.5
58.3
55.0
55.3

.1519
.1303
.1602
.1394

8.45
7.60
8.81
7.71

49 2,524

56.1

.1464

8.21

Total.........................




12

404
5

94

67

129
28
16
821

7
12

12

15

30
36
17

182
12

486 1,159

61
174
140
91

17

16
520

335

108

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I I . —AVERAGE RATE OF WAGES PER HOUR, AVERAGE FULL­
TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, AND AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME
HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK IN EACH YEAR, B Y STATES, 1912 AND 1913—
Continued.

T able

L O O P E R S : F em ale-C oncluded.

Year and State.

Num­ Num­ Aver- Aver­
ageber
ber fullage
of
of
time rate of
wages
estab­ em­
lish­ ploy­ hours per
per
ments. ees. week. hour.

Number of employees whose full-time hours
per week were—
Aver­
age
full­
Over 51
Over
time
Over
57
54 and
week­ Un­ 48 and
60
ly
der and un­ 54 and un­ 60 and
un­ der
un­
earn­ 48 un­ der
der
der 54
der 60
ings.
51
57
63

1913.

TnHifl/na.. . ..........................
Massachusetts.....................

3
3
3
2
3

97
89
91
87
413

58.1 $0.1778 $10.34
59.0 .1268 7.47
57.2 .1240 7.10
55.0 .1451 7.98
54.0 .1505 8.13

Michigan.............................
New Hampshire.................
New York...........................
North Carolina...................

2
3
3
4

81
128
93
198

53.9
58.0
54.0
59.5

.1507 8.12
.1617 9.38
.1991 10.75
.1130 6.72

Pennsylvania......................
Tennessee ..........................
W isconsin ........................
Other States.......................

13
2
3
5

936
110
149
70

55.5
58.5
55. ft
55.2

.1543
.1327
. 1578
.1464

8.57
7.76
8.68
8.02

12

7

56. O .1500
j

8.37

12

14

Total.........................

49 2,542

33
413
7

18
5
**’ 87

46
34
58

33
50

74
128

93
20

178

805

131
82

149
10

35

619 1,094

514

6

28

289

M EN DERS, FINE, H O S IE R Y : Fem ale.
1912.
Massachusetts. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pennsylvania......................
Other States

3
8
17

105
117
104

54.0 $0.1333 $7.20
55.2 .1646 9.08
57.2 .1265 7.21

3

23

110
22

7
18

38

Total.........................

28

326

55.4

.1424

7.88

3

128

132

25

38

1913.
Massachusetts.....................
Pennsylvania ....................
Other States.......................

3
8
17

88
83
105

54.0
55.1
57.2

.1243
.1716
.1299

6.71
9.46
7.40

2

5

19

83
20

14

45

Total.........................

28

276

55.6

.1406

7.80

2

5

107

103

14

45

10
69

29

33

105

88

M EN DERS, RO U G H , H O S IE R Y : Fem ale.
1913.
Georgia
........................
TnrHanfl................................
Massachusetts
.... ....
New Hampshire.................
N orth Carolina...................
Pennsylvania......................
Tennessee...........................
Wisconsin .........................
Other States.......................

3
2
3
2
2
9
2
2
10

72
69
87
55
61
184
68
92
94i

Total.........................

35

782| 56.5

1913.
Georgia................................
Indiana..............................
Massachusetts .................
New Hampshire.................
North Carolina...................
Pennsylvania......................
Tennessee............................
Wisconsin...........................
Other States........................

3
2
3
2
2
9
2
2
10

79
52
109
54
69
207
78
81
84

Total.........................

35

813




58.4 $0.1074 $6.27
55.0 .1523 8.37
54.0 .1453 7.85
58.0 .1299 7.53
59.4 .1064 6.33
56.1 .1740 9.78
58.5 .1204 7.05
55.0 .1327 7.30
56.fi .1404 7.93

12

27

.1408

7.94

12

114

58.4
55.0
54.0
58.0
59.2
56.1
58.5
55.0
55.7

.1104
.1525
.1456
.1406
.1117
.1731
.1257
.1322
.1482

6.45
8.39
7.86
8.15
6.61
9.70
7.36
7.27
8.23

8

13

24

56.4

.1434

8.07

8

13

133

87

55
7
128
92

56
50

54
18

34

21

306

224

126

14
52

30

35

109

54
11
150
81
308

58
57
57

21

20

19

218

133

109

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1907 TO 1913-----K N IT GOODS.

I I . —AVERAGE RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AVERAGE FULL­
TIME W EEKLY EARNINGS, AND AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME
HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK IN EACH YEAR, B Y STATES, 1912 AND 1913—
Concluded.

T able

SEA M ER S, UNDERWEAR: Female.

Year and State.

Num­ Num­ Aver- Aver­
ageber
ber fullage
of
of
time rate of
estab­ em­ hours wages
lish­ ploy­ per
per
ments. ees. week. hour.

Number of employees whose full-time hours
per week were—
Aver­
age
full­
time
Over 51
Over
Over 57
week­ Un­ 48
54
60
and and 54 and and
and
ly
earn­ der un­ un­
un­ un­ 60 un­
der
ings. 48 der 54
der der
der
60
57
51
63

1913.

Other States.......................
Total..........................

16
2
3
2
6

770
62
111
69
309

86

134

63
27

48
23

4

176

205

554

69
80
13

47

256

22

3

1,137

162

69

3

59.1 $0.1503 $8.89
54.0 .1343 7.25
56.3 .1281 7.22
54.4 .1553 8.47
54.2 .1538 8.34

14

42
268

8.52

14

372

29 1,321

57.2

. 1487

16
2
3
2
6

812
69
116
80
294

54.0
54.0
56.2
55.0
54.4

.1780 9.61
.1621 8.75
.1482 8.34
.2084 11.46
. 1579 8.61

29 1,371

54.3

.1721

62

550

1913.
New Y ork...........................
Ohio
.........................
Pennsylvania ...................
Wisconsin .........................
Other States......................
Total.........................

812
69

9.35

W ELTERS: Female.
1912.
107

Massachusetts.....................
Pennsylvania......................
Other States........................

3
6
17

107
81
114

54.0 $0.1450 $7.83
55.5 .1615 8.96
58.6 .1319 7.70

1

2

4

75
10

6
30

67

Total.........................

26

302

56.1

.1445

8.08

1

2

111

85

36

67

3
6
17

132 .54.0
64 55.7
138 58.0

.1401
.1791
.1347

7.57
9.97
7.75

132
19

55
15

9
37

67

26

334

.1454

8.10

151

70

46

67

18

11

1913.
Massachusetts.....................
Pennsylvania.....................
Other States......................
Total

......................

56.0

W INDERS: Female.
1912.
Connecticut .......................
Massachusetts ...................
New York
...
.......
P ennsvlvania......................
Other States.......................
Total.........................

55.8 $0.1379 $7.74
54.0 .1356 7.32
58.5 .1520 8.89
55.5 .1310 7.28
56.3 .1270 7.13

15

53 1,099

56.4

.1392

7.87

15

35
259
396
238
191

57.6
54.0
54.0
55.6
56.2

.1484
.1415
.1702
.1370
.1363

8.55
7.64
9.19
7.63
7.63

3

2

53 1,119

54.8

.1500

8.21

3

2

3
3
15
11
21

44
229
395
266
165

229
2

40

2

269

109 " ’ i6 ‘ *270
43
223
54
45 " '2 4
386

122

305

10

17

8

35

193
77

45
44

30

690

280

106

38

1913.
Connecticut........................
Massachusetts.....................
New York
....................
Pennsylvania
.....
Other States.......................
Total.........................




3
3
15
11
21

259
396

110

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T a b l e I I I . — AVERAGE

RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AVERAGE FULL­
TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, AND AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED •
FULL­
TIME HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK IN EACH STATE, BY YEARS, 1912
AND 1913.
[The figures are for identical establishments in both years.]
BOARDERS: Male.
I

Number of employees whose full-time
hours per week were—
Aver­
Num­ Aver­ Aver­ age
age
age
ber full­ rate full­
Over 51
of
time
Over
Over
Year. em­ time
of week­
57
48
54
60
Un­ and and
ploy­ hours wages ly
and and 60 and
per
ees. per hour. earn­ der un­ un­ 54 un­ un­
un­
week.
ings. 48 der der
der der
der
54
60
51
63
57

State, and number of
establishments.

Georgia:
3 establishments.
Massachusetts:
3 establishments.
North Carolina:
4 establishments.
Pennsylvania:
11 establishments
Wisconsin:
3 establishments.

1912
1913

58.5 $0.1456 $8.53
58.6 .1509 8.81

/ 1912
\ 1913

273
272

54.0
54.0

.2164 11.69
.2180 11.77

1912
1913

89
102

59.7
59.7

.1669
.1579

/ 1912
\ 1913

364

55.3
55.1

.2478 13.70
.2537 13.99

55.0
55.0

27

.2590 14.24
.2865 15.76

1912
1913

273
272

9.97
9.42
352

12

56

BUTTONHOLE M AKERS, UNDERWEAR: Female.
New York:
16 establishments......... / 1912
\ 1913

108
112

58.9 $0.1712j$10.oJ....
54.4 .2035 11.08 ....

103

22

9
9

77

26

10

75

22
29

13
19

91

BUTTON SEWERS, UNDERWEAR: Female.
New York:
/ 1912
16 establishments......... \ 1913

111
128

58.7 $0.1499 $8.79
54.0 .1725 9.32

128

CUTTERS, HAND, UNDERWEAR: Male.
New York:
/ 1912
11 establishments......... \ 1913

126
132

59.0 $0.2121 $12.52
54.9 .2517 13.81

84

FINISHERS, UNDERWEAR: Female.
Connecticut:
3 establishments..........
New York:
16 establishments.........
Pennsylvania:
3 establishments... —




1912
1913

123
109

54.8 $0.1552 $8.50
56.8 .1723 9.80

1912
1913

940
1,016

59.0
54.0

.1606 9.48
.1935 10.45

1912
1913

224
260

56.6
56.5

.1258
.1488

7.13
8.41

67
55
1,016

161

114

104
131

120 .
129 .

665 .

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1907 TO 1913-----K N IT GOODS.

I ll

I I I . —AVERAGE RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AVERAGE FULL­
TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, AND AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL­
TIME HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK IN EACH STATE, B Y YEARS, 1912
AND 1913—Continued.

T a b le

INSPECTORS AND FOLDERS: Female.

State and number of
establishments.

Connecticut:
3 establishments..
Georgia:
3 establishments..
Massachusetts:
2 establishments..
New York:
16 establishments.
North Carolina:
4 establishments..
Ohio:
5 establishments..
Pennsylvania:
10 establishments.

Number of employees whose full-time
hours per week were—
Aver­
Num­ Aver­ Aver­ age
age full­
age
ber full­ rate
Over 51
Over 57
time
of
Year. em­ time
of week­
48
54 and
Un­ and and
ploy­ hours wages ly
and un­
per
per
un­
ees. week. hour. earn­ der un­ der 54 un­ der
48 der
der 60
ings.
54
51
57

1912
1913

83
66

56.4 $0.1321 $7.44
58.3 .1486 8.65

1912
1913

68
67

58.7
58.7

.1009
.1154

5.92
6.79

1912
1913

281
292

54.0
54.0

.1363
.1416

7.36
7.64

281
292

1912
1913

538
511

58.8
54.0

.1346
.1531

7.90
8.27

511

1912
1913

49
50

59.9
59.9

.1271
.1321

7.61
7.91

1912
1913

62
72

50.9
53.8

.1062
.1200

5.41
6.45

1912
1913

155
156

55.7
55.7

.1244
.1418

6.93
7.90

22

116

122
122

34

KNITTERS, FOOTERS OR TOPPERS, HOSIERY: Female.
Connecticut:
2 establishments..........
Georgia:
3 establishments..........
Illinois:
3 establishments..........
Massachusetts:
3 establishments..........
Michigan:
A
.
New Hampshire:
, -. ,
.

/ 1912
\ 1913

116
111

59.1 $0.1476 $8.69
59.1 .1568 9.25

/ 1912
\ 1913

127 * 57.1
130 57.3

.1161
.1094

6.61
6.27

/ 1912
\ 1913

144
166

59.0
55.6

.1029
.1279

6.07
7.12

113

/ 1912
\ 1913

152
195

54.0
54.0

.1353
.1470

7.31
7.94

152
195

/ 1912
\ 1913

127
141

53.7
53.7

.1487
.1433

7.99
7.69

/ 1912
\ 1913

134
132

58.0
58.0

.1371
.1526

7.95
8.85

North Carolina:
O 4 -U -U
. T

J
.

Ohio:
O , -U U
T

/ 1912
\ 1913

120
138

59.1
59.2

.1027
.0890

/ 1912
\ 1913

52
63

53.6
51.0

.1223
.1265

6.56
6.46

/ 1912
\ 1913

1,390
1,311

55.5
55.6

.1470
.1659

8.17
9.23

J 1912
4
\ 1913
Wisconsin:
/ 1912
i establishments.. . . . . .
\ 1913

195
186

58.5
58.6

.1308
.1388

55.0
55.0

.1474
.1483

8.10
8.16

Pennsylvania:
o

,

Tennessee:
A 4 W -U
. l-




46
53

27
27
43

100
110
134
132

7.65
8.14

219
195

27
31

62
59

101
53

54
50

6.04
5.23

.

54
52

21
23
7

28

10
7

99
115

42
21
1,193
1,078

197
233
147
126

219
195

48
60

112

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T a b l e I I I . — AVERAGE

RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AVERAGE FULL­
TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, AND AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL­
TIME HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK IN EACH STATE, BY YEARS, 1912
AND 1913—Continued.
KNITTERS, “ LADY H O SE ” : Male.

State and number of
establishments.

Massachusetts:
2 establishments..
New Hampshire:
2 establishments..
Pennsylvania:
2 establishments..

Niimber of employees whose full-time
hours per week were—
Aver­
Num­ Aver- Aver­ age
age
age
ber full­ rate full­
Over 51
of
time
Over 57
Over
Year. em- time
of week­
48
54 and
60
Un­ and and
ploy- hours per
and un­ 60 and
ly
per
earn- der un­ un­ 54 un­ der
un­
week. hour.
48 der der
der 60
der
54
51
57
63

1912
1913

126 54.0 $0.1864 $10.07
113! 54.0 .19201 10.37

1912
1913

55; 58.0
64i 58.0

.1650 9.57
.1796 10.42

1912
1913

70

55.4
55.4

126
113

.2222 12.3o!

4i
8

.2389 13.231

!

KNITTERS, “ LADY HOSE ” : Female.
Pennsylvania:
4 establishments...........
Wisconsin:
2 establishments...........

/ 1912
\ 1913

120
61

/ 1912
\ 1913

97
91

55.3 $0.2001 $11.06
55.3 .1411 7.81

120
61

9.51
9.24

97
91

55.0
55.0

.1729
.1681

KNITTERS, WEB OR TUBE, UNDERW EAR: Male.
New York:
/ 1912
13 establishments......... \ 1913

128
113

59.1;$0.2363 $13.99
54.7 .2744 15.01

85

18
15

20
13

90

LOOPERS: Female.
Connecticut:
3 establishments...
Georgia:
3 establishments...
Illinois:
3 establishments...
Indiana:
2 establishments...
Massachi setts:
3 establishments...
Michigan:
2 establishments...
New Hanpshire:
3 establishments..,
New York:
3 establishments..
North Carolina:
4 establishments...
Pennsylvania:
13 establishments..
Tennessee:
2 establishments...
Wisconsin:
3 establishments..




1912
1913

90
97

57.6 $0.1707 $9.83
58.1 .1778 10.34

1912
1913

75
89

58.7
59.0

.1364
.1268

7.99
7.47

1912
1913

80
91

59.1
57.2

.1116
.1240

6.59
7.10

1912
1913

94
87

55.0
55.0

.1403
.1451

7.72
7.98

1912
1913

404
413

54.0
54.0

.1413
.1505

7.63
8.13

1912
1913

72
81

53.9
53.9

.1638
.1507

8.83
8.12

1912
1913

129
128

58.01 .1429
!
58.0 , .1617

8.29
9.38

1912
1913

89
93

1912
1913

190
198

59.6| .1224
59.5 .1130

7.29
6.72

1912
1913

961
936

55.5
55.5

.1519
.1543

8.45
8.57

1912
1913

108
110

58.3
58.5

.1303
.1327

7.60
7.76

1912
1913

182
149

55.0
55.0

.1602
.1578

8.81
8.68

58.4
54.0

12

30.
33.

18

33
87
404
413

129
128

.1689 9.88
.1991 10.75

61
174
178
821
805

140
131
91

182
149

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1907 TO 1913— K N IT GOODS.

113

I I I . —AVERAGE RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AVERAGE FULL­
TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, AND AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL­
TIME HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK IN EACH STATE, BY YEARS, 1912
AND 1913—Continued.

T able

MENDERS* FINE, H O SIE R Y : Female.

State, and number of
establishments.

Num­
ber
of
Year. em­
ploy-

Massachusetts:
3 establishments.,
Pennsylvania:
8 establishments..

Number of employees whose full-time
hours per week were—
Aver­ Aver- Aver­
age
age
full­
full­ rate time
Over
Over 51
Over 57
time
of
54
60
week­ Un­ 48 and
hours
and un­ 54 and and 60 and
ly
per
un­
per earn­ der un­
un­
un­ der
der
week. hour. ings. 48 der
der
der 60
54
51
57

1912
1913

105

54.0 $0.1333 $7.20
54.0 .1243 6.71

1912
1913

117
83

55.2
55.1

.1646
. 1716

105

9.08

110
83

\ 9- i-

MENDERS, ROUGH, H O SIE R Y : Female.
Georgia:
3 establishments.
Indiana:
2 establishments.
Massachusetts:
3 establishments.
New Hampshire:
2 establishments.
North Carolina:
2 establishments.
Pennsylvania:
9 establishments.
Tennessee:
2 establishments.
Wisconsin:
2 establishments.

1912
1913

72
79

58.4 $0.1074 $6.27
58.4 .1104 6.45

1912
1913

69
52

55.0
55.0

.1523
.1525

8.37
8.39

1912
1913

87
109

54.0
54.0

.1453
.1456

7.85
7.86

1912
1913

55
54

58.0
58.0

.1299
.1406

7.53
8.15

1912
1913

61
69

59.4
59.2

.1064
.1117

6.33
6.61

1912
1913

184
207

56.1
56.1

.1740
.1731

9.78
9.70

1912
1913

68
78

58.5
58.5

.1204 7.05
.1257| 7.36

1912
1913

92
81

55.0
55.0

.1327| 7.30
.1322j 7.27

10
14

29

33.

52.
87 .
109 .
55 .
54.
54.
58.

7.
11 .
128
150

56.
57.
50
57

18.
21.

92.
81 .

SEAM ERS, UNDERW EAR: Female.
New York:
16 establishments.........
Ohio:
2 establishments__
Pennsylvania:
3 establishments.. . . . . .
Wisconsin:
2 establishments...........

/ 1912
\ 1913

770
812

59.1 $0.1503 $8.89
54.0 .1780 9.61

/ 1912
\ 1913

62
69

54.0
54.0

.1343
.1621

7.25
8.75

j 1912

\ 1913

111
116

56.3
56.2

.1281
.1482

7.22
8.34

/ 1912
\ 1913

69
80

86

134

63
69

812

48
47

550

62
69

54.4 .1553 8.47
55.0 . .2084 11.46

42

27
80

'

1
W ELTERS: Female.
Massachusetts:

/
\
Pennsylvania:
6 establishments.. . . . . . /
\

1912
1913

107
132

1912
1913

81
64

54.0 $0.1450 $7.83
54.0 .1401 7.57
55.5
55.7

. 1615
.1791

8.96
9.97

107
132
75
55

6
9
1

45968°— Bull. 154—14------ 8




-

114

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS.

T a b l e H I . — AVERAGE

RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AVERAGE FULL­
TIME W EEKLY EARNINGS, AND AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL­
TIME HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK IN EACH STATE, B Y YEARS, 1912
AND 1913—Concluded.
W INDERS: Female.

State, and number of
establishments.

Connecticut:
3 establishments..
Massachusetts:
3 establishments..
New York:
15 establishments.
Pennsylvania:
11 establishments.




Num­
ber
of
Year. empioy-

1912
1913

Average
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Number of employees whose full-time
hours per week were—
Aver­
age
full­
Over
Over 51
time
Over
57
54
week­ Un­ 48 and
60
and un­ 54 and and
and
ly
un­
un­ der 60 un­
earn­ der un­ der
der 54
der
ings.
der
60
51
57
63

55.8 $0.1379 $7.74
57.6 .1484 8.55

10

1912
1913

229
259

54.0
54.0

.1356
.1415

7.32
7.64

229
259

1912
1913

395
396

58.5
54.0

.1520
.1702

9.19

396

1912
1913

266
238

55.5
55.6

.1310
.1370

7.28
7.63

109
223
193

270

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1907 TO 1913---- K N IT GOODS.

115

T a b l e I V . — AVERAGE

AVERAGE AND
STATES, 1913.

FULL-TIME HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK, AND
CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, BY
BOARDERS: Male.

Aver­
Num­ age
ber of full­
em­ time
ploy­ hours
per
ees.
week.

Num­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments.

State.

3
3
4
U
3
17

Georgia........................
Massachusetts..............
North Carolina............
Pennsylvania..............
Wisconsin....................
Other States................

55.8

9
and
un­
der
10
cts.

10
and
un­
der
12
cts.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

5
1

64 58.6 $0.1509
272 54.0 .2180
102 59.7 .1579
368 55.1 .2537
56 55.0 .2865
310 56.3 .2001

41 1,172

Total.....................

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
Aver­
age
rate of 5
7
8
wages and and and
per un­ un­ un­
hour. der der der
7 8
9
cts. cts. cts.

6
3
9
13

9
5
23
23

14
45
27
20
47

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

18
20
21
19
2
51 ”

11
28
14
12

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

1
92 57
21
1
7
63 121 *97
21
10 23
71 39
26

1

12

28

7

.2189

43

88 153 131 100 244 241

35

30
cts.
and
over.

165

BUTTONHOLE M AKERS, UNDERWEAR: Female.
New Y ork...................
Other States................

16
12

112
93

54.4 $0.2035
55.1 .1849

1

1

2
4

4
5

5
18

16
14

24
23

51
17

9
8

1
2

Total.....................

28

205

54.7

.1951

1

1

6

9

23

30

47

68

17

3

BUTTON SEW ERS, UNDERWEAR: Female.
1

New Y ork....................
Other States................

16
12

128
80

54.0 $0.1725
55.2 .1664

Total.....................

28

208

54.4

1

2
2

10
5

15
11

19
15

20
21

27
14

31
8

3
2

1

1

4

15

26

34 . 41

41

39

5

1

1

. 1702

CUTTERS, HAND, UNDERWEAR: Male.
New York...................
Other States................

11
7

132
26

54.9 $0.2517
55.5 .2628

2
3

2
2

19
1

11
2

31
5

34
5

33
8

Total.....................

18

158

55.0

.2535

5

4

20

13

36

39

41

44

44

40

18

5

2

CUTTERS, HAND, UNDERWEAR: Female.
Total............................

12

202

54.2 $0.1620

3

4

6

3

15

18

FINISHERS, UNDERWEAR: Female.
Connecticut.................
New York...................
Pennsylvania..............
Other States................

3
109
16 1,016
3
260
7 549

56.8 $0.1723
54.0 .1935 * " i
56.5 .1488
54.2 .1715 *’ i4

Total.....................

29 1,934

54.6

.1800

15

2
" ' 2

10

7

9

9► 6

6

14 21
I

10

9 16 31 27 13
4
7
49 105 103 140 161 294 129 ' " i s
34 47 77 52 16 16
2
39 60 71 90 121 101 15 " ’ l2

25 129 221 267 313 325 424 150

INSPECTORS AND FOLDERS: Female.
Connecticut.................
Georgia........................
Massachusetts..............
New Y ork...................
North Carolina............
Ohio.............................
Pennsylvania..............
Other States................
Total.....................




3
3
2
16
4
5
10
13

66 58.3 $0.1486
67 58.7 .1154
292 54.0 .1416 *ii
511 54.0 .1531
50 59.9 .1321
72 53.8 .1200
156 55.7 .1418
184 56.0 .1421

4
14
13
2
14
2
1

4
5
4
1
11
18
5

1 12
7 25
18 40
15 102
3
8
3
6
13 35
9 40

11

50

48

56 1,398

55.1

.1435

15
13
45
89
17
7
24
47

7

2

39
41
1

24
61

16

15
11

23
7

2
6

69 268 257 252 188 114 117

24

10
12
65
85
14
22
12
32

19
2
31
85
4
9
12
26

30

116

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I V .—AVERAGE FULL-TIME HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK, AND
AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, BY
STATES, 1913—Continued.

T able

KNITTERS, FOOTERS OR TOPPERS, HOSIERY: Male.

Aver­
Num­ age
ber of full­
em­ time
ploy­ hours
ees. per
week.

Num­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments.

State.

Total............................

14

314

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
Aver­
age
rate of 5
7 8
wages and and and
per un­ un­ un­
hour. der der der
7 8
9
cts. cts. cts.

58.0 $0.1503

1

3

12

9
and
un­
der
10
cts.

10
and
un­
der
12
cts.

9

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

63

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

1
I
73 47
j
1

40

29

23

25
and 30
un­ Cts.
der and
30 over.
cts.
6

g

KNITTERS, FOOTERS OR TOPPERS, HOSIERY: Female.
Connecticut.................
Georgia........................
Illinois..........................
Massachusetts..............
Michigan......................
New Hampshire.........
North Carolina............
Ohio.............................
Pennsylvania..............
Tennessee.....................
Wisconsin....................
Other States................

111
2
3
130
3
166
3
195
2
141
3
132
3
138
3
63
8 1,311
2
186
2
195
3
137

Total.....................

37 2,905

59.1 $0.1568
57.3 .1094
6
55.6 .1279
54.0 .1470
53.7 .1433
58.0 .1526
59.2 .0890 39
51.0 .1265
55.6 .1659 "’ *6 ”
58.6 .1388
55.0 .1483
55.9 .1361
2
56.0

.1490

53

1
15
1

3

4

2
19
5
12
10

30
33

18
2
32

8
5
32

2

4
3

7
12

7

75

13 15 30 27 U 12
5
43 24 U
1
62 61 24 12
4
24 35 60 33 27
31 25 22 22 11 12
9
10 41 34 25 13
1
22 12
3
5
17 21 13
3
2
92 137 203 306 195 241
g
6
33 90 32 17
42 45 27 26 19 23
28 38 21 14
8
8

80 112 417 544 480 495 296 315

1

30

4

2
1
34

4

KNITTERS, “ LADY H O SE ” : Male.
Massachusetts..............
New Hampshire.........
Pennsylvania..............
Other States................

2
2
2
10

113
64
48
82

54.0 $0.1920
58.0 .1796
55.4 .2389
57.7 .1794

1

1

1

Total.....................

16

307

56.0

.1934

1

1

2

1

5
6

3
8
1
16

7
8
2
9

26
13
4
16

28
23
3
8

37
11
17
12

6
1
21
9

3

11

28

26

59

62

77

37

3

KNITTERS, “ LADY H O SE ” : Female.
Pennsylvania..............
Wisconsin....................
Other States................

4
2
6

61
91
130

55.3 $0.1411
55.0 .1681
55.5j .1716

Total......................

12

282

55.3j .1638

....
1

3

4

8

1

3

1

1
14
6

9
16
28

16
8
24

14
16
18

4
10
23

2
24
21

3
8

5

9

21

53

48

48

37

47

11

19

14

11

6

20

9

19

16

19

2

4

7

3

1

KNITTERS, RIB, HOSIERY: M a le .'
21

Total............................

110

56.4|$0.2025

1

1

10

KNITTERS, RIB, HOSIERY: Female.
Total............................

16

64

56.0|$0.1556

2

2

8

KNITTERS, WEB OR TUBE, UNDERWEAR: Male.
New Y ork...................
................

13
7

113 54.7i$0.2744
106 54.6 .2357
Other States

6

2

2

4

1
16

9
3

40
20

26
35

37
18

Total......................

20

219

6

2

2

4

17

12

60

61

55




54.6

.2557

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1907 TO 1913— K N IT GOODS.

117

I V .—AVERAGE FULL-TIME HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK, AND
AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, BY
STATES, 1913—Continued.

T able

KNITTERS, WEB OR TUBE, UNDERWEAR: Female.

State.

Total............................

Num­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments.

14

Aver­
Num­ age
ber of full­
em­ time
ploy­ hours
ees. per
week.

166

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
Aver­
age
rate of 5
8
7
wages and and and
per un­ un­ un­
hour. der der der
8 9
7
cts. cts. cts.
5

54.9 $0.1456

9
and
un­
der
10
cts.

10
and
un­
der
12
cts.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

6

42

23

35

21

8

16

5

25
and 30
un­ Cts.
der and
30 over*
cts.
1

4

LOOPERS: Female.
•
Connecticut.......
Georgia..............
Illinois...............
Indiana..............
Massachusetts...
Michigan............
New Hampshire.
New York.........
North Carolina..
Pennsylvania...
Tennessee..........
Wisconsin..........
Other States___
Total...........

3
3
3
2
3
2
3
3
4
13
2
3
5

97
89
91
87
413
81
128
93
198
936
110
149
70

49 2,542

58.1 $0.1778
59.0 .1268
3 10
57.2 .1240
1
55.0 .1451
2
3
54.0 .1505 ***4
8 10
53.9 .1507
11
4
58.0 .1617
54.0 .1991
59.5 .1130
5 **i3 "31
55.5 .1543 19 33 27
58.5 .1327
55.0 .1578 ___
6
3
55.2 .1464
56.0

.1500

28

77

6
3
7
50
1
1
1
27
46
3
8

3
6 13 18 15 16 26
26 16 14
8
2
4
36 32 16
3
15 16
9 16
9 10
32 68 77 62 42 56
1
14
8 14
9
3 12
3
7
7 14 24 64 11
1
4
9 14 24 32
5
55 28 20 15
4
129 136 142 130 116 121 30
5
4
3
8
35 54
29 22 17 20 17 26 ***4
12 21
9
5
5
9

88 153 397 432 377 366 253 306

46

3
2
3
7
1
2
1
19

MENDERS, FINE, H OSIERY: Female.
Massachusetts..............
Pennsylvania..............
Other States................
Total.....................

3
8
17

88
83
105

54.0 $0.1243
55.1 .1716
57.2 .1299

2

2
3
2

24
5
13

11
7
22

12
6
44

18
12
8

7
11
8

5
10
2

3
28
4

1

28

276

55.6

8

7

42

40

62

38

26

17

35

1

!
3
18
17
7
6
18
9
15
18

2
13
19
7
1
31
1
9
10

1
4
8
1

1
4
9
2

31

65
1
2
4

9

’3
5

38 179 190j 111

93

53

88

14
1

6

.1406

MENDERS, ROUGH, HOSIERY: Female.
Georgia........................
Indiana........................
Massachusetts..............
New Hampshire..........
North Carolina............
Pennsylvania..............
Tennessee.....................
Wisconsin....................
Other States................

3
2
3
2
2
9
2
2
10

79
52
109
54
69
207
78
81
84

58.4 $0.1104
55.0 .1525
54.0 .1456
58.0 .1406
59.2 .1117
56.1 .1731
58.5 .1257
55.0 .1322
55.7 .1482

Total.....................

35

813

56.4

.1434

7

5
2

4

7
1
5

6

11
9
3
1

31
14: 13
1

20

3
2

34
6
17
4
39
15
29
15
20

18
5
30
33
8
11
38
28
19

5

PRESSERS: Male.
Total............................

39

202

56.0 $0.2075

5

14

32

33

20

55

20

31

21

34

25

15

25

8

62 104 112 126 120 204
11 11
7
9
8 19
14 28 25 20
6 14
6
6
4
1
3 12
23 43 57 70 43 34

52

27 116 192 205 226 180 283

70

23

PRESS H ANDS: Female.
Total............................

10

196

54.2j$0.1480

5

13

6

13

SEAMERS, UNDERWEAR: Female.
New Y ork...................
Ohio.............................
Pennsylvania..............
Wisconsin....................
Other States................
Total.....................




16;
2
3
2
6

812
69
116
80
294

54.0 $0.1780 14
1
54.0 .1621
1
56.2 .1482
55.0 .2084
54.4 .1579 *"’ 3

29 1,37lj 54.3

.1721

19

1
5
6

3
1
5
5
4

12

18

8
2
2
6
9

7

16
16
2 .......
23

118

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I V .—AVERAGE FULL-TIME HOURS OF WORK PER WEEK, AND
AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, B Y
STATES, 1913—Concluded.

T able

W ELTERS: Female.

State.

Num­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments.

Aver­
Num­ age
ber of full­
em­ time
ploy­ hours
ees. per
week.

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
Aver­
age
rate of 5
7 8
9 10 12
wages and and and and and and
per un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
hour. der der der der der der
9 10 12 14
8
7
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

14 16 18 20 25
and and and and and 30
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
der der der der der and
16 18 20 25 30 over.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

Massachusetts..............
Pennsylvania..............
Other States................

3
6
17

132
64
138

54.0 $0.1401
55.7 .1791
58.0 .1347

*4

13
1
5

5
2
11

12
2
12

11
8
25

15
4
28

24
8
20

18
6
12

16
8
10

13
20
7

4
4

1

Total.....................

26

334

56.0

.1454

9

19

18

26

44

47

52

36

34

40

8

1

1
19
4
2
19

3
29
29
32
37

11
63
52
88
31

8
76
81
60
28

8
51
72
30
20

1
10
60
8
14

3
5
91
3
10

6

45 130 245 253 181

93 112

12

5

W INDERS: Female.
Connecticut..........
Massachusetts..............
New Y ork...................
Pennsylvania..............
Other States................
Total.....................




35
259
396
238
191

57.
54.0
54.0
55.6
56.2

1484
.1415
.1702
.1370
.1363

2
2

2
3
1
3 **io
12 12

53 1,119

54.8

.1500

5

18

3
3
15
11
21

1

25

6

APPENDIX.
In order that the summary figures in regard to rates of wages and
hours of labor in the two industries covered in this Bulletin, hereto­
fore published for the years 1890 to 1912, may be available for refer­
ence, the tables following are reproduced from Bulletin No. 134.
T a b le

1 .—R E LA T IV E FULL-TIME HOURS PER W E E K AND R E L A T IV E RA TE S OF
W AGES PE R HOUR IN BOOT AND SHOE M ANUFACTURING, 1890 TO 1912.

[Data are included from 46 establishments, 1890-1903; 50 establishments, 1903, 1904; 52 establishments,
1904, 1905; 52 establishments, 1905, 1906; 54 establishments, 1906, 1907; 26 establishments, 1907-1910; 60
establishments, 1910,1911; and 81 establishments, 1911,1912.]




Year.

Relative
full-time
hours per
week.

Relative
rate of
wages per
hour.

Average, 1890-1899.

100.0

100.0

189
189
189
189
189

0
1
2
3
4

100.3
100.6
100.2
100.0
100.0

98.5
97.5
99.3
100.6
99.8

189
189
189
189
189

5
6
7
8
9

100.0
100.0
99.8
99.7
99.6

' 101.4
100.5
100.7
100.5
101.8

190
190
190
190
190

0
1
2
3
4

99.3
99.6
98.4
97.0
97.1

104.1
104.1
108.0
113.2
116.9

190
190
190
190
190

5
6
7
8
9

96.8
96.3
96.0
95.9
95.7

119.9
121.8
128.0
125.5
130.4

191 0
191 1
191 2

95.5
95.3
93.9

129.6
131.7
132.8

119

120

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T a b l e 2 .— R E LA T IV E FULL-TIME

HOURS PE R W E E K AND R E LA T IV E RATES OF
W AGES PE R HOUR IN THE PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS IN BOOT AND SHOE MANU­
FACTURING, 1890 TO 1912.

[Data are included from 46 establishments, 1890-1903; 50 establishments, 1903, 1904; 52 establishments,
1904.1905; 52 establishments, 1905, 1906; 54 establishments, 1906, 1907; 26 establishments, 1907-1910; 60
establishments, 1910,1911; and 81 establishments, 1911,1912.]
Cutting department.
Cutters, vamp
Cutters, vamp
Cutters, lining, and whole shoe, and whole shoe,
cloth, male.
hand,1male.
machine, male.

Skivers, upper,
machine, male.

Skivers, upper,
machine, female.

Year.
Rela­
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Rela­
tive
rate of
wages
per
hour.

Average:
1890-1899

100.0

100.0

1890...................
1891 .................
1892 ................
1893...................
1894...................

100.1
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.0

99.9
99.4
99.8
100.4
93.0

1895...................
1896...................
1897...................
1898...................
1899...................

99.8
100.0
99.9
100.0
99.7

100.0
99.1
101.0
99.7
102.8

1900...................
1901...................
1902...................
1903...................
1904...................

99.7
99.8
98.4
96.6
96.9

103.3
102.6
107.4
110.8
114.2

1905...................
1906...................
1907...................
1908...................
1909...................

96.2
95.8
95.5
95.3
95.1

117.3
118.8
126.8
129.7
132.7

1910...................
1911................... 4100.0 4100.0
1912................... <98.9 *103.7

95.1
94.9
92.9

134.6 3 100.0
133.8 399.0
137.9 3 96.4

Rela­
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Rela­
tive
rate of
wages
per
hour.

Rela­
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Relative Relative Relative Relative Relative
rate of full-time rate of full-time rate of
wages
hours
wages
hours
wages
per
per
per
per
per
hour.
hour.
week.
week.
hour.

2 100.0
2 100.7
2100.3
3 100.0
3 99.6
8101.5

3100.0
3 100.0
3 99.6

8100.0
8109.1
8 107.8

2 100.0
2 102.3
2102.1

2 99.8
2 100.3
2 97.0

2 104.2
2 104.7
2 114.0

1 Employees in this occupation were reported as cutters, upper, for 1890 to 1907.
2 Data for 1890 to 1906 not available; computed with 1907—100.0.
8 Data for 1890 to 1909 not available; computed with 1910=100.0
* Data for 1890 to 1910 not available; computed with 1911=100.0.




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1907 TO 1913---- APPENDIX.

121

T a b le 2 .— R E L A T IV E

FULL-TIME HOURS P E R W E E K AND R E L A T IV E R A TE S OF
W AGES P E R HOUR IN THE PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS IN BOOT AND SHOE MANU­
FACTURING, 1890 TO 1912—Continued.
Sole-leather department.
Channelers,
Cutters,
insole and
outsole, male. outsole, male.

Fitting or stitching department.
Backstay
stitchers,
female.

Button
fasteners,
female.

Buttonhole
makers,
female.

Closers-on,
female.

Year.
Rela­ Rela­ Rela­ Rela­ Rela­
tive
tive
tive
tive
tive
full­ rate of full­
full­
time rate of time wages time
hours per hours per hours
per hour.
per
per
week.
week. hour. week.
Average:

Rela­ Rela­ Rela­ Rela­ Rela­ Rela­ Rela­
tive
tive
tive
tive
tive
tive
tive
full­
rate of time rate of full­ rate of full­ rate of
time wages time wages
wages hours wages hours
per
per
per hours per
per
per
per
hour. week. hour. week. hour. week. hour.

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

1890.
1891.
1892.
1893.
1894.

100.2
101.7
100.2
99.8
99.7

12
0 .0
99.5
99.1
100.1
96.8

100.3
100.5
99.9
100.1
100.1

90.7
96.8
98.3
100.4
103.6

1895.
1896.
1897..
1898..
1899..

99.8
99.7
99.6
99.7
99.7

100.2
98.8
101.2
101.4
100.6

99.6
99.7
99.7
100.4
99.7

98.4
103.3
105.2
100.1
102.9

1900..
1901.
1902..
1903.
1904..

99.8
99.6
99.6
98.2
98.6

102*2

99.5
99.3
99.4

102.4
105.5
103.4
108.4
106.1

109.9
111.9
114.3 1100.0 1 100.0
111.8 199.8 1 108.8
111.4 199.5 1 103.6
112.3 199.3 1 104.9
113.7 199.3 1 107.1 2 100.0 2 100.0 2100.0 2100.0
116.8 197.0 1 109.3 299.1 2116.5 298.4 2102.5

1890-1899.

1905..
1906..
1907..
1908..
1909..

1100.0 1100.0
1100.0 1104.7

199.3 1108.1

98.5
98.0
98.0
97.5
97.5

1910..
1911..
1912..

199.3 1106.2
i 99.1 1109.5
197.7 1112.0

97.3
97.1
96.8

100.5
103.5
106.0
109.2

1 Data for 1890 to 1906 not available; computed with 1907=100.0.

* Data for 1890 to 1910 not available; computed with 1911=100.0.




98.4

96.4
96.4
93.0

109.0
111.1
112.3
106.6
116.2
111.0
110.5
114.7

122

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

TABLE 2 .— R E L A T IV E

FULL-TIME HOURS P E R W E E K AND R E LA T IV E RATES OF
W AGES P E R HOUR IN THE PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS IN BOOT AND SHOE MANU,
FACTURING, 1890 TO 1912—Continued.
Fitting or stitching department—Concluded.

Lining makers,
female.

Tip stitchers,
female.

Top stitchers or
undertrimmers,
female.

Rela­
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Rela­
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Rela­
tive Relative Relative Relative Relative Relative
full­
rate of full-time rate of full-time rate of
time
wages
hours
wages
hours
wages
per
per
hours
per
per
per
per
hour.
hour.
week.
hour.
week.
week.

Vampers, male.

Vampers, female.

Year.
Rela­
tive
rate of
wages
per
hour.

Rela­
tive
rate of
wages
per
hour.

Average:
1890-1899

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

1890...................
1891...................
1892...................
1893...................
1894...................

95.8
101.9
102.4
100.2
99.7

112.3
97.3
92.4
95.6
89.4

100.4
100.2
100.4
100.1
99.9

99.9
93.7
98.3
101.6
102.3

1895...................
1896...................
1897...................
1898...................
1899...................

99.8
100.0
100.2
100.3
99.5

90.7
101.5
111.4
103.0
106.7

99.9
99.6
99.5
100.1
99.8

103.2
102.0
100.8
99.4
98.5

1900...................
1901...................
1902...................
1903...................
1904...................

100.5
100.1
99.4
93.9
96.3

110.6
106.0
114.7
127.1
124.4

99.7
99.6
99.2
98.5
98.5

103.0
103.9
104.5
110.5
110.7

1905...................
1906...................
1907................... i 100.0 i 100.0
1908 ................. 1 99.8 1 94.3
1909................... 1 99.6 1 98.6
1910...................
1911...................
1912...................

i 99.4
1 99.4
196.8

1 93.1
1 92.0
194.9

1 100.0
1 100.0
1 100.0
2 100.0 2 100.0
2 98.9 2 105.3

1100.0
1 102.7
i 105.9

96.5
96.1
96.4
96.9
95.8

120.4
127.5
128.2
115.8
115.7

98.6
98.2
97.8
98.2
97.5

115.4
120.9
124.9
122.9
128.1

1 99.5
i 99.3
i 96.2

1 108.3
i 110.1
i 112.2

95.6
95.9
94.9

118.7
123.0
121.2

97.5
97.2
94.8

130.3
130.5
127.8

i Data for 1890 to 1906 not available; computed with 1907=100.0.
a Data for 1890 to 1910 not available; computed with 1911=100.0.




123

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1907 TO 1913---- APPENDIX.
T ab le 2 .—RELA TIV E

FULL-TIME HOURS PER W E E K AND R E LA T IV E RATES OP
W AGES PER HOUR IN THE PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS IN BOOT AND SHOE MANU­
FACTURING, 1890 TO 1912—Continued.
Lasting department.
Assemblers, Bed-machine Hand-method
for pullinglasting ma­
Lasters, ma­
over machine, operators,
chine opera­ chine,! male.
male.
male.
tors, male.

Pullers-over,
hand, male.

Pullers-over,
machine,
female.

Year.
Rela­ Rela­ Rela­ Rela­ Rela­ Rela­ Rela­ Rela­ Rela­ Rela­ Rela­ Relative
tive
tive
tive
tive
tive
tive
tive
tive
tive
tive
full­
full­
full­
full­
full­
full­ i tive
time rate of time rate of time rate of time rate of time rate of time ;rate of
wages hours wages
wages
wages
wages
hours wages hours
per
per hours per hours per hours per
per
per
per
per
per
per
per
week. hour. week. hour. week. hour. week. hour. week. hour. week. hour.
Average:
1890-1899

100.0

100.0

1890...................
1891...................
1892...................
1893...................
1894...................

99.5
100.2
100.0
99.8
100.6

97.3
98.1
101.2
96.1
101.3

1

1895...................
1896...................
1897...................
1898...................
1899...................

100.5
100.5
100.0
98.6
100.3

101.1
103.9
97.6
103.9
100.6

I
!
!
!..........

1900...................
1901...................
1902...................
1903...................
1904...................

98.8
99.9
98.5
97.8
98.0

103.0
106.6
114.4
120.1
125.4

98.0
97.6
96.6

128.0
132.4
135.2 2100.0 2100.0
2100.0 2 97.3
2 99.3 2112.0

1905...................
1906...................
1907...................
1908...................
1909...................

UOO.O 2100.0 2100.0 2100.0
2100.2 2 95.4 2 99.1 2 98.7
2100.2 2 97.9 2 99.3 2 99.3

2100.6 2 91.9 2 98.2 2103.6
1910...................
1911................... 4100.0 4100.0 2100.1 2 95.5 2 98.0 2104.7
4 98.9 4 96.6 2 99.0 2 90.5 2 95.9 2107.3
1912...................

i
j

i
.......... i...........
.......... i *

2 98.8 2107.9 3100.0 3100.0
2 98.5 2114.4 3 98.4 3 99.5
2 96.9 2116.9 3 97.5 3 95.5

1 Employees reported as lasters, machine, for 1890 to 1907, are reported for subsequent years as bedmachine operators and hand-method lasting-machine operators.
2 Data for 1890 to 1906 not available; computed with 1907=100.0.
3 Data for 1890 to 1909 not available; computed with 1910=100.0.
4 Data for 1890 to 1910 not available; computed with 1911=100.0.




124

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

TABLE 2 .— R E LA T IV E

FULL-TIM E HOURS PER W E E K AND R E LA TIV E RATES OF
WAGES PER HOUR IN THE PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS IN BOOT AND SHOE MANU­
FACTURING, 1890 TO 1912—Continued.
Bottoming department.

Buffers,
male.

Edge setters,
male.

Edge trim­
mers, male.

Goodyear
stitchers,
male.

Goodyear
welters,
male.

Heel breast­
ers, male.

Year.
Rela­
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Rela­ Rela­ Rela­ ?$e R . la- Rela­ Rela­ Rela­ Rela­ Rela­ Rela­
tive
tive
e
tive
tive
tive
tive
tive
tive
tive
full­
E n- ! tive
rate of time rate of time rateof full­ rate of full­ rate of fuH-e rate of
time
time
tim wages
wages hours
hours per hours
per hours
per
per hours per
per
per
per
per
hour. week. hour.
hour.
week. hour. week. hour.
iSSL

Average:

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.8
100.8
101.0
100.8

97.7
97.2
99.2
105.1

101.3

1897.
1898.

99.5
99.7
99.9
98.5
99.2

103.1
99.2
100.4
99.9
99.0

1900..
1901..
1902..
1903..
1904..

98.2
99.2
97.3
95.8
95.7

105.3
105.0
110.1
114.7
116.4

98.7
95.1
94.4
94.6

115.6
117.3
121.7
131.0
133.2

95.6
94.9
95.1
94.8
95.0

118.7
118.9
127.1
121.4
124.9

94.9
94.2
94.0
93.7
94.0

130.2
128.1
132.2 1100.0 1100.0
123.2 U00.2 1100.0
129.3 199.7 1108.5

94.7 126.0
94.4 i 128.7
94.1 127.5

93.8
93.3
93.3

127.0 199.5 U03.3
131.7 199.1 1109.5 2100.0 2 100.0
131.0 198.7 1110.1 2 99.3 2 103.8

1890-1899.

1890.
1891.
1892.
1893.
1894.

1905..
1906..
1907..
1908..
1909.
1910.
1911.
1912.

1100.0 1100.0
1100.4 187.8
U00.2 1 95.2
2100.0 2100.0
2100.0 2 1 0 4 .4




196.4
198.1
198.9 1100.5

100.6

100.5
100.7
99.5

100.0
93.9
96.5
96.4
99.6
100.9
98.6
108.4
106.6
110.4

1 Data for 1890 to 1906 not available; computed with 1907=100.0.
2 Data for 1890 to 1910 not available; computed with 1911=100.0.

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1907 TO 1913— APPENDIX.

125

T a b le 2 . —R E LA T IV E

FULL-TIME HOURS P E R W E E K AND R E L A T IV E R A TE S OF
W AGES P E R HOUR IN THE PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS IN BOOT AND SHOE MANU­
FACTU RIN G, 1890 TO 1912—Continued.
Bottoming department—Continued.

Heel burnish­ Heel scourers,
male.
ers, male.

Heel-seat
nailers,
male.

Heel sluggers,
male.

Heel trim­
mers or
shavers,1
male.

Heelers,
male.

Year.
Rela­
tive
full­
time
hours
per

Rela­ Rela­ Rela­ Rela­ Rela­ Rela­ Rela­ Rela­ Rela­
tive
tive
tive
tive
tive
tive
tive
tive
tive
rate of full­ rate of full­ rate of full­ rate of full­ rate of
time wages time
time wages time wages
wages hours
per hours per hours per hours per
per
per
per
per
per
hour. week. hour. week. hour. week. hour. week. hour.

Average:

Rela­ Rela­
tive
tive
full­
time rate of
hours wages
per
per
week. hour.

100.0

100.0

1890.
1891.
1892.
1893.
1894.

101.6
100.7
100.7
100.4
99.7

91.9
90.8
97.0
104.7
102.3

1895.
1896.
1897.

99.4
99.4
99.3
99.6
99.1

103.6
101.0
102.3
105.0
101.5

1900..
1901..
1902..
1903..
1904..

97.7
97.6
96.7
96.2
95.7

104.8
105.5
106.9
115.7
122.0

1905..
1906..
1907..
1908..
1909..

96.1
95.0
94.7
94.9
95.1

125.1
127.4
129.6
129.7
132.0

94.9
94.7
93.9

131.0
132.8 2100.0
132.6

1890-1899.

1910..
1911.
1912..

UOO. 0 2100.0 2100.0 2100.0 2100.0 2100.0 2100.0 2100.0
U02.1 2101.3 2101.1 2 100.0 2 90.6
2101.9

i Employees in this occupation were reported as heel trimmers for 1890 to 1907.
a Data for 1890 to 1910 not available; computed with 1911=100.0.




2100.0

126

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T able 2.—R E LA T IV E FULL-TIME HOURS P E R W E E K AND R E LA T IV E R ATES OP
W AGES P E R HOUR IN THE PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS IN BOOT AND SHOE MANU­
FACTURING, 1890 TO 1912—Concluded.
Bottoming department—Concluded.
Levelers,
male.
Year.

McKay sewers, Rough rounders, Treers or ironers,
male.
hand, male.
male.

Treers or ironers,
hand, female.

Rela­
tive Relative Relative Relative Relative Relative
rate of full-time rate of full-time rate of
full­
time
hours
wages
wages
hours
wages
per
per
per
hours
per
per
per
hour.
week.
hour.
hour.
week.
week.

Rela­
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Rela­
tive
rate of
wages
per
hour.

Average:
1890-1899...

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

1890...................
1891...................
1892...................
1893...................
1894...................

101.6
101.5
100.4
100.4
99.8

95.0
94.1
99.3
104.4
100.6

100.1
100.7
99.4
99.0
99.7

101.4
97.4
98.8
100.4
101.4

1895...................
1896...................
1897...................
1898...................
1899...................

100.2
99.8
99.1
98.5
98.6

104.3
98.9
101.2
102.6
99.6

100.9
100.3
99.9
100.3
99.7

100.9
101.6
97.9
97.7
102.6

1900...................
1901...................
1902...................
1903...................
1904...................

96.4
98.0
96.7
96.6
96.3

99.9
99.1
100.7
103.6
103.5

99.6
99.8
98.2
96.0
95.9

107.9
105.5
110.0
123.4
123.3

1905...................
1906...................
1907...................
1908...................
1909..................

95.8
95.7
95.2
95.4
96.1

102.2
104.3
101.0 1100.0
109.2 1 100.0
96.0 1 99.6

1 100.0
1 95.1
1 112.1

95.9
95.2
95.5
95.1
95.3

126.0
122.3
135.6
130.9
130.2

1 106.2
1 114.5
1 115.1

95.1
95.4
95.2

128.0
128.4
126.0

1910...................
1911...................
1912...................

Rela­
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Finishing department.

3

Rela­
tive
rate of
wages
per
hour.

100.0 3 100.0
3 99.8 3 104.1




95.2
94.5
94.2

97.8
97.9
94.5

199.1
1 98.8
1 98.1

i Data for 1890 to 1906 not available; computed with 1907=100.0.
a Data for 1890 to 1909 not available; computed with 1910= 100.0.
s Data for 1890 to 1910 not available; computed with 1911=100.0.

2 100.0
299.8
293.3

2 100.0
2 100.5
2 107.0

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1907 TO 1913— APPENDIX.

127

TABLE 3.— R E LA T IV E FULL-TIME

HOURS P E R W E E K AND R E LA T IV E RATES OF
W AGES P E R HOUR IN H OSIERY AND U N D E R W E A R MANUFACTURING, 1890 TO 1912.

[Data are included from 8 establishments, 1890-1903 ; 9 establishments, 1903, 1904; 22 establishments, 1904,
1905; 25 establishments, 1905, 1906; 30 establishments, 1906, 1907; 15 establishments, 1907-1910; 62 estab­
lishments, 1910,1911; 62 establishments, 1911,1912.]




128

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T a b le 4 .— R E LATIVE

FULL-TIME HOURS PE R W EE K AND RELATIVE RATES 0 7
WAGES PE R HOUR IN THE PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS IN HOSIERY AND UN DER­
W E A R MANUFACTURING, 1890 TO 1912.

[Data are included from 8 establishments, 1890-1903; 9 establishments, 1903, 1904; 22 establishments, 1904,
1905; 25 establishments, 1905, 1906; 30 establishments, 1906, 1907; 15 establishments, 1907-1910; 62 estab­
lishments, 1910,1911; and 62 establishments, 1911,1912.]

Boarders, male.
Year.

Buttonhole makers, Button sewers, un­ Cutters, hand, un­
derwear, female.
underwear, female.
derwear, male.

Relative Relative Relative Relative Relative Relative Relative Relative
full-time rate of full-time rate of full-time rate of full-time rate of
hours per wages per hours per wages per hours per wages per hours per wages per
week.
hour.
week.
hour.
week.
hour.
hour.
week.

Average, 1890-1899..

100.0

100.0

1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................

101.3
101.3
101.3
99.7
98.2

107.9
100.3
90.3
106.8
91.5

1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................

99.4
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.8

110.8
99.9
99.0
99.3
94.2

1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................

99.6
99.2
99.2
98.2
98.4

91.9
116.2
107.8
125.4
123.5

1905......................
1906......................
1907......................
1908......................
1909......................

98.3
98.4
97.5
97.0
97.2

127.9
132.6
148.6
143.9
138.8

1910......................
1911......................
1912......................

95.4
95.4
93.2

148.9
146.4
168.2

Cutters, hand, un­
derwear, female.

1 100.0
1 100. 0
198.6

1 100.0
i 102.4
1 104.4

Finishers, under­
wear, female.

1 100.0
1 100. 2
198.5

1 100.0
198.7
199.6

1 100.0
199.3
199.3

1100.0
1 103.1
198.1

1

I n s p e c t o r s and
menders, under­
wear, female.

Folders, female.

100.0

100.0

1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
!
1893......................
................
1894...................... ............... 1

101.3
101.3
101.3
101.0
91.3

106.6
113.2
105.2
97.4
92.4

1895 .................
1896......................
1897 ...............
1898......................
1899......................

101.1
100.8
100.8
100.6
100.6

93.4
1
!
100.9 ............... i................ |
................
98.8
1
100.7
92.3

Average, 1890-1899

i

1

98.1
97.8
98.1
96.0
96.7

1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903 .................
1904..

i

.......... 1...........
1

99.3
103.4
118.7
121.3
119.7

1

•

1905
.. .
1906......................
1907......................
1908.....................
1909....................

2 100. 0
2 98.8
2 99.0

2 100. 0
2 109.0
2 100.5

96.2
94.4
95.0
94.8
95.0

128.0
137.0
145.8
139.2
136.6

2 100.0
299.7
2 100.2

2 100.0
296.1
2 109.2

1910......................
1911......................
1912......................

2 96.4
2 96.4
2 93.5

299.7
2 100.9
2 111. 1

93.5
93.3
91.7

142.2
141.9
147.1

298.O
2 97.8
2 95.8

2 109.3
2 108.6
2 111.2




1 Data for 1890 to 1909 not available; computed with 1910=100.0.
2 Data for 1890 to 1906 not available; computed with 1907=100.0.

1 100.0
1100.0
199.0

1100.0
1101.0
1104.2

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1901 TO 1913— APPENDIX.

129

T a b le 4 .— RELATIVE FULL-TIME

HOURS PE R W E E K AND R E LA TIV E RATES OF
W AGES PE R HOUR IN THE PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS IN HOSIERY AND UNDER­
W E A R MANUFACTURING, 1890 TO 1912—Continued.

Knitters,1 male.
Year.

Knitters,1 female.

Knitters, footers or
toppers,2 male.

Knitters, footers or
toppers,2 female.

Relative Relative Relative Relative Relative Relative Relative Relative
full-time rate o f full-time rate of full-time rate of full-time rate of
hours per wages per hours per wages per hours per wages per hours per wages per
week.
week.
hour.
hour.
week.
hour.
week.
hour.

Average, 1890-1899..

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................

102.8
102.8
102.8
100.5
91.3

107.7
118.6
99.8
113.4
110.0

100.5
100.6
100.6
100.5
95.7

104.9
104.8
99.0
97.4
101.1

1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................

100.3
100.1
99.9
99.8
99.8

112.2
90.4
81.8
85.4
80.7

100.4
100.5
100.5
100.5
100.5

104.6
98.5
98.7
96.2
94.5

1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903 ....................
1904 ....................

98.7
98.7
98.7
97.4
97.6

90.9
92.3
95.7
123.9
115.4

99.3
99.6
99.3
98.6
98.2

91.5
103.1
112.4
116.6
111.4

1905......................
1906......................
1907......................
1908......................
1909......................

97.3
99.0
96.9

119.2
126.2
128.1

98.1
97.6
97.1

124.1
130.8
135.5

3 100.0
3 100.0
3 100.0
4100.0
499.7
499.2

1910......................
1911......................
1912......................
Knitters, “ lady
hose,” 2 male.

Knitters, “ lady
hose,” 2 female.

4100.0
<99.7
4 97.3

4 100.0
4 100.0
<98.4

4 100.0
4 103.0
4 110.8

Knitters, rib, ho­
siery,2 male.

3 100.0
3 108.0
3 108.0

396.6
396.6
394.7

3 107.7
3 109.4
3 111.7

Knitters, rib, ho­
siery,2 female.

Average, 1890-1899
1890 ....................
1891......................
1892......................
1893 ...................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897
. .
1898 ...................
1899
1900....................
1901
1902
..............
1903
1904......................
1905
1906
1907
1908
1909

................
...............

1910......................
1911......................
1912......................

4 100.0
<100.4
4 108.3

4 100.0
4 101. 1
4 115.9

4100.0
4 99.8
498.2

4 100.0
4 100.2
4 106.1

4100.0
4 100.4
496.9

4100.0
4 117.0
4 114.4

i Employees reported as knitters for 1890 to 1907 are reported for subsequent years as knitters, footers or
toppers; knitters, “ lady hose” ; knitters, rib, hosiery; and knitters, web or tube, underwear.
8 Employees in this occupation were reported as knitters for 1890 to 1907.
3 Data for 1890 to 1906 not available; computed with 1907=100.0.
< Data for 1890 to 1909 not available; computed with 1910=100.0.
i

45968°— Bull. 154—14------ 9



OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
VE FULL-TIME HOURS PER W E E K AND R E L A T IV E R A TE S OF
UR IN THE PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS IN H O SIE R Y AND UNDER^TURING, 1890 TO 1912—Continued.
Knitters, web or
tube, underwear,i
male.

Knitters, web or
tube,underwear,^
female.

Loopers, female.

Menders,2 female.

Relative Relative Relative Relative Relative Relative Relative Relative
full-time rate of full-time rate of full-time rate of full-time I rate of
hours per wages per hours per wages per hours per wages per hours per,wages per
week.
hour.
week.
hour.
week.
hour.
week.
hour.
100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

108.9
105.5
99.6
100.8
92.4

100.0

101.9
102.0

103.3

102.0

1891.
1892.
1893.
1894.

101.6
91.5

104.2
95.9

101.8
101.8
101.8
99.5
95.9

1895.
1896.
1897.
1898.
1899.

101.3
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9

106.7
117.4
91.0
93.3
88.5

99.4
99.7
100.1
100.2
99.8

113.4
97.8
92.1
95.8
93.8

1900.
1901.
1902.
1903.
1904.

98.3
98.2
98.2
98.2
98.1

80.7
94.3
92.9
106.1
93.3

99.2
98.8
99.0
98.6
98.6

104.1
92.3
112.2
110.5
106.1

98.4
97.8
97.0
96.7
96.7

99.4
105.5
110.2
100.5
108.8

98.2
98.0
97.4

113.7
117.2
122.1

95.5
95.5

109.1
106.4
115.6

1905.
1906.
1907.
1908.
1909.

3100.0
3 99.7
3 100.0

3 100.0
3 95.1
3 97.1

97.4
97.1
95.6

3 97.3
3104.1
3 112.1

1910.
1911.
1912.

3
3
3

Menders, fine, ho­
siery,4 female.

3
3
3

100.0
100.2
100.4

3 100.0
3 101.1
3 91.9

97.6
96.9
94.3

3 103.1
3 98.0
3 81.9

3
3
3

Menders, rough, ho­
siery,4 female.

Pressers, male.

Press hands, female.

erage

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

1890.
1891.
1892.
1893.
1894.

101.1

107.4
105.2
92.6
98.9
94.6

102.4
102.4
102.4
99.0
99.0

110.8
102.3
101.5
99.8
109.6

1895.
1896.
1897.
1898.
1899.

100.7
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.7

94.4
100.9
103.9
101.4

99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0

91.4
105.4
97.9

1900.
1901.
1902.
1903.
1904.

98.3
97.4
99.0
99.3
99.5

106.6
103.6
107.1
116.2
112.9

99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
97.2

107.1
104.0
110.3
100.9
122.3

1905.
1906.
1907.
1908.
1909.
1910.

1911.
1912.
Emp]
Emp]
siery,




101.1

101.1
100.8
92.3

3

100.0
3 99.0
3
3
3

98.3
98.3
95.5

3 100.0
3 91.6
3 90.8
3 95.1

3 96.7.
99.4

3

100.8

88.8

92.9

100.0
399.8
3 100.0

3 100.0
3 113.7
3 115.1

99.6
99.4
99.6
99.4
99.2

120.5
123.7
137.1
119.9
123.1

98.5
98.6
98.5
98.5
98.5

131.7
137.6
135.9
135.2
120.7

98.5
98.5
97.6

3 109.7
3 110.2
3*117.8

98.9
98.7
97.2

132.9
139.0
144.3

95.1
94.8
93.6

146.6
146.2
153.6

3

3
3
3

occupation were reported as knitters for 1890 to 1907.
d as menders for 1890 to 1907 are reported for subsequent years as menders, fine,
rough, hosiery.
1 not available; computed with 1907=100.0.
6
occupation were reported as members for 1890 to 1907.

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1907 TO 1913---- APPENDIX.

131

T a b le 4 .— R E LA T IV E

FULL-TIME HOURS PER W E E K AND R E L A T IV E R A TE S OF
W AGES PER HOUR IN THE PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS IN H OSIERY AND UNDER­
W E A R MANUFACTURING, 1890 TO 1912—Concluded.

Ribbers, female.
Year.

Seamers, underwear,
female.

Welters, female.

Winders, female.

Relative Relative Relative Relative Relative Relative Relative Relative
full-time rate of full-time rate of full-time rate of full-time rate of
hours per wages per hours per wages per hours per wages per hours per wages per
hour.
week.
hour.
hour.
week.
week.
week.
hour.

Average, 1890-1899...

100.0

100.0

1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.5
112.3
103.1
103.4
91.8

1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

98.8
87.2
92.0
96.4
114.4

1900......................
1901....*...............
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

110.1
112.8
120.9
119.0
117.3

1905......................
1906......................
1907......................
1908......................
1909......................

100.0
100.0
. 99.7
(2
)

122.6
127.0
137.6
(2
)

1910......................
1911......................
1912......................




_________ i__________

1100.0
199.8
1100.0

1100.0
1108.4
1 109.2

197.6
197.6
196.8

199.5
198.7
1 105.0

1100.0
199.8
199.6
8100.0
100.0
3 97.7

3

s 100.0
103.7
117.1

3
3

1 Data for 1890 to 1906 not available; computed with 1907*=100.0.
2 Occupation discontinued.
8 Data for 1890 to 1909 not available; computed with 1910=100.0.

1100.0
1 115.8
1108.0

197.7
197.2
194.8

1 106.4
1 108.5
1 116.7


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102