View original document

The full text on this page is automatically extracted from the file linked above and may contain errors and inconsistencies.

SIXTY-EIGHTH CONGRESS, FIRST SESSION.
THE INNER SECRETS OF EUROPEAN DIPLOMACY DISCLOSED FOR
annex portions
Balkans.
THE FIRST TIME TO THE AMERICAN PUBLIC.

of Germany, and expand its power in the

The foreign office of France in like manner was a very old
and venerable institution, with employees who had spent their
How European Diplomacy Affects American Welfare— N o lives in the service and who had the ambition and fixed purpose
Foundation Whatever for Canceling the Debts Due Amer- to increase the power, financial and commercial, territorial and
ica—American Prices and Taxes: The Payment of a Bonus political, of “ France ”— that is, the Government of France_
Seriously Affected by European Instability Due to Secret throughout the world.
Under the constitution of 1875, the President of France
European Diplomacy.
has a right to make a secret treaty on his sole authority with­
out the advice or consent of the French Senate or the French
Parliament.
SPEECH
Joseph Barthelemy, French professor of political scieuce,
OF
in “ Democracy and Foreign Policy, 1917,” page 102, makes
the following statement o f the principles of the French con­
stitution of 1875:

HON.

ROBERT
O F

In

t h e

S

e n a t e

L.

OWEN,

O K L A H O M A ,
o f

t h e

U

n i t e d

The
S

t a t e s

,

December 18, 1928.
Mr. OWEN. Mr. President, the interest of the American people
is affected in many ways by the present instability in Europe.
Until the nations are stable they can not repay the loans due
the United States, and we can not reduce taxes as we should be
able to do. The European demand for American goods, the
ability to pay for such products, the internal effect on the
prices of agricultural products and manufactures all depend on
European stability, as well as the equally important matter of
world peace and international good will.
If American ideals were accepted by the statesmen of Europe—
the ideals of international understanding and good will, o f in­
ternational justice and helpfulness— the European nations could
disarm, balance their budgets, stabilize their currency, go into
maximum production, and into an era of prosperity and peace.
Under those conditions America could afford to make loans
to Europe sufficient to assist them meet such objects.
Europe is still suffering somewhat from the old ideals which
formerly dominated their respective foreign policies in which
commercial imperialism sought by bayonets and intrigue to
expand the power and prestige of each nation.
Previous to 1914 Russia, Pra.nce, Great Britain, and Germany
conspicuously were seeking to expand their control or hege­
mony over large areas of the earth’s surface in Africa, Asia,
and elsewhere, occupied by the unenlightened and ignorant peo­
ples of the earth, as well as in Europe.
Great Britain, through its foreign office, its military and
naval power, during many generations had established under
such a policy great colonies throughout the world until its rule
governed 440.000,000 people.
' Russia occupied and ruled under a like policy about onesixth of the entire surface of the land of the world and had
under its Government 150,000,000 people speaking many lan­
guages and dialects.
France, with its colonies, controlled 90,000,000, and had its co­
lonial claims in Asia, Africa, South America, and the islands of
the sea. At one time France controlled the lands now occupied
by the United States west of the Mississippi River, including
Louisiana, and claimed eastern Canada. When we were in the
great Civil War the French Government took part in sending
and backing Emperor Maximilian in Mexico, and was com­
pelled by the United States to withdraw by show o f military
force.
Belgium has its Congo, Holland its Java, and Germany had
secured portions of Asia, large colonies in Africa, and various
islands of the sea.
These ancient Governments controlled their foreign relations
through a very compact, powerful, and, to all intents and pur­
poses, imperial government. Old Russia was an absolute mon­
archy, with a foreign office pursuing what they called a “ his­
toric mission,” having ever in view the acquisition o f larger
territory, greater power, trading with the great powers and
coercing the smaller powers, planning to get parts of Manchuria
and China and Persia, laying covetous eyes on Sweden and
Finland, determined on controlling the Dardanelles, desiring to
7 6 8 7 6 — -1 1




c o n s titu tio n

a b o u t,

am ong

m o n a r c h is t
lic a n

d id

r ig h t
in

upon

th is

H ere
not

be

F ir s t,
th e

in

b assad ors

th a t

a

of

c o n d itio n s

to

a ll

p o in t

is

to

of

a

w h ic h
a

e s ta b lis h
th e

a

tr a n s a c tio n

m on arch y

fu n d a m e n ta l

tr a n s a c tio n a l
con cern ed
r6su m 4

c o n s id e r

th e

fo r e ig n

fo r e ig n

d ors o f F ra n ce

sp eak

ture

th a t

he

th e ju r id ic a l

is

of

fo r c e

th e

of

d ir e c tio n

th e

to g eth e r

and

th e

c o n s ti­

is ,

w hat

fo r e ig n

a rra n g em e n ts

w ith

repu b­

of

th a t
of

it

a ffa ir s .

w h ic h

general

a

a

p r o b le m s

s o lu tio n ;

brough t

b etw ee n

s h o u ld

r u le s

of

th e

r e g im e .

in
of

r e s u lt

th e

u n a b le

p r in c ip le ,

n a tio n

th e

by

a d o p te d

fo r g o tte n

p a r lia m e n ta r y

w as

U nder
it

n o ta b ly

1875
th in g s ,

m a jo r ity

m in o r ity .

tu tio n a l

of

o th e r

he

P r e s id e n t

a ffa ir s ;

p ow ers;

it
is

it

of

is
in

th e

alone

R e p u b lic

to him a r e
his name in

w h ic h

; he

co n d u c ts th e n e g o t ia tio n s ; it

th e

c o u n try

b in d s

in

rep rese n ts

a c c r e d ite d

in te r n a tio n a l

is

th e

th e

am ­

am b assa­

l>y his signa­

tr e a tie s

of

w h ic h

a u th o r.

On page 105:
The

p r in c ip le

e x p r e s s ly

set

fo rth

by

A r tic le

16th o f J u l y , 1 8 7 5 , i s t h a t t h e P r e s i d e n t o f
and ratifies treaties upon his sole authority.

8

th e

of

th e

la w

of

th e

negotiates

R e p u b lic

On page 109:
A lm o s t
tu rn in g
a ll

th o se

F ran ce,
fie d
in

by

of
of

w h ic h
are

th e

th e

to

th e

great

our
have

of
of

8

of

p a r lia m e n ta r y

tr e a tie s ,

th e

p o lic ie s

e x e r c is e d

w ork

a r t ic le

in te r n a tio n a l

fo r e ig n

P r e s id e n t

e ffe c t t h a t

s u b m it
th e

a ll

p o in t

great

th e
th e
th e

a c ts

w h ic h

d u r in g

th e

a d e c is iv e

in flu e n c e

G overnm en t

a lo n e

R e p u b lic
la w

approval
p o litic a l

on

and

m ark ed

c e n tu ry ,
th e

1 6 th

m ost

tr e a tie s

and

of

J u ly ,

im p o r ta n t
th e

d e s tin ie s

have

been

1875,

of

of

r a ti­
It

does

p erh aps

tr e a tie s

th e

a lm o s t

upon his sole authority.

o f th e
th e

have

h a lf

of

is

not
a ll

a llia n c e .

It was under this authority that the secret treaty between
Russia and France of 1892 contemplating military operations
against Germany was executed and withheld from the French
Parliament. It was under this authority that the secret treaties
of 1916-17 to divide German and Austrian territory between
France and Russia were entered into.
Great Britain’s foreign affairs are directed in like fashion by
the British foreign office, No. 10 Downing Street, without being
directed by or disclosed to the British Parliament.
Sir Edward Grey, in his agreements with the Governments of
France and Russia contemplating military and naval coopera­
tion between Russia, France, and Great Britain along the lines
worked out by the military and naval staffs of Great Britain,
France, and Russia, was able to do so in absolute secrecy. He
did not submit these records to parliament until after the war
had been entered into by Great Britain. Six times the British
Parliament was advised there were no commitments made. (Ex­
hibits 11 and 12— How Diplomats Make War, Neilson; Entente
Diplomacy and the W orld; Un Livre Noir, etc.).
It is of supreme international importance that the world
should understand the structure of these foreign offices and
what they did in bringing about the World War. How they
subsidized and controlled the press, how they formed public
opinion through such means, and taught the people to fear and
hate each other and build up armies to the limit of their taxing
capacity.
Until these methods are thoroughly understood by the world
and corrected, the American ideals of international understand­
ing and international good will is impossible of accomplishment.

CONGRESSIONAL RECORD

2

Until these methods are understood, the great mass of the
people who pay taxes and die on the battle field will never be
able to realize that their hatred o f each other is completely
artificial and a result o f the ambition and pride of their
leaders in charge of foreign affairs. It is necessary to stop
the malignant criticism of one people by another people through
the press and by public men if war is to end.

and imposed an Indemnity o f a billion dollars on France which
left a terrible grievance in the heart of patriotic French iieople,
which was revenged in the W orld War. And while during 41
years o f the life o f the German Empire it did not make war on
its neighbors, it continually advocated the doctrine o f might.
The German leaders taught the value o f military preparedness
to the utmost limit o f their capacity, and they are Jointly re­
sponsible with the other nations of Europe for the evil conse­
T H E P E O P L E T H E M S E L V E S NO T R E S P O N S IB L E FOR W AR .
quences which have resulted from this false doctrine and a
Many men now think of Germany as composed of bad structure o f government irresponsible to the people.
people o f criminal intent who wickedly and with malice pre­
America has believed, on the contrary, in the homely but wise
pense assailed the Innocent, unsuspecting good people o f Bel­ doctrine o f Abraham Lincoln, who believed In a government
gium and France. The people of Germany and o f France are of the people, by the people, and for the people, and who
equally good.
grandly said:
Of the present population of Germany charged with the
L e t u s h a v e t h e f a i t h to b e lie v e t h a t r ig h t m a k e s m ig h t .
payment of reparations, about 20 per cent in 1914 were unborn
Mr. President, the Ilohenzollerns and the Hapsburgs, who
bubes; about 80 per cent of the German people living in 1914
trusted alone to the sword, and the Romanoffs, who relied
were women and children without knowledge and without
alone on brute power, have been punished and we need not re­
political power and absolutely innocent of any wrongful pur­
proach them. Nicholas and ills family are all dead. The Aus­
pose. There is no adequate moral basis upon which they can trian Emperor and his successor are dead. The Hohenzollerna
be charged with the responsibility of the war.
were compelled to leave Germany and relinquish all power.
About 10 per cent o f the population o f Germany were men
With the destruction o f the Russian dynasty the secret
capable of bearing arms, about 5 per cent capable o f some archives o f the Russian foreign office were exposed and printed
slight service, and about 10 per cent engaged in other services by the Revolutionary Government A portion o f them have
as noncombatants, and these groups are intermingled.
been translated into French under the title “ Un Llvre Noir,”
The 10 per cent fit for service had no option whatever and the former secretary o f the Russian Embassy at London.
about answering the call o f mobilization. If any German had B. I)e Siebert, has also published 858 secret documents dis­
dared to do so, such a rebel under the military dynasty o f closing the policy o f the Russian Government and o f France
Germany then in control would have faced a drum-head court- and Great Britain In relation to this war and In relation to
martial, a firing squad, an ignominious death, and an odious the world, under the title, “ Entente Diplomacy and the W orld ”
memory as a coward and a traitor to his country.
by De Siebert. It is a “ Matrix o f the History o f Europe
The same thing is perfectly true with regard to the men of 1909-1914,” which every student o f government should reud
France, of Russia, o f Great Britain, of Belgium, as the case until he knows the inner secrets o f entente diplomacy.
might be.
In like manner the secret archives o f Germany have been
The people themselves were not responsible for war. If disclosed to view, and o f Belgium, and some o f the English
they had been responsible they have certainly paid a terrible records have come to light.
penalty, for 8,538,315 o f these men were killed or died from
These revelations of European diplomacy and of the Euro­
wounds, over 21,000,000 of them were wounded, over 7,000,000 pean methods o f conducting foreign affairs should be un­
were missing, most o f whom died without record. The un­ derstood by the American people. Perhaps when the world
recorded women and children who died number many millions
understands what these records disclose it may become possi­
more.
ble for “ the common people, who pay the taxes and who die
I f the German and Austrian people were responsible for the upon the battle field,” to exercise a larger influence with their
war they have been punished; 2,972,000 of them were killed.
Government leaders and bring about a larger recognition o f
7,186,000 were wounded, 3,252,000 were missing.
the importance o f international understanding, international
The total number o f killed, wounded and missing in the good will, international peace and prosperity.
war was 37,494,000 men and probably half as many women
SO M E S E C R E T S OF EU R O PE A N D IP L O M A C Y .
and children died from war and exposure and famine.
The records to which I have called the attention o f the
The cost o f this was over two hundred and eight thousand
million dollars ($208,000,000,000) at a low estimate. (E x ­ Senate appear to demonstrate that the German militaristic
rulers did not will the war, tried to avoid the war, and
hibits 22, 23, 24.)
The people of these countries did not will their own death only went into war because o f their conviction that the
and destruction. This war was brought on by a few’ men persistent mobilizations o f Russia and France meant a deter­
In charge o f government, responsible for government, pur­ mination on war and were secretly intended ns a declaration
suing policies w liich probably for the most part they thought o f war by Russia and France against Germany. The records
’
wdse and necessary to advance what they vainly Imagined to show that the Russian and French leaders were determined
be the “ glory ” and “ honor ” o f their owrn respective nations. on war, and intended the mobilizations as the beginning o f a
It Is futile to denounce the leaders who brought this great war which had for many years been deliberately prepared and
war on, but it is essential to the future o f mankind to under­ worked out by the complete plans o f campaign through annual
stand what happened and how7 it happened to prevent again military conferences.
In 1892 Russia and France entered into the following trea ty:
the crucifixion o f the world by secret diplomacy.
There are certain noble and splendid qualities which were
E X H IB IT
I.
common to the Russians, the Germans, the French, the British,
A p p e n d i x C.
the Italians, the Belgians, and others. They were all splen­
T H E F R A N C O -R U S S IA N A L L IA N C E OF 1892.
didly brave, magnificently loyal and patriotic o f heart. They
T h e F r e n c h is s u e d a f t e r th e w a r , w h e n t h e y fir s t d is c lo s e d th e t e r m s
followed their leaders believing that they were defending the o f t h i s a g r e e m e n t , a s p e c i a l Y e l l o w B o o k u p o n t h i s s u b j e c t . T h e e s s e n ­
best interests of their country.
t i a l t e r m s o f i t c a n b e fo u n d in
th e p a m p h le t o f M a r c h , 1 9 1 9 , N o .
When detached America went into the war it did so with a 1 3 0 , o f t h e A m e r i c a n A s s o c i a t i o n f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n c i l i a t i o n . ’ T h e
clearer vision. We were not fighting the German people as b o d y o f t h e e n g a g e m e n t s i s a s f o l l o w s :
such. We were fighting a military despotism which ruled the
D R A F T OF M IL IT A R Y C O N V E N T IO N .
German people and had persistently made war on us. We were
F r a n c e a n d R u s s ia , a n im a t e d b y a c o m m o n d e s ir e t o p r e s e r v e th e
fighting for liberty and justice as w’ e understood it. We had
p e a c e , a n d h a v i n g n o o t h e r e n d in m i n d t h a n t o w a r d o f f t h e n e c e s s i t i e s
not a single doubt that the German rulers were exclusively
o f a d e fe n s iv e w a r , p r o v o k e d by a n a tta c k o f th e fo r c e s o f th e T r ip le
responsible for the war. We had seen them refuse In The
A llia n c e
a g a in s t
e ith e r
of
th e m ,
have
agreed
upon
th e
fo llo w in g
Hague conferences to agree to the principle o f arbitration and p r o v i s i o n s :
of disarmament. We heard much o f their wonderful army,
1. I f
F r a n c e is
a tta c k e d
by G erm an y, or by
Ita ly
su p p o rte d
by
of their annual maneuvers, o f their officers drinking the
silent toast to “ Der Tag.” We heard about their invading G e r m a n y , R u s s i a s h a l l e m p l o y a l l I t s a v a i l a b l e f o r c e s t o f i g h t G e r m a n y .
“ 2 . In
case
th e
fo r c e s o f
th e T r ip le
A llia n c e ,
or o f on e
of
th e
unprepared and unsuspecting Belgium and France and Russia.
p o w e r s w h ic h a r e a p a r t y to it , s h o u ld b e m o b iliz e d , F r a n c e a n d R u s s ia ,
We heard of their poison gas and their atrocities in battle.
a t t h e fir s t J u d ic a tio n o f t h e e v e n t , a n d w i t h o u t a p r e v io u s a g r e e m e n t
And now. Mr. President, there has come out o f hiding a great b e i n g n e c e s s a r y , s h a l l m o b i l i z e a l l t h e i r f o r c e s I m m e d i a t e l y a n d s i m u l ­
mass of evidence previously unknown, previously unsuspected, to t a n e o u s l y , a n d s h a l l t r a n s p o r t t h e m a s n e a r t o t h e i r f r o n t i e r s a s
which we shall be compelled to give attention and which dis­ p o s s i b l e .
close that the German leaders, bad as they were, were not
“ 3 . T h e a v a ila b le fo r c e s w h ic h m u s t b e e m p lo y e d a g a in s t G e r m a n y
exclusively responsible for the World War. They were cer­ s h a l l b e : F o r F t a n c e , 1 , 3 0 0 , 0 0 0 m e n ; f o r R u s s i a , f r o m 700 OOO t o
tainly responsible for having seized Alsace-Lorraine in 1870 8 0 0 , O f IP m e n .
7 (1 8 7 (1 —




11

-------J§»—

a.

r

I

CONGRESSIONAL RECORD.
“ T h ese
p a tc h ,
east

4.

“

of

th a t

and

p la n

fo r c e s

so

In

th e

The

in

th e

s ta ffs

s h a ll

and

"5 .

In to ,

"

to

a c tio n

to

fig h t

w ith

th e

th e

sam e

at

g rea test
tim e

d is ­

and

to

th e

in

and

R u s s ia .

and

th e

tw o

fo r

c o u n tr ie s

and

s h a ll

fa c ilita te

c o n s ta n tly

th e

th e

each

o th e r,

of

th e

in

tim e

T r ip le

of

peace,

A llia n c e

a ll

in

w h ic h

is

in ,

in

tim e

of

s h a ll

w ar

s h a ll

A ll

not

c o n c lu d e
have

a

sep a ra te

th e

sam e

peace.

c la u s e s

as

th e

e n u m era ted

above

s h a ll

be

kept

a b s o lu te ly

An

exO on ge

w ho

of

co n d u cted

Tw o

P r e s id e n t a t

A

to

A ll
12 th

a

th a t

v is it
w ill

w h ic h
te c tio n .

to

1899,

to

by

and

of

B o is d e ffr e ,

F rench

F ren ch

in

u n im p o r ta n t

th e

8t.

arm y

fo r

com m ent

R u s s ia n

F o r e ig n

to

M in is te r

The

d o cu m e n ts

th e

a

fo llo w in g

M in is te r

Is

of

has

w as

D e lc a s s e ’s

F o r e ig n

up

to

of

rep ort

th e

report

In

to

w hat
of

to

th e

rep ort

R e p u b lic ,
he

th is

T r ip le

su p p osed

A ffa ir s ,

in

F ren ch

s tr e n g th e n in g

d is s o lu tio n

arran gem en t

th e

on

of
th e

c o n sid e r s,

a llia n c e ,

a

J u s t ifia b le

D

M -

of

to

S t.

P etersb u rg .

k in d s —

a

g en era l

A u gu st

9,

21,

h e lm .

and

c o n s id e r

d ip lo m a tic

1891,

R ib o t,
in

E urope

in

and

and

concert

any

t o January, 189k,

w h ic h
th e

th e

d u r a tio n

f>«<

of

o f th e

tch a t

o th e rw is e

q u e s tio n

concern s

T r ip le

th e

an

R u s s ia

expressed

1891,
th a t

and

th e

by

of

G ie r s ,

th e

tw o

of

p u ttin g

a g g r e s s iv e

are

in

s ig n e d

c a p a b le

A llia n c e ,

if

tw o

le tte r s

G o v e rn m e n ts
th e

of

M oh ren w ill

peace

of

o f D e c e m b e r S3, 1893,

act

w h ose

on

th e

part

d u r a tio n

is

of

one

lim ite d

to

v o litio n

of

T r ip le
a ll

its

A llia n c e

e h o u ld d i s s o lv e
i f , f o r e x a m p le ,

m em bers;

In

our

s ia n
th e

b a la n c e
m ore,
In

a

b etw ee n

w o u ld
com m on

N ow ,
tio n

it

it

tr o u b le d

J ust

m e

and

It

fu l

been
have

s u p p o rt.

a lw a y s
In

I

th e
on

of

stu d y .

in

situ a tio n .

th e

of

in

A u g u st,

In stru m e n t
sam e

to
be

how

of

a ls o

th a t

th e

w ill

s u r e ly

P r e s id e n t
The
a n x io u s

o f

our

r e c e iv e
th e

em peror
to

76876—




tw o

a ll

th a t
to

th e

F ren ch
assu red

one

lo n g

th e se

c o n fir m a tio n

of

of

me

in to

th e

as a

Your

th o se

me

th a t

su ch
in

th e

w as
p a th

h is

C e n tra l

w ar.

Ju st
E uro­

d ip lo m a tic

h is

id e a

m a je s ty ’s

th e

e x is te d

r e m a in
of

b etw ee n
b a s is

of

w h ic h

a b s o lu te ly

le tte r s

ex­

req u est,

fu n d a m e n ta l

a rra n g e m e n t,

w as

secret,
Count

W edn esd ay

done

w h ic h

m orn -

elcasse

.

c a lls

it,

in to

sta ff

th a t

as

th e

G erm an

fr o m

th e ir

and

w ar

of

seek

to

a

assu ran ce
c o u ld

th e

“ to

o ffe n s iv e

d ip lo m a t ic a lly

sh e

fo r c e s —

m u st

th a t

p in c e r s
as

by

L ord

th e

be

th ey

a t­

knew

str ik in g

L orebu rn

F ren ch

c o n c e n tra te

ta k e

of

sh ow s

R u s s ia n s — w h ic h

see

th e

con­
R u s­

a g g r e s s io n —

Im m en se

how

of

It

m ilita r y

c o r r id o r ,”

A rm y

th e

G erm an

W e

a v o id

B r itis h

began.

c a m o u fla g e d

w est.

a p o s itio n

in

p a la c e

ta b le

(m in im u m )

“ B e lg ia n

F ren ch

in

a
th e

G erm an y ;

o b serve th e

th e

w as

th a t

p ic tu r e

h enchm en

years

peace;

W e

th en )

and

r e c k o n in g u p

w o u ld

th e

fo r

be

8 0 0 ,0 0 0

and

w itn

le g e n d

F ren ch

th e

d is c u s s in g

east

“ The

c h ie f o f
r a p id ly

o ffe n s iv e

th e

as

a g a in s t

w ith th e h elp o f th e B r itis h A r m y on its l e f t fla n k .”

G erm an y,
T u rn

u s in g

F ran ce.

(e v e n

th e

d e a lin g

w ro te :

e x c lu s iv e ly

over

s h o u ld

th e m

we

v ic tim s

th e n

and

for

r e v e a ls

b e fo r e

o v e r w h e lm in g
on

G erm an y

F ran ce,

w as
b e lo w

th e

D e s t r o y s ,”

w ar,

p la n s

S ta te s,

see

th a t

th e

years

w h ic h

F rench P retared

and

1911.)

fo r

even

W e

fo r

w e ll t h a t
at

II.

P o is o n

w ar

th re e

F ren ch

s im u lt a n e o u s ly

r a p id ly

(IN

“ The

th e ir

P ow ers

a v a ila b le

be

ta ck e d

to

fr o m

a

la te r ; F ran ce

E urope

p re d a to ry

s u d d e n ly

le g io n s .

th e

sta te m e n ts

h un dred

and

w ere

of

us

th e

rep ose

by

m in is te r s

w ar

d r e a m in g

her

caught

to

w hen

R u s s ia

out
a ll

m ade

p la tfo r m s

Im p e r ia l

s t a r tle d

“ W e

w o r ld

ev en ts

agreem en t

does

not

w h ic h

th e

by

out

naught

of

broke

but

th e

u n prepared ”

K a is e r ’s

(M r .

L lo y d -

fe e lin g ;

th e

sort

you

th e

not

of

th in k
C arnot

th e

new

he

w as

th a t
by

th e

H ou se

w h ic h

lic

•

*

B r itis h

* ”

*

m ent

are

T h is

no

1 9 1 1 ),

secret

o th e r p o w e r ”

w as

th e

is

of

no

secret

and
and

fu lly

th e

‘‘A s

to

d e c e p tio n

F rench
The

of

F r a n c o -R u s s ia n

M E E T IN G S

a r m ie s

F rench

p o in ts

of

c o n v e n tio n
la tio n s h ip .
by

th e

w ith

A u gu st

OF

THE

m ilita r y

th e

1892,

w as

c o n fe rr in g

been

has

ren d er

fo r e ig n

any
pub­

sta te d
G overn ­

m ilita r y

p r a c tic e d

m ilita r y

FRENCH

or

naval

upon

th e

B r itis h

th e

1

of

a r t ic le

heads

of

a tt a c h e

s in c e
kept

w as

(th is

1892, had
secret

p a r tie s ,

and

p resen t

re fe r s

to

been

as

th e

1920)

gave

r ise

to

R U S S IA N

4

of

th e

of

m ilita r y

th e

A u gu st

con­

R u s s ia n
18

secreta ry .

(3 1 ),
The

F r a n c o -R u s s ia n

b a sis

of

w ere

s u c c e s s iv e ly

th e

OF

C H IE F S

( 8 1 ) , 1911.

s ta ffs

th e

u n til

c o n fe re n c e .

AN D

c o n fe re n c e a t K r a s n o e -S e lo

c o n v e n tio n

w h ic h ,
It

p aragrap h

17,

m e t in

of

th e

1 9 1 1 ).

S T A F F AT K R A S N O B -S B U O , AU G U ST 18
accord an ce

to

any

th e

sp eech es

arran gem en t

w ith

(D e ce m b e r,

“ w ith

A s q u it h ’s

d is c lo s e d

a g a in ,

o b lig a t io n s

o ffe n s iv e

M r.

A f f a i r s .)

sev en th

THE

any

e x te n t

F o r e ig n

th e

O ff

us

F rench

e n g a g e m e n ts

upon

any

th e

fla n k ” — a t

T h ere

e n ta il

(E d .

M IN U T E S

“

le ft

d is c lo s e d

(N o v e m b e r ,

e s tim a te

N a tio n .

been

about

its

to

a s s is ta n c e
And

not

th e re

th a t

read
on

C om m ons :

has

*

•

of

you

A rm y

and
1911.

v a r io u s
m ilita r y

F r a n c o -R u s s ia n

fo llo w in g

re­

e x a m in e d

exch ange

of

v ie w s : .

P re a m b le .

perm an en t

P r e s id e n t
and

Your
is

have

and

in d ic a te d

in

g la n c e — w h e n

of

In

very

our

do

Then
h e lp

v e n tio n

R e p u b lic ? ”

e s s e n tia lly

th e

th e

a lr e a d y

fo rm

R ussians
W ar.

u np rep ared n ess

u n prepared

w o u ld

had

s h o u ld

M a je s ty

h is

on

s h o u ld

That

to

ex p ressed
at

new

th e

d o c u m e n t p u b lis h e d

(m in im u m )

had

and

of

th e

in

u n p rep ared n ess

“ d e fe n s iv e ”

c r is is

th a t

and

m y s e lf

th a t

the

ow

m o n th ,

1 ,3 0 0 ,0 0 0

w h ic h

general

1894,

and

general

d u r a tio n .

had

w hom ,

e x is te n c e

R u s s ia — w e re

and

F ran ce

gen eral

s o lid a r y ;

poor

a g a in s t

m a je s tie s

a p p r e h e n s io n

e ffe c tiv e ,

III

H

d is c u s s in g

and

me

estee m

w hat

“ S in c e

th e

p a id

to o k

th e

have

e v e n in g ,

th e ir

q u e s tio n s ,

as

A le x a n d e r

he

p r o b le m s

of

fr ie n d ly

F r id a y

b etw ee n

c o n v e n tio n

r e m a in

E m p eror

me

and

fo rm e d :

im p o r ta n t

as

a

over­
pow er­

w h ic h

r e v ie w e d

case

to
a

v ie w s

F r a n c o -E n g lis h

b e lie f

agreem ent

say,

te ll

has

A ffa ir s ,

w h ose

w ith

r e la tio n s
m y

in

m ilita r y

N ic h o la s

em peror

d iffe r e n t

w as

n a tio n s

of

c o n tin u e
11

is

th e

it

to

and

w h ic h

m a k in g

w ork

year

d isa r m e d

of

th e

d u r a tio n — th a t

in te re sts

th e

th e

T r ip le

w h ic h

p a tr io tis m

v is it

sam e

I

to

exch ange.

C z a r — e x a c t ly

F ran ce

conven­

th e

F o r e ig n

P etersb u rg

la s t

em peror

ex ec u te

th a t

fo r

th e

th e

of

o p p o r tu n ity

b r e a k fa st

th e

a p p r o a c h in g

v ie w

1891,

th in k

th e

over

of

S t.

en ou gh

d u r in g

no

pru d en t

b r e a k fa st

good

ran

cou rse

w o u ld

a r is e

M a je s ty

th e

r e v e a le d

a llia n c e

s h o u ld

w as

u n ite d

m ilita r y

of

E m peror

to

th e

fu r th e r ­

o n ly

d e fic ie n c y

M o u r a v ie ff,

m in e ,

In

in v ite d
A fte r

W e

T hen,

1

w as

conduct

h im .

d u r in g

R u s s ia ,

I

he

w ith

a

n e g le c t

Count

A r r iv in g

s

th e

G e o rg e ).

born

M in is te r

and

fr o m

to

accord

P e te r h o f.

m y

arou sed
a r is e n

p e r fe c t

F ir s t

to

not

th e

e x is t;

T hat

lo ft y

r e c e iv in g
retu rn

O c to b e r.

at

ap proval

of

your

u p s e ttin g

s itu a tio n ,

R u s s ia

w hen

to

becam e

of

e x e c u tio n ?

m om ent

it.

I

and

w hat

and

its

cease

r e s o lv e

in

to

A u g u st,

Sunday

h is

in

fir m

And

fo r

w o u ld
w ith

peace

F ran ce

even

sin c e

fo u n d

Sure

la s t

4th

my

fo r c e s?
fin d

p r e c ise

it

v a n is h

d e c id e d

been

P a r i6

th e

c o n s ta n tly

I

w e lc o m e ,

at

to

read y

th a t

w o u ld

has

it.

but

w ork

A llia n c e ,

E u ropean

d eserv e

p la n

is

s h o u ld

com e

th e

m ore

general

very

a llie d

The

g e n e r a ls

th re e

th e

of

but

G overn ­

S t. P etersb u rg .

la s t

and

R u s s ia n

m ore

c o m p r o m is in g

le ft

th a t

u n d e n ia b ly

w o u ld

a llie d

F ren ch

and

of

I

a r tic le

a lle g e d

E m p e r o r F r a n c is J o s e p h , w h o s e e m s a t t i m e s t h e o n l y b o n d b e t w e e n
r iv * l a n d e v e n e n e m y r a c e s , s h o u l d s u d d e n ly d is a p p e a r ; i f A u s tr ia
w e r e t h r e a te n e d by a d is m e m b e r m e n t, w h ic h p e r h a p s is , a f t e r a ll,
d e e ir a b le , w h ic h p er h a p s m ig h t b e c o u n te n a n c e d , a nd w h ic h , in a n y
c a s e , o n e m ig h t b ecom e a n x io u s to tu rn to a c c o u n t f
W h a t c o u ld b e
c a p a b le

th e
th a t

th e m s e lv e s

b etw ee n

c o n v e n tio n

th e

E X H IB IT

p e r fe c t ly

th e

I

s u m p t i o n .”

A llia n c e .

happen

by

27,

s tip u la te d

T r ip le

w o u ld

th a n

15,

w ith

a nd a m ilita r y c o n v e n tio n

Jeopardy;

p ow ers

a g r e e m e n t,

and

it

and

d e c id e d

th e

T he G reat F raud

of

a rra n g em e n ts

A u gu st

w h ic h

of

th e

Our

tw o

D

th e

R e p u b lic . 1

to

up

c o n fir m e d ,

th e

concern

u n d e r s ta n d in g

A ffa ir s

I.
P r e s id e n t

P r e s i d e n t : Y o u r e x c e lle n c y k n o w s w i t h w h a t id e a in m in d

ear

w ent

w as

e s ta b lis h e d

day

An

F o r e ig n

p ro­

P a r i s , A u g u s t IS, 1899.
I

1891

b a la n c e

F ran ce

In pursuance o f this troaty the military staffs of France and
Russia entered into a military conference, August 81, 1911,
printed by Foreign Affairs, in London, September, 1922, under
the title, “ The Great Fraud,’.’ is as follow s:

th e
F rench

of

to

th in k

fu ll:
L o u b e t,

th e

of

draw n

m a in te n a n c e

m ilita r y

M o u r a v ie ff,

d e c la r a t io n .

and

th e

to

Count

It

be

th e

assu res

so

A llia n c e , a g a in s t

be

had

s o le m n ly

s h o u ld

of

good

su b m ittin g

fo r F o r e ig n

A ffa ir s .

su m m ed

of

D e lc a s s e

P e te rsb u rg ,

even

are

P r e s id e n t

p la n

seem ed

c o n te n ts

In g ,

is

th e

of

I

in

fo r

a tta c h in g

p la n .

s h o u ld

P e r le r ,

1891

th ey

m a in te n a n c e

com m on

lib e r ty

w h ile

o n ly

c a lle d

M o u r a v ie ff

C a s lm lr

th e

w h ic h

of

e x te n d e d ;

th a t

th is

th e

th e

th e

r e p r e s e n ta tiv e

P etersb u rg .

am bassad or,

M o u r a v ie ff,

M in is te r

w hen

8t.

o r ig in a l

(D e lc a s s e ,

th e

T *o u b et,

o u tliv e

th e

one

F ren ch

in te r m e d ia te

A u g u st,

It

fo r

de

D e lc a s s e .

h im s e lf

of

tra n s m is s io n

M o n te b e llo ,

P a r is , a n d

th ese

a fte r

fro m

by

of

G en eral

a ffa ir

D e lc n s s e ,

r e p ly

D e lc a s s e

by

th e

le tte r s

A ffa ir s ,

le tte r s

docu m ent

d e c la r a tio n

arran gem en t

“ th e

by

M in is te r

of

th i«

H e

read

th e

th e

to o k

a n x ie ty

em peror

a c tly .

■ e c r e t .”

upon

sh o rt,

The

d u r a tio n

a

fo r

I

f o r c e s .”

In

I

th e

w ith

fo r g e d

p r o v id e s

p la n

arran gem en t

s h a ll

of

th e

ex p ressed

be

bonds

m om ent

s in g u la r ly

my

pean

c o r r e s p o n d in g

c o n v e n tio n

it

is

m u ch

th e

th a t

d ra ft

In

scop e

as

advance.

R u s s ia

A t

peace,

th e

p o s s e s s io n .
of

c lo s e r

th e

m o r n in g .

e x e c u tio n

A llia n c e .

7.

draw

m e n ts

to

a r m ie s

m eans

p resen t

of

prepare

above.

th e

t h e ir

and

F ran ce
The

a r m ie s

fo r th

arran ged

“ 6.
T r ip le

th e
ord er

c o m m u n ic a te

w ays

s tu d ie d

of

r e g a r d in g

com e

have

em peror

set

s h a ll

“ The

c o m p le te

w ill

in

m easu res

In fo r m a tio n

b e g in

w est.

concert

“ They

or

s h a ll

G erm an y

3

h is

fa th e r

T h e tw o c h ie fs o f s ta ff d e c la r e , b y co m m o n a c c o r d , th a t th e w ord s
“ d e f e n s i v e w a r ” m u st n o t be i n te r p r e te d in th e s e n s e o f a w a r w h ich
w o u ld b e c o n d u c te d d e fe n s i v e ly .
T h e y affirm , on th e c o n tr a r y , th e a b ­
s o lu t e n e c e s s i t y fo r th e R u ssia n a n d F r e n c h a rm ies to a d o p t a v ig o ro u s
o ff e n s i v e , a nd a s fa r as p o s s ib le a s im u lta n e o u s o n e , in c o n fo r m it y w ith
t h e t e x t o f a r t i c l e 3 o f th e c o n v e n ti o n , w h o se te r m s p r o v id e th a t u the

CONGRESSIONAL RECORD.
forcea
speed.

the two contracting pow ert thall com e into full action with all

of

(T L ie

“ d e fe n s iv e ”

w ar

w as

s tr ic tly

fo r

d ip lo m a tic

pu rp oses

It w ill b e o b s e r v e d .)
( L e t forces dct deux puissances cont>actuates
e'engagent & fond et en toute diligence.)

S a m e o b s e r v a tio n s
tw o

as

o f 1 9 1 0 , r e a d in g a s

th e

e n tir e ly

In

accord on

th e

p o in t

very

fo llo w s :

v ie w p o in t o f p r e c e d in g

th e

In d e e d ,

c o n fe r ­

the defeat of the German
armies remains, w hatever the circumstances mag b e , the first and princi­
pal object o f the allied arm ies.”
en ces, a re

p la c o

th a t

The

“ The
r iv e d
th a t
to

c o n fe r r in g

at

In

th e

th e

fir s t

p a r tie s

new s

th e

n ecessary ; but
A u s tr ia

or

p e n s a b le

of

Ita ly

to
to

a ttra c te d

th e

and

in

be

w ith o u t

th is

T hey

good

8

a

to

a ll

th e ir

I),

and

F ran ce

upon

u n d e r s ta n d in g

general

in v ite

th is

ar­

Chap.

ap pears

In d is ­

r e s p e c tiv e

w h ic h

has

of

G ov­

a lr e a d y

t h e i r p r e d e c e s s o r s ."

S h a r in g

on

th e

o p in io n

of

th e ir

p red ecessors,

th e

c o n fe rr in g

p a r tie s ,

e a ste rn

o b je c t ,

G e n e ra l D u b a il p o in ts
in

th e

n etw o rk
th e

recen t

o f w estern

fo r tific a tio n s

The

F ren ch

ou t th a t n ew

Im p ro v e m e n ts
r a ilw a y s — op en

ere cted

c h ie f

of

on

a rg u m e n ts

u n d erta k e n

lin e s , sh e d s ,

th e F re n c h

fo r th is

by

th e

v ie w

are

to be

in

th e ir

G erm an s

la n d in g p la c e s — a n d

by

In
th e

s ta ff th e re u p o n

s u b m its

of

th e se

fo llo w in g

th e ir

th e

G erm an
A t

in v a s io n

th a t

th a n

su rp r is e

w ith

th e

enem y

p r o v id e d

fo r

to

red u ce th e

th e
by

F rench
a r tic le

a

o r d e r t o im p o s e fr o m

o b ta in

F ren ch

th u s be
th e

G o v e rn m e n ts

le a r n e d

to

th e

p o s itio n

to

of

8

A rm y

w ill

be

o f th e

th e

c o n v e n tio n .

t h a t th e G e r m a n s w ill c o n d u c t h o s tilit ie s w ith

and

in

a llie d

of

m en

th e 1 ,3 0 0 ,0 0 0

stre n g th

e s t p o s s ib le e n e r g y , in
th e

th e

from the fifteenth to the eighteenth d ay.”

o f B e lg iu m )

m om ent

I t Is b e lie v e d

w h ic h

th e

d e c is io n

d e fe n s iv e .
tu rn

th e

s ta ff

has

th e

th e

(?))

event o f

g r e a te r p o r tio n

or

at

su ccess

of

th e ir

le a s t

th ey

fo r c e s

to

w o u ld

a g a in s t

R u s s ia n s .

The

c h ie f

c ir c u m s ta n c e s
nor

It a ly

(A u g u s t,

w o u ld

th a t

( prendre
g iv e n

w ill

fo llo w

th e

la t te r

to

D u b a il,

F ren ch

be

if

w ar

in

th e

a c tu a l

n e ith e r

A u s tr ia

o n ly

com e

out

of

in

w ith

g r a titu d e

and

th e

th e

fo r

o th e r

G erm an s

th e

su p p ort

H e r z e g o v in a .

e x p o s itio n ,

in d ic a te s

on

gen eral

lin e s

c o n c e n tr a tio n .

H e show s that the French A rm y concentrates as rapidly as the Ger­
man A r m y, and that as from the tw elfth day i t fa i n a position to take
the offensive against G erm any, with the help o f the B ritish A rm y on its
left flank.
(In
a c c o r d a n c e w ith
th e s e c r e t a r r a n g e m e n t b etw ee n
th e
B r itis h

and

d e c is io n
and
L ord

F rench

of L ord

even

fro m

a r t ic le

is

8

assu red

g e n e r a l s ta ffs ,

G rey

th e

H a ld a n e

F ran ce

and

have

th e

L ord

C a b in e t

read y

m ilita r y

to

M r.

su ccess,

it

is

n ecessary

e ffe c tiv e

a s s is ta n c e

of

but

of

1900,

by

c o n c e a le d fr o m
an d — so

th e

th e

L ord

J o in t

n a tio n

G rey

and

M in is t e r ).)

in

th e

sen se

1892.

th a t

th e

Janu ary,

A s q u ith

P r im e

m arch

c o n v e n tio n

of

In

H a ld a n e ,

(e x c e p t

and

neous

begun

a ffir m e d — t h e

th e re fo r e

of

of

sh e

s tr ic tly

H ow ever,

s h o u ld

R u s s ia n

in d ic a te d

In

order

r e c e iv e

th e

by

to

be

s im u lta ­

fr o m

G eneral

th e
to

and

tim e

in ­

in te r v e n tio n

fr o n tie r

w as

in d ic a te d

as

ta k in g

once

m ore

th e

o p in io n

put

fo r w a r d

a r m ie s s h o u ld

th e

g re a te st

p u rsu e

th e

p o s s ib le

o b je c t

num ber

of

very

b a s is

of

th e

c o n v e n tio n

m ilita r y

of

th e

it

th e

F ran ce,

w ill

th e

F ren ch
R u ssia n

o ffe n siv e

e ig h te e n th

th e

a d m itte d

th e

(o f

th e

b e in g

G erm an s

day.

by

com m on

d ir e c t

c h ie f

th e

of

th e

P erh aps

r e c e n t im p r o v e m e n ts

by

m ass

sta ff e x p r e sse s

a r m ie s )

w ith

accord

p r in c ip a l

s h o u ld ,

Achrlon

fir s t

even

as

th is

in tr o d u c e d

as

(b o d y

of

m ig h t

d e la y

in to

th e

fa r

be

th e

R u s s ia n

c o n c e n tr a tio n .

D u b a il

of

c lo s e s

v a r io u s

h is

e x p o s itio n

m o tiv e s

by

w h ic h

r e m a r k in g

have

th a t

c o m p e lle d

he

is

R u s s ia

not

to

un­

r e v ise

th e d is p o s itio n o f h e r tr o o p s u p o n h e r te r r ito r y in t im e o f p e a c e .
He
renders a sincere homage to the efforts made during the last three years
by Russia to reinforce her m ilitary pow er, and he is happy to note the
im p rovem ent produced, as a w hole, in the friendly and allied a rm y by
the latest modifications introduced into the m obilization.

lie ,

G ilin s k y

fir s t

of

th e re u p o n

a ll,

fu lfill

d e v e lo p s

e m p h a t ic a lly

s c r u p u lo u s ly

th e R u s s ia n

a ffir m s

th e

th e

w ill

o b lig a tio n s

p o in t o f v ie w .

of

th e

im p o s e d

Im p e r ia l

upon

it

G overn ­

by

th e

con­

v e n tio n .
G e n e r a l D u b a il h a s t e n s to d e c la r e t h a t h e fu lly
of

th is

t io n
th e

d e c la r a t io n

w ith

at

M oroccan

tru e

d u ty

of

th e

m anner

th e

R u s s ia n

a

m om ent

a ffa ir s

in te n tio n s

and

w hen

w hen

o f G erm an y

G e n e r a l G ilin s k y

adds

t h a t in

R u s s ia n

The

F ren ch

it is

m ay

are

a r is in g

n o t p o s s ib le

to

lo y a lty

In

connec­

e s tim a te

w hat

be.

v ie w

o f th e

h e a d q u a rte rs

la t te r

M a n c h u r ia
began

in

is

p u r s u in g

1 9 0 8 — th a t

in

its

a c tu a l

sta ff

is

on

th e

is

to

w ay

R u s s ia n

su p p o rte d

by

say,

A rm y

e q u ip m e n t
G eneral

W a r ),

but

th rea ts

of

a

c o n flic t

e n lig h te n

to

in

a

p r e c is e

fo u r

years

in
is

w ill

o n ly

1914, and
la c k in g

G ilin s k y

be

ago.

A

th e

th e

great

c o m p le t e

new

c o n d itio n

la r g e r

g iv e s d e ta ile d

o n ly

h eavy

p o r tio n s

of

im ­

a r tille r y

of
on

In

g rea test

m u n itio n s

in d ic a tio n s

th e

r e a lly

num ber

u s in g th e

lu

in fa n tr y

of

c a m p a ig n

tr a n s fo r m a tio n

o u t, b u t, ev en

in

fo r

a c tu a l

fo llo w in g

th is

o f b e in g c a r r ie d

lig h t a r tille r y

r e g im e n ts .

s ta ff

r e o r g a n iz a tio n

(R u s s o -J a p a n e s e

d ilig e n c e , t h e
1913,

h ea d q u a rters

a p p r e c ia te s th e

d iffic u ltie s

A rm y.

in

th e

in

1910.

reserve

th ese

p o in ts ,

fig u re s.

H e adds that, when the Russian A rm y will have com pleted its re­
organization, it w ill put into line forces very superior to the 800,000
men provided for by the convention.
But
fr o m

It

is

th e

th a t

of

fr o n tie r .
th e

n ecessary

m ilita r y

th e
In

w o u ld

be

d e stin e d

to

p o in t

R u s s ia n

rem ark
of

A rm y,

and

h ea d q u a rters

in

a

to

p o s itio n

fa c e

th a t

v ie w .

c o n tr a d is tin c tio n

R u s s iu n

its

to

th e

is

ta k e

has

s itu a tio n

o ffe n s iv e

is

great

now

ta k e s

to

p la c e

a d m it

b e fo r e

th e

p rogress

as

p r e v a ilin g

c o n s tr a in e d

th e

m ade

m o b iliz a tio n

c o n c e n tr a tio n

w ith

sta ff

A u s tr ia

H er

r a p id

nearer
up

t ill

th a t

as
th e

now .

A u s tr ia

R u s s ia n

tro o p s

h er.

In these circum stances Russia does not appear to be in a condition
to sustain, for tw o years at least ( t h a t i s t o s a y , n o t b e f o r e 1 9 1 3 .
By
th e

s p r in g

r e a d in e s s

against

A rm y.

th e

R u s s ia n

and

ta k in g

M oreover,

B o s n ia

h is

and

th a t

n o t, b u t th in k s , on

to

In

c o n tin u in g

b e lie v e

provoked

w o u ld

c o m p e lle d

A u s tr ia

m o b iliz a t io n

to

h er.

It a ly

fait et cause p ou r),

by

reason s

if G erm an y

agrees th a t

A u s tr ia

G eneral
th e

1911)

im m e d ia te ly

G e n e ra l G ilin s k y
hand,

of

th e

d is p o s itio n

p ro v em e n ts are by

F rench

peace

day.

m a in ta in

th a t

a g a in s t

th e

as

aw are

th e

th e g r e a t­

fir s t d a y t h e ir w ill u p o n

(in itia tiv e

In

g rea ter

w as

p a r tie s

a llo w

m e n t to

sh ock ed

in

p rom p t

be a tta in e d

fo r c e s

th a t

p o s s ib le ,

c o n s id e r a ­

“ From what is known of the German mobilization and concentration,
one mag conclude that the first great encounters will probably take
place in Lorraine, Luxem burg, and Belgium ( s o v a n i s h e s t h e l e g e n d o f

of

c o n fir m

to

c ir c u m s ta n c e s ,

G eneral

th e

of

fr o n tie r .

w h ic h

o n ly

c o n fe r r in g

d e s ir e

fr o n tie r .

tio n s :

tro o p s

v ie w

by the offensive.
The effect of this offensive will be the m ore certain insomuch as it
will take place sooner, will be carried out with greater stren gth , and
will take a m ore dangerous direction for the enem y.

In

think that G erm any will direct a greater portion of her
forces against France and will only leave a minimum of troops against
Russia.
fo u n d

G erm an y

her

of

in the course o f the preceding conferences.

o c c a s io n s

red u ced , th a n k s

accord ,

o n ly

R u s s ia n

c a m p a ig n .

tw e n tie th

sta ff can

of

p o in t

th e

th e

m o b iliz a tio n
com m on

of

p a s s in g

f a r a s I t Is c o n c e r n e d , t h e

tro o p s)

ARTICLE 8.

th e

to w a rd

1 8 9 2 , can

b e in g

m o b iliz a tio n

th e ir

p o in t,

th e

fro m

th e

c o m p e llin g

T h is

accord,

of

fo r c e s

u n d e r s ta n d in g
to

s e t t le

2

c o m p e ls R u s s ia

or even

agree

fo llo w s :

com m on
(p a r .

p r e lim in a r y

(p r e lim in a r y )

th e re fo r e

of

th e ir
1900

A rm y

a p a r tia l

enough

a tte n tio n

m ore
(2 1 ),

s im u lt a n e o u s ly

case o f

a lo n e

th em .

ern m e n ts

and

event

th a t

once

April

of

th e G e rm a n y

Im m e d ia te ly

of

express

c o n fe re n c e

m o b iliz a tio n

m o b iliz e

th e c o n fe re n c e o f 1 9 1 0 , r e a d in g a s

d is p o s itio n

1910

F rench

fo r c e s
a s In

new

com m encem ent

several

As

th e

d iffic u ltie s

in

o n ly

upou

of

ARTICLE >.
S a m e o b s e r v a tio n s

th a t

c e r ta in

at

In t h e c o n f e r e n c e

c h ie f o f s ta ff, c o n fir m in g

It seem s
v o lv e s

ARTICLE 1.
‘‘ T h e

In 1908, responding to the sam e considerations, i t envisaged the means
adopted i n order to give the Germ ans, from the v e ry beginning of war,
the grea test possible a n xiety on their eastern flank.
(Id em .)

b e in

of

1914,

th ro u g h

R u s s ia ’s
th e

G erm any with

a p o s itio n

In a word, it is essential that G erm any shall be attacked at the same
tim e on the w est and on the east.
(J u s t a b o u t th e tim e t h is c o n fe re n c e
w a s h e l d C o l o n e l R e p i n g t o n , m i l i t a r y c o r r e s p o n d e n t o f The Tim es, w a s

p r e p a r a tio n

of

a certa in ty

w ard

c h ie fs

th e

p u b lic ly

R u s s ia n

of

w ar

success.

announced

She

o ff b lo w s , b u t p e r h a p s le s s

th e ir

a war

m in is te r ),
w o u ld

a b le

to

c e r ta in ly

g iv e d e c is iv e

b lo w s .

s a y in g

to

m ilita r y

organ

in

th a t jo u r n a l: “ T h e

n ig h tm a r e
R u s s ia
is

of

n o t lik e ly
In

G erm an

h ue been

v ie w

to

of

s tr a te g is ts ,

b u ild in g
be

th e

soon

p o s s ib ility

up

her

c o n ju r e d

p r o fo u n d

and,

fie ld

of

to

As
of

a lw a y s

fr o m

v ie w ,

an

p r o v id e

id e a l n o t a c tu a lly

1 9 0 0 , th e R u s s ia n
u n d erto o k

ichelon

(b o d y

G erm an

A rm y

of

70870— 11

to

R u s s i a I)

th e

pace
th e

is

at

th e

w h ic h

n ig h tm a r e

fo r

on

by

e x is t

in

th is

th e

g e o g r a p h ic a l,

n a tio n s ,

s im u lta n e o u s

t h e d iffi­

a c tio n

w h ic h

r e a liz a b le .

th e

s u ffic ie n t

su p p o rte d

fro n ts

1905,

o f th e a llie d

to

N e v e r th e le s s ,

q u a rte rs
p o s s ib le

c o n fo r m ity

e ig h te e n th
engage

a c e r ta in

a c tiv e
th e

sta ff
th e

day

w ith

v ic to r io u s ly

num ber

of

th is

w ith

p o in t

th e
fiv e

reserve

or

fir s t
s ix

d iv is io n s .

d e c la r e s

d e sir e s

e ffo r ts
fo r

w ill

m ay

R u ssia n

G ilin s k y

fifte e n th

th a t

w h a te v e r

o f th e

arm y

w a itin g

g e n e r a l s t a f f, in

a tta c k

tro o p s),

corps

tP o o r u n p rep ared




been

tw o

G eneral

w h ic h

c u lty

to

sin c e

on

a w a y .” )

d iffe r e n c e s

m ilita r y s itu a tio n

has

w ar

c o n s id e r in g

a r m ie s

e c o n o m ic , p o lit ic a l, a n d

resp on ds

a

It

is

n o ta b ly

by

to

be

th e

above,

m ade

to

French
th a t

th e ir

ta k e

w h ic h

w ill

th e

of

th e

sp e c ifie d

fr ie n d ly

s a tis fy

th e

th e e x c e p tio n

w ill

d raw backs
w ar,

d e c la r e s

c o m p le te d

d a y , w ith

th e
fo r

ready

expressed

have

be

A rm y

in

th e

th e

g rea test

m o b iliz e d

th e la s t
o ffe n s iv e
be

on

fro m

m easu re

tro o p s

of

fr o n tie r

th e
on

con voys, and

th a t
on

th e

head­

s ta ff.

th e

tr a in s a n d

c o m p le te

in

a llie d

h e a d q u a rte rs

c o n c e n tr a tio n

o n ly

above

and

day,
th e

w ith o u t

tw e n tie th

day.
G en eral

G ilin s k y

h ea d q u a rter

sta ff

arm y

on

corps

h ea d q u a rters

e stim a te d

w ill

th e ir

s t a f f ’s

com pel
e a ste rn

dem and.

th a t
th e

th e

fr o n tie r ,
H e

m easu res

G erm an s

a ls o

in

to

ta k e n

le a v e

at

accord an ce

g iv e s

d e t a ile d

by

th e

le a s t
w ith

R u s s ia n

fiv e
th e

in d ic a tio n s

or

six

F ren ch
of

th e

(iHODaa 'ivNOissaaotfoo
CONGRESSIONAL RECORD.
m o b iliz a tio n
of

and

p r e p a r a tio n ,
G eneral

c o n c e n tr a tio n

general

D u b a il

th a n k s

on

p la n a tio n s

a c tu a l s ta te

th e

of

th e

d is p o s itio n ,
G eneral

v

5

R u s s ia n

and

A rm y

(e ffe c tiv e s ,

d a te s

c o n c e n tr a tio n ).

G ilin s k y

fo r

o f p r e p a r a tio n

th e

s in c e r ity

o f th e

of

R u s s ia n

h is

ex­

A rm y,

and

h i m s e l f f u l l y s a t i s f i e d w i t h an offensive which w ill begin im­
m ediately a fter the fifteenth day, and which would be o f a nature
calculated to retain at least five or a i r German arm y corps on the
frontiers o f eastern Prussia.
d e c la r e s

Similar conferences will be found in Un Livre Noir, pages
425 to 437, inclusive, on July 13, 1912, and August, 1913, aa
follows.
Foreign Affairs prints an English translation of the 1912
conference with its comments, as follow s:
(T h e

e ig h th

F r a n c o -R u s s ia n

T he G reat F raud—

The

c h ie fs
of

of

th e

sta ff

rep rod u ce

o b s e r v a tio n s

w ith o u t

c o n c e r n in g

a lte r a tio n
a r tic le

4

th e

in

six

fir s t

(I I .

para­
W e

con ference o f

th e

tex ts

1910,

r e a d in g

The

as

fo llo w s :

c o n fe r r in g

p a r tie s

agree,

by

com m on

accord ,

on

th e

fo llo w in g

of

are

“ (1 )
and,

C o n fe r e n c e s

in

p r in c ip le ,

"(2 )

M oreover,

h ea d q u a rters

b etw ee n

th e

tw o

c h ie fs

of

sta ff

w ill

be

p e r io d ic a l

a n n u a l.

s ta ffs

has

w ill

ta k e

expressed

a

p la c e

d e s ir e

each

tim e

th a t

one

of

th o

th e re fo r .

• • ( 8 ) The minutes o f the con ferences will be subm itted to the ap­
proval o f the Governm ent of each cou n try, and a v is 4 o f the minister of
war and o f the prime minister will be attached th ereto , so that the
chiefs o f staffs of the allied armies m ay refer to this docum ent in the
realization o f desirable im provem ents.
"(4 )
th e

m ore

c o n tin u o u s

and

e x c h n n g e o f in fo r m a tio n

In
of

A

p a r tic u la r ,

th e

p o in ts

b e fo r e

w h ic h

it

each

is

c o m p le t e

b etw ee n

fo rm

th e

c o n fe re n c e ,

p rop osed

to

w ill

th u s

h e a d q u a rte rs

regards

fe r r in g

ro u tes

p a r tie s

lin e ,

en d s.

It

m eans of

agreed

th a t

h ow ever,

w ith

s y s te m a tic
The

F a r is -B o b r o u is k ,

is ,

fu r n is h e d

an

agenda

be

g iv e n

fo r

draw n

up

sta tio n

navy,

to

r u p tio n
B la c k

fo r

Sea,

The

of

corresp on d en ce

w ill

in

be

in

th a t

s ta tio n

b e lo n g s

ow n

s o le ly
In

th e

peace
th a t

is

order

e.,

of

to

to

w h ic h

be

to

“ In

t lie

fir s t

at

b o th

w ay

s h o u ld

be

w ar

r e g u la r ly .

it

e s ta b lis h

op p ose

The

over

r

on

to

w ith o u t

th e

In te r­

borders

a n o th e r

th e

of

s ta tio n

w ill

s in c e

be

1910.

p r o b a b ly

read y

a

c o n fe r r in g

O c to b e r

th e

s h o u ld

te c h n ic a l

a s s e m b le

d e ta il

to

he

and

n g a in

ta k e n ,

B is e r ta ,

c o m m is s io n

th e

(1 )

as

order

th a t

of
to

th e

be

th a t
th e

at

on

th e

s ta tio n s ,

a

p o s itio n

w ill

h o ld " it s

and

a fte r w a r d s

at

p r o v id e d

P a r is

and

th e

b e g in n in g

F r a n c o R u s s ia n

stu d y

fo u r

in

te c h n ic ia n s

th e

to

spot

next

C o m m is s io n

th e

m easu res

B o b r o u is k ,
carry

of

P a r is ,

out

th e

th a t

th is

b etw ee n

B e lg iu m

c o m m u n ic a tio n

s h a ll

be

th e n

fo r

to

“ xhe
by

th e

via

S ta te s

and

D enm ark.

c a r r ie d

out

It

via

h is

in

now

E n g la n d

and

th e

M e d ite r r a n e a n

The

id e a

of
as

th e

and

a

a ls o

and

th e

P a c ific

O cean,

or

c a b le

th e

b etw ee n
of

F ran ce

c a r r ie r

and

R u s s ia

has

been

th e

in

c o n fe re n c e

observation s a s i n the con ference o f 1 910, reading as f o l l o w s :
“ The conferring parties are agreed that article 5 com pels the con­
tracting parties not only n ot to make peace but also n ot to cease oper­
ations in order to conclude an arm istice individually.”
A R T IC L E 8.
In

In

th e

of

p o in ts

J u ly
as

th e

th ey

1899,

(J u n e

w h ic h

(?))

2

d ip lo m a tic

fo rm

th e

th e

w as
to

d ip lo m a tic

te x t

w ill

be

in

re fe rre d

June

19,

to

1900,

in

C h a p ter

th e

I

of

c o n v e n tio n

of

th e

th e

m o n th

c o n fe re n c e

w ill

la s t

as

as

w ill

th e

and

accord

be

in

p o s s ib le ,

to

a c tu a lly

in

e x is te n c e ,

and

of

c o m p le m e n t,

s e r v a tio n s

o b s e r v a tio n s .
(S ig n e d )

J.

G

il in s k y

,

The Chief of the General Headquarters Staff
of the Russian A rm y.
The Chief of the Staff of the French A rm y.
(V ls S d )

F o r e ig n

w ith

In

(s p e lle d

M e s s im i,

p r e s u m a b ly

in

e r r o r ),

The M inister o f W ar,

7tJ870— 11




of

th e

J u ly

1

conven­

c h ie f

of

general

(1 3 ),

C u r iS r e s

C ount

r ise

w ere

to

sta ff

s ta ff

of

1912.

de

C a s te ln a u ,
a tta c h ^

Ig n a tie f,

la tte r

m ilita r y

o ffic e r s

s u c c e s s iv e ly

th e

fo llo w in g

o b s e r v a t io n

p a r tie s

in te g r a lly

a

in

w ere

e x a m in e d

exch ange

of

of

of

th e

back

one

p r e c e d in g

p resen t

m a r g in

r e fe r e n c e

th a t every

change

th e

th e

have

.

d e c id e

w ith o u t

in

th e
w ill

com m ent

th e

1911

w ith o u t

as

th e

new

c o n fe re n c e ,

tex ts

th e

th ey

m in u te s .

a d v a n ta g e

to

tim e
m ore

or

A

w h ic h

th e

sp e c ia l
are

th u s

of
of

tex t

d isp e n sin g ,
th e

as

p r e c e d in g

by

th e

c o n fe r r in g

c o n fe re n c e .

See

2,

The

in

com m ent

th e

1911

c o m m e n ts

la s t

1911

th e tw o

as

by

c o n fe r r in g
See

sen ten c e

in

th e
p.

th e

fo llo w s :
in te r p r e ta tio n

57,

(s e e

th e

and

of

of

th e n

goes

J o ffre

v ie w

of

c h ie f
of

"

fir s t,

W ith
I ta ly

of

“ ‘A

of

(S a m e

ob­

is s u e

of

in

th is

end
Is

v ie w ,

at

w ar
and

c o n c e n tr a tio n
stric t

r e s e r v e , is

m in im u m

le ft

on

of

th e

on
of

1 9 1 1 .”

F o r e ig n

c o n fe re n c e

has

been

(S e e

A f f a i r s .)

d iffe r s

ap proved

w ith

th e

and

by

th e

s ig n a tu r e

of

c o n fe r e n c e o f A u g u s t, 1 9 1 1 .”

III.
fir st

new

th e

p aragrap h
5 7 ).

of

A r tic le

n etw o rk
by

upon

th e

1911

con­

o f th e

III

1912

c a p ita l

th e

its e lf

of

th a t

it

is

A llie s

on

In

th e

r e g io n .

s e p a r a t e ly
th e

(o p e n

ta k en

The

In

th e

a g a in s t
m u st

b o th

s id e s

be,
at

th e

on

p resen t

th e

sta ff

s itu a tio n

r e la tio n

has

of

th a t

e s ta b lis h e d

its

bases:

com p osed
th e

upon

and

F ren ch

fo llo w in g

tro o p s,

fr o n tie r

of

th is

e ffo r t.

T u rks,

th e

and

of

G erm an s

r a ilw a y s

E iffe l

p o in t

p la n

th e

r e c e n tly

s im u lta n e o u s ly

b a s in g

R u s s ia ,
th e

The

a tta c k

su pport

w estern

s u c c e s s iv e ly

c o m b in e d
and

in

w h ic h

In t h e

n o ta b ly

R u s s ia .

w ith

of

th e m e a su re s

th e

o p e ra te

to

a rg u m e n ts

im p r o v e m e n ts

fr o n tie r ,

a g a in s t

in

F ran ce

th a t

and

endeavor

m a x im u m

w h ic h

w ith

th e n
to

the

A ffa ir s , p .

in

in s is ts
to

1912

and

of

accordan ce

th e

th e ir

F rench

sta ff

1910

fo llo w s .

out

in

G erm an e

and

th e

as

p la c e s ),

th e

co n tra ry ,

w ith

pow er

th e

on

be fo u n d

m a k in g

of

w ith

F o r e ig n

p o in ts

a r e ' to

n e ig h b o r h o o d

once

ob­

is s u e

S e p te m b e r

issu e

th e

m in u te s o f

id e n tic a l

s h e d s , la n d in g

th e

p a r t ie s .”

57,

of

c o n v e n tio n

F ran ce

th e

to

S e p te m b e r

c o n t in u a lly

on

(S a m e

S e p te m b e r

II.

S ep te m b e r

m in u te s

of

o f R u s s ia

paragrap h

fe r e n c e

lin e s

p.

c o n fe re n c e s

A R T IC L E

are

p a r t ie s .”

57,

I.

th e

c o n fe re n c e .

in

c o n fe re n c e ,

G o v e rn m e n ts

F ir s t

of

p.

A f f a i r s .)

“ Sam e

p la n

M k s s im t

o*

H u itlD m e

m ilita r y

G ilin s k y ,

The

c o n v e n tio n
gave

m in u te s

p r o c e e d in g

w ith o u t

as

s e r v a tio n s

in

D u b a il ^

P a r is

A R T IC L E

F ran ce
No

(E d .

A f f a i r s .)

in te re s t

A R T IC L E 7.

p u b lis h

1918.

PREAM BLE.
“ A cc e p ted

of

w h ic h

o f th e

c h ie f

P a r is .

accept

th e

in sc r ib e d

T h is

F rench

a rra n g em e n ts

s h a ll

in

tak en

m in u t e s .”

p o in t

lo n g

4

C o lo n e l

in

c o n fe rr in g

reproduced

reproduced.
fa r

in

(aH6nas)

c o n fe re n c e

arran gem en t

we

and

w ere

se c r e ta r ie s .

p a r tie s

p la c e th e

th e m s e lv e s

“ G eneral

w ith

our

T h ese

F ran ce

C o n fe re n c e ” —

G eneral de

R u s s ia ;

E m b assy

c a p a c ity

fir st

paragraphs

a b ro g a ted .

c o n fo r m ity

A u g u st,

at

p resen t:

in

R u s s ia n

th e

G o v e rn m e n ts

Sam e

5 7 -5 9 .

s ta ffs

G eneral

J o ffr e ,

p r e l im in a r y

“

read s as
“ T h is

p ig e o n s .

A R T IC L E 5.

R e m a in s

o f a r t ic le

G eneral

E m b assy

fo llo w in g

a rt.

s e r v ic e

s im i­

r e fe r rin g

th e y

m o n th

tw o

s im ila r

th e

v ie w s ” :

by

T u rkey.

d ir e c t

has

U n ite d

N ext

are

th a t

th a t

th e
pre­

i n s c r i b e d .)

A R T IC L E

T e le g r a p h y

abandoned,

I

and

w ar

is

and

th e

e x c e lle n c y

w e r e a ls o

c o n fe rr in g

F o r e ig n

c o r r e s p o n d in g

pages

c o n te n tio n
w ar

th e w o r d s “ E ig h th

D enm ark.
(2 )

th e
fo r

b etw ee n

P aragrap h

A rm y,

F rench

“ A cce p ted

p ly in g

of

A ffa ir s ,

“ c o n s p i r a c y .”

1892,

A rm y, m et

in

s e r v ic e s .

B is e r ta .

o r g a n iz e d

tex t,

p r e p a r in g

c o n te n ts

us

The

th e s a m e

F o r e ig n

th e

1912.

In d ic a te

of

of

J u ly ,

c h ie fs

b e fo r e

th e re fo r e

B la c k

m e e tin g s a t B o b r o u is k ,

and

of

in

now

n ot rep rod u ce

m in u te s

w ith

fo llo w in g

a tta c h e

fo llo w s :

M essen gers

p rop osed

m em bers
In

so

agreed

m eans

o th e r
are

are

s h o u ld

of

C r im e a ,

The
tim e

p a r tie s

P arD

o r ig in a l

M bbtinob of the F rench and R ubbian Chiefs
Staff at F aris in J uly , 1912.

17,

R u s s ia n

r e fe r e n c e

The

have

(th e

R u s s ia n

W e

a b s u r d ity

th e

In

W e

and

deal

c o n fe re n c e

o f th e

A u gu st

F rench

to

w h ic h

G eneral

F ren ch

fir s t s u b c h ie f o f th e s t a ff o f th e a r m y ; C o lo n e l M a t t o n , m ilit a r y

R u s s ia n

e n tir e ly

a lm o s t

fu n c tio n in g
tim e

in

1 9 1 2 .)

m in u te s

good

Issu e

not

1911.

h e ld

a

th e

th e

m in u te s .

do

G erm an

th e

accordan ce

th e

fin d

in

a

of the

p resen t

s u c c e s s fu lly

arm y.
code

th e

of

JU LY,

of

for

A f f a i r s .)

of

th e

m e ssa g e s).

S e b a s to p o l,

been

and

and

w ere

of

A u g u st,

1911

S e p te m b e r

by

th e h ead

tio n

ta k e

m o n th .

in

(A t

of

B o b r o u isk

handed

absorbs

th a n

has

th e

sh ow

m in u te s

M inuter

con­

m u st

of

th e

w o r k in g

Is

and

of

R u s s ia

F o r e ig n

th e

s a tisfa c to r y

not

o th e r

tim e

th e

in
(t.

a

It

and

se r v ic e ,
p la c e

to

th e

a p p a ra tu s

th a t

c o n fe re n c e

th e

s u r p r is e

tim e ,

w ar

t e le g r a p h y

brouillage )

d e c la r e s

som e

sta te s

(

S eb a sto p o l

It

Its
in

code

D u b a il

up

sta ff

w h ic h

b e lo n g

The

to

In

OF

tex t

m e e tin g s

c o n fe re n c e

w h e r e St e x i s t s

d o cu m e n ts

(h e

s im ila r

th is

Im p e r ia l

th e

fu ll

C o n fe r e n c e — a r e

w o r k in g

is

a

w o r d in g

read ers

by

of

e x a m in e .

w ir e le s s

d e s ir a b le

stro n g e r

m ix in g

h e a d q u a rte rs

Sea,

of

th e

F rench)

th e

F rench Prepared

and

CO N F E R E N C E

m o n th

K r a s n o e -S e lo

of

“ The

p la c e .
The

w ill

are

and

to

P A R IS

la s t

s ta ffs .

The chiefs o f staffs particularly in sist that the m inutes of the con ­
ferences shall be submitted to the tw o G overnm ents fo r ratification.
As

a m b le

la r it y

m e e tin g s

in

s ta ff a t

m in u te s
p o in ts :

THE

rep rod uced

c o n f e r e n c e .)

III.

R ussians
W ar .

the

H ow

A R T IC L E 4.

graphs

m ilita r y

E X H IB IT

A lp s

m ore
tc

e s p e c ia lly

d e fe n d

th e

of

p asses

u n its

of

fo o t

by

6

CONGRESSIONAL RECORD

fo o t.

The

w h o le

b e g in n in g

ou

1 ,3 0 0 .0 0 0

m en

(T h e

m u ss

th e

of

th e

th e

n etw o rk

one

or

th e

of

tw o

an

of

by

(in

Is

c o n c e n tra te d

to ta l
8

w ill

of

C o n v e n tio n ,

th e

fro m

th e

th e

exceed

g r e a tly

th e

read y,
arm y.

c o n v e n tio n

w h ic h

w as

th e

of

1892.

s p in a l

at

Is

m a k in g

su ch

new

c o m p a n ie s

c o n c e n tr a tio n ,
upon

m ar­

th e

as

and

im p r o v e m e n ts

w ill

a llo w ,

w ith in

G erm an

one

p resen t

m om ent

in

su pp ort

of

b e in g

fro m

E le v e n

d ev o ted

to

th is

w h ic h

is

set

out

“ G eneral
th e

He

to

to

v ery

" On

tio n ,

w o u ld

th a t

“ On

th e

adopt

an

hand,

e x p e cta n t

m om ent

on

to -d a y .

la tte r

th e

le a v e

in F i n l a n d
w as

A s ia

and
of

M in o r

and

s t ill

th e

e n a b le

fo r c e s

th e

T u rks

on

to

sh e

m ilita r y

The

h er

fo r c e s

p r o b a b ly

any

at

and

th e

r a ilw a y s

n e c e ssity

th e

G erm an y

le a s t,

e ffe c tiv e s

th e

ev en t,

a fte r

to

m o b iliz a tio n

to

d is s ip a te

“ It
be

J o ffr e

and
is

a ll

R u ssia n

at

d e v e lo p m e n t
to

r a ilw a y
th e

a ll

of

lin e s

w ere
th e

of

of

th e
it

of

by

th e

of

th e

fo r c e s

(a )

of

r u p lin g

th e

of

lin e s

is

th e

r u p lin g
la t t e r

of

of
tow n

m ay

re fe r

fr o m

S t.

to

th e

r ie s — o n e
p a n ic s .

th a t

b e lo n g in g

a b le .

They

to

In

th e secon d

d ir e c t

and

are

ta k in g

does

gau ges.
e ay

w ith

The

fro m

3 e “ e» « L ® l l i n s k y
7 6 8 7 6 — 11




enem y

gauges

th e

o th e r
on

fr o m

J o ffr e

F.

fo r

s ia n

and

F rench

th e

(i.

S ta te

w h ic h

go

d o u b le

e„

c u rv e )

its

th e

S ta te

has

a c q u ir e d

and

fr o m

W arsaw

tra n s fo r m in g

tra n sp o rt

w ill

th e

E m p ir e

to

th e

r e c a lls

th e

gen eral

reason s

th u s

th e m
be

w estern
w h ic h

th e

d ir e c tio n

le ft

c a r r ie d

to

n e c e s s ity
of

th ese

w h ic h

of

w ill

A lle n s t e ln

or

a tte m p s

of

bank

out

a tte m p ts

th e

h is

to

V is tu la

c o n c e n tr a tio n

le a v e

th a t

b ase

to

to
th e

fo r

has

a lr e a d y

arm y

its e lf

m is s io n
been

of

th e

To

to

w ir e le s s s t a t io n
to

by

is

be

a lr e a d y

it

fo r

tw o

p.

in

s p e c ia l

to

R u s s ia

stu d y
in

b etw ee n

not
th e

c o n fe re n c e .

p.

in

1911

c o n fe re n c e .

in su r e d
fr o n tie r .

in te r v e n e

C r im e a ,

and

up

to

th e
th a t

a lr e a d y

F ran ce

of

and

u tiliz in g

q u e s tio n

and

has
s ta ff.

From

o ffic e r s

p o s s ib ility

it

T ran s­

R u s s ia

b e tw ee n

to

If

F rench

c o u n tr ie s

T h is

or

F ran ce.

th e

sa t­

s u ffic e

w ill

R u s s ia n

th e
g iv e

gen eral

1911

c o n fe re n c e .

S e p te m b e r Issu e

of

F o r e ig n

S e p te m b e r is s u e

of

F o r e ig n

S e p te m b e r Issu e

of

F o r e ig n

J.

(S e e

A R T IC L E
Sam e
is
in
A ffa ir s , p . 5 9 .)

,

V II.

(S e e

(S ig n e d )

G

il in s k y

The Chief of Staff o f the Russian A rm y.
J.

J

offre

,

The C hief of Staff of the French A rm y.

A. M illerand,
The M inister of
E X H IB IT

T F o r.

IV .

L ibrary

of

Congress ,

L egisla tive R eferen ce Service.
( T r a n s la t i o n .)

St
(D n

L iv r e

N o is ,

D ip lo m a tic

d 'a v a n t g u e r r e .

P a r is ,

1923

4 3 1 -4 3 7 1 )

t

n in t h

conference

vol

2

’

(a d

odst

of

s e c tio n

,

a r tic le

4

pp

of

th e

’

m s).

w iti

n orm a
w ith o u l
F in a lly
to

w ill

V.

(S e e

an

T h ori

in to

m u st

5 9 .)

th .

e x e r c is e

w h ic h

w ir e le s s ,

A R T IC L E V I.
as

th e

am

and

to

crea te

of

F ren ch

in

in te n d s

5 9 .)

d iffic u lt

to w a rd

th e

corre­

to

s p e c ia l

N orw ay.

com

lin e

lin e s

by

th e
b e in g

of

a ll s e c u rity .

H,

o th ers

th e

th e

and

c o m m is s io n ,

F ran ce

c o m m u n ic a tio n

up

In d i­

are

s ta ff

fo r

S c a n d in a v ia n

th e

N everth eless

th e

d ilig e n c e

R u s­

draw n

sy ste m

B iz e r ta

s ta tio n

of
th e

peace

th e

cod es,

th is

in

b etw een

th e

to

1911

c a te g o

p o s itio n

at

fo r

in

w h ic h

S eb a sto p o l

sta tio n s

p o sts

d e te r m in e

general

of

s ta tio n

A R T IC L E
as

and

p r iv a te

to

be
th e

a lo n g

been

satisfactory.

c a n b e u s e d in

o th e r

C racow

have

by

th ro u g h

la t e r

d e p o s ite d

th a t

w ill
in

fo u r
tim e

s e r v ic e

R u s s ia n

w ar

d ic tio n a r ie s

and

corresp on d en ce

e s ta b lis h e d

c o m m u n ic a tio n s

peace

The

new

of

fo r m u la te d

m om ent

in

th e

s ta tio n

R u ssia n

a d v is a b le

tim e

N ik o la ie ff.

b e tte r

th e

r a tific a ­

s t a f fs .”

A ffa ir s ,

or

th e

c a r r ie d

s till

of

fo r

c o n f e r e n c e .)

in

Code
up

p rove

th e

th ro u g h

are

in su r e

m in u te s

w is h e s

s ta tio n s ,

and

F rench

a

para­

c o m m u n ic a tio n s

m essen gers

sen t

1912

p resen t

th e

near

w ith

c rea te

is s u e

fo llo w in g

th e

In s tr u c tio n s

tim e

c o m m u n ic a tio n s

m ig h t

th e

th e

The

of

tw o

r e o r g a n iz e d

code

to

of

fu r th e r ,
u se

S e p te m b e r

G o v e rn m e n ts

th e

draw n

r e g u la r

p resen t

d isp a tc h e s

it

1910,

fo llo w s :

w ar.

s ta tio n

d is p a tc h e s

a p p o in te d .

r ise

s o le

th e

boon
of

concern ed

w ith

fr o m

At

p resen t

s till

corresp ond en ce

R u s s ia

fir s t

of

th e

th a t

tw o

r e c o n n a is s a n c e ,

th e

It

n ecessary

th e

six

(s e e

of

c o m m u n ic a tio n

c h ie fs .

s p e c ia l

th a t

p o in t w h e r e
p o in t

th e

c o n fe re n c e

1911

c o r r e s p o n d in g

w o r k in g

fo r

at

been

r e c e n tly

The

th e

th e

a

c o m m u n ic a te
be

th e

in s is t

th e

as

fo r

have

t h o r o u g h ly

navy

th e

w ill

a lte r a tio n

at

B lz e r t a -S o b a s to p o l.

tim e

im p r o v e

fo r

is fy

4

e x c e p tio n

a c c o r d in g

a llo w

se c tio n

is

to

d is a p p e a r s

m in is tr ie s

exch anged

order

IV.

th e

c o n fe r e n c e .

s ig n a ls

th e

sp on d en ce

th is

c o m in g

u tiliz a t io n
can

a r m ie s

g r a v ity

P r u s s ia

th e

w ith o u t

r e so u r c e s a v a il

to

m ake

w ar

h ours

of

Sam e

to

th e

and

th e

on

of

c o n d itio n s

th e

c o n fe re n c e o f

c o n tin u e s

P n r is -B o b r u is k ,

quad­

r a ilw a y s

fo r m e r
w ith

he

p a r tic u la r ly

M oscow

u sed

to

in

e a ste rn
by

a r tic le

w ith

m easures

1911

and

fix

in

tr a n s la t io n

In to

in

has

if

s u b m itte d

(w ir e le s s )

tim e

A ffa ir s ,

a ttr ib u tin g

b e lo n g in g

sta ff

be

c o m p le te d

th e

S.

lin e s

of

and

and

Sam e

th e

on

on

in

enem y
or

4 o f th e

paragraph

of

is

A ffa ir s ]

be

tb s

p r e p a ra to ry

R u s s ia n

G ilin s k y

c e n te r

fo rc es

o ffe n s iv e

fo r c e

th e

r a ilw a y s ,

in

d iv id e d

quad­

u sed

b r in g

B o lo g n e

th e

reproduce

5 8 ),

th e re u p o n

cou rse

advanc­

to

(d )

th e

s h o u ld

u se fu l

e c c e n tr ic

of

one

F o r e ig n

th e

of

h eart

to

fro m

r a ilw a y s

u se­

a llo w

re fe r

a c c u ra te

an

a

w ord

w o u ld

be

fr o n tie r s ,

in te n tio n
of

c o m in g ,

accordan ce

The

m ay

d e v e lo p m e n t . o f

seem

o f p r iv a te

In flu e n c e .

c o n tin u ity

th e

not
w h ose

be

L o u n in e tz -

w ill

The

r e s p e c tiv e ly ,

p la c e

s t a ff on

(c )

be

and

th e

in

w h ic h

it

a p p ly

can

or

p o r tio n s

c o u ld

w h ic h

not

th e

C row n,

th e

c a te g o ry

or

G en eral

to

th e

lin e s ,

F rench

th in k s,

con

On

c e r ta in

th e

B r ia n s k -G o m e l,

(voie russe)

r a ilw a y s

if

th e

to w a rd

The

s in g le

B r e s t -L it o v s k ;

W arsaw ,

th a t

d e la y e d .

R r e s t-L ito v s k ;

t r o o p s .— E d .

w ith

lin e s .

th e

even

The

e s s e n tia l

tra n sp o rte d

if

he

th e

rem arks

tr a n s la tio n .

m ay

s id e ,

th e

it

of

c o e r c iv e

C racow

of

one

agrees

( anorm alee)

abn orm al
and

m ay

w ill b e r e a liz e d

n e ig h b o r h o o d

by

at

It

fr o m

P e te r s b u r g -R ig a -K o c h e d a r y ,
th e

of

P e t e r s b u r g -T a p s -W a lk -R ig a -

A ffa ir s ]

jo in

[th is

R u s s ia

N e v e r th e le s s ,

S t.

r a ilw a y s ,

a lig n m e n t

to

be

of

th e

m aneuver

th e

s ta ff

p.

s h a ll

th e

d u tie s

m o b iliz a t io n

of

th e

th e

as

I v a n g o r o d .”

a r tic le

m eans

c a tio n s

m u st

m in im u m .

d o u b le

ou t by

s e c tio n s

F o r e ig n

th e

Im p ro v e m e n ts

p r o je c t e d .

th e

th e

im p o r ta n c e
in

lin e s

a

in e v ita b ly

and

a c c u ra te

b o d ie s

on

d ir e c te d

s tr a te g ic

to

c a r r ie d

W arsaw

to

lin e s

R u s s ia n

be

to
one

a c c e le r a t e d

been

"c o u r a n t .”

G ilin s k y

out

“ The
p e r fe c te d

to

im m e d i­

w h ic h

of

in
to

o b se r v a tio n s

c h ie fs

tex t

T.

of

in

(T h is

The

to

day

a ttitu d e

fo rc e s

J o ffr e

a ll

S ie d le t s -W a r s a w ,

a d v a n c in g

are

“ C R m eral
h ig h e s t

tw o
is

not

th u s

to

O r e l,

s e c tio n s

th e

tro o p s

are

th e

an

Ed.

fr o m

u sed

lin e s w h ic h
T h orn.

p o in ts

a p p ly

P etersb u rg ,

F in a lly ,

w ill

th e

d e la y s

J a b in k a -B r e s t -L it o v s k ,

m ay

tro o p s.

G en eral

im p r o v e m e n ts ,

to

n ot be

th e

w ord

(b )

th e

redu ced

d o u b le d ,

d o u b lin g

lin e

be

R u s s ia n

T h ese

s e c tio n s

o th e r

The

by

G erm an

c o n s titu te s

e m p ir e

w ere

m ay

Jt

b o d ie s

and

t i o n .’

of

d e c id e d

fifte e n th

G erm an y

b e in s p ir e d

th e

s u b je c t,

h a s a lr e a d y

O rel

th e

[th is

"c o u r a n t ."
in g

of

o b je c t,

s e r io u s ly

lin e s ,

by

of

m u st

w o u ld

be

M o u r a v ie w o -K o c k e d a r y ;

tw o

m ig h t

o b v io u s ly
th a t

r a ilw a y s .

a p p lie d

J a b in k a ,

d e fe a t

th is

a r m ie s

On

w o u ld

s in g le

n a tio n a l

W ith

th e

end.

q u a d r u p le d , a s

fu lly

w h ic h

a n n ih ila tio n

c o sts.

p o r tio n

hand,

s e c tio n s

th e

u tiliz e d

w estern

o th e r

fe a r s

r a ilw a y s

th a t

c e n tr a tio n

th e

th e

if

or

A ffa ir s ,

c o n fe re n c e s

of

a grou p

Tu rkey.

c o n c e n tr a tio n

fa c to r s

th a t

tim e

fo llo w s ” :
ns

o f F o r lg n
graph :

a llo w

th e

th e re fo r e

p u rsu ed

and

ob serves

ta k e

T h o r n -P o s e n .

and

as

“ Sam e

d a lly

“ G en eral

b u lk

or

B e r lin

c h ie fs

r e n d in g

jo in

R u s s ia

of

th e ir

of

always

are

sam e

lin e s

G en «yal

so u th

ARTICLE

s itu a tio n

com pel

fu tu re

to

o p p o rtu n e

th e

c o n s id e r a b le

a g a in s t

fe lt

an

w o u ld

m a in

w ith

th e

p resen t

W arsaw

" T h e

in te n ­

p resen t,

c o n s tr u c tio n

In

m en

a r m ie s

at
not

w o u ld

th e

on

r a ilw a y s

th e

grou pm ent

th e

th e

m o b iliz a t io n .

Sw eden

m arch

seem

s id e .

th e

is

a c c e le r a t e
in

sid e .

8 0 0 ,0 0 0

her

d ev o te

h e r s e lf

m ore

c o n c e n ta te

her

of

not

o ffe n s iv e

to

is

on

its

th e
at

of

accord

to

W arsaw ,

r e g io n

“ ‘ Thp

up

That

th e

le a d

th a t

of

of

fin d

F in a lly ,

to

fig u r e

a c tio n

to

s c a le s .

G erm an y,

m ay

m arch
th e

in

tow ard

e ith e r

on

in

Is

d is p o s e

enem y

paragraphs

A u s tr ia n

th e re fo r e

th e

on

and

F ran ce

m o b iliz e d

G erm an y.

to

th e m ,

debouch

G erm an y.

P etersb u rg

th e

T h is

th e

c o n s id e r a tio n

S t.

re s o lv e d

o ffe n s iv e

by

in d ic a te d .

la r g e r

c o n ta in in g

m ake

arou nd

w o u ld

g e n e r a l s t a f f is

on

th e

T h is

c o n c e n tr a tio n .

m a in ta in in g

fo rc e s

le d

R u s s ia .

p r e c e d e n tly

th e ir

a t e ly

e n a b le

d e v e lo p s

d ir e c tin g

and

in

be

G erm an y.

does

o b v io u s

an

on

tim e ly

h o s tilit ie s .

appeared,

order

of

of

m u st

had

of

su b je c t

d e v e lo p e d

ns

on

c h ie f

th e

a g a in s t

th e

w ith

She

in

s id e

on

c ir c u m s ta n c e s

check

m ap

concordant and

g r e a t ly

tim e

Sw eden

and

a g a in s t

a

sam e

fa v o r a b le

th an
in

a r m ie s ,

to

c o n c e n tr a tio n

J o ffr e

fr a n k ly

W h ils t

have

G ilin s k y

G en eral
of

th e y

a g a in s t

to

w th

a r m ie s

o p e n in g

has

a ffo r d

of

a llie d

r a ilw a y s ,

a ttitu d e ,

In s tig a te d

th e

A u s tr ia

th e

p r in c ip le

ex p ressed

th e

a

c o n c e n tr a tio n .

in

p resen t

d is a s tr o u s .

at

o th e r

at

h er

not

be

pow er

tw o

under

le a s t

hand,

can

th e

e x p la n a tio n s ,

n e c e s s ity

o p in io n

a c tio n
at

th e

h is

fo r

accord

on

of

th e

im p r o v e d

R u s s ia

in

A rm y

b u lk

w h o se

has

e ffe c t

fa c e

th e

d is p o s itio n s

fu lly

w ith

o th e r

sh e

and

m oral

Is

p r e s s in g ,

th e

pow er;

F ren ch

F rench

agrees
A rm y,

be

to

tiie

d ir e c t

a ls o

It a lia n

th e

G ilin s k y

sta ff o f

e ffo rts

e x h ib its ,

c o n c e n tr a tio n .

R u s s ia

of

d ir e c te d

if
J o ffr e

in

G eneral

s h o r t ly ,

yenr

c o n c e n tr a tio n .

th e

in

w o r k .'
“ G en eral

R u s s ia n

m easu res

r a ilw a y

on

tim e )

are

a r t ic le

sta ff

v a r io u s

advance

fo r c e s

The

A llia n c e .]

F rench

fr a n c s

F ren ch

M ilita r y

th e

d ays'

advance

m illio n s

fo r

F r a n c o -Itu s s ia n

“ ‘ M oreover,

now

th e

fr o n tie r .

p r o v id e d

F r a n c o -R u s s la n

row

of

G erm an

d e la v

J

In

accordan ce

m ilita r y
sk y,
c h ie f

c o n v e n tio n

c h ie f o f
of

w ith

th e

th e

th e

of

A u gu st

general

gen eral

S t. P e te rsb u rg a n d
o f A u g u st, 1 9 1 3 .

at

p r o v is io n s
17,

sta ff o f

sta ff

of

1892,

th e

th e

K r a s n o e -S e lo

1

of

H is

E x c e lle n c y

R u s s ia n

A rm y, and

F ren ch

A rm y,

a t d iffe r e n t

m et

in

G eneral
G eneral

G llin J o ffr e

c o n fe re n c e

tim e s d u r in g

th e

at

n o n tfc

t

CONGRESSIONAL RECORD.
Others present were General de L agu’ che, military attachd o f the
French Embassy in R u s s ia ; Colonel Count Ignaticf, m ilitary attachd
of the Russian Embassy in Paris ; Colonel Berthelot, commander of the
Ninety-fourth Infantry Regiment, aide major general d6sigt\6 of the
French Arm y.
The various points e f the agreement were successively considered by
the conferees and the following views exchanged :
P R E L IM IN A R Y

REM ARK.

First of all the conferees decide that whenever they agree to accept
without change one or more paragraphs o f the procfcs-verbal o f the
preceding conference the text o f It shall be reproduced in its entirety
in the present proctis-verbai.
A special note will be inscribed on the margin o f the texts thus re­
produced.
This method of procedure dispenses with the necessity for referring
back to the text o f the preceding report as much as possible.
Preamble (accepted w ithout com m ent by the conferees) : The two
chiefs o f general staff agree that the words “ defensive war ’ ’ should
not be interpreted in the sense o f “ war to be conducted defensively.”
They assert, on the contrary, the absolute necessity for the Russian and
French arm ies to take a vigorous offensive and ns far as possible sim ul­
taneously, in compliance with the text of article 3 o f the agreement,
according to which " the forces of the two contracting powers shall all
comp into nction with the least delay.”
F i r s t A r t i c l e . Same remarks as in t h e conferences of 1 9 1 0 a n d
the follow ing ones, which rend as follo w s:
“ The two chiefs of general staff, confirming the point o f view o f tho
previous conferences, agree fully on this point, that the defeat of the
German Arm ies remains under all circumstances the first and prin­
cipal aim o f the allied arm ies.”
Completed as fo llo w s :
“ And this even more so than form erly on account of the considerable
growth o f the relative m ilitary power o f Germany in the triple alliance.”
A r t . 2 . Same remarks a s in the conferences o f 1 9 10, 1911, a n d 1 9 1 2 .
However, the Russian and French Governments having approved the
interpretation of the two chiefs of general stuff by signing the proc^sverbaux of the conferences o f A ugust and July, 1 9 1 2 , these remarks
should read as follow s :
“ A s r e c o g n i z e d by the Russian a n d French Governm ents in 1 9 1 1 and
1 9 1 2 , Germ an mobilization w ill compel Russia and France to mobilize
all their forces im m ediately and sim ultaneously as soon as it becomes
known without the need of a previous agreement. The same icill apply
to e v er y act of w ar o f the German A rm y against either o f the allied
pow ers.
But in case of partial or even general m obilization o f A ustria
o r Ita ly alone, such agreement is required.’'
The sentence underlined was added to provide for the possibility of a
sudden attack with forces under cover preceding mobilization, for the
purpose of gaining an important strategic point.
A r t . 3. Sharing the opinion o f their predecessors, the conferees
agree that Germ any will direct the greatest part o f its forces again st
F rance and w ill only leave minimum of forces against Russia.
The principal result of the enforcement of the German m ilitary law
o f 1913 w ill be to hasten the mobilization of the German A rm y. T his
arm y can then have more time than in the past to operate against
France before turning against Russia.
The plan o f the Allies should then be to try to attack both sides
sim ultaneously, exerting the maximum o f combined efforts.
General Joffre declares th at France w ill engage on its northeast
frontier alm ost all her forces, the number of which w ill exceed that
provided for in the text o f the convention by more than 2 0 0 ,0 0 0 men ;
th a t the concentration of the fighting elements on this frontier w ill be
com pleted, for the most part, on the tenth clay of m obilization, and that
t h e offensive operations o f this group of forces w ill commence from
t h e m orning o f the eleventh day.
General Gilinsky declares that R ussia w ill engage against Germ any
a group of forces consisting of at least 8 0 0 ,0 0 0 men and the concen­
tration o f the fighting element on the Russian-Germ an frontier w ill be
completed, for the m ost part, on the fifteenth day o f m obilization, and
th a t the offensive operations of that group of forces w ill commence
im m ediately afte r the fifteenth day.
B y the end o f 1 9 1 4 , the end of
the concentration w ill be advanced about two clays.
The conferees outline briefly the arrangements made for the con­
centration and grouping of the French and Russian Arm ies directed
ag ain st Germ any.
They agree upon the need o f directing the offensive against the heart
o f the enemy c o u n tr y ; upon the advisability o f concentrating the
forces in such a way as to be able to either combat the forces of the
enemy concentrated in eastern Prussia or to march to. Berlin by s ta r t­
ing operations in the south of that province if the German forces are
concentiatrd on the left bank of the Vistula.
A lth ough aware of the need for Russia to m aintain large forces
again st A ustria and Sweden, General Joffre thinks that the defeat of
G erm any w ill greatly facilitate the operations which the Russian
Ansiy shall direct against the other enemy powers.
Annihilation of
7 6 8 7 6 — 11




7

the German forces, therefore, must be pushed at any cost, and this
from the start.
For this purpose delays in mobilization and concen­
tration of the allied armies should be reduced to a minimum.
To this end the development of the railroad system is an essential
fa c t o r ; General Gillusky states that the construction work recom­
mended in the preceding conference has been carried out as fo llo w s :
The sections Briansk-Gomel and Lounlnetz-Jabinka o f the line from
Orel to Varsovia have been double tracked.
The section Jablnka-Brest-Lltovsk has been quadruple tracked.
A s to the quadrupling o f Siedletz-Varsovia the difficulties of its exe­
cution are too great, and a better result w ill be obtained by construct­
ing a new line with double tracks starting from RIazan and Toula
and ending at Varsovia.
General Joffre agrees on this point.
An examination of the railroad map leads the two chiefs o f general
staff to conclude that a marked increase in the rapidity of concen­
tration would be obtained by constructing certain railroad lines con­
necting eastern Russia with the region o f Varsovia, such as
1. Doubling the line Batrakl-Fensa-Riajsk-Bogoiavlcnsk-SoukbinitchiS m o le n s k .

2. Doubling the line Rovno-Sarny Louninletz-Barnnovitchi.
8. Doubling the line L ozovain-Poltnva-K lev-Sarny-Kovel, construct­
ing the line Grichlno-Kovel.
Offensive operations will also be facilitated by adopting the standard
gauge on the Russian railroads on the left bank of the V istula, as well
as by increasing the means of crossing the river In the region of
Varsovia.
L astly , it seems thut in order to obtain the service required of the
railroads the rolling stock (cars and especially locomotives of great
power) should be greatly increased.
W ith respect to the conduct of operations it is quite necessary for
the allied armies to obtain a decisive success as quickly as possible. A
check of the French armies at the beginning of the war would permit
Germany to transfer to Its eastern frontier a part of the forces which
would have fought at first against France.
Ir, on the contrary, the
French armies quickly obtain a success against the German forces
facing them, this success will facilitate to that extent the operations
o f the Russian armies, since the forces brought by Germany to her
western frontier w ill be unable to be transferred to the east.
It Is therefore essential that the French armies should have a
marked numerical superiority over the German forces of the west.
These conditions w ill he easily realized If Germany is obliged to pro­
tect herself with larger forces on her eastern frontier.
General Joffre states that, in this connection, it would be advan­
tageous for both armies to have the Russian forces so grouped I d the
governm ent of Varsovia, even in peace time, that they constitute a
direct menace to Germany.
General Gllinsky states that the new plan o f reorganization of the
Russian Arm y provides for the establishment of an army corps in the
region o f Varsovia.
A r t . 4 . The chiefs of general staff reproduce w ithout change the
first three paragraphs of the observations concerning article 4 in the
conference o f 1 9 12, which read as follows :
“ 1. The two chiefs of general staff shall hold periodic and, in prin­
ciple, annual conferences.
“ 2. Furthermore, a conference shall be held whenever a general staff
shall deem one necessary.”
Paragraph 3 could be simplified as follows :
“ 3. The procfes-verbal o f the conference shall be submitted for ap­
proval to the government of each country so that the chiefs of general
staff of the allied armies may rely on this document for the realiza­
tion o f desirable Improvements.”
Paragraph 4 shall read as follows :
“ 4. The exchange of inform ation between the allied armies, being of
utm ost value, w ill continue regularly and frequently.”
Before each conference the points which it Is proposed to consider
shall be m utually made known.
The w ays and means o f correspondence in time of war have been
perfected according to the wishes expressed in the course of the con­
ference of 1911 and 1912.
The wireless stations o f Paris-Bobrouisk and of Blzerte-Sebastopol
are functioning well.
The station at Bizerte has been reinforced by
France ; a powerful station is being constructed in Russia near the
Black Sea, so that communications may be as easy by day as by night.
F ollow ing the attem pts at communicating between the Eiffel Tower
and the Russian naval station at Sveaborg, It Is desirable to see the
latter station reinforced.
Telegraphic communications can be exchanged between the French
ami Russian chiefs of general staff by British cables and with the
aid of Great Britain.
T he conventions with London have ju st been concluded, all ar­
rangements have been made, and operations can start.
Cablegrams pass by way of America, A ustralia, and Zanzibar or by
way o f South Africa and Zanzibar to reach Odessa.

8

CONGRESSIONAL RECORD.

Governm ent In the telegram o f February 24, 1910. No. 948, to the
Communications by emissaries are organized by the French chief of
effect that “ while allowing France nnd Englnnd complete liberty in
general staff for the transm ission of dispatches from France to Rus­
delim iting the w estern frontiers of Germany we expect that the Allies
sia.
It would be advisable for the Russian chief of general staff to
on their part w ill give us equal liberty In delimiting our frontiers with
organize communications by emissaries on the same plan.
A rt . 5. The Russian and French Governments having accepted the i Germ any and Austria-H ungary.”
Hence the Impending exchange o f notes on the question raised by
interpretation given since 1910 to article 6, said Interpretation could
Doumergue will Justify us in asking the French Government sim ul­
read as fo llo w s :
taneously to confirm Its assent to allowing Russia freedom of action in
“ The Russian and French Governments have respectively recognized
drawing up her future frontiers In the w est. Exact data on the ques­
that article 5 obliges the contracting parties not to stop operations
tion w ill be supplied by us in due course to the French cabinet.
or conclude an arm istice separately.”
In addition we deem it necessary to stipulate for the assent of
A r t . 6. (Accepted w ithout remarks by the conferees.)
France to the removal at the termination o f the war of the disqualifi­
Article 6 is repealed as heretofore.
Please explain the above to
In conformity w ith the diplom atic agreement o f August, 1 8 99, men­ cations resting on the Aland Islands.
Briand nnd wire the results.
tioned in chapter 1 o f the conference o f July 2, 1 9 00, the convention
will la st as long as the diplom atic agreements now In force which It 1
supplements.
(Translated b> Lottie M. Manross, December 13, 1 9 2 3 .)
A telegram from the Russian ambassador in Paris to M. Pokrovsky,
In 1916 France and Russia entered into a secret treaty to January 31 (February 1 3 ), 1 9 1 7 :

divide German and Austrian territory between Russia and
France, as follow s:
F X H IR IT V.
A r r r .x n ix D.
Secret agreement o f tMS—n between France and Russia for the disposi­
tion o f German and Austrian territory.

I.
The Russian M inister of Foreign Affairs (M . Sazonoff) to the Rus­
sian am bassador at Paris.
February 24 (M arch 9 ) , 1 9 1 0 :
(N o. 9 4 8 .)

P etrograd.
Please refer to my telegram No. 6063 o f 1915.
A t the forth­
coming conference you may be guided by the following general
principles:
“ The political agreements concluded between the Allies during the
war m ust remain intact, and are not subject to revision. They include
the agreement, with France and England on Constantinople, the Straits,
Syria, and Asia M inor, and also the London treaty with Ita ly. A ll sug­
gestions for the future delimitation of central Europe are at present
premature, but in general one m ust bear in mind that w e are prepared
to allow France and England com plete freedom in drawing up the
w estern frontiers of G erm any, in the expectation that the Allies on
their part would allow us equal freedom in drawing up our frontiers
with G erm any and Austria.
“ It is particularly necessary to insist on the exclusion of the Polish
question from the subject o f international discussion and on the elimi­
nation o f all a ttem pts to place the future of Poland under the guar­
antee and the control o f the Pow ers.
“ W ith regard to the Scandanavian States, it is necessary to en­
deavor to keep back Sweden from any action hostile to us and at the
same time to examine betimes measures for attracting Norway on our
side in case It should prove impossible to prevent a war w ith'S w ed en.
" Rumania has already been offered all the political advantages
which could induce her to take up arms, and therefore It would be per­
fectly futile to search for new baits in this respect.
“ The question o f pushing out the Germans from the Chinese market,
is of very great im portance, but Its solution Is Impossible w ithout the
participation of Japan. It is preferable to examine it at the economic
conference, where the representatives of Japan w ill be present.
T his
does not exclude the desirability of a preliminary exchange o f views
on the subject between Russia and England by diplom atic m eans.”

Sazonoff.
II.

(N o. 8 8 .)
Copy to London. Referring to your telegram No. 50 7 . confidentially,
I immediately communicated in writing its contents to Briand. who
told me that toe would not fall to give me an official reply o f the
French Government, but that he could at once declare, on his own
behalf, th a t the satisfaction of the wishes contained in your telegrnm
w ill meet with no difficulties.

IsvonsKT.
IV.
On February 1 ( 1 4 ) , 1917, the Russian foreign m inister addressed
the follow ing note to the French ambassador at P e tro g ra d :
“ In your note of to-day’s date your excellency w as good enough
to inform the Imperial Government th a t the Governm ent o f the Repub­
lic w as contem plating the inclusion In the terms of peace to be offered
to Germ any the following demands and guaranties of a territorial
n a tu r e :
“ 1. Alsace-Lorraine to be restored to France.
“ 2. The frontiers are to be extended at least up to the lim its o f
the form er principality of Lorraine, and are to be drawn up a t the
discretion o f the French Government so as to provide tor the stra tegic
needs and for the inclusion in French territory of the entire iron
district of Lorraine and of the entire coal district of the Faar V alley.
“ 3. The rest of the territories situated on the left bank o f the
Rhine, which now form part of the German Empire, are to be en tirely
separated from G erm any and freed from all political and economic de­
pendence upon her.
“ 4. The territories of the left bank o f the Rhine outside French
territory are to be constituted an autonomous and neutral State, and
are to be occupied by French troops until such time as the enemy
States have completely satisfied all the conditions and guaranties
indicated In the treaty o f peace.
“ Your excellency stated that the Government of the Republic would
be happy to be able to rely upon the support o f the Im perial G o v e r n ­
ment for the carrying out of Its plans.
B y order o f H is Im perial
M a jesty , m y m ost august m aster, I have the honor, in the name o f the
Russian G overnm ent, to inform your excellency b y the p resen t note
that the G overnm ent of the Republic m ay rely upon th e support o f
the Im perial G overnm ent f w the carrying out of its plans as set out
a b o ve."
V.
F inally, on February 26 (M arch 1 1 ) , 1917, the Russian am bassador
at P aris sent the follow ing telegram to M. Pekrovsky :

(N o. 1 68.)
Confidential telegram from M . Pokrovsky, M. Sazonoff’s second sue- |
See my reply to telegram No. 167, No. 2. The Governm ent o f the
cessor ns foreign m inister, to the Russian ambassador a t Paris, JanuFrench Republic, anxious to confirm the importance o f the treaties
ary 80 (February 1 2 ) , 1917.
concluded w ith the Russian Governm ent in 1 9 15, for the settlem ent
(No. 5 0 2 .)
on the term ination o f the war of the question of Constantinople and
the S traits in accordance w ith R ussia's aspirations, anxious, on the
P etrograd.
Copy to London confidentially. A t an audience w ith the m ost high, j other hand, to secure for its ally in m ilitary and Industrial respects
M . Doumergue submitted to the Em peror the desire of France to secure ! all the guaranties desirable for the safety and the economic develop­
for herself at the end of the present war the restoration o f Alsacement of the Em pire, recognize Russia’s com plete liberty is establishing
Lorraine and a special position In the valley o f the River Saar as well
her w estern frontiers.
as to attain the political separation from Germany o f her transISVObSKY.
Rhenish districts and their organization on a separate basis, in order
Bailsman sa y s:
that in future the River Rhine m ight form a permanent strategical
On the very next day (M arch 12 ) the Russian Revolution took
frontier against a Germanic invasion.
Doumergue expressed the hope
place, and on M arch 1 5 the T sar abdicated.
that the Imperial Government would not refuse immediately to draw
*p its assent to those suggestions in a form al manner.
T H E P R E S E N T P O S IT IO N (B A C S M A N ).
His Imperial M ajesty was pleased to agree to this in principle, in
Apparently the design of driving Germany back to the left bank o f
consequence o f which I requested Doumergue, after communicating with
the Rhine has now been abandoned by the French Government, although
his Government, to let me have the d raft of an agreement, which
there has been no official statem ent to this effect.
would then be given a form al sanction by an exchange of notes between
M r. Balfour, in the House of Commons, on December 19, 1917, saia
the French am bassador and m yself.
o f this p la n :
Proceeding thus to meet the wishes of our ally, I nevertheless con­
“ W e have never expressed our approval of It, nor do I believe it
sider it my duty to recall the standpoint put forward by the Imperial
presents the policy o f successive French Government who have held
16876— 11




traooan ayNLoissaHOKOO

8

CONGRESSIONAL RECORD.

9

•ffice daring the war.
Never did we desire and never did we en­
courage the idea that a bit of Germany should be cut off from the
parent State and erected into some kind of,
• • *
independent
Government on the left bank of the Rhine. His M ajesty’ s Governm ent
were never aware that was seriously entertained by any French
statesm an.”
It must be noted in this connection that by the declaration o f Sep­
tember 5, 1 914, the Allies undertook to make peace in common.
Any
arrangement between France and Russia therefore equally affects G reat
Britain.

In the light of these treaties and these military c o n f e r ­
ences, 1 call attention to chapter 12 of “ Entente Diplomacy and
the World.” giving the dispatches showing the Entente prepara­
tions for war. Exhibit 0.
And the Falsification of the Russian Orange Book.
In lOOtJ Sir Edward Grey, on behalf of the British Govern­
ment, entered Into an agreement with France which in 1912
he reduced to writing, as follow s:
E X H IB IT S

VIII

A N D

IX.

(L e tte r Sir Edward Grey to French Am bassador Cambon, Nov.

*

22, 1912.)

M r D e a r A m b a s s a d o r : From time to time in recent years the
French and British military and naval experts huve consulted to
gether.
It has always been understood that such consultation docs
not restrict the freedom of either Governm ent to decide at any future
time whether or not to assist the other by armed force.
W e have
agreed that consultation between experts is not and ought not to be
regarded as an engagement that com m its either Governm ent to action
in a contingency that has not yet arisen and may never arise.
The
disposition, for instance, of the French and B ritish fleets, respec­
tively, a t the present moment is not based upon an engagement to
cooperate in war.
You hove, however, pointed out that if either Governm ent have
grave reason to expect an unprovoked attack by a third power, it
m ight become essential to know w hether it could in that event depend
upon the armed assistance of the other.
1 agree th a t if either Government v
'-".d grave reason to expect an
unprovoked attack by a third power, or something that threatened the
general peace, it should immediately discuss w ith the other whether
both Governm ents should act together to prevent aggression and to
preserve peace, and, if so, w bat measures they would be prepared to
take in common.
I f these measures involved action, the plans of the general staffs
would at once be taken into consideration, and the Governm ents would
then decide what effect should be given to them.
iT h e last vital paragraph was not read to Parliament by G rey,
although afterw ards published in the W hite Book.]
(H ow D iplom ats
Make W a r , 3 0 3 .)

The French ambassador, Camdon, immediately replied In
the following letter;
F

rench

London,

D bar

S ib

E

dw ahd

E

m bassy

N ovem ber

,

23, 1912.

: You reminded me in your letter o f yesterday,

November 22, that during the last few years the m ilitary and naval
authorities of France and Great Britain had consulted with each
oth er from time to t i m e ; that it had always been understood that
these consultations should not restrict the liberty o f either Govern­
ment to decide in the future whether they should lend each other the
support o f their armed forces ; that on either side these consultations
between experts were not and should not be considered us engagements
binding our Governm ents to take action in certain e v e n tu a litie s;
that, however, I had remarked to you that If one or other of the two
Governm ents had grave reasons to fear an unprovoked attack on the
part of a third power it would become essential to know w hether It
could count on the armed support o f the other.
Y our letter answers that p o i n t ; and I am authorized to state that
in the event o f one of our tw o Governments having grave reasons
to fear either an attack from a third power or some event threaten­
ing the general peace, that Government would immediately examine
w ith the other the question whether both Governments should act
together in order to prevent aggression or preserve peace.
I f so,
the two Governm ents would deliberate aa to the measures which
they would be prepared to take in common.
I f those measures in­
volved action, the tw o Governments would take into immediate con­
sideration the plans o f their general staffs and would then decide as
to the effect to be given to those plans.
Y ours, etc.,
P aul Cam bon .
(H o w Diplom ats Make W ar, 2 7 9 .)

In 1914 Sir Edward Grey delivered copies o f these letters
exchanged between him and the French ambassador to the
Russian ambassador as a basis for an entente between Great
7 0 8 7 6 — 11-------- 2




Britain and Russia (see ch, 12, Entente Diplomacy and the
World, p. 709), under which a plan of naval cooperation be­
tween Great Britain, Russia, and France was worked out.
When the German rulers ordered a German mobilization,
5 p. m., Saturday afternoon, August 1, it was followed imme­
diately by the marching of regiments through London equipped
for war the following morning, Sunday, August 2. 1914. (How
Diplomats Make War, Neilson, p. 295.)
French troops invaded German soil Sunday, August 2, 1914.
(Reflections o f the World War, p. 145.)
On Saturday, the 1st day of August, the German border was
crossed in four places by Russian patrols. (Preparation and
Conduct o f the World War, Von Kuhl, pp. 7 9 -SO.)
Germany declared a state o f war existing with Russia, be­
cause o f Russian acts, on August 1, 1914, 7.10 p. m .; with
France, August 3, 1914; Belgium, August 4, 1914. (Scott Docu­
ments on World War, p. 1877.)
France declared war against
rman.v on August 3, 1914;
Great Britain against Germany, August 4, 1914 ; Russia against
Germany. August 7. 1914. The evidence appears to show that it
was the Russian policy to invade Germany without a declara­
tion of war and to make its mobilization complete under the
camouflage of peaceful negotiations
(Von Kuhl, pp. 70-80.)
In the Russian Czar’s orders for mobilization, 30th of Sep­
tember, 1912, Chancellor Von Bethinann-Hollwcg quotes the
following language:
It Is the Em peror's order that (ho notification of the mobilization
should be equivalent to the notification of a sla te of war with
Germany.

In other words, the Russian mobilization 'order was to lie
regarded as a secret declaration of war.
Hollweg further states that the Russian instruction for the
troops on the German front w*is:
As soon as concentration is completed we shall proceed to advance
against the armed forces of Germany with the object of carrying the
war on to their own territory.
(Reflection on the W orld W ar, p. 132.)

This was strictly in line with the Franco-Russian treaty of
1892 and the military conferences of 1911, 1912, and 1913.
It will be observed that under the Franco-Russian secret
treaty of 1892, section 1, it was provided that in case of war
Russia should employ all Its available forces to fight Germany
and that the military and naval staffs, in the military con­
ference above quoted, expressly contemplated that the German
Army should be obliged to attack France through Belgium,
and stipulated:
The French Arm y could concentrate as rapidly as the German
Arm y, and that as from the tw elfth day it is in a position to take the
offensive against Germany with the help of the British Arm y on its
left flank.

And thus clearly outlines the cooperation agreed upon be­
tween Russia, France, and Great Britain.
The conference states :
It Is essential that Germany
on the east and on the west.

shall be attacked

at the same time

But the most important light is thrown upon the matter by
the preamble in the minutes o f the meetings of the French
and Russian chiefs of staffs, as follow s:
pream ble

.

T he two chiefs o f staff declare, by common accord, that the words
“ defensive w ar ” must not be interpreted in the sense of a war which
would be conducted defensively.
They aflirm, on the contrary, the
absolute necessity for the Russian and French armies to adopt a vigor­
ous offensive, and, as far as possible, a simultaneous one, in conformity
w ith the text of article 3 of the convention, whose terms provide that
the forces of the two contracting powers shall com e into full action
w ith all speed /

The Franco-Russian treaty, 1892, provided “ In case the forces
o f the triple alliance or o f one of the powers which are a
party to i t ” [for example, Austria] “ should be mobilized,
France and Russia, at the first indication o f the event and
without a previous agreement being necessary shall mobilize
all their forces immediately and simultaneously and shall trans­
port them as near to their frontiers as possible.” * * *
“ These forces shall begin complete action with the greatest
dispatch, so that Germany will have to fight at the same time
in the east and In the west.”
Therefore when Austria partially mobilized in Ignorance of
the terms o f this secret Franco-Russian treaty of 1892, Russia
and France were under a secret contract to immediately mobi­
lize and attack Germany with all their forces. This was a
secret declaration o f war on Germany as of the date o f th«
Austrian mobilization, July 28, 1914.

J

10

CONGRESSIONAL RECORD.

The Russian and French mobilizntions, which were begun
under the treaty o f 1802. must be interpreted in the light o f that
treaty and the annual military conferences from 1903 to 1918 of
the general staffs of the Russian and French Armies.
R U S S IA N

PR K P A R A T IO N S .

The manner in which the Russian military und railway prep­
arations and mobilization had been worked out is set forth in
tlie work o f Von Eggeling, The Russian Mobilization and the
Outbreak o f the War, and by Gen. H. von Kuhl in his work,
The German General Staff in Preparation and Conduct of the
World War, an abstract o f which is submitted. Exhibit X.
All the military authorities in Europe knew and recognized,
as a matter o f military strategy, that in a war between Germany,
Russia, and France, the German troops would be compelled to
enter France through Belgium, as the French frontier otherwise
was absolutely Impregnable because of the gigantic forts and
prepared military defenses.
Further the military strategists were all agreed that Ger­
many’s only chance to win in such a military struggle was by
speed and efficiency, conquering France first, and then meeting
Russia.
Germany claimed that while Belgium had never collaborated
with Germany to preserve Belgium's neutrality against France
and Great Britain, Belgium had a positive understanding with
Great Britain and France as to cooperation in a war o f France
and Great Britain with Germany. See Belgian documents in
facsimile in German White Book [pp. 837 to 860, Diplomatic
Documents Relating to Outbreak o f the European War. Scott].
The secret documents exhibited in “ Entente Diplomacy and
tlie W orld,” S58” in number, demonstrate beyond the shadow
of a doubt that it was the fixed policy of the Russian Govern­
ment to control the Dardanelles and expand its power in the
Balkan States where there were millions o f Slavs in Serbia
and in Austria, and that this could only be done by means of a
general European war. It was therefore necessary for the
carrying out o f the Russian policy to bring about a general
European war and at the same time to put the moral responsi­
bility o f such a war on others. These secret documents show
that It was tlie design of the Russian Government to do this,
and that the means o f accomplishing this end lay through the
Slavs of Serbia and their intrigues with the so-called “ unllberated Slavs o f Austria.”
The Serbian intrigues through a period of years were financed
by Russia and the Austrian Government was so seriously dis­
turbed by these Intrigues that they w
rere compelled at huge ex­
pense and great internal inconvenience to mobilize in 1912,
and again In 1913, and again in 1914, wdien the Crown Prince
of Austria and his consort were murdered by a Serb believed
to have been instigated by a malignant press campaign car­
ried on in Serbia and alleged to have been directly arranged
by the Pan Slav “ Black Hand,” fostered by the Russian min­
ister at Belgrade.
In Professor’s Sloan’s work, ‘‘ The Balkans,” page 193, May,
1914, he says:
A t Belgrade the trade of politics has been on a level unknown else­
where, unless It be at Constantinople. The overthrow of one king and
the setting up of another was a m atter of money, and it was the Rus­
sian ambassador who provided the funds.
The whole conspiracy has
been traced to Its so u rc e ; there is not a step for which tlie docu­
mentary evidence can not be produced.

Nitti, in ids book “ Peaceless Europe,” pages 12, 83, 84, 87,
says:

Under the treaty o f 1892 France had financed Russia to the
extent o f about $7,000,000,009 to enable Russia to baNi up u
gigantic army and to build military railways to tlie Gernmu
frontier (Lex Talionis).
The assassination of tlie Crown Prince (June 28. 1914)
caused tlie Austrinn Government to demand immediate satis­
faction o f the Serbian Government on July 23.
On July 24 Serbia mobilized, but accepted the Austrinn de­
mands, except one or two affecting the question of sovereignty,
which they proposed to arbitrate. Austria ordered a partial
mobilization against Serbia. The same day the Russian Gov­
ernment authorized a mobilization, and the Russian Minister
o f War, Sukhomlinoff, made it a general mobilization and
afterwards made the Czar believe it was a partial mobilization,
which the Czar made u general mobilization on July 30. Tlie
army o f Belgium was mobilized ns of this day, July 24. Tlie
Britisli fleet was completely mobilized and ready for war as of
July 24. The French Government took preliminary steps, can­
celing leaves o f absence, and so forth.
Ren6 Viviana, president of the council, August 4, 1914, in
the French Chamber o f Deputies, in commenting on the Aus­
trian notice to Serbia o f July 23 aud subsequent events, said:
A s these events unfolded them selves, the Governm ent, watchful
and vigilant, took from day to day, and even from hour to hour, the
measures of precaution which the situation required— the general mo­
bilization of our forces on land and sea was ordered.

Under the secret 1892 treaty the Austrian mobilization re­
quired the immediate mobilization o f all the Russian and
French forces and the speediest possible simultaneous attack
on Germany east and west.
William II was in Scandinavia on a summer cruise, returning
on Sunday, July 26. Upon his return he directed tlie German
chancellor to urge on Austria the acceptance of the Serbian
reply and the acceptance of a method o f adjustment acceptable
to the entente powers. Austria yielded to this demand, de­
clared that the demand on Serbia was not intended as an ulti­
matum, that Austria was willing to have the matter adjusted
by an International cr ..fi- ar.ee,
it had no designs on
Serbian territory, that it had only made a partial mobilization
against Serbia, and that it only sought its own internal peace
against Serbian intrigue.
The secret Russian records show that the Russian Govern­
ment was determined on war, that the French Government was
determined on war, that the French Government refused to
attempt to moderate the attitude of Russia, and that the Brit­
ish Government refused to attempt to exercise a moderating
j influence with tlie Russian Government, and that the Russian
Government rejected in advance any attempt to exercise a mod­
erating influence with the Russian Government.
These secret documents show that it was a part o f the policy
of the French and Russian Governments to put the odium o f the
World War upon the German Government.
The German chancellor, Von Bellimann-Hollweg, states that:
The German m inister of war thought it a mistake to declare w ar
on Russia, not because he considered that war could be avoided after
Russia had mobilized, but because he feared that the p olitical effect
would be prejudicial.

But that the chief o f the general staff favored declaring w a r:
Because our hope of success against the enormous superiority iu num­
bers was dependent on the extreme rapidity of our movements.

And this opinion prevailed. (Reflections of tlie World War,
138J
Because Germany declared war on Russia and mobilized at
5 p. m., Saturday, August 1. 1914, public opinion throughout
the world has largely accepted tlie view that the German lead­
ers were responsible for the war. This has been emphasized
In 1908 the Czar had assured Paschitch, the Serbian minis­ and made more effective by propaganda and by tlie excitement
ter, that the Bosnia-Herzegovinian question would be decided and hostility o f war.
A fter August 1, 1914, Russia and the various powers issued
by war alone, for which meantime they could preserve a calm
attitude with military preparations. (Bogitsevitch quoted in Orange Books, White Books. Yellow Books, etc., eacli o f which
was intended to prove an alibi and show that each of the sev­
Diplomatic Revelations, p. 101.)
In the German White Book, 1919, Part II, page 53, is an account eral Governments wras innocent of the responsibility for the
pending gigantic catastrophe.
of a visit of the Serbian Prime Minister to the Czar of Russia
The Russian Foreign Office issued an Orange Book to show
February 2, 1914, and his report that he requested of the Czar
120,000 rifles and munitions, and so forth ; that the Czar said the innocence o f tlie Russian Government. Out of 60 dis­
that Russia was doing as much as it could to arm. He asked patches in the Foreign Office for the few days preceding the
how many soldiers Serbia could muster. Tlie minister an­ W orld War, it appears that 50 of them were falsified by
swered a half million well-clothed, well-armed soldiers. The omissions, deletion or insertion. (Exhibit 7.)
This document shows by its forgeries iu suppressing the vital
Czar replied:
dispatches a fixed policy to exculpate the Russian aud French
r hat Is satisfactory ; i t is no small m atter and one can accomplish
i
statesmen and make it possible to cast the odium of the war on
much by m e n u o f it.
tlie German statesmen.
70870— 1J
Russia alone promoted and kept alive the agitation In Serbia and of
the Slavs in Austria.
It was on account of Russia that the Serbian
Government was a perpetual cause o f disturbance, a perpetual threat to
Austria-H ungary. The Russian policy In Serbia was really criminal.




aaooaa r
ivKoissaaoNOD

01

CONGRESSIONAL RECORD.
G P. Gooch appears to be justified (Falsification o f the Rus­
sian Orange Rook) In stating:
It

Is

1.

That

fr o m

th e

R u s s ia n

m ade
2.

now

e s ta b lis h e d

That

in

by

g iv in g
3.

th a t

sh e

4.

on

to

That

v .u s c o n s i d e r e d
(T e le g r a m s

o n ly

to

222,

a

e ffo r t

in

th e

sh e

in flu e n c e

R u s s ia n

w ill

to

in
w ar

su p p o rt.
in fo r m e d

N o.

and

lia d

w ar

216

fr o m

th a t

F ran ce

V ie n n a

m o d e r a tin g

w ar

r e g a r d in g

225,

on w ard s

u n c o n d itio n a l

p u b lic

b e tte r

218,

N os.

of

r e fr a in e d

be

in

stre n g th en ed

upon

to

G e r m a n y 's

h e r s e lf

(T e le g r a m

regard

quarrel

ow n.

to

c o n tra ry ,

d e c is io n

th e

or

fro m

peace

G erm an y

in

P e te rsb u rg

had

been

to

appar­

P a r is .)

d e c la r in g

o p in io n

w ar

F ran ce

s h o u ld

a g a in s t
and

appear

G erm an y,

E n g la n d ,

th e

it

aggressor.

2 2 6 .)

Any evidence from Russian or French sources favoruble to
the German Government obviously Is entitled to great weight,
while self-serving evidence of the Russian statesmen must be
taken with reserve.
T H K O RAN O K BOOK AS CORRECTED FROM U N L IV R E N O IR .

Telegram 18-4 (Falsification o f the Russian Orange Rook,
p. ID), the Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs Sazonoff, on
July 24, states:
G erm any

a rdently

desired

In te r fe r e n c e

of

m u st

in c a lc u la b le

had

have
an

any

on

th e

con sequ en ces.

grou n d

*

*

of

conflict,

as

th e

im p r e s s io n

am b n ssn d or

e x is tin g

tre a tie s

K x M in is te r

*

P ic h o n
w h ic h

th e

A u s tr ia n

the

intend

g a in e d

th e

of

A ustria-H ungary did not
her step to be regarded as an unconditional ultim atum .
a ls o

w ith

pow er

localisation

fr o m

he

In te r v ie w

o th e r

the

t o -d a y ,

th a t

Telegram 18G, from the Russian representative at Paris to
Sazonoff, Petrograd, on July 25, said that the action of the
German ambassador—
ila s

to

som e

In d ic a tio n

e x te n t

reassu red

th e

fo r e ig n

m in is tr y

as

b e in g

G erm any does not seek for war in a ny case.

th a t

•

•

an
*

That the German Ambassador had pointed out-~That

A ustrian note has not the character o f an u ltim a tu m ;
t h e German step had only for its object the localiza­
tion o f the Austro-Serbian conflict;
•
*
•
t h a t th e a b se n c e o f th e
•

•

the

*

th a t

P r e s id e n t

of

th e

R e p u b lic

and

of

th e

M in is te r

P r e s id e n t

(V iv ia n !)

prevents the foreign office for the m om ent from expressing its opinion
definitely regarding present events.
P O IN C A R E

AN D

V IV IA N I

W ERE

EN

ROUTE

FR O M

ST.

PETERSBU RG

TO P A R IS .

Telegram 187, July 26, from the Russian representative at
Paris to Sazonoff, Petrograd, states that the German ambas­
sador had advised the French Minister for Foreign A ffa irs:
A ustria has declared to Russia that she seeks no territorial gains
and does n o t threaten the in tegrity of Serbia.
H er sole object is to
secure her ow n peace and to maintain order.

Telegram 188, July 26, from the Paris Russian representative
to Sazonoff says that Bertbelot, the director o f the political
department o f France, inclines to the opinion—
That G erm any and A ustria do n ot desire war in any case.

Telegram 1521, July 27, Sazonoff, Russian foreign minister,
to Izvolski, Russian ambassador in P a ris:
I f there is a question of exercising a m oderating influence in
P etersb u rg , w e reject it in advance, as w e have adopted a standpoint
from the o u tset which w e can in no w ay alter.
*
*
*

Telegram 194, Izvolski wired that Poincare will return to
Paris on Wednesday, July 29 (five days after Belgium
mobilization, four days after Russian general mobilization had
begun, and on the next night, Juiy 30, the French Minister of
W ar told the Russian military attach^ the French Govern­
ment toas determined on war, telegram 216).
Telegram 195, July 27th, the German Ambassador is shown
urging a new proposal for the intervention o f France and
Germany between Russia and Austria, which was not ac­
cepted. Izvolski says in this rega rd :
*

w as

s u r p r is e d

at

th e

correct

u n d e r s ta n d in g

of

th e

s itu a tio n

s e e how
firm and tranquil th ey w ere in their determ ination to extend to w s
their fullest support a n d t o a v o i d t h e s l i g h t e s t a p p e a r a n c e o f a n y l a c k
m a n ife s te d

o f u n ity

by

th e

b e tw e e n

a c tin g

m in is te r

and

h is

a s s is ta n t

and

to

Cam bon

(F r e n c h

in

r e p ly

toward

76876— 11




would

im m ediately

rep ly

by

attacking

In consequence o f A ustria-H ungary’s declaration of war against
Serbia, we shall announce tom orrow a m obilization of the Odessa,
K leff, Moscow, and Kazan military districts. In bringing this to the
notice o f the German G overnm ent repeat that Russia has no aggres­
sive intentions against Germ any.
M eanw hile our ambassador in
Vienna Is not being recalled.

Sukhomllnoff had already issued a general mobilization order
o f the Russian Army, He “ lied to the C za r” as to its being
a general mobilization ( “ Eggerling ” ), said it was partial,
and pretended that he had stopped the mobilization, although
he did not do so. The Czar, however, July 30, authorized the
general mobilization. (Let France Explain, p. 201.)
Telegram 198, July 28, Izvolski to Sazonoff:
I deem it my duty to make clear that, as results from my conver­
sation yesterday at the Qua! d'Orsay, the acting French M inister for
Foreign Affairs did not for a m oment admit the possibility of exercis­
ing a moderating influence in Petersburg,
*
*
• A s a result
o f his conversation with Baron Sclion, the minister declined to accept
the German proposal.”

Germany was exercising strenuously u moderating influence
on Vienna In favor of peace.
Telegram 201, July 28, Izvolski to Sazonoff, states that the
Gerruuu Ambassador had again visited the French Foreign
Minister and told him that:
G erm any ardently desired to work with France for the maintenance
o f peace.
*
*
• That Germ any was ready to cooperate w ith the
other powers for the maintenance of peace.

Telegram 1544, Sazonoff to Izvolski, July 29:
The German Am bassador informed me on behalf o f the Imperial
Chancellor that Germany had not ceased and will not cease to ex­
ercise a moderating influence in Vienna, and would continue to do so
despite the declaration o f war. Up to this m orning no news has been
received of the crossing of Austrian troops on to Serbian territory.

Telegram 1551, July 29, Sazonoff to Izvolski:
The German ambassador has communicated to me to-day the de­
cision of his Government to mobolize if Russia does not stop her
m ilitary preparation.
• *
*
A s we can not accede to Germany’s
wish, nothing remains for us but to hasten our ow n warlike prepa­
rations and to reckon w ith the probable inevita bility o f war. In ­
form the French G overnm ent o f this, and at the sam e tim e thank it
fo r its declaration made in its name by the French ambassador that
w e can fully rely upon the support of our ally France.
Under present
circum stances this declaration is especially valuable for us.
It is
v e ry desirable that England also w ithout loss of tim e should associate
herself w ith France and R ussia, as it is only thus that she can suocecd in preventing a dangerous alteration in the European balance.
London telegraphed to In like terms.

Of course, England could not stand for the control of West­
ern Europe by the military machine o f Germany. Sazonoff
knew this and could count on British help. The association
of Great Britain with Russia and France would guarantee the
safety of attack by Russia on Germany.
Telegram 304, July 29, Sazonoff to Izvolski:
I urgently request you to communicate to the French foreign min
Ister the follow ing telegram from the French am bassador In Peters­
b u r g : The German ambassador has ju st Informed Sazonoff that if
Russia does not stop her m ilitary preparations the German A rm y
w ill be ordered to mobilize.
*
*
*

Telegram 202, July 29, Izvolski to Sazonoff:
Bienvenu-M artin, the acting foreign minister, told me that this
morning the German ambassador made a com m unication to him, em­
ploying practically the following expressions: G erm any is continu­
ing her endeavors in Vienna to cause Austria to agree to a friendly
exchange of opinions which should indicate the object and the extent
o f the steps undertaken by her and concerning which Germany has
not so far been exactly informed.
The declaration o f war will not
stand in the way o f this exchange of opinions.
G erm any hopes to
receive during the course of these negotiations exp la n a t^n s which
will s a tisfy Russia.
F inally, Baron Schon again protested against the
assertion that Germany was encouraging Austria to be unyielding.

am b assad or

in

B e r lin )

te le g r a p h s

•
*
Germany
*
*
•
declares that as w e have received the
assurance that A ustria seeks no territorial gains, the maintenance of
peace entirely depends on Russia because it turns upon (lie necessity
for localizing the Austre-Serbian a ffa ir ; that is, the punishment of
Serbia for her former policy and the giving of guaranties for the
future.
• *
•
•

fro m

B e r lin

to
b is
q u e s tio n
as
to what attitude Germ any would
a partial mobilization by Russia, J a g o w ( G e r m a n s e c ­
r e t a r y o f s t a t e f o r f o r e i g n a f f a i r s ) r e p l i e d t h a t a m o b i l i z a t i o n o f that
kind w o u l d n o t r e s u l t i n G e r m a n m o b i l i z a t i o n , b u t that i f Russia
th a t

adopt

Germ any

Telegram 203, July 29, Izvolski to Sazonoff:

u s.

Telegram 197, July 27, Izvolski to Sazonoff:
M .

Austria,

Telegram 1539, July 28, Sazonoff to Izvolski:

p r o o f:

of

her

exert

d e c id e d
a

F ran ce

v ie w

co n tra st

assu ra n ces

th ere.

h a v in g

d o c a m e n ta ry

of

to

th e

had

b e fo r e

com e

b ecau se,

re fu se d

b u t,

e ffe c t

e n t ly

p o in t

r e p e a te d

That

by

com m encem ent

c o m p le te

c a te g o r ic a lly
P e te rsb u rg ,

th e

attacked
Russia.

11

CONGRESSIONAL RECORD

12

order m obilization.
T o my query as to w hether this was equivalent
to a declaration o f w ar, the am bassador replied that it was not, but
added that tor w ir e v ery near to war.

He states:
That France and England p ositively could not exercise any m oderat­
ing influence in Russia.
*
• •

On Saturday, August 1, 5 p. m., Germany issued a general
order o f mobilization; at 7.10 p. m. the German ambassador
notified Sazonoff Germany accepted the war challenge of Rus­
sia. The negotiation with Austria and Germany for the preser­
vation of peace appears to have been used as a camouflage for
a predetermined tear.
Telegram 208, July 30, from Izvolskl to Sazonoff assured
h im :

Telegram 204, July 29, Wednesday, Izvolskl to Sazonoff:
The firm attitude taken up by the French press continues.
It
passes severe Judgment upon the Austrian attack uml upon G erm any’s
manifest share of blame for it, and unhesitatingly declares that this
touches us, and that tee can not remain unsym pathetic. A s regards
solidarity w ith u s, this question Is not once discussed, but is tnken
as a m atter of course. E v e r y journalist expresses him self in this
sense, including such prominent personages belonging to the most diverse
parties as I’ lehon, Clenienceau, and even Jaures, and also Ilerve, the
father of anti m ilitarism.

The press reilected the French Government’s wishes.
gram 210.)
Telegram 206, July 29, Izvolskl to Sazonoff:

(Tele­

W hen the President returned to Paris, he was received at the m ilway station and in the streets with sym pathetic demonstrations from
the assembled crowd.
Margerie (political director in the French
foreign office) told me that the President, from his conversations
during his Journey with prefects and politicians, had become con­
vinced o f the firm, energetic, and at the same time calm sta te of public
opinion, which plainly form ed a correct estim ate o f the true signifi­
cance of even ts.
The sam e attitude reigned am ong a large section
of the Radical Socialists.
The Government attaches no Importance
to the antim ilitary demonstrations of the revoluntlonary party, and
Intends to take energetic measures against it.
Our m ilitary attachd
reports in detail regarding the preparatory m ilitary measures. Feeling
tuns high in m ilitary circles and in the chief command.
I report re­
garding the press in a special telegram.

Telegram 207, July 29, Izvolskl to Sazonoff shows further
efforts on the part of Germany to get an adjustment and states:
Finally Baron Schon complained of France’ s m ilitary preparations,
and said that in this case Germ any would be compelled to adopt sim i­
lar precautions.
Vivianl, on his part, declared th a t France honestly
desired peace, but at 'th e same time was firmly determ ined to act in
full agreement w ith her allies, aud Baron Schon could convince him self
that this decision was finding the liveliest support in the country.
This evening Viviani has forbidden a projected anti-war m eeting o f the
revolutionary party.

It was the night of the next day that the French minister of
war told the military attache that the French Government was
determined on war.
Telegram 1554, Sazonoff to Izvolskl, states that if Austria
would admit that the Austro-Serbian question had assumed the
character o f a European question and would declare a readi­
ness to eliminate from her ultimatum those points which vio­
late the sovereign right of Serbia, Russia undertakes to sus­
pend her military preparations.
These preparations had been going on for at least five days.
The Russian policy was to use diplomatic negotiations to con­
ceal the war measures, and the Russian policy fixed in 1912
was to cross the German border without a declaration o f war.
(Von Kuhl, p. 79, 80.)
Telegram 1555, July 30, Sazonoff wires Izvolskl:
Until we receive a thoroughly satisfactory reply from Austria through
the German Government, w e shall continue our m ilitary preparations.
This is communicated to you very confidentially.

Tlie word “ thoroughly ” is interesting.
That very night, at 1 a. m., Izvolskl telegraphed to Sazonoff,
telegram 216:
From m ilitary a tta c M to war m inister, 1 a. m.
The French war m inister inform ed me in earnest, hea rty tones (sin ­
cerity Cnthusiastique) that the G overnm ent is firmly decided upon
tear, and requested me to confirm the hope o f the French general staff
that all our efforts will be directed against G erm any, and that Austria
will be treated as a quantity negligeable.

This attitude was strictly in line with the Franco-Russian
secret treaty o f 1892 and the military plans worked out by the
French and Russian general staffs in annual conferences and
frequent intercommunications.
So that the French Government gave Austria no time to make
“ a thoroughly satisfactory ” reply to Russia or any other
kind o f reply.
On August 1, telegram 1601, Sazonoff wired Izvolskl:
At midnight the German ambassador informed me on behalf of his
Government that if within 12 hours— that is, befibre midday on Satur­
day— w e do not begin to dem obilize, not only as against G erm any, but
also us against A ustria, ths German Governm ent will be compelled to




7 6 8 7 6 -1 1

1

The French G overnm ent is ready to fulfill all its obligations as an
ally.
It is o f opinion, however, that at the present m om ent, wheu
negotiations are still In progress between the less Interested powers,
It would be to the purpose that R ussia, so far as the m easures o f a
d efen sive and precautionary nature which it has deemed necessary to
adopt w ill permit, should not take any direct step s which would serve
G erm any as a p retex t for ordering the general or partial mobilization
o f her forces.

j

The term “ defensive” had already been defined by the
French and Russian staffs, with the approval of the French aud
Russian Governments as "o ffe n s iv e ” in their annual confer­
ences.
The significance of tills suppressed telegram is revealed In
combination with telegram 1551 o f July 29 and suppressed tele­
grams 209 and 210 and 216 from Paris on July 30.
The French Government (July 30) having determined on
wmr does not wish Germany to mobilize yet, but to gradually
discover a situation so dangerous Germany shall declare tvar
as a military necessity.
Telegram 1551, on July 29, from Sazonoff to Izvolski, stated:
N othing remains fo r us but to hasten our own warlike preparations
and to reckon w ith the probable inevita bility of war.
In fo rm the,
French G overnm ent o f this and at the same time thank it for its
declaration
*
• * that w e can fully rely upon the support o f our
a lly, France.

This was two days before the German Government demanded
that the Russian mobilization should stop under a penalty o f
German mobilization and three days before the German Em­
peror, by the German ambassador at Petersburg, accepted a
state o f war as forced on the German Government. It was not
a German declaration of war. It was a German acceptance o f
a state o f war.
Telegram 209, of July 30, Izvolski to Sazonoff, states that the
French ambassador in L ondon:
W a s instructed to confer w ith G rey as to the fixing o f the com bined
attitu de of France and England concerning which these tw o powers,
in consequence of the general understanding existing betw een them ,
have to deliberate whenever a period of political tension arises.

The time “ to deliberate ” had nearly arrived.
This proposed conference was based on the notes exchanged
between Gambon and Grey on the 22d and 23d o f November,
1912 (Exhibits 8 and 9, How Diplomats Make W a r), and the
war plans of the military and naval staffs of Great Britain,
France, and Russia, already completely matured.
Telegram 210, of July 30, from Izvolski to Sazonoff, referring
to the French war minister, said that the French tear minister
had said to the Russian military attach4:
* *
* that w e could declare that in the higher interests of peace
w e are ready tem porarily to delay our preparations for m obilization,
since this would not preven t us from continuing our preparations and
indeed from intensifyin g them, but w e should have to refrain from the
possible greater m ovem ents of troops.

These suppressed telegrams indicate that both in Petersburg
and in Paris the negotiations for the maintenance of peace were
“ a ruse de guerre ” and being used as a screen for a war
already fully determined on both in Paris and in Petersburg.
Telegram 216 of July 31, Izvolski to Sazonoff, expressed a
fixed war determination ( l a . m. of July 31 was the night of
Thursday, July 30) :
From m ilitary attach^ to war minister. 1 a. m.
T he French war m inister informed me in earnest,
cerity enthuslastique) that the G overnm ent is firmly
and requested me to confirm the hope o f the French
all our efforts will be directed against G erm any,
w ill be treated as a quantity negligeable.

hearty tones (sin ­
decided upon war,
general staff that
and that Austria

Tiiis was equal to n secret declaration o f war on Germany, in
view of the Franco-Russian treaty and military plans agreed on.
It was 23 hours before the German Government demanded a
cessation o f the Russian mobilization and two days before Ger­
many declared a state of war existing.

kvji

K)m A.n/j.nt n o }

kii

Aj .u tb

Xui

ox

'u o f j m i j f y o u t j j p . i o

:«

cmooaa ’iVN TSsaaoN
O
oo
C O N G R E SSIO N A L
On the same day, July 31, telegram 215 from Izvolski to
Pazonnff discloses that Enron Schfin asked Vivlani what atti­
tude France would adopt in the event of an armed collision
l>etween Russia and Germany. Viviani declined to answer.
Earon Schhn requested arrangements for passports.
On August 1 the German ambassador again visited Viviani,
and the latter expressed his “ astonishment” to Baron Schcin
at his action yesterday, “ which was not justified by the rela­
tions between France and Germany.” although, as above, the
French Government had already decided upon war and advised
Russia to attack Germany with all its forces— and Viviani knew
it as premier.
Izvolski to Sazonoff, August 1, telegram 219, states that the
German ambassador had visited Viviani for the second time.
That Viviani informed him that the President o f the Republic,
Poincare, had signed a decree ordering French mobilization.
(It may be remembered that the order of Belgian mobilization
was issued July 31 also, although the army had been mobilized
on and before July 24.) Viviani expressed his astonishment
that Germany should have adopted such a measure as demanding
that Russia demobilize under penalty o f a German mobiliza­
tion—
When a friendly erchanyt of view* was In progress between Russia, A u s­
tria, and the other powers.

Here Is the refinement o f high-class diplomacy where two
nations have fully prepared themselves for war, are determined
on war against a neighbor, and the Premier of France assures
the ambassador of Germany that a friendly exchange o f views
between the powers forbids Germany to prepare for defense.
And the same day, August 1, Izvolski wires Sazonoff:
Poincare declared to me in the m ost categorical manner that both
he him self and the whole cabinet are firm ly determ ined fu lly to carry
out the obligations laid upon us by the term s o f our alliance.

The French general mobilization and an immediate offensive
on Germany was required by the secret Russian agreement o f
1892.
Izvolski, Russian ambassador, wires Sazonoff the same day,
August 1, 1914, telegram 223. as follow s:
Poincare told me that during the last few days the A ustrian
ambassador had energetically assured him and Viviani that A ustria
had declared to us ( R u ssia ) her readiness not only to respect the
territorial integrity o f Serbia but also her sovereign rights, but that
we ( R u ssia ) had intentionally concealed those assurances.
To m y
remark that this was a com plete He, Poincare replied that similar sta te­
m ents had been made in London by A ustria, w here th ey might create
a very dangerous impression, and therefore ought to be denied there as
well.

That Austria did make these representations is shown by
telegram 195: by a verbal declaration o f Count Pourtales,
French ambassador in St. Petersburg; and by Sazonoff’s an­
swer contained in the first two sentences from St. Petersburg
of telegram 1554 and by many other records.
The attitude of Italy is shown by telegram 220 of August 1,
from Izvolski to Sazonoff, as follow s:
Mnrgerie told me that according to information from n v ery
secret source Ita ly apparently intends, in reliance upon the manner
In which the conflict has arisen, to remain neutral at first, and then
to com e to one decision or another in accordance w ith the course
o f even ts.

13

the guilt upon all three Russian heads, Sazonoff,
and Jaunuschkevitch. He states that at dinner
linoff, then minister o f war, when he received a
Austria-Hungary had declared war on Serbia
heard the war minister exclaim—

i

F O I8

an

o r

RECORD.

“ CETTB

04 H) S

NOUS

Sukhomlinaff,
with Sukhomtelegram that
(July 25), he

M ARCHERONS! *

that Is, “ This time we shall march.”
(Ibid., July 24, 1920,
132.)
(This rneaut under the treaty, 1892, and military and
naval conventions with France Russia would attack Germany.)
Baron Rosen states that the intelligencia and military party
of Russia were for war. (Ibid., August 21, 1920.) (They con­
trolled the Government.)
Baron Rosen further tells that Sazonoff and Jaunuschkevitch
stopped the dispatch of the Czar’s aide to Berlin and secured
on Thursday, July 30, a reorder of the general mobilization
(Ibid., August 21, 1920.)
It was in this condition o f affairs, with Russia having an
army o f over 2,000.000 men on the East, who had been prac­
ticing mobilization since spring and actually had been In
process of mobilizing at least since the 25th of July' (Czar’s
telegram), that the German Government demanded the rm billznllon stopped under the alleged necessity o f regarding It as
u declaration of war by Russia.
It was well understood by the military strategists of France
and Russia and of Europe that Germany’s only chance in such
a war as this was by lightning speed and efficiency, striking
France through Belgium. (See French and Russian military
conferences.) The dispatches show that Germany tried to se­
cure French neutrality* and failed, tried to obtain British neu­
trality and failed, tried to induce Belgium to submit to an
unopposed passage and failed. (Morel, Truth and the War.
How Diplomats Make War, Neilson.) (Diplom atic Documents,
World War, Scott.)
SO M E

EV ID E N C E F RO M B E R L IN .

It was the policy of Germany to support Austria in rebuking
Serbia, as far as could be done through diplomacy, but even
if the diplomatic effort should fail, Germany did not intend to
be drawn into a war.
On Sunday, the 26th o f July, the Kaiser returned from his
Scandinavian cruise. On Monday a rapid fire of telegrams
took place from Berlin to Vienna, under the instruction of the
Kaiser, demanding a peaceful adjustment, Berlin assuming
that the purpose of the Entente was not necessarily hostile or
determined on war, and that the negotiations for a peaceful
settlement was really sincere, put great pressure on the Aus­
trian Government, as appears, through the following telegrams:
[From

the

German

Chancellor to the German am bassador, Vienna,
July 27.]
W e can not reject the rdle of mediator and m ust place the English
proposal before the Vienna cabinet for consideration.
Request C o u D t
Berchtold’s opinion o n the British proposal, as well as on SazonotTs
wish to negotiate directly with Vienna.
(Die Deutscheu Dokumento,
No. 396 .)

On July 28 he sent this dispatch:
The refusal of every exchange of views with Fetrograd would be a
serious mistake if it provokes Russia precisely to armed interference,
which Austria is primarily interested in avoiding.
W e are ready, to
be sure, to fulfill our obligations as an ally, but m ust refuse to allow
ourselves to be draten by Vienna into a world conflagration frivolously
and in disregard o f our advice. Please say tliis to Count Berchtold at
once w ith all emphasis and w ith great seriousness.
(Ibid. No. 800 .)

The entente had already weakened Italy’s attachment to Ger­
many by concessions in Africa and elsewhere.
On July 29 he sent this dispatch:
The chief of the German general staff, Von Moltke’s memo­
I regard the attitude o f the Austrian Government and Its unparal­
randum o f 1012, showed that the Germans did not count upon
Italy. (E xhibit 11.) That Germany could not compete on the leled procedure toward the various Governments with Increasing as­
ocean with Britain or on land with R ussia; that Germany had tonishment * * *. It leaves us wholly in the dark as to its pro­
gram
• *
*.
I must conclude that the Austrian Government
but little hope in a war with Russia and France.
Austria accepted the proposed mediation as between herself is harboring plans which it sees fit to conceal from us In order to
and Serbia as two sovereign Governments (Austrian Red Book assure herself in all events of German support and avoid the refusal
which might result from a frank statem ent.
(Ibid. No. 39 6 , p. 3 8 1 ).
III, p. 65), but it availed nothing.
Petrograd knew o f Austria’s acceptance o f mediation which
He sent five warning telegrams on the 29th and 30th to
was disclosed to Grey in London on the 1st o f August. (British Vienna. (Ibid.)
White Book, 133.)
The Kaiser had informed Foreign Minister Jagow on seeing
Sazonoff, former Russian minister of foreign affairs seven the Serbian reply accepting the Austrian conditions and agree­
years later, November 15, 1921 in La Revue de France, tells that ing to mediation that—
the Czar received a telegram from the Kaiser begging the Czar,
Now, no cause f o r war any longer exists.
notwithstanding the declaration o f war, to keep the troops from
On July 30 the German Chancellor sent the following tele­
the German frontier, and that the German Emperor was nearly
gram :
frantic.
If Austria refuses all negotiations, we are face to face with a con­
Baron Rosen in “ Forty Years o f Diplomatic Life,” Saturday
Evening Post, August 21, 1020, page S5, gives it as ills opinion flagration in which England will be against us. Rumania and Ita ly,
that the Russian mobilization necessarily led to war. He places according to all indications, will not be fo r us, and we shall stand two
76870— 11




14

CONGRESSIONAL RECORD

against four power*.
Through England's opposition the main blow
will fall on Germ any. A ustria’ s political prestige, the military honor
of her army, as well as her Just claim s against Serbia, can be ade
quately satisfied by hep occupation of Belgrade or other places.
Through her hum iliation of Serbia she will make her position in the
Balkans, as well ns In her relation to Russia, strong again.
Tender
these circumstances, we m ust urgently and em phatically press upon
the consideration of the Vienna Cabinet the adoption of mediation In
accordance with the above honorable conditions.
The responsibility
tor the consequences which would otherwise follow wotild be for
Austria and for us an uncommonly heavy one.
(Germnn W hite Book,
p. 8 0 5 .)

In Oman’s Outbreak o f the War, pages 01, 08, 00, 77, 70.
88. and 89, will be found the exchange of telegrams between
William II and Nicholas, as follow s:
J uly 28— 10 45 P. M.
I have heard with the greatest nnxiety of the impression which Is
caused by the action of Austro-H ungary against Serbia.
The un­
scrupulous agitation which had been going on for years in Serbia has
led to the revolting crime of which Archduke Franz Ferdinand has
become a victim . The spirit which made the Serbians murder their own
King and his consort still dominates that country.
Doubtless you will
agree with me that both of us, you as well as I, and all other sov­
ereigns, have a common Interest to insist that all those who arc
responsible for this horrible murder shall sutfer their deserved punish­
ment.
On the other hand, I by no means overlook the difficulty encountered
by you and your Governm ent to stem the tide of public opinion.
In
view of the cordial friendship which has joined us both for a long
time with firm ties, I shall use m y entire influence to induce AustriaH ungary to obtain a frank and satisfactory understanding w ith Russia.
I hope confidently that you will support me in m y efforts to overcome
all difficulties which m ay y e t arise.
Your most sincere and devoted
friend and cousin.

W il h e l m .

G overnm en t

tion,
has

m o b iliz e d

R u s s ia ,
of

N ich olas .

as

your

th e

J u ly

2 9 — 6 .3 0 f . m .

I have received your telegram and Ishare your desire for the con­
servation of peace.
However,I can not— as I told you
In my first
telegram— consider the action of Austria-H ungary ns an “ Ignominious
w ar.”
Austria-H ungary knows from experience that the promises of
Serbia, as long as they are merely on paper, are entirely unreliable.
According to my opinion the action o f Austria-H ungary Is to be con­
sidered as an attem pt to receive full guaranty that the promises of
Serbia are effectively translated into deeds.
In this opinion T am
strengthened by the explanation of the Austrian cabinet that AustriaHungary intended no territorial gain nt the expense of Serbia.
I am
therefore of opinion that it is perfectly possible for Russia to remain
a spectator in the Austro-Serbinn W a r without drawing Europe Into
the most terrible war It has ever seen.
I believe that a direct under­
standing is possible and desirable between 1’ our Government and
Vienna, an understanding w hich, as I have already telegraphed you,
m y G overnm ent endeavors to aid with all possible effort.
Naturally,
military measures by Russia, which m ight be construed as a menace
by Austria-H ungary, would accelerate a calam ity which both of us
desire to avoid, and would undermine my position as mediator, which,
upon your appeal to my friendship and aid, I w illingly accepted.
(O m an’s Outbreak of the W ar, p. 6 8 .)
W

il h e l m

.

It was the very next night that the French minister of war
Bald the French Government was determined on war.— (Tele­
gram 216.)
P

eterhok

P

alace

,

July 29.

Thanks for your telegram, which Is conciliatory, while the official
message presented by your ambnssador to my foreign minister was
conveyed iti a very different tone.
I beg you to explain the difference.
It would be right to give over the Aitstro-Sorbian problem to The
Hogue Conference.
I trust in your wisdom and friendship.
(O m an's Outbreak of the W ar, p. 69 .)
N

ic h o l a s

.

th e

in s tr u c tio n s

d angers

o n ly

seem s

a g a in s t
to

be

G o v e rn m e n t,

m e d ia to r ,

m anner

and

w h ic h

I

have

th e

a.

30— 1

a tte n tio n

m

of

.

your

serious consequences of a m o b i / t m m y last telegram.
A u s tr ia H u n g a ry
S e r b ia , a n d o n ly a p a r t o f h e r a r m y .
If

th e

w h ic h

d ir e c t

and

<n

case,

m o b iliz e s

w ith

to

a c c o r d in g

a g a in st

you

have

a c ce p ted

to

your

A u s tr ia
In tr u ste d

upon

your

a d v ic e

H u ngary,
me

In

ex p ress

and

th e

th a t

p art

su ch

of

fr ie n d ly

d e s ir e ,

Is

th rea t­

The entire w eight o f decision note
rests upon yo u r sh ould ers; you have to bear the responsibility o f war
or peace.

ened,

If

not

m ade

im p o s s ib le .

W ilh el m .
(O m a n ’s

O u tb re a k

of

th e

W ar,

p.

7 7 .)

This was the day the Tsar reordered Russian mobilization
and the French minister advised Russia “ the French Govern*
ruent was determined on war.”
th a n k

you

fro m

T atlsch eff

to n ig h t

my

h eart

(R u s s ia n

fo r

your

honorary

q u ic k

a id

SO ISO
—

July

I’ ETERHOF,
I

r e p ly .

to

th e

I

m.

p.

am

s e n d in g

K a is e r )

w ith

In

The m ilitary measures now taking form w ere decided upon
five days ago, a n d f o r t h e r e a s o n o f d e f e n s e a g a i n s t t h e p r e p a r a t i o n s

s tr u c tlo n s .

of

A u s tr ln .

in fiu e u e e
very
an

I

In

hope

any

h ig h ly .

w ith

a ll

m anner

W e

u n d e r s ta n d in g

my

your

n eed

your

can

be

h eart

th a t

p o s itio n
stro n g

a r r iv e d

as

th e se

p ressu re

at

w ith

m easu res

m e d ia to r ,

w h ic h

upon

w ill

T

not

s p p r n ls *

A u s tr ia

so

th a t

u s.

N ic h o l a s .
(G e r m a n

W h ite

B ook.

1915,

2 3 -A .)

Then Nicholas reorders Russian mobilization.
J u l y 31,
I

th a n k

you

c o r d ia lly

fo r

your

m e d ia tio n ,

w h ic h

p e r m its

1914.

th e

hope

I t is technically im possible
to discontinue our m ilitary preparations, whioh have b e e n made neces­
sa ry by the Austrian mobilisation.
I t is f a r fr o m u s to w a n t w a r .
As
th a t

e v e r y th in g

as

th e
w ill

yet

end

n e g o tia tio n s

th ereon .

hope

fo r

our

m ay

u n d e rta k e

w ord

th e

c o u n tr ie s

1

no

c o n fid e

su ccess
and

of

th e

p e a c e a b ly .

b etw ee n

A u s tr ia

p r o v o c a tiv e
w ith
your

peace

a ll

my

fa ith

m e d ia tio n
of

and

a c tio n .

In

in

S e r b ia
1

g iv e

th e

c o n tin u e ,

you

m y

grace

V ie n n a

of

fo r

th e

G od.

O u tb re a k

of

th e

my

s o le m n
and

w e lfa r e

I
of

E u rop e.

N
(O m a n ’s

W ar,

p.

ic h o l a s

.

8 8 .)

Under the 1892 treaty a partial Austrian mobilization re­
quired Russia and France to attack Germany. The AustrianSerbian negotiations could end when Nicholas said the word
and Russia was ready to enter Germany.
J uly 31— 2 p . m .
fo r m y a id , I
hare engaged in mediation beticecn yo u r G overnm ent and the G o vern ­
m ent of A ustria-H un gary.
W hile this action was taking place you r
troops were being mobilised a g a i n s t m y a l l y , A u s t r i a - H u n g a r y , w h e r e b y ,
U pon

(Om an’ s Outbreak of the W ar. p. 6 1 .)

to

has

l have told you the same

tro o p s

I ’ e t e r h o f P a l a c e , J u ly 29— 1 p m.
I am glad that you are back in Germany.
In this serious moment T
ask you earnestly to help me. An Ignominious war has been declared
against a weak country, and in Russia the indignation, which I fully
share, is tremendous.
I fear that very soon I shall he unable to
resist the pressure exercised upon m e, and that I shall be forced to
take measures which will lead
to war. To prevent such a calamity
as a European war would be,
I urge you in the name of our old
friendship to do all In your power to restrain your ally from going
too far.




am b assad or

lo n g

(O m an’s Outbreak of the W ar, p. 6 1 .)

76870— 11

J uly
M y

as

I

your

have

appeal

a lr e a d y

to

my

fr ie n d s h ip

c o m m u n ic a te d

to

and

you,

your

m y

requ est

m e d ia tio n

has

becom e

I n ow receive
reliable news that serious preparations for war are going on on m y
eastern frontier.
The responsibility fo r the secu rity o f m y co u n try
fo rm s me to m easures of defense.
I hare gone to the extrem e limit
o f the possible in m y efforts for the preservation of the peace o f the
world.
It is not I who bear Hie responsibility fo r the m isfortu ne
which now threatens the entire civilised world.
It rests in you r hand
to avert it.
No one threatens the honor and peace of Russia, w h i c h
m i g h t w e l l h a v e a w a i t e d t h e s u c c e s s o f in .v m e d i a t i o n .
The friendship
fo r you a n d your cou ntry, bequeathed to me by m y grandfather on his
deathbed, has alw ays been sacred to me, a n d I have stood fa ith fully by
Russia while it teas in serious affliction, especially during its last war.
T h e p e a c e o f E u r o p e c a n s t i l l b e p r e s e r v e d b y y o u if Russia decides
to discontinue those m ilitary preparations w h i c h m e n a c e G e r m a n y a n d
a lm o s t illu s o r y .

Tn s p i t e o f t h i s

I

have

c o n tin u e d

it, an d

A u s t r ia -H u n g a r y .

W
(O m a n ’s

O u tb re a k

of

th e

W ar,

il h e l m .

p. 8 9 . )

No reply. Wilhelm, at midnight Friday, gave notice the Ger­
man Army would mobilize if by noon Saturday Russian mobili­
zation did not stop. At 5 p. m. Saturday, August J, German
mobilization was issued. At 7.10 p. m. German ambassador
at Petrograd advised the Russian Government that Germany
accepted the Russian challenge and the state of war forced on
Germany.
It will be observed in this exchange of telegrams that Nicho•
las was under a pressure he feared he should be unable to r e ­
sist. On the very day that the Kaiser advised him that he
would have to bear the responsibility o f war or peace if he
ordered a general mobilization, he reordered the mobilization
which had been begun by his own statement on July 25, and on
July 31, having the day before ordered the general mobilization.

•CIHOM?! IVNOISSaHOxVOO

pi

RECORD.

15

C O N G R E SSIO N A L
he advises the Kaiser it was impossible to discontinue the mili­
tary preparations, and lie gives his solemn word that the Rus­
sian troops will undertake no provocative action, although they
cross the German border in four places the next day. (Kuhl
79-30.)
The German leaders, getting daily reports from Paris, Lon­
don, Brussels, and Petersburg, accepted what they had become
convinced was now absolutely unavoidable, and on Saturday,
5 p. m., August 1, ordered a general mobilization.
(N o te
A u gu st
The

at

7 .1 0

Im p e r ia l

b ig in n in g

of

p lia n c e

th e

B r ita in .

a

a

ta ry

of

but

R u s s ia ,

n

fa ile d

m ent

to

of

c o m p ly

dem and,
a c tio n

H is

w ith

p e r il,

e x iste n c e
to

of

od

m ake

c o n s id e r e d

h a v in g

sh ow n

d ir e c te d
my

by

a g a in s t

th e

E m peror,

a c ce p ts

th e

to

in fo r m

my

th e

I

au gu st

and

con­
m ili­

to

am i

(this

G overn ­

th e

to

G overn ­

in s is t

h a v in g
to

In

her

th e

as

th e

c o n s id e r s

th is

th a t

on

E x c e lle n c y

in ­

fo llo w s :

nam e

of

h im s e lf

th e

at

w ar

R u s s ia .

POCRTALES.
The

w ord s

th a t

tw o

th e y

w ere

in

p a re n th e se s

v a r ia tio n s
b o th

hnd

occur

been

In serted

in

In

th e

prepared

th e

o r ig in a l.

In

It

m u st

advance, and

be su p p osed

th a t

by

m is ta k e

n o te .

R E L A T IV E E N T E N T E AN D G E R M A N P R E P A R A T I O N S .

General Von Moltke, in the summary above referred to, says
that Germany would he obliged in the event o f war—
to

ta k e

s till

th e

fie ld

w ith

ta ck e d

a

in

a g a in s t

s lig h t

th e

rear

F ran ce

w ith

s u p e r io r ity
by

in

an

In fe r io r ity

a r tille r y ),

in

and

in fa n tr y

w ill

(th o u g h

fu r th e r

be

a t­

R u s s ia .

And he says:
In
tio n

v ie w
of

Is

Ju st

u

la n d

a

sen

of

her
as

th e

army

en orm ou s
sh e

w ill

im p o s s ib le

pow er

as

it

fo r

is

su m s
he

R u s s ia

stro n g e r

G erm an y

fo r

h er

to

is

s p e n d in g on

w ith

to

try

a tte m p t

every
and

to

th e

year

c o m p ete

c a tc h

r e o r g a n iz a ­

th a t

up

p asses.

w ith

It

R u s s ia

as

E n g la n d

w ith

In spite of the fact that Vienna was ready to enter into direct con­
versation with Petersburg on the Serbian issue.
In spite o f the fact that Vienna had accepted the Grey mediation.
In spite of the fact that Vienna hnd given assurances as to the
integrity of Serbia.
In spite of the fact that Vienna was prepared not to go beyond such
a temporary occupation of a part of Serbian territory as England Itself
had considered acceptable.
F inally, in spite of the fact that Austria had only mobilized
again st Serbia and that Germany had not yet mobilized at all.

Former Chancellor Hollweg then says:
Consequently, when the telegraph brought us news of the mobili­
zation on the morning of the 31st of July, we could not be other than
convinced that Russia desired tear under all conditions.

It appears that neither Germany nor Austria knew the terms
o f the treaty of 1892 requiring Russia and France to attack
Germany if Austria mobilized.

upon

an sw er)

h on or,

Hollweg points out that Russia mobilized because it desired
\v:ir. It refused to suspend mobilization.

SOME

r e fu se d

a ttitu d e )

th e

w as

c o m p r o m ise d

G erm an

n ecessary

so v e r e ig n .

c h a lle n g e

In
any

G overnm en t

have

R u s s ia

have

S t.

E m p ir e

The

Your

and

proceeded

sea.

G erm an

of

G reat

G erm an

% v o u ld

re fu sa l

w ith

V ie n n a

aD d

th e
com ­

E m p eror

r e s u lt ,

R u s H ia s

it

In

by

th e

a c ts.

G erm an y,

G o v e rn m e n t,

E m p ir e ,

th is

of

r e p r e s e n ta tio n s

E m p ero r o f A ll

sin c e

ju s tiile d

th e

th ey

th e

con cert

la n d

G erm an y.

h a y in g

(n o t

in

not

If

e ffo r t

M a je s ty

on

w as

m ilita r y

th e

M a je s ty

P e te rsb u rg

s e ttle m e n t.

any

G erm an y,

th is

every

fo r

dan ger.

th e

of

S t.

c a b in e ts

b o th

w h ic h

a fo r e sa id

and

w as

G erm an

fo r c e s

of

o b lig e d

th e

of
w ith

s tr u c tio n s

very

H is

w a itin g

step ,

part

u sed

p e a c e fu l

by

M a je s ty

c e s s a tio n

at

u n d erta k e n ,

b etw een

h er

a g a in s t

th e

a

h im

im m in e n t

th e re fo r e ,

B is

of

th e

and

gu ard

and

w ere,

m ent

on

grave

to

w ith o u t

th r e a te n in g

have

about

had

m e d ia to r

m o b J Iiz n tio i!
th is

s a fe ty

b r in g

E m peror

p r o c e e d in g s
by

am bassad or

G overn m en t
to

p art

of

th e

to

c r is is

expressed

th e

had

a

G erm an

w is h

gen eral

fa c e d

G erm an

G erm an

P ete rsb u rg ;

seq u en ce

th e

p . m .)

th e

w ith

R u s s ia ,

to

by

p resen ted
1,

distrust, im perialistic ideals, and a patriotism restricted to material
national instincts respectively worked each other np without its ever
being possible to say that any particular nation had contributed most
to the general tendency of the world.
(Ibid. 169.)

as

pow er.

BE L G IA N

EVID E N C E .

In the reports from the Belgian ministers and charges
d ’affaires at Berlin, London, and Paris to the Minister for
Foreign Affairs in Brussels, printed by E. S. Mitler & Sons,
Berlin, will he found 200 pages o f evidence going to show the
attitude of Quai d'Orsa.v, o f London, and o f Berlin to the
general effect that the Berlin Government was very desirous of
maintaining peace, that the French Government became increas­
ingly disposed to war as the war powers of Russia and France
were expanded and the Entente with Great Britain became
dependable.
For example, the Belgian minister at Berlin to the Minister
for Foreign Affairs o f Belgium says, page 184:
Everyone in England, and France considers the E n ten te Cordiale
to be a defensive and offensive alliance against G erm any.
*
*
•
I t is the E n ten te Cordiale which has reawakened in France an idea
of ravanche, which up to then had slumbered.
It is also the E nten te
Cordiale which is responsible for the state of uneasiness and unrest
prevailing in Europe for the last seven years.
*
*
* F or the
present it must therefore be considered as approved that the plan of
assisting France in a w ar against G erm any by landing an army of
150,000 English troops was discussed in London.
There is nothing In
this 'calculated to surprise us. I t is the continuation of the singular
proposals made some years ago by Colonel Barnardston to General
Ducarne.

The Belgian minister, Guillaume, at Paris to the Belgian
In chapter 10 (let France explain) Bausman points out the
preparedness of the entente allies— Russia, France, and Eng­ Minister for Foreign Affairs, January 16. 1914, says:
land— and that in 1914 the expenditures of Russia. France,
I already had the honor of inform ing you that it is M M . I'oinearS
and England for war purposes made a total of $1,337,259,735, Dolcasso, Millernnd, and their friends who hare inaugurated and pur­
while Germany and Austria expended in 1914 $420,133,850, so sued the nationalistic, m ilitaristic, and Chauvinistic policy, the renas­
that the entente allies expended $917,000,000 more in 1014 than cence of which w e witnessed, Such a policy con stitutes a danger for
Germany and Austria, and this does not include Belgium or Europe— and also for Belgium. 1 see in it the greatest peril threat­
Italy.
ening to-day the peace of Europe.
*
*
*
The attitude adopted by
The number of men available for immediate action o f Ilus- I Barthou has provoked a recrudescence of m ilitarism in Germ any.
sia, France. England, and Italy was 2,663,003. The total for | (Ibid. p. 169.)
Germany and Austria was 1,176,741.
The Belgian minister at Berlin in a long letter on February
General B uat’s figures give the German active army 870,000
men, the French active army 910.000 men. General Joffre in 20, 1914, quotes the French ambassador at Berlin, as follow s:
The m ajority of the Germ ans and of the French undoubtedly wish to
Franco-Russian conferences o f 1913 said he would have 200,000
live in peace. But in both countries there is a pow erful minority dream­
more men than agreed to.
Of course, Great Britain, France, and Russia controlled the ing solely of battles, of wars o f conquest, or ravanche. Herein lies the
sea through the giant navy o f Great Britain, and therefore d a n g e r; it is like a powder barrel which any rash act may set on fire.
Germany was cut off from supplies throughout the world, while (Ibid. p. 173.)
the Entente Allies had the whole world to draw from.
On May 8, 1914, the Belgian Minister Guillaume at Paris to
When the war ended Germany with approximately 67,000,000 the Belgian foreign office quotes an “ experienced and highly
people was facing nearly the whole world, or over 1,400,000,000 placed diplom at” as stating:
people against the German Government.
If a serious incident should arise one o f these days between France
Chancellor Hollweg states that—
The

su p p o s itio n

th a t

G erm an y
th a t

pow er

is

in

e n tire

ab sen ce

an
to

th e

a s s u m p tio n
an

so

s illy

w o r ld

of

any

a sc r ib e s

opponent

in

th e

to

%

He says:
The
gram

co n tro v ersy
of

an ces

gen eral

w ill

p r o b a b ly

76870—




11

as

to

never

th e
of

w h ic h

arm am en t
be

le t

and

lo o s e

h is to r in n

o th e r

us

heat

a

w ar

w o u ld

e x p la n a tio n
sort

of

p o lit ic a l

p a rty
to

fo u g h t

a
to

fo lly

out

at

th e

p e r v e rs io n
a

fin is h .

fir s t
of

m ere

ta k e

a ll.

th a t

c o n tro v ersy .

gave

of

o n ly

*

is

It

lu s t

*

o n ly

*

Such

a ttr ib u te d

(H o llw e g ,

im p u ls e
th e

of

s e r io u s ly

to

p o lic y

Im m e a s u r a b le

1 0 3 .)

a

pro­

of

a lli­

m u tu a l

and Germany, the statesm en of the two countries will have to arrive
at a peaceful solution of the m atter w ithin three days or else there
will be war.
One of the most dangerous elements of the present situation is the
return of France to the three yea rs’ ser v ic e ; the latter has been lncon
siderately imposed by the m ilitary party, and the country is unable to
stand It, Before two years have elapsed Franco w ill be placed before
the alternative either o f abrogating the three-yea rs' aot or o f going to
war.
*
*
*
The press in both countries is blam ew orthy.
The
campaign pursued in G erm any against the Foreign Legion is exceedingly

a u o D 'i u

LI

iy m o is

sa a w jv u ^

CONGRESSIONAL RECORD.

10

c l u m s t , and the tone o j the French new spaper* is invariably a crim on ious
and augresaivc. ( I b i d . p . 1 8 1 . )

Mr. Neilson points out (p. 205) :

i

N ew s

had

reach ed

On .Tune 0, 1914. Guillaume wires the Belgian foreign office 1 2 4 a m o b i l i z a t i o n
b a s s a d o r s w h ic h
from Paris as follow s:

Ile r lin

th n t

c ir c u la r ,

and

c o n ta in e d

th e

Ile lg lu m

an

hnd

u n d a te d

is s u e d

as

In str u c tio n

In fo r m a tio n

th e y

e a r ly

aa

to
to

w ere

g iv e

J u ly

B e lg ia n

am

to

th e

the p ress campaign <n fa v o r o f the p r in ­ c h a n c e l l o r s a s t o h e r " s tr e n g t h e n e d p e a ce fo o ti n g .”
The Belgian circular o f July 24 (day Austria made demand
ciple o f the t h r ee y e a r s ’ s e r v i c e has been ex trem ely violent. A l l s o r t s
Serbia) announced that the Belgian Army hnd already
o f m o a n s h a v e b o r n a d o p t e d w i t h a v i e w t o i n f l u e n c i n g p u b l i c o p i n i o n . ; on
D u r in g

th e

la s t

The

n ew sp apers

W e

have

a ls o

co n tra ry

to

fe w

have

seen

a ll

fla y s

not

th e

h e s ita te d
F ren ch

to

c o m p r o m is e

am bassad or

p re c e d e n ts— nn

in itia tiv e

in

even

S t.

w h ic h

G en eral

.T o ft r p .

P etersb u rg

m ay

p rove

been mobilized and forts near Germany put in order for wnr.
In the circular o f the Belgian Foreign Office to its ambassa­
dors, dated Jvly 2-). was the inolosnre heretofore referred to,
without date, but necessarily either o f that date or o f nn earlier
date, which states:

i

ta k e—

d angerous

Is it true, that th e St. P ete rs b u rg cabin et
p led g ed France to adopt the th r ee -y ea r s ’ s e r v i c e and that the fo r m e r
is to-day brin ging all its influence to bear in or d er to p re v e n t the abro­
g ation o f the law in questionT * * * W e m u s t t h e r e f o r e a s k o u r ­
fo r

th e

s e lv e s

fu tu re

if

th e

of

F ran ce.

a ttftu d e

of

th e

S t.

P e te rsb u rg

c a b in e t

is

based

on

p.

th a t

j ch osen

a

A n o th e r
th ree

c r itic is m

years'

w h ic h

s e r v ic e

in

can

be

F ran ce

le v e le d

is

th a t

a g a in s t

th e

c h a m p io n s

of

th e

p e rp e tu a lly d ra g g in g Russia

of

into the d iscussion — I t u s s i a w h o s e p o l i t i c a l a l m s r e m a i n a m y s t e r y ,
w h o utilises the dual allian ce s o lely fo r her own benefit a n d w h o l i k e ­
w i s e , a l t h o u g h s h e i s lti n o w a y s t h r e a t e n e d b y G e r m a n y , in creases her
arm am ents in alarm in g proportion. ( I b i d . p . 1 8 6 . )
SOM E

E V ID E N C E

FROM

LONDON.

Tn great detail and with innumerable quotations, Francis
Neilson, a member of the English Parliament, in his work.
How Diplomats Make War, substantially confirms from Eng­
lish records what has been disclosed in the telegrams above
quoted; that Is, that there was in effect an understanding be­
tween Russia, France, and Great Britain with the military and
naval details all worked out. by repeated conferences of their
general staffs and the understanding that Great Britain would
cooperate with France in the event of a war with Germany.
For exam ple:
In

London,

C arson ,

and

w o r ld .

on

M r.

(H o w

S a tu rd a y ,
B onar

A u gu st

Law

D ip lo m a ts

1,

h a ste n e d

M ake

W ar.

L ord

L an sd ow n e,

to

th e

p.

2 0 3 .)

c e n te r

of

S ir

tlie

G erm an y

sta te

and

secu re

In su re

resp ect

of

B e lg ia n

n e u t r a lit y

h are

The llrlgian Army has
taking up such s t r a t e g i c position s a s h a v e b e e n

is
th e

The

to

tak en

hy

th e

d e fe n s e

fo rta

of

G o v e rn m e n t.

of

th e

A n tw erp

c o u n try

and

on

and

th e

th e

M eu se

resp ect

of

Its

h a r e been put

In

o f d e fe n se .

There is no manner o f doubt what the Grey-Oaiubon letters
meant. The complete plan of naval and military strategy was
worked out between the French and British naval and army
officers, and on Sunday morning, the very next morning, the
\ time Germany ordered her mobilization Saturday nfternoon.
and con­
| and accepted the state of war intended by Russia
templated by the mobilization and the Gear’s secret order to
the staff, British regiments were marching through London to
the front fully equipped for war. (H ow Diplomats Make War,
p. 295.)
A number o f the members of the British Cabinet resigned
when they discovered tills secret diplomacy, including Lord
Mprley and the famous patriot, John Burns.
The French Government immediately offered Belgium mili­
tary support (Ibid., 810). and the following dispatch from the
French ambassador at Brussels to the French Government ex­
plains tlie relations between France and Belgium. The tele­
gram follow s:
The
th e

of

r h lr f

F ren ch

and

of

th e

c a b in e t

m ilita r y

co n ta ct

r e s u lts

E d w ard

of

th e

of

th e

F ren ch
appeal

tro o p s
to

B e lg ia n

M in is tr y

to p re p a r e at o n ce

a tta c h *)

th e

w ith

th e

B e lg ia n

g u a r a n te e in g

of

fo r

pow ers

W ar
th e

A rm y
now

has

ask ed

c o o p e r a tio n
p e n d in g
b e in g

th e

m ade.

Orders h a re t h e r e f o r e been g iv e n to Belgian pro vin cial g o v e r n o r s not
to re g a rd m o v em en ts o f F rench troops as a violation o f the fr o n tier .

d ip lo m a tic
had

to

step s

been

n e u tr a lity .

1 8 2 .)

( “ Events are imminent” means “ war is near.” )
The Belgian minister, Eryens, at Berlin, June 12. 1914, in a
dispatch to the Belgian foreign office, says:

n ecessary

been mobilized

th e

e v e n t s are im m in ent w h ich will perm it of Russia makin g use o f the in stru m en t placed by h er in the hand o f h e r ally. ( I b i d .

c o n v ic tio n

A ll

n e v e r t h e le s s

issu e d

The British troops took their place on the left wing o f the
French under the plans long since worked out.
th e K in g d o m t h o u s a n d s o f fe e t tra m p e d C h a n n e lw a r d s . r e g im e n t a ft e r j
The mobilization of the Belgian army was completed at least
r e g i m e n t w i t h f u l l k i t w o u n d t h r o u g h L o n d o n s t r e e t s a s t h e b e l l s f r o m ; the day before the genera} mobilization of the Russian army
t o w e r a n d s t e e p le c a lle d t h e fo lk to p r a y e r .
M in is te r s w e n t to a c a b in e t
begun under Sukhomlinoff s order. .July 25, about which “ he
m e e t in g th e r e a n d y ie ld e d u p t o t h e F r e n c h a m b a s s a d o r s o m e to k e n o f !
lie d ” to tlie Russian Czar (see Sukhomlinoffs trial) when he
B r i t i s h fr ie n d s h ip )
represented to the Russian Czar that it was a partial mobiliza­
tion. but which was reordered as a general mobilization by the
The German mobilization was ordered 5 p. m. Saturday.
The English regiments were on the March Sunday morning i Russian Czar on July 30.
In the trial of Sukhomlinoff. Minister of War. at St. Peters­
armed for war.
On August 1 Sir Edward Grey told the German ambassador burg. by the revolutionary government of Russia, Bailsman
that Great Britain would not engage to remain neutral, that— sa y s:

o rd ers fo r

th e g e n e r a l
to

be

m o b iliz a tio n

th e

S a b b a th ,

th e

fir s t

ic e

must keep our hands free.

o f her a rm y

day.

T h rough

(H o w

and

th e

n a v y ; th e next

lo n g

D ip lo m a ts

S a b b a th

M ake

a ll

W ar,

day,

over

S u U h o m lin o lT

290 )

The fact was Grey was not really free but fully committed,
both by the real intent of the agreement with France, but far
more by the interests of Great Britain, and Great Britain
instantly carried out the commitment under the agreements
with France and with Russia.
Telegram 148 from the British Foreign Office, August 2. 1914:
A fte r
lo w in g

th e

C a b in e t

m e e tin g

th is

m o r n in g ,

gave

M .

O nm bon

th e

fo l-

a u th o r iz e d

to

g iv e nn a s s u r a n c e

th a t

into Ihe Channel o r th r o u g h the North Sea
a g a in s t

F ren ch

coast

or

s h ip p in g ,

if the German fleet c o m cs

to

u n d e rta k e

h o s tile

op era­

th e British fleet will give,

all the p ro tection in its pow er.
“ T h is

assu ra n ce

G overn m en t

is ,

r e c e iv in g

of

cou rse,

th e

j
j
i

s u b je c t
of

to

th e

p o lic y

P a r lia m e n t ,

of

and

H is

M a j e s t y 's

m u st

not

be

c o n fe s s e d

th e

K a is e r

th n t
th e

a fte r

C zn r

th e

c a lle d

C zar
th e

hnd

r e c e iv e d

M in is te r

of

th e se
W nr

t e le ­

up

by

told him to stop the mobilization. At that tim e the
Czar th o u g h t th e mobilization w a s o n l y partial. It w as r e a l l y a l r e a d y
g en e ra l, a p r o c e d u r e f o r w h i c h t h e d i r e c t a u t h o r i t y o f t h e C z a r w ; s
n ecessary
and
hnd
not
been
g iv e n .
S u k h o m lin o tT
c o n fe sse d
th a t
in
making the mobilization g en e ra l h e had c o n ce a le d this from the Czar;
n a y , m o r e , t h a t hr did not revea l it tn him in t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n b y t e l e
phone.
H e n e x t a d m i t t e d t h a t he vrom isetl th e Czar to stop th e f u r t h e r
mobilization a n d not to issue a g en e ra l mobilization. Hr h ung up the
t ele p h o n e w ilh a false prom ise t o t h e C z a r , a n d , h e s a y s, w e n t on with
the mobilization. H i s f e l l o w r o g u e , J a u n u S t d i k e v f t c h , f l o u n d e r i n g i n h i s
te s tim o n y
sta n d

su p p ort

fro m

te le p h o n e

m em oran du m :

“ I am

tio n s

I

gram s

2 0 0 ;

In
a ls o

and

and
th e

c o n fr o n te d
sam e

O m a n 's

at

d is g u s tin g
O u tb re a k

of

a ll
and
th e

tim e s

w ith

h u m ilia tin g
W ar,

c o n tr a d ic tio n s ,
c o n d itio n .

le ft

th e

(B a ils m a n ,

6 8 .)

If tlie democracies or peoples of the world continue to permit
t a k e n a s b i n d i n g H i s M a j e s t y ’ s G o v e r n m e n t t o t a k e a n y a c t i o n until
secret diplomacy with its ambitious intrigue, militarism, com ­
the above co n t i n g e n c y of action by the German fleet takes pla ce.”
mercial imperialism, this World War will not he the last
So that the enteute was iv f,»ct effective, after all, on the cer­
The greatest of the English papers, the Ivondon Times, c o r ­
tain contingency o f action by the German fleet, and Parlia­ rectly states the true position with regard to this mailer of
ment was committed by its own Government’s acts. This ac­ British participation in the Triple Entente, as follows (How
tion was equal to agreeing to attack Germany as an ally of Diplomats Slake War. 330) :
France. The interests of Great Britain, however, made it nec­
[F r o m t h e L o n d o n T im e s . M a r c h 1 5 , 1 9 1 5 .)
essary when a war actually came between France and Ger­
T h e r e a r e s t i l l s o m e E n g l i s h m e n a n d E n g l i s h w o m e n w h o g r e a t l y err
many that Great Britain should fight the military rulers of the a s t o t h e r e a s o n s t h a t h a v e f o r c e d E n g l a n d t o d r a w t h e s w o r d . T h e y
German people who would have been dangerous to British in­ k n o w t h a t I t w a s G e r m a n y ' s f l a g r a n t v i o l a t i o n o f B e l g i a n n e u t r a l i t y
terests If they had conquered France and dominated western w h i c h f i l l e d t h e c u p o f h e r I n d i g n a t i o n a n d m a d e h e r p e o p l e I n s i s t
Europe (w hether they were responsible for the war or not).
on w a r
(s ic ).
T h e y d o n o t r e f l e c t t h a t ou r h on or and ou r in te re st
7*8876— 11




UH03HU I V
rMOrSS3JI!')iV03

91

RECORD.

17

C O N G R E S S IO N A L
m u tt h a v e co m p elle d us to join F ian ce and Russia
had

s c r u p u lo u s ly

sou gh t

to

back

resp ected

her

w ay

th e

in to

r ig h ts

F ran ce

of

her

s m a ll

th r o u g h

th e

even

If

G erm an y

n e ig h b o r s ,

e a ste rn

and

had

fo rtre sse s.

Great Britain was led into the war on tlie theory that British
interests required cooperation icith France and Russia, for
which Sir Edward Grey had laid the ground by years of naval
and military conferences in which every detail of a war on Ger­
many had been carefully outlined.
In Entente Diplomacy and tlie World, Documents S47 and
850 (Exhibit V II), will be found the Britisli-Russian Entente
plans.
*
These dispatches demonstrate beyond a possibility o f doubt
that there were secret conventions thoroughly worked out and
planned between Russia, France, and Great Britain as to how
war should be made on Germany, involving Great Britain send­
ing empty ships into the Baltic Sea for Russia’s use against
Germany just before the war of 1914 was declared; (Doc.
850) that England should be prepared to fetter the German
fleet in the North S ea ; arrangements in the Mediterranean
were to lie made, and especial authority to the Russian ships
to use French and English porta to establish a complete working
plan between the nuvies and the armies o f the three countries—
Great Britain, Russia, and France. The limit of discussion
makes It Inexpedient to quote these innumerable documents.
It should be nuflicient to enll the attention of the Senate to
these documents and of their convincing character.
The Russian ambassador, Ixindon, June 25, 1914, telegraphs
to Sazonoff (Doc. 855, p. 730, Ibid.) :
m e t o - d a y t h a t h e w a s g r e a tly alarm ed b y t h e f a l s e r u m o r s
circu la tin g in the German press co n c e r n in g the c o n te n ts o f
th e a lle g e d naval co n v e n tio n between England e n d R ussia _ • • *
Grey a s su re d the German am bassador * * * that b e tw e e n England,
on th e o n e hand, a n d F rance and Russia th e re ex isted n e i t h e r an alli­
a n ce n o r a con ven tion • • • t h a t t h e i r n e g o t i a t i o n s h a d n e v e r
assu m ed a c h a r a c t e r d ir e ct ed again st Germ any n o r had t h e y a n y r e f e r ­
e n c e to th e so-called “ e n cir clin g p o licy .’’
G rey

w h ic h

to ld

w ore

On the face of the Cambou-Grey letters was an express dis­
claimer of either Government being bound by them, but the
actual intent and true, common interest against the German
Imperial Government is quite clear.
The English honor and interest were both Involved. It cer­
tainly appears that France. Russia, and Great Britain did have
secret conventions; the conventions were directed against Ger­
many, worked out in detail then in process of execution and
they were in pursuance of “ the encircling policy,” and were
carried out on the battle fields and at sea within G days.
O
Three days later Ilusso-Serbian intrigues led to the murder
o f Archduke Ferdinand, and the grand drama, with stage
fully set, opened to the astonishment and grief of the poor,
little common people who die and pay taxes.
The secret entente agreements with France and Russia were
repeatedly denied by the British foreign office in Parliament
by its representatives asserting that there was no commitment
o f the British Government to support the French Government
in case o f a war with Germany.
On March 10 o f the following year, 1913, Mr. Asquith, re­
plying to a question in the Commons from Lord Hugh Cecil,
denied that England was under an—
o b lig a tio n
cou rse
of

of

th is

a r is in g

o w in g

d ip lo m a tic

c o u n try

to

to

an

assu ran ce

n e g o tia tio n s

o p era te

in

to

sen d

g iv e n
a

by

v ery

th e

la r g e

no

E urop ean

q u e s tio n

we

to

in te rfe r e

any

to

ta k e

B r itis h
up

G overnm en t

arm s

in

a

w o u ld

fo r e ig n

a

b ig

be

q u arrel

so
is

g u ilty
m ore

to w a rd
th a n

I

our
can

c o u n try

b e lie v e .




as

very

G erm an y

not

life
is

m e r e ly

and

by

to

th e

e x is te n c e o f

in d e p e n d e n c e

o th e r

n a tio n s ,

of

th e

each

(D a ily

of

th e G e rm a n

n a tio n

w h ic h

C h r o n ic le ,

Its e lf,

p ossesses

Janu ary

1,

is

read y

and

hopes

th a t

Fran ce

is

ready.

(B o u r se

G a z e t t e .)

This article appears to have been inspired by Sukhomlinoff,
minister of war. This paper goes on to state that the Russian
Army Is now 2,320,000 men. (Bausman, 31.)
This paper (supra) further said;
W e

have

p r o je c te d

r a ilw a y s

to

A p p e n d ix

and

begun

c o n c e n tra te

th e

to

b u ild

arm y

THE

as

a

w h o le

q u ic k ly

EUROPEAN

as

n etw o rk

of

p o s s ib le .

str a te g ic

G .)

(B a u s m a n ,

PRESS.

The press o f Russia, France, Germany, und Serbia in 1914
was a press largely controlled by subsidies.
The journals were not supported by advertisements as in
America. They relied upon subsidies from governments, politichins, and from commercial and financial interests.
Through this agency the people o f Germany, France, and
Russia were taught to hate each other. The death o f the crown
prince of Austria was attributed by the Government of Aus­
tria to the Serbian press propaganda financed by the Russian
Government through the Russian mfnister at Belgrade with
the connivance of the Serbian Government. In Livre Noir,
which discloses the secret archives of the Russian foreign
office, are many dispatches showing the manner in which the
Russian Government subsidized and directed the press.
On page 208, Livre Noir, for example, in telegram 591, De­
cember 18, 1913, Isvolsky, the Russian ambassador at Paris,
speaking o f the Paris press, says:
The

papers

w h ic h

are

in s tr u c tio n s ,

and

haps

th e m s e lv e s

en gage

if

we

d ev o ted
do

not

w ith

to

u s,

as

g iv e
fa ls e

a

Le

th e m

M a tin ,

r e ly

d ir e c tio n s

on

th ey

me

fo r

m ig h t

per­

v ie w .

On page 213 (Ibid.) Isvolsky says:
It

is

m ore
have

p a r tic u la r ly

im p o r ta n t

O th e r w is e

p ress.

it

m ay

th a t

it

th a n
in

su re

v ie w

o n ly

th e ir

h ere,

engage
is

at

its e lf

su ch
w ith

c o n t in u a lly

ow n

s p e c ia l

a
a

m oved

m o m e n t,
fa ls e

to

co n tro l
b e s id e s

fin a n c ia l

by

v ie w ;

th e
it

c ir c le s

is

w ho

In te re sts.

On page 271 of Livre Noir Isvolsky w rites:
E n d e a v o r in g
w ith

th e

p ress

to
of

m a in ta in
th e

at

th e

sam e

th a n k s

to

th e

m easures

o b ta in e d .
of

I

As

th e
ta k e
is ,

you

it

su ch

as

th e

to

a ttitu d e s

but

I

and

do
th is

M in is te r

in

th e

tim e ,

not

e ffic a c io u s

Journ al

p ress.

in te rv e n e

d is tr ib u tio n
of

F o r e ig n
and

des

are

In

th e

D e b a ts,

I

W ith

am

in

w h ic h

th e

its

and

in

have

th e

us
m y

v ie w ,
been

d is tr ib u ­

F rench

th e

en d s.

fo r

d o in g

th is

r e s u lt s

d ir e c tly

A ffa ir s

o b ta in s

d e s ifk b le

w o r ld ,

c o n s id e r a b le

to in flu e n c e p e r s o n a lly

T em p s,

w h ic h

p o litic a l

in flu e n c e

tak en

know ,

ap pears,

exert every d ay

P a r is ,

tim e

s u b sid ie s,
p a rt,

th e

G overn m en t

u tm o st

t io n

On April 28, 1914, and again on June 11. Sir Edward Grey
confirmed in the House o f Commons Mr. Asquith’s assertion,
7 0 8 7 0 — 11------- 8

R u s s ia

iste r s

w ith

is v it a l

th e

The French Army was much more powerful than the German
(conferences above quoted).
The semiofficial paper Birshewija Wjedomasti, of Petrograd,
on June 13, 1914, before the Serajevo tragedy, stated:

F in a n c e ,

concern ed

A rm y

to

1 9 1 4 .)

th e

Ou July 1 Lord Loreburu, Lord Chancellor from 1906 to 1912,
said—
as

but

about as p o w e r fu l as h e r own.

arm s

out

arm y.

th a t

G erm an

su rrou n d ed

in

E urope.

w ere

The

E m p ir e ,

fo r c e

m in is tr y
arm ed

On March 24 he made similar denials in reply to questions
from Sir W. Byles and Mr. King.
On April 14 Mr. llunciman, in n speech at Birkenhead,
denied “ in the most categorical way ” the existence of a secret
understanding with any foreign power.
On May 3 the Secretary for the Colonies, Mr. Harcourt, de­
clared that he “ could conceive no circumstances in which con­
tinental operations would not be a crime against the people o J
this country.”
On June 28 the Undersecretary for Foreign Affairs, Mr
Acland, declared publicly that—
In

made March 11 and 24, 1913, o f British freedom from engage­
ments with continental powers. (See Neilson How Diplomats
Make W a r; Morel Truth and the War, etc.)
These disclosures justify America in receiving the assurances
of European diplomats with some reserve.
Lloyd George five months before the war sa id :

m in ­

M in is te r

F rom

my

m o s t im p o r t a n t jo u r n a ls

L ’E c h o

de

of

s id e
of

P a r is .

The manner in which the press responds to such stimulation
has heretofore been shown In the dispatches which I have
quoted, showing that they were instrumentalities in moving the
French people to war and in moving the Russian people to war.
From these disclosures it will appear how extremely signifi­
cant to the German rulers was the attitude of the French press
in Paris in July, 1914, where they were denouncing Germany
and Austria and demanding the support of Russia, and it is
worth while to recall the declaration of the Nouvelle Revue
that France was determined on war, and of the Petrograd
press that Russia was determined on war, and that France and
Russia were prepared.
In the American press a few weeks ago was an item announc­
ing that the French Government requested 8,000.000 francs
to he used with the press without disclosing the details.
I have Just received by mail as a Senator of the United
States a book o f 112 pages o f press clippings strenuously sup­
porting the French policy in the Ruhr. It is obviously paid

a a o o a a

61
18

’i v N

o i s s a a o N

o o

CONGRESSIONAL RECORD.

propaganda. The first article declares, among other things, In
I’egard to the W orld W ar:
W hat

G erm an y

m an eu ver.
A r m is tic e
It, w a s

She
D ay

th e

c o u ld
has

a

h o llo w

fir s t

to

not

do

broken

In

th e

m ockery.

fa lte r .

L ast

b a ttle

u n ity

of

sh e

Is

th e

A llie s

A m e ric a ,

in

und

th e

we

d o in g

fie ld ,

by

and

h is to r y
w ere

e v a sio n
has

and

m ade

of

m u st

th e

so

w r ite

fir st

to

le a v e .

This unfair Imputation was printed in an American news­
paper and purports to be written by an American editor.
The fact is, America, and history must so write it, won the
war, and only left when the military dynasties had been
destroyed in battle.
When the Allies were sending delegation after delegation
Imploring our help, telling us that the British and Belgian
troops had their backs to the wall, and that the French troops
were bled white, America sent 2,000.000 o f the ablest and brav­
est men on earth to the battle line and drove the Germans
back, and the American President by diplomacy presented terms
the German people accepted as a basis o f armistice. See the
dispatch of June 3, 1918, of General Foch, Lloyd-George, Clemenceau, and Orlando, Ministers of Great Britain, France, and
Italy, beseeching our assistance immediately (Exhibit 13) and
urgently declaring tliat'without American help the war was lost
and victory impossible.
Until the great mass o f European people understand how
they are ruled and led into war by a few leaders there can
be little hope o f permanent peace in the woi'ld. I f a few
diplomats having access to the national purse are permitted
by propaganda, through a subsidized press, to teach the people
to hate each other, permanent peace is impossible.
The peoples ought to be taught to understand each other,
to respect each other and promote friendly commercial rela­
tions with each other.
There is no possible reason why the farmers and laborers
of France should be led to kill the farmers and laborers of
Germany, and there is no just cause why the mechanics, clerks,
and domestics o f Germany should be taught to hate and kill
the mechanics, clerks, and domestics of France. They are all
alike entitled to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
But their peace depends on the intelligence, power, and initia­
tive of the people themselves expressed through their proper
parliaments elected by the suffrage of the people. This is a
matter that the people o f Europe themselves must work out.
They can not be advised from America. Possibly the seeds
we sow in feeding their famishing may finally lead their states­
men to realize that the American ideals o f international under­
standing and good will is the better policy.
The Belgian minister at Berlin, Baron Beyens, speaks about
the French inflammatory discourses which place Belgium in
so dangerous a position and which interfere with those trying
to preserve the peace between France and Germany.
Baron Guillaume, the Belgian ambassador at Paris, wrote
his home office, May 8, that Frenchmen were proclaiming a
certain victory over Germany. (Dip. Rev., p. 288.)
The Russian ambassador at Berlin advises his Government
March 12, 1914, that Germany “ is trying to appear not afraid.”
Isvolsky, the Russian ambassador at Paris, on September 12,
1912, reports a conversation with Poincare assuring 1dm of the
French loyalty to Russia, as fo llo w s:
a

c o n flic t

w ith

v e n tio n ,

If

F ran ce

w ill

not

a m in ute

lo s e

A u s tr ia
at

In

on ce

s h o u ld

int'olve

r e c o g n iz e

it

as

fulfilling her p le d g e s

G erm an y’s
a

to

arm ed

casus fo e d e ris
R u s s ia .

in te r ­

and

(P ra v d a ,

will

19 19 ;
A

B a u s m a n , 3 4 .)

On December 23, 1920, Lloyd-George expresses the opinion—
That
th in g

no

In to

one

at

w h ic h

th e
th ey

head

of

g lid e d ,

or

a ffa ir s
ra th e r

q u ite

m eant

sta g g ere d

w ar.

and

It

w as

som e­

s tu m b le d .

This view is very charitable but comes a little late.
It is worth while to remember that Germany had over 4,500
miles o f frontier to protect and no natural boundaries to pro­
tect her on the east or the west or the south and that their
authorities naturally were apprehensive.
Frederick Bausman, former member of the Supreme Court of
the State of Washington, in Let France Explain, thoroughly
documented (London, George Allen & Unwin), believes that the
Government o f France under Poincare was also to blame for
the world catastrophe, and he lays down the following propo­
sitions :
First. That the alliance of France and Russia was unneces­
sary to the safety of France and was hostile to the peace o f
Europe by its inviting into western Europe an overwhelming
mass led by irresponsible men who aimed at extending there
an Irresponsible government and a shameful despotism.
TO870— 11




Second. That France deliberately and continually armed Rus­
sia and encouraged her aggressiveness against Germ any; that
French policy was continuously directed to creating a favorable
opportunity for war upon Germany to regain her lost Provluces,
disintegrate Germany as she had kept her disintegrated In
previous centuries, and resume her old pluee at the head of
European affairs.
Third. That the German armaments were, beyond all ques­
tion, made necessary by the enormous and wholly unnecessary
increases In Russian armaments.
Fourth. That the Serbians were amon?; the most ruthless
people In E urope; that Russia had no regard for Serbia other
than to extend her own empire Into the Balkans; and that
Russia desired to break up, through Serbia, the Austro-Hun­
garian Empire, a result that would have left Germany helpless
against Russia later.
Fifth. That the war sprang out of Russian ambition in the
Balkans and in nothing vital to the French whatsoever, and
that France could have stopped Russia at the outset by telling
her that she would not support her Balkan ambitions, because
Russia would not have gone into the war unless supported by
France, which country immediately udvised her that she would
support her.
Sixth. That Germany did everything possible to avert the
war after discovering that Russia actually would go to war
and France support Russian ambitions in the Balkans, the
chancellor imperatively and repeatedly requesting Austria to
acquiesce, and the Kaiser personally imploring the Tsar to
stop, and that England, though embarrassed by previous rela­
tions with the French and Russians, also exerted herself to
prevent war, but that the French Government did nothing
whatever to restrain Russia.
^ Seventh. That the Russians, finding themselves certain of
French support and possibly of English support, too, pushed,
at first by stealth and then openly, a general m obilization; that
they brought 2,000,000 of well-equipped troops toward the Ger­
man frontier and refused, after reasonable notice from Ger­
many, to stop the m obilization; that France and Russia knew
that they could ultimately drive England into the war, because
England could not risk the conquest of France by Germany
under any circumstances, and that Italy would not aid Ger­
many at all.
Eighth. That Russia wanted a war, that France knew that
Russia wanted a war, and that the Government o f Poincare
did all that was possible to lash up the people o f France against
Germany before the war because his Government believed that
the combined forces o f France and Russia, especially If aided
by England, were invincible.
Ninth. That the French and Russians, neither o f them sur­
prised but on the contrary long prepared, went into the war
at the height of their overwhelming strength, the French
Army being alone equal to that o f Germany and the fully
equipped part of the Russian much larger.
Tenth. That if the war had ended successfully for Russia,
the best part of central Europe would have been absorbed by
h e r; that France during the war actually made a secret treaty
to that effect; that the Germans were compelled to resist with
enormous loss the spread of the Slavs into western Europe
and have contributed to its protection; and that the English,
compelled by sheer military necessity to save France from de­
feat. have suffered incalculably in life, trade, and wealth.
And sa y s:
s in g le

have

t e le g r a m

p re v e n te d

w o u ld

th is

th e

w as

not

even

m o b iliz e d

su ch

m essage,

a tta c k e d

th e

v e n tu re
F ran ce

R u s s ia n
in to

a g a in s t
I

e x p la in ,

th e

p.

w ar

w o u ld

3 6 .)

u n le s s

C e n tra l

G erm an y

G overnm en t at

th is

G overnm en t

te le g r a m

have
th e

(B r itis h

had

o u tse t
of

W h ite

th e

P ow ers,

saved

“ secu re

to

w a r n in g

c o n flic t c o n c e r n in g

by

h er.

re p e a t,

F ren ch

s im p le

n o t s u p p o r t h e r in a

h e r s e lf

fo r

fro m
w ar, a

not

th e

had

F ran ce

B a lk a n s w h e n

R u s s ia

n e ith e r

of

m o b iliz e d

sta te d

su p p ort

P aper

w o u ld

th a t

c iv iliz a tio n

th e

R u s s ia n

R u s s ia

its

th a t
of

w h ic h

at

had

a ll.

One

c a ta stro p h e ,
it

w o u ld

F r a n c e .”

not
(L e t

1 7 .)

In order to comprehend what took place in Europe, one should
remember that the Governments o f Europe are in the hands of
a comparatively few men.
The record shows, o f course, that the Czarist Russian Govern­
ment was a military dynasty, controlled by the Czar, Grand
Dukes, and their military satellites. The French Government,
the record shows, entered into a secret written treaty with this
military monarchy whose views of government were diametri­
cally opposed to the supposed principles of the Republic of
France.
The British Foreign Office entered into a secret agreement
with France and Russia without the knowledge of Parliament,

CONGRESSIONAL RECORD
and thus stimulated and made aggressive the militarism o f the
French leaders, and all the more made aggressive the leaders
of Russia whose objects were entirely at variance with those
of the British people or of the French people. The French
leaders had some reason to fear the possible aggression o f the
German military dynasty and by making an alliance with
Russia and England were able to make the German military
authorities afraid to attack France, but the policy fatally en­
couraged Russia to attack Germany. Russia had a far more
important and different purpose to serve. The Russian Gov­
ernment had long had a determined policy to control the Dar­
danelles, to have free access to the Mediterranean from the
Black Sea. It was impossible for Russia to get this advantage
except as the result of a general European war, and the way
to provoke a general European war was precisely the means
employed by Russia with its intrigues in Serbia, where the
Slavs of Serbia were stimulated and financed to carry on secret
intrigues against the Austrian Government through the Slav
population o f Austria. It was only necessary to compel Austria
to partially mobilize, whereupon the Franco-Russian agree­
ment to attack Germany came into effect automatically, and
France and Germany must instantly mobilize and attack Ger­
many at the same time on the east and on the west with all
their forces.
These Serbian intrigues compelled Austria to mobilize in
1912. (Russia not quite ready.)
Again compelled Austria to mobilize in 1913. (Russia not
quite ready.)
In 1914, when they led to the murder o f the Crown Prince of
Austria and his consort, the court at Vienna in extreme anger
delivered a 4S-hour demand for satisfaction and mobilized
against Serbia.
A pretext for the Russian mobilization had been created by
Russia and instantly SazonolT said, “ This time we shall march.”
This was the precise situation which the Russian clique, led
by Sazonof and Sukhomlinoff, seems to have desired to accom­
plish and the war was on.
F K E N C II

E V ID E N C E .

Colonel Boucher, of the French general staff, issued in 1910
to 1913 three books— one France Victorious in To-morrow’s
Wars, one the Offensive Against Germany, and another Ger­
many in Peril.
In the latter he says:
G e r m a n y la m en a ced on a ll fr o n tie r s , a n d s itu a te d t h a t s h e c a n n o t
fe e l s e c u r e o f h e r fu t u r e a g a in s t a ll h er a d v e rs a rie s , w it h o u t fin d in g
s om e w a y to e lim in a t e us
*
*
• m en a ce d on th e n o r th b y E n g ­
la n d . on th e w e s t by F ra n c e , o n th e ea st by R u s sia , a n d t o -d a y e q u a lly
ou t h e s o u th
*
•
*
In d a n g e r o f p a n sla v is m .
S he m ust ra ise her
fo r c e s to th e s u p re m e degree.

General Buat, o f the French general staff, showed that the
mobile forces of France were in active army of 910,000 men
with reserves o f 1,325,000.
O n e ca n s a y th en t h a t w it h o u t ta k in g a n y a c c o u n t o f th e B e lg ia n
a r m y o r o f th e fo u r B r itis h d iv is io n s , F ra n c e a lo n e w a s a t t h e b e g in ­
n in g , at le a s t, e q u a l, i f n o t s u p e rio r, to h e r fo r m id a b le a d v e r s a r y in
th e n u m b e r o f th e p r in c ip a l u n its .
( L ’ A rm ee A lle m a n d e , p p . 1 - 9 . )

The French ambassador at St. Petersburg, Paleologue, in the
early part o f 1914 was warned by Vlviani that war would soon
break out (Revue des deux Mondes, January, 1921) ; but
Viviani, in his opening speech to the French Parliament after
the German declaration of war, complained o f its being “ unex­
pected.”
Lord French tells us that the preparations with France were
on a complete and mutual understanding ( “ 1914,” p. 8) and
that England was to put 160,000 men at a point near Belgium
on 12 days’ notice.
Benckendorff, the Russian ambassador to London, s a id :
W h e n I r e c a ll C a m b o n ’ s c o n v e r s a tio n s w it h m e, th e w o r d s e x c h a n g e d
a n d a d d th e a tt it u d e o f P o in c a r e , th e t h o u g h t co m e s t o m e as a c o n ­
v i c t i o n t h a t o f a ll th e p o w e r s F r a n c e is t h e o n ly o n e w h ic h n o t t o say
t h a t i t w is h e s w a r w o u ld y e t lo o k u p on i t w it h o u t g r e a t re g re t.
(G e r­
m an W h it e B o o k , p t. 2, p. 7 5 .)

Many notable French men have issued protests and accusa­
tions against Poincare, such as De Martial, Henri Barbusse,
Anatole France, Ernest Renauld, etc.
Renauld, a distinguished historical writer, engaged Poincare
In an argument and s a id :
T h e E n t e n t e w a n te d t h e w a r as m u ch as W illia m I I , a n d y o u , M r.
P r e s id e n t , an d y o u r g r o u p o f fr ie n d s w a n ted it m o re th a n a ll.
(B a u s ­
m an , p
2 9 .)

76876— 11




19

Sukhomlinoff, Russian Foreign Minister, August, 1912, after
one o f Poincare’s visits sent a circular to his Russian diplomats
saying:
W hen

th e

be m o st

c r itic a l

d e s ir a b le

P o in c a r e

h im s e lf,

c h a ra c te r
F ren ch

and

have

at

w ho

P r im e

in

m om en t

to

at

le a s t

has

a

as

M in is te r .

in te r n a tio n a l

th e

head o f

th e

p e r s o n a lity

little

fe a r

(E n te n te

r e la tio n s
a llie d

w ho

of

has

th e

sam e

r e s p o n s ib ility

D ip lo m a c y ,

it

a r r iv e s,

g o v e rn m e n ts,

pp.

as

w ill

if

not

e n e r g e tic

th e

p resen t

6 5 2 -6 5 5 .)

In Poincare-a-t-il-Voulu-la-Gerre the warlike course of the
French Government is attributed to Poincare from his coming
into office in 1912. The work o f Peve les Responsables de la
Guerre places the responsibility on Poincare. (Bausman.)
Poincare assured the extra session of the French Parliament
August 4, 1914, that France—
w a s prepared and
(F r e n c h

our enem y

Y e llo w

Book,

p.

w ill m e e t on

th e ir

p a th

our

v a lia n t

tro o p s

1 5 8 .)

The attitude of the French war party may be appreciated
from the quotation o f Mr. Buxton, in the foreign office de­
bate o f July, 1912, taken from the “ Nouvelle Revue,” one of
the most prominent of Paris Review's:
W e
we

in te n d

can

at

F ren ch

revue

s tr ik e ,
w ill

and

not

*

*

p.

4

*

or

th e

p a rty ,
w ill

N avy

w ar.

u tte r

in

have

in to

th e ir

not

com e,

in

•

*

a

*

40

w ith
*

•

*

r e m a in s

(H o w

ago,

*

and

of

sh e

th e

a t­

th e

th e ir

fle e t

w h o le

D ip lo m a ts

a
to

d iv e r g e n t

W e,

th a t

of

ready

annual

E n g la n d

th e

is

years
th e

peace

read ers

F ran ce

to

c o u n try .

arm ed

se r io u s

•

ready

w a te rs.

h e a v ily

th e

o w in g

each

G erm an

of

•

arran ged

fo llo w e d

th e

w as

to

ra te
have

years

w ith o u t

sh oes.

sh e

years

b ir th

40

o p in io n

ub

5

w ill

A fte r

th is

conqu er,

in

of

tacking

have

s h a k in g

to

be

n u m bers

m nn

to

le a s t

oer-

M ake

W ar,

2 0 6 .)

M. Poincar6 has not escaped the criticism o f representatives
of the people o f France in the French Chamber o f Deputies.
On July 5, 1922, while M. Poincar6 was presiding over the
Chamber of Deputies as its President, M. Vaillant-Couturier
( p . 2337-2338, Journal Official) declared “ upon his conscience
as an old soldier ” that he was convinced o f the responsibility
o f Raymond Poincare for the World War because o f his policy
in the Balkans and his unwarrantable support of Russian am­
bitions and Russian policies. He declared that the war was
desired by a group o f important rank in the Court of Russia
and that Poincar6 did not do what he could have done to deter
the war, that Poincare’s culpability would be exposed by the
records and he accused him on the floor of the Chamber of
Deputies to have been responsible for building up in France
by Russian propaganda public opinion among the French people
favorable to the Russian intervention in Balkan affairs.
That he had contributed to the war by allowing chances for
peace to pass.
M. Vaillant-Coutourier in the course of a long speech said:
W e

accu se

liz e d

th e

F ren ch

hoped
accu se

p u b lic a tio n
W e

m is e d

he

h a v in g

been

revenge

on

of

W e

w o u ld

h im

accu se

R u s s ia n

m ig h t

of
fo r

n a tio n a lis ts .

J aurd s
W e

h im

d e s ir e

of

th e

not

of

and
w is h e s

h im

th e

W Te

of

•

of

F ran ce

r e a c tio n

in to
h im

d e s tin ie s
at

th a t
or

of

of

w h ic h
of

tex ts

w ar.

in

th e

*.

accu se

th e

c r y s ta l­

tu r b u le n t

been

o m is s io n s

*

w as

m ost

h a v in g

c e r ta in

G erm an y

w hom

th e

p r e s id e n t

th ro w n

1914

about
of

of

a r c h iv e s

h a v in g

th e

m an
part

p ass

p rovok ed .

1912

been

be,
le t

d ip lo m a tic

h im

b etw een
have

accu se

h a v in g

m o b iliz a tio n

th e
th e

a

of

th a t

w ar

of

w h ic h

h a v in g

Fran ce,

tim e —

th e

c o m p i 'o w h a te v e r

*

*

*

and stated that the “ stillborn treaty of the peace of Ver­
sailles,” which “ they all condemn more or less,” stood between
a peaceable future and the French people, and said :
For
to

us

M.

produ ce

T o -d a y

h is

P o in c a r S

of

a

rep rese n ts

fu n e r e a l

p o lic y

le a d s

a ll

c h a ra c te r
us

to

th a t

n a tio n a lis m

b e fo r e ,

is o la tio n ,

d u r in g ,

to

and

fa ilu r e ,

and

has

been

a b le

a fte r

th e

w ar.

to

new

w ars.

On January 15, 1914, Izvolski, in a “ very confidential ”
letter (Livre Noir, 230) says:
If

th e

w ith in
P o in c a r S
sev eral

in c id e n t

th e

c o n tin u e s

scop e

of

expressed
tim e s ,

“ It

th e

h im s e lf
is

w e ll

to

d e v e lo p ,

a llia n c e .
e x a c tly

u n d e r sto o d

In

th e
a

th e
th a t

q u e s tio n

m ig h t

c o n v e r s a tio n
sam e,
w e

by

sh a ll

put

w ith

r e p e a tin g
su sta in

its e lf

m e,

M.

to

me

y o u ."

I respectfully call the attention of the Senate to the secret
telegrams from Izvolski, in Livre Noir, pages 14, 19, 20, In
which Izvolski, on January 29, 1913, over a year before the
World War, sa ys:
I h a v e Juet had a lo n g c o n v e r s a tio n w ith P o in ca ird , w h o has d e cla re d
to m e In his c a p a c ity as P r e s id e n t o f th e R e p u b lic he w ill h ave a bu n ­
d a n t p o s s ib ility o f d ir e c t ly In flu e n cin g th e fo r e ig n p o lic y o f F ra n ce
• • •. A c c o r d in g to him i t is o f th e h ig h e st im p o r ta n c e fo r th e

16

V I U V /L /U

11

X

T

4
20

CONGRESSIONAL RECORD.

F ren ch
lic

G overnm en t

o p in io n

B a lk a n s .

as
•

to

•

b e a b le

a

to

w ar

In

advance

w h ic h

to

c o u ld

ta k e

a r is e

p art

in

in

th e

d ir e c tin g p u b ­

m a tte r

of

th e

•

And on January 30, 1913, page 19:
The

en ergy,

appear
th e

as

th e

th e

R e p u b lic

he

lic r e s — w ith

a

d e c o r a tiv e ,
tim e s
That

is

m ent
•
and

M .

he

th e

k n o w le d g e

of

th e

of

and

and,

if

it

fo r
m ig h t

of
years

we

at

th e

p erson s

as

to

r e p ly ,

head

ex p resses

to

it.

th e

every

*

no

*

M.

at

*

be

C r u p p i,
to

o p in io n

a ll

•

•

c o m p le t e ly

F ren ch

day

of

F a l-

expressed ,
and

a ffa ir s .

can

C a lla lu r ,

com e

so

m eans

of

P o in c a ir #

P r e sid e n t

be

fo r e ig n

sev en

M .

as

e x a m p le ,

d o m a in

c o n tin u e s

c o n se n ts

of

c a p a c ity

every

next

no

c h a ra c te r

h ie

by

th e

su ch

In

in flu e n c e

ap pearan ce

m akes

It

in

e n tir e

h im s e lf— a s ,

p a ssiv e

w o u ld

P o in c a ir S

Jonn ert

th e
w h ic h

co n ten t

p o lic y

d ip lo m a c y
M .

and
th a t

not

d u r in g

a g a in s t

*

of

p u r e ly

th a t

F ren ch

and

*

r O le

why

assu red

w ill

but

th e

d e c is io n ,

g u a ra n ty

G overn ­

N o n is ,

th e

e tc .

m in is tr y ,

w ith o u t

he

has

*

And page 20:
The

F rench

o b lig a tio n
a ll

th e

a

is

e x a c t ly

gen eral

A ls o

w ar.

rest

doubt

it

in

R u s s ia

th e

m ost

nor

case

th e

fo r e s e e n
and
of

w hen

th e

does

concern s

th e

d ip lo m a tic

R u s s ia n

*

d e p r iv e

R u s s ia

S ta te s.

in

arm s

c o n v e n tio n

a s s is ta n c e
in

and

not

th e

of

o b lig a tio n s

B a lk a n

su p p ort

G overnm en t

sw ord

•

m oral

F r a n c o -R u s s ia n

e ffe c tiv e
th e

th e

e n te rta in

to

th e

on

F ran ce

c o n v e n tio n

*

w is h

com ­

th e

draw

its

w ith

a c tu a l

s h o u ld

m in is tr y

not

th e

m ilita r y

th e

o n ly

of

us

and

of

F ran ce

doubt

tow ard

p a r tic ip a tio n

h e s ita tio n .

in

fu lfill

k n o w le d g e

r e s u lt

th e

F ren ch

put

not

by

fin a l
of

to
fu ll

F r a n c o -R u s s ia n

w h ic h

count

w ith

th e

s lig h te s t

th a t

can

e n e r g e tic

(th e

t lip

to

d e c id e d

n e c e ssity

m om ent

by

nor

e n te r p r is e s

th e

th a t

th e

G overnm en t

a c tio n ,

upon

q e n tly

it

The

F ren ch

of

fir m ly
a d m its

n ecessary
fo r

u n d e r s ta n d in g

th e

lib e r ty

be

is
it

and

d e te r m in e d

th e

s lig h te s t

a lly ,

b lo o d

can

in

in

an

c o ld

p lic a tio n s

under

G overnm en t

as

but

(o f

F ran ce

upon

Fran ce)

fa v o r

of

its

w h ic h
C on se-

of

sa id

th e

in

Polncarfe insisted on having Grey announce the Entente avow­
edly as u means o f preventing Germany from declaring war.
Grey was unwilling, probably because it would have stimulated
Russia to war if every element o f doubt of British support were
removed.
Grey did not wish war, but had no option but to support
France if it came.
On the night of July 29, the British ambassador at Berlin
wired Sir Edward Grey that the German Chancellor had told
him (the British nmbassador in Berlin) that—

a ll

S ta te s

B a lk a n s ).

As

(a )

T hat

s ta n d in g
(b )

th e

w ith

That

(c )

T bat

(d )
w ar
in g

T hat

and
it

(e )

to

p.

th e

th e

b ecau se th e

(p .
had

e ffo rts

to

com e

to

a

good

u n der­

a

r e v isio n ,

w h ic h

he

m is q u o te s ,

of

th e

5 6 ).
a lw a y s

in

m in d

th e

recovery

of

th e

lo s t

2 5 ).

th a t

That

r e p e a te d

2 5 ).

m ade

tre a ty

F ran ce

(p .

m ade

(p .

D e lc a s s e

F r a n c o -R u s s ia n

P r o v in c e s

K a is e r

F ran ce

F r a n c o -R u s s ia n

V iv ia n i,

w ith

a

tre a ty

copy

never

d is c lo s e d

h is

p o ck e t,

re fr a in e d

w as

in

w as

r e c a lle d

b e fo r e
fr o m

th e

read­

P a r lia m e n t .
th e

p a c ific

G eorges

L o u is

R u s s ia n s w a n te d a d iffe r e n t s o r t, e tc .

fr o m
(L e t

S t.

P etersb u rg

F ran ce

E x p la in ,

2 2 9 .)

PoincnrG’s defense will be found in the Living Age, Saturday,
August 2G, 1922, page 503, in which he says that Saaonoff was
a “ pacifist,” that—
th e
and

th o u g h t

of

c r u s h in g

S e r b ia

d o m in a te d

th e

w h o le

p o lic y

of

A u s tr ia

G erm an y.

That when lie and Viviani (July 29, 1914) —
reach ed
fa r
of

fro m

P a r is

we

w ere

r e c e iv e d

w is h in g

w ar,

w as

F ran ce,

a lth o u g h

fir m ly

by

a

s t a r tle d

o v e r w h e lm e d
r e so lv e d

upon

and

w ith
any

t r o u b le d

s o lic itu d e
s a c r ific e s

n a tio n

fo r
to

th e

th a t,
sa fe ty

d e fe n d

th e

fa th e rla n d .

It will be observed that Poincarg returned to Paris on July
29, and that it was on the night of the next day— July 30— that
the French minister of war told the military attach^ o f the
Russian Embassy with “ enthusiastic sincerity ” that the
Government is firmly decided upon war and requested the Rus­
sian Embassy to confirm the hope o f the French general staff
that all the Russian efforts should be directed against Germany.
(Telegram 216.)
Poincar6 states that with the consent o f the ministry he
wrote a letter to King George on July 81, 1914, informing the
King that France would do all in her power to maintain peace.
This letter to King George is not consistent with telegram 216,
nor with the secret military treaty and the secret conferences
of the Russian and French general staffs of 1911, of 1912,
of 1913, to mobilize and attack Germany in the event of an
Austrian mobilization, but was extremely serviceable in con­
vincing British public opinion of the peaceful attitude of the
French Government and of the guilt of the German Govern­
ment in willing the war.
76876— 11




as

he

w as

a b le

to

Judge

th e

m a in

p r in c ip le

w h ic h

govern ed

Great Britain w
ould never stand by and allow
France to be crushed In any conflict there m
ight be. ( H o w D i p l o m a t s
M ake

p o lic y

W ar,

w as

th a t

2 6 3 .)

So that it is clear that the German Government expected
Great Britain to support France in the event o f war. The
fact that Great Britain would support France fully justified
the Russian war party and the French war party in their deter­
mination on war.
Moreover, Sir Edward Grey told the French ambassador at
London, Cambon (British White Paper, 87), that he meant
to tell the German ambassador that day, Wednesday, July 29,
that he must not be misled from the friendly tone o f their
conversation that Britain would stand aside, so that both
Germany and France knew that Britain would not stand aside.
On Friday, July 31, the British ambassador to Berlin, Sir
Edward Goghem, wired Sir Edward Grey that the German
chancellor said he had done everything possible to attain his
object at Vienna, b u t he could not leave his country defense­
less—
w h ile

tim e

le a r n s

is

w as

b e in g

u tiliz e d

by

o th e r

p ow ers;

and

if,

as

be

m
ilitary m
easures are now being taken by R
ussia
against G any also, I t w be im
erm
ill
possible for h i m to rem quiet.
ain
(Ib id .

Poincar6 undertook his own defense by writing a book
“ Les Origines de la G uerre” (Cassie) in 1921, in English
1922, an analysis o f which appears in “ I^et France Explain,”
Chapter XIV. He wholly omits the Russian mobilization and
does not contradict the Belgian minister’s charge against him as
bringing on the war. He omits the vital record o f the Falsifi­
cation of the Russian Orange Book, but admits—-

fa r

B r itis h

th e

case,

2 8 1 .)

Sir Edward Grey telegraphed to the British ambassador at
St. Petersburg that he did not see how Russia could be urged
to suspend military preparations unless some limit were put
by Austria to the advance of her troops into Serbia. (Ibid.
2S2.)
In other words, he did not exercise an effective moderating
influence on St. Petersburg; he justified their military prep­
arations.
The whole story is set forth quite fully by Neilson, a member
o f the British Parliament, in chapter 12 of How Diplomats
Make War. The chapter is entitled “ A Game of Chess.”
Without doubt patriotism In the form o f intense nationalism
moved most o f the European leaders, who thought In terms of
military strategy alone.
It is futile to reproach Individuals in the foreign office of
Petersburg, o f Paris, of London, of Vienna, or Berlin. These
men were produced by their environment in an atmosphere of
secret diplomacy, believing in the power of might first, last,
and all the time, but nevertheless also believing it necessary
to subsidize the press and direct public opinion so as to have
the support as far as possible of their own nationals.
A profound distrust was everywhere evident between the
leaders of the different nations.
These foreign offices were controlled by a consuming desire
for further political power over other people and over other
territory. Their whole diplomacy in foreign relations largely
consisted of trading with each other, giving and taking “ com ­
pensations.” The prime moving force was commercialized im­
perialism.
The Entente Allies should have conquered Germany and
Austria within a few months considering the enormous prepon­
derance of power in favor of the Entente Allies. It should have
been a profitable war in the matter of colonial possessions, an­
nexations, and indemnities; but its prolongation for four years
was very unexpected and costly. The collapse of the Russian
armies, probably due largely to the hate o f the Russian people
of the Romanoff Governmeut, proved a blessing in disguise to
the whole world, includiug the French, British, and Russian
people.
The overthrow of the German military government will prob­
ably prove a blessing to the world, especially to the German
people, notwithstanding the severe suffering which has tem­
porarily taken place since the armistice.
Tn due time no doubt the British, French, and Belgian people
will correct the defects in the Government o f their own fo r­
eign offices, and the extent to which commercialized government
has gone in the past will probably be abated in the future.
I f the principles o f the League of Nations shall become the
rule governing the relation of nations to each other, the evils

v
I

I

i

CONGRESSIONAL RECORD.
o f the past will be entirely abated and international understand­
ing, good will, and cooperation will become the rule o f inter­
national intercourse.
In the light o f the disclosures which are made ®f the secret
diplomacy o f Europe, It is clear that a profound national
humiliation was put upon the German people by article 231 of
the treaty o f Versailles in violation o f the evidence now known
to the world. Article 231 is as follow s:

21

America was not Informed with regard to the secret intrigues
of Europe, nor o f its commercialized imperialistic aims.
America declared a state of war with Germany because the
military rulers of Germany committed one act o f war after
another on America in violation of accepted international law,
and America did not lay down the sword until that Government
was annihilated and the Hohenzollerns driven from power.
It cost America forty-two billions of dollars and hundreds of
A k t . 2 3 1 . T h e a l l i e d a n d associated Governm
ents a
ffirm a n d G any thousands o f men and a huge future tax of pensions. Happily
erm
accepts the responsibility o f G e r m a n y a n d h e r a l l i e s f o r causing all the for the freedom o f mankind the war resulted in the destruction
loss and dam t o w h i c h t h e a l l i e d a n d a s s o c i a t e d G o v e r n m e n t s a n d o f the three great military dynasties— of the Hohenzollerns of
age
t h e i r n a t i o n a l s h a v e b e e n s u b j e c t e d a s a c o n s e q u e n c e o f the war im
­ Germany, the Hapsburgs of Austria, and the Romanoffs of
Russia— and has promoted the cause o f democracy and the free­
posed upon them by the aggression of G any a n d h e r a l l i e s .
erm
dom o f mankind.
This article makes the German Republic, representing a free
But the record which I have disclosed, Mr. President, that the
people, accept the responsibility of having imposed upon the British foreign office did not dare to disclose to the British peo­
Allies the W orld War by the aggression o f the Imperial Ger­ ple in their Parliament the truth of the secret Intrigue with the
man Government of 1014, which was the master o f the subject French and Russian Governments, thereby giving the highest
German people.
testimony to America that British public opinion, like American
The German people feel a profound bitterness over this public opinion, will not consciously support international intrigue.
article and its consequences, and it will be well for the world It Is for American statesmen to consider now how far these
to consider whether a reconciliation between the peoples of secret forces are in control o f the British and French Govern­
Germany, France, and Great Britain Is possible so long as the ments, and the extent to which they are in control must be
German people are unjustly charged with this great wrong.
read in the light o f the actions o f these Governments, not
In the Memoirs o f IzvolskI is narrated a personal attempt, merely by their words or official public communications.
o f William II, In 1003, to establish permanent peace between
The purposes o f America in fighting this war were expressed
Russia, Germany, and France in the so-called Treaty o f Rjorkoe, with great force in the address o f the President of the United
as fo llo w s :
States, January 8, 1918, and subsequent explanatory addresses
T h e i r Im p e r ia l M a je s t ie s , th e E m p e r o r o f a ll th e R u s s ia s , o f t h e o n e
in which he voiced the declared purposes o f the Entente Allies
p a r t, a n d th e E m p e r o r o f G e r m a n y , o f th e o th e r p a r t, w it h th e o b je c t
and conditions on which they were willing to make peace, and
of
a ssu rin g
th e
peace
of
E urope,
have
agreed
upon
th e
fo llo w in g
which they, after nine days’ discussion at the Trianon, Ver­
p o in t s o f Ih e t r e a t y h e r e in a fte r r e la te d , w ith r e fe r e n c e to a d e fe n s iv e
sailles, formally accepted November 4, 1918. They then and
a llia n c e :
there pledged themselves to these conditions as the basis upon
“ A r t ic l e I . I f a n y E u r o p e a n S ta t e s h a ll a t ta c k e it h e r o f th e tw o
which the German Republic directed Its military commanders
E m p ir e s , t h e a lli e d p a r t y e n g a g e s to a id h is c o c o n t r a c t o r w it h a ll h is
to sign the terms of an armistice and practically surrendered.
fo r c e s o n la n d a n d o n s e a .
The German Republic accepted the terms and directed their
“ A r t . I I . T h e h ig h c o n t r a c t in g p a r tie s a g r e e n o t to c o n c lu d e a s e p ­
military commanders to accept the terms o f the armistice.
a r a te p ea ce w ith a n y e n em y w h a tso e v e r .
The pledges made to the German Republic through the Presi­
" A r t . I I I . T h e p r e s e n t t r e a ty s h a ll b e in fo r c e fr o m th e m o m e n t o f
dent o f the United States by the Allies was in effect—
t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f p e a c e b e t w e e n R u s s i a a 'n cf J a p a n
and
m a y o n ly
be
(a ) The end o f secret diplomacy.
c a n c e le d b y a y e a r ’ s p r e v io u s n o tic e .
(b ) The removal o f economic barriers and equality of trade.
" A r t. IV . W h en
th is tr e a ty
g o e s in to e ffe c t, R u s s ia w ill t a k e
th e
(c ) Impartial adjustment o f colonial claims.
n e c e s s a r y s t e p s to m a k e Its t e r m s k n o w n to F r a n c e a n d in v ite h e r t o
(d ) Association of nations in a League o f Nations, having in
s u b s c r ib e to it a s a n a lly .”
mind the protection of every nation, o f its territorial integrity,
N ic h o l a s .
and political independence.
.
W il l ia m .
(e ) A just and stable peace; that Germany should—
The hostility o f France to this treaty caused its cancella­ a c c e p t a p l a c e o f e q u a l i t y a m o n g t h e p e o p l e s o f t h e e a r t h * * •
tion.
i n s t e a d o f a p l a c e of m a s t e r y .
The records to which I have above referred show in many
( f ) The right to live on equal terms of liberty and safety of
ways the efforts of the German Government to effect a rap­
prochement with France and with Great Britain, all o f which all nations.
(g ) The destruction of any arbitrary power anywhere that
were unavailing.
One o f the most learned men in Europe, E. D. Morel, a mem­ can separately, secretly, and of its own single choice disturb the
ber o f the British Parliament, has written several works ex­ peace of the world.
(h ) The consent o f all nations to be governed in their con­
plaining this unfortunate condition of European diplomacy,
such as Truth and the War. Diplomacy Revealed.
Ten duct toward each other by the same principles o f honor and of
Tears o f Secret Diplomacy, in which these processes are ex­ respect for the common law of civilized society that governs the
plained in great detail and fully confirm what the records to Individual citizens of all modern States in their relations with
which I have above referred e x h ib it; and the underlying policy one another.
(i) The impartial justice meted out must involve no dis­
o f the diplomacy of the foreign office of the European nations
is set forth by Leonard W olf in a little work called “ Economic crimination between those to whom we wish to be just and
Imperialism,” showing the substantial fact that governments those to whom we do not wish to be just.
( j ) No special or separate interest of any single nation, or
had been employed for money making purposes in the exploita­
tion o f the ignorant and unenlightened races; that under this any group o f nations, can be made the basis of any part of the
settlement which is not consistent with the common interest
policy all o f A frica had been divided up and other parts o f the
world seized for similar purposes, to make rich the industrial­ o f all.
(k ) No leagues or alliances or special covenants or under­
ists of the nation which annexes and controls such territories.
The covenant of the League of Nations is bringing before the standings within the general or common fam ily of the League
world a new conception o f international relationship In which of Nations.
(l) No special, selfish economic combinations within the
international justice, understanding, and good will is being
league.
made increasingly possible.
(m ) All international agreements and treaties of every kind
America is now concerned In judging from the past the prob­
abilities of stability in Europe. Unless Europe shall have stable must be made known in their entirety to the rest o f the world.
(n ) No punitive damages, no annexations, no indemnities,
government, America can not afford to extend any large credits
to Europe which it might be desirable to do to help the people but an honorable and a just peace.
The German Republic accepted and instructed its military
o f France and the people of Germany to again get back Into
officials. Then the Entente military command imposed the mili­
full production.
W e all desire truly to see <he French protected. I favored tary terms on the German generals, as shown In Exhibit 14.
The manner in which the British, French, and Belgian Gov­
the treaty guaranteeing France protection and fully supported
France during the war, hut the Ruhr invasion is indefensible ernments carried out these pledges is set forth in the treaty of
Versailles and analyzed with great care by Warren Hills in
from any standpoint.
“ Lex Talionis ” and by J. Maynard Keynes in ‘‘ Economic
A M E R IC A J U S T I F I E D IN E N T E R IN G T H E W A R .
Consequences o f the Peace.”
They show the Entente statesmen entirely violated the
America was justified In entering the war regardless o f who
was responsible for willing the war and putting it in motion. pledges made, and the United States has been put by them In
76876— 11




C6

U

22

a U

i J i l d

1

> i v v / i o o

CONGRESSIONAL RECORD.

the false position o f having betrayed the German people with
fulse promises to induce their surrender. The United Stntes
should not be content to rest under this unjust imputation
without proper protest.
The English people are becoming
impatient with these conditions.
The terrible anxiety of France, Great Britain, and Italy, which
led them to fully accept American terms, is shown by Exhibit 13,
in which Foch, Clemenceau, Lloyd George, and Orlando im­
plored American aid June 3, 1918, ns necessary to avoid entente
defeat.
E X H IB IT
(A c tio n
The
in g

P r im e

at

of

V e r s a ille s ,

th e

U n ite d

“ W e
th e
at

one

tim e

p ast

g r a v ity ,
in

and

d an ger

to

p o s s ib le

sp ect

th e

s h o u ld
J u ly

avert

sen ts

e s ta b lis h
q u ir e d

th is

c a m p a ig n

to

of

n eed s
U n ite d

th a n

le v ie s ,

m o n th , w ith

th a t

th e

we

do

im m e d ia te

regard s
of

th e

as

to

and

c o n tra ry

is

th a t

a

grea t
of

th e

in

th e

m a x i­

w h ic h

m ost

in

re­

m arked,

th e

in

th o se

rep re­
u n le ss

th e

A llie s

to

fo r c e

re­

A m e ric a n

u rges

of

he

war

th e

th e

o p in io n ,

and

p resen t

b e fo r e

fu tu re ,

en a b le

to ta l

w ho

is

c o n tin u o u s

s h o u ld

not

w h o se

m ilita r y

th a t

can
to

not

p roceed

u ltim a te
th e

w ith

as

soon

in

th e

th e

th e

of

th e

and

th e

w ar

c o n tin u o u s
p o s s ib le

of

(F ro m

A lu m n i,

th e
“ The

1920,

th e

A llie d
G reat

V o l.

V I,

1 8 7 .)

And the Allies solemnly declared to the Germans, November
4, 1918:
T h e ir

w illin g n e s s

on

th e

te rm s o f

on

Janu ary,

su bseq u en t

to

peace

1918,

m ake
la id

and

peace

dow n

th e

in

w ith
th e

p r in c ip le s

th e

G overnm en t

P r e s id e n t’ s
of

of

ad dress

s e t t le m e n t

G erm an y

to

C on gress

e n u n c ia te d

in

h is

ad d resses.

Under these terms the Allies—
U n d e rsta n d
to

th a t c o m p e n sa tio n

age

done

th e

th e

a g g r e ssio n

c iv ilia n

of

w ill

p o p u la tio n

G erm an y

by

be

of

m ade

th e

la n d , b y

by

G erm an y

sea ,

and

fo r

and

A llie s

p r o p e r ty

th e ir

fro m

th e

a ll d a m ­
by

a ir .

On November 11, 1918, the President of the United States, In
speaking of the military autocracies of Europe, declared that—
The

great

u n ite d

in

lo n g in g

a

n a tio n s
com m on

of

th e

th in g

th a t

w o r ld

su prem e

r e s o lu tio n

th e

assu red

is p o s s ib le

w ith

fo o d

th e ir

v e ry liv e s .
and

to

in

m ous

and

a s s o c ia te d

w h o le

r e p r e s e n ta tiv e s

m ad n ess

w h ic h
p u rp ose

a ll

*
th e

th e m s e lv e s
su ch

w ar

c o u n c il

th e

c ir c u m s ta n c e s

*

u g ly

d is tr e s s

a

d is in te r e s te d

p e o p le s

th e
*

fo r

up

th e

in

r e lie v e

set

of

th e

H u n ger does

at

so

be

done

b reed

d e fin ite ly
s a tis fy

*

*

have

E m p ir e s

m any

m ake

now
w ill
*

V e r s a ille s

w ill

not

th a t

as

ju s tic e .

C e n tra l

t h a t is in

d is te m p e r s

have

peace

to

by u n a n i­

th a t

every­

s u p p ly

th em

p la c e s t h r e a t e n in g

r e fo r m , b u t it

an

th e

T h e ir

o r d e r ly

life

b reeds
im p o s ­

s ib le .

The Government of Great Britain, immediately after the dis­
armament of the Germans, the taking of their warships, and o f
their mercantile marine, established by an Order in Council a
blockade not only not supplying the food the German people
required, but cutting off the food they might have secured for
themselves, even cutting off fish supply from the Baltic Sea
find using the pressure of famine to coerce the German Republic
to accept the terms o f the treaty o f Versailles. The Entente
76876—




11

H 'S E O . W J U U r ?

FOB

IS O

THE

W O K T .t*

WAB.

A r t . 2 3 1 . T h e a lli e d a n d a s s o c ia t e d G o v e r n m e n t s a ffir m a n d G e r m a n y
a cce p ts

m eet

to

as

C h ie f

v ic t o r y .”

N a tio n a l

b o th

M O B AT

The moral responsibility for willing the World W ar has been
definitely fixed upon Germany by article 231, as follow s:

we

G overn m en t

done,

p r o v id e

p resen t

o v e r e stim a tin g

th e

be

th e

ju d g m e n t

THE

be

p o s s ib ly be d o n e .

c o n d u c tin g

C om m ander

by

th e

h is

d iv i­

B r itis h

m o n th s o f J u n e

a s th is c a n

th a t

th e

p u b lis h e d

in

c o n fid e n t

to

e s s e n tia l

W a r ,”

th e

on

and

w h ic h

as

th e

th e

Is

e x h a u ste d
to

enem y

in fir m ity

d e fea t

r e lia n c e , is

s itu a tio n

s t ill

to e s ta b lis h in g a t o ta l A m e ric a n

and

c a lc u la te d

le v ie s

s u p e r io r ity

E v e n ts

fe e l

th e

w ill

Foch,

e v e r y th in g

in

th e

th ere

v ic to r y

a d a te

a b s o lu te

d u r in g

G erm an

gu n n ers,

a llie d

d iv is io n s

a b ilit y

fo r

w hat

a d v e n t o f A m er ic a n

u ltim a te

p la c e s

of

(o n

A llie s

lo o k in g

a v ie w

of

A llie s

of

in s is te n c e

th e

an

w h ic h ,

G eneral

m ost

and

w ill

A r m ie s

p.

le s s

th e

a rm y

an

100

a

fr e sh

n u m e r ic a l

fo r e se e
su ch

lie

case,

th e

of

to

by

b e in g

and

no

p la c e

th e

of

r a is in g

reserves
th is ,

c o n su m m a te

S ta te s

needs

to

of

of

W ils o n

h ow ever,

200

n u m e r ic a l

A m e ric a

su p erio rity.

s a tis fie d

w ith

c o n tin u e

fro m

th e

u p ),

m a c h in e

s id e

to

c ris is ,

d iv is io n s

u tm o st

dan ger

d iv is io n s a t a s e a r ly

are

m e et­

P r e s id e n t

excess

p o s s ib ility

th e m

th e

and

in

su p e r io r ity

no

th e ir

th e

P r e s id e n t

op pose

p o s s ib le

th e

a llie d

A m e ric a n

3 0 0 ,0 0 0

fo rc e o f 1 0 0

on

p ro v id e

at

fre sh

le s s th a n

“ W e

to

as

is

keep

u n le s s

w ith

m en

th e

of
to

in fa n tr y

b e s h ip p e d

u ltim a te

of

of

im p o ssib le

a b le

fo r

now

th e

us a sta te m e n t o f th e u tm o st

now

th e re

r a p id ly

a d d itio n

it is

is

1 9 1 8 .)

B r ita in ,

a id

The

n u m e r ic a l

as

lo st

im m e d ia te

to

In

th a t

r a is in g

to

th e

to

ren d ered

to

d iv is io n s

num ber

u rges

of

th e

o w in g

enem y.

A m er ic a

as

been

em ergen cy.

s tr a its

b e in g

sh o rta g e

c a m p a ig n
th e

th e

num ber

c o n tin u e

to

2,

m essn ge to

A m e ric a n

p resen ted

th a t,

e x tre m e

war

has

th a t

and

th e re fo r e

m um

has

a llie d

b e r e m e d ie d

He

tro o p s.

and
G reat

th a n k s

w h ic h

great

out

1G 2

in c r e a s in g

th e

A llie s c a n

1

and

fo llo w in g

w arm est

w ith

a

Foch

heavy,

put

of

June

Ita ly ,

th e

p r a c tic a b le

p o in ts

w h ere

very

are

sen d

our

m eet

G eneral

F rench

th ey

to

express

to

w h ic h

is

c o n fe re n c e

F ran ce,

p ro m p tn e ss

seem ed

F ran ce,

s io n s ,

d e s ir e

to

m o n th

c o n tin u e s .

at

of

S ta te s :

d e s ir e

r e m a r k a b le

th e

ta k e n

M in is te r s

X III.

Allies established a reparation eommlaslon, controlled by
France, Belgium, Italy, nnd Groat Britain, who llxed the
reparations regardless o f the promises made the German people
by the allied governments on November 4, 1918.
The Entente Allies in writing the treaty of Versailles took
all the German colonies, took away from German territory a
large part o f east nnd west Prussia, of Poland nnd Silesia,
and the entire left bank o f the Rhine was occupied from Swit­
zerland to Holland, 50 kilometers on the right bank were held
subject to military control, the coal fields of the Suar Valley
were taken by France.
Morosnet, Eupen, and Malmedy were given to Belgium, Schles­
wig added to Denmark, the German Republic not permitted to
enter the League, and all overtures from the German Govern­
ment treated with indifference or contempt.
French officials took an active part In the political disin­
tegration of the German Republic by promoting a movement for
an independent Rhine State, an independent Bavaria, an inde­
pendent Saxony, seized the industrial heart of Germany in the
Ruhr, and made such strenuous demands upon the German Gov­
ernment for instant reparations that that Government is now
absolutely bankrupt, unemployment breaking down the indus­
trial life of the German people and threatening them with
famine. German statisticians estimate that less than 5 per
cent o f the German coal has been left the German Govern­
ment’s con trol; that Germany has lost 14 per cent o f its aren%
10 per cent o f its population, 70 per cent o f Its zinc and iron
ore, 20 per cent o f the potato land, 18 per cent of the wheat
ana rye land, and the cost o f the occupation from 1918 to 1922
is put at four and one-half billion dollars or more than sixteen
times as much as the cost o f German occupation o f France In
1870-1873.
The reparations bill which is estimated by Andre Tardieu
in December, 1918, after the armistice, at nine billions, is now
fixed at thirty-three billions by the employees o f the proposed
beneficiaries, and credits are refused which the Germans esti­
mate at approximately twenty-five billions. The details of
these claims and counterclaims I submit ns Exhibits 15 and 16.

lo s s

th e

r e s p o n s ib ility

and

th e ir

dam age

n a tio n a ls

im p o s e d

upon

to

of

have

th e m

G erm an y

w h ic h

by

been
th e

th e

and

a llie s

su b je c te d
a g g r e s s io n

h er

and
as
of

a llie s

fo r

a s s o c ia te d
a

c a u s in g

con sequ en ce

G erm an y

a ll

G o v e rn m e n ts

and

h er

of

th e

a llie s .

This necessarily means the aggression o f the German Gov­
ernment o f August 1, 1914, under William II, a military autoc­
racy, controlling without their consent the German people with
a rod of iron.
The German people of August 1, 1914, can not be held re­
sponsible for the decision of William II. They were a subject
people. 80 per cent of them were women and children without
political capacity, about 10 per cent were men engaged in pro­
duction and distribution, about 10 per cent were called to arms
by an order o f mobilization which could not be disobeyed
under penalty of immediate death. Something over 10 per
cent of these Germans took up arms under penalty o f d ea th ;
1,773,780 were killed, 4,216,056 were wounded, 1,152,800 were
prisoners or missing, a total o f 7,142,558. Hardly a man
escaped.
But the penalties o f the moral responsibility of willing the
war is being visited on the German people of to-day, 20 per
cent o f whom were unborn babes August 1. 1914. 50 per cent
were then infants, 16 per cent were then women, leaving about
14 per cent of men now living who were then either combatants
or noncombatants.
I f William II was exclusively and entirely responsible for
this war, the Entente Allies have allowed him to go in peace
with his property, and they are imposing the penalties o f this
wrong upon people who can not be charged with the moral
responsibility o f the war and in violation o f the conditions of
the armistice.
But, it will be said, who then shall be responsible for
reparations?
The reparations agreed to— that is, compensation for dam­
ages clone the civilian population of the Entente Allies by the
German troops on land and sea and air— was accepted by the
German Republic, representing the German people, and this
reparation they are legally and morally bound by, hut it should
he established In honor and justice by disinterested judges and
experts, not by the beneficiaries or representatives moved by
the old principles o f European diplomacy that led directly to
this war.

66

CONGRESSIONAL RECORD.
If the old principles o f commercialized imperialism moving
In profound secrecy is to fix the policy o f international relation­
ship, we have no just reason to hope for the restoration of
peace and prosperity in Europe.
The conditions laid down for the armistice by the President
o f the United States, accepted by the Allies, and then accepted
bj- the German Republic, can not be flagrantly dishonored with
impunity. Such evil seeds sown will bring a harvest of hate
and future wars. It is not yet entirely too late to correct this
great wrong to the German people.
The fundamental condition of peace is good faith, absolute
Justice arrived at by Just processes.
Then international understanding and good will becomes
possible. Then we can hope for the actual reduction of arma­
ments to the limit o f domestic requirements for police and
good order.
Then we can hope to see the budgets balanced.
Then we can hope to see European currencies stabilized, put
on a gold basis, and people given a currency medium with
which they can make contracts safely.
Then European bonds could be sold throughout the world to
the fullest extent o f their legitimate needs. Then the safety
o f France will be assured, as ull the world desires.
Then America will he Justified in cooperating with the new
world conducted along the lines o f International Justice, Inter­
national good will, and sincere international commercial and
financial cooperation.
Mr. President, the great masses of the people in France de­
serve the warmest admiration. They ure a great people, very
brave, very loyal, very intelligent, Industrious, and th r ifty ;
their lunguage, their architecture, their sculpture, their paint­
ings, their productions are unsurpassed in beauty. I am con­
vinced that these people in their hearts desire to live at peace
with the world, to live their own lives, raise their children, and
enjoy social intercourse with each other, and that they would
commend international policies which would lead to this result.
And when this has been said, the same thing can be said
with equal truth and with equal force o f the German people,
o f the Italian people, and o f the British people.
Mr. President, I have discharged an irksome, painful duty.
Senators will find the complete record referred to in the biblio­
graphy which I present and will find quotations so abundantly
made that there remains no reason why any Senator should
not be perfectly informed with regard to what has taken place
and what caused the W orld War. It was caused at last by
fear of each other, by ambition, by pride of a fe\v men in a
few chanceries who were doubtless doing what they believed
to be for the welfare and “ glory ” o f their own country, but
whose error o f judgment has crucified the world. We do not
wish a repetition of it.
During the World War I favored the French in every pos­
sible way with money, credit, supplies, ships, and men. I was
one o f those who favored a treaty to guarantee the French
people against future German aggression, and I favor now
whatever is necessary to protect the French people against the
future aggression of Germany, but I do not favor the breach
o f agreement of the armistice conditions on which the peace
o f France and the lives of Frenchmen were saved on the battle
field by the cessation o f battle through the armistice contract
o f November 4. 1918.
The preservation of the w'hlte civilization of Europe demands
that the statesmen of the world realize the importance o f pur­
suing processes which will really and in truth establish inter­
national understanding, good will, and cooperation.
Open diplomacy and the orderly rule o f the people by the
peaceful processes of democratic or republican government is
the true remedy.
It is probably the only remedy, and the people alone can make
It effective in each of the several Nations. America can set a
good example. The success financially and commercially o f this
doctrine in America should encourage the people o f other coun­
tries as they advance in the practice of democratic government'.
Let us still pray with our immortal Lincoln that government
o f the people, by the people, and for the people shall not perish
from the earth.

E x h ib it

5 .— F r n n c o -R u s s ia n

E x h ib it

6 .— C h a p t e r

R u s s ia n

llH T K IT R

TO

SPEECH

OF

MR.

OW EN,

UNITW D

STATES

SE N A T O R

E x h ib it
E x h ib it
E x h ib it
E x h ib it

[E x h ib it s n ot q u o te d In sp eech a re a d d e d h e r e .]
1.— F r a n c o -R u s s la n tr e a ty , 1892.
2.— F r a n c o -R u s s la n m ilit a r y co n fe r e n c e , 1911.
8.— F ra n c o -K u s s ia n m ilit a r y c o n fe re n ce s , 1912.
4 .— F r a n c o -R u s s la n m ilit a r y co n fe r e n c e s , 1918.

78876— 11




FRO M

1 9 1 8 -1 7 .

E n te n te

E x h ib it 7 .—

F a ls ific a tio n — R u s s ia n

E x h ib it

8 .—

L e tte r ,

E x h ib it

9 .—

L e tte r ,

B r itis h

en ten te

G rey

O ran ge

E x h ib it

1 2 .— G e r m a n

E x h ib it

1 3 .— D is p a t c h ,
3,

M o lt k e

to

G rey,

1918,

dem and

on

p r a y in g

1 5 .—

W hat

term s

E x h ib it

1 6 .—

IIo w

E x h ib it

1 7 .—

K ille d

and

E x h ib it

1 8 .—

U n ite d

S ta te s

E x h ib it

1 9 .— C o s ts

of

E x h ib it

2 0 .— B o o k s

2 1 .— A b s t r a c t

sp eedy

has

has

E n te n te

te leg ra m ,
to

th e

was

of

P

th e

a r m is tic e

and

I

you

th e

rort

1918.

in

W o r ld

W ar.

of

N ovem ber

at

Jagow

of

S ie b c r t.

W

uropean

ar.

S n z o n o ff.

L e tte r,

J anu ary

1 9 1 4 .)
a tte n tio n

t e le g r a p h
d e c la r e d

of

your

agency

in

stea d ily

th e

E

tu b

to

18,

G erm an

b etw een

1918.

1 9 1 4 .)

th e

had

th e

W ar— D e

for

B e r lin

w ere

4,

V I.
W o r ld

R u s s ia n

r e la tio n s

r e la tio n s

are

a w a re,

G erm an

ce p ta b le
p osa l

to

has

E n g lish

not
fo r

h ere

th e

e x c e lle n c y

in

B e r lin ,

B ud get

im p r o v in g .

naval

and

th e

ic ith

th e

te

th a t

C o m m issio n
In

m in ister

E n g lish

th e

b etw een

lu te ly

no

sa m e

r e fe r en c e

G erm an

n a v ie s,

(Q u ite

a

m is s io n ”

n o u g h ts

a re

has

of

th e

m en
out

of

sm a ll

th e

th e

th e

a ll

th e

London

in

to ld

m e

le ss

in

of

th is

th is

th e

th e

of

be

cam e

C am bon

fleet

of

th e

la n d

c h ie fly
Thus

n a u g h t,

very

as

m u ch

of

rapproch em en t

fr o m

begu n
ceed

to
to

c e r ta in
ob serve
but

of

I

do

th e

not

r e g u la te
m ore

th e ir

th e

a lso

effo r ts
I

of

la c k

sh a re

in
th e
th e

th e se

p o litica l
G erm an

w o u ld

w o u ld

w o u ld

case
m ake

d e v o te d

fu tu r e
an

had

no

t»

c o n flic ts ,
im p o s s ib le

d is a r m a m e n t

c o n sta n t
he

tw o

fe a rs ,
and
in

rum ors

a grees

th a t

c o u n tr ie s

I

can

not

E n g la n d ,
A fr ic a ,
m ig h t

q u e stio n s.

From

G overn m en t
of

in

be

[R a th e r

fr o m

su sp en d

G osch en

c o u ld

G erm an y

w h ich

p o ssib ility

to

p ow ers

o p in io n

of

ta k en

A part

s u ffic e

case

be

n u m erou s

p ro­

e x p e c t e d .]

sin ce

in terests

n eg o tia tio n s,

th e

great

was

w ork­

be th r o w n

e a sily

re q u ir e s.

he

id e a
th e

case

b u ild

a d v e r tis e d

th ese

G erm an y

ec o n o m ic

to

w h ich

th ese

b etw een

a ll

a

as

h ow ever,

th is

c o u ld

th a t

in

is,

th a t

su ch

w h ose

sta te ,

sin ce

o th er

p e o p le

G er­

w a r s h ip s

h ow ever,

fo r

w ho

not

F ran ce.

m uch

w h ic h
no

had,

w o u ld

and,

to

b u ild

G osch en ,

sh ip b u ild in g

a g a in st

by

m y

dread­

he,

in

r e p lie d

r e la tio n s,

th a t

im p o r ta n t

a greem en t

cou rse,

fu lly

th o u g h t

it

a rm y;

w o r r ie d

A n g lo -G e r m a n

1 6 :1 0 ,

of

C a n a d ia n

of

c o n sta n tly

r e a s o n a b le

(n
had

fa c ts,

ord er

sa v in g s

th e

and

se c re ta ry

w orkm en
in

of

to

G erm an y

C a m b o n ],

th e

a bso­

R u s s ia

a m ba ssa d or

w o u ld

y e a r ,"

d ir ec te d

to

is

A lth o u g h

be­

in te r e sts

w h ic h

th e

Jagow ,

G e r m a n y — a ll

a ll

had

c o n fid e n c e ,

ya rd s

in te r r u p tio n

in

tir ely

p la c e

B e r lin

r e la tio n

th e

to

added,

im p a sse .

s i t u a t i o n ___ u n
p o s a ls

in

ra pproch em ent

so m eth in g

E n g lish

E n g lish

E n g lish

and

a

w ith

sou n d

ya rd s

th e

“ exem pt

th e

stren g th en in g
w o u ld

a

b etw een

in

th a t

of

a cc e p ta b le

a m ba ssa d or

id e a , sin ce

con seq u en ce

th e

th e

in v o lu n ta r ily,

r a ilw a y

p roposal

str ict

s h ip b u ild in g

E n g la n d

r eg a rd in g

to
The

sh ip b u ild in g

w h ich

th e

accordan ce

an sw er.

he

B r itish

sh ip b u ild in g

a pprove

of

occu rred

d e s i r e s . ’ *)

p r o p o r tio n ,
to

a lso h a v e to d o t h e s a m e .
M y
F ren ch
c o lle a g u e
[J u le s
a sk ed

S t.
m y

a ssu ra n ces

and

a ssu m p tio n

in

a ll

o p in io n s

e s ta b lis h

e x p la n a tio n s

not
by

p r iv a te

sh ip s

th is,

to

m y

em p lo ym en t, w h erea s

by

of

ta k in g

to

pro­

a sk ed

I

th is,

w ere

on e q u a rter

“ d ip lo m a tic

As

are

G erm an

and

th is

as

and

th e

c a b in e t

had

ac­

th is

a ssu ra n ces

lea d

th a t

of

e c o n o m ic

lo c a lit y

or

e v a s iv e

o p in io n ,

of

over

m e,

an

m u tu a l

fr o m

in s tr u c te d

u n r e lia b le

fin a lly

exch a n ge

a gree.

year,

t o ld

h im

n a m ely,

a ffir m e d

sc a r c e ly

w h o le

been

th e

fo r

n eg o tia tio n s

E ?ig lish

e n tir e ly

p r o p o sitio n s.

e x p la in e d ,

u su a l,
th e

p rop osa l

ex c lu d e d

c o u ld

g iv e n

th a t

th e

y e a r ,"

im p r o v e m e n t

m ig h t

as

re m o te

c o lle a g u e

a

be

of

was

exem pt

rec u r r in g

an

c o n sta n t

to

C h u r c h ill’s

E n g lish

fo r

su ch

w h ich

th a t

lim ite d

“ h is to r ic

G osch en

to

“

d ecla res
no

th a t

r e la tio n

C h u r c h ill,

an

c o n sta n tly

w ere

th a t

of

Jagow

e ffe ct

was

and

A fr ic a .

m any

id e a

th e

by

c o u n tr ie s.

v a lu e

to

th e

a dvanced

B erlin

th a t

p rop osed

to

th e

th e

re p ly

was

A s

h ow

and

London

no

as

a cc ep ted .

th o u g h t

b o th

G o sc h e n ’s

A s

re la tio n s

London

rem a rk ed

1 6 :1 0 ,

p resen t

to

A n g lo -G e r m a n

tw een

be

th e

c o lle a g u e

sta te sm e n

provoked

T ir p itz

fle e t,

G erm an y.

c o u ld

J am es

in

14,

sta te m e n ts.

W ar.

c o n d itio n s

th e

c a lle d

th e

d e c la r a tio n

m u tu a l

N ovem ber

w ounded

r e p a r a t io n s

19

of

S ta te

O r­

m e n tio n e d .

A s
to

N o.

A n g lo -G e r m a n

Foeh

W o r ld

and

3 1 -F e b r u a r y
t e le g r a m

C le m e n c e a u ,

s u p p o rt.

W ar.

A m b n ssa d or

c o m m u n ic a tio n

p assage.

q u o ted .

ntbn tb

R u s s ia n

of

F ran eo-

p a id — K e y n e s .

in

( F e b r u a r y —J u l y ,

th a t

1912.

(B a ils m a n ),

fo r

by

G erm an y

k ille d

d ip lo m a c y

E

urth er

S ec r e ta r y

23,

A m e ric a n

E X H IB IT

m y

1914.

p a id — c o m p a r a tiv e

w ounded

W o r ld

E x h ib it

The

of

L lo y d -G e o r g e ,

im p o s e d

G erm an y
m uch

Focb,

fo r

1 4 .— A r m i s t i c e

In

W o r ld -s e c r e t

(B a u sm a n ).

B e lg iu m

G eneral

E x h ib it

th e

th e

22, 1912.

N ovem ber

p r e p a r a tio n s

su m m ary

E x h ib it

(8 8 7 .

Book

C am bon. N ovem ber

m ilita r y

1 1 .— V o n

June

to

C am bon

E x h ib it

F

and

m em o.

E x h i b i t 1 0 .— R u s s ia n

la n d o ,

D ip lo m a c y

d o cu m e n ts.

p o ssib ility

OKLAH OM A.

tre a ty ,

X IT .

provem ent

A P P E N D IC E S .

23

ju d g in g

to

in
free

once
W ill

p le a se

what

I

an

im ­

th e r e
th e

is

th ey
tim e

th e

en ­

have
pro­
to

»

a b le

to

le a d
am

a

fu tu r e.

m y se lf

in

fin a lly
h ere

of

B r itish ;

im p r e ssio n

th ese

aaooaa

£3

t v k o is s s h d m o j

CONGRESSIONAL RECORD.

24

efforts make upon leading cir cle s in England.

[T h e y

m ade

very

(8 4 1 .

little

The

R u s s ia n

am b assad or
ruary

I m p r e s s i o n .]
(8 3 8 .

The

sam e

to

th e

nam e.

C o n fid e n tia l

12.
•

•

•

g r o w in g

A c c o r d in g

m ilita r y

to

w h o lly

stre n g th

rep o rt,

c o n fid e n tia l

of

F ebru ary

2 7 -M a r c h

Yonr

1 9 1 4 .)

R u s s ia

la

rep o rts

c a u s in g

r e a c h in g

ever

m e,

m ore

th e

a n x ie ty

th e

c a ta stro p h e

Is a x io m a t ic
(8 3 9 .

The

In

e ith e r

o f th e

sam e

a

p o lic y

to

th e

m ilita r y
of

th e

or an

e c o n o m ic

w ay,

th e

C o n fid e n tia l

le tte r ,

M arch

2 7 -A p r il

9,

1 9 1 4 .)
The

u n fr ie n d ly

a ttitu d e

ever

s in c e

th e

has

m u ch

Im p ro v e d

upon

R u s s ia ,

th a t

fa c t

b e g in n in g
of

no
to

d is to r tio n s .

T h is

c ite m e n t

dow n.

s t a n t ly

ta ry

d ie

fro m

a

is

m en

and

T h is

m a n y’s

fe a r

a re

by

th is

or

S o u th

la te r

p r o b a b ly

com e

th ro u g h

cou rse,

I

due

ary

even

th e

le a s t,

th e

ren ew al

w h ic h ,
fo r c e

12,

is

of

to

th is

is

m u ch
of

our

to

G er­
T h ey

b etw een

p r e p a r a tio n s
a b ilit y

a

of

c o n flic t

th e

m u st

h ere.

A u s tr ia .

rep o rted

p e r s o n a lly ;

d is tu r b e d

our

arm y

c o n v ic tio n .

is

even

Our

th is

perh aps

is

w o u ld

by

of

m ore

m a n i­

c o m p a tr io ts

fe e lin g

th e ir

to

t a lc s

w ho

m e.
are

to

have

le tt e r

Of

m u ch

d o u b t,

th e

of

in

R u s s ia

p rep ared n

m ay

th e

e x is tin g

so,

F ebru ­

fu r th e r m o r e ,

w h ic h

m in d

of

ta k e n

m ilita r y

1917,

th e

my

m easu res

no

in

upon

In

our

is

tre a ty

p r e y in g
p r e fe r

th e

and
T h ere

c o m m e r c ia l

G erm an y,

lo n g

fr e q u e n t ly

w a r lik e

p ow er.

th e

In

m ili­

m u s t c o n ta in so m e k e rn e l o f tr u th ; a ll th e m o r e

my

p r o b a b ly ,

as

of

test

in c re a se

su ch

fa v o r a b le

in flu e n c e

th e

c o n flic t

su ch

R u s s ia

G e r m a n G o v e r n m e n t, a s I rep o rted

2 7 -M a r c h

to w a rd
A t

th e

n o t d o u b te d
to w a rd

have

on

That

h o s tilit y

a

ex­
con­

o p in io n

th e ir

m ilita ry

e n t ir e ly

th e

h ear

m a n ife stly

fo r

or

s e r io u s

le t
I

p u b lic

of

th is

or

so

ec o n o m ic

our

a tta c k s

w h e r e in

due

and

R u s s ia .]

a p p a r e n tly

and

m om en t

[D e p e n d in g

d a lly

not

secret

is

sin ce

th e

e x a g g era ted , b u t th e y
6 in c e

fa v o r a b le
n eig h b o r ,

to

no

m ilita r y

th is

to

not

our

lo a n s

is

here

can

of

c o m p le te .

G erm an y

fe st,

m ake

does

R u s s ia ,

fe e lin g

m ost

m ake

a p p a re n t,

w in te r ,

p u b lis h in g

h ow ever,

a g a in s t

w a r lik e

ea ste r n

to

o n ly

n o tic e a b le
la s t

in v e n tio n s

p ress

q u ie t,

its

of

fr e e

G erm an

ever

becam e

ceased

m is s e d

Ju n k ers

and

th e

m ea n s

com e soon er
In

is

has

Is

m o s tly

is

as

w h ic h

S a n d e r s e p is o d e

p ress

th e

sou rce,

in c rea se

h er

banks

of

P r u s s ia n

th e

and

no

F rench

th e

von

c o m p a r a tiv e

arou sed

ex c ite m e n t
of

th a t

G erm an y

as

The

R u s s ia ,

T h is

r e lia b le

R u s s ia ,

L im a n

o p p o rtu n ity

a ttitu d e

s till

m ood.

th in k

th e

la te .

a lth o u g h

u n fa v o r a b le

G erm an y

to w a rd

of

p rove

B e r lin

tre a ty

ss.

th a t
le s s

c a b in e t,

r e m a in

in

a s p o s s ib le .

N e v e r th e le s s

I

am

of

th e

o p in io n ,

in

w h ic h

I

am

c o n fir m e d

by

th e

the Berlin cabinet dors not
share th e vie w s of th e bellicose e lem en ts o f Germany, which p r o fe s s to
desire an im m ediate arm ed conflict w ith Russia. The German Gov­
ern m en t p re fe r s to try all p e a ce fu l m ean s tow ard reco n cilia tio n b efore
taking an y d e c i s i v e step. A m o n g t h e s e m e a n s o n e o f t h e m o s t i m ­
secret

in fo r m a tio n s

p o rta n t

is

th e

in c id e n ta l
fu lly

c o m m e r c ia l

n e g o tia tio n s

d r a fte d

(8 4 0 .

m e n tio n e d

S a zo n o ff

la c k
th e

to

to

th e

R u s s ia n

ire

fr e q u e n tly

w h ic h

an

w o u ld

organ

su ch

been

u n ite
as

The

corresp on d en ce

la y s

w h ic h

have

an

to

th e

c a b in e t d o e s
not

we

th e ir

v ie w s .

a re

th a t

m e r e ly

I

to




at

th e

h ere

lin e s

fo r

of

London.

N o.

a

th e
care­

T e le g r a m .

11

th e

enough
to

in
G rey

in st r u ctio n s

in

[a t

in
as

th e

to

th re e

of

th is

of

lo s e s
as

m a tter.

a c tio n
in

not

are

e x a g g e r a tio n ],

soon

as

to

m ore
you r

of

T e le g r a m ,

Feb­

r e c e iv e d .

b y t e le g r a p h ic

c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w o u ld

in s ta n c e d

I

d e c is io n s
case

th e

of

o f th e

be a v o id e d

th re e p o w e rs

A lb a n ia ,

w h ith e r

and

w o u ld

th e

th e

In flu e n c e

be en h an ced .

P r in c e

of

W ie d

w as

to

Grey r e ­
p lied th a t in the ca s e m en tion ed by m e the Triple Alliance had th e ad­
v a n t a g e o f being able to a c t , w h ile th e Triple E ntente cou ld o n ly d e fe n d
i t s e l f again st en cr o a ch m e n ts. H ow ever, Grey raised no o b je c t i o n to
y o u r proposal, and told me that hr was plea sed to a c c e p t it. and s u g ­
g e s t e d that I should m e et him to-m orrow , Thursday. He has a lr ea d y
in fo rm ed Cambon o f this, w ho has m ade a sim ilar s ta t e m e n t to him
this m orning.
proceed,

(8 4 2 .

b e fo r e

v a r io u s

S a z o n o ff to

th e

im p o r ta n t

R u s s ia n

M arch

q u e s tio n s

had

am bassad or at

2 0 -A p r il

2,

1914.

been

P a r is .
N o.

s o lv e d .

C o n fid e n tia l le tt e r ,

2 3 .)

In y o u r le t t e r o f March 6-18 you m en tion ed t h e question o f a c lo s e r
union b etw een Russia and England and expressed th e w ish to a scer ta in
m y vie w s upon this s u b je ct ( I s w o l s k y ' s i n q u i r y w a s p r o b a b l y t h e r e s u l t
of

F ren ch

r e a c tio n

to

S a zo n o ff’s

regret

th a t

th ere

w as

“ la c k ”

of

an

th e m o r e so s i n c e t h e r e
w as a possibility that this question w ould be to u ch e d u pon by th e
lea d ers o f French and English fo r eig n p o licy d u rin g th e im p e n d in g H a d
o f K in g G eorge to Paris. I th e r e fo r e co n s id e r it m y d u ty to in fo rm y o u
that a fu r t h e r r e i n fo r c e m e n t and d e v e lo p m e n t o f th e so c a lled Triple
Entente, and, if possible, its tra n sfo rm a tio n into a n ew trip le allian ce
appears to m e to be a dem and o f the p r e s en t hour. Whilst th o r o u g h l y
in su rin g th e in tern ation al position of France, Russia, and England, an
a llian ce o f this n a tu re would, beca u se o f its lack o f any t h o u g h t o f c o n ­
q u e s t o n the part o f th e p o w ers m e n t i o n e d , t h r e o t e n n o o n e , b u t s i g n i f y
the best g u a r a n ty f o r th e p re s erv a tio n o f th e p e a c e o f Europe. ( W o u l d
organ

have

fa c ilita tin g

done

th a t

S a z o n o f f 's

In te rc o u rse

by

of

s ta b iliz in g

s o lic it u d e

fo r

th e

E n te n te ),

In te r n a tio n a l

th e

peace

of

r e la tio n s .
E urope

A t

th e

c o u ld

sam e

not

be

tim e
ta k e n

i t s arridre p e n s ie.)
Certain step s h a v e alrea d y been undertaken by France, and England
w ith r e g a rd to w ork in g out a plan fo r th e m ost u n ifo rm a ctio n possible
and f o r a m o r e p r e c i s e definition of m utual obligation s. O b v i o u s l y , w o

s e r io u s ly ; It h a d

to o

m u st

w ork

q u e s tio n s
fo r

in

m ig h t

th e

be

sam e

jo in e d

d is c u s s io n — s u b je c ts

lis h

in te r e s ts

In

d ir e c tio n ,

to

n

w h ic h

n u m erou s

w h o le

w hereby
s e r ie s

im p in g e

of

h e a v ily

a

num ber

s u b je c ts
upon

of

in c id e n ta l

w h ic h

R u s s ia n

are

r ip e

and

Eng­

fie ld s .

As y ou a rc aw are, t h e in n er situ ation o f England is at p r e s e n t su ch
that it w h o lly absorbs th e a tte n tio n o f the R oyal G overn m en t an d of
th e public. ( D i s t u r b a n c e s i n I r e l a n d a n d l a b o r q u e s t i o n s . ) Under t h e se
c i r cu m s ta n ce s th e soil fo r in tern a tion a l a g r e em en ts , c o n c e r n in g w h ich
the English, in a cco r d a n ce w ith th e ir n atu re, are so s e n s i t i v e , is m o s t
u nfa vora b le, and w e m ust, th e r e fo r e, n o l e n s v o l e n s , pu rsue this o b je c t
w ith the g re a te st caution.
In spite, o f this, I sh a re y ou r opinion that it w ou td not prove, inex­
p e d ien t if Poincarfi and D oum crgue ( F r e n c h m i n i s t e r o f f o r e i g n a f f a i r s ) ,
on th e occasion o f th e m e etin g unth K ing George, and his m i n i s t e r ( S i r
F . d w a r d G r e y ) , w ou ld in con fid en ce in d ica te to them that a c lo s e r a g r e e ­
m ent b e tw e e n Russia and England w ould also be hailed in France, as
an au sp iciou s e v e n t, w h ich w ould p r o v e equ ally desirable to all th r ee
p a r tn er s in th e Triple Entente. T h e e s t a b l i s h i n g o f t h e c o n d i t i o n s
upon

w h ic h

n a tu r a lly

a p o lit ic a l c o n v e n tio n

have

to

be

th e

of

su b je c t

and

tio n

or

London ;

has

it

c o n s is te n tly

t r e a t y .)

sim ila r

but

T h is

th is

of

c o n v e n tio n

b etw ee n

is

s o r t m ig h t be c o n c lu d e d

d ir e c t

p o s s ib le

d e n ie d

m ig h t

de­

o b je c t
s h o u ld
of

a ctin g

and
its

(8 4 3 .

The

R u s s ia n

th e n

R u s s ia

am b assad or

th e

c o m m u n ity

grou p

of

As

E n te n te

th e

w e

c o n fe re n c e

w ill

S a z o n o ff.
3 9 .)

n e g o tia tio n s

w o u ld

b etw ee n

th a t

th a t

th e re

R crve
and

th e

S t.

ns

a

F ren ch

w as
b a sis

a

p o litic a l

fo r

conven­

w o r k in g

out

a

E n g la n d .

London

a ffa ir s .

th e

still

th a t

le a d s

year’s

la s t

o p p o s ite

s lig h t

sen se

th is

of

e s t a b lis h

th ereb y

la c k

perh aps

pow ers

th e
a

c o n fer e n c e

p rogress

G rey

com m on

th is

convene

London

le a s t

to

fro m

but

pow ers

its e lf,

th e

a m b a ssa d o ria l

it,

th e

and

o u r se lv e s

to
N o.

G overn m en t
w ou ld co n sid e r it u se fu l to p ropose to Grey to com m u n ica te to us <r»
co m m o n th e co n te n ts o f th e political co n v e n tio n w h ich you speak o f as
h a v in g been co n clu d ed b etw een England and France. ( T h e B r i t i s h

2 3 2 .)

c o n v in c e

v iew s

a g a in

upon

le a s t

to

r e s u lt in g

d e s ir e

in s is t

w h ile

sp ea k

le a g u e r e c e i v e s
76870—

not

d e lib e r a tin g

w ea k

you

at

1914.

a b le

e ffe c t on

r e p r e s e n ta tiv e s
F or

coh eren ce,
beg

in ju r io u s

fu r th e r

p rop osa l

th ro u g h
th e ir

12,

th e

th e

yea r.

s h a ll

p r e p a r in g

a lo n g

252

w e ig h t o f th e

G overnm en t

have

organ

p ow ers,

London

are

am b assad or

3 0 -F e b r u a r y

la st

we

th ey
en ergy

P a r is .

la te
an

so

s p e c ia l

and

P e te rsb u rg

Janu ary

Of

tre a ty ,

w ith

th a t

p la n .

*
Copy

above,

cau sed
j

e x p r e s s io n

E n t e n t e .]

sam e.

N o.

London
1914.

Cambon r e c e iv e d t h e n e ce s s a r y in stru ction s y e s te r d a y , a r i d 7 i n ­
f o r m e d Grey to-day o f y o u r proposal.
I told him that, co n s id e r in g the
w a n t o f an adequate organ, such as last y e a r ’s ambassador ial c o n f e r ­
e n ce, you t h o u g h t it n e c e s s a r y to a rra n ge fo r o n ex chan ge o f v ie w s on
th e p e n d in g question s, in ord er to a rr iv e i n this w a y at a p relim in a ry
a g r e e m e n t b etw een th e th r ee e n t e n t e pow ers. I n t h i s w a y t h e d e l a y s

s e r io u s

a t B e r lin .
In th e opinion o f German G overn m en t circles, the
n ew h ea v y s ie g e a r t ille r y in Russia trill he finished by 1916, and from
that m om en t Russia will step into th e lists as a m ost form idable fo e
w ith w h om G ermany toill h a v e to cr o ss arms.
No w o n d e r that in v i e w o f such con sideration s the Germans are
stra in in g e v e r y n e r v e to be re a d y fo r w a r wi'.'i us, and no w o n d e r that
t h e y try to in tim id a te us, so as to a v ert the suspicion that Germ any
is afraid o f Russia. N everth eless it is m y co n v ictio n that b etw een all
the lines p rin ted about Russo-German relations in th e German n e w s ­
papers o f late on e m a y a lw ays read fe a r o f Russia. [ R e f e r s t o t h e
cry
o f t h e G e r m a n s : Die ru s s is ch e
Gefahr — t h e R u s s i a n p e r i l . ] In
con clu sion , let me express th e h o p e that t h e y are not in erro r about
this at Berlin, and th a t w e are a ctu a lly taking all m easu res fo r
s tr e n g t h e n in g our m ilitary p o w er, w h i c h m u s t co m p e l Germany to
h es ita te b e fo r e no m ea su res so as to b r i n g h er p re p a r ed n ess fo r w a r
to the h ig h e s t pitch. [ S w e r b e i e f f , k n o w i n g t h a t t h i s w o u l d b r i n g o n

te le g r a m

at

6 -1 8 ,

our

fo rc e.

F ren ch

c o l­

at

P a r is

A p r il
A fte r
u se

of

sa tio n

th e

th e
in

r e c e ip t

fir st

of

your

o p p o r tu n ity

regard

to

th e

S a zo n o ff.

M arch

m ore

q u e s tio n

L e tte r,

M arch

27-

1 9 1 4 .)

of

le tte r
once

to

9,

of

to
a

2 0 -A p r il

en gage
c lo s e r

2,

N o.

D ou m ergu e

23,
in

u n d e r s ta n d in g

I

m ade

conver­
b e tw e e n

D ou m ergue con firm ed to me in th e m ost d e cis iv e
m a n n er his in ten tion o f speaking to Grey, d u rin g th e im pendin g m eetin g ,
to th e e ffe c t that an a g r e e m e n t o f this n a tu re w as h ig h ly desirable. He
b e liev es that it w ill p r o v e v e r y e a s y to bring fo r th co n v i n c i n g a rg u m e n ts
in fa v o r o f this th o u g h t, because it is most obvious that, in asm u ch as
F ran ce has s p ecia l m ilitary and n aval u n d ersta n d in g s with Russia and
R u s s ia

and

E n g la n d .

u u o ;x -m T V N O is s a a o N O D

rs

RECORD.

C O N G R E S S IO N A L

25

England, this system m ust be coordina ted and com p lem en ted by co r r e ­
spondin g u n d erstan din gs between Russia and England. D oumergue be­
lieves that th e Russo-English a g reem en t would h a v e to be in the form
o f a naval con ven tion , and that this would re n d er n e c e s s a r y t ech n ica l
co n su lta tio n s between the three staffs o f admiralty. (Russian. F r e n c h ,

the v i e w s y ou r e x cellen cy entertain ed re g a rd in g th e n e c e s s i t y o f a still
c lo s e r union b etw een th e Triple Entente, a c co r d in g to w h ich e v e n r*
allian ce a ft e r th e p a ttern of th e t h r ee o t h e r p o w ers was n ot excluded.

■ nd

a llia n c e .

B r i t i s h .)

T T ff/r r e g a r d to the political co m p a ct betw een England and France,
w hich is to be com m un icated to us a f t e r con su lta tion w ith Qrey, Doum e rg u e assu red me that France and England w e r e n ot bound by p o s itiv e
p olitical obligations, but that, should th e cou rse o f eiwnts lead to c o m ­
mon a ction on th e part o f both p ow ers, they w ou ld ad h ere to th e t e c h ­
n ical a r r a n g e m e n t s worked out by the g en era l staffs. ( Q u i t e t h e w o r s t
fo rm

of

‘‘ a llia n c e ”

ad versary
th e

and

p o litic a l

th e re

le a v e s

opponent

Is,

becau se

It

casus fo e d e r is

th e
can

not

d e fin e

conveys

no

w a r n in g

d e te r m in a b le

to

h im s e lf, a s

by

he

to

th e

c ir c u m s ta n c e s

can

e a s ily

do

In

D oumcrguc added that he did not
r e m e m b e r w h e th e r the fo r eg o in g was expressed in a definite form ula,
but h e p ro m ised to look up th e docu m en ts in the a rch iv es o f the m in­
istry , and to bear in mind the w ish es w h ich w e h ave expressed.
case

of

Up

“ d e fe n s iv e ”

to

th e

p resen t

c o n v e r s a tio n
I

s h a ll

cu ss
(8 4 4 .

w ith

m ake

w ith

an

h im

The

a lli a n c e s .)

I

have

P o in c a r ^

e ffo r t

th e

to

upon

see

c o n te n ts

R u s s ia n

not

had
th is

h im

at

m e,

E d w a rd

to ld

G rey

me

th a t

o p p o r tu n ity

of

dor,

had

w h ic h

m anner
h is

how

v is it.

req u ested
s in c e

s e e in g
not

me

He

w ho

had

to ld

p erson al

save

hnd

me

th a t

ta k e n

part

In

he

th e

s t ill

h is

at

E re.

retu rn

and

my
But

to

d is ­

S a ro n o ff.

h im ,

P a r is

p resen ce
to

th e

L e tte r,

not

d e s c r ib e

th in k

th o se

A p ril

upon

had

th e
to

had

F rench

me

in

r e c e iv in g
no

o th e r

am b assa­

a

v e r ita b le

w h ic h h e h a d r e c e iv e d o n

he

of

and,

he

of

im p r e s s io n

a ls o

th e

w as

m e r e ly

K in g

and

g iv in g

of

a ll

th e n

th ere

corded
bore
had

w as

T h e ir

th e

v is it.

“ c r is is ”

M a je s tie s

as

d e e p ly

in

upon

a

any

T h a t,

on

o f sin c e r e

It rested

of

R u s s i a .)

a ll

sort

Id

in

th a t

th e

F ran ce

as

E urope;

a d d itio n

o c c a s io n s

sy m p a th y .

t h e c o n c lu s io n

root

o f th is

to

sta m p

d raw n

ta k e n

no

w ent

to

and

From

p a r tic u la r ly

th is

E n g la n d ,
fir m

s h o r tly

th is ,

th e

w h erever

fu n d a m e n ta l
in

and

th ey

th e

B r itis h

Id e a

o f th e

and

th a t

e n d u r in g

a fte r w a r d s

r e c e p tio n

in

ac­

appeared

G overnm en t
E n te n te

had

con sequ en ce

b a s is .

On this o cca s io n Grey spoke w ith a w arm th w h ich is n ot usual w ith
him and w h ich p r o v e d that h e m ade his d e d u ctio n s from firm ly
g r o u n d e d ju d g m e n t. The intention by w h ich he w as g o v e r n e d in asking
m e to c o m e and s ee him, in order to make such a com m u n ication to me,
is e n t i r e ly clear. He w is h ed to a n n o u n ce to me the b egin n ing o f a
ph ase o f a still clo s e r ra p p roch em en t to France. This in ten tion beca m e
still m ore obvious to m e upon his rem arking to me w ith o u t an y prelim i­
n aries, th a t I w as d o u b tlessly in form ed about th e c o n v e rs a tio n w h ich he
had had w ith D ou m ergue on the s u b ject o f Russia. He told m e that
it had been im possib le fo r him in Paris, being at a d ista n ce from his
co ll e a g u e s , to do m ore than express his p ersonal a s se n t to the plan, a c­
c o r d i n g to w h ich th e G overn m en ts o f England and F rance w e r e to
in fo rm th e Russian G overn m en t o f all m ilitary c o n v e n ti o n s existing
b e tw e e n England and France. ( T h e R u s s i a n G o v e r n m e n t h a d d e s i r e d
th a t

on

fo r m e r

o c c a s io n s ,

w ith o u t

su ccess,

G rey
to

U ls te r

to ld

me

convene
q u e s tio n

th a t,
th e

to

h is

c a b in e t

and

th e

great
fo r

re g re t,

th is

budget

it

p u rp ose

dem anded

had

not

d u r in g
th e

been

th is

e n tir e

p o s s ib le

fir st

fo r

w eek ; th e

a tte n tio n

of

th e

7 said o n ly a f e w w o r d s in rep ly .
I thanked Sir Edward Grey fo r
his co m m u n ica tio n and told h i m that I knew h o w to ap p recia te its
sig n ifica n ce to its full extent. [ B e n c k e n d o r f f r e a l i z e d t h a t a n a v a l o r
c o n v e n tio n

fa r -r e a c h in g
in g
tio n

of
of

o n la n c e

su ch
h is
a

e ffe c ts

w ith
upon

a g ree m e n ts
ow n

l i t t l e in

e ffo r ts

G reat
th e

w o u ld
W e

g la d s o m e

B r ita in ,

or

in te r n a tio n a l
hnve
fin d ,

been
th e n ,

a n tic ip a tio n

b o th

of

s itu a tio n .
a

m ost

th a t
o f th e

th is

th ese,

w o u ld

B e s id e s ,

s a tisfa c to r y
san e

m an

p r o m is e d

sta te

th e

have
m ak­

c u lm in a ­
lo s e s

h is

o f a ffa ir s

w h e n e v e r h e w r ite s o f I t .)
7 su m m ed up the situation to the e ffect
that if th e two g o v e r n m e n t s should communicate, to us their m ilitary
c o n v e n t i o n s [ g o i n g a s t e p f u r t h e r , B e n c k e n d o r f f w a n t e d n o t o n l y a naval
b u t a l s o a m ilita ry c o n v e n t i o n ) , th e Russian G overnm ent would r e s e r v e
th e p r i v i le g e o f m a k i n g a c o r re sp o n d in g proposal upon a n analogous
basis to th e British Government, I told him that I assum ed h e knew

76876— 11------- 4




yon

to o

th a t,

A

as

d e fin ite

an

dent

in

In

h im
th e

fin d

to

and

th e

an

a llia n c e

as

p o s s ib le .

d iffic u ltie s

th e

even

r e a liz e

tie d

of

su ch

to

m ake

T u rkey,

th e

and

n e c e s s ity

w ith

th a t

dow n

h o s tile

R u s s ia

th e

an

by

of

F ran ce

N o rth

p o s s ib le

of

R u s s ia
N one

to

of

fin d

th e se

term s
A fr ic a .

becau se

a lm o s t t o t a l a b s e n c e

in v e stm e n ts.

b etw ee n

o f d e fin ite

and

w as

a g ree m e n ts;

co n ta ct

a llia n c e

B a lk a n s ,

[F r e n c h

im p e r ia lis m

d e fin ite

p o in ts
an

Fran ce.

B r itis h

of

of

c o llid in g

c a p ita l

fa c to rs

and

w ere

of
e v i­

r e l a t i o n s .)
to

th a t
he

th e

sam e.

in fo r m s

he

had

F ren ch

th e

be

m any

R u s s ia

am bassad or

w h ic h

a fte r

to -d a y
to

G erm an y, on

sam e

u n d ersta n d

to

to o

p r o fita b le

The

an sw er

fa ile d

b etw ee n

a v e rsio n

F rench

nam e

a llia n c e

C h in a ,

A n g lo -R u s s ia n

to

c o n s id e r

conceded

no

P e r s ia ,

(8 4 5 .
The

not

had

w ere

a llia n c e

to

d id
a ls o

in s titu tio n

in te r e s ts ,

F ran ce

he

F ra n ce, and

com m on

c o lo n ia l

have

th e re

B r ita in ,

th e ir

we

la r g e

p o s s ib le ,

th a t

p e r s o n a lly

sta te sm e n

In d e e d ,

G reat

I

added :

see,

w as

had
g iv e n

M.

M ay

th a t

s u b m itte d

m in is te r

R u ssia n

L e tte r,

me

to

m ode

G overn m en t

of

th e

e v e n in g

m in is te r ia l

in

c le a r

1 9 1 4 .)

la s t

th e

D ou m ergue

hnd

3 -1 6 ,

G rey

P a r is

to

h im

in

th e

gave

c o u n c il
h is

ow n

e x p e d ie n c y

corresp on d en ce

w h ic h

had

order
that the lit. P e te rs b u rg cabinet m ig h t begin n eg o tia tio n s to con clu de
an a g r e e m e n t on t h e same basis r e g a rd in g th e e v e n tu a l cooperation
o f the Russian and English navies. Sir Edward had remarked, in addi­
tion, that the m inisterial cou n cil had a pproved o f this answ er. He
(G r e y )
r e s e r v e d th e rig h t o f in fo rm in g me o f t h i s ; but as the pro­
posal had o r ig in a ted with D oum ergue h e co n sid e re d it n ece s s a r y first to
in fo rm him o f the d ecision o f the B ritish cabinet.
ta k e n

p la c e

b e tw e e n

A c c o r d in g
be

as

to

S ir

th e

F rench

E d w a r d ’s

and

v ie w ,

th e

th e

E n g lis h

course

G o v e r n m e n ts,

of

th e

in

p r o c e e d in g s

m ig h t

fo llo w s :

A fter authorization by his G overnm ent, Cambon w ou ld in form me
o f th e ex chan ge o f n otes, w h ilst at th e sam e tim e iflr Edward, on his
part, w ou ld co m m u n ica t e the sa m e to me in o r d e r that I m ay in form
th e Russian G overnm ent. J u s t as th e a g r e e m e n ts e n t e r e d in to with
F rance provide, in th e e v e n t o f a casus belli, first of all fo r the coop era ­
tion o f the arm ies, so, a cco r d in g to Fir Edward Grey, th e n atu re o f
thin gs dem ands that the even tu a l a greem etits w ith Russia should rela te
to th e navy. The n eg otia tion s w ou ld, in co n se q u e n c e, h a ve to be ca r­
ried on betw een th e Russian and English staffs o f admiralty. The
n egotiation s w ith F rance took p la ce at the tim e in London, and the
F ren ch m ilitary and naval a tta ch e s in London t ra v e le d to P aris in order
to obtain the in stru ctio n s w h ich o cca sion re n d e r e d n ece ss a ry . Finally,
P rin ce Louis o f B a tr cn b erg tcent to Paris quite inofficially in o r d er to
co o r d in a te th e a g re em en ts . [ F i r s t L o r d o f t h e A d m i r a l t y , b u t b y n o
m eans
of

a

a n av a l e x p e rt, so

p o litic a l

Cam bon

in g s .
th e

w as

H e

th a t

th e

c o o r d in a tio n

in

q u e stio n

w a s p r o b a b ly

c h a r a c t e r .)

c o m m u n ic a te d
to ld

of
it

th e

o p in io n

w o u ld

me

n e g o tia tio n s

be

th a t,

m ig h t

th a t

a fte r

n ecessary

a c c o r d in g

to

to

be c o n d u c ted

th e

corresp on d en ce

d e te r m in e

th e

o p in io n

p r e c is e ly

th e
of

as

in

had

fu rth e r

S ir

th e

been

p roceed ­

E d w a rd
case o f

G rey,

F ia n c e ,

i. c . , that our n aval a t ta c h 6 in London w ou ld be e m p o w e r e d to e n ter
into n egotia tion s w ith the B ritish adm iralty staff, a f t e r he had been
g i v e n in stru ction s in St. P etersb u rg, fo r e v e n re p e a te d jo u r n e y s on th e
part o f th e naval a t ta ch 6 would in no w is e aro u se pu blic attention,
w h erea s the arrival o f m ore prom inen t Russian naval officers in London
would s u r ely b e co m e known and m ig h t lead to u ndesirable co m m en ts
(a n d

th u s

In fo r m

(8 4 6 .
U pon
G rey
in

Ms

m et

ow n

th e

nam e.

had

tio n s

fo r

London
h im

G rey
of

not yet

or

10

T r ip le

added,

th e

fo u n d
of

d ays.

w hat

he

A llia n c e ).

L e tte r,

fr o m

M ay

P a r is
had

th a t

it p o s s ib le
day,

He
G rey,

had

to

w h ic h
been

In

5 -1 8 ,

C am bon

to ld

s in c e

d iffic u ltie s

th e

c o n v e r s a tio n s .
8

th e

sam e.

to

q u e stio n s

P a r is

to

of

th e

to

because

Im p o rta n t

m em bers

sam e

c o n fir m e d

d a ily ,

th a t he

th e

The
retu rn

my

bad

P o in c a r S

h is

retu rn

I r e la n d

ta k e up
re fe r re d
o b lig e d

h ow ever, had

and
th e

and

w ith
to
to

1 9 1 4 .)

In fo rm e d

fo r e ig n

to

had

b u d g e t,

so

c o lle a g u e s

p o stp o n e

rep o rted

th a t

C a b in e t

th e

h is

me

D ou m ergue

a ffa ir s
th e se

A sq u ith

th e
and

qu es­
on

h is

Asquith had an­
s w e r e d that he saw no in su rm oun table difficulties a g a in st c a r r y in g out
th e plan p ro p osed in Paris. Since then Asquith has re p e a te d this to
Cambon him self. The la tter has been able to establish th e fa ct that
th e p rim e m in ister is v e r y fa v ora b ly d isposed to plans o f th a t kind.
T hese re fe r , con seq u en tly , to e v e n tu a l m ilita ry c o n v e n tio n s betw een
Russia and England an alogou s to th ose w h ich exist b etw een F rance and
England. The la tter w ou ld be com m u n ica ted to u s in con fidence, w h e r e ­
upon th e Russian G overnm ent w ou ld h a v e to make an alogou s proposals
to t h e B ritish G overnm ent, w h ich , a cco r d in g to the nature o f things,
w ou ld r e f e r m ore to th e n a v y than to the army.
I t is n ot to be a ssu m ed that all m em b ers o t the Cabinet w ill g iv e
t h eir sanction to this beforeh an d and w ith o u t opposition. [ F e e l i n g

jo u r n e y .

m in is te r s .

m ilita r y

He

R u s s ia n

h o w e v e r .)

He w a s able to .in form m e to-day th a t he had spoken o f this to th e
p rim e m i n i s t e r im m e d ia t ely u pon his re tu rn to L o n d o n ; th e la t te r
s h a r ed his opinion and had no o b je ct io n s to make again st the plan
p roposed. The w h o le affair was, h o w e v e r , ess en tia lly o f su ch importnnee th a t it cou ld n ot b e d e cid ed upon w ith o u t th e a s se n t o f th e
ca b in et-cou n cil.
h im

“ A s

r e p lie d

th a t

and

h is

th o se

Orey told me that t h e se im pression s had ex ceed ed his ex pectation s by
far, and that he cou ld not sufficiently c o n g r a lu la t e h im s elf upon the
recep tion by the P resid en t o f the Republic and by D oumergue, w ith
w h o m a p e r fe c t u n d ersta n d in g had been a ch iev ed r e g a r d in g all cu rre n t
q uestion s an d the g e n e r a l p olitical situation. ( I t s o h a p p e n e d t h a t J u s t
P o ln c a r ^

E d w a rd

retu rn ed

o f in fo r m in g
to

upon

fro m

th e

d id

but

Is

r e n e w in g

1 9 1 4 .)

c a ll

h im

been

im p r e s s io n s ,

12,
fo

In

he

a fte r

London

retu rn

p e r m itte d

p r o fo u n d

ow n

h is

me

s u b je c t ;

of

le tt e r .

at

2 9 —M a y
S ir

p o s s ib ility

once

of your

am b assad or

th e

8 ir
I

th a t
v ie w .

so

W ith o u t

lo n g
The

b in d in g

d e la y e d
s o u n d in g

a
of

th e

C a b in e t

c o n v e n tio n
G rey

by

w ith

to

th e

p resen t,

R u s s ia

had

B e n c k e n d o r ff

had

a

d e fin ite

been

a

o b je c t

in

c o n tin u o u s

i v J X U V S S iia tfM O iJ

u a u L fin a

2(5

CONGRESSIONAL RECORD.

p e rfo rm a n c e ,

so

th a t

an

em ergen cy

w o u ld

be

d e te c te d

b e h in d

G rey 8

N ev erth e­
less, the firm d eterm in a tio n o f th e rea l leaders o f the Cabinet will ca r r y
the. day. a» I do not doubt in the least, and th en th e real n eg otia tion s
may begin.
After the r e s u lt s w h ich h a ve fu st been d escrib ed will h a ve been
ach iev ed we, as 1 b elieve, will h ave attain ed the main o b ject in view ,
namely, to s u b s titu te fo r the h ith e rto fa r too t h e o re tica l and pea cea b le
basic idea o f the e n t e n te s o m e th in g m ore tangible. My s ojou rn i n
Paris and th e s p e c t a c l e w h ich I th e re w i t n e ss e d h a ve a n ew substan ­
tiated m y opinion, that an alliance o r an y o t h e r form o f public a g r e e ­
m ent is im possible, and that, e v e n if the B ritish G overnm ent should
permit its e lf to a g r e e to this, th e re su lts w ould be quite d ifferent from
t h ose expected. T h e r e c e p t i o n w h i c h w a s a c c o r d e d t h e K i n g a n d t h e
w illin g n e s s

Q ueen

to

w as

approach

no

doubt

H u sa in

an

c lo s e r

in

a

e x tr a o r d in a r ily

m ilita r y

s e n s e .]

h e a rty

one,

m uch

fo rm e r

E n g lis h

h e a r tie r ,

I

Fir Edward em phasized the, fa ct that, w ith ou t s o m e su ch p revio u s
a g r e e m e n t, an im m ed ia te coo p era tio n , e v e n w ith the best o f will* and
in s p ite o f t h e c lo s e p olitical e n t e n t e b e tw e e n both G overnm ent*, w ould
e n c o u n t e r s erio u * t ech n ic a l difficulties. [ H a r d l y t h e c a s e . T h e B r i t i s h
G overnm en t
te c h n ic a l
or

not

an

a llia n c e

it

to

an

One

have

In

to

so

fa r
h is

w hat

spite o f this, th e im possib ility o f co n clu d in g a form a l alliance b etw een
England and F rance has been recogn ized, th en this w ill i n a still
g r e a te r d e g r e e be th e c a s e b etw een Russia and England. [ N a t u r a l l y ,

sam e

G reat

E n g lis h

t o ld

th e re ,

th a n

B r ita in ’s

w ere

reason s

id e n tic a l

R u s s ia .
w o r ld

The

w as

to

fo r

th ose

B r itis h

th e

case

not

th a t

r e a lly

to

p in y

fr ie n d s

a ll

w h ile

m a k in g

argu ed

G overnm en t

p o lit ic s — a s t h o s e o f a n y

n ecessary

w ith

S ta te s

a ll

d e fin ite a llia n c e

a g a in s t

w as

o th e r

at

a

d e fin ite

le a s t

tru e

E m p ir e — w e r e

a g a in s t

w ere

a

one

p o te n tia l

v is its .

a n o th e r,

w ith

in

F ran ce

a llia n c e

w ith

su ch

If,

w ith

it s e lf.

Its

th a t it b eca m e

w h ic h

none

w ere

e n e m ie s .]

I doubt w h e t h e r a m ore p o w erfu l g u a ra n ty fo r com m on m ilitary o p er­
ations could be fou n d in t h e e v e n t o f w a r [ a l l t o o t r u e ] than this spirit
o f th e e n t en te , as it re v e a ls its e lf at p resen t, r e i n fo r c e d by the existent
m ilitary co n ven tio n s.
I f w e r e v i e w th e va riou s ph ases o f the e n ten te it can not be denied
that England has n e v e r h es ita ted in th r ea ten in g m om en ts to pla ce h er­
s e lf on the sid e o f F r a n c e ; the sa m e holds g ood fo r R u s s i a on e v e r y
occasion on w h ich English and Russian i n te re sts w e r e sim u ltan eou sly
affected, and this, d e sp ite the difficulty o f r e co n cilin g th e p olicies o f
both cou n tries in question s that arise day a ft e r day, and desp ite those
reasons, w h ich it w ou ld lead too fa r to discuss here, but w h ich explain
cle a rly w h y th e e n t e n t e betw een Russia and England has n ot taken
ro o t so d eep ly as that b e tw e e n F rance and England. [ T h e s e p o l i c i e s
and

reason s

w as

averse

a r e o u tlin e d
to

in

th e

fo o tn o te s

e x p la in in g

w hy

G reat

B r ita in

is : G e r m a n y
th is

w h ic h

w o u ld

G rey

have

to

ju s t

a v o id

w hat

a.s

is

to

ex p e ct,

sh ow n

by

and

th e

it is

p r e c is e ly

To reca p itu la te in brief, I w ou ld like to s a y that e v e n th o s e English­
m en w ho are firm ly co n v i n c e d that s oon er or later a conflict w ith Ger­
m an y w ill p ro v e in ev ita b le w o u l d b e f r i g h t e n e d b y t h e i d e a o f b i n d i n g
E n g la n d

by

o b lig a tio n s
as

yet

be

m eans
upon

of

h er,

d e c is iv e
th e

F ren ch

c o n fir m e d

to

approved
h is

The

E d w ard

my

ow n

and

a llia n c e

w h ic h

con sequ en ces

w o u ld

im p o s e

o f w h ic h

can

not

of

to

y e ste rd a y
c o lle a g u e
me

th e

nam e

th e

had

London
L e tte r ,

th a t

a lr e a d y
th a t

w h ic h

w it,

at

sam e.

re q u ested

fa c t

an sw er
[to

th e

he

w ith o u t

th e

g iv e n
con sen t

1 0 -2 3 ,
and

m e, th e

E n g lis h

had

S a z o n o f f .)

M ay

C am bon

in fo r m e d

th e

to

I

c a ll

D o u in e r g u e

of

th e

of

h im .
S ta te

C o u n c il
in

had

P a r is

C a b in e t

in

c o u n c il],

a ft e r the F ren ch m in ister had spoken o f the relations b e tw e e n Russia
and England and had in d ica ted h o w usefu l, u n d er certa in co n tin g en cie s,
previo u s m ilita ry co n v e n tio n s b etw een th e G overn m en ts w o u ld prove.
The first s te p to be con sid ered w as to co m m u n ica te to th e Russian
G overnment, on th e part o f F rance and England, th e tw o con fidential
and s e c r e t d o cu m en ts, w h ich had been ex chan ged b etw e e n th e F ren ch
and B ritish G overn m en ts in th e y e a r 191t.
S ir

E d w a rd

d o cu m e n ts

la id

s p e c ia l

sh ow ed

th a t

stre ss
no

upon

a llia n c e

th e
w as

p o in t,

th a t

c o n c lu d e d

th e

te x t

b etw ee n

o f th e se
th e

tw o

T hey fulfilled th e p u rpose ra th er o f p u ttin g th e su b sta n ce o f
the m ilitary a g r e e m e n ts in th e p ro p er ligh t, a g r e e m e n ts w h ioh had
been e n t e r e d in to b e tw e e n th e a rm y and n a v y au th orities fo r the
e v e n t u a lit y that it should becom e n e ce s s a r y fo r th e British and French
naval and land f o r c e s to co o p e r a t e actively. [ T h e e v e n t u a l i t y d i f f e r s
fr o m
t h e r e g u l a r casu s foederis o f d e f e n s i v e a l l i a n c e s i n s o f a r a s i t

p ow ers.

m akes

< * * < p e r a tio n

s e le c tiv e
p o in t
and




and

con sen t

of

of

c o n d itio n s

p r e c is e

m a n n e r .]

76876— 11

th e

th e
of

arm ed

s u b s c r ib in g

fo r c e s

c o n tin g e n t

G o v e rn m e n ts,

“ o p e r a tiv e n e s s ”

of

th e

upon

en tered

had

th e

m u tu a l

in s te a d

of

fix in g

a llia n c e

in

a

th e

d e fin ite

th e

had
in

in to

and

fn c t

and

th a t

R u s s ia n

to

c o n c lu d e d

th e

lim its

w as

w illin g

argu m en t

G reat

agreem en t

th e

fo r

B r it a in .]

b e tw e e n

b etw ee n

and
m u st

G o v e rn m e n ts

good

an

le ft

p a r tic i­

R u s s ia

G rey

w ith

o b je c tio n s

fo r

beyond

a

corresp on d en ce

F rom

G overnm en t

fa r

o ffe r in g

o f a llia n c e

no

th e

th e

No

w h e th e r

c o n v e n tio n

“ n e c e s s ity ”

s o v e r e ig n ty .

as

of

d e s ir a b le .
a

B r itis h

French

m u ch

and

B r ita in

and

a llia n c e .

in

th e

C am bon

R u s s ia n

and

and

th e

on

copy

th e

of

fo llo w in g

to

E d w ard
to

h is

th e

p art

r e p ly

G rey

gave

F rench

gave

w h ic h

m e,
he

me

a

copy

am b assad or
on

th e

had

on

of

a u th o r ity

d ir e c te d

th e

docum ent

N ovem ber

to

of

S ir

22,

h is

w h ic h

1912,

and

G o v e r n m e n t,

E d w a rd

G rey

on

a

th e

day.

resp on se

e x p e d ie n t
don

A d m ir a lty .

S ir

handed

Cam bon

In

of

to

th in g

p la c e

my

to

q u e s tio n ,

do

w o u ld

h im s e lf

in

S ir

be

to

E d w a rd

a u th o r iz e

c o m m u n ic a tio n

d e c la r e d
our

w ith

th a t

naval

th e

th e

a tta c h e

B r itis h

m ost

in

sta ff

Lon­

of

Ad­

The first Lord o f Admiralty, as w ell a* t h e B ritish m in isters,
w e r e in s t r u cte d as to our plans. The B ritish sta ff o f Adm iralty is in
p o ssession o f th e c o n v e n tio n s r e g a r d i n g th e n a v y w h ich w e r e w ork ed
out in com m on by F rance and England. As to th e r e m a in in g a g r e e ­
m en ts, F rance, w h o w as allied w ith us, m ig h t use th e m as s h e d e e m e d
n ecessa ry .

m ir a lty .

s e lf

(h a n k in g
to

d o cu m e n ts
to ld

S ir

E d w ard

r e m a r k in g

me

(8 4 8 .

to

th a t

your

w hen

I

L e tte r

fo r

fro m

th e

S ir

h is

w o u ld

e x c e lle n c y

h a n d in g

fr ie n d ly

at

and

once

s e n tim e n ts ,

tr a n s m it

rep ort

to

you

th e

I

c o n fin e d

c o p ie s

e x a c tly

m y

of

w hat

b o th

he

had

copy.

E d w ard

A m b assad or

at

G rey

to

London.

M.

Paul

N ov.

22,

Cam bon,

th e

F rench

1 9 1 2 .‘ )

“ From tim e to time, du rin g th e co u r s e o f the last j e w y e a r s
seem

to

deal
and

C am bon
* fr o m
of

h ere
G rey

tim e

th e

C a m b o n . it
c o n ta in e d

N ovem ber

is

b road

its
of

a c tiv ity
to

proper

of

th is ,

of

b e n e fit

th e

n e g o tia tio n s .
le tte r s

u n d e r s ta n d in g

by

th e

tex t

is

In

in

B r itis h ,
th e

no

th a t

and,

one,
su ch

th e

m ilita r y

case,

th e se

b e in g

a

and

fa c ts ,

and

of

th e
th e
a

have

con­

w as

in

on.

S in c e

and

naval

G rey

and

c o n v e n tio n
as

R u s s ia n s

to

w ere

n o n r e s p o n s ib ility ,
very

b e g in n in g

v a lu e

screen

naval

th a t

e x p e r ts

c o n d itio n s

The

w r it
as

s im p ly

m ilita r y

b e tw e e n

F r a n c o -R u s s ia n

e x a cted

says

th e

fu rth e r

le tte r s

s tip u la tio n s

th e ir

of

sh ow n

[w e

b etw ee n

c o n v e n tio n

B r itis h

th e

but

years,

a u th o r itie s

u n d e r s ta n d in g .

w as

lig h t

great

m ade

th e

1912,

fe w

th e

be

and

th a t

c e r ta in
of

23,

naval

w ill

of

corresp on d en ce

la s t

w ord s,

F ren ch

assu m e

and
th e

and

o th e r

exch ange

to

The

22
of

scope, a s

e ffe c tiv e n e s s

in fo r m e d

cou rse

m ilita r y

in

r e a s o n a b le

in

th e

B r itis h

th is

th e

Cam bon

in c o n s is te n c y .

d a te d

a n te rio r

q u e stio n

an

a n o t h e r '— in

very

of

w as

is

and

one

and

p e r io d

a g e n ts

w ith

tim e , d u r in g

F rench
w ith

e x is te n c e ,
th e

to

th e

upon

S ec reta ry

M in is te r ia l
to

E n g la n d

fo r
1 9 1 4 .)

and
so

by
th e

G reat

w a n t— tr e a tie s

ex p ressed

s ta ffs

H ereu p on ,
he

never
am b assad or

sam e

fa r th e r ,

of

an

m a tter

p e r ju r y ;
th e

stru ck

w ith

a

d e s ir e d

r e c o g n iz e

h on or”

a ll

In a c o n v e n tio n o f this kind he s a w th e
sa m e p ra ctica l advantage* w h i c h r e s u lt from th e c o n v e n t i o n w ith
F rance. He told u s t h a t h e w a s thinking o f a n aval co n v e n tio n , be­
ca u se this, in v i e w o f the cir c u m s ta n c e s , was the m o s t suitable, and
b eca u se h e w as, m o r eo v e r, d is p o se d to b e liev e that this w ou ld also be
in a cco r d a n ce w ith th e w ish es o f th e Im perial G overnm ent.

th e

(R u s s ia n

As

c o n d itio n s

of

fo r e se e n .

(8 4 7 .
S ir

tre a tie s

w as

w h im

re je c te d

w as

w ith o u t

b e in g

th e

w ith o u t

d id

th a t

h im s e lf , b e in g

s u lte d

d o c u m e n t s .]

no

r e a lly

as

to

e n te n te s

v ie w s

added

escap e

“ n a tio n a l

and

s p ir it

In

know n

w a n te d

th e y

H e

“ a lli a n c e s .” ]

The rea son fo r this is to be s o u g h t in the t a c t that e v e n a m ost c a r e ­
fu l but public allian ce w ou ld m e et w ith s tr o n g and u n d isguised opposi­
tion in England, and that not o n ly on the part o f th e IAberal P arty,
and that a g r e a t p a r t o f th e p olitical e ffec t in te n d e d w ou ld be fr u s tr a te d
by it. I believ e th a t u n d er su ch cir cu m s ta n ce s an alliance w ou ld not
b e w o rth much.
It w ou ld m erely , in a v e r y s lig h t d e gr ee , in cre a se the
g u a ra n ties w h ich are offered to F rance and Russia by England, and it
would, on the o t h e r hand, offer a fa r m ore fe r t i le soil f o r a g ita tion in
fa v o r o f Germany, s o m e th in g upon w h ich Germ any p la ces m o r e w e i g h t
than ever. [ S o m e w h a t f a r - f e t c h e d . W h a t a n a l l i a n c e w o u l d h a v e d o n e

by

to

or

It

c o n v e n tio n
im p o s s ib le

b o w in g

th e ir

set

a cce p ted

a

w as

can. not

v a lu e d

go

or

a c ce p ted

in v o lv e d .

G overnm en t

th u s

o r d in a r ily

e ith e r

w ere

retrea t

B r itis h

p a tio n .
F ran ce

have

a llia n c e

th e

in

w as

w o u ld

d iffic u ltie s

of
fo r

th e
th e

of

G reya c tu a l

c o o p e r a tio n

w ith

the experts o f the F rench and English m ilita ry and
n aval a u th orities h ave co n su lted with on e another. I t w a s c o n s t a n tly
a g r e e d that s u ch discu ssion s w e r e n ot to r e s t r i c t th e fr e e d o m o f decision
o f the tw o G o vern m en ts as to w h e t h e r the one w a s to su p p or t the o th e r
w ith arms or not. W e assu m ed in this that su ch co n su lta tio n s by ex­
p e rts r e p r e s e n te d no a g r e em en t, and cou ld n ot be r e g a r d e d as one,
w h e r e b y th e on e G overn m en t or the o t h e r w ou ld be p le d g e d to i n te r c e d e
in an e v e n t u a lit y w h ich had n ot y e t taken pla ce and w h ich m ig h t n e v e r
take place. Thus, fo r in sta n ce, th e p r e s e n t division o f th e fleets o f
F rance and England is n ot based upon an obligation to o p e r a t e in c o m ­
mon in th e e v e n t o f war.
“ You h a v e in th e m e a n tim e poin ted out that if the on e G o vern m en t or
th e o th e r sh o u ld h a ve w e i g h t y re a s o n s to fe a r an u n p rovo k ed attack
on th e part of a third p ow er, it w o u ld be n e c e s s a r y to know i f it m igh t,
in s u c h a case, co u n t upon th e arm ed a s sis ta n ce o f the oth er, I am
e n t i r e ly o f the opinion that if th e o n e G overn m en t or th e o t h e r should
h a v e w e i g h t y r e a s o n s to fe a r an u nprovok ed attack on th e part o f a
th ir d pow er, o r an y o t h e r th r e a t e n e d distu rb a n ce o f p e a c e , this Gov-

F ran ce

1 T h is
B r itis h
Book ”

p o s s ib le ]

te x t
“ B lu e

text.

d iffe r s

s lig h tly

B o o k ,”

due,

no

fr o m
d o u b t,

th e
to

v e rs io n

su b seq u en t

of

th e

e d itin g

le tte r
ot

th e

In

th e

“ B lu e

_

........_________ ___l

________________________
Oo

(1H0D3H TV MOISSailONOO

RECORD.

C O N G R E S S IO N A L

27

“ It w a s first o f all r ecog n iz ed that our n aval co n v e n tio n with Eng­
land. like the Franco-Russian n aval co n ven tio n , w ou ld h a ve to bear in
m ind a ctions of ou r n a v y in c o n ju n ctio n w ith the English Navy w h ich ,
w hile con stitu tin g a ction s a g re ed upon, w ou ld n e v e r th e l e s s be separate.
"As to th e s t r a t e g i c aims, w h ich , fr o m our sta n d p oin t, are to becom e
o p era tive in the e v e n t o f a w a r b etw een th e p o w e r s o f the Triple En­
t en te and the p o w ers o f th e Triple Alliance [ a v e r y d a n g e r o u s a n d u n ­
d i p l o m a t i c a d m i s s i o n ] , on e m u st d is tin gu is h : on th e on e ha?id, b etw een
(8 t P . L e tte r fro m M . F a u l C a m b o n , th e F re n c h A m b a s s a d o r a t L o n d o n ,
th e opera tion s in th e reg ion o f th e B altic and t h e North S e a ; on the
t o S i r E d w a r d G r e y , N o v . 2 3 , 1 9 1 2 .* )
o t h e r hand, the M editerranean. In both w e m u st seek to obtain c o m ­
You re m in d ed me, t h r o u gh y o u r l e tt e r o f y e s te r d a y , th e tid o f N ovem­ p en sa tion fr o m England fo r d iv e rtin g a part o f th e German fleet upon
ber, that from tim e to tim e du rin g the co u rse o f th e last fe w y e a r s the ou rselv es. I T h e R u s s i a n s w a n t e d ‘ c o m p e n s a t i o n ’ e v e n w h e n t h e y
ex perts o f the m ilitary and naval au th orities o f F rance and E ngland w e r e t h e b e n e f i c i a r i e s . ]
h a v e co n s u lt e d w ith on e an oth er, that it was c o n s t a n tly a g re ed that
" In the n orth ern t h e a te r o f w a r our i n te r e s t s d em an d th a t England
t h e se d iscu ssion s w e r e not to r e s t r i c t th e fr ee d o m o f a n y G overn m en t sh o u ld f e t t e r as g r e a t a portion o f th e German fleet as possible in the
in d e cid in g in th e fu tu re w h e t h e r it w is h ed to g ra n t th e o th e r arm ed North Sea. B y this m ean s th e va st p r e p o n d er a n ce o f the German fleet
a s s i s ta n c e o r n ot, that t h e se con su lta tion s betw een the ex perts fo r m e d o v e r ou r own w ou ld be equalized and perh a p s perm it, in the m ost
no obligation on e it h e r side, and w e r e n ot to be r e g a rd e d as an y w h ich fa v o ra b le circu m s ta n ce s, a landing in P om erania being made. Should
w ou ld co m p el th e tw o G overnm ents to in te r v e n e in ce rta in e v e n tu a lities , it be possible to undertake this operation, its ex ecu tion w ou ld be re n ­
and that y o u h a ve in the m ean tim e p oin ted out that if on e or th e o t h e r d e re d extraordinarily difficult o ilin g to the lack o f tran sport v e s s e ls in
G o vern m en t sh ould h a ve w e i g h t y re a son s to fe a r an unprovoked attack t h e Baltio. The British G overnm ent m igh t, t h e r e fo r e , assist us co n ­
on th e part o f a third p o w e r it w ou ld b e im portant to know w h e t h e r it sid era b ly by re n d er in g it possible that a ce rta in n u m ber o f m erch an t
m ig h t co u n t upon the arm ed a s sista n ce o f the other.
v e s s e ls should be sen t to ou r B altic ports b e fo re th e begin n ing o f w a r­
Your l e t t e r g i v e s the a n sw er to this point and I a m e m p o w e r e d to like op era tion s so that th e lack o f tra n sp ort v e s s e ls m igh t be made
s ta t e th a t in th e e v e n t o f one o f th e tw o G overnm ents haiAng w e i g h t y g o o d in this way. [ T h i s s h o u l d r e m o v e a l l d o u b t a s a g a i n s t w h o m t h e
g ro u n d s f o r fe a r i n g an attack by a third p o w er or a d istu rban ce o f c o n v e n t i o n w a s d i r e c t e d . T h e casus fo e d e ris m a y h a v e b e e n a b s e n t , b u t
g e n e r a l p ea ce, th e G overnm ent in question ou ght at o n ce to d e cid e in t h e o b j e c t i v e a t l e a s t w a s p l a i n l y I d e n t i f i e d . ]
c o n ju n c t i o n with the oth er, w h e t h e r a p ro ced u re in com m on by th e
“ The situ ation in th e M editerranean also c o n c e r n s o u r in terests m ost
tw o G o vern m en ts w ould be fea sib le to p r e v e n t th e attack or to p r e ­ ess en tia lly , s in ce in th e e v e n t o f t h e Austro-Italian f o r c e s in this sea
s e r v e pea ce. In this ca s e th e tw o G overn m en ts w ou ld d iscuss t h e h a r i n g the u pper hand, an attack by the Austrian fleet in the Black
m e a s u r e s w h i c h w e r e to be taken con jo in tly. Should t h ese m ea su res Sea w ou ld be possible, w h ich w ou ld mean a serio u s blow to us. It is,
make a m ilita ry a ction n ece s s a r y , the tw o G overn m en ts w ou ld at o n ce t h e r e fo r e , fr o m ou r p oin t o f v ie w , e x trem ely im p o r ta n t that a sa fe
c o n s i d e r th e plan s o f their g en e ra l staffs, and a decision w ou ld be m ade p r e p o n d er a n ce o f th e figh tin g fo r c e s o f th e E n tente o v e r t h e AustroItalian Fleet in the M editerranean be establish ed. S in ce t h e Austroa s to h ow fa r t h e s e plans w e r e to be follow ed.
Italian naval f o r c e s are su p e rio r to t h e F ren ch , it is desirable that
(8 5 0 . S a z o n o ff to
th e
R u s s ia n
A m bassad or a t L ondon.
C o n fid e n tia l
England, by sta tio n in g th e req u isite n u m ber o f v e s s e ls in th e M editer­
le tte r , M a y
1 5 —2 8 ,
1914.
N o . 4 7 .)
ranean, s e cu r e th e p re p o n d er a n ce o f th e E n tente P ow er s, at least so
The re a d in ess of the B ritish G overn m en t to begin, w ith o u t d e la y lon g as th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f our o w n fleet does n ot p e rm it us to assum e
{th e B r itis h
G o v e r n m e n t w a s in n o h u r r y , a c c o r d i n g t o P r i n c e L o u i s
this duty. It w ou ld also be desirable that E ngland’s co n se n t to our
o f B a t t e n b e r g , w 'b i c h i s t o b e e x p l a i n e d l a r g e l y b y t h e f a c t t h a t t h e
ships u sin g th e English ports in th e e a ster n M editerranean as bases
R u s s ia n
fle e t b e in g a n e g lig ib le q u a n t i t y J u s t t h e n , G r e a t B r i t a i n a s ­
be s ecu re d , sim ilar to w h a t is g r a n te d to us by t h e F r en ch naval co n ­
su m ed
m o s t o f t h e l i a b i l i t i e s ] , n eg o t ia tio n s r e g a r d i n g th e co n clu sio n
ven tion , w h ich p erm its m s to make u se o f th e F ren ch ports in th e
o f an a g r e e m e n t b etw een Russia and England, w h ich w ou ld c o n c e r n w e s t e r n M editerranean.
Joint o p e r a t io n s o f ou r n a va l fo r c e s in the e v e n t o f a com m on m ilita ry
“ Should th e question o f th e Straits
(th e B o s p h o r u s a n d th e D a r ­
a ction, has been r e c e iv e d on ou r part w ith a fe e li n g o f the g r e a t e s t d a n e l l e s ) be d iscu ssed in c o n n ect io n w ith th e situ ation in th e Mediter­
sa tis fa ctio n . Quite apart from th e fa c t th a t s u ch an a g r e e m e n t is ranean, then political questions w e r e n ot to be t o u ch e d u p o n ; but on ly
desira ble fr o m a s p ecia l m ilita ry stan dpoin t w e a t ta ch g re a t im p o r ta n ce tem p o ra ry operations in the Straits, as on e o f ou r s t r a t e g i c m ea su res in
to it in a g e n e r a l p olitical sense.
the e v e n t of war, w e r e to be borne in mind.
In t h e co n clu s io n o f s u ch an a g r e e m e n t w e s ee a n im portan t s te p
“ In addition, th e c o n f e r e n c e reco g n iz e d that it w a s desirable that all
Inward b rin g in g England into c lo s e r union w ith th e F ranco-Russian details o f the re la tion s b etw e e n th e Russian and th e B ritish n avies in
a llia n ce and an e f f e c t i v e m ean s o f r e i n fo r c i n g th e r e co g n itio n o f the th e p r o je c te d n aval co n ve n tio n b e tw e e n o u rs elv es and England should
com m on i n te r e s t s of England and Russia w h ich , w e are co n v in ce d , w ill be established. For this pu rpose it w ill be n e c e s s a r y to co m e to an
fa v o ra b ly in flu en ce all the questions w h ich a ffect B ritish and Russian u n derstan din g as to sign als and sp ecial ciphers, w i r e le s s m e ssa g es, and
in terests. I h a v e ca lled th e a tte n tio n o f our m in istry o f the n a vy , in th e relations b e tw e e n th e B ritish and the Russian n aval staffs.
p a r ticu la r o f ou r n aval a g en t in London, m ost s p ecia lly to th e g r e a t
“ I t is m o r eo v e r n e c e s s a r y that in form ation r e g a r d i n g the navies of
p o litica l sig n ifica n ce o f th e im p e n d in g n eg otia tion s w h i c h t h e la tte r will o th e r p ow ers, as w e ll as on e’s oum n a vy , and in p a r ticu la r w i t h regard
h a v e to c a r r y on w ith th e English staff o f adm iralty. [ A c c o r d i n g t o to tech n ica l details, in stru m en ts, and in ven tion s, be ex chan ged b etw een
G r e y , t h e y w e r e n o t to h a v e “ g r e a t p o li t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e ,” a n d t h e r e
th e tw o naval departm en ts.
w a s n o m e n t i o n in t h e C a m b o n l e t t e r s o f “ a c t i v e c o o p e r a t i o n o f t h e i r
“ In the opinion o f th e co n fe r e n ce , it w ou ld also be n e ce s s a r y
to
n a v a l f ig h t in g f o r c e s ,”
w h ic h
te r m , h o w e v e r, S a zo n o ff m a y h a v e c o n ­
a rra n ge fo r a p eriod ic exchange o f opinion b etw een th e heads of the
s id e r e d a s m e r e ly c ir c u m s c r ib e d .
B e t h is a s it m a y , S a z o n o ff e v in c e s
Russian and th e English adm iralty staffs a cco r d in g to the example o f
a n e a g e r n e s s h a r d ly c o m p a tib le w it h th e d ig n it y o f th e I m p e r ia l R u s ­
th e Franco-Russian n aval con ven tion .’’ [ A r a t h e r a c c u r a t e t r a n s c r i p t
s ia n
G o v e r n m e n t .]
The p ro p o sa l m ade by t h e B ritish G o vern m en t o f t h e a b o v e d o c u m e n t p a s s e d i n t o t h e h a n d s o f t h e G e r m a n G o v e r n ­
r e s p e c t i n g t h e form in w h ich th e co n v e n tio n is to be co n clu d e d is m e n t . T h e d e m e n t i s o f t h e B r i t i s h a n d R u s s i a n G o v e r n m e n t s d i d n o t ,
r e co g n iz e d by us as in e v e r y w a y s u ited to the put p o s e [ s h o w i n g t h a t a n d n a t u r a l l y c o u l d n o t , r e m o v e t h e d e e p i m p r e s s i o n m a d e b y t h e t e r m s
r m m m t o u g h t at on ce to co m e to an u n derstan din g w ith th e o t h e r as
to w h e t h e r both G overn m en ts are to p ro ceed i n com m on in o r d e r to
ward off th e attack and to p r e s er v e p e a ce , and to co n sid e r w h a t
m ea su re s are to be m u tu ally taken. I f t h ese m e a su res co m p rise a
m ilita ry action, then the plans o f the g en e ra l staffs are to be co n ­
sid ered at on ce, and it w ou ld be the d u ty o f th e G overn m en ts to d e cid e
as to h o w f a r th ese w e r e to be fo llo w e d .”

th e

R u s s ia n

C V overn m en t

w as

not

■very

p a r tic u la r

as

to

q u a lity 1

, and

Captain Volkoff has b e en in s t r u c t e d to e n t e r in to n eg o tia tio n s w i t h t h e
B ritish G overn m en t. T h e p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h a r e t o b e c o n s i d e r e d d u r i n g
th e

im p e n d in g

to o k

p la c e

n e g o tia tio n s

on

M ay

1 3 -2 6

have
In

been
th e

th e

o ffic e

o b je c t o f a
of

th e

c o n s u lta tio n

c h ie f

of

th e

w h ic h

s ta ff

of

a d m ir a lty .
For
p assed

p erson al

th is

in fo r m a tio n ,

I

append

a

copy

of

th e

r e s o lu tio n s

c o n fe re n c e .

“ On May 13-26, 1914, a con su ltation took p lace in th e office o f th e
c h i e f o f n a va l staff fo r th e p u rp ose o f an exchange o f opinions r e s p e c t ­
in g th e im p en d in g n eg o tia tio n s as to a co n v e n tio n b etw een Russia and
England, w h ich c o n ce rn s th e a c t i v e coop era tion s o f t h eir n aval figh tin g
f o r c e s sh o u ld warlike operations, a g re ed upon by Russia and England,
take p la ce w ith the participation o f France. After it had been pri­
m arily rem ark ed h ow desirable such a co n v e n tio n w ou ld be from a
sp ecific n-eval stan dpoin t and, a b o v e all, w ith reg a rd to g en e ra l political
co n sid e ra tio n s, the m em bers o f th e c o n fe r e n ce , a ft e r a co m p re h e n s iv e
examination o f the question, ca m e to the fo llo w in g d e cisio n s:
1 See

fir s t

fo o tn o te

76870— 11




th e

a

tr ip

duke

to

p r e c e d in g

d o cu m e n t.

above
in to

c o m m u n ic a tio n .
S c a n d in a v ia n

F r a n c is

(8 5 1 .

The

have

ch ase
fo r

of

th e
th e

th e se

fu n d s

naval

B e fo r e
th a t
th is

my

A rm stro n g
c o u n c il

in

th o u g h

no

have

C h ile

G overnm en t

be

fin a l

ch a n g e o f fron t

fr o m

of

th e

W illia m

w ent

a ss a s s in a tio n

of

on

A rch ­

h ere

a fte r

not

and

approved
fo u n d

It

a

th e

th e

R u s s ia n

N o.

r e g a r d in g
w ere

in

r a is e d

C h ile ,

it

1 8 2 .)
th e

th e

th e

as

appeared
to

pu r­

m arket

n ecessary

w e ll

as

th e

to

th e

he

s a le

c e r ta in

and

th a t

fu tu re .

c o n v e r s a tio n
to

s a le

p o s s ib le

to

agreed

near

r e s u lt s

of

h a v in g

of

1914.

E n g la n d .

fin a lly

th e

c h ie f
6,

T u rkey

P e te rsb u rg

had

fo llo w in g

and

la t te r

w ith

th e

e x c e lle n c y

b e lo n g in g

in

rep o rt:
of

to

th e

w ith

tw o

c o n fir m

th e

A lth o u g h

fir m

th e

d rea d n o u g h ts,
th is

d e c is io n ,

of

naval
th e
even

an sw er
h a s been
g iv e n
on its
p a rt.
This
to be attribu ted e n t ir e ly to the Chilean m inister here.

n e g a tiv e
is

o f th e

S t.

C h ile

to

2 4 -J u n e

your

R u s s ia

c o n c lu d e d

th e

has

has

to

agreem en t

d e p a rtu re

retu rn
I

E m peror

a fte r

London

su b s c r ip tio n ]

c o n d itio n a l

hence

in

[b o th

p o p u la tio n

G overn m en t

m ig h t

agent

r e p o r tin g

dreadnou ght

my

th e

A fte r

of

p o p u la t io n

p r o s p e c tiv e

th a t,

even

S ecret rep o rt, M a y

honor

s h ip s , th e

by

D e s p ite

w a ters

F e r d i n a n d .]

R u s s ia n

s ta ff o f a d m ir a lty .
I

your
at

of

b6

U U O J U U 1 V N O IS S U H D N tO J

28

CONGRESSIONAL RECORD.

The

la tte r

on ce

tia tio n s, th a t
S in c e

A r m str o n g

s e c u r in g
to

at

in d ic a te

th is
n

us

one

of

la

s till

d o u b tfu l

th is

be

I

req u est

le a s t

h is

to

one

s h a ll

he

to

su b m it

th a t

th e

A fte r

c o n s id e r a tio n s

nnval

c o n v e n tio n

m ea n s

to

grow

of

e s t a b lis h

R a tte n b e rg

w ith

is

upon

The

th e

fo llo w in g

[L o u is,

B r itish
w h ich

w ho

a fte r

had

G overn m en t

in s is ts

upon

fa r

th e

fo r h a ste

so

n e g lig ib le

w h o lly

im p o s s ib le
B a lt ic .]

as

p la n
The

w ith

my

so

c o m in g

K a ra l M in ister

A u g u st,

h im

w ith

h im s e lf fo r

as

and

h a ste, and

U n ite d

S ta te s

and

e x a c tly

I

have

w ith

E n te n te

is

to

to

The

R u s s ia n

n o tifie d

exch ange

n e g o tia tio n s
is

of

in

F ren ch

Your

a

In

c o n tro l
h is

th is

d e p a rtu re

o p in io n ,
are

G rey

am b assad or

at

London

w ill

order

to

ta k e

w ith

th e

to

p la c e

P etersb u rg

and

A d m ir a lt y .

y e ste rd a y

had

G rey

been

of

th a t

th is.

he

On

in d isc r e tio n s

had

th e

G erm an

and

th en

th is

q u e stio n .

r ep ly

to

a

en ter

re la tiv e

to

th e

m ore

th is

th a t

I,

r ep ea ted

Your

E x c e lle n c y

N ovoc

V e r m in

was

m e

to

sh a red
had

very

sen d

a n sw er
cover

th e

h im

to

a

to

see

th e

th e F ir s t

m a tter

he

and

th a t

th e m s e lv e s
be

put

to

tex t.

th o u g h t

of

to

of

as

to

G rey

me

lie

to ld

r e tu r n in g

w e ll

as

w hat

o b lig e d
in.

h im

th e

The

th e

th e

S ir

sam e.

w hat

not

th is,

sam e

to

M ay

to ld

me

d e c la r a tio n s
b e lie v e d
fo r

R u ssia ,

th e

th e

r e p lie d

th a t

of

or

th e

B r itish

th e

T u r k ish

it

seem ed

are

fr o m th is

G rey added

a im

tu r n in g

in te r e sts

b o th

G reat

12,

ta ry

m is s io n

of

th e

N o.

e n tir e ly

G overnm en t w as
so

O tto m a n

th a t
fle e t

p e r m itte d

th e re

S ir E d w a r d

of

and

R u s s ia n s ,

fa lle n

p roposed
and

naval

fin e

la n d ,

been

G overn m en t

N e v e r th e les s,

B r itish

o ffic e r s
th o u g h

T h ese
w ith o u t
w ith o u t
been

sig n e d
w h ic h
your

in

th e

lie

th e

le ft

of

th e m .

m ore

o r d e r in g
le g a l

B r itish

to

The

lo s t

and

a m ba ssa d or

r e p r es en ta tio n s
to

to

exp ress

have,

n o tific a tio n

th e

q u ite

w ith

T u r k is h

beyond

th a t

th e

th e

E.

brou gh t

of
naval

th e

th e

w ar

of

T h ere

J

by

th e

p e r c e p tio n

d isp o sa l

in

to

Eng­

oppose

C o n s ta n tin o p le
p o rta ,
in

about

r e s u lt ,

in flu e n c e

c o m p lic a tio n s

w ith

of

M ay

and
th e

co n tra cts

E n g lis h

are

th e

been

1 2 -2 5 ,

o n ly
th e

to

a sa le

day

and

th e

b e fo r e
to

pre­

it

H e

Is

K ie l,

w ish

In

to

a m ba ssa d or

h o n o r a b le
w ay

he

th a t

th a t

th ere e x iste d

any

sp ea k

and

b etw een

n eith er an

m a n .” ]

to

is
th e

E n g la n d

h im

of

c o n n e c tio n

w h ere

b etw een

an

1 6 7 .)

ru m ore

c o n te n ts

in

n ecessa ry

to

a ssu red

a n d R u ssia

N o.

fa lse

th e

R u ssia

g o in g

d isc u sse d

not

1914.

by

c o n ce r n in g

G erm an

B ru tu s

d id

th a t

d u rin g
a

H e.

con cea l

fro m

S ir

W .

th e

g iv e n

H ou se

any

and

yea rs

S ir

‘‘ e n c ir c lin g

E d w ard

C om m ons
m em ber

by

of

su ch

G erm an y.

s o -c a lle d

by

of

B y le s ,

naval

G reat

naval

B y le s

ask ed

our

and

th e

any

b etw ee n

agreem ent

B r ita in ,

a g ree m e n t,

R u s s ia

m ake

a ffe c t

th e se
a g a in st

G rey

M r.

to

K in g ,

P a r lia m e n t,

In

c ite d :

a

can

to

th e

w h e th e r

to

of

re fe r en c e
an sw er

by

be

cou rse

d irec ted

any

in

and

th e

ch a ra cter

th e

b etw ee n

he

w ith

arose

G reat

r e la tio n s

r e c e n tly

any

nego­

ta k e n

re c e n tly

of

w ith

S ta te

p la c e

fo r

regard

and

w ith

been

w h e th e r

B r ita in .

S ecreta ry

B r ita in

has

and

have

sta te m e n t

G reat

paper.
tio n s

It

arc

have

to

R u s s ia ;

G erm an y,

sin c e

lik e ly

to

m o d ify

q u o te d ,
la id

T hat

th e

It

F o r e ig n

an

how

and

a lle g e d
fa r

w ill

su ch

he

la y

ham per

su ch

be

P r im e

it

w ith

G reat

w as

any

upon,

so

fa r

th a t

M i n i s t e r 's

ns

I

m ade

and

a

g r a in

If

th e

s h o u ld

ago.

w o u ld

year,

th e

n e g o tia ­
m ake

and

B ut
to

th e
none

if

any

w ith d r a w

w h ic h

th a t

par­

on

No

Judge.

su pp ose

agree­

G overnm en t

q u e s tio n s

n ecessary
la s t

I

ns

th a t

p rogress,

can

of

be,

of

tb n l
in

It

day,

r e p lie d

B r ita in

year

are

sta te m e n t

o p in io n , to

n

sam e

u n p u b lis h e d

th e

pow er

n e g o tia tio n s

c o n c lu d e d

my

ns

m em ber

th e

no

b o th

q u e s tio n

th e n

fr e e d o m

not

covers

t o -d a y

c o n c lu d e d

th e

or

a

on

M in is te r
w ere

s im ila r

h o n o r a b lo

th e

a ls o

th e re

w h e th e r

tru e

No

In

P r im e

an sw er

e n tered
to

o u g h t,

b e fo r e

as

been

be

or

and

q u e s tio n

pow ers

d e c id e

tru e.

w ere

The

S o m erse t ask ed
fo r c e s ,

s im ila r

r e s lr ic t

to

w ar.

lo s s

agreem ent
or

w o u ld

r e m a in s

sta te m e n t

a

E u rop ean

P a r lia m e n t
a

N o rth

m ilita r y

t o -d a y .

b etw ee n

in

fo r

to

ask ed

done

w h ic h

of

m em ber

regard

S a lfo r d

it

I

have

w o u ld

be,

P a r lia m e n t .”

A n o th er
(8 5 G .

f a ls e h o o d — fla v o r e d

S a zo n o ff

to

th e

w ith

Im m e d ia te ly
you

th a t

to

be

I

of

our

of

fe a rs

and
have

G rey
fe a r e d

la te

c o m in g

of

to

to
a rc,

th e

I

in
as

tru th .

th e

S ir

and

a ll
J

w ere

p o sitio n

g r e a te r

h im

th e
even

G eorge
part

to

rega rd

fo r
m e

th e
q u ite

th is

p resen t
p o ssib le

our

and

m ost
of

c o u r ie r

th e

lik e ly

to
in

it

how
be

d e cisiv e

on,

in

of

ba ck

w ere
th a t
J

In fo r m
B r itish

th e r e

c o o lin g

been
to

once
m y

I

n o tic e­
th e

fa c t

m ore

be

a ssu m p tio n

once

m ore

u n fo u n d e d

d e sir ed ,

a

q u e stio n .

tr a c e d

In d ia

to
th e

w ith

had

o p in io n

m y se lf

h a ste n

dan ger

con seq u en ce,

s h o u ld

la te r

I

w h ich

be

p rove

p u b lic
m ost

C o n fid e n tia l

P e r sia n

con ced ed

In

c o n te n te d
th a t

th e

e x c item en t

w h ich

to

se r io u s

of

E n g la n d

th a t,

London.

yesterd a y

th e

B uch an an

and
in

to

accou n t

c o r r e c t.

h in te d

in

to

c a lled
on

a rg u m en ts

G overn m en t

have

I

p e r tu r b a tio n

th e

of

at

1 9 1 4 .)

c o n v e r sa tio n

E n g la n d

E n g la n d
to

1 2 -2 5 ,

d e p a rtu re
lo n g

B r itish

la r a tio n s

I seem s

th e

am b assad or

June

a tte n tio n

to

m a n ife s t.

fo r

fea rs

w h ose

th a t

th e

a n o th e r

r e la tio n s

a ssu m ed

p ea ted

b e fo r e

had

a m b a ssa d or,

th a t

th a t

R u s s ia n
le tt e r ,

a b le

s h ip b u ild in g

G o v e rn m e n t.

G reece

th is

T h e d iffic u lty

o p p o r tu n ity

a la r m e d

p ress

t r u e .]

["A n d

R u s s ia

v ie w

w o u ld

th e

th e sa m e

G o v e rn m e n t,

d ir e c t

not

th ey

to

agreem ent

has

and,

th e m se lv e s

B r itis h

G overn m en t

of

G rey :

tic ip a te

B e n o k e n d o rff

sh ip s

th e

June

E n g la n d

a ssu red

he

m e

fa v o r a b le

is

h im

ask ed

a

a g a in

m e n ts

von

p ro m o ted

su b lim e

m issio n ,

th e

fig u r e

d is c u s s e d

not

to ld

d eem ed

a ssu m ed

to

h o n o r a b le

has

was

h ow ever,

p u rch ase

w h ic h

d e v e lo p m e n t

s p le n d id

in

th e

w hy

G erm an s.

sa le

its

In

L im a n

of

a stu te

h is

th e
at

th e

d ays.

op p osed

had

th a t

o f th e in te llig e n c e

r e la tio n s ”

m ea n s

a re

th e

m ili­

p resen ce

th e

to

a r g u m e n t,

reason

th a t

G ov­

G erm an

s e r v ic e s

to

T u r k ish

c o n tr a r y

The

is

fe w

who

had

W illia m

A o r th

■ or

every

th e

in t h e

sou nd

o n ly

m o-

in d ir e c tly .

p r e v io u s

o p in io n ,

th e

w h ie n
becau se

T e le g r a m

r e p e a te d ly

la s t

G rey
a

G erm an

e o n n e e .t lo n

put

w h e th e r

year

he

en ter

T u rkey

th e

a p o o r o p in io n

“ c lo s e r

once

th e
no

been

one

C o n sta n tin o p le

b etw ee n

m a k in g

r e ta in

to

g ra n ted

been

a

im p o s s ib le .
w as

had

th e

and

had

c o o p e r a tio n

76879— U

of

to

m ake

m ore

any
any

is




to

d e c la r a t io n s

yards
of

As

have
G rey

w as

sw ay

c o n v e n tio n

in s tr u c te d

sen se,

th is

th e

J u d g m e n t .]

th e

th ese.

under

to

of

N or

p e n d in g

S ir

fo r

dan ger

d u ll

been

have

w a s n o d a n g e r a t a ll

w o u ld

w e re tim e s w h e n
th e

m is s io n

a

its

r e su lte d

[N o t

In

fo r

S a zo n o ff.

he

a ffir m e d

th is

w ith

“ The

G overn m en t

d isa p p r o v a l o f

w o u ld

su cceeded

naval

In

of

b etw een

had

n ever

K in g

j new n aval
agreem ent

fr ie n d ly

p e r m itte d

o n ly

th e

and

s ig n ifie d

been

have

E n g la n d .

a lm o s t

B r itis h

B and ers P a sh a ,

had

w h ich

and

R u s s ia

T u r k is h

th e

w ith

and

of

N avy

has

fo r c e s,

p ap ers.

1914.

B r itish

in d e p e n d e n c e

T u rkey

in

T u rkey

of

th e

m eet

G erm an y,

R u ssia

th e

have

h ow ever,

d e fen d

w o u ld

not

fr a n k

sh o w s d ip lo m a c y

th a t a r e fu sa l w o u ld
to

B r ita in

s in c e

to

your

H ad

naval

1 5 0 .)

have

th e

T e le g r a m

[H a r d ly

d eserv es

now

“ 5.

v ie w .

3 0 -.T u n e

T u r k ish

w o u ld

d ocu m ent

N avy

d e v ia tio n

th e

th e

p erm issio n ,

ern m en t.
G overn m en t

of

o ffic ers

[T h is

N avy.

to

w a s g r e a tly

th e

G rey

P a r lia m e n t,

M r.

A ffa ir s

w ith

e n jo y e d

he

had

of

la s t

a p p r e c ia te d

th e T u r k is h

S in c e th is

e n a b le

h ig h ly

d ev elo p m en t

se r v ic e .

m e n t s .]

he

r e g a r d in g

th a t

T u rk ish

th a t

u nd er­

m in ister .

S tr a its ;

S tr a its

hand

tia tio n s ,

w o u ld

p la c e

P a r lia m e n t

th is p o in t

T e le g r a m

an

to

At i s s i s s i p p i ,

L ic h n o w sk y ,

to

j e n te re d In to b etw ee n

a sk ed

w h ich

ta k en

in

th e

t o ld - h i m

1914,

” 8.

v a lu e

of

of

u se

he

c o n v e n tio n .

q u e s tio n s

June,

th e

o u tlin e s

B r itis h

fr o m

th e

aw are

gen era l

had

I

c risie

a ttitu d e

b a r g a in c o u n te r

N o.

I

th e o n e h a n d a n d F r a n c e

[In

m em ber

th a t

th a t

He

in

G o v e r n m e n t .]

m a tte r

h im

E d w a r d .]

w h ic h

London

1914.

m in ister

th e

sam e.

yea rs.

f a ls e h o o d .]

th e

1 4 9 .)
G rey

on

nor a

o th er

[A

th e

c o n v in ce d

P a r lia m e n t, a nd

th e

th e
fiv e

n eg o tia tio n s

to

in d isc r e tio n s,

to ld

was

me

th o se

e x te n t

a n d , th e

tre a t

in

w as
I

[S h o w in g

G rey

v ir tu o u s

th e n

th ese

I

and

d e m e n ti.

th a t

th e

th e th r e e G o v e r n m e n ts h ad g r o w n
so
j h im th a t th e in tim a c y b e tw e e n
i g r e a t d u r i n g t h e s e la s t y e a r s t h a t t h e y h a d o n a ll o c c a s i o n s c o m e to a n
u n d e r s ta n d i n g u p o n a ll q u e s t i o n s j u s t a s th o u g h t h e y w e r e a l l ie s .
On

w ith

w ill

be

L ord

th a t c e r ta in

S ir
(8 5 3 .

of
fo r

m ake

th a t

E m peror.

n ev e r th e le ss,

r e g r e tte d

v iew ,

at

13,

c o n v e n tio n

c o n fid e n c e

th e

th is

fr e q u e n tly ;
of

[T h e

s a tis fie d .

[In d ic a tin g

e x p e d ie n t

to o

p o in t

p u b lish ed

th e

he

c o n fid e n c e

e x tr e m e ly

a ll

th is

n eg o tia tio n s,

F ra n ce.

p a rt,

d e m e n t i s — d e n ia ls — is .]

w e ll

w h ich

our

m y

th e m se lv e s

g o v e rn m e n ta l

and

on

th e

O a u n tle tt,

th e

w h a tso e v e r .

on

th e

c ir cu la tin g
naval

in

R u ssia

to

to -d a y

q u e stio n

th is

| p o l i c y ."

w h ich

of

w ere

w ith

o c c u p ied

w ill

to

h er

and

nt

r e c e iv e d .

sa le

p o ssib le

m e

a lleg ed
th e

as

sam e

a llia n c e

C om m on s.
r e p lie d

w o u ld

S t.

rem a rk ed

sin ce

w h ich

J.

Id a h o

dow n

C h ile a n

he

fr o m

a c q u a in t

in

had

F red

o ffic e d u r i n g

th e

th a t

of

M ay

th a t

any

n e g o tia tio n s

G rey

c o m m itte d

th is,

L e tte r,

1137

fo r e ig n

to

retu rn ed

had

in to

a t once

o c c a sio n

s

knocked

but

to ld

E n g la n d

V o lk o ff

n ew sp a p ers

r e g r e tte d

q u e stio n

to

h ern

o th er

S a zo n o ff.

fa c t

The

w ith

S t.

n e g o tia ­

1 9 1 4 .)

w o u ld

th is

r e g r e tta b ly

fir st

H e

11,

C a p ta in

in s tr u c te d

r e p lie d

th e A d m i r a l t y

th a t

as

a u g m e n tin g

am b assad or

N o.

th e

m u ch

w h ich

me

in

as

G rey

p rep are

th e se

th e

(8 5 5 .

w ith

ask

in

w ith

R u ssia ,

v a il

d u r in g

q u e stio n
he

in

th e n

to

R u s s ia n

t e le g r a m

yesterd a y

w as
q u ite

of

w ife

to

n eed

fle e t

w ith

agreem en t

no

R u s s ia n

not

lie s

G overn

w as

r o m o r n n la

in

d iscu ss

h is

w h ic h

q u ite

th e

The

w as

to

B e fo r e

2 9 -.T u n e

I

The

C on gress

8 1 -J u n e

agree­

R u ssia

a u th o r iz ed

you .

an

F llg h n e s s

fle e t

tra v el

c o n fer

how evoT,

S h o u ld

to c o m e

is p r e p a r e d

to

b a ttle s h ip s

tru sts.

P r in c e

[T h e r e

tro o p s

and

w as

he

C o n s ta n tin o p le .

at London

th ro u g h

S ta te s

been

q u e stio n

(8 5 2 .

of

U n ite d

In

$ 1 2 ,5 3 5 ,2 7 0 .9 8 .]

th e

It is

con cern ed.

n e g o tia tin g ,

to

tio n s .

I

w as

a rm a m e n ts;

d e la y

[T u r k e y

of

F r a n e o -B r ltls h

m a tter.

la n d in g

to

w ith

th is

w ere

th e

he

and

fu r th e r

F ils

no

and

in te n d s

regard

th e

P etersb u rg .

in

B r itis h

lo n g

th e

is

w ith o u t

to

am b assad or

E n g la n d ,

th e

G overn m en t
us

a d o p te d .

th e

her

th e u p p e r h a n d

retu rn ed

has

c o n v e r s a tio n

c o o r d in a te d

e x p e d itin g

q u a n tity

p r in c e

th e

see

be

G reece

su ch

th e

w ith

q u e s tio n

a

to

to

In c re a se

n b lo

b e in g

m e n ts] :
m rn t

a cu te

(8 5 4 .

p r o s p e c tiv e

s h o u ld
w ill k e e p

sta n d in g

p le a se d

upon

our

T u rkey

p ru d en ce

W ir y

be

G rey

if

n ego­

E n g la n d .

req u est

d e te r m in e

coun t

th e se

our
to

o n ly

w o u ld

w ill

m ig h t

b o th .

of

o n ly

a m ba ssa d or

G rey

we

not

our

sh ip s

E n g la n d

w h e th e r

If

b e g in n in g

b elie v e s

th a t

case,

v e s s e l.

th e

se ll th e

have

m in ister

th e

to

su p p o rt.

th e

to

C h ile a n

is

It

nt

b efo re

th is,

sh ip

S h o u ld

London

of

a w are

th e

p urchase

a b le

is

le a st

even

it p o s s ib le

to

sa le .

step .

As

rem a rk ed ,

h e c o n sid e r e d

re­

a ll

su ch

c o u ld

g iv e

re a ssu r in g

dec­

w e

fo r m .

w ith

th e se

c o n n e c tio n

h in ts ;

w ith

yet

our

it

fu r

•>v>oo

p jn o i

>Bq)

is

'a o A O M o q

e i d o u u u u i s u o j U| p u u q ju il d u o q i i l o j q u (M < u u o p ii.n l

s^su n

«q

t s ju o u n m u u

J jq

p in o q a

o bu jjju j

A 'o q j n x

;|

■ y u o iO u x

-o ju
O

of

fiiu o

*d tq s

» H f llJH Of J /Q f u s o u

O fU fliJ
u U q

Jo

xno

vuojjq

n

‘pj)f.iuu4ju souo ujffoj uqj.

uu
js

X i u o o a u lYNLOISSUHOMOD

83

RECORD.

29

C O N G R E S S IO N A L
th e r
of

n eg o tia tio n s, w e

h er

In d ia n

m ig h t

prop ose
as

p o sse ss io n s

to

E n g la n d

to

as

g iv e n

e ffe ctiv e

th a t

g iv e

h er

a g u a ra n tee

h er

by

Japan

in

1902.
th e

p osed

p resen t

naval

sta te m e n t

in

th a t

at

F r a n c is

tim e

th e

a lle g e d

w r itin g

of

th is

w o u ld

of

th e

have

have

p o stp o n e
c io u sly

in

to

tea s

cou ch ed

on

an

and

of

P e r sia n

I

have

your
to

r e c e iv e d

w h ic h

a

is

fe w

as

b etw een
as

at

a r is e s

P e r s ia .

It

S ir

th e re

by

not

tea s

It

to

T h is

n o t,

en d,

in

of

le tt e r

of

G eorge
a

me

w ith

c e r ta in

June

of

w o u ld

m ore

d ir ec t

m a n n er;

I

it

fo llo w s

be

con seq u en ce

as

do

to

r e p ly

a

fe a r s

sh a ll

tw een
tio n

p rove

do

a ll

th a t

th e

B r itish
r e su lt

an

th e

stre ss

p o litica l

of

a ssu m ed

fr o m

th e

to

a

P rin c e

but
to

tio n s

how ­

e v e n ts

been

have

been

it

know n

th e

as

to

d e n ie d

in

som ew h at

is,

in d eed ,

to

go

on
to

tio n

be

fro m

d id

a

not

76876—




P a ris,

in
still

is

c lo se r .

th e

c o n v in c in g .

see

w a y,

no

to

in

th e

up

th e

if

is

V o lk o ff.
It

is

to

very
me

11

tr u e

it

sa m e

th e

G rey
upon

and
be

lo c a liza tio n

w h e th e r

th e

in

th a t

as

a d v e r s e ly
a llu d e
th a t

of

In te re st

he

bad

B e r lin
very

d u r in g

th e

a

rea ssu red .

to

th e

M in is te r

o ffic ia l

fo r

F o r e ig n

as

an

by

th e

yet

th e

in d isc r e ­

h a v in g
ever

to

in

of

s ta tin g

be

to ld

(T h e

w h ic h
a

he

by

n eg o tia tio n

e x -M in is te r
to d a y ,

th e

pow ers

B e lg r a d e

In

w h ic h

B e r lin

he

has

A u s tr ia n

th is

s h o u ld

w o u ld

co n sid e r a b le ,

to

J u ly

It
and
be
por­

am b assad or

rep ort
no

fe w

to

3 -1 0 ,

you

fu r th e r
d ays.

co n sid e r s

th e

hope

P ic h o n
w h ic h

S e r b ia

not

in ten d

had

an

h er

d id

th a t

not

and

p o in t,

to

th a t

S er b ia .

g a in e d

step

not

lo st

in te r v ie w

a lso

be

w ord s,

am bassad or

on

was

th e

to

o th e r

A u str ia

he

at

w as

The

b etw een

fr o m

d id

if

p ow er

p resen t

In s tr u c tio n s

th a t

fo r

F o r e ig n

A ffa ir s

to

th e

chargd

w ith

th e

be

d ’a ffa ir e s

N o.

im ­

rega rd ed

in

F r a n c e .)

1 1 /H I

J u ly .

1 4 8 8 .)

th e

A u s t r o -H u n g a r ia n

St .

ta k e

d e m e n ti,

B r itis h

le tt e r ,

no

to n e

oth er

in

d em an d s.

to

d e sir e d

con seq u en ces.

a c tio n

or,

fo llo w

gen eral

any

w as

su m m on s,

had

h is

w ho

w as

th e m ­

u ltim a tu m .

c o m m u n ic a tio n

1 9 1 4 .)

pow ers
th e

to

N e v e r th e les s,
o u tb rea k

of

th e
fo r

th e
her

tim e

a ffo r d
ter.

th em
In

th e

th e

c e r ta in

th e

term

of

tra ry

speak

to

of

a ll

pow ers

to

th e

u ltim a tu m
e ffe c t

ns

e ffe c t,

w ill

In stru c t

ils

London,

R om e,

and

d e c la r e

w h ic h
th a t

to ' th e

us

a

be

in

G o v e rn m e n t.
d e p r iv e

th e

th e

o th e r

of

r e s u lts

th e

pow ers

to

ta k e n
and

of

th e

a ls o
th e

r e fu sa l

step

to
de­

to

m a t­

ju s tific a t io n

p o s itio n
A

by

has

ought

c o n c e r n in g

a

th e

a d o p te d

w h ic h

th e

c o n v in c e d

a ll

in d is p e n s a b le

grou n ded,

Judgm ent

to

u n der­
a r is e n .

fo r

a c tio n

pow ers

are

to

have

fa te fu l

of

to

u ltim a tu m

to
by

w o u ld

convey
ex te n d
A u stro bo

con­

cu sto m .
(R u s s ia n

hoD e

its

r e p r e s e n ta tiv e
B e r lin ,

th e

in

to

,

G overnm en t

A u s t r o -H u n g a r y ,

w o u ld

S e r b ia n

m ode

appears

b e in g

w o u ld

p e r io d

th e

it

th e y

regard s

K u d a sc h e ff

th is

fr o m

fo r m in g

dem ands

of

c o m p lic a tio n s

a c c u s a tio n s

of

th e

h a n d in g

S e r b ia .

h er

etersbu rg

con sequ en ces,

c o m m u n ic a te

In te r n a tio n a l

In str u c t
to

to

to

P

sh ort

G o v e rn m e n t,

w h ic h

a d v ic e

a
th e

r e s u lt

p o s s ib ility

th e

of
a ll

a s id e

g r a n te d

event

o n ly

th e

I n c a lc u la b le

c o u ld

A u s tr ia n

c o r r e sp o n d in g

fo llo w in g

se ttin g

r e a d in e s s
on

by

pow ers

w h ic h

in v e s tig a tio n

th e

day

o b v ia te

a lik e ,

m ade

A u s t r o -H u n g a r ia n

c la r e d

fo r

th e

a n y th in g

o rd e r

a c c r e d ite d

to -d a y .
d is q u ie tin g

on

le a v e s

H u ngary
th e

a

as

of

A u s tr ia ’s

th is

a r d e n tly

in c a lcu la b le

se c tio n ,

I n e v it a b ly

A u s tr ia -H u n g a r y

M in is te r

The

N o t­

n eg o tia tio n s.
a

have

A u s tr ia ’s

th a t

m e,

in terferen c e

A u s tr ia

S e r b ia
in

to

s ta tin g

m ilita r y

v ie w

p ow ers

G erm an y

w h e th e r

o n ly

fr o m

se ttle d

u n c o n d itio n a l

th e

and

ta k e

and

th e

read

a ttitu d e

G erm an

th e

th e

Shvastopulo.

very

becom e
of

th e

th a t

issu e

of

p o litic a l

In

a m ba ssa d or

th a t

in te re s t

am b assad or

g a th ered

a lso

A u str ia n

A u str ia

w o u ld

w o u ld

B e r th e lo t

th e

m u st

and

n ecessary,

in

ap­

saw

r e p r e s e n tin g

a d e fia n t

if

to d a y ,

a V read y

a r g u m e n ts

by

as

a c tio n

ju s tic e ,

A u s tr ia n

th a t

have

P e te rsb u rg )

a d o p te d

com m u­

am b assad or

s e t t le d

tr e a tie s

or

be

of

to

and,

o ffic ia lly

am b assad or

w h ic h

G erm an

concern ed.

u ltim a tu m

r e p ly in g
c o u ld

or

th e

th e

it,

v is it

sta te d

c o n flic t,

of

fo r

th e

w as

A u s tr ia n

m in is te r

d ir e c tly
to

th e

th e

p ressu re

u n c o n d it io n a lly

p r e ssio n

one

su r p r ise .

a la r m

tow a rd

la s t
H e

th e

th e

slig h t

in flu e n c e d

has

d e sir es

re c e iv e d

th e

be

of

v isit,

th a n

e x is te n c e

r6 le

C o n fid e n tia l

Is

to

B e lg r a d e

su b o r d in a te

th ese,

fu r th e r

w ith

th a t

tex ts
in

Text

can

d o c u m e n t s .)

S t.

not

in

to

an

at
by

fo r th

pow ers

th e

th e

w a r lik e

W e

sam e.

p r in t:

1 8 4 .)

la t t e r ’s

w as

w as

d ir e c to r

as

a c q u ie s c e

it
be

e x istin g

ask ed

regard ed

th e

th e

of

th e

As

m oreover,

it

of

in te rv ie w ,

evaded

in

L a ter

exert

en d

to

B e r th e lo t,

n a tu r a l

p ress.

c o n v e r s a tio n

th a t

V II.

N o.

c o m p lia n c e

to

th a t

th e g rou n d

p resen t,

a

has

m e r e ly

(T h e

tim e

w e ll

le a d e r

doubt

e x c e p tio n

o m is s io n s

sam e

rea son s

s e ttin g

s h o u ld

a ffa ir

a ffa ir

w ish es

o n ly

on

and
th e

th e

im p o r ta n t

n o th in g

tim e — a

as

no

te le g r a p h ic

and

th e

F rn nce

handed

d u r in g

th e

th a t

th e

of

in flu e n c e .
th e

by

in

d e ta ile d

r e fu se d

A t

m a tte r

it

p riv a te

p u b lic ,

p a r tic u la r

d iffic u lt

E n g lish

o r ig in a l

G overnm en t

of

o b lig e d

but

w a s,

q u ite

a s s a s s in a tio n

en ters
fin d

G erm an y,

your

th is
th e

E dw ard

he

th e

and

little

to

S ir

w o u ld

y e s ie r d a y

V ie n n a
seem

th a t
fr o m

yea r

th e

no

R om an

w h ic h

F a ls ific a tio n s

n ew sp a p ers.

S e r b ia

out

n e g o tia tio n s

of

I

no

th a t

be

have

e m p lo y e d .

th e

proved

n o te

F rench

th e

be

th is

th e

G overn m en t

m ore

p resen t

ca u se

p r e c e d in g
to

is

w a r lik e

V ie n n a .

to

(B ie n v e n u -M a r tin , F r e n c h

th a t

and

I

be-

in d ic a ­

eyes

to

depen ds

c o n v e n tio n .

doubt

at

th a t
good

as

c o m m u n ic a tio n

w o u ld

th e

th e

m in is te r

p r o lo n g

b e fo r e
he

w ith

d ’ a ffa ir e s

a d d itio n

in

a

th a t

of
th e

th e

carry

c o n tr a r y ,

th e

la s t

n eg o tia tio n s
I

th e

in to

v isit

m uch

rem a rked

P erh a ps

p a rty,

sam e

but

to ld

it

th e

th is

g la n c e

C a p ta in

F ren ch

no

tow a rd

e v id e n t

have

to

(R e s u ltin g

th a t

ow n

The

fir s t

r e a lity

up

be

a lla y e d

p la y

e x e r c is e

new s
he

to

tr u e

h is

G rey

in

n eg o tia tin g

o b lig e d

th is

I

and

ty p e s

(T e l.

c o m m itte d .

Anglo

g r e a t.

be

at
in

of

m u st

p r e s u m p t i v e .)

(8 5 8 .

w ith

to

le a v e

P a r li a m e n t .)

seem s

very

of

th ere.

B e r lin

d e sir e

th e
was

B ook

O ran ge

h im s e lf.

has

c o m m itte d

w ith s ta n d in g ,

is

copy

con­

in

d u r in g

w h ich

th e

p e n etra te

in

un­

sta n d p o in t

c o u ld

who

but
sa ys

peacem aker

H is

d u r in g

are
H e

P a r is , I t / t i J u ly .
The

a

fo r ­

n ec e ssity

of

of

to

lo n g er

d iffe r e n t

p r in t:

Book

ch arge

m easu res.

s till

dragged

d a te

is

assu m e,

has

c ir c u m sta n c e ,

d a te

no

(T e l.

Just

a

any

p r a c tic a l

exact

is

Ita lic

th e

h im

in

a

as

th e

b r in g

w h ic h

n e g o tia tio n s

w h ich

It

(F ro m

have

e n te n te

im p o r ta n c e

to

th e

w h ic h

a

in
on

th a t

L o u is

c ir c u m s ta n c e ,

lik e ly

w ill

th is

th a n

E X H IB IT

fea r

fin d in g ,

G rey

e x p e d ite

b e g in n in g ,

n o th in g

th e

R u s s ia n

O ran ge

d iffe r e n c e ,

I

In d ia

A d m ir a lty .

b e lie v e ,

m a tter

The

N a tu r a lly,

upon

of

R u s s ia n

m in is te r

a g reem en ts,

c le a r

B a tte n b er g

of

c lo se .

w h ic h

p re p a ra to ry

I

very

L o u is

as

h e s ita te s ,
I

in

th e

P rin c e

T here

sees

to

J osef

F e r d in a n d ,

la n g u a g e

c o m p a r iso n

d o cu m e n ts.

p eared

of

our

w ith

is

g re a te r

to

d is p o s e d

h e ir

it

s till

a ttr ib u te d

Im p o rta n ce ,

been

a

he

fix e d .

G rey

a fte r

fo r e ig n

th e

th is

of

p resen t

m ake

B r itish

P a r is.

of

o ffic ia l

to

as

w h ic h ,

th a n

se c u rity

had

p ow er

th e

c o n cern in g

is

in

our
th e

w h ic h

G overn m en t

If

P etersb u rg

One

th e

S h o u ld

th e

by

upon

p o ssib ility

m e r e ly

th e

e n te n te .

to

in fo rm ed

degree

m y

th e

in s tr u c t

been

in
and

upon

G o v ern m en t;

Is

(E x p la n a tio n

in

o p in io n

ex ists.

th rea ten ed

fu r th e r

of

F r a n cis

th e

u n ea sy.

even

was

p la in

b e in g

le s s

th e r e

th em .

The military advance on Germany while Germany was pre­
vented from mobilizing by diplomatic negotiations appears from
the dispatches published in “ The Falsification of the Russian
Orange Book.” (Exhibit V II.)

s u p p le m e n te d

h y p o th e s is ,

he

to

have

m a im e r

lie s

B r itish

has

of

a

V o lk o ff

a greed

q u e stio n

in

th a t

C a p ta in

p la n

th is

th is

I

a ctio n ,

very

sin c e

ns

c o n fid e n c e

rev iv a l

la y

th e

ex p ressio n
tco u ld

of

u sed

to

o ld

p u b lic

fu ll

go

not

p r e clu d e

w h ic h

le ss

so

r e str a in

G erm an y
is

F r a n c is

to

The

in

of

e n te n te

be

to

th a t

in

th is

w ith

ap pears

im p o r ta n t

th is

c o n v e r s a tio n s

days

th e

g iv e

yea r

m ore

a b le

E m peror

be

June

1 2 -2 5 .

th e

h ow ever,

w o u ld

m o d ific a tio n s

w h ich

th is

upon

N ic o lso n

th a t

th e

be

H is

not

L e tte r,

B uchanan

r e v iv a l

a

lo n g

th ere

E n g lish

id e a

count

A rchduke

p a rty

ta k e n

le tte r

th e

th e

has

lo n g er

w o u ld

DOCUM ENTS.

is

th e re fo r e

h ow ever,

m u la

The

th e

se lv e s ,

docs

n ec tio n

of

th a t

G rey

gra ­

C zar

hope

upon

c o m p lic a tio n s
now

G eorge

m ig h t

S a z o n o ff.

G o v ern m en t,

so

en ten te

th e

c ir cu m sta n c e s.

ba sed

no

d a n gerou s,

A f f a i r s .)

m u st,

E n g la n d ,

deal

th e

can

of

T h is

th e

to

w e
a ll

a m ba s­

th e

E n g la n d

to

w as

In d ia

fe a rs

an
to

if

of

B r itish

no

to

of

O dbran a

S ir

G eorge.

w ork

in d ic a te d .

fe w

very
w h ich

der

n ic a te d

and

th e

seem s

fe a rs

th e

as

have

o n ly

th a t

th a t

th e

w ord s.

have

W e

q u e stio n .

fo r

as

e le m e n ts

1 9 1 4 .)

by

c o rre c t;

se c u r ity

com e

a g a in s t

B r itish

a u d ie n c e
K in g

and

London
2,

you

th e

exp resses

c o n fid e n tia l

to

E n g la n d

R u ssia

w e ll

e n te n te

ever,

in

th e

in te n tio n s,

th is

in

th a t

a d d itio n a l

E n g la n d ,
our

very

g iv e n

u n d o u b te d ly

In a sm u ch
e n te n te

your

w as

sta te m e n t

In d ia

by

p a ssio n s

fe w

q u e stio n .

1 9 -J u ly

an sw er

and
R u ssia

w hen

M a je s ty

to

th e

assu ran ce

im p o rta n t

m e n tio n

fr o m

becau se

a fte r

N arod n a

H is

sen se

s p e c ia l

term s,

am b assad or

and

w ay

a n tip a th y

is

It

in

A rch d uk e

days

som e

S e r b ia n

w ill

in

m u ch

pro­

rounds

th e

th e

G overnm en t

th is

le tte r

of

th e

in te r e s tin g

th e

th ree

needed

th e

I

b etw een

th e

been

a g reem en t,

yesterd a y

out

c r i s i s .]

in

ra th er

su m m er

w as

B r itis h

c lo se ,

frien d ly

R u ssia n

never

h im se lf

r e la tio n s

a ccoun t

The

th is

put
he

B a lk a n

a u to g ra p h

very
th e

he

as

co n clu d e

m a k in g

th a t

S a z o n o ff

th e

To

r e c eiv e d

in

th a t

tr o u b led

of

exp ress

h im

to

had
and

next

p resen ce.

hand

M a je s ty

(8 5 7 .

to

w as

of

secret ”
of

to

[A

p o ssib le .

cou rse

A le x a n d e r
th e

co n clu sio n

m y

B uch an an

su pp ort

n ecessa ry

as

te n d e n c ie s ,
T h ere

P r in c e

m e

“ open

th e

E n g la n d ,

th e

p le a se d

sa d o r

order

In

th e
in

A u s tr ia

p rodu ced

th e

of

le tt e r .

C row n

s h o u ld

of

to

q u ic k ly

th a t

a n ti-S la v

A u s t r ia -H u n g a r y
he

appears
as

lig h t

t im e ,

F e r d in a n d

h is

it

c o n fer e n ce

E urop e

is

very
th a t

A t

of

n a tio n a l

th a t

charge
th e

concurrence
in

V ie n n a

B e lg r a d e ,

and

d 'a f f a i r e s

G overnm en t
In
to

our

v ie w s

ta k e

B u ch arest

in

to

V ie n n a )

w h ic h

and

a c tio n

you

to
are

Im m e d ia te ly
a c c o r d in g ly .

in fo r m e d .

S A z O N o r r,

v i u v / k / n u

A

r t v i / 1

lI

a

^ / iv
J

30

CONGRESSIONAL RECORD.

(T h e

charge

d ’a ffa ir e s

In

F ran ce

to

th e

M in is te r

fo r

F o r e ig n

in

A f f a i r s .)

e ffe c t

a

b assad or
(T e l.

W ilh

r e fe r e n c e

The

my

d e c la r a t io n s

rep rod u ced
E ch o

de

th is

P a r is ,
Is

w ith

saw

m eans

bore

p r e v io u s

d isc u ssio n

“ th e

arrow

d u ty
to

as

ta k e

once
The

an

case.

In

fr o m

th e

to d a y .

G erm an y

in

m a n ded

w h ic h
of

w ith in

S er b ia n

a

th e

R ep u b lic

e v en ts.

p a r tie s,

are

con dem n s

A gen ce

B a ron

of
th e

p erio d .

o n ly
The

fo r

its

fr o m

P u b lic

of

The

th e

P r e sid e n t

and

ex c ited

a ctio n ,

by

th e

p ress,
ev en ts;

th r e a te n s

to

w ere

do

th a t

ca u sed

M in is te r

to

th e

am bassad or

in

by

N o.

I am

te le g r a p h in g

“ T o -d a y

I

had

A u s t r o -H u n g a r ia n
ten

dem ands

th in g

but

a b s o lu te ly
s h o u ld

and

2

c o u ld

S k u p s tc h in a
fillm e n t
even

of

c a ll

and
As

not

to

fo r th

th e

fo r e ig n

of

a d e q u a te
“ in

th e

To

exch ange
d ra ft

of

th e

A u str ia
put

an

end

v ie w s
of

th is

o th e r

hand,

d angerous
of

be

me

to

fin d

c o n ta in e d

a

to

be

to

end

it

her
in

as

s h o u ld
me

a

as

th e

th e

p o s s ib le
very

c e r ta in
fo r

an

su p p o rte d

to

th e

p resen t

of

th e

fr ie n d ly

a

p r iv a te

fin d

re­

(2 3 d )
a

of

fo r m u la

A u s tr ia

Speak

of

A u stro -

m u tu a l

1 0 th

to

a ffo r d in g

d em an d s.

a

it

s ta te

th e

in to

m a k in g

to

p ow ers,

th a t

en ter

of

a c c o r d in g

o th e r

p o s s ib le

tim e

London

th e

to

n o te

p rove

sam e

w h ic h ,

d e s ir a b le

A u s tr ia n

and

and

as

p urp ose

im p o r ta n t

B e r lin

peace,

em pow ered
th e

p r o b a b ly

c a u tio u s

a ffa ir s .

of

s in c e r e ly

me

be

in

at

m ost

to

fo r

w o u ld
and

as

soon

seem ed

a r tic le s

it

S e r b ia ,

te le g r a m
fo r e ig n

th e

m a in te n a n c e

s a tisfa c ­

in

th e

sen se

w ith

m anner

of

th e

m in is te r

in fo r m e d .

charg6

d ’a ffa ir e s

In

F ran ce
(T e l.

to

th e

N o.

M in is te r

fo r

fo r

th e

fo r e ig n

to r ia l

is

how
has

w ords
th e

w ar.
to

p reserve

G erm an y

fo r

proof

and




in

fe e ls

peace,
a

w ith

a p tly

and

tru sts

m o d e r a tin g
do

th a t

th e

S e r b ia

had

g iv e n

of

her

th e n

F ran ce,

th a t

not

ask ed
c o u ld

to

th a t

not

ta k e

th e
step s

in
fo u r
in

th e

no

F ran ce

The

w ill

u se

m in is te r

in

V ie n n a ,
to

h im

be

in

me

w h e th e r

and

c o n fe re n c e
fin d in g
I

In

P etersb u rg

and

of

a

r e p lie d

he

to

A u s tr ia n

t e le g r a m

v iew

of
to

fr o m

com es

to

and

th e
th e

d ip lo m a tic

th e

in

w h o le
o p in io n

v ic to r y ,

but

ex trem es

en e r g e tic

F o r e ig n

d e p a rtm e n t

d id

not

h im

th ey

a c tio n

a

th e

h is

in

very

th e

, 1 3 /1 3

a r is

me

c o n te n ts

had

not

o p in io n

fa v o r a b le

to

A ffa ir s

to

th e

of

th a t

been

of

th e

th e

S e r b ia ’s
G le sl

sa tis fie d

d ir e c to r

of

e ffe c t.

am bassad or

m y

in

F r a n c e .)

to

of

th e

set

th e

m easu res
u rged

and

a

in

tw o

N o.

203

w h ic h

or

of

th e

of

J u ly

fo r

of

I

to

earn est

is

w e

w ay

of

have

A u str ia ’s

had

a ffa ir s

it
and

N o.

we

as

a cc e p ta b le

G erm an y,

crept

a

th a t

F o r e ig n

M in is te r

to

(T e l.

have

to

an

e x p e d itio n

c le a r

of

d is p u te )

q u a r r e l.

The
Ita ly ,
w as

fu rth e r

by

th e

w ord

th e

th e

N o.

N o.

a

m od­

c o n s ta n tly
th is

J u ly

28

a lr e a d y

sort
fro m
fr o m

sh ow n

d em a n d s.
and

Ita ly

am b assad or

B aron
th e

(in

a g a in st
c o u ld

w ith

G le s l.

th e

The

b etw ee n

S e r b ia ,
c o n s is t.

we

th e

It

P

etersbu rg

c a b in e t

B ook

, U /2 7

w h ic h

th e

our

to

g iv e

not

B e r lin ,

is

e ffe c te d

R u s s ia n

and

u n d ersta n d
R om e,

th e

a ll

th e w ord

change

do

r e p ly

exceed s

(e x p r e s s e d )

V ie n n a

th e O ra n g e

“ w a r .”

F r a n c e .)

1 5 2 4 .)

r e a d in e s s

U n le s s

in

J u ly .

1521.

a c q u a in te d

d iffe r e n c e

dem ands

s ta n tin o p le

to

and

s a tis fa c tio n .

m akes

G erm an y,

m y s e lf

m o d e r a tio n

te x t fo r

th e

te le g r a m

handed

The

G erm an y

m y

m ade

G overnm en t
its

M a r tin )

of

A u s tr ia -H u n g a r y ,

St.
R e fe r r in g

fu lle s t

th e

S azonoff .
(T h e

by

fo r

in to

sta n d p o in t

have

th e

(S a z a u o ff

a llie s

In flu e n c e

a d o p te d

a lte r ,

w ith

n ecessa ry

of

to
w as

c a lc u la t e d

advance

201

1592

I

ex erc isin g

h is

Is

w as

r e p ly

(B ic n v e n u
of

in

m o d e r a tin g

we

no

p roposal

q u e stio n

te le g r a m

N o.

no

n o te .

n ev e r th e le ss,

he

w h ic h

n e g o tia tio n s

w h ich

as

a

th e

w ith

w h ic h

te le g r a m

of

re­

a lr e a d y

n e g o tia te

and

th e

a

had

r e c e iv e d

E n g lis h

r e fe c t

m easu res,

to

fr o m

d ir e c t

a

sh e

in fo r m e d .

I

a

th e

w ith

regard ed

ev en ts,

had

fo r e ig n

e x e r c is e

E n g la n d ,

read y

seen

w a s,

in

a ll

In

be

It

as

to

d is c u s s

A u s t r ia -H u n g a r y ,

o th e r

th ere

2 9 ),

In itia tiv e

n e g o tia tio n s

r e d r a ftin g

su p p ressed

can

to

am bassad ors

of

our

r e s u lt.

s h o u ld

we

to

If

If

N o.

ask ed

Ita ly

m ay

w h ic h

w as

cou rse

any

m in ister

th e

and

(V ie n n a

m isu n d ersta n d in g

so rts

fa v o ra b le

is

P etersb u rg ,

C om p are

o u tse t

no

a m ba ssa d or.

G erm an y

V ie n n a .

th e

to

but

c o m b in e d
th is

my

u ltim a tu m

s u p p r e sse d ),

s e ttle m e n t

s u b s titu te

w ith

th a t

a

a sid e

in flu e n c e

th e

a d v ic e ,

la k e

p ow ers

fa v o r a b ly

fu rth e r

w as

s h o u ld

a lth o u g h

r e a d in e s s

th e

accept

le a d

G erm an

e r a tin g

In

p e a c e fu l

d u ly

of

J u ly .

m in e

am b assad or

G erm an y,

fo u r

H /2 7

and

s itu a tio n .

th a t,

T h is

w h ic h

to

th e

in a d m is s ib le ,
It.

r e g a r d in g

c a b in e t

to

r e p ly

a

th a t

187

E n g lis h

F ran ce,

p resen t

h e lp

th e

N o.

E n g la n d

of

begun

G e r m a n y ’s

ready

e ffe c t

V ie n n a

th e

had

as

P e te rsb u rg ,

th e re fo r e

m e

of

r e c o g n iz a b le
to

th a t

ord er

am b assad or

R u s s ia n

p rop osa l

to

in

out

te le g r a m

G o v e rn m e n t,

is a g r e e a b le

r e g a r d in g

p la in ly

fr o m

h is

r e p r e s e n ta tiv e s

S e r b ia

P e te rsb u rg
so

by

th e

w ith

handed

R u s s ia

it

J u ly.

th a t

a sto n is h m e n t

B e lg r a d e )

m u st,

have

M i n i s t e r .)

in fo rm e d

of

conceal
In

S e v a s to p u lo u ’ s

am bassad or

d r a ftin g

of

in flu e n c e

as

P a r is

In te r v e n tio n

in c lin e s

it

th a t

In

1 8 9 .)

in fo r m e d

F o r e ig n

to

w ay
to

c o n c ilia to r y .

V ie n n a ,

N o.

m in is te r

London

p la c e d

E n g la n d ,

as

fo r

th e

a fte r

A u s t r o -S e r b ia n

th e

in

em p h a tic

F ran ce

c o m p la is a n c e

R u s s ia

su m m on

e s p e c ia lly

as

he

if

la

R u s s ia

observed

im p o s s ib le ,

to
her

and

b r illia n t

c o n sid e r s

in

s o le

id e a

th e

her

n o te

secu re

a lth o u g h

p o litic a l

d e p a rtm e n t,

In stru c te d

te r r i­

( fa ir e

h ow ever,
upon

a

d e c la r e d

dem arch es

fo llo w in g

H er

ord er

w h ic h ,

F ran ce

p ow ers,

th e

S e r b ia .

it d e p e n d s

d e s ir e
to

of

H e

u ltim a tu m ,

M in is te r

The

m in is te r

seek s

J u ly .

u s e fu l.

th e

r e fe r e n c e

1508.

J u ly .

A u s t r o -G e r m a n

w ith

sam e

seem ed

in te r fe r e

w h e th e r

one

s e n s e .”

m ig h t

r e p lie d

but

o f th is

h e r s e lf a t

h im
sh e

m a in ta in
th e

S e r b ia ,

con sequ en ce

p art

d e te r m in e d

m in is te r

In

h er

am bassad or
w as

c o n flic t

to

, 1 3 /2 6

s u b s titu te

to

th a t

in te g r ity

and

reveal

th e

m ade

R u s s ia

th e

peace

ita lic

v is ite d

a r is

to

to g e th e r ,

a fte r

it.

d ’a ffa ir e s

of

S e r b ia ’s

o u r se lv e s

and

to

th re a te n

ow n

in

G erm an y

P etersb u rg

d e c la r e d

not

her

n e v e r a c c e p t e d .]

d e s ir e

th e

has

does

secu re

h a n d le

to

a g a in

(B ie n v e n u -M a r tin )

[T h e

o b v ia te

In

and

to

p o l i c e .)

am bassad or

“ A u str ia

g a in s

o b je c t

G erm an

a ffa ir s

sta te m e n t:

it.

P a r is

A f f a i r s .)

1 8 7 .)

P
T o -d a y

F o r e ig n

1 3 /2 3

St . P etersburg,

in

“ Saxanoff.”
(T h e

A f f a i r s .)

( T e l. N o . 1 5 2 1 .)

and

h ou se

b a sis

c o u ld

fu l­

in te n tio n .

s u b je c t

to

[c o m p a r e

and

ca se,

B e r lin

ch arge

p o litic a l

W ith

th e

th e

royal

A u s t r i a 's

th a t,

d iffic u lt

of

r e s u lt s

th e

F o r e ig n

d e p a rtm e n t,

G erm an

A u s tr ia -H u n g a r y ,

any

th e

th e m

S e r b ia n

th e

m em bers

to

be

th e y

d e s ir e d

w ith

w ay

r e g a r d in g

th is

not

th e

fo r

S eyastopulo .

p o in ts

ap proval

s c a r c e ly

appeared

of

th e

on

a g a in s t

a c c u s a tio n s

a lte r a tio n

in

p o litic a l

fa cts

s tr iv in g

fr o m

and

d ir e c to r

(T h e

G overn ­

e x a m p le ,

w h ic h

e x tr e m e ly

c o u ld

w o u ld

am b assad or

a c c e p t a b le
t io n

to

som e

In

it

an
to

th e

e ffe c t

1 8 8 .)

any­

of

S e r b ia n

For

s h r in k

a ttr ib u ta b le

th is

of

of

J u ly .

a tte m p ts

it

th e

have

th e

th e

M in is te r

s u c c e s s iv e

th e

A u s t r o -H u n g a r ia n

th e

p r o o f.

e s s e n tia l

H u n g a r ia n

fo r

if

w ith o u t

o b ta in e d ;

m ig h t

p o in ts ,

w ord s,

te n s io n .

5

be

fr o m

if

war

th e

Fran ce

th e

som e

th e

N o.

2 6 th ]

and

are

am bassad or,

th e

th a t, a p art

th e m .

a ll

r e p ly

w ith
h im

even

accept

of

J u ly

A u s tr ia n

1 / 6 July.
31

up,

in

th e

F r a n c e .]

P
The

(th e

w ith

draw n

to

(T e l.

w a r.

e x a m in e d

w ere

a s s e m b ly ,

w h ic h

d e ta ils ,

in te re s ts

S za p a ry ’s
w as

and

th ey

to

at

B ook

expressed

2 6 th ,

of

stro n g ly

c o n v e r s a tio n

bad

rem arked

to

out

and

s c a r c e ly

I

fu lfillm e n t ,

c a r r ie d

P a s h itc h ,

o th e r

I

w h ic h

of

p ress

4

A fte r

r e a d in e s s

te r r o r is t

u n d e r s ta n d in g
by

be

th e

p o in ts

a lte r a tio n s

its

fr ie n d ly

ns

J u ly

O ru nge

S bvastopulo .

fo llo w s :
very

S e r b ia ,
In

im p o s s ib le

c o u ld

a g a in s t

to

fo r m

d e c la r e

r e g a r d in g

as

nnd

am bassad or.

a d d ressed

w ere

1

V ie n n a
lo n g

d ex tero u s

m ent

la w s

to
a

th e

p resen t

187.

th e

r e g a rd in g

gen eral

,

of

G erm an y

E n g la n d

N o.

in tim id a te

p ow ers

(T h e

F r a n c e .)

etersbu rg

in

v ie w

of

m in ister

th e

not

th e

1 5 0 8 .)

St . P

to

d e sir e

not

T e l.

d ir e c to r

T a k in g

of

not

w ith
(T e l.

188

in tim id a te

F ran ce

o p in io n

187,

th e se

w ill

Sbvasto pulo .
(F o r e ig n

N o.

as

was

o m itte d

am

F in a lly ,

a

of

J a u rfs
a

N o.

a ttitu d e

A u str o -

th e

in te n d e d

th a t

d istin c tio n

lo o s e

to

In

m y

th e

P e te rsb u rg .

of

of

person al

P a r is ,

de

sta te s

r a r is

h ts

th e

is

th e

d e fin ite ly

le t

d ’a ffa ir e s

B e r th e lo t,
In

any

not

P r e sid e n t

even

se e k in g

w as

The

p o in t.

p roposal

B e r th e lo t

B c r t h e l o t 'a

P a r is ,

A u s tr ia .
th is

P aris ,

her

in

a n sw er

w ith o u t

ch arge

C o n tin u a tio n

m in istry

has

p r e v e n ts

o p in io n

fr o m

and
on

of
It,

by

war

of

G erm an

sen ten c e

(T e l.

n ecessa ry

fu rth er

th e

(V iv ia n i)

th e se

w h ic h

an

th e

weakened

have

w as

R u s s ia

in s tr u c tio n s

Revastopulo.

a c o m m u n ic a tio n

de

of

it

n o te

th a t

E cho

its

g u id e d

lo c a liza tio n

a bsen ce

e x p r e ssin g

o p in io n

e x tr e m e ly

th e

approved

S c h tin s s t a t e m e n t

ann ou ncem en t

o b je c t

rev ela tio n s
to d a y.

m ea ns

G erm an y

(T h e

He

fo r e ig n

A u str ia n

accept

[T h is

w o u ld

of

U n fo r tu n a te ly ,

any

fo r

p u b lish in g

th a t

had

th e

seek

th a t

th e m .

deem ed

is

sen se

M in ister

A u s tr ia ’s

not

to

a b sen t.

t e le g r a m

b etw ee n

la c k

w ords

ex p ressed

be

It

qu arrel
h is

th is

w ith o u t

he

o n ly
has

rea ssu red

does

H avas

but

as

a
to

d e c id e d

was

fo llo w in g

ot

of

c o n v e r sa tio n .

becau se

th e

at

h is

to

G erm an y

c o u ld

ex ten t

G erm an y

th a t

S e r b ia

If,

S ch bn

th e

m om en t

p resen t

som e

to

are

by

c h a ra c te r

a ttr ib u te d

th a t

out

g iv e n

th e

B a ron

fo rm ,

concern ed

in s is te d

n a tu r a lly

in

The

of

th e

to

but

y e ste rd a y

th r e a te n in g

n o te

G erm an y

th a t

m in is te r

p r e sid e n t

exact

m u ch

and

p o in te d

is

B ou rse

and

fo r

B e r lin ,

th a t

th e

h er

th a t

th e

o n ly

c o n flic t.

of

o ffic e

has

th e ir

c h a ra c te r

and

u ltim a tu m ,

step

w h ic h

w ith

E m ba ssy

it

an

G erm an

p a n ic

step

in d ic a tio n

am b assad or
In

m o r n in g

f ly ,"

th e

J u ly .

th is

not

handed

le t

1 2 /2 3

184.

am b assad or,

th is

fa c t

con seq u en ce

ch a ra cter

th e

w as

th is n e w

being

as

It

v ie w ,

Paris,

G erm an

In

The

had

of

of

a lly .

an

lh e

th r e a te n in g

A u s tr ia

p o in t

N o.

c o m m e n ts,

th e

th a t

1 8 6 .)

p erh aps

B e r th e lo t

declared
A u str ia ’s

by

a lt h o u g h

e m p h a s iz e d .

in d is c r e tio n ,
no

te le g r a m

m ade

to d u y ,

step

by

to

N o.

case

a p p e a le d

S e r b ia n

e x p e c ta tio n s
A u s tr ia

se e k in g

fo r

a

th e
pre­

“ e x p e d it io n ’ ’ is re­
by
th e
of

V ie n n a ,

th is

one

A u s tr ia n
w hat

w ord
v ie w

A u s tr ia ’s

London,

C on­

in fo r m e d .

Bazonofp .

7 6 8 7 6 — 11

X

X m 't t l >
1

)U|Od

m q»

eqx

mu

««0

KUOHDIVUHU, JO

P " 8 8l*«»H

T1>UI » | q

« » » W

p*pK JU U »

J K lM iSbuq

(•8J|«J»V

(oJJBnb v jo o»vo u )09jja u(

u^ iojoj

Ja»H|»IK ^*U °1 a0UUJJl U
»
|

joj

sojjbjjb.P

?SJBqa aq j.)

x i u o o 'a u ' i v K O i s s a H O N O O
C O N G R E S S IO N A L R E C O R D .
(T h e

ch arge

d 'a f f a i r e s

in

F ran ce

(T e l. N o .
(In

th e

O ran ge

B ook

th e re: “ T h e
d e ta il

t o -d a y

am b assad or
of

th e

G erm an
w ith

th e

s tr o n g ly

m e d ia tio n

or

w h o le

of

of

a

to

th e

F o r e ig n

te le g r a m

of

th e

upon

is

th e

fa ls ifie d ,

situ a tio n

p o lit ic a l

e x c lu d in g

R e fe r r in g

7

A t

to

m y

o ’c lo c k

secon d
and

fin d

sort

c o u ld

h is

tio n

a

ow n.

sh o u ld

been

done

H e

id e a

th e

in s is te d

to

he

as

in

V ie n n a

o b je c t

to

th e

d e ta il
r u lin g

a ll

H e

d id

th a t

G overn m en t

th e

w ish

th a t

a

n eg o tia tio n s

sh ort

sh o u ld

m a in te n a n c e

of

m ake

in

w ay

and

to

th e

F o r e ig n

N o.

th is

The
of

F ren ch

fillin g

as

a m ba ssa d or

th e

p ost

of

in

S w itz e r la n d

R u ssia n

in s is ts

upon

a tt a c h < in
5

m ilita ry

th e

d esir a b ility

S w itz e r la n d

as

soon

Sevastopu
am b assad or

in

F ran ce

(T e l.

to

N o.

th e

F o r e ig n

a c tin g

te le g r a m

G o v e r n m e n t ’s
th is

n ew s

w as

20

F o r e ig n

te rd a y

w ith

6

h ours

order

H ere

te le g r a m

you

on

th e

to

w ay.

to

V ie n n a

m a in ta in

th e re

is

no

doubt

The

in

F ran ce

(T e l.

to

N o.

a.

m.

retu rn ed

I

have

an

te le g r a m

w as

of

am b assad or

in

th e

to

th e

N o.

and

P resid en t

of

has

C h r istia n ia

and

d e la y

h ere

on

am b assad or

in

(T e l.

to

N o.

Im m e d ia te ly

out

m in is te r
(T h e

becau se

T h is

th e
fo r

as

is

R u s s ia
one

in

up

h is

of

o m is s io n
d e p r iv e s

p reserve

o b v ia te

th e

F ran ce.
th e

The

was

u n d o u b te d ly

o b je c t

th e
to

F rench

in

th e

to

th is

done

a ll

sh e

upon

R u s s ia

th e

A u str ia n

tfli

G erm an

G o v e r n m e n t,

to

and

not

th e

sta te m e n t
m in is te r

is o la t e

our

to

a lly ,

m a in ta in

Fran ce.

T o -d a y
of

th e

a m ba ssa d or

v isite d

m ade

p rop osa l

11

a n ew
R u ssia

p rop osa l

and
to

at

step
A bel
fo r

end

of

c r o s s in g
of

a

be

to

th e

w hat

had

a

A u s tr iu

h er

not

case

In ­

c o n s id e r e d
w o u ld

n ecessary
th e se

been

e ith e r

step s

p r e c is e ly

of

an

u lti­

of

th e S er b ia n

fr o n tie r .

t e le g r a m

is

as

“ But

S e r b ia n

w a r .”

as

as

he

h ere

w as

a c r o ssin g

th e

d e c la r a tio n

r e p ly

g iv e

query

m ig h t

, 7 4 /2 7 J u l y .

a r is

T u esd ay,

to

th a t

th e

of

rep rese n ted

in

fo llo w s :

fr o n tie r ,

T h e r e fo r e

p a r tic u la r ly

o f an

m eans

it

u ltim a tu m ,

s u b s e q u e n tly

severe

and

to

re p ly
a

Ferry

b e in g

th e

and,

m y
in

A bel
of

F erry
th e

sen se,

re sts

s o le
w ith

th e

M in is te r

N o.

fo r

th e

of

F o r e ig n

la s t

e x e r tin g

o l s k i.

proof

th a t

A f f a i r s .)

1 9 7 .)

in

th e

O ran ge

G e r m a n y ’s

a r is

B ook

a ttitu d e

, 7 4 /2 7

J u ly .

b ecau se

w as

not

h is

in

a ffa ir s)

G erm an

w o u ld

as

m o b iliz a tio n

fo r e ig n

r e su lt

a m ba ssa d or

q u e stio n

to
by

r e p lie d

B e r lin )

it

con­

u n c o n d i­

th a t

a

w o u ld

( G erm an

se c r e ta r y

Jagow

th a t

by

fr o m

G erm an y

m o b iliz a tio n

but

r e p ly

te le g r a p h s

a ttitu d e

R u ssia ,

m o b iliz a tio n ,

im m e d ia te ly

in

w hat

of

if R u ssia

a tta c k in g

th a t

B er lin
adopt

k in d

a tta c k e d

of

w o u ld

A u str ia ,

R u ssia .

am

t e le g r a p h in g
m y

to

to

th e

N o.

am b assad or

th e

O ran ge

added]

c o u ld

regard s
T h is
I

am

th e

in g

b e in g

p la c e d
ta k e n

w h ic h

th e n

stre n g th en
and

th a t

t u d e .”

a

at

be

very

th e

by

T h is

is

and

w as

in

to

is

say,

th e

a

p a rty

to

G erm an y
of

B e r lin

e n tire
The

im ­
been

th e

c a b in e t,

c r is is , a p p e a r s

am b assad or

h ere

m ore
th e

me

e x tr e m e ly
any

n ecessary

th e

key

to

th e

c o n n e c tio n
B e r lin ,

p r iv a te
th a t

key

sy m p a th y

crea te

th e
w as

w ith

th e

Is

step s
th e

th a t

to

in

in

in

B e r lin .
of

recom m en d ed
sen ten ce,
c o n s ta n tly

is

in

B e r lin ,

ir r e c o n c ila b le
th e

th e

in s te a d

fir st

s itu a tio n

A u s tr ia ’s

fo u n d

is

corresp on d ­

F o u r ta l6 s

th e

im p r e s s io n
be

exert

w ord s,

in to

w ith

to

pow er

situ a tio n

put

t a lk s

th e

to

th e se

w ith

are

d is q u ie tin g , a n d

o th e r

step s

rearran gem en t

in

in

to

th a n

tru e

a tti­

cause

fo r

B e r li n .]

Sazo n o ff.
(T h e

M in is te r fo r

F o r e ig n

A ffa ir s

(T e l.

N o.

to

th e

am

t e le g r a p h in g

W ith

regard
w ith

to

a

by

tio n s

N o.

196,

le s s .

of

h is

A u s t r ia -H u n g a r y

F ran ce

and

th a t

fo r e ig n

am bassad or

in

F r a n c e .)

1 5 3 8 .)
S t . P e t e r s b u r g , 1 5 /2 8

I

have

ta k in g

nam e

r e p lie d

th e

have

th a t

The

a lly .

g a in

s ig n ific a n c e

m o n a r c h y .]

its

I

m ore ”

becom e

to

s y m p to m a tic

th e

upon

a ttitu d e

u n y ie ld in g

and

p r e v io u sly
[T h a t

appears

doubt

“ M y

, 1 5 /2 8 J u l y .

u n s a tis fa c to r y .

B e r lin

im p r e s s io n

am b assad or

d e v e lo p m e n t o f

c le v e r

end

read s :
m y

as

E n g la n d

G erm an y

A u s tr ia ’s

in

W ith o u t

of

th e

etersbu rg

“ m ore

has

th e

to

E n g la n d

u n d erta k e

m eans

to

G e rm a n y ’s

th a t

G erm an
w ords

a ttitu d e .

in flu e n c e

r e p ly

of

in flu e n c e .

[B y

to

to

of

S e r b ia n

th e

G erm an y

as

F r a n c e .)

fo llo w s :

th e

danger

a rrested

o p in io n

p o s itio n

a

sort

a ttitu d e
of

as

have
no

th a t

o p in io n

m u rder

e x e r c is e

w ith
B ook

u n y ie ld in g

A u str ia ’s

as

in

1 5 2 8 .)

d iv e r t

w o u ld

th e

of

to

London

P etersb u rg ,

teleg ra m
th e

w h ic h

to

c o n v e r s a tio n s

[in

S e r a je v o

to

r e s p o n s ib ility

a c tin g

M in is te r

G erm an y

w ar

to

F o r e ig n

persu aded

Fran ce,

in

of

very

G erm an y

of

and

at

in flu e n c e

of

w as

th is

p r io r
in

seek s

S e r b ia .

Sch on

part

event

in

a b s o lu te ly

B aron

a ffa ir s

A bel

H er

s h o u ld

“ in te r v e n tio n

k n o w le d g e

sh e

th e re fo r e

p la c e

o ’c lo c k ,

to

su pp ressed

(F r e n c h

to

p a r tia l

fo r

sh ared

L e ft

general

ap pearan ce,

d e scr ib e d

F ran ce

St . P

G erm an

of

p o in t .)

R u s s ia

th e

in

w as

A u s t r ia -H u n g a r y ’s

t e le g r a m s .

th a t

r e p r e s e n ta tio n s

th e

it

o l s k i.

A f f a i r s .)

w a r li k e .]

From

th e

y e ste rd a y

s o lid a r ity

on

n il

A u s tr ia ,”

th e

of

peace,

th e

th e

h is

th e

a ll

It

th e

to

2

tlin t

(T e l.

t e le g r a m .)

in te g r ity

c o n n e c tio n

and

peace

by
in

R u s s ia

of

b etw ee n

w ho,

pre­
tak en

I zv o l s k i.

J u ly .

o ffic e .

th is

ta k e n

fo r e ig n

m ake

of

a lte r

a c tio n

d is u n io n

G erm an y,

a m ba ssa d or

th is

fo r

a b o v e -m e n tio n e d

fo r e ig n

Fran ce,

to

, 7 4 /2 7

and

th e

(2 )

as

s a id

a

C am bon

p r e s s io n

B e r th e lo t

h a lf

not

and

th is

F o r e ig n

Iz v

G erm an y

o l s k i.

w ith

sta te m e n t

d is tu r b
In

S e r b ia

w a r, or o f

J u ly .

d is c u s s io n

in fo rm e d

does

t o -m o r r o w ,

C open ha gen

of

assu ra n ces

to

p ro m o te

to

not

em ba ssy.

z v o l s k i.

a

step s

tr a n q u illity .

s e n s e .”

fr o m

c o u ld

b e ttc c c n

b r in g

7687«—




w ay

w ord

a r is

S e v a s to p u lo

h is

G erm an y

G overnm en t

r e s p o n s ib ility

G erm an y

ow n

a c tin g

of

and

th is

d e s ir e

u n d e r lin e d

sta te

J u ly .

M i n i s t e r .)

F rench

th re a te n

A u s tr ia n

(3 )

m o d e r a tin g

th a t

w o u ld

her

w ar.

arden t

and

th e

of

th e

th e

has

6tep s

am b assad or

S e r b ia ’s

m in is te r ’s

but
of

th e

a

u n p le a s a n t

in

I

had

th e

c o n fir m e d

not

I

by

th a t

com pel

th e

A u s tr ia n

th a t

is

s u b s e q u e n tly

secon d

of

you

A u s tr ia

p a r tic u la r ly

in d u c e

S chon

to

does

a

s titu te d

th a t

, 7 4 /2 7

a r is

v isit

F o r e ig n

p resen ce
in

th e

d e ta ils

c o m m u n ic a te d

and

to

in

th e

of

“ (1 )

th e

R u s s ia

m e

in

of

t e le g r a m

J u le s

1 9 5 .)

sta te

g a in s

th e

to

of

B ook

case

(T h e

th e

P a r is

a ffa ir s

fo llo w s :

a p p a r e n t ly

o b je c t

to

s u p p r e s s io n

B aron

te r rito r ia l

[A lth o u g h
it

and

m o r n in g

w r itin g ,

retu rn

fo r e ig n

to r

c o n fir m e d

They

m y

u n d ersecreta ry
of

am b assad or

no

a fte r

w h ic h

th e

M i n i s t e r .)

P

a c tin g

th e

W ed n esd a y.

F ran ce

fo r

P
[T h is

o l s k i.

Izv
(T h e

F erry.

on

, 7 4 /2 7

a r is

conduct

F o r e ig n

g iv e n

r etu rn s

te le g r a m
r e p e lla n t

1 9 6 .)

th e

am b assad or

p o in t,

am b assad or

1 9 4 .)

R ep u b lic

th e

M in is te r

N o.

(T e l.

d e liv e r e d

M i n i s t e r .)

P
The

(T h e

to w a rd

th e

(T e l.

to

th e

th a t

of

ex­

th e

F ran ce,

a tte n d in g

to

a ppearan ce

th is

proved

yes­

o n ly

in te n tio n a l

F o r e ig n

over

F ran ce

r e p ly

a d e c la r a tio n

a

and
to

th e

b e fo r e

day

I
(T h e

of

of

and

b e a r in g

1 9 3 .)

ta k en

th e

m in is te r

V ie n n a ,

o f,

O ran ge

be

even

S e r b ia n

th e

P
ju st

on

th e

tio n a lly

am b assad or

h a lf

of

a

W ed­

a ssista n t

m

th e

Izv
(T h e

to

G o v e rn m e n t,

step s ”

In

e v e n tu a lity

lin e s .

H a v in g

[In

or

B e lg r a d e

p r e s s in g

11

to

know

fr o m

s ta n d p o in t

as

in fo r m e d
m a tu m , o f

, 7 4 /2 7 J u l y .

a r is

not yet
me

at

our

on

u n d e r sta n d in g
h is

slig h te st

it

a ttitu d e

r e c eiv e

P a r is

p r e s s u r e .]

d id

sen t

sen t

to

.

lo

1 9 2 .)

sh ow s th a t

The

M in is te r

th e

o ’c lo c k .

A u s tr ia n

1508

r e p ly .

F rench

at

N o.

F ran ce

fo r e ig n

In

c o n s is t

m ig h t

M i n i s t e r .)

F
Your

in

h is

“ e n e r g e tic

w o u ld

p o ssib le.

(T h e

secon d

su ccess

q u ite
it, and

d e te r m in a tio n

th e

P
by

u n s a tis fa c to r y

, 1 4 /2 7 J u l y .

th e

of

le a v e

not

w o u ld

and

th e ir

becau se

m is tr u s tfu l

p o s s ib ility

(T e l.

ta k e

M i n i s t e r .)

a r is

in

d id

to

correct

a v o id

to

p e r so n a lly

m istr u ste d

he

has

1 9 1 .)

P

th e

th a t

th e

[T h e

B ook

he

he

m in ister

to

u s.

th a t

th a t

p o in t

S ch on

r etu rn ed

at

w ere

and

O ran ge

ju s tifie d

am bassad or

g u a r a n tie s .
(T e l.

th ey

b etw een

th e

he

a ctin g

su pp ort

p u b lish e d

and

Sevastopulo.
F ran ce

th e

me

m o r n in g

w h en

th e

Iz v

fo rm e d

in

th e

to

B a ron

G e r m a n y .]

In str u c te d

c h n r g d d 'a f f a i r e s

in

to ld

S c h o n ’s ;

su r p r ise d

by

tra n q u il

u n ity

advance

(T h e

c o m m u n ic a ­

in fo r m e d .

(T h e

no
in

P a r is

to d a y.

Ix in d o n

of

in

c lu d e d

was

fu lle st

su pp ressed

in

m ore

th a t

it

be

peace,

and

be
to

it

w h e th e r

or

fir m
th e ir

la c k

any

B a ron

h im

I

us

to

and

m in ister

m a n ife ste d

and

of

rest,

w o u ld

m in iste r

of

te ll

fo r e ig n

th e

w as

try

perhaps

h ow ever,

how

step

to

it

fo r e ig n

n ew

th e

For

see

fo u r

a ctin g

situ a tio n

of

th e

to

p o ssib ility

v iew

n o t,

fo r

p ow ers,

th is

fr o m

ten d

5 o ’ c lo c k .

B e r th e lo t

out

th e

at

m in istry

w ith

h is

w ith

th e

p la c e

th a t

in te n d e d

r e p ly

th e

observed
th e

to

The

m e r e ly

The

p o s s ib ility

, 7 4 /2 7 J u l y .

a r is

to o k

exp ressed

exp ressed

its

cam e

upon

but

F r a n c o -G e r m a n

have

teleg ra m

situ a tio n

o r ig in a te d

F in a lly

r e g a rd in g

w h ich

th e

a d v ic e

th is

th is

o n ly

u n d e r sta n d

to

in

c o n fer e n c e ,

g iv e

w h e th e r

w as

o u t.

of

of

a greed .

reads
a n d in

187.
to

and

n esda y.

a m ba ssa d or

d iscu sse d

w ay
or

E n g la n d
c le u r

G erm an

and

a

m e d ia tio n

N o.

r e fe r r e d

th e

tim e

and

anew

c o n f e r e n c e .")

T e l.

c o n v e r s a tio n

istcr,

d e p a rtm e n t.

any

P
The

M i n i s t e r .)

in te r v e n tio n

d isc u sse d

d ir e c to r

in s is te d

31

1 9 0 .)

th is

am b assad or

oe

is

th e

(T h e

h ere

an

to

d e c la r a tio n

B ook

and

tie s

had

th e

t e le g r a m

th e n

of

resp ect

to

w ar

a g a in s t

S e r b ia ,

ta k e n
fro m

d o u b le

p la c e

am bassad or

read s:

S e r b ia , it is

in te n tio n a l

he

w ith

A u s t r o -H u n g a r ia n

O ran ge

m in -

London

fa ls ific a tio n .

N o.

a ls o
1544

th e
of

my

J u ly .

N o.

1521.

d ir e c t n e g o tia ­

a p p a r e n t ly

p u rp ose­

of

h o s tilit ie s

b etw ee n

th a t
On

t e le g r a m

are

v ie w

n ecessary

[c o m p a re

P etersb u rg

“ In

m y

E n g l a n d ,”

th e

fir s t

J u ly

one

T h ere

no

h o s tili­

hand

it a lic iz e d

2 9 ],

etc.

and

sen ten c e
on

th e

in

o th e r

CONGRESSIONAL, RECORD

32
hand
th e

It

la

th e re fo r e

of

d ir e c t

Id e a

sa ry

th a t

E n g la n d

sp eed , a n d
pended
to

th a t

to

“ and

any

p o stp o n e

E u rop ean

c o m m a n d in g

e q u ilib r iu m

m o st o f th e

to

th e

fo r

th e

In

c a p a b le

F o r e ig n

as

to

N o.

th e

am

In

t e l a /r a p h i n g

con sequ en ce

S er b ia ,
K ie ff,

ic e

of

sh a ll

M oscow ,

su pp ressed

In

announce

and
th e

S e r b ia n

and

m ilita r y

m easu res

a lo n e ,

and

R u s s ia n

th a t

th re a te n e d

by

G overn m en t

th e re fo r e

A u s t r i a .)

V ie n n a ,

b ecause

of

B e r lin .

v ie w

In

It

by

b r in g in g

(T h e

so

F r a n c e .)

J u ly .

fa r

In

m ore

no

no
to

sh ow s

n o tic e

V ie n n a

th a t

F o r e ig n

w as

th e

O erm a n
a g a in st

not

b ein g

M in is te r

to

th e

N o.

am b assad or

in

c o m m u n ic a te

G overn m en t
London,

to

w h ich

V ie n n a ,

th e

you

and

c o n te n ts

are

of

rec a lled .

th e

In fo r m in g
n e ith e r

to

ste p s

h im

ta k en
o f

part

F ran ce
(T e l.

I

N o.

(h e

F o r e ig n

an

w h ic h

ear

Your

th e

te leg ra m ,

as

r e su lts

a c tin g

a d m it

Fren ch

th e

rem arks
o n ly

but

A u str ia

to

th e

e x e r tin g

w ith

a

te le g r a m
G erm an

S ch lin ,

a ffa ir s

are
of

a ll

27,

N o.

in

and

as

a

20,

any

A s

th e

case

m u st
a

not
if

d e c lin e d

to

th e

to

th e

London,

so
I

in

P a r is

to

th e

F o r e ig n

(T h is

e n tir e ly

fo r m in g

W ith

a Judgm ent

regard

stro n g

a

to

th e

p ressu re

J u ly

J u ly

su p p ressed

27,

28,

fr o m

fro m

te le g r a m

c o n c e r n in g

d ir e c t
In

G e r m a n y ’s

d e c la r e d
o f th e

th a t

fo u r

tea s

The

b est
to

V ie n n a ,

of

th e

com pare

P etersb u rg ,

and

n o te

th e

a ttitu d e

a

not

beg

th e
a

you

a g a in

n o te

th ere

it

if

appeared

V ie n n a
te n s io n

is

th e

te le g r a m

N o.

in

us

sim ila r

G er­

it

to

th e

su p p ressed

t e le g r a m ,

t e le g r a m .

to

R om e,

M in is te r

c o m m u n ic a te

to

a

to

w h ich

m essa ge
to

th e

chan ge

to

good

G erm an

t o -d a y

and

p osa l o f
h im

be

th e

a r d e n tly

d e sir ed

r e p ly

to

a

p r o je c t

th is

th e

fo r

of

r e p lie d

r e p lie d

th a t

o b je c t
ea sy
th e

a

fo r

be

th a t

tr ia .

In

to

G erm an y

of

of

was

u n ju s tly
he

sa id ,
sh e

11

was

o th er

to

fin d

he

to

th e

N o.

th e

th ro w

w h o le
c a lle d

28)

u sed

in

th e

it

Is

n o te.

a

tr u e

th e

c o n feren ce.
to

th e

th a t

th a t

“ V ie n n a ,
w ith

and

to

of

in

m y

exert

in s tig a tin g

G erm an y
in

of

a pproves
advance

G overn m en t

w ith
fo r

m in ister
th e

sa m e

be

s h o u ld

very
a ffo r d

im p a s s e .

p o in t,
on

th e

of
of

c o u ld

e ffe c t

a

r e d r a ftin g

c la r e d

th a t

[T h e

N isc h .

1 6 /2 9 ,

h e r s e lf,

as

it

s u b s ta n tia l

to

th e

am

te leg ra p h in g

a lso

d id

N o.

am b assad or

not

ten d

but
A u s­

w as

of
a

th a t

th e

w ay

c risis

su ch

step ,

a

d e n tly

in

exp ressed

A ccord­

v e rs a tio n

not

con­
in te r -

to

of

at

to

th a t

h om e,

peace

so

so

of

even

th e

I

if it

S e r b i a 's

n ew s

th is

have

a

b lo w

th e

in

th a t

o th er

it

ord er

to

co u n ts

p ow ers

in

th e

of

tex t
in

r e p ly

proved

M o n te n e g r o ’s

th e

en h an ce

ord er

its

at

th a t

of

th e

u s,

but

d e c id e d

its

very

p resen t

n o te .

not
th e

The

w as

so

u n d e r ta k e
in s in c e r ity
w as

e v i­

m o b iliz a tio n

and

h is o p i n i o n , t h e r e
fr o m

th is

con­

h a s a t p r e s e n t d ecid ed

in flu e n c e

in

G e r m a n y ’s

su pp ort

to

th e

lo c a lize

w ith

th e

arm ed

and

m in ister

im p r e ssio n

G overn m en t

to

c o u n try

co u ld

fo r e ig n

o ffe r

an

not

of

th e

m e a s u r e , w h i c h , in

upon

o n ly

de­

w ith

r e p lie d

o p in io n s

d e sir ed ,

The

g a in e d

th e A u s tr o -H u n g a r ia n

and

so

fu tu re .

th e
at

of

w o u ld

fr o m

S e r b ia , c o u ld

o p in io n

I

A u s tr ia

c o n n e c tio n

had

com

m on arch y

situ a tio n

of

fu ll

a

fo r

m in is te r

th e

w h ic h

a g a in s t

p u b lic

beca u se

by

fo r e ig n

m anner

g iv e n

n o te .

and

th e

r e s u lt

exch ange

d is c u s s io n
and

of

I

fo llo w s :

r e g a r d in g

d e s ir a b le

th is

of

be

A u s tr ia n

w o u ld

The

as

fr ie n d ly

R u s s ia

in

is

can

you

th e

w ith

G o v e rn m e n t,

a

r e g a r d in g

ju stify .

w h ic h

m easu res

J u ly .

am b assad or

105

very

w as

r e la tio n s

a tte n tio n

fre e

a

w ith

in

r e la tio n s

a

,

azonoff

1 6 /2 9 ,

G erm an

N o.

la

q u e s tio n

s e r io u s n e s s

fr o m

th e

v ie w s

S e r b ia .

a cu te

m ore

of

fu tu re

th e

in to

d istu r b e d

d ea l S er b ia

and

and
of

h is a s t o n is h m e n t

n o th in g

m ove

F r a n c e .)

am b assad or

a r tic le s

h er

G o v er n m e n t,

th e

g r e a tly

was

th e

th e

w ith

sp ok en

th e

E u rope

h arsh

e n te r

p r o m is e s

F ren ch

A u s t r i a ’s

ta k e

th e
of

th e

of

d e r iv e d

becom e

th a t

her

of

fo r

A u s tr ia

and

had

ex c ite d

of

exchange

A u s t r o -H u n g a r ia n
to

th is

to

1544.

[te le g r a m

ju s t

B e r c h to ld ’ s

peace

be

105

have

im p r o v e

c o n s c io u s

to

u n w illin g ly
g iv e

I

som e

w o u ld

N o.

N o.

s o lu tio n

d ir e c te d

a d v a n ta g e s

of

to

1 5 4 8 .)

A u s t r o -H u n g a r ia n

g u a r a n tie s

th e

J u ly .
1544

N o.

c o m m u n ic a tio n

c e r t a in ly

c o n v e r s a tio n

p r iv a te

su ch

fu lly

fo r m

A u str ia .

J u ly .

b etw ee n

p ressu re

.

azon off

F r a n c e .)

te leg ra m

/

a c c r e d ite d .

and

t e le g r a m

la s t

The

c o n flic t

h e r se lf

th is

c o m p la in e d

in fo r m e d

G erm an

on

to

m y

t e le g r a m

1 5 /2 8

he

p eace.

fo r w a r d

th e

in ­

C o n sta n tin o p le

1 5 4 7 .)

G overnm en t

M in is te r

in y

B e r c h t o ld .

I

w o u ld

fr o m

of

to

The

A u str ia

to

r e c e iv e d

danger

a cc ep ted ,

fo r m

it

e x it

in s tr u c tio n s

of

a lr ea d y

id e n tify

pro­
w ith

tim e

not

S e r b ia .

of

u n a cc e p ta b le

and

p o sitio n

th a t

been

The

a

in s is t

G erm an y

not

to

th e

of

a m ba ssa d or

a ccu sed

had

rea dy

had

th e ir

c o u r s e .]

r e fe r e n c e

w h ic h

put

and
“ th e

th e

J u ly

am b assad or

c o n te n ts

are

London

F o r e ig n

G erm an y

step s

th a t

had

or

ta lk

m a in te n a n c e

c o n c ilia to r y
no

a v o id in g

to

a dded

o b je c tio n

to
a

w ish e d

E n g la n d

ta k e

or

of

Ita ly

m ea n s,

had

not

c o n n e c tio n

A u str ia n

A t
had

b lu e d

J u ly .
m in ister

c o m m u n ic a tio n

th e

fo r

and

ra ised

by

th a t

th a t

78878—

1521,

198,

1 5 /2 8

fo r e ig n

H e

th a t

not

G overn m en t

but
th e

d id

o n ly

w h ic h

what

a ctio n ,
ten ts

in

r e p lie d

th is

p r e s s , w h ic h
in g

G erm an

F ra n ce

a r b itr a tio n

a tta in e d

tim e

S ch on

kn ew

of

A u str ia

m ea n s

F ra n ce

it

no

r e c a lle d .

G erm an y

a ctin g

n ev erth eless

o b se r v a tio n

th a t

tr ib u n a l

th e

p ow ers

B a ron

th a t

th e

had

th e

w h ic h

if

cou hl

and

w ith

p r o v id e d

A u str ia

he

b e in g

m in is t e r 's

he

m ake,

w ork

to

v isite d

a lth o u g h
to

of

m e d ia tio n

S ch on

a ctio n ,

a g a in

situ a tio n

in c a p a b le

In

B a ron

th a t

o ffic ia l n a t u r e

r e g a rd in g

w o u ld

N o.

to o

pow er

a m ba ssa d or

d e c la r e d

an

W ith

c r is is .
of

P a r is .)

P a r is ,
The

w ill
fo r

d is p la c e m e n t

of

B u c h a rest,

to

you

S e r b ia n

of

(T h e

regard

N o.

not
s till

sen se.

[T e l.

th e

be

s u b s titu te d

th e

1528

to

u n c e r ta in ty

sh ow ed
is

a tte m p t
as

to

th e

A u s tr iu

s im ila r ly

to

V ie n n a ,

F o r e ig n

G overn m en t

te le g r a m

G erm an y

be
a n il

th e

P etersbu rg ,
I

z v o i .s k i .

d u r in g

by

to

g rea test

Pete rsb u rg ,

e x e r tio n

Is

m e th o d

us

Ita ly ,

w ith

of

r e g a r d in g

“ G erm an y”

(T e l.

con ­

In

w ith
a d v ic e

R u ssia

F ran ce,

m o m e n ts

2 8 ],

th e

v a lu a b le

la r g e

p o w e r s , w ith

appeared

c o n v e r s a tio n s

th e

p o in ts

H ook

M i n i s t e r .)

e x c e e d in g ly

G e r m a n y 's

Im p o s s ib ilit y

in

Is

The

a

n e g o tia tio n s

if

E n g la n d .

(T e l. N o . 2 0 1 .)




of

S

am b assad or

I

ta k e n .

G erm an y,

S
(T h e

h is

a ccept

th e

A u s tr ia .

p r o p o sa l.

(T h e

of

to

s y m p a th e tic .

c o n c e s s io n s

o th e r

p a c ify in g

N isc h ,

lia s

a g a in s t

d ir e c t

s o lu tio n

p ow ers,

to

G erm an y

th e

a

to

here

in

q u ite

u n d e r s ta n d in g

O ran ge

upon

to

to

year.

an

resp ect

Thus

in

reso rted

to

[In

has

te r ri­

th a n k s

m o b iliz a tio n

do

tim e

fr ie n d ly
fo u r

S e r b ia n

com e

pow ers

a

th e

la s t

th e

do

n cto i

R u s s ia

regard

c o n tin u e

sam e

s im u lt a n e o u s

of

of

no

to

to

n o te

done

of

I

to

th a t

th e

cen se

c o m m u n ic a tio n .

d ir e c te d

by

not

lm

2 8 .)

h is

w ith

to

th e

S er b ia n

sin c e r e

of

of

c o n tin u e

o n to

J u ly

J u ly .

fo rm e d .

R u ssia

it

be

r e su lt

of
rny

w ay

read y

appear

to

of

c r is is

th e

P eters­

J u ly

was

to

w ere
A t

not

m eans

been

w ith

c lea r

doeH

dur

w ill

m o r n in g

m easu res

e x p la in e d

and

w o u ld

1538,

no

I d /t O

b e h a lf

troop s

convey

In

p roposal
we

c o n c lu d in g

of

F r a n c e .)

m om en t

in

peace.

A rm y.

had

fa c e

in flu e n c e

d ’O rsa y,

C om pare

it

th is

V ie n n a .

m in ister

fo r

and

th a t

in flu e n c e ,
in

th e

not

in flu e n c e

P a r is ,

th a t

m ake

Quai

e m p lo y e d .

a m ba ssa d or
and

to

th e

J u ly .

ton s

of

te le g r a p h in g

th is

to

m easu res

be

V ie n n a .

a ll

r e s p o n s ib ility

1 5 /2 8

d u ty

at

d id

J u ly

fro m

peace,

b e fo r e

m y

m o d er a tin g

1521,

m o d er a tin g

but

B a ron

a

m easu res

N o.

th r e a te n e d

P etersb u rg

v e rsa tio n
m an

su p p ressed

who

of

of

it

yesterd a y

fo r e ig n

e x e r c isin g

P etersb u rg ,

reto rted

in

fo r

so rts

th e

but

o n ly

m in ister

tw o

fr o m

deem

c o n v e r sa tio n

a g a in

in

q u e stio n

m y

of

t e le g r a m

/

1521, r e c e i v e d .

p o ssib ility

[h e r e

bu rg
to

N o.
fr o m

,

In

and

c h a ra c te r

are

to

th a t

In

N o.
to

am
on

cen sed

A u str ia n

m ilita r y

th e se

are

not

I

me

V ie n n a
Vp

of

t e le g r a m

th e

n e g o tia tio n s

a tte n tio n
a r is

us

G erm an y

to

th e

1 » S .)

rega rd s

m a in te n a n c e

1521,

to a c c e p t t h e p r o p o s a l o f a c o n fe r e n c e

u tiliz in g

In

M i n i s t e r .)

as

G erm an y

n m bnssn dor

In fo r m e d

w ar.

a g g r e s s iv e

r e p lie d

prepared

of

fr ie n d ly

A u s tr ia n

d iffic u lt

P

th a t,

to

a m b a ssa d o r’s

e x is tin g

to

th e

th e

N o.

In

am b assad or

th a t

by

th e

th e

V ie n n a

th e

in fo r m e d .

in

n o te

th e

c o n s titu te

p o w e r s .”
am b assad or

fo r

th a t

1 5 4 4 .)

had

c r o ssin g

w ith

d u r in g

J u ly .

15 39,

Sazonoff.
(T h e

N o.

In flu e n c e

th e

h im

G erm an y,

1 5 /2 8

N o.

to

te le g r a m

d e c la r u t lo o
of

a c q u a in te d

p a r a lle l

F r a n c e .)

te leg ra m ,

A ffa ir s

G erm an y

th e

of

a c c r e d ite d .

R om e

th a t

(C o m p a r e

c a b in e t,

m y

p ow ers

am b assad or

m o d e r a tin g

re q u ested

fo u n d

1 5 4 0 .)

St . P e t e r s b u r g ,
can

G erm an

r e c eiv e d

To

in te n tio n s

is

of

th e

in fo r m e d .

(T e l.

You

a

m y

fo r

S e r b ia

she

th a t

is
th e

th a n

a g a in s t

fe e l

a g g r e ssiv e

in

O d essa ,

t e le g r a m

e x te n s iv e

w ay

th e

th e

of

Sazon ofv.
(T h e

F o r e ig n

to

c h a n c e llo r

d e s p ite

I

a g a in st

w h o le

in d is p u t a b ly

th is

has

a m ba ssa d or

R om e

T h e

e x e r c is e

war

A u s t r ia -H u n g a r y

c o u ld

R u ssia

our

and

r e fe r e n c e

to ry.

of

m o b iliz a tio n

w ere

e ffe c te d

R u s s ia

th a t

a

d istr ic ts.

m o b iliz a t io n s

M e a n w h ile

London,

B ook

p r e v io u s ly

repeat

G erm an y.

m ilita ry

O ran ge

fo r

c h a n c e llo r

t o -m o r r o io

K asan

M in is te r

W llh

been

d e c la r a tio n

o ilie r

g u a r a n tie s

ST. PETERSBURG,

of

1 5 /2 8

o b ta in
a ffir m e d

a d d i­

1 5 3 9 .)

A u s tr ia -H u n g a r y 's

th e

m u tt

a g a in

(T e l.

B e r lin —

to

w ith

A u s tila

th e

In

A u str ia , w h o

a m ba ssa d or

I zvolsk.1.

p e r la l

am b assad or

c o o p era te

(T h e

SA/.ONOFF.

St . P etersburg ,
I

to

th e

fu r th e r .

T h is

w h ic h , In

w ith

F in a lly

q u e s tio n

a

b r u sq u e ly

su s­

p retex t

a ffo r d

B a lk a n s . ’

c o n flic t,

be

a

sta te s

o f lo c a liz a t io n .]

A fT a lr s

(T e l.

th e

as

to o

S er b ia .
ready

p o s s ib le

s h o u ld

H ook

s u b s e q u e n tly

neces­

Is

u ll

serves

fe r e

r e je c te d

It

w ith

and

O ran ge

p o s itio n

fir s t

S e r b ia

o n ly

q u e s tio n

[T h e

rep resen t

w as

a c tio n

a g a in s t

A u s t r o -S e r b ia n

g rea t p ow ers,

M in is te r

of

w h ic h

onld nets.1

tw o

m e d ia tio n

S e r b ia .

p u rp ose

V ie n n a

th e

a c tio n

s o lu tio n

a

Its

not

m e d ia to r y

m ilita r y

th e

fo r

(T h e

In itia te

sm ash

assu m e

has

and

b etw een

d e la y , o t h e r w is e

c o m p le te ly

to

tio n

s h o u ld

A u s tr ia ’s

w ith o u t

g r e a tly

tim e

P etersb u rg

n e g o tia tio n s

th e
and

c o n f li c t .”

B a lk a n s
th e

lo v e

[ g lin t-

S8

c r a o o a n lY M o i s s a a o N O D
=s

RECORD.

C O N G R E S S IO N A L
la r

te le g r a m s

to

B e r lin ,

P a r is ,

London,

o u r a m b a s s a d o r In A u s t r i a , f r o m
n et

r e fu se s

to

en ter

th is a s s e r tio n
th e

In to

lo c a liz a t io n

o f h e r c o n flic t

w ith

R u ssia

a sse rte d

by

S a z o n o ff,

w ith

1521

of

quence
th e

th e

J u ly

o f v ie w s

d id

not

P etersb u rg
and
le a v e

m ay

deem

R om e,

th e

e x te n d

to

be

B e r lin ,

S e h e b e k o .]

th e

[In

th e

C a b i­

o p p o s itio n

th a t

h er

th e

n o te

of

q u e stio n

t e le g r a m

to

to

1 5 9 2 .]

and

and
to

regard s

in

S
M in is te r

to

th e

am bassad or

in

of

azonoff.

v a tio n s
about

F r a n c e .)

m ade

a

N o.

1 5 6 1 .)

The
of

G erm an

h ie

am b assad or

G overnm en t

p r e p a r a tio n s .
begun
not

by

we

but

to

and

rig h t
any

R u s s ia

o n ly

arm y

fo r

to

of

nnd

a

me

t o -d a y

not

does

b ecause

corp s,

m e th o d

w ith o u t

sto p

th e

th e

d e c isio n

pare

sh e

w as

s o lu tio n

of

in

fo r

th u s

th a t

It

su p p ressed

Rnd

a lr e a d y

n o te

ence

e v id e n tly

h er

in

c o n flic t

r e ly

upon
th is

very

su cceed

in

[T h e

S a zo n o ff*s

t e le g r a m s

m ade

c ir c u m s ta n c e s

is

fu lly

d e sir a b le

In

a

fro m

Illu m in a t e d

P a r is

N os.

its

s u p jio r t

range

to ry

a lso

209,

sam e

In

tim e

her

c la im s

R u s s ia

p r o je c t .

b r in g

e a ste rn

so

about

G erm an y

and

210

to

In

lik e

F o r e ig n

am b assad or

In

th e

g rea test
accept

of

in flu e n c in g
in

a c tiv e

seek

of

to

th e

(T e l.

am b assad or

N o.

in

The

.

F r a n c e .)

fir m

u r g e n tly

iste r

th e

reg u est

fo llo w in g

bu rg: T h e

G erm an

d ors

sto p

not

ordered

to

you

a ttitu d e

te leg ra m

h er

m o b iliz e.
by

eig h t

A u str ia n

a rm y

G overn m en t

to

d e stin e d

to

a ct

te le g r a m

N o.

reason

fo r

corps

P o u r ta lfs

a m b assad or’s

of

a lr ea d y

P v U s s ia n

th e

been

th a t

m o b iliz a tio n

c o m m u n ic a tio n

th e

but

to

has
of

not

(3 )

A u s tr ia ’s

fa ct

th e

IS

to

th e

to

N o.

in

F ran ce

(T e l.

th e

of

w ar

to

N o.

th e

F o r e ig n

S ir

R ie n v e n u -M a r tin ,
m o rn in g

th e

th e

G erm an

p r a c tic a lly

en d ea vors

in

th e

o p in io n s

of

u n d e r ta k e n

fa r

been

e x a c tly
of

F in a lly ,
m any

th is
of

H u ron

was

to

g u estio n

su ch

j

w ards

by

th e

F o r e ig n

exch an ge

a g a in s t

S ch on

a g a in

of

to

be

w ill

h opes

a g a in st

to

In

F ran ce

;. n

th e

sta tio n

and

th e

(T e l.

N o.

th e

th is
em ­

c o n tin u in g

fr ie n d ly
th e

ex­

ex ten t
has

of

not

so

sta n d

not

in

re c eiv e

a sse r tio n

d u r in g

R u s s i a .”

th a t

in

th e

w ord

In

m in ls le r

of

has

a n te e s

th e
w h ic h

a r r iv a l

prepared

fo llo w in g

u tiliz e d

th e

a

w ords :

m u rder

of

m ig h t

of

th e

to ld

m e

w ith

th a t

and

at

fo r m e d

[T h e

tru e

sh ort

ex p osA

A u s tr ia ,
th e

w h ic h

arch d u k e

e v e n tu a te
th e re fo r e

of

nnd

d e c la r e s

th a t

te n d e d

to

cut

seek s
aw ay

no




te r r ito r ia l

th e g ro u n d s o f

7 0 8 7 0 — 1 1 --------6

n

S e r b ia n

and

A u str ia

ns

The

sa m e

th e

a ttitu d e

The

as

we

g a in s
th e

p re te x t

of

g e tic

fa

G erm an

th a t

g a rd in g
ta ry

th e

in

c ir c le s

sp e c ia l

th e

m a tter

th is

p a r tie s

as

fa th e r

of

th e

w as

of

in c lu d in g

d iv e r se

s h o r tly

a fte r ­

su p p ressed

F o r e ig n

te le ­

and

th e

in

tim e

2 0 0 .)

fr o m

la r g e

Our

th e

of

la y
th e

p u b lic

p a rty

c h ie f com m a n d .

th e

am b assad or

th e

gu ar­

is

o m is s io n

argu m en t and

su p ­

a ssu ra n ce

to

in ­

ju s tify

have

u r g e n t ly
th a t

to

w id e s t

c o n fid e n c e

m ilita r y

th e

and

1 report

w h ich

F rench

n a tio n

c o n f l i c t .]

r a d ic a l

In ten d s

so c ia l­

a n tim ilita r y
to

rep o rts

F e e lin g

h is
fir m ,

e v en ts.

th e

ta k e

in

ru n s

en er­

d e ta il

h ig h

r e g a rd in g

in

Fran ce

to

N o.

th e

F o r e ig n

in

re­

m ili­

th e

p ress

in

c o n fir m e d

net

In

c ir c le s

by

and

p a tr io tic

to

o l s k i.

2 0 7 .)

P e te rsb u rg

mp th e

a

n il

and

repeat

p ow ers

in

as

so m e
my

of

V ie n n a
q u ic k ly
fo r m

p resen ce

or

w ith

r e s o lu tio n

th e
It
as

fe e lin g

of

T h is

h is

a n o th e r.
w ho

th e

retu rn

V lv ia n i

to

su p p o rte d
s o c ia lis ts ,

th a t

h is

to

th e

P a r is ,

a b s o lu te

te le g r a p h e d
to

th e

n e g o tia tio n s
th e
fo r

r e c e iv e d

r e p e a te d

th e F re n c h

r a d ic a l

V iv ia n !

d ir e c t

p rop osa l

of
Is

e x p r e s s io n

o ff o f

Us

, 1 6 /9 9 J u l y .

d e c is io n

in c lu d in g

I n d is p e n s a b le

p o s s ib le

t o -d a y ,

u s.

th e ir g r o u p .

a fte r

a r is

d e te r m in a tio n

g iv in g

b r e a k in g
is

fir m

p a r tie s ,

L o n d o n , im m e d ia te ly

con sequ en ce

in

and

h im

th e

to

agreem en t

handed

sh ouh l

sad or

in

M i n i s t e r .)

P

dem nndng

d u rin g
of

of

th e

to

th e

fo r e ig n

o p in io n ,

th e

of

a tta c h e

m ea su res.

fr o m

A u s t r o S e r b ia n

se c tio n

r a ilw a y

F ren ch

s ig n ific a n c e
fo r

J u ly.

th e

c o n v e r sa tio n s

im p o rta n c e

m ilita ry

m ilita ry

in

tru e

v iz ,

no

rev o lu tio n a ry

th e

th e

th e re fo r e

a

1 6 /t p

at

b eco m e c o n v in c e d

sta te

of

,

a r is

r e c eiv e d

d e m o n str a tio n s

h is

had

cau se,

am ong

it.

lie w a s

d ir e c to r

c a lm

ev en ts

(T e l.

w ho

G erm an y

M i n i s t e r .)

G er­

a p p r o x im a t e ly

S e r b ia ’ s

te n d e n tio u s

a

u s,

w ith

te leg ra m .

d is in te g r a tio n ,

rec eiv ed

to u c h e s

sen se,

H erv fi,

JaurA g

p a sses

m a n ife st

Izv

a

by

fo r

quo

,* l y .

It

s o lid a r ity
as

th is

m ost

sy m p a th e tic

a tta c h e s

p r e p a r a to r y

fo r e ig n

of

1 6 /h .

th is

ta k e n

a lso

th e

( p o litic a l

e stim a te

of

a g a in st

R e p u b lic

te r r ito r y .
have

th e

u sed

P a r is

P r e sid e n t

r e ig n e d

d e m o n str a tio n s
m ea su res

to

ap paren t

G overn m en t

G overnm en t

in te r n a l

o c c u p a tio n

N o.

w ith

sa m e

sig n ific a n c e

J u ly .

tn

de­

m e d ia

sta tu s

G e r m a n y ’s

M i n i s t e r .)

s itu a tio n

fe a r s

th e

p o r tin g
Yhat

th e

in

c o m m u n ic a tio n s ,
A u s tr ia ,

of

th e

in

th a t

to

a n d p o litic ia n s,

correct

d eeper th a n

is ts .

th e

th e

a

V lv ia n i b a s ju s t

of

v ery

“ g u a r a n t i e s ,”

rega rd s

is

and

‘ ‘e v e n ”

F ran ce

A la r g e r ic

p r e fec ts

m uch

2 0 3 .)

P r e s id e n t

In

th e se

s o u n d .]

retu rn ed

str e e ts

crow d .

P a r i s . 1 6 /1 9
A p rop os

to

J c u r l 's ,

o m in o u s

A s

but

I t Is r e m e m b e r e d

am bassad or

(T h e

F o r e ig n

d ecla res

h im se lf

b e lo n g in g

even

lit tle

a lm o s t

P r e sid e n t

and

u n y ie ld in g .

to

is

G r e y ’s

c o n tin u e s.

and u pon

d iscu sse d

exp resses

IZVO LSKI.
am b assad or

if

M i n i s t e r .)

P
W h en

p la in ly

J u ly .

h im ,

w ill s a t is fy

th e

once

[W h e n

a tta c k

p ress

u n sy m p a th e tic .

(T e l.

o ffic e )

th a t

is
a

and

th e

I z v o l o k i.

jo u r n e y

to

G erm an y

war

G erm an y

p ro tested

to

o b je c t

w h ic h

e x p la n a tio n s w h ic h

A u str ia

azonoff.

m e

G erm an y
agree

th e

d e c la r a tio n

o f o p in io n s .

"

to

c o n ce r n in g

The

n e g o tia tio n s

e n c o u r a g in g

A u str ia

in d ic a te

and

to ld

not

F ren ch

u n h e s ita tin g ly

p erson a g es

m u rdered ,
g a in s

(T h e

G erm an

1 6 /2 9

c o m m u n ic a tio n

e x p r e ssio n s:

sh o u ld
h er

a

is

C ltm c n c ea u ,

a n tim ilita r ism .

gram

and

r e m a in

jo u r n a list

p r o m in e n t

P ic lio n .

it,

not

E very

e n e r g e tic ,

M in ister ,

m ade

ca u se

in fo rm ed .

th ese

(T h e

th e

It
E.

te r r ito r ia l

th e

2 0 2 .)

F o r e ig n

fo llo w in g

w h ich

step s

cou rse

A c tin g

a m ba ssa d or

V ie n n a

th e

th e w a y

and

in

M i n i s t e r .)

Paris ,

change

th is

corps

sta te s

S
am b assad or

fo r

to e c a n

a sse m b le d

(T h e

p r o lo n g

2 0 4 .)

th e

th e A u str ia n

su p p ressed

of

d e c la r a t io n

th a t

to n e

arm y

S a z o n o ff
to n e

be

in ­

V ie n n a ,

th e R u ssia n

th e

th e

w ill

B e r b i a .]

p lo y in g

b la m e

cou rse.

P eters­

if R u ssia

th e

cau sed

n o te

M in ­

p r e p a r a tio n s

(£ )

m o b iliz ed ;

t e le g r a m

be

(n

arm y

R u ssia n

a ttitu d e ;

m o b iliz a tio n

In

of

th a t

u s,

J u ly .

F o r e ig n

G erm an

[C o m p a re

28.

F ren ch

S a z o n o ff th a t

c o m m u n ic a tio n

A u str ia .

J u ly

th a t

/< 5 /2 9

a m ba ssa d or

th e

u n y ie ld in g

h is

to n ig h t

a g a in st

15”9,

th e

had

m ade

ord er

F ren ch

r e p lie d

A u s t r i a ’s

th e

in fo r m e d

p r e p a r a tio n s

F a z o n o ff

{!)

th e

h as ju st

m ilita ry

o c c a sio n e d

C ount

fr o m

to

,

rg

u by
p

ta k en

upon

and

c o m m u n ic a te

a m ba ssa d or

w ere

w h ic h

to

sh a re

.1 0 4 .)

Petersbu

G er­

and

and

to

o b ta in in g

th e

c o n d i­

n e g o tia tio n s

in c r e a se .

in

th e

T o -d n y

m easu res,

s u p p o rt, to

p re te x t

a ll

R u s s ia ,

d ila t o r y

in flu ­

m o d e r a tio n ,

P e te rsb u rg

A u s tr ia

su pp ressed

m o d e r a tin g

a c ce p t.

p u rsu es

F ran ce
(T e l.

te rm s.

M in is te r

con­
Com ­

Izvolski.
(T h e

of

off

w as

w o u ld

been

th e

any

to

chan ge

b r in g

E urope.

s e v e r e ju d g m e n t
(T h e

I

had

P a r is ,
te le g r a p h e d

to

w ord

to

n o te

th e

reser­

V ie n n a .

to

h er fu ll

fo r

o p in io n

S e r b ia

a c tio n

th e

(th is

p o s s ib le

a d o p ts

a c tu a l

th re a te n e d

in ­

b o th

lim ite d

In

c o r r e s p o n d in g ly

u nder

V ie n n a

p u b lic

e x e r c is e

and

In

and

27

id e a

o p e n ly

an

as

th e

I n flu e n c e

m a n ife s te d

th e

g iv e

O th e r w is e ,

can

m ore

P a r is
F ran ce

In

London.

p o sitiv e ly

becau se

G erm an y

w ill

s h o u ld

of w ar

Book

w as

sh e

in

m u st

in

m ove

w h o le

Sazon

th e

b o th

to

th e

not

fo r m e r

sen se

G erm an y

In

m e d ia to r y

A u s tr ia

v a in

m ade

E n g la n d

it

to

in
w ith

H O .]

London

h er

th a t

S im u lta n e o u s ly

th a t

A u s tr ia

a lte r a ­

e x e r c is in g

to le r a t e d

Iz v o ls k l’ a a n s w e r .

208,

o b je c t

to

w as

th in g s a d v is e d

n o te

s itu a tio n .

s ir a b le

a ll

u n ity

J u ly

her

b o th

d is c u s s

of

de­
th e

m o d e r a tin g
r e je c te d

e x e rte d

c o u ld

th e

e n tir e ly

fo r

to

h ith e r to

A u s tr ln n

P etersb u rg .
are

had

a
is

m o d e r a tin g

1521

S e r b ia

be

th e

a

28)

seem s

H ie

p resen t

R u ssia , as

o f th e

above

had

th e

at

N o.

J u ly

sh e

to w a rd

of

of

w h ic h

a lo n e

Is

E n g la n d
and

but

nam e

d an gerou s

by

th e

201

v ie w ,

is

t e le g r a m

lo c a liz in g

fo r

m u st

and

to

peace

re fu sa l

O ran ge

exert

te le g r a m

N o.

in

c lin e s

th is ,

d e c la r a t io n

th a t

p r e v e n tin g

of

to

th is

of

sou gh t

in

of

It

n o te

fu tu re .

h e r d e c la r a tio n

th e

to

R u s s ia ,

th a t

tio n s

ns

w ith

In

th e

F ra n ce

e x tr a o r d in a r y
is

fo r

G overnm en t

d e c la r a t io n

can

reck on

upon

te le g r a m

r e m a in s

to

F rench

a sso c ia te h e r s e lf w ith

can

of

th e

its

we

b a la n c e .

c o m m u n ic a tio n

th e

fo r

p resen t

u s.

sh e

E u ropeon

It

th a t

tim e s h o u ld

n o th in g

p r e p a r a tio n s

In fo r m

th a n k

U nder

v a lu a b le

th e

o f th is

tim e

w ar.

w is h ,

sh ared

S c h iin

h er

F ran ce

In

have

m ilita r y

her

m o b iliz a tio n

b ecause

fr ie n d ly

G e r m a n y 's

w a r lik e

of

am b assad or

lo ss o f

o n ly

J u ly

sam e

to

ow n

Fran ce.

e s p e c ia lly

tio n

our

French

a lly

is

accede

in e v ita b ility
th e

t lie

our

not

h a a trn

at

B ee

th ese

if

m any

can

p r o b a b le

it

of

accept

c o m m u n ic a te d

S e r b ia , a n d
w ar.

th e

s o p h is tr y

p ressu re

A u s tr ia ,

th e

n e c e s s ity

p r e s s u r e in

endeavor

th a t

of

th e

fo r

R u s s ia

sam e

w as

c a lle d

s ta n tly

S e r b ia .

As

by

to

has

m o b iliz e

began

A u str ia

ready

w ith

W e

to

1 6 /1 9 , .J u ly .

on

s o p h is m .”

in

p u n is h m e n t

T h is

B aron

bear

su pp ressed

s c a r c e ly

Petersburg,

by

general

th e

"

to

m a in te n a n c e

upon

th is t h a t

P a r is

The

r e p ly

th e

tu rn s
is ,

e x p r e s s io n

a tte n tio n

o f g u a ra n tee s

to

dem ands

th e

27]

it

fr o m

In

peace.

th e

p r o b a b ly
(T e l.

J u ly

P e te rsb u rg .

in flu e n c e

c a p ita ls

in ­

in

London.

b r in g

e x c e s s iv e

F o r e ig n

of

because

deduces

e x e r c is e d

of

c a lle d

a ffa ir ; th a t

th e

G erm an y

fo r m e d .

(T h e

on

been

g iv in g

be

N o.

B u ch arest

P a r is

R u s s ia

and

te re sts

C o n s ta n tin o p le ,

has

A u s t r o -S e r b ia n

u se fu l.

N is c h ,

fro m

on

fu rth e r

as

p o lic y

as

con se­

as

195

pends

n e g o tia ­

In

In itia tiv e

te n d e n c y

N o.

un­

te le g r a m

e m p lo y m e n t

sam e

to

S e r b ia ,

d ir e c t

to

N o.
th e

re fu sa l

of

n o te

E n g la n d

fr o m

V ie n n a

n e v e r th e le s s s t r o v e fo r

C om pare

to

th e

u s.

and

tex t

to

su pp ressed

c o m p le te ly

w ith

S e r b ia ,

of

C a b in e t.

th e

N ls c h .

th a t A u s tr ia

w ith

r e d r a ftin g

we

sh e

V ie n n a ,

a

27

o f th is

ste p s

change

It m u s t b e e m p h a s i z e d

d erta k e

tio n s

a

and

w h ic h It a p p e a r s t h a t

33

London
m e d ia tio n

th e

G erm an

assu ran ces

as

e ffe c t

b etw ee n
c a b in e t
by

th e

am bas­
to

Q er

CONGRESSIONAL RECORD

34
m a n y ’s p e a c e fu l I n te n tio n s .
d e sir e s

peace

p r o p o s a ls
th e

u se

th a t
to

fo r

of

it

w as

th a t

w ord

not

In o r d e r

to

In

r e p ly

o u tb r e a k

fro m

220

fr o m

F ran ce

d e te r m in e d
Book
th e

th e

of

te le g r a m s

act

fr o m

th e

c o u n try .

m e e tin g

of

th e

(T h e

agreem en t
are

added

on

th a t

th is

th e

a

E n g lis h

V iv ia n i

r e v o lu tio n a ry

w ith

th e

S e ih ia .

210,

fr o m

c a b in e t

S e r b ia n
B a ron

to

th a t

r e fe r e n c e

tw o

my

215,

had

218,

and

a lr e a d y

210,

304

(1 )

G erm an

sa tis fie d

on

h is

h er

a llie s

(in

T h is

w as

S e r b ia .

I

req u est

of

we

w ere

h im

th e

I

p o s s ib le

a llo w

of

m ake

of

of

fa c t

O rau ge
la t e r

th e

B aron

liv e lie s t

fo r

R u ssia n

F rench

th e
a

fir m ly

th e

and

fo r b id d e n

a d o p ts

tim e .

t e le g r a m
(2 )

I

th is

th is

c h a ra c te r

p o lic y

Sehon

c o u ld

su p p ort

p r o je c te d

In

J u ly

r ig h ts

of

t io n s .”
th a t

a

S e r b ia ,

A u s tr ia

R u s s ia

w h ic h

w ns

London

s h o u ld

The

of

th e

te leg ra m

c o n te n ts

im m e d ia te ly

in s tr u c te d

to

of

and

F ra n ce

quen ce

of

query
and

Is

A t

to

our

q u e stio n

and

w ith

we
of

u rgen t

on

th e

w h ic h
to

b e lo w

G erm an

to

do

we

w hat

can

and

h ere :

not

G erm an y

“ in w h ic h

th is

th e

to

q u e s tio n

d e c la r e s

p o in ts

back

h er

u n a c c e p ta b le

w h ic h

su sp en d

m ade on

G rey

on

fo u n d a tio n

G erm an

T h is

is

In

th e

to

m y

to th e F re n c h
N o.

of

Book

com m encem ent o f

sh a ll

you

very

w ith

th is

G rey

th e

th e

to

and

R u s s ia n

te le g r a m ■ N o .

in

a tta c h ^

at

th e

and

Is

tio n s

it

fo r

teleg ra m
n is h e d

is

tio n s




in

in

h im

P a r is

th is

and

w ith

are

o p in io n ,
still

70878—

11

in

Paul

tw o

te n sio n

w o u ld

d e v e lo p e d
c o u ld

to

not

g r e a te r

th e

F o r e ig n

N o.

th e

c o n d itio n

peace,

are

as

m ade

G r e y ’s

a

our

h ig h e r

c o n tin u in g

in

t e le g r a m

is

R u s s ia

th e

and

in

and

fo r

to

th e

of
in

an
th e

it

The

p eace

co u n c il

fr o m

is

to

th e

am b assad or

M in ister ia l

te leg ra m
and

sen t

in

C o u n c il,
to

th e

m e n tio n e d

(T h e

N o.

J u ly .

1.

The

A u str ia

th ro u g h

p r e p a r a tio n s.

w as

is

su p er­

ta k e

th e

F ran ce

to

N o.

th e

F o r e ig n

p r e sid e d

F ren ch

in

m y

F o r e ig n

"W it h

In

E n g lis h

th e

over

by

is

a

fix in g

to

to

th a t

th e

b etw een

th e

tex t

“ F r a n c e ,”

fu lfill
at.

a ll

was

its

th e

p resen t

th e

le ss

our

h eld

th e

and

d isc u ssio n
th e

F ren ch

sen se.

The

in s tr u c tio n s

th e n

sta te s:

o b lig a tio n s
m o m e n t,

in te r e ste d

com ­

m ilita ry
r o in c a r d ,

a

to

fo llo w in g

of

in

V ie n n a ,

w ere

b e in g

z v o l s k i.

M i n i s t e r .)

N o.

in

,

a r is

T l/S O J u l y .

has

a pproved

P etersb u rg

th e

M in is te r

to

in

w is h

w h ic h

th a t

I

N o.

to

my

I

of

208.

am b assad or

(h e

N o.

London
to

th e

E n g lis h

z v o l s k i.

F r a n c e .)

b t f .r s b u r o

. 1 8 /3 1 J u l y .

1554.

c o m m u n ic a te d

p roposed

a cce p ted

In

1 5 8 3 .)

te le g r a m

th e

of

p r e v io u s

to

me

C a b in e t
G erm an

in

to

tlie

nam e

m ake

A m b assad or

p r o p o s a l,

and

sen d

of

som e

h is

change

y e ste rd a y .

you

th e

I

a lt e r e d

2.

Razonoff.
M in is te r

to

am b assad or

(T e l.

N o.

in

F r a n c e .)

1 5 8 2 .)

P E T E R SB U R G , 1 8 /3 1 J u l y .

w a r.

sen t

b o th

th e

1 7 /3 0 J u l y .

in s ta n c e

im m e d ia te ly

te leg ra m

a p p ro x im a tely

a llu sio n

ready

p rog ress

M e ssim y

w h ic h

see

in

w h ic h

P o in c a r i,

A m b a ssa d or

te leg ra m

A m b assad or

th e

d ra ft

r e p lie d
d r a ft

resp ect

(F o r e ig n

fo r

at

w ill

2 1 2 .)

M i n i s t e r .)

m in ister

in d eed

p la c e

I

th a t

en d eavors

p r e p a r a tio n s

are

sin ce

m a in te n a n c e o f

su pp ressed

regard s

i m m e d i a t e l y , i. e ., a t S a . m .,

th e

and

w e

th e p o ssib le

a fte r w h ic h
p roof

be

war

m o b ilisa tio n ,

P
The

2.

tio n

If

as

w h en

p ow ers,

an

“

P ow ers

th a t

m ay

ta in in g

215

of

o f J u ly
J u ly

31.

| m o r n in g o f J u ly
| A rm y
! s la n

and

31

G overnm en t

and

w hat

to

her

is

th e

s a tis fa c tio n

w ith o u t

by

la s t

e n t ir e ly

th e

su p p ressed

A m b a s s a d o r P a ld o lo g u e

It
had

can

s u r e ly

th e re b y

no

arm y

on

S e r b ia n

becom e a

concedes
S e r b ia

d e tr im e n t

q u es­

th a t

a ffo rd

her

r ig h ts

u n d erta k e s

n o t ta k e h is o w n
The

P e te rsb u rg

te le g r a m

at

1 0 .1 0

of

th e

P a r is

in

th e

O ran ge

te le g r a p h e d

th e

can

to

R u s s ia

fo llo w in g :

fr o m

sen ten c e

to h is G o v e r n m e n t :

h er

th e re fo r e

[ T h a t S a z o n o ff d id

e v id e n c e d

by

of

c o n flic t h a s

in d e p e n d e n c e ,

w a s d is p a tc h e d

B ut

w h ic h

a u t h o r iz e d .”

in to

a ttitu d e .

is c le a r ly

th a t th e F re n c h

advance

E urope,

G overn m en t

sta te

31.

th e

fo r

S a zo n o ff’s d r a ft

ev en in g

sto p

A u s t r o -S e r b ia n

e x a m in e

h er w a itin g

p o s a l s e r io u s ly

to

th e

in te r e s t

s o v e re ig n

I p la in

w o u ld

a d m its

general

m a in ta in

fu r­

a lly.

agrees

A u s t r o -H u n g a r ia n
a

The

n eg o tia ­
it

th e
as

A u s tr ia

and

of

G reat

to

b a ttle sh ip

how ever,

s h o u ld

a tta c h d ,

of

r e fr a in

G e rm a n y ’s

hut

n eg o tia ­

p r e p a r a tio n s, a n d

to

G ov­

F r a n c e .]

(T e l.

N o.

m y

J u ly .

F ren ch

m ilita ry

ir r e fu ta b le

m ilita r y

th e

p o ssib le .

th e fu r th e r n e g o tia tio n s fo r

fo r

k i.

p r e p a r a tio n s,

in te r e sts

our

have

m in ister ia l

p r o p o s a ls

screen

1 7 /3 0

c o n tin u in g ,

as

p r e p a r a tio n s

A

th a t

s till

to

th e

s h o u ld

tro o p s.

F ran ce

in c lu d in g

served

of

,

a r is

rega rd

c h a ra cter

id e a

in

w e

su p p ressed
in

(T h e

2 0 8 .)

A t

aud

M i n i s t e r .)

m ilita ry

h a v in g

th a t
(a

sa id

our

th ese,

our

but

in

(T e l. N o .

[C o m m e n t

F o r e ig n

th e

E n g la n d

2 1 0 .)

sp ok en ,

sa m e

u s fro m

th em ,

[T h is

V iv ia n i.

lu st

th a t

d e la y

p reven t

P etersb u rg an d

a dem and

1 7 /3 0

m ilita ry

th a t

Cam bon

c o n s titu te d

b etw ee n

p r e sid e n c y o f P o In ca rd , im m e d ia te ly

G overnm en t

as

to

[C a m b o n *

b etw een

w h ic h

con se­

have

19 9.

peace

th e

to

m o vem en ts

6 .3 0 u n d e r t h e

N o.

th a t

of

d e c la r e

in te n s ify in g

to

15 5 ).

our

in

th em ,

a r ise s.

exch anged
1912,

was

a ttitu d e

p ow ers,

b etw een

agreem ent

P etersb u rg

C am bon

th e c o m b in e d

th e se

n o te s

N o.

c h a lle n g in g

a m b a s s a d o r .)

te le g r a m

m in ister .

M in ister

a resu lt

G overn m en t

of

of

e x istin g

th e

in te r fe r e

d e sir a b le

te m p o r a r ily

m o b i li z a t i o n .]

to

th e n ig h t, a n d
fo r e ig n

W ar

fro m

w h ic h

F ran ce

have

to

m a in te n a n c e

w e

fr o m

/

w ish

h ig h ly

has

th a t

s e c r e tly

r e c eiv e d .

P etersb u rg

b e g in s

to

F ren ch

as

fix in g

N ovem ber,

te leg ra m

w hom

p u b lic

m in iste r

m y

not

as

s a id
ready

of

w ith

th e

little

n ig h t

im p o r ta n t

gen eral

c o m m u n ic a te d

th e

ftlys6 e,

a m ba ssa d or

It

th e

lik e w ise

V iv ia n i,

1 6 51

it d u rin g
to

n / 3 0 J u ly .

a m b a s s a d o r in

w h ereby

p rep ara­

a

P a r is ,

it

th e

p o lit ic o m ilit a r y

am b assad or

d oes

te r r ito r y

r e c eiv e d

F ren ch

p o litic a l

of

23d

so v e r e ig n

th a n

S e r b ia ,

c o n fid e n tia lly .

fo llo w in g

(T e l.

I

to

of

grou nds

Sa zo n o f f .

m u n ic a te d

London,

as

p e r io d

22d

th e

th e

P

c o n tin u e

d e c la r a tio n

(T h e a m b a ssa d o r

Your

to
to

1 5 5 5 .)

Vo.

r i.

M i n i s t e r .)

I z v o i -a

to

n o te

m ilita r y

s a tis fa c to r y r e p ly fr o m

w e

to

c o n n e c tio n

O ran ge

F o r e ig n

2 0 9 .)

u n d e r sta n d in g

a

th e

th e

(T h e

o n ly

V ie n n a .]

te leg ra m

a th o ro u g h ly

G o v e r n m e n t,

o o m m u n ic a tc d

flu o u s .
In

th e

I

M in is te r

refe r

U n til w e r e c e iv e
th e

and

F r a n c e .]

to

r e a d in e s s
th e

Petersburg.
I

20®

In fo r m e d .

F o r e ig n

u rg en t.

and

h as a ssu m ed

her

v io la te
her

u ltim a tu m

fo r

In

29.

P

d ic ta te d

as

A u s tr ia

w ord s

if

th e

r e a d in e s s

q u e s tio n ,

A u s t r o -S e r b ia n

th o se

(T e l.

V ery

r e v e a le d

to s.

c o n c e r n in g

gen eral

w h enever

Sazosoff.
(T h e

N o.

(T e l.

B e r lin

rep rod uced

o f S a z o n o ff’s sig n ifie s n o th in g le s s

V ie n n a

w ith

E n g la n d

th e

d e lib e r a te

rega rd s

in te g r ity

a ttitu d e

a ffo r d

th e

to

N o.

tr a n sm itte d

c o n fer

C o n tin u a tio n

c o n d itio n s

w hat

C om pare

u n d erta k e s

ta k e

n a tu r a lly
and

to

adds

fo r c e s .”

J u ly

I
th e

u ltim a tu m

[T h is fo r m u la

th e

th e

a

as

te le g r a m s , N o a .

su p p ressed

F ran ce

te leg ra m

a n tiw a r

ask ed

p r e p a r a tio n s , 1

of

of

U
of

2 9 .)

E uropean

her

m e,

v io la te th e
s u ffic e .

sta te

m e r e ly

B oob

v is ite d

not

p roof

h er

in

T1/S0 J u l y .

te le g r a p h in g

to

once

of

te le g r a m

P etersb u rg

per­

G erm an y

Paris,

F r a n c e .)

c o m m u n ic a tio n

nt

p r e p a r a tio n s *

of

of

fr o m

th e

new

n a tu re

“ I f A u s tr ia a d m its th a t

e lim in a te

d id

s o lu tio n

O ran ge

J u st

m ilita r y

B e r lin

In

m y

ern m en t

not

sh o u ld

our

te le g r a p h

fr ie n d ly

(T h e

207

to

tow ard
a

m ilita ry

No

th a t

to

has

a ssu ra n ce

su sp en d

you

tow ard

th e ir

th is

d is p n tr h

n e g o tia tio n s o f

g a in

th e

to

requ est

G overn m en t
Is

read y

u rgen t

(2 ).

th a t

a m ba ssa d or

s till

fo r

In

r e p lie d

am b assad or

of

w ere

d e v ia ted

w as

done

fo r m

m a tter

p r o m ise

fr o m

lik e w is e

serve

m o b ilisa tio n

su p p ressed

w ill

adopt

3 0 .]

C o n tin u a tio n

th e

220,

part

tim e

1521, 1 am

who

A u str ia ’s

and

J u ly

p a r tia l

1551

(T e l.

com ­

fo r

1 5 5 4 .)

N o.

am bassad or,

w ith

th is
N o.

would

w h ic h

to

I z v o i -m
(T h e

as

The
be

on

or

nnd

m ea su res o f a d e fen siv e
n ecessa ry

to

(F a I 6 o lo g u e a )

sam e

am b assad or

N o.

t e le g r a m

of

te le g r a m

th e

d eem ed

step s

general

fo llo w in g

P a r is

n o t*

fo llo w s :

c o u ld

a

to

th e

s ig n ific a n c e
w ith

M a r g e r ie .

W ith

d ir ec t

S eh on

r e s p o n s ib ility

PETERSBURG,
as

any

Izvolski.

th e

(T e l.

ta k e

fa r a s

has

su p-

p a rty.

M in is te r

w h o le

i<

w h ich

ea se

fin d in g

has

pow ers

(T h e

a llia n c e )

w as

th e
fr o m

1*» t h i s

o r ig in a l

as

d e c is io n

e v e n in g

F o r e ig n

th a t

o rd etH n g

fo r

[T h e

th a t

th e

h ere.

th e

p r e te x t

c o m b in a tio n

th e

w ith

not

o p in io n

th e

th a t R u ssia , so

n a tu re

m it, s h o u ld

d iffic u lt

B e r lin

sa id

V iv io n i
at

pu rpose

of

F in a lly

1637,

but

th e

be

p r e c a u tio n s.

214,

e f f e c t .)

In d ic a te s

o u tse t

T h is

1554,

n e v e r th e le s s

P a r is

h im s e lf

N os.

rem arked

to

is

b etw ee n

th e

and

G erm n n y

peace

fr ie n d s

fo r

fro m

be

p r e c a u tio n a r y

not

Sehon

m e a n w h ile

p ropagan d a

210.

sam e

fu ll

and

th e

sh ran k

to d em n n d

sim ila r

N os.

and

th e

In

ea sy

E n g la n d s

\ lv ia n l

w o u ld

e x a m in a tio n .

p la c in g on

d e s lr p d

E n g la n d ;

fro m

c o n v in c e
th e

to

w ord s

sa k e

rested

have

h o n e s tly

It

H u ro n

th a t

adopt

m arks

T a r ls

th a t

p r e p a r a tio n s

to

T e le g r a m s

P etersb u rg

th a t

c o m p e lle d

w ar.

v ery

of

A u s tr ia

n e g o tia tio n s

p o in t, b u t

s u b je c t

sen ten c e

and

th e

he

w ith

“ a r b it r a t io n .’

w h a t A u s t r ia in te n d s

m ilita ry

t h e o b je c t o f

of

225,

he

fo r

h e r s e lf

th a t

m e d ia tio n .

w o u ld

th e

s a id

or

w e fr d s

of

th a t

F r a n c e ’s

th is

w ith

it

a s s o c ia te

Sehon

su ccess

on

be

of

of

m enced

228,

th a t

w o u ld

p r e s s lo n

of

fo r m

assu re

w o u ld

G erm an y

q u e stio n

A u str ia

c o m p la in e d

to

B aron

to a s c e r ta in

r e p lie d

In te rro g a te

h a ste n

“ c o n fe re n c e ”

o th e r

Is n e c e s s a r y

V iv lu n t

a

som e

In r e p ly t o V ly ln n l’ s r e m a r k t h a t If G e r m a n y

s h o u ld

m e d ia tio n ,

th e

d e v is e

it

sh e

on

te le g r a m
Book,

a lr e a d y

on

to
p ro­

con­
th «
N o.
It

is
th e

“ F u l l m o b iliz .n t io n o f t h e R u s s i a n
lo n g e r

ir r e v o c a b ly

be

d is p u te d

d e c id e d

th a t

upon

th e

w ar.

R u sThs

tc

CKIOOSttl IVNOTSSailONOC)
C O N G R E S S IO N A L R E C O R D .
S azon o f f d r a ft a ls o con firm s th e v ie w ex p re sse d in th e n o te to te le g ra m
2 1 0 t h a t a ll fu r th e r n e g o tia t io n s by R u s sia a n d F r a n c e m e re ly
s e rv e d as a c o v e r f o r th e ir fe v e r is h ly co n d u cte d s e c r e t m ilit a r y p r e p a r a ­
t io n s .]
B e rlin , V ie n n a , L o n d o n , R o m e in fo r m e d .
Bazono f f .
N o.

te le g r a m
bu rg ,

had ju st

d a ted

R u ssia n

been

th is

A rm y,

r e c eiv e d

m o r n in g ,

to

w h ich

fr o m

th e

c o n fir m in g

he

a dd ed n o

in

F ran ce

to

th e

N o.

From

Petersburg,
ern m en t

(a

c o n te n ts

of

tio n ,

and

con du ct

of

In

very

to

th a t

order

S er b ia n

E n g lish

th a t
th a t

an
to

S er b ia .

s h o u ld

w ill

w ill

n eg o tia tio n s

A u str ia

w o u ld

sh a ll

su sp en d

m y

be

ta k e

th e

s a tis fa c ­

proceed

to

p a r tic ip a t­
th e

d ir ec ­

th a n k s

of

a ll

fa v o r a b ly ,

m ilita ry

it

o p e r a tio n s

te r rito r y .
te le g r a m s

to

London,

B e r lin .

V ie n n a ,

and

H om e.

Sazon
(A m b a ssa d o r

in

F ran ce

(T e l.

to

F ren ch

h im

to

in g

rega rd

com e

o b lig e d
as

a

to

to

a s,

of

to o ,

of

very

next

day,

su p p ressed )
to

h is

c lo sin g

The

1.

e .,

on

c o m m u n ic a tin g

1

th ey

in

to

m e,

ila rg er ie

of

th e

G erm an

a ll

h er

fo rces.

of

th e

It

is

R u ssia n

n o tew o rth y

th ere

is

A r m y ,”

p r e m a tu r e ly

on
th e

w h ic h

one

m ea su res

part

m any

is

on

e v id e n tly

r e g a r d in g
of

th e

b ility

fo r

th in k s
th e
on

th e

on

th e

th e

o th e r

c o n c lu d in g

th e

of

of

th e

[W ith

a m b a s s a d o r 's

rep ort

F rench
see

[In

of

to

w ar.

In
“

In

n o te

new s

P a r is

w as

by

In

to

p u ttin g

t e le g r a m

th e

m e n d a c ity
w hom

g iv e

b la m e

of

about

a lr e a d y

r e p ly

seek s

a n a lo g o u s

sen ten ce
of

G er­

fa ls e

an sw er

P a r is

on

F ran ce

w ith

th e

J u ly

(T e l.

F o r e ig n

N o.

fa c ts .

See

m id n ig h t

th e

th a t
not

ns

ord er
a

do

if

we

B e r lin ,

6 . SO p . m .

A t
th e

nam e

z a tio n

of

of

th e

m ea su res
sa m e
s ia

in

tim e

is

a sk

lisio n

upon
fo r

a ccord a n ce

w ith

s ittin g

th e

and

but

who

has

B a ron

S ch on

w o u ld

adopt

G erm an y.

th e

h im

has

7 6 8 7 5 — 11

fo r

com e

to

of

he

even t

h im

any

th e
R u s­

h er r e fu sa l,

an

a rm ed

to

th e

a n sw er.

a t 1 o ’c lo c k

th e

to

th e

d e c la r a tio n

P r e sid e n t

th ese

d e ta ils

a m ba ssa d or

w h ic h

is
of

m ake

a m ba s­
T here­

to -m o r r o w

to

th e
m e.

n ecessa ry

R ep u b lic.

sla te d

t o -m o r r o w , a s

in ten d ed
w a r.

of

th e

c o l­

p r e s e n t a sp e c ia l m in is te r ia l c o u n c il

of

to

A t

lo a s i n s t r u c t e d

of

liste n e d

h im

w a r .”

A t

procedu re,
th e

g iv e

adopt

to

p la c e

M a r g e r ie

on

a dd ed

he

th a t
sees

F ra n ce
th a t

a

210

o l s k i.

is ,

to

on

b e fo r e

o n ly

as

w h e th e r

r e p lie d

, IS J u l y / 1

me

m id d a y

a g a in s t
w ill

th is

th a t

w as

of

on

h is

S a tu r­

G erm an y

be

but

c o m p e lle d

to

e q u iv a le n t

w as

it

Aug.

b e h a lf

to

n o t, b u t

added

in fo r m e d .

to

am bassad or
N o.

d e c la r e d

war

In

F r a n c e .)

— .)

a g a in st

F ran ce

to

19 J u l y / i

Aug.

u s.

in

(T e l.

N o.

F o r e ig n

M i n i s t e r .)

2 1 7 .)

P a r is ,
The
of

m ilita ry

G erm an

a tta c h d

fo r c e s

on

U , 1 5 , 16, 3 1 , 8 a n d

td

18

on

th e

tro o p s
M etz

1 9 th

me

to

( 1st

J u ly

in fo r m

fr o m
th e

(C o m p a re

D istr ib u tio n

th e

n o te

of

fr o n tie r

to

corps

te le g r a m

six

fr o n tie r

In crea sed

m ay

Aug.

G r o u p in g

o f 7 , 11 a n d

c o m p le te d ,

d istr ic t
in

19 J u l y / 1

fo llo w s:

The

fr o n t.

a re

as

b y p a rts

h orses

S a a r b u r g -B r u g e s

fiv e

you

A u g u st).

B a v a r ia n , r e in fo r c e d

p rog ress.

or

F ra n ce

req u ests

G e r m a n -L u x e m b o u r g -B e lfo r t

in

m o vem en ts

An

soon

c o m p le te

a tta c k

be

ex p e c te d .

r e a d in e ss

in

F ran ce

to

N o.

F o r e ig n

and

in fo r m e d
te r r ito r ia l
o th e r

am bassad or

h im

th a t

pow ers

yesterd a y,

G erm an

yesterd a y,

but

a lso

m any

as

was

a c c o rd in g
A t

th is

of

th e

a g a in st

th e

to

a m ba ssa d or

was

S ch on

F r a n c e 's

and

see

in te n tio n s

h im

a g a in

a ttitu d e
by

was

at

th is

m o d ifie d

G e r m a n y 's

b e in g

6

s p e c ia l

p ersu aded

h is

th a t

th e .

R u ssia

v isib ly
not

th r e a t

e v en in g .

to d a y ,

th e

m ilita r y
under

by

in

resp ect

im p o rta n t

fo r

m an,

s h o u ld

but

of

F ra n ce
fo r m

Ita ly ,

and

th a t
an

h er

not

h is

m ore,

to

th e

th e

s o -c a lle d
w h ich

m ay

o th er
of

sh o u ld
la tte r .

a

sea

th a t

of

a

lo n g
as

to

V iv ia n i

to

a m ba ssa d or’s

m uch

of

p la c e

d is tu r b e d
fr o n tie r ,
danger

th e
fo r
it

p reced e

T h is

G er­

fo rc es.

re p ly

E n g la n d ,
not

(n

A u str ia ,

F rench

hand,

215,

th a t,

fo r c e s,

a sk ed

sta te

be­

have

210.

resu lt
fo r

h is

r e p lie d

h er

G erm an

a lo n g

th e

m u st

sea

th e

but

th e

e sp e cia lly

m o b iliz a tio n

a n sw er

A s

dem a n d

ap­

at

ex istin g

V iv ia n i

G o v e r n m e n t is

th e

tim e

a g a in st

m o b iliz ed

d ep a rtu re,

m easu res

but

th e

d e c la r a tio n

la n d

w ith

b e a r in g s .

t e le g r a m s , N o s .

su r p r ise d .

of

its

re la tio n s

m ea su res,

I w a r a n a c t u a l m o b i l i z a t i o n i s In p r o g r e s s ,
A r m y in a d i s a d v a n t a g e o u s p o s i t i o n .
On
rea son s

th e

R u ssia n

had

v io la tin g

a sto n ish m en t

as

F ren ch

of

b e fo r e

h is

Aug.
e v e n in g ,

n e g o tia te
a ll

o n ly

A lth o u g h

cover

in

not

repeat
of

to

S e r b ia

a m ba ssa d or’s

en e r g e tic

d id

in te n tio n

“ a s to n is h m e n t”

m o b iliz a tio n ,

h ere

c o n v e r sa tio n , B a ro n

ju stifie d

of

*.

lsk

19 J u l y / 1

y e ste rd a y

read y

V iv ia n i

exp ressed

th e

adopt

in fo r m a tio n

w ith

th e su p p resse d

To

no

a ls o

[ V i v i a n i 's

G erm an y,

V iv ia n i

has

is

v isite d

not

e v id e n t

o n ly

c o n flic t

was

3 1 .]

w ith

but

la tte r

C om pare

and

c o m p e lle d
to

h er

G erm an y.

fe ig n e d .
30

not

S e r b ia ,

th e

w h ic h

w a r.

2 1 8 .)

tw ic e

a m ba ssa d or

and

and

J u ly

of

r e g a r d in g

th e

F ra n ce

w as

A u s tr ia

In te g r ity

In

fo r

M i n i s t e r .)

P a r is ,
A u s tr ia n

of

fro m

N o . 2 1 4 .)

(T e l.

The

corp s,

perhaps

Izvo
(A m b a ssa d o r

con seq u en ce

to

w o u ld

N o.

Sazonoff,

of

d e m o b iliz e .

th a t

th e

Rom e

M in is te r

(A m b a ssa d o r

w h o lly

in

a n tic ip a tio n

c o m m u n ic a te d
re p ly

added
in

etersbu rg

P etersbu rg ,
G erm an y

216,

even t

te le g r a m

F r a n c e .)

G overnm en t

as

(T e l.

been

d e c la r e d

th e

am b assad or,

SlZONOFF.

tw e e n

, I S /S t J u l y .

and

of

u n d ersta n d

w ar.

V ie n n a ,

T o -d a y

in

p r e sid e n cy

ju st

G e r m a n y 's

to

sh a ll
th e

V iv ia n i

d e c lin e d

is

In

in fo rm e d

not

G erm an

am b assad or

to

of

1 0 0 1 .)

h ou rs— th a t

query

to

o b je c t

a c c o u n t .]

am b assad or

N o.

a
th e

r e fe r re d

th e

G erm an

su pp ressed

in to

d e m o b iliz e ,

m y

near

(F o r e ig n

o b lig e d

th e

“ D a n ger

R u ssia

w h i c h , in

th a t he w o u ld

begged

V it ia n i w ill n o t

in

th a t

to

to

12

th e

w a r, th e

London,

“ g e n era l m o b ili­

V iv ia n i

G erm an y

e x p r e ssio n

a fte r

f o r h is d e p a r tu r e .

r e s p o n s ib ility




and

S c h o n sa id

u n der

M a r g e r ie ,

tr ic k

F ra n ce

R u ssia

a n sw er,

p r o b a b ly
a

m o b iliz e.

a ttitu d e

c o m m u n ic a tio n ,

B a ron

th e

N a v y ,”

d em a n d ed

h o u r s’ d e la y ,

w ill a lso

a rra n g em en ts
is

12

has

and

to

rega rd

To

very

a c tio n

cam e

th a t, h a v in g

A rm y

b etw een

h is

a m ba ssa d or

R u ssia n

a

what

s a d o r 's

G erm an

G overn m en t

G erm an y

g iv e n

G erm an y
to

th e

h is

to

A u s tr ia ,

of

w ere

th e

o l s k i.

of

m o b iliz a tio n

w ith

fu lly

be

as

to h is d ir e c t q u e s tio n , a n d
th e

am bassad or

w ith in

m o b iliz a tio n .

d e c la r a tio n

th a t

G erm an

b e g in

a g a in s t

th e

2 1 5 .)
a r is

M in is te r
(T e l.

w h ile

M i n i s t e r .)

P

to

on

3 1 .]

to

R u s s ia n

th e

con­

w ill

trea ted

p ropagan d a

order

th a t

to

im p o r ta n c e

s w in g ,

to

to n e s
me

Jz v

p o in te d

in

31

day,

ta k e n

J u ly .

effo r ts

be

great

fu ll

in

our

w ill

The

regard

J u ly

be

one

fo r

advanced,

Izv
(A m b a ssa d o r

in

w ith

a ll

general

214.

fo llo w in g
m u st

th e

B ut

a ttitu d e

31

th e

now

is

th a t

h ea rty

req u ested

new s

s u s p ic io n

accordan ce
of

207

to

to

and

A u str ia

and

G erm an y.

th e

o f J u ly

r e s p o n s i­

s 'a c c u s e ,”

N o.

215

as

1 8 /3 1

m easu res

th e

th is

fa r

on

l i v i a n i 's

(F o r e ig n

In

r e c e iv e d

F ren ch

of

N o.

th a t

1582

a ls o

m o b iliz a tio n

F ran ce

s’excu se

N o.

s ta ff

regard

h e g a v e n o a n sw e r on

no

fr o m

te le g r a m s

th e

m o b iliz in g

about

m eans

p resen ce

w as

te le g r a m

to

and

ea rn est,

w ar,

rep ort

th a t G er m a n y

c o n c lu d in g

upon

Qui

to

m essa g e

b r in g

b r in g
put

proverb,

m o b iliz a tio n

G erm an

th is

on

w o u ld

general

id e a

a tte m p te d

to

n o te s

of

w a r .” )

F ra n ce

"

to

order

th e

th e

F rench

se n te n c e

n S p H g c a b le .

gen era l

G erm an y,

in

me

upon

arm y

127,

a b le
fo r

H avas

th e

F ren ch

q u a n tity

m ea s­

th a t

th e

1 a. m .

m o b iliz a tio n .

im m e d ia te ly

th e
of

th e

w ith

fiv e

N o.

w as

th a t

upon

o f h a v in g

In

in

of

n o te d

t e le g r a m

by

a n o th e r

or

F ra n ce.

31

o u tb re a k

hand

th a t

m o b iliz a tio n

J u ly

in v o lu n ta r ily

one

of

accu sed

added

m e n tio n

be

p repared

A rm y

bord ers

grou nd

R u s s ia n

m o b iliz a tio n

a lso

of

in fo r m e d

o th e rw ise
h eld ,

th e

p r e p a r a to r y

P a r is

“ fu lly

th is

B e r lin

m u st

Pabis,

m in ister .

d ecid ed

a g a in st

know n

o r d e r in g

d e m o b iliz e ,

to

was

of

M i n i s t e r .)

m ea su res,

im m e d ia te ly

P a r is

m o b iliz a tio n

th e

c h a ra cter

it

(s e e

th e

fro m

to

c o m p lete

th e

oth er

and

hav­

A r m y ,"

m ea su res

resp ect

a tta c h ^

w ere

hope

fir m ly

d ir ec te d

a ls o

req u ested

G erm an y,

e n ta il

c o u n c il
w ith

corps,

th e

war

P

1 8 /3 1 J u l y .

R u ssia n

m ilita r y

R u ssia

m ost

to

h ere

fir m

to

m in iste r

is

G overnm en t

Jagow

r e g r e t,

th e

fr o n tie r

th em

m ilita r y

th a t

th e

th e
to

great
of

th e

a d o p t,

A u gu st

R u s s ia n

G overnm en t

of

fr o n tie r

th a t

th e m s e lv e s

begs

to

g iv in g

fiv e

h er

m in ister ia l

fr o n tie r ,

th e se

th e

of

G erm an y

d ecid ed

th e

to

se c u r ity

th e

etc.

to

ow n

w h ich

how ever,

regard

th a t,

to u r

F ren ch

day— we

teleg ra p h s

m o b iliz a tio n

and

m o b iliz e.

to

B er lin

sa id

h er

p resid in g ,

w ith o u t,

(W ith

fo r

sie g e ,

in

general

W a r ,”

a d ja c e n t

u res,

and

th e

e x a m p le ,

w ill

P o in c a ir d
corps

“

adopt

fo r

sta te

sh e,

h im ,

to

“ D a n ger

su ch

a m ba ssa d or

a tta c h A

G overn m en t

A t

2 1 4 .)

N o.

P eters­

2 1 6 .)

.

off

M in ls le r .)

F o r e ig n

Paris,
The

th e

to

(C o m ­
p a re n o te s to te le g ra m s N o s . 2 0 9 an d 2 1 0 .
R e g a r d in g th e w illin g n e s s
o f A u s t r i a to e n g a g e In d i r e c t n e g o tia t io n s w it h R u s sia , c o m p a r e
n o t e to te le g r a m N o. 1 5 4 8 o f J u ly 2 9 .
W ith re g a rd to S a z o n o f i " #
dem and
th a t
A u s tria
h ou ld suej>ond m ilit a r y o p e r a t io n s o n S erbian
s o li, c o m p a r e te le g ra m No. 2 1 0 o f J u ly 3 0 .)
s im ita r

m ilita ry

The

G ov­

p r e fer a b le

over

th e

h er

h is

r e g a rd in g

P ow ers

earn

J u ly .

th a t

v ieto s

G reat

G overn m en t

1 8 /3 1

m e

exp ressed

it

th e

it

of
I

th a t

a ll

w hereby

th e se

in fo r m e d

exch an ge

London,

d isc u ssio n s,

im p o rta n t

in to

and

a m ba ssa d or

in

th e

m e

h an ded

th e

n eg o tia tio n s

hope

v isite d

en ter

u ltim a tu m

th e se

E u rope.

on

th e

to

rem a rk ed

ir e

tio n

is

prepared

th e

in g .

a m ba ssa d or

F o r e ig n

»

(T e l. N o. 1 5 0 2 .)

in

m o b iliz a tio n

Izvolski.
(A m b a ssa d o r

(T e l.

A u str ia n

a m ba ssa d or

general

ex p la n a tio n .

(F o r e ig n M in is te r to a m b a s s a d o r in F r a n c e .)

The

Fren ch

th e

of

Fren ch
p o litic a l
is
th e

q u e stio n

very
G er­
is

at

CONGRESSIONAL RECORD

36
p r e te n t
is

b e in g

very

d iscu sse d

p r o b a b le

by

th e

th a t g en era l

m in ister ia l

c o u n c il at

m o b ilisa tio n

tr ill

be

th e

f .l y s d e , a n d

d e c id e d

dared

it

of

upon.

IZVOLHKl.
in

F ran ce
(T e l.

to

N o.

F o r e ig n

M i n i s t e r .)

bnrg,

r e c e iv in g

in

w h ic h

G erm an
th e

th e

he

of

an nounced

am b assad or

R e p u b lic

t e le g r a m

th e

r e g a r d in g

s ig n e d

th e

th e

F rench

19

m ade

d e c is io n ,

The

G erm an

but

im p a r te d

new ,

but

V lv la n l

d e c la r e d

been

r e c e iv e d .

tio n

decree, and

a d o p te d
v ie w s
[H o w

210,

210,

w ar, and
and

A u s tr ia n
fo r

rep ea ted

“ a b s o lu te ly

a n l 's

w h o le

a lr e a d y

re fe rre d

d ep a rtu re,
[In s te a d

in

w as

in d e e d

fo r

can

can

B aron

u n d o u b te d ly

have

exch ange
o th e r

not

of

as

th e

Y iv l-

yet
in

N os.

ba ron

O ran ge

V ie n n a

r e m a in .”

In

F ran ce

to

S c h b n ’ s d e p a r t u r e .”

N o.

F o r e ig n

to ld

Ita ly

th e

m e

th a t

a p p a ren tly

c o n flic t

one

d ecisio n

s o v e r e ig n

n e c e s s ita te d
th a t

tim e
in

a c c o rd in g

th e

has

a r ise n ,

to

r e m a in

or

a n o th e r

in

a ccord a n ce

n eu tra l

upon

at

w ith

fir st

th e

fr o m

th e
and

a

in

F ran ce
(T e l.

to

N o.

F o r e ig n

te leg ra m

th e

to

to
of

8 .W

th e

m ilita ry

m.

p.

S erb ia

The

to

ta k e
th e

as

d a te

to

and

th e
to

be

of

tim e

h er

oom e

th a t

C o r p s, S ix th

of

ev en ts.

th e

G u ards

of

to

to

our

For

c o n tin u e s

D en m ark

R eserve

a g a in st

op p osed

th e

be

w as

To

(3 )

in

To

m u st

V a lo n a

th e

S econ d

To

m ove

n ew s

d a ily

in fo r m e d
G erm an y

m ost

d e sir a b le

A c c o r d in g

T w en tieth

C orps

are

R u s s ia ,

at

to

en­

n o te

u n s u s ta in a b le ,

to

and

B o o k .)

to

F o r e ig n

th e

to

h er

be m ade

freed o m

of

th e

a b so lu te

be

to

a r i8,

Fren ch

in te n tio n s

to

Ita ly

in

to

A rm y

B u ch a rest

R u m a n ia , w h o

nor

to

p a rtic ip a tio n

of

th e

bear

T ra n sylv a n ia .

d raw

of

A u g u st.

at

P r e sid e n t

The

brou gh t

a c tio n

19 J u l y / 1

m in ister

n eu tra lity

A u str ia .

m u st

p r o m is in g

a lso

and

fr o m

n e ith e r
w ith

M i n i s t e r .)

on

In

over

to

R c p u b lla

R u m a n ia

w ith o u t

P o in c a r d ’s

our

sid e

by

o p in io n ,

p r o m is in g

A lb a n ia .
I r .v o i .8 K i .

have

th e
at

be

th e

s u b je c t

N o . 2 2 4 .)

in

F ran ce
(T e l.

A u g u st.

(1 )

P o s e n -W a r sa w .

and

F ran ce

r eg a rd in g

(A m b a ssa d o r

a g a in st

o ffe n siv e
F ren ch

O ran ge

Ser­

m easu res

th e

C om pare

th e re fo r e

th e

Is

w h ile

to

ann ou nced

r ec eiv e

u s.

is

ns

p u n ito r y

and

re­

A u str ia

by

fo r m e d

A u s tr ia

to

F o r e ig n

J u st

c o u n c il

fu lfill
th e

com r

of

in te r e sts
h er

b efo re
m en t

o b lig a tio n s

of

b o th

h o s tilitie s

m any

be

tr ill

a tta c k

os

an

a lly.
it

F ran ce

d iffic u lt.

A t

m eet.

at

The

The

once

in

above

d e c isio n

b e tte r
10

th e

to

th a t

sta te m en ts

am bassad or

In

be

to
in

com ­

r e q u ir e d ,

fe a r

P a r lia ­

th a t

c o m p letio n

m u st

th a t

to

be

p e r io d

to

ren d er

tn .

th a t

F ra n ce

w o u ld

of

a.

sa id

u n r e se r v e d ly

fo r

c o n tin u e s

order

who

r e c o g n iz e d

days

end

P o in c a r d

A u g u st— 3

R ep u b lic,

c o u n o il

be

p u rp ose

com m enced .
to

th e
th e

w o u ld

w h ic h

IS J u l y / 1

of

c o n fir m e d

A llie s

fo r

su m m on ed

m o b iliz a tio n
lu te ly

th e

are

P r e sid e n t

a g a in

m o b iliz a tio n ,

w ill

th e

m in isters

F r a n c e ’s

p le te

fr o m

M i n i s t e r .)

N o . 2 2 5 .1

P aris ,

w ish :

F ir st, S ev en teen th , and

C orp s,

In

a n x iety

in flu e n c e

by

ev en ts.

, 19 J u l y / 1

th e
(8 )

p r o m p tly .

corps

a r is

th e

to

in te g r ity

above,

h er r e a d in e s s .

a s s e rtio n

M i n i s t e r .)

m o b iliz a tio n

exp ressed

com m en cem en t

fa it
b lo w

fro m

has

m ore

arm y

th e

au

our

in fo r m a tio n

a ct

o ffen siv e

of

G en eral

M in ister

G erm an

k ep t,

d ir ec tio n

to

W a r

th e

r e g a rd in g

a tta c h 6 :

b etw ee n

d e c la r e d

re c eiv e d

n eg o tia tio n s

m e

a tte m p ts

I

P

From

have

fa ls ific a tio n

been

be in c lin e d

com m on

secret

in

has

d isp la y s g r e a t

lo ss

2 2 1 .)

•

by

w o u ld

had

I z v o i .s k i .
(A m b a ssa d o r

to u ch ed

P
A

w h ich

very

to

w ere

(T e l.

is s a id

A u g u st.

th e n
of

fo r

223

is

read er

assu ran ces

g u a ra n tee d
N o.

very
w e ll.

te le g r a m

fo r th e

te r r ito r ia l

m u rder,

I z v o ls k i’s

th e

a
as

I s v o l s k i.

in

m an ner

cou rse

fo r m e r

a c tu a lly

th e

sta te m en ts

th ere

A u s tr ia n

h er

te le g r a m

n e g o tia tio n s

(A m b a s s a d o r

propagan d a

19 J u l y / 1

in fo r m a tio n

w h ic h

to

th e

to

of
Is

nnd

of

c rea te

d e n ie d

It

fro m

P etersb u rg ,

m ig h t

be

w r itte n
195

se n te n c e s

p o r tio n

to

a ls o

th e
N o.

th a t sim ila r

th ey

to

end

re fe rs
or

e ffe c t

n o te

S a r a je v o

1548.

a cco u n ts

sa id

r e lia n c e

th e

N o.

in

th e

d ir e c t

w h ic h

te le g r a m
th is

th e

w h ere

in

lie

c a te g o r ic a l d e­

com pare

tw o

r e p lie d

V iv l-

2 2 0 .)

to

in t e n d s , in

of

by

th e

o n ly

r ig h ts

w as

r ig h ts ,

by

re­

M i n i s t e r .)

P a r is ,

sh o w n

fir s t

ought

a c o m p le te

a

te le g r a m

th in c a t e g o r i c a l l y . "

d e m e n ti

lu tt e r

A u str ia ,

in

In te g r ity

in te n tio n a lly

was

w ith

P o u r ta lA s

th e

su p p ressed

s o v e r e ig n

th e

in d is p u t a b ly
b i a 's

th is

S e r b ia ’s

Thnt

w h ich

(T e l.

M a r g c r ie

w e ll.

th e
d e n ie d

m a in ta in e d

IzV0I.SK I,

sou rce

w h e th e r

in

had

th is

lie !)

(1 )

Count

th e r e fo r e

“ I

te r r ito r ia l
we

sta te m e n ts,

P o in c a r d

by

and

Book

fo llo w s :

g a r d in g

1 5 5 4 ],

I ,o n d o n

th o t

(th e

P a r is u n d e r
of

tb s

th n t

not

t o .]

(A m b a s s a d o r

O ran ge

as

d e c id e

in

im p r e ssio n ,

it

A u s tr ia n
In

but

rem a rk

c o n ta in e d

N o.

resp ect

sta te s

H a v in g

be

upon

no

had

B ook

th e

g iv e n

j

m ade

gage

m ean

a b so lu te ly

s c a r c e ly

fo u n d e d

of

p ow ers.

te le g r a m s .

te a s

th is , th e

it

m o M liz a -

r e m a in in g

th e r e

P a r is

218,

g ro u n d s e x is t
Is

and

o f a ll

does

[In

had

s h o u ld

been

m y

d e c la r a tio n s

an sw er

to

r ig h ts ,

op pose

th e

S c h tin

t e le g r a m

dan gerou s

hns

th a t

sta te m e n t

P a r is

had

to

to

B aron

o n ly

To

read s: “ l

regard

S a x o n o l t '8

of

not

s o v e r e ig n

a ssu ra n ces.

verb al

P e te rsb u rg

th e

n o th in g

th e

th e

th is
th e

P etersb u rg

and

and

m o b iliz a tio n

am b assad or

a ttitu d e

by

of

fr ie n d ly

A u s tr ia ,

sou rces,

h im

G erm an y

a

by

am b assad or

s ig n in g

w hen

a ls o

su m m on s

to

th e

h er

Book

W ith

P a r is ;

P r e s id e n t

t e le g r a m s

th n t

am b assad or

in

210

th e

th e

a lt e r e d

th a t

R u s s ia n

N os.

no

is

o th e r

added

go.

G erm an

te le g r a m s

of

R u s s ia ,

sen se

S c h O n ’s
to

h im

m om ent

am b assad or

B a ron

“ The

to

th a t

H e

h is t h r e a t

m e r e ly :
gard

2 2 2 .]

a

am ong

th a t ju s t a s th e

th e

grou nd

at

tru e

by,

d e c ip h e r

a s to n is h m e n t

b etw ee n

th e

p la in

and

h is

titn e ,

to

in fo r m e d

p rogress

m nde

secon d

I n a b ilit y

m easu re

c o m p le t e ly
Is

h is

expressed

a

in

th e

V iv ia n i

su ch

w as

a n l’s

fo r

th o se

P eters-

h im

The

Ju st

Aug.

in

to

th e

m o b iliz a tio n .

t h e r e s e r v e s i s b e i n g b e a t e n In t h e s t r e e t s .
v isite d

J u l y /1

am b assad or

c o m m u n ic a tio n

o r d e r in g

.

a r is

r e a d in e ss

a ls o

sta te m e n ts o f

G e r m a n y ’s

d ecree

her

but

O ran ge

n ia l.”

2 1 9 .)

P
A fte r

us

c o n c e a le d
[th e

(A m b a ssa d o r

to

.S e r b i a

G er­

of

p reserved

th e

a bso­

s e c r e t.

d e ta ile d

I z v o l s k i.

u s.

(F o r e ig n

M in is te r

to

F r a n c e .)

I z v o l s k i.
(A m b a ssa d o r

in

F ran ce
(T e l.

to

N o.

F o r e ig n

r e c eiv e d

a g a in st

at

11

o ’c lo o k .

of

th e

c o u n c il.
b o th

P o in c a r d

he

carry

h im se lf

out

T h ere

th e

a rose,

q u e stio n s
c o r d in g
sa ry

to

doubt

a

F ren ch
a

to

its

and

but

by

o n ly

b eg in
th e

fir st

be

m ore

rest

p e r m ittin g
d iscu ssio n

he

h er

su m m on

of

th e

to

a ll
m e

is

by

fo r

p ersu a d ed

and

at

a v o id

war

be

born e

th e

A llie s

th a t

G erm an y

w ill

a tta c k

as

th e

to

to

a llia n c e .

p la c e ,
is

ac­

n eces­

in

F ran ce

d eb a te

th ese

not

N o.

if F ra n ce
m ore
not

by

th a t

th a t

1 0 ),

F ra n ce,

sad or

had

to ld

th a t

e n e r g e tic a lly

76876— 11




me

d a r in g
assu red

th e
h im

1 6 2 7 .)

and

fe w

general

a

a fte r

c o u n c il

dec­

w ith o u t
th e

P o in c a r d

te le g r a m

of

brough t

th a t

we

been

have

c o n flic t ,

a r is

V iv ia n i

th e

A u s tr ia n

th a t

A u s tr ia

am b as­
had

de-

th a n

Its

a d d itio n :
n eg o tia tio n s

h er se lf

c le a r

th e

a tte n tio n
th e

fr o m

p u rp ose

of

n lr e n d y

The

T zar

p r o v o c a tiv e

A u s tr ia
had

accept

and

w ith

E urop ean
of

w id e

[In

T h is

out

p ow ers

w ere
In

m is r e p r e s e n ta tio n

of

th e

b la m e

fo r

s till

th is
th e

n o te
th e

It

in

tru e

w o u ld
have

c h a ra c te r

is

Is

N o.

fo l­

a

tim e

sh e

m ade
to

to o k
q u its

w h ic h

207

G erm an y.

of

m ore

th e

at

c o n te n ts,

to

com ­
is s u e

and

us

te le g r a m

w ar

w as

su sp en se,

a d d itio n

to

th e
onr

in fin it e ly

on

th e

a ll

w o u ld

th ere

war

w ord
ns

o th e r

d ig n ity

Book

h is

doubt

th a t

w as

A u s tr ia

and

A ny

as

d e cla r e

to

s o lo n g

E uropean

O ran ge
to

in

ow n

sig n ific a n c e ,

th e

r e s p o n s i b i l it y .”

th e

our

d e c id e d

c a lle d

w ay

e q u ilib r iu m ,

G erm an y.

w o r ld

th e

any

th e

th e m s e lv e s .

r ig h t to

in d e p e n d e n c e .

r e v e a ls

te le g r a m

g iv e n

a c tio n

no

G erm an y

tr a n sfe r r in g

a ttr ib u te d

had

in c o m p a t ib le

been

C om pare

and

th e

c o m p lete

Book

g u a ra n ty

J o y fu lly

of

a c tio n

R u s s ia

3 0 .]
any

28.

th e

is

r e g a r d in g

peace, G e rm a n y

fo r

b etw een

h ea vy

of

J u ly

O ran ge
V ie n n a

th is

o c c s s io n .

“ A s

on

th e

h er

if

and

at

th e re

A fte r

d ig n ity

w as

te n d e n tio u s
has

J u ly
ta k e

hegem ony

w h ic h

w h en

, 19 J u l y / 1 A u g u s t .

in

c o n tin u e d .

w o u ld

q u ite

th e

a

of
to

sh a tte r e d

upon

days

d e s ir e

S e r b ia ’s

about

im p o r ta n t

M i n i s t e r .)

out

te le g r a m

tim e ,

w h ile

c a r r ie d

in s e r tio n

th e

210
not

A u s tr ia

R u s s i a ’s

have

lo w in g

w ith

w ith

n a tu r a lly

N o.

K a is e r

n e g o tia tio n s

n eces­

in c u r r e d

good

and

"

h y p o th e tic a l

p a tib le

th e

in

In

th e
com ­

w as

have

Book

a ttitu d e

G erm an

w o u ld

su bseq u en t

s h o u ld

O ran ge

th e

assu ra n ce

fo r

se n te n ce :

th e

of

m o b iliz a tio n ,

th e

th e

to

d e la y

p ro tra c te d

A ug.
fo r

s u p p r e s s io n

m o b iliz a tio n

we

m easu res

rest

p r o o fs

w a it

th e

th e

27]

w h ic h

[In

, to J u l y / l

r e s p o n s ib ility

R u s s ia n

o f J u ly

w ith

it

For

th e

th e

For

th e r e fo r e
o n ly

of

corresp on d s

n e g o tia tio n s

w ere

to

m o b iliz a t io n

C om pare
th e

regard

A u s tr ia n

1854.

e x a c tly

to

to

B e lg r a d e .

to

T h is

197

th e

p r e c a u tio n a r y

h e r s e lf

fa ls ific a tio n

is

2 2 3 .)

la R t

e v id e n t

N o.

th e

b o m b a r d in g
a d d itio n

N o.

etersbu rg

tu rn

[w ith

r e s p o n s ib ility

a ll

lim ite d

to

c h a ra c te r

te le g r a m

ta k e n

to -d a y

advanoed.

w ith o u t

re­

g rou n d s,

genera l

Im m e n se

m o b iliz a t io n .”

a lle g e d

te le g r a m

m in ister ia l

P
P o in c a r d

fo llo w in g

no

Im m e d ia te ly

F o r e ig n

tim e

Our

P a r is

had

sam e

has

th e r e su lts.

to

(T e l. N o .

A u str ia

e n d e a v o r in g

“ gen eral ”

th e

not

th e

p u b lic

u s.

th e

had

re­

Iz v o n sm ,
(A m b a ssa d o r

we

o p e n ly

to

to

by

a re

m in d

w ill

m o b iliz a tio n .
by

a

and

h er

fu lly

n o te

days

m a d e,

was

th a t

c o m p lic a te d

fir s t

On

in

to

P o in c a r d

( see

w ere

a llu s io n
pare

our

tw o

a llia n c e .

to

Is

on

s ita te d

d ecisio n

le a st

E n g la n d

of

b o th

h er

m e

to

p erson

ru p tu re

m an ner

of

th e

A lth o u g h

m o b iliz a tio n

but

In

war

a m in ister ia l

of

se r ie s

m o b iliz a tio n ,

q u e stio n s

in fo r m

of

con cern

a fte r

c o m p lete

and

p r e fer

F ren ch

term s
a

of

d e te r m in e d

p a r lia m e n ta r y

tr e a ty

fu r th e r

F ra n ce,

th ese

a

d e c la r a tio n

a d v a n ta g eo u s

te a r

of

th e

m u st

th e

P a r lia m e n t.

ch ie fly

th e

by

fir m ly

n a tu re.

w a r,

w o u ld

of

o p e r a tio n s

P o in c a r d
of

of

of

It

day

m ilita ry

la r a tio n

w ill

if

G erm an y.

th e

w o u ld

w h ic h

us

in

c a te g o ric a l

th erew ith

c o n stitu tio n ,

a p p lic a tio n

be b e tte r

upon

it

G erm an y

A u g u st.

d e c la r a tio n

su m m on ed

m ost
are

stra teg ic

d e c la r a tio n

rea son s

fo r

th e

c a b in e t

la id

and

d e cisio n

th e

in

19 J u l y / 1

c o m m u n ic a te d

im m e d ia te ly

me

c o n n e c tio n

a sse m b lin g

g a rd in g

w o u ld

to

a r is ,

G e r m a n y ’s

im m e d ia te ly

w h o le

in

p o litic a l

th e

as

th e

o b lig a tio n s

th e

fo r

I

R ep u b lic , w h o

h ow ever,

of

r e g a rd in g

d e cla r e d

and

r eg a rd in g

q u ir e d

it

te leg ra m

P r e sid e n t

th e

us

you r

N o.

P
P

I

(T e l.

M i n i s t e r .)

2 2 2 .)

fo r

C om -

x r a o o sr a ' i v n o i s s h h o n c k )
C O N G R E S S IO N A L
pare
th e

th e

b e a r in g

p ow ers

J u ly

F ran ce

of

now

and

rep rese n ted

R u s s ia

as

so

%•
37

to w a rd

th e

p r o m is in g

n e g o tia tio n s

and

te le g r a m

210

In

8 0 .]

(A m b a ssa d o r

In

F ran ce
(T e l.

(T h is

te le g r a m ,

e v id e n t ly

ber

as

to

N o.

th e

la s t

sen t

on

S un day,

is

to

be reg a rd ed

th e

as

been

g iv e n

p r e v io u s

th e first

th e

sam e

num ­

day

in

F ran ce
(T e l.

to

N o.

F o r e ig n

to J u l y /t

Aug.

S m a ll
som e

G erm an

m in o r

en a b les

th e

m oned

to

a v o id

F ren ch

m eet

am ong

T u esd a y,

have
o f th e

o th ers,

sig n e d

by

a d v a n ta g eo u s

p ro test

fr o m

E n g la n d

a lso

n ew s

A v io n ,
T h is

th a t

w h ich
w ill

London

to

in

h er

tro o p s

E n g la n d

a tta c k e d ,

been

r e c eiv e d

18 67 .

even

d ir ec tin g

of

and

sa id

E n g la n d

in fa llib ly

to

be

c a ll

n ea r ly .

V iv ia n i

F ren ch

to

Ita ly ,
is

con ­

fo rth

T h ere

to

c a ll

to

G r e y ’s

E X H IB IT

A ppendix

r e p la c e d
m arks
th e
88

in c re a se s :

as

p o s s ib le

in

o l s k i.

(K u h l, 6 0 ).
The

reserve

R e o r g a n iz a tio n

In

1914
The

begun

For

a c tiv e
reserve

th e

th e

creases

se r v ic e

w o u ld

la w

in

w ere

r e q u ir e d

1913

w ith

J ap an ese

e x p e n d itu r e s

reck oned

fo r c e

1910,

th e

on

a

as

m u ch

w ar w ere

2 ,6 0 0 .0 0 0 ,0 0 0

fo u r

years

R u s s ia n

w ith

to ta l

m on.

In

“ The

su m ed

e v e n tfu l

of

w ar.

of

p la c e s

th e

in

G erm an ,

c o n ta in s a
The

w as

in

in

stre n g th

o f

th e

For

o u t.

th e

fo llo w in g

E x c lu d in g

R u s s ia n

arm y

a lr y , o r C o s s a c k , d iv is io n s ,

35

year

S ib e r ia n

w as

30

reserve

in c r e a s e s

and

arm y

corp s,

d iv is io n s ,

w ere

T u rk e sta n

and

p la n n e d

tro o p s,

c o m p r is in g
40

354

th e
cav­

n a tio n a l

d e fe n se

fa r

as

and

m en ;

The
th e

th e

v ie w e d

The

G erm an
v id e d

of
and

a lo n g

F ran ce
S ib e r ia n

and

fr o m

The




p ress

th e

R a ilw a y s :

tro o p s

A u s tr ia n

a

new

lo a n

w as

r a ilw a y
11

a ls o
great
to

R u s s ia n

to

fro m

w ere

1 ,5 8 1 ,0 0 0

“

The

A s

An

roads

th e

th o u sa n d
to

b r in g

by

a fte r

tlie

and
th e

fo r c e s

27,

by

th e

w ere

d i­

fr a n c s .

The

fo r c e s

th e

to

A u g u st,
iu

fo u r

If

On

ta ry

days

sto p

Is

a

we

J u ly

30,

V iv ia n i
w ith

h is

216,

“ The

F ren ch

of

is

th e

of

In

and

w ere

e ig h t

O ran ge

w ere

m ade

or

n in e

out

of

b e fo r e

years

th e

p u b lis h

w as

illu s io n

B ook

le ft

of

w ic h

d id

th a t

up
any

That

ta m p ered

o u t­

su pp osed

not

and

in

o n ly

so

w ere

p assages

a l­

a s to

o r ig in a l

th e c h a n g e s, b u t th e re

O ran ge

Book

w as

a

d is ­

a d m is s io n

of

d e c la r a t io n

N o.

th e

th e

a

R u s s ia n

at

F o r e ig n

P a r is .

R u s s ia n

o f w ar upon

S a z o n o ff

207,

Its

d a te

m o b iliz a tio n

R u s s ia

a c tu a lly

m o d e r a tin g

Sehon

becau se

sa y s:

In flu e n c e

had

sa id

e v e n in g

P a r is .
A t

S a zo n o ff

th a t

in

1

as

of

on

S t

th a t

T h ese

th a t

F ren ch

m ili­

event
H e

G erm an y

r e la te s

“ d e te r m in e d

fo r b id d e n ,

o ’c lo c k
fo llo w s

w as

S a zo n o ff

th e

p r e c a u t i o n s .”

peace, bu t

th a t

in

a d v is e s

“ c o m p la in s

s im ila r

w a n te d

3 1 st.

I s v o ls k y

P a r is ,

adopt

th e

S a z o n o ff,

am b assad or

e x e r c is in g

at

F ran ce

to

fr o m
h is

a d v a n c e .”

th a t

to

a d v is e s

O ran ge

hopes

e d itio n

th e

fir s t

r e v e a le d .

d is p e lle d

th e

th e

d e m o n s tra tio n

R u s s ia n

a g a in s t

d u r in g

m o b iliz a tio n .

V iv ia n i

now

G overn m en t

th e y

not

a fte r

at

to

1521,

te le g r a m

th a t

a lli e s .”

N o.

It

c o m p e lle d

com e

b e fo r e

London

g o v e rn m e n ts

I z v o ls k y ,

q u e s tio n

In

a n tiw a r

W e

N o.

to

am b assad or

r e p lie d

h er

is

th a t

p r e p a r a t i o n s ,”
be

th a t

im p r e s s io n

th a t

b e fo re

r e je c t

G erm an

“ w o u ld

The

says :

b e fo re th e G e r m a n

not

th e re

B o o k .”

G ooch.

d e lib e r a te ly

p assages

s ta r tlin g

s h o r tly

im m e d ia te ly

has

a

O ran ge

appeared

R om berg.

R u s s ia n

th e ir o w n

d is p a tc h

he

says,

th a t

to

act

a

p ro­

p a ssa g es w ere su p p ressed .
in

th e

m o r n in g ,

(e n tir e ly

Is v o ls k y ,

o m itte d

fr o m

th e

B ook) :
w ar

m in is te r

fir m ly

F rench

G erm an y

in fo rm e d

reso lv ed
gen eral

and

on

sta ff

th a t

me

th a t

A u s tr ia

in

and

war

a ll

ea rn est

req u ests
our

w ill

be

ton es

us

e ffo rts
tre a ted

th a t

th e

c o n fir m

to

th e

w ill
as

be
a

d ir e c te d

n e g lig ib le

q u a n t it y ."
The

reader

w ill

fr o m

w ar.

becam e

W arsaw

even

( lb .) .

c o n c e a le d
of

is s u e d

v a r io u s

th e

G ooch

been

w ork

w as

so

th e

but

announced

1912

cap­

d e c la r a ­

crossed

R u ssia n

g o v e rn m e n ts, w ere

be

r e fe r re d
In

fo r m a lly

G o v e rn m e n t.

In

w as

be

day

w as

th e

fr o n tie r ,

(w h ic h

1st

d e ta il

w o r k .”

fo u r

w o u ld

w hat

has

is s u e d

su sp e cted ,

P e tro g ra d ,

P etersb u rg

7 6 .)

th e

R u s s ia n s

to

(K u h l,

m illio n
up

im m e d ia te

K azan

fro n t.

9 .)

at

a n d fiv e d a y s
sh e

1910

(E g g e lin g ,

S o s n o w ic e

p u rch ased

s u p p la n te d

ta k e

p e r m it

tim e s

(fro m

c o u ld

a n g le .

to

to

w h ic h

very

th e

d is c o v e r e d

w o u ld

agreem ent

of

o m itte d

J u ly

in

q u e s tio n s

A rm y

peace

w ere

arm y

th is

rush ed

d o u b le -t r a c k e d

w ere

an

pre­

of

w ith o u t

c o n n e c tio n

P r o fe sso r

th e tr u th

o m itte d

gen eral
p ie c e

w as

of

von

c o lo r s ,

a ll

ju s t

P r o fe sso r

th e re

The

le a r n e d

R u s s ia .

R e a d e rs w ill fo r m
be

It

th a t

book

w ork

d iffe r e n t

th a t

never

b e lie v e d

te le g r a m s

h on est

o ffic e r s

1 0 5 ).

P etersb u rg ,

lin e s — o n e

p r iv a te

w as

104,

crea ted

S t.
In

be

W arsaw )

o ffic ia ls

(K u h l,

A ll

R u s s ia

M oscow ,

th e se

1914

c r e a tin g

fr o n tie r s .

fo r

tw o

in

lin e s

of

of

T h ese

fro m

A le x a n d r o v s

76876—

th a t

G erm an y.

193 2

P o lis h

becam e

su m m er

3 ,4 6 1 ,7 5 0

by

R a ilw a y
In

th e

a g a in s t

th e

m ade

in

stre n g th

a im

M ilita r y

tra n sp o rt

th e re .

w ar

u ltim a te

o ffe n s iv e

w ere

stre n g th

great
a ls o

G erm an

1912

border

w o r ld ”

w ere

7 9 -8 0 .)

F r e ih e e r

by th e

th o u g h ,

concern s

w h o le

je c t e d
peace

“ th e

In to

borders

th e

S t.

rem arked,

2 2 ).

th e

of

com ­

to

a g a in s t A u s tr ia .

goes

to

6 6 -6 7 .)

th e

r e v e la t io n s

th is

On

w ar,

1 9 2 3 .)

th e

L a te r

w as

had

tered .

d iv is io n s .
The

th e

th a t

In

F a lsific a tio n s

v a r io u s

and

d is p a tc h e s ,

S cb on ,

1913.

p a r t c a r r ie d

of

o f th is

by

by

of

m a tte r,

g e n u in e .

423, 000

T b iB

m u st

(K u h l,

U n w in ,

fo r e w o r d

c o m p le te .

be

s e le c te d

“

K u h l, 6 1 - 6 2 .)

w as

in

oc­

r o llin g

m is s io n

W arsaw

( i b .,

th e G e rm a n

n e g o t ia t io n s ."

n o te s

to

c o m m u n ic a tio n

and

w ith

o f h o s tilitie s

For

(V o n

and

break

is

2, 292, 00 0

1914

and

K u h l,

a

fo r c e s

E g g e lin g

m ovem ent

out

m easu res

“ The

“ b o o k s ,”

205, 000

o f ---------------------------------------

c a r r ie d

e d itio n

A lle n

r e p l a c e m e n t _______________________________________________________________________

s u r p lu s

fir st

(L o n d o n ,

For

or a

iu

Hun

w ere

w ere very

m ig h tie s t

K ie v

d is c u s s e s

a c tu a l

d e c la r a tio n

e n title d

M in is te r

c a te g o r ie s o f re se rv e

ready

o f c r o s s in g

p a t r o l s .”

exp osu re

876, 000

b o th

p la n

“ Our

th e

and

d e p a r tin g

and

of
iu

A ppendix I (B ausman ).
S in c e

748. 000

40, 000

to

1 6 -1 7 ;

und

th e

s p r in g

A u s tr ia n

in c r e a s e d ,

V tln a

S e r a je v o : V o n

As

The

s a n c tio n in g

headed

e ffic ie n c y ,

fie ld

m o b iliz a tio n ,

m o b iliz a tio n s

( I b .,

m om ent

He

th e

J o ffr e

arou nd

h im s e lf

d ip lo m a tic

enem y

th is

R u s s ia n

of

Dum a

test

a

1 6 .)
th e

8 2 .)

th e

h is

p la n n e d

rem o n stra n c es

fo r tr e s s e s : T h ese

G eneral

tro o p s

w eek.

w ar)

G e rm a n y ’s
by

at

a fte r

th e

th e

of

ren ew ed

by

day

(K u h l,

sto p p ed .

m ilita r y

fifth

reserves

a g a in s t G e r m a n y ,

tr ia l.

th a t

d u r in g

ap paren t

th a t

is

la s t

S u k h o m lin o ff’s

by

h er

announced

m o v e m e n ts

th e

1913

T lie

to c o n c e n tra te

F in a l

tio n

of

A rray

1 2 -2 2 ).

H u k h o m lln o tT

w us

s tre n g th e n in g

e x a m in e

R u s s ia n

f o r m a t i o n s ____________________________________________________________

In

to

coal

7 0 .)

N ic h o la s

th a t

of

w as

(Ib „

fo r m e r

(E g g e lin g ,

stre n g th

exch ange
T h is

1914.

sto p p ed

th e

in

S u k h o m lin o ff a n sw e re d

b e lie v e d
on

R u ssia n
a tte n d e d

7 2 .)

19,

th e

w as

C o n tin u a l

im p o r te d ,

a u tu m n

1912,

e ig h th .

peace

export

and

J u ly

p r e p a r a tio n s ,

1 8 .)

in c re a se s

4 9 -5 0 .)

but

sta ff

th e

e n tir e

G r a in

th e

(E g g e lin g ,

on

w ere

r e v ie w s

P etersb u rg

of

th e

in

be re a d y

en orm ou s

(E g g e lin g ,

added.

f o r m a t i o n s ____________________________________________________________

1, 86 9, 0 0 0

to

s u p p lie s

Peace

w ill

f o r m a t i o n s _______________________________________________

T RO U BLE.
th e

S h ilin s k i,

(K u h l,

on

n ecessary.

c o u ld

lin e

th e

m ilita r y

w ar

1913,
be

c h ie f,

w h ereu pon

gen eral

lin e

secon d

a r m ie s .

sto ck

of

be—

fir st

equ al

yet

G erm an

w itn e s s e d

p u b lic
in

S E R B IA N

a tte n d e d

fr a n c s .

(E g g e lin g ,

fo r

w o u ld

th e

p u b lic a tio n

R e s e r v is ts .

For

years

of

of

th e

lo s s e s o f

m ilita r y

sta ff

th e

w as

The

u n iv e r s a l

G erm an

d iv is io n s ;

th e

X .

p r e p a r a tio n s .

1913

tu re d

(B ausman ).

G

(E g g e lin g , 9 ) .

1011.

c o lo r s .

tw o

K u h l says

th is.

To make effective the duty o f France to mobilize and imme­
diately attack Germany simultaneously with Russia under the
terms o f the treaty of 18D2 it was only necessary to make
Austria mobilize, above quoted, and this was accomplished
through the Slavs of Serbia.
That the German authorities were not entirely unsuspecting
o f the will to war by the French and Russian leaders is shown
by the sealed instruction sent under seal o f July 26 to the Ger­
man ambassador at Brussels not to he opened until authorized
by telegram. The authority was given August 2, after the
French and Russian troops had crossed the German line. This
communication from the German Government was handed to
M. Devignon, Belgian Minister for Foreign Affairs, at 7 o ’clock
p. m. August 2, 1914.

R u s s ia n

d e m o n s tra tio n

a lso .

te leg ra p h e d

a m ba ssa d or

a

tow a rd

Izv

secrecy

on

th a t

n eu tr a lity

yet

R u s s ia n

R je ta c h ,

read y,

c u r r in g ,

so

and

a d v a n c in g

B elg ia n

Journ al

d e s ir in g

g a r la n

v io la tin g

c ir c u m sta n c e

w ill

R u s s ia n

D u b a il,

R u s s ia n

N ic h o la s

su m ­

is

BEFORE T H E

m illio n

not

1914

and

t o -d a y

th ereb y

v io la tin g

m ore
th e

T h is

it

th e

dem anded

th o u sa n d

Duke

T h is

m a n ife s t g r e a te r e n e r g y .

are

In te n tio n

w h ic h

been

as

to

fr o n tie r

has

by

Aug.

te r rito r y .

P a r lia m e n t,

g u a ra n teed

F ra n ce,

ca u se

an

is

by

th e

w ere

and

Fren ch

te r rito r y ,

F ran ce

sev en tee n

year

th ey

fo r c e s

SO J u l y / t

F ren ch

s ta ff,

G ran d

In

has

N ew s

trea ty

G erm an

im m e d ia te ly

a tte n tio n

F ran ce

Lu xem bou rg

fo r

and

in d ic a te s

to u ch

th a t

th e

very

th e

1*14

The

th a t

M i n i s t e r .)

on

d e cla r e to

D u c h y , tch lc h

sid ered

is

to

o f tea r.

en tered

crossed

occurred

next

m ilita r y

2 2 5 .)

have

a lr ea d y

d e c la r a tio n

tro o p s

n eu tr a lity

have

G overn m en t

on

a fo r m a l

G erm an

d e ta c h m e n ts

c o llisio n s

her

th e

p ressu re

o f m o b iliz a tio n .

P aris ,

IN
of

c h ie f

th a t

d a y .]

IZVOI.8KI.
(A m b a ssa d o r

French.

ch arged

has

F rench

and

th e

M i n i s t e r .)

P aris ,
T o -d a y ,

th e

m an eu vers,

2 2 5 .)

in a d v e r te n tly ,

1911

fo r

F o r e ig n

MENACES

M IL IT A R Y

of

Sazonoff .

th <

RU88IAN

b etw ee n

N o.

RECORD.

th e
to

It

w ith o u t
m oral

w ar

n o te

p la in

w a itin g

e ffe c t
H ere

of
is

th a t

th is

w as

th e ir m o b iliz a t io n

a

th a t
fo r
fir s t

w hat

F ran ce

G erm an
a c tio n

Is v o ls k y

sen t

and

w as

b e fo re

w illin g

n o tio n ,

th e

R u s s ia n s

b e fo r e G e r m a n y

th a t

upon

h er

says

iu

part
h is

to

Jum p

sh e w a s
und

N o.

in to

s im p ly

not

218

had

to

had

d e c la r e d
th e

fr a y

s tu d y in g

h e s ita tin g

as

S a z o n o ff

on

CONGRESSIONAL RECORD

38
A u gu st
sto p

1,

her

"F o r
It

Is

th e

day

upon

m o b iliz a tio n
p o litic a l

very

w h ic h

reason s.

Im p o rta n t

fo r

In

resp ect

th e

G erm an

but

In

h is

N o.

(su p p r e sse d )

sam e 1st
of

her

day

a

R u s s ia

and

by

day

had

says,

of

m o b iliz a tio n
The

fro m
u n til

e d itio n

th e

sh e

e ith e r

to

“

on

th e

sta te B

It

w ere

not

be

and

be

not

has

by

F ran ce
F ren ch

fo r

b o th

her

If

su ch

It

is

of

of

be

a tta c k e d

on

in

w ar

to

tw o

gen eral

and

th in g s

of

a

w ar

w a itin g

s im p ly

on

back

w ith

th a t

w ar

con­

h a n g in g

p la n

w as
and

th e

have

th e

c o n ju n c t io n

w ar,

d e c la r e

or

of

h er

la u n c h

s h o u ld

th is

That

m ove

re s o lv e d
to

a ll

h er;

s tu d y in g

it

had

d e c la r e d

w ith ­

upon

her.

“

I

Von

m ilita r y

s itu a tio n

q u o ta tio n

h ere,

P r o b le m s

of

th e

R u s s ia ,

but

e x iste n c e ,
He
th e

Ita lia n

I ta ly

as

The

i n e c e s s ity .
m ade

case

fa c e

in

in

of

of
of

th e

w est

of

s ta n d in g

th e

is

tw o
us

a llie s
w h e th e r
It

U n til

it

is

p repon deran ce

of

h er

secu red ,

sh e

in fe r io r ity

a r tille r y ),

and

s u p e r io r ity

of

th e

fie ld

p r o v is io n

in

our

th e

num ber

of

m en

m anage

to

secu re

P art

II

upon.

R u s s ia

82

a

and

m uch

b e h in d h a n d

fo r c e s ,

fo r

of

an

p resen t
R u ssia

In
is

stro n g er

our

w ith

to
as

to

every
and

a tte m p t

to

76876—

11

th e

th a t
A

c a tc h
upon

up
h er

had

w e ll

us

as

d isp o sa l

a

w ith

in

p asses.

w ith

ea st

p o in t

m akes

th e

put

In to

in

an

of

of

in te r fe r e d

tro o p s

in

m o b iliz a ­

a r m in g

s e r io u s ly

be

o f

d e s tr u c tio n

th e

our

n e c e s s ity

be

th ese

th e
w ith ,

r e g io n s

advanced

by

w hat

sta te

n a tio n

in

p e c u n ia r y

le s s

th a n

an

of

P art

our

m ill-

have

I

m easu res

th e

d e ta il

In c r e a s in g

in

th e se

and

fa r

of

d e fe n se s

m ake

p erson al

out

m uch

th a t

our

In

s a id

in e x o r a b le

th e

II

of

dem ands

th e

m em o­

s a c r ific e s .

th o se

n e ig h b o r s

ord er

we

But

in

have

s h o u ld

hnve

m ade

stre n g th en

to

on

g rea ter

year

th e

th e

R u s s ia

la s t

p erson al

D u r in g

ou rs.

m arks

“ B e lg iu m
w ill

to

th e ir

and

are

m ilita r y

str e n g th e n in g

dem anded

dem ands

fir s t

and

on

M orocco

of

h er

o b ta in e d

h er

e a ste rn

fr o m

p o p u la tio n

c r is e s

sh e

sp en t

fo rtre sse s.

her

n a tio n a l

assem ­

m ark s.

th ree

years

E n g la n d

has

sp en t

la r g e

su m s

to

g iv e

e ffe c t

r e fo r m s .
has

in tr o d u c e d

a

new

arm y

o r g a n iz a tio n

at

a

h eavy

has

is

now

be

c a r r y in g

brou gh t

la id

out

up

th ro u g h

to

a

en orm ou s

a

new

d e fe n se

m o b iliz a t io n

su m s

to

b ill,

stre n g th

m o d e r n iz e

by

of

th e

w h ic h

3 0 0 ,0 0 0

her
m en.

fo r tific a tio n s

of

A n tw erp .
“ U nder
p e lle d
arm y

p ressu re

dem and

w h ic h

Is

fo r

draw n

up

th a t

th e

in

in

th e

p o litic a l

m eet

a ll

m u st

be

p r o v is io n

P art

th e

p o litic a l

la r g e

c r e d its

c r is is

fo r

A u s tr ia

th a t

has

been

r e o r g a n iz a tio n

com ­

of

h er

o verd u e.

to o ,

th e

of

very

lo n g

G erm an y,

gram

so

th e

to

II

m u st

fu tu re

le a d e r s

p repared

of

th e

be

c a r r ie d

G erm an y,
of

th e

to

m ost

th ro u g h

tr u s tin g

n a tio n

m ake

u rgen t

a

to

sa c r ific e s.

w ith

h er

su pp ort

The

r e q u ir e m e n ts
th e

ow n

g rea test

stre n g th ,

w h ic h

is

pro­

w h ic h

s o lid

is

en ergy,

can

g iv e

en ou gh

to

e m e r g e n c ie s .”

It demanded a peaceful passage through Belgium, proposing
to pay for damages and respect Belgian sovereignty and terri­
tory when war ended, and claimed to know that Belgian neu­
trality had already been violated by France. (E xhibit X II.)
E X H IB IT

X II.

Brussel,
I M P E R IA L G ERM AN L E G A T IO N
(H ig h ly
The
to

th e

O lv e t

of

th e se

lo n g

us

we

of

ItR

F ia n c e

best

IN

t, 191k.

A u gu st

B E L G IU M .

c o n f i d e n t i a l .)

w ill,

an

is

The

m arch

of

in

no

r e lia b le

in a rc h
le a v e s

G erm an y
a v o id

p o s itio n
a id .

In

no

M euR e,

doubt

fe a r

th is

fa c t

to

w ay

th e

B e lg ia n

su ch

a

In

la r g e ly

Is

of

in te n ­

te r r ito r y .

B e lg iu m ,

th e re

p r e s e r v a tio n

a c c o r d in g
by

sp ite
d e v e l­

s u ffic ie n t

cer­

G erm an y.

fo r

as

th a t

r e p u ls e

a g a in s t

d u ty

th e

th ro u g h

th e
to

in fo r m a tio n

on

th e

of

G erm an y

to

fo r e s ta ll

th e . e n e m y .

G erm an
an

to

not

w ith o u t

im p e r a tiv e

regard

as

of

G overnm en t

e n e m ie s

th e

be

on

can

t h r e a t d ir e c te d

a tta c k

in te n d

m a r c h in g

w ill

r e c e iv e d

in fo r m a tio n

G overnm en t

French

It

T h is

of

has

fo r c e s

N am ur.

of a

th is

G overnm en t
F rench

Im p e r ia l

ta in ty

over­
th e

th e

and

oped

But

in

G erm an

w h ic h

tio n

regard s

as

th e

g re a te r

s a c r ific e s

on

H a ld a n e

arm y

The

a r t ille r y

her

In

In to

R u s s ia

v iew
of
is
as

E n g la n d

squad ­

of

th e

h er

as

sto n e

as

la n d
a

sea

very

a r m in g
need

her
we

not

1.

act

of

of

w o u ld

h o s tility
G erm an y

fe e l

a g a in st
o b lig e

keen

h e r s e lf

h er

on

regret
th e

h er

if

fa c t

B e lg iu m

th a t

p art

to

th e

s h o u ld

m easu res

v io la te

B e lg ia n

sh e

im p o ssib le
pow er
p ow er.

u n tu rn ed

a n te e

to

as

be
fo r

it

is

But

It

e m p lo y

2.

does

If

its

part

K in g d o m

cash

4.

a ll

I f B e lg iu m
in

its

soon

th e

dam ages

th a t

any

w ar

th e

to w a rd

on

th e

p o s s e s s io n s
under

as
a

th e

peace

act

G erm an

G overn m en t

is

fr ie n d ly

th e
of

w h o le

c o n d itio n s

a ttitu d e ,

by

her

r a ise s

G erm an y,

la id

a g a in st
to

B e l­

ta k e

G erm an

peace,

to

up

G ov­
gu ar­

e x te n t.
dow n

to

ev a cu n te

c o n c lu d e d .

is

b e h a v e s in

com m ence

th e ir

th e

r e q u ir e d

h o s tility

to

d e c la r a tio n

in

of

in

of

about

a u th o r itie s

cau sed

p a r tic u la r

th e

u n d erta k e s,

p reserves

w ith

in

n e u tr a lity

and

as

B e lg iu m

fo r

and

m is u n d e r s ta n d in g ,

c o n te m p la te

u n d erta k e s

te r r ito r y

a g a in s t
th e

not

fr ie n d ly

G erm an y

agreem ent

any

c o n se n ts

of

on

th e

B e lg ia n
3.

d is s ip a te

B e lg iu m

a ttitu d e

ern m ent

su m s

w ill

an

If

of

keep

to

fo llo w s :

G erm an y

g iu m .

be

n u m e r ic a l
m u st

enorm ous

arm y,

ju st
a

of

s till

ord er

d e c la r e s a s

a g a in s t

319

and

fu tu re

In

a

w h ic h

fie ld

is

A llia n c e

s p ite

th e

e n jo y s

fo r c e s

th e

e q u ip m e n t,
T r ip le

no

th e

b a tta lio n s ,

m om ent

It

le a v e

R u s s ia

of

p u t in to

R u ssia

w ith

to

th e

1 ,3 7 4

th e

fo r w a r d
th a t

a ls o

“ S w itz e r la n d

in

even

and

us

by

s p e c ia l

p o s s ib ly

c o st.

The

w ith

us

w ith

nud

a

w ith

r ifle .

w ith

le v e l

w ar.

sim ila r

do

th e

th e

an

m arked

heavy

F ren ch

up

as

w ith

m ore

in fa n tr y

c a tc h

can

r e o r g a n iz a tio n
th a t

our

be

hom e

w ill

in

w ill

G erm an y
sh e

R u ssia .

our

th e

as our

in

of

b e in g

even

co m p ete

and

our

r e o r g a n iz a tio n ,

fa c t

yea r

on

o ff

th a t

fo r tr e s s e s

r e q u ir e s

east

m o b iliz a t io n ,

s a tis fa c tio n

great

lo s t

be

su p e r io rity

by

th e

is

w ill

F ra n ce

slig h t

p resen t

p r o c la m a tio n

fo rc e

opponent

rea r

th e

in
wo

b e h in d
to

sh o t.
1870

one

to

it

th is

c o m p a r is o n

p resen t

tim e

lo o k

th e

corps

o v e rta k e

at

a ls o

B ut

as

of

le v e l

c o m b in e d

th e

on

in c u m b e n t

sh ow s

we

m in d s

try

th e

c o n flic t

sp e n d in g

G erm an y

A t

a

in

Is

b rou gh t

to

s c a le

w h ic h

te r r ito r y .

su p e r io r ity

th e

w hen

are

th e

A rm y

a

not

le ft

Fran ce,

m om ent

get

Is

hand,

arm y.

R u m a n ia

fo r

arm ed
But

who

s u p e r io r ity .

w ith

th a t

s u p e r io r ity .

can

th e

a p p e n d ix

b a tte r ie s .

so

to

sh e

s e r v ic e ,

R u s s ia n

ron s,

a b le

fo r

th e m

n u m e r ic a l

r e v e a ls

be

num ber

o p e r a tio n

f ir e

th e

to

th e

A rm y

arm y

w ith

w e ll

d is ­

on

Ita lia n s ,

a g a in st

ahead

th e

th e

w ere

fie ld

in

F ran ce

to

I ta lia n

over

h o w itz e r s )

te n ts, a s

hand,

12

fo u g h t

th e

are

fo r

th e

W h ile

th e

at

o th e r

arm y

to

p u t in to

b a tta lio n s ,

s u p e r io r ity .

a b le

still

at

we

by

w h o le

and

in

fo r c e s

th e

or

u n a id e d .

(fie ld

and

sh e' w ill

th e

th e

ta k e

rests

fir e

2

can

Ita lia n

On

s lig h t

a tta c k e d

of m oney

G e rm a n y , A u s tr ia , a n d




of

p e r t in e n t

in fe r io r ity

e x tr a o r d in a r y

( th o u g h

o th e r

fit

of

great

to

M oreover,

tim e

an

of a

m u st

“ .I n

p r e t e x t ,"

tw o

added

The

th ir d

a s s e m b le s

be

a r tille r y

k itc h e n s

In

a

th e
an

be

im m o b iliz e d
Ita lia n

b a tta lio n s

n o ic

to

s h o .w

B e lg iu m

have

106

fu r th er

q u e s tio n

On

u s.

be

and

in fa n tr y

arm y.

a

re sp ec ts.

h er

th e

E n te n te ,

op posed

ta b le s

a r tille r y ,

has

w ill

o f fie ld

is o n ly

Ju st

t h e ir

th e

w o u ld

our

w ith

sa c r ific e s

1 ,3 0 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0

to

A u s tr ia

fo r

c o u n te d

G erm an y

T r ip le

b a tta lio n s .

be

n lo n e

d e v e lo p m e n t o f h lg h -a n g le

is

I

w h ic h

h a n d , w it h o u t b e in g

Im m en se
rear

be

opened,

of

fo r

th e

th e

w o u ld

in fa n tr y

a fr a id

and

r e p r e s e n ta tiv e

g iv e

w h ic h

th e

th e se

w e

She
a

w hat

of

b ly

r e v ie w s

b etw ee n

fig h tin g

w ith

p a r tic ip a te .

Ita ly

in

s u p e r io r ity

192

w o u ld

d e c is io n

h er

be

been

The

If

th e

"

c o n flic t

w ill

had

can

w ill

I d le , r ifle in

g a in

w h ic h

not

fr o n tie r .

v ery

F ran ce

th a t, “ n o m a tte r

w ith

w ill

fr o n tie r .

ta k e

He

a r m y , w h ic h

b a tt a lio n s ; i f

it

her

it

a

s in c e

a re th e fo r c e s

w ar

fig u re

as

to

of

says

c a lc u la tio n .

th e

A lp in e

a

124

im m a te r ia l

grea t

days

th ir d

a r m y , w h ic h

A lp in e

G erm an y,

m u st

fe w

E n g la n d .

th e

a cco u n t,

out of

in

and

e n e m ie s ,

F ren ch

th a t

in

A u s tr ia

a p p e n d ic e s ,

b a tte r ie s ,

F ran ce

of

le ft

57.
w ith

G erm an y,

la r g e

fo r c e s.

c o m p le te
c a lle d

up

th e

b ea ten

im p o r ta n c e

s itu a tio n

in v o lv e

m a k in g

"

G erm an y

our

out

page

fo r

L u d e n d o r ff

t h r e a t e n e d .”

a

her

lo n g

at

I,

in te re s t

to o
by

a g a in s t

and

be

o f th e a p p e n d ix

sq u ad ron s, an d

s id e

v ita l

h a r d ly

th ree

be

is

book

th e

our

e s t a b lis h e d

d e a lt

case

“ W e
now

fo llo w s :

fie ld

posal

w ill

in te rv ie w

It

th e

V o lu m e

S ta ff,

no

in

of

•

n e ig h b o r s

P r o v in c e s

In

on

not

im p r o v in g

cou rse,

w ill

any

have

O f

“ T h is

“ m em oran du m ”

fr o n tie r

w ere

our

on

our

fo r c e s

c e r ta in ly

tu n n e ls ,

and

p o lit ic a l

3 0 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0

lo n g

our

d e p lo y m e n t

and

h ere

ran du m

D e c e m b e r , 191Z.
a

I
and

“ F ran ce

m in is tr y .

G erm an y

w ill
an

adds

“ U nder I
th e

“ has

of

m ade

fo u n d

E n g la n d

n o t c o n tr ib u te

th e D

on es,

w ar
be

g e n e ra l s ta ff, w h o

w ill

lie

th e
can

W h ile

had

M o lt k e

G en eral

Ita ly

Ita ly

had

to

th a t

R u s s ia .

Von

but

th e

c e r ta in ty

and

M o ltk e ’s su m m a ry

1912,

arm ed

im m e d ia te ly

g rea test

r e in fo r c e d

fo r c e s

th a n

D ecem ber,

our

d is p o s a l

th e m .

ex p e ct,

a tta c k
and

very

b e lie v e

I ta ry

X I.

A ppendix A (R ausman ).

th e ir

In

her

W « < Wa
1

d e fe n se .

even

G erm an y

to

a tta c k

an

and

th e

. s h o u ld

an

at

in c r e a s in g

s itu a tio n

b r id g e s,

fo r tr e sse s,

i

of

have

a ls o ,

r a ilw a y s ,

th e

a fte r

o p e r a tio n s

W e

s illl

p o s itio n

brough t

th in k

m ilita r y

are

th a t

th ey

to

w est

tio n .

a

b e t t e r ,”

fir s t

th e

book :

of

E X H IB IT

In

b e fo re

began

th e

w h ic h

m a in ta in

a tte n tio n .

a g a in s t

su m m on ed

w o u ld

m ade

th e

he

w ar

a d v a n ta g e o u s

in

part
to

w h ic h

e n jo y e d

p re­

e x p ir a tio n

th a t

of

b e in g

m ilita r y

p resen t

w as

Fran ce

resou rces
to

, above.

ready

in

th a t

He

to -d a y

m ore

b e g in

th e

fir m ly

th e

“ The

Im m e d ia t e ly

w ar

E n g la n d ,

S a zo n o ff on

d e c la r a tio n

hnd

c o n fir m a tio n
of

w ere

tim e

c o n s id e r e d
w a itin g

th e

w as

a p p r o p r ia te

a ll

I t .”

a c tio n .

be

to

F ran ce

R u s s ia n s

th a t

to

a d v a n c e d .”

see

secon d ,

out

“ w o u ld

w ill

by

w ho

F ren ch

o n ly

m ore

fr o n tie r

R u ssia

s h o u ld

a d v is e s

w ar.

of

fir s t

th e

to

e s p e c ia lly

G erm an y

G e r m a n y ’s

th a t,

in

th e

th a t

th e n

it

to

fu r th e r

d e c la r e d

sta te s

and

m o b iliz a tio n

an sw er

d e c la r a tio n

read er

te n d e d

been

th e

w ere

w as

hnd

I ’ o in c a r ft,

He

F ran ce

an

h e a r in g

r e g a r d in g

m o b iliz a t io n ,
if

a fte r

seen

“ if

u ltim n tu m

I ta ly

her

Is v o ls k y

a n n o u n c in g

c o u n c il

to

th a t

fo rm

R u s s ia

G e r m a n y ."

a llie s

th e

to

te le g r a m

m in is te r ia l
Is v o ls k y

s h o u ld

A u g u st,

t e le g r a m

r e c e iv e d

but

of

G orm an

order

F ran ce

ced e

222

th e

e x p ir e d :

G erm an y

B e lg ia n
tro o p s,

Is

p repared,

G o v e r n m e n t,
and

to

g iv e

to

in

buy

in d e m n ity

B e lg iu m .
a

h o s tile

d iffic u ltie s

m anner

a g a in s t

to w a rd

th e ir

th e

advance

G .e r m a n
by

tro o p s,

t h e o p p o s l-

C O N G R E S S IO N A L R E C O R D .
t l o n o f t h e fortifications of the Meuse or by destroying roads, railways,
tunnels, or other engineering works, Germany will be compelled to con­
sider Belgium as an enemy.
In this case Germany will take no engagements toward Belgium, but
she will leave the later settlement of relations of the two States toward
one another to the decision of arms. The German Government has a
justified hope that this contingency will not arise and that the Belgian
Government will know how to take suitable measures to hinder its
taking place. In this case the friendly relations which unite the two
neighboring States will become closer and more lasting.

On August 3 Belgium refused and the German troops there­
after treated Belgium as an enemy ally o f France.
EXHIBIT XIV.
the gekman acceptance op armistice terms.

1. Cessation of operations by land and in the air six hours after the
signature of the armistice.
2. Immediate evacuation of invaded countries: Belgium, France,
Alsace-Lorraine, Luxemburg, so ordered as to be completed within 14
days from the signature of the armistice. German troops which have
not left the above-mentioned territories within the period fixed will
become prisoners of war. Occupation by the Allied and United States
forces Jointly will keep pace with evacuation In these areas. All move­
ments of evacuation and occupation will be regulated in accordance
with a note annexed to the stated terms.
8. Repatriation, beginning at once nnd to be completed within 15
days, of all inhabitants of the countries above mentioned, including
hostages nnd persons under trial or convicted.
4. Surrender in good condition by the German armies of the follow­
ing equipment: Five thousand guns (2,500 heavy, 2,500 field), 25,000
machine guns, 3,000 minenwerfers, 1,700 airplanes. The above to be
delivered in situ to the Allies and the United States troops in accord­
ance with the detailed conditions laid down in the annexed note.
5. Evacuation by the German armies of the countries on the left
bank of the Rhine. These countries on the left bank of the Rhine shall
be administered by the local troops of occupation under the control of
the allied and United States armies of occupation. The occupation
of these territories will be carried out by allied and United States
garrisons holding the principal crossings of the Rhine, Mayence, Cob­
lenz, Cologne, together with bridgeheads at these points in 80-kilometer
rudius on the right bank and by garrisons similarly holding the
stragetic points of the regions.
A neutral zone shall be reserved on the right of the Rhine between
the stream and a line drawn parallel to it 40 kilometers (26 miles)
to the east from the frontier of Holland to the parallel of Gernsheim
and as far as practicable a distance of 30 kilometers (20 miles) from
the east of stream from this parallel upon Swiss frontier. Evacua­
tion by the enemy of the Rhine lands shall be so ordered as to be com­
pleted within a further period of 16 days, in all 31 days after the
signature of the armistice. All movements of evacuation and occupa­
tion will be regulated according to the note annexed.
6. In all territory evacuated by the enemy there shall be no evacua­
tion of inhabitants ; no damage or harm shall be done to the persons
or property of the inhabitants.
No destruction of any kind to be
committed. Military establishments of all kinds shall be delivered,
as well as military stores of food, munitions, equipment not removed
during the periods fixed for evacuation. Stores af food of all kinds
for the civil population, cattle, etc., shall be left in situ. Industrial
establishments shall not be impaired in any way and their personnel
shall not be moved. Roads and means of communication of every kind,
railroad, waterways, main roads, bridges, telegraphs, telephones, shall
be in no manner impaired. No person shall be prosecuted for offenses
o f participation in war measures prior to the signing of the armistice.
7. A l l c i v i l and military personnel at present employed on them
■ball r e m a in . Five thousand locomotives, 150,000 w a g o n s , a n d 5,000
motor lorries in good working order, with all necessary spare parts
and fittings, shall be delivered to the associated powers within the
period fixed for the evacuation of Belgium and Luxemburg. The rail­
ways of Alsace-Lorraine shall be handed over within 36 days, together
with all pre-war personnel and material. Further material necessary
for the working of railways In the country on the left bank of the
Rhine shall be left In situ. All stores of coal and material for the
upkeep of permanent ways, signals, and repair shops left entire In situ
and kept in an efficient state by Germany during the whole period of
armistice. All barges taken from the Allies shall be restored to them.
All civil und military personnel at present employed on such means
of communication and transporting, including waterways, shall remain.
8. The German command shall be responsible for revealing within
48 hours all mines or delay acting fuses disposed on territory evacuated
by the German troops and shall assist in their discovery and destruction.
The German command shall also reveal all destructive measures that
may have been taken (such as poisoning or polluting of springs, wells,
etc.) under penalty of reprisals.
70870— 11




39

0.
The right of requisition shall be exercised by the Allies and the
United States Armies in all occupied territory, “ subject to regulation
of accounts with those whom it may concern.’’ The upkeep of the
troops of occupation in the Rhineland (excluding Alsace-Lorraine)
shall be charged to the German Government.
10. An Immediate repatriation without reciprocity, according to de­
tailed conditions which shall be fixed, of all allied and United States
prisoners of war. The allied powers and the United States shall be
able to dispose of these prisoners as they wish. This condition annuls
the previous conventions on the subject of the exchange of prisoners of
war, including the one of July, 1918, In course of ratification. How­
ever, the repatriation of German prisoners of war interned in Holland
and In Switzerland shall continue as before. The repatriation of Ger­
man prisoners of war shall be regulated at the conclusion of the pro
llminaries of peace.
11. Sick and wounded who can not be removed from evacuated ter­
ritory will be cared for by German personnel who will be left on the
spot with the medical material required.
12. All German troops at present In any territory which before the
war belonged to Rumania, Turkey, or Austria-Hungary shall immedi­
ately withdraw within the frontiers of Germany as they existed on
August 1, 1914. German troops now in Russian territory shall with­
draw within the frontiers of Germany as soon ns the Allies, taking into
account the Internal situation of those territories, shall decide that the
time for this 1ms come.
13. Evacuation by German troops to begin at once, nnd all German
instructors, prisoners, and civilian ns well as military agents now on
the territory of Russia (ns defined before 1914), to be recalled.
14. German troops to cease at once all requisitions and seizures nnd
any other undertakings, with a view to obtaining supplies intended for
Germany in Rumania and Russia (as defined on Angust 1, 1914).
15. Renunciation of the treaties of Bucharest and Brest-Litovsk and
of the supplementary treaties.
16. The Allies shall have free access to the territories evacuated by
the Germans on their eastern frontier either through Danzig or by the
Vistula in order to convey supplies to the populations of those terri­
tories and for the purpose of maintaining order.
17. Evacuation by all German forces operating in East Africa within
a period to be fixed by the Allies.
18. Repatriation without reciprocity within maximum period of one
month, in accordance with detailed conditions hereafter to be fixed, of
all civilians interned or deported who may be citizens of other allied or
associated States than those mentioned in clause 3, paragraph 19.
19. The following financial conditions are required : Reparation for
damage done. While such armistice lasts no public securities shall be
removed by the enemy which can serve as a pledge to the Allies for the
recovery or repatriation of the cash deposit, In the National Bank of
Belgium, and in general Immediate return of all documents, specie,
stock, shares, paper money, together with plant for the issue thereof,
touching public or private interests in the invaded countries. Restitu­
tion of the Russian and Rumanian gold yielded to Germany or taken by
that power. This gold to be delivered in trust to the Allies until the
signature of peace.
20. Immediate cessation of all hostilities at sea and definite informa­
tion to be given as to the location and movements of all German ships.
Notification to be given to neutrals that freedom of navigatlou in all
territorial waters is given to the naval and merchant marines of the
allied and associated powers, all questions of neutrality being waived.
21. All naval and mercantile marine prisoners of war of the allied
and associated powers in Germans hands to be returned without reci­
procity.
22. Surrender to the Allies and the United States of America of all
German submarines now existing (including all submarine cruisers and
mine-laying submarines), with their complete armament and equipment,
in ports which will be specified by the Allies and the United States of
America. Those which can not take the sea shall be disarmed of the
material and personnel and shall remain under the supervision of the
Allies and the United States. All the conditions of the article shall
be carried Into effect within 14 days. Submarines ready for sea shall
be prepared to leave German ports Immediately upon orders by wire­
less, and the remainder at the earliest possible moment.
23. The following German surface warships which shall be desig­
nated by the Allies and the United States.of America shall forthwith be
disarmed and thereafter interned in neutral ports, to be designated by
the Allies and the United States of America and placed under the sur­
veillance of the Allies and the United States of American, only care­
takers being left on board, namely :
Six battle cruisers, 10 battleships, 8 light cruisers, including 2 mine
layers, 50 destroyers of the most modern type. All other surface war­
ships (Including river craft) are to be concentrated In naval bases to
be designated by the Allies and the United States of America, and are
to be paid off and completely disarmed and placed under the super­
vision of the Allies and the United Stales of America. All vessels of
the auxiliary fleet (trawlers, motor vessels, etc.) are to be disarmed.

CONGRESSIONAL RECORD.

40
V e s s e ls

d e s ig n a te d

fo r

w ith in

sev en

upon

m ent

of

24.
to

a ll

The

In te rn m e n t

v e s s e ls o f
A llie s

sw eep

m un

days

a ll

th e

and

m in e

F reed om

n avul and

U n ite d

fie ld s

of

and
and

a ccess

m e r c a n tile

by

a u x ilia r y

th e

te r r ito r ia l w a te r s ,

25.

s h a ll

d ir e c tio n s

be

t le e t s h a l l

S ta te s

of

and

to

occu py

to

a ll

sw eep

up

te r r ito r ia l
and

a ll
a ll

th e

and

of

su ch

of

m in e s

be

th e

T o se­

s h a ll b e e m p o w e r e d
and

d e fe n se

and

th e

w orks

B a ltic ,

w ith o u t

and

G erm an

b e in g

o b s tr u c tio n s

r a is e d

are

to

be

In d ic a te d .
26.

The

a ted

e x is tin g

b lo c k a d e

pow ers

are

to

fo u n d

a t seu

are

to

S ta te s

s h a ll

g iv e

th e a r m is tic e
27.

A ll

G erm an
28.

In

bor

a ll

p a ra tu s
29.

to

and

B la c k

to

of

a ll

m a te r ia ls ,

th e

a llie d

a s s o c i­
sh ip s

th e U n ite d

G erm an y

d u r in g

Im m o b iliz e d

U n ite d

p o rts,

cran es,

n a v ig a tio n ,

by

and

th e

In

to

of

are

a ll

a ll

1 ,0 1 7 ,5 7 0

be

in

be

sto res

In

th e

S ta te s

p a rts

c la u s e

28,

bands
in

A m e ric a
or

G erm an y,

h ar­

and

a ll

and

m i n e s ________ ___________________ _______ _______ ______________________ __

ap­

T o t a l _____________________________________________________

9.

R a ilr o a d

m a te r ia l

are

to

to

be

p o rts

to

m a te r ia ls

lo c o m o tiv e s ,

road

a ll

retu rn ed ,

be

to

th e

sp e c ifie d

by

be

th e

w ill

p la c e d

n eu tra l

b e fo r e

g o v e rn m e n ts

N orw ay,

on

c o u n tr ie s ,

th e

Sw eden,

tr a d in g

w h e th e r

in te r e s ts ,

as th e

G erm an

to

s h ip s
fis h in g

h arb or

and

by

of

th e

w h e th e r

of

D e liv e r ie s

w ith o u t

e x p o r t o f s h ip b u ild in g

The

c la u s e s ,

th e

p a r tie s
tio n

d u r a tio n

D u r in g

ta k e

on

of

m erch ant

p la c e

except
ord er

on

in

th e

th e

th e

is

a llie d

3

s h ip p in g

of

any

d e s c r ip tio n

of

th e

a r m is tic e .

to

d ays,

m ay

and

case

of

th e

m ilita r y

of

It

not

fa ith

in

a

one

th e

of

th e m

c o m m a n d e r s in

act

a

in to

th e

U n iv e r s ity

of

p e r io d

th e

a r m is tic e

85.

T ills
of

a r m is tic e

to

be

a c ce p ted

or

by

G erm an y

S a le

R h in e la n d

16.

Y ie ld

17.

M is c e lla n e o u s

of

H as

th e

e x e c u tio n
fo r

th e

v a r io u s

r e m a in s
m e n t,
tio n

tre a ty

it e m s ,

be

in c lu d e s

c lu d e s

o n ly

G erm an

and

of

th e

w ith in

S ta te

p ro p e rty

fig u r e s ”

r e c o g n iz e d

th e

w o r ld

m arks




m arket

o th e r
of

as

th e

cost
ite m s

is ' a b o u t

7 6 8 7 6 — 11

to o

by
th e

th e

r e c k o n in g s

$250.

to

ceded

by

31,

as

31,

The

does
th e ir

several

th e

R e p a r a tio n

vary,

and

th e

G erm an s

a

th e

th e

com e

as

la r g e

C o m m is s io n ,
th e
lo w

coal

IV.

V.

A

ta k e s

1 ,5 8 0 .0 0 0

(sc ra p ),

fr o m

th e

200, 000

eco­
69, 337

a c t ______________________________

126. 29 5

e x p e n d itu r e s

of

A ls a c e -L o r r a in e ,

a g re e m e n t,

g u a r a n tie s

to

th e

e t c .,

PAYM ENTS

AND

D E L IV E R IE S .

19.

In te rn a l
(th e

c o sts

of

e x te rn a l
in

G erm an

th e

o c c u p a tio n

p a id

by

sta te ­

m ark

of

th e

N avy

by

w ith o u t

m et

to

by

3 .4

R e p a r a tio n

th e

pow ers
m ark

d e liv e r ie s

b illio n

in

g o ld

o c c u p y in g
ad van ces—

k in d .

m ark s

T h ese
on

A p r.

and

and

th e

o th e r

s u b s titu tio n s

in

and

or

(i.

e .,

s u b s titu te d )

d e liv e r ie s

of

of

m a c h in e s,

to

th e

Scapa
in

A llie s

F lo w ,

T s in g tn u

188

of

e x c lu s iv e

but

of

in c lu s iv e

ceded

to

th o se
of

8 0 1 ,0 0 0

in ­
90, 000

m a­

to o ls ,

a n i m a l s — e s t i m a t e ----------------------------------------------- -----------

d e liv e r e d

186,

C o m m is s io n

c o m m i s s i o n s ___________________________________________________

e q u ip m e n t

6 0 3 ,0 0 0

advances

1 9 2 2 ) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

in te rn e d

The

in s ta n c e
and

G erm an y

a m o u n ted

R e s titu tio n s

22.

in c lu d in g

c o s t s o f o c c u p a t i o n — i. e ., t h e e x p e n s e s .
fir st

te r r ito r y ,

C ost

R ep ara­

400, 000

v e s s e ls

th e

m a r in e

J a p a n — a r tic le s

184,

t r e a t y ______________ _________________________________

1 ,4 1 7 ,0 0 0

T o t a l ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

8 ,3 7 1 ,0 0 0

in ­

in c lu d e

V.

th e
coal

as

th e

w h ic h
at

28.

M ilita r y

E X P E N D IT U R E S
d is a r m a m e n t

e s tim a te —
aged

or

m is s io n ,

m arket

der,

no

c r e d ite d

th o u sa n d

m a te r ia l

revenu e

recovery

OTHER

r e s titu te d

d e liv e r e d

G erm an

w ar

C l e a r i n g ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

and

Saar

PAYMENTS.

o th e r

p e n s io n

s h ip s ,

w ith in

on

a n i­

to o ls ,

1 9 2 1 __ ___________________________________________

(w a r

te r ia l

la t te r

G erm an s

CASH

and
of

c r e d ite d

m in im u m .

c o m m is s io n

under

a

2 ,3 3 3 ,6 0 0

th e

b y -p r o d u c ts ,
m a c h in e ry ,

p a in tin g s ,

dam aged

E n g lis h

in

m a r in e ,

coal

w ith

18.

72

p a id

G erm an

fig u r e s

tim e s

reck on
at

not

be

and

1 9 22 ;

are

G erm an s

a

a c co u n t,

1922.

w h ic h

to

m erch ant

ta k e n

D ecem ber

c o m m is s io n

th e

th e

h e r e w ith

be

C o m m is s io n ;

g iv e n

lis te d

m ay

abroad ,

lo w ;

p r ic e ,

m in e s ,

am ount

accordan ce

164, 368

te r a llie d
has

in

6. 020. 391

p r i c e ) ____ ______

2, 140, 000

c o sts

G erm an y

m ark et

T o t a l _________________________________________________________________________

.

th e

m a x im u m

A u gu st

R e p a r a tio n

p r o v is io n a l

coun t

to

b ecause

p resen t
a

w h ic h

liq u id a te d

th e

are

as

paym en£s

p a y m e n ts

of

o th e r

p r ic e ;

a ll

Saar

th e re fo r e

regarded

sta te m e n t,

p ro p e rty

p u r v ie w

th e

p a id

w hat

been

e t c . ) ________________ __________________________

20.

p r e c is e ly

V e r s a ille s ,

as

W e

m ay

C o m m is s io n

of

su ch

u n s e t t le d .

w h ic h

fo r m e r

"

of

d e te r m in e

bad

w a terw a y s,

b o a t s ____________ _______ _________

(w o r ld

p r o d u c ts,

c o m m itte e ,

21.
to

in la n d

2 ,2 3 8 .4 3 3

A m e rica n

em b argo

s h ip s o f

L o u v a in ,

and

s a n c tio n s

In
con­

X V .

W h a t
im p o s s ib le

of

c u sto m s

g u a ra n ty

80,

is

an

in

f o r e i g n e x c h a n g e -----------------------------------------------------------------

d estro y ed

fr o m

are

G erm an *

in

F r a n c o -G e r m a n

(See Exhibit 2 1 : Conditions o f armistice.)

It

v e s s e ls

e s t i m a t e ________________________________________________________________________

n o tific a tio n .

E X H IB IT

of

r iv e r

III.

c h ie f.
r e fu se d

D en­

62 0, 5T 6

borne
h ou rs

d is tr ic t,

th e

c o m m is ­

a u th o r ity

r a il­

(in c lu s iv e

1 1 ,1 1 3 ,0 0 0

P a y m e n ts

fix e d ,

b est

o th e r

e t c . ) __________

13.

execu­

e x e c u tio n .

under

under

to

above

th e

m o to r

T o t a l _________________________________________________________________________

c o n tr a c tin g

th a t

w ith in

in te r n a tio n a l

s h a ll

th e

th e

M cm el

in s ta n c e ,

w ood s,

to

o p tio n

of

d e n u n c ia tio n

c o n v e n tio n

p erm an en t

w ith

o f any

u n d ersto o d

e x e c u tio n

th is

c o m m is s io n

naval

by

is

c a r r y in g

of

30

w arrant

in s u ffic ie n t

bad

T h is

and

d en oun ced

s h a ll

of

be

o f e x e c u tio n

n o tic e .

e x e c u tio n

p r in c ip le

a d m itte d .

be

18

is

fa ilu r e

(fo r

fo r
n o t,

of

r e c o n s tr u c tio n

te rm s

15.

or

s ig n a tu r e

a fte r

a r m is tic e

p r e v io u s

grou n d

assu m e

d itio n s ,
s io n

h ou rs’

a r t ic le s

to

th e

p e r io d , o n

a r m is tic e

48

a r m is tic e

of

th is

fo r

G ov­

retu rn

m a te r ia ls

and

b y -p r o d u c ts

p h a r m a c e u tic a l

v e s s e ls

G erm an
in

and

te r r ito r ie s

w h ic h

b o a ts,

m a ls ,

th e

D enm ark,

th e ir

on

e q u ip m e n t,

12.

w ith

p a r ts,

sto ck ,

ceded

(in c lu s iv e

and

n o m ic
34.

v e s s e ls

and

C oal

r o llin g

th e

e x c lu s iv e

p la c e d )

th e

accordan ce
reserve

E u p e n - M a l m e d y ) ______________________________________

O c e a n -g o in g

11.

p e r m itte d

in

w a ters

c a n c e le d .
of

10.

In

in c lu d in g

S ile s ia ,

and

14.

su ch

are

U pper

a r m is tic e
n o tify

G o v e r n m e n ts o f

G erm an

a ll

e q u ip m e n t

m ark,

a llie d

r e c ip r o c ity .

to

of

and

be a b a n d o n ed .

b e lo n g in g

w ith o u t

tru ck s,

are

r e s to r a tio n .

a s s o c ia te d

tra n sfe r s

e x te n d .

d e liv e r e d

Sea

w a r lik e

2 9 , 394. 000

It, PAYM
ENTS A D D VBRIKS P O N
N EU
R M ATIO AL CAPITAL A D
N
N
C R E T PR D C N
URN
O U TIO .
te rm s,

A m e ric a ;

a ll

are

150. OO0

8. P r iv a t e a n d p u b lic c o b le s ___________________________________
70 4 10
4. N o n m ilit a r y p ro p e rty le ft In th e t e r r it o r y e v a c u a te d by
1, 897 , 150
th e G e rm a n tro o p s on th e w estern f r o n t ---------------------5. R a ilr o a d a n d p o n to o n b rid g e s o v e r th e K iiin e ( p a r t b e ­
lo n g in g to B a d e n ) _________________________________________
9 .6 1 1
6. S h a re s o f th e M o r o c c o S ta te B a n k a n d v a lu e o f th e
s to c k s a n d b on d s d e liv e r e d In a c c o r d a n c e w ith a r t ic le
2 60 o f th e p ea ce t r e a t y ------------------------------------------------------392. 0 13
7. O erm u n p r o p e r t y liq u id a te d a b r o a d _______________________ 1 1 , 7 4 0 ,0 0 0
8. G e r m a n y ’s c la im s on h e r fo r m e r a llie s ce d e d In a c ­
c o r d a n c e w ith the p e a ce t r e a t y _____________ __________
_
8. 600 , OG0

R u s s ia n

a ll

B la c k

of

r e le a s e d ;

th o se

in

by

U n ite d

to

resto red

of

r e s tr ic tio n s

p r iv a te

fla g

Saar

s h a ll

o th e r

a ir c r a ft,

a ll

in

2.

S ta te s.

G erm an y

and

and

G erm an y

G erm an

s h ip s

or

a ll

and

by

im m e d ia te ly
No

and

e v a cu a te d

s e iz e d

S ta te s

p a r tic u la r ly

n e u tra l

and

and

th e

a rm a m e n ts,

be

G overnm en t

s p e c ific c o n c e s s io n s ,

33.

and

lig h te r s ,

s p e c ifie d

p ow ers are

su rren d er,

or

of

c o n c e n tra te d

s e iz e d

s e iz e d

as

U n ite d

H o lla n d , t h a t

w ith

and

m erch ant

A llie s

p r o v is io n in g

in la n d

A llie s

v e s s e ls

G erm an

and

a llie d

as n ecessary.

A llie s

and

to

k in d s

d e s tr u c tio n

ern m ent

any

th e

No

w o r ld ,

are

v e s s e ls

th e

The

fo r

rrrn s

p o r ts

and

32.

are

a ll

The

c o a sts

tu g s,

th e

G erm an

5. 507. 6 1 6

a r m is tic e

m erch an t

e v a c u a tio n ,

be
th e

B e lg ia n

d e s c r ip tio n s

over

a sso c ia te d

31.

and

a ll

m a te r ia ls

A llie s

ca p tu re .
th e

to
by

s h ip s ,

m a te r ia ls

m erch ant

A ll

are

th e

Sea

of

G erm an

to

by

a ll

1. P ro p e r t y o f th e R eich a n d o f th e S ta te s ( e x c lu s iv e
of
E u p e n -M a lm cd y ,
A ls a c e -L o r r a in e ,
and
th e
c o l o n i e s ) ________________________ ______ _____________________
Add:
P r o p e r t y o f th e R e ic h and o f the S ta te s In
U u p e n - M u l m c d y ___ _________________________ _____________

k in d s .

handed

30.

to

up

and

r e c o g n iz e d

s p e c ifie d

sto re s,

o f a ll

n eu tra l

and

a ll

and

A ll

o th e r

be

m erch ant

v e s s e ls

be

a ir c r a ft

to

m a te r ia ls ,

m a te r ia ls

w ar

e x te n t

e v a c u a tin g

abandon

lia b le

c o n s id e r a tio n

naval

set

unchanged

r e m a in

to th e

bases

c o n d itio n s

r e m a in

G o ld m a r k s
(In th o u s a n d s ).

G er-

to

p ow ers.

In to

ito tn iw l,

G erm an

I. D M K tK P M MITEM
E V R H IIO
At.S O H D AN C SSIO O PROPB T
N AN
O E
N P
UT
W IN TUB R ICH A D A R A .
ITH
E
N BOD

r ig h t

In d ic a te d .
g iv e n

n e u t r a lit y

and

th e

o u ts id e

be

a s s o c ia te d

w ith in

q u e stio n

have

to

to

C a tte g a t

any

a ll

are

B a ltic

arm a­

sh ore.

G erm an y

The

p o r ts

m ilita r y

s h a ll

b a tte r ie s ,

th e

G erm an

th e

o f A m e rica

o b s tr u c tio n s

w ith o u t

p o s itio n s

fr o m

by

and

fo r tific a tio n s ,

en tra n c es

m in e s

w a te rs

th e

fo r ts ,

th e

le a v e

put on

o f th e se

fr o m

m a r in e o f th e a llie d

G erm an

k i n d s in

be

la id

th e p o s itio n s

to

to
and

A m e rica

o b s tr u c tio n s

c u r e th is , th e A llie s a n d th e U n ite d S ta te s

o f a ll

read y

w ir e le s s ,

ac­
g o ld

i.

arm y,

d estro y ed ,
s o ld

m o s tly

scrap

e .,

to

w ere

th e

LOSSES

W IT H IN

GERM ANY.

of

s a le s

of

s c r a p ),
undam ­

navy,

or

a ir

m a te r ia l

d e liv e r e d

to

th e

R e p a r a tio n

w h o le
in

AND

(e x c lu s iv e

or

broken

G erm an y,
A llie s .

c r e d ite d

to

th e
The

up

to

th e

proceeds
y ie ld

c a p ita l

of

fr o m

accou nt

C om ­

h ig h e st
A v h ich
th e

b id ­
w ere

s a le s

(v id e

of

su pra

1 4 ) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------

6 ,2 5 0 ,0 0 0

U U O v J a u

C O N G R E S S I O N A L RECORD.
G o ld
(in

14.

In d u s tr ia l

25.

N o n m ilita r y

m a te r ia l

le ft

e v a c u a te d

te r r ito r y

on

th e

of

p le b is c ite s ,

16 .

M is c e lla n e o u s
tie r s ,

(c o sts

care

of

re fu g e e s,

th e

G erm an

e a ste rn

e t c .) —

tro o p s

In

2 ,7 0 0 ,0 0 0

fr o n ­
482, 000

T o t a l __________________________________________________________________________

10, 482, 000

▼ SUMMARY.
I.
fr o m

m a te r ia ls

P a y m e n ts

and

d e liv e r ie s

ren t
C ash

on

h a n d ________________________________________

fr o m

n a tio n a l

c a p ita l

and

C o u n t r ie s .

.

U n i t e d S t a t e s 1 ..................................................
B r i t i s h E m p i r e *...............................................
F r a n c e » ...................................................................
I t a l y ....................................
J a p a n ..........................................................................
B e l g i u m ....................................................................
O t h e r s ........................................................................

5 9 ,4 9 1
9 5 5 ,1 6 1
1 ,3 2 2 , 70 9
3 9 ,1 0 0

T o t a l ............................................................

2 ,6 3 1 ,1 0 7

29, 394, 000

p a y m e n ts

and

and

2. 140. 0 0 0

d e l i v e r i e s _____________________________________________

lo s s e s

w ith in

59,666
635
6 ,0 3 1

5 9 ,4 9 1
1 ,0 9 7 ,6 2 1
1 ,4 2 5 ,7 6 4
1 9 6 ,8 2 9
6 7 ,9 7 8
1 ,4 6 3 ,4 7 7
1 4 2 ,6 5 8

1 ,7 5 4 , 4 6 5

6 8 ,2 1 6

4 ,4 5 3 ,8 1 8

2 5 4 ,6 4 0

538
2 ,0 4 2

1 1 ,0 0 7 ,2 8 3 t h o u s a n d g o ld m a r k s s t i ll u n p a i d .
* 6 0 ,1 5 9 t h o u s a n d g o ld m a r k s s t i l l u n p a i d .
* 1 5 5 ,6 3 5 t h o u s a n d g o ld m a r k s s t i ll u n p a i d .

p r o d u c t i o n _____________________________________________ ___________________ 1 1 , 1 1 3 . 0 0 0

E x p e n d itu r e s

1 4 1 ,9 2 2
1 0 1 ,0 1 3
1 5 7 ,7 2 3
8 ,9 7 8
1 ,2 0 8 ,2 0 2
1 3 6 ,6 2 7

cur­

p a y m e n t s _____________________ _____________________________________________ -

O th e r

In t h o u s a n d g o ld m a rk s.

1, 050, 000

e s t i m a t e ---------------------------------

D e liv e r ie s

in. DISTRIBUTION OF RECEIPTS.

m ark s

th e

fr o n t— e s tim a te —
d e te r m in in g

41

th o u s a n d s ).

d i s a r m a m e n t — e s t i m a t e ________________________________
by

w

vr

l v

3 ,3 7 1 .0 0 0

G e r m a n y ___________________________

T o t a l ___________________________________________________________________________

56, 500, 000

G o ld m a r k s

10, 482, 00 0

(In t h o u s a n d s ).
If

to

o n ie s ,

th is

and

te r r ito r ie s
and

to ta l

of
be

th e

th e

added,

d e liv e r ie s

v a lu e

p u r e ly

fig u r e

w e ll

run s

th e

above

T
The
yet

r e p a r a tio n

a v a ila b le

fr o m

th e

of

A

u b

c o m m is s io n

In

any

F ederal

A ls a c e -L o r r a in e ,

m ilita r y

r e p r e s e n tin g

in

S

fo r m .

are

fo r

B u lle tin

th e

G erm an

v a r io u s

G erm an y’6

f iim a b t

g o ld

c o l­

ev a c u a te d

to ta l

p a y m e n ts

1,

On

c a p ita l

On

p o s t-M a y

On

s c h e d u le

c o m p le te ,

fo llo w in g

F ebru ary,

nor

are

s u m m a r ie s ,

PAYM ENTS

1921,

arm y

debt

1928,

are

th e

TO

c o sts

81,

A U G U ST

C e s s io n

to

D a n z ig

(p r o v is io n a l

f i g u r e ) __________________________________

O th e r

of

1921,

arm y

p a y m e n ts

c le a r e s t

and

coal

c o sts

m arks

ad van ces,

ac­

to

2, 504, 342

a c c o u n t ___________________________

in s ta llm e n ts

15,

fa llin g

due

O c t.

2 6 8 ,1 9 0

1 9 2 2 ___________________________

1 ,9 5 2 ,9 2 8

1 9 2 2 ------------------------------

3 8 ,0 2 3

g o ld

or

21
In

g o ld

m ark s,

w as

g o ld

m ark s,

w as

per

c e n t,

fo r e ig n

p a id
p a id

or

1 ,5 6 2 ,2 4 4

curren cy; 45

in

k in d ; a n d

in

S ta te

per

34

per

p r o p e r ty

in

th o u sa n d

g o ld

m ark s,

An

fo r
If

II.

th e

a r m is tic e

R o llin g

cost

of

56

th e

PAYM ENTS

IN

expen ses

of

G erm an y

have

of

te r r ito r ie s .

w ar

sto ck

su ch

4 ,5 5 3

317. 804

M o to r

t r u c k s ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

17. 509

F ix e d

r a ilw a y

A g r ic u ltu r a l

cars.

m a t e r i a l ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2. 461

m a t e r i a l ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

0 0 0 ,0 0 0

1, 451

a c t ---------------------------------------------------------

114, 744

P roceeds

of

r e p a r a tio n

A nnex

S h ip s

t o n s ) --------------------------------------------------------------

700, 129

i n s t a l l a t i o n s -----------------------------------------------

4.

of

24, 830

m a t e r i a l _________________________________________________

19, 810

w a te r c r a ft

A nnex

IV

sh eep ,

(9 9 .3 0 0
2 1 ,6 6 4

M is c e lla n e o u s

h orses.

g o a ts,

under

U nder

C o a l,

1 7 5 ,4 3 9

2 4 5 ,6 8 8

A nnexes

and

II

c a ttle ,

2 1 8 ,0 7 0

c r e d it

A nnex

I V ------------------------------------------------

and

110, 268

lig n ite

(a c tu a l

to n n a g e

k i l o g r a m s ) -----------------------------------------------------

p ro d u c ts

( 7 5 3 ,7 7 5

k i l o g r a m s ) ---------------------

G erm an

fo l­

m a in ta in e d

per

about

g iv e

G erm an
m ark s

annual

cent

by

of

th e

th e

“ G erm an

fo llo w in g

fa ilu r e

su m m ary

of

o ffe r

peace

by

M ay

d e le g a tio n

1,

1926,

at

aud

V er­

8 0 ,0 0 0 ,-

p a y m e n ts.

p roposal

D o c to r

1921.

fo r

of

fin a l

s e ttle m e n t

G erm an

la b o r

fo r

p resen ted

at

r e c o n s tr u c tio n

S im o n ’s

p rop osa l

of

m ark s,

g o ld

w ith

paym ent

of

in te r e s t

a

at

to ta l
5

per

to

G erm an

to

be

n o te

a m o r tiz e d

to
in

th e

A m e ric a n

accordan ce

G overnm en t

w ith

an

In d ex

pro­

fig u r e

p r o sp e r ity .
28,

1922.

R e p a r a tio n

M ay

28,

P la n s

fo r

fis c a l

re fo r m s

and

p a y m e n ts,

su b ­

C o m m is s io n .

1922.

N ovem ber,

F u r th e r

8.

J anu ary,

lig n ite to

2,

p r o p o s a ls

su b m itte d

to

R e p a r a tio n

Com ­

In

U n ite d

c o n v e rte d
S ta te s

4 0 ,0 3 7
1 2 ,8 1 3

49, 000

( 2 ,5 2 5 ,3 1 4

A llia n c e

G erm an

buyers

to

p r o p o s a ls

by

g ra n te d

Cuno

su b m itte d

to

R e p a r a tio n

B e r lin .

P r o p o s a ls

P o in c a lr g

1928.

th e

p a id

50, 074

( 6 2 0 , 8 0 5 k i l o g r a m s ) -------------

T o t a l __________ ________________________________________________________________

to

th e re fo r e

8 ,0 2 0
8, 8 1 8 , 5 4 2

th e

K a rl

h im

B ergm ann ,

no

not

o ffic ia lly

su b ­

a u d ie n c e .

p r o p o s a ls .

G o v e r n m e n t ’s

to ta l

fir s t p h a s e

la r g e

X V I.

su m s—

an

end.

an

c e s s a tio n

of

fo rm a l
a ll

o f r e p a r a tio n s d u r in g

p r o b a b ly
It

m ay

up
be

a p p r o p r ia te

to

th a t

th e
no

m om ent

announcem ent

p a y m e n ts,
w h ic h

fu ll
m ore

fo r

of

in c lu d in g
G erm an y

lim it

of

her

ever

w ill

be

r e v ie w in g

its

bank­

d e liv e r ie s

In

c o n tin u o u s ly
c a p a c ity — h a s

p a id .

and

T h is

e s tim a tin g

is

her

p a s t p e r fo r m a n c e .
m in d

of

e s tim a te s

c la im s

th a t

h e a d lin e s
4, 564

G erm an

and

k in d , th e

of

( 2 ,8 4 1 ,4 9 7

k i l o g r a m s ) _________________________________________________________________

1 1 ----------- 6

230

m e tr ic

t o n n a g e ------------------------------------

T e x tile

F u r th e r
v is it

W H A T G E R M A N Y H A S P A ID ---- K E Y N E S .
W ith

The

L u xem bu rg

its

1923.

becau se

M ay

1922.

d u r in g

m itte d

C o m m is s io n :

3 ,4 0 0 ,3 8 7

to

th e

5 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0

to ta l,

Janu ary

com e

c a b l e s -----------------------------------------------------------

coke, an d




of

24,

sam e

ru p tcy

C o a l,

10870—

A p r il

7.

22, 855

R e p a r a tio n

D y e stu ffs

of

it

d is t r ic t s .)

1921.

80, 970

c o a l ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

V II :

to

u rad e
we

E X H IB IT

s u s p e n s e ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

by

D y e stu ffs

c e ssio n s

a r m ie s )

770, 618

of

M i s c e l l a n e o u s __________________________________________________________________

to n s ;

86

curren t

OFFERS.

th a t

g o ld

G eneral

metric

in

P h a r m a c e u tic a l

S u b m a r in e

fro m

c o m m is s io n s
th a n

m arks

of

4 1 ,0 1 9 ,4 3 2

converted tonnage, 4 5 ,7 6 0 ,0 5 3

(1 7 ,3 6 3 ,9 9 0

A nnex

of

r e p e titio n

1,

v a lu e

0.

1 5 7 ,0 7 3

V I :

D y e stu ffs

N o te

1920.

d e v a sta te d

C o m m is s io n

p o u l t r y ) ---------------------------------

t o n s ) ____________________________________________________________________________

B y -p r o d u c ts

p a id

w o u ld

g o ld

out

o c c u p y in g

m ore

been

A llie s ”

n o n in te r e s t -b e a r in g

9.

coke,

m etric t o n s ;
C o a l,

1919.

12,

M arch

m itte d

V :

A nnex

and

p a id

It

m is s io n .

R e c o n s tr u c tio n
L iv e s to c k

and

:

a r m ie s

have

2 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0

(In c lu d e d

p o s in g

5.
gross

b e in g
th e

th a t

p a id

7 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 .0 0 0

of

fo o d

c e n t.

III :

( 2 ,5 9 3 ,0 5 7

I n la n d

recovery

In

J u ly

c a p ita l

22. 709

L i b r a r y ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

L o u v a in

29,

o ffe r e d

o f th e

th e

been

w as

cent

fo r

adds

He

th a n

u se

been

G erm an y 1

sta te m e n ts
to

had

on

has

advances

a g ree m e n t.

to ta l

ab sorb ed

fro m

th e

p a id

p r o p o s a ls :

s a ille s

3.

lo o s e

p r o p o s a ls

M ay

Spa.

m a t e r i a l __________________________________ ____________

( 1 2 7 .0 3 9

m any

m ake

1.

(In t h o u s a n d s ) .

e x a cte d

to ta l

th is

per

th e

and

Spa

co m m e n ts

B u lle tin

th e

m ore

of

35

in

of

o c c u p a tio n

th e

w ith o u t

th e

th e

of

cent

r e m a in in g

R eserve
cent

o c c u p a tio n

G E R M A N Y 'S

th ou san d

K IN D .

th e

per

under

of

per

e ffe c te d

p a y m e n ts

F ederal
39

a r m ie s

cent

65

(th e

of

m ade

per

o n ly

th e
th a t

th a t

So

8 2 6 ,6 5 3

S a le s

expen se

m in e r s

p r o p e r ty

heavy

2 ,5 0 4 ,3 4 2

l o c o m o t i v e s ) ----------------

U nder

In

out

A llie s

th e

c e n t,

c o n v e n tio n :

A bandoned

U nder

th e

Ruhr
to ta l

S ta te

w r ite r

p o in tin g

by

tire

2.

U nder

fig u r e s ,

p r o d u c tio n

w as

m arks

503, 289
44, 350

S in c e

to

or

3 0 5 ,5 1 4

a sse ts :

7, 397, 553

ab sorb ed

th o u sa n d

ceded

u n d is tr ib u te d

3 0 0 ,0 0 0
1 ,7 3 0 ,5 8 2

1 9 2 1 ____________________________________________________________

p a id .

3 ,8 1 8 ,5 4 2

th e

f i g u r e ) _______________________

1 9 2 1 ______________________________________________________________

1,

anonym ous

th e se

c e n t, o r

G o ld

U nder

1,

and

7 ,3 8 5 .1 2 8

to ta l

15,

su spen se

(p r o v is io n a l

T o t a l _____________________________________________________________________________

lo w s

Aug.

in

have
2 ,0 2 1 ,0 5 0

a c co u n t:

due

th is

U nder

ite m s

th ey

(J „ t h o u s a n d s ).

1922.

a c c o u n t _________________________________________ ______________

1,

in s ta llm e n ts

in

f i g u r e ) ________________________________

ta k e n

T o t a l ___________________________________________________________________________

p a id

(p r o v is io n a l

ab sorb ed

p r e -M a y

O f

P o la n d

P r e -M a y

c o u n t __________________________________________________________________________________

On

Fran ce— S oar

to

P o s t -M a y

G o ld
I.

On

to

m ark s.

a v a ila b le :

On

C e s s io n
C e s s io n

.

not

The

of

th e

1 0 0 ,0 0 0 .0 0 0 ,0 0 0
t- m e d

a cco u n ts

s im p le

R eserve

m a te r ia l

A part
Item s,

n a m e ly ,

sh e

th a t
fr o m

th ere
th e

th e

p u b lic

has

have

been

w h ic h
has

sh e

a lr e a d y

h a s p a id

d iffe r e n c e s
arc
to ta l

tw o

of

sets

fin a n c ia l

been

e x tr e m e ly

c u rre n t,

p a id

m ore

n o th in g a t
o p in io n
of

as

fig u r e s

b urd en

c o n fu se d

v a r y in g
th a n

fro m

by

th e

v a r ie ty

G erm an

£ 2 ,2 0 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0

to

o ffic ia l
p ress

a ll.
to

th e

w h ic h

th ro w n

e s tim a tio n
have

on

been

G erm an y

of

p a r tic u la r

d is tin g u is h e d ,
by

th e

peace

CONGRESSIONAL RECORD

42
tre a ty

and

tre a ty

to w a rd

on

th e

G erm any

not

a lth o u g h

fo r
o th e r

ite m s

cost

to

G erm an y.

and

d e liv e r e d

N ow

if

m e e tin g
jf

we

m u ch

are

her

are

m e th o d
of

th e

tre a ty

y ie ld s
to

as

as

th e

of

tow ard
w h ic h

fo r

th e

v a lu e

th an

w hat

c a l­
of

th e ir

real

has

p a id

sh e

c r e d ite d

to

her

in

o r th e p u n is h m e n t im p o s e d

p rogress

G erm an y

la t te r

fig u re

of

e ffo r t

needed

has

a lo n e
to

m ade

is

to w a rd

r e le v a n t,

carry

but

her

bu rd en s

h e r i t is th e fo r m e r fig u r e w h ic h

on

to

th e

us

b e g in

R e p a r a tio n
th e

e s tim a te

c a te g o r ie s :

0 0 0 ,0 0 0 ;

m a tters.

fo r m

coal

le a s t

a

fu r th e r

r a tio n

and

in

su m s

C o m m is s io n
th e

I

at

(u n d e r

s t ill

us

coal

a llo w

t h e ir

and

th e ir

it

w o u ld

in

th e m

by

If

is

th e

e s tim a te d
been

w h ic h
th e

G erm an

a

G erm an
ceded

S ta te

liv e r ie s ,

G erm an

m is s io n
Thus

th e

ren d ers,

w ith o u t

of

tio n
m ay

be

a ll

sto ck .

It

th e

som e

m ent

as

of

be

of

th e

tre a ty

to

th e

know n

and

th e

not

to n

th a t

th e

a llie d

by

to

c a n t ile

v a lu e s

a c c r u in g
S in c e

so

o ffe re d
a fte r

fig u r e

som e

to

is

7 6 8 7 6 — 11




th e

v a lu a t io n ,
de­

Com ­

has

The

e s tim a te

if

is

fo r
on

th e

le s s

and

to

is

th a n

Saar
one

has

say,

o f th e

to

n o th in g )

at

a

in c lu d e

p r iv a te

th e

im p o v e rish

th e

r u b b is h

is

D.

on

of

th e

Saar

h er ow n

to

in g

The

d e s tr u c tio n

ju s tic e .

It

p a r tly

It

c h a ra c te r
th e

th e
of

s h o u ld
depends

a r e ta k e n

a llie s
h as,

b u s in e s s

per
of

of

r e p a r a tio n

a sse ts,

G erm an y’s

r e p a r a tio n

fo r a p e r io d

o f le ss

m in e s

th e

th a n

s ix

p e r p e tu a lly

up

we

ite m
m ay

th a t
is

not

N o one,

a

by
fa ir ly

to

le s s th a n

a g a in s t

to

th e

lo w e r

fig u r e

th e

h a lf th e

£ 2 4 1 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0
c o u ld

A llie s
th an

of

put

(w h ic h

th is .

th e

th e

F rench
th e

to

1923

d is p u te ,

s h o u ld
th a t
sh e

be

sh e

lik e

has

f in d

fille d

an

w ith

c h e a te d

h er

of

th e

is £ 3 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 .
to o

h ig h

not

cost

to o

th e
and

th is

p e r io d

to

In

ord er

by

of

is

and

th e

M c­

£ 1 ,2 9 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0
fig u r e ,

a llo w ­

to a la t e r d a te .

th is ,

one

or

T h ere

tw o

G erm an y’s

ite m s ,

p r e -w a r

h e r w a r lo a n s

cou rse o f ev en ts,

of

an
th e

W a s h in g to n ,

my

r e g a r d in g

lo s s

reach

o p e n in g

M o u lto n

w ith

up

d is c h a r g e

to

b e fo r e

w r ite r s

to

su r­

pou n ds,

agrees

by

to
and

b illio n

E c o n o m ic s

us

G erm an y

a r m is tic e

th e se

of

to

o b lig a t io n

a

Pay,

v a lu e le s s

pounds

v a lu e
in

“ good

th a t

th ro w n

and

her

w ill ”

e n o r m o u s ly
we

F rench
fa c ts,

charges
her

is

on

can

and

in

p e o p le in
broad

th in g
th a t

c r e d ito r s .

w ar

her

paym ent

of

fo u r

fo r e ig n

fo r e ig n

in v e st­

G erm an

e q u iv a le n t

a fte r

p r o s p e r ity

th a t

fo r

h er

th e

th e

Judge

her

rem em ber

th e
of

e ffo r t
of

th e

ev en t,

th e

by

G erm an

1873.

th a t

and

T h ese

of

th e

G erm an y

h is to r y

b u lk

th a t

r e la tiv e

1919,

on

by

we

in

th e

o u tlin e s

of

c e r ta in

G erm an y

lia b ilit ie s ,

If

th an

and

th e
in

b urd en

resou rces

e a s ily

fo r

F ran ce

c le a r

m ore

w e a lth

th e

real

a n o th e r

it

and

G erm an y

W ar.

p r e v io u s

in ta c t,

th e

a

e x h a u s tin g

w ay

had

m oney
and

re p re se n ts

m ost

one

on

of

1871

F r a n c o -G e r m a n

o u tr a g e o u s

evaded

th e

e s tim a te

p r o b a b ly

of

a d d itio n

th e

in d e e d

th e

her

s in c e

ap pears

is

th e

in

to

en orm ou s

in

a lm o s t

th e se

and

lo s s .

her

c a lc u la tio n

b etw ee n

F ran ce

th e

as

abroad

o r g a n iz a tio n .

th e

e ffe c ts

and
of

it is

has

of

c a lc u la t io n s

In

d o u b le

re p re se n te d

fa c e

to

a lm o s t

m y

an

of

in

bur­

d im in is h e d

fin a n c ia l

exceeded

In s titu te

w h ic h

chan ge

F ran ce

th e

in d e m n ity ,

th e

but

£ 1 ,3 0 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 .

ren d ered

and

lo s t

G erm an

£ 6 5 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 — a n d

and

d a te

has

e s tim a te

been

fo u g h t

to

have

G erm an y,

p e r io d

liq u id a te d

th e

C a p a c ity

to ta l.

a fte r

c o m p a r a tiv e

In

th e

th is

th e

d iffe r e n c e s

th a n

w hereas

has

th a t

had

m ade

I carry

been

of

£ 5 8 5 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 — T a r d ie u

v a lu e ,

lia b ilit ie s

Ruhr

has

by

p o p u la tio n

had

and

pay

I

course,

fo r

and

m e n ts

and

assu m e,

m easu re

I th in k ,

v a lu e

ite m

is
at

p r o p e r ty

reach es

1922,

th e

have

had

p e o p le in

b u ilt

c a p ita l

n et

th e

net

to

R u s s ia , T u r k e y , a n d A u s t r ia -H u n g a r y , a n d

m ore

G erm an y

th e

sh e

£ 1 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0

head

y ears

m er­

up

£ 2 0 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0

in s tr u c tiv e

G erm an

30,

c o n n e c tio n s

and

fig u r e

th e

of

a

The

S ta te s),

th is

G o v e rn m en t’s

abroad

p resen t

b e tw e e n

G e r m a n y ’s

som e

of

A llo w in g
w e a lth

th e

o p in io n

c o r r e s p o n d in g

m ake

Is

w h o le

pays

on

w ere

n a m e ly ,

tre a ty

of

fig u r e

th e fa c t th a t

her

th e

p u b lis h e d

h ow ever,

th e re

of

h er

su m s

S e p te m b e r

fo r

are,

m in e s , a n d

p la c e d

th e

to

on

m in e s

to n

fo r

on

per

it

G erm an

been

e x te n t

a p p lie d

t h e ir

le n t

th e

th e

th a t

U n ite d
to

c le a r ly

d u r in g

be

fro m

w o r k in g

have
th is

a llie s — o r

th e

apart

to

lia b ilit ie s

can

in

of

p r e -w a r v a lu e .

tre a ty

v o lu m e ,

la t e ly

C.

up

of

m eet

e s tim a te ,

to

v a lu a tio n

The

th e

v a lu e

has

as

e x te n t

p r e v io u s ly

h er

th o u g h

h ig h e r,

v a lu e

o f its

th e

m in e s

th e

(a s

c a p ita l,

liq u id a te d

lit tle

am

th e

d e b ts,

Saar

£ 3 9 5 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 — a s

th e

of

as

of

I

b a s is

lia b ilit ie s .

fo rm e r

th e ir

e m e r g e n c ie s ,

la r g e .

o c c u p a tio n

s tr ik in g — th e
b etw ee n

d e liv e r ie s

tre a ty .

fro m

if w e

th e

w h ic h

e x a g g e r a tio n s ,
th e

e q u ip ­

m easu re

m o n th .

been

of

in v e s t m e n ts in

in te r e s t

th e

th a n

by

d is tin c t

in d u s tr ia l

th a n

re p re se n t its

th e

G u ir e ,

to

I
to

under

ren d er
d a te

up.

e ffo rts

re la te

c r o s s -e x a m in a tio n ,

to

term s
as

of

su m

her

v a lu a b le

a

a p p lie d

p a y m e n ts

m u ch

th e
to

m easure

b ank rup t

v a lu a tio n .

s a m e a u th o r ity

R epara­

a

o b je c ts — o f

o b n o x io u s

pay

p o s s ib le

G erm an y

n a tu r a lly

th e

th e

s h ip p in g v a lu a t io n

p la c e d

th e

of

of

th e y

s h ip p in g

o u tr a g e o u s

v a lu a t io n

a ll

as

tre a ty

of

C o m m is s io n

of

in

not

th e

to

th e

s u r p lu s

G erm an y’s

of

of

n il.

a lto g e th e r .

and

to

rep re­

is

p roceed s

d is c h a r g e
any

d e b ts.
it

c o n fid e n c e

The

o n ly

le ss

On

in

liq u id a te d

w h ile

5.

liq u id a tio n

th e

d im in is h in g

p ro p e rty

in te n d e d

s in c e

c la im e d

d a te

th e

e x p la in e d ,

e q u ip m e n t in to
one

of

th e

rem oved

u n d o u b te d ly

d e b ts

and

s e iz e d

p r iv a te

but

£ 1 0 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0

p r iv a te

a

Sum s

c o lo n ie s

and

of

m u ch

le s s

(1 )

s h ip s

s e iz e d

4, and

N e v e r t h e le s s ,

a g a in s t

a

3.

tre a ty

th e

p r o p e r ty

G erm an

c h a r a c te r .

of

p art

fo r e ig n

it

2,

tre a ty

am ount

very

th e

e s tim a te d

h ig h

re­

G erm an y

A ls a c e -L o r r a in e ;

a llie d

v a lu e

G erm an y

th e

in

a m o u n t o f c a s h p a y m e n t s u n d e r th e c le a r in g -h o u s e s y s t e m

it

su r­

be

o f th e

none

G erm an

d is c h a r g e

arou nd

to

p r ic e

th u s

as

are

of

and

ten d en cy

th a t

th e

le ss

be

of

h ow ever,

per

th a t

in ,

m ake

fig u r e s

v a lu e

can
on

term s

£ 8 5 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 ,

w ith o u t

but

on

con cern .

reserves

in

G erm an

lo s s

in
a

th is

a lm o s t

th e

c a lle d

in d e p e n d e n t

correct

say

are,

th a t

but

d e b ts

at

g o in g

fa c t

th e A llie s , w h ic h

term s

its

a

a r m is tic e

m a r in e ,

c o a l,

v a r io u s

th is

are

(2 )

p ro p e rty

ite m s

a p p lie d

and

s o ld

to

d iffe r e n c e

to

as

The

of

net

p r iv a te

c a p a c ity

on

C o m m is s io n ,

and

th e

been

th e

U pper

of

th e fo llo w in g :

(5 )

m arket

of

th r o w n

been

p la c e d

a r m is tic e

can

not

se q u e stra te d

den,

a

th e
but

s p e c ific

is

d iffe r e n t

n a tio n a ls — u n d e r

have

ow n ers

of

been

liq u id

£ 3 5 ,0 0 0 .0 0 0 ;

tim e s

th e

d e s tr u c tio n

v a lu a t io n

th e

fo r

c ritic is m

u nder

th e

are

not

been

G overnm en t

a

7

have

its

ite m s,

d is c h a r g e

has

ite m

som ew h ere

th e

her

c u r r e n t a t th e d a te o f d e liv e r y

th e

th e

G erm an

G erm an y

cases

at

su rren d er

c la im e d — t h a t

c r e d ite d
cost

th e

th ro w n

at

th e se

of

G erm an y

e s tim a te

and

ow n

of

th ro w n

p ro p e rty

te r r ito r y ;

fir s t

fig u r e ,

hag

R e p a r a tio n

concern

d iffe r e n c e

and

v a lu e s

by

by

p a r tic u la r ly

fo r

s u ffic ie n t

in te r e s t b ill

fo r

h er

in

p r ic e

th in k

under

S ta te

p r iv a te

by

th e

6

burden

a sse ts

s u p p lie d

p r o p e r ty

b urd en

a llie s ;

(8 )

r e p la c e m e n t

to

rep resen t

n et

I

C o m m is ­

goods

G erm an y

r e p a r a tio n ,

fo r m e r

G erm an y

put

th e

im p o r ta n t

G erm an

G erm an y’s

a lm o s t

ite m s

v a lu a tio n

w id e

th a t

is

a llo w in g

bu rd en

can

R e p a r a tio n

th e

curren t

assessed

th e

by

m e r c a n tile

th re e

be

In d e e d ,

The

F ran ce

w e ll illu s t r a t e s

w h ile

th e

th e

of

not

seem

lia b ilit y a s
w eeks,

p a rts

th e

m a r in e

th ey

of

to

I

of

Ite m s

and

m arket

m o s t im p o r ta n t a re

G erm an

r e lia b le

d a ta

a p p lie d

to

th e

w h ic h

th e

in v a d e d

p a y m e n ts

no

ite m s

her

in

(6 )

lo s s

accu racy

or

R e p a r a tio n

R e p a r a tio n

g o in g

to

n o te

p a r tia l

been

th e re a b o u ts)

th e

th e G e rm a n s,

w ith

w o u ld

Two

th e

of

of

R e p a r a tio n

ceded

w o r ld

v a lu e

e s tim a te

s itu a te d ;

th e

v a lu e

real

know

accou nt
Is

by

fro m

(7 )

fa c e

sen ts

th e
cash

£ 7 3 5 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 .

to w a rd

th e re

p o rts;

abroad;

th e

real

to ta l,

The

“ r e s titu tio n s ”

enem y

fo r

th e

c e r ta in

a ll

G erm an y

G erm an y

The

fo r

w ith

£ 7 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 ;

a d d itio n

G erm an y.

p r o p e r ty

th e se

of

v a lu e

by

S ile s ia ),

c o n v e r t o r g a n iz e d

m a r in e

are

a

in

to

th e se

on

to

at

S ta te

v a lu a t io n , £ 5 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 ,

G erm an

to

as

it

b u s in e s s

th e

d is c r e p a n c y

The

t h a t th e d is c r e p a n c y

s lu m p

becau se

to

by

u p on w h e th e r th e b oom
or

fo r

o th e r

C o m m is s io n ,

p a rty ,

w o rth

o b je c t s ,

b etw ee n

s h ip p in g

(o r

assessed

th a n

th is

b etw ee n

m a r in e .

m e r c a n tile

be ad d ed

S ta te

p r e sc r ib e d

£ 7 9 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 ,

e ith e r

is

th is

and

p la c e d

c la im e d

G erm an

of

G erm an y.

d e fin ite

d iffe r e n c e

of

G erm an y,

c a lc u la te d

£ 1 2 7 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 ;

m ore

e sse n tia l

but

upon

m e r c a n tile

and

b etw ee n

U pper

c o n s is te n t

V e r s a ille s .

o f o u tp u t

of

R epa­

com e

ow ed

(4 )

o c c u p a tio n ,

c o n s e r v a tiv e

coun t

charge

C r e d its

£ 3 9 1 .0 0 0 ,0 0 0 ;

h ead s.

now

To
is

c h a r a c te r is tic s — w e

and

by

been

c o n s id e r s w h a t i t is w o r th

m ost

ir o n ,

of

v a lu e

r e p a r a tio n

had

£ 2 0 .0 0 0 ,0 0 0 ;

a d o p te d .

q u ite

w h a te v e r it to u ch e s
one

th e

sev era l

R e p a r a tio n

to

d iffe r e n c e

th ro w n

a r m ie s

a

d is c h a r g e

a d d itio n a l

£ 1 7 5 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 ,

fa ith

p ro p e rty

th e

scrap

th e

fo r m u la

(h a t

v a lu a tio n ,

P art

e q u a lly

m ig h t

v a lu e

b urd en

bad

th e

C o m m is s io n

o th e r

of

fo llo w s :

a d d itio n

th e se

W e

w o rth

th e

in d is p u ta b le

a ls o

C o m m is s io n ,

v a lu a tio n

v a lu a tio n

c o n s id e r s w h a t

in

th e

are

In c lu d in g

C o m m is s io n .

im p u tin g

p r in c ip le s

th e

in

as

under

as

a d v a n c e s ),

£ 1 5 4 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 ;

garded

£ 2 4 1 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 .

G erm an

R e p a r a tio n

by

and

v a lu a tio n ,

G erm an

v a lu a tio n ,

to

a d ju s t m e n t s

d e liv e r ie s

d iffe r e n c e

v a lu a t io n ,

to ta l

th e

se r v ic e s

e s tim a te d

S a a r m in e s , G e r m a n

R e p a r a tio n

£ 5 9 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 ;

G erm an y
On

and

c r e d it

m ost

£ 7 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0

w id e

(n o t

to

F u rth e rm o re ,

m ake

and

T h ere

£ 2 9 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 ,

p r o p e r ty

£ 2 7 5 .0 0 0 ,0 0 0 ,

to ta l,

th e n
coal

£ 5 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 ;

£ 7 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 :

in to

£ 1 2 7 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 ;

fu r n is h e d

reckoned

of

G overn m en t

C o m m is s io n

v a lu a tio n ,

we

fa ll

£ 1 8 9 ,-

goods

and

th e

k in d ,

re tu rn e d

S ile s ia ,

th e se

in ste a d

C o m m is s io n a s f o l l o w s : T h e
R e p a r a tio n

If

of

th a t

is

been

of

rep resen t

T h ese
in

a g r e e m e n t).

and

e s tim a te

it e m s

c r e d ite d .

th e re

w as

books

w h ic h

d e liv e r ie s

c o n tr o l.

la r g e s t

v a lu e

p r ic e

and

c o m p u ta tio n .

Spa

U pper

th e

w ill be £ 5 1 1 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 .

The

th e

m ark et

have

Ite m s

fo r

v a lu e .

coke.

w o r ld

tre a ty ,

next

real

th e

£ 5 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 .

in

te r r ito r ie s ,

of

of

h er

g o ld ;

have

to

area

ceded

v a r io u s it e m s , th e t o t a l s u m
Let

any

£ 1 9 ,6 0 0 ,0 0 0

c o m m is s io n s

about

b e lo w

on

a b o u t £ 8 5 ,0 0 0 .0 0 0

has

in

to

In d is p u ta b le

ceded

£ 3 5 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0

th e

p r o p e r ty
th in k ,

are

e ffo r t

advances

w o rth

c r e d ite d

£ 9 5 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0

O f th e se

of

o c c u p a tio n

h er

p r o p e r ty

h an d , curren cy
at

of

su m s
w h ic h

C ash,

S ta te

£ 4 1 1 .0 0 0 ,0 0 0 .
th e

th e

C o m m is s io n ,

lo w e s t

th ree

w ith

Is

Spa

a r m ie s

S ile s ia ,

by
l^ e t

ta b le

(le s s

do

th e

m easu re

s io n

th e

C o m m is s io n .
w bat

Our

th e

tre a ty

fig u r e

su m

of

im p o s e d

ite m s

accou nt

lo w e r

th e

term s

c o u n tin g

dear

by

G erm an y

th a n

lia b ilitie s ,
th e

ju s t

a

th e

s a c r ific e s

ite m s

r e p a r a tio n

cost

c o n s id e r in g

s e e k in g

th e

p r e sc r ib e d

th e

g re a te r

under

C e r ta in

fr o m

G erm an y

u n d o u b te d ly

R e p a r a tio n

we

cost

th e

Thus

is

c o u n ts

a lt o g e t h e r

p u rp oses

c e r ta in

w h ic h

o f r e p a r a tio n s .

th ey

w h ile

th e

b o o k s o f th e

th is

e x c lu d e d

e x c lu d e d ,

c u la t in g

of

d is c h a r g e

are

r e p a r a tio n s ,
are

p o r tio n

th e

has

th a t

w h ic h

are

s e c tio n s
p a id

by

sta te m e n ts

next

b lu ff
and

not

o f th e

and

to

open
p ress

n o th in g ,
c h ic a n e r y

s u g g e s tio n s

are

u n tru e.

in

J ohn M aynard K kyn » » ,

L ondon

(b y

cable).

a a o o a a iv N O is s a a o N o o
CONGRESSIONAL RECORD,
E X H IB IT
M ilita ry

c a s u a ltie s,

z\
43

E X H IB IT X I X .

X V II.

W o r ld

W ar,

e s tim a te d .

C o st o f W o r ld

[Casualties, by number.]

Total
mobilized
forces.

Countries.

Total
casualties
Prisoners
in per
Total
Wound
and
cent of
casualties. missing. casualties.
total mo­
bilized.

Killed
and
died.’

ALLIES.

4.950.000 2,500,000
537.000
4.266.000
2,090,212
191,652
600.000
947.000
4,500
4234,300
907
3
80,000
120.000
152,958
133,148
34,659
44,686
1,000
21,000
12,318
13,751
7,000
10,000

12,000.000 1, 700,000
8,410; 000 1,357,800
8,904,4G
7
908,371
5.615.000
650,000
4.355.000 4 126,000
800,000
300
750.000
335,706
707,343
45,000
267.000
13,716
230.000
6,000
100.000
7,222
50,000
3,000

Russia.......
France 2.. .
British Empire2.
Italy....................
United States3. .
Japan. . . . . .
Rumania...
Serbia.........
Belgium___
Greece.........
Portugal___
Montenegro

76.3
73.3
35.8
39.1
8.0
.2
71.4
46.8
34.9
11.7
33.3
40.0

9.150.000
6,160,800
3,190,235
2.197.000
350,300
1,210
535,706
331,106
93,061
27.000
33,291
20.000

52.3

42,188.810 5,152,115 12,831,004 4,121,090 4 22,089,709

Total.

W ar

to p r in c ip a l b e llig e r e n ts , e s tim a te d .

& ross
e x p e n d itu r e s
in c lu d e
in te r g o v e r n m e n t
lo a n s
to ta lin g
$ 2 2 ,0 1 2 ,2 1 4 ,1 2 5 , w h ic h , i f s u b tr a c te d t o a v o id d u p lic a tio n , m a k e n e t
e x p e n d itu r e s o f $ 1 8 6 ,2 3 3 ,6 3 7 ,0 9 7 .

[Source of information: War Costs and Their Financing.]
Country.

Great Britain.................................. .
United States...................................
France...............................................
Russia in Europe..........................
Italy................. .................................
Canada...............................................
Rumania...........................................
Australia..........................................’
Belgium.............................................
India..................................................
Serbia............................................... ’
New Zealand....................................
South African Union......................
Greece.................................................
Crown colonies and dependencies.
Japan.................................................
Other Entente Allies......................

C E N TR AL PO W ­
E RS.

Per cent
of total.

Cost.

544,029 Oil, 868
32,080 266,968
25, S12; 782,800

21.1
15.4
12.4

22,593; 950.000

10.8

5.9

12,313, 998.000
1,665 576,032
1 , 600; 000,000

.8

.8
.7

1,423: 20S, 040
1 , 154: 467,914
601:279.000
399: 400.000
37s; 7.50.000
300, 000,000
270, 000,000
125, 000,000
40, 000,000
500, 000,000

.6
.3

.2
.2

.1

.1

.1
.2

Total.

145,287,690,622

69.7

Germany.............
Austro-Hungary.
Turkey................
Bulgaria...............

11,000,000 1, 773,700
7.800.000 1,200,000
2.850.000
325,000
1.200.000
87,500

4,216,058 1,152,800
3,620,000 2,200,000
250,000
400,000
27,029
152,390

7,142,558
7,020,000
975,000
266,919

64.9
90.0
34.2
22.2

Germany
iv...........
Austria-Hungary.
Turkey.
Bulgaria................

40,150,000,000
20,622,960,600
1,430,000,000
815,200,000

16.3

Total.

22,850,000 3,386,200

8,388,448 3,629,829

15,404,477

67.4

Total...........

63,018,160,600

30.3

65,038,810 8, 538,315 21,219,452 7,750,919

37,494,186

57.6

Grand total.

208,305,851,222

100.0

Grand total.

1 Includes deaths from all causes.
2 Official figures.

s Includes marines serving with the Army.
4Includes “ died of wounds” (14,500).

E X H IB IT
B a ttle

d ea th s,

U n ite d

S ta te s

A rm y,

X V III.
W o r ld

E X H IB IT
B a y e r is c h e
sp ru ch .

W a r , r e v ise d

to

M ay

1 , 1922.

D r.

D o c u m e n ts

D o c u m e n ts R e la tin g to

P r e -w a r

Aggregate.

D ip lo m a c y .

R e la tin g

1919.

E.

D.

to

13.204 ’ 51,481
302
1,148

48,040

36,751

13,506

Total.

Killed in
action.

Died of
wounds.

Total.

Died of
wounds.

Killed in
action.

Total.

Died of
wounds.

Killed in
action.

35,905
846

F.

F ran ce

E x p la in .

T a lio n is .

1.913
301

T otal.. 1,617

600

2,217

34,548 12,646
258
586

R e v is io n

of

th e

DIVISIO
N
2nd.............
1st...............
3rd..............
82nd...........
4th..............
28th.............
42nd...........
2 6 th ....'....
5th..............
77th.............
27th.............
30th.............
79th.............
78th............
90th.............
89th............
91st.............
82nd...........
35th.............
80th.............
29th.............
87th.............
33d..............
36th.............
93d..............
7th..............
81st.............
85th............
41st.............
92d........
83d..............
8th..............
40th.............
86th.............
89th.............
76th.............
84th.............
88th.............
31st.............
8th..............
87th.............
34th.............
3Sth.............
Total

12,906

w o rth ,

41
50
29
41
32
43
30
23
25
26
11
16
18
17
16
17
17
17
18
14
6
9
10
5
8
2
2
5
3
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0

1,357

556

133
193
129
131
99
109
88
86
89
94
69
62
57
49
49
51
56
56
48
53
35
28]
37
26
30
9
14
9
5
8
3
4
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
1,913

1,796
3,499
2,466
2,075
2,043
2,026
1,933
1,471
1,519
1,371
1 362
l ’ 167
1,079
1 056
l'052
906
1,055
934
972
787
748
726
653
446
435
199
171
128
109
113
72
33
43
33
17
18
19
13
1
2
0
0
0

712
1,223
741
749
717
661
748
676
523
591
390
404
361
379
376
468
310
403
279
381
274
286
285
128
121
86
63
40
56
47
25
47
27
12
16
11
11
10
5
2
3
1
0

2,508
4,722
3,207
2,824
2,760
2 ,6S7
2,681
2,147
2,0-42
1,962
1,752
1,571
1,440
1,435
l'42S
1,374
1,365
1,337
1,251
1,108
1,022
1,012
938
574
556
285
234
168
165
160
97
80
70
45
33
29
30
23
6
4
3
1
0

1,888
3,642
2,566
2,165
2,110
2,092
1.991
1,534
1,583
1,439
1,420
1,213
1,11S
1 088
l ’ 085
940
1,091
973
1,002
826
777
745
680
467
457
206
1*3
132
111
120
74
36
44
33
17
19
19
13
1
2
0
0
0

753 ’ 5,013
1,273
4,915
770
3,336
790
2,955
749
2,859
704
2,796
778
2,769
699
2,233
548
2,131
617
2,056
1 821
401
420
1,633
379
1,497
396
1 484
392
1,477
485
1,425
327
1,421
420
1,393
297
1,299
395
1,221
280
1,057
295
1,040
295
975
133
600
129
586
88
294
65
248
45
177
170
59
48
168
26
100
84
48
27
71
12
45
16
33
30
11
30
11
24
11
5
6
5
3
3
3
1
1
0
0

34,548

12,648

47,196

35,905

13,204 >51,481

E n te n te

7 0 8 7 6 — 11




V o lu m e

I.

V o lu m e I I .

J.

M .

U n w in ,

&
C o .,

London

B a ltim o r e .

K eyn es;

H a rco u rt,

B race

&

C o .,

W o r ld

W ar.

B e t h m a n n -H o lw e g ; T h o r n to n ,

B u tte r-

to

Pay.

M o u lto n

&

M c G u ir e ;

M c G r a w -H ills

Y ork.

D ip lo m a c y

and

th e

W o r ld ,

d e S ie b e r t

K n ic k e r b o c k e r P r e s s ,

Y ork .

Ten

Y ears

o f S e c re t D ip lo m a c y

E.

D . M o r e l ; N a tio n a l L a b o r

P ress,

M a n ch e ste r.
The

F a ls ific a tio n

G eorge
The
B.

W .

A lle n

&

o f th e

U n w in ,

F a ls ific a tio n

N ew

R u s s ia n

of

O ran ge

B ook.

B aron

von

R om berg;

O ran ge

B ook.

B aron

von

R om berg;

London.

o f th e

H u eb sch , N ew

R e c o lle c tio n s
C o .,

R u s s ia n

Y ork.

a

F o r e ig n

M in is te r .

Iz v o ls k i

D o u b le d a y ,

Page

&

Y ork.

H is to r y

o f th e W o r ld

W ar.

F r a n c is

A . M a r c h ; John

C. W in s to n

C o .,

P h ila d e lp h ia .
Un

L iv r e

L ib r a ir ie
Les

N o ir

du

(R u ssia n

T r a v a il,

Q u e s tio n

A r c h iv e s ),

la

G u erre.

su r

P o in c a r e a -t -il

v o u lu

la

gu erre?

C.

M arch an d;

D o c u m e n ts

d e la

gu erre.

D u p in .

de T ou ry.

g u e r r e m o n d ia le .

G e n e s is o f W a r .

r e sp o n sa b le s d e la

G erm an

R ene

D e M o n tg e la s .

le s R e s p o n s a b ilit e s

C o m m e n t s ’ e s t d e c la n c h C e l a

Les

v o lu m e s .

D e M a r t ia l.

d e s R e s p o n s a b ilite s .

C o n s id e r a tio n s

D ip lo m a tic

2

P a r is.

R e s p o n s a b ilite s d e

S u r la

K a u tsk y .

E . D . M o r e l.

G u erre.

A.

R e la tiv e

to

P e v e t.

th e

O r ig in

of

th e

W ar,

4

v o lu m e s .

W ar,

8

v o lu m e s .

Jordan.
A u s tr ia n

O ffic ia l

D o c u m e n ts,

Secret
of

R e v e a le d .

D o c u m e n ts

R u s s ia .

E m ile

D ip lo m a tic
th e

W ar.

The

D ip lo m a tic

A c tio n

L o o k in g

to

p u b lic a tio n .

D ip lo m a c y

D.

M o r e l.

A r c h iv e s

o f th e

M in is t e r o f F o r e ig n

A ffa ir s

L a lo y .

D o c u m e n ts,

de

M y th

E.

o f th e

H is to r y

of

th e

P o lic y

of

th e

E n te n te

B e fo r o

S ie b e r t.

o f a G u ilty

N a tio n .

E c o n o m ic I m p e r ia lis m .

N ock ;

Leonard

B.

W .

H u eb sch , N ew

Y ork .

W o lf ; H a rc o u rt, B race & H ow e, N ew

Y ork.
The
B race

C au ses
&

T ru th
H ow

’ Includes 2,372 Marine Corps personnel, but does not include Navy personnel.

M c G in le y

T re a ty .

C a p a c ity

C o ., N e w

N ew

92
143
100
90
67
66
58
63
64
6S
5S
46
39
32
33
34
39
39
30
39
29
19
27
21
22
7
12
4
2
7
2
3
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

W ar.

London.

G erm an y’s

52,629

W o r ld

Y ork .

Book

35,134

Y e r s a i l l e r s c h u ld -

S e y m o u r C ock s.

H ills ; F le e t,

R e fle c tio n s o f t h e

556
44

th e

B n u s m a n ; A lle n

Lex

47,196
844

T r e a tie s .

Let

Divisions. . 1,357
260
Other units

zum

M o r e l.

Secret

A

und

th e W o r ld W a r .

The

N ew

.4

P . D ir r .

O ffic ia l G e r m a n

Enlisted.

.7

X X .

k r ie g s a u s b ru c h

O ffic ia l G e r m a n

[Total battle deaths.]
Commissioned.

d o k u m e n te zu m

9.9

Y ork.

H ow e,
and

of

In te r n a tio n a l

N ew

th e W a r .

D ip lo m a ts

W ar.

G.

L.

D ic k n s o n ;

H a rco u rt,

Y ork.

M ake

E. D.
W ar.

M o r e l.
F r a n c is

N e ils o n ;

B.

W .

H u ebsch ,

N ew

flS
l

MV

44

CONGRESSIONAL RECORD.

B e lg iu m

and

th e

E uropean

C r is is .

O ffic ia l

B . S.

rep o rts;

M it le r

&

iS o n s , B e r l i n .
The

L iv in g

A ge.

D ip lo m a tic
e t c ., 2

A u g u st,

D o c u m e n ts

v o lu m e s .

S co tt.

S e p te m b e r, O c to b e r,

R e la tin g

Jos.

to

th e

of

E urop ean

W ar,

W .

XXI.

E X H IB IT

CO ND ITIO N S

1922.

O u tb r e a k

OF T H E A R M IS T IC E F IX E D BY T H E

AEDIKS

B
Y

AND ACCEPTED

GERM AN REPU BLIC.

The President of the United States, in his speech of January
8, 1918, proposed the conditions upon which world peace might
be assured. They included certain 14 points, as follows:
1.

O pen

co v en a n ts

2.

F reedom

of

n a v ig a tio n

3.

R em oval

of

e c o n o m ic

4.

R e d u c tio n

of

o p e n ly

5.

Im p a r tia l

E v a c u a tio n

of

7.

E v a c u a tio n

and

8.

E v a c u a tio n

of

9.

a d ju s t m e n t

R e a d ju s tm e n t

F rench
of

fo r

I ta lia n

11.

E v a c u a tio n

and

accorded

access

h is to r ic a l

g u a r a n tie s
12.

of

lin e s

and

a

fr e e

tra d e.

R u s s ia .

w ith

u n lim ite d

r e s to r a tio n

b o u n d a r ie s
of

a lo n g

of

s o v e r e ig n ty .

sea ;

lin e s

of

and

in

B a lk a n

M o n te n e g ro ;

S ta te s

n a tio n a lit y ,

w ith

d e te r m in e d

in te rn a tio n a l

in te g r ity .

s o v e r e ig n ty

a u to n o m o u s,

m a in ta in e d ,

w ith

but

s u b je c t

D a r d a n e lle s

opened

n a tio n a litie s
under

to

be

in te r n a tio n a l

g u a r a n tie s .
13.

In d ep en d e n t

14.

A s s o c ia tio n

P o la n d
of

g u a ra n tee d ;

n a tio n s

in

a

access

le a g u e

of

to

a ll

sea .

n a tio n s .

Among statements of principles presented by President Wil­
son to be accepted are the follow ing:
It

w ill

be

our

w is h

and

p urp ose

th a t

th e

processes

th e y a r e b e g u n , s h a ll be a b s o lu te ly o p e n , a n d t h a t th e y
p e r m it

h e n c e fo r th

W e

w is h

su ch

as

w ar,

th e

w h ic h

W e
th is

can

no

tin c tio n
record
b lo c k

or

je a lo u s y

in

any

w ay

h er,

e ith e r

of

th e

W e

w is h

h er

th e

w o r ld ,

o n ly

th e

in

to

o f p a c ific

arm s

w hen

s h a ll in v o lv e an d

and

c h ie f

do

not

in flu e n c e

or

w ith

s ta b le

peace,

p r o v o c a tio n s

w o r ld

p la c e

in

of

w h ic h

su ch

as
to

to

n o th in g

W e

th e

her

her

do

liv e ,

or

not
of

to

w is h
tra d e,

o th e r p e a c e -lo v in g

la w

e q u a lity

and

am ong

fa ir

th e

in s te a d

d e a lin g .

p e o p le s

of

a

p la c e

of
of

m a stery .
N e ith e r
fic a tio n

do

of

we

her

and

p a r t,
sp ea k

ta ry

p a rty

W e

to

s h o u ld

fo r

I

m en

w h ose

now

s u r e ly

o u tlin e d .

p r in c ip le

one

is

a

act upon
th ey

th e y

no

are

It

th e ir

p art

ju s tic e

c ip le

in

is

to

a lte r a tio n

n ecessary, w e
in te llig e n t
her

te rm s

m u st

w ith

speak

m a jo r ity

to o

or

to

or

fo r

fo r

th e y

on

be

fo u n d a tio n

s t a n d '.

The

d ev o te

th e ir

of

to

stro n g
no

to

liv e s ,

to

term s

or

part
of

m ili­

of

any

t h e w h o le
a ll

p e o p le s

o f lib e r ty

and

w eak.

U n le s s

o f th e

stru c tu r e

th e

U n ite d

th e v in d ic a tio n
th e ir

on

w hen

th e

a d m it

ju s tic e

equal

p e o p le

sa y ,

her

d o m in io n .

c o n crete

p r in c ip le
liv e

m o d i­

fr a n k ly

d e a lin g

sp ok esm en

is im p e r ia l

o th e r p r in c ip le ; a n d

read y

any

R e ic h s ta g

th e

r ig h t

o f its

can.

her

e v id e n t p r in c ip le r u n s t h r o u g h

a n o th e r , w h e th e r

m ade

in te r n a tio n a l

and

is
any

creed

An

to

w hom
th e

th e

have

it
to

know

sp oken

w ith

c o u ld

But

w h e th e r

u s,

n a tio n a litie s ,

sa fe ty

su ggest

p r e lim in a r y

d o u b t o r q u e s tio n .

program
and

a

we

and

have

fu r th e r

as

th a t

th e y

to

in s titu tio n s .

n ecessary

our

p resu m e

honor,

of

and

th is
of

.S t a t e s

th is

p r in ­

possess.

e v e r y th in g

On July 4, 1918, the President of the United States declared
the issue of the war to be one between democracy and autocracy
and that the settlement must be final, and made the following
declarations:
1.

The

r a t e ly ,

d e s tr u c tio n

s e c r e tly ,

w o r ld ; or,
t io n
2.

to

not

e c o n o m ic

b a s is

of

a te ly

concern ed, and

v a n ta g e

th e

of

fr e e

any

s e ttle m e n t fo r
8.
each

its
be

a r b itr a r y

ow n

p r e s e n t ly

of

every

o th e r

by




11

an yw h ere

c h o ic e

d is tu r b

d e stro y e d , a t

a cce p ta n ce
not

o th e r

th e

q u e s tio n ,

a rra n g em e n t,
of

upon

n a tio n

sa k e o f Its

th e

sam e

or o f

th a t

th a t

th e

th e

can

p eace

sep a ­
of

th e

le a s t

its

red u c­

te r r ito r y

or

sover­

w h e th e r

of

p o litic a l

r e la tio n s h ip ,

s e ttle m e n t

th e b a s is o f th e
of
ow n

T h e c o n s e n t o f a ll n a tio n s

76876—

pow er

s in g le

im p o t e n c e .

s e ttle m e n t

of

any

of

can

it

v ir tu a l

The

e ig n ty ,

if

#f

and

to

p e o p le

w h ic h

e x te r io r

and

th e

p e o p le

upon

m ay

d e s ir e

a

th e

im m e d i­

m a t e r ia l in te r e s t o r

in flu e n c e

be govern ed

p r in c ip le s o f h o n o r

by

nations and peoples of the world secure
the German autocracy represents. It Is a
until it is won can men everywhere live
breathe freely while they go about their
governments are their servants and not

ad­

d iffe r e n t

or m a stery .

In t h e i r c o n d u c t t o w a r d
o f resp ect

fo r

1. The impartial justice meted out must involve no discrimination
between those to whom we wish to be just and those to whom we do
not wish to be just.
It must be a justice that plays no favorites and
knows no standard but the equal rights of the several peoples concerned.
2. No special or separate interest of any single nation, or any group
of nations, can be made the basis of any part of the settlement which
is not consistent with the common interest of all.
8. There can be no leagues or alliances or special covenants or under­
standings within the general or common family o f the League of
Nations.
4. There can be no special selfish economic combinations within
the league, and no employment of any form of economic boycott or
exclusion, except as the power of economic penalty by exclusion from
the markets of the world may be vested in the League of Nations itself
as a means of discipline and control.
5. A ll International agreements and treaties of every kind must be
made known in their entirety to the rest of the world. It is further
stated that the United States will enter into no special arrangements
or understandings with particular nations.

d is ­

a rra n g em e n ts

and

in

of

m ade

have
in ju r e

p ow er.

us and

we

is

a c h ie v e m e n t

w is h

or

o f ju s tic e

th e re

no

h o s tile

h e r s e lf w ith

a

and

h er

e n te r p r is e

W e

co v en a n ts

accept

new

peace,

k in d .

ju s t

g rea tn ess,

W e

le g itim a te

w ith

w o r ld

a

grudge

if sh e is w illin g to a s s o c ia te
n a tio n s

any

th e

it.

e n v ia b le .

h er

d e s ir e

r e m o v in g

G erm an

or

and

and

by

of

of

rem oves.

of

le a r n in g

fig h t

to

p r e v a il

im p a ir s

b r ig h t

u n d e r s ta n d in g s

o n ly

program

th a t

of

very

to

secu red

th is

have

secret

r ig h t

be

program

no

It is a war to make the
against every such power as
war of emancipation. Not
free from constant fear or
daily tasks and know that
their masters.

On September 27 President Wilson, in opening the Liberty
loan drive, declared the following five principles:

n a tio n a lity .

o f R u m a n ia , S e r b ia , a n d

r e la tio n s

In his Labor Day message of September 1 President Wilson
said:

A ls a c e -L o r r a in e .

A u s t r ia -H u n g a r y .

a lle g ia n c e

te r r ito r ia l

T u r k is h

fr e e

of

of

c la im s .

o f B e lg iu m

r e s to r a tio n
to

d ip lo m a c y .

sea s.

c o lo n ia l

te r r ito r y ;

p e o p le s

open

e q u a lity

te r r ito r y ;

r e s to r a tio n

A u to n o m y

th e

and

gu a ra n teed .

of

R u ssia n

10.

upon

upon

a t,

b a r r ie r s ;

a rm a m e n ts

6.

S e r b ia

a r r iv e d

mon law o f civilized society that govern the Individual citizens of all
modern States In their relations with one another, to the end that all
promises and covenants may be sacredly observed, no private plots or
conspiracies hatched, no selfish injuries wrought with impunity, and a
mutual trust established upon the handsome foundations of a mutual
respect for right.
4 . The establishment, of an organization for peace which shall make
It certain that the combined power of free nations will check every
Invasion of right and serve to make peace and justice the more secure
by affording a definite tribunal of opinion to which all must submit,
nnd by which every international readjustment that can not be amicably
agreed upon by the people directly concerned shall be sanctioned.

th e cora-

It was known to the German Government that President Wil­
son spoke as the representative of the allied and associated
powers, and on October 4, 1918. Prince Maximilian, of Baden,
in notes transmitted to President Wilson by wireless, offered to
make peace on the basis of President Wilson’s address of Janu­
ary 8, 1918, and his later pronouncemeirts, and to conclude an
armistice, and said:
The German Government requests the President of the United States
of America to take a hand in the restoration of peace, acquaint all
belligerent states with this request, and invite them to send plenipoten­
tiaries for the purpose of opening negotiations. It accepts the program
set forth by the President of the United States in his message to Con­
gress of January 8, 1918, and in his later pronouncements, especially
his speech of September 27, as a basis for peace negotiations. W ith a
view to avoiding further bloodshed the German Government request*
the immediate conclusion of an armistice en land, on water, and in
the air.

The President replied desiring to know if the German Gov­
ernment spoke for the German people and demanded a with­
drawal o f German troops from allied territory as an evidence
of good faith.
The Gevmans replied October 12, accepting in unqualified
manner the President’s proposals in the following language:
The German Government has accepted the terms laid down by President
W ilson in his address of January 8 and in his subsequent addresses on
the foundation of a permanent peace of justice. Consequently its object
In entering into discussions would be only to agree upon practical
details of the application o f these terms.
The German Government
believes that the Governments of the powers associated with the Gov­
ernment of the United States also take the position taken by President
W ilson in bis address. The German Government, in accordance with
the Austro-Hungarian Government, for the purpose of bringing about
an armistice, declares itself ready to comply with the propositions of
the President in regard to evacuation. The German Government sug­
gests that the President may occasion the meeting of a mixed commis­
sion for making the necessary arrangements concerning the evacuation.
The present German Government, which has undertaken the responsibil­
ity for this step toward peace, has been formed by conferences and In
agreement with the great majority of the Reichstag. The chancellor,
supported in all his actions by the will of the majority, speaks in the
name of the German Government and of the German people.

CONGRESSIONAL RECORD
On October 14 the President replied demanding the absolute
overthrow of the Kaiser and the house of Hohenzollern and the
cessation of illegal and inhumane practices.
The Germans replied on October 20, agreeing to the annihila­
tion of the Kaiser’s power and all the conditions, but protesting
the reproach of illegal and inhumane actions which they vigor­
ously disclaimed, as follow s:
T h e G erm an
In h u m a n e
th e re b y

G o v e rn m en t p ro te sts

a c tio n s

a g a in s t

d e s tr u c tio n s

m ade

th e

w ill

a g a in s t

G erm an

a lw a y s

f a r a s is p e r m it te d

a g a in s t th e

th e

G erm an

p e o p le .

For

th e

n ecessary,

be

reproach

la n d

and

th ey

by in t e r n a t io n a l la w .

and

o f ille g a l a n d
sea

c o v e r in g
are

fo r c e s

of

a

c a r r ie d

T h e G erm an

and

retrea t

o u t In

so

tro o p s a re u nd er

t h e m o s t s t r ic t in s tr u c t io n

to s p a r e p r iv a te p r o p e r ty a n d to e x e r c is e c a re

fo r

best

th e

occu r

p o p u la tio n

in

s p ite

G erm an

to

th e

o f th ese

G overnm en t

of

th e ir

in s tr u c tio n s

fu rth e r

d e n ie s

s h ip s h a s e v e r p u r p o s e ly d e s tr o y e d
G erm an
fa c ts

up

by

n eu tra l

g u ilty

th a t

W h ere

a r e b e in g

th e

G erm an

life b o a ts w ith

G o v e r n m e n t p r o p o s e s , w ith

b e c le a r e d

a b ility .

th e

regard

to

tra n s g r e s s io n s
p u n is h e d .

navy

in

The

sin k in g

th e ir p a s s e n g e r s .

The

a ll th o s e c h a r g e s , t h a t t h e

c o m m is s io n s .

The Germans advised the President that a new government
had been adopted In Germany “ in complete accordance with the
representation of the people based on equal, universal, direct
franchise.”
On October 23, 1918, the President of the United States re­
plied to the effect that having received such assurances from
the German Government he felt he could not decline to take
up with the associated Governments the question of an armis­
tice; that the armistice must leave the associated powers in
a position to enforce any arrangements that might be entered
into, and to make a renewal of hostilities on the part of Ger­
many Impossible; that if such an armistice was suggested by
the military advisers of the associated nations the acceptance
of its terms by Germany would afford the best concrete evi­
dence of her unequivocal acceptance of the terms and princi­
ples of peace from which the whole action proceeded.
The German Government on October 27 replied accepting
the terms, and said:
The

G erm an

P r e s id e n t

of

G overnm en t

th e

U n ite d

has

ta k e n

S ta te s.

r e a c h in g c h a n g e s t h a t h a v e b ee n
in

th e

are

G erm an

b e in g

b o th

co n d u cted

a c tu a lly

s o n c lu s io n s .
m an
be
it

c o n s titu tio n a l

and

in

fir s t

h is

step

a

now ’

pow ers

a w a its

to w a rd

aw are

and

th e

peace,

a ls o

to

an

th e

n e g o tia tio n s

w h ose
m ake

su b je c t

fo r

as

o u t,

in

pow er

are

th e
fa r -

peace

to

hands
th e
it.

a r m is tic e

P r e s id e n t

of

of

th e

th a t

g o v ern m en t,

an sw er

a r e b e in g c a r r ie d

o u t, a n d

p r o p o s a ls

ju s t

a

th e

is

c a r r ie d

p e o p le ’s

m ilita r y

of

P r e s id e n t

stru c tu re ,

c o n s t itu tio n a lly ,

The

G overnm en t

th e

by

c o g n iz a n c e

The

rests,

d e c id in g
The

G er­

w h ic h

son

fo r c e
to

th e

fo r

"by

w h ic h

b e fo r e

tw e en

in v e ste d

th e

se r ie s

Thus

eyes

of

a u th o r ity

of

th e

G overn m en t
fu n d a m e n ta l

com es
fu tu re
and

to

a

a cts,

c lo s e

a

g e n e r a tio n s .

a s p ir in g

a

r ig h ts

fo r c e s,

n ew

of

th e

The

a llie d

p e r io d

w h ic h

D e s p ite
it

has

a ll

com es
p er­

sta n d s

s t r u g g le

ren d ered

in
be­

p o s s ib le

g o v e rn m e n ts
w h ic h

S ta te s

th e

and

w h ic h

fo llo w ,

G overn m en t

d e v e lo p m e n t

w h ic h

o f th is

has

G erm an

th ey

of

have

g iv e n

p assed

c a r e fu l

b etw ee n

im p e r is h a b ly

re­

w ar.

G o v e r n m e n t.

d e c la r e

G erm an y

on

th e ir
th e

c o n s id e r a tio n

to

P r e s id e n t

th e

th e

S u b je c t

w illin g n e ss

term s

e n u n c ia te d
m u st

in

h is

p o in t

d e s c r ib e d

as

su bseq u en t

o u t,
th e

of peace

s o m e o f w h ic h

th ey

th a t

of

peace

of

th e

cor­

U n ite d

q u a lific a tio n s

peace

dow n

in

w ith
th e

th e

P r e si­

th e p r in c ip le s o f s e t tl e ­

c o u ld

2,

se a s, is

not
on

a ccep t.
th is

r e la tin g

open

to

They

to

w hat

v a r io u s

Is

in te r *

m u s t th e r e fo r e

w h en th e y en ter

s u b je c t

c o n fe re n c e .

F u r t h e r , in
gress

th e

m ake
la id

c la u s e

th e

r e se r v e to th e m s e lv e s c o m p le te fr e e d o m
th e

of

a d d resses.

h ow ever,
fr e e d o m

to

to

d e n t ’ s a d d r e s s t o C o n g r e s s i n J a n u a r y , 1918, a n d
m en t

T hey

order

tre m e n d o u s

t h e w o n d e r fu l a c h ie v e m e n t s

resp on den ce

u s u a lly

K a ise r ’s

th a t

The notes between the Government of the United States and
the German Government in their complete continuity, setting
forth the proposed bases of peace, were immediately trans­
mitted by the President of the United States to the supreme
war council, and Germany was so notified in his note of Octo­
ber 28. Clemenceau turned these notes over to Foch, who
summoned Petain, Haig, and Pershing to read the correspond­
ence to them and ask their advice. On the 26th Foch handed
the military terms of the armistice to Clemenceau at the
Trianon Palace Hotel, the meeting place of the supreme war
council in Versailles.
The representatives of the Entente Governments immedi­
ately convened there to consider the terms laid before them
and to come to a conclusion as to their acceptance or rejec­
tion ; to decide whether an armistice should be granted and
peace made upon the basis offered, or the offer of an armistice
refused and surrender demanded. They reached a final con­
clusion on November 4, accepting the basis on which the Ger­
mans agreed to surrender as fixed by President Wilson, hav­
ing occupied a period of nine days in deliberating upon the
entire contract.
The representatives of the Entente Governments at the
Trianon Palace Hotel in the above conference were Mr. Bal­
four; Prime Minister Lloyd-George, the foreign minister; the
secretary of state for w a r; the first lord of the Admiralty;
the high commissioner to the United States, Lord Reading;
the chief of the general staff, Field Marshal H aig; the first
sea lord, Admiral Wemyss; and Mr. Bonar Law, all of whom
represented Great Britain.
The French Government was represented in like fashion by
Clemenceau, by Foreign Minister Piclion, and most of the mem­
bers of the French Government.
The United States was represented by General Bliss, Colonel
House, Admiral Benson, etc.
The Italian leaders were there.
In all, 24 delegates actively participated and reached the
following conclusion, to w it:

p r e ta tio n s ,

tra n sfers

p e o p le .

honor

a

p e o p le
i t s e l f in

s h a ll

p r o c la m a tio n .

P repared ,

our

d e s c r ib e d

has

On October 28 Emperor William issued the following decree
indorsing the constitutional amendments promulgated by the
Reichstag:
in to

to

v e a le d

45

th e

Jan u ary

c o n d itio n s o f

peace

8,

P r e s id e n t

1618,

to r ie s m u s t be r e s to r e d
th a t

no

th e y

u n d e r sta n d

a s w e ll a s

d ou bt o u g h t to

dam age done

to

b y th e a g g r e ssio n

th a t

th e

e x ist

dow n

w hat
w ill

p o p u la tio n

of

in

h is a d d r e s s

d e c la r e d

e v a c u a te d

as to

c o m p e n sa tio n

th e c iv ilia n

la id

and

th is
be

th a t

fr e e d .

The

p r o v is io n
m ade

th e

by

A llie s

C on­
te r r i­

A llie s

im p lie s .

G erm an y

and

o f G e m n a n y b y la n d , b y sea , a n d fr o m

to

in v a d e d

fe e l

By
fo r

it
a ll

th e ir p ro p e rty

th e a ir.

7 .6 8 7 8 — 1 1




W A S H I N G T O N : G O V E R N M ifiN T P R I N T I N G O P T I C S : 1093