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U. S. Working Women
a chartbook
U. S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
1975
Bulletin 1880







INTERNATIONAL
W O M E N ' S YEAR
1975

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data
United States.
Bureau of Labor
U . S. w o r k i n g women.

Statistics.

( B u l l e t i n - Bureau of Labor S t a t i s t i c s ; 1880)
1.
Women—Employment—United S t a t e s — S t a t i s t i c s
2,
L a b o r and l a b o r i n g c l a s s e s — U n i t e d S t a t e s — S t a
tistics,
3.
Wages—Women—United S t a t e s — S t a t i s tics.
I . Mellor, Earl.
II.
Seale, Barbara.
III.
Title.
IV.
S e r i e s : U n i t e d S t a t e s . Bureau
of Labor S t a t i s t i c s .
B u l l e t i n ; 1880.
HD6093.U5
1975
331.4'0973
75-23355




U.S. Working Women
a chartbook
U. S. Department of Labor
John T. Dun lop, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Julius Shiskin, Commissioner
1975
Bulletin 1880




For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402
Price $1.75
Stocl< Number 0 2 9 - 0 0 1 - 0 1 7 8 0 - 4
Catalog Number L 2.3:1880




Foreword
To encourage worldwide efforts to improve the
status of women, the United Nations General
Assembly has designated 1975 as International
Women's Year. The goals of International Women's
Year are threefold:

to promote equality between men and women;

to support the full integration of women into the
economic, social, and cultural life of their countries;

to recognize and encourage the role of women in
the development of international cooperation
and world peace.

The President has requested that agencies of the
U. S. Government participate in activities in
support of these goals. As part of its contribution
to the Department of Labor's program for
International Women's Year, the Bureau of Labor
Statistics has prepared the accompanying
chartbook to illustrate the role of working women
in the U. S. economy.
Julius Shiskin, Commissioner, Bureau of Labor Statistics

Readers of this chartbook interested in keeping
informed on current developments in the U. S.
labor force can find up-to-date statistics in regular
publications of the Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Labor force data are published monthly in
Employment and Earnings and the Monthly Labor

Review, both available by subscription from the
Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government
Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 20402. Special
analyses are issued from time to time and are
published in the Monthly Labor Review as Special

Labor Force Reports. Reprints are available, as
long as supplies last, from the Bureau of Labor
Statistics or any of its regional offices.







Preface
This chartbook presents a wide array of data on
the characteristics of American working women
and their changing status over the past quarter
of a century. The working life of women has
expanded enormously over this period, and it is
likely to continue to lengthen.
Part I of the chartbook provides information on the
labor force participation of women-their
employment and unemployment. Part II shows
their marital and family status. The income of
working women is analyzed in Part III, and data on
their education are shown in Part IV. Part V
provides additional information on the
characteristics of working women. All data, unless
otherwise indicated, refer to the civilian
noninstitutional population 16 years and over.
The chartbook was prepared in the Division of
Labor Force Studies, Office of Current
Employment Analysis. It was designed and written
by Earl Mellor, with the assistance of Barbara
Seale, under the direction of Elizabeth Waldman
and Harvey Hamel. Robert Stein, Chief of the
Division of Labor Force Studies, provided
invaluable guidance and assistance.

Contents
PART I.
Labor Force,
Employment,
Unemployment, and
Work Experience
1 Summary labor force
indicators for women, 1974
2 Civilian labor force by sex,
selected years, 1950-74
3 Labor force participation
rates by sex, 1950-74
4 Labor force participation
rates by age and sex, selected
years, 1950-74
5 Persons not in the labor
force by sex and reason for
nonparticipation, 1974




6 Employed and unemployed
persons by sex, 1950-74

1 5 Unemployment rates by sex
and age, 1974

7 Employed persons by sex
and occupation, 1974

1 6
Unemployment rates by sex,
age, and race, 1974

8 Employed women by
occupation, 1960,1970, and 1974

1 7 Workers by sex, full- or parttime work experience, and weeks
worked, 1973

9 Women as a proportion of all
workers by occupation, 1974
1 0
Persons on nonagricultural
payrolls by sex and industry, 1974
1 1 Women as a proportion of all
persons on nonagricultural payrolls
by industry, 1974

1 8 Women with work experience
as a proportion of all women, 1973
1 9 Women holding year-round
full-time jobs in 1973 as a proportion of all women workers by age

1 2
Unemployed persons by sex
and age, selected years, 1950-74

2 0
Women holding year-round
full-time jobs in 1973 as a
proportion of all women workers
by occupation

1 3 Unemployed persons by sex
and reason for unemployment, 1974

2 1
Women by reason for less
than full-time work, 1973

1 4 Unemployment rates by sex,
1950-74

2 2
Women with unemployment
in 1973 by work experience and
weeks unemployed
2 3 Women with unemployment
in 1973 by race, age, and marital
status

PART II.
Marital and
Family Status
2 4 Women in the labor force by
marital status, 1950-74
Labor force participation
rates of women by marital status
and age, March 1974
2 6
Labor force participation
rates of married women by
presence and age of children,
1950-74
2 7 Labor force participation
rates of married and formerly
married women under age 45,
March 1974
2 8
Children u n d e r a g e 18 by
type of family and labor force status
of mother, 1970 and 1974
2 9 Children u n d e r a g e 18 by
type of family, age, and labor force
status of mother, March 1974
3 0 Birth rates of women in
husband-wife families by age and
labor force status of mother,
June 1974
3 1
Summary indicators for
families headed by women,
selected periods, 1960-74

PART III.
Income and Earnings
3 2 Income of women by
source, 1973
3 3 Median usual weekly
earnings of full-time wage and
salary workers by sex, 1967-74
3 4 Median usual weekly
earnings of full-time women wage
and salary workers by occupation,
May 1974
3 5 Median usual weekly
earnings of full-time women wage
and salary workers by industry,
May 1974
3 6 Median annual earnings of
year-round full-time women
workers by occupation, 1973

3 9 Husband-wife families by
earners in family during 1973
4 0 Earnings of women in
husband-wife families as a percent
of 1973 family income, by selected
characteristics
4 1 Wives with earnings by
percent of 1973 family income
4 2 Median 1973 income of
families with children by type of
family and labor force status of
mother, March 1974
4 3 Median 1973 income of
women with income by years of
school completed
4 4 Women below the poverty
level, 1973, by selected
characteristics

PART iV.

PART V.

Education

Additional Characteristics
of Working Women

4 5 Labor force by sex and years
of school completed, 1952 and 1974

4 9 Multiple jobholding by sex,
May 1974

4 6 Labor force participation and
unemployment rates of women by
years of school completed,
March 1974

5 0 Full-time wage and salary
workers by sex and usual
workweek. May 1974

4 7 Women in the labor force by
age and years of school completed,
March 1974

5 1 Wage and salary workers by
sex and time of starting and ending
work. May 1974

4 8 Employed women by years of
school completed and occupation,
March 1974

5 2 Overtime workers by sex.
May 1974
5 3 Job tenure by sex, January
1973
5 4 Transportation to work, by
sex, 1970

3 7 Median annual earnings of
full- and part-time women workers
by weeks worked, 1973

5 5 Selected indicators for
women by race and Spanish
origin, 1970

3 8 Median annual earnings of
family heads in production and
nonsupervisory jobs by sex, 1963-73

5 6 Life expectancy and worklife expectancy by sex, selected
years, 1900-1970




Sources of Data







Labor Force, Employment,
Unemployment, and
Work Experience

Parti

Women are playing an increasingly important role
in the U. S. economy. The number and proportion
who are in paid employment continue to rise and
their attachment to the labor force shows
marked gains in strength as more work year-round
at full-time jobs. At the beginning of 1975, some
36V2 million women were in the work forceabout 40 percent of the country's entire labor
force and almost 46 percent of all women 16
years of age and over.

1
Summary
Labor Force
Indicators for
Women, 1974

Women as a proportion o f . . .
the civilian noninstitutional
population 16 years old and
over

the civilian labor force

(annual averages)




the ennployed

persons employed full time

persons employed part time

persons employed in
professional-technical and
nonfarm managerialadministrative occupations

persons employed in clericalsales occupations

the unemployed

persons unemployed 15 weeks
or more

70%

100
91.0
90-

Civilian labor
force by sex,
selected years,
1950-74

82.7

80'
74.5

(annual averages)

69.6

70

2

65.0
62.2

60

Men

I
50
CO

c

o

'If,

A

r,

40
* it'

J*e . •

30

20

The number of women in
the labor force nearly
doubled between 1950 and
1974—women now account
for two-fifths of all workers.

10




1950

1955

1960

1965

1970

1974

Labor force
participation
rates by sex,
1950-74
(annual averages)

As the proportion of the
female population in the
labor force rose sharply
from 1950 to 1974, the labor
force participation rate for
men moved downward.




4

10
0

Labor force
participation
rates by age
and sex,
selected years,
1950-74
(annual averages)

0
16-17 18-19



T
20-24

—I—
25-34

—I

1
35-44
Years of Age

45-54

55-64 65 and over

More than half of the
women in most age groups
are now in the labor force.
Recent increases have
occurred mostly among
women in their twenties and
early thirties.

5
Persons not in
the labor force
by sex and
reason for
nonparticipation, 1974

Not In Labor Force
57.6 million

Do not want job

Do not want job

(annual averages)
Want job but not looking

Want job but not looking

Women who do not want a job
39.6 million

IVIen who do not want a job
13.5 million
Going to school

, disabled

Home responsibilities
Women constitute about
three-fourths of the population outside of the labor
force. Like men, most of
these women do not want
jobs, but for reasons
markedly different from
those for men.




Retired

Other reasons

12%

Employed

Employed and
unemployed
persons by
sex, 1950-74
(annual averages)

Women as a proportion of employed and unemployed

55
50
45

Percent of total unemployed
Percent of total employed

1950



1955

1960

1965

1970

Since 1950, women have
made up an increasing
proportion of persons with
jobs and of those lool<ing
for jobs.
1974

7
Employed
persons by
sex and
occupation,
1974

Women
33.4 million

Men
52.6 million

Professional and
technical workers

Managers and
administrators,
except farm

Sales workers

7%

(annual averages)
Clerical workers

Craft and
kindred workers

Operatives, except
transport equipment

2%
1
O -'

Transport
equipment operatives

1%
2
Nonfarm laborers

\

12%
if '

\
Service workers,
except private
household

\

\
Women are concentrated in
fewer occupational categories than men.




Private
household workers

1%

•_

8
%

18%

8%,

Farm workers
'Less than 0.5 percent

"
V

1960
21.9 million

1970
29.7 million

1974
33.4 million

Professional and
technical workers

8
Employed
women by
occupation,
1960,1970,
and 1974

Managers and
administrators,
except farm

Sales workers

(annual averages)

Clerical workers

Craft and
kindred workers

Operatives

1%
5
Nonfarm laborers

Service workers,
except
private household

15%

1%
3
1%

1%
5
17%

4%

9%

Farm workers



1%
8

5% 2%

Private household
workers

'Less than 0.5 percent

1%

The proportion of women
employed as private
household and farm
workers has been declining
and the proportion in
professional-technical,
clerical, and service jobs
increasing.

All occupations

Women as a
proportion of
all workers by
occupation,
1974

Professional
and technical
Managers and
administrators,
except farnn
Sales workers

(annual averages)
Clerical workers

Craft workers

Operatives, except
transport equipment
Transport equipment
operatives

Nonfarm laborers
Service workers,
except private
household
The majority of clerical and
service jobs are held by
women; they make up
about 40 percent of
professiona l-technica I,
sales, and operative
workers.




Private household
workers

Farm workers

Percent

100%

Women
30.1 million

Men
48.3 million
Mining^
1%
8%
Construction 1

—

Manufacturing
durable
goods

1%
9

Manufacturing
nondurable
goods

10%

Persons on
nonagricultural
payrolls by
sex and
Industry, 1974
(annual averages)

Transportation
and public
utilities

Wholesale
trade

7%

Retail
trade

14%

Finance,
insurance, •
and real estate

—

—

^
13%

Services

Federal
Government
12%
State and
local
government
Note: Data exclude proprietors, the self-employed, unpaid volunteer or family workers, farm workers, and domestic workers in tiouseholds.
Government employment covers only civilian employees.
' Women in mining and construction are combined on this chart. Only 0.1 percent of female payroll employment is in mining, and 0.8 percent in




construction.

Women are more likely than
men to be concentrated in
the retail trade and service
industries and State and
local governments.

11
Women as a
proportion of
all [Arsons on
nonagricultural
payrolls by
industry, 1974
(annual averages)

All industries

Mining

Construction

Manufacturing
durable goods
Manufacturing
nondurable goods
Transportation and
public utilities

Wholesale trade

Retail trade

Finance, insurance,
and real estate

Services
Women constitute about
half the workers in the
retail trade; finance,
insurance, and real estate;
and service industries and
on State and local government payrolls.




Federal Government
State and
local government

0

20

Note: Data exclude proprietors, the self-employed, unpaid volunteer or family workers, farm workers,
and domestic workers in households. Government employment covers only civilian employees.

60

80




1950
3.3 million

1960
3.9 million

12
Unemployed
persons by
sex and age,
selected years,
1950-74
(annual averages)

1970
4.1 million

1974
5.1 million

Teen-age and young adult
women have become a
larger share of the
unemployed.

13
Unemployed
persons by
sex and
reason for
unemployment,
1974

Women
2.4 million

Job losers

Men
2.7 million

32%

(annual averages)
Job leavers

Reentrants to the labor force

36%

22%
Unemployed women are
much less likely than
unemployed men to have
lost their job; they are more
likely to be reentering or
entering the labor force.




New entrants to the labor force




14
Unemployment
rates by sex,
1950-74
(annual averages)

Unemployment rates are
generally higher for
women than for men. The
gap usually widens as
unemployment declines.

15

20

Unemployment
rates by
sex and age,
1974

15H

15.5

(annual averages)
o

n

CD

—
I
c

CO
>

b
o
c
Q)

0

10-^

CD

Q_
CO
CO

•Q
c

o
2

1
Q.

8.7

£
CD

C

Z)

5H

3.9
3.3

2.6
In the prime working age
groups, women have substantially higher unemployment rates than men.




Years "
of Age

16 to 19

20 to 24

25 to 34

35 to 44

2.4

45 to 54

2.6

55 to 64

65 and over

40

30

Unemployment
rates by sex,
age, and race,
1974

31.6

(annual averages)
o
J
D
CO

_l

c
>

b
-c

0)
o

20

CD
CL

C
O
CO

•D
(
D
O

15.4
14.5

Q.

E
o

13.6

c

Z)

10-

7.8

o

5.1
4.3

2.8
16 to 19




25 and over

16 to 19

20 to 24

Years of Age
Men

25 and over

Young women of minority
races have the highest
unemployment rates.

17
Workers by
sex, full- or
part-time work
experience,
and weeks
worked, 1973

Women 41.8 million

Part time

Full time
50 to 52 weeks

1 to 26 weeks

27 to 49 weeks

50 to 52 weeks
27 to 49 weeks
1 to 26 weeks

Men 58.4 million

50 to 52 weeks
1 to 26 weeks
27 to 49 weeks
Women workers are less
likely than men to hold
year-round full-time jobs;
even so, about two-fifths of
the women who worked in
1973 did so on a yearround full-time basis.




50 to 52 weeks
1 to 26 weeks
27 to 49 weeks

18

By Age

80

Women
with work
experience as
a proportion
of all women,
1973

60

c

<
D
E

i
<
o
c

i

40-

0
)
y
20-^
0-J

All
working
women

16 to 17

18 to 19

20 to 24

25 to 34

35 to 44

45 to 54

55 to 59

60 to 64

65 and over

Years of Age
By Presence and Age of Children
(IVIarrled, Spouse Present)

By Marital and Family Status
80

68%

60

59%
54%
^
o
c

59%
53%

52%

50%

46%

40

47%

0
)
20-

All
working
women

Never
married

Note: Age and family status in March. 1974




Married,
spouse
present

Other
marital
status

Family
heads

Other
family
status

With no
children
under 18

With
children
under 6

With
children
6to17
years only

Over half of all women 16
years of age and over had
sonrie work experience in
1973-a proportion that
varied by age, marital and
family status, and presence
and age of children.

60

Women
holdina yearround full-time
jobs in 1973
as a proportion
of a! women
worlters, by
age

55%

54%

50
48%
45%

36%

24%

sw
a

8%
About half of the women
workers 25 to 64 years old
work all year at full-time
jobs.




Total
16 and over

16 to 19

Note: Age as of March 1974

20 to 24

25 to 34

35 to 44

Years of Age

45 to 54

55 to 64

65 and over

All occupations

Professional and
technical workers
Managers and
administrators,
except farm

64%

Sales workers

24%

Clerical workers

48%

Craft workers

51%

Operatives,
except transport

45%

Transport equipment
operatives

21%

Laborers, except farm

33%

Service workers,
except private
household

29%

Private household
workers

17%
0

refers to longest job held during year




Women employed in
professional-technical
and
managerial occupations
are more likely to work
year-round full-time than
women who hold other
kinds of jobs.

18%

Farm workers

Note: Occupation

Women
holding yearround full-time
jobs in 1973 as
a proportion
of all women
workers, by
occupation

56%

20

40
Percent

60

80

21
Women by
reason for
less than full
year work,
1973

All women 78.1 million
disabled

Home
responsibilities

Attending
school

Unemployment,
inability
to find work

Retirement

\
Worked all year
22.0 million
47%

Worked part of the year
19.9 million

Major
reason for
part-year
work

21%

//
/ /
//
//
//

Did not work—
looked for work
1.1 million

Major
reason for
not working
- d i d not
work but
looked for
work in
1973

15%

41%

W

Did not workdid not look for work
35.2 million

The major reason women
work only part of the
year or not at all is home
responsibilities.




Other

72%

7%

0.2%

' A total of 5.1 million part-year women workers experienced some unemployment during 1973, of whom 3.1 million reported unemployment

9%

1%

was the major reason for part-year

Major
reason for
not working
- d i d not
work and
did not
look for
work in
1973

work.

Weeks unemployed

22

43 million women
in the labor force
anytime during 1973

1 to 4 weeks
5 to 14 weeks
15 to 26 weeks

Women with
unemployment
in 1973 by work
experience
and weeks
unemployed

With
unemployment

27 weeks or more
Women with unemployment 6.6 million

Year-round
full-time workers
unemployed
1 or 2 weeks only

Did not work
in 1973,
but looked
for a job




Part-year
workers

Of the 43 million women
with work experience in
1973,6.6 million were
unemployed at some time
during the year—about 45
percent of their unemployment lasted less than
5 weeks.

Women with
unemployment
in 1973
by race, age,
and marital
status

Of the 6.6 million women
with some unemployment
in 1973,19 percent were of
minority races, 45 percent
were teenagers and young
adults, and 50 percent
were wives.




Note: Age and marital status as of March 1974




Marital and
Family Status

Part II

Nowadays single women no longer predominate
in the female labor force as they did before
World War 1 and in the early 1950's. Married
1
women living with their husbands-nearly 21
million in 1974-account for almost three-fifths of
all women workers. The proportion of female
workers who are widowed, divorced, or separated
is comparatively small, but on the rise.
The trend toward smaller families has contributed
to the consistent increases in women's overall
labor force participation rate. Where young
children are in the family, the likelihood of a
mother's working outside the home is
considerably reduced. Even so, labor force
participation of these mothers has risen steadily
for more than a decade. With divorce and
separation on the increase in the 1970's, the
number of families headed by working women
is rising.

24

40

Women in the
labor force
by marital
status,
1950-74

The number of married
women in the labor force
has more than doubled
since 1950.




0
1950

1955

Note: Data are for March in 1950, April m 1951-55, and March

1960
thereafter.

1965

1970

1974

100'

90'

Labor force
participation
rates of
women by
marital status
and age,
)74
March 19

80 •

79%

S 60
59%
o

n

51%

49%
0)
Q.

p
All women




Divorced

Married,
husband
absent

Married,
husband
present

Widowed

Never
married

As a group, divorced
women are more likely to
be in the labor force than
women of any other marital
status. Widows are the
least likely to be workers,
but this is largely
attributable to age.

60'

Labor force
participation
rates of
married
women by
presence and
age of
children,
1950-74

50

With children
6 to 17 only
40
With no children
under 18 years old

With children under
6 years old

Married women with or
without children under age
18 have entered the labor
force in increasing
proportions over the past
quarter century; the pace
of the increase for women
with preschool age children
has accelerated in the
past few years.




1950

1955

1960

1965

1970

1974

Married, Husband Present
By presence and age of children
By number of children under age 5

27
Labor force
participation
rates of
married or
formerly
married
women under
age 45,
March 1974

o
CO

_l
c
C
C
>
b
e
(U
o
Q

CL

Divorced, Separated, and Widowed

CD

O
£
o
J
D
C
O
c
>
b
0)
o
CD

CL

No children

' Not available;

base population




Children
6-17 years
old only
less than 75000 women.

One or more
children
under 6—
none under 3

One or more
children
under 3

1 child
under 5

2 children
under 5

3 or more
children
under 5

The presence of children,
especially preschoolers,
reduces the likelihood of
labor force participation
among married women in
the typical childbearing
ages. This is true for
divorced and separated
women as well.

Number of children
-J

Children
under age 18
by type of
family and
labor force
status of
mother, 1970
and 1974

I

L

Children With mother
not in labor force

1970
All families
1974

1970
Husband-wife families
1974

1970
Families with female head
1974
10

20

30

40

50

60

Millions

Percent changes between 1970 and 1974
All families
-3.4%

Total number of children
While the number of
children underage 18
dropped between 1970 and
1974, the number whose
mothers were in the labor
force rose. As a result of the
increase in divorce and
separation among married
couples with children, most
of the increase in the
number of children with
working mothers took place
among families headed by
women.




Children with mother
in labor force
Husband-wife-fami I ies
-7.3%

Total number of children

I

Children with mother
in labor force

.8%

Families with female head
Total number of children

29.2%

Children with mother
in labor force
-10

70

Children in all families
63.5 million

Children under 6 years old

Children 6 to 17 years old

Children in husband-wife families
54.2 million

Children
underage 18
by type of
family, age,
ancf labor
force status of
mother,
March 1974

Children in families with female head
8.6 million

Most children of working
mothers are old enough to
be in school, but in 1974
about 6 million were below
regular school age,
requiring other
arrangements for care
in their working mothers'
absence.
Note: Not shown separately are 740,000 children in families headed by males other than husbands.




Births to date
3,0002,932

Birth rates of
women in
husband-wife
families by
age and labor
force status of
mother, June
1974

2,0001,979

1,000-

1,170

Additional births expected
1,500-

1,119
552

•e
in

111

109

Total births expected
3,0003,041

Wives who are in the labor
force bear fewer children,
on average, than wives who
are not; although working
wives plan to have more
children in the future, they
would still have fewer
children than nonworking
wives.




2,531

2,000

i

1,000

1
Women
1 Not in Labor
1
Force

2,289

1
1
1
Wives 18 to 24
years old

r
Wives 25 to 29
years old

Wives 30 to 39
years old

Families headed by women as a
percent of all families, 1960-74

Number of weeks worked in 1973 by female family heads
Did not
work
Worked
1 to 26
weeks
27 to 49
weeks

50 to 52
weeks
1965
Percent change 1960 to 1974

60

1970

1974

Percent of female family heads in labor force by number of children, March 1974

Summary
indicators for
families
headed by
women,
selected
periods,
1960-74

63%
56%
43%

All families

All families
with
female head

All female With no
family heads children
under 18
Median family income in 1973 by type of family
50
$15,000

Husband-wife Other male head Female head




1
Child

2
3
4
5 or more
Children Children
Children Children
Percent of families below the poverty
level in 1973 by type of family

Husband-wife

Other
male head

Female
head

Female head
with children
under 18

Families headed by women
account for a significant
and growing share of all
American families. On
average, half of the women
who head families are in
the labor force, but
proportionately more
female than male family
heads are below the
poverty level.







Income
and Earnings

Part III

The great majority of working women have not yet
attained parity with working men in earned
income. l\/ledian usual weekly earnings of women
on full-time jobs in 1974 were about 60 percent
of those of men. For year-round full-time workers,
women's median annual earnings were only 57
percent of men's, a ratio that ranged from 38
percent for sales workers to 64 percent for
professional-technical workers. Through the
years, employed women have consistently been
clustered in lower paying occupations than men.
Despite their comparatively low earnings, women
make a substantial contribution to their family's
economic well-being, and the family with more
than one earner has become a prominent feature
of American life. In nearly half of all husband-wife
families in 1973, both the husband and wife were
earners. Wives' earnings accounted for, on
average, 26 percent of the total family income in
that year, and as much as 38 percent for wives
who worked year round, full time.

Income of
women by
source, 1973

Wages and salaries

Of the aggregate income of
women in 1973, more than
75 percent was from
earnings, about 10 percent
was from social security
and similar benefits, and
3 percent was from welfare
and public assistance
payments.




Other than earnings

Earnings

Earnings from
self-employment

Social security
and railroad
retirement
benefits

Property
income

Welfare and
public
assistance

Other
income

210

190
Men
current dollars
170

150

' Mn
e

1m

110
^3
o

-

1967 constant dollars

1—Ma

110

J

Median usual
weekly earnings of fulltime wage and
salary workers
by sex,
1967-74

Women
current dollars

Women
1967 constant dollars

Earnings of women as a
percent of earnings of men
65

0
May 1967



From 1967 to 1974, median
weekly earnings of full-time
women workers remained
at about 60 percent of the
earnings of men working
full time. During ^is period,
the earnings Of both men
and women rqse about 60
percent—but ^nly about 10
percent after allowing for
inflation.
May 1969

May 1970

May 1971

May 1972

May 1973

May 1974

Professional and technical

Median usual
weekly
earnings of
full-time
women
wage and
salary workers
by occupation,
May 1974

71%

Managers and
administrators, except farm

59%

n .'t

I

Sales workers

43%

67%

Clerical workers

Craft workers

59%

Operatives,
except transport

63%

Nonfarm laborers
The usual weekly earnings
of full-time women workers
in eight broad occupational
groups ranged from about
40 to 70 percent of the
earnings of men.




61%

Service workers

10
0

200

0

Dollars
Note: Transport equipment operatives and farm workers are not shown because the number of full-time women workers in these occupations
for statistically reliable estimates.

—I

1

r

20
40
60
Percent of Earnings of Men
is too small (under 75,000)

80%

Agriculture

83%

Durable goods
manufacturing

Median usual
weekly earnings of fulltime women
wage and
salary workers
by industry,
May 1974

63%

Nondurable goods
nnanufacturing

57%

Transportation and
public utilities

67%

Wholesale trade

59%

58%

Retail trade

Finance, insurance,
and real estate

56%

Private household

Miscellaneous
services

69%

Public
administration

71%

10
0

1
200

0

20

Dollars
' Not shown because the male population base is under 75,000.
Note: The mining industry is not shown because the number of full-time women workers is too small (under 75,000) for a statistically




1

1
—

40
60
80
Percent of Earnings of Men

reliable

estimate.

10
0

Compared to men, women
fared best in agriculture
and public administration.

All occupations

Median annual
earnings of
rear-round
yea
fulll-time
women
workers by
occupation,
1973

57%

Professional and technical

Managers and
administrators, except farm

Sales workers

Clerical workers

64%

53%

•

38%

61%

Craft workers

^*
,v r" > " ^ > '
rifRsP^

SS®
PS

Operatives, including
transport equipment

Nonfarm laborers
Annual earnings of women
varied by occupation, but in
no occupational group
were they as much as twothirds of those of men
employed in similar work.




55%

56%

61%
iiimflftifciiii;:;

Service workers,
except private household

58%

2,500

5,000
Dollars

7,500

10,000 0

' Occupation refers to longest job held during year. Data for all occupations include earners in groups not shown separately-private
farm laborers. For these groups the base population was too small to provide statistically reliable estimates.

T

60
40
20
Percent of Earnings of Men
household workers, farmers and farm managers,

80%
and

Worked at part-time jobs (less than 35 hours per week)

Worked at full-time jobs

7,000-

6,000

Median annual
earnings of
full and parttime women
workers by
weeks worked,
1973

5,000
4,000S 3,000-

2,0002050
1780

1,000-

1390
790
I

320

90-

80o
w
CD
C

"c
C
C
LU

CD

O

103%

CD
Q-

50-52
weeks



40-49
weeks

27-39
weeks

14-26
weeks

13 weeks
or less

83%

88%

87%

92%

50-52
weeks

40-49
weeks

27-39
weeks

14-26
weeks

13 weeks
or less

Women working at full-time
jobs earned considerably
less than men, even after
allowing for differences in
the number of weeks
worked. Women working
part-time were closer to
parity with male part-time
workers.

Dollars
10,000

Percent change, 1963 to 1973
Husbands

Median annual
earninas of
family heads
in production
and nonsupervisory jobs by
sex, 1963-73

Women who

9,000

Husbands
8,000
Gross median earnings

7,000

Gross
median
earnings

Real
Gross
after-tax median
median earnings
earnings

Real
after-tax
median
earnings

6,000
Real after-tax median earnings
(1967 dollars)
5,000
Women who
head families
4,000
Gross median earnings
The gross median earnings
of female production and
nonsupervisory workers
who are family heads have
lagged behind those of their
male counterparts. After
allowing for changes in
Federal income and social
security taxes and consumer prices, the 10-year
increase in earnings was
21 percent for men and only
8 percent for women.




3,000
Real after-tax median earnings
(1967 dollars)
2,000

1,000

1963

1964

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

1971

1972

1973

Wife and other relative(s)
or other relative(s) only

/

-Wife only earner

Husband-wife
families by
earners in
family during
1973

Husband only earner
4
31%

21
Both husband and wife were
earners in nearly half of the
husband-wife families.
Hole. Family status as of March 1974




All families with
working wives

By race

40-

Earnings of
women in
husband-wife
families as a
percent of
1973 family
income, by
selected
characteristics

3031.3%

25.6%

c
CD

<
u
QNegro and
other races

White
Nonfarm families
By age of family head

Farm families

By work experience of wife

40-

29.5%

In families with working
wives, the wife's earnings
account for about one-fourth
of family income, on average. The proportion is
higher in younger families
and in families of minority
races.




c
CD
O
a
3
Q
_
Worked 27 to 49
weeks, full time
Age in March 1974

11.3%
Worked 1 to 26
weeks, full time
or 1 to 52 weeks,
part time

41

Wife contributed:
Less than 5% of
family income

Wives with
earnings by
percent of
1973 family
income

5 and under 10 percent

10 and under 20 percent

20 and under 30 percent

30 and under 40 percent

40 and under 50 percent

50 and under 75 percent

75 percent and more

15
Note: Family status as of March 1974




Percent of All Wives with Earnings

20

In families where the wife
was an earner, she most
commonly contributed
between 20 and 40 percent
of the family income.

42

15,000

Median 1973
income of
families with
children by
type of family
and labor
force status of
mother,
March 1974

13,100

10,000'
Mother not In
labor force
w
CO

o
Q

5,000-

3,800

Children of working mothers
are typically in higher
income families.




Husband-wife families
Note: Numbers rounded to nearest $100

Families with female head

$9;000 •
$8,940

Median 1973
income of
women with
income by
years of
school
completed

8,000

7,000'

6,000

5,000
o
Q
4,000

3,000

2,000 -

1,000 -

8 years or less
Years of school completed




as of tvlarch 1974

1 to 3 years
of high school

4 years of
high school

1 to 3 years
of college

4 years
of college

5 years or
more of college

On average, the more years
of formal schooling a
woman has, the higher her
income.

44
Women below
the poverty
level, 1973,
by selected
characteristics

By marital status

By race

White

Never married

Black

Married, husband
present
Married, husband
absent (includes
separated)

By occupation
Professional, technical,
managerial, and
administrative workers

Divorced

Clerical and sales
workers

Widowed

Craft workers

Operatives, including
transport

By years of school completed

Nonfarm laborers

Black women are more than
three times as likely as
white women to be below
the poverty level. The
proportion of women in
poverty also varies by
occupation, marital status,
and education.




8 years or less of
elementary school

Service workers,
except private
household

1 to 3 years of
high school

Private household
workers

4 years of
high school

Farm workers

1 year or more of
college
30

40

20

30

Note: Demographic data are as of March 1974 and refer to all women 14 years old and over. The poverty (low-income) level for women in 1973 was defined as equivalent
$2239 for an unrelated individual and $4,512 for a family of four persons. See Sources of Data.

40

to an income of

50%




Education

Part IV

Working women, on the average, had more formal
schooling than working men en the 1950's, but
since then, their level of education has not risen
as rapidly as men's. In 1952, about 51 percent
of the working women had completed high
school, compared with 40 percent for men. By
1974 the gap had narrowed, with 72 percent of
women workers having graduated from high
school, compared with 67 percent for men.
Women who have more education are more likely
to be in the labor force, less likely to be
unemployed, and more likely to be in the higher
paying occupations than women with less
schooling.

45
Labor force by
sex and years
of school
completed,
1952 and 1974

Men

Women
1952
4 years of college
or more

1 to 3 years of college

1974

1974

1952
8% .

13%

1

1%
6
8%

9%

1%
5
1S%
24%
4 years of high school

34%

1%
9

3%
6

3%
3

44%

18%

1 to 3 years of high
school

Women in the labor force
are more likely than men to
have graduated from high
school, but less likely to
have completed 4 years of
college. Nearly three-quarters of v^omen workers have
high school diplomas
compared to only one-half
in 1952.




5 to 8 years of
elementary school

26%

18%

12%
Less than 5 years of
elementary school

9%
5%

Note.- Civilian labor force 18 years old and over in October 1952 and 16 years old and over in March 1974.

1%

8%

2%

100'

80

Labor force
participation
and
unemployment
rates of
women by
years of
school
completed,
March 1974

c

0)
o
a
a
ro
Q
C
c
.9
CO
Q.
o
•C
•

6051.3%
4039.4%

CO
CL

20-

23.9%

c
0)
o

0

Q.

o
c
"CC

c
<
D
E
Q.

E
0)

c
=)

Women with more education are more likely to be in
the labor force and less
likely to be unemployed.
8 years of elementary
school or less



1 to 3 years
of high school

4 years
of high school

1 to 3
years of college

4 years of
college or more

Women in the
labor force by
aae and years
of school
completed,
March 1974

4 or more years
of college
11%

11%

12%

1 to 3 years of
college

17%

36%
48%
48%

4 years of high
school

44%

26%
Young women workers have
had more formal education
than their older counterparts.




1 to 3 years of
high school
14%

9
%

8 years of
elementary
school or less
25 to 34

35 to 44

45 to 54
Years of Age

55 and over

Less than 4 years of high school
8.9 million
Clerical workers
Professional and technical
Managers and administrators, except farm
Sales workers
Operatives, except transport
Service workers, except private household

Employed
women by
years of
school completed and
occupation,
March 1974

Private household workers
Other occupations
4 years of high school, no college
14.8 million

4 years of college or more
4.4 million

Employed women without
high school diplomas are
concentrated in service and
operative occupations ...
Those finishing high school,
but without college, are primarily employed as clerical
workers ... Nearly threefourths of employed women
college graduates are in
profess iona l-technica I
occupations.
Note: "Other occupations"




is the sum of those in which less than 5 percent of the women of that educational

level are

employed.







Additional
Characteristics
of Worthing Women

PartV

Workers by reason for holding more than one job
Women 867,000

Multiple jobholding by
sex, May 1974

Men 3,020,000

Meet regular
expenses

Pay off debts
Save for future

6.1%
10.S%

Get experience

Women

8.3%

Buy something
special

Workers holding two or more jobs

Help a friend
or relative

11.9%

Men
...

Enjoy the work

Women are less likely than
men to hold two or more
jobs; women's reasons for
"moonlighting" are similar
to men's.




smmm

Other reasons

14.1%
12.9%

Usually work AVz days or less

2%

Full-time wage
and salary
workers by
sex and usual
workweek,
May 1974
Usually work 5 days

Women

Men

90%

78%

Usually work 51/2 days or more
A/ofe. Private household workers and persons who did not report days usually worked are




8%
excluded.

Among full-time workers,
women are far less likely
than men to work more than
5 days a week.

51

Starting Time
Women

Ending Time
Men

Women

Men

7 to 11 P.M.

Wage and
salary workers
by sex and
time of starting and ending
work, May
1974
6 to 9 A.M.

4 to 6 P.M.

A large majority of both
women and men workers
report to work between 6
and 9 in the morning and
leave work between 4 and 6
in the afternoon.




71%

10 A.M. to 3 P.M.
7 A.M. to 3 P.M.

4 to 7 P.M.
8 P.M. to 5 A.M.

Midnight to 6 A.M.

20%

13%




Working more than 40 hours per week
50<
D
^ 40-

52
Overtime
workers by
sex,l\/lay 1974

^ 30•D
C
CO

<
D
^ 20-

" • : 2%
8

Receiving premium pay
50-

42%

Men
Women are only about onethird as likely as men to
work overtime. However,
women working overtime
are as likely as men to receive premium pay.

53
Job tenure by
sex, January
1973

Workers by length of time on current job
Women

Men

n

Median years on current job by age
0.6

16 to 19

0.6

22%
One year or less

29%
1.2
20 to 24
1.2
11%

1 to 2 years

1%
4

25 to 34

35 to 44
6.7

2 to 5 years

17%
45 to 54
11.5
5 to 10 years

16%

ie%

55 to 64

14^
Women have been on their
current job a considerably
shorter time, on average,
than men. The largest differences are in the prime
working age groups.




10 to 20 years
65 and over
20 years or more
Median years on job = 2.8

Median years on job = 4.6

Women

54

Men

Workers by usual means of transportation

Private automobile
driver

Transportation
to work, by
sex, 1970

Other
Worked at home

Walked to work
_ Public _
transportation
18%
Private autortiobile
passenger

Workers who walk or use public transportation,
by Income level

20%

19%

11%

Below poverty
level
Income level in 1969.




Above poverty
level

Below poverty
level

Above poverty
level

A majority of women
workers, like men, drive
their cars to work, but women are almost twice as
likely as men to use public
transportation. One-third of
the low-income women
workers either walk to work
or use public transportation.

Selected indicators for
women by
race and
Spanish
origin, 1970




I

Unemployed as a percent
of the female labor force

Percent of women
16 years old and over In
the labor force

Female family heads
as a percent of all
family heads
I

I

All races..

41%

White

41%

Black

47%

American
Indian

35%

T
Japanese

Chinese

49%

1

S0%

Filipino

Women of
Spanish
origin or
descent

55%

I

10

39%

20

30

I
20

40
Percent

60

12

Life expectancy
Women

Men

66.6

67.1

414

65.5

Life expectancy and
worl(-life
expectancy by
sex, selected
years,
1900-1970

41,1

4S2

CO

Work-life expectancy
40
38.2
30

1900
' Not available.

1940

1950

1960

The Bureau of Labor Statistics is currently developing




1970

estimates for 1970.

1900

1940

1950

1960

1970

The work-life expectancy of
American women has expanded enormously since
the beginning of the century. Women's work life will
undoubtedly continue to
lengthen in the face of such
changes as the decline in
birth rates, the upturn in
divorce and separation, and
enforcement of legislation
prohibiting sex
discrimination.

Sources of Data
The source of data for all charts, except 10,11,54,55, and 56, Is the
Current Population Survey (CPS) conducted monthly for the U. S. Bureau of
Labor Statistics (BLS) by the Bureau of the Census of the U. S. Department
of Commerce. The survey consists of approximately 47,000 households
eligible for interview from which about 45,000 Interviews are obtained each
month. The sample is selected to represent the entire United States population 16 years of age and older. Survey responses on labor force and
employment status are tabulated and published monthly by BLS in
Employment and Earnings. In addition, supplemental questions relating to
other social and economic characteristics of the work force or of particular
subgroups are Included in specific months' surveys. For example, supplemental questions on Income, marital and family characteristics, work
experience, and educational attainment are Included In the March survey,
and usual weekly earnings, multiple jobholding, and work schedules In
the May survey.
Charts 10 and 11 are based on establishment records. These data are
compiled each month by BLS from mail questionnaires, and cover only
persons on government and business establishment payrolls. The 1970
decennial Census of Population is the source of data for charts 54 and 55.
Data for chart 56 were developed in BLS and in the Department of Health,
Education, and Welfare.

Chart

Source

1. U. S. Department of Labor, Bureau of
Labor Statistics (BLS), Employment and
Earnings, January 1975.
2-4. BLS, Handbook of Labor Statistics: 1974, and Employment and Earnings, January 1975.
5. BLS, Employment and Earnings,
January 1975.
6. BLS, Handbook of Labor Statistics:
1974, and Employment and Earnings,
January 1975.
7. BLS, Employment and Earnings, January 1975, and BLS unpublished Current Population Survey (CPS) data.
8. BLS, Employment and Earnings,
December 1969, January 1971, and
January 1975.
9. BLS, Employment and Earnings,
January 1975, and BLS unpublished
CPS data.
10-11. BLS, Employment and Earnings,
March 1975.

The data for each chart can be found in the publications cited below, along
with information on survey methods, definitions of terms, reliability of
estimates, and related matters.




U. S. G O V E R N M E N T P R I N T I N G O F F I C E : 1975 O - 590-739

12. BLS, Handbook of Labor Statistics:
1974, and Employment and Earnings,
January 1975.

28-29. BLS, Summary Special Labor
Force Report, "Children of Working
Mothers, March 1974."

38. BLS, Summary Special Labor Force
Report, "Annual Earnings of Household
Heads in Production Jobs, 1973."

53. BLS, Special Labor Force Report,
172, "Job Tenure of Workers, January
1973."

13. BLS, Employment and Earnings,
January 1975.

30. U.S. Department of Commerce,
Social and Economic Statistics Administration, Bureau of the Census, Current
Population Reports, Series P-20, No.
277, "Fertility Expectations of American
Women: June 1974."

39-41. BLS, unpublished CPS data.
42. BLS, Summary Special Labor Force
Report, "Children of Working Mothers:
March 1974."

54. U. S. Bureau of the Census, Census
of Population: 1970, Subject Reports,
Final Report PC(2)-9A, "Low-Income
Population."

31. BLS, Special Labor Force Reports,
numbers 13, 20, 26,41, 50, 64, 80, 94,
120,130,144,153, and 164; and unpublished CPS data; and U. 8. Bureau of
the Census, Current Population Reports,
Series P-60, No. 97, "Money Income
in 1973 of Families and Persons in the
United States," and P-60, No. 98, "Characteristics of the Low-Income Population: 1973."

44. U. S. Bureau of the Census, Current
Population Reports, Series P-60, No. 98,
"Characteristics of the Low-Income
Population: 1973."

14-15. BLS, Handbook of Labor Statistics: 1974, and Employment and Earnings, January 1975.
16. BLS, Employment and Earnings,
January 1975.
17. BLS, Special Labor Force Report,
171, "Work Experience of the Population: 1973."
18. BLS, Special Labor Force Report,
171, "Work Experience of the Population; 1973," and BLS unpublished CPS
data.
19-21. BLS, Special Labor Force Report, 171, "Work Experience of the
Population: 1973."
22. BLS, unpublished CPS data.
23. BLS, Special Labor Force Report,
171, "Work Experience of the Population: 1973."
24. U. S. Department of Labor, Manpower Administration, l\/lanpower Report of the President, 1974, and BLS,
unpublished CPS data.
25. BLS, Summary Special Labor Force
Report, "Marital and Family Characteristics of Workers, March 1974."
26. U. S. Department of Labor, Manpower Administration, Manpower Report of the President. 1974, and BLS,
unpublished data.
27. BLS, unpublished CPS data.




32. U. S. Bureau of the Census, Current
Population Reports, Series P-60, No. 97,
"Money Income in 1973 of Families and
Persons in the United States."
33. U. S. Department of Labor, News,
news release number 74-620 (BLS data).
34-35. BLS, unpublished CPS data.
36-37. U. S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports, Series P-60,
No. 97, "Money Income in 1973 of
Families and Persons in the United
States."

43. U. S. Bureau of the Census, Current
Population Reports, Series P-60, No. 97,
"Money Income in 1973 of Families and
Persons in the United States."

45. U. S. Bureau of the Census, Current
Population Reports, Series P-50, No. 49,
"Educational Attainment and Literacy
of Workers: October 1952"; and BLS, unpublished CPS data.
46. BLS, f^onthly Labor Review, February 1975, "Research SummarySpecial Labor Force Report, Educational Attainment of Workers, March
1974."
47. BLS, unpublished CPS data.
48-49. BLS, f\/lonthly Labor Review,
February 1975, "Research SummarySpecial Labor Force Report, Educational Attainment of Workers, March
1974."
50-51. BLS, unpublished CPS data.
52. BLS, Monthly Labor Review, February 1975, "Trends in Overtime Hours
and Pay, 1969-74."

55. U. S. Bureau of the Census, Census
of Population: 1970, Characteristics of
the Population, Final Report PC(1)-I,
"United States Summary," and Subject
Reports, Final Reports PC(2)-1B, "Negro
Population;" PC(2)-1C, "Persons of
Spanish Origin;" PC(2)-1F, "American
Indians;" and PC(2)-1G, "Japanese,
Chinese, and Filipinos in the United
States."
56. BLS, Monthly Labor Review, June
1971, "A Table of Expected Working
Life for Men, 1968," and unpublished
data; and Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, National Center for
Health Statistics, Provisional
Life
Tables.

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