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Dayton & Montgomery Co.
Public Library
MAY 8

1970

d o c u m e n t co llection

Bulletin 1 6 3 9
U.S. D E P A R T M E N T

O F

L A B O R

B u r e a u of L a b o r Statistics




technician
m anpow er

For FRASER
Digitized forSale by the Superintendent


1

9

6

6

-

8

0

B u ll e t in 1639

March 1970
U.S. D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
George P. Shultz, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR S T A T IS T IC S
G e o f f r e y H . M oore, C o m m i s s i o n e r

of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 20402. Price 35 cents.







P r e fa c e
This report presents the results of a study of engineering and
science technician manpower requirements and supply conducted by
the Bureau of Labor Statistics with the support of the National Science
Foundation. It is the second major study of technician manpower
undertaken by the Bureau with the assistance of the Foundation.
The report was prepared by Michael F. Crowley, with the assist­
ance of Elinor W. Abramson, under the direction of Neal H. Rosenthal
in the Bureau’s Division of Manpower and Occupational Outlook.
Daniel Hecker and Annie Lefkowitz participated in the research.

iii

C o n ten ts
Page
Highlights-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Introduction--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Chapter I. Employment and outlook--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Employment, 1966 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Requirements, 1966-80----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Employment grow th--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Changing employment requirements by technician occupation-------------------------------------------------------------Changing employment requirements by industry------------------------------------------------------------------------------Replacements needs----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Supply-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Meeting manpower needs-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Chapter II. Directions for future research---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Manpower utilization -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Occupational detail--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Relationship of training to occupational specialty--------------------------------------------------------------------------------Followup studies--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Ways people qualify for technician jobs -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------A. Preemployment post-secondary training-----------------------------------------------------------Bachelor of technology programs-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Private schools-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------B. Upgradings---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Transfers to other fields of work------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1
3
5
5
6
7
8
8
8
8
11
13
13
14
14
15
15
15
15
15
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16

Table. Employment of technicians by occupational specialty, estimated 1966 and projected 1980 requirements---------

7

Charts:
1. Estimated employment of technicians, by occupation, 1966 -------------------------------------------------------------2. Percent increase in employment requirements for technicians 1966-80, selected industries-------------------------3. New technicians, by source of training, 1965 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

6
9
10

Appendixes:
A. Statistical tables------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------A -l. Estimated employment of technicians, by occupation and industry, 1966 ------------------------------------A-2. Percent distribution of estimated employment of technicians, by occupation and industry, 1966 ---------A-3. Projected 1980 employment requirements for technicians, by occupation and industry---------------------A-4. Percent distribution of projected 1980 employment requirements for technicians,
by occupation and industry------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------A-5. Ratio of technician to science and engineering employment, by industry, 1966 ------------------------------B. Coverage, definitions, and projection methods--------------------------------------------------------------------------------




IV

19
20
21
22
23
24
25

H ig h lig h ts

However, the rate of growth will vary among manu­
facturing industries. The rate of growth of technicians
will be fastest in machinery (87 percent) and electrical
equipment (74 percent).

More than 1 million new technicians will be required to
meet manpower requirements resulting from employment
growth and replacement needs between 1966 and 1980:
500.000 for growth, from nearly 900,000 employed in
1966 to approximately 1.4 million required in 1980,
an increase of 57 percent.

Among other industries, greater-than-average growth
rates in technician employment requirements are expected
in engineering and architectural services (90 percent) and
colleges and universities (84 percent).
The sources of technician manpower from which
employment requirements must be met include grad­
uates of preemeployment technician training offered in
post-secondary schools, under the Manpower Development
and Training Act, and by employers; individuals with tech­
nician-related training obtained in 4-year college programs
or in the Armed Forces; and employees who are upgraded
from other occupations:

150.000 to replace those employed in 1966 who will
die or retire.
375.000 to replace those employed in 1966 who will
transfer to other occupations.
Employment growth of technicians will vary among
the different technician occupations:
Physics technicians and mathematics technicians are
expected to show the fastest growth rates among the
technician occupational specialties, 95 percent and 91
percent, respectively. Employment requirements for
engineering technicians are expected to increase about
50 percent.

Graduates of preemployment technician training of­
fered in post-secondary schools are the type of tech­
nician most desired by employers.
Upgrading is used to fill jobs primarily when workers
are not available from other sources of training.

Growth will result from many factors including:

If the number of entrants to technician jobs from each
source of supply were to remain at the 1965 level between
1966 and 1979 (1979 graduates will be the last ones avail­
able for employment in 1980), supply would be short of
manpower requirements by about 300,000.
If past trends in the patterns of entry to technician
jobs from preemployment and technician-related training
continue, about 1.2 million workers would enter technician
jobs from these sources between 1966 and 1979:

Increasing utilization of technicians relative to total
employment, resulting from expansion of research and
development activities and increasing complexity of in­
dustrial processes.
Rapid growth of industries employing large numbers of
technicians.

Only about 120,000 technicians or 10 percent of all
entrants would have to be upgraded to meet manpower
needs, compared with 33 percent in 1965.

Requirements for technicians in manufacturing are
projected to increase at about the same rate of growth as
that of technicians in all industries:




1

2
Graduates of preemployment post-secondary training
would increase to three-fifths of all entrants between
1966 and 1979, up from about 27 percent in 1965.
To achieve the continued rapid growth of preemploy­
ment post-secondary technician training, great efforts
are needed to build new or expand existing technical
institutes, junior colleges, and other post-secondary
schools that train technicians; to attract students to
these schools; and to assure a sufficient number of
teachers to provide the training.
Several data gaps become apparent in analyzing tech­
nician manpower requirements and supply. These gaps or




problem areas can be grouped in the following subject
areas:
The identification of the reasons for specific utilization
patterns by industry.
The need for greater occupational detail.
The relationship between training and entry jobs.
Identification of all methods of qualifying for entry
jobs.
The need for statistics on occupational transfers.

In tro d u c tio n
Up-to-date information on future manpower require­
ments for, and supply of, technicians is needed by voca­
tional counselors, education planners, those responsible for
national manpower policies and programs, and industry
officials concerned with the effective utilization of their
technical employees. This report presents information on
projected requirements for, and supply of, technicians to
1980 and supersedes the 1975 projections published in the
earlier comprehensive study of technicians conducted by
the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Technician M anpower:
Requirem ents, Resources, and Training N eeds, Bulletin
1512, 1966.
This report provides new insights into the factors
affecting the supply and demand for technicians by in­
corporating data that have become available since publica­
tion of the former report. It also uses the basic assumptions
underlying the Bureau’s projections of 1980 industry man­
power requirements, including assumptions concerning
technological change, the level of national unemployment,
and the world’s political situation. (See appendix B.) In
addition to presenting projections of manpower require­
ments and supply, this report identifies problems in tech­




nician manpower and indicates areas for future study and
research.
The projections of requirements for technicians in this
study were based, in large part, on past utilization patterns
of technicians relative to other workers. (See appendix B.)
Therefore, the requirements projections reflect supplydemand conditions in the recent past. Should supplydemand conditions appear in the 1970’s that differ from
those of the early and mid-1960’s, effects would be felt
that are not reflected in this study. For example, if for an
extended period of time the supply of techncians exceeds
the demand, unlike the recent past, employers would most
likely change their manpower utilization patterns to use
more technicians than are reflected in the projections pre­
sented in this report.
Because of the various data gaps and weaknesses en­
countered in the study, the projections of requirements and
the different analyses of supply indicate general order of
magnitude and direction and not estimates of exact
numbers. Many of these data gaps and weaknesses are
detailed in chapter II, Directions for Future Research.

3




C h a p te r
E m p lo y m e n t

and

Technicians play a vital role in our expanding, tech­
nically oriented economy. These workers directly or
indirectly support scientists and engineers in every phase of
their work, including the designing of equipment, the devel­
opment of new products and processes, the production of
goods, and the maintenance of machines and materials.
Engineering and science technician1 jobs have a
greater practical orientation and are more limited in scope
than those of the professional engineer or scientist. Many
technician jobs require the ability to analyze and solve engi­
neering and science problems and to prepare reports on
experiments or t s s Some of these jobs require con­
et.
siderable aptitude in mathematics; others require the ability
to visualize objects in three dimensions and to sketch and
draw. Sometimes, these jobs require manipulative a i ities
bl
associated with the skilled crafts, but this ability i
s
secondary to technical s i l .
kls
Many technicians work in research and development
under the supervision of a scientist or engineer. In research
and development a t v t es, technicians help conduct ex­
ciii
periments by setting up and operating complex equipment,
or assisting in the design, fabrication, and assembling of
experimental equipment and scientific instruments. In
production operations, technicians may be engaged in
quality control, inspection, and testing, or they may act as
liaison between engineering and production departments.
Others s l technical products, i s a l and maintain complex
el
ntl
machinery and equipment, or provide technical services to
customers.
This report c a s f e engineering and science tech­
lsiis
nicians into four occupational groups according to the
specialty or scientific discipline to which they are most
closely related— draftsmen; engineering and physical
science technicians; l f science technicians; and “other
ie
technicians,” a miscellaneous group that includes computer
programers and surveyors. Excluded from coverage are
“technicians” who work with practitioners i the health
n




I
O u tlo o k

fields caring for patients; workers in business related tech­
nologies and public services such as library assistants and
legal secretaries; and workers classified as craftsmen such as
instrument repairmen.

Employment, 1966
Nearly 900,000 engineering and science technicians
were employed in the United States in 1966. Engineering
and physical science technicians numbered nearly
420,000— more than 45 percent of a l technicians. Drafts­
l
men accounted for more than 270,000— about 3 out of
every 10 technicians. Employment of l f science tech­
ie
nicians represented about 8 percent of the total, or about
70,000; and other technicians, about 14 percent of the
total, numbered approximately 125,000. (See chart 1 )
.
In the engineering and physical science category, the
largest number (183,300) were electrical and electronic
engineering technicians. Other engineering technicians, in­
cluding mechanical and industrial engineering, accounted
for about 116,000. Physical science technicians numbered
slightly over 120,000. Included in this classification were
chemical technicians, about 60,000; physics technicians,
more than 10,000; mathematics technicians, over 5,000;
and a l other physical science technicians, approximately
l
44,000.
More than two-fifths of a l technicians were employed
l
in manufacturing in 1966, about 2 out of every 3 of w h o m
worked in electrical equipment, machinery, chemicals and
allied products, aircraft and parts, and fabricated metals
products. The heavy concentration of technicians i these
n
industries reflects the complexity of their products and
manufacturing processes and their large research and devel­
opment (R&D) programs. About 75 percent of a l R & D
l

Footnotes appear on pp. 16-17.

5

6

Chart 1.
E S T IM A T E D E M P L O Y M E N T OF T E C H N IC IA N S, B Y O C C U PA T IO N , 1 9 6 6

Total Employment = 886,900

N ote: B e c a u se o f rou n d in g, s u m s o f in d iv id u a l item s m ay n ot e q u a l to t a ls .
S ou rce: Bureau o f Labor S t a t is t ic s .

expenditures in private industry in 1966 were in these five
manufacturing industries. 3
Significant numbers of technicians also are employed
in private nonmanufacturing industries. In 1966, almost
100,000 technicians were employed in engineering and
architectural services, 40,000 in miscellaneous business
services, and about 32,000 in the communications indus­
tis
re.
Nearly 165,000 technicians were government e m ­
ployees, mainly in the Federal Government. Colleges and
universities employed about 32,000 technicians. A rela­
tively small number (6,500) worked for nonprofit organi­
zations.
Almost one-half of a l engineering and physical science
l
technicians were concentrated in manufacturing and re­
flected the large number employed i electrical equipment
n
(64,000) and chemicals industries (24,000). About onefourth were employed in government. Communications and
miscellaneous business industries employed significant
numbers.
Reflecting the need for drafting services throughout
the goods producing sector of the economy, draftsmen also
were concentrated heavily in manufacturing industries




(132,500 or about one-half). A large number, about
68,000, also were employed in firms providing engineering
and architectural services.
Life science technicians were concentrated in govern­
ment and in colleges and universities; more than one-fourth
were employed in each industry. The large number of l f
ie
science technicians in these industries reflect large research
and development programs concerned with problems such
as heart disease, cancer, birth defects, and mental health.
The “other technician” category generally follows the
industry distribution of the technician group as a whole.
Notable exceptions are contract construction and engineer­
ing and architectural services, which employ relatively large
numbers of surveyors.

Requirements, 1966-80
More than 1 million technicians will be needed
between 1966 and 1980 to meet employment growth and
to replace those technicians who will die, r
etire, or separate
from the labor force for other reasons, or transfer to other
occupations. Approximately 500,000 technicians, about

7
one-half of total technicians manpower needs, will result
from employment growth; 375,000 will be needed to re­
place experienced technicians who will transfer to other
fields of work; and 150,000 to replace those who will d e,
i
retir , or leave the labor force for other reasons.
e
Employment growth. Employment requirements for
technicians are expected to increase about 500,000
between 1966 and 1980, and will r s to approximately 1.4
ie
million from the nearly 900,000 employed in 1966. (See
following tabulation.) This r s represents a growth of
ie
approximately 57 percent, or an annual average increase of
about 4 percent. This projected 1966-80 annual average
increase i slightly slower than that shown during the
s
1961-66 period (about 4.5 percent), and i large part re­
n
flects the anticipated slowdown in the rate of increase of
research and development a t
c ivities. Growth of require­
ments for technicians i expected to result from continued
s
economic growth, especially in fields where the increasing
complexity of new products and processes i expected to
s
increase the demand for highly trained personnel— for ex­
ample, the improvement of existing instruments and the
development of complex new industrial instruments; the
increasing use of numerical control in machining; the use of
microcircuits; and electron beam or laser welding.
Growth also will stem from an anticipated expansion
of research and development activities (R&D).
Never­
theless, the rate of growth of technicians in research and
development thought the 1970’ i expected to be slower
s s
than during the late 1950’ and 1960’ because of an
s
s
expected slowdown in the rate of growth of research and
development expenditures. For example, from 1966 to

1980, requirements for scientists and engineers in re­
search and development are projected to increase about
two-thirds, However, from 1957 to 1966, a shorter time
span, they increased nearly three-fourths.4
Although the factors described above will increase u i i
tl­
zation of technicians relative to total employment, the ratio
of technicians to scientists and engineers— one of the most
common measures of technician utilization— i expected
s
to approximate the 1966 level in 1980, about 63 tech­
nicians to every 100 scientists and engineers. This contrasts
with most other recent studies of technicians, which have
indicated that the ratio of technicians to scientists and
engineers i expected to increase in the years ahead.5 In
s
view of the projected rapid increases in requirements for
engineers and scientists and prospective shortages of these
workers, employers can be expected to attempt to utilize
more effectively their high level scientific and engineering
staffs by hiring more technicians for repetitive techncial
functions. Increased utilization of technicians would free
high level scientists and engineers for professional work and
reduce the cost of trained technical manpower because
technicians generally are paid less than scientists and engi­
neers. However, surveys conducted by the Bureau of Labor
Statistics6 indicate that the utilization patterns of tech­
nicians has remained relatively constant during the 1961-66
period in private industry as a whole. Nevertheless, among
individual industries, the utilization patterns have
shifted.7 Among the explanations offered for the almost
stable ratio of technicians to scientists and engineers in pri­
vate industry, as a whole, over the 1961-66 period are: (1)
The supply of technicians has been inadequate to meet the

Employment of technicians by occupational specialty, estimated 1966 and projected 1980 requirements
1966
employment

Occupation

Technicians, all occupations -

-

Draftsmen ---Engineering and physical science technicians-------------------------------Engineering technicians-------------------------------------------------------Chemical technicians-----------------------------------------------------------Physics technicians-------------------------------------------------------------Mathematics technicians-----------------------------------------------------Other physical science technicians----------------------------------------Life science technicians - -_ -Other technicians ---_
--

Percent
increase,
1966-80

886,900

1,395,700

57.4

272,300
419,300
299,200
60,500
10,600
5,300
43,900
70,000
125,100

434,300
646,800
453,800
96,500
20,700
10,100
65,700
108,900
205,800

59.5
54.3
51.7
59.5
95.3
90.6
49.7
55.6
64.5

NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.



Project
1980
requirements

8
demand; (2) many technicians have been “upgraded” to
scientist and engineering positions; and (3) the practices of
some industries, either voluntary or involuntary, do not
utilize effectively more technicians relative to scientists and
engineers.

Changing employment requirements by technician
occupation. Physics and mathematics technicians are ex­
pected to grow the fastest of a l the technician specialties.
l
Employment requirements for physics technician are
expected to increase to 20,700 in 1980 from the 10,600
employed in 1966, an increase of about 95 percent. Mathe­
matics technicians are expected to increase from about
5,300 to slightly over 10,000, an increase of about 90 per­
cent. These rapid increases result from the need for tech­
nicians to support the rapidly increasing number of
physicists and mathematicians engaged in research and
development in colleges and universities, government, and
in the machinery, electrical equipment, and aircraft in­
dustries.
Requirements for engineering technicians, the largest
technician specialty, are expected to grow to more than
450,000 i 1980 from the nearly 300,000 employed in
n
1966— an increase of about 52 percent. This rate of
growth i slower than that for a l technicians, but because
s
l
of the relative size of this f e d more persons will be needed
il,
in this technician occupation from 1966-80 than in any
other. Draftsmen, l f science technicians, and other tech­
ie
nicians are expected to increase about three-fifths, or about
the same rate as a l technicians in the economy.
l

Changing employment requirements by industry.
Requirements for technicians i some industries are ex­
n
pected to increase more rapidly than the increase antici­
pated for a l technicians in the economy (57 percent).
l
Among the industries expected to show faster than average
growth in technician employment are engineering and archi­
tectural services (91 percent) and colleges and universities
(84 percent). (See chart 2.)
Technician requirements in manufacturing industries,
as a whole, are expected to increase approximately 56 per­
cent, about the same rate anticipated for technician growth
i a l industries combined. However, requirements for tech­
n l
nicians in some manufacturing industries, including the
machinery and electrical equipment industries, are expected
to increase faster than the average for technicians in a l
l
manufacturing.
Growth of technician requirements in some industries
will result primarily from increases i the utilization of
n
technicians relative to total employment. In other in­
dustries, growth i technician requirements will result pri­
n
marily from increases i total industry employment. For
n
example, technician requirements in the ordnance industry




are expected to increase 17 percent over the 1966-80
period, while total employment in this industry i expected
s
to decline slightly. In this industry, the utilization rate of
technicians to total employment i expected to increase
s
from 7.5 per 100 in 1966 to 9.0 per 100 in 1980, reflect­
ing, in part, the continuing complexity of modern weapons
systems. In contrast, the anticipated 91-percent increase in
technician requirements in engineering and architectural
services i due almost entirely to expected increases in total
s
industry employment. The utilization of technicians in this
industry i expected to remain relatively constant at 37 per
s
100 employees between 1966 and 1968.
Replacements needs. In addition to technicians re­
quired because of increased requirements between 1966
and 1980, many others will be needed to replace those who
are expected to reti e die, or transfer to other occupations.
r,
Losses due to deaths, retirements, and other separations
from the labor force are expected to number about
150,000 between 1966 and 1980. Transfers are expected to
result in even greater needs than deaths and retirements i
f
technicians continue to leave the field at the same rate as
they did in the early 1960’. These losses are expected to
s
average about 3 percent of each year’ employment, or
s
about 375,000 over the entire 1966-80 period.

Supply
Workers acquire technician training in many ways. One
way i through training taken expressly to prepare for entry
s
level technician jobs-- preemployment occupational train­
ing- which i offered by post-secondary schools;
s
employers; and government, primarily under the Manpower
Development and Training Act.
Workers also qualify for technician jobs in the Armed
Forces or through training or experience designed to pre­
pare them for other types of work. For example, those who
do not complete bachelor’ degree programs in engineering
s
or science may qualify for some entry level technician jobs.
Another way of qualifying for technician work i
s
through upgrading— experience in a technician-related job,
often combined with some academic training. Upgradings
have been the largest single source of new entrants to tech­
nician jobs in recent years. (See chart 3.) In 1965,8 an esti­
mated 24,000 workers were upgraded to technician occupa­
tions. Those who are upgraded included workers in other
occupations who generally have completed some academic
training. Often, these workers have attended night school
part time, but some are dropouts of 4-year9 and 2-year
post-secondary schools; others have had military technician
training.10

9

Chart 2.

P E R C E N T IN C R E A S E IN E M P L O Y M E N T R E Q U I R E M E N T S
F O R T E C H N IC I A N S 1 9 6 6 - 8 0 , S E L E C T E D IN D U S T R I E S




20

Percent

40

•

60

•

80

100

10

P r e e m p lo y m e n t p o s t- s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l tr a in in g p r o ­
v id e s t h e te c h n ic ia n s t h a t g e n e ra lly a re in g r e a te s t d e m a n d ,
a c c o r d in g t o in f o r m a tio n g a th e r e d b y B u re a u o f L a b o r S ta ­
tis tic s r e p r e s e n ta tiv e s in in te rv ie w s w ith o ffic ia ls o f c o m ­
p a n ie s e m p lo y in g la rg e n u m b e r s o f te c h n ic ia n s . T h is t y p e o f
t r a in in g is o f f e r e d p r im a r ily b y te c h n ic a l in s t it u t e s , j u n io r
a n d c o m m u n i ty c o lle g e s , a re a v o c a tio n a l- te c h n ic a l s c h o o ls ,
a n d b y e x te n s io n d iv is io n s o f e n g in e e rin g c o lle g e s . T h e s e
p o s t- s e c o n d a r y s c h o o ls u s u a lly o f f e r 2 y e a r s o f fu ll-tim e
te c h n ic a l tr a in in g w h ic h h a s le s s t h e o r e c tic a l a n d g e n e ra l
e d u c a ti o n c o n t e n t t h a n t h a t g iv e n in th e f ir s t 2 y e a r s o f a
4 -y e a r e n g in e e rin g o r sc ie n c e c u r r ic u lu m .11 I n 1 9 6 5 ,1 2 th e s e
p r o g r a m s s u p p lie d a n e s tim a te d 2 0 ,0 0 0 n e w e n tr a n t s in to
te c h n ic ia n o c c u p a tio n s , o r s lig h tly le s s t h a n 3 o u t o f e v e ry
1 0 n e w e n tr a n t s . T h e p r o p o r t io n o f n e w t e c h n ic ia n s t r a in e d
in p o s t- s e c o n d a r y p r o g r a m s h a s b e e n ris in g sin c e th e e a rly
1 9 6 0 ’s, a n d in 1 9 6 5 t h e y w e re t h e s e c o n d la rg e s t sin g le
s o u rc e o f n e w e n tr a n t s i n to te c h n ic ia n o c c u p a tio n s .
C o lle g e a n d u n iv e r s ity b a c h e lo r ’s d e g re e p ro g r a m s a lso
p la y a s ig n ific ia n t ro le in p r e p a r in g p e o p le f o r te c h n ic ia n
o c c u p a ti o n s ; 1 3 s e v e ra l 4 - y e a r c o lle g e p r o g r a m s a re d e s ig n e d
s p e c ific a lly t o t r a i n te c h n ic ia n s . A ls o , so m e o f th e w o r k
d o n e b y t e c h n ic ia n s o v e rla p s th e w o r k d o n e b y s c ie n tis ts
a n d e n g in e e rs so t h a t sc ie n c e a n d e n g in e e rin g c u r r ic u lu m s



q u a lif y s tu d e n ts fo r so m e te c h n ic ia n j o b s , p r im a r ily th o s e
e m p h a s iz in g th e o r y r a th e r t h a n p r o d u c ti o n o r ie n te d o r
m a n ip u la tiv e sk ills . I n 1 9 6 5 , a b o u t 10 p e r c e n t o f a ll n e w
e n tr a n t s t o t e c h n ic ia n j o b s ( a b o u t 7 ,0 0 0 ) h a d a tt e n d e d
4 -y e a r c o lle g e s ; a b o u t o n e - h a lf o f th e s e e n tr a n t s h e ld a
b a c h e lo r ’s d e g r e e .1 4
T h e M a n p o w e r D e v e lo p m e n t a n d T ra in in g A c t o f 1 9 6 2
(M D T A ), a s a m e n d e d , p r o v id e s te c h n ic ia n tr a in in g t h a t
s tre s s e s a p p lie d te c h n ic a l c o u rs e s b u t o f f e r s little th e o r y o r
g e n e ra l e d u c a tio n c o u rs e s . G r a d u a te s o f M D T A tra in in g
p r o g r a m s p r o v id e d a re la tiv e ly sm a ll n u m b e r o f th e n e w
t e c h n ic ia n e n tr a n t s ( a b o u t 5 ,6 0 0 ) in 1 9 6 5 .
E m p lo y e r tr a in in g p r o g r a m s f o r te c h n ic ia n s u s u a lly
p ro v id e c la s s ro o m tr a in in g in te g r a te d w ith e x te n s iv e o n th e - jo b tr a in in g . T e c h n ic ia n s tr a i n e d b y e m p lo y e r s r e p r e ­
s e n te d a n e s tim a te d 2 0 p e r c e n t o f a ll n e w e n tr a n t s in 1 9 6 5 .
T e c h n ic ia n t r a in in g p r o g r a m s u s u a lly a re i n itia te d b y
e m p lo y e r s w h e n a s u f f ic ie n t n u m b e r o f te c h n ic ia n s tr a in e d
b y o t h e r m e t h o d s a re n o t a v a ila b le . F o r e x a m p le , j u n io r
a n d c o m m u n i ty c o lle g e s g e n e ra lly fu r n is h tr a in in g t o m e e t
e x is tin g d e m a n d in t h e i r lo c a litie s f o r re la tiv e ly la rg e
n u m b e r s o f te c h n ic ia n s . In so m e in s ta n c e s , h o w e v e r, t r a i n ­
in g s o u rc e s m a y n o t b e p r o v id in g a n a d e q u a te s u p p ly o f
t e c h n i c i a n s . F u r t h e r m o r e , e m p lo y e r s s o m e tim e s n e e d

11

s p e c ia liz e d sk ills t h a t c a n b e m e t o n ly th r o u g h t h e i r o w n
t r a in in g p r o g ra m s .
I n f o r m a t io n a b o u t c a re e r p a tt e r n s o f p e r s o n s s e p a r a te d
f r o m th e A rm e d F o r c e s in d ic a te d t h a t in 1 9 6 5 , fe w e r th a n
2 p e r c e n t o f a ll n e w e n tr a n t s , o r a b o u t 1 ,5 0 0 , w e re h ir e d
d ir e c tly a f te r s e p a r a tio n f r o m th e A r m e d F o r c e s . A lth o u g h
t h e n u m b e r o f p e r s o n s s e p a r a te d f r o m t h e A r m e d F o rc e s
w i t h m ilita r y te c h n ic ia n t r a in in g in a n y g iv e n y e a r is la rg e ,
t h e p r o p o r t io n w h o e n te r c iv ilia n te c h n ic ia n jo b s d ir e c tly is
b e lie v e d t o b e sm a ll. T ra in in g re c e iv e d in th e A r m e d F o r c e s
u s u a lly is le s s th e o r e tic a l t h a n t h a t g iv e n in c iv ilia n t e c h ­
n ic a l s c h o o ls , a n d m ilita r y e q u ip m e n t u s u a lly is u n lik e th e
e q u ip m e n t u s e d in th e c iv ilia n s e c to r . H o w e v e r, so m e m ili­
t a r y te c h n ic ia n tr a in in g m a y b e d ir e c tly a p p lic a b le t o
d e fe n s e o r i e n t e d a c tiv itie s . M o s t m ilita r y te c h n ic ia n s , t h e r e ­
f o r e , m u s t u n d e r g o a d d itio n a l t r a in in g b e f o r e t h e y c a n
e n te r c iv ilia n t e c h n ic ia n jo b s .
M eeting m a n p o w e r needs

A p p r o x im a te ly 1 m illio n t e c h n ic ia n s ( 1 ,0 3 4 ,0 0 0 ) w ill
b e r e q u ir e d o v e r t h e 1 9 6 6 - 8 0 p e r io d t o m e e t m a n p o w e r
n e e d s f o r e m p lo y m e n t g r o w th a n d r e p la c e m e n t o f w o r k e r s
e m p lo y e d in 1 9 6 6 w h o w ill d ie , r e tir e , o r tr a n s f e r t o o t h e r
o c c u p a tio n s . H o w c a n th e s e n e e d s b e m e t f r o m th e v a rio u s
s o u rc e s o f s u p p ly o f te c h n ic ia n m a n p o w e r ?
I f th e n u m b e r o f e n tr a n t s t o te c h n ic ia n jo b s f r o m e a c h
s o u rc e o f s u p p ly w o u ld r e m a in a t th e 1 9 6 5 le v e l b e tw e e n
1 9 6 6 a n d 1 9 7 9 ,15 a b o u t 1 m illio n p e r s o n s w o u ld e n te r o v e r
t h e p e r io d . H o w e v e r, n o t a ll w h o e n te r te c h n ic ia n jo b s f r o m
1 9 6 6 to 1 9 7 9 w ill r e m a in in t h e fie ld in 1 9 8 0 . A f te r a llo w ­
in g f o r lo s s e s f o r tr a n s f e r s , r e tir e m e n ts , o r d e a th s , o n ly
a b o u t 8 0 0 ,0 0 0 o f t h e 1 m illio n n e w e n tr a n t s b e tw e e n 1 9 6 6
a n d 1 9 7 9 still w o u ld b e in t h e fie ld in 1 9 8 0 .1 6A n a d d itio n a l
3 0 0 .0 0 0 w o r k e r s w o u ld h a v e t o e n te r o v e r th e p e r io d t o
o b t a i n a n e t 2 3 4 ,0 0 0 17 e n tr a n t s n e e d e d t o m e e t m a n p o w e r
r e q u ir e m e n ts o f 1 ,0 3 4 ,0 0 0 .
I f th is g a p b e tw e e n s u p p ly a n d d e m a n d o f 3 0 0 ,0 0 0
w o r k e r s w e re t o b e m e t b y u p g r a d in g a d d itio n a l w o r k e r s ,
u p g ra d in g s w o u ld in c re a s e f r o m 3 3 p e r c e n t to n e a r ly 5 0
p e r c e n t o f a ll e n tr a n t s . H o w e v e r, in te rv ie w s w i t h c o m p a n y
o ff ic ia ls h a v e i n d ic a te d t h a t e m p lo y e r s m a y p r e f e r t o a d ju s t
t h e i r u til i z a t io n p a tt e r n s r a th e r t h a n u p g r a d e la rg e n u m b e r s
o f w o rk e rs.
A s n o t e d e a rlie r, e m p lo y e r s w o u ld p r e f e r t o h a v e th e
3 0 0 .0 0 0 a d d itio n a l te c h n ic ia n s g r a d u a te f r o m p r e e m p lo y ­
m e n t p o s t- s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l t e c h n ic ia n tr a in in g p r o g r a m s . I t
w o u ld b e p r e f e r a b le , th e r e f o r e , if th e a d d itio n a l 3 0 0 ,0 0 0
t e c h n ic ia n s t h a t w o u ld b e r e q u ir e d t o m e e t te c h n ic ia n m a n ­
p o w e r n e e d s w e re t o c o m e f r o m th is s o u r c e . G r a d u a te s o f




p r e e m p lo y m e n t p o s t- s e c o n d a r y p ro g r a m s w o u ld t o ta l a b o u t
4 5 p e r c e n t o f all e n tr a n t s d u r in g t h e 1 9 6 6 -7 9 p e r io d , c o m ­
p a r e d t o 2 7 p e r c e n t in 1 9 6 5 . U p g ra d in g s w o u ld t o ta l 2 6
p e r c e n t d u r in g th e 1 9 6 5 -7 9 p e r io d , c o m p a r e d w ith 3 3 p e r ­
c e n t in 1 9 6 5 . T o o b t a i n th is n u m b e r o f g r a d u a te s , s te p s
w o u ld h a v e t o b e t a k e n t o b u ild a d d itio n a l c la s s ro o m s , t o
a s s u re t h a t s u f f ic ie n t n u m b e r o f te a c h e r s a re a v a ila b le , a n d
t o a t t r a c t a d d itio n a l s tu d e n ts t o t h e tr a in in g p r o g r a m s . I n ­
c re a s e s in tr a in in g o f th is m a g n itu d e a re n o t u n r e a lis tic .
D u rin g th e e a rly 1 9 6 0 ’s, tr a in in g in p r e e m p lo y m e n t p o s t ­
s e c o n d a ry s c h o o l in c re a s e d a t a m u c h f a s te r r a te t h a n t h a t
im p lie d b y th is in c re a s e .
W h a t w o u ld b e th e s u p p ly if p a s t t r e n d s o f e n tr y f r o m
p r e e e m p lo y m e n t a n d te c h n ic ia n - r e la te d tr a in in g c o n tin u e d ?
I f th e sa m e p r o p o r t io n o f 4 -y e a r c o lle g e g r a d u a te s a n d
d r o p o u t s c o n tin u e t o e n te r te c h n ic ia n j o b s as in th e r e c e n t
p a s t, t h e n u m b e r o f n e w te c h n ic ia n s f r o m th e s e s o u rc e s
w o u ld in c re a s e a b o u t f o u r - f if th s b e tw e e n 1 9 6 6 a n d 1 9 7 9 as
r e f le c te d in th e rise in c o lle g e e n r o llm e n ts a n d g r a d u a te s
p r o j e c t e d b y th e U .S . O ffic e o f E d u c a tio n . O v e r th e
1 9 6 6 -7 9 p e r io d , a b o u t 1 5 0 ,0 0 0 4 -y e a r c o lle g e g r a d u a te s
a n d d r o p o u t s w o u ld e n te r te c h n ic ia n j o b s .
I f th e t r e n d o f in c re a s e in te c h n ic ia n tr a in in g p r o g ra m s
a s a p r o p o r t io n o f a ll M D T A tr a in in g c o n ti n u e d , th e
n u m b e r o f te c h n ic ia n s t r a i n e d in s u c h p r o g r a m s w o u ld in ­
c re a s e a b o u t tw o - f if th s b e tw e e n 1 9 6 6 a n d 1 9 7 9 , a n d p r o ­
v id e a b o u t 9 5 ,0 0 0 e n tr a n t s o v e r t h a t p e r io d . T h e a n n u a l
n u m b e r o f e n tr a n t s f r o m th e A rm e d F o r c e s h a s r e m a in e d
re la tiv e ly c o n s t a n t d u r in g th e 1 9 6 0 ’s, a lth o u g h a s lig h t rise
is e x p e c te d a t le a s t th r o u g h th e e a rly 1 9 7 0 ’s d u e t o th e
in c re a s e in th e siz e o f th e A r m e d F o r c e s r e s u ltin g f r o m th e
V ie t N a m W a r. B y 1 9 7 9 , h o w e v e r, e n tr a n t s f r o m th e A rm e d
F o r c e s a re p r o je c te d to a p p r o x im a te 1 9 6 3 le v e ls. W h e n
th e s e f a c to r s a re t a k e n in to c o n s id e r a tio n , a b o u t 2 1 ,5 0 0
p e r s o n s w o u ld e n te r te c h n ic ia n j o b s d u rin g th e 1 9 6 6 -7 9
p e r io d i f th e p a tt e r n s o f e n tr y f r o m A r m e d F o r c e s s e p a ra ­
t io n s c o n tin u e a s d u r in g t h e e a rly t o m id - 1 9 6 0 ’s.
S e v e ra l s tu d ie s in d ic a te t h a t e m p lo y e r s r e d u c e th e ir
t r a in in g a c tiv itie s a s m o r e te c h n ic ia n s b e c o m e a v a ila b le
f r o m p r e e m p lo y m e n t p o s t- s e c o n d a r y p r o g ra m s . T h e r e f o r e ,
i f tr a in in g in p r e e m p lo y m e n t p o s t- s e c o n d a r y p ro g r a m s w ill
e x p a n d o v e r th e 1 9 6 6 -7 9 p e r io d a lo n g th e lin e s o f r e c e n t
y e a rs , e m p lo y e r s m a y r e d u c e s lig h tly t h e i r te c h n ic ia n t r a i n ­
in g a c tiv itie s . U n d e r th e s e a s s u m p tio n s , a b o u t 1 7 5 ,0 0 0 n e w
te c h n ic ia n s w o u ld c o m p le te e m p lo y e r tr a in in g p r o g ra m s
b e tw e e n 1 9 6 6 a n d 1 9 7 9 .
H o w m a n y te c h n ic ia n e n tr a n t s c a n b e e x p e c te d t o
g r a d u a te f r o m p r e e m p lo y m e n t p o s t- s e c o n d a r y t r a in in g if
p a s t p a tt e r n s o f e n tr y f r o m th is s o u rc e o f s u p p ly w e re t o

12
c o n tin u e d u r in g th e 1 9 6 6 -7 9 p e r io d ? I f ( 1 ) th e p r o ­
p o r t io n o f h ig h s c h o o l g r a u d a te s w h o e n r o ll in th e s e
p r o g ra m s w e re t o in c re a s e a s d u r in g th e e a r ly 1 9 6 0 ’s
a n d ( 2 ) t h e p r o p o r t io n o f th o s e w h o e n te r te c h n ic ia n
jo b s w e re t o r e m a in a b o u t th e sa m e as d u r in g th e e a rly
1 9 6 0 ’s, a b o u t 7 5 0 ,0 0 0 n e w g r a d u a te s w o u ld e n te r t e c h ­
n ic ia n j o b s o v e r th e 1 9 6 6 -7 9 p e r io d .
A s in d ic a te d
a b o v e , g r e a t e f f o r t is n e e d e d t o b u ild n e w o r e x p a n d
e x is tin g te c h n ic a l i n s t it u t e s , j u n io r c o lle g e s , a n d o t h e r
p o s t- s e c o n d a r y s c h o o ls t h a t tr a in te c h n ic ia n s ; t o a t t r a c t
s tu d e n ts t o th e p ro g r a m s ; a n d t o a s s u re a s u f f ic ie n t
n u m b e r o f te a c h e r s t o p ro v id e th e tr a in in g .
I n s u m m a r y , a b o u t 1 .2 m illio n w o r k e r s w o u ld e n te r
te c h n ic ia n jo b s f r o m p r e e m p lo y m e n t a n d te c h n ic ia n r e la te d tr a in in g i f p a s t t r e n d s o f e n tr y c o n tin u e .
P r e e m p l o y m e n t --------------------------------------------------------- 1 ,0 2 0 ,0 0 0
P o s t- s e c o n d a r y p r e e m p lo y m e n t
t r a i n i n g -----------------------------------------------------------------7 5 0 ,0 0 0
E m p lo y e r t r a i n i n g -----------------------------------------------1 7 5 ,0 0 0
M D T A t r a i n i n g ----------------------------------------------------9 5 ,0 0 0
T e c h n i c i a n - r e l a t e d ---------------------------------------------------C o lle g e a n d u n iv e r s ity ( 4 -y e a r)
g r a d u a te s a n d d r o p o u t s ------------------------------------A r m e d F o r c e s t r a i n i n g ---------------------------------------

1 7 1 ,5 0 0
1 5 0 ,0 0 0
2 1 ,5 0 0

T o t a l ------------------------------------------------------------- 1 ,1 9 1 ,5 0 0
H o w e v e r, a f te r lo sse s r e s u ltin g f r o m d e a th s , r e tir e m e n ts ,
a n d tr a n s f e r s t o o t h e r o c c u p a tio n s , o n ly a b o u t 9 3 5 ,0 0 0
o f th e s e e n tr a n t s w o u ld r e m a in in th e fie ld in 1 9 8 0 .
A n a d d itio n a l 1 2 0 ,0 0 0 te c h n ic ia n s w o u ld h a v e t o b e
u p g r a d e d t o o b t a i n a n e t 9 9 ,0 0 0 te c h n ic ia n s n e e d e d
t o m e e t m a n p o w e r n e e d s o f 1 ,0 3 4 ,0 0 0 .18 > U p g ra d in g s
o f th is m a g n itu d e w o u ld a p p r o x im a te o n ly 1 0 p e r c e n t
o f a ll e n tr a n t s f o r th e p e r io d , c le a rly a v a s t im p r o v e ­
m e n t in th e t e c h n ic ia n m a n p o w e r s itu a tio n .




P ro s p e c tiv e R e la tio n s B e tw e e n R e q u ir e m e n ts fo r
a n d S u p p ly o f T e c h n ic ia n s , i f P a s t P a tte r n s
o f E n tr y C o n tin u e , 1 9 6 6 -8 0
R E Q U IR E M E N T S
T o t a l ----------------------------------------------------------------- 1 ,0 3 4 ,0 0 0
G r o w t h --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5 0 9 ,0 0 0
R e p la c e m e n ts : D e a th s a n d r e t i r e m e n t s ----------------- 1 5 0 ,0 0 0
T r a n s f e r s -------------------------------------------- 3 7 5 ,0 0 0
SU PPLY
N e t e n t r a n t s -------------------------------------------------- 1 ,0 3 4 ,0 0 0
G ro s s e n tr a n t s ( 1 ,3 2 0 ,0 0 0 ) m in u s lo s e s
r e s u ltin g f r o m d e a th s , r e tir e m e n ts ,
a n d tr a n s f e r s ( 2 8 6 ,0 0 0 )
N e t e n tr a n t s f r o m p r e e m p lo y m e n t a n d
te c h n ic ia n r e la te d t r a i n i n g -------------------------------G ro s s e n tr a n t s ( 1 ,1 9 1 ,5 0 0 ) m in u s lo sse s
r e s u ltin g f r o m d e a th s , r e tir e m e n ts ,
a n d tr a n s f e r s ( 2 5 6 ,5 0 0 )
N e t u p g ra d in g s r e q u i r e d ----------------------------------------G ro s s e n tr a n t s ( 1 2 0 ,0 0 0 ) m in u s lo sse s
re s u ltin g f r o m d e a th s , r e tir e m e n ts ,
a n d tr a n s f e r s ( 2 1 ,0 0 0 )

9 3 5 ,0 0 0

9 9 ,0 0 0

H o w e v e r, fa v o ra b le c o n d itio n s m a y n o t e x is t in all th e
v a r io u s te c h n ic ia n s p e c ia ltie s . S o m e s p e c ia ltie s m a y h a v e
s h o rta g e s b e c a u s e e m p lo y e r s h a v e in d ic a te d in c re a s in g d iffi­
c u lty u p g r a d in g w o r k e r s t o t e c h n ic ia n s j o b s in c e r ta in fie ld s
o f te c h n o lo g y o r s p e c ia liz a tio n (e .g ., b io -m e d ic a l e q u ip m e n t
te c h n o lo g y , n u c le a r m e d ic a l te c h n o lo g y , la s e r a n d e le c tro o p tic a l t e c h n o lo g y , a n d m e ta llu r g ic a l te c h n o lo g y ) a s a
r e s u lt o f th e g ro w in g c o m p le x ity o f in d u s tr ia l te c h n o lo g y
a n d r e s e a rc h a c tiv itie s . T h e s o u rc e s o f tr a in in g in th e s e
fie ld s p r o b a b ly w ill n o t s u p p ly all th o s e w h o a re n e e d e d .
A n y a s s e s s m e n t o f f u t u r e s u p p ly - d e m a n d c o n d itio n s
f o r te c h n ic ia n s re v o lv e s a r o u n d th e e x te n t t o w h ic h p r e e m ­
p lo y m e n t p o s t- s e c o n d a r y tr a in in g c a n b e e x p a n d e d . T h e
e f f o r t s u n d e r ly in g th e r a p id e x p a n s io n e x p e r ie n c e d d u rin g
th e 1 9 6 0 ’s m u s t b e c o n ti n u e d t h r o u g h th e 1 9 7 0 ’s i f f u tu r e
m a n p o w e r n e e d s f o r te c h n ic ia n s a re t o b e m e t.

C h a p te r

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a b o u t 5 3 te c h n ic ia n s p e r 1 0 0 s c ie n tis ts a n d e n g in e e rs in th e
m o to r v e h ic le i n d u s tr y . B y 1 9 6 6 , a b o u t 6 7 te c h n ic ia n s w e re
e m p lo y e d f o r e v e ry 1 0 0 s c ie n tis ts a n d e n g in e e rs . In c o n ­
t r a s t, th e n u m b e r o f te c h n ic ia n s p e r 1 0 0 s c ie n tis ts a n d e n g i­
n e e r s in th e c h e m ic a ls i n d u s tr y d e c lin e d f r o m a b o u t 4 5 t o
3 9 b e tw e e n 1 9 6 1 a n d 1 9 6 6 .
I n v ie w o f t h e r e p o r te d s c a r c ity o f s c ie n tis ts a n d e n g i­
n e e r s 20 a n d a c c o m p a n y in g e c o n o m ic f a c to r s s u c h a s h ig h
a n d ris in g s a la rie s f o r s c ie n tis ts a n d e n g in e e rs , r e s e a r c h is
n e e d e d t o d e te r m in e w h y th e e m p lo y m e n t o f te c h n ic ia n s
h a s g ro w n m o r e s lo w ly t h a n t h e e m p lo y m e n t o f s c ie n tis ts
a n d e n g in e e rs . T h e q u e s tio n su g g e sts m a n y a n s w e rs . (1 )
P e r h a p s e m p lo y e r s c a n n o t u s e e f fic ie n tly a la rg e r n u m b e r o f
te c h n ic ia n s re la tiv e t o s c ie n tis ts a n d e n g in e e rs . T o d a y ’s
m a n u f a c tu r in g p ro c e s s e s a n d r e s e a rc h a n d d e v e lo p m e n t
a c tiv itie s m a y d e m a n d re la tiv e ly m o r e s c ie n tis ts a n d e n g i­
n e e r s t h a n te c h n ic ia n s t h a n in th e p a s t. ( 2 ) P e r h a p s firm s
h a v e “ u p g r a d e d ” te c h n ic ia n s t o s c ie n tis t a n d e n g in e e r j o b s ,
p a r tic u la r ly t o e n g in e e rin g p o s itio n s . F o r e x a m p le , th e r e ­
p o r t e d s h o rta g e o f e n g in e e rs d u r in g th e e a rly t o m id - 1 9 6 0 ’s
c o u ld h a v e r e s u lte d in th e p r o m o ti o n o f h ig h le v e l t e c h ­
n ic ia n s t o e n g in e e rin g p o s itio n s t h a t e n ta il a g re a t d e a l o f
t e c h n ic ia n le v e l w o r k . (3 ) P e r h a p s te c h n ic ia n s in c re a s in g ly
a re b e in g c la s s ifie d b y e m p lo y e r s as e n g in e e r s b e c a u s e o f
th e g r e a te r “ s t a tu s ” a c c o r d e d e n g in e e rs . ( 4 ) T h e g a p
b e tw e e n th e s u p p ly a n d d e m a n d f o r t e c h n ic ia n s m a y h a v e
b e e n g r e a te r t h a n th e g a p b e tw e e n th e s u p p ly a n d d e m a n d
f o r s c ie n tis ts a n d e n g in e e rs .
B e c a u se th e r a tio o f te c h n ic ia n s t o s c ie n tis ts a n d e n g i­
n e e rs is b a s ic t o p r o je c tio n s o f te c h n ic ia n e m p lo y m e n t
r e q u ir e m e n ts , a d e c re a s in g r a tio h a s a s ig n ific a n t im p a c t o n
e m p lo y m e n t p r o je c tio n s . (S e e a p p e n d ix A .) T h e r e f o r e ,
u til i z a t io n s tu d ie s h a v e a m a jo r b e a r in g o n f u t u r e e d u c a tio n
p la n s a n d p o lic ie s c o n c e r n in g te c h n ic ia n s t h a t w o u ld r e s u lt
f r o m s tu d ie s o f s u p p ly a n d d e m a n d .

D u r in g th e r e s e a rc h fo r th is b u lle tin a n d o t h e r s tu d ie s
o f t e c h n ic ia n m a n p o w e r c o n d u c te d b y th e B u re a u o f L a b o r
S ta tis tic s , se v e ra l d a ta g a p s h a v e b e c o m e a p p a r e n t. M a n y o f
th e g a p s r e s tr ic t th e a m o u n t o f o c c u p a tio n a l d e ta il t h a t c a n
b e p r e s e n te d in m a n p o w e r s tu d ie s ; o t h e r s a f fe c t th e re lia ­
b ility o f th e d a ta t h a t a re p r e s e n te d . T h is s e c tio n p o i n ts to
so m e o f th e s tu d ie s t h a t c a n b e c o n d u c te d to fill th e s e d a ta
g a p s. T h e f o llo w in g a re a s a re d is c u s s e d : M a n p o w e r u til i z a ­
tio n , o c c u p a tio n a l d e ta il, r e la tio n s h ip o f tr a in in g to o c c u p a ­
tio n a l n e e d s , w a y s p e o p le q u a lif y f o r te c h n ic ia n j o b s , a n d
t h e tr a n s f e r o f te c h n ic ia n s t o o t h e r fie ld s o f w o r k .

M an po w e r u tiliza tio n

O v e r th e p a s t d e c a d e , se v e ra l s tu d ie s c o n c e r n in g th e
u t il i z a t io n o f te c h n ic ia n s h a v e b e e n c o n d u c t e d ; in m o s t o f
t h e m , s p e c ia l e m p h a s is w a s g iv e n to th e r a tio o f te c h n ic ia n s
t o s c ie n tis ts a n d e n g in e e r s .19 N e a rly a ll s u c h s tu d ie s h a v e
i n d ic a te d t h a t e m p lo y e r s e x p e c t o r p r e f e r th e r a tio o f t e c h ­
n ic ia n s in th e f u tu r e t o in c re a s e re la tiv e t o s c ie n tis ts a n d
e n g in e e rs . T h is c o n c lu s io n w a s t o b e e x p e c te d in v ie w o f a
r e p o r te d s h o rta g e , a n d th e lo n g le a d tim e n e e d e d t o tr a in
s c ie n tis ts a n d e n g in e e rs . E m p lo y e r s c o u ld s u b s ti t u te t e c h ­
n ic ia n s t o p e r f o r m th e m o re r o u tin e ta s k s p e r f o r m e d b y th e
m o r e h ig h ly t r a i n e d te c h n ic a l s ta ffs . H o w e v e r, e m p lo y m e n t
s u rv e y s c o n d u c t e d b y th e B u re a u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s h a v e
n o t s h o w n a n in c re a s e in th e u tiliz a tio n o f te c h n ic ia n s re la ­
tiv e t o s c ie n tis ts a n d e n g in e e rs b e tw e e n 1 9 6 1 a n d 1 9 6 6 , a
p e r io d in w h ic h s c ie n tis ts a n d e n g in e e rs w e re f o r th e m o s t
p a r t in s h o r t s u p p ly . In f a c t , th e e m p lo y m e n t o f s c ie n tis ts
a n d e n g in e e rs h a s in c r e a s e d s lig h tly f a s te r t h a n th e e m p lo y ­
m e n t o f te c h n ic ia n s sin c e 1 9 6 1 ( 2 3 .5 p e r c e n t c o m p a r e d
w ith a b o u t 2 2 .0 p e r c e n t) . A m o n g in d iv id u a l in d u s tr ie s ,
h o w e v e r, th e tr e n d v a rie s . F o r e x a m p le , in 1 9 6 1 , th e r e w e re




II

13

14
O c c u p a tio n a l detail

O n e o f th e m a jo r s h o r tc o m in g s o f e x is tin g te c h n ic ia n
m a n p o w e r s tu d ie s o n a n a tio n a l sc a le is t h e la c k o f o c c u p a ­
tio n a l d e ta il. F o r e x a m p le , th is r e p o r t p r e s e n ts s ta tis tic s f o r
o n ly n in e o c c u p a tio n a l g r o u p s , se v e ra l o f w h ic h in c lu d e
m a n y j o b tit l e s . T h e “ o t h e r e n g in e e rin g t e c h n ic ia n ” g r o u p
in c lu d e s m e c h a n ic a l, a e r o n a u tic a l, c iv il, a n d o t h e r k in d s o f
e n g in e e r in g te c h n ic ia n s , e a c h o f w h ic h h a s a n u m b e r o f
d i f f e r e n t j o b title s . S u c h b r o a d g r o u p in g s o f m a n y d if f e r e n t
t e c h n ic ia n o c c u p a tio n s m a k e s im p o s s ib le v a lid e s tim a te s o f
th e e m p lo y m e n t s iz e o f t h e d if f e r e n t t e c h n ic ia n o c c u p a ­
t io n s o r im p r o v e m e n t o f th e a n a ly s is o f s u p p ly - d e m a n d
r e la tio n s h ip s .
G o v e r n m e n t a g e n c ie s s h o u ld e x p a n d t h e n u m b e r o f
o c c u p a tio n a l c a te g o r ie s f o r w h ic h t h e y c o lle c t te c h n ic ia n
i n f o r m a t io n . T h e B u re a u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s , th e N a tio n a l
S c ie n c e F o u n d a t io n , a n d th e B u re a u o f th e C e n s u s c o lle c t
b a s ic i n f o r m a t io n o n te c h n ic ia n e m p lo y m e n t b y o c c u p a tio n
o n a n a tio n a l s c a le . T h e B u re a u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s in its
a n n u a l s u rv e y s o f s c ie n tific a n d te c h n ic a l p e r s o n n e l in p r i­
v a te in d u s tr y c o lle c ts e m p lo y m e n t s ta tis tic s f o r se v e n c a te ­
g o rie s ( b e f o r e 1 9 6 3 , f o r f o u r d if f e r e n t o c c u p a tio n a l c a te ­
g o rie s ); th e B u re a u o f th e C e n s u s in th e d e c e n n ia l c e n s u s ,
f o u r c a te g o r ie s ; a n d t h e N a tio n a l S c ie n c e F o u n d a t io n in
s u rv e y s o f c o lle g e s a n d u n iv e r s itie s a n d n o n p r o f i t o r g a n iz a ­
tio n s , t h r e e c a te g o rie s .
S o m e d a ta o n o c c u p a tio n a l d e ta il a re a v a ila b le f r o m
s tu d ie s o f s p e c ific l o c a l it i e s .21 T h e s e s tu d ie s o f f e r v a rio u s
p o s s ib ilitie s f o r c o lle c tin g m o r e d e ta ile d in f o r m a tio n o n a
n a tio n a l s c a le . F o r e x a m p le , Technician Manpower in New
York State, 22 id e n tif ie s 15 d if f e r e n t g r o u p s o f te c h n ic ia n
o c c u p a tio n s .
O n e o f th e k e y p r o b le m s in d e v e lo p in g m o r e d e ta ile d
a n d re lia b le o c c u p a tio n a l e m p lo y m e n t s ta tis tic s is t h a t o f
d e f in itio n . T h e w o r d “ te c h n i c i a n ” m e a n s m a n y th in g s t o
m a n y p e o p le . S o m e s tu d ie s d e fin e t e c h n ic ia n s m o r e
lib e ra lly t h a n o th e r s a n d s ta te t h a t a n e w h ig h s c h o o l g ra d u ­
a te m a y e n te r a te c h n ic ia n j o b . O th e r s tu d ie s , in c lu d in g
th o s e o f t h e B u re a u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s , in d ic a te t h a t t e c h ­
n ic ia n s a re w o r k e r s w h o m u s t h a v e tr a in in g c o m p a r a b le to
t h a t o b t a i n e d in a 2 -y e a r te c h n ic a l i n s t it u t e . (S e e a p p e n d ix
B .) W ith in t h e m a n y d e f in itio n s o f “ t e c h n ic ia n ,” th e
w o r k e r s c o v e re d m a y in c lu d e n o t o n ly th o s e w h o s u p p o r t
s c ie n tis ts a n d e n g in e e rs , b u t a ls o a d v e rtis in g c o p y w r ite r s ,
a c tu a r ie s , c r e d it a n a ly s ts , h o te l h o u s e k e e p e r s , lib r a r y a s s is t­
a n ts , le g a l s e c re ta rie s , a n d P B X o p e r a to r - r e c e p tio n is ts . T o
f u r t h e r c o m p lic a te th e p r o b le m , d if f e r e n t e m p lo y e r s u se
d if f e r e n t t it l e s f o r in d iv id u a ls d o in g th e sa m e w o r k . O n th e
o t h e r h a n d , th e sa m e d e s ig n a tio n o f t e n is u s e d t o d e s c rib e
t h e w o r k o f te c h n ic ia n s d o in g d if f e r e n t j o b s .




T o e lim in a te th e s e p r o b le m s , d e f in ite g u id e lin e s s h o u ld
b e e s ta b lis h e d in d e v e lo p in g all s ta tis tic s o n te c h n ic ia n m a n ­
p o w e r . I f g u id e lin e s a re n o t u s e d , th e d a ta w ill n o t b e c o m ­
p a r a b le , a n d a n a ly s ts w ill n o t b e a b le t o b u ild u p o n th e
i n f o r m a tio n c o lle c te d b y o t h e r s — a k e y r e s e a rc h o b je c tiv e .
S u c h a s y s te m is n o w b e in g d e v e lo p e d a s p a r t o f a B u re a u
o f th e B u d g e t c o m m i tt e e ’s w o r k o n d e v e lo p in g a s ta n d a r d
o c c u p a tio n a l c la s s if ic a tio n s y s te m .

R e la tio n sh ip o f tra in in g to o ccu pa tion a l specialty

O n e o f th e p r im a r y g o a ls o f a m a n p o w e r s tu d y o f te c h ­
n ic ia n r e q u ir e m e n ts a n d s u p p ly is t o a le r t e d u c a tio n a l
p la n n e r s t o t h e s p e c ific o c c u p a tio n a l s p e c ia liz a tio n s fo r
w h ic h t r a in in g p r o g r a m s s h o u ld b e e x p a n d e d , o r p e r h a p s ,
c u r ta ile d . A lth o u g h t h is s tu d y a n d o t h e r c o m p re h e n s iv e
s tu d ie s o f te c h n ic ia n m a n p o w e r c le a rly in d ic a te t h a t e f f o r ts
s h o u ld b e m a d e t o in c re a s e th e n u m b e r o f g r a d u a te s o f
p r e e m p l o y m e n t p o s t- s e c o n d a r y t e c h n ic ia n tr a in in g p r o ­
g ra m s , th e s p e c ific t e c h n ic ia n s p e c ia liz a tio n s in w h ic h tr a in ­
in g s h o u ld b e c o n c e n tr a t e d a re n o t id e n tif ie d . T h u s ,
i m p o r t a n t i n f o r m a t io n , s u c h a s w h e th e r e m p h a s is s h o u ld b e
p la c e d o n t r a in in g e le c tric a l a n d e le c tr o n ic s te c h n ic ia n s ,
d r a f ts m e n , life s c ie n c e te c h n ic ia n s , o r o t h e r sp e c ific o c c u p a ­
tio n a l fie ld s , c a n n o t b e f o u n d in th e m o s t c o m p re h e n s iv e
n a tio n a l m a n p o w e r s tu d ie s o n te c h n ic ia n s .
T h o u g h g r a d u a te s o f p o s t- s e c o n d a r y te c h n ic ia n tr a in in g
p r o g r a m s c u r r e n tly c o n s t it u t e le ss t h a n o n e - th ir d o f all n e w
e n tr a n t s , th is t y p e w o r k e r is in g r e a te s t d e m a n d . A n y in ­
c re a s e in tr a in in g a c tiv ity p r o d u c in g a g r o w th ra te o f g ra d ­
u a te s o f d if f e r e n t c u r r ic u lu m s in lin e w ith c u r r e n t tr e n d s
p r o b a b ly w o u ld n o t h a v e a n y ill e f f e c ts e ith e r o n th e
e c o n o m y o r o n in d iv id u a l te c h n ic ia n w o r k e r s o v e r th e s h o rt
r u n . F o r e x a m p le , a s t u d e n t ’s e m p lo y m e n t p r o s p e c ts w o u ld
b e a f f e c te d re la tiv e ly little d u r in g th e n e x t fe w y e a r s , re ­
g a rd le s s o f th e te c h n o lo g y s tu d ie d , b e c a u s e all w o r k e r s
t r a in e d in th e s e p r o g r a m s s h o u ld h a v e e x c e lle n t j o b o p p o r ­
t u n it i e s . H o w e v e r, f r o m th e p o i n t o f v ie w o f e m p lo y e r s a n d
o t h e r s w h o a re lo o k in g f o r th e m o s t e f fic ie n t d i s tr ib u tio n
o f tr a in e d m a n p o w e r , a n y in c re a s e in te c h n ic ia n tra in in g
s h o u ld b e d ir e c te d to w a r d o c c u p a tio n s in s h o r te s t s u p p ly
a n d th o s e e x p e c te d to b e in g r e a te s t d e m a n d in th e f u tu r e .
D u rin g th is s tu d y , a n a tt e m p t w a s m a d e t o d e v e lo p
e s tim a te s o f th e n e e d f o r g r a d u a te s o f p r e e m p lo y m e n t
p o s t- s e c o n d a r y c u r r ic u lu m s b y fie ld o f s tu d y . H o w e v e r,
b a sic in f o r m a tio n fo r r e lia b le e s tim a te s w a s n o t f u lly a v a il­
a b le a n d w a s im p o s s ib le t o d e v e lo p w ith in th e s ta f f in g a n d
tim e c o n f in e s o f th e s tu d y .
T o d e v e lo p in f o r m a tio n o n te c h n o lo g ic a l fie ld s in
w h ic h tr a in in g s h o u ld b e c o n c e n tr a t e d , s ta tis tic s a re n e e d e d

15

o n th e p r o p o r t io n o f g r a d u a te s in e a c h fie ld o f te c h n o lo g y
w h o e n te r e a c h te c h n ic ia n o c c u p a ti o n , a n d a ls o o n th e p r o ­
p o r t i o n o f n e w e n tr a n t s in e a c h fie ld w h o a re g r a d u a te s o f
p r e e m p lo y m e n t p r o g r a m s . H a v in g th is ty p e o f in f o r m a tio n ,
a n a ly s ts c o u ld e s tim a te e m p lo y e r s ’ re la tiv e n e e d s f o r g ra d ­
u a te s b y fie ld o f te c h n o lo g y .
Followup studies. T o in c re a s e o u r k n o w le d g e o f th e
t y p e o f j o b s o b t a i n e d b y g r a d u a te s , a s tu d y s h o u ld b e d o n e
to f o llo w u p th e a c tiv itie s o f g r a d u a te s o f t e c h n ic ia n p r o ­
g ra m s . T h e r e s u lts w o u ld id e n tif y t h e p r o p o r t io n o f
g r a d u a t e s w h o t a k e f u r t h e r s c h o o lin g , e n te r m ilita r y
a c tiv ity , o r g e t j o b s . In p a r tic u la r , th e s p e c ific o c c u p a tio n
o f th o s e e n te r in g t h e la b o r fo rc e w o u ld b e id e n tif ie d so t h a t
a n e s tim a te c o u ld b e m a d e o f th e e x te n t t o w h ic h n e w
t e c h n ic ia n s w ill w o r k in t h e te c h n ic ia n s p e c ia liz a tio n s in
w h i c h t h e y h a v e b e e n t r a i n e d . 23 G r a d u a te s o f p o s t ­
s e c o n d a r y p r e e m p lo y m e n t t r a in in g p r o g r a m s g e n e ra lly c o m ­
p le te o n e o f t h e fo llo w in g 1 0 c u r r ic u lu m s : A e r o n a u tic a l
te c h n o lo g y , a r c h ite c tu r e a n d civ il t e c h n o lo g y , e le c tric a l
t e c h n o lo g y , c h e m ic a l te c h n o lo g y , g e n e ra l e n g in e e rin g te c h ­
n o l o g y , in d u s tr ia l te c h n o lo g y , m e c h a n ic a l t e c h n o lo g y ,
m e ta llu r g ic a l te c h n o lo g y , a g ric u ltu re a n d f o r e s t r y , a n d d a ta
p ro c e s s in g . T h is lis t m ig h t in d ic a te t h a t g r a d u a te s o f e le c ­
tric a l te c h n o lo g y c u r r ic u lu m s b e c o m e e le c tr o n ic o r e le c ­
t r i c a l t e c h n i c i a n s , a n d t h a t g r a d u a te s o f c h e m ic a l
te c h n o lo g y b e c o m e c h e m ic a l te c h n ic ia n s , e tc . H o w e v e r,
f r o m t h e little a v a ila b le d a ta o n g r a d u a te s o f th e s e p ro g r a m s
r e p o r te d b y in d iv id u a l s c h o o ls , th is a s s u m p tio n is n o t c o r ­
r e c t . S o m e e le c tr o n ic t e c h n o lo g y g r a d u a te s b e c o m e
in d u s tr ia l te c h n ic ia n s , a e r o n a u tic a l te c h n ic ia n s , o r e n te r
o t h e r n o n e l e c t r o n i c te c h n ic ia n s p e c ia liz a tio n s ; so m e
b e c o m e d r a f ts m e n .
N o t all g r a d u a te s o f te c h n ic ia n tr a in in g p r o g r a m s w o i k
a s te c h n ic ia n s . S o m e c o n tin u e t h e i r e d u c a tio n in a d v a n c e d
s c h o o ls o r c o lle g e s a n d t r a i n f o r h ig h e r-le v e l o c c u p a tio n s .
O th e r s a c c e p t j o b s in o c c u p a tio n s w h e re t h e y u s e o n ly p a r t
o r n o n e o f t h e i r tr a in in g . S till o t h e r s e n te r th e A rm e d
F o r c e s a n d a re te m p o r a r ily o u t o f th e c iv ilia n la b o r f o r c e .
S o m e w o m e n g r a d u a te s b e c o m e h o u s e w iv e s a f te r c o m p le t­
in g a te c h n ic ia n tr a in in g p r o g r a m a n d d o n o t e n te r t h e la b o r
fo r c e .
W ays people q u a lify fo r technician jobs

A . P r e e m p lo y m e n t P o s t- S e c o n d a r y T ra in in g
P r e e m p lo y m e n t p o s t- s e c o n d a r y te c h n ic ia n tr a in in g is
a v a ila b le in se v e ra l g e n e ra l t y p e s o f in s t it u t io n s . T h e f ir s t
t y p e , in s t it u t io n s o f h ig h e r e d u c a ti o n , in c lu d e p u b lic a n d
p r iv a te s c h o o ls c o n f e r r in g a t le a s t th e a s s o c ia te o f a r ts d e ­
g re e o r its e q u iv a le n t in o rg a n iz e d o c c u p a tio n a l c u r ­




ric u lu m s . T h e s e i n s t it u t io n s a re lis te d in th e U .S . O ffic e o f
E d u c a t io n ’s D ir e c to r y o f H ig h e r E d u c a tio n . A s e c o n d t y p e ,
a r e a v o c a tio n a l s c h o o ls , in c lu d e s p u b lic v o c a tio n a l p ro g ra m s
s u p p o r t e d u n d e r p ro v is io n s o f t h e V o c a tio n a l E d u c a tio n
A c t o f 1 9 6 3 . A t h ir d t y p e in c lu d e s s c h o o ls o f f e rin g 4 -y e a r
b a c h e lo r o f te c h n o lo g y p r o g r a m s . A f o u r t h in c lu d e s “ p r i­
v a te ” s c h o o ls t h a t p r o v id e te c h n ic ia n tr a in in g p r o g ra m s
w h ic h a re n o t in c lu d e d in e ith e r o f th e f ir s t tw o ty p e s
a b o v e . T h e f ir s t tw o ty p e s o f p r o g r a m s h a v e b e e n c le a rly
id e n tif ie d a n d p r o v id e a m a jo r p a r t o f t h e t e c h n ic ia n t r a i n ­
in g .24 T h e l a t t e r t w o — b a c h e lo r o f te c h n o lo g y p r o g ra m s
a n d p riv a te s c h o o ls — n e e d t o b e s tu d ie d t o d e te r m in e th e
size a n d t y p e o f p ro g r a m s o f f e r e d .
Bachelor o f technology programs. F o u r - y e a r p r o g ra m s
in e n g in e e rin g te c h n o lo g y a re a re la tiv e ly r e c e n t d e v e lo p ­
m e n t , m o s t o f th e m h a v in g b e e n e s ta b lis h e d sin c e 1 9 5 0 . In
1 9 6 8 , a b o u t 7 5 i n s t it u t io n s o f f e r e d o n e o r m o r e b a c c a la u r a te p r o g r a m s in e n g in e e rin g o r in d u s tr ia l te c h n o lo g y
r e la te d t o e n g in e e rin g . T h e s e p ro g r a m s h a v e b e e n id e n tif ie d ,
a n d a n a tt e m p t m a d e to a sse ss th e n e e d f o r s u c h p ro g ra m s .25
L im ite d c o n ta c t s b e tw e e n B L S s t a f f m e m b e r s a n d in ­
d u s tr y r e p r e s e n ta tiv e s h a v e in d ic a te d so m e d if f e r e n c e s in
th e w a y e m p lo y e r s u tiliz e g r a d u a te s o f th e b a c h e lo r o f t e c h ­
n o lo g y p r o g r a m . S o m e tim e s , t h e g r a d u a te s a re h ir e d as
te c h n ic ia n s , a n d a t o t h e r tim e s t h e y a re h i r e d t o fill e n g i­
n e e rin g p o s itio n s . R e s e a r c h is n e e d e d t o d e te r m in e t o w h a t
e x te n t g r a d u a te s o f b a c h e lo r o f te c h n o lo g y p r o g r a m s e n te r
t e c h n ic ia n le v e l j o b s . A su rv e y o f in d iv id u a l g r a d u a te s
s h o u ld b e c o n d u c t e d , w h ic h w o u ld p r o v id e i n f o r m a tio n o n
a ll th e w o r k ro le s o f th e s e g ra d u a te s .
Private schools. I n a d d itio n t o th o s e s c h o o ls in c lu d e d
w ith in th e c a te g o r ie s t h a t h a v e tr a d itio n a lly b e e n th o u g h t
o f as p r o v id in g n e w ly t r a in e d t e c h n ic ia n s a re o t h e r s w h ic h
a re p r im a r ily p r iv a te ly o p e r a t e d a n d ty p ic a lly a w a rd c e r tif i­
c a te s u p o n c o m p le tio n o f th e p r o g r a m . T h e y a re n o t lis te d
a s i n s t it u t io n s o f h ig h e r e d u c a tio n b y t h e O ffic e o f E d u c a ­
t i o n a n d , th e r e f o r e , d o n o t fa ll in to s ta tis tic a l c o u n ts o f
g r a d u a te s , e n r o llm e n ts , a n d o t h e r d a ta c o lle c te d b y th e
O ffic e o f E d u c a tio n . F o r la c k o f a b e t t e r te r m , th e y a re
c a lle d “ p r iv a te ” s c h o o ls in t h is r e p o r t, e v e n t h o u g h m a n y
p r iv a te ly o p e r a t e d s c h o o ls a re in s t it u t io n s o f h ig h e r e d u c a ­
t io n .
N o a g e n c y — - p u b l i c o r p r iv a te — c o lle c ts d a ta o n th e
e n r o llm e n ts a n d g r a d u a te s o f p r iv a te s c h o o ls . T h o u g h
b e lie v e d t o b e la rg e , th e t o ta l n u m b e r o f s u c h s c h o o ls is n o t
k n o w n . T h e N a tio n a l A s s o c ia tio n o f T r a d e a n d T e c h n ic a l
S c h o o ls , w h ic h d o e s n o t in c lu d e all p r iv a te s c h o o ls , h a s
a b o u t 1 5 0 m e m b e r s , o n ly tw o o f w h ic h a re lis te d as in s t it u ­
t io n s o f h ig h e r e d u c a ti o n b y th e U .S . O ffic e o f E d u c a tio n .
H o w e v e r, n o t a ll o f th e r e m a in in g 1 4 8 s c h o o ls o f f e r t e c h ­
n ic ia n tr a in in g .

16
I d e n ti f i c a ti o n o f th e n u m b e r o f te c h n ic ia n s tr a in e d in
p r iv a te s c h o o ls w o u ld s h e d so m e lig h t o n a k e y a s p e c t o f
te c h n ic ia n s u p p ly — u p g ra d in g s . I f p riv a te p o s t- s e c o n d a r y
s c h o o ls p r o v id e a s ig n ific a n t s o u rc e o f n e w te c h n ic ia n s ,
t h e n u p g r a d in g s a re g re a tly o v e r - re p r e s e n te d in th e s u p p ly
e s tim a te s p r e s e n te d in th is a n d p r e v io u s t e c h n ic ia n m a n ­
p o w e r s tu d ie s b e c a u s e th e n u m b e r o f u p g ra d in g s w a s e s ti­
m a te d a s t h e re s id u a l o f a ll o t h e r e n tr a n t s a n d t o ta l
e n tr a n t s .
M u c h m o r e s h o u ld b e k n o w n a b o u t p r iv a te s c h o o ls
b e f o r e th e i r c o n tr i b u t io n t o th e s u p p ly o f n e w te c h n ic ia n s
c a n b e a sse ss e d . P ro g ra m s s h o u ld b e e s ta b lis h e d t o c o lle c t
d a ta o n th e n u m b e r o f fu ll- a n d p a r t- tim e s t u d e n ts in p r i­
v a te s c h o o ls , th e n u m b e r o f g r a d u a te s , th e e m p lo y m e n t
s ta tu s a n d fie ld o f w o r k o f b o t h g r a d u a te s a n d d r o p o u t s ,
th e e m p lo y m e n t s t a tu s o f p a r t- tim e s tu d e n ts , a n d th e
s o u r c e s o f s t u d e n t f in a n c ia l a s s is ta n c e . T h e la s t tw o ite m s
a re i m p o r t a n t t o d e te r m in e th e p o r t io n o f s t u d e n ts in th e s e
p ro g r a m s w h o p a r tic ip a te in “ c o m p a n y tr a in in g ” p ro g ra m s .
B . U p g ra d in g s
A n a tio n a l s tu d y is n e e d e d t o id e n tif y th e tr a in in g a n d
w o r k e x p e r ie n c e in a d d it i o n t o f o r m a l p r e e m p lo y m e n t
p o s t- s e c o n d a r y t r a in in g t h a t q u a lifie s w o r k e r s fo r t e c h ­
n ic ia n jo b s .
E s tim a te d u p g r a d in g s e a c h y e a r a re s u b je c t t o a w id e
ra n g e o f e r r o r s b e c a u s e o f th e m e t h o d u s e d f o r t h e i r d e v e l­
o p m e n t . I n 1 9 6 2 , o v e r 5 0 p e r c e n t o r a b o u t 4 5 ,0 0 0 n e w
e n tr a n t s to te c h n ic ia n s o c c u p a tio n s w e re e s tim a te d to h a v e
b e e n u p g r a d e d f r o m th e e x is tin g la b o r f o r c e , c o m p a r e d
w ith o n e - th ir d o r a b o u t 2 4 ,0 0 0 in 1 9 6 5 .
P r e lim in a r y r e s e a r c h h a s i n d ic a te d , h o w e v e r, t h a t
w o r k e r s w h o a re u p g r a d e d m a y h a v e o b ta in e d a s ig n ific a n t
a m o u n t o f p o s t- s e c o n d a r y te c h n ic ia n tr a in in g . T h u s , m o re

i n f o r m a tio n s h o u ld b e k n o w n a b o u t th e ir e d u c a tio n a l q u a li­
f ic a tio n s . O n e s tu d y 26 h a s in d ic a te d t h a t s o m e e m p lo y e rs
h ire n e a rly o n e - h a lf o f t h e i r te c h n ic ia n s f r o m o t h e r firm s ,
b u t n o t k n o w n is th e n u m b e r w h o a re n e w e n tr a n t s to th e
te c h n ic ia n w o r k f o r c e — w o r k e r s in o t h e r o c c u p a tio n s
b e in g u p g r a d e d to te c h n ic ia n j o b s , a n d w o r k e r s r e tu r n in g to
te c h n ic ia n jo b s a f te r “ t r y in g o u t ” w o r k in a n o th e r jo b .
T h e y c o u ld b e te c h n ic ia n s w h o o n ly c h a n g e th e ir e m p lo y ­
m e n t a n d th e r e f o r e , a re n o t a d d itio n s t o th e te c h n ic ia n
w o rk fo r c e .

Tran sfers to o th e r fields o f w o rk

I n a d d itio n t o f o llo w u p s tu d ie s o n th e p o s t- tr a in in g
w o r k a n d s tu d y a c tiv itie s o f t e c h n ic ia n g r a d u a te s d ire c tly
a f te r g r a d u a tio n , m o r e re s e a rc h s h o u ld b e u n d e r ta k e n a b o u t
th e e m p lo y m e n t o f g r a d u a te s a f te r th e ir te c h n ic ia n tra in in g .
T h e in f o r m a tio n d is c lo s e d b y f o llo w u p s tu d ie s o n th e p r o ­
p o r t io n o f g r a d u a te s w h o r e m a in in te c h n ic ia n o c c u p a tio n s
fo r se v e ra l y e a r s w o u ld b e i m p o r t a n t in d e v e lo p in g e s ti­
m a te s o f th e f u tu r e s u p p ly o f te c h n ic ia n m a n p o w e r .
O n ly v e ry lim ite d d a ta a re a v a ila b le o n th e n u m b e r o f
t e c h n ic ia n s w h o tr a n s f e r t o o t h e r fie ld s o f w o r k e a c h y e a r.
A s a r e s u lt, e s tim a te s o f f u tu r e r e q u ir e m e n ts a ris in g fro m
th e s e tr a n s f e r s c a n b e o n ly a p p r o x im a tio n s . A d m itte d ly ,
th e c o lle c tio n o f d a ta o n te c h n ic ia n s w h o tr a n s f e r o u t o f
te c h n ic ia n s p e c ia liz a tio n s w o u ld b e v e ry d if f ic u lt. H o w e v e r,
a n a t t e m p t w a s m a d e in th e P o s tc e n s a l S u rv e y o f P r o f e s ­
sio n a l a n d T e c h n ic a l P e r s o n n e l, w h ic h p r o v id e s s o m e u s e fu l
in f o r m a tio n o n tr a n s f e r s b e tw e e n 1 9 6 0 a n d 1 9 6 2 . T h is
s tu d y h a s b e e n u s e d t o e s tim a te tr a n s f e r s in th is rep o rt.
S tu d ie s o f tr a n s f e r s c a n b e c o n d u c t e d in c o n n e c tio n
w ith th e 1 9 7 0 C e n su s.

------ FO O TN O TE S ------1 The word “technician” is used interchangeably throughout
this report with “engineering and science technicians.”
2 See appendix table A-l for data on employment of tech­
nicians by occupation and industry in 1966.
3 See Reviews o f Data on Science Resources, Research, and
Development in Industry, 1966, National Science Foundation,
Washington, D.C., 20550, NSF 68-5.
4 See Employment o f Scientists and Engineers in the United
States, 1950-66, prepared jointly by the National Science Founda­
tion and the Bureau of Labor Statistics, NSF 68-30.
5 See, for example, Demand for Engineers and Tech­
nicians— 1966, Engineering Manpower Commission, New York,
N.Y., 1966.
6 Occupational Employment Statistics 1960-66 (BLS Bulletin
1579, 1968).




7 See ch. II, Directions for Future Research, for more infor­
mation on the utilization of technicians.
8 The employment estimates for technicians in this study are
early year estimates because most of the surveys underlying the
estimates collected data on January employment. (See appendix B.)
Because the number of upgradings is determined by developing a
residual of total entrants minus entrants from all other sources of
training, 1965 was the latest year for which estimates of upgradings
could be developed at the time this study was prepared. A 1967
employment estimate was not available to develop estimates of
growth between 1966 and 1967 which is necessary to estimate total
entrants.
9 Dropouts from curriculums other than science or engineer­
ing because science and engineering dropouts who enter technician
jobs are counted as part of entrants from technician-related training.

17
10 Because of the method of deriving the number of upgrad­
ings, the residual of total entrants and entrants from all other
sources of training (appendix B), the upgradings totals probably
include some students who have completed preemployment training
programs in private technical schools that either are not considered
institutions of higher education by the U.S. Office of Education or
do not participate in Federal programs under the Vocational Educa­
tional Act of 1963. These graduates would not be included in esti­
mates of preemployment training because they are not included in
any statistics collected on graduates. See Guide to Organized Occu­
pational Curriculums in Higher Education, U.S. Department of
Health, Education and Welfare, Office of Education, OE-54012-62,
Circular No. 771; and Education Directory 1966-67 Pt. 3, Higher
Education, U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare,
Office of Education.
11 Graduates of preemployment training offered in 4-year
Bachelor of Technology programs are counted as entrants from
regular bachelor’s degree programs because data are lacking to spe­
cifically separate these graduates from the data on degrees granted
that are published by the U.S. Office of Education. The Engineering
Manpower Commission of the Engineers Joint Council, however, has
initiated the collection of statistics on 4-year bachelor’s degree pro­
grams in technology (Degrees in Engineering and Industrial Tech­
nology, 1967-68). See ch. II, Direction for Future Research, p. 13.
12 Data on these and all other types of training presented here
are for 1965 so that they are comparable to the latest estimates that
could be developed for upgradings.
13 The supply data do not consider new bachelor’s degree re­
cipients who are doing technician work upon entry into professional
fields because these workers are not counted in the employment
estimates that serve as the base for the requirements projections.
14 See p. 15 for information concerning bachelor’s degree
programs in technology.
15 Graduates of training programs in 1979 will be the last
available for employment in early 1980, the target year of the
projections.
16 Estimated losses for deaths and retirements were based on
age specific separation rates developed by BLS based on the work
life experience of all workers, and a transfer rate of 3 percent a year,
primarily based on data in the Postcensal Survey o f Professional and
Technical Personnel. For an explanation and illustration of the
methods used to develop net supply estimates, see “Projections of
Manpower Supply in a Specific Occupation,” by Neal Rosenthal,




Monthly Labor Review, November 1966.

17 66,000 of the 300,000 gross entrants would be lost to em­
ployment between 1966 and 1979 because of retirements, deaths,
and transfers to other occupations.
18 21,000 of the 120,000 new entrants would be lost to em­
ployment between 1966 and 1979 because of retirements, deaths,
and transfers to other occupations.
19 See, for example, Technicians for Connecticut Industries,
State Department of Education, Hartford, Connecticut, Bulletin No.
82; Technician Manpower in New York State, New York State De­
partment of Labor, Division of Research and Statistics, 1964;
William J. Torpey, “Needs for Technicians,” Journal o f Engineering
Education, The American Society for Engineering Education, JulyAugust 1964; and Demand for Engineers, Physical Scientists, and
Technicians— 1966, op. cit., footnote 5.
20 See, for example, the semiannual reports entitled The Job
Market for Engineers, Scientists, and Technicians, published by the
U.S. Department of Labor, Manpower Administration.
21 Most of these studies are conducted by State agencies.
Some are conducted by local school systems, colleges and universi­
ties, and private consultant firms.
22 Op. cit., footnote 19.
23 Such a study can be done on a national scale, similar to the
study of graduates of 4-year college programs in 1958 conducted by
the Bureau of Social Science Research in 1960 under the sponsor­
ship of the National Science Foundation and published in 1963
under the title, Two Years After the College Degree: Work and
Further Study Patterns (NSF 63-26).
24 See ch. Ill, Technician Manpower: Requirements, Re­
sources and Training Needs (BLS Bulletin 1512, 1966), pp. 33-42.
25 See Baccalaurate Programs in Engineering Technology: A

Study o f Their Emergency and o f Some Characteristics o f Their
Content, a background paper developed by Dr. Jesse Defore for the

information of the participants in an Inventory Conference on Engi­
neering Technology Education, Jan. 22-23, 1968, sponsored by the
American Society of Engineering Education and supported by the
National Science Foundation.
26 A Survey o f Technical Needs o f Industry and Implications
for Curriculum Development in Higher Education — 1966. Eckhard
A. Jacobsen, Northern Illinois University, De Kalb, 111.
27 See also Technician Manpower: Requirements, Resources
and Training Needs, p. 52, op. cit., footnote 24.




A p p e n d ix A
S ta tistic a l T a b l e s
I n th e fo llo w in g ta b le s , a b s o lu te fig u re s u s u a lly a re
r o u n d e d , a n d p e r c e n ta g e s s h o w n t o o n e d e c im a l p la c e .
P r e s e n t a t i o n o f th e fig u re s in th is f o r m s h o u ld n o t b e c o n ­
s tr u e d a s in d ic a tin g t h a t t h e y h a v e e x a c tly th is d e g re e o f
p r e c is io n .




S in c e all to ta ls a n d p e r c e n ta g e s w e re c a lc u la te d o n th e
b a s is o f u n r o u n d e d fig u re s , t h e y d o n o t a lw a y s c o r r e s p o n d
e x a c tly w i t h th o s e in d ic a te d b y r o u n d e d fig u re s o n t h e
ta b le s .

19

T a b le A -1.

E stim a te d e m p lo y m e n t of tech n icia n s, by o c cu p a tio n an d industry, 1 9 6 6
E n g i n e e r i n g and p h y s ic a l s c i e n c e t e c h n ic ia n s
Ind ustry

D rafts­
T otal
te c h n ic ia n s
men

T otal

E n g i n e e r i n g te c h n ic ia n s
E lec­
O ther
T otal
t r o n ic

T otal

P h y s i c a l s c i e n c e t e c h n ic ia n s
C h e m ic a l P h y s i c s M a th e s­
m a t ic

O ther

A ll
science
oth er
te c h n ic ia n s t e c h n ic ia n s

A ll i n d u s t r i e s -------------------------------

8 8 6 ,9 0 0

2 7 2 ,3 0 0

4 1 9 ,3 0 0

2 9 9 ,2 0 0

1 8 3 ,3 0 0

1 1 5 ,9 0 0

1 2 0 ,3 0 0

6 0 ,5 0 0

1 0 ,6 0 0

5, 300

4 3 ,9 0 0

7 0 ,0 0 0

1 2 5 ,1 0 0

M i n i n g ------------------------------------------------------P e t r o l e u m e x t r a c t i o n ----------------------O ther m i n i n g --------------------------------------

1 0 ,2 0 0
6, 700
3, 500

3, 600
3, 100
500

3, 000
1 ,7 0 0
1, 300

1, 700
1 ,0 0 0
700

900
700
200

800
300
500

1, 300
700
600

300
100
200

-

-

1, 000
600
400

-

3, 600
1 ,9 0 0
1 ,7 0 0

C on tract c o n s t r u c t i o n ---------------------------

3 4 ,6 0 0

21, 000

6 ,4 0 0

6, 100

5, 300

800

300

200

M a n u f a c t u r in g ----------------------------------------O r d n a n c e --------------------------------------------F o o d ----------------------------------------------------T e x t ile and a p p a r e l -------------------------L u m b e r and f u r n i t u r e ---------------------P a p e r -------------------------------------------------C h e m ic a ls -----------------------------------------P e t r o l e u m r e f i n i n g --------------------------R u b b e r ------------------------------------------------Stone, c la y , and g l a s s -------------------P r i m a r y m e t a l s --------------------------------F a b r ic a t e d m e t a l s ---------------------------M a c h i n e r y -----------------------------------------E l e c t r i c a l e q u i p m e n t ----------------------M o to r v e h i c l e s ---------------------------------A i r c r a f t ---------------------------------------------O ther t r a n s p o r ta t io n e q u ip m e n t —
P r o f e s s i o n a l and s c i e n t if ic
i n s t r u m e n t --------------------------------------M is c e l la n e o u s m a n u f a c t u r i n g --------

3 8 5 ,7 0 0
1 9 ,3 0 0
4, 300
3, 100
6, 700
6, 100
3 8 ,3 0 0
5, 800
5, 000
5, 600
1 7 ,6 0 0
2 4 ,7 0 0
6 7 ,4 0 0
1 0 0 ,9 0 0
1 5 ,7 0 0
3 4 ,4 0 0
6, 200

1 3 2 ,5 0 0
4, 200
700
500
5, 200
1 ,2 0 0
3 ,7 0 0
700
1, 300
2 ,4 0 0
4, 700
1 6 ,6 0 0
3 5 ,6 0 0
2 7 ,6 0 0
6, 100
9 ,9 0 0
4, 500

2 0 2 ,3 0 0
1 3 ,9 0 0
1 ,5 0 0
1, 300
900
3, 700
2 4 ,4 0 0
3 ,5 0 0
2, 800
2, 100
9, 000
6, 300
2 4 ,7 0 0
6 4 ,1 0 0
8 ,600
2 1 ,6 0 0
1 ,7 0 0

1 4 6 ,9 0 0
11, 100
500
500
800
2, 100
6, 900
1 ,9 0 0
1 ,4 0 0
1 ,4 0 0
4, 300
5, 000
2 0,80 0
5 5,40 0
7, 100
1 8 ,1 0 0
1 ,4 0 0

8 9 ,6 0 0
8, 700
300
400
300
400
1, 300
300
200
400
1 ,8 0 0
900
1 1 ,6 0 0
4 6 ,6 0 0
100
9, 000
1 ,2 0 0

5 7 ,3 0 0
2, 400
200
100
500
1 ,7 0 0
5, 600
1, 600
1, 200
1, 000
2, 500
4, 100
9, 200
8, 800
7, 000
9, 100
200

5 5,40 0
2, 800
1, 000
800
100
1, 600
1 7 ,5 0 0
1, 600
1 ,4 0 0
700
4, 7 00
1, 300
3, 900
8, 700
1 ,5 0 0
3, 500
300

3 4 ,5 0 0
1, 100
900
700
100
1, 200
1 5 ,4 0 0
1, 300
1, 100
500
1 ,2 0 0
500
1, 700
3, 700
600
1, 300
100

2 0 ,2 0 0
4, 400

6, 000
1 ,6 0 0

10, 000
2, 200

7, 000
1, 200

5, 600
500

1 ,4 0 0
700

3, 000
1, 000

5 9 ,0 0 0
4 , 700
2, 800
2 0 ,8 0 0
10, 900
1 9 ,8 0 0

9, 700
1 ,8 0 0
400
1, 100

3 8 ,0 0 0
1, 300
1, 100
1 7 ,7 0 0
9, 300
8, 600

2 6,80 0
700
1, 100
9 ,8 0 0
9, 300
5 ,9 0 0

1 1 ,2 0 0
600
7, 900

6 ,4 0 0

4 0 , 100
1 ,5 0 0
1 ,2 0 0
1 8 ,3 0 0
9, 300
9 ,800

O ther in d u s t r ie s -----------------------------------M is c e l la n e o u s b u s i n e s s
s e r v i c e s ------------------------------------------M e d ic a l and d e n tal l a b o r a t o r ie s —
N on p r o fit i n s t i t u t i o n s ----------------------E n g in e e r in g and a r c h it e c t u r a l
s e r v i c e s ------------------------------------------O ther n o n m a n u f a c t u r in g -----------------

2 0 0 ,7 0 0

8 5 ,0 0 0

5 2 ,7 0 0

3 5 ,9 0 0

2 9,90 0

3 9 ,9 0 0
1 8 ,5 0 0
6, 500

10, 800
600

2 2 ,4 0 0
2 ,400

1 1 ,5 0 0
900

1 0 ,2 0 0
300

9 7,80 0
3 8 ,0 0 0

68, 100
5 ,5 0 0

8, 500
1 9 ,4 0 0

7, 600
15, 900

G o v e r n m e n t --------------------------------------------F e d e r a l -----------------------------------------------S t a t e ----------------------------------------------------L o c a l ----------------------------------------------------

1 6 4 ,9 0 0
8 3,80 0
5 6 ,5 0 0
2 4,60 0

19, 100
3, 900
6, 900
8, 300

107, 000
63, 500
3 4 ,9 0 0
8, 600

C o lle g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s --------------------

3 1 ,8 0 0

1 ,4 0 0

7 ,8 0 0

T r a n s p o r t a tio n , c o m m u n ic a tio n ,
and pu b lic u t ilit ie s -----------------------------R a ilr o a d s ------------------------------------------O ther t r a n s p o r t a t i o n -----------------------T e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s -----------------------R adio and t e l e v i s i o n -----------------------P u b lic u t ilit ie s ----------------------------------

-

100
300
1 ,4 0 0
100
4 00
-

100
300
500
100
300
-

2, 200
900

300
100

-

500
-

2, 100
200
100
600
1 ,2 0 0

800
200
600

200
200

700
100
100
500

6, 000

1 7 ,0 0 0

8 ,4 0 0

2, 200

400
300
100
1, 600

1, 300
600

1 0 ,9 0 0
1 ,5 0 0

5, 200
700

1 ,6 0 0
300

700
200

4 , 000
1 5 ,4 0 0

3, 600
500

900
3, 700

300
2, 200

100
200

6 8,50 0
3 3 ,6 0 0
2 7,50 0
7 ,4 0 0

28 ,9 0 0
1 7 ,7 0 0
1 0 ,1 0 0
1, 100

3 9 ,6 0 0
1 5 ,9 0 0
1 7 ,4 0 0
6, 300

3 8 ,5 0 0
2 9,90 0
7 ,400
1 ,2 0 0

1 3 ,5 0 0
9, 200
3 ,4 0 0
900

2, 100

1 ,9 0 0

200

5 ,700

2, 800

-

2, 700

4, 100
600

100

1 5 ,1 0 0
800
100
100
300
1 ,5 0 0
200
200
200
3, 500
600
1 ,6 0 0
3, 100
700
1, 500
200

N O T E : B e c a u s e of r oun din g, s u m s of in divid ual i t e m s m a y not eq u a l to t a ls .




_

-

100
500
100
100
-

1, 700
300
-

-

-

100
-

-

_
-

7, 200

5 ,4 0 0
200
700

100
200
100
-

45,40 0
1, 000
1 ,4 0 0
1, 300
600
1, 100
6, 500
1 ,6 0 0
900
1 ,0 0 0
3 ,9 0 0
1 ,6 0 0
7, 000
9, 000
1 ,0 0 0
2, 800
400

300
100

3, 800
500

-

100
3, 600
100
-

9 ,2 0 0
1 ,4 0 0
1 ,2 0 0
1 ,4 0 0
1 ,6 0 0
3, 600

4 ,8 0 0

2 5,70 0

3 7 ,4 0 0

3 ,4 0 0
300

800
1 6 ,8 0 0
3, 100

5, 900
1 ,7 0 0
400

100
600

400
700

100
4, 900

2 1 ,1 0 0
8, 300

2, 900
2, 900
-

1, 000
800
200

-

21, 100
1 7 ,0 0 0
3 ,8 0 0
300

1 9 ,5 0 0
1 4 ,5 0 0
4, 000
1 ,0 0 0

1 9 ,0 0 0
1, 600
10, 700
6, 700

1 ,2 0 0

500

1 ,2 0 0

1 9 ,3 0 0

3, 300

-

-

T able A -2.

P e r c e n t distribution o f e s t im a te d e m p l o y m e n t o f t e c h n ic ia n s , b y o c c u p a t io n a n d in d u stry, 1 9 6 6
E n g i n e e r i n g and p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e te c h n ic ia n s
Ind ustry

T otal
D rafts­
te c h n ic ia n s
men

T otal

E n g i n e e r i n g te c h n ic ia n s
E lec­
T otal
O ther
t r o n ic s

T otal

P h y s i c a l s c i e n c e t e c h n ic ia n s
e
C h e m ic a l P h y s i c s M a th c s­
m ati

A ll i n d u s t r i e s -------------------------------

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

M ining ------------------------------------------------------P e t r o l e u m e x t r a c t i o n ----------------------O ther m i n i n g --------------------------------------

1. 2
.8
.4

1. 3
1. 1
.2

0. 7
.4
.3

0. 6
.3
.2

0. 5
.4
.1

0. 7
.3
.4

1. 1
.6
.5

0. 5
.2
.3

C o n tr a c t c o n s t r u c t i o n ---------------------------

3. 9

7. 7

1. 5

2. 0

2. 9

.7

.2

.3

M an u fac tu r in g ----------------------------------------O r d n a n c e --------------------------------------------F o o d ----------------------------------------------------T e x tile and a p p a r e l -------------------------L u m b e r and fu r n itu r e --------------------P a p e r -------------------------------------------------C h e m i c a l s -----------------------------------------P e t r o l e u m r e f i n i n g --------------------------R u b b e r ------------------------------------------------S ton e , c la y , and g l a s s -------------------P r i m a r y m a t e l s -------------------------------F a b r ic a t e d m e t a l s ---------------------------M a c h i n e r y -----------------------------------------E l e c t r i c a l e q u i p m e n t ----------------------M otor v e h i c l e s ---------------------------------A i r c r a f t ---------------------------------------------O th e r tr a n sp o r t a t io n e q u ip m e n t —
P r o f e s s i o n a l and s c i e n t if ic
in s t r u m e n t s -----------------------------------M i s c e l l a n e o u s m a n u f a c t u r i n g -------

43. 5
2. 2
.5
.3
.8
.7
4. 3
.7
.6
.6
2. 0
2. 8
7. 6
1 1 .4
1. 8
3. 9
.7

48. 7
1. 5
.3
.2
1. 9
.4
1 .4
.3
.5
.9
1. 7
6. 1
13. 1
10. 1
2. 2
3. 6
1. 7

48. 2
3. 3
.4
.3
.2
.9
5. 8
.8
.7
.5
2. 1
1. 5
5.9
15. 3
2. 1
5. 2
.4

49. 1
3. 7
.2
.2
.3
.7
2. 3
.6
.5
.5
1 .4
1. 7
7. 0
18. 5
2. 3
6. 0
.5

48. 9
4. 7
.2
.2
.2
.2
.7
.2
.1
.2
1. 0
.5
6. 3
25. 4
.1
4. 9
.7

49. 4
2. 1
.2
.1
.4
1. 5
4. 8
1 .4
1. 0
.9
2. 2
3. 5
7. 9
7. 6
6. 0
7. 9
.2

46. 1
2. 3
.8
.7
.1
1. 3
14. 5
1 .3
1. 2
.6
3. 9
1. 1
3. 2
7. 2
1. 2
2. 9
.2

2. 3
.5

2. 2
.6

2. 4
.5

2. 3
.4

3. 1
.3

1. 2
.6

6. 7
.5
.3
2. 3
1. 2
2. 2

3. 6
.7
.1
.4
2. 4

9. 6
.4
.3
4. 4
2. 2
2. 3

12. 7
.4
.4
5 .9
3. 1
2. 9

14. 6
.4
.6
5. 3
5. 1
3. 2

O ther in d u s t r ie s -----------------------------------M iscellaenou s b u sin ess
s e r v i c e s ------------------------------------------M e d ic a l and d e n ta l la b o r a t o r ie s —
N o n p r o fit o r g a n i z a t i o n s -----------------E n g i n e e r i n g and a r c h it e c t u r a l
s e r v i c e s ------------------------------------------O th e r n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g -----------------

22. 6

31. 2

12. 6

12. 0

4. 5
2. 1
.7

4. 0
.2

5. 3
.6

11. 0
4. 3

25. 0
2. 0

2. 0
4. 6

G o v e r n m e n t --------------------------------------------F e d e r a l ----- ------------------------------------S t a t e ----------------------------------------------------L o c a l ----------------------------------------------------

18. 6
9 .4
6 .4
2. 8

7. 0
1 .4
2. 5
3. 0

C o lle g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s --------------------

3. 6

.5

T r a n s p o r t a tio n , c o m m u n ic a tio n ,
and p u b lic u t ilit ie s -----------------------------R a ilr o a d s ------------------------------------------O ther t r a n s p o r t a t i o n -----------------------T e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s -----------------------Radio and t e l e v i s i o n -----------------------P u b lic u t ilit ie s ----------------------------------

25.
15.
8.
2.

5
1
3
1

1. 9

.

-

100. 0
_
-

100. 0

100. 0
_
*

100. 0

2. 3
1. 4
.9

1. 9

7. 9
.3
1. 0
.1
5. 1
.1
.1
.3
.1
-

5. 8
36. 3
.8
1. 1
1. 0
.5
.9
5. 2
1. 3
.7
.8
3. 1
1. 3
5. 6
7. 2
.8
2. 2
.3

.4
.1

3. 0
.4

57. 0
1. 8
1 .5
1. 2
.2
2. 0
25. 5
2. 1
1. 8
.8
2. 0
.8
2. 8
6. 1
1 .0
2. 1
.2

38. 7
5. 7
.9
4. 7
.9
.9
.9
2. 8
3. 2
.9
3. 8
-

32. 1
5. 7
1 .9
1 .9
5. 7
9 .4
1. 9
5. 7
-

34. 4
1. 8
.2
2. 3
.7
3. 4
.5
.5
.5
8. 0
1 .4
3. 6
7. 1
1. 6
3. 4
.5

2. 5
.8

3. 6
1. 5

3. 8
.9

-

1. 1
-

9. 7
.5
6. 8
2. 3

1. 7
.2
.1
.5
1. 0

1. 3
.3
1. 0

7. 5
5. 7
1. 9

1. 6
.2
.2
1. 1

16. 3

5. 2

14. 1

13. 9

1. 9
1 .9
20. 8

30. 2

3. 8
.3

5. 6
.2

1. 1
.5

9. 1
1. 2

8. 6
1. 2

15. 1
2. 8

13. 2
3. 8

2. 5
5. 3

2. 2
8. 4

3. 1
.4

.7
3. 1

.5
3. 6

.9
1 .9

9
2
2
5

15. 8
9. 7
5. 5
.6

34. 2
13. 7
15. 0
5 .4

.7

1. 0

.2

27. 4
2 7.4
11. 3

22.
11.
9.
2.

N O T E : B e c a u s e of roun din g, s u m s of in divid ual i t e m s m a y not eq u a l t o t a ls .



100. 0

O ther

32.
24.
6.
1.

0
9
2
0

4. 7

22.
15.
5.
1.

3
2
6
5

4. 6

A ll
L ife
o th e r
science
t e c h n ic ia n s t e c h n ic ia n s

.

2. 9
1. 5
1 .4

7.
1.
1.
1.
1.
2.

4
1
0
1
3
9

10. 9

36. 7

29. 9

7. 7
.7

1. 1
24. 0
4. 4

4. 7
1. 4
.3

1. 9
11. 3

.9
1. 6

.1
7. 0

16. 9
6. 6

18. 9
15. 1
3. 8
9 .4

48. 1
38. 7
8. 7
.7

27. 9
20. 7
20. 0
1 .4

15. 2
1. 3
8. 6
5. 4

2. 7

27. 6

2. 6

T ab le A -3.

P r o je c te d 1 9 8 0 e m p lo y m e n t r eq u ire m en ts for te c h n ic ia n s, by o c c u p a tio n and industry

!o

E n g i n e e r i n g and p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e te c h n ic ia n s
In d u stry

Total
te c h n ic ia n s

D rafts­
men

E n g in e e r in g
t e c h n ic ia n s

T otal

T otal

P h y s i c a l s c i e n c e t e c h n ic ia n s
M a th e ­
C h e m ic a l
P h ysics
m a tics

A ll i n d u s t r i e s ------------------------------------------------

1 .395 .700

4 3 4 .3 0 0

6 4 6 .8 0 0

45 3 .8 0 0

1 9 3 ,0 0 0

9 6 .5 0 0

M i n i n g ----------------------------------------------------------------------P e t r o l e u m e x t r a c t i o n --------------------------------------O th e r m i n i n g ------------------------------------------------------

1 0 ,8 0 0
6 ,8 0 0
4, 000

3 ,7 0 0
3, 200
500

3 ,3 0 0
1 ,7 0 0
1 ,6 0 0

1 ,8 0 0
1, 000
800

1 ,5 0 0
700
800

4 00
100
300

C o n tr a c t c o n s t r u c t i o n --------------------------------------------

5 0 ,9 0 0

3 0 ,9 0 0

9 ,5 0 0

9, 000

500

400

M a n u fa c tu r in g --------------------------------------------------------O r d n a n c e ------------------------------------------------------------F o o d ---------------------------------------------------------------------T e x t ile and a p p a r e l -----------------------------------------L u m b e r and f u r n i t u r e -------------------------------------P a p e r ------------------------------------------------------------------C h e m ic a ls ----------------------------------------------------------P e t r o l e u m r e f i n i n g ------------------------------------------R u b b e r -----------------------------------------------------------------S to n e , c la y , and g l a s s ------------------------------------P r i m a r y m e t a l s ------------------------------------------------F a b r ic a t e d m e t a l s --------------------------------------------M a c h i n e r y ----------------------------------------------------------E l e c t r i c a l e q u i p m e n t --------------------------------------M o to r v e h i c l e s -------------------------------------------------A i r c r a f t --------------------------------------------------------------O th e r t r a n s p o r ta t io n e q u i p m e n t -------------------P r o f e s s i o n a l and s c i e n t if ic
i n s t r u m e n t s ----------------------------------------------------M i s c e l l a n e o u s m a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------------------

6 0 2 ,8 0 0
2 2 ,6 0 0
5 ,7 0 0
4, 000
9 ,6 0 0
9, 300
5 4 ,0 0 0
6 ,2 0 0
7 ,6 0 0
8 ,4 0 0
2 3 ,1 0 0
3 5 ,2 0 0
1 2 5 ,7 0 0
1 7 5 ,5 0 0
19, 600
4 7 ,0 0 0
9 ,5 0 0

2 1 0 ,9 0 0
4 ,600
800
600
7 ,4 0 0
1 ,8 0 0
5 ,2 0 0
800
2, 000
3 ,8 0 0
6, 100
2 3 ,6 0 0
6 6 ,3 0 0
4 8 ,1 0 0
7 ,6 0 0
1 3 ,5 0 0
6 ,5 0 0

3 1 3 ,7 0 0
1 6 ,5 0 0
1 ,9 0 0
1 ,7 0 0
1, 300
5 ,6 0 0
3 4,40 0
3 ,7 0 0
4 , 200
3 2 ,1 0 0
1 1 ,8 0 0
9, 300
4 6 ,1 0 0
1 1 1 ,5 0 0
1 0 ,8 0 0
2 9,50 0
2 ,4 0 0

2 3 0 ,5 0 0
1 2 ,0 0 0
600
600
1, 100
3, 100
9, 600
2, 100
2, 200
2, 200
5 ,6 0 0
7, 100
3 8,80 0
96 ,7 0 0
8, 800
24 ,6 0 0
2, 000

8 3 ,2 0 0
4 , 500
1, 300
1, 100
200
2, 500
2 4,80 0
1, 600
2, 000
900
6, 200
2 ,2 0 0
7, 300
1 4 ,8 0 0
2, 000
4 ,9 0 0
4 00

50 ,9 0 0
2, 000
1, 200
1 ,0 0 0
200
1 ,8 0 0
2 2 ,0 0 0
1, 300
1 ,6 0 0
600
1 ,5 0 0
900
3, 000
6 ,400
800
1 ,6 0 0
100

3 4 ,1 0 0
5 ,7 0 0

10, 100
2, 100

1 7 ,0 0 0
2 ,9 0 0

1 1 ,8 0 0
1 ,6 0 0

5, 200
1, 300

3 ,7 0 0
1 ,2 0 0

T r a n s p o r t a tio n , c o m m u n ic a tio n ,
and p u b lic u t ilit ie s ---------------------------------------------R a ilr o a d s -----------------------------------------------------------O th e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ----------------------------------------T e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s ----------------------------------------R ad io and t e l e v i s i o n ----------------------------------------P u b lic u t ilit ie s ----------------------------------------------------

80, 000
4, 200
4, 000
33, 100
1 5 ,0 0 0
2 3 ,7 0 0

1 1 ,6 0 0
1 ,6 0 0
600
1 ,8 0 0
7 ,6 0 0

5 6 ,8 0 0
1 ,4 0 0
1 ,7 0 0
2 9,10 0
1 2 ,8 0 0
1 1 ,8 0 0

54 ,2 0 0
1 ,2 0 0
1 ,6 0 0
28 ,3 0 0
1 2 ,8 0 0
1 0 ,3 0 0

2 ,6 0 0
200
100
8 00
1 ,5 0 0

900
200
700

O th e r i n d u s t r ie s ----------------------------------------------------M is c e l la n e o u s b u s i n e s s s e r v i c e s ----------------M e d ic a l and den tal l a b o r a t o r i e s -------------------N o n p r o fit i n s t i t u t i o n s ---------------------------------------E n g in e e r in g and a r c h it e c t u r a l s e r v i c e s -----O th e r n o n m a n u f a c t u r in g ----------------------------------

342, 000
6 0 ,9 0 0
2 6 ,8 0 0
13, 000
1 8 6 ,5 0 0
5 4 ,8 0 0

1 4 6 ,5 0 0
1 5 ,5 0 0
1, 300
1 2 2 ,0 0 0
7 ,7 0 0

8 3 ,4 0 0
3 4 ,6 0 0
4 ,7 0 0
1 5 ,5 0 0
2 8,60 0

54 ,4 0 0
1 6 ,5 0 0
1 ,9 0 0
1 3 ,6 0 0
22 ,4 0 0

2 9 ,0 0 0
1 8 ,1 0 0
2 ,8 0 0
1 ,9 0 0
6, 200

1 4 ,8 0 0
8, 900
1, 100
700
4 , 100

G o v e r n m e n t ------------------------------------------------------------F e d e r a l ---------------------------------------------------------------S t a t e ---------------------------------------------------------------------L o c a l --------------------------------------------------------------------

2 5 0 ,7 0 0
122, 000
9 2 ,5 0 0
3 6 ,2 0 0

2 8 ,6 0 0
5 ,4 0 0
11, 300
1 1 ,9 0 0

1 6 1 ,2 0 0
92 ,4 0 0
5 6,00 0
1 2 ,8 0 0

1 0 0 ,7 0 0
4 6 ,2 0 0
4 3 ,9 0 0
1 0 ,6 0 0

6 0 ,5 0 0
4 6 ,2 0 0
1 2 ,1 0 0
2, 200

2 2 ,1 0 0
1 4 ,8 0 0
5, 600
1 ,7 0 0

C o lle g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s -------------------------------------

5 8 ,5 0 0

2, 100

1 8 ,9 0 0

3, 200

1 5 ,7 0 0

7, 000

-

N O T E : B e c a u s e of roun din g, s u m s o f in divid ual it e m s m a y not e q u al t o t a ls .




2 0.70 0
_

O ther

L ife
All
science
oth e r
t e c h n ic ia n s te c h n ic ia n s

1 0 .1 0 0

6 5.70 0

1 0 8 .9 0 0

2 0 5 .8 0 0

-

-

-

-

100

1, 100
600
500

-

3 ,8 0 0
1 ,9 0 0
1 ,9 0 0

-

2 2,70 0
1 ,0 0 0
100
100
500
2, 100
200
300
300
4 ,7 0 0
900
3, 000
5 ,4 0 0
900
2, 100
300

7, 900
300
1, 100
200
5, 100
200
300
100
-

70, 300
1 ,2 0 0
1 ,9 0 0
1 ,7 0 0
900
1 ,7 0 0
9, 300
1 ,7 0 0
1 ,4 0 0
1 ,5 0 0
5 ,2 0 0
2, 300
13, 100
1 5 ,6 0 0
1 ,2 0 0
3 ,9 0 0
600

600
100

100
-

800
-

600
-

6 ,4 0 0
700

-

800
-

900
100
200

-

-

1 1 ,6 0 0
1 ,2 0 0
1 ,7 0 0
2, 200
2 ,2 0 0
4, 300

6, 500
1, 000
-

200
600
100
100
-

200
600
2, 200
200
600
-

3, 800
2 ,7 0 0
500
300
300
5, 000
5, 000
-

5 ,4 0 0

.

3, 100
500
-

100
200
700
800
100
600

_

600

-

1 0 ,6 0 0

2, 800
1 ,2 0 0
600
200
800

7, 600
5, 300
600
700
1, 000

3 8 ,9 0 0
1, 600
2 4 ,4 0 0
6, 200
200
6, 500

2, 100
1 ,6 0 0
400
100

3 1 ,3 0 0
24,80 0
6, 100
400

3 0 ,5 0 0
2 1 ,9 0 0
7, 000
1, 600

3 0 ,4 0 0
2, 300
1 8 ,2 0 0
9 ,9 0 0

1, 200

2, 100

3 1 ,6 0 0

5, 900

_

200

_

600

7 3 ,2 0 0
9 ,2 0 0
2 ,4 0 0
800
4 8 ,8 0 0
12, 000

T ab le A -4.
industry

P e r c e n t distribu tion o f p r o je cte d 1 9 8 0 e m p l o y m e n t r e q u ir e m e n ts for t e c h n ic ia n s , by o c c u p a tio n a n d
E n g i n e e r i n g and p h y s ic a l s c i e n c e te c h n ic ia n s
Ind ustry

Total
te c h n ic ia n s

D rafts­
men

T otal

E n g in e e r in g
t e c h n ic ia n s

T otal

P h y s i c a l s c i e n c e t e c h n ic ia n s
M a th e ­
C h e m ic a l
P h ysics
m a t ic s

A ll i n d u s t r i e s -----------------------------------------------

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

M i n i n g ----------------------------------------------------------------------P e t r o l e u m e x t r a c t i o n --------------------------------------O th e r m i n i n g ------------------------------------------------------

0. 8
.5
.3

0.9
.7
.1

0. 5
.3
.2

0 .4
.2
.2

0. 8
.4
.4

0 .4
.1
.3

C o n tr a c t c o n s t r u c t i o n -------------------------------------------

3. 6

7. 1

1. 5

2. 0

.3

.4

M a n u f a c t u r i n g --------------------------------------------------------O r d n a n c e ------------------------------------------------------------F o o d --------------------------------------------------------------------T e x t ile and a p p a r e l -----------------------------------------L u m b e r and f u r n i t u r e -------------------------------------P a p e r ------------------------------------------------------------------C h e m ic a ls ---------------------------------------------------------P e t r o l e u m r e f i n i n g ------------------------------------------R u b b e r ----------------------------------------------------------------S to n e , c la y , and g l a s s -----------------------------------P r i m a r y m e t a l s ------------------------------------------------F a b r ic a t e d m e t a l s -------------------------------------------M a c h i n e r y ---------------------------------------------------------E l e c t r i c a l e q u i p m e n t --------------------------------------M o to r v e h i c l e s -------------------------------------------------A i r c r a f t --------------------------------------------------------------O th e r t r a n s p o r ta t io n e q u i p m e n t -------------------P r o f e s s i o n a l and s c i e n t if ic
i n s t r u m e n t s ----------------------------------------------------M i s c e l l a n e o u s m a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------------------

43. 2
1. 6
.4
.3
.7
.7
3 .9
.4
.5
.6
1.7
2. 5
9. 0
12. 6
1 .4
3 .4
.7

48. 6
1. 1
.1
1 .7
.4
1 .2
.2
.5
.9
1 .4
5 .4
15. 3
11. 1
1. 7
3. 1
1. 5

48. 5
2. 6
.3
.3
.2
.9
5. 3
.6
.6
.5
1 .8
1 .4
7. 1
17. 2
1. 7
4. 6
.4

50. 8
2. 6
.1
.1
.2
.7
2. 1
.5
.5
.5
1. 2
1. 6
8. 6
2 1 .3
1 .9
5. 4
.4

43. 1
2. 3
.7
.6
.1
1. 3
12. 8
.8
1. 0
.5
3. 2
1. 1
3. 8
7. 7
1. 0
2. 5
.2

2. 4
.4

2. 3
.5

2. 6
.4

2. 6
.4

T r a n s p o r t a tio n , c o m m u n ic a tio n ,
and p u b lic u t i l i t i e s ---------------------------------------------R a ilr o a d s -----------------------------------------------------------O th e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ---------------------------------------T e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s ---------------------------------------R adio and t e l e v i s i o n ---------------------------------------P u b lic u t ilit ie s --------------------------------------------------

5. 7
.3
.3
2. 4
1. 1
1.7

2. 7
.4
.1
.4
1. 7

8. 8
.2
.3
4. 5
2. 0
1. 8

O th e r i n d u s t r i e s ----------------------------------------------------M i s c e l l a n e o u s b u s i n e s s s e r v i c e s ----------------M e d ic a l and d e n ta l l a b o r a t o r i e s -------------------N o n p r o fit i n s t i t u t i o n s --------------------------------------E n g in e e r in g and a r c h it e c t u r a l s e r v i c e s -----O th e r n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ---------------------------------

24. 5
4.4
1 .9
.9
1 3 .4
3 .9

33. 7
3. 6
.3
2. 8
1. 8

G o v e r n m e n t ------------------------------------------------------------F e d e r a l ---------------------------------------------------------------S tate
T-_ ____ , ,
L o c a l --------------------------------------------------------------------

18.
8.
6.
2.

0
7
6
6

6. 6
1. 2
2. 6
2. 7

4. 2

.5

C o lle g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s ------------------------------------

_

100. 0

1 .8
.9
.9

34. 6
1. 5
.2
.2
.8
3. 2
.3
.5
.5
7. 2
1 .4
4. 6
8. 2
1. 3
3. 2
.5

7. 3
.3
1. 0
.2
4. 7
.2
.3
.1
"

5. 2
34. 2
.6
.9
.8
.4
.8
4. 5
.8
.7
.7
2. 5
1. 1
6 .4
7. 6
.6
1. 9
.3

1. 2
-

.6
-

3. 1
.3

7. 9
5. 9
2. 0

1 .4
.2
.3
.9

5. 6
.6
.8
1. 1
1. 1
2. 1

27. 7
1 1 .9
5 .9
2. 0
7 .9

11. 6
8. 1
.9
1. 1
1. 5

35. 7
1. 5
2 2.4
5. 7
.2
6. 0

35. 6
4. 5
1. 2
.4
23. 7
5. 8

20. 8
15. 8
4‘. 0
1. 0

47. 6
37. 7
9. 3
.6

28. 0
20. 1
6 .4
1. 5

14. 8
1. 1
8. 8
4. 8

1 1 .9

3. 2

29. 0

2 .9

1. 0

52. 7
2. 1
1. 2
1 .0
.2
1. 9
22. 8
1. 3
1. 7
.6
1. 6
.9
3. 1
6. 6
.8
1. 7
.1

2. 7
.7

3. 8
1. 2

2. 9
1. 0

1 1 .9
.3
.4
6. 2
2. 8
2. 3

1. 3
.1
.1
.4
.8

.9
.2
.7

-

12. 9
5. 3
.7
2 .4
4 .4

12. 0
3. 6
.4
3. 0
4. 9

15. 0
9 .4
1 .5
1. 0
3. 2

15. 3
9. 2
1. 1
.7
4. 2

24.
14.
8.
2.

22.
10.
9.
2.

31.
23.
6.
1.

3
9
3
1

22. 9
15. 3
5. 8
1. 8

8. 1

7. 3

2 .9

2
2
7
3

.7

24. 2
24. 2
26. 1

100. 0

-

31 .4
4. 8
1. 0
2. 9
.5
.5
1. 0
2. 9
10. 6
1 .0
2. 9
"

9
3
7
0

100. 0

1. 7
.9
.8

-

1 8 .4
13. 0
2. 4
1 .4
1 .4

100. 0

_

-

N O T E : B e c a u s e of r oun din g, s u m s of in divid ual i t e m s m a y no t e q u al to t a ls .



100. 0

O ther

All
L ife
othe r
scien ce
te c h n ic ia n s te c h n ic ia n s

30. 7
5. 0
1. 0
2. 0
6 .9
7. 9
1. 0
5. 9
“
1. 0
-

T ab le A -5.

R atio of tech n ician
Ind ustry

A ll i n d u s t r i e s ----------------------------------------M in ing ----------------------------------------------------------------P e t r o l e u m e x t r a c t i o n --------------------------------O th e r m in in g ----------------------------------------------C o n tr a c t c o n s t r u c t i o n ------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g --------------------------------------------------O r d n a n c e ------------------------------------------------------F o o d --------------------------------------------------------------T e x tile and a p p a r e l -----------------------------------L u m b e r and fu r n itu r e ------------------------------P a p e r ------------------------------------------------------------C h e m ic a ls ---------------------------------------------------P e t r o l e u m r e f i n i n g ------------------------------------R u b b e r ----------------------------------------------------------S tone, c la y , and g l a s s -----------------------------P r i m a r y m e t a l s -----------------------------------------F a b r ic a t e d m e t a l s -------------------------------------M a c h i n e r y ---------------------------------------------------E l e c t r i c a l e q u i p m e n t --------------------------------M o to r v e h i c l e s -------------------------------------------A i r c r a f t -------------------------------------------------------O ther t r a n s p o r ta t io n e q u i p m e n t ------------P r o f e s s i o n a l and s c i e n t i f i c in s t r u m e n ts
M i s c e l l a n e o u s m a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------------




io

to s c i e n c e an d e n g in e e r in g e m p lo y m e n t , by industry, 1 9 6 6
A v e r a g e n u m b e r of
te c h n ic ia n s p e r 100
s c i e n t i s t s and
en ein eers
63
35
30
48
67
58
32
36
48
168
42
39
42
45
53
64
82
83
70
67
113
57
66

I n d u str y

A v e r a g e n u m b e r of
te c h n ic ia n s p e r 100
s c i e n t i s t s and
en ein eers

T r a n s p o r t a tio n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , and
pu b lic u t i l i t i e s ------------------------------------------------------------R a ilr o a d s -----------------------------------------------------------------O th e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ----------------------- -------------------T e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s ---------------------------------------------R ad io and t e l e v i s i o n --------------------------------------------P u b lic u t i l i t i e s --------------------------------------------------------

108
104
52
171
214
73

O th e r i n d u s t r i e s ----------------------------------------- --------------M i s c e l l a n e o u s b u s i n e s s s e r v i c e s ----------------------M e d ic a l and d e n ta l l a b o r a t o r i e s -------------------------N o n p r o fit i n s t i t u t i o n s --------------------------------------------E n g i n e e r i n g and a r c h it e c t u a l
s e r v i c e s -----------------------------------------------------------------O th e r n o n m a n u f a c t u r in g --------- ---------------------------

97
70
1, 321
44

G o v e r n m e n t ------------------------------------------------------------------F e d e r a l ---------------------------------------------------------------------S tate ---------------------------------------------------------------------------L o c a l --------------------------------------------------------------------------

75
63
109
73

C o lle g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s ------------------------------------------

18

105
91

A p p en d ix B

C o v e r a g e , D e f in it io n s , a n d P r o j e c t i o n M e t h o d s
c a u s e a d ju s tm e n ts w e re m a d e t o in c lu d e th o s e te c h n i­
c ia n s in frim s b e lo w a m in im u m s p e c ific s iz e t h a t w e re
e x c lu d e d f r o m th e s u rv e y . In t o ta l , a d ju s tm e n ts f o r th e s e
“ c u to f f s ” w e re m a d e in 1 0 o f th e 31 in d u s tr y g r o u p s fo r
w h ic h s e p a r a te e s tim a te s w e re d e v e lo p e d in th is s tu d y . T h e
f o llo w in g t a b u l a ti o n sh o w s th e in d u s tr ie s f o r w h ic h a d ju s t­
m e n ts w e re m a d e .
T h e m o s t c u r r e n t e m p lo y m e n t d a ta o n te c h n ic ia n s
e m p lo y e d in S ta te g o v e r n m e n ts a t th e tim e th is s tu d y w a s
p r e p a r e d w e re c o lle c te d f o r 1 9 6 4 b y th e B u re a u o f L a b o r
S ta tis tic s . T h e m o s t c u r r e n t d a ta f o r lo c a l g o v e r n m e n ts is

Coverage and definitions

T h e d e f in itio n o f te c h n ic ia n s u s e d in th is r e p o r t is th e
s a m e u s e d in t h e p e r io d ic s u rv e y s o f s c ie n tif ic a n d te c h n ic a l
p e r s o n n e l in p riv a te in d u s t r y , a n d S ta te a n d lo c a l g o v e rn ­
m e n ts c o n d u c t e d b y t h e B u re a u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s .
T e c h n ic ia n s a re : P e rs o n s a c tu a lly e n g a g e d in te c h n ic a l
w o r k a t a le v e l w h ic h r e q u ire s k n o w le d g e o f p h y s ic a l,
life , e n g in e e rin g , o r m a th e m a tic a l s c ie n c e s c o m p a r a b le
t o k n o w le d g e a c q u ir e d th r o u g h te c h n ic a l i n s t it u t e ,
j u n io r c o lle g e , o r o t h e r fo r m a l p o s t- h ig h s c h o o l tra in in g
le s s e x te n s iv e t h a n 4 -y e a r c o lle g e tr a in in g , o r th r o u g h
e q u iv a le n t o n - th e - jo b tr a in in g o r e x p e r ie n c e . A ll p e r ­
s o n s w o r k in g a s d r a f ts m e n a n d s u rv e y o rs a re c o n ­
s id e re d t o b e te c h n ic ia n s .

Number of employees
in smallest size of
Industry
firm sampled
Food and kindred products-------------------------------10
Textile mill products and apparel:
Textile mill products 1----------------------------------50
Apparel1 ---------------------------------------------------- 100
Paper and allied products---------------------------------10
Rubber and miscellaenous plastics products---------10
Stone, clay, glass, and concrete products:
Hydraulic cement1---------------------------------------10
Stone, clay, and glass products1--------------------4
Lumber and furniture---------------------------------------50
Contract construction--------------------------------------4
Miscellaneous manufacturing:
Tabacco manufactures1---------------------------------50
Printing, publishing, and allied industries1-------- 100
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries1 ---------10
Mining, except petroleum---------------------------------10
Other transportation services:
Local passenger transportation1----------------------- 100
Trucking1------------- j ------------------------------------10
Water transportation -----------------------------------10
Air transportation!----j---------------------------------- 100
Pipeline transportation---------------------------------50
1
A separate employment estimate was not developed for this
industry.

E x c lu d e d f r o m c o v e ra g e a re : ( 1 ) T e c h n ic ia n s w h o
w o r k w i t h p h y s ic ia n s , d e n tis ts , a n d o t h e r p r a c t it i o n e r s in
t h e h e a l t h fie ld s w h o a re e n g a g e d in p a ti e n t c a re ; ( 2 )
w o r k e r s w h o fa ll in th e “ s p e c tr u m o f m id d le le v e l m a n ­
p o w e r ” in b u s in e s s — r e la te d te c h n o lo g ie s a n d p u b lic se rv ­
ic e s s u c h as lib ra ry a s s is ta n ts a n d le g a l s e c re ta rie s ; a n d (3 )
w o r k e r s c la s s ifie d as c r a f ts m e n s u c h a s i n s tr u m e n t r e p a ir ­
m e n a n d m e c h a n ic s .
Methodology

Estimates of 1966 employment. T h e e s tim a te s o f t o ta l
t e c h n ic ia n e m p lo y m e n t in th is r e p o r t w e re d e riv e d b y
a g g re g a tin g s e p a r a te e s tim a te s m a d e f o r e a c h o f th e six
s e c to r s o f th e e c o n o m y f o r w h ic h te c h n ic ia n e m p lo y m e n t
d a ta a re c o ll e c t e d — p riv a te i n d u s t r y , t h e F e d e r a l G o v e r n ­
m e n t , S ta te g o v e r n m e n ts , lo c a l g o v e r n m e n ts , n o n p r o f i t
o r g a n iz a t i o n s ,2 a n d c o lle g e s a n d u n iv e rs itie s . 3 F o r th e
p r iv a te in d u s t r y s e c to r , a s u rv e y o f s c ie n tific a n d te c h n ic ia l p e r s o n n e l (S P T ) w a s c o n d u c t e d in 1 9 6 6 b y th e
B u r e a u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s . P u b lis h e d d a ta f r o m th is
s u rv e y d if f e r s lig h tly f r o m e s tim a te s u s e d in th is s tu d y b e ­




Footnotes appear on p. 28.

25

26

fo r 1 9 6 3 , w h ic h a ls o w e re c o lle c te d b y th e B u re a u . T h e
d a ta o n te c h n ic ia n s e m p lo y e d in c o lle g e s a n d u n iv e r s itie s
a re f o r 1 9 6 5 f r o m a s u rv e y c o n d u c te d b y th e N a tio n a l
S c ie n c e F o u n d a t io n (N S F ) a s w e re d a ta o n th o s e e m p lo y e d
in n o n p r o f i t o r g a n iz a tio n s . T e c h n ic ia n e m p lo y m e n t in th e
F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t in 1 9 6 6 w a s o b ta in e d f r o m th e U .S .
C ivil S e rv ic e C o m m is s io n .
I n s e c to r s w h e re 1 9 6 6 s u rv e y r e s u lts w e re n o t a v a ila b le ,
a d ju s tm e n ts t o a v a ila b le d a ta w e re m a d e t o p la c e all s e c to rs
o n a c o m p a r a b le tim e b a s is . F o r e x a m p le , e s tim a te s o f e m ­
p l o y m e n t o f te c h n ic ia n s in S ta te g o v e r n m e n ts in 1 9 6 6 w e re
b a s e d o n a t r e n d a n a ly s is o f in f o r m a tio n in th e B L S s u rv e y s
o f s c ie n tific a n d te c h n ic a l p e r s o n n e l in S ta te g o v e r n m e n ts
in 1 9 5 9 , 1 9 6 2 , a n d 1 9 6 4 ,4 a u g m e n te d b y a n a n a ly s is o f th e
h is to r ic a l r a tio s o f t e c h n ic ia n s t o s c ie n tis ts a n d e n g in e e rs in
t h is s e c to r . T h e s c ie n tis t a n d e n g in e e r e s tim a te s u s e d in th e
a n a ly s is w e re o b t a i n e d f r o m a s tu d y p r e p a r e d b y th e N S F
a n d t h e B u re a u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s .5 T h e k n o w le d g e g a in e d
f r o m t h a t s tu d y a lso w a s i n c o r p o r a te d in th e d e v e lo p m e n t
o f te c h n ic ia n e s tim a te s . T h is sa m e g e n e ra l m e t h o d o lo g y w a s
f o llo w e d t o d e v e lo p te c h n ic ia n e m p lo y m e n t e s tim a te s f o r
th e lo c a l g o v e r n m e n t, c o lle g e s a n d u n iv e r s ity , a n d n o n p r o f i t
o r g a n iz a tio n s e c to rs .
Occupational distributions. N in e s e p a r a te o c c u p a tio n a l
c a te g o rie s f o r te c h n ic ia n s a re s h o w n in th is r e p o r t f o r
1 9 6 6 . T h e y a re a s f o llo w s : ( 1 ) D r a f ts m e n , ( 2 ) e le c tr ic a l
a n d e le c tr o n ic e n g in e e rin g te c h n ic ia n s , ( 3 ) o t h e r e n g in e e r ­
in g te c h n ic ia n s , ( 4 ) c h e m ic a l te c h n ic ia n s , ( 5 ) p h y s ic s
te c h n ic ia n s , ( 6 ) m a th e m a tic s te c h n ic ia n s , ( 7 ) o t h e r p h y s ­
ic a l s c ie n c e te c h n ic ia n s , ( 8 ) life s c ie n c e te c h n ic ia n s , a n d
( 9 ) a ll o t h e r te c h n ic ia n s .
H o w e v e r, e a c h o f th e v a r io u s s u rv e y s u s e d to d e v e lo p
th e 1 9 6 6 e m p lo y m e n t e s tim a te s d id n o t p r o v id e th is d e g re e
o f o c c u p a tio n a l d e ta il. I n s u rv e y s o f p r iv a te i n d u s tr y c o n ­
d u c te d b y B L S , se v e n d if f e r e n t c a te g o r ie s a re d e ta ile d ; o n ly
th r e e c a te g o r ie s a re p r e s e n te d in th e c o lle g e a n d u n iv e r s ity
s u rv e y s . T h e o c c u p a tio n a l d e ta il a v a ila b le in th e d if f e r e n t
in d u s tr y s e c to r s s u rv e y s is s h o w n b e lo w :
P riv a te in d u s tr y :
D r a f ts m e n , s u rv e y o rs , e le c tric a l a n d e le c tr o n ic t e c h ­
n ic ia n s , o t h e r e n g in e e rin g a n d p h y s ic a l s c ie n c e t e c h ­
n ic ia n s , b io lo g ic a l a n d a g r ic u ltu r a l te c h n ic ia n s , m e d ic a l
a n d d e n ta l te c h n ic ia n s , o t h e r te c h n ic ia n s .
F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t:
A b o u t 3 5 j o b t it l e s u s e d b y th e U .S . C iv il S e rv ic e C o m ­
m is s io n , s u c h a s d r a f ts m e n , e le c tr o n ic s e n g in e e rin g
te c h n ic ia n s , m a th e m a tic s te c h n ic ia n s , b io lo g ic a l t e c h ­
n ic ia n s . 6



S ta te a n d lo c a l g o v e r n m e n t:
D r a f ts m e n , s u rv e y o rs , e n g in e e rin g te c h n ic ia n s , p h y s ic a l
s c ie n c e te c h n ic ia n s , b io lo g ic a l te c h n i c i a n s ,7 m e d ic a l
a n d d e n ta l te c h n ic ia n s , o t h e r te c h n ic ia n s .
N o n p r o f i t o r g a n iz a tio n s
E n g in e e rin g a n d p h y s ic a l s c ie n c e te c h n ic ia n s , life
s c ie n c e te c h n ic ia n s , o t h e r te c h n ic ia n s .
C o lle g e s a n d u n iv e r s itie s :
E n g in e e rin g a n d p h y s ic a l s c ie n c e te c h n ic ia n s , life
s c ie n c e te c h n ic ia n s , o t h e r te c h n ic ia n s .
In d e v e lo p in g a c o m p a r a b le c la s s ific a tio n o f o c c u p a ­
tio n a l s p e c ia ltie s f o r e a c h o f th e six i n d u s t r y s e c to rs , th e
o c c u p a tio n a l c la s s ific a tio n f o r d r a f ts m e n , life s c ie n c e t e c h ­
n ic ia n s , a n d a ll o t h e r t e c h n ic ia n s w e re s im ila r, a n d to ta ls
w e re r e a d ily a v a ila b le f r o m t h e s u rv e y d a ta . H o w e v e r, f o r
th e la rg e s t p o r t i o n o f a ll te c h n ic ia n s , “ e n g in e e rin g a n d
p h y s ic a l s c ie n c e t e c h n ic ia n s ,” a n e m p l o y m e n t d i s tr ib u tio n
f o r th e f o llo w in g o c c u p a tio n a l c a te g o r ie s h a d t o b e d e riv e d :
1. E n g in e e rin g te c h n ic ia n s
a . E le c tr ic a l a n d e le c tr o n ic te c h n ic ia n s
b . O th e r e n g in e e rin g t e c h n ic ia n s
2 . C h e m ic a l te c h n ic ia n s
3 . P h y s ic s te c h n ic ia n s
4 . M a th e m a tic s te c h n ic ia n s
5 . A ll o t h e r p h y s ic a l s c ie n c e te c h n ic ia n s
T h e b r e a k d o w n o f th e e n g in e e rin g a n d p h y s ic a l sc ie n c e
g r o u p b y m o r e d e ta ile d o c c u p a tio n a l c la s s ific a tio n s w a s
b a s e d o n in f o r m a tio n f r o m a p o s tc e n s a l su rv e y .8 H o w e v e r,
th e p o s tc e n s a l s u rv e y d id n o t a llo w f o r a d i s t r ib u t i o n o f
te c h n ic ia n s b y in d u s tr y o f e m p lo y m e n t. T o d e v e lo p e s ti­
m a te s o f e m p lo y m e n t in th e m o r e d e ta ile d o c c u p a tio n a l
c la s s ific a tio n s b y i n d u s t r y , it w a s n e c e s s a ry t o u s e a s ta ­
tis tic a l a n a ly s is s u g g e s te d b y B u re a u s ta tis tic ia n s w h ic h in ­
v o lv e d r e la tin g th e p o s tc e n s a l d a ta t o e s tim a te d e m p lo y ­
m e n t o f all e n g in e e rin g a n d sc ie n c e t e c h n ic ia n s in e a c h
i n d u s t r y . ( S e e Technician M
anpower: Requirements,
Resources and Training Needs, C h a p te r II, f o r a d d itio n a l
i n f o r m a tio n .)
Projecting technician manpower requirements. In g e n ­
e ra l, a th r e e - p h a s e m e t h o d w a s u s e d t o p r o j e c t te c h n ic ia n
m a n p o w e r r e q u ir e m e n ts .
In th e f ir s t p h a s e , p r o j e c t io n s w e re d e v e lo p e d o f e m ­
p l o y m e n t r e q u ir e m e n ts f o r w a g e a n d s a la ry w o r k e r s b y
in d u s tr y a s p a r t o f t h e B u re a u ’s p r o g r a m o f p r o je c tin g

27
in d u s t r y m a n p o w e r r e q u ir e m e n ts f o r th e e n tir e e c o n o m y .
T h e s e p r o je c tio n s w e re b a s e d o n g e n e ra l a s s u m p tio n s c o n ­
c e r n in g th e n a tu r e a n d c o m p o s itio n o f th e e c o n o m y in
1 9 8 0 . T h e m a jo r a s s u m p tio n s u n d e r ly in g th e s e p r o je c tio n s
in c lu d e : A n a tio n a l u n e m p lo y m e n t r a te o f 3 p e r c e n t; a
c o n ti n u a ti o n o f h ig h r a te s o f e c o n o m ic g r o w th ; c o n tin u in g
g r o w t h o f r e s e a rc h a n d d e v e lo p m e n t (R & D ) e x p e n d itu r e s ,
a lth o u g h a t a s lo w e r r a te o f g r o w th t h a n s h o w n in th e la te
1 9 5 0 ’s a n d e a rly 1 9 6 0 ’s; a le v e l o f d e fe n s e a n d s p a c e a c tiv i­
tie s in t h e ta r g e t y e a r a p p r o x im a tin g th o s e o f 1 9 6 3 , s o m e ­
w h a t h ig h e r t h a n t h e lev e ls b e f o r e th e V ie t N a m b u ild u p ;
a n d s c ie n tific a n d te c h n o lo g ic a l a d v a n c e s in r e c e n t y e a r s
w ill c o n tin u e a t a b o u t th e sa m e r a te .
T h e s e c o n d p h a s e o f t h e p r o j e c t io n m e t h o d d e v e lo p e d
t h e r a ti o o f s c ie n tis ts a n d e n g in e e rs t o t o t a l w a g e a n d sa la ry
w o r k e r e m p l o y m e n t , b y d e ta ile d in d u s tr y s e c to r a n d fo r
e a c h y e a r f r o m 1 9 5 0 -6 6 . T h e s e r a tio s w e re d e riv e d f ro m
p u b lis h e d d a ta o n s c ie n c e a n d e n g in e e rin g e m p lo y m e n t b y
i n d u s t r y 9 a n d h is to r ic a l B L S w a g e a n d sa la ry w o r k e r e m ­
p l o y m e n t d a t a .10 T h e r a ti o o f s c ie n tis ts a n d e n g in e e rs to
w a g e a n d s a la ry w o r k e r s in e a c h in d u s tr y w a s p r o je c te d t o
1 9 8 0 o n t h e b a s is o f th e p a s t t r e n d a n d a p p lie d t o th e 1 9 8 0
e s tim a te s o f w a g e a n d s a la ry w o r k e r e m p lo y m e n t r e q u ir e ­
m e n t s , b y i n d u s t r y , t o y ie ld f ir s t a p p r o x im a tio n s o f
s c ie n tis t a n d e n g in e e r m a n p o w e r r e q u ir e m e n ts . T h e s e f ir s t
a p p r o x im a tio n s w e re e x a m in e d f o r r e a s o n a b le n e s s a n d c o n ­
s is te n c y b a s e d o n f a c to r s s u c h a s a n a n a ly s is o f t r e n d s in
R & D a n d d e fe n s e a c tiv itie s b y i n d u s tr y , a n d th e le v e ls o f
s u c h a c tiv itie s a s s u m e d in th e in d u s tr y e m p lo y m e n t p r o je c ­
tio n s .
T h e t h ir d p h a s e d e v e lo p e d r a tio s o f te c h n ic ia n e m p lo y ­
m e n t in e a c h o c c u p a tio n a l s p e c ia lty t o e m p lo y m e n t o f
s c ie n tis ts a n d e n g in e e rs in r e la te d o c c u p a tio n a l s p e c ia ltie s
f o r 1 9 6 6 a n d f o r as m a n y e a rlie r y e a r s a s w a s p o s s ib le fro m
a v a ila b le d a ta . T h e y w e re d e v e lo p e d f o r e ig h t o c c u p a tio n a l
c a te g o r ie s a n d f o r e a c h m a jo r in d u s tr y s e c to r a n d f o r 3 0
in d u s tr ie s w ith in th e p r iv a te s e c to r . P r o je c te d 1 9 8 0 e m p lo y ­
m e n t r e q u ir e m e n ts w e re n o t d e v e lo p e d e ith e r fo r e le c tr o n ic
a n d e le c tr ic a l e n g in e e rin g te c h n ic ia n s o r o t h e r e n g in e e rin g
t e c h n ic ia n s b e c a u s e o n ly 1 9 6 6 e m p lo y m e n t a n d n o tr e n d
d a ta w e re a v a ila b le fo r th e s e o c c u p a tio n a l c la s s ific a tio n s .
T h e f o llo w in g lis t d e ta ils th e t e c h n ic ia n s p e c ia litie s , a n d
s p e c ific s c ie n tif ic a n d e n g in e e rin g o c c u p a tio n s t o w h ic h
t h e y w e re r e la te d .
T h e r a tio s o f te c h n ic ia n s t o s c ie n tis ts a n d e n g in e e rs , b y
o c c u p a tio n a l s p e c ia lty a n d in d u s tr y , th e n w e re p r o je c te d t o
1 9 8 0 . T h e p r o je c te d r a tio s w e re b a s e d p r im a r ily o n p a s t
t r e n d s b u t w e re a d ju s te d t o r e f le c t f a c to r s e x p e c te d t o in ­
flu e n c e th e u til i z a t io n o f te c h n ic ia n s r e la tiv e t o s c ie n c e a n d
e n g in e e rin g m a n p o w e r in th e f u t u r e , s u c h as th e f u n c tio n a l
d i s t r ib u t i o n o f s c ie n tis t a n d e n g in e e r e m p l o y m e n t .11




T e c h n ic ia n
o c c u p a tio n

S c ie n tis ts a n d
e n g in e e rs

D r a f ts m e n
E n g in e e rin g te c h n ic ia n s
L ife s c ie n c e te c h n ic ia n s
M a th e m a tic s te c h n ic ia n s
C h e m ic a l te c h n ic ia n s
P h y s ic s te c h n ic ia n s
O th e r p h y s ic a l s c ie n c e
te c h n ic ia n s

E n g in e e rs
E n g in e e rs
L ife s c ie n tis ts
M a th e m a tic ia n s
C h e m is ts
P h y s ic is ts

A ll o t h e r te c h n ic ia n s

A ll s c ie n tis ts a n d
e n g in e e rs
A ll s c ie n tis ts a n d
e n g in e e rs

E s tim a te s o f d e a t h a n d r e tir e m e n t lo s s e s t o th e o c c u p a ­
t io n w e re d e v e lo p e d b y a p p ly in g a p p r o p r ia te s e p a r a tio n
r a te s t o th e age d is tr ib u tio n o f th e o c c u p a tio n . S e p a r a tio n
r a te s r e s u ltin g f r o m r e ti r e m e n ts a n d d e a th s w e re d e v e lo p e d
f r o m a s e rie s o f t a b le s o f w o r k in g life p r e p a r e d b y th e U .S .
D e p a r tm e n t o f L a b o r 12 w h ic h fo llo w s t h r o u g h su c c e ssiv e
a g e s th e e x p e r ie n c e o f a n in itia l c o h o r t o f 1 0 0 ,0 0 0 b ir th s .
T r a n s fe r s o u t o f th e o c c u p a tio n m a y b e m e a s u r e d
e ith e r b y f o llo w u p s o f p e r s o n s c o m p le tin g tra in in g f o r a n
o c c u p a ti o n o r b y f o llo w u p s o f a la rg e g ro u p o f in d iv id u a ls
c u r r e n tly e m p lo y e d in a n o c c u p a ti o n .13 F o r te c h n ic ia n s ,
t h e tr a n s f e r r a te w a s d e v e lo p e d p r im a r ily u s in g t h e l a t t e r
m e t h o d .14
Estimating supply o f technician manpower. In e a c h o f
t h e d if f e r e n t a n a ly s e s o f s u p p ly in t h is s tu d y , e s tim a te s o f
th e n u m b e r o f w o r k e r s w h o w o u ld e n te r te c h n ic ia n o c c u p a ­
t io n s d u r in g th e 1 9 6 6 -7 9 p e r io d u n d e r th e s ta te d a s s u m p ­
t io n s w e re d e v e lo p e d s e p a r a te ly f o r e a c h o f t h e fo llo w in g
s o u r c e s o f e n t r y : P r e e m p lo y m e n t tr a in in g in p o s t ­
s e c o n d a r y o c c u p a tio n a l c u r r ic u lu m s , e m p lo y e r tr a in in g p r o ­
g ra m s , a n d tr a in in g p ro g r a m s p r o v id e d u n d e r th e M a n p o w e r
D e v e lo p m e n t a n d T ra in in g A c t; te c h n ic ia n - r e la te d tr a in in g
in n a tu r a l sc ie n c e a n d e n g in e e rin g b a c h e lo r ’s d e g re e c u r ­
ric u lu m s in c o lle g e s a n d u n iv e r s itie s o r in th e A rm e d
F o r c e s ; a n d w o r k e r s u p g r a d e d f r o m o t h e r o c c u p a tio n s . F o r
e a c h s o u rc e o f s u p p ly ( e x c e p t u p g ra d in g s ), t h e b a sic t e c h ­
n iq u e u s e d t o e s tim a te s u p p ly in v o lv e d th e fo llo w in g : T h e
d e v e lo p m e n t o f e s tim a te s f o r e a c h y e a r f r o m 1 9 6 6 t o 1 9 7 9
o f ( 1 ) t h e n u m b e r o f p e r s o n s c o m p le tin g th e tr a in in g , a n d
t h e p r o p o r t io n o f th o s e w h o c o m p le te th e tr a in in g w h o w ill
e n te r te c h n ic ia n e m p lo y m e n t; a n d ( 2 ) t h e n u m b e r o f n e w
e n tr a n t s d u r in g 1 9 6 6 -7 9 p e r io d w h o w ill le a v e th e o c c u p a ­
t i o n b y 1 9 8 0 b e c a u s e o f d e a th , r e ti r e m e n t, o r tr a n s f e r to
a n o th e r o c c u p a tio n . T h e l a t t e r e s tim a te s w e re d e d u c te d
f r o m t h e t o t a l n u m b e r o f n e w e n tr a n t s d u rin g th e 1 9 6 6 -7 9
p e r io d t o d e v e lo p n e t s u p p ly in 1 9 8 0 . E s tim a te s o f th e
n u m b e r o f w o r k e r s t o b e u p g r a d e d w e re e s tim a te d as th e
d if f e r e n c e b e tw e e n t o ta l r e q u ir e m e n ts f o r te c h n ic ia n s a n d
p r o je c te d e n tr a n t s f r o m a ll o t h e r s o u r c e s .15

28

—

FOOTNOTES—

1 See Technical Education in the Junior College, N ew Pro­
grams fo r N ew Jobs, Norman C. Harris, American Association of

Junior Colleges, 1964.
2 The nonprofit sector includes philanthropic foundations;
voluntary health agencies; independent nonprofit institutions; cer­
tain Federal contract research centers; professional and technical
societies; and science museums, zoological and botanical gardens,
and arboritums.
3 Data are collected for early year employment in most of
these surveys and, therefore, the estimates of current employment
and projected 1980 requirements are early year estimates.
4 E m ploym en t o f Scientific and Technical Personnel in State
Governm ent Agencies, R eport on a 1959 Survey, National Science
Foundation, NSF 61-17, 1961; E m ploym en t o f Scientific and Tech­
nical Personnel in State G overnm ent Agencies, 1962, (BLS Bulletin
1412), June 1964; E m ploym en t o f Scientific, Professional, and
Technical Personnel in S tate Governm ents, January 1964 (BLS Bulle­
tin 1557), 1967.
5 E m ploym en t o f Scientists and Engineers in the United
States — 1950-1966, National Science Foundation, NSF 68-30.
6 See O ccupations o f Federal White-Collar Workers, O ctober
31, 1966, U.S. Civil Service Commission, 1968.
7 Included with agricultural technicians in local government
surveys.
8 Postcensal Survey of Professional and Technical Personnel.
See Technician M anpower: Requirem ents, R esources and Training
N eeds for more information on the postcensal survey.
9 E m ploym ent o f Scientists and Engineers 1950-66, op. cit.,
footnote 4.




10 E m ploym en t and Earnings Statistics fo r the U nited States,
1909-68 (BLS Bulletin 1312-6), August 1968.

11 The ratio of technicians to scientists and engineers differs
among functions, as was illustrated by a study of the aerospace
industry conducted by the Stanford Research Institute, The In­

dustry - G overnm ent A erospace Relationship, Vol. II— Supporting
R e s e a rc h , prepared for Aerospace Industries Association of

America, Inc., by Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, Cali­
fornia, 1963. For a more detailed explanation of the method used
to project technician manpowr requirements, see Technician Man­
pow er: R equirem ents, Resources, and Training Needs, ch. IV, pp.
43-57.
12 The Length o f Working Life fo r Males, 1900-1960 (U.S.
Department of Labor, Manpower Administration, 1963), Man­
power Report 8.
13 The first method is illustrated in Two Years A fter the Col­
lege D egree— Work and Further S tu dy Patterns. The second
method is illustrated in the Postcensal Survey o f Professional and
Technical Personnel.

14 For a more detailed explanation of the methods used to
estimate losses to an occupation, see “Projections of Manpower
Supply in a Specific Occupation,” op. cit., footnote 16.
15 For a more detailed explanation of the method used
to estimate technician supply, see ch. V in Technician Man­

pow er:

Requirem ents, Resources, and Training Needs, op. cit.,

pp. 58-77, footnote 11.

* U. S. G O V E R N M E N T

P R I N T I N G O F F I C E : 1970 O - 378-623




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