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UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR F rances P erk in s, Secretary B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S Isador L u b in , Commissioner (o n lea v e ) A . F. H in rich s, A cting Commissioner + Union Membership and Collective Bargaining by Foremen B ulletin T^o. 745 (R e p rin te d fro m th e M o n t h ly L a b or R e v i e w Tune 1943, w i t h additional data] U N IT E D S T A T E S G O V E R N M E N T P R I N T I N G OFFIC E W A S H IN G T O N : 1943 F o r sale b y th e S u p erin ten d en t o f D ocu m en ts, U . S. G o v e r n m e n t P rin tin g O ffice W ash in g ton , D . C . - P rice 5 cen ts LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL U n it e d States D epartm ent of L abo r, B u r e a u of L a b o r S t a t is t ic s , C., Washington, D. C.y June 9, 1943. The S e c r e t a r y o f L a b o r : I have the honor to transmit herewith a report on union membership and c col lective bargaining by foremen. This report is based on a study of the constil constitu tions of approximately 200 international labor unions, as well as studies made by persons outside the Government service. Monthly This bulletin, a portion of which appeared in the June 1943 issue of the Monti Labor Review, was prepared in the Industrial Relations Division under the ii immediate supervision of Florence Peterson, Chief. A. F. H i n r i c h s , Acting Commissioner. Hon. F r a n c e s P e r k i n s , Secretary of Labor. CONTENTS Page Industries where foremen are customarily excluded from production workers’ unions______________________________________________________ Unions composed solely of foremen and supervisors_____________________ Industries where foremen customarily belong to unions__________________ Printing trades___________________________________________________ Building trades____________________________________________________ Metal trades______________________________________________________ Maritime industry_______________________________________ Railroad industry________________________________________ Foremen and supervisors in British trade-unions________________________ A p p e n d i x . — Union constitutions which referto foremen________________ Unions composed solely of foreman andsupervisors_________________ Unions which include both foremen and production workers_________ Unions which exclude foremen__________________ it 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 4 5 6 6 7 9 Bulletin 7S[o. 745 o f the U nited States Bureau o f Labor Statistics fReprinted from the M onthly L abor R eview , June 1943, with additional data.] UNION MEMBERSHIP AND COLLECTIVE BARGAINING BY FOREMEN T H E membership of supervisory personnel in labor organizations and their inclusion under collective-bargaining agreements are not new developments. Practice differs widely as between industries and unions, and in many cases within industries and among the various locals of international unions. The general outlines are clear, how ever, and can be summarized as follows: 1. Exclusion of foremen and supervisors from membership in unions which include the production workers is the general rule in the mass-production industries, such as the manufacture of steel, auto mobiles, electrical products, rubber, and clothing. Some of the agreements, however, cover “ working” foremen and supervisors such as section or unit leaders. 2. Separate organization by supervisory groups has long been the practice in the maritime industry, in parts of the railroad industry, and in the Postal Service. 3. Foreman membership in unions and the inclusion of foremen under agreements covering production workers are general in the printing and building trades, in the metal trades insofar as they operate on a craft basis, in many of the railroad trades, and to a greater or lesser extent, among the teamsters, longshoremen, and others. Industries W here Foremen A re Custom arily Excluded Production W orkers’ Unions From In a majority of the mass-production industries, foremen and super visory officials do not belong to the unions to which the men who work under them belong, although some are members of unions of their own. Also, foremen are specifically excluded from coverage under most of the collective agreements which cover production and maintenance workers. The line of distinction, however, is not always clearly defined and m ay not be uniform from plant to plant even in the same industry. For instance, in some cases the term “ mana gerial position” or “ supervisor” m ay be interpreted to exclude some foremen or section leaders. In other plants these persons may be considered as a part of the supervisory staff. Usually, if there is a dispute between the employer and union over the question of inter pretation, the matter is taken up through the grievance machinery as provided in the agreement, and thus an arbitrator makes the final determination. 537306—43 1 2 UNION MEMBERSHIP OF FOREMEN Typical agreement clauses relating to the status of foremen are— The employer agrees to employ none but members of the union, excepting office workers and employees engaged in any kind of managerial position. The company recognizes the union as the sole collective-bargaining agency for all its production and maintenance employees, excluding superintendents, fore men, and technicians. W here foremen are excluded from coverage in the employer-union contract it is by decision jointly arrived at through collective bar gaining. In such cases a union in one plant may include certain groups of employees which might be excluded in another plant with which the same union has an agreement. W here a union’s constitu tion excludes certain types of workers, the practice throughout the union’s jurisdiction would tend to be uniform, but there is the possi bility of varying interpretations from plant to plant. The constitutions of at least 37 international and national unions specifically exclude supervisors and foremen, although some of them permit subforemen, assistant foremen, and gang or section bosses to be members. The constitutions of 120 unions do not mention fore men. Presumably most of these exclude foremen from membership, although some of their locals may include foremen in the absence of a constitutional provision debarring them. Unions Composed Solely o f Foremen and Supervisors Nine long-established unions are composed solely of persons of fore man and supervisory rank. Some of these unions are unaffiliated, and others are affiliated with either the American Federation of Labor or the Congress of Industrial Organizations. Three are organ izations of licensed maritime personnel, two include yardmasters and supervisors in the railroad industry, one is composed of master me chanics and foremen of navy yards, and three are composed of super visory personnel in the Postal and Railway M ail service. In addition to the long-established unions are several independent foremen’s unions which have recently been organized. One of these, the Foremen’s Association of America, signed an agreement with the Ford M otor Co. in M arch 1943, which covers six classifications of foremen, ranging from shop foremen supervising 30 men to general foremen supervising 150 men. This union has also recently won a consent election at the Packard M otor Car Co. Industries W here Foremen Custom arily Belong to Unions There are at present 29 unions which permit, and in some cases, re quire membership of foremen in the same union as production workers. In m ost of these unions the inclusion of foremen has been a long-stand ing practice. One union, the United M ine Workers of America, has only recently adopted the necessary rules for the acceptance of super visors into membership. M o st of the unions which include foremen under the same agreements covering production workers are in the printing and building trades, in the metal trades insofar as they operate on a craft basis, and in m any of the railroad trades. UNION MEMBERSHIP OF FOREMEN 3 PRINTING TRADES In both newspaper and book and job printing, union membership of foremen, under the closed-shop agreements, has been required since 1889. The practice is so thoroughly established that it now appears to be accepted as a matter of course. Contracts provide wage scales for foremen, and include foremen under other provisions. Foremen continue to have a voice and vote in the union, although they tend to become inactive members. A recent stu d y1notes that— 2 In early years, many publishers were strongly opposed to having their repre sentatives owe allegiance to the union. As contracts became more inclusive, however, and rights of both employers and unions more clearly defined, publishers in general ceased to object. They are now chiefly concerned lest foremen should be subject to union discipline for differing with the local union in the interpreta tion of the terms of a contract. The internationals generally recognize the justice of the publishers* position and a method is provided for the joint settle ment of such disputes. The unions do not, however, forego their right to disci pline foremen for disobeying laws relating to internal union matters, or for deliberately disregarding union rules. Although there is still occasional complaint that some locals attempt, by disciplining foremen, to enforce conditions not pro vided for in contracts, the practice is not so common as to constitute a major issue. * * * The foreman represents the employer in dealing with grievances arising in his department. He settles many day-to-day grievances and complaints with the chapel (local) chairman, without recourse to the joint standing committee or to arbitration. * * * In book and job printing the union membership of foremen is so thoroughly established that it does not become an issue except occasionally in a newly organ ized plant. It is clearly recognized that the foreman’s first responsibility is to management. His duty to the union is to administer the agreement fairly in the plant. There are advantages in this system in that the foreman, necessarily a skilled man himself, is thoroughly acquainted with the problems of the men and with the union agreement and rules. He is in good position, therefore, to inter pret the union’s position to management, and vice versa. However, the fact that he may be disciplined by the union, if the union considers that he has violated the agreement or a union rule, is a source of difficulty in some cases. Fear of union discipline sometimes interferes with a foreman’s efficiency, although the strong foreman is little affected. There is in some cases a need for more thorough protection of foremen from union discipline for carrying out office orders, pending determination of an issue through the negotiation or arbitration machinery. BUILDING TRADES Nearly all the building-trades unions require foremen to be union members. Foremen usually work with tools along with the men they supervise. Union contracts therefore often regulate their wages, hours, ratio to journeymen, and the conditions under which they may use tools. Foremen are considered agents of the employer, with power to hire and fire under the terms of the contract. They are under the control of the union, howT ever, to the extent that foremen who violate union rules are suspended and this automatically ends their foremanship. The following statement, written in 1929,3 is in all probability largely true today: The employer objects to such rules (regulating foremen’s work) chiefly because the union reserves the right to discipline the foreman for his conduct on the job. A foreman convicted of “ rushing” is subject to stricter discipline than a worker guilty of the same offense. His activities on the job are often subject to review by the union; workers may file complaints against him. Conviction results in 1 H ow Collective Bargaining Works. New York, Twentieth Century Fund, 1942, pp. 67, 68, 147. » Industrial Relations in the Building Industry, by William Haber. Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1930, p. 218. 4 UNION MEMBERSHIP OF FOREMEN suspension from foreman’s duties for a period of time, a fine, and frequently even suspension from the union. These limitations on the foreman’s power restrict his supervisory initiative and deprive the employer of much of the value of his services. Recently, by giving the right of reviewing a foreman’s activities to a joint trade board, this objection has been partly met. METAL TRADES Although the practice is less uniform in the metal trades than in printing and building, the tradition among the metal-trades unions is to require foremen to be union members, and to establish wage rates for them. Thus, in shipyards under agreements signed by A . F. of L. metal-trades councils, foremen as well as working foremen are usually required to be union members. Machinists generally expect foremen to be members until they become “ general foremen,” or superintend ents. Some agreements require membership only of “ working fore m en,” however. Foremen may attend meetings and have a vote in the union, although there are sometimes restrictions upon holding office. W hen the A . F. of L . metal-trades unions, especially the machinists and the electrical workers, organize on an industrial basis, they gener ally follow- the usual practice in the mass-production industries, that is, they exclude foremen from agreements which cover production and maintenance employees. The point at which the break is made, between minor supervisors who are covered and supervisors who are excluded, depends upon local conditions. MARITIME INDUSTRY The general practice in the maritime industry is for the unlicensed seamen to make up one unit, and for officers to be separately organ ized and to constitute separate bargaining units. T he N ational Organ ization of Masters, M ates and Pilots (A. F. of L .), United Licensed Officers (independent), and National Marine Engineers’ Beneficial Association (C. I. O .) are all unions of supervisory groups which bargain separately. Practice is not uniform, however, and there are cases where agreements of the above officers’ organizations cover un licensed personnel. For example, an agreement of the Marine D i vision, International Longshoremen’s Association, covering tugboats in the Port of New Y ork, covers all personnel from captain to deckhand. RAILROAD INDUSTRY There is extensive organization of supervisory personnel in the railroad industry. The practice varies, however, as to type of organi zation. Some foremen and supervisors are organized into unions of their own; in some crafts they belong to the same unions as the men whom they supervise. The National Mediation Board has not con sidered this a problem. It normally accepts the “ class” or “ craft” as a bargaining unit with whatever inclusions or exclusions have become the general practice in the industry or by agreement of the contesting unions. In engine service the engineers and firemen are usually, but not always, in separate unions. The engineers, of course, are in a super visory position to the firemen; likewise, the conductors are in a supervisory position to brakemen. They are in separate bargaining units although not always in separate unions. UNION MEMBERSHIP OF FOREMEN 5 In yard service some of the yardmasters belong to the yardmasters’ unions, although others are members of the train-service and the switchmen’s unions. The yard foremen, together with the helpers and switch tenders, are normally affiliated with either the trainmen’s or switchmen’s union. The agreements of the railway clerks, telegraphers, and signalmen cover both the supervisors and the men under them, although these agreements (like others on the railroads) often have a supplementary list of “ excepted positions” including higher supervisory jobs. In the maintenance-of-way service, foremen are included in the same union and bargaining unit as the laborers. These latter agreements, however, exclude supervisors in the track department and general foremen in the bridge and building department. The seven craft unions in railroad shops include “ leader men” as well as stationary engineers who act in part as supervisors. The foremen in the railroad shops are organizing in increasing numbers into a union of their own— the American Railway Supervisors’ Association. Some supervisors and mechanics belong to a separate unit under the A . F. of L . Railway Employees’ Department. Foremen and Supervisors in British Trade-U nions Recent information received by the Bureau of Labor Statistics contains the following statement as to the situation of foremen and supervisors in British trade-unions:4 The organization of supervisory grades of workers in ordinary unions has increased in recent years. The Trades Union Congress recognizes nonmanual workers as a separate group among its affiliates and gives them separate representa tion on the General Council. The group comprises 12 unions, with a total membership of 140,000 workers in banking and insurance, clerks', actors', film artists', musicians', and theatrical workers' unions, and includes medical practi tioners, cinetechnicians, and scientific workers. Unions in other groups of the T. U. C. cater for supervisory grades, swelling the total numbers. The mining group includes union colliery deputies (foremen underground). Superintendents and administrative workers are free to join the railway unions, and many do. The transport group, besides the railways, in cludes the Navigators and Engineer Officers Union, and the Radio Officers Union, while the transport workers have an administrative section. The engineering group includes the Electrical Power Engineers, the Association of Engineering and Shipbuilding Draughtsmen, the Engineer Surveyors Association, and the Association of Supervisory Staffs and Engineering Technicians. Other craft unions admit foremen as members, union members sometimes declining to work under nonunion foremen. In printing and composing, room heads, cor rectors, etc., are embraced by the unions. The Journalists Union is open to editors but not to owners. Many craft unions in other industries include foremen and supervisory grades. The Association of Supervisory Staffs and Engineering Technicians was formerly a small association of foremen, but changed its title and broadened its basis last year. Its membership has since quadrupled and is now 10,000. It covers supervisory grades, technicians, planning and production engineers, and personnel managers in engineering, shipbuilding, and transport. It maintains that these are workers and not owners, and have the same right to unionize as the employees they supervise; and it has won recognition from varied types of employers. It feels that a new drive is needed to unionize managers in mass industry who have hitherto not been very “ union conscious," as well as artisan foremen and semiprofessional technicians.* * Copy of a letter dated March 25, 1943, from British Information Services (an agency of the British Government), Information Division. 6 UNION MEMBERSHIP OF FOREMEN A ppendix .— Union Constitutions Which Refer to Foremen The constitutional provisions of the international and national unions which include references to foremen are summarized in the following pages. Excluded are the recently organized foremen’s unions as well as constitutional revisions which have been made dur ing the last few months. The unions are listed as follows: (a) Nine unions which are composed solely of persons of foremen and supervisory rank. (b) Twenty-nine unions which permit, and in some cases require, membership of foremen in the same union as production workers. (c) Thirty-seven unions which exclude foremen and general supervisors, although working foremen and minor supervisors are admitted in some instances. The constitutions of the remaining international and national unions (approximately 120) do not mention foremen. Presumably m ost of these exclude foremen from membership, although some of their locals m ay include foremen in the absence of a constitutional provision debarring them. U N IO N S COM POSED SO LE LY OF FOREM EN A N I) S U P E R V IS O R S 1 Maritime Unions National Marine Engineers* Beneficial Association (C. I. ().). Organized in 1875. Composed of licensed or commissioned marine engineers on vessels, boats, barges, scows, or any other craft flying the American flag, propelled by steam, gas, oil, electricity, or m achinery of any kind. National Organization Masters, Mates, and Pilots of America (A. F. of L .). Organized in 1887. Composed of officially licensed masters, mates and pilots of lake, bay, river, and ocean steamers and sailing vessels, and operators of motorboats. United Licensed Officers of the United States of America (A. F. of L.). Organized in 1933. Successor of the Neptune Association organized in 1912, and the Ocean Association established in 1918. Composed of licensed deck and engine-room officers on vessels. Railroad Unions 2 Railroad Yardmasters of America (unaffiliated). Organized in 1918. Composed of general yardmasters, assistant general yardmasters, yardmasters, assistant yardmasters, and stationmasters. American Railway Supervisors Association, Inc. (unaffiliated). Organized in 1934. Composed of supervisors as defined by the Interstate Commerce Commission. Governm ent National Association of Master Mechanics and Foremen of Navy Yards and Navy Stations (A. F. of L.) Organized in 1905. Composed of “ the supervisory force of Government navy yards and naval stations.” 1 See page 2 for recently established foremen’s unions. 2 To the extent that the engineers are in a supervisory position over the firemen, the Brotherhood of Loco motive Engineers could be included. Since conductors have supervisory responsibility over the brakemen and also have final responsibility over all the train service, the Order of Railway Conductors could also be considered a foremen’s union. UNION MEMBERSHIP OF FOREMEN 7 National Association of Postal Supervisors (unaffiliated). Organized in 1008. Composed of “ the supervisory grades of the United States Postal Service . . . All classified postal employees above the clerk-carrier grade and postmasters promoted to that position from the classified service.” National League of District Postmasters of the United States (unaffiliated). Organized in 1894. Composed of postmasters and assistant postmasters of third- and fourth-class post offices. National Council of Officials of the Railway Mail Service (unaffiliated). Organized in 1922. Composed of superintendents, assistant superintendents, chief clerks, assistant chief clerks and clerks in charge of sections of the United States Railway Mail Service. Foremen's Locals In addition to the above national organizations are a number of local unions which are composed solely of supervisors, as indicated below. There are probably additional foremen’s locals of which the Bureau has no special knowledge. Textile Foremen's Guild, Paterson, New Jersey, Local of the Textile Workers Union (C. I. O.). Organized several years ago. “ Composed only of technicians, including technicians who have the right to hire and fire.” Supervisors of Mechanics (A. F. of L. Railway Labor Department). Organized 1940. Composed of supervisors in railroad repair shops. UNIONS WHICH INCLUDE BOTH FOREMEN AND PRODUCTION WORKERS American Federation of Labor Barbers, Hairdressers and Cosmetologists' International Union of America, the Journeymen. Any competent journeyman barber is eligible who is actively engaged at the trade. An employer is construed to be any person or persons who either owns, manages, or operates a barbershop. A beneficiary member becoming an employer is not entitled to vote or sit in meetings and is ineligible for office. Blacksmiths, Drop Forgers and Helpers, International Brotherhood of. Any blacksmith, “ employing not to exceed three blacksmiths,” is eligible. Bookbinders, International Brotherhood of. All bindery foremen are eligible and must be members. Bricklayers, Masons and Plasterers International Union of America. “ Foremen shall be practical mechanics and be members of the union.” Carpenters and Joiners of America, United Brotherhood of. When a member contracts work or becomes a foreman, he must comply with union rules and hire none but members. To be eligible for office, members must be working at the trade. Cigarmakers' International Union of America. Foremen eligible. Fire Fighters, International Association of. Jurisdiction apparently covers all employed in fire houses, but one clause refers to the fact that local unions may drop from their active membership all members who may hereafter be promoted to the supervisory grades and, further, that such members may become honorary members. Hatters, Cap and Millinery Workers' International Union, United. Foremen and foreladies shall not be eligible to serve as officers, by implication they remain members. Lathers, International Union of Wood, Wire and Metal. Includes foremen, superintendents. 8 UNION MEMBERSHIP OF FOREMEN Leather Workers’ International Union, United. Membership covered in general terms. Piece workers shall not be permitted to work any help of any kind. Retiring cards may be issued to foremen who have four or more journeymen under their charge. Lithographers of America, Amalgamated. Membership includes foremen. Molders and Foundry Workers Union of North America, International. Foremen may become members but no such member shall be eligible to election or to serve as a delegate to the convention or as delegate to any affiliate organiza tion, who is an employer, foreman, or assistant foreman. Active members who become foremen or employers may be granted an honorary card by local. Painters, Decorators and Paperhangers of America. Foremen may be members. Paper Makers, International Brotherhood of. Withdrawal cards may be issued to those who become superintendents. Fore men may remain members. Photo-Engravers Union of North America, International. Foremen must be members. Plasterers’ International Association of the United States and Canada, Operative. Foremen must be members. Potters, National Brotherhood of Operative. A general foreman or superintendent may retain membership by paying dues and assessments. He shall not attend meetings or hold office in the organization, but shall be entitled to benefits in time of trouble. Printing Pressmen’s and Assistants’ Union of North America, International. Foremen are members. Stereotypers and Electrotypers’ Union of North America, International. Foremen and assistant foremen are members. Switchmen’s Union of North America. Includes “ yard masters.” Congress o f Industrial Organizations Glass, Ceramic and Silica Sand Workers of America, Federation of. “ No member holding a position with the company as foreman shall be eligible to become a candidate for or hold any international office.” May hold local office subject to approval of International Executive Board. Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers, International Union of. “ Whenever a member of a local union shall become a superintendent, general foreman, or other executive, he shall lose all rights to a voice vote, or seat in the meetings of his local union, but may continue his membership as a beneficiary member, or upon application to the financial secretarj^, he may be granted a withdrawal card. Stone and Allied Products Workers of America, United. “ Persons employed exclusively in a managerial, executive, or supervisory capacity shall not be eligible to membership. This shall not affect the status of foremen who are already members of the union.” Unaffiliated Machinists, International Association of. Any member of the local lodge who has been appointed general foreman or superintendent may be transferred to the grand lodge, or take out a retiring card. Foremen remain active members. Mine Workers of America, United. “ International Executive Board may, in its discretion, provide rules and regula tions upon which supervisory and other employees may be admitted to member ship.” Railroad Signalmen, Brotherhood of. Foremen and inspectors admitted. Supervisory employees of higher rank granted withdrawal cards. UNION MEMBERSHIP OF FOREMEN 9 Railroad Trainmen, Brotherhood of. Jurisdiction covers: “ In road service— conductors, assistant conductors * * *” “ In yard service— Yard master, assistant yard master, yard conductor, foremen.” Train Dispatchers, American Association of. Superintendents become associate members. Typographical Union, International. “ All persons performing the work of foremen or journeymen, at any branch of the printing trade, in offices under the jurisdiction of the International Typo graphical Union, must be active members of the local union of their craft and entitled to all the privileges and benefits of membership.” U N IO N S W H IC H EXCLUDE FOREM EN3 The line of demarcation between ranks of supervisory persons is, of course, difficult to define in a general way. In many of the unions cited below “ working foremen,” “ gang leaders/’ etc., retain their membership. In general the exclusions pertain to those who have the power to hire and discharge. Am erican Federation o f Labor Asbestos Workers, International Association of Heat and Frost Insulators and. All persons (except employers, agents, or shop foremen) at work (as mechanics or improvers) are eligible. Foremen must take out withdrawal cards but may retain membership as far as death benefits are concerned. Coopers' International Union of North America. Employers or foremen who have authority to hire and fire, who work at the bench in union shops, “ shall be enrolled by the local unions (but not admitted) as members.” Glass Bottle Blowers’ Association. “ Members who become managers and foremen with authority to discharge must, in all cases, take out withdrawal cards.” Glass Workers’ Union, American Flint. Working foremen eligible. Others are not. Longshoremen’s Association, international. Working foremen eligible. Luggage, Belt and Novelty Workers Union. International Ladies Handbag. A union member who becomes an employer, foreman or manager, with the right to hire or fire, shall have his membership in the union terminated automatically. Maintenance of Way Employees, Brotherhood of. “ All employees * * * below the rank of supervisor in the track depart ment and general foremen in the bridge and building department * * * are eligible/’ (Standard agreement.) Meat Cutters and Butcher Workmen of North America, Amalgamated. In packing houses, “ * * * bookkeepers, office clerks, timekeepers, foremen other than working foremen, and managers of packers, branch houses are exempt.” In retail stores, supervisors are accepted, but may not be on committees nego tiating wages or working conditions with employers. Polishers, Buffers, Platers and Helpers’ International Union, Metal. Any man working at any branch of the business the same as the workingman under him should be a member of the organization. No person who is an absolute foreman, superintendent, or manager can be admitted to membership. This is defined as one who has the right of hiring or firing. Working foremen may not be shop stewards. Retail Clerks’ International Protective Association. Restricted to those actively engaged in handling and selling merchandise. Persons operating or managing, owning or leasing, where there are no clerks employed, are eligible as nonactive members, but cannot attend meetings and have no voice nor vote. 3 The constitutions of the remaining international and national unions (approximately 120) do not mention foremen. Presumably most of these exclude foremen from membership although some of their locals may include foremen in the absence of a constitutional provision debarring them. 10 UNION MEMBERSHIP OF FOREMEN Stonecutters’ Association of North America, Journeymen. All foremen who are journeyman workers and if working with the tools must be members. By implication, general foremen are excluded. Street and Electric Railway and Motor Coach Employees of America, Amalgamated Association of. No manager, superintendent, foreman, or other officers of a bus company, having rules to enforce, can be a member. Certain minor officials, such as starters, dispatchers, timekeepers, working with fellow workers, may retain membership but cannot attend meetings. Tobacco Workers’ International Union. No superintendent or general foreman is eligible for membership. Congress o f Industrial Organizations Architects, Engineers, Chemists and Technicians, Federation of. “ May admit to membership related office and supervisory workers in estab lishments where FAECT members are e m p l o y e d b u t “ no persons whose interests are deemed to be with the employers or administrators of public institutions as against the employees shall be eligible for membership, such eligibility to be determined by the local unions.” Automobile, Aircraft and Agricultural Implement Workers of America, United. “ No application shall be accepted from the one designated as the head of a department, directing company policy or having the authority to hire and dis charge workers. Members of the union who are promoted to such positions shall be issued a withdrawal card. Members promoted to minor positions where they work with their fellow workers and do not have the power of discipline by hiring or discharging employees may retain their membership at the discretion of the local union.” Clothing Workers of America, Amalgamated. “ No foreman or forewoman or any other person acting on behalf of an employer and having the power to hire or fire shall be eligible for membership.” Communications Association, American. ‘ ‘ E m ployers of com m unications workers and the agents of such employers including executives, officers, attorneys, general managers, and superintendents, investigators, and persons who shall have authority to hire and fire, not eligible r for membership.” Federal Workers of America, United. “ Elected officials, cabinet officers, members of the judiciary, department heads, or officials having major responsibility for hiring or dismissal, or for personnel matters” are not eligible for membership. Gas, Coke and Chemical Workers, United. “ No person having the power in the management of any plant or factory, to hire or fire shall be eligible for membership. Persons having supervisory powr er, excluding the right to hire and fire, shall be eligible to membership subject to the approval of the local union.” Hosiery Workers, American Federation of. (Branch of Textile Workers Union of America.) “ Any worker engaged in the manufacture of hosiery excepting those in a supervisory capacity shall be eligible as an applicant for membership.” Longshoremen’s and Warehousemen’s Union, International. Admits working foremen. Marine Cooks’ and Stewards’ Association of the Pacific Coast. Chief stewards, comparable to working foremen, are admitted to membership. Marine and Shipbuilding Workers of America, Industrial Union of. “ Foremen and supervisory or managerial employees of rank equal to or higher than foreman shall not be eligible for membership in the union.” Newspaper Guild, American. “ No person whose interests lie with the employer as against the employee shall be eligible.” Office and Professional Workers of America, United. “ No person whose interests are deemed to lie with the employer as against the employees shall be eligible for membership.” UNION MEMBERSHIP OF FOREMEN 11 Oil Workers International Union. “ When a member in good standing is promoted to a position outside the juris diction of the local agreement in effect at the plant where he is working, he will be given an honorable withdrawal card upon request.” Agreements customarily exclude supervisory workers, although working foremen may be included. Paper, Novelty and Toy Workers International Union, United. “ No foreman or forewoman or any other person acting on behalf of an employer and having the power to hire or fire shall be eligible for membership.,, Retail, Wholesale and Department Store Employees of America, United. “ No person shall be eligible to membership in any local union who shall be employed in any capacity which would require him to perform duties inconsistent with labor union membership.” Rubber Workers of America, United. “ Plant superintendents, general foremen, shift foremen and supervisors, as defined by the local union, shall not be eligible for membership.” Shoe Workers of America, United. “ Any member accepting a position as foreman, assistant foreman, forelady, assistant forelady or superintendent, or any other persons who have the right to hire or discharge must immediately apply for and may be granted a withdrawal card.” “ The matter of working foreman, forelady, superintendent, etc., may be handled by the local union as their conditions and best judgment warrant. Local unions have full power in this matter.” State, County and Municipal Workers of America. “ Elective officers, members of commissions, and department heads” are not eligible for membership. Steelworkers of America, United. Supervisors without right to hire and fire may be members subject to approval of the local and the International Executive Board. Textile Workers Union of America. “ No worker having the power to hire or fire shall be eligible for membership; provided that charters may be granted to locals composed of technicians, including technicians who have the right to hire and fire. Workers having supervisory power, other than the right to hire or fire, shall be eligible to membership only with the approval of the Executive Board of the local union to which they apply for membership.” Transport Service Employees of America, United. “ No application shall be accepted from anyone who has the authority to hire or discharge. Where members of this International Union are appointed to such positions as described above, they shall withdraw membership in the local by taking out a withdrawal card. “ Members appointed to supervisory positions where they work along with their fellow workers and do not have the power to hire and discharge employees, may retain their membership in the local, if said membership is approved by a majority of the local.” Transport Workers Union of America. “ No person having the power to hire or fire shall be eligible for membership. Persons having supervisory power excluding the right to hire and fire, shall be eligible to membership subject to approval of the local union or of the section and of the' local executive board.” LJnajjiliated Brewery, Flour, Cereal and Soft Drink Workers of America, International Union of. “ Members who are advanced to the position of foreman cannot hold member ship in the International Union, providing they have the right to hire and fire and they do not perform the regular work of a workingman. First men in the various departments must belong to the union.” Firemen and Enginemen, Brotherhood of Locomotive. Foremen who act as hostlers and receive hostlers' pay are eligible to member ship. (Engine hostlers or engine dispatchers are persons who actually handle and are responsible for the care of locomotives.)