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TRUSTEESHIP




0

Reason fo r tru ste e sh ip

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H e a rin g re q uirem e nts

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P o w e rs of trustee

£

D u ra tio n

0

A p p e a ls

Bulletin No. 1263
UNITED STA TES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BU
REAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner

■ ■

Union Constitution Provisions




Union Constitution Provisions-.

TRUSTEESHIP

Reason f o r tru s te e s h ip
H e a rin g re q u ire m e n ts
P o w e rs of tru s te e
D u ra tio n
A ppeals

Bulletin No. 1263
November 1959

UN ITED S TA TE S DEPARTM EN T OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C.




Price 30 cents




Preface

As part of its regular program of studies dealing with union activities, the U.S. De­
partment of Labor’ s Bureau of Labor Statistics undertook this analysis of the trusteeship
provisions in the constitutions of national and international unions. The 114 constitutions
studied covered approximately 95 percent of the membership of all national and inter­
national unions in the United States. All of these constitutions were in effect during the
year preceding the enactment of the Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act of 1959.
Readers of this bulletin may also be interested in the Bureau’ s study of consti­
tution provisions covering the election and tenure of national and international officers
(Bulletin 1239, November 1958).
This study was undertaken and the report was prepared in the Bureau’s Division of
Wages and Industrial Relations by Harry P. Cohany and Irving P. Phillips.




U i




Contents
Page
Introduction -----------------------------------------------------------------------Prevalence of trusteeship provisions --------------------- ----------------- -----------------Reasons for trusteeship---------Authority to initiate and impose trusteeship ----------------------------------------------Same agency to initiate and impose ------------------------ ------- -—--------------- Different agencies initiate and im p ose--------------------------------------------------Provision for hearings ----------------------------------------- ------------------------------ ----- Powers of trustee and status of local union during trusteeship-------------------Duration of trusteeships — -------------------------------------------------- ------------- — —
Appeal provisions -------------------------------------------------------- —--------------------------Combinations of due-process provisions ---------------

1
2
3
5
6
7
9
13
17
20
24

Tables:
1.
2.

Provisions for suspension/revocation of local union
charters and trusteeship in international union
constitutions -------------------------------------------------------- —-------- -----------Agencies authorized to initiate and establish trusteeships
as stipulated in international union

3.

Provisions for hearings before or immediately following
trusteeship as specified in international union

4.

Time limits for a hearing after establishment of trusteeship
as stipulated in international union constitutions------------- -------------Status of local union officers under trusteeship provisions
stipulated in international union constitutions-------------------------------Provisions governing duration of trusteeship as stipulated
in international union constitutions ------------------------ ---------------------Appeal provisions in trusteeship cases as stipulated in
international union constitutions ---------------------------------------------------Prevalence of selected due-process provisions in
trusteeship clauses stipulated in international
union constitutions --------------

2

5.
6.
7.
8.

11
13
18
20
24

Appendixes:
A.
B.

Trusteeship provisions from selected international
union constitutions-----------------------------------------------------------------------Title III of Labor-Management Reporting and
Disclosure Act of 1959— Trusteeships ------------------------------------------




v

25
^




Union Constitution Provisions:

Trusteeship
Intr oduction
The authority of a national or international union1 to discipline a local
union or another subordinate body by appointing a trustee (or receiver, supervi­
sor, administrator, or representative) to a s s u m e control over its affairs is a
grant of power specifically provided for in m a n y union constitutions.
Trusteeship
is one of the m e a n s whereby the parent organization can assure compliance with
its directives, prevent violation of the constitution, supersede dishonest or in­
adequate officers, and guard against financial and other malpractices on the local
level. 2 However, the trusteeship device, as hearings before congressional c o m ­
mittees have revealed, can also be utilized by corrupt officers for personal fi­
nancial and political gains.
The A F L - C I O Ethical Practices Code VI, entitled "Union Democratic
Processes" and adopted in M a y 1957, urged affiliates to deal with the trustee­
ship issue as follows:
To ensure democratic, responsible, and honest administration
of its locals and other subordinate bodies . . . unions should
have the power to institute disciplinary and corrective proceed­
ings with respect to local unions and other subordinate bodies,
including the power to establish trusteeships where necessary.
Such powers should be exercised sparingly and only in accord­
ance with the provisions of the unionf constitution, and autonomy
s
should be restored promptly upon correction of the abuses re­
quiring trusteeship.
The L a b o r - Ma na ge men t Reporting and Disclosure Act of 1959 recognized
the legitimate purposes of trusteeships and provided for certain safeguards against
the misuse of such procedures.
The section of this act dealing with trusteeships
states, in part: "Trusteeships shall be established and administered by a labor
organization over a subordinate body only in accordance with the constitution and
bylaws of the organization which has a s s u m e d trusteeship over the subordinate
body and for the purpose of correcting corruption or financial malpractice, a s ­
suring the performance of collective bargaining agreements or other duties of a
bargaining representative, restoring democratic procedures, or otherwise carry­
ing out the legitimate objects of such labor organization."3
1 Throughout this bulletin, the terms national and international union are
used interchangeably.
2 Information on the n u m b e r of trusteeships in effect at any one time by all
national and international unions is not available. However, a report on the n u m ­
ber of local unions of A F L - C I O affiliates under trusteeship is contained in the
Hearings before the Subcommittee on Labor of the Committee on Labor and Public
Welfare, U.S. Senate (86th Cong., 1st sess., 1959), pp. 85-86.
According to
a list of 99 unions submitted by A n d r e w J. Biemiller, Director, Department of
Legislation, A F L - C I O , 75 had no locals under trusteeship, and 24 reported
97 locals so disciplined. It should be noted that these 24 international unions
accounted for m o r e than 20,000 local unions, in total.
3 Title III— Trusteeships is reproduced in full in appendix B.




2

This study analyzes the formal rules stipulated in union constitutions
governing the establishment of trusteeships, the grounds for such action, hearing
requirements, the status of the local unions and their officers during such periods,
and the provisions applying to termination and appeal.
It is primarily a s u m m a r y
of union laws in effect prior to the enactment of the L a b o r - Ma na ge men t Reporting
and Disclosure Act of 1959, and does not extend to union practices.
For this study, the constitutions of 114 national and international unions,
each with 10,000 or m o r e m e m b e r s , we re analyzed. 4 These 114 unions accounted
for 17.5 million m e m b e r s , or about 95 percent of the total m e m b e r s h i p of all
national and international unions in the United States.
Prevalence of Trusteeship Provisions
Although all of the constitutions studied gave national officers the au­
thority to suspend or revoke local union charters, a disciplinary me as ur e fre­
quently linked with trusteeship, only 67 constitutions, applying to 12 million m e m ­
bers, contained explicit trusteeship provisions, i e. , granted the international
.
president and/or the union's governing body the authority to a s s u m e direct control
of a local union or other affiliate by m e a n s of a trusteeship (table l).

T a b le 1.

P r o v is io n s fo r s u s p e n s io n / r e v o c a tio n of lo c a l u n io n c h a r t e r s and tr u s t e e s h i p
in in te r n a tio n a l u n io n c o n s titu tio n s , 1 9 5 9
( M e m b e r s in t h o u s a n d s )
U n io n a f f i l i a t i o n
Total
A F L -CIO

P rovision

M em bers

U naffiliated
Number

M em bers

Number
A l l u n i o n s s t u d i e d ----------------Unions providing for s u s ­
p e n s i o n r e v o c a t i o n of l o c a l
u n io n c h a r t e r s -----------------A ls o providing for
t r u s t e e s h i p -----------------No e x p lic it p r o v isio n for
t r u s t e e s h i p -----------------NOTE :

M em bers

Number

114

17, 503

99

14, 823

15

2, 680

114

17, 503

99

14, 823

15

2, 680

67

12,063

59

9, 763

8

2,300

47

5, 4 4 0

40

5, 0 6 0

7

380

B e c a u s e of ro u n d in g , s u m s o f in d i v id u a l i t e m s m a y not eq u a l t o t a l s .

The remaining 47 constitutions (governing 5.4 million me m b e r s ) contained
no specific trusteeship clauses.
Under these constitutions, the possibility that
the international m a y a s s u m e control over a local is not ruled out since (l) none
of the constitutions prohibited it and (2) m a n y granted international officers broad
4
According to the Directory of National and International Labor Unions in
the United States, B L S Bull. 1222 (1957), there w e re 125 national and international
unions in the United States with 10,000 or m o r e m e m b e r s .
For 11 unions, with
about 625,000 m e m b e r s altogether, current constitutions we re not available. Three
of these 11 w e re unions of government employees.




3
powers, particularly in suspension proceedings.
Unions which do not have e x ­
plicit trusteeship provisions in their constitutions do at times exercise this or a
similar power.
For example, the United Steelworkers of America, in 1959, r e ­
ported several local unions under international supervision. 5 The Steelworkers*
constitution gave the international officers the following powers with regard to
the suspension and revocation of local union charters:
In the event the International President shall have reason to
believe that any local union is failing to comply with any pro­
vision of the constitution, he m a y institute proceedings upon
the alleged violations, with due notice of hearing before any duly
designated m e m b e r or m e m b e r s of the International Executive
Board. Upon the basis of the hearing the International Executive
Board is authorized to render a decision, dismissing the charges
of alleged violations, suspending or revoking the charter of any
such local union, or directing such other action as m a y be nec­
essary to secure compliance with the constitution.
Similar clauses were found a m o n g m a n y of the 47 constitutions without explicit
trusteeship provisions.
In s o m e of the 67 constitutions which provided for both suspension and
formal trusteeship, control by the international union could be established only
after a local’ charter (or its officers) had first been suspended. M o r e frequently,
s
the matter of suspension w a s left to the discretion of the international union or
the trustee.
Often, however, suspension and trusteeship w e re set forth as two
entirely separate proceedings, to be invoked under different circumstances and to
achieve different remedies.
In m a n y constitutions, so the phraseology indicated,
a trusteeship w a s in essence an emergency measure, designed to cope with con­
ditions for which the usual disciplinary procedures were perhaps too c u m b e r s o m e .
A feature worthy of note wa s that several constitutions contained m o r e than one
trusteeship clause. S o m e constitutions granted this power to the president and to
the international governing body (in m a n y cases depending on the offense alleged)
and set forth different procedures regarding hearings, termination, etc. , while in
other constitutions separate trusteeship procedures applied in cases involving fi­
nancial malpractices as against other constitutional violations.
For purposes of
this analysis, the features of various provisions found in the s a m e constitution
were combined and are presented as a single trusteeship provision.6
Reasons for Trusteeship
All of the 67 union constitutions with trusteeship provisions stipulated, in
varying degrees of detail, the reasons for which such action could be taken. M a n y
of the constitutions dealt with this issue rather briefly, granting the president or
the union’ governing body the right to take such action when, in their judgment,
s
it w a s “necessary to protect the interest of the m e m b e r s , " or "to protect the
/ u n i o n ’s ~] jurisdiction," w h e n "a local union fails to perform the duties imposed
upon it by this constitution, " or simply, w h e n "an emergency imminently affecting
5 Hearings before the Subcommittee on Labor of the Senate Committee on
Labor and Public Welfare, op. cit. , p. 86.
(See footnote 2, p. 1.)
6 See appendix for examples of various types of trusteeship provisions.




4
the interests of the international union or any subordinate body exists. " F r e ­
quently, however, union constitutions defined the reasons for establishing a trustee­
ship, listing, a m o n g other offenses, failure to comply with union directives, vio­
lation of union laws, dishonesty or incompetency in the affairs of local unions,
m e m b e r s h i p indifference, and the threat of secession movements, as the following
excerpts indicate:
Whenever in the opinion of the General President the affairs
of a local union are improperly conducted, or the local union
or its officers or representatives are violating the provisions
of this constitution, or the officers or representatives thereof
are neglectful, dishonest or incompetent, or the m e m b e r s h i p
is indifferent to the m a n a g e m e n t of the local union, and the
rights and interests of the m e m b e r s of the local union or of the
Brotherhood are likely to be placed in jeopardy unless i m m e d i ­
ate action is taken. . . . (Brotherhood of Painters, Decorators
and Paperhangers of America)
*

*

*

Whenever a local union or council or the officers or m e m b e r s
thereof fail to establish and maintain, within their jurisdiction,
wages and working conditions equivalent to those established and
maintained within the jurisdiction of other local unions or coun­
cils in adjoining territories; fail to comply with orders or de­
cisions or policies of this Association; fail to comply with the
provisions of this constitution; conduct the affairs of such local
union or council in such m a n n e r as to promote or condone inter­
nal strife which is detrimental to the best interest of this A s s o ­
ciation or any local union or council thereof; or disregard the
instructions, decisions or orders properly issued by any of­
ficer or tribunal of this Association. . . . (Sheet Metal W o r k ­
ers* International Association)
*

*

#

W h e r e reliable and creditable information is brought to the
knowledge of the International President indicating that a con­
dition exists in an affiliated local union whereby the actions of
the officers or m e m b e r s thereof endanger the property rights
or interests of this Alliance, of any affiliated local union thereof,
or of individual m e m b e r s thereof, and where, because of the i m ­
minence of irreparable injury thereto, the ordinary procedure
prescribed by this constitution and by-laws would, in the opinion
of the International President, prove too slow, cu m b e r s o m e , and
inadequate to completely protect the rights and interests so en­
dangered. . . . (international Alliance of Theatrical Stage E m ­
ployes and Moving Picture Machine Operators of the United
States and Canada)
*

*

*

If any local union or any of the officers or m e m b e r s thereof
shall attempt to withdraw or secede or shall sponsor a m o v e ­
me nt to withdraw or secede . . . (United Pa p e r m a k e r s and
Paperworker s)




5
As pointed out earlier, under the provisions of a nu m b e r of union con­
stitutions a trusteeship cannot be imposed unless the local union * charter has
s
first been suspended or the local * officers have been r e m o v e d from office. In
s
these instances, the grounds for suspension and removal were, in the main, s i m ­
ilar to those cited above, but were usually set forth in greater detail, as the fol­
lowing excerpt from the constitution of the A m er ic an Federation of State, County
and Municipal Employees indicates:
The basis of charges . . . against officers or m e m b e r s of the
International Union, or against officers or m e m b e r s of a sub­
ordinate body, or against a subordinate body itself, shall in­
clude but shall not be limited to any one or m o r e of the fol­
lowing actions:
(a) Violation of any provision of the constitution of the In­
ternational Union or the constitution of a subordinate
body or failure to perform duties or functions spec­
ified therein;
(b) Engaging in any activity or course of conduct contrary
or detrimental to the welfare or best interests of the
International Union or of a subordinate body;
(c) The commission of any unlawful, dishonest, dishonor­
able or discreditable act;
(d) Engaging in dual unionism or in a secessionist m o v e ­
me nt which has for its purpose the fostering of a rival
labor organization;
(e) Wilfully slandering or libeling an officer or m e m b e r of
the organization;
(f) Engaging in any acts or course of conduct which are
inconsistent with the duties, obligations and fealty of
the m e m b e r s of the trade union and which violate sound
trade union principles or which constitute a breach of
an existing collective bargaining agreement.
A n officer or m e m b e r or subordinate body found guilty
of any of the foregoing, after the filing of charges and
the holding of hearings and other procedures as pre­
scribed in this constitution, m a y be disciplined by fine,
suspension, or expulsion. . . .
In all cases where a subordinate body has been sus­
pended . . . the International President shall have the
power to a s s u m e charge of the affairs and business of
such suspended subordinate body by the appointment of
a trustee. . . .
Authority to Initiate and Impose Trusteeship
Under the provisions of 47 of the 67 constitutions with trusteeship pro­
visions, the final authority to appoint a trustee over the affairs of a local union
rested with the general executive board (or other governing agencies of the in­
ternational union). The general executive board was the sole agency designated




6

in 34 constitutions, and in 13 unions it shared this power with the international
president.
The president was granted authority to act in 33 constitutions, in
20 of which he was the only agent so empowered (table 2).

T a b le 2 .

A g e n c i e s a u th o r iz e d to in it ia t e and e s t a b lis h t r u s t e e s h ip s a s s tip u la te d in in t e r n a t io n a l
u n io n c o n s t it u t io n s , ' 1959

(M e m b e rs in th o u s a n d s )
A g en cy e tn p o w e re d to p la c e local, u n io n
in tr u s t e e s h i p
T o ta l

U n io n s
A l l u n io n s w ith o n e o r m o r e
t r u s t e e s h ip p r o v i s i o n s — —
I n t e r n a t io n a l p r e s i d e n t ---------G e n e r a l e x e c u t iv e b o a r d 1 ----I n t e r n a t io n a l p r e s id e n t o r
g e n e r a l e x e c u t iv e b o a r d 1 —
I n t e r n a t io n a l p r e s id e n t
o r m e m b e r — -----------------------G e n e r a l e x e c u t iv e b o a r d
o r m e m b e r 1 --------------------------I n t e r n a t io n a l p r e s id e n t o r
g e n e r a l e x e c u t iv e b o a r d
o r m e m b e r 1 -------------------------M e m b e r ---------------------------- -------I n t e r n a t io n a l p r e s id e n t o r
oth er agen t not c le a r ly
d e f i n e d -----------------------------------A g e n t n o t c l e a r l y d e f i n e d -----

M em b ers

M em b ers

U n ion s

I n t e r n a t io n a l
p r e s id e n t o r
gen eral ex ecu ­
tiv e b o a r d 1

G en era l
e x e c u t iv e
boa rd 1

I n te r n a tio n a l
p r e s id e n t

In itia tin g a g e n c y

U n ion s

M em b ers

U n ion s

M em b ers

67

1 2 ,0 6 3

20

4 ,4 9 7

34

5, 045

13

2 ,5 2 1

24
16

5 ,2 5 6
2 , 773

13
-

3 ,9 3 9
-

11
16

1 ,3 1 7
2 , 773

-

-

8

1 ,2 1 7

1

100

-

-

7

1 ,1 1 7

6

1 ,4 0 2

1

200

-

-

5

1 ,2 0 2

4

595

-

-

3

392

1

203

1
2

60
451

1
-

60
-

2

451

-

-

4
2

198
112

4
*
*

198

2

112

-

—

_

-

1 A l s o in c lu d e s o t h e r g o v e r n in g b o d i e s o f in t e r n a t io n a l u n io n s .
NOTE:

B e c a u s e o f r o u n d in g , s u m s o f in d iv id u a l it e m s m a y n o t e q u a l t o t a ls .

Same Agency to Initiate and Im pose. — Typically, the union agency au­
thorized to appoint a trustee also had the exclusive jurisdiction to initiate such
proceedings.
In such c a ses, the entire power in this area was vested in the
hands of a single agency, either the president or the executive board.
In unions
in which the president could act unilaterally, the constitution generally provided
as follows:
Charters of d istricts, sub-districts and local unions may be
revoked by the International President, who shall have authority
to create a provisional government for the subordinate branch
whose charter has been revoked.
(United Mine W orkers of
A m erica)
*

*

*

When, in the judgment of the International President, the affairs
of any district or subordinate lodge have become seriously dis­
ordered . . . the International President shall be empowered to
appoint an International Trustee, or a Board of Governors,
whichever in his opinion shall be best suited to the particular
problem, to take charge and control of the affairs of such lodge,
(international Brotherhood of Boilerm akers, Iron Ship Builders,
Blacksm iths, Forgers and Helpers)




?
Clauses which granted the union *s general executive board the authority
to discipline local affiliates w ere, in the main, similar to the ones cited on page 6:
The General Executive Board shall have power to place any local
union . . . under direct international supervision . . . provided
that such action shall be taken by the unanimous vote of the Gen­
eral Executive Board. . . . (international Association of Bridge,
Structural and Ornamental Iron W orkers)
A variation of the above provision was stipulated in the constitution of the
Transport Workers Union of A m erica. In that instance, one of the unionfs govern­
ing bodies, the International Administrative Comm ittee, could appoint a trustee,
provided it received the approval f,in writing or by telegram of a majority of the
individual m em bers1 of another body, the International Executive Council. 7
1
A small number of constitutions (13) granted the power of trusteeship to
both the president and the general executive board, each exercising this power
independently of the other.
In a few instances, however, the power of one or
the other to act depended on the reasons for which such action was taken.
The constitution of the Metal P olishers, Buffers, Platers and Helpers
International Union stated that M
the International Executive Board, by m ajority
vote, is hereby empowered to take charge of local unions, re-officer the same . . . n
and, in addition, it listed among the duties of the president the authority to
‘'appoint a trustee. . . . "
One union, the United Textile W orkers of A m erica,
authorized the general executive board to suspend a local union charter or to
remove a local union officer, in which event the president could appoint a trustee.
Under specified ’’em ergency" conditions, however, the president could impose
trusteeship without waiting for an action by the board.
Different Agencies Initiate and Impose. — In a number of constitutions,
the power to take action against a local union (or against local union officers)
was not concentrated in the hands of a single international agency.
Among the
unions in this category were those which required the president to obtain the
consent and approval of the executive board before intervening in the affairs of
a local affiliate.
The following clause is illustrative:
/[The P resident/ shall, with the approval of the Executive Board,
have the power to remove any or all local officers who are in
violation. . . . He shall appoint a trusteeship for that local
union. . . . (international Brotherhood of Pulp, Sulphite and
Paper M ill W orkers)
A few constitutions, however, granted the general executive board the
authority to review and reverse a trusteeship action taken by the president on his
own initiative.
For example, the constitution of the O il, Chemical and Atomic
W orkers International Union stated that the "President may in the pursuit of his
duty remove /a local union/ official from office and appoint a temporary admin­
istrator. . . . This action on the part of the President shall be subject to r e ­
view, revision, or reversal by the Executive Board. . . . "
7
The International Administrative Committee is composed of the interna­
tional president, the secretary-treasu rer, the director of organization, the d irec­
tor of the Air Transport Division, the director of the Railroad Division, and "not
more than 2 other international vice presidents designated by the International
President. "
The International Executive Council consists of the international
president, secretary-treasu rer, director of organization, 12 vice presidents, and
"not more than 6 m em bers at la r g e ."




a
In 13 constitutions, union m embers were specifically given the right to
invoke procedures leading to a trusteeship, either by submitting a petition or by
filing charges before an international agency.
Eleven of these constitutions gave
members as well as the president and the general executive board this right,
while in two constitutions only m em bers were mentioned.8 Without exception,
however, the ultimate power to impose trusteeship was retained by a designated
agency of the international union.
All but one of the constitutions which permitted union m em bers to r e ­
quest international supervision stipulated the conditions under which such action
could be taken.
The one exception, the constitution of the Communications
Workers of A m erica, stated only the following:
The Executive Board may appoint a temporary administrator to
temporarily conduct the affairs of a local after receiving a r e ­
quest from the officers or membership of a local for such action.
More typical, however, were requirements such as these:
. . . Any request by a local union for the President to appoint
a trustee must be authorized by a vote of the executive board of
the local union, or by a vote of the union membership as pro­
vided by the local union constitution and by-law s.
(Office E m ­
ployes International Union)
*

*

*

The mem bers of every subordinate union shall have the right at
any time to present a petition to the International Board of D irec­
tors requesting the International Union to take charge of such
subordinate union. . . . Such petition shall be signed by not le ss
than 51 percent of the mem bers in good standing in such sub­
ordinate union, and shall contain a statement under oath, made
and signed by one or more of the signers of said petition, be­
fore a notary public, or other persons duly authorized to ad­
minister oaths, that all of the signatures to said petition are
genuine, (international Printing P ressm en and A ssista n ts1 Union
of North Am erica)
The constitution of the International Longshoremenr and W arehousemen’ s
s
Union differed from those cited above in that m embers were specified in two sep­
arate clauses as having the right to request a trusteeship.
One clause permitted
20 percent of a lo c a l’s m em bers— or a special membership meeting— to request
the president to appoint a trustee over a local in "bad standing, " i. e. , if the
local was 3 months in arrears in its per capita dues payments.
The other clause
was found in the section of the constitution dealing with "Charges Against L>ocals,
Local Officials and M em bers, " and provided that 20 percent of the members of a
local could petition the president "to investigate the affairs of any local . . . "
with the results of the investigation to be submitted to the general executive board.
8
These provisions, however, would probably not preclude officers from
taking such action, since officers are also m em bers.
A constitutional provision
which lists members as well as the international president and/or the general
executive board as initiating agents means that the international body is authorized
to assume "original jurisdiction, " i. e . , it can act on its own and does not have
to wait until all the steps at the local (or regional) level have been complied with.




9

The board, in turn, had the choice of either clearing the accused local or pre­
ferring written charges.
In the latter case, the board was also authorized to
"suspend from office any or all of the local officials and appoint temporary offi­
cials to conduct the business of the local pending trial of the local and/or its
officials. "
The possibility of establishing a trusteeship through the union's trial
procedures activated by charges filed by a member (or m em bers) was set forth
in the constitution of the American Newspaper Guild in this manner:
Procedure
(ai) Discipline shall be initiated by the filing of charges
against the local by any 2 members in good standing of
the local charged, or by any international officer.
/Subsequent
d eta il//

paragraphs

explain the

trial

procedures

in

Verdict
The IEB /international Executive Boar_d7 may after hearing
dism iss the charge or find the local guilty of the whole or
any part of the charge.
Penalty
Upon a finding of guilty the IEB may take any of the follow­
ing actions, separately or in combinations:
(a) . . .
(b) Appoint an administrator
(c) . . .

or administrators • . .

Among the unions which followed sim ilar procedures were the Interna­
tional Association of Machinists, the International Longshoremen’s Association,
the Operative P la ste re rs1 and Cement M asons' International Association of the
U .S . and Canada, and the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of A m erica. It should
be noted that a trusteeship was one among several remedies set forth.
Several constitutions permitted international office supervision, but failed
to designate a specific initiating agent.
In these cases, however, it may be
assumed that the right to invoke the union's disciplinary machinery rested with
the membership— at any rate, no clause in these constitutions denied it this right.
Typically, these constitutions simply stated that "a ll charges shall be in writing,
signed by the accuser . . . " o r referred to a "party preferring the c h a r g e s ,"
without giving further details.
The constitution of the International Woodworkers
of Am erica provided for an administrator "upon request, " but failed to define
the requesting agent.
Provision for Hearings
A requirement for a hearing (or tria l)9 on alleged violations for which a
trusteeship could be imposed was not the general rule in the union constitutions
studied. Twenty-nine of the 67 constitutions contained no hearing provisions which

9
Although many constitutions used the term "hearing, " the procedures in­
volved in such a hearing had, in a number of cases, the characteristics of a trial.
In this study, the two terms are used interchangeably.




10
could be construed as relating to trusteeship cases (table 3).
Of the 38 constitu­
tions which referred to automatic hearings, 16 applied to some but not to ail sit­
uations under which a trusteeship could be imposed.
A hearing to precede the
appointment of a trustee was specified in 20 constitutions; however, 13 of these
listed various provisions, often of an "em ergen cy" nature, which permitted the
international union to act immediately without having to wait for the outcome of
a trial. In 28 constitutions a hearing (in all or some instances) was to be held
after trusteeship was already in effect; 15 failed to specify a time limit during
which it was to be held (table 4).
Under such circum stances, the right of a
local union or its officers to have the charges heard could, presumably, be post­
poned indefinitely without violating the letter of the constitution.1
0
Typical of the phraseology employed by three of the seven unions which
required hearings in all cases before imposing a trusteeship is the excerpt from
the constitution of the Am erican Newspaper Guild cited earlier. The other four
unions in this category stipulated that hearings were to be held when considering
the suspension of a local affiliate, in which case a trusteeship was to follow.
For instance:
The majority of the National Officers of this Union shall have
the power to suspend the officers and governing body of any
local. . . .
Before such suspension shall become effective,
the National President shall give to the local affected written
notice of, and the reasons for, the intended suspension of its
officers and governing body, and a hearing shall be held by the
National Officers at which time the officers and members of
the local shall be given opportunity to present testimony and
evidence, with the aid, if desired by them, of a member in
good standing of this Union as counsel.
Upon suspension of
the' officers and governing body of any local a m ajority of the
National Officers shall create a provisional government for said
local. . . . (industrial Union of Marine and Shipbuilding Work­
ers of Am erica)
♦

*

*

. . . the International Executive Board m ay, by % vote of the
entire Executive Board, after a hearing, revoke the charter or
suspend any officer . . . from office and take over supervision
of the subordinate body. . . . (United Automobile, A ircraft &
Agricultural Implement Workers of Am erica)
Among the unions which permitted a hearing to be waived in an em er­
gency was the International Brotherhood of Team sters, Chauffeurs, Warehouse­
men and Helpers of A m erica.
A subsequent hearing, however, was to take
place under the following procedures:
. . . and further provided that where, in the judgment of the
General President that an emergency situation exists . . . the
temporary trustee may be appointed prior to such hearing, but
such hearing shall then commence within 30 days and decision
made within 60 days after the appointment of such temporary
trustee. . . .
In the case of all hearings conducted pursuant
10
Hearings referred to in this part of the study are those which are to be
held either before or shortly after establishing a trusteeship.
Hearings in con­
junction with appeal procedures are discussed in a subsequent section.




T a b le 3 .
P r o v i s i o n s f o r h e a r in g s b e f o r e o r im m e d ia t e ly
f o llo w in g t r u s t e e s h ip as s p e c if ie d in in t e r n a t io n a l
U nion c o n s t it u t io n s , 1959

1 1

_______________(M e m b e r s in th ou sa n d s
U n ion s

P r o v i s i o n s f o r h e a r in g s
A l l u n io n s w ith on e o r m o r e t r u s t e e s h ip
p r o v i s i o n s -------------------- -----------------------------------------

M em b ers

N o h e a r in g p r o v i s i o n s s p e c i f i c a l l y r e la t in g
to t r u s t e e s h ip -------------------------------------------------------

NOTE:
e q u a l t o t a ls .

B e c a u s e o f r o u n d in g ,

su m s

1 2 ,0 6 3

38

7 ,2 5 1

7

1 ,6 1 8

6

1 ,6 6 1

9

2 ,3 6 0

3

420

7

497

4

632

2

C o n s t it u t io n s w ith a u to m a t ic h e a r in g
p r o v i s i o n s ------------------------------------------------------------H e a r in g m u s t b e h e ld b e f o r e t r u s t e e s h ip
is e s t a b l i s h e d ------------------------------------------------H e a r in g m u s t b e h e ld b e f o r e t r u s t e e s h ip
is e s t a b lis h e d bu t s u c h r e q u ir e m e n t m a y
b e w a iv e d in e m e r g e n c y , o r at d i s c r e t i o n
o f u n io n o f f i c e r s , w ith h e a r in g
to f o l l o w ----------------------------------------------------------H e a r in g m u s t b e h e ld a f t e r t r u s t e e s h ip
is e s t a b l i s h e d ------------------------------------------------H e a r in g b e f o r e t r u s t e e s h ip in s o m e c a s e s ,
n o h e a r in g r e q u ir e m e n t in o t h e r c a s e s ,
d e p e n d in g on r e a s o n f o r t r u s t e e s h i p --------H e a r in g a f t e r t r u s t e e s h ip in s o m e c a s e s ,
n o h e a r in g r e q u ir e m e n t in o t h e r c a s e s ,
d e p e n d in g on r e a s o n f o r t r u s t e e s h i p --------H e a r in g b e f o r e o r a f t e r t r u s t e e s h ip in
s o m e c a s e s , n o h e a r in g r e q u ir e m e n t
in o t h e r c a s e s , d e p e n d in g on r e a s o n
f o r t r u s t e e s h ip ----------------------------------------------H e a r in g o n ly i f t r u s t e e s h ip is to e x ten d

67

63

29

4 , 812

o f in d iv id u a l it e m s m a y n ot

T a b le 4 .
T im e l im it s f o r a h e a r in g a f t e r e s t a b lis h m e n t
o f t r u s t e e s h i p as s tip u la te d in in t e r n a t io n a l
u n io n c o n s t it u t io n s , 1959
(M e m b e r s in th o u s a n d s )
T im e li m i t

U n ion s

M em b ers

A l l u n io n s w ith a u to m a t ic h e a r in g p r o v is io n s —

38

7 ,2 5 1

A l l u n io n s w ith p r o v i s i o n s f o r a u to m a t ic
h e a r in g a f t e r e s t a b lis h in g t r u s t e e s h i p --------------H e a r in g a f t e r 10 d a y s ----------------------------------------H e a r in g a f t e r 20 d a y s ----------------------------------------H e a r in g a f t e r 25 d a y s ----------------------------------------H e a r in g a f t e r 30 d a y s ------------------------------ ----------H e a r in g a f t e r 60 d a y s ----------------------------------------O th e r tim e l i m i t s --------- ---------------------------------------N o d e fin it e tim e l i m i t s ---------------------------------------

28
4
2
1
2
1
13
15

5 ,2 1 3
247
377
257
1 ,3 8 5
300
266
2 ,3 8 1

1 In 2 u n io n s , h e a r in g s m u s t b e h e ld w ith in 90 d a y s a ft e r the
s e r v in g o f c h a r g e s , and the s e r v in g o f c h a r g e s m u s t b e w ith in 90 d a y s
a f t e r the e s t a b lis h m e n t o f a t r u s t e e s h ip . 1 u n ion c a lls f o r a h e a r in g
" a t o r b e f o r e the n e x t m e e t in g o f the e x e c u t iv e c o u n c i l " w ith ou t in d i­
c a tin g the in t e r v a l b e t w e e n m e e t in g s .
NOTE:

e q u a l t o t a ls .




B e c a u s e o f r o u n d in g ,

su m s

o f in d iv id u a l it e m s m a y

n ot

1 2

to or after the establishment of a trusteeship, the General P resi­
dent shall designate a panel comprised of at least 1 international
union vice-president and 1 disinterested member of the Inter­
national Brotherhood of Teamsters from the area involved. Such
representatives shall make their recommendations to the General
President, orally or in writing within 10 days after the com­
pletion of the hearing, and the decision in the case shall be
made by the General President himself, which decision shall
be made within 10 days after such recommendations are re ­
ceived by him and such decisions shall be promptly trans­
mitted to the local union or other subordinate body. . . .
Four of the nine
after appointing a trustee
respectively, during which
hearing were, in the main,

constitutions which required a hearing in all cases,
stipulated time limits of 10, 20, 25, and 60 days,
a hearing had to be held.
The details covering the
set forth as follows:

Immediately upon the appointment of a trustee the International
Secretary shall notify the officers of the local union that a hear­
ing shall be held at which interested parties may be heard on
the subject of retaining the trusteeship.
Such hearing may be
conducted by the International Executive Board, or a subcom­
mittee thereof appointed by the International President, or a
referee appointed by the International President. It shall take
place as soon as practicable and as conditions permit but in no
event later than25 days after the appointment of the trustee. . . .
If, upon such hearing, it is decided that the local union does
not require a trusteeship, the local union and its officers shall
revert to their former status and continue without trusteeship.
(American Federation of Musicians)
In 14 unions, the holding of a hearing depended on the violation for which
the trusteeship was imposed.
Under these stipulations, a hearing had to take
place before or after the trusteeship action, but the constitution waived this re ­
quirement for specified offenses, notably failure to transmit per capita dues, or
other financial irregularities.
For example, the constitution of the United Pack­
inghouse Workers of America called for hearings on charges before disciplining a
local union. However, hearings were expressly dispensed with for "violations re ­
lated to finances, " and were not mentioned for the appointment of an administrator
over a local which failed to elect its officers "fairly and in accordance with the
requirements of the International Constitution. " Similarly, a requirement for a
hearing after appointment of a trustee, in the constitution of the International Union
of Doll and Toy Workers of the United States and Canada, did not apply to locals
which failed to pay per capita taxes or assessments within 30 days after they
were due.
In such cases, it seems, a hearing is not considered necessary,
since the constitutional violation is self-evident.
Among the constitutions included in this category were four which pro­
vided for a hearing either before or after imposing trusteeship, or permitted it
to be dispensed with entirely, depending on the alleged violation. For instance,
the international president of the American Federation of State, County and Mu­
nicipal Employees was authorized to supervise the affairs of any local union
which, following a hearing, had been suspended by a two-thirds vote of the gen­
eral executive board. However, the constitution also provided that in "emergency
situations where secession of a subordinate body is threatened, or where dis­
solution of a subordinate body is threatened, or where the dissipation or loss of
the funds or assets of a subordinate body is threatened, the International P re si­
dent is empowered summarily to suspend. . . . "
In such circumstances, a




13

hearing was to be held within 10 days after suspension.
Finally, no hearing
was necessary to supervise a local union which refused "to enforce a decision
of the International President or the International Executive Board. . . ."
The constitutions of two unions, the American Federation of Grain
Millers and the Aluminum Workers International Union, were unique in that they
permitted the president to establish a trusteeship without a hearing, provided it
terminated within 90 days.
To keep a local union under supervision for a longer
period, written charges had to be filed, and a trial had to commence within
90 days thereafter.
Subsequently, the president was limited to 15 days during
which to hand down his decision.
Powers of Trustee and Status of Local Union During Trusteeship
With a few exceptions, the constitutions analyzed did not define the rights
and functions which a local union under trusteeship could continue to exercise.
A few constitutions contained a simple statement suspending the local union*s
right to conduct its own affairs.
On the other hand, virtually all constitutions
contained provisions which, in varying degree of detail, stated the authority and
duties of the trustee, and many also referred to the status of officers of trusteed
locals (table 5).
Perhaps the prevalence of these clauses explains the scarcity
of those dealing with the rights remaining with trusteed locals— that is, a large
grant of power to the trustee would leave little self-government to the local in­
volved.
Thus, in general, the degree of local autonomy remaining is defined by
the powers assumed by the trustee.

T a b le 5.

Statu s o f l o c a l u n ion o f f i c e r s u n d e r t r u s t e e s h ip
p r o v i s i o n s s tip u la te d in in t e r n a t io n a l
u n io n c o n s t it u t io n s , 1959
(M e m b e r s ii^ t h o u s a n d s )

S tatu s o f l o c a l u n io n o f f i c e r s

U n ion s

A l l u n io n s w ith o n e o r m o r e t r u s t e e s h ip
p r o v i s i o n s --------------------------------------------------------------A u t o m a t ic r e m o v a l ------------------------------------------------A u t o m a t ic r e m o v a l d e p e n d s on r e a s o n
f o r t r u s t e e s h i p ------------------------------------------------------R e m o v a l at d i s c r e t i o n o f in t e r n a t io n a l
p r e s id e n t o f g e n e r a l e x e c u t iv e b o a r d 1 -----------R e m o v a l at d i s c r e t i o n o f t r u s t e e -----------------------N o r e f e r e n c e to sta tu s d u r in g p e r io d
o f t r u s t e e s h i p --------------------------------------------------------

1 A l s o in c lu d e s
NOTE:
equ al to ta ls .

o t h e r g o v e r n in g b o d ie s

B e c a u s e o f r o u n d in g , su m s

M em b ers

67

1 2 ,0 6 3

18

3, 557

4

677

19
8

3, 768
683

18

3, 378

o f in t e r n a t io n a l u n io n s .

o f in d iv id u a l it e m s m a y n o t

An explicit statement defining the status of a local union under trustee­
ship was continued in the constitution of the International Alliance of Theatrical
Stage Employes and Moving Picture Machine Operators of the United States and
Canada, which dealt with this issue as follows:
During the continuance of such emergency, all of the rights,
powers and privileges granted to any local union, its officers
or members, to conduct its affairs, granted or guaranteed to




14
said local union by its charter, or by this Constitution or any
By-Laws enacted hereunder, shall be suspended and any other
provisions of the Constitution or the By-Laws enacted hereunder
and any provision of the charter, Constitution or By-Laws of
any such local union inconsistent with the powers herein granted
to the Executive Board of this Alliance, the International P re s i­
dent, Vice-President or International Representative appointed to
conduct the affairs of such local union are hereby declared to be
entirely inoperative and of no force and effect during the contin­
uance of such emergency. . . .
The sole authority for the conduct of the affairs of such local
union during such emergencies shall be the orders, rules, man­
dates, and decisions of the International President, the Executive
Board and the Vice-President or International Representative
appointed to conduct the affairs of said local union. . . .
In addition, the constitution of this union contained a statement setting
forth the powers which the trustee was authorized to exercise.
. . . /]jhe trustee7 shall have the power during the continuance
of said emergency to take over all books, records, monies,
credits, and property of such union of every nature whatsoever
and to administer the same according to his best judgment for
the benefit of such local and this International; to collect dues,
fines and other revenue to which said local may be entitled and
to incur and pay all just bills and obligations of said local union
out of its funds in his hands; to adjust disputes between employers
and members of such local union and enter into working contracts
for its members, which said contracts shall be valid, legal and
binding upon said union and the members thereof after the ex­
piration of said emergency until the expiration thereof; and in
general, to conduct the affairs of said union in the same manner
as it might have conducted its own affairs in the absence of
such emergency.
The International President, or his duly ac­
credited representative, is hereby expressly authorized and em­
powered to bring any action at law or equity in any court of
competent jurisdiction and in his own name to recover any monies
due said local union and any monies or property of said local
union wrongfully withheld from him by any officer or other per­
son or the value of any property so wrongfully withheld, together
with damages, if any, for the wrongful detention thereof.
Upon the removal by trial, or the resignation of any officer of
any local union, the International President, or his duly ac­
credited representative in charge of the affairs of said local
union, shall have the power and authority to cause an election
to be held by the qualified members of such local union, to
choose a successor or successors to such officer or officers,
upon the expiration of such emergency as may be determined by
the Executive Board as hereinafter provided, and eaid Inter­
national President, or his representative, shall have the power
and authority to prescribe and enforce such rules and regulations
for the conduct of such election as shall insure an honest and
fair election by the membership of such local union.




15
Although most of the provisions on the powers of the trustee were not
as detailed as the one previously cited, they did, as a rule, make specific men­
tion of his right to take possession of
all funds, records, and property, andper­
mitted him to "take charge" or "take
over and administer the affairs" ofalocal
union. Requirements for periodic reports to the international union were found in
13 constitutions, but only 2 required reports to the local’s members.
Several
specified that the trustee had to be bonded.
The trusteed powers were delin­
eated in this way, in one constitution:
/~The trusteed shall take immediate charge of the affairs of the
local union and shall take possession of all the funds, books,
papers and other property of the local union and shall tender
a receipt for same.
He shall institute any necessary action
to recover money or other properties of the local union. He
shall hold the funds and property of the local union in trust
for the exclusive benefit of such local union and shall expend
same only to the extent necessary for the proper and efficient
conduct of the affairs of such local union during the period of
the trusteeship.
The trustee shall give bond to safeguard the
local unions funds and assets and for the faithful discharge of
his duties he shall be paid from the funds of the Federation a
fee to be fixed by the International Executive Board.
Upon the appointment of a trustee, the functions of all the elected
officials of the local union shall terminate and shall pass to
the trustee.
The trustee may reappoint former officials and
employees or appoint new temporary officials and employees
and he shall take such other action as he deems necessary for
the preservation of the rights and interests of the members of
the local union and of the Federation.
He shall submit periodic
and complete reports of his actions and of the affairs of the
local union to the International Executive Board and to the mem­
bership of the local union.
(American Federation of Musicians)
In 22 unions, the appointment of the trustee meant the automatic r e ­
moval of the local union’s incumbent officers.
If malpractices on the part of
the officers were the cause of the international’s action, it is reasonable to
assume that these officers would be removed (suspended or expelled) before the
trustee was appointed.
In 27 unions, however, the removal of local officers
was at the discretion of either the international officers or the trustee.
Although
the constitutions were not always clear on this point, it may be assumed that
in some if not all cases, the incumbent officers would be permitted to function
under the trustee’s supervision and would remain in office as long as they com­
plied with the orders of the international union or the trustee.
An arrangement
of this nature was described in the constitution of the International Hod C arriers ’,
Building and Common Laborers* Union of America, which provided for the ap­
pointment of a member in good standing to preside over the meetings and su­
pervise the affairs of a local union believed to be guilty of various violations.
If, however, an officer of the local union "refuses, fails or neglects to com­
ply with the order of the General President and obstructs the representative
appointed to investigate or to supervise the affairs of the local unions . . .
then the General President may . . . suspend the officers" and the local union
is subsequently placed under stricter supervision.
Similarly, the constitution
of The Wood, Wire and Metal Lathers’ International Union stipulated as follows:
If any of the officers of the local union fail or refuse to recog­
nize the trustee designated to act for and on behalf of the Gen­
eral President, or fail or refuse to cooperate with the trustee




16

d u rin g th e t e r m o f the t r u s t e e s h ip , the t r u s t e e , w ith the c o n s e n t
o f the G e n e r a l P r e s id e n t , s h a ll h a v e the r ig h t to t e m p o r a r i ly r e ­
m o v e s u ch o f f i c e r o r o f f i c e r s o f the l o c a l u n ion f o r the p e r io d o f
the tr u s t e e s h ip a n d , w ith the c o n s e n t o f the G e n e r a l P r e s id e n t ,
to a p p o in t s u c c e e d in g o f f i c e r o r o f f i c e r s w h o s h a ll s e r v e a s
t e m p o r a r y o f f i c e r s d u rin g the p e r io d o f t r u s t e e s h ip .
In a n u m b e r o f o th e r c o n s t it u t io n s , the sta tu s o f in c u m b e n t o f f i c e r s w a s
n ot c l e a r l y se t fo r t h e x c e p t f o r a s ta te m e n t that the o f f i c e r s m a y be s u b je c t t o
r e m o v a l — a s in th e fo llo w in g e x a m p le :
I m m e d ia te ly upon a p p o in tm e n t o f s u ch s p e c ia l t r u s t e e , the fu n c ­
tio n s o f a ll o f f i c e r s s h a ll te r m in a te a n d s u ch fu n c tio n s s h a ll
p a s s to the s p e c ia l t r u s t e e .
T h e s p e c ia l tr u s t e e m a y , t h e r e ­
u p on , s u sp e n d an o f f i c e r o r o f f i c e r s and a p p o in t t e m p o r a r y o f ­
f i c e r s in th e ir p la c e , w h o s h a ll a c t u n d er h im d u rin g the t e r m
o f s u ch t r u s t e e s h ip . . . (B r o t h e r h o o d o f P a in t e r s , D e c o r a t o r s
and P a p e r h a n g e r s o f A m e r i c a )
In th is in s t a n c e , the t e r m in a tio n o f l o c a l o f f i c e r s * fu n c tio n s a n d th e ir p o s s i b l e
s u s p e n s io n a r e a p p a r e n tly tw o s e p a r a te a c t s .
If a l o c a l o f f i c e r i s n ot s u s p e n d e d ,
h o w e v e r , it i s n ot c l e a r w h a t, i f a n y , fu n c tio n s he i s r e q u ir e d o r p e r m it t e d t o
c a r r y ou t.

E ig h te e n c o n s titu tio n s m a d e n o s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e to the statu s o f l o c a l
u n ion o f f i c e r s .
M an y o f th e s e t r e a t e d the e n tir e tr u s t e e s h ip m a tte r in a s e n t e n c e
o r t w o , s im p ly g iv in g an in t e r n a t io n a l a g e n c y the a u th o r ity to ta k e s u ch a c t io n
a g a in s t a l o c a l u n io n .
One u n ion in th is c a t e g o r y d e s c r i b e d the a u th o r ity o f th e
t r u s t e e in the fo llo w in g t e r m s :

i T h e P r e s i d e n t / m a y a p p o in t a r e c e i v e r . . . w h o
fu ll c h a r g e o f and m a n a g e the a f f a i r s a n d c o n d u c t o f
o r d in a te u n ion s w ith a ll the p o w e r o f a r e c e i v e r in
law o r in e q u ity s ittin g . . . ( B r i c k l a y e r s , M a s o n s and
In te r n a tio n a l U nion o f A m e r i c a )

s h a ll take
s u ch s u b ­
a c o u r t at
P la s te r e r s

O n ly 1 o f the 67 c o n s titu tio n s a n a ly z e d , that o f the U n ited P a c k in g h o u s e
W o r k e r s o f A m e r i c a , p r o v id e d s p e c i f i c a l l y that a l o c a l u n ion u n d er t r u s t e e s h ip
had th e r ig h t to s en d d e le g a t e s to a u n ion c o n v e n t io n and p r o h ib it the a p p o in t ­
m e n t o f d e le g a t e s b y the t r u s t e e .
A l o c a l u n ion w h ic h is fu n c tio n in g u n der an a d m in is t r a t o r sh a ll
b e e n title d to sen d d e le g a t e s to the In te r n a tio n a l o r
D is t r ic t
C o n v e n tio n s .
D e le g a t e s to the In te r n a tio n a l C o n v e n tio n s h a ll be
e le c t e d in a c c o r d a n c e w ith the p r o c e d u r e s e t fo r t h . . . U nder
n o c i r c u m s t a n c e s s h a ll an a d m in is t r a t o r h a v e the p o w e r to a p ­
p oin t d e le g a t e s to th e D i s t r i c t o r In te r n a tio n a l C o n v e n tio n .

V ir t u a lly a ll in t e r n a t io n a l u n ion s d e n y c o n v e n t io n r e p r e s e n t a t io n to a l o c a l
u n ion M ot in g o o d standing,** p a r t ic u la r ly i f it h a s f a ile d to p ay its p e r c a p ita
n
ta x o r i f it s c h a r t e r h as b e e n s u s p e n d e d o r r e v o k e d .
W h ere tru ste e d lo c a ls a r e
in g o o d sta n d in g a n d a r e e n title d to se n d d e le g a t e s to the c o n v e n t io n , the c o n s t i ­
t u tio n s , w ith the e x c e p t io n n o te d a b o v e , f a i le d to in d ic a te w h e th e r d e le g a t e s w e r e
to b e e l e c t e d b y the m e m b e r s o r a p p o in te d by the t r u s t e e .




17
D u r a tio n o f T r u s t e e s h ip s
A lth o u g h the f o r m a l la n g u a g e o f m a n y tr u s t e e s h ip c la u s e s in d ic a te d that
s u ch a c t io n w a s c o n s i d e r e d a s an e m e r g e n c y d e v ic e , fe w c o n s titu tio n s w e r e s p e c i ­
f i c as to w h en o r u n d e r w h at c o n d it io n s the e m e r g e n c y w as to te r m in a te and s e l f g o v e r n m e n t w as to b e r e s t o r e d . O n ly 12 o f the 67 c o n s titu tio n s w ith t r u s t e e s h ip
p r o v is io n s e s t a b lis h e d a m a x im u m tim e lim it ; in 7 o f th e s e , h o w e v e r , it a p p lie d
o n ly to s o m e o f the g r o u n d s f o r w h ich a l o c a l u n ion c o u ld l o s e its a u to n o m y
(ta b le 6 ). T e n c o n s titu tio n s r e f e r r e d to tim e lim it s w h ich c o u ld be e x te n d e d i n ­
d e fin it e ly b y the in te r n a tio n a l o f f i c e r s . A m o n g the r e m a in in g c o n s t it u t io n s , 8 m a d e
t e r m in a t io n s u b je c t to c o m p lia n c e w ith s p e c if ie d c o n d it io n s ; 18 le ft the m a tte r to
the d is c r e t io n o f the s a m e b o d y that o r i g i n a l ly im p o s e d the t r u s t e e s h ip ; and in
19, the a b s e n c e o f d u r a tio n p r o v is io n s p r e s u m a b ly p la c e d the r e m o v a l o f the
tr u s te e u n d e r the d is c r e t i o n o f the in itia tin g a g e n c y . A ll o f th e s e 19 c o n s t it u t io n s ,
h o w e v e r , c o n ta in e d a p p e a ls p r o c e d u r e s .
A m a x im u m d u r a tio n o f 1 y e a r w a s s p e c if ie d in the c o n s titu tio n s o f the
In te r n a tio n a l L o n g s h o r e m e n 1s and W a r e h o u s e m e n 1s U n ion and the U n ited S ton e
and A ll ie d P r o d u c t s W o r k e r s o f A m e r i c a .
Th e In te r n a tio n a l J e w e lr y W o r k e r s '
U n ion and the B r o t h e r h o o d o f P a in t e r s , D e c o r a t o r s and P a p e r h a n g e r s o f A m e r i c a
e s t a b lis h e d a 2 - y e a r l im it , u s in g v ir t u a lly id e n t ic a l la n g u a g e , v iz :
S p e c ia l tr u s t e e s h ip s h a ll o p e r a t e f o r a p e r io d o f 1 y e a r , u n le s s
t e r m in a te d s o o n e r , bu t m a y b e co n tin u e d b y o r d e r o f the G e n e r a l
P r e s id e n t , w ith the a p p r o v a l o f the G e n e r a l E x e c u t iv e B o a r d , f o r
a n o th e r y e a r, w h e r e u p o n it s h a ll te r m in a te and ca n n o t b e r e n e w e d .
A s lig h tly d iffe r e n t te r m in a t io n p r o v i s io n w a s fou n d in the c o n s titu tio n o f
the A m a lg a m a te d C lo th in g W o r k e r s o f A m e r i c a , w h ich c a l le d f o r a t r u s t e e s h ip
to r e m a in in e f f e c t " f o r n o t m o r e than 6 m o n th s a ft e r the r e n d it io n o f
de­
c i s i o n , " bu t d id n ot s p e c if y a tim e lim i t d u r in g w h ich the b o a r d had to d e c id e the
case.
H o w e v e r , the g e n e r a l e x e c u t iv e b o a r d w a s r e q u ir e d to " r e n d e r its d e ­
c i s i o n u p on the c h a r g e s w ith r e a s o n a b le d is p a tc h . "
A m o n g the s e v e n c o n s titu tio n s in w h ich tim e lim it s a p p lie d to s o m e but n o t
to a ll p o s s i b l e tr u s t e e s h ip s w e r e the U n ited A u t o m o b ile , A i r c r a f t & A g r ic u lt u r a l
Im p le m e n t W o r k e r s o f A m e r i c a , the U n ited P la n t G u a rd W o r k e r s o f A m e r i c a , and
the N a tio n a l B r o t h e r h o o d o f P a c k in g h o u s e W o r k e r s . A ll th re e p r o v id e d that w h e r e
l o c a l u n ion o f f i c e r s h ad b e e n s u s p e n d e d , n ew o f f i c e r s w e r e to b e e l e c t e d w ith in
60 d a y s , "w h e r e u p o n the s u b o r d in a te b o d y s h a ll be r e t u r n e d its a u to n o m y . . . . "
A p r o v i s io n f o r te r m in a t io n w ith in 6 m o n th s a fte r a g e n e r a l e x e c u t iv e b o a r d d e ­
c i s i o n w a s s e t fo r t h in the c o n s titu tio n s o f the In te r n a tio n a l B r o t h e r h o o d o f L o n g ­
s h o r e m e n and the In te r n a tio n a l L o n g s h o r e m e n 's A s s o c ia t io n , and a tr ia l w as to b e
h e ld w ith in 30 d ays in the In te r n a tio n a l U n ion o f D o ll and T o y W o r k e r s o f the
U n ited S ta te s and C a h a d a . F in a lly , in the In te r n a tio n a l U n ion o f M in e , M ill and
S m e lt e r W o r k e r s a t r u s t e e s h ip w a s s c h e d u le d to e x p ir e a fte r 180 d a y s .
A s p r e v io u s ly m e n tio n e d , the c o n s titu tio n s o f 10 o th e r u n ion s c o n ta in e d
v a r io u s tim e lim it s w h ich c o u ld b e e x te n d e d in d e fin it e ly b y the in te r n a tio n a l u n io n .
T h e t r u s t e e s h ip s h a ll n o t e x te n d b e y o n d 1 y e a r u n le s s , a fte r
fu r t h e r f o r m a l h e a r in g , the In te r n a tio n a l E x e c u t iv e B o a r d o r d e r s
a fu r th e r e x t e n s io n .
T h e In te r n a tio n a l E x e c u t iv e B o a r d s h a ll
te r m in a te the tr u s t e e s h ip as s o o n a s , in its ju d g m e n t, l o c a l
c o n d it io n s w a r r a n t s u ch t e r m in a t io n .
( A m e r ic a n F e d e r a t io n o f
M u s ic ia n s )




&

*

*

18
Table

6

. P ro v isio n s governing duration of tru steesh ip a s stipulated in international
{lnion constitutions, 1959
(M em bers in thousands)
T ru steesh ip estab lish ed by—
Total

Term ination p rovision s

Unions M em bers Unions
A ll unions with one or m ore
tru steesh ip p r o v is io n s ----Autom atic term ination of
tru steesh ip afte r sp ecified
p eriod -------------------------1 y e a r ------------------------2 y e a r s ------------------- --Other p e r i o d ---------------Term ination date sp ecified ,
but m ay be extended
indefinitely b y ------------ ---International p re s id e n t--G eneral executive
board 1 ---------------------Term ination p rovision s
re la te to one or m ore but
not to a ll types of tru ste e ­
ships which m ay be e sta b ­
lished under union's
c o n stitu tio n ------------------Term ination m ade con­
tingent on com pliance with
certain c o n d itio n s---- -----Term ination contingent on
action b y ----------------------International p r e sid e n t--G eneral executive
b o a r d 1 ---------------------International p resid en t
or gen eral executive
board 1 — ------------------No provision relatin g to
duration of t r u s t e e s h i p ----

G eneral
executive
Vina t A
* 1

International
p resid en t

67

12,063

20

5

717
83
249
385

2
2

al

M em bers

Unions

M em bers

International
p resid en t or
gen eral execu­
tive board 1
Unions M em bers

4 ,4 9 7

34

5,045

13

2,521

_

_

“

4
2

70
70
-

1

647
13
249
385

1

-

1

1
-

-

3, 564
24

4

1

1

1,872
24

5
~

1,0 1 7
”

-

675
~

9

3, 540

3

1,848

5

1,017

1

675

7

1,542

3

1,343

4

199

4 8

916

2

170

5

666

1

80

18
9

2,866

9
9

1, 139
1, 139

4

320
"

5

1,139

1 ,407
“

,5 54

-

"

3

247

4

1,307

_

_

1

73

1

100

1 ,316

13

1,053

1

90

10

3

7
2

19

1

173
2 ,4 5 9

5

1

1
A lso includes other governing bodies of international unions.
a Term ination within 6 months a fter general executive board rendered decision on ch arges again st
local union o ffic e rs.
3 3 constitutions provided for sp e c ia l elections of o fficers and resto ratio n of lo cal autonomy within
60 days afte r su spen sion of lo ca l union o ffic e rs; 2 constitutions provided fo r re sto ra tio n of lo cal autonomy
within 6 months a fter gen eral executive board decides a g ain st rem oved o ffic e rs; 1 provided that the term
of tru steesh ip w as not to exceed 180days, and another, that it w as not to be in effect for m ore than 30 days.
In addition, a ll constitutions contained other tru steesh ip provision s which w ere either vague or silen t on the
m atter of term ination.
4 Constitutions provided for tru stee sh ip to term inate a s soon a s c a u se s leading to its establish m en t
had been rem oved.

NOTE: B e cau se of rounding, sum s of individual item s m ay not equal to tals.




19
N o t e m p o r a r y t r u s t e e s h ip s h a ll co n tin u e m o r e than 2 y e a r s . .
u n le s s the G e n e r a l E x e c u t iv e B o a r d , u pon a sh o w in g s a t i s f a c t o r y
to it and s e t fo r t h in a w r itt e n d e c i s i o n , d e t e r m in e s th at s u ch
t r u s t e e s h ip be co n tin u e d u n d e r su ch t e r m s and c o n d it io n s and
f o r s u ch fu r t h e r p e r io d it b e li e v e s a d v is a b le .
(in te r n a tio n a l
B roth erh ood o f T e a m s te rs ,
C h a u ffe u r s ,
W a r e h o u s e m e n and
H e lp e r s o f A m e r i c a )
In the e ig h t u n ion s w h e r e t e r m in a tio n o f t r u s t e e s h ip d e p e n d e d u p on c o m ­
p lia n c e , d e c i s i o n to l if t c o n t r o l a p p a r e n tly h in g e d o n the l o c a l u n io n 's fit n e s s to
a s s u m e s e lf - g o v e r n m e n t .
Th e fo llo w in g e x c e r p t s s u g g e s t t h is .
. . . u n til a ll s u ch la w s , r u le s and u s a g e s o f th is in te r n a tio n a l
u n ion a r e c o m p l ie d w ith b y s u ch s u b o r d in a te u n io n o r o f f i c e r s
th e re o f.
( B r i c k l a y e r s , M a s o n s and P l a s t e r e r s ' In te r n a tio n a l
U n ion o f A m e r i c a )
*

*

*

. . . u n til the l o c a l u n ion is p r e p a r e d to p e r f o r m the d u tie s
i m p o s e d u pon it and to e x e r c i s e its p o w e r s , c o n s is t e n t w ith
th is c o n s titu tio n .
(U n ited R u b b e r , C o r k , L in o le u m and P l a s t i c
W o rk e rs o f A m e r ic a )
*

*

*

. . . fu ll c o m p lia n c e b y the l o c a l u n io n , its o f f i c e r s , and m e m ­
b e r s w ith the r e c o m m e n d a t io n s o f the G e n e r a l P r e s id e n t s e t t le s
the e n tir e m a tte r and thus r e s u lt s in the r e m o v a l o f the t r u s t e e .
(T h e W o o d , W ir e and M e ta l L a t h e r s ' In te r n a tio n a l U n ion )
*

*

*

. . . u n til s u ch tim e as d e m o c r a t i c p r o c e s s e s h a v e b e e n r e ­
s t o r e d to the m e m b e r s h ip o f s u c h l o c a l s , (in te r n a tio n a l B r o t h e r ­
h o o d o f P u lp , S u lp h ite and P a p e r M ill W o r k e r s )
T h e d is t in c t io n b e tw e e n the 8 c o n s titu tio n s w h ich m a d e t e r m in a tio n s u b ­
j e c t to c o m p lia n c e w ith s p e c if ie d c o n d it io n s and the 18 in w h ich t e r m in a tio n w as
e n t i r e l y up to the p r e s id e n t o r the g e n e r a l e x e c u t iv e b o a r d i s , to b e s u r e , a
r a t h e r fin e o n e . In b oth in s t a n c e s , the fin a l d e c i s i o n w o u ld h a v e to b e m a d e b y
the s a m e in te r n a tio n a l o f f i c e r s , a lth o u g h in the 8 c o n s titu tio n s th e r e is at l e a s t
a r e f e r e n c e to s ta n d a r d s o n w h ich an a p p e a l— o r a c o u r t t e s t — c o u ld be b a s e d .
T h e 18 c o n s titu tio n s w h ich g r a n te d v ir t u a lly u n lim ite d d is c r e t io n in th is a r e a to
the in t e r n a t io n a l o f f i c e r s g e n e r a lly p h r a s e d th is as f o ll o w s :
^ T h e P r e s id e n t ^ s h a ll p e r s o n a lly , o r b y d e p u ty , a d m in is t e r the
l o c a l 's a ff a ir s u n til he is s a t i s fi e d that p e a c e and h a r m o n y p r e ­
v a il .
(A m a lg a m a te d M e a t C u tte r s and B u tc h e r W o rk m e n o f
N o rth A m e r i c a )
*

*

*

. . . the E x e c u t iv e C o u n c il . . . m ay, f o r a p e r io d d e t e r m in e d
b y it, take p o s s e s s i o n o f and a d m in is t e r the a ff a ir s . . .
o f any
l o c a l u n ion . . . (T e x t ile W o r k e r s U n ion o f A m e r i c a )




*

*

*

20

. . . a t r u s te e ^ s h a U ^ c o n d u c t the n e c e s s a r y a ff a i r s o f s u ch
l o c a l u n ion u n til the fu r t h e r o r d e r o f the In te r n a tio n a l E x e c u t iv e
B o a r d . W h e n e v e r it a p p e a r s d e s ir a b le to the In te r n a tio n a l E x ­
e c u tiv e B o a r d that l o c a l a u to n o m y b e r e s t o r e d to s u ch l o c a l
u n io n , the t r u s t e e . . . s h a ll c o n d u c t the n e c e s s a r y e l e c t i o n
f o r n ew o f f i c e r s . (U n ited P a p e r m a k e r s and P a p e r w o r k e r s )

A ppeal P r o v is io n s
T h e p o s s i b i li t y o f a p p e a l o f a t r u s t e e s h ip a c t io n w as o p e n to v ir t u a lly a ll
t r u s t e e d l o c a l u n ion s (ta b le 7). A s is c u s t o m a r y in u n ion d is c ip lin a r y p r o c e e d i n g s ,
the fin a l a p p e a l b o d y is the u n ion c o n v e n t io n , and it w as s o d e s ig n a te d in 55 c o n ­
s tit u t io n s . G e n e r a lly , w h e r e the in te r n a tio n a l p r e s id e n t w a s a u t h o r iz e d to e s t a b ­
l is h a t r u s t e e s h ip , the a p p e a l f i r s t w en t to the g e n e r a l e x e c u t iv e b o a r d and f r o m
th e r e to the c o n v e n t io n ; w h e r e the g e n e r a l e x e c u t iv e b o a r d e x e r c i s e d th is p o w e r ,
the a p p e a l w en t d ir e c t l y to the c o n v e n t io n .
T w o u n io n s , the U p h o l s t e r e r s ' In ­
te r n a tio n a l U n ion o f N o rth A m e r i c a and the U n ited A u t o m o b ile , A i r c r a f t & A g r i ­
c u lt u r a l Im p le m e n t W o r k e r s o f A m e r i c a , p e r m it t e d an a p p e a l to e it h e r the c o n ­
v e n tio n o r to an o u ts id e a g e n c y (the s o - c a l l e d P u b lic R e v ie w B o a r d ); in f o u r
u n io n s , the a p p e a l p r o c e d u r e s to p p e d at the g e n e r a l e x e c u t iv e b o a r d ; and in
tw o u n ion s the m a t t e r c o u ld b e d e c id e d b y e it h e r the c o n v e n t io n o r a m e m b e r ­
s h ip r e fe r e n d u m . S ix o th e r c o n s titu tio n s c o n ta in e d lim it e d a p p e a l c la u s e s w h ic h ,
it a p p e a r e d , c o u ld n ot be in v o k e d in t r u s t e e s h ip c a s e s .

Table 7.

A ppeal p rovision s in tru steesh ip c a se s

a s stipulated in international union constitutions, 1959

(M em bers in thousands)
A ppeal b odies
A ppeal p rovision s

A ll unions with one or m ore
tru steesh ip p rovision s —
—
A ppeal c la u se s relating
sp ec ifica lly to tru stee ship c a s e s ------------------Continuation of
t r u s t e e s h ip -------------Suspension of local
union ch arter an d /or
lo cal union o fficers —
G eneral appeal clau se only,
which m ay be invoked
in tru steesh ip c a s e s -----A ppeal c la u se s not
operative in tru steesh ip
c a s e s --------------------------

G eneral ex­
Total
e c u t iv e board 1
and re gu lar
conventions
em
em
Unions M e rs ­ Unions M e r s ­
b
b

R egular con­
vention or
public review
board
M em ­
M em ­
Unions b e rs
bers

R egular con­
vention only
Unions

Other 2
Unions

M em ­
b e rs

67

12,063

23

4, 650

30

3, 189

2

1,376

6

1,821

35

6,009

20

3 ,8 3 4

11

1.469

-

-

4

706

25

4, 486

13

2 ,869

8

911

-

-

4

706

10

1,523

7

965

3

558

26

5, 027

3

816

19

1, 720

2

1,376

2

1, 115

**

~

-

-

"

1,0 2 7
6

**

_

1
A lso includes other governing bodies of international unions.
a 2 constitutions provided fo r, app eals to the international p resid en t and to the gen eral executive
board; 2 to the gen eral executive board only; and 2 provided for an appeal either to the gen eral executive
board and the convention or to the m em bersh ip by m eans of a referendum .

NOTE: B ecau se of rounding, su m s of individual item s m ay not equal totals.




21

In 35 co n stitu tio n s, the tru ste e s h ip p ro v is io n s a lso s e t fo rth the appeal
p r o c e d u r e s w h ich a pp lied s p e c ific a lly to such c a s e s .
In 26 o th e r s , h o w e v e r,
no s p e c ific appeals w ere in clu d ed ; ra th e r, the appeal p r o c e d u r e s in these unions
w e re o f a g e n e ra l n atu re, a v a ila b le to all a g g rie v e d m e m b e r s , o f f i c e r s , o r su b ­
ord in a te b o d ie s w ithout r e g a r d to the type o f d iscip lin e in v olv ed .
The sc o p e o f the p r o v is io n s cite d b e lo w as ex a m p le s se e m s to be b ro a d
enough to m ake a tru ste e s h ip su b je ct to appeal, although it was not s p e c ific a lly
c it e d .
Any m e m b e r o r lo c a l
e r a l E x e cu tiv e B o a rd
su c c e e d in g C on ven tion
C o r k , L in o le u m , and

union a ffe cte d by a d e c is io n of the G en ­
sh all have the righ t to appeal to the next
o f the International U nion. (U nited R ubber,
P la s tic W o rk e rs o f A m e r ic a )
*

♦

*

In c a s e o f appeal by a su bordinate union . . . again st a d e c i ­
sio n o r a ctio n o f the E x e cu tiv e C o u n cil, the d e c is io n o r a ction
o f the E x e cu tiv e C ou n cil sh a ll be c o m p lie d with u n less and until
su ch d e c is io n o r a ctio n sh a ll have b een r e v e r s e d by the c o n ­
ven tion . . . (in terna tion al T y p og ra p h ica l Union)
*

*

*

U n less o th e rw ise p ro v id e d in this C on stitu tion , a ll appeals fr o m
d e c is io n s m ade b y the E x e cu tiv e C ou n cil sh all be r e fe r r e d to the
G r ie v a n c e s and A p p ea ls co m m itte e fo r c o n s id e r a tio n and r e p o r t
and the d e c is io n o f the G en era l C onvention sh all be r e c o g n iz e d
and a c c e p te d as fin a l . . . (Sheet M etal W ork ers* International
A s s o c ia tio n )
W here the tru ste e sh ip fo llo w e d the su sp en sion o f e ith er a lo c a l union or
any o f its o f f i c e r s , it w as this is s u e w hich becam e the su b je ct o f appeal as in ­
d ica te d by the e x c e r p ts fr o m so m e o f the co n stitu tio n s. In such p ro ce e d in g s (set
fo r th in 10 c o n stitu tio n s), a d e c is io n by an appeal bod y to lift the su sp en sion
w ould a ls o term in a te the tru ste e s h ip .
The c h a r te r o f any su bordinate org a n iz a tion s m ay be suspended
o r re v o k e d , fo r c a u s e , by the P r e s id e n t o r S e c r e t a r y -T r e a s u r e r
who a re h e re b y gran ted the p ow er to cr e a te a p r o v is io n a l g o v ­
e rn m en t f o r the su bord in ate org a n iz a tio n during the p e r io d o f
r e v o c a tio n . The o r d e r o f r e v o ca tio n sh all be s u b je ct to re v ie w
b y the E x e cu tiv e C ou n cil upon appeal by any o f f i c e r s d e p osed o r
any m e m b e r s a ffe c te d . . . . The d e c is io n o f the E x ecu tiv e
C o u n cil in r e s p e c t to the m a tter h e re in m en tion ed m ay be a p ­
p e a le d to the next r e g u la r C on ven tion . (U nited B r ic k and C lay
W o rk e rs o f A m e r ic a )
*

*

*

U pon su s p e n sio n o f the o f f i c e r s and govern in g body o f any l o c a l,
a m a jo r ity o f the national o ffic e r s sh all c r e a te a p r o v is io n a l
g ov ern m en t fo r sa id lo c a l . . .
The su sp e n sio n o f a loca l* s o ff i c e r s and govern in g body . . .
sh a ll be s u b je c t to r e v ie w b y the G en era l E x ecu tiv e B o a rd
upon appeal b y any o f f ic e r d ep osed o r any m e m b e r a ffe cte d
th e re b y . . .




22
If the G en eral E x ecu tiv e B oard shall a fter re v ie w o f an o r d e r
suspending autonom y o f a lo c a l, sustain the o r d e r , any o ffic e r
o r m e m b e r of the lo c a l a ffe cte d m a y appeal to the next C on ­
v en tion .
The d e c is io n o f the C onvention sh a ll b e fin a l and
bin din g.
(in d u stria l U nion o f M arin e and Shipbuilding W ork ers
of A m e r ic a )
M o re fre q u e n tly , h o w e v e r , the appeal was d ir e c tly on w hether o r not to
continue the tru ste e s h ip .
. . . Such r e p r e s e n ta tiv e , as soon as p r a c tic a b le a fter conducting
su ch h e a rin g , sh a ll m ake re com m en d a tion s with r e s p e c t to the
continuing o f the tru ste e sh ip to the International P r e s id e n t, eith er
o r a lly or in w ritin g , but the d e c is io n in the ca se sh all be m ade
b y the International P r e s id e n t h im s e lf.
A p p eals fr o m any d e ­
c is io n o f the International P re s id e n t m a y be taken to the G en eral
E x ecu tiv e B oa rd and th ence to the C onvention. . . .
(R etail
C le rk s International A s s o c ia tio n )
*

*

*

A fte r a lo c a l union has b een in r e c e iv e r s h ip fo r a p e rio d of
one y e a r o r at the end o f any y e a r ly p e rio d o f r e c e iv e r s h ip
th e r e a fte r , any m e m b e r m a y petition the in tern ation al P r e s id e n tS e c r e t a r y -T r e a s u r e r fo r the d iscon tin u an ce of the r e c e iv e r s h ip ,
and upon r e c e ip t o f su ch petition the International P r e s id e n tS e c r e t a r y -T r e a s u r e r sh a ll con du ct a h earin g to d eterm in e w hether
the r e c e iv e r s h ip sh a ll continue or be d iscon tin u ed .
If the In tern ation al P r e s id e n t -S e c r e t a r y -T r e a s u r e r d e c id e s that
a lo c a l union sh a ll . . . continue in r e c e iv e r s h ip , any m e m b e r
o r o f f ic e r o f su ch lo c a l union fe e lin g h im s e lf a g g rie v e d b y such
d e c is io n sh a ll have the righ t of appeal to the In ternational E x ­
e cu tiv e B oa rd . . . (M etal P o lis h e r s , B u ffe r s ,
P la te rs and
H e lp e rs In tern ation al Union)
In one o f the two unions in w hich the m e m b e rsh ip cou ld p a rticip a te in
the app eal p r o c e s s , the p r e c is e e ffe c t of this p r o c e d u r e was not c le a r ly stated.
The pertin en t cla u se rea d as fo llo w s :
A ny su ch re q u e st ZJo m o d ify , continue, am end, w ithdraw or
invoke In tern ation al S u p e rv is io n / when sign ed b y not le s s than
25 p e r c e n t o f the m e m b e r s in good standing of a lo c a l union
sh a ll cau se a refe re n d u m on the su b je ct to be su bm itted to the
m e m b e r s h ip b y the G en eral P r e s id e n t, who sh a ll be guided by
the r e su lts th e r e o f in his d e c is io n on the q u estion in volved
th erein , (in tern a tion a l Union of O perating E n g in eers)
In the oth er union u sin g this a rra n g em en t, the International A s s o c ia tio n of
M a ch in ists, the p o w e r o f the m e m b e rsh ip to fu n ction as an option al appeal b od y
is m o r e c le a r ly d efin ed. S in ce this con stitu tion sets forth the con vention appeal
p r o c e d u r e in co n s id e r a b le d eta il, it is w ell w orth citing in fu ll:
An appeal m a y be m ade fr o m a d e c is io n
b y any p a rty to the p r o c e e d in g s b e fo r e
the Grand L od ge con ven tion , or to the
s u b m iss io n th e r e o f to the referen d u m as




o f the E x ecu tiv e C ou n cil
the E x ecu tiv e C ou n cil to
m e m b e rsh ip at la rg e by
p rov id ed in A r t ic le XXIII.

23
Such appeal sh all be m ade in w ritin g to the G en era l S e c r e t a r y T r e a s u r e r w ithin 90 days fr o m the date o f the E x ecu tiv e C o u n c ils
d e c is io n and sh all set fo r th in s p e c ific detail the grounds th e r e ­
f o r . The appeal m a y in clude a w ritten argum ent in su p p ort of
su ch grou n d s. The G en eral S e c r e t a r y -T r e a s u r e r sh all n otify the
E x ecu tiv e C ou n cil and the op p osin g p arty of such appeal and fu r ­
n ish them w ith a co p y th e re o f.
Such p a rty m ay, w ithin 15 days
file with the G en era l S e c r e t a r y -T r e a s u r e r a w ritten argum ent
in o p p o sitio n to the app ea l.
The appeal sh all be r e fe r r e d to the
A p p ea ls and G rie v a n ce C om m ittee of the con ven tion , and the G en­
e r a l S e c r e t a r y -T r e a s u r e r sh all tra n sm it to such co m m itte e the
r e c o r d o f the p r o c e e d in g s b e fo r e the lo w e r tribunals of the
I .A . M . as w e ll as the argum ents of the appellant and o f the o p ­
p o s itio n p a rty .
The A p p ea ls and G riev a n ce C om m ittee sh a ll,
upon tim e ly re q u e st, h e a r both p a rtie s to the appeal in p e r s o n .
H o w e v e r, no p a rty to the appeal sh all have a righ t to appear
in p e r s o n b e fo r e the con vention .
The appeals and G riev a n ce
C om m ittee sh all m ake a w ritten reco m m e n d a tio n to the con v en ­
tion b a sed upon the r e c o r d b e fo r e it, w hich sh all contain its
fin d in g s, c o n c lu s io n s , and recom m en d a tion s as to penalty to be
im p o se d , if any.
The con v en tion m ay am end o r r e je c t in w hole
o r in p a rt the findings and recom m en d a tion s o f the A p p ea ls and
G rie v a n ce C om m ittee and find the a ccu se d eith er "guilty** or
"n ot gu ilty. " The con ven tion m ay a ls o a cce p t o r r e je c t in w hole
o r in p a rt any re co m m e n d a tio n o f the A p p ea ls and G rieva n ce
C om m ittee with r e s p e c t to a penalty to be im p o s e d , and m ay
it s e lf p r o v id e a substitute penalty by a m a jo r ity o f deleg a tes
votin g on the q u estion .
Such a ction of the con vention shall be
r e c o g n iz e d and a cce p te d as fin al and binding on all p a r tie s .
B e fo r e any appeal can be taken fr o m an E x ecu tiv e C ou n cil d e ­
c is io n , the d e c is io n and a ll o r d e r s of the E x ecu tiv e C ou n cil in
re la tio n th e re to m u st be co m p lie d with b y a ll p a rtie s con ce rn e d
th erein ; p ro v id e d , h o w e v e r, that in the event the E x ecu tiv e
C o u n cil con clu d e s that com p lia n ce pending appeal would co n ­
stitute a su bstan tial b a r to the e x e r c is e o f the right th e re o f,
co m p lia n ce th erew ith m a y be w aived o r m od ifie d b y the E x e c ­
u tive C o u n cil with r e s p e c t th ereto. In no ca se sh a ll any lo c a l
lo d g e , d is t r ic t lo d g e , o f f ic e r , re p re s e n ta tiv e , or m e m b e r th e re o f,
appeal to the c iv il co u rts fo r r e d r e s s until a fter having exhausted
a il righ ts of appeal under this con stitu tion .
To invoke the re fe re n d u m m a ch in e ry r e fe r r e d to in this cla u s e , a m e m ­
b e r m u st fir s t r e c e iv e en d o rse m e n ts fr o m at le a s t 10 p e rce n t o f a ll lo c a l unions
in good standing, "n ot m o r e than 10 of w hich a re loca ted in any one state. . . . *
*
A s the a bove e x c e r p t a ls o in d ica te s, union m e m b e r s a re often req u ired
to exhaust a ll in tern a l appeals b e fo r e turning to the c o u r ts . In so m e u n ion s, a
m e m b e r v io la tin g this r e q u ire m e n t is su b je ct to d is c ip lin a r y a ctio n , including
au tom atic ex p u lsion .
The r e s p o n s ib ilitie s of the tru ste e , upon the term in a tion o f his duties
and the r e s to r a tio n o f s e lf-g o v e r n m e n t, w e re d is c u s s e d in on ly a few con stitu tion s.
T y p ic a lly , this m a tte r was dealt with in a sh ort cla u se req u irin g the tru stee to




24
retu rn a ll b o o k s , p a p ers and oth er p r o p e r ty to the lo c a l union, to hold an e l e c ­
tion o f o f f i c e r s , o r to do both .
The con stitu tion o f the H otel and R estau ran t
E m p lo y e e s and B a rte n d e rs In tern ational U nion stated th ese r e s p o n s ib ilitie s as
fo llo w s :
When a tru ste e sh ip is to be term in a ted , the tru ste e shall ca ll
m eetin gs fo r the p u rp o se of re c e iv in g n om inations fo r o ffic e s
and con du ctin g e le c t io n s . He sh all in sta ll such o ffic e r s on the
day the tru ste e sh ip is term in a ted .
A ll p r o p e r tie s under the
tru ste e sh ip sh all be turned o v e r to the p r o p e r lo c a l o ff i c e r s ,
who sh a ll r e c e ip t fo r the sa m e .
A fin a l audit o f the tr u s te e ­
ship sh a ll b e m ade and a pp roved b y the G en eral S e c r e t a r y T reasu rer.
A s so o n as it can be con v en ien tly done new b y ­
laws sh a ll be subm itted to the G en eral P re s id e n t f o r a p p rov a l.
C om bin ation s o f D u e - P r o c e s s P r o v is io n s .— The 3 p rin cip a l d u e -p r o c e s s
sa fe g u a rd s a v a ila b le to the lo c a l union in tru steesh ip situ ation s— h ea rin g , app eal,
and a u tom a tic term in a tion — a pp ea red am ong the 67 con stitu tion s in v a riou s c o m ­
b in a tio n s.
U nder a m a jo r it y o f con stitu tion s, the lo c a l union was entitled to
eith er a h ea rin g and an app eal o r to an appeal only (table 8). Of the 27 c o n s ti­
tutions w h ich p ro v id e d f o r both h earin g and app eal, only 5 re q u ire d that such a
h ea rin g b e held b e fo r e esta b lish in g the tru ste e s h ip .
A ll 3 sa feg u a rd s could be
u tilize d b y lo c a l a ffilia te s in 10 in tern ation al unions; in 8 of th ese, h o w e v e r,
the h ea rin g was to take p la ce a fte r the tru stee had a lre a d y b een appointed.
M ore­
o v e r , in s e v e r a l of th ese u n ion s, the au tom atic term in a tion date applied to s o m e ,
but not a ll, o f the p o s s ib le tru ste esh ip s a u th orized .
None of these p r o c e d u r a l
righ ts w e re found in the con stitu tion s o f the 4 unions with a total m e m b e rsh ip
o f 7 5 0 ,0 0 0 .




T a b le 8.
P r e v a le n c e o f s e le c t e d d u e - p r o c e s s p r o v is io n s
in t r u s t e e s h ip c la u s e s s tip u la te d in in t e r n a t io n a l
u n io n c o n s t it u t io n s , 1959 1
(M e m b e r s in th o u s a n d s )
P r o v is io n

U n ion s

M em b ers

A l l u n io n s w ith on e o r m o r e t r u s t e e s h ip
p r o v i s i o n s -------------------------------------------------------------

67

1 2 ,0 6 3

H e a r in g , a u to m a t ic t e r m in a t io n , and
______ 1
ctppG&L ....... ...... ■" 1
*■ 1 1 r
1
i
A u t o m a t ic t e r m in a t io n and a p p e a l ---------------------A u t o m a t ic t e r m in a t io n o n l y --------------------------------H e a r in g and a p p e a l -----------------------------------------------H e a r in g o n l y -----------------------------------------------------------A p p e a l o n l y -------------------------------------------------------------N on e o f th e s e p r o v i s i o n s ---------------------------- ---------

10
1
1
27
1
23
4

2 ,2 3 6
13
10
4 , 756
259
4 ,0 3 1
758

1 In c lu d e s c o n s t itu tio n s in w h ic h at le a s t on e o f the t r u s t e e s h ip
p r o v i s i o n s r e q u ir e d a h e a r in g b e f o r e o r a ft e r s u ch d i s c i p l i n a r y a c t io n
w a s ta k e n , a n d /o r in c lu d e d an a u to m a t ic t e r m in a t io n d a te , a n d /o r a
s p e c if ic o r g e n e r a l a p p e a l c la u s e .
NOTE:
e q u a l t o t a ls .

B ecau se

o f r o u n d in g , s u m s o f in d iv id u a l it e m s m a y n o t

25

A p p e n d ix A

Trusteeship Provisions From Selected International Union Constitutions
T o illu str a te the d iffe re n t types o f tru steesh ip cla u se s contained in union
con stitu tion s, a ll pertin en t p r o v is io n s o f se le cte d con stitu tion s a re re p ro d u ce d
in fu ll on the follow in g p a g e s.
T h ese should not be co n s id e re d as m od el or
ty p ica l p r o v is io n s .




CLAUSES

26
U n ited P a p e r m a k e r s and
P ap erw ork ers

A R T I C L E X II

L o c a l U nions
S e c t io n

3.
N o l o c a l un ion m a y w ith d ra w o r s e c e d e f r o m the In te r n a tio n a l U n ion .
If any l o c a l u n ion o r an y o f the o f f i c e r s o r m e m b e r s t h e r e o f , s h a ll
a tte m p t to w ith d ra w o r s e c e d e o r s h a ll s p o n s o r a m o v e m e n t to w ith d ra w
o r s e c e d e , the In te r n a tio n a l E x e c u t iv e B o a r d , o r b e tw e e n its m e e t in g s ,
the In te r n a tio n a l P r e s id e n t , m a y fo rth w ith and w ith ou t a n y h e a r in g , s u s ­
p end the o f f i c e r s o f s u ch l o c a l u n ion and the a u to n o m y t h e r e o f and a p ­
p oin t a t e m p o r a r y tr u s t e e to take im m e d ia te p o s s e s s i o n o f a ll p r o p e r t y
o f s u ch l o c a l union and to m a n a g e and c o n s e r v e the s a m e and c o n d u c t
the n e c e s s a r y a ff a ir s o f s u ch l o c a l un ion .
A ft e r a h e a r in g , the I n t e r ­
n a tion a l E x e c u t iv e B o a r d , o r p e r s o n o r p e r s o n s a u t h o r iz e d b y it , m a y
r e m o v e the o f f i c e r s o f s u ch l o c a l union and m a y a p p o in t a tr u s t e e to
take p o s s e s s i o n o f a ll o f the p r o p e r t y o f s u ch l o c a l u n ion and to m a n a g e
and c o n s e r v e th e s a m e and to c o n d u c t the n e c e s s a r y a ff a ir s o f s u ch l o c a l
union until the fu r th e r o r d e r o f the In te r n a tio n a l E x e c u t iv e B o a r d . W h e n ­
e v e r it a p p e a r s d e s i r a b l e to the In te r n a tio n a l E x e c u t iv e B o a r d that l o c a l
a u to n o m y b e r e s t o r e d to s u ch l o c a l u n ion , the t r u s t e e , o r a p e r s o n
s p e c ia ll y a p p o in te d , s h a ll c o n d u c t the n e c e s s a r y e le c t io n f o r new o f f i c e r s .
A ll p r o p e r t y o f an y l o c a l union a tte m p tin g to w ith d ra w o r s e c e d e f r o m
the In te r n a tio n a l U nion , w h e th e r taken in to p o s s e s s i o n o f a t r u s te e o r
n ot, s h a ll b e c o m e a T r u s t F u n d o f the In te r n a tio n a l U n ion , to b e u s e d
f i r s t f o r the b e n e fit o f the l o c a l u n ion and s e c o n d f o r the b e n e fit o f the
In te r n a tio n a l U nion and its m e m b e r s .




27

In te r n a tio n a l B r o t h e r h o o d o f T e a m s t e r s ,
C h a u ffe u r s , W a r e h o u s e m e n and H e lp e r s
o f A m e r i c a (in d . )

A R T IC L E VI

P o w e r o f G e n e r a l P r e s id e n t T o A p p o in t T r u s t e e s and D u tie s
an^ O b lig a tio n s o f L o c a l O n ion s U n d er T r u s t e e s h ip

S e c tio n 5.
(a ) . If the G e n e r a l P r e s id e n t h as o r r e c e i v e s in fo r m a t io n w h ic h le a d s h im to
b e li e v e that a ny o f the o f f i c e r s o f a L o c a l U nion o r o th e r s u b o r d in a te
b o d y a r e d is h o n e s t o r in c o m p e te n t, o r that s u c h o r g a n iz a tio n s a r e n o t
b e in g co n d u cte d in a c c o r d a n c e w ith the C o n s titu tio n and la w s o f the I n t e r ­
n a tio n a l U n ion o r f o r the b e n e fit o f the m e m b e r s h ip , o r a r e b e in g c o n ­
d u cte d in s u ch a m a n n e r as to je o p a r d iz e the in t e r e s t s o f the In te r n a ­
tio n a l U n ion , h e m a y a p p o in t a t e m p o r a r y T r u s t e e to take c h a r g e and
c o n t r o l o f the a ff a ir s o f s u ch L o c a l U nion o r o th e r s u b o r d in a te b o d y ;
p r o v id e d , h o w e v e r , that b e f o r e the a p p o in tm e n t o f s u ch t e m p o r a r y T r u s t e e ,
T h e G e n e r a l P r e s id e n t s h a ll s e t a tim e and p la c e f o r a h e a r in g f o r the
p u r p o s e o f d e te r m in in g w h e th e r s u ch t e m p o r a r y T r u s t e e s h a ll b e a p ­
p o in te d , and fu r th e r p r o v id e d that w h e r e , in the ju d g m e n t o f the G e n e r a l
P r e s id e n t that an e m e r g e n c y s itu a tio n e x is t s w ith in the L o c a l U n ion o r
o th e r s u b o r d in a te b o d y , the t e m p o r a r y T r u s t e e m a y b e a p p o in te d p r i o r
to s u ch h e a r in g , but s u ch h e a r in g s h a ll then c o m m e n c e w ith in th ir ty
(3 0 ) d ays and d e c i s i o n m a d e w ith in s ix t y (6 0 ) d ays a ft e r the a p p o in tm e n t
o f s u ch t e m p o r a r y T r u s t e e ; and fu r th e r p r o v id e d that in a il c a s e s the
L o c a l U nion o r o th e r s u b o r d in a te b o d y s h a ll b e a d v is e d o f the r e a s o n s
f o r the a p p o in tm e n t. A d e q u a te n o t ic e , at le a s t ten (1 0 ) d a ys p r i o r to the
date o f the h e a r in g , s h a ll b e g iv e n to the L o c a l U nion o r o th e r s u b o r d i ­
n ate b o d y in v o lv e d . In the c a s e o f a ll h e a r in g s co n d u c te d p u r s u a n t to o r
a ft e r the e s t a b lis h m e n t o f a T r u s t e e s h ip , the G e n e r a l P r e s id e n t s h a ll d e s ­
ig n a te a p a n e l c o m p r is e d o f at le a s t on e ( l ) In te r n a tio n a l U nion V i c e P r e s id e n t and on e ( l ) d is in t e r e s t e d m e m b e r o f the In te r n a tio n a l B r o t h e r ­
h o o d o f T e a m s t e r s f r o m the a r e a in v o lv e d .
Su ch r e p r e s e n t a t iv e s s h a ll
m a k e th e ir r e c o m m e n d a t io n s to the G e n e r a l P r e s id e n t , o r a l ly o r in w r i t ­
in g w ith in ten (1 0 ) d ays a ft e r the c o m p le t io n o f the h e a r in g , and the
d e c i s i o n in the c a s e s h a ll b e m a d e b y the G e n e r a l P r e s id e n t h im s e l f ,
w h ic h d e c i s i o n s h a ll b e m a d e w ith in ten (1 0 ) d ays a ft e r s u ch r e c o m ­
m e n d a tio n s a r e r e c e iv e d b y h im and s u ch d e c is io n s s h a ll b e p r o m p t ly
tr a n s m it te d to the L o c a l U nion o r o th e r s u b o r d in a te b o d y .
A p p e a ls ,
i f a n y , f r o m d e te r m in a tio n s fo llo w in g s u c h h e a r in g s s h a ll b e ta k en d i ­
r e c t l y to the G e n e r a l E x e c u t iv e B o a r d .
A p p e a ls , if a n y , f r o m d e c i ­
s io n s o f the G e n e r a l E x e c u t iv e B o a r d s h a ll b e ta k en to the C o n v e n tio n
b y the L o c a l U nion o r s u b o r d in a te b o d y a ffe c t e d .
P r o c e d u r e s on a p ­
p e a ls u n d e r this S e c t io n , in s o f a r as is c o n s is t e n t w ith th is S e c t io n , s h a ll
b e g o v e r n e d b y the p r o v is io n s o f A r t i c l e X V III. The In te r n a tio n a l U nion
s h a ll n ot b e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r an y a c tio n s o r a c t iv it ie s o f a L o c a l U nion o r
o th e r s u b o r d in a te b o d y u n d e r T r u s t e e s h ip u n le s s s u ch a c tio n s o r a c t iv it ie s
h a v e b e e n d ir e c t e d o r a u t h o r iz e d b y the T r u s t e e .
( b ) . T h e T r u s t e e s h a ll b e a u t h o r iz e d and e m p o w e r e d to take fu ll c h a r g e o f the
a ff a ir s o f the L o c a l U nion o r o th e r s u b o r d in a te b o d y , to r e m o v e an y o r
a ll o f f i c e r s and s h a ll w ith in s ix ty (60 ) d ays a p p o in t t e m p o r a r y o f f i c e r s




28

In te r n a tio n a l B r o th e r h o o d o f T e a m s t e r s ,
C h a u ffe u r s , W a r e h o u s e m e n and H e lp e r s
o f A m e r i c a (in d . )

S e c t io n 5 .— C on tin u ed
d u r in g h is T r u s t e e s h ip , and to take s u c h o th e r a c t io n as in h is ju d g m e n t
is n e c e s s a r y f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f the L o c a l U n ion o r o th e r s u b o r d in a te
b o d y and th e ir i n t e r e s t s .
H e s h a ll r e p o r t f r o m tim e to tim e on the a f ­
f a i r s and tr a n s a c t io n s o f the L o c a l U n ion o r o th e r s u b o r d in a te b o d y to the
G e n e r a l P r e s id e n t .
H is a c ts s h a ll b e s u b je c t to the s u p e r v is io n o f the
G e n e r a l P r e s id e n t .
T h e G e n e r a l P r e s id e n t m a y r e m o v e T r u s t e e s at any
tim e and m a y a p p o in t s u c c e s s o r T r u s t e e s . The t e r m s o f o f f i c e o f o f f i c e r s
s o r e m o v e d s h a ll te r m in a te as o f the d ate o f r e m o v a l , u n le s s o t h e r w is e
a b s o lv e d .

( c ) . T h e r e m o v e d o f f i c e r s s h a ll tu rn o v e r a ll m o n e y s , b o o k s and p r o p e r t i e s o f
the L o c a l U nion o r o th e r s u b o r d in a te b o d y to the T r u s t e e , w h o m u s t r e ­
c e ip t f o r the s a m e .

(d ). T e m p o r a r y o f f i c e r s and tr u s t e e s m u s t b e m e m b e r s in g o o d sta n d in g o f
L o c a l U nion s in g o o d sta n d in g .
T h e y m u s t g iv e b o n d s f o r the fa ith fu l
d is c h a r g e o f t h e ir d u t ie s , s a t i s f a c t o r y to w h o e v e r a p p o in te d th e m , w h ich
s h a ll n ot b e l e s s than the a m o u n t o f m o n e y th e y a r e apt to h a n d le .

(e ). T h e T r u s t e e s h a ll take p o s s e s s i o n o f a il the fu n d s , b o o k s , p a p e r s and
o th e r p r o p e r t y o f the L o c a l U n ion o r o th e r s u b o r d in a te b o d y and te n d e r
a r e c e ip t fo r sa m e .
H e s h a ll p a y a ll o u tsta n d in g c l a i m s , p r o p e r l y p r o v e d ,
i f fu n d s a r e s u ff ic ie n t . If the fu n d s a r e n o t s u ff ic ie n t h e s h a ll s e ttle the
m o s t w o r th y c l a i m s , as h is ju d g m e n t d ic t a t e s , u n le s s o t h e r w is e p r o v id e d
f o r in th is C o n s titu tio n . In the e v e n t the c h a r t e r o f the L o c a l U n ion o r
o th e r s u b o r d in a te b o d y is su sp e n d e d o r r e v o k e d , a ll its fu n d s , b o o k s ,
p a p e r s and o th e r p r o p e r t i e s s h a ll b e f o r w a r d e d to the G e n e r a l S e c r e t a r y T r e a s u r e r , w h o s h a ll h o ld it f o r the p u r p o s e o f r e o r g a n iz a t io n .
If n o
r e o r g a n iz a t io n o c c u r s w ith in a p e r io d o f tw o (2 ) y e a r s , s u c h fu n d s s h a ll
b e t r a n s f e r r e d to the g e n e r a l fu n d s .

(f).

In a ll c a s e s o f T r u s t e e s h ip s , the T r u s t e e s h a ll m a k e a r e p o r t to the
G e n e r a l P r e s id e n t at in t e r v a ls o f n o m o r e than e v e r y s ix (6 ) m onths*
w h ic h r e p o r t s h a ll co n ta in h is r e c o m m e n d a t io n s w ith r e s p e c t to w h e th e r
the T r u s t e e s h ip s h a ll b e co n tin u e d o r te r m in a te d .
T h e f i r s t (1 s t) s u c h r e p o r t s h a ll b e m a d e w ith in s ix (6 ) m o n th s a ft e r the
date o f the d e c i s i o n f o llo w in g the h e a r in g on the a p p o in tm e n t o f a T r u s t e e .

A d d it io n a lly , the L o c a l U n ion , o r o th e r s u b o r d in a te b o d y in r e g u la r o r
s p e c ia l m e m b e r s h ip m e e t in g b y a m a jo r i t y v o t e , m a y p e titio n the G e n ­
e r a l P r e s id e n t f o r the r e s t o r a t i o n o f s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t p r o v id e d that n o
s u c h p e titio n s h a ll b e p r e s e n t e d at in t e r v a ls o f l e s s than s ix (6 ) m o n th s
s ta r tin g w ith the d ate o f the d e c i s i o n fo llo w in g the f i r s t h e a r in g on the
a p p o in tm e n t o f the T r u s t e e .




29
In te r n a tio n a l B r o th e r h o o d o f T e a m s t e r s ,
C h a u ffe u r s , W a r e h o u s e m e n and H e lp e r s
o f A m e r i c a (in d . )

S e c tio n 5 .— C on tin u ed
W h en a L o c a l U n ion o r o th e r s u b o r d in a te b o d y p e titio n s f o r r e s t o r a t i o n
o f s e lf - g o v e r n m e n t as h e r e in p r o v id e d , it s h a ll b e a c c o r d e d a h e a r in g
w h ic h s h a ll b e c o m m e n c e d w ith in th ir ty (3 0 ) d ays and d e c i s i o n m a d e
w ith in s ix ty (6 0 ) d ays a ft e r the r e c e ip t o f the p e titio n and w h ich s h a ll b e
h e ld in the s a m e m a n n e r as p r o v id e d in S e c tio n 5 (a ) o f th is A r t i c l e
r e la t iv e to h e a r in g on in itia l a p p o in tm e n t o f T r u s t e e s .

N o t e m p o r a r y T r u s t e e s h ip s h a ll co n tin u e m o r e than tw o (2 ) y e a r s a fte r
the date o f the d e c i s i o n fo llo w in g the f i r s t (1 s t) h e a r in g on the a p p o in t­
m e n t o f a T r u s t e e , u n le s s the G e n e r a l E x e c u t iv e B o a r d , u p on a sh o w in g
s a t i s f a c t o r y to it and s e t f o r t h in a w r itt e n d e c i s i o n , d e t e r m in e s that
s u c h T r u s t e e s h ip b e con tin u e d u n d e r s u ch t e r m s and c o n d itio n s and f o r
s u c h fu r t h e r p e r io d it b e li e v e s a d v is a b le .
W h en the T r u s t e e r e c o m m e n d s
s e lf - g o v e r n m e n t b e r e s t o r e d , o r w h en the L o c a l U n ion o r o th e r s u b o r ­
d in a te b o d y p e titio n s f o r s u ch r e s t o r a t i o n , and s u ch r e s t o r a t i o n is a p ­
p r o v e d and o r d e r e d b y the G e n e r a l P r e s id e n t , o r G e n e r a l E x e c u t iv e
B o a r d o r w h en the G e n e r a l P r e s id e n t o r G e n e r a l E x e c u t iv e B o a r d d i r e c t s
that s e lf - g o v e r n m e n t b e r e s t o r e d , the T r u s t e e sh a ll d ir e c t an e le c t i o n at
su ch tim e a s he m a y d e s ig n a te , a ny o th e r p r o v i s io n o f th is C o n s titu tio n
o r L o c a l U n ion r u le s o r b y - l a w s to the c o n t r a r y n o tw ith sta n d in g and f o l ­
lo w in g su ch e l e c t i o n and in s ta lla t io n , the T r u s t e e s h ip sh a ll te r m in a te and
the T r u s t e e s h a ll r e t u r n a ll r e m a in in g fu n d s, p r o p e r t y , b o o k s and p a p e r s
to the a p p r o p r ia t e o f f i c e r s o f the L o c a l U n ion o r o th e r s u b o r d in a te b o d y .




30
U n ited M in e W o r k e r s
o f A m e r i c a (in d . )

A R T I C L E III

J u r is d ic t io n
S e c tio n 2 .
A ll D i s t r i c t s , S u b - D i s t r i c t s and L o c a l U n io n s m u s t b e c h a r t e r e d b y , and
s h a ll b e u n der the ju r i s d i c t i o n o f and s u b je c t to the la w s o f the In te r n a ­
tio n a l U nion and r u lin g s o f the In te r n a tio n a l E x e c u t iv e B o a r d . C h a r t e r s
o f D i s t r i c t s , S u b - D i s t r i c t s and L o c a l U n ion s m a y be r e v o k e d b y the I n t e r ­
n a tio n a l P r e s id e n t , w h o s h a ll h a v e a u th o r ity to c r e a t e a p r o v i s io n a l g o v ­
e rn m e n t f o r the s u b o r d in a te b r a n c h w h o s e c h a r t e r h as b e e n r e v o k e d . T h is
a c t io n o f the In te r n a tio n a l P r e s id e n t s h a ll b e s u b je c t to r e v ie w b y the
In te r n a tio n a l E x e c u t iv e B o a r d upon a p p e a l by any o f f i c e r s d e p o s e d o r any
m e m b e r s a ffe c t e d t h e r e b y .
U ntil su ch r e v ie w is had and u n le s s sa id
o r d e r o f r e v o c a t io n is s e t a s id e , a ll m e m b e r s , o f f i c e r s and b r a n c h e s
w ith in the t e r r i t o r y a ff e c t e d b y the o r d e r o f r e v o c a t io n s h a ll r e s p e c t and
c o n fo r m to said o r d e r . A n a p p e a l m a y b e had f r o m the d e c i s i o n o f the
E x e c u t iv e B o a r d upon su ch o r d e r o f r e v o c a t io n , to the n ext In te r n a tio n a l
C o n v e n tio n .




31
A m e r i c a n F e d e r a t i o n of
G ra in M ille r s

A R T I C L E IV
D u tie s of O f f ic e r s
P r e s id e n t
S e c t i o n 6.
E M E R G E N C Y A C T IO N :
T he P r e s i d e n t s h a l l h a v e the r i g h t to d e c l a r e
e m e r g e n c i e s w h en in h i s o p in io n E m e r g e n c y A c t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y to p r o ­
t e c t th e r i g h t s a n d i n t e r e s t s of the A m e r i c a n F e d e r a t i o n of G r a i n M i l l e r s ,
o r a n y L o c a l U n io n o r o t h e r s u b o r d i n a t e b o d y o r o f f i c e r s o r m e m b e r s
t h e r e o f . U n d e r s u c h e m e r g e n c y d e c l a r a t i o n the P r e s i d e n t m a y s u s p e n d
a n y o f f i c e r of a L o c a l U n ion o r s u b o r d i n a t e b o d y p e r s o n a l l y , o r by h i s
r e p r e s e n t a t i v e t a k e o v e r a l l o r p a r t of the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of a n y L o c a l
U n ion o r o t h e r s u b o r d i n a t e b o d y o r the a s s e t s a n d p r o p e r t y t h e r e o f ,
d e s i g n a t e t e m p o r a r y o f f i c i a l s o f the L o c a l U nion o r o t h e r s u b o r d i n a t e
b o d y to s e r v e d u r i n g the p e r i o d of t r u s t e e s h i p a n d p e r f o r m a n y a n d a l l
o t h e r a c t s n e c e s s a r y f o r the p u r p o s e of p r e s e r v i n g the s t a t u s quo and
p r o t e c t i n g the i n t e r e s t s o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n . E m e r g e n c y A c t i o n t a k e n by
the P r e s i d e n t ( o r b y the G e n e r a l S e c r e t a r y - T r e a s u r e r u n d e r A r t i c l e IV,
S e c t i o n 30 h e r e o f ) s h a l l b e d e e m e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i o n .
Em ergency
A c t i o n w h ich r e s u l t s in the s u s p e n s i o n of the a u t o n o m y of a L o c a l U n ion
o r o t h e r s u b o r d i n a t e b o d y s h a l l be a d m i n i s t e r e d in a m a n n e r c o n s i s t e n t
w ith the d e m o c r a t i c p o l i c i e s of t h is o r g a n i z a t i o n an d s h a l l be t e r m i n a t e d
b y the P r e s i d e n t a t the e a r l i e s t p o s s i b l e d a te a f t e r the e m e r g e n c y r e ­
q u i r i n g the a c t i o n i s o v e r . A f t e r a t r u s t e e s h i p , h o w e v e r i m p o s e d
upon
a n y L o c a l U n io n o r o t h e r s u b o r d i n a t e body, h a s b e e n in e f f e c t f o r m o r e
th a n n in ety d a y s , an y s u c h L o c a l U n io n o r o t h e r s u b o r d i n a t e b o dy by
m a j o r i t y vo te o f a r e g u l a r m e e t i n g t h e r e o f m a y r e q u e s t the P r e s i d e n t to
t e r m i n a t e the t r u s t e e s h i p an d r e s t o r e a u t o n o m y .
The P r e s i d e n t , p e r ­
s o n a l l y o r by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , s h a l l f u lly i n v e s t i g a t e s u c h r e q u e s t i m ­
m e d i a t e l y upon r e c e i p t t h e r e o f a n d s h a l l p r o m p t l y c o n d u c t a n a p p r o p r i a t e
h e a r i n g upon due n o tic e to a l l i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s who a d v o c a t e e i t h e r the
t e r m i n a t i o n o r the c o n tin u a t io n o f the t r u s t e e s h i p .
If the h e a r i n g i s b e ­
f o r e a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e d e s i g n a t e d by the P r e s i d e n t he s h a l l r e p o r t h is
f i n d i n g s in w r i t i n g to the P r e s i d e n t , who s h a l l , w ith in f i f t e e n d a y s a f t e r
r e c e i p t o f s u c h r e p o r t , r e n d e r a d e c i s i o n in the m a t t e r . T h e d e t e r m i n a ­
tio n o f the P r e s i d e n t upon the r e q u e s t of a L o c a l U n io n o r o t h e r s u b ­
o r d i n a t e b o d y f o r the r e s t o r a t i o n of a u t o n o m y s h a l l c o n s t it u t e the P r e s i ­
d e n t s D e cisio n .
When the P r e s i d e n t s D e c i s i o n c o n t in u e s a s u s p e n s i o n
o f l o c a l a u t o n o m y it s h a l l be s u b j e c t to the A p p e a l p r o v i s i o n s o f t h is
C o n stitu tio n .
P e n d in g a n a p p e a l , the P r e s i d e n t s D e c i s i o n s h a l l r e m a i n
in f u ll f o r c e a n d e f f e c t . A n o t h e r r e q u e s t f o r r e s t o r a t i o n o f a u t o n o m y to
the L o c a l U n io n o r o t h e r s u b o r d i n a t e bo dy a f f e c t e d m a y be s u b m i t t e d to
the P r e s i d e n t by m a j o r i t y vote o f a r e g u l a r m e e t i n g t h e r e o f a t a n y t i m e
a f t e r s i x m o n t h s h a v e e l a p s e d s i n c e the p r e v i o u s P r e s i d e n t s D e c i s i o n .
P r o c e e d i n g s an d a p p e a l r i g h t s upon s u c h s u b s e q u e n t r e q u e s t s f o r r e s t o ­
r a t i o n of a u t o n o m y s h a l l be i d e n t i c a l w ith the f o r e g o i n g p r o v i s i o n s of
th is sec tio n .




32
Am erican Federation of
Grain M illers

Section 7.
CALLING MEETINGS: In all cases of emergency, the President shall
have the power to call meetings of Local Unions and preside over them
in person or delegate a representative to preside over such meetings.

General Secretary-Treasurer
Section 30.
AUDITORS: Subject to the approval of the General Executive Board, the
General S ecretary-T reasurer shall have power to appoint one or more
International Auditors. Such Auditors shall operate under the immediate
direction and supervision of the General Secretary-Treasurer and upon
demand shall be accorded access to all books and records of Local
Unions and other subordinate bodies. Under the direction of the General
S ecretary-T reasurer such Auditors shall a ssist and direct Local Unions
in the establishment of a uniform system of bookkeeping and reporting.
Should any irregularity appear or be charged in connection with the fiscal
affairs of any Local Union or other subordinate body, the General
Secretary-T reasurer shall have the same powers as the President to
take Emergency Action.




33

International Brotherhood of
Electrical Workers

A R T I C L E IV
In tern ation al P r e s id e n t
Section 3.
(9)

The I. P. is empowered as follows:
To take charge of the affairs of any L . U. /L o ca l Union7 when in his
judgment such is necessary to protect or advance the interests of its
members and the I. B. E . W . , but for a period not to exceed six months.
If the I. P . /International Presidency or his representative cannot or has
not adjusted the affairs of the L . U. involved at the end of this period,
then he shall refer the entire case to the I. E. C. /international E x­
ecutive Council7 which shall render a decision at its next regular m eet­
ing.
The I. P . may suspend any local officer or member who offers
interference in such cases.

(10) To remove or suspend any L . U. officer, representative, appointee or
agent, or any officer, general chairman or representative of Railroad
System or Regional Councils, for incompetence, or for nonperformance
of duties, or for failure to carry out the provisions of this Constitution
and the rules herein, or the bylaws and agreements of the L . U. or
Railroad Council, or for putting into effect or allowing to be put into
effect any practice, rule, agreement, bylaw or policy not having approval
of the I. P . , or for failure to observe or carry out instructions or de­
cisions of the I. P .
When the I. P . suspends or removes any officer,
representative, appointee, agent or any officer, general chairman or
representative of Railroad System or Regional Councils, then he can
fill any such office or position by appointment of others.

A R T I C L E IX
In tern ation al E x e cu tiv e C oun cil
Section 1.
The duties of the I.

E. C .

shall be:

Section 7.
To take charge of the affairs of any L . U. when in its judgment such
is necessary to protect or advance the interests of its members and
the I. B. E. W. , and to suspend any local officer or member who offers
interference in such cases.




34
Intern ation al L o n g s h o r e m e n 's
A s so ciatio n

A R T I C L E X II
L o c a l U n io n s
S e c t i o n 4.
N o t w i th s t a n d i n g an y o t h e r p r o v i s i o n o f t h is c o n s t i t u t i o n , the I n t e r n a t i o n a l
P r e s i d e n t , w ith the c o n s e n t of the a p p r o p r i a t e D i s t r i c t C o u n c il a n d w h e r e
no D i s t r i c t C o u n c il e x i s t s , with the c o n s e n t of the g o v e r n i n g body o f the
a p p r o p r i a t e D i s t r i c t o r g a n i z a t i o n , m a y , i f in h i s ju d g m e n t the w e l f a r e an d
b e s t i n t e r e s t o f the I . L . A . w ill be p r o m o t e d , c o n s o l i d a t e tw o o r m o r e
L o c a l U n io n s , r e o r g a n i z e o r d i s s o l v e an y L o c a l U n ion , a m e n d the c h a r t e r
o r j u r i s d i c t i o n o f a n y L o c a l U n io n , o r s u s p e n d the o f f i c e r s o f s u c h L o c a l
U n io n , a n d n a m e a t r u s t e e o r t r u s t e e s to a d m i n i s t e r the a f f a i r s an d
p r o p e r t y o f s u c h L o c a l U n io n until an e l e c t i o n of o f f i c e r s m a y be h e l d at
s u c h t i m e a n d p l a c e a n d u n d e r s u c h c o n d it i o n s a s the I n t e r n a t i o n a l P r e s i ­
dent m a y p r e s c r i b e . T h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l P r e s i d e n t s h a l l h a v e p o w e r u n d e r
t h is s e c t i o n to p r e s e n t h i s d e c i s i o n in w r i t i n g to the a p p r o p r i a t e D i s t r i c t
C o u n c i l , o r , w h e r e no D i s t r i c t C o u n c il e x i s t s , to the g o v e r n i n g b o dy of
th e a p p r o p r i a t e D i s t r i c t o r g a n i z a t i o n , f o r the p u r p o s e o f o b ta in in g the
c o n s e n t of s u c h b o d y to the a c t i o n s he h a s ta k e n h e r e u n d e r .

A R T I C L E X V III
D isc ip lin e
S e c t i o n 1.
(g). A L o c a l U n io n , D i s t r i c t C o u n c i l, o r D i s t r i c t o r g a n i z a t i o n , o r an y of it s
o f f i c e r s in p o s s e s s i o n of o r in c o n t r o l of i t s b o o k s , r e c o r d s , p a p e r s , o r
a c c o u n t s , f a i l i n g to d e l i v e r the b o o k s , r e c o r d s , p a p e r s , o r a c c o u n t s of
s u c h s u b o r d i n a t e b o d y to , o r r e f u s i n g to a llo w a n e x a m i n a t i o n , i n s p e c ­
tio n , o r a u d it b y the I n t e r n a t i o n a l P r e s i d e n t , o r h i s d e p u ty o r d e p u t i e s
who b e a r c r e d e n t i a l s f r o m h i m , o r a V i c e - P r e s i d e n t d e s i g n a t e d b y h i m ,
m a y b e s u s p e n d e d b y the I n t e r n a t i o n a l P r e s i d e n t , a n d a n a d m i n i s t r a t o r
o f the a f f a i r s , p r o p e r t i e s , a n d a s s e t s of s u c h s u b o r d i n a t e b o d y w ith fu ll
p o w e r to a c t m a y be a p p o in t e d by the I n t e r n a t i o n a l P r e s i d e n t in a d d it i o n
to an y o t h e r a n d f u r t h e r a c t i o n w h ich m a y b e ta k e n to d i s c i p l i n e s a i d
L o c a l Un ion , D i s t r i c t C o u n c i l, o r D i s t r i c t o r g a n i z a t i o n , o r a n y o f i t s
o f fic e r s , a s h e re in p ro v id e d .




35
In tern ation al L o n g s h o r e m e n 's
A s so ciatio n

S e c t i o n 7.
W h e n e v e r c h a r g e s h a v e b e e n f i l e d w ith the E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l , o r w h e n ­
e v e r it h a s a s s u m e d j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r the c h a r g e s a g a i n s t an o f f i c e r o r
o f f i c e r s of a L o c a l U n io n , o r D i s t r i c t C o u n c il o r D i s t r i c t o r g a n i z a t i o n ,
the E x e c u t i v e C o u n c il s h a l l h a v e the fo llo w in g p o w e r s w h ich it m a y e x e r ­
c i s e p r i o r to a h e a r i n g o r d e c i s i o n on s u c h c h a r g e s :
( a ) * S u m m a r i l y to s u s p e n d the a c c u s e d o f f i c e r o r o f f i c e r s .
(b)
. T o a p p o in t a t e m p o r a r y o f f i c e r o r t e m p o r a r y o f f i c e r s who s h a l l
h a v e a l l the p o w e r s o f the o f f i c e r o r o f f i c e r s s o s u s p e n d e d , a n d who
s h a l l s e r v e p e n d in g the d e c i s i o n of the E x e c u t i v e C o u n c il up o n the c h a r g e s
a g a i n s t the a c c u s e d , a n d (if the E x e c u t i v e C o u n c il fin d s the a c c u s e d g u ilty )
fo r a p e r i o d of not m o r e th a n s i x m o n th s a f t e r the r e n d i t i o n of s u c h
d e cisio n .
(c)
. T o a p p o in t a n a d m i n i s t r a t o r o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s o f the a f f a i r s ,
fu n d s a n d p r o p e r t y of the L o c a l U n io n o r D i s t r i c t C o u n c il o r D i s t r i c t
o r g a n i z a t i o n w h o s e o f f i c e r s a r e the s u b j e c t o f c h a r g e s .
Such a d m i n is ­
t r a t o r o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s s h a l l h a v e a l l the p o w e r s of the o f f i c e r s o f 6uch
L o c a l U nion o r D i s t r i c t C o u n c il o r D i s t r i c t o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d s h a l l co n tin u e
to a c t un til the d e c i s i o n of the E x e c u t i v e C o u n c il up on s u c h c h a r g e s , a n d
(in the e v e n t th a t the E x e c u t i v e C o u n c il fin d s the a c c u s e d g u ilty ) f o r not
m o r e th an s i x m o n t h s a f t e r the r e n d i t i o n o f s u c h d e c i s i o n .
In the e v e n t th a t the E x e c u t i v e C o u n c il e x e r c i s e s an y of th e p o w e r s p r o ­
v i d e d f o r in t h is S e c t i o n , it s h a l l r e n d e r i t s d e c i s i o n upon the c h a r g e s
with r e a s o n a b l e d i s p a t c h .
Section 9.
When the p r o p e r , p e a c e f u l , o r d e r l y , o r la w fu l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f a n d the
fu n c tio n in g o f a L o c a l U n io n , D i s t r i c t C o u n c i l, o r D i s t r i c t o r g a n i z a t i o n
s h a l l b e t h r e a t e n e d , i n t e r f e r e d w ith , s u b v e r t e d , o r p r e v e n t e d , a n d the
o f f i c e r s t h e r e o f a r e u n a b l e o r u n w illin g to a c t s o a s to p r e s e r v e the
i n t e g r i t y of s u c h s u b o r d i n a t e b o d y a n d o f the I . L . A . , the I n t e r n a t i o n a l
P r e s i d e n t , the D i s t r i c t C o u n c i l , the D i s t r i c t o r g a n i z a t i o n , o r the E x ­
e c u t iv e C o u n c i l , a s the c a s e m a y b e , m a y , b e f o r e any c h a r g e s h a v e b e e n
f i l e d , d e c l a r e an e m e r g e n c y , s u m m a r i l y s u s p e n d the o f f i c e r s o f the L o c a l
U n io n , D i s t r i c t C o u n c i l, o r D i s t r i c t o r g a n i z a t i o n , a s the c a s e m a y b e ,
a p p o in t a n a d m i n i s t r a t o r o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s of the p r o p e r t y , a s s e t s , f u n d s ,
a n d a f f a i r s of s u c h L o c a l U n io n , D i s t r i c t C o u n c i l , o r D i s t r i c t o r g a n i ­
z a t i o n who s h a l l h a v e a l l the p o w e r s of the r e s p e c t i v e o f f i c e r s o f s u c h
L o c a l U n io n , D i s t r i c t C o u n c il o r D i s t r i c t o r g a n i z a t i o n , a n d s h a l l c o n tin u e
to a c t until the c a s e s h a l l b e d i s p o s e d o f p u r s u a n t to the p r o v i s i o n s of
t h is A r t i c l e .
In e a c h c a s e , h o w e v e r , c h a r g e s , a s p r o v i d e d f o r in th is
A r t i c l e , s h a l l b e m a d e a n d f i l e d w ithin a p e r i o d o f t h i r t y d a y s a f t e r t h is
s e c t i o n h a s b e e n in v o k e d .




36

Appendix B
Title III of the Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act of 1959— Trusteeships

R e p ro d u ce d in fu ll b elow a re the p r o v is io n s o f the L a b o r-M a n a g e m e n t
R e p o rtin g and D is c lo s u r e A c t o f 1959 dealin g with tru ste e s h ip s.
R e p o rts
S ectio n .

301.

(a ) - E v e ry la b o r o rg a n iza tio n w hich has o r a ssu m es tru steesh ip o v e r any
su bordin ate la b o r o rg a n iz a tion sh all file with the S e c r e ta r y w ithin th irty
days a fte r the date o f the enactm ent o f this. A ct o r the im p o sitio n o f any
su ch tru ste e s h ip , and sem ian n u ally th e re a fte r, a r e p o r t, sign ed by its
p re sid e n t and tr e a s u r e r o r c o r r e s p o n d in g p rin cip a l o ff i c e r s , as w e ll as
by the tru ste e s of su ch su bord in ate la b o r org a n iz a tion , con tain in g the
fo llo w in g in fo rm a tio n :
( l) the nam e and a d d re ss o f the subordinate o r ­
ganization; (2) the date o f esta b lish in g the tru ste e sh ip ; (3) a d eta iled
statem en t o f the r e a s o n o r re a so n s fo r esta b lish in g o r continuing the
tru ste e sh ip ; and (4) the nature and extent o f p a rticip a tio n by the m e m ­
b e rsh ip o f the su bord in ate org a n iz a tio n in the s e le c tio n of d eleg a tes to
r e p r e s e n t su ch o rg a n iz a tion in re g u la r or s p e c ia l con vention s o r oth er
p o lic y -d e te r m in in g b o d ie s and in the e le c tio n o f o ffic e r s o f the la b o r
o rg a n iza tion w h ich has a ssu m ed tru steesh ip o v e r such su bord in ate o r ­
ganization.
The in itia l re p o r t sh all a ls o in clude a fu ll and co m p le te
accOAmt o f the fin a n cia l con d ition o f such su bord in ate org a n iza tion as
o f the tim e tru ste e sh ip was a ssu m ed o v e r it.
D uring the continuance
o f a tru ste e sh ip ? the la b o r org a n iza tion w h ich has a ssu m e d tru ste e s h ip
o v e r a su bord in ate la b o r o rg a n iz a tion shall file on b eh alf o f the su b ­
ordinate la b o r o rg a n iza tio n the annual fin a n cia l r e p o r t re q u ire d by s e c ­
tion 201 (b) sign ed by the p resid en t and t r e a s u r e r o r c o r r e s p o n d in g
p rin cip a l o f f ic e r s o f the la b o r org a n iza tion w hich has a ssu m ed such
tru ste e sh ip and the tru ste e s o f the su bord in ate la b o r org a n iza tion .
(b ) . The p r o v is io n s o f s e c tio n 201 ( c ), 205, 206,
p lica b le to re p o r ts file d under this title .

208, and 210 sh all be a p ­

( c ) . Any p e r s o n who w illfu lly v io la te s this s e ctio n sh all be fin ed not m o re
than $10, 000 o r im p r is o n e d fo r not m o re than one y e a r , o r both.
(d ) . A ny p e r s o n who m ak es a fa ls e statem ent o r re p re se n ta tio n o f a m a te ria l
fa c t, knowing it to be fa ls e , o r who know ingly fa ils to d is c lo s e a m a ­
te r ia l fa c t, in any r e p o r t re q u ire d under the p r o v is io n s of this s e c tio n
o r w illfu lly m akes a fa ls e en try in o r w illfu lly w ith h old s, c o n c e a ls , o r
d e s tr o y s any d o cu m e n ts, b o o k s, r e c o r d s , r e p o r ts , o r statem ents upon
w hich su ch r e p o r t is b a s e d , sh all be fin ed not m o re than $ 1 0 ,0 0 0 or
im p r is o n e d fo r not m o r e than one y e a r o r both.
( e ) . E a ch individual r e q u ir e d to sign a r e p o r t under this s e ctio n sh all be
p e r s o n a lly r e s p o n s ib le fo r the filin g o f such re p o r t and fo r any sta te ­
m ent con ta in ed th erein w hich he knows to be fa ls e .




37
P u r p o s e s fo r W hich a T ru ste e s h ip M ay be E sta b lish ed
S ection .

302.

T ru steesh ip s shall be establish ed and adm inistered by a labor o rgan iza­
tion oyer a subordinate body only in accordance with the constitution and
bylaws of the organization which has assu m ed trusteesh ip over the su b­
ordinate body and for the purpose of correctin g corruption or financial
m alp ractice, a ssu rin g the perform ance of collective bargaining a g re e ­
ments or other duties of a bargaining represen tative, resto rin g dem o­
cratic p rocedu res, or otherwise carryin g out the legitim ate objects of
such labor organization.
Unlawful A cts R ela tin g to L a b o r O rgan ization Under T ru ste e s h ip

S ection .

303.

(a ) . D uring any p e r io d when a subordinate body of a la b o r o rg a n iza tion is in
tru ste e s h ip , it sh all be unlawful (l) to count the v o t e of d eleg a tes fr o m
su ch body in any con ven tion o r e le c tio n o f o ffic e r s o f the la b o r o rg a n ­
iza tio n unless the d e le g a tes have been ch o se n by s e c r e t b a llot in an
e le c tio n in w h ich all the m e m b e rs in good standing of such su bordinate
body w e r e e lig ib le to p a rticip a te , o r (2) to tra n sfe r to such o r g a n i­
zation any cu r r e n t r e c e ip ts o r other funds of the su bord in ate body e x ­
ce p t the n o rm a l p er ca p ita tax and a s s e s s m e n ts payable by su bord in ate
b od ies not in tru ste e sh ip :
P ro v id e d , That nothing h erein con tain ed sh all
prev en t the d istrib u tion o f the a ss e ts of a la b o r o rg a n iza tion in a c c o r d ­
ance w ith its co n stitu tio n and bylaw s upon the bona fide d iss o lu tio n th e re o f.
(b) . Any p e r s o n w ho w illfu lly v iola tes this s e c tio n sh all be fin ed not m o re
than $ 1 0 ,0 0 0 o r im p r iso n e d fo r not m o re than one y e a r , or both.
E n forcem en t
S e ctio n .

304.

(a) . Upon the w ritten co m p la in t o f any m e m b e r or su bord in ate body of a la b o r
org a n iza tio n a lle g in g that such org a n iza tion has v iola ted the p r o v is io n s of
this title (e x ce p t s e c tio n 301) the S e c r e ta r y sh all in v estig a te the c o m ­
plaint and if the S e c r e ta r y finds p rob a b le ca u se to b e lie v e that such
v io la tio n has o c c u r r e d and has not been re m e d ie d he sh a ll, w ithout d i s ­
c lo s in g the identity o f the com plain an t, brin g a c iv il a ction in any d i s ­
t r ic t c o u r t o f the United States having ju r is d ic tio n o f the la b o r o r g a n ­
iza tio n fo r such r e lie f (in clu din g injunctions) as m ay be a p p rop ria te.
Any m e m b e r o r su bord in ate body o f a la b o r org a n iza tion a ffe cte d by any
v io la tio n o f this title (e x ce p t se ctio n 301) m ay b rin g a c iv il a ction in any
d is t r ic t c o u r t o f the U nited States having ju r is d ic tio n of the la b o r o r g a n i­
zation fo r su ch r e lie f (in clu din g in ju n ction s) as m ay be a p p ro p ria te .
(b) . F o r the p u rp ose of a ction s under this s e ctio n , d is t r ic t co u rts o f the
United States sh all be d eem ed to have ju r is d ic tio n o f a la b o r o rg a n i­
zation ( l) in the d is t r ic t in w hich the p rin cip a l o ffic e of su ch la b o r o r ­
ganization is lo c a te d , o r (2) in any d is tr ic t in w hich its duly au th orized
o ffic e r s o r agents a re engaged in con d u ctin g the a ffa ir s o f the tru steesh ip .




38

S ection .
(c).

304. — C ontinued
In any p ro c e e d in g pursuant to this s e ctio n a tru steesh ip esta b lish e d by a
la b o r o rg a n iza tion in c o n fo r m ity with the p r o c e d u r a l re q u irem en ts o f its
con stitu tion and bylaw s and au th orized or ra tifie d a fter a fa ir hearin g
eith e r b e fo r e the e x e cu tiv e b oa rd o r b e fo r e such other body as m ay be
p ro v id e d in a c c o r d a n c e with its con stitu tion o r bylaw s sh all be p re s u m e d
v a lid fo r a p e r io d o f eigh teen months fr o m the date o f its esta b lish m en t
and sh all not be su b je ct to attack during such p e r io d ex ce p t upon c le a r
and co n v in cin g p r o o f that the tru steesh ip was not e sta b lish e d o r m a in ­
tained in good faith fo r a p u rp ose a llow a b le under se ctio n 302.
A fte r
the e x p ira tio n o f eigh teen months the tru steesh ip shall be p re s u m e d in ­
v a lid in any su ch p r o c e e d in g and its d iscon tin u an ce sh all be d e c r e e d
unless the la b o r org a n iza tion shall show by c le a r and con v in cin g p r o o f
that the continuation o f the tru steesh ip is n e c e s s a r y fo r a p u rp ose a l­
low a b le under se c tio n 302.
In the la tter event the c o u r t m ay d is m is s
the co m p la in t o r reta in ju r is d ic tio n of the ca u se on such con d ition s and
fo r such p e r io d as it d e e m s a p p rop ria te.
R e p o rt to C o n g r e s s

S e ctio n .

305.
The S e c r e t a r y sh all subm it to the C o n g r e s s at the ex p ira tio n o f th ree
y e a rs fr o m the date o f enactm ent o f this A c t a re p o r t upon the o p ­
e ra tio n o f this title .
C om p la in t by S e c r e ta r y

S ection .

306.
The righ ts and r e m e d ie s p ro v id e d by this title sh all be in addition to any
and a ll oth er righ ts and re m e d ie s at law or in equity: P r o v id e d , That
upon the filin g o f a co m p la in t by the S e c r e ta r y the ju r is d ic tio n of the
d is t r ic t c o u r t o v e r such tru steesh ip shall be e x c lu s iv e and the final
judgm ent sh all be r e s ju d ica ta .




☆ U. S. G O V E R N M E N T P R IN T IN G O F F IC E : 1959 O -5 3 3 6 5 5


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102