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Lesson Material in Child Management

Publication No. 202

United States Department of Labor


if Z o ?
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Children’s Bureau

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

JAMES J. DAVIS, Secretary


Lesson Material in Child Management

Bureau Publication N o. 202


For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Price 10 cents
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


Do you have a happy baby?________________________________________
Lesson No. 1. How can you help your child to form good
2. Does your child have good food habits?_________
3. How does your child get your attention?_________
Does your child have tantrums?______________
No. 4. Does your child always obey you?_________________
Do you always tell the truth to your c h ild ?._
Does your child obey you when you speak to
him quietly?__________________________________
Do you want your children always to wait for
you to tell them what to do?_______ ___ . ___
5. How parents teach their children to be naughty__
Talking about your children_________________
Something for fathers to think about_________
No. 6. W hy and how do you punish your c h ild ?.. . . ____
W hy do you punish your child?_____ _______J
How do you punish your child?_____________
7. What suggestion can do------ --------------------------------No.
8. Is your child jealous, afraid,or untruthful?______
Is your child jealous?_________________________
Is your child afraid?___________________________
Does your child tell you the truth?___________
No. 9. Does your child have bad physical habits?_______
Bed wetting------------------------------------------ ----------•
Thumb sucking_______________________________
Nail biting----------------- ---------------------------- . . . —
Does your child handle his or her sex organs?.
Have you ever used a star chart?---------------------No. 10. Are you helping your childto growup?----------------Have you told your child where the new baby
came from ?__________________________________
No. 11. Does your child have the right kind of play­
No. 12. The job of being a parent------------------------------------Important things for mothers and fathers to
remember___________________________________ _
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


This series of 12 lessons was prepared from
a manuscript by Blanche G. Weill, Ed. D.,
formerly psychologist with Dr. D. A. Thom,
director of the habit clinics of Boston, who
has approved the lessons.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Does he laugh and coo while you work?
Does he play quietly by himself while you work?
Does your little child like the food you give him?
Is he ready and willing to go to bed at bedtime?
Does he love the new baby?
Does he play happily with other children?
Then he is happy and good.

Does your baby cry all day?
Does he get mad and kick and scream?
Does your little child spit out the food he does not like?
Does he beg you not to put him to bed?
Does he tease the new baby?
Of course, you do not want these things.

W e can help you to make your baby happy, but you must
help, too.
You must try very hard.
You must never stop trying.
You are tired and busy some day. Your baby is crying.
You say, “ This one time does not matter. I will pick him up.
Then he will stop crying.”
Then your smart little baby says to himself, “ Hurrah, I
was the boss that time! I can be boss next time.”
Before you know it, he will cry again. Will you pick him
up again?
Do you always give him what he wants?
Then he will not be happy long.
Read this little hook. It will help you to keep your baby
happy and good.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Lesson No. 1.— H O W CAN Y O U HELP Y O U R CHILD

Do you want your child to form good habits?
The first time you do something new it is hard.
Next time it is easier.
Next time it is very easy.
Soon you can do it and not think about it at all.
Then we call it a habit.
You have learned everything that way.
You learned to feed yourself that way when you were little.
You learned to dress yourself that way.
You have the habit of dressing yourself.
You have the habit of feeding yourself.
Your child is learning everything that way.
He is forming habits.
He can learn a good way to do things.
But he can learn a bad way instead.
He learns the way you teach him.
Do you want to teach him the good way or the bad way?
Do you want him to form good habits or bad habits?
This lesson will tell you how to teach him good habits.
Begin when die is born.
Feed him at exactly the same hours every day.
Do not feed him at any other time.
Let him sleep after every feeding.
Do not feed him just because he cries.
Let him wait until the right time.
If you make him wait, his stomach will learn to wait.
His mind will learn that he can not get things by crying.
You do two things for your baby at the same time. You
teach his body good habits and you teach his mind good
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Are You Training Your Child to be H appy?
You can teach him not to be a cross baby, too.

When he cries, do not pick him up to stop his crying.
See that no pin hurts him.
See that he is warm and dry.
Turn him over.
Then let him alone.
In that way you teach him not to fuss and cry. If mothers
pick up their babies when they cry, the babies learn to cry
for things. The mothers teach them to cry for things.
Pick up the baby when he is awake and not crying.
Play with him or talk to him quietly.
In a little while put him down again.
Do this at the same hours every day.
This will show him that he will get attention when he does
not cry.
He will learn to wait for the right time.
This saves you time for your work and it is good for your
Do not let other people pick the baby up or talk to him too
A little baby should be quiet most of the time.
Always keep regular hours for food and baths and sleep.
All babies are not alike.
Some babies must eat every four hours. Some must eat
every three hours.
Your own doctor or the doctor at the clinic will give you a
plan for your baby.
The plan will tell you at what time your b&by should sleep
each day.
It will also tell you how much food to give him and at what
time to feed him.
The doctor will also tell you how to change the plan as
your baby grows older.
Start your baby with good habits.
not form easily.

Then the bad ones will

Write to the Children’s Bureau at Washington, D. G., asking for
Infant Care and The Baby’s Daily Time Cards. These are free. They
will help you to teach your baby good habits.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

H ow Can You Help Your Child Form Good Habits? 3

Mrs. Guerra had her first baby at home.
A neighbor came in to help her.
The doctor told her to feed the baby every four hours.
The baby cried.
Mrs. Guerra and her friend said, “ The baby is hungry; we must
feed him.”
The baby cried soon again. Mrs. Guerra fed him again.
She fed him many times.
Soon the baby got sick and cross.
His stomach was tired of working.
The mother said, “ What is the matter with my b ab y ?”
The baby cried all the time.

Mrs. Guerra had her second baby at the hospital.
The nurses took care of him.
They fed him every four hours.
They bathed him at the same time every day.
They kept him clean and comfortable.
They did not pick him up when he cried.
They knew that babies get exercise when they cry. Babies need
This baby was well and happy.
The nurses said to Mrs. Guerra, “ When you go home, do as we do.
Then your baby will be well and happy and good.”
Mrs. Guerra went home in two weeks. She did what the nurses
told her.
The baby was always good and happy. He was always well.
She said: “ I made a mistake before. The nurses are right. Now,
I will see what I can do with my big baby to keep him well, too.”

1. Did the doctor tell you to feed the baby every three hours or
every four hours?
2. Do you look at the clock before you feed the baby?
3. If the baby is crying at 8 o’clock and his feeding time does not
come until 9, what do you do?
4. When do you play with your baby?

Everyday Problems of the Everyday Child, by D. A. Thom, M. D., pp.
12-26. D. Appleton & Go. New York, 1927.
Child Management, by D. A. Thom, M. D., pp. 1-3. United States Chil­
dren’s Bureau Publication No. 143 (Revised). Washington, 1928.
Out of Babyhood into Childhood, p. 3. United States Children’s Bureau
Folder No. 10. Washington, 1929.
W hy Sleep? pp. 4 and 8. United States Children’s Bureau Folder No. 11.
Washington, 1929.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Lesson No. 2.— DOES Y O U R CHILD H A V E GOOD

Does your little boy eat the things you give him?
Or does he say, “ I don’t like milk ” or “ I won’t eat vege­
tables ” ?
A child likes to do what his parents do. He likes to say
what they say.
Has he seen father leave spinach on his plate?
Then he, too, will not eat spinach.
Has he heard mother say, “ I don’t like oatmeal ” ?
He, too, will say, “ I don’t like oatmeal.”
These are bad food habits.
You began them without knowing it.
You can stop them.
It is easy to start good food habits when a child is little.
It is hard to break bad ones when he is big.
Prepare food that is good for children.
The doctor will tell you what are good foods for children.
The Children’s Bureau in Washington, D. C., will send you
directions for feeding your children if you write and ask for
Stomachs form habits like people.
A hungry stomach makes a cross child.
A stomach that has too much food makes a cross child, too.
Feed your child at the same hours every day.
See that his little hands are clean before he eats.
Make the table look pretty.
Call the children to the table.
See that they sit down quietly.
Serve each child a little of each food.
Eat some of everything yourself.
Show that you like everything.
Never say, “ I do not like this.”
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Does Your Child Have Good Food Habits?


Never ask your child or anyone else, “ Do you like this? ”
Before you ask this, perhaps a plate of food makes him
think, “ I’m hungry; I want to eat.”
He does not think anything about like or not like. He only
thinks, “ Food—hungry—eat.”
; After you ask this you make him think something new.
“ Perhaps I don't like it. No; I don’t. I won’t eat it.”
He does not think any more, “ Food—hungry—eat.” He
thinks, “ Food—like or not like—eat or not eat.”
Then the bad food habit begins.
This is why we must never ask anyone, “ Do you like this? ”
If the child says he does not like it, pay no attention.
Do not talk about food at all.
^ he does not eat, pay no attention. Let him go off with-*
out eating.
It will not hurt him to miss a meal. It will not hurt him to
miss two meals.
Do not give him anything to eat until the next meal.
If he does not eat at the next meal, pay no attention.
It will not hurt him to miss three meals. Do not be afraid.
Soon he will be hungry.
Then he will eat what you give him.
Watch your child if he does not want any food.
he getting sick.

He may

Does your child make you feed him?
This is a bad food habit. Perhaps you began it this w ay:
Perhaps you fed him even after he was 2 years old. It
was quicker for you. It is hard to teach a baby to feed him­
self. It takes much time.
Now he is 3 years old. It takes too much time to feed him.
It is bad for you. It is bad for him, too. He has not learned
to he independent. He must learn now.
Let your 1-year-old baby try to feed himself.
He will spill some at first. Let him.
He will soon learn. Then he will be happy and good.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


Are You Training Your Child to be Happy?

Aré you afraid your child will not eat enough?
You beg him to eat. You promise him something nice if
he will eat.
He likes that. He says to himself, “ I will not eat. If I cry
or fuss, by and by I will get something nice.”
So he will never eat until you promise him something.
He learned this. You were his teacher.
Do you give your child food that is not good for children?
You have made him sick.
A sick baby will not eat. A sick baby is cross.
Do you give your child too much food at one time?
Stomachs must not work too hard.
Do you try to make him eat when he is too tired or angry
to be hungry?
Food will not digest then.
Remember that people digest food well when they are
happy and quiet.
Try to make every meal a happy, quiet time.

Tommy was very happy. He had come to the summer camp. He
liked the boys; he liked the long automobile ride; he liked the director;
and he liked the camp in the big trees near the river.
Then came dinner. The boys sat on benches at long tables. First
came soup. Tommy said, “ I don’t like soup.”
No one paid attention.
Then came stew, with meat, potatoes, onions, and carrots. Tommy
said, “ I don’t like stew. Please give me some chops.”
The director said, “ That’s too bad. To-night we have stew.
All the other boys ate their stew. Tommy ate nothing. No one
paid attention. Tommy said, “ I want to go home. My mother gives
me what I like.” He went to bed and cried.
For breakfast they had corn-meal mush and cocoa. Tommy did
not like corn meal nor cocoa. He wanted coffee. Again he did not eat.
No one paid attention. Tommy was very hungry and unhappy.
For lunch they had vegetable salad and rice. Tommy never ate
vegetables at home, but he was very hungry. He forgot he did not like
vegetables. He ate everything on his plate.
After that he ate everything that came on the table and was very
happy at camp.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Does Your Child Have Good Food Habits?


1. When Johnny does not want to eat his luncheon, what do
you do?
2. If Mary says she does not like carrots, how do you teach her to
eat them?
3. Do you make the table more attractive and eating more pleas­
ant for the children by sometimes buying pretty dishes at the 10-cent
store especially for them?
4. How can you arrange your work so as to allow your child time
enough to feed himself?
5. How do you teach your child to feed himself?
6. What have you done to make mealtime in your home a quiet,
happy time? Are there other things you can do to make it even

Everyday Problems of the Everyday Child, by D. A. Thom, M. D.,
pp. 50-70. D. Appleton & Co. New York, 1927.
Child Management, by D. A. Thom, M. D., pp. 8-10. United States Chil­
dren’s Bureau Publication No. 143 (Revised). Washington, 1928.
Out of Babyhood into Childhood, pp. 8-10. United States Children’s
Bureau Folder No. 10. Washington, 1929.
Keeping the Well Baby Well, pp. 3, 4. United States Children’s Bureau
Folder No. 9. Washington, 1928.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Lesson N o. 3.— H O W DOES Y O U R CHILD GET Y O U R
A T T E N T IO N ?

Children want attention very much.
They will do anything to get attention.
Sometimes they do something bad to get attention.
They are punished. That hurts. But they do not like to
get no attention at all.
It is worth the hurt to get attention.
That seems queer, but it is true.
Many children do naughty things and run so that some one
will run after them. They are the center of attention then.
There is another way to be the center of attention.
It is to do nice things.
Then people like us.
W e grown-ups want people to like us. W e want people to
like the things we do. W e want them to show us that they like
those things.
Children are just the same as we are.
W e'm ust remember to show them we are pleased when
they do nice things.
Show them you are glad when they try to feed themselves
and when they try to dress themselves. Perhaps they do not
do it well. That does not matter.
Show them you are glad when they try to help you set the
table, or sweep, or put things away.
Show them you are glad when they do quickly what you tell
If the children see that they can get attention by being good,
they will be good.
And they will be busy and happy, too,
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

H ow Does Your Child Get Your Attention?


Does your child kick and scream if you do not let him do
what he wants? W e call this a tantrum.
Perhaps he has tantrums because he does not get enough
Perhaps he does not get enough play.
Children need much sleep and much play.
Perhaps your child has enough sleep and enough play, and
still he has tantrums.
Perhaps you talk loud and get angry. Then your child
does what you do.
Perhaps you will not let him do things for himself. Chil­
dren want to be independent. If you will not let them do
things for themselves, strong children will kick and scream.
You are making them naughty when you do not let them try to
do things alone. Remember it does not matter if they do not
do as well as you. They will learn after a while.
When your child kicks and screams, do you let him do what
he wants so that he will be quiet?
If you do, he thinks, “ When I scream, I get what I want.
I will always scream.”
A baby is never too young to learn this. Rabies 2 weeks
old learn it.
If the child sees that you pay no attention when he kicks
and screams or whines he will think, “ That is no good. I will
stop and try something else.”
He will always stop if he gets no attention.
Sometimes it takes a long, long tiiiie to make him believe
that you will not pay attention.
Rut keep on with what you are doing. Act as if nobody
were in the room. In the end the child will stop.
Next time he will try it again, but he will stop sooner. After
a while* if you never pay attention to the tantrums, he will lose
the bad habit.
It all depends on you and on the people who live around
you. Children learn from what they see and hear around
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


Are You Training Your Child to be Happy?

Molly was a happy little girl. She had so many nice things to do.
Sometimes she asked her mother for something, and her mother
said “ No.” Then she played with something else.
One day new neighbors came to live next door. They had a little
girl just as old as Molly. But she was not a happy little girl. She cried
and screamed until she got what she wanted.
Molly could hear her. She could hear the mother say, “ Yes, yes;
only stop that noise I ”
Molly thought, “ That is the way to get things. I will do that, too.”
She said to her mother, “ Please give me some candy.”
Mother said, “ You may have some after supper.”
Molly began to cry. “ But I want it n ow ! ” she said.
“ Not till supper,” said mother.
Then Molly started to kick and scream the way the other little girl
did. But mother did not say, “ Yes, yes; only stop that n o ise!” She
picked Molly up, put her into her room, and said, “ Stay here till you
are a nice girl.” Then she went out and closed the door.
Molly thought, “ That is not a good way to get things. I won’t
try it any more.” She stopped crying.
Mother came and smiled at her.
They both were very happy.

Molly smiled back.

1. What do you do or say when your child acts naughty before
company? W hy does your child act naughty before company?
2. When your child tries to wash his hands and face to surprise
you, and dirties a nice, clean towel, how do you show him that you
are glad he tried to please you?
3. What do you do if your child whines or cries when you are
getting ready to leave him for a few hours?
4. Do you let your little baby get what he wants by crying? What
do you do when he cries hard to be picked up?
5. Do you stay with your baby or your little child when you put
him to bed at night? What should you do?
6. How often does your child have a temper tantrum? How do
you manage it? What should you do?
Everyday Problems of the Everyday Child, by D. A. Thom, M. D.,
pp. 34-37 and 135-149. D. Appleton & Co., New York, 1927.
Child Management, by D. A. Thom, M. D., pp. 25-32. United States
Children’s Bureau Publication No. 143 (Revised). Washington,
W hy Sleep? p. 3. United States Children’s Bureau Folder No. 11.
Washington, 1929.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Lesson N o. 4.— DOES Y O U R CHILD A L W A Y S O B E Y

Do you think you should expect your little child to obey
you always?
A little child 2 or 3 years qjd will not always obey you.
You must not expect him to.
He does not always understand what you expect of him.
He is not old enough to know why he should obey you.
He will learn as he grows.
Do not nag him about little things that do not matter very
Always ask for obedience from a very small child in
important things.
Such things are:
Going to bed and getting up at a certain time.
Going to the toilet regularly.
Picking up his toys.
Eating his meals regularly.
Never playing in the street or crossing it without
low must decide what the most important things are.
See that your child knows what things you think are
Then always be consistent in asking for obedience. Being
consistent means doing the same thing in the same way every
Then your child will learn to obey in little things too.
116952°— SO------ 2
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis



Are You Training Your Child to be Happy?

Perhaps sometimes your child does not obey you.
you ever tried to think why he does not?


1. Often he does not hear you at all when he is
playing hard.
Be sure he is listening before you tell him what
to do.
Be sure he has heard you before you punish
him for not obeying.
2. Perhaps you tell him to
you are not careful to see that
forget about it. He soon le#rns
to do what you say because you

do something. Then
he has done it. You
that he does not need
often forget.

3. Perhaps he acts cross and ugly because he is
sleepy and tired.
Did he get his afternoon nap?
Does he go to bed at the same time every day?
Children must have much sleep if they are
to be happy and good.
4. Do you let him do something one day and pun­
ish him for doing it the next day?
That will make him think, “ Perhaps she
won’t punish me this time. I’ll take a chance.”
You see he does not know when to believe you.
But he does know that he need not obey you
all the time.
5. Do you tell him you will give him something
nice if he will obey?
This is a bribe.
You are teaching him the habit of not obeying
until he gets some pay out of it.
You are teaching him to wait for a bribe.
6. Do you try to scare him to make him do what
you want?
This is called a threat. Then one of two things
may happen:
He gets used to threats and stops minding
because he knows they will not hurt him .' He
knows you do not do what you threaten.
Or you make him afraid of everything.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Does Your Child Always O bey You?


7. Do you ever break your promises to the chil­
Do you trust people who do not keep their
promises? Children are just the same.
When you do not keep your promises you
teach them not to trust you.
They do not believe you.
They do not obey people they can not trust.
8. A child likes excitement very much. He often
does things he knows are naughty because it is exciting
to see you get angry. He thinks this a good reason not
to obey.
9. Some things are important to parents, but chil­
dren do not think they are important at all. Other
things are important to children. Children do not
think it is important to come to dinner when they are
busy building a block house.
When you give a command to your child, try
to give him some time to finish what he is doing.
Warn him 5 minutes before dinner is ready or
5 minutes before bedtime has come. Then he
can finish his play and pick up his toys before he
must do what you want.
10. Do you tell your child to do things he really
can not do?
A little child can not sit still very long.
He can not keep from making a noise most of
the time.

Little Teddy was making a fairyland in the back yard. He had
found some pretty stones and some birds’ feathers, and some tiny flowers
and leaves. He was building the loveliest fairyland.
He was singing to himself beause he was so happy. He was so
busy working that he did not hear anything. He did not hear the dog
bark. He did not hear the “ toot-toot ” of the automobiles. He did not
hear his mother call him.
She thought he did. She thought he was naughty because he did
not come.
She ran down into the yard and stepped right into the middle of
She took Teddy by the arm and slapped him.
He cried very hard. He tried to tell her he really didn’t hear. He
tried to tell her about fairyland. But she did not understand.
She did not know that she had hurt him very much.
It was not the slap that hurt. She had broken his beautiful fairy­
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


Are You Training Your Child to be Happy?

Think hard.
If you promise your child something, do you always give it
to him?
Do you always punish him when you say you will?
Do you always carry out your threats ? A threat is a prom­
ise that something bad will happen.
Do you tell him the policeman will take him to jail? This
is a threat. You know it is not true.
Your child will soon find out that it is not true. He will
not believe you any more.
If you do not always do what you say you will, your baby
will soon learn that you do not mean what you say.
He will not care what you say, because he does not believe
you. So, of course, he will not mind you.

There was a mother who tried very hard to keep her promises
If she said “ No,” she stuck to it.
If she said “ Yes,” she stuck to it.
One day she said “ N o ” to what the child asked for, but he kept
on teasing for it. They were at a party.
At last she said, “ Don’t you know that when mother says ‘ No ’
she never, never changes her m in d ?”
“ Once you did,” answered her little boy.
You see, he never forgot that one time she did not keep her word.
He thought, “ We are at a party. She doesn’t want me to make trouble.
She will let me have it as she did once before to make me stop teasing.
I will tease till I get it again.”
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Does Your Child Always O bey You?


Sometimes you tell your child to do something.
no attention.

He pays

You tell him again, louder. He pays no attention.
You tell him again, with your voice very loud and angry.
Then he does it.
He knows by your voice that it is time to obey. He has
learned to tell by your voice just how long he can disobey. He
knows it does not matter how loud you talk when your voice
is not angry. He knows he must obey quickly when your voice
is angry. Something will happen to him if he does not obey
Do you talk loud in your home? That makes your home
very noisy. Noise is bad for people, both for children and for
grown-ups. It makes them nervous.
They get angry more quickly; and when they are nervous
and angry they will soon be naughty.
It is good always to speak quietly. The children will listen.
They will not be nervous or angry.
Some parents teach their children to obey the first time
they speak. They do not speak loud. They do not speak
angrily. They speak quietly, but their children have learned
to obey the first time. They have learned it is better for them,
because nice things happen when they mind quickly and bad
things happen when they do not. Perhaps, if they obey, they
may go on an errand with daddy. Perhaps mother will tell a
story. Perhaps she will kiss her little child and say, “ You make
mother so happy.” Perhaps she will say, “ You may ask
Tommy to come over and play.”
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


Are You Training Your Child to he Happy?

Some children never do anything by themselves. They
never think for themselves. They have to wait until somebody
tells them what to do. They can not plan their own play and
When they grow big they do not know how to be inde­
pendent. They get into trouble because they do whatever
people tell them. They do not know how to think for
You must teach your children to think for themselves what
is the right thing to do. They must learn to plan their own
play and work. Even if their plan does not seem best to you,
let them work it out themselves. Praise them for trying all
Three-year-old Jimmy was very happy. He was giving his mother
a surprise. He was washing the dishes for her while she was making
the beds.
He thought how happy she would be. She would say, “ Such a
big boy I” and hug him.
Suddenly a big cup fell out of his little hand. Crash! Bang!
Mother came rushing in.
She did not stop to think that her baby was trying to help. She
spanked him because he had broken a cup.
After that he was afraid to help. He was afraid to do anything
unless his mother had told him to do it. She always got angry if he
tried to do anything alone.
When he went to school, he always did what people told him.
He did what the boys told him.
There were bad boys around. They told him to do bad things. He
was afraid not to do them.
Everyone thought he was a bad boy.
He was obeying, but he did not think for himself whether he was
doing the right thing. He did what anybody told him.
One day some boys told him to help them steal some money from
a store.
He did not want to steal, but he thought he must do as he was told.
The boys made him go into the store and take the money while they
stayed in a safe place.

Are you teaching your child to think for himself?
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Does Your Child Always O bey You?


1. Your little boy enjoys reading very much. He is busy reading
his book when you tell him dinner is ready. He does not hear you.
What do you do or say?
2. You have taken your child to see a movie or hear a concert that
he can not understand. You ask him again and again to be quiet and
sit still. W hy does he disobey you?
3. You may need to have your little girl help you with the baby
when you are. very busy. The other little girls are calling for her to
play with them. How do you make her feel happy about helping with
the baby? What would you do if she disobeyed you and went out to
play instead of helping?
4. What do you promise your child when he is good?
naughty? Do you always see that he gets these things?

When he is

5. Do you expect your child to obey you?
6. Do you ever say to his father before him that you can not make
him obey you?
7. Do you delay punishment until his father comes home? W hy is
this not a good thing to do? Do you think your child will ever learn to
obey you if he knows that you think you can not manage him?
8. Do you let your child try to do things all alone?

Everyday Problems of the Everyday Child, by D. A. Thom, M. D., pp.
116-134. D. Appleton & Co. New York, 1927.
Child Management, by D. A. Thom, M. D., pp. 33-35.
dren’s Bureau Publication No. 143 (Revised).

United States Chil­
Washington, 1928.

Out of Babyhood into Childhood, p. 5. United States Children’s Bureau
Folder No. 10. Washington, 1929.
W hy Sleep? p. 4. United States Children’s Bureau Folder No. 11.
ington, 1929.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


Lesson N o. 5.— H O W P A R E N T S TE A C H T H E IR

Is your child naughty? Is he selfish? Does he show off?
Perhaps you have made him like this.
Are you nicer to one child than to another?
Do you try to make children do things that are not impor­
tant just to show that you are the boss? Children do not want
to mind then. They feel just as grown-up people feel.
Do you laugh at your child sometimes when he is naughty
and sometimes when he is good? How will he know which
thing to do to please you?
Do you punish the children when you are angry? lh a t
makes them angry, too. They will do still naughtier things.
Do you punish too hard? If you do, the children will lie
so as to get out of being punished.
Do you leave things around that children want to have?
You make it easy, then, for the children to take them. You
make it easy for them to do wrong.
Do you always speak and act the truth? If a friend calls
up and asks you to go to the movies, and your boy is answering
the telephone, do you say to him, “ I don’t want to go. Tell her
I have a headache ” ? Perhaps the next morning your boy will
**have a headache ” when it is time to go to school.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

How Parents Teach Their Children to be Naughty


Does your child whine and cry when it is time to go to bed?
Perhaps you have been putting him to bed in the daytime to
punish him. Perhaps you have let him stay up late some night
to see visitors or to go with you to a movie. He does not want
to go to bed because he thinks he will miss some fun.
Are you letting your little child grow up and begin to be
independent of you. Or are you trying to keep him a baby?
Children want to do things for themselves. If you will not
let your child try, he may kick and scream. Then you are
making him naughty.
Some parents do not stop to think that their little one is
trying to help. They only see a broken cup or something spilled
on the floor. Then they scold the child and make him stop
helping. He learns it is safer for him not to help. When you
want him to help later he will not do it. You will find that he
is selfish and lazy. Who made him selfish and lazy?
Do you talk about your child before him?
Most parents do.
They think the child is not paying attention. They think he
is too little to understand. Many times they do not think at all.
But children do pay attention and they do understand—
even very little children—even babies.
Your Johnny is 3 years old. Perhaps he heard you say,
“ No, I can’t go so early, because Johnny cries and won’t go to
sleep unless I sit with him.” Then he will think, “ She says I
can make her stay with me. I will always cry when she starts
to go out. Then I can make her stay with me all the time/*
You have taught him this because you said before him that
you had to obey him when he cried.
Another day at breakfast you say, “ Father, can you make
Johnny eat his cereal? I can’t.”
Johnny has two ears. He hears every word you say.
He is a smart little boy. He knows what you mean.
He says to himself, “ Mother says she can’t make me eat my
cereal. I don’t have to mind. I can just say, ‘ I won’t.* ”
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


Are You Training Your Child to be Happy?

Johnny goes with you to the well-baby clinic. He hears
you say to the nurse, “ He doesn’t like vegetables. I can’t make
him eat them.”
He is with you when you go to the doctor’s, and he hears
you say, “ I can’t make him take that medicine.”
Do you expect Johnny to obey you after he has heard you
say all these things? You have told people again and again
that you can not make him obey. He has heard you. So he
believes you can not make him obey.
Of course he will disobey you.

You have taught him to.

Are you going to go on talking before him?
You have a younger child, only 2 years old. Do you talk
before her, too?
Children 2 years old can not understand your words
always, but they can understand your voice and your face.
They know when you are talking about them. They know
when you expect them to obey and when you expect them to
disobey. They can tell from your voice.
Sometimes you tell some one about a smart thing your
child has done.
He hears you, of course. He thinks, “ I’m a smart b oy ! My
mother says so! ”
After that every time he says something he looks around
to see if you are paying attention. He wants you to talk about
him some more. He thinks everything he does is smart.
Is that the kind of child you want him to be ?
Of course you want to tell your husband and your friehds
the funny things he says. But wait until he is out playing or
in bed. Then he will not hear you talking about him.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

How Parents Teach Their Children to be Naughty


Does your child say to you sometimes, “ Mother says I can’t
go, but I can, can’t I? You tell her I can ” ?
What do you say?
Do you say, “ Let him go. It’s all right ” ?
Or do you say, “ If your mother said *No,’ it’s *No.’ What
she says, I say ” ?
Which do you think is better for the child?
Suppose you said, “ Yes, you may go.” Does that teach the
child to obey his mother? Does that teach him to respect her?
Does not that make him think, “ It does not matter what
mother says; I do not have to obey her ” ?
If you think mother has made a mistake, or if she thinks
you have made a mistake, talk about it together where the child
will not hear you.
If you talk about the children before them and if you do not
agree, they will learn to disobey one of you. You do not want

It was supper time. Mr. and Mrs. Green and little Sally were sitting
at the table.
Sally was only 4 years old, so she had some custard for her dessert
Her father and mother had pie.
Sally saw the pie and began to cry.
want some pie. I won’t eat my supper!”

“ I don’t like my supper.


Her father said, “ Here, I’ll give you some of my pie.”
“ No,” said Mrs. Green, “ pie is not good for children.
learn not to cry for things.”

She must

But Mr. Green did not listen. “ I told her I would give her some of
my pie. Here is some. Now stop crying.”
Mrs. Green tried to stop him. “ No, no.
The doctor says it is not good for her.”


She must not have pie.

Mr. Green got angry. “ A little pie can’t hurt her. She is m y
I had pie when I was a child,” and he put the pie on Sally’s

Sally had been listening to every word. She thought, “ Now I know
how to get things. If mother says no, I’ll wait until father comes
home. Then I will cry. He will give it to me when I cry hard.”
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


Are You Training Your Child to be Happy?

1. Do you and your husband ever amuse yourselves or your
friends by teasing your child? What do you think would be the result?
W ill it make your child happy and friendly; or will it make him sullen
and cross?
2. What do you do if your child “ shows off ” before your com­
pany? Do you punish him in front of the company or do you take him
to his own room and pay no attention to him? Which is better?
3. Father comes home and brings Johnny a nice candy toy.
Mother has promised to punish Johnny by not letting him have candy
for a week. What do father and mother say? Where do they say it?
4. If you always give your children what they want when they
cry for it, your love is selfish, isn’t it? Gan you think of any other
kinds of selfish love?
5. When should you pay most attention to your child? When he
is good or when he is naughty? W hy should you not talk about your
child before him?
6. When you laugh at something your child has done, what does
he think?
7. How can you show that you are pleased in a better way than
Everyday Problems of the Everyday Child, by D. A. Thom, M. D.,
pp. 193-206 and 237-256. D. Appleton & Co. New York, 1927.
Out of Babyhood into Childhood, pp. 4, 5. United States Children’s
Bureau Folder No. 10. Washington, 1929.
W hy Sleep? p. 6. United States Children’s Bureau Folder No. 11.
Washington, 1929.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Lesson N o. 6.— W H Y AND H O W DO Y O U PUNISH

Do you punish him because you think he is naughty and
you want to make him good? Are you sure that he is really
naughty and not just playing some game or trying to help?
Do you punish him because what he is doing annoys you
and you want him to stop?
Do you punish him just to “ pay him back ” because he has
done something naughty?
Do you punish him just because you are tired, and so get
angry easily?
These are not good reasons for punishing him.
They are not fair to the child.
They do not make him good.
They do not make him want to be good.
They only teach him to keep out of your way when you
are tired or angry.
There is only one good reason to punish a child. That is
to make him understand that he must not do the naughty thing
But before you punish you must be sure that what he is
doing is really naughty. It is not naughty for a child to be
noisy. It is not naughty for him to want to move about. It is
not naughty for him to want to get hold of things.
Children need to move and make a noise. They need to
hold things in their hands to find out about them.
Of course they do not need to be too noisy. They do not
need to be rough. You must stop them if they do these things
too much, but you must be very sure they are, too much before
you stop them.
Do you punish your child again and again for doing the
same naughty thing? Do you have to punish your child often
for different things? If so, he is probably being naughty just
to attract your attention. If you will give him attention when
he is good and pay no attention to him when he is naughty, he
will stop being naughty to get attention.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


Are You Training Your Child to be Happy?

Do you punish him when he is fretful because he is sleepy?
Perhaps he has not been going to bed early enough; or perhaps
he does not sleep in the afternoons.
Many times children are punished because their mothers
are tired and cross. Is that fair?
When people are tired, little things make them cross. The
baby plays with the kitchen pans one day, and his mother is
glad. She says, “ What a good baby! He plays all alone so
nicely! ”
Next day mother has done much washing and is very tired.
Baby is playing with the pans again; the noise makes her cross.
Perhaps she takes the pans away; or perhaps she slaps the baby.
Is that fair? The baby was doing the same to-day as he
was yesterday, when mother said he was good. He was not
banging the pans too much.
Did that mother punish because the baby was naughty or
because she herself was tired and nervous?
A mother should take time for some rest each day. Then
, she will not be tired and nervous. Then she will not punish
the baby so much.
A mother was whipping her boy very hard. A friend said
to her, “ Does it do him any good to whip him so hard? ”
The mother answered, “ Maybe it doesn’t do him any good,
but it does me lots of good.”
Is that the way we ought to think about punishment?
Children understand that they must be punished when they
are naughty. They know when a punishment is fair.
They know it is fair to have to play alone if they have been
teasing the other children.
They know it is fair not to have a new toy when they have
been careless with the old one and broken it.
They know it is fair not to be given dessert or candy when
they have not eaten their vegetables.
They know it is fair not to be allowed to go to town with
mother if they have not stopped playing in time to get ready.
They do not like these punishments, of course, but they
do know that they are fair.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

W h y and How Do You Punish Your Child?



Some punishments are better than others.


spank your child?
scold and scream at him?
shut him in the closet?
keep him from outdoor play?
Do you put him in his room all by himself and shut the
Do you send him to bed if he is tired?
Do you pay no attention to him?
Do you refuse to let him have some pleasure or treat?
A wise mother does not need to spank or slap her child
very of ten. She does not shut her child in the closet. She does
not scold or scream at him. She does not keep him from out­
door play.
She knows better ways than that.
Perhaps her Johnny has been hurting the children he plays
with. Then he can not play with them until he is ready to play
nicely. If he forgets and hurts them again, he has to play alone
some more.
Johnny’s mother will do this again and again until he learns
he must not hurt the children he plays with. He will learn this
after a while because, of course, he wants to play with them.
Children do not like to be alone.
Perhaps Johnny has not come straight home from school;
or perhaps he does not come in when mother calls him. When
he does come, she says, “ You did not come in on time, so you
can not have any dessert to-night.”
She does not say, “ To-morrow you can not go out to play,”
because she knows Johnny needs to play out in the fresh air.
It would be bad for him to go without play, and it would be bad
for him to go without fresh air. It will not be bad for him to
go without dessert.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


Are You Training Your Child to be Happy?

Sometimes children do naughty things because they are
tired. A tired child is like a sick child. He needs to go to bed.
Then he can rest and be quiet. He will not be naughty when
he is rested.
A baby who cries because he is hungry is not naughty. He
stops crying when he is fed. It is just the same with a tired
Some children are naughty just to get attention. The best
punishment for them is not to pay attention to them. That is
the way to punish temper tantrums and fussiness about food.
The best way of all is to keep your child from needing to
be punished.
You can do this if you start right when your child is a
Pay attention to him when he is good. Do not wait until
he is naughty.
Always do what you promise.
Speak and act the truth to your child.
Do not threaten even a baby with punishments that can
not be carried out.
Always be consistent in treatment of a child. Do not laugh
at or praise him for something to-day and scold or punish for
the same thing to-morrow.
Be sure your child is really naughty before you punish him.
Do not expect him to sit still or be quiet all the time. Let
him have plenty of outdoor play where he can run and jump
and climb.
If you need to punish him, the best way is to take some
pleasure or treat away from him, or to leave him in a room by
himself and pay no attention to him. He should understand
that he must not do the naughty thing again. Do not laugh at
him when he is naughty.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

W h y and H ow Do You Punish Your Child?


K e e p y o u r ch ild so b u s y w ith in terestin g things to d o that
h e w ill n o t h a v e tim e to be n au gh ty.

If you do not like what the child is doing, give him some­
thing else to do. Do not scold him. The things in your house
are the most interesting toys your baby has. He wants to find
out all about them. Let him have the things he can not break.
Put away the things he should not have so that he will not see
them. Then he will not a^k for them, and you will not have to
say no.
1. You take your little boy to visit one of your friends. He talks
too much. He breaks a dish. Do you punish him? When? W hy?
How? Whose fault was it that the dish was broken?
2. If you do not punish him, what do you do to get him to act
3. Name the things you do to punish your children.
ishment do you use for each kind of naughtiness?

What pun­

Everyday Problems of the Everyday Child, by D. A. Thom, M .D.,
pp. 116-134. D. Appleton & Co. New York, 1927.
Child Management, by D. A. Thom, M. D., pp. 33-35. United States
Children’s Bureau Publication No. 143 (Revised). Washington.
Out of Babyhood into Childhood, p. 6. United States Children’s Bureau
Folder No. 10. Washington, 1929.
W hy Sleep? p. 4. United States Children’s Bureau Folder No 11.
Washington, 1929.
116952°— 30------ 3
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


Did anyone ever say to you, “ Aren’t you feeling well? You
look tired ” ?
Then you felt tired, didn’t you?
The question put it into your mind. It suggested to you
that you were tired.
Sometimes you get excited.
Sometimes you get frightened. Then the baby gets excited
and frightened too.
Babies know when you are excited or frightened. They
hear it when you speak. They feel it when you hold them.
So you must always keep quiet and cool. Then the baby
will be quiet and happy.
Do you say to your child, “ Go and have a good tim e” ?
You are putting the happy thought of a good time into his mind.
Do you say to him, “ Don’t run and play too hard. You
will get excited and stay awake to-night ” ? You are suggesting
to him not to go to sleep.
Many things get into our minds in that way.
Good ways to think and bad ways to think can be put into
our minds.
Mothers and fathers must be careful to suggest to their
children only good ways of thinking.
Do you say in front of your child, “ Johnny looks tired. I
think he must have a headache ” ?
Do you ask your child, “ Do you feel tired? Have you a
headache? ”
He will see that you are worrying about his health. He will
worry himself, and that will make him worse.
You can help to make your child sickly or nervous. Do not
talk about the sickness or nervousness of anyone before him.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

What Suggestion Can Do


If you think your child is really tired or has a headache,
put him to bed. Tell him why. Say, “ You are acting like a
tired child so you must take a nap and rest.”
If he is really tired or sick, he will probably go to sleep.
Keep the other children away from him. When he/wakes, let
him amuse himself quietly. Perhaps he is making believe he
is sick or tired so he can get attention.
If he is not tired or sick, he will not want to stay in bed
and amuse himself. It is no fun to be in bed in the daytime.
He will not try that trick again.
You can help to make your child strong and healthy. Sug­
gest strength and health to him when you talk to him and when
you talk before him.

Harry came to play in Dick’s yard while his mother went to town.
Dick said, “ Let’s play horse.”
Harry said, “ My mother says I get a headache when I run.”
“ Then’s let’s make mud pies,” said Dick.
“ I mustn’t get dirty. My mother says dirt is germs and germs
make you sick,” answered poor Harry.
“ Let’s build a store with those big boxes,” said Dick.
“ All right,” said Harry, and they played happily until Harry’s
mother came for him.
As soon as she saw him she said, “ Oh, darling, you have been
playing too hard. How do you fe e l? ”
Harry forgot about the good time he had had.
“ I have a pain right here,” and he put his hand on his stomach.
His mother shook her head. “ He is such a nervous child,” she
said to Dick’s mother; “ his stomach gets upset every time he plays
hard. Come home, darling, and get rested.”
Harry’s mother put it into his mind that he had a pain; she sug­
gested the pain to him when he really wasn’t sick.
After Harry went home, Dick’s mother said, “ I am glad that all
the boys and girls in our family are well and strong, Dick, so you can
all run and jump and play hard. Come and have your dinner now. You
must be hungry after your morning’s play outdoors. After your nap
you can go out again.”
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


Are You Training Your Child to be H appy?

You can make good suggestions.
You can say, “ My baby eats his cereal very well.”
The baby will know that you are pleased.
He will watch your face. He will listen to your voice. He
will eat more.
You can say, “ Johnny is learning to eat vegetables just like
his big brother,” or “ Annie is getting to be a big girl because she
has learned to put on her own shoes.” Johnny will try even
harder to eat everything. Annie will try to button her clothes
herself. They know that you like them to try.
You can say when you weigh Johnny at the clinic, “ Johnny
is getting to be such a big, strong boy. He drinks his milk and
eats his food just as his father does.” Johnny will like to be
like his father. He will do what he sees his father do.
You can make good suggestions also by what you do. Little
children like to copy you and try to do just what “ grown­
ups ” do.
If you like and eat vegetables and cereal every day, your
children will copy you.
If you are happy and sing at your work, your children will
be happy and try to sing at their play.
1. If your child tells you when he awakens that his head hurts or
that he is too tired to go to school,.what do you do? Does what you do
depend on how often he complains?
2. If some one in your family is on a special diet, how do you
teach your child that he can eat everything that is put before him?
3. What do you do when your child falls on the street and comes
to you crying?
4. Can you think of a good suggestion which you have made to
your child to-day? Can you think of a bad one?
5. Have you ever noticed that your child listens to you when you
are talking to some one else about him? What will he think of what
you say?
Everyday Problems of the Everyday Child, by D. A. Thom, M. D.,
pp. 31, 69, and 96-99. D. Appleton & Co. New York, 1927.
Child Management, by D. A. Thom, M. D., pp. 2, 4, 5, 9, 10, and 16.
United States Children’s Bureau Publication No. 143 (Revised).
Washington, 1928.
Out of Babyhood into Childhood, p. 2. United States Children’s Bureau
Folder No. 10. Washington, 1929.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Lesson No. 8.— IS Y O U R CHILD JEALOUS, A FR AID ,
OR U N T R U T H F U L ?

Nobody likes a jealous person.
A jealous person is never happy.
He may feel lonely and helpless. He may feel angry and
full of hate.
A jealous person is selfish. He is angry when others get
ahead of him. He does not work well with others. He does not
do his best because he thinks everyone is against him.
You can make Bobby jealous—by pretending to love the
new baby better—by saying, “ Why aren’t you a good boy like
Sammy? ”
You can keep Bobby from feeling jealous. Tell him when
a new baby is coming. Tell him how he can love the baby and
care for him.
Tell him how the baby will love him. Let him help you get
things ready for the baby.
Praise him whenever you can.
Treat all the children alike.



Tony was 5 years old when the new baby came.
No one had told him about the baby.
The baby took all his mother’s time. When Tony said, “ I want to
go for a walk,” his mother said, “ I have no time. I must bathe the
Tony was very lonely and unhappy. He wanted his mother to pay
attention to him. He hated his baby brother.
When his father came home, he teased Tony. He said, “ You’re not
my baby any more. I have another baby now.”
Tony cried. He grew more and more jealous.
He thought, “ My mother and father loved me before this baby
came. I will kill the baby. Then they will love me again.”
He got the hammer and tried to hit the baby. But his mother saw
him and took the hammer from him.
She saw he was jealous and she felt very sorry. She said, “ Tony,
of course I love you. I love you just as much as the baby. You are
my big boy. You must help me take care of the baby. Then the baby
will love you, too.”
Tony was happy again.
Now he loves his baby brother. He is not jealous any more.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


Are You Training Your Child to be Happy?

Do you ever scare your child by saying, “ The doctor cuts
the fingers off little boys who touch things ” ?
Do you sometimes say, “ The policeman will get you if you
are not quiet ” ?
Or do you say, “ Mother will ask the ragman to take you
away in his big bag ” ?
You are making your small boy afraid of people who are
his friends.
He will also soon learn that what you say is not true. He
will not trust you.
Teach him to know that the doctor always wants to make
him feel better. The policeman will help him to cross the
street. The ragman wants to show him his nice friendly dog.
Do you make your child afraid by saying to him, “ Look
out, you will fall and hurt yourself,” when you see him trying
to climb on a fence or a ladder?
It is better to teach your child to like to try new things.
Teach him to climb up the stairs alone. Then teach him to
climb down alone. Then he will not be afraid of falling, and
you need not be afraid.
Do you ever let him hear you say, “ Johnny is afraid of the
dark just as I am,” or “ Johnny is afraid of dogs—he gets it from
his father ” ? Of course, Johnny will be afraid of the dark or of
dogs if you suggest to him that he is.
When your child was a little baby he was not afraid of
the dark. Do not let him become afraid either by scaring him
with loud noises in the dark or by suggesting that he may be
Do not use punishments which make children afraid of
the dark. Punish them by keeping away something they like
or by leaving them all alone in a lighted room. Children do
not like to be left all alone. When they are good they can come
and play in the room with you.
There are some things you must teach your child to be
afraid of. He must learn to be afraid of getting run over. He
must learn to be afraid of the hot stove. Fie must learn to be
careful of things that can hurt him.
Try to help your child to understand the things he fears.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Is Your Child Jealous, Afraid, or Untruthful?


Some people think that when children say something that
is not exactly true, it is a lie. They think that all lies are just
the same.
That is a mistake. There are different kinds of lies. One
kind is the lie to get other people into trouble. Thé person who
tells this kind of lie is cruel. He is a coward, too.
Many children tell lies that are different from this. They
are not such bad lies. 'The children tell these lies because they
do not want to be punished for something they have done.
Such lies are not mean and cruel, because they are not told in
order to get other people into trouble. They are told to save
the children themselves.
W e need not be frightened about such lies, but we must
teach our children not to be afraid to tell what they have done.
We must teach them that we all pay for the bad things that
we do. We must show them that we are pleased if they tell
the truth.
Punishment must not be so severe that children will tell
lies to escape it. Whipping children, slapping them, and put­
ting them into dark closets are the kinds of punishment that
make them afraid and make them tell lies.
Sometimes children tell you they saw a fairy or a fox or
something else. You know they did not see this. Some mothers
get frightened and think their children are beginning to tell
These are not lies. They are little stories about things the
child likes to think of. Tell him that was a nice story. Tell
him you like to hear his nice story, but that he can make it still
nicer. He can say before he begins that he is going to tell a
make-believe story. Then he can tell you any funny thing he
One little girl told about some elephants she saw in the street.
Her father took her hand and said, “ I want to see them, too. Come,
show them to me.” Then she said, “ You couldn’t see them, daddy.
They are make-believe elephants.” He told her he liked make-believe
elephants, too, only he liked to know which kind she was talking about.
After that she always told him whether she was talking .about makebelieve things or about real things.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


Are You Training Your Child to be Happy?

Do you always fell the truth to your child? Do you some­
times threaten punishments which you know you can not carry
out? Can your child trust everything you do and say? If not,
you must expect that your child will also tell or act lies.
1. When one of your children is brighter or quicker than the
other, what do you do or say to keep them both happy?
2. You have planned a holiday at the seashore for your family.
How do you teach your little child to like to go swimming in the ocean?
3. If an older child is afraid, how do you teach him not to be
afraid? What has made him afraid?
4. Your little girl is on her way to school. She cries when a little
dog runs after her to play. How do you help her not to be afraid?
5. How do you find out if your child is the one who has broken
the window in the house next door? How do you punish him?
6. Your little girl tells the mother of her little friend about the
beautiful dresses you wear, the big parties you give, and the new car
her daddy drives. You know these things are not quite true. How do
you make her understand the difference between telling the neighbors
what she wishes her mother had done and what you really did do?

Everyday Problems of the Everyday Child, by D. A. Thom, M. D., pp.
150-181 and 248-261. D. Appleton & Co. New York, 1927.
Child Management, by D. A. Thom, M. D., pp. 18-24 and 36-38.
States Children’s Bureau Publication No. 143 (Revised).
ington, 1928.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


Lesson No. 9.— DOES Y O U R CHILD H A V E BAD

Three mothers were talking together about their children.
Mrs. White said, “ My little girl wets her bed every night. I
do not know how to stop it.”
Mrs. Smith said, “ I can tell you. My little boy used to wet
his bed. He was 3 years old. Every night he wet his bed.
Every day I had to dry the mattress. Every day I had to wash
the sheets.
“ My house never looked nice, because I could not make up
the bed until very late.
“ I was ashamed.
“ Then I took my little boy to the clinic. The doctor said
that he was not sick. He said, ‘ A child 3 years old is too big
to Wet his bed.’ He told me what to do.
“ First, I must not let him drink anything after 5 o’clock
in the afternoon.
“ Second, he must go to the toilet before going to bed. He
must go to bed at 7 o’clock.
“ Third, before I go to bed at 10 o’clock I must wake him up.
I must make sure he is awake. Then I must put him on the
“ I did this every night.
“ In the morning his bed was always dry.
“ No matter how tired or how busy I was, I always did this.
Now h§ has formed the habit of a dry bed.”
Mrs. Jones said, “ That is what the doctor told me, too.
Now my children never wet the bed any more. I do not let
them drink anything after 5 o’clock. I put them on the toilet
before they go to bed. I put them to bed early. Then I wake
them when I am ready to go to bed, and I put them on the toilet
again. I have no bad-smelling sheets to wash in the morning.
I can make the beds early.”
Mrs. White said, “ I shall start to do all that to-night.”
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


Are You Training Your Child to be Happy?

The next time she saw her friends she said, “ My little girl
has stopped that bad habit. Thank you for telling me what
to do.”
Do not scold your child because he wets the bed. This
will only make him worse. Praise him when he has kept his
bed dry.
Be sure that you help him by always waking him when
you go to bed and taking him to the toilet. If he is big enough,
let him go to the toilet alone after you have waked him. He
will learn to have dry nights instead of wet nights.
Does your child suck his thumb or his fingers?
Tiny babies do this because they like to suck anything that
goes into their mouths. Soon it becomes a habit. Some babies
start the habit when they are teething.
The best way to break the habit is this: Give the baby a
toy to hold that he can suck or bite on—a hard ring or rattle,
or a spoon if he is not too little. It must be clean, of course.
In this way a little baby will forget his fingers for a while. Next
time he will forget them longer. Keep on. Do not scold. Keep
him busy with interesting toys. Baby will forget about his
thumb when he has toys in his hands.
Have interesting toys and games for older children. Toys
and games that make them use both hands are best.
If your child has this habit, let him hold a toy while he
goes to sleep. Give him a different toy every night. Then he
will not ask to hold a certain toy. It is best for him to go to
sleep with nothing to hold, but perhaps a toy to take"to bed
will help him to forget his fingers.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Does Your Child Have Bad Physical Habits?


Nail biting comes when children are a little older. Break
up that habit in the same way.
Do not scold. Give the child interesting things to do.
Praise him when he tries and does well. Keep your nails clean
and smoothly cut. Let him see that you take good care of them.
Glean and file and polish every one of his nails that he does not
bite. Five-year-old children like this. Tell him how pretty
those fingers look. Give him a nail file for his very own so that
he can help when he does not bite his nails any more. Show
him that you can not make the nails that he bites look nice.
Do not worry about thumb sucking and nail biting. Per­
haps your child keeps biting his nails so that you will pay
attention to him.
1. Do you know anything else to do to break your child of the
habit of wetting the bed?
2. How would you get your child to help you in breaking this
3. Have you ever tried to find out why your child bites his nails
or sucks his fingers? Is he bashful? Is he nervous? Is he hungry? Is
he sleepy? Is there some other reason?
4. How can you get him to help you break him of this habit?

Parents worry sometimes because they see their child han­
dling or rubbing their sex organs.
Do not be upset if you see this. It is not true that this habit
makes children “ crazy.”
Instead, say to yourself, “ This is a habit I must break. I
must not scold. I must make him forget about it. I will let
him play till he is so tired he will go to sleep right away. If
he wakes too early to get up, I will have toys on his bed for
him to play with. I will never let him lie in bed with nothing
to do.”
If a boy is placed on his right side when he is put into
bed he is less likely to practice this habit.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


Are You Training Your Child to be H appy?

Giving him a toy to hold may help him to forget this
habit just as it helps a baby to forget about sucking his thumb.
Do not give him the same toy every night or he will think he
can not go to sleep unless he holds a certain one. After he
forgets about handling his sex organs, it is best for him to go
to sleep quietly with nothing to hold.
Keep him busy and happy through the day. Then he will
forget this habit just as he forgot to suck his thumb.
This habit is much like thumb sucking. Little children
want to find out about everything around them. They want
to put their hands on things, because* they learn much through
their fingers.
You know how little babies grab their toes and play with
them. They do the same with their hands. Sometimes a baby,
feeling over his body, gets a pleasant feeling. Then he will
try to get that feeling again.
It does not matter whether the pleasant feeling comes from
having his fingers in his mouth or from touching any other part
of his body. It is natural for him to want to do it again.
Sometimes children get a pleasant feeling by squeezing
their thighs together, or by straddling stair rails or arms of
chairs. They learn this by accident, and they may try it again.
Do not get excited about these things. Keep the child’s
body clean. See that his clothes are not too tight.
Stop these habits by giving your child other pleasant things
to do. He will forget the bad habits.
If he keeps on doing these things after you have tried to
make him forget, ask the doctor to examine him. Perhaps
there is something not quite right with the child’s body. The
doctor will make it right. Then you will be able to break the
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Does Your Child Have Bad Physical Habits?


A star chart helps a child to form a good habit and to
break a bad one.
Get a blue or a red pencil or some tiny gold stars.
Rule a paper like this—

M onday






Show the paper and pencil and the stars to your child. Ask
him if he would like to help you make a beautiful star chart.
Say, “ See, here is a space for to-day, and here is one for
to-morrow, and here for the next day, and next, and next.
To-morrow morning when you have kept your bed dry we will
put a beautiful gold star in this space. The next day ‘when
you have kept your bed dry we will put another star in this
space. And every day just the same until we will have a star
in every space. Then the chart will be yours to keep. If you
like, we can put it up on the wall. Up in the long space on top
we will write what you are going to do. ‘ I kept my bed dry.’ ”
If you can not buy gold stars, make a star with a red or
a blue pencil.
But remember, give him no star on the days he does not
keep his bed dry. And always give him a star when he does
keep it dry, even if he has been naughty in other ways.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


Are You Training Your Child to be H a p p y ?

Does your child eat his vegetables? You can help him to
form this habit by using a star chart. He can paste on a gold
star every day when he eats all his vegetables. Help him to
get a whole week of stars, then two weeks, then a month. He
will probably eat his vegetables always after that.
Sometimes it is good to promise a special treat when the
spaces are all filled. It helps, too, to show the chart to grand­
mother, or uncle, or some other grown-up person, at the end
of each week. Four weeks is a long time to a child.
Do not be discouraged if he does not get stars every day at
first. Talk about a week of stars at first; see if he can get a
star every day for a whole week. Show him you are proud of
him when he tries. When he does not get a star do not scold.
Say, “ I’m sorry about to-day, but I know you can get one to­
morrow. Soon you will be big enough to have a whole week
of stars.” Then another week, and another! Soon the month
will pass.
A star chart helps little children the most, but bigger chil­
dren like one, too, sometimes. It helps them to see just what
they have done. They can see they have done better this week
than last week. Or they can see, by the empty spaces, that they
must try harder to break the old habit, or it will beat them.
1. What is the greatest problem you have in training your child?
Would a star chart help you to solve this problem?
2. How many other ways can you think of to use a star chart?

Everyday Problems of the Everyday Child, by D. A. Thom, M. D., pp.
84-115. D. Appleton & Co. New York, 1927.
Child Management, by D. A. Thom, M. D., pp. 11-17 and 30-32.
States Children’s Bureau Publication No. 143 (Revised).
ington, 1928.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


Lesson No. 10.— A R E Y O U H ELPIN G Y O U R CHILD
TO G R O W U P ?

Have you ever stopped to think what kind of mind your
child has?
Is he very bright?
Is he quick but careless?
Is he slow but careful?
Is he quick with his head but slow with his hands?
Is he slow with his head but quick with his hands?
Is he slow in every way?
You must know these things. If you do not, perhaps you
will ask him to do things that he can not do.
A child who has a quick mind can do things when he is
much younger than a child who has a slow mind.
When you ask a child to do things he can not do, he be­
comes discouraged and afraid. That is a bad habit to form.
Perhaps your baby is bright and always moving. Do you
try to keep him quiet because he makes the house look untidy?
He can learn to do things only by doing them. Is it better to
have a baby whose mind is growing right or a house that is
always in order?
Perhaps you let him do anything he wants, so that your
house is always untidy. That is bad, too. He must learn not to
break things. He must learn to put his toys away in order.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


Are You Training Your Child to be H appy?

Perhaps he never finishes the things you have given him
to do. Have you given him too big a job ? A small child can not
stay on a job as long as you can. It is good to give him several
short jobs, not one long one. Try to make him understand that
his job is very important.
If he is not so bright as Johnny, remember that is not his
fault. Do not say, “ Why can’t you be like Johnny? ” He will
get discouraged and stop trying. Ask him to do the things he
can do. Let him know you are pleased when he does them.
Then he will want to do more and he will learn more. Every
person learns better and does more when he thinks he is doing
well. Help each child to do his best, and be proud of the best
each child can do.
Children are often smart in some things and slow in others.
Perhaps you have given your child good training in what he
does well and poor training in what he does badly. It is just
as smart for a child to dress himself alone as it is to sing a
Do you try to “ show off ” your baby? Do you try to push
him ahead too fast? Children must grow bigger and smarter.
They must not be pushed or they will grow all wrong like a
crooked plant.
You are afraid your child will think he is smart and will
want to “ show o ff” because he is bright. So you tell him
he is stupid. That is bad, too. He will believe you. He will
stop trying to learn what you want him to know. Always praise
him when he really tries. Tell him it is good and you are
Do you talk about your child's smartness or slowness be­
fore him? If he is bright, he will get conceited. If he is slow,
his feelings will be hurt.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

•Are You Helping Your Child to Grow Up?


Are you helping your child to understand the things around
Every day a child finds out about something new. He
wants to tell about it and ask questions about it. Do you say,
“ Go away, don’t bother me,” when he comes to tell you about
it? Soon he will not tell you what he is thinking, nor what is
happening to him. Then you will be sorry. He will be sorry,
too, for he would like to talk to you about his discoveries if
he thought you would understand.
If you do not know the answers to his questions, try to find
them. Get Jiis attention before you answer. Answer in words
he can understand.
How can you teach your child how to use his hands and
his body?
This is as important as teaching him to read and write.
He can begin this long before he goes to school.
You can let him use tools. Perhaps he will dull them or
break them. That is all right. He will soon learn to. use them
well. Of course you can do it better. But if you do it, how
can he learn?
He can learn to balance and control his body by climbing
stairs or a ladder or fence in the back yard, or by helping you
to serve the dessert at dinner.
He can learn to dress himself, if you give him clothes that
are easy to put on.
He can learn to wash his hands and face if you give him a
box to stand on in front of the washbasin.
When he finds that something is hard to do, do not say
before him, “ He takes after me. I never could learn to jump,”
or “ He takes after his father. He breaks everything he tries
to fix.”
When you say this you are teaching him that it is of no use
to try. Probably he could do it very well after a little while if
you let him try.
116952°—30----- 4
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


Are You Training Your Child to be Happy?

You can teach your child to be polite by being polite to him.
■Do you remember to say “ thank you ” when he gives you
Do you interrupt him when he is talking to you? You do
not like him to interrupt you.
Do you eat candy or things that he can not have when he
is in the room and not offer him some? You would not do this
to a grown person.
Children like to imitate the people they love. Imitate
means to do just what others do. Your child will be polite to
your friends if you treat him politely.
You can see that he has a chance to play with children of
his own age. If he is with grown people too much he is always
“ the baby.” If he plays always with much younger children
he will get too bossy and conceited. He needs to play with
children who want to do the same kind of things he does—
sometimes better, sometimes not so well.
You can read to him and tell him stories. You can get him
to read more to himself or to you.
You can try to make him think for himself. You can try
to make him work things out for himself. He must begin this
early when he is a little child. Then, when he is grown up,
he will be independent. The world will not be hard for him.
He can take care of himself and of other people. He will be a
good citizen.
You can teach him to play by himself for an hour or two
every day. Even a little baby can be taught to play by himself
for a while every day. You can let a little child plan his own
play and work it out by himself or with other children of his
own age. You can teach him to put away his toys every night.
You can give your little child some easy household duty
to do every day to “ help mother,” such as bringing in the paper
or helping to set the table.
Each month or two give him something harder to do. Let
him learn to do things by himself. Teach him to keep trying
until he learns. Do not discourage him by laughing at him or
by telling him he is not doing it right. Do not do it for him.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Are You Helping Your Child to Grow Up?


Mary’s mother took her to kindergarten when she was 4 years old.
Mary could not take off her coat. Her mother did it for her. She
could not hang it up. Her mother did that for her, too. She could not
feed herself. She could not cut with scissors. She could not make
pictures. Her mother had always done these things for her.
She came to school every day, but she did not learn. When she
walked she fell down. She could not talk much. She acted like a
stupid little girl.
The teacher said to her mother, “ Was she a sick little baby? ”
“ Oh, no,” said her mother, “ she was always well. She was so
strong she began to creep and walk too early. She got into my things
and broke them. So I never let her walk. I'do everything for her.”
The teacher said, “ Poor mother and poor little Mary! You wanted
to be good to your baby, but you were bad to her. Children must be
doing things all the time. They must be active. That is the way they
learn. When you do not let them move about you keep them from
learning. You make them act like stupid children. W ill you help me
try to show how bright Mary really is? ”
Of course, Mary’s mother said “ Yes.” She let Mary dress herself.
She let her feed herself. She let her run and climb.
In school Mary did these things, too. Soon she was a busy little
girl. She did not act stupid any more. She learned how to do new
things every day.
Her mother came to the teacher and said, “ I used to be happy when
I could do things for Mary. I did not know I was making her seem
stupid. Now I am happy when I see her do things for herself.”

1. If your, child does not learn to dress himself as young as he
should, do you do it for him? How do you teach him to dress himself?
2. If your child can not run as fast as the other boys or can not
win in the games he plays, do you let him play by himself alwavs?
W hy?
3. Does your child try to do everything but finish nothing?
do you train him to finish what he starts and to do things well?
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis



Are You Training Your Child to be Happy?

Sex education is like any other kind of education.
When the children ask questions, tell them the best answer
you know. If you do not know the answer, tell them that you
do not know but that you will try to find out.
It does not matter what they ask. If they ask where money
comes from, tell them. If they ask where eggs come from, tell
them. If they ask where babies come from, tell them. Tell
them in the same way you told about the eggs and the money.
It is good for children to know they can ask their fathers
and mothers anything and get truthful answers.
It is bad for them to hear wrong answers. If they ask boys
and girls, they will nearly always get wrong answers. Wrong
answers mix them up and make them afraid to talk to you
about what they want to know.
Do not tell your child that the stork brought the new baby
or that the doctor brought him in his bag. He will not under­
stand this. Or perhaps he will not believe it. And he will only
find out later that you have lied to him. Tell him the truth
If there is to be a new baby in the family, tell your child
before the baby comes that he is going to have a baby brother
or a baby sister. Tell him that the baby grows in mother’s body,
that it starts as a tiny egg or cell which is so very small that
it must stay inside mother for a long, long time. The baby lives
inside of mother for nine months. Mother keeps the. baby
warm inside her body until it is big enough to live in the outside
If your child asks how the baby gets out into the world, tell
him that when it grows big enough it will come out into the
world through a little passage in mother’s body. The doctor
will help the baby come out.
If later he asks how the little baby was put into mother’s
body, or why father doesn’t have babies, tell him again that the
baby grew from a very tiny round egg or cell which was in
mother’s body, but it would not grow until father also placed a
tiny cell there. The baby comes from two cells,. one from
father and one from mother, but the baby always grows inside
mother’s body.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Are You Helping Your Child to Grow Up?


.You can show your child the seeds hidden in an apple.
Tell him that these seeds grew from two tiny cells, one from the
mother apple blossom and one from the father apple blossom.
The seeds grew in the mother blossom and the apple grows
around the seeds to protect them until they are grown. Show
your child how a seed is planted in the ground. It must grow'
there until it is big enough to come up into the light. Then the
plant grows bigger and bigger. Let your child watch the flowers
Tell your child about little babies the first. time he asks you.
Do not make him ask other people. It is best to answer his
question as soon as he asks it. Do not put it off because you
think he is too little to understand. Do not let him think you do
not want to answer his question about babies.
He may forget what you tell him and ask the same ques­
tion again later. No matter, answer it again just as you did
before. Each time he asks questions he will learn a little more.
Always answer what he asks, so that he will come to you
with the next question and not go to some one else.
If you answer his questions truthfully in a quiet easy man­
ner, he will not think much about this subject.
You do not need to tell a little child more than he asks.
He will ask more when he wants to know more.
If he asks at a time when you can not talk to him, tell him
to wait until a little later, when you will have more time to talk
to him.
Be sure to keep this promise. It is important. All promises
are important.
If your child has not begun to ask questions about babies
by the time he is 6 years old, it is wise to encourage him to ask
by showing him how flowers are fertilized with pollen and how
the seeds grow in the ovary of the mother flower, after the pol­
len has stuck to the pistil. You can encourage him to ask ques­
tions about insects and animals, and soon he will ask where
babies come from.
Tell your child that there are some things that are not talked
about with everyone, only with father and mother. He will talk
about where babies come from only with mother and father
if you always answer his questions as soon as he asks them.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


Are You Training Your Child to be H appy?

Ruth was 5 years old. The little girl next door had a new baby
brother. Ruth wanted one too.
She asked her mother to tell her how to get one.
“ Mother will tell you all about it when you are older. Do n©t
talk about it now,” said her mother.
Ruth wondered why her mother did not want to talk to her.
She had always answered all the other questions she had asked her.
She asked the little girl next door about the baby. She said her
mother told her that the doctor brought the baby in his bag, but she
knew this could not be true.
They talked it. over with some other children. They all laughed
and told Ruth that mothers will not talk about such things. They made
her feel queer and ashamed. She was lonesome and unhappy because
she wanted her mother to help her, and her mother did not answer her
She did not ask her mother again.
It was not good for her to think of this so much.
If her mother had answered her questions, she soon would have
forgotten about the baby and thought of other things.

1. Are you expecting a new baby in your home? Are you letting
your older child help you plan for the new one? How did you tell him
about it?
2. How do you get your child to talk about certain things only
with father and mother?
Everyday Problems of the Everyday Child, by D. A. Thom, M. D., pp.
27-49, 262-288, 303-327. D. Appleton & Co. New York, 1927.
Child Management, by D. A. Thom, M. D., pp. 4-7, 29-32, and 45-47.
United States Children’s Bureau Publication No. 143 (Revised).
Washington, 1928.
Out of Babyhood into Childhood, pp. 2 and 4. United States Children’s
Bureau Folder No. 10. Washington, 1929.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Lesson N o. 11.— DOES Y O U R CHILD H A V E T H E

When you give the children toys, remember that they like
to do things themselves.
Give them toys that can be taken apart and put together
again. Do not choose a toy that can be used in one way only,
for a child will soon tire of it.
A toy that breaks soon or gets.out of order easily is not a
good toy.
Play is a child's job, and playthings are his tools. All work­
men must have good tools or they can not do good work.
A child learns much through toys. Rattles teach a tiny
baby how to hold things. Blocks, spools, clothespins, a string of
buttons, and animals that can be washed are good toys for
babies before they are old enough to walk. They teach them
about different noises and different shapes and the different
feel of things.
Balls are good toys. There are many kinds of balls, and
children play with them in many ways. There are big balls and
little balls, soft balls and hard balls, rubber balls, wool balls,
red balls and blue balls, heavy balls and light balls, balls that
bounce and balls that don’t. Children like them. Even babies
like to roll them on the floor. There are balloons, too. They
are a kind of ball. A child learns new things from balloons.
He finds he must handle them gently or they will break. He
learns, too, from balloons about things that go up in the air.
Children from 1 to 5 years need blocks for toys so that they
can build towers, houses, tracks, steps, boxes, pens, walls. The
smallest children need small blocks. The 2 or 3 year old also
needs large blocks. These can be made like boxes with the
covers nailed on. They will not be so heavy as solid blocks.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


Are You Training Your Child to be Happy?

A child loves dolls and animal toys because he can pretend
they are alive and make games about them. It is good to buy
dolls and animals that can be cleaned easily.
A child can be happy a long time on sunny days in a sand
pile. He loves to dig, to make heaps, and to fill and empty
boxes, pails, or some toy. A big kitchen spoon will do for a
shovel and a tin cup for a pail. As he grows older, he will build
towns and work out other plans in the sand with his playmates.
If you have a back yard, it is a great help to build a sand box
there where the little children can play alone but where you can
watch them from a window.
A child will spend many happy hours cutting pictures from
paper. Give him a pair of scissors with round ends and an old
magazine or newspaper.
Here is something to think about. Isn't it true that most
grown people buy the kind of toys they like themselves? Don’t
they say, “ See this cunning monkey! He climbs a ladder when
you wind him up. I’ll get him for Freddy.” Freddy likes an
animal he can hug and pull around, but he sometimes gets one
that is too big for him to hold or one that he does not under­
stand how to play with by himself, because his grown-up friends
like it. W e really are selfish, aren’t we, when we do this?
A child 1 to 3 years old likes to play with the things in the
house. He learns much in this way. So do not have furniture
in his room that is too fine for him to touch. This is the way he
finds out what the different objects in the house are and how
to use them. He enjoys pots and pans of different sizes, a chair
to push around or a box to climb upon, boxes with covers to
open and shut, a bunch of keys to rattle, doors to shut, drawers
to open and close. He can learn much by playing with a wheel­
barrow or a strong little wagon.
He likes to handle paper. You can teach him to turn the
pages of a book carefully. He likes to look at pictures, too; so
he does two things he likes when he looks at pictures in books.
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Does Y ou r Child Have the Right Playthings?


He likes to scribble. Soft pencils and colored crayons are
fine toys. Wrapping paper cut into squares will help him to
learn where he may write so that walls and books will not be
Children from 3 to 5 years old like a smooth board to play
with. They can do many things with a board. They can use it
as a seesaw. They can put one end on a box or on the steps of
the house and use it as a slide. They can put it across two low
boxes and learn to balance themselves as they walk along it.
They also like a small ladder to climb or to hang on. Packing
boxes which are smooth and have no nails or splinters in them
are good for the playyard or playroom,
A child 3 or 4 years old needs playmates. They teach him
to get along with other children. With his playmates he enjoys
swings and seesaws as well as tumbling about in games. This
kind of play makes him strong.
A very small child will imitate the children he sees around
him, and so learn to do the things they can do. A little later he
will take an active part in the games the children are playing.
If he learns to play nicely with children when he is little, he will
know how to work well with other people when he is a man.
Children from 2 to 5 years old want to do what mother
does—sweep, wash dishes, carry dishes, set the table, dust,
make the beds. They like to play with cloth, to roll it up and
fold it and put it in boxes. They want to wash and iron it like
mother. Your child will be happy and quiet a long time with
a bit of dough to mix and play with.
This is the time to let him form the habit of helping. It is
fun for him, and he is learning good habits of thoughtfulness
and of doing careful work, too. So you mothers must be very
patient and not worry if the housework goes more slowly than
if you were doing it alone. You are really saving time, for you
are training a'good, happy, busy child, who is learning to work
well and to want to help you always,
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Are You Training Your Child to be Happy?

Every child must learn to take care of his toys. Dirty,
broken toys teach him to be careless. He must have a box to
keep his toys in, or a drawer or a low shelf that he can reach
easily. He must learn to put them away when he is through
playing with them. He should learn to play with a few toys and
to put them away before he takes out others.
Toys that are easily broken are not good for children.
After they are broken, children do not like them any more, and
they ask for new ones. That is not a good habit to form. It is
not good to get tired of things quickly and to. want something
new right away.
Your child should have a corner of his own where he can
work or play undisturbed when he wants to be alone. If there
is only one child in your family, you should see that he also
plays with other children.
1. W hy is it wise to let children play in the sand boxes?
2. W hy do children enjoy playing with dolls, and household
articles in small sizes.
3. How does playing on swings and seesaws help children?
4. Does your child have a place of his very own to keep his toys?
Does he put them away after he finishes playing? How do you teach
him to do this?
Everyday Problems of the Everyday Child, by D. A. Thom, M. D., pp.
328-340. D. Appleton & Co. New York, 1927.
Out of Babyhood into Childhood, p. 4. United States Children’s Bureau
Folder No 10. Washington, 1929.
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Lesson No. 12.— TH E JOB OF BEING A P A R E N T

To be a good father or mother is one of the hardest jobs on
earth. It is the finest, biggest job, too.
Some parents do not know how to do the right things for
their children. They want to do the best things for them, but
they make mistakes. They make it hard for their children to
grow up happy and strong and good.
Here are some mistakes parents often make. Do you make
them, too?
Are you so afraid the children will get hurt
that you will not let them run and play and climb out­
doors? You keep them from learning to be strong and
(2) Are you so afraid they will get sick that you
talk about being sick before them? Soon the children
will think they are sick. They will form the habit of
being sick. A child likes to have his parents worried
about him. He gets attention.
Sometimes the children will make-believe that they
are sick so that you will let them stay home from
school. Sometimes they will make-believe they are
sick so that you will let them be lazy. Sometimes they
will make-believe they are sick so that you will do what
they want,
(3) Can you tell when your child is really sick?
Watch him when he is well. Notice the way he stands
or walks, the color of his skin, the color of his tongue,
if his skin is too hot or too cold, how much sleep he
usually gets, and how active he usually is. Notice, too,
the number of bowel movements he has each day, and
the color and amount of his urine. Then you will
know when he is really sick. Of course if he is really
sick he should not go to school or go among other
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.Are You Training Your Child to be Happy?
(4) Do you try to give your child everything he
wants, just because he asks for it? When he is big,
he will not always be with you. He will be with other
people. They will not give him everything he wants
just because he asks for it. Then he will think he is
not treated right. He will change from one job to
another. He will not be happy. He will not be suc­
cessful. While he is little you must teach him he can
not have everything he wants just because he asks
for it.
(5) Do you tell lies to your child to make him do
what you want? He will soon find out that the “ bad
man ” does not come and get him. Then he will not
believe anything you tell him. Then he will lie to you.
You have taught him to lie.
(6) Do you boss your child too much? How can
he learn then to think things out for himself? How
can he learn to do things for himself? How can he
learn to decide for himself when he is big and away
from you.
You must give him a chance to learn now, while
he is at the best learning age. You must let him do
more and more for himself. Do not say, “ Now get the
knives. Now get the forks. Now get the spoons.
Now get the glasses,” Let him think for himself,
(7) Do you say, “ Don't " or “ Stop " every time
your child starts to do something? A child who hears
“ Don’t ” or “ Stop ” every time he moves is like a per­
son with his hands tied.
How can tied hands ever learn to be useful?
When you do everything for your child, so that he
does not learn how to do things himself, you are1
making him seem stupid,
(8) Do you want to keep your child's love for
yourself? That is very selfish. It keeps the child from
making friends. A good mother is happy to see her
child happy, no matter where he is. She is a bad
mother if she is sorry when he is happy without her.
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The Job o f Being a Parent


(9) Do you “ baby ” and pet your child too much?
If you do everything for him and keep him like a baby,
he will not grow up to be independent. Such a child is
a spoiled child. You have spoiled him.
You are being selfish when you teach him that he
can not eat unless you feed him, or that he can not go
to sleep unless you lie down with him. You are being
good to yourself, because you like to take care of him.
But you are being bad to him.

Anna was 4 years old. She had never been away from her mother.
When her mother brought her to kindergarten she said to the teacher,
“Anna has never been away from me. I am afraid she will cry. I am
afraid she will be very unhappy. She loves me so much that she
wants to be with me all the time. I will come back in a little while.”
She hugged and kissed Anna and said, “ Don’t cry, dear. Mother
will come back very soon.”
Of course Anna cried. Her mother had put it into her head. But
after her mother had gone, she began to watch the other children. She
had never seen so many children. She had never had so many inter­
esting things to play with.
She stopped crying and began to play. When her mother came
back she was laughing and happy; but when she saw her mother, she
ran to her and began to cry again. Her mother thought that Anna
cried because she wanted to be with her and to go home with her.
Anna always cried at home when she left her.
She did not understand that Anna could be happy without her.
She wanted Anna to be most happy when she was with her.
She did not want Anna to grow up and be independent and able
to take care of herself.
She took Anna away from the kindergarten and did not let her go
back again.
Was she a good mother?
Was she thinking about Anna or about herself?
Did she love Anna in a good way or in a selfish way?
What kind of girl do you think Anna will be when she is big?
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Are You Training Your Child to he Happy?

Don't worry. Children grow up right like plants that have
good earth and sun and rain, if you give them the chance.
When you worry and get angry and afraid, you take away that
chance. You keep them from growing right.
Common sense and kindness are never wrong. The next
time you do not know what to do, try to do the thing that will
be both sensible and kind. It will not be really sensible and
kind unless it will help to form good habits for the children to
use as they grow up.
Keep learning more and more about your job as a parent.
Don’t think you know it all. Nobody does. The job is too big.
W e all make mistakes, but we can learn from our own mis­
takes. We can learn to help one another, too, by telling what
we have found out about being a good parent. Many parents
are forming little clubs to talk over these things.
Ask yourself these questions:
What did Johnnie do to-day that troubled me? Was I
impatient with him? Why?
Did I have too little sleep last night?
Was I worried?
Did I eat food that did not agree with me?
Did something I did to Johnnie last week cause this?
Did I manage it then the right way, so it would not happen
again ?
What did Johnnie do that was good to-day?
Did I praise him for it so that he will want to do it again?
Everyday Problems of the Everyday Child, by D. A. Thom,
M. D. D. Appleton & Co. New York, 1927.
Child Management, by D. A. Thom, M. D. United States Children’s Bu*
reau Publication No 143 (Revised). Washington, 1928.
Keeping the Well Baby Well. United States Children’s Bureau Folder
No. ft. Washington, 1928.
Out of Babyhood into Childhood. United States Children’s Bureau
Folder No. 10. Washington, 1929.
W hy Sleep? United States Children’s Bureau Folder No. 11. Wash­
ington, 1929,
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The Job o f Being a Parent


In these 12 lessons we have been saying a few things over
and over. They are so important we want you to be sure to
remember them. Here they are again.
Tell and act the truth to your children.
Keep your promises, good or bad. Think before you
threaten or promise: “ Gan I really carry out my threats or my
promises ? ” If you can not, the children will learn that you
do not tell them the truth.
Decide which things are most important for a child to do
and then be consistent about seeing that he does them. Do
not nag hitn about little things that do not matter very much.
Do not say “ No ” one time and “ Yes ” the next time for the
same thing. Your child will never learn that way what is good
to do and what is bad. If you have said, “ Bed at 7,” do not say,
“ Well, this one time you may stay up till 8.”
The best way to break up a bad habit in a child is to keep
the child so busy with interesting things to do that he forgets
the old habit.
Pay no attention to him when he tries to get what he wants
by temper tantrums, by whining, or by vomiting.
See that he gets things (if they are good for him) only when
he is quiet and happy and polite.
Keep cool and quiet yourself. Speak in a quiet voice.
Show the child you are pleased when he tries.
Have you tried any new ways to make your child happy and good
since you started reading these lessons?
Which lessons did you find most helpful?
Write to the United States Children’s Bureau in Washington, D. C.,
if you have questions that you would like taken up in other lessons

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