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Tables of W o rk ing Lire
LENGTH

OF

WORKING

LIFE

Bulletin No. 1001
UNITED




FOR

MEN

August 1950

STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Mau rice J. Tobin, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Ewan Clague, Commissioner




m s of uioftNne l k
Length of Working Life for M en

Bulletin No. 1001
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Maurice J. Tobin, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office,
Washington 25, D.C. - Price LO cents







LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,
Washington, D. C., July 5, 1950

THE SECRETARY OF LABOR:
I have the honor to transmit herewith a report on the
length of working life of men. This is the first of a series
of studies, planned by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, of the
length and pattern of working life of men and women in the
United States, and of related problems of employment opportu­
nities for older workers.
This report describes a significant and pioneering
development in the techniques for analyzing the dynamics of
the labor force. The research project upon which it is based
was planned and directed by Seymour L. Wolfbein, Chief of the
Bureau's Manpower and Productivity Division. The report was
written by Harold Wool, Chief of the Branch of Manpower Stud­
ies in that division. The following staff members (and former
staff members) also participated in the planning and develop­
ment of the statistical materials included in this report:
Irving Gedanken, Lester Pearlman, Leonard Eskin, and Stuart
Garfinkle.
Prior to publication, the report was reviewed by a number
of technicians, who made many helpful suggestions and criti­
cisms* Included were actuaries, demographers, and statisti­
cians, both in other Federal agencies and in private industry.
Acknowledgments are due, in particular, to staff members of the
National Office of Vital Statistics? Office of the Actuary,
Social Security Administration; United States Bureau of the
Census; Bureau of Agricultural Economics; Railroad Retirement
Board; and of the Statistical Department of the Metropolitan
Life Insurance Co.

Ewan Clague, Commissioner.

Hon. Maurice J. Tobin,
Secretary of Labor.




CONTENTS

Page
Introduction

..............................................

The table of working life:

Males, 194-0.......... .

Differential patterns of working life, 1940 ................

1
2
14-

Changes in the pattern of working life, 1940--47............

35

The trend of old-age dependency.................... .

41

The rate of labor force g r o w t h ............................

45

Occupational separation rates ..............................

49

Alternative measures of working life expectancy . . . . . . .

53

Technical appendix
Detailed table of working

life, 1940 ............

Abridged tables of working life, 1940 and 1947. . .




58
71

T a b le s

Page
4

1. - Table of working life; Bales, 1940 ..............................
2. -

Table of working life; urban males, 1940 .........................

18

3. -

Table of working life; rural males, 1940 .........................

19

4. - Table of working life; white males, 1940 ............
5. - Table of working life; nonwhite males, 1940

. . . . . .

20

.....................

21

6. -

Table of working life; urban white males, 1940 ...................

22

7. -

Table of working life; urban nonwhite males, 1940

23

8. -

Table of working life; rural white males, 1940 ...................

24

9. - Table of working life; rural nonwhite males, 1940

........

...

25

10. - Median ages of accession and separation for the
stationary labor force, males, by color and by
urban-rural residence, 1940 .....................................

26

11. - Average number of remaining years of life, in
labor force and in retirement, males, by color
and by urban-rural residence, 1940 ............................

29

12. - Abridged tables of working life, males, 1940 and 1947

..........

36

13- - Average number of remaining years of life, in labor
force and in retirement; white males, 1900, 1940;
total males, 1940, 1947, 1975 ..................................

42

14. - Estimated accessions to the male labor force, 1940-50

..........

47

15- - Estimated separations from the male labor force, 1940-50 ........

48

16. - Estimated separations due to death or retirement
from selected occupations, 1940-50 ..................

50

. . . . .

17. - Average life expectancy and work-life expectancy,
at birth ....................................................... 54
18. - Average number of years remaining in labor force,
total males, 1940, 1947 .........................................
Appendix table la - Detailed tables of working life,
males, 1940 ................................




56

59-60

Charts

Page
1. - Stationary population and labor force, total
males, 194-0.....................................................

5

2. - Annual rate of labor force accession, total
males, 194-0....................................................

7

3. - Annual labor force separations due to death and
retirement, total males,194-0...............

9

4 . - Average number of remaining years of life and of
labor force participation, male workers, 194-0................ ..

13

5. - Annual rates of labor force accession, males in
urban and rural areas, 1940 ......................................

15

6. - Annual rates of labor force separation, males in
urban and rural areas, 1940 .............. ................ ..

17

7. - Average number of remaining years of life, in labor
force and in retirement, raale workers in urban and
rural areas, 1940 ..............................
8. - Annual rates of labor force accession, white and
nonwhite males, 1940..................

31

9. - Annual rates of labor force separation, white and
nonwhite males, 1940.................................. -.........

32

10. - Average number of remaining years of life, in labor
force and in retirement, white and nonwhite male
workers, 1940 ........................................

34

11. - Stationary labor force, total males; 1940 and 1947 ............ ..

38

12. - Five-year separation rates from the labor force,
total males, 1940 and 1947

40

13.,- Average number of remaining years of life, in labor
force and in retirement, selected periods, male workers,
age 2 0 ................................

43

14. - Labor force participation rates, nonwhite males in
urban areas, 1940 ................................................. 66




TABLES OF WORKING LIFE
INTRODUCTION

The average expectation of life has for many years been recognized as
a valuable tool for the public health specialist, the life insurance actuary,
the demographer, and for others interested in measuring the progress of man
in his control over his biological environment. In similar fashion, the
average length of working life— and the ages at which men begin and end their
work careers— are of vital interest to all those concerned with the working
population and with problems of economic welfare.
Since the 18th century, at least, scholars have been aware of the close
relationship between man's life expectancy and his potential earning capacity.
Thus Adam Smith, in discussing the higher wages paid to skilled workmen, in­
dicated that a highly trained worker should receive a reward, over and above
the usual wages of common labor, "which would replace to him the whole ex­
pense of his education, with at least the ordinary profits of an equally valu­
able capital. It must do this, too, in a reasonable time, regard being had
to the uncertain duration of human life . . . " 1/
In a period when life expectancy was relatively short, when living stand­
ards were low and when the great majority of workers were still farmers or
small handicraftsmen, it could be safely assumed that all but a handful would
continue in gainful activity until stricken by death or serious disability.
For most men, a distinction between the prospective physiological life span
and the length of working life would therefore have been meaningless.
However, the emergence of a large aged and dependent group in the popu­
lation has made evident the need for separate measurement of the duration of
working life. 2/ The spectacular advances in medical science, in publichealth services, and in general living standards during the past century have
brought a steady lengthening of the average expectation of life of American
workmen. But industrialization and related social and economic trends have
progressively limited the possibilities of gainful employment for those
workers attaining advanced ages. Thus a growing gap has emerged between the
working life and total life expectancy of the average worker. The existing
size of this gap and future changes in this relationship will be extremely
important in determining the relative economic burden of public and private
programs for supporting the dependent aged.

l/ The Wealth of Nations, Book II, chap. 1 (p. 228). (This and other
historical references are cited by Louis I. Dublin and Alfred J. Lotka, The
Money Value of a Man, Ronald Press, 1930.)
2/ In this context, estimates of the "expected period of work" for gain­
ful workers were published by W. S. Woytinsky in Labor in the United States,
Social Science Research Council, 1933 (pp. 261-263). More recently, estimates
of "average number of years in the labor force" were presented by John D.
Durand in The Labor Force in the United States, 1890-1960, Social Science
Research Council, 1948 (p. 56).




- 2 -

The present report contains a brief description of the pattern
ing life, differentials by color and residence, and the application
tables to problems of old-age dependency, labor force analysis, and
tional outlook. A technical appendix is also included containing a
description of methodology.

THE TABLE OF WORKING LIFE;

of work­
of the
occupa­
detailed

MALES, 194Q

A standard life table is a statistical device for summarizing the mor­
tality experience of the population during a calendar year or similar brief
period. For this purpose, a hypothetical population is constructed, starting
with a given number of persons (usually 100,000) assumed to be born at the
same time. This initial group is then reduced at successive ages on the
basis of the prevailing mortality rates, until the last individual has been
accounted for. The resulting population is called the "stationary popu­
lation" because the number of assumed births each year exactly equals the
number of deaths. From the stationary population, a number of related vari­
ables are computed. The most significant of tnese is the average number of
years of life remaining after each specified year of age, commonly referred
to as the "average expectation of life" or the "average life expectancy."
A table of working life (like a standard life table) follows, through
successive ages, the experience of an initial cohort of 100,000 at birth.
In addition to showing the attrition caused by mortality, the working-life
table shows the number and proportion of persons in the stationary popula­
tion who may be expected to work or seek work over the life span, i.e., the
"stationary labor force." From this stationary labor force, are derived, in
turn, the rates of entry into the labor force, the rates of labor force sepa­
ration, and the average expectation of working life, at successive years of
age.
The pattern of labor force participation over age described by the
table of working life is based on observed experience at a particular time.
It shows what might be expected for men of a given age, if the prevailing
rates of mortality and of labor force participation should remain unchanged
over their life span. Like the standard life table, it is not a forecast
of future trends.

The standard life table normally shows two "population" columns; the
number of survivors at each exact year of age (lx ) and the stationary popu­
lation (l^) which i3 also identified as the number of man-years lived by the
cohort from one exact age interval to the following one. For detailed de­
scriptions of the standard life table, see Dublin, Lotka, and Spiegeiman,
The Length of Life, Roland Press, 1949» and Thomas N. E. Greville, United
States Life and Actuarial Tables, 1939-41, (Sixteenth Census of the United
States: 1940).




- 3 -

The other major assumptions underlying the table of working life and the
definitions of the functions shown are discussed in the following sections,
which describe the table for total males, based on 194-0 experience. (See
table 1.) In addition, a more detailed table showing all of the pertinent
functions appears in the Appendix on pages 59-60.
Stationary Population (Column 2)
The number of men who would survive at each year of age, of an initial
group of 100,000 births under 1940 mortality conditions, appears in column
2. As shown in chart 1, the stationary population declines fairly sharply
in the first few years of life, owing to the toll of mortality in infancy
and early childhood. Thereafter, attrition is slow, gradually increasing
during the period of youth and middle age. After the fifties, the decline
becomes progressively more rapid.
Since the emphasis of this study is on the period of working age, the
stationary population is actually shown i n the tables beginning with the age
,
of 14 years, at which age, measurement of labor force status begins under
current Census definitions. Prior to attaining age 14, the original cohort
of 100,000 has already been reduced to about 92,000. By age 52, the station­
ary population has dropped below the three-quarter mark; by age 67, to only
about half of the original group; and by age 78, it has been reduced to less
than a fourth.
Stationary Labor Force (Columns 3 and 4)
Figures in columns 3 and 4 show the number and percent of men in the
stationary population who are in the labor force, in each year of age, under
conditions of labor force participation similar to those prevailing in 1940.
In accordance with Bureau of Census definitions, the labor force includes,
in general, all persons 14 years of age or over (not in institutions) who
are employed or who are seeking work. ( J
In its classification of the pop­
ulation, labor force activity thus defined takes priority over other types
of activity or status (such as student or retired). Thus the labor force,
at any time, may include a certain proportion of part-time or irregular workers

i j Included also are members of the Armed Forces. Persons on public
emergency work projects, except NIA student workers, were classified as un­
employed, in the labor force, in 1940 and other periods when such projects
were being conducted. For detailed definitions, see the publications of the
16th Census of Population and for current periods, the Census Bureau's
Monthly Report on the Labor Force.
902693 0 - 50 - 2




- 4 Table 1* - Table of working 21fet nale®, 1940

J iL

M0.000 b ^ r i l *
lliii r of m auaauBBLMi

population
X to X * 1

JbL.

Aeeeaalona to
the labor fore®
(per 1,000 In
u z s s s u a a s E -i ___ w pb W pbI ______i

f r Vtot Percent of
fare___
i

Tear of age

Lx

I* x

1000 Ax
i

p)

r

i_______ m______ tfiL.

Separation® fraa the labor fore®
( n r 1.000 In labor foro®)
Do® to
E
____ 2SSM ______ 1
f

i
1
l
1000 < £
:t
!1
_________________!

1000 qJ

asm pfI
___
> W T W W T tt
____ !______ A ________1
9s£S

*
1 1000 Qx
i
*
1
_________________ :

2
*x

1
:
<
ii . _

k

14-15
15-16
16-17
17-18
18-19
19-20

92,115
91,968
91,812
91,638
91,446
91,236

5,610
11,192
21,152
35,692
52,240
65,626

6 .1
12.2
23.0
38.9
57.1
71.9

60.7
108.5
158.8
181.4
147.7
86.5

1 .6
1.7
1 .9
2.1
2 .3
2 .5

1 .6
1 .7
1.9
2 .1
2 .3
2 .5

—
—
—
—

52.2
51.3
50.4
49 .5
48 .6
47.7

46.6
4 5 .7
44 .8
43.8
4 2 .9
42.0

20-21
21-22
22-23
23-24
24-25

91,008
90,771
90,526
90,273
90,O il

73,354
77,686
80,690
82,646
83,824

80.6
85.6
89.1
9 1 .6
93.1

49 .7
35.4
24.1
15.7
9 .0

2 .6
2 .7
2 .8
2 .9
3.0

2 .6
2 .7
2 .8
2 .9
3.0

—
—
—
—
—

46.8
45 .9
45 .0
44.1
43.3

41 .1
40.2
39.3
38.4
37.6

25-26
26-27
27-28
28-29
29-30

89,741
89,463
89,177
88,883
88,581

84,383
84,705
84,828
84,789
84,643

94 .0
94.7
95.1
95.4
9 5 .6

6 .5
4 .4
2 .7
1 .6
.7

3.1
3.2
3.3
3 .4
3 .5

3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3 .5

—
—
—
—
—

42*4
41 .5
40.6
39.8
38.9

36.7
35.8
34.9
34.0
33.1

30-31
31-32
32-33
33-34
34-35

88,271
87,953
87,619
87,269
86,902

84,409
84,132
83,812
83,452
83,060

95 .6
9 5 .7
9 5 .7
95.6
95 .6

.3

3 .6
3 .8
4 .3
4 .7
5.1

3 .6
3.8
4 .0
4 .2
4 .4

—
—

—
—
—

.3
.5
.7

38.0
37.2
36.3
35.5
34.6

32.2
31.3
30.5
29.6
28.7

35-36
36-37
37-38
38-39
39-40

86,520
86,122
85,700
85,254
84 , T ?7

82,636
82,173
81,664
81,109
80,501

95 .5
95.4
95.3
95.1
95 .0

—
—
—
—

5 .6
6 .2
6 .8
7 .5
8 .1

4 .6
4 .9
5.2
5.6
6 .0

1 .0
1.3
1 .6
1 .9
2 .1

33.7
32.9
32.0
31.2
30.4

27.8
27.0
26.1
25.3
24.5

40-41
41-42
42-43
43-44
44-45

84,268
83,729
83,160
82,553
81,901

79,849
79,162
78,442
77,681
76,865

94.8
94.5
94.3
94 .1
93.9

..
—
—
—
—

8 .6
9 .1
9 .7
10.5
11.3

6 .4
6.8
7 .3
7 .9
8 .5

2.2
2.3
2 .4
2 .6
2 .8

2 9 .5

28 .7
27.9
27.1
26.3

23.7
22.9
22.1
21.3
20 .5

45-46
46-47
47-48
48-49
49-50

81,205
80,458
79,661
78,809
77,895

75,996
75,069
74,078
73,026
71,909

93 .6
93.3
93.0
92 .7
92.3

—
—
—
—
"

12.2
13.2
14.2
15.3
16.5

9 .2
9 .9
10.7
11.6
12.5

3 .0
3.3
3 .5
3 .7
4.0 .

25.5
24.8
24.0
23.2
22.5

19.7
18.9
18.2
17.4
16 .7

50-51
51-52
52-53
53-54
54-55

76,921
75,883
74,783
73,616
72,379

70,723
69,471
68,144
66,733
65,225

91 .9
91.6
91 .1
90.7
90.1

—
—
—
—
—

17.7
19.1
20.7
22.6
24.6

13.5
14.5
15.6
16.8
17.9

4 .2
4 .6
5.1
5.8
6 .7

21.8
21.0
20.3
19.6
18.9

15.9
15.2
14*5
13.8
13.1

55-56
56-57
57-58
58-59
59-60

71,076
69,704
68,261
6 6 ;7 2
65,177

63,620
61,902
60,057
58,051
55,828

89.5
88.8
88.0
87.0
85.7

—
—
—
—

27.0
29.8
33.4
38.3
46.8

19.2
20.6
2 2 .0
23.4
25.0

7 .8
9 .2
11.4
14.9
21.8

18.3
17.6
17.0
16.3
15.7

12.4
11.7
11.0
10.3
9 .7

<0-61
61-62
62-63
63-64
64-65

63,528
61,800
59,909
58,099
56,129

53,215
50,469
47,512
44,272
40,704

83.8
81.7
79.2
76.2
72.5

—
—
—
—
—

51.6
58.6
68.2
8 0 .6
105.1

26.9
28.9
30.9
33.1
35.2

24.7
29.7
37.3
47.5
69.9

15.1
14.5
13.9
13.3
12,7

9 .1
8 .6
8 .0
7 .5
7 .1

65-66
66-67
67-68
68-69
69-70

54,080
51,955
49,757
47,493
45,171

36,426
32,354
28,604
25,177
22,058

67.4
62.3
57.5
53.0
48 .8

—
—
—
—
—

111.8
115.9
119.8
123.9
128.8

37.8
40.7
43 .8
47.0
50.3

74.0
75.2
76.0
76.9
78.5

12.2
11,6
11.1
10.6
10.1

6 .8
6 .5
6.3
6 .1
5.8

70-71
T L 72
B—
72-73
73-74
« -7 5

42,804
40,390
37,946
35,472
32,971

19,217
16,652
24,341
12,266
10,410

44 .9
41.2
37.8
34.6
31.6

—
—
—
—

133.5
138.8
144.7
151.3
158.7

54.2
58.1
62.5
67.5
73.3

79.3
80.7
82.2
83.8
85.4

9 .6
9 .1
8 .6
8 .2
7 .7

5.6
5U
5.2
4 .9
4 .7

75-76
76-77
77-78
78-79
79-80

30,445
27,906
25,369
22,855
20,391

8,758
7,296
6,013
4,896
3,935

28.8
26.1
23.7
21.4
19.3

—
—
—
—
—

166.9
175.9
185.7
196.3
207.7

79.8
86.9
94.6
102.8
111.4

87.1
89.0
91.1
93.5
96.3

7.3
6 .9
6 .5
6 .1
5.8

4 .5
4 .3
4*1
3 .8
3.6

80-81
81-82
82-83
83-84
84-85

18,005
15,724
13,571
11,568
9,732

3,118
2,432
1,866
1,406
1,039

17.3
15.5
13.7
12.2
10.7

—
—
—
—

219.9
232.9
246.7
261.3
276.7

120.4
129.8
139.7
149.9
160.3

99.5
103.1
107.0
111.4
116.4

5.5
5.2
4 .9
4 .6
4 .3

3 .5
3 .3
3 .1
2 .9
2 .7

85-86
86-87
87-88
88-89
89-90

8,076
6,605
5,321
4,220
3,294

752
532
367
247
161

9 .3
8 .1

6.9

5 .9
4 .9

..
—
—
—
—

292.9
309.9
327.7
346.3
365.7

171.0
182.0
193.0
203.9
214.7

121.9
127.9
134.7
142.4
151.0

4 .1
3 .8
3 .6
3U
3.2

2 .6
2U
2 .3
2 .1
2 .0

90-91
92-93
93-94
94-95

2,529
1,910
1,418
1,035
742

102
63
37
21
12

4 .0
3.3
2 .6
2 .0
1 .6

..
—
—
••
—

385.9
406.9
428.7
451.3
474.7

225.2
235.5
245.7
255.7
265.6

160.7
171.4
183.0
195.6
209.1

3 .0
2 .8
2 .6
2 .4
2 .1

1 .9
1 .7
1 .6
1 .5
1 .4

95-96
96-97
97-98

360
244

522

6
3
1

1 .1

—
-•

498.9
524.9
552.7

275.3
284.7
293.7

223.6
240.2
259.0

1 .8
1 .4
.8

1 .1
1 .0
.5

91-92




,

.8
.5

.

CHART I

STATIONARY POPULATION AND LABOR FORCE
TOTAL MALES, 1940

Number Living, of 1 0 0 ,0 0 0 Born Alive

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

AGE

U N ITE D STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR S T A T IS T IC S




55

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

95

100

- 6 -

in addition to those who normally engage in full-time work during the entire
year.
Unlike the stationary population, the stationary labor force starts at a
very low initial level at age 14 and then rises rapidly during the late teens
and early twenties, when most young men normally begin their work careers.
The stationary labor force reaches its peak in the late twenties, when about
85,000 of the initial group of 100,000 males at birth may be expected to be
in the labor force. Between the mid-twenties and the mid-fifties, the labor
force curve follows that of the population closely. During this age span
(the "prime" of working life) nearly all men are normally in the labor force;
the remainder consists largely of those unable to work or of persons confined
in institutions.
After the mid-fifties, the labor force curve descends much more rapidly
than does the stationary population, as an increasing proportion of men with­
draw from gainful activity. The percentage of men in the labor force (column 3)
thus drops sharply, from over 90 percent at age 50 to less than 70 percent at
age 65. By age 75, less than 30 percent of the men remaining in the stationary
population are also in the labor force.
Labor Force Accessions (Column 5)
In column 5, the rate of entry into the labor force between successive
years of age is shown per 1,000 persons in the stationary population. It
was impossible to determine this rate directly from available data, because
precise measures are not available of the number of young people who start
work each year. Many youth pass through a transitional phase when their attach­
ment to the labor force is casual and ill-defined: For example, high school
students may work occasionally after school hours or during school.
vacation
periods, but do not regard themselves as "workers" until they enter on a yearround work career.
The rate of labor force accessions was therefore determined from the net
increases in the percentage of population in the labor force between successive
years of age. Of course, to the extent that some young men shift intermittent­
ly between worker and nonworker status, these figures understate the gross
rates of labor force entry. Since these rates are based on April labor force
activity, they also exclude youths who initially work during the summer
school-vacation period.

1 7 Moreover, the stationary labor force is based on a particular seasonal
level of activity, i.e., that of early April, when the 1940 Census was taken.
However, the April seasonal level is fairly typical of the annual average
level of labor force participation for men in different age groups, except
for school-age youth, whose labor force participation rises sharply during the
summer vacation period. In 1947, for example, differences between the April
and the annual average level of worker rates for men in various age groups,
were 1 percent or less, except for the age group 14-19, whose worker rate in
April 1947 was about 8 percent below the 1947 annual average.



CHART 2

ANNUAL RATE OF LABOR FORCE ACCESSION*
TOTAL MALES, 1940

14

15

16

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

- 3 -

Most young men enter the labor force in their late teens (chart 2),
but net additions to the working force continue until the late twenties.
At age 14, only 6 percent of all males were in the stationary labor force,
under 1940 conditions. The annual rate of entry rose sharply thereafter
to a peak of 181 per 1,000 between attained ages 17 and 18, when many youths
completed their high school education. After the 18th year of age, the
entry rate dropped rapidly to less than 10 per 1,000 by age 24.
Labor Force Separations (Columns 6-8)
Separations from the labor force are classified as: (1) due to death
and (2) due to "retirement." Separations due to death also include persons
who leave the labor force because of illness followed by death in an inter­
val of less than 1 year. Separations due to "retirement" cover all other
withdrawals from the labor force, whether because of disability, old age,
eligibility for a pension, prolonged unemployment, or other factors. As in
the accession rate, the separation rate— and, specifically, the retirement
rate— represents a net figure after allowance for any reentries into the labor
force between successive years of age.
During the age span when the proportion of men in the labor force is
rising (between ages 14 and 31) it is assumed that separations from the labor
force are due entirely to death, and that retirements are statistically in­
significant. For ages 32 and over, both the rate and number of separations
are derived directly from the year-to-year changes in the stationary labor
force, and include both the losses due to death and to retirement.
Separation rates per 1,000 men in the labor force, as shown in chart 3,
remain fairly low until the late fifties, although they rise gradually. Be­
tween the ages of 55 and 65, they accelerate rapidly, rising from an annual
rate of 27 per 1,000 workers for age 55-56 to 105 per 1,000 worker's for age
64-65. In the interval between attained ages 64 and 65 (which includes
separations at the 65th birthday) the separation rate increases most sharply.
After age 65, for those persons remaining in the labor force, the rate of
separations continues upward, but at a slower rate.
The pattern of labor force separations in relation to age can be ex­
plained by the separate probabilities of death and retirement. Mortality
'rises fairly evenly over the life span, although at a progressively greater
rate. However, the probability of retirement remains quite low between the
thirties and mid-fifties, and then rises abruptly between the late fifties
and the mid-sixties. Between ages 53 and 59, the probability of retirements
is at an annual rate of 15 per 1,000 workers; by age 64- 65, it is almost
70 per 1,000. The retirement curve continues to rise after age 65, but
at a much slower rate.
In turn, this contrasting pattern of deaths and retirements means that
their relative importance as.factors in labor farce separations differs
quite markedly with age. At -the younger ages, death causes the large major­
ity of losses from the labor force. During the sixties and early seventies,
however, retirement is much more important in labor farce separations. After




CHART 3

ANNUAL LABOR FORCE SEPARATIONS
DUE TO DEATH AND RETIREMENT
TOTAL MALES, 1940
PER 1000 IN
LABOR FORCE

THOUSANDS

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




Rate (or Probability)

Number, of 100,000 Born Alive

-1 0

the mid-seventies, mortality again is the main factor for the relatively
few men remaining in the labor force beyond this age.
The concentration of labor force separations, particularly of retire­
ments, within a relatively short age span is also indicated in chart 3. 6/
In termsof numbers, annual losses from the labor force due to death and
retirement are at their maximum in the mid-sixties, but the retirement peak
is much more pronounced. During the age span of the sixties, over half of
the retirements of men from the stationary labor force occur, as contrasted
to only about a fourth of the deaths.
The sharp rise in retirements during the sixties is due in part to the
progressive increase in the proportion of men no longer physically or mentally
able to continue in regular employment. Thus, in the 194-0 Census, the per­
centage of men reported as unable to work rose from 6.4- percent in the age
group 55-59 years, to 12.1 percent among men 60-64 years of age, and to 31*5
percent in the group 65 to 74 years of age. 1 /
The increased incidence of disability only partially explains the abrupt
rise in the retirement curve during the sixties. Available evidence indicates
that the process of industrial superannuation is not identified with any fixed
chronological age spanj it varies with the individual worker and the nature of
his occupation. The above Census data suggest that a curve showing the pro­
portion of men who actually become disabled for gainful employment at succes­
sive ages would probably reveal an inherently smooth pattern of increase,
similar to that of mortality.
In considerable part, the actual ages at which men withdraw from the
labor force, in our modern industrial society, are determined by a variety
of social and economic factors in addition to the physiological pattern of
aging alone. The age span of the sixties, and particularly age 65, has come
to be accepted as the conventional retirement age for men in many fields of
employment. Provisions of public and private pension and old-age assistance
programs have reinforced this practice. For example, State old-age assistance
laws, which antedated the Federal social security program in many States,
generally established age 65 as the minimum for assistance grants to the needy

6/ The number of separations from the stationary labor force is shown in
Appendix table la.
7/ Source: 16th Census of the United. States, 1940, Population, Charac­
teristics of Persons Not in the Labor Force, table 1. The classification of
workers as "unable to work" in the 1940 Census was based on responses to the
Census enumerators by individual workers or members of their household, rather
than on any independent medical determination. A considerable proportion of
workers who regarded themselves as "unable to work" under the relatively
depressed labor market conditions existing in the spring of 1940 probably
could have engaged in some gainful employment under more favorable circum­
stances; it is likely that many of them reentered civilian employment during
World War II.




- 11 -

aged. This age was subsequently adopted under two major Federal old-age
security systems, the Old-Age and Survivors Insurance program, and the Rail­
road Retirement Act. 8/ An overwhelming majority of pension plans in private
industry likewise establish age 65 as the initial age of eligibility for a
full annuity, exclusive of disability. 2/
Prevailing employer attitudes and policies towards employment of aging
workers are probably even more significant in determining the ages at which
workers retire. Even under relatively favorable labor market conditions, some
employers are reluctant to hire workers above certain ages, such as age 4-5,
and observe formal or informal maximum age limits in hiring. As a result,
older men, once out of work, often experience difficulty in finding new jobs,
and some of them, after prolonged unemployment, cease to look for work.
This is illustrated by 1940 Census returns. Following a decade marked
by severe depression, partial recovery, and the sharp recession of 1937-38,
about 8 million workers were unemployed in the spring of 194-0. Long-term un­
employment (as measured by the proportion of wage and salary workers seeking
work for 6 months or more) was almost twice as severe among men 55 years of
age and over as among younger adult workers. 10/ Lack of job opportunities
probably had led many older men to abandon the search for work, although still
capable of working, and they were therefore reported as "not in the labor force"
in the 1940 Census.

8 / The Social Security Act establishes age 65 as the minimum age of eligi­
bility for a primary old-age insurance benefit. Under the Railroad Retirement
Act, age 65 is the minimum age for a full annuity; however, the act also pro­
vides for disability retirements prior to age 65 and for the retirement of longservice employees between ages 60 and 65 at a reduced annuity.
2/ Of 376 group annuity plans surveyed by the Social Security Administra­
tion, 363 establish age 65 as the "normal retirement age" for men. However,
optional retirement at an earlier age, under certain conditions, is provided
for under most of the plans. Weltha van Eenam, Analysis of Recent Group An­
nuities Supplementing Retirement Benefits under Old-Age and Survivors Insurance,
Actuarial Study No. 25, Social Security Administration, February 1948.
10/ Of all experienced wage or salary workers, excluding those on public
emergency work projects, the following proportions in each age group had been
seeking work for 6 months or more in March 1940:

&g& gro\?P
14-24
25-34
35-44
45-54
55-64
65 years and over

Percent
7.0
4.5
4.7
6.2
9.1
9.2

Source: Sixteenth Census of the United States, 1940, Population, The Labor
Force (Sample Statistics), Employment and Personal Characteristics, table 35.
902693 0 - 50 - 3




-

12 -

Life Expectancy and Work-life Expectancy (Columns 9 and 10)
The "average number of years of life remaining" as shown in column 9
of the table of working life, measures the average, or mean, life expectancy
of men at a given exact age, on the assumption that they will be subject in
all subsequent years to the mortality conditions prevailing in 194-0. Simi­
larly, the "average number of years remaining in the labor force" (column 10)
represents the average working-life expectation of workers, on the assumption
that they will be subject through their lifetime to the prevailing rates
of labor force separation 11/ (chart 4).
By comparison of the two averages, at different ages, a number of con­
clusions are possible regarding the duration of working life. Under 1940
conditions, a young man beginning his work career at his 18th birthday could
typically expect to live for an additional L$> l/2 years, or to age 66 l/2.
However, he could expect to continue working for slightly under 43 years,
or until age 61, before being separated from the labor force. He could,
therefore, anticipate an average gap of about 5 l/2 years between his period
of working life and his total, or biological, life expectancy. 12/ This
absolute difference remained fairly stable, and even widened slightly until
the early sixties, reflecting the relatively greater probability, at these
more advanced ages, of survival past the conventional retirement age. At
age 60, for example, the average male worker had an average life expectancy
of 15 years, and could expect to continue working for an average of 9 years.
After age 65, the gap narrowed rapidly, partly because a greater proportion
of the men who continue in the labor force past this age are likely to remain
"in the saddle" until they die.
Both estimates of life and work-life expectancy, it should be emphasized,
are meaningful only as averages for large population groups. Some small per­
centage of 18-year-olds, for example, are likely to die before attaining age
19j others survive and may continue working into extreme old age. Similarly,
the gap between the total life expectancy and working-life expectancy is for
an average situation. This difference, which may be defined as the "average
retirement-life expectancy," includes cases of men who are separated from the
labor force because of death (i.e., with zero years in retirement), as well

i l l Since the average working-life expectation is computed only for men in
the labor force at a given year of age, rather than all men in the population
at that age, it is determined solely by the pattern of labor force separations,
and is not affected by the ages of labor force entry. For a discussion of
alternative methods of measuring this function, see pp. 53-55*
12/ In this and subsequent comparisons between the average life expectancy
and the average working-life expectancy, it has been assumed that the life
expectancy of workers, at any given age, is identical with that of all persons
alive at that age. This assumption is believed to be reasonably valid for
ages where almost all men are either workers or potential workers. For a
more detailed discussion see Appendix p. 63.




CHART 4

AVERAGE NUMBER OF REMAINING YEARS OF LIFE AND
OF LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION
MALE WORKERS, 1940

YEARS

BUREAU OF




LABOR

S T A T IS T IC S

- H

-

as those of men who may spend a protracted period of years in retirement.
Under 1940 conditions, less than half of all men workers could expect to
spend any significant period of their life outside of the labor force. For
those men who did retire, the average span of retirement was considerably
longer than the "average retirement-life expectancy" for all men workers of
the same age. Thus, men workers retiring at age 65 would probably live in
retirement about 12 additional years, provided their mortality experience
corresponded to that of other men of the same age.

DIFFERENTIAL PATTERNS OF WORKING LIFE, 1940

The conditions under which men live and work obviously influence the
pattern of working life. Basic information is at present not available for
direct comparisons among workers in different occupations or socio-economic
groups, but separate tables of working life have been constructed for urban
and rural residents, and for white and nonwhite workers, based on the 1940
data (tables 2-9). From urban-rural comparisons some insight may be gained
as to the differentials between farm and nonfarm workers. 13/ Likewise,
the comparisons between whites and nonwhites (predominantly Negroes) are re­
lated to differences in occupational distribution, income level, and other
social said economic factors. These differences in the rates of labor force
entry and separation and in the 'average length of working life are here
summarized, separately, for urban and rural residents and for whites and non­
whites.
Urban-Rural Differences
Age at Labor Force Entry. On the average, men in rural areas begin
working at an earlier age than do urban residents. Thus, at the age of 14
years, 9 percent of youths in rural areas were already in the labor force as
compared with only 2 percent of the urban youth. Annual accession rates were
higher for the rural male population until age 15-16 (chart 5) after which
age interval urban youth entered the labor force in proportionately greater
numbers. These differences are also summarized in table 10, which indicates
a median age at entry of 17.1 years for youth in rural areas, as compared
with 17.8 years for the urban group.
Several factors account for the earlier average age of entry of rural
youth. Agriculture, which employs about half of all male workers in rural
areas, is still predominantly carried on as a family enterprise. Many teen­
age farm youths work on the family farm while attending school. Moreover,
the low income level of rural families in many sections of the country, rela­
tive to urban levels, tends to place greater pressure on rural youth to leave

13/ In rural areas, more than half of all employed men in 1940 were en­
gaged in agricultural pursuits; in urban areas almost all men workers were
in nonagricultural employment* Separate tables could not be constructed for
men living on farms, as distinct from total residents in rural areas, since
mortality statistics were available only for the latter group.



CHART 5

ANNUAL RATES OF LABOR FORCE ACCESSION*
MALES IN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS, 1940
PER 1000 IN POPULATION

U N IT E D STATES D EPARTM ENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




After age 14

- 16 school earlier than urban youth. Finally, child labor legislation and com­
pulsory school attendance laws, which limit the labor force participation of
youth in cities prior to age 16, are not applicable to rural youth, to the
same degree.
Age at Labor Force Separation. Annual rates of labor force separation
were higher for urban workers, as a group, than for the rural workers. These
differentials reflect both higher mortality among urban workers and an earlier
average age at retirement.
Rates of separations from the labor force because of death wex'e consis­
tently lower for rural men workers (chart 6). As a result, for rural men
the median age of labor force separation because of death was 61.1 years,
about 3 1/2 years higher than for urban men. This difference appears to be
due largely to the high proportion of farm residents among the rural group.
Farmers, because of their relatively more healthful mode of life and their
lesser exposure to contagious diseases, have characteristically experienced
much lower age-specific mortality rates than city workers. y j
Retirement rates for Urban workers were also higher than for rural
workers at all ages. The contrast becomes particularly pronounced after the
conventional retirement period, in the mid-sixties. Thus, between the age
of 64 and 65, the annual retirement probability of 85 per 1,000 for urban
workers was more than 50 percent above the corresponding rural rate. This
difference was reflected, too, in the earlier median age at retirement of
the urban worker: 65.0 years compared with 66.5 years for rural men.
Like mortality differentials, the lower rates of retirement among the
rural group are due to the importance of farming as a source of livelihood
for rural men workers. The elderly man has much more scope for useful em­
ployment on the family farm than in urban industry. Consequently, a rela­
tively small proportion of farmers withdraw completely from the labor force
while still able to perform gainful work; rather they tend to "ease off" by
adjusting their workload to their physical abilities.
To some extent, this same opportunity to adapt to changing capacities
at advanced ages exists for the business proprietor or own-account worker in
urban areas. However, only a seventh of all employed men in urban areas were
self-employed in 1940, as contrasted to over two-fifths of the rural men
workers. The overwhelming proportion of urban men were employed as wage or
salary workers in industry, commerce, or government, and as such were subject
to the social and economic factors influencing retirement, discussed in the
preceding section. 15/

14/

See p. 52.
W
Source: Sixteenth Census of the United States, 1940, Population, The
Labor Force (Sample Statistics), Employment and Personal Characteristics,
table 11 .



CHART 6

ANNUAL RATES OF LABOR FORCE SEPARATION
MALES IN URBAN AND RURAL A R E A S ,1940
Total Separation Rate
PER

1000

IN

LAB O R

FORCE

Death Probability

PER 1000 IN LABOR FORCE

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

AGE
U N IT E D S T A T E S D E P A R T M E N T OF
B U R E A U OF L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S




LABO R

65

70

75

80

85

90

18
Table 2. - Table of working life* urban sales, 1940

111 _________

Tear of age
x to x * 1

LL
s)_________ L2)________ LA1
__________ ill___________ ill__________ (21_________ LSI_________ (21_________ (101
Humber liv in g of 100.000 born a liv e
Accessions to
i
t
Separations from the labor force
Average number of remaining
In labor force
the labor force it
(per 1,000 In labor force)
_____years o f t
(per 1,000 in
!i
Due to a l l
In
Percent of
Due to
it
Due to
Labor force
Dotmlation
DODulation)
ir
DODulation
Number.
. causes
death
ii retirement
ii
L ife
DarticiD ation
ii
j
i
1000 <£
1000 A*
it
1000
ii
lo o o
»x
8*
!
**
**
iI
li
s
IH nf
In year of a « )
(At bevinnirL£ of year of aee)
1.6
1.8

1.6
1.8

1 .9
2 .2
2 .4

1 .9
2 .0
2 .2
2 .4

9 2 .5

5 5 .0
3 8 .4
2 5 .3
1 8 .4
1 1 .3

2 .5
2 .6
2 .7 .
2 .8
2 .9

2 .5
2 .6
2 .7
2 .8
2 .9

8 4 ,950

9 3 .6
9 4 .5
9 5 .0
9 5 .4
9 5 .6

8 .6
5 .5
3 .7
1 .9
.9

3 .0
3 .1
3 .2
3 .3
3 .4

3 .0
3 .1
3 .2
3 .3
3 .4

8 4,745
84,473
84,1 6 0
83,7 9 3
8 3 ,3 8 4

9 5 .7
9 5 .7
9 5 .7
9 5 .7
9 5 .6

.4
.1

3 .6
3 .8
4 .4
4 .9
5 .4

3 .6
3 .8
4 .0
4 .2
4 .5

5 .9
6 .6
7 .1

1 .1
1 .4

8 .3

4 .8
5 .2
5 .5
5 .8
6 .2

8 .9
9 .6
1 0 .3
1 1 .3
1 2 .3

9 2 ,3 1 9
9 2 ,1 6 8
9 2 ,0 0 4
9 1 ,8 2 9
9 1 ,6 a
9 1 ,4 3 9

2 ,0 6 9
5 ,9 5 7
1 4 ,9 0 4
2 9 ,7 9 7
4 8 ,155
6 3 ,3 0 8

2 .2
6 .5
1 6 .2
3 2 .4
5 2 .5
6 9 .2

4 2 .2
9 7 .2
1 6 2 .2
2 0 0 .6
1 6 6 .5
9 4 .8

9 1 ,2 2 3
9 0 ,9 9 3
9 0 ,7 5 2
9 0 ,5 1 0
9 0 ,2 5 6

7 1 ,829
76 ,6 6 9
7 9,960
82,043
83 ,4 7 6

7 8 .7
8 4 .3

2 6 -2 7
2 7 -2 8
2 8 -2 9
2 9 -3 0

8 9 ,9 9 2
8 9 ,7 2 6
8 9 ,4 5 0
8 9 ,1 6 4
8 8 ,8 6 9

8 4 ,250
8 4 ,7 6 8

3 0 -3 1
3 1 -3 2
3 2 -3 3
3 3 -3 4
3 4 -3 5

8 8 ,5 6 4
8 8 ,2 4 9
8 7 ,9 1 7
8 7 ,5 6 8
8 7 ,2 0 0

3 5 -3 6
3 6 -3 7
3 7 -3 8
3 8 -3 9
3 9 -4 0

8 6 ,8 0 7
8 6 ,3 8 8
8 5 ,9 4 3
8 5 ,4 7 3
8 4 ,9 8 0

8 2 ,9 3 4
8 2 ,4 4 4

81,908
81 ,3 2 8
•8 0 ,7 0 3

9 5 .5
9 5 .4
9 5 .3
9 5 .2
9 5 .0

4 0-41
4 1 -4 2
4 2 -4 3
4 4-45

8 4 ,4 5 3
8 3 ,8 8 8
8 3 ,2 8 2
8 2 ,6 2 9
8 1 ,9 2 3

8 0 ,0 3 4
79,3 2 0
7 8 ,5 6 0
7 7 ,7 4 6
7 6 ,8 6 6

9 4 .8
9 4 .6
9 4 .3
9 4 .1
9 3 .8

4 5 -4 6
4 6 -4 7
4 7 -4 8
4 8 -4 9
4 9 -5 0

8 1 ,1 6 3
8 0 ,3 4 0
7 9 ,4 6 1
7 8 ,5 2 3
7 7 ,5 2 1

7 5 ,9 2 2
7 4 ,9 1 1
7 3 ,8 2 7
72 ,6 6 7
7 1 ,4 2 9

9 3 .5
9 3 .2
9 2 .9
9 2 .5
9 2 .1

5 0 -5 1
5 1 -5 2
5 2 -5 3
5 3 -5 4
5 4 -5 5

7 6 ,4 4 4
7 5 ,2 9 2
7 4 ,0 6 5
7 2 ,7 7 0
7 1 ,3 9 6

7 0 ,1 1 0
6 8 ,7 1 0
6 5 ,2 2 7
6 3 ,9 7 9
63 ,9 7 9

9 1 .7
9 1 .3
9 0 .8
9 0 .2
8 9 .6

5 5 -5 6
5 6 -5 7
5 7 -5 8
5 8 -5 9
5 9 -6 0

6 9 ,9 4 2
6 8 ,4 0 8
6 6 ,7 9 2
6 5 ,0 9 1
6 3 ,3 0 4

• 62 ,1 6 8
60,2 0 0
58 ,0 5 5
55,729
5 3,197

8 8 .9
8 8 .0
8 6 .9
8 5 .6
8 4 .0

6 0 -6 1
6 1 -6 2
6 2 -6 3
6 3 -6 4
6 4 -6 5

6 1 ,4 3 0
5 9 ,4 6 8
5 7 ,4 2 2
5 5 ,3 0 0
5 3 ,1 0 9

5 0 ,2 5 7
4 7 ,2 6 4
4 4 ,1 5 5
4 0 ,8 0 2
3 7 ,0 9 2

8 1 .8
7 9 .5
7 6 .9
7 3 .8
6 9 .8

6 5 -6 6
6 6 -6 7
6 7 -6 8
6 8 -6 9
6 9 -7 0

5 0 ,8 5 4
4 8 ,5 4 2
4 6 ,1 7 7
4 3 ,7 6 9
4 1 ,3 2 7

3 2 ,a 6
2 8 ,1 2 7
24 ,2 7 5
2 0 ,8 5 7
1 7 ,8 3 6

6 3 .7
5 7 .9
5 2 .6
4 7 .7
4 3 .2

7 0 -7 1
71t 72
7 2 -7 3
7 3 -7 4
7 4 -7 5

3 8 ,8 5 6
3 6 ,3 6 2
3 3 ,8 4 5
3 1 ,3 1 6
2 8 ,7 9 4

1 5 ,1 4 2
1 2 ,7 8 7
1 0 ,7 3 0
8 ,9 2 9
7 ,3 4 0

3 9 .0
3 5 .2
3 1 .7
2 8 .5
2 5 .5

7 5 -7 £
7 6 -7 7
7 7 -7 8
7 8 -7 9
7 9 -8 0

2 6 ,2 9 5
2 3 ,8 3 9
2 1 ,4 4 7
1 9 ,1 3 7
1 6 ,9 2 9

5 ,9 5 1
4 ,7 5 5
3 ,7 3 3
2 ,8 7 6
2 ,1 6 8

17.4
1 5 .0
1 2 .8

8 0 -8 1
8 1 -8 2
8 2 -8 3
8 3 -8 4
8 4 -8 5

1 4 ,8 3 5
1 2 ,8 6 9
1 1 ,0 4 3
9 ,3 6 6
7 ,8 4 4

1 ,5 9 6
1 ,1 4 5
799
539
352

1 0 .8
8 .9
7 .2
5 .8
4 .5

8 5 -8 6
8 6 -8 7
8 7 -8 8
8 8 -8 9
8 9 -9 0

6 ,4 8 0
5 ,2 7 7
4 ,2 3 2
3 ,3 4 0
2 ,5 9 1

221
133

3.4
2.5

9 0 -9 1
9 1 -9 2
9 2 -9 3
9 3 -9 4
9 4 -9 5

1 ,9 7 6
1 ,4 8 2
1 ,0 9 2
80
63

10

9 5 -9 6

49

1 4 -1 5

15-16
1 6 -1 7
1 7 -1 8
1 8 -1 9
1 9 -2 0
2 0 -2 1

21-22
2 2 -2 3
2 3 -2 4
2 4 -2 5

25-26

43-44

r

1




85,000
85,061

77

42
21

4
2
—
”

88.1
90.6

2 2 .6
1 9 .9

—
—
__
—
—
—
"
__
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
__
—
—
—
"
__
—
—
—
—
__
—
-—
”

—
—
—
—
“

—
--

__

51.0
5 0 .1
4 9 .2
4 8 .3
4 7 .4
4 6 .5

4 5 .6
4 4 .6
4 3 .7
4 2 .8
4 1 .9
a .o

4 5 .6
4 4 .7
4 3 .8
4 2 .9

40.0

42.0

3 9 .1
3 8 .2
3 7 .3
3 6 .4

a .2
4 0 .3
3 9 .4
3 8 .5
3 7 .7

3 5 .5
3 4 .7
3 3 .8
3 2 .9
3 2 .0

3 6 .8
3 5 .9
3 5 .0
3 4 .2
3 3 .3

3 1 .1
3 0 .2
2 9 .3
2 8 .4
2 7 .5

1 .9
2 .1

3 2 .4
3 1 .6
3 0 .8
2 9 .9
2 9 .1

2 6 .7
2 5 .8
2 5 .0
2 4 .1
2 3 .3

6 .7
7 .2
7 .8
8 .5
9 .3

2 .2
2 .4
2 .5
2 .8
3 .0

2 8 .3
2 7 .4
2 6 .6
2 5 .8
2 5 .0

2 2 .5
2 1 .7
2 0 .9
2 0 .1
1 9 .3

1 3 .3
1 4 .4
1 5 .7
1 7 .1
1 8 .5

1 0 .1
1 0 .9
1 1 .8
1 2 .8
1 3 .9

3 .2
3 .5
3 .9
4 .3
4 .6

2 4 .2
2 3 .5
2 2 .7
2 2 .0
2 1 .2

1 8 .5
1 7 .8
1 7 .0
1 6 .3
1 5 .5

2 0 .0
2 1 .6
2 3 .4
2 5 .6
2 8 .3

1 5 .1
1 6 .3
1 7 .4
1 8 .8
2 0 .3

4 .9
5 .3
6 .0
6 .8
8 .0

2 0 .5
1 9 .8
1 9 .1
1 8 .4
1 7 .8

1 4 .8
1 4 .1
1 3 .4
1 2 .7
1 2 .0

3 1 .6
3 5 .6
4 0 .1
4 5 .5
5 5 .3

2 1 .8
2 3 .5
2 5 .3
2 7 .2
2 9 .2

9 .8
1 2 .1
1 4 .8
1 8 .3
2 6 .1

1 7 .1
1 6 .5
1 5 .9
1 5 .2
1 4 .6

1 1 .3
1 0 .6
1 0 .0
9 .3
8 .7

5 9 .5
6 5 .8
7 6 .0
9 0 .9
1 2 6 .1

3 1 .5
3 3 .9
3 6 .3
3 8 .6
4 0 .7

2 8 .0
3 1 .9
3 9 .7
5 2 .3
8 5 .4

1 4 .1
1 3 .5
1 2 .9
1 2 .4
1 1 .9

8 .2
7 .6
7 .1
6 .6
6 .2

1 3 2 .3
1 3 6 .9
1 4 0 .8
1 4 4 .8
1 5 1 .0

4 3 .5
4 6 .5
4 9 .7
5 3 .2
5 7 .0

8 8 .8
9 1 .1
9 1 .6
9 4 .0

1 1 .4
1 0 .9
1 0 .4
9 .9
9 .4

155.5

9 4 .3
9 5 .0
9 6 .7
1 0 1 .6
1 0 7 .0

9 .0
8 .5
8 .1

7.7

—
—

—
—
__
—
—
—
-—
—
.4
.7
.9

1.6

90.4

5 .8
5 .6

5 .4
5 .2
5 .0

—
—
—
--

1 6 0 .9
1 6 7 .8
1 7 8 .0
1 8 9 .2

6 1 .2
6 5 .9
7 1 .1
7 6 .4
8 2 .2

__
—
—
—
—

2 0 1 .0
2 1 4 .9
2 2 9 .6
2 4 6 .2
2 6 3 .8

8 8 .1
9 4 .2
1 0 0 .8
1 0 7 .4
1 1 4 .5

1 1 2 .9
1 2 0 .7
1 2 8 .8
1 3 8 .8
1 4 9 .3

6 .9
6 .5
6 .2
5 .8

—
—
—
"

2 8 2 .6
3 0 2 .2
3 2 5 .4
3 4 6 .9
3 7 2 .3

1 2 1 .9
1 2 9 .7
1 3 7 .6
1 4 6 .2
1 5 5 .0

1 6 0 .7
1 7 2 .5
1 8 7 .8
2 0 0 .7
2 1 7 .3

5 .2
4 .9
4 .6
4 .3
4 .0

1.9

398.2
4 2 1 .1
4 5 7 .7
4 9 1 .1
5 2 9 .4

1 6 3 .9
1 7 3 .5
1 8 1 .7
1 9 0 .6
1 9 8 .1

2 3 4 .3
2 4 7 .6
2 7 6 .0
3 0 0 .5
3 3 1 .3

3 .7
3 .4
3 .1
2 .8
2 .5

1 *5
1 .3
1 .2

5 5 5 .3
5 7 5 .1

2 0 6 .4
2 1 5 .9

3 4 8 .9
3 5 9 .2

.8

__
—
—
—
”

.5
.3
.2
—
"

—
—
—
—

1 .8
1 .2

2.0

—
—
—

"

—
—
—
-

—
—
—

—
—
—
-

7 .7
7 .3

5.5

2 .1

1.6
1.0
.3
.2
.9

4 .8

4.4
4 .1
3 .9

3 .7
3 .5
3 .2

3.0
2.8
2.6
2 .4
2 .3
2 .1

1 .8

1.6

1.0
.9
.7
—
"
-

19
fable 3. - Table of working life: rural aalea, 1940
(2 )
(4)
(3)
____»uaber liv in g of 100.000 born a liv e

(1)
Tear o f ago
x to * ♦ 1

Percent of

In
i
I
t

I*

I* *

*x

*
-<5>
Accessions to
the labor force
(per 1,000 in
population)
1000 Ax

(8)
(7)
(6)
Separations from the labor force
(per 1,000 in labor fo rce)
Dae to e l l
Due to
1
Due to
1
causes
death
1 retirement
1000 £

1000 o£

_____ (Between reiir s o f ace)

r

t
<
1
1

1000 <£
.....

_

1
t
1

!

1

do)
(9)
Average nuaber of remaining
years oft
1
i
Labor force
L ife
1
1
pa rticip a tio n

i'
*x
■ i:
1
1
1
1
___ fAt beginning of year of ace)

14-15
15-16
16-17
17-16
18-19
19-20

91,990
91,850
91,690
91,516
91,329
91,123

8,649
16,427
27,573
U , 778
56,681
68,329

17.9
30.1
45.7
62.1
75.0

9 .4

84.7
121.7
155.5
163.8
129.0
79.7

1.5
1 .7
1.9
2.1
2.3
2.5

1.5
1 .7
1.9
2.1
2.3
2.5

—
—
—
—
"

54.0
53.1
52.2
51.3
50.4
49.5

48.3
47.4
46.4
45.5
44.6
43.7

20-21
21-22
22-23
23-24
24-25

90,899
90,659
90,414
90,157
89,887

75,418
79,289
81,742
83,213
84,032

83.0
87.5
90.4
92.3
93.5

44.8
29.4
18.8
11.9
7.4

2 .7
2 .7
2.8
3.0
3.0

2 .7
2.7
2.8
3.0
3.0

—
—
—
—
"

48.6
47.7
46.9
46.0
45.1

42.8
41.9
41.0
40.1
39.3

25-26
26-27
27-28
28-29
29-30

89,615
89,333
89,045
88,747
88,448

84,449
84,607
84,592
84,489
84,309

94.2
94.7
95.0
95.2
95.3

4.7
2.9
2.0
1.2
.6

3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5

3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5

—
—
—
—

44.3
43.4
42.5
41.7
40.8

38.4
37.5
36.6
35.7
34.9

30-31
31-32
32-33
33-34
34-35

88,142
87,834
87,510
87.177
86,836

84,066
83,803
83,501
83,176
82,825

95.4
95.4
95.4
95.4
95.4

.4
.1
—
—
"

3.5
3 .7
3.9
4.2
4.5

3.5
3 .7
3.8
3.9
4.0

—
—
.1
.3 ’
.5

40.0
39.1
38.2
37.4
36.5

34.0
33.1 •
32.2
31.3
30.5

35-36
36-37
37-38
38-39
39-40

86,488
86,121
85,737
85,342
84,930

82,449
82,035
81,583
81,093
80,567

95.3
95.3
95.2
95.0
94.9

__
—
—
—
—

5.0
5.6
6.0
6.5
7.0

4.2
4.5
4.6
4.8
5.2

.8
1.1
1.4
1 .7
1.8

35.7
34.8
34.0
33.1
32.3

29.6
28.7
27.9
27.0
26.2

40-41
41-42
42-43
43-44
44-45

84,491
84,027
83,538
83,022
82,474

80,003
79,402
78,763
78,094
77,390

94.7
94.5
94.3
94.1
93.8

—
—
—

7.5
8.0
8.5
9.0
9.5

5.5
5.8
6.2
6.6
7.0

2.0
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5

31.4
30.6
29.8
28.9
28.1

25.4
24.6
23.7
22.9
22.1

45-46
46-47
47-48
48-49
49-5C

81,896
81,285
80,634
79,946
79,212

76,652
75,880
75,068
74,212
73,303

93.6
93.4
93.1
92.8
92.5

__
—
—
—
~

10.1
10.7
11.4
12.3
13.1

7.5
8.0
8.5
9.2
9.9

2.6
2 .7
2.9
3.1
3.2

27.3
26.5
25.7
24.9
24.1

21.3
20.5
19.8
19.0
18.2

50-51
51-52
52-53
53-54
54-55

78,424
77,582
76,684
75,731
74,719

72,337
71,310
70,225
69,083
67,883

92.2
91.9
91.6
91.2
90.9

__
—
—
~

14.2
15.2
16.2
17.4
18.7

10.7
11.6
12.4
13.4
14.4

3.5
3.6
3.8
4.0
4.3

23.4
22.6
21.8
21.1
20.4

17.4
16.7
15.9
15.1
14-4

55-56
56-57
57-58
58-59
59-60

73,644
72,505
71,299
70,021
68,679

66,616
65,246
63,756
62,099
60,207

90.5
90.0
89.4
88.7
87.7

__
—
—
—
—

20.6
22.8
26.0
30.5
37.2

15.5
16.5
17.8
19.1
20.2

5.1
6.3
8.2
11.4
17.0

19.6
18.9
18.2
17.6
16.9

13.6
12.9
12.2
11.5
10.8

60-61
61-62
<8-63
63-64
64-65

67,277
65,799
64,242
62,604
60,882

57,968
55,524
52,736
49,591
46^121

86.2
84.4
82.1
79.2
75.8

—
—
—
—
”

42.2
50.2
59.6
70.0
83.9

21.8
23.4
25.1
26.9
28.9

20.4
26.8
34.5
43.1
55.0

16.2
15.5
14.9
14.3
13.6

10.1
9.5
9.0
8.5
8.0

65-66
66-67
67-68
68-69
69-70

59,073
57,174
55,189
53,119
50,959

42,249
38,366
34,647
31,131
27,828

71.5
67.1
62.8
58.6
54.6

—
—
—
—
—

91.9
96.9
101.5
106.1
111.4

31.1
33.6
36.3
39.3
42.5

60.8
63.3
65.2
66.8
68.9

13.0
12.4
11.8
11.3
10.7

7.6
7.3
7.0
6.8
6.5

70-71
71-72
72-73
73-74
74-75

48,715
46,377
43,945
41,425
38,829

24,727
21*862
19,213
16,772
14,536

50.8
47.1
43.7
40.5
37.4

__
—
—
—

115.9
121.1
127.0
133.4
140.3

46.3
50.6
55.2
60.4
66.1

69.6
70.5
71.8
73.0
74.2

10.1
9.6
9.1
8*6
8 .1

6.2
5.9>
5.7
5.4
5.2

75*76
76-77
77-78
78-79
79-80

36,163
33,441
30,677
27,888
25,1000

12,497
10,649
8,983
7,492
6,164

34.6
31.8
29.3
26.9
24.6

147.9
156.5
166.0
177.3
189.7

72.5
79.5
87.3
95.9
105.6

75.4
77.0
78.7
81.4
84.1

7 .6
7 .2
6 .7
6 .3
6 .0

4.9
4.6
4.4
4.1
3.9

80-81
81-82
82-83
83*84
84-85

22,333
19,626
17,024
14,570
12,301

4,996
3,979
3,113
2,388
1,795

22.4
20.3
18.3
16.4
14.6

—
—
—

203.9
218.4
233.3
248.3
263.9

115.9
126.5
137.2
147.9
158.8

88.0
91.9
96.1
100.4
105.1

5.6
5 .3
4 .9
4 .7
4 .4

3 .7
3^
3.2
3.0
2.8

85-86
86-87
87-88
88-89
89-90

10,239
8,399
6,785
5,398
4,229

1,320
948
665
454
302

12.9
11.3
9.8
M
7.1

__
—
—
—
“

280.9
298.6
317.2
334.9
361.0

169.7
180.9
191.6
202.2
211.8

111.2
117.7
125.6
132.7
149.2

4 .1
3 .9
3 .7
3 .5
3 .3

2 .7
2.5
2.3
2.2
2.0

90*91
91-98
92-93
93-94
94-95

3,261
2,474
1,847
1,357
980

193
120
71
40
22

5.9
4.8
3.8*
3.0
2.2

..
—
—
—
”

378.2
408.3
434.3
463.2
490.7

222.5
230.9
239.5
247.9
256.fr

155.7
177.4
194.8
215.3
233.9

3 .1
2 .9
2 .8
2 .6
2 .4

1.9
1.7
1.6
1.4
1.3

695
485
333
225
59

11
5
2
1

1.6
1.1
.7
.4

__
—
—
—

527.4
550.8
571.4
—

262.1
269.3
276.4
—

265.3
281.5
295.0

2 .1
1 .9
1 .5
1 .0
.4

1.2
1.0
.8
•5

95-96
96-97
97-98
98-99
99-100


http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
902693 0 - 50 - 4
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

•

—

—
—
— ■
__

20
Table 4.

( 1)
Tear or age

J*L
».-Batter. UtI m gf 1W.QW torn a llit
In labor force
t
t

x t o x H

U - 15
15-16

16-17
17-18
18-19
19-20
2 0 -2 1
2 1-2 2

22-23
23-24
24-25
2 5 -2 6

26-27
27-28
28-29
29-30
30-31
31-32
32-33
33-34
34-35
35-36
36-37
37-38
38-39
39-40

(3)

()
2

In
popnlatlon

Percent of
___ Hunber___s population____

-

Table of working life* v - t . T l s 1940
i i e .ae,

J5L

Accessions to

i

(per 1,0 0 0 in
noDulation)

it
ii
«
i

JZL

Due to a l l
causes

1000 Ax
iooo q|
__________________ 1
____________________ :____ (Between

I*
:
____________LI* re ar o f a*e
4<9

56.9

10 .6
2 1 .0

103.8

91,784
91,582
91,381
91,171
90,952

73,594
78,287
83,472
84,740

80.2
85.5
89.1
91.6
93.2

90,734
90,507
90,272

85,410
85,795
85,979
86,009
85,921

94.1
94.8
95.2
95.5
95.7

4 .5
2.9
1.7

2 .6

2 .6

2 .7

2 .7

2 .8

2 .8

.8

2.9

85,744
85,514
85,251
84,953
84,622

95.8
95.8
95.8
95.8
95.7

.3
V—
—
"

3.0
3 .1
3 .5
3.9
4.3

84,258
83,854
83,401
82,901
82,354

95.7
95.6
95.4
95.3
95.1

—
—
—
—

4.8
5.4

94.9
94.7
94.5
94.3
94.0

—
—
—
—
—

93.7
93.5
93.2

—
—
—
—
““

1 1 .1
1 2 .0
1 3 .0

..
—
—
—
—

16.5
17.9
19.5
21.4
26.1
28.9
32.4
37.3

90,028

89,780
89,524

89,260
88,988

88,703
88,401
88,087
87,751
87,388
87,003
86,594

81,448

36.9
55.7
71.0

1.4

1 .6

1 .8

1 .8

9 1.6

1.9

1.9

2 .1

2 .1

52.9
36.4

2 .2
2 .2

2 .2
2 .2

9.6

2.3
2.4
2.4

2.3
2.4
2.4

6 .6

2 .5

,2 ; 5

2 4 .2
1 6 .1

6 .0
6 .6

7 .1
7.6

83,443
82,763
80,406

78,219
77,351
76,423
75,430
74,366'

50-51
51-52
52-53
53-54
54-55

79,501
78,531
77,494
76,394
75,225

73,228
72,020
70,731
69,352
67,868

92.1
91.7
91.3

55-56
56-57
57-58
58-59
59-60

73,976
72,644
71,235
69,746
68,177

66,266
64,536
62,671

89.6
88.8
88.0

60,640

58,378

86.9
85.6

—
—
—
—
—

60-61
62-63
63-64
64-65

66,520
64,777
62,944
61,018
58,998

55,693
52,864
49,798
46,417
42,667

83.7
81.6
79.1
76.1
72.3

'~
—
—
—
—

106.4

65-66
66-67
67-68
68-69
69-70

56,892
54,696
52,421
50,067
47,639

38,127
33,830
29,896

26,294
23,023

67.0
61.9
57.0
52.5
48.3

—
—
—
—

112.7
116.3
. 120.5
124.4
129.9

70-71
71-72
72-73
73-74
74-75

45,147
42,601
40,019
37,402
34,750

20,032
17,346
14,935
12,769
10,822

44.4
40.7
37.3
34.1
31.1

—
“
—
—
““

75-76
76-77
77-78
78-79
79-80

32,071
29,377
26,689
24,031
21,426

9,083
7,549
6,212
5,052
4,055

28.3
25.7
23.3
21.0
18.9

80-81
81-82
82-83
83-84
84-85

18,902
16,486
14,204
12,078
10,126

3,206
2,494
1,906
1,430
1,052

85-86
86-87
87-88
88-89
89-90

8,363
6,799
5,438
4,275
3,301

90-91
91-92
92-93
9 3-94
94-95

2,502
1,861
1,358
971
680

82,030

81,247

467
314
207




81,148

80,491
79,791
79,033

9 2.8

92.5

9 0.8
9 0 .2

J2L

8 .1

8.7
9 .5
10.3

14.1
15.3

2 3 .6

12£L

Average nuaber o f remaining
i
i

L ife

<
t

t
t

S*

1

•
t

53.2
52.3
51.4
50.5
49.6

—

1 .7

45-46
46-47
47-48
48-49
49-50

81,769

1.4

1 .6

1.7

86,161
85,691
85,190
84,649
84,069

95-96
96-97
97-98

it Due to
i> retirement
1
r
iooo o j
jt
1000 Qx
________________I!
rears of age)

4,552
9,823
19,422
34,065
51,332
65,306

40-41
41-42
42-43
43-44
44-45

61-62

Due to
death

92,753
92,623
92,475
92,318
92,152
91,977

158.7
187.7
152.7

(8)

( 6)
Separations froa the labor force

—
—

48.6

—
—
—
—
”

47.7

Labor foroe
n a r t id nation

K

47.4
46.4
45.5
44.6
43.7
42.7
41.8

46 .8

4 0 .9

45.9
45.0
44.1

40.0
39.1

2.9

—
—
—
—
—

43.3
42.4
41.5
40.6
39.7

37.3
36.4
35.5
14.5
|3 .6

3.0
3.1
3.2
3.4
3.6

..
—
•3
.5
.7

38.8
37.9
37.0
36.1
35.3

32.7
. § 1 .8
30.9

3.8
4 .1
4.4
4 .7
5.0

1 .0

34.4
33.5
32.6

5.4
5.8
6.3
6.9
7 .5
8 .2

8.9
9.6
10.4
11.3
1 2 .2

13.2
14.2
15.3
16.5
17.9
19.3

38.2

3 0 .0

29.1

2 .1

31.8

30.9

28.2
27.4
26.5
25.7
2 4 .8

2 .2

30.1
29.2
28.4
27,5
26.7

24.0

2.9
3.1
3.4
3 .7
4.0

25.9
25.1
24.3
23.5

19.9
19.1
18.3
17.6

4 .3
4 .7
5.3

2 2 .0

7 .1

19.1

8 .2

1.3
1 .6

1.9

2.3
2 .4
2 .6
2 .8

2 2 .8

21.3
20.5

6 .1

19.8

2 3 .2
2 2 .3

21.5
20.7

16.8
16 .1

15.3

14.6
13 .8

13.1

2 0 .8

1 1 .6

22.3
24.0

15.0
2 2 .0

18.4
17.7
17.1
16.4
15.7

25.9
27.9
30.0
32.3
34.4

24.9
30.1
37.9
48.5
72.0

15.1
14.5
13.9
13.3
12.7

37.1

1 2 .1
11 .6
1 1 .1
1 0 .5

6.7
6.5
6.3

50.2

75.6
76.3
77.3
77.8
79.7

10.0

5.8

134.1
139.0
145.0
152.5
160.7

54.1
58.2
62.7
67.9
73.7

80.0
80.8
82.3
84.6
87.0

9.5
9.0
8.6
8.1
7 .7

KA
3 .0

t 1
c 1
3.1
4.9
4 .7

—
—
—
—

168.9
177.1
186.7
197.4
209.3

80.3
87.4
95.0
103.3
112.1

88.6
89.7
91.7
94.1
97.2

7.2
6.8
6.4
6.1
5.7

-4*0
3#
j

17.0
15.1
13.4
11.8
10.4

..
—
—
—
—

222.1
235.6
249.7
264.6
280.2

121.4
131.2
141.6
152.5
164.0

100.7
104.4
108.1
112.1
116.2

5.4
5.1
4.8
4 .5
4.2

3 .4
3 .2
3 .0
2 .9
2 .7

757
532
365
244
158

9.1
7.8
6.7
5.7
4.8

..
—
—
—
—

296.8
314.0
332.4
352.4
373.2

175,7
. 187.5
199;7
211.9
223,.8

121.1
126.5
132.7
140.5
149.4

4 .0
3 .7
3 .5
3.3
3.1

2 .5

99
60
35
19
10

4.0
3.2
2.6
2.0
1 .5

..
—
—
—

395.0
420.0
446.2
480.1
515.1

235.7
247.0
258.0
267.4
276.1

159.3
173.0
188.2
212.7
239.0

2.9
2 .7
2 .5
2.3
2.0

1.8
1.6

5
2
1

1.1
.6
.5

554.8
599.8
657.3

283.4
288.8
290.7

271.4
311.0
366.6

—
—

4 6 .0

50.8
58.0
67.9
80.8

4 0 .0

43.2
4 6 .6

9.6

'

* 1.7
1

••

1 2 ,4

11.7
1 1 .0
1 0 .3

9.7
9.1
8.5
8 .0

7 .5
7 .1

6 .0

LO
3 .6

2.4
2.2
2 .1
1.9

■ 1*4
1.3
1 A
It V
ft
.0
»5

21
Table 5. - Table of working life: nonwbite males, 1940

ML

Tear of age

X to X

AA-

Lex

J21

»x

t ftmber living of 100.000 born aliTt
____ fr Iftoi force_______
[
In
Percent of

*1

(5)

M

l __________________ £ Z L _

1000 4^

(i

:
*

*
f
8
1
1
d
1
l
1000 QJ
t
1000 Qz
1
» 1000 4
1
1
_______________ !! _____________ i
_
rears of age)_______________ : _
_
___ (Between 3

U - 15

15-16
16-17
17-18
18-19
19-20

87,947
87,710
87,429
87,114
86,757
86,358

13,044
21,142
33,579
47,407
58,934
67,938

14.8
24.1
38.4
54.4
67.9
78.7

92.5
142.6
159.6
134.3
107.1
55.4

2 .7
3.2
3 .6
4 .1
4 .6
5.1

2 .7
3.2
3 .6
4 .1
4 .6
5.1

20-21
21-22
22-23
23-24
24-25

85,918
85,437
84,916
84,364
83,782

72,376
74,883
76,221
76,838
76,991

84.2
87.6
89.8
91.1
91.9

33.9
21.0
13.1
8 .1
5.0

5.6
6 .1
6 .5
6 .9
7.2

5.6
6 .1
6 .5
6 .9
7 .2

25-26
26-27
27-28
28-29
29-30

83,179
82,555
81,911
81,248
80,566

76,857
76,538
76,097
75,579
75,010

92.4
92.7
92.9
93.0
93.1

3 .1
1 .9
1.2
.8
.5

7 .5
7 .8
8 .1
8 .8

7 ,5
7 .8
8 .1
8 .4
8 .8

30-31
31 -32
32-33
33 -34
34-35

79,857
79,130
78,378
77,610
76,818

74,390
73,736
- 73,039
72,298
71,507

93.2
93.2
93.2
93.2
93.1

.3

9 .1
9 .5
10.1
10.9
11.6

9 .1
9 .5
9 .8
10.2
10.6

35-36
3 6-37
37-38
38-39
39-40

76,004
75,168
74,304
73,412
72,487

70,674
69,816
68,933
68,027
67,092

93.0
92.9
92.8
92.7
92.6

—
—

12.1
12.6
13.1
13.7
14.4

40 -4 1
4 1 -4 2
42 -4 3
4 3 -4 4
4 4 -4 5

71,523
70,522
69,485
68,408
67,286

66,123
65,102
64,025
62,889
61,691

92.4
92.3
92.1
91.9
91.7

..
—
—
—
—

15.4
16.5
17.7
19.0
20.3

45 -46
4 6 -4 7
4 7 -4 8
4 8 -4 9
4 9 -5 0

66,122
64,905
63,633
62,303
60,907

60,436
59,129
57,768
56,3*7
54,895

91.4
91.1
90.8
90.5
90 .1

..
—
—
—

50-51
51-52
52-53
53-54
54-55

59,451
57,941
56,388
54,798
53,176

53,388
51,842
50,268
48,666
47,038

89.8
89.5
89.1
88.8
88.5

55-56
56-57
57-58
58-59
59-60

51,533
49,874
48,208
46,535
44,860

45,389
43,695
41,925
40,105
38,168

8*.l
87.6
87.0
86.2
85.1

60-61
61-62
62-63
63-64
64-65

43,191
41,532
39,883
38,244
36,615

36,061
33,912
31,721
29,466
27,168

83.5
81.7
79.5
77.0
74.2

65-66
66-67
67-68
68-69
69-70

35,000
33,397
31,811
30,236
28,673

24,682
22,167
19,762
17,527
15,475

70.5

70-71
71-72
72-73
73-74
74-75

24,021

22,474
20,923

13,609
11,916
10,387
9,009
7,768

50.2
46 .6
43.2
40 .1
37.1

75-76
76-77
77-78
78-79
79-80

19,366
17,809
16,260
34,738
13,264

6,645
5,634
4,731
3,931
3,229

34.3
31.6
29.1
26.7
24.3

80-81
81-82
82-83
83-84
84-85

11,858
10,532
9,294
8,150
7,100

2,621
2,102
1,664
1,298
997

22.1
20.0
17.9
15.9

U.O

85-86
86-87
87-88
88-89
89-90

6,144
5,279
4,502
3,808
3,193

752
556
403
285
197

90-91
91-92
92-93
93-94
94-95

2,651
2,178
1,768
1,416
1,117

133
87

95-96
96-97
97-98
98-99

867
661
493

11
6
3

27,119
25,568

,

360




55

34
20

1

- ________ ( S L .

Separations from the labor foroe
Accessions to :
L.000 in labor force)_________
the labor force :__________
1
1 Due to
: Due to
Due to all 1
(per 1,000 in 1
1 death_____ 1 retirement___

..
•
—
—
—
—
—

_i2L

.ij .
jQ

Average maaber of remaining
___________ 151gg.911 ____________
Labor force
Ufa
1 participation

0
®x

1

«

(At beeinn jmt of year of

44 .9
44 .0
43.1
42.2
41U
40.6

41.4
40 .5
39.6
38.7
37.9
37.0

39.8
39.0
38.3
37.5
36.7

36.2
35.4
34.6
33.8
33.1

36.0
35.2
34.5
33.8
33.0

32.3
31.5
30.8
30.0
29.2

»3
.7
1 .0

32.3
31.6
30.9
30.2
29.5

28.5
27.7
27.0
26.3
25.5

11.0
11.5
12.0
12.6
13.3

1 .1
1 .1
1 .1
1 .1
1 .1

28.8
28.1
27.4
26.7
26.1

24.8
24.1
23.4
22.7
22.0

U.O
U .7
15.5
16.4
17.3

1 .4
1 .8
2 .2
2 .6
3 .0

25 U
24.8
24.1
23.5
22.8

21.3
20.6
20.0
19.3
18.7

21.6
23.0
24.4
25.9
27.5

18.4
19.6
20.9
22.4
23.9

3 .2
3 .4
3 .5
3 .5
3 .6

22.2
21.6
21 .0
20 .4
19.9

18.0
17.4
16.8
16.2
15.6

..
—
—
—
""

29.0
30.4
31.9
33.5
35.1

2 $.4
26.8
28.1
29.5
30.8

3 .6
3 .6
3 -8

4 .3

19.3
18.8
18.3
17.8
17.3

15.0
U4
13.8
13.3
12.7

..
—

37.3
40.5
43.4
48.3
55.2

32.1
33.3
34.5
35.8
36.9

5.2
7 .2
8 .9
12.5
18.3

16.9
16.4
15.9
15.5
15.0

12.1
11.6
11.1
10.5
10.0

59.6

38.0
39.2
4 0 .5
41.8
4 3 .0

21.6

U .6

71.1
78.0
91.5

25 U
30.6
36.2

u.i

9 .5
9 .1
8 .7
8 .2
7 .8

..
—
—
—
—

101.9
108.5
113.1
117.1
120.6

4 4 .5
46 .0
47 .9
50.0
52.4

57.4
62.5
65.2
67.1

68.2

12.3
11.9
11.5
11.0
10.6

124.4
128.3
132.7
137.8
144.6

55.2

—
—
—

62.1
66.5
71.7

69.2
69.9
70.6
71.3
72 .9

10.1
9 .7
9 .3
8 .9
8 .5

6 .1
5.8
5.6

—
•
—
——
—

152.1
160.3
169.2
178.6
188.3

77.4
83.7
89.9
9 5 .9
101.4

7 4 .7
7 6 .6
79.3
8 2 .7
86 .9

8 .1
7 .7
7U
7 .1
6 .8

4 .9
4 .7
4 .5
4 .2
4 .0

..
—
—
—
—

198.2
208.6
219.8
232.2
245.8

106.7
111.8
116.8
121.7
126.6

91.5
96 .8
103.0
110.5
119.2

6 .5
6.2
5.9
5.7
5.4

3 .8
3 .6
3 .5
3.3
3 .1

12.2
10.5
9 .0
7 .5
6.2

—
—
—
—

260.4
275.8
292.0
309.0
326.8

131.7
137.0
142.6
148.6
155.2

128.7
138.8

U9-4
160.4
171.6

5.2
5.0
4 .7

2 .9
2 .7
2 .6
2 .4

5.0
4 .0
3 .1
2 .4
1 .8

—
—
—
—
—

345.4
364.8
385.0
406.5
430.8

162.2
170.1
178.5
187.8
197.7

183.2
194-7
206.5
218.7
233.1

3 .4
3 .1
2 .8

1 .3
.9

..
—
—

459.9
494.5
535.6
585.1

208.0
218.6
229.1
239.2

251.9
275.9
306.5
345.9

2 .4
2 .0
1 .5
.8

66.4
62.1
58.0
54.0

.6

.3

—

—•
—
..
.
—
—

—
—
—
—
—

8.4

64.6

58.4

—
—

—
—

—
4—
—

—
—

4 .0

48.5

13.7
13.2
12.8

4.5

7 .4
7 .1
6 .8

6.6
6.3

5U

5.1

4 .2

2.3

3 .9

2 .1
2 .0
1 .9
1 .7
1 .5

3 .7

1 .4
1 .1

10
.
.5

are)

22
tab!* 6. - Table of vorldag life* urban white males, 1940

ML

2,
)

, O)

U)

- o = E llilag of IDQ.QW te a lU n .
fMTfif
t Pareant of

Xaar of age

ML

Accessions to
tha labor foreo
(par 1,000 in

ML
ML
Saparatlona from tha

_i___BWBlittW___ i_

1000 q£

1000 lx
--------- ^

ML

labor force
(oar 1.000 etf arm forca)
tv In labor
Doe to
Due to
i retirement
1000

(At beeinnj

51.9
51.0
50.1
49.2
48.3
47.3

46.2
4^.3
44*4
43.5
42 .5
41.6

46.4
45.5
.6
43.7
42.8

U

40 .7
39.8
38.9
37.9
37.0

41.9
41 .0
40.1
39.2
38.3

36.1
35.2
34.3
33.4
32.5

.9

37.4
36.5
35.6
34.8
33.9

31.5
30.6
29.7
28.8
27.9

2 .2

33.0
32.1
31.3
30.4
29.5

27.1
26.2
25.3
24.5
23.6
22.8
22.0
21.2
20
19.6

23.8
23.0

14-15
15-16
16-17
17-16
18-19
19-20

92,861
92, 9 ?
92,974
92,417
92,251
92,076

1,862
5,564
13,984
28,837
47,786
63*258

2.0
6.0
15 a
» a
51.8
68.7

39.9
90.9
160.7
205.6
168.7
96.8

1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2.0

1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2.0

20-21
21-22
22-23
23-24
24-25

91,892
91,699
91,497
91,296
91,086

72,044
77,121
80,610
82,839
84,401

78.4
84.1
88.1
90.7
92.7

56.9
39.9
26.3
19 a
11.8

2.1
2.2
2a
2.3
2a

2.1
2.2
2a
2.3
2.4

25-26
26-27
27-28
28-29
29-30

90,867
90,649
90,422
90,187
89,943

85,273
85,877
86,179
86,308
86,255

93.8
94.7
95.3
95.7
95.9

8.9
5.7
3.9
2.0
1.0

2a
2.5
2.6

—

2.8

2a
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8

30-31
31-32
32-33
33-34
34-35

89,691
89,431
89,154
88,860
88,549

86,103
85,880
85,617
85,300
84,942

96.0
96.0
96.0
96.0
95.9

.3

2.9
3.1
3.7
4.2
4.7

2.9
3.1
3.3
3.5
3.8

mm
mm

35-36
36-37
37-38
38-39
39-40

88,213
87,851
87,464
87,053
86,618

84,543
84,103
83,615
83,080
82,498

95.8
95.7
95.6
95 a
95.2

5.2

4.1

5.8

4

6

4.7
5.0
5.4

40-41
41-42

86,150
85,642
85,094
84,498
83,847

81,871
81,200
80,485
79,720
78,891

95.0
94.8
94.6
94a
94.1

48-49
49-50

83,143
82,378
81,558
80,681
79,741

78,000 ,
77,041
76,009
74,899
73,708

93.8
93.5
93.2
92.8
92 a

50-51
51-52
52-53
53-54
54-55

78,724
77,630
76,458
75,212
73,881

72,433
71,071
<9,621
68,075
66,414

92.0
91.6
91.1
90.5
89.9

55-56
56-57
57-58
58-59
59-60

72,462
70,955
69,359
67,667
65,881

64,608
62,631
58,100
55,526

89.2
08.J
87a
85.9
84.3

60-61

63,997
62,013
59,936
57,772
55,530

52,522
49,460
46,270
42,809
38,948

82.1
79 a
77 a
74.1
70.1

—
—
—
—

m
m

42-43
43-44

44-45
45-46
46-47
47-48

61-62
62-63
63-64

64-65

60,464

—
—

—
—
—
—
—

7.6

—

8.2
8.8
9.5

—
—

—

a
.7

1.1
1.4
1.7
2 .0

wa

3 .1

24.6

—

9.2
10.0
10.8
11.7
12.8

3.4
3.8
4.2
4.5

22.3
21.5

18.8
18.0
17.2
16.5
15.7

M
—
—
—
"*

18.8
20.4
22.2
24 a
27.2

13.9
15.1
16.3
17.6
19.1

4.9
5.3
5.9
6.8

20.8
20.0
19.3
18.6
17.9

15.0
14.2
13.5
12.8
12.1

30.6
34.6
39.1
44.3
54.1

20.7
22.4

9.9

26.2

2«a

14.9
18.1
25.9

17.3
16.6
16.0
15.3
14.7

11.4
10.7
10.0
9 .4
8.8

58.3
64.5
74.8
90.2
125.9

30.6
33.0
35 a
37.8
39.9

27.7
31.5
39.4
52a
86.0

14.1
12.4
11.9

8.2
7 .7
7 .1
6.6
6.2

131.5
135.9
139.7
143.8
150.1

42.8
45.9
49.3
52.8
56.5

88.7
90.0
90.4
91.0
93.6

11.4
10.9
10.4
9.9
9 .4

5.9
5.7
5.5
5.2
5.0

154.7
160.0
167.2
177.5
189.0

60.8
65.6
70.8
76.2
82.0

93.9
94.4
96.4
101.3
107.0

9 .0
8 .5
8.1

201.2
215.2
230.5
247.5
265.8

88.0
94.2
100.8
107.5
114.7

113.2
121.0
129.7
140.0
151.1

6 .9
6 .5
6.2
5.8
5.5

285.2
305.1
328.0
333.0
378.7

122 a
130.1
138.3
146.9
156.0

163.0
175.0
189.7
206.1
222.7

4.8
4.5

406.0
434.1
467.5
505.0
555.1

165.2
174.7
183.7
192.3
198.8

240.8
259 a
283.8
312.7
356.3

3.7

3a
3.1
2 .7
2a

1.7

60 5 a
655.7
705.3

204.8
210.2
215.0

400.6
445.5
490.3

2 .0

1.0

1.5
.8

.8

—
—

—
—
—

—

39.2
35a
31.9
28.7
25.7

75-76
76-77

27,639
25,060
22,546
20,116
17,791

6,309
5,040
3,955
3,043
2,290

22.8
20.1
17.5
15.1
12.9

—
—
—
—
mm

—
—
—

-~
m
m

—
—
—
• “*

80-81
81-82
82-83
83-84
84-85

15,585
13,512
11,585
9^15
8,207

1,681
1,202
835
561
363

1 0.8

85-86
86-87
87-88

226
134
76
40
20

3.3
2a
1.7
1.2

89-90

6,767
5,496
4,393
3^ 5 2
2,665

.8

—
—
—
—

90-91
91-92
92-93

2,020
1,503
1,097

9
4
1

a
.3
•1

—
—




mm

14.6
15.9
17.3

12.3
—

15,994
13,520
11,357
9,458
7,779

88-89

—
—

2 .7
2 .9

40,779
38,177
35,547
32,902
30,260

£7

—

ioa
11.3

70-71
71-72
72-73
73-74
74-75

8.9

•>

28.7
27.9
27.0
26.2
25.4

68-69
69-70

7
A

—

a
sa

64.0
58.2
52.8
47.9
43a

.

a

mm
mm
mm
mm-

7.0
7.7

— '
*
—
—

34,O U
29,567
25,549
21,980
18,819

77-78
78-79
79-80

a
7.0

—

53^U
50,830
48,385
45,888
43,350

65-66
66-67
67-68

2 .7

J2SL

q*

_________________ i
1
______________ 1
IBetween rears of are)

» rear of are

ML

Average nunber of remaining

_____ jpfresft force
Labor
participation
„Hft

—
—
—

4a
m
m

m
m

*

5.9

6

24.2

2.3
2a
2.5

8 .1
12.2

13.6

1.
30

7.7
7.3

5.2

4a

4 .0

a

4 .8

4*6
4a
4 .1

3 .9
3.7
3.4

3.2
3.0

2.8
2.6
2a
2a

2 .1

1.9

1.6
1.4
1.3

1.1

.5

23
Table 7. - Table af working life: urban eonuhite aalea, 1940

J lL

zh

Jaar of agp

<
3)

U)

m
ftaW a a i
tO r .
£ U tIt tf I ilabortforo# lAw,
In
t Percent of

BCTffWffl *
___SatiSI___> BgBHliXlffl..

( 5)________________ ( 6}___________ (2 )___________ ( 8 )
Aceeeaions to
the labor force
(per 1,000 In
P9W1?**9p)

1000 Ax

t
Separation* Aron the labor force
i
t_________ (per 1.000 In labor force)_________ t
i Due to all t
Due to
*
Doe to
:

f_____SSBCS1___ !____08£&_____ t fPttlSSSBfe___ 1

*
1

a *
1000 Qx t

d

1000 Qx

*
*

r

1000 Qx

*
*

_i2i________m __
Average nunber of remaining
1
Life

*
*
1

•x
,

15
16
17
18
19
20

20-21
21-22

87,2b
16,953
•6,640
86,293
85,896
85,441

4,017
9,657
23,370
38,836
51,627
63,774

4.6
11.1
27.2
45.0
60.1
74*6

84,920
84,351
83,744
83,108
82,443

69,810
72,416
73,835
74,543
74,761

82.2
85.9
88.2
89.7
90.7

64.8
160.4
177.3
150.3
144.6
75.2

3.1
3.6
4.0
4.6
5.3
6.1

3.1
3.6
4.0
4.6
5.3
6.1

36.2
15.2
9.8
5.9

6.7
7.2
7.6
8.0
8.4

6.7
7.2
7.6
8.0
8.4

23.0

0
aw*

(At beeinnit

___ __ (Beteeci yeare of age)

(In year of a n

14 1516171819 -

Labor force

t

0

42.0
41.1
40.3
39.4
38.6
37.8

—
—

33.4
32.6
31.8
31.1
30.3

33.3
32.6
31.8
31.1
30.4

..
--

38.5
37.6
36.7
35.9
35.0
34.2

37.0
36.2
35.5
34.7
34.0

—
—
—
—
—

29.5
28.8
28.1
27.3
26.6
25.8
25.1
24 U
23.6
22.9

22-23
23 24 - 25

24

25 26 27 28 29 -

26
27
28
29
30

81,750
81,031
80,294
79,531
78,752

74,619
74,331
73,898
73,316
72,661

91.3
91.7
92.0
92.2
92.3

4.5
3.0
1.5
.8
.5

8.8
9.1
9.5
0.8
10.2

8.8
9.1
9.5
9.8
1C .2

30 - »
31 32 33 34 -

71,960
71,221
70,440
69,605
68,718

92.3
92.3
92.4
92.3
92.2

.3

32
33
34
35

77,949
77,123
76,275
75,398
74,493

10.6
11.0
11.9
12.7
13.5

10.6
11.0
11.5
12.0
12.5

.7
1 .0

29.7
29.0
28.4
27.7
27.0

35 36 37 38 39 -

36
37
38
39
40

73,562
72,606
71,619
70,602
69,577

67,787
66,828
65,843
64,833
63,799

92.1
92.0
91.9
91.8
91.7

14.1
14.7
15.3
15.9
16.6

13.0
13.6
14.2
14.8
15.5

1 .1
1 .1
1 .1
1 .1
1 .1

26.3
25.7
25.0
24.3
23.7

22.2
21.5
20.8
20.2
19.5

68,479
67,370
66,225
65,840
68,804

62,737
61,624
60,438
59,160
57,797

91.6
91.5
91.3
91.0
90.6

17.7
19.2
21.1
23.0
24.8

16.2
17.0
17.9
19.0
20.2

1 .5
2 .2
3.2
4 .0
4 .6

23.0
22.4
21.8
21.2
20.5

18.8
18.1
17.4
16.8
16.2

62,515
61,158
59,721
58,210
5M27

56,361
54,854
53,283
51,650
49,969

90.2
89.7
89.2
88.7

—
—
—

21.6
23.4
25.2
27.1

5 .1
5.2

—

19.9
19.4
18.8
18.3
17.7

U .9
U .3

88.2

26.7
28.6
30.6
32.5
34.5

13.8
13.2

94,979
33,280
51,543
49,780
48,003

48,243
a , 689
42,877
41,049

87.7
87.2
86.7

m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m

17.2
16.7
16.3
15.8
15.4

12.6
12.1
11.5
11.0
10.4

39,196
37,313
35,380
33,406
31,278

U .9
U .5
u .i
13.7
13.3

9 .9
9 .4

26,586

40-

a

414243 -44
44-

42
43

454 6 - 47
4 7 - 48
4849-

46

45

49
50

—

—
—
..
—
—
—
m
m
m
m

—
—

—
m
m

29.0
30.8

—
—
—
—

—
m
m

—
a

5a
5a

5 .5

5 .7
6 .0

50 51 32-53
53 54 -

51
52

55 56 57 58 -

56
57
58
59

59-

60

46,217
44,424
42,629
40,834
39,045

63

37,265
35^99
33,749

64-

65

30,317

6566676869-

66
67
68
69
70

28,6U
27,003
25,394
23,817
22^74

17,087
14,568
12,279
10,289

8,581

43.2
38.5

7071727374-

71
72
73
74
75

20,739
19,273
17,814
16,385
14,992

7,122
5,882
4,832
3,947
3,205

34.3
30.5
27.1
24.1
21.4

77
78
79
80

13,643
12,343
11,100
9,920
8,809

2,586
2,073
1,649
1,301
1,017

19.0
16.8
U.9
13.1
11.5

m
m
m
m
mm
m
m

198.5
204.5

—

226.5

111.0

7,771

787
602
454
338
247

10.1

m
m
mm
m
m

116.0

—
—

235.5
245.5
256.6
268.9
282.5

177
124
89

4.7
3.9
3.1
2.5

297.5
314.0
332.1
351.9
373.5

142.3
146.3
150.3

154a

219.1

—
. —
—

397.0
422.5
450.1
479.9
512.0

139.1
164.8
171.5
179.2
187.5

-

546.5

196a

60-61
61-62
626 3 - 64

75 -76
7677787980-81
81-82
82-87
83-84
84-

54
55

32,021

6 ,0 2
85

.5,935
<5,139
4,423

86878889*90

87
88
89

3*783
3,215
2,714
2,276

9091-92
92*93
93-94
94-95

91

85-86

99

46,480

28,929

24*244
21,917
19,622

86.1
85.5

"

84.8

m
m

84.0
83.0
81.8

80.1
77.6
74.9
71.8
68.4
64.7

—
—
—
—
—
—

—

104.7

129.2

—
m
m
m
m

5.6

—
mm

—
—
—
—

1,896

37

2.0

..
—
—
—
—

1,567
1,284
1,041
834
9

23

1.5
1.1

m
m
m
m

511.




m

u
8
4

A

2

.5
.3

X

Jt

81.0

88.1
96.0

—

48a

4 .4

48.0
51.8
55.8
63.7
75.1

mm

59.7
53.9

8.8
7.6

36.5
38.5
40.5
42.6
45.1

147.4
137.1
162.1
166.0
170.0
174.1
178.5
183.1
187.9
193.0

211.1
218 a

32.5
34.1
35.6
37.1
38.6
40.2

41.8

6a

7 .0

8.0

9a

11.6

u .o

1

15.5

8.8

43.4

20.3

U .9

30.2

46.6
48.3
50.0
51.8
53.1

34.4
39.8
46.0
52.9
76.1

12.9
12.5
12.1
11.7
11.3

7.3
6 .9
6 .5
6 .1
5.7

54.6
56.6
58.9

92.8
100.5
103.2

10.9
10.5
10.2
9 .8
9 .4

5.2
5.0
4 .9
4 .8

6i a
6 4a

104.6

47.8
71.7
75.9

106.3
106.8

80a
85.1
90.1
95.2
100 a
105.7

120.8
125.3
129.7
134.1

138.2

305.6

107 a
107.5
307.9

9 .1
8 .7
8 .4
8 .0
7.7

8.3
7 .8

5a

4 .7
4 .5
4 .4
4 .3
4 .1

i osa
309.3
110.7
112.7
115.5

7 .4
7 .1
6 .8
6 .5
6.3

4 .0
3 .9
3 .7
3.6

119.5
124.7
131.3
339a

6 .0
5.8
5.5
5.3

3.3
3 .1
3 .0
2 .8
2 .7

348a
139.3
171.7
385.8

5.1

3a

4.8
4.6

2 .5

4 .3
4 .0
3 .7

2.2
2 .1

237.9
237.7
278.6
300.7
324.5

3 .4
3 .0
2 .6
2 .1
1 .6

1 .7
1.6

350.1

.9

201.6

2a

1.9

ia

1.2
1 .0

.5

- 24 Tab!* 8* - Table of working' Ufa: rural vhita sales, 1940

_I21

(2)

Ml

t Jhator l l i i i 18 9 f 1W .W 9 byrn a^lTa___
Tear o f ago
X to X a 1

____ In labor forca_______
|
^
Percent of
___ Huaber___ population
t
w
x
**
*
I*x
_____________ i_____________
re a r o f a n

Ml

Accessions to
the labor force
(per 1,000 In
lOOO A*

Separations fron the labor force
_________ (per 1.000 In labor force)__________
1
Due to
Doe to a l l t
Due to
» retirement
1
death
1
<
4
1000 qJ
1
1000 q£
» 1000 <£
«
(Between years of are)

u - 15
15-16
16-17
17-18
18-19
19-20

92,627
92,497
92,349
92,192
92,026
91,8(2

6,760
14,246
25,304
39,732
55,398
67,867

7 .3
15*4
27.4
43.1
60.2
73.9

80.9
119.8
156.7
170.7
136.7
85.8

1.4
1.6
1.7
1.8
2.0
2 .1

1.4
1.6
1.7
1.8
2.0
2.1

20-21
21-22
22-23
23-24
24-25

91,6(9
91,438
91,228
91,009
90,781

'75,605
79,729
82,380
83,998
84,926

82.5
87.2
90.3
92.3
93.6

46.9
31.0
19.9
12.5
7.9

2.3
2.3
2.4
2 .5
2 .5

2.3
2.3
2.4
2 .5
2 .5

25-26
26-27
27-28
28-29
29-30

90,554
90,319
90,080
89,832
89,585

85,431
85,662
85,710
85,668
«5,544

94.3
94.8
95.1
95.4
95.5

5.0
3.0
2 .1
1.2
.5

2.6
2.6
2 .7
2 .7
2.8

2.6
2.6
2.7
2 .7
2.8

30-31
31-32
32-33
33-34
34-35

89,330
89,075
88,803
88,523
88,235

85,349
85,137
84,884
84,612
84,316

95.5
95.6
95.6
95.6
95.6

.3

2.8
3.0
3.2
3 .5
3.8

2.8
3.0
3.1
3.2
3.3

35-36
36-37
37-38
38-39
39-40

87,940
87,628
87,299
86,963
86,611

83,996
83,635
83,234
82,793
82,313

95.5
95.4
95.3
95.2
95.0

4.3
4.8
5.3
5.8
6.3

40-41
41-42
42-43
43-44
44-45

86,234
85,833
85,408
84,960
84,480

81,794
81,238
80,645
80,024
79,368

94.9
94.6
94.4
94.2
93.9

—
—
—
—

45-46
46-47
47-48
48-49
49-50

83,969
83,427
82,847
82,230
81,568

78,677
77,953
77,189
76,379
75,516

93.7
93.4
93.2
92.9
92.6

50-51
51-52
52-53
53-54
54-55

80,854
80,086
79,261
78,381
77,440

74,595
73,610
72,565
71,462
70,297

55-56
56-57
57-58
58-59
59-60

76,433
75,355
74,202
72,970
71,664

60-61
61-62
62-63
63-64
64-65

1
Average nunber
*_____________ years
t
t
1
>
L ife
1
t

;
>

of remaining
oft __________
Labor fores
n a rticln a tio n

:.
8wx
1
t
(At berinniiir of year of are)
55.0
54.1
53.2
52.3
51.4
50.5

48.9
48.0
47.1
46.2
45.2
44.3

49.6
48.7
47.8
46.9
46.0

43.4
42.5
41.6
40.7
39.8

45.1
44.2
43.3
42.5
41.6

38.9
38.0
37.1
36.2
35.3

.1
.3
.5

40.7
39.8
38.9
38.0
37.2

34.4
33.5
32.6
31.7
30.8

3.5
3 .7
3.9
4 .1
4.4

.8
1.1
1.4
1.7
1.9

36.3
35.4
34.5
33.7
32.8

29.9
29.0
28.1
27.3
26.4

6.8
7 .3
7 .7
8.2
8.7

4 .7
5.0
5.3
5.7
6.1

2 .1
2 .3
2.4
2 .5
2.6

31.9
31.1
30.2
29.4
28.5

25.6
24.8
23.9
23.1
22.3

—
—
—
—

9.2
9.8
10.5
11.3
12.2

6.5
7 .0
7 .5
8.1
8.8

2 .7
2.8
3.0
3.2
3.4

27.7
26.9
26.1
25.2
24.4

21.5
20.7
19.9
19.1
18.3

92.3
91.9
91.6
91.2
90.8

—
—
—
—
—

13.2
U .2
15.2
16.3
17.6

9.5
10.3
11.1
12.0
13.0

3 .7
3.9
4 .1
4.3
4.6

23.6
22.8
22.1
21.3
20.5

17.5
16.7
15.9
15.1
U .4

69,060
67,713
66,237
64,9)4
62,650

90.4
89.9
89.3
88.5
87.4

__
—
—

19.5
21.8
25.1
29.8
36.9

14.1
15.2
16.5
17.8
19.0

5.4
6.6
8.6
12.0
17.9

19.8
19.1
18.3
17.6
16.9

13.6
12.9
12.1
11.4
10.7

70,288
68,826
67,271
65,623
63,877

60,338
57,804
54,885
51,575
47,908

85.8
84.0
81.6
78.6
75.0

42.0
50.5
60.3
71.1
86.0

20.6
22.3
24.1
26.0
28.1

21.4
36.2
45.1
57.9

16.2
15.6
14.9
U .2
13.6

10.1
9.5
8.9

65-66
66-67
67-68
68-69
69-70

62,031
60,083
58,034
55,887
53,635

43,788
39,672
35,756
32,073
28,628

70.6
66.0
61.6
57.4
53U

—
—
—
“

94.0
98.7
103.0
107.4
112.8

30.4
33.0
35.8
38.9
42.3

63.6
65.7
67.2
68.5
70.5

13.0
12.4
11.8
11.2
10.6

7.6
7.2
7.0
6.7
6.4

70-71
71-72
72-73
73-74
74-75

51,286
48,829
46,265
43,605
40,858

25,399
22,425
19,678
17,153
14,8(2

49.5
45.9
42.5
39.3
36.3

—
—
—
—

117.1
122.5
128.3
134.7
141.7

46.2
50.6
55.4
60.7
66.5

70.9
71.9
72.9
74.0
75.2

10.0
9.5
9.0
8.5
8.0

6.2
5.9
5.6
5.4
5.1

75-76
76-77
77-78
78-79
79-80

38,035
35,148
32,217
29,259
26,298

12,739
10,836
9,125
7,595
6,235

33.5
30.8
28.3
26.0
23.7

—
—
—
—

149.4
157.9
167.7
179.0
191.9

73.0
80.2
2*1
97.1
107.2

76.4
7 7.7
79.6
81.9
84.7

7 .5
7.1
6.6
6.2
5.8

4.8
4.6
4.3
4 .1
3.8

80-81
81-82
82-83
83-84
84-85

23,355
20,471
17,697
15,081
12,662

5,039
4,000
3,116
2,379
1,778

21.6
19.5
17.6
15.8
U .0

mm

206.1
221.1
236.6
252.6
269.3

118.1
129.3
1(0 .7
152.4
164.2

88.0
91.8
95.9
100.2
105.1

5.4
5.1
4.8
4 .5
4.2

3.6
3.4
3.2
3.0
2.8

85-86
86-87
87-88
88-89
89-90

10,468
8,516
6,811
5,354
4,134

1,299
926
644
435
285

12.4
10.9
9 .5
8.1
6.9

286.8
304.4
324.1
344.7
366.8

176.2
188*5
200.7
212.9
224.7

110.6
115.9
123.4
131.8
142.1

4.0
3.7
3.5
3.3
3.1

2.6
2.4
2 .3
2 .1
2.0

90-91
91-92
92-93
93-94
94-95

3,134
2,331
1,701
1,217
853

180
110
64
35
18

5.7
4 .7
3.8
2 .9
2 .1

390.7
419.6
446.2
480.1
515.1

236.3
247.1
258.0
267.4
276.1

194.4
172.5
188.2
212.7
239.0

2.9
2 .7
2.6
2.4
2.2

1.8
1 .7
1.5
1.4
1.3

95-96
96-97
97-98
98-99

585
393
259
167

554.8
999.8
657.3
698.2

283.4
288.8
290.7
295.0

271.4
311.0
366.6
403.2

2.0
1 .7
1.3
.8

1.1
1.2




.

9 •
4

2
1

—
—
—
__
—
—

—

—
—
—
mm

—
—
—

m
m

—

—

—
—

m
m

—
—
—
m
m
m
m

—
—

—

1.5
1.0

m
m
m
m

.8

•m

.6

—
..
..
—

_
_
—

..

m
m
—
—

m
m
m
m
—

m
m

28.2

8 .4

7.9

1 .0

.5

- 25 Table 9* - Table o f working l i f e : ru r a l nonwhite s a le s , 1940

m
Tear of age
x to x * 1

(4 )
_____ (2)________ ____ (3)_____
t
Kasber liv in g o f 100.000 bom a liv e ____
In labor force________
t Percent of '
:
In
:
Nunber
x
X
:
t
I*X
*
*
I*
*
*x
x
___________ 1
• (In year o f are

(7)
(8)
(5)
______ (6)______
Accessions to
Separations froa the labor force
_________ (per 1.000 in labor force)_________
x the labor force
x (per 1,000 in
One to a l l
Dus to
i1 Due to
population)
causes
death
11 retirement
X
j
11
1
1000 (£
1000 q£
1000 Ax
1000 Qx
1
*
X
i1
___________________1
________ ___________(Betweeia years of are)

1

(9)
_______ m ________
Average nuaber o f reaalnlng
__________ years of:___
Labor force
L ife
pa rticip a tio n
**

8wx

. (At berin n l

U -1 5
15-16
16-17
17-18
16-19
19-20

88,443
88,248
88,019
87,754
87,447
87,106

19,171
28,y?5
40,211
53,170
63,830
70,901

21.7
32.4
45.7
60.6
73.0
81.4

132.7
148.6
123.6
83.7
43.4

2.2
2.6
3.0
3 .5
3.9
4.3

2.2
2.6
3.0
3 .5
3.9
4.3

—
—
—
—
—

48.2
47.3
46.4
45.6
44.7
43.9

44.5
43.6
42.7
U .8
41.0
40.1

20-21
21-22
22-23
23-24
24-25

86,731
86,323
85,883
85,411
84,907

74,376
76,836
78,188
78,840
79,050

85.8
89.0
91.0
92.3
93.1

32.4
20.2
12.6
7.9
4.9

4 .7
5.1
5.5
5.9
6.2

4 .7
5.1
5.5
5.9
6.2

•
—
-—
—
•**

43.1
42.3
a .5
40.7
39.9

39.3
38.5
37.7
36.8
36.1

25-26
26-27
27-28
28-29
29-30

84,381
83,841
83,279
82,704
82,117

78,976
78,733
78,364
77,923
77,436

93.6
93.9
94.1
94.2
94.3

3.1
1.9
1.2
.8
.5

6.4
6.7
6.9
7 .1
7.2

6U
6.7
6.9
7 .1
7.2

—

—
—
—

39.1
38.4
37.6
36.9
36.2

35.3
34.5
33.7
32.9
32.2

30-31
31-32
32-33
33-34
34-35

81,526
80,923
80,308
79,682
79,045

76,920
76,375
75,799
75,182
74,525

94.4
94.4
94.4
94.4
94.3

.3
—
—
—
—

7.4
7.6
8.1
8.7
9.2

7.4
7.6
7.8
8.0
8.2

—
—
.3
.7
1.0

35.4
34.7
33.9
33.2
32.4

31.4
30.6
29.9
29.1
28.3

35-36
36-37
37-38
38-39
39-40

78,397
77,731
77,039
76,315
75,567.

73,836
73,124
72,390
71,627
70,843

94.2
94.1
94.0
93.9
93.7

—
—
—
—
“

9.6
10.0
10.5
10.9
11.4

8.5
8.9
9.4
9.8
10.3

1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1

31.7
31.0
30.2
29.5
28.8

27.6
26.8
26.1
25.4
24.6

40-41
41-42
42-43
43-44
44-45

74,789
73,974
73,123
72,231
71,306

70,032
69,175
68,280
67,342
66,372

93.6
93.5
93.4
93.2
93.1

—
—
—
—
—

12.2
12.9
13.7
H .4
15.1

10.9
11.5
12.2
12.8
13.4

1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7

28.1
27.4
26.7
26.0
25.3

23.9
23.2
22.5
21.8
21.1

45-46
46-47
47-48
48-49
49-50

70,350
69,351
68,311
67,225
66,089

65,370
64,331
63,257
62,137
60,975

92.9
92.8
92.6
92.4
92.3

—
—
—
—
—

15.9
16.7
17.7
18.7
19.9

14.2
15.0
15.9
16.9
18.1

1.7
1.7
1.8
1.8
1.8

24.6
24.0
23.3
22.7
22.1

20.4
19.7
19.0
18.3
17.7

50-51
51-52
52-53
53-54
54-55

64,893
6 3 ,6 a
62,330
60,971
59,563

59,762
58,501
57,191
55,836
54,440

92.1
91.9
91.8
91.6
91.4

—
—
—
—
**

21.1
22.4
23.7
25.0
26.4

19.3
20.6
21.8
23.1
24.3

1.8
1.8
1.9
1.9
2 .1

21.4
20.8
20.3
19.7
19.1

17.0
16.4
15.7
15.1.
14.4

55-56
56-57
57-58
58-59
59-60

58,116
56,634
55,128
53,601
52,057

53,003
51,503
49,942
48,314
46,604

91.2
91.0
90.6
90.1
89.5

—
—
—
—
"

28.3
30.3
32.6
35.4
39.3

25.5
26.6
27.6
28.7
29.6

2.8
3 .7
5.0
6.7
9.7

18.6
lS.O
17.5
17.0
16.5

13.8
13.2
12.6
11.9
11.3

60-61
61-62
62-63
63-64
64-65

50,506
48,945
47,374
45,792
44,198

44,772
42,824
40,768
38,542
36,172

88.6
87.5
86.1
84.2
81.8

—
—
-—
""

43.5
48.0
54.6
61.5
69.0

30.7
31.8
33.0
34.3
35.7

12.8
16.2
21.6
27.2
33.3

15.9
15.4
14.9
14.4
13.9

10.8
10.2
9.7
9.2
8.7

65-66
66-67
67-68
68-69
69-70

42,594
40,975
39,344
37,703
36,055

33,676
31,093
28,475
25,884
23,373

79.1
75.9
72.4
68.7
64.8

—
—
—
—

76.7
84.2
91.0
97.0
102.3

37.2
38.9
40.6
42.5
44.7

39.5
45.3
50.4
54.5
57.6

13.4
12.9
12.4
11.9
11.4

8.3
7.9
7.5
7.2
6.9

70-71
71-72
72-73
73-74
74-75

34,396
32,721
31,020
29,289
27,529

20,982
18,731
16,620
14,651
12,830

61.0
57.2
53.6
50.0
46.6

—
—
—
—
—

107.3
112.7
118.5
124.3
131.2

47.2
50.4
54.0
58.1
62.7

60.1
62.3
64.5
66.2
68.5

10.9
10,4
9.9
9.5
9.0

6.6
6.3
6.0
5.8
5.5

75-76
76-77
77-78
78-79'
79-8Q

25,742
23,932
22,099

11,147
9,604
8,194
6,917
5,771

43.3
40.1
37.1
34.1
31.3

—
—

•—
—
—

138.4
146.8
155.9
165.7
176.2

67.8
73.8
80.2
86.7
93.0

70.6
73.0
75.7
79.0

8.6
8.2
7.8
7.4
7.1

4 .7

4.5
4.2

187.4
199.3
211.9
225.2
239.2

99.0
104.9

6.7
6.4

4.0
3.8

80-81
81-82
82-83
83-84
84-85
85-86

20,256

18,427

16,640

14,916
13,274
11,728
10,289
8,961

86-87
87-88
88-89
89-90

7,745
6,641
5,646
4,757

90-91
91-92
92-93
93-94
94-95
95-96
96-97
97-98
98-99
99-100

4,754
3,863
3,093
2,438
1,889

28.6
25.9
23.3

1,437
1,072
783

16 .0
1 3 .8
11 .8

2 0 .8

18.4

106.8

—

—
—

—
~
—

—
—
—
—

560

9.9

391

8 .2

3,968
3,272
2,663
2,136
1,686

266
176
113
70
42

6.7
5.4
4.2
3 .3
2 .5

—
—
—
—

1,309
997
744
543
386

24
13
7
3
1

1.8
1.3
.9
.6
.3

—
—




—

—

253.9
269.3
285.4
302.3

8 3 .2

116.0
121.5

88.4
94.4
101.3
109.2
117.7

127.1
132.9

226.8
136.4

110.6

138.8

146.6

3 2 0 .1

145.0
151.9

338.9
358.9
380.4
403.9
430.1

159.7
168.4
177.9
187.9
197.9

2 3 2 .2

459.9
494.5
535.6
585.1
645.6

208.1
218.6
229.2
239.2
247.9

251.8
275.9
306.4
345.9
397.7

157.3

168.2

179.2
190.5
202.5
216.0

6 .2
5,9

5.6
5.3
5.1
4.8
4.6
4.3
4 .1
3.8
3 .5
3.3
3.0
2 .7
9V
‘O
1 0
1*7
7 I
x.4
.8

5.2
5.0

3 .6

3.4
3.2
3,0
2 .8
2 .6

2 .5
2 .3
2 .2
2 ,0

1.9
1.7
1.6
i c
1.3
1.1
.8
.5

- 26 -

Table 10. —

Median ages of accession and separation for the

(In years)

Aere at seoaratioia
Color and
residence

Age at
accession

All
causes

Deaths

Retirements

Total........ .
White........
Nonwhite......

17.5
17.7
16.5

63.2
63.6
57.7

59.0
60.0
52.6

65.5
65.5
66.2

Total urban......
White........
Nonwhite......

17.8
17.8
17.0

62.1
62.6
54.8

57.7
58.5
49.9

65.0
65.0
64.1

Total rural......
White........
Nonwhite.....

17.1
17.3
16.1

64.7
65.0
61.7

61.1
62.1
55.7

66.5
66.4
68.5

1f

Estimated on basis of tables of working life for 1940,




- 27 It has not been possible, as yet, to develop separate tables of working
life for wage and salary workers, but data on the age distribution of employed
men, by class of worker, provide some insight into the differences between
the retirement pattern of employees and of the self-employed. The proportion
of wage and salary workers among employed men in each age group in 194-0 de­
clined gradually from a peak of 83 percent in the age group 20-24- years to
about 56 percent for men aged 60 to 64- years. After age 64 the decline be­
came particularly sharp} among employed men aged 75 years and over, only 35
percent were wage and salary workers. This decline in wage and salary em­
ployment with age is due in part to the shift to self-employment by many
employees as they acquire the requisite experience and capital. Some older
workers who are past the conventional retirement age or who, for other rea­
sons, can no longer secure regular paid employment also tend to shift to
work on their own account, often on a part-time or intermittent basis. 16/
However, the steepness of the decline of wage and salary employment after
the early sixties strongly suggests that, on the average, men who have been
employees during all, or most, of their working lives are compelled to with­
draw from gainful activity at an earlier age than are the self-employed.
Life Expectancy and Work-Life Expectancy. The lower mortality rates of
men living in rural areas are reflected in a significantly higher average
life expectancy than for urban men workers. In 1940, the rural resident at
age 20 had an average expectation of life of 43 l/2 years or 3 years more
than men in urban areas (table 11). At age 60, the differential in favor
of the rural worker was still fully 2 years.
Since the rural worker tends to retire at a later age than the urban
worker, his greater average longevity has contributed to his working life,
rather than to the period of retirement. Thus, the average work-life ex­
pectancy of the rural worker at age 20 (42.8 years) was about 3 years greater
than that of the urban worker; in contrast, the rural worker’s average re­
tirement-life expectancy of 6 years was about the same as for urban men.
(See chart 7.)

16/ The relatively greater importance of part-time employment among older
men is indicated by the proportion of employed men who worked less than 35
hours in the Census survey week, March 24-30, 194-0. This proportion rose from
10 percent among employed men aged -45-54 years (for whom hours of work were
reported) to about 22 percent among those in the group 75 years and over. The
relative increase in part-time employment with increased age was greatest,
moreover, among farm residents, indicating the greater flexibility of employ­
ment conditions for this group. Sources Sixteenth Census of the United States,
1940, op.cit., table 29.
902693 0 - 50 - 5




CHART 7

AVERAGE NUMBER OF REMAINING YEARS OF LIFE
IN LABOR FORCE AND IN RETIREMENT
MALE

WORKERS IN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS, 1940

YEARS

YEARS

60

1 60

-

50

-

40

-

30

-

20

-

10

0

U N IT E D

S TATES

BUREAU

OF LABOR S T A T IS T IC S




D E P A R TM E N T OF LABOR

Total.-----

5.9
3.6

23.7
24.0
21.3

40.7
33.4

5.6
5.7
3.6

28.3
28.7

22.5
22.8

42.8
43.4
39.3

5.8
6.2
3.8

31.4
31.9
28.1

46.8
47.7
39.8

41.1

5*7
✓ •<

41.8

Total urban
White....
Nonwhite.

45.6
46.4
37.0

40.0

Total rural
Fflaite. • ••
Nonwhite.

48.6
49.6
43.1

36.2

23.0

6.0
6.0

5.8
6.1
4.1

15.1
15.1
14.6

9.1
9.1
9.5

5.1

18.8

5.8
5.9
4.2

14.1
H.l
12.9

8.2
8.2
7.3

5.9
5.9
5.6

25.4
25.6
23.9

6.0
6.3
4.2

16.2
16.2
15.9

10.1
10.1
10.8

6.1
6.1
5.1

i

1
*

1 j

0
ewx

(DO j

0
ex

In retire­
ment

i

Total

Age 60
In labor
force

(DO 1
X

!x*

®x

1

0

(DO

0

ex ~ ewx

In retire­
ment

(DO

0

Total

29.5
30.1
25.4

White....
Nonwhite.




In retire­
ment

Age 40
In labor
force

X

o
ex

h"

Total

(DO

Color

Age 20
In labor
force

Average number of remaining years of life, in labor
force and in retirement, males, by color and by
urban-rural residence, 1940

(DO

Table 11. —

- 30 -

White-Nonwhite Differentials
Labor Force Accessions. Nonwhite youths typically begin working at an
earlier age than do white youths. At age 14, almost 15 percent of the non­
white males were in the labor force in 1940, as compared with only 5 percent
of the whites. Labor force entry rates were higher for the nonwhites until
ages 16-17; after this age interval, white youths began working in propor­
tionately greater numbers. (See chart 8.) This contrasting pattern of labor
force entry resulted in a median age at accession of 16.5 years for the non­
whites, which was more than 1 year earlier than for white youths.
This differential is closely related to the relatively unfavorable so­
cial and economic status of the nonwhite youths as a group. Lower family
income and the larger average number of children per family have made it nec­
essary for nonwhite youths to contribute to the family livelihood at an earl­
ier age than white youths. Relatively more limited access to occupations
requiring substantial training or education has also tended to reduce the
incentive for Negroes as a group to obtain advanced education and has encour­
aged them to leave school at an earlier age.
Labor Force Separations. Nonwhite men are subject to substantially
higher rates of labor force separation than are white men, until the early
sixties; above this age, the situation is reversed. (See chart 9>) For all
nonwhite men in the 1940 stationary labor force, the median age at separa­
tion of 57.7 years was about 6 years lower than for white men. The differ­
ential was greatest for the urban nonwhites, who stopped working about 8
years earlier, on the average, than white men in urban areas. In rural areas,the median age at labor force separation of nonwhites was only about 3 years
lower than for whites.
The lower average age of labor force separation of nonwhites is largely
due to 'their much higher rates of mortality, during the period of working age.
At age 30, the death rate among nonwhite men was about 3 times as high as
among whites, and— even at age 60— it was still about 50 percent above the
corresponding rate for whites. These striking differences in mortality ex­
perience reflect the less adequate level of nutrition, hygiene, and medical
care available to the nonwhite population, as well as the other basic handi­
caps associated with a lower standard of living.
The apparently more favorable mortality rates reported for nonwhite men
in the upper ages (i.e., above age 75) are partially explained by the high
proportion of farmers, a group with particularly favorable mortality rates,
among the nonwhites surviving to these ages. They may, however, be due in
part to incomplete death registration of nonwhites and to biases in age re­
porting, and should therefore be interpreted with caution. 17/

17/

See Appendix, p. 61.




CHART 8

ANNUAL RATES OF LABOR FORCE ACCESSION
PER I 0 0 0 IN
POPULATION

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




WHITE AND NONWHITE MALES, 1940

CHART 9

ANNUAL RATES OF LABOR FORCE SEPARATION
WHITE AND NONWHITE MALES, 1940
A LABOR FORCE

U N IT E D

STATES

B U REAU

OF

DEPARTM ENT

LA B O R




Total Separation Rate

OF

S T A T IS T IC S

LA B O R

PER 1000 IN

LABOR

FORCE

D
eath rPO D O D IIITt¥
robabmy
r

U e a T ft

- 33 -

Retirement rates among nonwhite workers tend to be lower, at most ages,
than among white workers, thus differing from the mortality pattern. The
difference is most pronounced in the age span of the sixties, when nonwhite
men apparently experience much less "bunching" of retirements. These dif­
ferences largely arise because a relatively high proportion of nonwhite
workers are farmers or farm laborers, who are less subject to the social and
economic factors that influence retirement of other workers. 13/
Separate examination of the retirement patterns of urban and rural work­
ers discloses significant contrasts between retirement rates of whites and
nonwhites in, each group. In urban areas, the median retirement age of nonwhites in the stationary labor force (64*1 years) was about 1 year less than
for white workers. This is probably due to a combination of factors: higher
rates of unemployment among the urban nonwhites, a higher incidence of dis­
ability, and a much greater concentration in unskilled and semi-skilled jobs,
in which age and physical disabilities are likely to be greater handicaps
to continued employment.
In rural areas, the reverse was true: the median retirement age of
rural nonwhites, 68.5 years, was fully 2 years higher than for the white
group. With work opportunities more readily accessible to them, virtually all
able-bodied nonwhites in rural areas apparently continued working even at the
most advanced ages. Thus, in rural areas in 1940, only about 5 percent of the
nonwhite men, 75 years and over, not in institutions, were reported as out­
side of the labor force for causes other than disability, as compared with 14
percent of the whites. 19/
Life Expectancy and Work-Life Expectancy. A comparison of color differ­
entials in working-life expectancy shows that, at most ages, the known dif­
ferences in life expectancy apply to working life, although in lesser degree
(chart 10). Under 1940 conditions, the average life expectancy for the non­
white worker, aged 20, was about 8 years less than that for a white youth
of the same age. His working-life expectancy, of 36.2 years, was about 5 1 / 2
years less than for the white worker— largely reflecting his poorer chances
of surviving through the "prime" of working life. Just as for total life ex­
pectancy, this differential narrowed gradually over the period of middle age
and, by age 60, the working-life expectancy of the surviving nonwhite workers,
as a group, actually exceeded that of white workers. This partly reflects
the relatively low mortality rates of nonwhites at advanced ages, and partly
the predominantly rural composition (and lower retirement rates) of the non­
white labor force in the upper age groups.

18/ In March 1940, about 45 percent of nonwhite males 55 years and over in
the labor force were in rural-farm areas as compared with 28 percent of the
white males. Source: Sixteenth Census of the United States, 1940, Population,
The Labor Force (Sample Statistics), Employment and Personal Characteristics,
table 1.
19/ Source: Sixteenth Census of the United States, 1940, Population, Char­
acteristics of Persons not in the Labor Force, table 1.




CHART 10

AVERAGE NUMBER OF REMAINING YEARS OF LIFE
IN LABOR FORCE AND IN RETIREMENT
WHITE AND NONWHITE MALE WORKERS, 1 9 4 0
YEARS

YEARS

34

W HITE
U N IT E D

STATES D E P A R TM EN T OF LABOR

BUREAU

OF LABOR S TA TIS TIC S




NONWHITE

WHITE

NONWHITE

W HITE

NONWHITE

- 35 Largely as a result of the shorter life expectancy of the nonwhites,
their average retirement-life expectancy was also less than for white work­
ers. At age 20, the difference between the life and the working-life ex­
pectancies of the nonwhite worker, about 3 l/2 years, was over 2 years less
than for a white man of the same age, mainly because a smaller proportion
of the nonwhite workers could expect to attain retirement age. The retire­
ment-life expectancy of the nonwhites showed a pronounced rise, however,
to over 5 years at age 60, reflecting the relative improvement in life
expectancy of those nonwhite workers surviving to advanced ages.

CHANGES IN THE PATTERN OF WORKING LIFE, 1940-47

The pattern of working life is continually changing. It is affected
by trends in mortality and also by various long-term social and economic
forces. In addition to these basic trends, experience during the past dec­
ade has revealed marked changes in the pattern of labor force participation
in relation to age, resulting from wartime mobilization of the labor force
and subsequent transition to a period of high postwar employment.
In order to gage the effect of these changes on the length of working
life, an abridged working-life table for males, by 5-year age groups, was
constructed on the basis of 1947 experience (table 12). A comparable abridged table is also shown for 1940.
Stationary Population and Labor Force
The abridged tables, like the detailed tables for 1940, begin with an
initial group of 100,000 persons born alive each year. The estimated num­
ber of survivors in the population and in the labor force, and the corre­
sponding rates of entry and separation from the labor force, are shown, how­
ever, for 5-year groups only. Thus, the 1947 stationary population, aged
10-14 , of 475>284 represents the probable number who would be living within
these attained ages, on the assumption of 100,000 male live births annually
(or 500,000 in a 5-year period) and subjected to the stated conditions of
mortality. Use of this summary form was necessitated by the absence of any
reliable population and labor force data by single years of age after
1940. 20/

2o/ 'Hie rates of labor force participation shown in the 1947 table were
based on a special tabulation of the Census Bureau's Monthly Report on the
Labor Force for April 1947. Because of sample limitations, the development
of estimates by single years of age was not feasible.




- 36 -

(1)

(2)

Abridged table of working life, males, 1940 1/ and 1947

(3)

(4)__________($)

(6)

(71_____

(8)

Accessions Separations from the labor force
Number living of 100,000
(per 1.000 in labor force)
to the
born alive
Due to
Due to
labor force Due to
In labor force
all
death
retire­
Percent of (per 1,000
In popu­
ment
causes
Number
lation
population in popu­
i
lation)

Age
interval

x to x+n

n1*
'

rf*x

nwx

(Within age interval)

M°°n*x

1000 n d

1000 no£

1000 n«x

i 9 ) . ___ j l p i
Average number of
remaining years of
Labor
force
Life
partici­
pation
(DO

Table 12. —

K

(At beginning of age
interval)

(Between successive age intervals)

________________ i

1940
10-14 ....................
15-19.....
20-24.....
25-29.....
30-34.....
35-39.....
40-44.....
45-49.....
5 0 - 5 / ....................

55-59.....
65-69.....
70-74.....
75 and over

461,865
458,100
452,589
445,845
438,014
428,373
415,611
398,028
373.582
340,970
299,545
248,456
189,583
232,278

6,196
205,229
405,067
429,795
425,750
413,808
398,155
376,933
3A6.684.
V/ f W W Af
305,850
2 a , 134
150,316
75,833
44,830

2/
44.8
89-5
96.4
97.2
96.6
95.8
94.7
92.8
89.7
80.5
60.5
40.0
19-3

A31.0
441.6
68.0
7.9
-

-

-

8.2
12.0
H

.

9

17.6
28.0
37.8
53.3
80.2
117.8
211.6
376.7
A95.5
576. A
-

8.2
12.0
lA-9
17.6
21.9
29.7
A2.1
60.8
85.9
*7
115.7
1A8.9
191.8
262.A

-

-

6.1
8.1
11.2
19 .A
31.9
95.9
227.8
303.7
3H.0
-

51.3
A6.8
A2.A
38.0
33.7
29.6
25.5
21.8
18.3
15.1
12.2
9.6
-

A5.8
A1.3
36.8
32.3
28.0
23.8
19.8
16.0
12 .A
9.2
6.8
5.6
-

1947
10-14.....
15-19.....
20-24.....
25-29.....
30-34.....
35-39.....
40-44.....
45-49.....
50-54.....
55-59.....
60-64.....
65-69.....
70-74......
75 and over

475,284
472,525 ,
468,041
462,739
456,917
449,323
438,330

422,149
398,186
365,102
322,102
267,931
204,978
263,826

18,320
259,889
421,237
447,931
445,494
436,293
422,112
401,886
371,508
331,878
278,618
179,782
89,575
60,944

2/

55.0
90.0

96.3
97.5
97.1
96.3
95.2
93.3
90.9
86.5
67.1
A3.7
23.1

52A.1
3A6.7
67.2
6.9
-

- ■

5.8
9.5
11.3
12.6
20.7
32.5
A7.9
75.6
106.7
160.5
35A.7
501.8
5AA.3
-

5.3
9.5
11.3
12.6
16.6
2A.A
36.7
56.3
82.1
. 115.1
1A8.6*
189.2
258.8
-

_
A.l
8.1
11.2
19.3
2A.6
A5.A
206.1
312.6
285.5
-

_
52.6
A8.0
A3 *5
39.0
3A.5
30.2
26.0
22.1
18.6
15.3
12.A

_

9.9

A7.A
A2.8
38.2
33.6
29.1
2A.8
20.7
16.9
13.2
9.7
7.0
5.9

-

-

1/ Labor force data for 1940 have been adjusted to allow for a revision in Census Bureau enumeration pro­
cedures introduced in July 1945* The resulting rates are comparable with those shown in the abridged table
for 1947, but may not be compared directly with the detailed tables for 1940. See Appendix, p. 72.
In accordance, with current Census definitions, only persons 14 years of age or over are enumerated in
the labor force. No meaningful percentage of the population in the labor force could therefore be computed
for the age interval 10-14 years.




- 37 -

There have been pronounced increases in the labor force potential of the
male population as compared with 1940 (chart 11). Increases in the station­
ary labor force are shown for each age interval, with sharp gains recorded
among the teen-age youth and, to a lesser extent, among the older men. In the
aggregate, the stationary population in 1947 could expect to yield a total of
4,163,013 man-years in the labor force, which is 9 percent more than the cor­
responding total of 3*825,580 in 1940. 23/
This striking gain was traceable to the increase in
also to the higher rates of labor force participation by
The relative importance of these factors and 'the changes
labor force entries and separations are discussed in the

life expectancy and
youths and older men.
in the pattern of
following sections.

Lower Age of Labor Force Entry
A marked reduction in the average age of entry into the labor force oc­
curred between 1940 and 1947. Under 1940 conditions, about 43 out of every
100 boys aged 10-14 could expect to begin their work careers in the following
5-year interval, as compared with an entry rate of 44 per 100 for youths who
were 15-19 years of age in 1940. In 1947, the 5-year entry rate for boys 1014 years old rose to 52 per 100, while fewer entries occurred at the later
ages than under 1940 conditions. 22/
The earlier average age of entrance into the postwar labor force, com­
pared with 1940, was due in part to the after-effects of World War II. Dur­
ing wartime, the long-term trend towards longer schooling had been interrupted.
Millions of youths left school early to enter the Armed Forces or to take ci­
vilian jobs, and many others took part-time jobs after school hours. Although
many youths quit the labor market after VJ-day, reconversion of the labor force
did not bring a complete return to the prewar work pattern. Many young people
who had acquired wartime work experience preferred to remain in the postwar
labor market. In addition, large numbers of 17-19-year-old youths were still
in the Armed Forces in April 1947, some of whom might otherwise have been in
school.
The changed employment situation also was important in reducing the av­
erage age of labor force entry. In April 1940, job opportunities for inex­
perienced youths were limited. About a third of all male youths, 17-18 years
of age, who were in the labor force were reported as unemployed, and rela­
tively few boys attending school had opportunities for part-time employment
after school hours. Thus, of 3*870,000 boy% 14-17 years old enrolled in
school at the time of the 1940 Census, only 240,000, or 6 percent, were em­
ployed. In 1947, with jobs generally available and unemployment near the
frictional level, over a fifth of the 14-17—year-olds enrolled in school were
also employed. 23/
21/ This total represents the cumulative number in the stationary labor
force, obtained by a summation of column 3 in the abridged table.
22/ These findings are consistent with the statistics on the age distri­
bution of applicants for new Social Security account numbers. In 1940, the
modal age of male applicants was 17} in 1947, the modal age was 16.
23/ U. S. Bureau of the Census, School Enrollment of the Civilian Popula­
tion: April 1947, table 6 (Series P-20, No. 12).



CHART II

STATIONARY

LABOR

FORCE

MALES, 1 940 AND 1947

Number in Labor Force, of 1 0 0 ,0 0 0 Born Alive Annually
THOUSANDS

THOUSANDS

1 500

500
1940
1947

400

- 400

300

- 300

200

-

200

100

-

100

0

0
15-19

20*24

2 5 -29

3 0-34

3 5 -3 9

4 0-44

4 5 -4 9

5 0-54

AGE INTERVAL
U N IT E D S T A TE S D E P A R T M E N T OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR S T A T IS T IC S




55-59

60-64

65-69

70-74

75
an d O ver

- 39 -

Later Age at Separation
The
1940 and
eration.
declined
years of

labor force potential of the population was also enchanced between
1947 by a reduction in the age-specific rates of labor force sepAs shown in chart 12, the 5-year labor force separation rates
at all ages up to 65, with the drop most pronounced for men 55-59
age.

Reduced mortality was a major factor in the decline. Probabilities
of separation due to death were lower at all age intervals in 1947 than in
1940. Although the decline in mortality continued a long-term trend, the
great medical' advances of recent years, coupled with the pronounced rise in
living standards, had resulted in a particularly favorable mortality record.
Thus, between 1939 and 1947, deaths due to pneumonia and influenza had drop­
ped from 75.7 to 43«1 par 100,000 population, largely because of the exten­
sive use of chemotherapy and antibiotics; the tuberculosis death rate had
declined by over a fourth, largely as a result of the improvement in the
standard of living among low-income families and the increased facilities
for treatment and detection of the disease. 24/
In addition, the proportion of men retiring from the labor force before
the late sixties declined significantly. The 5-year probability of retire­
ment for men workers 55-59 years of age dropped by more than 50 percent,
from 96 per 1,000 in 1940 to 45 per 1,000 in 1947. A slight decline was also
recorded for the 60-64 group; however, the proportion of retirements among
men aged 65-69 was somewhat higher in 1947 than in 1940.
The higher level of job opportunities in the postwar period appears to
have been a major factor in the shift of the retirement pattern. During
the war years, age barriers to employment were generally lifted, and many
older workers who had previously dropped out of the labor force returned to
gainful employment. With the continuance of high employment after the war,
many men in their late fifties and sixties remained at work in preference 1
to retiring. 25/ Higher postwar wages and prices also contributed to the
later ages at retirement. Coverage under public and private old-age pension
programs had expanded during the war years, but the benefits established
were generally based on earnings during a period of years preceding the date
of retirement. With job opportunities still available for many older men,
retirement on pensions became relatively less attractive in the postwar
years.

24/ Data from Federal Security Agency, Vital Statistics of the United
States, 1947, Part I, table X. An analysis of recent changes in longevity
appears in the Statistical Bulletin of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Co.,
January 1950.
25/ In 1947, there were about 842,000 men, 65 years or over, entitled to
0ASI benefits, but who had continued in covered employment, according to
the Bureau of Old Age and Survivors Insurance of the Social Security Adminins tration.




CHART 12

FIVE-YEAR SEPARATION RATES FROM THE LABOR FORCE
TOTAL MALES, 1940 AND 1947

PER 1,000 IN
LABOR FORCE

*

30-34

35-39

40-44

45-49

50-54

55-59

AGE AT BEGINNING OF PERIOD
UNITED STATES DEPARTM ENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




60-64

65-69

70-74

The Increase in Work-Life Expectancy
The foregoing changes significantly increased both the total longevity
and the working-life span of the American male worker between 1940 and 1947.
In 1947, a 20-year-old male worker could expect to live an additional 48.0
years, or 1.2 years more than in 1940, and could look forward to an addi­
tional 42.8 years in the labor force, a gain of 1.5 years over 1940.. Since
the increase in total life expectancy was matched by the lengthening of the
work-life span between 1940 and 1947, there was no significant change in the
number of years which the average male worker could expect to spend in re­
tirement.

THE TREND OF OLD-AGE DEPENDENCX

During the past few centuries, the average expectation of life has in­
creased markedly as a result of the great progress of medical science and
the general rise in living standards. At the same time, a number of social
and economic factors have tended to curtail the labor force participation
of older men, particularly after age 65. Thus, for the average worker, the
period has lengthened during which he must seek support from some source
other than his own employment.
In order to measure this trend, estimates of working-life expectancy of
men were prepared for the year 1900. These estimates, it should be. noted,
are not strictly comparable with those shown here for 1940 and 1947, because
the mortality experience was limited to white men in the 11 States where
death registration was required in 1900. However, the estimates provide a
clear indication of the growing period of old-age dependency.
Under 1900 conditions of mortality and of labor force participation, a
young white man, at age 20, had an average additional life span of 42.2 years,
and a working-life expectancy of 39.4 years (table 13). He could expect,
therefore, 2.8 years outside of the labor force. Between 1900 and 1940, the
life expectancy of a white male, at age 20, increased by 5.5 years. His av­
erage work-life expectancy, however, increased by only 2.6 years. Therefore,
■the gap between total life expectancy and working-life expectancy had widened
to 5.7 years— about double the length in 1900.
For those men who survived until age 60 the contrast is equally striking.
While the life expectancy of a 60-year-old white man rose by almost 1 year be­
tween 1900 and 1940, his average working-life expectancy actually dropped more
than 2 years, owing to the trend toward earlier retirement. Thus, both com­
parisons indicate a pronounced widening in the expected period of retirement
in the course of the four decades.




- 42 -

Table 13. —

Average number of remaining years of life, in labor force
and in retirement; white males, 1900, 1940; total males,
1940, 1947, 1975

Average number of years of life remaining
Year

Total

In labor force \ J
gwx _______

In retirement
ex - ewx

At age 20
White males:
1900 2/........
1940...........

42.2
47.7

42.0

2.8
5.7

1940...........
1947...........
1975 (A) 2 / ....
1975 (B) 2/ ....

46w8
48.0
52.7
52.7

41.3
42.8
42.8
45.9

5.5
5.2
9.9
6.8

39.4

Total males:

At age 40
White males:
1900 2/........
1940...........

;

27.7
30.1

24.2

24.5

3.2
5.9

29.6
30.2
33-9
33.9

23.8
24.8
24.5
27.2

5.8
5.4
9.4
6.7

Total males:
1940...........
1947...........
1975 (A) 2 / ....
1975 (B) 2/ ....

At age 60
White males:
1900 2/........
1940...........

14.3
15.1

11.5
9.2

2.8
5.9

1940...........
1947...........
1975 (A) 2 J ....
1975 (B) 2 l....

15.1
15.3

9.2
9.7
7.9
10.5

5.9
5.6
8.9
6.3

Total males:

16.8
16.8

_____
1/ Labor force estimates for 1900 and 1940 have been adjusted for com­
parability with the estimates for 1947 and 1975> but may not be compared
directly with the detailed tables for 1940. See Appendix, p. 72.
2/ Mortality data based on records of 11 original death registration
states.
2 ] A: Assumes continued decline in labor force participation rates for
men, 55 years and over, based on 1920-40 trends. B: Assumes labor force
participation rates at 1947 levels.




43
CHAR i 13

AVERAGE REMAINING YEARS OF LIFE
IN LABOR FORCE AND IN RETIREMENT
MALE WORKERS, AGE 20
YEARS

YEARS
TO

70

60

60
In Retirement
Life
Expectancy

PROJECTION
In Labor Force

50

50

40 -

40

30 -

30

20

-

20

-

10

10

1900 *

1947

1940
*
DEATH

U N IT E D STATES DEPA R TM EN T OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABO R S T A T IS T IC S




W H IT E M A L E S ,
R E G IS T R A T IO N S T A T E S

1975

1975

(A)

BASED ON
PREW AR TR E N D S

(B)

BASED ON
1947

P A TTE R N S

If this trend simply resulted from a preference for retirement and an
increased financial ability to retire, it would not indicate any serious
social problem. The weight of the evidence, however, lies in the opposite
direction. A number of factors operated to reduce the opportunities of old­
er workers for gainful employment. There was a steady shift of employment
opportunities from agriculture to nonagricultural industries and from small
family-type establishments to large-scale business enterprises. Modern in­
dustry, with its more rigid and impersonal standards, its emphasis on speed
and its tendency to set arbitrary age limits for hiring and retirement, of­
fered relatively fewer opportunities for gainful employment at advanced ages.
And superimposed on these long-term trends was the mass unemployment of the
1930‘s, which caused many older men to abandon the search for work, even
though they were still capable of a productive role in the economy.
This long-term trend contrasts sharply with the experience between 1940
and 1947. As summarized in the preceding section, the shift from a depres­
sion to a full-employment economy was accompanied by increased labor force
participation of men in their late fifties and sixties. As a result, despite
the marked increase in longevity, the average period outside the labor force
did not widen from 1940 to 1947.
On the basis of both the prewar trend and the more recent experience
during the past decade, alternative patterns of working life for the future
may be projected (chart 13). To illustrate, two estimates of work-life ex­
pectancy have been prepared for the year 1975* The first assumes 1940 labor
force participation rates for the younger adult age groups and a continued
downtrend in the proportion of workers among men 55 years and over, based
on the rates of decline in the period 1920-40. The second alternative is
based on the maintenance of the 1947 rates of labor force participation.
Under both assumptions, the estimates of life expectancy are based on
a continued favorable trend in mortality, consistent with recent forecasts
of the population published by the United States Bureau of the Census. 26/
Thus, under 1975 conditions, the 20-year-old man could expect an average
lifetime of almost 73 years, as compared with 68 years in 1947| at age 60,
his average lifetime would be extended to almost 77 years— 1 1/2 years above the 1947 level.
Under the first alternative of
average work-life expectancy of the
43 years, would be the same in 1975
in retirement would widen, however,
years in 1947 and less than 3 years

progressively earlier retirement, the
20-year-old male worker, slightly under
as in 1947. The average life expectancy
to almost 10 years, as compared with 5
(for white males) in 1900.

2 6 7 Forecasts of the Population of the United States, 1945-1975 (1947).
The Census Bureau "low mortality" projection for 1975 was selected since it
was most consistent with the mortality experience between 1945 and 1949.




- 45 -

The contrast at age 60 is also pronounced. Of an average future life­
time of almost 17 years, the 60-year-old worker could expect to continue in
the labor force for only about 8 years, and would have to provide for about
9 years in retirement. The prospect would, therefore, be for a progressive
decline in the work-life span and a further lengthening of retirement.
The second alternative, based on the 1947 rates of labor force participa­
tion, produces quite different results. The gain in total longevity would
be added mainly to the period of productive life. At age 20, the average
working-life expectancy would be increased by more than 3 years as compared
with 1947, and the span of retirement would be raised by 1 1/2 years. At
age 60, the future work-life span, would increase by almost a full year as
compared with 1947, rather than decline.
These comparisons do not, of course, allow for all of the factors
which may influence the relative economic burden of dependency in old age.
Changes in the age structure of the population, for example, will be
significant, and will be influenced by future trends in the birth rate and
by future immigration, as well as by the increase in life expectancy. The
prospective cost of old-age pensions and related programs will be affected,
too, by changes in coverage, eligibility, benefit amounts, and in other
provisions of these programs. Changes in the average levels of earnings
and of productivity will also significantly affect the relative cost of pro­
grams for the aging.
These comparisons do, however, focus attention on one of the pivotal
aspects of the problem of old-age dependency. Individually and collectively,
vital decisions will be made in the coming decades as to the disposition of
the latter years of life between retirement and continued productive
activity. In turn, these decisions will have important repercussions on
the sise of the Nation's labor force, the national income, and on the pros­
pective standard of living of the American population.

THE RATE OF LABOR FORCE GROWTH

The rate 8 of labor force entry and separation are readily adaptable to
a variety of manpower studies. To illustrate one major application, estimates
of male labor force entries and separations during the decade 1940-50 were
prepared on the basis of the 1947 abridged table for total males. This table
was selected, in preference to the table for 1940, as more representative of
the experience during the decade as a whole.
In estimating the number of men entering tne labor force during the
1940-50 decade, 10-year accession rates for 5-year age groups were computed
from the 1947 abridged table. Application of these rates to the male popula­
tion in each age group in 1940 yields an estimate of about 11,190,000 young




- 4 6 -

men who began their work careers during the past decade, or an average of
about 1.1 million annually, 27/ (table 14). This estimate does not allow
for labor force entries due to immigration, and is a "net" figure in the
sense that it does not include the much greater volume of shifting between
worker and nonworker status of seasonal and intermittent workers.
Similar estimates of the number of men who were separated from the
labor force during the decade 1940-50 were computed on the basis of the
mortality and retirement patterns prevailing in 1947. As shown in table
15, 7.2 million men, or 17.5 percent of the male labor force in April 1940,
are estimated to have left the labor force because of death or retirement
during the past decade. 28/ Of these, 4*2 million workers, or about
three-fifth3, were separated by death, and the remainder retired from gain­
ful activity owing to disability, receipt of pensions, or other causes.
The estimated median age at separation was 62.2 years for all men workers
separated during the decade, as compared with a median age of 58.1 years
for workers separated because of death, and of 66.1 years, for retirements.
The estimate of separations like that for labor force entrants,
applies to a "closed group," i.e., the male labor force in 1940. No allow­
ance was made, for example, for separations of men workers who entered the
United States after 1940 or those men who withdrew from the labor force
and subsequently resumed year-round work activity.
The difference between the estimates of male labor force entries and
separations represents the estimated "natural" growth of the male labor
force over the decade, 1940-50, i.e., the increase expected because of the
changing size and age composition of the male population, exclusive of
immigration. As the following tabulation shows, a natural increase of 4*0
million men workers, or about 10 percent, is estimated for the decade
1940-50. This means that, on the average, about 400,000 additional jobs
for men workers were required annually during the decade, simply to allow
for labor force growth resulting from the increase of the resident male
population of working age.

277 On the basis of the 1940 abridged table, the estimated number of
male entries into the labor force during the decade 1940-50 was 11,160,000,
which is not significantly different from the estimate of 11,190,000
derived from the 1947 table. However, the distribution of male labor force
entrants ty age in 1940, based on the 1940 abridged tables, did show a
substantially larger proportion of prospective entrants from the age group
15-19 years, and correspondingly fewer entrants from the age groups 5-9
years, than shown in table 14*
28/ on the basis of the 1940 abridged table, about 7,850,000 men workers
would have been expected to leave the labor force between 1940 and 1950,
because of death or retirement, or about 10 percent more than the estimate
based on the 1947 table.




Table 14* — Estim ated accessions to the male la b o r fo rc e , 1940-50 l /

Age in
1940

Total, ages 0-29

Male
population
1940
(in thousands)

- 34.040
-

,
Accessions; 1940-50
Rate
(per 1,000
in popu­
lation)

_

Number
(in thousands)

_____ U . 1 9 0

0-4

5,350

38.2

200

5-9

5,420

544-8

2,950

10-14

5,950

848.3

5,050

15-19

6,180

409.1

2,530

20-24

5,690

73.2

420

25-29

5,450

6.8

40

1/ Based on accession rates for total males, adapted from the abridged
table for 1947.




Table 15. — Estim ated separations from the male la b o r fo rc e , 1940-50 1 /

Age in
1940

Total, 14 years
and over ....
14-19 ___
20-24 ....
25-29 ....
30-34 ....
35-39 ....
40—44 ....
45-49 ....
50-54 ....
55-59 ....
60-64 ....
65 years
and over.

1/
2/
3/

Total separations
1940-50

Male
labor
force,
1940 2/
(in
thousands)

Rate
(per 1,000
in labor
force)

40,910

-

Number 3/
(in
thousands)

7,160

Retireiaents

Deaths
Probability
(per 1,000
in labor
force)

—

2,840
5,080
5,220
4,910
4,610
4,240
3,980
3,480
2,700
1,940

20.2
23.3
33.0
52.5
78.9
119.9
174.2
250.0
458.3
678.5

60
120
170
260
360
510
690
870
1,240
1,320

20.2
23.8
28.9
40.5
59.9
90.2
132.3
184.9
236.6

264.8

1,910

814.1

1,560

378.1

Number
(in
thousands)

4,230
60
120
150
200
280
380
530

Probability
(per 1,000
in labor
force)

-

Number
(in
thousands)

2,930
_

—

-

20

640
510

4.1
12.0
19.0
29.7
41.9
65.1
221.7
413.7

60
90
130
170.
230
600
800

720

436.0

830

640

Based on separation rates for total males, adapted from abridged table for 1947 (Table 12).
Estimates are comparable to current MRLF. Adapted from Census releases P-50, No. 2 and P-44,
No. 12.
Total separations do not necessarily add to separate estimates of deaths and retirements, due to
rounding.




Humber (in thousands)
Hale labor force, April 1940
Accessions, 1940-50
Separations, 1940-50
Natural growth:

Number
Percent of 1940 male
labor force

40,910
11,190
7.160
4,030
9.9*

The natural rate of labor force growth differs, of course, from the ac­
tual growth in the labor force from year to year, primarily because it does
not allow for the effects of immigration and for year-to-year changes in the
rates of labor force participation. It is, however, a significant measure
because, over a period of years, the rate of natural growth of the labor
force is largely determined by the age structure of the population and is
not readily amenable to control by social and economic influences.
From a somewhat different perspective, these comparisons of estimated
labor force entries and separations indicate that almost two-thirds of the
11 million young men who began their work careers during the decade 194-0-50
were replacing older men who died or retired. This emphasizes the impor­
tance, for vocational guidance and related purposes, of determining the pro­
spective replacement needs in various fields of employment, as one factor
affecting relative job opportunities. The development of such estimates will
be discussed in the following section.

OCCUPATIONAL SEPARATION RATES

In the absence Of statistics on the number of persons leaving differ­
ent occupations, the tables of working life provide a means for estimating
occupational replacement needs arising out of deaths and retirements. Giv­
en the age-specific rates of labor force separation from the tables of work­
ing life and an age distribution of men by occupation from Census or other
sources, it is possible to estimate the probable number of men who will be
separated from each occupation because of death or retirement, over a period
of years.
As an illustration of this application, the estimated number and rate
of labor force separations in the period 1940-50 were computed for 33 selec­
ted occupations by applying 10-year separation rates, based on the 1947
abridged table, to the 1940 age distribution of experienced men workers in
these occupations. These calculations disclose a wide range in the result­
ing rates of labor force separation, by occupation (table 16). Thus, as
compared with an average decennial separation rate of 17.5 percent for all
men workers, 33 percent of the blacksmiths, forgemen, and hammermen, and
about 30 percent of the tailors and furriers, were expected to stop working




- 50 Table 16. —

Estimated separations due to death or retirement from
selected occupations, 1940-50

Occupation

Number of Separations; due to
men in ex­ death or reitirement
perienced
Rate
labor
(per 1,000 Number
force
in labor
force) 2/
1940 1/

86,900
Blacksmiths, forgemen, and hammermen ......
118,100
Tailors and furriers....... ..............
763,900
Carpenters..................................
155,400
Nasons, tile setters, and stonecutters.....
Cabinetmakers and pattern makers..... ......
91,100
34,100
Telegraph operators........................
222,000
Barbers, beauticians and manicurists........
32,900
Boilermakers....................... .
Painters (construction), paperhangers, and
475,200
glaziers............................... .
79,200
Plasterers find cement finishers.......... .
319,300
Stationary engineers, cranemen, hoistmen....
Plumbers and gas and steam fitters...... .
210,100
87,200
Holders, metal.............................
College instructors, professors and presidents
55,700
Machinists, millrights, and toolmakers......
655,900
Structural and ornamental metal workers....
38,400
21,700
Power station operators....................
Compositors and typesetters........ ........
166,300
Printing craftsmen, excluding compositors
and typesetters.......... ..............
65,500
Roofers and sheet metal workers••*•••«•*•••*
123,800
Bakers.................. ...................
'
133,800
Cooks, except private family..... ...... .
203,200
Bookkeepers, accountants, cashiers, ticket
agents.... ...............................
493,800
226,300
Electricians...............................
Rollers and roll hands, metal..............
30,300
Painters, excluding construction and maintenance..................................
93,800
Mechanics and repairmen, and loom fixers....
969,600
Waiters and bartenders.....................
323,900
Designers and draftsmen....................
101,400
Chemists, assayers, and metallurgists......
58,300
Line-and servicemen, telegraph, telephone,
power. ............... •« #•.................
109,800
Chauffeurs, truck drivers, and deliverymen.. 1,758,000
Welders and flame-cutters.............. .
137,000

330
299
264
233 •
229
228
218
217

28,700
35,300
201,700
36,200
20,900
7,800
48,400
7,100

209
205
199
197
188
182
176
169
169
168

99,300
16,200
63,500
41,400
16,400
10,100
115,400
6,500
3,700
27,900

166
166
155
153

10,900
20,600
20,700
31,100

150
144
134

74,100
32,600
4,100

131
131
129
125
114

12,300
127,000
41,800
12,700
6,600

113
94
93

12,400
165,300
12,700

1/ Includes employed men classified by current occupation and men seeking
work or on public emergency work, classified by usual occupation. Source:
U. S. Bureau of the Census, Series P-14, No. 13 (1943)*
2/ In computing occupational separation rates, age distributions by occu­
pation were based on data for employed men and men seeking work. Source:
Sixteenth Census of the United States, 1940, Population, The Labor Force,
(Sample Statistics), Occupational Characteristics, table 1.



- 51 -

in the decade 194-0-50. In contrast, decennial labor force separation rates
of only about 10 percent were estimated for welders, truck drivers and line­
men, occupational fields which had a predominantly young labor force in 194-0.
Clearly, oilier factors being equal, occupations with the greatest number
of prospective losses because of death or retirement will offer the greatest
job opportunities. Thus, it is significant that, although electricians slight­
ly outnumbered plumbers in 1940, the estimated number of labor force separa­
tions of plumbers during 1940-50 was about a fourth greater than among elec­
tricians. This means that, if employment trends were similar for the two
occupations, relatively more jobs would have opened up for plumbers than for
electricians over the decade, owing to the higher replacement needs.
For purposes of appraising job prospects, replacement needs arising out
of deaths and retirements must be considered in conjunction with all other
factors affecting the demand for labor in various fields of work. In such
industries as coal-mining, the presence of a large proportion of older workers
has been due to a long-term employment downtrend. This is also true of cer­
tain occupations, such as telegraphy, which have been subject to technological
displacement.
However, in other fields of employment, relatively high replacement needs
may appear in combination with a rising trend of employment. Thus, the build­
ing trades inherited a shortage of younger workers from the depression decade
of the thirties, when few apprentices were trained. In the decade 1940-50,
the high level of construction activity and the relatively heavy losses be­
cause of death and retirement combined to create a very favorable employment
outlook. A somewhat similar situation existed in certain branches of the ap­
parel industry, which in the past were staffed largely by immigrants and which,
in recent years, have become increasingly aware of the need for attracting new
workers.
A number of other important considerations enter into the use of estimated
separation rates, based on experience for the labor force as a whole, for oc­
cupational outlook analysis.
Occupational-Life Expectancy v. Working-Life Expectancy
In certain occupational fields, including most of the professions and
skilled trades, deaths and labor force retirements account for the greatest
proportion of separations among experienced men workers. Relatively few men
in such occupations are likely to shift to unrelated types of work, after hav­
ing invested a substantial period in training and education for their chosen
field, except under extreme pressure (such as wartime mobilization or protrac­
ted unemployment) or unusual personal circumstances. In such occupations, the
individual's working-life expectancy in the occupation may not differ signifi­
cantly from his total work-life expectancy and, therefore, estimated rates of
labor force separation provide a significant guide to prospective replacement
needs. These, moreover, are generally the occupations in which vocational
guidance and planning are most important.




- 52 -

In other occupations, deaths and retirements account for only a small
proportion of total separations of men workers. This is particularly true
of many unskilled jobs and certain "entry" occupations, such as office boys
or shipping clerks, for which turn-over is characteristically high, because
the entrants tend to move on to more skilled and responsible jobs. It is
typical, too, of workers in certain highly skilled occupations, such as ath­
letes, dancers, and air-line pilots, in which the individual's occupationallife expectancy is much shorter than his total working-life expectancy be­
cause of exacting physical standards. Professional athletes and ballet
dancers, for example, are considered "old" at 40. In such occupations, ob­
viously, estimates of death or retirement rates based on experience for the
labor force as a whole will not be very helpful in determining replacement
needs.
Differential Mortality
Very little current information is available on the extent of differ­
ences in mortality between occupations, for men of the same age. Earlier
studies, both in the United States and abroad, revealed a pronounced and
fairly consistent pattern of differentials in mortality rates among men
classified in broad occupational groups, reflecting differences in living
standards and in their way of life. Farm workers, in general, had much
lower mortality rates than nonfarm workers. Among nonfarm occupations, the
lowest age-specific mortality rates were among white-collar workers, such as
proprietors, professionals, and clerks; the highest mortality rates were
among the unskilled and semiskilled manual groups. 29/
Some notable differences also appeared within the Inroad occupational
groups, since some types of work are more hazardous and involve more "wear
and tear" on the human organism than others* For example, relatively high
mortality rates were found among manual workers in the hazardous mining and
lumbering occupations. Similarly, because of their strenuous life and con­
stant exposure to disease, physicians experienced mortality rates consider­
ably higher than other professional workers. On the other hand, the ministry
and teaching were among the occupations with the lowest age-specific death
rates.
If reliable mortality data are available for an occupation which indi­
cate significant differentials as compared with the broader population
group, of course it is desirable to substitute the specific occupational
death rates for those in the life tables. However, it is likely that the
absence of separate mortality information will not seriously impair the
usefulness of the estimates in the large majority of occupations.

29/ For statistics on differential mortality by occupation, see in par­
ticular: Jessamine Whitney, Death Bates by Occupation, National Tuberculo­
sis Association, 1934, and The Registrar General's Decennial Supplement,
England and Wales, 1931, Part Ila, Occupational Mortality, H. M. Stationery
Office, 1938.




- 53 Differential Retirements
Even in the absence of any comprehensive statistical data, it is apparent
that significant differentials in age-specific retirement rates are likely to
exist among occupations. Differences in the nature of the work, the degree of
exposure to disabilities, the coverage and provisions of pension plans, the
extent of opportunities for self-employment, and many other factors may influ­
ence the retirement patterns prevailing in different occupations. The use of
over-all retirement rates is, therefore, in no sense a substitute for a de­
tailed analysis of the actual retirement patterns prevailing in individual oc­
cupations, where such information can be developed. They do, however, provide
a useful point of departure for estimating the effect of differences in age
distribution among the various occupations upon the prospective replacement
needs due to retirement.

ALTERNATIVE MEASURES OF WORKING-LIFE EXPECTANCY

The method of estimating the working-life expectancy and related func­
tions in the tables of working life represents one of several possible al­
ternatives. Among the principal alternatives are (1) the preparation of
estimates of working-life expectancy for all persons living at a given age,
rather than for those in the labor force at that age} (2) the use of differ­
ent definitions of labor force or employment status; and (3) the development
of tables based on the actual experience of a generation during its life
time, rather than upon the pattern of mortality and of labor force participa­
tion prevailing at a given time. Each of these alternative methods is dis­
cussed briefly.
Work-Life Expectancy of the Population
In the tables of working life, the average work-life expectancy (8wx )
has been defined as the average number of years in the labor force that re­
main for a group of persons in the labor force at a given age. It has, ac­
cordingly, been computed by dividing the cumulative man-years in the labor
force remaining (Twx ) by the number of persons in the life-table labor force
at the beginning of the year of age (lwy ) (See Appendix, p. 67).
For certain purposes it,may be desirable to estimate the average worklife expectancy of all persons living in a given year of age, rather than
of only those in the labor force. This measure, hereafter referred to as
(ew'x), is computed by dividing the cumulative man-years in the labor force
remaining (Twx ) by the number in the life-table population at the beginning
of the year of age (lx ). 30/ Since the numerator is the same in both cases,
it follows that the value of 8w'x will be smaller than 8wx in all cases, in
proportion to the ratio lw^/l^j-, i.e., the worker rate.
30/ This definition was employed by John D. Durand in estimating the "av­
erage years in labor force" in The Labor Force in the United States, 1890-1960,
Social Science Research Council, 194# (p. 259).



- 54

-

Each of the preceding measures has certain advantages for analytical
purposes* The concept employed in the tables of working life is more con­
sistent with the conventions! concept of life expectancy, because it deals
with the expectation of survival as a worker of persons who are workers at
a given time. The alternative measure is, however, useful in gaging changes
in the over-all length of working life, because it is influenced by changes
in the age of labor force entry, as well as by the age of separation from
the labor force. On the basis of the latter measure, for example, it is pos­
sible to compare the average working-life expectancy at birth with the total
life expectancy (table 17).

Table 17:

Average life expectancy and work-life
expectancy, at birth

Average workinglife expectancy

Average number
of years of life
outside of
labor force

0

48.2
62.5

32.1
39.1

16.1
23.4

61.2
64.2

38.3
41.6

22.9
22.6

O

00

0

(DO
O

Average life
expectancy

eo - ew'o

White males:
1900 1 / ....
1 9 4 0 ......
Total males:
1 9 4 0 ......
1947 ......

1/

Mortality rates based on original death registration States of 1900.




- 55 -

Under 1900 conditions, the average white male's life expectancy at
birth was about 48.2 years and the average work-life, 32.1 years. He could
therefore expect to spend about 16.1 years, or a third of his average life
span outside of the labor force, either in school or in retirement. The
work-life expectation at birth was considerably lower than a corresponding
value at age 20 (37.6 years) since a considerable proportion of new born
babies could not be expected to survive until working age.
Between 1900 and 1940, the average life expectancy at birth increased
by about 14 years, for white males. Only half of this gain was reflected
in the increase in work-life expectancy. As a result of the long-term
trends towards longer schooling and earlier retirement, the average period
of dependency (i.e., the expected number of years outside of the labor
force) also increased by about 7 years over this period.
Between 1940 and 1947, a significant reversal of this pattern occurred.
The total life expectancy and the work-life expectancy, at birth, both in­
creased by about 3 years, since the continued reduction in mortality was
accompanied by an earlier entry into the labor force and later retirement.
As a result, the expected period of dependency showed no significant change
over this period and declined as a proportion of the total life expectancy
at birth.
A more detailed analysis of the changes between 1940 and 1947, com­
paring the alternative measures of working-life expectancy, is shown in
table 18. The values of 8w'x are lower at each age than the corresponding
8wx value but differences are greatest for the youngest and oldest age
groups, which have the largest proportions of the population outside the
labor force. Because of the decrease in the age of entry into thg labor
force between 1940 and 1947 and the later age at retirement, the ew»x func­
tion shows a somewhat greater gain over this period, at both age extremes,
than does the average work-life expectancy of those in the labor force
(8wx ).
Alternative Measures of Employment Status
In the present study, the worker rates are derived from Census data
and are therefore consistent with the Census definition of the "labor
force." Included in the labor force, under the Census definition, are all
persons L4 years and over, not in institutions, who are either employed
(for pay or profit, or as unpaid family workers) or unemployed. In its
classification of the population, the Census definition gives priority to
labor force activity over other status, such as student, housewife, or re­
tirement. As a result, the Census includes in the labor force, at both age
extremes, and particularly among youth of school-age, a considerable propor­
tion of persons engaged in casual and part-time work. A measure based on
major activity or status (e.g., worker, student, retirement), would yield
a somewhat more realistic pattern of the ages at which young men permanently
enter the year-round labor force, or of the ages at which older men withdraw
from full-time work activity. Owing to lack of detailed data, however, it
was impossible to develop estimates of working life based on that concept.




Tabla 18. —

Age
last
birthday

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
4 5
50
55
60
65

.....
.....
.....
.....
.....
.....
.....
.....
.....
.....
.....
.....
.....
.....

Average number of years remaining in labor force,
total males 19AO, 1947

For persons in labor force
at age x (8wx )

For persons alive
at age x (8wfx )
1947

1940

41.6

38.3

43.5
43.7
43.7
41.3
37.2
32.8
28.3

24.0
19.8
15.9
12.2
8.8
5.5

41.0

41.3
41.5
39.7
35.7
31.4
27.1
22.9
18.9
15.0
11.4
8.0
4.9

Increase
1940-47
3.3
2.5
2.4
2.2
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.2
1.1
.9
.9
.8
.8
.6

1947

1940

Increase
1940-47

_

.
-

-

-

—

-

47.4
42.8
38.2
33.6
29.1

45.8
41.3
36.8
32.3
28.0
23.8
19.8
16.0
12.4
9.2
6.8

24.8
20.7
16.9
13.2
9.7
7.0

-

1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.1
1.0
.9
.9
.8
.5
.2

Whereas the above alternative would probably have the effect of reducing
slightly the estimated average work-life expectancy, a maximum measure would
be obtained by including in the labor force all persons who were employed or
unemployed at any time during the year, rather than at a given time, such as
during the Census survey week. Some indication of the over-all difference in
magnitude resulting from application of the former concept can be obtained
from a recent Census Bureau survey. There were, in December 1947, about 44*8
million males in the United States who had done some work for pay or profit
in 1947. This total was about 6.5 percent greater than the seasonal peak num­
ber of 42.1 million employed for pay or profit in August 1947, and about 12.0
percent above the corresponding level of 40.0 million in April 1947. 31/ Anal­
ysis of the Census data indicates that a relatively large proportion of the
males with work experience during 1947, but who were not in the labor force in
December 1947, were school-age youth and older men.. The use of a measure of
labor force participation based on activity during any time of the year would
therefore have the effect of showing an earlier average age of labor force en­
try and a later average retirement age.
3l/ Source: U. S. Bureau of the Census, Work Experience of the Population
in 1947, Series P-50, No. 8j and Monthly Report on the Labor Force. The above
comparison was limited to persons employed for wages or salaries and the selfemployed. The contrast would probably have been even more pronounced if com­
parable data were available for other labor force members (i.e., unpaid family
workers and unemployed).




- 57 -

Apart from the lack of detailed statistics needed to develop this concept,
such a measure would be undesirable for general use in the measurement of work­
ing-life expectancy, because it would give excessive weight to the casual or
intermittent work activities of "fringe" groups. It might prove useful, how­
ever, for special analytical purposes, such as measurement of the expected in­
come-earning potential over the life-span.
Generation Tables of Working Life
In 1dae conventional life tables, the expectation of life and related func­
tions axe based upon the mortality rates prevailing during a particular year
or period of years. The assumption is that a cohort of 100,000 persons b o m
alive will be exposed to this fixed pattern as it passes through the life span.
Similarly, in the tables of working life it is assumed that this cohort will
be subject to the age-specific worker rates existing at a given time. Since
both mortality rates and the probabilities of labor force participation have
been subject to decided long-tern trends, the use of this more or less instan­
taneous picture will not conform to the actual experience of any particular
generation over time.
In connection with mortality data, it has been possible to construct "gen­
eration life tables" whereby the mortality experience of actual cohorts of the
population is traced from one decade to the next. These tables have proved val­
uable for many analytical purposes. 32/ It is at least theoretically possible
to construct similar tables of working life based on the labor force and occu­
pational statistics of the Decennial Censuses of Population. However, over a
period of decades, there have been significant changes in the Census defini­
tions of labor force and occupational status, in the seasonal timing of the de­
cennial Census enumerations, in the age groupings shown, and in other Census
procedures. Such changes render any precise computations based on comparisons
of these data extremely hazardous. For these reasons, no attempt has been made
to develop a "generation" table of working life for the present study.

% / For a summary of applications of generation life tables, see Dublin,
Lotka, and Spiegelman, op. cit. (pp. 174.-182).



- 58 -

TECHNICAL APPENDIX
DETAILED TABLE OF WORKING LIFE, 1940

In applying the life table technique to the measurement of working life
in the present study, an attempt was made to maintain the essential features
of the standard life table structure. A number of departures from conven­
tional methodology have been introduced, however, partly because of the nature
of the data and partly for ease in presentation. For the latter reason, the
1940 tables shown in this report omit several functions which are included in
conventional life tables.
A detailed table of working life for total males is shown in this Ap­
pendix (table la) for purposes of technical exposition. A description of the
columns in this detailed table and of the methods of computation follows.
Year of Age (x to x+1)

(Column

All of the variables in the table are expressed in terms of the exact
birthday (x) or of the interval between successive birthdays (x to x+l), in
accordance with standard life table practice.
Mortality Rate (1,000'qx)

(Column 2)

The expected number of deaths between successive birthdays per 1,000
persons living at the beginning of the year of age are shown under the con­
ditions of mortality prevailing at the time of the life table. The rate of
mortality is the keystone of the conventional life table, and all other vari­
ables pertaining to the life-table population and total life expectancy are
derived from it.
(
The rates of mortality of males, by color and urban-rural residence,
were derived from the United States Bureau of the Census, United States
Abridged Life Tables, 1939, Urban and Rural, by Regions, Color and Sex.
Single-year mortality rates for the separate color and residence groups were
interpolated graphically from these tables, which presented rates at 5-year
intervals only.
Since the 1939 abridged tables did not show mortality rates for total
males and for certain other combined groups, it was necessary to derive these
functions from the mare detailed groupings. For these combined groups, the
mortality rates were computed from the weighted estimates of the number liv­
ing at successive birthdays (lx ), l/ by the following formula:
_

l/

See p. 61




~

^~x+l

- 59 -

The.1939 abridged tables were used in the present study, in preference
to the Census Bureau’s detailed United States Life and Actuarial Tables,
1939-41, because the former were the only official United States life tables
presenting separate mortality rates by urban-rural residence. The mortality
rates shown in the 1939 tables are slightly higher, up to about age 65, than
in the corresponding tables for 1939-41, but are slightly lower above that
age. The net effect on the estimates of total life expectancy is very slight,
however. The maximum difference between the estimated life expectancies for
the period of working life is at age 14, when the average number of years of
life remaining for total males is 52.2 years, based on the 1939 tables and
52.36 years based on the 1939-41 tables.
Mortality rate differentials between urban and rural residents and be­
tween whites and nonwhites must be interpreted with caution. Evidence exists
that reporting of deaths is less complete in rural areas than in urban dis­
tricts. Underregistration of deaths of rural nonwhites is particularly pro­
nounced in parts of the South. There is also evidence that rural residents
are reported as residents of adjacent urban communities on death certificates.
These biases have the effect of exaggerating the mortality differentials in
favor of rural residents as shown in the life tables. However, available
evidence (including earlier studies of differential mortality by occupation)
indicates that death rates for men in the middle and upper-age spans would
remain lower for the rural population as a whole than for urban residents,
even after allowing for these biases.
Humber Living at Beginning of Year of Age (Lg.)

(Column 3)

This column shows the number of persons who would survive to the age in­
dicated from a group of 100,000 persons born alive, subject throughout life
to the rates of mortality of column 2 . 2/
Since the mortality rates were not available from the 1939 abridged
tables for certain combined groups (i.e., total males, total urban, and total
rural) the corresponding lx values for these groups were derived from these
tables by a weighting procedure. Thus, for total males, the lx values for
total whites and nonwhites were weighted by their proportion of total male
births, adjusted for underenumeration, in the total population. The weight­
ing ratios were based on the enumerated population of white and nonwhite
males at age 2 in 1940, as shown in the 16th Census of Population, survived
back to age 0 on the basis of the mortality rates for the respective groups,
as shown in the 1939 life tables. Use of this method compensates for the
relatively greater underenumeration of nonwhite infants, which is largely
concentrated in the first 2 years of life. A similar weighting procedure
was used for developing the
functions for total urban and total rural
males.

2/ The use of an initial group of 100,000 is consistent with standard
life table practice, and is designed for ease in computing life table val­
ues. This has resulted, however, in some cases, in presenting data in a
greater number of places than is warranted by the statistical reliability
of the data.



60.
Table la. - Detailed table of working life, males, 194-0

Tear of age

x to x+1

"ito rta lity ---Average nusber
Percent of i1
rata
_____Umber liv in g of 100.000 bora alive____
of years
population 1
Nuriber dying
In year
of l if e
in labor
1
[
par 1,000
In
At beginning
renalninw
of age
i
_____£2121____ «
alive at
of year
year of
and a ll
In year
i(
At beginning
beginning of
of age
age
later
of year
of
years
of ana
:
are
JBK of
,
0
1,000 q,
;
*x
•x
w
x
!

1Average nusber

In year
of
age

In year
of age
and
a ll later
years

^ i /

s
: At beginning
> of yew
* of age
*
;
^

of years in

1 labor force

s At beginning
: of year
: of awe
0

;

®"x

14-13
15-lb
lb-17
17-18
18-19
19-20

1.5
1.7
1.8
2.0
2.2
2.4

92,184
92,042
91,890
91,725
91,542
91,341

92,115
91,968
91,812
91,638
91,446
91,236

4,812,653
4,720,538
4,628,570
4,536,758
4,445,120
4,353,674

52.2
51.3
50.4
49.5
48.6
47.7

6.1
12.2
23.0
38.9
57.1
71.9

87,972
87,823
87,656
87,473
87,272

88,113

4,111,252
4,023,139
3,935,167
3,847,3a
3,759,688
3,672,a 5

88,179
88,043
87,897
87,740
87,565
87,372

20-21
21-22
22-23
23-24
24-25

2.5
2.7
2.7
2.9
3.0

91,122
90,890
90,648
90,400
90,142

91,008
90,771
90,526
90,273
90,011

4,262,438
4,171,430
4,080,659
3,990,133
3,899,860

46.8
45.9
45.0
44.1
43.3

80.6
85.6
89.1
91.6
93.1

87,054
86,827
86,593
86,351
86,100

3,584,943
3,497,889
3 ,a i,0 6 2
3,3 a , 469
3,238,118

87,163
86,9a
86,709
86,472
86,225

39.3
38.4
37.6

25-26
26-27
27-28
28-29
29-30

3.0
* .l
3.2
3.3
3.4

89,876
89,602
89,320
89,030
88,732

89 ,7a
89,463
89,177
88,883
88,581

3,809,849
3,720,108
3,630,645
3 ,5 a , 468
3,452,585

a .4
a .5
40.6
39.8
38.9

94.0
94.7
95.1
95.4
95.6

85,8a
85,576
85,302
85 ,o a
84,732

3,152,018
3,066,176
2,980,600
2,895,298
2,810,277

85,971
85,709
85,439
85,162
84,877

36.7
35.8
34.9
34.0
33.1

30-31
31-32
32-33
33-34
34-35

3.6
3.7
3.9
4.1
4.3

88,426
88,112
87,786
87,444
87,086

88,271
87,953
87,619
87,269
86,902

3,364,004
3,275,733
3,187,780
3,100,161
3,012,892

38.0
37.2
36.3
35.5
34.6

95.6
95.7
95.7
95.6
95.6

84,436
84,131
83,812
83,452
83,060

2,725,545
2 , 6a , 109
2,556,978
2,473,166
2,389,714

84,584
84,284
83,972
83,632
83,256

32.2
31.3
30.5
29.6
28.7

35-36
36-37
37-38
38-39
39-40

4.5
4.7
5.1
5.4
5.8

86,711
86,321
85,911
85,477
85,016

86,520
86,122
85,700
85,254
84,777

2,925,990
2,839,470
2,753,348
2,667,648
2,582,394

33.7
32.9
32.0
31.2
30.4

95.5
95.4
95.3
95.1
95.0

82,636
82,173
81,664
81,109
80,501

2,306,654
2,224,018
2 ,U 1,845
2,060,181
1,979,072

82,848
82,404
81,918
81,386
80,805

27.8
27.0
26.1
25.3
24.5

40-41
41-42
42-43
43-44
44-45

6.2
6.6
7.0
7.6
8.2

84,522
83,998
83,444
82,856
82,227

84,268
83,729
83,160
82,553
81,901

2,497,617
2,413,349
2,329,620
2,246,460
2,163,907

29.5
28.7
27.9
27.1
26.3

94.8
94.5
94.3
94.1
93.9

79,849
79,162
78,4a
77,681
76,865

1,898,5a
1,818,722
1,739,560
1,661,118
1,583,437

80,175
79,506
78,802
78,062
77,273

23.7
22.9
22.1
21.3
20.5

45-46
46-47
47-48
48-49
49-50

8.8
9.6
10.3
11.1
12.0

81,553
80,832
80,060
79,235
78,352

81,205
80,458
79,661
78,809
77,895

2,082,006
2,000,801
1,920,343
1,840,682
1,761,873

25.5
24.8
24.0
23.2
22.5

93.6
93.3
93.0
92.7
92.3

75,996
75,069
74,078
73,026
71,909

1,506,572
1,430,576
1,355,507
1,281,429
1,208,403

76,430
75,532
74,574
73,552
72,468

19.7
18.9
18.2
17.4
16.7

50-51
51-52
52-53
53-54
54-55

13.0
14.0
15.0
16.2
17.4

77,408
76,402
75,333
74,200
72,998

76,9a
75,883
74,783
73,616
72,379

1,683,978
1,607,057
1,531,174
1,456,391
1,382,775

a .8
a .o
20.3
19.6
18.9

91.9
91.6
91.1
90.7
90.1

70,723
69,471
68,144
66,733
65,225

1,136,494
1,065,771
996,300
928,156
861,a 3

71,316
70,097
68,808
67,438
65,979

15.9
15.2
a .5

13.8
13.1

55-56
56-57
57-58
58-59
59-60

18.7
20.0
21.4
22.8
24.4

71,728
70,390
66,982
67,506
65,964

71,076
69,704
68,261
66,752
65,177

1,310,396
1,239,320
1,169,616
1,101,355
1,034,603

18.3
17.6
17.0
16.3
15.7

89.5
88.8
88.0
87.0
85.7

63,620
61,902
60,057
58,051
55,828

796,198
732,578
670,676
610,619
552,568

6 4,0 2
62,761
60,980
59,054
56,940

12.4
11.7
11.0
10.3
9 .7

60-61
61-62
62-63
63-64
64-65

26.2
28.2
30.4
32.7
35.2

64,352
62,664
60,894
59,044
57,114

63,528
61,800
59,989
58,099
56,129

969,426
905,898
844,098
784,109
726,010

15.1
14.5
13.9
13.3
12.7

83.8
81.7
79.2
76.2
72.5

53 ,a s
50,469
47,512
44,272
40,704

496,740
443,525
393,056
345,5a
301,272

54,522
5 1,8a
48,990
45,892
a , 488

8.6
8.0
7.5
7.1

65-66
66-67
67-68
68-69
69-70

37.9
40.8
43.9
47.2
50.6

55,104
53,018
50,856
48,625
46,332

54,080
51,955
49,757
47,493
45,171

669,881
615,801
563,846
514,089
466,596

12.2
11.6
11.1
10.6
10.1

67.4
62.3
57.5
53.0
48.8

36,426
32,354
28,604
25,177
22,058

260,568
2 2 4 ,ia
191,788
163,184
138,007

38,565
34,390
30,479
26,890
23,618

6.8
6.5
6.3
6.1
5.8

70-71
71-72
72-73
73-74
74-75

54.4
58.4
62.8
67.7
73.5

43,988
a , 597
39,168
36,709
34,222

42,804
40,390
37,946
35,472
32,971

4 a , 425
378,6a
338,231
300,235
264,813

9.6
9.1
8.6
8.2
7.7

44.9
a .2
37.8
34.6
31.6

19,a 7
16,652
H ,3 a
12,266
10 ,a o

115,949
96,732
80,080
65,739
53,473

20,638
17,934
15,496
13,304
11,338

5.6
5.4
5.2
4.9
4.7

75-76
76-77
77-78
78-79
79-80

79.9
87.0
94.8
103.2
112.1

31,708
29,176
26,638
24,U2
a , 623

30,445
27,906
25,369
22,855
20,391

231,8a
201,397
173,491
148,122
125,267

7.3
6.9
6.5
6.1
5.8

28.8
26.1
23.7
a .4
19.3

8,758
7,296
6,013
4,896
3,935

43,063
34,305
27,009
20,996
16,100

9,584
8,027
6,654
5,454
4 ,a 6

4.5
4.3
4.1
3.8
3.6

80-81
81-82
82-83
83-84
84-85

121.6
131.4
141.9
152.7
163.9

19,198
16,864
14,648
12,570
10,650

18,005
15,724
13,571
11,568
9,732

104,876
86,871
71,147
57,576
46,008

5.5
5.2
4.9
4.6
4.3

17.3
15.5
13.7
12.2
10.7

3,118
2,432
1,866
1,406
1,039

12,165
9,047
6,615
4,749
3,343

3,526
2,775
2,149
1,636
1,222

3.5
3.3
3.1
2.9
2.7

85-86
86-87
87-88
88-89
89-90

175.7
187.6
200.1
212.4
224.9

8,904
7,340
5,963
4,770
3,757

8,076
6,605
5 ,3 a
4,220
3,294

36,276
28,200
a , 595
16,274
12,054

4.1
3.8
3.6
3.4
3.2

9.3
8.1
6.9
5.9
4.9

752
532
367
247
161

2,304
1,552
1,020
653
406

896
6a
450
307
204

2.6
2.4
2.3
2.1
2.0

90-91
91-92
92-93
93-94
94-95

237.6
250.5
263.2
275.7
288.3

2,912
2,220
1,664
1,226
888

2,529
1,910
1,418
1,035
742

8,760
6,231
4,321
2,903
1,868

3.0
2.8
2.6
2.4
2.1

4.0
3.3
2.6
2.0
1.6

102
63
37

a

245
143
80
a
22

132
82
50
29
16

1.9
1.7
1.6
1.5
1.4

95-96
96-97
97-98

302.2
315.2
327.8

632
441
302

522
360
244

1,126
604
244

1.8
1.4
.8

1.1
.8
.5

6
3
1

10
4
1

9
4
2

1.1
1.0
.5

'

12

46.6
45.7
a .8
43.8
42.9
a .o
a .i

40.2

9.1

2 / In ages H -31 inclusive, hypothetical values of lwz , Lez and Tvz were coaputed on the basis of the peak worker rate, at age 32, In order to eliminate the effect of
labor force accessions. (See page )




- 61 Table la. - Detailed table of working life, males, 1940 - Continued

Year of age
x to x+1

(12)
Mortality
. rate
Par 1,000
livin g
in year

(91)
(lO)
(90)
_____ (18)_______
___ (16)______
: Retirement
Due to death
:_____ Due to retirement_______ *
rate
Total______ ; ____ :
_
s Number, of 1
Rate per
: Number, of 1 Per 1,000
Number, of
100,000
«
s
100,000
s in labor
:
Bar 1,000 la
100,000
1,000 in
born
:labor force in :
:
bora
s
labor force in
born
1 force in
rear of are
: year of are
:
alive
«
___year of are
l,0 0 O ($ j
1,000 rQg
1,000 <j£ ;
1,00C ^
1,000 Q
®
;
**
!
r«
:
8*
____________________________________ Between realrs of age______________________________________ ______________________________
_
_
_
1.6
1.6
60.7
9
9
—
—
—
1.7
1.7
19
19
108.5
—
—
—
158.8
40
40
1.9
1.9
—
—
—
2.1
75
2.1
181.4
75
—
—
120
120
147.7
2.3
2.3
164
2.5
86.5
164
2.5
na

(33)

(1-5)

Accessions to labor force
Rate per
Number, of
100,000
1,000
born
liv in g in

1,000 Ox

**

14-15
15-16
16-17
17-18
18-19
19-20

1.6
1.7
1.9
2.1
2.3
2.5

20-21
21-22
22-23
23-24
24-25

2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
3.0

4,523
3,213
2,182
1,417
810

49.7
35.4
24.1
15.7
9.0

191
210
226
240
251

2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
3.0

191
210
226
240
251

2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
3.0

25-26
26-27
27-28
28-29
29-30

3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5

583
394
2a
142
62

6.5
4-4
2.7
1.6
.7

262
271
280
288
296

3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5

262
271
280
288
296

3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5

30-31
31-32
32-33
33-34
34-35

3.6
3.8
4.0
4.2
4.4

26

304
320
360
392
424

3.6
3.8
4.3
4.7
5.1

304
320
335
350
366

3.6
3.8
4.0
4.2
4.4

35-36
36-37
37-38
38-39
39-40

4.6
4.9
5.2
5.6
6.0

.3
—
—
—
"
__

463
509
555
606
652

5.6
6.2
6.8
7.5
8.1

380
402
424
454
483

40-41
41-42
42-43
43-44
44-45

6.4
6.8
7.3
7.9
8.5

687
720
761
816
869

8.6.
9.1
9.7
10.5
11.3

511
538
573
614
654

45-46
46-47
47-48
48-49
49-50

9.2
9.9
10.7
11.6
12.5

927
991
1,052
1,117
1,186

12.2
13.2
14.2
15.3
16.5

50-51
51-52
52-53
53-54
54-55

13.5
14.5
15.6
16.8
18.0

1,252
1,327
1,411
1,508
1,605

55-56
56-57
57-58
58-59
59-60

19.3
20.7
22.1
23.6
25.3

1,718
1,845
2,006
2,223
2,613

60-61
61-62
62-63
63-64
64-65

27.2
29.3
31.5
33.9
36.5

2,746
2,957
3,240
3,568
4,278

65-66
66-67
67-68
68-69
69-70

39.3
42.3
45.5
48.9
52.4

70-71
71-72
72-73
73-74
74-75

56.4
60.5
6 5 .2

75-76
76-77
77-78
78-79
79-80

83.4
90.9
99.1
107.8
117.0

-—
—
—
_
—
—
—
—
__
—
—
—
—
__
—
—
—
"
__
_
__
—
"

80-81
81-82
82-83
83-84
84-85

126.7
136.9
147.6
158.7
170.2

—
—
—
—

—
—
—
”

85-86

86-87
87-88
88-89
89-90

182.1
194.4
206.9
219.5
232.2

__
—
—
"

90-91
91-92
92-93
93-94
94-95

244.9
257.6
270.4
283.4
296.6

_
—
—
"
...
—
—
—
—

95-96
96-97
97-98

310.0
323.6
337.4

'

70.5
76.6




5,591
9,979
14,580
16,623
13,507
7,692

—
—
—
—
__
—
—
—
__
—
—
—
"
—
—
—
"
„
—
—
—
—

„

_
_

—
—
—
”

_
_

—
“

—
—
__
—
—
"
__
—
-—
"
-—
—
—
__
—
—
—
”
__
—
—
—
-__
—
—
-”
__
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
"

_
_

_
_

—

—
—
—
—
—
_
~
—
—

—
~
—
—
~

—

—

_
—

__
—

58

_
—
.3
.5
.7

4.6
4.9
5.2
5.6
6.0

83
107
131
154
169

1.0
1.3
1.6
1.9
2.1

1.1
1.3
1.5
1.7
1.9

6.8
7.3
7.9
8.5

6.4

176
182
188
202
215

2.2
2.3
2.4
2.6
2.8

2.1
2.3
2.5
2.6
2.8

699
743
793
847
898

9.2
9.9
10.7
11.6
12.5

228
248
259
270
288

3.0
3.3
3.5
3.7
4.0

3.0
3.3
3.5
3.7
4.0

17.7
19.1
20.7
22.6
24.6

955
1,007
1,063
1,121
1,168

13.5
14.5
15.6
16.8
17.9

297
320
348
387
437

4.2
4.6
5.1
5.8
6.7

4.3
4.7
5.2
5.9
6.7

27.0
29.8
33.4
38.3

46.8

1,222
1,275
1,321
1,358
1,396

19.2
20.6
22.0
23.4
25.0

496
570
685
865
1,217

7.8
9.2
11.4
14.9
21.8

7.9
9.3
11.6
15.1
22.1

51.6
58.6
68.2
80.6
105.1

1,432
1,458
1,468
1,465
1,433

26.9
28.9
30.9
33.1
35.2

1,314
1,499
1,772
2,103
2,845

24.7
29-7
37.3
47.5
69.9

25.1
30.2
37.9
48.3
71.1

111.8

1,377
1,317
1,253
1,183

37.8
40.7
43.8
47.0
50.3

2,695
2,433
2,174
1,936
1,731

74.0
75.2
76.0
76.9
78.5

75.4
76.8
77.7
78.7
80.5

l,oa

1,652

144.7
151.3
158.7

967
896
828
763

54.2
58.1
62.5
67.5
73.3

1,524
1,344
1,179
1,028
889

79.3
80.7
82.2
83.8
85.4

81.5
83.1
84.8
86.7
88.6

1,462
1,283
1,117
961
817

166.9
175.9
185.7
196.3
207.7

699
634
569
503
438

79.8
86.9
94.6
102.8
111.4

763
649
548
458
379

87.1
89.0
91.1
93.5
96.3

90.8
93.1
95.6
98.6
102.0

686

219.9
232.9
246.7
261.3
276.7

260
210
166

376
315

120.4
129.8
139.7
149.9
160.3

310
251
200
157
121

99.5
103.1
107.0
111.4
116.4

105.9
110.2
115.0
120.5
126.5

292.9
309.9
327.7
346.3
365.7

128
97
71
51
35

171.0
182.0
193.0
203.9
214-7

92
68
49
35
24

121.9
127.9
134.7
142.4
151.0

133.3
140.7
149.1
158.6
169.2

385.9
406.9
428.7
451.3
474.7

23
15
9
5

16
11
7
4

3

225.2
235.5
245.7
255.7
265.6

3

160.7
171.4
183.0
195.6
209.1

181.1
194.2
208.7
224.3
2a.1

498.9
524.9
552.7

2
1
1

275.3
284.7
293.7

1
1
0

223.6
240.2
259.0

4,072
3,750
3,427
3,119
2 ,8 U

2,565
2,311
2,075
1,856

566
460

367
287
220

165

120
86

59
39
26
16

9
6
3

2
1

115.9
119.8
123.9
128.8
133.5
138.8

1,110

25
42

—
—

—
—
—

—

—
—

—
—

.2

.5
.8

,
’

259.2
'280-?
303.6

- 62 -

Number Living in Year of Age (Lg)

(Column A)

The "stationary population? or the number of persons who would be living
in any age interval under the assumption of 100,000 live births annually,
subject throughout life to the specified mortality rates, is shown in this col­
umn. Under these fixed conditions, if births were distributed evenly throughout
each year and if there were no migration, a census taken at any time would al­
ways show the same total population and the same number of persons in each age
interval.
On the assumption of an even distribution of deaths within each year of
age, in ages 14 and over, the Lg function was computed by linear interpolation
between the corresponding lx values, as follows:

t* - V2 (V lx.!)
Ihis method, though subject to some slight statistical bias, is consistent
with prevailing actuarial practice. jj/
Number of Man-years of Life Remaining (Tx )

(Column 5)

The total man-years of life remaining at a given age and at all succeeding
years for persons alive at the exact year of age are given in this column. It
may be expressed algebraically as follows:
= S

x=n 0 * )

Average Number of Tears of Life Remaining (ex )

(Column 6)

The average life expectancy of persons in the stationary population is
measured from the exact year of age. It is computed by dividing the cumulative
man-years of life remaining, V
by the number living at the beginning of the
year of age, lx .

17

United States Life and Actuarial Tables, 1939-41, (p.




133)

- 63 -

This column may also be defined as the average life expectancy of work­
ers at any given age, if it is assumed that the mortality rates for persons
in the labor force are identical with those for the total population, i j
Percent of Population in Labor Force (wx)

(Column 7)

The percent of the population in the labor force, or the "worker rate,"
bears the same pivotal relationship to the estimates of working-life expec­
tancy as does the mortality rate to the computation of total life expectancy.
Unlike the mortality function, which describes a rate during a specified
time interval, the "worker rate" is based on a cross section of the popula­
tion at a given point in time, such as the Census week of 194-0. However, if
it is assumed that the age-specific worker rates remain constant, apart from
seasonal fluctuations, the differences between successive single-year worker
rates at a given time may serve as a reasonable approximation of the net an­
nual rates of labor force accession or separation between successive ages,
after allowing for mortality. This is a fundamental assumption inherent in
the construction of tables of working life.
In the tables of working life, crude worker rates for men, by urbanrural residence, color, and single years of age were derived from the Six­
teenth Census of the United States, 1940, Population, The Labor Force (Sam­
ple Statistics), Employment and Personal Characteristics, table 1. Worker
rates for rural residents were computed by combining the labor force and
population data for rural-farm and rural-nonfarm areas. The employment
characteristics and worker rates of rural-nonfarm residents resemble more
closely those of urban residents than those of rural-farm groups. They
were combined with the latter group because of the absence of any separate
mortality data for rural-nonfarm residents.

£7 No adequate information is available on differential mortality of
workers and nonworkers. It may be assumed that men outside the labor force,
particularly before age 60, have higher mortality rates, since they include
a relatively large proportion of persons suffering from illness or serious
disability. Moreover, it is frequently asserted that retirement, and the
resulting difficulties in adjustment, tend to shorten the life span. On the
other hand, persons who continue to work at advanced ages are more exposed
to the possibility of death, through specific occupational hazard or as a
result of their more active mode of life.
In the case of railroad workers, actuarial studies by the Railroad Re­
tirement Board indicate relatively small differences in mortality rates be­
tween employees and annuitants retiring at age 60 or over on the basis of
age and service.
(U. S. Railroad Retirement Board, Annual Report, 194.6,
p p . 86-9). If this general pattern held true for the labor force as a
whole, errors resulting from the assumption of identical death rates would
be relatively small, since retirements remain quite low until the late
fifties. For example, if it were assumed that mortality rates at ages prior
to 60 of persons outside the labor force were twice as great as for the en­
tire population, and if the mortality rates for those in the labor force
were correspondingly adjusted, the work-life expectancy of men at age 30
would be increased by only 0.3 years.



The crude worker rates developed from the Census data could not be used
directly in determining the underlying pattern of labor force participation.
Certain distortions and irregularities were introduced into these crude rates
by the distribution of the institutional population and by biases in age re­
porting, as well as by random errors of sampling. In order to eliminate,
where possible, the effects of such factors, the following adjustments were
made:
1. Redistribution of Institutional Population. Many mental and penal
institutions ar e ’
located in rural-nonfarm areas, although their inmates (all
outside of the labor force, by Census definition) are drawn from both the
urban and rural population. In April 1940, for example, 3»7 percent of all
males 14 years or over in rural-nonfarm areas were inmates of institutions,
compared with 1.0 percent of the urban residents. This depressed the crude
worker rates in rural areas, in relation to urban areas. In the absence of
specific data on the original residence of inmates of institutions, they
were redistributed in proportion to the urban-rural distribution of the non­
ins titutional population, by age and color.
The 1940 institutional population, prior to age 60, constituted a fair­
ly small and stable percentage of the total population among white males,
and therefore had no significant effect on age-to-age differences in worker
rates. However, for nonwhite men, the percentage in institutions rose from
about 1*3 percent at age 14 to 3*4 percent at 27, and then declined among
those in the forties and fifties. These variations distorted the underlying
pattern of labor force entries and separations for the nonwhite male popu­
lation. For nonwhite males aged 18 to 65, the pattern of worker rates based
on the noninstitutional population was therefore used, adjusted to the av­
erage level of the worker rate based on the total population for this per­
iod.
2.
Age-Reporting Bias. In addition to a tendency of respondents to
report ages rounded to the nearest 0 or 5, other biases affected particular
age groups in the population. Thus, in past censuses, there have been in­
dications that older persons often tended to report themselves -as younger
for economic and personal reasons. At the upper age extremes, there has
also been sane tendency towards exaggeration of age. Analysis of the 1940
Census population data in relation to mortality data for 1930-40 revealed
a new bias: a tendency for older persons below age 65 to report their age
as 65 years or over. This tendency, particularly pronounced among nonwhites,
appeared to have developed after 1936, the year old-age assistance pro­
grams under the Social Security Act became effective in most States. In
the construction of United States Life Tables for 1939-41, the following
redistribution of the male Megro population was made to allow for this bias:




- 65 -

Estimated Male Negro Population

Ms.

Original

208/656
154,632
151,407

55-59
60-64
65-69
Source:

Adjusted

218,324
168,242
128,129

Difference
9,668
13,610
- 23,278

United States Life Tables and Actuarial Tables, 1939-41, (p. 112)

Since the apparent motive of this group for misreporting their ages
appeared to be the desire to qualify for old-age assistance or pensions, it
was assumed that a comparatively large proportion of such persons were out­
side the labor force. This appeared to be supported by the pattern of work­
er rates for urban nonwhites, which showed an exceptionally sharp drop at age
65, as compared with whites in the corresponding groups. Worker rates for
nonwhite rural residents, whose old-age dependency problems differ substan­
tially from those of the urban workers, did not appear to exhibit any such
distortion. The nonwhite urban population was therefore redistributed on
the basis of the above estimates, and worker rates were adjusted on the as­
sumption that the population added to the younger age groups had the lower
worker rates of the age group which they had reported, i.e., ages 65-69.
The adjustment thus reduced the crude worker rates for urban nonwhites be­
tween ages 55 and 64, and reduced somewhat the decline in worker rates in
the vicinity of age 65.
3.
Smoothing of Worker Rates. The resultant worker rates still exhib­
ited considerable year-to-year irregularities after the above adjustments.
It was assumed that the true worker rates for the population were inherently
smooth, except for certain ages, such as 60, 65, or 70, when known institu­
tional factors were operative.
Curve fitting with polynomials and by osculatory interpolation (using
Jenkins’ fifth difference formula) was attempted, but neither of these meth­
ods gave satisfactory results. A free-hand curve-fitting was therefore adopt­
ed.
A graphic illustration of the process of adjustment and smoothing of
worker rates is shown in chart 14 for nonwhite males in urban areas.
Humber in Labor Force in Year of Age (Lwx ) (Column 8)
For ages 32 and over, the number in the stationary labor force was com­
puted directly as the product of the stationary population (Lx ) and the work­
er rate (wx ). For ages 14-31, inclusive, hypothetical Lwx values were esti­
mated by assuming that the same percentage of the population was in the labor
force as at age 32, and that the labor force at age 32 was smaller than that
at age 14 by the number of deaths between these years:
Lw 14-31 = L14-31 (W32}
This assumption was necessary in order to eliminate the effects of ac­
cessions when estimating the work-life expectancy of workers between the
ages 14-31*



66
CHART 14

LABOR FORCE
PARTICIPATION RATES
NONWHITE MALES IN URBAN AREAS, 1940
Percent

Percent

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




- 67 -

Number of Man-years in Labor Force Remaining (Twx )

(Column 9)

The total number of man-years in the labor force remaining in the given
year and all following years for persons in the labor force at the exact year
of age is computed from the values in column 8 as follows:
2

^ x

x-n

Lwx

Number in Labor Force, at Beginning of Year of Age (lwy) (Column 10)
The number of survivors of 100,000 persons born alive expected to be in
the labor force at each exact year of age (or birthday) is shown in this col­
umn. On the assumption of an even distribution of labor force separations
between successive age intervals, it was computed by direct interpolation
from the Lwx values of column 8, as follows:
lwx = 1/2 (Lw x _ ! + L w x )
Average Number of Years in Labor Force Remaining (SwY )

(Column 11)

The average work-life expectancy of persons in the labor force at a given
age is computed by dividing the total remaining (Twx ) man-years in the labor
force by the number in the labor force at the beginning of the year of age
( lw x ) •

Mortality Rate, Between Successive Years of Age (1,000 Qx )

(Column 12)

This and the following columns of the detailed table of working life
trace the development of the estimated rates of labor force entry and of sep­
aration between successive years of age. These mortality rates differ, con­
ceptually, from those of the standard life table in one important respect.
The conventional mortality rate (1,000 qx ) expresses the number of deaths ex­
pected between two exact age intervals (or birthdays) as a ratio to the num­
ber alive at the beginning of the year of age (3^). In the tables of working
life, the mortality rate between successive years of age (1,000 Qx ) is based
on the stationary population (L*), and expresses the number of deaths expected
within an interval of 1 year as a ratio to the stationary population within
the initial year of age. This rate is derived directly from the successive
differences in the stationary population (column U) as follows:
n

- ** ~ **+1

X "

h :

This modification has been introduced into the tables of working life in
order to facilitate the application of the derived rates of labor force entry
and separation to available population and labor force data, which are almost
invariably in terms of the attained age.
It should be noted that the above rate may readily be expressed in terras
of the conventional mortality rate. If it is assumed that deaths of persons




-

68

-

of working age are distributed evenly within each year of age, then the sta­
tionary population in any year of age (Lx) would equal the number of surviv­
ors at the mid-year of age. The mortality rate between successive years of
age per 1,000 in the stationary population (1,000 Qx) therefore equals the
mortality rate per 1,000 living at the exact mid-year of age (1,000 qx+i/2^*
Accessions to the Labor Force (Columns 13 and 14)
The net number of persons entering the stationary labor force between
successive years of age (ax) (column 13) is computed from the net increments
in the stationary labor force, up to age 32, after allowing for the probabil­
ity of deaths among workers during the year:
®x “ Lwx+1 " Lwx + Lwx
The rate of accessions (column 14), per 1,000 persons in the stationary
population, becomes in turn:

1,000 ax

1,000 Ax

L^
Since the number and rate of accessions are derived from the net changes
in the worker rates, no accessions are shown beyond the age of the peak work­
er rate (i.e., age 32).
Separations from the Labor Force (Columns 15 and 16)
The net number of persons separated from the stationary labor force be­
tween successive years of age is shown in column 15. Fran age 32 on, this
was derived from the decrease in the stationary labor force between succes­
sive years of age: sx * Lwx - Lwx+i
The annual rate of labor force separation between successive years of
age was therefore:

1,000 4

=

1,000 sx
Lwx

Between ages 14 and 32, it was assumed that labor force separations
were due solely to death and therefore:
Q® = (^ and sx = Lwx (C^)
Since some workers become permanently disabled and are forced to with­
draw from the labor force before age 32, a slight understatement of the true
separation rate for these ages has resulted. The error, however, is believed
to be statistically insignificant.
Separations from the Labor Force Due to Death or Retirement (Columns 17-21)
These columns (17-21) show the expected number of workers to be separat­
ed from the stationary labor force between successive years of age, because of




- 69 -

death or retirement (dx , rx ), and the corresponding probabilities, (1,000 Qx ,
1,000 (£). Also shown is the derived rate of retirement ( 1 , 0 0 0 ^ ) .
In order to determine these functions, it was necessary to assume that
the age-specific death rate for persons in the labor force was the same as
that for the population as a whole. *►/ Given the separation rate and the
death rate, it was possible to derive the probability of separation due to
death or retirement for ages 32 and over, and the retirement rate.
The probability of death or retirement differs significantly from the
corresponding rate. For example, the probability of death is defined as the
ratio of the number of separations from the labor force because of death dur­
ing a year, to the number of persons in the stationary labor force at the be­
ginning of the year, i.e.,
The death rate, however, is the number

E).

Lw_
of deaths within the labor force divided by the number of workers exposed to
death. On the assumption that retirements are distributed evenly within each
year of age, the average person retiring is exposed to death, as a worker,
for only half a year. The total number of workers exposed to death during
the year would then be the number at the beginning of the year less half of
those retiring, i.e., Lwx - 1/2 rx . The death rate, for persons in the labor
force, may therefore be expressed ass
Qx

_____is______
Lwx - 1 / 2 (rx )

Similarly, the probability of retirement is:
retirement iss

37

See p.

rO
^

63




= —
Lw

x .
.
- l/2 (dj

r
r
Qx = - 1; and the rate of
Lw„

- 70 -

Solving algebraically, the respective formulae for the probabilities of
death and retirement were computed as follows: 6/

> and

<4 =

Q^

Qx - Qx

The retirement rate was also derived from the probabilities of death and
retirement, as follows: 7/
2 Qr

rSc = — "5t
2

-

Sc

Finally, the number of deaths and retirements from the labor force were
computed as the product of the stationary labor force and the respective prob­
abilities.
r
d„ = Lw_ (Q )J r * Lw„ (Q )
x
x
X X

6/

Proof
Given the following relationships:
(1)

( 2)

*

= Jk?

* J k ? and
- '
Lw,,

T
Lw, X

QS = Qd + Q;

X

X

O =---S 7 rx a d r x =- £— /--x
x Lwx - - -- “ Q Lw~ - l 2 d
1/2

Dividing in (2) by Lw„ yields:
d
x
d
t-

(3)

Q

£

2Q -

= ----£*x-----

1 - 1 /2 U * )

= ___ 1

2 - C

Lwx
and,in like manner:
2 Qr
U «x=Jk.
)

and substituting for

Q^, in (3):

2 - Q_

(5 )

—

a-

2 -<«*-«*>
Then, solving for
yields:

(6)

.
q (2 - , 8)
Q^. = ------ *
-

7 / The retirement rate may also be derived directly from the differences
between successive worker rates for ages 32 and over:
rSc ~ w ~ wx+l
x
Differences between the two methods are due solely to rounding.




- 71 -

ABRIDGED TABLES OF WORKING LIFE, 1940 AND 1947

An abridged table of working life was developed for 1947 because data
were not available on population and labor force by single years of age for
years subsequent to 1940. This form differs from the single-year tables for
1940 primarily because the stationary population and labor force are grouped
in 5-year intervals and the rates of accessions and separations are shown
from one interval to the next, for the grouped 5-year cohort. In this re­
spect, the form of the abridged table of working life differs from that of
the conventional abridged life tables, which describe the change in a single
year cohort from the beginning of one interval to the beginning of the next.
The form used in the present study was designed to facilitate application of
the rates to grouped data available from enumerative surveys of the popula­
tion and labor force.
In general, the major assumptions and methodology described in the pre­
ceding section also apply to the abridged tables. In the present section,
only those specific sources and methods are described which differ from those
employed in the single-year tables for 1940. Following is a brief descrip­
tion of the columns of the abridged table (page 36).
Age Interval (x to x-m) (Column 1)
The functions in the abridged table, as in the single-year table, are
expressed in terms of the exact birthday (x) or of an interval of n years
between birthdays. The intervals cover 5-year groups, with the exception of
the last (75 years and over).
Stationary Population (nLx) (Column 2)
The stationary population is the number living within the age interval
of 100,000 persons born alive annually (or of 500,000 born alive in a 5-year
period). For 1940, these values were derived by a summation of the single­
year Lx values shown in table la for each 5-year interval.
For 1947, these values were based on the United States abridged life
tables for that year. 8/ Since the abridged tables were shown separately
for whites and nonwhites, the values of q L_ for total males were computed
by weighting the respective white and nonwnite values by the estimated num­
ber of births of white and nonwhite males in 1947.
Stationary Labor Force (do!limns 3 and 4)
The percent of the stationary population in the labor force, i.e., the
"worker rates," (nw_) an<* ' ie stationary labor force (|jLwx), are shown with­
t*
in each age interval.

8/ National Office of Vital Statistics, Federal Security Agency, Vital
Statistics of the United States, 1947, Part I.




-1 2

-

For 1940, tli© grouped 5-year worker rates for total males shown in the
abridged table for 1940 are not directly comparable with the corresponding
single-year worker rates in table la. As noted previously, worker rates for
the 1940 tables of working life were derived from the original published Cen­
sus statistics, two major revisions in these data have since been made by
the Census Bureau. In 1944-, revised labor force statistics were issued, al­
lowing for misreporting of labor force status in April 194-0 of certain groups,
such as NIA student-workers, persons on emergency relief projects, and other
smaller categories. 2/ In July 194-5, the Census Bureau revised the‘labor
force enumeration procedures used in its Monthly Report on the Labor Force
(MRLF), after having discovered that the methods previously followed in the
1940 Census and in the MRLF tended to understate the number of workers in cer­
tain marginal groups. Comparable estimates of the labor force were subsequent­
ly released for the Census week in 1940, and for intervening months. 10/
Neither of the two Census revisions contained labor force estimates by
single year of age, color, or residence; therefore, it was necessary to rely
on the original Census data in developing the single-year 1940 tables. How­
ever, in constructing the abridged tables, 5-year worker rates comparable with
the current MRLF were developed, based on interpolations from the revised Cen­
sus Bureau estimates. The effect of these revisions was to increase the rates
of labor force participation both at the youngest and oldest ages, with rela­
tively little change for males in the intervening span.
For 1947, a special MRLF tabulation by age, sex, and veteran status, in
April 1947, served as the basis for computing 5-year worker rates. In gen­
eral, these rates paralleled those of similar grouped rates for 1940, although
at a significantly higher level. For young men aged 20-34, however, they
dropped below the 1940 rates. This was entirely due to the presence in this
age group of large numbers of veterans of World War II, attending schools and
colleges under the G. I. Bill of Rights. In order to eliminate the influence
of this temporary factor from the 1947 abridged table, worker rates were com­
puted for civilian nonveterans in the age groups 20-34• The latter tied in
reasonably well with the 1947 worker rates for total males at adjoining ages,
and were therefore used. Otherwise, relatively little adjustment was required
in the grouped 5-year worker rates. 11/
Accessions to the Labor Force (nAx )

(Column 5)

In this column, the proportion of persons is shown in a given age group
who may be expected to enter the labor force before they become 5 years older.
The computation is made in the same way as for the single-year accession rates,
with a substitution of the grouped data for the corresponding single-year func­
tions.

2 / d . S. Bureau of the Census, Estimates of Labor Force, Employment and
Unemployment in the United States: 1940 and 1930.
10/ U. S. Bureau of the Census, Labor Force, Employment and Unemployment
in tiie United States, 1940 to 1946, (Series P-50, No. 2).
11/ April 1947 worker rates from the MRLF were subject to sampling error.




- 73 -

Separations from the Labor Force (nQx )

(Column 6)

Similarly, the rate of separation from the labor force within a 5-year
period is shown for persons in the stationary labor force (nLwx ) at the be­
ginning of the period.
Probabilities of Separation Due to Death or Retirement

(Columns 7 and 8)

These columns show the probable number of labor force separations due
to death or retirement within a 5-year period per 1,000 persons in the sta­
tionary labor force at the beginning of the period.
Following the practice for the single-year probabilities, these func­
tions were computed, initially, from the total separation rate (nQx ) and the
death rate (nQx )» on the assumption of a constant relationship between the
death rate and the retirement rate between successive age intervals.
This assumption was considered sufficiently accurate for use in comput­
ing single-year probabilities of death or retirement, but a significant bias
was introduced when it was applied to the grouped data. This was due to the
fact that, during the ages of peak retirements, i.e., ages 60-75, the rela­
tionship between the death rates and retirement rates changed significantly
within 5-year age intervals. In order' to adjust for this bias, the.probabil­
ity of death (nQx ) for total males in 1940 in successive 5-year intervals
was derived directly from the single-year functions for 5-year age groups,
as follows:
n+8
n+4
n+5 ,
2 dx
2 dx + 2 °x
x-n+1
«=n
x=n+4

(1)

nLwx

These derived values were then compared with those estimated by appli­
cation of the basic formula to the 1940 data.

(2)

0a . A (2 - <£)
2 - Q*

The following tabulation shows a comparison of the two sets of values




Probability of Death

(1)

Age group

Derived from single­
year values

30-34
35-39
40-44
45-49
50-54
55-59
60-64
65-69
70-74

, .0220
.0297

.0421
.0609
.0858
.1157
.1479
.1918
.2625

(2)

"Estimated"

(3)
Ratio of "derived"
to "estimated"
(col. 1 / col. 2)

.0220
.0297
.0420
.0608
.0858
.1157
.1504
.2022
.2817

100.0
100.0
100.2
100.2
100.0
100.0
98.3
94.9
93.2

Differences between the "estimated" and "derived" values are insignif­
icant prior to age 60, but became substantial from this age onward. In
order to adjust far this bias, the empirical ratios derived above (column
3) were applied as adjustment factors to the estimated
values comparable
to current MRLF for ages 60 and over, in 194-0 and 1947. Corresponding ad­
justments were then made in the estimated probability of retirement (n0£)«
Average Number of Remaining fears of Life (ex )

(Column 9)

In both the abridged table for 1940 and the single-year table of work­
ing life, the average number of remaining years are identical for total males.
In estimating the
values for 1947, it was necessary to compute the number
of persons living at the beginning of each age interval (lx ). This was derived
from the United States abridged life tables for 1947 by combining the lx
values for white and nonwhite males, by a weighting procedure similar to that
described previously.
Average Number of Tears of Working Life Remaining (8wx )

(Column 10)

The working-life expectancy shown in the abridged tables is derived by
the same method as in the single-year tables of working life. In order to
estimate the number of persons in the labor force at the beginning of each
age interval (lwx ), it was necessary to derive beginning-of-interval values
for the worker rate, by interpolation between the successive 5-year grouped
worker rates.




☆

U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : O — 1950