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STATISTICAL ATLAS. 4 5 OCCUPATIONS. Out of the total population of the country a trifle more than one-tliird was enumerated by the Eleventh Census as wage earners. Of that part of the population io years of age and over about one-half were wage earners. Dia gram 253 represents, by the entire area of the square, the population 10 years of age and over. The shaded portion of the square represents the wage earners classified as males and females. 253. Population io Over , C lassified Y ears of A ge and W age Earners as 257. C lassification Diagram 256 shows, as in the other cases, by the entire area of the square, the total population 10 years of age and over. This square is primarily divided into rectan gles, representing the nativity of the population, and each of these rectangles is in turn divided into two parts, one representing non-wage earners, the other wage earners. This diagram shows that the smallest proportion of wage earners is found among the native whites of native par entage, and the greatest proportion among the foreign whites and colored. Sex , Color, and of W age E arners by General Nativity : 18 . 90 and Non-Wage E arners, by Sex : 1890. 256. P opulation by Color fied as and io Y ears of A ge and O ver , G eneral N ativity , Classi W age E arners and N on-Wage Earners : 1890. Diagram 254 shows similar facts in a somewhat differ ent form, the square representing the number of inhab itants 10 years of age and over, being divided primarily into males and females, which are about equal in num bers. The rectangle representing each sex is then divided into two parts, the shaded part representing the number of wage earners of that sex. It is seen that more than three-fourths of the males are wage earners, while less than one-fifth of the females are wage earners. 254. P opulation by io Y ears S ex , Classified and of as A ge and Over , W age E arners N on-Wage E arners : 1890. Diagram 257 shows, by its entire area, the total number of wage earners. The rectangles into which it is prima rily divided represent the classification of wage earners by nativity and race, and each rectangle is divided into two parts, one representing the males of that nativity or race and the other the females. From this it appears that the female wage earners are by far in the smallest proportion among the native whites of native parentage and in greatest proportion among the colored. They are appar ently more numerous among native whites of foreign parentage than among the foreign whites. Proportion of each E lement of the P opulation Wage Earners, 258. Native w hite of native parentage. This study of the distribution of the wage earners among the different sexes, races, and nativities is extended in the four following diagrams. The first of them, No. 258, rep resents, by its total area, the number of persons native born of native parents, who are 10 years of age and over. This is divided into two rectangles, representing males and females, which are, of course, practically equal in area. Each of these rectangles is then subdivided into two parts, the white representing non-wage earners and the shaded portions representing wage earners. The second diagram, No. 259, classifies in a similar manner the native whites of foreign parentage. The third diagram, No. 260, shows similarly foreign white, and the fourth diagram, No. 261, the colored. Comparing these diagrams with one another, we see, in the first place, that the proportion of male wage earners to all males 10 years of age and over is greatest among the foreign whites. This is, of course, to be expected, because our immigration is in the main of mature persons. Next to the foreign whites the proportion of males who are wage earners is greatest among the colored, then among the native whites of native parents, and smallest among the native whites of foreign parentage. This last by io Y ears of A ge and Over 259. Native w hite of foreign parentage. Diagram 255 also represents, by the entire area of the square, the population 10 years of age and over, and by the shaded portion the wage earners. In this diagram the wage earners are classified by nativity. 255. P opulation Classified as io Wage E arners , by Color and Y ears of Age and O ver , N on-Wage E arners the and L atter Subdivided General N ativity : 18 . 90 260. Foreign w hite. who are Se x : 1890. 261. C olored. STATISTICAL ATLAS. 4 6 of W age-Earners and in 262. 263. each of the General N ativity , Professional service. 264. Foreign w hite, by sex. Agriculture, fish eries, an m d ining. by Color Se x : 1 9 . S 0 Total -w ge earn a ers. Native white of native parentage, by sex. 265. F ive Occupation Groups, and by Native white of foreign parentage, by sex. 266. M anufacturing an d m echan ical indu stries. 'M b zM . C olored by sex. , Trade a d trans n portation. — ! 1! personal service. Maps 267 and 268, plate 42, show those regions of the country which are distinctively manufacturing and agri cultural, as indicated by the leading occupations of the people, the first showing the proportion which the number engaged in manufactures bears to all wage earners. In the northeastern states, with Maryland and Ohio, the pro portion of those engaged in manufactures is more than Proportion 'll is to be expected, since the proportion of adults among the native whites of foreign parentage is below the normal, owing to the fact that the parents of this class are found among the foreign horn whites. Turning, now, to the females, we find the highest pro portion of female wage earners among the negroes. This is accounted for by the fact that this race is largely employed as domestic servants, and in the cotton region the women work very generally in the field. The propor tion of female wage earners among the foreign whites and the native whites of foreign parentage is very nearly equal, and is much larger than among the native whites of native parentage. The census classifies wage earners primarily into five great groups, namely, i. the professions, 2. agriculture, with fisheries and mining, 3. manufactures, 4. trade and transportation, and 5. personal service. The extent to which people of different races and nativities enter into these several groups of occupations differs widely. Dia gram 262 illustrates this. The entire area of the square represents the wage earners, and the rectangles into which it is primarily divided represents the classification of the wage earners by race and nativity. Bach of these rectangles is in turn subdivided in accordance with the number of wage earners in each of these great groups of occupations. Among the native whites of native parentage it is seen that the proportion engaged in the professions is much larger than in any other race or nativity; that those engaged in agriculture are propor tionally more numerous than among the foreign whites or the native whites of foreign parents; that in manufactures they are less numerous proportionally than in the last two classes, and that in personal service there are fewer engaged proportionally than in any other nativity or race. The foreign whites do not affect the professions or farming, but with their descendants, the native whites of foreign parentage, they form the vast body of manufac turing operatives, and, next to the negroes, they furnish proportionally the largest element engaged in personal service. The colored furnish by far the largest proportion of farmers; in manufactures and trade and transportation they are but feebly represented, while in personal service they exceed, proportionally, all other races and nativities. The next four diagrams, numbered 263 to 266, inclusive, develop facts similar to those shown by the last diagram, but with the addition of a classification by sex. Bach of these squares represents the total number of wage earners of that race or nativity. It is primarily divided into two rectangles, one representing males, the other females, and each of these rectangles is then further subdivided in accordance with the five great groups of occupations. In these diagrams the feature of greatest interest is the classification of the females. Among the native whites of native parentage this sex shows a large proportion in the professions, and a small proportion in agriculture, while the proportions in manufactures and in personal service are largest of all, the number engaged in trade and trans portation being small. Among the native whites of foreign parentage the pro portion in the professions is much smaller than in the last, and those engaged in farming are but trifling, while the proportion engaged in the three other occupations is somewhat larger. Among the foreign whites we find quite a different condition of affairs. F ully three-fifths of the female wage earners are engaged in personal service, and nearly all the balance are operatives in manufactures. Among the colored, the conditions are again different. Nearly all the female wage earners, indeed, with only a trifling remainder, are engaged either in farming or in D om estic an person d al service. 267. A/ , 1" T ' 4/.,, Vis 1 ° / N // -V T PROPORTION OF WAGE EARNERS IN MANUFACTURES. L A ) V !y~t ~7 A PLATE 42. \ 3uj£L < L o " R \A ■ 'Neil O Denver 1 r ------------ 1 U n d er 10 p er c en t 268. __ J 10 to 25 p e r cent 25 p e r c e n t a n d o v e r PROPORTION OF WAGE EARNERS IN AGRICULTURE ) 1 r n X \ L s~ . 9 1 'is f ’ ’ B I , ? r t • Se - i 1 -SLnna.rk I WJ Jj /. Winoncr Wf& u jB S dlSw Alehisori' JLeayenvfbrtf jSardert M A(h S O U U K T iN S > ' ■ HBMIMI Wv > J U L t U S B J E N & C O . L IT H . N Y. U n d er 25 p er cen t 25 to 50 p e r c e n t □ 50 p e r c e n t and o v e r 47 STATISTICAL ATLAS. 269. PROPORTION OF W A G E EA R N ER S IN EACH OF T H E F IV E OCCU PATION GROUPS, B Y S T A T E S AND TE R R ITO R IE S : 1890. — tz- MISSOURI MAINE ffl NEW HAMPSHIRE NORTH DAKOTA VERMONT SOUTH DAKOTA I MASSACHUSETTS NEBRASKA RHODE ISLAND KANSAS I CONNECTICUT KENTUCKY NEW YORK NEW JERSEY ALABAMA PENNSYLVANIA MISSISSIPPI DELAWARE LOUISIANA MARYLAND TEXAS VIRGINIA OKLAHOMA WEST VIRGINIA ARKANSAS TO i TENNESSEE NORTH CAROLINA MM 1 g im MONTANA i■ m l . SOUTH CAROLINA i ....... : \/A m 111 i TTTTTfffl IS WYOMING .............. GEORGIA 1. . . ............ COLORADO FLORIDA P H i NEW MEXICO ................ ................. T ' T | ____U___ 1 111 1 It 111111 I l l f l J OHIO ARIZONA INDIANA UTAH m ILLINOIS NEVADA MICHIGAN ff I WISCONSIN MINNESOTA if IDADO WASHINGTON OREGON IOWA CALIFORNIA 1. Agriculture, fisheries, and m ining. 2. M anufacturing an m d ech ical indu an stries.3. Trade a d transportation. n 4. D om estic an personal service. 5 . Professional service. d STATISTICAL ATLAS. 4 8 271. D istrib u tio n of W age E arners of th e S pecified Native w hite, native paren ts. [Per cent.] Native w hite, foreign paren ts. [Per cent.] Irish. [Per cent.] O ccu ation p s. + 8 12 16 E nglish an W d elsh. [Per cent.] 20 2* 28 32 3 fc O ccu ation p s. 4 Laborers (not specified) Farm ers, plan ters, etc. S team railroad em ployes Servan ts M erchants an dealers d M erchants a d dealers n D raym , h en ack en etc. m , Agricultural laborers Agricultural laborers C arpenters an joiners d M iners C otton m operatives ill Iron an steel w d orkers M achinists H C otton m operatives ill C lerks a d copyists n C arpenters a d joiners n Iron a d steel w n orkers Lannderers a dlau d n n resses S team railroad em ployes 1 B oot an sh m ers d oe ak M ason s M ason s W oolen m operatives ill C lerks a d copyists n S^ 8 | Painters, glaziers, etc. B lacksm iths h B lacksm iths W atchm en, policem en,etc. Engineers a d firem n en ■ (hot locom otive) D ressm akers Mill an factory operatives ■ d (not specified) Engineers a d firem n en (not locom otive) D raym , h en ack en etc. H m , W oolen m operatives ill D ressm akers B oot a d sh m n oe akers Mill a d factory op rati ves n e (not specified) Agents, etc. M achinists S alesm an salesw en d om en ■ Tailors a d tailoresses n S aloon keepers B ookkeepers, etc. M arble cu tters Tailors a d tailoresses n G arden ers, florists, etc. M arble cu tters S alesm a d salesw en n om en 1 ■ M anu factu rers, etc. Painters, glaziers, etc. C lergym en H sekeepers ou B tch u ers H ostlers M olders Leather cu rriers, etc. Teachers M olders H sekeepers ou Forem en a d overseers n Printers, etc. N urses Silk m operatives ill Agents, etc. B oarding a d lodging n h se keepers ou C otton m operatives ill Laborers (not specified) Farm ers C arpenters an joiners d M a d factory operatives! ill n (not specified) Agricultural laborers B oot an sh m d oe akers W oolen m operatives ill Brick m akers Saw a d planing m | n ill em ployes Servants D raym en, h ack en etc. m , M erchants an dealers d S team railroad em ployes D ressm akers Lu berm m en a d raftsm n en | B lacksm iths C lerks an copyists d M ason s W ood ch oppers Painters, glaziers, etc. S alesm an salesw en d om I en Hosiery a d knitting m n ill operatives M a c h in is ts Iron an steel w d orkers W ood w orkers (n a . .) E ngineers a d firem n en (not locom otive) M arble cu tters Paper m operatives ill B akers Q arrym u en S loon keepers a Leather cu rriers, etc. Tailors a d tailoresses n Z O 24- 2 32, 5 6 a S eam stresses Q arrym u en Plu bers, etc. m 16 Plum bers, etc. S eam stresses a \ Z W atchm en, policem en,etc. 1 B arten ders 4» N urses Street railroad em ployes O ccu ation p s. 16 M iners Servan ts French C ad an ian s. [Per cent.] 12 Farm ers Laborers (not specified) English C ad an ian s [Per cent.] 8 B uilders French. Italians [Percent.] ?0 24 28 12 56 4 9 STATISTICAL ATLAS. N a t iv it ie s by t h e ir P r in c ip a l Occupations : 1890 O ccu ation p s. + S IM t » l* 28 3 3 3 fc O ccu pation s. F arm ers Fanners M iners Laborers (not specified) Laborers (not specified) S ervan ts Agricultural laborers Servan ts M erchants a d dealers n C arpenters an joiners d C arpen ters an joiners d M erchants an dealers d 8 it 16 20 24 28 32 O ccu pation s. >6 Farm ers F arrn ers Laborers (not specified) Agricultural laborers Agricultural lab orers S ervan ts C arpenters an joiners d C arpenters a d joiners n Saw a d planing m n ill em ployes Tailors a d tailoresses n B utchers C lerks an copyists d M erchants a d dealers n B akers C otton m operatives ill C lerks an copyists d B lacksm s ith S team railroad em ployes S team railroad em ployes M ason s B lacksm iths E ngineers a d firem n en (not locom otive) S aloon keepers Mill an factory operatives | d (not specified) S alesm an salesw en d om en | M ason s Painters, glaziers, etc. M iners Painters, glaziers, etc. M achinists B ookkeepers, etc. Cigar m akers a d tobacco n w o rk e rs Iron a d steel w n orkers Iron a d steel w n orkers W oolen m operatives ill B rew ers a d m n altsters D raym en, h ack en etc. m , S alesm en a d salesw n om en! G ardeners, florists, etc. C abinet m akers D ressm akers G arden ers, florists, etc. M olders B arbers Agents, etc. M anufacturers Tailors an tailoresses d S aw a d planing m n ill em ployes Boot an sh m d oe akers M erchants a d dealers n S team railroad em ployes D raym en, h ack en etc. m , M arble cu tters Steam railroad em ployes M iners Boot an sh m d oe akers I Agricultural laborers Laborers (not specified) S ervan ts Tailors an tailoresses d M achinists M anu factu rers, etc. W ood w orkers (not sp ecifled) D ressm akers S ailors Agents, etc. Printers, etc. Tailors an tailoresses d D raym en, h ack en etc. m , M iners S ailors Boot a d sh m n oe akers B oot aiu sh m l oe akers D ressm akers M achinists Brick m akers M ason s D ressm akers M achinists Lu berm m en an raftsm d en G arden ers, florists, etc. Lau nderers a d lau dresses| n n S alesm a d salesw en n om en! Iron a d steel w n orkers B tch u ers Stock raisers, etc. D airym en a d dairy n w om en Stock raisers, etc. S alesm a d salesw en n om en C abinet m ers ak E ngineers an firem d en (not locom otive) W ood w orkers (not speci fied) Engineers a d firem n en (not locom otive) Lau derersan lau d u d n resses H sekeepei s ou S aloon keepers S eam stresses Agents, etc. M arble cu tters C abinet m akers M olders Iron an steel w d orkers H sekeepers ou Leather cu rriers, etc. Boiler m akers B lacksm iths B rick m akers Plasterers Saw a d planing m n ill em ployes B ookkeepers, etc. B uilders M ason s C lerks a d copyists n S eam stresses W atchm en, policem en,etc. | C lerks an copyists d Painters, glaziers, etc. Lau d n erersan lau dresses d n N urses Painters, glaziers, etc. H ucksters an peddlers d H sekeepers. ou D raym , h en ack en etc. m , E ngineers a d firem n en | (not locom otive) Teachers B lacksm iths B artenders Silk m operatives ill D es. an [Per cent.] S edes an N w d orw egians. [Per cent.j G erm s. an [Per cent.] S cotch . [Percent.] M olders num bers, etc. W ood w orkers (1 . s.) 1 B em oh ian s. R ssian u s. [Per cent.] [Per cent.] O ccupations. 8 1 IB 20 24 28 3 . 36 2 2 O ccu pation s. Tailors a d tailoresses n Laborers (not specified) Farm ers, plan ters, etc. M iners Laborers, (not specified) Servants H ucksters a d peddlers n M iners M erchants a d dealers n Agricultural laborers Servants C igar m akers an tobacco | d w orkers C lerks a d copyists n B oot a d sh m n oe akers C arpenters a d joiners n S eam stresses S alesm an salesw en d om en! Shirt m ers, etc. ak Lu berm an raftsm m en d en | D ressm akers Painters, glaziers, etc. S team railroad em ployes H an cap m ers at d ak Tailors a d tailoresses n Iron a d steel w n orkers M erchants an dealers d S teapi railroad em ployes F arm ers Agricultural laborers H ucksters an peddlers d C harcoal bu ers rn Cigar m akers a d tobacco n .w orkers S eam stresses C lerks a d copyists n B oot an sh m d oe akers Brick m akers S lesm a d salesw a en n om en Farm ers Laborers (not specified) Tailors an tailoresses d Cigar m akers a d tobacco! n w orkers Agricultural laborers Servants C arpenters an joiners d M erchants an dealers d Saw an planing m | d ill em ployes B oot a d sh m ers n oe ak M iners C lerks a d copyists n S team railroad em ployes B lacksm iths B tch u ers M ason s S aloon keepers D raym en, h ack en etc. m , D ressm akers Q arrym u eu C arpenters a d joiners n W oolen m operatives ill Saw a d planing m n ill em ployes Fisherm en a d oysterm n en| O ccupations. Iron a d steel w n orkers Painters, glaziers, etc. Lau derers a d lau d u n n resses J S alesm a d salesw en n om en B akers W ood ch opp ers C abinet m ers ak B tch u ers C oop ers M anu factu rers, etc. Q arry m u en Agents, etc. D ressm akers M ach inists M anu factu rers, etc. D raym en, h ack en etc. m , M olders Sailors Iron an steel w il orkers Sewing m achine operators ] Tinners Teachers B arbers S loon keepers a Brick m akers S eam stresses W ood w orkers, (n. s.) [Per cent.] 50 STATISTICAL ATLAS. one-fourtli of all wage earners, while in the southern states the proportion of those engaged in manufactures is very small, being less than io per cent. The other map shows that in the southern states more than one-half the wage earners are engaged in agriculture, while in several of the northeastern states the proportion is less than onefourth. Diagram 269 shows the proportions in which the wage earners of each state are engaged in each of these five great groups of occupations. In each case the full length of the bar represents 100 persons, and the proportion of them engaged in each of these occupation groups is repre sented by a proportional part of the bar. It will be seen that in the southern states agriculture is by far the pre dominant industry, three-fourths or more of the wage earners being devoted to it in the states of South Caro lina, Mississippi, and Arkansas, while on the other hand, in Massachusetts and Rhode Island, and to a less degree in adjacent states, manufacturing is the predominant industry. Diagram 270 shows the number of persons, classified as males and females, who are engaged in certain specified occupations. It is seen that farmers and farm laborers are far in excess of the number in all other occupations. It is seen also that in certain occupations women exceed 270. N umber o f men in numbers, and several occupations they absorb entirely. Diagram 271 shows the prevailing occupations among the people of different races and detailed nativities, by giving the proportion of the total number of wage earners of each nativity or race who are engaged in each of the occupations specified, thus: among the Irish, nearly 20 per cent are laborers, 16 per cent are servants, and 9.5 per cent are farmers, planters, etc. A study of this diagram, or rather series of diagrams, brings out many interesting and important facts regard ing our foreign element as contrasted with our native element and with the colored. Thus, no other people, with the exception of the negroes, affect agricultural pur suits to as great an extent as the native whites of native parentage do. Those people who most closely approach the latter in this respect are the Danes, Swedes, Nor wegians, and Bohemians. The English, the Irish, the Scotch, the French Canadians, the Italians, and the Huns become farmers only to a small extent. The Irish mainly become laborers or servants. The English and Scotch are in large part divided between farming and mining. W hile more Germans engage in farming than in any other pursuit, still a large proportion of them are laborers, merchants, and servants. The Swedes and Nor wegians apparently have little aptitude for trade, but, Persons io Y ears of A ge and Over E ngaged in the Specified Occupations, passing over the farming contingent, which is largest, the occupations in which they are most numerous are laborers and servants. The Danes are distributed much the same as the Swedes and Norwegians. The cotton mills of New England are the chief attrac tion to the French Canadians. The Italians are mainly laborers, although they have a considerable contingent engaged in mining. The Huns are mainly laborers or miners. Diagram 272, plate 43, shows for each of 32 occupa tions the nationality and race of the wage earners engaged in it. Thus, among farmers, the total number of which is represented by the full length of the bar, the native whites of native parents constitute about twothirds, while the native whites of foreign parents are not over 7 per cent, the foreign whites about 15 per cent, and the remainder colored. The proportion of wage earners furnished by each of 9 different foreign nationalities is given. Among the cotton mill operatives we find that the native whites of native parentage constitute about 30 per cent, the native whites of foreign parentage about 25 per cent, the remainder, 45 per cent, being practically of foreign birth. Of this 45 per cent, 9 per cent are of Irish birth, 10 per cent are English and Scotch, and nearly all of the remainder being Canadians. by Sex : 18 . 90 [M illio n s .] O c c u p a tio n s . 4 F a n n e r s , p la n te r s , e tc . F a r m la b o r e r s L a b o r e r s (n o t sp e c ifie d ) S e r v a n ts M e r c h a n ts a n d d e alers C a r p e n te r s a n d .jo in e rs C le rk s a n d c o p y is ts M in e r s S te a m r a ilr o a d e m p lo y e s D ra y m e n , lia c k m e n , e tc . T e a c h ers D re s s m a k e rs S a le sm en n n d s a le s w o m e n L a n n d c r e r s a n d la u n d re s s e s E n g in e e r s a n d firem en (n o t lo c o m o tiv e ) P a in te r s , g la z ie r s , e tc . B o o t a n d sh o e m a k e rs B la c k s m ith s T a ilo r s M a c h in is ts C o tto n m ill o p e ra tiv e s A c c o u n ta n ts M aso n s S e a m stre ss e s I r o n a n d s te e l w o rk e rs S aw a n d p la n in g m ill em p lo y e s C ig a r m a k e r s a n d to b a c c o w o rk e rs B tch u ers P h y s ic ia n s L u m b e rm e n a n d r a f ts m e n L a w y e rs C le rg y m e n P r in te r s B arb ers W o o len m ill o p e ra tiv e s A p p r e n tic e s to tra d e s G a rd e n e r s , flo r is ts , e tc . S to c k ra is e r s , h e rd e rs , e tc . M u s ic ia n s F is h e rm e n a n d o y s te r m e n M illin e rs N u rs e s C o m m ercial tr a v e le r s P lu m b e r s , e tc . T e le g ra p h a n d te le p h o n e o p e r a to r s E n g in e e r s , c iv il a n d m eclian icu l I M ales. F e m a le s . 5 272. DISTRIBUTION OF THOSE ENGAGED IN CERTAIN SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, BY COLOR AND NATIONALITY: 1890. PLATE 43. ALL OCCUPATIONS FARMERS, PLANTERS, ETC AGRICULTURAL LABORERS 1 2 3 4 5 79 LABORERS SERVANTS MERCHANTS AND DEALERS 4 CARPENTERS AND JOINERS 1 2 3 4 6 8 7 5 6 7 8 5 9 9 CLERKS AND COPYISTS STEAM RAILROAD EMPLOYEES DRAYMEN, HACKMEN, TEAMSTERS, ETC MINERS 5 6 7 8 TEACHERS DRESSMAKERS SALESMEN AND SALESWOMEN PAINTERS, GLAZIERS AND VARNISHERS BOOT AND SHOEMAKERS 4 BLACKSMITHS 4 3 TAILORS AND TAILORESSES 4 5 6 5 t 8 9 , 89 5 . .... 7 MACHINISTS AGENTS (REAL ESTATE, INSURANCE, ETC.) ANO COLLECTORS COTTON MILL OPERATIVES BOOKKEEPERS AND ACCOUNTANTS Z I 3 4 5 6 MASONS 4 SEAMSTRESSES 1 2 3 7 5 4 5 6 7 8 8 9 9 IRON AND STEEL WORKERS ENGINEERS AND FIREMEN (NOT LOCOMOTIVE) SAW AND PLANING MILL EMPLOYEES CIGAR MAKERS AND TOBACCO WORKERS BUTCHERS MANUFACTURERS, ETC. PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS LAUNDERERS AND LAUNDRESSES NATIVE WHITE, NATIVE PARENTS I. IRISH 2. ENGLISH, WELSH AND SCOTCH __________ 3. GERMANS NATIVE WHITE, FOREIGN PARENTS 4, SCANDINAVIANS 5. CANADIANS 6. FRENCH FOREIGN WHITE, NUMBERED 7. ITALIANS 8. SLAVS, ETC, 9. OTHER FOREIGN J U L IU S B IE N & CO, L IT H . N Y. COLORED 9