# Full text of Statistical Atlas of the United States : Based Upon Results of the Eleventh Census, 1890 : Occupations, Plates 42-43

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```STATISTICAL ATLAS.

4 5

OCCUPATIONS.

Out of the total population of the country a trifle more
than one-tliird was enumerated by the Eleventh Census
as wage earners. Of that part of the population io years
of age and over about one-half were wage earners. Dia­
gram 253 represents, by the entire area of the square, the
population 10 years of age and over. The shaded portion
of the square represents the wage earners classified as
males and females.
253. Population

io

Over , C
lassified

Y

ears

of

A ge

and

W age Earners

as

257. C
lassification

Diagram 256 shows, as in the other cases, by the entire
area of the square, the total population 10 years of age
and over. This square is primarily divided into rectan­
gles, representing the nativity of the population, and each
of these rectangles is in turn divided into two parts, one
representing non-wage earners, the other wage earners.
This diagram shows that the smallest proportion of wage
earners is found among the native whites of native par­
entage, and the greatest proportion among the foreign
whites and colored.

Sex , Color,

and

of

W age E arners

by

General Nativity : 18 .
90

and

Non-Wage E arners, by Sex : 1890.
256. P
opulation
by

Color

fied

as

and

io

Y ears

of

A ge

and

O
ver ,

G eneral N ativity , Classi­

W age E arners

and

N on-Wage

Earners : 1890.

Diagram 254 shows similar facts in a somewhat differ
ent form, the square representing the number of inhab­
itants 10 years of age and over, being divided primarily
into males and females, which are about equal in num­
bers.
The rectangle representing each sex is then
divided into two parts, the shaded part representing the
number of wage earners of that sex. It is seen that more
than three-fourths of the males are wage earners, while
less than one-fifth of the females are wage earners.

254. P
opulation
by

io

Y ears

S ex , Classified

and

of
as

A ge

and

Over ,

W age E arners

N on-Wage E arners : 1890.

Diagram 257 shows, by its entire area, the total number
of wage earners. The rectangles into which it is prima­
rily divided represent the classification of wage earners by
nativity and race, and each rectangle is divided into two
parts, one representing the males of that nativity or race
and the other the females. From this it appears that the
female wage earners are by far in the smallest proportion
among the native whites of native parentage and in
greatest proportion among the colored. They are appar­
ently more numerous among native whites of foreign
parentage than among the foreign whites.

Proportion

of each

E lement

of the

P opulation

Wage Earners,
258.

Native w
hite of native parentage.

This study of the distribution of the wage earners among
the different sexes, races, and nativities is extended in the
four following diagrams. The first of them, No. 258, rep­
resents, by its total area, the number of persons native born
of native parents, who are 10 years of age and over. This
is divided into two rectangles, representing males and
females, which are, of course, practically equal in area.
Each of these rectangles is then subdivided into two parts,
the white representing non-wage earners and the shaded
portions representing wage earners.
The second diagram, No. 259, classifies in a similar
manner the native whites of foreign parentage.
The third diagram, No. 260, shows similarly foreign
white, and the fourth diagram, No. 261, the colored.
Comparing these diagrams with one another, we see, in
the first place, that the proportion of male wage earners
to all males 10 years of age and over is greatest among
the foreign whites. This is, of course, to be expected,
because our immigration is in the main of mature persons.
Next to the foreign whites the proportion of males who
are wage earners is greatest among the colored, then
among the native whites of native parents, and smallest
among the native whites of foreign parentage. This last

by

io

Y ears

of

A ge

and

Over

259.

Native w
hite of foreign parentage.

Diagram 255 also represents, by the entire area of the
square, the population 10 years of age and over, and by
the shaded portion the wage earners. In this diagram
the wage earners are classified by nativity.

255. P
opulation
Classified

as

io

Wage E arners ,
by

Color

and

Y ears

of

Age

and

O
ver ,

N on-Wage E arners
the

and

L atter Subdivided

General N ativity : 18 .
90

260.

Foreign w
hite.

who are

Se x : 1890.

261.

C
olored.

STATISTICAL ATLAS.

4 6

of

W age-Earners
and

in

262.

263.

each of the

General N ativity ,

Professional
service.

264.

Foreign w
hite, by sex.

Agriculture, fish
eries,
an m
d ining.

by

Color

Se x : 1 9 .
S 0

Total -w ge earn
a
ers.

Native white of native parentage, by sex.

265.

F ive Occupation Groups,

and by

Native white of foreign parentage, by sex.

266.

M
anufacturing an
d
m
echan
ical indu
stries.

'M b
zM .

C
olored by sex.
,

Trade a d trans­
n
portation.

—

! 1!

personal service.
Maps 267 and 268, plate 42, show those regions of the
country which are distinctively manufacturing and agri­
cultural, as indicated by the leading occupations of the
people, the first showing the proportion which the number
engaged in manufactures bears to all wage earners. In
the northeastern states, with Maryland and Ohio, the pro­
portion of those engaged in manufactures is more than

Proportion

'll

is to be expected, since the proportion of adults among the
native whites of foreign parentage is below the normal,
owing to the fact that the parents of this class are found
among the foreign horn whites.
Turning, now, to the females, we find the highest pro­
portion of female wage earners among the negroes. This
is accounted for by the fact that this race is largely
employed as domestic servants, and in the cotton region
the women work very generally in the field. The propor­
tion of female wage earners among the foreign whites and
the native whites of foreign parentage is very nearly equal,
and is much larger than among the native whites of native
parentage.
The census classifies wage earners primarily into five
great groups, namely, i. the professions, 2. agriculture,
with fisheries and mining, 3. manufactures, 4. trade and
transportation, and 5. personal service. The extent to
which people of different races and nativities enter into
these several groups of occupations differs widely. Dia­
gram 262 illustrates this. The entire area of the square
represents the wage earners, and the rectangles into which
it is primarily divided represents the classification of the
wage earners by race and nativity. Bach of these
rectangles is in turn subdivided in accordance with the
number of wage earners in each of these great groups
of occupations. Among the native whites of native
parentage it is seen that the proportion engaged in the
professions is much larger than in any other race or
nativity; that those engaged in agriculture are propor­
tionally more numerous than among the foreign whites or
the native whites of foreign parents; that in manufactures
they are less numerous proportionally than in the last
two classes, and that in personal service there are fewer
engaged proportionally than in any other nativity or race.
The foreign whites do not affect the professions or
farming, but with their descendants, the native whites of
foreign parentage, they form the vast body of manufac­
turing operatives, and, next to the negroes, they furnish
proportionally the largest element engaged in personal
service.
The colored furnish by far the largest proportion of
farmers; in manufactures and trade and transportation
they are but feebly represented, while in personal service
they exceed, proportionally, all other races and nativities.
The next four diagrams, numbered 263 to 266, inclusive,
develop facts similar to those shown by the last diagram,
but with the addition of a classification by sex. Bach of
these squares represents the total number of wage earners
of that race or nativity. It is primarily divided into two
rectangles, one representing males, the other females, and
each of these rectangles is then further subdivided in
accordance with the five great groups of occupations. In
these diagrams the feature of greatest interest is the
classification of the females. Among the native whites of
native parentage this sex shows a large proportion in the
professions, and a small proportion in agriculture, while
the proportions in manufactures and in personal service
are largest of all, the number engaged in trade and trans­
portation being small.
Among the native whites of foreign parentage the pro­
portion in the professions is much smaller than in the
last, and those engaged in farming are but trifling, while
the proportion engaged in the three other occupations is
somewhat larger.
Among the foreign whites we find quite a different
condition of affairs. F ully three-fifths of the female wage
earners are engaged in personal service, and nearly all the
balance are operatives in manufactures.
Among the colored, the conditions are again different.
Nearly all the female wage earners, indeed, with only a
trifling remainder, are engaged either in farming or in

D
om
estic an person
d
al
service.

267.

A/

,

1" T ' 4/.,,
Vis 1

° /

N // -V
T

PROPORTION OF WAGE EARNERS IN MANUFACTURES.

L

A

)

V

!y~t

~7

A

PLATE 42.

\

3uj£L <
L

o

" R

\A

■ 'Neil
O

Denver

1

r ------------ 1
U n d er 10 p er c en t

268.

__

J

10 to 25 p e r cent

25 p e r c e n t a n d o v e r

PROPORTION OF WAGE EARNERS IN AGRICULTURE
)

1

r n
X \
L
s~
.
9

1
'is f ’ ’ B I ,

? r t
• Se - i

1
-SLnna.rk

I

WJ
Jj
/.

Winoncr

Wf&
u

jB S
dlSw

Alehisori'
JLeayenvfbrtf

jSardert

M A(h
S
O U U K
T iN S

>
'

■

HBMIMI

Wv
>

J U L t U S B J E N & C O . L IT H . N Y.

U n d er 25 p er cen t

25 to 50 p e r c e n t

□

50 p e r c e n t and o v e r

47

STATISTICAL ATLAS.

269. PROPORTION OF W A G E EA R N ER S IN EACH OF T H E F IV E OCCU PATION GROUPS, B Y S T A T E S AND TE R R ITO R IE S : 1890.

—

tz-

MISSOURI

MAINE

ffl

NEW HAMPSHIRE

NORTH DAKOTA

VERMONT

SOUTH DAKOTA

I

MASSACHUSETTS

RHODE ISLAND

KANSAS

I

CONNECTICUT

KENTUCKY

NEW YORK

NEW JERSEY

ALABAMA

PENNSYLVANIA

MISSISSIPPI

DELAWARE

LOUISIANA

MARYLAND

TEXAS

VIRGINIA

OKLAHOMA

WEST VIRGINIA

ARKANSAS

TO

i

TENNESSEE

NORTH CAROLINA

MM
1

g im

MONTANA

i■

m

l

.

SOUTH CAROLINA

i

....... :

\/A
m
111

i

TTTTTfffl
IS

WYOMING
..............

GEORGIA

1. . .

............

FLORIDA

P H

i

NEW MEXICO

................ ................. T ' T |
____U___ 1 111 1 It 111111 I l l f l J

OHIO

ARIZONA

INDIANA

UTAH
m

ILLINOIS

MICHIGAN

ff

I

WISCONSIN

MINNESOTA

if

WASHINGTON

OREGON

IOWA

CALIFORNIA
1.

Agriculture, fisheries, and m
ining. 2. M
anufacturing an m
d ech ical indu
an
stries.3. Trade a d transportation.
n

4. D
om
estic an personal service. 5 . Professional service.
d

STATISTICAL ATLAS.

4 8

271. D istrib u tio n of W age E arners of th e S pecified
Native w
hite, native paren
ts.
[Per cent.]

Native w
hite, foreign paren
ts.
[Per cent.]

Irish.
[Per cent.]
O
ccu ation
p
s.

+

8

12

16

E
nglish an W
d elsh.
[Per cent.]
20

2*

28

32

3 fc

O
ccu ation
p
s.

4

Laborers (not specified)

Farm
ers, plan
ters, etc.
S
ployes

Servan
ts

M
erchants an dealers
d

M
erchants a d dealers
n

D
raym , h
en ack en etc.
m ,

Agricultural laborers

Agricultural laborers

C
arpenters an joiners
d

M
iners

C
otton m operatives
ill

Iron an steel w
d
orkers

M
achinists

H

C
otton m operatives
ill

C
lerks a d copyists
n

C
arpenters a d joiners
n

Iron a d steel w
n
orkers

Lannderers a dlau d
n
n resses

S
ployes
1

B
oot an sh m ers
d
oe ak

M
ason
s

M
ason
s

W
oolen m operatives
ill

C
lerks a d copyists
n

S^

8
|

Painters, glaziers, etc.

B
lacksm
iths

h

B
lacksm
iths

W
atchm
en, policem
en,etc.

Engineers a d firem
n
en ■
(hot locom
otive)

D
ressm
akers

Mill an factory operatives ■
d
(not specified)

Engineers a d firem
n
en
(not locom
otive)

D
raym , h
en ack en etc. H
m ,

W
oolen m operatives
ill

D
ressm
akers
B
oot a d sh m
n
oe akers

Mill a d factory op rati ves
n
e
(not specified)

Agents, etc.

M
achinists

S
alesm an salesw
en
d
om
en ■

Tailors a d tailoresses
n
S
aloon keepers

B
ookkeepers, etc.

M
arble cu
tters

Tailors a d tailoresses
n

G
arden
ers, florists, etc.

M
arble cu
tters

S
alesm a d salesw
en n
om
en
1

■

M
anu
factu
rers, etc.

Painters, glaziers, etc.

C
lergym
en

H sekeepers
ou

B tch
u
ers

H
ostlers

M
olders

Leather cu
rriers, etc.

Teachers

M
olders

H sekeepers
ou

Forem
en a d overseers
n

Printers, etc.

N
urses

Silk m operatives
ill

Agents, etc.

B
oarding a d lodging
n
h se keepers
ou

C
otton m operatives
ill
Laborers (not specified)
Farm
ers
C
arpenters an joiners
d
M a d factory operatives!
ill n
(not specified)
Agricultural laborers
B
oot an sh m
d
oe akers
W
oolen m operatives
ill
Brick m
akers
Saw a d planing m |
n
ill
em
ployes
Servants
D
raym
en, h
ack en etc.
m ,
M
erchants an dealers
d
S
ployes
D
ressm
akers
Lu berm
m
en a d raftsm
n
en |
B
lacksm
iths
C
lerks an copyists
d
M
ason
s
W
ood ch
oppers
Painters, glaziers, etc.
S
alesm an salesw
en
d
om I
en
Hosiery a d knitting m
n
ill
operatives
M a c h in is ts
Iron an steel w
d
orkers
W
ood w
orkers (n a
. .)
E
ngineers a d firem
n
en
(not locom
otive)
M
arble cu
tters
Paper m operatives
ill
B
akers
Q arrym
u
en
S loon keepers
a
Leather cu
rriers, etc.
Tailors a d tailoresses
n

Z
O 24- 2 32, 5 6
a

S
eam
stresses
Q arrym
u
en

Plu bers, etc.
m

16

Plum
bers, etc.

S
eam
stresses

a \
Z

W
atchm
en, policem
en,etc.
1

B
arten
ders

4»

N
urses

ployes

O
ccu ation
p
s.

16

M
iners

Servan
ts

an ian
s.
[Per cent.]

12

Farm
ers

Laborers (not specified)

an ian
s
[Per cent.]

8

B
uilders

French.

Italians
[Percent.]

?0

24

28

12

56

4 9

STATISTICAL ATLAS.

N a t iv it ie s by t h e ir P r in c ip a l Occupations : 1890

O
ccu ation
p
s.

+

S

IM t

»

l*

28 3 3
3 fc

O
ccu
pation
s.

F
arm
ers

Fanners

M
iners

Laborers (not specified)

Laborers (not specified)

S
ervan
ts
Agricultural laborers

Servan
ts

M
erchants a d dealers
n

C
arpenters an joiners
d

C
arpen
ters an joiners
d

M
erchants an dealers
d

8

it

16

20

24

28

32

O
ccu
pation
s.

>6
Farm
ers

F arrn
ers

Laborers (not specified)

Agricultural laborers

Agricultural lab
orers

S
ervan
ts

C
arpenters an joiners
d

C
arpenters a d joiners
n

Saw a d planing m
n
ill
em
ployes
Tailors a d tailoresses
n

B
utchers

C
lerks an copyists
d

M
erchants a d dealers
n

B
akers

C
otton m operatives
ill

C
lerks an copyists
d

B
lacksm s
ith
S
ployes

S
ployes

M
ason
s

B
lacksm
iths

E
ngineers a d firem
n
en
(not locom
otive)

S
aloon keepers

Mill an factory operatives |
d
(not specified)
S
alesm an salesw
en
d
om
en |

M
ason
s
Painters, glaziers, etc.
M
iners

Painters, glaziers, etc.

M
achinists

B
ookkeepers, etc.

Cigar m
akers a d tobacco
n
w o rk e rs
Iron a d steel w
n
orkers

Iron a d steel w
n
orkers
W
oolen m operatives
ill

B
rew
ers a d m
n
altsters

D
raym
en, h
ack en etc.
m ,

S
alesm
en a d salesw
n
om
en!

G
ardeners, florists, etc.

C
abinet m
akers

D
ressm
akers

G
arden
ers, florists, etc.

M
olders

B
arbers

Agents, etc.

M
anufacturers

Tailors an tailoresses
d

S
aw a d planing m
n
ill
em
ployes

Boot an sh m
d
oe akers

M
erchants a d dealers
n

S
ployes

D
raym
en, h
ack en etc.
m ,

M
arble cu
tters

ployes

M
iners

Boot an sh m
d
oe akers

I Agricultural laborers

Laborers (not specified)

S
ervan
ts

Tailors an tailoresses
d

M
achinists

M
anu
factu
rers, etc.

W
ood w
orkers (not sp
ecifled)
D
ressm
akers

S
ailors

Agents, etc.

Printers, etc.

Tailors an tailoresses
d

D
raym
en, h
ack en etc.
m ,

M
iners

S
ailors

Boot a d sh m
n
oe akers

B
oot aiu sh m
l
oe akers

D
ressm
akers

M
achinists

Brick m
akers

M
ason
s
D
ressm
akers

M
achinists

Lu berm
m
en an raftsm
d
en

G
arden
ers, florists, etc.

Lau
nderers a d lau dresses|
n
n

S
alesm a d salesw
en n
om
en!

Iron a d steel w
n
orkers

B tch
u
ers

Stock raisers, etc.

D
airym
en a d dairy
n
w
om
en
Stock raisers, etc.

S
alesm a d salesw
en n
om
en
C
abinet m ers
ak

E
ngineers an firem
d
en
(not locom
otive)

W
ood w
orkers (not speci­
fied)
Engineers a d firem
n
en
(not locom
otive)

Lau derersan lau d
u
d
n resses

H sekeepei s
ou

S
aloon keepers

S
eam
stresses

Agents, etc.

M
arble cu
tters

C
abinet m
akers

M
olders

Iron an steel w
d
orkers

H sekeepers
ou

Leather cu
rriers, etc.

Boiler m
akers

B
lacksm
iths

B
rick m
akers

Plasterers

Saw a d planing m
n
ill
em
ployes

B
ookkeepers, etc.

B
uilders

M
ason
s

C
lerks a d copyists
n

S
eam
stresses

W
atchm
en, policem
en,etc. |

C
lerks an copyists
d

Painters, glaziers, etc.

Lau d
n erersan lau dresses
d
n

N
urses

Painters, glaziers, etc.

H
ucksters an peddlers
d

H sekeepers.
ou

D
raym , h
en ack en etc.
m ,

E
ngineers a d firem
n
en |
(not locom
otive)

Teachers

B
lacksm
iths

B
artenders

Silk m operatives
ill

D es.
an
[Per cent.]

S edes an N
w
d orw
egians.
[Per cent.j

G
erm s.
an
[Per cent.]

S
cotch
.
[Percent.]

M
olders

num
bers, etc.

W
ood w
orkers (1 . s.)
1

B em
oh
ian
s.
R ssian
u
s.

[Per cent.]

[Per cent.]
O ccupations.

8

1 IB 20 24 28 3 . 36
2
2

O
ccu
pation
s.

Tailors a d tailoresses
n

Laborers (not specified)

Farm
ers, plan
ters, etc.

M
iners

Laborers, (not specified)

Servants

H
ucksters a d peddlers
n
M
iners
M
erchants a d dealers
n
Agricultural laborers
Servants
C
igar m
akers an tobacco |
d
w
orkers
C
lerks a d copyists
n
B
oot a d sh m
n
oe akers
C
arpenters a d joiners
n
S
eam
stresses
S
alesm an salesw
en
d
om
en!
Shirt m ers, etc.
ak
Lu berm an raftsm
m
en
d
en |
D
ressm
akers
Painters, glaziers, etc.
S
ployes
H an cap m ers
at
d
ak

Tailors a d tailoresses
n
Iron a d steel w
n
orkers
M
erchants an dealers
d
S
ployes
F
arm
ers
Agricultural laborers
H
ucksters an peddlers
d
C
harcoal bu ers
rn
Cigar m
akers a d tobacco
n
.w
orkers
S
eam
stresses
C
lerks a d copyists
n
B
oot an sh m
d
oe akers
Brick m
akers
S lesm a d salesw
a
en n
om
en

Farm
ers
Laborers (not specified)
Tailors an tailoresses
d
Cigar m
akers a d tobacco!
n
w
orkers
Agricultural laborers
Servants
C
arpenters an joiners
d
M
erchants an dealers
d
Saw an planing m |
d
ill
em
ployes
B
oot a d sh m ers
n
oe ak
M
iners
C
lerks a d copyists
n
S
ployes
B
lacksm
iths
B tch
u
ers
M
ason
s
S
aloon keepers
D
raym
en, h
ack en etc.
m ,

D
ressm
akers
Q arrym
u
eu
C
arpenters a d joiners
n
W
oolen m operatives
ill

Saw a d planing m
n
ill
em
ployes
Fisherm
en a d oysterm
n
en|

O ccupations.

Iron a d steel w
n
orkers
Painters, glaziers, etc.
Lau derers a d lau d
u
n
n resses J
S
alesm a d salesw
en n
om
en
B
akers

W
ood ch
opp
ers
C
abinet m ers
ak
B tch
u
ers
C
oop
ers
M
anu
factu
rers, etc.
Q arry m
u
en
Agents, etc.

D
ressm
akers
M
ach
inists
M
anu
factu
rers, etc.

D
raym
en, h
ack en etc.
m ,
M
olders
Sailors
Iron an steel w
il
orkers
Sewing m
achine operators ]
Tinners
Teachers
B
arbers
S loon keepers
a
Brick m
akers

S
eam
stresses
W
ood w
orkers, (n. s.)

[Per cent.]

50

STATISTICAL ATLAS.

one-fourtli of all wage earners, while in the southern states
the proportion of those engaged in manufactures is very
small, being less than io per cent. The other map shows
that in the southern states more than one-half the wage
earners are engaged in agriculture, while in several of
the northeastern states the proportion is less than onefourth.
Diagram 269 shows the proportions in which the wage
earners of each state are engaged in each of these five
great groups of occupations. In each case the full length
of the bar represents 100 persons, and the proportion of
them engaged in each of these occupation groups is repre­
sented by a proportional part of the bar. It will be seen
that in the southern states agriculture is by far the pre­
dominant industry, three-fourths or more of the wage
earners being devoted to it in the states of South Caro­
lina, Mississippi, and Arkansas, while on the other hand,
in Massachusetts and Rhode Island, and to a less degree
in adjacent states, manufacturing is the predominant
industry.
Diagram 270 shows the number of persons, classified as
males and females, who are engaged in certain specified
occupations. It is seen that farmers and farm laborers
are far in excess of the number in all other occupations.
It is seen also that in certain occupations women exceed

270. N
umber

o f

men in numbers, and several occupations they absorb
entirely.
Diagram 271 shows the prevailing occupations among
the people of different races and detailed nativities, by
giving the proportion of the total number of wage earners
of each nativity or race who are engaged in each of the
occupations specified, thus: among the Irish, nearly 20 per
cent are laborers, 16 per cent are servants, and 9.5 per
cent are farmers, planters, etc.
A study of this diagram, or rather series of diagrams,
brings out many interesting and important facts regard­
ing our foreign element as contrasted with our native
element and with the colored. Thus, no other people,
with the exception of the negroes, affect agricultural pur­
suits to as great an extent as the native whites of native
parentage do. Those people who most closely approach
the latter in this respect are the Danes, Swedes, Nor­
wegians, and Bohemians. The English, the Irish, the
Scotch, the French Canadians, the Italians, and the
Huns become farmers only to a small extent. The Irish
mainly become laborers or servants. The English and
Scotch are in large part divided between farming and
mining. W hile more Germans engage in farming than
in any other pursuit, still a large proportion of them are
laborers, merchants, and servants. The Swedes and Nor­
wegians apparently have little aptitude for trade, but,

Persons

io

Y ears

of

A ge

and

Over E ngaged

in the

Specified Occupations,

passing over the farming contingent, which is largest,
the occupations in which they are most numerous are
laborers and servants. The Danes are distributed much
the same as the Swedes and Norwegians.
The cotton mills of New England are the chief attrac­
tion to the French Canadians. The Italians are mainly
laborers, although they have a considerable contingent
engaged in mining. The Huns are mainly laborers or
miners.
Diagram 272, plate 43, shows for each of 32 occupa­
tions the nationality and race of the wage earners
engaged in it. Thus, among farmers, the total number
of which is represented by the full length of the bar,
the native whites of native parents constitute about twothirds, while the native whites of foreign parents are not
over 7 per cent, the foreign whites about 15 per cent, and
the remainder colored. The proportion of wage earners
furnished by each of 9 different foreign nationalities is
given. Among the cotton mill operatives we find that
the native whites of native parentage constitute about 30
per cent, the native whites of foreign parentage about 25
per cent, the remainder, 45 per cent, being practically of
foreign birth. Of this 45 per cent, 9 per cent are of Irish
birth, 10 per cent are English and Scotch, and nearly
all of the remainder being Canadians.

by

Sex : 18 .
90

[M illio n s .]
O c c u p a tio n s .

4

F a n n e r s , p la n te r s , e tc .
F a r m la b o r e r s
L a b o r e r s (n o t sp e c ifie d )
S e r v a n ts
M e r c h a n ts a n d d e alers
C a r p e n te r s a n d .jo in e rs
C le rk s a n d c o p y is ts
M in e r s
S te a m r a ilr o a d e m p lo y e s
D ra y m e n , lia c k m e n , e tc .
T e a c h ers
D re s s m a k e rs
S a le sm en n n d s a le s w o m e n
L a n n d c r e r s a n d la u n d re s s e s
E n g in e e r s a n d firem en (n o t lo c o m o tiv e )
P a in te r s , g la z ie r s , e tc .
B o o t a n d sh o e m a k e rs
B la c k s m ith s
T a ilo r s
M a c h in is ts
C o tto n m ill o p e ra tiv e s
A c c o u n ta n ts
M aso n s
S e a m stre ss e s
I r o n a n d s te e l w o rk e rs
S aw a n d p la n in g m ill em p lo y e s
C ig a r m a k e r s a n d to b a c c o w o rk e rs
B tch
u
ers
P h y s ic ia n s
L u m b e rm e n a n d r a f ts m e n
L a w y e rs
C le rg y m e n
P r in te r s
B arb ers

W o o len m ill o p e ra tiv e s
A p p r e n tic e s to tra d e s
G a rd e n e r s , flo r is ts , e tc .
S to c k ra is e r s , h e rd e rs , e tc .
M u s ic ia n s
F is h e rm e n a n d o y s te r m e n
M illin e rs
N u rs e s
C o m m ercial tr a v e le r s
P lu m b e r s , e tc .
T e le g ra p h a n d te le p h o n e o p e r a to r s
E n g in e e r s , c iv il a n d m eclian icu l

I M ales.

F e m a le s .

5

272.

DISTRIBUTION OF THOSE ENGAGED IN CERTAIN SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, BY COLOR AND NATIONALITY:

1890.

PLATE 43.

ALL OCCUPATIONS

FARMERS, PLANTERS, ETC

AGRICULTURAL LABORERS

1 2

3

4

5 79

LABORERS

SERVANTS

MERCHANTS AND DEALERS

4

CARPENTERS AND JOINERS

1

2

3

4

6 8
7

5

6
7
8

5

9

9

CLERKS AND COPYISTS

DRAYMEN, HACKMEN, TEAMSTERS, ETC

MINERS

5

6

7

8

TEACHERS

DRESSMAKERS

SALESMEN AND SALESWOMEN

PAINTERS, GLAZIERS AND VARNISHERS

BOOT AND SHOEMAKERS

4

BLACKSMITHS

4

3

TAILORS AND TAILORESSES

4

5

6

5

t

8

9

, 89

5

.

....

7

MACHINISTS

AGENTS (REAL ESTATE, INSURANCE, ETC.) ANO
COLLECTORS

COTTON MILL OPERATIVES

BOOKKEEPERS AND ACCOUNTANTS

Z

I

3

4

5

6

MASONS

4

SEAMSTRESSES

1

2

3

7

5

4

5

6

7

8

8

9

9

IRON AND STEEL WORKERS

ENGINEERS AND FIREMEN (NOT LOCOMOTIVE)

SAW AND PLANING MILL EMPLOYEES

CIGAR MAKERS AND TOBACCO WORKERS

BUTCHERS

MANUFACTURERS, ETC.

PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS

LAUNDERERS AND LAUNDRESSES
NATIVE WHITE, NATIVE PARENTS
I. IRISH

2. ENGLISH, WELSH AND SCOTCH

__________
3. GERMANS

NATIVE WHITE, FOREIGN PARENTS
4, SCANDINAVIANS

6. FRENCH

FOREIGN WHITE, NUMBERED
7. ITALIANS

8. SLAVS, ETC,

9. OTHER FOREIGN
J U L IU S B IE N & CO, L IT H . N Y.

COLORED

9

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