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B u lle t in N o . 1628

S U M M A R IE S

OF

MANPOWER SURVEYS AND REPORTS
FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
1958-68

U.S. D E P A R T M E N T OF L A B O R
5 2 T '
r

^

J

Ge or ge P. Shultz, S e c r e t a r y
BUREAU OF LABOR ST AT I S T I CS
Ge o f f r e y H. Moor e, C o m m i s s i o n e r

June 1969

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office/ Washington, D.C. 204U - Price $1.75
2







Foreword
This publication is b ased on manpower rep o rts and su rvey s p repared by consultants assign ed
to developing coun tries. The rep o rts and su rv ey s w ere assem b led and sum m arized by the Bureau
of L abor S ta tistic s of the U.S. Department of L abor under contract with the Agency for Inter­
national Development, U.S. Departm ent of State.
The Bureau is indebted to many organizations whose cooperation and a ssista n c e made p re ­
paration of this publication p o ssib le . Special acknowledgment is due to the following organizations
who search ed their file s to identify and supply copies of rep o rts: International Labour Office,
Education and World A ffairs,** The F ord Foundation, Governmental A ffairs Institute, and Stanford
R ese arch Institute. In addition, many individuals, too numerous to lis t, aided in trackin g down
fugitive re p o rts.
Sum m aries of the manpower re p o rts and su rv ey s were p repared by Evelyn R. Kay, of the
Office of Foreign Labor and T rad e.




iii




Preface
F or many y e a rs manpower su rv ey s, a sse ssm e n ts, fo r e c a sts and projection s have been made
in differing w ays, fo r variou s p u rp o ses, often repetitively, for many developing coun tries. R eports
and su rvey s have been sponsored, supported, or conducted, by AID, its p re d e c e sso r agen cies, ILO,
UNESCO, IBRD, OECD, Ford Foundation, and private contract agen cies. This work has been
d iv e rse in ejq)licit objective, scope, depth, method, quality, and final utilization. P ro je c ts have
focused v ariou sly on total re so u rc e s and requ irem en ts, c h a ra c te ristic s of the total manpower
pool, employment and unemployment le v e ls, occupational com position, and outlook and requirem ents,
so m etim es in selected occupations and c ateg o ries of sk ills and training.
A prelim in ary review of AID manpower activ itie s, requested by the A dm inistrator in 1966,
found that no carefu l ap p raisal of any p art of this experience had been m ade. It was not p o ssib le
to find a com prehensive assem b ly of the relevant m ate rials in any central place. A s a resu lt,
in M arch 1967, AID arran ged for the Bureau of L ab or S ta tistic s to collect, organize, and c la ss ify
the b a sic rep o rts and su rv ey s which would meet minimum requirem ents for sy stem atic evaluation
and would contribute a useful referen ce reso u rc e to the Agency’ s inform ation sy stem .
C ritical exam ination of the significance, adequacy, and applications of manpower survey findings
has becom e m ore im portant with growing em ph asis on a p p raisal of manpower requirem ents as
a b a s is for planning of education and training p ro g ram s. Still m ore cru cial is the need fo r ap p raisal
of the “ state of the a r t” in this technical field in relation to the vitally im portant employment
dim ensions of economic development. The inventory presented in th is repo rt, and availability
of the b a sic documents which lie behind it, furnish an im portant p artial reso u rc e for further study
and evaluation, country by country, and on a com parative b a s is . Together, they constitute the
fir s t n e c e ssa ry step toward analyzing manpower development and planning effo rts in developing
coun tries.




v

Preface—Continued
A word should be added regard in g the lim itations of this rep o rt and the p ro je ct which has
made it p o ssib le . F ir s t, the rep o rt m akes no attempt to provide com plete coverage of the subject
fo r the coun tries covered, a task which would requ ire a siftin g of the country re fe re n c e s in the
b a sic docum ents and a supplem ental c an v ass of indigenous country literatu re and so u rc e s. Second,
in general no linkage between the individual re p o rts and su rv ey s for a given country has been
undertaken except a s the documents th em selv es rev eal this linkage.
T his rep o rt re fle c ts the existin g reco rd . Its u se should advance the quest fo r b est p ractice
in th is field, rev eal ste p s to be avoided or taken with sk ep ticism , and contribute to som e degree
tow ard further wisdom in dealing with the im portant but elu sive manpower and employment ob jec­
tiv e s in the international development effort.




M eridith B. Givens
Agency fo r International Development
U.S. Departm ent of State

vi

Contents

Introduction..............................................................................................................................................

Page
1

A frica
R e g io n a l..............................................................................................................................................
C a m e r o o n ..........................................................................................................................................
C entral A frican R e p u b lic .............................................................................................................
Congo (B ra z z a v ille )........................................................................................................................
Dahomey..............................................................................................................................................
E th io p ia ..............................................................................................................................................
G h an a..................................................................................................................................................
Guinea..................................................................................................................................................
K e n y a ..................................................................................................................................................
Lesoth o................................................................................................................................................
L ib e r ia ................................................................................................................................................
Libya.....................................................................................................................................................
M a la w i................................................................................................................................................
M a l i .....................................................................................................................................................
M orocco..............................................................................................................................................
N ig e r ia ................................................................................................................................................
R h o d e s ia ............................................................................................................................................
Se n eg al................................................................................................................................................
S ie r ra L eo n e.....................................................................................................................................
Som ali R e p u b lic ..............................................................................................................................
S u d a n ..................................................................................................................................................
Sw aziland............................................................................................................................................
Tanzania..............................................................................................................................................
T o g o .....................................................................................................................................................
T u n isia ................................................................................................................................................
U g an d a................................................................................................................................................

5
10
12
13
14
15
20
25
27
29
30
32
35
37
38
39
43
44
47
48
49
53
54
63
64
69

A m erican R epublics
R e g io n a l..............................................................................................................................................
A rgentina............................................................................................................................................
B o liv ia ................................................................................................................................................
B r a z il...................................................................................................................................................
B ritish H on d u ras............................................................................................................................
C entral A m e r ic a ............................................................................................................................
C h ile.....................................................................................................................................................
C o lo m b ia............................................................................................................................................
C osta R ica .......................................................................................................................................
Dominican Republic ......................................................................................................................
E c u a d o r ..............................................................................................................................................
E l S a lv a d o r .......................................................................................................................................
G u atem ala..........................................................................................................................................
G uyana................................................................................................................................................
M e x ico ................................................

70
71
76
84
90
91
95
99
102
103
112
115
119
120
123




vii

Contents—Continued
Page
A m erican R epublics - continued
N ic a r a g u a ..........................................................................................................................................
P a n a m a ..............................................................................................................................................
P e r u .....................................................................................................................................................
S u rin a m ..............................................................................................................................................
V e n e z u e la ..........................................................................................................................................
West Indies ( g e n e r a l)....................................................................................................................
J a m a i c a .........................................................
St. L u c i a .....................................................................................................................................
St. Vincent...................................................................................................................................
Trinidad and T o b a g o ...............................................................................................................

125
127
131
137
138
153
154
155
156
157

E a st A sia and the P acific
R e g io n al..............................................................................................................................................
B u r m a ................................................................................................................................................
China, Republic of ........................................................................................................................
In d o n e sia............................................................................................................................................
K o r e a ...................................................................................................................................................
M a la y s ia ............................................................................................................................................
T h ailan d..............................................................................................................................................
Vietnam , Republic o f ......................................................................................................................

159
160
162
168
175
178
180
191

N ear E a st and South A sia
A fg h an istan ........................................................................................................................................
C e y lo n ................................................................................................................................................
C y p r u s ................................................................................................................................................
G r e e c e ................................................................................................................................................
I n d ia .....................................................................................................................................................
I r a n .......................................................................................................................................................
I r a q .......................................................................................................................................................
I s r a e l ...................................................................................................................................................
J o r d a n .................................................................................................................................................
P a k ista n ..............................................................................................................................................
S y r ia .....................................................................................................................................................
T u r k e y ................................................................................................................................................

193
194
196
198
200
205
209
210
213
216
226
227




viii

Summaries of Manpower Surveys and Reports for Developing Countries, 1958-68

Introduction
T his collection of manpower re p o rts and su rv ey s re p re se n ts a step in AID’ S long-range
goal of ap p raisin g and evaluating manpower activ ities in developing countries. E very attempt
w as made to locate all A ID -sponsored manpower re p o rts and significant re p o rts p repared by
other organization s. The om issio n of any AID rep o rt is unintentional and m erely indicative of
the difficulty of locating and identifying elusive re p o rts.
Manpower re p o rts and su rvey s
m id-1968. In a ll, about 300 rep o rts
this group, 226 were selected on the
and satisfactio n of one or the other of

selected for this inventory cover the 10-year period 1958 to
were collected from variou s so u rc e s for this project. F rom
b a s is of their relevance to the field of manpower development
the following c rite ria :

1. They deal with the ov erall planning and implementation of a manpower development p rogram ,
taking into consideration the econom ic, so c ia l, and political fa c to rs in the country.
2. They provide technical a ssista n c e in sp ecific a r e a s , such a s m easurin g current or potential
manpower re so u rc e s and requ irem en ts, d escrib in g techniques to make these m easu rem en ts, an­
alyzing educational and training institutions to m eet manpower needs, or developing job placem ent
s e r v ic e s.
The r e s t of the re p o rts (about 75) were not included b ecause they w ere prep ared by the countries
th em selv es, rath er than by consultants, or b ecau se they did not conform to the above c rite ria .
R epo rts p rep ared for developed countries o r fo r Communist countries also w ere excluded.




1

Su m m aries of the 226 re p o rts collected for this p roject are arran ged in alphabetical ord er by
country within each region. They include, where p o ssib le , statem en ts on the manpower ad m in istra­
tive and organizational m achinery, highlights of the m issio n accom plishm ents, and m ajor reco m ­
m endations. The su m m aries should se rv e a s a quick referen ce to manpower p ro g ram s and tech­
nical a ssista n c e in sp ecific cou n tries. Manpower consultants preparin g a follow-up study in the
sam e country or a new p ro g ram in another, but sim ila r , country should re fe r to the full re p o rts.
C opies of the rep o rts are available on a loan b a sis from the AID H istorical and Technical R eference
Bran ch or from the U.S. Departm ent of L ab or lib rary .
Consultants and students of manpower development will be in terested p articu larly in the
selected readin gs liste d on the inside back cover of this repo rt. T hese so u rc e s were either p r e ­
p ared o r sponsored by the Agency fo r International Development. They include technical m anuals
fo r setting up and conducting manpower p ro g ram s, proceedin gs of sy m posia and sem in ars on
manpower su b jec ts, and AID Manual O rd ers on strengthening labor m in istrie s and on manpower
and employment development.
The following tabulation su m m arize s the re p o rts, by region, of the variou s organizations
resp o n sib le for their preparation:

O rgan ization
T o t a l...........
Agency fo r In te r n a tio n a l
Development...........................
Education and World
A f f a i r s ....................................
Ford F oundation ......................
I n te r n a tio n a l Labour
O f f ic e ......................................
Stan fo rd Research
I n s t i t u t e ...............................
United N a tio n s.........................
U n iv e r s it ie s .............................
Other o r g a n iz a t io n s ..............

2




E ast A sia
and the
P a c if i c

Near E ast
and
South A sia

T o tal

A fr ic a

American
R epublics

226

65

89

34

38

98

12

59

14

13

11
16

10
14

1
1

—
—

—
1

65

19

15

10

21

7
6
10
13

—
2
1
7

3
2
5
3

4
2
2
2

—
—
2
1

A broad range of topics relatin g to manpower is covered in this collection of re p o rts. Although
consultants u su ally w ere assign ed a sp ecific p ro ject, they tended to advise on se v e ra l fa cets of
manpower development and planning. T h erefore, column to tals on the following tabulation differ
from the preceding tabulation becau se many rep o rts contained m ore than one subject:

Su b ject
Assessm ent of curren t
manpower s it u a t io n
based on alread y
a v a ila b le in fo r m a tio n .. . .
Manpower surveys
E stablish m en t su rveys
of employment.........................
Household su rveys of
the la b o r f o r c e ....................
P r o je c tio n s o f manpower
re so u rc e s and r e q u ir e ­
ments ..........................................
Employment se r v ic e
a c t i v i t i e s ...............................
Education and tr a in in g
program s....................................
Manpower plan n in g, ad­
m in is tr a tio n , and
o r g a n iz a tio n ...........................
S t a t i s t i c a l s e r v ic e s
and o r g a n iz a tio n ..................
S t a t i s t i c a l te c h n iq u e s.........




A fr ic a

American
R epublics

E ast A sia
and the
P a c if i c

Near E ast
and
South A sia

28

19

9

13

25

12

8

6

1

2

1

3

20

12

11

7

14

25

9

10

38

33

20

10

24

23

15

13

4
2

7
4

4
7

2
4

3




A frica
Regional

Report on M iddle-Level O fficials in A frica
(1963; 39 p ages and 8 sections)
P rep ared

for UNESCO by D erek T. Healey

This is a collection of re p o rts on 10 A frican
cou n tries. The rep o rts re la te to the supply of
and demand fo r m iddle-level personnel in the
so cial sc ie n c e s. The an aly sis is b ased on man­
power su rv ey s already c a rrie d out in these
countries and on other inform ation that m ay be
available. In addition, an analytical description
of the fa c ilitie s fo r training m iddle-level p erso n ­
nel in each country is provided.
The coun tries included in the repo rt are
Ghana (50 p ag es), N igeria (60 p ag es), Rhodesia
and N yasaland (46 p ag es), Tanzania (15 pages),
Kenya (15 p ag es), Uganda (12 p ag es), Sudan (14
p ag es), and M ali (in French, 28 p ag es). The
section s on M adagascar and Senegal a re m issin g.
The following is a sum m ary of the con­
clu sio n s reached by the consultant:




1. Only Ghana has a functioning Manpower
Unit.
2. No worthwhile supply and demand e s ti­
m ates or fo r e c a sts of m iddle-level manpower
are available.
3. Techniques of collecting education and
occupational data should be im proved and ex ­
panded.
4. Employment Exchange functions should
be expanded to meet dem ands of labor and
em ployers.
5. Occupational and vocational g u i d a n c e
counseling should be initiated.
6. More flexibility should be developed in
educational and training institutions to develop
a well educated and adaptable labor force.
7. Standards regard in g teach ers of second­
ary schools should be establish ed and main­
tained.

5

A frica
Regional

French Education P olicy in Sub-Saharan A frica and M ad agascar
(1965;

38 p ag es

and 2 appendixes)

Education and World A ffairs: Study Committee on Manpower Needs and
Educational C apab ilities in A frica, p repared for AID

Review s the French a ssista n c e p rogram in education
and in technical a ssista n c e a s of 1964. USAID is advised
to follow the guidelines estab lish ed by the French.

O bservations of French a ssista n c e
1. In the sub-Sah aran and M a d a g a s c a r
reg io n s, about 50 percent of the 8,500 French
aid personnel were in education, concentrated
la rg ely in secondary education.
2. T here w ere v ery few technical a ssista n c e
“ ad v iso ry " personnel in A frica. M ost personnel
were in “ active" function c ateg o ries such a s
d o cto rs, en gin eers, and government adm ini­
str a to r s.
3. French policy favored reducing its perso n ­
nel in “ active" functions by m eans of in creasin g
the output of local high-level manpower through
secondary and un iversity p ro g ram s.
4. French policy favored strengthening lo cal
educational sy ste m s and training cen ters for
form ation of “ c a d r e s" where needed, rather
than creatin g sp ecialized educational schools
in the French pattern.

2. Secondary education is weighted heavily
toward c la s s ic a l c u rric u la rath er than the tech­
nical “L y c e e ."
3. The proposed training cen ters for fo rm a­
tion of c a d re s are m ostly in the p ro ject stage.
French education a ssista n c e policy
1. The French have a tim etable of 5 to
8 y e a rs to produce w ell-trained c a d re s needed
to rep lace their expatriate personnel in educa­
tion and government se rv ic e .
2. The French are rationing a ssista n c e funds
to education by giving p referen ce to p ro fe s­
sional and technical sch ools, adult agricu ltu ral
sch ools, and p rim ary schools adapted for ru ral
a r e a s.
USAID education a ssista n c e policy

1. Should be p art of integrated program .
2. Should grant sch olarsh ip only for graduate
W eaknesses in educational sy stem
work o v e rse a s.
3. Should not try to tra n sfe r U.S. culture or
1.
M ass p rim ary education reach es r e la ­institutions but should cooperate with French in
tively few. Only a few people get a good educa­
their general approach to education and man­
tion.
power development.

6




A frica
Regional

Study of Manpower N eeds, Educational C apab ilities, and O v erseas Study
(1965;

48 pages)

Education and World A ffairs (Report No. 1): Study Committee on Manpower
Needs and Educational C apabilities in A frica, prep ared for AID
Sum m ary repo rt of the general c h a ra c te ristic s and
d e v e l o p m e n t s observed in nine A frican countries:
Ethiopia, Guinea, Kenya, L ib e ria , N igeria, Sudan3 Tan­
zania, T un isia, Uganda.
T his rep o rt su m m arize s observation s and
recom m endations of a general nature a s they
apply to all or m ost of the countries surveyed.
D etailed su rv ey s were made in nine A frican
countries: Ethiopia, Guinea, Kenya, L ib e ria,
N igeria, Sudan, Tanzania, T un isia, and Uganda.
Seperate re p o rts for each of these countries have
been p rep ared 1 / and provide data on the
following topics:
1. An a sse ssm e n t of availab le data concern­
ing high-level manpower needs.
2. An ap p raisal of the cap ab ilities of indige­
nous A frican educational institutions to m eet
manpower needs.
3. A su rvey of opportunities for study over­
s e a s a s they relate to high-level manpower needs.
G eneral O bservations
1. M ost high-level manpower is employed in
Government or education se r v ic e s, and m ost of
these personnel are non-A fricans.
2. Only N igeria, Tanzania, and Kenya have
p r o d u c e d reason ably sa tisfa c to ry manpower
an aly ses.




3. Effective manpower planning machinery
has been developed only in N igeria and Tanzania.
4. All counties face sh ortages in high-level
and m iddle-level manpower in the scien tific and
technical field s.
General recom m endations
1. AID should strengthen re se a r c h capabil­
itie s of u n iv ersities in the expectation of a feed­
back to Government c ir c le s.
2. AID s h o u l d provide key operational
personnel in addition to technical advice during
the period of rapid A fricanization.
3. AID should a s s is t educational planning by
making sk illed personnel available for planning
and adm inistrative positions in Government
agencies and in educational institutions.
4. AID should develop a com prehensive ap­
proach to educational planning by giving m ore
attention to organization of an ov erall human
reso u rc e development strategy .

1/

See

individual country for

sum m ary.

7

A fric a
Regional

E a st A frica: Study of Manpower N eeds, Educational
C ap ab ilities, and O v ersea s Study
(1965; 183 pages)
Education and World A ffairs (Report No. 3): Study Committee on Manpower
N eeds and Educational C apab ilities in A frica, prepared for AID
T his study c o v ers three E a st A frican Countries: Kenya,
T anzania, and Uganda.

The educational and manpower p l a n n i n g
organization s and p ro g ram s in each country
a re analyzed and recom m endations a re made on
the needs of individual cou n tries. Recom m enda­
tions cover each educational level b ased on
su rv ey s of manpower needs. An excellent bib­
liography l i s t s all documents to 1965 relatin g to
econom ic, manpower, and educational develop­
ment.
Kenya—B a sic guidelines fo r Kenya’ s devel­
opment a re contained in the Development Plan
for 1964-70. The 1965 Manpower Survey 1 /
provides the m ost recent data on curren t em ­
ployment and projection s of future requirem ents.
To m eet these n eeds, Kenya m ust develop its
teach er and technical educational fa c ilitie s and
continue to rely on o v e r se a s train in gfor develop­
ing som e of these sk ills.
T anzania—Manpower planning i s relativ ely
advanced, both in the sy stem atic an aly sis and in

8




the establishm en t of effective adm inistrative
m achinery. A number of su rv ey s which provide
excellent occupational information have been
prepared . The need to train g re a t num bers of
high- and m iddle-level manpower will place
an exceedingly heavy burden on the country’ s
educational institutions, but the goal of se lfsufficiency m ay be reached by 1980.
Uganda—Development has b e e n impeded
se rio u sly by a sh ortage of trained manpower. No
manpower su rvey is available com parable with
those of Kenya and T anzania. Indications a re that
m iddle-level rath er than high-level manpower is
an im m ediate need. According to variou s stu dies,
this need will not be met by 1971.

JL/ See page 28.

A frica
Regional

E a st A frican Manpower Utilization Study
(1965; 59 p ag es and 6 appendixes)
A frican -A m erican Institute rep o rt, prepared for AID
Sum m ary of the problem of human re so u rc e development
and utilization in E a st A frica.
The m ain purpose of this study is to reco m ­
mend m easu res to in cre ase the rate of return of
A frican students from the United States and to
m axim ize their productive rein tegration into
their home countries.
Many E a st A frican students are attending
u n iv ersities and high sch ools in the United States
and Canada. An attempt w as made to estab lish
a lis t of students fo r each country. Kenya has
approxim ately 1,200 students in the United States
and Canada, o r 40 percent of total students;
Tanzania, about 300 students; and Uganda, about
400 students.
C ritica l prob lem s which will affect the tim ely
return and m axim um utilization of these students
by their governm ents were observed. F o r ex ­
am ple, o v e r se a s study p ro g ram s do not m eet
school p rio rity manpower needs of E a st A frica;
coordinated guidance p ro g ram s a re lacking,
p artic u larly among “unsponsored studen ts;” and,
to a ss u r e return of students to resp o n sib le p o si­




tions, effective recruitm ent and p re-retu rn job
placem ent proced u res are lacking.
Recom m endations for alleviating and p r e ­
venting som e of the c ritic a l bottlenecks in man­
power development and utilization cover the
following topics:
1. A dm inistrative support—im provem ent in
student recordkeeping proced u res.
2. A frican training se m in a rs—coordination
between a d v ise rs in New York and in E a st
A frican coun tries.
3. Student se m in a rs— sp ecialized training
p ro g ram s to supplement academ ic co u rse s while
studying abroad.
4. Guidance c o u n s e l i n g and inform ation
se r v ic e s.
Monthly rep o rts have been p rep ared by the
A frican-A m erican Institute on manpower needs
by detailed occupation in Kenya and in Tanzania.

9

A frica
Cam eroon
An Inter-O rganization M ission Survey of Manpower
(In French; 1962; 136 pages)
ILO Report to the Government of the F ed eral Republic of Cam eroon;
O IT /T A P /C am eroo n /R .3; Paul C asselm an (Canada); John Andoff (Canada); M arcel F ab ri (Belgium)

A ssessm en t of the manpower supply and demand, and
recom m endations on im proving su rvey techniques and
training fo r sk ills.

The organizations involved in the manpower
a sse ssm e n t su rvey included the International
Labour O ffice, variou s o ffices of the United
Nations (FAO, UNESCO), International Civil
Aviation, the World M eteorological O rganiza­
tion, and oth ers.
In ord er to obtain inform ation on the work
fo rce , a pilot study of 40 estab lish m en ts which
em ployed 10 w orkers or m ore w as conducted.
However, becau se of lack of qualified p erso n ­
nel to com plete the survey, the r e su lts are
not included in this rep o rt. Manpower inform a­
tion w as obtained from se v e ral other so u rc e s
to develop the occupational com position and
needs for each m ajor economic activity.
Conclusions
1. Information fo r developing a national
econom ic and manpower development plan was
lacking.
2. The institutional stru ctu re was rigid ,
which im peded so cial and econom ic changes.
3. W orkers were in stilled with traditional
valu es and resen ted change.

10




4. The traditional educational sy stem failed
to p rep are w orkers for the world of work.
5. Rush of ru ral m igran ts to urban a r e a s
tran sform ed ru ra l underemployment into urban
unemployment.
6. Educated young people are needed in the
ru ral a r e a s to im prove agricu ltu ral production.
Recommendations
1. Information on population, labor fo rce,
and trainin g fa c ilitie s should be collected a s
soon a s p o ssib le . D etails of the requ ired man­
power sta tistic a l data are explained.
2. Governmental organizations c o n c e r n e d
with labor and labor problem s should be e s ­
tablished at the national level and expanded into
local a r e a s .
3. Education and training should be adapted
to curren t needs, such a s agricu ltu ral techniques
in farm a r e a s , introduction of vocational educa­
tion to train for m iddle-level occupations, educa­
tion for women.
4. Other recom m endations deal with methods
of checking the ru ral-to -u rb an m igration.

A frica
Cam aroon

O rganization of the Employment Serv ice
(In French; 1962; 36 p ag es and 3 tab les)
ILO Report to the F ed eral Republic of Cam eroon;
O IT /T A P /C am eroo n /R .4; R oger F arin e, (Switzerland)
D esc rib e s manpower and employment prob lem s, and
recom m ends the extension and im provem ent of the
Employment Serv ice.
P o litical in secu rity and economic slack ag ­
gravated the problem of unemployed urban
w orkers. In Douala alone, 20,000 w orkers, rep ­
resen ting 17 percent of the population, w ere
unemployed. P o ssib ilitie s of employment in the
p riv ate sec to r were low, but the m ilitary , the
civil se rv ic e , and u tilities (railro ad s) w ere in a
position to cre ate job s. Current Employment
Serv ice activ ities w ere inadequate becau se of
lack of personnel and funds to operate efficiently.
T raining fa c ilitie s also were organized inade­
quately and w ere not p repared to train for the
modern economy. Some appren tices, however,
were provided on-the-job training to m eet the
needs of individual estab lish m en ts.
A survey in two provin ces w as conducted; it
covered 400 estab lish m en ts that employed 10
w orkers or m ore. The following observation s
were made:
1. The employed work force is stab le, except
among unskilled w orkers.
2. E m ployers w ere so licited daily by job
se e k e r s.
3. The g re a te st manpower needs were for
sten ographers and m echanics.
Some idea of future requ irem ents for man­
power was gleaned from the su rvey but not with




any certainty. Em ployers lacked confidence in
projectin g their requirem ents becau se of the un­
stable economic and political situation of the
country.
A pilot Employment Service office w as e sta b ­
lished in Douala to replace the previou s un­
organized activ itie s. Its fir s t duties w ere to
estim ate labor force c h a ra c te ristic s, obtain job
vacancy inform ation, evaluate manpower needs
in each industry, and to determ ine the manner
in which to m eet these needs.
Recom m endations
1„ The M inistry of L abor and Social Law s
should collaborate with other public and priv ate
organizations to prom ote a plan for im proving
ru ra l labor conditions. The urban unemployment
problem can be solved only by finding m eans of
encouraging e x c e ss labor to rem ain on the fa rm s.
This re su lt can be achieved by im proving crop
production (cocoa and coffee) and by developing
cottage in d u stries.
2o
The M inistry should encourage indus­
trialization by studying c h a ra c te ristic s of av ail­
able labor supply and by training qualified
manpower to m eet industry needs.
3.
The Government should con sider the E m ­
ployment Service a s its principal instrum ent for
the development and training of manpower.

11

A frica
C entral A frican Republic

The Demand fo r and T raining of M iddle-Level
and Su pervisory Personnel
(In French; 1962; 40 p ag es and annex)
ILO

Report to the Government of the Central A frican Republic;
O IT /T A P /C e n trafric ain e /R .l; Paul Andre Bonnefoy
A ssessm en t of middle-!
m eeting training needs.

Out of a population of 1.2 m illion, about
480,000 men and women were in the labor fo rce ,
m ostly in agricu ltu re, hunting, and fishing.
Only about a tenth of those in the labor fo rce
w ere sa la rie d ; the rem ainder were p rim arily
self-em ployed and fam ily w orkers.
E stim a te s of available manpower a re b ased
on incom plete inform ation of the population,
labor fo rce , industry and occupation, and s a l­
a r ie s of w orkers. M iddle-level and su p erv iso ry
occupational requ irem en ts a re b ased on an anal­
y s is of the m ajo r econom ic se c to r s.
The types of training and educational fa c ili­
tie s alread y available are d iscu sse d . A lso d is ­
c u sse d a re the c u rric u la offered, number of
grad u ates and en ro llees, and budget allocation.
An an aly sis of the effectiven ess of the educa­
tional and training output relativ e to the needs
of the variou s economic se c to r s is made.

12




manpower and methods of

Recommendations

1. T raining p ro g ram s should be im proved
and expanded to m eet the needs of a m oderniz­
ing economy.
2. The se r v ic e s of the Com m ission on Tech­
nical T raining should be utilized.
3. The Center fo r L ab or Studies should p r e ­
pare statem en ts on occupational requirem ents.
4. The A gricultural School should be guided
by a C om m ission represen tin g lab o r, m anage­
ment, and independent farm w orkers to p ro ­
duce higher sk illed fa rm technicians who, in
turn, can train oth ers.
5. The rem aining recom m endations concern
v ariou s types of training p ro g ram s fo r develop­
ing sp ecialized m iddle-level personnel for each
economic activity.

A frica
Congo (B razzaville)

T raining and Improvement of M iddle-Level Personnel
(In French; 1962; 35 p ag es and 2 annexes)
ILO Report to the Government of Congo (B razzav ille)
O IT/TA P/Congo (B ra z z a v ille )/R .l; Paul Bonnefoy
Review of available information on the labor force and
on vocational education and training.
The purpose of the m ission w as to a s s e s s
available manpower inform ation and technical
training in ord er to aid the Government in plan­
ning and organizing a vocational educational
sy stem fo r the development of a qualified labor
fo rce.
Population w as estim ated to be 800,000, of
whom 358,000 were econom ically active. About
three-fourth s of the active population were en­
gaged in agricu ltu re. A la rg e m ajority of the
high- and m iddle-level wage and sa la r y w orkers
w ere non-Congolese.
About tw o-thirds of the school-age population
attended p rim ary sch ools, but the proportion of
students in secondary schools w as very low.
Technical t r a i n i n g attracted relativ ely few
people. Information regard in g output and types
of c o u rse s of agricu ltu ral schools is provided.
In addition, there are two higher level schools:
1. L y se e Technique de B raz zav ille is fa sh ­
ioned after the French sy stem and is divided
into industrial and com m ercial section s. About
500 students attend the 6-y ear program .
2. Center for A dm inistrative and Technical
Studies of the Institute of Higher Studies (attached




to the U niversity of Bordeaux) conducts 2-y ear
training p ro g ram s for t h o s e preparin g for
m iddle-level technical and adm inistrative oc­
cupations.
Vocational training is conducted by se v e ra l
private and quasi-public fir m s, such a s the
C om m ercial Company (50 technicians), National
Bank (cleric al and stenographic train e es), A irFrance (7 tra in e e s), Shell P etroleum (8 depot
ch iefs).
Rec ommendations
1. Republic of Congo should rep lace foreign
w orkers a s soon a s p o ssib le.
2. T raining should be expanded and im proved
to p rep are local w orkers to rep lace foreign
w orkers.
3. Employment Service functions should be
initiated fo r the collection and an aly sis of man­
power data, vocational guidance, placem ent
se r v ic e s, etc. Appendix I (26 pages) d e sc rib e s
availab le inform ation on manpower development
and vocational training in the country. Appendix
II (26 pages) contains all the available sta tistic a l
data on m a n p o w e r , education, and related
inform ation.

13

A frica
Dahomey

The Employment Situation and the O rganization
of the Employment Service
(In French; 1962; 44 pages)
ILO Report to the Government of Dahomey;
O IT /T A P /D ah om ey /R .l; Robert Andrez (France)

A review of available manpower data and a d iscu ssio n
of manpower problem s.

The purpose of this repo rt is to review
the existin g Employment Serv ice functions and
to make recom m endations regard in g its im ­
provem ent and expansion, on the b a s is of an
an aly sis of curren t and projected manpower
needs.
More than half of the 2 m illion people in
Dahomey are in the labor fo rce . Of this total,
about 25,000 p erso n s are wage and sa la r y
w orkers. The economic and financial asp ects
of the economy are d escrib ed a s they relate
to the utilization of available manpower. P rob­
le m s of unemployment, underemployment, ov er­
crowding in the urban a r e a s, and related topics
are d isc u sse d in detail.
The prin cipal se r v ic e s of the Manpower
Office (Employment Service) are to issu e work
p e rm its, to place w orkers in job s, and to keep
re c o rd s of employment and unemployment. An
attem pt has been made to m aintain an inventory
of all w orkers with a sk ill or pro fessio n , but
these re c o rd s are incom plete.

14




Recom m endations
Im m ediate action recom m endations c all for
an expansion of placem ent activ ities, com pulsory
announcement of job vacan cies in establishm en ts
that employ 20 w orkers or m ore, requirem ents
for State and quasi-public operations to hire
through the Employment Serv ice, and the in itia­
tion of vocational guidance and selection activi­
tie s.
Recom m endations concerning the collection
of sta tistic a l data include periodic re p o rts of
em ployers on the manpower situation, so cial
secu rity re c o rd s fo r c lassific atio n of industry,
and the development of an occupational c la s ­
sification sy stem .
Other recom m endations covered item s such
as the creation of a com m ittee to c a r ry out
ILO Convention No. 88 (Employment Service
activ itie s), a l l o c a t i o n of sch o larsh ip s, and
creation of a com m ittee to regulate the employ­
ment of foreign manpower.

A frica
Ethiopia

A p praisal of P roposed Manpower Survey
(1960; 10 p ag es and 15 tables)
Clinton A. Johnson, AID Manpower Consultant
A lternative p ro p o sals are su ggested in place of the
proposed high-level manpower survey.
A vailable data on employment are m eager and
unreliable. The M inistry of C om m erce, Industry,
and Planning collected sta tistic s on employment,
w ages, and occupational distribution in m anufac­
turing and som e retail estab lish m en ts. Em ploy­
ment inform ation is available from qu asi-gov­
ernm ent institutions, such a s the Bank of
Ethiopia, but not from the Im perial Ethiopian
Government (IEG), the l a r g e s t em ployer of
trained manpower. Some inform ation on educa­
tional and training fa c ilitie s is also available
from the M inistry of Education. In all, about 30
documents w ere review ed.
D isc u ssio n s with government o fficials indi­
cated a manpower shortage in high-level occu­
pations, esp ecially in the adm inistrative field.
T each ers and doctors are also in short supply.
However, there is danger in overestim atin g
requirem ents b ased on need, sin ce the ability
of the IEG to c a r ry out economic expansion p ro ­
p o sa ls depends on its effectiven ess in collecting
tax revenues. In the private se c to r, industrial
development is handicapped by lack of capital
and incentives to foreign in v esto rs. Hence, the




F iv e -Y ear Plan fo r 1957-62, drawn up by Yugo­
sla v technicians, which c a lls for 140,000 new
nonagricultural job s, is considered a “wild
d re am .”
Recom m endations
Instead of the proposed high-level manpower
survey, a manpower sp e c ia list should be added
to the USOM/Ethiopian Staff to c a r ry out the
following task s:
1. Continue the an aly sis of manpower supply
and demand.
2. Prom ote a labor m arket an aly sis program
in the Central Statistical Office of the M inistry of
Com m erce and Planning.
3. Explore the p o ssib ility of organizing a
National Placem ent Exchange for p ro fessio n al,
adm inistrative, c le r ic a l, and sk illed personnel.
4. T rain personnel in the M inistry of Com ­
m erce and Planning to operate the labor m arket
an aly sis program .
5. Develop a manpower survey suitable for
planning pu rp o ses.

15

A frica
Ethiopia

Ethiopian T raining P o lic ies and Their Relationship to Unemployment
(1961; 5 pages)
Robert W. Landry, USOM /Ethiopia T raining O fficer
Recom m endations for the establishm en t of adm inistrative
m achinery for manpower planning, training, and u tiliza­
tion.
The sh ortage of trained human r e so u r c e s
gen erally is conceded to be a m ajo r problem
faced by Ethiopia in its program for a c c e le r ­
ated econom ic development. D espite the o v er­
all sh o rtag es, som e s e c to r s of the economy a re
faced with an overabundance of trained man­
pow er. To alleviate the prob lem s of th is p a r a ­
doxical unemployment and to a ss u r e that future
training of Ethiopia’ s manpower p a r a lle ls its
req u irem en ts, it is n e c e ssa ry that Ethiopia
develop an o v erall manpower schem e.
It is recom m ended that a Committee of L ab or
Utilization be form ed within the Im perial Ethio­
pian Government to be resp o n sib le fo r the devel­
opment of policy concerning the planning, train ­
ing, and utilization of Ethiopia’ s manpower.
R espon sibility fo r the implementation of Com ­
m ittee policy, a s well a s technical and ad­
m in istrative m atte rs, should be vested in a

16




D irectorate G eneral of L ab or Utilization who is
im m ediately subordinate to the chairm an of the
Committee.
During the initial stag e, the organization
should concentrate on surveying presen t trained
manpower r e so u r c e s; surveying and extrap olat­
ing trained manpower needs; and acting a s the
Placem ent Exchange Center fo r all technical,
m an agerial, teaching, c le r ic a l, and p ro fessio n al
personnel.
At such tim e a s a stron g central Ethiopian
economic development agency is activated, the
L abor Utilization Committee should be in a
position to a s s is t in the a r e a s of developm ental
planning, manpower fo recastin g , and educational
and occupational guidance.
(Sum m ary prep ared by the author of
th is report.)

A frica
Ethiopia

Ethiopia’ s

H igh-Level Manpower—A n alysis and P rojectio n s
(1964; 74 p ag es and 11 tables)

Arnold M. Zack, U.S. Fulbright P r o fe sso r, p rep ared for the
Haile S e la ssie I U niversity
Manpower supply and demand are projected to 1972 and
an occupational outlook statem ent is presented for each
m ajor high-level occupation.
Current and future estim a te s of high-level
and skilled manpower w ere not available to a s s is t
the Planning B oard in determ ining whether the
variou s p ro je c ts of the 1962-67 Development
Plan would have the n e c e ssa ry manpower to
c a r ry them to fruition. The F iv e -Y ear Plan
estim ated total employment requirem ents for
each econom ic secto r but, sin ce detailed in for­
mation w as lacking, no occupational req u ire­
m ents were made. It w as n e ce ssary , th erefore,
to analyze currently employed manpower and
to make projection s of occupational needs.
An i n v e n t o r y of high-level (universitytrained) manpower w as constructed by m eans
of a survey of all fir m s that employed 50 w orkers
or m ore and of sm all firm s that had c lu ste rs
of p ro fe ssio n a ls. A total of 125 establishm en ts
w ere interviewed; they represen ted 60 percent
of total nonagricultural employment and 90 p e r ­
cent of the nation’ s high-level employment. Twoth irds of the 5,000 high-level personnel covered
in this survey were Ethiopians.
A combination of c la s s ic a l projection meth­
ods w as used for estim atin g high-level man­




power demand for 1972: projection of current
distribution of employment, re g re ssio n an aly sis,
projection of production g o a ls, and em ploy ers’
estim ates of needs. W astage w as calculated by
using the UN Study of Age and Sex P attern s of
M ortality. B ased on these p rojectio n s of demand
and on an an aly sis of the educational fa c ilitie s
to train enough people to m eet this demand, e s t i­
m ates that the 1972 supply would fall fa r short
of its goal w ere m ade. T h erefore, it would be
n e ce ssary to u se m iddle-level manpower to fill
som e of the gap s and to continue hiring foreign
w orkers.
Recom m endations
1. A m iddle-level m a n p o w e r su rvey is
needed a s a complement to the high-level man­
power survey.
2. Manpower stu dies of variou s types should
be continued by the L ab or Departm ent.
3. Employment Service functions should be
introduced to aid in m eeting em p loy ers’ needs.
4. The U niversity should adapt its c u rricu la
to m eet anticipated manpower demand.

17

A frica
Ethiopia

Study of Manpower N eeds, Educational C apab ilities and O verseas Study
(1965; 49 pages)
Education and World A ffairs (Report No. 6): Study Com m ittee on Manpower
N eeds and Educational C apab ilities in A frica, prep ared for AID
An a sse ssm e n t of available manpower data and an
a p p raisal of educational cap ab ilities.

The Im perial Planning B oard is the p rin ci­
pal governm ent planning agency through which
all development p ro je c ts are channeled. E x ­
tern al aid is channeled through the Econom ic
and Technical A ssistan c e B oard in the M inis­
try of Finance, but little effort has been made
to coordinate this foreign aid with the Second
F iv e -Y ear Plan (1962-67). Information on man­
power r e so u r c e s and requ irem ents w as devel­
oped through se v e ra l stu d ies by UNESCO and
by P r o fe sso r Zack (see preceding sum m ary)
but they lacked the occupational detail n ece s­
s a r y for educational planning. AID currently
is negotiating fo r a study on the overall a s s e s s ­
ment of future manpower requ irem ents.
D ram atic strid e s have been made in educa­
tion, despite an overcentralization of adm inis­
tration and a lim itation of funds fo r educa­
tion. W eaknesses of the sy stem , a s pinpointed
by the 1962 UNESCO study, still ex ist, such a s
the sm all proportion of school age children in
school (5.5 percent), the high dropout rate (50
percen t between g rad e s 1 and 2), poor geo­
graphical distribution of sch o o ls, low teach erpupil r a tio s, low p ercen tages of g ir ls attending
sch ools, and poor teach er training.
P rio rity needs should be integrated in AID’ S
own development strate gy fo r Ethiopia. Con­
tinuous consultation with appropriate Ethiopian

18




agen cies is n e c e ssa ry to re v ise the strate gy
periodically. Although existin g stu d ies fail to
provide occupational needs, certain p rio rity
needs can be identified e asily ; sp ecifically ,
secondary school teach ers government adm in is­
tra to r s, agricu ltu ral technicians, and m an agers
and sk illed w orkers for manufacturing indus­
tr ie s.
Recom m endations
1. A com prehensive manpower su rvey is
needed.
2. New manpower planning m achinery should
be encouraged. AID should provide a d v ise r s to
coordinate e ffo rts of the proposed Manpower
R ese arch and S ta tistic s Section of the L ab or
Department and the Interdepartm ental Manpower
Information A dvisory Com m ittee.
3. AID should a s s is t in the recruitm en t and
training of governm ent em ployees through the
participan t training p rogram .
4. A ssistan c e to secondary education and
teacher training should be continued by the
U niversity of Utah.
5. High p rio rity should be assign ed to in sti­
tutional development at the university level.
6. R egistration of o v e rse a s students should
be estab lish ed .

A frica
Ethiopia

A Manpower Strategy for Ethiopia
(1966; 79 pages)
E li G insberg (U.S., Columbia University) and H erbert A. Smith
(Government of Isra e l), AID Manpower Consultants
A com prehensive study of the variou s fa c to rs affecting
manpower development in a modern economy.
The Ethiopian Government estab lish ed a Na­
tional Manpower A dvisory Committee in the
M inistry of National Community Development a s
a re su lt of the recom m endations of the Education
and World A ffairs Com m ittee rep o rt. (See p re ­
ceding sum m ary.) T his study is an outgrowth of
the C om m ittee’ s recom m endations.
Information on manpower supply and demand
cam e from v ariou s so u rc e s, such a s the 1955
cen sus of population, the Planning B oard, edu­
cational institutions, and conversations with
knowledgeable people. The population figure is
around 2.5 m illion, of which 6.7 percent is urban.
The b e st estim ate of literac y in the country a s
a whole p la c e s it in the 5 to 7 percent range.
L ite rac y in urban a r e a s is higher; 52 percent
of the m ale population 10 y e a rs and over are
literate. The only p ro sp ect for a substantial
r is e in general literac y hinges on an expansion
of the educational sy stem in ru ra l a r e a s.
The Ethiopian Government is the prim e em ­
ployer of trained manpower—about 95 percent
of all college-train ed people are in the govern­
ment se c to r. T h erefore, the m ost important
determ inant of future demand for trained man­
power will be the rate of growth in government
expenditures. D ifficulties are em erging in find­
ing the right balance between p ro fessio n al and




su b profession al manpower. In num erous c a s e s ,
it w as observed that the high-level p rofession al
w as underutilized becau se he had to spend a
great portion of his time in activ ities usually a s ­
signed to technicians. These and other strate gic
manpower iss u e s are d iscu ssed in full.
The educational output at each grade level was
a s s e s s e d for each year since 1950. Enrollm ent at
the lower g rad e s h as expanded rapidly, but the
dropout rate rem ain s high. Only about 0.5 percent
reach the fir s t year of college and fewer than
one-fourth of these graduate.
Recom m endations cover every facet of a
manpower development and utilization program .
The following are a few exam ples:
1. T eacher training in stitutes should be e s ­
tablished and supplemented by P eace C orps
volunteer teach ers.
2. C ontracts with foreign firm s should r e ­
quire that Ethiopians be trained for all sk ill
le v els.
3. Government s a la r ie s should be independ­
ent of university d eg rees held; rath er, a c a re e r
sy stem b ased on m erit should be developed.
4. A ru ra l educational sy stem should be ex ­
panded and broadened in ord er to develop a more
productive ag ricu ltu ral society.

19

A frica
Ghana

Development of an Employment Information P rogram
(1958; 26 pages)
ILO Report to the Government of Ghana;
IL O /T A P /G h an a/R .2; Knut P alm stro m (Norway)
A repo rt on the curren t so u rc e s of employment inform a­
tion, the conduct of an establishm ent survey, and p ro ­
g ra m s fo r continuing and im proving the employment
inform ation program .

A s a whole, ex istin g sta tistic a l data on man­
power were u nreliable or out of date. The fo l­
lowing a re the two m ain so u rc e s of inform ation:

Manual of Instruction s, which w as distributed to
the P E C ’ s.
Conclusions and Recom m endations

1. The O ffice of the Government Statistician
collected by m ail annual and q u arterly data on
em ployees in private nonfarm estab lish m en ts.
The r e su lts gen erally w ere published two y e a rs
late; no attem pt at an aly sis was m ade.
2. The 18 Public Employment C en ters (PEC)
subm itted monthly sta tistic a l re p o rts to the
Labour D epartm ent on unemployment, vacan­
c ie s, and placem ents. The law req u ired that these
data be analyzed to provide general employment
m arket inform ation. However, no an aly sis or
a p p ra isa l of the employment situation w as being
attem pted.
The consultant introduced se v e ra l fundamen­
tal changes in the method of operating the P E C ’ s
in o rd er to im prove their efficiency and th ere­
by provide reliab le and m ore useful rep o rts on
lo cal employment m arket conditions. To con soli­
date these im provem ents, he prep ared a new

20




The experience of the consultant confirm ed
the view that existin g se r v ic e s could provide a
so lid foundation on which to sta r t building an
employment inform ation p rogram . The im prove­
m ents initiated by the consultant in the adm inis­
trativ e organization and in technical competence
of the o ffic ials concerned should be considered
a s only the fir s t stag e . C onsiderable further
development will be needed over the coming
y e a r s before the p ro g ram will be providing the
full range of inform ation n e c e ssa ry fo r the
form ulation of manpower policy and before the
country will be in a position to make full u se
of the inform ation so provided.
D etailed recom m endations on adm inistrative
is s u e s and technical a sp e c ts were m ade. The
recom m endations relate to developm ents which
appear p racticab le in the next few y e a rs.

A frica
Ghana

Manpower P rob lem s in Ghana’ s Econom ic Development P ro g ram
(1959; 3 p ages and 4-page attachment)
Robert L . Thom as, Consultant, The F ord Foundation
This memorandum c o n sists of recom m endations and con­
clu sion s regard in g a manpower pro g ram fo r Ghana b ased
on d isc u ssio n s with high-level o ffic ials.
In a memorandum to government o ffic ials, the
consultant lis t s h is ob servation s on the types of
manpower inform ation needed fo r Ghana’ s F iveY ear Development Plan (1959-64). Although step s
had been initiated to estab lish a labor m arket
inform ation program (see preceding page), it
m ay be se v e ral y e a rs before the program is
fully functioning. To bridge this gap, it is recom ­
mended that a manpower su rvey be conducted
along the lin es of a sim ila r one m ade in Uganda
by the consultant. (See page 69.) He su g g e sts
that the Ford Foundation p r o v i d e a con­




sultant for this p r o j e c t . (See following two
p ag es.)
The Government of Ghana should go beyond
taking a one-tim e manpower survey and make
plans to estab lish a perm anent organization for
manpower development. Several p ag es of notes
on the subject of a manpower p ro g ram are at­
tached. The m ajor topics cover the ad m in istra­
tive and organizational m achinery required for
a manpower development program and the prin ­
cipal kinds of sta tistic a l data n e c e ssa ry for man­
power planning.

21

A frica
Ghana

Survey of H igh-Level Manpower in Ghana
(1960; 17 pages)
Edward D. Hollander, Consultant, The F ord Foundation
T h is report is a direct outgrowth of the recom m enda­
tions made p reviou sly by a Ford Foundation consultant.
(See preceding sum m ary.)
The purpose of the m issio n w as to conduct a
su rvey of high-level manpower and to reco m ­
mend organization and procedure fo r an effective
manpower development program . The survey
w as to provide a benchm ark fo r projectin g supply
and demand of highly trained people. It w as hoped
that the survey would a lso serv e a s a fir s t step
toward the establishm ent of a manpower organ i­
zation.
During the 1950’ s , the economy grew 5 p e r ­
cent a year, about twice a s fa st a s population.
Lacking official e stim ate s or projectio n s, the
consultant made h is own assum ptions that the
rate of growth fo r the 1960-65 period would con­
tinue at the sam e pace. Separate assum ptions
were made regard in g the im pact of the projected
Volta R iver P ro jec t, in accordance with plans
subm itted by en gin eers from K a ise r Aluminum.
The su rvey covered over 200 establish m en ts
in both public and p riv ate se c to r s of the economy,
which rep resen ted about 90 percent of nonfarm
wage and sa la r y and government employment.
Among the 241,000 em ployees covered, about
54,000 were working in 120 high-level adm inis­
tra tiv e, p ro fessio n al, technical, and skilled
c r a fts occupations.

22




P rojectio n s of high-level manpower req u ire­
m ents indicate a net in cre ase of 39 percen t over
the 1960-65 period. R eplacem ents for death and
retirem en t bring this figure up to 62 percent.
R equirem ents a re la r g e st among p rim ary school
teach ers and in the sk illed manual occupations;
but secondary school teach ers and ph ysician s
will be the m ost difficult to find.
The m ost se rio u s manpower problem is the
underutilization and low productivity of the labor
fo rce . Capital investm ent and sp read of tech­
nology eventually will im prove underemploy­
ment, esp ecially among those in agricu ltu re and
trad e. Low productivity, resu ltin g p rim arily
from poor nourishm ent and endemic illn e ss, can
be alleviated through vigorous national p ro g ram s
to in cre ase food production and to extend public
health se r v ic e s.
Recom m endations cover the p roced u res for:
1. E stab lish in g a manpower organization.
2. Recruiting, training, and utilizing Ghana­
ian s.
3. Introducing an institutional b ase fo r man­
power p ro g ram s.
4. Developing a program for manpower in­
form ation and re se a rc h .

A frica
Ghana

Survey of H igh-Level Manpower in Ghana
(1960; 62 pages)
Robert D. Loken, Manpower A dv iser, The Ford Foundation
Final repo rt of the 1960
(See precedin g sum m ary.)
The findings of the 1960 su rvey are describ ed
m ore fully in this final repo rt. There are som e
sm all d iscrep an cies in data between the two
re p o rts but not enough to alte r the conclusions
and recom m endations. T ab les on curren t occu­
pational vacan cies and projected needs are
provided. P rob lem s of sh o rtages and anticipated
supply in each of the m ajo r occupations are
d isc u sse d .
Ghana can draw on three b a sic so u rc e s of
supply to m eet its high-level manpower req u ire­
m ents:
1. Those employed now—By upgrading those
alread y in high-level occupations, m ost of the
requirem ents for additional personnel will be
m et by 1965. Furtherm ore, if only 5 percent of
the la rg e pool of unskilled labor w ere trained
fo r sk illed trade occupations, m ore than 10,000
em ployees would be added to the high-level
segm ent by 1965.
2. The educational sy ste m —Schools and co l­
le g e s will furnish about 25,000 additional p erso n s
to the high-level labor fo rce . Vocational guidance




Ghana Manpower Survey.
should be provided to middle and secondary
school le a v e rs; these are the alm o st exclu sive
source of Ghana’ s future high-level manpower.
An inventory of personnel in training at technical
sch ools, u n iv ersities, and on-the-job is p ro ­
vided.
3.
Imported personn el—The u se of o v e rse a s
personnel should be lim ited to urgent needs only.
M ost ex p atriates can be hired on con tract b a sis
for sh o rt-term assign m en ts.
Recom m endations include the creation of a
Manpower Com m ittee represen tin g all se c to r s
of the economy and coordinating all activ itie s
relatin g to manpower. The 1960 Manpower Sur­
vey should serv e a s b a sis for the preparation of
a com prehensive manpower development plan
to estab lish p ro g ram s and ta rg e ts.
Appendix A d e sc rib e s the method used in
estim atin g w astage among high-level manpower.
It w as n e c e ssa ry to construct life tab les of m ales
from data derived from v ario u s stu d ies made for
other coun tries. The method used here would
be adaptable to many other cou n tries.

23

A frica
Ghana

Development of the Employment and Manpower Information P rogram
(1963; 138 pages)
ILO R eport to the Government of Ghana;
IL O /T A P /G h an a/R .7; A.N.K. N air (India)

Report a p p ra ise s the p r o g r e ss of the manpower in form a­
tion situation sin ce 1958, ev alu ates the u sefu ln ess of
th is inform ation in relation to manpower planning, and
provides technical a ssista n c e and recom m endations on
other manpower p ro g ram s and p roced u res.

The consultant worked directly with the
Employment Serv ice Branch in the Labour
Departm ent and cooperated with the National
Planning C om m ission, the Central Bureau of
S ta tistic s, and the Departm ent of Education.
Eventually, a Technical Working Group w as
form ed con sistin g of rep resen tativ es from all
organization s concerned with the collection of
manpower data.
A vailable Manpower Information
1. Establish m ent re p o rts on employment and
earn in gs, collected qu arterly by Central Bureau
of S ta tistic s from estab lish m en ts that employed
10 p e rso n s or m ore—Although many reco m ­
m e n d a t i o n s were made by the 1958 ILO
m issio n , 1 / the program has not made much
p r o g r e ss.
2. Public Employment C en ters (PEC) for
monthly sta tistic a l su m m aries of their activ itie s
— B ecau se of inadequate technical supervision
at these C en ters, quality of the work su ffe rs.
3. F acto ry in spectors re p o rts on im portant
inform ation regard in g occupational description s
and sa la r y r a n g e s—L ack of sta ff prevents ade­
quate coverage of plants.
4. Survey of H igh-Level Manpower in Ghana,
1960 2 J —T his study prov ides a factual a s s e s s ­
ment of and projectio n s for high-level manpower
req u irem en ts.
5. Educational sta tistic s on enrollm ents, by
type of c o u r se —F ig u re s on the su c ce ssfu l
com pletion of these c o u rse s are not available.
24




6.
Population cen sus of 1960 (available 1963)
— T his so u rce provides benchm ark data for em ­
ployment and manpower stu dies.
Work of the M ission
With the advice and guidance of the Technical
Working Group, the consultant worked out a plan
for the effective development of the Public E m ­
ployment C en ters, which included a te st pilot
project. M ore than half the publication is in the
form of appendixes which make up a manual
for estab lish in g an effective employment se rv ice
program :
1. Sample fo rm s for collecting manpower
inform ation (20 p ag es).
2. E xam ples of operating activity rep o rts
(9 p ag es).
3. P rocedure fo r collecting and analyzing
employment and manpower i n f o r m a t i o n (36
pages).
4. Interim recom m endations (9 p ag es).
5. L etter from the C om m issioner of Labour
regard in g the collection of manpower infor­
mation (3 p ag es).

1/ See page 20.
2 / See two preceding su m m aries.

A frica
Guinea

Report on the Punched Card Tabulating Equipment
fo r the Republic of Guinea
(1982; 14 pages)
J . L . M cPherson, AID Statistical Consultant
Statement on one segm ent on an AID report.
The main portion of this rep o rt is on the sub­
ject topic. However, the consultant commented
on the state of sta tistic a l competence of the p ro ­
fe ssio n al Guinean. The observation was based on
d iscu ssio n s with p erso n s in authority and r e ­
sponsibility regard in g the com pilation of s t a t is ­
tic s to be m ach in e-processed.
In e sse n c e , there w as a com plete lack of
re g a rd for the quality of the sta tistic a l data being
p ro c e sse d . M em bers of the Office of S tatistic s
felt their role was only to p r o c e ss the data and
not to question the accu racy and com pleteness
of the b asic input inform ation. The m ost d is ­
tr e ssin g elem ent, to the consultant, was the
obvious satisfaction of the p ro fe ssio n als with
this state of a ffa ir s.




Further questioning with reg ard to the d is ­
position of tabulated output revealed that the
tabulations were kept se c re t within the GOG
until they w ere at le a st 1 year old. The e x p re ss
reaso n for this p ractice was “b ecau se we are
not su re they are right and we do not want to
subject the rep o rts to outside c r itic is m .*
The consultant b eliev es there is great need
for competent sta tistic a l advice in Guinea. “Illadvised, ill-im plem ented sta tistic a l activities
will resu lt in u n satisfactory re su lts which will
be b l a m e d on the the d ata-p ro ce ssin g equip­
ment s u p p l i e d by the United States. This
would be an e asy way out for them and del­
eterio u s to our im age a s a nation anxious
to help.”

25

A frica
Guinea
Study of Manpower N eeds, Educational C ap ab ilities,
and O v ersea s Study
(1965; 54 pages)
Education and World A ffairs (Report No. 7); Study Com m ittee on Manpower
Needs and Educational C apab ilities in A frica, p repared for AID

A review of the curren t po litical, econom ic, and so cial
situation in Guinea, and an an aly sis of manpower supply
and demand.

The aftereffects of independence (1958) left
Guinea se rio u sly handicapped when it decided
not to join the French community. In retaliation ,
the French pulled out virtu ally all m iddle- and
high-level adm inistrative staff, technical p e r ­
sonnel, and capital equipment. They also r e ­
moved or destroyed much of the sta tistic a l data
that had been com piled on Guinea’ s economy,
labor fo rce , and educational sy stem . D espite
a ssista n c e from the Sino-Sovietcoun tries, which
encouraged monopoly of m ost e n te rp rise s, little
econom ic p r o g r e ss has been made. In addition,
the M inistry of Econom ic Development prepared
a Seven -Y ear Development Plan (1964-70), which
is m ore of a lis t of proposed p ro je c ts rath er than
an integrated strategy .
L ittle or no data are available on manpower.
A 1957 labor force cen sus in dicates a nonfarm
A frican labor fo rce of 92,000 of which 420 are in
m an agerial occupations and 18,000 in sk illed and

26




sem isk illed jo b s. Supply of trained manpower
is very lim ited and acute sh o rtages a re likely
to p e r s is t fo r som e tim e b ecau se of the relativ ely
few secondary school and university grad u ates.
An an aly sis of manpower needs of the country
revealed that the m ost c ritic a l need i s for
secondary sch o olteach ers and for m iddle-level
personnel. Guinea m ust se t out a co u rse to
produce needed sk ills in the sh o rtest and b est
manner p o ssib le .
R egarding AID’ S role in Guniea, a se t of
p rio ritie s should be estab lish ed , conditioned by
the political and econom ic in stability of the coun­
try. Recom m endations a re aim ed at supporting
the variou s schools producing m iddle-level
sk ills. USAID also should encourage an inte­
grated sy stem of manpower and educational
planning, which should include manpower plan­
ning m achinery and a sta tistic a l office to
collect pertinent data.

A frica
Kenya

U tilization of Manpower in the Kenya Public Service
(1963; 17 pages)
John L . Thurston, Manpower Consultant, The F ord Foundation
An a p p raisal of the manpower situation, esp ecially in
Government Serv ice, and the r e su lts of the A frican i­
zation program .
Kenya’ s forthcom ing independence (1964) and
the probable departure from Government se rv ice
of sizeab le num bers of foreign pro fessio n al and
adm in istrative o ffic e rs will cre ate a se rio u s
manpower sh ortage. E xtrao rd in ary effo rts will
have to be made to fill the manpower gap o cca­
sioned by the tim e la g between the departure of
the ex p atriates and the return of A frican s from
u n iv ersities and c o lleg es o v e rse a s.
In 1961, there w ere 6,000 ejqpatriateofficers
in the public se rv ic e . Of th is total, 1,000 already
have left the se rv ic e , 900 have filed retirem ent
p a p e rs, and 100 axe expected to r e tir e soon.
Thus, one-third will have left by the tim e of in­
dependence. By the end of 1965, it is estim ated
that 2,700 will still rem ain on the r o lls. The
resu ltin g sh ortage can be m et by only three




so u rc es: new grad u ates, new ex p atriates, and
existin g staff. It is anticipated that by 1965 only
550 eligib le grad u ates will be available to fill
the vacant p o sts. T h erefore, the m ost im m ediate
co u rse of action to m eet requirem ents ap p ears
to be through recruitm en t, training, and prom o­
tion of those on the curren t staff who m ay not
m eet norm al requirem ents of education and
experien ce.
Recom m endations
1. Retain ex p atriates a s a holding operation.
2. Improve higher educational institutions.
3. Upgrade curren t em ployees.
4. E stab lish a strong A fricanization and
training unit, respo n sible a lso for producing
sta tistic a l data.

27

A frica
Kenya

H igh-Level Manpower Requirem ents and R eso u rces
in Kenya 1964-1970 (1965; 46 pages)
Calvin F. D avis, Manpower Consultant, The F ord Foundation
A manpower supply and demand su rvey to serv e a s b ase
fo r rev isin g educational and training p ro g ram s and
p o lic ie s.

The high-level and m iddle-level survey in­
cluded 348 public and private establishm en ts
that employed 100 w orkers or m ore and r e p r e ­
sented three-fourth s of total nonfarm em ploy­
ment. The survey covered 165 im portant occupa­
tions.
An an aly sis of the re su lts in dicates that
sh o rtages, on the av erage, are not a s serio u s
a s expected. F o r exam ple, the supply of univer­
sity -train ed personnel will be n early sufficient
to m eet minimum needs; a 20-percent shortage
in m iddle-level and p ro fession al-su ppo rtin g oc­
cupations will occur, sh o rtages in skilled tech­
n icians and office w orkers will be se rio u s; and
sh o rtages in the sk illed manual worker category
will be m inor. In som e individual occupations,
however, se rio u s sh o rtages will e x ist by 1970
and in oth ers, w asteful su rp lu se s.

28




Recom m endations
1. The proposed Manpower Planning and
P rogram m e Section in the M inistry of Economic
Planning and Development should be estab lish ed .
2. The S ta tistic s D ivision should issu e an
Employment Trend R eport, and should im prove
techniques of employment su rv ey s.
3. The A fricanization p rogram should be ex ­
panded and im proved.
4. Educational planning should be coordi­
nated and integrated with other plans and p ro ­
g ram s to m eet the occupational needs of the
country. The v ariou s methods and sy ste m s are
describ ed in detail.
5. V arious m e a su re s for i n c r e a s i n g the
supply of high-level manpower in the Govern­
ment secto r also are describ ed .

A frica
Lesotho

Manpower Situation in Basutoland
(1964;

59 pages)

ILO Report to the Government of Basutoland;
IL O /T A P /B asu to lan d /R .l; Dr. W alter Elkan (United States)
T his rep o rt a s s e s s e s the manpower situation and recom ­
m ends ste p s to im prove the collection and a n a l y s i s of
manpower data for economic planning.
Sou rces of Manpower Information

Recom m endations

1. 1956 C ensus of Population.
2. 1956 Social Survey— sam ple survey of
households.
3. 1956 C ensus of A griculture.
4. Annual R ep o rts—rec o rd of number of
p a s s e s issu e d to those leaving the country to take
employment in the Republic of South A frica.
5. 1963 Survey of E stab lish m en ts, conducted
by the Chamber of C om m erce—occupations of
sk illed w orkers by income and employment
se c to r.
6. R ecords of m in ers recru ited on con tracts
through the T ran sv aal and Orange F re e State
Cham ber of M ines.
7. Departm ent of Education Annual R ep o rts—
training fa c ilitie s and number of en ro llees and
grad u ates at each educational level.

1. The prop osal of the Government of B asu to­
land to set up a Central Statistical Office should
be c a rrie d out.




2. Integration of sta tistic a l data on manpower
should be the respo n sibility of an economic ad­
v ise r attached either to the Central Statistical
office or to a sep arate planning office.
3. A dm inistrative m achinery s h o u l d be
created for economic planning and, la te r for
manpower planning.
4. F or the short term , the employment s it ­
uation and the adequancy of the educational and
training sy stem s should be review ed period­
ically.

29

A fric a
L ib e ria
A Pilot Survey of H igh-Level Manpower in L ib eria
(1961; 70 pages)
W illiam Langbehn, AID Manpower A dviser
A detailed description of a manpower supply/dem and
study.
T his rep o rt on high-level manpower re q u ire ­
m ents is one of a s e r ie s p rep ared a s an overall
econom ic su rvey of L ib e ria under the direction
of Northwestern U niversity, Evanston, 111. The
consultant was a m em ber of the University
Survey T eam and worked clo sely with the Bureau
of Econom ic R ese arch of the Government of
L ib e ria . By identifying the magnitude of existin g
and p rospective sh o rtages of high-level man­
pow er, the team hoped that Government, edu­
cational institutions, and establish m en ts would
institute action p ro g ram s to provide training in
high-level occupations.
The rep o rt d e sc rib e s the v ario u s step s taken
to conduct a pilot survey of estab lish m en ts for
estim atin g current le v e ls of employment and
projected needs in 25 s e l e c t e d occupations.
Techniques used in conducting the survey a re
outlined; exam ples of the questionnaire, and the
instruction s for com pleting the questionnaire,
are suppliedo R esu lts from the establishm ent
survey provide information on the current (1961)
le v e ls of employment in the surveyed occupa­
tions, non-A fricans employed in these jobs,

30




tra in e e s, vacan cies, and estim ated employment
requirem ents in 1966.
F o r pu rposes of analyzing and projectin g each
occupation, estim a te s of supply and w astage were
calculated. Supply data for each occupation were
obtained from variou s educational institutions in
L ib eria, and inform ation on students abroad
cam e from Government of L ib e ria so u rc e s.
W astage was estim ated from variou s so u rc e s.
Each occupation is then describ ed in detail,
after all these fa c to rs are taken into co n sid era­
tion.
B ased on the re su lts of this survey, the
consultant d is c u ss e s the manpower problem s in
L ib e ria and m akes r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s for
alleviating som e of these p rob lem s. A short
section evaluates the techniques used in this
su rvey and m akes recom m endations for im prov­
ing subsequent stu dies.
Appendix E su m m arize s a recent report,
Survey on the P resen t Vocational Training
F a c ilitie s and the Future Vocational T raining
Needs of L ib e r ia , by D r. Hans B a ritsc h of ILO.

Africa
Liberia

Study of Manpower N eeds, Educational C apab ilities, and O v erseas Study
(1965; 42 pages)
Education and World A ffairs (Report No. 5); Study Committee on Manpower
Needs and Educational C apabilities in A frica, prepared for AID
Educational study fo r the purpose of delineating AID’ S
ro le in manpower and educational development in L ib e ria .
L ib e ria is attempting to launch a 5-year devel­
opment plan. The Office of National Planning is to
be the sta ff arm of the National Planning Agency.
The Departm ent of Education, the Bureau of
L ab or, and the Office of National Planning prob­
ably will coordinate to form a National Manpower
Com m ission. It is assum ed that one of the fir s t
ta sk s of the C om m ission will be to estim ate
L ib e r ia ’ s manpower requirem ents and to p ro ­
p o se a strategy by which all training program s
could be utilized m ost effectively.
P r e c ise data on curren t employment of highlevel manpower are not availab le. Langbehn’ s
1961 survey is lim ited to certain manpower
field s and to m ajor em ployers; the government
cen sus of 1962 fa ils to distinguish between
high-, m iddle-, and low -level manpower. None­
th e le ss, even with these lim itations, sta tistic s
from these su rvey s can be useful for manpower
planning.
The bulk of the rep o rt d e sc rib e s the educa­
tional cap ab ilities of L ib e ria and the availability




of o v e rse a s sch o larsh ip s. About 10 percent of
the national budget is allocated to the Department
of Education; additional funds are available from
external gran ts and loans (USAID, P eace C orps,
Ford Foundation). C u r r e n t enrollm ent, the
number and quality of the teaching staff, and the
cu rric u la of each education and training facility
are d iscu sse d in detail.
Recom m endations for AID action
1. Encourage the development of the educa­
tion and manpower planning m achinery in Liberia#
2. Support boarding fa c ilitie s and con solida­
tion of sm all sch ools at the secondary level.
3. Continue to im prove secondary teach er­
training techniques and m ate rials.
4. A ssign highest prio rity to the development
of an effective instructional pro g ram at the
university.
5. Support o v e rse a s postgraduate study.

31

A fric a
L ib ya
Manpower in Libya
(1960; 13 pages)
E .L . Keenan, AID Manpower Consultant
D escription of L ib y a*s manpower problem s.

The many fa cets of Libya* s manpower situ a­
tion a re categorized into the following m ajor
segm en ts:
Manpower in the sh ort term
C urrent manpower needs can be satisfie d
somewhat by stepping up the use of training
fa c ilitie s already in existen ce and by intensifying
on-the-job training. Audiovisual training has
proved su c ce ssfu l for sh o rt-term development
of la rg e num bers of w orkers in other countries
and m ay be a useful t e c h n i q u e in Libya.
Manpower in the long term
School attendance i s in creasin g at the lower
grad e le v e ls, but six y e ars of schooling is not
e n o u g h preparation fo r the technical and
m echanical knowledge requ ired for many job s.
T each ers should be trained to provide occupa­
tional guidance to students at a relativ ely early
age. To m eet anticipated demand fo r m iddle- and
high-level manpower requ irem ents, technical
and teach er training at the secondary and univer­
sity le v els m ust be im proved.
B alan ce between foreign and Libyan w orkers
The national goal is to fill all position s with
Libyan w orkers. On the other hand, em ployers
want qualified w orkers who know their job and
know how to produce. In the short run, Libyans

32




can fill sem isk illed and som e skilled position s
through on-the-job training or apprenticeship
with sh o rt-term wage su b sid ies. T hese sy ste m s
a re cheaper and fa ste r than expanding the
vocational school sy stem . On-job training a lso
p erm its upgrading people alread y employed.
M ore attention should be paid to in creasin g labor
productivity rath er than enforcing rigid labor
law s which make it difficult and costly to d is­
charge inefficient w orkers.
Manpower in Government
The v a r i o u s sh ifts of personnel in Govern­
ment re su lt in poor manpower utilization. To
cope with this situation, training-w ithin-government p ro g ram s should be initiated to provide
t r a i n i n g to Government w orkers. Foreign
ex perts already employed by the Government
could a s s is t a s training in stru cto rs in their
sp e cial a r e a s of com petence.
Recommendations (other than those indicated
above)
1. The new M inistry of L ab or and Social
A ffairs should plan and adm inister a manpower
p rogram coordinated with the ov erall economic
go als.
2. The Libyan Development Council even­
tually should coordinate the v ariou s p h ases of
manpower development with v ariou s M inis­
tr ie s . organized labo r, and organized em ployers.

A frica
Libya

A Manpower Information P ro g ram
(1962; 24 pages)
ILO Report to the Government of the United Kingdom of Libya;
IL O /T A P /L ib y a /R .7; C .P . Van Rijn (Netherlands)
An a sse ssm e n t of curren t and anticipated manpower
supply and demand, and recom m endations for the develop­
ment of a manpower inform ation p rogram .
ordinating function, in consultation with r e p re ­
sen tatives from government, em ployers, and
w o rk ers, to determ ine the need fo r manpower
inform ation and to allocate respo n sibility for
collection, an aly sis, and dissem ination of the
r e su lts.
2.
Information from the establishm ent su r ­
vey should be utilized better. B ylaw , em ployers
a re requ ired to prove d etails of their work
fo rce to employment o ffices every 6 months.
Specific recom m endations for im proving the
Recom m endations
variou s step in the collection of inform ation are
1.
A sep arate Department of Manpower should detailed. F o r exam ple, the Department of Labor
should p rep are a card index on em ploy ers, by
be estab lish ed in the M inistry of Lab or and Social
A ffairs. This Department should e x e rc ise a c o ­
using so cial secu rity c a rd s a s a check.
E xistin g so u rces of data include the 1954
C ensus of Population, 1956 Census of Em ploy­
ment and Production, 1958 National Income E s t i­
m ates, the biannual establishm en t survey, and
so cial secu rity re c o rd s. Data from these so u rc e s
are not com parable with each other and are in­
com plete for the purpose of an aly sis. Im prove­
m ents in the methods used in the establishm ent
su rvey are m ost likely to yield the m ost poten­
tially useful data for manpower an aly sis.




33

A frica
Libya
A Survey of R equirem ents of P ro fe ssio n a l, Technical and
Skilled Manpower in Libya, 1934-69
(1964; 64 pages)
A.N.K.

N air, ILO Expert

A step-b y-step description of a manpower su rvey and an
an aly sis of occupational needs.

The purpose of the su rvey w as to collect man­
power inform ation regard in g employment, o c­
cupations, sh o rtages, anticipated requ irem ents,
and supply of trained personnel. The su rvey
covered all government fa c ilitie s and three
in d u stries in the p riv ate secto r: petroleum min­
ing; construction; and automobile s a le s , se rv ice
and re p a ir. It w as believed that these se c to rs
em ployed m ost of the high- and m iddle-level
w orkers. Vocational trainin g in stitutes furnished
data on the output of trained personn el, and the
M inistry of Education and the Civil Service
provided data on p erso n s in o v e r se a s or govern­
ment training.
Many problem s were encountered in c o llect­
ing inform ation from estab lish m en ts. D espite
repeated v isits to individual fir m s, there were
long delays in the receip t of the retu rn s. L ack
of staff and tim e prevented adequate industry
cov erage. The absence of a national occupational
c lassific a tio n sy stem created con siderable dif­
ficulty in c lassify in g occupations. M oreover, it

34




w as believed that e stim a te s of future manpower
requ irem ents w ere understated. D espite these
prob lem s, the r e su lts of the su rvey provided
the planning and training authorities with som e
quantitative data, which did not e x ist before, to
enable them to appreciate the magnitude of man­
power needs and to p rep are a manpower develop­
ment plan.
Recom m endations
1. Additional training p ro g ram s of higher
quality should be available and should include
trainin g o v e rse a s.
2. B etter utilization of manpower should be
made by placing people in occupations fo r which
they were trained.
3. The wage and sa la r y policy should be
review ed in ord er to provide incentives to young
people to enter technical and sk illed field s.
4. The continuing study of manpower supply
and d e m a n d should be strengthened and im ­
proved.

A frica
Malawi

H igh-Level Manpower in N yasaland’ s Development
(1962; 29 pages)
G eorge Seltzer (U niversity of M innesota), Manpower Consultant for Carnegie Corporation;
a rticle in Manpower and Education, Country Studies in Econom ic Development,
F red erick H arbison and C h arles A. M yers, ed ito rs (New York, M cGraw-Hill
Book Company, 1965), p ag es 268-296
A policy-oriented d iscu ssio n of key manpower is s u e s
confronting the Government of N yasaland (later Malawi).
Nyasaland is in the p ro c e ss of transition (as
of 1962) from a te rrito ry within the Federation
of R hodesia and N yasaland to self-governin g
statu s. The new Malawi Government will face
m assiv e problem s in all a r e a s of development.
A griculture is the dominant economic activ­
ity; n early half of the G ro ss D om estic Product
com es from agricu ltu re which em ployes about 38
percen t of total labor fo rce . Thirteen percent
of the labor force are employed in construction
activ itie s and 10 percent are in manufacturing.
N yasaland is a substantial exporter of labor
throughout central and southern A frica. In 1960,
about 160,000 N y asas w ere working outside the
country com pared with about 152,000 employed
internally. It i s , however, an im porter of highlevel and skilled manpower. Over 90 percent of
all adm inistrative and p ro fessio n al personnel
com e from European countries.




B a sic education in Nyasaland has its roo ts in
m issio n ary ac tiv itie s. A dual school structu re
h as p revailed for both A frican s and non-A fri­
can s. The form al education p r o c e ss usually does
not yield high-level manpower qualified to enter
employment; custom arily , additonal training or
education is required. The re su lts of a 1962
study of curren t and projected manpower r e ­
so u rc e s and requirem ents are describ ed .
The establishm ent of a Manpower Council is
e sse n tial for coordinating and developing a man­
power p rogram . Its b a sic role is two-fold:
1. To provide assu ran ce the manpower, ed­
ucation, and socioeconom ic decision s are made
in a common fram e and with d irect referen ce
to one another.
2. To p rep are an action-oriented human
re so u rc e p rogram in support of development
g o als and ta rg e ts and to ov ersee its operations.

35

A frica
Malawi
Education for Development
Education in Malawi
(1964; 81 pages)
A m erican Council on Education, p repared fo r AID
D e sc rib e s the p resen t educational situation in Malawi
and recom m ends that p rio rity be given to expansion
of secondary education and to introduction of higher
education.

The purpose of the su rvey team w as to a s s e s s
M alaw i’ s needs for educational institutions and
c u rric u la r em ph asis and to propose an educa­
tional plan for M alawi’ s econom ic and so cial
developm ent for the next 15 y e a rs. Whenever
p o ssib le , the team co rrelated its work with the
manpower su rvey recently com pleted under C a r ­
negie C orporation (see preceding sum m ary)
au sp ices and with the Malawi Government’ s
econom ic development plan.
M alawi’ s 3.7 m illion population (1963) is
growing at a rapid rate; the number of children
needing education i s in creasin g at an even
g re a te r rate . About 360,000 children (half of
the total) are in p rim ary sch ools, 3,000 in
secondary sch o ols, 900 in vocational sch ools,
and over 200 in foreign sch o ols. The 11 teach er­

36




training schools do not p rep are enough teach ers
adequately. In light of these and other fa c ts,
the Government has given education high p rio rity
and is devoting 3 percent of its g r o s s dom estic
product to education.
The team made detailed recom m endations for
the development of education at each level on
the b a s is of an aly ses of available data and p ro ­
jections to 1980. P r io r itie s are su ggested and
co st estim ates are provided.
The team sp ecifically r e c o m m e n d s the
establishm ent of an educational planning function
within the M inistry of Education and the Univer­
sity. In addition, a represen tative from this unit
should work c lo sely with the Manpower Council,
which had been proposed by the C arnegie C or­
poration Manpower Survey T eam .

A frica
M ali

Manpower Study fo r M ali
(1961; 47 pages)
Valm ore J . Doucett, AID Manpower Consultant
A survey of manpower r e so u rc e s and requirem ents in
M ali.
P rio r to the a rriv a l of the consultant, q u es­
tion naires regard in g employment had been sent
to all M in istries; only one w as returned. D irect
contact with individual M in istries w as not p e r­
mitted and travel r e stric tio n s prevented direct
observation. A vailable data from other re c o rd s
w ere inadequate. Some inform ation on students
abroad w as obtained through the Office of Foreign
A ffairs and the M inistry of Plan and Rural
Economy.
The population figure of M ali is 3.8 m illion,
of which 95 percent a re ru ral and 97 percent are
illiterate. Only 8 percent of school age children
attend school. P e r capita income is US$52. Life
expectancy is 37 y e a r s.




B ased on the F iv e -Y ear Plan, e stim ate s of
manpower requirem ents for industrial e sta b ­
lishm ents w ere m ade. E stim ates of Government
employment w ere projected on the b a s is of the
number of v acan cies reported in the 1961 budget.
N early 600 students are being trained abroad,
about half in F ran ce and about one-fourth in
Communist coun tries. About 160 a re in the p ro c ­
e s s of being selected for technical training in the
U .S.S.R . M ost of the sk illed w orkers will have
to be im ported until training fa c ilitie s are ade­
quate to m eet the needs.
An in terestin g section on com parative stu dies
d e sc rib e s the experien ces in training people of
other developing countries: Indonesia, L ib e ria ,
N igeria, and Libya.

37

A frica
M orocco

D iagnostic Report on Manpower S ta tistic s
and Conditions in M orocco
(1966; 44 pages)
D O L IT A C jy Staff P aper No. 27;
Kenneth G. Van Auken, J r . , Manpower Consultant
An inventory and evaluation of available manpower data
and recom m endations for sh o rt-term and long-term man­
power development p ro g ram s.

M ost of M orocco’ s economic and so cial
p rob lem s are a re su lt of the rapid rate of
population growth, 3.3 percent annually (pro­
jected to 3.5 percent in 1960-70). A gricultural
output has not kept pace with population growth
and has forced a ru ra l-to -c ity m igration and
im portation of food products. L abor-in ten sive
p ro g ram s and a firm educational b ase for the
development of sk illed w orkers are needed.
An e sp ecially stron g em ph asis should be made
to produce w orkers with technical sk ills in
ag ricu ltu re.
The Planning and Statistical D ivision of the
M inistry of Development fa c e s the problem of
sk illed manpower sh o rtages and im balances,
which w ere revealed when the F iv e -Y ear Plan
(1965-70) was drawn up. However, there is a
lack of curren t and reliab le manpower data
for a s s e s s in g and planning action p ro g ram s.
D ata so u rc e s include:
1. 1960 C ensus (lacks detail in occupational
sk ills).
2. National Accounts: section on employment
in m anufacturing and mining (1964).
3. E stablish m en t su rvey of high-level man­
power (1963).

38




4.
Pilot su rvey of establish m en ts for em ­
ployment and w ages (1958).
The M inistry reco g n izes the lim itations of
these so u rc e s and currently is attem pting to
im prove and expand its data-gatherin g activ itie s.
It is recom m ended that at le a s t two U.S.
manpower ex p erts be assign ed to work with
the Planning D ivision to help develop manpower
p ro g ram s. M ost urgent work is requ ired to
combat the high urban unemployment, about
28 percent of the urban work fo rce , by applying
the experience of the U.S. Civilian Conservation
C orps to orient urban unemployed youth toward
agricu ltu ral and ru ra l p u rsu its. Upgrading e x ist­
ing sk ills is another m ajor a re a for technical
a ssista n c e . C ou rse work to produce agricu ltu ral
extention w orkers and other farm w orkers can
help im prove food production and work op­
portunities in the ru ra l a r e a s. In the long run,
an inventory of sk ills and a su rvey of sk ill
needs should be p rep ared in ord er to determ ine
educational and training needs, Steps on how
these ta sk s can be accom plished are d escrib ed .

1 / U.S. D epartm ent of Labor International
Technical A ssistan c e C orps.

A frica
N igeria

Investment in EducationJL/
(1960; 139 pages)
Sir E ric Ashby, Chairm an of the C om m ission on Post-School C ertificate
and Higher Education in N igeria (financed by Carnegie Corporation)
A com prehensive rep o rt of N igeria’ s educational needs
up to 1980, b ased on projections of high-level manpower
requirem ents.
One of the b a sic documents used by the Com­
m issio n to project education needs w as the study
prepared by F re d eric k H arbison on N igeria’ s
high-level manpower needs. A copy of this study
i s included in the C om m ission ’ s report.
H arbison estim ated that 31,000 additional
high-level personnel and 55,000 additional tech­
nical and su p erv iso ry personnel would be needed
by 1970. The current educational sy stem is not
capable of producing th is quantity. The short fall
would have to continue to be filled with ex p atri­
a te s. (About one-third of high-level manpower is
foreign .) Some upgrading of sk ills can fill the gap
a little, but not to the extent required.
H arbison concluded that N igeria’ s m ost u r­
gent need is for a fivefold expansion of in ter­
m ediate (technical) education. At the u niversity
level, the m ost urgent need i s for technical and
scien tific education. Although technical educa­
tion i s m ore costly than lib eral education, N igeria
should be prepared to support this program .
The m ajor recom m endations of the C om m is­
sion aim at upgrading curren t s k ills and de­
signing a postsecon dary sy stem to psodce the




estim ated 1970 needs. In ord er to a s s e s s educa­
tional needs at the higher le v e ls, the C om m ission
estim ates the number of pupils and teach ers in
p rim ary and secondary gram m ar sch ools up to
1970. The final rep o rt c o v ers in detail all le v els
of the education sy stem . The acceptance of the
C om m ission ’ s rep o rt appears in Educational
Development 1961-70, Sessio n al P aper No. 3 of
1961, Federation of N igeria, along with m odifi­
cation s and changes in the recom m endations.
To provide guidance and balance between
education and manpower, the C om m ission r e c ­
ommended the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of an InterRegional Manpower B oard and a Manpower S ec­
re ta ria t. 2 /

A lso known a s the Ashby C om m ission
Report.
_2/ A National Manpower B oard w as e stab ­
lish ed in 1962, m em bers of which are drawn
from all se c to r s of the economy. Several in­
terestin g and inform ative manpower stu dies
have been published by this board.
J j

39

A fric a
N igeria

Establish m en t of an Employment M arket Information P rogram
(1962; 24 pages)
ILO Report to the Government of N igeria;
IL O /O T A /N igeria/R .3; R.N. Jack so n (United Kingdom)
A review of the employment se rv ice organization and
so u rc e s of employment data.
The Labour D ivision of the F ed eral M inistry
of Labour op erates a field organization of labor
o ffic e s; a m ain labor office is in each of the
three region al cap itals. There is no sep arate
budgetary provision of a national employment
exchange a s such. Employment exchanges are
operated at m ost labor o ffices, but their control
is only one of the many duties of a labor o fficer.
V ery little specialization , such a s testin g and
counseling, is done. The o ffices are poorly
equipped and scan tily staffed. T his situation will
be aggravated when new re sp o n sib ilitie s are
assu m ed a s a re su lt of the acceptance of the
Ashby C om m ission Report. (See preceding sum ­
m ary.)
A vailable data on employment w ere in suffi­
cient for effective employment se rv ice o p era­
tions. They con sisted of the following:
1. 1952-53 cen sus (a 1962 cen su s is under­
way).
2. Annual establishm en t rep o rt of em ploy­
ment and earn in gs.
3. Q uarterly review of labor i n s p e c t i o n
ac tiv itie s and sim ila r m atters.
4. R egistratio n s and placem ents of the em ­
ployment exchanges.

40




Steps were taken to conduct a pilot su rvey
of establish m en ts to obtain the n e c e ssa ry current
data. An index of estab lish m en ts w as com piled
for L ago s and la te r extended to cover all of
N igeria. All m anufacturing estab lish m en ts that
employed 40 w orkers or m ore, all nonmanu­
facturing estalish m en ts that employed 100 or
m ore, and selected government agen cies were
included in the survey. The question naires w ere
m ailed and followed by p erso n al v isits. Occupa­
tional c lassific a tio n was done by the consultant
and his counterpart. L ater an Occupational
R esearch and A nalysis Unit w as se t up in the
Employment S e rv ic e s Branch. The re su lts of the
su rvey confirm ed the p re ssin g need for trained
technicians, a need mentioned by the Ashby
C om m ission.
Specific recom m endations covered im prove­
ments in the adm inistrative, financial, and
functional asp e cts of an effective Employment
Service O ffice. The index of establish m en ts
should be m aintained; other agen cies p o ssib ly
could supply the needed inform ation. Future
establishm ent su rvey s should be b ased on the
method devised by the consultant and a manual
of p roced u res should be p repared when these
methods have been standardized.

A frica
N igeria

Study of Manpower N eeds, Educational C apab ilities, and O v erseas Study
(1965; 58 pages)
Education and World A ffairs (Report No. 8): Study Com m ittee on Manpower
Needs and Educational C apabilities in A frica, prep ared for AID,
Report a s s e s s e s available data on high-level manpower
needs, a p p ra ise s cap ab ilities of N igerian educational
institutions to m eet these n eeds, and su rv ey s oppor­
tunities for study abroad.

The National Development Plan, 1962-68,
p rep ared by the M inistry of Economic Develop­
ment, called for an av erage annual G ro ss National
Product growth rate of 4 percent. Highest prio rity
w as given to agricu ltu re, industry, and training
of high-level and in term ediate-level manpower.
A ccom plishm ents to date were difficult to a s s e s s
at this tim e (1965) but many o b se rv e rs concluded
that N igeria fe ll short of its goal.
The National Manpower B oard, created in
1962, prepared a com prehensive establishm ent
su rvey of high-level manpower needs in govern­
ment, educational institutions, and private indus­
try. T here is a sev ere shortage of sk illed man­
power. R evised p r o j e c t i o n s indicate that
H arbison’ s 1970 e stim ate s of m iddle-level man­
power were too low by n early h a lf.J./ In fact,
1963
employment
already
approxim ated
H arbison’ s 1970 target. This d iscrepan cy a ro se
b ecau se he defined interm ediate personnel in
te rm s of education received o r requ ired, where­
a s the Manpower S e c re ta ria t counted all those




who actually w ere working in the occupation
r e g a r d le ss of their educational background.
T h is situation su g g e sts the c ritic a l im portance
of in -se rv ic e training and upgrading of those
alread y employed.
Excellent d escription s of the manpower
m achinery and of the educational c ap ab ilities of
N igeira are provide.
The m ajor recom m endations of this rep o rt
concentrate on the “d esirab le d irec tio n s* of U.S.
Government aid. AID should give fir s t p rio rity in
its a ssista n c e strategy to the development of
indigenous institutions and second p rio rity to
sch o larsh ip s and other student aid at N igerian
u n iv e rsitie s. Low er p rio rity should be given to
a s s is t N igerians to study in the Unites States.
Each of these item s is explained in detail.

1 / Copy of H arbison’ s study is included in
the Ashby Com m ission rep o rt. See page 39 for
referen ce.

41

A frica
N igeria

N igerian Human R esou rce Development and Utilization
(1967; 200 pages)
Education and World A ffairs Report: Com m ittee on Education and Human
R eso u rce Development, N igerian P ro ject T ask F o rc e , F re d e ric k H. H arbison

Manpower needs of the N igerian
educational and training sy stem .

The purpose of the p ro ject was to a s s is t
AID in evaluating and planning its p rogram
of a ssista n c e to N igeria in the a r e a of education
and human re so u rc e development.
N igeria is fortunate in having available well
developed planning m achinery. The prin cipal
integrating body is the National Econom ic Coun­
cil and its su b sid iary , the Join t Planning Com­
m ittee. In the a re a of education and human
re so u rc e development, there are the Joint
C o n s u l t a t i v e Com m ittee for Education, the
National Manpower B oard, and the National
U n iv ersities C om m ission.
P art I of the rep o rt d e sc rib e s the problem s
and manpower needs of the N igerian economy;
P a rt II an alyzes its training and educational s y s ­
tem , both form al education at all le v e ls and inse rv ic e training; and P art III d is c u ss e s the
financing and efficiency of form al education.

economy

and the

of the interm ediate and low productivity se c to r s,
esp ecially sm all in d u stries and ru ra l en ter­
p r is e s .
2. C ritical high-level and m iddle-level p e r ­
sonnel, such a s sc ie n tists, technicians, man­
agem ent personn el, teac h ers, should be trained
to fill the needs of the high productivity se c to rs.
3. E x istin g educational and training r e ­
so u rc es should be b etter u t i l i z e d through
im proved p l a n n i n g and coordination among
governm ental units.
4. B etter qualified teach ers should be devel­
oped by upgrading through in -se rv ic e training
p ro g ram s.
5. To facilitate achievement of these p r io r i­
tie s, “development orientation* should be en­
couraged throughout the educational and training
sy stem . Such a sy stem in co rporates two vital
elem ents: (a) an employment orientation where­
by youth a r e trained to se rv e a s productive
The sum m ary p rese n ts five p rio ritie s fo r
m em bers of society , and (b) se rv ic e on the p art
AID action:
of the educational sy stem to the c ritic a l national
1.
The e d u c a t i o n a l and training sy stem development g o a ls (so cial, p o l i t i c a l , and
should be directed m ore effectively to the needs
econom ic).

42




A frica
Rhodesia

Manpower Development and Utilization P o lic ies and P ra c tic e s
in the Rhodesian P rivate Sector and their In terrelationships with the Management System :
A C ase Study
(1966; 295 pages)
New York U niversity, Graduate School of B u sin e ss A dm inistration:
Ph.D. dissertatio n by C h arles G. Nowacek
A study of the p rac tice s and p o lic ie s of private firm s
and statutory b o ard s that affect manpower development
and utilization in Rhodesia.

Since m id-1950, the lab o r m arket has moved
rapidly toward an advanced stag e of m aturity. An
in creasin g number of m ale A frican s are em ­
ployed in m anufacturing, mining, and con stru c­
tion and have relativ ely stab le attachm ents to
the urban labo r m arkets. However, the continued
u se of w orker re g istratio n fo r controlling m obil­
ity and the w eakness of the trade union m echanism
a re sig n s of stru ctu ral inhibitions to full labor
m arket m aturity.
F or the economy a s a whole, and within firm s,
training of manpower d e se rv e s m ore r e so u r c e s,
attention, and planning of government and top
m anagem ent. The output of sk illed w orkers is
inadequate to m eet curren t and future needs of
industry. Industry should encourage general up­
grading of all s k ills of the work fo rce by depend­




ing p rim arily on apprenticeships and in -se rv ic e
training rath er than on external so u rc e s of
supply.
Given the p olitical stab ility in Rhodesia in
te rm s of the assum ptions outlined and the p o li­
tic a l-r a c ia l context, both the constitutional gov­
ernment and the ju rid ical sy stem should provide
the fram ew ork for a continuation of p ast indus­
tria l and so cial development. This fram ew ork
should provide the m eans of escapin g not only
the p o licies of apartheid but also the im ple­
menting m e asu re s im plicit in these p o lic ie s. It
should also encourage attitudes and the institu­
tional patterns of advancing the growth and
development of Rhodesia a s a whole, within
m u ltiracial sch em es, sy ste m s, and su b sy stem s
of manpower adm inistration.

43

A frica
Senegal

Development of a Manpower P ro g ram
(In French; 1962; 52 pages)
ILO Report to the Government of the Republic of Senegal;
O IT /T A P /Sen egal/R .2; Leon Reneau, (Belgium)
A ssessm en t of manpower situation in Senegal.
The F o u r-Y ear Econom ic Development Plan
(1961-64) did not include statem en ts on human
r e s o u r c e s or on manpower development.
Recognizing this om issio n , the Government
cre ated a M inistry of Education and Training
to provide the n e c e ssa ry trained manpower to
m eet the econom ic go als. Current data are
insufficient to provide an accu rate picture of
the employment situation. The few data that are
available are d escrib ed .
The Employment Office has not been able
to render useful se rv ic e b ecau se of the com ­
petition from p riv ate employment placem ent
o ffic es. A ccording to a recent labor law, the
Government plan s to grant the Employment
Service com plete monopoly in placem ent func­
tions.
Two manpower su rv ey s w ere conducted to
determ ine occupational requirem ents for m eet­

44




ing the needs of the econom ic plan. The su rv ey s
covered both public and priv ate se c to r s of the
economy. The r e su lts indicate that the number
of high- and m iddle-level manpower in the public
secto r m ust be in creased by a third (or 9,000),
and in the private sec to r by 5,000. A survey
also was made of the v ario u s training institutions
to determ ine availability of trained manpower.
Recommendations
1. Surveys of manpower r e so u rc e s and r e ­
quirem ents should be made on a continuing
b a s is .
2. An inventory of trained manpower should
be maintained by utilizing re c o rd s of training
institutions.
3. The adm inistrative m achinery for m an­
power development should be expanded and
im proved.

A frica
Senegal

O rganization of the Employment Service
(In French; 1963; 34 pages)
ILO Report to the Government of the Republic of Senegal;
O IT /T A P /S en eg al/R .3; Leon Reneau, Belgium
D escription of the functions
Employment S e rv ic e s.
A s the re su lt of the labor law of 1961, the
Employment Service w as estab lish ed on the
b a s is of the ILO Convention No. 88. However,
b ecau se of its sm all budget, it h as not been able
to fulfill the needs of an effective manpower
se rv ic e . F o r exam ple, only one agent was a s ­
signed to c a r ry out placem ent and registratio n
functions in each region al office. (The law p ro ­
vided that these functions be sep arate .) L ack of
funds also delayed the collection of sta tistic a l
inform ation such a s number of w orkers em ­
ployed. The functions and operations of the
Employment Serv ice o ffices are describ ed in
detail.
The stru ctu re of the cen tral office at D akar
and of the four regional o ffices ap p ears to be




and operations

of the

adequate for norm al Employment Service func­
tions, but the opening of two new region al o ffices
w as not ju stified.
Recom m endations em phasized that the work
which was starte d by the consultant should be
continued. This work con sisted of collection of
reg istratio n sta tistic s, im provem ent in p lace ­
ment proced u res, and adaptation of ILO occupa­
tional c lassific atio n sy stem . In addition, an
inventory of establishm en ts should be developed.
A National Consultative Com m ission on Sta­
t is t ic s , at the level of the C om m issioner G eneral
of the Plan, should be estab lish ed . The Chief of
the Employment Service should be an effective
m em ber of the technical section of the Planning
O rganization.

45

A frica
Senegal

The

ILO

O rganization of the Employment Service
(In French; 1964; 17 pages)

R eport to the Government of the Republic of Senegal;
O IT /T A P / Sen egal/R . 5; A lfred Caron, (Belgium)

Continuation of the work
ILO consultant.
T his rep o rt is an elaboration of preceding
recom m endations concerning the organization of
the cen tral and region al Employment Service
o ffices in accordance with the labor law of 1961.
R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s d escrib ed the effo rts
which should continue o r should be initiated to
provide an effective Employment Serv ice. R ec­
om m endations were made on the following topics:

46




starte d

by the preceding

1. Improvement of ph ysical fa c ilitie s.
2. Cooperation among the v ariou s o ffices
and with the cen tral office.
3. Popularization of Employment Service
activ ities.
4. T raining of personnel.
5. P reparatio n of a technical manual.
6. Improvement of operating p roced u res.
7. C lassificatio n of occupations.

A frica
S ie r ra Leone

Survey of Manpower Requirem ents at Higher and Interm ediate L ev els
(1965; 59 pages)
R eport to the Government of S ie r ra Leone, p repared by Robert Brown (London)
A prelim in ary study b ased on lim ited available data.
The fir s t C ensus of Population, conducted in
1963, in dicates a population of over 2 m illion, of
which 90 percent is directly dependent on a g r i­
culture. About 63,000 people in the labor fo rce
a re wage e a rn e rs. Surveys of establishm en ts and
of educational and training institutions w ere con­
ducted by the consultant to analyze currently em ­
ployed nonfarm manpower, to estim ate future
needs, and to com pare these needs with an tici­
pated educational output. The methods used in the
establishm en t su rvey and in the educational
trainin g capability su rvey are d escrib ed fully and
detailed tab les on the r e su lts are presented in
the appendix.
An an aly sis of manpower supply in relation
to estim ated needs re v e a ls that se rio u s defi­
cien cies will occur in alm ost ev ery occupation




at all le v e ls of education. Government admin­
istrativ e o ffic e rs rep resen t the only r e a l su rp lu s,
p rim arily becau se certain students are on gov­
ernment sc h o larsh ip s and “bonded” to govern­
ment se r v ic e s on graduation.
Recom m endations
1. Manpower needs should be review ed p e­
riod ically in ord er to r e v ise manpower and
educational planning.
2. A Manpower Planning Unit should be
estab lish ed in the Development Office and inte­
grated with all planning functions.
3. A fter organization of this Unit and p ro c ­
e ssin g of cen su s data, a fu ll-sc a le supply and
demand manpower su rvey should be conducted.

47

A frica
Som alia Republic

Som alia Manpower Survey
(1966; 4 pages)
A irgram A347, May 14, 1966, p repared by A m em bassy M ogadiscio
Sum m ary of an ILO report on the manpower situation
in Som alia (full text, 11 pages).

B ecau se of high birth and m ortality r a te s,
Som alia has an unusually la rg e proportion of its
population in the prew orking age. Approxim ately
75 percent of the population is dependent on the
other 25 percent. No national fig u res are cited,
but recorded unemployment in M ogadiscio w as
four tim es higher by the end of 1963 than it
w as in 1960 and is expected to get w orse.
The ILO consultant, D r. Nizan, recom m ended
concentration on labor-inten sive rather than
capital-inten sive p ro je cts to help absorb the
la rg e potential pool of unemployment. To bring
this about, he p ro p o ses bringing new fa rm a r e a s
under cultivation, introducing ag raria n refo rm ,

48




constructing r e s e r v o ir s and ponds, developing
fo re st and fish e rie s re so u r c e s, and prom oting
community development p ro g ram s.
P resen t sh o rtages in sk illed manpower also
will continue to get w orse u n less certain step s
are taken. The country p a r t i c u l a r l y needs
scien tific and engineering grad uates. T hese can
be trained by o v e rse a s study and by intensive
on-the-job and technical school training.
In sum m ary, the study m akes an “excellent
c a se fo r planning for education, not a s a d esirab le
adjunct to, but a s a n e c e ssa ry and in tegral p art
of, economic planning.”

A frica
Sudan

Establish m en t of an Employment M arket Information P rogram
(1965; 38 pages)
ILO Report to the Government of the Republic of the Sudan;
ILO /O T A /Sudan/R .9; H. P. Davenport (India)
An intensive study of all asp e cts of manpower develop­
ment and planning in Sudan.

An Em ployment Serv ice had been estab lish ed
in Khartoum; but the methods of reg istratio n , o c­
cupational and in du strial c lassific atio n , and s t a ­
tistic a l collection made the data unsuitable to
se rv e a s a source of employment m arket in for­
mation. To obtain up-to-date inform ation r e ­
garding employment in industrial e stab lish ­
m ents, the consultant conducted su rvey s of
establish m en ts to obtain inform ation on em ploy­
ment, occupations, in - se r v ic e training p ro ­
g r a m s, v acan cies, and sim ila r data. Only about
50 p e r c e n t of the surveyed establish m en ts
responded. Population and labor fo rce p ro je c ­
tions w ere made on the b a sis of the 1956 Census
of Population. The r e su lts from the su rv ey s and
these projection s aided in the preparation of the
proposed T en-Y ear Plan.

2.
The development of manpower w as ham ­
pered by the lack of coordinating manpower
adm inistrative m achinery.
Recom m endations

1. O fficials should prom ote wide understand­
ing of the need for manpower planning.
2. A manpower advisory com m ittee and co ­
ordinating m achinery should be estab lish ed to
integrate manpower policy with economic and
so cial development planning.
3. The work of the existin g Manpower Plan­
ning A dm inistrative Unit should be reviewed.
(Work con sisted of survey techniques.)
4. The Employment Service should be o r ­
ganized according to ILO Convention No. 88.
5. In view of the serio u s shortage of skilled
w orkers a s revealed by the survey, the valuable
comments made by respondents should be r e ­
Conclusions
examined.
6. A manpower a sse ssm e n t and planning con­
1.
Manpower problem s were developing a s a
sultant should be assign ed to aid in carry in g out
re su lt of the rapid in cre ase in the number of
the v ariou s recom m endations, and a suitable
p erso n s of working age, the shortage of skilled
local counterpart o fficer should be identified.
personnel, and dependence of foreign w orkers.




49

A fric a
Sudan

Functions and A ctivities of the D epartm ent of L ab or
(1965; 26 pages)
DOLITAC 1 / Staff Paper No. 3;
Arthur W. Motley, Manpower Consultant
Review of current labor p ro g ram s and recom m endations
for the establishm ent of a workable M inistry of L ab or.

The purpose of the m issio n was to make
a detailed an aly sis of the functions and operations
of the Departm ent of Lab or in Sudan. The
effectiv en ess of the Departm ent would be im ­
proved by AID’ s a ss istin g it to provide leadersh ip
fo r the creation of a viable labor movement and
to contribute to a long-term economic develop­
ment program . The recom m ended organ iza­
tional pattern and a sum m ary of the variou s
recom m endations, actions to be taken, and
technical se r v ic e s needed appear in the ap­
pendix.
Under the M inistry of L ab o r, three sp ecific
functions should be estab lish ed :
1. Manpower—resp o n sib le fo r all activities
of the Em ployment Serv ice, vocational training,
apprentice training, on-the-job training.
2. S t a n d a r d s —resp o n sib le for ordinances
providing w orker p r o t e c t i o n : collection of
w ages, protection again st job in ju rie s, factory
in spection s, workmen’ s c o m p e n s a t i o n , child
labo r.

50




3.
L ab or re latio n s—respo n sible fo r trade
disp u tes, re g istratio n of trade unions.
Recom m endations
1. The L abor Department should assu m e
leadersh ip in manpower planning in coordination
with other M in istries.
2. The E m p l o y m e n t Service should be
im proved and reorgan ized at national and local
le v e ls. E sp e cia lly needed are ru ra l employment
development p ro g ram s and labor m arket infor­
mation p ro g ram s.
3. The M inistry should hire additional p e r ­
sonnel and provide in -se rv ic e training in ord er
to c a r r y out the variou s recom m endations.
4. AID should provide technical a ssista n c e
in all asp e cts of the reorganization of the
Lab or M inistry. Technical se r v ic e s a re liste d
in the appendix.

J j U.S. Departm ent of L ab or International
Technical A ssistan c e C orps.

A frica
Sudan

Study of Manpower N eeds, Educational C apab ilities and O v erseas Study
(1965; 42 pages)
Education and World A ffairs (Report No. 4): Study Committee on Manpower Needs
and Educational C apab ilities in A frica, p repared fo r AID
An a sse ssm e n t of available data on manpower needs, an
ap p raisal of educational institutions, and a study of
o v e rse a s training opportunities.

The T en-Y ear Plan of Econom ic and Social
Development (1961-71) w as form ulated by the
Econom ic Planning S e cre tariat of the M inistry
of Finance. D ata on manpower are too sc a rc e to
be of a ssista n c e in planning for high-level man­
power development. The re c o rd s of som e of the
r e se a r c h conducted by variou s foreign tech­
nicians (ILO, UN, AID) have been lo st or m islaid .
The manpower an aly sis conducted by Edwin C.
C rosby 1 / in 1960 was reviewed a s the m ost com ­
prehensive available study to date.
A ccording to e stim a te s, high-level manpower
supply would m eet alm ost 75 percent of the ad­
ditional personnel requ ired by 19 71. M iddle-level
manpower supply ap p ears to be in g re a te st need
for a ssista n c e sin ce only 12 percent of req u ire­
m ents a re expected to be met. Specific needs at
this level are for technically trained personnel.




Recommendations
1. More effective manpower planning m a­
chinery should be encouraged.
2. A ssistan c e should be provided to develop­
ing m iddle-level manpower.
3. Training of employed manpower should be
supported.
4. USAID should continue its p resen t support
for the U niversity of Khartoum and perh aps in­
c re a se its a ssista n c e .
5. O v erseas training should be maintained
esp ecially for the development of m iddle-level
manpower.

1/ Of the Education D ivision of USAID/Sudan.

51

A frica
Sudan

H igh-Level

Manpower R equirem ents and R eso u rces
Republic of Sudan, 1968-1972
(1967; 55 pages)

John B. Seal, J r . , Manpower A d v iser, The F ord Foundation
A sse ssm e n t of the employment situation of grad u ates of
higher education institutions in Sudan.

A su rvey of public and private establishm en ts
was conducted to determ ine the occupational
distribution in each nonfarm econom ic activity.
Only a little over 2 percent of Sudan’ s population
hold nonfarm wage employment. Of this group,
the public se c to r em ploys 87 percent. F iv e -y e ar
e stim ate s w ere projected on the b a s is of the
retu rn s from e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . E stim a te s of
supply w ere b ased on an an aly sis of the output
trends of secondary and higher education institu­
tions.
The m ajor portion of the rep o rt an alyzes
the relationship between supply and demand
projected to 1971. In ord er to estab lish m ean­
ingful r e l a t i o n s h i p s , specialized sk ills are
m atched with specialized requ irem en ts. Only
in this way can sc a r c e r e so u rc e s be allocated
to the p rio rity needs of economic development.
About 10 p ag es of tab les presen t these d etails.

to fill the educational and sk ill needs for
economic development. D etails of the adm inis­
trativ e m echanism to effect this recom m endation
are provided.
2. Sudan should e stab lish a Manpower Plan­
ning and P ro g ram Section in the M inistry of
Finance and Econom ics to implement the recom ­
mendations made in this rep o rt into an active
program . Other manpower organizational units
a lso a re recom m ended to c a rry out manpowerrelated functions.
3. The Manpower Branch of the M inistry
of L ab or and Cooperation should p rep are m an­
power and employment re p o rts periodically; for
exam ple, establishm ent su rv ey s, labor fo rce
su rv e y s, educational sta tistic s.

4. Personn el p ro g ram s, such a s recruitm ent
and selection, placem ent, vacancy an aly sis,
in -serv ic e training, retirem ent sy stem , should
1.
Sudan should invest in secondary and be expanded and im proved for effective u tili­
higher education so lely in the amounts n e c e ssa ry
zation of the Public Serv ice.

Recom m endations

52




A frica
Swaziland

Manpower A ssessm en t
(1965; 81 pages)
ILO Report to the Government of Swaziland;
IL O /T A P /Sw azilan d /R . 1; A. V. Tottle (United Kingdom)
P relim in ary a sse ssm e n t of manpower re so u rc e s and
requirem ents with p articu lar referen ce to skilled man­
power requ irem en ts.

A vailable inform ation con sisted of the 1956
C ensus of Population, the 1960 sam ple su rvey of
the labor fo rce , q u arterly establishm ent su rvey s
of employment, and fragm entary data from v a r ­
ious other so u rc e s. Information about future de­
velopm ents w as contained in “Swaziland D evel­
opment Plan 1963-66,* which w as little m ore than
a listin g of d esirab le p ro je cts to be subm itted to
the B ritish Government for approval and allo c a­
tion of funds. The lack of national income s t a t is ­
tic s and of staff made com prehensive planning
im po ssib le. A s a re su lt, little inform ation could
be deduced about future manpower requirem ents.
Q uarterly establishm en t su rv ey s had been
conducted to obtain inform ation on current em ­
ployment of wage e a rn e rs in the nonfarm secto r.
The r e su lts of these su rvey s w ere analyzed to
make estim ates of curren t and future manpower
needs by occupation, industry, locality, and ed­
ucational requ irem en ts. B ecau se the coverage
varied from q u arter to qu arter, the data w ere not
com parable; th erefore, an an aly sis of the em ­
ployment trend w as not p o ssib le .




F o r the m ost p art, the survey tended to con­
firm what already w as known about manpower.
Twenty percent of all paid jobs were held by
ex p atriates. U n less educational output is higher,
there is little chance of many local people r e ­
placing ex p atriates in these job s.
Recommendations
1. G reater attention should be paid to the
creation of employment in planning future eco­
nomic development.
2. T raining of local people should be em ­
phasized in ord er to rep lace ex p atriates.
3. Vocational guidance and trainin g oppor­
tunities should be offered to d irect people into
m iddle-level and technical ac tiv ities.
4. An effective labor m arket organization
should aim at reducing current su rp lu se s and
sh ortages. D etails of such an organization are
provided.
5. A p i l o t Employment Exchange Office
should be estab lish ed .

53

A frica
Tanzania

Human R eso u rc es

and Manpower Planning in Tanganyika
(1960; 30 pages)

John L . Thurston, Consultant, The F ord Foundation
The development of human r e so u rc e s in Tanganyika
is m ore c ritic a l than in m ost developing countries
b ecau se of its em ergence tow ard independence and the
attendant urge for A fricanization.
The consultant recom m ended again st con­
ducting a job survey at the presen t tim e (1960)
b ecau se there is no danger of oversupply of
trained w orkers in the im m ediate future. It
w as su ggested, however, that a job survey and
an educational output survey be conducted
around 1963.
In the m eantim e, b ecau se of the grea t im port­
ance of agricu ltu re to the economy, effort should
be expended to develop sk illed agricu ltu ral
a d v ise rs or extension w orkers to aid farm
fa m ilie s. Recruitm ent and training of such
w orkers will be a form idable job over the next
few y e a rs.
Government Service is an i m p o r t a n t em ­
ployer of trained m a n p o w e r . The need to
A fricanize and the expected lo s s of one-third
of the presen tly employed ex p atriates will cre ate

54




stron g p r e s s u r e s on the Government Service
to find adequately trained manpower to fill not
only the vacan cies but also the anticipated
expansion of s e r v ic e s. It was recom m ended that
a training unit be estab lish ed in the M inistry
of Education to which four training ex p erts
from the United Kingdom o r the United States
would be assign ed for at le a st 3 y e a rs.
Other types of activ ities for review include
entrance requirem ents for high- and m iddlelevel jo b s, stan dards and req u irem en ts, job
a n aly sis, and job testin g. One section of the r e ­
port analyzed the current educational sy stem
and output. Only a very sm all percen tage of
Tanganyika’ s children attain a high school educa­
tion. T each ers and school fa c ilitie s are in
cru cial need. C alculations a re made to estim ate
the c o st of supplying the requ ired number of
teac h ers.

A frica
Tanzania

Survey of H igh-Level Manpower R equirem ents and R eso u rc es in Tanganyika, 1962-67
(1962; 81 pages)
G eorge T ob ias, Consultant, The Ford Foundation
T his an aly sis of high-level manpower r e so u rc e s and
requ irem en ts is a followup of previous stu dies and
recom m endations.

T his rep o rt advances by one step the contin­
uous p r o c e ss of making approxim ations of man­
power r e s o u r c e s and requirem ents and of
su ggestin g p ro g ram s n e c e ssa ry to bring them
into balance.
Information from a survey of establishm en ts
and from other available sta tistic a l data form ed
the b a s is fo r making a high-level and sk illed man­
power inventory. E m ployers w ere asked to repo rt
their curren t employment by occupation and other
inform ation on nationality of w orkers, v acan cies,
tra in e e s, and so u rc e s of new w o rkers. They also
w ere asked to estim ate employment needs 2 and
5 y e a rs ahead and to b ase their projection s on
anticipated production plan s. This type of infor­
m ation, supplemented by assum ptions on m ortal­
ity and retirem en t r a te s, w as the b a s is for
projectin g the number of additional w orkers
needed fo r replacem ent of each occupation. The
p ro g ram of A fricanization a lso w as taken into
account to determ ine som e of the lo s s e s to
variou s occupations.
The supply of high-level manpower to meet
th is demand w as estim ated from a review of the
educational sy stem . T raining fa c ilitie s and c u r­
ric u la w ere analyzed to determ ine the level and




quality of output. A gainst a total requirem ent of
8,000 w orkers in high-level occupations over the
next 5 y e a rs, slightly over 2,200 trained people
will be available. The report d is c u ss e s in detail
the supply of m edical w orkers and teach ers and
the output of trade schools.
To maintain a continuous review of the m an­
power situation, a Human R eso u rces S e cretariat
should be estab lish ed in the Econom ic Develop­
ment C om m ission. The S e c re ta ria t should be
respo n sible for initiating and developing p ro ­
g r a m s, setting p rio ritie s, and seeing that they
a re c a rrie d out by the appropriate M in istries.
The staff should be drawn from presen t em ­
ployees of variou s M in istries and should be
knowledgeable of Tanganyika’ s so c ia l, econom ic,
manpower, and educational problem s.
A sta tistic a l sy stem also w as proposed with
m ajor respon sibility for coordinating all eco­
nomic and so cial data in the S ta tistic s D ivision
of the T re asu ry . R espon sibility fo r collecting
sta tistic a l data on manpower should rem ain in
the appropriate M in istries. Several recom ­
mendations were made concerning the collection
of labor m arket inform ation, su rvey techniques,
occupational c lassific atio n , and sim ila r su b jects.

55

A frica
T anzania

Survey of the H igh-Level Manpower Requirem ents
and R eso u rc es for the F iv e -Y ear Development Plan 1964-65 to 1968-69
(1965; 21 pages)
Robert L . Thom as, Consultant, The F ord Foundation
The establishm ent survey of 1964 r e v e a ls that the
target goal of self-su fficien cy in high-level manpower
will be reached in 1980, if proposed educational and
manpower p ro g ram s are c a rrie d out.

The fir s t manpower su rvey w as made in 1962
by G eorge T ob ias. (See preceding sum m ary.)
Since that tim e, national manpower planning
m achinery w as estab lish ed and a F iv e -Y ear Plan
w as form ulated. A new survey w as needed to
obtain inform ation to p repare supply and demand
projectio n s for sp e cific high-level occupations
under the conditions fo r development laid down
in the Plan.
The 1964 study surveyed all la rg e e stab lish ­
m ents in Tanzania; they represen ted nearly
three-fou rth s of all nonagrieultural em ploy­
ment. H igh-level manpower was concentrated
in governm ent and in the la rg e r establish m en ts.
A ll adm inistrative, managem ent, p ro fessio n al,
technical, sk illed c r a fts, and c le ric a l occupa­
tion s, which were considered high-level and
sk illed, were catego rized according to e d u c a ­
tional and training requ irem ents.
The establishm ent survey provided occupa­
tional inform ation on employment, v acan cies,
number of job s held by A frican s, and em ployer
e stim ate s of requ irem ents in the 5-year period

56




to 1969. The num bers of p erso n s actually r e ­
quired to fullfill em ployer demand were calc u ­
lated by adding lo s s e s (death, retirem en t, and
A fricanization) to anticipated net in c re a se s
Where p o ssib le , refinem ents were made to these
b a sic p rojectio n s. T ab les showing both industry
and occupational p rojectio n s and their com ­
ponents are presented.
Supply data w ere e stim ate s b ased on educa­
tional and training output. U niversity-trained
manpower supply w as estim ated by straigh t ex ­
trapolation of curren t le v e ls among the v ariou s
d iscip lin es. No attempt w as made to estim ate
the sh ortfall in skilled occupations since m ost
sk ills w ere acquired on the job and through
prom otions.
The an aly sis re v e a ls that the target goal of
self-su fficien cy in high-level (profession al and
technical) manpower will be achieved by 1980,
if the proposed educational p ro g ram s are c a rrie d
out. Some prob lem s with developing skilled
(manual) occupations e x ist, but there is every
reaso n to believe the difficu lties which do e x ist
will be reso lved satisfa c to rily .

A frica
Tanzania

Integration of Educational and Economic Planning in Tanzania
(1965; 78 pages)
G eorge Skorov, UNESCO, International Institute of Educational Planning (IIEP)
T his study ex p lo res the problem s of form ulating educa­
tional development plans and evaluates the methods used
in T anzania to overcom e these problem s.

The fir s t half of the study su m m arizes the
econom ic development plan and the labor force
and employment situation to provide a setting for
the main th e sis of the study. E xistin g studies on
manpower needs and r e so u r c e s are evaluated.
C onsideration is given to the fact that the variou s
consultants started p rac tically from sc ratc h and
that they often had to substitute experience and
im agination for fa c ts and fig u re s which w ere not
availab le.
The Hunter Study (1962) w as the fir s t rough
a sse ssm e n t of high-level manpower in E a st
A frica. Its m ajor purpose w as to a s s is t those
engaged in university planning. The m ajor c r it­
ic ism s of the study w ere that insufficient oc­
cupational d etails were supplied and that a con­
stant correlatio n between the relativ e siz e of
employment and changes in national income was
assu m ed .
The T obias Survey (1962) w as a landm ark in
manpower surveying in Tanzania and the fir s t
sy stem atic inventory of high-level manpower by
broad occupational groups. Its m ain w eakness
w as that the study could not be related to a sp e c i­
fic economic p ro g ram since there was no devel­
opment plan yet in existen ce.




The Thom as Survey (1964) w as geared to the
economic development plan, its occupational
coverage was m ore inclusive than the T obias
study, and its conclusions on the educational
sy stem w ere m ore p re c ise . Its m ajor weak­
n e sse s were the application of a developed coun­
try ’ s annual rate of economic growth to an
underdeveloped country and the assum ption that
the existin g occupational distribution would be
the sam e in 1970.
The second half of the study evalu ates the
manpower and educational planning p ro g ram s
that resu lted from these su rv ey s. An an aly sis of
the economic outlook of Tanzania indicated that a
m ore cautious approach to manpower projection s
would be required since the projected high r a te s
of economic growth and productivity m ay not be
achieved. All the manpower su rv ey s made c le a r
the vital role of secondary and higher education,
esp ecially in scien tific and technical fie ld s, in
ord er to m eet high-level manpower req u ire­
m ents. It w as su ggested that any su rplu s educated
manpower would be absorbed by the in creased
rate of A fricanization and, th erefore, the danger
of o v e r e s t i m a t e d needs is re ally not so
great.

57

A frica
Tanzania

Job A n alysis, A fricanization, and Manpower Management in Tanganyika
(1965; 6 pages)
John B. Seal, J r . , Manpower U tilization O fficer to the Government of
Tanganyika, A rticle in P ersonn el A dm inistration (July-A ugust 1965) p.36ff.
This a rticle d eals with the e ffo rts to A frican ize the
Civil Serv ice through the technique of job an aly sis.

A fricanization of the Civil Serv ice h as been
an im portant objective of the Government of
Tanganyika. While the number of A frican s
em ployed in the Civil Service in creased from
78 percent in 1951 to 88 percent in 1961, they
were la rg e ly concentrated in the lower le v els;
only 20 percent were represen ted in the higher
ran k s. The F ord Foundation w as invited to
exam ine the economy from the standpoint of
human r e so u r c e s development and manpower
planning. The rep o rt 1 / submitted in 1960 con­
cluded that (1) expatriate o ffic e rs would be
needed fo r se v e ra l m ore y e a rs; (2) su p e rv iso rs
m ust be respo n sible fo r job-training ac tiv itie s;
(3) the Government m ust provide outstanding
p ro fessio n al leadersh ip to develop an expanded
training p rogram ; and (4) m aximum effo rts are
needed to adju st both entrance stan dards and job
content to facilitate hiring A frican s into the
C ivil Serv ice. Thus, job an aly sis a s a m an­
agem ent technique would be a partn er in the
trem endous training and staffin g effort facing
the country.
The F ord Foundation sent three job an aly sts
to coordinate the training effort toward A fri­
canizing the Civil S e rv ice. T heir f ir s t task *
o ccu rrin g in the m idst o f independence activ ities*
w as to su rvey high-level adm inistrative jo b s.

58




T hese included 80 p o sts in 12 M in istries and
constituted the “elite c o r p s” of the Civil Serv ice.
The r e su lts becam e the benchm ark documents
for job an aly sis and m easu rem en ts. The repo rt
con sisted of position descrip tio n s, functional
and organizational c h a rts, and observation s and
recom m endations of all fa c to rs related to job
perform ance. One of the m ajor problem s encoun­
tered in this survey w as the d istru st engendered
by operating o ffic ials and their fe ar that their
jobs would be downgraded. This apprehension
required constant salesm an sh ip to explain the
re a l purpose of job an aly sis and m easurem ent.
Specific outcome of the su rvey resu lted in
a m ore effectively organized and flexible cadre
of adm inistrative talent at a la rg e saving in
annual s a la r ie s . Since the time of the survey,
by 1965, alm ost 89 percent of the total Civil
Service was A frican and n early half of the highlevel position s w ere held by A frican o ffic e rs.
The next step w as to extend job an aly sis through­
out all se c to r s of the economy in a way to
convince both management and em ployees of its
worth. In its m odest way, job an aly sis can help
determ ine the speed and direction in the develop­
ment of A frican b u sin e ss le a d e r s of tom orrow .
1 / See su m m ary on page 54.

A frica
Tanzania

Strategy of Implementing a Manpower P ro g ram in a Developing Country
P aper delivered to Conference of International Institute of Educational Planning
(1966; 59 pages)
Robert L . Thom as, Consultant, The F ord Foundation
A description of the actions taken to implement a
manpower pro g ram in Tanzania and an evaluation of the
effectiv en ess of these m e asu re s a re “relevant to other
sub-Sah aran, newly independent c o u n tries.”

Two b a sic or “ m a ste r ” p o lic ies govern Tan­
zan ia’ s manpower program :
1. Achieve self-su fficien cy at all sk ill le v els
by 1980.
2. To achieve this am bitious goal, invest in
education that is related to the sk ills needed for
economic development.
N e c e ssa ry preconditions to a su c ce ssfu l man­
power program include:
1. Support by highest political le a d e rs and
governm ent o ffic ials.
2. Integration of program with the economic
development plan.
3. D irect communication between chief man­
power planning officer and chief executive of
nation.
4.
High-level manpower requ irem en ts
p r e sse d in sp ecific occupational te rm s for guid­
ance of educational plann ers.
The section on the “ P r o c e ss of Im plem enta­
tion” d e sc rib e s the step s taken to bring supply
into balance with demand through Tanzania’ s
educational sy stem . The implem entation of the
v ario u s p o licies a re d isc u sse d in detail. Much
of the su c c e ss of the program is the re su lt of
occupational counseling b ased on employment
m arket inform ation. T raining of high-level p ro ­
fe ssio n al and technical w orkers can be done in




the school sy stem . M iddle-level w orkers can be
produced by l e s s form al m eans through upgrad­
ing, b etter utilization of curren t skilled w o rkers,
on-job and apprentice training, and retention of
sk illed expatriate w orkers.
A strong cen tral planning organization is e s ­
sen tial to the ac c elerate econom ic development
of a developing country, and a manpower planning
unit is a n e c e ssa ry p art of that organization.
T anzania’ s Planning O rganization is independ­
ent of any other government agency and has been
given great authority. It developed the fiv e-y ear
plan in collaboration with other M in istries. One
of the fe atu res of the Planning O rganization is
the establishm ent of Planning Units in the M inis­
t r ie s . T hese units a re in tegral p a r ts of the
M in istries but provide a focal point for the Cen­
tra l Planning O rganization in dealing with the
M in istries.
ex ­
Within the Planning O rganization, the Man­
power Planning Unit created a National Man­
power A dvisory Committee made up of m anage­
ment, lab o r, and government le a d e r s. This
com m ittee o b t a i n s advice, reactio n s, and
opinions on such p ro je c ts a s the National Ap­
prenticeship Plan, trad e, testin g, etc.
The r e s t of the rep o rt d e sc rib e s the role of
the public and private se c to r s in the p r o c e ss of
developing and utilizing sk ills. Special em ph asis
is placed on the development of a flow of infor­
mation needed to c a r ry out an effective manpower
program .

59

A fric a
T anzania

Manpower Development for Industrialization
Country C ase Study: United Republic of Tanzania
(1966; 67 pages)
P rep ared for the Center fo r Industrial Development, United Nations, by
Robert L . T hom as, Consultant, The F ord Foundation
T his c a se study d eals with e stim ate s, plan s, and im ple­
mentation actions relatin g to Tanzania’ s p rogram of
high-level manpower development to m eet the needs
of its Plan for Economic and Social Development.

A description of the country, the economy, and
the F iv e -Y e ar Plan se ts the stag e for the d isc u s­
sion on Tanzania’ s manpower supply/dem and
outlook and on the v ario u s p ro g ram s for p ro ­
ducing the sk ills needed for its e c o n o m i c
development.
T anzania’ s curren t stock of high-level man­
power sk ills w as estim ated in 1964 and matched
with e stim ate s of demand in ord er to identify
sh o rtfalls. E ffects on A fricanization and w astage
from deaths and retirem ent were a lso con sidered
in these a p p r a isa ls. It was concluded that
scien c e-b a sed occupations requiring a univer­
sity degree or post-high school education su ffer
the g re a te st sh o rtages. M ost other occupations
would be in adequate supply by 1980.
The targ et of “ self-su fficien cy by 1980” will
be achieved if the P lan ’ s educational p ro g ram s
are c a rrie d out. S u c c ess alread y has been ex ­
perienced in the expansion of secondary school
enrollm ent and the task of educating the public
of the pu rp oses of a manpower pro g ram has been
well done.

60




The strate gy for developing high-level sk ills
in Tanzania includes the following:
1. Investment in education is made only to
the extent that need for sp ecific sk ills e x ists.
2. G overnm ent-sponsored students m ust at­
tend the U niversity of E a st A frica.
3. Student gran ts are offered alm ost ex­
clu sively in facu lties producing sp ecific sk ills.
4. M easu res w ere introduced to in crease the
number of scien ce and m athem atics students.
5. To c a r r y out the decision of A fricanize
the public secto r f ir s t , governm ent-sponsored
students m ust work for the Government for 5
y e a rs after graduation.
The strategy fo r developing m iddle-level
sk ills was relativ ely sim ple in concept. Many
of these w orkers (n u rses, p rim ary te ac h e rs,
technicians) will be trained in institutions op er­
ated by government m in istrie s. C le ric al w orkers
and craftsm en will be trained p rim arily in trade
and vocational sch o ols, in plant, and on the job;
industry will assu m e the b asic resp o n sib ility for
training many of these w orkers.

A frica
Tanzania

Labor F o rce Survey of Tanzania
(1966; 156 pages)
Robert S. Ray, Consultant, The F ord Foundation
The p rim ary objective of this study is to provide
inform ation on labor supply in Tanzania to balance
previou s rep o rts that dealt with labor demand only.

Tanzania h as long needed to know m ore about
its curren t supply of labor in ord er to (a) e stab ­
lish a benchm ark for making projection s and (b)
develop quantitative and qualitative data on
m iddle-level and unskilled lab o r. The techniques
used in this survey were adapted from other
coun tries and should be applicable for su b se ­
quent su rv ey s. ILO definitions, concepts, and
recom m endations were followed throughout the
survey.
The survey was conducted by interviewing
a sam ple of households covering 1.25 percent
of the urban population and 0.5 percent of the
ru ra l population. B a sed on population e stim ate s,
8,290 ru ra l and 1,225 urban households were
selected and interviewed for a period in M arch
1965. There w ere 61 trained en um erators and 6
su p e rv iso rs engaged in collecting the data. The
types of questions, liste d in the appendix of the
rep o rt, were concerned m ostly with the em ploy­
ment statu s and the educational level of the r e ­
spondents. Q uestions on hours worked and pay




received helped pinpoint the extent of underem ­
ployment. The appendix also contains an abridged
(37 pages) en um erator’ s training manual.
The bulk of the rep o rt analyzes the re su lts of
the survey. Separate ch apters, supported by 77
tab les, d isc u ss the c h a ra c te ristic s of the popu­
lation and the labor fo rce , employment, the un­
derem ployed and unemployed, educational le v e ls,
and mobility of the labor fo rce.
In sum m ary, the r e su lts of the su rvey show
that, out of an estim ated population of 10,248,000
in M arch 1965, over 95 percent were living in
ru ra l a r e a s. More than half of the population
were 14 y e a rs and o v e r. Of this group, tw o-thirds
w ere in the labor fo rce; the rem ain der were
keeping house, in school, or unable to work. The
o v erall unemployment rate w as 4.0 percent,
which represen ted 7.0 percent in the urban a r e a s
and 3.9 percent in the ru ra l a r e a s . An excellent
chapter d e scrib e s the v ariou s components and
altern atives for m easurin g and analyzing under­
employment.

61

A frica
T anzania

Utilization of Tanzania Science G raduates of
the U niversity of E a st A frica, 1962-66 (first draft)
(1967; 18 pages)
Ja m e s

A. Johnson, Consultant, The F ord Foundation

A study of recent university scien ce grad u ates to d eter­
mine the relationship between their u niversity training
and their curren t employment.

P rojectio n s of supply of and demand for
high-level manpower had been made previou sly
in Tanzania, but no inform ation w as available
to estim ate the requirem ents to rep lace sp e c i­
ally trained p erso n s who fail to enter the occupa­
tion for which they were trained or who leave
the occupation som e tim e after they enter it.
To im prove the quality of projection s of man­
power requ irem en ts, a survey of recent scien ce
grad u ates (1962-66) w as conducted to determ ine
to what extent their un iversity training w as being
utilized in their curren t employment.
E ach graduate w as asked h is employment
history, po st-gradu ate training, m obility, and a
number of attitudinal question s. Of the 148
grad u ates from the university, 57 were p e r ­
sonally interview ed, 60 were studying abroad
under government sponsorship or on their own,
and 31 w ere in ac cessib le a r e a s or otherw ise
not available for p erso n al interview,. Of the 130
grad u ates who responded, 85 percent were em ­
ployed in government or governm ent-related
e n te rp rise s.
Of the 57 respondents actually interview ed,
percen t were employed in occupations for which
their scien ce training was e sse n tia l; the r e ­
m ainder were in occupations which b arely
utilized their scien ce training. Other breakdowns
by em igration, post-gradu ate training, etc., are
d isc u sse d .

62




The study revealed that, without exception,
the M in istries placed the grad u ates in p o sts with­
out re g a rd to their p re fe re n c e s. M oreover, gov­
ernment em ployees w ere apt to be tra n sfe rre d
from a re a to a re a on sh ort notice and at frequent
in terv als. C ontrary to the usual preferen ce fo r
the capital city by educated p erso n s in m ost
developing cou n tries, the g rea t m ajority of
Tanzanians interviewed strongly p r e f e r r e d
placem ent up-country rath er than a position in
D ar e s Salaam . The re aso n s given for this
preferen ce w ere better housing fa c ilitie s and a
m ore satisfa c to ry clim ate.
Recom m endations for government em ploy­
ment:
1. E stab lish a com m ittee to review a ssig n ­
ment of grad u ates.
2. Include a factor fo r underutilization and
for movement out of the occupation in next man­
power projection.
3. Review government policy of sc h o lar­
sh ips.
4. Remove “office work" functions from
scien tific job s.
5. E stab lish uniform placem ent and tra n sfe r
p o licies.
6. Provide adm inistrative and accounting
training.

A frica
Togo

The Employment Situation and the O rganization of the Employment Service
(In French; 1960; 15 pages)
ILO Report to the Republic of Togo; O IT /O T A /T ogo/R .2; Andre Aboughanem
A study of the manpower situation and su ggestion s for
the im provem ent of the Employment Serv ice,

A ccording to the 1959 C en su s, population is
estim ated to be 1,200,000. Approxim ately 500,000
are econom ically active, of which 90 percent are
in agricu ltu re. Only 1,200 people are em ployers
and 12,000 are wage and sa la r y w orkers in Gov­
ernm ent se r v ic e s, industry, and trade.
T raining fa c ilitie s co n sist of a sm all training
school and a few apprenticeship cen ters, sup­
plem ented by inform al on-the-job training. The
methods of training are arch aic and have not kept
pace with the changing needs of a m odernizing
economy.
The Employment Serv ice c o n sists of a D irec­
tor and six agents. Its placem ent se r v ic e s have
been m inim al over the la st few y e a rs and appren­
ticeship se r v ic e s have been extrem ely lim ited.

ordinate apprenticeship, training, and placem ent
work.
2. The Employment Serv ice should have ad­
ditional personnel and should be reorgan ized into
three section s:

a. An inform ation section fo r employment
m arket stu d ies.
b. A section on sk ill development and appren­
ticeship training.
c. A placem ent section.
3. The Employment Serv ice should organize
a sm all center for sk ill development and the
M inistry of L ab or and Social A ffairs should seek
foreign technical a ssista n c e fo r the c en ters.
4. Worker c a rd s (carnets) should be abol­
ished b ecau se they a re a hindrance to mobility
Recom m endations
and placem ent of job se e k e rs.
1.
The M inistry of L ab or and Social A ffairs
5. The Serv ice should regulate the placem ent
of season al w orkers.
should participate in economic planning and co ­




63

A frica
T un isia

Human R eso u rces for Econom ic Growth and
Social P r o g re ss in T un isia
(1961; 75 pages)
Memorandum

from Burnie M erson, AID Manpower A dv iser, to USAID/Technical
S e rv ic e s D ivision, dated May 8, 1961.

Sum m ary of re p o rts p repared by M r. M erson during
his tour of duty in T unisia.

The purpose of this memorandum is to
p rep are the fram ew ork for the development
of a position paper on human r e so u rc e s for
the guidance of U.S. o ffic ials in T un isia. Infor­
m ation from vario u s re p o rts and a irg ra m s
relatin g to manpower and human r e so u r c e s which
w ere p repared during M r. M erson’ s tour of duty
is pulled together to provide a cohesive an aly sis
of the curren t manpower situation in T un isia. A
doctrine of human re so u rc e development is p r e ­
sented in relation to the economy a s a whole,
econom ic and manpower planning, manpower
m obilization, human freedom , and the ro le of
sp ecific AID p ro g ram s.
M a n p o w e r p ro g ram s and planning for
economic development in developing countries
req u ire a central planning and development
agency. This organization e stab lish e s the needs
and g o als of the economy a s a whole. Separate
but coordinated functions to c a r ry out these
go als should be the respo n sibility of sp ecialized
units, such a s a manpower planning unit and an
educational planning unit. T hese groups can
develop methods and p r o c e ss e s for developing,

64




utilizing, and distributing manpower to meet
the economic and so cial g o als.
B a sic to economic and human reso u rc e
development p ro g ram s is the need to under­
stand the institutions and attitudes which have
developed a s p art of the tradition s of the
society. An agricu ltu ral society experien ces
difficulty in rapid adjustm ent to an industrial
economy which dem ands disciplin e, productivity,
leadersh ip, and entrepreneurship. The change­
over should be gradual and only a s needed. AID
prio rity p ro g ra m s, at le a st in the ea rly sta g e s
of development, should be directed toward
im proving agricu ltu ral output, both in quantity
and quality, to sa tisfy the m ost im m ediate needs
of the country—food enough to feed the popu­
lation.
A 31-page appendix d e sc rib e s the manpower
problem s, tren d s, and developm ents related to
T un isia’ s economic p rogram . All available s t a ­
tistic a l data relatin g to the labor fo rce (ch arac­
t e r is t ic s , employment, industry, and occupation)
a re assem b led and analyzed in light of the
econom ic development plans.

A frica
T un isia

Manpower, Education, and Traning in T un isia a s R elated to the USAID P rogram
(1963; 32 pages)
E dgar C. McVoy, AID Manpower Consultant

An ap p raisal of manpower needs and of training p ro ­
g ra m s to m eet these needs, and an a sse ssm e n t of fo r­
eign a ssista n c e .

There a re acute sh o rtages of many types of
trained manpower at all sk ill le v e ls. E stim ates
of these needs and of potential supply were made
for the T en-Y ear Development Plan (1962-71).
In ord er to m eet these needs, the Government
of T un isia began a pro g ram of educational r e ­
form and expansion. The main ob jectives of this
new sy stem are to provide u n iversal prim ary
education, to give education a “ national* c h arac ­
te r , and to provide trained manpower needed for
development. The v a rio u s vocational training
and apprenticeship p ro g ram s are scrutinized.
The m ain agency respo n sible for im prove­
ment of manpower utilization is the Employment
Serv ice, which was initiated in 1960 under the
M inistry of Public Health and Social A ffairs. E m ­
p h asis is placed on job m arket information;
placem ent is a secondary function. The Serv ice
has a sm all testin g and selection center for
candidates of vocational training and apprentice­
ship. The M inistry of Education conducts its own
te sts for students applying fo r adm ission to
sch o ols. T un isia has not developed other featu res
of an integrated sy stem of manpower utilization;
there is no ov erall manpower policy or coord i­
nating board.




M ost foreign a ssista n c e com es from French
technicians, m ost of whom fill post a s teach ers
civil serv an ts. The United Nations has a manpo w er-related p ro je ct for supporting the Occu­
pational T raining and Productivity Institute.
M em bers of the U.S. P eace C orps are training
teach ers and construction w orkers. USAID has
many p ro je cts d irectly and indirectly related to
manpower development.
Recom m endations for USAID p ro g ram s
A s a general policy, USAID should:
1.
Provide enough technicians in each a r e a of
study to coordinate with the Government of
T un isia and with other technical a ssista n c e p ro ­
g ra m s.
2.
Develop a pool of F rench-speaking tech­
n icians in ord er to work m ore effectively with
T un isians.
3. Require that U.S. con tractors train local
w orkers at each sk ill level.
4. Extend additional a ssista n c e to the E m ­
ployment Service to develop it into an effective
manpower development, utilization, and d is tr i­
bution organization.

65

A frica
T un isia

A Study of the Public Employment Serv ice in T unisia
(1965; 78 pages)
Joint rep o rt by survey team : L a z a rd Seiff, AID;
K arl A hlem ius, The F ord Foundation; E d g a rd -L o u isG o sse ,IL O
R esu lts of an intensive su rvey of the Tunisian E m ­
ployment Serv ice organization, adm inistration, function,
and o b jectives.

T his study a ro se from concern e x p re sse d
by o ffic ia ls in the M inistry of the Plan and
National Economy and the M inistry of Youth,
Sp o rts, and Social A ffairs regard in g the a c ­
com plishm ents of the Employment Serv ice. The
su rvey team attempted to identify the strengths
and w eak n esses of the Tunisian Employment
Service with a view to in creasin g its con tri­
bution toward a p ro g re ssiv e manpower p rogram .
All asp e cts of the Service were investigated.
V isits w ere made to local o ffices and to
em ployers.
The m ajo r portion of the rep o rt d e sc rib e s in
detail the ob servation s and recom m endations for
each Employment Serv ice operation. Many of the

66




recom m endations w ere made by o ffic ials in the
Serv ice and covered em ployer relatio n s, occupa­
tional c lassific a tio n , job ord er taking, applica­
tion taking and fillin g, recruitm en t, selection
of applicants, r e fe r r a l techniques, followup of
r e fe r r a ls to em ployers, and sta tistic a l re p o rt­
ing. Other ob servation s and recom m endations
were made on the organization, staffin g, su p e r­
vision, and sta ff development in the Employment
Serv ice. D etailed recom m endations are p r e ­
sented on each of these topics.
The final chapter of the rep o rt d is c u ss e s the
form ulation of a policy strengthening the E m ­
ployment Serv ice and fo r adapting its se r v ic e s
to the changing needs of the economy.

A frica
T un isia

Study of Manpower N eeds, Educational C apab ilities, and Over s e a s Study
(1965; 41 pages)
Education and World A ffairs (Report No. 8): Study Com m ittee on Manpower
N eeds and Educational C apab ilities in A frica, p rep ared for AID.
D escription of manpower and educational planning in
T unisia.
The Government’ s e stim ate s of sk illed man­
power needs are given in the T en -Y ear Develop­
ment Plan (1962-71). Total requ irem en ts at all
sk ill le v e ls amount to over 15,000 trained p e r­
sonnel each y ear. T his figure r e la te s only to the
secondary and te rtiary se c to r s and omit req u ire­
m ents fo r sk illed agricu ltu ral personnel. In ad­
dition, the plan failed to fo re se e T u n isia’ s lo s s of
qualified manpower through the departure of
many ex p atriates. T h erefore, trained manpower
requ irem en ts m ay be much g re a te r than o r ig ­
inally estim ated . E x istin g manpower data are
insufficient to provide detailed e stim ate s of o c­
cupational needs. The g re a te st need ap p ears to be
fo r m iddle-level manpower and fo r sk illed
w o rkers.
The T en -Y ear Educational Plan has fir s t
p rio rity within the general development plan.
In 1964, 26 percent of the national budget was
allocated to education. Educational refo rm em ­
ph asized in creased enrollm ents at every level
in accordance with the econom ic, so cial, and
cultural needs of the country.




About 80 percent of the 3,000 students abroad
w ere studying in F ran ce. It is anticipated that
this number will be cut back d rastic a lly b ecau se
enrollm ents at the U niversity of Tunis are high
and the U niversity probably will be able to fill
m ost high-level manpower needs within a few
y e a rs. A ccording to current e stim ate s of man­
power requ irem en ts, the supply of high-level
personnel is con sidered to be well over 40 p e r ­
cent ahead of schedule, if needs of the a g ricu l­
tu ral secto r are included. It is anticipated that
there will be a sh ortage of 1,500 high-level
agricu ltu ral w orkers by 1972.
Recom m endations
1. Further stu dies should concentrate on
sp ecific occupational needs of key economic
se c to r s.
2. Development of m iddle-level manpower
should be accorded fir s t p rio rity .
3. Secondary training, agricu ltu ral training,
and in -se rv ic e training should be supported by
USAID.

67

A frica
T un isia

Reorganization of the Employment Service
(In French; 1966; 39 pages)
ILO Report to the Government of T un isia;
O IT /T A P /T u n isia/R .1 5 ; E d g ard -L o u is G o sse (France)

Role and function of the Employment Service and recom ­
m endations for its reorganization.

The Employment Service is located in the
M inistry of Youth, Sp orts, and Social A ffairs.
The m ajor se r v ic e s offered are placem ent,
sta tistic s on placem ent and job re g istra tio n s, and
occupational c lassific atio n . D eatils of the ad­
m in istrative and operating functions of the cen­
tra l office and branch o ffices are provided.
Recom m endations
1. The Government should recognize the
im portance of Employment Serv ice ac tiv itie s.
2. Both trained personnel and budgetary
so u rc e s should be in creased in ord er to provide
adequate se r v ic e s to the public.

68




3. Lab or inspection activ ites should be a
sep ara te unit from Employment Serv ice activ i­
tie s.
4. The occupational c la ssific a tio n sy stem
should be developed according to ILO reco m ­
mendations.
5. S ta tistic s should be collected and analyzed
on all asp e cts of the employment m arket situ a­
tion.
6. All agen cies involved in manpower devel­
opment should cooperate with each other and
coordinate their plans for im proving the quality
of the labor fo rce .

A frica
Uganda

Report on the Survey of Manpower and Training
(1959; unnumbered pages)
Robert L . Thom as, Manpower Consultant, The Ford Foundation
R esu lts of a su rvey to determ ine current and p ro ­
jected occupational supply and demand.

A su rvey of nonagricultural employment in
the public and private se c to rs of the economy was
conducted. Information on all le v els of occupa­
tions w as obtained through p erso n al v isits to
102 em ployers who represen ted 82 percent of all
nonagricultural employment in Uganda. E m ­
ployer cooperation w as excellent and no infor­
m ation w as denied the in terview ers. Supply in­
form ation w as obtained from educational and
training institutions and from re c o rd s of individ­
u a ls studying abroad.
C urrent employment by occupation and e s t i­
mated 1964 dem and/supply relatio n sh ips are
presen ted in detailed tab les. Evidence indicates
an urgent job m arket demand for an adequate
supply of “better educated” manpower. Many
v acan cies e x ist now becau se not enough trained
people are availab le. This situation will becom e
even m ore se rio u s in the next five y e a rs. Edu­




cational fa c ilitie s are not keeping pace with the
anticipated expansion of government and indus­
try and with the need to rep lace those who die or
r e tir e . T raining is needed p articu larly at the
m id d le - le v e l occupational c ate g o rie s where
se rio u s sh o rtages already ex ist.
The M inistry of Education and Labour has
been aw are of this educational need and has
taken ste p s to in crease the supply. The number of
grad uates of A frican schools has rise n but not
enough. If in c re a se s are to be achieved and the
urgent demand to be met, a reallocation or r e ­
distribution of p resen t educational fa c ilitie s and
funds will have to be made.
The point w as str e sse d concerning the d e s ir ­
ability of the establishm ent of adm inistrative
m achinery for providing continuing job m arket
inform ation.

69

A m erican R epublics
Regional

“A lianza p a ra el P ro g re so ” Demands Quick Action
on Manpower and L ab or P ro g ra m s
(1961; 44 p ages)
Fernando

S ie r r a B e rd ecia and M alcolm Kennedy, AID Consultants

An a sse ssm e n t of p rogram needs and plan s in w orker
education and lab o r lead er training and in labor min­
istr y adm inistration , in s ix L atin A m erican cou n tries.

If the A lliance for P r o g r e ss is to be c a rrie d
out so that the benefits of econom ic expansion are
distributed equitably to those who contribute to
the productive effo rts, it i s n e c e ssa ry to stren g­
then dem ocratic trade unions and to develop labor
p ro g ram s that will guarantee fa ir minimum
stan dards and im prove opportunities for jo b s.
G eneral recom m endations,
countries

applicable

to all

1. To p re se rv e dem ocracy in Latin A m erica,
the U.S. public policy, a s stated in Public Law 86735, 1 / should be circu lated m ore widely and
em phasized m ore p o sitively among U.S. p erso n ­
nel on duty th ere.
2. When com pared with the need for fullsc a le , well balanced labor p ro g ram s, AID a s ­
sistan c e is “ absurdly sm a ll.” W ell-trained p e r ­
sonnel and efficient speedy se r v ic e s are needed
to provide a stron g and resp ected labor m in istry.
3. R eliable sta tistic a l inform ation i s needed
to know the nature and magnitude of labor prob­
le m s.

70




4. Employment se r v ic e s are needed to make
better u se of the labor force in line with the
requirem ents facing economic development.
5. P ro g ra m s for industrial safety m ust be
developed to reduce lo s s e s in m an-hours.
6. Flexible sy ste m s fo r setting up minimum
w ages should be estab lish ed to give w orkers
in creased buying power.
Specific recom m endations cover the following
countries:
Argentina (10 pages)
B ra z il (5 pages)
Colom bia (4 pages)
M exico (4 pages)
Uruguay (7 pages)
Venezuela (5 pages)
1 / The policy of the U.S. Government “ sup­
p o rts the strengthening of fre e dem ocratic trade
unions to r a is e stan dards of living through im ­
proved labor-m anagem ent re la tio n s.” (Section
1 (b) (4), P .L . 86-735.)

A m erican Republics
Argentina

T raining Qualified Manpower fo r Industry
(In Spanish; 1961; 20 pages)
ILO R eport to the Government of Argentina; O IT /T A P /A rg en tin a/R . 5
A rep o rt on the second stag e of the work of a group of
ILO ex p erts from 1956 to 1960. The group w as asked
to estab lish v ario u s educational p ro g ram s concerning
vocational training and, in particular, to organize c o u rse s
fo r in stru c to rs and sk illed workshop le a d e rs in general
m echanics.

The rep o rt is divided into three p a rts: P art
I con cern s the p rob lem s existin g when the m is­
sion arriv ed . Argentina at that tim e w as r e o r ­
ganizing her adm in istrative, econom ic, and
so c ia l organizations on a national sc a le . One
of im portance to the M ission was the combining
of the National C om m ission of A pprenticeship
and Vocational Orientation with the Office of
Technical Education to form the National Council
of Technical Education, CONET.
Some of the prob lem s are d iscu ssed . They
deal m ostly with lack of budget fo r adequate
su p p lies and sa la r ie s . P oor coordination between
the sch ools and industry lim ited adequate train ­
ing for in du strial requ irem en ts. Need fo r train ­
ing in agricu ltu ral a r e a s w as ignored.
P a rt II d e sc rib e s the work accom plished by
the M ission. Several sem in ars and c o u rse s w ere
organized; for exam ple, a co u rse to im prove the
com petence of in stru cto rs and workshop le a d e rs,
study se s sio n s on technical teaching techniques
fo r workshop le a d e rs, study p erio d s with p ro fe s­
s o r s of gen eral technology and m echanical draw ­
ing.




The m ission subm itted a program for skilled
m echanics, lathe o p e rato rs, and m illw rights;
planned p ro g ram s and selected p articipan ts for
foreign gran ts; helped to in stall and utilize dem ­
onstration equipment; and helped to cre ate a
pilot center for training.
P art III c o n sists of the following recom m en­
dations:
1. Consider creatin g perm anent government
units to study the needs of lo cal in d u stries in the
provin ces.
2. C reate a perm anent se rv ic e to exam ine
the r e su lts of teaching techniques.
3. Study the p o ssib ility of giving autonomy to
schools to take c a r e of im m ediate needs.
4. O rganize teaching c en ters so that all
teaching personnel can learn from in stru cto rs
who have taken improvement c o u rse s.
5. Grant fa c ilitie s to the d irector of teaching
cen ters and in sp ectors to p erm it their p ro fe s­
sional im provem ent.

71

A m erican R epublics
Argentina

Survey of Manpower
(In Spanish; 1957; 81 pages)
ILO Report to the Government of Argentina;
O IT /T A P /A rgen tin a/R .3; M r. Jo s e f Deroo (Belgium)
A n alysis of the industrial and occupational stru ctu re of
manpower in industry, b ased on available inform ation
and on an establishm ent survey.

A vailable data con sisted of c e n su ses of popu­
lation, birth and death r e c o r d s, and p rojectio n s
made by the United Nations. T hese data are
analyzed, a s fa r a s p o ssib le , by occupation and
industry. D ata on student output of technical and
p ro fessio n al schools also a re d escrib ed .
A su rvey of nonagricultural estab lish m en ts in
Buenos A ire s and se v e ra l provin ces provided
manpower needs by industry. N early 2,000 e sta b ­
lishm ents w ere included in the sam ple: all e sta b ­
lishm ents em ploying 1,000 w orkers or m ore,
and every third establishm en t employing 25
to 999 w o rkers. More than 1,200 establish m en ts
represen tin g 261,000 w orkers responded.
Eighteen in du stries w ere included in the
survey. W orkers were c la ssifie d into 94 occupa­
tions. Job vacancy data and anticipated occupa­
tional needs six months after the survey also
were requ ested. D etailed tab les provide the oc­
cupation and industry distribution s of current
employment, job v acan cies, and future needs.

72




The rep o rt concludes that an abundant supply
of w orkers who have few sk ills is available for
in dustrial needs, but a sc a rc ity of skilled
w orkers (such a s lathe o p erato rs and m echanics)
will continue to e x ist. The su rvey in dicates that
additional training p ro g ram s geared to the needs
of industry are needed.
Recom m endations call for the creation of a
sy stem to collect inform ation about the actual
and potential work fo rce; better coordination of
sta tistic a l so u rc e s; the use of sta tistic s com piled
by the so cial secu rity adm inistration; im prove­
ment of cen sus sta tistic s on labor fo rce and
employment; c la ssific a tio n of occupations b ased
on ILO recom m endations; development of the
National Employment Serv ice; m ore attention
to technical training; im provem ent in com piling
sta tistic s on in du strial and technical training;
c lo se r contact of training p ro g ram s with labor
and industry; and the form ation of a national
coordinating body.

A m erican R epublics
Argentina

Notes for a Manpower Survey P rep ared for the Instituto Torcuato di T elia
(1961; 27 pages)

Robert L . Thom as, Manpower A dv iser, The F ord Foundation
D escription of the techniques of obtaining manpower sup­
ply and demand data for the Center’ s p rospective survey
of high-level manpower in Argentina.

The Instituto T orcuato di T elia (the Center)
proposed a study of the curren t and projected
supply and demand of high-level manpower in
Argentina. The purpose of the study w as to ef­
fe ct governm ental and private d ecision s in edu­
cation and training so that future sk ill output
would be consistent with national needs. T hese
Notes provided the b a s is for the study which the
Center conducted in 1961-62.
The m ajo r portion of this rep o rt d e sc rib e s
the step-b y-step p roced u res n e c e ssa ry to c a r ry
out the proposed manpower study:
1. Occupations to be covered—only p ro fe s­
sion al, technical, and adm inistrative occupations.
2. Sam ple cov er age—c o n s t r u c t i o n of a
benchm ark.
3. Q uestionnaire design.
4. Methods of obtaining supply data from edu­
cational and training institutions.




The r e su lts of the survey are d escrib ed in:
L o s R e c u rso s Humanos de Nivel Universita rio y Tecnico en la Republica Argentina,
P a r ts I and II, 646 p ag es (including a 116-page
appendix, a 20-page bibiography, and a 12-page
annex). Second edition 1964. Center fo r Econom ic
Investigations, Instituto Torcuato di T elia.
Techniques

of the su rvey are d escrib ed in:

Informe Metodologico R ec u rso s Humanos,
A rgentina, by Enrique O teiza, 1963. Instituto
Torcuato di T elia.
Related re p o rts published by the Institute in­
clude:
L a E m igracion de P ro fesio n ales y T ecn icos
A rgentinos, by M o rris A. Horowitz, 1962. (6
p ages)
Estim atin g Future Requirem ents for Engi­
n e e rs, by A1 B roehl, 1964. (54 pages)

73

A m erican R epublics
A rgentina

Industrial Development in Argentina
(1961; 181 p ag es and appendix)
Arthur D. L ittle, Inc.
A study of the problem s of in dustrial development in
Argentina. One section (pages 130-158) c o v e rs human
re so u rc e development for industry.

Sh ortages of personnel ranging from skilled
labo r to top management a re co stly and lim it
econom ic growth in every segm ent of industry.
M ost training organization s have ju st begun
operations and therefore cannot be evaluated
c ritically . F o r exam ple, the Productivity Center
h as b arely begun its program of upgrading labor;
the Institute fo r Executive Development has ju st
opened its do ors; the National Council of Tech­
nical Education (CONET) is so new that few
people interview ed knew it existed.
The m ajor recom m endations were:

74




1. A council of training organization s should
be form ed to plan coordinated e d u c a t i o n a l
effo rts.
2. An en larged and ac celerated program
should be developed to in cre ase training fa c ili­
tie s outside Buenos A ire s.
3. Methods of d e c re a se the lo s s of trained
people to other coun tries should be devised.
4. The number of sch olarsh ip applications
should be in creased and the selection proced u res
should be stream lin ed .

A m erican R epublics
Argentina

O rganization of Technical Education and P ro fessio n al T raining S e rv ic e s for Industry
(In Spanish; 1962; 85 p ag es and 12 annexes)
ILO Report to the Government of Argentina; O IT /T A P /A rgentin a/R *7

Report stu dies actual and projected needs for technical
and p ro fessio n al training, recom m ends national policy
in these fie ld s, and e sta b lish e s p rio ritie s to attain the
proposed ob jectives.

Argentina had reorgan ized the se r v ic e s of
a p p r e n t i c e s h i p and p ro fessio n al orientation
(CNAOP) and technical education (DGET) to form
the National Council of Technical Education
(CONET) in May 1960. (Refer to O IT /T A P /A rgentina/R .5)
P a rt I d e sc rib e s the structu re and functions
of CONET. In gen eral, CO NET has not functioned
sa tisfa c to rily . In resp o n se to a decree to sim ­
plify adm inistrative ch ores through the decen­
tralization of a p art of its ac tiv itie s (e.g ., m ore
autonomy to the schools), a new organizational
structu re was recom m ended. C h arts are in­
cluded to show the actual stru ctu re and the p ro­
jected structu re.
P a rt II r e fe r s to the stru ctu re and functions
of the d iv erse training establish m en ts: (1) cen­
te r s to train qualified w orkers (2) schools to
train technicians (3) sp e cial c o u rse s for ad­




vanced apprenticeship and (4) m issio n s to train
a rtisa n s and fa r m e r s.
P art III c o v ers manpower requirem ents and
training needs. A su rvey of establishm en ts using
a different b ase and coverage from previous
stu dies of manpower was conducted. D etails of
the survey are provided, and the r e su lts are used
to estim ate apprentice training and technical
training relativ e to needs of industry. The d is­
tribution of training institutions by educational
le v els and geographic se c to r s a lso is analyzed.
Recom m endations are b ased on these an aly ses.
F ir s t stage p r io ritie s deal with the expan­
sion and im provem ent of training institutions.
Second stage c o v e rs employment se rv ic e func­
tions which place people in jobs and determ ine
needs of industry. Third stage d e sc rib e s sp e c i­
fic d etails of further refinem ent to provide a
b ro ader b ase fo r institutional training.

75

A m erican R epublics
B o liv ia

O rganization of the Employment Service and the Development of a
Labor M arket Information P ro g ram
(In Spanish; 1959; 33 pages)
ILO Report to the Government of Bolivia;
O IT /T A P /B o liv ia/R .5 ; W illiam H. M ason (United Kingdom)
A description of Employment Serv ice activ ities in Bolivia.
The

m issio n ’ s

objective

w as to aid the

governm ent in developing the m e a su re s n eces­
sa r y to obtain reliab le and curren t inform ation on
the manpower situation in B olivia. However, the
expert had to dedicate a con siderable p art of
h is work to the general organization of the
Employment Serv ice.
The f ir s t p ra c tic a l m anifestation of an E m ­
ployment Serv ice w as a decree published A pril
4, 1945. The decree called fo r eight o ffices, but
only one w as estab lish ed in L a P az . Very little had
been accom plished up to the tim e of the m ission .
Several other offices were created in M arch
1958. Their prin cipal function w as to place un­
employed mine and factory w orkers in public
w orks p ro g ram s. The im m ediate need w as to
e stab lish p roced u res to effect such placem ent.
Development of the Service a s an instrum ent to

76




c a r ry out a policy of full employment w as to com e
la te r. Job m arket inform ation is related inti­
m ately to such development. The m ost urgent
inform ation needs a re liste d .
Included in the rep o rt are evaluations of
office in stallation s, b rie f d escriptio n s of sta ff
du ties, and com m ents on sta ff recruitm ent and
training. The m issio n outlined proced u res to be
followed in the next few y e a rs and commented
that much work is n e c e ssa ry to a ss u r e the con­
tinued functioning and future growth of the s e r v ic e ,
Technical recom m endations c a ll for a sytem atic program of em ployer con tacts, re p o rts on
job m ark ets, and a plan fo r long-term manpower
utilization. Those of an adm inistrative nature
cover budget allocatio n s, office and equipment,
organization, and personn el.

A m erican R epublics
B olivia

Survey of the Comibol M ines
(1964; 7 p ag es plus tables and ch arts)
Edw ard L . Omohundro, U SA ID /Bolivia Manpower D ivision

D escription of the re su lts of the fir s t attempt by USAID
to gather and evaluate labor force data on the nationalized
m in es.

Inform ation collected in the su rvey of m ines
included employment and occupational trends for
each operating mine and the employment history
of w orkers recently laid-off. An an aly sis of un­
em ployed and disch arged m in ers, and interview
re sp o n se s from the m an agers of the operating
m ines are presented in detail.
Employment data on Comibol m ines cam e
from the Social Security O ffice, USAID Control­
le r ’ s O ffice, and the Econom ic Section of the
A m erican E m b assy . T hese data are not c o n sist­
ent, but they do re fle c t employment changes over
tim e even if their le v e ls of employment do not
ag re e.
Inform ation on the occupational distribution
of employment cam e from the Social Security
Office fo r the third qu arter of 1963. The occu­




pations w ere coded according to the U.S. D ic­
tionary of O ccupations. No attempt w as made
to obtain inform ation on w ages. N am es of laid off m in ers were obtained from v ariou s so u rc e s
and intensive interview s were held with these
people. The r e su lts of these interview s are ana­
lyzed in an unnumbered section of th is repo rt.
Q uestionnaires requesting inform ation on
employment, su rp lu s w orkers, plans fo r lay offs,
r e a so n s for la y -o ffs, e tc ., were sent to the man­
a g e r s of Comibol m ines. The repo rt w arns that
re sp o n ses to these questions may not re fle c t the
views of central o ffices.
About 80 p ag es of this repo rt are devoted to
sta tistic s and an an aly sis of employment and
related inform ation for each of the Comibol
m in es.

77

A m ercian R epublics
B o liv ia

Manpower A sse ssm e n t Planning
(In Spanish; 1964; 58 pages)
ILO Report to the Government of B olivia;
O IT/O ’ A /T A P /B o liv ia/R .9 ; D r. Sanford Cohen, U niversity of Michigan
T
A review of av ailab le manpower inform ation and the de­
velopment of a manpower planning organization.

B o liv ia’ s fir s t national economic and so cial
development plan covered the 10-year period
1962 to 1971. T his document w as m ore of a
declaration of ob jectives than a plan of action.
Subsequently, a 2 -y e ar plan (1963-64) w as p r e ­
pared to rem edy som e of the im m ediate d efici­
en cies of the long-term plan. The preparation of
the next 2 -y e ar plan (1965-66) w as in the p r e ­
lim in ary stag e. B ecau se of lack of manpower
data, both sh o rt-term plan s w ere delayed in
presentation . The National S e c re ta ria t fo r P lan­
ning and Coordination w as estab lish ed in mid1963 to develop these plan s.
The ILO m issio n exam ined these sep arate
plan s to identify the manpower ro le in econom ic
developm ent. A side from specifying the ob jec­
tive of creatin g 60,000 new job opportunities
annually, no mention of manpower w as made in
the 10-year plan or in the 2 -y e ar plan s. Very
few data were available fo r a n aly sis. The la te st
cen su s of population w as fo r 1950 and all p ro ­
jection s w ere m ade from th is b a se . A labor fo rce

78




sam ple su rvey w as conducted in 1963 but data
from this source were not yet available. P r e ­
lim inary estim a te s from th is su rvey indicated an
unemployment ra te of 5 percen t, m ost of whom
w ere new w orkers.
The ILO consultant, a m em ber of the CE PAL
group, worked with the M inistry of Planning and
the manpower section of the M inistry of L ab or.
He recom m ended the creation of a central man­
power planning section in the M inistry of P lan­
ning and the conversion of the regional em ploy­
ment se rv ic e o ffic e s, which have been virtu ally
inactive, to manpower evaluation o ffic e s. These
recom m endations and oth ers regard in g organ i­
zation are given in detail.
The m ajor portion of the rep o rt is an annex
represen tin g a sp e cia l repo rt to the National
S e c re ta ria t for Planning and Coordination. The
topic evalu ates the employment situation and
problem s of manpower planning. T h is rep o rt
coordinates available data on manpower and
attem pts to analyze needs by econom ic sec to r.

A m erican R epublics
B olivia

Bolivian A pprenticeship P ro g ram and the Highway T raining P ro jec t
(1965; 11 pages)
A rchie G. Beaubien, AID A pprenticeship A dviser

A review of the experim ental w orker-train ing p ro g ram s
included in construction con tracts and the modernization
of the apprenticeship p rogram .

The highway contract training p rop osal ap­
p e a r s to be d esirab le and worthy of a tra il run
a s an experim ent to provide industrial training
not otherw ise available to unskilled w o rkers. To
im plem ent th is p rop osal, the following su g g es­
tions are made: the contractor should (1) hire
a training d irector and se v e ra l job in stru cto rs;
(2) construct and equip a training center; and (3)
estab lish a ratio of appren tices to sk illed work­
e r s . Specific recom m endations regard in g the
selection and training of appren tices also w ere
m ade.




Apprenticeship in B olivia is presen tly d o r­
mant. Sections of the labor code re fe r to appren­
ticesh ip. An effort w as made to revam p the law
in late 1950’ s , but it foundered in the L ab or
M inistry. An in te re st in the needs for an appren­
ticeship p rogram will be review ed a s soon a s
in dustrial p rojectio n s and manpower training
needs are fully a s s e s s e d . The consultant d is ­
c u s s e s som e of the internal prob lem s of getting
a training pro g ram started .

79

A m erican R epublics
B olivia

Manpower Development in the M inistry of L abor
(1963-1965; 4 pages)
DOLITAC 1 / Staff P aper No. 19; Edw ard L.Omohundro, Manpower A dviser
Recom m endations for the establishm en t of a Manpower
D ivision in the M inistry of L ab o r.

The Manpower D ivision w as to have a m ajo r
ro le in organizing and managing local and na­
tional employment m ark ets. T his D ivision w as
expected to provide inform ation on labo r supply
and demand, by occupation and industry, for each
significant local job m arket. It w as to work
c lo sely with all other agen cies involved in man­
power development planning.
The consultant a ss iste d in strengthening the
sta tistic a l and r e se a r c h branch of the Manpower
D ivision. F ro m AID funds, s ix people were em ­
ployed and $5,000 worth of office equipment was
purch ased. In addition, se v e ral m em b ers of the
sta ff received in -se rv ic e training; and two m em ­

80




b e r s attended the labor and p rice s ta tistic s se m ­
in ar in Puerto Rico. The g re a te st obstacle in the
re se a r c h branch, however, has been the com plete
lack of coordination between the central office of
the M a n p o w e r D ivision and the eight local
o ffic es.
It w as recom m ended that continuing technical
a ssista n c e be provided the Manpower D ivision
and that the employment m arket inform ation p ro ­
g ram be continued.

1 / U.S. D epartm ent of L abor International
Technical A ssistan c e C orps.

A m e r ic a n R e p u b lic s
B o liv ia

A F e a s ib ilit y A s s e s s m e n t o f H um an R e s o u r c e
D e v e lo p m e n t P la n n in g in B o l i v i a
(1 9 6 5 ; 2 3 p a g e s )
D o n a ld P . S a n d e r s , A ID M a n p o w e r C o n s u lt a n t (O h io S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y )

D e s c r i p t i o n o f th e p r o b l e m s o f h u m a n r e s o u r c e d e v e lo p ­
m e n t,

th e

cu rren t

m a n p o w e r s i t u a t i o n in B o l i v i a , a n d

r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r e f f e c t i v e m a n p o w e r p la n n in g .

A s u m m a r y o f th e v a r i o u s p r o b l e m a r e a s o f
m a n p o w e r d e v e lo p m e n t i n c l u d e s s t a t e m e n t s on

E d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s s e e m to h a v e b e e n c o o r d i ­
n a t e d w ith th e N a t io n a l C o u n c il o f E d u c a t i o n a l

th e

C o o r d in a t io n .

ru r a l/u r b a n

so c io e c o n o m ic c le a v a g e ,

lo w

p r o d u c t i v i t y a n d u n d e r e m p lo y m e n t , e m i g r a t i o n

A s e r i o u s d e f ic ie n c y o f s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a a n d

o f s k i l l s , i l l i t e r a c y , a n d th e e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m .

i n f o r m a t io n o n m a n p o w e r a n d e d u c a t io n e x i s t s .

B o liv ia ’ s m an p o w er a c tiv itie s a r e d ire c te d
t o w a r d r u r a l e d u c a t i o n , c o m m u n it y d e v e lo p m e n t ,
a g ric u ltu ra l

e x t e n s io n ,

a n d p u b l ic h e a lt h ; b u t

v e r y lit t le h a s b e e n a c c o m p lis h e d . T h e 1 0 - y e a r
p la n

and

th e 2 - y e a r p l a n s a r e i n a d e q u a t e f o r

m a n p o w e r d e v e lo p m e n t . (S e e IL O r e p o r t R .9 ) .

T h e a b s e n c e o f th e se d a ta p r e v e n t s an a d e q u a te
a s s e s s m e n t o f th e c u r r e n t a n d f u t u r e s i t u a t i o n .
S p e c ia l
poor

p ro b le m s

q u a lit y

in

e d u c a t io n in c lu d e th e

o f t e a c h e r s , th e h ig h w a s t a g e o f

s t u d e n t s a t a l l e d u c a t io n a l l e v e l s , th e p a u c i t y o f
s c h o o l s in th e r u r a l a r e a s , a n d i n a d e q u a t e f a ­
c i l i t i e s to t r a i n p e o p l e .

C o o r d in a t io n b e tw e e n in d iv id u a l p la n n in g a -

T h e i d e a l c o n d it io n s u n d e r w h ic h h u m a n r e ­

g e n c i e s a n d b e t w e e n p la n n in g a n d i m p le m e n t in g

s o u r c e d e v e lo p m e n t p la n n in g s h o u ld b e c o n d u c t e d

a g e n c ie s

a r e d e s c r i b e d . T e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e s h o u ld s e e k

E d u c a tio n

is

not e ffe c tiv e .

and

H um an

In a d d it io n to th e

R e so u rce

D e v e lo p m e n t

S e c t io n o f th e M i n i s t r y o f P la n n in g , t h e r e a r e
a l s o a P la n n in g S e c t io n o f th e M i n i s t r y o f E d u ­
c a t i o n a n d a n O f f ic e o f U n i v e r s i t y D e v e lo p m e n t

th re e

m a in

o b je c t iv e s

to

d e v e lo p

h um an r e ­

s o u r c e s : (1) to e n c o u r a g e c o o p e r a t io n a n d c o o r ­
d in a t io n a m o n g p la n n in g a g e n c i e s ; (2) to p r o v i d e
r e s o u r c e s fo r d a ta c o lle c tio n an d a n a l y s i s ; an d

a t th e U n i v e r s i t y o f B o l i v i a . T h e E H R D s e c t i o n

(3)

o f th e M i n i s t r y o f P la n n in g a p p a r e n t l y c o o r d i ­

w h ic h w ill i n s u r e th e t e c h n i c a l v a l i d i t y o f th e

to p r o v i d e t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s a n d e x p e r i e n c e

n a te s a ll g r o u p s bu t so m e w o rk h a s a lr e a d y b een

e f f o r t . D e t a i l s o f h ow t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s s h o u ld b e

d o n e w ith o u t a n y c o o r d in a t i o n o r c o n s u l t a t i o n .

c a r r i e d o u t a r e p r o v id e d .




81

A m e r ic a n

R e p u b lic s

B o liv ia

R e v ie w

o f D a t a A v a il a b l e in B o l i v i a

R e l a t i n g to P o p u la t io n a n d L a b o r F o r c e
(1 9 6 7 ;
Jo h n

H.

L in t o n ,

M an pow er

A d v ise r,

33

p ag e s)

H um an

R e so u rc es

A n a l y s i s o f p o p u la t io n a n d l a b o r
p r o je c t io n s fr o m v a r io u s s o u r c e s .

C u r r e n t a n d r e l i a b l e d a t a o n th e p o p u la t io n

a ctu al

D iv is io n ,

U S A I D / B o l iv ia

f o r c e s t a t i s t i c s and

p r o p o r t io n

lo w e r

b ecau se

a n d l a b o r f o r c e in B o l i v i a a r e n e e d e d a s a b a s e

th e

m a r g i n a l l y e m p lo y e d , s u c h a s p a r t - t i m e s t r e e t

p r o j e c t i o n s . T h e m o s t r e c e n t c e n s u s w a s ta k e n

v e n d o r s a n d u n p a id f a m i l y w o r k e r s o n f a r m s .

in

The

P o p u la t i o n D a t a

a

1963

la b o r

w o rk er*

p r o b a b ly

to f o r m u l a t e p l a n s a n d p r o g r a m s a n d to p r e p a r e
1 9 5 0 a n d a n ew o n e i s s c h e d u le d f o r 1 9 6 8 .

“ g a in f u l

is

sa m p le

c o n c e p t in c lu d e s

h o u s e h o ld

m any

su r v e y in d ic a te s

fo r c e p a r tic ip a tio n r a t e o f a ro u n d 40

to 4 5 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l p o p u la t io n .

T h e 1 9 5 0 C e n s u s o f P o p u la t io n e n u m e r a t e d

A b o u t 72 p e r c e n t o f th e l a b o r f o r c e w o r k e d

2 .7 m i l l io n p e o p l e . A d ju s t m e n t s f o r u n d e r c o u n t

in a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s , a c c o r d i n g to th e 1 9 5 0

an d fo r a c a lc u la te d c o e ffic ie n t o f e r r o r r e s u lt e d

c e n s u s . B y 1 9 6 3 , t h i s f i g u r e i s e s t i m a t e d to h a v e

in a n ew t o t a l o f o v e r 3 m i l l io n p e o p l e . D u r in g

d r o p p e d to 67 p e r c e n t . S h o r t - t e r m p r o j e c t i o n s

th e 1 9 5 0 ’ s , th e a n n u a l r a t e o f g r o w t h w a s 1 .4

o f la b o r fo r c e a c tiv ity , by in d u str y an d o c c u p a ­

p e r c e n t , w e ll b e lo w th e a v e r a g e r a t e o f g r o w t h
o f 2 .3 p e r c e n t e x p e r i e n c e d in o t h e r S o u th A m e r ­

tio n ,

ic a n c o u n tr ie s.
In 1 9 6 3 , u n d e r U .N . s p o n s o r s h i p , a s a m p l e
h o u s e h o ld s u r v e y w a s m a d e . P o p u la t i o n w a s
e s t i m a t e d t o b e n e a r l y 3 .1 m i l l io n p e o p l e ; n e a r l y
2 0 p e r c e n t l i v e d in u r b a n a r e a s .

w ere

m a d e b y U S A ID a n d o t h e r g r o u p s .

S k i l l s L e v e l s o f th e L a b o r F o r c e

F e w d a ta a r e a v a ila b le fo r a n a ly s is o f s k ill
l e v e l s , e s p e c i a ll y f o r m id d le - le v e l s k i l l s su c h
a s c r a f t s m e n in th e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n d u s t r y . T h e s e

L a b o r F o r c e D a ta

s k i l l s r e q u i r e p r i o r t r a i n i n g a n d e x p e r i e n c e to
q u a l if y a t th e jo u r n e y m a n l e v e l . A b s e n c e o f o c ­

T h e 1950 c e n s u s in d ic a t e s th a t ab o u t o n e - h a lf
o f th e

p o p u la t io n i s e c o n o m i c a l l y a c t i v e . T h e

82




c u p a t io n a l s k i l l d a t a m a k e e s t i m a t i n g a n d p la n ­
n in g o f f u t u r e t r a i n i n g n e e d s d i f f ic u l t .

A m e r ic a n R e p u b lic s
B o liv ia

N a t io n a l T r a i n i n g E s t a b l i s h m e n t s in V e n e z u e l a a n d
C o l o m b i a a n d t h e i r R e l e v a n c e to B o l i v i a
(1 9 6 7 ; 19 p a g e s )
J o h n H . L in t o n , M a n p o w e r A d v i s e r , H u m a n R e s o u r c e s D iv i s i o n , U S A I D / B o l iv ia

D e s c r i p t i o n o f f e a t u r e s o f o t h e r L a t i n A m e r ic a n t r a i n i n g
ce n te rs

w h ic h

m ig h t u s e f u l l y

T h e v o c a t io n a l t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s in C o lo m ­

be

a d o p ted

in

B o liv ia .

T h e E l A lto ( L a P a z ) S c h o o l w a s d e v e lo p e d in

b i a (S E N A ) a n d V e n e z u e la (IN C E ) w e r e c r e a t e d

re sp o n se

in r e s p o n s e to th e i n c r e a s i n g l e v e l o f i n d u s t r i a l ­

a c t i v i t y in c o n s t r u c t i o n . It i s h o p e d , h o w e v e r ,

iz a tio n

in

th o se

c o u n tr ie s

and a

to

dem and

stim u la te d

by in c r e a se d

dem and fo r

th a t n ew d e m a n d fo r o th e r s k i l l s c a n u ltim a te ly

g r e a t e r a n d h ig h e r d e g r e e o f s k i l l s in th e l a b o r

b e m e t b y i m p r o v e d v o c a t io n a l t r a i n i n g in p u b lic

f o r c e . T h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e s i m i l a r in c o n c e p t

an d p r iv a te sc h o o l s y s t e m s .

a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n . F o r e x a m p l e , th e y a r e a u to n ­
om ous

t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s r e m o v e d f r o m th e

r e g u l a r e d u c a tio n a l s y s t e m

a n d th e y a r e s u p ­

The
P e tare

IN C E
has

c o n s tr u c tio n
c e r ta in

tr a in in g

fe a tu re s

c e n te r at

w h ic h m ig h t b e

a d a p t e d f o r th e E l A lto ( L a P a z ) S c h o o l; t h e s e

p o r te d b y a s p e c ia l ta x le v ie d on p a y r o lls . E a c h

fe a tu re s

o r g a n iz a tio n i s d e s c r ib e d s o th a t c o m p a r is o n s

t r a d e , e m p h a s i s on h a n d t o o l s , t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g

m a y b e m a d e a n d th e q u a l it y o f th e p r o g r a m s

c o u r s e s fo r in str u c to r s.

m ay be o b serv ed .

in c lu d e

sp ace

arran g em en t fo r each

T h e E l A lt o l o n g - r a n g e p r o g r a m i s to p r o v i d e
t r a i n i n g f o r c u r r e n t e m p lo y m e n t d e m a n d in th e

O b se r v a tio n s

L a P a z a r e a . T h i s w ill r e q u i r e m o r e d a t a o n th e
la b o r fo r c e an d on la b o r r e q u ir e m e n t s . S u ch d a ta
a r e c o l l e c t e d b y S E N A ( C o lo m b ia ) w h ic h h a s i t s

D e v e lo p m e n t o f t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s s i m i l a r

ow n s t a t i s t i c a l d e p a r t m e n t . E v e n t u a l ly , t h i s ty p e

to t h o s e o f IN C E a n d S E N A w ill r e q u i r e m o r e

o f jo b m a r k e t r e s e a r c h c a p a b i l i t y s h o u ld b e d e ­

a n d d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f i n d u s t r y in B o l i v i a b e f o r e

v e lo p e d in B o l i v i a , p e r h a p s in th e M i n i s t r y o f

d e m an d w a r r a n ts e x p e n d itu r e s fo r su c h s c h o o ls .

L ab or.




83

A m e r i c a n R e p u b l ic s
B r a z il

S a m p li n g a n d O th e r S t a t i s t i c a l A c t i v i t i e s in B r a z i l , 1 9 5 6 - 5 9
(1 9 6 0 ; 11 p a g e s )
T h o m a s B . J a b i n e , A ID S a m p li n g A d v i s e r

I n t r o d u c t io n o f s a m p l i n g t e c h n i q u e s a n d d a t a p r o c e s s i n g
to

th e B r a z i l i a n I n s t it u t e o f G e o g r a p h y a n d S t a t i s t i c s .

T h e c o n s u l t a n t w a s a s s i g n e d to w o r k w ith th e

d e s c r i b e d . A s u m m a r y o f a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s in

B r a z i l i a n I n s t it u t e o f G e o g r a p h y a n d S t a t i s t i c s ,

e a c h t o p ic i s l i s t e d . R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a r e m a d e

(I B G E ) to s u g g e s t p o s s i b l e a p p l i c a t i o n s o f s a m ­

f o r c o n tin u in g th e p r o g r e s s a l r e a d y m a d e b y c o n ­

p li n g t e c h n iq u e s f o r 1 9 6 0 c e n s u s . T h e I B G E i s

su lta n t

th e

p a r tic ip a n t tr a in in g o f c o m p u te r p r o g r a m m e r s

F ed eral

G o v e rn m e n t’ s

c e n tra l

sta tistic a l

in

sp e c ific fie ld s and by

and o th e r s p e c ia liz e d f ie ld s .

agen cy.
D e t a i l s o f th e v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t i n g to
sa m p lin g

a ss ig n m e n ts

a n d to d a t a - p r o c e s s i n g s y s t e m s a r e

84




A m e r ic a n R e p u b lic s
B r a z il

S u m m a r y R e p o r t o f M a n p o w e r C o n s u lt a n t to USAED B r a z i l
(1 9 6 3 ; 5 p a g e s a n d a t t a c h m e n t s )
T h e r o n J . W i l l i a m s , A ID M a n p o w e r C o n s u lt a n t

D e s c r i b e s th e n e e d f o r m a n p o w e r a s s e s s m e n t a n d p l a n ­
n in g c a p a b i l i t y a n d m a k e s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s to a s s i s t in
r e c tify in g d e f ic ie n c ie s .

T h e N e e d f o r M a n p o w e r A s s e s s m e n t a n d P la n n in g
A c r i t i c a l p e r i o d w a s r e a c h e d in 1 9 6 2 - 6 3 w h en
B r a z i l e x p e r i e n c e d i n d u s t r i a l u n e m p lo y m e n t f o r
th e f i r s t t im e fo llo w in g a d e c a d e o f e x p a n s io n .
E c o n o m i c d e v e lo p m e n t p la n n in g r e q u i r e d r e a p ­
p r a i s a l o f e m p lo y m e n t p o t e n t i a l . T h e n ew T h r e e
Y e a r P l a n d id n o t r e c o g n i z e m a n p o w e r r e s o u r c e s
a s a f a c t o r in i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n c a p a b i l i t y . U .S .
a s s i s t a n c e to B r a z i l d id n o t p r o v i d e f o r , a n d w a s
n o t e q u ip p e d to f i l l , t h i s c r u c i a l g a p in B r a z i l ' s
p la n n in g .

B r a z il

itself

w as

n ot te c h n ic a lly

e q u ip p e d f o r m a n p o w e r a s s e s s m e n t a n d p la n n in g ,
a lth o u g h

m a n y o f f i c i a l s h a d r e a l i z e d th e n e e d

an d h ad r e q u e s te d te c h n ic a l a s s i s t a n c e .
R e c o m m e n d a tio n s

tio n t h a t th e a t tit u d e a n d th e c o m p e t e n c e o f th e
U S A ID m i s s i o n m u s t b e i m p r o v e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y
b e fo re

any

r e c o m m e n d a tio n s

c a n b e i n i t ia t e d

e ffe c tiv e ly .
A n O f f ic e o f M a n p o w e r P la n n in g a n d D e v e lo p ­
m e n t s h o u ld b e e s t a b l i s h m e d to p r o v i d e i n f o r m a ­
t io n , a d v i c e , a n d g u id a n c e to a l l p la n n in g a g e n c i e s
o n h u m a n r e s o u r c e s . It s h o u ld in c lu d e a s m a l l
s t a t i s t i c a l a n d r e s e a r c h s e c t i o n to o r g a n i z e a n d
i n t e r p r e t , in m a n p o w e r r e s o u r c e t e r m s , th e d a t a
c o lle c te d b y v a r io u s a g e n c ie s .
A N a t io n a l B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s s h o u ld
b e e s t a b l i s h e d to c e n t r a l i z e a n d c o o r d in a t e r e ­
s e a r c h and d a ta - c o lle c tio n a c t iv itie s o f v a r io u s
a g e n c ie s.
A

N a t io n a l

E m p lo y m e n t

Service

S y ste m

s h o u ld b e e s t a b l i s h e d t e m p o r a r i l y u n d e r th e p r o ­
T h e p r i m a r y r e c o m m e n d a t i o n i s th a t a c o m ­
p e t e n t m a n p o w e r c o n s u l t a n t b e a s s i g n e d to U S A ID

p o s e d O f f ic e o f M a n p o w e r P la n n in g a n d D e v e lo p ­

on a fu ll- tim e b a s i s . T h e p r o g r a m re c o m m e n ­

m e n t o f L a b o r . (S e e R o b e r t C l a y r e p o r t f o r d e t a i l s

d a t i o n s , a s f o l l o w s , a r e m a d e w ith th e q u a l i f i c a ­

o f e m p lo y m e n t s e r v i c e f u n c t io n s .)




m e n t , a n d e v e n t u a l ly t r a n s f e r r e d to th e D e p a r t ­

85

A m e r i c a n R e p u b l ic s
B r a z il

T e c h n ic a l

Labor

P ro gram
(1 9 6 3 ;

R o b ert

J.

C la y ,

A ID

—

E n d -o f-T o u r R e p o rt

7 p ag e s)
Labor

T e c h n ic a l

O ffic e r

D e s c r i b e s th e o b j e c t i v e s o f a p r o p o s e d t e c h n i c a l l a b o r
p ro gram

a n d th e w o r k o f th e c o n s u l t a n t to d e v e lo p s u c h

a p ro gram .

T h e o b j e c t i v e s o f th e p r o g r a m w e r e to p r o ­

s h o u ld b e s e m i a u t o n o m o u s , a n d tw o m o d e l o f ­

v id e a s t r a t e g y o f h u m a n r e s o u r c e s d e v e lo p m e n t

f i c e s s h o u ld b e e s t a b l i s h e d i n i t i a l l y in R io d e

a n d u t i l iz a t i o n t h r o u g h m a n p o w e r a n a l y s i s , p la n ­

Ja n e ir o and S ao P a u lo .

n in g , a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n ; to p r o v i d e a n e m p lo y m e n t

3 . U S A ID

s h o u ld

a s s i s t b y p r o v i d i n g (a ) a

s e r v i c e to s e r v e a s th e p r i n c i p a l s u p p o r t a g e n c y

l a b o r l e a d e r p a r t i c i p a n t t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m ; (b)

f o r m a n p o w e r s t r a t e g y ; a n d to a s s i s t in a p la n
w h ic h v i s u a l i z e s a d o m e s t i c a l l i a n c e f o r p r o g ­

w o r k e r - e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s ; a n d (c ) a f u l l - t i m e

r e s s w h e r e b y th e S t a t e s o f S a o P a u l o a n d G u a n a b a r a e x t e n d th e b e n e f i t s o f th e p r o g r a m to o t h e r
S ta te s.
R e c o m m e n d a tio n s

a

w o rk e r-e d u c a tio n

a d v is e r

to

h e lp

d e v e lo p

l a b o r t e c h n i c i a n to h e lp S U D E N E (th e S u p e r in ­
t e n d e n c y f o r th e D e v e lo p m e n t o f th e N o r th E a s t )
d e v e lo p a m a n p o w e r r e s e a r c h a n d s t a t i s t i c s p r o ­
gram

a n d to a s s i s t S E N A I (th e N a t io n a l S e r v i c e

1. W hen c o n d it io n s w a r r a n t , a c o m p l e t e t e c h ­

o f I n d u s t r i a l A p p r e n t ic e s h ip ) a n d o t h e r o r g a n i z a ­

n i c a l l a b o r p r o g r a m s h o u ld b e i n i t ia t e d a n d c a r ­

t i o n s to t r a i n t h e i r p e r s o n n e l in th e t e c h n i q u e s

r i e d o u t w ith in th e f r a m e w o r k o f a n in d e p e n d e n t

n e e d e d to d e t e r m in e m a n p o w e r s k i l l n e e d s a n d

o r g a n i z a t i o n a l u n it.

tr a in in g r e q u ir e m e n ts .

2 . A m a n p o w e r p r o g r a m w h ic h i n c lu d e s th e

4 . E m p lo y m e n t s e r v i c e w o r k s h o u ld i n i t i a l l y

d e v e lo p m e n t o f a n a t io n a l e m p lo y m e n t s e r v i c e

e m p h a s iz e in d u s tr ia l s e r v i c e s , su c h a s o c c u p a ­

a s a s u p p o r t a g e n c y to i m p le m e n t p la n n in g a n d

t io n a l

a n a l y s i s o f m a n p o w e r r e q u i r e m e n t s on a c o n ­

m i d d l e m a n a g e m e n t , a n d d e v e lo p in g a jo b m a r k e t
and s t a t i s t i c s p r o g r a m .

t in u o u s

b a s i s s h o u ld b e p r o v i d e d . T h e a g e n c y

86




a n a ly sis

and

jo b

e v a lu a t io n

u p g r a d in g

A m e r i c a n R e p u b l ic s
B r a z il

M a n p o w e r P la n n in g R e p o r t
(19 6 5 ; 1 4 p a g e s )
D O L IT A C 1 / S ta ff P a p e r N o . 1; R a y m o n d L a r s o n , M an p o w er A d v is e r

D e s c r i b e s th e p r o b l e m s a n d n e e d s in m a n p o w e r a n d m a k e s
r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r U .S . a s s i s t a n c e .

T h e o b je c t i v e o f th e a s s i g n m e n t w a s to d e t e r ­
m in e th e t y p e s o f a s s i s t a n c e n e e d e d to c o l l e c t
a n d u s e d a t a in a n a l y z in g m a n p o w e r r e s o u r c e s
and

r e q u ir e m e n ts

as

o f th e g o v e r n m e n t , p r i v a t e , a n d u n i v e r s i t y sp o n so re d m an pow er a c tiv itie s.
7 . A ID s h o u ld e n c o u r a g e S E N A I to b e m o r e

th e y r e l a t e t o B r a z i l ’ s

e f f e c t i v e in o r g a n i z i n g e m p lo y m e n t s e r v i c e a c ­

e c o n o m ic a n d s o c i a l d e v e lo p m e n t , a n d to p r e ­

t i v i t i e s f o r i t s t r a i n e e s a n d f o r o t h e r s , a n d s h o u ld

p a r e a w o r k p la n f o r s u c h a s s i s t a n c e .
M a jo r

M an pow er

P r o b le m s

and

a s s i s t th e m in d e v e lo p in g i n f o r m a t io n on l a b o r

N e ed s,

and

S u g g e s t e d A p p r o a c h e s to t h e i r S o lu tio n
1 . I m p r o v e m e n t o f th e D e c e n n ia l C e n s u s i s

d e m a n d in g e n e r a l a n d f o r s p e c i f i c o c c u p a t io n s .
8 . T h e L a b o r M i n i s t r y s h o u ld b e a s s i s t e d in
la w e n f o r c e m e n t .

9 . C o m m u n ic a t io n s b e t w e e n e m p l o y e r s a n d
s c h o o l s s h o u ld b e d e v e lo p e d .

needed.
2 . P r o j e c t i o n s o f o c c u p a t io n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s

R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r U .S . A s s i s t a n c e

a r e n eeded.
3 . C u r r e n t i n f o r m a t io n o n p o p u la t io n , m o b il ­
i t y , a n d l a b o r f o r c e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s n e e d e d on

1 . T h e A ID H u m a n R e s o u r c e s O f f ic e s h o u ld

a r e g i o n a l b a s i s , a s w e ll a s e a r n i n g s , e m p l o y ­

h a v e a m a n p o w e r a d v i s e r to s u p e r v i s e a n d c o ­

m e n t c o n d it i o n s , a n d m u l t i p le jo b - h o ld in g in k e y

o r d in a te a ll m an p o w e r a c t iv it ie s .

o c c u p a t io n s .

2. A

4 . A N a t io n a l C i t i z e n s M a n p o w e r A d v i s o r y
C o u n c il i s n e e d e d to g u id e a n d c o o r d in a t e l a r g e
h o u s e h o ld s u r v e y s w h ile a w a it in g a d e c i s i o n o n
r e sp o n s ib ility

fo r

th e

n a t io n - w id e

U .S . t e c h n i c i a n s h o u ld b e s e n t to th e

P la n n in g M i n i s t r y to a s s i s t in m a n p o w e r p r o j e c ­
t i o n s a n d to p la n e s t a b l i s h m e n t s u r v e y s .
3 . T h e U .S . s h o u ld s u p p ly a c e n s u s s p e c i a l i s t

h o u s e h o ld

to a i d in a m a j o r o v e r h a u l o f th e c e n s u s . I f t h i s
t a s k h a s b e e n s t a r t e d a l r e a d y , th e n w o r k o n a

5 . A S t a t i s t i c a l A d v i s o r y P a n e l s h o u ld g u id e

s e r i e s o f s t u d ie s on e a r n in g s , fr in g e b e n e fits,
a n d o t h e r c o n d it io n s o f e m p lo y m e n t s h o u ld b e

su rv e y .
and

a d v i s e th e M a n p o w e r A d v i s o r y C o u n c il.
6 . B r a z i l ’ s u n i v e r s i t i e s s h o u ld b e in v o lv e d

in B r a z i l ’ s m a n p o w e r p r o g r a m s .

a M a n p o w e r C e n t e r a t th e U n i v e r s i t y o f B a h i a i s
p la n n e d to c o o r d in a t e f o r th e S a l v a d o r a r e a a l l




a ss is te d .

F o r e x a m p le ,
1 / U .S .

D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o r I n t e r n a t io n a l

T e c h n ic a l A s s i s t a n c e C o r p s .

87

A m erican R epublics
B r a z il

An Overview of Industrial Education in B ra z il
(1965; 15 pages)
DOLITAC 1 / Staff P aper No. 30, Jo sh u a Levine and John Walsh
A s s e s s e s the need fo r in du strial education in B ra z il,
evalu ates AID e ffo rts in developing a p rogram , identifies
the problem a r e a s , and m akes recom m endations fo r
further AID a ssista n c e .

In the absence of accu rate data, requirem ents
fo r trained manpower can only be estim ated.
U sing the experien ces of other coun tries, the
consultants estim ate that the annual number of
new entrants requ irin g sk ill training is 160,000.
However, only half of this number is curren tly
being trained each year. T h erefore, a substantial
change is needed in existin g training institutions
if they are to meet B r a z il’ s manpower needs. A
sh ort description of each institution is provided.
USAID effo rts to develop in dustrial educa­
tion s t a r t e d in 1946 when CBAI (C om issao
B razileiro -A m erican o de Educacao Industrial)
w as created. USAID contributions since that
tim e appear to have been effective in bringing
about useful change, but much still rem ain s to
be done.
The problem a r e a s in B r a z il’ s in du strial edu­
cational program fall into these c ateg o ries:

88




leadersh ip and direction, planning and develop­
ment, coordination, financing, staffing, and r e ­
se a rc h and evaluation. In these a r e a s the follow­
ing recom m endations are made:
1. The A r e a Technical Center program
should be continued and should direct its atten­
tion m ore to m eeting industrial manpower needs.
2. A training ad v iso ry team should a s s is t
SENAI to reorien t itsp o lic ie s and p ra c tic e s. The
team should be com posed of a training adm inis­
tra to r, four in-plant training a d v ise r s, three
in du strial apprenticeship a d v ise r s, a labo r fo rce
an alyst, and sh o rt-term technical a ss ista n ts in
sp ecialized a r e a s.

1 / U.S. Departm ent of Labor International
Technical A ssistan c e C orps.

A m erican R epublics
B raz il

SENAI P ro jec t Review
(1968; 6 pages)

C h arles V. Youm ans, AID Manpower Development A dviser
Review s the SENAI P ro ject to im prove its in dustrial man­
power trainin g p ro g ram s.

The m ajo r p u rp o ses of the m issio n were to
im prove the effectiv en ess of SENAI* s industrial
manpower training p ro g ra m s, to in cre ase the
number of tra in e es 20 percen t, to se t up a s y s ­
tem to collect data, to im prove quality of in stru c­
to r s , and to develop instructional m a te ria ls.
A manpower survey was planned and im ­
plem ented in Sao Paulo. Data have been tabulated
and a final rep o rt will be forthcom ing. Industrial
manpower su rv ey s have been requ ested in other
SENAI region s.
A training program fo r an aly sts on “occupa­
tional an aly ses fo r training needs p u rp o se s” has
been started .




SENAI su ggested five p r io ritie s for the p ro ­
ject team relatin g p rim arily to details of man­
power su rv ey s and to sp ecific school p ro g ram s.
The r e s t of the rep o rt outlines the p r o g r e ss of
each prio rity , participant training, counterpart
development, and detailed v isits to schools and
training cen ters.
It w as recom m ended that the SENAI P ro ­
ject T eam be continued at the four-m an level
and the work be extended to the end of 1970.
The im provem ent of industrial manpower train ­
ing
is
one
of
B r a z i l ’ s m ost c ritic a l
needs.

89

A m erican Republics
B r itish Honduras

The Manpower Situation in B ritish Honduras
(1963; 23 pages)
ILO Report to the Government of B ritish Honduras;
IL O /T A P /B ritish H on duras/R 04; V.G. Munne (G reat Britain)

A survey of the manpower situation, e sp ecially fo r sk illed
occupations.

A vailable data to analyze the manpower s it ­
uation w ere m eager, The West Indies Population
C en sus of 1960 provided som e b a sic fa c ts on pop­
ulation and labor force but v ery little on occupa­
tions.
Future requirem ents for manpower will be
a s s e s s e d m ore read ily after the national eco­
nomic development plan has been p repared and
the requirem ents of sp ecific p ro je c ts within the
plan can be studied. There ap p ears to be a sub­
stan tial su rplu s of labor and, u n less a m ajor
econom ic expansion is realized , demand in the
n ear future is not likely to ab sorb this su rp lu s.
Since the construction industry is expected
to have m ost demand for sk illed w orkers* the
expert surveyed nine building co n tractors and
other so u rc e s to estim ate curren t employment
by occupation in the sk illed c r a fts. Skilled work­
e r s in occupations concerned with the m ain­




tenance and r e p a ir of equipment and m achinery
w ere m ore difficult to estim ate since they are
employed in sm all num bers among many firm s.
Indications, however, are that these occupations
are also in short supply.
Recom m endations
1. Obtain technical a ssista n c e to aid man­
power a sse ssm e n t and planning.
2. E stab lish accelerated training c o u rse s for
building tra d e s,
3. P rep are and maintain lis t of e sta b lish ­
m ents, c la ssifie d by economic activity.
4. Obtain tabulations of the I960 Population
Census from Ja m a ic a Tabulation Center.
5. Collect inform ation from all departm ents
on economic development p ro je c ts affecting the
manpower situation.

A m erican Republics
Central A m erica

Human R eso u rc es of Central A m erica,
Panam a and M exico, 1950-1980
(1960; 155 pages)
L ou is Ducoff, United Nations, Economic C om m ission fo r Latin A m erica

Com prehensive an aly sis of C entral A m erica’ s demo­
graphic situation and its relation to econom ic development
and regional econom ic integration.

Population in C entral A m erica, Panam a, and
M exico has been expanding fa ste r than in any
other region of the world. The av erage annual
rate of in cre ase between 1950 and 1959 w as 3.2
percent. Urban population con sisted of about onethird of the total. Age com position of the popula­
tion, education le v e ls, m arital statu s, and other
dem ographic asp e cts of the population are d is ­
c u ssed .
B a sed on the p a st trends of birth and death
r a te s and their p rojected direction and m agni­
tude in the future, estim ated population to 1980
is provided fo r each country according to three
assum ptions in r a te s of birth. L ab or fo rce is
p rojected by r e g r e ssio n an aly sis. Built into these
projection s are certain assum ptions regard in g
the economic go als of each country.
C om parative tren ds in g r o s s national product
(1946-1956) indicate that relativ ely high annual
growth r a te s were experienced in E l Salvador




(5.3 percent), Mexico (6.3 percent), and C osta
R ica (7.1 percent), resu ltin g in high per capita
g ain s. GNP annual growth w as lower in other
coun tries which had correspondingly low er p er
capita gain s. B ased on m edium -as sumption
population p rojectio n s, GNP growth r a te s to
1980 have to in creased 64 percent in Honduras
and 91 percent in C osta R ic a ju st to maintain
the 1954-56 p er capita r e a l GNP. T h is sta g ­
gerin g task fo r Central A m erican countries
which have lim ited reso u rc e ap p ears le s s fo rm i­
dable when other asp e cts of the problem are e x ­
amined. F or exam ple, even sm all sh ifts from
fa rm to industrial employment will affect total
GNP; im proved farm in g techniques will in crease
productivity; educational fa c ilitie s will provide
a better p repared work fo rce.
The appendix provides techniques and meth­
ods of projection s and a n aly sis, and detailed
tab les on labor fo rce in each country.

91

A m erican R epublics
C entral A m erica

Industrial Manpower in C entral A m erica and Panam a
Some Issu e s and A spects
(1963; 34 pages)
F ra n c is X, Gannon, Manpower A dviser to the C entral A m erican Economic
Integration S e c re ta ria t (SIECA)
D e sc rib e s existin g and potential so u rc e s of region al man­
power inform ation and su g g e sts adm inistrative m achinery
fo r setting the manpower plan in motion. T raining p ro ­
g ra m s are analyzed in light of technical manpower needs
in the region.

The manpower asp ect of economic integration
of Central A m erica has lagged behind capital
investm ent. Further expansion of the in tegra­
tion movement depends on the role which human
fa c to rs m ust play in both contributing to and
stim ulating regional integration. So fa r, man­
power inform ation and data have been produced
by national m in istrie s but have not been c o o r­
dinated for region al an aly sis. It is su ggested
that SIECA cre ate a Human R eso u rc es Office
to stim ulate action and long-range coordination
in manpower a n aly sis, planning, and utilization
fo r the region.
B a sic inform ation requ ired for manpower
an aly sis com es from periodic c e n su se s which
se rv e a s a b ase for interim su rv ey s. All Cen­
tra l A m erican countries have or are planning a
cen su s, but they are lacking in m ost other in­
form ation so u rc e s. A study of the supply and
demand for p ro fessio n al and m iddle-level tech­
nical manpower is being conducted by the Cen­
tra l A m e r i c a n Superior U niversity Council
(CSUCA) to determ ine educational requirem ents
for the projected labor fo rce . 1 / D isc u ssed are
other curren t and proposed stu dies such a s
studies of fam ily budgets, vocational training,
m iddle-level manpower requ irem en ts.

92




The m ajor portion of the repo rt concerns
region al manpower utilization. Manpower devel­
opment has not kept pace with the sw itchover
from a rtisa n sk ills to highly technical sk ills
required for the changing industrial clim ate.
P a rt of the problem re su lts from tension that
has developed between old and young work­
e r s and from antiquated methods of teaching.
It is su ggested that m ore funds be devoted to
technical education and that c lo se r tie s be e sta b ­
lished between industry and vocational sch ools.
A regional uniform apprentice training p rogram ,
including a sy stem of vocational guidance, is p ro ­
posed. The variou s national training p ro g ram s
a r e d iscu sse d to point up the div ersity of tra in ­
ing sy ste m s. Coordination needed to stim ulate
uniform ity may very well come through SIECA.
To bring about ov erall manpower coordination, a
Regional Manpower Planning and Development
Conference to be held in the near future is r e c ­
ommended.

JL/ See O ferta y Demanda R ecu rsosH u m an os
en C en tro am erica. 7 volum es, CSUCA, C osta
R ica, 1966.

A m erican R epublics
Central A m erica

A nalysis of Manpower S e rv ic e s in C entral A m erica
(1966; 54pages)
DO LIT AC ^1/ Staff P aper No. 14; Jennings L ee, Manpower Consultant,
(Utah State Employment Service)

D e sc rib e s available manpower se r v ic e s in Central A m er­
ic a and p ro p o ses a regional model of an employment
organization.

A com parative an aly sis of the v ariou s na­
tional employment se r v ic e s was made for the
use of the O rganization of C entral A m erican
States (ODECA) to encourage uniform regu la­
tion s, sy ste m s, and se r v ic e s fo r m eeting man­
power needs. Information w as obtained p rim arily
from interview s with o ffic ials of government,
educational institutions, and industry.
E l Salvador has the m ost highly developed
Employment Service in the region. It is a s e c ­
tion organizationally subordinate to the National
D epartm ent of A pprenticeships and has 41 p o si­
tions on its staff. The Employment Service in
G uatem ala is the le a st developed and the le a st
adequately staffed in Central A m erica; very few
se r v ic e s are offered. Neither N icaragua nor
Honduras has an Employment Serv ice of any con­
sequence.
A detailed description of the types of se rv ic e s
provided by an ideal Employment Serv ice Office
is provided. To im plem ent these se r v ic e s, a r e ­
gional model for a manpower se r v ic e s organ iza­
tion is presented. The model attem pts to coordi­
nate and recon cile the n a t i o n a l manpower
se r v ic e s already in existen ce in E l Salvador,
C osta R ica, and G uatem ala. In a few c a s e s , the
prop osal m ay req u ire le g islativ e or ad m in istra­
tive action to get starte d at the national level.
R egionally, the c o rrelativ e function would r e s t
with ODECA. At som e la te r date, a Central Of­
fice fo r manpower se r v ic e s could be establish ed
to interlock adm inistrative tie s.
The fe asib ility of estab lish in g a pilot E m ­
ployment Service Office in C osta R ica was in­




vestigated. The organization, functions, and p e r ­
sonnel duties are d iscu sse d fo r setting up such
an office coordinated with the ac tiv itie s of Na­
tional Institute of A pprenticeship (INA). Such an
office could se rv e a s a regional center fo r tra in ­
ing, experim ental work, and leadersh ip fo r other
sim ila r offices in Central A m erica. (However,
the consultant b elieves that E l Salvador is better
equipped than C osta R ica since E l Salvador has
developed m ost of the e ssen tial elem ents of a
well-rounded Employment Service.)
Among the recom m endations made were the
following:
1.
Manpower se r v ic e s in ROCAP should be
strengthened and supportive se r v ic e s provided
in each country.
2o F ull-tim e AID personnel should be a s ­
signed to ODECA to a s s is t in its variou s func­
tion s.
3. L abor and manpower functions should r e s t
with one person in country m issio n s.
4. Efficiency of DOLITAC team m em bers
should be im proved by continuous language tra in ­
ing, participation in United States manpower
se m in a rs, and periodic sta ff m e e t i n g s of
DOLITAC m em bers.

1/ U.S. D epartm ent of L abor International
Technical A ssistan c e C orps.
93

A m erican R epublics
C entral A m erica

Improving Manpower S ta tistic s in Central A m erica
(1967; 25 p ag es and 4 appendixes)
DOLITAC

Staff Paper No, 56; S h errill W. N eville, Lab or S ta tistic s
A dv iser, (Utah State Employment Service)

1/

Manpower sta tistic s in the region are analyzed to aid the
O rganization of C entral A m erican States (ODECA) draft
plan s and p ro g ram s leading to im proved data.

Population p rojectio n s indicate that the Cen­
tra l A m erican labor fo rce of 4 m illion in 1960
will double in siz e by 1930. The risin g tide of
jo b se e k e rs p rese n ts an unprecedented challenge
fo r private industry and government to find em ­
ployment fo r t h e s e new w o rkers. Solutions
to this problem of employment creation requ ire
im proved sta tistic a l inform ation a s guidance.
T h is rep o rt an alyzes available sta tistic s in each
country (com parative data appear in appendix
C) and su g g e sts im provem ents.
Each country m ust plan for better population
c e n su se s and interim sam ple su rvey s to provide
curren t inform ation. Regional control and finan­
c ia l participation will a ssu re uniform tim elin ess
and quality for the four sta tistic a l p rio ritie s of
em ploym ent, unemployment, hours, and earn ­
in gs. Only Panam a prov ides periodic inform ation
on total employment and unemployment changes.
C o sta R ica expects to publish these data soon.
Honduras and E l Salvador need funds to effect­
uate p lan s. N icaragua has no inform ation on un­
employment. All countries have p artial inform a­
tion about w ages and sa la r ie s which should be
m ade uniform and com plete. P resen t knowledge
of unemployment conditions in Central A m erica
i s weak.

94




A joint and cooperative regional effort and
a centralized power of a fed eral type is needed
to produce the requ ired employment and wage
sta tis tic s . Only through cen tralized power will
the Central A m erican countries arriv e at uni­
form definitions and methods, m eet tim e sched­
u le s, and dissem in ate the data. ODECA can ful­
fill the ro le of the fed eral counterpart to the six
countries, but it needs finances, staff, and U.S.
recognition. The money might come from a r e ­
gional tax, foundation support, or other so u rc e s.
In sum m ary, ODECA should be encouraged
to serv e a s a central coordinating body to p ro ­
mote and develop in each country a sta tistic a l
program that is uniform , reliab le, and tim ely.
The M in istries of L ab or should em ploy at le a st
one high-level, competent e c o n o m ist-statisti­
cian to analyze all available data. Household and
establishm ent sam ple su rvey s should be initiated
and developed in each country, and 5-year popu­
lation c en su ses should be c a rrie d out to obtain
com parative benchm ark data.

1 / U.S. Departm ent of Lab or International
Technical A ssistan c e C orps.

A m erican Republics
Chile

Some O bservations on the Chilean Education System
and its Relation to Econom ic Growth
(1963; 20 pages)
P aper fo r the Conference on the Role of Education in E a rly Stages of
Econom ic Development, at the U niversity of Chicago
Rudolph C. B litz, Vanderbilt U niversity
Some c h a r a c te r istic s of the educational sy stem in Chile,
and the re aso n s why public education, with all it could
mean for Chilean economic development, turned out to
be a failu re.

The Educational System
1. D ata on the school population from 19401957 showed that the relativ e proportion of s e c ­
ondary and su perior education in creased sub­
stan tially in relation to p rim ary education, but
that the proportion of su p erio r to secondary
education dim inished,
2. The educational pyram id has an extrem ely
narrow peak; i.e ., only 1.2 percent of those en­
tering p rim ary education enter the university,
3. A la rg e proportion of university entrants
a re unprepared to study natural sc ien c es. Hence,
the growth of enrollm ent in engineering and
scien ce has narrow lim its.
4. The rate of school desertion , esp ecially at
the e arly sta g e s of the educational ladder, is
heavy despite the 40-y ear-o ld law of com pulsory
p rim ary education and a tradition of free educa­
tion fo r m ore than a century.




R eason s fo r the High D esertion Rate
from the Education System
1. Income distribution is uneven and the ru ral
a r e a s are iso lated in Chile.
2. Educational motivation m ay be weak be­
cau se of the com plete lack of a guild and appren­
ticeship tradition.
3. A country which has a high birth rate and
a low life expectancy finds free gen eral educa­
tion a g re a te r burden than a country which has
a low birth rate and a high life expectancy.
Concluding O bservations
1. Chilean econom ic development has been
impeded by feudal valu es and tradition s, e sp e ­
cially in the agricu ltu ral sec to r.
2. The proportion of Chilean women in edu­
cation and the p ro fe ssio n s is high. T his m ay
indicate a sta g e in development in which women
are no longer d iscrim in ated again st and still
have the advantage of cheap household help.

A m erican R epublics
Chile

Manpower and Educational Planning in C hile—P relim in ary Study
(1964; 62 pages)
C h ile-C aliforn ia P ro g ram of Technical Cooperation, Stanford R ese arch Institute;
W illiam J . P latt, A1 M. Loeb, and R u ssell G. D avis

E valu ates existin g ac tiv itie s in manpower and educational
planning, p ro je c ts supply and demand of manpower to
1970, and recom m ends a m ore efficient manpower plan­
ning organization.

G eneral O bservations
Educational institutions in Chile offer an im ­
p r e ssiv e lis t of se m in a rs, c o u rse s, and work­
shops to develop m iddle- and high-level technical
and m anagement manpower. Regional c o lleg es
and other training institutions are expected to
r e ta rd m igration to crowded urban a r e a s.
Several organization s are assem b lin g m an­
power data that can form the b a s is fo r further
stu d ies. F o r exam ple, INSORA (Institute of O r­
ganization and A dm inistration of the U niversity
of Chile) is studying the supply and demand of
grad u ates of p ro fessio n al, technical, and admin­
istra tiv e field s; and CORFO (National Develop­
ment Corporation) is studying manpower needs
by in dustrial sec to r.
Manpower Demand
Supplementing INSORA and CORFO effo rts,
a method of determ ining econom ic demand for
educational output w as su ggested. D ata from the
1960 C ensus and e stim a te s of productivity trends
w ere p rojected to 1970 to evaluate manpower
requ irem en ts by m ajo r industry and occupation.

96




Educational Supply
P rojectio n s of number of grad u ates at each
level indicate a sh ortage of high-level manpower
supply by 1970. Several recom m endations call
for changes in the educational structu re; for e x ­
am ple, 2 -y e ar co lleg es instead of 4 -y ear in sti­
tutions; red esign of co u rse content in secondary
level to aid those term inating their education
and training.
Manpower Information and Employment Se rv ic es
Recom m endations are outlined for providing
an effective employment se rv ice exchange to
match job opportunities with available sk illed
manpower.
O rganization for Manpower
and Educational Planning
Recom m endations and m ajor s t r u c t u r a l
changes are proposed regard in g the organization
and coordination of human re so u rc e s planning.
A sp ecial unit to c a r ry out this function should
be establish ed; an A dvisory B oard would r e p r e ­
sent variou s public and private organization s a s
coordinator of p o lic ie s, plan s, and p ro je cts.

A m erican R epublics
Chile

T raining and Educational Needs in Chile’ s A gricu ltu ral Development
(1965; 8S pages)
C h ile-C aliforn ia P rogram , Stanford R ese arch Institute;
W illiam J . P latt, Raymond A. San Giovanni, G. Allen Sherman, and Lloyd Dowler
A study of the prob lem s of agricu ltu ral education a s they
re late to requ irem en ts of the proposed ag rarian refo rm
p rogram . Recom m endations a re made to aid in the p r e ­
paration of an agricu ltu ral manpower development p ro ­
gram .

Data in th is rep o rt were gathered by con­
ducting perso n al interview s and by exam ining
existin g sta tistic a l and planning rep o rts. The
r e se a r c h team participated in m eetings of the
A dvisory C om m ission on A gricultural Educa­
tion. Other organization s which w ere helpful were
the Service of Technical Cooperation (SCT), the
Institute of R ural Education (IE R), and the Foun­
dation of R ural L ife (a private secondary a g r i­
cultural school sy stem ).

sem isk illed agricu ltu ral personnel. So fa r, the
SCT has a p rogram in tra cto r operation and
re p a ir. Its long-range plans c all for c o u rse s to
train farm m an agers, ow ners, bu sinessm en , and
w orkers. IER is qualified to a s s is t in ru ra l com ­
munity development and sk ill training p ro je c ts.
A lm ost every asp ect of ru ral life is embodied in
IER p ro g ram s through 23 regional educational
cen ters.
F orm al Education

Demand for A gricultural Personnel
The Manpower Planning Office of the National
Development C orporation (CORFO) estim ated
the demand fo r 750,000 agricu ltu ral personnel in
1970 b ased on the assum ption that productivity
would in cre ase 3.3 percen t p er year. In con trast,
the r e se a r c h team estim ated productivity would
in crease only 0.8 percent p er y ear. Thus, about
one m illion agricu ltu ral personnel would be r e ­
quired in 1970.
A ccelerated Skill T raining
This type of p ro g ram concentrates on the
sh o rt-term objective of trainin g sk illed and




The educational sy stem provides the founda­
tion for training by supplying teac h ers of train ­
ing institutions. The technical educational level
(US junior college level) su pplies the m iddlelevel manpower that is of c ritic a l im portance
to achievement of Chile’ s agricu ltu ral go als.
The secondary educational level (US high school
level) su ffe rs low p re stig e in the ey es of the
C hileans, and prov id es, in gen eral, poor quality
preparation at a relativ ely high c o st p er pupil.
Sections on adult education and on secondary
and postsecon dary agricu ltu ral education are
provided. Recom m endations cover all asp ects
of training and education for the ru ral se c to r, in­
cluding adm inistration, fa c ilitie s and equipment,
educational m a te ria ls, cu rricu la, and teach ers.

97

A m erican Republics
Chile

The Em igration of H igh-Level Manpower
The C ase of Chile
Pan A m erican Union: S.G. O livos (F o rm er Chilean A m bassador) and
J.R . P erez (Specialist, L atin A m erican Human R eso u rces Planning Program )

R e su lts of a survey of Chilean p ro fessio n al manpower
resid in g in the United S tates,

The purpose of the su rvey of Chilean p r o fe s­
sional personnel resid in g in the United States is
to provide data on em igration of high-level man­
power and, b ased on the r e su lts, to recom m end
b a sic m e a su re s for the solution of the problem .
The su rvey con sisted of a m ail questionnaire
to a sam ple of the 2,320 u n iversity-level p ro ­
fe ssio n a l Chilean em igran ts.
Sum m ary of Findings
1. The g re a te st number of respondents is
concentrated in C alifornia.
2. The la rg e st number is at the 27- to 37y ear age level.
3. M ost are m arried and have estab lish ed
hom es in the United States.
4. Few er than 10 percent becom e naturalized
U.S. citizen s.
5. Engineering and nursing account for 36
percen t of the total lo s s to Chile. Econ om ists
a re next, and law yers are la st.

98




6. The v a st m ajo rity (80 percent) have p e r ­
manent U.S. con tracts.
7. N early 40 percent of the p ro fessio n al em ­
igran ts were u niversity p r o fe sso r s in Chile.
8. S a la r ie s to Chilean p ro fe ssio n a ls in the
United States are high relativ e to those in
Chile, but achievem ent of outstanding position s
is the exception.
9. P rac tically all Chileans hope to return to
Chile som e day.
Recom m endations
Sh ort-term : elim inate o b stac le s which im ­
pede return of em igran ts; and e stab lish incen­
tives to facilitate return to Chile. L ong-term :
define c le a rly the manpower policy in Chile;
organize a central agency to develop human r e ­
so u rc e s; e stab lish a cen tralized inform ation
se rv ic e to r e g iste r all p ro fe ssio n als; in crease
s a la r ie s to retain p ro fe ssio n a ls in Chile.

A m erican Republics
Colom bia

Status of ICE T EX 1 / Survey of High Level
Human R eso u rc es in Colom bia
(1963; 17 pages)
W illiam A. Langbehn, AID Manpower Consultant

Review s p r o g r e ss made by IC E T EX in the manpower
re so u r c e s survey and recom m ends guidelines to com ­
plete the survey.

The Survey Plan
The p ro ject, an adaption of the r e se a rc h
methodology utilized by the Institute Torcuato di
T elia (Argentina), was divided into four b asic
p h ases: (1) investigation of p reex istin g mate ria l;
(2) supply; (3) demand; and (4) conclusions and
an aly sis. The occupational coverage w as lim ited
to high-level p ro fessio n al and adm inistrative
personnel. On the supply sid e, the plan proposed
to investigate the output of the educational sy stem
at the 12th grade and above. On the demand side,
all nonagricultural firm s who have 50 em ployees
or m ore and all segm en ts of government em ploy­
ment w ere to be surveyed. In the data collection
for both supply and demand p h ase s, the country
was divided into six zones; each zone had a cen­
tra l re se a r c h group, generally a university, in
charge of data collection.
Sum m ary of the Status
Work on the supply secto r w as well ad­
vanced; detailed planning for the an aly sis was
com pleted. Work on the demand phase was on
schedule; field work of data collection was to
begin in August 1963. A nalysis of the economic
development plan, a s the fir s t p art of the final
stag e, h as been started . Completion was sched­
uled for m id -1964.




Recom m endations
1. E a rly assu ran ce of adequate financing is
e sse n tial.
2. Recruitm ent and training of the interview ­
ing staff fo r the demand phase should be ex­
pedited.
3. A Human R eso u rc es Coordination Com ­
m ittee should be form ed im m ediately.
4. The potential lack of cooperation by r e ­
gional u n iv ersities m ust be anticipated and, if
n e c e ssa ry , financial aid m ust be provided.
5. R ese arch m ust be integrated to include
the census of population and work done by SENA
(National Apprenticeship Service), the A sso c ia ­
tion of Colombian U n iv ersities, a n d other
agencies.
6. Im m ediate com m itm ents and d ecision s
m ust be made to p r o c e ss the dem and-phase in­
form ation.
7. Plans for final an aly sis and for p rese n ta­
tion of the final rep o rt should be developed.
8. Followup by a sh o rt-term c o n s u l t a n t
should be provided after the data-collection
phase is com pleted.

1 / Instituto Colombiano de E sp ecializacio n
T ecn ica en el E x te rio r (Colombian Institute fo r
Advanced Training Abroad).

99

A m erican R epublics
Colom bia

IC ET EX

J j

Survey of H igh-Level Human R e so u rc e s in Colombia
(1964; 12 pages)

G abriel J . M olnar, AID Manpower Consulant

Review s the p r o g r e ss of the IC E T EX survey, identifies
the rem aining p ro b lem s, and provides an outline for the
final repo rt.

Inform ation on the educational output and the
demand data w ere not ready fo r final an aly sis,
although the education-output ph ase w as well
advanced. The w eak n esses of the su rvey were
a s follow s: (1) organization and coordination
w ere lacking; (2) in many r e sp e c ts, the survey
w as too inclusive for the amount of tim e, money,
and personnel available; and (3) establish m en ts
em ploying few er than 50 w orkers were not
included.
The prin cipal rem aining problem s hindering
the an aly sis of the study concern e stim ate s of the
following item s:
1. C urrent and future supply of and demand
fo r occupations in the self-em ployed category.
2. C urrent (1963) u n iverse by industrial
category.
3. Future r e q u i r e m e n t s of p rim ary and
secondary school teach ers.

100




The consultant outlined the e sse n tia ls that the
an aly sis of the su rvey should include and the
form the final rep o rt should take. 2 / In addition,
training se s sio n s fo r key o ffic ials of the Human
R eso u rc es D ivision of IC ET EX w ere held on the
techniques of making fo re c a sts from inform ation
obtained from an establishm ent survey.

1 / Instituto Colombiano de E sp ecializacio n
T ecnica en el E x te rio r (Colombian Institute for
Advanced Training Abroad). See a lso , 1963 AID
rep o rt by Langbehn.
2 / The final rep o rt w as entitled R e c u rso s y
Requerim ientos de P erso n al de Alto Nivel,
Colom bia 1964-1975, Im plications for Educa­
tional and Econom ic P o lic ies (246 p ag es), and
published by IC ET EX , Departm ent of Human
R e so u rc e s, in 1965. A 34-page sum m ary was
p rep ared in English in 1966, under the title of
R eso u rces and Requirem ents for Highly T rained
P ersonnel.

A m erican R epublics
Colom bia

A Com prehensive Manpower Planning P ro g ram fo r Colombia
(1964; 31 pages)
M. Vasudevan (India), ILO Expert
Review s existin g manpower planning p ro g ram s, including
the IC ET EX survey, and m akes prelim in ary observation s
concerning the establishm ent of a com prehenisve human
re so u r c e s program .

Manpower planning in Colom bia re q u ire s
action to develop w ell-train ed personnel and
m easu re le v e ls of unemployment and underem ­
ployment. The IC ET EX survey, when it is com ­
pleted, will provide inform ation on the needs
fo r high-level manpower and a s s is t in directin g
educational p ro g ram s to sa tisfy these needs.
An outline for planning an educational sy stem on
the b a s is of manpower ob jectives i s sum m a­
rized in 14 step s.
A d iscu ssio n on the value of the IC ET EX su r ­
vey and its shortcom ings is presented. The m ost
se rio u s lim itation is that the survey c o v ers
only those estab lish m en ts employing 50 w orkers
or m ore.




Among the dozen or so recom m endations,
one e m e rg e s a s being b a sic to any manpower
development plan. It is recom m ended that the
variou s official agen cies now active in human
re so u r c e s coordinate their ac tiv itie s through a
work group. IC ET EX should take the initiative
to organize such a group. The agen cies involved
include the M in istries of Education and L ab or,
the Departm ent of Planning, IC E T EX , SENA,
DANE, and the Colombian A sso ciation of Univer­
s itie s .
F or further referen ce, see : Manpower P e rspective of Colom bia, by D ieter K. Zschork,
Industrial Relations Section, Princeton Univer­
sity , 1967, 152 p ag es.

101

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s e le c t io n

a n d

a d ic ­

r e c o m

­

t r a in in g

p r e s c r ib e d .

1 ,0 0 0

e s t a b lis h m

e n t s

w e r e

s u r v e y e d

in

o f
J o s e

to

d e te r m in e

p a s t ,

p r e s e n t ,

a n d

p r o ­

o n ly .
E m

e m p lo y m e n t,

b y

s e x

a n d

o c c u p a tio n .

A

­
s u r v e y w a s m a d e w ith s o m e m o d if ic a t io n s

im p r o v e ­
to w a r d

f r o m

c o n s is t ­
th e

th e

m e th o d .

th e

e c o n o m y in

r e o r g a n iz a t io n

s e p a r a t e d

m

m e n d a tio n s.

to

d e v e lo p m e n t

J o s e ,

s ix

A s s is t a n c e

s e c o n d
p lo y m e n t

to

S t a t e s )

w e r e

c o n s is t e d

a s p e c t s

S a n

in

je c t e d
T h e

R ic a ;

(U n ite d

o r g a n iz a tio n .

S a n
r e g is t e r in g

C o s t a

D o r a n

O v e r
n o

S e r v ic e

p a g e s )

G o v e r n m e n t
M

e s t a b lis h e d
th e

E m p lo y m e n t
1 9 6 1 ;

1 9 6 0 . I t s r e s p o n s ib ilit ie s
f a r t h e r

c o n s is t e d
a n d

u n til

to

S e r v ic e

n e e d s

w a s

e ffe c t iv e

w e r e

1 9 6 1 ,

th e

th e

R ic a / R .3 ;

E m p lo y m e n t
m in e

o f

S p a n is h ;

lo c a l

T h e
d e t a ils
e ffe c t iv e

r e c o m m e n d a tio n s
o f

th e

fu n c tio n s

e m p lo y m e n t

d e a lt
a n d

s e r v ic e

p r im

a r ily

o p e r a t io n s
o ffic e .

w ith
o f

a n

A m e r ic a n

R e p u b lic s

D o m in ic a n

In te r im

R e p o r t

o n

M a n p o w e r

P la n n in g

(1 9 6 3 ;

A r n ie

S o le m ,

R e c o m m e n d a tio n s
p la n n in g

a n d

p lo y m e n t

H u m a n

R e s o u r c e

f o r

S e r v ic e ,

ta k e n

b y

th e

f o r

A ID

th e

a n d

H u m a n

in c lu d in g

F i r s t

th e

m a n p o w e r

T h e

m a in

o b s t a c le s

d e te r m in in g
s h o u ld

a v a ila b le ,

d e v e lo p
m e n t

a n d

m u c h
a n d

h a v e

b e

to

g iv e n

o f

o n h u m a n
th e

tr a in e d

n o t b e e n

a n

o v e r a ll

r e s o u r c e s .

p la n n in g

a

so u n d

T h e

g e s t io n s

a n d

o th e r

fo llo w in g
a n d

c o n s id e r a b le

th e

p o lic ie s

r e s o u r c e p la n n in g .

s t a t i s t ic a l

d a ta

p e r s o n n e l to c a r r y

s e le c t e d .

a r e

o u t t h is

p r io r it y

c a n

b e c o m e

a n d

fu tu r e

h a v e

b e e n

a

sh o u ld

n u c le u s

e x p a n s io n .




in fo r m a ­

in c lu d e d

w e r e

s u g ­

t r e a t e d

in

s y s t e m

In fo r m a tio n

n e e d e d

f o r

m a n p o w e r

p la n ­

2 .

O r g a n iz a tio n

a n d

p o lic ie s

f o r

m a n p o w e r

3 .
th e

Im p r o v e m e n t

E m p lo y m e n t

a n d

fu tu r e

d e v e lo p m e n t

o f

S e r v ic e .

.
E m p lo y m e n t
M

a r k e t

a n d

u n e m p lo y m e n t.

r e s e a r c h

in to

la b o r - in t e n s iv e

c r o p s .

S e r v ic e .

p la n n e d

m a r k e t

w h ic h

d e v e lo p m e n t.

to

S e r v ic e

E m p lo y m e n t

jo b

n in g .

n o t

A b a s ic p r o g r a m

e d u c a tio n a l

1 .

a n d

6.
S e c o n d

b a s ic

s u b je c t s

r e c o m m e n d a tio n s

5 .

th e

­

d e t a il:

4 .

E m p lo y m e n t

E m

a r e

h u m a n r e s o u r c e s r e q u ir e s g o o d m a n a g e ­

a n d

th e

th a t e c o n o m ic p la n n in g

e s t a b lis h in g

o f

to

h u m a n

e ffe c t iv e

d ir e c t io n

to c a r r y

o r e o v e r ,

w o r k

th e

ta k e

in s titu tio n s
M

s h o u ld

d e v e lo p m e n t

o f

s p e c if ic p r o je c t s to b e u n d e r ­

S e r v ic e .

P la n n in g

p r io r it y

f o r

o f h u m a n r e s o u r c e

im p r o v e m e n t

tio n .

p la n

D e v e lo p m e n t

C o n s u lta n t

in tr o d u c tio n
a n d

R e s o u r c e

p a g e s )

M a n p o w e r

e x p a n s io n

E m p lo y m e n t

3 1

R e p u b lic

to

f o r

b e
A

to

a t e

to

c a p a b le

e ffe c tiv e

V is it s
e s t im

g iv e n

fe w

s t a ffin g
p e o p le

7 .
u r b a n

f o r

C o m m u n ity

d e v e lo p m e n t

a n d

f a r m

e x te n ­

s e r v ic e s .

le a d e r s h ip

E m p lo y m e n t

o b je c t iv e s

f o r

in d u s t r ia l

a n d

a r e a s ,

e n t s

8.

U tiliz a tio n

tr a in e d

9 .

T r a in in g .

e s t a b lis h m
n e e d

s io n

o f

s c a r c e

m a n p o w e r .

1 0 3

A m e r ic a n

R e p u b lic s

D o m in ic a n

R e p u b lic

H u m a n

R e s o u r c e s
(1 9 6 5 ;

A ID

H u m a n

R e s o u r c e s

E v a lu a t e s

D e v e lo p m e n t
4 0

D e v e lo p m e n t

th e

r e c o m m e n d s

p r e s e n t
a n

R e p o r t

p a g e s )

T e a m

s t a t u s

o f

,

E ld o n

Y .

e d u c a tio n a l

e x te n d e d p r o g r a m

S te w a r t,

p r o je c t s

T e a m

L e a d e r

a n d

o f e d u c a tio n a l d e v e lo p ­

m e n t.

T h e

A ID

H u m a n

T e a m

v is it e d

m e n t

in s titu tio n s

n a tio n a l
m e n ts

o th e r

a n d

c o lle c t e d

in t e r v ie w s

to

T h e

D e v e lo p m e n t

b u s in e s s , a n d g o v e r n ­

a n d

a g e n c ie s ,
a n d

R e s o u r c e s

e d u c a tio n a l,

n a tio n a l

a n d

th is

d o c u ­
r e p o r t .

1 .
c o s t

s t r a t e g y

o f

d e v e lo p in g

h u m a n

r e s o u r c e s

S c h e d u le

2 .

s u p p o r t
U s e

w ith

a n d

m a d e

d e v e lo p m e n t
3 .

in

c o n ju n c tio n

P u e r to

e x p e r ie n c e ,

s e q u e n c e ,

in

p r iv a t e

p h a s e s

a n d

in v o lv e d

th e

N e w

e x p lo r e d

a n d
to

u n tr ie d

d e a l
s

w ith

m e n ta l

p r o g r a m

a p p e a r

m

In

a i n t a i n e d

h u m a n

r e s o u r c e

to a s s u r e

b r ie f ,

o p m e n t

o f

e a c h

p r o p o s a l,

c o m p o n e n ts

o f

th e

in

p r o ­

m e th o d s

a n d

in s titu tio n a l

w h e n

D e v e lo p in g
a t e r ia l

o f

th e

p r o je c t

h u m a n

a p p r o a c h e s

a n d

d e v e lo p ­

D e v e l o p

o f

th e

t e a m

e s

b e fo r e

.

F o r
b o o k




th e

e x a m p le ,
p u r c h a s e s ,

c o n s tr u c tio n .

1 0 4

r e s o u r c e s

w a s

a n d

p r o p o s a ls

s u p p o r tin g

w ith

in fo r ­

p r o p o s a ls

fo r

th e d e v e l­

c o v e r e d

th e

f o l­

r a t h e r

m a in

3 .

T r a in

D e v e lo p

a n d

a n d

5 .

D e v e lo p

6.

C r e a t e

b o o k s

b e fo r e

in is t r y
s a l a r y

o p m e n t
7 .
(S e e

a n d

a d m

a g r ic u lt u r a l

S te w a r t

th a n

tr a in in g

M

n e w

t e a c h e r s

p h ilo s o p h y

t e a c h e r

th e
a

o f

E d u c a tio n .

s c h e d u le

f o r

t e a c h e r s .

c o n v e n tio n a l p r o c e d u r e s

h u m a n

p r o je c t

r e s o u r c e s

R e o r g a n iz e

2 .

4 .

r e s o u r c e s

th e
a t e s

lo w in g :

G a r c ia

m

o f

e s t im

c o o r d in a ­

in a d e q u a te .

c la s s r o o m

o r

in c lu d in g

$ 7 3 6 ,2 0 0 .)

in s titu tio n s ,

p r o f e s s io n a ls .

in

R e p u b lic

c o s t

1 .

4 .

in itia tio n

c o s t ,

e x e c u tio n

D e s c r ip t io n

d e t a ile d

tio n .

c o m

in

p r o g r a m

(T o ta l

m a tio n .

R ic a n

e o m m u n ic a tio n

a g e n c ie s

d e v e lo p m e n t

w ith

in v o lv e m e n t.
o f

C o n tin u o u s
a ll

f o r

D e ta ile d

3 .
D e v e lo p m e n t

s e c t o r

s e c t io n s ,

p o s a l.

in c lu d e s :

1 .

o f th e r e p o r t i s d iv id e d in to

b r e a k d o w n .
2 .

T h e

r e s t

fo llo w s :

in t e r ­

d a ta f r o m

p r e p a r e

a s

(S e e

r e p o r t .)

a d u lt
a n d

in is t r a t o r s .

e d u c a t i o n .

a n d

s u p p o r t

lit e r a c y

e d u c a tio n .

p o s t - g r a d u a t e

d e v e l­

in s titu te .

D e v e lo p
G a r c ia

a n d

v o c a tio n a l
J u s t i c e

in d u s t r ia l

r e p o r t .)

e d u c a tio n .

A m e r ic a n

R e p u b lic s

D o m in ic a n

D e v e lo p m e n t

o f

V o c a tio n a l- I n d u s tr ia l
(1 9 6 5 ;

A ID

H u m a n

R e s o u r c e s

T h is

D e v e lo p m e n t

r e p o r t

c o v e r s

( r e f e r r e d

o n e

p r o je c t

D e v e lo p m e n t

T h e
t e a m

m a in

w a s

t r a d e s

a n d

g r o u p s ,

o b je c tiv e

to

a s s e s s

in d u s tr y ,

a n d

to

o f th e

to

r o le

T e a m ;

E ld o n

a s th e G a r c ia
o f

th e

w a s

to

e x a m in e

n e e d s

in

in t e r e s t o f lo c a l

o f A ID .

th e

A

6-

to

7

3 - y e a r

e d u c a tio n

S te w a r t,

a n d J u s t ic e

T e a m

L e a d e r

r e p o r t )

R e s o u r c e s

l/2 - m

o n t h

c o u r s e

c o u r s e

w o u ld

b e

o r

a

m o r e

g r a d u a te

v a lu a b le

fr o m

a

to in d u s ­

t r y .

s e c o n d
a c tio n

i s

r e q u ir e d

to

im p r o v e

s o c ia l

v o c a t io n a l- in d u s ­
a n d

t r i a l

Y .

H u m a n

U r g e n t
o b je c tiv e

T r a in in g

p a g e s )

p r o p o s a l

a n d J u s t ic e

tr a in in g

e v a lu a te

d e te r m in e

to

a n d

R e p o r t.

G a r c ia

p r io r it y

3 2

E d u c a tio n

R e p u b lic

a n d tr a in in g fie ld

e c o n o m ic

d e v e lo p m e n t o f th e c o u n tr y th ro u g h

in th e D o m in ic a n
w e ll

p la n n e d

a n d

b a la n c e d

s k ill m a n p o w e r t r a in ­

R e p u b lic .
in g
T h e

S k ille d

M a n p o w e r

D e v e lo p m e n t

p r o g r a m

i s

o p e r a t e d

w ith

S e a b e e

a t

th e

n a tio n a l

le v e l.

A

m a n p o w e r

C e n te r
s u r v e y

(S M D C )

s

p a r t ic ip a t io n

to

d e te r m in e

s p e c if ic

s k ill

n e e d s

o f

to
in d u s tr y w a s r e c o m m e n d e d f o r im m e d ia te
W h en L

t r a in

y o u n g

A d d itio n

o f

m e n

in

c o u r s e s

a u to
o n

a n d

h o u s e

d ie s e l
w ir in g

a c tio n .
m

m e c h a n ic s .
a n d

o n

p la n
c o n d itio n in g

a n d

r e f r ig e r a t in g

a r e

E v e n tu a lly ,

th e r e s p o n s ib ilit y

sh o u ld

o f

s h o u ld

L a b o r
T h e

o f

to

m in e

M

d a ta

in is tr y
to

t r a in in g

w e r e

m e n d a tio n s

t r a n s f e r r e d

t r ie d

t r a in in g

s c h o o ls

tiv e

th e

te a m

e x is t in g

fu tu r e

b e

w h e th e r




M

O f

a n d

e v a lu a te

p l o y e r s

O b s e r v a t io n s

g r a d u a t e

to

a n d

fr o m

t e a m
a

to

a n d

r e c o m

in d e t a il. N o c o m
th e

a n d

u tm o s t

e x is t in g

f o r

k n o w n ,

a

a s t e r

to

b e

to

d e te r m in e

ta u g h t,

o u ts id e

lo c a tio n

b u d g e ta r y

r e q u ir e m

p r o f e s ­

e n t s .

in is tr y

p r o g r a m

a v a ila b le
a

th e

E d u c a tio n .

s

fo r m u la te d

s k il l s

h e lp ,

a

p r e s e n t e d

w e r e

f r o m

E m

a r e

o f d ir e c t in g th e

a s s e s s th e q u a lity a n d ty p e s

p r i o r i t ie s .

v is it e d .

a r e

o f

b e

s c h o o ls ,

s io n a l
C e n te r

n e e d s

r e c o m m e n d ­
o f

e d .

m a n p o w e r

a i r -

­

p a r a ­
d e t e r ­

c o n c e n tr a te d

M a n p o w e r
a n d

m a n p o w e r
E d u c a tio n
b e

im p o r ta n c e

p o te n tia l

tr a in in g .
in

th e

s tr e n g th e n e d

c o o p e r a tio n
p a r t ie s

i s

D e v e lo p m e n t

a t

s h o u ld

M
a n d

th e

o r g a n iz a tio n

o f

to

c o o r d in a te

a c tio n p r o g r a m

s o n s k ille d

T h e

B o a r d

D iv is io n

in is t r y

o f

o f

V o c a tio n a l

E d u c a tio n

im p r o v e d .

sh o u ld

C o o r d in a tio n

a n d

a ll le v e ls a n d a m o n g a ll in t e r e s t e d
b e

e n c o u r a g e d

a n d

m a in ta in e d .

1 0 5

A m e r ic a n

R e p u b lic s

D o m in ic a n

R e p u b lic

D e v e lo p m e n t

o f

A g r ic u lt u r a l

(1 9 6 5 ;

A ID

H u m a n

R e s o u r c e s

T h is

r e p o r t

c o v e r s

o n e

T h e

a g r ic u lt u r a l

R e p u b lic
in c o m e ,
a n d

a c c o u n ts
e m p lo y s

f u r n is h e s

m e r c h a n d is e
a n d

in

a r e

m e e t

c o u p le d

A g r ic u lt u r a l

t h e s e

a r e

p r o b le m

n a tio n a l
o f

p r io r it y

N a tio n a l

E d u c a tio n

1 0 6




a n d

i s

n a tio n a l

la b o r

f o r c e ,

v a lu e

T h u s ,

o f

th e

Y .

S te w a r t,

a n d S te w a r t

T e a m

L e a d e r

r e p o r t )

H u m a n R e s o u r c e s D e ­

o f

f o r

a ll

r a p id

th e

M o r e
a n d
b e

i t s

t h r e e

o p e d ,
t h e s e

t r a in e d

S o lu tio n s

r e q u ir e

s h o r t - t e r m

a
a n d

p r o g r a m

A d v is o r y
e s s e n t ia l.

h ig h

d e ­

a n d

N e w

th e

e d u c a tio n a l

te a c h in g

sh o u ld

th e

a f t e r
b e

th e r e

b a s ic

in s titu tio n s
o f

s y s t e m

in s titu tio n s

p r e s e n t ,

a b ilit y

in s titu tio n s

w ith d r a w n

th e

t r a in in g

A t

s c h o o ls

a g r ic u lt u r e .

in ­

e c o n o m ic

s p e c if ic a lly ,
a g r ic u lt u r a l

r e o r ie n t e d .

a g r ic u lt u r a l

o f

a c tio n

E ld o n

to a s th e G a r c ia

p r o p o s a l

g r o w th i s

n e e d s ,

w ill

w ith

p la n s
a

s

th e

th e
th e

r e q u ir e d .

T e a m ;

D o m in ic a n

o f

g r e a t .

f i r s t

T o

th e

P o p u la tio n

n e e d s

w o r k e r s

fo r m a tio n

o f

h a v e

a g r ic u lt u r a l

r a n g e

p e r c e n t

o f

E d u c a tio n

p a g e s )

R e p o r t.

in

p e r c e n t

e x p o r t s .

( r e f e r r e d

p e r c e n t

d iv e r s ific a t io n

v e lo p m e n t.

a p p r o a c h ,

4

a n d

p r o d u c tio n

c u lt u r a l

5 5

9 0

n u tr itio n a l

c r e a s e

s e c t o r

f o r

D e v e lo p m e n t

p r o je c t

v e lo p m e n t

1 1

a n d

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b e

R e p u b lic

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i s

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to

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T h e

r e s t

o f

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th e

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B o a r d

f o r

e n t ir e

s c h e d u le

p r o g r a m

$ 9 0 0 ,0 0 0
c u lt u r a l

to

r e p o r t p r o v id e s th e e s t im
f o r

p r o g r a m
w o u ld

c o n s t r u c t

s c h o o ls .

th e
.

b e
t h r e e

in itia tio n
T h e

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n e w

a t e d

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o f

th e

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v o c a tio n a l a g r i ­

A m e r ic a n

R e p u b lic s

D o m in ic a n

S u r v e y

o f

to

N e e d s

th e

f o r

a n d

D o m in ic a n
(1 9 6 6 ;

6

p a g e s

D O L IT A C
J o s h u a

L e v in e

P r e s e n t s
w a g e

A s

a

r e s u lt

p r o g r a m
t e r m

w a s

a d v is e r

o f

t h is

m

d e v e lo p e d
in

s k il l s

is s io n ,

a d m in is t r a t io n ;

1 2

s ig n m e n t s ;

p a r t ic ip a n t

g r a m

s

a n d

c o v e r e d

a

a n d

s h o r t - t e r m

th e

a n d

fo llo w in g

1

(E m p lo y m e n t

p o w e r

D o m in ic a n

s k ill

g o v e r n m e n t

la b o r

in

T h e

n a tio n a l

a s ­
p r o ­

b u t

g r a d in g

p r o g r a m

d e te r m in e
in d u s tr y
1 9 6 5

n o

s .

(o n e

o f

H u m a n

s k il l s

a n d

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th e

tr a in in g

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e n t s

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i s

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b o a r d

n e e d e d

to

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sh o u ld

b e

o f

d e v e lo p m e n t

in

th e

T h e
to

a c c u m u la te
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M

w a g e

p r iv a t e
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i t s

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th e
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s p e c ia liz e d

a n a ly s is

w a g e

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a

w h ic h
A

w a g e

e v e n tu a lly

m a n a g e m e n t,

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sh o u ld

s t a r t

o p e r a t io n s

w a g e d a ta . S h o r t - t e r m
in

d e v e lo p

s e c t o r .

g o v e r n m e n t,

r e v ie w

to

s y s t e m

e s t a b lis h e d

in is tr y

tio n a l

a n d

te c h n ic ia n s

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A d m in is tr a tio n

in s titu tio n s
S h o r t­

s p e c ia liz e d

p r o g r a m

T h e

th e

T e a m ).

p r o m o te d .

a s s i s t

im p r o v e p r o d u c tiv ity .

o p p o r tu n ity

s t a t i s t ic s .

in

D e v e lo p m e n t
a ll

to

s h o u ld

p a r t ic ip a t io n
la b o r .

sh o u ld

a n d

a n

s k ill- u p -

r e c o m m e n d a tio n s

o f

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h a s

g o v e r n m e n t- w id e

im m e d ia te ly

S k ille d

tr a in in g

c o o r d in a tio n

t e c h n ic ia n s

a g e

A

R e s o u r c e s

t e r m

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a n d

a p p r e n tic e

r e q u ir e m

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s c h o o ls

a

a c q u is it io n ,

p o lic y
w ith

R e s o u r c e s )

h a s

A d v is e r s

in m a n p o w e r ,

T h e

f ie ld s :

R e p u b lic

1 7 ;

v a te

to
T h e

N o .

M a n p o w e r

a d m in is t r a t io n .

a n d
M a n p o w e r

L a b o r

a p p e n d ix )

P a p e r
V ie ,

A s s is t a n c e
o f

lo n g ­

te c h n ic ia n

tr a in in g .

in is tr y

f o r te c h n ic a l a s s i s t a n c e

la b o r

o n e

o n e

T e c h n ic a l
M

a n d

S ta ff
E ld o n

t w o - y e a r

r e q u ir in g

tr a in in g

JL /

a n d

p r o p o s a ls

p o lic y ,

P o te n tia l
R e p u b lic

R e p u b lic

.

i s

o f

s a f e t y
p r im

n ic ia n s ,
s a f e t y
in

a n d

a r y

h e a lth

c o d e s

p r o m o tin g

w o r k e r s

im p o r ta n c e .

t h e r e f o r e ,

te c h n iq u e s

o f

f o r
o f

s h o u ld

th e

S h o r t - t e r m

a d v is e

in d u s tr y ,
s a f e t y

o n

in

tr a in in g
a n d

e m p lo y e r i n t e r e s t in

jo b

te c h ­

d e v e lo p in g
in s p e c t o r s

in s p e c tio n ,

a n d

s a f e t y p r o g r a m

s .

P o lic y

w a g e

p o lic y

d is t r ib u t io n ,

w ill

in c r e a s e




s e r v e

to

im p r o v e

p u r c h a s in g

in c o m e

p o w e r ,

m o ti­

1 /

U .S .

T e c h n ic a l

D e p a r tm e n t
A s s is t a n c e

o f

L a b o r

In te r n a tio n a l

C o r p s .

1 0 7

A m e r ic a n

R e p u b lic s

D o m in ic a n

R e p u b lic

F i r s t

N a tio n a l

C o n fe r e n c e

M a n p o w e r

in

th e

(1 9 6 6 ;

JL /

D O L IT A C

R e p o r t

o f

th e

M a n p o w e r

T h e

C o n fe r e n c e

m e n d a tio n s
d e n t

o f

th e

w h ic h

S ta ff

D o m in ic a n

D o m in ic a n
7

N o .

2 9 ;

a n d

A r c h ie

tr a in in g

to

f o r

th e

­

P r e s i ­

a d o p tio n

a n d

T h e
tio n

c o o r d in a tin g

th e

s o u r c e s

in

t a x

w o u ld

p la n
2 .

th e

C r e a t e

f a c il it i e s ,
e d u c a tio n
3 .

4 .

a n d

c o m

c o u r s e s ,
a n d

s k ill
a

t r a in in g ,

m o d e r n iz e

a n d

s u p p o r t
a

P r o v id e

tr a in in g

a

b e

r e s p o n s ib le

m

th e

h u m a n
A n

f o r

to

n e e d s

o f

th e

p r e s e n t

N a tio n

f o r

m e th o d

f a c il it i e s
c e n t e r s

th e

th e

a d e q u a te

s u r v e y

o f

s t a f f ,

s y s t e m

w o r k e r
s y s t e m

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s k il l s ,

a n d

th e

ty p e

N a tio n a l

.

b e

w e r e

S e v e r a l
m a d e . In
a n d

s u p ­

A d m in is tr a tio n

u p d a te d

w ith

s t a f f .

m a n p o w e r p r o g r a m
n e e d s
i s

tr a in in g

a

i s

th e

s u r v e y

t o o ls ,

p r o g r a m

in g e n e r a l,

f i r s t r e q u ir e m

f a c il it i e s ,

e q u i p m e n t ,

a g a in s t
T h is

th e

s k ill

im p o r ta n t

in d u s t r ia l

to

a n d i t s o p e r a ­

a d v is e r .

c o m m e n ts

n e e d s

a n d

la w

th e

D o m in ic a n

m o n e y

R e g a r d in g
a

b y

a n d

la w

th e

c o o r d in a te d

c o o r d in a te d

o f

r e v ie w e d

b y

E q u a lly

s u r v e y

tr a in in g .

u p g r a d e

a s p e c t s

r e c o m m e n d a tio n s

r e ­

in d u s tr y

in s titu tio n .

is s io n

a n d

o f

R e p u b lic .

a p p r e n tic e s h ip

tr a in in g

to

d e v e lo p m e n t

D o m in ic a n

E s t a b lis h

tio n a l

in s titu te

B e a u b ie n

c u r r e n t a p p r e n t ic e s h ip

w e r e

e s s e n c e ,

a n

o f

R e p u b lic

p o r t e d
C r e a t e

D e v e lo p m e n t

p a g e s )

a p p r e n tic e s h ip

im p le m e n ta tio n :

1 .

a n d

C o n fe r e n c e .

p r e s e n t e d

R e p u b lic

T r a in in g

P a p e r

a d o p te d th e fo llo w in g r e c o m

w e r e

o n

o f v o c a tio n a l
in c lu d in g

c o m p a r e

a n d

te a c h in g

c u r r ic u la ,

w o u ld

e n t .

e t c .

th e

A

n e e d s

f a c il it i e s

a n d a tte m p t to m e e t th e g a p .

o f

c o u ld

w o r k

M a n p o w e r

b e

d o n e

b y

th e

n e w

C o m m itte e .

w h e r e b y th e e d u c a tio n a l

a n d
a r e

c o u r s e s in th e s c h o o ls
r e v ie w e d

a n d

u p d a te d

p e r io d ic a lly .
5 .
in g

I m p r o v e

r e la t e d

to

c o u n tr y .

1 0 8




e d u c a tio n ,
th e

p u b lic

tr a in in g ,
s e r v ic e

a n d

r e t r a in ­

n e e d s

o f

th e

1 /

U .S .

T e c h n ic a l

D e p a r tm e n t
A s s is t a n c e

o f

L a b o r

C o r p s .

In te r n a tio n a l

A m erican Republics
Dominican Republic
Survey of Skilled Manpower Needs
(M ay-June 1967; 5 p ag es and 4 tables)
DOLITAC

1 /

Staff P ap e rs No. 51 (English) and No. 52 (Spanish);
Howard Kumin, L abor Statistician

D e sc rib e s the methods used and the r e su lts of the survey
of skilled manpower needs.

This su rvey was conducted a s a resu lt of
recom m endations made by se v e ra l p re d e c e sso r
AID consultants. B a sic data w ere needed for
determ ining training needs in sp ecialized sk ills.
Inform ation was collected from sam p les of
estab lish m en ts employing 10 p e rso n s o r m ore
in m anufacturing in d u stries and in construction,
h o sp itals, electricity , and other in d u stries. The
occupational distribution, level of training, r e ­
placem ents, and estim ated needs were the
p rim ary objectives of the survey.
D ata from 186 establish m en ts employing
n early 32,000 w orkers revealed the following:
1. N early three-fourth s of the w orkers were
con sidered qualified for their jobs; the r e s t
needed further training.
2. If b u sin e ss w ere to in crease 10 percent,
very few additional w orkers would be required,
according to em ployers.
3. Only 38 job vacan cies were reported.
4. T h ree-fifth s of the estab lish m en ts r e ­
ported no difficulty in recru itin g w orkers they
needed.
5. M ost estab lish m en ts upgrade their work­
e r s a s opportunities a r is e .




6. T hree-fourths of the establish m en ts felt
their w orkers could benefit from additional
training.
7. Tw o-thirds of the establishm en ts would
give tim e off fo r additional training.
8. The difference between peak seaso n and
sla c k seaso n employment averaged 38 percent
fo r all in du stries and 66 percent fo r the food
industry.
F o reig n ers occupy m ost of the few highlysk illed position s which ex ist. M ost sem isk illed
op eratives can be trained in a few w eeks or
months. Upgrading w orkers already on the job
m ay be the m ost prom isin g field fo r manpower
training.

1 /
U.S. Departm ent of L ab or International
Technical A ssistan c e C orps.

109

A m erican R epublics
Dominican Republic
Prom oting Industry Involvement in T raining P ro g ra m s
(A pril-A ugust 1967; 8 pages)
DOLITAC 1 / Staff P aper No. 48;
Eugene Hood, A pprenticeship ad v iser
A review of the curren t situation in training for in dustrial
job s.

The ad v iser v isited in dustrial establish m en ts
in Santo Domingo, lo cal vocational and com m eric ial sch o ols, and labor organizations and
m ade the following observation s:
1. T rainin g in industry i s usually inform al
and on-the-job. Many industry o ffic ials r e ­
cognized the need for estab lish in g training p ro ­
g ra m s fo r their presen t and future work fo rce.
2. All labo r groups were eag er to prom ote
on-the-job and related training p ro g ram s with
m anagem ent.
3. Government o ffic ials are not u su ally fam i­
lia r with the role that government play s in
developing training p ro g ram s.
4. Vocational school o ffic ials seem ed eag er
to im prove their presen t ac tiv itie s.

antiquated equipment fo r jobs which are not
av ailab le. Only about 20 percen t of grad uates are
being placed in job s for which they received
training.
The v ario u s so cial and economic problem s
a risin g from the poor orientation and coordina­
tion of the p resen t training sy stem are d is ­
c u ssed . A lso liste d are b a sic b a r r ie r s to
manpower training, including the lack of le a d e r­
ship to c a r ry out an effective, corrdinated
trainin g program .
Recom m endations concentrated on the e s ­
tablishm ent and development of a training agency
to coordinate the vario u s training institutions,
p ro g ram s, in dustrial needs, and other related
top ics. Specific su ggestio n s also were made fo r
each of these topics.

C urrent training p ro g ram s a re not meeting
industry needs sin ce the vocational schools are
not coordinated with each other o r with local
industry needs. Students are being trained on

1 /
U.S. Departm ent of Lab or International
Technical A ssistan c e C orps.

1 1 0




A m erican Republics
Dominican Republic

Improvement of the Statistical P ro g ram in the S e cretariat of L ab or
(1967; 17 pages)
DOLITAC

1 /

Staff P aper No. 58; Howard Kumin, S tatistical A dviser

A description of the effo rts made to im prove the sta tistic a l
program of the M inistry of L ab or; sp ecial referen ce is
given to the labor fo rce survey and to the fam ily income
and expenditure survey.

The curren t role of the M inistry of Labor
a s a collector of sta tistic s is reviewed. Labor
sta tistic s are a by-product of the program
fo r the enforcem ent of labo r law s. The sta tistic a l
section has m aintained and sum m arized re c o rd s
of a c c e ssio n s, sep aratio n s, and occupational
changes of estab lish m en ts. Improving both the
coverage of establish m en ts and the accu racy of
the re p o rts were outside the term of referen ce
of ad v iser. Improvement of the sta tistic a l p ro­
gram w as directed along two lin es: to mechanize
the tabulation p r o c e ss e s and to design tabu­
lations to indicate the economic health of the
country. The introduction of the repo rt (4 pages)
and section I (4 pages) are devoted to this task .
Section II (8 pages) d e sc rib e s the survey of
the labor fo rce in Santo Domingo, 1967, and
p re se n ts the findings. Q uestionnaires from out­




side Santo Domingo did not have enough labor
fo rce data to make tabulation worthwhile, with
the exception of Azua and Rio San Juan, an
agricu ltu ral a re a . L ab or fo rce participation
r a te s for Santo Domingo and for Azua were
p rac tically the sam e: 28-29 percent; and for
Rio San Juan: 23 percent. B ecau se of poor
in stru ction s, enum erators neglected to a sk about
the employment statu s for household m em b ers.
A s a re su lt, unemployment r a te s a r e unreliable.
Section III (1 page) su m m arize s the plan to
su rvey incom es and expenditures of fa m ilie s in
Santo Domingo in 1968. This work will continue
through 1969.

1 /
U.S. Department of L abor International
Technical A ssistan ce C orps.

Ill

A m erican Republics
Ecuador

Manpower and L abor P ro g ram P ro p o sal fo r Ecuador
(1963; 14 pages)
P etro am e rica Pagan de Colon, AID Manpower Consultant
P re se n ts labor fo rce data and d e sc rib e s the educational
and training fa c ilitie s. P ro p o ses a Manpower and E m ­
ployment Service in the M inistry of Social W elfare and
L abor to coordinate the ac tiv itie s.

Labor S ta tistic s
Ecuador has a D irectorate G eneral of S ta tis­
tic s which, according to law, is resp o n sib le for
cen tralizin g sta tistic s from all g o v e r n m e n t
agen cies. However, its labor sta tistic s program
i s fragm entary and out of date. It is hoped that
adequate labo r force data will be available from
the G eneral C ensus of November 1962.
Educational System
In 1959, 16 percent of the national budget was
allocated to education. Technical schools p r e ­
p are m iddle-level technicians fo r industry, but
the number of students is low relativ e to the need.

112




A se rio u s lack in vocational guidance p erm its
enrollm ent in field s which are already ov er­
staffed. Many foreign high-level adm inistrative
and m an agerial personnel m ust be im ported
b ecau se of lack of training for nationals.
Recom m endations
1. E stab lish in the M inistry of Social W elfare
and Lab or a manpower p rogram which has
authority to plan and adm inister the development
of human r e so u r c e s.
2. Coordinate activ ities of labor s ta tistic s,
employment se rv ic e , and apprenticeship in the
Manpower and Employment Service.

A m erican Republics
Ecuador

Manpower and Educational Planning in the Socioeconom ic
Development of Ecuador
(1964; 91 pages)
Stanford R ese arch Institute, Henry F. M cCusker, J r ; and Edward A. P odesta
P reparatio n of a program of manpower planning and
development for the national development plan for
1964-73.

The Junta Nacional de Planificacion y Coordinacion Econom ica of the G o v e r n m e n t of
Ecuador com m ission ed Stanford R ese arch In­
stitute to conduct a survey of the role that man­
power planning and education should play to
achieve its socioeconom ic ob jectives.
The r e se a r c h activ itie s con sisted of:
L Evaluating and re v isin g projection s of p ro ­
fe ssio n al and technical manpower requirem ents
that already were p rep ared by the Planning
O ffice.
2. P rep arin g e stim a te s of manpower r e ­
quirem ents in econom ic se c to r s and for certain
sk ills.
3. A ppraising gap between future req u ire­
m ents and anticipated supply.
4. A sse s sin g current education and training
p ro g ram s outlining ways to im prove capability.
5. D eterm ining direction of long-term man­
power planning to coordinate manpower activ i­
tie s.
6. Identifying sp ecific problem a r e a s for
further study.




Findings
1. Quality and content of higher education
p ro g ram s are not adequate to m eet needs.
2. L ittle em ph asis is placed on in -serv ic e
training p ro g ram s for high-level, technical,
and sk illed manpower.
3. Insufficient data are collected for an aly sis.
4. E stim ate s of demand for and supply of
p ro fessio n al manpower in 1968 and 1973 indicate
sh o rtages of p r o fe sso r s, en gin eers, adm in istra­
to r s, and p ro fessio n al agricu ltu ral w orkers.
Suggestions for Action
B ased upon the findings and an aly ses of
altern atives, the following m ajor c ate g o rie s of
m e a su re s and p o lic ies were proposed for con­
sideration by the Planning Office:
1. B etter integration of education and man­
power planning with socioeconom ic development
planning.
2. Im provem ents in quality and relevan ce of
education to m eet occupational requirem ents.
3. Alleviation of projected m a n p o w e r de­
m and-supply im balance.
4. Im provem ents in the efficiency of higher
educational institutions.

113

A m erican R epublics
E cuador

Manpower Data in Ecuador
An A p p raisal of Some of the Current D ata Sy stem s
C rucial to Human R esou rce Development Planning
(1965; 43 pages)
Don H. Roney, AID Manpower A dviser
E valu ates curren t so u rc e s of manpower data and plans
fo r collecting additional data.
The purpose of th is rep o rt is to evaluate
curren t sta tistic a l data on which manpower
planning m ust r e s t , ap p raise the technical and
organizational c a p a b i l i t y to produce the
req u ired data, and su gg est appropriate AID r e ­
lationships to these p ro g ram s.
The 1962 C ensus of Population did not provide
enough detail relatin g to occupations, le v e ls of
sk ill, in du strial attachm ents, etc ., that is needed
to develop a m anpow er-educational plan. Other
types of su rv ey s, such a s the household survey,
occupational and industry su rv ey s, m ust be
developed for manpower planning.

adm inistration of the labor code. Total sta ff is
75, of whom 50 are labor in sp ecto rs. Within the
Bureau, there are se v e ra l section s:
1. S tatistic s and Placem ent Section does
som e job re g istratio n and placem ent but m ostly
com piles data on minimum w ages, in dustrial
acciden ts, etc. Some job m arket an aly sis work
has been started .
2. The A rtesan Section le g a liz e s and in spects
the training cen ters adm inistered by four m in is­
t r ie s under a p rogram to protect sk illed w orkers.
Recom m endations

Among the other sta tistic a l data o r p ro g ram s
analyzed are the following:
1. Consum er p rice index, monthly for Quito
and Guayaquil.
2. Index of employment and w ages in mining,
quarrying, and m anufacturing.
3. National directory of estab lish m en ts, by
province and by 3-digit industry code.
The Bureau of L ab or, p art of the so c ia l
secu rity office in the M inistry of Social Wel­
fa r e and L ab or, i s concerned p rim arily with

114




1. The D ivision of the C ensus should proceed
with the household survey.
2. The Bureau of L ab o r’ s S ta tistic s and P la c e ­
ment Section should be expanded so that adequate
labor reporting and an aly sis sy ste m s can be
developed.
3. Job m arket an aly sis should be assign ed
to the agency developing the employment se rv ic e .
4. The initiation of a sy stem of public
employment o ffices should be fo stered by AID
through participan t training, technical a s s i s ­
tance, and commodity support.

A m erican Republics
E l Salvador

The L ab or Situation and the Work of the L ab or M inistry
in E l Salvador, with Recommendation for ICA A ctivities
(1961; 8 pages)
C la ra M. B ey er, AID Consultant in L abor Law A dm inistration
Review s variou s p ro je c ts fo r AID a ssista n c e in the
labor program and recom m ends im provem ent in the
work of the L ab or M inistry,

The M inistry of L abor has done little so fa r
to im prove working and living conditions of the
la b o re rs. Its im m ediate plan w as to reorgan ize
and expand the inspection departm ent to enforce
the Sunday law (payment fo r Sunday work for
agricu ltu ral la b o re rs) and other new regulation s.
The M inistry also planned to sta r t work on an
apprentice training pro g ram already approved
for AID technical a ssista n c e .
Dynamic p ro g ram s are needed to im prove
the liv e s of w orkers and to bring them into
active participation in variou s p ro g ram s. The
in stability of the Government and its failu re to
understand b a sic needs of the people po se a r e a l
problem in the application of technical a ssista n c e
p ro g ram s in the labor field. Num erous recom ­




mendations are made fo r strengthening the
M inistry and for protecting the secu rity of
w orkers.
P ro g ram recom m endations
AID approved p ro je cts should include the a s ­
signm ent of a statistic ian to help the M inistry of
Labor in its employment sta tistic s s e r ie s , and
the assignm ent of an apprenticeship expert to
help sta r t a training program .
Other p o ssib le AID p ro je c ts could include
w orker’ s education, technical a ssista n c e of an
Employment Service expert, training of women
w o rk ers, loans to unions for self-h elp p ro je c ts,
and aid in estab lish in g credit unions.

A m erican R epublics
E l Salvador

Manpower S e rv ic e s for Human R eso u rce Development
in E l Salvador and the Central A m erican Region
(1963; 14 p ages and 8 appendixes)
Robert J . Clay, AID Manpower Consultant
A review of available manpower se r v ic e s in E l Salvador
to form ulate a region al manpower development plan.

The four key functions of government e s ­
sential to the adm inistration of a manpower
pro g ram are (1) a central manpower planning
office, (2) collection and an aly sis of sta tistic a l
data, (3) a public employment se rv ic e , and (4)
a central training authority. E l Salvador i s one
of three countries in the Central A m erican
common m arket which m aintains a public em ­
ployment se rv ic e . A lso located in the M inistry
of L ab or is a labor sta tistic s section. Both
of these se r v ic e s have received substantial U.S.
technical a ssista n c e . An apprenticeship p ro ­
g ram is currently being developed under the
guidance of a U.S. technician. Thus, E l Salvador
is well on its way to developing the b a sic s
for a manpower development p rogram . However,
at the p resen t tim e, a coordinating office of m an­
power r e so u r c e s and planning does not e x ist,
much sta tistic a l data are lacking and the c u r­
rent employment se rv ic e pro g ram is weak.
The consultant presented a country program
plan for AID a ssista n c e , entitled Manpower
Planning, Development, and Utilization. Its

116




purpose would be to a s s is t in identifying and
utilizing manpower to provide maxim um p ro ­
ductivity and to support key economic develop­
ment activ ities in the country.
Specific ac tiv itie s to c a r ry out the develop­
ment of manpower program include the following:
1. Upgrade, develop, and expand manpower
activ itie s of the employment se rv ic e .
2. Im prove, upgrade, and support labor s ta ­
tis tic s functions in the M inistry.
3. R eorganize all manpower se r v ic e s to
provide fo r a National Manpower Departm ent.
4. Develop within the National Council for
Planning and Econom ic Coordination a human
r e so u r c e s development com m ission which has
represen tation from all the M in istries.
The need fo r regional integration in planning
and implementing technical labor p ro g ram s is
d iscu ssed . Relevant p ap e rs by other consultants
on this topic appear in the appendix.

A m erican R epublics
E l Salvador

L abor

S ta tistic s in E l Salvador
(1964; 18 pages)

John Fo C arru th ers, AID L abor S ta tistic s Technician
D e sc rib e s labor sta tistic s p ro g ram s of the M inistry
of L ab o r,
The S ta tistic s Section of the M inistry of
Labor is divided into four su b section s, each
of which p erfo rm s sp ecialized sta tistic a l func­
tions:
The C ost-o f-L iv in g Subsection conducts an
irre g u la r and lim ited consum er p ric e index
survey fo r Santa T ecla. Since the b ase year is
outdated and no u se is made of the data, it is
recom m ended that this work be discontinued.
The Work Accident Subsection co llects r e ­
p o rts on in ju ries and accidents from employing
estab lish m en ts. Since identical inform ation is
collected by the Social Security O ffice, it is
recom m ended that th is subsection refrain from
requ iring em ployers to subm it identical re p o rts.
The Employment, H ours, and E arnings Sub­
section co llects these data by m ail from em ­
ploying estab lish m en ts. No recom m endations
a re made to change this activity.




The Special Studies Subsection p re p a re s r e ­
p o rts on the incidence and number of lab o rmanagement dispu tes. At one tim e, this sub­
section conducted labor force su rv ey s (1957-59).
It is recom m ended that this work be reactivated.
A detailed proposal is provided in the appendix.
About seven sep arate stu dies have been
made by consultants relatin g to the S tatistic s
Section; six of them were made since 1961.
Unfortunately, the M inistry of L abor h as not
implem ented any of the recom m endations. Sum­
m a rie s of these stu dies are presented.
Coordination of the vario u s sta tistic a l p ro ­
g ra m s in the different m in istrie s is lacking.
The Central Statistical Office in the M inistry
of Economy does m ost of the Government’ s
sta tistic a l work but it does not coordinate or
plan for other sta tistic a l p ro g ram s. A strong
sta tistic a l program to provide the n e c e ssa ry
manpower data to c a r ry out the country’ s
economic development plan is needed.

117

A m erican R epublics
E l Salvador

Construction Industry Training
(1967; 19 pages)
DOLITAC 1 / Staff P aper No. 34;
M aurice C. Sandes, Manpower Development A dviser
D e sc rib e s the curren t apprentice training organization
and p ro g ra m s, and p rese n ts su ggestion s fo r expansion
and im provem ent.
The lack of sk illed construction w orkers
se rio u sly ham pered rep airin g the badly dam aged
capital city after the earthquake of 1965. A p ro ­
p o sal w as p rep ared fo r an intensive program to
train contruction forem en. It w as hoped that this
pro g ram would continue after the em ergency and
open the way for form al apprentice training in
the construction industry.
A p r o g r a m , con sistin g of a 50-hour co u rse
on
modern c o n s t r u c t i o n techniques and
su p erv iso ry training, was devised to train 105
forem en. C la s s would be held 3 nights a week for
5 w eeks; a 5-hour followup se ssio n would be
given 3 weeks la te r a s a re fre sh e r and evaluation.

1. An a sse ssm e n t of the national apprentice­
ship sy stem in E l Salvador.
2. Apprenticeship legislation a s it ap p e ars in
the L ab or Code.
3. The organic law of the M inistry of Labor
a s it se t up the National Departm ent of Ap­
prenticeship.
4. The general stan dards that regulate ap­
prenticeship in a r t s , c ra fts, and other occupa­
tion s, a s form ulated by the National A pprentice­
ship Council in 1964.

Several attachm ents are appended to the
rep o rt. They include:

1 / U.S. Departm ent of L abor International
Technical A ssistan c e C orps.

118




A m erican Republics
G uatem ala

L ab or Sk ills and Aptitude T estin g F easib ility Study
(1966; 17 pages)
DO LIT AC

lj

Staff P aper No. 7; Robert Doig

F easib ility of introducing and estab lish in g
aptitude and sk ills testin g p rogram .
G uatem ala has an abundant supply of unskilled
and untrained manpower. Facin g an expanding
Guatem alan in dustrial development, the Indus­
tria l D e v e l o p m e n t and Productivity Center
(CDPI) requested a ssista n c e in identifying p ro ­
spective tra in e es from this v a st pool of human
r e so u r c e s.
To analyze the fe asib ility of introducing
aptitude te s t s , the statu s of the curren t situation
had to be known. Through plant v isits and p e r ­
sonal interview s with o ffic ials of government
educational institutions, personnel m an agers,
and oth ers, it w as determ ined that no aptitude
t e s t s suitable fo r screen ing and selectin g work­
e r s were in existen ce. A lso, industry was ex ­
periencing difficulty in selectin g w orkers fo r
all c ate g o rie s of job s.

a labor

Guatemalan industry, using the Spanish Language
V ersion of the G eneral Aptitude T e st B attery
developed in Puerto R ico.
2. That CDPI introduce and maintain a cou rse
on the Selection of P ersonnel a s one of its in­
dustry se rv ic e c o u rse s.
3. That CDPI cooperate with other competent
authoritie s so that GATB might be made available
for counseling and guidance.
A su ggested operational plan for introducing
aptitude testin g is describ ed ; staffin g and equip­
ment requirem ents and training of personnel are
included.

Recom m endations

a

1 / U.S. Departm ent of Lab or International
1.
That CDPI plan to introduce and maintain
Technical A ssistan c e C orps.
labor sk ills aptitude testin g se rv ice for




119

A m erican R epublics
Guyana

Employment, Unemployment, and Underemployment
in the Colony in 1956
(1957; 43 pages)
ILO R eport to the Government of B ritish Guiana;
Edward M cGale (G reat Britain)
R esu lts of a sam ple survey of the labor force and
recom m endations fo r im provem ent in the collection
of sta tistic a l data.

R eliable and curren t data on employment and
unemployment did not e x ist in Guyana at this
tim e. The 1946 C ensus of Population w as the
m ost recent data available.
To conduct a su rvey of the labor fo rce , a
random sam ple of v o te rs, represen tin g 4,600
households in the inhabited coastlan d s, was
selected from the E lecto ral R e g iste r and enum­
erated at two different p erio d s. Supplementary
data w ere obtained from a sam ple of 544
establish m en ts employing 66,000 w orkers. In
addition, em igration retu rn s were exam ined
to a s s e s s the influence of unemployment upon
m igration from the Colony, and r e g is te r s of
Employment Exchanges were analyzed fo r data
about the unemployed.
The r e su lts of the su rvey indicated that nearly
70 percent of the population w ere in the labor
fo rce . Tw o-fifths of the labor force were in
agricu ltu re and mining, and n early a fourth w ere
in m anufacturing and construction. The su rvey
revealed that, in m id-Ju ly 1956,18 percent of the
labor fo rce w ere unemployed. The la rg e st
unemployment rate appeared in Georgetown
(22 percen t). A griculture had the m ost unemploy­

120




ment of any industry (16 percent). A ccording
to ILO’ s difinition fo r “v isib le underemployment”
(persons employed few er than the norm al number
of hours), about 15 percent of the total number
employed w ere p erso n s who worked few er than
30 hours during the su rvey week.
An in-depth an aly sis of these data indicated
se rio u s prob lem s in two a r e a s: Heavy unemploy­
ment among sc h o o l-le av e rs, and su rplu s labor
living on su gar e sta te s. To illu strate: 43 percent
of the unemployed of whom n early tw o-thirds
never had a job were p erso n s under 21 y e a rs of
age.
Recom m endations
Recom m endations dealt with d etails of v a r i­
ous ways to im prove future employment su rv ey s:
1. The Government Statistical B ureau, when
it is estab lish ed , should c a r r y out periodic
employment su rv ey s by sam pling methods.
2. Additional su rv ey s should be conducted to
throw light on sp ecific problem s.

A m erican Republics
Guyana

An A ssessm en t of H igh-Level Manpower Requirem ents
in Relation to B ritish Guiana’ s Need fo r Econom ic Development
(1962; 21 p ag es and appendix tables)
Robert L . Thom as, AID Manpower Consultant
P re se n ts r e su lts of a manpower survey and projection s
of manpower needs for 1967.
The labor force is estim ated to grow 3 p e r ­
cent p er year and will continue to do so fo r the
next 5 y e a rs (1967). The unemployment rate of
18 percent, estab lish ed by the M cGale report,
rem ain s the sam e. The goal fo r the next 5 y e ars
m ust be to cre ate over 12,000 new jobs annually
to take c a r e of those now unemployed and those
who will be entering the labor fo rce . The existin g
F iv e -Y ear P ro g ram , if fully implem ented, will
cre ate only 2,500 new jobs annually, fallin g fa r
short of the requ ired goal.
To aid the government in its manpower
planning, an a sse ssm e n t of high-level manpower
w as undertaken. Information w as obtained from
em ploy ers, government agen cies, and training
institutions. About 95 percent of the high-level
manpower r e so u r c e s w ere covered in the e sta b ­
lishm en ts visited. Using th is inventory a s a b a se ,
5-year e stim ate s of demand fo r each occupation
w ere m ade by calculatin g withdrawals from the
occupation in the next five y e a rs and carry in g
forw ard curren t unmet demand (vacancies) plus
e stim ate s of in crease over the next 5 y e a rs. T his
demand inform ation was matched with e stim ates
of su pplies so that significant sh o rtfalls may be
identified.




The r e su lts reveal that there is a general
sh ortage of m ost types of high-level manpower
and som e acute problem s are in pro sp ect. The
educational b ase is insufficient from both a
quantitative and qualitative standpoint. At each
educational level, adequate teac h ers, fa c ilitie s,
and books are lacking. The m ajo r portion of the
rep o rt an alyzes the current situation and future
p ro sp e c ts in each of the high-level occupations.
Recom m endations
Recom m endations appear throughout the text
d isc u ssio n s. The m ajor ones are a s follow s:

1. E stab lish in the M inistry of Development
and Planning a Manpower Planning O ffice.
2. E stab lish m eans to obtain b a sic job m arket
inform ation.
3. Develop a program of vocational guidance
and counseling,
4. Improve quality of technical and non­
technical sch ools, and strengthen the secondary
school sy stem .

121

A m erican R epublics
Guyana

Report on a Survey of Manpower Requirem ents and
the Labour F o rc e, B ritish Guiana, 1965
(1966; Four volum es)
O. J . C. F ra n c is, UN Technical A ssistan c e E xpert fo r the Manpower Survey
O ffice, M inistry of Labour and Social Security
A com prehensive study of the demand for and supply
of manpower in Guyana.
Volume I—Surveys of private estab lish m en ts,
m in istrie s, government d e p a r t m e n t s , public
corp o ratio n s, statutory bodies, lo cal authorities,
etc. (400 p ag es plu s appendix tab les.) E sse n tially
an inventory of occupations by sec to r showing
presen t and projected number of e m p l o y e e s .
Contains detailed description of techniques used
to m ake establishm ent su rv ey s.

Volume II—Human re so u r c e s in Guyana. (216
p ag es plus appendixes.) R esu lts of the household
su rvey on the labor fo rce . Includes inform ation

122




on the econom ic and so cial c h a ra c te ristic s of the
employed and unemployed.
Volume III—An inventory of occupations in
p riv ate estab lish m en ts, with descrip tio n s. (188
p ag es.) An occupational c lassific atio n sy stem
pertinent to Guyana’ s economy. Contains a s e c ­
tion on the educational an d/or training re q u ire ­
m ents fo r appointment.
Volume V (No volume IV)—The volume and
variety of qualified and trained personnel in the
public sec to r. (434 p ages.) L is t s qualifications
and study c o u rse s which o ffic ials have taken.

A m erican Republics
Mexico

The

P roblem

of H igh-Level Manpower in Mexico
(1960; 25 pages)

Don Roney, AID Manpower Consultant
An ov erall view of high-level manpower and som e prob­
le m s in developing adequate supply.
Technical and management sk ills have not
kept pace with the rapid growth of the industrial
and com m ercial se c to r s in M exico. A piecem eal
approach: to alleviate the lack of supply has been
attem pted; but effo rts of the p ast should be r e ­
placed by a broad, frontal attack. Underlying the
whole problem is the b a sic issu e of adequacy of
trainin g throughout the entire educational stru c ­
ture. The g re a te st need ap p ears to be fo r tra in e rs
who can teach oth ers how to train.
At presen t, there is no focal point for man­
power development although se v e ra l agencies
have splinter re sp o n sib ilitie s. The position of
leadersh ip s e e m s to be held by the Bank of
M exico a s a re su lt of its in terest in economic
development.
The m ost constructive and urgently needed
step which the Government of M exico could take




to solve its trained manpower needs would be
to estab lish a Manpower Planning O ffice. Only
by cen tralizin g manpower inform ation, planning,
and action can a broad, coordinated manpower
development plan be su c ce ssfu l. A detailed de­
scription of the variou s management and tech­
nical sk ill development p ro g ram s is presented. A
com prehensive study of the needs for technicians
in industry w as made by the Bank of M exico and
is sum m arized in this report.
U.S. technical aid p ro g ram s in M exico have
a strong manpower focus. They a re well con­
ceived and operated and have received strong
local support. Recom m endations fo r additional
a ssista n c e e m p h a s i z e expanding participan t
training and im proving labor sta tistic s and job
m arket inform ation.

123

A m erican R epublics
M exico

Scientific, Engineering, and Technical Education
in M exico, 1964
(1967; 35 p ag es and bibliography)
Education and World A ffa irs, O ccasional R eport #3;
R u sse ll G. D avis (H arvard University)
T his paper is b ased on a repo rt subm itted by a sp ecial
study group to the F ord Foundation in 1964.
During the co u rse of the study, M exican
educational institutions which were training
en gin eers, sc ie n tists, and technicians were
visited , a s w ere the M exican firm s which
employed grad u ates from these sch ools.
After a b rie f d iscu ssio n of existin g education­
al fa c ilitie s and conditions, the author outlines
som e of the p rob lem s in making e stim ate s of
scien tific and technical manpower requirem ents.
C om parison s of available data from two previous
stu d ies (1956 ± ] and 1962 2 / ) were difficult
b ecau se of the absence of adequate data and
b ecau se of contradictory definitions. T hese
two stu dies indicate a su rp risin gly low ratio
of p ro fessio n al to m iddle-level manpower. E m ­
p lo y ers expected this ratio would p rev ail for
se v e ra l y e a rs b ecau se the schools do not p ro ­
duce enough m iddle-level technicians.
M ost of the report c o v e rs the output of
technical training fa c ilitie s at all le v e ls. A l­
though the data are not p r e c ise (because of poor
s ta tistic s and conflicting definitions), the author
fe e ls that M exican educational institutions have
not adjusted to the needs of industry. The M exican
sy stem e m p h a s i z e s p ro fessio n al-le v el p ro ­
g ra m s at the expense of m iddle-level technical

124




p ro g ra m s, resu ltin g in p ro fe ssio n als having to do
work norm ally assign ed to technicians. The d is ­
p arity between upper-level and m iddle-level
training is explained by problem s in the in­
du strial job m arket, inaction and insufficient
funds in the education sy stem , and the nature
of the so cial demand for education. Industry
has rem ained productive because it has found
other so u rc e s of manpower. U n less a m ajor
effort is made to overcom e the main prob lem s
curren tly besetting technical education, the
stead ily in creasin g need for m iddle- and highlevel manpower will sh arply outstrip supply.

X/ Banco de M exico, Departamento de Investigacio n es I n d u s t r ia ls , E l Em pleo de P e r ­
sonal T e cn ic o e n la ln d u stria d e T ran sform acion ,
1959.
2 J A sociacion Nacional de U n iversidades e
Institutos de Ensenanza Superior, L aE n sen an ze
de la Ingenieria en M exico, 1962.

A m erican Republics
N icaragua

Manpower Development in N icaragu a’ s Socio-Econom ic Planning
(1962; 25 pages)
F ra n c is X. Gannon, AID Labor Sp ecialist

Suggested p ro p o sals for labor adm inistration, training,
and education.

The N icaraguan Government, through its v a riious m in istries and agen cies, i s em barking upon
p ro g ram s of in du strial incentives and ag rarian
reform . The p ro p o sals of the expert are designed
to contribute to the su c c e ss of these economic
p ro g ram s.

expanded to se rv e all the needs of w orkers and to
coordinate with related activ ities of other agen­
c ie s.

3. The L ab or S ta tistic s Section of the M inis­
try of L abor should collect, com pile, and ana­
lyze a wide v ariety of manpower inform ation to
1.
A National A pprenticeship P ro g ram should supply the Planning Office with curren t and r e li­
able data.
be created to im prove job sk ills of w orkers and
to provide job training opportunities to new labor
fo rce entrants. All fo rm s of sk ill training activ i­
4. The variou s cooperatives should coordi­
tie s would be included.
nate their ac tiv itie s to avoid duplication and to
sh are in the knowledge each has gained. A Na­
tional Cooperative Council should be created a s
2 0 The National Employment Serv ice should
p art of the Office of National Social and Econom ic
be strengthened and provided guidelines to a s s is t
Planning and Coordination.
w orkers in getting job s. Its se r v ic e s should be




125

A m erican R epublics
N icaragu a

Population Growth R ates
and Econom ic Development in N icaragua
(1967; 169 pages)
P eter Newman and R. H. Allen, p rep ared for AID
by R obert R. Nathan A sso c ia te s, Inc., Washington, D. C.

A detailed and technical rep o rt using modern tech­
niques of dem ographic and econom ic a n aly sis to d is­
cover significant relation sh ips between r a te s of pop­
ulation growth and economic development.

T his study p ro je c ts the m ajor c h a ra c te ristic s
of the economy n early 50 y e a r s into the future
and evalu ates the differen tial effects of a lte r ­
native fe rtility r a te s on the variou s segm en ts
of the economy. T hree alternative population
projection s (designated high, medium, and low)
by age and se x distribution, w ere made from 1963
to 2013.
The m ajo r portion of the a n aly sis evalu ates
the differen ces among the high, medium, and low
population projection s in their im pact on National
incom e, investm ent, and consumption over the
50-year span. An economic model was form u­
lated to take account of the effect on total p ro ­
duction of variation s in siz e of the labor fo rce ,

126




sim ultaneously with the effect on the av ail­
ability of capital fo r productive investm ent of
varying num bers of con su m ers and their p ro ­
pensity to sav e. The im plications of the a lte r ­
native projection s also are exam ined fo r their
effect on education, public health, housing, and
foreign borrow ing and balance of paym ents.
The m ost significant finding is that sub­
stan tial differen ces in production, investm ent,
and consumption per equivalent adult consum er
appear between the high and medium and between
the medium and low fertility r a te s. The sm a lle r
population in each c a se would fa re better in a
m aterial se n se than the la rg e r population. The
advantages of low fe rtility are d escrib ed .

A m erican R epublics
Panam a

Some G uidelines fo r the P r o c e ss of Implementing the Activity T arg et
fo r Manpower Development and Utilization for U SA ID /Panam a/
(1964; 8 p ag es and 5 appendixes)
Robert J . Clay, AID Manpower A dviser (ROCAP)
T h is is one of three recon n aissan ce stu dies on manpower
requ irem en ts, re so u r c e s, and utilization fo r the urban
se c to r in Panam a.

The purpose of this rep o rt i s to propose a
plan of action to fo ste r a dynamic strate gy for
human r e so u r c e s development and utilization,
and to a s s i s t the Government in estab lish in g a
manpower se rv ice and in developing a p r o g r e s­
sive labor union movement.

2 0 C reate a human r e so u rc e s development
and utilization center to provide broader em ploy­
ment se r v ic e s.
3. Provide a high-level adv iso ry and coo rd i­
nating body made up of rep resen tativ es from
governm ent, industry, and labo r.

USAID should be ready to offer a ssista n c e in
any way a s the Government needs and req u ests
it.

4. Adopt m e a su re s to encourage a strong
labor movement. The A m erican Institute fo r
F re e Labor Development (AIFLD) m ay provide
Recom m endations
training fo r labor le a d e rs in preparation for a
national labor movement.
The Government of Panam a should:
5. Adopt m e a su re s (e.g., labor-inten sive in­
1.
R atify ILO convention No. 88 (appendix D vestm ents) to utilize unemployed and underem ­
ployed human capital and to im prove existin g
in Spanish) relativ e to the organization of an em ­
ployment se rv ice .
sk ills to upgrade work fo rce.




127

A m erican R epublics
Panam a

Population, L abor F o rc e, and Employment in Panam a
(1965; 66 pages)
D r. Norman G. Pauling, AID Manpower Planning Consultant

T his is one of three recon n aissan ce stu dies on manpower
req u irem en ts, r e so u r c e s, and utilization for the urban
se c to r in Panam a.

Using cen su s data and other lim ited available
inform ation, the rep o rt attem pts to identify the
incidence and cau se of unemployment, the ch ar­
a c te r istic s of the unemployed, and the relation of
unemployment to other m ajor s o c i a l and
econom ic tren ds.
D etailed s ta tistic s (1960 data) on population
and labor force are provided. At the curren t
growth rate of 2.9 percen t, the population will
double in 25 y e a rs. Over 43 percent of the popu­
lation are under 15 y e a rs of age. N early 42
percent of the population are in the labor fo rce,
and 11 percent of those in the labor fo rce are
unemployed. The rep o rt also prov id es detailed
sta tistic a l data on the c h a r a c te r istic s of the
labor fo rce and on the unemployed.
Population and labor force growth relativ e
to econom ic growth are analyzed. Although GNP
grew at an av erage annual rate of 5.85 percent,
com pared with a population growth rate of 2.9
percen t, the resu ltin g p er cap ita gain does not
give a c le a r picture of the actual situation. The
av erage g r o s s product per capita is still very
low. P e r capita fig u re s tend to be m isleading

128




b ecau se they fa il to re fle c t unequal participation
of individuals and v ario u s economic groups in
the benefits of economic growth.
Taking into account all available data, a
GNP annual growth ra te of 8.5 percent would be
needed to ab so rb the anticipated in crease in
the labor fo rce. Such a rate of growth im p lies
a doubling of the economy every 8 1/2 y e a r s —an
unlikely feat.
Many recom m endations and su ggestion s are
d isc u sse d in detail. Some of the m ost important
are:
1. Panam anians m ust see k som e acceptable
m eans to lim it the rapid rate of population growth.
2. Econom ic growth m ust be stim ulated.
3. An integrated manpower p rogram and
coordinating agency m ust be developed.
4. Educational p ro g ram s of all kinds m ust
be expanded.
5. A National Employment Serv ice m ust be
introduced.
6. A stron g and stable labor movement
m ust be encouraged.

A m erican R epublics
Panam a

A Survey Report on Vacancy Training Needs
in Selected Occupations in the Panam a City M etropolitan A rea
(1966; 37 pages)
DOLITAC J . / Staff P ap er No. 44; Allan Broehl, L ab or Analyst
A nalysis of the r e su lts of the vacancy training needs
survey. M ore training is requ ired, and a r e a s of potential
employment are identified.

The Education for Development Survey (va­
cancy training needs survey) w as c a rrie d out by
the Institute for Development and the Center for
Industrial Development and Productivity. It w as
a sam ple survey of estab lish m en ts employing
five b lu e-co llar w orkers or m ore in the Panam a
City a re a.
The purpose of the su rvey w as to identify
training needs in private establish m en ts. T rain ­
ing needs were divided into three groups: e x ist­
ing job v acan cies, projected employment needs,
and presen tly employed w orkers needing addi­
tional on-the-job or w ork-related training.
The an aly sis of the data from the survey
c o v ers details of occupations fo r on-the-job and
w ork-related training. Suggestions a re also p r e ­
sented for expanding employment opportunities
in the private secto r and for estab lish in g an E m ­
ployment Serv ice. Methodology and coverage of
the su rvey are d escrib ed .

indicated by the lim ited number of unfilled jobs;
and (b) the la rg e percentage of sk illed and se m i­
sk illed w orkers (15 percent) who need training.
M arginal productivity of existin g w orkers is low.
If productivity of existin g w orkers were ra ise d
through training, em ployers probably would hire
additional w orkers.
2. B ecau se the Pan-C anal Company is the
m ost significant potential em ployer, training
p ro g ram s should be coordinated with Canal Zone
authorities.
3. Potential employment in the above a r e a s
will not m eet all the needs fo r a higher level of
employment. New so u rc e s of employment m ust
be sought in manufacturing, construction, and
agricu ltu re.
4. Attention should be given to expanding and
updating; the vocational education sy stem to m eet
the needs of the local community.

Sum m ary and recom m endations
1.
The two outstanding observation s w ere:
1 / U.S. Departm ent of L abor International
(a) the very low level of friction al unemployment
Technical A ssistan c e C orps.




129

A m e r ic a n R e p u b lic s
P an am a

T e stin g

and

C o u n s e l in g

in

P anam a

(1 9 6 7 ; 9 p a g e s )
D O L IT A C 1 / S ta ff P a p e r N o. 50;
H e n d r ic

C.

M u g a a s , T e s t i n g a n d C o u n s e l in g E x p e r t

D e s c r i p t i o n o f o n e f a c e t o f A ID ’ S M a n p o w e r T r a i n i n g
a n d U t il i z a t i o n P r o j e c t in P a n a m a .

T h e p u r p o s e o f th e a s s i g n m e n t w a s to a s s i s t

to g e t v a l i d n o r m s f o r u s e in P a n a m a . T h e v a r ­

th e D i r e c t o r o f th e A ID P r o j e c t in th e f o llo w in g

io u s t e s tin g d e v ic e s a r e d e s c r ib e d . M a n u a ls an d

areas:

g u i d e s in v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f t e s t i n g a n d c o u n ­

1 . A n a ly sis

o f th e

te stin g

a n d c o u n s e li n g

n e e d s in th e c o u n t r y .

s e lin g w e re p r e p a r e d and tr a n s la te d .
IF A R H U i s b e s t s i t u a t e d f o r d e m o n s t r a t i n g

2 . E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a t e s t i n g a n d c o u n s e li n g

th e i m p o r t a n c e o f t e s t i n g a n d c o u n s e li n g a n d f o r

u n it to s e r v e th e I n s t it u t e o f H u m a n R e s o u r c e s

p r o v id in g

D e v e lo p m e n t

E m p lo y m e n t S e r v i c e p e r s o n n e l .

(IF A R H U )

and

th e

M in is tr y

of

L ab or.
3 . T r a i n i n g o f p e r s o n n e l a s s i g n e d t o th e u n it.
4 . D e v e lo p m e n t o f a p r o g r a m a n d p r o c e d u r e s
f o r th e u n it.
IF A R H U
w o rk ers

e s tim a te s

w ill

be

th at

1 5 ,0 0 0

skilled

n e e d e d b y 1 9 7 0 ; th e p r e s e n t

s c h o o l s y s t e m c a n p r o v i d e o n ly 3 ,0 0 0 a d e q u a t e ly
tr a in e d

w o rk ers.

The

v a rio u s

p r o je c ts

w h ic h

rep o rt

d e sc rib e s

th e

good

tr a in in g e x p e r ie n c e fo r fu tu re

IF A R H U c a n o b t a in p o p u la t io n d a t a o n w h ic h
to e s t a b l i s h a n o c c u p a t io n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f w o r k ­
e r s . B y a p p ly in g c e r t a i n t e c h n i q u e s ( s e e A1 C r u z
r e p o r t to V e n e z u e la , 1 9 6 7 ), a s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n
s t u d y b a s e d on th e w o r k in g p o p u la t io n o f P a n a m a
C it y c a n b e d e s i g n e d .
I f th e

M an pow er

T r a in in g

and

U t il i z a t i o n

a r e d e s i g n e d to t r a i n

P r o j e c t a c t i v i t i e s a n d t h o s e o f IF A R H U a r e m a in ­

a d d it io n a l w o r k e r s e s p e c i a l l y in th e c o n s t r u c t i o n

t a in e d , t e c h n i c i a n a s s i s t a n c e s h o u ld b e o b t a in e d

t r a d e s , p r in t in g t r a d e s , a n d g a r m e n t a n d s h o e

f o r th e t e s t d e v e lo p m e n t s t u d i e s a n d jo b a n a l y s i s
w o rk .

m a n u f a c t u r e . T e s t i n g a n d c o u n s e li n g s e r v i c e s
w ill h a v e to b e d e v e lo p e d to s e l e c t t r a i n e e s f o r
th e se jo b s .
IF A R H U h a s p r o g r e s s e d in u s i n g t e s t i n g d e ­
v i c e s , s u c h a s th e G . A . T . B . T h e e x p e r t a n a l y z e d
th e t e s t d e v e lo p m e n t w o r k f r o m s e v e r a l c o u n t r i e s

130




1 /

U .S .

D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o r I n t e r n a t io n a l

T e c h n ic a l A s s i s t a n c e C o r p s .

A m e r i c a n R e p u b l ic s
P eru

S o u t h e r n P e r u M a n p o w e r S tu d y
(1 9 5 9 ; 2 7 p a g e s )
W illia m M a s o n , IL O M a n p o w e r A d v i s e r (U n ite d K in g d o m )

C u rren t

s u p p ly o f a n d p o t e n t ia l d e m a n d f o r m a n p o w e r

in th e c o m m e r c i a l a n d i n d u s t r i a l s e c t o r s a r e a n a l y z e d
in t h i s r e p o r t .

C o v e r in g 14 c i t i e s in S o u t h e r n P e r u , a s u r ­
vey

o f 1 ,6 0 0 e s t a b l i s h m e n t s e m p lo y in g 3 0 ,6 0 0

l a b o r f o r c e a r e w o m e n , m o s t l y in c o m m e r c i a l
a c tiv itie s.

The

v o lu m e

o f m i g r a t i o n to u r b a n

w o r k e r s w a s co n d u cte d . C e r ta in h a n d ic a p s m a d e

a r e a s i s h ig h , r e s u l t i n g in a s u r p l u s o f u n s k i l le d

a n a l y s i s o f th e r e s u l t s o f th e s u r v e y d i f f ic u l t .

l a b o r in t h e s e a r e a s .

F o r e x a m p le , no p r e v io u s d a ta ( la s t c e n s u s w a s

The

su rv e y

re v e a le d

a

la c k o f m an p o w er

in 1 9 4 0 ) w e r e a v a i l a b l e to m a k e a t r e n d o r c o m ­

t r a i n i n g a n d d e v e lo p m e n t p l a n s o r p r o g r a m s in

p a r a t i v e a n a l y s i s . In a d d it io n , e m p l o y e r s d i s ­

e s t a b lis h m e n t s . G e n e r a lly , r e sp o n d e n ts w e re n ot

t r u s t e d th e p u r p o s e o f th e s u r v e y a n d fo u n d d i f ­

c o n c e r n e d w ith l a b o r p r o b l e m s o r w ith f u t u r e

f ic u l t y in v i s u a l i z i n g f u t u r e p r o s p e c t s . T i m e a n d

n e e d s o f t h e i r e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . O n ly a f e w in d i­

m o n e y l i m i t a t i o n s , in a d d it io n to th e r a i n y s e a ­

c a t e d th e y w e r e u n a b le to f i l l p o s i t i o n s b e c a u s e

so n ,

o f la c k o f q u a lifie d p e r s o n n e l. A bou t 8 p e r c e n t

d e la y e d

th e

w o rk

o f th e

stu d y

g ro u p .

A n a n a l y s i s o f th e s t u d y r e v e a l e d t h a t , s i n c e

sh o w e d s o m e c o n c e r n o v e r f u t u r e n e e d s .

a g r i c u l t u r e d o m i n a t e s th e e c o n o m y in th e s o u t h ,

I l l i t e r a c y (7 0 p e r c e n t ) a n d l a n g u a g e d i f f i c u l ­

c it ie s s e r v e p r im a r ily a s m a r k e tin g c e n te r s fo r

t i e s (o n ly 2 8 p e r c e n t s p e a k S p a n is h ) a r e th e m a ­

a g r i c u l t u r a l o u tp u t. C o m m e r c i a l a c t i v i t i e s r e p ­

j o r d e t e r r e n t s to a w e ll q u a l if i e d l a b o r f o r c e .

r e s e n t n e a r ly tw o - th ird s o f to ta l a c t iv itie s ; and

U n iv e rsity

m a n u fa c tu rin g , n e a r ly o n e - th ir d . O v e r 70 p e r c e n t

a rts,

o f th e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a r e f a m i l y o w n e d a n d o p ­

sc a rce .
R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s in c lu d e d (1) a c u r t a i l m e n t

e r a t e d , o f w h ic h 61 p e r c e n t e m p lo y f e w e r th a n 5

workers.

e d u c a t io n

and te c h n ic a l

i s l i m i t e d to th e l i b e r a l
e d u c a t io n a t a l l l e v e l s i s

o f o u t-m ig r a tio n o f w o r k e r s b y p r o v id in g e m ­

T h e n o n fa rm la b o r fo r c e o f so u th e rn P e r u i s

p lo y m e n t o p p o r t u n it i e s to r a i s e l i v i n g s t a n d a r d s ;

n o t d i s t r i b u t e d in d i r e c t p r o p o r t io n to th e n u m b e r

(2) d e v e lo p m e n t o f w o r k s k i l l s o f l a b o r f o r c e ; (3)

o f e s ta b lis h m e n ts

i n t e g r a t io n o f I n d ia n s in to s o c i o e c o n o m i c l i f e ; (4)

M a n u f a c t u r in g

and

in

each

e c o n o m ic a c tiv ity .

c o n str u c tio n

each

e m p lo y

c o n tin u a tio n o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s t u d y b y E m p l o y ­

a b o u t 30 p e r c e n t o f th e l a b o r f o r c e ; a n d c o m ­

m e n t S e r v i c e O f f ic e ; a n d (5) u s e o f 1 9 6 0 C e n s u s

m e r c e , a b o u t 2 0 p e r c e n t . N e a r l y a f o u r t h o f th e

o f P o p u la t io n a s a b a s i c s t a t i s t i c a l t o o l.




1 31

A m e r ic a n R e p u b lic s
P eru

L a b o r M a r k e t R e p o r t in g P r o g r a m o f S C E P
(1 9 6 0 ; 7 p a g e s )
H o m e r J . F r e e m a n , A ID L a b o r M a r k e t C o n s u lt a n t

D e s c r i b e s v a r i o u s jo b m a r k e t s u r v e y s a n d s u m m a r i z e s
re c o m m e n d a tio n s ste m m in g fr o m th e se s u r v e y s .

T h e m a j o r r e c u r r i n g s u r v e y s n ow b e i n g c o n ­
d u c t e d b y e ig h t s t a f f m e m b e r s in th e I n v e s t i g a ­
t i o n s a n d S t a t i s t i c s D iv is io n o f th e C o o p e r a t i v e
E m p lo y m e n t S e r v i c e ( S C E P ) a r e :

1 . O b ta in e s t i m a t e s o f t o t a l n o n f a r m e m p l o y ­
m ent fo r b en ch m ark p u rp o se s.
2 . M a k e e m p lo y m e n t d a t a c o m p a r a b l e f r o m
one p e rio d

1 . Q u a r t e r l y s u r v e y s o f e m p lo y m e n t , h o u r s ,
e a r n i n g s , a n d jo b m a r k e t t u r n o v e r .
2 . Q u a r te r ly s u r v e y s o f la b o r d is p u te s .
3 . S p e c i a l s u r v e y o f m in in g in d u s t r y .
S p e c i a l o n e - t im e s u r v e y s a v a i l a b l e f o r a n a ­

a n o th e r

b y u sin g lin k - r e la tiv e

3 . P u b l i s h f i n e r i n d u s t r i a l b r e a k d o w n s w h en ­
ever

sa m p le

4. M ake

ly sis are :

to

m e th o d .

is

la r g e

b e tte r

e n o u g h to sh o w d e t a i l .

u s e o f s t r a t ifie d sa m p lin g

te c h n iq u e s.
5. Show

m o re

c o m p a r i s o n s o f th e c u r r e n t

1 . M a n p o w e r s t u d y o f S o u th e r n P e r u (1 9 5 9 ).

p e r i o d w ith o t h e r p e r i o d s to sh o w t r e n d s in e m ­

2 . S p e c ia l

p lo y m e n t .

stu d y

o n th e

b a n k in g

in d u str y

(1 9 5 9 ).

6 . P rep are

3 . S tu d y
1959.

o f n ew

fir m s

e s ta b lish e d

d u rin g

th e g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s .
7.

d a ta

m o r e c o m p r e h e n s iv e a n a ly s is o f
to

e x p l a in

b a sic

r e a so n s fo r

c h a n g e s.

4 . D i r e c t o r y o f l a b o r u n io n s .
5« N u m b e r o f p u b l ic e m p l o y e e s in e a c h o f
6 o S tu d y

sta tistic a l

of

sa la rie s

b y o c c u p a t io n (1 9 5 9 ).

M a n p o w e r s t u d y o n N o r t h e r n P e r u (1 9 6 0 ).

7 . I n t r o d u c e b e t t e r m e t h o d s to c o m p u t e w a g e
i n f o r m a t io n .
8 . P rep are
tio n s .

m o r e d e t a i l e d w r it t e n i n s t r u c ­

9 . C o n s i d e r i m p r o v i n g th e p r e s e n t s y s t e m o f

m e n d a t io n s a r e p r o v i d e d , a lo n g w ith a t im e t a b l e

r e l e a s i n g i n f o r m a t io n .
10.
M ake b e tte r

f o r t h e i r i n i t ia t i o n a n d c o m p le t io n :

fr o m e s ta b lis h m e n ts .

B a s e d o n th e r e s u l t s o f t h e s e s t u d i e s , r e c o m ­

132




u s e o f p a y r o l l i n f o r m a t io n

A m e r i c a n R e p u b l ic s
P eru

M a n p o w e r I n f o r m a t io n P r o g r a m ( S C E P )
(In S p a n is h ; 1 9 6 1 ; 3 4 p a g e s )
IL O R e p o r t to th e G o v e r n m e n t o f th e R e p u b lic o f P e r u ;
O I T / T A P / P e r u / R . 7 ; W illia m M a s o n , M a n p o w e r A d v i s e r ( G r e a t B r i t a i n )

A

rep o rt

on th e

sta tu s

o f th e

fa c t-fin d in g

and p u b ­

l i s h i n g f u n c t io n s o f th e E m p lo y m e n t S e r v i c e .

T h e C o o p e r a t i v e E m p lo y m e n t S e r v i c e (S C E P )

O n e o f th e t a s k s o f th e c o n s u l t a n t w a s to d e ­

s t a r t e d in 1 9 5 1 u n d e r th e d i r e c t i o n o f th e M in ­

v e lo p a t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m f o r th e p r o f e s s i o n a l

i s t r y o f L a b o r . T h e D iv is io n o f I n v e s t i g a t i o n s

e m p l o y e e s o f th e E m p lo y m e n t S e r v i c e . T o p i c s

a n d S t a t i s t i c s (10 e m p l o y e e s ) c o n d u c t s s u r v e y s

in c lu d e d th e fo llo w in g : t e c h n iq u e s f o r a n a l y z in g

a n d o t h e r w i s e g a t h e r s s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t io n .

jo b m a r k e t i n f o r m a t io n , a n a l y s i s a n d i n t e r p r e ­

T h e D iv is io n o f T e c h n i c a l S e r v i c e s (8 e m p l o y e e s )

t a t io n o f m a n p o w e r i n f o r m a t io n , a n d t e c h n iq u e s

s t u d i e s a n d a n a l y z e s t h e s e d a t a . In a d d it io n , t h e r e

o f r e p o r t w r it in g .

a r e s e v e r a l l o c a l p l a c e m e n t o f f i c e s in th e l a r g e r
e m p lo y m e n t c e n t e r s .
T h e v a r i o u s s u r v e y s c o n d u c t e d b y th e E m ­
p lo y m e n t

S e r v ic e

a n d in f o r m a t io n f r o m o t h e r

s o u r c e s a r e d i s c u s s e d f o r u t i l i z a t i o n in a m a n ­
p o w e r d e v e lo p m e n t p r o g r a m . F o r e x a m p l e , d e ­
m o g r a p h ic i n f o r m a t io n c a n b e u s e d to a n a l y z e a n d
p r o j e c t th e s u p p ly o f m a n p o w e r ; i n d u s t r y an d o c ­
c u p a t io n a l

e m p lo y m e n t

se rie s

se rv e s

as

th e

b a s i s f o r s t u d y in g th e d e m a n d f o r m a n p o w e r a t

S e v e r a l r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w e r e m a d e to i m ­
p r o v e E m p lo y m e n t S e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s , in c lu d in g
d a ta - c o lle c tio n te c h n iq u e s, d a ta a n a ly s i s , c o o r ­
d i n a t i o n ^ s u r v e y s to a v o id o v e r l a p p in g o r d u p ­
l i c a t i o n , a n d p r e p a r a t i o n o f th e r e p o r t s o n m a n ­
p o w e r . F u r t h e r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s c o n c e r n e d th e
u s e o f t h e s e d a t a a s a b a s i s f o r th e m a n p o w e r
d e v e lo p m e n t a s p e c t o f th e c o u n t r y ’ s d e v e lo p m e n t
p la n .

e a c h l e v e l o f s k i l l . S u g g e s t i o n s a r e m a d e on h o w

T h e a p p e n d ix p r o v i d e s s a m p l e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s

o t h e r s o u r c e s o f d a t a r e l a t i n g to m a n p o w e r c a n

o n jo b p l a c e m e n t , a n d u s e s o f L a b o r S t a t i s t i c a l
B u l le t in . A n e x a m p l e o f a jo b m a r k e t r e p o r t a l s o

b e i n c o r p o r a t e d in th e a n a l y s i s in o r d e r to u n ­
d e r s t a n d th e s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m i c d e v e lo p m e n t in
P eru .




i s p ro v id e d .

133

A m e r ic a n R e p u b lic s
P eru

M i s s i o n to P e r u
M an p o w er M em o N o. 2 ; G e n e ra l C o m m e n ts
(1 9 6 3 ;
D O L I T A C J l/
Eugene

Im p r e ss io n s

D.

22 p a g e s )
S ta ff P a p e r N o. 4 0 ;

V in o g r a d o f f , M a n p o w e r A d v i s e r

of P e ru ’ s

m an po w er p ro b le m s

are p re­

s e n t e d a n d a n o v e r a l l p r o g r a m i s o u t lin e d .

D e s p i t e a r e l a t i v e l y h ig h r a t e o f e c o n o m ic
g r o w t h in P e r u , u r b a n u n e m p lo y m e n t a n d u n d e r ­

in c r e a s in g la b o r fo r c e . G o v ern m e n t and p r iv a te
i n d u s t r y e x p a n s io n s h o u ld b e r e v i e w e d in t e r m s o f

e m p lo y m e n t m a y i n c r e a s e b e c a u s e o f r a p i d l a b o r

jo b s c r e a t e d p e r d o lla r in v e ste d . T h e c o n s tr u c ­

f o r c e g ro w th an d h e a v y r u r a l im m ig r a tio n . A n

tio n i n d u s t r y i s th e m o s t l i k e l y a r e a f o r jo b c r e a ­

a c c e le r a t e d r a t e o f e c o n o m ic g ro w th h a s b e e n

t io n a c t i v i t i e s in th e s h o r t t e r m f o r u n s k i l le d
w o r k e r s . A b o u t 3 0 ,0 0 0 j o b s a r e n e e d e d a n n u a lly

h am pered

b ecau se

of

sh o rta g e s

of

skilled

w o r k e r s ; i n a d e q u a t e b a s i c e d u c a t io n ; lo w p r o ­

in r u r a l a r e a s . F u n d s a n d s t a f f s h o u ld b e p r o v i d e d

d u c t iv it y , i n c o m e , a n d p u r c h a s i n g p o w e r ; r i g i d i ­

to p r o m o t e m e a s u r e s f o r l a b o r - i n t e n s i v e a c t i v i ­

t i e s in s o c i a l w e l f a r e p r o g r a m s ; a n d in a d e q u a t e

t i e s a n d to d e c r e a s e m i g r a t i o n to u r b a n a r e a s .

su p p o r tin g p r o g r a m s

in

h o u s in g ,

h e a lt h , a n d

R e c o m m e n d a tio n s a ls o w e re m a d e r e g a r d in g

c o m m u n it y f a c i l i t i e s . T h e s e a n d o t h e r p r o b l e m s

so c ia l

in b o th u r b a n a n d r u r a l a r e a s c r e a t e p r e s s u r e s

stu d ie s ,

o n th e g o v e r n m e n t . L a b o r u n r e s t p l u s p o t e n t i a l

ra isin g

in s ta b ility

in v o lv e d in p r o g r a m s a f f e c t i n g h u m a n r e s o u r c e s

of

th e

go v ern m e n t

m ay

en dan ger

d e m o c r a t i c i n s t i t u t i o n s . T h e o n ly s o lu t io n i s to

w e lfa r e le g is la t io n , ty p e s o f m an p o w er
im p r o v in g
in c o m e

sk ills

le v e ls.

in l a b o r f o r c e , a n d

The

s e v e r a l a g e n c ie s

s h o u ld c o o r d in a t e t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s .

a c c e l e r a t e a c t i v i t y in th e p u b lic s e c t o r (in t e r m s
o f e m p lo y m e n t a n d s o c i a l r e f o r m ) a n d to s t i m u ­
la te p r iv a te in itia tiv e .
S p e c i f i c a l l y , 1 0 0 ,0 0 0 n ew j o b s a n n u a lly a r e
n e e d e d in u r b a n a r e a s j u s t to t a k e c a r e o f th e

134




J

J

U .S .

D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o r I n t e r n a t io n a l

T e c h n ic a l A s s i s t a n c e C o r p s .

A m e r ic a n R e p u b lic s
P eru

M i s s i o n to P e r u
M an p o w er M em o N o. 3: S p e c ific S u g g e s tio n s
(1 9 6 3 ; 11 p a g e s )
E u g e n e D . V in o g r a d o f f , M a n p o w e r A d v i s e r

S p e c ific

ste p s

t h a t th e h u m a n r e s o u r c e s g r o u p in th e

M i n i s t r y o f L a b o r s h o u ld u n d e r t a k e to d e v e lo p a m a n ­
pow er p ro gram .

b a s e f o r th e m a n p o w e r d e v e lo p m e n t p r o g r a m .

L a c k o f c l o s e c o o p e r a t io n a m o n g th e v a r i o u s
a g e n c i e s in v o lv e d in m a n p o w e r a c t i v i t y p r e v e n t s

O n c e p r o j e c t i o n s o f th e w h o le e c o n o m y a r e m a d e ,

e a s y c o lle c tio n an d a n a ly s is o f d a ta an d h in d e r s

m a n p o w e r s u p p ly a n d d e m a n d d a t a th e n c a n b e

th e

r e l a t e d to th e e c o n o m ic d e v e lo p m e n t p la n . In th e

T h e re fo re ,

T h e e c o n o m ic d e v e lo p m e n t p la n s e r v e s a s a

o v e ra ll

m an pow er

d e v e lo p m e n t p r o g r a m .

it w a s s u g g e s t e d th at a s t a t i s t ic a l

a b s e n c e o f a n e c o n o m ic in v e s t m e n t p la n , a v a i l ­

c o o r d in a t i n g c o m m i t t e e b e e s t a b l i s h e d a n d s t i m ­

a b l e p r e l i m i n a r y m a n p o w e r d a t a s h o u ld b e c o l ­

u la t e d in to a c t i o n . T h i s c o m m i t t e e w o u ld s e t th e

le c te d an d a n a ly z e d .
D e m a n d d a t a c a n b e o b t a in e d b y r e v i e w i n g
c u r r e n t i n d u s t r y - o c c u p a t io n a l s t a f f i n g p a t t e r n s
f o r p u b l ic a n d p r i v a t e s e c t o r s , a n a l y z in g t h e s e
d a t a , a n d d e v e lo p in g p r o j e c t i o n s o f s t a f f i n g p a t ­
t e r n s b a s e d o n e c o n o m ic p l a n s .
S u p p ly d a t a c a n b e o b t a in e d b y r e v i e w i n g c u r ­
r e n t l a b o r s u p p ly b a s e d o n e m p lo y m e n t s e r v i c e
in f o r m a t io n a n d d e t e r m in i n g f u t u r e s u p p ly o f

s t a n d a r d s a n d g u i d e p o s t s to p r o v i d e f a c t u a l d a t a
n e e d e d f o r p la n n in g .
S e v e r a l r e c o m m e n d a tio n s c o v e r e d d e t a ils o f
s t a f f f u n c t io n s a n d m e c h a n i c s o f g e t t i n g m a t e ­
r i a l s p u b l is h e d a n d in to th e h a n d s o f th e u s e r .
A f t e r th e e c o n o m ic i n v e s t m e n t p la n h a s b e e n d e ­
v e lo p e d , e s t i m a t e s o f m a n p o w e r r e q u i r e m e n t s
c a n b e r e f i n e d . T h e s u p p ly a n d d e m a n d b a l a n c e
s h e e t c a n b e d e v e lo p e d in g r e a t e r d e t a i l t h r o u g h

s k i l l s fr o m e d u c a tio n a l an d tr a in in g in s titu tio n s.

s u r v e y s o f e m p lo y e r s an d o f e d u c a tio n a l in s titu ­
t i o n s . S u p p ly a n d d e m a n d r e p o r t s s h o u ld b e p r e ­

B e n c h m a r k s t u d i e s a r e i m p o r t a n t to d e t e r ­

p a r e d f o r e a c h m a j o r m e t r o p o l it a n a r e a . S u m ­

m in e p o in t s o f d e p a r t u r e f o r p r o g r a m d e v e lo p ­

m a r y r e p o r t s s h o u ld b e p r e p a r e d a n d d i s t r i b u t e d

m e n t. C e n s u s d a ta an d la b o r f o r c e s u r v e y s c a n

to u s e r s , a n d o c c u p a t io n a l g u id a n c e m a t e r i a l s

p r o v i d e th e n e c e s s a r y b e n c h m a r k s f o r l a b o r s u p ­

s h o u ld b e d i s t r i b u t e d to y o u n g p e o p l e . S e v e r a l

p ly . R o u g h a p p r o x i m a t i o n s a r e a d e q u a t e f o r t h e s e

o th e r r e p o r t s a ls o a r e su g g e ste d .

f i r s t - t i m e a n a l y s e s . A n a n n u a l r e v i e w o f s u p p ly

M e th o d s o f im p l e m e n t in g th e m a n p o w e r p r o ­

a n d d e m a n d f o r c r i t i c a l l y s h o r t o c c u p a t io n s i s

g r a m a r e d i s c u s s e d a n d s u m m a r i z e d a s a g u id e

n e c e s s a r y to g u id e t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s .

f o r A ID ’ S r o l e in a s s i s t a n c e .




135

A m e r i c a n R e p u b l ic s
P eru

I m p r o v e m e n t o f th e
in

th e

E m p lo y m e n t I n f o r m a t io n P r o g r a m

E m p lo y m e n t a n d

H um an

(In S p a n i s h ;
IL O

R e p o r t to
A r n o ld

V.

th e

R e so u rces

G o v ern m en t o f P e r u ,

T o ttle ,

S e r v ic e

(S E R H )

1963; 41 p a g e s)

M an pow er

A d v ise r

O I T /T A P / P e r u /R .8 ;
(G re a t

B r ita in )

D e s c r i b e s th e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f th e E m p lo y m e n t a n d
H u m a n R e s o u r c e s S e r v i c e a n d th e e m p lo y m e n t i n f o r m a ­
tio n p r o g r a m a n d m a k e s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r t h e i r
im p r o v e m e n t .

U p to th e e n d o f 1 9 6 2 , th e C o o p e r a t i v e E m ­
p lo y m e n t S e r v i c e in P e r u

h ad b e e n o p e r a tin g

o f e x c h a n g in g

in f o r m a t io n

w ith e d u c a t io n a n d

t r a i n i n g c e n t e r s , e s p e c i a l l y w ith th e A p p r e n t ic e ­

A t th a t tim e ,

s h ip S e r v i c e (S E N A T I) i s e m p h a s i z e d . T h e t y p e s

i t s c o o p e r a tiv e a g r e e m e n t

o f m a n p o w e r s t u d i e s th a t h a v e b e e n m a d e a r e

w h ic h l e f t th e f in a n c in g o f th e S e r v i c e f a l l o n th e

l i s t e d . M o s t o f t h e m c o v e r e d jo b m a r k e t a r e a

G o v e r n m e n t o f P e r u . A n ew d e c r e e s u b s t i t u t e d

s t u d i e s a n d e s t a b l i s h m e n t s u r v e y s . S o m e o f th e

th e C o o p e r a t i v e E m p lo y m e n t S e r v i c e f o r a n ew

p r o b le m s e n c o u n te re d a r e d e s c r ib e d an d s u g ­

w ith th e

a ss is ta n c e

U S A ID r e t i r e d f r o m

o f U S A ID .

s e m i a u t o n o m u s o r g a n i z a t i o n c a l l e d th e E m p l o y ­

g e s t i o n s a r e m a d e to o v e r c o m e t h e s e p r o b l e m s

m e n t a n d H u m a n R e s o u r c e s S e r v i c e (S E R H ). T h e

by

o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c h a r t o f th e n e w S e r v i c e

o th e r te c h n ic a l a d ju s tm e n ts .

1963)

(a s of

a p p e a r s on p a g e 38 , an d i t s co m p o n en t

m em b ers

appear

40.

q u e s tio n n a ir e s

o r m a k in g

R e c o m m e n d a tio n s c o v e r e a c h p h a s e o f S E R H
a c t i v i t i e s s u c h a s o r g a n i z a t i o n , p e r s o n n e l (in ­

a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s in d e p e n d e n t, S E R H i s r e ­
s p o n s i b l e to th e M i n i s t e r o f L a b o r . A s h o r t d e s ­
c r i p t i o n o f th e p r o g r a m o f h u m a n r e s o u r c e s i s

c lu d in g d u t i e s ) , a r e a fu n c t io n a n d a c t i v i t i e s , a n d
p rogram

p r o v id e d .

r e g a r d i n g n e w s u r v e y s a n d t y p e s o f i n f o r m a t io n

T h e m a in p o r t io n o f th e r e p o r t d e a l s w ith th e
i n f o r m a t io n p r o g r a m o f S E R H . T h e i m p o r t a n c e

r e q u i r e d to a n a l y z e th e f u t u r e s u p p ly a n d d e ­
m an d o f m an po w er.




page

th e

A lth o u g h th e

136

on

re d e sig n in g

th e r o l e o f S E R H in th e e c o n o m ic d e v e lo p m e n t
of

P e r u . S u g g e s tio n s a ls o a r e m a d e

A m erican Republics
Surinam

Recom m endations for the Development of
Statistical S e rv ic es in Surinam
Lloyd A. Prochnow, AID Statistical A dviser
Outlines the prin cipal sta tistic a l s e r ie s which appear
e sse n tia l fo r effective planning in Surinam , current
availablity of sta tistic s, and recom m endations for their
im provem ent and expansion.

In 1953, the Government of Surinam initiated
a com prehensive 10-year development program
for the im provem ent of le v e ls of living fo r the
populace. However, b ecau se of lack of current,
reliab le factual inform ation, development p ro ­
je c ts w ere difficult to plan, execute, and a s s e s s .
At the p resen t tim e, Surinam has a larg e
quantity of sta tistic a l data collected by the Gen­
e r a l Bureau of S ta tistic s; but there are gaps in
cov erage and collection. C onsiderable work is
needed on com piling and im proving data of
im portance to planning o ffic ials.
The consultant d e sc rib e s the u se s and meth­
ods of collection for each sta tistic a l study and the
m e a su re s n e c e ssa ry fo r a program of economic




and manpower development, d is c u ss e s the lim i­
tations of curren t available data fo r each s e r ie s ,
and outlines a program for im proving and ex ­
panding curren t s e r ie s . M ajor sta tistic a l su r ­
veys are liste d in ord er of p rio rity ; the recom ­
mendation is made that they be initiated a s soon
a s financial and technical re so u r c e s perm it.
Appendix I d e sc rib e s in tabular form the
so u rc e s of b a sic sta tistic a l data in Surinam . Ap­
pendix II lis t s in tabular form the b a sic s t a t is ­
tical data and s e r ie s that are e sse n tial for a
sound sta tistic a l program .
The organizational and staffin g requirem ents
of a sta tistic a l office are d escrib ed , and recom ­
mendations are made fo r staff training and
development.

137

A m erican R epublics
Venezuela

Lab or

S ta tistic s in Venezuela; Findings, Recom m endations,
and the A lliance for P r o g r e ss
(1963; 14 p ag es and 3 appendix tables)
Sh errill W, N eville, L abor S ta tistic s A dv iser,
(Utah State Employment Service)

Report d e sc rib e s and evalu ates the existin g so u rc e s of
manpower data and m akes recom m endations fo r their
im provem ent. A short section d e sc r ib e s the ro le of AID
in im proving technical manpower se r v ic e s.

The 1961 C ensus of Population shows evi­
dence of undercount by n early 6 percen t b ecau se
of faulty birth reg istra tio n s and C ensus o m is­
sio n s, e sp ecially of children under 10 y e a rs of
age. A s a re su lt, population and labor fo rce
p rojectio n s made by v ariou s agen cies are not
b ased on a true benchm ark. T h erefore, the
F o u r-Y ear Plan (1963-1966) p r e p a r e d by
CORDIPLAN un d erstates labor fo rce growth
and school attendance. CORDIPLAN has not
planned for these undercounted new entrants
who will probably not get a job. However,
unemployment r a te s can be held to a minimum
if (1) labor force entry of students were p o st­
poned through additional schooling and (2) em ­
ployment opportunities were expanded.
Several agen cies produce sta tistic s which
are needed for projection p u rp o ses: The M inistry
of L ab o r’ s sta tistic a l office c o llec ts data each
month on employment, hours, and earn ings from
14,000 establishm en ts covering 350,000 w orkers,
about 35 percent of nonfarm w orkers. The
Employment Serv ice p re p a re s a monthly rep o rt
on job m arket inform ation. The M inistry of

138




Fomento (Industrial Development) conducted
the 1961 C ensus of Population and curren tly
su rv ey s m anufacturing firm s to estim ate p ro ­
duction. Fom ento’ s O ffice of National Sam pling
a lso conducted a fam ily income and expendi­
tu re su rvey in 1962 and expects to do another
in 1963. Banco Central e stim ate s unemploy­
ment in C a ra c a s and publish es a co st-o f-liv in g
index fo r the whole country. INCE published
two su rvey s o f occupational employment in
Venezuela. INCE also had surveyed apprentice­
ship needs in Valencia. The consultant enum er­
ate s the many other government and p riv ate
agency stu dies on manpower.
Recom m endations a re directed tow ard the
action n e c e ssa ry fo r the Government of Vene­
zuela to develop a coordinated and reliab le
manpower development p ro g ram . F u rth er r e c ­
ommendations a re directed toward the role
that AID should take to im prove their se r v ic e s
to help Venezuela achieve its manpower devel­
opment goal. A listin g of p rop osed AID tech­
nical se r v ic e s fo r the 3 -year period 1963 to
1965 is provided.

A m erican Republics
Venezuela

INCE— Techniques of Self-Instruction
(1963; 5 p ag es plus attachment)
Paul J . Grogan, AID Educational Consultant (U niversity of Wisconsin)
The rep o rt d is c u ss e s the p o ssib ility of adapting U.S.
self-teach in g techniques.

Several documents were p rep ared for u se by
the National Institute of Cooperative Education
(INCE); only one is attached to this repo rt. This
rep o rt i s a prop osal to set up internships for
INCE personnel in tutorial methods through the
u n iversity extension sy stem .
INCE has a rem arkable opportunity to presen t
fully developed national p ro g ram s in com m er­
c ia l, in du strial, and technical education. The
spectrum of opportunity is so broad that a som e­
what narrow choice of the variou s methods should
be made fo r expanding the work of INCE in te rm s
of m eeting its training obligations. U niversity
extension has g rea t potential fo r training in the
v ario u s educational p ro g ram s.




Followup Recommendations
1. E xperien ces in correspondence in stru c­
tion gained in the proposed training program at
the U niversity of W isconsin should be adapted to
the widest p o ssib le usuage within the operations
of INCE. F or exam ple, all m a te ria ls and methods
in a r e a s appropriate to the m ission of INCE
should be review ed, and the content and meth­
odology should be adapted to the p artic u lar le v els
and pu rp o ses of INCE.
2. A correspondence instruction m edia con­
sultant should return to Venezuela with the
train e es to help them im plem ent their knowledge
and sk ills.

139

A m erican R epublics
Venezuela

The Development of Human R eso u rc es in Venezuela
An Overview
(1964; 22 pages)
D r. E li G inzberg, Columbia U niversity, at inviation of Instituto P a r a el
D esarro llo Econom ico y Social (Institute for Econom ic and Social Development)

An a sse ssm e n t of the range of actions that might be
undertaken by nongovernment organization s to further
develop and im prove the nation’ s human r e so u rc e s.

The m ajo r portion of the rep o rt is devoted
to ob servation s and im p re ssio n s on the p o litical,
so c ia l, and econom ic development of Venezuela.
T his country has grea t natural ric h e s and an
active and ale rt population. Many advances
have been made both p olitically and in du strially
but its manpower development still fa c e s many
handicaps, such a s the low level of education
and the underdeveloped state of its agricu ltu re.
Under the dictatorship of P erez Jim en ez,
the government influenced the development of
both natural re so u r c e s and construction activ i­
tie s. To c a r r y out construction ac tiv itie s, men
with high-level sk ills were im ported, which
undoubtedly retarded the development of sk ills
of the lo cal population. C urrent manpower
p ro g ram s should be developed to train local
people in these sk ills.
In the la st few y e a r s, Venezuela has shifted
from a predom inantly agricu ltu ral society to
an urbanized one. The c a u se s and devastating
r e su lts of this ru ral-to -u rb an m igration are
d isc u sse d at length. Although the development
of industry is n e c e ssa ry to su rvive, ag raria n
refo rm should not be neglected. There are

140




r e a l poten tialities fo r economic and so c ia l gain s
in the agricu ltu ral sec to r. The fact that Vene­
zuela im ports food, that the av erage nutritional
level is below a d esirab le norm , that the urban
a r e a s have not been able to provide employment
opportunities fo r in -m igran ts, all point to the
need for im proving conditions of ru ra l life.
The m ajo r challenge on the manpower front
that Venezuela fa c e s in the sh ort run is to
stim ulate the expansion of employment. Im ­
provem ent of human r e so u rc e s over the long
run re q u ire s a m arked expansion in the number
and quality of sch o ols, additional health m ea­
su r e s, im proved housing, adequate nutritional
le v e ls, and strengthened fam ily stru ctu re. How­
ev er, none of these gain s will be p o ssib le with­
out a rapid growth in economic development.
Some actions that a nonprofit p riv ate o r ­
ganization could initiate are : (1) collecting
inform ation on unemployed youth and re aso n s
fo r their unemployment, (2) developing guidance
counseling p ro g ra m s, (3) prom oting im proved
educational, health, and so cial se r v ic e s in slum
ru ra l a r e a s.

A m erican Republics
Venezuela

O rganization of the National Employment Service
(In Spanish; 1965; 40 pages)
M alcolm Kennedy, AID Manpower A dviser
This rep o rt p rese n ts in detail the activ ities and r e ­
sp o n sib ilities of the variou s o ffices and staff m em bers
in the Venezuelan Employment Serv ice,

In the projected organizational pattern, the
D irecto r of the National Employment Serv ice
will have an adm inistrative a ssista n t in charge
of budget, finan ces, and personnel. Two divi­
sio n s, respo n sible to the D irecto r, will serv e a s
the principal o ffices to plan and develop p ro ­
g ra m s and operations of the Employment S e rv ­
ice. E ach of these D ivisions will head se v e ral
sp ecialized D epartm ents.

the Employment Service and develop the methods
of carry in g out these p ro g ram s.
2.
The D ivision of O perations will coordinate
and su p erv ise the activ ities of the regional and
local o ffices in the national network.

M ost of the rep o rt d e sc rib e s the resp o n sib il­
itie s of each D ivision and Department. D etailed
job descrip tio n s, including statem en ts on knowl­
1.
The D ivision of P ro g ra m s and Methods edge and sk ills requ ired for the job, are provided
will plan and coordinate the variou s p ro g ram s of
fo r sta ff m em bers at all le v e ls.




141

A m erican R epublics
Venezuela

National Manpower Training and Development
V alencia P ilot Office of the National Employment Service
(1965; 46 pages)
M o rris J . Doren, AID Manpower Consultant
E xperien ces of settin g up a pilot lo cal employment
se rv ic e office in Venezuela.

Under AID au sp ic e s, a tw o-year plan w as
developed to e stab lish a pilot local employment
se rv ic e office in V alencia which would se t the
pattern fo r a network of field offices of the
National Em ployment Serv ice. The b a sic aim
of the Venezuelan M inistry of L ab or w as to
expand the p resen t Manpower D ivision into an
effective National Employment Serv ice, 1 / in
which the V alencia office would be a Demon­
stration and T raining Center to develop p e r ­
sonnel fo r the National O ffice.
V alencia was selected becau se it is the
center of an im portant com m ercial and trading
a r e a and the location of many la rg e employing
estab lish m en ts (m ostly U.S. firm s). Valencia
has a la rg e and trainable labo r fo rce which
la c k s the n e c e ssa ry sk ills to m eet the expanding
req u irem en ts of industry. There is also con­
sid erab le concern in the a r e a about high unem­
ploym ent, ru ral-to -u rb an m igration, and the high
birth rate .
The functions of the curren t local office,
known a s the Placem ent Agency, were lim ited
to the n arrow est concept of an employment s e r ­
vice. The office review ed job o rd e rs from em ­

142




p lo y ers and job applicants w ere r e f e rre d to these
em ploy ers fo r interview . There were no tech­
nical supporting se r v ic e s n e c e ssa ry fo r an
effective placem ent pro g ram .
The consultant recom m ended an appropriate
co u rse of action in the following m ajo r a r e a s:
1. Improvement of the placem ent p r o c e ss
in the V alencia office.
2. R eorganization of the em ployer visitin g
p ro g ram in the V alencia office.
3. Improvement in the utilization and ap­
pearan ce of the p re m ise s of the V alencia
office.
4. P reparatio n at the National Office and
in V alencia for the inception of an employment
counseling and occupational testin g p rogram .

J / See M alcolm Kennedy rep o rt, June 1965,
on organization of the National Employment
Serv ice.

A m erican Republics
Venezuela

A pprenticeship and Industrial Training Report
(1965; 15 pages)
John F . B a rre tt, AID A pprenticeship Consultant
D isc u sse s the operations
prenticeship development,
operations with the labor
challenge to INCE under
train the “to tal* man.

The consultant visited training cen ters in
M aracaibo operated by National Institute for Co­
operative Education (INCE) and by private oil
com panies, and observed that m em bers of their
training sta ffs have never v isited each other. He
arran ged a few m eetings and encouraged m ore
exchange v isits.
The consultant a lso a ss iste d in orgainizing
trip artite trade advisory com m ittees in B a rquisim eto. Com m ittees w ere form ed in m ajor
occupational a r e a s; they proved quite s u c c e s s ­
ful. Other INCE d ire c to rs w ere encouraged to
attend la te r m eetings to ob serv e the methods
of establish in g INCE work at the com m ittee
level.
Although INCE has built up a significant
re c o rd sin ce 1962, high turnover has occu rred
at the directory and su p erv iso ry le v e ls. To hold
a dedicated sta ff together, INCE should institute
a p ro g ram of Personnel A dm inistration and
C a re e r Development.
Ideas and su ggestion s of the 15 previou s con­
sultants assign ed to INCE should be review ed and




of INCE a s they affect ap­
the relatio n sh ips of these
law s of Venezuela, and the
its ch arter to develop and

consolidated. Such a com pilation would stim ulate
restudy and re-evaluation of the re p o rts and
would serv e a s training and r e se a rc h m ate rials
fo r INCE.
Several recom m endations and com m ents are
made on apprenticeship development. The decen­
tra lize d organization of INCE should prove ad­
vantageous in carry in g out its stated functions of
total education of the w orker, com pared with the
m ore institutionalized apprenticeship o rgan iza­
tions in other cou n tries. So fa r, trade unions have
not participated in INCE’ s p ro g ram s, except for
som e of the building tra d e s. Several reco m ­
mendations are made to encourage their p a r tic i­
pation. Other su ggestion s cover im portation of
sk illed w orkers, prov isio n s in INCE law, and de­
velopment of sk ills in ru ral a r e a s through use
of m obile training units.
Finally, it is recom m ended that two AID ap­
prenticeship a d v ise rs be assign ed to INCE fo r a
minimum of 2 y e a rs. The duties of the a d v ise rs
a re outlined.

143

A m e r ic a n

R e p u b lic s

V e n e z u e la

IN C E
T w o

L a t in

a n d

A m e r ic a n

(1 9 6 6 ;

1 1

p a g e s

D O L IT A C
E u g e n e

P r o v id e s

T h e
tio n

N a tio n a l

(IN C E )

w h ic h
s h ip

in

p r o v id e s

f o r

th e

f o r

C o o p e r a tiv e

a d m

in is t e r s

a n d

u n e m p lo y e d .

th e

M

b y

w h ic h

o f

th e

N a tio n a l

in c lu d e s

a n d

a

g o v e r n m e n t

fin a n c ia l
T h e

in g
2 0

to

la w

w o r k e r s

o n

l i s t s

th e

f r o m

A

t a x

1 4

to

e x te n d t r a in ­

a n d

P r o g r a m

1 8

s

f o r

e v e r y

r a n g e

fr o m

v a r io u s m a c h in e s to th o s e
stu d y a n d w o r k e x p e r ie n c e .

v a r io u s

A

B a s e d
2 1

d e s c r ip t io n

A p p r e n tic e s h ip

o n

a

in d u s t r ia l

e s t a b lis h m

n a tio n a l
a n d

d u tie s

e n t s

t r a in in g p r o g r a m
m o r e

th a n

1 0

w e r e




th e

m

e r c ia l

a n d

g o a ls

N a tio n a l

s e le c t e d

a ll

i s

th e

o r g a n iz a tio n

in s titu tio n s

in

a n d

L a t in

a n d

a ll

b a n k s
to

o f

s u r v e y

f o r

a n d

p r o v id e

in s u r a n c e
tr a in in g

c o m p a n ie s

f o r

s e le c t e d

a r e

y o u n g

w o r k e r s .
A
o n

s u m

m

a r y

( s e e

o n

IN C E

T h e

r e p o r t
a n d

b y

Jo h n

IL O ,
w a s

th e

e ste r n

W

i s

m e m b e r
a r ie s

h e a d q u a r t e r e d
in

H e m is p h e r e
th r o u g h

c o m p o s e d
c o u n t r ie s

p r e p a r e d

t h r e e

c r it i c a l

V o c a tio n a l

D o c u m e n ta tio n

o r g a n iz e d

fu n c tio n s

w h ic h

B a r r e t t

T r a in in g ”
c o m ­

o p e r a t io n s .

a n d

g u a y ,

F .

I n d u s tr ia l

I n t e r - A m e r ic a n

R e s e a r c h ,

m

th e

s u m m a r y e ls e w h e r e ) p r o v id e s

m e n t

It

o f

“ A p p r e n tic e s h ip

a
o f

in

m e e tin g s

th e
a r e

C IN T E R ­

M o n te v id e o ,

1 9 6 2

a n d

n a tio n s

l i s t s
a s

T e c h n ic a l

m

o n c e

U .S .

U r u ­

m o s t
e m

o f

b e r s .

C o m m itte e ,

r e p r e s e n t a t iv e s

m e e tin g
b y

T r a in in g ,

C e n te r

a

y e a r .

d e le g a t e s

f r o m
S u m ­
to

th e

r e p r o d u c e d .

(C o m ­

p r e s e n t e d .
in

o c c u p a tio n s

s . A ll e s t a b lis h m

p e r s o n s ,

1 4 4

o f

P r o g r a m

m a n p o w e r

c o m

o n

o b lig e d

f i r s t
d e t a ile d

8 ;

C o n s u lta n t

tr a in in g

o n

p r o v id e

IN C E .

p u ls o r y )

N o .

F O R ,

b e tw e e n

c la s s r o o m

r e p o r t

la b o r .

p lo y e r s

e m p lo y e d .

tr a in in g

c o m b in in g

e m

P a p e r

a n

r e s o u r c e s .

w o r k e r

o n - th e - jo b

T h e

f r o m

r e q u ir e s

o n e

la w

A d m in is t r a t iv e

r e p r e s e n t a t iv e s

m a n a g e m e n t,

th e

E d u c a ­
th e

IN C E

g o v e r n m e n t,

g r a n t

I n s titu tio n s

a tta c h m e n t)

in fo r m a tio n

s k ill

in is t r y o f E d u c a tio n ,

p a y r o lls

a n d

S ta ff

s k ill tr a in in g a n d a p p r e n t ic e ­

e m p lo y e d

d ir e c t e d

C o u n c il

o f

tw o

T r a in in g
1

e r ic a .

b r a n c h

a u to n o m o u s
i s

I n s titu te
V e n e z u e la

o f

S k ill
a n d

A p p r e n tic e s h ip

b a c k g r o u n d

fu n c tio n s
A m

1 /

H o o d ,

C IN T E R F O R

1 9 6 1 ,
in

5 9

e x p e r im e n ta l

e n t s e m p lo y in g

g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c ie s ,

\ J

U .S .

T e c h n ic a l

D e p a r tm e n t
A s s is t a n c e

o f

L a b o r

C o r p s .

I n te r n a tio n a l

A m e r ic a n

R e p u b lic s
V e n e z u e la

E m p lo y m e n t

P r o je c t io n s ,
(1 9 6 6 ;

A 0

A

s t a f f

w o r k in g

e m p lo y m e n t

T h e
d e

la

l a t e s t

r e v is io n

N a c io n ,

1 9 6 6 )

m e n t

p r o je c t io n s

F o u r

m

a jo r

th e

w h ic h

th e

th is

r e g a r d in g

V o g t,

p a p e r

b y

M a n p o w e r

C o n s u lta n t

te c h n iq u e s o f p r o je c t in g

a c tiv ity .

2 .

(P la n

e m p lo y ­
i s

C a r o n il9 7 5

p a g e s )

d e s c r ib in g

S tu d y

b a s ic
p a p e r

th e

A ID

e c o n o m ic

S ta g in g

p r o v id e s

o n

p o in ts

o f

Jo h n

1 8

D is t r it o

P o p u la tio n

s t u d ie s

b a s e d .

f o r

p r o je c t io n s a r e

h a v e

C u id a d

m a tio n

G u a y a n a

o n

in d ic a t e s

d e v e lo p e d :

1 9 7 5

E m p lo y m e n t

s e c t o r s

C o m m u n ic a tio n s ,

th a n

3 5

to

th e

S ta g in g

4 0

th a t
a

o f

a n d

th e

C u id a d

a n d

h a s

a c c o u n t

m o d e r n iz in g




u r b a n

in

e c t e d

th e

O th e r

S e r v ­

in

a s s ig n e d

o th e r
S t a t e s ,

sh o w n
f o r

c it ie s
a n d

th a t

sh o u ld

th e
b o th

in

th e

in f r a ­

3 .
a n d

b e

T h is

it e m

3

w ill

h a s a n d w ill c o n tin u e to h a v e

p u te r
l e a s e s

b e

w ill

p r o g r a m
“ f in a l"

fig u r e

S tu d y

p r e v io u s
to

4 0 0 ,0 0 0

r e c e n t in f o r ­

p o p u la tio n

f o r

o f

g ro w th

f ig u r e s

C u id a d
s

m o s t

o f

a n d

th e

b y

e c o ­

r e p o r t .

t o t a ls

th e

a r e

s e c t o r a l

p o p u la tio n

G u a y a n a a r e p r o v id e d .

m o d ifie d
th e

f o r

p r o je c t io n s

o f

b y

d a ta
b e

p r o j­

(ite m s 1 a n d 2 , a b o v e ),

e m p lo y m e n t
u s e d

a s

r e a l i s t i c

e m p lo y m e n t p r o je c t io n s .

s e c t o r s

f o r

2 2 2 ,0 0 0

a p p e a r s

e m p lo y m e n t

T h e s e

th e y

M o r e

a n d

r e v is e d

f o r m

S e c t o r a l

s in c e

e c o n o m y .

o n

s e c t o r s

S e c tio n .

a s s u m

b a s i s

f o r

s e c t io n

4 .

1 9 7 5 .

T h e

S ta g in g

th e

p r o c e d u r e s

e d

sh o u ld

1 9 7 5 .

B a s e d

n o m ic

b y

in

3 0 0 ,0 0 0

p o p u la tio n p r o b a b ly w ill n o t e x c e e d

in f r a s t r u c t u r e

b e

It

m o r e

th e

b y
in

b y

th a n 3 5 p e r ­

e m p lo y m e n t.

G u a y a n a

s h a r e

U n ite d

i t s e lf ,

s e c t o r s

to ta l

lo w e r

E x p e r ie n c e

C a r o n i

s t r u c t u r e

to th e in ­

a n d

( C o m m e r c e , T r a n s p o r t a n d

G o v e r n m e n t,

s o m e w h a t

D is t r it o

1 9 6 6

p e r c e n t o f to ta l e m p lo y m e n t r a t h e r

S tu d y .

V e n e z u e la

c e n t

b e tw e e n

f o r C u id a d G u a y a n a s h o u ld a llo c a t e

f r a s t r u c t u r e

ic e s )

p r o je c t io n s

u s e d

b e tw e e n

im m ig r a t io n

th a t

2 2 5 ,0 0 0

1.

p r o je c t io n s

r a n g e d

n o t
a s

p r o d u c e d

H u m a n
fin a l,
s o o n

b y

R e s o u r c e s

a s

E c o n o m ic s
e m p lo y m e n t

h o w e v e r ,
th e

c o m ­

S e c tio n

r e ­

p r o je c t io n

t o t a ls .

145

A m e r ic a n

R e p u b lic s

V e n e z u e la

IN C E —

S p e c ia l

(1 9 6 6 ;

D O L IT A C
A r c h ie

F u n c tio n s

a n d

C o o p e r a tiv e
s p e c ia l

A

o n e - p a g e

p r e s e n t e d
P r o g r a m

o n
,

1 9 6 1 - 6 5 .

fo r m a tio n
a

in

w a s

p r e c e d in g

a d d e d .

It

t r a in in g
t i e s

e n r o lle e s
h o u r
g r a m

in c o m e

w e r e

f o r

a s

in
f o r

a s

D u r in g
p r o g r a m

to

th e

s a m

E u g e n e

e

in ­

H o o d

$ 2 2 .5

fie ld

th e

3 4

s

n e a r ly

r a n g in g

s u p e r v is o r s

to

7 2 ,0 0 0

fr o m

1 - y e a r

1 0 -

a

th e

c o o r d in a t o r s

im p r o v e

th e

c o n s tr u c tio n

(te c h n ic a l

s t a ff)

o f

o n

2 .

1.

A

3 .

d is t in c t

b e tw e e n
2 .
IN C E
3 .

lin e

A

a n d

s t a f f

a n d

p e r s o n n e l

4 .

A n

i s

o u tlin e

(lin e )

s t a f f

1 4 6




th e

d e v e lo p m e n t
p r o g r a m

in

a r e :

o f

a

h e a v y

la b o r

in d u s tr y

b o y s .

p r o v is io n s

r e lu c t a n c e
a s

o n

c o m p u ls o r y

a p ­

T h e

G e n e r a l
1 .

2 .
q u o ta

fu n c tio n s .

3 .

s p e c ia liz e d

d u r e s

lo w

la c k

o f
in

a p p r e n t ic e s h ip
o r g a n iz e d

s u g g e s t e d

p la n

o r g a n iz a t io n a l

w o rk

e x p e r ie n c e

a n d

la b o r .

lim

it a t io n s

p e r c e n t)

E f f o r t s
a n d

f o r

r e o r g a n iz in g

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in

a t ­

1 .

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(5

o f th e h a r d

p a y .

o b s e r v a t io n s

A

a n

o f m a n y y o u th to e n te r c o n ­

a p p r e n t ic e s b e c a u s e

tr a d it io n

sh o u ld

a n d

c h a n g e in jo b t i t le s o f c e r t a in

p e r s o n n e l

c o n ta c t

c la r if ic a t io n

r a t io

r e la t iv e ly

r e la t io n s h ip

r e v a m p in g o f IN C E ’ s o r g a n iz a t io n

im m a tu r e

T h e

s t r u c t io n
a n d

a n d

a

in d u s tr y

r e lu c t a n c e

L o w

ta c h m e n t

sh o w

h in d e r in g

a p p r e n tic e s h ip

p r e n t ic e s h ip .

in ­

c lu d e d :

T h e

ta k e

p r o ­

w o r k

d if f ic u lt ie s

c o m p r e h e n s iv e

1 .
to

fo r
a n d

c o n s tr u c tio n .

S o m e
o f

c r a f t

to

In s titu te

a p p r e n tic e s h ip

o th e r tr a in in g f a c il i ­
1 9 6 5 ,

1 8 ;

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c o o r d in a t o r s ,

m illio n

a n d o p e r a t e d

N o .

N a tio n a l

fie ld

in

s t a t i s t ic a l d a t a w e r e
U .S .

P a p e r

i s

D e v e lo p m e n t

a p p r e n t ic e s .

R e c o m m e n d a tio n s
I N C E ’ s

b y

t o ta le d

w e ll

u n its ).

c o u r s e s
s

E s s e n t ia lly

S t a ff

o f

r e p o r t

s

p a g e s )

A p p r e n tic e s h ip

(IN C E )

r e la t e d

in fo r m a tio n

p r o v id e d

c e n t e r s

s

M a n p o w e r

e m p lo y e d 2 ,0 0 0 p e o p le

(m o b ile

t r a in in g

E d u c a tio n

p r o b le m

s u m m a r y ; s o m e

IN C E ’ s

1 9 6 5 .

g e n e r a l
IN C E ’ s

JL /

B e a u b ie n ,

P r o b le m

1 7

to

o n

sh o u ld

sh o u ld
r e d u c e

b e

a g e
b e

(1 4 - 1 8 ) a n d o n r a t io

r e v is e d .

m a d e

p a p e r

to

s im

p lify p r o c e ­

w o r k .

s u g g e s t e d .
f o r
i s

th e

tr a in in g

p r e s e n t e d .

o f

in d u s tr y

\ J

U .S .

T e c h n ic a l

D e p a r tm e n t
A s s is t a n c e

o f

L a b o r

C o r p s .

In te r n a tio n a l

A m e r ic a n

R e p u b lic s
V e n e z u e la

P r o c e d u r e

f o r

(1 9 6 6 ;

W

ilfr e d

V .

M e m o r a n d u m

P r e s e n t a t io n

8

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J o n e s ,
to

o f

a

M

M

a r k e t

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a lc o lm

A n a ly s is

2 2 - p a g e

o f

a n

A r e a

a p p e n d ix )

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K e n n e d y ,

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f o r

U S A ID /V e n e z u e la

a n a ly z in g

a

jo b

m a r k e t

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T h e

p r o c e d u r a l

s t e p s

f o r

a n a ly z in g

a

A

jo b

1 .

M

a r e a

d e ta ile d

d is c u s s io n

c o v e r s th e s t e p s in c o l­

le c t in g ,

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e a s u r in g

a n d

d e fin in g

th e

jo b

o r g a n iz in g ,

a n d

c a lc u la t in g

S e v e r a l

m a r k e t

w o r k s h e e ts

a r e

p r e s e n t e d

a r e a .

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E s t a b lis h in g

a

L is t in g

s a m p le

a f t e r
f o r m

a t s

th e
a ls o

P u e r to
a r e

R ic a n

a r e

sh o w n

e x p e r ie n c e .
to

illu s t r a t e

u n iv e r s e .
h o w

3 .

d a ta .

m a r k e t
p a tt e r n e d

2 .

th e
w h ic h

e m

p lo y e r s

a n d

th e

in fo r m a tio n

c a n

b e

d is t r ib u t e d

to

th e

e m p lo y ­
p u b lic .

m e n t.




1 4 7

A m e r ic a n

R e p u b lic s

V e n e z u e la

T e c h n ic a l

A s s is t a n c e

to

S e r v ic e
(O c to b e r

1 9 6 5

D O L IT A C
M

A

c o lle c tio n

r e g a r d in g
v ic e

1 .
to

A

d e t a ile d

im p r o v e

E m p lo y m e n t
2 .
a n d

la y o u t
a t

S e r v ic e

o f

m a d e

to

D e t a ils

th e

th e

r e m o d e le d

(1 7

o f

e ig h t

C a r a c a s
i s

a n d

th a t

o f th e s e

th e

s ix

e ir ,

o ffic e

th e

(3

th e

p a g e s )

o ffic e

b e in g

S u g g e s tio n s

o p e r a t io n s

a ls o

o f

th e

w e r e
o ffic e .

p r e s e n t e d

a lo n g

o r g a n iz a t io n a l, fu n c tio n a l, a n d la y o u t c h a r t s .
p a g e s .)

3 .

th ir d
a n d

o ffic e

l a r g e s t
k in d

p e a r e d

o f

lo c a tio n

c ity )

c r e a t e d
S t r e e t

T h e y

c o m p le te
S e v e r a l
m e th o d s
4 .

A

c u r r e n t

o f

a r e

e x c e p t
a

a p p e a r e d

w e r e
to

b e

a p p r o p r ia t e

o p e r a tio n
o f

1 4 8




f o r

f a c il it i e s

r e p o r t s

“ M a n u a l

b y

th a t

h a n d ic a p

o p e r a t io n s

e t o

(V e n e z u e la ’ s

a r e

th e

th ir d

e ffe c t iv e

flo o r
o p e r a ­

a n d

ta b u ­

p r e s e n t e d

d e t a ile d
f o r

a p ­

s u g g e s t e d .

a n a ly z e d
w e ll

a m o u n t

o ffic e

w e r e

o ffe r e d .

N a tio n a l

2 1 ;
A d v is e r

b y

lo c a l

p a g e s )

th e

c o n s u lta n t

e m p lo y m e n t

s e r ­

S e r v ic e .
th a t

a n d

w o u ld

S e v e r a l
a n d

a

r e p o r t

r e s u lt

T o

th e

a

je c t iv e s

T h e

o f

t r a in in g

a

fin a l

a s s ig n m e n t .

g r a m
to

s .

m

a jo r

o f

d is c u s s io n

E m p lo y m e n t

g r o w th
th e

th e
th e

m

s e r v ic e

a n d

sh o u ld

s k il l s

o u tlin e s

th e

th e

(5

r e f e r s

th e

la c k
a ll

to

S e r v ic e p r o ­

p r in c ip a l

s m

w o rk

s u p e r v is io n

E m p lo y m e n t

o f

9 - m o n th

r e c o m m e n d a tio n

o n

th e

(8 p a g e s .)

c o n s u lta n t’ s

in c lu d e s

i t s
o b ­

o r g a n iz a tio n

a r iz e s

fo llo w u p

o f

s p e c if ic

d is c u s s e d .

r e la t iv e ly

S e r v ic e .

o ffe r e d

(6 p a g e s .)

S e r v ic e

T h e

s u m

th e

c o n tin u a tio n

a n d

i s

m a n u a l.

e ffic ie n t

p r o g r a m

a ls o

o f

A

l i s t s

r e p o r t

d u r in g
A

a n d

c o n d u c t.

n e c e s s it y

c o n tin u e d

S e r v ic e

to

a
a r e

p r e s e n t e d .

im p r o v e

r e p o r t

tr a in in g

a c c o m p lis h e d

in s u r e

to

a d v a n ta g e s

s u c h

E m p lo y m e n t

p r o g r a m

T h e

th e

m a n y

o f

i s

e ffe c t iv e

th e

o f tr a in in g

6.

th e

u s e

o u tlin e

p r o g r a m

e m p lo y e e s .

to

f r o m

r e n d e r

p u b lic ,

d e v e lo p

ty p e s

l i s t s

g u id e lin e s f o r i t s p r e p a r a t io n

t h r e e - p a g e

5 .
to

T h e

o b s t a c le s
o f

s iz e

a

C iv il
o f

th e

p a g e s .)

in fo r m a tio n .

im p r o v in g

O p e r a t io n s ”
in

T h e

th e
th e

N o .

m a d e

th e

E m p lo y m e n t

r e v ie w e d .

r e c o m m e n d a tio n s
o f

lo c a l

o c c u p ie d

le v e l

w ith

th e

B a r q u is im

s p a c e

o p e r a tin g

la t e d .

in

a d e q u a te

t io n s .
T h e

o p e r a t io n s

4 9

M a n p o w e r

a

T h e

S e r v ic e

in

1 9 6 6 ;

P a p e r

w e r e

w a s

o ffic e

a r e

o f

o r g a n iz a tio n

lo c a l

lo c a l

J u ly

r e p o r t s

r e c o m m e n d a tio n s

f o r

s u g g e s t io n s

W

E m p lo y m e n t

V e n e z u e la .

p r e s e n t e d .

e n la r g e d .

im p r o v e

o f

in

lo c a l

C a r a c a s

t im e

E .

N a tio n a l

O ffic e

S t a ff

j

im p r o v e m e n ts

o f fic e s

R e c o m m e n d a tio n s

m a d e

w ith

l i s t

th e

e r r ill

J

to

th e

(1 0

i s

th e

p a g e s .)

n e e d e d

f o r

E m p lo y m e n t

1

/

U .S .

T e c h n ic a l

D e p a r tm e n t
A s s is t a n c e

o f

L a b o r

C o r p s .

In te r n a tio n a l

A m e r ic a n

R e p u b lic s
V e n e z u e la

A

R e p o r t

th e

M

o f

U S A ID /V e n e z u e la

in is t r y

o f

L a b o r

a n d

(1 9 6 6 ;

M

A

a lc o lm

r e v ie w

o f

d e v e lo p m e n t

A

s h o r t

h is t o r y

V e n e z u e la

a n d

d e s c r ib e d .
V e n e z u e la
to

in

d e v e lo p

p r im

a r y

p e r io d

r e s u l t s
th e

1 9 6 1 ,

i t s

h u m a n

w e r e

(a )

to

p la n n in g

h a s

w o r k e d

IN C E ,

a n d

th e

L a b o r .

M

o s t

e ffe c t iv e

M

e ffo r t

a n d




v a r io u s

o f

a r e

o f

tio n ,

f o r

m a n p o w e r

in c lu d in g

O th e r

N a tio n a l
th e

C O R D IP L A N .

a n d

o f

to w a r d d e v e lo p ­

fie ld

o f f ic e s , w a s o r g a n iz e d .

w e r e

la b o r

s t a t i s t ic s ,

a n d

th e

c o o p e r a t iv e

s ig n e d

c a r r y

o u t

th e s e

c o m p e te n t

te c h n ic a l

a s s i s t a n c e
la b o r

w a s

in s p e c t o r

m o v e m e n t.

a s s i s t a n c e

f o r

s t a f f

p a r t ic ip a t e

to

tr a in in g
a s s ig n e d
m

a r iz e s

B y

1 9 6 3 - 6 5
tr a in in g

m

e m

p r o g r a m
to

a n d o th e r t a r g e t s , A ID

m a n p o w e r

r a n g e d

o r g a n iz a ­

fu n c tio n s .

S e r v ic e

lo c a l

a r e a s f o r w h ic h s u b s t a n t iv e

T o

M a n p o w e r

E d u c a tio n

s e r v ic e

E m p lo y m e n t

1 9 6 2 - 6 6

C o n su lta n t

s

s e r v ic e ,

w ith C O R D IP L A N ,

w a s d ir e c t e d

p e r io d

in

T h e

s tr e n g th e n

in

p r o g r a m

g o a l h a s b e e n

A ID ’ S

to

th e

M a n p o w e r

p r o v id e d

a n e ffe c t iv e

(b )

f o r

S e r v ic e

t a b le s )

U S A ID /

o f

d u r in g th e f iv e - y e a r

a r ily

in is t r ie s

s e r v ic e s

d e v e lo p m e n t.

s e r v ic e s
p r im

e m p lo y m e n t

N a tio n a l

A ID

a n d

T e c h n ic a l

V e n e z u e la .

e n t

p r io r it y

e s t a b lis h

S e r v ic e

A ID

a

to p

t a r g e t s

m a n p o w e r

1 9 6 4 ,

e s t a b lis h m

S e r v ic e s p r o g r a m

E m p lo y m e n t

in g

o f t h e s e

r e s o u r c e s

a c tiv ity

T e c h n ic a l

p a g e s

o f A ID ’ S te c h n ic a l s e r v ic e s to

th e

S in c e

C O R D IP A L N

2 2

K e n n e d y ,

A ID ’ S

in

M a n p o w e r

in

b e r s
in

s . A

a d v is e r s

v a r io u s

o f th e

a r e a s

V e n z u e la n

S t a t e s id e

c o s t

V e n e z u e la

p r o p o s e d
e s t im

a n d

a r ­

te c h n ic a l

a n d P u e r to

R ic a n

l i s t o f c o n s u lta n ts w h o w e r e
d u r in g

t h is

p e r io d

th e ir a c t iv it ie s a n d p r o g r a m
a n d

a s ­

to p r o v id e

1 9 6 7

a t e s

a n d

a ls o

1 9 6 8

a r e

s u m

­

s . C o m p le te
p a r t ic ip a n t

s u m

m

a r iz e d .

1 4 9

A m

e r ic a n

R e p u b lic s

V e n e z u e la

M

is s io n

to

V e n e z u e la :

(1 9 6 7 ;

D O L IT A C
E u g e n e

E v a lu a t e s

th e

s u g g e s t io n s

T h e

N a tio n a l

u c a tio n
o f

(IN C E )

1 9 6 6

w a s

t a b lis h m e n t
m o r e
9 0

th a n

2 2 ,0 0 0

p e r c e n t

o n

in

th e

a

C o o p e r a tiv e
R e s e a r c h

h a d

a

c o v e r e d

o f

m o r e

d a t a

s u r v e y s

th a n

o f

T h e
a s

A

la b o r

p r o v id e

r e s e a r c h
th e

o r

tw o

o f

1 .

u s e fu l

2 .

3 .

s h o u ld

b e

s e t

u p

fo llo w in g :

4 .
a n d

r e a d y
2 .
m e n t

L a b o r

d a ta

s im

i l a r

to

th a t

a l ­

L a b o r
a n d

s u p p ly

d a ta ,

e s p e c ia lly

u n d e r e m p lo y m e n t,

s a m p le

c a r r i e d

b y

h o u s e h o ld
o u t

b y

u n e m p lo y ­

c o lle c t e d

s u r v e y ,

s u c h

C O R D IP L A N

a n d

b y
a s

a

th a t

It

m

a k e s

d e m a n d

s h o u ld
o n

It

a

s h o u ld
fo r

It

s tu d y

s h o u ld

s h o u ld

b e

c a r r i e d

r e g u la r ly

e v e r y y e a r

b a s is .

d r a w

o n

a ll

e x p e r t

a g e n c y

r e ­

im p r o v e m e n t.
b e

m o r e

h ig h ly

p u b lic iz e d

to

s u p p o r t.

s h o u ld

b e

to

a r e a ,

r e g io n a l,

s h o u ld

b e

f o r

a c c u r a c y

m a d e

in t e r v ie w s .

P r o je c t io n s
m a tc h

r e s p o n s iv e

n e e d s .

C h e c k s

e x p e r ie n c e
p lo y e r

r e p e a t e d

p le

sh o u ld

fu ll
It

b e

s a m

s u b s a m p le

6.

g a th e r e d .

n a tio n a l
b e in g

d e m a n d

la b o r

in d u s t r ia l
5 .

1.

a n d

fo llo w s :

s o u r c e s

IN C E .

p r o je c t

r e p o r t

e s ­

s e c u r e

to

3 2 ;

C o n s u lta n t

m a n p o w e r .

o u t

3 2 1 ,4 0 0
b e

N o .

d e m a n d

E d ­

P r o je c t

u n iv e r s e

s h o u ld

P a p e r

M a n p o w e r

m a n p o w e r

fu tu r e

p lo y e r s . R e s p o n s e w a s o v e r

ta b u la te d
w o rk

IN C E

f o r

p a g e s )

S t a ff

/

V in o g r a d o ff,

n o n a g r ie u ltu r a l

w h ic h

e m

a n d

T h e

f o r

D e m a n d

b a s e d
s u r v e y

w o r k e r s .
g u id in g

I n s titu te

L a b o r

1

5

IN C E

s a m

o f

e m

fo r
p le

o n e

y e a r

t r e n d s

b a s e d

p lo y e r s ,

r a t h e r

a n d

b e y o n d

o n a c tu a l p a s t
th a n

o n

e m

g u e s s e s .

o th e r

a g e n c ie s .
3 .

F o llo w u p

d e te r m in e
4 .

th e

S p e c ia l

t r a in in g

s t u d ie s

s c h o o l

1 5 0




s t u d ie s

o f

IN C E

e f fe c t iv e n e s s
o n

o f

g r a d u a t e s
th e ir

c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s

g r a d u a t e s ,

s u c h

a s

o n

to

t r a in in g .
o f

tu r n o v e r .

1 /

U .S .

T e c h n ic a l

D e p a r tm e n t
A s s is t a n c e

o f

L a b o r

C o r p s .

In te r n a tio n a l

­

A m erican R epublics
Venezuela

Guayana P ro ject
(1967; 8 pages)
DOLITAC

1/

Staff P aper No. 33; Eugene D. Vinogradoff, Manpower Consultant
This memorandum to the USAID M ission is a respon se
to a s e r ie s of questions by the Educational Consultant
to Corporacion Benezolana de Guayana (CVG).

INCE requested an in crease from B s 600,000
to B s 1,000,000 p er y ear from CVG for training
p u rp o ses. To be su re that training would be given
in sh ortage occupations, CVG r a ise d se v e ral
questions M ost of the questions deal with (a)
agen cies involved in manpower stu d ies, (b) types
of inform ation av ailab le, liste d by agency in
charge, (c) types of su rvey s and methods being
conducted, and (d) an aly sis of quality of re su its of
su rv ey s. T hese questions were answ ered in
detail.
Several questions related to agency re sp o n si­
bility and capability to gather data. Job m arket
inform ation is the resp o n sib ility of the National
Em ployment Service o ffices. Household sam p les
of the labo r fo rce come under the ae g is of the
of the Statistical Office of the M inistry of
Fom ento. INCE, through the chief statistic ian at




the M inistry of L ab o r, gath ers labor demand in­
form ation. There ap p ears to be duplication and
overlap of som e sta tistic a l gathering functions,
but CVG is in a unique position to a s s is t in im ­
proving coordination and cooperation, since it
will control finances in the Guayana a re a .
Recom m endations were made fo r the a ssig n ­
ment of a manpower consultant in Guayana to
im prove employment se rv ice functions in the
Guayana a r e a and to develop detailed procedural
techniques of gathering data.

JL/ U.S. D epartm ent of L ab or International
Technical A ssistan c e C orps.

151

A m erican Republics
Venezuela

Development of Occupational T e st R ese arch P ro g ram in
Venezuela’ s National Employment Serv ice
(1967; 4 p ag es and 10-page attachment)
D O LITA C_l/ Staff Paper No. 42; A lbert R. Cruz, Counseling and T estin g A dviser

Report d e sc rib e s the p r o g r e ss of the counseling and
testing program of the National Employment Service
and the procedure fo r developing an occupational te st
r e se a r c h p rogram .

The counseling and testin g program began in
Jan u ary 1966 a s p art of the D ivision of P ro g ra m s
and Methods under the Venezuelan National E m ­
ployment Serv ice. The te st r e se a r c h p r o g r a m is
developing in three ste p s, a s follow s:
1. United States GATB te st m ate rials are
being tran slated and adapted to the needs of the
local population.
2. The Puerto Rican norm s ( c o n v e r s i o n
tab les) are being u sed but Venezuela should
develop its own standardization. The consultant
spent considerable tim e developing a sam ple
that would be represen tative of the Venezuelan
labor fo rce. A 10-page attachment d e sc rib e s the
methodology for the study and the design for
developing conversion tab les applicable to Vene­
zuela.

152




3.
B ased on the r e su lts of the standardization
study, the National Employment Serv ice will try
to initiate te st development stu dies to estab lish
aptitude te st n orm s locally.
The consultant su g g e sts that consultants who
speak Spanish should furnish further technical
a ssista n c e on this topic. In addition, the p ro ­
g ram of te st r e se a r c h should be review ed after
the collection of the data and before the an aly sis
of these data.

1 / U.S. D epartm ent of Lab or International
Technical A ssistan c e C orps.

A m erican R epublics
West In dies/G en eral

Manpower Information T raining C ourse
(1960; 3 4 pages)
ILO Report to the Government of the West Indies; IL O /T A P /W est In d ies/R .5;
M iss J . Pettijohn (Manpower D ivision, ILO) and F.W. M ahler (A ustralia)

Sum m ary of a co u rse fo r Government o ffic ials on the
role of manpower in economic development.

The Manpower Inform ation T raining C ourse
w as conducted by the ILO at the U niversity Col­
lege of the West Indies. P articip an ts w ere of­
fic ia ls from the labor adm inistration in the Unit
Government of the Federation of the West Indies.
The co u rse was designed to provide a general
appreciation of the manpower factor in economic
planning and development, and to give sp ecific
instruction in the methods and techniques of co l­
lecting, analyzing, and reportin g inform ation
about the manpower situation.
V arious a sp e cts of a manpower inform ation
pro g ram w ere d iscu ssed :
1. A vailability of and need fo r manpower in­
form ation.
2. M easurem ent and an aly sis of the man­
power supply/dem and situation.
3. P reparation of general and sp ecial rep o rts
on the manpower situation.




4.
A dm inistrative organization of the man­
power inform ation program .
The situation of each of the Unit Governments
w as analyzed and certain broad conclusions were
reached:
1. Information on presen t and future man­
power supply and demand is lacking in all a r e a s
except Ja m a ic a , and Trinidad and Tobago.
2. Each Unit Government needs a continuing
p ro g ram which should be coordinated with each
other, using ILO stan dards fo r com parability.
3. G eneral re p o rts on the manpower situation
should be prep ared annually and supplemented
with ad hoc re p o rts.
Recom m endations were made concerning the
ro le that the F ed eral M inistry of Labour and
Social A ffairs should play in coordinating and
guiding the effo rts of the Unit Governm ents to
im plem ent a West Indies manpower inform ation
p rogram .

153

A m erican R epublics
West In d ie s/Ja m a ic a

P ro p o sal and Recom m endations on
Manpower T raining and Development in Ja m a ic a
(1966; 38 pages)
DOLITAC

1/

Staff P ap er No. 12; Vincent R. F au ld s, Manpower T raining A dviser

D escription of existin g training p ro g ram s and a prop osal
to coordinate and develop manpower training ac tiv itie s.

High unemployment r a te s and sh ortages of
trained personnel are se rio u sly handicapping
development of production and se rv ice indus­
t r ie s . Current educational and training institu­
tions are geared to manpower requ irem ents
existin g in an a g raria n economy. Several new
training plan s, such a s the apprenticeship se r v ­
ice and youth cam p s, have been introduced to
c o rre c t th is situation. However, p r o g r e ss has
been retard ed becau se of a sh ortage of technical
and p ro fessio n al leadersh ip and the absence of
technical se r v ic e s.
B a sed on inform ation obtained from o b se rv a­
tion v isits and interview ing with rep resen tativ es
from governm ent, lab o r, and m anagem ent, a p ro ­
p o sal w as p rep ared to cre ate a National Com­
m issio n on Manpower Training and Development
to guide and coordinate all trainin g activ ities a s
follow s:

3. Technical and p ro fessio n al sta ff should be
employed to im plem ent the p o lic ies of the Com ­
m ission .
4. A greem ents with foreign agen cies should
be negotiated to cooperate and a s s is t in man­
power training and development.

The m ajo r portion of the repo rt d ea ls with
d etails of the sp ecific recom m endations of the
p rop osal. O bservations a lso are made of the
existin g trainin g institutions and of the role the
M inistry of L ab o r p lay s. This M inistry is cog­
nizant of the requirem ents for an effective man­
power development p ro g ram . O rganizationally,
there are a Manpower R ese arch Unit, an E m ­
ployment Serv ice, and an Apprenticeship Se rv ­
ice; but lack of funds and personnel ham pers
operation s.
The 12-page supplem ent (labeled appendix II)
contains check lis t s on the institutional stru ctu re
1.
The C om m ission should be attached to the and on the training p r o c e ss .
Office of the P rim e M inister and should be com ­
posed of m em bership from all public and private
agen cies concerned with training and develop­
ment.
2* A sp e cia l fund, provided by a payroll tax,
should be estab lish ed to finance the n e c e ssa ry
prom otion and development of the national man­
J J U .S. D epartm ent of L ab or International
power train in g sy ste m .
Technical A ssistan c e C o rp s*

154




A m erican Republics
West In d ies/St. L u cia

Development in the E aste rn C arribean Islan d s
S e rie s 4: Manpower Surveys: St. L u cia
(1967; 71pages)
U niversity of West Indies, Institute of Social and Econom ic R esearch ;
A lice W. Shurcliff (ILO) and J .F . W ellemeyer (Ford Foundation)
A sse ssm e n t of manpower supply and demand in St. L u cia.
The purpose of this rep o rt is to provide the
Government of St. L u cia and the p riv ate secto r
with inform ation on manpower requ irem ents for
their development plans. Information w as ob­
tained from o fficials of Government, industry,
and trade unions and from the 1960 Census of
Population. TheUoS. Government provided infor­
mation on the employment of West Indians in the
U.S. Virgin Islan d s and other im m igration data.
T hese variou s so u rc e s, combined with opinions
of knowledgeable people, provided the b a se s for
estim atin g future effective demand fo r labor.
A ccording to the 1960 Census of Population,
there were over 86,000 people in St. L u cia, an
in crease of 16,000 sin ce 1946. D espite the popu­
lation in cre ase , the siz e of the labor fo rce de­
c re a se d becau se of heavy em igration among
people of working age and the withdrawal of
women from the labor fo rce. A s a resu lt, the in­
c re a se d demand for labor during the e a rly 1960’ s
w as the m ajo r reaso n fo r the decline in underem ­
ployment and unemployment. However, a r e ­
v e rsa l in this trend is expected between 1965 and
1975 when the supply of labor is no longer held
constant by em igration.




At the presen t tim e, em ployers rep o rt sh ort­
ag e s of sk illed w o rkers, esp ecially m echanics
and repairm en , ele c tric ia n s, plum b ers, c le rk s,
te ac h e rs, m edical personn el, and m an agers.
B ecau se of inadequate training fa c ilitie s, these
sh o rtages are expected to p e r s is t during the
com ing y e a rs. The education sy stem does not
have the required output. Thus a se rio u s bottle­
neck is created in upgrading human re so u rc e s
to the degree n e c e ssa ry to m eet the req u ire­
m ents of the economy.
E m ployers in the agricu ltu ral sec to r com ­
plain of low level of effort put forth by work­
e r s . The lack of incentive to work m ore than a
few days a week or to m aintain other work stand­
a rd s should be the subject of a se rio u s study by
an in terd isciplin ary team since re p o rts are con­
trad icto ry on re aso n s for this low level of effort
and on the actual effect of fa rm productivity.
St. L u cia likely has built up a set of mutually
rein forcin g fa c to rs leading to u n satisfactory
w orker output, such a s poor health, poor land
tenure sy stem , lim ited education and a s p ir a ­
tion s, low so cial statu s of farm w orkers.

155

A m erican R epublics
West In dies/St. Vincent

Development in the E aste rn Caribbean Islan d s
S e rie s 4: Manpower Surveys: St. Vincent
(1967; 51 p ages)
U niversity of West Indies, Institute of Social and Econom ic R esearch ;
A lice W. Shurcliff (ILO) and J . F . W ellemeyer (Ford Foundation)
A ssessm en t of manpower supply and demand in St. Vincent.
The purpose of this rep o rt is to provide the
Government of St. Vincent and the private s e c ­
to r with inform ation on manpower requirem ents
fo r their development plans. Information w as ob­
tained from o ffic ials of Government, industry,
and trade unions and from the 1960 C ensus of
Population. The U.S. Government provided infor­
m ation on the employment of West Indians in the
U.S. Virgin Islan d s and other im m igration data.
T hese v ariou s so u rc e s, combined with opinions
of knowledgeable people, provided the b a se s for
estim atin g future effective demand fo r labor.
A ccording to the 1960 C ensus of Population,
n early 80,000 people lived in St. Vincent; the
labo r force con sisted of n early 25,000 of whom
3,363 (13.5 percent) w ere unemployed. The pop­
ulation is weighted heavily with young people; the
proportion below age 15 w as 51 percent in 1965.
Skilled w orkers and secondary school g ra d ­
u ates are in short supply. The F iv e -Y ear De­
velopment Plan re g a rd s tou rism a s the m ost
p rom isin g industry fo r development. In view of
this p o ssib ility , barm en, m aid s, cooks, and
recep tion ists m ust be trained. Skilled c r a ft s ­
men are needed for the construction industry

156




which is expected to expand rapidly. The in crease
in population and economic activity will stim ulate
demand fo r p ro fessio n al w orkers, e sp ecially
ph ysician s and n u rse s. The Government secto r
will req u ire auditors and ad m in istrato rs.
Growing unemployment p o se s a se rio u s prob ­
lem over the fo re c a st period. The clo sin g of the
su gar factory and discontinuance of the growing
su garcan e contributed to the high level of unem­
ployment. Cane c u tters a re able to get seaso n al
employment in other islan d s, but new w orkers
are flooding the job m arket. The policy of the
Government is not only to provide job s outside
the home m arket, but also to widen the opportun­
itie s within the islan d itself.
P r e s s u r e s of population growth and high un­
employment r a te s n ece ssitate that the Govern­
ment fo ste r em igration. T his policy, however,
en cou rages people with initiative and sk ills to
leave the island, thus reducing sc a r c e sk ills
m ore sev erely . The problem may be overcom e
by training a g re a te r number of people and by
opening outlets for unskilled p e rso n s. The r e s t
of the study d is c u ss e s supply of and demand for
labor in each of the economic se c to r s.

A m erican Republics
West In dies/T rin idad and Tobago

Establish m en t of a Manpower Information P rogram m e
(1960; 32 pages)
ILO Report to the Government of T rinidad and Tobago;
IL O /T A P /W est In d ie s/R .l; F.W. M ahler (A ustralia)

D esc rib e s existin g manpower se r v ic e s and the state
of manpower inform ation.

E xistin g Manpower S e rv ic e s
1. E m p l o y m e n t Serv ice ac tiv itie s were
lim ited to placem ents in unskilled and dom estic
occupations.
2. V o c a t i o n a l training ac tiv itie s con­
siste d of re g iste rin g 700 appren tices in m etal,
e le c tric a l, and printing tra d e s.
State of Manpower Information
C onsiderable data w ere available on siz e and
stru ctu re of the population and labor fo rce and on
employment in establish m en ts. Educational and
training sta tistic s and data on o v e r se a s m ig ra­
tion a lso were available. However, no m easu re­
m ents have been made on manpower req u ire­
ments
or on training outside of form al
appren tices. Although available to Government
authorities, these data have not been used a s




extensively a s might be becau se available in for­
mation had wide gaps and is scatte re d among
many documents.
A dm inistrative M achinery
To c a r r y out a manpower inform ation p ro­
gram , the expert a ss iste d in developing admin­
istrativ e m achinery. He estab lish ed a Manpower
Technical A dvisory Committee and a ss iste d in
the establishm ent of a Manpower R ese arch Sec­
tion in the M inistry of Labour. Within the Man­
power R ese arch Section, special em ph asis was
placed on developing standard c lassific atio n
sy ste m s, conducting establishm ent su rvey s and
labor fo rce su rv ey s, analyzing data, and p r e ­
parin g re p o rts. D etails of each task are de­
scrib ed and recom m endations are provided for
continuing the work of both the Com m ittee and
the R esearch Section to develop a continuing
program of manpower inform ation.

157

A m erican R epublics
West In dies/T rin idad and Tobago

O rganization and Operation of the Employment Service
(1964; 21 pages)
ILO R eport to the Government of Trinidad and Tobago;
IL O /T A P /T rin id a d /R .5; V.G. Munns (UnitedKingdom)
An exam ination of the organization and operation of
the Employment Service and recom m endations for its
expansion and im provem ent.

E x istin g Employment Service Situation
The work of the Service h as con sisted p r i­
m arily of re g iste rin g w orkers and recordin g
v acan cies, p rim arily for la b o re rs and dom estic
personn el. Techniques used fo r this purpose were
rudim entary; no written instruction s were a v ail­
able on policy or procedure. Both w orkers and
em ployers were d issa tisfie d with se r v ic e s p r o ­
vided by the Employment Exchange.

4.
P rep arin g establishm en t c a r d s containing
employment and occupational inform ation.
Conclusions and Recom m endations
Several broad conclusions w ere drawn about
the need for an Employment Serv ice. T hese are
explained by describ in g the contribution that an
Employment Serv ice m akes to im prove the eco­
nomic and so cial development of the country.

Action Taken
B a se d on h is review of the Employment E x ­
change, the expert outlined the changes in organ­
ization needed to develop the Serv ice into an e f­
fective organization. T his repo rt w as subm itted
to the Government fo r d iscu ssio n . A ctions to im ­
prove curren t operations included:
1. P rep arin g a manual of instruction s to
guide c le rk s in perform ing their d u tie s._
2. T raining in techniques of employment in­
terview ing.
3. V isiting em ployers to acquaint sta ff on
operation s in each occupation in the variou s
in d u stries.

158




The following recom m endations are proposed
to implement and im prove the variou s functions
and organization:

1. A branch office and additional sta ff should
be added.
2. O perations of the Employment Service
should be developed on the b a sis of the previous
ILO rep o rt on the E stablishm ent of a Manpower
Information P ro g ram (1960).
3. Cooperation should be developed with vo­
cational schools to p rep are the ground fo r se t­
ting up a vocational guidance se rv ic e for young
w orkers.

E a st A sia and P acific
Regional

H igh-Level Manpower for Development
(P re-P u blication E xcerpts)
(1964; 66 p ages)
UNESCO-LAU R ese arch P ro g ram on Higher Education
in Relation to Development in Southeast A sia; Guy Hunter
P robable high-level manpower requirem ents in selected
Southeast A sian C ountries. 1/

In every country in the region, between 60 to
80 percent of the population is engaged in a g r i­
culture. C om m ercial life is centered on th eim p o rt/ex p o rt trade and is therefore concentrated
in the m ain p o rts. E very country has a sm all
nucleus of m odern industry b ased on Government
o r expatriate investm ent.
Many countries have a lim ited capacity to
ab so rb high-level manpower. T h erefore, unre­
stric te d educational expansion m ay re su lt in the
creation of unemployment among grad uates at a
g re a t financial co st. The consultant w arns
again st attem pts to expand higher education be­
yond em ployment opportunities.
The techniques u sed to make projection s
w ere b ased on certain assum ptions that applied
to the a r e a a s a whole:

sic ia n s, high-level requirem ents could be met if
w astage were reduced and if grad u ates were
better p repared .
2. W astage in secondary education is high.
P o st-seco n d ary vocational training should be in­
troduced.
3. U n iversity-trained teach ers are needed
throughout the region. Law facu lties are o v er­
developed.
4. E very effort m ust be made to encourage
a flow of trained manpower into ru ra l a r e a s.

1. H igh-level manpower will grow at a rate
fa ste r than National Income, w hereas the total
labor fo rce will grow at a slow er rate .
2. The tech n ician -to-profession al ratio will
in cre ase from 3:1 to 5:1.
3. W astage in origin al stock over a 10-year
period will be about 40 percent.

1. G eneral economic situation and power
stru ctu re.
2. Key educational s ta tistic s.
3. A n alysis of four a r e a s of manpower r e ­
quirem ents: agricu ltu re, scien ce, m edicine, and
education.
4. A sse ssm e n t of curren t stock and p ro je c ­
tions to 1970 and 1975.

The m ajo r portion of the rep o rt is devoted
to stu dies of the individual coun tries and p re ­
sentation of available data on manpower and ed­
ucation. Each study c o v ers the following e le ­
m ents:

G eneral is s u e s which apply to m ost coun tries
surveyed include:
1.
T otal enrollm ents in u n iv ersities a re high
1 / B u rm a, Thailand, M alay sia, Indonesia,
but output is low. Except for te ac h e rs and phy­
Philippines, South Vietnam and Cam bodia.




159

E a s t A sia and P acific
Burm a

The Establish m en t of a Manpower Information P ro g ram
(1964; 18 pages)
ILO Report to the Government of the Union of B urm a;
IL O /T A P /B u rm a/R .2 9; M, M. Mehta (India)
O rganization and development of a continuing manpower
inform ation p ro g ram , including sta ff training and s t a ­
tistic a l techniques.

A survey of existin g so u rc e s of manpower
inform ation showed that they were inadequate
for the a sse ssm e n t of the curren t and future
manpower situation. The la s t com plete cen su s
was conducted in 1931; the 1941 cen sus w as lo st;
and the planned m id -fifties cen su s never w as
com pleted. M easurem ents of labor force activ i­
tie s w ere inadequate. The lack of manpower data
se rio u sly ham pered the preparation and fu lfill­
ment of the Second F o u r-Y ear Plan. No depart­
ment or m in istry had resp o n sib ility for man­
power planning work.
The Government created two units to operate
a continuing manpower inform ation p rogram :
1. Manpower Information A dvisory Com­
m ittee—to d irect, su p erv ise, and guide the
program .
2. Manpower Information Unit in the D ire c­
torate of Labour A ffa ir s—to provide the tech­
nical know-how in collecting inform ation and
p rep arin g re p o rts.
To achieve the broad ob jectives of a man­
power inform ation pro g ram , the following p ro ­
je c ts w ere initiated:
1. A sse ssm e n t of manpower requirem ents
of the F o u r-Y ear Development Plan.
2. D etailed plan for the organization of an
em ployment m arket inform ation p rogram .

160




3. Development of a B urm a standard c la s ­
sification of occupations.
4. Survey of training fa c ilitie s.
5. Survey of employment statu s of university
grad u ates.
6. Survey of urban unemployment.
7. E mployment opportunitie s in urban a r e a s .
8. National r e g iste r of scien tific and tech­
nical personnel.
9. Manpower requ irem ents in public and
private industrial se c to r s, by detailed occupa­
tion.
B a sed on the inform ation obtained from these
p ro je cts and from other available so u rc e s, a
com prehensive manpower rep o rt was prep ared
a s a supplement to this repo rt. (See following
sum m ary.)
Recom m endations
1. The manpower inform ation pro g ram that
now has been estab lish ed should be continued
and developed.
2. The p rogram should be directed toward
providing inform ation fo r the operation of E m ­
ployment Serv ice o ffices and fo r the evaluation
of the manpower situation.
3. The sta tistic a l sy ste m s should be im ­
proved and periodic re p o rts p rep ared .

E a st A sia and P acific
Burm a

Report on the Manpower Situation in B urm a
(1964; 90 p ag es and sta tistic a l appendixes)
ILO Report to the Government of the Union of Burm a
IL O /T A P /B u rm a/R .2 9 (Supplement); M0 M. Mehta (India)
Com prehensive manpower repo rt p rep ared from in form a­
tion collected from su rv ey s and other stu d ies.

The sc a rc ity of reliab le sta tistic a l in form a­
tion concerning B u rm a’ s econom ic and human
r e so u r c e s se rio u sly handicaps e ffo rts to achieve
a com plete and accu rate manpower a sse ssm e n t
and m akes the findings of this rep o rt tentative
and assum ptive.
The m ost reliab le e stim ate s place B u rm a’ s
population figure curren tly between 22 m illion
and 24 m illion; these fig u res include a labor
fo rce estim ated at approxim ately 9.8 m illion.
B u rm a is a predom inantly agricu ltu ral economy;
approxim ately 85 percent of the labor fo rce a re in
ag ricu ltu ral occupations. Though the labor force
ap p ears to be expanding rapidly, opportunities
fo r employment are lagging fa r behind. In fact,
employment le v e ls have declined in recent y e a rs
in the m odern se c to r and substantial underem ­
ployment is evidenced in the very low produc­
tivity fig u res in both industry and agricu ltu re.
In drawing up future econom ic development
p lan s, consideration should be given to the p o s­
sib ility of in creasin g investm ent le v e ls, p ro ­




moting labor-inten sive in du stries and technolo­
g ie s, and prom oting ru ra l employment which,in
B u rm a with its rich land and natural re so u r c e s,
a p p ears to offer an esp ecially attractive oppor­
tunity for creatin g la rg e num bers of new jobs in
a relativ ely sh ort period of tim e and with com ­
p arativ ely sm all investm ent requ irem en ts.
In the longer view, curren t and planned train ­
ing fa c ilitie s will be inadequate to m eet the ex ­
pected demand fo r w orkers in alm ost all the oc­
cupations requiring vocational training. This in­
adequacy will be all the m ore m arked in the event
of an attem pt to provide m ore jobs through a c ­
c elerated econom ic development. T raining and
educational fa c ilitie s will have to be expanded
greatly to turn out the personnel qualified to
occupy the position s that will be req u ired by an
o v erall program of economic development in
B u rm a. The extent and rate of expansion m ust
be coordinated carefu lly with such a program .
In p artic u lar, fa c ilitie s will be req u ired fo r train ­
ing sk illed w orkers of all types, including tech­
n ician s, p ro fessio n al p e rso n s, and teach ers.

161

E a st A sia and P acific
Republic of China

The Role of Educational Planning
in the Econom ic Development of the Republic of China
(1962; Vol. I, 63 p ag es; VoL II, 159 pages)
Henry

F.

M cC usker,

J r . , and H arry J . Robinson; Stanford R ese arch Institute.

A study of the ways by which the Republic of China’ s
educational sy stem can contribute m ore effectively to
the achievem ent of national econom ic g o als.

The Third F o u r-Y ear Econom ic Develop­
ment Plan of the Republic of China c o v ers
the period from 1961 through 1964. L ittle em ­
p h a sis, however, has been placed on planning
for manpower needed to reach the g o als of the
P lan . The pu rp o ses of the p ro je ct were to e x ­
am ine the educational sy stem , a s s e s s curren t
le v e ls of sk illed manpower re so u r c e s, estim ate
needs im plicit in the Plan, determ ine d is­
cre p an c ie s in supply and demand, and find
m eans to re so lv e these d iscre p a n c ie s.
Findings
1. E nrollm ents a s a percen tage of the pop­
ulation a re la rg e com pared with other develop­
ing cou n tries.
2. The economy is not absorbin g students
a s fa st a s they graduate.
3. Education is not coordinated with man­
power requ irem en ts; a s a re su lt, an o v er­
supply of certain grad u ates and sh o rtages of
oth ers ex ist.

162




4. L ittle attention is devoted to on-the-job
training for m iddle-level and sk illed w orkers.
5. Wage and s a la r y differentiation at variou s
sk ill le v e ls is not broad enough to attract
qualified people.
6. C ourse content and exam ination sy ste m s
tend to re ta rd the ro le of education in support
of economic development.
Recom m endations
1. The M inistry of Education should co­
operate with other agen cies to plan manpower
requirem ents fo r fulfillm ent of development
g o a ls.
2. The Government should take step s to
upgrade the quality and in cre ase the number
of sk illed and technical manpower.
3. Since student enrollm ents are likely to
in cre ase rapidly, c are should be e x e rc ise d to
prevent a low ering of quality and to achieve a
g re a te r relevan ce of educational p ro g ram s to
econom ic development.

E a st A sia and P acific
Republic of China

Manpower P rob lem s and P ro g ra m s in Taiwan
(1963; 19 pages)
DOLITAC

1/

Staff P aper No. 46; H arry W eiss, Manpower A dviser

A su rvey of the m ajor manpower problem s and the
p ro g ram s designed to meet these p rob lem s.

Population on the island is growing at the
rapid rate of 3 percent a y ear. A ccording to a g r i­
cultural e x p erts, the growing population cannot
be supported through agricu ltu re. Since there
a re no significant opportunities for the in c r e a s­
ing population in ag ricu ltu re, e x c e ss farm popu­
lation should be moved to industry. Industry, in
turn, should be expanded to reach la r g e - sc a le
proportion s with adequate capital and modern
production methods in o rd er to com pete with
Japan .
The Government needs a manpower planning
organization. Currently, it does not know its
manpower re so u r c e s or requirem ents fo r the
next 5 or 10 y e a r s. The b e st location for a man­
power planning unit would be in the newly e stab ­
lish ed Council fo r International Econom ic Co­
operation and Development. T his unit should
coordinate the work of the variou s agencies to
develop an ov erall manpower p rogram for
achieving the needs of the economic development
plan. The Stanford R ese arch study of manpower




requ irem en ts should be continued to make p ro ­
jection s of requ irem ents by occupation.
If Taiwan is to becom e a modern industrial
society , an effective Employment Service m ust
be estab lish ed . Only through this organization
can a balance between manpower supply and
manpower demand be met.
Approxim ately 85 percent of the students
sent to the United States for graduate work do
not return. The c a u se s and effect of this se rio u s
lo s s to the country are d iscu sse d . The en tire
educational sy stem should be re ap p raise d . The
w eakest link in the training sy stem ap p e ars to
be the lack of an apprenticeship program . To
develop a c o rp s of sk illed w orkers needed in a
modern
in du strialized
economy, a w ellorganized apprenticeship pro g ram should be
estab lish ed .

1 / U.S. D epartm ent of L ab or International
Technical A ssistan c e C orps.

163

E a st A sia and the P acific
Republic of China

Manpower A sse ssm e n t and Planning
(1965; 42 pages)
ILO R eport to the Government of the Republic of China;
IL O /T A P /C h in a/R .8; A lice W. Sh urcliff (United States)

The development of a manpower a sse ssm e n t program
and the im provem ent of manpower sta tistic s.

The f i r s t manpower study had been done
by the Council for International Econom ic Co­
operation and Development (CIECD) in 1962.
In 1964, se v e ra l Government agen cies prep ared
p artial manpower a sse ssm e n ts. The form ation
of an in term in isterial Manpower R e so u rc e s
Com m ittee had stim ulated con siderable in terest
in having manpower a ss e ssm e n ts prep ared on the
b a s is of the Econom ic Development Plan.
The consultant p repared a s e r ie s of 33
tab les which showed labor force by occupation
and industry in 1965 and the distribution to
be expected in 1970 according to the growth
fa c to rs contained in the Econom ic Development
Plan. The v ariou s sta tistic a l so u rc e s for this
an aly sis are d escrib ed and com m ents made for
their im provem ent.
The Republic of China has im proved the
quality of its manpower r e so u r c e s by an ex ­
pansion of school fa c ilitie s and by agricu ltu ral
extension work among fa r m e r s. The supply
of sk illed manpower has in creased a s fa st a s
effective demand, and unemployment has been
held down to a 4-percen t level. Season al unem­

164




ployment and underemployment have been l e s ­
sened in agricu ltu re by expansion of modern
techniques (irrigation , crop d iv ersificatio n ).
Recom m endations
1. Manpower projection s should be made
fo r long-term ob jectives in the next 10 to 15
y e a rs.
2. Lon g-term projection s should be made
by using high, medium, and low r a te s of in­
d ustrialization .
3. A publicity program should be developed
to inform the public of changes in the supply
of and demand for labor in v ariou s occupations.
4. All agen cies in a r e a s that have vocational
trainin g p ro g ram s should rep o rt perio dically
to one agency about the output of their p ro ­
g ra m s and the quality of training given.
5. Public employment o ffices should under­
take a continuing p ro g ram of collecting in­
form ation on curren t and future labor re q u ire ­
m ents of the in d u stries and plants in the a re a
which they se rv e .

E a s t A sia and P acific
Republic of China

A Survey of Employment and Manpower
in the Republic of China
(1966; 2 0 p ages)
F.W. M ahler, ILO A sian Regional Manpower A dviser
An a sse ssm e n t of curren t and projected manpower supply
and demand.

All available data from re p o rts prep ared by
v ario u s agen cies of the Government of the R e­
public of China and by international organizations
form ed the b a sis on which this report is p r e ­
pared . T opics covered include employment, labor
force tren ds, employment projectio n s, supply of
qualified manpower, and anticipated sh ortages
in certain occupations.
At the tim e of this repo rt, virtu ally no plan­
ning regard in g the manpower sk ill requirem ents
of em ployers had taken p lace. The rapid expan­
sion of education in recent y e a rs has been un­
dertaken with only a gen eral referen ce to man­
power requ irem en ts. Elem entary education has
been planned to provide u n iv ersal education for
all children between the ag e s of 6 and 12 y e a rs.




N early 97 percent of children in th is age group
a re enrolled in school. P lan s are being m ade to
provide u n iv ersal education beyond 12 y e a rs of
age to include secondary and vocational school
le v e ls.
Recently, there have been significant develop­
m ents in the establishm en t of an organization for
manpower planning. A Manpower R eso u rces
Committe has been set up in the Council for
International Econom ic Cooperation and De­
velopment. In addition, seven working groups
have been estab lish ed to deal with v ario u s a s ­
p ects of manpower planning: education, training,
recruitm en t, distribution, m otivation, u tiliza­
tion, and stabilization . There is also a com m ittee
to coordinate manpower s ta tistic s.

165

E a st A sia and the P acific
Republic of China

F in al Report on the L ab o r F o rc e Survey
in the Republic of China
(1967; 15 p ages)
DOLITAC 1 / Staff P aper No. 39;
M atilda Sugg, Statistical Consultant
D escription of m e a su re s to im prove u sefu ln ess and
accu racy of data in labor fo rce su rv ey s.

Q uarterly su rv ey s of the labo r fo rce in the
Republic of China a r e conducted by the L abor
F o rce Survey R ese arch Institute of the De­
partm ent of Social A ffa irs. The S e c re ta ria t
of the Manpower R e so u rc e s Com m ittee of the
Council fo r International Econom ic Cooperation
and Development (CIECD) req u ested an evalua­
tion of the su rvey techniques. The aim w as to
recom m end m e a su re s which might be introduced
to im prove the u sefu ln ess and accu racy of the
data.
F ro m the point of view of en d -u sers of labor
fo rce data, d esired im provem ents are su m ­
m arized a s follow s:
1. The re su lts of the su rv ey s should be
issu e d m ore prom ptly after the date of refe ren c e.
2. M ore interpretation and an aly sis of the
findings should be included in the re p o rts.
3. Explanations of e r r a tic fluctuations should
be contained in the an aly sis.
4. D ata on the employment s e r ie s should
be sep ara te d into (a) agricu ltu re, hunting, fo r e s ­
try , and fishing, and (b) nonagricultural indus­
t r ie s .

166




Recom m endations are intended to effect im ­
provem ents liste d above. They constitute a longrange pro g ram for im proving the su rvey and
cover the following topics:
1. C larify concepts and definitions.
2. R ev ise questionnaire.
3. Sim plify tabular presentation in q u arterly
repo rt.
4. Im prove accu racy of e stim a te s.
5. P r o c e ss and publish data rapidly.
6. Obtain regional e stim ate s.
7. Introduce one-tim e supplem entary q u es­
tions on survey.
8. Improve s a la r y schedule of su rvey staff.
9. T rain su rvey staff.
10.
E stab lish a R ese arch and A n alysis Unit
to in terpret findings.

1 / U.S. D epartm ent of L ab or International
Technical A ssistan c e C orps.

E a st A sia and P acific
Republic of China

T erm inal Report to the Republic of China
(1964 to 1967; 17 pages)
DOLITAC 1 / Staff P aper No. 45; C hester W. H epler, Manpower A dviser
Report of a 3-y ear tour of duty in Taiwan a s ad v iser
to the Manpower Development Com m ittee.
A S e cretariat was organized in 1964 to a s s is t
the Manpower Development Committee in the r e ­
se a rc h and study of manpower p rob lem s. Seven
Working Groups were estab lish ed to study these
p rob lem s and make policy recom m endations.
B a se d on their re p o rts, a Manpower Plan was
subm itted to and approved by the Executive Yuan
in 1966.
V arious ste p s were taken to implement the
plan. Four Working Groups w ere estab lish ed to
keep the manpower program under review and
evaluate p r o g r e ss. T hese groups w ere a s fo l­
low s: (a) Em ployment Security, including sub­
groups on employment se rv ic e , vocational train ­
ing, labor stan d ard s, and u n e m p l o y m e n t
com pensation, (b) Education, (c) Manpower Uti­
lization , and (d) Manpower S ta tistic s. D etails
of the work of these groups a re d iscu ssed .
The rem ain der of the rep o rt d e sc rib e s the
work that should be given m ore attention by the




Manpower Development Committee and by the
agen cies resp o n sib le fo r implementing the p ro ­
gram . M ost of the com m ents are directed toward
im proved coordination and cooperation among
the agen cies with the recognition that the Man­
power Development Committee is the central
coordinator. E m ph asis is placed on granting
m ore authority to the Committee.

Note: During the consultant’ s tour of duty,
he prepared p ap e rs for le c tu re s, m agazin es,
m em oranda to Government o ffic ials, etc. T hese
p ap e rs were collected and published by the
Council fo r International Econom ic Cooperation
and Development (CIECD) a s follow s: Manpower
Planning fo r P ro sp erity , 1964-1967, The Repub­
lic of China, by C hester W. H epler, 201 p ag es.
JL/ U.S. Departm ent of L abor International
Technical A ssistan ce C orps.

167

E a s t A sia and P acific
Indonesia

H igh-Level Manpower fo r Econom ic Development
The Indonesian Experience
(1965; 29 pages)
B ru ce G lassb u rn er (U niversity of C aliforn ia). A rticle in Manpower and
Education, Country Studies in Econom ic Development, F re d eric k H arbison and
C h arles A. M yers, ed ito rs (New York, M cGraw-Hill Book Company, 1965) p ag es 173-201.

A h isto ric al review of the educational sy stem in In­
donesia and an a sse ssm e n t of the magnitude of highlevel manpower p rob lem s.

Education under the Dutch Colonial Govern­
ment and the Jap an e se occupation is d iscu sse d .
A fter independence in 1945, the Government of
the Republic of Indonesia expanded the ed­
ucational sy stem at all le v e ls and encouraged
enrollm ent. Medicine and law rem ain the two
m ost p re stig io u s d e g re e s in Indonesia, followed
c lo se ly by econom ics and sociology.
Indonesia has not developed a sy stem atic
program fo r the development of human r e ­
so u rc e s. The two m ajo r economic development
p lan s—the F ive Y ear Plan for 1956 to 1960
and the long-range plan, 1961 to 1969— are
e sse n tia lly lis t s of p ro je cts allocatin g planned
le v e ls of investm ent. No ov erall plan fo r man­
power development to fulfill these go als was
included in the p ro g ram s. Specific inform ation
concerning high-level m a n p o w e r needs are
treated independently in each se c to r; this p ro ­
cedure m akes it alm o st im possib le to see the

168




broad im plications in ov erall manpower r e ­
quirem ents.
Indonesia should give se rio u s consideration
to generating the n e c e ssa ry inform ation fo r the
development of a c le a r manpower r e so u r c e s
and requ irem en ts relationship with the econom ic
development plan. Current labor fo rce stu dies
should be refined and extended to provide a
s e r ie s of manpower data. These data should
be u sed a s a b a s is fo r linking with the anticipated
growth in variou s section s of the economy.
Government policy should continue to en­
courage expansion of enrollm ent at the m axi­
mum rate that r e so u r c e s will allow. Such
expansion should be rapid enough not only
to in crease the absolute num bers of p erso n s
in the high-level category but also to r a is e
the ratio of such p erso n s to the labor force
and to the population.

E a st A sia and P acific
Indonesia

Manpower in Indonesia
(1961; 11 pages)
E . L . Nelson, AID Manpower A dviser
An an aly sis of Indonesia’ s manpower situation.
The E igh t-Y ear Econom ic Development Plan
has a la rg e number of p ro je cts that will require
a v ast in cre ase in trained manpower. However,
the Plan m akes no prov isio n s fo r providing the
human re so u r c e s needed to c a r r y out these
p ro je c ts.
S ta tistic s are sketchy and b ased on obsolete
data; but it is assum ed that 40 percent of the
population are in the labor fo rce , m ostly in a g r i­
culture.
Manpower needs of Indonesia include occupa­
tions which require extensive education or m an­
ual sk ill. The variou s training fa c ilitie s for de­
veloping trained manpower are d escrib ed * A
m ajo r need is for vocational and occupational
guidance p ro g ram s to guide young people en ter­
ing po st-seco n d ary sch ools.
C urrent plans are to produce, over the 8y ear period, m ore than 400,000 trained w orkers.
Skilled w orkers are needed urgently in the con­
struction, transportation, com m unications, and
re p a ir se rv ic e in d u stries. T h erefore, training
should be em phasized in sk illed occupations in




building construction, metalworking, ele c tric a l
tra d e s, and automotive maintenance re p a ir.
Indonesia’ s D epartm ent of labor has a v al­
uable but underutilized re so u rc e in the Em ploy­
ment Serv ice. This organization is national in
scope and o p erate s through a structu re of r e ­
gional o ffices and 82 local o ffic es. It has a staff
of 1,500, nearly 40 percent of total employment
in the Departm ent of L ab o r. Its m ajor work is
p ro c e ssin g la rg e num bers of unskilled applicants
fo r job s a s la b o re rs, w hereas Indonesia’ s re a l
need is to place w orkers who have sk ills. B e ­
cau se qualified Indonesian citizen s could not
be recru ited to fill job o r d e rs, the Employment
Serv ice had to issu e work p erm its for over
127,000 foreign w orkers in 1960.
M ost of the consultant’ s recom m endations
were directed toward ways of im proving the E m ­
ployment Serv ice. Technical a ssista n c e should
be provided to aid in training sk illed w o rkers, to
strengthen Employment Serv ice functions, and to
train Employment Service o ffic ials in U.S. De­
partm ent of L ab or participan t-train in g fa c ilitie s.

169

E a st A sia and P acific
Indonesia

The O rganization of the National Employment Service
(1961; 32 pages)
ILO Report to the Government of Indonesia;
IL O /T A P /In d on esia/R .16; T. J . Simond (A ustralia)
Steps taken to im prove the organization and functions
of the Employment Serv ice.
F ro m its beginning in 1945, the Indonesian
Employment Service w as concerned p rim arily
with attem pts to find work fo r job se e k e rs.
L a te r, it began to collect data from local
o ffic e s—the beginning of a sta tistic a l section.
An occupational re se a r c h p ro g ram , a voca­
tional guidance p rogram , and registratio n of
foreign w orkers were additional resp o n sib ilities
assign ed to the Service.
The Employment Serv ice is one of two
departm ents within the Manpower D irectorate;
it has a head office in D jakarta, 5 regional
inspection o ffic es, and 37 lo cal o ffic es. Attached
to these lo cal o ffic e s a r e 47 branch o ffices.
The consultant visited se v e ra l lo cal o ffices
to observe the operation s. T hese v isits con­
firm ed the im p ressio n that the Service w as
concentrating on the placem ent function and
that these effo rts were m eeting with l e s s than
m oderate su c c e ss. F o r exam ple, about 150,000
job se e k e r s r e g iste r annually and of these
only 15,000 to 20,000 a re placed each y ear
in employment.

170




A pilot office in Bandung w as estab lish ed
to se rv e a s a model and a s a training ground
fo r Employment Serv ice personnel. B a sed on
the experien ces of th is pilot office, a manual
of operations was p rep ared for u se of all o ffic es.
It covered step -b y -step proced u res of applicant
registratio n , v a can c ies, sp e cia l placem en ts, vo­
cational guidance, foreign employment, adm inis­
tration, and employment m arket inform ation.
Information on curren t and prospective man­
power supply and demand has been collected
by the lo cal o ffices of the Employment Serv ice.
A survey of establish m en ts that employed 51
w orkers or m ore w as conducted in 1957 and w as
repeated in 1958, at which tim e the firm s were
asked to fo re c a st their employment le v e ls. Many
em ployers proved unable or unwilling to make
a fo re c a st, but it w as c le a r that in dustrial
activ itie s w ere declining.
Recom m endations included advice on such
topics a s the occupational c la ssific a tio n sy stem ,
vocational guidance p ro g ram s, sta ff training,
inspection, and the operations manual.

E a st A sia and P acific
Indonesia

A n alysis of the Vocational T raining P ro g ram
of the Republic of Indonesia
(1962; 12 pages)
S. M. Ju stic e , AID T raining Consultant
A review of the variou s vocational training p ro g ram s
adm inistered by Indonesia’ s D epartm ent of L ab or.

The organizational chart of the Vocational
T rainin g D ivision m ak es provision fo r substan­
tially all types of vocational training. In p r a c ­
tic e, however, som e activ itie s are fa r better
developed than o th ers. F o r exam ple, 9 of 13
planned vocational training c en ters are in full
operation. Recom m endations are made fo r the
establishm en t of the four additional vocational
training cen ters. An attem pt also should be made
to define the relativ e r o le s of the Departm ent of
L ab or and the Departm ent of B a sic Education in
the general field of vocational training.
The V o c a t i o n a l T raining D ivision o ffers
c o u rse s at the vocational training cen ters for
su p e rv iso rs. The Productivity Institute of the
D epartm ent of L ab or is resp o n sib le also fo r the
adm inistration of a form al training-w ithinindustry p rogram . It is recom m ended that USAID




continue to support the la tter program , but that
the r o le s of the Vocational Training D ivision and
the Productivity Institute be c larified .
The Department of L ab or has recently be­
come in terested in the establishm ent of mobile
training units, equipped with tru ck s and portable
sh elter, to provide training sk ills in rem ote
a r e a s . USAID w as asked to help fund one such
pilot unit.
In sum m ary, very little p r o g r e ss has been
made in developing a coordinated apprenticeship
p ro g ram . Staff personnel have had to devote their
tim e to mobile unit planning and to su p erv iso ry
training. A sound apprenticeship sy stem should
be developed a s soon a s p o ssib le . All sk ills
training p ro g ram s should be coordinated clo sely
with other p h ases of the Departm ent of L ab o r’ s
manpower ac tiv itie s.

171

E a s t A sia and P acific
Indonesia

A nalysis of L abor M arket Information and Employment Service
in the Republic of Indonesia with referen ce to the Development
of a Manpower P ro g ra m fo r Economic Development
(1962; 20 pages)
Jo e White, AID Manpower A dviser

A description of the prob lem s that m ust be reso lv ed
before an effective manpower program can becom e
operational.

Manpower Planning—A com m ittee com posed
of o ffic ia ls of the Manpower D irectorate and
the Employment Service of the Departm ent of
L ab or refined the draft manpower plan to
p rese n t to the National Planning Council. T his
plan provides a f r a m e w o r k fo r a p rogram
directed toward the manpower needs im plicit
in the 8 -y ear plan. Included in the draft were
plans for a National Manpower Council, which
would have the resp o n sib ility for manpower plan­
ning. Manpower sem in ars w ere planned for key
Government o ffic ials and private businessm en .
L ab or M arket Information—Heavy reliance
h as been placed on the Employment Service to
a ss u r e efficient use of trained w o rkers. Man­

172




power data should be collected and analyzed to
provide the Serv ice with im portant inform ation
on manpower re so u r c e s and requirem ents. In­
form ation on occupational supply and demand is
e sp ecially needed fo r guiding and training young
people.
Employment S e rv ic e—The curren t organ ization and operation of the Employment Serv ice
are b ased on techniques used in the United States.
E ach p ro g ram is analyzed in relation to the con­
ditions existin g in the country. The manual
p rep ared by a previou s ILO consultant w as used
a s a b a s is fo r reaching conclusions and making
recom m endations.

E a st A sia and P acific
Indonesia

Manpower Information and Planning
(1963; 16 pages)
ILO Report to the Government of the Republic of Indonesia;
IL O /T A P /Indon esia /R .1 9 ; M ichail Y. Opanasenko, Manpower A dviser (USSR)
A review of the manpower situation, manpower data,
and the manpower inform ation p rogram .

Indonesia’ s m ajor manpower problem are (a)
the curren t need for qualified w o rkers, (b) in­
surance that trained w orkers will be available
when needed, and (c) creation of sufficient job
opportunities to reliev e chronic unemployment.
Some p relim in ary m e a su re s have been taken to
tackle these prob lem s.
The four main so u rc e s of manpower infor­
mation are (a) the Central Statistical B ureau, (b)
the Bureau of Planning, R ese arch , and S ta tistic s
in the Departm ent of L ab o r, (c) the sta tistic a l
division s of other D epartm ents, and (d) the E m ­
ployment Serv ice. The types of data available
from these so u rc e s a re describ ed . In gen eral,
these data are insufficient and lack com parabil­
ity for an effective manpower inform ation p ro ­
gram . The m ost se rio u s problem appeared to be
the lack of coordination among the organizations
collecting the data.
The p resen t manpower situation in Indonesia
is ch aracterized by la r g e - sc a le unemployment
and underemployment, chronic sh o rtages of high-




level manpower, inadequate fa c ilitie s fo r educa­
tion and vocational training, and m aldistribution
of population in geographic a r e a s.
Recom m endations
1. The principle should be accepted that man­
power planning is a p art of the broad fram e work
of economic and so cial d e v e l o p m e n t plan­
ning.
2. An appropriate adm inistrative organ iza­
tion should be estab lish ed for realizatio n of the
gen eral aim s of manpower planning.
3. The statistic s-g a th erin g functions of all
agen cies should be coordinated and the organ i­
zation of the Central Statistical Bureau should
be strengthened.
4. A w idespread inform ation pro g ram should
be initiated to acquaint the public at la rg e with the
prin cip les of planning p ro g ram s and their overall
ob jectives of ra isin g living stan dards, and to em ­
ph asize the resp o n sib ilities of the variou s agen­
c ie s in re g a rd to the supply of information.

173

E a s t A sia and P acific
Indonesia

Human R esou rce Development in Indonesia
P rob lem s, P o lic ie s, P ro g ra m s
(1964; 15 pages)
Don Roney, Employment and Manpower A d v iser, L ab or D ivision, U SA ID /D jakarta
O bservations

on manpower development ac tiv itie s.JL /

Indonesia’ s m a n p o w e r situation should
be review ed carefu lly before USAID in vests
in a manpower p ro g ram . Too am bitious a p ro ­
g ra m might doom the undertaking to failu re.
T h is rep o rt attem pts to identify se c to r s in which
c ritic a l bottlenecks a re likely to develop.
The m ajo r prob lem s encountered are the lack
of adequate manpower data, the relativ ely low
educational level of the work fo rce , the un­
balanced institutional capability, and the lack
of a cen tral organization fo r manpower planning.
Some of the b a sic manpower ta sk s that
the Government of Indonesia can undertake
a re a s follow s:
1. Expand enrollm ents and school fa c ilitie s
at the sen ior technical high sch o ols.
2. Develop a network of schools to train
technicians.
3. Double the faculty in the ph ysical scien c es
at the State u n iv ersities.
4. Integrate management training fa c ilitie s
and p ro g ra m s.
5. Develop sk illed manpower for maintaining
and rep airin g capital equipment.

174




6. Develop a vocational guidance p ro g ram at
the junior high school level.
7. C reate a central organization for man­
power planning and training.
8. Develop Employment Service functions,
e sp ecially the manpower inform ation p rogram .
B efore USAID continues to in vest in p ro ­
g ra m s in Indonesia, the field of human r e ­
so u rce development m ust be viewed again st c e r ­
tain fundamental questions: What are the n eeds?
What kind of p ro g ram is appropriate to m eet
th ese n eeds? To what extent can or should U.S.
aid be appropriately provided? A long-range
p ro g ram may be im p ractical if no reason ab le
assu ra n c e is given that USAID presen ce and
support will be continuing and constant.

1 / Consultant’ s note: T h is rep o rt i s a f r a m e
of referen ce for USAID fo r d iscu ssio n and
further pro g ram decision s; it is not a sta te ­
ment of USAID policy.

E a st A sia and P acific
K orea

H igh-Level Manpower in K orea
(1960; 11 pages)
J . L . Thurston, AID Manpower Consultant
A general statem ent of manpower development and
inform ation p ro g ram s a s background for describ in g
K o rea’ s manpower prob lem s.

The ro le of manpower, e sp ecially high-level
manpower, in a developing country is d iscu sse d .
Manpower planning is a com plex concept sin ce it
involves many periph eral con sideration s, such
a s the educational sy stem , econom ic growth,
population sh ifts, in du strial pattern s, so cial
attitudes, political view s, etc. All these se c to r s
have to coordinate and cooperate their effo rts to
develop a sk illed work fo rce capable of carry in g
out the g o als of the o v erall econom ic development
plan.
B a sic questions regard in g the su c c e ss of a
manpower pro g ram req u ire prop er tools of
m easurem ent. Lab or fo rce stu dies a re e sse n tial
to uncover job inform ation and perso n al ch ar­
a c te r istic s of the labo r fo rce . Other b a sic sta ­




tistic a l stu dies include su rv ey s of estab lish m en ts
and of educational institutions.
Recom m endations
1. A single unit of Government should be
charged with the respo n sibility fo r planning in
the manpower field. This should be the Econo­
m ic Development Council.
2. A cabinet-level manpower coordinating
com m ittee should be appointed by the P resid en t.
3. A manpower adv iso ry com m ittee should be
appointed; it should be made up of r e p re se n ­
tativ es from education, lab o r, b u sin e ss, etc.
4. The National O fficials T raining Institute
should be expanded to include m anagement
c o u rse s.

175

E a st A sia and P acific
K orea

Manpower Development and Utilization in K orea
(1965; 31 pages)
DOLITAC 1 / Staff P aper No. 47;
Edgar C. McVoy, Manpower A dviser
A review of the manpower situation in K orea.
In the field of education, K orea ran k s with
som e sem iadvanced cou n tries. However, there
is an e x c e ss of college and high school grad u ates
relativ e to curren t employment opportunities.
Sh ortages of m iddle-level manpower appear
among technicians, su p e rv iso rs, and c r a ft s ­
men. Industry has very little sy stem atic inse rv ic e training to p rep are people who have
education but not the right sk ills fo r job s.
M easu res are being taken to estab lish ap­
prentice training for industrial needs, but they
a re not yet in effect.
Full u se has not been made of available
manpower data. F or exam ple, the 1960 C ensus
of Population has useful inform ation with re sp e c t
to employment by occupation and industry.
P rojectio n s of the population have been m ade,
but none fo r the labor fo rce , although the
n e c e ssa ry data are av ailab le. The annual su rvey
of education also provides useful data for plan­
ning. T hese data should be integrated with
manpower requ irem en ts, when and if pro jection s
are made.
A p ro g ram fo r the development of manpower
policy, coordination, and adm inistration is de­

176




scrib ed and recom m ended fo r implementation by
the Government of K orea.
In planning education and training p ro g ram s
to provide manpower for development, m ore
attention should be given to quality and content
of such training to in su re that it actually
corresp o n d s to the needs of the economy. The
c o st of education should be given carefu l con­
sid eration to determ ine on which le v e ls of ed­
ucation to concentrate. About 10 recom m enda­
tions are provided fo r guidance in types and
le v e ls of education.
In the p ro c e ss of moving into a modern in­
d u strial economy, K o rea m ust give m ore atten­
tion to the Employment Service fo r manpower
distribution and utilization. C onsiderably m ore
budget and technical development are needed
to bring the sm all and weak lo cal o ffic e s into
an effective national sy stem . R elated to this is
the need to expand and im prove vocational
guidance and counseling se r v ic e s.

1/ U.S. Departm ent of L abor International
Technical A ssistan c e C orps.

E a st A sia and P acific
K orea

The Role of Manpower in K orean Econom ic Development
(1966; 85 pages)
Edw ard D. H ollander, AID Manpower Consultant
An exam ination of manpower re so u r c e s, requ irem en ts,
and institutions in K orea, p articu larly in referen ce
to the Second F iv e -Y e ar Plan (1966-71).

N early tw o-thirds of the. employed labo r fo rce
is engaged in ag ricu ltu re, fo re stry , hunting, and
fish e r ie s. The lite ra c y rate is over 80 percent.
B e cau se of the relativ ely highly developed edu­
cational sy stem , the proportions of p ro fessio n al,
technical, and w h ite-collar w orkers a re high.
F a r from being confronted with a general
manpower sh ortage, K orea is faced with the
problem of finding productive employment in
o rd er to achieve effective utilization of its skilled
labor fo rce. Some sh o rtages m ay occur among
m an agers and technical manpower, but these
sh o rtages can be avoided if the Government
carefu lly estim ates needs and supply and takes
the req u isite step s to meet the deficiency.
The consultant e stim a te s that the total num­
b er of additional jobs created under the plan will
be significantly le s s than that projected by the




Econom ic Planning B oard. An an aly sis of the
p rojectio n s is provided.
Recom m endations concerning organizations and
institutions required fo r manpower planning and
program m ing:
1. An Office of Manpower should be created
in the Econom ic Planning B oard to se rv e a s the
fo cal point for all manpower planning.
2. The Government should estab lish a
cabinet-level M inistry of L ab o r. L ab o r m atters
a r e now under the ju risdiction of the Office of
L ab or A ffairs in the M inistry of Health and
W elfare.
3. An Employment Service Office should be
developed within the M inistry of L ab or and should
include employment m arket inform ation and
occupational r e se a r c h functions.

177

E a s t A sia and P acific
M alaya

Manpower Information
(1962; 21 pages)
ILO Report to the Government of the Federation of M alaya;
IL O /T A P /M alay a/R .16; R ichard R. Zoeckler (United States)
A review

of available

The Second F iv e -Y ear Plan (1961-65) of
M alaya anticipated that the 15-percent in crease
in the population of working age would generate
the need fo r 340,000 additional jobs during the
period if the development ta rg e ts could be
attained. B ecau se the F ir s t F iv e -Y ear Plan
(1956-60) of M alaya did not ab so rb all the
in c re a se in the labor fo rce during that period,
the Government felt it w as n e c e ssa ry to refine
th eir data in ord er to anticipate prob lem s in the
curren t Plan.
So u rces of manpower data
1. 1957 C ensus of Population.
2. 1960 C ensus of M anufacturing In dustries.
3. Annual Employment and Wage S ta tistic s.
4. 1959 Unemployment Survey.
5. 1962 Survey of Employment and Unem­
ployment.
6. Monthly R eport of the M inistry of Labour.
7. 1960 Report of the Education Review
Com m ittee.

178




manpower

data in M alay sia.

D ata from these so u rc e s w ere analyzed,
and concepts and definitions w ere checked for
com parability. It w as not p o ssib le to draw up
a sta tistic a l an aly sis of the curren t manpower
supply- demand situation from the inform ation
available. A few gen eral ob servation s w ere made
about the need fo r training teach ers to in cre ase
the educational and sk ill le v e ls of the population.
Recom m endations
1. Develop the E m p l o y m e n t and Wage
S ta tistic s R eports into a periodic employment
inform ation s e r ie s .
2. Im prove the reliab ility of the Em ploy­
ment Exchange r e p o rts.
3. Form ulate uniform standard definitions
and c lassific atio n c r ite r ia for occupations, in­
d u strie s, and employment statu s.
4. Develop annual benchm ark tabulations on
total employment from the Em ployees’ P ro v i­
dent Fund B oard re p o rts.
5. C reate a new position of Coordinator
of Specialized Manpower in either the M inistry
of Labour or the Econom ic Planning Unit.

E a st A sia and P acific
M alaya

Manpower Survey 1965: States of M alaya
Technical Report
(1966; 246 pages)
N.S. Choudhry, ILN. Sam pling E xpert; and David C hristian, F ord Foundation Manpower A dviser
R esu lts of the fir s t com prehensive manpower survey
in M alaysia.

The Econom ic Planning Unit requ ired an a s ­
sessm en t of manpower a s a p art of the form u­
lation of the F ir s t M alayasian Plan (1966-70).
The su rvey w as planned to provide data on em ­
ployment in all se c to r s of the economy a s a
b a s is for analyzing manpower s k ills, sh o rtages,
requ irem en ts, and the industry-occupational
m atrix. The D epartm ent of S ta tistic s and the
M in istries of L ab or and Education cooperated in
carry in g out the survey. The sam ple covered
about 60 percent of the total number of em ployees
in the States of M alaya.
M ost w orkers with sk ills are likely to be em ­
ployed in government or m anufacturing. Govern­
ment se r v ic e s, including education, cover 35
percent of all available job s, and account fo r 52
percen t of the p ro fessio n al and m an agerial job s,
89 percent of the su b profession al job s, 49 p e r ­
cent of the c le r ic a l job s, and 50 percent of the
sk illed job s. Mining and m anufacturing, which
cover 15 percent of the total available job s,
em ploy 25 percent of the sk illed job s. In con­
tr a st, the e sta te s se c to r of agricu ltu re em ploys
40 percen t of the total available jobs of which
nearly tw o-thirds are se m i- or unskilled job s.




Out of the 3,400 foreign w orkers employed
in the States of M alaya, over 95 percent were
occupying p ro fessio n al and sub profession al po­
sitio n s. M ost of these are in the nongovernment
se c to r.
At the tim e of the survey, there w as a sh ort­
age of 18,000 qualified w o rk ers, m ostly in the
government se c to r. At the profession al level, the
vacancy rate was about 20 percent. Vacancy r a te s
a lso were se rio u s in other occupations requiring
education and sk ill. Acute sh o rtages were in oc­
cupations in education, m edicine, engineering,
adm inistration, and management.
Recom m endations
Training in nongovernment establish m en ts
should be stepped up to m eet existin g sh o rtages
and needs for replacem ent and expansion in the
next 5 y e a rs. Government should expand inse rv ic e training and send m ore people abroad
fo r training. Foreign sp e c ia lists should be r e ­
cruited on a tem porary b a s is to m eet som e of
these needs.

179

E a st A sia and P acific
Thailand

P roposed Sample D esign fo r a L ab or F orce Survey
Report
to the C entral Statistic al Office of Thailand
(June 1962; 21 p ages)
D r. M argaret Gurney, AID Statistical Sampling A dviser,
U. S. Departm ent of Com m erce, Bureau of the C ensus.
An abbreviated outline of the fir s t step s in the de­
sign of a sam ple fo r m easurin g the c h a ra c te ristic s of
the labor fo rce in Thailand.

It is proposed to sta r t the pro g ram m odestly
with a sam ple of municipal a r e a s. The p rogram
la te r would expand the sam ple to cover the b al­
ance of the country. A s experience is gained and
funds becom e av ailab le, it is hoped that the
sam ple eventually will provide sep arate r e ­
gional e stim a te s, on a monthly or quarterly
b a sis.
The 1960 cen sus of population contains the
b a sic data needed to draw a sam ple for the
survey of the labor fo rce . F o r the initial
p rogram covering municipal a r e a s only, a
sam ple of 5,000 households containing 30,000
p erso n s is proposed. B a sed on p resen t population
e stim ate s, this number rep re se n ts a sam ple
of about 1 in 120.
Out of 120 municipal a r e a s in Thailand,
93 will be covered in the fir s t round. All

180




la rg e municipal a r e a s will be included and
m ost sm all ones; probability of inclusion will
be proportionate to siz e . Within the municipal
a r e a s , at le a st three cen sus enumeration d is ­
tr ic ts will be included, from which five to
s ix households will be selected. A pproxim ately
150 in terview ers will requ ired, each of whom
will interview from 15 to 40 households.
F or the rem aining 3.6 m illion households
outside municipal a r e a s , a sam ple of 10,000
households m ay be sufficient; that is , a ratio
of 1 in 400. A sta ff of 160 in terview ers will be
needed; each interview er will cover 60 house­
holds.
The rep o rt also co v ers such topics a s r e ­
liability, estim ation p roced u res, estim ation of
v a ria n c e s, quality of survey, c o sts and tim ing
of the survey, and rotation of sam ple.

E a st A sia and P acific
Thailand

Report on the Manpower Situation in Thailand
(1962; 7 pages)
Jo e White, AID Manpower A dviser

*

D esc rib e s the presen t manpower situation and future
outlook, identifies p rob lem s, and recom m ends p o ssib le
lin es of action of a com prehensive manpower program .

Thailand has made only a beginning toward
the development of a full-fledged manpower p ro ­
gram . A National Econom ic Development Plan
w as prepared ; but, with few exceptions, the im ­
plications of the plan for manpower sk ill needs
have not been exam ined.
A National Manpower Board was created in
1961 under the chairm anship of the M inister of
the In terior. The B oard is respo n sible for r e c ­
ommending manpower policy to the Government.
However, a s of the date of this repo rt, the B oard
had met only at its organizational meeting.
A National Employment Service has been in
operation fo r som e tim e. Since its operations
are confined la rg ely to Bangkok, the Service is
not a national organization in scope o r ch aracter.
Its ability to contribute to a national manpower
pro g ram or to cope with problem s and respon ­
sib ilitie s is lim ited.
On the positive sid e, the recent 1960 census
is expected to yield inform ation that will be v al­
uable in analyzing the manpower situation. A
periodic sam ple labor fo rce su rvey is expected
to provide detailed occupational inform ation
which is lacking in the cen su s. (See preceding




sum m ary.) T hese so u rc e s will provide labor
supply inform ation.
Im m ediate attention is needed on labor de­
mand. Sh ort-range e stim ate s of future req u ire­
m ents are obtained sem iannually from employ­
e r s . T hese data, however, are not sufficient to
determ ine whether current educational and train ­
ing e ffo rts will m eet future requirem ents.
Recommendations
1. The National Econom ic Development Plan
should be analyzed to determ ine manpower r e ­
quirem ents by occupational sk ill level, location,
and y ear of need.
2. The adm inistrative m achinery fo r man­
power planning and operations should be
strengthened.
3. The p ro g ram s and sta ff of the National
Employment Service should be expanded and
im proved.
4. A central training authority should be
estab lish ed and made respo n sible for planning
and coordinating educational and training p ro ­
g ra m s.

181

E a st A sia and P acific
Thailand

Development of a Manpower A sse ssm e n t P ro g ram
(1963; 59 p ages)
A j O Report to the Government of Thailand;
IL O /T A P /T h ailan d /R .23; A. G. Read (G reat Britain)

P re se n ts recom m endations for the organization and
adm inistration of the National Manpower Board and for
the im provem ent and expansion of manpower sta tistic a l
p ro g ram s.

In 1961, the Government of Thailand r e ­
quested ILO a ssista n c e in gathering and ap­
p ra isin g manpower data fo r the development of
manpower p o lic ies consistent with the economic
development plan. The existin g organization
fo r the development of manpower r e so u rc e s
w as the National Manpower B oard, which w as
created in 1961, under the guidance of the Man­
power Executive Com m ittee. The L ab or D ivision
of the Departm ent of Public W elfare, M inistry
of the In terior, was expected to provide tech­
nical and adm inistrative support. However,
b ecau se of lack of funds and staffin g r e so u r c e s,
the L ab o r D ivision w as not able to assu m e such
respo n sibility.
The inability of the National Manpower
B o ard to function a s planned is explored in
M r. R ead’ s report. In late 1962, he w as r e ­
quested to advise the Secretary G eneral of the
National Economic Development B oard on the
b a sic prin cip les concerning the organization
and conduct of a manpower a sse ssm e n t program
suitable to the needs of Thailand. A s a guide for
understanding these p rin cip les, a s e r ie s of de­
tailed m em orandum s was prep ared outlining the

182




organizational a sp e c ts, step s and methods in­
volved, and type of data used fo r analyzing
manpower supply and demand. A ssistan c e also
w as provided in drafting the fir s t rep o rt on the
manpower situation in Thailand.
E x istin g manpower se r v ic e s in the L ab or
D ivision included an employment se r v ic e , em ­
ployment inform ation pro g ram , occupational in­
form ation, and vocational training. T hese p ro ­
g ra m s were not very effective, however, becau se
of lack of staff, coordination, authority, and
other hindrances. R elatively few data were
available to evaluate, and the re su lts of the
1960 cen sus of population w ere not p ro c e sse d
com pletely. Semiannual data on employment
in estab lish m en ts that had 10 w orkers or m ore
in the Bangkok-Thonburi a re a were available.
Some sta tistic s on student education and training
were available from the M inistry of Education.
Recom m endations were made to im prove the
quality of existin g manpower se r v ic e s and to
prom ote the collection and an aly sis of additional
manpower inform ation n e c e ssa ry fo r the a s s e s s ­
ment of human re so u r c e s.

E a s t A sia and P acific
Thailand

P relim in ary A ssessm en t of Education
and Human R eso u rc es in Thailand
(Revised edition, October 1963;
Volume I : p ag es 1-85; Volume II : p ag es 89-456)
Joint Thai/USOM T ask F o rce on Human R eso u rc es Development
in Thailand; AID consultants:
Eugene W. B u rg e ss, Cole S. Brem beck, and W illiam J . P latt
A nalyzes and p ro je cts manpower for educational plan­
ning. The report is b a sic to many subsequent stu dies.

This repo rt is the outgrowth of a recom m en­
dation made by A.G. Read, ILO ad v iser to the
National Econom ic Development B oard in 1962;
the recom m endation concerned the organization
and conduct of a manpower asse ssm e n tp ro g ra m
suitable to the needs of Thailand. (See preceding
sum m ary.) Since M r. R ead’ s study, manpower
re sp o n sib ilitie s were tra n sfe rre d from the Min­
istr y of Interior to the National Economic D evel­
opment B oard.
In 1963, the B oard, in cooperation with the
M inistry of Education, created a ta sk fo rce to
c a r ry out a p relim in ary a sse ssm e n t of man­
power. The ob jectives of the p ro ject w ere to (1)
a s s e s s Thailand’ s human re so u rc e req u ire­
m ents fo r national development, (2) identify ed­
ucational p r io ritie s, and (3) undertake educa­
tional planning fo r the m ost effective development
of human r e so u r c e s.
The AID contracted with Michigan State Uni­
v e rsity fo r three d irect-h ire technicians to se rv e
on the ta sk fo rce to com plete the fir s t two p h ases
of th ese ob jectives. T h is rep o rt re p re se n ts their
activ itie s during the 2-month study.
Volume I of the rep o rt d e sc rib e s the m ajor
findings of the task fo rce and p re se n ts recom ­
m endations. Volume II is a detailed account of
the so u rc e s and methods used to a rriv e at the
conclusions.




M ajor Findings
Manpower projection s to 1980 indicate that a
high incidence of secondary school graduates
(m iddle-level manpower) will be requ ired if all
manpower ta rg e ts are to be met. Under the p r e ­
sent educational stru ctu re, however, the output
of secondary school graduates will not be su f­
ficient to m eet the demand.
M ajor Recommendations
1. The National E c o n o m i c Development
Board should continue manpower projection e f­
fo rts begun by the task fo rce.
2. An an aly sis of the secondary educational
sy stem should be made with the a ssista n c e of
a task force of U.S. consultants. No long-range
commitment of funds should be made until this
step is done.
3. Manpower and Education Planning O ffices
should be estab lish ed to a s s is t their resp ectiv e
M in istries. (A Manpower Planning Office and an
Education Planning Office were la te r estab ­
lished.)
4. The L ab or D ivision in the Departm ent of
Public W elfare should be elevated to D epart­
mental level. (This was accom plished in October
1965.)

183

E a st A sia and P acific
Thailand

Educational Planning in Thailand
P aper presented to Sum m er Conference on
Educational Planning, Syracu se U niversity
(July

1964; 30 pages)

Cole S. B rem beck, Michigan State U niversity
Institute fo r International Studies in Education

A companion—piece to D r. P latt’ s Manpower Planning
in Thailand. M ajor findings and recom m endations con­
cerning education, which w ere subm itted by the Joint
Thai/USOM T ask F o rce on Education and Human R e­
so u rc e s in Thailand (to which the author was assign ed ),
are supported by a detailed an aly sis of the available
data.

In sum m ary, the Joint T ask F o rce Study
reem p h asizes the need for education at all
le v e ls. At this stage in Thailand’ s development,
however, secondary education is of c ritic a l
value fo r the development of m iddle-level m an­
pow er. Such people are needed in trad e, se r v ic e s,
m anagem ent, su pervision, and other te rtia ry
s e c to r s of the economy. The T ask F o rce Study
recom m ends redesign ing the vocational, tech­
nical and other secondary school p ro g ram s to
m eet th ese needs.
The m ajo r portion of the rep o rt a s s e s s e s
the structu re and capacity of the educational
sy stem in Thailand. It analyzes current and
p rojected (1970) demand for and supply of
grad u ates at each educational level to d eter­
mine the estim ated sh ortfall. The m ost se rio u s
deficit ap p ears in the secondary education
group.

184




To produce the number of secondary gradu­
a te s needed to m eet the economic development
requ irem ents fo r 1970, the number of grad uates
would have to be quadrupled. There are potenti­
ally enough students to fill this demand, but
many of them are enrolled in academ ic c o u rse s
in preparation for college. However, fig u re s
show that only one in four of the academ ic
school grad uates enter c o l l e g e ; thus, the
m ajo rity of the grad uates are unprepared for
the world of work. It was recom m ended that,
in addition to the academ ic and vocational school
sy ste m s alread y in existen ce, a third sy stem
be initiated. T his sy stem would cover general
su b jects that p rep are young people fo r se m i­
sk illed job s in trad e, se r v ic e s, and other
w h ite-collar jo b s. The source of students fo r
th is “g en eral” co u rse would come from the
overflow of the academ ic and vocational school
sy ste m s.

E a st A sia and P acific
Thailand

Manpower Planning in Thailand
P ap er presen ted to Sum m er Conference on
Education Planning, Sy racu se U niversity
(July 1964; 37 pages)
W illiam J . Platt, Stanford R ese arch Institute
A com panion-piece to D r. B rem beck’ s Educational Plan ­
ning in Thailand. It develops the method of projectin g
manpower demand to 1980, a s presen ted by the Joint
Thai/USOM T ask F orce on Education and Human R eso u rc e s in Thailand to which the author was assign ed .

Lacking the lead tim e to wait fo r r e su lts from
new su rv ey s, the Join t T ask F o rce analyzed ex ­
istin g data. The m ost im portant so u rc e s were an
econom ic development p lan fo r 1960-66, the 1960
cen su s, a dem ographic projection to 1980, and
sem iannual job m arket su rv ey s of e stab lish ­
m ents in the Bangkok-Thonburi a re a . The y e a rs
of 1966 and 1980 were selected a s targ et y e ars
fo r planning.
A nalyses of the educational attainment by o c­
cupation and economic se c to r fo r 1960 were p r e ­
pared . The number of people expected in each
occupation o r se c to r w as extended by the appro­
p riate educational attainment coefficient to gen­
erate a requ ired future stock or inventory of
manpower needed fo r the specified economic
output. The difference between future and presen t
stock, in addition to allowance for outflows, re p ­
resen t the demand placed on the educational
sy stem , C ertain refinem ents were made with
re g a rd to the changing educational attainment
coefficien ts over the projected period.
F o r 1966, output e stim a te s by economic
se c to r w ere available from the econom ic devel­




opment plan in m onetary te rm s. Using 1960 out­
put and employment a s a b a se , the T ask F orce
made assum ptions a s to changes in productivity
in each sec to r between 1960 and 1966. Shortrun
projection s of manpower stock in 1966 were
made to determ ine whether curren t trends in
output of grad uates w ere keeping pace with the
economy.
Lon g-ran ge estim ates to 1980 requ ired a
v ariety of projection s b ased on different a s ­
sum ptions and a study of the pattern s of demand
generated by such variation s. L ab or fo rce and
i n d u s t r y / o c c u p a t i o n a l stru c tu re s were p ro ­
jected. A com parison of changing international
trends was m ade to refine the projection s.
The rep o rt concludes with a d iscu ssio n of the
m achinery fo r carry in g out the functions of man­
power planning and utilization. Specific reco m ­
mendations for the new Manpower Planning
Office w ere m ade; they pertained to its functions,
re sp o n sib ilitie s, and role in relation to other
agen cies.

185

E a st A sia and P acific
Thailand

Manpower A sse ssm e n t and Planning
(1965; 22 pages)
ILO Report to the Government of Thailand;
IL O /T A P /T h ailan d /R .25; W illiam A. Langbehn (United States)

Report em p h asizes the need fo r a stron g manpower
p l a n n i n g organization within the National Econom ic
Development B oard.

Following the recom m endations of A .G .R ead
(see page 182), the Government of Thailand
requ ested a ssista n c e in developing an effective
organization to guide manpower planning and
policy a sp e c ts within the whole economic and
so c ia l development plan. A Manpower Planning
Unit, attached to the National Econom ic De­
velopm ent B o ard , w as in operation on an ad hoc
b a s is . (This unit la te r becam e the Manpower
Planning D ivision.) An organizational plan was
proposed and adopted; it called for operating
sectio n s on r e se a r c h , a sse ssm e n t, and pu blici­
zing work on the manpower situation.
The effectiv en ess of the work of the con­
sultant w as dimmed by the lack of fu ll-tim e
counterpart personn el. To make up fo r this
gap, the consultant p rep ared over 130 docu­
m ents covering concepts, p rin cip les, and activ i­
tie s of manpower a sse ssm e n t and planning. It

186




w as hoped that these p ap e rs would serv e a s
training m a te ria ls, background data, and survey
methods when appropriate sta ff were availab le.
Sou rces of sta tistic a l data that could be used
in manpower a ss e ssm e n ts were investigated.
R equ ests were made fo r tabulations on the
in du strial cen su s; however, these data w ere not
available by the end of the m ission . A step-b ystep method w as p rep ared for the Manpower
Planning Unit to continue stu dies on manpower
demand b ased on the Joint Thai/USOM E d­
ucation and Human R e so u rc e s study.
Recom m endations concentrated on the esta b ­
lishm ent of an adm inistrative organization for
manpower planning and on a com prehensive plan
of sh ort- and lon g-term activ ities of that organ i­
zation. Other recom m endations dealt with the
development of c le a r-c u t p o lic ies and ob jectives
on employment and training.

E a st A sia and P acific
Thailand

Function and P ro g ram of the Departm ent of L ab or
of the Government of Thailand
(1965; 17 pages)
DOLITAC

1/

Staff P aper No. 10; E dgar C. McVoy, F a r E a st A rea Sp ecialist

The Labor Bureau was upgraded to Departm ental level
in 1965, a s a re su lt of the recom m endations of the Joint
Thai/USOM T ask F o rce on Education and Human R e­
so u rc e s in Thailand (1963). T his rep o rt d e sc rib e s the
prob lem s under the new Department of L ab or.

Manpower p ro g ram s
The p ro g ram s and activ ities of the L abor
D epartm ent, which include (1) employment ex ­
change, (2) vocational guidance, (3) vocational
training and (4) occupational prom otion, are de­
sc rib ed and su ggestion s fo r their improvement
a re presented.
Special com m ents and ob servation s are made
regard in g the coordination of the work in the
L ab or Departm ent with the Manpower Planning
Office in the National Econom ic Development
B oard. The resp e ctiv e ro le s of the L ab or D epart­
ment and the M inistry of Education need to be
c larifie d , esp ecially in the field of apprentice
training.
L ab or R elations and L ab or Standards
A labor law was p a sse d in 1965 which e sta b ­
lish e s new p roced u res for settlin g disputes.
Future plans c all fo r im provem ent and expan­
sion of labor inspection activ ities and safety
and health p ro g ram s, rev isio n of the Lab or Code,
and preparation of a handbook on settlem ent of
dispu tes. Several su ggestion s are made about
the im provem ent of curren t labor law s and
stan dards.
The labor law of 1965 prohibits the form ation
of unions but p erm its the right to b argain c o lle c ­
tively ad hoc through a rep resen tative. Within




the context of Thailand’ s h istory and culture, the
new law m ay be regard ed a s a respo n sible fir s t
step toward norm al labor-m anagem ent relatio n s.
It is hoped that the government will encourage
labor to develop identity and leadersh ip which
is independent of management.
L ab or S tatistic s R ese arch
The m ajo r sta tistic a l su rv ey s and rep o rts
produced by the Departm ent of L ab or include an
annual establishm ent survey in the BangkokThonburi a re a ; occupational wage su rv ey s in
selected in d u stries; annual re p o rts on con cilia­
tion, work stop pages, work in ju rie s, and em ­
ployment se rv ic e ac tiv itie s; and re p o rts on the
pattern s of employment statu s of vocational
school grad u ates, on m igration, and on working
conditions in m ines.
New p ro je cts for 1966 include stu dies of the
employment situation of university grad u ates,
underemployment in the N ortheast, and working
conditions in Bangkok. Specific recom m endations
are made to develop and im prove sam ple su rvey s
of establish m en ts.

1 / U.S. Departm ent of L abor International
Technical A ssistan c e C orps.
187

E a s t A sia and P acific
Thailand

Internal M igration
(1965; 150 pages)
ILO Report to the Government of Thailand;
ILO /O T A /T hailan d/R .26; Robert Poupart
Report p rov ides, for the fir s t tim e in Thailand, com ­
prehensive b a sic inform ation on the movement of ru ra l
w o rkers. Includes num erous sta tistic a l tab les and m aps.

M igration has been a sso c iated with a number
of d eleteriou s e ffec ts, notably the growing p ro ­
blem of unemployed m igran ts in urban a r e a s.
An in creasin g rate of ru ra l m igration into Bang­
kok has given r is e to governm ental concern.
To obtain a c le a r picture of the situation, the
Government of Thailand requ ested ILO a s s i s t ­
ance in conducting a survey of internal m ig ra ­
tory m ovem ents.
The m issio n ’ s objective w as to determ ine
the prin cipal m igrato ry movem ents of ru ral
w orkers. The em ph asis w as on qualitative
a sp e c ts such a s c a u se s of m igration, living
and working conditions, and effect of ru ral
m igration on economic p r o g r e ss. The project
w as intended a s a pilot study to be continued
by the L abor D epartm ent.
A vailable data con sisted of inform ation from
the 1960 C ensus of Population and from a few
re p o rts p rep ared by the Departm ent of A gricu l­
tu re. To obtain m ore intensive inform ation,
su rv ey s were conducted in 45 out of 71 p ro ­
vin ces. Interview s w ere conducted with anyone
who had a knowledge of lo cal conditions: govern­
ment o ffic ia ls, te ac h e rs, em ploy ers, fa rm e r s,

188




and local and m igrant w o rk ers. In BangkokThonburi, over 2,000 m igrant w orkers were
interview ed during variou s se a so n s at the E m ­
ployment Serv ice offices and at bus and railw ay
station s.
Econom ic fa c to rs, according to the survey,
a re the p rim ary cau se of m igratory m ovem ents.
Population p r e ssu r e and the sc a rc ity of suitable
fa rm land are the prim e fa cto rs causin g migation
among fa r m e r s. Other fa c to rs include ex c e ssiv e
rain fall, lack of w ater, and crop p e sts. The
rep o rt also an alyzes other so cial and economic
conditions in ru ra l a r e a s which cau se m igration
and d is c u ss e s the prob lem s connected with p e r­
manent and tem porary m igration.
The M ission recom m ended that the Govern­
ment of Thailand con sider certain rem edial
m e a su re s fo r the alleviation of m igratory prob­
le m s.
To keep a b re a st of the situation, an
adm in istrative unit should continue the study
of m igrato ry m ovem ents. Government policy on
m igration should be outlined c le arly and the
v ario u s agen cies involved strengthened. Several
recom m endations cover the protection and wel­
fa re of m igrant w orkers and control of m ig ra ­
tory m ovem ents.

E a st A sia and P acific
Thailand

Current and P rojected Secondary Education P ro g ra m s fo r Thailand
A Manpower and Educational Development Planning P ro jec t
(1966; 257pages)
Educational Planning O ffice, M inistry of Education, Thailand, Publication No. 9

This rep o rt is b ased on one of the recom m en­
dations of the Join t Thai/USOM T ask F o rc e.
T his recom m endation related to a m ore intensive
study of secondary education, both vocational
and academ ic, with sp ecial referen ce to man­
power needs. A team from Michigan State Uni­
v e rsity , supported by AID funds, a ss iste d in the
preparation of this study. The team included D r.
Raymond N. Hatch, Chief, D r. Stanley P. Wrondki,
and D r. David K. Keenan.
Contents of repo rt
1. Background of secondary education in
Thailand.
2. O rganization and adm inistration of the
M inistry of Education.




3. P resen t and future demand fo r manpower
in Thailand.
4. Social and philosophical b a se s of secon ­
dary education.
5. The ob jectives of education fo r the youth
of Thailand.
6. Enrollm ent statu s and tren ds, projected to
1986.
7. The curriculum , covering su b ject m atter,
instructional aid s, and teaching methods.
8. Quality of the instructional staff.
9. Education p r o d u c t i v i t y , m easu red by
quality of the educational product and the effi­
ciency with which it is produced in te rm s of
tim e and money expended.
10. Sum m ary and recom m endations.

189

E a s t A sia and P acific
Thailand

Manpower Development in Thailand’ s P rivate Sector
(Memorandum, Ju ly 1967; 7 pages)
Henry F . M cC usker, Manpower A d v iser, Stanford R e se arch Institute,
assign ed to the National Econom ic Development B oard of Thailand
An overview of the manpower situation in the priv ate
se c to r of Thailand’ s economy.

The Manpower Planning D ivision of the Na­
tional Econom ic Development B oard conducted
r e se a r c h in preparation of Thailand’ s Second
National Econom ic and Social Development Plan,
1967-71. Inform ation regard in g employment and
trainin g p ro g ram s w as obtained from a survey
of 20 com panies that rep resen t a c ro ss-se c tio n
of Thailand’ s m ajor econom ic se c to r s.
M ajor findings of the su rvey
1. Employment in la r g e - sc a le private en ter­
p r is e will in cre ase on an average of 40 percent
in the 1967-71 period.
2. Competition fo r en gin eers, technicians,
m an agers, and su p erv iso ry personnel is very
keen and their sa la r y level is risin g rapidly.

190




3. S a la r ie s in private en te rp rise have a wide
range and a r e , on the av erage, con siderably
higher than those paid to government em ployees.
Among p ro fessio n al and su p erv iso ry w o rkers,
the differen tial m ay be three or four tim es a s
grea t.
4. F rin ge benefits are broad and fa r exceed
those offered to government w orkers.
5. M ost com panies have som e form of train ­
ing p ro g ra m s, gen erally unplanned, inform al
on-the-job training. The m ajo r exceptions are
the petroleum com panies which have w ell-plan­
ned, form al in -se rv ic e training p ro g ram s ta ilo r ­
ed to their sp ecific needs.
A lis t of p erso n s and com panies visited is
provided, together with types of training p ro ­
g ra m s offered by the variou s com panies.

E a st A sia and P acific
Vietnam

The Work F o rc e in Saigon
A Survey of Some Econom ic and Social C h a ra c te ristic s
of Em ployees in M edium -Sized Industry
(1960; 178 pages)
Ja m e s B. Hendry, Michigan State U niversity, Vietnam A dvisory Group
An exam ination of the so cial and econom ic c h a ra c te ristic s
asso c ia te d with employment in m edium -size industrial
estab lish m en ts in Vietnam,

The m ain purpose of the su rvey was to un­
derstan d what happens to people when rapid in­
d u strialization in a fo rm erly ru ra l economy
tak es p lace . Since no data on the labor fo rce in
Saigon were av ailab le, it w as decided to sam ple
the work fo rce employed in industrial firm s.
A sam ple of four “typical” establish m en ts
w as selected ; they rep resen ted pottery manu­
factu re, d ru gs and p la stic s , soap, and printing.
Three of the firm s employed 100 people, the
fourth employed 300. One-half of the em ployees
in the three sm all firm s w ere drawn into the
sam ple and one-fourth in the la rg e firm . The
resp o n se of those selected rep resen t som e of
the conditions of and the attitudes toward indus­
trializatio n in Saigon in 1958.

2. Living conditions and fam ily stru ctu re—
type of housing, recreation al fa c ilitie s, m arital
sta tu s, fam ily siz e .
3. Movements of w o rk ers—extent to which
m igran ts and d isplaced p erso n s have been ab­
so rb ed into the labor fo rce; education and ex ­
perien ce of recen t m igran ts com pared with long­
term city resid en ts.
4. Unionization—com position of unionized
labor fo rce in te rm s of sk ill, length of em ploy­
ment, se x , type of plant.
5. Work satisfactio n and attitudes toward
m anagem ent—exam ination of job p refere n ces
and job satisfactio n according to such v a ria b le s
a s job s k ills, education, w orkplace, etc.

Inform ation was obtained on the following
gen eral a r e a s of in terest:

The appendixes d escrib e the methods used
1.
D escription of the work fo r c e —age and se x and the interview experien ce, and contain a copy
of the 32-question questionnaire. There are 54
distribution, income ran ge, duration of em ploy­
tab les in the text and 24 in an appendix.
ment, fo rm er employment.




191

E a s t A sia and P acific
Vietnam

Report on Manpower A dvisory P ro jec t, USAID/Vietnam
(M arch 19 to June 2, 1966; 10 pages)
DOLITAC 1 / Staff P ap er No, 13;
Richard R. Z oeckler, Manpower A dviser
A rep o rt on curren t p r o g r e ss in a s s e s s in g urban man­
power needs.

C onsiderable attention w as focused on the
dem and-supply situation in Vietnam in late 1965,
when construction con tractors and other la rg e
em ployers indicated their manpower re q u ire ­
m ents would be in creased . A rrangem ents were
made fo r the im portation of A m erican and
third-country nationals to fill key position s and
to m eet sh o rtages of c ritic a l sk ills. Speculation
soon a ro se regard in g the im pact of such hiring
on the V ietnam ese economy and on labo r-m an ­
agem ent relatio n s. A U.S. Civilian Manpower
Com m ittee w as form ed to evaluate the situation.
E x istin g population and employment data a re
inadequate fo r p u p o se so f a n aly sis. An e sta b lish ­
ment su rvey is curren tly (1965-66) being con­
ducted by the M inistry of L ab o r in the SiagonG ia Dinh a r e a and in An-Giang Province. A
sim ila r 1964 survey is still being p ro c e sse d .
E stablish m en t reportin g will be em phasized
from now on. The ad v iser recom m ended that
data be developed by a r e a rath er than on a na­
tional b a s is .
The National Institute of S ta tistic s is plan­
ning a com plete cen su s of in dustrial and com ­
m erc ial establish m en ts on its own. It will in­

192




clude data on production, power consumption,
and capital investm ent.
The M inistry of Lab or is being reorganized.
T h is reorganization involves many personnel
sh ifts and reassign m en t of certain functions.
The agency added a r e se a r c h planning and labor
sta tistic s division in its new reorganization.
The Employment Serv ice is engaged prin cipally
in recru itin g w orkers fo r construction p ro je c ts.
L ittle se rv ic e i s beingprovided other em ploy ers.
The Manpower D ire cto rate’ s Com m ittee on
Manpower Planning was given the assign m ent
of drafting long-range manpower policy su g g e s­
tion s. F o r 1966, sp e cia l attention is to be given
to the development of vocational training. The
aim for 1967 is to im prove employment p la c e ­
ment operation s. The ad v iser su ggested that em ­
p h asis be placed on obtaining accurate and de­
pendable labor fo rce inform ation before making
fa r-reac h in g policy p ro p o sals.

U.S. Departm ent of Lab or International
Technical A ssistan c e C orps.
1/

N ear E a st and South A sia
Afghanistan

Human R eso u rc es Development
and Manpower Utilization in Afghanistan
(1967; 69 pages)
M eredith B. G ivens, AID Manpower Consultant

An evaluation of A fghanistan’ s educational and training
ac tiv itie s in relation to curren t and p rojected manpower
needs.

At p resen t, Afghanistan h as no sy stem atic
p ro g ram or central organization concerned with
the developm ent of human re so u r c e s nor an e f­
fectively organized central sta tistic a l office.
However, som e rudim entary components for a
manpower pro g ram ex ist:
1. A Manpower D irecto rate in the M inistry of
Planning, which c o lle c ts employment inform ation
fro m establish m en ts and is respo n sible fo r a l­
location of u n iversity-train ed personnel to p o sts
with Government.
2. A C ivil Serv ice Departm ent in the P rim e
M inistry.
3. A National Employment Bureau in the Min­
istr y of M ines and In du stries, which c o n sists of
two o ffic ials attached to the Personn el O ffice.
The work is lim ited to a few placem ents each
y ear.
4. A National R e g iste r of Skilled P ersonnel.
Q uestionnaires have been issu e d to government
personnel but v ery few have been returned.
5. A D ivision of Vocational Guidance in the
Departm ent of Vocational Education in the Min­
is tr y of Education, which c o n sists of two em ­




ployees who also have duties elsew h ere. Very
little work h as been accom plished.
The fir s t National C en sus ev er to be taken in
Afghanistan will occur in 1968/69, with adv iso ry
s e r v ic e s from the United N ations. Up to now,
manpower e stim ate s and p rojectio n s have been
m ade by v ario u s ad v iso ry team s fro m ILO,
U .S.S.R ., and the United States (Robert Nathan
A sso c ia te s). T hese data are inadequate fo r de­
veloping a manpower p rogram .
Education is the Nation’ s fa ste st growing
industry. The number of sch ools and the number
of pupils at each educational level have in creased
rapidly during the la s t 5 y e a r s. The educational
sy stem i s heavily dependent on foreign aid, e s ­
p ecially from the United States and U .S.S.R .
Unemployment and underemployment of lib eral
a r t s grad u ates from the U niversity of Kabul a re
sig n s of overinvestm ent in this a re a . In ord er to
avoid this w aste, stu dies on manpower needs
should be made to guide edu cators on the con­
tent of c o u r se s and the level of education that
are required to m eet these needs. F o rm al edu­
cation should be linked with w ork-based train ­
ing in the development of m iddie-level manpower.

193

N ear E a s t and South A sia
Ceylon

O bservations on V isit to Ceylon
(1961; 8 pages)
S. M. Ju stic e , AID A pprenticeship Consultant
A rep o rt on apprenticeship ac tiv itie s in Ceylon, b ased on
a 5-day observation tour.

P articipan t followup
A m eeting w as arran ged fo r 12 of the 15
fo rm er p articipan ts who receiv ed training with
the Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training,
U.S. Departm ent L ab o r. In gen eral, they showed
satisfactio n with the p ro g ram s that had been
arran ged fo r them in the United States.
Contact with M inistry of Labour
A v isit w as m ade to the Central Employment
Serv ice Exchange and new vocational training
cen ter. Some of the top ics d isc u sse d included:

2. Vocational and trade testin g cen ter. Oc­
cupational c a p ac itie s of Employment Exchange
r e g istr a n ts are tested fo r placem ent of m achin­
is t s , w eld ers, and sim ila r occupations.
3. M iscellaneous prob lem s of Employment
Exchanges including e a rly school le a v e r s and
la rg e num bers of h ard -to -place unskilled work­
ers.
V isit to the Ceylon-Germ an Workshop

T his workshop p rov ides technical training
of m echanics to overhaul and m aintain the na­
tionalized bus sy stem in Ceylon. Sixty men are
1.
Wage B oard ord in aces. In the field of selected each y ear from the over 4,800 ap­
p lican ts to undergo a 3 -y e ar training pro g ram .
m otor engineering, certain w orkers m ay r e ­
The consultant con sidered this to be the b est
ceive supplem ental instruction at the Ceylon
trainin g center ob serv ed during his trip to
Technical C ollege for which they a re granted
se v e ra l coun tries.
r e le a se tim e and pay by their em ployers.

194




N ear E a st and South A sia
Ceylon

A Survey of Employment, Unemployment and
Underemployment in Ceylon, 1959-60
(1963; 11 pages)
International Labour Review, Vol. 87, M arch 1963, pp. 247-257.
Sum m ary of the methods used and the r e su lts of a labor
fo rce survey.

A household su rvey of the labor fo rce was
conducted by the ILO Expanded P rogram m e of
Technical A ssistan c e with the cooperation of
Ceylon’ s Departm ent of L ab or and Department
of S ta tistic s. The su rvey covered four q u arterly
p erio d s of the y ear ending M arch 1960. A sam ple
w as selected from the 1953 cen su s for three
ru ra l a r e a s and two urban a r e a s. Sam ple house­
holds w ere divided further to provide independent
su b sam p les so that e stim a te s of c h a r a c te r istic s
would be available at the four se p ara te q u arte rs.
Ceylon h as a young population. Out of a popu­
lation of 10.3 m illion, n early 44 percent were
children under 15 y e a r s of age. N early 80 percent
of sch ool-age children, 5 to 15 y e a r s old, were
attending sch o ols, an unusually high proportion
fo r a developing country.
About a third of the population was in the la ­
bor fo rce , either working o r looking fo r work.
Sex participation r a te s were 45 percent fo r m ales
and 16 percen t fo r fe m ales. A griculture, fo r ­
e str y , and fishing ac tiv itie s employed 58 percent
of the labor fo rce ; and m anufacturing, mining,
and public u tilities accounted for 14 percent.




D espite the g re a t dependence of the economy
on agricu ltu re, a relativ ely la rg e proportion (63
percent) of the w orkers in Ceylon were wage and
sa la r y e a r n e r s. Even in ru ral a r e a s , a s much a s
61 percent of employed p e rso n s were wage and
s a la r y e a r n e r s, a featu re which distinguishes
Ceylon’ s econom ic organization fro m that in
many other developing coun tries.
N early 13 percent of the labor fo rce w ere un­
employed p e rso n s. Unemployment in Ceylon is
concentrated among youth and young adults.
Among w orkers under 15 y e a rs of age, 44 percent
w ere unemployed, chiefly in the ru ra l a r e a s
where school attendance is low. M ore se rio u s,
however, w as the high proportion of unemploy­
ment among young adults; over 30 percent of the
15 to 19 age group and 20 percent of the 20 to 24
age group in the labor fo rce were unemployed.
U sing the ILO definition, the su rvey m easu red
underemployment to include p erso n s who worked
few er than 5 days or 40 hours during the p a st 7
days and who w ere available fo r m ore work.
About 45 percen t of the ru ra l employed and 30
percen t of the urban employed worked few er than
40 hours a week. However, relativ ely few of these
people wanted ex tra work.

195

N ear E a s t and South A sia
Cyprus

Employment Service O rganization and O perations
(1962; 23 pages)
Report to the Government of the Republic of Cyprus;
IL O /T A P /C y p ru s/R .2 ; G erald R. P a r r ish (U.S. Departm ent of Labor)
Report review s the current Employment Serv ice op erations and d e sc rib e s the conduct of establishm en t su rv ey s.
In I960, the new Government of Cyprus
faced a se rio u s problem of unemployment and
underem ploym ent. Placem ent se r v ic e s of the
Employm ent Exchange sy stem , which had been
in existen ce sin ce 1945, w ere found to be
deteriorating. In o rd er to proceed with plan­
ning fo r economic development, the need fo r
curren t inform ation on employment and man­
power becam e urgent.
To estim ate the curren t manpower situation,
two establishm ent su rv ey s were conducted 6
months ap art. The fir s t su rvey in F eb ru ary 1962
covered all public and private em ploy ers with
five w orkers or m ore in the N icosia-K yren ia
D istrict. The second su rvey w as conducted in
Septem ber 1962. At the sam e tim e, an ini­
tial su rvey w as undertaken in the L im a sso l
D istrict. Employment Exchange o ffic e rs gained
con siderab le experience which should form
the b a s is fo r continuing su rv ey s of manpower
and employment inform ation.
C ertain technical prob lem s w ere yet to
be reso lv ed , however. F o r exam ple, bench­
m ark data were needed fo r total employment
in each in dustrial se c to r and in each e stab ­
lishm ent. It w as hoped that the 1960 Census
of Population and the 1962 C ensus of Industry
would provide the n e c e ssa ry benchm ark data.
However, technical d ifficu lties delayed the use
of the 1960 C ensus of Population by the con­
sultant, and the 1962 Census of Industry had
not been com pleted.

196




The consultant evaluated the organization
and operations of the Employment Serv ice,
including its functions (em ployer relatio n s,
reg istratio n interview ing and sp e cia l se rv ice ),
staffin g, accom m odations, sta ff training, and
preparation of the manual of operation s. R e­
com m endations on these topics w ere made
con sisten t with ILO Convention No. 88 con­
cerning Employment Service O rganization. A
tim e schedule w as devised to effect these reco m ­
m endations.
The Employment Service should play an
im portant ro le in combatting the se rio u s p ro ­
b lem s of employment and unemployment by
taking ste p s in the following a r e a s:
1. Until the conditions of ru ral life can
be im proved, stop-gap r e lie f from r u ra l un­
derem ploym ent can be afforded through public
w orks p ro g ram s, a ss iste d by equitable p lace ­
ment se r v ic e s.
2. Chronic unemployment of educated youth
can be alleviated by introducing m ore intensive
and r e a listic vocational guidance p ro g ram s.
3. R aisin g the sk ill level of the labor fo rce
can be done by im proving the interviewing
techniques of the sta ff and by providing the
sta ff with curren t occupational inform ation b ased
on projectio n s of manpower requ irem en ts.

N ear E a s t and South A sia
Cyprus

Manpower A sse ssm e n t and Employment Service
(1964; 18 pages)
ILO R eport to the Government of the Republic of Cyprus;
IL O /T A P /C y p ru s/R .6 ; Richard R. Z oeckler (U.S. Departm ent of Labor)

A review of the p r o g r e ss of the Employment Serv ice since
the 1962 ILO M ission.

The principal ob jectives of the p ro ject were
to advise the M inistry of Labour and Social In­
surance on the development of a continuing p ro ­
g ram of manpower inform ation and on the o r ­
ganization and operation of the Employment
Service.
Information on the manpower suppy-demand
situation w as needed to im plem ent the F iv e -Y ear
P lan (1961-66). The three prin cip al so u rc e s of
manpower data were examined:
1. 1960 C ensus of Population—a valuable
guide to the c h a ra c te ristic s of the labor force
but of questionable validity in the a r e a s of unem­
ployment becau se of inadequate definition.
2. 1962 C ensus of Industry—valuable infor­
mation but not com plete b ecau se of inadequate
coverage in se v e ral in du strial se c to r s.
3. D ata
from
Employment
Service
a c tiv itie s—b asic ally sound inform ation on p e r ­
so n s actively re g iste re d for work. D ata from the
establishm en t su rv ey s could not be linked to the
C ensus for trend an aly sis.
Supplem entary manpower inform ation for
planning pu rp oses cam e from the v ario u s admin­
istrativ e control sy ste m s in the Employment




Serv ice office, from the annual su rvey of school
grad u ates reportin g labor m arket intentions, and
from student re g istra tio n s.
The consultant tried se v e ral methods to im ­
prove the curren t sta tistic a l inform ation rep o rt­
ing sy ste m s. F o r exam ple, the sem iannual
establishm en t su rvey which was se t up s u c c e s s ­
fully by the previou s m ission w as interrupted
tem po rarily to c o rre c t certain in co n sisten cies
and to expand cov erage to other towns.
Recom m endations for im proving the manpower
sta tistic s program include:
1. Conduct a household survey of the labor
fo rce to fill in gap s of m issin g inform ation from
the C ensus.
2. Use unemployment insurance data a s an
indicator of the volume and trend of unemploy­
ment.
3. Improve techniques of establishm ent s u r ­
vey s regard in g siz e of sam ple, geographic
cov erage, etc.
4. Improve vario u s operations of the E m ­
ployment Serv ice, such a s adm inistration, p e r ­
sonnel, job vacancy inform ation, occupational
c la ssific a tio n sy stem .

197

N ear E a st and South A sia
G reece

O rganization of the Employment Service
(1962; 26 pages)
ILO Report to the Government of G reece;
IL O /T A P /G ree ce/R .1 7 ; A. Y. W. Cowie (United Kingdom)
A description of the adm inistrative organization and work
of the Employment Serv ice.
R esp on sib ility fo r G reek employment m atte rs
and fo r vocational guidance and training r e s t s
with se p ara te D ire cto rates in the M inistry of
L ab ou r. R espon sibility fo r unemployment bene­
fits , fam ily allow ances, and c o n sc rip ts5benefits
belongs to the O rganization fo r Employment
and Unemployment Insurance which is governed
by a board appointed by the M inister of Labour.
The Institute of Social Insurance a c ts a s a
collection agency for so cial insurance con tri­
butions. C o sts of operating these variou s o r ­
ganization s, including 49 local Employment
Service o ffic e s, com e from so cial insurance
contributions.
The M ission noted many prob lem s a risin g
from dual control of employment o ffices by the

198




M inistry of Labour and the O rganization for
Employment and Unemployment In surance. Spe­
c ific a lly , personnel staffin g and duplication of
work seem to be the m ajo r problem a r e a s.
The M ission concludes that the only sa tisfa c to ry
solution is to place the employment o ffic e s under
unified control and to allocate the employment
and vocational guidance work among the v ario u s
organization s involved.
In all, 30 detailed recom m endations are
presen ted a s n e c e ssa ry to implement and im ­
prove the s e r v ic e s of employment o ffic es. M ost
of these recom m endations deal with organization,
staffin g, and lo cal office control.

N ear E a st and South A sia
G reece

Education for Econom ic and Social Development—G reece
(1964; 237 pages)
O rganization for Econom ic C o-operation and Development
D irectorate for Scientific A ffa irs, The M editerranean Regional P ro jec t

T his rep o rt is one of six p rep ared by r e se a r c h team s for
the M editerranean Regional P ro jec t with the financial
support and technical a ssista n c e of the O rganization fo r
fo r Econom ic C o-operation and Development (OECD).

The r e se a r c h team assign ed to G reece a s ­
s e s s e d educational and manpower needs and r e ­
so u rc e s in light of long term ta rg e ts for
econom ic and so c ia l development.
The fir s t half of the book is devoted to a s ­
se s sin g the curren t educational sy stem and po­
tential re so u r c e s fo r educational expansion.
Educational input and output, and their related
fa c to rs, are analyzed in g re a t detail supported
by many sta tistic a l tab les. Expenditures on
education a re presen ted fo r both private and
public se c to r s. A ttem pts a lso are made to ap­
p r a is e the quality of the educational sy stem by
analyzing teach er/pu pil r a tio s, school c l a s s ­
roo m s and buildings, and other m e a su re s of
quality.




The second half of the book d eals with p ro ­
jection s of manpower needs and educational
req u irem en ts. Working within the economic
development plan for the three 5-y ear p erio d s
to 1979, the r e se a r c h team analyzed projected
changes in the occupational structu re of nonagricultural in d u stries, and estim ated manpower r e ­
placem ent requirem ents due to death and r e t ir e ­
ment. The team then tran slated the adjusted
manpower e stim ate s into educational req u ire­
m ents to 1979. The n e c e ssa ry expenditures for
buildings, te ac h e rs, operating c o sts, e tc ., r e ­
quired to m eet the long term demand fo r sk illed
manpower, are estim ated to be 3.2 percen t of
the 1974 G ro ss National Product, com pared with
with 2.1 percen t in 1961.

199

N ear E a st amd South A sia
India

Apprenticeship T raining
(1960; 25 pages)
ILO R eport to the Government of India;
IL O /T A P /In d ia/R .3; S. A. Norton (Canada)
Report on the apprenticeship pro g ram in the State of
West Bengal.

Under the National A pprenticeship Scheme
(NAS), the all-India target w as to train 7,000
appren tices between 1957 and 1961. West Bengal
had been allotted 3,000 p la c e s which w ere la te r
reduced to 1,000. By 1959, the m id-point of
this 4 -y e ar period, only 273 appren tices had
com pleted training. By the tim e of the consul­
tant’ s departu re, 410 p la c e s had been filled.
One of the re a so n s fo r the relativ ely few
apprentice tra in e es appeared to be the lack
of adequate publicity.
A conference of trainin g o ffic e rs from in­
du stry in the Calcutta a r e a w as held. Many
topics were d isc u sse d and a program was
p rep ared ; fo r exam ple, standardizing sk ill­
training sy llab u se s, developing work sch edu les,
estab lish in g duration of study, and maintaining
r e c o rd s. A pilot p ro ject was conducted in one
engineering plant to develop an apprentice­
ship program .

200




On the b a s is of his work and experien ces
in West Bengal, the consultant form ulated c e r ­
tain view s on the N a t i o n a l A pprenticeship
Schem e. Some of the topics d isc u sse d included
a code of d isciplin e, duration of training, ratio
of appren tices to sk illed w o rk ers, apprenticeship
r e c o r d s, and periodic and final te sts.
Recom m endations
1. State apprenticeship a d v ise r s should play
a key role in the implementation of the Na­
tional Apprenticeship Schem e.
2. A State Apprenticeship Committee should
be estab lish ed in each State and com posed
of rep resen tative from Government, industry,
and labor.
3. In the la r g e r estab lish m en ts, a Plant
A pprenticeship Committee should be organized
to help estab lish in-plant training.

N ear E a st and South A sia
India

A Manpower P ro g ra m for Econom ic Development
O bservations and Suggestions Concerning India’ s Manpower P ro g ram
(1960; 153 pages)
Leo R. W erts, Manpower Consultant, The F ord Foundation
Methods of developing, utilizing, and distributing man­
power to achieve economic development go als.

The m ost se rio u s problem facin g m ost devel­
oping coun tries is how to e^qpand the experienced
and sk illed work fo rce needed fo r economic p ro g­
r e s s . Since many sk ills can be learn ed on the job,
the respo n sibility fo r developing trained man­
power belongs to both public and private en ter­
p r is e s . The rep o rt su g g e sts v ario u s methods of
encouraging estab lish m en ts to develop their own
sk ill trainin g p ro g ram s.
M aterial, equipment, power, money, and
manpower r e so u r c e s can be utilized effectively
only if high-level m an agerial and p ro fessio n al
technical sk ills a re developed. Such talent is b est
developed through fo rm al training at univer­
s itie s . Once trained and working on the job, man­
a g e r s and high-level technical personnel should
be given the opportunity to utilize their cap ac­
itie s a s fully a s p o ssib le .
Developing and p reparin g new generations of
manpower can be done by providing educational
institutions with inform ation on future occupa­
tional requirem ents so that enough young people
can be adequately p rep ared to fulfill these r e ­
quirem ents. In addition, educational institutions
should provide opportunities for the development
of attitudes which se rv e the national and com ­
munity in te re sts, a s well a s their own individual
asp iratio n s.




A s urban a r e a s and industrial e n te rp rise s
rapidly in c re a se in siz e and number, the labor
m arket becom es la rg e and com plex. Under these
conditions, the country re q u ires an Employment
Serv ice organization to a ssu r e the ord erly move­
ment of w orkers, to provide a placem ent se rv ice
fo r high-level manpower, and to provide job
counseling to young people.
M odernizing so cie tie s m ust cope with the
p rob lem s of su rp lu s unskilled labor and of sh ort­
a g e s of sk illed manpower. The Third F iv e -Y ear
Plan includes p ro g ram s to u tilize su rplu s labor
and to prom ote employment opportunities. Sev­
e r a l additional su ggestion s a re offered.
R esponsible le a d e rs from Government, in­
du stry, and labor should review and exam ine the
v ario u s p ro g ram s already in existen ce in India
and introduce a fully coordinated manpower ad­
m in istrative and planning organization fo r the
development of manpower. An A ll-India Man­
power Policy A dvisory Com m ittee should be
estab lish ed to advise the Government on man­
power policy and program . State and a r e a sub­
com m ittees should provide n e c e ssa ry inform a­
tion to the National Com m ittee. All educational
and training institutions should be included in
the manpower adm inistration.

201

N ear E a st and South A sia
India

O bservations on V isit to India
(1962; 6 p ag es and 3 appendixes)
S.

M.

Ju stic e ,

AID Apprenticeship Consultant

A rep o rt on apprenticeship activ itie s in India, b ased on
a 5-day observation tour.

Contact with M inistry of Labour
D isc u ssio n s with the D irector G eneral of
Em ploym ent and T raining in New Delhi in­
cluded the following topics:
lo P rovision of the new 1961 A pprenticeship
A ct, outlined in appendix I.
2. Training m a te ria ls extensively in u se,
liste d in appendix n .
3. R equest for AID Apprenticeship Consul­
tant fo r 6-month tour of duty.

202




4.
V isit to the P u sa Industrial T raining
Institute, one of seven c r a fts train in g c en ters
in New Delhi. T ra d e s and number of appren tices
a r e liste d in appendix III.
Contact with the National
Productivity Council
T his organization has sent se v e ra l p a r tic i­
pants to the trainin g p ro g ram s of the Bureau
of A pprenticeship and Training, U.S. D epart­
ment of L ab o r. Seven fo rm er p articip an ts w ere
contacted.

N ear E a st and South A sia
India

P r o g r e s s of the Occupational Information
and Vocational Guidance P ro g ra m s
(1962; 14 pages)
ILO Report to the Government of India;
IL O /T A P /In d ia/R .15; S.O. Doos (Sweden)
A rep o rt of a second followup m ission to evaluate p r o g r e ss
of vocational guidance p ro g ram s instituted se v e ra l y e a rs
e a r lie r . 1 /

In 1955-56, ILO a s s is te d the Government of
India to develop, within the D irecto rate G eneral
of Employm ent and T raining (DGET), a group
of related p ro g ram s: occupational inform ation,
youth employment se rv ic e , vocational guidance,
and employment counseling. A f i r s t p r o g r e ss r e ­
port w as made in 1958. T his is the second p ro g­
r e s s repo rt.
Occupational R ese arch and Information
E ffo rts to m eet all of the different demands
fo r occupational inform ation will only lead to a
diffusion of r e so u r c e s. T h erefore, available r e ­
so u rc e s should be devoted to a very lim ited
number of ac tiv iite s. Additional work can be
starte d when r e so u r c e s p erm it and when it does
not in terfere with work alread y going on.
P ro g ra m s which should be given high prio rity
include:
1. Com pleting the National C lassificatio n of
O ccupations.
2. T raining Employment Serv ice o ffic e rs.
3. R evisin g Guide to C are e r pam phlets.
4. Updating handbook on training fa c ilitie s.
5. Expanding re se a r c h on a sse ssm e n t of edu­
cational and trainin g requ irem ents.
6. P rep arin g p o ste rs and wall ch arts.




7.
P reparin g reading m ate rials on occupa­
tional inform ation for distribution to sch ools.
Vocational Guidance
Vocational guidance in the Employment Se rv ­
ice h as developed very rapidly. The number of
guidance o ffic e rs i s expected to in cre ase over
the curren t F iv e -Y e ar Plan period. Guidance
talk s are provided to la rg e num bers of groups
and individuals. E m ph asis should be placed on
providing r e a listic vocational guidances. V oca­
tional guidance p ro g ram s should be speeded up
in the school sy stem in ord er to guide young
people while they a r e still in school.

1 / Report to the Government of India on
Development of P ro g ram m es of Occupational
Information and Youth Employment Serv ice,
Vocational Guidance and Employment Counsel­
ling (IL O /T A P /In dia/R .4) 1957.
R eport to the Government of India on the
P r o g r e s s of the Occupational Information and
Youth Employment Service and Vocational Guid­
ance P ro g ram m es (IL O /T A P /In dia/R .6) 1958.
F ir s t followup m ission .

203

N ear E a st and South A sia
India

The Operation and Extention of
Vocational Guidance A ctivities
(1965; 35 pages)
ILO Report to the Government of India;
IL O /T A P /In d ia/R .17; G. E . T. Whiting (United Kingdom)

A repo rt on the curren t statu s of vocational guidance p ro ­
g ra m s and on the a ssista n c e provided to expand these
p ro g ram s.

In addition to the Vocational Guidance Unit
at the D irectorate G eneral of Employment and
Training, lo cal units were se t up at som e E m ­
ployment Exchanges to guide young and inex­
perienced sc h o o l' le a v e r s and to counsel jobhunting adults. In addition, the E d u c a t i o n
D epartm ent w as attem pting to provide guidance
p ro g ram s in all secondary sch ools. A ccording
to a 1962 survey, however, only 5.5 percent of
the 1,600 secondary schools offered a guidance
p rogram .
The consultant p repared a pilot p ro ject on
vocational guidance fo r sc h o o l-leav ers. The
purpose w as to provide guidance for pupils
through a joint p rogram by the educational
authority and the National Employment Serv ice.
Of the 400 pupils interview ed, 55 percent r e ­
quired a change of occupational goal, m ostly
b ecau se the pupils tended to be over am bitious
o r tended to choose occupations unrelated to
their cap ac ities and inclinations.
On the b a sis of the r e su lts of the pilot
p ro je ct, re v ise d vocational guidance proced u res
at Employment Exchanges w ere recom m ended.

204




M ost of the p ro p o sals covered im provem ent
in the number and quality of the guidance o ffic e rs
and som e changes in their duties. The consultant
further recom m ended that Vocational Guidance
Units should not be linked o r concerned with
selection o r p l a c e m e n t work. T hese units
should be in p re m ise s sep arate from E m ­
ployment Exchanges in o rd er to have a wider
appeal to job se e k e r s. Approval fo r this plan
w as withdrawn, however, becau se of problem s
of lo g istic s and finances.
An excellent an aly sis of the b asic problem s
and fundamental difficu lties b esetting India’ s
vocational guidance program is provided in
detail. Some of the topics covered are : m ean­
ing of vocational guidance, need for employment,
p re stig e attached to jo b s, job satisfactio n ,
function of the interview , b asic re se a rc h , and
financial lim itation s. B ased on this an aly sis
and on the outcome of the pilot pro ject, r e ­
com m endations are presented; they deal p r i­
m arily with d etails of organization and of dayto-day operation s.

N ear E a st and South A sia
Iran

H igh-Level Manpower Development in Iran
(1960; 83 pages)
D r. T. H illiard Cox, Manpower A d v iers, Governmental A ffairs Institute
A study to provide a b a s is for the expansion and im ­
provem ent of high-level manpower development in Iran.

D ata used to p rep are th is rep o rt a re the re su lt
of a nationwide su rvey of higher educational in­
stitutions in Iran and student training p ro g ram s
in u n iv ersities abroad. Information on b asic
needs and future requ irem en ts for high-level
manpower w as obtained from a 1958 e stab lish ­
ment survey. 1 / The m ajo r em ph asis of this
study w as to analyze high-level manpower prob­
le m s and to su ggest p ro g ram s of action for their
solution through the expansion of p resen t fa c il­
itie s, establishm ent of new activ itie s, and im ­
provem ent or revision of existin g p ro g ram s.
The re su lts of the study indicate that presen t
p ro g ra m s for developing high-level manpower
a re inadequate to m eet Iran ’ s in dustrial develop­
ment requ irem ents. Minimum additional man­
power needs for 1963 are estim ated at 25,000
p e rso n s. However, only 11,000 of these req u ire­
m ents will be met through training at home and
abroad. The net shortage of 14,000 will occur in
p ro fe ssio n s considered to be of c ritic a l im por­
tance to economic development: adm in istrator,
ph ysical scien tist and engineer, agricu ltu ral
sc ien tist, and m edical p ro fe ssio n s. (Ironically,
a su rp lu s of nearly 5,000 is e j e c t e d in the field s
of lib e ra l a r t s , law, lite ratu re , and philosophy.)
Net sh o rtages of m iddle-level personn el, such
a s te ac h e rs, n u rses, and su p erv iso ry personnel,
a r e a lso analyzed.




An exam ination of the utilization of employed
high-level manpower shows that about half are
u tilized only p artially . It is estim ated that, if it
w ere p o ssib le to attain full utilization, the need
fo r producing additional trained manpower could
perh aps be cut by one-third to one-half.
Recom m endations for the development and
utilization of high-level manpower included the
following:
1. E stab lish a national r e g iste r of high-level
personn el.
2. Improve and expand cu rricu la in all types
and le v e ls of technical and scien ce schools.
3. R ev ise the sa la ry structu re of teach ers
at all le v e ls.
4. E stab lish a training-w ithin-industry in­
stitute.

1 / National Manpower R eso u rc es and R e­
quirem ents Survey, Iran 1958, Government of
Iran, M inistry of L ab o r and Plan O rganization,
1959, 90 pp. Technical a ssista n c e provided by
Governmental A ffairs Institute, including a 28page manual on su rvey methods and pro ced u res.

205

N ear E a s t and South A sia
Iran

Population and L abor F o rc e of Iran
A Statistical Sum m ary
(1960; 38 tables)
Compiled by the P ro g ram and E conom ics O ffice, USAID/Iran
A referen ce document for u se of r e se a r c h e r s .
S tatistic al data contained in the variou s
tab les w ere taken from published re p o rts of
the M in istries of In terior and L ab o r, Plan
O rganization, and the Governmental A ffairs
Institute. Inform ation on the population ap p ears
in tab les 1 to 15. T ab les 16 to 32 presen t data
on the c h a r a c te r istic s and siz e of the labor

206




fo rce . The rem aining tab les indicate the sk ills
of the lab o r fo rce and som e occupational in­
form ation. T h ese la tte r tab les a r e su m m aries
of the manpower sh o rtages that w ere com piled
for the H igh-Level Manpower D e v e l o p m e n t
Study. (See precedin g sum m ary.)

N ear E a st and South A sia
Iran

Manpower Planning
(1965; 26 pages)
ILO Report to the Government of Iran; IL O /T A P /Iran /R . 13; N ils T . Strom (Sweden)
An a p p raisal of the curren t and the developing manpower
situation in relation to economic planning.

In 1962, a G eneral Departm ent of Manpower
Studies and S ta tistic s (MSS) w as created in the
M inistry of L abour and Social A ffairs to c a r ry
out manpower stu dies and to collect sta tistic s on
labor m arket prob lem s. The MSS curren tly is
(1965) conducting a household su rvey of the labor
fo rce . The G eneral D epartm ent of Employment
c o lle c ts employment m arket inform ation through
its region al employment o ffic es. Some job
stu d ies have been conducted by this office. Data
fro m other so u rc e s a lso a re liste d .
B a se d on these and other data, se v e ra l r e ­
p o rts on manpower and vocational training for the
y e a rs between 1963 and 1972 were prepared .
T hese re p o rts contain many recom m endations
fo r the im provem ent of sk ills of the labor fo rce .
The broad conclusion drawn by this a p p raisal is
that labor s ta tistic s, employment m arket infor­
mation, and manpower planning a re fa r from
sufficien t to m eet the requirem ents of economic
and so cial development planning. Statistical data
on existin g conditions are s c a r c e ; and collecting,
p ro c e ssin g , analyzing, and publishing of such
data have been initiated only recently in many




field s. B ecau se these data are sc a r c e , a r e a li s ­
tic evaluation of future manpower supply and
demand is m et with g re a t difficulty.
Recom m endations
1. The 1966 C ensus of Population should be
conducted.
2. D etailed stu d ies of the labor fo rce should
be m ade.
3. Human re so u rc e policy should be coo rd i­
nated with the ov erall econom ic development
plan.
4. Studies should be m ade of the manpower
needs of the m ajo r econom ic se c to r s.
5. The employment s e r v i c e organization
should be enlarged and its operation s im proved.
6. ILO recom m endations on the occupational
c lassific a tio n sy stem should be adopted.
7. Employment counseling should be organ ­
ized in the G eneral Departm ent of Employment.
8. Vocational training should include m ore
sp e c ia ltie s, e sp e cially fo r m etal and con stru c­
tion work.

207

N ear E a st South A sia
Iran

Iran ’ s E xperien ce with Manpower Planning
Concepts, Techniques, and L e sso n s
(1965; 32 pages)
George B . Baldwin (H arvard A dvisory Group in Tehran). A rticle in Manpower
and Education, Country Studies in Econom ic Development, F re d eric k H arbison
and C h arles A. M yers, ed ito rs (New York, M cGraw-H ill Book Company, 1965)
p ag es 140-172
Background of manpower planning in Iran and its p r o s ­
p ec ts for the future.
Manpower planning starte d ju st after th eb eginning of the second Seven-Y ear Plan in 1955,
with the establishm ent of a Manpower Develop­
ment D ivision in Plan O rganization. Weakened
by p o litic s, the D ivision had no role in the
f i r s t national manpower plan of 1960-61 and w as
abolished in 1961. Long before 1961, the Econo­
m ic Bureau of Plan O rganization becam e in ter­
ested in human re so u rc e development. T his
group rapidly becam e the main power center
in Plan O rganization and was assign ed p rim ary
resp o n sib ility for drawing up the country’ s third
plan. By 1962, Iran had a manpower plan of
100 p ag es and an education plan of 250, m ore
space in the 1,500-page plan than any other
topic. P o litical r e v e r s e s , com petition fro m
riv a l in te re sts, and duplication of effort p r e ­
vented much of the manpower plan from being

208




c a r rie d out. However, the plan provides a
strate g y and a stan dard which the country can
follow when the situation changes.
The m ajo r portion of the a rticle d e sc rib e s
the v ariou s su rv ey s conducted and an alyzes
the r e su lts of the data collected. T ab les of the
occupational stru ctu re of nonfarm employment
a re provided and the output of schools fo r the
next se v e ra l y e a rs is d iscu ssed . The sh ortage
of teach ers ap p ears to be the m ost se rio u s
bottleneck lim iting expansion of the educational
sy stem .
In the long run, education will be the main
in spiration fo r throwing off the traditional
culture and for creatin g an atm osphere in which
m ore will be p o ssib le than any one can now
expect. In the sh ort run, all that can be hoped
fo r is the avoidance of g r o s s m istak es.

N ear E a st and South A sia
Iraq

Reorganization and Development of the National Employment Serv ice
(1962; 29 pages)
ILO Report to the Government of Iraq; IL O /T A P /Iraq /R .7 ; J.A . Rizvi (India)

An an aly sis of the operation s of the Employment Service
and recom m endations fo r its im provem ent under the new
Labour Law .

The Em ployment Serv ice is one of the s e c ­
tions under the D irectorate G eneral of Labour
in the M inistry of Social A ffairs. The e stab lish ­
ment of the Employment Serv ice is b ased on
prov isio n s of the Labour Law of 1958, which now
is (1962) being rev ised . The consultant w as to
provide advice concerning changes in the new
Code which m ay affect the Employment Serv ice.
The Employment Serv ice in Baghdad has two
section s: The Identity C ard Section which is s u e s
the n e c e ssa ry identity c a r d s to enable w orkers to
seek and hold job s, and the Employment Section
which k eeps book r e g is te r s on job applicants and
job placem ents. The work of the m ission con­
centrated on estab lish in g p rio rity ac tiv itie s for
strengthening the work of the Baghdad office.
E m p h asis w as placed on reorgan izin g the office
so that the Employment Serv ice could se rv e a s
a model and training ground fo r future o ffices.




Staff m em bers attended daily training se ssio n s
which covered all a sp e c ts of employment organ­
ization pro ced u res and p ra c tic e s.
Recom m endations fo r the im provem ent of the
Employment Serv ice under the new Labour Law:
1. The Serv ice should be given independent
statu tory b a s is and financial provision.
2. An appointed C entral Employment B oard
should be constituted a s soon a s p o ssib le and
lo cal Employment Com m ittees created a s the
Serv ice expands.
3. The Manual of Instructions and the stand­
ard fo rm s prep ared by the consultant should be
printed and used by the sta ff of the Employment
Service O ffices.
4. A vailable employment data should be ana­
lyzed and made public at reg u lar in terv als.

209

N ear E a st and South A sia
Isr a e l

Methods of F o rec astin g Manpower
Requirem ents and R eso u rc es
(1961; 43 pages)
ILO Report to the Government of Isr a e l;
IL O /T A P /Isra e l/R .1 4 ; H arold Goldstein (United States)

Techniques of projectin g sh ort- and lon g-term req u ire­
m ents fo r occupations im portant to economic develop­
ment.

Isr a e l has the b a sic sta tistic a l re so u r c e s,
r e se a r c h experien ce, and competent personnel
to m ake p o ssib le an effective r e se a rc h p ro g ra m
on manpower r e so u r c e s and requ irem en ts. Data
needed fo r projection s have been developed in the
C entral Bureau of S ta tistic s, the Bank of Isr a e l,
the Independent F alk P ro je c t for Econom ic
R e se arch , and the economic m in istrie s. Man­
power stu d ies have been made in the M inistry of
T rad e and Industry.
A central sta ff is needed to bring together
the v ario u s stu dies made by these agen cies.
T h is sta ff should be a single organization and
recognized a s the S e c re ta ria t of the National
Manpower Council, which is chaired by the
M in ister of Labour. 1 / P o lic ie s and p ro g ram s
should be adopted and the fa c ts and findings of
the coordinated stu d ies should be publicized to
help develop public understanding and support
fo r the p ro g ram s.
An an aly sis of all the available data is made
and recom m endations fo r their im provem ent
a r e presen ted. F or exam ple, cov erage of the
establish m en t su rvey should be extended to

210




include additional im portant econom ic activ i­
tie s, and inform ation on employment by occupa­
tion should be obtained through periodic su rv ey s.
D etailed recom m endations on the techniques
of m aking sh ort- and lon g-term p rojectio n s are
m ade. The method d escrib ed com bines the ana­
lytical approach with em p loy ers’ projection s
of their own needs.
P rojectio n s of m a n p o w e r requirem ents
should be b ased on those made by the Bank
of Isr a e l b ecau se they rep resen t the official
a p p raisal of the outlook. The sta ff of the M inistry
of Labour should work c lo sely with the sta ff of
the Bank of Isr a e l to develop the 10-y e ar p ro je c ­
tions of manpower req u irem en ts. T hese p ro je c ­
tions should also con sider alternative assu m p ­
tions on im m igration in view of the e rra tic
nature of the origin and the occupational com ­
position of im m igran ts.

1 / A M a n p o w e r Planning Authority w as
created in 1962 to se rv e a s S e cre tariat.

N ear E a st and South A sia
Isr a e l

O rganization of the Employment Service
(1963; 24 pages)
ILO R eport to the Government of Isr a e l
IL O /T A P /Isra e l/R .1 5 ; A.G. H art (United Kingdom)

A review of the curren t adm inistrative organization of
the National Employment Service and su ggestion s for its
im provem ent.

The Employment S erv ice Law of 1959 created
a free National Employment Serv ice under the
general su pervision of the M inistry of Labour.
More than 700 people are employed in the S e rv ­
ice. The organization c o n sists of a m ain office
to m anage the ac tiv itie s of the Serv ice, a special
office to provide placem ent and inform ation
se rv ic e to p ro fessio n al people, an office to place
seam en, 29 d istric t o ffic e s, 21 local o ffic es, 65
branch o ffic es, and 62 sta ff o ffic es. The functions
and operations of these o ffices are d escrib ed in
detail.
The findings and recom m endations a re p r i­
m arily com m ents aim ed at im proving the ad­
m in istrative organization and Employment Se rv ­
ice p o lic ie s. F o r exam ple, the com pulsory
nature of the law, regard in g vacan cies and
re g istra tio n s, has had a detrim ental effect on




the operation of the Serv ice. It w as recom m ended
that action be taken to lim it the scope of the com ­
p u lso ry reg istratio n prov isio n s o r rep eal them
a s soon a s p o ssib le .
Sim ilarly , the law regard in g the point sy stem
of placing applicants in jo b s should be modified
or repealed. Points are given r e g istr a n ts accord ­
ing to number of dependents and duration of un­
employment. Those with the highest points are
placed in vacan cies r e g a r d le ss of th eir ph ysical
o r mental attribu tes or experience fo r the job.
T his p ractice p la c e s an u n n ecessary expense
and delay on the em ployer who is obliged to give
the person a tria l. F u rth erm ore, the point s y s ­
tem ac ts a s a dangerous impedim ent to the e f­
fective development of manpower. Such develop­
ment i s one of the key fa c to rs in the p r o c e ss of
economic growth.

211

N ear E a st and South A sia
Isr a e l

Manpower A sse ssm e n t and Planning
(1965; 66 pages)
ILO Report to the Government of Isr a e l;
IL O /T A P /Isra e l/R .2 0 ; Sam A. M orgenstein (United States)

An an aly sis of the 1964-69 manpower p rojectio n s and
su ggestion s fo r developing an effective manpower in­
form ation program .

Since its creation in 1962, the Manpower
Planning Authority has serv ed a s the cen tral
body for the coordination of re se a r c h e sse n tial
to manpower a sse ssm e n t and planning and a s
se c r e ta r ia t for the National Manpower Council.
Inform al but effective relation sh ips have been
estab lish ed with all M in istries and agen cies in­
volved in manpower. The ju risdiction al resp o n ­
sib ility fo r manpower re se a r c h rem ain s to be
worked out with the Central Bureau of S ta tistic s.
The Manpower Planning Authority com pleted
the 1964-69 manpower supply and demand p ro ­
jection s. Methods u sed in these p rojectio n s are
analyzed and the educational output (supply fa c ­
tor) i s describ ed in detail. By the end of the
1960’ s, Isra e l will be facing sh o rtages in those
occupations which req u ire the longest period of
education o r training.

212




T ypes of data needed for a continuing em ­
ployment m arket inform ation p rogram a re ex­
plained. The v ario u s organizations alread y c o l­
lectin g m ost of these data should be coordinated
to avoid duplication and overlap of work. The
National Manpower Council should p erform th is
se rv ic e .
Recom m endations w ere arran ged in groups
by ord er of implem entation capability. Group
A recom m endations can be implemented im ­
m ediately; fo r exam ple, redefining the authority
and functions of the manpower m achinery. Group
B recom m endations requ ire either further in­
vestigation o r a longer tim e to put into effect;
for exam ple, developing a sy stem to collect
accu rate data on vocational training p ro g ram s.

N ear E a st and South A sia
Jordan

O rganization of a Manpower A ssessm en t
and Planning P ro g ram
(1964; 23 pages)
ILO Report to the Government of the Hashem ite Kingdom of Jordan ;
IL O /T A P /Jo rd an /R .7 ; O .B. R ailey (United States)
An a p p raisal of the current and projected manpower s it ­
uation and advice on the organizational requirem ents of
a continuing manpower p rogram .

The Jordan Development B oard, which i s r e ­
sponsible fo r economic and so c ia l planning, is
attem pting to include manpower asp e cts in its
development plans. The Board had conducted a
study in 1960, but the data on which the study was
b ased w ere inadequate. A population cen su s was
conducted in 1961, but com plete tabulations w ere
not expected until 1964.
The Departm ent of Labour is concerned p r i­
m arily with the adm inistration of the Labour
Code. It does not operate an Employment Service
or conduct r e se a r c h into the manpower situation.
Jo rd an ’ s g re a te st need is fo r a perm anent
organization to e stab lish a pro g ram of manpower
a sse ssm e n t and planning. Within the Planning
D ivision of the Development B oard, a Manpower
Planning Section w as created on an ad hoc b a sis.
The organization and functions are outlined in
this repo rt.
About half of the population is under 17 y e a rs
of age. L e s s than a fourth of the population is in




the labor fo rce. T his very low proportion re su its
from the preponderance of youngpeople and from
the sm all number of women in the labor force
(about 3 percent). Occupational and industrial
distribution s are provided in the an aly sis.
In ord er to fill gap s in the availab le manpower
inform ation, an establishm ent su rvey w as con­
ducted. The survey covered n early 760 e stab lish ­
m ents in which alm ost 17,000 p erso n s w ere em ­
ployed. Questions relatin g to occupations and
future plans were asked. T hese data were used
to analyze curren t and projected manpower
needs.
Shortages of sk illed w orkers and a su rplu s of
untrained manpower will affect Jo rd an ’ s eeo*nomic and so cial planning. Recom m endations are
directed mainly toward the v ariou s m eans of p ro ­
viding fo r a continuing»study of manpower under
the au sp ices of a perm anent Manpower Planning
Section.

213

N ear E a s t and South A sia
Jo rd an

Manpower in Jordan
(1965; 8 pages)
Report to U SA ID /Jordan; E .L . Keenan, Manpower Consultant
Nature and extent of manpower problem s in Jo rd an and
types of manpower p ro g ram s that should be initiated or
continued.

Population in Jo rdan is in creasin g at the rate
of 3 percent a year, and labor fo rce at the rate
of 4 percent a year. It is estim ated that 17,000
new w orkers joined the labor fo rce in 1964. A c­
cording to the draft Seven-Y ear Plan, however,
only 12,000 new jobs are planned for the en tire
period to 1970. A s a re su lt, there will be se rio u s
unemployment in Jordan .
The Government of Jordan should estab lish
a manpower development unit within the Plan­
ning D ivision of the Development B oard. At the
sam e tim e, a manpower function in the D epart­
ment of S ta tistic s, M inistry of National Economy,
should be establish ed to gather and su m m arize
data on a continuing b a s is . To a s s is t the Gov­
ernm ent in creatin g these units and advising on
their functions and operation s, AID should p ro ­
vide a broad gaged manpower sp e c ia list.
There are at le a st three fa c e ts of the man­
power situation in Jordan that d eserv e attention:

214




1. Manpower in Government is w asted b e­
c au se of the e arly retirem en t sy stem and lib eral
pen sions.

2. The pay sc a le for top level and technical
personnel in Government is low com pared with
s a la r ie s that they receiv e in Saudi A rab ia or
Kuwait. The situation can be im proved through
development of job qualification stan d ard s, job
perform ance evaluation, and m ore equitable
pay sc a le s.

3. The labor fo rce is growing fa ste r than new
jo b s. At the presen t tim e, trained Jo rd an ian s are
finding employment opportunities outside the
country. There should be a m ajo r expansion in
the unplanned se c to r s of the economy; fo r ex ­
am ple, tou rism will in cre ase employment oppor­
tunities in hotels, re stau ran ts, b u se s, etc.

N ear E a st and South A sia
Jordan

The Further Development of the Manpower A sse ssm e n t P rogram m e
(1966; 12 pages)
ILO Report to the Government of the Hashem ite Kingdom of Jordan ;
IL O /T A P /Jo rd an /R .9 ; O .B. R ailey (United States)

A follow-up review of p r o g r e ss made since co n su ltan ts
previou s v isit in 1964.

The Government of Jo rdan recently ratifie d
ILO Convention No. 122 concerning the e stab ­
lishm ent of an active employment policy. To
im plem ent the prov isio n s of this Convention, an
organized manpower a sse ssm e n t and planning
unit is needed. The functions of a Manpower
Planning Section are d escrib ed . (See sum m ary
of ILO rep o rt IL O /T A P /Jo rd an /R .7 ).
Recom m endations
1. Manpower Planning Section should be p e rmanently estab lish ed in the Planning D ivision of
the Development B oard.
2. Manpower Council should be estab lish ed
to form ulate manpower p o lic ie s. It should be




com posed of high-level o ffic ials from Govern­
ment, industry, and unions. It should review ,
evaluate, and recom m end manpower p o lic ies and
stu d ies, and otherw ise give direction to the field
of manpower development.
3. Manpower Information A dvisory Com ­
m ittee should be appointed by the Council to in­
su re technical cooperation. The Committee
should help in the technical coordination of man­
power and related data.
4. Full u se should be made of the inform ation
supplied by em ployers in the 1963-64 Manpower
Survey.
5. E very effort should be made to com plete
the R e g iste r of P ro fessio n al and Technical
Manpower which w as started in 1964.

215

N ear E a st and South A sia
P akistan

Manpower Survey
(1956; 176 pages)
ILO R eport to the Government of P akistan; IL O /T A P /P ak istan /R .lO ;
C.W. H epler (United States) and W.H. M ason (United Kingdom)
An an aly sis of curren t and p rojected manpower re so u r c e s
and requ irem en ts.

In preparin g an Econom ic Development Plan
at the end of 1953, the Pakistan Planning B oard
recognized the need fo r curren t and detailed in­
form ation regard in g manpower. The B oard de­
cided that the M inistry of L abour should conduct
manpower su rv ey s, with the advice and a s s i s t ­
ance of a manpower expert from ILO, in ord er to
develop the n e c e ssa ry inform ation.
Several su rv ey s were made to determ ine the
supply of and demand for manpower:
1. A survey of about 5,000 establish m en ts
w as conducted to collect information on the le v els
of employment, occupational distribution, fo re ­
c a s t s fo r 6 months hence, and e stim ate s of o c­
cupational sh ortages.
2. A household su rvey was conducted to de­
term ine the supply of labor. Information was
collected on the age, sex , and wage of household
m em b ers; employment and occupational statu s;
hours worked; and season al v ariation s in work.
3. A su rvey w as conducted by the M inistry
of Education to determ ine the existin g fa c ilitie s
fo r technical, p ro fessio n al and vocational train ingo

216




Data collected from these su rvey s and from
available inform ation w ere analyzed and supply/
demand projection s w ere m ade. A com parison
between the reported occupational sh o rtages
and the available training fa c ilitie s gave som e
indication of the extent to which p resen t fa c il­
itie s are adequate to m eet currently expanding
needs and p rojected needs. Each high-level p r o ­
fe ssio n al and sk illed occupation w as so analyzed.
M ajor Recom m endations
1. There is an urgent need fo r the regu lar
collection and re le a se of inform ation about the
manpower situation, p articu larly in connection
with the p r o g r e ss of the Development Plan. This
inform ation should be provided by m eans of a
continuing employment inform ation program .
2. To avoid w asteful overlapping of effort
in planning, collecting, and distributing man­
power inform ation, the Departm ent of Manpower
and Employment should be recognized a s the
appropriate channel for these functions.
3. In form ulating plans for the expansion of
technical and vocational training, p rio ritie s
should be determ ined by the needs identified in
the survey.

N ear E a st and South A sia
P akistan

R eport on Thailand, P ak istan , A u stralia and the Philippines
in Connection with the SEATO Skilled Manpower Report
(1958; 9 p ag es and 3 attachm ents)
F re d W. E rh ard , AID Manpower A dviser
The SEATO Report of the Study Group on training needs
fo r sk illed manpower recom m ended strengthening voca­
tional and technical sch o ols, in stru ctor training, and
on-the-job training. T his rep o rt d eals with implementing
these recom m endations in Pakistan .
Attachment 2 p rese n ts sp e cific p ro p o sals to
USAID fo r the initiation and development of a
national apprenticeship p ro g ram and other fo rm s
of training in Pakistan . The p ro p o sals include
the following topics:

1. Training should be job-oriented to the
actual needs of private industry and government.




2. In stru cto rs from both government and
private industry should be broadgaged enough
to develop training sk ills a s need a r is e s .
3. Two U.S. training sp e c ia lists should be a s ­
signed to a s s is t in developing p ro g ram s.
4. R espon sibility fo r on-the-job training
should rem ain in the Departm ent of L ab or. Offjob training re sp o n sib ilities will have to be
c la rifie d by Government au th orities.

217

N ear E a st and South A sia
P ak istan

Development of an Employment Information P ro g ram
(1958; 22 pages)
ILO Report to the Government of Pakistan ;
IL O /T A P /P ak istan /R .1 7 ; W.H. M ason (United Kingdom)

R eport exam in es the p r o g r e ss m ade sin ce the manpower
rep o rt of 1956 1 / im plem enting the Employment Inform a­
tion P ro g ram ,

The p r o g r e ss made sin ce 1956 h as been good
in staffin g arran gem en ts and in the trainin g of the
personn el. The Departm ent of Manpower and
Em ployment in the M inistry of L ab or s u c c e s s ­
fully com pleted additional su rv ey s of priv ate
households and em ploying estab lish m en ts. P rep ­
aration s fo r a fourth round of establishm ent
in q u iries w ere preceded by c o u rse s for the field
sta ff given by the ILO consultant and h is P ak i­
stan i counterpart, who had been trained abroad.
However, p r o g r e s s in issu in g employment m a r­
ket re p o rts and developing th eir u se s has been
slow .
Recom m endations to solve som e of the ad­
m in istrative prob lem s:
1. Budget should be in creased to allow for
p ric e index changes.
2. L o cal employment m arket re p o rts should
be function of lo cal office.
3. C alculating m achines should be used to
speed data p ro c essin g .

218




4.
V acan cies should be filled by prom otion
from within.
Recom m endations regard in g the technical
prob lem s:
1. A sp ecified cycle of establishm en t su rv ey s
b ased on type of industry (tim etable in appendix
A) should be m ade.
2. Employment m arket re p o rts should be
p rep ared a s d escrib ed in sam ple in appendix B.
3. P roposed national sam ple labor fo rce s u r ­
veys by the C entral S tatistic al Office should r e ­
place current household stu dies now undertaken
by the M inistry of L ab o r.
4. Employment m arket re p o rts should be
circu lated widely throughout government.

1 / Report to the Government o f P ak istan on
a Manpower Survey, ILO, 1 9 5 6 ,IL O /T A P /P ak istan /R .10.

N ear E a st and South A sia
P akistan

Development of an Apprenticeship Schem e, 1957-1962
(1963; 35 pages)
ILO Report to the Government of P akistan ;
IL O /T A P /P ak istan /R .2 8 ; H.X. P ootjes (Netherlands)
A description of the apprentice trainin g p ro g ram in
P akistan during the period 1957 to 1962 and recom m enda­
tions for its im provem ent.

P rio r to the consultant’ s a rriv a l, very little
training of a sy stem atized and regu larized na­
ture ex isted in P akistan . The Departm ent of
Manpower and Employment directed five tech­
nical training c en ters. In 1957, a National Ap­
prenticeship Council w as estab lish ed to review
apprentice training in general and to make r e c ­
om mendations for im provem ent. A National
D irectorate of Apprenticeship T raining w as
cre ated and regional d irec to rates w ere san c­
tioned in D acca and L ahore. L a te r, a D irectorate
of Technical T raining w as estab lish ed . In 1960
and 1961, advisory com m ittees su ggested that
these two d irec to rates be operated within the
M inistry of Health, L abour, and Social W elfare.
The consultant recom m ended, in addition, that
all cou n cils, b o ard s, and other training organ ­
ization s coordinate their v ario u s fa c ilitie s and
operations under a National T raining B oard.
The ILO consultant’ s initial task was to
awaken in te re st among the in d u stries in the need
fo r apprentice training. This work resu lted in 40
fa c to rie s startin g apprenticeship p ro g ram s
which included about 2,000 appren tices by the end




of his m ission . These p ro g ram s were in the
m etal and engineering tra d e s, the textile indus­
t r ie s , and the printing industry. Apprentice
trainin g of m arine en gin eers also w as starte d at
the req u est of the K arach i P o rt T ru st.
The ILO consultant experim ented with an
A m erican m echanical aptitude te st, adapted to
Pakistan i conditions, fo r the selection of appli­
can ts for training. He p rep ared theoretical
le ctu re s for c o u rse s given in the K arach i Poly­
technic Institute, where 275 appren tices received
trainin g by 1962. A co u rse w as also instituted
by the Dawood Cotton M ill and the Pakistan
Swedish Institute.
In 1962, an ordinance requ iring industry to
take a role in training w orkers fo r sk illed o c­
cupations w as p a sse d . The legislatio n sta te s
that those establish m en ts which em ploy 50
w orkers or m ore (of whom five or m ore are in
apprenticeable trad es) should train , at their own
expense, at le a st 20 percen t of the total number
in these tra d e s. Expenditures in curred in this
trainin g would be allowed a s deductions on in­
com e tax retu rn s.

219

N ear E a st and South A sia
P ak istan

Manpower A ssessm en t and Planning P ro g ram
(1963; 21 pages)
ILO Report to the Government of Pakistan ;
IL O /T A P /P ak istan /R .3 0 ; G.D. Bishop (Canada)

R eport d e sc rib e s the variou s branches of the P akistan
adm inistration concerned with manpower.

P akistan o ffic ia ls recognized the need fo r a
manpower planning p rogram to coordinate the
vigorous pro g ram of investm ent under the
Second F iv e -Y e ar Plan (1960-64) and that p ro ­
posed fo r the Third F iv e -Y ear Plan (1965-69).
The Planning C om m ission operated a Manpower
Section with a sta ff of two p ro fe ssio n a ls. M ost
of their work con sisted of utilizing existin g data
to estim ate employment changes by economic
se c to r s and to p ro ject population and labor fo rc e .
B ecau se of inadequacy of the data, in-depth
stu d ies w ere not p o ssib le .
The C entral Statistical Office form ulated a
com prehensive sta tistic a l pro g ram to coordinate
lo cal and central Government sta tistic a l activ­
itie s to provide the Government with prop er
m easu rem en ts fo r so c ia l and econom ic planning.
The following plan s were outlined:
1. A d irecto ry of all establish m en ts em ploy­
ing five em ployees o r m ore.
2. The tra n sfe r of household labor fo rce su r ­
veys from the M inistry of Labour to the Central
Statistical O ffice.

220




3. A qu arterly establishm ent su rvey of em ­
ploym ent, earn in gs, and labor turnover.
4. An annual su rvey of vocational, technical,
and p ro fessio n al training institutions.
5. An agricu ltu ral ru ral labor survey.
The manpower inform ation pro g ram of the
R e se arch and S ta tistic s Branch of the M inistry
of Labour w as b ased m ostly on re su lts of annual
establishm ent su rv ey s. Data were published
about 2 y e a rs after the su rvey and w ere d is­
tributed on a very lim ited b a sis. The m ost recent
su rvey (1961) included the occupational com posi­
tion of each firm . B ecau se of the im portance of
this inform ation arrangem en ts were made to
tabulate r e su lts in the Central Statistic al Office.
However, it w as not p o ssib le to develop a trend
s e r ie s with data from the establishm ent su rv ey s
becau se of frequent changes in coverage and
definitions.
Recom m endations
The consultant confined his recom m endations
to the organization, staffing, and p rio rity r e ­
se a rc h stu d ies in the Manpower Section of the
Planning C om m ission.

N ear E a st and South A sia
P akistan

Review of the T rad e s T raining Center Plan
(1963; 167 pages)
Raymond D. L arso n , Manpower A dviser,
U.S. D epartm ent of L ab o r Survey Team

Report review s the fe asib ility of estab lish in g a T rad e s
T raining Center in P akistan to se rv e a s a model for
other developing coun tries.

Since m iddle-level sk ills were in sh ort sup­
ply, it w as hoped that the T rad es Training Cen­
te r would sh arply speed up training of these
needed w orkers. The plan focused on training
w orkers for employment in, and related to, the
construction industry sin ce this industry is b asic
to all other se c to r s. Significant fe atu res of the
plan are a s follow s:
1. Reduction of training tim e by elim inating
nonessential theoretical instruction.
2. P eace C orps volunteer carftsm en to se rv e
a s in stru cto rs.
3. The gradual replacem ent of P eace C orps
volunteers with local in stru cto rs.




The su rvey T eam su ggested that a reason ab le
goal for training would be to in crease the p ro ­
portion of sk illed w orkers in the construction
work fo rce from its curren t 12 percent to 50 p e r ­
cent; that is , a goal of training m ore than 200,000
sk illed w orkers. Specific occupations, type of
training, and equipment c o st for each occupation
are d escrib ed .
The co st of building adequate trainin g fa c il­
itie s is d isc u sse d in detail. It w as estim ated
that a total of 91,520 squ are feet fo r the Center
could be built fo r $3.3 m illion. F ir st- y e a r o p era­
tion would c o st about $300,000. It w as estim ated
also that 54 people, aided by two U.S. a d v ise r s,
would be requ ired to operate the facility. About
110 in stru cto rs would be needed to train 780
students in 18 construction tra d e s.

221

N ear E a st and South A sia
P ak istan

Survey of L ab o r Management R elations and R elated
L ab or P ro g ra m s in P akistan
(1964; 46 pages)
A drian R o b erts, AID L abor Management R elations Consultant

Study concentrates on proposed re v isio n s of ordinan ces,
the need for m ore study of protective labor law s, su g­
gestio n s fo r reorganization of provin cial L abor D epart­
ment functions, and m eans for training labo r union le a d e r s.

Industrial growth in P akistan has created new
p rob lem s in em ployee-m anagem ent relatio n s,
and law s to prom ote in dustrial peace have failed
to settle grie v an ce s. L egislatio n to encourage the
trade union movement has stim ulated m em b er­
ship but failed to develop union leadersh ip at the
lo cal le v e ls. Under the 1962 constitution, the
provin cial governm ents were given resp o n sib il­
ity to adm inister m ost labor legislation , while the
cen tral government retained coordination con­
tro l to a ssu r e uniform ity. The consultant su g­
gested that a sm all c o rp s of liaiso n o ffic e rs be
estab lish ed to ad v ise provincial s e c r e ta r ie s and
d ire c to rs.
Suggestions for rev isio n s of the three m ajor
lab o r law s were a s follow s:
Industrial D isputes Ordinance of 1959: A
lim itation should be im posed on the ju risdiction
and types of c a s e s which m ay be r e fe rre d to the
in du strial c o u rts. Too many c a s e s have gone to
the cou rts rath er than to conciliation. In addition,
a rev isio n of the w orks com m ittee r u le s should

222




be made to provide for g re a te r equality in com ­
m ittee operation s and to guarantee freedom from
r e p r is a ls .
T rad e Unions Ordinance of I960: A policy
statem ent to encourage growth of labor unions
fo r collective bargain in g p u rp o ses should be in­
cluded. All unions should be r e g iste re d and the
waiting tim e fo r union recognition should be r e ­
duced. Study should be made of in co n sistan cies
favorin g em ployers in pen alties handed down
by in du strial co u rts.

Industrial and C om m erical E m p l o y m e n t
Ordinance of 1960: A p o sitive statem ent of p u r­
p o se is needed. An amendment should specify that
no w orker can be d isch arged with ju st cau se.
Suggestions w ere a lso made fo r estab lish in g
a Labor-M anagem ent R elation s D ivision and a
Conciliation Serv ice in the provin cial L ab o r
D epartm ents, and fo r training union o ffic e rs
and m em b ers at the plant level.

N ear E a st and South A sia
Pakistan

P roposed Technical T raining P ilot P ro je c t fo r the
R ural Works P ro g ram of E a st P akistan
(1964; 24 pages)
S.M. Ju stic e , AID A pprenticeship A dviser
Report provides recom m endations concerning the p ro ­
posed R ural T rad e s T raining P ro je c t to be developed by
USAID and the P eace C orps.

The R ural Works P ro g ram is directed to­
ward the econom ic development of the ru ra l
a r e a which includes 85 percent of E a st P ak istan ’ s
55 m illion people. The proposed pilot training
p ro je ct is related directly to the P ro g ram and
would help m eet the need fo r r u ra l sk ill develop­
ment. The s k ills to be developed include those
pertaining to irrigatio n , flood control and drain ­
age, ro a d s, construction, and sim ila r ac tiv itie s.
(Skills liste d in appendix I.) T hese activ ities
rep re se n t the m ost im m ediate and urgent needs
fo r ru ra l development.
Specific recom m endations cover the staffin g
p attern s fo r AID consultants and P eace C orps
volunteers who se rv e a s in stru cto rs; the c r e a ­




tion of an apprenticeship planning and coo rd i­
nating
com m ittee;
the
appointment of a
P akistan i to se rv e a s D irecto r of the pro ject;
the u se of C om illa a s an experim ental proving
ground for techniques and approaches used in
the p roject; trainin g of su p e rv iso rs before at­
tem pting to organize c o u rse s fo r w o rkers. In
addition, the qualifications and functions of the
sen io r AID ad v ise r a re outlined.
Reference
“ The Im pact of the R ural Works P ro g ra m on
E a st P ak istan ,” rep o rt by Sol O zer, USAID/
P akistan , 1964. No copies available fo r sum ­
m ary.

223

N ear E a s t and South A sia
P ak istan

P ak istan ’ s H igh-Level Manpower and Human R eso u rce
Development Planning
(1965; 65 pages)
N icholas DeWitt, AID Manpower Consultant
If the ta rg e ts of P ak istan ’ s Third F iv e -Y e ar Plan a re to
be m et, expansion of education is needed, e sp e cially at
the secondary level*

Human r e so u r c e s planning and human capital
stu d ies should have commanded p rio rity attention
long ago. The 1956 ILO rep o rt on Manpower Su r­
vey in P ak istan (IL O /T A P /P ak istan /R .1 0 ),p ag e
39, s t r e s s e d the urgent need for the re g u lar co l­
lection and r e le a se of inform ation about the m an­
power situation. A lis t was made of the types of
inform ation req u ired, but no data have been
collected to date. The variou s F iv e -Y e ar P lan s
have included statem en ts on manpower and edu­
cation, but no m e a su re s have yet been im ple­
mented. B ecau se of the paucity of data, the fir s t
p rio rity should be given to collecting and p ro c ­
e ssin g sta tistic a l inform ation on a re g u lar b a s is .
The data presented in th is rep o rt constitute
the fir s t attem pt to study employment and p ro ­
ductivity b ased on g r o s s value of output. The
d e tails of the method u sed a re d isc u sse d and the
r e su lts a re presented in 19 ta b le s. T op ics include
e stim a te s and projection s of total and nonagricultu ral employment and of high-level manpower by
i n d u s t r y s e c t o r s ; occupational com position

224




changes, 1951-61; and educational attainment of
the population, labor fo rce, and occupational
group s.
The final section of this rep o rt d e a ls with
planning fo r human r e so u r c e s development. R e­
se a rc h p r io ritie s fo r manpower and educational
planning are liste d , and a conceptual fram ew ork
and model is d escrib ed in detail.
R eferen ces
M easuring the E ffects of Population Control
of Econom ic Development, P akistan a s a C ase
Study, E d gar M. Hoover and M ark P erlm an ,
U niversity of P ittsburgh, Center for Regional
Econom ic Study, Jan u ary 1965.
P rojectio n s of the Population of P ak istan by
Age and Sex: 1965-1968, A M easure of the P o­
tential Im pact of a F am ily Planning P ro g ra m ,
U.S. D epartm ent of C om m erce, B ureau of the
C en sus, June 1965.

N ear E a s t and South A sia
P ak istan

Human R eso u rc es P ro g ra m s and Econom ic Planning in P akistan
(1965; 44 pages)
DOLITAC JL/ Staff P aper No. 28; Eugene Vinogradoff, Manpower A dviser
D escription of v ariou s manpower problem s in P akistan
and su ggestion s for action by the Manpower Council.

The m ajor portion of the rep o rt d is c u ss e s
the problem s involved in developing human r e ­
so u rc e s in P akistan , followed by su ggestions
and recom m endations fo r the guidance of the
Manpower Council and fo r AID a ssista n c e . Some
of the topics dealing with employment m arket
problem s are :
1. Im balance between jo b se ek e rs and jobs in
both urban and ru ral a r e a s.
2. Sh ortages in certain sk illed occupations.
3. Low income and low productivity of a v e r­
age w o rk ers, e sp e cially in fa rm and trade occu­
pations.
4. Waste of human r e so u r c e s a s re su lt of
“educated unem ployed.*
The p ro g ram s for human re so u rc e develop­
ment include the following m ajo r a r e a s:
1. Educating and training curren t and poten­
tial labor fo rce p articipan ts.
2. Im proving health and socioeconom ic en­
vironm ent of w orkers.
3. Safeguarding human r e so u r c e s through
on-the-job
safety d ev ices and p ro g ram s,
m inim um -wage legislation , insurance w elfare
p ro g ra m s, and other economic secu rity m e a s­
u r e s.
4. Supporting p ro g ra m s, such a s housing,
w ater, sew age, ro ad s, and other community
fa c ilitie s and public s e r v ic e s.




In addition to providing su ggestion s fo r each
of the topics on labor m arket prob lem s and on
human re so u rc e development, the consultant
m ak es sp ecific recom m endations regard in g the
adm inistration and role of the Manpower Council
in the economic development of P akistan . There
i s a stron g need fo r a thorough occupational m an­
power su rvey and esp ecially for high-level and
m iddle-level supply and demand p rojectio n s to
estim ate occupational sh o rtages. C urrent occu­
pational staffin g inform ation can be obtained
from a sam ple of urban em ploy ers, and supply
p rojectio n s can be obtained from the M inistry
of Education. T hese projection s would provide
the Manpower Council with enough inform ation
to make its own recom m endations and to se t its
own work p r io ritie s.
Recom m endations fo r AID action are aim ed
at strengthening the Manpower Council through
the a ssista n c e of a full-tim e manpower sp e c ia l­
is t and through sh o rt-term assign m en ts a s
sp e cia lize d prob lem s a r is e .

U
U.S. Departm ent of L abor International
Technical A ssistan c e C orps.

225

N ear E a st and South A sia
S y ria
Manpower A sse ssm e n t and Planning
(1964; 17 pages)
ILO R eport to the Government of the Syrian A rab Republic;
IL O /T A P /S y ria /R .9 ; C .B . McAlpine (UnitedKingdom)
An a sse ssm e n t of curren t and p rojected manpower r e ­
so u rc e s and requirem ents by sk ill le v e ls.

In 1963, the M inistry of Planning con sisted of
five D ire cto rates of which the D irecto rate of
Econom ic and Social Planning w as respon sible
fo r manpower planning. E stim ate s had been made
of manpower requirem ents of many of the
p ro je c ts included in the Second F iv e -Y ear E co ­
nomic Plan (1965-69), but d etails on manpower
needs by occupation w ere lacking.
E x istin g manpower s e r v ic e s con sisted of
se v e ra l Employment Serv ice o ffic e s. The Labour
Law of 1959 provided fo r obligatory notification
of v acan cies by em ployers and the reg istratio n
o f jo b se e k e rs. Manpower inform ation requ ired
fo r the effective operation of an Employment
Serv ice w as inadequate.
Inform ation on the labor fo rce w as available
fro m the 1960 Population C ensus and from a
labor fo rce sam ple survey. Some data on man­
power were availab le from se v e ra l industrial
production su rv ey s and the 1960 C ensus of Indus­
t r i a l E stab lish m en ts. Inform ation regard in g
p ro fe ssio n s w as obtainable from r e g is te r s of
p ro fessio n al so c ie tie s. E stim a te s of future de­
mand had not been collected from em ploy ers.

226




The consultant prep ared an outline fo r a
com prehensive rep o rt on the manpower situation
in Sy ria. The rep o rt itse lf w as not p rep ared b e­
c au se r e su lts of the cen su s and labo r fo rce su r ­
veys w ere not available at that tim e.
Recom m endations
1. Guided by the proposed Manpower Section
in the M inistry of Planning, the Government
should e stab lish a p ro g ram of manpower in for­
mation.
2. A Manpower A dvisory Com m ittee should
be created and com posed of re p resen tativ es of
all M in istries.
3. The com prehensive manpower r e p o r t
should be com pleted a s soon a s data are a v ail­
able.
4. The Syrian C lassificatio n of Occupations
should be com pleted and kept up to date.
5. An establishm en t su rvey should be con­
ducted to determ ine curren t employment by
occupation and to estim ate future demand.

N ear E a st and South A sia
Turkey

Employment M arket Information P ro g ram
(In French; 1961; 26 pages)
ILO Report to the Government of Turkey;
O IT /O T A /T urkey/R .15; H.M. D reyer, ILO E xpert
P r o g r e s s rep o rt of the inform ation pro g ram in the E m ­
ployment Serv ice.

The manpower inform ation p ro g ram w as ini­
tiated in 1956 with ILO guidance. In 1959, monthly
r e p o rts on the le v e ls of employment in industry
and q u arterly re p o rts on the operation and ad­
m in istration of the 31 lo cal o ffic es were initiated.
Special manpower stu d ies have been conducted
in Istanbul and in se v e ra l other region s. The
cen tral office estab lish ed a r e g iste r of the prin ­
cipal em ploy ers in the country, c la ss ifie d by
industry and region. The ILO occupational c la s ­
sification sy stem w as adopted and a job an aly sis
p ro g ram has starte d . O ver 1,500 job an aly se s,
out of an estim ated 5,800, have been com pleted.




Recom m endations
1. Bureau ch iefs of the regional o ffices
should cooperate in the development of adm inis­
trativ e and operating proced u res of the Em ploy­
ment Serv ice.
2. Inform ation collected in the v ario u s a r e a s
should be sh ared among the region al Employment
Serv ice o ffic e s, the different Government agen­
c ie s , labor unions, and in du strial e n te rp rise s.
3. R ese arch should be starte d on the ru ra l
underem ployed in ord er to develop a p ro g ram for
the im provem ent of this group of w orkers.

227

N ear E a st and South A sia
Turkey

O rganization and Function of a Manpower Planning P ro g ram
(1962; 18 pages)
«

ILO Report to the Government of Turkey;
IL O /T A P /T u rk ey /R .2 1; J . F . W ellem eyer (United States)
A review of available manpower data fo r a manpower
development p rogram .

In 1960, a State Planning O rganization was
estab lish ed in the Office of the P rim e M inister.
The State Planning O rganization is com posed of
the C entral Planning O rganization and the High
Planning Council. The Central Planning O rgani­
zation p r e p a r e s plan s fo r review by the High
Planning Council. It an alyzes data n e c e ssa ry fo r
planning p u rp o ses and occasio n ally may collect
data. A lso within the State Planning O rganization
i s a D epartm ent of Social Planning which a s ­
sem b le s data n e c e ssa ry for manpower p ro je c ­
tions.
The consultant a s s is te d in the preparation of
a 1-year (1962) manpower development plan and
advised on the types of manpower inform ation to
be included in the F iv e -Y ear Plan (1963-67). F o r
exam ple, he su perv ised the preparation of
p rojectio n s by industry and occupation, the tab­
ulation of a sp e cia l study of the public se c to r,

228




and the an aly sis of unfilled vacan cies a s reported
by the Employment Serv ice.
Recom m endations con sisted of su ggestion s
fo r supplementing and strengthening the work
alread y started :
1. The v ariou s types of inform ation needed
fo r manpower planning and an aly sis were d is ­
c u sse d . The manpower inform ation program
should d escrib e manpower problem s in general
and should concentrate sp e cifically on manpower
conditions in those se c to r s of the economy which
the development plan intends to influence.
2. The adm inistrative organization of a man­
power planning office and its working relatio n s
with other organization s were outlined in detail.
The organization should participate in setting
manpower g o als in the economic and so cial de­
velopment plan s.

N ear E a st and South A sia
Turkey

Manpower in Cukurova
(1964; 20 p ag es and 16 appendix tab les)
A lice W. Shurcliff, AID Manpower A dviser
Sum m ary of the manpower situation in Cukurova (P ro­
vince) and projection s of the labor fo r c e .

Population in Cukurova is in creasin g at a
fa ste r rate than in Turkey a s a whole b ecause
of a higher rate of natural in cre ase and a high
rate of net in-m igration. Unemployment has not
occu rred , however, becau se of the general p r o s ­
p erity of the region. The ru ral-to -u rb an m ove­
ment is a re su lt of g re a te r job opportunities in
the c itie s rath er than of ru ral poverty. By 1985,
half of the population of Cukurova will be living
in the 13 m ajo r c itie s.
In 1960, 58 percen t of the m ale labor force
w as engaged in ag ricu ltu re. It i s estim ated that
1 percent of the ru ra l labor fo rce and 3 percent
of the urban labor fo rce are unemployed. Unem­
ployment is higher during the winter months. F o r
exam ple, the M editerranenan V illage Survey of
F eb ru ary 1959 found 10 percen t of the men un­
employed in v illa g e s, and 30 percent employed
in jobs outside of their v illa g e s.
R elatively few children receiv e education
beyond the p rim ary school level prin cip ally b e­




cau se of the poor distribution of fa c ilitie s. Seven
c itie s in Cukurova have no academ ic, com m er­
c ia l, vocational, or technical sch ools.
A la rg e proportion of employment in manu­
facturing is in sm all family-owned e n te rp rise s
in which sk ills are handed down from father to
son. M ost la rg e m anufacturing establishm en ts
are in traditional in d u stries, such a s spinning,
weaving, and m illing, which req u ire relativ ely
sh ort p erio d s of on-the-job training. Current
demand fo r higher level sk ills com e from the
construction industry and from in stallation and
re p a ir se r v ic e s.
The techniques of making projectio n s of the
population and labor fo rce are d escrib ed and a c ­
com panied by tab les. Population is p rojected to
1990 and the labor fo rce to 1975. E stim a te s of
employment by industry and occupation a re p ro ­
vided fo r 1955 and 1960.

229

N ear E a st and South A sia
Turkey

Manpower Planning in Turkey, 1962-1964
(1964; 16 p ages and 4 tab les)
E d gar C. McVoy, AID Manpower A dviser
A d iscu ssio n of manpower problem s in Turkey and p ro­
g ra m s to allev iate these p rob lem s.

Manpower planning in Turkey is related to
two b a sic prob lem s: (a) the supply of trained
manpower to m eet in creasin g demand of e c o ­
nomic growth, and (b) overpopulation and unem­
ploym ent. Manpower p o lic ies and m easu re s in
the F iv e -Y e ar P lan (1963-67) are d isc u sse d . Im­
plem entation of the manpower p ro g ram s has p r o ­
ceeded by in creasin g employment in all sk ill
le v e ls. T h is have been accom plished by devel­
oping nonfarm ac tiv itie s in ru ra l a r e a s , by ex ­
porting su rp lu s lab o r, and by expanding lab o rintensive p ro je c ts. Manpower stu dies have been
m ade and placem ent se r v ic e s have been im ­
proved.
Several Government ag en cies a re involved
in manpower p r o g r a m s . The M in istries of
L ab o r, Education, and Industry; the State In­
stitute of S ta tistic s; and the State Personnel
B oard all play an im portant ro le in manpower
p ro g ra m s.

230




Recom m endations
1. Concepts of the econom ically active popu­
lation, employment, and unemployment should be
r e v ise d to provide m ore accu rate and com par­
able data.
2. A household sam ple of the lab o r fo rce
should be initiated on a curren t and reg u lar b a s is .
3. An a r e a employment su rvey should be
conducted.
4. Information on sp ecific groups of w orkers
should be collected, such a s wage and sa la r y
w o rk ers and scien tific, technical, and adm inis­
trativ e personnel.
5. P rojectio n s of manpower requirem ents
should be rev ised .
6. V arious m e a su re s fo r im proving m an­
power utilization and for in creasin g le v e ls of
employment a re provided.
7. The variou s o ffices and m in istrie s should
coordinate their e ffo rts in the development of
manpower p ro g ram s and training.

SE L E C T E D

READINGS

Technical M anuals, Sem inar P roceed in gs,
and Manual O rd ers on Manpower, published or sponsored
by the Agency for International Development
E stablish m en t of National Employment S e rv ic e s in Developing Countries (also available in Spanish)
Dem ographic Techniques
available in Spanish)

for

Determ ining Manpower Planning in Developing Countries (also

Role of a Lab or Departm ent in Developing Countries
Role of Social Security in Developing Countries
A Guide to the P reparation of a L abor In spectors Manual
The F o re c astin g of Manpower R equirem ents
Conducting a L abor F o rce Survey in Developing Countries
How to Make an Inventory of High Level and Skilled Manpower in Developing Countries
Techniques fo r Determ ining Manpower Skill Needs and T raining Requirem ents
Manpower P ro g ra m s and Planning in Economic Development
Manpower in Econom ic and Social Growth - P roceed in gs, 6th International Manpower Sem inar
(also available in French)
Manpower and Employment P o lic ie s fo r Developing Countries - P roceed in gs, 7th International
Manpower Sem inar (also available in Spanish)
Manpower and Active Employment P ro g ra m s fo r Developing Countries - P roceed in gs, 8th, 9th
International Manpower Sem in ars
Sym posium on F o rec astin g of Manpower Requirem ents
Sym posium on Manpower and the War on Hunger
Manual O rder 1612.40.3, Strengthening L abor M in istries
Manual O rder 1612.40.4, Manpower and Employment Development




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