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UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
FRANCES PERKINS, Secretary

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
ISADOR LUBIN, Commissioner

BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES\
B U REA U O F L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S /
EMPLOYMENT

AND

UNEMPLOYMENT

No. 611
SERIES

UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE AND RESERVES
IN THE UNITED STATES
A Selected List of
R
ecent R
eferences
C om p iled by
LAU RA A. TH O M PSON
Librarian, Department sf Labor

UNITED STATES
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
W ASHINGTON : 1935

For sale by the Superintendent of Docum ents, W ashington, D . C.




-

Price 10 cents




Contents
Page
Introduction_____________________________________________________________
v
General discussion:
Books and pamphlets_________________________________________________
1
13
Debate handbooks______________________________________________
Periodical articles____________________________________________________
14
Bibliographies_______________________________________________________
24
Special aspects of unemployment compensation:
Administrative problems_____________________________________________
25
Financial and actuarial discussions___________________________________
26
Constitutional questions_____________________________________________
28
Company, joint-agreement, and trade-union benefit plans:
Comprehensive reports_______________________________________________
28
Company plans______________________________________________________
29
Description of special plans______________________________________
30
32
Joint-agreement plans_______________________________________ 1____
Trade-union unemployment benefit plans_____________________________
32
State legislative proposals and discussions:
General_____________________________________________________________
33
By States:
California_______________________________________________________
36
Connecticut_____________________________________________________
36
37
Delaware_______________________________________________________
District of Columbia___________________________________ ,______
37
Illinois__________________________________________________________
37
Maine__________________________________________________________
37
Maryland_______________________________________________________
37
Massachusetts__________________________________________________
38
39
Minnesota______________________________________________________
Nevada_________________________________________________________
39
New Hampshire_________________________________________________
40
New York_______________________________________________________
40
North Carolina_________________________________________________
42
Ohio____________________________________________________________
42
Oregon_________________________________________________________
43
Pennsylvania____________________________________________________
44
Utah___________________________________________________________
44
Virginia_________________________________________________________
44
Wisconsin_______________________________________________________
45
Interstate discussions of unemployment insurance_________________________
47
Federal proposals and discussions:
General_____________________________________________________________
49
Seventieth Congress_________________________________________________
49
Seventy-first Congress_______________________________________________
49
Seventy-second Congress_____________________________________________
50
Seventy-third Congress______________________________________________
50
Lundeen bill____________________________________________________
50
Wagner-Lewis bill_______________________________________________
51
Committee on Economic Security____________________________________
53




in




IN TROD U CTION

The widespread nature of the present unemployment emphasizes
the necessity for providing greater economic security to our workers.
At the close of 1934 only one State—Wisconsin—had enacted legisla­
tion for relief against unavoidable unemployment. The Wisconsin
unemployment insurance law, which provides for a system of indi­
vidual reserves, was enacted in January 1932. It became effective on
July 1, 1934, and provides that the payment of benefits is to begin
on July 1, 1935. Under the law it is compulsory for employers of
10 or more persons to make contributions to individual plant reserves
under the control of the State Industrial Commission.
Aside from this one State legislative measure, the payment of
unemployment benefits in the United States has been a matter of
private initiative. Insurance plans have been put into effect by
individual employers and corporations, by trade unions, and by joint
agreement between employers and unions. While this movement on
the part of employers and workers has been evidence of their appre­
ciation of the necessity of providing against unemployment, the
number affected has been so small that the combined schemes have
contributed but little to the solution of the problem.
Unemployment insurance has been established by legislation in
18 foreign countries. All but two of the systems came into effect
after the World War. In eight countries insurance is compulsory,
and covers certain designated classes of workers under definite condi­
tions described by law. In nine countries insurance is voluntary;
that is, State assistance is given to groups voluntarily organized for
the payment of unemployment benefits. In one instance, Switzer­
land, insurance is compulsory in some Cantons and voluntary in
others.
The question of compulsory unemployment insurance has been the
subject of a great deal of consideration in the United States Congress
and in a large number of State legislatures. Numerous bills have
been introduced and hearings held by different committees in the
Federal Congress and in the various States. Commissions have been
appointed by a number of States to study the question, and compre­
hensive reports have been submitted to State legislatures.
The importance of effectively providing against unemployment
has been recognized by the President of the United States, who
appointed a Committee on Economic Security on June 29, 1934. The
committee consists of the Secretaries of the Treasury and of Agri­
culture, the Attorney General, and the Federal Relief Administrator,
with the Secretary of Labor as chairman. The conclusions of this
committee, which considered various phases of social security, in­
cluding the establishment of a system of unemployment insurance or
reserves, were designed to form the basis of legislative proposals in
the Seventy-fourth Congress.
This bibliography, relating in most part to books, articles, and
public documents published in the past 5 years, has been compiled by
the Librarian of the Department of Labor with a view to meeting a
need for a comprehensive list of references on the subject of unem­
ployment insurance.
I sador L tjbin .
D ecember 15, 1934.
v




BULLETIN OF THE

U.S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
No.

WASHINGTON

611

Ja n u a r y m s

UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE AND RESERVES IN THE UNITED STATES:
A SELECTED LIST OF RECENT REFERENCES
GENERAL DISCUSSION
Books and Pamphlets
A c a d e m y op P o l it ic a l S c ie n c e ,

New York.

Can prices, production, and employment be effectively regulated?
(Its Proceedings, January 1962, v. 14, no. 4.)

146 pp.

P a k t i a l C o n t e n t s : Community responsibility for the relief and prevention of
unemployment, by Allen T. Burns. The Rochester unemployment benefit plan,
by Marion B. Folsom. Is employment insurable, by Frederick H . Ecker. Some
phases of European unemployment insurance experience, by Bryce M. Stewart.
Stabilization of industry, by Gerard Swope.

------ Current problems of unemployment and recovery measures in operation.
108 pp. ( Its Proceedings, January 1934, v. 15, no. 4.)
Includes : The outlook for unemployment insurance in the codes, by Leo Wolman.
Lessons for the present from British experience with unemployment, by Sir W illiam
H. Beveridge. Unemployment reserves and insurance programs, by Stanley King.
A m e r ic a n A c a d e m y o f P o l it ic a l a n d

S o c ia l S c ie n c e ,

Philadelphia.

. . . Social insurance, C. A. Kulp, ed. . . . Philadelphia, 1933.
( Its Annals, v. 170, November 1933.)

204 pp.

P a r t i a l C o n t e n t s : The nature and purpose of social insurance, by Barbara
N. Armstrong. Social insurance: constructive destruction, by W alter Linn. Do
we need compulsory public unemployment insurance? Yes, by Abraham Epstein;
No, by Noel Sargent.
Is the unemployment risk insurable, by I. M. Rubinow.
American voluntary attempts at unemployment benefits, by Bryce M. Stewart.
The Wisconsin id e a : unemployment reserves, by Paul A. Raushenbush. The
Ohio idea : unemployment insurance, by I. M. Rubinow. Prospects for unemploy­
ment compensation laws, by John B. Andrews.
S e e also the Annals for March 1931 on “ The insecurity of industry.”

A m e r ic a n

A s s o c ia t io n for L abo r L e g is l a t io n .

An American plan for unemployment reserve funds, with revised draft of
an act. New York, American Association for Labor Legislation, 1933.
19 pp.
Adopted by vote of the executive committee of the association, May 8, 1933.
Supersedes the tentative draft adopted in 1930.
For discussions on unemployment insurance at the annual meetings of this asso­
ciation (131 East 23d Street, New York C ity ; John B. Andrews, secretary), and
for current information on legislative developments, consult its journal, “ The
American Labor Legislation Review.”

—

Unemployment reserves. Questions . . . answered . . .
10 pp.

[New York, n. d.]

A m e r ic a n A s s o c ia t io n for S o c ia l S e c u r it y .

American doles cost more than unemployment insurance.
1934.] 3 pp.

[New York,

An open letter to members of Congress and State legislatures. This association
(22 East 17th Street, New York C ity ; Abraham Epstein, executive secretary),
formerly known as the American Association for Old Age Security, extended its
program in 1933 to cover complete social insurance. Current information about




1

2

UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE AND RESERVES

unemployment insurance bills is given in its monthly, Social Security. For bill
sponsored by this association see section of this list on State Legislative Proposals
and Discussions.
A m e r ic a n A s s o c ia t io n fo e t h e A d v a n c e m e n t o f S c ie n c e .

Stabilization of employment; papers presented at the Atlantic City meeting
of the American Association for the Advancement of Science . . . Charles
F. Roos, ed. 1st ed. Bloomington, Ind., Principia Press, Inc., 1933.
300 pp.

In clu des: Em ploym ent: assurance and insurance, by Gerard Swope. Actuarial
aspects of unemployment insurance, by H. L. Rietz. Legislation for the reduction
and relief of unemployment, by Karl T. Compton.

A m e r ic a n F e d e r a t io n o f L a b o r .

Report of the Executive Council to the 51st-54th annual conventions.
Washington, D. C., 1931-1934.

1931:
1932 :
1933 :
1934:

Unemployment insurance, pp. 128—
144.
Principles recommended for unemployment insurance measures, pp. 21-26.
Unemployment, pp. 59—
65.
Unemployment insurance (brief statem ent on W agner-Lewis bill), p. 53.

•
------Report of proceedings of the 50th-54th annual conventions, 1930-1934.
Washington, D. C., 1930-1934.

1930 : Debate on resolutions on unemployment insurance, pp. 309—
319.
1931: Unemployment insurance, pp. 148-164, 368-398.
1932: Unemployment insurance (principles for guidance in framing State m easures),
pp. 39-44, 127-135, 325-360, 442; Austrian system described by Fritz Hager, pp.
225, 226.
1933 : Unemployment insurance resolutions, pp. 169, 170, 460, 461, 477, 478.
1934 : Unemployment insurance, pp. 118—
120, 549, 598-603.
At the 1932 convention the American Federation of Labor reversed its attitude
toward unemployment insurance by adopting the recommendation of the executive
council in favor of the enactment of compulsory unemployment insurance laws. The
principles endorsed specify that every employment insurance act should contain pro­
visions to protect union members from being obliged to accept work contrary to the
rules of their organization or employment under conditions tending to depress wages or
working conditions ; contributions to be made only by employers.
For statem ent by W illiam Green on “ Why labor opposes forced worker contributions
in job insurance ”, see American Labor Legislation Review, September 1934, v. 24,
pp. 101—
105. See also editorial in American Federationist, December 1934, pp. 12921294, on principles of unemployment insurance advocated by American Federation of
Labor.

------ Unemployment insurance.

Washington, 1931.

48 pp.

Reprint of the report of the executive council to the Vancouver convention, 1931, w ith
committee report and convention discussion.

B.
Unemployment insurance: the record of this innovation at home and abroad.
( I n Encyclopaedia Britannica.
The world today . . .
v. 1, no. 1,
1933, pp. 49, 50.)
------ Unemployment reserve funds; an American plan to stabilize jobs and pur­
chasing power . . . [New York, American Association for Labor Legislation,
1930.] [11] pp.
A ndrew s, Joh n

Paper presented before the American Academy of Political and Social Science, P hila­
delphia, Dec. 5, 1930. Printed in Annals of the Academy, March 1931, pp. 117— ;
123
also in American Labor Legislation Review, March 1931, v. 21, pp. 33-41.

A rm strong,

M rs .

B arbara N .

Insuring the essentials: minimum wage, plus social insurance— a living
wage program. New York, The Macmillan Co., 1932. 717 pp.

“ A critical review of the evolution of social insurance and minimum wage
institutions that have been adopted in different parts of the world, together w ith
an analysis of their trend and probable future.”
The section on unemployment insurance (pp. 462-549) includes a chapter
“ The American movement for unemployment insurance.” Charts showing
provisions of foreign unemployment-insurance laws, pp. 635-644.




on
main

3

GENERAL DISCUSSION
B a k k e , E d w ar d W ig h t .

The unemployed m an; a social study . . . with an introduction by Sir
Hubert Llewellyn Smith . . . New York, E. P. Dutton & Co., Inc. [1934].
308 pp.

Dr. Bakke, a sociologist from Yaie University, lived for a year (1931-32)
among the working people of Greenwich, one of the poorest districts of London.
The purpose of his study was to ascertain “ what has been the effect of unem­
ployment insurance on the willingness and ability of workers to support them­
selves.” He presents a vivid picture of the numbing and blighting effects of being
w ithout a job, but unemployment insurance has not in his judgment made paupers
but has rather given dignity to the adm inistration of the poor law. He found
some malingering, but on the whole was impressed with the fairness of the
average man in the street in his relation to the insurance program.

B e r r id g e , W i l l i a m A .

What can insurance do?
(In Ely, R. T. Hard times and the way out.
175-193.)

New York, 1931.

pp.

By the economist of the M etropolitan Life Insurance Co.

W i l l i a m H.
. . . The past and present of unemployment insurance . . . Sidney Ball
lecture, February 7, 1930. London, Oxford University Press, 1930. 47
pp. (Barnett house papers, no. 13.)

B e v e r id g e ,

Sir

Based on English experience, but considerations presented have wider applica­
tion. See also paper on “ Lessons for the present from British experience w ith
unemployment ” in Academy of Political Science, Proceedings, January 1934.

------ Unemployment: a problem of industry (1909 and 1930).
York, Longmans, Green & Co., 1930. 514 pp.

London and New

Some of the general conclusions on unemployment insurance presented by this Eng­
lish authority in the chapters on “ Establishm ent and transform ation of unemploy­
ment insurance ” and “A second conclusion ” have interest also for the United States.
G.
Supplementing wages through social insurance.
(In International Congress of Women, Chicago, 1933.
cause, civilization, pp. 339-348.)

B on dfteld, M ar g a r e t

Our common

C a r r o l l , M o l l ie R a y .

Unemployment insurance by industry: some suggestions from Germany.
(In National Conference of Social Work. Proceedings, 1931. pp. 258263.)
See also

address in Proceedings, 1934, pp. 251-262.

C h a m b e r o f C o m m e r c e o f t h e U n it e d S t a t e s o f A m e r ic a .

. . . On the report of the Special Committee on Continuity of Business and
Employment. Washington, 1932. 41 pp. (Its Referendum [pamphlets],
no. 58.)

Appendix B : A plan for unemployment benefits. Appendix C : Report of Sub­
committee on Unemployment Insurance.

------ Referendum no. 58. Continuity of business and employment.
Special Bulletin, Jan. 18, 1932.)

1932.

(Its

On the proposition that employers individually and collectively should provide ade­
quate reserves for unemployment and other benefits for their employees the vote was
2,146 for and 511% opposed.

------ Unemployment reserve legislation. Report of Committee of the Depart­
ment of Manufacture . . . Washington, 1933. 23 pp.

Recommended opposition to any compulsory employment insurance system to be
administered by the State itself or to the use of public funds to pay unemployment
benefits. If compulsory legislation found necessary, favored individual reserves with
lim ited liability and with pooling of funds option al; contributions to be by both em­
ployers and em ployees; and no action to be taken until business conditions improve.
A t the May 1934 meeting of the Chamber of Commerce the follow ing resolution was
adopted: “ The Chamber continues to oppose the enactm ent of legislation for com­
pulsory unemployment benefits. Upon the return of more satisfactory business condi­
tions affording opportunity to accumulate reserves there should be extensive coverage
for the future of industrial and commercial employees by suitable unemployment re­
serve plans.” (In its W ashington Review, May 5, 1934, p. 20.)
99986°— 35------ 2




4

UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE AND RESERVES

C h a m b e r o f C o m m e r c e o f t h e U n it e d S t a t e s o f A m e r ic a .

Current national issues and the Chamber of Commerce of the United States
of America. Most recent policy declarations of its member organizations
as recorded in referendum or by resolution of accredited delegates at
annual meetings. Washington, 1934. 31 pp.

“ Voluntary unemployment reserves ”, pp. 6, 7.

------ Department of manufacture.
Providing reserves against unemployment. A manual of information and
procedure for code authorities and trade associations. June 1934. Wash­
ington, 1934. 38 pp.

Covers purpose and extent of unemployment reserves plans, factors affecting
applicability of plans to various fields of business, essential provisions of unem­
ployment reserves and a survey of legislative proposals. Appendix IV is on code
provisions relating to unemployment reserves.

Com m ons, John

R.

Favoring unemployment insurance.
(In Conference on Permanent Preventives of Unemployment, Wash­
ington, 1931, pp. 42-46.)
See also radio broadcast, April 9, 1932, printed as Economic Series Lecture
no. 24. University of Chicago Press. 9 pp.

C l u b o f C a l i f o r n i a , San Francisco.
. . . Compulsory unemployment reserves: pro and con . . .

Com m onw ealth

San Francisco,
1933. pp. [l]-2 3 . (Transactions of the Commonwealth Club of Cal­
ifornia, v. X X V III, no. 1.)

Printed as part 2 of The Commonwealth for February 28, 1933.

------ . . . Unemployment: insurance and prevention. San Francisco, 1932.
pp. [l]-3 6 . (Transactions of the Commonwealth Club of California, v.
XX V II, no. 1.)

Printed as part 2 of The Commonwealth for April 19, 1932.

C onference of G overnors on U n e m p l o y m e n t
t r ia l P r o b l e m s .
Albany, 1931.

and

Other

I nterstate

Indus­

Proceedings of the Conference on Unemployment and Other Interstate
Industrial Problems, by the governors of Massachusetts, Rhode Island,
Connecticut, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and New York. Albany,
N. Y., January 23-25, 1931. [Albany, 1931.] 103 pp.

Section IV. Unemployment reserves as a preventive or relief of unem ploym ent:
The principle of unemployment reserves, by Paul H. Douglas. The practical
operation of a plan of unemployment leserves, by Leo Wolman. Foreign ex­
perience with unemployment insurance, by Bryce M. Stewart and Mary B. Gilson.
The insurance principle and American industry, by W illiam Leiserson. Unem­
ployment insurance and the insurance company, by James D. Craig. Suggestions
for an unemployment insurance bill, by Paul H. Douglas. The constitutionality
of unemployment insurance, by J. P. Chamberlain.

Washington, D. C.,
1931.
Permanent preventives of unemployment; addresses delivered at the Con­
ference on Permanent Preventives of Unemployment, January 26-27,
1931, Washington, . . . [Baltimore, Belvedere Press, Inc., 1931.] 100 pp.

C o n f e r e n c e o n P e r m a n e n t P r e v e n t iv e s o f U n e m p l o y m e n t ,

Conference was sponsored by the Social Action Department, National Catholic
W elfare Conference; the Social Justice Commission, Central Conference of Ameri­
can R abbis; and the Social Service Commission, Federal Council of the Churches
of Christ in America.
In cludes: Favoring unemployment insurance, by John R. Commons. Opposing
unemployment insurance, by John E. Edgerton. Unemployment insurance: a
research report by Arthur E. Suffern. Brief summary in Monthly Labor Review,
March 1931, v. 32, pp. 590-596.

D a v is o n , R o n a l d C.

What’s wrong with unemployment insurance, by Ronald C. Davison . # .
London, New York [etc.], Longmans, Green & Co., 1930. 73 pp.
See also




his The Unemployed: Old Policies and New (1929).

5

GENERAL DISCUSSION

D e a n e , A lbert

L.
The Deane plan, presented by Albert Lytle Deane and Henry Kittredge
Norton, June 1933 . . . [New York?] 1933. 60 numbered leaves.

A plan for autom atically sustaining consumption and elim inating unemploy­
ment. See also his Investing in W ages: a Plan for Elim inating the Lean Years
(New York, The M acmillan Co., 1032).

D ouglas, P au l H .

The problem of unemployment, by Paul H. Douglas . . . and Aaron Di­
rector . . . New York, The Macmillan Co., 1931. 505 pp.

A comprehensive study of the problem of unemployment made at Swarthmore
College. The section on unemployment insurance (pp. 365-497) summarizes the
types of schemes in use throughout the world.
“ The case for unemployment insurance and a proposed plan for the United
States ”, pp. 484-497.

------Standards of unemployment insurance . . . Chicago, 111., University of
Chicago Press [cl933]. 251 pp. (Social service monographs, no. 19.)

C
: I. The case for unemployment insurance. II. Should the system of un­
employment insurance be voluntary or compulsory? III. The proper scope of unem­
ployment insurance acts. IV. The conditions of eligibility for benefit. V. Benefits.
VI. What would be the probable cost of unemployment insurance? VII. Contributions.
VIII. Problems of insurance and adm inistration. Note on constitutionality of unem­
ployment insurance.
Appendixes include the text of the W isconsin act, the Ohio bill, the report of the
Interstate Commission on Unemployment Insurance, and the report of the executive
council of the American Federation of Labor on unemployment insurance, 1932.
Professor Douglas favors joint contributions by both employers and workers and a
centralized nonprofit-making State fund jointly administered by representatives of the
workers and employers.
See also “A national program for unemployment insurance ” in the New Republic,
October 3, 1934, pp. 215, 216, and statem ent in United States Congress, House, Com­
m ittee on Ways and Means, Unemployment insurance, Hearings, 1934, pp. 47-63.
o n ten ts

D raper, E r n est G.

Progressive employers favor unemployment reserve funds . . .
1931.] [10] pp.

[New York,

“ Reprinted from American Labor Legislation Review, vol. XXI, no. 1 . ,
cludes statem ent from Henry S. Dennison.

In­

E dgerton, J o h n E .

Public unemployment insurance . . .

[Washington, 1931.]

12 pp.

Address by the president of the National Association of M anufacturers at the Con­
ference on Permanent Preventives of Unemployment, W ashington, D. C., Jan. 27,
1931. In opposition to public unemployment insurance.

E lbert, R obert G .

Unemployment and relief.

New York, Farrar & Rinehart, 1934.

136 pp.

Includes a description of the unemployment insurance plan prepared by the
Committee on Unemployment Insurance of the Industrial Advisory Board (see p. 12 of
this list).
E p s t e in , A b r a h a m .

Insecurity, a challenge to America; a study of social insurance in the United
States and abroad . . . introduction by Frances Perkins . . . New York,
H. Smith and R. Haas, 1933. 680 pp.

Surveys the experience with unemployment insurance, old age and invalidity pen­
sions, workmen’s compensation, and family insurance in foreign countries and
presents the need for such insurance in the United States. By the executive sec­
retary of the American Association for Social Security.
See also statem ent in United States.
Congress. House. Committee on Ways
and Means. Unemployment insurance. Hearings, 1934. pp. 34-46.

E w in g , Jo h n

B.

Job insurance.

Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 1933.

263 pp.

: I. Introduction. II. The W isconsin movement for unemployment insur­
ance. III. The issue of prevention in unemployment insurance legislation and experi­
ence. IV, Relief or prevention. V. Contested benefit claims* YI. Employment
Co

n ten ts




UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE AND RESERVES

6

offices. VII. The employer’s heavy burdens. VIII. Demoralization and malingering.
IX. Summary and conclusions.
Reviewed by Mary B. Gilson in American Federationist, June 1933, pp. 644—
646.
G a l l o w a y , G eorge B .

. . . Insurance against unemployment . . . [Washington] 1931.
111. (Editorial Research Reports. Feb. 19, 1931, v. 1, no. 7.)

pp. [97]-

Contents : State and Federal investigations of unemployment insurance. Amer­
ican experiments with unemployment benefits. Legislative proposals for unem­
ployment insurance. Current discussions of unemployment insurance.

B.
Unemployment insurance . . . Chicago, University
[cl933]. 30 pp. (Public policy pamphlets, no. 3.)

G il s o n , M a r y

of

Chicago

Press

Contents : I. Why adopt unemployment insurance? II. What is a dole? III.
Unemployment insurance in other countries. IV. A ttitudes and action in the
United States. V. Opposition and problems to be met.

H all, H elen.

English dole and American charity.
Settlements, Inc., 1933. 14 pp.

New York, National Federation of

Reprinted from Atlantic Monthly, May 1933, v. 151, pp. 538-549.

H all, T. H.

Current conflicting views on unemployment insurance . . . Distributed by
National Research Bureau. Chicago [1931]. 148 1. (Yol. 10, no. 1. Sep­
tember 1931.) (Mimeographed.)

H a n s e n , A l v in

H.

Economic stabilization in an unbalanced world . . .
Brace & Co. [cl932]. 384 pp.

New York, Harcourt,

“ Unemployment insurance ”, pp. 196-209.

------ A new plan for unemployment reserves based on Minnesota employment
data. By Alvin H. Hansen and M. G. Murray. Minneapolis, University of
Minnesota Press, 1933. 75 pp.

Published by the Employment Stabilization Research Institute of the University of
M innesota. Plan was aimed principally at the alleviation of prolonged unemployment.

------ and others. A program for unemployment insurance and relief in the
United States. By Alvin H. Hansen . . . Merrill G. Murray . . . Russell A.
Stevenson . . . Bryce M. Stewart. Minneapolis, University of Minnesota
Press, 1934. 201 pp. (Employment Stabilization Research Institute, Univer­
sity of Minnesota.)

A more complete analysis of unemployment experience than A New Plan for Unem­
ployment Reserves published in 1933. In that publication Hansen and Murray presented
a plan providing for both company and industry funds. In this new plan the provision
for reserves by individual companies is abandoned and a wider pooling of funds is
advocated. The new program includes a proposal for emergency unemployment
benefits.

H arper, E l s ie D .

Out of a jo b ; proposals for unemployment insurance . . . New York, Wom­
ans Press, 1931. 52 pp.

“ Books and articles ” at end of each chapter.
“ Proposed unemployment legislation in the United S ta te s” (table), pp. 45-50.

H a r r im a n , H e n r y I.

Current national problems.

Washington, 1934.

32 pp.

In this address to the board of directors, the president of the Chamber of Com­
merce of the United States urges (p. 23) the observance of two principles in connec­
tion with unemployment reserves: (1) That mutual contributions be made by
employers, employees, and State, and that the reserves take into account the haz­
ards of each industry; and (2) that there should be considered the gradual develop­
ment of a more secure method of life for those who are industrially employed. He
favors a combination of subsistence farming and industrial employment, to be made
possible by removing industry from the crowded centers to the outer periphery of
cities.




7

GENERAL DISCUSSION
H a z l it t , H e n r y ,

ed.

Practical program for America.
133 pp.

New York, Harcourt, Brace & Co., 1932.

Reprint of essays which appeared originally in the Nation
“ Unemployment insurance ”, by Leo Wolman, pp. 29-41.

H ebert, F e l ix .

Insurance as a factor in the solution of the problems that follow depres­
sion . . . [New York? 1931.] 23 pp.

Address delivered at joint convention of International Association of Casualty
and Surety Underwriters and the National Association of Casualty and Surety
Agents, W hite Sulphur Springs, W est Virginia, Sept. 29, 1931.
Unemployment insurance, pp. 10-20.

I n d u s t r ia l R e l a t io n s C o u n s e l o r s , I n c .

. . . An historical basis for unemployment insurance; a report prepared for
the Employment Stabilization Research Institute, University of Minne­
sota . . . Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1934. 306 pp.

“ The study treats of the experience in Great Britain, Germany, Belgium, and
Switzerland, and the voluntary plans and legislative schemes of the United States,
and attem pts to point out the principal derivatives of the experimentation with
unemployment insurance in these countries.”
Tabular analysis of official proposals and legislation for State compulsory unem­
ployment insurance or reserves in the United States, pp. 250—275.
Selected bibliography, pp. 293-296.

I n t e r n a t io n a l L abo r O f f ic e ,

Geneva.

. . . Unemployment insurance and various forms of relief for the unem­
ployed. Third item of the agenda. Geneva, International Labor Office,
1933. 299 pp.

Study of the scope, benefits, and sources of funds of unemployment schemes with
a suggested draft convention dealing with the principles of unemployment bene­
fits, prepared for the 1933 International Labor Conference (first discussion). See
also its Studies and reports, series M, Social insurance, no. 11, entitled “ Interna­
tional Survey of Social Services.” Geneva, 1933. 688 pp.

• Unemployment insurance and various forms of relief for the unemployed.
----Second item on the agenda. Geneva, 1933. 38 pp.

“ Questionnaire II. International Labor Conference. Eighteenth session, Geneva,
1934.”

------ Unemployment insurance and various forms of relief for the unemployed.
Second item on the agenda. Geneva, 1934. 187 pp.

Report II prepared for the 18th International Labor Conference, 1934, includes the
replies from the Governments of 26 countries and a general survey of the problem.
For draft convention and recommendations adopted by the 1934 International Labor
Conference see its Official Bulletin for August 15, 1934.

J o in t

C o m m it t e e of t h e N a t io n a l
I n d u s t r ia l C o u n c il .

A s s o c ia t io n

of

M anufacturers

and

Na­

t io n a l

Public unemployment insurance; a factual analysis prepared by a Joint
Committee of the National Association of Manufacturers and National
Industrial Council. New York, 1930. 40 pp.

Reviewed in M onthly Labor Review, June 1930, v. 30, pp. 1253—1255.

M.
Social security and the N. R. A.
(In Social Security in the United States, 1934. A record of the seventh
National Conference on Social Security . . . New York, p. 122.)

L ejser son, W il l ia m

See also address at 1933 conference on “ Will industry provide security ? ”
and memorandum on “ The insurance principle and American industry ” in
Conference of Governors on Unemployment and Other Interstate Problems,
1931, pp. 69-78.

A.
Principles of unemployment insurance.

L e w is o h n , Sa m

[4] pp.

Reprinted from Review of Reviews and World’s Work, March 1933. See also
section on insurance in his book on “ Can Business Prevent Unemployment ? ” (New
York, 1925.)




8

UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE AND RESERVES
A.
Practicability of unemployment insurance
Life Insurance Co. Press, 1931.] 16 pp.

L in c o l n , L er o y

. .

[New York, Metropolitan

Paper by the vice president and general counsel of the M etropolitan Life Insur­
ance Co. read at the round-table conference of the Insurance Department of the
Chamber of Commerce of the United States, Atlantic City, April 29, 1931.

L oree, L eonor F .

The five major hazards of the workman . . .

[New York, 1932.]

Reprinted from Manufacturers Record, January 14 and 21, 1932.

16 pp.

L u b in , I sador.

Statement before Select Committee on Unemployment Insurance.
{In United States. Congress. Senate. Select Committee on Unemploy­
ment Insurance. Hearings, 1931. pp. 475-486.)
See also study of “ The absorption of the unemployed by American In­
dustry.” (Brookings Institution, 1929. 62 pp.) Printed also as appendix
to United States. Congress. Senate Committee on Education and Labor.
Unemployment in the United States. Hearings, 1929. pp. 491-517.

M a n u f a c t u r e r s A s s o c ia t io n o f C o n n e c t ic u t , I n c .

Unemployment and its problems, published under the direction and super­
vision of the Special Committee on Unemployment Relief . . . Hartford,
Manufacturers Association of Connecticut, Inc., 1933. 190 pp.

A survey of foreign unemployment insurance system s and of proposed Federal
and State legislation. The association in its conclusions opposed enactment of
compulsory unemployment insurance legislation by the 1933 Connecticut Legis­
lature.
Bibliography, pp. 187-190.

W.
Unemployment and purchasing power . . . London, P. S. King & Son, Ltd.,
1929. 85 pp.
M e t r o p o l i t a n L i f e I n s u r a n c e Co., New York.
Unemployment insurance; a summary of som-e existing governmental and
private plans. [New York, Metropolitan Life Insurance Co., 1931.]
27 pp. (Monograph I in a series on social insurance.)
M a r t i n , P e r c iv a l

“ Some recent books and articles dealing with unemployment insurance,” pp.
26, 27.

■
------The limitation of unemployment insurance; the need for supplementary
State aid. [New York, 1932.] 26 pp. (Monograph VI in a series on social
insurance.)
See also monograph IV of this series, on “ Social Insurance Legislation.
Original
and present provisions of the unemployment, health and pension system s in six
European countries.” 1932. 70 pp.

M in n e s o t a

C onference on

U n e m p l o y m e n t R e l ie f a n d

S t a b il iz a t io n ,

Minne­

apolis , 1931.

. . . Proceedings of the Minnesota Conference on Unemployment Relief and
Stabilization, November 17-19, 1931 . . . Minneapolis, University of
Minnesota Press, 1932. 95 pp. (Bulletin of the Employment Stabiliza­
tion Research Institute, University of Minnesota.)

Edited by Russell A. Stevenson.
“ Stabilization and unemployment reserves,” pp. 44-60.

M u ssey, H enry R .

Unemployment; a practical program.
Political Action, 1930. 12 pp.

New York, League for Independent

N a t h a n , O tto.

Some considerations on unemployment insurance in the light of German
experience. Reprinted from Journal of Political Economy, June 1934
pp. 289-527.

Covers those phases of unemployment insurance which are of interest to the
problem in the United States. Dr. Nathan believes that the German experience
has taught that an unemployment insurance system must have some kind of
governmental support since the risks involved are so difficult to calculate and
so varied.




9

GENERAL DISCUSSION
N a t io n a l A s s o c ia t io n

of

M a n u f a c t u r e r s o f t h e U n it e d

States

of

A m e r ic a .

Industrial Relations Department.

. . . Fundamental faults of compulsory public unemployment insur­
ance . . .
[New York, National Association of Manufacturers, 1931.]
32 pp.

Special issue of American Industries, December 1931.
Compiled by Noel Sargent, manager, Industrial Relations Department.

■------------Unemployment insurance handbook; a reference book for the use of
legislators, business executives, teachers, and students. New York, National
Association of Manufacturers, 1933. 224 pp.
See also its special unemployment insurance and reserve study in N. A. M. Labor
Relations Bulletin, December 1934.

Washington, D. C., 1934.
Proceedings of the National Conference for Labor Legislation held at
Washington, D. C., February 14-15, 1934. Washington, 1934. 84 pp.
(Bulletin of United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, no. 583.)

N a t io n a l C o n f e r e n c e for L abo r L e g is l a t io n ,

Called by the Secretary of Labor. Discussion on “ unemployment reserves ”,
pp. 35-53.

N a t io n a l

C onference

on

O ld

A ge a n d

S o c ia l

S e c u r it y .

Sixth, New York,

1933.
Social security in the United States, 1933. A record of the Sixth National
Conference on Old Age and Social Security, New York City, May 18 and
19, 1933 . . . New York, American Association for Social Security, Inc.
[1933]. 124 pp.

Section IV. Next steps in social secu rity: W ill industry provide security ? by
William M. Leiserson. Misconceptions of European unemployment insurance, by
Eveline M. Burns. The need for unemployment insurance, by Paul H. Douglas.
Unemployment insurance or reserves, by Abraham Epstein.

------ Seventh, New Y ork , 1934.
Social security in the United States, 1934. A record of the Seventh Na­
tional Conference on Social Security, New York City, April 19 and 20,
1934 . . . New York, American Association for Social Security, Inc. [1934],
193 pp.

“An unemployment insurance program ”, pp. 114—163.

N a t io n a l I n d u s t r ia l C o n fe r e n c e B oard.

Unemployment benefits and insurance.
Conference Board, Inc., 1931. 127 pp.

New York, National Industrial

A survey of existing and proposed plans for relief in unemployment through
insurance and other methods. Part 1 is on foreign systems. The principal con­
clusion reached is that the hazard of unemployment is largely uninsurable be­
cause it is not calculable or predicable and therefore cannot be built on an
actuarial basis. The report emphasizes the need for private industry to take the
initiative to protect its more stable and permanent working force against the
vicissitudes of fluctuating employment. It does not, however, believe that in­
dustry should be held responsible for caring for interm ittent, casual, or temporary
employees. These should, it holds, be a charge upon society.

------Essentials of a program of unemployment reserves.
Industrial Conference Board, Inc., 1933. 68 pp.

New York, National

Supplementary to the Conference Board’s report on “ Unemployment benefits and
Insurance ”, published in October 1931.
Tabular analysis of private unemployment benefit and employment guaranty plans,
pp. 44-49 ; Representative unemployment reserve plans, pp. 50—68.

------ A statistical survey of public opinion regarding current economic and social
problems as reported by newspaper editors in August and September 1934.
New York, 1934. 440 pp.

Compulsory unemployment insurance, pp. 9-12.

------ Unemployment insurance. Lessons from British experience.
National Industrial Conference Board, Inc., 1934. 30 pp.
N a t io n a l

M etal

T rades

A s s o c ia t io n .

Committee on Industrial Relations .

Unemployment benefit plans . . . Chicago [cl932],

Prepared by W. E. Odom.




New York,

14 pp.

UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE AND RESERVES

10

N a t io n a l M e t a l T r ad e s A s s o c ia t io n .

“ Unemployment insurance? ”

Committee on Industrial Relations.

What you can do [Chicago, 1933].

In opposition to compulsory State-operated unemployment insurance.

4 pp.

J. L.
Unemployment insurance: the government’s contribution.
(In National Conference of Social Work. Proceedings, 1931.
252-257.)

O ’H ar a ,

pp.

P e r k in s , F r a n c e s .

People at work . . . New York, John Day Co. [cl934].

287 pp.

“ The necessity for unemployment insurance ”, pp. 218— ; “ Unemployment insur­
220
ance, a preventive technique ”, pp. 264, 265.
------ Statement of Hon. Frances Perkins, Secretary of the United States De­
partment of Labor.
(In United States. Congress. House. Com m ittee on W ays and Means .
Unemployment insurance. Hearings on H. R. 7659. 1934. pp. 5-27.)

Includes discussion of the general problem of unemployment insurance as well as
testim ony regarding the provisions of the Wagner-Lewis bill.
See also section of this list on Periodical Articles.

R a g e r , F r it z .

Die probleme der arbeitslosenversicherung und arbeitsbeschaffung in den
Vereinigten Staaten von Nordamerika. Koln, Yerlag des Forschungsinstituts fur sozialwissenschaften, 1932. pp. 45-85.
(Kolner Sozialpolitische Vierteljahresschrift, 1932, XI. Jahrgang, Erganzungsheft.)
R e t a il M e r c h a n t s C o m m it t e e for t h e
p l o y m e n t L e g is l a t io n .

S t u d y of P ro po sed S o c ia l a n d

U nem­

Unemployment reserves. Study outline, pertinent questions, list of refer­
ences. [New York, 1934.] 24 pp.

Prepared under the direction of Samuel W. Reyburn, chairman.
Covers the W isconsin law, features of bills in State legislatures and in Congress,
arguments for and against unemployment insurance.

•
------Unemployment reserves. Opinions and suggestions and lessons from Brit­
ish experience. [New York, 1934.] 24 pp. (Second Study Pamphlet.)

Includes summary of replies from merchants, manufacturers, and publishers re­
ceived in response to questionnaire circulated w ith first pamphlet. Tabular analysis of
foreign unemployment insurance plans: pp. 23-24.
D.
Looking forward. New York, John Day Co., 1933. 279 pp.

R oo sevelt, F r a n k l in

Unemployment insurance, pp. 116-119.

R u b in o w , I s a a c M .

The quest for security.

New York, H. Holt & Co., 1934.

638 pp.

Dr. Rubinow, who has been actively identified w ith the social-insurance movement
since the publication in 1913 of his book on Social Insurance, with Special Reference
to American Conditions, attem pts in this new work to present the problems of
social security for “ the average intelligent and educated but not specialized adult
mind.”
In the discussion of unemployment-insurance standards he declares his belief
that relief of distress of the unemployed and not the stabilization of industry should
be the primary purpose. He advocates, therefore, the general insurance fund
instead of the individual plant reserves as more likely to secure maximum benefits
through the wider distribution of risks. He favors ample benefits, short w aiting
period, and contributions from employers, employees, and State (cost of adm inistra­
tion from the latter at the least). Adm inistration he would vest in appointive
government officers with local advisory boards. Private insurance companies he
would keep altogether out of social insurance administration.

S harp, Jon ath an

G.

Unemployment reserves . . . New York, American Management Associa­
tion, cl932. 24 pp. (American Management Association. Insurance
series, no. 9.)




11

GENERAL DISCUSSION
Slighter, Summer H.
Towards stability: the problem of economic balance.
& Co., 1934. 211 pp.

New York, H. Holt

Unemployment reserves, pp. 101-105, 149-154, 179-181.

S t e v e n s o n , E l is a b e t h

F.

Unemployment relief: the basic problem . • .
Unwin, Ltd., [1934]. 284 pp.

London, George Allen &

Social insurance, pp. 187-219.

M.
Unemployment benefits in the United States, the plans and their setting, by
Bryce M. Stewart, in collaboration with Jeanne C. Barber, Mary B.
Gilson, and Margaret L. Stecker. New York, Industrial Relations Coun­
selors, Inc., 1930. 727 pp.

St ew ar t, B ryoe

A comprehensive study of trade-union, joint-agreement, and company unemploy­
ment benefit plans in the United States, their development, financial organization,
experience, and adm inistrative procedure. The tabular analysis of the main pro­
visions of the plans given in Appendix B (pp. 656-685) is especially useful.
See also “A program for unemployment insurance and relief in the United
States ”, by Hansen, Murray, Stevenson, and Stewart (M inneapolis, University of
M innesota Press, 1934.)

Sw o p e , G erard.

Stabilization of industry . . . an address delivered before the National Elec­
trical Manufacturers Association, New York City, Sept. 16, 1931. New
York, 1931. 15 pp.

Includes plan for the organization of unemployment insurance under trade asso­
ciations. Text of address reprinted in M onthly Labor Review, November 1931,
pp. 1049-1057; also in Beard, C. A., America Faces the Future, 1932, pp. 160—
185.
For unemployment insurance plan adopted hy the National Electrical M anufac­
turers Association, June 3, 1932, see Monthly Labor Review, July 1932, v. 35,
pp. 22-26.

------ The Swope plan; details, criticism, analysis . . . edited by J. George
Frederick. New York, The Business Bourse, 1931. 221 pp.

Plan for unemployment insurance, pp. 37-43.

------ [Statement on Wagner-Lewis bill.]
(In United States. Congress. House. Committee on W ags and Means.
Unemployment insurance. Hearings, 1934. pp. 117-142.)
T aebell, T h o m a s F .

Unemployment and insurance.
(In Casualty Actuarial Society.
pp. 161-187.)

Proceedings, May 15,1931, v. 17, pt. 2,

Includes suggestions for a plan for compulsory savings as a substitute for
insurance under which a certain percentage of weekly wages (5 percent tenta­
tively suggested) would be required to be deposited to the credit of the indi­
vidual employee with some financial agency until sufficient reserve or fund
has been accumulated to his credit to provide unemployment benefits at a speci­
fied rate (approximately 50 percent of wages) for a certain period of time.
These savings would be supplemented by a contribution (equal to 2 weeks’
benefit) by the employer at tim e of dism issal or lay-off. State to bear cost of
adm inistration.

T a y l o r , M o r r is P .

Common sense about machines and unemployment . . .
cago [etc.], John C. Winston Co. [cl933]. 173 pp.

Philadelphia, Chi­

“ Unemployment insurance ”, pp. 135-143.

T odd, A r t h u r J .

Industry and society; a sociological appraisal of modern industrialism . . .
New York, H. Holt & Co. [1933]. 626 pp. (American social science
series.)

Includes chapters on “ Worker’s security ”, MUnem ploym ent: the facts ”, and
MUnem ploym ent: proposed remedies.”
99986°— 35- -3




12

UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE AND RESERVES

W.
The case against workers’ contributions.
( In Social Security in the United States, 1934. A record of the Seventh
National Conference on Social Security . . . New York. pp. 140142.)
U n e m p l o y m e n t : i n d u s t r y s e e k s a s o l u t i o n . A series of radio addresses given
under the auspices of the President’s Emergency Committee for Employ­
ment. Washington, 1931. 31 pp.

T u l in , Ju s t in e

Issued by United States Department of Commerce, W ashington, D. C.
Includes talks on guaranteed employment and on unemployment reserves and
insurance.

U n it e ® M i n e W o r k e r s o f A m e r i c a .

Proceedings of the 33d convention, Indianapolis, 1934.

2 v.

“ Unemployment insurance ”, pp. 52-54, 134-139, 276-283.
The 1932 convention instructed its officers to make a study of unemployment in­
surance. For report submitted see American Federation of Labor Proceedings, 1932,
pp. 325-334.
S t a t e s . Bureau o f La'bor Statistics .
. . . Unemployment-benefit plans in the United States and unemployment
insurance in foreign countries . . . July 1931. Washington, 1931. 385
pp. ( Its Bulletin no. 544.)

U n it e d

Prepared under the direction of Hugh S. Hanna.
Issued also as House Doc. 84, 72d Congress, 1st Session.
Covers company, joint-agreem ent, and trade-union unemployment benefit plans
in the United States (w ith total coverage of approximately 160,000 persons) and
descriptive reports of unemployment-insurance system s of 18 foreign countries.
The latter were prepared by consular representatives of the United States in the
several countries concerned, in accordance w ith an outline prepared by the United
States Bureau of Labor Statistics.

------------- Operation of unemployment-benefit plans and insurance systems, 1931
and 1932. Suppiement to its Bulletin no. 544 . . . Washington, 1933. 93 pp.

Brings together three articles published in the December 1932 and January 1933
issues of the Monthly Labor Review.

------------- Operation of unemployment-insurance systems in the United States
and foreign countries. Washington, 1934. 121 pp.

Brings together four articles published in the M onthly Labor Review, June—Septem­
ber 1934. The reports, in general, relate to the period July 1932 to the spring of
1934. The material for the United States was obtained principally by questionnaires
.Lent to all the companies and trade unions known to have unemployment benefit system s
in effect. The foreign m aterial was prepared by the consular representatives of the
United States.

------ National R ecovery Administration.

Industrial A dvisory Board.

Unem­

ployment Insurance Committee.

Report of Unemployment Insurance Committee to the Industrial Advisory
Board. June 18, 1934. [Washington, 1934.] 30 pp.

The committee, consisting of W. E. Woodward and Robert G. Elbert, recom­
mended a compulsory unemployment scheme applying to all concerns employing 3
persons or more, the fund to be pooled for all industries in the same field, contri­
bution to be made by both employers and employees but not the State. It estim ates
the cost at 4 percent of the wage bill, 3 percent to come from employers and 1
percent from employees, and proposes that benefits be varied from 30 percent to
65 percent of weekly wages, according to the number of dependents of the unem­
ployed worker.
A summary of the plan was given in an interview with Colonel Elbert in the
New York Times, July 8, 1934, sec. 2, p. 1; also in Social Security, October 1934,
p. 8. (See also Unemployment and Relief, by Robert G. Elbert (p. 5 of this list)

W olfenden, H u g h H .

The real meaning of social insurance; its present status and tendencies . . .
Toronto, The Macmillan Co. of Canada, Ltd., 1932. 227 pp.

Mr. Wolfenden, a fellow of the British Institute of Actuaries and of the Actu­
arial Society of America, was retained by the Canadian Life Insurance Officers*




13

GENERAL DISCUSSION

Association to make a comprehensive survey of social insurance. About a third
of the book relates to unemployment insurance.
See also address on “ Unemployment insurance and the employer ” in Industrial
Canada, July 1934, pp. 71-78.
WOLFENDEN, HUGH H .
Unemployment funds; a survey and proposal; a study of unemployment
insurance and other types of funds for the financial assistance of the
unemployed . . . Toronto, The Macmillan Co. of Canada, Ltd., 1934.
229 pp.

Survey supplementary to the above report covers the methods of providing
funds for use in periods of unemployment in operation in Europe and the various
proposals made in the United States and Canada. The applicability and lim i­
tations of the principles of compensation, insurance, reserves, savings, and relief
are analyzed and compared and the philosophies which underlie them examined.
The author’s own suggestions are given in a final chapter entitled “A tentative
approach to a general national policy w ith respect to unemployment.”

W o l m a n , L eo.

Unemployment insurance for the United States . . .
[8] pp.

[Cleveland, 1931.]

Reprinted from American Labor Legislation Review, March 1931. Also in R ail­
road Trainman, April 1931, v. 48, pp. 272-274.
Address at the 24th annual meeting of the American Association for Labor
Legislation, Cleveland, Ohio, Dec. 30, 1930.

------ Unemployment insurance.
( I n Hazlitt, Henry, ed. A practical program for America. New York, 1932.
pp. 29-41.)

Article originally appeared in the Nation.

Debate Handbooks
Ab iz o n a .

U n iv e r s it y .

Library.

Unemployment insurance. Resolved: That the several States should enact
legislation providing for compulsory unemployment insurance. A list of
references in the University of Arizona library . . . Tucson, University
of Arizona Library, 1931. 17 numbered leaves.

Compiled by A. W. Clark.

C., comp.
. . . Compulsory unemployment insurance . . . New York, H. W. Wilson
Co., 1931. 295 pp. (The Reference Shelf, vol. VII, no. 6.)

B tjeh ler, E z r a

Bibliography, pp. [29J-48.

C o n g r e s s io n a l D ig e s t .

. . . America and compulsory unemployment insurance . . .
1931. pp. 193-224.

[Washington],

Special annual debate number, August 1931.
Supplementary reading list on unemployment insurance, 1930—
1931, pp. 222, 223.
A glossary of unemployment insurance terms, pp. 199, 223.

F or sberg, A l l e n

B .,

ed.

. . . Selected articles on unemployment insurance . . . New York, H.
Wilson Co. [etc.], 1926. 487 pp. (The Handbook series.)

W.

Bibliography, pp. [lv ii]-cv ii.
Includes briefs for debate and a bibliography.

: y e a r b o o k o f c o l l e g e d e r a t i n g , 1931-1933.
New York, Noble & Noble, 1931-1933.

I n t e r c o l l e g ia t e d e r a t e s

E. R. Nichols.

Edited by

1931 (v. 11) : W isconsin plan of unemployment insurance (Franklin College), pp.
167-200.
1932 (v. 12) : Unemployment insurance (W isconsin University vs. M innesota Univer­
sity ), pp. 3-69.
1933 (v. 13) : Unemployment insurance (Carleton College), pp. 313-375.
Includes bibliographies. For earlier debates consult index at end of volume 13.

K ansas.

U n iv e r s it y .

University extension division.

A debate handbook on unemployment insurance; a brief and bibliography
with selected articles . . . [Lawrence, 1931?] 232 pp.

Prepared by Joshua B. Lee and Perrill Munch.
Same m aterial issued as debate handbooks by various other universities and
colleges and State high-school debating leagues.




14

UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE AND RESERVES

L eague

fo r

I n d u s t r ia l D e m o c r a c y .

Looking forw ard: discussion outlines.
trial Democracy, 1932. 72 pp.

New York City, League for Indus­

Unemployment and its remedies, pp. 1 8 -2 0 ; Social insurance and social security,
pp. 2 2 -2 5 .

R., comp.
. . . Compulsory unemployment insurance . . . debate handbook. Chapel
Hill, University of North Carolina Press [1931]. 91 pp. (University of
North Carolina extension bulletin, vol. XI, no. 3.)

R a n k i n , E dg ar

Bibliography, pp. [ 8 5 ]-9 1 .
R e t a il M e r c h a n t s C o m m it t e e
p l o y m e n t L e g is l a t i o n .

fo r t h e

Study

of

P roposed S o c ia l

and

U

nem­

Unemployment reserves. Study outline, pertinent questions, list of refer­
ences. [New York 1934.] 24 pp.
Prepared under the direction of Samuel W . Reyhurn, chairman.
Sutherland, W

il l ia m

R .,

comp.

A debate handbook on unemployment and unemployment insurance; a col­
lection of papers dealing with the social and economic aspects of unem­
ployment accompanying the business debacle of October 1929 . . . Lex­
ington, University of Kentucky, 1931. 316 pp. (University of Kentucky.
University extension series. [Bulletin, vol. X, no. 3.])
Bibliography, pp. [3 0 9 ]—
316.

Two u n e m p l o y m e n t i n s u r a n c e d e b a t e s . Resolved, That the several States
should enact legislation providing for compulsory unemployment insur­
ance . . . New York, Noble & Noble [cl931]. 106 pp.

C

:

:

ontents Unemployment insurance University of Wisconsin vs. University of
Minnesota.
Bibliography (pp. 64— 9 ), Wisconsin plan of unemployment insurance:
6
Franklin College, affirmative and negative. Bibliography (pp. 1 0 4 -1 0 6 ).

U n iv e r s it y D

ebaters’

A nnual,

1930-31.

E. M. Phelps, ed.

New York, H. W.

Wilson Co., 1931.
Compulsory unemployment insurance (Western Reserve U niversity), pp. 4 3 1 -4 5 8 .
Bibliography, pp. 459—
470.
For debates in earlier volumes se e list of contents at back of volume.
i g h S c h o o l , Viroqua , Wis.
Speeches of the Viroqua High School debaters on the proposition “ Resolved,
that the several States should enact legislation providing for compulsory
unemployment insurance ” . . . William K. Harding, ed. Viroqua, B.
Ellefson, 1932. 35 pp.

V ir o q u a H

W

e is s ,

N i c h o l a s J.

A handbook on unemployment insurance for high-school debaters . . .
Albion, Mich., Albion College Debate Service, 1931. 154 numbered leaves.
Autographic reproduction of typewritten copy.
W

R eserve U

estern

n iv e r s it y ,

Cleveland.

Compulsory unemployment insurance. Western Reserve University . . .
New York, H. W. Wilson Co., 1931. 64 pp.
“ Reprint, University Debaters’ Annual, 1930— ” (pp. 4 0 9 -4 7 0 ) .
31
Bibliography, pp. [ 5 3 ]-6 4 .

Periodical Articles
A

m e r ic a t u r n s

tow ar d

u n e m p l o y m e n t in s u r a n c e .

American Labor Legislation Review, March 1931, v. 21, pp. 51-54.
A n d r e w s , J o h n B.
The cost of the American dole.
American Labor Legislation Review, September 1931, v. 21, pp. 333-337.
A

nth ony,

D onald.

Individualism and unemployment insurance.
American Labor Legislation Review, September 1931, v. 21, pp. 329-331.




15

GENERAL DISCUSSION
B o n d f ie l d , M a r g a r e t G .

America’s approach to job insurance.
American Labor Legislation Review, September 1933, v. 23, pp. 121, 122.
A.
Europe’s unemployment experience—with a suggestion for those who would
repeat it here.
Industrial Relations, Dec. 31, 1932, v. 3, pp. 647-652.

B ow ers, G len n

B r o w n , J . D o u g l a s ..

Employee security; a challenge to industrial statesmanship.
Industrial Relations, May 1932, v. 3, pp. [215]-218.
B urns,
E v e l i n e M.
The economics of unemployment relief.
{In American Economic Association. Papers and Proceedings, 1932,
v. 45, pp. [31]-43.)

Mrs.

-■

Lessons from British and German experience.
{In Social Security in the United States, 1934.

National Conference on Social Security . . .

A record of the seventh
New York. pp. 143-151.)

C a r r o l l , J. M u r r a y .

Seasonal unemployment insurance: a comment.
American Economic Review, December 1931, v. 21, pp. 690, 691.
Clague, E w

an

.

Significance of relief in unemployment insurance.
{In Social Security in the United States, 1934. A record of the seventh
National Conference on Social Security . . . New York. pp. 156160.)
L.
Unemployment insurance and public assistance.
International Labour Review, December 1932, v. 26, pp. [777]-796.

C o h e n , Jo seph

R.
Unemployment compensation.
American Labor Legislation Review, September 1930, v. 20, pp. 249-253.

Com m ons, Joh n

S e e also “ The true scope of unemployment insurance ” in American Labor
Legislation Review, March 1925, v. 15, pp. 3 3 -4 4 .

------ Unemployment reserves and unemployment insurance.
American Labor Legislation Review, September 1930, v. 20, pp. 266-268.
------ What is the difference between unemployment insurance and unemployment
reserves ?
State Government, May 1932, v. 5, no. 5, [pp. 3]-5.
C o n l o n , P e t e r J.

Unemployment insurance legislation.
Machinists Monthly Journal, February 1931, v. 43, pp. 70-74.
C orey, L e w is .

Dividends are insured—why not wages?
Nation, November 26, 1930, c. 131, pp. 573, 574.
C o yle , G race L .

Next steps in unemployment insurance.
Womans Press, February 1933, v. 27, pp. 82, 83, 96.
D

A l b e r t L.
After N. I. R. A.—a lasting recovery. The “ Deane plan ” to sustain con­
sumption.
Survey Graphic, October 1933, v. 22, pp. 512-515, 531-533.

eane,

------ Double time— the Deane plan.
American Federationist, September 1934, v. 41, pp. 941-944.
The

d e f i n it io n

of u n e m p l o y m e n t in

unem ploym ent

in s u r a n c e

Harvard Law Review, December 1930, v. 44, pp. 285-290.




m easu res.

16
D

UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE AND RESERVES
P a u l H.
A national program for unemployment insurance.
New Republic, Oct. 3, 1934, v. 80, pp. 215, 216.

o uglas,

Suggests the following features as basic to any national program : (1 ) The
system proposed should he capable of being rapidly extended to cover the indus­
trial S ta tes; (2) Under no conditions should the Wisconsin system of separate
plant reserves be fastened upon the country; (3) The various State systems
should be required to meet adequate minimum standards; (4) The Federal
Government should not delude itself into believing that the passage of unem­
ployment insurance w ill appreciably reduce the sums which governmental bodies
w ill need to expend for relief during this depression.

------ The partial stabilization of workers’ incomes through unemployment insur­
ance.
(In American Academy of Political and Social Science. Annals, March
1931, v. 154, pp. 94-103.)
------ Social security for today.
Christian Century, Nov. 28, 1934, v. 51, pp. 1515-1517.
------ Toward unemployment insurance.
World Tomorrow, Mar. 29, 1934, v. 17, pp. 160-162.
D raper, E r n e s t

G.

Industry needs unemployment reserves.
American Labor Legislation Review, March 1932, v. 22, pp. 29^-32.
Discussion from the employers’ point of view by vice president of H ills Broth­
ers Co.
See also statement in United States. Congress. House. Committee on
W ays and Means. Unemployment insurance. Hearings, 1934, pp. 2 8 3 -2 8 8 .

------

Why unemployment reserve funds?
American Labor Legislation Review, March 1931, v. 21, pp. 25-27.

E n g le, L a v in ia M .

Unemployment insurance.
(In International Congress of Women, Chicago, 1933.
cause, civilization, pp. 332-338.

Our common

E m ery, Jam es A.

Employment assurance or unemployment insurance.
Industry (Associated Industries of Massachusetts), Dec. 24, 1932, v. 30,
no. 18, [pp. l]-4 .
Statement of the counsel of the National Association of Manufacturers in
opposition to compulsory unemployment insurance.
E p s t e in , A b r a h a m .

—

Do we need compulsory public unemployment insurance? Yes.
(In American Academy of Political and Social Science. Annals, No­
vember 1933, v. 170, pp. 21-29.)
Social security— fiction or fact.
American Mercury, October 1934, pp. 129-138.

F il e n e , A . L in c o l n .

Unemployment reserves: the underlying theory.
New York Times, May 20, 1934, sec. 8, p. 8.
In this interview M r. Filene upholds the plan recommended by the Massa­
chusetts commission, similar to the Wisconsin act, and also approves the device
of Federal encouragement offered in the Wagner-Lewis bill.
F il e n e , E d w a r d A .

State unemployment insurance is inevitable.
American Labor Legislation Review, June 1931, v. 21, pp. 209-213.
F in e , N a t h a n .

Practical plans for unemployment insurance.
Labor Age, July 1930, v. 19, no. 7, pp. 4-8, 29.
F i t c h , J o h n A.
Who should pay the cost of unemployment reserves?
American Labor Legislation Review, March 1932, v. 22, pp. 39-44.
In this address before the American Association for Labor Legislation, De­
cember 1931, Mr. Fitch argued that the State should not contribute lest




the

GENERAL DISCUSSION

17

character of the plan be changed from insurance to relie f; the worker should
not contribute because he contributes as a consumer, is not responsible for
unemployment and because the working force is entitled to the same protection
as that accorded plant and equipment.
Industry alone should provide the
fund because the employer can shift the cost to the consum er; unemployment
reserves w ill promote stabilization ; and the relation of industry to all neces­
sary contingent funds is that of trustee.
F landers, R a l p h E .

Unemployment—government job.
Nation’s Business, August 1934, v. 22, no. 8, pp. 15-18, 70-71.
Regards unemployment as a permanent problem and suggests three lines of
defense: (1) The setting up of unemployment reserves under which the benefits
would be limited in duration for a maximum of 8 -1 0 weeks (to enable workers
to find a new job under ordinary circumstances) ; (2) for more prolonged un­
employment and particularly for unemployed youth, advance planning of a mul­
titude of socially desirable projects— local, state, and national— which would
offer useful employment at subsistence w age s; and (3) a permanent and effi­
ciently organized public-works administration.
S e e also statement in United States.
Congress. House. Committee on W ays
and Means. Unemployment insurance. Hearings, 1934, pp. 2 6 3 -2 7 1 .
F l y n n , Jo h n T .

. . . Social insurance: the security wage.
New Republic, July 4, 1934, v. 79, pp. 209-210.
F o l s o m , M a r io n B.
Future protection of the jobless.
Nation’s Business, March 1934, v. 22, no. 3, pp. 38, 65.
S e e also statement in United States.
and Means. Unemployment insurance.

Congress.
House.
Committee on W ays
Hearings, 1934, pp. 65—
88.

B.
I. The need for unemployment insurance. II. Unemployment-insurance
terms. III. Private unemployment benefit schemes in the United States.
IV. The British unemployment-insurance system. V. Unemployment in­
surance in Germany. VI. American unemployment-insurance legislation.
American Federationist, January-June 1934, v. 41, pp. 52-56, 175-178,
253-260, 373-382, 475-480, 619-630.

F ow ler, C h ar les

F ran k fu rter , F e l ix .

A distinctly American contribution.
American Labor Legislation Review, December 1933, v. 23, p. 169.
Commends the principle of the Wisconsin law and the proposal made by the
Massachusetts Commission for Stabilization of Employment.

L.
Unemployment reserves by law.
American Labor Legislation Review, March 1932, v. 22, pp. 33-38.

G o o d r ic h , C a r t e r

The conclusion reached is that “ when the best case is made out for private
enterprise in the field, it offers little assurance of caring for the majority of
the 99 percent now outside its range . . . there is no alternative except that of
government action.”
Gr a h am , F rank D.

The B line to recovery.
Survey, November 1934, v. 70, pp. 339-341.
An extension of the suggestions made in his “ Abolition of unemployment**
(1 9 3 2 ).
G reen, W

il l ia m

.

Constructive progress or doles.
American Federationist, May 1930, v. 37, pp. 537-541.
------ Unemployment insurance.
American Labor World, December 1931, v. 33, no. 6, pp. 3-5.
------ Why labor opposes forced worker contributions in job insurance.
American Labor Legislation Review, September 1934, v. 24, pp. 101-105.
View expressed is that unemployment insurance should be a charge upon produc­
tion similar to accident compensation. Labor is not responsible for unemployment;
it bears the brunt of the cost in any event; a large proportion of American wage




18

UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE AND RESERVES
earners, even when employed full time, do not receive wages sufficient to main­
tain their families at a decent living standard; employers can pass their contri­
butions on to the consumer, which the worker cannot do.

Greene, B e n .

Employers’ unemployment liability.
Socialist Review, February 1930, n. s. voL 1, pp. 205-212.
Grow th

of t h e

jo b i n s u r a n c e

program

an

e v o l u t io n a r y

developm ent.

American Labor Legislation Review, September 1933, v. 23, pp. 146-154.
H

aensel,

Paul.

A workmen’s savings fund plan as a scheme of social insurance.
American Federationist, August 1934, v. 41, pp. 837-839.
Instead of insurance, Professor Haensel advocates a savings fund built up
by joint contributions of worker and employer with the Government paying
a high rate of interest (7 percent or 8 percent) on the accumulated funds
instead of a fixed contribution. When the fund is drawn on, the interest rate
would, according to his plan, be dropped to 2 percent. He suggests that the
plan might make provision for conversion of the funds into a pension or
annuity. The Postal Savings Bank is suggested for administrative agency.
H

all,

H

elen.

The little green card.
Survey Graphic, May 1933, v. 22, pp. 260-263, 277-279.
S e e also “ English dole and American charity ” in Atlantic Monthly, May
1933, pp. 5 3 8 -5 49 .

------ Shall we stick to the American dole?
Survey, Jan. 1, 1931, v. 65, pp. 389-392, 403, 404.
H

arper,

E l s ie .

Social insurance is not a dole.
Womans Press, December 1930, v. 24, pp. 845-846.
H a r r i s o n , G eorge M.
Unemployment reserves for the railway industry.
A m e r ic a n L a b o r L e g is la tio n R e v ie w , M a r c h 1933, v. 23, pp. 23-27.
By the president of the Brotherhood of Railway Clerks.
H i l l m a n , Si d n e y .

Unemployment reserves.
Atlantic Monthly, November 1931, v. 154, pp. 104-107.
H o o k , J a m e s W.
Wage reserves to protect the stable labor force.
Law and Labor, January 1932, v. 14, pp. 3-5.
H

o p k in s ,

H

arry

L.

Beyond relief: the larger task.
New York Times Magazine, Aug. 19, 1934, sec. 6, pp. [1], 2.
S e e also statement in United States.
Congress. House. Committee on W ays
and Means. Unemployment insurance. Hearings, 1934, pp. 31—
34.

H

uebner,

S o l o m o n S.

Unemployment insurance.
(In American Philosophical Society. Proceedings, 1932, v. 71, no. 2,
pp. 49-71.)
K e llogg , P a u l U.
Security next.
Survey, Dec. 1, 193}, v. 67, pp. 237-240.
K

ennedy,

T h om as.

American labor and unemployment insurance.
American Labor Legislation Review, September 1933, v. 23, pp. 142^-145.
K u l p , C l a r e n c e A.
The purchase of security through unemployment compensation.
American Labor Legislation Review, March 1934, v. 24, pp. 23-34.
------ Unemployment compensation in the United States.
(In American Academy of Political and Social Science. Annals, May 1932,
V. 161, pp. 118-127.)




GENERAL DISCUSSION
L abor

and

w e l f a r e groups a s k

19

s e c u r it y .

Social Security, October 1934, p. 3.
On the resolutions adopted by State federations of labor in 1934 and by the
American Public Welfare Association, General Federation of Women’s Clubs, National
League of Women Voters, and other organizations.
L aidleir , H

arry

W.

Dole or unemployment insurance? Increasing insecurity of workers de­
mands scientific form of relief.
Labor Age, December 1930, v. 19, no. 12, pp. 7-9.
— Next steps in unemployment insurance.
L. I. D. Monthly (League for Industrial Democracy), December 1930, pp.
1, 2, 6-9.
------ Unemployment insurance for America.
L. I. D. Monthly (League for Industrial Democracy), November 1930, pp.
1, 2 , 6-11.
S e e also issue for October 1930 containing article on “ Unemployment insurance
plans abroad.”
i l l i a m M.
Dole or insurance?
Nation, Feb. 17, 1932, v. 134, pp. 193, 194.
------ Who bears the business risks?
Survey, Mar. 1, 1931, v. 65, pp. 596-600, 622.
------ Will industry provide security?
(In Social Security in the United States, 1933. A record of the sixth
National Conference on Old Age and Social Security . . . New York,
pp. 77-85.)

L e is e r s g n , W

L iv in g s t o n , C h a r l e s A .

Unemployment insurance fails to solve problem.
Industry (Associated Industries of Massachusetts), July 21, 1934,
pp. 3, 4.
By the director of publicity of the Illinois Manufacturers Association. In­
cludes excerpts from an actuarial analysis of unemployment insurance
proposals made for that association by Arthur S. Hansen.
M c D o n a l d , F r e d e r ic k H .

Should business establish a stabilization reserve fund?
Review of Reviews, August 1932, v. 86, no. 2, pp. 34-36, 62.
S e e also

articles in July, September, and October 1932 issues of same journal.

B.
The dole versus unemployment insurance.
Sociology and Social Research, January-February 1932, v. 16, pp. [213]-

M a n g o l d , G eorge

220.

L., Jr.
Unemployment reserves, a prophecy.
Quarterly Bulletin (New York State Conference on Social W ork),
April 1933, v. 4, no. 2, pp. 24^34.

M aroy, W

il l ia m

M a s c h , S ol .

Unemployment insurance. Is this the missing link in our economic struc­
ture. [New York, 1932?] [4] pp.
“ Reprint from the November issue of Credit Executive, the official publication
of the New York Credit Men’ s Association.”
M atthew s, W

il l ia m

H.

The breakdown of relief.
(In Social Security in the United States, 1934. A record of the seventh
National Conference on Social Security . . . New York. pp. 114121. )
M aurette, F ernand .

Is unemployment insurance a cause of permanent unemployment?
International Labour Review, December 1931, v. 24, pp. [663]-684.

99986°— 35------4




20

UNEMPLOYMENT INSUBANCE AND RESERVES

M eeker, R oyal.

[ “ Job insurance seen as no drain on nation.” ]
Congressional Record (United States Congress)
pp. 1514, 1515.

Jan. 7, 1931, v. 75.

Reprint of article from Washington Post, Jan. 5, 1931. See also paper on
“ The outlawry of unemployment ” in American Association for Advancement
of Science, Stabilization of Employment, 1933.
M e r i a m , R i c h a r d S.

Some theoretical aspects of unemployment reserves.
(In American Economic Association. Papers and Proceedings, 1932.
v. 45, pp. [23]-30.)
Papers and Proceedings for 1932 were issued as supplement to American
Economic Review, March 1933.

—

Unemployment reserves: some questions o f principle.
Quarterly Journal of Economics, Feb. 1933, v. 47, pp. 312-336.
In this critical examination of unemployment reserves Professor Meriam reaches the
conclusions: That the burden of employers’ contributions is shifted backward to the
workmen and that contributions from employers add little to existing incentives to
stabilization. He regards unemployment as not an insurable risk and unemployment
reserves on a pooled or “ insurance ” basis as unstable as employment itself. Unem­
ployment reserves on a savings basis require extension to include retirement as well
as unemployment.
For bill sponsored in Massachusetts see Industry (Associated Industries of Massa­
chusetts), July 14, 1934.

M i l b a n k , A l b e r t G.

Security.
Survey, April 1933, v. 69, pp. 151, 152.
M il l s , C h ar les M .

Dole-itis.
Survey, Feb. 1, 1931, v. 65, pp. 487-489, 525, 528.
M oore , T

om.

Organized labor’s viewpoint on unemployment insurance.
Canadian Congress Journal, February 1934, v. 13, no. 2, pp. 13-16.
M o r t o n , W a l t e r A.
The aims of unemployment insurance with especial reference to the Wiscon­
sin act.
American Economic Review, September 1933, v. 23, pp. 395-412.
M u f s o n , I sr ael.

Why unemployment insurance.
Labor Age, February 1931, v. 20, no. 2, pp. 18-20.
“ Questions and answers on why workers should have their pay insured.”
M

H e n r y R.
Fighting unemployment.
Nation, Dec. 10, 17, and 24, 1930, v. 131, pp. 641-643, 673, 674, 704, 705.

ussey,

C o n t e n t s : I. Organizing the labor movement.
III. Stabilization.

II. Unemployment insurance.

J.
Seasonal unemployment insurance.
American Economic Review, September 1931, v. 21, pp. 416-426.

M y e r s , R obert

N a t i o n a l I n d u s t r ia l C o n f e r e n c e B o a r d .

Individual or pooled reserves for unemployment.
(In its Service Letter on Industrial Relations, Nov. 30, 1932, n. s. no. 95,
pp. 469-472.)
------ Unemployment reserves.
(In its Conference Board Bulletin, Mar. 20, 1933, v. 7, pp. 22-24.)
O d o m , W i l l i a m E.
Employment insurance— on the basis of the permanence of the individual
job.
Industrial Relations, Jan. 1932, v. 3, pp. [6]-8.




GENERAL DISCUSSION
Odom, W

il l ia m

21

E.

Meeting the risk of unemployment . . .
Industrial Relations, Dec. 31, 1932, y . 3, pp. 734-742.
Subtitle: “ W hat W isconsin’s law, Ohio’s proposed law, the N EM A plan, and

a combined pension and unemployment reserve will mean.”
Olzendam , R

o d er ic .

British and German experience with unemployment insurance.
Industry (Associated Industries of Massachusetts), Apr. 22, 1933, v. 31,
no. 9, pp. 2, 3.
Taken from a statement by Roderic Olzendam, social insurance director of
the Metropolitan Life Insurance Co., made before the Legislative Committee
on Unemployment of the State of New York.
P a r k in s o n , R .

Suggestions concerning unemployment insurance.
Personnel, February 1934, v. 10, pp 86-95.
By the manager of personnel activities, American Optical Co.
P e r k in s , F r a n c e s.

Unemployment insurance; an American plan to protect workers and avoid
the dole.
Survey, Nov. 1, 1931, v. 67, pp. 117-119, 173.
After a special study of the aims, accomplishments, and technique of British
unemployment insurance, Miss Perkins suggested that a group of industrial
States experiment with an interstate insurance authority, modeled on the Port
Authority of New York and New Jersey, to underwrite insurance in the States
creating it. This arrangement not only would save in overhead but would keep
the administration impersonal and remote from political influences in the sep­
arate S ta te s; it would also meet the difficulty of competition between industries
in different States under different laws.
Excerpt in Review of Reviews, December 1931, v. 84, pp. 72, 73.

------ An interstate authority for unemployment insurance.
Survey, August 1933, v. 69, pp. 275, 276.
In this address before the Institute of Public Affairs, University of Virginia,
besides suggesting an interstate authority for the administration of unemployment
insurance, the Secretary of Labor discusses some of the standards for State unem­
ployment insurance laws.

—

Job insurance.
American Labor Legislation Review, September 1933, v. 23, pp. 117-120.
Favors a compulsory unemployment reserve system because it would provide an
incentive for the stabilization of employment.

------ Towards security: the bill before Congress for unemployment insurance.
Survey Graphic, March 1934, v. 23, pp. 116, 117, 144.
------Unemployment and relief.
American Journal of Sociology, May 1934, v. 39, pp. 768-775.
A l s o i n Ogburn, W illiam Fielding, ed.
Social Change and the New Deal, 1934.
pp. 4 0 -4 7 .
Urges the early establishment of some form of unemployment reserves or insur­
ance in the various States “ which will make possible the payment of benefits well
above the level of mere subsistence, and extending over substantial periods of time.”

------ Miss Perkins asks social insurance.
New York Times, Aug. 14, 1934, p. 3.
A radio address over National Broadcasting Company network on August 13.
also New York Times Index for various other addresses reported in the daily
press.

See

—

On our way.
American Labor Legislation Review, September 1934, v. 24, pp. 106-108.
The tendency to scoff at unemployment insurance as a dole is, in Miss Perkins’
opinion, fast disappearing.
“ It has been realized that the British unemployment
system is far less costly to the public treasury, and far less demoralizing to the
individual, than the system of public relief which we have been forced to adopt.”
It has, moreover “ saved thousands of small merchants from ruin, and acted as a
very definite stabilizer of business.”




22

UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE AND RESERVES

R ie y e , E m i l .

Hosiery workers’ union favors unemployment reserve funds.
American Labor Legislation Review, March 1931, v. 21, pp. 63, 64.
[ R oo sevelt, F r a n k l in

D .]

Unemployment insurance urged by Governor of New York.
American Labor Legislation Review, September 1930, v. 20, pp. 254, 255.
“ Unemployment insurance we shall come to in this country just as cer­
tainly as we have come to workmen’ s compensation for industrial injury . . .
Ninety percent of unemployment is wholly without the fault of the worker.
Other nations and governments have undertaken various systems which insure
their workers when unemployment comes. W hy should we, in the 48 States of
our Union, fear to undertake the t a s k ? ”
Excerpts from address at Governor’s Conference at Salt Lake City.
For
full text se e Report of Proceedings of the 22d Annual Conference of Governors,
1980, pp. 1 8 -2 4 .
R oo se v e lt a d m in is t r a t io n l e a d e r s h ip o n u n e m p l o y m e n t in s u r a n c e .

American Labor Legislation Review, June 1934, v. 24, pp. 57-59.
Presents the chronology of the different steps taken from Governor Roosevelt’s
speech at Conference of Governors in June 1930 to the President’s message to
Congress, June 8, 1934.
R u b in o w , I sa a c M .

Public and private interests in social insurance.
American Labor Legislation Review, June 1931, v. 21, pp. 181-191.
“ Unemployment insurance ” , pp. 1 8 9 -1 9 1 .

—

Stabilization versus insurance?
Social Service Review, June 1931, v. 5, pp. 199-213.
------ Toward unemployment insurance.
Current History, June 1933, v. 38, pp. 308-315.
S arg en t, N oel.

Compulsory public unemployment insurance.
Industrial Relations, November 1932, v. 3, pp. 558. 559.
------ Do we need compulsory public unemployment insurance? No.
(In American Academy of Political and Social Science. Annals, Novem­
ber 1933, v. 170, pp. 30-39.)
S c h u l t z , A r c h D.
Unemployment insurance.
Ohio Social Science Journal, November 1932, v. 4, no. 4, pp. 21-29.
SCHWENNING, G. T.
Protection of employees against abrupt discharge.
Michigan Law Review, March 1933, v. 30, pp. 666-698.
S l i g h t e r , S u m n e r H.
Doles for employers.
New Republic, Dec. 31, 1930, v. 65, pp. 181-183.
------ Making booms bear the burden of relief—some financial implications of un­
employment reserves.
Harvard Business Review, April 1933, v. 11, pp. 327-335.
------ Pharaoh dreams again.
Atlantic Monthly, August 1931, v. 148, pp. 248-252.
Includes suggestions for an unemployment wage.

------ Unemployment relief by business.
New Republic, Dec. 30, 1931, v. 69, pp. 181-184.
S t a r k , L o u is .

Labor on relief and insurance.
Survey, Nov. 15, 1931, v. 67, pp. 186, 187.
St a r k e y , F r a n k T .

Unemployment insurance from labor’s viewpoint.
American Labor Legislation Review, September 1931, v. 21, pp. 315-317.




GENERAL DISCUSSION

23

M.
Some aspects of unemployment insurance.
Labour Gazette (Canada), July 1931, v. 31, pp. 775-781.

Stew art, B ryce

Paper read before annual meeting of the Canadian Political Science Associa­
tion, May 2 7 -2 9 , 1931.

------Unemployment insurance— the European experience and the American
beginning.
Automotive Industries, Nov. 24, 1934, v. 71, pp. 644-647.
Stew ar t, E thelbert.

Shall we have employment insurance, or unemployment insurance?
Railroad Trainman, July 1930, v. 47, p. 509.
S t o r y , H. W.
Sound unemployment protection.
Nation’s Business, October 1934, v. 22, no. 10, pp. 15-18, 60-62.

Discussion by the vice president of Allis-Chalmers Manufacturing Co. of the
fundamental points which employers must consider in determining which type
of legislation they should support.

S w if t , L in t o n B .

Social insurance and relief.
Family, May 1931, v. 12, pp. 81-85.
S w o p e , G erard.

Text of Mr. Gerard Swope’s proposal for insurance of wage earners on
nation-wide basis.
Law and Labor, October 1931, v. 13, pp. 217-222.

a

Text of Mr. Swope’s address on “ The stabilization of industry ” delivered
before the National Electrical Manufacturers Association, including his plan
for unemployment insurance, reprinted in Monthly Labor Review, November
1931, v. 33, pp. 1 0 4 9 -10 5 7 .
T ebbetts, L e w is B .

Assured opportunity vs. unemployment insurance.
American Federationist, July 1931, v. 38, pp. 826-830.
T i e d e m a n n , T. H. A.
Questions on unemployment insurance.
Personnel, November 1934, v. 11, pp. 48-50.
Excerpts of address by the director of Industrial Relations Counselors, Inc.,
at 4th summer conference on industrial relations, Princeton University, 1934.
T rajfton, G eo r g e H .

America moves toward compulsory unemployment reserves.
American Labor Legislation Review, December 1932, v. 22, pp. 125-135.
T r e m b l a y , G.
Unemployment insurance and the home.
Hospital Social Service, October 1932, v. 46, pp. 309-322.
T r o x e l l , J. P.
The outlook for unemployment insurance.
South Atlantic Quarterly, April 1933, v. 32, pp. 101-113.
U n e m p l o y m e n t in s u r a n c e in

A m e r ic a .

New Republic, Oct. 8, 1930, v. 64, pp. 194, 195.
U n e m p l o y m e n t in s u r a n c e or e m p l o y m e n t a s s u r a n c e ?

Industrial Barometer (Employers’ Association of Detroit), February 1931,
pp. 1, 2.
U n e m p l o y m e n t in s u r a n c e — t w o p o in t s of v ie w .

Industry (Associated Industries of Massachusetts), July 16, 1932, v. 29,
no. 21, pp. [1], 2.
Includes short article by Karl T. Compton, a member of the Massachusetts Em ­
ployment Stabilization Commission, and a reprint of an editorial entitled “ Labor
abhors unemployment insurance ” in the July 2, 1932, issue of the Weekly News
Service of the American Federation of Labor.

F.
Rock-bottom responsibility.

W a g n e r , R obert

Survey, June 1, 1932, v. 68, pp. 222-224, 256.




24

UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE AND RESERVES

W a g n e r , R obert F .

Unemployment a social responsibility.
Weekly News Letter (Illinois Federation of Labor), Feb. 17, 1934, v. 19,
no. 47, p. [1].
Text of radio address of Feb. 2, 1^34, on the need for unemployment
insurance.
W h it n e y , A . F .

Unemployment insurance.
Railroad Trainman, April 1931, v. 48, pp. 247-249.
W o l m a n , L eo.

The outlook for unemployment insurance in the codes.
{In Academy o f Political Science, New York. Proceedings, January
1934, v. 15, pp. 371-377.)
------Relief and unemployment insurance.
Yale Review, December 1932, v. 22, pp. [289]-302.
------ Some observations on unemployment insurance.
{In American Economic Association. Papers and proceedings, 1928, pp.
23-29.)
Issued as Supplement to American Economic Review, March 1929, pp. 2 3 -2 9 .

------ Stabilization or insurance.
{In American Academy of Political and
1933, v. 165, pp. 20-23.)
------ Unemployment insurance for the United
Railroad Trainman, April 1931, v. 48, pp.
------ Unemployment insurance— its limitations
Nation, May 4, 1932, v. 134, pp. 508-510.

Social Science.

Annals, January

States.
272-274.
and its promise.

Y oder, D a l e .

Some economic implications of unemployment insurance.
Quarterly Journal of Economics, August 1931,
45, pp. 622-639.
------ Some probable effects of unemployment insurance upon delinquency.
Journal of Juvenile Research, October 1931, v. 15, pp. 260-267.

v.

Read at the third annual Conference on the Prevention of Delinquency, W hittier
State School, California, July 9, 1931.

Bibliographies 1
A m e r ic a n A s s o c ia t io n for L abor L e g is l a t io n .

Unemployment insurance and prevention: a selected critical bibliography.
American Labor Legislation Review, June 1931, v. 21, pp. 265-270.

Public Library. Civics division.

D e t r o it .

Unemployment insurance: a selected list of references.
19 pp.
I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s C o u n s e l o r s , I n c .,

New York.

Detroit, 1931.

Library.

Unemployment compensation, a chronological bibliography of books, reports,
and periodical articles in English, 1891-1927, by Linda H. Morley. New
York, Industrial Relations Counselors, Inc., 1928. 117 numbered leaves.
(Mimeographed.)
Supplemented by “ Unemployment benefits bibliography,
Library Bulletin, July 1930, pp. 1 7 -3 6 .
I n t e r n a t io n a l L abo r O f f ic e ,

1 9 2 8 -19 2 9 ” ,

in

its

Geneva.

Bibliographie du chomage. Bibliography of unemployment . . . 2d ed. Cov­
ering the period 1920-1929. Geneva, 1930. 217 pp. (Studies and reports,
series C, Unemployment, no. 14.)
Unemployment insurance and relief, pp. 1 7 7 -2 1 7 .
Earlier bibliography published as no. 12 in same series.
U n iv e r s it y .
Departm ent of Economics
Industrial Relations Section.

P r in c e t o n

and Social Institutions .

Selected bibliography: unemployment prevention, compensation and re­
lief . . . Princeton, 1931. 31 pp.
-------------------- Supplement 1931-1933. 23 pp.
x S e e al8,o

section of this list on Debate Handbooks.




25

ASPECTS OP UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION
S o h w e n n in g , G . T .

Dismissal compensation: a list of references.
Monthly Labor Review, February 1932, v. 34, pp. 478-492.
U n it e d S t a t e s .
Library o f Congress .
List of recent references on unemployment insurance and reserves.
22 L (Mimeographed.)

1934.

Supplementary to earlier mimeographed lists.

SP E C IA L A SPEC TS O F U N E M PLO Y M E N T COM PENSATIO N

Administrative Problems
A l t m e y e r , A r t h u r J.

The Wisconsin administration in the making.
American Labor Legislation Review, March 1933, v. 23, pp. 17-22.
“ Address, twenty-sixth annual meeting, American
Legislation, Cincinnati, Ohio, December 29, 1932.”

Association

for

Labor

------ The role of public employment offices under unemployment compensation.
American Labor Legislation Review, December 1932, v. 22, pp. 147-153.
C h e g w id d e n , T h o m a s

S.

The employment exchange service of Great Britain; an outline of the ad­
ministration of placing and unemployment insurance . . . New York,
Industrial Relations Counselors, Inc., 1934. 310 pp.
“ W ith this volume, Industrial Relations Counselors, Inc., begins a series of
studies on the administrative aspect of public employment services and unemploy­
ment insurance in several countries.”
“ List of official documents c ite d ” , pp. [28 9J -2 9 1 .

L.
The administrative machinery of social insurance . . .
International Labour Review, April 1925, v. 11, pp. 474-508.
D a v i s o n , R o n a l d C.
Unemployment relief; the administrative problem.
Contemporary Review, January 1933, v. 143, pp. 42-48.
D o u g l a s , P a u l H.
Standards of unemployment insurance. Chicago, University of Chicago
Press, 1933. 251 pp. (Social service monographs no. 19.)
Co h e n , Joseph

Chapter V III on “ Problems of insurance and administration ” (pp. 161—
192)
discusses administrative machinery, the role of public employment offices, invest­
ment of funds, reserves, collection of contributions and procedure for handling
claims.

B.
Contested claims under unemployment insurance.
American Federationist, December 1932, v. 39, pp. 1390-1400.

E w in g , Jo h n

(S e e a lso chapter on “ Employment offices” in his book “ Job Insurance.”
Norman, Okla., University of Oklahoma Press, 1933.

H.f and others .
A program for unemployment insurance and relief in the United States.
Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1934.

H a n s e n , A l v in

Administration, pp. 141—
151.

Co., "New York.
The administration of unemployment insurance; a brief summary of the
essential administrative features of governmental plans in eleven Euro­
pean countries . . . [New York, 1932.] 27 pp. (Its Series on social in­
surance, monograph V.)

M e t r o p o l it a n L i f e I n s u r a n c e

The administrative organization and procedure of Great Britain, Germany, Swit­
zerland, and Denmark are given in detail.
Austria, Belgium, Czechoslovakia,
France, Italy, Netherlands, and Norway are included in chart at back.

A.
Justice and administrative law.

R obso n, W il l ia m
** Tribunals




London, The Macmillan Co., 1928.

for unemployment insurance ” , pp. 125—
130.

346 pp,

26

UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE AND RESERVES

S c h o e l e r , M a r g u e r it e .

Collaboration between placing and unemployment-insurance institutions.
International Labour Review, March 1934, v. 29, pp. 329-340.

Financial and Actuarial Discussions
A ndrew s, Jo h n

B.

The investment and liquidation of unemployment reserves.
American Labor Legislation Review, December 1932, v. 22, pp. 137-143.
L.
The incidence of the costs of social insurance . . .
International Labour Review, December 1929, v. 20, pp. [816]-839.

C o h e n , J oseph

D.
Unemployment insurance,

C r a ig , J a m e s

[n. d.]

34 pp.

Reprinted from the Transactions of the Actuarial Society of America, v. X X I V ,
pt. 1, no. 69.

------ Unemployment insurance and the insurance company.
(In Conference of Governors on Unemployment and Other Interstate In­
dustrial Problems. Albany, 1931, pp. 80-82.)
D ouglas, P a u l H .

Standards of unemployment insurance. Chicago, University of Chicago
Press, 1933. 251 pp. ( Social service monographs no. 19.)
Chapter V I : “ W hat would be the probable cost of unemployment insurance ? ”
(pp. 1 1 0 -1 3 6 ). S e e also discussion of investment of funds and reserves in chap­
ter V III.
E c k e r , F r e d e r ic k H .

Is unemployment insurable?
(In Academy of Political Science, New York.
1932, pp. 24-34.)

Proceedings, January

Discussion by the president of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Co.
F e r d in a n d -D k e y f u s , J a c q u e s .

Financial systems in social insurance . . .
International Labour Review, October 1924, v. 10, pp. [583]-606.
F o r c h h e im k r , K a r l .

The financial problems of unemployment insurance.
International Labour Review, April 1929, v. 19, pp. [483]-502.
Based mainly on the experience of Austria, but the considerations presented
are of wider application.
H a n s e n , A l v in

H.

The investment of unemployment reserves and business stability.
(In A Program for Unemployment Insurance and Relief in the United
States. Minneapolis, 1934. pp. 166-195.)
S e e als o actuarial study based on Minnesota statistics in uA New Plan for
Unemployment Reserves ” , by Hansen and Murray. 1933.

S.
For coming experiments see unemployment insurance.
Commerce (Chicago Association of Commerce), August 1934, pp. 16-18.

H an sen , A rthur

Preliminary results of an actuarial analysis of current unemployment insur­
ance plans being made for the Illinois Manufacturers Association. Excerpts in
Industry (Associated Industries of Massachusetts), July 21, 1934, p. 4.

A.
Unemployment insurance.
Record of American Institute of Actuaries, May 1930, v. 19, pt. 1, pp.
33-53.

H o h a u s , R ic h a r d

A brief history of English, German, and American experience. Includes dis­
cussion of the problems an insurance company would have if it were to write
unemployment insurance.

Is

unem ploym ent

in s u r a b l e

?

New York, 1932.

28 pp.

: Is unemployment insurance feasible and practicable, and can it be
made secure from an actuarial basis under a political government? by James D.
Craig . . .
Is unemployment insurable? by Leo Wolman.
Co

n ten ts




27

ASPECTS OF UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION
K l u m p a r , V l a d is l a v .

The investment of social insurance funds . . .
International Labour Review, January 1933, v. 27, pp. [51]-65.
An account by the director of the Central Social Insurance Institution at
Prague of the principles underlying its investment policy, with a brief survey
of the problem in other countries.
K o r k is c h , H ub ert.

The financial resources of social insurance . . .
International Labour Review, December 1924, v. 10, pp. [909]-934.
K u l p , C l a r e n c e A.
Calculation of the cost of unemployment benefits (with particular reference
to Ohio and Pennsylvania).
(In Casualty Actuarial Society. Proceedings, May 26, 1933, v. 19, pt. 2,
pp. 268-278.)
T h e le g a l a n d a c t u a r ia l a s p e c t s of u n e m p l o y m e n t in s u r a n c e .

(In Manufacturers’ Association of Connecticut.

Unemployment and its
1933. pp. 104-108.)
L e i s e r s o n , W i l l i a m M.
The insurance principle and American industry.
(In Conference of Governors on Unemployment and Other Interstate
Industrial Problems. Albany, 1931. pp. 69-78.)
problems.

M cN u t t , P a u l V .

Compensation and social insurance.
Journal of American Insurance, September 1934, pp. 19-28.
P a i s h , F r a n k W.
Insurance funds and their investment . . . London, P. S. King & Son, Ltd.,
1934. 117 pp. (London School of Economics and Political Sciences . . .
Studies in Economics and Commerce . . . no. 2.)
R ie t z , H e n r y L .

Actuarial aspects of unemployment insurance.
(In American Association for Advancement of Science.
of employment, 1933. pp. 13(1-151.)

Stabilization

R u b in o w , I saa c M .

Can insurance help the unemployment situation?
(In Casualty Actuarial Society. Proceedings, May 25, 1928, v. 14, pt. 2,
pp. 373-383.)
S e e also his “ The Quest for Security ”
noted in first section of this list.

(New York, H. Holt & Co., 1934)

------ Is the unemployment risk insurable?
(In American Academy of Political and Social Science. Annals, November
1933, v. 170, pp. 40-52.)
------ Is unemployment insurable ?
(In Ohio. Commission on Unemployment Insurance. Report, pt. II, pk>
,
163-170.)
----- - Unemployment insurance for O hio: an actuarial computation.
(In Ohio. Commission on Unemployment Insurance. Report, pt. II, pp.
205-245.)
T olles, A rnold.

Unemployment rates, insurance benefit, and contribution scales in Ger­
many and Great Britain.
Journal of the American Statistical Association, June 1934, v. 29,
pp. 159-165.
W O LFEN D EN ,

HUGH H .

Unemployment funds; a survey and proposal; a study of unemployment
insurance and other types of funds for the financial assistance of the
unemployed. Toronto, The Macmillan Co. of Canada, Ltd., 1934. 229 pp.
W o lMa n , L eo.

Unemployment insurance.
(In Casualty Actuarial Society.
pp. 86-97.)
9 9 9 8 6 °— 35--------5




Proceedings, Nov. 17, 1922, v. 9, pt. 1,

28

UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE AND RESERVES
Constitutional Questions
P.
Constitutionality of unemployment insurance.
Conference of Governors on Unemployment and Other Interstate
Industrial Problems. Albany, 1931, pp. 89-95.)

C h a m b e r l a in , J o se p h

{In

Paper based on the bill proposed by the American Association for Labor
Legislation.
Reprinted in Report and Recommendations of the California State Unem­
ployment Commission, 1932, pp. 7 7 8 -7 8 2 .

—

The constitutionality of Federal-aid acts.
State Government, October 1931, v. 4, no. 10, pp. 5-7.
W.
Constitutional background of unemployment insurance.
Virginia Law Review, March 1934, v. 20, pp. 497-522.

C otjsen s, T h eo dore

D ouglas, P a u l H .

Note on constitutionality of unemployment insurance.
Standards of Unemployment Insurance.
193-197.)

{In Ms

Chicago, 1933.

pp.

H ebert, F e l ix .

Some of the legal phases of unemployment insurance and the possible effects
of its adoption in the United States.
Maryland State Bar Association. Proceedings, 1932, pp. 136-159.)

{In

W.
Unemployment insurance for the United States. Legality of a Federal
system; the British scheme compared with the proposals of Prof. John
R. Commons.
New Leader, Nov. 22, 1930, p. 4.

L a id l e r , H a r r y

L a m b e r t , M il e s .

Compulsory unemployment insurance and due process of law.
Wisconsin Law Review, April 1932, v. 7, pp. 146-159.
L u b in , I sador.

The United States Constitution and compulsory unemployment insurance.
Congressional Digest, Aug./Sept. 1931, pp. 197, 224.
U n it e d

States.

surance.

Congress. Senate. Select Committee on Unemployment In­

Unemployment insurance. Report . . . pursuant to Senate Resolution 483,
71st Congress . . . Washington, 1932. 53 pp. (72d Congress. Senate.
Report 964.)
Includes discussion of constitutionality of Federal
insurance, pp. 3 7 -3 9 , 4 8 -4 9 .

action

on unemployment

House. Committee on Ways and Mean#.

---------Unemployment insurance. Hearings . . . on H. R. 7659.
1934. Washington, 1934. 426 pp.

March 21-30,

Discussion of constitutionality of measure included in testimony of John C.
Gall, associate counsel of the National Association of Manufacturers, pp. 313— 5 7 ;
3
reply by Thomas H. Eliot, pp. 4 0 8 -4 2 4 .

C O M PAN Y , JO IN T-A G R E E M E N T, A N D T R A D E -U N IO N
PLAN S

B E N E FIT

Comprehensive Reports
N e w Y ork

(S tate).

Governor’s Commission on Unemployment Problems.

Less unemployment through stabilization of operations.
printing. Albany, 1931. 130 pp.

by

Report.

Second

Part 2 includes survey of unemployment benefit plans in United States prepared
Paul H . Douglas.




29

COMPANY, ETC., BENEFIT PLANS
St e w a r t , B ryce M .

Unemployment benefits in the United States, the plans and their setting.
New York, Industrial Relations Counselors, Inc., 1930. 730 pp.
Covers trade-union, joint-agreement, and company benefit plans in the United
States, their development, financial organization, experience, and administrative
procedure. Tabular analysis of main provisions of the plans, pp. 656—
685.
S e e a lso article on “ American voluntary attempts at unemployment benefits ”
in Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, November
1933, pp. 5 3 -6 4 .
U n it e d S t a t e s .

Bureau o f Labor Statistics.

. . . Unemployment-benefit plans in the United States and unemployment
insurance in foreign countries . . . July 1931. Washington, 1931. 385
pp. (Its Bulletin no. 544.)
Issued also as Houre Doc. 84, 72d Cong., 1st sess.
Prepared under the direction of Hugh S. Hanna.
Part 1 (pp. 1 -1 7 6 ) presents the results of a survey made by the United States
Bureau of Labor Statistics of all known company, joint-agreement, and tradeunion unemployment benefit plans in operation in the United States in April
1931. The study covered 15 company, 16 joint-agreement, and 48 trade-union
unemployment benefit plans, with total coverage of approximately 160,000.

— ------ Operation of unemployment benefit plans and insurance systems, 1931
and 1932. Supplement to its Bulletin no. 544. Washington, 1933. 93 pp.
Brings together three articles published in the December 1932 and January 1933
issues of the Monthly Labor Review.

----- --------Operation of unemployment insurance systems in the United States
and foreign countries. Washington, 1934. 121 pp.
Brings together four articles published in Monthly Labor Review, June-September
1934.
Reports relate, in general, to the period July 1932 to the spring of 1934.
Includes brief review of the history of private unemployment benefit plans in the
United States and a table (p. 2) showing the company and joint-agreement plans
in operation in 1934 and the date of discontinuance of abandoned plans.

Company Plans 2
J. D o u g l a s .
Company plans for unemployment compensation.
American Labor Legislation Review, December 1933, v. 23, pp. 176181.

B rown,

Cham ber

of

Com merce

of

the

U n it e d

States

of

A m e r ic a .

Departm ent of

Manufacture.

Company plans for unemployment reserves , . .
42 pp.

Washington,

[1932?]

Prepared to aid employers in formulating unemployment reserve plans.
Com­
pany plans adopted in United States prior to Jan. 1, 1932, presented in tabular
form in Appendix IY .
See also paper by Morris E. Leeds on
Company unemployment reserve plans
in Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America.
Nineteenth annual
meeting.
[Addresses and discussions, no. 5J, pp. 7 6 -8 2 .

“

”

------------- Providing reserves against unemployment. A manual of information
and procedure for code authorities and trade associations. June 1934.
Washington, 1934. 38 pp.
I n d u s t r ia l R e l a t io n s C o u n s e l o r s , I n c .

An historical basis for unemployment insurance.
of Minnesota Press, 1934. 306 pp.

Minneapolis, University

Company and joint unemployment benefit plans, pp. 1 6 5 -1 7 6 ; Active company
plans, pp. 2 3 0 -2 4 0 ; Company plans which have abandoned or suspended payments,
pp. 2 4 0 -2 4 7 ; Pay roll, contributions and benefits paid by companies with unem­
ployment benefit plans from inception of each plan through 1933, pp. 2 8 4 -2 8 9 .
1 S e e also previous section on Comprehensive Reports.




30

UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE AND RESERVES

Department of Economics and Social Institutions. In­
dustrial Relations Section.

P r in c e t o n U n iv e r s it y .

Memorandum: company plans for unemployment insurance. Prepared by
the Industrial Relations Section, Princeton University, Princeton, N. J.
January, 1931. [Princeton, 1931.] 22 numbered leaves.
Covers the Brown and Bailey Trust Fund, the Fond du L#ae Steady Employment
Plan (5 companies), the General Electric Unemployment Pensions and Guaranty of
Employment Plans, the Rochester Unemployment Benefit Plan (17 companies).
W h it n e y , A n ic e L .

Operation of unemployment benefit plans in the United States up to 1934.
Monthly Labor Review, June 1934, v. 38, pp. 1288-1318.
Of the 23 company plans known to have been established, 16 were in operation
in 1934 though quite generally with reduced benefits or with modification of plan
to conserve the funds.

Descriptions of Special Plans
[ B r o w n & B a il e y C o.,

P h ila d e lp h ia .]

A sm all plant tries it out.

Survey, Feb. 15, 1931, v. 65, pp. 547, 548.
Plan discontinued in 1932 (Monthly Labor Review, June 1934, p. 1 2 8 9 ).

Co. Experience demonstrates advantages of unemployment reserve
funds, by Henry S. Dennison.
American Labor Legislation Review, Mar. 1931, v. 21, pp. 29-32.

D e n n is o n

For the status of the Dennison plan, 1934, s e e Monthly Labor Review, June 1934,
p. 1290.

Steady-employment plan; also rules and regulations gov­
erning its operation as of Sept. 1, 1930. Fond du Lac [1930]. [8] pp.

[ F o n d d u L a c , W i s .]

Organizations participating in the plan : Demountable Typewriter Co., Inc., Sanitary
Refrigerator Co., Northern Casket Co., Standard Refrigerator Co., and American Lock
and Hinge Co.

------[Steady-employment plan.] Joint company unemployment-insurance plan.
Monthly Labor Review, December 1930, v. 31, pp. 1366, 1367.
Unemployment: a plan to minimize its cause and effect
in General Electric Co. [Schenectady? 1930.] [4] pp.

G e n e r a l E l e c t r ic C o.

Reprinted from the General Electric Works News, June 20, 1930, v. 14, no. 6, pp.
1 -3 .
Summary in Monthly Labor Review, August 1930, v. 31, pp. 2 9 9 -3 0 1 ; Womans
Press, January 1931, pp. 3 1 -3 3 . S e e also discussion of the plan in Facts for Workers,
July 1930. p. 1.
For statement on operation of plan to 1934 se e Monthly Labor Review, June 1934,
pp. 1 3 0 1 -13 0 3 . S e e also statement of Gerard Swope in United States. Congress.
House.
Committee on W ays and Means. Unemployment insurance. Hearings, 1934.
Pp. 1 1 7 -1 42 .

----- G-E employees unemployment pension plan.
tady, 1934.] 16 pp.

November 1, 1934.

[Schenec­

Revision of 1930 plan on basis of 4 years of experience. One of the most important
changes, urged by employees and adopted, provides for participation in the plan, as a
mutual condition of employment, of all employees of the company except certain spe­
cifically excluded groups. The plan continues to provide for equal contributions from
employees and company and for joint administration of the fund which is in the form
of a trust fund kept distinct from the financial affairs of the company.

------Out of the house of magic, by Beulah Amidon.
Survey, Dec. 1, 1930, v. 65, pp. 245-252, 295.
------Will General Electric unemployment plan work? by B. C. Forbes.
Forbes, July 15, 1930, v. 26, no. 2, pp. 17, 18, 53.
------ A venture in contributory unemployment insurance.
National Industrial Conference Board. Service Letter on Industrial
Relations, Sept. 15, 1930, n. s., no. 65, pp. 1-3.)

(In




31

COMPANY, ETC., BENEFIT PLANS
[ H il l s B rothers C o ., Hudson, Mass.]
retirem ent and unemployment.

Contributory individual reserve plan for

Industry (A ssociated Industries of M assach u setts), Sept. 9, 1933, v. 32,
no. 3, pp. [ l]- 3 .

Summary in M onthly Labor Review, Nov. 1933, v. 37, pp. 1096-1097; statem ent
on operation to 1934 in M onthly Labor Review, June 1934, v. 38, pp. 1307, 1308.

J. I. C a se Co. J. I. Case em ploym ent insurance plan— for the assurance of a
w age equivalent to those w hose jobs have an inherent liab ility to im perm a­
nence, by L. R. Clausen.
Industrial R elations, Decem ber 1931, v. 2, pp. [425]-428.
Description of the plan by the president of the J. I. Case Co.

------ Unem ploym ent insurance and savings plan of the J. I. Case Co.
M onthly Labor R eview , M arch 1932, v. 34, pp. 554, 555.

A savings plan w ith contributions from company and eligible employees. For
statem ent on operation in 1934 see Monthly Labor Review, June 1934, v. 38, pp.
1309, 1310.

& N orthrup Co., Philadelphia. Our company unem ploym ent reserve plan,
by M orris E. Leeds.
{In N ational In d u strial Conference Board. Service L etter on Industrial
R elations, M arch 1931, n. s., no. 75, [pp. l] - 3 .)

L eeds

See also statem ent of Morris E. Leeds in United States. Congress.
House.
Committee on W ays and Means. Unemployment insurance. Hearings, 1934, pp.
145-157.

a n d M a n u f act u rin g Co.]
“ 3 M ” unem ploym ent benefit
p la n ; effective January 1, 1932, covering em ployees of M innesota M ining &
M anufacturing Co.
Industrial R elations, January 1932, v. 3, pp. [14]-17.
------ Unem ploym ent-benefit plan of M innesota M ining & M anufacturing Co.
M onthly Labor R eview , April 1932, v. 34, pp. 788, 789.
N a t io n al E lectrical M anufacturers A ssociation . Unem ploym ent-insurance
plan of N ational E lectrical M anufacturers Association.
M onthly Labor R eview , July 1932, v. 35, pp. 22-26.
------ “ Nem a unem ploym ent benefit plan.” N ational E lectrical M anufacturers
A ssociation proposes a m ethod of settin g up unem ploym ent reserves for com ­
pany adoption.
Industrial R elations, June 1932, v. 3, pp. [273]-276.
P rocter & G am ble C o. Ivorydale, a pay roll th a t floats, by B eulah Amidon.
Survey, Apr. 1, 1930, v. 64, pp. 18-22, 56, 57.

[M in n e so ta M in in g

For statem ent regarding operation of fund in 1934,
June 1934, v. 38, pp. 1298-1300.

see

M onthly Labor Review,

[R ochester , N. Y., P la n .] Rochester unem ploym ent benefit plan. [R ochester,
Chamber of Commerce, 1931.] 10 pp.

For statem ent of operation in 1934, see Monthly Labor Review, June 1934, v. 38,
pp. 1305-1307.

-------Fourteen firms go pioneering, by B eulah Amidon.
Survey, Mar. 15, 1931, v. 65, p. 654.
-------T he R ochester unem ploym ent benefit plan, by M arion B. Folsom .
{In N ational Industrial Conference Board. Service L etter on Industrial
R elations, April 1931, n. s., no. 76 [pp. l] -5 .)

Gives details of the unemployment benefit plan entered into by 14 companies in
Rochester, N. Y., with the reasons for the adoption of the various provisions.
By the assistant treasurer of the Eastman Kodak Co., one of the participating
companies.
For statem ent by Mr. Folsom giving experience of plan to 1934, see United
States. Congress. House. Committee on W ays and Means. Unemployment in­
surance. Hearings 1934. pp. 65-88.

-------T he R ochester unem ploym ent plan, by M arion B. Folsom .
{ I n Academ y of P olitical Science, N ew York. Proceedings, January 1932,
pp. 11-23.)




32

UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE AND RESERVES

W ill the R ochester plan solve unem ploym ent,
Chapin H oskins.
Forbes M agazine, June 1, 1931, pp. 13, 14, 26-28.

[ R ochester , N. Y., Plan .]

by

A descriptive and critical discussion of the Rochester plan,

W m . W rig ley , J r ., C o.’ s

e m p l o y m e n t assu r a n c e p l a n .

Personnel, M ay 1934, v. 10, pp. 117-120.
------ H ow long w ill m y job last? B y P hilip K. W rigley.
F actory M anagem ent and M aintenance, June 1934, v. 92, pp. 243, 244.
See also

M onthly Labor Review, June 1934, v. 38, pp. 1311, 1312.

Joint-Agreement Plans
A m algam ated Cl o t h in g W

orkers op

A m erica .

Report of the general executive board . . . to the ninth biennial conven­
tion . . . Toronto, Canada, May 1930. [N ew York, 1930.] 97 pp.
Unemployment insurance (Chicago, Rochester, and New York), pp. 41-45.

H il l m a n , S id n e y .

A successful experim ent in unem ploym ent insurance.
(In Am erican Academ y of P olitical and Social Science. A nnals, M arch
1931, v. 154, pp. 104^107.)
S t ew art , B ryce M.
Unem ploym ent benefits in the U nited S tates: the plans and their setting.
N ew York, Industrial R elations Counselors, Inc., 1930. 730 pp.
Joint-agreement plans, pp. 362-462.

L.
O peration of unem ploym ent benefit plans in the U nited States up to 1934.
M onthly Labor R eview , June 1934, v. 38, pp. 1288-1318.

W h it n e y , A nice

Supplementary to U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Bulletin no. 544.
Of the 26 joint agreements covering unemployment benefits or guaranty
of employment concluded between employers and employees of trade unions
only five were reported as in operation in 1934. These were in the men’s cloth­
ing industry in Chicago, New York City, and Rochester, the cloth hat and
cap industry in Philadelphia, and the lace industry in Scranton, Pa. Descrip­
tion of plans, pp. 1313-1318.

W o l m a n , L eo.

T he practical operation o f a plan of unem ploym ent reserves.
(In Conference of Governors on Unem ploym ent and Other In terstate
Industrial Problem s, 1931, pp. 50-53.)
On the joint-agreement plan in the men’s clothing industry in Chicago.

-------Unem ploym ent insurance in action, how it works in the case of the clothing
industry.
W om ans P ress, Decem ber 1930, v. 24, pp. 844, 845.
Z aretz , C h arl es E.
T he A m algam ated C lothing W orkers o f A m erica: a study in progressive
trade-unionism . N ew York, Ancon P ublishing Co., 1934. 306 pp.

Unemployment insurance in Chicago, New York, and Rochester clothing mar­
kets, pp. 263-273.

Trade-Union Unemployment Benefit Plans
A m e ric a n F ederation

of

L abor .

U nions provide again st unem ploym ent. W ashington, 1929. 109 pp.

R obbin s , R a in ard B.

Trade-union benefits and our social insurance problem.
(In C asualty A ctuarial Society. Proceedings, Nov. 19, 1929, v. 16,
pt. 1, pp. 14—
21.)
S t e w a r t , B ryce M.
Unem ploym ent benefits in the U nited States, the plans and their setting.
N ew York, Industrial R elations Counselors, Inc., 1930. 730 pp.
** Trade-union plans ”, pp. 227-361.




See also

tabular analysis in Appendix B.

STATE LEGISLATIVE PROPOSALS

33

S t e w a r t , B r yce M .

Am erican voluntary attem pts at unem ploym ent benefits.
(In Am erican Academ y of P olitical and Social Science. Annals, N o­
vember 1933, pp. 53-64.)
Union plans, pp. 61-63.

U nited S tates .

Bureau of Labor Statistics.

. . . Unem ploym ent-benefit plans in th e U nited States and unem ploym ent
insurance in foreign countries . . . July 1931. W ashington, 1931.
385 pp. (Its B ulletin, no. 544.)
Trade-union plans, pp. 19-25, 105-174.
Supplementary report covering the operation of trade-union unemployment plans
during 1931 and 1932 in M onthly Labor Review, January 1933, v. 36, pp. 11-31.
The results of a third survey bringing the inform ation up to 1934 were given in
M onthly Labor Review for July 1934, v. 39, pp. 1—
24.
A total of 48 trade-union plans were listed in the 1931 study, three of these
maintained by international unions, and 45 by local unions. Three plans were
started after the first study and 10 had been given up, leaving 41 trade-union
plans in operation in 1934. The coverage of trade-union plans was estim ated as
45,000 persons in 1931; no satisfactory information on coverage in 1934.
ST A T E

L E G IS L A T IV E

A m erican A ssociation

for

PRO PO SA LS A N D

DISCUSSIONS*

L abor L eg islatio n .

An Am erican plan for unem ploym ent reserve funds, w ith revised draft of
an act. N ew York, Am erican A ssociation for Labor L egislation, 1933.
19 pp.

Adopted by the executive committee of the association, May 8, 1933. Supersedes
tentative draft adopted in 1930. Printed also in American Labor Legislation
Review, June 1933, v. 23, pp. 79-95.
B ill provides for individual employer accounts in a State fund but pooling by
industry is permitted and may be required; contributions at rate of 3 percent of
pay roll (until reserve is established) from employers of four or more employees ;
voluntary contributions from workers to increase benefits to be encouraged;
benefits to be at rate of 50 percent of weekly wages with $15 maximum, lim ited to
16 weeks in any one y ea r; w aiting period of 3 weeks.

-------Growth of the job insurance program an evolutionary developm ent.
Am erican Labor L egislation R eview , Septem ber 1933, v. 23, pp. 146-154.
-------U nem ploym ent insurance bills introduced in 1933.
Am erican Labor L egislation Review , June 1933, v. 23, pp. 73-78.

Analysis of main provisions of the compulsory reserves or insurance bills before
25 State legislatures and in Congress in 1933. In seven States— California, Con­
necticut, Maryland, M innesota, New York, Ohio, and Utah— bills were passed through
one house.

-------U nem ploym ent insurance bills of 1934.
Am erican Labor L egislation R eview , June 1934, v. 24, pp. 63-66.

Summary of main provisions of 35 unemployment insurance bills in 5 State leg­
islatures and in Congress in 1934. State-wide system s of unemployment compensa­
tion were provided in 21 of the State bills. Ten of these were of the “ reserves ”
type, setting up establishment or industry p o o ls; seven proposed pooling of all
reserves. B ill passed through one house in New York.

A m erican A ssociation

for

S ocial Se c u rity .

The social security bill for unem ploym ent insurance. [N ew York, 1933.] 8
pp.

8

Provides for a State-wide fund w ith contributions by employers, employees, and
the State.
Also issued as supplement to its journal, Social Security, for November 1933.

From 1916, when the first State unemployment insurance bill was Introduced in
M assachusetts, to 1929, 20 unemployment insurance bills were introduced into State
legislatures. Since 1930 the number each year has greatly increased. In 1932 Wisconsin
adopted the first State law on the subject. In 1933, 68 compulsory unemployment insur­
ance bills were before 25 State legislatures and bills were passed in one house in seven
of these. In 1934, 27 such bills were introduced into 5 of 9 State legislatures in regular
session.




34

UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE AND RESERVES

A m erican A ssociation

for

S ocial S e c u r ity .

Unem ploym ent insurance in 1933 legislatures.
Social Security, Ju ly-A u gu st 1933, pp. 1, 2.
-------F ederal and State social insurance bills.
Social Security, April 1934, pp. 10-12.

Analysis of the bills before 1934 State legislatures and Congress.

•------ State com m issions draft bills.
Social Security, October 1934, p. 5.

Brief statem ent on work of commissions in M assachusetts, California, and North
Carolina.

A m erican F ederation

of

L abor .

[Standards for unem ploym ent legislation.]
Am erican F ederationist, Decem ber 1934, v. 41, pp. 1292-1294.

A m erican L egislators ’ A sso ciatio n .

[G overnors’ m essages, 1933] . . . by Raym ond E. M anning. Chicago, 1933.
14 pp. (M im eographed.)

Legislation on unemployment reserves or insurance recommended by governors of
Connecticut, M assachusetts, M innesota, New York, Ohio, and Utah in 1933.

A m ido n , B e u l a h .

Unem ploym ent insurance.
Survey, Apr. 15, 1931, v. 66, p. 91.

Discusses the bills before State legislatures in 1931.

S.
H urdles in path of compulsory State unem ploym ent insurance or reserve
plans.
Industry (A ssociated Industries of M assachusetts), Nov. 10, 1934, v. 34,
no. 12, pp. 1-3.

A nderson , C lifford

A ndrew s , J o h n B.

P rospects of unem ploym ent com pensation law s.
(In Am erican Academ y of P olitical and Social Science. Annals, N o­
vember 1933, v. 170, pp. 88-92.)
.------ [Statem ent on . . . H. R. 7659.]
(In U nited States. Congress. House. Committee on Ways and Means.
Unem ploym ent insurance. H earings, 1934. pp. 99-117.)
Statement covers unemployment insurance bills before State legislatures in 1933
and 1934 and official investigating commissions.

B randeis , E l iz a b e t h .

Em ploym ent reserves vs. insurance.
N ew Republic, Sept. 27, 1933, v. 76, pp. 177-179.

A reply to article on “ Enemies of unemployment insurance ”, by Abraham
Epstein in same journal for Sept. 6, 1933.

C onference

for

P rogressive L abor A ction .

C. P. L. A. unem ploym ent insurance bills.
Labor Age, Decem ber 1930, v. 19, no. 12, pp. 21-23.

Text of C. P. L. A. model unemployment insurance bill for States and a
Federal insurance measure to authorize aid to the States.

H.
Am erican plans of unem ploym ent insurance.
Survey, Feb. 1, 1931, v. 65, pp. 484-486.

D ouglas , P a u l

Summary of legislative proposals made in 1931.

-------A national program for unem ploym ent insurance.
N ew Republic, Oct. 3, 1934, v. 80, pp. 215, 216.
Includes recommendations on State legislation.

-------Suggestions for an unem ploym ent insurance bill.
(In Conference of Governors on Unem ploym ent and Other In terstate Indus­
trial Problem s. Albany, 1931. pp. 83-88.)
------- Standards of unem ploym ent insurance. Chicago, U n iversity o f C hicago
Press, [1933]. 251 pp.
Professor Douglas favors joint contributions by employers end employees and *
centralized State fund jointly administered by representatives of workers and employers.




STATE LEGISLATIVE PROPOSALS

35

E p s t e in , A b r a h a m .

E nem ies of unem ploym ent insurance.
N ew Republic, Sept. 6, 1933, v. 76, pp. 94-96.

Also issued as a reprint w ith title “ Obstacles to unemployment insurance.**
Criticism of the bills introduced in State legislatures in 1933. See reply by
Elizabeth Brandeis in Sept. 27, 1933, issue of same journal; also article in
American Labor Legislation Review, September 1933, y. 23, pp. 155-158.

------ N ew standards for unem ploym ent insurance.
Survey, A ugust 1933, v. 69, pp. 281, 282.
F owler , C h arl es B.

Am erican unem ploym ent insurance legislation.
Am erican F ederationist, June 1934, v. 41, pp. 619-630.
G oodrich , C arter L.
An analysis of Am erican plans for State unem ploym ent insurance.
Am erican Econom ic Review , Septem ber 1931, v. 21, pp. 399^-415.
H a n s e n , A l v in H ., and others.
A program for unem ploym ent insurance and relief in the U nited States.
M inneapolis, U niversity of M innesota Press, 1934. 201 pp.

Publication of Employment Stabilization Research Institute, University of Min­
nesota. Part II discusses the fundamental of a program for unemployment insur­
ance. Part III outlines a plan for emergency unemployment benefits.

I ndu strial R elations C ounselors , I n c .

Official proposals and legislation for State com pulsory-em ploym ent insur­
ance or reserves in the U nited States.
(In its H istorical B asis for U nem ploym ent Insurance, 1934, pp. 177193; Appendix D, pp. 259-275.)

Analysis covers California, Connecticut, Maryland, M assachusetts, Minne­
sota, New York, Ohio, and W isconsin.

I nterstate C o m m is s io n

on

U n e m p lo ym e n t I nsu ran ce .

Report . . . [N ew York, 1931.] 8 num bered leaves.
For recommendations

see

section of this list on Interstate Discussions.

K in o , S t a n l e y .

Unem ploym ent reserves and insurance program s.
(In Academ y of P olitical Science, N ew York. Proceedings, January
1934, v. 15, pp. 385-392.)

N a t io n a l I n d u strial C onference B oard.

. . . P resent statu s of unem ploym ent insurance or reserves legislation . . .
[N ew York] N ational Industrial Conference Board, 1934. 13 num bered
leaves. (M im eographed.) (Conference Board Inform ation Service.
D om estic Affairs. M emorandum no. 29.)
Summary covers legislative activity in 1933 and 1934, reports of State com­
m issions and proposals in Congress.

P e r k in s , F ran ces .

[Address before N ew York Board of Trade.]
N ew York Tim es, Dec. 13, 1934, p. 15.

In favor of pooled insurance fund as affording greater security to workers;
also simpler and less expensive to administer.

A.
Unem ploym ent reserves for America. T he progress of unem ploym ent com­
pensation in 1932 and som e guideposts for 1933.
State Government, April 1933, v. 6, no. 4, pp. 9-11.
R u b in o w , I saac M.
T he Ohio versus the W isconsin plan— conflict or comprom ise.
(In Social Security in the U nited States, 1934. A record of the sev­
enth N ational Conference on Social Security . . . N ew York, pp.
123-139.)

R aushenbush, P aul

S teven son , M a rietta .

Old-age security and unem ploym ent insurance. L egislative trends and
enactm ents . • . Chicago, Am erican Public W elfare A ssociation, 1933.
15 pp.




36

UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE AND RESERVES

S tew ar t, B ryce

M.

State unemployment insurance.
Personnel, November 1932, v. 9, pp. 51-60.

Address before third annual Silver Bay Industrial Institute, July 20, 1932.

California

State Unemployment Commission.

C a l if o r n ia .

Abstract of hearings on unemployment before the California State Unem­
ployment Commission. April and May 1932 . . . San Francisco, 1932.
244 pp.

Edward J. Hanna, chairman.
“ Unemployment reserves and compensation ”, pp. 108-125.
Of the 78 persons who testified before the commission, 70 were in favor of
some form of unemployment insurance, 3 were doubtful, and 5 opposed.

------------- Report and recommendations of the California State Unemployment
Commission . . . November 1932. Sacramento, 1933. 810 pp.

The commission recommended a system of compulsory unemployment reserves and
compensation to be administered by the State w ith a separate plant reserve for each
employer sim ilar to the W isconsin plan but w ith contributions from both employees and
employers. A bill introduced in 1933 passed the assembly but failed to get out of
committee in the senate.
Summary in Monthly Labor Review, March 1933, v. 36, pp. 498, 499.

B l o c h , L o u is .

The recommendations of the California Unemployment Commission.
Social Service Review, March 1933, v. 7, pp. 84-94.

Summary of the main recommendations of the report by the secretary and
director of surveys of the commission. For bills before California Legislature
in 1933 see American Labor Legislation Review, June 1933, p. 74.

C a l if o r n ia

S t a t e F e d e r a t io n o f L a b o r .

Proceedings of the 31st-35th annual conventions.

Pasadena, 1939-1934.

sections relating to unemployment insurance in the reports of the president
and of the legislative committee.
See

Connecticut

C o n n e c t ic u t .

State Emergency Committee on Employment.

Report of the Connecticut State Emergency Committee on Employment . • .
February 19, 1931. [Hartford, 1931.] 11 pp.

James W. Hook, chairman.
Outlines inform ation needed from employers for use as actuarial data for
unemployment reserves.

-------Unemployment

Commission.

[Circular letter to employers and business men, February 23, 1932.]
Haven, Conn., 1932. 7 pp.

New

Circulated for the purpose of obtaining a cross-section of employer opinion on
the subject of unemployment reserves. Includes a sample plan (pp. 3-5) outlining
what employers could do voluntarily to assist their stable workers in tim es of
unemployment.

-------------: Measures to alleviate unemployment in Connecticut. A report to . . .
governor of the State o f Connecticut . . . under Senate bill no. 545 of the Acts
of the General Assembly of 1931. December, 1932. [Orange, Wilson H. Lee
Co., 1932.] 205 pp.

James W. Hook, chairman.
The report, while presenting a factual analysis showing the need of remedial meas­
ures, recommended no legislative action by the 1933 legislature for three reasons : (1)
The growing sentim ent in favor of voluntary p lan s; (2) the need for more experience;
and (3) the present difficulties of industry. It expressed preference for a compulsory
dism issal wage law as a simpler and more practical approach than unemployment
insurance. The draft of bill (pp. 191-205) for the payment of dism issal wages pro­
vides for reserves to be created by compulsory contribution by each employer of not
more than 2 percept of pay roll deposited to his separate account w ith the State
treasurer.
Reviewed in M onthly Labor Review, February 1933, v. 36, pp. 279, 286.




STATE LEGISLATIVE PROPOSALS

37

C o n n e c t ic u t c o m m is s io n l a c k s c o u r a g e o f c o n v ic t io n .

American Labor Legislation Review, March 1933, v. 23, pp. 15, 16.
W.
The pros and cons of unemployment reserves for Connecticut employers.
Hartford, Conn., Unemployment Commission, 1932. 15 pp.

H ook, Jam es

By the chairman of the Connecticut Unemployment Commission.
See also article on “ Wage reserves to protect the stable labor force ” in Law
and Labor, January 1932, v. 14, pp. 3-5.

M a n u f a c t u r e r s A s s o c ia t io n

of

C o n n e c t ic u t , I n c .

Unemployment and its problems, published under the direction and super­
vision of the Special Committee on Unemployment Relief . . . Hartford,
1933. 190 pp.

Report opposed enactment of compulsory State unemployment insurance legis­
lation by the 1933 Connecticut Legislature.

Delaware
[ C o m m is s io n of e ig h t to s t u d y u n e m p l o y m e n t i n s u r a n c e a p p o in t e d b y G ov­
e r n o r B u c k , October 1934.
Leon H. Ryan (Delaware Rayon Co., New Castle,

Del.) elected chairman.

(New York Times, Oct. 21, 1934.).]

District of Columbia
W a g n e r , R obert F .

Unemployment reserves: an American plan for the District of Columbia.
Remarks of Hon. Robert F. Wagner of New York in the Senate of the
United States, June 12, 1933. Washington,. 1933. 13 pp.

Text of S. 1943 (73d Congress), a bill to create an unemployment reserve fund
in the D istrict of Columbia (pp. 3 -1 3 ). The bill follow s the W isconsin act in
providing a separate account for each employer but increases the amount of the
reserve and the benefits payable. Adm inistration would be placed w ith the Sec­
retary of Labor.
Also in Congressional Record, June 12, 1933, v. 77, pp. 5717-572L

Illinois
I l l in o is S t a t e F e d e r a t io n o f L a b o r .

Unemployment insurance bill.
(In its Weekly News Letter, Jan. 28, 1934, v. 18, no. 44, p. [1].)

Text of revised bill drafted by the Illinois State Federation of Labor which
follows in the main the Ohio plan for a single State fund. For discussion of
earlier bills see file of Weekly News Letter for 1933, particularly issues for
March 25, May 13 and 20.
For main provisions of other bills before the Illinois Legislature in 1933 see
American Labor Legislation Review, June 1933, p. 74.

Maine
1933, C h a p t e r 155, provided for the appointment of a recess committee
of not more than five members to “ consider the necessity and feasibility of
unemployment insurance legislation for the State of Maine.” To submit
report to next legislature.]

[L a w s

Maryland

B a l t im o r e .

Municipal Commission on Employment Stabilization.

Unemployment insurance: an analysis of the problem with special refer­
ence to Maryland. Baltimore, 1932. 31 pp.
----- -------[Unemployment insurance: bill prepared under the supervision of the
commission for presentation to the General Assembly of Maryland, session
of 1933.] Baltimore, 1933. 19 pp.

Introduced as House of Delegates bill no. 251, Feb. 22, 1933. Provides for a
single State fund w ith equal contributions from employers and employees (1 percent
of pay roll and 1 percent of wages for the first year; 1 % percent, the second year,
and 2 percent from each the third and subsequent years, w ith review after 5 years) ;




38

UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE AND RESERVES

benefit to be 50 percent of wages with $20 maximum for a period not exceeding 20
weeks. Passed the house but failed to pass the senate.
For other bills before the Maryland Legislature in 1933 see American Labor Legis­
lation Review, June 1933, p. 75. A committee to draft legislation for 1935 was ap­
pointed by Governor-elect Nice, Nov. 25, 1934, w ith Simon E. Sobeloff of Baltim ore as
chairman.
B a l t im o r e .

Municipal Commission on Employment Stabilization.

Unemployment insurance: a series of questions answered in terms of the
unemployment insurance bill proposed by the Baltimore Commission on
Employment Stabilization. Baltimore, 1933. 16 pp.

Massachusetts
M assach usetts.

Special Commission on Stabilization of Employment.

. . . Preliminary report of the Special Commission on the Stabilization

of Employment under chapter 64 of the Resolves of 1931. December 1931.
Boston, Wright & Potter Printing Co., 1932. 168 pp. ([General Court,
1931]. House [Doc.] 1100.)

Stanley King, chairman.
The three major recommendations of the report w ere: Extension of the
public employment oflice sy stem ; Regulation of private employment agen cies;
and the creation of a State planning board for public works, together w ith a
continuous program of advance planning of public works.
“ The public employment service of the Commonwealth of M assachusetts ”, by
Mary LaDame, pp. 101-168.

------------- . . . Final report . . . December 1932. Boston, Wright & Potter Print­
ing Co., 1933. 250 pp. ([General Court, 1932]. House [Doc.] 1200.)

Recommended the establishm ent of compulsory unemployment reserves sim ilar to
W isconsin plan w ith contributions only from employers. Considerable opposition to
the bill drafted by the commission (pp. 192—
238, H. B. 1200) developed at the hear­
ings, particularly from the Associated Industries of M assachusetts, and the house
committee on labor and industries recommended that the m atter be referred to the
next annual session. The commission w as instructed to prepare a further report for
the 1934 legislature.
Brief review in M onthly Labor Review, February 1933, v. 36, pp. 280-282. Text
of bill in Industry (Associated Industries of M assachusetts), Dec. 17, 1932.

------------- . . . Supplementary report of the Special Commission on Stabilization
of Employment. Unemployment reserves. Under chapter 50 of the Resolves
of 1933. January 1934. Boston, Wright & Potter Printing Co., 1934. 69 pp.
([General Court]. House [Doc.] 1301.)

Reviews the unemployment insurance measures before 1933 legislatures and re­
affirms its support of the principle of unemployment reserves. Text of revised bill
(chapter 151A) reprinted in Industry (Associated Industries of M assachusetts), Feb.
1 0 , 1934, pp. 1- 8 . The 1934 legislature provided for a special commission to continue
investigation of subject and report in 1935.

-------

Special Commission to Investigate Unemployment Insurance.

Report of the Special Commission appointed to make an investigation o f
unemployment insurance, reserves, and benefits. November 30, 1934.
24 1. (Mimeographed.)

Harry B. Putnam, chairman.
Six of the seven members of the Commission reported in favor of compulsory
unemployment insurance with contributions by employers, employees, and the
State, but asked for continuance of the commission to May 1, 1935, in order that
the terms of proposed Federal legislation might be available before State bill w as
drafted. A m inority report favoring unemployment reserves w ith individual com­
pany funds was made by W. L. Stoddard.
Excerpts in Industry (Associated Industries of M assachusetts), Dec. 8 , 1934.

A s s o c ia t e d I n d u s t r ie s a n d u n e m p l o y m e n t r e s e r v e s .

Industry (Associated Industries of Massachusetts), Apr. 8, 1983, v. 31,
no. 7, [p. 1].
See also




report of Industrial Relations Conference in issue for March 11, 1938.

39

STATE LEGISLATIVE PROPOSALS
B bandexs, E l i z a b e t h .

An official challenge to fatalism in industry.
American Labor Legislation Review, September 1933, v. 23, pp. 137-141.

Commends the report of the M assachusetts Commission on Unemployment
Insurance for the emphasis placed on preventing unemployment as well as
relieving it.

Com pton, K arl T .

Massachusetts plan for unemployment reserves.
American Labor Legislation Review, June 1933, v. 23, pp. 96-99.

Brief outline of the approach and plan of the M assachusetts group by the
vice chairman of the Special Commission on the Stabilization of Employment.

K in g , St a n l e y .

Commission’s proposal for unemployment reserves.
Industry (Associated Industries of Massachusetts), Nov. 19, 1932, v.
30, no. 13, pp. 1—
4.
See also address on “ Unemployment reserves and insurance programs ”
in Academy of Political Science Proceedings, January 1934, pp. 17-24.

M cL a r e n , J o h n .

The movement for unemployment insurance in Massachusetts.
(In Social Security in the United States, 1934. A record of the seventh
National Conference on Social Security . . . New York. pp. 29, 30.)
T h e M e r ia m B il l for U n e m p l o y m e n t R e se r v e s.

Industry (Associated Industries of Massachusetts), July 14, 1934, v. 33,
no. 21, pp. 1-3.

Review of House bill 1595 (1934) which was drafted by Prof. R. S. Meriam
at request of chairman of legislative committee on labor and industries in order
to put into concrete form his criticism s of the King or commission bill.

Minnesota
H a n s e n , A l v in H .

. . . A new plan for unemployment reserves based on Minnesota employ­
ment data [by] Alvin H. Hansen . . . and Merrill G. Murray . . . Min­
neapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1933. 75 pp.

No legislative commission was set up in M innesota but Governor Olson called
upon the Employment Stabilization Research Institute of the University of Minne­
sota to draft a “ model ” bill. Using the statistics of employment changes in
Minnesota in the previous 7 years as the test of effectiveness of various types of
unemployment insurance, the authors suggested a plan which aimed principally
at the alleviation of prolonged unemployment. The suggested bill (pp. 59-75) pro­
vides for both company and industry funds.
See later recommendation for wider pooling of funds in “A program for unem­
ployment insurance.” 1934.

M in n e s o t a .

Governor Floyd B. Olson).
(

A primer on unemployment insurance and questions and answers on unem­
ployment insurance legislation and questions and answers on the unem­
ployment reserves bill, by Governor Olson. [St. Paul, 1934.] 10 pp.
M in n e s o t a

C onference on

U nem ploym ent

R e l ie f a n d

S t a b il iz a t io n ,

Minne­

apolis, 1931.

. . . Proceedings of the Minnesota Conference on Unemployment Relief and
Stabilization, November 17-19, 1931 . . . Minneapolis, University of
Minnesota Press, 1932. 95 pp. (Bulletin of the Employment Stabiliza­
tion Research Institute, University of Minnesota.)

** Stabilization and unemployment reserves ”, pp. 44-60.

Nevada
N eva d a .

Governor’s Emergency Committee on Employment in Nevada.

Report on unemployment in Nevada, by Letson Balliet . . .
1932. 16 pp.

Carson City,

Contains brief section (pp. 9-10) on “ Why should business and industry build
up unemployment surplus.” Made no legislative recommendations.




40

UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE AND RESERVES

New Hampshire
New

H a m p s h ir e .

Commission on Unemployment Reserves.

A proposed unemployment insurance measure for New Hampshire. An­
nouncement of the tentative terms of the unemployment insurance bill
proposed by the New Hampshire Commission on Unemployment Reserves
with brief discussion of its features. Concord, 1934. 34 pp.

Herman Feldman, chairman. Recommends pooled State fund (w ith company
plans permitted under certain conditions) ; contributions from both employers and
workers, w ith State paying adm inistrative c o st; benefits to be 50 percent of earn­
ings w ith maximum of $14, limited to 16 weeks in any yea r; w aiting period of
3 consecutive or 4 cumulative weeks of unemployment in any 6 months.

New York
N e w Y ork

(State). Governor's Commission on Unemployment Problems.

Less unemployment through stabilization of operations.
vember 1930. Albany, 1930. 96 pp.

Report . . . No­

Henry Brufcre, chairman.
For the immediate program the commission recommended voluntary unemploy­
ment reserves, but recommended a study of the whole problem of stabilization of
income for the worker by a competent official body. (Reprinted in Survey, Dec. 1,
1930. )
Part 2 (pp. 21-96) contains descriptions of various stabilization practices and
insurance used in industry to m itigate the effects of unemployment.

■
-------------Less unemployment through stabilization of operations. A report . . .
Second printing, June 1931 . . . [Albany, J. B. Lyon Co., 1931.] 130 pp.

“ Revised edition, containing current inform ation regarding the experiences of some
prominent business firms in establishing stabilization and unemployment benefit policies
during the year ended June 30, 1931.”

-------Governor

(Franklin D. Roosevelt).

Message . . . recommending legislation relative to unemployment. Mar. 26,
1931. Albany, J. B. Lyon Co., 1931.

Includes recommendation for commission to study and report in 1932 on “A
plan for accomplishing some kind of scientific unemployment insurance.”
See also address on “ Unemployment and old-age pensions ” at Governor’s Con­
ference at Salt Lake City, June 1930, in its Proceedings, 1930, pp. 18-24. Ex­
cerpts in American Labor Legislation Review, September 1930, pp. 254, 255.

•
-------------Message of the Governor transmitting report of the governors of the
seven industrial States relative to unemployment insurance. Albany, N. Y.,
1932. 4 pp. (Legislative document, 1932, no. 67.)

Recommendations of the Interstate Commission on Unemployment Insurance (a con­
tinuing activity of the Conference of Governors of Seven Industrial States called by
Governor Roosevelt in January 1931) in favor of compulsory system with contribu­
tions from employers only of 2 percent of pay rolls until reserve established. Benefits
to be 50 percent of wage w ith $10 maximum for period not exceeding 10 weeks in
any 12 months.

-------Legislature.

Joint Committee on Unemployment.

. . . Preliminary report of the Joint Legislative Committee on Unemploy­
ment transmitted to the legislature. February 15, 1932. Albany, J. B.
Lyon Co., 1932. 197 pp. (Legislative document, 1932, no. 69.)

W hile strongly recommending the establishm ent “ as soon as a plan can be per­
fected ” of a compulsory State-wide system of unemployment reserves, the com­
m ittee reported that because of the complexity of the problem it was unable to
work out a definite program in the time at its disposal.

-------------------- Report of the Joint Legislative Committee on Unemployment
transmitted to legislature, February 20, 1933. Adbany, 1933. 467 pp.

W illiam L. Marcy, chairman.
Resolution of the legislature in 1932 continued the committee to March 1, 1933. In
th is further report the committee, while repeating its belief in the soundness of the




41

STATE LEGISLATIVE PROPOSALS

principle of setting up unemployment reserves recommended postponement on tlie
ground that at the present time it might increase the State’s burden of unemployment
relief. M inority report favored immediate action.
“ The older worker in industry ”, by Solomon Barkin, pp. 19-467.
A m id o n , B e u l a h .

Job insurance now.
Survey, Mar. 15, 1932, v. 67, pp. 678-679.

Summary of the recommendations of the Interstate Commission on Unemploy­
ment Insurance. Urges action by New York State.

B il l s fob u n e m p l o y m e n t r ese r ve f u n d s i n N e w Y o r k S t a t e L e g is l a t u r e ,

(In United States.

Congress.

Unemployment insurance.

House.

1934.

Committee on W ays and Means.

Hearings, 1934.

pp. 95, 96.)

Tabular analysis of the provisions of the Byrne-Condon, Steingut-M astick, and
Ehrlich bills.
See also International Juridical Association Monthly Bulletin, April 1934, p. 6 .

C h a m b e r of C o m m erce of t h e State of N e w

Y ork.

. . . Legislation creating unemployment reserve fund opposed.
1933.] 6 pp.

[New York,

Report by committee on insurance on New York bills. Resolution adopted April
, 1933, declared the Chamber was opposed to State legislation making it compul­
sory upon employers to create unemployment reserve funds.
6

A.
The fight for unemployment insurance in New York.
(In Social Security in the United States, 1934. A record o f the seventh
National Conference on Social Security . . . New York. pp. 19-25.)

Gray, H erm an

Traces the history of the bills introduced in New York and the shift in sup­
port from the individual company reserves plan to a State-wide pooled fund.

K ohut,

Mrs.

R ebekah.

Public’s representative urges prompt adoption of compulsory unemployment
reserves in New York.
American Labor Legislation Review, June 1932, v. 22, pp. 95-97.

M inority report of New York Joint Legislative Committee on Unemployment
in favor of immediate action.

L.f Jr.
Unemployment reserves, a prophecy.
Quarterly Bulletin (New York State Conference on Social W ork), April
1933, v. 4, no. 2, pp. 24r-34.

M a r o y , W il l ia m

By the chairman of the joint legislative committee on unemployment.

M arcy

c o m m is s io n

recom m ends

no

a c t io n

on

com pulso ry

unem ploym ent

reserve.

Monitor (Associated Industries of New York State), February 1933, v. 19,
pp. 143-146.
N e w Y o r k c o m m it t e e f o r f e it s l e a d e r s h ip o n u n e m p l o y m e n t r e s e r v e s .

American Labor Legislation Review, March 1933, v. 23, pp. 13, 14.

Criticism of the New York Joint Legislative Committee on Unemployment (Marcy
Committee) which recommended postponing action on unemployment insurance.

N e w Y o r k S t a t e F e d e r a t io n o f L a b o r .

Official book . . . of proceedings, 68th-71st annual conventions, 1931-1934.

See Legislative chairman’s reports and resolutions. Text of resolutions on unem­
ployment insurance adopted at 1934 convention also in New York State Federation of
Labor Bulletin, Sept. 7, 1934. For planks presented to Democratic and Republican
State conventions see its Bulletin, Oct. 10, 1934.
The State federation of labor at first sponsored a bill for individual company re­
serves but in 1934 shifted support to the single State pooled fund. The bill sponsored
by the federation (Byrne-Condon) passed the senate but was killed in committee in
the assembly.

P e r k in s , F r a n c e s.

[Report to Governor Roosevelt urging formation of an “ insurance author­
ity ” to underwrite insurance systems for the seven northeastern States.]




42

UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE AND RESERVES
United States Daily, Oct. 29-30, 1931, v. 6, pp. 1967, 1977; also in New
York Times and other daily papers.

See also “ Unemployment insurance : an American plan to protect workers
and avoid the dole ”, in the Survey, Nov. 1, 1931, v. 67, pp. 117—119, 173;
cerpts in Review of Reviews, December 1931, v. 84, pp. 72, 73.
P erkins , F rances.

On unemployment insurance. Testimony at hearing by Marcy Legislative
Committee.
New York Times, Dec. 3, 1932, p. 25.
See also speech to New York Conference for Unemployment Reserves Legisla­
tion in same issue. For other addresses consult New York Times Index.

R oo se v e lt a d m in is t r a t io n l e a d e r s h ip o n u n e m p l o y m e n t in s u r a n c e .

American Labor Legislation Review, June 1934, v. 24, pp. 57-59.

Presents the chronology of the different steps taken from Governor Roosevelt’s
speech at Conference of Governors in June 1930 to the President’s message to
Congress, June 8 , 1934.
S tro n g su p p o r t for jo b in s u r a n c e a t n e w y o r k h e a r in g .

American Labor Legislation Review, June 1934, v.‘ 24, p. 60.

On the hearing at Albany, April 4, 1934.

North Carolina
[L aws

1933, pp. 974, 975 (Res. no. 38) provided for the appointment of a com­
mission “ to study the causes of unemployment and to analyze the practica­
bility of unemployment insurance as a preventive of the suffering which
unemployment causes.” Dr. H. D. Wolf, of the University of North Carolina,
has been appointed executive secretary of the commission, with headquarters
in Raleigh. A series of public hearings will be held in November. (Social
Security, October 1934, p. 5 .)]

Ohio

Ohio .

Commission on Unemployment Insurance.

Questions to consider with respect to an unemployment insurance law suit­
able to conditions in the State of Ohio. [Columbus, F. J. Heer Printing
Co., 1932.] 11 pp.
------------- Report of the Ohio Commission on Unemployment Insurance . . .
[Columbus, F. J. Heer Printing Co., 1932-1933.] 2 v.

William M. Leiserson, chairman.
Summary of recommendations in Monthly Labor Review, January 1933, v. 36, pp.
98, 99.
The recommended hill of, the commission (pt. 1, pp. 67—80) provides for a State
insurance fund w ith contributions from both employers and employees (in the beginning
2 percent from employers and 1 percent from employees) ; benefits to be 50 percent of
weekly wages w ith maximum of $15 lim ited to 16 weeks in any 1 y e a r ; w aiting period
of 3 weeks. Plan provides for later adjustment of premium on basis of comparative
unemployment hazard.
Part 2 contains the detailed studies and reports made by the staff of the commission.
Tabular analysis of bills proposed in the United States at end.
Cincinnati E mployers Committee for the S tudy of E mployment Continuity .
Unemployment and insurance in Ohio . . .
ciation, [cl932]. 47 pp.

Cincinnati, Industrial Asso­

Prepared by W. E. Odom, assisted by Emile E. W atson.

------ Supplement no. 1. Compulsory unemployment insurance, the answers to
few basic questions. [4] pp.

a

In opposition to a compulsory State system of unemployment compensation.

K ulp , Clarence A.

Calculation of the cost of unemployment benefits (with particular reference
to Ohio and Pennsylvania).
(In Casualty Actuarial Society. Proceedings, 1933, v. 19, pt. 2, pp.
268-278.)

Discussed by I. M. Rubinow in its Proceedings, November 24, 1933, v. 20,

pt. 1, pp. 170-184.




43

STATE LEGISLATIVE PROPOSALS
L e is e r s o n , W il l ia m

M.

Ohio’s answer to unemployment.
Survey, Dec. 1, 1932, v. 68, pp. 643-650, 671, 672.

Lincoln , J. F.

Unemployment insurance.
Clevelander, November 1932, v. 7, no. 7, pp. 3, 4.

Statem ent is by a member of the Ohio Commission on Unemployment
Insurance.

M cF a r l a n d , M a r j o r ie .

The Ohio unemployment insurance bill.
Womans Press, February 1933, v. 27, p. 81.
S.
Ohio takes stock.
National Conference of Social Work.
293.)

M a g e e , E l iz a b e t h

{In

Proceedings, 1932, pp. 285-

O h i o S t a t e F e d e r a t io n o f L a b o r .

Report of the legislative agent of the Ohio State Federation of Labor,
Thomas J. Donnelly. [Columbus? Ohio State Federation of Labor], 1934.

Unemployment insurance bills, pp. 20—
22.

R u b in o w , I sa a c M .

Job insurance— the Ohio plan.
American Labor Legislation Review, September 1933, v. 23, pp. 131-136.

Address at Institute of Public Affairs, University of Virginia, July 1933
Dr. Rubinow, who was actuary as well as member of the Ohio State Commission
on Unemployment Insurance, describes the Ohio plan as fra n k ly an insurance,
measure based on the assumption that unemployment insurance is feasible and
actuarially practicable.

------ The movement toward unemployment insurance in Ohio.
Reprinted from Social Service Review, June 1933, v. 7, pp. 186-224.

A summary of the work and recommendations of the Ohio Commission on Unem­
ployment Insurance. Includes a discussion of business, financial, economic, and
technical objections to unemployment insurance.

------The Ohio idea : unemployment insurance.
American Academy of Political and Social Science.
ber 1933, v. 170. pp. 76-87.)

(In

Annals, Novem­

------ The Ohio versus the Wisconsin plan— conflict or compromise.
Social Security in the United States, 1934. A record of the seventh
National Conference on Social Security. New York, pp. 123-139.)

(In

------ Unemployment insurance for Ohio; an actuarial computation.
Ohio. Commission on Unemployment Insurance. Report, pt.
pp. 205-245.)

{In

II,

D.
“ Unemployment insurance.”
Ohio Social Science Journal, November 1932, v. 4, no. 4, pp. 21-29.

Sch u ltz, A rch

Oregon

Commission to Investigate the Subjects of Old Age Pensions, Old
Age Insurance, and Unemployment Insurance.

Oregon.

Special interim committee report.

[Salem, 1933?]

8 pp.

Report concerned mainly w ith old-age insurance. Recommended continued study
of the subject of unemployment insurance and a legislative allowance to permit
detailed and intensive consideration. The 1933 legislature adopted resolution
(H. J. Res. 21) directing governor to appoint a commission of three m em bers;
one to represent em ployers; one, the em ployees; and one, the public, to study
unemployment insurance and report at next legislative session.




44

UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE AND DESERVES

Pennsylvania
P ennsylvania . Committee on Unemployment.

A lleviating unemployment. A report by the Pennsylvania Committee on
Unemployment to Gifford Pinchot, Governor. Harrisburg, 1931. 73 pp.

Clyde L. King, chairman.
Report of subcommittee on reserves against unemployment and unemployment
insurance, pp. 26-29. Appendix G. Two drafts of bills to provide unemploy­
ment reserve funds (providing for contributions by employers alone, and by
both workers and em ployers). Committee did not recommend any specific meas­
ure. Suggested voluntary action by employers as third possibility to be con­
sidered.

----

Governor (Gifford Pinchot).

F irst general message to the General Assembly . . .
10, 1931. [Harrisburg, 1931.] 13 pp.

Tuesday, February

“ I join in the recommendation of the Pennsylvania Unemployment Committee
that consideration be given to voluntary unemployment insurance, as w ell as
to compulsory State unemployment insurance. In view of the attention now
being paid to this m atter by many employers, it seems to me that we may
reasonably aw ait the results of their effort before accepting as necessary any
type of compulsory State insurance. If these volunteer efforts fail. I have no
doubt that the m atter of compulsory State insurance w ill deserve increasing
attention.”

----

State Committee on Unemployment Reserves.

Report of Pennsylvania State Committee on Unemployed Reserves.
delphia, 1933.] 68 pp.

[P h ila­

Charles Denby, Jr., chairman.
The committee consisting of four representatives of the public, including the
chairman, and three representatives each of employers, employees, and the legis­
lature, in its report to Governor Pinchot, May 1933, stated that because of widely
varying conclusions no joint report was possible. The labor members and two rep­
resentatives of the legislature favored compulsory State unemployment insurance
(pp. 4 7-59).
Summary in Monthly Labor Review, August 1933, v. 37, pp. 277, 278.
For bills before State legislature in 1933 see American Labor Legislation Review,
June 1933, p. 77.
K ulp , Clarence A.

Calculation of the cost of unemployment benefits (w ith particular refer­
ence to Ohio and P ennsylvania).
Casualty Actuarial Society. Proceedings, May 26, 1933, v. 19, pt. 2,
pp. 2 6 8-278).

(In

P hiladelphia Chamber

ment.

op

Commerce. Permanent Committee on Unemploy­

Unemployment reserves and system atic r e lie f; a report.

1933.

22 pp.

Utah
[H. 14 providing for a single State pool passed house Feb. 16, 1933, but did not
receive assent by the senate.]

Virginia

Virginia . Commission on Unemployment Insurance.

Stabilization of employment in Virginia and building up of unemployment
reserves. Report . . . to the governor. Richmond, 1934. 157 pp.

“ The case for and against unemployment insurance or reserves ”, pp. 7 9-102;
Legislative history of unemployment insurance in the United States ”, pp.
103-113 ; “A plan for unemployment compensation ”, pp. 114-142.
The bill recommended by the commission (pp. 143-152), w hile follow ing in the
main the W isconsin individual plant reserve plan, would provide for an equaliza­
tion or guaranty State fund to which the employer would also contribute. Bene­
fits proposed are 50 percent of weekly wages w ith maximum of $15. lim ited to 26
weeks in any 1 y e a r ; w aiting period of 4 weeks.
Summary of recommendations in American Labor Legislation Review, March
1934, p. 9.
**




45

BTATB LEGISLATIVE PROPOSALS

W

is c o n s in .

,

Wisconsin

Legislature 1931. Interim Committee on Unemployment.

Report of the W isconsin legislative interim
ment . . . [M adison? 1932?] 114 pp.

committee on unemploy­

A. M. Miller, chairm an; A. J. Altmeyer, executive secretary.
Report submitted to the governor and the 1931 special session of the Wis­
consin Legislature. Published by the Industrial Commission.
“ Unemployment compensation ”, pp. 33r-44 ; Recommended bill, pp. 80-97.

--- Laws, statutes, eto.

1934 text of the W isconsin unemployment compensation act.
32 pp.

Madison, 1934.

Preprinted from the 1934 Handbook of the W isconsin Unemployment Compensa­
tion Act by the Industrial Commission of W isconsin, unemployment compensation
department (702 Power and Light Building, Madison, W is.j.
Law enacted Jan. 28, 1932 (text in M onthly Labor Review, March 1932, v. 34,
pp. 540-552), provided that unless employers of at least 175,000 employees volun­
tarily established unemployment insurance plans of approved type, the law would
autom atically become compulsory on July 1, 1933. An act passed in 1933 (text
in M onthly Labor Review, July 1933, v. 37, pp. 35, 36), changed the quota to
139,000 and temporarily postponed effective date. Law came into operation
July 1, 1934, payment of benefits to begin July 1935. Provides for individual plant
reserves under the control of the State Industrial Commission, with contributions
from employers of 10 or more persons; benefits to be 50 percent of weekly earn­
ings, with maximum of $10, lim ited to 10 weeks in any year.

--- Industrial Commission.

Handbook on the W isconsin unemployment compensation act and approved
voluntary plans for unemployment benefits or guaranteed employment . . .
Madison, [1932]. 96 pp. (B u lletin no. 1 on unemployment compensation.)
---------- R evised handbook on the W isconsin unemployment compensation
act . . . August 1933. Madison, 1933. 115 pp. (B ulletin no. 2 on unemploy­
ment compensation.)
C
: Pt. I. Introduction. Pt. II. Standard voluntary unemployment benefit
plan. Pt. III. Variations from the standard benefit plan. Pt. IV. Standard voluntary
guaranteed employment plan. Pt. V. Revised text of the unemployment compensa­
tion act.
o n ten ts

-----------Notice and instructions . . . to employers who may be subject to the
W isconsin unemployment reserves and compensation act. July 14, 1934.
[Madison, 1934.] 4 pp.
----------Standard unemployment benefit plan. Madison, 1934. 18 pp.

Reprinted July 1934. The standard benefit plan is a voluntary-exempted plan
which could be approved by the Industrial Commission.
Altmeyer, A rthur J.
The W isconsin adm inistration in the making.
American Labor Legislation Review, March 1933, v. 23, pp. 17-22.

Address by the secretary of the W isconsin Industrial Commission at the
annual meeting of the American Association for Labor Legislation, Cincinnati,
December 1932.
B randeis, E lizabeth .
W isconsin tackles job security.
Survey, Dec. 15, 1931, v. 67, pp. 295, 296.

See also joint article with Harold M. Groves on “ Economic bases of the
W isconsin Unemployment Reserves Act ” in the American Economic Review,
March 1934, pp. 28-52.

---- W isconsin’s start on job insurance.
New Republic, Dec. 5, 1934, v. 81, pp. 94-97.
B tjbhop, W illiam H.
W isconsin Unemployment Compensation Act.
Casualty A ctuarial Society. Proceedings, Nov. 18, 1932, v. 19, pt. 1,
pp. 13-21.)
---- W isconsin’s unemployment act: details as to how th is State is trying to
solve the hard problem of labor in its relation to industrial management.
Journal of American Insurance, February 1933, pp. 11-13.

(In




46

UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE AND RESERVES

Chamberlain , J oseph

P.
Unemployment insurance in W isconsin.
American Bar Association Journal, October 1932, y. 18, pp. 641-643.

Clausen , F red H.

About W isconsin’s Groves law.
Industrial Relations, Dec. 31, 1932, v. 3, pp. 719-724.

Mr. Clausen, former president of the W isconsin M anufacturers Association,
who had led the fight against the bill, was appointed to represent the Industrial
Commission in promoting voluntary plans under the terms of the act.
Commons, J ohn R.
The Groves unemployment reserves law.
American Labor Legislation Review, March 1932, v. 22, pp. 8-10.

For discussion of earlier Huber bill
in

Compulsory U nemployment B enefits

see

Survey O ct 1, 1921.

W isconsin .

Law and Labor, March 1932, v. 14, pp. 23, 24.
D.
W isconsin unemployment compensation act.
Casualty Actuarial Society. Proceedings, May 26, 1933, v. 19, pt. 2,
no. 40, pp. 350-358.)

Craig, J ames

(In

Comment on W illiam H. Burhop’s paper, v. 19, p t 1, pp. 13-21.

Groves, H arold M.

Compensation for idle labor in W isconsin.
American Labor L egislation Review, March 1932, v. 22, p. 7.
See also

—

article in Catholic Charities Review, March 1932, v. 16, pp. 70-73.

Economic bases of the W isconsin unemployment reserves act [by Harold
M. Groves and Elizabeth B randeis].
American Economic Review, March 1934, v. 24, pp. [38]-52.

An answer to some of the criticism s of the W isconsin plan, particularly the article
by W. A. Morton in American Economic Review, September 1933, pp. 395-412.

-

-Program for unemployment reserve funds in Wisconsin.
American Labor Legislation R e v ie w , March 1931, v. 21, pp. 55-60.
---- Unemployment compensation in W isconsin.
American Labor L egislation Review, September 1933, v. 23, pp. 123-130.

Paper presented at Institute of Public Affairs, U niversity of Virginia, July 1933.
As a member of the W isconsin Legislature and secretary of the official investigating
committee, the author of the bill presents an authoritative statem ent of the philos­
ophy underlying the W isconsin act.
H oar, R oger S.

Unemployment insurance in W isconsin . . . South Milwaukee, Stuart
Press, 1932. 105 pp.
---- W isconsin unemployment insurance . . . South Milwaukee, Stuart Press,
1934. 230 pp.

Previous edition published 1932 under title, Unemployment Insurance in W isconsin.
: The history of the W isconsin system. Brief summary of the act. De­
tailed analysis. The act itself, annotated. Voluntary plans in general. The standard
plan, annotated. Trust agreement under standard plan. The A. B. C. plan annotated.
The D. E. F. and G. H. I. plans annotated. The X. Y. Z. plan annotated. Employee
contributions. The X. Y. Z. supplement. The Fidelity plans. Guaranteed employ­
ment plan, annotated. Relative advantages of the W isconsin system .
J acobson, J. Mark .
Co

n ten ts

The W isconsin unemployment compensation law of 1932.
American P olitical Science Review, April 1932, v. 26, pp. 300-311.
J ob insurance test . W isconsin w ill try out its own variation o f the President**
social insurance program.
B usiness Week, June 16, 1934, no. 250, p. 10.
K alish , S tanley E.
Unemployment insurance in W isconsin.
American Mercury, July 1934, v. 32, pp. 360-364.




47

INTERSTATE DISCUSSIONS

K ennedy , K enneth It.

Jobbers insurance tested in new plan; W isconsin compels employers to
provide insurance or set up reserve funds.
New York Times, July 8, 1934, sec. 8, p. 2.

On the coming into operation of the W isconsin law.

Morton, W alter A.

The aims of unemployment insurance w ith especial reference to the W is­
consin act.
American Economic Review, September 1933, v. 23, pp. [395]-412.

Regards the act as ineffective as a stabilizing device as well as inadequate as
a relief measure. For reply by Harold M. Groves and Elizabeth Brandeis see
American Economic Review, March 1934, pp. 38—52.

Muntz, E. E.

An analysis of the W isconsin unemployment compensation act.
American Economic Review, September 1932, v. 22, pp. 414-428.
P ay -roll reserves and stabilization of employment ; Governor LaFollette’s
view s regarding unemployment compensation.
Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen and Enginemen’s Magazine, January
1932, v. 92, pp. 9-11.

P urves, L uther E.

A complete, concise, and simple analysis of the W isconsin unemployment
compensation act . . . [Milwaukee, Suburban H erald], 1932. [29] pp.
R aushenbush , P aul A.
Present status of W isconsin unemployment compensation act.
W isconsin Law Review, February 1934, v. 9, pp. 141-147.
---- Unemployment insurance— W isconsin reserve plan.
Association of Governmental Officials in Industry. Proceedings, 1933.
pp. 109^-119. U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics B ulletin no. 609.)
---- Unemployment insurance. The W isconsin unemployment compensation
law.
National Conference of Social Work. Proceedings, 1932, pp. 275-284.)
---- The W isconsin id e a ; unemployment reserves.
American Academy of P olitical and Social Science. Annals, November
1933, v. 170, pp. 65-75.)
---- The Wisconsin unemployment reserves law. [New York, 1933?]
15 pp.

(In

(In

(In

Reprinted from the Quarterly Bulletin of the New York State Conference on Social
Work, April 1933.

---- W isconsin’s Unemployment Compensation Act.
American Labor Legislation Review, March 1932, v. 22, pp. 11-18.

Traces the history of efforts to secure unemployment-insurance legislation in W is­
consin and analyzes the main provisions of the act.
U nemployment insurance in the U nited States : W isconsin .
Monthly Labor Review, September 1934, v. 39, pp. 598-600.

IN T E R S T A T E

DISCUSSIONS OF

U N E M PLO Y M E N T

IN SU RAN CE

Conference of Governors on U nemployment and Other I nterstate I ndustrial
P roblems, Albany, 1931.

Proceedings of the Conference on Unemployment and Other Interstate In­
dustrial Problems, by the Governors of Massachusetts, Rhode Island,
Connecticut, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and New York. Albany,
N. Y., Jan. 23-25, 1931. [Albany, 1931.] 103 pp.

“ Unemployment reserves as a prevention or relief of unemployment,” pp. 43—
97;
“ Memorandum for the press summarizing the results of the Conference,” pp. 101,
102. For special committee on unemployment insurance which continued the ac­
tivities of the conference see entry below.
The interstate conference called by Governor Roosevelt w as followed by other
interstate labor conferences called by Governor Pinchot (see Monthly Labor Re­
view, August 1931, v. 33, pp. 302-309) and by Governor Ely (see M onthly Labor
Review, March 1933, v. 36, pp. 537*-541).




48

UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE AND RESERVES

I nterstate Commission

of

U nemployment I nsurance.

. . . Report of Interstate Commission on Unemployment Insurance.
York 1931.] 8 numbered leaves. (Mimeographed.)

[New

Leo Wolman, chairman.
A continuing committee of the Conference of Governors on Unemployment and
Other Interstate Industrial Problems called by Governor Roosevelt in 1931.
Recommended the compulsory establishment of a State-wide system of unemploy­
ment reserves, w ith individual lim ited-liability accounts for each em ployer;
contribution to be 2 percent of pay roll until reserve of $50 set up, then reduced to
percent until reserve of $75 per employee accum ulated; benefits to be 50 percent
of weekly wage or maximum of $10, limited to 10 weeks in any 1 year. State to be
custodian and disbursing agent of the reserve funds. Reservation made by the rep­
resentative of Ohio (W illiam M. Leiserson) in favor of pooling of contributions.
Report distributed in mimeographed form by New York State Department of
Labor. Printed in American Labor Legislation Review, March 1932, pp. 19-23 ;
Congressional Record, Feb. 17, 1932, v. 75, pp. 4119, 4120 ; Labor and Industry
(Pennsylvania Department of Labor and Industry), March 1932, pp. 22-28;
Douglas, Paul H., Standards of Unemployment Insurance (Chicago, 1933, Appendix
B ). Summary in M onthly Labor Review, March 1932, v. 34, pp. 552—
554.
I nterstate Conference on L abor Compacts.
For history of this organization which has included unemployment insurance in
the subjects for future discussion see article by J. W. Plaisted in New York Times,
Nov. 11, 1934, sec. 8, p. 12.
N ational Conference for L abor L egislation, Washington , D. C., 1934.

1

Proceedings of the . . . conference held at W ashington, D. C. February
14-15, 1934. W ashington 1934. 84 pp. (U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
Bulletin no. 583.)

Conference called by the Secretary of Labor included official delegates from
39 States. Discussion of problems connected w ith adoption of State compulsory
unemployment systems, pp. 35—53.
The conference declared (p. 71) in favor of “ the speedy enactment in every
State of legislation creating genuine system s of unemployment insurance or re­
serves, and providing that the unemployment compensation funds created under
such laws shall be sufficient to meet claims of unemployed industrial workers
for benefits well above the level of mere subsistence, and extending over sub­
stantial periods of tim e.” It endorsed the Wagner-Lewis bill before the Congress
as designed effectively to promote such State legislation.
P erkins , F rances.
Unemployment in su ran ce; an American plan to protect workers and avoid
the dole.
Survey, Nov. 1, 3931, v. 67. pp. 117-119, 173.

After a study of the British unemployment insurance system, Miss Perkins,
then industrial commissioner of the State of New York, recommended that a
group of industrial States try the experiment of an interstate insurance author­
ity similar to the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey to underwrite
unemployment insurance. This plan would meet the difficulty of competition
between industries in different States under different laws while keeping the
adm inistration impersonal and remote from political influences in the separate
States.

---- An interstate authority for unemployment insurance.
Survey, August 1933, v. 69, pp. 275, 276.

Address at the Institute of Public Affairs, University of Virginia.
“ In order to get a sound and workable plan of unemployment insurance, free
from criticism of possible political or business entanglem ents, I would suggest that
a group of our industrial States might set up an insurance authority along the
lines of the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. Such a group, vested
with the power to underwrite insurance in the States participating, could adm inister
one fund w ith savings in overhead.”
Plaisted, J ohn W.
Interstate labor pacts fostered by conference.
New York Times, Nov. 11, 1934, sec. 8, p. 12.

The secretary of the M assachusetts Commission on Interstate Compacts
traces the history of the organization of the Interstate Conference on Labor
Compacts and the different meetings held. Unemployment insurance is in­
cluded in the topics for future consideration.




49

DISCUSSION’S

S outheastern I nterstate Conference

on S ocial

L egislation,

Monthly Labor Review, January 1934, v. 38, pp. 95, 96.

December 1933.

FEDERAL PRO PO SALS AND DISCUSSIONS

D ouglas, P aul H.

Standards of unemployment insurance.
Press, 1933. 251 pp.

Chicago, U niversity of Chicago

The respective roles of the State and N ational Governments, pp. 44-47 ; Fed­
eral adm inistrative agencies and investm ent of funds, pp. 174-181.
H ansen , Alvin H.
A program for unemployment insurance and relief in the United States.
Minneapolis, U niversity of Minnesota Press, 1934. 201 pp.

The roles of the Federal and State governments, pp. 7—
20. Five forms which
Federal legislation m ight take are suggested.
Massachusetts . House of Representatives.

Memorial to Congress for legislation to promote the establishm ent of unem­
ployment insurance or reserves in the several States by providing cer­
tain tax relief to employers in those States which have appropriate laws
in this regard.
Congressional Record (U. S.
Apr. 3, 1934, v. 78, p. 5880.

R ubinow , I saac M.

The quest for security.

Congress),

New York, H. H olt & Co., 1934.

638 pp.

Chapter on “ The New Deal ” (pp. 618-629) discusses five ways in which the
National Government may further the development of social insurance.
Seidman , J oel I.
Federal promotion of State unemployment insurance. W ashington, 1934.
pp. 119-132. (Editorial Research Reports, Feb. 15, 1934, v. 1, 1934, no. 7.)

W agner, R obert F.

Federal encouragement to State unemployment reserve legislation.
American Labor Legislation Review, March 1932, v. 22, pp. 45, 46.

Discussion of methods of approach in the different unemployment insurance
bills introduced by Senator Wagner in the 71st and 72d Congresses.

---- Rock-bottom responsibility.
Survey, June 1, 1932, v. 68, pp. 222-224, 256.
------A Federal-State program for unemployment reserves.
American Labor Legislation Review, December 1933, v. 23, pp. 167-169.

In part a discussion of his bill S. J. Res. 26, 73d Congress.

70th Congress
U nited States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Education and Labor.

Unemployment in the United States. Hearings . . . seventieth Congress,
second session, pursuant to S. Res. 219 . . . together w ith Senate report
no. 2072 . . . W ashington, 1929. 517 pp.

James Couzens, chairman.
Unemployment insurance, pp, 205-490; statem ent by Isador Lubin, pp. 491-517.
The committee was of the opinion that government establishment of unemploy­
ment insurance was not at that time necessary or advisable but that private em­
ployers should be encouraged to set up employment reserves. Text of report
reprinted in M onthly Labor Review, May 1929, v. 28, pp. 979-992.
Couzens, J ames .
The Senate takes stock.
Survey, April 1929, v. 62, pp. 7, 8.

Brief summary of recommendations of the Senate Committee on Education
and Labor.

71st Congress

[S. R es . 483 provided for a select committee of three Senators to be appointed
by the President of the Senate, to make a general study of unemployment
insurance system s in foreign countries and in use by private interests in the
United States. The Senators appointed were: Senator F elix Hebert (chair­
m an), Otis F. Glenn, and Robert F. Wagner.]




UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE AND RESERVES

50

72d Congress
U nited S tates. Congress. Senate. Select Committee on Unemployment In­

surance.

Unemployment insurance. Hearings . . . pursuant to S. Res. 483 (71st
Cong.), a resolution establishing a select committee to investigate unem­
ployment insurance system s . . . Washington, 1932. 644 pp.

Felix Hebert, chairman.
Hearings were held interm ittently from Apr. 2 to Dec. 10, 1931.
Report of the Committee on Technological Unemployment to the Secretary of
Labor, pp. 543-644.
Testimony included statem ents from James D. Craig, James L. Donnelly, James
A. Emery, Abraham Epstein, Edward A. Filene, Hugh S. Hanna, Isador Lubin,
Sumner H. Slichter, Gerard Swope, and others.

---------------------. . . Unemployment insurance. Report of the Select Com­
m ittee to Investigate Unemployment Insurance pursuant to Senate Resolution
no. 483, Seventy-first Congress, a resolution to investigate the subject of
unemployment-insurance system s in the United States and foreign coun­
tries . . . Washington, 1932. 53 pp. (72d Cong., 1st sess., Senate Report
064.)

Discussion of constitutionality of Federal action, pp. 37-39, 48, 49.
The committee reached the conclusion “ that the subject of unemployment insurance
is not within the sphere of congressional action ” and any system of Federal unem­
ployment reserves would be impracticable, if not undesirable, because of the difficulty of
fixing rates of contributions and of determining scales of unemployment benefits appro­
priate to the varying conditions in different parts of the country and because of the
cost of adm inistering so complex an undertaking. It also favored private rather than
State system s and recommended that the Federal Government contribute to such sys­
tems of private unemployment reserves to the extent of perm itting employers main­
taining them to deduct some portion, if not all, of the contributions thereto out of
their incomes for tax purposes.

---------------------. . . Unemployment insurance . . . Individual view s [of
Senator Wagner] pursuant to S. Res. 483 . . . [W ashington, 1932.] 26 pp.
(72d Cong., 1st sess., Senate Report 629.)

Recommended the enactment of State compulsory unemployment insurance or wage
reserves and that the Federal Government should encourage State action by (a) cooper­
ating with the States in the establishment of a Nation-wide employment service and
(b) by allowing employers to deduct from income tax a portion of their payments into
unemployment reserves or towards unemployment insurance.

House. Committee on Ways and Means.

---------Legalizing worker’s right to work and to share of available employment.
Hearings . . . on H. R. 7448 . . . June 9, 1932. W ashington, 1932.
26 pp.

B ill introduced by Representative Lewis to guarantee the worker’s right to work
and to an equal share in employment available. The national trade associations
proposed in the bill would include in their activities provision for unemployment
benefits.

[T he

73d Congress
following bills relating to unemployment insurance were introduced:]

Senate: S. 1943 (W agner—D. C. b ill) ; S. J. Res. 26 (W agner) ; S. 2616
(W agner) ; S. 3709 (H eb ert).
House: H. R. 4887 (D unn) ; H. R. 5232 (L ew is) ; H. R. 5271 (L ew is) ; H. R.
6467 (Cannon) ; H. R. 7598 (Lundeen) ; H. R. 7659 (L ew is) ; H. R. 8604
(B eiter) ; H. R. 9069 (Celler) ; H. Res. 302 (C arter). Hearings were
held on H. R. 7598 (Lundeen b ill) and H. R. 7659 (W agner-Lewis bill) .




51

DISCUSSIONS
Lundeen Bill

[H. It. 7598 (known as the workers’ unemployment and social insurance hill)
would provide for the immediate establishment by the Secretary of Labor of
a Federal system of unemployment insurance to be administered by the
workers with the cost borne by the Government and employers; benefits to
be $10 a week plus $8 for each dependent for all workers and farmers unem­
ployed through no fault of their own. The bill suggests that the Government
raise the funds by income and inheritance taxes.]

U nited S tates.

Congress.

H om e.

Committee on Labor.

Unemployment insurance. Hearings . . . on H. R. 7598.
1934. 68 pp.

Pt. 1. Washington,

Statem ents of Herbert Benjamin, David Gordon, and Mary Van Kleeck in sup­
port of the Lundeen bill.
D ouglas, D orothy W.
What kind of unemployment insurance?
Social Work Today, May-June 1934, v. 1, no. 2, pp. 3-6.

In support of Lundeen bill.

T he L undeen B ill :

Pro—A. J. Muste; Con— I. M. Rubinow,
Survey, December 1934 (Midmonthly) v. 70, pp. 376-378.
A social insurance spree. Lundeen bill in Congress attracts left-wing support.
American Labor Legislation Review, June 1934, v. 24, pp. 67-70.

Summary of hearing before House Committee on Labor, February 21, 1934.

Van K leeck, Mary.

The workers’ bill for unemployment and social insurance.
New Republic, Dec. 12, 1934, v. 81, pp. 121-124.
Wagner-Lewis Bill

[The bill introduced by Senator Wagner (S. 2616) and Representative Lewis
(H. R. 7659) would impose a tax of 5 percent on the pay roll of employers
in the United States employing 10 or more persons. Employers would, how­
ever, be permitted to offset against the tax any sums contributed to any ap­
proved State unemployment insurance system (minimum standards prescribed
in bill). The aim of the measure is to encourage the establishment of unem­
ployment insurance systems by the several States.]

U nited States.

Congress.

House.

Committee on W ays and Means.

Unemployment insurance. Hearings before a subcommittee of the Commit*
tee on Ways and Means . . . on H. R. 7659 . . . March 21-30, 1934. Wash­
ington, 1934. 426 pp.

Includes testim ony of 46 persons. The proponents of the measure urged : (1)
That it would tend to speed up State legislation ; ( 2 ) that it would equalize com­
petitive conditions between employers in States adopting unemployment insurance
laws and employers in other States, since both would be subject to the same levy ;
and (3) that it would help to standardize provisions of State laws because of the
prescribed Federal standards.
Critics of the bill opposed the 5 percent tax as excessive and higher than the
rate of contribution proposed in any State unemployment insurance bills and
argued that it would be inequitable and discrim inatory in its application to em­
ployers ; that it would retard business recovery; and that it was unconstitutional.
Statem ent of Secretary of Labor in support of bill, pp. 5-27.
Administration job insurance rill “ sidetracked ” at W ashington .
American Labor Legislation Review, June 1934, v. 24, pp. 53-56.

See also editorial by John B. Andrews, “ Postponed with promise ”, in same issue,
pp. 51, 52.
B ill introduced in Congress to speed unemployment insurance laws.

Social Security, March 1934, pp. 1, 6, 7.

Quotes from joint statem ent issued by Senator Wagner and Representative Lewis.




52

UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE AND RESERVES

D ouglas, P aul

H.
Towards unemployment insurance.
World Tomorrow, Mar. 29, 1934, v. 17, pp. 160-162.

Green, W illiam .

Letter to State federations of labor in support of Wagner-Lewis unemploy­
ment insurance bill before Congress.
{In Illinois State Federation of Labor Weekly News Letter, Apr. 28,
1934.)

See also Questionnaire sent to successful candidates in fall primaries, 1934,
asking position on legislation similar to Wagner-Lewis bill.
N ational Conference for L abor L egislation, W ashington , D. C., 1934.

Proceedings of the . . . conference held at Washington, D. C., Feb. 14-15,
1934. Washington 1934. 84 pp. (Bulletin of the U. S. Bureau cf Labor
Statistics no. 583.)

A

Conference called by Secretary of Labor.
Address by Representative Lewis and discussion, pp. 36-41. The conference en­
dorsed the Wagner-Lewis bill as designed effectively to promote State legislation on
unemployment insurance (p. 71).
national front on insurance .
Survey, Feb. 15, 1934, v. 70, p. 47.

N ational I ndustrial Conference B oard.

. . . Present status of unemployment insurance or reserves legislation . . .
[New York.] National Industrial Conference Board, 1934. 13 numbered
leaves. (Conference Board Information Service: Domestic affairs.
Memorandum no. 29.) (Mimeographed.)

The Wagner bill, pp. 10—13. Bill is criticized as a misuse of the tax power and
un constitutional; tax proposed is regarded as excessive and as inequitable and
discriminatory in its application.
N ew F ederal plan for unemployment compensation legislation.
American Labor Legislation Review, Mar. 1934, v. 24, pp. 7, 8.

P erkins , F rances.

Toward security; the bill before Congress for unemployment insurance.
Survey Graphic, Mar. 1934, v. 23, pp. 116, 117, 144.

See also radio address of August 13 reported in New York Times and other
daily papers.
R aushenbush , P aul A.

Job insurance, a Federal plan to bring about old-age security by State laws.
Today, Feb. 17, 1934, v. 1, no. 17, pp. 6, 7.

S eidman , J oel

I.
Federal promotion of State unemployment insurance. Washington, 1934.
pp. 119-132. (Editorial Research Reports, Feb. 15, 1934. v. 1, 1934, no. 7.)

Traces the growth of sentiment for unemployment insurance in the United
States, and discusses the provisions of the Wagner-Lewis bill, including brief
statem ents on constitutionality of the proposed measure and the Federal tax credit
method for inducing State action.
S uchter , S umner H.
Statement on H. R. 7659.
{In United States. Congress. House. Committee on W ays and Means.
Unemployment insurance. Hearings, 1934. pp. 173-184.)

Suggested that the W agner-Lewis bill be amended to permit the industrial
as well as the State method of regulating unemployment insurance by extend­
ing tax credits for payments to schemes established under the N. R. A. codes
and requiring the States to exempt from State schemes employers and
employees subject to code schemes.
T axing employers to assure workers’ security : W agner-Lewis bill.
Literary Digest, Feb. 17, 1934, v. 117, p. 10.




53

DISCUSSION’S

F.
Senator Wagner explains insurance bill.
Journal of Electrical Workers and Operators, March 1934, v. 33, pp. 108,
138.

W a g n e r , R obert

------Unemployment a social responsibility.
(In Illinois State Federation of Labor Weekly News Letter, Feb. 17, 1934,
v. 19, no. 47, p. [1].)

Text of radio address of February 2, 1934. Reported also in daily press.
bill.

Wagner-Lewis

Nation, Mar. 7, 1934, v. 138, p. 259.

Committee on Economic Security
U nited S tates.

President ( Franklin D. R oosev elt).

Message of June 8, 1934.
(In Congressional Record (U. S. Congress), vol. 78, pt. 10, pp. 1076910771).

Printed also as House Document no. 397 (73d Congress).
Text also in Survey Graphic, July 1934, pp. 311, 312, and in daily papers
for June 8-9, 1934.
“ If, as our Constitution tells us, our Federal Government was established
among other things ‘ to promote the general welfare ’, it is our plain duty
to provide for that security upon which welfare depends. Next winter we
may well undertake the great task of furthering the security of the citizen and
his fam ily through social insurance.”

------------- Address to the Advisory Council of the National Conference on Eco­
nomic Security.
New York Times, Nov. 15, 1934, and other daily papers.

“ On some points it is possible to be definite. Unemployment insurance will be
in the program. I am still of the opinion, expressed in my message of June 8 , that
this part of social insurance should be a cooperative Federal-State undertaking. It
is important that the Federal Government encourage States which are ready to take
this progressive step. It is no less important that all unemployment insurance re­
serve funds be held and invested by the Federal Government, so that the use of
these funds as a means of stabilization may be m aintained in central management
and employed on a national basis . . . For the adm inistration of insurance benefits
the States are the most logical units.”
For the personnel of Advisory Council of 20 leaders in business, labor, and social
welfare, appointed by the President November 10, see New York Times, Nov. 11, 1934,
and other daily papers.
P erkins , F rances.
On our way.
American Labor Legislation Review, September 1934, v. 24, pp. 106-108.

Shortly after his message to Congress of June 8 , the President appointed
a Committee on Economic Security consisting of the Secretary of Labor (chair­
m an), the Secretary of the Treasury, the Attorney General, the Secretary of
Agriculture, and the Federal Relief Administrator. In this article Miss Perkins
outlines the organization and work of this committee, which is making “ a
comprehensive study of the whole problem of economic security for the indi­
vidual, as a basis for the drafting of sound legislation to lay before the next
session of Congress.” The study is being conducted by a staff of experts under
the direction of Dr. Edwin E. W itte. A technical board of representatives of
the different Departm ents of the Government under Dr. A. J. Altmeyer, A ssist­
ant Secretary of Labor, is cooperating.

------ Economic security in the twentieth century.
(In Boston Conference on Distribution, 1934, pp. 29-31.)
ton Business, October 1934, p. 21.

Excerpts in Bos­

See also speech at American Federation of Labor Convention, Oct. 5, 1934, in its
Proceedings, 1934, pp. 335—
344.




54

UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE AND RESERVES

P erkins , F rances.

The task that lies ahead.

9 1.

(Mimeographed.)

(Press release.)

Address before the National Conference on Economic Security, W ashington, D. C.
Nov. 14, 1934.
— — The way of security.
Survey Graphic, December 1934, v. 23, pp. 629-622, 629.

N ational Conference on E conomic S ecurity,

Washington, D. C., November 14,

1934.
[Report of discussions and list of delegates.]
New York Times, Nov. 15, 1934, pp. 1, 2.

See also summary of discussions in American Federation of Labor Weekly
News Service, Nov. 17, 1934; Social Security, December 1934. Speeches by
President Roosevelt, Frances Perkins, Harry I. Hopkins, Frank P. Graham,
Daniel C. Roper, and Harold B. Butler, issued by Committee on Economic
Security as pamphlet, w ith title. “ Security.” (30 pp.)
K ennedy, T homas.

Unemployment insurance.
American Federationist, December 1934, v. 41, pp. 1295-1298.

Address before the National Conference on Economic Security, W ashington,
Nov. 14, 1934, by the secretary-treasurer of the United Mine Workers of Amer­
ica. In favor of a national system of unemployment insurance, organized and
operated under the auspices of the Federal Government.
R oosevelt administration leadership on unemployment insurance .
American Labor Legislation Review, June 1934, v. 24, pp. 57-59.

Presents the chronology of the various steps taken up to the President’s message
of June 8 , 1934. See also editorial by John B. Andrews on “ The test of official
leadership” in the September 1934 issue of this journal (pp. 99, 100).
R oosevelt pledges administration to social insurance .
Social Security, June-July 1934, v. 8, no. 6, pp. 1, 6.

S aunders, R ichard E.

Uncle Sam’s plan for fighting the unemployment plague.
Industry (Associated Industries of Massachusetts), Oct. 13, 1934, v.
34, no. 8, pp. 1-3.

Security for A mericans.

New Republic, Nov. 21-Dec. 19, 1934, v. 81, pp. 37-39, 64-66, 94r-99, 121-124,
161-163.

A series of articles on different aspects of social security.

S wing , R aymond

G.
Social security in a hurry.
Nation, Sept 19, 1934, v. 139, pp. 318-320.