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UNDERUTILIZATION




OF
WOMEN WORKERS

WOMEN'S BUREAU

WORKPLACE STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION
U.S. D E P A R T M E N T

1971

OF LABOR

(revised)




"Tlie fact remains that we cannot reconcile some contemporary remarkable inequalities affecting women with
our stated national principle of equality for all citizens."

J.D. Hodgson
Secretary of Labor




UNDERUTILIZATION
OF
WOMEN WORKERS

WOMEN'S BUREAU
Elizabeth Duncan Koontz, Director

WORKPUCE STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION
Robert D. Moran, Administrator

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
J.D. Hodgson, Secretary




NOTE
Data f o r minority races represent
races other than white.

all

Negroes con-

s t i t u t e about 92 percent of a l l persons
other than white i n the United States.

For saJe by the Sapertntendent of Documents, XJ.8. Govenmient Printing Office
Washington, D.C. 2CK02 - Price 36 cents

FOREWORD
Recognizing that the 30 m i l l i o n women workers today "are not
a u x i l i a r y workers but an i n t e g r a l part of the work f o r c e ,
as
A s s i s t a n t Secretary of Labor Arthur A. F l e t c h e r recently remarked,
the Women's Bureau b e l i e v e s that an examination of the u t i l i z a t i o n
o f t h i s s u b s t a n t i a l p o r t i o n of the human resources of our Nation
i s urgently needed^
F i f t y years ago, when the Women's Bureau was founded, our primary
concern was the e x p l o i t a t i o n of women workers. No longer i s t h i s t r u e .
No longer do we need t o place primary emphasis on the establishment
of safety standards 6T the e l i m i n a t i o n of long working hours and a p p a l l i n g working conditions•
But there are s t i l l serious i n e q u a l i t i e s i n the labor market which
r e s u l t i n the u n d e r u t i l i z a t i o n of women workers. There are s t i l l
b a r r i e r s which deny women the freedom t o prepare f o r and enter employment suited t o t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r e s t s and a b i l i t i e s , and t o advance
and achieve r e c o g n i t i o n (monetary or otherwise) t o the f u l l extent of
which they are capable.
L e g i s l a t i o n t o assure wcmen e q u a l i t y of pay and nondiscrimination
i n employment has been passed at the Federal and State l e v e l s . The
Federal Equal Pay Act of 1963^ which was an amendment t o the F a i r
Labor Standards A c t , assures women equal pay f o r equal work. However,
since many employees are not covered under the Federal a c t , 36 States
have enacted equal pay laws, and f i v e others and the D i s t r i c t of
Columbia have f a i r employment p r a c t i c e s laws p r o h i b i t i n g d i s c r i m i n a t i o n
i n pay based on sex. T i t l e V I I of the Federal C i v i l Rights Act of
196^ p r o h i b i t s d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n employment on the b a s i s of sex.
Twenty-three States and the D i s t r i c t of Columbia have a s i m i l a r p r o h i b i tion.
Implementation of the two Federal statutes has been e f f e c t i v e .
I n v e s t i g a t i o n s under the equal pay p r o v i s i o n s had d i s c l o s e d , by the end
of A p r i l 1970, underpayments of more than $17 m i l l i o n t o more than
50,000 employees during the neaxly 5 years of enforcement. Of a l l comp l a i n t s received i n f i s c a l year I969 by the Equal Employment Opportunity
Commission under t i t l e V I I o f the C i v i l R i ^ t s Act, almost 2 , 7 0 0 , or
about o n e - f i f t h , were concerned w i t h d i s c r i m i n a t i o n on the b a s i s of sex.
Considerable progress has a l s o been made i n p r o v i d i n g equal
opportunities f o r women employed d i r e c t l y by the F e d e r a l Government
o r by Federal c o n t r a c t o r s . As e a r l y as 1923 the C i v i l Service Classi f i c a t i o n Act provided t h a t Federal employees receive equal pay f o r
equal work. D i s c r i m i n a t i o n on the b a s i s o f sex (as w e l l as race, c o l o r ,
r e l i g i o n , or n a t i o n a l o r i g i n ) i n a l l aspects of F e d e r a l employment i s
now p r o h i b i t e d under Executive Order I I U 7 8 , administered by the C i v i l
Service Commission.




Ill

DiBcrimination by Federal c o n t r a c t o r and subcontractors i s
prohibited under Executive Order 112U6, as amended by Executive Order
11375, administered by the O f f i c e of Federal Contract Ccmpllance (OFCC)
of the Department of Labor. Sex d i s c r i m i n a t i o n guidelines, s e t t i n g
out i n d e t a i l the regulations governing the lnqplementation o f t h i s
Executive older, vere issued by the OFCC i n June 1970.
Despite these steps forward, there i s a great deal more t o be
acccmplished. The need t o improve voaaen's r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n i n the
economy i s s t i l l uigent. F a i l u r e t o grant wcmen and g i r l s equal
opportunities i n teims of Job t r a i n i n g , educational programs, occupat i o n a l entrance, advancement, and pay creates severe economic hardship,
even poverty, f o r many women and f o r many f a m i l i e s dependent I n whole
or i n part on a woman's earnings.
I n addition, f a i l u r e t o u t i l i z e f u l l y the t a l e n t s and a b i l i t i e s
of wanen diminishes our total productive e f f o r t , deprives the economy
of woikers needed f o r v i t a l domestic programs, and has a depressing
e f f e c t on the ^ o l e Job s t r u c t u r e .
Occupationally wcmen are more disadvantaged, compared w i t h men,
than they were 30 years ago. I n 1 9 ^ they h e l d 45 percent of a l l
p r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l p o s i t i o n s . I n 1969 they h e l d only 37 percent
of such Jobs. This d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n t h e i r r o l e i n career f i e l d s
r e l a t i v e t o men has occurred despite the increase i n women's share of
t o t a l employment over the same p e r i o d . On the other hand, the proport i o n of women among a l l service workers (except p r i v a t e household) has
increased since I9I1O—rising from 1 0 t o 59 percent.
*
The b a r r i e r s are s t i l l h i ^ against enqploying women i n professions
other than those t r a d i t i o n a l l y associated w i t h wcmen, and many of the
myths regarding women's a b i l i t y t o h o l d administrative and managerial
p o s i t i o n s s t i l l p r e v a i l . I l l u s t r a t i v e of the i n e q u a l i t i e s wcmen face
i n entering p r o f e s s i o n a l careers i n business and industry are the
differences i n scOarles o f f e r e d t o women and men. Wcmen graduating
from college i n 1970 i n s i x f i e l d s of i n t e r e s t were being o f f e r e d
s t a r t i n g s a l a r i e s from 3 t o 10 percent lower than those o f f e r e d t o men
i n the same f i e l d s .
Many women hold Jobs f a r from commensurate w i t h t h e i r a b i l i t l e B
and educational achievement. For example, i n March I 9 6 9 , I9 percent
of the woridLng wcmen who had completed k years of c o l l e g e were employed
i n nonprofessional Jobs as c l e r i c a l , sales, o r service workers or as
operatives, mainly i n f a c t o r i e s .
The growing share of jobs h e l d by women i n the lower paying
occupations I n recent years i s r e f l e c t e d i n the gap between the median
( h a l f above, h a l f below) earnings of women and men. I n 1957 the
median wage or i a l a i y income of wcmen who worked 35 hours or more a
week f o r 50 t o 52 weeks was 6k percent of t h a t received by men. I n
1968 median earnings of comparably employed women were only 58 percent
o f those received by men.



N

Moreover, more wanen than men experience periods of unemployment
during the year. Unemployment rates of women have heen c o n s i s t e n t l y
h i ^ e r than those of men during the l a s t decade and vere
and 2.8
percent, respectively, i n 1969* Therefore, i t i s not s u i p r i s i n g that
poverty i s more severe among f a m i l i e s headed by women than liy men
workers. An alarming
percent of the f a m i l i e s headed by women
workers of m i n o r i t y races l i v e d i n poverty i n I968, as compared w i t h
16 percent of those headed by male workers of minority races.
The f o l l o w i n g b r i e f summary statements and charts document aspects
of the u n d e r u t i l i z a t i o n of women workers. I t i s our hope that these
h i ^ l i ^ t s on the economic p o s i t i o n of wcmen workers may prove h e l p f u l
i n e f f o r t s t o assure more e f f e c t i v e use of our n a t i o n a l resource of
womanpower.




E l i z a b e t h Duncan Koontz
D i r e c t o r , Waaen's Bureau

CHART A.-IVIOST WOMEN WORK BECAUSE OF ECONOMIC NEED
Women With Work Experience in 1968

SINGLE

WIDOWED,
DIVORCED,
OR SEPARATED

MARRIED
(husband present)

8%

9%

J

Under
$3,000

\

$3,0Q04,999

13%

f

$5,0006,999

30%

J

HUSBAND'S INCOME
Source: See page 25




I

V

$7,000
and over

J

Most Wcmen WoA Because of Econocilc Need (Chart A)
Most women v o i k t o support themselves o r others*
m i l l i o n women

Of the 37

woriced a t sane time i n 1968^ 17 percent were widowed,

divorced^ or separated f r o n t h e i r husbands; many o f these women were
r a i s i n g c h i l d r e n i n a f a t h e r l e s s hone.
workers were s i n g l e .

Another 23 percent of women

I n a d d i t i o n , married women whose husbands' incomes

are inadequate or b a r e l y adequate t o support t h e i r f a m i l i e s o f t e n are
compelled t o seek g a i n f u l employment.

E i ^ t percent of a l l wonen who

worked i n I 9 6 8 had husbands w i t h annual incomes below $3,000.

An

a d d i t i o n a l 22 percent had husbands whose incomes were between $3^000
and $7,000 a t a time when the annual income necessaiy even f o r a low
standard of l i v i n g f o r an laban f a m i l y of f o u r was estimated at $ 6 , 5 6 7 .




CHART B.-WOMEN ARE 3 TIMES AS LIKELY AS MEN TO EARN LESS
THAN $5,000 FOR YEAR - ROUND FULL-TIME^ WORK
Year-Round Full-Time Workers, by Total Money Earnings and Sex, 1968)

Under $3,000

$3,000 - $4,999

J / 50 to 52 weeks a year, 35 hours or more a week.
Source: See page 25



$5,000 - $6,999

$7,000 - $9,999

$10,000 and over

Women Are 3 Tljnes as L i k e l y as Men To Earn Less Than $5^000 f o r
Year^Round Full-^Tlme Woik (Chart B)
About 3 out of 5 woaen but only 1 out of 5 i^en who vorked year
round f u l l time i n I968 had earnings of l e s s than $5,000.

Moreover,

20 percent of the wcoien but only 8 percent of men earned l e s s than
$3>000.

At the upper end o f the earnings scale, only 3 pereent o f

the vcmen but 28 percent of the men who woiked year round f u l l time
had earnings of $10,000 or more.




CHART C.-THE EARNINGS GAP BETWEEN WOMEN AND MEN REMAINS WIDE
(Median Wage or Salary Income of Year-Round Full-Time-^ Workers, by Sex, 1957-68
MEDIAN EARNINGS




$8,000

Men

$6,000

$4,000

. Uf n m o n .
If U l l l c l l

$2,000

0
1957

1958

1960

1962

1964

1966

-1/ 50 to 52 weeks a year, 35 hours or more a week.
2 J Data for 1967 and 1968 are not strictly comparable with prior years since they include earnings of
self-employed persons.
Source: See page 25

1968

The Earnings Gap Between Women and Men Itemalns Wide (Chart C)
I n 1957 the median earnings of year-round f u l l - t i m e vomen
workers were 6k percent of those of men.

By I 9 6 6 the p r o p o r t i o n

had dropped t o 58 percent, where i t remained I n 1967 and 1968*
The earnings gap amounted t o more than $3^000 i n I968, when the
median earnings of year-round f u l l - t i m e women and men woxkers
were




and

respectively.

CHART D.-MILLIONS OF WOMEN ARE iN
LOW - PAID OCCUPATIONS
(Year-Round Full-Tlme-^ Women Workers, by Selected
Occupations and Median Wage or Salary Income, 1968
MILLIONS

5,943,000

6

ii.t^

v" JL

2,449,000
a

ws

1,924,000

XlvtijUl^

723,000
435,000

Private
Household
Workers

^

Service.
Workers
(except
private
household]

Sales
Workers

i / 5 0 to 52 weeks sl year, 35 hours or more a week.
Source: See page 25




6

J J ^^

Operatives

Clerical
Workers

M i l l i o n s o f Women Are I n Lay*Pald Occiqpatlons (Chart P)
About 3*1 m i l l i o n vomen vho worked year 3X)und roll time i n
1968 were s a l e s workers^ s e r v i c e workers (except p r i v a t e household),
and p r i v a t e household workers.

T h e i r median wage o r s a l a r y inccoies

were $3,1*61, $3,332,€md $1,523, r e s p e c t i v e l y .

Another 2.U m i l l i o n

yea3>round f u l l - t i m e wcmen woikers were operatives—mainly f a c t o r y
w o i k e r s — w i t h a median wage o r s a l a i y incone o f $3,991*




CHART E - W O M E N ' S SHARE IN PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL
WORK HAS DECLINED
(Women as Percent of Total Employed, All Occupations and
Professional and Technical Occupations, 1940-69;
PERCENT
60

50

00




^ ^ ^

40

30

echnical Occupatio ns
f Professional and Ti

^^

All Occijpations

20

to

0

1940

1945

Source: See page 25

1950

1955

1960

1965

1969

Women's Share I n P r o f e s s i o n a l and Technical Work Has Declined (Chart E)
A l t h o u ^ the number of wcmen employed i n p r o f e s s i o n a l and
t e c h n i c a l occupations has eJiaost t r i p l e d since

vanen are a

smaller p r o p o r t i o n of a l l p r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l workers today
than they vere before World War I I .

Women represented 3T percent

of a l l p r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l workers i n I969 as caapared w i t h
percent i n

I n contrast, the proportion of wcmen among

a l l workers increased from 26 t o 37 percent over the same p e r i o d .




CHART F.-WOMEN ARE INADEQUATELY REPRESENTED IN LEADING PROFESSIONS
(Women as Percent of Total Employed, Selected Professions)

Faculty in Institutions
of Higher E d u c a t i o n ^
Scientists

Physicians
Lawyers

f;
i^lrt&riyii

Engineers

Federal Judges




Includes other professional staff.
Source: See page 25

Wcanen Are Inadequately Bepresented I n Leading ProfesBlons (Chart F)
Women h o l d a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y small share of p o s i t i o n s

in

l e a d i n g professions despite t h e i r 37 percent share of a l l p r o f e s s i o n a l
and t e c h n i c a l occupations i n 1969*

Althougji vomen t r a d i t i o n a l l y have

made up a large p a r t of the teacher coips, i n recent years only 22
percent of the f a c u l t y and other p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f i n i n s t i t u t i o n s
o f h i ^ e r education vere vomen.

T h i s i s a considerably smaller

p r o p o r t i o n than they vere i n 19kO (28 percent), 1930 (27 percent),

or

1920 (26 percent) and only s l i ^ t l y ahove the SO percent they vere
i n 1910•
Wcmen are h e a v i l y

represented

i n the h e a l t h f i e l d s , but i n 1968

only 7 percent of a l l physicians were women.

S i m i l a r l y , women had

only a token representation among s c i e n t i s t s (9 percent),
(3 percent), and engineers ( l p e r c e n t ) .




11

lawyers

CHART G.-STARTING SALARIES OF COLLEGE GRADUATES ARE LOWER
FOR WOMEN THAN FOR MEN
(Average Monthly Starting Salaries of Women and Men With Bachelor's Degrees, 1970)
$500

$600

$700

$900

$800

T
FT

Engineering

3 $844

fiiilfniiiiiiifiinfiiiBiMiiitmwiii

Accounting

S

Chemistry

$773

Mathematics Statistics
Economics Finance
1
Liberal Arts




I
W • •
•

Men

$688
. • . •

J .^ ^ ' -

Lr- r . t. ^ -

Source: See page 25

i ,1

~

W e
o n
m

$872

s t a r t i n g S a l a r i e s of College Graduates Are Lower f o r Women Than
f o r Men (Chart G)
Average monthly s t a r t i n g s a l a r i e s being o f f e r e d t o 1970 women
c o l l e g e graduates i n s i x f i e l d s of I n t e r e s t by 110 business and
i n d u s t r i a l f i i m s ranged from $l8 t o $86 l e s s than the s a l a r i e s being
o f f e r e d t o men c o l l e g e graduates i n the same f i e l d s .

Monthly

s t a r t i n g s a l a r i e s f o r wcmen were h i ^ e s t and were not f a r below
those of men i n engineering, w i t h monthly saleud.es of
and $872 f o r men.

f o r women

I n accounting, however, where s a l a r i e s being

o f f e r e d t o men were almost as h i ^ as i n engineering, the gap between
the s a l a r i e s of vcmen and men was the l a r g e s t (women,

J men, $832),

Salary d i f f e r e n t i a l s between men and wcmen were lowest i n the f i e l d s
of economics and finance (wcmen, $700; men, $718) and mathematics
and s t a t i s t i c s (wcmen, $ 7 ^ ; aen, $773)*




13

CHART H.-WOMEN ARE INCREASING AMONG WORKERS
IN LESS SKILLED JOBS
Women as Percent of Total Employed, All Occupations
and Service Occupations,^ 1940-69)

PERCENT
60




50
^ ^ ^

Servi ce Occupations J/

40

30
All Occupcitions
20

10

0

1940

1945

Except private household.
Source: See page 25

1950

1955

1960

1965

1969

Wcmen Are Increasing Among Workers i n Less S k i l l e d Jobs (Chart H)
I n contrast t o the d e c l i n i n g proportion of vomen among
p r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l woikers, the proportion of women I n the
l e s s s k i l l e d and lower p a i d service occupations I s Increasing«

Women

were 59 percent o f a l l service workers (except p r i v a t e household)
i n 1969 as compared w i t h kO percent i n 19^*




15

CHART l.-MANY WOMEN WORKERS ARE UNDERUTILIZED
IN RELATION TO THEIR EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMEN"

PERCENT
80

Women With 1 or More Years of College Employed in the
Less Skilled Occupations, 1969

70

69%

60

50
Clerical Workers

48%

•

40

Sales Workers

30
Operatives

20

Service Workers
(including private
household]

10
Sales Workers,
Operatives,
and Service Workers
COLLEGE
Source: See page 25



16

Many Women Woifeers Are U n d e r u t i l i z e d i n R e l a t i o n t o T h e i r Educational
Achievement (Chart l )
The educational backgrounds of a great many women are not "being
f u l l y u t i l i z e d i n t h e i r johs.

A s t a r t l i n g 7 percent of employed

vcmen who had ccmpleted 5 o r more years of college were woifcLng as
service workers ( i n c l u d i n g p r i v a t e household), operatives,
workeM, o r c l e r i c a l workers i n March 1969*

sales

Nearly o n e - f i f t h of

employed women w i t h k years o f c o l l e g e were woiklng i n these
occupations, as were some two-thirds o f those who had completed 1 t o
3 years o f c o l l e g e .




17

CHART J.-ALMOST 3 OUT OF 10 TEENAGE GIRLS OF MINORITY
RACES ARE UNEMPLOYED
(Unemployment Rates of Girls and Boys 16 to 19 Years of Age,
by Race, 1954-69
PERCENT

A
/

35

30

T
J,
/1

li

•f

20 ^ ^

10

f
^ /

If

//

15

\

\

l i

25

//
/

#

/

/—

V

f

GirlS"M nority Race'
A

\

A

)oys--Minori y Races

!

\

A

White Bo ys
\

White Gi

/

0

1954

1
1956

Source: See page 25



1958

1960

1962
18

1964

1966

1969

Almost 3 Out of 10 Teenage G i r l s o f M i n o r i t y Races Are Unemployed (Chart j )
Unemployment among teenagers ( l 6 t o 19 years of age) i s most severe
among g i r l s o f minority races, vhose unemployment rate of 27-7 percent i n
1969 was considerably higher than i t had been i n 1955 (19-2 percent).

Next

most disadvantaged are boys of minority races, whose unemployment r a t e was
21#3 percent i n 1969.

I n contrast, the unemployment rates f o r white g i r l s

and white boys i n I 9 6 9 were 11.5 and 10#1 percent, r e s p e c t i v e l y .




19




CHART K.-UNEI\/!PLOYMENT AMONG ADULTS IS MOST SEVERE
FOR WOMEN OF MINORITY RACES
;Unemployment Rates of Women and Men
20 Years of Age and Over, by Race,
1954-69)
PERCENT
15

1954

1956

Source: See page 25

1958

1960

1962

1964

1966

1969

Unemployment Among Adults Is Most Severe f o r Women of M i n o r i t y Races
(Chart K)
Among adults 20 years of age and over, unemployment i e most severe
f o r women o f minority r a c e s — 5 . 8 percent i n 1969*

The comparable

r a t e s f o r men of minority races, white women, and white men were
and 1.9 percent, respectively^

H i s t o r i c a l l y , unemployment among

adults has been highest f o r men of minority races, but since 1963 i t has
been most severe f o r women of minority races.




21

CHART L-INCIDENCE OF POVERTY IS HIGH IN FAMILIES
HEADED BY A WOMAN WORKER
(Percent of Families Living in Poverty in 1968 Whose Head
Worked During Year, by Sex and Race)
FAMILIES HEADED BY A WOMAN WORKER

White Families
12,386,000]

Families-Minority Races
(850,000)
FAMILIES HEADED BY A MAN

White Families
(36,322,000)

Families-Minority Races
(3,245,000)

Source: See page 25



WORKER

22

Incidence of Poverty^ I s High In Families Headed by a Woman Worker
(Chart L)
Many f a m i l i e s headed by a woman are poor even though the woman
works.

Among f a m i l i e s headed by a woman who worked i n I968,

percent of those of minority races and 16 percent of the white l i v e d
i n poverty.

I n contrast, among f a m i l i e s headed by a man who worked

i n 1968, only I6 percent of those of minority races and k percent of
the white were poor#

*The poverty l e v e l i s based on the Bureau of the Census d e f i n i t i o n of poverty, adjusted annually i n accordance with changes i n the
Department of Labor's Consmer P r i c e Index. Currently c l a s s i f i e d as
poor are those nonfarm households where t o t a l money income i s l e s s
than $ 1 , 7 ^ f o r an unrelated i n d i v i d u a l , $2,262 f o r a couple, and
$3^553 f o r a f a m i l y of f o u r .




23




CHART SOURCES
Chart A.

U.S. Departanent o f Labor, Bureau of Labor S t a t i s t i c s :
"Marital
and Family C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Workers, March 1969."
Special
Labor Force Report No. 120.

Chart B .

U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census:
Population Reports, P - 6 0 , No. 6 6 .

Current

Chart C.

U.S. Department of Ccmmerce, Bureau o f the Census:
Population Reports, P - 6 0 , Nos. 30, 33, 35, 37, 39,
51, 53, 6 0 , and 6 6 .

Current

Chart D.

U.S. Depaiianent of Labor, Bureau of Labor S t a t i s t i c s :
Special
Labor Force Report No. 120; U.S. Department of Ccamaerce,
Bureau of the Census: Current Population Reports, P - 6 0 , No. 6 6 .

Chart E .

U.S. Department of Labor, Mai^ower Administration:
"Manpower
Report of the President and a Report on Manpower Requirements,
Resources, U t i l i z a t i o n , and T r a i n i n g . " A p r i l 1967 and March
197O; Bureau of Labor S t a t i s t i c s : Monthly Labor Review,
August 19'«-7-

Chart F.

N a t i o n a l Education A s s o c i a t i o n ; U.S. Depaartment of Health,
Education, and Welfare, O f f i c e of Education; National Science
Foundation; and U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor
Statistics:
"Occupational Outlook Handbook."

Chart G.

E n d i c o t t , Frank S. "Trends i n Employment of College and
U n i v e r s i t y Graduates i n Business and I n d u s t i y . " Northwestern
U n i v e r s i t y . 1970 •

Chart

Same as chart E .

Chart

U.S. Department o f Labor, Bureau o f Labor S t a t i s t i c s :
l i s h e d data.

Chart J .

U.S. Departanent o f Labor, Manpower Administration:
"Manpower
Report o f the President: A Report on Manpower Requirements,
Resources, U t i l i z a t i o n , and T r a i n i n g . " March 1970•

Chart K.

Same as chart J .

Chart L .

U.S. Department o f Conmierce, Bureau of the Census:
Population Reports, P - 6 0 , Nos. 66 and 6 8 .




25

Ui:5)ub-

Current

GPO : 1971 O - 413-102