The full text on this page is automatically extracted from the file linked above and may contain errors and inconsistencies.
/S. /J/ 7 T.chcrs Co!!erfe Library UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR WOMEN’S BUREAU Bulletin No. 134 SUMMARIES OF STUDIES ON THE ECONOMIC STATUS OF WOMEN UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FRANCES PERKINS, Secretary WOMEN’S BUREAU MARY ANDERSON, Director ♦ SUMMARIES OF STUDIES ON THE ECONOMIC STATUS OF WOMEN Compiled by the AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF UNIVERSITY WOMEN ^Nro> tag! Bulletin of the Women’s Bureau, No. 134 UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE WASHINGTON : 1935 For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. G Price 5 cents CONTENTS Letter of transmittal_____________________________________ I. General summaries_______________________________________ II. Studies of the economic status of college women____________________ III. Studies of the economic status of business and professional women____ IV. Studies of the economic status of women in industry________________ V. Studies of the economic status of women in all occupations—industrial, business, and professional__________________________________ Studies classified according to the data they contain on— VI. Occupations_____________________________________ VII. Earnings_______________________________________ VIII. Education and earnings_____________________________ IX. Age and earnings___________________________________ X. Marital status _ XI. Marriage and gainful occupation problems 17 XII. Children, number of, etc_______________________________ XIII. Dependents_____________________________________ XIV. Discrimination against women________________________________ XV. Unemployment______________________________________ XVI. Stability or labor turnover_______________________________ (IX) j 1 7 10 14 jg jg lg jg 17 lg jg lg jp 20 LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL United States Department of Labor, Women’s Bureau, Washington, January 31, 1935. Madam : I have the honor to transmit herewith a list of selected references on the economic status of women, with summaries of thefindings in certain of the surveys listed. This material seems especially timely for present distribution. It was prepared by the American Association of University Women in response to a resolution passed in New York City, April 13, 1934, by the Committee on the Economic and Legal Status of Women. Respectfully submitted. Mary Anderson, Director. Hon. Frances Perkins, Secretary of Labor. (nr) SUMMARIES OF STUDIES ON THE ECONOMIC STATUS OF WOMEN I. GENERAL SUMMARIES A number of sources are available that contain fairly comprehensive surveys of studies that have been made of the economic position of women. In these the titles of the various studies are given, outlines of their contents, and summaries of the conclusions. Examples of these are— Women in the Twentieth Century. By Sophonisba P. Breckinridge. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co. 1933. 364 pp. Part II. Women and Gainful Employment. Women and Wealth. A study of the economic status of American women. By Mary Sydney Branch. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1934. 364 pp. Chaper IV, pp. 66-106. Women as Gainfully Occupied Workers. Employment Fluctuations and Unemployment of Women. Certain indications from various sources, 1928-31. Bulletin 113 of the Women’s Bureau, U. S. Department of Labor. 1933. 236 pp. (This report summarizes the more outstanding studies dealing with unemployment of women and studies dealing with fluctuations in their employment.) What the Wage-Earning Woman Contributes to Family Support. By Agnes L. Peterson (Women’s Bureau). Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, May 1929, pp. 74-93. A reprint has been issued as Women’s Bureau bulletin 75. (Summarizes studies that have been made by the Women’s Bureau and other agencies on the subject of contribution to family support by wage-earning women.) Mention should be made also of— Women in the Modern World. The changing educational, political, economic, and social relationships of women in the United States. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, vol. CXLIII, no. 232, May 1929. 396 pp. Editor in charge Viva B. Boothe. (Contributions by authorities on many phases of the subject, most of them on women as workers.) II. STUDIES OF THE ECONOMIC STATUS OF COLLEGE WOMEN American Association of University Women. A census of college women. By Mary van Kleeck. Journal of the Association of Collegiate Alumnae, May 1918, pp. 557-591. 16,739 women graduates of 8 women’s colleges and 1 coeducational college—Barnard, Bryn Mawr, Cornell, Mount Holyoke, Radcliffe, Smith, Vassar, Wellesley, Wells. This number is 71 percent of the living graduates of the colleges. Education.—College graduates. Distribution.—Presumably, throughout the country; graduates of classes from 1880 to 1915. Method.—Questionnaire or record card adopted uniformly by the colleges named and sent by them to their own graduates. Cards were tabulated by a statistician working in New York under direction of the central committee, except that three colleges had the tabulating done in their own offices. _ Findings.—Occupations. Earnings. Training after college, classified according to occu pation, and classified according to college. Time elapsing between graduation and beginning work, by classes. Age at graduation, by colleges, by classes. Marital status, by colleges, by classes, by occupational groups. Age at first marriage. Proportion of married graduates having children, and number of children. Mortality among chil dren. College attendance of children. Husbands—college education, occupations. 1 2 Studies on the Economic Status of Women American Association of University Women. The occupations of members of the American Association of University Women. By Chase Going Woodhouse. Journal of the A. A. U. W., June 1928, pp. 119-122. 3,039 single women college graduates employed on full-time jobs during 1926-27. This is a summary report of a section of a study of occupations of A. A. U. W. mem bers undertaken by the Committee on Economic and Legal Status of Women. A total of 6,535 questionnaires were returned from 22,370 sent out. Education.—College graduates. Distribution.—249 branches of the A. A. U. W. cooperated in distributing questionnaires to their members. Method.—A 1-page questionnaire, distributed as above. Findings.—Number engaged in teaching and educational administration and those in other occupations. Degrees of those in various fields of education. Number in each general teaching field, and median salaries. Influence of size of community and of experience on salary in elementary teaching, and high-school teaching, and adminis tration. A table of the number of college teachers distributed according to degrees, years of experience, and median, maximum, and minimum salaries. A brief summary of findings concerning the 716 single women in occupations other than teaching, dis tributed according to occupations and salaries; also salaries by degree held and number of years of experience. --------- Married college women in business and the professions. By Chase Going Woodhouse. Annals of the American Academy, May 1929, pp. 325-338. 568 married college alumnae engaged in business or professions in 1926-27. All but 37 were members of the A. A. U. W. Study grew out of the survey by Committee on Economic and Legal Status of Women, A. A. U. W. Education.—College graduates. Distribution.—A cross section of college alumnae of the country. Not an especially successful group—probably average in type of occupation and in general situation. Living in 39 States and the District of Columbia, covering all sections of the country. Method.—Chiefly by correspondence—also 52 detailed interviews. Findings.—Occupations. Earnings. Full- or part-time work. Children. Husbands. Years of experience. Degrees. Earnings classified according to each of preceding headings. Reasons for working. Barnard College. Married Barnard alumnae. By Clara Eliot. Barnard Alumnae Bulletin, December 1928, pp. 6-8. 273 gainfully employed married alumnae of Barnard. This number, employed in the midwinter of 1924-25, constituted 24 percent of the 1,132 living married alumnae. Education.—College graduates. Distribution.—No information. Method.—Study of record cards. Findings.—Proportion of married alumnae who were employed. Occupations of the married alumnae. Children. Number of mothers in each occupation. (Nothing on earnings.) —------ Statistics of Barnard College graduates. Barnard Alumnae Bulletin, December 1930, pp. 5-7. Graduates of Barnard, classes 1900 through 1930. Education.—College graduates. Distribution.—Probably heavily weighted for the New York district. Method.—The regular 5-year census of alumnae. Findings.—Comparative statistics, by 5-year periods from 1900 to 1930 on: Percent married, children per marriage, percent having graduate study, percent in paid occupa tions, percent of those working who are in education. Table of 1929 earnings, by date of graduation, and by main types of work (median and maximum earnings). Bryn Mawr College. Report on the Bryn Mawr Graduate School by the Academic Committee of the Alumnae Association of Bryn Mawr College. Bryn Mawr College. January 1927. 34 pp. 1,088 women who have studied a year or more at the Graduate School. The total number who had been in the Graduate School was 1,241 at the time of the report. Method.—Replies from questionnaire (721 in all) and from the college and alumnae records (367). College Women 3 Bryn Mawr College—Continued. Findings.—Occupations. Data on earnings for 366 persons only—salaries in relation to years of study (education and earnings), median salaries in positions held 5 years after taking first degree. Data on college positions held by 176 women with the Ph. D., and on salaries and college positions of 79 women with thePh. D. Some informa tion on comparative status of men and women in college positions (women’s oppor tunities for advancement far from satisfactory). Marital status: Occupations of the married women and rank of college positions held. Number of children. Effect of marriage on career. Discussion of the problems involved in combining marriage and a career. The value of graduate work for women. Fairbairn, H. E. Opportunities for college women. A study of occupations other than teaching held by college women in Buffalo. University of Buffalo Studies, vol. VIII, no. 3, 1930, pp. 134-170. Foster, Grace R. Social change in relation to curricular development in collegiate education for women. Waterville, Maine. 1934. 203 pp. 240 alumnae of 80 liberal arts colleges. 4S0 alumnae of Colby College. Education.—College graduates. Distribution.—The first group were alumnae of 80 colleges in the United States—of which 14 are a part of State universities, 16 are women’s colleges, and 50 are coeducational colleges. Were graduates between 1890 and 1930. Were alumnae especially well qualified to give helpful suggestions on curriculum reorganization. 450 alumnae of Colby were graduates in the same period. Method.—Questionnaire, and some interviews. Findings.—For each group separately: Occupations. Marital status. Correlation of major and minor subjects with vocations. College courses that have been useful in vocations and in leisure. Courses desired. (Nothing on earnings.) George Peabody College for Teachers. Problems in the education of women. A study of women graduates of southern colleges. By Doak S. Campbell. Division of Surveys and Field Studies, George Peabody College for Teachers, Nashville, Tenn., 1933. 79 pp. 1,302 women graduates of southern colleges. Education.—College graduates. Distribution.—Graduates in classes of 1920 and 1925 from all member colleges of the Southern Association of Colleges for Women and from 20 coeducational southern colleges. 1,508 answers were received from 4,431 graduates to whom blanks were sent by 45 colleges. Method.—Questionnaires sent by colleges to their alumnae. Findings.—Occupations entered by the 1,302 alumnae. Occupations entered by the 565 married alumnae after marriage. Occupations anticipated before entering college. (Nothing on earnings.) Goucher College. A 5-year follow-up of Goucher graduates. By Mary T. McCurley. Vocational Guidance Magazine, March 1932, pp. 243—249. 152 members of the class of 1922. Distribution.—Living in 23 States; 65 percent from the South. Method.—A chart kept by the college showing the record of each alumna since graduation was sent to each alumna for changes and corrections. All the 152 records were made complete. Findings.—Occupations. Continuity of occupational life, shifts from one line of work to another. Relation of academic majors to vocation. Marital status. Trends in vocational distribution. (Nothing on earnings.) Hawthorne, Marion O. Women as college teachers. Annals of the American Academy, May 1929, pp. 146-153. 844 women college teachers. Education.—Almost all are college graduates. Distribution.—Located in 122 of the 193 institutions approved by the A.A.U.W., including women’s colleges, State universities, and small denominational colleges. Method.—Questionnaire. Findings.—Earnings. Fields in which they teach. Academic and professional training. Rank in the faculty. Prospects for promotion and advancement. Rank compared with men. Salaries compared with men (limited data on this point). Note.—The material in this article is only a partial treatment of all data received and tabulated. 4 Studies on the Economic Status of Women Institute of Women’s Professional Relations. After college—what? Edited by Chase Going Woodhouse. The Institute, Greensboro, N. C. 1932. 200 pp. 6,665 women matriculants at land-grant colleges. Education.—College students or graduates. Age.—Group represents matriculation periods, 1889-92, 1899-1902, 1909-12, 1919-22. Not biased as to percentage in each group. Distribution.—Not biased as to geographical distribution. The individuals attended 42 land-grant colleges scattered throughout the country. Method.—Questionnaire. Findings—-Occupations. Earnings. Education and earnings. Marital status. Mar riage, children, and careers. --------- The demand for college trained women in the United States. A study of the employment stituation. By Chase Going Woodhouse. Journal of the A.A.U.W. January 1931, pp. 61-66. Survey of the employment situation of college-trained women, mostly in the teaching field. Distribution.—Throughout the country. Replies received in September 1929. Method— Letters of inquiry sent to college placement bureaus, State superintendents of education, and bureaus of occupations and the better commercial agencies that specialize in placing college women. Findings.—Estimates as to demand for, and oversupply of, college women in educational field. Some material on the characteristics of women unemployed, the relative demand for women and for men, one statement of belief that men were leaving the profession of education and that their places were being filled by women. -------- Women and the Ph. D. By Emilie Hutchinson. The Institute, Greensboro, N. C. 1929. 212 pp. 1,025 women who received Ph. D. degree from American colleges and universities from 1877 to 1924. About 1,575 women received the Ph. D. from American colleges and universities during this period of 48 years, so the study is based on a large proportion of returns. Education.—Ph. D. degree. Distribution.—Country-wide. Method.—Questionnaire. Findings. Occupations. Earnings. Effect of Ph. D. and of experience on earnings. General fields in which teaching. Rank in teaching position. Marriage and work. Dependents. Data on reasons for taking Ph. D., cost, the dissertation, etc. Lonn, Ella. Academic status of women on university faculties. Reprinted from Journal of the American Association of University Women, 1924. 7 pp. A study, in 70 universities, of the faculty teaching academic subjects. Education.—College graduates. Distribution.—In 70 universities. Method.—Study of catalogs, questionnaires to heads of departments, and some inter views. Findings. Rank of women on university faculties. Their efficiency. Discriminations against them in favor of men. Morton, Grace M., and Marjorie R. Clark. Income and expenditures of women faculty members in the University of Nebraska. Journal of Home Economics, August 1930, pp. 653—656. 29 faculty women at the University of Nebraska. Education.—All but 2 have academic degrees, 14 having higher degrees. Distribution.—From assistant instructor to professor at the University of Nebraska Data for the year 1928. Method.—Record form. Findings.—Proportion in each rank, as compared with men. Salaries. Total income. Academic degrees. Years of service. Supplementary income. Distribution of income for various kinds of expenses. Mount: Holyoke College. Unemployment among Mount Holyoke graduates. By Helen MacMurtrie Voorhees. Mount Holyoke Alumnae Quarterly, November 1931 pp. 165-170. ’ 1,915 alumnae of Mount Holyoke registered at the appointment bureau of the college. Method.—Study of the records of the appointment bureau. College Women 5 Mount Holyoke College—Continued. Findings.—Proportion of the registrants who were unemployed in September 1931. Change in number and character of positions referred to the office. Trends in place ment. The average salary since 1921, by 3-year periods. “The large majority of graduates have been successful in holding their positions, their remuneration has been reasonably stable.” National Civic Federation. The woman power of the Nation. Woman’s Depart ment, National Civic Federation, New York, 1931. Part II, pp. 23-27. 22,199 women graduates of 19 colleges and universities in the eastern, southern, and middle western sections of the country, with 2 of them in the Rocky Mountain section. Education.-—College graduates. Distribution.—The 22,199 alumnae represented two-thirds of the total 33,000 women graduated from these colleges in the various periods reported. Five of the colleges were in the group of leading women’s colleges, 2 were well-known but smaller women’s col leges, 4 were women’s colleges of State agricultural or land-grant colleges, 7 were small coeducational colleges, and 1 was a Catholic college for women. Method.—Records were collected by the colleges and submitted by them. Findings.—Number and percent distribution in various occupations (named). Oberlin College. The occupations which college graduates enter. By L. D. Ilartson. Vocational Guidance Magazine, April 1928, pp. 297-302. Gives the occupational distribution of living women graduates of the Oberlin College of Arts and Sciences for the period 1877-1926. Also some conclusions as to the trends in the choice of an occupation by alumnae. -------- Vocational stability of Oberlin alumni. By. L. D. Hartson. Oberlin Alumni Magazine, May 1929, pp. 233—238. 982 women graduates, classes from 1914 to 1922, for information on occupational sta bility. 3,248 living women graduates, for occupational distribution. Method.—A study of material gathered for the Alumni Catalogue. Findings.—Occupational distribution of living women graduates. Tables of Oberlin women, 1914-22, tabulated according to first occupation, to final occupation. Various data relating to occupational stability of the 982 alumnae. Marital status. Note.—Some further details concerning occupational distribution are to be found in the Alumni Catalogue for 1926. Smith College. The Smith College alumnae census of 1931. Smith Alumnae Quar terly, July 1931, pp. 408-412. 7,689.alurnnae of Smith College, or 64 percent of the total of 11,934 alumnae to whom questionnaires were sent. Education.—College graduates. Distribution.—Covered 32 classes (1879—1930). Largest share of alumnae now live east of the Mississippi and outside New England. The numbers in western United States and in foreign countries remain fairly constant. Method.—Record forms. Findings.—Occupied and unoccupied, married and single, in each class. Occupations, according to the following groups only: Education, business, professions, other lines of work. Occupations of husbands. Marriages. Children. Time between graduation and marriage. (Nothing on earnings.) ■-------- A study of Smith College graduates engaged in educational work. By Eleanor Louisa Lord. Smith College. 1923. 38 pp. 672 Smith College alumnae engaged in teaching or educational administration. Education.—College graduates. Distribution.—Well distributed geographically and as to types of schools, grades, and subjects taught—both public and private schools. Graduates from 1 to 41 years out of college. Method.—Questionnaire. Findings.—Average salaries, classified by type of position. Salaries grouped according to length of time since graduation. Correspondence between teaching subject and field of specialization. Professional preparation for teaching—where and how. Prepara tion for college, what type of school. Living arrangements. Provision for retirement. Dependents. Sabbatical leave. 114031°—35---- 2 6 Studies on the Economic Status of Women United States Office of Education. Salaries in land-grant universities and colleges. By John H. McNeely. Pamphlet No. 24, November 1931. 27 pp. 1,068 women teachers in land-grant colleges—SO colleges scattered throughout the country. Education.—Not stated, but persumably college graduates. Distribution.—In SO land-grant colleges through the country. Method.—Material collected by United States Office of Education in its survey of landgrant colleges. Findings.—Number and percent of women in various ranks—dean, professor, etc. Me dian salaries by rank. Comparison with men faculty members as to rank and salary. It is found that women have low academic ranking as compared with men and that women staff members receive a lower salary than men in every rank. ---------- Survey of land-grant colleges and universities. Washington. 1930. Vol. I. pp. 345-402. Women graduates of land-grant colleges: Tables showing— 121 elementary teachers (women)—annual salary group, number of individuals by years since graduation in each group, and average salary by years since graduation. 2,038 high-school teachers (women)—same data. 250 college instructors (women)—same data. 80 superintendents of schools (women)—same data. 177 dietitians (women)—same data. 116 home demonstration agents (women)—same data. There are similar tables for men that may be used for comparison of salaries of men and women as— High-school teachers. College instructors. Superintendents of schools. Vassar College. Occupations of Vassar women. By Frances Bryan. Vassar Quarterly. February 1932, pp. 26-29. 6,378 former Vassar students, out of a total of 8,015. Method.—Biographical records questionnaire sent out by the Associate Alumnae in 1929. Findings—Proportion engaged in gainful occupations, by class groups, 1867 to 1929. Occupational distribution, 1929. Occupations of married alumnae. Number of children of married alumnae, by occupation. (Nothing on earnings.) Note.—-This is a summary of a more complete study prepared by the author in the economics seminar. Wellesley College. What do alumnae do? By Alice I. Perry Wood. Wellesley Alumnae Magazine, June 1930, pp. 320-322. 7,148 graduates of Wellesley out of a total of 9,027. Method.—Questionnaire sent by personnel bureau to all graduates in February 1928. Findings.—Occupations. Trends in occupational distribution. Number of married alumnae gainfully employed. Women’s Educational and Industrial Union, Boston. College wives who work. By Anne Byrd Kennon. Journal of the A.A.U.W., June 1927, pp. 100—106. 243 average college graduates who are married and gainfully employed in 17 occupa tions—about one-third in education, one-sixth in business and secretarial work, others in writing, medicine, research, social service, library work, law, etc. Education.—College graduates. Age.—Received degrees within years 1883 and 1926. Distribution. Members of Boston branch of A.A.U.W. representing various colleges; and graduates of Radcliffe, Boston University, Simmons College. Although widely distributed through United States, 55 percent are in or near large cities. Findings—Occupations. Earnings. Part- or full-time work. Children. Family re sponsibilities and living arrangements. Education and experience. Comparison with a gfoup of 135 single women graduates living in or near Boston. III. STUDIES OF THE ECONOMIC STATUS OF BUSINESS AND PROFESSIONAL WOMEN American Woman’s Association. The trained woman and the economic crisis. New York. 1931. 102 pp. 1,937 high-type, successful business and professional women. Education.—All degrees of education; 80 percent at least high-school graduates. ■ Age.—Mature, responsible women. Distribution.—Limited to New York City. Distributed through about ISO vocations. Classified in two groups—those earning salaries and those engaged independently in business or profession. Method.—Questionnaire. Findings.—Occupations. Earnings. Unemployment. Earnings reduction. Education in relation to earnings. Age and earnings. Occupational stability. Marital status. Dependents. Supplementary income. Living arrangements. ---------- Women workers through the depression. A study of white-collar employment. New York: The Macmillan Company. 1934. 128 pp. A continuation of the study “The trained woman and the economic crisis.” Includes 25 tables; complete research tables are available on request. Burgess, May Ayres, director. Nurses, patients, and pocketbooks. New York: Committee on the Grading of Nursing Schools, 1928. 304 pp. (Report of a study on the economics of nursing conducted by the Committee on the Grading of Nursing Schools.) Gives average income in private-duty nursing, institutional, and public-health nursing, by various periods of years after graduation. Also median salaries by years of college and by postgraduate years. Collier, Virginia MacMakin. Marriage and careers. A study of one hundred women who are wives, mothers, homemakers, and professional workers. For the Bureau of Vocational Information. New York: The Channel Bookshop. 1926. 121 pp. 100 women in professional work. Education.—58 of the 100 women were college graduates. Distribution.—Probably in or near New York City. Method.—Personal interview. Findings.—Material on all aspects of the question of marriage and a career. An analysis of earnings. National Federation of Business and Professional Women’s Clubs. Earnings of women in business and the professions. By Margaret Elliott and Grace E. Manson. University of Michigan Studies in Business. 1930. 215 pp. 14,073 women engaged in business and the professions at higher occupational levels. Education.—All degrees of education, elementary school through college. Age.—A mature, experienced, well-educated group. Distribution.—More than one-half lived in small- or medium-sized communities. An accurate sample of members of the National Federation, possibly somewhat over weighted for the east and west North Central States, and underweighted for New England, New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. Method.—Questionnaire. Findings.—Occupations. Earnings. Earnings related to education, age, work experi ence. Size of community and earnings. Marital status and earnings. Responsibility for dependents and earnings. Occupational stability and earnings. Supplementary income and earnings. Mode of living and earnings. Living expenses, savings, and earnings. Showed that with few exceptions women in business and professions were not highly paid, and that those in independent work received more than those on a salary. 7 8 Studies on the Economic Status of Women National Federation of Business and Professional Women’s Clubs. Occupa tional interests and personality requirements of women in business and the professions. By Grace E. Manson. University of Michigan Business Studies. 1931. 409 pp. 13,752 women engaged in business and professions at higher occupational levels. Education.—All degrees of education. Age.—Mature, experienced women. Distribution.—Somewhat heavily weighted with clerical workers and with women living in medium-sized communities, but on the whole is representative of mature, experi enced women at higher occupational levels throughout the country. Method.—Questionnaire—part of a more extensive one sent to members of the National Federation of Business and Professional Women’s Clubs in 1926—27. Findings.—Occupations. Median years of experience. Median earnings. Percent in each group of occupations having grade school, high school, normal school, college education. Typical attitudes of groups. The relative desirability of the 160 occu pations. The occupational interest test. The relative importance of the 30 per sonality traits. A technique for differentiating occupations on the basis of their personality requirements. Typical attitudes of women toward each of the 160 occupations. Purpose of the study: (1) To contribute to data on women’s occupational interests and on the personality attributes necessary for success in the occupations generally open to women; (2) to develop a reliable technique for analyzing and measuring occupa tional interests and personality requirements. --------- Women and their careers. By Anne Hendry Morrison. A dissertation for the Ph. D. at Bryn Mawr. New York: Business and Professional Women’s Clubs. 1934. 187 pp. 306 women, engaged in business and the professions. Education.—From elementary school only, through those with technical and advanced degrees. For the majority, the general education comprises 1 to 4 years of high school. Distribution.—Various cities and towns, with wide range of population, and in seven States along Atlantic coast from Massachusetts to the District of Columbia and one Middle Western State. Age.—Women of mature age (79 percent over 40 years). Method.-—Interview. Findings.—Occupations. Earnings. Age. Marital status. Earnings related to edu cation. Discussion of individual cases. In general, the subject of the study is the age factor in the business and professional woman’s career. National Federation of Business and Professional Women’s Clubs, and Women’s Bureau, United States Department of Labor. A questionnaire was prepared by Anne Hendry Morrison and sent in April 1931 to the entire membership of the Business and Professional Women’s Clubs (about 60,000); 20,168 returns were received and these were tabulated by the Women’s Bureau, which also wrote the report and issued the study as Bulletin 117, “The Age Factor as it Relates to Women in Business and the Professions.” 1934. 66 pp. 20,168 women engaged in business and the professions. Education.—All degrees of education. Distribution.—All sections of the country—47 States and the District of Columbia. Method.—Questionn aire. Findings.—Occupations. Earnings. Age. Education. Marital status. Family responsibility, dependents. Discrimination against women because of age, marriage. Health. Living arrangements. Size of community and occupation. Unemploy ment—extent and causes. Work history—number of jobs. Earnings and section of country, and size of city. The aim of this study was to discover the psychological and economic factors involved in the success of women in business and the professions, the extent to which they have been affected by unemployment, whether age curtails opportunity for prog ress and why (apparently it does not), and to obtain as a result information on which to base vocational advice. National Industrial Conference Board, Inc. The cost of living in New York City, 1926. New York. 1926. 129 pp. Single persons [office workers], pp. 117-124. Business and Professional Women 9 Peters, David Wilbur. The status of the married woman teacher. New York, Teach ers College, Columbia University. New York City. 1934. 97 pp. Study to present evidence on relative teaching effectiveness of married and single women teachers in one State (Virginia) and to evaluate school board policies restricting or barring employment of married women as teachers. 2,640 regular teachers, half of them single, half married, with comparable age, training, and experience, and type of position for the two groups. Method.—Tests of pupil progress. Teacher ratings. Questionnaire to teachers. Findings.—Pupil progress. Teacher ratings by supervisors; teacher tenure and attend ance. In-service training. Time preparing for classes. Teaching load. Personal responsibilities. Recreation. Professional and civic organizations participated in. Professional attitude. Summaries of findings by other studies and of leading opinions. Pruette, Lorine. The married woman and the part-time job. Annals of the American Academy, May 1929, pp. 301-314. Contains a survey of opportunities for part-time employment in New York City for women. Also a consideration of the problems connected with marriage and a gainful occupation. Williams, Chari. The position of women in the public schools. Annals of the Ameri can Academy, May 1929, pp. 154-165. Data on relative salaries paid men and women in the public school system. Material received by the National Education Association from 1,532 cities over 2,500 in population. Young Women’s Christian Association. Executive and technical women in indus try. A survey of factories, 1919-20. Employment department, Central Branch Y. W. C. A., and the War Work Council of the National Board, 1919. 18 pp. A survey in the New York district to find how generally women are employed in execu tive and technical work, evaluate their equipment, work, and success, and discover opportunities for professionally trained women. IV. STUDIES OF THE ECONOMIC STATUS OF WOMEN IN INDUSTRY1 Women’s Bureau, United States Department of Labor: Bulletin 1. Proposed employment of women during the war in the industries of Niagara Falls, N. Y. 1918. 16 pp. _ 2. Labor laws for women in industry in Indiana. 1919. 29 pp. 3. Standards for the employment of women in industry. Fourth ed., 1928. 8 pp. 4. Wages of candy makers in Philadelphia in 1919. 1919. 46 pp. 5. The eight-hour day in Federal and State legislation. 1919. 19 pp. 6. The employment of women in hazardous industries in the United States. 1921. 8 pp. 7. Night-work law's in the United States (1919). 1920. 4 pp. 8. Women in the Government service. 1920. 37 pp. 9. Home work in Bridgeport, Conn. 1920. 35 pp. 10. Hours and conditions of work for women in industry in Virginia. 1920. 32 pp. 11. Women street-car conductors and ticket agents. 1921. 90 pp. 12. The new position of women in American industry. 1920. 158 pp. 13. Industrial opportunities and training for women and girls. 1921. 48 pp. 14. A physiological basis for the shorter working day for women. 1921. 20 pp. 15. Some effects of legislation limiting hours of work for women. 1921. 26 pp. 16. See bulletin 98. 17. Women’s wages in Kansas. 1921. 104 pp. 18. Health problems of women in industry. Revised 1931. 6 pp. 19. Iowa women in industry. 1922. 73 pp. 20. Negro women in industry. 1922. 65 pp. 21. Women in Rhode Island industries. 1922. 73 pp. 22. Women in Georgia industries. 1922. 89 pp. 23. The family status of breadwinning women. 1922. 43 pp. 24. Women in Maryland industries. 1922. 96 pp. 25. Women in the candy industry in Chicago and St. Louis. 1923. 72 pp. 26. Women in Arkansas industries. 1923. 86 pp. 27. The occupational progress of women. 1922. 37 pp. 28. Women’s contributions in the field of invention. 1923. 51 pp. 29. Women in Kentucky industries. 1923. 114 pp. 30. The share of wage-earning women in family support. 1923. 170 pp. 31. What industry means to women workers. 1923. 10 pp. 32. Women in South Carolina industries. 1923. 128 pp. 33. Proceedings of the Women’s Industrial Conference. 1923. 190 pp. 34. Women in Alabama industries. 1924. 86 pp. 35. Women in Missouri industries. 1924. 127 pp. 36. Radio talks on women in industry. 1924. 34 pp. 37. Women in New Jersey industries. 1924. 99 pp. 38. Married women in industry. 1924. 8 pp. 39. Domestic workers and their employment relations. 1924. 87 pp. 40. See bulletin 98. 41. Family status of breadwinning women in four selected cities. 1925. 145 pp. (All occupations. From census data.) 42. List of references on minimum wage for women in the United States and Canada. 1925. 42 pp. 43. Standard and scheduled hours of work for women in industry. 1925. 68 pp. 44. Women in Ohio industries. 1925. 137 pp. 45. Home environment and employment opportunities of women in coal-mine workers’ families. 1925. 61 pp. 46. Facts about working women: A graphic presentation based on census statistics. 1925. 64 pp. 1 Data on working mothers and numbers of children may be found in certain Children’s Bureau bulletins; for example, publication No. 204, Children of Working Mothers in Philadelphia, by Clara M. Beyer. 1931. 39 pp. 10 Women in Industry 11 Bulletin 47. Women in the fruit-growing and canning industries in the State of Washington. 1926. 223 pp. _ _ 48. Women in Oklahoma industries. 1926. 118 pp. 49. Women workers and family support. 192S. 10 pp. _ # _ 50. Effects of applied research upon the employment opportunities of American women. 1926. 54 pp. 51. Women in Illinois industries. 1926. 108 pp. 52. Lost time and labor turnover in cotton mills. _ 1926. 203 pp. 53. The status of women in the Government service in 1925. 1926. 103 pp. 54. Changing jobs. 1926. 12 pp. 55. Women in Mississippi industries. 1926. 89 pp. 56. Women in Tennessee industries. 1927. 120 pp. 57. Women workers and industrial poisons. 1926. 5 pp. 58. Women in Delaware industries. 1927. 156 pp. 59. Short talks about working women. 1927. 24 pp. _ _ 60. Industrial accidents to women in New Jersey,Ohio, and Wisconsin. 1927. 316pp. 61. The development of minimum-wage laws in the United States, 1912 to 1927. 1928. _ 635 pp. 62. Women’s employment in vegetable canneries in Delaware. 1927. 47 pp. 63. See bulletin 98. 64. The employment of women at night. 1928. 86 pp. _ 65. The effects of labor legislation on the employment opportunities of women. 1928. 498 pp. 66-1. History of labor legislation for women in three States. 1929. 133 pp. (Sepa rated from No. 66-11 in reprint, 1932.) 66-11. Chronological development of labor legislation for women in the United States. 1929. 145 pp. (Revised and separated from No. 66-1 in 1932. 176 pp.) 67. Women workers in Flint, Mich. 1929. 80 pp. _ 68. Summary: The effects of labor legislation on the employment opportunities of women. (Reprint of chapter II of bulletin 65.) 1928. 22 pp. 69. Causes of absence for men and for women in four cotton mills. 1929. 24 pp. 70. Negro women in industry in 15 States. 1929. 74 pp. 71. Selected references on the health of women in industry. 1929. 8 pp. 72. Conditions of work in spin rooms. 1929. 41 pp. _ 73. Variations in employment trends of women and men. (Ohiofigures.) 1930. 143 pp. 74. The immigrant woman and her job. 1930. 179 pp. 75. What the wage-earning woman contributes to family support. 1929. 21 pp. 76. Women in 5-and-10-cent stores and limited-price chain department stores. 1930. 58 pp. _ 77. A study of two groups of Denver married women applying for jobs. 1929. 11pp. 78. A survey of laundries and their women workers in 23 cities. 1930. 166 pp. 79. Industrial home work. 1930. 20 pp. 80. Women in Florida industries. 1930. 115 pp. 81. Industrial accidents to men and women. 1930. 48 pp. _ 82. The employment of women in the pineapple canneries of Hawaii. 1930. 30 pp. 83. Fluctuation of employment in the radio industry. 1931. 66 pp. 84. Fact finding with the Women’s Bureau. 1931. 37 pp. 85. Wages of women in 13 States. 1931. 213 pp. 86. Activities of the Women’s Bureau of the United States. 1931. 15 pp. 87. Sanitary drinking facilities, with special reference to drinking fountains. 1931. 28 pp. , 88. The employment of women in slaughtering and meat packing. 1932. 210 pp. 89. The industrial experience of women workers at the summer schools, 1928 to 1930. 1931. 62 pp. _ 90. Oregon legislation for women in industry. 1931. 40 pp. 91. Women in industry. A series of papers to aid study groups. 1931. 79 pp. 92. Wage-earning women and the industrial conditions of 1930: A survey of South Bend. 1932. 84 pp. _ 93. Household employment in Philadelphia. 1932. 88 pp. _ 94. State requirements for industrial lighting: A handbook for the protection of women workers, showing lighting standards and practices. 1932. 65 pp. 95. Bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks in Ohio, 1914 to 1929. 1932. 34 pp. 96. Women office workers in Philadelphia. 1932. 17 pp. 97. The employment of women in the sewing trades of Connecticut: Preliminary report. 1932. 13 pp. See also bulletin 109. _ 98. Labor laws for women in the States and Territories. Revision of Bulletin 63. 1932. 71 pp. See also pamphlet, 1933. Studies 12 on the Economic Status of Women Bulletin 99. The installation and maintenance of toilet facilities in places of employment. 1932. 89 pp. 100. The effects on women of changing conditions in the cigar and cigarette industries. 1932. 187 pp. 101. The employment of women in vitreous enameling. 1932. 64 pp. 102. Industrial injuries to women in 1928 and 1929 compared with injuries to men. 1933. 36 pp. 103. Women workers in the third year of the depression: A study of 109 students in the Bryn Mawr summer school. 1933. 16 pp. 104. The occupational progress of women, 1910 to 1930. 1933. 90 pp. 105. A study of a change from 8 to 6 hours of work. 1933. 14 pp. 106. Household employment in Chicago. 1933. 62 pp. 107. Technological changes in relation to women’s employment. (In press.) 108. The effects of the depression on wage earners’ families: A second survey of South Bend. (In press.) 109. Employment of women in the sewing trades of Connecticut: Second and final report. (In press.) See also bulletin 97. 110. The change from manual to dial operation in the telephone industry. 1933. 15 pp. _ _ 111. Hours, earnings, and employment in cotton mills. 1933. 78 pp. 112. Standards of placement agencies for household employees. 1934. 68 pp. 113. Employment fluctuations and unemployment of women, 1928-1931. 1933. 236 PP- . .... 114. State reporting of occupational disease, including a survey of legislation applying to women. 1934. 99 pp. 115. Women at work: A century of industrial change. 1933. 51 pp. Revised 1934. 60 pp. 116. A study of a change from one shift of 9 hours to two shifts of 6 hours each. 1934. 14 pp. 117. The age factor as it relates to women in business and the professions. 1934. 66 pp. 118. The employment of women in Puerto Rico. 1934. 34 pp. 119. Hours and earnings in the leather glove industry. 1934. 32 pp. 120. The employment of women in offices. 1934. 126 pp. 121. A survey of the shoe industry in New Hampshire. 1934. 100 pp. 122. Variations in wage rates under corresponding conditions. 1934. 57 pp. 123. The employment of women on work clothing and cotton dresses. (In press.) 124. Women in Arkansas industries. 1934. 45 pp. 125. The employment of women in department stores. (In press.) 126. Women in industry in Texas. (In press.) 127. Hours and earnings in tobacco stemmeries. 1934. 29 pp. 128. Potential earning power of southern mountaineer handicraft. 1934. 56 pp. 129. Industrial injuries to women in 1930 and 1931 compared with injuries to men. 1935. 59 pp. 130. Employed women under N. R. A. codes. (In press.) 131. Industrial home work in Rhode Island. (In press.) 132. Women who work in offices: I. Study of employed women; II. Study of women seeking employment. (In press.) 133. Employment conditions in beauty shops. (In press.) Pamphlet—Women’s place in industry in 10 southern States. 1931. 14 pp. Memorandum on the practicability of standards in cotton mills operating under the stretch-out system. 1933. 4 pp. Labor legislation for women, January to June 1933. 1933. 4 pp. Mimeograph—The employment and unemployment of Negro women. July 1934. ii pp. Industrial home work: Summary of the system and its problems. July 1934. 23 pp. Gainful employment of married women. October 1934. 14 pp. Note.—Only a selected few of the Women’s Bureau bulletins have been entered under the classified headings VIII to XVI, as it has been impossible and probably would not be profitable to examine all in detail. ALSO State Departments of Labor. Reports on occupations, earnings, marital status, and working conditions of women in industry within the various States. Women in Industry 13 ALSO Note—-The references marked with an asterisk have not been entered in the classified sections VIII to XVI. ♦Abbott, Edith. *^9106my Women in industry. A study. Political Science, New York. New York: Appleton, 1924. The economic position of women. A series of articles by prominent women. A selected list of books on women in industry. Berry, Gwendolyn Hughes. Mothers in industry: wage-earning by mothers in Phila delphia.. Prepared through the cooperation of the graduate department of social economy and social research of Bryn Mawr College. New York: New Republic. 1925. 265 pp. (Also article by Mrs. Berry, “Mothers in Industry”, in Annals of the American Academy, May 1929, pp. 315-324.) Huger, Alice Rogers (Women’s Bureau). Occupations and earnings of women in industry. Annals of the American Academy, May 1929, pp. 65—73. (Brings together statistics from various sources on comparative distribution of men and of women in occupations and on earnings of women in industry as compared with earnings of men.) Hutchinson, Emilie J. Women’s wages: A study of the wages of industrial women and the measures suggested to increase them. New York: Columbia University. 1919. 179 pp. y Monthly Labor Review. Part-time jobs for women. December 1929 issue, pp. 1259 1263. ^ Based on a study by the Bureau of Women in Industry, New York, and paper by Lorine Pruette in Annals, May 1929. National Consumers League. Earnings of women in factories and a living wage. New York City. 1921. 28 pp. --------- Women in industry series. * National Industrial Conference Board, Inc. The cost of living in New York City, 1926. New York. 1926. 129 pp. Single female workers [industrial], pp. 93-98. --------- * Wages in the United States in 1931. New York. 1932. 78 pp. (Wages of female workers, of unskilled males, and of skilled males, in representative establishments, 1920 to 1931, by month. A supplement to the Conference Board’s Service Letter of April 1933 gives wage figures for 1932.) --------- * Wartime employment of women in the metal trades. Boston. 1918. 79 pp. National Women’s Trade Union League of America. Committee on Wage Sym posium, 1929. The trend of women’s earnings. Chicago. 1929. 20 pp. (Bound with this is Women’s Wages—preconvention study.) Russell Sage Foundation. Mothers who must earn. By Katharine Anthony. New York City. 1914. 223 pp. A study of working mothers in industry in New York. --------- *Women as munition makers. New York City: 1917. 158 pp. -------- ‘Women in the book-binding trade. By Mary vanKleeck. New York City. 1913. 270 pp. ♦United States Bureau of Labor. Report on condition of woman and child wageearners in the United States. Prepared under the direction of Charles P. Neill, Commis sioner of Labor. Washington. 1910—13. 19 volumes. Reports based upon investigations of special agents. Some volumes contain data on certain industries. Others relate to history of women in trade unions, infant mortality in relation to employed mothers, etc. ♦Women’s Educational and Industrial Union, Boston. Department of Re search, Susan M. Kingsbury, director. Some of the studies in the series “Economic Relations of Women.” See complete list of titles given under V following. Also— -------- ‘Licensed workers in industrial home work in Massachusetts. Analyses of records by Susan M. Kingsbury and Mabelle Moses. Boston. 1915. 153 pp. i V. STUDIES OF THE ECONOMIC STATUS OF WOMEN IN ALL OCCUPATIONS—INDUSTRIAL, BUSINESS, AND PROFESSIONAL Note.—The references marked with an asterisk have not been entered in the classified sections VIII to XVI. Branch, Mary Sydney. Women and wealth. (Noted under I.) This report brings together data from many sources showing the position of women as taxpayers, as owners of property, as buyers, and as workers. Ormsbee, Hazel Grant. 1925. The unemployed girl. New York: The Women’s Press. --------- *The young employed girl. New York: The Woman’s Press. 1927. 124 pp. Pidgeon, Mary Elizabeth (Women’s Bureau). Recent changes in occupations of women. Personnel Journal, February 1933, pp. 289-294. (An analysis of census figures to determine trends.) Russell Sage Foundation. The incidence of work shortage. By Margaret H. Hogg. New York. 1932. A survey in New Haven, Conn., made in May and June 1931. Based on a random sample of over 2,400 families normally having 3,661 wage earners, and of 6,221 indi vidual wage earners, over half of whom were women. Findings—Of 917 women normally employed, 14)4 percent were unemployed. Age, reason idle, duration of unemployment, extent of full pay received in week prior to visit, and usual occupation and industry. Women’s occupations given (in addition to employers and those working on own account) are professional, clerical, skilled, semi skilled, unskilled (the last largely domestic workers). United States Bureau of the Census. Census monographs, IX. Women in gainful occupations, 1870—1920. A study of the trend of recent changes in the numbers, occupa tional distribution, and family relationship of women reported in the census as following a gainful occupation. By Joseph A. Hill. Washington. Government Printing Office. 1929. 416 pp. gl.50. -------- Fifteenth Census of the United States: 1930. Population, vol. V, General report on occupations. Washington. Government Printing Office. 1933. 591 pp. 31.75) Statistics relating to the sex, color, nativity, and age of all gainful workers and to the marital condition of gainfully occupied women. Statistics on each topic are presented by occupation for the entire United States and are summarized for the United States, for the several geographic divisions and States, and for cities of 25,000 inhabitants or more. Chapter 5 on The Marital Condition of Occupied Women gives the number and percent of married women in each occupation in numerous detailed tables. -------- Fifteenth Census of the United States: 1930. Population, vol. VI, Families. Washington. Government Printing Office. 1933. 1495 pp. 33. Includes data on the unemployment status of the homemaker and the number of gainful workers in a family. A summary table (p. 9) shows that 13.8 percent of the homemakers were gainfully employed. It is shown that the distribution of gainfully employed homemakers (total 3,923,516) was as follows: Employed at home, 19.4 percent (agriculture, 10.1; other, 9.3). Employed away from home, 80.4 percent (professional, 9.9; office, 12.8; industrial, 18.8; servants, waitresses, etc., 24.4; saleswomen, 6.9; other, 7.6). Employed, place not specified, 0.2 percent. United States Bureau of the Census. Fifteenth Census of the United States: 1930. Unemployment. Vol. I. Unemployment returns by classes for States, counties, and cities. Washington. Government Printing Office. 1931. 1112 pp. 31.75. 14 Women in All Occupations IS United States Bureau of the Census. Fifteenth Census of the United States: 1930. Unemployment. Vol. II. General report for 1930 and report on the special census of unemployment in January 1931. Washington. Government Printing Office. 1932. 618 pp. 31.25. The data on unemployment are given throughout for males and females. Data show women unemployed, by occupation, by period of idleness, by reasons for idleness, by marital status, etc. -------- Fifteenth Census of the United States: 1930. Abstract, pp. 457-490. Unem ployment. Price of Abstract, $1.50. (Summaries of these censuses are given in “Em ployment Fluctuations and Unemployment of Women”, bulletin 113 of the Women’s Bureau.) -------- Fifteenth Census of the United States: 1930. Occupational statistics. Marital condition of occupied women. Washington. Government Printing Office. 1932. 72 pp. Note.—In the census reports on occupations, no information is given as to earnings, hours of labor, or conditions of work. The Census of Manufactures gives some hour and pay-roll data. ‘University of Pennsylvania. Wharton School of Finance and Commerce. Industrial Research Department. Employed married women in Philadelphia. Phila delphia. 1931. 15 pp. Western Personnel Service. (30 N. Raymond Avenue, Pasadena, Calif., Winifred M. Hausam, director.) The service reported in June 1934 that it was conducting a study of causes of unemployment based on the histories of some 8,000 women and girls aided through work relief in the last 3 years (presumably in the western States). Analysis of their records will furnish information on: Causes of occupational .maladjustment; age as a factor in unemployment; educational preparation and training; reasons for unemployability; length of residence. Women’s Bureau. Bulletin 75. What the wage-earning woman contributes to family support. Reprint of Annals article (May 1929). Summarizes important sources of data on family responsibilities. 1929. 20 pp. ‘Women’s Educational and Industrial Union, Boston. Department of Research, Susan M. Kingsbury, director. Studies in the Economic Relations of Women, as follows: Vol. 1, pt. 1. Perkins, Agnes F., ed. Vocations for the trained woman. Opportu nities other than teaching. 1910. ------, pt. 2. Martin, Eleanor, and M. A. Post. Vocations for the trained woman. Agriculture, social service. New York. 1914. Vol. 2. Kingsbury, Susan M., ed. Labor laws and their enforcement. 1911. Vol. 3. Bosworth, L. M. The living wage of women workers. A study of incomes and expenditures of 450 women workers in the city of Boston. Supplement to the Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, May 1911. 90 pp. Vol. 4. Allinson, May. Dressmaking as a trade for women in Massachusetts. Sep tember 1916. (Bui. 193 of U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.) Vol. 5. Perry, Lorinda. Millinery as a trade for women. 1916. Vol. 6. The boot and shoe industry in Massachusetts as a vocation for women. Octo ber 1916. (Bui. 180 of U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.) Vol. 7. Industrial home work in Massachusetts. Massachusetts Bureau of Statistics. 1915. Vol. 8. The public schools and women in office service. 1914. Vol. 9. Industrial experience of trade-school girls in Massachusetts. 1917. (Bui. 215 of U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.) Vol. 10. The food of working women in Boston. 1917. Vol. 11. Old-age support of women teachers. 1921. Vol. 12. A legacy to wage-earning women. 1925. . Note.—The foregoing lists (except that of bulletins published by the Women’s Bureau) probably are ncc complete. It is believed, however, that all the more impor tant studies are included, and that those omitted are reports dealing only with restricted areas or with limited numbers of women. Several studies local in character, not lifted here, are described in bulletin 113 of the Women’s Bureau, “Employment Fluctuations and Unemployment of Women.” . CLASSIFICATION BY TOPIC , If the foregoing studies are classified according to the topics treated in them, e. g., earnings, unemployment, etc., the following groupings will result; VI. OCCUPATIONS All the studies. VII. EARNINGS Almost all the studies—few exceptions. VIII. EDUCATION AND EARNINGS II. pp. 1 to 6: A. A. U. W. Occupations of members of the A. A. U. W. Journal, June 1928. -------- Married college women. Annals, May 1929. Institute of Women’s Professional Relations. After college—what? --------- Women and the Ph. D. 1932. 1929. III. pp. 7 to 9: American Woman’s Association. The trained woman and the economic crisis. --------- Women workers through the depression. 1934. Burgess. 1928. National Federation of Business and Professional Women’s Clubs. Earnings of women. 1930. -------- Women and their careers. 1934. — and Women’s Bureau. The age factor as it relates to women in business and the professions. 1934. IX. AGE AND EARNINGS II. pp. 1 to 6: Smith College. A study of Smith College graduates engaged in educational work United States Office of Education. Survey of land-grant colleges. Vol. I. III. pp. 7 to 9: American Woman’s Association studies. 1931 and 1934. Burgess. 1928. National Federation of Business and Professional Women’s Clubs. Earnings of women in business, etc. 1930. --------- Women and their careers. 1934. -------- and Women’s Bureau. The age factor, etc. 1934. IV. pp. 10 to 13: Women’s Bureau. 16 Bulletin 85. 1931. Classification X. by Topic 17 MARITAL STATUS II. pp. 1 to 6: A. A. U. W. Census of college women. 1918. --------- Married college women in business and the professions. Barnard. Statistics of Barnard graduates. 1930. Foster. 1929. Social change in relation to curricular development, etc. George Peabody College. Problems in the education of women. Goucher. Five-year follow-up. 1932. Institute of Women’s Professional Relations. 1934. 1933. After college—what? 1932. --------- Women and the Ph. D. 1929. Oberlin. Vocational stability of alumni. 1929. Smith College. Alumnae census of 1931. Women’s Educational and Industrial Union. College wives who work. 1927. III. pp. 7 to 9: American Woman’s Association studies. 1931 and 1934. Collier. Marriage and careers. 1926. National Federation of Business and Professional Women’s Clubs. Earnings of women, etc. 1930. --------- Women and their careers. 1934. ---------and Women’s Bureau. The age factor, etc. 1934. IV. pp. 10 to 13: Women’s Bureau. Bulletin 78. 1930. --------- Bulletin 92. 1932. --------- Bulletin 111. 1933. --------- Other bulletins. V. pp. 14 to IS: United States Census reports. Data from 1870 through 1930. Women’s Bureau. Bulletin 41. 1925. XI. MARRIAGE AND GAINFUL OCCUPATION PROBLEMS II. pp. 1 to 6: A. A. U. W. Married college women in business and the professions. Barnard. Married Barnard alumnae. 1928. Bryn Mawr. Report on the Bryn Mawr Graduate School. 1927. Institute of Women’s Professional Relations. 1929. After college—what? 1932. ---------- Women and the Ph. D. 1929. Vassar. Occupations of Vassar women. 1932. (Data for 1929.) Wellesley. What do alumnae do? 1930. (Data for 1928.) Women’s Educational and Industrial Union. College wives who work. 1927. III. pp. 7 to 9: Collier. Marriage and careers. 1926. National Federation of Business and Professional Women’s Clubs. Women and their careers. 1934. Peters. Status of the married woman teacher. 1934. Pruette. Married women and the part-time job. 1929. 18 Studies on the Economic Status of Women IV. pp. 10 to 13: Berry. Mothers In industry. 1925. Monthly Labor Review. Part-time jobs for women. 1929. Russell Sage Foundation. Mothers who must earn. 1914. XII. CHILDREN, NUMBER OF, ETC. II. pp. 1 to 6: A. A. U. W. Census of college women. 1918. ---------- Married college women in business and the professions. 1929. Barnard. Married Barnard alumnae. 1928. ---------- Statistics of Barnard graduates. 1930. Institute of Women’s Professional Relations. After college—what? 1932. Smith College. Alumnae census of 1931. Vassar. Occupations of Vassar women. 1932. (Data for 1929.) Women’s Educational and Industrial Union. College wives who work. 1927. V. pp. 14 to 15: Women’s Bureau. Bulletin 75. 1929. XIII. DEPENDENTS II. pp. 1 to 6: A. A. U. W. Married college women in business and the professions. data.) 1929. (Limited Institute of Women’s Professional Relations. Women and the Ph. D. 1929. Smith College. Study of graduates engaged in educational work. 1925. Women’s Educational and Industrial Union. College wives who work. 1927. III. pp. 7 to 9: American Woman’s Association studies. 1931 and 1934. National Federation of Business and Professional Women’s Clubs. Earnings of women, etc. 1930. ----------and Women’s Bureau. The age factor, etc. 1934. IV. pp. 10 to 13: Women’s Bureau. Bulletin 75. (Summarizes various studies on contributions to family support by wage-earning women. Reprint from Annals.) 1929. --------- Bulletin 77. 1929. --------- Bulletin 85. 1931. --------- Bulletin 89. 1931. V. pp. 14 to 15: Women’s Bureau. Bulletin 75. 1929. XIV. DISCRIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN II. pp. 1 to 6: Hawthorne. Women as college teachers. (Comparison of salaries and rank with those of men.) 1929. Institute of Women’s Professional Relations. Demand for college trained women. (Relative demand for men and women.) 1931. Lonn. Academic status of women. (Discrimination against, in favor of men.) 1924. United States Office of Education. Salaries in land-grant universities. (Wom en have lower rank and salaries than men.) 1931. Classification by Topic 19 II. pp. 1 to 6—Continued. United States Office of Education. Survey of land-grant colleges. (Salaries of men and of women in high-school and college instruction and as school superin tendents.) 1930. III. pp. 7 to 9: National Federation of Business and Professional Women’s Clubs, and Women’s Bureau. The age factor, etc. (Discrimination against, because of age, marriage.) 1934. National Federation of Business and Professional Women’s Clubs. Women and their careers. 1934. Peters. Status of the married woman teacher. 1934. Williams. Women in the public schools. (Salaries of men and women compared.) IV. pp. 10 to 13: Hager. Occupations and earnings of women. (Earnings of men and women com pared.) 1929. Women’s Bureau. Bulletin 73. (Variations in employment trends of women and men.) 1930. --------- Bulletin 85. (Earnings of men and women compared.) 1931. —------ Bulletin 104. (Shows, not discrimination, but those occupations in which men have been replacing women, or women men, between the years 1910 and 1930. From census figures.) 1933. --------- Bulletin 113. (Summarizes various figures and studies available 1928— 1931 as to employment fluctuations of women and men.) 1933. The relative wages paid to men and to women are shown in a number of the reports of State departments of labor; for example— New York State Department of Labor. Special bulletin 143. Employment and earnings of men and women in New York State factories, 1923-1925. June 1926. --------- Special Bulletin 154. The paper box industry in New York City. 1928. XV. UNEMPLOYMENT II. pp. 1 to 6: Institute of Women’s Professional Relations. Demand for college trained women in the United States. 1931. Mount Holyoke. Unemployment among Mount Holyoke graduates. 1931. III. pp. 7 to 9: American Woman’s Association studies. 1931 and 1934. National Federation of Business and Professional Women’s Clubs, and Women’s Bureau. The age factor, etc. 1934. IV. pp. 10 to 13: Women’s Bureau. Bulletin 83. 1931. --------- Bulletin 89. 1931. --------- Bulletin 92. 1932. Bulletin 113. 1933. (This summarizes various statistics and studies of unemployment among women.) V. pp. 14 to 15: Ormsbee. The unemployed girl. 1925. Russell Sage Foundation. Incidence of work shortage. 1932. United States Censuses of Unemployment. 1930 and 1931. Western Personnel Service. (See p. 15.) 1934 [?]. 20 Studies on the Economic Status of Women XVI. STABILITY OR LABOR TURNOVER II. pp. 1 to 6: Goucher. Five-year follow-up. 1932. Institute of Women’s Professional Relations. After college—what? (Does it pay to change positions? . The second section of the book is “Staying on the job: A study of vocational continuity of college women.” This is based on replies of 6,665 women college matriculants.) 1932. Oberlin. Vocational stability of alumni. 1929. III. pp. 7 to 9: American Woman’s Association studies. 1931 and 1934. National Federation of Business and Professional Women’s Clubs. Earnings of women, etc. 1930. -------- and Women’s Bureau. The age factor, etc. 1934. IV. pp. 10 to 13: A summary of studies on this topic is given by Marguerite B. Benson in her chapter on “Labor Turnover of Working Women” in Annals of the American Academy. May 1929, pp. 109-119. 1 Many Women’s Bureau bulletins have data on the subject, notably the following: Bui. 52. Lost time and labor turnover in cotton mills. Bui. 69. Causes of absence for men and for women in four cotton mills. Bui. 73. Variations in employment trends (Ohio figures). Bui. 113. Employment fluctuations and unemployment of women. (Summarizes various statistics and studies.) o