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B u l l e t i n 1518

UNffft|UB®f| COST in manufacturing
TRENDS IN NINE COUNTRIES, 1950-65




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
W. Willard Wirtz, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR S T A T IS T IC S
A r t h u r M. Ross, Com m is sio ner

UNIT LABOR COST IN MANUFACTURING
TRENDS IN NINE COUNTRIES, 1950-65

Bulletin No. 1518
June 1966

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
W. Willard Wirtz, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Arthur M. Ross, Commissioner

For sole by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 2 0 4 0 2 - Price 30 cents







Preface
Changes
nations of
balance of
comparing

in unit labor cost in manufacturing in the principal industrial
the free world are an important factor in changes in the
trade and the balance of payments. They are also useful in
wage and price stability at home and abroad.

This bulletin presents units labor cost indexes, the underlying sta­
tistical data from which the indexes are constructed, and related esti­
mates of hourly labor cost and output per man-hour in nine countries for
the period 1950-65. It also presents certain conclusions drawn from the
data and describes the procedures and limitations involved in making the
estimates.
The bulletin was prepared in the Bureau’s Office of Foreign Labor
and Trade by John H. Chandler, Chief, Branch of International Com­
parisons, and Patrick C. Jackman, Economist, under the general direction
o f William C. Shelton, Assistant Commissioner for the Office.




in




Contents
Page

Introduction _________________________________________________________
Long-term trends ____________________________________________________
Exchange revaluations_____________________ __________________________
Growth in m anufacturing____________________________________________
Hourly labor c o s t _____________________________________________________
Output per m an-hour_________________________________________________
Further research_____________________________________________________
Methods and sources__________________________________________________
United S ta tes________________________________________________________
Canada_______________________________________________________________
France _______________________________________________________________
Federal Republic of Germ any_________________________________________
I t a ly _________________________________________________________________
J a p a n ________________________________________________________________
Netherlands _________________________________________________________
Sw eden_______________________________________________________________
United Kingdom _____________________________________________________
Selected bibliography_________________________________________________
Text tables:
1. Indexes of unit labor cost in manufacturing for nine countries,
1950-65 ___________________________________________________
2. Percent change in manufacturing production, aggregate labor
compensation, and unit labor cost in nine countries, annual
averages, 1950-57 and1957-64 _____________________________
3. Indexes of average hourly labor cost of wage and salary earners
in manufacturingin nine countries, 1950-64 ______
4. Indexes of output per man-hour in manufacturing in nine coun­
tries, 1950-64 _____________________________________________
Appendix tables:
IA. United States. Basic data on production, labor compensation,
employment, and hours of work in manufacturing, 1950-64__
IB. United States. Indexes of unit labor cost, output per man­
hour, and average hourly compensation in manufacturing,
and related indexes, 1950-64 ______________________________
2A. Canada. Basic data on production, labor compensation, em­
ployment, and hours of work in manufacturing, 1950-64 ____
2B. Canada. Indexes of unit labor cost, output per man-hour, and
average hourly compensation in manufacturing, 1950-64 ____
2C. Canada. Revised indexes of production, unit labor cost, and
output per man-hour in manufacturing, 1950-64___________
3A. France. Basic data on production, labor compensation, em­
ployment, and hours of work in manufacturing, 1950-64 ____
3B. France. Indexes of unit labor cost, output per man-hour, and
average hourly compensation in manufacturing, 1950-64 ____




v

1
2
5
5
8
9
10
10
12
13
14
15
15
16
17
17
18
32

4

5
9
10

19

20
21
22
22
23
23




Contents— Continued
Appendix tables— Continued
Page

4A.

4B.

5A.
5B.
6A.
6B.
7A.
7B.

8A.

8B.

9A.

9B.

Germany (F.R.). Basic data on production, labor compensa­
tion, employment, and hours of work in manufacturing,
1950-64 __________________________________________________
Germany (F.R.). Indexes of unit labor cost, output per man­
hour, and average hourly compensation in manufacturing,
1950-64 __________________________________________________
Italy. Basic data on production, labor compensation, and
hours of work in manufacturing, 1950-64 ___________ _____
Italy. Indexes of unit labor cost, output per man-hour, and
average hourly compensation in manufacturing, 1950-64 ____
Japan. Basic data on production, labor compensation, em­
ployment, and hours of work in manufacturing, 1950-64 ____
Japan. Indexes of unit labor cost, output per man-hour, and
average hourly compensation in manufacturing, 1950-64 ____
Netherlands. Basic data on production, labor compensation,
employment, and hours of work in manufacturing, 1950-64 —
Netherlands. Indexes of unit labor cost, output per man-hour,
and average hourly compensation in manufacturing,
1950-64 __________________________________________________
Sweden. Basic data on production, labor compensation, em­
ployment, and hours of work in manufacturing and mining,
1950-64 __________________________________________________
Sweden. Indexes of unit labor cost, output per man-hour, and
average hourly compensation in manufacturing and mining.
1950-64 _________________________________________________
United Kingdom. Basic data on production, labor compensa­
tion, employment, and hours of work in manufacturing,
1950-64 __________________________________________________
United Kingdom. Indexes of unit labor cost, output per man­
hour, and average hourly compensation in manufacturing,
1950-64 __________________________________________________

Charts:
1. Percentage changes in unit labor
cost inmanufacturing:
1950-57; 1957-64 __________________________________________
2. Indexes of unit laborcost in ninecountries, 1950-65 _____________

vi

24

25
26
26
27
27
28

28

29

29

30

31

3
6

Unit Labor Cost in Manufacturing
TRENDS IN NINE COUNTRIES, 1 9 5 0 -6 5

N o t e : All United States national accounts data in this bulletin are
taken from estimates published by the U.S. Department of Commerce
prior to the major revisions in benchmark levels currently being com­
pleted. Because of anticipated changes in benchmark estimates and the
reworking of constant-value output estimates in terms of 1958 dollars
instead of 1954 dollars, the indexes of U.S. labor cost and productivity
presented here may require changes when the national accounts revisions
are completed.

Introduction

For many years the United States has con­
tinued its effort to balance its international
transactions while carrying out major commit­
ments at home and abroad. Since the foreign
trade account is by far the principal source of
surplus in the U.S. balance of payments, trade
occupies a crucial position in this effort. Hence,
considerable importance attaches to the many
factors affecting trade, including labor cost
and other production costs at home and
abroad.1
Compensation of labor is the principal cost
factor in manufacturing as a whole (though
not necessarily for individual industries)
throughout the industrialized nations of the
world. In the U.S. manufacturing sector, for
example, employee compensation amounted to
68 percent of gross product originating in
1963; and for other industrial countries also,
labor is the dominant input cost, although not
necessarily as dominant as in this country. The
purpose of this study is to examine trends in
the relationship between industrial output and
the cost of labor input for the principal indus­
trial countries of the free world.
Unit labor cost is the ratio of labor expendi­
ture to production. In this bulletin, labor ex­
penditure includes all payments to labor, con­
sisting of wages and other direct payments and
legally required and voluntary supplements
paid to employees or into special employee




benefit funds. Production, as used in this
study, refers to the total physical output of the
manufacturing sector. An index of unit labor
cost may be calculated from indexes of labor
expenditure and production rather than from
volume figures of expenditure and production.
The technical problems of defining and meas­
uring unit labor cost have been described in the
Monthly Labor Review.1
2
The nine countries covered in the present
study are the United States, Canada, France,
Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Japan, the
Netherlands, Sweden, and the United King­
dom. The time period covered by the indexes is
from 1950 through 1965. Published informa­
tion and estimates on labor compensation,
hours of work, production, and labor produc­
tivity have been included in the text or appen­
dix materials.
The indexes of unit labor cost show the
trends for all manufacturing within each
country. However, the trends for specific
manufacturing industries may diverge from
these overall trends, and absolute unit labor
cost in one country may be quite different from
that of another country at any one point in
time.
1See article by William C. Shelton and John H. Chandler, “ The
Role o f Labor Cost in Foreign Trade,” Monthly Labor Review,
May 1963, pp. 485-490.
2 See article by William C. Shelton and John H. Chandler, “ In­
ternational Comparisons of Unit Labor Cost: Concepts and Meth­
ods,” Monthly Labor Review, May 1963, pp. 538-547.

l

Long-Term Trends

From the standpoint of labor cost per unit of
output, American manufacturers in the mid1960’s have achieved a better competitive
position relative to foreign producers than they
held in the late 1950's. This conclusion emerges
clearly from an inspection of the time series
indexes in all nine countries, taking account of
changes in the exchange rates in four of the
countries. For analytical purposes, the 14 years
following 1950 may be divided into two con­
trasting periods of 7 years each, although
other breaks could be used.
1950 to 1957 . From 1950 to 1957, all nine

countries underwent substantial inflationary
pressures, varying in degree, but generally
sufficient to buoy unit labor costs markedly up­
ward. During this early period, the Korean
conflict and the Suez incident interfered with
the attempts being made in many of the coun­
tries to overcome domestic shortages, regain
pre-World War II markets, and develop new
markets. Nevertheless, rationing and price con­
trols were greatly reduced, and the return to
free market conditions increased export compe­
tition. Great progress was made toward liber­
alizing trade and reducing tariffs, but numer­
ous trade restrictions and exchange controls
remained in effect in 1957. These restrictions
and controls were particularly important in
transactions affecting the dollar zone.
From 1950 to 1957, unit labor cost in the
United States rose about the same as the aver­
age in the other countries.3 As shown by the
all-employee changes in chart 1, at the end of
the period this country occupied a middle posi­
tion between Japan's decrease at the lower ex­
treme and Sweden's 67-percent increase.
France's doubling of all-employee cost far out­
stripped rises in the other nations.
Estimates of unit labor cost trends for wage
earners in foreign countries and production
workers in the United States 4 display slightly
less change during 1950-57 than do the corre­
sponding all-employee estimates. This differen­
tial movement is attributable largely to a tend­
ency in each country for manufacturing
industries to increase the proportion of mana­
gerial, technical, and clerical personnel to pro­
2




duction workers, though differential changes in
compensation had some effect.
1957 to 1965. After 1957, the international

competition faced by U.S. manufacturers in­
creased sharply for reasons other than cost.
Domestic markets in many European countries
and Japan were becoming saturated, reducing
the propensity to import and encouraging pro­
ducers to export. These countries found that
they could match American competition in
more and more markets, so they reduced re­
strictions on imports from the dollar zone and
restored currency convertibility. The two deval­
uations of the French franc strengthened
France's competitive position and permitted
her to take a leading role in this movement.
Imports of manufactured goods into the
United States, which had been very small rela­
tive to U.S. manufacturing output for almost 2
decades, increased sharply after 1957. At the
same time, the U.S. Government, which had
been concerned about the surplus in the bal­
ance of payments between 1946 and 1950, be­
came concerned about the deficit. Under these
circumstances, changes in relative unit labor
cost in manufacturing among countries became
highly important to the balance of payments
problem.
The trends from 1957 to 1965 show a great
improvement in the unit labor cost position of
3 Two series o f unit labor cost indexes have been constructed for
the United States. As mentioned later, series based on national
accounts (Series B for the United States) are preferred for inter­
national comparisons of unit labor cost trends for all manufactur­
ing. These data are also preferred for the analysis of unit labor
cost trends in manufacturing in the United States. Four of the
countries covered in this article, however (Canada, Japan, the
Netherlands, and Sweden), do not now publish adequate current
data on the deflated value of the gross national product originating
in manufacturing. For these countries, quantity indexes of industri­
al production have been used. For methodological comparability
with these countries for which quantity indexes are used, a U.S.
series based on the Federal Reserve index of manufacturing pro­
duction (Series A ) is included in this bulletin. From 1950 to 1957,
Series B shows a 32-percent rise in unit labor cost, while Series A
shows a 26-percent rise.
4 The data actually pertain to “ production and related workers”
in the United States and “ wage earners” in four European coun­
tries. Although the two terms have somewhat similar meanings,
there are important differences. Production workers in the United
States include workers and working foremen engaged in production
or closely associated operations. They exclude executive, profession­
al, technical, supervisory, clerical, sales, delivery, personnel (includ­
ing cafeteria), major construction, and other nonproduction em­
ployees. In Europe the practices vary, but the term “ wage earners”
ordinarily refers to those who are paid by the hour, or perform
manual work, irrespective of whether their work is closely associat­
ed with production.

C h a r t 1.

P e r c e n t a g e C h a n g e s in U n it L a b o r C o s t in M a n u f a c t u r i n g

( N o t a d ju s t e d f o r c h a n g e s in f o r e ig n e x c h a n g e ra t e s )

1950-57
PERCENT

-30-20 -10
------ r
i------ 1

1957-64
PERCENT

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
----- ,------ ,------ ,------ ,------ 1
-------j------ j------ 1----- 1------1
All em ployees

JAPAN

-30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

- - —
i ---1-- 1

1

-----1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
----- ---- ----- ----- ----- ---- ----All em plo yees

UNITED STATES
(Series A)

GERMANY

UNITED STATES

(Federal Republic)

(Series B)

l

CANADA

]

UNITED STATES
(Series A)

UNITED STATES

JAPAN

(Series B)

CANADA

SWEDEN

NETHERLANDS

UNITED
KINGDOM

UNITED
KINGDOM

GERMANY

SWEDEN

NETHERLANDS

FRANCE

FRANCE

(Fe de ral Re pub lic )

Wage earners or
production workers

U N IT ED
STATES

GERMANY
(Federal Republic)

UNIT ED STATES
(Series A)

UN IT ED STATES
(Series B)

UNITED
KINGDOM

■
■

(Series A)

ITALY

Wage earners or
production workers

®

UNITED STATES

:

(Series B)

SWEDEN

UNIT ED
K IN GD O M
ITALY

GERMANY

SWEDEN

(Fed er al Re p u b li c )
I_____ I_____L_




i

i

i

i____ i

i

j

___ L
_

i

i____ i
____ i___ L
_

3

lowed by a 3-year period of considerable cost
inflation in many of the countries. From 1963
to 1964, there was some return to stability; on­
ly France, the Netherlands, and Italy showed
significant advances.
A distribution of the nine countries by per­
cent increase in unit labor cost for the whole
period 1950-64 shows that unit labor cost in
France and Sweden increased the most, fol­
lowed by increases in the Netherlands, the
United Kingdom, and Germany. The increases
were moderate in the United States and Cana­
da (2 to 3 percent per year), while Japan and
Italy showed the least increase.
Preliminary data for 1965 show a continua­
tion of the unit labor cost trends of the pre­
vious 7 years; that is, no change in the United
States, slight increases in Canada and the
United Kingdom, and greater increases else­
where. The 1965 estimates are highly tentative,
however, because many are based on available
indicators (of production, employment, and
earnings), which are often changed significant­
ly as more complete data become available.

the United States relative to its trading
partners. For the nine countries as a whole,
cost increases since 1957 have been more mod­
erate than during 1950-57. All of the countries
with the fastest rates of increase in the earlier
period managed to reduce the rate of increase,
while only Italy, Japan, and Germany showed
greater increases than in the initial 7 years. As
these trends developed, the United States and
Canada came close to achieving unit labor cost
stability.
For the 1957-64 period, as during 1950-57,
the tendency for all-employee cost to increase
at a faster pace than wage-earner and produc­
tion-worker cost can be observed in the trends
shown in chart 1. The year-to-year indexes are
presented in table 1, with 1957 serving as the
base year for all series. The trends are illus­
trated in a series of graphs on chart 2.
Over the 7-year period, there were move­
ments which may represent a short-term cycle,
probably related to the business cycle. In the 3
years from 1957 to 1960, unit labor cost for
most countries was rather stable. This was fol­
T able 1.

I ndexes of U nit Labor Cost in Manufacturing for N ine Countries, 1950-65
[1957— 1003

Country
N

a t io n a l

D

1951

1952

1953

1954

1955

1956

1957

1958

1959

1960

1961

1962

1963

1964

ollar

80
76
77
50

91

109
72
60
69

87
82
84
67
96
107
78
69
74

90
76
93
113
81
83
83

93
90
92
80
92
102
78
85
84

95
92
94
82
91
105
81
89
85

92
90
91
87
91
106
85
92
88

96
97
93
92
98
106
92
97
96

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

103
102
101
110
104
106
103
102
105

101
102
101
112
102
100
98
101
104

101
106
104
115
105
98
100
102
105

101
106
103
123
112
100
108
106
113

101
104
102
131
119
108
111
110
117

100
105
103
140
123
113
119
112
116

99
105
103
148
123
111
126
110
117

98
(4)
105
(154)
(128)
(118)
(132)
(4)
(119)

87
83

95
89

97
92

98
95

97
94

95
92

98
98

100
100

100
100

98
99

98
102

95
100

95
99

95
100

94
100

95
(4)

88

99
107
72
75

96
111

93
106

86

86

92
102
91

83

85

86

93
100
94
90

99
101
97
97

100
100
100
100

103
98
100
103

100
91
98
102

103
91
98
103

108
92
100
109

111
99
102
111

116
109
103
109

116
114
101
110

(4)
(4)
(4)
(4)

88

90

92

88

88

92
78

91
81

94
91
85

91
99
98
92

100
100
100
100

100
90
104
103

100

82
93
81

86

72

76
72
96
78

102
98

103
89
105
100

97
94
116
113

92
101
125
118

91
107
129
126

91
114
129
134

94
(119)
(135)
(139)

88

99

96

93

92

93

99

100

103

100

103

112

117

122

122

(4)

86

109
62
70

86

B a s is 6

All employees:
Canada___________________
France____________________
Germany _ _______________
Netherlands_______________
Wage earners:
Germany (F.R.)___________

68

54
86

1 Preliminary. Figures in parentheses are estimates based on
sources o f current production, wage, and employment data that
differ from the sources used for earlier years.
2 Based on Federal Reserve Board index o f manufacturing pro­
duction.
8 Based on estimates o f deflated gross national product originating
in manufacturing.
4 Not available.

4




19651

C u r r e n c y B a s is

All employees:
United States:
Series A 2_____________
Series B *_ _
______
Canada______________ _____
France..... ........... ......... .........
Germany (F.R.)___________
Japan_____________________
Netherlands----------------------Sweden 6 _________________
United Kingdom__________
Production workers:
United States:
Series A 2 -----------------Series B *_____________
Wage earners:
Germany (F.R.)----------------Italy------------------ -------------Sweden 6__________________
United Kingdom---------------U.S.

1950

86

5 Manufacturing and mining.
6 Adjusted for changes in the official or commercial exchange
rate. Until 1961, the Canadian dollar had no par value and was
allowed to fluctuate freely in international exchange markets. Ad­
justments for France are based upon changes that occurred in 1957
and 1958. Adjustments for Germany and the Netherlands are based
upon changes in par value that occurred in March 1961.

Exchange Revaluations

T able 2.

P ercent C hange in M anufacturing P ro­
A ggregate L abor Compensation ,1 and
U nit L abor Cost in N ine Countries, A nnual
A verages, 1950-57 and 1957-64
duction,

In relating changes in unit labor cost to in­
ternational commercial competition, it is neces­
sary to take account of changes in internation­
al exchange rates. France executed sizable
devaluations in 1957 and 1958; Germany and
the Netherlands revalued their currencies up­
ward by 5 percent in 1961; and Canada set an
official exchange rate in 1961 which was
significantly below the value that had prevailed
under the fluctuating exchange system pre­
viously operating. Adjustments have been
made in the unit labor cost calculations for
these four countries to reflect changes in the
commercial exchange rate or par value of their
currencies. The adjusted figures are shown in
table 1 and chart 2. Where revaluations oc­
curred during the middle of a calendar year,
the old and new rates have been prorated into
an average rate for the year without allowance
for any time lag. No adjustments have been
made for fluctuations in currency values with­
in the limits of 0.75 percent on either side of
the par value, generally permitted under Inter­
national Monetary Fund trading regulations.
The effects of currency valuation adjust­
ments can be seen clearly in the Canadian ex­
perience. When Canadian 1964 unit labor cost
is measured in U.S. dollars— that is, adjusted
for the exchange devaluation— it is 9 percent
below the 1957 level, but it runs 3 percent
above the 1957 level when measured in Cana­
dian dollars. For France, after taking account
of currency devaluations, unit labor cost in­
creased by only 14 percent since 1957, as com­
pared to a 48-percent increase when measured
in francs. In Germany and the Netherlands, on
the other hand, the cost increases are augment­
ed when the 1961 revaluations are applied.
The situation in France from 1950 to 1957
presents a special analytical problem. The legal
exchange rate was held at 350 francs to the
dollar, but the effective commercial rate often
differed from this figure because of an elabo­
rate system of import charges and export in­
centives. This situation existed, with frequent
regulatory changes in detail, from the early
1950’s until the 1957 devaluation. In the in­
dexes shown here, no attempt has been made to
adjust the official rate to a more realistic aver-




1950-57
Country

Pro­
duc­
tion

All employees:
United States:
4.0
Series A ------------3.1
Series B________
4.4
Canada____________
France______________
5.3
Germany (F.R .)_____ 11.8
Japan_______________ 17.2
6.3
Netherlands_________
2.9
Sweden 2
____________
3.4
United Kingdom____
Production workers:
United States:
4.0
Series A________
3.1
Series B________
Wage earners:
Germany (F .R .)_____ 11.8
8.5
Italy-----------------------Sweden2 __________ !_
2.9
3.4
United Kingdom____
Adjusted for currency re­
valuations:
Canada, all employees
France, all employees.
Germany:

1957-64

Labor
com­
pen­
sation

Unit
labor
cost

Pro­
duc­
tion

Labor
com­
pen­
sation

6.7
6.7
7.4
14.2
13.3
16.1
10.5
9.9
8.6

2.6
3.5
2.9
8.4
1.3
-1 .0
4.0
6.8
5.0

4.6
3.7
4.0
5.8
8.3
15.3
6.4
6.9
3.5

4.3
4.3
4.4
11.6
12.0
17.2
10.0
8.8
6.1

-0 .3
.6
.3
5.5
3.4
1.6
3.4
1.8
2.4

5.4
5.4

1.3
2.2

4.6
3.7

3.6
3.6

-1 .0
- .1

12.8
6.9
9.5
8.5

.9
-1 .5
6.4
4.9

8.3
9.5
6.9
3.5

11.0
11.7
7.3
5.2

2.4
2.0
.4
1.6

A ll e m p l o y e e s .

Wage earners_
_
Netherlands, all em­
ployees___________

Unit
labor
cost

4.4
7.9

-1 .7
2.8

1.3
.9

4.3
3.4

4.0

4.5

1 Aggregate labor compensation refers to total payments to labor
for wages and salaries, social insurance, and voluntary supplements.
2 Manufacturing and mining.
N ote: Rates o f change are computed from the least squares trend
o f the logarithms o f the index numbers.

age commercial rate. Nor has an attempt been
made to adjust the rate for the British pound
for the temporary import surtax that was in­
troduced in October 1964.
Growth in Manufacturing

Since unit labor cost is the ratio of labor ex­
penditure to production, trends in unit labor
costs may be analyzed in terms of the trends in
labor expenditure and production, which are
the numerator and denominator of the frac­
tion. These data are set forth, in table 2, as
annual rates of change for the two 7-year peri­
ods considered previously. In general, the
United States has shown more moderate per­
cent increases than other countries in total
manufacturing labor expenditure and in total
manufacturing production. Japan, Italy, and
Germany have shown the most rapid increases
in production and the most rapid increases in
labor expenditure. In the earlier of the two pe­
riods, these countries were still replacing pro­
duction facilities destroyed during World War
5

C hart 2.

Indexes of Unit Labor Cost in N ine C ountries, 1 9 5 0 -6 5
1 9 5 7 = 1 0 0 (Sem ilogarithm ic scale)

LEGEND

All e m p lo y e e s
Productio n w orkers
A dju sted f o r c u r r e n c y r e v a lu a t io n s

Index

6




Index

C h a rt 2.

INDEXES OF U N IT LABOR COST IN N IN E C O U N T R IE S ,

Index

Index

I ndex

Continued

I ndex

I ndex

1950-65 -

Index




7

II, but the continuation of the high industrial
growth rates during 1957-64 was impressive.
The most outstanding growth has occurred in
Japan, where manufacturing production has
more than quadrupled since 1953.
There is no clear-cut relationship between
growth in manufacturing and control of unit
labor cost. The countries which have shown the
lowest rate of increase in unit labor cost are
the United States and Canada, which had slow
growth rates, and Japan, which had the high­
est growth rate.
Hourly Labor Cost

Another way to measure unit labor cost is to
calculate the ratio of labor compensation per
man-hour to output per man-hour. As long as
identical hours data are reflected in the two de­
nominators, this approach will yield the same
result as a measurement based on the ratio of
total labor expenditure to total output.
The total man-hours of labor figure consti­
tutes a third aggregate for analysis; this figure
makes it possible to determine other important
ratios besides unit labor cost. When computed
from aggregates, the ratios may be expressed
as follows:
(l)
Total compensation
Total output

Compensation per unit of
output
Unit labor cost

(2)
Total compensation
Total man-hours

Compensation per man-hour
Hourly labor cost

(3)

Total output
Total man-hours

= Labor productivity
= Output per man-hour

(4)

Total man-hours
Total output

= Man-hours per unit of
output
= Unit man-hours

Man-hours are not measured in a uniform
manner in all countries. In the United States
and certain other countries, the principal hours
data represent hours for which pay is given, or
“ paid hours.” Elsewhere, hours data represent
hours actually spent at the workplace, or
8




“ hours worked.” An additional difficulty in es­
timating total man-hours is that salaried em­
ployees are usually compensated on a weekly or
monthly basis, and many countries do not col­
lect hours data for this employee class. Pub­
lished or estimated data on total hours are pre­
sented in the appendix tables to this bulletin,
with an indication of the hours definition used
in each country. Trends in hourly labor cost
are shown in index form in table 3.
The United States is the only country listed
that did not at least double its average hourly
compensation in manufacturing between 1950
and 1964. The U.S. increase was 94 percent
over the 14 years, compared to 102 percent in
Canada, 144 percent in the United Kingdom,
169 percent in Italy, and over 200 percent in
France, Germany, Japan, and Sweden.
The relative rise from 1950 to 1957 was
greater than from 1957 to 1964 in most coun­
tries. In the first 7 years, average hourly com­
pensation in the United States rose 52 percent,
but in the latter 7 years, by only 28 percent. In
each period, the U.S. rise was about the lowest
among all countries.
In spite of this slower rise, U.S. hourly labor
cost is still the highest of any nation. The
differences in the level of hourly compensation
from one country to another are more difficult
to analyze than the differences in trend. Com­
pensation is paid in the currency of the indi­
vidual country and is ordinarily spent within
that country. From the welfare or benefit view­
point, compensation must be measured in
terms of its purchasing power within the
country, and that is not attempted in this
bulletin.
From the viewpoint of international trade,
unit labor cost converted into U.S. dollars at
the commercial or official rates of exchange is
more meaningful than hourly labor cost.5 Nev­
ertheless, there are circumstances under which
the comparison of hourly labor cost converted
to U.S. dollars is meaningful. The following
tabulation shows average hourly compensation
in each country relative to the United States
for all manufacturing in 1950, 1957, and 1964.
The figures are based on conversions at the
5 Shelton and Chandler, “ The Role o f Labor Cost in Foreign
Trade,” op. cit.

official rates of exchange during the years
given.

considerably, but would still leave all of them
below the U.S. level. Such an adjustment for
each of the 3 years would also reduce the per­
centage increase from 1950 to 1964 for most
countries, because the consumer price index for
each of these countries has risen more rapidly
than that of the United States.

Relative o f average hourly
compensation in manufacturing
(U.S. = 100)
1950

United States
Canada
France _
Germany (F.R.)
Italy 3
Japan
Sweden
United Kingdom

.

-

.

_

1957

196U

100
62
121
22
20
*7
33
26

100
75
24
25
20
8
42
28

100
66
(226)
39
29
(213)
(254)
33

Output Per Man-Hour

1 1951.
2 Estimate.
8 Data for wage earners, compared to U.S. production workers.

Although average hourly compensation in
the other countries has risen at a more rapid
rate than in the United States, the table shows
that the level of compensation in all of the
other countries is still lower than in the United
States. Average compensation in Canada has
generally been about one-third below the U.S.
level. (The relatively high Canadian level in
1957 was due almost entirely to the peak ex­
change value of the Canadian dollar during
that year.) The Swedish level reached an esti­
mated 54 percent of the U.S. level by 1964, and
the level in the other countries was less than 40
percent of the U.S. level in all years.
Adjustment of the hourly compensation esti­
mates for the lower prices of consumer goods
and services abroad would raise some of the
percentages (in terms of purchasing power)
6 The U.S. data are based on published estimates o f output origi­
nating in manufacturing. The estimates are currently being revised
by the U.S. Department o f Commerce’s Office o f Business Econom­
ics.

T able 3.

Trends in output per man-hour in manufac­
turing, the third important ratio, are shown in
table 4. The data show that output per man­
hour in manufacturing increased by 40 percent
in the United States 6 and 45 percent in the
United Kingdom. The increases in Canada and
France were about 50 percent in 14 years, and
the increase in Sweden appears to have been
slightly higher. In the Netherlands, output per
man-hour doubled, and in Germany, Italy, and
Japan, it rose well over 100 percent between
1950 and 1964.
The three countries with the greatest in­
crease in indexes of output per man-hour were
those countries that suffered the heaviest dam­
age to manufacturing plants and equipment
during World War II. Their rapid increase can
be explained in part by the abnormally low lev­
els of output that prevailed as late as 1950,
when these countries were still restoring their
economies. Many of their industries were re­
built with newer and more efficient equipment
than that of other industrial countries.
Economically, there is a relationship be­
tween the rate of productivity gain and

I ndexes of A verage H ourly L abor Cost of W age and Salary E arners in Manufacturing in N ine
Countries, 1950-64
[1957=1003
Country

All employees:
United S tates________ __________
Canada__________________________
France____________________________
Germany (F.R.)___________________
Japan__________________ _________
Netherlands ______________________
Sweden 2__________________________
United Kingdom__________________
Production workers:
United States______________________
Wage earners:
Germany (F.R.)___________________
Italy______________________________
Sweden 2__________________________
United Kingdom_________________
1 Not available.




1950

1951

1952

1953

1954

1955

1956

1957

1958

1959

1960

1961

1962

1963

1964

66
63
43
58
63
54
52
61

73
70
61
67
66
61
62
66

78
77
71
72
75
64
73
73

82
82
75
75
82
67
77
77

86
86
79
77
88
74
81
81

89
89
85
82
93
81
87
87

94
94
91
90
97
90
99
94

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

104
106
121
109
103
104
106
106

108
109
131
115
111
107
111
111

112
115
141
129
123
118
119
119

116
116
147
143
142
136
128
127

120
120
160
162
163
152
140
133

124
123
175
174
181
166
151
139

67

75

79

84

86

89

94

100

103

106

111

113

117

121

125

58
67
51
60

67
73
61
65

71
79
73
71

74
82
77
77

77
85
81
81

82
90
86
87

90
97
95
95

100
100
100
100

109
105
106
106

115
107
110
110

129
112
117
118

144
120
126
126

162
138
137
131

176
160
148
136

192
180
0)
147

128
127
191
189
0)
191
(0
149

2 Manufacturing and mining.

9

T able 4.

I ndexes of Output per M a n - hour in Manufacturing in N ine Countries, 1950-64

Country
All employees:
United States:
Series B 1 .
.
_ __ __
Canada __ _
_
___
France __ _
_ _ _____
Germany (F.R.)_
__
_____
Japan. _________ ____ _ _ _ _ _
Netherlands ____________________
Sweden *_ ____ __________ _______
United Kingdom _ _______________
Production workers:
United States:
Series B 1 _____ _
__
Wage earners:
Germany (F.R.)________
___
ltaly__ ---------- _ _ _ --------_ _
Sweden s __________ _____ _
_
United Kingdom _ ______ _________

[1957=100]

1950

1951

1952

1953

1954

1955

1956

1957

1958

1959

1960

1961

1962

1963

87
82
86
68
57
75
86
89

89
84
91
70
62
78
87
90

90
86
93
77
66
79
88
88

92
89
93
81
80
86
91
91

93
92
96
85
84
91
91
96

99
98
97
90
88
96
94
99

97
100
99
93
92
98
98
98

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

101
104
111
105
97
100
104
102

106
109
117
113
112
109
110
107

106
111
122
122
126
118
117
113

109
114
120
128
143
125
121
112

115
117
122
136
150
137
127
114

118
120
126
142
160
139
135
120

81

84

86

88

91

96

96

100

104

107

109

113

118

122

126

66
61
83
86

68
69
84
87

75
71
85
86

80
77
89
90

83
83
89
94

89
91
92
97

92
96
98
97

100
100
100
100

106
107
105
103

115
117
112
108

125
123
119
115

133
129
126
116

143
139
134
118

152
147
144
125

165
156
(2
)
133

1 Based on estimates o f gross national product originating in
manufacturing, published by the U.S. Department of Commerce,
Office o f Business Economics.

changes in unit labor cost. In Japan, Germany,
and Italy, sizable wage increases have been ac­
companied by sizable productivity gains, re­
sulting in relatively stable labor costs. In
the United Kingdom and Sweden, productivity
gains have not kept pace with wage increases,
and unit labor costs have risen appreciably.
But the experience of the United States and
Canada stands out in contrast. Percentage in­
creases in productivity and hourly wages have
been low in the United States and Canada rela­
tive to the other countries; therefore, unit la­
bor cost has remained comparatively stable.
Other economic factors have clearly been im­
portant in North America; among them are the
relatively high rate of unemployment and the
already high level of industrial wages com­
pared with other countries.
Further Research

Further study is needed to develop compari­
sons of unit labor cost in absolute terms to
supplement the trend comparisons presented in
this bulletin. Such comparisons must be made
industry by industry, and problems of data
comparability are great.
Two other research needs deserve mention.
First, trend data for individual industries and
industry groups need to be prepared, since
technological change and the setting of wage
patterns, through collective bargaining and
other means, take place largely by industry.
Research on the comparative performance of
10




1964

122
124
129
153
(2
)
151
(2
)
128

2 Not available,
3 Manufacturing and mining.

industries heavily involved in foreign trade
and of industries not directly affected by trade
would be particularly useful in appraising U.S.
trade prospects and balance of payments per­
formance, and it would also help in appraising
the effect of foreign competition on domestic
production.
Second, there are important analytical needs.
Careful examination of labor cost and produc­
tivity trends in relation to foreign trade should
be attempted, and the relationship to employ­
ment, prices, and growth might also yield use­
ful results. The relationship to trade would be
clearer if data on unit nonlabor (especially
material) costs were available; but it must al­
ways be kept in mind that reasons other than
cost frequently influence the flow of trade.7
Furthermore, time series analysis for the dec­
ade of the 1950’s must be done with discrimi­
nation because of drastic changes in nontariff
trade barriers, abnormal market conditions
(price controls and rationing) in many coun­
tries, and lack of currency convertibility.
Methods and Sources

Comparability of Data. The reliability of unit

labor cost estimates depends, of course, on the
comparability and reliability of the basic out­
put and compensation data. The degree of com­
parability achieved in the present estimates is
considered to be high, although not ideal.
7 Shelton and Chandler, “ The Role of Labor Cost in Foreign
T rade/' op. cit.

In developing the present estimates, the Bu­
reau of Labor Statistics has tried to achieve a
uniform basis of measurement among the
countries.1 Data used by the Governments in
8
preparing their national economic accounts
have been applied, at least in part, to the unit
labor cost estimates for each country. Aggre­
gate labor expenditure data for manufactur­
ing, used in preparing national accounts, have
been obtained for France, Germany (Federal
Republic), Italy, and the United Kingdom, as
well as the United States. These calculations
offer a more uniform approach to the measure­
ment of unit labor cost than can be achieved
through the use of measures such as productiv­
ity indexes and hourly labor expenditure in­
dexes, since many of the countries have moved
toward standard methodology in preparing
their national accounts.
An examination of several algebraic identi­
ties may be useful in illustrating the interrela­
tionships among the data used in the calcula­
tion of unit labor cost and to point out the
assumption implicit when unit labor cost is
used as an indicator of price changes.
Let us denote the following:
ULC = Unit labor cost in manufacturing
V

= Value of output originating in manu­
facturing

Q

= Real output originating in manufacturing

E

= Labor compensation

R

P

=

in manufacturing

Other factor returns in manufacturing.
The sum of capital consumption allow­
ances, indirect business taxes, and profittype income

= Implicit price deflator for manufacturing

2pq

=

Sum of price times quantity for individ­
ual products

L

=

Hours of work of all employees in manu­
facturing

t

= Current time period

o

= Base time period

I

=

Input from other sectors

0

=

Outputs of manufacturing not adjusted
for input changes

(1) Vt

= Et + Rt = Soptqt — 2iptqt




(2) Qt
(3) Pt

= 2op0 — 2ip0qt
qt
Vt
Qt

(4) ULC = —
Qt

Et + Rt
Qt
Et/Lt
Qt/Lt

2optqt — Siptqt
2op0qt — Sip0
qt
Et
2op0 — 2ip0qt
qt

The initial equation states the national ac­
counting equality between the income and the
product accounts, and separates the product
account between manufacturing gross output
and inputs or purchases from other sectors.
The income side is not factorable into price
and quantity elements. The second equation
substitutes base period prices for current
prices in the product account. This is calculat­
ed by deflating output and purchases separate­
ly, the difference being real output originating
in manufacturing, in constant value. The third
equation shows the calculation of the implicit
price deflator, or the price change occurring
within the manufacturing sector, using both
the product and the income side of the ac­
counts. The last equation presents unit labor
cost as a ratio of labor compensation to output
and shows the equality of this ratio to the ratio
of compensation per man-hour to output per
man-hour.
There remain some inadequacies or incon­
sistencies in the available data. To name a few,
manufacturing is not defined in exactly the
same way in each country; total labor expendi­
ture may not apply to exactly the same types
of labor payment in each country; benchmarks
and weighting systems used in measuring pro­
duction vary widely; the data collection sys­
tems that underlie the measures of production,
hours, and compensation also vary widely; and
the coverage of output and expenditure data
may not always match.
Some of these possible differences are not
considered significant. There is an internation­
ally accepted definition of manufacturing,9 and
most countries have adapted their systems to
this definition with only slight variation. For
8 The rough estimates for 1965 must he excepted. These estimates
are based on available current sources that may be entirely
different from the sources for prior years.
9 International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic
Activities (New York, United Nations, 1958), Statistical Papers,
Series M, No. 4 Rev. 1.

11

measurement of all manufacturing trends, the
classification of borderline activities as either
within or outside of manufacturing has no
appreciable effect, provided that a consistent
classification is followed.1 Likewise, the inclu­
0
sion or exclusion of certain minor fringe
benefits from labor compensation is unlikely to
affect cost trends.
Other differences may influence the trends
more significantly, particularly the measure­
ment of manufacturing production, which has
always been a difficult task. Several countries,
including the United States, have made sub­
stantial revisions in their production estimates
and are expected to make more. Uniform meth­
ods of production measurement between coun­
tries have not been fully achieved. Also,
differences in composition of manufacturing
output (the product mix) are embodied in the
production indexes. Any comparisons of pro­
duction would be somewhat different if the
product outputs of one country were combined
using the value weights of the United States
or any other country.
Descriptions of the series used for each
country are contained in the following sections.
The original source data and index derivations
are presented in appendix tables for each
country.
The measurement of labor compensation
refers only to wage and salary earners, not to
the implicit labor earnings of proprietors or
unpaid family workers engaged in manufactur­
ing production. In most countries, the number
of proprietors engaged in manufacturing is
very small in proportion to the paid work
force, but in a few cases, notably Italy, Japan,
and France, they constitute a significant pro­
portion. Examination of the production data
leads to the conclusion, however, that the con­
tribution of proprietors to the measured output
is largely excluded. For example, several coun­
tries exclude handicrafts from manufacturing
production. Also, certain industries that are
characterized by small entrepreneurs, such as
clothing, printing and publishing, and miscella­
neous manufactures, are not included in the
production surveys. In addition, several coun­
tries survey only those establishments with at
least a given number of employees. It is con­
12




cluded that the omission of proprietors’ com­
pensation from the estimates of labor compen­
sation does not significantly alter the trend
estimates.
United States

Output. Two measures of manufacturing out­

put are available for use in calculating unit
labor cost in the United States. One series,
designated as Series A, is the index of
manufacturing production published by the
Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve
System (FR B ). The other, Series B, is the
measure of gross product originating in manu­
facturing, published by the U.S. Department of
Commerce’s Office of Business Economics
(OBE).
Series B, based on the U.S. national ac­
counts, is preferred for the calculation of unit
labor cost, since it is entirely consistent with
the compensation data used in the calculations.
However, as some of the other countries do not
publish data on real gross national product
originating in manufacturing, it has been
necessary to use quantity indexes or other out­
put measures for them. For methodological
comparability with these countries, U.S. data
based on Series A have been included as an al­
ternative.
Series B output is defined, from the income
side of the national accounts, as the sum of em­
ployee compensation, indirect business taxes,
capital consumption allowances, and profit-type
income. Since these components are not fac­
torable into quantity and unit price, estimates
of constant-dollar value added are obtained by
deflating output and purchases separately.
Current-dollar value added is then divided by
the constant-dollar value added to obtain a
manufacturing price index. This price index is
then used to deflate the current-dollar gross
product estimates arrived at through the in­
come method.
The Federal Reserve Board index of manu­
facturing production (Series A) is computed
as a base-weighted arithmetic average. The
basic data are indicators of output which are
10 The indexes for Sweden cover manufacturing and mining com­
bined.

developed from quantities of major products
shipped, quantities of major materials con­
sumed in production, value of goods shipped
with adjustment for price changes, or the
number of production-worker man-hours ad­
justed for changes in productivity. The
weights assigned to individual products within
an industry are based upon the value of ship­
ments of the products during 1957. The
weights assigned to industries 1 in order to
1
combine them into an index of all manufactur­
ing are based upon 1957 value added at factor
cost.
Compensation. All-employee compensation data
are those reported in the national accounts.
Compensation covers wages and salaries,
which include executive compensation, commis­
sions, tips, bonuses, and payments in kind;
supplements to wages and salaries, which in­
clude employer contributions for social insur­
ance, private pension, health, and welfare
funds; compensation for injuries; directors’
fees; pay for military reserve duty; and a few
other items of minor importance. The compen­
sation data for wage earners are based upon
the same source. Wages have been separated
from the total wage and salary bill, by the
Office of Business Economics, for the 1947-61
period, and this resulting figure has been up­
dated by the Bureau of Labor Statistics
through 1964. A division of supplementary la­
bor income between wage and salaried em­
ployees is not made in the national accounts
data, and it has been necessary to estimate this
break. It is estimated that the proportion of
supplements to wages alone is the same as the
proportion of supplements to total wages and
salaries, or, supplementary income as a percent
of earnings is the same for both wage and sala­
ry earners. It has been necessary to make this
1 An industry, in this case, means a four-digit industry according
1
to the Standard Industrial Classification Manual, prepared by the
U.S. Bureau o f the Budget.
12 In June 1966, the DBS published the first o f a series o f revisions
to the index of industrial production, covering the period 1949
through 1965. The new series for manufacturing shows significant
differences from the previous series, owing mainly to the incor­
poration o f more recent (1959) benchmark levels. The revised
index, together with revised unit labor cost and output per man­
hour indexes, is shown in appendix table 2C.




same assumption for the three other countries
(Federal Republic of Germany, Sweden, the
United Kingdom) for which both wage-earner
and all-employee cost indexes are estimated.
Hours and Employment. The hours data are

based on the monthly Bureau of Labor Statis­
tics survey of manufacturing establishments,
covering average weekly hours of production
workers, plus an estimate of hours of nonpro­
duction employees. The man-hours of produc­
tion workers include, in addition to hours ac­
tually at work, those hours paid for holidays
and vacations, and for sick leave when pay was
received directly from the firm. The hours of
nonproduction employees are based on trends
derived from BLS fringe benefit studies and
other data.
The employment figures are also obtained
from the BLS establishment survey. The data
report total employment and productionworker employment separately, excluding pro­
prietors, the self-employed, and unpaid family
workers.
Canada

Output. Information on industrial production

in Canada is prepared by the Dominion Bureau
of Statistics (DBS). The DBS publishes a
quantity index of manufacturing production
based on weights from the Canadian 1949 in­
terindustry flow table.1 The weights represent
1
2
gross domestic product valuations for 31 major
manufacturing categories and census value
added for more detailed product classes. The
indexes are constructed from data on net out­
put, where possible; otherwise, they are com­
piled from data on gross output, deflated value,
materials consumed, or man-hours.
Compensation. Labor income is reported in the

Canadian national accounts, covering all com­
pensation to Canadian wage earners and sala­
ried employees. It excludes earnings of self-em­
ployed individuals or partners. Wages and
salaries, including income in kind, are estimat­
ed on a gross basis, that is, before tax deduc­
tions, contributions to unemployment insur­
ance,
etc.
Bonuses,
commissions,
and
13

retroactive wage increases are included for the
year in which they are paid.
Supplementary labor income consists of
other expenditures such as employers' con­
tributions to social security, employee welfare
funds, unemployment insurance, and work­
men's compensation. They are estimated from
a special survey of supplementary income.
Hours and Employment. Hours data for wage

earners are based on a monthly survey of em­
ployment and payrolls for all establishments
with 15 employees or more. The statistics
represent hours paid for, including overtime
hours actually worked. The estimated hours
for salaried employees are based on an as­
sumed 40-hour workweek during each year.
Employment data have been estimated on
the basis of the monthly establishment survey
and the annual census of manufactures. The
establishment survey gives a consistent series
of indexes of employment for the entire
1950-64 period, while the census of manufac­
tures shows the actual number of employees
for the postwar years. The census of manufac­
tures data reflect revisions in the Standard In­
dustrial Classification and implementation of a
new definition for the reporting unit— the es­
tablishment.
The two series have been combined by set­
ting the index of employment equal to the cen­
sus employment in 1949 and deriving a consist­
ent series of actual numbers of persons
employed. The figures for the derived series
closely parallel the results from the census
data except for the 1960-64 period, where the
major adjustments have occurred. The census
data also contain a breakdown of employment
between wage and salary earners. These
figures have been extrapolated to form consist­
ent separate wage and salary employment
figures.
Franc©

Output. French output data show constant-val­

ue gross domestic product in manufacturing
at 1959 market prices. Conceptually, the data
are similar to those in the United States and
other countries employing a national accounts14




based output series. A variety of sources are
used to value production and intermediate con­
sumption by industry, the main sources being
industry data on the value of quantities pro­
duced and value of deliveries by branch of ac­
tivity and purchaser; fiscal statistics, which
provide estimates of the turnover of enter­
prises; information on prices and costs from
public administrative agencies; and technical
studies prepared by the Institut National de la
Statistique et des Etudes Economiques (INSEE). The results are then reconciled with the
estimates of final expenditure within the
framework of an input-output table to obtain a
consistent measure of constant-value gross
product by industry.
Compensation. Labor compensation is estimat­

ed from administrative statistics arising from
the 5-percent payroll tax which each French
employer is required to pay annually to the
Government. The INSEE annually calculates
and publishes data based upon a structured
sample of the tax declarations. Compensation
comprises gross wages and salaries, including
contributions to social insurance and pensions,
and payments in kind to all employees who
have worked in the enterprise during the year.
The data for 1953 are estimates, because the
published data for that year excluded compen­
sation of employees in the Paris area. A linear
interpolation has been used for the estimate,
since 1953 compensation in the areas outside
Paris fell at about the midpoint between the
1952 and 1954 figures.
Hours and Employment. Average hours actual­

ly worked by wage-and-salary earners in
manufacturing are reported by the INSEE and
refer to the last full workweek in each quarter.
The data are based on hours worked by em­
ployees in all establishments having 50 em­
ployees or more and about one-half of the es­
tablishments with 10 to 50 employees.
The employment series is developed from
INSEE studies on compensation, based on data
arising from the 5-percent payroll tax. Two
series are presented, neither of which is ade­
quate in itself: (1) actual yearend employment
and (2) the number of employees who worked

in the industry during any part of the year. A
relationship between the two series, the "em­
ployment stability coefficient,” shows the ratio
of the yearend employment to the total em­
ployees who worked during the year. The aver­
age for manufacturing industry from 1951 to
1963 was about 65 percent. The series has been
developed, therefore, by assuming that the an­
nual average employment is 65 percent of the
total number employed at any time during the
year. The series based on a 65-percent employ­
ment stability coefficient coincides closely with
other employment estimates, while remaining
consistent with the aggregate data on output
and compensation.
Federal Republic o f Germany 13

Output. German manufacturing production
data show constant-value gross product at 1958
market prices. The definition is comparable to
that of the United States and other countries
using a national accounts output series. The
gross output data are obtained from adminis­
trative statistics arising from turnover taxes,
supplemented by data from investigations of
cost structures. The turnover tax data are
available each year, but cost structure infor­
mation is obtained at intervals of several years
only. A number of corrections are made in the
estimates of gross output to arrive at figures
on manufacturing gross product; these include
a correction for changes in stocks, using corpo­
rate balance sheets and special surveys. In ad­
dition to the gross output data, inputs from
outside the manufacturing sector and informa­
tion on indirect business taxes and deprecia­
tion are needed. A detailed survey of inputs,
depreciation, and indirect taxes was made in
1950, and the ratios obtained from this survey
have been supplied to subsequent years. Addi­
tional data obtained for 1954 and 1958 have
been used to check and revise these ratios.
Compensation. Data on wages and salaries in
manufacturing are prepared and published an­
nually by the Federal Statistical Office. All es­
tablishments with 10 employees or more are
surveyed, covering about 98 percent of manu­
facturing industry. Provisions in the wage bill




and the salary bill include, in addition to direct
earnings, pay for time not worked and bo­
nuses, but exclude employers' obligatory con­
tributions for social insurance. Data on em­
ployers' contributions to social security for the
entire economy, however, are published. The
relationship of employer social insurance con­
tributions to the total economy wage-and-salary bill has been calculated, and this propor­
tion applied to manufacturing industry. There
are two reasons why any error from this
procedure should be small: First, the wageand-salary bill in manufacturing is a substan­
tial portion of the bill for the total economy;
and second, the ratio of employers' social secu­
rity contributions to wages and salaries over
the 1950-64 period has shown an increase only
from 10.7 percent in 1950 to 11.7 percent in
1964 (appendix table 4 -A ). The wage-earner
total compensation bill has been calculated by
using this same percentage and applying it to
the wage bill.
Hours and Employment. The hours data for

wage earners, including apprentices, are pre­
pared by the Federal Statistical Office and
refer to hours actually worked. The data are
obtained from the same survey that provided
the cost and employment information used
here in the calculation of unit labor cost. Hours
data for salaried employees have been estimat­
ed by assuming a straight 40-hour workweek
during the entire period.
Employment information covers all wage and
salary earners, including apprentices. The
data exclude homeworkers, but the omission
should be of minor significance since 98 per­
cent of all employees in industry are covered
by the survey. Employment statistics showing
data separately for wage earners and all other
employees are also published by the Federal
Statistical Office.
Italy

Output. Data on Italian manufacturing output

refer to constant-value gross domestic product
at factor cost, taken from national accounts data
published by the Istituto Centrale di Statis1 Data for Germany include the Saar and West Berlin beginning
3
in 1960. For prior years, these two areas are excluded.

15

tica (1STA T ). The data are based mainly on a
special survey of value added in large and me­
dium-size enterprises; they also include esti­
mates for smaller enterprises and handicraft
activities. The output data are expressed in
1958 lire. Adjustments are made by the ISTAT
to include subsidies and exclude banking, in­
surance, and government services. Annual out­
put estimates at constant prices are obtained
by relating base-year prices or value to quan­
tity indexes for each industry and weighting
them according to value added in the base peri­
od.
Compensation, Hours, and Employment. Com­

pensation refers to total remuneration of wage
earners, including overtime, cost-of-living al­
lowances, bonuses, premiums for nightwork,
payments for holidays and vacations, family
allowances, and payments in kind. Employer
contributions for social insurance are not re­
ported. The data are obtained from payrolls of
establishments included in a monthly survey
conducted by the Ministry of Labor. Establish­
ments are surveyed which employ 10 wage
earners or more in 27 branches of manufac­
turing, and all establishments are surveyed in
13 branches. In 1962, approximately 2,051,000
workers were covered.
Information on hours and employment of
wage earners, including apprentices, is ob­
tained from the same establishments that sub­
mit payroll data. The hours data refer to hours
actually worked, including overtime.
Japan

Output. Data on constant-value gross product
in manufacturing are not yet available for Ja­
pan. Therefore, a quantity index, published by
the Bureau of Statistics, Office of the Prime
Minister, has been used as a measure of output
in manufacturing. The index has been periodi­
cally revised to incorporate later benchmarks.
The 1950-52 data are based on 1950 weights,
the 1953-57 on 1955 weights, and the 1958-64
on 1960 weights. Industry data are weighted
by either value added at factor cost or gross
value of output during the benchmark year.
Value added has been derived from the census

16




of manufactures for privately owned establish­
ments with four or more employees. Weights
for publicly owned establishments and for es­
tablishments having fewer than four em­
ployees are estimated from gross value in the
base year. Data on the quantity of output, pre­
pared for 332 commodities, relate to about 62
percent of value added in 1960. These commodi­
ties are then combined in major industry
groups and then into all manufacturing.
Compensation. Wages and salaries include bon­

uses, overtime allowances, and payments in
kind, in addition to contract earnings. The Bu­
reau of Statistics makes estimates of wages
and salaries by multiplying the number of em­
ployees in each industry by the average wage
or salary per employee. The number of em­
ployees is obtained from the latest census of
population and is extrapolated for later years
using the results of the monthly labor force
survey conducted by the Ministry of Labor.
The data on average wages or salaries per em­
ployee are obtained mainly from the Ministry
of Labor’s monthly wage survey, a sample sur­
vey in two parts, one covering workers in es­
tablishments with 30 employees or more, and
the other covering those with 5 to 29. Other
wage information is available from reports
compiled by the Tax Administration Agency,
the National Personnel Authority, and the
Ministry of Home Affairs.
Other labor income, consisting of compensa­
tion for company directors, employers’ con­
tributions to social insurance, allowances for
members of central and local legislative bodies,
and tips, are excluded from the compensation
figures. It appears, on the basis of a few Min­
istry of Labor estimates, that the proportion of
social insurance expenditures to direct wage
and salary expenditures has changed very little
during 1950-64.
Hours and Employment. Employment data are

published with the national accounts data on
compensation of employees. They refer to wage
and salary earners, exclusive of executive di­
rectors.
Hours data refer to actual hours worked by
all wage and salary earners in establishments

with 30 regular employees or more and are ob­
tained from the monthly labor survey. Tempo­
rary employees who have worked less than 18
days in the last 2 months, or less than 60 days
in the last 6 months, are omitted. Examination
of limited data on establishments with 5 to 29
employees shows that the omission of this
group does not significantly alter the trends
shown.
Netherlands

Output. The data on output refer to a quantity
index of production prepared by the Central
Bureau of Statistics and based on value-added
weights in 1949. Constant-value gross product
is not available for the manufacturing sector
separately. The output in manufacturing is the
aggregate of 481 individual series which are
based, in most cases, on the quantity of indi­
vidual commodities produced. Where measures
of this type are unavailable, the quantity of in­
dividual raw materials consumed or the
number of man-hours worked are utilized.
Compensation. Compensation refers to gross

compensation prior to deductions for wage
taxes and social security. In addition to wages
and salaries, compensation includes tips, com­
missions, and all supplementary monetary
benefits paid to employees, the monetary value
of payments in kind (such as free rent or free
food), and employers’ normal payments to so­
cial insurance institutions and pension funds.
Extra contributions to pension funds paid by
employers out of profits and Government con­
tributions to social security premiums are ex­
cluded. Salaries of company officials are includ­
ed, but not income from ownership of shares in
enterprises. Imputed wages or salaries of selfemployed persons are excluded, and household
members working in an enterprise owned by
the head of a household are not regarded as
employees unless a labor contract is expressly
concluded.

with the national accounts data on compensa­
tion. The term “ man-year” refers to 300 mandays of work during the year, irrespective of
the length of the workday. Two persons work­
ing 150 days each thus count as 1 man-year.
No data are available from the source to dis­
tinguish between wage and salary earners.
Data on hours of work refer to wage earners
and are obtained from a sample survey of
major industrial establishments. The hours
worked figures relate only to full-week workers
and include overtime hours, paid “ short ab­
sences” from work, and vacations. The data
prior to 1964 included hours worked by ap­
prentices and paid hours for traveltime be­
tween home and work. Under a revision of the
hours worked concept introduced in 1964, ap­
prentice hours and traveltime are no longer in­
cluded.
The hours and employment data are pre­
pared from data obtained in separate surveys,
and thus may not be consistent with each
other. Although data on salary earners’ hours
are not separately reported, it has been esti­
mated that working hours are about the same
for wage earners and salary earners in the
Netherlands.
Sweden

Output. National accounts data on gross output

in manufacturing are not published for Swe­
den. Instead, a base-weighted quantity index of
combined mining and manufacturing output,
prepared by the Central Bureau of Statistics,
has been used as the measure of output. The
indexes relate to all establishments with five or
more employees (including working proprie­
tors), and represent almost 100 percent of to­
tal mining and manufacturing output. The
weights used are based on census value added
in 1935. The final annual figures are computed
from the results of annual industrial censuses.
Indexes for postcensus years are averages of
adjusted monthly indexes based on value-added
weights in 1947.

Hours and Employment. Dutch employment

and hours data are prepared by the Central
Bureau of Statistics. The employment data
refer to man-years of work, and are consistent




Compensation. Most data on wages and sala­

ries in Sweden refer to establishments with
five or more employees. In addition to base
17

pay, the data include pay for time not worked,
overtime, family allowances, bonuses, and pay­
ments in kind.
Supplementary benefits, except those includ­
ed in the wage-and-salary bill, are not availa­
ble separately for the manufacturing sector.
Contributions by all employers for social insur­
ance amounted to about 7 percent of wages and
salaries in 1964, a ratio that has gradually
risen since the mid-1950’s. If a corresponding
rise in social insurance cost has occurred in
mining/manufacturing, the trend in unit labor
cost shown for Sweden is slightly understated.
Hours and Employment. Data on Swedish em­
ployment refer to wage and salary earners and
unpaid family workers, and are obtained from
the same source as the compensation data; i.e.,
direct returns from manufacturing establish­
ments to the Swedish Central Bureau of Sta­
tistics.
Hours data for wage earners are also ob­
tained from the manufacturing establishment
returns and refer to paid hours. Since informa­
tion for nonwage earners (salary earners and
unpaid family workers) are not available, it
has been necessary to assume that they work a
constant 40-hour workweek.
United Kingdom

Output. The principal measure of manufactur­

ing output in the United Kingdom is an index
of physical production prepared by the Central
Statistical Office. The weights used are propor­
tionate to value added in 1958. About fivesixths of the individual product indicators are
based on quantity data, and the remainder are
based on raw materials consumed or labor data.
The index is used in preparing estimates of
the constant-value gross domestic product for
the U.K. national accounts.
Compensation. The estimated wage-and-salary
bill includes cash earnings before deductions
for income tax or insurance contributions, plus
income in kind and directors’ fees, less ex­
penses 6f employment recognized for tax allow­

18




ances. These estimates are based on tax re­
turns reported by the Inland Revenue De­
partment, which provides separate data on
total wages and salaries in the manufacturing
sector. The distinction between wages and sala­
ries is based on the 1958 Census of Production
and Distribution, which also provides the data
to estimate wages and salaries by industry.
The estimates for 1959-64 are based upon
changes in the number of employees and in
wages and salaries, as reported in the Ministry
of Labour’s semiannual survey of wages and
annual survey of salaries.
Employer contributions are the sum of pay­
ments to national insurance; the data are ob­
tained from National Insurance and Industrial
Injuries Funds and private welfare plans. The
data on private welfare plans are obtained
from the Inland Revenue Department and the
annual report of the Life Offices Association.
Hours and Employment. Manufacturing em­

ployment data are published by the Central
Statistical Office in the National Income Blue
Book and are separately reported for wage
earners and salary earners. The data are not
entirely comparable with the compensation da­
ta, since the estimates of employment exclude
directors paid by fee only, whereas the com­
pensation data include directors’ fees. The ba­
sic data for estimating the number of employees
are obtained from the annual census of produc­
tion.
Hours of work for wage earners refer to act­
ual hours of work, including overtime, reported
by the Ministry of Labour. The data exclude all
time lost from any cause, but include those
hours not worked for which a guaranteed wage
is payable. The data refer only to male adults,
however, including apprentices and working
foremen. This group represented 3,155,000 em­
ployees in 1962, or about one-half of those em­
ployed in manufacturing. The data are ob­
tained from payrolls of all establishments with
10 employees or more and some smaller estab­
lishments.
Hours for salary earners have been estimat­
ed by assuming a straight 40-hour workweek
for such employees.

A ppendix T able 1A. UNITED STATES. B asic D ata on P roduction, L abor Compensation ,
E mployment , and H ours op W ork in Manufacturing , 1950-64
Gross product originating in
manufacturing, Series B

Year

Index of
manufacturing
production,
Series A
(1957-59=100)

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

1950_______________________
1951_______________________
1952________________________
1953________________________
1954_______________________
1955_ ____________________
1956_ ____________________
1957___ ____________________
1958_ _ ____________________
1959_______________________
1960_______________________
1961_ _____________________
1962________________________
1963 _ __________________
1964 _____________________

75.8
81.9
85.2
92.7
86.3
97.3
100.2
100.8
93.2
106.0
108.9
109.6
118.7
124.9
133.1

81.9
97.4
101.5
110.5
103.8
118.7
123.3
129.1
120.9
137.0
139.7
139.9
153.5
160.4
0)

92.6
102.0
105.0
111.9
103.8
116.7
116.4
117.8
109.7
121.8
122.0
122.0
134.1
138.5
0)

88.4
95.5
96.7
98.7
100.0
101.7
105.9
109.6
110.2
112.5
114.5
114.7
114.5
115.8
(0

49.393
58.277
62.960
69.881
66.077
72.252
77.706
80.644
76.701
84.720
87.411
87.469
94.174
98.042
102.999

3.142
4.141
4.431
4.928
5.012
5.727
6.379
7.209
7.025
8.193
8.892
9.094
10.211
10.930
11.8

6.36
7.11
7.04
7.05
7.59
7.93
8.21
8.94
9.16
9.67
10.17
10.40
10.84
11.14
11.46

36.783
43.233
45.952
50.904
46.458
51.011
53.972
55.187
51.046
56.298
57.444
56.304
60.884
63.554
67.050

Year

Aggregate
supplements
for production
workers
(billions of
dollars)
(9)

(10)

(ID

(12)

(13)

(14)

(15)

(16)

1950_______________________
1951_______________________
1952_______________________
1953_______________________
1954_______________________
1955_______________________
1956__ ____________________
1957_______________________
1958_______________________
1959_______________________
1960_______________________
1961________________________
1962_______________________
1963 ______________________
1964_______________________

2,339
3,074
3,235
3,589
3,526
4,045
4,431
4,934
4,676
5,444
5,842
5,856
6,600
7,080
7,684

52.535
62.418
67.391
74.809
71.089
77.979
84.085
87.853
83.726
92.913
96.303
96.563
104.385
108.972
114.8

39.122
46.307
49.187
54.493
49.984
55.056
58.403
60.121
55.722
61.742
63.286
62.160
67.484
70.633
74.734

15,241
16,393
16,632
17,549
16,314
16,882
17,243
17,174
15.945
16,675
16,796
16,326
16,853
16,995
17,259

12,523
13,368
13,359
14,055
12,817
13,288
13,436
13,189
11,997
12,603
12,586
12,083
12,488
12,555
12,769

40.5
40.6
40.7
40.5
39.6
40.7
40.4
39.8
39.2
40.3
39.7
39.8
40.4
40.5
40.7

32,069
34,546
35,115
36,904
33,685
35,617
36,165
35,605
32,687
34,837
34,717
33,768
35,178
35,538
36,223

26,373
28,223
28,273
29,600
26,393
28,123
28,226
27,296
24,455
26,346
25,983
25,011
26,235
26,441
27,024

Current value
(billions of
dollars)

Constant value
(billions of 1954
dollars)

Implicit price
deflator for
manufacturing
(1954=100)

Aggregate compensation
All employees
(billions of
dollars)

Production workers
(billions of dollars)

Aggregate wages
and salaries
(billions of
dollars)

Aggregate
supplements,
all employees
(billions of
dollars)

Employment
All employees
(thousands)

Production
workers
(thousands)

Average weekly
hours of work,
production
workers

Ratio of
supplements
to wages and
salaries

Aggregate wages
(billions of
dollars)

Aggregate annual hours of work
All employees
(millions)

Production
workers
(millions)

1 Not available.
N ote: Because o f rounding, sums of components may not equal totals.

M
ZD




Col. 1 --------------------------------- Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. Index
of manufacturing production published monthly in the
Federal Reserve Bulletin.
Cols. 2, 3, 4 , ---------------------- U.S. Department of Commerce, Office o f Business Economics
(O B E ). National accounts data published in Survey of
Current Business, October 1962 and September 1964. Data
are currently under revision by the OBE.
Cols. 5, 6 , __________________U.S. Department of Commerce (O B E ). Unrevised national
accounts data published annually in July issues o f Survey
o f Current Business.
Col. 7 ----------------------------------Col. 6 -f- col. 5.
Col. 8 ------------------------- ---------U.S. Department of Commerce (O B E ), Survey of Current
Business, May 1962. Data for 1960-64 have been revised and
updated by the U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau o f Labor
Statistics (B L S ).

Col. 9 ______________________ Col. 7 X col. 8.
Col. 1 0 _____________________U.S. Department o f Commerce (O B E ). Unrevised national
accounts data published annually in July issues of Survey
of Current Business. Also, col. 5 + col. 6.
Col. 1 1 _____________________ Col. 8 + col. 9.
Cols. 12, 13, 1 4 ____________ U.S. Department of Labor (B L S ). Establishment data pub­
lished monthly in Employment and Earnings. Historical data
in Employment and Earnings Statistics for the United
States, annual bulletins; latest, Bulletin 1312-3, issued
December 1965.
Cols. 15, 1 6 _______________ U.S. Department of Labor (B L S ). Unpublished data in BLS
files. Data based on cols. 12, 13, and 14; for nonproduction
employees, the trend is derived from BLS fringe benefit
studies and other data.




to
o

A ppendix T able IB. UNITED STATES. I ndexes op U nit L abor Cost, Output per M a n - hour,
and A verage H ourly Compensation in Manufacturing , and R elated I ndexes, 1950-64
[1957=100]

1950_____ _______ ______ ____
1 9 5 1 .,_____________________
1952_______________________
1953____ ___________ _______
1954.________ ______________
1955.............................. ...........
1956________________ _______
1957................... ............. .........
1958....................... ......... .......
1959..______________ _______
1960________ _______________
1961__________ _________ _
1962_______________________
1963_____ __________________
1964______ ______ ____ _____ _

Index of constantdollar gross
product in
manufacturing,
Series B

(1)

Year

Index of
manufacturing
production,
Series A

(2)

75.2
81.2
84.5
92.0
85.6
96.5
99.4
100.0
92.5
105.2
108.0
108.8
117.8
123.9
132.0

78.6
86.6
89.1
95.0
88.1
99.1
98.8
100.0
93.1
103.4
103.6
103.6
113.8
117.8
124.8

Index of unit labor cost for
production workers

Index of aggregate compensation

(9)
1950____ _________ _________
1951_______________________
1952_________________ _____ _
1953____ ______ _____________
1954____ ___________________
1955_______ ________________
1956_______________________
1957________________ _____
1958________________________
1959_______________________
I9 6 0 .._____ ________________
1961________ „ _______ _____ _
1962._____ _________________
1963_______________________
1964.............. ......... ......... .......
Cols.
Col.
Col.
Col.
Col.
Cols,

86.6
94.8
96.8
98.5
97.1
94.9
97.7
100.0
100.2
97.6
97.5
95.0
95.2
94.8
94.1

Series B

Production
workers

Index of unit labor cost
for all employees

All employees

Production
workers

All employees

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

90.1
97.0
98.6
103.6
94.6
100.0
101.6
100.0
91.8
97.8
97.5
94.8
98.8
99.8
101.7

96.6
103.4
103.6
108.4
96.7
103.0
103.4
100.0
89.6
96.5
95.2
91.6
96.7
96.9
99.0

79.5
87.4
90.8
92.6
94.5
92.0
96.3
100.0
103.0
100.6
101.5
101.0
100.8
100.1
99.0

76.0
82.0
86.1
89.7
91.8
89.6
96.9
100.0
102.4
102.3
105.8
106.1
104.4
105.3
104.7

59.3
71.0
76.7
85.2
80.9
88.8
95.7
100.0
95.3
105.8
109.6
109.9
118.8
124.0
130.7

65.1
77.0
81.8
90.6
83.1
91.6
97.1
100.0
92.7
102.7
105.3
103.4
112.2
117.5
124.2

Index of output per man-hour
(Series B)

Year
Series A

Index of aggregate annual
hours of work

All employees

Production
workers

Average compensation of all
employees per man-hour

In dollars

Index

Series A

Series B

Average compensation of production
workers per man-hour

In dollars

Index

(10)

(11)

(12)

(13)

(14)

(15)

(16)

82.7
88.9
91.8
95.4
94.3
92.4
98.3
100.0
99.6
99.3
101.6
99.8
98.6
99.7
99.5

87.3
89.3
90.4
91.6
93.1
99.1
97.3
100.0
101.4
105.7
106.2
109.2
115.3
118.0
122.4

81.5
83.7
86.1
87.6
91.2
96.3
95.6
100.0
103.9
107.2
108.8
113.1
118.4
121.6
125.7

1.64
1.81
1.92
2.03
2.11
2.19
2.33
2.47
2.56
2.67
2.77
2.86
2.97
3.07
3.17

66.4
73.2
77.8
82.2
85.5
88.7
94.2
100.0
103.8
108.1
112.3
115.8
120.2
124.3
128.3

1.48
1.64
1.74
1.84
1.89
1.96
2.07
2.20
2.28
2.34
2.44
2.49
2.57
2.67
2.76

67.3
74.5
78.9
83.6
86.0
88.9
93.9
100.0
103.4
106.1
110.6
112.8
116.7
121.2
125.1

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 , ______ Data are indexes o f respective series in appendix table 1A.
7 ______________________ Col. 3 col. 1.
8 ______________________ Col. 3 -j- col. 2.
9 ______________________Col. 4 -5- col. 1.
1 0 _____________________Col. 4 -r- col. 2.
l l , 1 2 ________________U.S. Department o f Labor, Bureau o f Labor Statistics
(B L S ). Data prepared by Division o f Productivity Meas­

Col.
Col.
Col.
Col.

urement, based on unrevised national accounts. Also, col.
11 equals col. 2 -f- col. 5, and col. 12 equals col. 2 -5- col. 6.
1 3 _____________________Col. 10 (table 1A) -f- col. 15 (table 1 A ).
1 4 _____________________ Index of col. 13.
1 5 _____________________ Col. 11 (table 1A) -i- col. 16 (table 1 A ).
1 6 _____________________ Index of col. 16.




A ppendix T able 2A. CANADA. Basic Data on P roduction, L abor Compensation ,
E mployment , and H ours op W ork in Manufacturing , 1950-64

Year

Index of
production
(1949=100)

Current-value
gross product
originating in
manufacturing
(millions of
Canadian
dollars)

Aggregate
compensation
of all
employees
(millions of
Canadian
dollars)

Employment
Index of
employment
(1949=100)

All
employees

Estimated employment
All
employees
(thousands)

Production
workers

Production
workers
(thousands)

Average
weekly
hours of
work of
production
workers

Estimated
aggregate
annual hours
of work
(millions)

Exchange rate
(Canadian
dollars per
U.S. dollar)

(1)
1950.
1951.
1952.
1953.
1954.
1955.
1956.
1957.
1958.
1959.
1960.
1961.
1962.
1963.
1964.

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(B)

(9)

(10)

(11)

106.2
115.0
118.5
126.4
122.9
134.7
145.1
142.9
140.7
149.8
149.3
153.0
164.9
173.9
188.9

4,714
5,474
6,150
6,453
6,291
6,779
7,605
7,904
7,753
8,286
8,427
8,501
9,320
9,866
10,857

2,881
3,396
3,772
4,100
4,053
4,299
4,766
5,034
5,029
5,302
5,474
5,533
5,935
6,286
6,829

101.4
108.1
109.9
113.0
107.3
109.8
115.8
115.8
109.8
111.1
109.5
108.9
113.3
116.4
121.9

1,183,297
1,258,375
1,288,382
1,327,451
1,267,966
1,298,461
1,353,020
1,359,061
1,289,602
1,303,956
1,275,476
(1,264,946
11,368,225
1,404,566
0)
0)

952,244
1,010,588
1,025,355
1,053,226
989,030
1,010,992
1,051,723
1,045,177
981,735
997,907
971,610
969,276
951,835
985,369
0)
0)

1,188
1,266
1,287
1,323
1,256
1,286
1,356
1,356
1,286
1,301
1,282
1,275
1,327
1,363
1,428

956
1,017
1,024
1,050
980
1,001
1,054
1,043
979
996
977
977
1,025
1,050
1,099

42.3
41.7
41.5
41,3
40.7
41.0
41.0
40.4
40.2
40.7
40.4
40.6
40.7
40.8
41.0

2,585
2,723
2,757
2,824
2,650
2,727
2,876
2,842
2,685
2,743
2,688
2,683
2,797
2,879
3,027

1.0889
1.0530
.9808
.9849
.9728
.9865
.9829
.9595
.9728
.9610
.9694
1.0129
1.0698
1.0784
1.0777

}

1 Not available.
Col. 1 _____________________ Dominion Bureau o f Statistics (DBS) index of manufactur­
ing production published monthly in the Canadian Statistical
Review.
Cols. 2, 3 __________________DBS: Annual publication, National Accounts Income and
Expenditure.
Col. 4 _____________________ DBS: Published monthly in Canadian Statistical Review.
Cols. 5, 6 ___________________ DBS: Data from annual census o f manufactures published
in Ccmada Yearbook; 1950-59 data are consistent, 1960-61
(first entry) are consistent, and 1961 (second entry)-1962
are consistent, but because o f changes in Standard Indus­

trial Classification definition and other definitions, there is
not a consistent series for the entire period.
Col. 7 ______________________ Estimated, using 1949 data from the annual census of manu­
factures as the base and using col. 4 to show the trend.
Col. 8 _____________________ Estimated product of (col. 6 -r* col. 5) X col. 7.
Col. 9 _____________________ DBS: Published monthly in Canadian Statistical Review.
Col. 1 0 _____________________ 52 [(col. 8 X col. 9) + 40 (col. 7 — col. 8 )]
Col. 1 1 _____________________Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development
(OECD) General Statistics. Domestic mean exchange rate.




to

A ppendix T able 2B. CANADA. I ndexes of U nit L abor Cost, Output per Man - hour,
a n d A verage H ourly Compensation in Manufacturing , 1950-64

to

[1957=100]

Index of
manufacturing
production

Year

Index of
aggregate
annual hours
of work

Index of
aggregate
compensation

Index of
exchange rate
(Canadian
dollars per
U.S. dollar)

Index of unit labor cost
Canadian
dollar basis

U.S.
dollar basis

Index of
output per
man-hour

Average compensation of all
employees per man-hour
In Canadian
dollars

Index

(1)
1950_______________________
1951„______________________
1952______ ________________
1953_______________________
1954_______________________
1955_______________________
1956_______________________
1957_______________________
1958_______________________
1959_______________________
1960_______________________
1961_______________________
1962_______________________
1963_______________________
1964_______________________

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

74.3
80.5
82.9
88.5
86.0
94.3
101.5
100.0
98.5
104.8
104.5
107.1
115.4
121.7
132.2

57.2
67.5
74.9
81.4
80.5
85.4
94.7
100.0
99.9
105.3
108.7
109.9
117.8
124.9
135.7

90.9
95.8
97.0
99.3
93.2
95.9
101.2
100.0
94.5
96.5
94.6
94.4
98.4
101.3
106.5

113.5
109.7
102.2
102.6
101.4
102.8
102.4
100.0
101.4
100.2
101.0
105.6
111.5
112.4
112.3

77.0
83.9
90.3
92.0
93.6
90.6
93.3
100.0
101.4
100.5
104.0
102.6
102.1
102.6
102.7

67.8
76.4
88.4
89.6
92.3
88.1
91.1
100.0
100.0
100.3
103.0
97.2
91.6
91.3
91.4

81.7
84.0
85.5
89.1
92.3
98.3
100.3
100.0
104.3
108.6
110.5
113.5
117.3
120.2
124.2

1.11
1.25
1.37
1.45
1.53
1.58
1.66
1.77
1.87
1.93
2.04
2.06
2.12
2.18
2.26

63.0
70.4
77.2
82.0
86.4
89.0
93.6
100.0
105.8
109.1
115.0
116.4
119.8
123.3
127.4

Cols. 1, 2, 3, 4 ___________ Indexes of respective series appearing in appendix table 2A.
Col. 5 ______________________ Col. 2
col. 1.
Col. 6 ______________________ Col. 5 ~ col. 4.

A p p e n d ix T a b l e

2C.

CANADA.

.Col. 1 -r- col. 3.
.Col. 3 (table 1A)
.Index of col. 8.

Col. 7
Col. 8
Col. 9

R e v is e d I n d e x e s o f P r o d u c t i o n , U n i t L a b o r

C o st, a n d O u t p u t per M a n - h o u r in M a n u f a c t u r in g ,

1950-64
Index of unit labor cost

Index of manufacturing production
Year

Canadian
dollar basis
(1957=100)

1957=100

1949 =100

col. 10 (table 1 A ).

United States
dollar basis
(1957=100)

Index of output
per man-hour
(1957=100)

(1)
1950___________________________________________________
1951________________________ __________________________
1952___________________________________________________
1953___________________________________________________
1954___________________________________________________
1955____________________________ ______________________
1956___________________________________________________
1957___________________________________________________
1958___________________________________________________
1959_____ - ____________________________________________
1960___________________________________________________
1961___________________________________________________
1962_____________ _______________ ____________________
1963___________________________________________________
1964___________________________________________________

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

106.7
115.9
120.2
128.9
126.0
138.3
151.2
150.9
148.0
159.0
161.2
166.9
181.2
193.9
211.9

70.7
76.8
79.7
85.4
83.5
91.7
100.2
100.0
98.1
105.4
106.8
110.6
120.1
128.5
140.4

80.9
87.9
94.0
95.3
96.4
93.1
94.5
100.0
101.8
99.9
101.8
99.4
98.1
97.2
96.7

71.3
80.1
92.0
92.9
95.1
90.6
92.3
100.0
100.4
99.7
100.8
94.1
88.0
86.5
86.1

77.8
80.2
82.2
86.0
89.6
95.6
99.0
100.0
103.8
109.2
112.9
117.2
122.1
126.9
131.8

i
!
I

Col. 1 ____________ _________ Dominion Bureau o f Statistics revised index o f production,
published in the Canadian Statistical Review, June 1966,
pp. i—
ix.
.Index of col. 1.
Col. 2

i

Col. 3 ---- -------------------------- —Col. 2 (table 2B) -r- col. 2.
Col. 4
--------------------------- —
Col. 3 -f- col. 4 (table 2B ).
Col. 5 _____________ _________ Col. 2 -r- col. 3 (table 2B ).

A ppendix T able 3A.

FRANCE. Basic Data
and

on P roduction, L abor Compensation , E mployment ,
H ours of W ork in Manufacturing , 1950-64

Gross product originating
in manufacturing
Year

Current value
(billions of
new francs)

Implicit price
deflator for
Constant value manufacturing
(1958=100)
(billions of
1958 new
francs)

38.61
49.43
55.22
56.67
58.93
62.26
70.88
79.08
92.21
99.71
110.95
119.66
131.205
144.365
157.040

(3)

FRANCE.

Year

Index of
aggregate
compensation
of all employees

Exchange rate
(new francs
per U.S.
dollar)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

0)
5,015.1
4,959.0
0)
5,187.2
5,318.7
5,591.9
5,845.9
5,790.9
6,015.5
5,906.8
6,082.4
6,500.1
6,664.7
6,864.5

24,787.7
4,942.2
4,995.1
25,123.9
5,159.6
5,359.3
5,706.2
5,916.6
5,750.7
5,582.7
5,731.2
6,099.1
6,397.6
6,538.6
6,774.7

44.5
44.8
44.2
44.0
44.6
44.7
45.4
45.7
45.1
44.9
45.5
45.7
45.8
45.9
45.7

11,078.7
11,510.4
11,480.7
11,723.4
11,966.1
12,457.2
13,471.2
14,060.2
13,486.5
13,034.5
13,560.0
14,493.9
15,236.5
15,606.3
16,099.4

350
350
350
350
350
350
350
377
457
490
490
490
490
490
490

0)
7,603.4
7,684.7
0)
7,937.9
8,245.1
8,778.7
9,120.4
8,847.2
8,588.8
8,817.3
9,506.4
9,842.5
10,059.4
10,422.6

Adjusted

Col. 7 ______________________Estimate based on 65 percent of col. 5.
Col. 8 ______________________INSEE data published monthly in the Bulletin Mensuel de
Statistique.
Col. 9 ______________________Col. 7 X col. 8 X 52.
Col. 1 0 _____________________Official exchange rates, except for 1957 and 1958, where the
average monthly domestic mean exchange rate has been
used due to changes in the official value during the year.

I n d exes of U n it L abor C o st, O u t p u t per M a n - h o u r , a n d A verage

H o u r ly C o m p e n s a t io n in M a n u f a c t u r in g ,
[1957=100]

Index of
constantvalue gross
product in
manufacturing

Aggregate
annual hours
of work
(millions)

As of
December 31

10,559.71
15,378.81
17,937.00
19,336.64
20,736.27
23,317.16
27,040.91
31,026.49
36,149.65
37,640.72
42,051.00
47,109.03
53,700.80
60,393.20
67,767.40

3B.

Average
weekly hours
of work

Engaged dur­
ing any part
of year

(4)

65.4
76.5
84.0
83.9
83.3
83.4
86.5
91.1
100.0
105.8
108.6
111.3
114.6
119.2
122.5

1 Not available.
2 Estimate.
Cols. 1, 2 __________________Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development
(OCED) National Accounts Statistics. Country submittal
based on the International Standard Industrial Classification.
Col. 3 _____________________ Col. 1 H- col. 2.
Cols. 4, 5, 6 _______________ Institute National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques
(INSEE) annual study based on 5-percent earnings tax,
formerly published in Etudes Statistiques and now published
in Etudes et Conjoncture.
A p p e n d ix T a b l e

All employees (thousands)

(5)

(2)
59.05
64.63
65.74
67.58
70.67
74.66
81.98
86.76
92.21
94.24
102.20
107.47
114.46
121,10
128.16

(1)
1950__________________________
1951__________________________
1952__________________________
1953__________________________
1954_ ________________________
1955__________________________
1956 _________________________
1957___________________ ______ _
1958______________ _____ ______
1959______________________ ____
1960__________________________
1961__________________________
1962___________ _______________
1963_____________ _____ _______
1964__________________________

Aggregate
compensation
of all
employees
(millions of
new francs)

Index of
aggregate
annual hours
of work

Index of
exchange rate
(new francs per
U.S. dollar)

1950-64

Index of unit labor cost

Franc basis

U.S. dollar
basis

Index of
output per
man-hour

Average compensation of all
employees per man-hour

In new francs

Index

(1)
1950_______________________
1951_______________________
1952_______________________
1953_______________________
1954_______________________
1955_______________________
1956_______________________
1957_______________________
1958_______________________
1959_______________________
1960_______________________
1961_______________________
1962_______________________
1963_______________________
1964_______________________

K)
CO




Cols. 1, 2, 3, 4
Col. 5 _________
Col. 6 _________

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

68.1
74.5
75.8
77.9
81.5
86.1
94.5
100.0
106.3
108.6
117.8
123.9
131.9
139.6
147.7

34.0
50.0
57.8
62.3
66.6
75.2
87.2
100.0
116.5
121.3
135.5
151.8
173.1
194.7
218.4

78.8
81.9
81.7
83.4
85.1
88.6
95.8
100.0
95.9
92.7
96.4
103.1
108.4
111.0
114.5

92.8
92.8
92.8
92.8
92.8
92.8
92.8
100.0
121.2
130.0
130.0
130.0
130.0
130.0
130.0

49.9
67.1
76.3
80.0
81.7
87.3
92.3
100.0
109.6
111.7
115.0
122.5
131.2
139.5
147.9

53.8
72.3
82.2
86.2
87.8
94.1
99.5
100.0
90.4
85.9
88.5
94.2
100.9
107.3
113.8

86.4
91.0
92.8
93.4
95.8
97.2
98.6
100.0
110.8
117.1
122.1
120.2
121.7
125.8
129.0

.953
1.336
1.562
1.649
1.733
1.872
2.007
2.207
2.680
2.888
3.101
3.250
3.524
3.870
4.209

43.2
60.5
70.8
74.7
78.5
84.8
90.9
100.0
121.4
130.9
140.5
147.3
159.7
175.4
190.7

Indexes o f respective series appearing in appendix table 3A.
.Col. 2 -f- col. 1.
.Col. 5 -r- col. 4.

Col. 7
Col. 8
Col. 9

.Col. 1 -r- col. 3.
.Col. 4 (table 3A) -f- col. 9 (table 3 A ).
.Index o f col. 8.

to




A ppendix T able 4A . G E R M A N Y (F .R .). B asic D ata on Production, L abor Compensation ,
E mployment , and H ours op W ork in M anufacturing , 1950-64
Gross product originating in
manufa cturing
Year

Current value
(billions of
DM)

Constant value
(billions of 1958
DM)

i

|
j
Implicit price
deflator for
manufacturing
(1958 =100)

Aggregate
wages and
salaries
(millions of DM)

(1)
1950____ . _____________
1951..........................................
1952....... ....................... ...........
1953. .................. ................. ..
1954___________ __________ _
1955
_
............
1956
______
1957
______
1958
______
1959
............ .
1960
..................
1961_______________________
1962._________ _____________
1963__ ____________________
1964_______________________

(2)

( 3)

41.86
48.17
54.25
60.20
67.01
77.98
83.64
89.08
92.72
100.83
120.80
128.99
134.98
138.44
152.72

90.8
100.4
100.1
97.1
95.0
94.7
96.4
97.8
100.0
100.2
101.1
105.1
108.8
110.1
110.4

12,990
16,691
18,498
20,172
22,269
25,949
29,858
32,189
34,602
37,158
45,709
51,902
57,933
61,559
68,032

Cols. 1, 2
Col. 3
Col. 4 —
Col. 5
Col. 6
Col. 7 —
Col. 8___

Wage earners
(millions of DM)

All employees
(thousands)

Wage earners
(thousands)

( 10)

( 11)

( 12)

10,976
14,119
15,491
16,793
18,502
21,622
24,722
26,710
28,507
30,303
37,189
41,705
46,042
48,291
53,086

4,225.5
4,739.2
4.903.4
5.107.9
5.419.9
5.932.4
6.338.1
6.553.2
6.616.2
6.802.4
7.439.5
7.703.8
7.789.8
7,746.7
7.804.5

.Federal Statistical Office data published annually (usually
in the January issue) in Wirtschajt und Statistik. Also,
OECD in National Accounts Statistics.
.Col. 1 -7- col. 2.
.Federal Statistical Office. Statistisches Jahrbuch and Wirtschaft und Statistik.
.Basic data used in calculating these rates, but not presented
here, can be found in the Statistisches Jahrbuch, Wirtschaft
und Statistik, or the OECD National Accounts Statistics.
.Col. 4 X col. 5.
.Federal Statistical Office. Statistisches Jahrbuch and W irt­
schaft und Statistik.
.Col. 7 X col. 6.

( 7)

9,915
12,782
14,011
15,155
16,723
19,511
22,314
23,844
25,306
26,943
33,057
37,177
41,091
43,086
47,530

Aggregate annual hours of work

Employment

All employees
(millions of DM)

14,380
18,437
20,452
22,353
24,638
28,757
33,080
36,058
38,979
41,792
51,423
58,224
64,914
68,995
75,985

Aggregate
wages
(millions of DM)

(6)
1,390
1,746
1,953
2,183
2,369
2,808
3,222
3,869
4,377
4,634
5,714
6,322
6,981
7,436
7,953

10.70
10.46
10.56
10.82
10.64
10.82
10.79
12.02
12.65
12.47
12.50
12.18
12.05
12.08
11.69

( 9)

1950.
1951.
1952.
1953.
1954.
1955
1956
1957.
1958.
1959.
1960
1961.
1962.
1963.
1964.

Aggregate
supplements
for all
employees
(millions of DM)

( 5)

( 4)

38.02
48.38
54.31
58.46
63.64
73.85
80.60
87.13
92.72
101.01
122.18
135.55
146.82
152.83
168.51

Aggregate compensation
Year

Ratio of
employer
contributions
to total wages
and salaries
(total economy)

3.526.6
3.960.9
4.065.7
4.222.4
4.482.1
4.910.4
5.226.0
5.378.2
5.385.3
5,496.6
5.978.2
6.136.9
6.141.3
6.048.9
6.059.1

All employees
(millions)

Wage earners
(millions)

Aggregate
supplements
for wage
earners
(millions of DM)

(8)
1,061
1,337
1,480
1,640
1,779
2,111
2,408
2,866
3,201
3,360
4,132
4,528
4,951
5,205
5,556

Exchange rate
(DM per U.S.
dollar)

(13)

(14)

(15)

9,542
10,633
11,013
11,514
12,249
12,487
14,047
13,880
13,802
13,935
15,408
15,662
15,448
15,277
15,444

8,088
9,014
9,271
9,627
10,298
11,271
11,734
11,436
11,242
11,217
12,368
12,403
12,109
11,746
11,814

4.200
4.200
4.200
4.200
4.200
4.200
4.200
4.200
4.200
4.200
4.200
4.050
4.000
4.000
4.000

Col. 9 ____ ________________Col. 4 -4- col. 6.
,
Col. 10 ___ ________________Col. 7 + col. 8.
Cols. 11, 12 ________________Federal Statistical Office. Statistisches Jahrbuch and Wirtschaft und Statistik. Data in cols. 11 and 12 refer to earn­
ings o f the employees in cols. 4 and 7.
Col. 1 3 ___ ________________Col. 14 plus the difference between col. 11 and col. 12 times
40 hours a week times 52 weeks a year.
Col. 14 __ ________________Federal Statistical Office. Statistisches Jahrbuch and Wirt­
_
schaft und Statistik.
Col. 15 - __ ________________ Official exchange rate, except for 1961 which represents^ a
weighted average o f the official value before and after its
change in March.

A ppendix T able 4B.
and

GERMANY (F.R.). I ndexes of U nit L abor Cost, Output
A verage H ourly Compensation in M anufacturing , 1950-64

per

M a n - hour,

[ 1957= 100]

Index of unit labor cost
Year

Index of
constant-value
gross product
in manufacturing

Index of aggregate compensation

All employees

Wage earners

Index of aggregate hours of work

All employees

Wage earners

Index of
exchange rate
(DM per U.S.
dollar)

DM basis
All employees

Wage earners

(1)
1950....... .................................
1951_______________________
1952......... ........... .............. .
1953 _______ ______ _______
1954_________ ________ _____
1955_________ ______ _______
1956..... .....................................
1957_______ _______ ________
1958______ ______ __________
1959....... ................. .................
1960_________ ________ _____
1961 _ ______ ______ _________
1962 ..........................................
1963. _________ ____________
1964_______________________

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

46.6
53.4
60.7
67.5
75.0
87.4
93.9
100.0
104.1
113.2
135.6
144.8
151.4
155.4
171.4

39.9
51.1
56.7
62.0
68.3
79.8
91.7
100.0
108.1
115.9
142.6
161.5
180.0
191.3
210.7

41.1
52.9
58.0
62.9
69.3
81.0
92.6
100.0
106.7
113.5
139.2
156.1
168.2
180.8
198.7

68.7
76.6
79.3
83.0
88.2
97.2
101.2
100.0
99.4
100.4
111.0
112.8
111.3
110.1
111.3

70.7
78.8
81.1
84.2
90.0
98.6
102.6
100.0
98.3
98.1
108.1
108.5
105.9
102.7
103.3

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
96.4
95.2
95.2
95.2

85.6
95.7
93.4
91.9
91.1
91.3
97.6
100.0
103.8
102.4
105.2
111.5
118.9
123.1
122.9

88.2
99.1
95.6
93.2
92.4
92.7
98.6
100.0
102.5
100.3
102.7
107.8
111.1
116.3
115.9

Average compensation per man-hour

Index of unit labor cost— Con.
Index of output per man-hour

All employees

Wage earners

All employees

Wage earners

Wage earners

All employees

U.S. dollar basis

Year

In DM

Index

In DM

Index

(9)
1950________ _____ _________
1951 ______________________
1952 ...................................... .
1953___.............................. .
1954..... ......... ................. .........
1955_______________________
1956_______________________
1957_________ _____ ________
1958_______ ______ _________
1959........... ............... ...............
1960_____ _____ _______ _____
1961_______________________
1962___.................. ............... ..
1963_______________________
1964_________ _______ ______

(10)

(11)

(12)

(13)

(14)

(15)

(16)

85.6
95.7
93.4
91.9
91.1
91.3
97.6
100.0
103.8
102.4
105.2
115.7
124.9
129.3
129.1

88.2
99.1
95.6
93.2
92.4
92.7
98.6
100.0
102.5
100.3
102.7
111.8
116.7
122.2
121.7

67.8
69.7
76.5
81.3
85.0
89.9
92.8
100.0
104.7
112.7
122.1
128.4
136.0
141.1
153.1

65.9
67.8
74.8
80.2
83.3
88.6
91.5
100.0
105.9
115.4
125.4
133.5
143.0
151.3
165.0

1.51
1.73
1.86
1.94
2.01
2.13
2.35
2.60
2.82
3.00
3.34
3.72
4.20
4.52
4.92

58.1
66.5
71.5
74.6
77.3
81.9
90.4
100.0
108.5
115.4
128.5
143.1
161.5
173.8
189.2

1.36
1.57
1.67
1.74
1.80
1.92
2.11
2.34
2.54
2.70
3.01
3.36
3.80
4.11
4.49

58.1
67.1
71.4
74.4
76.9
82.0
90.2
100.0
108.5
115.4
128.6
143.6
162.4
175.6
191.9

Cols. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 _

to

Ol




indexes of respective series appearing in appendix

Col.
Col.
Col.
Col.

_ Data are
_
table 4A.
7 ___________________ _ Col. 2 -r_
8 ___________________ _ Col. 3 -f_
9 ___________________ _ Col. 7 -f_
_
1 0 __________________ _ Col. 8 -r-

col.
col.
col.
col.

1.
1.
6.
6.

Col.
Col.
Col.
Col.
Col.
Col.

11_
_
12_
_
_
13_
14_
_
15 _
16_
_

_Col. 1 - r - C O l. 4.
_Col. 1 -r- col. 5.
_Col. 9 (table 4A) -f- col. 13 (table 4A ).
_Index of col. 13.
_Col. 10 (table 4A) -r- col. 14 (table 4A ).
_Index o f col. 15.




to

A ppendix T able 5A.

O
s

and

ITALY. B asic D ata on P roduction, L abor Compensation ,
H ours op W ork in Manufacturing , 1950-64

Gross domestic product originating in manufacturing
Year

Current value
(billions of lire)

Constant value
(billions of 1958 lire)

Aggregate compensation
of wage earners
(billions of lire)

Implicit price deflator
for manufacturing
(1958=100)

Aggregate annual hours
of work of wage earners
(millions)

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

2,428
3,114
3,113
3,305
3,503
3,816
4,064
4,362
4,602
4,987
5,668
6,300
7,043
8,218
8,792

1950________________________________________
1951________________________________________
1952________________________________________
1953______________________________ __________
1954________________________________________
1955________________________________________
1956________________________________________
1957________________________________________
1958________________________________________
1959__________ ______________________________
1960________________________________________
1961________________________________________
1962________________________________________
1963________________________________________
1964________________________________________

2,503
2,860
2,932
3,219
3,576
3,898
4,148
4,435
4,602
5,113
5,824
6,447
7,092
7,716
7,785

97.0
108.9
106.2
102.7
98.0
97.9
98.0
98.4
100.0
97.5
97.3
97.7
99.3
106.5
112.9

593.657
667.311
709.242
745.649
793.758
848.725
913.667
967.808
984.636
1,019.009
1,150.616
1,301.270
1,533.933
1,831.427
1,934.728

3,236.5
3,312.4
3,281.8
3,323.7
3,411.7
3,423.3
3,451.1
3,524.6
3,416.8
3,466.0
3,753.3
3,961.7
4,042.9
4,164.1
3,927.4

Cols. 1, 2 __________________ Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development,
National Accounts Statistics. Country submittal based on
International Standard Industrial Classification.
Col. 3 ______________________ Col. 1
col. 2.

A p p e n d ix T a b l e

5B.

ITALY.

Cols. 4, 5 __________________Istituto Centrale di Statistica. Data are published in
Statistiche del Lavoro and, for more recent periods, in
Supplemento al Bollettino Statistiche del Lavoro.

I n d e x e s of U n it L abo r C o st, O u t p u t per M a n - h o u r , a n d

1950-64

A verage H o u r ly C o m p e n s a t io n in M a n u f a c t u r in g ,
[1957=100]
Index of
constant-value
gross domestic
product in
manufacturing

Year

(1)
1950____________________________
1951____________________________
1952.____ ______________________
1953____________________________
1954____________________________
1955________________ ___________
1956____________________________
1957____________________________
1958____________________________
1959_____ _____ _________________
1960____________________________
1961____________________________
1962____________________________
1963________________ _____ ______
1964__________________________
Cols. 1, 2, 3
Col. 4 --------Col. 5 ______

56.4
64.5
66.1
72.6
80.6
87.9
93.5
100.0
103.7
115.3
131.3
145.4
159.9
174.0
175.5

Index of aggregate
compensation of
w^ge earners

(2)
61.3
69.0
73.3
77.0
82.0
87.7
94.4
100.0
101.7
105.3
118.9
134.4
158.4
189.2
199.9

Index of aggregate
hours of work of
wage earners

108.7
107.0
110.9
106.1
101.7
99.8
101.0
100.0
98.1
91.3
90.6
92.4
99.1
108.7
113.9
Col. 6
Col. 7

Average compensation of
wage earners per man-hour

Index of output
per man-hour of
wage earners

(4)

(3)
91.8
93.9
93.1
94.3
96.8
97.1
97.9
100.0
96.9
98.3
106.5
112.4
114.7
118.1
111.4

Indexes o f respective series appearing in appendix table 5A.
Col. 2
col. 1.
.Col. 1 -T- col. 3.

Index of unit
labor cost for
wage earners

In lire
(6)

(5)

!

61.4
68.7
71.0
77.0
83.3
90.5
95.5
100.0
107.0
117.3
123.3
129.4
139.4
147.4
156.2

j

183.43
201.46
216.11
224.34
232.66
247.93
264.75
274.59
288.17
294.00
306.56
328.46
379.41
439.81
492.63

.Col. 4 (table 5A) -f- col. 5 (table 5A ).
.Index of col. 6.

Index
(7)
66.7
73.3
78.8
81.8
84.7
90.4
96.6
100.0
105.0
107.1
111.6
119.8
138.3
160.3
179.5

A ppendix T able 6A.

JAPAN. B asic D ata

on P roduction, L abor Compensation , E mployment ,
H ours of W ork in Manufacturing , 1950-64

and

Current-value
gross product
originating in
manufacturing
(billions of yen)

Year

Aggregate
compensation of
all employees
(billions of yen)

Index of
manufacturing
production
(1960=100)

Employment
(thousands)

Average monthly
hours of work
per employee

Aggregate
annual hours
of work
(millions)

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

0)
1,111.2
1,146.8
1,361.5
1,444.9
1,494.2
1,918.7
2,236.1
2,155.0
2,666.2
3,463.5
4,251.9
4,688.9
5,420.6
6,059.6

1950_____________________________________
1951_____________________________________
1952________ ____________________________
1953_____________________________________
1954_____________________________________
1955_____________________________________
1956_ __________________________________
1957__________________ _________________
1958_____________________________________
1959_____________________________________
1960 _ __________________________________
1961_____________________________________
1962_____________________________________
1963_____________________________________
1964_____________________________________

19.8
27.8
30.9
38.5
42.2
45.7
56.4
66.9
65.7
79.6
100.0
119.9
130.1
143.7
166.8

2370.472
507.037
596.933
669.443
757.578
828.716
1,020.769
1,145.269
1,189.624
1,359.149
1,676.324
2,047.012
2,416.528
2,785.505
0)

24,289
4,575
4,682
4,773
5,007
5,132
5,897
6,455
6,589
6,828
7,538
8,082
8,573
8,951
0)

189.0
192.8
194.4
196.7
195.9
198.0
204.4
202.9
201.4
204.7
207.0
203.4
198.4
196.9
195.7

29,727
10,585
10,922
11,266
11,770
12,194
14,464
15,717
15,924
16,772
18,724
19,727
20,411
21,149
0)

1 Not available.
2 Estimate.
Col. 1 ---------------------------------Economic Planning Agency. Data published annually (in
Japanese) in White Paper on National Income.
Col. 2 ---------------------------------Japanese Ministry o f International Trade and Industry,
index of production, published by the Ministry of Labor in
Yearbook of Labor Statistics.

JAPAN.

A p p e n d ix T a b l e 6 B .
and

Year

Index of
manufacturing
production

(1)
1950____________________________
1951____________________________
1952____________________________
1953____________________________
1954____________________________
1955____________________________
1956____________________________
1957____________________________
1958____________________________
1959____________________________
1960____________________________
1961____________________________
1962____________________________
1963____________________________
1964_____________________

K)




29.6
41.6
46.2
57.5
63.1
68.3
84.3
100.0
98.2
119.0
149.5
179.2
194.5
214.8
249.3

Cols. 3, 4 ---------------------------- Economic Planning Agency, White Paper on National
Income.
Col. 5 ______________________Japanese Ministry of Labor, Yearbook of Labor Statistics.
A monthly establishment survey showing the number of
hours of work of all employees in establishments with 30
or more employees.
Col. 6 ______________________Col. 4 X col. 5 X 12 months.

I n d exes of U n it L abo r C o st, O u tpu t per M a n - h o u r ,

A verage H o u r ly C o m p e n s a t io n in M a n u f a c t u r in g ,
[1957=100]1

1950-64

Index of aggregate
compensation of
all employees

Index of output
per man-hour

(2)
i 32.3
44.3
52.1
58.5
66.1
72.4
89.1
100.0
103.9
118.7
146.4
178.7
211.0
243.2
276.5

Index of aggregate
hours of work

Index of unit
labor cost

Average compensation of
all employees per man-hour
In yen

(3)

(4)
i 109.1
106.5
112.8
101.7
104.8
106.0
105.7
100.0
105.8
99.7
97.9
99.7
108.5
113.2
110.8

i 61.9
67.3
69.5
71.7
74.9
77.6
92.0
100.0
101.3
106.7
119.1
125.5
129.9
134.6
(2
)

1 Estimate.
2 Not available.
Cols. 1, 2, 3 ---------------------- Indexes of respective series appearing in appendix table 6A.
Col. 4 -------------------------------- Col. 2 -r- col. 1.

Col. 5
Col. 6
Col. 7

(5)
i 47.8
61.8
66.5
80.2
84.2
88.0
91.6
100.0
96.9
111.5
125.5
142.8
149.7
159.6
(2
)

(6)
i 38.09
47.90
54.65
59.42
64.36
67.96
70.57
72.87
74.70
81.04
89.53
103.77
118.40
131.71
(2
)

■
Col. 1 - r - COI. 3 .
.Col. 3 (table 6A) -f- col. 6 (table 6 A ).
.Index of col. 6.

Index
(?)
i 52.3
65.7
75.0
81.5
88.3
93.3
96.8
100.0
102.5
111.2
122.9
142.4
162.5
180.7
(2
)

to
oo




A ppendix T able 7A. NETHERLANDS. B asic D ata on Production, L abor Compensation ,
E mployment, and H ours of W ork in Manufacturing , 1950-64
Aggregate
compensation
of all
employees
(millions of guilders)

Aggregate
annual hours
of work of
all employees
(millions)

Year

Current-value
gross product
originating in
manufacturing
(millions of guilders)

Index of
manufacturing
production
(1953=100)

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

1960
___
1951
___
1952
_ _
_
1953
_
_
1954
_
_
1955
_ _
_
1956
___
1957
___
1958
_____
1959
____
1960
______
1961
_______
1962
_ _
1963
___
1964.......................... ............. ...........

4,993
5,638
5,674
6,332
7,319
8,193
8,880
9,735
9,569
10,554
12,216
12,796
13,575
(2
)
(2
)

88
91
91
100
111
120
125
128
127
139
155
161
170
177
194

2,765
3,088
3,200
3,376
3,906
4,413
4,986
5,565
5,680
5,945
6,772
7,586
8,228
9,171
10,645

1,151
1,162
1,133
1,148
1,201
1,229
1,252
1,263
1,237
1,257
1,295
1,327
1,285
1,309
1,331

48.8
48.5
48.6
48.8
48.8
49.0
48.8
48.6
48.6
48.8
48.8
46.5
46.5
46.6
46.1

2,920.8
2,930.8
2,863.3
2,913.2
3,047.7
3,131.5
3,177.1
3,191.9
3,126.1
3,189.8
3,286.2
3,208.7
3,107.1
3,172.0
3,190.7

3.800
3.800
3.800
3.800
3.800
3.800
3.800
3.800
3.800
3.800
3.800
3.640
3.600
3.600
3.600

1 A man-year is 300 working days regardless o f the number o f hours worked.
2 Not available.
^
Col. 1 ______________________ Central Bureau o f Statistics, Nationals rekenmgen. Constantvalue gross product figures are not published separately for
the manufacturing sector.
Col. 2 ______________________ Central Bureau of Statistics, Maadschrift.

Employment
(thousands of
man-years1
)

Average
weekly hours
of work

Exchange rate
(guilders per
U.S. dollar)

Cols. 3, 4 __________________ Central Bureau of Statistics, Nationale rekeningen.
Col. 5 ______________________Central Bureau o f Statistics, Sociale maandstatistiek.
Col. 6
ZZZZZZ Z_________Col. 4 X col. 5 X 52 weeks.
Col. 7 ______________________Official exchange rate, except for 1961 which represents a
weighted average of the official value before and after its
change in March.

A ppendix T able 7B. NETHERLANDS. I ndexes of U nit L abor Cost, Output per Ma n - hour,
and A verage H ourly Compensation in Manufacturing , 1950-64
[1957=100]

Index of
aggregate
hours of
work of all
employees

Index of
exchange rate
(guilders per
U.S. dollar)

Index of unit labor cost

Average hourly compensation
of all employees

1950
____________
1951
____________
1952
___________
1953
___________
1954
_____________
1955
_______________
1956
_ ______
1957
_______
1958
_____
1959
__ _
_
I960
________
1961
................
1962
................
1963
...............
1964.........................................
Cols. 1, 2, 3, 4
Col. 5 ------------Col. 6 -------------

Index of
manufacturing
production

(1)

Year

Index of
aggregate
compensation
of all employees

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

49.7
55.5
57.5
60.7
70.2
79.3
89.6
100.0
102.1
106.8
121.7
136.3
147.9
164.8
191.3

91.5
91.8
89.7
91.3
95.5
98.1
99.5
100.0
97.9
99.0
103.0
100.5
97.3
99.4
100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
95.8
94.7
94.7
94.7

72.2
78.0
80.9
77.7
81.0
84.5
91.7
100.0
102.9
98.3
100.5
108.3
111.4
119.2
126.4

72.2
78.0
80.9
77.7
81.0
84.5
91.7
100.0
102.9
98.3
100.5
113.4
117.6
125.9
133.5

75.2
77.5
79.3
85.5
90.8
95.6
98.2
100.0
100.0
108.7
117.6
125.2
136.5
139.1
151.4

.947
1.054
1.118
1.159
1.282
1.409
1.569
1.743
1.817
1.864
2.061
2.364
2.648
2.891
3.336

54.3
60.5
64.1
66.5
73.6
80.8
90.0
100.0
104.2
106.9
118.2
135.6
151.9
165.9
191.4

68.8
71.1
71.1
78.1
86.7
93.8
97.7
100.0
99.2
108.6
121.1
125.8
132.8
138.3
151.4

.Indexes o f respective series appearing in appendix table 7A.
.Col. 2 - h col. 1.
.Col. 5 -r- col. 4

Col. 7
Col. 8
Col. 9

Guilder
basis

U.S. dollar
basis

Index of
output per
man-hour

In guilders

.Col. 1 -f- col. 3.
.Col. 3 (table 7A) -r- col. 6 (table 7A)
.Index o f col. 8.

Index




A ppendix T able 8A. SWEDEN. B asic D ata on P roduction, L abor Compensation ,
E mployment , and H ours of W ork in M anufacturing and Mining , 1950-64

Year

Value added
in manu­
facturing
and mining
(thousands
of kronor)

Index of production in
manufacturing and mining

(2)

(3)

0)
(0
12,248,173
12,490.372
13,777,764
15,019,988
16,265,527
17,646,468
18,088,632
19,296,266
21,508,265
23,938,949
25,393,199
27,089,665
0)

197
206
202
204
213
226
234
240
245
259
286
305
309
316
337

0)
79
78
79
82
87
90
93
94
100
110
119
126
133
146

Aggregate
salaries
(thousands
of kronor)

Aggregate
wages to
homeworkers
(thousands
of kronor)

(4)

1959 =100

(1)
1950_______
1951.... .........
1952_______
1953_______
1954_______
1955_______
1956______
1957_______
1958.... .........
1959_______
1960_______
1961_______
1962_______
1963_______
1964_______

1935 =100

Aggregate
wages
(thousands
of kronor)

(5)

(6)

0)
(0
4,983,808
5,076,084
5,544,343
6,106,169
6,557,858
6,911,426
7,080,354
7,319,163
8,082,609
8,882,601
9,594,237
10,151,904
0)

0)
0)
1,780,001
1,847,393
2,000,833
2,243,945
2,482,611
2,686,681
2,896,870
3,091,594
3,621,186
4,102,901
4,746,050
5,147,199
0)

0)
(0
23,172
32,497
34,488
33,314
34,448
34,505
31,950
32,816
38,022
40,876
43,213
48,069
(0

1 Not available.
2 Estimate.
Col. 1 _____________________ Central Bureau o f Statistics, Industri (annual). Data from
the annual census o f production.
Cols. 2, 3 __________________Central Bureau of Statistics, AUnian Manads Statistik
(m onthly).
A p p e n d ix T a b l e 8 B .

SWEDEN.

Aggregate compensation
(thousands of kronor)
All
employees

Wage
earners

(7)

Employment

(8)

2 4,744,099 23,515,346
2 5,762,146 2 4,295,781
6,786,981
5,006,980
6,955,974
5,108,581
7,579,664
5,578,831
6,139,483
8,383,428
9,074,917
6,592,306
9,632,612
6,945,931
10,009,174
7,112,304
10,443,573
7,351,979
11,741,817
8,120,631
13,026,378
8,923,477
14,383,500
9,637,450
15,347,172 10,199,973
216,695,950 210,969,276

Wage
earners

Year

(1)
1950_______
1951_______
1952_______
1953__..........
1954..............
1955..............
1956..............
1957_______
1958............
1959..............
1960.........
1961_______
1962_______
1963_______
1964.............

K)
ZD

82.1
85.8
84.2
85.0
88.7
94.2
97.5
100.0
102.1
107.9
119.2
128.0
135.5
143.0
157.0

Index of aggregate
compensation
All
employees
(2)
49.3
59.8
70.5
72.2
78.7
87.0
94.2
100.0
103.9
108.4
121.9
135.2
149.3
159.3
»173.3

Wage
earners
(3)
50.6
61.8
72.1
73.5
80.3
88.4
94.9
100.0
102.4
105.8
116.9
128.5
138.7
146.8
i 157.8

(4)
95.1
98.3
96.1
93.3
97.5
100.5
100.0
100.0
98.0
97.9
102.3
105.6
106.4
105.6
(1
2
)

Salary
earners
(thousands)

(9)

(10)

(11)

(12)

(13)

143,100
149,306
151,335
151,974
159,729
166,608
172,515
177,235
180,035
185,107
196,907
211,222
221,665
227,766
0)

1,384,018
1,427,730
1,384,715
1,334,053
1,391,818
1,430,873
1,409,168
1,399,137
1,357,618
1,345,641
1,399,140
1,427,659
1,419,199
1,393,183
0)

297,648
310,556
314,777
316,106
332,236
346,545
358,831
368,649
374,467
385,022
409,567
439,342
461,063
473,753
0)

1,681,666
1,738,286
1,699,492
1,650,159
1,724,054
1,777,418
1,767,999
1,767,786
1,732,085
1,730,663
1,808,707
1,867,001
1,880,262
1,866,936
0)

Cols. 4, 5, 6 _______________ Central Bureau o f Statistics, Industri (annual).
Col. 7 ___________ - _____ ___Cols. 4 ~j- 5 *4“ 6.
Col. 8 _____________________Col. 4 + col. 6.
Cols. 9, 10, 11 ____________ Central Bureau o f Statistics, Industri (annual).
Col. 1 2 _ - _________________Col. 10 X 40 hours X 52 weeks.
_
Col. 1 3 _____________________Col. 11 - f col. 12.

I n d e x e s of U n it L abor C o st, O u t p u t per M a n - h o u r , a n d A verage

Index of aggregate
hours of work

j
All
employees

Wage
earners
(thousands)

Total hours
of all
employees
(thousands)

649,469
663,135
648,173
631,878
656,628
676,350
676,539
671,397
661,208
665,143
698,680
719,166
718,260
711,077
0)

H o u r ly C o m p e n s a t io n in M a n u f a c t u r in g a n d M in in g ,
[1957=100]

Index of
production
in manu­
facturing
and mining

Salary
earners

Aggregate annual
hours of work

Wage
earners
(5)
98.9
102.0
99.0
95.3
99.5
102.3
100.0
100.0
97.0
96.2
100.0
102.0
101.4
99.6
(2
)

Index of unit
labor cost
All
employees
(6)
60.0
69.7
83.7
84.9
88.7
92.4
96.6
100.0
101.8
100.5
102.3
105.6
110.2
111.3
i 110.4

1 Estimate.
2 Not available.
Cols. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 __________ Indexes o f respective series appearing in appendix table 8A.
Col. 6 ---------------------------------- Col. 2 -r- col. 1.
Col. 7 ---------------------------------- Col. 3 -r- col. 1.
Col. 8 _______________________Col. 1 -r- col. 4.

Index of output
per man-hour

Wage
earners
(7)
61.6
72.0
85.6
86.4
90.5
93.8
97.3
100.0
100.3
98.1
98.1
100.4
102.4
102.7
i 100.5
Col.
Col.
Col.
Col.
Col.

1950-64

9
10
11
12
13

All
employees
(8)
86.3
87.3
87.6
91.1
91.0
93.7
97.5
100.0
104.2
110.2
116.5
121.2
127.3
135.4
(2
)

Wage
earners
(9)
83.0
84.1
85.1
89.2
89.1
92.1
97.5
100.0
105.3
112.2
119.2
125.5
133.6
143.6
(2
)

____________________ Col. 1
___________________ Col, 7
____________________Index
___________________ Col. 8
_______ - ___________ Index

Average compensation of
Average compensation of
all employees per man-hour wage-earners per man-hour
In kronor

Index

In kronor

Index

(10)

(11)

(12)

(13)

2.82
3.31
3.99
4.22
4.40
4.72
5.13
5.45
5.78
6.03
6.49
6.98
7.65
8.22
(2
)

51.7
60.7
73.4
77.4
80.7
86.6
99.2
100.0
106.0
110.7
119.2
128.0
140.3
150.8
(2
)

2.54
3.01
3.62
3.83
4.01
4.29
4.68
4.96
5.24
5.46
5.80
6.25
6.79
7.32
(2
)

51.2
60.7
72.8
77.1
80.7
86.4
94.9
100.0
105.6
110.0
116.9
126.0
136.8
147.6
(2
)

~ col. 5.
r*
(table 8A) -r- col. 13 (table 8 A ).
o f col. 10.
(table 8A)
col. 11 (table 8A ).
o f col. 12.




A ppendix T able 9A. UNITED KINGDOM. B asic D ata on P roduction, L abor Compensation ,
E mployment, and H ours op W ork in Manufacturing , 1950-64

00
o

Gross product originating in manufacturing
Year

Current value
(millions of
pounds)

Constant value
(millions of 1958
pounds)

Implicit price
deflator for
manufacturing
(1958=100)

Aggregate wages
and salaries
(millions of pounds)

Aggregate
supplements,
all employees
(millions of pounds)

Ratio of
supplements to
wages and salaries
(percent)

( 7)

(1)

Year

(2)

( 3)

( 4)

( 5)

( 6)

4,161
4,725
4,738
5,116
5,618
6,169
6,505
6,890
7,003
7,484
8,257
8,556
8,711
9,098
10,114

1950
1951.
1952
1953
1954.
1955
1956.
1957.
1958
1959.
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964

5,742
6,023
5,812
6,163
6,583
7,003
6,933
7,073
7,003
7,423
8,053
8,053
8,053
8,404
9,104

72.5
78.4
81.5
83.0
85.3

2,460
2,743
2,976
3,194
3,450
3,806
4,119
4,371
4,502
4,745
5,221
5,599
5,765
5,940
6,495

118
138
151
167
177
198
219
232
269
279
294
337
368
393
431

4.80
5.03
5.07
5.23
5.13
5.20
5.32
5.31
5.98
5.88
5.63

Aggregate
supplements for
wage earners
(millions of
pounds)

( 8)
1950.
1951.
1952.
1953.
1954.
1955.
1956.
1957
1958.
1959
1960
1961.
1962
1963.
1964

90
101

103
123
131
146
160
168
191
197
208
242
253
268
295

88.1

93.8
97.4
100.0
100.8

102.5
106.2
108.2
108.3
111.1

Aggregate compensation

Employment (thousands)

6.02

6.38
6.61
6.64

Average weekly
hours of work

Aggregate wages
(millions of pounds)

1,812
2,016
2,166
2.357
2,549
2,812
3,016
3,164
3,200
3.357
3,691
3,903
3,960
4,054
4,437

Aggregate annual hours of work

All employees
(millions of
pounds)

Wage earners
(millions of
pounds)

Salaried
employees

Wage earners

Wage earners

( 9)

( 10)

(ID

( 12)

(13)

(14)

(15)

45.9
46.3
45.9
46.3
46.7
47.0
46.8
46.6
46.2
46.6
46.2
45.7
45.3
45.4
45.8

17,022
17,562
17,365
17,722
18,083
18,615
18,646
18,570
18,111
18,235
18,756
18,827
18,539
18,367
18,697

14,464
14,879
14,536
14,831
15,129
15,495
15,380
15,242
14,679
14,782
15,147
15,031
14,687
14,519
14,766

2,578
2,881
3,127
3,361
3,627
4,004
4,338
4,603
4,771
5,024
5,515
5,936
6,133
6,333
6,926

1,902
2,117
2,269
2,480
2,680
2,958
3,176
3,332
3,391
3,554
3,899
4,145
4,213
4,322
4,732

Cols. 1, 2 __________________Central Statistical Office, National Income and Expenditure
(annu al).
Col. 3 _____________________ Col. 1 -r- col. 2.
Cols. 4, 5 __________________Central Statistical Office, National Income and Expenditure.
Col. 6 _____________________ Col. 5 -r- col. 4.
Col. 7 _____________________ Central Statistical Office, National Income and Expenditure.
coi.’ 8
___________ coi. 6 x coi. 7.

1,230
1,290
1,360
1,390
1,420
1,500
1,570
1,600
1,650
1,660
1,735
1,825
1,855
1,850
1,890

6,060
6,180
6,090
6,160
6,230
6,340
6,320
6,290
6,110
6,100

6,305
6,325
6,235
6,150
6,200

All employees
(millions)

Wage earners
(millions)

Col. 9 ______________________Central Statistical Office, National Income and Expenditure.
Also, col. 4 -f- col. 5.
Col. 1 0 _____________________Col. 7 + col. 8.
„
_ ^
...
Cols. 11, 12 _______________ Central Statistical Office, National Income and Expenditure.
Col. 13 1___________________ Ministry of Labour, Ministry of Labour Gazette.
Col 1 4 ____________________ Col. 11 X 40 hours X 52 weeks + col. 15.
Col. 1 5 ____________________ Col. 12 X col. 13 X 52 weeks.

A ppendix T able 9B.
and

UNITED KINGDOM. I ndexes of U nit L abor Cost, Output per Man - hour,
A verage H ourly Compensation in Manufacturing , 1950-64
[1957=1001

Index of aggregate
compensation

Index of aggregate
hours of work

Index of output
per man-hour

Index of unit
labor cost

1950_______
1951_______
1952_______
1953_______
1954...........
1955_______
1956..............
1957.........
1958_______
1959_______
1960_______
1961..............
1962 ............
1968_______
1964_______

All
employees

Wage
earners

All
employees

Wage
earners

All
employees

Wage
earners

All
employees

(1)

Year

Index of
constantvalue gross
product
in manu­
facturing

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

88.5
90.0
87.9
91.3
95.6
98.8
97.6
100.0
101.5
106.9
112.8
112.3
114.1
120.1
127.8

85.6
87.2
86.2
89.5
93.8
97.3
97.1
100.0
102.8
108.2
114.6
115.5
118.3
124.7
132.8

81.2
85.1
82.2
87.1
93.1
99.0
98.0
100.0
99.0
105.0
113.9
113.9
113.9
118.8
128.7

56.0
62.6
68.0
73.1
78.8
87.0
94.3
100.0
103.7
109.2
119.8
128.9
133.2
137.6
150.5

Cols. 1. 2, 3, 4, 5 ________ Indexes
9A.
Col. 6 _______________________ Coi. 2
Col. 7 _______________________ Col. 3
Col. 8 _______________________ Col. 1

00




57.1
63.4
68.1
74.4
80.4
88.8
95.3
100.0
101.8
106.7
117.0
124.4
126.4
129.7
142.0

91.7
94.6
93.5
95.4
97.4
100.2
100.4
100.0
97.5
98.2
101.0
101.4
99.8
98.9
100.7

94.9
97.6
95.4
97.3
99.3
101.7
100.9
100.0
96.3
97.0
99.4
98.6
96.3
95.3
96.9

69.0
73.6
82.7
83.9
84.6
87.9
96.2
100.0
104.7
104.0
105.2
113.2
116.9
115.8
116.9

o f respective series appearing in appendix table
-f-col. 1.
-r-col. 1.
-r-col. 4.

70.3
74.5
82.8
85.4
86.4
89.7
97.2
100.0
102.8
101.6
103.4
109.2
111.0
109.2
110.3
Col.
Col.
Col.
Col.
Col.

9 ____
10 —
11 —
12 —
13 —

Wage
earners

Average compensation of
Average compensation of
all employees per man-hour wage earners per man-hour
In pounds

(10)
0.1515
.1640
.1801
.1897
.2006
.2151
.2327
.2479
.2634
.2755
.2940
.3153
.3308
.3458
.3704

Index

(ID
61.1
66.2
72.7
76.5
80.9
86.8
93.9
100.0
106.3
111.1
118.6
127.2
133.4
139.1
149.4

In pounds

(12)
0.1313
.1 4 0 0
14£o
•
loot)
. 1 & 7O
10
.1771
1 QAO

.2065
.2186
.2310
.2404
.2574
,2758
.2869
.2977
.3205

Col. 1 -r- col. 5.
Col. 9 (table 9A) -r- col. 14 (table 9 A ).
Index o f col. 10.
Col. 10 (table 9A) -r- col. 15 (table 9A ).
Index of col. 12.

Index

(13)
60.2
65.0
71.4
76.5
81.0
87.3
94.5
100.0
105.7
110.0
117.7
1
9
1 6 0 ,u
1Q 1 «£
lo l O
136.2
146.6




S E L E C T E D B IB L IO G R A P H Y
General
Organization for European Economic Co-operation. A Standardized System of
National Accounts. Paris, 1959.
United Nations. National Accounting Practices in Sixty Countries. Provisional
issue. New York, 1964. (Studies in Methods, Series F, No. 11).
Canada
Dominion Bureau of Statistics. Canada Yearbook (annual). Ottawa.
------ . Canadian Statistical Review (monthly). Ottawa.
_____General Review of the Manufacturing Industries of Canada (annual).
Ottawa.
------ . National Accounts Income and Expenditure (annual). Ottawa.
------ . Revised Index of Industrial Production, 1935—
1957. Ottawa, 1959. (Refer­
ence Paper No. 61-502)
France
Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques. “ Les Comptes de la
Nation,” Etudes et Conjoncture (Paris), July 1965 and selected earlier issues.
------ . “ Methods de la Comptabilite Nationale: Cadres et definitions de la base
1959,” etudes et Conjoncture (Paris), March 1966, whole issue.
------ . “ Les salaires dans l’industrie, le commerce et les services,” Etudes Statistiques (Paris), April-June 1964 and selected earlier issues.
------ . “ Les salaires dans l’industrie, le commerce et les services en 1963,” Etudes et
Conjoncture (Paris), November 1965, pp. 1-74.
------ . “ Les salaires dans l’industrie, le commerce et les services en 1964,” Etudes
et Conjoncture (Paris), Supplement No, 2, February 1966, pp. 21-24.
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. General Statistics
(Paris), January 1965, whole issue.
------ . National Accounts Statistics, 1955-6J+. Paris, 1966. Pp. 66-73.
------ . Statistics of National Accounts, 1950-61. Paris, 1964. Pp. 87-94.
Germany
Statistisches Bundesamt. Statistisches Jahrbuch (annual). Wiesbaden.
------ . Social product account data. Wirtschaft und Statistik (Wiesbaden), Jan­
uary or February issue of each year.
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. National Accounts Sta­
tistics, 1955-6U. Paris, 1966. Pp. 74-81.
------ . Statistics of National Accounts, 1950-61. Paris, 1964. Pp. 95-102.
32

Selected Bibliography—Continued
Italy
Ministero del Lavoro e della Previdenza Sociale. Statistiche del Lavoro (quarter­
ly). Rome.
------ . Supplemento al BoUettino Statistiche del Lavoro (monthly). Rome.
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. National Accounts Sta­
tistics, 1955-64. Paris, 1966. Pp. 106-113.
------ . Statistics of National Accounts, 1950-61. Paris, 1964. Pp. 127-134.
Japan
Economic Planning Agency. The Measures Concerning Improvement of National
Economic Accounting. Tokyo, 1966 (Bulletin 14).
------ . White Paper on National Income (annual). Tokyo. (In Japanese)
Ministry of Labor. Japan Yearbook of Labor Statistics (annual). Tokyo.
Netherlands
Central Bureau voor de Statistiek. Jaarcijfers voor Nederland (annual). The
Hague.
------ . Nationale rekeningen (annual). The Hague.
------ . National Accounts of the Netherlands, 1960. The Hague, 1961 (Statistical
Studies No. 11).
Sweden
Ministry of Finance, Economic Division, and National Institute of Economic Re­
search. The Swedish Economy (quarterly). Stockholm.
Statistiska Centralbry&n. Industri (annual). Stockholm.
------ . Statistik Arsbok (annual). Stockholm.
United Kingdom
Central Statistical Office. The Index of Industrial Production. London, 1959.
------ . National Income and Expenditure (annual). London.
------ . National Income Statistics: Sources and Methods. London, 1956.
United States
Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. Federal Reserve Bulletin
(monthly). Washington.
------ . Industrial Production Indexes, 1961-1964. Washington, 1965.
------ . Industrial Production Measurement in the United States: Concepts, Uses,
and Compilation Practices. Washington, 1964.
------ . Industrial Production, 1957-59 Base. Washington, 1962.
U.S. Department of Commerce, Office of Business Economics. “ Advance in Salaries
as a Portion of Manufacturing Payrolls,” Survey of Current Business (Wash­
ington), May 1962, pp. 11-13.
------ . “ GNP by Major Industries,” Survey of Current Business (Washington),
October 1963, pp. 6-18, and September 1964, pp. 19-20.




33




Selected Bibliography—Continued
United States— Continued
U.S. Department of Commerce, Office of Business Economics. National Income.
1954 edition. Washington, 1954.
_____National Income. 1954 edition. Washington, 1954.
_____Survey of Current Business (Washington), National income number (an­
nually in July).
------ . U.S. Income and Output. Washington, 1958.
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Employment and Earnings
Statistics for the United States, 1909-1965. Washington, 1965. (Bulletin 1309)
------ . Trends in Output per Man-hour in the Private Economy, 1907-58. Wash­
ington, 1959. (Bulletin 1249)
------ . “ Unit Labor Cost in Nine Countries. I. Recent Unit Cost Trends in U.S.
Manufacturing,” Monthly Labor Review (Washington), September 1965, pp,
1056-1068,

ib

34

II. 8 .

GOVERNMENT

P R IN T IN G O F P IC E :

1966— O 2 2 2 - 3 8 3