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XIII. M iscellaneous.
IN D E X

TO

C A R R IA G E

G O L D .. ................................................... Plate 139
M in in g R e g io n s .
P r o d u c t, P e r Capita. T ota l
G old a n d S ilv e r P r o d u c t o f
G old an d S ilv e r P r o d u c t
1 8 4 6 —1 8 8 0 .
G old an d S ilv e r D e p o s ite d in

S IL V E R .

PLATES.

P ro d u ct.
th e W o r l d , 18 8 0 .
o f th e U n ite d States,

C A R R IA G E

M in t a n d A s s a y O ffices.

S A L T ............. Plate 142

N E W S P A P E R S A N D P E R I O D I C A L S . . Plates 148-149
P u b lica tio n s, T o t a l; W e e k l y ; D a ily .
P u b lica tio n s C lassified.
C ircu la tion , T o ta l; T o ta l e x c e p t o f D a ilie s; D aily.
R e tro sp e ct, 1 8 6 0 —1 8 8 0 .

T ota l P ro d u ct.

F I S H E R I E S , G E N E R A L ; O Y S T E R ; S E A L . Plate 143
T o ta l P ro d u ct.

G E N E R A L S U M M A R Y , BY T O T A L S .......... Plate 150

F I S H E R I E S , M E N H A D E N ; W H A L E ......... Plate 144

H a n k o f S tates in T e n P r in c ip a l F eatu res.

P ro d u ct, P e r Capita. T ota l P ro d u ct.
P r o d u c t o f th e U n ited States.
W h a li n g G rou n d s, P resen t a n d A b a n d o n e d .

M in in g . —

The

aggregate value

of the

147

G o v e rn m e n t L a n d G rants.
R a ilw a y M ile a g e , b y States.
T ota l M ile a g e , 1 8 3 0 —1 8 8 0 .
R a ilw a y M ile a g e o f th e W 'o r ld .
R a tio o f A r e a to M ile a g e , b y States.
Iron a n d S teel B ars, P r o d u c t; Im p o rt; C o n s u m p ­
tion.

M in in g R e g io n s .
P ro d u c t, P e r C apita. T ota l P rod u ct.
A n th ra cite , T ota l P ro d u ct, 1 8 2 0 —18 8 0 .
P ric e -C h a r t, 1 8 2 6 —18 8 0 .
T ota l O u t-P u t, 18 8 0 .

P ro d u ct, P e r Capita.

146

R A IL W A Y S ............................................... Plate

C O A L ......................................................Plate 141

M in in g R e g io n s .
P ro d u ct, P e r Capita.

BY W A T E R ............................ Plate

S tea m Craft, E a rn in g s , P e r C a p ita ; T otal.
W a t e r Craft, T o n n a g e a n d V a lu e.
Canals, In c o m e P e r C a p ita ; T otal.
C anal R o u te s.

M in in g R e g io n s .
P r o d u c t, P e r Capita. T ota l P ro d u ct.
C o p p e r Ingots, P r o d u c t b y States.

LEAD ORE.

145

R a ilw a y E a rn in g s, P e r C a p ita ; T otal.
A n a ly sis o f E a r n in g s a n d E x p e n s e s .
A ssets a n d L ia b ilities, P e r M ile.
R o llin g S to ck . P rofits. B a la n c e -S h e e t.

C O P P E R .......... ...................... Plate 140

IR O N O R E .

BY R A I L . . . ............................ Plate

These

G E N E R A L S U M M A R Y , BY R A T I O S ...........Plate 151
R a n k o f State, in T e n P r in c ip a l F eatu res.

figures

are

not, however, above

are here considered together.

product in 1880 of all branches of the mining in­

criticism.

dustry, excluding petroleum, was $223,505,018,

are certainly far too low, inasmuch as none

The following tables present estimates, by

as stated by the Census.

of the Western states or territories are credited

different authorities, of the gold and silver

one-tenth of the product of agriculture, and one-

with any production.

During the census year

production during the calendar year 1880, the

twenty-fourth of the gross product of manufac­

it is estimated that Colorado produced not

fiscal year ending June 30, 1880, and the census

tures. The following table presents the amount

less than 35,674 net tons; Utah 15,000; and

year ending June 1, 1880:

and value of each of the principal mineral pro­

Nevada 16,659 tons, while the product of other

P ro d u c tio n

This is only about

ductions, as returned by the Tenth Census:
M IN E R A L PR O D U CT S.

Those of the production of lead

two metals are generally found associated, they

Western states and

territories cannot have

been less than 10,000 tons additional.
A m o u n t .

of

Y e a r 1880,

th e

P recious M e t a l s

a s r e po r t e d b y

in

C alendar

th e

J. J. V a l e n t in e ,

of

W e lls ,

F a r g o & Co.

A lto­

V a l u e .

T o t a l

gether, fully 77,000 net tons, or 154,000,000
G o ld .......................................

....

$33,609,663(2

. . . .

4 i , i 7°, 957tf

thus nearly doubling the amount given in the

Bituminous coal (net tons)..

42,776,624

53,520,173

Anthracite coal

28,649,812

42,196,678

a n d

S il v e r .

pounds, should be added to the lead product,

Silver......................................

G o l d

“

Petroleum (barrels)..............

24,235,081

Iron ore (net tons)................

7,974,706

23, 156,957

Copper (pounds)..................

54,172,017

9,458,434

—

Several items here in­

cluded exceeded individually the total value

0 3

i ,

6 2

i

1,059,641

Washington.

105,164

Idaho.......... .

1,894,647

Montana.. . . .

3,8 22,379

Colorado.. . .

21,284,989

4,829,566

would

place

New Mexico.

711,300

3, 387,444

$40,000,000.

Arizona........

4,472.47 i

Dakota........

4,123,081

7, 935,140

Zinc

“

..................

62,681,459

4,240,006

Salt (bushels)........................

29,805,298

a.

greatly understated.

,

<,450,953
5

162,938,105

....

The value of minor minerals is certainly

5

U tah............

..................

Total..............................

Oregon. . . . .

i

A close estimate of all minor minerals

“

—

Nevada..........

$1 8 ,2 76 ,16 6

given.

Lead

Minor minerals......................

table.

California. . .

their

value

at

not

far

from

$223,505,0x8

Including estimated hoarded specimens, souvenirs, etc.

G o ld a n d S ilver. — Inasmuch

as these

Total

$77,232,512

SCRIBNER'S STATISTICAL ATLAS.

C ll

These figures include lead to the value of

The data for the estimate of the Director

product of the state, but the large yield of the

$5,742,390, and copper to the value of $898,000.

of the Mint were collected by agents scattered

Bodie district put the vein mines nearly on a

Deducting these amounts the value of gold

through the country, who visited the principal

par with placers.

and silver becomes, according to this estimate,

mines and smelting works, and supplemented

the following counties: Amador, Calaveras,

$70,592,122.

the results thus obtained by estimates of the

Mono, Nevada, Plumas, Shasta, Siskiyou and

amounts produced in a small way.

Tuolumne.

P r o d u c t io n
YEAR

of t h e

ENDING

P r e c io u s M e t a l s d u r in g t h e F is c a l

30, 1880, AS ESTIMATED BY THE

JUNE

D ir e c t o r o f t h e U n it e d S t a t e s M i n t .
STATES.

G o l d .

The

third

estimate, that by the Census

office, is the result of an attempt to get at the

S il v e r .

T o t a l .

The principal yield is from

The production of silver is com­

paratively small, and comes mainly from the
two counties of Inyo and Mono.

production by a canvass, either by personal

The business of mining is in a somewhat

visitation or by circular, of all the mines in the

more favorable position in California than in

country.

It could scarcely be expected that

the other states and territories of the Cordilleran

Alaska ..........................

$6,000

....

Arizona......................

400,000

$2,000,000

2,400,000

California..................

17,500,000

1,100,000

18,600,000

such an attempt would be crowned with com­

region, because of the relative cheapness of

Colorado...................

3,200,000

17,000,000

20,200,000

plete success.

labor, fuel and transportation.

D akota......................

3,600,000

70,000

3,670,000

Georgia......................

120,000

Idaho ........................

1,980,000

450,000

Montana....................

2,400,000

Nevada......................

$6,000

Not only would

there be,

These advant­

inevitably, a number of small mines and work­

ages enable lower grades of ore to be mined,

2,430,000

ings which would escape notice, the product of

smelted and shipped than elsewhere.

2,500,000

. 4,900,0°°

which, though individually small, would form

with the exception of a few large companies,

4,800,000

10,900,000

15,700,000

in the aggregate a large amount, but since the

the mines are mainly in the hands of individual

New Mexico..............

130,000

425,000

555,o°o

North Carolina..........

95,000

information sought is that most sedulously

owners, a great many of whom are working

Oregon.......................

1,090,000

1,105,000

concealed by mine-owners, the results could

them in a small way.

South Carolina...........

15,000

15,000

not be expected to possess the highest degree

U tah ............................

210,000

....

120,000

—

95,000

15,000
—
4,740,000

4,950,000

of reliability.

In view of its difficulty, the con­

Hence,

O f the total gold product in the United
States,

California furnishes 51.38 per cent.,

Virginia......................

10,000

Washington.................

410,000

W yom ing ...................

20,000

—

20,000

Other states..............

14,000

....

14,000

The maximum annual production of gold,

$75,200,000

in the interval between 1850 and 1880,* was

California furnishes only a little over 2 per

$65,000,000, reached in 1853, at the height of

cent.

the California excitement.

first in the production of gold; while in pro­

T otal ................. $36,000,000
P ro du c tio n
en d in g

of

th e

—

10,000

$39,200,000

P recious M e t a l s

J u n e 30, 1880,

as

410,000

....

d u rin g

R e po rt ed

by

th e

th e

Y ear

T en th

C ensus .

siderable degree of success which attended this

comprising 71.47 per cent, of the product from

investigation attests its able management.

placer mines, and over 40 per cent, of that

A second maximum

from vein mines.

O f the total silver product

In proportion to its area, this state ranks

of $53,500,000 in 1866, was produced by the

ST A TE S.

G o l d .

S il v e r .

T o t a l .

portion

out-put of the Comstock mines.

development of agricultural and manufacturing

Following this

there was a general falling off in production
Alabama .....................
Alaska ..........................

....

$1,301

until, in 1875, a minimum of $33,500,000 was

to population, owing to the great

interests in the state, it ranks fifth.

Nevada.— The mining interests of Nevada

$51

6,002

Arizona ........................

5,951
2 n , 965

2,325,825

2, 537, 79°

California ...................

17,150,941

1,150,887

18,301,828

temporary rise, giving a third maximum of

is the prosperity of the state.

Colorado....................

2,699,898

l6 , 549,274

19,249,172

$51,000,000 in 1878, was followed by a reduc­

duction of the Comstock has greatly decreased,

D akota......................

3, 305,843

70,813

3,376,656

Georgia......................

81,029

81,361

tion, in 1880, to a less product than the former

so that, from holding the first place from 1871

332

Idaho..........................

1,479,653

464,55°

1,944,203

minimum of 1875.

to 1879 as a producer of the precious metals,

M aine........................

2,999

7,200

10,199

The silver product first became important in

25,858

25,858

1861, when the Comstock lode began to produce.

product of the Comstock lode in 1876 was of

The amount has since steadily increased, the

gold, $18,002,906; of silver, $20,570,078; a total

falling off in the product of Comstock between

of $38,572,984.

M ichigan..................

....

reached.

The bonanza in the Comstock, a

center in the Comstock lode, whose prosperity
Latterly the pro­

Nevada fell in 1880 to the third place.

The

Montana....................

1,805,767

2,905,068

4, 7i °,835

Nevada......................

4,888,242

12,430,667

17,3x8,909

New Hampshire. . . .

10,999

16,000

26,999

New Mexico ...............

49,354

392,337

441,691

1870 and 1880, having been more than made

declined to $6,922,330, of which $3,109,156 was

North Carolina .........

“ 8,953

140

119,093

up by the discovery of the Leadville deposits.

gold and $3,813,174 was silver, this being a

Oregon ........................

1,097,701

27,793

i , i 25,494

South Carolina...........

13,040

Below is presented a resume of the pro­

56

13,096

T ennessee..................

1,998

U tah ............................

291,587

Virginia .......................

9,32i

Washington ...............

135,800

W yom ing ...................

U , 32i

....

4, 743,o 87

1,998

5,034,674

duction of the precious metals in the principal
mining states and territories of the W e s t:

In 1880 its

total product

reduction of more than 82 per cent.
In production per square mile of total area,
Nevada holds the third rank.

In proportion to

1,019
—

California.— In annual out-put of gold

population, however, owing to the fact that

California still leads, as also in respect to the

mining is still the prominent industry of the

total out-put since 1849, when this state became

state, and owing to the smallness of its popula­

the chief gold-producing district of the world.

T otal ................. $ 33, 379,663

9, 32i
136,819

—

tion, Nevada, notwithstanding its reduced out­

The production has been

put, retained the first place in 1880, having a

U , 32 i

$41,110,957

$74,490,620

The discrepancies between the above tables
of production can easily be explained.

The

mainly from the

auriferous gravel beds, though a large amount

product of $278.14 for each inhabitant.

estimate of W ells, Fargo & Co., contained in

is still obtained from quartz mines.

Prior to

Utah.— Silver forms the principal part of

the circular of Mr. J. J. Valentine, was derived

the development of the Bodie mines in the

the precious metals produced in Utah, the

mainly from the record of shipments of gold,

eastern central part of the state, the placer

production of gold being comparatively small.

silver

mines furnished two-thirds of the total gold

The principal mines are located in the counties

and

bullion

through

this

company,

together with estimates of the amounts carried
by other means of conveyance, and losses of
various kinds.

It is probable that these esti­

mates were not sufficiently large.

of Summit, Washington, Salt Lake, Beaver,
*See PI. 139, “ Estimated Gold and Silver Product of the
United States, 1845-1880,” in which the figures are from Reports
of the Director of the Mint, except as to 1880, for which year
the Census figures are given.

Tooele and Juab.

The ores of Utah are excep­

tionally rich, and the mines are generally in the
hands of large companies. The bullion product

MISCELLANEO US.

cm

is remarkably steady, varying little from year

greatest possible variety in character— from

Georgia, but in few localities in paying quan­

to year.

the typical fissure vein to blanket deposit,

tities.

segregated deposits, “ blow-outs,” and almost

at the surface consist of disintegrated quartz

in Arizona mainly consists of silver, the gold

every other variety known to the miner.

containing free gold, which at a slight depth

product being only about 8 per cent, of the

ores, too, are equally various

total.

The characteristic ores of Boulder county are

amounts of silver have been found in Maine

Pima and Yavapai, although Maricopa and Mo­

known as tellurides.

and in New Hampshire.

have countie's also produce a notable amount.

hood of Central City and Black Hawk are iron

O f the gold product of the world in 1880 the

Idaho.— The production of precious metals

and copper sulphurets, containing gold; while

United States furnished 33.65 per cent., of the

in Idaho is nearly equally divided between gold

those about Georgetown, and in many other

silver product 44.77 per cent., and of the total

and silver.

The principal producing mines are

sections of the state are largely galena ores,

out-put of precious metals 38.66 per cent. Other

located in the counties of Owyhee, Lemhi,

with some sulphuret of silver and free silver.

portions of North America contributed 13.92

Boise and Alturas.

O f the gold product, con­

The ores in the limited district about Leadville

per cent, of the total product.

siderably more than half is from the placers,

present great variety, ranging from pure sand

It is difficult to determine the extent to

many o£ which continue to be worked at a

carbonate to chlorides of silver and native

which the country has been enriched directly

profit.

silver.

by its mines of gold and silver.

Arizona.— The product of precious metals

The mines are mostly in the counties of

Idaho furnishes 7.33 per cent, of the

The

in character.

Those in the neighbor­

The production from placer mines in

total placer out-put of the United States, and

this state is trifling, being but little

4.43 of the total gold product.

$100,000 annually.

In the quantity

over

The deposits are mostly in veins, which

are replaced by refractory sulphurets.

Small

(See Plate 139.)

It has been

estimated, however, by Mr. Albert Williams, Jr.,
that out of a total production of nearly $2,000,-

of gold produced it ranks as sixth, and in that

In the production of the precious metals,

of silver as seventh among the mining states

in proportion to area, Colorado has taken the

been net profit.

and territories.

The yield of precious metals

first rank; in proportion to population, how­

mining industry has moreover been incalculable

in 1880 averaged $22.93 per square mile and

ever, it ranks only third, owing to its large

in the impetus given to the settlement and

$59.62 per capita.

agricultural, grazing and commercial interests.

agricultural development of a large part of the

000,000, about 25 per cent., or $500,000,000, has
The indirect benefit of the

Oregon.— Oregon has at no time held a

Dakota. — The production of precious

Cordilleran region, which would otherwise, in

leading place in the production of the precious

metals in Dakota is limited to the Black Hills

all probability, have remained long unimproved.

metals, although gold was discovered in the

and almost entirely to Lawrence county.

state shortly after its discovery in California.

deposits are of immense size, consisting of low

C opper. — The

The principal deposits are in the counties of

grade gold quartz, which can be worked at a

on to a greater or less extent in twenty-one

Baker and Grant, those in the former county

profit only by reason of its abundance and the

of the states and territories, including Alaska.

being quartz veins yielding free gold.

cheapness of mining and transportation.

O f the total product of 56,920,266 pounds in

The

product from the placer mines, discovered in
various parts ol the territory, has been trifling.

The

Montana.— Owing mainly to want of

mining of copper is carried

1880, four-fifths was mined in the upper penin­

transportation, the mining interests of Montana

sula of Michigan.

Colorado.— The mining history of this

have not yet been developed largely, although

total is shown on Plate 140.

state has been one of singular interest, commenc­

it is well-known that the territory has abundant

ing with the “ stampede” in 1859-1860, to the

mineral resources.

rich placers of South Park and California Gulch,

1880, the mines were contained in the following

in 1844 on well

followed by the discovery of the rebellious ores

counties: Deer Lodge, Beaverhead, Madison,

copper in seams, shreds and masses.

of Central City and Black Hawk and of the

Jefferson, Lewis and Clark.

exceptions they were unsuccessful, and are not

silver-lead ores about Georgetown.

Lodge county produced more than two-thirds

now in operation.

the year after Colorado became a state, the

the total product of the territory.

mines which are now producing heavily and

discovery of rich lead carbonates in fabulous

mated

quantities in the neighborhood o f Leadville,

product was from placer mines.

In 1877,

gave another and unprecedented impetus to
its mining interests.

that

So far as developed, in

O f these Deer

about one-fourth

It is esti­

of the

total

The distribution of the

The ore of the Lake Superior region is
native copper.

The first mines were opened
defined veins, containing
W ith few

The ore of nearly all the

profitably in this district, consists of a conglom­
erate rock, in which the copper is deposited in

New Mexico.— During the years 1879 and

metallic grains, making from 2 to 5 per cent.,

Since the first discovery

1880 the mineral deposits of New Mexico first

by weight, of the rock.

of gold in California there has been no period

began to attract general attention, although

abundant, is easily worked and, with the ample

of so great and widespread mining excitement.

many of them had long been worked by the

facilities for hoisting and transporting it, is

The state leaped almost at once to the first

Mexicans, in a crude, unsystematic way, with

handled in immense quantities.

rank as a producer of the precious metals.

considerable profit.

lation consists simply of crushing, stamping,

During the census year

The ore is extremely

The manipu­

The following counties are the principal

the principal production was from Grant county;

washing, melting and refining the product.

producers: Lake, Gilpin, Clear Creek, Boulder,

small amounts, also, being produced in the

mine in this district known as the “ Calumet

Park, Summit, Ouray and San Juan; while a

counties of Santa Fe and Doha Ana.

The

and Hecla,” produces nearly 30 per cent, of

number of other counties, will probably rival

large areas of rich placer land in New Mexico

the whole copper out-put of the United States.

these in the near future.

have been worked very little, owing to the

Deposits of copper ore are widely distributed

The most promising

of these newer mining districts is undoubtedly

One

through Arizona, but mining is carried on

scarcity of water.

Gunnison county, from which the Indians have

Eastern States.— The production of the

successfully only in two or three localities.

recently been removed, and in which a great

precious metals in the Eastern states is not of

The mine known as the “ Copper Q ueen” has

number of extremely rich veins have been

great importance.

Gold and silver are found

been producing heavily for several years. Cop­

located.

upon the Atlantic plain in Maryland, Virginia,

per is also produced in the Globe district, at

North

Pinal, and in the neighborhood of Tucson.

The

deposits

of

Colorado

present

the

and

South

Carolina,

Alabama

and

SCRIBNERS STATISTICAL ATLAS.

C IV

The second district comprises an area of

duced by establishments, as distinguished from

6,700 square miles in the central part of the

that produced in a small and sporadic w ay:*

The ores of Arizona are almost exclusively
carbonates

and

oxides.

They

are

easily

lower peninsula of Michigan.

worked, but are not of high grade.
The

copper

production

of Montana

is

mainly from mines in the neighborhood of
Butte, Deer Lodge county.

They

C oal P roduct.

thin and weak in some places, and the coal is
i88o.f

1870.

not of the best quality.
The third district extends over an area

The ores are sul-

phurets and are very rich in copper.

The seams are

323,972

11,000

Alabama....................................

IA.778

second only to that of the Appalachian district,

contain also small amounts of silver, sufficient

and comprising over 47,000 square miles.

to pay for its extraction.

includes

It

nearly two-thirds of the state of

154,644
2,624,163

6, h 5,377

Indiana......................................

Illinois, a large part of western Indiana, and

Illinois........................................

1454,327
,
771,142

Iowa............................................

437,870
263,487

States, as indicated by the area of its coal fields

The extent of the fourth district is very

Kansas...................................... ..

150,582

now known, constitutes about three-fourths of

indefinite, its limits westward never having

K entucky..................................

32,938

946,288

Michigan....................................

2,345,r5
3
28,150

2,228,917

Missouri...................... .’ ...........

621,930

556,304

C o al .— The

supply of coal in the United

the western portion of Kentucky.

The following table, com­

been defined, although it is estimated to con­

piled mainly from “ Mineral Resources of the

tain in the neighborhood of 70,000 square

United States,” by Albert Williams, Jr., of

miles.

the United States Geological Survey, shows the

and

approximate area of the coal regions of the

and the eastern portion of Kansas and Ne­

United States in comparison with those of

braska.

Maryland....................................

1,461,116

the world’s supply.

other countries:
C O U N T R IE S .

100,800

It includes the western part of Iowa
Missouri, and

extends

into

Arkansas

224
Nebraska....................................

200

1,425

2CO
Ohio............................................

6,008,595

2,527,285

43,205

Besides these districts, great areas of Colo­
Coal Area.

Product in 1880.

(Square Miles.)

(Gross Tons.)

Great Britain......................

11,9 0 0

1 4 6 ,8 1 8 ,6 1 2

United States.....................

300,000

63,773,603

Germany............................

1 ,7 7 0

5 2 ,0 4 7 ,8 3 2

Pennsylvania (anthracite)........

15,648,437

28,640,819

rado, New Mexico, W yoming, Utah, California,

Pennsylvania (bituminous)----

7,800,386

18,425,163

Oregon and Washington are known to contain

Rhode Island (anthracite). . . .

14,000

6,176

coal, varying in quality, from the best bitu­

Tennessee..................................

i 33 4i 8
,

495,131

minous variety to the poorest lignite.

In

France................................

2,086

1 9 ,4 1 2 ,1 1 2

S10

16 ,8 6 6 ,6 9 8

duced from these deposits an excellent quality

Austria................................

1,800

16,50 0 ,0 0 0

of anthracite.

India..................................

2,004

4,000,000

Russia................................

30,000

3 ,2 x 8 ,6 6 1

2,817

43>°79

61,803

Virginia (bituminous).............

limited areas, local volcanic action has pro­

Belgium..............................

Virginia (anthracite)................

14^,01 <
West Virginia............................

1,839,845

608,878

580,505

The entire area underlaid by coal in the
United States, exclusive of the Rocky mountain

T otal..............................

33,310,905

71,067,576

Anthracite..................................
Bituminous................................

15,662,437
17,648,468

42,417,764

28,649,812

Australia............................

24,840

1 ,5 7 1 ,7 3 6

Nova Scotia.......................

18,000

1 ,0 3 2 ,7 1 0

Japan..................................

5,000

850,000

about 192,000 square miles.

It is safe to esti­

Spain..................................

3,501

The location of the principal coal mining

800,000

Total........................ ..

mate the latter at upward of 100,000 square

4 0 1 ,4 0 1

3 2 6 ,8 9 1 ,9 6 4

regions in the different states and territories, is

miles, making the total coal area of the country

shown in general on Plate 141.

approximately 300,000 square miles.

summary defines somewhat more closely the

The countries are arranged in the above
table in the order of their total product.

W hile

the coal area of the United States is over

and Pacific coast areas, has been estimated at

This is

f From returns of the T enth Census.

The following

about one-tenth the total area of the country,

coal region of each state:

exclusive of Alaska.

Small tracts of anthracite in the northeastern

Rhode Island.—

twenty-five times as large as that of Great

The anthracite coal field of Pennsylvania,

corner, and on Aquidneck or Rhode Island.

Britain, its annual product is less than half as

from which nearly the entire anthracite product

Pennsylvania.— A n area estimated at 12,770

great, and its production per square mile of

is at present obtained, is situated mainly in the

square miles, covering all of the state except

coal lands is less than that of any European

following counties: Lackawanna, Luzerne, Car­

twenty-four counties in the southeastern part

country except Russia.

bon, Schuylkill,

and

O f the various coal regions of the United

Columbia,

in

the

northwest corner.

States, that of the Appalachian mountains is

additional area in the counties of Susquehanna,

end of the state, the most important bituminous

the field now most largely worked, and prob­

W ayne and Lebanon, is now unproductive

coal field of the country in proportion to its

ably the one which, for many years to come,

except in the first mentioned county.

extent.

will prove of the greatest value.

It is known

amount of anthracite stored in the deposit in

tive, mainly in Tazewell and Russell counties.

to cover an area of 875 miles in length, with a

Pennsylvania is estimated by Mr. Albert W il­

N orth Carolina.— Small tracts in the central

breadth ranging from 30 to 180 miles — the

liams, Jr., at 25,000,000,000 tons.

part, principally in Chatham and Moore coun­

total area being 58,265 square miles.

It com­

had been mined up to the close of 1880— that

ties.

prises large parts of western Pennsylvania,

is, within a period of sixty years— a little over

three-fourths of the state; especially the region

eastern Ohio, the western end of Maryland, a

400,000,000 tons, or about one-sixth of the

of the Kanawha river, containing the thickest

small area in Virginia, a large portion of W est

whole deposit.

A s the mining of anthracite

bituminous coal beds of the Appalachian field,

Virginia, of eastern Kentucky and Tennessee,

is going on at a rapidly increasing rate, the

and a second important region about the heads

and the northeastern corner of Alabama. Much

remaining five-sixths will be extracted in a

of the Potomac

the larger part of this area produces only the

proportionally shorter period.

rivers.

area of anthracite

comparatively small

coal, which

lies almost

A

county

M aryland.— Alleghany county, near the western

The

and Sullivan.

one

small

bituminous coal.

Dauphin, Lebanon

Northumberland,

The

O f this there

The following table shows, by states and

Virginia.— A small area now produc­

W est Virginia. — An

area

comprising

(north branch) and Cheat

Ohio.— The eastern and southeastern

portions of the state, forming about one-third

territories, the production of anthracite and

entirely within the state of Pennsylvania, is

bituminous coal in 1870 and 1880.

worked to a much greater proportional extent.

of this table represent only the amounts pro­

The figures

* This occasions a discrepancy between the total of bituminous
coal given here and that given in the table at the commencement
of this chapter, which includes the entire product.

MISCELLANEO US.
o f its area.

cv
P etro leu m . — The

history of the petroleum

Illinois.— A n area of 18,864 square

The product of the United States is second

miles, including twenty-five coal mining coun­

only to that of Great Britain, having doubled in

industry in this country, as a branch of mining

ties.

Indiana.— The western portion of the

amount within the five years from 1876 to 1880,

industry, dates from 1853.

southern half of the state, forming about one-

while Great Britain required twenty years to

fifth of its area.

increase its product in the same proportion.

Iowa.— One-third of the state,

The first flowing well, the “ Fountain,” was
developed in 1861, yielding 300 barrels per

Kentucky.—

Iron ore is found in nearly every state of

day. Others equally profitable followed in quick

The region of the Cumberland plateau, in the

the Union, and in twenty-two of them is mined

succession, and the price of oil fell as low as

eastern part, containing the largest supply of

to a greater or less extent.

ten cents per barrel.

cannel coal in the country, and the western

of the iron ore product of the United States in

production amounted to over 3,000,000 barrels,

central part of the state, adjoining the coal

1880 and 1870 was, according to the Census

and during that year and the years following

fields of Indiana and Illinois.

reports, as follow s:

the industry developed to an enormous extent.

comprising the southeastern part.

Tennessee.—

About 51,000 square miles in the eastern part,
capable of large production.

Alabam a.— The

1880.

22,000,000 barrels.
T o n s .

Georgia.— A small area

in the northwest corner.

M issouri.— About

23.000 square miles, in the western part of the
state.

A rkansas.— An area of 12,000 square

miles, producing semi-bituminous coal. Indian
Territory. — Mines at Levaune and Lehigh,
supplying the railroads which traverse the
territory.

Texas.— About 30,000 square miles

in the northern and western parts of the state.
Dakota.— A large area of undeveloped beds
of more or less lignitic coal.

Colorado.— An

area estimated variously at from 20,000 to
50.000 square miles, containing bituminous
coal of all varieties, with small deposits of

During the year 1862 the

The total production for 1865 amounted to

1870.

ST A T E S .

northern central portion of the state, an area
of 5,330 square miles.

The distribution

Delaware..................
Georgia....................
K en tu ck y ................
M ain e......................
Maryland..................
Massachusetts..........
Michigan..................
M issouri..................
New Jersey..............
Hew York................
North Carolina........
Ohio..........................
Oregon......................
Pennsylvania............
Tennessee................
V erm ont..................
Virginia....................
West Virginia..........
Wisconsin................
Total................

V a l u e .

l 84,IIO
as,018
2,726

T o n s .

V a l u e .

clined in their production, owing to the great

147,799
6,553
120,692

72,705
33,522

88,930

3,600

$10,800

665
17,500

53,ooo

6,000
118,050
226,130
6,034,648

57,940

62,637
1,837,712
386,197

98,354

30,061
690,393
178,842
362,636

754,872

1,674,875
2,900,442

1, 239,759

3, 449 , r32

3,276
198,835
6,972
1,820,561

5,102
448,000

316,529

4,318,999

1,095,486

525,493
4,590

600,246
130,874
2,678,965
491,496
2,025,497
2,095,315
9,250
960,984
3,944,146
131,905
25,000
23,000

560
169,683
60,371
41,440

129,951
2,750

34,619
5,000

384,331

11,950

73,ooo

20,000

22,000

7,064,829

$20,470,756

3,395,718

$13,204,138

89,933

The free-flowing wells, however, soon de­

The distribution of the product for i860 was

number of wells which were sunken over the
limited area in which the oil was found.

At

the present time the producing localities are in
the western part of the state of Pennsylvania,
southwestern New York, northwestern W est
Virginia, southeastern Ohio, northeastern K en­
tucky, and a small area in California, which,
although gaining in its production, is not as
yet of great importance.
The oil region in Pennsylvania and New
Y ork continues to be the principal producer.
It has a length in a northeast and south­
west direction of about 160 miles, and is forty

not reported by the census; its total amount

miles broad at the center.

Utah.—

was 3,218,275 tons, with a value of $7,723,860.

are scattered about the oil-producing localities

Considerable areas in the northern part, along

The small product of Indiana in 1880 was not

in the following counties: Venango, Forest,

the Union Pacific railroad, and in the southern

included in the census statistics, nor that of

Warren, McKean, Beaver and Butler counties,

part.

Alabama, Connecticut, Maine, Oregon and W est

Pennsylvania,

Virginia in 1870.

York.

anthracite..

A rizon a .— Several

the Atlantic and

mines along

Pacific railroad.

Idaho and Montana. — Large areas as

yet little developed.

Wyoming.— About 4,000

square miles, with largely productive mines

and

Within this area

Alleghany

county,

New

O f these the largest producer at present

The principal iron mines of the country are

is McKean county, Pennsylvania, after which

at Carbon, Rock Spring and

other points

in the following localities: Northern Michigan

follow Alleghany county, New York, and W ar­

along the Union Pacific railroad.

California.—

and Wisconsin, in the neighborhood of Lake

ren and Forest counties, Pennsylvania, while

small area, productive only near Monte

Superior; the vicinity of Lake Champlain, in

the others are of much less importance.

A

Diablo.

Oregon.— Small areas in various parts

New York;

southeastern Missouri;

northern

Oil

is

now transported

to the refining

of the state, and productive mines only in the

New Jersey, and Lebanon county, Pennsylvania.

works and to market by means of pipe lines,

neighborhood of Coos Bay.

W ashington.—

The ore of the Lake Superior district consists

nearly all of which are under the control of

Considerable deposits worked at Bellingham

of a very pure hematite, ranging from a gran­

the Standard Oil Company, which practically

B ay and near Seattle.

ular to a slaty structure.

monopolizes the business of refining the oil.

It is very abundant,

being obtained easily from open quarries, and

The

is either smelted where mined or at Marquette,

measured, is run directly into the great tanks

and steel in the principal countries of the

or other ports on the lakes.

The ores of

of the company, and certificates to the amount,

world, is shown in the following table:*

the Lake Champlain district are largely specular

known as “ pipe line certificates,” are issued to

iron and hematite.

the owners.

Iron . — The

COUNTRIES.

production of iron ore, pig iron

Year.

Iron Ore.
(Tons.)

Year.

Pig Iron.
(Tons.)

Year.

Steel.
(Tons.)

Those of Pennsylvania are

crude

oil

from the wells, after being

In 1878 the statement published

mainly limonite of a comparatively low grade,

by the Pipe Line Company showed that it had

and it is possible to work them profitably only

in active operation nearly 2,000 miles of pipe,

Great Britain..........

1882

16,627,000

1882

8,493,287

1882

2,259,649

United States........

1882

9,000,000

1882

4,623,323

1882

1,736,692

Germ any................

1882

8,150,162

1882

3,170,957

1882

1,050,000

from the fact that the ore and the flux necessary

with necessary appurtenances for repairing the

France....................

1882

3,500,000

1882

2,033,104

1882

453,783

for smelting are found in immediate juxtaposi­

lines.

Belgium..................

1882

250,000

1882

717,000

1882

200,000

Austria-Hungary.. 1881

1,050,000

1881

523,571

1882

225,000

tion to coal deposits.

its lines, and a moderate estimate would place

R ussia....................

1880

1,023,883

1880

448,514

1880

307,382

Sw eden..................

1881

826,254

1881

435,489

1882

52,234

Spain......................

1882

5,000,000

1880

85,939

1873

1882

350,000

1882

25,000

1876

2,800

Other countries.. . .

1882

1,000,000

1882

100,000

1882

are similar to those of Pennsylvania.

Those

216

Italy........................

The ores of New Jersey

T o ta l..............

46,777,299

20,656,184

20,000
6,307,756

*From “ Mineral Resources of the United States.”— Williams.

Since that time it has greatly increased

the mileage at 4,000— connecting some 20,000

of southeastern Missouri, located in the neigh­

wells with the market.

borhood of Iron mountain and Pilot Knob,

and storage amount to twenty cents per barrel.

consist mainly of a rich hematite.

The company does not insure the oil in its

For additional statistics of iron see M anu ­
factures ,

pages xcv-xcvi.

The charges for piping

hands, but all losses from accident or fire are
divided up among the several owners of the oil.

SCRIBNERS ST A TISTICAL A TLAS.

CV1

galena

and

flint, and the

mining.

decade the principal lead-producing regions

tons, and that of Nevada 16,659 tons, the

deposit lies under a bed of limestone.

of the United States were two in number:

latter almost entirely from the Eureka silver­

production of this district is now so large as

First, the upper Mississippi region, comprising

mining district.

to control the zinc market of the United States..

nearly 3,000 square miles, in northern Illinois,

ville deposits, in 1877, Colorado became the

southwestern Wisconsin

largest producer of lead.

and

eastern

Iowa;

Its product in 1880 was 15,000 net

associated with

L e a d . — Prior to the opening of the last

On the opening of the LeadIn 1880 the product

S alt .— Salt

The

is made extensively in Michigan,,

and, second, a much smaller but more pro­

was 35,674 net tons, nearly all of which was

New York, W est Virginia

ductive district in eastern Missouri, principally

from the Leadville district.

evaporation, mainly by

in Washington

Idaho small quantities of lead have been pro­

subterranean brines.

duced in connection with silver mining.

In the

produced by the same means in Pennsylvania,

The deposits of both these districts are of

Appalachian region lead is produced in paying

Utah (from the water of Great Salt Lake),

galena, and consist of pockets and gash veins

quantities only in Virginia and eastern Ten­

Virginia, Nevada, Texas, Kentucky, Kansas and

in lower silurian limestone. They were worked

nessee, the product, however, being small.

W yoming, and is largely produced in Cali­

county, but extending into

Jefferson and Franklin counties.

In Montana and

and

Ohio

by

artificial heat, from

T o a smaller extent it is

fornia by the evaporation of sea water; and,

to a small extent even in the last century, but
were not largely developed until 1826, at which

Z in c .— The

time the production began to increase rapidly.

United States, prior to 1873, was v e r y small.

Between 1840 and 1848 the out-put from these

In that year the production was reported to be

mines was so heavy that a large amount of lead

7,343 net tons.

In 1875, it was 15,833 net tons,

duction of the country was derived from the

was exported, but in 1850, in consequence of

and in 1880, the Census Report placed the

salt wells in Michigan and New York, from

their comparative exhaustion, the importation

product at 23,239 net tons.

The imports of

solar evaporation in California, and from the

of lead was resumed, and has continued to be

zinc amounted in 1872 to nearly 13,500 net

mines of rock salt at Petite Anse, on the

large until a very recent date.

tons; but with the increase of the product in

coast of Louisiana.

regions produced jointly, during 1880, 27,690

this country, they fell off greatly.

total product among the different states is

net tons, of which only about one-eighth was

importation did not exceed one-third that of

from the upper Mississippi district.

1872, and in 1880, was but 4,454 net tons,

The earliest production of salt on a large

while the exports of domestic zinc amounted

scale, from subterranean brines, was in W est

to 744 tons.

Virginia, on the Kanawha river, and in south­

These two

In 1871 a third district in southwestern
Missouri and southeastern Kansas began to

amount of zinc produced in the

In 1875, the

during the census year, a small amount was
made in Massachusetts in this way.
During the census year, the principal pro­

The distribution of the

shown on Plate 142.

eastern Ohio, in the neighborhood of the Ohio

be developed, and has gradually increased its

The principal mines of zinc are in New Jer­

product, which in 1879, amounted to 22,625

sey, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Wisconsin, Illinois,

river.

gross tons.

Tennessee, Missouri and Kansas.

Those of

region is of low grade, and the product of the

New Jersey are in the neighborhood of the

New York and Michigan wells has gradually

production in the United States from 1825 to

town of Franklin, Sussex county.

superseded W est Virginia salt in the market,

the present date, in net tons:*

are the red oxide, willamite and franklinite.

The following table gives the annual lead

The ores

The deposits fill a space between limestone
Y ear.

N e t T ons .

Y e ar .

N e t T ons .

Y ear.

N e t T ons .

walls, and are chimney-like in form.

In Penn­

The brine from the springs of this

except for merely local consumption.
The New York salt springs are mainly in
the Onondaga district, in the western part of

18 4 7 . . . .

28,000

1 8 6 4 ...•

15, 3 0 °

1 8 3 0 ..........

8,000

18 4 8 ..:.

25,000

18 6 5 ....

1 4 ,7 0 0

1 8 3 1 ...........

7, 5 ° °

1 8 4 9 ------

2 3 ,5° °

18 6 6 ....

16,10 0

1 8 3 2 ..........

10 ,0 0 0

1 8 5 0 ------

22,000

1 8 6 7 .....

15,200

1 8 3 3 ..........

11,0 0 0

1 8 5 1 ....

18 ,500

18 6 8 ....

1 6 ,4 0 0

little.

1 8 3 4 ...........

12,0 0 0

1 8 5 2 -----

1 5 ,7 0 0

1 8 6 9 -----

1 7 ,5 0 0

found scattered over the surface of the ground,

discovered in the neighborhood of the salt

1 8 3 5 ...........

1 3 , 000

1 8 5 3 ....

16 ,800

18 7 0 ....

15 ,0 0 0

and has been collected and sold to the extent

springs

1 8 3 6 ..........

18 5 4 ....

16,5 0 0

1 8 7 1 ___

20,000

1 8 3 7 ...........

i 3, 5° °

of several thousand tons.

valuable.

1 8 5 5 ....

15,800

1 8 7 2 ....

25 ,8 8 0

1 8 3 8 ..........

15 ,0 0 0
1 8 5 6 -----

16,000

1 8 7 3 ....

42,540

1 8 5 7 ....

15,800

1 8 7 4 ....

1 8 3 9 ...........

17 ,5 °°

1 8 4 0 ..........

17,000

1 8 4 1 ...........

20 ,5 0 0

1 8 4 2 ..........

24,0 0 0 •

1 8 4 3 ...........

25,0 0 0

00
0

1,5 0 °

M

1 8 2 5 ..........

sylvania, the zinc deposits are in the Saucon

the state.

valley, Lehigh county.

pumping, from artesian wells.

extensively worked,

Although at one time

they now produce but

In W ythe county, Virginia, zinc ore is

The brine is obtained by means of
The property is

owned by the state, by which it is leased to
individuals.

Deposits of rock salt, recently

in New York, promise to be very

The zinc-producing district of Illinois and

The salt production of Michigan is derived

5 2 ,0 8 0

Wisconsin is practically the same as the lead

from the following counties: Bay, Saginaw,
Huron, Iosco, Midland and Gratiot, situated

1 8 5 8 ....

15,30 °

1 8 7 5 ....

59,640

18 5 9 ....

16 ,400

1 8 7 6 ....

6 4 ,0 7 0

of lead-mining in this district, the zinc ofes,

on or near Saginaw bay.

i8 6 0 ....

15 ,60 0

18 7 7 ....

8 1 ,9 0 0

consisting here of zinc blende intimately asso­

springs is the strongest which has yet been

14,100

18 7 8 ....

9 1,0 60

ciated with galena, were not recognized as

discovered in large quantities.

valuable, but of late years they have been

cheapness of fuel employed in the manufacture,

worked quite extensively.

The deposits of zinc

consisting of the "refuse from the saw-mills

ores near Knoxville, Tennessee, have, for a

in the immediate neighborhood, the salt of

number of years past, produced but little.

this district practically controls the market at

18 4 4 .....

26 ,0 00

1 8 6 1 ....

1 8 4 5 ..;..

30 ,0 0 0

18 6 2 ....

14,200

18 7 9 ....

92,780

1 8 4 6 ..........

28 ,000

1 8 6 3 ------

14,800

1 8 8 0 ....

In the earlier days

1

district, already described.

9 7 ,8 2 5

A s mentioned in the opening of this chap­
ter, the Census statistics of the production of

present.

The

The brine from these

production

Owing to the

of Michigan

has

States and territories

The zinc region of southwestern Missouri

not reported as producing, are estimated as

and eastern Kansas is coextensive with the

risen from 4,000 barrels, in i860, to nearly

follows: In Utah lead is mined and smelted

lead region heretofore described in treating

2,750,000 in 1880.

in large amounts in connection with silver

of that metal.

lead are only partial.

* For the years between 1825 and 1853, the figures are those
Caswell.

The deposit of rock salt at Petite Anse,

Greene, Dade, Jasper, Lawrence, Newton and
given by Whitney ; for the later years the authority is Edward A.

It is found in the counties of

Louisiana, upon one of the small islands on

McDonald in Missouri, and Cherokee county,

the borders of the coast swamp, is of enormous

Kansas.

extent and of excellent quality.

The ore is zinc blende and calamine,

A n idea of

MISCELLANEO US.

e v il

the magnitude of the deposit may be gained

ment of this industry is in Chesapeake Bay,

and gravity.

from the fact that, up to the present time, the

which in the census year produced more than

engines, with stationary engines to overcome

workings have developed a rectangular mass

half the oysters of the country.

heavy grades, immediately occasioned a great

640 feet by 380 feet in horizontal dimensions,

this was the product of New Y ork Bay and

while a shaft‘ has been sunken through 165

Long Island Sound, while smaller amounts

A t the beginning of 1835, as estimated

feet of solid salt, and no limits have been

were obtained at other points on the Atlantic

by Pitkin, who expressed grave apprehensions

reached in either direction.

and Gulf coasts.

regarding this new element of material interest,

Estimating on a

Second to

The application of locomotive

increase in railway building.

the total cost of railroads completed, or near

basis of these dimensions, the property, as thus

The product of the seal fishery, which, in

far developed, contains 40,000,000 cubic feet,

1880, was valued at $2,289,813, is confined

completion, was about $30,000,000.

or about

Further

almost entirely to the islands of St. Paul and

plored the craze for railroads at some length,

surface explorations by means of pits have

St. George, of the Pribylov group, in Bering

in the following strain: “ In this, as in every­

established the fact that salt exists over an area

sea.

thing else which is new and connected with

of 144 acres, or more than ten times the area

fur-seal taken elsewhere within the limits of

individual

now explored by underground workings.

the United States.

sober calculations.”

2,800,000 tons

of salt.

The

Indeed, there are practically none of the
A monopoly of the fur-seal

interest,

fancied

He de­

benefits

outrun

But, despite Pitkin and

existence of this deposit has been known for

fishery upon these islands is enjoyed by the

other conservatives, railroad building continued

many years, and mining operations have been

Alaska Fur Company, in consideration of a

with only partial intermissions, and even now

carried on at various times, but with unprofit­

royalty paid to the Government and of the

shows few signs of abatement.

able results until recently.

observance of certain restrictions in regard to

upon Plate 147 illustrate far more forcibly than

controlling the property is rapidly increasing

the destruction of these animals.

The principal

columns of figures, the wonderful progress of

the out-put.

of these restrictions are that none but full

railroad construction in this country, which now

grown males shall be slaughtered, and of these

has more miles of railway than all of Europe,

a number not greater than 100,000 in each

and nearly two-fifths of the entire mileage of

were employed in the fisheries of the United

year.

the world.

States, including in this term not only the

states and territories was almost entirely of

fisheries proper, but the catching of seals and

the hair-seal species.

Fisheries. — During

The company now

the census year there

The catch of seals reported from other

The diagrams

On June 1, 1880, in addition to 87,891 miles
ot completed railroad in the United States,

The menhaden fishery, which had a product

there were 10,016 miles under construction,

By this industry, 131,426 per­

in 1880 valued at $2,116,787, is confined to

and about 41,000 miles of projected roads

sons earned a livelihood, while the products

that part of the Atlantic coast between Massa­

and extensions.

had a value of $43,046,053.

chusetts and Virginia, and

panies was 1,482.

whales, and the dredging of oysters, a capital
of $37>955>349-

O f this, somewhat

more than one-half, or $22,405,018, was the

development

product of fisheries proper, or, as they are

has its greatest

necticut and Rhode Island.

designated by the Census, “ General Fisheries.”

in

New York, Virginia,

Con­

The number of railroad com­
The following is a general

statement of the financial condition of these
companies at that date:

The product of the whale fishery was, in
Amount.

S T A T E M E N T , J U N E i , 1880.

Average
per Mile.

These are in the main distributed along the sea

1880, $2,323,943.

This industry, once of para­

and lake coasts, the catch from interior river

mount importance to the cities and towns on

Assets.

waters being of but little comparative value.

the coast of Massachusetts, Rhode Island and

C o s t o f c o n s t r u c t io n o f r o a d s — t o t a l . . .

$ 4 ,1 1 2 ,3 6 7 ,1 7 6

$ 4 7 ,3 8 7

C o s t o f e q u ip m e n t — t o t a l.............................

4 18 ,0 4 5 ,4 5 8

4 ,8 1 7

V a lu e o f la n d s a n d b u i l d i n g s .....................

10 3 ,3 19 ,8 4 5

1 ,1 9 1

V a lu e o f t e le g r a p h lin e s , e t c .....................

2 0 4 ,9 1 3 ,1 9 6

2 ,3 6 1

3 4 3 ,8 0 0 ,13 2

3 ,9 6 2

C a s h a n d o t h e r a s s e t s .....................................

3 5 3 ,9 7 3 ,9 8 1

4 ,0 7 9

T o t a l a s s e t s ...............................................

$ 5 ,5 3 6 ,4 1 9 ,7 8 8

$ 6 3 ,7 9 7

The extensive cod and mackerel fisheries help

Connecticut has, during the past twenty-five

to place Massachusetts and Maine in the lead

years diminished astonishingly.

in this industry, while, upon the Pacific coast,

and i860, the tonnage employed in this pursuit

Between 1840

S to ck

and

bonds

o w n e d — is s u e d

by

o t h e r c o m p a n i e s ..........................................

the great interest of salmon-canning places

ranged from 146,000 to nearly 200,000, being

Oregon and California in the third and fifth

at a maximum in 1858, when it reached 198,594

ranks respectively, the fourth place being held

tons.

by New York.

but 38,408 tons were employed, or less than

C a p i t a l s t o c k .......................................................

$ 2 ,6 1 3 ,6 0 6 ,2 6 4

$ 3 0 ,1 1 7

product of general fisheries in each district of

one-fifth of the maximum.

F u n d e d d e b t .........................................................

2 ,3 9 ° , 9 * 5 ,4 02

2 7 ,5 5 1

F l o a t i n g d e b t .......................................................

4 2 1,2 0 0 ,8 9 4

the sea and lake coasts:

of the products

4 ,8 5 4

T o t a l c a p i t a l a n d d e b t ..................................

$ 5 ,4 2 5 ,7 2 2 ,5 6 0

$ 6 2 ,5 2 2

P r o f it a n d lo s s, to c r e d i t ...............................

11 0 ,6 9 7 ,2 2 8

1 ,2 7 5

T o t a l li a b i l i t i e s .........................................

f o , 5 3 6 ,4 i 9 ,7 8 8

$ 6 3 ,7 9 7

G r o s s t r a n s p o r ta tio n e a r n i n g s ..................

$ 5 8 0 ,4 5 0 ,5 9 4

$ 6 ,6 8 9

T o t a l i n c o m e .......................................................

■ 661,295,391

7 ,6 2 0

T r a n s p o r t a t io n e x p e n s e s ...............................

3 5 2 ,8 0 0 ,12 0

4 ,0 6 5

On June 1, 1880, there were, according to the

T o t a l e x p e n d i t u r e s ..........................................

5 4 1 , 9 5 0 ,7 9 5

6 ,2 4 5

report of the Census, 87,891 miles in operation,

N e t t r a n s p o r ta tio n e a r n i n g s ........................

2 2 7 ,6 5 0 ,4 7 4

2 ,6 2 3

and at the close of the year, according to Poor’s

N e t in c o m e , o r p r o fit .......................................

11 9,3 4 4 ,5 9 6

1 ,3 7 5

D i v i d e n d s d e c l a r e d ..........................................

7 0 , 5 5 0 ,3 4 2

813

A m o u n t r e t a i n e d ...............................................

4 8 , 7 9 4 ,2 5 4

562

The following table shows the

Since then it has declined until, in 1880,
In i860 the value

of the whale fishery was

$7,749,305, or more than three times that
G E N E R A L F ISH E R IE S .

P r o d u c t .

New England States....................................

2,882,294

F o r the Year.

$10,014,645

Middle States, exclusive of Great Lakes...

of 1880.

Liabilities.

Southern Atlantic States..............................

R a ilw a y s. — In

1830 there were twenty-

three miles of railroad in the United States.

Gulf States.....................................................
Pacific States and Territories.....................

4

,

7 9 2 ,6 3 8

Great Lakes...................................................

1,78 4,0 5°

T otal...............................................

$22,405,018

“ Manual of the Railroads of the United States,”
O f the total product, nearly one-half comes

not less than 93,671 miles— enough to encom­

from the New England states, and much more

pass the globe three and one-half times on a

than one-fifth from the Pacific coast.

great circle.

Next to the general fisheries in importance
is the oyster fishery, which in 1880 had a product
valued at $13,403,852.

The greatest develop­

This represents the progress of

fifty years.
The construction of railroads began in this
country about 1825, with the use of horse power

Including all the railroads in the country,
the dividends declared formed 2.7 per cent, of
the capital stock, and the net income 4.57 per
cent.

O f the whole number of companies, how­

ever, only 623 reported a net income.

These

SCRIBNERS STATISTICAL ATLAS.

CV111

companies represented 80 per cent, of the rail­
road capital of the country, or $2,103,068,246,

The aggregate freight tonnage was divided
as follows:

injured, and only one in 1,885,199 was killed

and the profit, either paid in dividends or
available

for such

payment, amounted

to

$132,989,336, showing an average profit of

P er

P er

Cent.

ARTICLES OF FREIGHT.

Coal..............................................

Cent.

ARTICLES OF FREIGHT.

of
T o ta l.

30.8

Merchandise and miscellaneous..

6.32 per cent, upon their stock.

during the year, only one in 392,406 was

20.0

of
T o ta l.

Stone, lime, cement, clay and
sand............................................ 3-i
Petroleum......................................

2.6

by railway accidents.

The relation between

this immunity from accident and the large
number of hands— trackmen arid shopmen, as
well as trainmen and stationmen— employed,

14.4
8.8

F lo u r...... .....................................

2.5

61

Provisions......................................

2.4

number of employes who contribute to the

1.4

uted as follows:

Grain...................................................
Lumber and other forest products.

The transportation earnings were distrib­

passenger’s safety, it is proper to include not

0.2

only those operating trains, but all engaged in

should not escape notice.

In estimating the

P A S SE N G E R T R A F F IC .

Amount.

Percentage of
Total Passenger
Traffic.

Local passenger traffic............

$98,321,340

68.23

The equipment of the railroads of the

the care of the track and of the rolling-stock.

Through passenger traffic. . . .

44*5*4*393
1*265,976

30.89

country consisted of 17,412 locomotives, 12,330

Estimating the average number of passengers

0.88

passenger cars, 4,475 mail, express and bag­

carried daily as 3 of the aggregate for the
-^

gage cars, 375,312 freight cars, and 80,138 cars

year, or 738,584 daily passengers, and that,

of other kinds.

on the basis of ten hours’ work per day, at

All other passenger traffic. . . .

Percentage of
T otal Freight
Traffic.

Amount.

F R E IG H T T R A F F IC .

Local freight............................

$233,688,202

56.16

Through freight......................

176,909,13!

42.51

All other freight......................

5,548,425

i -33

Percentage of
all Traffic.

Amount.

A L L T R A F F IC .

Passenger traffic......................

$144,101,709
416,145,758

Steel rails were in use upon
The total number of

least ten-twenty-fourths of the whole force of

employes was 418,957, and the annual pay­

these employes, or 148,115 men, are constantly

roll amounted to $195,350,013.

on duty during the hours when passenger

33,680 miles of track.

The

classification

of

employes

was

as

On. an average, every inhabitant of the
Percent­
age
of Total.

Number.

EM PLO YES.

71.69

Express......................................

8,828,259

1.52

Other earnings..........................

902
*055

0.16

Transportation expenses were divided as
follows:
Percentage
of
Expenses.

0 .9

General office clerks................................

8 ,6 5 5

2 .1

Stationmen................................................

63,380

15 -1

7 9 ,6 5 0

I 9 .O

Shopmen....................................................

8 9 ,7 1 4

2 1 .4

12 2 ,4 8 9

2 9 .2

All other employes..................................

1.80

3 ,3 7 5

T rackmen................................ ..................

10,472,813

United States expended $2.87 in railway travel
during the year, or, estimating the average rate

General officers.........................................

T rainmen..................................................

M a il..........................................

trains are running, there is one employe at
work for every five passengers carried.

follows:

24.83

Freight traffic..........................

3-7

5 L 694

1 2 .3

per mile at 2^ cents, each person traveled a
distance of 123 miles.

L a n d G ra n ts. — It
by the General

has been

estimated

Land Office that the total

amount of land granted by the United States

Maintaining road and real estate. . .

$102,583,043

29.08

Repairs of rolling stock....................

54,985,340

15-58

Operating and general expenses. . . .

195,321,737

55-34

On 86,782 miles operated, the gross earn­

in aid of railroads, canals and wagon roads,
has been in the neighborhood of 187,000,000

48,254 included baggagemen, brakemen, fire­

acres, or over 296,000 square miles— an area

men and other regular train hands.

O f the

greater than that of the state of Texas, and

89,714 shopmen, 22,766 were machinists and

Amount.

O f the 79,650 trainmen, 18,977 were engi­
neers, 12,419 conductors, and the remaining

T R A N S P O R T A T IO N E X PE N SE S.

nearly five times that of the New England

23,202 carpenters.

states.

It will be observed that

W ith the assistance of these grants

ings per mile were $6,688; the expenses per

the shopmen and trackmen include more than

about 15,000 miles of railroad have been con­

mile, $4,065, and the net earnings, $2,623 per

one-half of all

structed.

mile.

operating trains form about one-fifth.

The expenses were 60^ per cent., and

the

employes, while

those

all cases, of alternate sections of land, the

It appears from the following table that

others remaining the property of the Govern­

more than one-half of all those injured by

ment, the latter were by the construction of

railway accidents in 1880 were employes of

the road greatly enhanced in value and made

the companies, and

marketable,

the net earnings 39^ per cent, of the gross
earnings.
The statistics of transportation and traffic
may be summarized as follows:
Miles Run.

T R A IN S .

Gross
Earnings.
( P e r M ile .)

Expenses.
( P e r M ile .)

N et
Earnings.
(P e r M ile .)

only about one-twelfth

were passengers, while
were

nearly three-eighths

neither passengers nor employes, but

2 5 1 ,0 2 2 ,7 1 0

Passenger........

13 8 ,2 2 5 ,6 2 1

$ 1 .6 5
1 .1 8

$0.98
0 .76

$0.67

the national

It may safely be said that, although

in most cases the recipients of these grants
ment, instead of being a loser, has also profited

T h rough C areless­

0.43
Sum m ary o f
w ay

Freight tonnage:
Number of tons carried............................................ 290,897,395

revenues.

thereby increasing

have profited greatly by them, the Govern­

were injured in crossing the tracks:
Freight...........

A s the grants made were, in nearly

ness o f t h e

R a il ­

A c c id e n t s .

I n ju r ed .

F atal.

T otal.

1880.

Number.

Per Cent,
Number.
of Total.

Per Cent,
of Total.

very largely, both directly in the gains to its
treasury, and indirectly in the development of
its waste territory.

Nearly all of these grants

Average distance carried, miles..............................................i n

To passengers. . .

687

295

4 2 .9 4

143

2 0 .8 2

Tons carried one mile......................................... 32,348,846,693
Revenue...................................................................$416,145,758

have been made to railway companies, few

To employes----

4,54°

3 ,2 7 6

7 2 .1 6

923

2 0 .3 3

having been made to canals, and none to

To others............

2 ,9 8 8

2 .7 7 7

9 5 -°4

1 ,4 7 5

4 9 -3 6

Aggregate........

8 ,2 1 5

6 ,3 4 8

7 7 .8 9

2 ,5 4 1

3 0 .9 3

Receipts per ton, per mile, cents......................................... 1 1V0
Cost per ton, per mile, cents.............................................. o

Besides the usual grant of alternate sections

Profit per ton, per mile, cents............................................ o
Passenger traffic:
Number of passengers carried................................. 269,583,340
Average distance carried, miles...............................................23
Passengers carried one mile................................. 6,189,240,914
Revenue.................................................................... $144,101,709
Receipts per passenger, per mile, cents............................ 2
Cost per passenger, per mile, cents................................... 1 1V0
Profit per passenger, per mile, cents................................. o ^m
.

wagon roads in recent years.

From the above table it appears that the

of land for a certain breadth upon each side of

chances of injury in passenger travel by rail

the road or proposed road, there has been

are but 1 to 9,000,000 for each mile traveled,

added in many cases an indemnity strip of

while the chances of fatal injury are but one-

specified breadth, outside of the absolute grant.

fifth as great, or 1 to 45,000,000.

Within this indemnity strip the company has

Out of the 269,583,340 passengers carried

been allowed to select land to indemnify itself

MISCELLA NEO US.
for areas already occupied within the absolute
limits at the time of making the grant.

includes the whole of the alternate sections to
the outside limits of the indemnity strip.

In

many cases, notably those of the Union Pacific,
Central Pacific, Kansas Pacific, and Sioux City
and Pacific railroads, indemnity strips were not
granted, except in certain states, but whatever
land owned by other parties was found to be
within the absolute grant was lost to the
railroad company.
Further conditions were attached to the
grants, which, if not fulfilled within a certain
It must be

added that cases of actual forfeiture have been
very few, although failures to comply with the
conditions imposed have been numerous. Most
of the grants have been made to states in trust
for the railroad companies.

T o some of the

largest railroad corporations building lines in
the W est, including those above enumerated,
the grants were made directly.
The total area patented to railroads and
wagon roads, under land grant acts, prior to
June 30, 1880, is given by the Public Land
Commission at 45,647,347 acres, or 71,324
square miles, an area but little larger than that
of the state of Missouri.
The following is a list, as complete as
possible, of the different land grants made to
railroads, with a brief statement of the condi­
tions under which they were given, the areas
thus far actually patented to the companies,
and an estimate of the absolute areas which
by the grants have become or are to become
the property of the companies.

LAN D G R A N TS T O R A ILR O A D S.

A number of these grants have been mate­

It is a

common misapprehension that a railway grant

time, were to cause a forfeiture.

C1X

The limits,

L im it
D a te

CO R P O R A T IO N .

of A c t

Alabama and Chattanooga........ < 1856
z
Alabama and Florida..................« 1856
Atchison, Topeka and Santa F i . d 1863
( in States__ 1866
*Atlantic & Pacific -{
( in Territories 1866

Cedar Rapids & Missouri River.r
Central Branch, Union Pacific..
Central Pacific..............................
Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific.r
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul.a
Chicago and Northwestern (in
Michigan).................... ........... £
Chicago and Northwestern (in
Wisconsin)................................a
Chicago, St.Paul & Minneapolis.d
Coosa and Tennessee................a

side, i. e., extending nine miles outside the
absolute grant, the company is at liberty to
select land

to repay itself for that already

occupied or granted to other parties within the
absolute grant.
The letters after the names of certain roads

1 8 8 0.

553.581
394,523
2,474,686

15
15

2
0
3°

IO

Denver Pacific.............................. 1869
Des Moines Valley......................r 1846
Dubuque and Sioux C ity............ c 1856

6
6

6
6
6
6

Grand Rapids and Indiana........£ 1856
“
“
“
from
Fort Wayne to Grand Rapids. ^ 1865

6

Hannibal and St. Joseph....................f
Hastings and Dakota................

1852
1866

Illinois Central................................................... j 1850
Iowa Falls and Sioux City ................ r 1856
Jackson, Lansing & Saginaw..

.b

1856

Kansas Pacific.............................. 1864
Lake Superior and Mississippi.. /■ 1864
Leavenworth, Lawrence and Galveston......................................../ 1863
Little Rock and Fort Sm ith. . . . g 1866
Marquette, Houghton and Ontonagon....................................................................... b
Memphis and Little R o c k ................g
Minnesota Central...................... b
Missouri, Kansas and Texas__. /
Missouri River, Fort Scott and
Gulf........................................... i
Mobile and Ohio.........................................a , i
Mobile and Girard......................a

1865
1866
1865
1863
1866
1850
1856

New Orleans, Opelousas & Great
Western.................................................................... h 1856
New Orleans, Baton Rouge and
1871

IO

6
6
6
2
0
IO

IO

6
2
0
6
IO
IO

IO

6
6
6

St. Croix and Lake Superior.. . d
St. Joseph and Denver C ity . . . ./
St. Louis & Iron Mountain, . f , g
St. Louis, Iron Mountain and
Southern....................................................- f > g “
“
St. Vincent
Branch........................................................................ k
St. Paul and Sioux City ........................k
Selma, Rome and Dalton.......... a
Sioux City and St. Paul.......................... c
Sioux City and Pacific ...................................
South and North Alabama ................a
Southwest Branch of the Pacific
Road ............................................................................ f
Southern Pacific ......................................................
Southern Minnesota...................................k

1864
1866
1866
1866
1865
1871
1864
1856
1864
1864
1856
1852
1866
1866

2
0

IO
IO
IO

6
IO
IO

6

selected,

in

consequence of which

it was

15

512,337
281,984
165,688

513,000
281,984
165,688

15

37,583

37,583

15
15

state waters and upon canals, 5,139 steamers,
having a tonnage of 1,221,207, and a value
O f these vessels there were

)

2
0

the census year

there were employed in United States waters,

of $80,192,495.

15

)

952,960

employed in United States waters, that is,

603,506
225,179

603,506
350,000

15
15

2,595,053
683,024

2,595,053
683,500

15

743,009

750,000

828,830

2
0

860,564

862,000

2
0
2
0

256,282
916,716

260,000
1,056,378

437,385
141,845-

552,515
141,845
180,000
660,000

waters having navigable outlets, and subject to

6,000,000

15

2
0

. . . .

. . . .

2
0
2
0
2
0

179,736
658,068

2
0

21,342
1,156,658

15

504,146

15

719,194

15

21,342

1,156,658
505,000

)
>
■

746,510 42,000,000

15

353,212

353.212

30
30
*

1,338,039
323,149

2,127,000
2,500,000

15
15

1,275,218

1,275,212

37,427

37,427

843,497
461,813

843,497
470,956

1,386,303
1,251,046

1,483,948

789,292
1,200,358

1,500,000
1,205,000
460,700
400,000
45,000
440,000

2

2
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
15

6
2
0

15

1,161,205

30

952,597
454,957

2
0

l

5°

f

trust for the roads, as follows: a. Alabama, b.

Union Pacific ............................................................. 1864

Michigan, c. Iowa, d. Wisconsin, e. Florida, f

Vicksburg and Meridian ....................... i

2
0
6

Missouri, g. Arkansas, h. Louisiana, i. Missis­

Western R. R ..........................................................k 1865
Winona and St. Peter............................... k 1865
Wisconsin Central.......................................... d 1864

customs and inspection laws, 4,778 steamers,
measuring 1,194,889 tons, distributed as fol­
lows:
D is t r ib u t io n

o f

S t e a m

C r a f t .

Number of
Steamers.

New England States.........................
Middle States....................................
South Atlantic Coast..........................
Gulf of M exico..................................
Great Lakes.......................................
Upper Mississippi R iver..................
Ohio R iver..........................................
Upper Missouri R iver......................
Lower Mississippi River..................
Pacific Coast......................................

T onnage.

118,554

463

432,803
30,833

L 459

266
126

41,611
222,290
83,918

947
366

473
44
3i 5

107,473
12,099
48,303

97,005

3 19

719,194
903,218

30

40

the roads directly.

sections per linear mile of road were to be

550,467

15

30

In the other cases, the grants were made to

did not fix the limits within which the twenty

S te a m C raft. — During

15

IO

645,307
350,000

Nebraska was even more peculiar, in that it

800,000
369,002
552,000

2
0

sippi, j . Illinois, k. Minnesota, and /. Kansas.

grant of 200 sections of land, and that to

49,812
369,002

15

6

IO

quette road was peculiar in being an absolute

its land wherever it chose.

IO

IO

The grant to the Bay de Noquet and Mar­

550,000
805,816
68,000

*Texas Pacific (in Territories 1874
(Southern Pacific) j ; n California. 1874

1856

which affected the grants.

545,576
474,913
67,785

15

2
0

2
0

not made to the roads directly, but to states, in

given above, are those of the last legislation

decided that the road was at liberty to locate

IO

indicate that in cases so marked, grants were

The date of act, and the limits

520,000

457,407
396,999
41,318
433,600

IO

first made.

517,594

50&60

6
6

1,156,988
265,000
6,500,000

1,133,590
643,307
138,285

30&40

Pensacola and Georgia...............................e 1856
Port Huron & Lake Michigan, . b 1856

389,124

rially modified by legislation since they were

the Burlington and Missouri River road in

. . . .

40

Oregon Branch of Central Pacific 1866
Oregon and California................................... 1866

2,441,600

1,140,494
187,608

2
0
2
0
6
2
0
2
0

1856

128,000

388,818

[

6
6

394,523
2,995,200

2,374,091

5

1856
1856
1856
1856

Flint and Pere Marquette.......... #
Florida......................................... e
Florida and Alabama................. <
?
Florida, Atlantic & Gulf Central, e

460,000

128,000

2
0
6

T o ta l
A rea o f
G ra n t.
( A c r e s .)

f 504,537 22,672,000

20

1856
1856
1856

E s tim a te d

)

40

1865

within a strip six miles in width on each side

within a strip fifteen miles in breadth on each

6
10
2
0

20
20
20
20
10

North Louisiana and Texas _____ h

each linear mile of road; and, further, that

6

1864
1864
1864
1864
1864

given as measured from the line of road,

property of the company, i. e., six sections on

P a te n te d u p
t o J u n e 3 0,

Bay de Noquet and Marquette. . 6
Burlington and Missouri River
20 sec
per mile.
(in Nebraska)............................ 1864
Burlington and Missouri River
20
(in Iowa).................................. r 1864

„ ,T
.. (m S tates_
_ 1864
■ "Northern Pacific •
<
(in Territories 1864

of the road, each alternate section is to be the

A cres

o f In ­
d e m n ity
G ra n t.

50
1865 200 se ctions.

both of absolute and indemnity strips, are
on either side— thus, 6 and 15, means that

L im it

of A b ­
s o lu te
G ra n t.

10 ,0 0
00

In state waters, that is, waters having no
navigable outlets, and not subject to customs
laws, the number of steamers was 218, with a
tonnage of 9,339.

The steam craft on canals

numbered 143, measuring 16,979 tons.
The gross earnings of all steam craft during
the census year were $85,091,067.
ber of passengers

carried

The num­

was 168,463,001,

and the number of tons of freight moved was
25,451,404.

1,161,205
7,760,000
500,000
13>000,000

The application of steam power to the pro­
pulsion of vessels was

first effected on a

practical scale by Robert Fulton, in the steamer
Clermont, which was completed in 1807.

The

number of steamers built annually increased
rapidly, until the Civil W ar partially checked
the demand.

........................

1,859,475
15

2
0
2
0
2
0

9,050,000

Up to 1870, the United States led all other

198,028

200,000

nations in amount of steam tonnage, but since

659,345
1,326,444

815,000
1,670,000
1,315,000

that year Great Britain has taken the lead,

575,845

* The indemnity grants here given agree with the statute limits, although
not with the maps of the General Land Office from which the map on Plate 147
was prepared.

having in 1880 not less than 2,723,468 tons,
or more than
United States.

double the tonnage of the

SCRIBNER'S STATISTICAL ATLAS,

cx

The following table gives the number and

been abandoned.

In Ohio 879 miles have been

United States, the growth of the periodical

the tonnage of the steamers built during each

constructed, of which 674 are still in use.

decade from the time of their introduction:

the canals of Indiana, aggregating 453 miles,

press is perhaps the most astonishing.

have been abandoned.

1850, when the first census of the press was

C

o n s t r u c t io n

S

t e a m

V

o f

e sse ls

Tonnage.

128

F
rom 1807 to 1820......
From 1821 to 1830......
F
rom 1831 to 1840......
From 1841 to 1850......
From 1851 to i860......
From 1861 to 1870__ .*
From 1871 to 1880......

25 ,7 9 8

38s

I,°I5
1,662

In

65,212
175,698

153

The canals now in use in the United States

taken, the number of publications was 2,526.

have a total length of 2,515.^ miles, with slack

Number.

.

Increase in
tonnage built.
(Per cent.)

A ll

O f all the elements of the progress of the

In i860, it had increased to 4,051; in 1870,

water navigation

with them

to 5,871, while ten years later it had nearly

The total

doubled, reaching the number of 11,314- or

in connection

169

extending 411.^ additional miles.

I I I

cost of construction was $170,028,636.

23

more than four times as great as in 1850.

freight traffic on canals amounted in 1880

In respect to circulation, the progress has

to 21,044,292 tons, yielding a gross income of

been even more rapid.

The total expenditures for the

of 5,142,177 in 1850, it leaped to 13,663,409

year were $2,954,156, leaving as a net income

3 ,3 4 3

97

73 0,355

900,686
766,294

The

$4,538,620.

2,5 2
1
3,082

3 7 1 ,0 3 5

in i860; to 20,842,475 in 1870, and in 1880 it

$1,584,464, which is but nine-tenths of one per

reached the enormous number, per issue, of

cent, of the cost of construction.

31,779,686.

- 1 5

The minus sign indicates a decrease.

C anals. — Prior

to the invention of the steam

railway, canals were of great importance as

From a circulation

This was about six-tenths of a

copy to each man, woman and child in the

highways for the commerce of the country.
Even before the beginning of the present cen­

N ew spapers a n d

tury, a project was agitated for a system of

Plates 148 and 149 treat of the newspaper and

public improvements which should unite by a

periodical press of the United States, the first

O f this immense circulation, that of the

water-way the valley of the Mississippi with

relating to the number of newspapers and

daily press forms but a little over 11 per cent.,

navigable waters upon the Atlantic coast, but

periodicals, and the second to the number of

an unexpectedly small proportion.

nothing came of it until after the second war

each issue, or the aggregate edition, in each

with Great Britain.

state.

In 1817 the state of New

P e rio d ica ls.—

country, or very nearly one copy to each
person able to read.

The distribution of the publications and of
their circulation, as shown by the maps on
Plates 148 and 149, accords in its general

York passed an act providing for vast internal

It must be understood that the second of

improvements, including its costly system of

these plates, although entitled “ Circulation,”

features with the

canals, and

Pennsylvania

does not refer strictly to distribution, but to

as shown by the maps of. illiteracy.

took similar action, followed by several other

publication, which may or may not conform to

Northern states and the W estern states and

states.

the distribution of the edition.

It would be

territories, there are, in proportion to popula­

trace, without an exhaustive

tion, the greatest numbers of publications and

shortly afterward

For many years thereafter a strong feeling

impossible

to

In the

the largest circulation, while throughout the

in favor of internal improvements had posses­

compilation of the subscription

sion of most of the states.

Immense works

periodicals, the distribution of the editions over

South, the proportion is generally low.

were projected, and many of them, including

the country from the offices of publication,

in considering groups of states, the circulation

the canal systems of New York, Pennsylvania

and this has not been attempted by the Census

and its distribution are practically identical,

and Ohio, were completed.

office.

the above sketch outlines the general distribu­

increased

State debts were

to enormous amounts, in several

lists of all

distribution of education,

On Plate 149 the issues are credited to

tion of the reading public.

Since,

The disproportion

This

between the North and South in this regard

siasm for these projects reached its greatest

produces the effect of giving to those states

is, however, much less marked in respect to

intensity in 1837, when it was suddenly checked

which contain great newspaper centers, such as

daily publications than in respect to weeklies

by the financial crisis of that period.

New York, Pennsylvania and Massachusetts,

and monthlies.

cases to the verge of bankruptcy.

The enthu­

the states in which they are published.

The

average circulation

per publication

among

states

It is estimated by Pitkin that on January 1,

undue prominence, while other states which

1835, there had been completed, or nearly

are largely dependent upon them for their sup­

ranges

completed, in the United States not less than

ply of the news and periodical literature, such

wide limits.

2,867 miles of canals, at a cost of $64,573,099.

as New Jersey and Vermont, fall unduly low

the largest circulation per publication, namely,

New York had 715 miles, costing $15,125,511,

in the scale.

8,841, which is even larger than New York,

the

several

through

O f all the states, Maryland has

and Pennsylvania 861 miles, costing $23,000,000,

O f the 11,314 periodicals of all classes pub­

which stands second in the list with 8,666.

these two states having considerably more than

lished in the country, 78 per cent., or nearly

Following these are the District of Columbia,

one-half of the total mileage.

four-fifths, are devoted to news, politics and

with 7,300; Massachusetts, 7,190, and Penn­

family reading.

sylvania, 5,900.

In 1880, according to the Census, there were

The remainder relate espe­

Most of the states adjoining

in the United States 4,468.4 miles of canals,

cially to the various branches of trade and

these have a low average, Vermont having

which had cost $214,041,802.

industry, the professions, science, etc.

but 840 and New Hampshire 907.

O f this, however,

In the

i,953-^ miles, costing $44,013,166, had been

Again, the great majority, 76 per cent., are

Southern states, the circulation ranges from a

abandoned, and a large part of the remainder

weekly publications, 10 per cent, are monthlies,

few hundred copies up to 3,045 in Kentucky.

were not paying expenses, a result mainly due,

while daily newspapers form less than 10 per

In the Northern Central group of states, the

of course, to the competition of railways.

cent, of all.

number has a somewhat higher average, falling

A ll

O f the total number of periodicals, 10,515,

below a thousand only in Dakota, and reaching

O f the 964 miles in New York,

or 93 per cent., are published in the English

in Ohio a circulation per publication of 3,863.

357, or much more than one-third, are no

language, 641, or nearly 6 per cent., in German,

In the W estern states and territories it ranges

longer in use.

while the proportion in other languages reaches,

through very wide limits, from 228 in Montana

in no case, 1 per cent, of the whole number.

to 2,721 in California.

the canals of New England are reported as
abandoned.

In Pennsylvania there have

been built 1,106 miles, of which 477 miles have

M ISCELLANEO US.
A C o m p arative S t u d y — The

CXI

general

The summary on Plate 150 is devoted to

rule,

comparatively

summaries on Plates 150 and 151 serve to

total amounts, and the significance of its com­

have

little

bring together, for

dif­

parisons is therefore restricted by the wide

Tennessee, and other states having a large

ferent classes of facts which have been treated

fundamental differences of area and population

state debt, take a disproportionately high rank

individually in earlier chapters.

existing between the various states.

in this column.

comparative study,

They make

little

local debt.

urban

population,

Louisiana, Virginia,

apparent the relations of the leading industries

Comparing the rank in population with that

A comparison of the column of occupations

to one another, to wealth and to population,

in wealth, it is seen that all of the North

on the one hand, and those of wealth, manu­

and the relations subsisting between population,

Atlantic states gain considerably, except V er­

factures and agriculture on the other, shows

wealth, public debt, and taxation, and between

mont, New York

in a rude way the diversity in the productive

illiteracy and education.

hold their own, the two last mentioned states

power of labor in the different states.

ranking respectively as first and second in

Southern states the rank in wealth is much

arranged in the several columns, according

both columns.

lower than in the number of breadwinners,

to their rank in the feature therein presented;

averages

sixteen

while the Northern and Western states and

while lines carried from column to column

states forming the South Atlantic and Southern

territories generally hold their rank, or stand

aid the eye in tracing the varying rank of

Central groups, on the other hand, show an

higher in wealth than in number of persons

each state.

average loss of four places, only Maryland,

occupied.

Delaware and the District of Columbia making

in contrasting rank in occupations with rank

150, the states are arranged in the order of

gains.

in the sum of the products of the two great

population.

A comparison of the first column

groups there is little relative change of place,

with each of the remaining columns, gives the

except that Wisconsin and Nevada each gain

P la te 1 5 1 .— The summary on Plate 151

following results by groups of states:

four, Minnesota seven, and California no less

presents a much closer approximation to the

than fifteen places.

true relative positions of the states and terri­

The names of the states and territories are

P la te IS O .— In the first column of Plate

V

a r ia t io n s

a n k

P

in

l a t e

150 .

t o

The gain for the entire group

nearly five

places.

The

In the Northern Central and Western

These two groups show
*

*

In most

This feature is still more apparent

industries, manufactures and agriculture.

tories in the ten important features exhibited,

The changes in passing from population to

than that on Plate 150, for the reason that it

manufactures are similar to those above stated,

deals not with aggregates merely but with

but greater.

ratios, thereby placing the larger and smaller

a n k

.

d u c a t io n

l l it e r a c y

R

a x a t io n

T

E

I

A

e b t

v e r a g e

.
.
D
e t

N

.

t o c k

S
iv e

A

L

.

g r ic u l t u r e

.

a n u f a c t u r e s

M

.

The North Atlantic states show

an average gain of over eleven places, the two

states on a common ground of comparison.

Southern groups an average loss of five and

N o r t h A t la n t ic .

Maine...................... 2 7
New Hampshire... 3 i
Verm ont................ 32
Massachusetts........
7
Rhode Island........ 33
Connecticut............ 2 8
New York..............
I
New Jersey............ 19
Pennsylvania.........
2

—I
O
O
2
O
I
O
O
O

— 2
13 — I
4
9
4 — 20
19 - 6
21 3
0— I
13 - 6
0- 3

O
2
8
13

O
II
0

II

8 -

6

2 2 .6

6
O— 2

5 3 -

5

15
6

8

38
23
36
14
29
15
21
13
34

—I

— 22

4

— II

12

-

4

—

2

15
O

-

8

3 30.1

2 — 12
I
6

2

7
14
O

0

—I
I O
OI -

9 -

9

5-

8-

9

—I -

4 -

—

4

one-half places, the Northern Central states a

ing by units from 1 to 47, does not serve

slight average loss, and the Western group

to show the precise extent of the differences

12 —

a gain of a little over one place.

between

1 0 .8
2 9 .4

2 2 1 .3

states

holding

consecutive

rank.

2 .4

A n inspection of the above table in connec­

Taking for example the first column of Plate

7 15-7
9 3 8

tion with Plate 150, will enable the reader to

151, we may pass over as altogether exceptional

measure at a glance the changes of rank as

— 4

14
O

the difference of 2,705.5 between the density of’

between population and all other features of

the District of Columbia, ranking first, and

the summary, in the case of any state.

of Rhode Island, the second in rank.

0 — II

79
0— 2 -

10
3
9 10 - 3
2
2 — IO
3- 6- 6
O
3— I
8 -14 - 3
2

It is manifest, however, that the simple rank­

2 8 .4

2

— 2

12

5
4

S o u th A tla n tic .

Delaware................
Maryland...............
District Columbia.
Virginia..................
West Virginia........
North Carolina_
_
South Carolina.. . .
Georgia..................
Florida....................

which

an average gain of one place.

fr o m

.

p u l a t io n

a s s in g

P

Pennsylvania,

.
e a l t h

T E R R IT O R IE S .

W

.
c c u p a t io n s

O

in

P
a n k

AND

R

o f

Po

R

STATES

o p u l a t io n

.

A N A L Y S I S O F G E N E R A L S U M M A R Y B Y T O T A L S .—

and

- 3
3— I
- 3 — I IO
— II 25
I
- 3
5- 4
6- 8— I
- 6 -1 3 - 1 6
2 — IO
I — II
3- 5— I - 9
O— 2
O- 4

— I
8
6
- 6
6
-18
-14

IO 15-2
9 27.6
13 2 1 .s
14 24.9

— 12

12

-

7

4 36.4
6 19.4
5 3 4 -1

15-4
13 3 4 -9

It will

It will

be observed that in the column of illiteracy,

be seen, however, that the difference of 33.1

showing the number of persons ten years of

between the density of the latter and that of

age and over who are unable to write, the state

Massachusetts, the third in rank, is a trifle

having the greatest number of “ illiterates” is

greater than that separating South Carolina,

ranked highest.

the

S o u t h e r n C e n tr a l.

Kentucky...............
Tennessee..............
A labam a................
Mississippi..............
Louisiana................
Texas......................
Arkansas................

8
12

17
18
22
II
25

-4 - 5 - 9 -4 - 6 - 9 —
3 - 9 -15
O — IO - 1 8
0— 2- 3
0 - 5 — l6
0 - 8 — 12

42

3 — IO - 7 - 9
2 — 12 - 9
3— 2 -12 -14
1 - 1 8 - 9
- 6
8 14
2 6
2 — 12 8 — II
3 - 5- 8 - 9

— I

I -

5O0
4

O I 3 -I
7 15-4
14 20.7
1 2 22.5
13 21 0
I 159
II 2 7.4

Ohio........................
3
Indiana..................
6
Illinois....................
4
Michigan................
9
Wisconsin.............. l6
Minnesota.............. 2 6 ,
Iowa........................ 10
Missouri..................
5
Dakota.................... 40
Nebraska................ 3 °
Kansas.
20

O— I - 3
0 — I - 9—
3
3- 3
I — I -17 —
7
4- 6
0
7 IO — I
7 10
0
0 6
8 - 1 9
9
—I — I - 3 — 2
0
I 0 — I
2
I —
4
5
O— I - 3
6 15 — I
O— 2
—I
—I — I - 4
O
I
0
0 — 2
0
—I
4
5

-4

0

— 4

12

3

,3

O
I
O

I - 1 3 4 -9
O — 1 2 8 .9
I — II 4 .6
2
I - 1 3 12 .3
4 - 5 - 8 14.6
5 1 2 - 3 2 1.3
2
3 - 1 7 12.6
4 - 4 - 8 7 .2
I
2 — 2 3 9 -0
7 1 2 - 7 2 7.2
3
7 - 8 18.8

W estern .

45
47
35

41
44
39
43

46

O
I
O
I
I
0
I — 20 — I —2 — 2
I

4

—I

37

I

24

3

I

8
8
I

3

O

4— 2
3— 2
3— I

4

2

2

2

2

O

2

7

3— 6 —

O— I 2
I

— I 42.9

2

2

4I

75

0

4 5 -6

3 - 3 3 3 -7
6 - 5
18 4 1.2
0
O
3 44.2
0 4 1.0
3 — I

6

40.4

6

0

I 4 5 -3

I

2

I

2

0

I

4

2—

I

2

O — 2 4 1.4

0

2
2

9-

3

I

15

12

8

18

I - 3 3 5 -8
14 — I 12 .2

0 — I

42

2

O

4

9

IO

The first and last columns show rank on a scale of I to 47; in other columns
the figures indicate a
signifying a

lo s s .

g a in

of rank, except where the minus sign is prefixed,

eighteenth,

from Wyoming,

the

forty-

ing, it is virtually a reversal of the order

seventh in rank.

followed in the preceding columns.

actual difference is marked, in one case, by

The changes shown in comparing, on Plate

N o r t h e r n C e n tr a l.

Montana................
Wyoming................
Colorado................
New Mexico..........
Arizona..................
Utah........................
N evada ....................
Idaho......................
Washington..............
Oregon....................
California.................

Since this is a negative show­

In other words, the same

a variation of one place in rank, and

in

150, the rank in manufactures with that in

another by a variation of twenty-nine places.

agriculture, are naturally very great, involving

The difference, again, between the states occu­

material changes in the rank of many of the

pying the third and the fourth rank is even

states.

greater than that between the

The column

relating to live stock

second and

shows a general agreement with that of agri­

third.

culture.

and similar diagrams on other plates, giving a

New York falls to the third rank,

being exceeded

by both Illinois and

Iowa,

while the great cattle states and territories of
the W est, such as Kansas, Nebraska, Montana
and W yoming, take high rank.
The column of state and local debt presents

A reference to the diagram on Plate 22,

graphic representation of these differences, will
show many like irregularities.
For the purpose of more precise compari­
son the accompanying table has been prepared,
presenting the rank of the states in the several

an agreement, in its general features, with those

columns by percentages.

of population, wealth and manufactures, while,

highest in each column of Plate 151 is taken as

in comparison with agriculture, it shows marked

100, that ranking lowest as o, and the rank of

differences.

each state is expressed by the percentage which

Agricultural states having, as a

The state ranking

SCRIBNER'S STA TISTICA L ATLAS.

CX11

The capital of the country, or that part of

its variation from the lowest forms of the total

stand first among the nations.

In wealth the

its wealth employed in further production, was

country now surpasses even Great Britain, and

In this table the columns of net debt, taxa­

in 1880 approximately $30,000,000,000, and its

in manufactures and mining, as in the total

tion and illiteracy reverse the order followed

gross income $10,000,000,000, or about 33 per

product of all the industries, it also holds the

in the corresponding columns of Plate 15 1.

cent, of the capital.

leading place, which it is not likely ever to

While, in a popular sense, a state may be said

Edward Atkinson (Special Agent, Tenth Cen­

lose.

to rank highest which has the least of debt,

sus), the annual consumption per capita is

greatly in advance of all other countries in

difference between the lowest and the highest.

A s estimated by Mr.

Its agricultural products still keep it
controlling the food mar­

taxation and illiteracy per
capita, a uniform order is

States, in 1880, 17,392,099
persons, or 34^ per cent.,
were engaged in gainful
and reputable occupations.
During that year the sum
of $79,339,814 was devoted
to public primary educa­
tion, making $5.27 for every
of school age, an

average tax of 1^ mills
on every dollar of total
wealth of the country.
gross product of

manufactures in 1880, was
fc369.579.19b and the net
product, after deducting
the value of materials con­
sumed, was $1,972,755,642,
The

value of farm products was
$2,213,402,564, or $44.13
per capita; and of live stock,
$1,500,464,609 in the aggre­
gate, and $29.92 per capita.
The wealth of the coun­
try in 1880, estimated at

15

42
79
13

3

13

79

32

3
7

31

39

93

25
60

22
IO

37

64

— IO

40

26

56

39
43

17
8

30

42

32

89

56

40

9

32

59
37

25
21

72
72

59

29

6

33

45

34

8

20

29

32
24
33
17
2
22
40

49
48
72
15
is

36

50

29
l6
8
8
2

35

9
7

O

O

13
9
IOO
21
2

37

*

15
9

II

34
35

42
48

7

II
6

38
21

5
4
8
8

l6

12

20

14
9
9
8

4
39
31
37

13
4
3
14

5

53

5

2

17

15

2

47

6

6

16

4

O

64

15
IO

31

II

56
36
54
42

28

57

19

68

13
15
17
14
14
l6

13
10
2

3
5
4

5

5°

6

31

8

IO

44

5
I
O

46

12
II

IO

23
IO

5
II
IO
8

74
51
42
23
35
53
15
17
2
6

8
9

37
32

28
18

29
34
30

7

7

8
8
IO
17
14

23
47
6

30

15

27

I
2

47

3
3

3i

5

30
26

3
17
51

47

57

13

47

35

51

20
II
*

17
24
39
O — 2
i5
9
- 6 -17
- 9 -3 6
— 2 - 3°
6 -13

I

E ducation .

I lliter acy .

to

to

T ax atio n

E ducation

T ax ation .
to

E ducation .
to

W ealth

N e t D ebt

T ax atio n .
to

W ealth

A griculture .
to

14 - 8
I -13
7 - 7 -14
— 20
35
55 - 1 3 - 1 9
O - 8 1 - 8 1 — I -3 4
— IO - 7 7 - 8 7 — 26 - 5 1
— I - 4 8 -4 7 -2 4 - 3 7
-3 3
- 4 9 — 16 - 1 5 - 4 2
- 1 3 -4 3 -3 0 —21 -4 0
- 2 7 - 3 8 — II -3 0 - 4 4
-

6

-13
-19
-5 6
- 7
— IO
- 3
— I
-

3
4

7

I

14 — 26
6 -13
— l6 - 1 9
O
26
19
17
27 — I
40 - 3
37
2
44
45
0
42
45
I
23
27

-13
-7 2

25 — 22 - 2 3
27 - 1 4 - 2 9
21 - 6 - 3
54 - 3 3 - 5 0
27 - 2 5 — 2 2
30 - 1 3 - 3 5
40 - 3 7 - 2 9
18 - 1 9 - 2 4
22 - 1 4 - 1 8

IO - 5 — I
26 — 12 - 9
-4 7 - 6 -4 2
- 6 - 9
24
12
15 — 2
46
- 3 — I
28
- 5 - 4
28
5 — 2 - 5
I - 6
5
23

-3 1
-2 5
-2 5
- 9
- 3
- 4
— 2
-

52

66

7
9

34

7
4
I

34
37
34

8

5

21

27

4

13

4

29
20

9

4

30

22

52

41

7
12

38

36
40

7
II

7

15

18

6

9

I
35

8

4

— I
-

-

3

24
33
48

-

3

63

23 - 9
— 2 -13
— 12 - 4

39

5 -3 5

6
6

13
— 2

28

32

60

34 - 5
41 - 7
30
51
66
5
48
13
45 — 2
64
5

8 - 8
-13
- 9 — 12 — 2
25 - 3 3
- 3
2
7 - 3
— IO - 8 - 2 3
— II
7 - 9
O
I - 5

27
33
33
l6

30 — II

-3 4
-2 5
-3 1
-2 4
-15
-2 5
-3 8
- 7
-2 4
-3 7
-2 5

25
l6
26

Ohio..................................
Indiana............................
Illinois..............................
Michigan..........................
Wisconsin.........................
Minnesota................................
Iowa..................................
Missouri............................
Dakota..............................
Nebraska..........................
Kansas..............................

22
22
II
9
4
II
12
I
2
5

15
l6
24
13
17
l6
15
52
20
l6

34
40
44
32
18

35
23
25
25
IO
19
3

29
23

6

35
51
36
0

II
IO
18
I
2
6
8

7

78
65
65
75

IOO
51
48
83
61

32
18
20
30
25

4
7
9
4
20
6

5i
3i
35
33
42

27
18

13
13

38

54
IOO
18

14

65

8

74
74

17
II

O
7

O
46

9

O

14

22
28

13
6

96

27
33
l6

3
4

42

14

IOO

29

33
25
34
43
20
27
40
28

9
9
IO
9
5
13
3
3
3

25
14
32
31
25
36
33
20

45 - 2 8
21 - 1 7
38 - 1 9
18 - 1 9
21 - 9

23 - 1 5
28 - 3 4
17 - 1 3
17 - 3 4 - 1 5
27
9 -2 3
18
7 — l6

I

29 -

32
24
23
31
35
56

49
43 -

19
30
54
38

42
40

—

4 -15
O
2
3 -14
II
I

9
9
50 - 7 - 6
90 — 2 — I
32 - 5 — 12
O
45
9
II
77
9
6
5
54
-

-

31 — 2
39 — II
2
27
28 — IO
I
24
I
38
7 -

12

7
9

2
25
l6 — I

The

advance

of

States

the

to

the

Montana..........................
Wyoming..........................
Colorado............................
New Mexico.......... . . . .
A rizona............................
Utah..................................
Nevada..............................
Idaho.................................
Washington......................
Oregon..............................
California..........................

I
O
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
2

IOO
52
84
22
94
O
83
69
42
37
54

23
15
6l
8

9

29

IO

34

15

IOO

35

60
23
29
21
15
25
53
54
66
90
82

13

37
39

single
time

century
when

from

peace

the
with

England enabled the new
nation to turn its energies
to industrial development.
It is a mere truism to
say that history shows no
record of growth in ma­
terial

prosperity

at

all

approaching this; our very

52
38
60
O

I
O

24
26

5
IOO
22
II
6
2
2

31
72

3
7

39
15
IOO

34
51
35
— I
22
14
60
7
28
33
98

-6 5 -2 4
25
— I - 4 1 — 28
-4 8 - 1 8 - 7
— 22
I
21
- 7 1 — 21 - 8
IO
15 - 9
— 22 - 5 3 - 8
— 6l
I
46
-13 -19
37
56
- 3 -19
46
-6 5 - 1 8

makes it difficult for us
fully

to

comprehend its

extraordinary character.
If the conditions of the
future could be compared
with those of the past, the
next hundred years would
justify a forecast the figures
of which would be almost
bewildering.

This

com­

parison is of course im­

W estern .

49
13

II
20

3°
23
38

O

17
-13
24
O
l6
O

13
23
19 — I
35
45
39
l6
45
29
13 - 3
56
5 - 3
75
O — 28
47
1

51 - 1 3 - 5 1
66 - 3 6 - 3 8
6l - 1 4 - 5 5
O
O IOO
39 -

7
I
14
83
4
3i - 1 3
39 — l6
35 - 8
86 — 28

possible.
draws

Every

this

decade

nation more

-17
- 4
-9 4
— 22
-2 4
-2 8

completely within the rule

-6 5

laws from which its vast

of the ordinary economic
laws that govern others,—
unused

The density of population in the District of Columbia is properly comparable only with that of cities.

average, $870.13 for each
man, woman and child.

by that of Great Britain.

familiarity with its results
8 — IO
9 - 8

C e n tr a l.

’■

dustry, is exceeded only

United

C e n tr a l.

$43,642,000,000, was, on an

great decline in this in­

present position of leader­

6

42

K entucky.........................
Tennessee........................
Alabama............................
Mississippi........................
Louisiana..........................
Texas................................
A rkansas.........................
N orth ern

greater than those of all

ship has been made in a

South A tla n tic.
Delaware..........................
Maryland..........................
District of Columbia__
Virginia.............................
West Virginia.................
North Carolina ............
South Carolina................
Georgia.............................
Florida.............................
S o u th e r n

Its

trade at sea, despite the

M anufactures

A griculture .
to

W e alth

80

M anufactures .

38

to

50

W ea lth

50

W e a l th .

E ducation .
Expenditure per Capita for
Primary Schools.
$18.70 Highest.
0.81 Lowest.

43

to

T ax atio n .
State and Local, per Capita.
$14.60 Highest.
1.0 6 Lowest.

87

14

P opulation

N et D ebt .
State and Local, per Capita.
$127.66 Highest.
0 .7 1 Lowest.

50,155,783 in the United

Highest.
Lowest.

of

56.83
27.82

population

I lliter a c y .
Percentage o f W hite Male
Adults unable to W rite.

L iv e S tock .
Value per Capita.
$240.85 Highest.
0.69 Lowest.

29
36

27
46
27

Highest.
Lowest.

A griculture .
Farm Product per Capita.
$8 3.76 Highest.
2.90 Lowest.

51
50

8

world.

Europe, while its carrying

N o r t h A t la n t ic .

Maine................................
New Hampshire..............
Vermont............................
Massachusetts..................
Rhode Island................
Connecticut......................
New Y o r k ...........................
New Jersey......................
Pennsylvania...................

of the

railways have a mileage

Rank.

48.1
1 .7

M anufactures .
| Value of Product per Capita.
$376.68 Highest.
6.64 Lowest.

26

Highest.
Lowest.

In C on clu sio n .—Of

or $39.33 per capita.

IO
II
21

254.9
0.2

greatly extended.

The

38

IOO

31
56
24
94
IOO

T E R R IT O R IE S .

which might, of course, be

child

W e a lth .
Tru e Valuation per Capita.

important of these com­

total

$ 1 ,653.76 Highest.
250.91 Lowest.

AND

O ccupations .
Ratio to Total Population.

in detail some of the more

the

37
49
44
94
90

P opulation .
D ensity per Square Mile.

STATES

of

The figures indicate a gain of rank— except where the minus
sign is prefixed, signifying a loss— in passing from

In percentages of the total variation from lowest to highest.

of comparison. The second

parisons, the number of

S e l e c t e d C o m p a r is o n s

.

W e alth .

better serving the purposes

ank

to

R

O ccupations

adopted in the table, as

part of the table presents

kets

Analysis o f General S u m m a ry b y Ratios.—P late 151.

resources

have

hitherto exempted it.

But

Deducting the public

about $150; in other words, three-fourths of

with all this the promise of the future is still

debt (national, state and local), amounting to

the annual product is consumed in food and

such as has never been presented to any people;

$3,162,534,517, or $63.04 per capita, the balance

raiment, leaving $2,500,000,000 to be added

such as not only to justify hopes of continually

of unencumbered wealth was over $40,000,-

yearly to the permanent wealth of the country.

increasing

000,000, or $807.09 for every inhabitant.

material

prosperity, but also

to

The

Using the estimates of Mr. Mulhall ( “ Bal­

insure the success of that great political experi­

amount raised by direct taxation was $302,-

ance Sheet of the W o rld ” ) in regard to other

ment, “ whose further history,” as an English

200,694, or $6.03 per capita, which was but

countries, it appears that in nearly all the

writer has said, “ is of unbounded importance

6^ mills on each dollar of true valuation.

factors of material prosperity, the United States

to the future welfare of mankind.”


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102