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F rances P erk in s, Secretary
Isador L u b in , Commissioner (o n lea v e )
A . F. H in rich s, A cting Commissioner


Union Membership and Collective
Bargaining by Foremen

B ulletin T^o. 745

(R e p rin te d fro m th e M o n t h ly L a b or R e v i e w
Tune 1943, w i t h additional data]

W A S H IN G T O N : 1943

F o r sale b y th e S u p erin ten d en t o f D ocu m en ts, U . S. G o v e r n m e n t P rin tin g O ffice
W ash in g ton , D . C . - P rice 5 cen ts

U n it e d

States D epartm ent of L abo r,
B u r e a u of L a b o r S t a t is t ic s ,

C., June 9, 1943.
Washington, D. C.y
The S e c r e t a r y o f L a b o r :
I have the honor to transmit herewith a report on union membership and ccol­
lective bargaining by foremen. This report is based on a study of the constil
tions of approximately 200 international labor unions, as well as studies made by
persons outside the Government service.
This bulletin, a portion of which appeared in the June 1943 issue of the Monti
Labor Review, was prepared in the Industrial Relations Division under the ii
immediate supervision of Florence Peterson, Chief.
A. F. H i n r i c h s , Acting Commissioner.
Hon. F r a n c e s P e r k i n s ,
Secretary of Labor.


Industries where foremen are customarily excluded from production
workers’ unions______________________________________________________
Unions composed solely of foremen and supervisors_____________________
Industries where foremen customarily belong to unions__________________
Printing trades___________________________________________________
Building trades____________________________________________________
Metal trades______________________________________________________
Maritime industry_______________________________________
Railroad industry________________________________________
Foremen and supervisors in British trade-unions________________________
A p p e n d i x . — Union constitutions which referto foremen________________
Unions composed solely of foreman andsupervisors_________________
Unions which include both foremen and production workers_________
Unions which exclude foremen__________________


Bulletin 7S[o. 745 o f the
U nited States Bureau o f Labor Statistics
fReprinted from the M onthly L abor R eview , June 1943, with additional data.]

T H E membership of supervisory personnel in labor organizations and
their inclusion under collective-bargaining agreements are not new
developments. Practice differs widely as between industries and
unions, and in many cases within industries and among the various
locals of international unions. The general outlines are clear, how­
ever, and can be summarized as follows:
1. Exclusion of foremen and supervisors from membership in
unions which include the production workers is the general rule in the
mass-production industries, such as the manufacture of steel, auto­
mobiles, electrical products, rubber, and clothing. Some of the
agreements, however, cover “ working” foremen and supervisors such
as section or unit leaders.
2. Separate organization by supervisory groups has long been the
practice in the maritime industry, in parts of the railroad industry,
and in the Postal Service.
3. Foreman membership in unions and the inclusion of foremen
under agreements covering production workers are general in the
printing and building trades, in the metal trades insofar as they
operate on a craft basis, in many of the railroad trades, and to a
greater or lesser extent, among the teamsters, longshoremen, and


W here

Foremen A re Custom arily Excluded
Production W orkers’ Unions


In a majority of the mass-production industries, foremen and super­
visory officials do not belong to the unions to which the men who
work under them belong, although some are members of unions of
their own. Also, foremen are specifically excluded from coverage
under most of the collective agreements which cover production and
maintenance workers. The line of distinction, however, is not always
clearly defined and m ay not be uniform from plant to plant even in
the same industry. For instance, in some cases the term “ mana­
gerial position” or “ supervisor” m ay be interpreted to exclude some
foremen or section leaders. In other plants these persons may be
considered as a part of the supervisory staff. Usually, if there is a
dispute between the employer and union over the question of inter­
pretation, the matter is taken up through the grievance machinery as
provided in the agreement, and thus an arbitrator makes the final




Typical agreement clauses relating to the status of foremen are—
The employer agrees to employ none but members of the union, excepting
office workers and employees engaged in any kind of managerial position.
The company recognizes the union as the sole collective-bargaining agency for
all its production and maintenance employees, excluding superintendents, fore­
men, and technicians.
W here foremen are excluded from coverage in the employer-union
contract it is by decision jointly arrived at through collective bar­
gaining. In such cases a union in one plant may include certain
groups of employees which might be excluded in another plant with
which the same union has an agreement. W here a union’s constitu­
tion excludes certain types of workers, the practice throughout the
union’s jurisdiction would tend to be uniform, but there is the possi­
bility of varying interpretations from plant to plant.
The constitutions of at least 37 international and national unions
specifically exclude supervisors and foremen, although some of them
permit subforemen, assistant foremen, and gang or section bosses to
be members. The constitutions of 120 unions do not mention fore­
men. Presumably most of these exclude foremen from membership,
although some of their locals may include foremen in the absence of a
constitutional provision debarring them.

Unions Composed Solely o f Foremen and Supervisors
Nine long-established unions are composed solely of persons of fore­
man and supervisory rank. Some of these unions are unaffiliated,
and others are affiliated with either the American Federation of
Labor or the Congress of Industrial Organizations. Three are organ­
izations of licensed maritime personnel, two include yardmasters and
supervisors in the railroad industry, one is composed of master me­
chanics and foremen of navy yards, and three are composed of super­
visory personnel in the Postal and Railway M ail service.
In addition to the long-established unions are several independent
foremen’s unions which have recently been organized. One of these,
the Foremen’s Association of America, signed an agreement with the
Ford M otor Co. in M arch 1943, which covers six classifications of
foremen, ranging from shop foremen supervising 30 men to general
foremen supervising 150 men. This union has also recently won a
consent election at the Packard M otor Car Co.

Industries W here Foremen Custom arily Belong to Unions
There are at present 29 unions which permit, and in some cases, re­
quire membership of foremen in the same union as production workers.
In m ost of these unions the inclusion of foremen has been a long-stand­
ing practice. One union, the United M ine Workers of America, has
only recently adopted the necessary rules for the acceptance of super­
visors into membership. M o st of the unions which include foremen
under the same agreements covering production workers are in the
printing and building trades, in the metal trades insofar as they
operate on a craft basis, and in m any of the railroad trades.




In both newspaper and book and job printing, union membership
of foremen, under the closed-shop agreements, has been required
since 1889. The practice is so thoroughly established that it now
appears to be accepted as a matter of course. Contracts provide
wage scales for foremen, and include foremen under other provisions.
Foremen continue to have a voice and vote in the union, although
they tend to become inactive members. A recent stu d y1
2notes that—
In early years, many publishers were strongly opposed to having their repre­
sentatives owe allegiance to the union. As contracts became more inclusive,
however, and rights of both employers and unions more clearly defined, publishers
in general ceased to object. They are now chiefly concerned lest foremen should
be subject to union discipline for differing with the local union in the interpreta­
tion of the terms of a contract. The internationals generally recognize the
justice of the publishers* position and a method is provided for the joint settle­
ment of such disputes. The unions do not, however, forego their right to disci­
pline foremen for disobeying laws relating to internal union matters, or for
deliberately disregarding union rules. Although there is still occasional complaint
that some locals attempt, by disciplining foremen, to enforce conditions not pro­
vided for in contracts, the practice is not so common as to constitute a major
issue. * * *
The foreman represents the employer in dealing with grievances arising in
his department. He settles many day-to-day grievances and complaints with
the chapel (local) chairman, without recourse to the joint standing committee or
to arbitration. * * *
In book and job printing the union membership of foremen is so thoroughly
established that it does not become an issue except occasionally in a newly organ­
ized plant. It is clearly recognized that the foreman’s first responsibility is to
management. His duty to the union is to administer the agreement fairly in the
plant. There are advantages in this system in that the foreman, necessarily a
skilled man himself, is thoroughly acquainted with the problems of the men and
with the union agreement and rules. He is in good position, therefore, to inter­
pret the union’s position to management, and vice versa. However, the fact
that he may be disciplined by the union, if the union considers that he has violated
the agreement or a union rule, is a source of difficulty in some cases. Fear of
union discipline sometimes interferes with a foreman’s efficiency, although the
strong foreman is little affected. There is in some cases a need for more thorough
protection of foremen from union discipline for carrying out office orders, pending
determination of an issue through the negotiation or arbitration machinery.

Nearly all the building-trades unions require foremen to be union
members. Foremen usually work with tools along with the men they
supervise. Union contracts therefore often regulate their wages,
hours, ratio to journeymen, and the conditions under which they may
use tools. Foremen are considered agents of the employer, with
power to hire and fire under the terms of the contract. They are
under the control of the union, howTever, to the extent that foremen
who violate union rules are suspended and this automatically ends
their foremanship. The following statement, written in 1929,3 is in
all probability largely true today:
The employer objects to such rules (regulating foremen’s work) chiefly because
the union reserves the right to discipline the foreman for his conduct on the job.
A foreman convicted of “ rushing” is subject to stricter discipline than a worker
guilty of the same offense. His activities on the job are often subject to review
by the union; workers may file complaints against him. Conviction results in
1 H ow Collective Bargaining Works. New York, Twentieth Century Fund, 1942, pp. 67, 68, 147.
» Industrial Relations in the Building Industry, by William Haber. Cambridge, Harvard University
Press, 1930, p. 218.



suspension from foreman’s duties for a period of time, a fine, and frequently even
suspension from the union. These limitations on the foreman’s power restrict his
supervisory initiative and deprive the employer of much of the value of his services.
Recently, by giving the right of reviewing a foreman’s activities to a joint trade
board, this objection has been partly met.

Although the practice is less uniform in the metal trades than in
printing and building, the tradition among the metal-trades unions is
to require foremen to be union members, and to establish wage rates
for them. Thus, in shipyards under agreements signed by A . F. of L.
metal-trades councils, foremen as well as working foremen are usually
required to be union members. Machinists generally expect foremen
to be members until they become “ general foremen,” or superintend­
ents. Some agreements require membership only of “ working fore­
m en,” however. Foremen may attend meetings and have a vote in
the union, although there are sometimes restrictions upon holding
W hen the A . F. of L . metal-trades unions, especially the machinists
and the electrical workers, organize on an industrial basis, they gener­
ally follow- the usual practice in the mass-production industries, that
is, they exclude foremen from agreements which cover production
and maintenance employees. The point at which the break is made,
between minor supervisors who are covered and supervisors who are
excluded, depends upon local conditions.

The general practice in the maritime industry is for the unlicensed
seamen to make up one unit, and for officers to be separately organ­
ized and to constitute separate bargaining units. T he N ational Organ­
ization of Masters, M ates and Pilots (A. F. of L .), United Licensed
Officers (independent), and National Marine Engineers’ Beneficial
Association (C. I. O .) are all unions of supervisory groups which
bargain separately. Practice is not uniform, however, and there are
cases where agreements of the above officers’ organizations cover un­
licensed personnel. For example, an agreement of the Marine D i­
vision, International Longshoremen’s Association, covering tugboats
in the Port of New Y ork, covers all personnel from captain to deckhand.

There is extensive organization of supervisory personnel in the
railroad industry. The practice varies, however, as to type of organi­
zation. Some foremen and supervisors are organized into unions of
their own; in some crafts they belong to the same unions as the men
whom they supervise. The National Mediation Board has not con­
sidered this a problem. It normally accepts the “ class” or “ craft” as
a bargaining unit with whatever inclusions or exclusions have become
the general practice in the industry or by agreement of the contesting
In engine service the engineers and firemen are usually, but not
always, in separate unions. The engineers, of course, are in a super­
visory position to the firemen; likewise, the conductors are in a
supervisory position to brakemen. They are in separate bargaining
units although not always in separate unions.



In yard service some of the yardmasters belong to the yardmasters’
unions, although others are members of the train-service and the
switchmen’s unions. The yard foremen, together with the helpers
and switch tenders, are normally affiliated with either the trainmen’s
or switchmen’s union.
The agreements of the railway clerks, telegraphers, and signalmen
cover both the supervisors and the men under them, although these
agreements (like others on the railroads) often have a supplementary
list of “ excepted positions” including higher supervisory jobs. In the
maintenance-of-way service, foremen are included in the same union
and bargaining unit as the laborers. These latter agreements,
however, exclude supervisors in the track department and general
foremen in the bridge and building department.
The seven craft unions in railroad shops include “ leader men” as
well as stationary engineers who act in part as supervisors. The
foremen in the railroad shops are organizing in increasing numbers
into a union of their own— the American Railway Supervisors’
Association. Some supervisors and mechanics belong to a separate
unit under the A . F. of L . Railway Employees’ Department.

Foremen and Supervisors in British Trade-U nions
Recent information received by the Bureau of Labor Statistics
contains the following statement as to the situation of foremen and
supervisors in British trade-unions:4
The organization of supervisory grades of workers in ordinary unions has
increased in recent years. The Trades Union Congress recognizes nonmanual
workers as a separate group among its affiliates and gives them separate representa­
tion on the General Council. The group comprises 12 unions, with a total
membership of 140,000 workers in banking and insurance, clerks', actors', film
artists', musicians', and theatrical workers' unions, and includes medical practi­
tioners, cinetechnicians, and scientific workers.
Unions in other groups of the T. U. C. cater for supervisory grades, swelling
the total numbers. The mining group includes union colliery deputies (foremen
underground). Superintendents and administrative workers are free to join the
railway unions, and many do. The transport group, besides the railways, in­
cludes the Navigators and Engineer Officers Union, and the Radio Officers
Union, while the transport workers have an administrative section. The
engineering group includes the Electrical Power Engineers, the Association of
Engineering and Shipbuilding Draughtsmen, the Engineer Surveyors Association,
and the Association of Supervisory Staffs and Engineering Technicians. Other
craft unions admit foremen as members, union members sometimes declining to
work under nonunion foremen. In printing and composing, room heads, cor­
rectors, etc., are embraced by the unions. The Journalists Union is open to
editors but not to owners. Many craft unions in other industries include foremen
and supervisory grades.
The Association of Supervisory Staffs and Engineering Technicians was formerly
a small association of foremen, but changed its title and broadened its basis last
year. Its membership has since quadrupled and is now 10,000. It covers
supervisory grades, technicians, planning and production engineers, and personnel
managers in engineering, shipbuilding, and transport. It maintains that these
are workers and not owners, and have the same right to unionize as the employees
they supervise; and it has won recognition from varied types of employers. It
feels that a new drive is needed to unionize managers in mass industry who have
hitherto not been very “ union conscious," as well as artisan foremen and semiprofessional technicians.*
* Copy of a letter dated March 25, 1943, from British Information Services (an agency of the British
Government), Information Division.



A ppendix .—

Union Constitutions Which Refer to Foremen

The constitutional provisions of the international and national
unions which include references to foremen are summarized in the
following pages.
Excluded are the recently organized foremen’s
unions as well as constitutional revisions which have been made dur­
ing the last few months. The unions are listed as follows:
(a) Nine unions which are composed solely of persons of foremen
and supervisory rank.
(b) Twenty-nine unions which permit, and in some cases require,
membership of foremen in the same union as production workers.
(c) Thirty-seven unions which exclude foremen and general
supervisors, although working foremen and minor supervisors are
admitted in some instances.
The constitutions of the remaining international and national
unions (approximately 120) do not mention foremen. Presumably
m ost of these exclude foremen from membership, although some of
their locals m ay include foremen in the absence of a constitutional
provision debarring them.





A N I)

S U P E R V IS O R S 1

Maritime Unions
National Marine Engineers* Beneficial Association (C. I. ().).
Organized in 1875.
Composed of licensed or commissioned marine engineers on vessels, boats,
barges, scows, or any other craft flying the American flag, propelled by steam, gas,
oil, electricity, or m achinery of any kind.
National Organization Masters, Mates, and Pilots of America (A. F. of L .).
Organized in 1887.
Composed of officially licensed masters, mates and pilots of lake, bay, river, and
ocean steamers and sailing vessels, and operators of motorboats.
United Licensed Officers of the United States of America (A. F. of L.).
Organized in 1933. Successor of the Neptune Association organized in 1912,
and the Ocean Association established in 1918.
Composed of licensed deck and engine-room officers on vessels.
Railroad Unions 2
Railroad Yardmasters of America (unaffiliated).
Organized in 1918.
Composed of general yardmasters, assistant general yardmasters, yardmasters,
assistant yardmasters, and stationmasters.
American Railway Supervisors Association, Inc. (unaffiliated).
Organized in 1934.
Composed of supervisors as defined by the Interstate Commerce Commission.
Governm ent

National Association of Master Mechanics and Foremen of Navy Yards and Navy
Stations (A. F. of L.)
Organized in 1905.
Composed of “ the supervisory force of Government navy yards and naval
1 See page 2 for recently established foremen’s unions.
2 To the extent that the engineers are in a supervisory position over the firemen, the Brotherhood of Loco­
motive Engineers could be included. Since conductors have supervisory responsibility over the brakemen
and also have final responsibility over all the train service, the Order of Railway Conductors could also be
considered a foremen’s union.



National Association of Postal Supervisors (unaffiliated).
Organized in 1008.
Composed of “ the supervisory grades of the United States Postal Service . . .
All classified postal employees above the clerk-carrier grade and postmasters
promoted to that position from the classified service.”
National League of District Postmasters of the United States (unaffiliated).
Organized in 1894.
Composed of postmasters and assistant postmasters of third- and fourth-class
post offices.
National Council of Officials of the Railway Mail Service (unaffiliated).
Organized in 1922.
Composed of superintendents, assistant superintendents, chief clerks, assistant
chief clerks and clerks in charge of sections of the United States Railway Mail
Foremen's Locals
In addition to the above national organizations are a number of
local unions which are composed solely of supervisors, as indicated
below. There are probably additional foremen’s locals of which the
Bureau has no special knowledge.
Textile Foremen's Guild, Paterson, New Jersey, Local of the Textile Workers Union
(C. I. O.).
Organized several years ago.
“ Composed only of technicians, including technicians who have the right to
hire and fire.”
Supervisors of Mechanics (A. F. of L. Railway Labor Department).
Organized 1940.
Composed of supervisors in railroad repair shops.

American Federation of Labor
Barbers, Hairdressers and Cosmetologists' International Union of America, the
Any competent journeyman barber is eligible who is actively engaged at the
trade. An employer is construed to be any person or persons who either owns,
manages, or operates a barbershop. A beneficiary member becoming an employer
is not entitled to vote or sit in meetings and is ineligible for office.
Blacksmiths, Drop Forgers and Helpers, International Brotherhood of.
Any blacksmith, “ employing not to exceed three blacksmiths,” is eligible.
Bookbinders, International Brotherhood of.
All bindery foremen are eligible and must be members.
Bricklayers, Masons and Plasterers International Union of America.
“ Foremen shall be practical mechanics and be members of the union.”
Carpenters and Joiners of America, United Brotherhood of.
When a member contracts work or becomes a foreman, he must comply with
union rules and hire none but members. To be eligible for office, members must
be working at the trade.
Cigarmakers' International Union of America.
Foremen eligible.
Fire Fighters, International Association of.
Jurisdiction apparently covers all employed in fire houses, but one clause refers
to the fact that local unions may drop from their active membership all members
who may hereafter be promoted to the supervisory grades and, further, that such
members may become honorary members.
Hatters, Cap and Millinery Workers' International Union, United.
Foremen and foreladies shall not be eligible to serve as officers, by implication
they remain members.
Lathers, International Union of Wood, Wire and Metal.
Includes foremen, superintendents.



Leather Workers’ International Union, United.
Membership covered in general terms. Piece workers shall not be permitted
to work any help of any kind. Retiring cards may be issued to foremen who have
four or more journeymen under their charge.
Lithographers of America, Amalgamated.
Membership includes foremen.
Molders and Foundry Workers Union of North America, International.
Foremen may become members but no such member shall be eligible to election
or to serve as a delegate to the convention or as delegate to any affiliate organiza­
tion, who is an employer, foreman, or assistant foreman. Active members who
become foremen or employers may be granted an honorary card by local.
Painters, Decorators and Paperhangers of America.
Foremen may be members.
Paper Makers, International Brotherhood of.
Withdrawal cards may be issued to those who become superintendents. Fore­
men may remain members.
Photo-Engravers Union of North America, International.
Foremen must be members.
Plasterers’ International Association of the United States and Canada, Operative.
Foremen must be members.
Potters, National Brotherhood of Operative.
A general foreman or superintendent may retain membership by paying dues
and assessments. He shall not attend meetings or hold office in the organization,
but shall be entitled to benefits in time of trouble.
Printing Pressmen’s and Assistants’ Union of North America, International.
Foremen are members.
Stereotypers and Electrotypers’ Union of North America, International.
Foremen and assistant foremen are members.
Switchmen’s Union of North America.
Includes “ yard masters.”
Congress o f Industrial Organizations

Glass, Ceramic and Silica Sand Workers of America, Federation of.
“ No member holding a position with the company as foreman shall be eligible
to become a candidate for or hold any international office.” May hold local
office subject to approval of International Executive Board.
Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers, International Union of.
“ Whenever a member of a local union shall become a superintendent, general
foreman, or other executive, he shall lose all rights to a voice vote, or seat in the
meetings of his local union, but may continue his membership as a beneficiary
member, or upon application to the financial secretarj^, he may be granted a
withdrawal card.
Stone and Allied Products Workers of America, United.
“ Persons employed exclusively in a managerial, executive, or supervisory
capacity shall not be eligible to membership. This shall not affect the status of
foremen who are already members of the union.”

Machinists, International Association of.
Any member of the local lodge who has been appointed general foreman or
superintendent may be transferred to the grand lodge, or take out a retiring card.
Foremen remain active members.
Mine Workers of America, United.
“ International Executive Board may, in its discretion, provide rules and regula­
tions upon which supervisory and other employees may be admitted to member­
Railroad Signalmen, Brotherhood of.
Foremen and inspectors admitted. Supervisory employees of higher rank
granted withdrawal cards.



Railroad Trainmen, Brotherhood of.
Jurisdiction covers: “ In road service— conductors, assistant conductors * * *”
“ In yard service— Yard master, assistant yard master, yard conductor, foremen.”
Train Dispatchers, American Association of.
Superintendents become associate members.
Typographical Union, International.
“ All persons performing the work of foremen or journeymen, at any branch
of the printing trade, in offices under the jurisdiction of the International Typo­
graphical Union, must be active members of the local union of their craft and
entitled to all the privileges and benefits of membership.”




The line of demarcation between ranks of supervisory persons is,
of course, difficult to define in a general way. In many of the unions
cited below “ working foremen,” “ gang leaders/’ etc., retain their
membership. In general the exclusions pertain to those who have
the power to hire and discharge.
Am erican Federation o f Labor

Asbestos Workers, International Association of Heat and Frost Insulators and.
All persons (except employers, agents, or shop foremen) at work (as mechanics
or improvers) are eligible. Foremen must take out withdrawal cards but may
retain membership as far as death benefits are concerned.
Coopers' International Union of North America.
Employers or foremen who have authority to hire and fire, who work at the
bench in union shops, “ shall be enrolled by the local unions (but not admitted) as
Glass Bottle Blowers’ Association.
“ Members who become managers and foremen with authority to discharge
must, in all cases, take out withdrawal cards.”
Glass Workers’ Union, American Flint.
Working foremen eligible. Others are not.
Longshoremen’s Association, international.
Working foremen eligible.
Luggage, Belt and Novelty Workers Union. International Ladies Handbag.
A union member who becomes an employer, foreman or manager, with the right
to hire or fire, shall have his membership in the union terminated automatically.
Maintenance of Way Employees, Brotherhood of.
“ All employees * * * below the rank of supervisor in the track depart­
ment and general foremen in the bridge and building department * * * are
eligible/’ (Standard agreement.)
Meat Cutters and Butcher Workmen of North America, Amalgamated.
In packing houses, “ * * * bookkeepers, office clerks, timekeepers, foremen
other than working foremen, and managers of packers, branch houses are exempt.”
In retail stores, supervisors are accepted, but may not be on committees nego­
tiating wages or working conditions with employers.
Polishers, Buffers, Platers and Helpers’ International Union, Metal.
Any man working at any branch of the business the same as the workingman
under him should be a member of the organization. No person who is an absolute
foreman, superintendent, or manager can be admitted to membership. This is
defined as one who has the right of hiring or firing. Working foremen may not be
shop stewards.
Retail Clerks’ International Protective Association.
Restricted to those actively engaged in handling and selling merchandise.
Persons operating or managing, owning or leasing, where there are no clerks
employed, are eligible as nonactive members, but cannot attend meetings and
have no voice nor vote.
3 The constitutions of the remaining international and national unions (approximately 120) do not mention
foremen. Presumably most of these exclude foremen from membership although some of their locals may
include foremen in the absence of a constitutional provision debarring them.



Stonecutters’ Association of North America, Journeymen.
All foremen who are journeyman workers and if working with the tools must be
members. By implication, general foremen are excluded.
Street and Electric Railway and Motor Coach Employees of America, Amalgamated
Association of.
No manager, superintendent, foreman, or other officers of a bus company,
having rules to enforce, can be a member. Certain minor officials, such as starters,
dispatchers, timekeepers, working with fellow workers, may retain membership
but cannot attend meetings.
Tobacco Workers’ International Union.
No superintendent or general foreman is eligible for membership.
Congress o f Industrial Organizations

Architects, Engineers, Chemists and Technicians, Federation of.
“ May admit to membership related office and supervisory workers in estab­
lishments where FAECT members are e m p l o y e d b u t “ no persons whose interests
are deemed to be with the employers or administrators of public institutions as
against the employees shall be eligible for membership, such eligibility to be
determined by the local unions.”
Automobile, Aircraft and Agricultural Implement Workers of America, United.
“ No application shall be accepted from the one designated as the head of a
department, directing company policy or having the authority to hire and dis­
charge workers. Members of the union who are promoted to such positions
shall be issued a withdrawal card. Members promoted to minor positions where
they work with their fellow workers and do not have the power of discipline
by hiring or discharging employees may retain their membership at the discretion
of the local union.”
Clothing Workers of America, Amalgamated.
“ No foreman or forewoman or any other person acting on behalf of an employer
and having the power to hire or fire shall be eligible for membership.”
Communications Association, American.
‘ ‘ E m ployers of com m unications workers and the agents of such employers
including executives, officers, attorneys, general managers, and superintendents,
investigators, and persons wrho shall have authority to hire and fire, not eligible
for membership.”
Federal Workers of America, United.
“ Elected officials, cabinet officers, members of the judiciary, department heads,
or officials having major responsibility for hiring or dismissal, or for personnel
matters” are not eligible for membership.
Gas, Coke and Chemical Workers, United.
“ No person having the power in the management of any plant or factory, to
hire or fire shall be eligible for membership. Persons having supervisory powrer,
excluding the right to hire and fire, shall be eligible to membership subject to the
approval of the local union.”
Hosiery Workers, American Federation of. (Branch of Textile Workers Union of
“ Any worker engaged in the manufacture of hosiery excepting those in a
supervisory capacity shall be eligible as an applicant for membership.”
Longshoremen’s and Warehousemen’s Union, International.
Admits working foremen.
Marine Cooks’ and Stewards’ Association of the Pacific Coast.
Chief stewards, comparable to working foremen, are admitted to membership.
Marine and Shipbuilding Workers of America, Industrial Union of.
“ Foremen and supervisory or managerial employees of rank equal to or higher
than foreman shall not be eligible for membership in the union.”
Newspaper Guild, American.
“ No person whose interests lie with the employer as against the employee shall
be eligible.”
Office and Professional Workers of America, United.
“ No person whose interests are deemed to lie with the employer as against the
employees shall be eligible for membership.”



Oil Workers International Union.
“ When a member in good standing is promoted to a position outside the juris­
diction of the local agreement in effect at the plant where he is working, he will be
given an honorable withdrawal card upon request.” Agreements customarily
exclude supervisory workers, although working foremen may be included.
Paper, Novelty and Toy Workers International Union, United.
“ No foreman or forewoman or any other person acting on behalf of an employer
and having the power to hire or fire shall be eligible for membership.,,
Retail, Wholesale and Department Store Employees of America, United.
“ No person shall be eligible to membership in any local union who shall be
employed in any capacity which would require him to perform duties inconsistent
with labor union membership.”
Rubber Workers of America, United.
“ Plant superintendents, general foremen, shift foremen and supervisors, as
defined by the local union, shall not be eligible for membership.”
Shoe Workers of America, United.
“ Any member accepting a position as foreman, assistant foreman, forelady,
assistant forelady or superintendent, or any other persons who have the right to
hire or discharge must immediately apply for and may be granted a withdrawal
card.” “ The matter of working foreman, forelady, superintendent, etc., may be
handled by the local union as their conditions and best judgment warrant. Local
unions have full power in this matter.”
State, County and Municipal Workers of America.
“ Elective officers, members of commissions, and department heads” are not
eligible for membership.
Steelworkers of America, United.
Supervisors without right to hire and fire may be members subject to approval
of the local and the International Executive Board.
Textile Workers Union of America.
“ No worker having the power to hire or fire shall be eligible for membership;
provided that charters may be granted to locals composed of technicians, including
technicians who have the right to hire and fire. Workers having supervisory
power, other than the right to hire or fire, shall be eligible to membership only
with the approval of the Executive Board of the local union to which they apply
for membership.”
Transport Service Employees of America, United.
“ No application shall be accepted from anyone who has the authority to hire
or discharge. Where members of this International Union are appointed to such
positions as described above, they shall withdraw membership in the local by taking
out a withdrawal card.
“ Members appointed to supervisory positions where they work along with their
fellow workers and do not have the power to hire and discharge employees, may
retain their membership in the local, if said membership is approved by a majority
of the local.”
Transport Workers Union of America.
“ No person having the power to hire or fire shall be eligible for membership.
Persons having supervisory power excluding the right to hire and fire, shall be
eligible to membership subject to approval of the local union or of the section and
of the' local executive board.”

Brewery, Flour, Cereal and Soft Drink Workers of America, International Union of.
“ Members who are advanced to the position of foreman cannot hold member­
ship in the International Union, providing they have the right to hire and fire
and they do not perform the regular work of a workingman. First men in the
various departments must belong to the union.”
Firemen and Enginemen, Brotherhood of Locomotive.
Foremen who act as hostlers and receive hostlers' pay are eligible to member­
ship. (Engine hostlers or engine dispatchers are persons who actually handle and
are responsible for the care of locomotives.)