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U.S. Working Women:
A Databook
U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
1977
Bulletin 1977







U.S. Working Women
A Databook
U.S. Department of Labor
Ray Marshall, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Julius Shiskin, Commissioner
1977
Bulletin 1977




i







Foreword

The Bureau of Labor Statistics
has long provided information
about working women in as timely
and useful a manner as possible. In
1975, American women joined
others from all over the world to
celebrate International Women’s
Year and to proclaim the succeed­
ing years as the Decade for Women.
Since then, the need for continuing
data has been greatly increased as
American women have continued to

enter and reenterthe labor market in
record numbers. Clearly, women are
a permanent and important part of
the labor force. Their status was
featured in the 1975 BLS chartbook, U.S. Working Women. Their
phenomenal growth in the work
force is illustrated in the tables and
text of this year’s databook. Future
developments will be examined each
year as part of the Bureau’s labor
force analysis program.




Preface

This databook presents a wide
array of information on the char­
acteristics of working women in the
United States and changing trends
over the past quarter of a century.
The primary source of the data is the
Current Population Survey, which
is conducted monthly for the Bureau
of Labor Statistics by the Bureau of
the Census. Most of this informa­
tion is published by the Bureau of
Labor Statistics in a series of Special
Labor Force Reports and in the
monthly periodicals Employment
and Earnings and Monthly Labor
Review.
Part I provides information on
the labor force participation,
employment, and unemployment of
women between 1950 and 1976. It
also presents data on the strength of
women’s attachment to the labor
force as indicated by the number of
weeks spent working or looking for
work during the year. Part II focuses
on working women’s marital and
family status, and Part III reviews
changes in women’s education,
income, and earnings. Part IV
analyzes data by race and Spanish
origin. (Collection of data by
Spanish origin was begun in 1973.)

Part V contains additional infor­
mation on the job tenure of working
women and moonlighting, and Part
VI concludes with a glimpse of
future worklife expectancy and
labor force participation rates. All
data, unless otherwise indicated,
refer to the civilian noninstitutional
population 16 years of age and over.
Because of rounding, sums of
individual items in the tables may
not equal totals.
This databook was prepared in
the Division of Labor Force Studies,
Office of Current Employment
Analysis. It was assembled by
Allyson Sherman Grossman and
Beverly Johnson under the direc­
tion of Elizabeth Waldman. Annice
Tyler, Annie Wilder, Mildred
Behlin, and Fran Waters provided
valuable assistance. The Division of
Graphic Services of the U.S.
Department of Labor prepared the
layout and design.
Material in this publication is in
the public domain and may be
reproduced without permission of
the Federal Government. Please
credit the Bureau of Labor Statistics
and cite the name and number of the
publication.




Contents

Page
Part I. Labor Force, Employment, and Unemployment ....................

1

Charts:
1. Labor force participation rates of women and men,
annual averages, 1950-76 ........................................................

2

2. Unemployment rates of women and men,
annual averages, 1950-76 ........................................................

3

Tables:
1. Women in the labor force, annual averages,
selected years, 1950-76

5

2. Labor force participation rates of women by age,
annual averages, selected years, 1950-76 .............................

5

3. Labor force participation rates of women and men,
annual averages, 1950-76 ........................................................

5

4. Labor force participation rates of women 20 years and over
by year of birth and age, annual averages, selected
years, 1955-76 ...........................................................................

6

5. Women employees on nonagricultural payrolls, selected
industries, January 1964 and January 1976 .........................

7

. Employed and unemployed women, annual averages,
1950-76 ......................................................................................

8

7. Occupational distribution of employed women, annual
averages, selected years, 1950-76 .........................................

8

6

8

. Employment of women in selected occupations,
1950, 1970, and 1976 ..............

9

9. Unemployment rates of women and men,
annual averages, 1950-76 ........................................................

10

10. Unemployed women and men by age, annual averages,
selected years, 1950-76 ...........................................................

10

. Unemployed women and men by reason for unemploy­
ment, annual averages, 1976 ..................................................

10

12. Women and men not in the labor force by desire for job
and reason for nonparticipation, annual averages,
1970 and 1976 ...........................................................................

11

1 1

V

Contents-Continued

Page

P9
ae

13. Percent of population who worked at some time during
year by sex and age, selected years, 1960-75 ......................

11

14. Work experience of women and men in 1975 .......................

12

Part II. Marital and Family Status ...............................................................

26
26

28. Women who head families by age and marital status,
March 1960, March 1970, and March 1976 ...........................

27

29. Women who head families by employment and marital
status, March 1976 ...................................................................

27
29

Tables:
30. Women and men in the labor force by years of school
completed, selected years, 1952-76 ........................................

31

31. Labor force status of women by years of school com­
pleted, March 1976 ...................................................................

32

32. Occupational distribution of employed women by years
of school completed, March 1976 ..........................................

32

33. Women and men 25 years and over in the labor force by
age and years of school completed, March 1976 ................

33

34. Sources of income of women 14 years and over, 1975 ..

17. Women with unemployment in 1975 by number of
weeks unemployed ...................................................................

26. Birth rates and fertility rates by race, selected years,
1920-76 ......................................................................................

Part III. Education, Income, and Earnings .........................................

16. Women by work experience and reason for less than
full-year work in 1975 ...............................................................

25

27. Families by type, selected years, 1940-76 .............................

15. Percent of employed women in each occupation group
with year-round full-time jobs in 1975 ..................................

25. Arrangements made for daytime care of children 3 to 13
years old, by age of children and labor force status of
mother, October 1974 and February 1975 .............................

33

35. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and
salary workers by sex, 1967-76 ...............................................

34

36. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and
salary workers by sex and occupation and industry
group, May 1976 ......................................................................

34

37. Median annual earnings of year-round full-time workers
14 years and over by sex, 1955-75 .........................................

35

12
13
13
15

Charts:

3. Labor force participation rates of women by marital
status, March 1960 to March 1976 .........................................
4. Labor force participation rates of married women, hus­
band present, by presence and age of own children,
1950-76 .......................................................................................

16

17

Tables:

18. Women by labor force and marital status, selected
years, 1950-76 ............................................................................
19. Women by marital and labor force status and presence
and age of own children, March 1976 ....................................
20. Employed women, full or part time, by marital status and
presence and age of own children, March 1976 ..................
21. Labor force participation rates of women by age and
marital status, March1976 ........................................................
22. Labor force participation rates of married women, hus­
band present, by presence and age of own children,
1950-76 .......................................................................................

19
20
21
22

22

23. Number of own children by age of children, type of family,
and labor force status of mother, March 1970,
March 1975, and March1976 ....................................................

23

38. Median annual earnings of women 14 years and over
by weeks worked, 1975 ............................................................

35

24. Number of own children by age of children, type of family,
status of parents, March 1976 ................

24

39. Median annual earnings of year-round full-time workers
in 1975, by selected characteristics, March 1976 .........

36

and
 employment
VI


Contents -Continued
40. Husband-wife families by number of earners and size of
family, March 1976, and median family income in 1975 ___
41. Earnings of married women, husband present, as percent
of family income in 1975, by selected characteristics of
husband-wife families, March 1976 ......................................
42. Earnings of women who head families as percent of family
income in 1975, by selected characteristics,
March 1976 .............................................................................
43. Poverty status in 1975 of women and men by age and
years of school completed, March 1976 ..............................

Page

Page
51. Family status of unemployed women by race and Spanish
origin, March 1976 ....................................................................

50

52. Work experience and median annual earnings of women
by race and Spanish origin, 1975 ............................................

51

53. Median annual earnings of women and men who worked
year round, full time, by race and Spanish origin, 1975 .......

52

54. Families by type, race, and Spanish origin, March 1976,
and median family income in 1975 .........................................

53

39 Part V. Additional C haracteristics....................... ................................

55

37

38

38

Tables:
Part IV. Race and Spanish O r i g i n .............................................................

41

5. Labor force participation rates of women and men , annual
averages, by race, 1955-76, and Spanish origin,
1973-76 ...................................................................................

42

. Unemployment rates of women and men , annual
averages, by race, 1955-76, and Spanish origin,
1973-76 ...................................................................................

43

6

Ta bles:

44. Labor force status of. women and men by race, annual
averages, 1955-76 ...................................................................

4 4

45. Labor force status of persons of Spanish origin by sex,
annual averages, 1973-76 ......................................................

45

46. Employment status of women and men by race and
Spanish origin, March 1976 ...................................................

45

47. Labor force status of women by race, Spanish origin, and
marital and family status, March 1976 ................................

46

48. Number of own children and median family income in
1975 by age of children, type of family, labor force
status of mother, race, and Spanish origin, March 1976 ...

47

49. Women and men in the labor force by years of school
completed, race, and Spanish origin, March 1976 .............

48

50. Occupational distribution of employed women and men
by race and Spanish origin, March 1976 .............................



57

56. Median number of years worked at current job by women
and men by age, January 1973 .............. .................................

Charts:

55. Length of time on current job of women and men,
January 1973 ...............................................................................

57

57. Multiple jobholding rates of employed women and men
and main reason for working at more than one job,
May 1976 ....................................................................................

57

58. Percent of all wage and salary workers on unscheduled
absence from work by sex and age, May 1976 .....................

58

59. Methods used by women and men to look for work and
method by which current job was obtained,
January 1973 ...............................................................................

59

Part VI.The Future ...................................................................................

61

Charts:

7. Labor force participation rates of women and men, annual
averages 1950-76, and projected rates for 1980, 1985,
and 1990........................................................................................

63

Tables:

49

60. Life and work expectancy at birth, selected years,
1900-1970 ....................................................................................

64

61. Population, labor force,and labor force participation
rates of women and men by age, 1975 (actual) and 1980,
1985, and 1990 (projected) ........................................................

65

Sources of Data ......................................................................................

66
vii




mmi

Part I.
Labor Force,Employment,
and Unemployment




By mid-1977, 40 million women are divorced or separated from their
were in the labor force—about 41 husbands and who also have
percent of the country’s entire labor dependent children at home.
force and 49 percent of all women 16
• Significant increases have oc­
years of age and over.
Following are a few highlights of curred in the proportion of women
employed in professional-technical,
the data shown in Part I:
service, and clerical jobs. Cor­
* M iddle-aged women were responding declines have occurred
largely responsible for the increase in operative and farm occupations.
in labor force participation between The jobs held by most women are
1950 and 1965. Since 1965, the generally in the same fields in which
largest gains have shifted to women women were employed 10 and 25
under age 35. In fact, a phenomenal years ago, but women have made
increase has been occurring among substantial inroads in a few specific
women 25 to 34 years of age. Their occupations. For example, in 1950,
labor force participation rate 15 percent of all accountants were
advanced by 12 percentage points to women; in 1976, 27 percent were
57 percent between 1970 and 1976, women. Among lawyers and judges,
and reached 59 percent early in 1977. the proportion of women rose from
This is a remarkable increase 4 to 9 percent; among doctors, from
because the majority of women in 7 to 13 percent; and among bank
this age group (64 percent) are officials and financial managers,
married, live with their husbands, from 12 to 25 percent.
and have children at home, factors
which traditionally have tended to • Women have become a larger
keep women out of the labor force. proportion of the unemployed over
Another 10 percent are women who the past few decades. Unemployed

women are more likely than men to
be entering or reentering the labor
force and are less likely to have lost
their last job.
• Women constitute about threefourths of the population outside of
the labor force. Most of these
women do not want jobs, but their
reasons are markedly different from
those of men who are not looking for
jobs. The majority of women give
keeping house as their reason while
most men give retirement, school
attendance, or illness or disability as
their main reason.
• In 1975, 42.9 million women had
worked at some time during the
year. They constituted over half (53
percent) of all women 16 years of age
and over, a proportion that varied a
great deal by age, marital status, and
presence and age of children.
Among these working women, 17.8
million had worked 50 weeks or
more at full-time jobs.

1

Chart 1.
Labor force participation
rates of women and men,
annual averages, 1950-76

2







Chart 2.
Unemployment rates of
women and men, annual
averages, 1950-76

3




Table 1

Table 3

Women in the labor force, annual averages,
selected years, 1950-76

Labor force participation rates of women and men, annual
averages, 1950-76

(Numbers in thousands)
Year

L ab or force

Women

W o m en

Y ear
T o ta l, b o th sexes

N u m b er

1950

..........................................

1955

..........................................

6 2 ,2 0 8
6 5 ,0 2 3

1960

..........................................

6 9 ,6 2 8

2 3 ,2 4 0

..........................................

7 4 ,4 5 5

2 6 ,2 0 0

..........................................

8 2 ,7 1 5

3 1 ,5 2 0

38.1

1975
1976

..........................................
..........................................

3 6 ,9 9 8
3 8 ,4 1 4

3 9 .9
4 0 .5

..............................................
..............................................
..............................................
..............................................
..............................................

33.9
34.6
34.7
34.4
34.6

86.4
86.5
86.3
86.0
85.5

..............................................
..............................................
..............................................
....... .......................................
..............................................

35.7
36.9
36.9
37.1
37.1

85.3
85.5
84.8
84.2
83.7

..............................................
..............................................
..............................................
..............................................
..............................................

37.7
38.1
37.9
38.3
38.7

83.3
82.9
82.0
81.4
81.0

1965
1966
1967
1968
1969

..............................................
..............................................
..............................................
..............................................
..............................................

39.3
40.3
41.1
41.6
42.7

80.7
80.4
80.4
80.1
79.8

1970
1971
1972
1973
1974

..............................................
..............................................
..............................................
..............................................
..............................................

43.3
43.3
43.9
44.7
45.6

79.7
79.1
79.0
78.8
78.7

1975 ..............................................
1976 ..............................................

46.3
47.3

77.9
77.5

3 5 .2

1970

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964

2 9 .6
3 1 .6
3 3 .4

1965

Men

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

Percent o f to ta l

1 8 ,3 8 9
2 0 ,5 8 4

Percent of population in labor force

9 2 ,6 1 3
9 4 ,7 7 3

Table 2
Labor force participation of women by age, annual
averages, selected years, 1950-76
Percent o f population in labor force

1950

1960

1970

1976

Total, 16 years and over ..

33.9

37.7

43.3

47.3

16 and 1 7 ..................................
18 and 1 9 ..................................
20 to 24 ...................................
25 to 34 ...................................
35 to 44 ...................................
45 to 54 .............................. '. . .
55 to 64 ...................................
65 and over ..............................

30.1
51.3
46.0
34.0
39.1
37.9
27.0
9.0

29.1
50.9
46.1
36.0
43.4
49.8
37.2
10.8

34.9
53.6
57.7
45.0
51.1
54.4
43.0
9.7

40.7
59.0
65.0
57.1
57.8
55.0
41.1
8.2




5

Table 4
Labor force participation rates1 of women 20 years and over by year of birth and age,
annual averages, selected years, 1955-76
1955

Year of birth
Age

1960
Rate

Age

1970

1965
Rate

Age

Rate

Age

1976

1975
Rate

Rate

Age

Rate

20-24

1951-55 ...............................

Age

64.1

20-24

65.0

20-24

1946-50 ...............................

57.8

25-29

57.0

25-29

59.2

20-24

1941-45 ...............................

50.0

25-29

45.2

30-34

51.7

30-34

54.6

20-24

1936-40 ...............................

46.2

25-29

38.9

30-34

44.7

35-39

54.9

35-39

57.2

1931-35 ...............................

20-24

46.0

25-29

35.7

30-34

38.2

35-39

49.2

40-44

56.8

40-44

58.5

1926-30 ...............................

25-29

35.3

30-34

36.3

35-39

43.6

40-44

52.9

45-49

55.9

45-49

57.0

1921-25 ...............................

30-34

34.7

35-39

40.8

40-44

48.5

45-49

55.0

50-54

53.3

50-54

53.1

19 1 6 -2 0 ...............................

35-39

39.2

40-44

46.8

45-49

51.7

50-54

53.8

55-59

47.9

55-59

48.1

1 9 11-15...............................

40-44

44.1

45-49

50.7

50-54

50.1

55-59

49.0

60-64

33.3

60-64

33.1

1906-10 ...............................

45-49

45.9

50-54

48.8

55-59

47.1

60-64

36.1

65-69

14.5

65-69

14.9

1901-05 ...............................

50-54

41.5

55-59

42.2

60-64

34.0

65-69

17.3

70 and
over

4.8

70 and
over

4.6

..........................

55-59

35.6

60-64

31.4

65-69

17.4

70 and
over

5.7

60-64

29.0

65-69

17.6

70 and
over

6.1

65-69

17.8

70 and
over

6.8

70 and
over

6.4

1896-1901

Before ?895 ........................

/

i|
l
1Percent of population in labor force.


6


Table 5
Women employees on nonagricultural payrolls, selected industries, January 1964 and
January 1976
Number of women

Women as percent of

(thousands)

total employed

Industry

1964

1976

1964

1976

19,096

30,711

34

40

Private .....................................................................................................................................................
M in in g ...........................................................................................................................................
Construction ...............................................................................................................................
Manufacturing .............................................................................................................................
Durable g o o d s ......................................................................................................................
Nondurable goods ..............................................................................................................
Transportation and public utilities .............................................................................................
Communications .................................................................................................................
Wholesale and retail trade ............................................................................................................
Wholesale trade ...................................................................................................................
Retail trade ........................................................................................................................
Finance, insurance, and real estate .............................................................................................
Services .........................................................................................................................................
Personal...............................................................................................................................
Miscellaneous business services ...........................................................................................
Medical and other h e a lth .....................................................................................................
Educational ........................................................................................................................

15,421
34
143
4,385
1,717
2,668
706
410
4,404
686
3,718
1,445
4,304
553
333
1,474
398

24,025
236
224
5,383
2,327
3,056
981
523
7,182
1,018
6,164
2,320
7,868
519
746
3,453
640

33
6
6
26
18
37
18
50
37
22
43
50
51
60
34
78
44

38
7
7
29
22
39
22
45
42
24
47
55
56
63
37
80
51

Government ...........................................................................................................................................
Federal .........................................................................................................................................
State .............................................................................................................................................
State education ...................................................................................................................
Other State government .....................................................................................................
Local ...........................................................................................................................................
Local education .................................................................................................................
Other local government .....................................................................................................

3,675
520
692
245
448
2,463
1,831
633

6,686
801
1,417
594
823
4 468
3,133
1,335

39
22
38
40
37
46
63
26

45
29

Total, nonagricultural industries ..............

44
44
45
50
62
34

NOTE: Because some industries are not included in this table, subgroups do not always add to total for major industry division.




7

Table 6

Table 7

Employed and unemployed women, annual averages, 1950-76

Occupational distribution of employed women, annual
averages, selected years, 1950-76

(Numbers in thousands)
Women

Women
Year

Total,
both
sexes

(Percent distribution)

Unemployed

Employed

Number

Percent
of total
employed

Total,
both
sexes

Number

Percent
of total
unemployed

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954

.................
.................
.................
.................
.................

58,918
59,961
60,250
61,179
60,109

17,340
18,181
18,568
18,749
18,490

29.4
30.3
30.8
30.6
30.8

3,288
2,055
1,883
1,834
3,532

1,049
834
698
632
1,188

31.9
40.6
37.1
34.5
33.6

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

.................
.................
.................
.................
.................

62,170
63,799
64.071
63,036
64,630

19,551
20,419
20,714
20,613
21,164

31.4
32.0
32.3
32.7
32.7

2,852
2,750
2,859
4,602
3,740

998
1,039
1,018
1,504
1,320

35.0
37.8
35.6
32.7
35.3

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964

.................
.................
.................
.................
.................

65,778
65,746
66,702
67,762
69,305

21,874
22,090
22,525
23,105
23,831

33.3
33.6
33.8
34.1
34.4

3,852
4,714
3,911
4,070
3,786

1,366
1,717
1,488
1,598
1,581

35.5
36.4
38.0
39.3
41.8

1965
1966
1967
1968
1969

.................
.................
.................
..............
..................

71,088
72,895
74,372
75,920
77,902

24,748
25,976
26,892
27,807
29,084

34.8
35.6
36.2
36.6
37.3

3,366
2,875
2,975
2,817
2,831

1,452
1,324
1,468
1,397
1,428

43.1
46.1
49.3
49.6
50.4

1970
1971
1972
1973
1974

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

78,627
79,120
81,702
84,409
85,936

29,667
29,875
31,072
32,446
33,417

37.7
37.8
38.0
38.4
38.9

4,088
4,993
4,840
4,304
5,076

1,853
2,217
2,205
2,064
2,408

45.3
44.4
45.6
48.0
47.4

84,783
87,485

33,553
35,095

39.6
40.1

7,830
7,288

3,445
3,320

44.0
45.6

1975 ..............
1976 ........


8


19501

1960

1970

1976

Women as
percent of all
workers in
occupation
group, 1976

Total ...................................

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

40.1

Professional-technical.............
Managerial-administrative,
except fa r m .............................
Sales .........................................
Clerical .......................................
Craft ..........................................
Operatives, including
transport ...........................
Nonfarm laborers ..............
Service, except private
household ............................
Private household ...................
Farm .....................................

12.5

12.4

14.5

16.0

42.0

4.4
8.7
27.8
1.5

5.0
7.7
30.3
1.0

4.5
7.0
34.5
1.1

5.5
6.7
34.9
1.6

20.8
42.9
78.7
4.8

19.6
0.8

15.2
0.4

14.5
0.5

11.8
1.1

31.3
9.3

12.4
8.7
3.6

14.8
8.9
4.4

16.5
5.1
1.8

17.9
3.1
1.3

57.8
97.3
16.2

Occupation group

'Data are for women 14 years and over in April 1950.

Table 8
Employment of women in selected occupations, 1950, 1970, and 1976

(Numbers in thousands)
Women

Both sexes

Percent of all workers in occupation

Number

Occupation
1950

1970

1976

1950

1970

1976

1950

1970

1976

Professional-technical ...................................................................
Accountants ........................................................................
Engineers .............................................................................
Lawyers-judges ...................................................................
Physicians-osteopaths ..........................................................
Registered nurses.................................................................
Teachers, except college and university .............................
Teachers, college and university1 ......................................
Technicians, excluding medical-dental ...............................
Writers-artists-entertainers ..................................................

4,858
377
518
171
184
403
1,123
123
102
124

11,452
711
1,233
277
280
836
2,750
492
339
761

13,329
866
1,190
413
368
999
3,099
537
897
1,099

1,947
56
6
7
12
394
837
28
21
50

4,576
180
20
13
25
814
1,937
139
49
229

5,603
233
21
38
47
965
2,198
168
122
381

40.1
14.9
1.2
4.1
6.5
97.8
74.5
22.8
20.6
40.3

40.0
25.3
1.6
4.7
8.9
97.4
70.4
28.3
14.5
30.1

42.0
26.9
1.8
9.2
12.8
96.6
70.9
31.3
13.6
34.7

Managerial-administrative, except farm ......................................
Bank officials-financial managers ......................................
Buyers-purchasing agents ..................................................
Food service workers ..........................................................
Sales managers-department heads; retail trade ...................

4,894
111
64
343
142

6,387
313
361
323
212

9,315
546
376
505
322

673
13
6
93
35

1,061
55
75
109
51

1,942
135
89
177
114

13.8
11.7
9.4
27.1
24.6

16.6
17.6
20.8
33.7
24.1

20.8
24.7
23.7
35.0
35.4

Clerical .........................................................................................
Bank tellers ........................................................................
Bookkeepers........................................................................
Cashiers ...............................................................................
Office machine operators ..................................................
Secretaries-typists ..............................................................
Shipping-receiving clerks .....................................................

6,865
62
716
230
143
1,580
287

13,783
251
1,552
824
563
3,814
413

15,558
371
1,688
1,256
726
4,368
440

4,273
28
556
187
116
1,494
19

10,150
216
1,274
692
414
3,686
59

12,245
338
1,519
1,101
535
4,303
76

62.2
45.2
77.7
81.3
81.1
94.6
6.6

73.6
86.1
82.1
84.0
73.5
96.6
14.3

78.7
91.1
90.0
87.7
73.7
98.5
17.3

1 Includes college and university presidents.




9

Table 9

Table 10

Unemployment rates of women and men, annual averages,
1950-76

Unemployed women and men by age, annual averages,
selected years, 1950-76

Both sexes

Year

Women

Men

Ratio of women's
unemployment rates
to men's

Percent of labor force unemployed

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954

.........................
.........................
.........................
.........................
.........................

5.3
3.3
3.0
2.9
5.5

5.7
4.4
3.6
3.3
6.0

5.1
2.8
2.8
2.8
5.3

1.1
1.6
1.3
1.2
1.1

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

.........................
.........................
.........................
.........................
.........................

4.4
4.1
4.3
6.8
5.5

4.9
4.8
4.7
6.8
5.9

4.2
3.8
4.1
6.8
5.3

1.2
1.3
1.1
1.0
1.1

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964

.........................
.........................
.........................
.........................
.........................

5.5
6.7
5.5
5.7
5.2

5.9
7.2
6.2
6.5
6.2

5.4
6.4
5.2
5.2
4.6

1.1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.3

1965
1966
1967
1968
1969

.........................
.........................
.........................
.........................
.........................

4.5
3.8
3.8
3.6
3.5

5.5
4.8
5.2
4.8
4.7

4.0
3.2
3.1
2.9
2.8

1.4
1.5
1.7
1.7
1.7

1970
1971
1972
1973
1974

.........................
.........................
.........................
.........................
.........................

4.9
5.9
5.6
4.9
5.6

5.9
6.9
6.6
6.0
6.7

4.4
5.3
4.9
4.1
4.8

1.3
1.3
1.3
1.5
1.4

1975 .........................
1976 .........................

8.5
7.7

9.3
8.6

7.9
7.0

1.2
1.2

10



Number (thousands)

Percent distribution

Sex and age
1950
Both sexes,
16 years and
over ....................

1960

1970

1976

1950

3,288 3,852 4,088 7,288 100.0

1960

1970

1976

100.0 100.0 100.0

Women, 16 years and
o v e r ..............................
16 to 19 ..................
20 to 24 ..................
25 and over ............

1,049 1,366 1,853 3,320
286
195
506
773
214
184
386
746
864
961 1,800
670

31.9
5.9
5.6
20.4

35.5
7.4
5.6
22.4

45.3
12.4
9.4
23.5

45.6
10.6
10.2
24.7

Men, 16 years and
over ..............................
16 to 19 ..................
20 to 24 ..................
25 and over ............

2,239 2,486 2,235 3,968
425
318
599
928
369
924
377
478
1,545 1,689 1,158 2,117

68.1
9.7
11.5
47.0

64.5
11.0
9.6
43.8

54.7
14.7
11.7
28.3

54.4
12.7
12.7
29.0

Table 11
Unemployed women and men by reason for unemployment,
annual averages, 1976

Reason

Number (thousands)

Percent distribution

Women

Men

Women

Men

Total unemployed . . . . . . .

3,320

3,968

100.0

100.0

Lost last job ..........................
Left last job ............................
Reentered labor force ..........
Looking for first job ..............

1,235
493
1,128
464

2,389
393
768
418

37.2
14.8
34.0
14.0

60.2
9.9
19.4
10.5

Table 12

Table 13

Women and men not in the labor force by desire for job and
reason for nonparticipation, annual averages, 1970 and 1976

Percent of population who worked at some time during year by
sex and age, selected years, 1960-75
Sex and age

1960

1965

1970

1975

Total, 16 years and o v e r ....................

48.0

48.8

52.5

53.0

and 1 7 ...................................................
and 1 9 ...................................................
to 24 .....................................................
to 34 .....................................................
to 44 .....................................................
to 54 .....................................................
to 59 .....................................................
to 64 .....................................................
to 69 .....................................................
and over ................................................

45.1
66.8
62.1
47.4
53.7
58.0
50.9
39.9
25.6
10.2

43.7
64.9
66.5
50.1
54.6
57.9
53.1
42.5
22.9
9.4

45.5
71.0
73.0
56.5
58.5
60.4
54.7
47.2
24.8
9.3

46.0
70.1
73.6
63.9
62.4
59.0
52.3
40.8
21.0
6.3

Total, 16 years and o v e r ...................

87.1

84.9

84.1

80.7

16 and 1 7 ...................................................
18 and 1 9 ...................................................
20 to 24 .....................................................
25 to 34 .....................................................
35 to 44 .....................................................
45 to 54 .....................................................
55 to 59 .....................................................
60 to 64 .....................................................
65 to 69 .....................................................
70 and over ................................................

62.7
84.1
92.9
98.1
97.9
96.6
93.4
85.1
58.4
33.4

61.2
85.5
92.4
98.0
97.8
96.0
91.7
84.1
55.1
23.2

60.4
82.6
88.9
97.0
97.5
95.6
91.7
83.2
54.1
24.5

54.1
80.2
88.9
95.6
95.6
91.9
85.8
73.4
41.9
19.2

1976

1970
Item
W om en

M en

W om en

M en

Total not in labor force (thousands) .

41,210

13,065

42,784

16,341

Do not want a job now (thousands) .......
P ercent.........................................

38,535
100.0

11,863
100.0

39,236
100.0

14,745
100.0

Ill or disabled .....................................
Home responsibilities .......................
Going to school ................................
Retired ................................................
Other reasons ...................................

4.7
82.9
7.8
1.8
2.7

17.2
1.7
25.8
44.0
11.3

5.4
77.8
8.1
4.5
4.1

17.6
1.5
21.7
46.2
13.0

Want a job now (thousands) ...................
P ercent.........................................

2,675
100.0

1,200
100.0

3,548
100.0

1,596
100.0

Ill or disabled .....................................
Home responsibilities .......................
Going to school ................................
Think cannot find job .......................
Other reasons ...................................

10.5
33.9
19.1
15.6
20.9

17.3

10.4
16.6
20.3
33.0
19.7

17.5
—
45.2
20.1
17.1

W OM EN

16
18
20
25
35
45
55
60
65
70

MEN




—

46.9
18.4
17.3

11

Table 14

Table 15

Work experience of women and men in 1975

Percent of employed women in each occupation group with
year-round full-time jobs in 1975

Work experience

Women

Men

80,834

72,346

44,778
55.4

59,664
82.5

Persons who worked:
Number (thousands) .......................................
P e rce n t..............................................................

42,881
100.0

58,359
100.0

Worked at full-time jobs:
50 to 52 w e e k s ...........................................
27 to 49 w e e k s ...........................................
1 to 26 weeks .............................................

41.4
12.2
13.5

63.9
13.3
10.3

Worked at part-time jobs:
50 to 52 w e e k s ...........................................
27 to 49 w e e k s ...........................................
1 to 26 weeks .............................................

11.8
8.3
12.8

4.4
3.0
5.1

Population (thousands) ................................................
Persons who worked or looked
for work during 1975:
Number (thousands) .......................................
Percent of population ......................................

Digitized 2 FRASER
1 for


Occupation group

Percent who worked
year round, full time

All occupations .......................................

41.4

Professional-technical ...........................................
Managerial-administrative, except farm ..............
Sales .......................................................................
C le ric a l...................................................................
Craft .......................................................................
Operatives, except transport ................................
Transport equipment operatives .........................
Nonfarm laborers ..................................................
Service, except private household.......................
Private household ..................................................
Farm .......................................................................

52.0
64.5
25.8
49.6
43.1
38.7
17.4
32.7
26.5
13.1
25.3

Table 16

Table 17

Women by work experience and reason for less than full-year
work in 1975

Women with unemployment in 1975 by number of weeks
unemployed
Number
Percent
(thousands) distribution

Number
(thousands)

Percent
^ ., .
distribution

_
,
Duration of unemployment

Total, 16 years and o v e r ........................................

80,834

100.0

Total working or looking for w o r k .....................................

44,778

100.0

Worked all year (50 to 52 weeks) ................
Worked part year (1 to 49 weeks) ................
Did not work at all .........................................
Looked for work during 1975 ................
Did not look for work during
1975 ........................................................

22,788
20,093
37,953
1,897

28.2
24.9
47.0
2.3

w ith no unemployment during year ..........................
With unemployment during year ................................

35,607
9,171

79.5
20.5

Total unem ployed..............................................................

9,171

100.0

36,056

44.6

Year-round workers unemployed 1 or
2 weeks .......................................................................

266

2.9

Worked part year .........................................................
Ill or disabled .........................................................
Home responsibilities ...........................................
Going to school ....................................................
Unemployed1 .........................................................
Retired ....................................................................
Other reasons ........................................................

20,093
1,318
8,591
4,218
4,574
231
1,161

100.0
6.6
42.8
21.0
22.8
1-1
5.8

Part-year workers unemployed:
1 to 4 weeks ...........................................................
5 to 14 weeks .........................................................
15 to 26 w e e k s .......................................................
27 weeks or lo n g e r................................................

1,973
2,242
1,441
1,352

21.5
24.4
15.7
14.7

Did not work but looked for work:
1 to 4 weeks ...........................................................
5 to 14 weeks .........................................................
15 to 26 w e e k s .......................................................
27 weeks or lo n g e r................................................

731
435
201
530

8.0
4.7
2.2
5.8

Item

Did not work:
Looked for work ....................................................
Ill or disabled ..................................................
Home responsibilities ....................................
Going to school .............................................
Unable to find work .......................................
Other reasons ................................................

1,897
74
620
245
918
40

100.0
39
32.7
12.9
48.4
2.1

Did not look for work ...........................................
Ill or disabled ..................................................
Home responsibilities ....................................
Going to school .............................................
Think cannot find a job ................................
Retired .............................................................
Other reasons ................................................

36,056
4,192
25,137
3,192
114
3,173
248

100.0
11.6
69.7
8.9
0.3
8.8
0.7

1 total of 7,274 part-year women workers experienced someunemploymentduring the year, of whom
A
4,574 reported unemployment as the major reason for part-year work.




13




Part II.
Marital and Family
Status




The marital status of women has
changed significantly over the past
quarter of a century. Between 1950
and 1976, the proportion of married
women in the female population
dropped from 65 to 59 percent, while
their proportion in the female labor
force rose from 49 to 57 percent. The
number of married women in the
labor force nearly tripled, reaching
21.6 million in 1976. In recent years,
the number of single (never married)
women in the labor force also has
increased rapidly, more than
doubling since 1950. In addition,
young persons in the 1970’s are
remaining single longer than in pre­
vious decades. The proportions of
working women who are separated
or divorced, although compara­
tively small, are on the rise.
Following are some other high­
lights of the data in Part II:

• The great majority of employed
women—3 out of 4, on average—
work full time, that is, they usually
work 35 hours or more per week.
The proportion working full time
varies by marital and family status,
but it is high even for married
women with children under the age
of 3—66 percent of these women
worked full time in 1976.
• Nearly half (46 percent) of the
children under age 18 had mothers
in the labor force in 1976, up from 39
percent in 1970. Over this period, the
number of children in the popula­
tion dropped by 6 percent to 61.7
million, but the number of children
whose mothers worked or looked
for work rose by 10 percent to 28.2
million. The mothers of 6.4 million
children under age 6 were in the
labor force in 1976.

• Of the children in ages 3 to 13
whose mothers were in the labor
force, more than 3 out of 5 were
cared for by a parent when they were
not in school.
• In 1976, both the birth rate
(births per 1,000 population) and the
fertility rate (births per 1,000 women
aged 15 to 44 years) were the lowest
ever recorded in the United States.
• Women who head families are
more likely to be in the labor force
than wives living with their hus­
bands. This is especially true for
divorced women, of whom 3 of every
4, on average, were working or look­
ing for work in 1976.

15

Chart 3.

Percent of population in labor force

Labor force participation
rates of women by marital
status, March 1960 to
March 1976

16



1960

1965

1970

NOTE: Before 1967, data are for women 14 years and over; for 1967 and
later years, data are for women '16 years and over.

1975

1980




Chart 4.
Labor force participation
rates of married women,
husband present, by
presence and age of
own children, 1950-76

17




Table 18
Women by labor force and marital status, selected years,
1950-76
Item

A pril
1950

March
1960

March
1970

March
1976

Item

March
1960

March
1970

March
1976

2,641

1,224
1,222
2,406

1,422
1,927
2,542

1,801
3,146
2,233

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

27.7
49.4
6.0
17.0

19.8
57.4
5.7
5.7
11.3

22.3
58.8
4.6
6.2
8.1

24.3
57.0
4.8
8.3
5.9

28.3

34.5

42.6

46.8

46.3
21.6
46.6

44.1
30.5
51.8
71.6
29.8

53.0
40.8
52.1
71.5
26.4

58.9
45.0
57.3
71.4
22.3

A pril
1950

LABO R FORCE - Continued

P O P U LA TIO N
N um ber (thousands)

Number (thousands)-

Total, 16 years and over ..............

54,988

61,911

73,261

80,834

Continued

Never m arried ................................................
Married, husband present ..........................
Married, husband absent ............................
D ivorced ..........................................................
W idowed ..........................................................

9,305
35,574
2,001
1,373
6,735

9,603
40,176
2,362
1,707
8,063

13,141
45,055
2,730
2,695
9,640

15,409
47,852
3,145
4,408
10,020

M arried, husband absent ............................
D ivorced .......................................................... ...
W idow ed .......................................................... J

Percent d is trib u tio n
Total

Percent d is trib u tio n
Total

..................................................

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Never m arried ................................................
M arried, husband present ..........................
Married, husband absent ............................
D ivorced ..........................................................
W idowed ..........................................................

16.9
64.7
3.6
2.5
12.2

15.5
64.9
3.8
2.8
13.0

17.9
61.5
3.7
3.7
13.2

19.1
59.2
3.9
5.5
12.4

LABOR FORCE
N um ber (thousands)
15,560

21,329

31,233

37,817

Never m arried ................................................
Married, husband present ..........................

4,304
7,682

4,233
12,244

6,965
18,377

9,083
21,554

..................................................

Never m arried ................................................
Married, husband present ..........................
Married, husband absent ............................
D ivorced .......................................................... ...
W idow ed .......................................................... J
LABOR FORCE P A R T IC IP A T IO N RATE1
Total

Total ..................................................

933

..................................................

Never m arried ................................................
Married, husband present ..........................
M arried, husband absent ............................
D ivorced ..........................................................
W idow ed .......................................................... _T

32.6

'P ercent of population in labor force.




19

Table 19
Women by marital and labor force status and presence and age of own children, March 1976
(Numbers in thousands)
W ith children under 18 years
Total

Item

T otal, 16 years and over

......................................

In labor force ....................................................
Labor force participation rate ................

W ith no children
under 18 years

80,834
37,817

50,265
22,923

46.8

14 to 17 years,
none younger

6 to 13 years,
none younger

30,568
14,895
48.7

4,831
2,767

11,787
6,571

57.3

8.8

5.2

653
297

29

Total

6,170

7,781
2,631

55.7
7.1

10.2

33.8
15.4

155
81

180

290

18

99

99

55.1
22.3

34.1
25.9

9,559
5,076
53.1
6.4

5,044
2,227

6,774
2,197
32.4

8.5

45.6
8.3

..............................................

15,409

14,756

....................................................

9,083

8,786

58.9
11.7

59.5
11.4

45.4

(1)

52.4

20.0

(1)

11.3

47,852
21,554

22,490
9,860

25,361
11,693

3,984
2,194

..............................

45.0
7.1

43.8
6.2

46.1
7.9

55.1
4.7

Married, husband absent, to ta l ...........................
In labor force ....................................................
Labor force participation rate ................
U nem ploym ent rate ..............................

3,145
1,801
57.3
13.7

1,410
821
58.2
9.7

1,735
980
56.5
17.1

198
119
60.2

D iv o rce d ,to ta l .......................................................
In labor force ....................................................
Labor force participation rate ................

4,408
3,146
71.4

2,294

2,114
1,571

..............................

7.5

6.8

Widowed, to ta l .......................................................
In labor force ....................................................

10,020
2,233

9,315

Never married, to ta l
In labor force

Labor force participation rate
Unem ploym ent rate

................

..............................

Married, husband present, to ta l
.........................
In labor force ....................................................
Labor force participation rate ................
Unem ploym ent rate

U nem ploym ent rate

................

22.3

1,880
20.2

..............................

6.1

5.5

Labor force participation rate
U nem ploym ent rate

1,576
68.7

74.3
8.1

20

11.3
331
272
82.2
3.4

44.1
8.7

664

412

408
61.5
13.6

248
60.1

1,086
852

479

78.5
7.6

19.1

329
68.7
10.1

13.8
461
205
44.3
25.3
218
117
53.8
17.9

705
354

289

323

55

164

154

23

38
13

50.2
9.5

56.6
9.4

47.6
8.6

<1 )
(1)

(1)

1 R ate n o t show n w here base is less th a n 7 5 ,0 0 0 .
N O T E : C h ild re n are d e fin e d as " o w n ” c h ild re n o f th e fa m ily head and in clu d e never-m arried
sons and daughters, s te p c h ild re n , and ad opte d c h ild re n . E xcluded are o th e r related c h ild re n such as
g ra n d c h ild re n , nieces, nephew s, and cousins, and u n relate d c h ild re n .




Under 3 years

2,926
47.4

..............................

Unem ploym ent rate

3 to 5 years,
none younger

(1 )

La bor fo rc e p a rtic ip a tio n rate equals pe rcent o f p o p u la tio n in labo r fo rce .
U n e m p lo y m e n t rate equals p e rcent o f la b o r fo rce u n em plo yed.

Table 20
Employed women, full or part time, by marital status and presence and age of own children,
March 1976
(Numbers in thousands)
With children under 18 years
Total

W ith no children
under 18 years

Total

14 to 17 years,
none younger

6 to 13 years,
none younger

3 to 5 years,
none younger

Under 3 years

34,609

21,027

13,582

2,623

2,227

15,172

9,391

1,859

6,105
4,221

2,628
1,803

1,509

...........................

24,563
10,046

5,854

4,191

764

1,884

825

718

...............................................

Item

T otal, employed women 16 years
and over ....................................................
Worked fu ll tim e
Worked part tim e
Never married, to ta l

..............................

8,024

7,787

237

77

73

5,132

4,947

185

15
9

72

.........................................

66

52

58

......................................

2,892

2,839

52

6

6

25

15

20,023
14,241

9,523
7.162

10,770
7,079

2,091
1,422

4,751
3,092

2,034

1,894
1,241

5,783

2,091

3,692

669

1,659

1,323
711

Married, husband absent, to ta l ...........................
Worked fu ll tim e .........................................
Worked part tim e
......................................

1,553
1,253
300

742

812

598
144

655
156

106
89
17

353
287

D ivorced,total .......................................................
Worked fu ll tim e .........................................
Worked part tim e
......................................

2,912
2,517
395

1,469
1,273
196

1,443
1,244
199

263
237

788
671

26

Widowed, to ta l

2,097

320

148
102

36

W orked fu ll tim e
W orked part tim e

Married, husband present, to ta l

.........................

Worked fu ll tim e .........................................
Worked part tim e
......................................

.......................................................

Worked fu ll tim e
W orked part tim e

.........................................

1,421

1,776
1,192

229

......................................

676

584

92

N O T E : C h ild re n are d e fin e d as " o w n " c h ild re n o f th e fa m ily head and in clu d e never-m arried
sons and da ughters, s te p c h ild re n , and a d opte d c h ild re n . E x c luded are o th e r related c h ild re n as
g ra n d ch ild re n , nieces, nephew s, and cousins, and unrelate d c h ild re n .




46

652
153

200
154
46

126
27

116

296
260
36

96
76
20

141

20

11

104

14

8

7

3

66

F u ll-tim e w o rke rs are those w h o usually w o rk 35 o r m ore hours per w eek; p a rt-tim e w orke rs
are those w h o u su ally w o rk 1 to 3 4 hours per w eek,

21

Table 21

Table 22

Labor force participation rates of women by age and marital
status, March 1976

Labor force participation rates of married women, husband
present, by presence and age of own children, 1950-76

Percent o f population in labor force
Age

Total, 16
years and
o v e r ..................

A ll
women

Never
married

Married,
husband
present

Married,
husband
absent

Divorced

Percent o f population in labor force
Year1

Widowed

W ith children under 18 years

W ith no
children
under 18

Total

6 to 17 years,
none younger

Under
6 years

to 19 ................
to 24 ................
to 34 ................
to 44 ................
to 54 ................
to 64 ................
and o v e r ..........

58.9

45.0

57.3

71.4

46.2
63.5
56.8
58.1
54.4
41.9
8.5

46.1
72.6
84.5
76.4
76.7
64.5
16.7

44.8
55.3
49.8
54.3
50.1
36.4
7.2

55.1
59.4
65.6
62.1
59.6
52.1
13.0

59.2
72.3
78.2
78.8
76.9
67.8
19.2

'R ate not show n w here base is less than 75,000.

22.3
( 1)

n

51.0
64.1
61.8
46.3
7.7

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

.............................................
.............................................
.............................................
.............................................
.............................................
.............................................
.............................................
.............................................
.............................................
.............................................

30.3
31.0
30.9
31.2
31.6
32.7
35.3
35.6
35.4
35.2

18.4
20.5
20.7
22.4
22.7
24.0
24.5
25.3
26.5
27.9

28.3
30.3
31.1
32.2
33.2
34.7
36.4
36.6
37.6
39.8

11.9
14.0
13.9
15.5
14.9
16.2
15.9
17.0
18.2
18.7

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969

.............................................
.............................................
.............................................
.............................................
.............................................
.............................................
.............................................
.............................................
.............................................
.............................................

34.7
37.3
36.1
37.4
37.8
38.3
38.4
38.9
40.1
41.0

27.6
29.6
30.3
31.2
32.0
32.2
33.2
35.3
36.9
38.6

39.0
41.7
41.8
41.5
43.0
42.7
43.7
45.0
46.9
48.6

18.6
20.0
21.3
22.5
22.7
23.3
24.2
26.5
27.6
28.5

1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976

16
20
25
35
45
55
65

46.8

.............................................
.............................................
.............................................
.............................................
.............................................
.............................................
.............................................

42.2
42.1
42.7
42.8
43.0
43.9
43.8

39.7
39.7
40.5
41.7
43.1
44.9
46.1

49.2
49.4
50.2
50.1
51.2
52.3
53.7

30.3
29.6
30.1
32.7
34.4
36.6
37.4

'D ata were collecte d in A pril o f 1951-55 and M arch of all o th e r years.
NOTE: For d e fin itio n of children, see note to table 23.

22




Table 23
Number of own children by age of children, type of family, and labor force status of mother,
March 1970, March 1975, and March 1976
(In thousands)
Children under 18 years

Children 6 to 17 years

Children under 6 years

Item
1970

19751

1976

1970

19751

1976

1970

19751

1976

65,755
25,554

61,697

46,149

44,636

44,058

19,606

18,134

28,159
32,828

19,954
25,627

21,138

21,720

5,590

22,800

21,708

13,923

6,512
11,532

17,639
6,439

39,550

62,770
27,650
34,332

11,120

58,399
21,982

52,813

51,586

40,479

37,081

36,255

15,332

22,868

17,206

5,380

36,417

30,176

28,718

19,875

17,488
18,767

5,431

.........................................................

17,035
23,444

17,920
4,947

15,732

22,637

12,973

10,302

9,952

Children in fam ilies headed by w om en2 ............................................
M other in labor force ..................................................................
M other not in labor force .........................................................

6,695
3,562

9,168

9,401

5,102

2,227

2,919

7,173
4,232

2,312

5,291

6,856
3,931

1,593

5,013

643

1,059

3,133

4,155

4,110

2,183

2,925

2,942

950

1,081
1,230

Children in fam ilies headed by men2 .................................................

661

788

710

568

699

630

93

90

80

Total children

.................................................................

M other in labor force ............................................
M other not in labor force ...................................
Children in husband-wife fam ilies .......................................................
M other in labor force ..................................................................
M other not in labor force

^D a ta fo r March 1975 have been revised since th e ir in itia l p u b lic a tio n .
W idow ed ; div o rc e d ; m a rrie d , spouse absent; and never-m arried fa m ily heads.




1,168

N O T E : C h ild re n are d e fin e d as " o w n " c h ild re n o f the fa m ily head and includ e never-m arried
sons and daughters, s te p ch ild re n , and a d opte d c h ild re n . E xcluded are o th e r related c h ild re n such as
g ra n d ch ild re n , nieces, nephew s, and cousins, and unrelate d c h ild re n .

23

Table 24
Number of own children by age of children, type of family, and employment status of parents, March 1976
(In thousands)
Children under 18 years

Children under 18 years
Children 6 to 17 years

Item
Total

Total

14 to 17
years

6 to 13
years

Under
6 years

A LL C H ILD R EN
44,058
21,720
20,035
1,685
21,708

15,680
8,262
7,724
538
7,071

28,378
13,458
12,311
1,147
14,637

17,639
6,439
5,593
846
11,120 |

Total .................................................
M other in labor f o r c e ..............
Em ployed ...............................
U nem ployed .................... ..
M other not in labor fo rce . . . .

51,586
22,868
21,049
1,819
28,718

36,255
17,488
16,303
1,185
18,767

12,865
6,769
6,387
383
6,096

23,389
10,719
9,916
802
12,670

15,332
5,380
4,746
634
9,952

Father em ployed ...........................
M other in lab o r f o r c e ...............
Em ployed ...............................
U nem ployed ...........................
M other not in labor fo rc e . . . .

45,576
20,412
18,956
1,457
25,163

32,156
15,676
14,726
950
16,481

11,403
6,066
5,783
303
5,317

20,753
9,590
8,943
647
11,164

13,419
4,736
4,230 |
507
8,683

Father in A rm ed Forces .............
M other in labor f o r c e ...............
E m ployed ...............................

1,092
429
378

599
285
265

152
76
73

447
209
192

493
144
113

51
663

20
314

3
75

17
238

30
349

C H ILD R EN IN
H U S B A N D -W IFE FAM ILIES

U nem ployed ...........................
M other not in labor fo rce .. , .

'W idow ed; divorced; married, spouse absent; and never-m arried fa m ily heads.


24


Total
Total

14 to 17
years

6 to 13
years

Under
6 years

C H ILD R E N IN
61,697
28,159
25,628
2,531
32,828

Total ................................................
M other in labor f o r c e ..............
E m ployed ..............................
U nem ployed ..........................
M other not in labor f o r c e ___

Children 6 to 17 years

Item

H USBAND-W IFE F A M IL IE S
Continued
Father un e m p lo ye d ................
M o th e r in la b o r f o r c e ..........
E m ployed ..........................
U ne m p lo ye d ......................
M o th e r not in labor fo rc e ..

2,486
1,133
902
231
1,353

1,544
764
621
143
781

455
228
181
47
227

1,090
536
439
96
554

942
369
281
88
573

Father not in labor fo rc e . . . .
M o th e r in la b o r f o r c e ..........
E m ployed ..........................
U n e m p lo ye d ......................
M o th e r not in la b o r fo rc e ..

2,433
894
813
81
1,539

1,955
763
692
71
1,192

856
379
350
29
477

1,099
384
342
42
714

478
130
121
10
347

9,401
5,291
4,579
712
4,110

7,173
4,232
3,732
500
2,942

2,468
1,493
1,338
155
975

4,706
2,739
2,394
345
1,967

2,227
1,059
847
212
1,168

710

630

347

283

80

C H ILD R EN
IN O THER FAM ILIES
In fa m ilie s headed by
w o m e n 1 ...................................
M o th e r in la b o r f o r c e ..........
E m ployed ..........................
U n e m p lo ye d ......................
M o th e r n o t in la b o r fo rce ..
In fa m ilie s headed by m e n 1 . . .

NOTE: C hildren are defined as “ o w n ” child re n of th e fa m ily head and includ e never-m arried
sons and daughters, step childre n, and adopted ch ild re n . E xcluded are oth er related children
such as gra n d ch ild re n , nieces, nephews, and cousins, and unrelated children.

Table 25
Arrangements made for daytime care of children 3 to 13 years old by age of children and
labor force status of mother, October 1974 and February 19751

(Percent distribution)
Care in someone
else's home

Care in own home
Item

Total
Child's parent Child cares fo r self

Total children 3 to 13 years

o

Other relative

Nonrelative

Relative

Day care center

Other

Nonrelative

. . .

100.0

81.7

4.6

5.2

1.4

2.9

3.2

0.8

.................................

100.0

82.0

0.1

3.6

1.3

5.1

6.2

1.6

0.2
-

..............................

100.0

81.5

6.8

6.0

1.5

1.8

1.6

0.4

0.4

................

100.0

5.6
11.5

6.9
15.2

1.6

2.9

0.4
-

66.9

13.2

8.8
6.9
9.7

2.7

100.0
100.0

64.6
59.2

9.4

3 to 6 ............................................
7 to 13 .........................................

2.6

3.0

3.3

3 to 6
7 to 13

W ith m other in labor force

W ith m other employed

0.4

.........................

100.0

62.0

7.4

55.1

9.5
7.6

5.9

100.0

10.1
0.4

2.9

3 to 6 ............................................
7 to 13 .........................................

3.2

100.0

64.8

14.0

10.3

2.8

12.5
3.2

16.9
3.5

100.0
100.0
100.0

50.9
42.6
54.2

13.1
0.7

12.5
9.2

3.6
4.1

17.9

13.8

3.4

7.5
15.6
4.3

100.0
100.0
100.0

95.7
96.9
95.0

0.7
—

2.1
1.3

1.1

2.5

0.3
0.2
0.4

0.8
1.0
0.6

W ith m other employed fu ll tim e . . . .
3 to 6 ............................................
7 to 13 .........................................
W ith mother not in labor f o r c e ...........
3 to 6 ............................................
7 to 13 .........................................

1 Data fo r c h ild re n 3 to 6 years o ld o b ta in e d fro m F e b ru a ry 1 9 75 C u rre n t P o p u la tio n S urvey;
data fo r c h ild re n 7 to 13 years o ld o b ta in e d fro m O c to b e r 19 74 C u rre n t P o p u la tio n Survey.




2

3.8
0.7

0.6

1.8
4.2

0.5

0.8

0.6

9.3
21.6
4.5

2.4
6.1
1.0

0.6
0.8

0.2
0.4
0.2

0.1
0.1
0.1

0.1
0.1
0.1

—

Includes a sm all n u m b e r o f ch ild re n w ith no m o th e r present, n o t show n separately.

25

Table 26
Birth rates and fertility rates by race, selected years, 1920-76
B irth rate1
Year
Total

White

F e rtility rate

Black and
other races

Total

White

2

Table 27
Families by type, selected years, 1940-76
(Numbers in thousands)

Black and
other races

Other families
Year1

...........................
...........................
..........................
...........................
...........................
...........................
...........................
...........................
...........................
...........................
...........................

27.7
25.1
21.3
18.7
19.4
20.4
24.1
25.0
25.3
23.7
19.4

26.9
24.1
20.6
17.9
18.6
19.7
23.0
23.8
24.0
22.7
18.3

35.0
34.2
27.5
25.8
26.7
26.5
33.3
34.7
35.3
32.1
27.6

117.9
106.6
89.2
77.2
72.9
85.9
106.2
118.5
122.9
118.0
96.6

115.4
103.3
87.1
74.5
77.1
83.4
102.3
113.8
117.7
113.2
91.4

1970 ...........................
1971 ...........................
1972 ...........................
1973 ...........................
1974 ...........................
1975 ...........................
1976P ...........................

18.4
17.2
15.6
14.9
14.9
14.8
14.7

17.4
16.2
14.6
13.9
14.0
13.8

25.1
24.7
22.9
21.9
21.4
21.2
(3)

87.9
81.8
73.4
69.2
68.4
66.7
65.6

84.1
77.5
69.2
65.3
64.7
63.0

1920
1925
1930
1935
1940
1945
1950
1955
1957
1960
1965

(3)

^ = provisional.
'B irth s per 1,000 population.
2B irths per 1,000 wom en aged 15 to 44 years.
3N ot available.

26



(3)

137.5
134.0
105.9
98.4
102.4
106.0
137.3
155.3
163.0
153.6
133.9
113.0
109.5
100.3
94.3
91.0
89.3
(3)

1940
1947
1950
1955
1960
1965
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
19753
1976

................
.................
.................
.................
.................
.................
.................
.................
.................
.................
.................
................
................

A ll
families

32,166
35,794
39,303
41,951
45,062
47,836
51.227
51,947
53,280
54,361
55,041
55,699
56,244

Husband-wife
fam ilies2

26,971
31,211
34,440
36,378
39,293
41,649
44,415
44,735
45,743
46,308
46,810
47,069
47,318

Headed by women

Headed
by men2

Total

1,579
1,186
1,184
1,339
1,275
1,181
1,239
1,262
1,353
1,453
1,433
1,400
1,444

3,616
3,397
3,679
4,234
4,494
5,006
5,573
5,950
6,184
6,600
6,798
7,230
7,482

As percent
o f all fam ilies

'D ata were co llecte d in A pril of 1940, 1947, and 1955 and M arch of all o th e r years,
in c lu d e s men in Arm ed Forces living o ff post or w ith th e ir fam ilie s on post.
3Data fo r 1975 have been revised since th e ir in itia l pu b lica tio n .

11.2
9.5
9.4
10.1
10.0
10.5
10.9
11.5
11.6
12.1
12.4
13.0
13.3

Table 28

Table 29

Women who head families by age and marital status,
March 1960, March 1970, and March 1976

Women who head families by employment and marital status,
March 1976

N u m b e r (th o u s a n d s )

P e rc e n t d is tr ib u tio n

(Numbers in thousands)

A ge and m a rita l s ta tu s

A ll w o m e n
1960

1970

1976

1960

1970

1976

L a b o r fo rc e sta tu s

fa m ilie s

AGE
T o ta l, 16 y e a rs a n d
o v e r .................................

4 ,4 9 4

U n d e r 25 .................................
25 to 34 ...................................
35 to 44 ...................................

180
620
921

45 to 54

...................................

94 8

55 to 64

...................................

65 a n d o v e r ............................
M e d ia n a g e

w h o head

............................

5 ,5 7 3
437

7 ,4 8 2

10 0.0

10 0 .0

10 0 .0

738

919
1 ,0 7 5

1 ,7 6 9
1,5 9 9

4.0
13.8

9 .9
2 3 .6
2 1 .4

1,2 8 0
970

2 0 .0
16.4

17.1

78 2

1 ,1 1 5
917

20 .5
21.1
17.4

7.8
16.5
19.3

1,0 43

1,1 1 5

1,1 2 5

2 3 .2

2 0 .0

13.0
15.0

5 0 .5

4 8 .2

4 2 .7

—

—

—

Population................
Labor force ...........
Labor force
participation rate1 .........
Employed .........
Unemployed —
' Unemploy­
ment
rate2...............

N ever
m a rrie d

M a rrie d ,
h u sb a n d

D iv o rc e d

W id o w e d

ab sen t

7,482
4,169

975
563

1,771
1,000

2,359
1,760

2,376
846

55.7
3,759
410

55.7
489
74

56.5
864
136

74.6
1,629
131

35.6
777
69

9.8

13.1

13.6

7.4

8.2

M A R IT A L S T A T U S
'L a b o r force as percent of population.
U n e m p lo y e d as percent of labo r force.

T o ta l, w o m e n w h o
............

4 ,4 9 4

5 ,5 7 3

7 ,4 8 2

100.0

10 0.0

100.0

N e v e r m a r r ie d .....................
M a r r ie d , h u s b a n d
a b s e n t .....................................

521

610

97 5

11.6

10.9

13.0

98 0
75 0
2 ,2 4 3

1,3 2 4

1,771

23.7

2 ,3 5 9
2 ,3 7 6

21.8
16.7

23 .7

1 ,2 5 8
2 ,3 8 9

2 2 .5
4 2 .8

31 .5
3 1 .8

h e a d f a m ilie s

D iv o r c e d
W id o w e d

.................................
.................................




4 9 .9

27







Part III.
Education, Income,
and Earnings

Working women, on average, had
more formal schooling than work­
ing men in the 1950’s, but since then,
their level of education has not risen
as rapidly as men’s. Still, the pro­
portion of women with 4 years or
more of college has almost doubled
since 1952. Generally, the more edu­
cation women have, the more likely
they are to be in the labor force and
the less likely to be unemployed. The
more education they bring to their
jobs, the higher their earnings.
Nevertheless, the great majority
of working women have not yet
attained parity with working men in
earned income. Median usual
weekly earnings of women on full­
time jobs in 1975 were about 60 per­
cent of those of men. For year-round

full-time workers, women’s median
annual earnings were only 59 per­
cent of men’s, a ratio that ranged
from 39 percent for sales workers to
66 percent for professional-tech­
nical workers.
Despite their comparatively low
earnings, women make a substan­
tial contribution to their family’s
economic well-being, and the family
with more than one earner has
become a prominent feature of
American life. In nearly half of all
husband-wife families in 1976, both
the husband and wife were earners.
Wives’ earnings accounted for, on
average, 26 percent of the total
family income in 1975, and as much
as 39 percent in families where wives
worked year round, full time.

29




Table 30
Women and men in the labor force by years of school completed, selected years, 1952-76
P e rc e n t d is tr ib u tio n
Years o f s ch o o l c o m p le te d

D a te an d sex
T o ta l

Less th a n 5 years
(in c lu d in g n o n e )

M e d ia n years o f

H ig h s ch o o l

sch o o l c o m p le te d

C o lle ge

5 t o 8 years
1 t o 3 years

4 years

1 t o 3 years

4 yea rs o r m o re

O c to b e r 1 9 5 2
W om en
M en

.........................................................................

1 0 0 .0

5 .5

2 5 .6

1 8 .3

3 4 .0

8 .9

7.7

1 2 .0

...............................................................................

1 0 0 .0

8 .3

3 2 .9

1 8 .9

2 3 .7

8.1

8.1

1 0 .4

.........................................................................

1 0 0 .0

3 .0

1 8 .8

1-8.8

3 8 .7

1 1 .2

9 .5

1 2 .2

...............................................................................

1 0 0 .0

5 .4

2 4 .2

1 9 .6

2 8 .7

1 0 .4

11 .7

1 2 .0

M a rc h 1 9 6 2
W om en
M en

M a rc h 1 9 7 2
W om en
M en

.........................................................................

1 0 0 .0

1.4

1 0 .2

1 9 .2

4 4 .7

1 3 .2

1 1 .4

1 2 .4

...............................................................................

1 0 0 .0

2 .5

1 4 .5

1 9 .2

3 5 .0

1 3 .8

1 5 .0

1 2 .4

M a rc h 1 9 7 6
W om en
M en

.........................................................................

1 0 0 .0

1 .0

7 .4

17.1

4 4 .6

1 5 .9

1 4 .0

1 2 .6

...............................................................................

1 0 0 .0

1.9

1 0 .3

17.1

3 6 .5

1 6 .0

1 8 .2

1 2 .6

N O T E : Persons 18 years and over fo r 1952 and 19 62; 16 years and over fo r 1972 and 1976.




31

Table 31

Table 32

Labor force status of women by years of school completed,
March 1976

Occupational distribution of employed women by years of
school completed, March 1976

(Numbers in thousands)

Less th a n
8 years

Ite m

C o lle g e

H ig h s ch o o l

o r less
(in c lu d in g
none)

1 to 3
years

4 yea rs

1 to 3

o r m o re

1 to 3

4 yea rs o f

h ig h s c h o o l

years o f

m o re o f

o n ly

c o lle g e

c o lle g e

4 yea rs

years

4 yea rs o f

4 yea rs o f
h ig h s c h o o l

O c c u p a tio n g ro u p

T o t a l e m p lo y e d

T o ta l, 16 y e a rs
a n d o v e r ...........................

1 3 ,4 6 4

..........................

8 ,4 1 7

1 5 ,4 3 2

5 ,6 3 7

5 ,1 2 3

P e r c e n t ..................................

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

P r o f e s s io n a l- t e c h n ic a l ...................

1.8

6 .0

18.7

6 7 .8
7 .9

( th o u s a n d s )

1 6 ,3 5 9

3 1 ,8 7 8

1 1 ,0 2 3

8 ,1 1 0

M a n a g e r ia l- a d m in is t r a t iv e ,
In la b o r f o r c e

.............................

3 ,1 6 9

6 ,4 6 3

1 6 ,8 5 2

6 ,0 2 6

5 ,3 0 7

L a b o r fo r c e p a r t ic ip a t io n r a te 1 ...............................
U n e m p lo y e d ..........................
U n e m p lo y m e n t
r a te 2 ......................................

2 3 .5
332
10.5

3 9 .5

5 2 .9

5 4 .7

6 5 .4

883

1 ,4 2 0

389

184

13.7

8 .4

6.5

3 .5

e x c e p t f a r m .........................................

3 .2

5 .9

7 .0

S a le s .........................................................

7 .0

7 .2

7 .6

C l e r i c a l ....................................................

15 .3

4 7 .9

2 .0

1.6

1.1

1 6 .0
0 .4

2 5 .4

1 0 .2

2 .9

1.2

1.0
2 .3

0 .7
0 .9

0 .4
0 .6

0.1
0 .2

3 0 .9
9 .4

1 7 .2

1 3 .4

1.6
0 .8

1.0

3 .3
0 .2

0 .5

0 .3

C r a ft

.........................................................

4 6 .7 '

2 .8

O p e ra tiv e s , e x c e p t
tra n s p o rt

.............................................

T r a n s p o r t e q u ip m e n t
'P ercent o f populatio n in labo r force.
2Percent of labo r force unem ployed.

32



o p e r a tiv e s ..........................................
N o n fa r m la b o r e r s ............................
S e rv ic e , e x c e p t p r iv a te
h o u s e h o ld

...........................................

P r iv a te h o u s e h o ld ............................
F a rm .........................................................

1.7

Table 33

Table 34

Women and men 25 years and over in the labor force by age and
years of school completed, March 1976

Sources of income of women 14 years and over, 1975
N um ber o f wom en

T y p e o f In c o m e
Sex a n d years
o f s c h o o l c o m p le te d

T o ta l,
2 5 yea rs
an d ove r

25 to 34

3 5 to 4 4

4 5 to 5 4

years

years

yea rs

an d o ve r
T o ta l

W OM EN

.............................................................................................

W a g e o r s a la r y in c o m e

N u m b e r (th o u s a n d s )..
P e r c e n t ...............................

2 7 ,8 9 6

9 ,0 1 6

6 ,8 0 6

6 ,6 1 7

5 ,4 5 7

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

E le m e n ta r y s c h o o l:
........................

.......................................................................

N o n fa r m s e lf- e m p lo y m e n t in c o m e

T o ta l in la b o r fo r c e :

8 y e a rs o r le s s

(th o u s a n d s )

5 5 yea rs

1 0 .5

3 .8

7.3

12.8

2 2 .8

F a rm s e lf- e m p lo y m e n t in c o m e

.............................................

6 0 ,8 0 7
4 1 ,4 8 9
2 ,0 2 4

.......................................................

361

.....................................................................................

1 4 ,6 6 5

S o c ia l s e c u r it y a n d r a ilr o a d r e t ir e m e n t in c o m e .................
O th e r r e t ir e m e n t in c o m e ..................................................................

1 4 ,5 0 6

P r o p e r t y in c o m e

S u p p le m e n t a l s e c u r it y in c o m e

.......................................................

P u b lic a s s is ta n c e o r w e lf a r e in c o m e

.........................................

2 ,7 6 3
2 ,1 3 3
3 ,1 9 3

V e te r a n s ’ a n d u n e m p lo y m e n t b e n e fits a n d w o r k e r s ’
c o m p e n s a t io n
.......................................................................................

H ig h s c h o o l:
1 t o 3 y e a r s ...............................

1 4 .4

1 0 .5

16 .6

15.7

16 .8

4 y e a rs

........................................

4 4 .6

4 3 .9

4 7 .5

4 7 .7

3 8 .5

1 t o 3 y e a r s ...............................

14 .5

1 8 .4

12 .3

11.1

.....................

15 .9

2 3 .3

14.0
14.7

1 1 .3

14,121

1 0 ,3 9 3

10,231

8,771

1 0 0 .0

10 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 4 .3

5.1

12.2

18.1

3 .1 2 9

1 0 .8

4 3 ,5 1 7
1 0 0 .0

4 ,5 8 7

O th e r in c o m e

27.1

C o lle g e :
4 y e a rs o r m o r e

............................................................................................

NOTE: Because som e wom en receive incom e fro m m ore than one source, the sum of the individual
com pone nts is greater than the total.

MEN
T o ta l in la b o r fo r c e :
N u m b e r (th o u s a n d s )..
P e r c e n t ...............................
E le m e n ta r y s c h o o l:
8 y e a r s o r le s s

........................

H ig h s c h o o l:
1 t o 3 y e a r s ...............................

13.8

10.1

14 .0

1 6 .4

16 .5

4 y e a rs

3 5 .4

3 7 .6

3 7 .0

35.1

3 0 .4

........................................

C o lle g e :
1 t o 3 y e a r s ...............................

15 .3

20.1

14.7

1 2 .3

11 .6

4 y e a rs o r m o re

2 1 .2

27.1

2 2 .2

18 .0

14 .3

.....................




33

Table 35

Table 36

Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary
workers by sex, 1967-76

Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary
workers by sex and occupation and industry group, May 1976

U sual w e e k ly e a rn in g s
Year

W o m e n 's

O c c u p a tio n and

e a rn in g s as
In c u r r e n t d o lla rs
W om en

M en

In 1 9 6 7 d o lla rs
W om en

M en

in d u s tr y g ro u p

p e rc e n t o f

U sual w e e k ly e a rnings

W o m e n 's
ea rn in g s as

W om en

M en

p e rc e n t o f m e n 's

$218
187
111
147
149
121

73
58
45
64
61
60

121
109
107

$299
320
244
228
243
202
216
166
170
122

$113
167
( 1)
137
148
127
190
148
113
144
66
160
173

$129
244
280
231
235
222
270
240
188
270
n
224
269

88
68
59
63
57
70
62
60
53
71
64

m e n 's

O C C U P A T IO N

May of:
1967 ..................
1969 ..................
1970 ..................
1971 ..................
1972 ..................
1973 ..................
1974 ..................
1975 ..................
1976 ..................

P r o f e s s io n a l- t e c h n ic a l ..........................

$ 78
86
94
100
106
116
124
137
145

34



$125
142
151
162
168
188
204
221
234

$78
79
81
83
85
88
85
86
86

$125
130
131
134
135
143
140
138
138

62
61
62
62
63
62
61
62
62

M a n a g e r ia l- a d m in is t r a t iv e ,
e x c e p t f a r m ...............................................
S a le s ...............................................................
C l e r i c a l ...........................................................
C r a ft

...............................................................

O p e ra tiv e s , e x c e p t t r a n s p o r t ..............................................................
T r a n s p o r t e q u ip m e n t
o p e r a tiv e s

................................................

N o n fa r m la b o r e r s

..................................

S e rv ic e .........................................................
F a rm ..............................................................

( 1)

—

73
64
88

IN D U S T R Y
A g r ic u lt u r e ...........................................
C o n s t r u c t io n
.......................................
M in in g ................................................
M a n u f a c t u r in g

..................................

D u r a b le g o o d s

...........................

N o n d u r a b le g o o d s

......................

T r a n s p o r t a t io n a n d p u b lic
u t ilit ie s

.......................................................

W h o le s a le t r a d e .......................................
R e ta il t r a d e

................................................

F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , a n d
re a l e s ta te

...................................

P riv a te h o u s e h o ld ..........................
M is c e lla n e o u s s e rv ic e s ..........
P u b lic a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .................

Median not shown w here base is less than 75,000.

—

—

Table 37

Table 38

Median annual earnings of year-round full-time workers 14
years and over by sex, 1955-75

Median annual earnings of women 14 years and over by weeks
worked, 1975

A n n u a l ea rn in g s
Year

W o m e n 's e a rn in g s as
p e rc e n t o f m e n 's

W om en

M en

$ 2 ,7 1 9
2 ,8 2 7

$ 4 ,2 5 2

6 3 .9

4 ,4 6 6

6 3 .3

3 ,0 0 8

4 ,7 1 3

Annual

W o m e n 's e a rn in g s as

ea rnings

W o rk e xp e rie n c e

p e rc e n t o f m e n 's

$ 3 ,9 5 3

4 0 .9

6 3 .8

1955

.........................................................

1956
1 9 57

.........................................................
.........................................................

1 9 58

........................................................

3 ,1 0 2

4 ,9 2 7

6 3 .0

1959

.........................................................

3 ,1 9 3

5 ,2 0 9

6 1 .3

1960

.........................................................

3 ,2 9 3

5 ,4 1 7

6 0 .8

1961

.........................................................

3,351

5 ,6 4 4

5 9 .4

T o ta l w h o w o r k e d a t a n y
t im e in 1 9 7 5 .........................................

.........................................................

3 ,4 4 6

5 ,7 9 4

5 9 .5

19 6 3

.........................................................

3,561

5 ,9 7 8

5 9 .6

1964

.........................................................

3 ,6 9 0

6 ,1 9 5

5 9 .6

....................................

5 ,8 5 3

5 3 .6

5 0 to 52 w e e k s ................................................

7 ,5 0 4

27 to 49 w e e k s ................................................

1 9 62

W o r k e d a t f u ll- t im e jo b s

4,551

5 8 .8
5 9 .4

26 w e e k s o r le ss

1,291

6 2 .3
10 5 .6
11 4.2

..................................

1 ,2 7 4

50 to 5 2 w e e k s ...............................................

2 ,7 9 9

27 to 4 9 w e e k s ...............................................

1,8 6 7

W o r k e d a t p a r t- t im e jo b s

26 w e e k s o r le ss
1 9 65

.........................................................

3 ,8 2 3

6 ,3 7 5

.........................................................
.........................................................

3 ,9 7 3

.........................................................

4 ,4 5 7

1 9 69

.........................................................

.4 ,9 7 7

8 ,2 2 7

.........................................................
.........................................................
.........................................................
.........................................................
.........................................................

8 ,9 6 6
9 ,3 9 9
1 0 ,2 0 2

5 9 .4

19 7 2
1973
1974

5 ,3 2 3
5 ,5 9 3
5 ,9 0 3

1 9 75

.........................................................

6 ,3 3 5
6 ,9 7 0
7 ,5 0 4

1 1 ,1 8 6
1 1 ,8 8 9
1 2 ,7 5 8

93.1
9 4 .9

6 0 .5

1 9 70
1971

628

5 8 .0
5 7 .8

1 9 68

6 ,8 4 8
7 ,1 8 2
7 ,6 6 4

...........................................

6 0 .0

1966
19 67

...........................................

4 ,1 5 0

5 8 .2

5 9 .5
5 7 .9
5 6 .6
5 8 .6
5 8 .8

NOTE: Data fo r 1955 to 1966 are fo r w age and salary w orke rs o n ly and exclude self- em ployed
persons.




35

Table 39
Median annual earnings of year-round full-time workers in 1975, by selected characteristics,
March 1976
N u m b e r e m p lo y e d y e a r r o u n d , f u ll tim e
(th o u s a n d s )

Ite m

A n n u a l e a rn in g s

W o m e n 's e a rn in g s
as p e rc e n t o f m e n 's

W om en

M en

W om en

M en

...............................................................

17 ,451

3 7 ,2 5 5

$ 7 ,5 0 4

$ 1 2 ,6 3 1

5 9 .4

...............................................................................................................

3 ,5 1 6

4 ,6 5 7

7 ,5 2 2

8 ,8 4 9

8 5 .0

.........................................................................................

9 ,9 7 2

3 0 ,0 2 3

7 ,4 8 3

1 3 ,3 3 4

56.1

............................................................................................

861

808

6 ,7 3 3

1 0 ,4 6 8

6 4 .3

T o ta l, 16 yea rs a n d o v e r

N e ver m a rrie d

M a rrie d , spouse p re s e n t
M a rrie d , spouse a b se n t
D iv o rc e d

........................................................................................................................

1 ,9 3 3

1 ,4 0 4

7 ,9 2 2

1 2 ,3 2 1

6 4 .3

W id o w e d

........................................................................................................................

1 ,1 6 8

363

7 ,3 9 7

1 1 ,5 7 7

6 3 .9

W h ite

...............................................................................................................................

1 5 ,0 9 7

3 3 ,9 3 9

7 ,5 1 4

1 2 ,8 8 4

5 8 .3

B la c k

...............................................................................................................................

2 ,0 3 6

2 ,7 6 8

7 ,2 3 7

9 ,7 1 0

7 4 .5

629

1,511

6 ,4 3 1

9 ,4 1 3

6 8 .3

S pa n ish o r ig in

...............................................................................................................

Y ea rs o f s c h o o l c o m p le te d :
.....................................................................................................

3 ,1 9 4

8,8 7 1

5 ,6 8 2

1 0 ,0 4 0

5 6 ,6

...............................................................................................................

8 ,3 9 2

1 4 ,1 3 9

7 ,1 0 3

1 2 ,2 6 0

5 7 .9

3,0 4 1

8 ,1 6 7

1 0 ,5 1 9

1 7 ,1 2 9

6 1 .4

3 ,3 2 1

6 ,4 1 7

1 0 ,5 2 4

1 5 ,9 6 8

6 5 .9

1 ,4 2 4

6 ,4 7 8

9 ,1 2 5

1 5 ,9 0 3

5 7 .4

7 ,1 6 6

2 ,4 5 3

7 ,5 6 2

1 2 ,1 3 6

6 2 .3

1 ,9 4 0

3 ,7 9 6

6 ,2 4 1

1 0 ,9 5 3

5 7 .0

2 ,2 7 5

2 ,6 3 7

5 ,4 1 4

9 ,4 9 1

5 7 .0

Less th a n 12
12 o n ly

16 o r m o re

.........................................................................................................

O c c u p a tio n :
P ro fe s s io n a l a n d te c h n ic a l

.........................................................................

M anagers an d a d m in is tra to r s , e x c e p t fa r m
C le ric a l

......................................

...............................................................................................................

O p e ra tiv e s , e x c e p t tr a n s p o r t

..................................................................

S e rv ic e , e x c e p t p riv a te h o u s e h o ld

.........................................................

In m e tr o p o lita n areas1 :
..................................................................................................

5,8 41

1 0 ,0 8 8

7 ,8 4 5

1 2 ,4 3 5

63.1

W h ite

.....................................................................................................

4 ,4 3 5

8 ,2 0 2

7 ,8 8 0

1 2 ,8 8 6

6 1 .2

B la c k

.....................................................................................................

C e n tra l c itie s

1 ,2 3 4

1 ,6 0 2

7 ,5 8 4

1 0 ,6 4 0

7 1 .3

.....................................................................................

353

760

6 ,1 1 6

9 ,3 9 5

65.1

...............................................................................................................

6 ,9 7 7

1 5 ,7 4 4

8 ,0 1 9

1 4 ,1 9 9

5 6 .5

S pa nish o r ig in
S u b u rb s

W h ite

.....................................................................................................

6 ,4 0 9

1 4 ,9 7 9

8 ,0 0 2

1 4 ,3 5 7

5 5 .7

B la c k

.....................................................................................................

452

538

7 ,9 8 9

1 0 ,2 2 4

78.1

216

506

7 ,0 5 1

1 0 ,0 5 2

70.1

S pa n ish o r ig in

.....................................................................................

S ta n d a r d M e tro p o lita n S ta tis tic a l Areas.




Table 40
Husband-wife families by number of earners and size of family, March 1976, and median
family income in 1975
(Number of families in thousands)
Size o f fa m ily
N u m b e r o f earne rs

1

T o ta l

M e d ia n f a m ily in c o m e
2 person s

T o ta l, h u s b a n d -w ife fa m ilie s
W ith n o earne rs

5 pe rsons

6 persons

7 persons o r m o re

4 7 ,3 0 8

1 7 ,0 2 7

9 ,8 5 8

1 0 ,1 2 2

5 ,6 8 8

2 ,6 4 9

1 ,9 6 5

$ 1 4 ,9 0 0

..................................................................................

4 ,6 8 4

4 ,0 6 5

327

13 5

65

46

47

6 ,0 0 0

3 ,2 2 6

3 ,6 1 9

1 ,8 9 5

787

436

1 2 ,7 0 0

2 ,7 8 6

3 ,4 6 5

1 ,8 0 4

732

401

1 3 ,0 0 0

56

25

12

9 ,0 0 0

24

1 1 ,7 0 0
1 6 ,4 0 0

1 5 ,6 6 4

5,7 0 1

.........................................................................

1 3 ,9 6 2

4 ,7 7 4

..................................................................................

1 ,2 4 6

928

H u s b a n d o n ly

O th e r re la tiv e o n l y ...............................................................

W ith t w o ea rne rs

4 persons

.............................

W ith o n e e a r n e r ..................................................................................
W ife o n ly

3 persons

W ith th re e earne rs o r m o re

35

30

2 ,0 6 2

758

506

1 6 ,1 0 0

1 9 ,7 4 9

7,261

4 ,9 4 0

4 ,2 2 2

1 6 ,6 8 3

7,261

3 ,7 7 6

3 ,4 0 3

1 ,4 9 8

500

247

................................

2 ,7 1 4

-

1 ,0 1 8

711

516

233

234

1 7 ,9 0 0

.........................................................

352

-

146

10 9

48

25

24

1 5 ,1 0 0

......................................................

7 ,2 1 1

_

1 ,3 6 5

2 ,1 4 6

1 ,6 6 6

1 ,0 5 8

976

2 2 ,1 0 0

5 ,6 5 2

-

1 ,3 6 5

1 ,7 4 0

1 ,1 9 5

740

612

2 2 ,0 0 0

............................

1 ,4 2 7

-

-

364

1 ,1 9 5

293

330

2 2 ,9 0 0

.........................................................

131

-

-

42

31

24

34

1 6 ,1 0 0

.........................................................

H u s b a n d a n d w ife ea rners

...............................................

H u s b a n d an e a rn e r, w ife n o n e a rn e r
H u s b a n d is n o n e a rn e r

69

-

H u s b a n d a n d o th e r re la tiv e , o n ly
H u s b a n d is n o n e a rn e r

85

456

...............................................................................

H u s b a n d a n d w if e o n ly

141
299

1 In co m e ro u n d e d to nearest $ 1 0 0 .




37

Table 41

Table 42

Earnings of married women, husband present, as percent of
family income in 1975, by selected characteristics of husbandwife families, March 1976

Earnings of women who head families as percent of family
income in 1975, by selected characteristics, March 1976

Num ber

M e d ia n p e rc e n t o f

o f w ive s

f a m ily in c o m e a c c o u n te d

(th o u s a n d s )

C h a ra c te ris tic

f o r b y ea rn in g s o f w ife

2 3 ,7 0 9

2 6 .3

Age of husband:
U n d e r 25 y e a rs

2 ,2 5 9
1 1 ,5 5 4

3 0 .7

U n d e r 2 5 y e a rs

....................................

432

7 6 .8

2 5 .3

25 to 4 4 y e a rs

.......................................

2 ,3 5 6

7 5 .3

9 ,9 0 6

2 6 .5

4 5 y e a rs a n d o v e r ................................

1 ,5 5 0

5 0 .2

9,871

3 8 .8

2 ,3 2 9

7 7 .2

841
1,7 7 7
2 ,4 6 6
2 ,0 7 8
2 ,7 0 9

5 9 .5
4 4 .7
3 9 .2
3 6 .9
33.1

162
88 7

8 5 .2
82.1

f a m ily in c o m e a c c o u n te d

(th o u s a n d s )

f o r b y e a rnings o f head

w ith e a r n in g s

................................................

4 ,3 3 8

6 6 .0

A g e o f head:
........................................

25 to 4 4 y e a rs ...........................................
45 y e a rs a n d o v e r ................ ...................
W ife w o r k e d 50 to 52 w e e k s
fu ll tim e

M e d ia n p e rc e n t o f

o f wom en

T o t a l, f e m a le f a m ily h e a d s

T o ta l, w iv e s w ith
e a r n i n g s .............................................

N um ber
C h a ra c te ris tic

...............................................................

F a m ily in c o m e :
U n d e r $ 1 0 ,0 0 0 .................................
$ 1 0 ,0 0 0 to $ 1 4 ,9 9 9 ..........................
$ 1 5 ,0 0 0 to $ 1 9 ,9 9 9 ..........................
$ 2 0 ,0 0 0 to $ 2 4 ,9 9 9 ..........................
$ 2 5 ,0 0 0 a n d o v e r .............................

H e a d w o r k e d 50 to 5 2 w e e k s
f u ll tim e

............................................................

F a m ily in c o m e :
U n d e r $ 5 ,0 0 0 ...............................
$ 5 ,0 0 0 to $ 9 ,9 9 9 ................
$ 1 0 ,0 0 0 to $ 1 4 ,9 9 9 ............
$ 1 5 ,0 0 0 a n d o v e r ..................

698
581

7 6 .5
5 6 .2

M e d ia n f a m ily
M e d ia n f a m ily in c o m e

$ 1 9 ,6 9 9

—

W ife w o r k e d 27 to 49 w e e k s
fu ll tim e ................................................................
W ife w o r k e d 1 to 26 w e e k s
fu ll tim e o r 1 to 52 w e e k s
p a rt tim e

.............................................................

38



in c o m e

.............................................

$ 1 2 ,3 5 1

—

H e a d w o r k e d 27 t o 4 9 w e e k s
3 ,1 1 6

3 0 .7

f u ll tim e

.............................................

559

7 1 .5

1,451

3 3 .3

H e a d w o rk e d 1 to 26 w e e k s
f u ll tim e o r 1 to 52 w e e k s
1 0 ,7 2 2

11 .8

p a r t t im e

.............................................

Table 43
Poverty status in 1975 of women and men by age and years of school completed, March 1976

T o ta l, 16 yea rs

1 6 a n d 17

18 to 21

22 to 34

35 to 44

4 5 to 54

55 t o 64

6 5 years

an d o ve r

S e x a n d yea rs o f sc h o o l c o m p le te d

years

years

years

years

years

years

and o v e r

W OMEN
T o ta l (th o u s a n d s )
T o ta l in p o v e r ty :

P e rc e n t
E le m e n ta ry s c h o o l:
H ig h s c h o o l:

4 ,1 0 8

8 ,1 7 0

2 1 ,4 9 2

1 1 ,7 1 2

1 2 ,1 5 6

1 0 ,4 4 7

1 2 ,7 4 9

1 0 ,0 6 0

641

1 ,2 2 7

2 ,3 8 4

1 ,2 4 8

1 ,0 2 9

1 ,2 2 9

2 ,3 0 3

............................................................................................

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0
6 5 .7

. .

3 5 .2

1 8 .3

8 .6

1 7 .8

32.1

3 7 .6

4 7 .9

...............................................................................

2 9 .2

7 9 .7

3 7 .2

29.1

2 9 .2

2 6 .5

2 2 .4

15.7

................... .....................................................................

25.1

2 .0

3 6 .9

3 5 .6

3 0 .0

2 7 .4

2 2 .4

12 .0

1 0 .6

—

17 .2

1 7 .4

8 .7

8 .4

7.2

6 .6

8 ,9 1 3

8 yea rs o r less (in c lu d e s n o n e c o m p le te d )

1 t o 3 years
4 y e a rs

C o lle g e :

8 0 ,8 3 4

...............................................................

............................................................................................................
N u m b e r (th o u s a n d s )

1 y e a r o r m o re

..................................................................................
MEN

T o ta l (th o u s a n d s )
T o ta l in p o v e r ty :

P e rc e n t
E le m e n ta ry s c h o o l:
H ig h s c h o o l:

4 ,2 0 2

7 ,8 0 2

2 0 ,6 2 0

1 1 ,1 0 7

1 1 ,2 9 6

9 ,3 2 0

5,9 5 1

597

836

1 ,3 3 5

712

679

781

1,0 1 3

............................................................................................

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

8 years o r less (in c lu d e s n o n e c o m p le te d )

. .

3 8 .6

2 7 .3

9 .0

1 7 .5

3 6 .6

4 8 .5

5 9 .4

76.1

...............................................................................

2 7 .4

7 1 .5

4 4 .0

2 1 .8

24.1

19 .9

14 .4

12.5

........................................................................................

19 .2

1.2

2 9 .5

2 8 .8

2 4 .4

19.7

1 6 .6

6 .5

1 4 .8

-

1 7 .5

3 1 .8

1 4 .9

11.9

9 .6

4 .8

1 to 3 years
4 years

C o lle g e :

7 3 ,2 6 0

...............................................................

...........................................................................................................
N u m b e r (th o u s a n d s )

1 y e a r o r m o re




..................................................................................

39




Part IV.
Race and Spanish
Origin




Nowadays white women are
nearly as likely as black women to be
in the labor force. In past decades,
the labor force participation rate for
black women was as much as 12 per­
centage points higher than that for
white women. Over the past 10
years, the rate for black women has
shown little change, while the rate
for white women, particularly
married women, has risen at a slow
but steady pace. In 1976, the partici­
pation rate for black women, at 50
percent, was only 3 percentage
points above the rate for white
women. Recent data show that His­
panic women are less likely to be in

the labor force than either black or
white women.
Following are a few other
highlights of the data in Part IV:
• The unemployment rate is high­
est for black women and lowest for
white women, with that for His­
panic women usually closer to the
rate for black than white women.
• For all three groups, labor force
participation rates vary a great deal
by age, marital and family status,
and education. One of every 4 un­
employed black women is the head
of her family, compared with about

1 of every 10 white or Hispanic
women.
• The proportions of black and
Hispanic women in white-collar
work lag far behind that of white
women.
• Thirty-six percent of all black
families are headed by women, com­
pared with 21 percent of all His­
panic families and 11 percent of all
white families. On average, families
headed by black and Hispanic
women are twice as likely to have in­
comes below the poverty level as
families headed by white women.

41

Chart 5.
Labor force participation
rates of women and men,
annual averages, by race,
1955-76, and Spanish
origin, 1973-76

42




Percent of population in labor force

Percent of civilian labor force unemployed

Chart 6.

15--------------------------------------------------

Unemployment rates of
women and men, annual
averages, by race, 1955-76,
and Spanish origin,
1973-76

W h ite m e n

Ol_______________I______________ I _____________ I _____________ I
_
_
_
1955
1960
1965
1970
1975




1980

43

Table 44
Labor force status of women and men by race, annual averages, 1955-76
(Numbers in thousands)
W om en
P o p u la tio n

Y ea r

W h ite

B la c k
an d o th e r

M en

L a b o r fo rc e
. . .
i
p a r tic ip a tio n ra te
W h ite

B la c k
an d o th e r

U n e m p lo y m e n t ra te

W h ite

2

B la c k
an d o th e r

P o p u la tio n

W h ite

B la c k
an d o th e r

L a b o r fo rc e
. . .
1
p a r tic ip a tio n ra te
W h ite

B la c k
an d o th e r

U n e m p lo y m e n t ra te

W h ite

B la c k
and o th e r

1955

...............................................

5 1 ,8 0 3

5 ,7 7 2

3 4 .5

46 .1

4 .3

8 .4

4 7 ,0 7 7

5 ,0 3 4

8 5 .4

8 5 .0

3 .7

1956

...............................................

5 2 ,3 7 2

5 ,8 5 7

3 5 .7

4 7 .3

4 .2

8 .9

4 7 ,6 0 4

5 ,1 2 0

8 5 .6

85.1

3 .4

7 .9

1957

................................................

5 2 ,9 9 7

5 ,9 5 2

3 5 .7

4 7 .2

4 .3

7 .3

4 8 ,1 2 2

5 ,1 9 4

8 4 .8

8 4 .3

3 .6

8 .3

1958

...............................................

5 3 ,6 4 5

6 ,0 4 7

3 5 .8

4 8 .0

6 .2

1 0 .8

4 8 ,7 4 7

5 ,2 8 7

8 4 .3

8 4 .0

6.1

1 3 .8

1959

...............................................

5 4 ,3 9 3

6 ,1 4 4

3 6 .0

4 7 .7

5 .3

9 .4

4 9 ,4 1 0

5 ,3 8 4

8 3 .8

8 3 .4

4 .6

1 1 .5

8 .8

1960

...............................................

5 5 ,2 1 5

6 ,3 6 9

3 6 .5

4 8 .2

5 .3

9 .4

5 0 ,0 6 7

5 ,5 9 5

8 3 .4

8 3 .0

4 .8

1 0 .7

1961

................................................

5 5 ,9 9 4

6 ,4 8 9

3 6 .9

4 8 .3

6 .5

1 1 .8

5 0 ,6 1 0

5 ,6 7 7

8 3 .0

8 2 .2

5 .7

1 2 .8

1962

................................................

5 6 ,6 6 0

6 ,6 6 3

3 6 .7

4 8 .0

5 .5

1 1 .0

5 1 ,0 5 5

5 ,7 7 7

82.1

8 0 .8

4 .6

1 0 .9

1963

...............................................

5 7 ,6 7 2

6 ,8 2 3

3 7 .2

48.1

5 .8

1 1 .2

5 2 ,0 3 3

5 ,8 8 8

8 1 .5

8 0 .2

4 .7

1 0 .5

1964

................................................

5 8 ,6 6 5

6 ,9 7 2

3 7 .5

4 8 .5

5 .5

1 0 .6

5 2 ,8 6 9

5 ,9 7 8

81.1

8 0 .0

4.1

8 .9

1965

................................................

5 9 ,6 0 1

7 ,1 3 0

38.1

4 8 .6

5 .0

9 .2

5 3 ,6 8 3

6 ,1 0 1

8 0 .8

7 9 .6

3 .6

7 .4

1966

................................................

6 0 ,5 0 3

7 ,2 9 2

3 9 .2

4 9 .3

4 .3

8 .6

5 4 ,0 6 3

6 ,2 0 0

8 0 .6

7 9 .0

2 .8

6 .3

1967

................................................

6 1 ,4 9 2

7 ,4 7 7

40.1

4 9 .5

4 .6

9.1

5 4 ,6 0 8

6 ,2 9 8

8 0 .7

7 8 .5

2 .7

6 .0

1968

................................................

6 2 ,5 1 3

7 ,6 6 6

4 0 .7

4 9 .3

4 .3

8 .3

5 5 ,4 3 5

6 ,4 1 3

8 0 .4

7 7 .6

2 .6

5 .6

1969

................................................

6 3 ,5 6 4

7 ,8 7 3

4 1 .8

4 9 .8

4 .2

7 .8

5 6 ,3 4 9

6 ,5 4 9

8 0 .2

7 6 .9

2 .5

5 .3

1970

................................................

6 4 ,6 2 4

8 ,1 1 0

4 2 .6

4 9 .5

5 .4

9 .3

5 7 ,4 8 8

6 ,7 7 3

8 0 .0

7 6 .5

4 .0

7 .3

1971

................................................

6 5 ,6 9 7

8 ,3 4 5

4 2 .6

4 9 .2

6 .3

1 0 .8

5 8 ,7 6 2

6 ,9 7 3

7 9 .6

7 4 .9

4 .9

9.1

1972

................................................

6 7 ,1 3 8

8 ,7 3 0

4 3 .2

4 8 .7

5 .9

1 1 .3

6 0 ,2 2 1

7 ,2 3 7

7 9 .6

7 3 .7

4 .5

8 .9

1973

................................................

6 8 ,0 9 0

9 ,1 0 2

44.1

49.1

5 .3

1 0 .5

6 1 ,2 1 3

7 ,5 3 2

7 9 .5

7 3 .8

3 .7

7 .6

1974

................................................

6 9 ,0 6 4

9 ,4 4 5

4 5 .2

49 .1

6.1

1 0 .7

6 2 ,3 1 1

7 ,7 7 9

7 9 .4

7 3 .3

4 .3

9.1

1975

................................................

7 0 ,1 1 5

9 ,7 5 0

4 5 .9

4 9 .2

8 .6

1 4 .0

6 3 ,3 8 6

8 ,0 1 7

7 8 .7

7 1 .5

7 .2

13.7

................................................

7 1 ,1 4 7

4 6 .9

5 0 .2

7 .9

7 8 .4

7 0 .7

6 .4

12 .7

1976

1Percent o f p o p u la tio n in la b o r fo rc e .
2 P ercent o f la b o r fo rc e u n e m p lo y e d .

44




1 0 ,0 5 6

1 3 .6

6 4 ,4 2 2

8 ,2 7 9

2

Table 45
Labor force status of persons of Spanish origin by sex, annual averages, 1973-76
P o p u la tio n

Sex a n d y e a r

(th o u s a n d s )

L a b o r fo rc e
. . .
i
p a r tic ip a tio n ra te

U n e m p lo y m e n t

Sex an d y e a r

ra te 2

W OMEN

P o p u la tio n
(th o u s a n d s )

L a b o r fo rc e
. . .
i
p a r tic ip a tio n ra te

U n e m p lo y m e n t

6 .7

ra te 2

MEN

19 73
1974

...................................
...................................

3 ,1 5 9
3 ,3 6 4

4 2 .3

9 .0
9 .4

1 9 73
1 9 74

............................
............................

1975

...................................

3 ,5 5 7

43.1

1 3 .6

19 75

19 76

...................................

3 ,6 5 0

4 4 .0

12 .9

1 9 76

4 0 .9

2 ,8 3 8

8 1 .5

............................

3 ,0 6 0
3 ,1 3 2

8 1 .7
8 0 .7

............................

3 ,1 9 3

7 9 .6

7 .3
11 .4
10.7

'P ercent of po pulatio n in labor force.
2Percent of labor force unem ployed.

Table 46
Employment status of women and men by race and Spanish origin, March 1976
(Numbers in thousands)
S pa nish o r ig in
Ite m

W h ite

B la c k
T o ta l

M e x ic a n -A m e ric a n

P u e rto R ican

O th e r

W OMEN
3 2 ,7 9 9

4 ,3 7 7

1 ,5 1 6

876

171

468

..................................................................

4 6 .3

5 0 .5

4 2 .9

4 3 .9

3 0 .5

48.1

...........................................................................................................................

3 0 ,2 2 2

3 ,8 0 4

1 ,3 2 5

753

148

425

U n e m p lo y e d ........................................................................................................................

2 ,5 7 7

573

190

123

24

43

........................................................................................

7 .9

13.1

1 2 .5

1 4 .0

1 3 .9

9 .3

........................................................................................................................

3 8 ,0 5 9

4 ,2 9 8

2 ,0 1 5

1 ,1 1 9

390

506

L a b o r fo r c e , 16 years a n d o v e r

...............................................................................................

L a b o r fo r c e p a r tic ip a tio n r a te 1
E m p lo y e d

U n e m p lo y m e n t r a te 2
N o t in la b o r fo r c e

MEN

L a b o r fo r c e , 1 6 ye a rs a n d o v e r

...............................................................................................

L a b o r fo r c e p a r tic ip a tio n ra te 1

4 9 ,6 5 1

4 ,7 0 2

2 ,4 2 0

1 ,5 1 7

301

601

..................................................................

7 7 .4

6 6 .6

7 7 .7

8 0 .3

6 8 .2

7 7 .0
544

...........................................................................................................................

4 6 ,0 8 7

4 ,0 1 4

2 ,1 6 0

1 ,3 5 8

259

U n e m p lo y e d ........................................................................................................................

3 ,5 6 5

689

260

160

43

57

U n e m p lo y m e n t ra te 2 ...........................................................................................

7 .2

1 4 .6

1 0 .7

1 0 .5

14 .2

9 .5

1 4 ,4 7 6

2 ,3 5 4

693

373

14 0

18 0

E m p lo y e d

N o t in la b o r fo r c e

........................................................................................................................

P e r c e n t o f p o p u la tio n in la b o r fo rc e .
2 Percent o f la b o r fo rc e u n e m p lo y e d .




45

Table 47
Labor force status of women by race, Spanish origin, and marital and family status, March 1976

W h ite

B la c k

C iv ilia n

L a b o r fo rc e

la b o r fo rc e

p a r tic ip a tio n

(th o u s a n d s )

ra te

.........................

3 2 ,7 9 9

4 6 .3

7 .9

4 ,3 7 7

5 0 .5

................................................

7 ,7 5 4

6 1 .2

1 0 .2

1 ,1 2 8

4 6 .5

M a rita l an d f a m ily s ta tu s

T o ta l, 16 years an d o v e r
N e ver m a rrie d

M a rrie d , spouse p re s e n t

U n e m p lo y ­
m e n t rate

C iv ilia n

L a b o r fo rc e

la b o r fo rc e

p a r tic ip a tio n

(th o u s a n d s )

ra te

S pa nish o r ig in
C iv ilia n

L a b o r fo rc e

la b o r fo rc e

p a r tic ip a tio n

(th o u s a n d s )

ra te

13.1

1 ,5 1 6

4 2 .9

1 2 .5

2 2 .3

386

5 0 .5

1 3 .0

U n e m p lo y ­
m e n t ra te

U n e m p lo y ­
m e n t ra te

.........................

1 9 ,2 8 5

44.1

6 .9

1 ,9 0 3

5 6 .7

9 .3

832

4 1 .6

1 3 .2

16 t o 3 4 y e a r s ......................

7 ,9 0 6

5 0 .0

9 .5

840

64.1

13 .7

417

4 3 .9

1 6 .3

3 5 years an d o v e r ...................

1 1 ,3 7 9

4 0 .8

5.1

1 ,0 6 3

5 2 .0

5 .8

415

3 9 .6

9 .6

9 ,0 3 0

4 3 .4

6 .0

691

5 0 .0

8.1

244

42 .1

(1)

.........................................

1 0 ,2 5 6

4 4 .8

7 .7

1 ,2 1 2

6 1 .5

1 0 .0

588

4 1 .4

(1)

......................

6 ,5 1 6

5 2 .7

5 .7

647

6 5 .4

7.1

301

4 8 .9

(1)
(1)

W ith no o w n c h ild re n u n d e r
18 yea rs

.........................................

W ith o w n c h ild re n u n d e r
18 yea rs

6 t o 17 yea rs

14 t o 17 years

. . . .

2 ,0 1 9

5 5 .0

4 .5

15 2

5 6 .4

6.1

81

5 1 .7

6 to 13 yea rs

. . . .

4 ,4 9 8

5 1 .7

6 .3

495

6 8 .7

7 .4

219

4 7 .8

(1)

......................

3 ,7 3 9

3 5 .5

1 1 .0

564

5 7 .5

13 .2

287

3 5 .8

(1)

................................

5 ,7 6 0

3 9 .8

8 .0

1 ,3 4 6

4 6 .5

1 0 .7

298

3 8 .8

10.1

U n d e r 6 yea rs
O th e r m a rita l s ta tu s

^D ata n o t available.
Includes w id o w e d ; d iv o rc e d ; and m a rrie d , husband absent.

2

N O T E : La bor fo rc e p a rtic ip a tio n rate equals pe rce n t o f p o p u la tio n in labo r force.
U n e m p lo y m e n t rate equals pe rce n t o f labo r fo rc e u n e m p lo y e d .

46



O w n c h ild re n in clu d e never-m arried sons and daughters, s te p ch ild re n , and ad opte d ch ild re n
E xcluded are o th e r related c h ild re n such as g ra n d c h ild re n , nieces, nephew s, and cousins, and
u n relate d c h ild re n .

Table 48
Number of own children and median family income in 1975 by age of children, type of
family, labor force status of mother, race, and Spanish origin, March 1976
F a m ilie s headed b y w o m e n 1

H u s b a n d -w ife fa m ilie s

Ite m
W h ite

B la c k

S pa nish o r ig in

W h ite

B la c k

S pa nish o rig in

N u m b e r (th o u sa n c s), M a rc h 1 9 7 6
............................................

4 5 ,9 7 2

4 ,5 7 0

3 ,6 7 0

921

1 9 ,7 8 9

2 ,6 1 3

1 ,4 2 9

5 ,8 8 5
3 ,5 7 9

3 ,4 2 7

...................................................

1 ,6 5 7

347

.........................................

2 6 ,1 8 3

1 ,9 5 6

2 ,2 4 2

2 ,3 0 7

1 ,7 7 0

573

..................................................................................

1 1 ,5 0 4

1 ,1 4 4

675

1 ,6 1 0

838

209

5 ,9 7 1

667

298

1 ,0 6 5

417

94

..................................................................

5 ,5 3 3

477

377

545

422

115

.....................................................................................

2 0 ,8 3 4

2 ,1 0 4

1 ,6 7 3

2 ,9 5 6

1 ,2 2 7

680

1 ,8 5 4

1 ,7 0 8
857

450

9 ,2 8 5

..................................................................

1 1 ,5 4 9

876

993

1 ,1 0 2

851

274

.....................................................................................

1 3 ,6 3 4

1 ,3 2 2

1 ,3 2 3

1 ,3 2 0

880

261

4 ,5 3 2

719

451

660

383

76

9 ,1 0 2

603

872

660

497

18 5

$ 4 ,7 3 0

T o ta l c h ild r e n u n d e r 1 8 years
M o th e r in la b o r fo rc e

M o th e r n o t in la b o r fo rc e
C h ild re n 14 t o 17 years

M o th e r in la b o r fo r c e

............................................................................

M o th e r n o t in la b o r fo rc e
C h ild re n 6 t o 1 3 yea rs

M o th e r in la b o r fo r c e

............................................................................

M o th e r n o t in la b o r fo r c e
C h ild re n u n d e r 6 yea rs

M o th e r in la b o r fo rc e

............................................................................

M o th e r n o t in la b o r fo r c e

..................................................................

177

M e d ia n f a m ily in c o m e , 1 9 7 5
............................................

$ 1 6 ,0 8 0

$ 1 1 ,8 7 3

$ 1 1 ,3 5 6

$ 5 ,9 6 7

$ 4 ,5 6 9

..................................................

1 7 ,5 8 8

14,461

1 3 ,6 8 6

7 ,7 7 8

5 ,7 5 2

6 ,0 4 9

.........................................

1 4 ,7 9 6

8 ,9 1 2

9 ,8 4 9

3 ,9 7 5

3 ,7 6 4

4 ,3 0 6

..................................................................................

$ 1 8 ,6 2 3

$ 1 3 ,1 3 1

$ 1 3 ,2 1 3

$ 7 ,8 7 3

$ 4 ,9 4 9

$ 5 ,6 7 7

1 9 ,7 7 9

15,781

1 6 ,0 7 3

9 ,4 7 8

6 ,4 2 6

6 ,9 0 4

..................................................................

1 7 ,2 2 4

1 0 ,0 2 8

1 0 ,6 0 3

5 ,1 6 2

4 ,0 5 5

4 ,7 4 7

.....................................................................................

$ 1 6 ,4 9 6

$ 1 1 ,8 5 8

$ 1 1 ,8 3 7

$ 6 ,1 6 4

$ 4 ,7 7 5

$ 4 ,8 7 5

1 7 ,8 0 4

1 4 ,5 7 0

1 3 ,991

7 ,7 8 6

5 ,8 1 5

6 ,2 1 4

..................................................................

1 5 ,2 6 8

8 ,9 1 7

1 0 ,3 9 9

4,1 1 1

3 ,9 1 5

4 ,5 2 9

.....................................................................................

$ 1 3 ,6 7 8

$ 1 1 ,0 5 6

$ 9 ,9 5 7

$ 4 ,0 1 4

$ 3 ,9 1 4

$ 3 ,9 4 1

1 4 ,4 7 7

1 3 ,3 2 3

1 1 ,8 0 8

5 ,3 4 0

4 ,9 4 6

4 ,7 8 7

1 3 ,2 9 0

8 ,6 3 0

8 ,9 1 0

3 ,1 5 4

3 ,5 4 2

3 ,5 2 3

T o ta l c h ild re n u n d e r 18 yea rs
M o th e r in la b o r fo rc e

M o th e r n o t in la b o r fo r c e
C h ild re n 14 t o 17 years

M o th e r in la b o r fo r c e

............................................................................

M o th e r n o t in la b o r fo r c e
C h ild re n 6 t o 1 3 years

M o th e r in la b o r fo r c e

............................................................................

M o th e r n o t in la b o r fo r c e
C h ild re n u n d e r 6 yea rs

M o th e r in la b o r fo r c e

............................................................................

M o th e r n o t in la b o r fo rc e

i

..................................................................

W id o w e d ; d iv o rc e d ; m a rrie d , husband absent; and never-m arried fa m ily heads.




N O T E : C h ild re n are de fin e d as " o w n " c h ild re n o f th e fa m ily head and in clu d e never-m arried
sons and daughters, ste p ch ild re n , and ad opte d ch ild re n . E xcluded are o th e r related c h ild re n such as
g ra n d ch ild re n , nieces, nephew s, and cousins, and unrelate d ch ild re n .

47

Table 49
Women and men in the labor force by years of school completed, race,
and Spanish origin, March 1976
S panish o r ig in
Sex an d yea rs o f
s c h o o l c o m p le te d

W h ite

S pa nish o r ig in
S ex a n d yea rs o f

B la c k
T o ta l

M e x ic a n -

P u e rto

A m e ric a n

R ica n

O th e r

s c h o o l c o m p le te d

W O M EN

T o ta l

M e x ic a n -

P u e rto

A m e ric a n

R ican

O th e r

MEN

T o ta l:
N u m b e r (th o u ­

W h ite

B la c k

T o ta l:
N u m b e r (th o u ­
3 2 ,7 9 9

4 ,3 7 7

1 ,5 1 6

876

171

468

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

.....................

7 .6

14.1

2 7 .6

3 1 .5

2 7 .5

20.1

1 to 3 y e a r s ......... ..................

1 6 .3

2 3 .8

1 8 .6

2 1 .9

18.1

1 2 .6

1 t o 3 y e a r s ................

4 y e a rs

.....................................

4 5 .4

3 9 .8

3 7 .0

3 3 .6

42.1

4 1 .5

4 y e a rs

.........................

C o lle g e :
1 to 3 y e a r s ............................
4 y e a rs o r

1 6 .3

1 2 .6

11 .6

9.9

8 .2

1 6 .0

C o lle g e :
1 to 3 y e a r s ................

s a n d s ) ..............................
P e r c e n t ................................
E le m e n ta r y s c h o o l:
8 y e a rs o r le s s

........................................

4
Digitized8for FRASER


4 9 ,6 5 1

4 ,7 0 2

2 ,4 2 0

1 ,5 1 7

301

601

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

10 0.0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 1 .2

2 3 .3

3 3 .9

3 9 .5

3 3 .8

2 0 .0

1 6 .4

2 4 .7

2 6 .5

3 4 .0

2 0 .5
27.1

2 0 .7

3 6 .8

2 4 .8

2 8 .8

1 7 .0
32.1

1 6 .5

1 1 .3

1 0 .7

9 .6

7 .3

1 5 .3

1 9 .0

6 .7

7 .8

5 .5

3 .6

1 5 .6

E le m e n ta r y s c h o o l:

H ig h s c h o o l:

m o re

s a n d s ) .....................
P e r c e n t .....................

8 y e a r s o r le s s

.........

H ig h s c h o o l:

4 y e a rs o r
1 4 .3

9 .7

5 .2

3.0

4.1

9 .8

m o re

............................

Table 50
Occupational distribution of employed women and men by race and Spanish origin,
March 1976

W om en
Spanish origin

O c c u p a tio n group

W h ite

Black
T o ta l

T o ta l e m p lo y e d :

M en

N u m b e r (th o u s a n d s )

M exican -

Puerto

A m erican

Rican

Spanish origin
W h ite

Black

O ther

T o ta l

M exican-

Puerto

A m erican

Rican

O th e r

.............

3 0 ,2 2 2

3 ,8 0 4

1 ,3 2 5

753

18 4

425

4 6 ,0 8 7

4 ,0 1 4

2 ,1 6 0

1 ,3 5 8

259

544

.........................................

100.C

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

...............................................................................................

6 6 .2

4 2 .4

4 6 .5

4 4 .1

4 2 .8

5 1 .5

4 3 .8

2 1 .0

2 3 .8

18.1

22.1

3 8 .6

1 6 .5

13.1

7 .8

6 .0

8.1

1 0 .8

1 6 .0

7 .2

7 .7

5 .5

6.1

1 3 .6

.........................

6.1

2 .6

3.1

3 .2

0 .5

3 .8

15.1

4 .4

6 .7

5 .6

5 .9

9 .9

..................................................................................................

7 .2

2 .3

4 .8

4 .8

4 .5

4 .7

6 .5

1.9

3 .0

2.1

3 .8

4 .8

............................................................................................

3 6 .4

2 4 .4

3 0 .8

30.1

2 9 .7

3 2 .2

6 .2

7 .5

6 .4

4 .9

6 .3

1 0 .3

B lu e c o lla r

...................................... ' ..........................................................

1 4 .0

1 8 .8

3 0 .0

2 7 .0

3 9 .0

3 1 .7

4 3 .8

5 6 .9

5 7 .5

6 2 .4

51.1

4 7 .7

C r a ft

................... ..............................................................................

1.5

1.0

2 .7

3 .0

2 .7

1.9

2 1 .0

1 5 .7

1 9 .4

19.1

1 5 .0

22.1

O p e ra tiv e s , in c lu d in g t r a n s p o r t ............................................

1 1 .4

1 6 .6

2 5 .8

2 2 .3

3 4 .5

2 8 .9

1 6 .4

2 6 .7

2 6 .5

2 9 .0

2 7 .6

1 9 .5

............................................................

1.1

1.2

1.5

1.7

1.8

0 .9

6 .4

1 4 .5

1 1 .6

1 4 .3

8 .5

6.1

........................................................................................................

1 8 .8

3 8 .4

22.1

2 6 .3

18.1

1 6 .2

8.1

1 8 .4

13.1

1 0 .9

2 4 .0

1 3 .6

8.1

1 8 .2

13.1

10.9

2 4 .0

1 3 .6

P e rc e n t

W h ite c o lla r

P ro fe s s io n a l-te c h n ic a l

...............................................................

M a n a g e ria l-a d m in is tra tiv e , e x c e p t fa r m
Sales

C le ric a l

L a b o re rs , e x c e p t fa r m
S ervice

S e rv ic e , e x c e p t p riv a te h o u s e h o ld

......................................

1 6 .6

2 7 .4

1 7 .3

2 0 .8

1 6 .0

1 1 .5

......................................................................

2 .2

1 1 .0

4 .8

5 .5

2.1

4 .7

F a r m ...............................................................................................................

1.0

0 .2

1.6

2 .6

—

...................................................

0 .2

0.1

0.1

0.1

—

............................................

0 .8

0.1

1.5

2 .5

-

P riv a te h o u s e h o ld

F a rm e rs a n d fa r m m anagers
F a rm la b o re rs a n d s u p e rviso rs




—

0 .2

—

—

-

0 .2

4 .3

3 .7

5 .7

8 .4

2 .8

0 .2

0 .8

0 .4

0 .6

1.5

2 .9

5 .3

7.8

—

2 .7
—

2 .7

—

0 .6
0 .2
0 .4

49

Table 51
Family status of unemployed women by race and Spanish origin, March 1976

Spanish origin
F a m ily status

W h ite

Black
T o ta l

M ex ic a n -A m e ric a n

O th e r1

N u m b e r (t housands)
T o ta l,

16 yea rs an d o v e r

In fa m ilie s , t o t a l
Head

...........................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................................

.................................................................................................................................................................................................

W ife , h u s b a n d p re s e n t
C h ild o f head

........................................................................................................................................ ...................

..............................................................................................................................................................................

O th e r re la tiv e o f h e a d ..............................................................................................................................................................
U n re la te d in d iv id u a ls

...........................................................................................................................................................................

2,577
2,283
254
1,305
627
95
294

573
533
144
170
189
31
40

189
179
21
109
39
10
10

123
120
12
71
30
7
3

68
61
9
38
10
3
7

100.0
97.6
9.8
57.7
24.4
5.7
2.4

100.0
(2)
(2)
<2)
(2)
<2i
<2)

Percent d is trib u tio n
T o ta l,
In fa m ilie s , t o t a l
H ead

16 yea rs a n d o v e r

...........................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................................

.................................................................................................................................................................................................

W ife , h u s b a n d p re s e n t
C h ild o f head

...........................................................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................................................... ..................

O th e r re la tiv e o f h e a d ..............................................................................................................................................................
U n re la te d in d iv id u a ls

...........................................................................................................................................................................

'includes Puerto Rican women.
Percent not shown where base is less than 75,000.

2


50


100.0
88.6
9.9
50.6
24.3
3.7
11.4

100.0
93.0
25.1
29.7
33.0
5.4
7.0

100.0
94.7
11.1
57.7
20.6
5.3
5.3

Table 52
Work experience and median annual earnings of women by race and Spanish origin, 1975
Spanish origin
W h ite

Ite m

Black
T otal

M ex ic a n -A m e ric a n

Puerto Rican

O ther

-I

T o ta l

(th o u s a n d s )

W o rk e d d u rin g 1 9 7 5 :

1 ,9 9 5

561

974

7 0 ,8 4 8

8 ,6 7 4

3 ,5 3 0

.....................................................................................

3 7 ,4 6 3

4 ,6 7 5

1 ,6 9 8

1 ,0 1 2

193

494

..................................................................................................................

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

N u m b e r (th o u s a n d s )
P e rce n t

F u ll tim e

...............................................................................................................

6 6 .3

7 1 .9

7 3 .8

7 1 .5

73.1

7 8 .7

........................................................................................................................

4 1 .0

4 3 .7

3 7 .5

3 2 .2

4 2 .5

4 6 .4

.................................................................................................................................................

50 to 52 w eeks
2 7 t o 4 9 w e e ks

........................................................................................................................

12.1

1 2 .9

1 6 .0

1 6 .3

14.5

1 5 .8

...........................................................................................................................

1 3 .2

1 5 .3

2 0 .4

2 3 .0

16.1

1 6 .6

.................................................................................................................................................

2 1 .3

1 t o 2 6 w e e ks

3 3 .7

28.1

2 6 .3

2 8 .5

2 6 .9

5 0 to 5 2 w e e k s

........................................................................................................................

1 1 .9

1 0 .7

7 .8

8 .8

8 .8

5 .3

2 7 t o 4 9 w e eks

........................................................................................................................

8 .7

6 .0

5 .9

6 .0

7 .3

5 .3

...........................................................................................................................

13.1

1 1 .4

1 2 .5

1 3 .6

10 .9

10 .7

P a rt t im e

1 t o 2 6 w e eks

W ith som e u n e m p lo y m e n t in 1 9 7 5 :

67

.........................................................

7 ,5 4 0

1 ,4 9 3

499

289

.....................................................................................

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

<2 )

1 0 0 .0

3.1

2.1

1.6

0 .7

<2 )

1.4

N u m b e r (th o u s a n d s )
P e rce n t

Y e a r-ro u n d w o rk e rs w it h 1 o r 2 w e e ks o f u n e m p lo y m e n t

............................................

145

P art y e a r w o rk e rs w ith u n e m p lo y m e n t o f :
1 to 4 w eeks
5 t o 14 w e eks

..............................................................................................................................

23.1

1 2 .7

2 0 .0

2 3 .9

(2 )

13.1

...........................................................................................................................

2 5 .6

1 9 .0

2 2 .2

20.1

(2 )

2 4 .8

3 0 .3

3 1 .2

3 4 .9

3 7 .4

(2 )

3 4 .5

1 7 .9

3 5 .0

2 1 .2

1 8 .0

(2 )

2 6 .2

15 w e e k s o r m o re

..................................................................................................................

D id n o t w o r k b u t lo o k e d f o r w o r k

S pe lls o f u n e m p lo y m e n t f o r p a rt-y e a r w o rk e rs :

...............................................................................

N u m b e r (th o u s a n d s )

................................

5 ,9 6 2

938

385

234

............................................................

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

...........................................................................................................................................

72.1

6 8 .0

7 1 .4

........................................................................................................................................

1 6 .4

1 6 .4

1 3 .8

3 sp e lls o r m o r e ........................................................................................................................

1 1 .5

1 5 .6

$ 4 ,0 8 5
7 ,5 1 4

P e rc e n t
1 spe ll
2 sp e lls

M e d ia n a n n u a l e a rn in g s , 1 9 7 5

..................................................................................................................

Y e a r-ro u n d , f u ll- t im e w o rk e rs
1

.....................................................................................................

The survey was conducted in March 1976 and counted women 16 years and over as of the
survey date.




46

105
1 0 0 .0

7 0 .8

(2 )

7 0 .5

14 .2

(2 )

1 4 .3

15.1

1 5 .0

<2 )

1 5 .2

$ 3 ,9 4 9

$ 3 ,6 1 8

$ 3 ,0 6 0

$ 4 ,4 5 7

$ 4 ,5 2 2

7 ,2 3 7
2

(2 )

6,4 3 1

5 ,9 8 7

7 ,1 4 4

6 ,7 8 7

Percent not shown where base is less than 75,000.

51

Table 53
Median annual earnings of women and men who worked year round, full time by race and
Spanish origin, 1975

Spanish origin
W h ite

Sex and earnings

Black
T otal

M ex ic a n -A m e ric a n

Puerto Rican

O th e r

W OM EN
.....................................................................

1 5 ,3 7 1

2 ,0 4 3

636

326

82

229

.....................................................................................................................................................

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

W o rk e d y e a r r o u n d , f u ll tim e in 1 9 7 5
P e rc e n t

(th o u s a n d s )

........................................................................................................................

4 .5

4 .2

4 .6

5 .8

2 .5

3 .5

$ 2 ,0 0 0 t o $ 4 ,9 9 9

..................................................................................................................

1 5 .4

2 1 .4

2 3 .0

2 7 .6

1 8 .5

18 .4

$ 5 ,0 0 0 t o $ 9 ,9 9 9

U n d e r $ 2 ,0 0 0 2

..................................................................................................................

5 4 .6

5 3 .2

5 8 .0

5 5 .2

6 4 .2

6 0 .5

$ 1 0 ,0 0 0 t o $ 1 4 ,9 9 9

...............................................................................................................

2 0 .3

1 8 .4

1 2 .9

10.1

1 4 .8

14 .9

$ 1 5 ,0 0 0 t o $ 2 4 ,9 9 9

...............................................................................................................

4 .7

2 .8

1.6

0 .9

-

2 .6

.....................................................................................................................

0 .5

0.1

0 .2

0 .3

—

—

$ 7,4 4 1

$ 7 ,2 2 3

$ 6 ,3 8 8

$ 5 ,9 4 5

.....................................................................

3 3 ,9 7 5

2 ,7 7 5

1,511

907

201

404

.....................................................................................................................................................

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

$ 2 5 ,0 0 0 o r m o re

M e d ia n a n n u a l e a rn in g s, 1 9 7 5

............................................................................

$ 7 ,1 4 4

$ 6 ,7 5 8

MEN
W o rk e d y e a r ro u n d , f u ll t im e in 1 9 7 5 1 (th o u s a n d s )
P e rc e n t

........................................................................................................................

2.1

1 .8

1.5

1.4

1.5

1.5

$ 2 ,0 0 0 t o $ 4 ,9 9 9

..................................................................................................................

4.1

1 0 .8

7 .7

9 .6

5 .0

5 .0

$ 5 ,0 0 0 to $ 9 ,9 9 9

U n d e r $ 2 ,0 0 0 2

..................................................................................................................

2 3 .3

4 0 .0

4 6 .3

4 5 .8

5 7 .2

4 1 .6

$ 1 0 ,0 0 0 t o $ 1 4 ,9 9 9

...............................................................................................................

3 3 .0

3 2 .9

2 8 .7

2 7 .6

2 7 .9

3 2 .2

$ 1 5 ,0 0 0 t o $ 2 4 ,9 9 9

...............................................................................................................

2 8 .8

1 3 .5

1 3 .4

1 3 .6

7 .5

16.1

.....................................................................................................................

8 .6

0 .9

2 .3

1.9

1.0

4 .0

$ 1 2 ,8 7 7

$ 9 ,0 9 8

$ 9 ,4 1 3

$ 9 ,2 4 7

$ 8 ,5 1 2

$ 1 0 ,1 9 7

$ 2 5 ,0 0 0 o r m o re

M e d ia n a n n u a l e a rn in g s, 1 9 7 5

............................................................................

*The survey was conducted in March 1976 and counted persons 16 years and over as of the
survey date who worked 50 to 52 weeks in 1975, usually full time (35 hours or more per week).


52


2 Includes workers with no earnings or a loss,

Table 54
Families by type, race, and Spanish origin, March 1976, and median family income in 1975

M edian fa m ily incom e

N u m b e r o f fam ilies (thousands)
T y p e o f fa m ily
W h ite

A ll fa m ilie s 1

Black

Spanish origin

W h ite

Black

Spanish origin

4 9 ,8 7 3

5 ,5 8 6

2 ,4 9 9

$ 1 4 ,2 6 8

$ 8 ,7 7 9

$ 9 ,5 5 1

4 3 ,3 1 1

3 ,3 5 2

1 ,8 9 6

1 5 ,1 2 5

1 1 ,5 2 6

1 0 ,9 5 0

1 8 ,6 0 9

1 ,9 0 3

790

1 7 ,5 5 0

1 4 ,3 5 5

1 3 ,821

.....................................................................................................

2 4 ,7 0 2

1 ,4 4 9

1 ,1 0 7

1 3 ,0 4 2

8 ,5 4 3

9 ,1 9 1

........................................................................................................................

5 ,3 8 0

2 ,0 0 4

522

7,6 5 1

4 ,8 9 8

4 ,7 8 5

........................................................................................................................ •. .

1 ,1 8 2

230

82

1 3 ,7 9 3

8 ,9 5 5

1 0 ,4 1 5

..............................................................................................................................................................

H u s b a n d -w ife fa m ilie s

...........................................................................................................................

W ife in p a id la b o r fo r c e

...........................................................................................................

W ife n o t in p a id la b o r fo r c e
O th e r fa m ilie s :
H e ad ed b y w o m e n
H e ad ed b y m en

1 Families as of March 1976.




2 Persons 14 years and over are classified in the paid labor force if they were employed as wage
and salary workers or self-employed workers during the survey week (in March 1976) or were
looking for work at the time and had last worked as wage and salary or self-employed workers.

53







Part V.
Additional
Characteristics

• Women have been on their cur­
rent job a substantially shorter time,
on average, than men. The largest
differences are for persons age 45 to
64.
• Women are less likely than men
to hold two or more jobs. However,
as employment of women has
grown, the number of women who
are multiple jobholders and their
proportion of all multiple job­
holders has increased—in May
1976, 23 percent of all multiple job­
holders were women, up from 16

percent in 1970. Their main reasons
for “moonlighting” are similar to
men’s—to meet regular expenses or
because they enjoy the work.
• Women are considerably more
likely than men to be absent from
work because of illness.
• When jobseeking, the most fre­
quent methods used by women, as
well as men, were applying directly
to the employer, asking friends, and
answering local newspaper ads.

55




Table 55
Length of time on current job of women and men, January 1973

Table 57
Multiple jobholding rates of employed women and men and
main reason for working at more than one job, May 1976

(Percent distribution)
L e n g th o f tim e o n jo b

W om en

Ite m

M en

W om e n

M en

N u m b e r o f p e r s o n s w ith m o r e th a n o n e
T o ta l
1 y e a r o r le s s

..........................................................................
..............................................................

1 0 0 .0
2 9 .3

1 0 0 .0
2 2 .4

O v e r 1 t o 2 y e a rs

....................................................

14.1

10.5

O v e r 2 t o 5 y e a rs

.................................................................

2 3 .0

2 0 .4

..............................................................

1 5 .7

............................................................

12 .2

16.8
16 .4

O v e r 2 0 y e a rs ..........................................................................

5 .7

13.7

O v e r 5 to 10 y e a rs
O v e r 10 t o 2 0 y e a rs

............................................................................

....................................................................

911

3 ,0 3 7

M u ltip le jo b h o ld e r s as p e r c e n t o f
to ta l e m p lo y e d ......................................................................

2.6

5.8

10 0.0

100.0

28 .7

3 0 .4

5.0
8.6
6.3

5.5
8.2
6.7

8.3

3.9

8.3
19.1
15.6

9.5
2 0 .0
15.9

MAIN REASON FOR W ORKIN G
AT MORE THA N ONE JOB
A ll re a s o n s : P e r c e n t

M e d ia n n u m b e r o f y e a r s o n
c u r r e n t jo b

jo b ( th o u s a n d s )

2 .8 y e a rs

...........................................................

4 .6 y e a rs
M e e t r e g u la r e x p e n s e s .............................................................
P a y o ff d e b ts ..................................................................................
S a v e f o r th e f u t u r e ......................................................................
G e t e x p e r ie n c e .............................................................................
H e lp fr ie n d o r re la tiv e ...............................................................

Table 56
Median number of years worked at current job by women and
men by age, January 1973

B u y s o m e th in g s p e c ia l .............................................................
E n jo y th e w o r k ................................................................................
O th e r r e a s o n s ..................................................................................

M e d ia n n u m b e r o f yea rs
A g e g ro u p
W om en

M en

T o ta l, 16 y e a rs a n d o v e r ...............................

2.8

16 to 19
20 to 24
25 to 34

.....................................................................................
.....................................................................................
.....................................................................................

0 .6
1.2
2.2

35 to 4 4

..................................................................................

3 .6

6.7

45 to 5 4

.....................................................................................

5 .9

11.5

55 to 64

.....................................................................................

8 .8

14.5

65 a n d o v e r ..............................................................................

10 .9

13.9




4.6
0.6
1.2
3.2

57

Table 58
Percent of all wage and salary workers on unscheduled absence from work by sex and age
May 1976

A b sen t p art o f the w eek

T o ta l absent

A b sen t the entire w e e k

Sex and age
T o ta l

Illness

O th e r

T o ta l

Illness

O th e r

T o ta l

Illness

O th e r

0 .8

W OMEN

..................................................................................

8 .6

5.1

3 .4

6 .0

3 .4

2 .6

2 .5

1.7

16 t o 19

.....................................................................................................

7 .9

4.1

3 .8

6 .3

3 .5

2 .9

1.4

0 .7

0 .7

2 0 to 2 4

.....................................................................................................

8 .3

5 .0

3 .3

6 .4

4 .0

2 .4

1.9

1.0

0 .9

25 to 34

.....................................................................................................

9 .7

5 .6

4.1

6 .4

3 .7

2 .7

3 .3

1.8

1.4

35 to 4 4

.....................................................................................................

8 .0

5 .0

3 .0

6.1

3 .5

2 .7

1.9

1.5

0 .3

T o ta l, 16 years and o v e r

45 to 54

.....................................................................................................

8 .2

4 .9

3 .3

5 .7

2 .9

2 .7

2 .6

2 .0

0 .6

55 to 64

.....................................................................................................

7 .9

5 .0

2 .9

5.1

2 .8

2 .3

2 .8

2 .2

0 .6

10 .2

7 .4

3 .3

3 .7

2 .0

2 .0

6 .6

5 .3

1.2

6 5 an d o v e r

...............................................................................................
MEN
..................................................................................

5 .2

3 .3

1.9

3 .3

1.8

1.5

1.9

1.5

0 .4

16 t o 19

.....................................................................................................

6 .6

3 .0

3 .7

5 .6

2 .2

3 .3

1.1

0 .7

0 .4
0 .5

T o ta l, 16 yea rs an d o v e r
2 0 to 24

.....................................................................................................

5 .7

3 .2

2 .5

4 .3

2 .2

2.1

1.5

1.0

25 to 34

.....................................................................................................

4 .8

3 .0

1.8

3 .4

1.9

1.5

1.4

1.1

0 .3

35 to 44

......................................................................................................

4 .4

2 .8

1 .6

2 .6

1.5

1.2

1.7

1.3

0 .4

45 to 54

.....................................................................................................

5 .2

3 .5

1.7

3 .0

1.7

1.2

2 .2

1.8

0 .4

.....................................................................................................

6 .0

4 .5

1.5

2 .8

1.6

1.1

3 .2

2 .9

0 .3

8 .5

4 .2

4 .2

5 .0

1.0

4 .0

3 .5

3 .3

0 .2

55 to 64

6 5 and o v e r

...............................................................................................

NOTE: Data exclude agricultural and private household workers and those who held more than
one job.

58



Table 59
Methods used by women and men to look for work and method by which
current job was obtained, January 1973
Percent w h o used
each m etho d

M e th o d

Percent w ho used

get jo b

M eth o d

W om en

M en

W om en

M en

( th o u s a n d s ) .....................
P e r c e n t .................................

4 ,6 8 8

5 ,7 4 9

( 1)

4 ,6 8 8
1 0 0 .0

5 ,7 4 9
1 0 0 .0

A p p lie d d ir e c t ly t o e m p l o y e r ..............

6 4 .4

6 7 .3

3 4 .6

35.1

4 7 .2

5 3 .8

10.7

P la c e d a d s in n e w s p a p e rs :

A b o u t jo b s e ls e w h e r e

3 6 .6

4 5 .9

4 .8

13 .8
6 .2

get job

W e n t to p la c e w h e r e e m p lo y e r s

A b o u t jo b s w h e r e t h e y w o r k ............

M eth o d used to

each m ethod

M e th o d used to

W om en

M en

W om en

M en

T o t a l jo b s e e k e r s

A s k e d f r ie n d s :

S c h o o l p la c e m e n t o f f i c e ................
C iv il S e r v ic e te s t .................................

13.0
15.2

1 2 .0
1 5 .4

2.8

3.1
1.6

A s k e d te a c h e r o r p r o fe s s o r

( 1)

11.8

9 .2

1.6

1.2

0.7

2 .0

0 .2

0.1

0 .4
—

0.1

c o m e to p ic k u p p e o p le
........................

.........

..............

A b o u t jo b s w h e r e t h e y w o r k ............

25.1

3 1 .0

5.1

6 .9

A b o u t jo b s e ls e w h e r e

2 3 .9

30.1

1.7

2.7

.......................

L o c a l .....................................................

1.4

1.7

N o n lo c a l

A s k e d re la tiv e s :

0.2

0.7

........................................
..............................

2.6

6.7

0 .3

0 .5

1.1

0.1

5.7

9 .9
5.5

2 .6
0 .7

o r t r a d e jo u r n a ls

L o c a l .........................................................

4 7 .5

4 4 .6

14 .5

1 4 .2

1.1

..............

8.6
2 2 .4

10 .3
1.4

C o n t a c t e d lo c a l o r g a n iz a t io n . . . .

N o n lo c a l

1 9 .9

7 .9

3 .8

...................

2 9 .2

37.1

5 .2

5 .0

o r t r a d e jo u r n a ls ..............................
O th e r ........................................................

....................................................

P riv a te e m p lo y m e n t a g e n c y

'Because some respondents indicated the use of more than one method, the sum of the components
exceeds 100 percent.




(2)

A n s w e r e d a d s in p r o fe s s io n a l
U n io n h ir in g h a ll ................................

A n s w e r e d n e w s p a p e r a d s:

S ta te e m p lo y m e n t s e r v ic e

2.8

0 .9

P la c e d a d s in p r o fe s s io n a l
0.4

0.8

11.5

11 .9

(2)
5 .3

—
5.1

2Less than 0.05 percent,

59







Part VI.
The Future

The Bureau of Labor Statistics
has an ongoing program which con­
stantly assesses and reassesses the
projections of labor force participa­
tion in light of new developments.
Recent data show that the number
of years worked by U.S. women
during their lifetimes has expanded
enormously since the beginning of
this century. Worklife expectancy of
women at birth climbed from 6.3
years in 1900 to 22.9 years in 1970.
The most recent projections indi­
cate that between 1975 and 1990

nearly 12 million women will be
added to the labor force. By 1990,
over 481/2 million women are pro­
jected to be in the labor force, some­
what more than 1 of every 2 in the
population 16 years old and over.
Most of the increase is expected to
be among women in the prime work­
ing ages, 25 to 54. Labor force
participation rates for these women,
most of whom are married, average
about 55 percent today and are pro­
jected to rise to 60 or 65 percent by
1990.

61




Percent of population in labor force
1 0 0 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Actual

60




Projected

Digitized64 FRASER
for


Table 60
Life and work expectancy at birth, selected years, 1900-70
(In years)
Item

19001

19402

19502

I9 6 0 2

1970

50.7
6.3
44.1

65.7
12.1
53.6

71.0
15.1
55.9

73.1
20.1
53.0

74.8
22.9
51.9

Life expectancy .....................
Work life ........................
Outside labor force ........

48.2
32.1
16.1

61.2
38.1
23.1

65.5
41.5
24.0

66.8
41.1
25.7

67.1
40.1
27.0

Women’s worklife as percent
of men’s ...............................

19.6

31.6

36.3

48.6

57.1

W OM EN

Life expectancy .....................
Work life ........................
Outside labor force ........
MEN

^ a t a f o r 1 9 0 0 a r e fo r w h i t e p e r s o n s in t h o s e S t a t e s w h i c h r e g i s t e r e d d e a t h s .
2F i g u r e s a d j u s t e d t o r e m o v e 1 4 - a n d 1 5 - y e a r o l d s f r o m t h e l a b o r f o r c e t o b e c o n s i s t e n t
1 9 7 0 ( 1 9 0 0 is n o t c o m p a r a b l e ) .

N O T E : T h e e x p e c t a n c i e s in t h i s t a b l e r e f l e c t t h e a v e r a g e n u m b e r o f y e a r s a n i n d i v
w o u l d h a v e l i v e d a n d w o r k e d if m o r t a l i t y a n d l a b o r f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s h a d h e l d c o n s
t h r o u g h o u t h i s o r h e r l i f e t i m e a t t h e l e v e l r e c o r d e d i n t h e y e a r o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l ’s b i r t h .

Table 61
Population, labor force, and labor force participation rates of women and men by age, 1975
(actual), and 1980, 1985, and 1990 (projected)
(Numbers in thousands)
P o p u la tio n , J u ly 1
Sex and age

Labor fo rce p a rtic ip a tio n rates,
annual averages

Labor fo rc e , annual averages

Projected

Projected

1975

Projected

1975
1980

1985

1990

1

1975
1980

1985

1990

1980

1985

1990

51.4

W O M EN
79,921

86,111

90,781

9 4 ,5 8 8

3 6 ,9 9 8

4 1 ,6 7 3

4 5 ,6 9 9

4 8 ,6 1 9

4 6 .3

4 8 .4

50.3

16 t o 19

........................

8 ,2 2 5

8 ,1 6 0

7,018

6,612

4 ,0 3 8

4 ,2 2 6

3,762

3,649

49.1

51.8

53.6

55.2

20 t o 24

........................

9 ,4 8 6

10,327

10,115

8,8 5 2

6,0 6 9

7,0 6 6

7 ,329

6,6 5 9

64 .0

68.4

72.5

75.2

25 t o 34

.......................

1 5,514

18,108

19,967

2 0 ,5 8 2

8 ,4 5 6

10,394

12,210

13,077

54.5

57.4

61.2

63.5

35 t o 4 4

.......................

1 1,618

1 3,084

15,903

18,525

6 ,4 9 3

7 ,6 3 3

9 ,7 2 3

11,678

55.9

58.3

61.1

63.0

45 t o 54

........................

1 2,206

11,577

11,437

12,885

6,665

6,6 0 9

6,761

7,7 9 5

54.6

57.1

59.1

60.3

55 t o 64

........................

10,349

11,035

11,238

10,671

4 ,2 4 4

4 ,6 2 8

4 ,7 4 0

4,5 1 4

4 1 .0

41.9

42.2

4 2 .3

12,521

13,820

15,103

16,461

1,033

1,117

1,174

1,250

8.2

8.1

7.8

7.6

77.3

T o t a l , 16 y e a r s a n d o v e r . . . .

65 a n d o v e r

..................

MEN

T o t a l , 16 y e a r s a n d o v e r

. . .

7 1 ,4 6 8

7 7 ,0 8 9

8 1 ,1 1 9

8 4 ,3 7 9

55 ,6 1 5

6 0 ,0 0 0

6 2 ,9 0 3

6 5 ,2 2 0

77.8

77.8

77.5

16 t o 19

........................

8 ,0 4 9

8 ,0 3 7

6 ,8 7 0

6,4 8 5

4 ,7 6 0

4 ,9 0 5

4,181

3,976

59.1

61.0

60.9

61.3

20 t o 24

.......................

8 ,7 6 9

9 ,5 8 4

3,986

8 ,1 2 9

7 ,3 9 8

8 ,0 6 9

7,795

6,671

84.4

84.2

83.0

82.1

95.1
95.7

95.2

94.9

94.7

95.5

95.1

94.8

25 t o 34

.......................

14,566

1 7,196

18,997

19,590

13,854

16,369

18,021

18,545

35 t o 44

........................

10,745

12,147

14,917

17,471

10,288

11,600

14,192

16,571

45 t o 54

........................

11,330

10,841

10,721

12,085

10,426

9 ,892

9,7 0 9

10,901

90.6

90.2

9,791

10,000

9 ,592

6,982

7,2 7 5

7,162

6,7 0 4

92.0
75.7

91.2

........................

9,221

74.3

71.6

69.9

8 ,7 8 4

9,4 9 2

10,228

11,027

1,906

1,890

1,843

1,852

21.7

19.9

18.0

16.8

55 t o 64

65 a n d o v e r

..................

1Percent of population in labor force.




65


66


Sources of Data

Table No.
Part I.

1, 2, 3, 4

5
6

U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS),

Handbook of Labor Statistics 1975—Reference Edition and
Employment and Earnings, January 1977.
BLS, Employment and Earnings, May 1976 and BLS, Monthly
Labor Review, May 1974, “Where Women Work” .
BLS, Handbook of Labor Statistics 1975—Reference Edition
and BLS, Employment and Earnings, January 1976 and January
1977.

7

8

U.S. Census of Population 1950, P-E No. 1B, Occupational
Characteristics, and BLS, Employment and Earnings,
December 1969, January 1971, and January 1977.
U.S. Census of Population 1950, P-E No. 1B, Occupational
Characteristics, U.S. Census of Population 1970, PC (2) 7-A,
Occupational Characteristics, and BLS, Employment and
Earnings, January 1977.

9, 10

BLS, Handbook of Labor Statistics, 1975—Reference
and Employment and Earnings, January 1977.

11

BLS,

12

13

14, 15, 16,
17

Employment and Earnings,

January 1977.

BLS, unpublished 1970 CPS data, and
January 1977.

ings,

Edition

Employment and Earn­

U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Report of
the President, 1976, and BLS Special Labor Force Report 192,
Work Experience of the Population, 1975.
BLS, Special Labor Force Report 192, Work Experience of the
Population, 1975.

Part II.
1&

U.S. Census of Population 1950; P-E No. 1A, Employment and
Personal Characteristics, and P-E No. 20, Marital Status (labor

force adjusted for ages 16 and over), BLS, Special Labor Force
Reports 13 (population and laborforce adjusted forages 16and
over), 130,183, and U.S. Department of Labor, news release77191 (BLS data).
19, 20, 21

U.S. Department of Labor, news release 77-191, and unpub­
lished March 1976 CPS data.

Table No.

Table No.
22

BLS, Division of Labor Force Studies, Special Labor Force
Reports.

23, 24

U.S. Department of Labor, news release 77-165 (BLS data).

25

Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports Series P-20,
No. 298, “ Daytime Care of Children: October 1974 and Feb­
ruary 1975” .

41, 42

BLS, unpublished March 1976 CPS data.

43

Bureau of the Census, unpublished CPS data.

Part IV.

45

BLS, unpublished CPS data.

46, 47

U.S. Department of Labor, news release 77-191.

48

U.S. Department of Labor, news release 77-165.

49

BLS, unpublished March 1976 data.

50

Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports, Series P-20,
Number 302, and BLS, unpublished March 1976 CPS data.
BLS, unpublished March 1976 CPS data.

54

27, 28

Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistics of the United States,
Colonial Times to 1970, Bicentennial Edition, U.S. Department
of Health, Education, and Welfare, National Center for Health
Statistics (HRA) 77-1120, Advance Report, Final Natality Statis­
tics 1975; and U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Wel­
fare, National Center for Health Statistics, (HRA) 77-1120,
Births, Marriages, Divorces, and Deaths for 1976.
BLS, Special Labor Force Report 190, Women Who Head
Families: A Socioeconomic Analysis, and unpublished March

BLS, Handbook of Labor Statistics, 1975—Reference
and Employment and Earnings, January 1977.

51, 52, 53

26

44

Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports, Series P-60,
Number 103, “ Money Income and Poverty Status of Families
and Persons in the United States: 1975 and 1974 Revisions
(Advance Report).”

1976 CPS data.

29

BLS, unpublished March 1976 CPS data.

Part III.

30

U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Admini­
stration, Employment and Training Report of the President,

1977.

Part V.

31, 32, 33 BLS,

Special Labor Force Report 193, Educational Attainment
of Workers, March 1976.

55, 56

34

Bureau of the Census, unpublished CPS data.

57

BLS, Special Labor Force Report No. 194,

35

U.S. Department of Labor, news release 76-1290 (BLS data).

36

BLS, unpublished May 1976 CPS data.

58

BLS, unpublished May 1976 CPS data.

37

Bureau of the Census,
“ Consumer Income.”

59

BLS, Bulletin 1886,

Edition,

Current Population Reports, Series P-60,

38

Bureau of the Census, Current Population
No. 105, “ Consumer Income.”

Reports, Series P-60,

39

U.S. Department of Labor, news release 77-191 (BLS data).

60




May 1976.
Workers.

Job Tenure of

Multiple Jobholders,

Jobseeking Methods Used by American

Part VI.

BLS, unpublished March 1976 CPS data.

40

BLS, Special Labor Force Report No. 172,

Workers, January 1973.

61

BLS, Special Labor Force Report No. 187,

Life for Men and Women, 1970.

Length of Working

U.S. Department of Labor, news release 76-1222 (BLS data).

☆ U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1977 0 - 2 4 8 - 0 7 0 / 6 6 2 6




Bureau of Labor Statistics
Regional Offices
Region I
1 6 0 3 J F K F e d e r a l B u ild in g
G o v ern m en t C en ter
B o sto n , M ass. 0 2 2 0 3
P h o n e: (617) 2 2 3 -6 7 6 1
Region II
S u ite 3 4 0 0
1515 B roadw ay
N e w Y o r k , N Y. 1 0 0 3 6
P h o n e: (212) 3 9 9 - 5 4 0 5
Region III
3 5 3 5 M arket S tre e t
P .O . B o x 1 3 3 0 9
P h ila d e lp h ia , Pa. 19101
P h o n e : (215) 5 9 6 -1 1 5 4
Region IV
1371 P e a c h tr e e S treet, NE.
A fla n ta , G a . 3 0 3 0 9
P h one: (404) 8 8 1 -4 4 1 8
Region V
9th F lo o r
F e d e r a l O ffic e B u ild in g
2 3 0 S. D e a r b o r n S t r e e t
C h i c a g o , III. 6 0 6 0 4
P h o n e: (312) 3 5 3 - 1 8 8 0
Region VI
S e c o n d F loor
5 5 5 G riffin S q u a r e B u ild in g
D a lla s, T ex. 7 5 2 0 2
P h o n e : (214) 7 4 9 - 3 5 1 6
Regions VII and VIII*
911 W a ln u t S t r e e t
K a n s a s C ity, M o . 6 4 1 0 6
P h o n e: (816) 3 7 4 -2 4 8 1
Regions IX and X**
4 5 0 G o ld en G a te A v e n u e
Box 36017
S a n F r a n c i s c o , C alif. 9 4 1 0 2
P h o n : (415)
Digitized for eFRASER 5 5 6 - 4 6 7 8


* R e g i o n s VII a n d VIII a r e s e r v i c e d
b y K a n s a s C ity

* * R e g i o n s IX a n d X a r e s e r v i c e d
by S a n F r a n c isc o

U. S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Washington, D.C. 20212
Official Business
Penalty for private use, $300




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