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U . S. D E P A R T M E N T
'''

OF

LABOR

J A M E S J . D A V I S , SECRETARY

WOMEN^S BUREAU
" ' M A R Y A N D E R S O N , Director

B U L L E T I N

O F

T H E

W O M E N ' S

B U R E A U ,

NO.

STATE LAWS AFFECTING
WORKING WOMEN




V

HOURS
M I N I M U M WAGE
HOME WORK

WASHINGTON
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
1924

40




A D D I T I O N A L COPIES
OF THIS PUBLICATION M A T B E PROCimED FROM
T H E SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OPHCE
WASHINGTON, D . C.
AT

15 CENTS PER COPY

CONTENTS
Pago

Letter of transmittal
v
Map: Status of Women as State Labor Officials
faces 1
Laws regulating the length of the working day or week
1
Eight-hour laws
^
1
Eight-and-a-half-hour laws 2
Nine-hour laws
2
Nine-and-a-half-hour laws
2
Ten-hour laws
3
Ten-and-a-quarter, ten-and-a-half, eleven, and twelve hour laws
3
Weekly hour laws
3
Summary of laws limiting daily and weekly hours.
4
Laws providing for a day of rest, one shorter workday, time for meals,
and rest periods
4
Day of rest, one shorter wwkday
4
Time for meals
4
Rest periods
4
Summary
4
Night-work laws
6
Summary of all the laws affecting women's hours of labor
5
Laws regulating home work
6
Minimum-wage laws
6
Index to labor laws i n each State
7
CHART L Eight-hour and eight-and-a-half-hour laws
12
I L Nine-hour and nine-and-a-half-hour laws
15
I I L Ten-hour l a w s —
20
I V . Ten-and-a-quarter, ten-and-a-half, eleven, and twelve hour laws.
23
V, Weekly hour laws
24
V L Laws providing for a day of rest, one shorter workday, time for
meals, and rest periods
25
V I L Night-work law^s
36
V I I L Home-work laws i n the United States
41
I X . Minimum-wage legislation in the United States
follows p. 51
MAPS

Foreword
Legal working hours—daily
Legal working hours—weekly
Night-work laws
Minimum-wage laws




-

53
follows p. 53
follows p. 53
follows p. 53
follows p. 53
III




LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL

U . S. DEPARTMENT

OF

LABOR,

WOMEN'S
^yas^hingtolnJ

BUREAU,
July

1,

1924>

SIR: Herewith is transmitted a report showing the present status
of State laws pertaining to hours of employment, minimum wages,
and home work which affect working women.
Bulletin 16, ''State Laws Affecting Working Women/' which
covers State laws affecting women i n industry i n 1921, has been so
much i n demand t h a t the Women's Bureau feels confident that a
new bulletin covering the same subject w^ll be of great value not only
as a source of information but as a comparative study of the changes
made b y the States i n their legislation regulating hours of employment, minimum wages, and home work.
This material has been prepared b y M r s . Mildred J. Gordon,
industrial research assistant of the Women's Bureau.
Respectfully submitted.
MART
H o n . JAMES J . DAVIS,
Secretary




of

ANDERSON,
A

Lahor

Director.







NO :

WOMENS BUREAU U S DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 1924

STATUS

WOMEN IN POSITIONS
OF AUTHORITY

O F W O M E N AS STATE

I
J
Y
WOMEN IN MINOR
POSITIONS

THIS M A PS H O W S T H E STATES THAT




ENFORCEMENT

HAVE WOMEN

OF THE LAWS

LABOR

OFFICIALS

NO WOMEN
OFFICIALS
IN T H E DEPARTMENTS
DISCUSSED

OF LABOR

IN THIS BULLETIN.

AIDING

IN T H E

fNGr-ffp nfPRooucnoN
WASHINGTON

PIANT.

BARRACKS.

u s

D. C. 5544

AB-y.

STATE LAWS AFFECTING WORKING WOMEN
JULY 1, 1924

LAWS REGULATING THE LENGTH OF THE WORKING DAY OR
WEEK
There are only four States i n the United States—^Alabama, Florida,
Iowa, West Virginia—that do not have some sort of a law regulating
the hours of work for women. Indiana has but one limitation of
hours—that prohibiting the employment of women at night in one
occupation—manufacturing. Georgia, N o r t h Carolina, and South
Carolina have limited the hours of work i n only one industry—textile
manufacturing. A l l the other States have either definitely forbidden
the employment of women for more than a certain nimiber of hours
per day or week, or have penalized all employment beyond certain
specified hours b y providing that i t must be paid for at an increased
rate.

Eight-hour laws*
The shortest period to which hours of work are limited is 8 hours
per day i n 9 States—^Arizona, California, Colorado, Kansas, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, Washington, the District of
Columbia, and the Territory of Porto Kico. The number of industries or occupations included i n these laws varies greatly.
California has the most inclusive legislation. A n act of the legislature i n that State limits the hours of js\^ork strictly to 8 per day and
48 per week i n any manufacturing, mechanical, or mercantile establishment, laimdry, hotel, public lodging house, apartment house,
hospital, place of amusement, or restaurant, or telephone or telegraph
establishment or office, or the operation of elevators i n office buildings,
or any express or transportation company. I n addition to the
industries and occupations covered b y this act of the legislature the
hours of work i n a number of other industries and occupations have
been limited b y orders of the industrial welfare commission. One of
these orders limits the hours of those employed as ^'labelers" i n the
f r u i t and vegetable canning industry, as '^labelers" or office workers
i n the fish-canning industry, as office workers i n the f r u i t and vegetable packing industry, in the dried-fruit-packing industry and i n
nut-cracking and sorting industry to 8 per day and 48 per week:
1




STATE L A W S A F F E C T I N G WORKI^^^G W O M E N 2

another order limits the hours of workers employed in unclassified
occupations to 48 per week; another limits the employment of workers
in general and professional offices to 6 days per week unless time and
a quarter is paid for the seventh day, and even i n this case only 48
houi-s a week may be worked; still another order requires that time
and a quarter be paid for all hours worked beyond 48 per week or for
Nvork done on the seventh day of the week i n the f r u i t and vegetable
canning or packing industry and the fish-canning industry. Thus
by a combination of methods of legislation California has l i m i t e d ttie
hours of work for practically all women workers, except agricultural
workers and domestic servants.
Although the States in the group under discussion l i m i t daily hom's
uniformly to 8, the number of hours that a woman may work per
week varies. California, Kansas, Utah, the District of Columbia,
and the Territory of Porto Rico allow only 48 hours work per week.
Arizona and Nevada allow 56 hours; and New Mexico has either no
weekly l i m i t or different limits i n various occupations, ranging from
48 hours to 60 hours per week. Colorado, Montana, and Washington
have no weekly l i m i t .

Eight-and-a-half-hour law.
Two States—North Dakota and Wyoming—by acts of the legislatures provide for a working day of S}4 hours i n specified industries
and occupations. The North Dakota law applies only to towns of
500 or more population and limits the weekly hours to 48. The
Wyoming law covers the whole State, but allows a working week of
56 hours.

Nine-hour laws.
Seventeen States—Arkansas, Idaho, Kansas, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Missouri, Nebraska, New Mexico, New Y o r k , North
Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Rhode Island, Texas, W i s c o n s i n l i m i t the working day of women i n specified industries or occupations
to 9 hours. Three of these States—Massachusetts, Oregon, and
Rhode Island—limit the weekly hours to 48. Kansas allows 4 9 K
hours per week i n laundries and factories and 54 hours per week i n
mercantile establishments. Ohio and Wisconsin allow 50 working
hours per week; New Mexico, 56 hours; N o r t h Dakota, 58 houi-s;
Idaho sets no weeldy l i m i t , and the remaining 8 States allow 54 houi^.
per week.
North Dakota through its minimum wage orders has established
hour limitations for the entire State that vary from the standard set
by the 8^2-hour act of the legislature, b u t has continued to increase
the number of women workers coming under some hour law.

Nine-and-a-half-hour law.
Minnesota is the only State which limits the working day to
hours. The weekly l i m i t is 54 hours.




S T A T E L A W S A F F E C T I N G WORKI^^^G W O M E N

3

Ten-hour laws.
I n this group are found the States of Connecticut, Delaware,
Georgia, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland; Mississippi, New
Jersey, New Mexico, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South
Dakota, Virginia, and Wisconsin, 16 i n all. The weekly hours show
considerable variation. New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and South
Dakota have the shortest l i m i t , 54 hours per week. Connecticut,
Delawai-e, Mississippi (in manufacturing onty), South Carolina, and
Wisconsin allow 55 hours; Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland,
Mississippi (in all occupations except manufacturing), and New
Mexico, 60 hours; Illinois, Oregon, and Virginia, 70 hours. Three of
these States—New Mexico, Oregon, and Wisconsin—limit the hours
of the majority of their women workers to less than 10 per day and
include only a few groups i n their 10-hour laws. Therefore, they
appear on the maps i n this bulletin not as States having 10-hour laws
but according to the legislation which covers the greatest number of
women workers. Three of the States included i n this group—Georgia,
Mississippi, and South Carolina—include both men and women i n
their hour laws. Two of these laws, Georgia and South Carolina, are
very limited, covering only textile factories. Mississippi includes aU
manufacturing i n its 55-hour-week law, and has i n addition a 60-hourweek law for women covering all occupations.

Ten-and-a-quarter, ten-and-a-half, eleven, and twelve hour lawsI n this miscellaneous group of laws are found the States of New
Hampshire, permitting a 10 J^-hour day and a 54-hour week; Vermont,
a 10^-hour day and a 56-hour week; Tennessee, a lOJ^-hour day
and a 57-hour week; and N o r t h Carolina, an 11-hour day and a
60-hour week for men and women employed i n textile factories.
South Carolina appears on two charts ( I I I and I V ) , as one of its laws
limits cotton m a n ^ a c t u r i n g establishments to 10 hours per day and
another limits the employment of women i n mercantile establishments to 12 hours per day.

Weekly hour laws.
I n addition to laws l i m i t i n g daily hours i n specified industries or
occupations, five States—Connecticut, Maine, Minnesota, New
York, Oregon—^have legislation supplementing the laws regulating
both daily and weekly hours, and limiting only the weekly hours for
certain industries or occupations. For these weekly limits, Connecticut specifies 58 hours; Maine and New York, 54 hours; Oregon, 56
hours i n one occupation and 48 hours in another. Minnesota has
established a basic 48-hour week and provides that 25 cents per hour
must be paid for all hours worked beyond this l i m i t .




STATE L A W S A F F E C T I N G WORKI^^^G W O M E N 4

Summary of laws limiting daily and weekly hours*
I n all, 43 States hare laws that l i m i t the number of hours that a
woman may work. I n many States, however, the number of industries or occupations coming under the law is so small as to affect only a
small proportion of all working women i n the State. A comparison
of the charts w i l l show that generally the States which have laws
establishing the shortest working day and week are also the States
which bring the greatest number of industries or occupations under
the provisions of the law. (See Eight-hour and eight-and-a-half-hour
chart.)
LAWS PROVIDING FOR A DAY OF REST, ONE SHORTER WORKDAY, TIME FOR MEALS, AND REST PERIODS
Eighteen States, the District of Columbia, and the Territory of
Porto Rico have further regulated the hours of working women by
providing for breaks in their hours of employment. These laws
supplement the legislation on the length of the working day and
week.

Day of rest, one shorter workday.
Eleven of these States—Arkansas, California, Delaware, Kansas,
New Jersey, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania,
Washington—and the District of Columbia have lunited the number
of days that a woman may work in succession, i n the majority of
cases to 6 days out of 7.
Time for meals,
Fourteen States—Arizona, Arkansas, California, Delaware, Kansas, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New York, N o r t h Dakota,
Ohio, Pennsylvania, Washington, Wisconsin—and the Territory of
Porto Rico have provided that a period of time varying from 30
minutes to one hour must be allowed for the noonday meal,
llest periods.
Twelve States—Arkansas, Delaware, Kansas, Louisiana, Maine,
Maryland, Massachusetts, North Dakota, Oregon, Pennsylvania,
W ^ h m g t o n , Wisconsin—the District of Columbia, and the Territory
of Porto Rico have ruled that a woman can work only a fixed number
of hours, usually 5 or 6, without either a meal period or a rest period
of some sort.
Summary.
A great many of the States which have laws limiting the total
number of hours that a woman may work per day or per week have not
provided^ for any breaks in her employment. Forty-three States
have lunited hours of labor but only 18 States have provided that
women must have either a day of rest or one shorter workday, or
tune for meals or rest periods.




STATE L A W S AFFECTING W O E K I N G WOMEK'

5

I n the States t h a t have industrial commissions the orders for rest
periods, a day of rest, and time for meals have generally been issued
for specific industries or occupations and have considered the special
conditions that apply to each case. For example, Oregon considers
the work i n the telephone industry i n the large city of Portland as
distinct from that i n the State at large, and provides for 1 day of rest
in 7 i n Portland, h u t only for 1 day of rest and 1 short day of 6 hours
in every 14 days for the State at laige. I n California, Oregon, and
Washington the industrial welfare commission orders provide the
only form of regulation covering rest periods, time for meals, or 1
day's rest i n 7, although the daily and weekly hour legislation is
covered h y acts of the legislature.

NIGirr-WORK LAWS
Sixteen States—California, Connecticut, Delaware, Indiana, K a n sas, Massachusetts, Nebraska, New Jersey,. New York, N o r t h
Dakota, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Washington,
Wisconsin—and the Territory of Porto Kico prohibit night work for
women i n certain industries or occupations. The laws of three of
these States—Indiana, Massachusetts, and Pennsylvania—cover
only manufacturing, and i n South Carolina the law covers only
mercantile establishments. I n both Ohio and Washington only one
very small group is covered—ticket sellers i n Ohio and elevator
operators in Washington. I n the remaining 10 States and the Territory of Porto Rico two or more industries or occupations are included.
Two States—Maryland and New Hampshire—limit the hours that a
woman may work at night to 8, although M a r y l a n d allows women to
work 10 hours and New Hampshire 10 houra during the day.
The most common period during which night work is prohibited is
from 10 p. m . to 6 a. m. A few of the States, however, set only an
evening l i m i t after which work is not permitted. The longest period
of time during which night work is prohibited is from 6 p. m. to 6
a. m. i n textile manufacturing i n Massachusetts. Night-work
legislation is found not only i n a much smaller number of States than
is legislation l i m i t i n g the daily and weekly hours of work b u t i n
many States which have both types of legislation the night-work
laws cover a much smaller group of industries or occupations.

SUMMARY OF ALL THE LAWS AFFECTING WOMEN'S HOURS
OF LABOR
No State has regulated each industry or occupation b y the passage
of a l l types of hour-law legislation discussed i n the preceding paragraphs. States that regulate daily houLTs often f a i l to l i m i t the number of weekly hours, or to provide for one day of rest i n seven, limch




6

STATE LAWS AJ'FECTING W O E K I N G

WOMEK

periods, or rest periods, or to prohibit night work. A few States have
all types of laws for their industries which employ the greatest
number of women, notably Massachusetts, New York, and Pennsylvania, wliere there are laws of these various kinds covering manufacturing establishments. The States that have industrial commissions seem to be establishing regulations that cover all these
points more rapidly than are the ones that depend on separate acts
of their legislatures for each step.

LAWS REGULATING HOME WORK
About one-fourth of the States have laws either prohibiting or
regulating home work. Since women form a very large proportion
of all home workers, so that large numbers of them are affected by
sucli legislation, these laws are included in this report. Ten S t a t e s Illinois, Indiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Missouri,
New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee—have prohibited for all,
except the immediate members of a family, certain forms of home
work, such as the manufacture of clothing, trimmings, and tobacco
products. Moreover, certain requirements that must be met b y anyone doing home work are established by law in California, Connecticut, New Jersey, and Wisconsin. Similar requirements for the
immediate members of the family doing home work are estabHshed
by law in aU of the States except Ohio which allow only the. immediate members of a family to do home work. I n general, these requirements are for cleanhness, adequate lighting and ventilation, and
freedom from infectious and contagious disease. The majority of
these laws were passed a number of years ago. While all the other
types of laws considered in this report are constantly changing, the
only States that have changed their home-work laws or regulations
in the last five years are CaUfornia, New Jersey, and Wisconsin.

MINIMUM-WAGE LAWS
Thirteen States—Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Kansas,
Massachusetts, Minnesota, North Dakota, Oregon, South Dakota,
Utah, Washington, and Wisconsin—have laws establishing a minimum
wage for women workei-s. Three States—Arizona, South Dakota,
and Utah—have set a minimimi wage by law i n specified industries
or occupations. Ai^kansas also has a minimiun wage set by law,
but the industrial welfare commission has power to change this
rate for any of the industries or occupations i n the State and has
done so i n mercantile establishments i n Fort Smith and L i t t l e Rbck.
The remaining States—California, Colorado, Kansas, Massachusetts,
Mmnesota, North Dakota, Oregon, Washington, and W i s c o n s i n have created boards or commissions w i t h power to study the various




STATE l A W S

AJ'FECXING W 0 E E 3 N G W O M E N

7

occupations or industries and establish minimum-wage rates for each
or all of them. This has been done for one or more groups of workers
in all the States except Colorado, where through lack of a sufficient
appropriation the commission has never functioned. The awards
of the boards or commissions are mandatory in all the States except
Massachusetts, where they can be enforced only through the strong
support of public opinion. The highest wages set in any of these
awards are $16 per week for all industries in the State of California.
Where the rates are set b y law they have not responded to the great
rise i n the cost of living since 1914. The rate set by acts of the
legislatures i n U t a h and Arkansas is $7.50 per week for experienced
women.

INDEX TO LABOR LAWS IN EACH STATE
Alabama:
No laws
Arizona:
8-hour day
56-hour week
Time for meals
Minimum wage
Arkansas:
9-hour day
54-hour week
Day of rest, time for meals, rest periods
Minimum wage
California:
. 8-hour day
, 48-hour week
Day of rest, time for meals
Night work
Minimum wage
Home work
Colorado:
8-hour day
56-hour week*
Minimum wage
Connecticut:
10-hour d a y . .
55-hour week
58-hour week
Night work
Home work
Delaware:
10-hour day-_
55-hour week
Day of rest, time for meals, rest periods
Night work
District of Columbia:
. 8 - h o u r day
48'hour week
Day of rest, rest periods

Page

1
12
12
25
follows p. 51

•

* No weekiy limit in law. This figure represents the daily limit multiplied by 7.




15
15
25
folloAvs p. 51
12
12
25
36
follows p. 51
44
12
12
follows p. 51
20
20
24
36
44

-

20
20
26
36
12
12
27

8

S T A T E L.V\VS A F F E C T I N G WOUICING

Florida:
No laws
Georgia:
10-hour day
60-hour week
Idaho:
9-hour day-63-hour \veek*Illinois:
10-hour day
70-hour week*
Homework
Indiana:
Night work
Homework
Iowa:
No laws
Kansas:
8-hour day
9-hour day
48-hour week
40H-lio"r week
54-hour week Day of rest, time for meals, rest periods
Night work
Minimum wage
Kentucky:
10-hour day—
60-hour week
Louisiana:
10-hour day
60-hour week.
Time for meals, rest periods
Maine:
9-hour day—
54-hour week
Rest periods
Maryland:
10-hour day
60-hour week___
Rest periods
Night work
Home work
Massachusetts:
9-hour day
48-hour week
Time for meals, rest periods
Night work
Minimum wage—
Home work
Michigan:
9-hour day
64-hour week.
Home work

WOMEN

^^
^
-

^^
^^
^^
20
41,44
37
41,46
1
-

• No weekly limit in law. Thisfigurerepresentsthe daily limit multiplied by 7.




^^
22

13
15
—
15
27
—
37
follows p. 51
20
20
21
21
28
16
16
29
21
21
, 29
37
41, 45
16
16
29
37
follows p. 51
42, 46
16
16
42,46

STATE L A W S A F F E C T I N G W O R i a N G WOMEI?'

Minnesota:
93^-hourday
54-hour week
48-hour week
Time for meals
Minimum wage
Missouri:
9-hour day
54-hour week
Home work
Mississippi:
10-hour day
55-hour week
60-hour week
Montana:
8-hour day
56-hour week*
Nebraska:
9-hour day
54-hour week
Night work
Nevada;
8-hour day
56-hour week
New Hampshire:
^ lOJ^-hour day
54-hour week
Night work
New Jersey:
10-hour day
54-hour week
Day of rest
Night work
Home work
New Mexico:
8-hoiir day
9-hour day
10-hour day
48-hour week.
56-hour week*
60-hour week
New York:
9-hour day
54-hour week
Day of rest, time for meals
Night work
Home work
North Carolina:
11-hour day
60-hour week

Page
20
20
24
30
follows p. 61
16
16
42, 47
21
22
21
13
13
16
16
38
13
13
23
23
38

'

* No weekly limit i n law. This figure represents the daily limit multiplied by 7.




9

21
21
30
38
47
13
17
21
13
13,17
21
17
17
30
38
42,48
23
23

10

STATE L A W S A F F E C T I N G W O K K m G

W0ME5T

North Dakota:
8H-hourday.9-hour day
48-hour week
58-hour week
Day of rest, time for meals, rest periods
Night work
Minimum wage
Ohio:
9-hour day.
50-hour week
Day of rest, time for meals
Night work
Home work
Oklahoma:
9-hour day
54-hour week
Oregon:
9-hour day
10-hour day
48-hour week
56-hour week
70-hour week*
Day of rest, rest periods
Night workMinimum wage
Pennsylvania:
10-hour day
54-hour week
Day of rest, time for meals, rest periods
Night work
Home work
Porto Rico:
8-hour day
48-hour week.
Time for meals, rest periods
Night work
Rhode Island:
9-hour day
48-hour week_
South Carolina:
10-hour day
12-hour day
55-hour week
60-hour week
Night workSouth Dakota:
10-hour day
64-hour week
Minimum wage
• No weekJy limit in law. This figure represents the daily limit multiplied by 7.




'^f
_

follows p. 51

^
^^
39
^^

^^
^^
^^
IS? 24
24
21
32
39
follows p. 51
21
21
34
40
43,48
13
13
35
40
19
19
22
23
22
23
. 40
22
22
] follows p. 51

STATE

LAWS

AFFECTIICG

WOEKING

WOMEN

Tennessee:
lOJ^-hourday
67-hour week
Homework
Texas:
9-hour day
54-hour week
Utah:
8-hour day
48-hour week
Minimum wage
Vermont:
lOJ^-hour day
56-hour week
Virginia:
10-hour day
70-hour week*
Washington:
8-hour day
56-hour week*
Day of rest, time for meals, rest periods
Night work
Minimum wage
West Virginia:
No laws
Wisconsin:
9-hour day
10-hour day
50-hour week
55-hour week
Time for meals, rest periods
Night work
Homework
Minimum wage
Wyoming:
8M-hourday
56-hour week
• N o weekly l i m i t i n l a w .

5437°--24t




T h i s figure represents the daUy l i m i t m u l t i p l i e d b y 7.

2

H .

Pago
23
23
43,50
19
19
14
14
follows p. 51
23
23
22
22
14
14
35
40
follows p. 51
1
19
22
19
22
35
40
50
follows p. 51

CHART

I.—EIGHT-HOUR A N D EIGHT-AND-A-HALF-HOUR LAWS FOR WOMEN WORKERS

to

P A R T A.—EIQHT-HOUR LAWS 1
State
Arizona.
I n " T h e Revised Statutes of Arizona," J913,
Penal Code, sec. 717, p. 149.

Weekly l i m i t

sa hours..

California.
I n "Hennlng's General Laws of California," 48 hourg.
1919 (ed. by W . H . H y a t t ) , cb. 153, A c t 2034,
pp. 106&-1067.

Overtime

Occupations or industries specified

Mercantile establishment, confectionery store, Mercantile establishment, confectionery store, bakery,
bakery; 2 hours on 1 day weekly, provided emlaundry,-hotel, restaurant, or telephone or telegraph office
ployee works only 6 days a week.
or exchange. Exceptions: Nurses, telephone or telegraph
office or exchange i n which not more than 3 females are
^ employed.

Manufacturing, mechnical, or mercantile establishment,
laundry, hotel, public lodging house, apartment house,
hospital, place of amusement, or restaurant, or telegraph
or telephone establishment or office, or the operation
of elevators i n office buildings, or any express or transportation company. Exceptions: Graduate nurses i n hospitals, and fruit, fish, or vegetable canning, or drying
establishments during period necessary to save products
from spoiling.
Industrial Welfare Commission Order, No. 9, 48 hours, 0 days Work may be done on the seventh day If time and General and professional offices.
a quarter is paid.
(basic).
1920.
Labeling i n the f r u i t and vegetable canning industry;
Industrial Welfare Commission Orders, Nos. 48 hours, 0 days.
labeling and office work i n the fish canning industry;
3a, 5a, 6a, 7a, 8a, 13a, 1923.
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mercantile industry; laundry and dry-cleaning i n d u s t r y ;
dried f r u i t packing industry; office workers i n the citrus
packing or green fruit and vegetable packing industries;
manufacturing industry; n u t cracking and sorting industry.
F r u i t and vegetable canning industry; fish-canning indusIndustrial Welfare Commission Orders, Nos. 48hours (basic), I n emergencies more
,
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.
t r y ; citrus packing and green fruit and vegetable packing
6days (basic).
3a, 6a, and 8a, 1923.
worked if time and a quarter is paid for a l l
industries.
hours u p to 12 and double time for all hours i n
excess of 12, and i f time and a quarter is paid for
first 8 hours of the day of rest and double this
time and a quarter for all hours over 8.
Unclassified occupations.
Industrial Welfare Commission Order, No. 48 hours.
lOa, 1923.
Colorado.
Industrial Commission may allow overtime I n Manufacturing, mechanical, or mercantile establishments,
I n " Compiled Statutes of Colorado," 1921, ch,
laundry, hotel, or restaurant.
75, sees. 4118-4119, pp. 1033-1034, and cb.
cases of emergency, provided tbe m i n i m u m
77,sec.4207,p. 1055.
wage is Increased.
District of Columbia.
Manufacturing, mechanical, or mercantile establishment,
I n " T h e Code of Law for the District of 48 hours, C days.
laundry, hotel, or restaurant, or telegraph or telephone
Columbia," 1919 (ed. b y W i l l i a m S. Torbet),
establishment or office, or any express or transportation
p. 403,
company.




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fiiinsas.
Industrial Welfare Commission Order, N o . 9,
1918.
Industrial Welfare Order, No. 15,1022

8 hours (basic), I f time and a half is paid for all hours over the
6 days (basia^.
basic day.
48 hours

Montana.
I n "Revised Codes of M o n t a n a , " 1921» Vol. I .
Political Code, Part I I I , ch. 219, sec. 3070,
p p . 1U&-1146.
Nevada.
I n Session Laws of N e v a d a / ' 1917, ch. 14, 56 hours..
ocsaiuu xjiiwa u i
ivit, uu. i t ,
1.16-17, and i n " Session Laws of Nevada,**
ch. 69, p p . 95-«6.

N e w Mexico.
I n "Session Laws of New Mexico," 1921, ch.
180, sees. I and 4, pp. 386-388.

Ibld.,8ec.

P o r t o Klco.
I n "Session Laws of Porto BIco^" 2d sess.,
1919, No. 73, p p . 496-60G.

Retail stores; 2 hours daily during the week
before Christmas.

Telephone operators.
Public housekeeping occupation, i ; e., the work of waitresses i n restaurants, hotel dining rooms and boarding
houses^ all attendants employed at ice cream parlors, soda
•fountams,lightlunch stands, steam table or counter work
i n cafeterias and delicatessens where freshly cooked foods
are served, and confectionery stores where lunches are
served; the w o r k of chambermaids i n hotels,lodging and
boarding houses, and hospitals; the work ofjanitresses, o f
car cleaners, and of kitchen workers i n hotels, restaurants,
and hospitals; elevator operators, cigar stand and cashier
girls connected w i t h such establishments.
Manufacttiring, mechanical, or mercantile establishment,
telephone exchange room or ofllce, or telegraph office,
laundry, hotel, or restaurant.
M a n u f ^ t u r i n g , Mechanical, or mercantile establishment,
l a u n d r y , hotel, public lodging house, apartment house,
place of amusement, or restaurant, express or transportation company. JEzcepiiojis: Nurses or nurses i n training, harvesting, curing, canning, or drying of perishable
f r u i t or vegetable.

4 hours weekly If time and a half is paid and the
total hours of labor for a 7-day week do not
exceed 60.

48 hours..,

Indefinite overtime allowed i n emergencies
resulting from flood, fire, storm, epidemic of
sickness or other like causes.

48 hours..,

1 hour daily i f double time is paid and the maxim u m weekly hours are not exceeded.

A n y mechanical establishment or factory, or laundry, or
hotel, or restaurant, cafe, or eating house, or any place of
amusement. Exceptions: Females, employed i n offices
as stenographers, bookkeepers, clerks, or i n other clerical
work and not required to do manual labor; canneries or
other establishments engaged i n preparing for use perishable goods; females engaged i n Interstate commerce where
the working hours are regulated b y any act of Congress
of the United States.
Telephone establishment or office thereof. Exceptions:
Shift working between 9 p. m . and 7 a . m . ; establishments
where 5 or less operators are employed and where the
average number of calls per hour answered b y one operator does not exceed 230; females engaged i n interstate
commerce where the working hours are regulated b y any
act of Congress of the United States.

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A n y lucrative occupation. EzcepUms: Telephone operators, telegraphers, artists, nurses, or domestics over 16
years of age.

i Wisconsin has an Industrial commission order limiting the working hours of women on street railways to 8 per day, b u t no women are employed i n such a capacity in Wisconsin.




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CHAET I — E I G H T - H O U R

A N D EIGHT-AND-A-HALF-HOUR

LAWS FOR W O M E N

WORKERS—Continued

P A R T A . — E I G H T - U O U R LAWS—Continued
State

Weekly l i m i t

Overtime

Occupations or industries specified

Utah.
I n "Session Laws of U t a h , " 1919, ch. 70, p. 242. 48 hours...l

N'asbliif;toti.
I n "Pierce's Code of the State of Washingt o n , " 1921, Vol. I , sec. 3456, p. 1057.

Manufacturing, mechanical, or mercantile establishment,
laundry, hotel, restaurant, or telegraph or telephone
establishment, hospital, or office, or any express or transportation company. Exceptions: Packing or canning of
perishable fruits or vegetables, manufacturers of containers of same during packing season, emergencies when
life or property is i n imminent danger.
Iklechanical or mercantile establishment, laundry, hotel
or restaurant. Exceptions: Harvesting, packing, curing,
canning, or drying perishable fruits or vegetables, canning fish and shellfish.

(»)

PART B.-EiaHT-AND-A-HALF-HOUR
North Dakota.
I n "Session Laws of N o r t h Dakota," 1923,
Ch. 346, p p . 520-621.

Wyoming.
I n Session Laws of W y o m i n g , " 1923, ch, 62,
pp. 82-83.

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LAWS

48 hours, 6 days. 10 hours daily, 7 days per week, permitted in
emergencies, provided permission is obtained
from authorities enforcing hour law and weekly
hour l i m i t is not exceeded. Emergency is
defined as sickness of more than one female
employee, the protection of human life, banquets, conventions, celebrations, sessions of
the State legislature, reporters i n any of the
district courts of the State.

Manufacturing, mechanical, or mercantile establishment,
laundry, hotel or restaurant, or telegraph or telephone
establishment or office, or any express or transportation
company. Exceptions: Villages and towns of less than
500 population; rural telephone exchanges.

56 hours

A n y manufacturing, mechanical, or mercantile establishment, laundry, hotel, public lodging house, apartment
house, place of amusement, or restaurant, or telephone
or telegraph establishment or office, or i n any express
or transportation company. Exceptions: Telephone or
telegraph office or exchange i n which 3 or less females
are employed; the harvesting, curing, canning, or drying
of any variety of perishable Iruit or vegetable; nurses i n
training i n hospitals.

Indefinite overtime allowed when an emergency
exists, or unusual pressing business, or necessity demands i t , if time and a half is paid for
every hour of overtime i n any one day.

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' I n d i i s t r i a l Welfare Committee has ruled that w i t h certain e x e r t i o n s women i n manufacturing and public housekeeping occupations can only work 6 days per week.
Day of Rest Chart.,




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CHART H , — N I N E - H 0 U R

AND

NINE-AND-A-HALF-HOUR

LAWS FOR

WOMEN

WORKERS

PART A . - N I N E - H O U R LAWS
State
Arkansas.
I n " Digest of the Statutes of Arkansas," 191D
(ed. b y T . D . Crawford and H a m i l t o n
Moses), cb. 117, sees. 7102-71H, p p . 185f>1859, and i n Session Laws of Arkansas,"
• 1921, N o . 140, p p . 214-216.
Industrial Welfare Commission O r d e r , " Regul a t i n g employment of females i n hotels and
restaurants," 1919.
Idaho.
I n " C o m p i l e d Statutes of Idaho," 1919, Vol.
I , P o l i t k a i Code, sec. 2330, p. 6G3.

Kansas.
Industrial Welfare Order, No. 12, 1922.
Industrial Welfare Order, N o . 13,1922_

Industrial Welfare Orde;-, No. 14,1922.




Weekly l i m i t

Overtime

Occupations or industries specified

54 hours, G days. Canning and candy factories may work overtime
90 days a year, w i t h the permission of the industrial welfare commission i f time and a half
is paid for all hours over 9 per day.

Manufacturing, mechanical, or mercantile establishment,
laundry, or any express or transportation company. Exceptions: Cotton factories, gathering of fruits or farm
products.

6 days..

Hotels and restaurants.

H

Mechanical or mercantile establishment, laundry, hotel, or
restaurant, or telegraph or telephone establishment or
office, or any express or transportation company. Hzcepiions: Harvesting, packing, curing, canning, or drying
perishable fruits or vegetables.
21^ hours of overtime weekly is allowed if time Laundry occupations, i. e., laundries, dyeing, d r y cleaning
and pressing establishments.
and a half is paid and if daily hours are not exceeded.
49M hours, 6 days 4 H hours of overtime weekly is allowed i n cases Manufacturing occupation, i. c., all processes i n the production of commodities. Exceptions: M i l l i n e r y workof emergency. T i m e and one half must be paid
rooms, dressmaking establishments, hemstitching and
for such overtime. However, canneries, creambutton shops, and alteration, drapery and upholstery
eries, condensaries, and poultry houses are aldepartments of a mercantile establishment may obtain
lowed this overtime w i t h o u t penalty for 6
weeks during the peak season or for t w o periods
permission from the Court of Industrial Relations to
not to exceed 3 weeks each, and poultry dressoperate under the Mercantile Order.
ing and packing businesses are allowed to work
11 hours per day and 68 hours per week for 4 of
these 6 weeks and 11 hours per day and " "
49H hours

vided one of these latter weeks falls between
November 1 and Thanksgiving and the other
between Thanksgiving and Christmas.
54 hours, 6 days. lO-hour working day allowed once a week, provided maximum weekly hours do not exceed 5i.

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Mercantile establishments: includes all establishments
operated for the purpose of trade i n the purchase or sale of
any goods or merchandise, and includes the sales force, the
wrapping employees, the auditing and checking force,
the shippers, in the mail order department, the receiving,
marking and stock-room employees, sheet music sales
women and demonstrators, and all employees in such
establishments in any way directly connected w i t h the
sale, purchase and disposition of goods, wares and merohanaise*

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CHART I L — N I N E - H O U R A N D N I N E - A N D - A - H A L F - H O U R

LAWS FOR W O M E N

WORKERS—Continued

PART A.—NINE-HOUR LAWS—Continued
State
Maine.
I n "Revised Statutes of Maine," Cth ed.
1910, pp. 165&-1G52.
Massacbusetts.
I n ** General Laws of Massachusetts," 1921^
Vol. I I , ch. 149, sees. 56-58, pp. 1564-15C5,
and In "Session Laws of Massachusetts/'
1921, ch. 2S0, pp. 319-321.

Michigan.
I n " Compiled Laws of Michigan," 1915, sec.
6330, p, 2023, and i n " Session Laws of Michigan,'UQIQ, A c t No. 341, p. 613, and i n "Ses•f t^Tcaf^f Michigan,"
sion Laws of Tvrin>ifann " 1923, Act No. 209,
sec. 9, p. 320.

Missouri*
I n "Revised Statutes of Missouri,'' 1919, Vol.
I I , ch. 64, A r t . 4, sec. 6771, p. 2132.

Weekly l i m i t

Occupations or industries specified

54 hours..

I n order to get 1 short day per week, overtime is Workshop, factory, manufacturing or mechanical establishment, or laundry. EiceptioTts: Manufacturing estabpermitted i f the maximum weekly hours are
lishment or business, the materials and products of which
not exceeded.
are perishable.

48 hours..

I n seasonal employments, 52 hours per week if
average for year is 48 hours per week. I n
emergencies overtime Is allowed i n publicservlcG occupations. Hotel employees not employed In a manufacturing, mercantile, or
mechanical establishment connected w i t h a
hotel are permitted to work one hour overtime
daily i f the maximum weekly hours are not exceeded.

Factory or workshop or any manufacturing, mercantile,
mechanical establishment, telegraph office, or telephone
exchange, or any express or transportation company, or
any laundry, hotel, manicuring or hair-dressing establishment, motion-picture theater, or an elevator operator
or a switchboard operator i n a private exchange.

1 hour of overtime dally If the weekly hours are
not exceeded.

Factory, m i l l , warehouse, workshops, quarry, clothing,
dressmaking or millinery establishment or any place
where the manufacture of any kinds of goods is carried on,
or where any goods are prepared for manufacturing, or
any laundry, store, shop, or any other mercantile establishment or any office or restaurant, theater, concert hall,
music hall, hotel, or operating an elevator, or on street or
electric railways. Exceptions: Preserving perishable
goods I n f r u i t and vegetable canning establishments.

64 hours,..,

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54 hours..

Nebraska.
I n "Compiled Statutes of Nebroslca," 1922. 54 hours,..,
Civil Administrative Code, T i t l e I V , Article
I I , sees. 7659-7661, pp. 2360-2301.




Overtime

Manufacturing, mechanical, or mercantile establishment
or factory, workshop, laundry or bakery or restaurant
or any place of amusement, or stenographic or clerical
work of any character In the above industries, or any
express or transportation or public u t i l i t y business or
common carrier or public institution. Exceptions: Establishments canning and packing perishable farm products i n places under 10,000 population for 90 days annually, telephone companies; towns, or cities having n
population of 3,000 or less.
Manufacturing, mechanical, or mercantile establishment,
laundry, hotel, or restaurant, office, any public-service
corporation i n metropolitan cities and cities of the first
class.

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N e w Mexico.
I n "Session L a w s of N e w M e x i c o , " 1921, ch.
180, sees. 2 , 3 , 5 , i m d 6, p p . 386-388.

New York,
I n " Session L a w s of N e w Y o r k , " 1921, Vol. I ,
ch. SO, sees. 172-173, p . 161,

56 hours,

2 hours on Saturday I n mercantile establishments Mercantile establishments; a n d person, firm, or corporat i o n engaged i n any express or transportation or p u b l i c
p r o v i d e d the m a x i m u m weekly hours are not
u t i l i t y business or any common carrier.
Exceptions:
exceeded; 4 hours weekly i n emergencies i f
D r u g stores; females engaged i n interstate commerce
t i m e and a h a l f is paid and the t o t a l hours of
where the w o r k i n g hours are regulated b y an act of Conlabor for a 7-day week do not exceed 60.
gress of the U n i t e d States.

I n ^'Industrial Code of N e w Y o r k , " 1920, I n dustrial Commission Order, p . 187.
I n " Session Laws of N e w Y o r k , " 1921, V o l . I ,
ch. 60, sec. 181, p . 1C3.

Overtime regularly on 5 days of the week to
make a shorter w o r k day or holiday o n the
sixth d a y ; irregularly 1 hour per day on 3 days
of the week, provided weekly m a x i m u m is not
exceeded; 1 hour d a i l y , 6 hours w e e k l y , June
15-Oct. 16, i n establishments canning perishable products, 3 hours daily, 12 hours weekly,
June 25-Aug. 6, i n such establishments b y
permission of the i n d u s t r i a l commission.
Exceptions: W o r k requiring continuous standi n g , labeling, or packing cans.
54 hours, 6 days. 1 day weekly i n order to get 1 or more shorter
days weekly.

I b i d . , sec. 182, p. 164.

54 hours, 6 days.

I b i d , , sec. 183, p . 164.

64 hours, 6 days.

I b i d . , sec. 184, p. 164

64 hours, 6 days.

North Dakota
M i n i m u m Wage Department Order N o . 1,
1922.

Ob!o.
I n " G e n e r a l Code of Ohio, Page's Compact
E d i t i o n , " 1921, Vol. I , sec. 1008, pp. 494^95.




58 hours

Factory, i. e., m i l l , workshop or other manufacturing establishment, laundries.
C
W

Mercantile establfehment. Exceptions: Dec. 18-24, 2 days
annually for stock taking, writers or reporters i n newspaper offices m a y w o r k 7 days per week.
W o r k i n or i n connection w i t h restaurants i n cities of the
first a n d second class. Exceptions: Singers and performers of a n y k i n d , attendants i n ladies' cloak rooms
a n d parlors, employees i n or i n connection w i t h the
dining rooms a n d kitchens of hotels or i n connection w i t h
employees' lunch-rooms or restaurants.
Custody or management of or operation of any elevator
for freight or passengers i n any building or place. Exception: Hotels.
Conductor or guard on any street, surface, electric, subw a y , or elevated railroad.
Public housekeeping occupation. {Public housekeeping
occupation includes the w o r k of waitresses i n restaurants, hotel dining rooms, boarding houses and a l l attendants employed a t ice cream and l i g h t l u n c h stands
and steam table or counter w o r k i n cafeterias and delicatessens where freshly cooked foods are served and the
w o r k of chambermaids i n hotels and lodging houses and
boarding houses and hospitals and the w o r k of janitresses
and car cleaners and of kitchen workers i n hotels and
restaurants and hospitals and elevator operators.)

60 hours, 6 days. Mercantile establishments; 1 hour on Saturday.. Factory, workshops, telephone or telegraph ofDce, m i l linery or dressmaking establishment, restaurant, the
distribution or transmission of messages, i n or o n any
interurban or street r a i l w a y car, or as ticket sellers or
elevator operators, or i n a n y mercantile establishment
located i n a n y c i t y . Exceptions: Canneries and establishiTfents preparing for use perishable goods during the
canning season.

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CHART I I — N I N E - H O U R A N D NINE-AND-A-HALF-HOUR LAWS FOR W O M E N WORKERS—Continued

CO

PAET A.—NINE-HOUR LAWS—Continued
,state
Oklahoma.
I n " Session Laws of Oiclulioma," 1919, oh.
p. 235.

Industrial Welfare Commi&sion Orders, Nos.
37, 38, 39» 40. 41, 42. and 45, 1919.




Weekly l i m i t

54 hours...

48 hours, 6 days-

Overtime

Occupations or Industries specified

Telephone operators i n time of disaster and
cpidemic if consent of employee is secured and
double time paid. Hotel and restaurant employees i n emergeneies may work 1 hour overtime per day i f consent of employee is secured
and double time paid.

Manufacturing, mechanical or mercantile establishment,
laundry, bakery, hotel, or restaurant, office building or
warehouse, telegraph or telephone establishment or
office, or printing establishment, or book bindery, or
any theater, show house, or place of amusement, or any
other establishment employing any female. Exceptions:
Registered phannacists, nurses, agricultural or domestio
labor, establishments outside of towns or cities of 5,000
population and employing less than 5 females.
Manufacturing occupation, i. c., all processes i n the production of commodities. Includes the work performed
i n dressmaking shops, and wholesale millinery houses, i n
the workrooms of retail millinery shops, and i n the
drapery and furniture covering workrooms, the garment
alteration, art needle work, fur garment making and
millinery workrooms i n mercantile stores, and the candy
making department of retail candy stores, and of restaurants. Exceptions: F r u i t and vegetable drying, canning, preserving and jjacking establishments.
Mercantile occupation, i . c., the work of those employed
i n establishments operated for tho purpose of trade i n
the purchase or sale of any goods or merchandise, and
includes the sales force, tho wrapping employees, the
auditing or check inspection force, tho shippers i n the
mail order department, the receiving, marking and stock
room employees, and sheet music saleswomen and
demonstrators.
Laundry occupation, i . c., all the processes counectcd w i t h
the receiving, marking, washing, cleaning and ironing
and distribution of washable and cicanable materials.
T h o work performed i n laundry departments i n hotels
and factories. .
Personal scrvioo occupation, i. o., manicuring, hairdrcssing,
barbering and other work of like nature, and the work of
ushers i n theaters.
Telephone or telegraph occupations i n tho c i t y of Portland.
Public housekeeping occupation, I. c., liotcl, restaurant,
boarding house, car clcaners, Janitrcsses, elevator operators.

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Oreicon—Continued.
Industrial Welfare Commission Order, N o . 43,
1919.

4S hours-

Khodo Island.
I n "Session Laws of Rhode I s l a n d , " 1923,
ch. —, p. —.

45 hours,.

Texas.
I n " C o m p l e t e Texas Statutea," 1920, Tenal
Code, sees. 1451-h to 1461-m, p. 223.

Wisconsin.
I n " W i s c o n s i n Statutes." 1923, Vol. I , sees.
'
103.01-103.02, p p . nOi-1105.

54 h o u r s . . .

50 hours..

I n " I n d u s t r i a l commission order regulating
pea canning factories," 1924.

54 hours,.

I n " I n d u s t r i a l Commission Order o n factories
canning cherries, beans, corn,or tomatoes,"
1924.

54 hours..




Telephone and telegraph occupations outside of the c i t y of
Portland. Exceptions: R u r a l telephone establishments
w h i c h do n o t require the uninterrupted attention of an
operator, m a y be granted special licenses, b y the Industrial Welfare Commission.
9 hours and 36 minutes may be worked daily i f
employers and employees agree t o complete
tho 48 hour week i n 5 days; 62 hours weekly
may be worked (1) i n manufacturing establishments t h a t the State board of labor determines t o be seasonal, (2) i n public service
when the State board of labor determines that
public necessity or convenience requires i t ,
(3) i n hotels provided the employee is n o t engaged i n a manufacturing, mercantiie, or
mechanical establishment connected w i t h the
hotel, (4> b y employees i n offices as stenographers, bookkeepers, clerks, or b y those
engaged i n other clerical w o r k and not required to do manual labor. I n no case shall
the average of the weekly hours throughout
the year, exceed 48.

Factory, manufacturing, mechanical, business or mercantile establishment. Exceptions:
Employers
engaged i n public service i n cases of extraordinary emergency or extraordinary public requirement, b u t the
State Board of Labor m u s t bo notified i n w r i t i n g of all
such cases of overtime.

Laundries i n cases of extraordinary emergency,
provided consent of employee is secured, m a y
w o r k 2 hours overtime per d a y , provided
weekly m a x i m u m is n o t exceeded and double
time is paid for all hours above 0 daily. Woolen
and cotton mills 1 hour daily, 6 hours weekly,
i f double time is paid for all hours above 9
daily.

Factory, mine, m i l l , workshop, mechanical or mercantile
establishment, l a u n d r y , hotel, restaurant, or rooming
house, theater or m o v i n g picture show, barber shop, telegrapb, telephone, or other office, express or transportation company. State i n s t i t u t i o n , or a n y other establishm e n t , i n s t i t u t i o n , or enterprise where females are employed. Exceptions: Stenographers, pharmacists, telephone a n d telegraph companies, mercantile establishments i n rural districts and i n cities of less t h a n 3,000
population.

10 hours daily may bo worked during emergency
periods, i f t i m e and a half is paid and such
periods do not excecd 4 weeks i n any one year
and the weekly hours worked do not cxceed 55.
11 hours d a i l y , 60 hours weekly m a y be worked
i n emergencies b y women over 17 years of age,
on not more t h a n 8 days during the season, i f
33 cents an hour is paid for all hours i n excess
of 9 per d a y .
10 hours daily, 60 hours weekly, m a y bo worked
i n emergencies b y women over 17 years of age,
on not more than 8 days during the season, i f
33 ccnts a n hour is paid for all hours i n excess
of 9 per day.

Place of employment, i.e., manufacturing, mechanical, or
mercantile establishment, l a u n d r y , restaurant, confectionery store, or telegraph or telephone office or exchange,
or any express or transportation establishment.
Pea canning factories.

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Canning cherrics, beans, corn or tomatoes.

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CHART 11—KINE-HOUR A N D NINE-AND-A-HALF-HOUR LAWS FOR W O M E N WORKERS—Continued
PART B.—NINE-AND-A-HALF-HOUR

State

Weekly l i m i t

Minnesota.
l a "Session Laws of Minnesota," 1923, ch.
422, pp. 62(HJ29.

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LAWS

Overtime

54 hours

Occupations or industries specified

A n y business or service whatever. Exceptions: Domestics
i n the home; persons engaged In tho care of the sick or
injured; cases of emergency i n which tho safety, health,
morals or welfare of the public may otherwise be affected;
night employees whoso total hours at their place o f employment do not exceed twelve and who have the opport u n i t y for at least four hours' sleep; telephone operators
i n munlcljialities of less than 1,500 inhabitants.

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CHART III.—TEN-HOUR LAWS
PART A . - F O R W O M E N WORKERS
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state
Connecticut.
I n "General Statutes of Connecticut," Revision of 1918, sec. S301, p. 1486.
Delaware.
I n " Session Laws of Delaware," 1917, ch. 230,
pp, 741-742.

Weekly l i m i t

Kentucky.
I n " T h e Kentucky Statutes," 1922, 6th ed.
(ed. b y John D . Carroll), Vol. I I , ch. 135b,
sec, 4806b-2, p . 2315.

Overtime

Occupations or industries specified

55 hours

Manufacturing or mechanical establishment.

§
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65 hours, 0 days- 2 hours on 1 day weekly, provided weekly maxim u m Is not eioeeded.

Mercantile, mechanical, or manufacturing establishment,
laundry, baking or printing establishment, telephone and
telegraph office or exchange, restaurant, hotel, place of
amusement, dressmaking establishment, or office. Exceptions: Canning or preserving or preparation for canning
or preserving of perishable fruits and vegetables.

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Mechanical or mercantile establishment, or factory, or
laundry, or hotel or restaurant, or telegraph or telephone
establishment or office thereof, or any place of amusement, or any express or transportation or public u t i l i t y
business, or common carrier, or public institution.

^

niinofs.
I n "Revised Statutes of Illinois," 1921 (ed. b y
B . J. Smith), eh. 48, sees. 5-8, pp. 903-9W.




^

60 hours

Laundry, bakery, factory, workshop, store, or mercantile,
manufacturing or mechanical establishment, or hotel, restaurant, telephone exchange or telegraph office.

) 1
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lioulslana.
I n " Constitution and Statutes of L o u i s i a n a , "
1920 (ed. b y Solomon W o l f ) , V o l . I I , p p .
30S2 and 1084.

Maryland.
I n " Annotated Code of t h e P u b l i c General
L a w s of M a r y l a n d , " 1918 {ed. b y George P .
B a g b y ) , V o l . I V , A r t . C. see. 51, p p . 747-74S.

Mississippi.
I n " A n n o t a t e d Mississlppt Code." 1917 (ed.
b y W i l l i a m R . H e m i n g w a y ) , Vol, H , see.
4fi27,p. 2166.
N e w Jersey.
I n First Supplement t o t h e Compiled Statutes of N e w Jersey," 1911-1915, sec. 83, p .
866» and i n "Session L a w s of N e w Jersey,"
1921, ch. 194, p . 510.
N e w Mexico.
I n "Session Laws of N e w M e x i c o , " 1921, eh.
180, sec. 7, pp. 3S6-3S8.

60 hours..,

00 hours..

60 hours...

I n " R u l i n g s of the Industrial Board Pertaining to Women i n I n d u s t r y , " Rule W 22, June 14,1921.




2 hours o n Saturdays a n d the 6 days before
Christmas i n retail mercantile establishments
outside of the c i t y of Baltimore, i f t w o rest
periods of 1 h o u r each are granted o n each d a y
overtime is worked a n d 9 hours constitute the
m a x i m u m day during the remainder of the year.

Manufacturing, mechanical, mercantile, printing, baking
or laundering establishment. Exceptions: Canning, preserving or preparing for canning or preserving of perishable fruits and vegetables.

P e r m i t t e d i n cases of emergency or public
sity.

L a u n d r y , m i l l i n e r y , dressmaking, store or office, mercantile
establishment, theater, telegraph or telephone office, or
any other occupation. Exception: Domestic servants.

64 hours, 6 days.

60 hours..

Oregon.
I n " Oregon L a w s , " 1920, Vol, I I , sec. 66S9
p. 2676.
Pennsylranla,
I n " D i g e s t of Pennsylvania Statute Laws,'
1920, sees. 13540-13542, p. 1331.

M i l l , factory, mine, packing house, manufacturing establishment, workshop, l a u n d r y , m i l l i n e r y or dressmaking
stores, or mercantile establishments or hotel or restaurants or i n a n y theater or concert h a l l or i n or a b o u t any
place of amusement where intoxicating liquors are made
or sold or i n any bowling alley, bootblacklng establishment, freight or passenger elevator, o r i n t h e transmission
or d i s t r i b u t i o n of messages, whether telegraph or telephono or any other messages, or merchandise or i n a n y
other occupation whatsoever. Exception: Stores or
mercantile establishments o n Saturday nights i n w h i c h
more t h a n 5 persons are employed.

Manufacturing or mercantile establishment, b a k e r y ,
l a u n d r y or restaurant. Exception: Canneries engaged
i n packing a perishable product, such as fruits or vegetables; hotels or other continuous business where w o r k i n g
hoars do not exceed 8 per day.
Indefinite overtime allowed i n emergencies resulting from flood, fire, storm, epidemic of
sickness, or other l i k e causes.

A n y telephone establishment or office thereof; shift working
between 9 p. m . and 7 a. ra. Exceptions: Establishments
where 6 or leas operators are employed and where the
average number of calls per hour answered b y one operator does not exceed 230; females engaged i n interstate commerce where the w o r k i n g hours are regulated b y an act
of Congress of the U n i t e d States.

Overtime is allowed i f t i m e a n d a half is paid for
all hours over 10 per day.
54 hours, 6 days

Canneries or driers or packing plants.

2 hours on not more t h a n 3 days of the week, i f
a legal holiday occurs during the week and
the m a x i m u m weekly hours are not exceeded.

A n y establishment, " T h e term 'establishment' when
used i n this act shall mean any place w i t h i n this Commonwealth where w o r k is done for compensation of
any sort to whomever payable." Exceptions: Nurses i n
hospitals, w o r k i n private homes, farming, canning of
f r u i t and vegetable products.
Private home which through contract w i t h telephone
company becomes an exchange. Exceptions: N i g h t
w o r k need not be l i m i t e d as to hours i f a general average
at least 6 hours rest during the night is possible.

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CHART III.—TEN-HOUR LAWS—Continued
P A R T A.—POR W O M E N WORKERS—Continued
State
South Dakota.
I n "Session Laws of South D a k o t a , " 1923,
eh. 308, p. 32S.

Weekly l i m i t

54 hours

VirpTlufa.
I n "Code of Virginia," 1U19, Vol. I , sec. 1S08,
p. 676, and i n "Session Laws of Virginia,"
1918, chs, 214 and 414, pp. 363 and 756.

Occupations or industries specified

12 hours daily may be worked on the 5 days
preceding Christmas.

A n y employer, or other person having control of any
woman. Exceptions: Farm laborers, domestic servants,
telegraph and telephone operators, persons engaged in
the care of livestock.

(1)

Wisconsin.
I n "Wisconsin Statutes," 1923, sec. 103.02,
pp. nW-1105.

Overtime

55 hours

Factory, workshop, laundry, mercantile or manufacturing
establishment. Exceptions: Mercantile establishments
i n towns of less than 2,000 or i n country districts, bookkeepers, stenographers, cashiers, or office assistants,
factories packing fruits or vegetables.

Mississippi.
I n " A n n o t a t e d Mississippi Code," 1917 (cd.
b y W m . R . Hemingway), Vol. I I , sec. 4523,
pp. 2164-2165, and i n "Session Laws of Mississippi," 1924, ch. 314, pp. 541-643.
S o u t h Carolina.
I n "Session Laws of South Carolina," ;
No. 567, pp. 1011-1012.

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60 hours

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55 hours

55 hours

Permitted to make up time lost, not to ccxeed
10 days annually, caused by accidents or other
unavoidable circumstances. Permitted to
work regularly more than 10 hours per day
provided weekly hours are not exceeded.

Cotton or woolen jnanufacturiug establishments. E r ceptions: Engineers, firemen, watchmen, mechanics,
teamsters, yard employees, clerical forccs, cleaners,
repairmen.

30 minutes daily for the first 5 days of the week,
the additional time so worked to be deducted
from the last day of the week, l l j ^ hours
permitted for night work on the first 5 nights
of the week and
hours on Saturday night
provided weekly hours do not exceed 60.

M i l l , cannery, workshop, factory, or manufacturing establishment. Exceptions: F r u i t or vegetable canneries;
cases of emergency, or where the public necessity requires.

60 hours of overtime may be worked annually
to make u p lost time caused b y accident or
unavoidable cause, b u t such time must be
made up w i t h i n 3 months after i t was incurred.

Cotton and woolen manufacturing establishments engaged
i n the manufacture of yarns, cloth, hosiery, and other
products of merchandise. Exceptions:
Mechanics,
engineers, firemen, watchmen, teamsters, yard employees, and clerical force.

1 Vhrginia enforces section 4570 of the code of 1918, which prohibits work on Sunday,




g

Hotel.

PART B.-FOR A L L EMPLOYEES
Georgia.
I n " P a r k ' s Annotated Code of Georgia/
1914, Vol. I I , sec. 3137, p. 1570.

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CHART I V . — T E N - A N D - A - Q U A R T E R - H O U R , T E N - A N D - A - H A L F - H O U R , E L E V E N - H p U R , A N D

TWELVE-HOUR

LAWS

PART A.-TEN-AND-A-QTTARTER-HOUR L A W FOR W O M E N WORKERS
Weekly l i m i t

State
New Hampshire.
I n "Session Laws ol New Hampshire," 1917,
ch. 196, p. 750.

54 hours

Overtime

Occupations or industries specified

M a n u a l or mechanical labor i n any employment. Exceptions: Household labor and nurses, domestic, hotel, and
boarding house labor, operators i n telephone and telegraph offices, and farm labor, manufacture of munitions
or supplies for the U n i t e d States or State during war
time. Mercantile establishments on tho 7 days preceding Christmas, provided annual weekly average does
not exceed 64 hours.

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PART B.-TEN-AND-A-HALF-HOUR LAWS FOR W O M E N WORKERS
Tennessee.
In
Thompson's
Shannon's Tennessee
Code," 1918, sees. 4342a-51-4342a'52, pp»
1863-1864.

57 hours .

Vermont.
In
General Laws of V e r m o n t , " 1917, sec.
6S37, p. 1001, and i n "Session Laws of Verm o n t , " 1919, No. 160, p. 172

56 hours

Workshop, factory (i. c., manufacturing, mills, mechanical, electrical, mercantile, art, and laundering establishments, printing, telegraph and telephone offices, department stores, or any k i n d of establishment wherein labor
is employed or machinery -is used). Exceptions: Domestic service and agricultural pursuits.
M i n e or quarry, manufacturing or mechanical establishment. Exceptiom: I n any manufacturing establishment
or business, the materials or products of which are perishable, tho commissioner of industries, w i t h tho approval
of the governor, may suspend the law for a period not to
exceed two months i n any one year.

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PART C . - E L E V E N - H O U R L A W FOR A L L E M P L O Y E E S
O
N o r t h CaroUna.
I n "Consolidated Statutes of N o r t h Carol i n a , " 1919, sec. 6554, p. 595.

60 hours

A l l factories and manufacturing establishments. Bxceptions: Engineers, firemen, superintendents, overseers,
section and yard hands, office men, watchmen, repairers
of breakdowns.

P A R T D . - T W E L V E - H O U R L A W F O R W O M E N W O R E:ERS
S o u t h Carolina.
I n "Session Laws of South Carolina," 1914,
N o . 262, p . 481.




60 hours

Mercantile establishments.
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CHART V,—WEEKLY HOUR LAWS FOR W O M E N WORKERS
State

Weekly l i m i t

Overtime

to

Occupations or industries specified

Ck>nnectlcut.
I n "General Statutes of Connecticut/' Revision of 1918, sees. fi302 and saOfi, pp, 14861487,

S8 hours..

A n y bowling alley or mercantile establishment, public
restaurant or cafe, dining room, barber shop, hair dressing or manicuring establishment, photograph gallery.
Exceptions: Hotels, mercantile establishments from Dec.
17 to 25 i f employer grants at least seven holidays w i t h
pay annually.

Mafne.
I n " R e v i s e d Statutes of M a i n e , " Cth ed.,
1916. p p . 1650-1652.

54 hours...,

Telephone exchange employing more than 3» operators,
mercantile establishment, store, restaurant, telegraph
office, or any e.xpress or transportation company. Exceptions: M i l l i n e r y establishments o n t h e 8 days prior to
Easter Sunday, mercantile establishments on Dec. 17 to
24, inclusive, public service I n cases of emergency or i n
cases of extraordinary publio requirement.

Minnesota.
M i n i m u m Wage Commission Order, N o . 12,
1921.

48 hours (basic)- A l l hours over 48 per week must be paid for at
the rate of 25 cents an hour i n cities having
5,000 or more population, and 2 l H cents an
hour i n cities of less than 6,000 population.

A n y occupation.

New York.
I n "Session Laws of N e w Y o r k / ' 1021, Vol.
I , ch. 60, sec. 185, p . 16i.

fi4 hours, 6 days-

Messenger for a telegraph or messenger company i n the
distribution, transmission, or delivery of goods or messages.

Oregon.
i n d u s t r i a l Welfare Commission Order, N o .
44,1919.

48 hours, 6 days

I n d u s t r i a l Welfare Commission Order, N o .
48,1920.




5G hours..

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Offlc© occupation; i . e., stenographers, bookkeepers, t y p ists, b i l l i n g clerks, filing clerks, cashiers, checkers, i n voicers. comptometer operators, auditors, attendants i n
physicians' offices a n d dentists' offices, and all kinds of
clerical w o r k .
Student nurses.

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CHABT VI,—LAWS P R O V I D I N G FOR A D A Y OF REST, ONE SHORTER W O R K D A Y , T I M E FOR MEALS, A N D REST
PERIODS FOR W O M E N WORKERS—Continued
state

Day of rest or one shorter workday

Arfzona.
I n " T h e Revised Statutes of Arizona," 1913,
Penal Code, sec. 717, p.
149.

Arkansas.
I n " D i g e s t of the Statutes of Arkansas," 1919
(ed. b y T . D . Crawford
and H a m i l t o n Moses),
ch. 117, sees. 7102-7107,
pp. 1856-1857.

Industrial Welfare Commission Order, Regul a t i n g employment of
females i n hotels and
restaurants," 1919.
California.
Industrial Welfare Commission Order, No. 4,
1919.
Industrial Welfare Commission Order, No. 13,
1920.




T i m e for

Rest periods

A t least one hour for meals shall
he allowed each female during
her working period.

N o female shall be employed more
than 6 days I n any one week.

T i m e allowed for noon luncheon
shall not be less than three quarters of an hour. (Females.)

Occupations or industries specified

Mercantile establishment, confectionery store, bakery, l a u n d r y , hotel,
restaurant, or telephone or telegraph
office
or
exchange. Exceptions:
Nurses, telephone or telegraph oflSee
or exchange i n which not more than
3 females are employed.
N o female shall be employed or
permitted to work more than fi
hours continuously w i t h o u t an
interval of atleast three-quarters
of an hour.
Exceptiom:
hours' continuous labor i f such
employment ends not later than
half-past 1 i n the afternoon and
the worker is dismissed for the
remainder of the day.

Manufacturing, mechanical, or mercantile establishment, laundry or any
express or transportation company.
Ezcepiiom: Cotton factories, gathering of fruits or farm products.
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Hotels and restaurants.

N o female shall be employed more
than 6 days I n any one week.

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N o person, firm, or corporation
shall employ or suffer or permit
any woman . . . to work more
than 6 days i n any one week.
N o person, firm, or corporation
shall employ or suffer or permit
any woman . . . t o work more
than fl days In any one week.

Females are entitled to 1 hour for
meals, either a t noontime or at
evening, b u t at noon they may
not be permitted to return to
work inless than one-half hour.
Females are entitled to three-quarters of an hour for the n{x>ntime
meal, b u t they may not be permitted to return to work i n less
than one-half hour. T h e y are
allowed 1 hour for the evening
meal.

Laundry and d r y cleaning and manufacturing industries.

o

Mercantile establishments.

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CHABT VI,—LAWS PROVIDING FOR A DAY OF REST, ONE SHORTER WORKDAY, T I M E FOR MEALS, A N D REST
PERIODS FOR WOMEN WORKERS—Continued
State

D a y of rest or one shorter workday

California—Continued.
I n d u s t r i a l Welfare Commission Orders, Nos»
33, fia, Ta,
11a, ISa,
1923.

N o employer shall employ or suffer
or p e r m i t any woman t o w o r k
. . , more than 6 days i n any on©
week.

T i m e for meals

Best periods

Delaware.
I n "Session Laws of Delaware," 1917, cb. 230,
p p . 741-742.




N o female shall be employed more
than 6 days in any ono calendar
week.

Occupations or industries specified

Labeling i n the f r u i t and vegetable
canning i n d u s t r y ; mercantile indust r y ; labeling and office w o r k i n the
fish canning i n d u s t r y ; laundry and
d r y cleaning industry; dried fruit
packing industry and office workers
i n the citrus packing and green f r u i t
and vegetable packing industry;
manufacturing industry; n u t cracki n g and sorting industry.
General and professional offices; f r u i t
and vegetable canning Industry; fish
canning industry; citrus packing and
green f r u i t and vegetable packing
industry.

Industrial Welfare Com- Every woman and minor shall be
mission Orders, No. 9,
entitled to 1 day's rest In 7.
1920, and Nos. 3a, 6a, 8a,
Exceptions:
Emergencies,
in
1923.
w h i c h case w o r k m a y go on i f
time and a quarter is paid for the
first 8 hours and double time for
a l l hours above 8,
I n d u s t r i a l Welfare Com- E v e r y employer employing womission Orders, Nos.
men . . . shall provide for 1 f u l l
day of rest a week. Exceptions:
10a, 12a, 1923,
Women w o r k i n g 6 hours per day
m a y w o r k 7 days per week.

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Unclassified occupations; hotels and
restaurants.

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N o t less t h a n 30 minutes shall be
allowed to every female . . . for
the m i d d a y or evening meal.

N o female shall be employed or
permitted to w o r k more than 6
hours continuously w i t h o u t an
interval of at least three-quarters
of an hour.
Exceptions:
hours of continuous labor i f such
employment ends n o t later t h a n
half-past 1 i n the afternoon and
the worker is dismissed for the
remainder of the day.

Mercantile, Tuochanical, or manufact u r i n g establishment; l a u n d r y , baking, or p r i n t i n g establishment; telephone a n d telegraph office or exchange; restaurant, hotel, placc of
amusement, dressmaking establiahment, or office.
Exceptions: Canning or preserving or preparation for
canning or preserving of perishable
fruits and vegetables.

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Ulstrtct o f C o l u m b i a .
I n " T h e Code of L a w for
the D i s t r i c t of Columb i a , " 1919 (ed. b y W i l liam S. Torbet), p. 403.

Kansas.
Industrial Welfare Conimission Order, N o . 9.
1018.

N o female shall be employed more
than 6 days i n any one week.

6 days shall constitute a basic week
for all women and minors.

Industrial Welfare Order,
N o . 12,1922.

Industrial Welfare Order,
N o . 13,1922.

Industrial W Jfare Order,
N o . 14,1922.




N o female snail be employed or
permitted to work more than 6
hours continuously w i t h o u t an
interval of at least three-quarters
of an hour. i:j:ccptwns: (1)
hours continuous labor if such
employment ends not later than
half-past 1 i n the afternoon and
the worker is dismissed for the
remainder of the day. (2) Establishments or occupations i n
which less than 3 females are
employed.

Employment for women and minors shall be limited to 6 days i n
a week, w i t h 1 day of rest i n
every 7 days.

N o woman or minor shall be employed , . . more than 6 days
during each week.

Belief for lunch shall be 1 hour;
provided that the court of industrial relations on application of
both employer .and employee
m a y reduce this period to onehalf hour. (Female workers.)
The meal relief shall not be less
t h a n 45 minutes.
(Females.)
I^xceplions: T h e court of industrial relations m a y grant a
shorter lunch period i n any particular industry after investigation, or where the industry opcrates on an 8-hour basis the
lunch period shall not bo less
than 30 minutes.
Relief for meals, 1 hour.
or minor.)

Manufacturing, mechanical, or mercantile establishments, laundry; hotel or restaurants, or telegraph or telephone establishment or office, or any
express or transportation company.

The day's work shall be divided
into two shifts, one of which shall
not exceed 6 hours' duration.
(Females.)
N o female person shall be permitted to work more than 6 consecutive hours without relief for
meals.

Telephone operators.

N o t more than 5 hours shall be
worked i n any one period without relief for meals. (Females.)

Manufacturing occupation, i. e., all
processes i n the production of commodities.
Exceptions:
Millinery
workrooms, dressmaking establishments, hemstitching and button
shops, and alteration, drapery and
upholstery departments of a mercantile establishment may obtain permission from the Court of Industrial
Relations to operate under the mercantile order.
Mercantile establishments; includes
all establishments operated for the
purpose of trade i n the purchase or
sale of any goods or merchandise, and
includes the sales forcc, the wrapping
employees, the auditing and checking
force, the shippers i n the mail-order
department, tho receiving, marking,
and stock-room employees, sheet
music sales-women and demonstrators, and all employees i n such establishments i n any way directly connected w i t h the sale, purchase and
disposition of goods, wares and mer, chandise.

Oi

Laundry occupation, i. e., laundries,
dyeing, d r y cleaning and pressing
establishments.

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(Woman N o woman or minor shall bo employed for more than 5 hours
without relief for meals.

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CHABT VI,—LAWS P R O V I D I N G FOR A D A Y OF REST, ONE SHORTER WORKDAY, T I M E FOR MEALS, A N D REST
PERIODS FOR W O M E N WORKERS—Continued
state
Kansas—Continued.
Industrial Welfare Order,
No. 15,1922.

Day of rcsst or one shorter workday

Time for meals

N o woman or minor shall be per- Relief for meals shall not bo less
mitted t o work without 1 f u l l
than one-half hour. (Woman
d a y o f r e s t i n e v e r y 7 days. Exor minor.)
ceptions: Women working part
of each day whose total weekly
hours do not exceed 35.

Loiifstaoa.
In
Constitution and
Statutes of Louisiana,' *
1920 (ed. b y Solomon
WolO, Vol. I I , p . 1090.
I n " C o n p t l t u t i o n and
Statutes of Louisiana/'
1920 (ed. b y S o l o m o n
Wolf), Vol. 11, pp.1082
and 1084.




A l l females siball be allowed 1 hour
each, day for dinner. ExcepHons: I n ease two-thirds of employees so desire, 30 minutes
only may be allowed.

Rest periods

N o woman or minor shall be perm i t t e d t o work for more than 5
hours without relief for meals.
I f w o r k is done i n t w o shifts, 4
hours rest must be allowed between shifts.
I f work is done I n three shifts, 3
- hours rest must be allowed between the second and third
shifts.

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Occupations or industries specified

Public housekee _
I, 1. 0.,
the work of waitresses in restaurants,
hotel dining rooms and boarding
houses; all attendants employed at
lee cream parlors, soda fountains,
light lunch stands, steam table or
counter work i n cafeterias and delicatessens where freshly cooked foods
are served, and confectionery stores
where lunches are served; the work
of chambermaids In hotels, lodging
and boarding houses, and hospitals;
the work ofjanitresses, of car cleaners,
and of kitchen workers i n hotels, restaurants and hospitals; elevator operators, cigar stand and cashier girls
connected w i t h such establishments.

Each day, between the hours of A l l persons, Arms, or corporations doing
business at retail.
10 a. m. and 3 p. m., not less than
30 minutes for lunch or recreation shall be allowed female
labor or female clerks.
M i l l , factory, mine, packing house,
manufacturing establishment, workshop, laundry, millinery or dressmaking stores, or mercantile establishments or hotel or restaurants, or
i n any theater or <;oncert hall or i n
or about any place of amusement
where intoxicating liquors are made
or sold or i n any bowling alley, bootblacking establishment, freight or
passenger elevator or i n the transmission or distribution of messages,
whether telegraph or telephone or
any other messages, or merchandise
or i n any other occupation whatsoever, Hxcfptions: Stores or mercantile establishments In which not more
than 5 persons are employed on Saturday nights.

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Maine.
I n "Revised Statutes of
M a i n e , " 0th ed., 1916,
pp. 1650-1C52.

N o female shall be employed or
permitted to work more than
6 hours continuously w i t h o u t an
interval of a t least 1 hour. Exceptions: 6 H hours' continuous
labor i f such emplojrment ends
not later than half past 1 i n the
afternoon and the worker is dismissed for the remainder of the
day.

N o female shall be employed or
permitted to work more than 6
hours continuously w i t h o u t an
interval of at least a half hour.
Exceptions: 63^ hours' continuous labor if she shall not be permitted t o work during the remainder of the day. A l l females
shall have at least two rest intervals of not less than 1 hour each.

Maryland.
I n " A n n o t a t e d Code of
the P u b l i c G e n e r a l
Laws of M a r y l a n d / '
1918 (ed. b y George P .
B a g b y ) , V o l . 4 , A r t . C,
sec. 51,pp..74l7748,

Massachusetts.
I n '"General L a w s of
Massachusetts/' 1921,
V o l I I , ch, 149, sees100-101,p. 1570.




N o woman s h a l l be e m p l o y e d
more than 6 hours at one time
without an Interval of at least
45 minutes for a meal. Exceptions:
hours at any one time
if such employment ends not
later than 1 o'clock i n the afternoon and the worker is dismissed for the remainder of the
day; VA hours at any one time
i f worker is allowed sufficient
opportunity to eat a lunch, and
if such employment ends not
later t h a n 2 o'clock i n the afternoon and the w o r k e r Is dismissed for the remainder of the
day.

Workshoi], factory, manufacturing, or
mechanical establishment, or laun' d r y , telephone exchange employing
more t h a n 3 operators, or mercantile
establishment, store, restaurant, telegraph office, or any express or transportation c o m p a n y .
Exceptions:
Public services i n cases of emergency,
or I n eases of extraordinary public
recLUirement, manufacturing establ i s h m e n t , or business the materials
and products of which are perishable.
Manufacturing, mechanical, mercantile, printing, baking, or laundering
establishment. Exceptions:
Establishments employhig less than 5
persons; canning, preserving or preparing for canning or preserving of
perishable fruits and vegetables.
Mercantile establishments outside of
the city of Baltimore where work is
permitted for 12 hours on Saturdays,
Christmas Eve, and the 5 days preceding Christmas Eve.

See " Time for m e a l s " —

Factory or workshop i n which 6 or
more women or persons under 18
years of age are employed. Exceptions: Ironworks, glass works, paper
mills, letter-press establishments,
print works, bleaching works, or dyeing works or continuous processes
exempted b y the department of labor
and industries w i t h the approval
of the governor.

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CHABT VI,—LAWS P R O V I D I N G FOR A D A Y OF REST, ONE SHORTER WORKDAY, T I M E FOR MEALS, A N D REST
PERIODS FOR W O M E N WORKERS—Continued
D a y of rest or one shorter workday
Minnesota.
In "Session Laws
M i n n e s o t a / ' 1923, ch.
422, p p . 626-629.

N e w Jersey.
I n " P i r s t Supplement to
the Compiled Statutes
of N e w Jersey/' 19111915, sec. 83, p. 866.

A t least 60 mimites shall be allowed for meals. Exceptions:
T h e industrial commission may
issue permits allowing a shorter
time. (Females.)

N o female shall be employed, allowed, or permitted to w o r k
more than 6 days i n any one
week.

New York.
I n "Session Laws of N e w N o female shalJ be employed more
than 6 days i n any week.
Y o r k / ' 1 9 2 1 , V o l . I , ch.
50, (a) sec. 172, p . 161,
(b) sec. 181, p . 163, (c)
sec. 182, p . 164, (d) sec.
183, p . 164, (c) sec. 185,




T i m e for meals

Rest periods

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Occupations or industries specified

A n y business or service whatever.
mxcepdons: Domestics i n the home;
persons engaged i n the care of the
sick or injured; cases of emergency
i n w h i c h the safety, health, morals
or welfare of the public may otherwise be affected; night employees
whoso total hours at their place o f
employment do not exceed twelve
and who have t h e opportunity for
at least four hours sleep; telephone
operators i n municipalities of less
than 15G0 inhabitants.

I

.Manufacturing or mercantile establishment; bakery, laundry^ restaurant.
Exceptions: Canneries
engaged i n packing a perishable product, such as fruits or vegetables;
hotels or other continuous business
where working hours do not exceed 8
per day.

o

(a) Factory, 1. o., m i l l , workshop, manufacturing establishment, laundries,
(b) Mercantile establishment. Exceptions: Writers or reporters i n
newspaper offices, (c) W o r k i n or
i n connection w i t h restaurants i n
cities of the first and sccond class.
Exceptions: Singers and performers
of any k i n d , attendants i n ladies'
cloak rooms and parlors; employees
i n or I n connection w i t h the dining
rooms and kitchens of hotels or i n
connection w i t h employees' l u n c h
rooms or restaurants, (d) Custody
or management of or operation of any
elevator for freight or passengers i n
any building or place. Exceptions:
Hotels, (e) Messenger for a telegraph or messenger company i n the
distribution, transmission or del i v e r y of goods or messages.

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Ibid., sec. 1S4, p. 164

No female shall be employed more
than 6 days i a any week.

North Dakota.
I n "Session Laws of
N o r t t i Dakota,'* 1923,
Ch. 346, pp. 520-521.

No'fomale sball be employed more
than ti days. . . i n any one week.

M i n i m u m Wage Department Order, No. 1,1922.

M i n i m u m Wage Department Order, No. 2, 1922.

M i n i m u m Wage Department Order, N o . 4,
1922.




N o t less than 1 hour shall be allowed for meals. Exceptions:
T h e commissioner of labor may
grant permission for a shorter
meal period. (Females.)

30 minutes shall be allowed for
meals i f they are furnished on
the premises; 60 minutes for
lunch i f employees must leave
premises. (Females.)

A so-minute period for the noon
meal shall be the m i n i m u m allowed. (Females.)

A 30-minut6 period for the noou
meal sball be the m i n i m u m allowed. (Females.)

Conductor or ^ a r d on any street,
surface, electric, subway or elevated
railroad.

N o woman shall be employed for
more than 4 hours of continuous
labor without a rest period.

N o woman shall be employed for
more than
hours of continuous labor without a rest period.

N o woman shall be employed for
more than 5 hours of continuous
labor w i t h o u t a rest period.

Manufacturing, mechanical, or mercantile establishment, laundry, hotel,
or restaurant, or telephone or telegraph establishment or office, or any
express or transportation company.
£zceptions: R u r a l
telephone
exchanges and i n villages and towns of
less than 500 populationPublic housekeeping occupation, i . e.,
the work of waitresses i n restaurants,
hotel dining rooms, boarding houses,
and all attendants employed at ico
cream and light lunch stands and
steam table or counter w o r k i n cafeterias and delicatessens where freshly
cooked foods are served and the work
of chambermaids i n hotels and lodgi n g bouses and boarding houses and
hospitals and the w o r k ofjanitresses
and car cleaners and of kitchen workers i n hotels and restaurants and hospital and elevator operators.
Manufacturing occupation, i. e., all processes i n the production of commodities. Includes the work performed
i n dressmaking shops and wholesale
millinery houses i n the work-rooms o f
retail millinery shops, a n d i n the drapery and furniture covering workshops, tho garment alteration, art,
needlework, fur garment making and
millinery workrooms i n mercantile
stores, and tho candy making departments of retail candy stores and of
restaurants, and i n bakery and bisc u i t manufacturing cstabh'shments,
i n candy manufacturing and i n book
binding and j o b press feeding establishments.
Laundry occupation, i . c., all the processes connectcd w i t h the receiving,
marking, washing, cleaning, ironing,
and distribution of washable or cleanable materials. The work performed
i n laundry departments in hotels,
hospitals and factories.

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CHABT VI,—LAWS PROVIDING FOR A DAY OF REST, ONE SHORTER WORKDAY, T I M E FOR MEALS, A N D REST
PERIODS FOR WOMEN WORKERS—Continued
state

Day of rest or ono shorter workday

N o r t h Dakota—Continued,
M i n i m u m Wage Department OrdeFj No. 6,
1922.




Telephone establishments.

Factory, workshop, business office, telephone or telegraph office, restaurant,
bakery, millinery or dressmaking establishment, mercantile, or other establishment.

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Factory, workshop, telephone or telegraph office, millinery or dressmaking establishment, restaurant; the
distribution or transmission of messages, i n or on any interurban or
street railway car, or as ticket sellers
or elevator operators, or i n any mercantile establishment located m any
city. Exceptions: Canneries and establishments preparing for use perishable goods during the canning

N o female shall be employed, permitted, or suffered to work more
than 6 days l a any one week.

N o persons shall employ any
woman
for more than 6 days
In ono calendar week.

to

Occupations or industries specified

Females shall bo entitled to not
less than 30 minutes for meal
time i n establishments where'
lunch rooms are provided, and
t o not less than 1 hour for meal
time i n establishments where no
lunch rooms are provided.

Oregon.
Industrial Welfare Commission Order, No. 36,
1918.
Industrial Welfare Commission Orders, Nos.
37,38, 39, and 41,1919.

Best periods

Adequate time and provision at
seasonable hours must be given
t o the employees for meals.
(Females.)

Ohio.
In
General Code of
Ohio, Page's Compact
E d i t i o n , " m i . Vol. I ,
sec, 1008, pp. 494-495.

Idem..

Time for meals

00

N o woman shall be emiDloyed on
two successive days without an
interval of 9 hours' rest between
sucli days.
N o person shall employ any
w o m a n . . . for more than 6 hours
of continuous labor without a
rest period of at least 45 minutes.

A l l occupations.

Mercantile occupations, 1. e., the work
of those employed i n establishments
operated for the purpose of trade I n
the purchase or sale of any goods or
merchandise, and Includes the sales
force, the wrapping employees, the
auditing or check inspection force, the
shippers m the mail order department, the receiving, marking and
stock room employees, and sheet
music saleswomen and demonstrators.

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Industrial Welfare Commission Orders, Nos. 40
and 44,1919.

N o person shall employ any
woman . . . for more than 6 days
i n one calendar week.

N o person shall employ any
w o m a n . . . for more than 0 hours
of continuous labor between 7
a. m . and 8.30 p. m., without a
rest period of at least 45 minutes.

Industrial Welfare Commission Orders, Nos.
42,43, and 45,1919.

Industrial Welfare Commission Orders, Nos.
42 and 43,1919.

Industrial Welfare Commission Order, No. 42,
1U19.




N o person shall employ any
w o m a n . . . for more than 6 hours
of continuous labor between 7
a. m . and 8.30 p. m., without a
rest period of at least 46 minutes.

N o person shall employ any
woman . . . for 7 consecutive
days without allowing 1 day
during which the hours of employment shall not exceed 6
hours.
N o person shall employ any
woman . . . for more than 6
days i n one calendar week.
Commission may except exchanges employing less than 10
operators.

Manufacturing occupation, i. e., a l l
processes i n the production of commodities. Includes the w o r k performed i n dressmaking shops, a n d
wholesale millinery houses, i n the
workrooms of retail millinery shops,
and i n the drapery and f urniture covering workrooms, the garment alteration, art needle work, fur garment
making and millinery workrooms i n
mercantile stores, and the candy
making department of retail candy
stores, and of restaurants. Exceptions: F r u i t and vegetable drying,
canning, preserving and packing establishments.
L a u n d r y occupation, i . e., all the processes connected w i t h the receiving,
marking, washing, cleaning and ironing and distribution of washable and
cleanable materials. The work performed i n laundry departments i n
hotels and factories.
Personal-service occupation, i, e., manicuring, hairdressing, barbering and
other work of liko nature and the
work of ushers i n theaters.
OfQce occupation, i. e., stenographers,
bookkeepers, typists, billing clerks*
filing clerks, cashiers, checkers, invoioers, comptometer operators, auditors, attendants i n physicians' and
dentists* offices, and ail kinds of clerical work.
Telephone or telegraph occupations,
public housekeeping occupation, i. e.,
hotel, restaurant, boarding house, car
cleaners, janitresses,elevatoroperators.

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Telegraph occupation.
tei

Telephone occupation i n the c i t y of
Portland.

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CHAET VI.—LAWS PROVIDING FOR A DAY OF REST, ONE SHORTER WORKDAY, T I M E FOR MEALS, A N D REST
PERIODS FOR W O M E N WORKERS—Continued
state
Oregon—Continued.
Industrial Welfare Commission Order, No. 43,
1S19.

Fennsyhania.
I n ^'Digest of the Pennsylvania Statute L a w , "
1920, sees. 13540-13542,
13545,13546, p. 1331.

I n " R u l i n g s of the Industrial Board pertaini ng to women i n
i n d u s t r y , " Rule W-1,
1916, pp. 6-6.




Day of rest or one shorter workday

Time for meals

Rest periods

N o person shall employ any
wotqan for 14 consccutive days
without 1 f u l l day of rest.
N o person shall employ any
woman . . . for H consecutive
days without 1 day of not more
t h a n 6 hours' work. Commission may except exchanges employing less than 10 operators.
N o female shall be employed or
permitted to work for more
than G days i n any one week.

The 1 day of holiday i n 7 may be
subdivided into 2 days of 12
hours each at the discretion of
the i n d u s t r i a l board.
(Females.)
Women employees may be granted
1 whole day of rest or 2 half days
i n each calendar week.
Women employees may be granted
1 day of rest per week by any
one of the following methods:
1, 1 complete day; 2, 24 hours
consecutive rest beginning at
any hour of the day; 3, Sunday
oil one week, a week day off the
next week; 4, alternate Sundays
ofT w i t h one-half week day.
Equals 2 f u l l days per fortnight; 5, 2 half holidays of at
.least 5 hours each.
Women employees shall be given
1 complete day off i n each calendar week, or 24 hours of
consecutive rest beginning at
any hour of the day.

Occupations or industries speciQed

Telephone occupation outside the city
of Fortland.

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Not less than 45 minutes shall be
allowed to every female employed or permitted to work
. . . for the midday meal. Exceptions: I f females work less
t h a n 8 hours per day the midday meal time may be reduced
to not less than 30 minutes.

N o female shall be employed or
permitted to work more than
6 hours continuously without
an interval of at least 45 minutes. I f females work less than
8 hours per day, the interval
between work periods may be
reduced to not less than 30
minutes.

A n y establishment. " T h e term ^establishment* when used i n this act
shall mean' any place w i t h i n the
Commonwealth where work is done
for compensation of any sort to
w h o m e v e r p a y a b l e " . Ezceptions:
Nurses i n hospitals, work i n private
homes, farming, canning of fruit and
vegetable products.
Hotels, boarding houses, charitable,
educational, and religious institutions.

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Short terms summer hotels.
Hotels and institutions employing not
more than 10 women; single departments, employing not more than 10
women, of hotels and institutions.

Hotels employing more thau 10 women.

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I b i d . , R u l e W-S, 1917.
p. 6,
Porto Bico.
I n "Sessiou L a w s of
Porto R i c o , " 2d. eess.,
1919, N o . 73, pp. 49G497.

Short term hotels operating approximately 4 months i n the year.

Women m a y be employed 7 days
er week provided their daily
ours do n o t exceed 7.

E

T i m e allowed for meals shall be
not less t h a n 1 hour, (Females.)

N o woman shall w o r k i n each
period for more t h a n 4 hours.

A n y lucrative occupation.

N o female shall be employed more
t h a n fi hours w i t h o u t a rest
period of a t least one-half hour.

Public housekeeping i n d u s t r y , i . e.,
linen room girls, chambermaids,
cleaners, kitchen girls, dishwashers,
p a n t r y girls, p a n t r y servers, waitresses, counter girls, bus girls, elevator

Ui

Washington*
I n d u s t r i a l Welfare Comm i t t e e Order, N o . 23,
192!.

N o female shall be employed more
t h a n 6 days i n any one week.
Exceptions: Emergencies, w h e n
w o m e n m a y be employed 10 days
before a day o f rest is given
t h e m , provided t h e y receive a t
least 4 days rest i n a n y 28 d a y
period.

N o female shall be employed on a
s h i f t of more t h a n 6 hours w i t h o u t a rest period of 15 minutes.

is set for a 6-day

Industrial Welfare Coniinittee Order, N o . 25,
1921.
I n d u s t r i a l Welfare Comm i t t e e Order,. N o , 27,
1921.

M i n i m u m w;
week. (Fe]

M i n i m u m wage is set for a 6-day
week. (Females.)

N o t less t h a n 1 hour shall bo allowed for a luncheon period.
(Females.)

I n d u s t r i a l Welfare Comm i t t e e Order, N o , 28,
1921.
I n d u s t r i a l Welfare Committee Order, N o . 29,
1922.

M i n i m u m wage is set for a 0-day
week, (Females.)

N o t less t h a n 1 hour shall be allowed for a noonday luncheon,
(Females.)

Wisconsin.
I n Wisconsin Statutes,"
- 1923, V o l . 1 , sees.103.0110a.02, p p , 1104-1105.




(except w h e n a commerciS^laundry
is operated), and a n y other occupat i o n w h i c h w o u l d properly be classified under Public Housekeeping.
T h e establishment shall include:
Hotels, rooming houses, boarding
houses, restaurants, caffe, cafeterias,
lunch rooms, tea rooms, apartment
houses, hospitals ( n o t nurses), p h i l anthropic institutions, a n d a n y other
w h i c h m a y be properly classified
under this industry.
L a u n d r y , dry-cleaning or dye works
occupation, trade or i n d u s t r y .
Telephone or telegraph lines or any
other public occupation.
Exceptiofis:
Occupations regulated b y Orders,
numbered 23, 25, 28 and 29.
Mercantile establishment.
Manufacturing occupations, trades and
industries.

N o female shall bo employed for
more t h a n 6 days i n any one
week.
N o femalo shall be allowed less
t h a n 1 hour d u r i n g each d a y or
n i g h t for dinner or other meals.
Exceptions: T h e commission may
modify this provision.

Place of employment (i. e., manufacturing, mechanical, or mercantile
establishment; l a u n d r y , restaurant,
confcctioncry store, or telegraph or
telephone ofiicc, or exchange, or any
express or transportation establishment).

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CHART VI,—LAWS P R O V I D I N G FOR A D A Y OF REST, ONE SHORTER W O R K D A Y , T I M E FOR MEALS, A N D REST
State

D a y of rest or one shorter workday

Wisconsin—Continued.
Industrial Commission
Order, No. 5,1918.

The meal period may be 30 minutes
provided the stretch of labor between meals does not exceed 6
hours.
Meal periods of not less than 30
minutes must bo given to all
women at the usual time for
meals, 1, e., at or about 12 noon,
C p. m., and 12 midnight,

CHART

The stretch of work between meal
[women.) ^ T h e r e must be a
rest period of at least 9 consecutive hours during each 24 hours.

L i m i t a t i o n of night work

Pea canning factories; factories canning beanSf cherries, corn, or tomatoes.

Occupations or industries specified

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Orders,

10 p. m. to G a. m „

Orders,

11 p. m. to 6 a. m.In

Connecticut.
I n " General Statutes of Connecticut," Revision of 1918, sec. 6303, p. 14S6, and sec.
fi306, p. 1487, ond In "Session Laws of
^ Connecticut/' 1919, ch. 195, p. 2844, and
In Session Laws of Connecticut," 1921,
ch. 220, pp. 3197-3198.
Delaware,
I n "Revised Statutes of Delaware," 1915,
sec. 3136, p, 1467, and i n "Session Laws
of Delaware," 1917, ch. 230, pp. 741-742.




I n cities of the first class, manufactories which have convenient, adequately equipped lunch rooms.
I n restaurants where employees eat on
prOTiises.

V I I . — N I G H T - W O R K LAWS FOR W O M E N WORKERS

Prohibition of
night work

state

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Oct-upailons or industries specified

Rest periods

The lunch period for female workera may bo 45 minutes.

Industrial Commission
orders, regulating pea
canneries, and regulating factories which can
beans, cherries, com, or
tomatoes.

Callfornfa.
Industrial Welfare Commission
Nos, 7a and 8a, 1923.
Industrial Welfare Commission
Nos. l l a and 15a, 1923.

T i m e for meals .

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continuous processes where a permit to work
at night is granted b y the industrial commission, time and one-half must be paid.

10 p. m* to 6 a. m..

10 p. m . to 6 a. m .

I f any part of a female's work is performed between 11 p. m. and 7 a. m. not more than 8
hours of work In any 24 are permitted.

Laundry and d r y cleaning industry. Dried fruit packing
industry.
Manufacturing industry. N u t cracking and sorting industry. Exceptions: I n continuous processes under a
permit from the industrial commission.
Public restaurant, caf6, dining room, barber shop, hair
dressing or manicuring establishment, photograph gallery, any manufacturing, mechanical, or mercantile establishment, (i, e., mercantile establishment includes
public bowling alleys). ExcepUotis: Hotels. I n the
event of war or other serious emergency, governor may
suspend limitations where he deems i t necessary.
Mechanical or manufacturing establishment, laundry,
baking or printing establishment, office or dressmaking
establishment. Exceptions: Canning or preserving, or
preparation for canning or preserving or perishable
fruits and vegetables.
Mercantile establishments, telephone and telegraph office
or exchange, restaurant, hotel, place of amusement.

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Indiana.
I n " B u m ' s Annotated Indiana Statutes,"
1914, Vol. l U , sec. 8023, p. 995.
Kansas.
Industrial Welfare
No. 9,1918.

Commission

10 p. m . M) 6 a. HL

Order,

Industrial WelLire Order, No. 13,1922.

Industrial Welfare Order, No. 14, 1922.

Industrial Welfare Order, N o . 15, 1922..

M a x i m u m hours shall not exceed 12 for total
work time plus rest t i m e and sleep t i m e for
all operators regularly employed after 10.30
p. m .
9 p. m . to 6 a. m.,




Telephone operators.

Manufacturing occupation, i . e., all processes i n the production of commodities. Excepiions: M i l l i n e r y workrooms, dressmaking establishments, hemstitching and
button shop'?, and alteration, drapery and upholstery
departments of a mercantile establishment m a y obtain
permission from the Court of Industrial Relations to
operate under the Mercantile Order.
Mercantile establishments; includes all establishments
operated for the purpose of trade i n the purchase or sale
of any goods or merchandise, and includes the sales force,
the wrapping employees, the auditing and checking
force, the shippers i n tho m a i l order department, the
receiving, marking and stock room employees, sheet
masic saleswomen and demonstrators, and all employees
i n such establishments in any way directly connected
w i t h tho sale, purchase and disposition of goods, wares
and merchandise. Exceptions: T h e Industrial Court
m a y permit mercantile establishments to remain open
. one day per week u n t i l 10 p. m . i n agricultural communities, for any specified number of weeks between June 1
and September 16.
Public housekeeping occupation, i . e., the work of waitresses i n restaurants, hotel dining rooms and boarding
houses; all attendants employed at ice cream parlors,
soda fountains, l i g h t lunch stands, steam table or counter
work i n cafeterias and delicatessens where freshly cooked
foods are served; and confectionery stores where luncheons are served; the work of chambermaids i n hotels,
lodging and boarding houses, and hospitals; the work of
janitresses, of car cleaners, and of kitchen workers i n
hotels, restaurants, and hospitals; elevator operators,
cigar stand and cashier girls connected w i t h such establishments.

After 9 p. m..

12 p. m. to 6 a. m .

Maryland.
I n " A n n o t a t e d Code of the Public General
Laws of M a r y l a n d , " 1918 (ed. b y George
P. Bagby), Vol. I V , A r t . C, sec. 51, pp.
747-748.
Massachusetts.
I n General Laws of Massachusetts," 1921,
Vol. I I , ch. 149, sec. 59, p. i m .

Manufacturing.

I f any part of a female's work is performed
before 6 a. m . or after 10 p. m., not more than
8 hours' work i n any one day are permitted.

Manufacturing, mechanical, mercantile, printing, baking,
or laundering establishment. Exceptions: Canning, preserving, or preparing for canning or preserving of perishable fruits and vegetables.

1 0 p . m . t o 6 a . m.

Manufacture of textile goods.

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Manufacturing.

0 p. m. to 6 a. m .

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CHART V I I . — N I G H T - W O R K LAWS FOR W^OMEN WORKERS—Continued
State

JVebnwka.
I n CompJIed Statutes of Nebraska/* 1922,
C i v i l Administrative Code. T i t l e I V ,
A r t . n . sees. 7650-7661. pp. 2360-2361.

Prohibition of
night work

Limitation of nlgbt work

lOp.ixj.to 6a.m.

New Bampshfre.
I n "Session Laws of New Uampshire,"
1917, ch. 196, p. 750.

M a n u a l or mechanical labor in any employment. Exceptions: Household labor and nurses, domestic, hotel, and
boardinp house labor operators i n telephone and telegraph offices, and farm labor, manufacture of munitions
and supplies for the United States or the State during war
time, mercantile establishments on the 7 days preceding
Christmas, provided annual weekly average does not
cxceed 54 hours.

N e w Jerser*
I n "Session Laws of New Jersey," 1923, ch,
144, pp. 312-313.

10 p . m . to 6 a. m .

A n y manufacturing, mercantile establishment, any bakery,
. laundry, or restaurant. Exceptions: Canneries engaged
i^n^packing a perishable product, such as fruits or vege-

New Y o r k .
I n "Session Laws of New Y o r k , " 1921, ch.
50, sees. 172-173, p. 161.
I b i d . , sec. 181, p. 163

10 p. m. to 6 a. m.

Factory, i. e,, m i l l , workshop, or other manufacturing
establishment, laundries.
Mercantile establishment. Excepiions: Dec. 18-24, 2 days
annually for stock taking, writers or reporters i n newspaper offlces may work 7 days per week.
Work i n or i n connection w i t h restaurants i n cities of the
first and second class. ExceptioTis: Singers and performers of any k i n d , attendants i n ladies' cloak rooms and
parlors, employees i n or in connection w i t h the dining
rooms and kitchens of hotels or i n connection w i t h
employees* lunch rooms or restaurants.
Custody, management of or operation of elevator for freight
or passengers i n any building or place- Exceptions:
I f the industry occupying the buildmg starts w o r k at
6 a. m . the elevator operator m a y begin work at that
hour. Hotels.
Conductor or guard on any street surface, electric, subway
or elevated railroad.
Messenger for a telegraph or messenger company i n the
distribution, transmission, or delivery of, goods or mes-

I b i d , , sec. 182, p . 164.,

I b i d . , soc. 183, p. 104.,

10 p. m. to 7 a. m .
10 p. m. to 6 a. m .

10 p . m . to 7 a . m .

Ibid., sec. 184, p. 1 6 4 . . „

10 p. m. to 6 a. m ,

Ibid., sec. 185, p. 164.._,

10 p. m . to 7 a. m .




00

Occupations or induslrleri six^cified

Manufacturing, mechanical, or mercantile establishmentst
laundry, hotel, or restaurant, oflic© In metropolitan
cities and cities of the first dass. Eiceptiom: Public
service corporation.
I f any fcmalo works at any time between the
hours of 8 p. m . and 6 a. m . on more than 2
nigh ts per week, not more than 8 hours of w ork
are permitted i n any 24 hours or more than 48
hours of work i n any week.

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Xorth Dakota.
M i n i m u m Wage Department Order, N o . 1»
1022.

I a. m . to 5 a. m .

A n p j m i i m •^Vage Department Order, N o 3,

n p.m, lo7 a.m.
After 9 p . m

Obio.
I n " G e n e r a l Code of Obio, Page's Compact
E d i t i o n , " 1921, V o l . I , sec. 1008-1; p . 495.

10 p . m . t o C a , m -

Ticket seller.'

OrcKon.
I n d u s t r i a l Welfare Conunission Order, N o .
z r , 1919.

After 0 p. -11

Mercantile occupation i n Portland, i . c., the w o r k of those
employed i n establishments operated for the purpose of
trade i n t h e purchase or sale of any goods or merchandise,

I n d u s t r i a l Welfare Commission Order, N o .
38,1919.




Aftp-r 8.30 p i m .

Public liousekeeping occupation, i . e., the w o r k of waitresses
i n restaurants, hotel d i n i n g rooms, boardinghouses, a n d
a i l attendants employed a t ice cream a n d l i g l i t l u n c h
stands a n d steam t a b l e or countcr w o r t i n cafeterias a n d
delicatessens where freshly cooked foods are served a n d
the w o r k of chambermaids i n hotels a n d lodging houses
a n d boarding houses and hospitals and t h e w o r k of
janitresses a n d car cleaners a n d of kitchen workers i n
hotels and restaurants and hospitals.
Elevator operators.
Mercantile establishment, i . e., the w o r k of those employed
i n establishments operated for the purpose of trade i n the
purchase or sale of any goods or merchandise, and includes the sales force, the w r a p p i n g force, the a u d i t i n g or
checking force, the shippers i n the m a i l order department,
t h e receiving, m a r k i n g , a n d stook room employees, a n d
sheet music saleswomen and demonstrators and cigar
stand girls.

a u d i t i n g or check inspection force,^the shoppcre i n t h e
m a i l order department, t h e receiving, m a r k i n g a n d stock
r o o m employees a n d music saleswomen and demonstrators; Exceptions: Cigar stands i n hotels, confectionery
stores.
Mercantile occupation outside of Portland, I. o., the w o r k of
of trade i n the purchase or sale of any goods or n ^ r c f i ^ diseand includesthe sales force, the wrapping employees,
' the auditing or check inspection force, the shoppersin the
mail order department, the receiving, marking, and stock
r o o m employees, and sheet music saleswomen and
demonstrators. Exceptions: Cigar stands i n hotels, confectionery stores.

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CHART V I L — N I G H T - W O R K LAWS FOR WOMEN WORKERS-Continued
State
Orejfon—Continued.
Industrial Welfare Conimlsston Orders, Nos.
3Vand41, i m .

Industrial Welfare Commission Order, No,
4.1,1919.
Pennsylvania.
Jn " Digest of Pennsylvania Statute L a w , "
1920, sees. 13M0, 13&41, and 13H3, p. 1331.

Prohibition of
night work

Limitation of night work

After 8.30 p. m.

11 p . m , to 7 a . m .
10 p.ra.to (J p. m .

I n " Rulings of the Industrial Board pertaining t o women i n i n d u s t r y . " Rule W-10,
1918, p. 9. ^
I b i d . , Rule W-13,1918, p. 9
Porto Rfco,
I n "Session Laws of Porto Rico," 2d sess,,
1919, No. 73.

S o u t h Carolina.
I n "Session Laws of South Carolina," 1914, After 10 p. m
N o . 2G2, p. 481.
Washingrton.
Industrial Welfare Committee Order, N o . After 12 midnight.
23, 1921.
Wisconsin.!
Industrial Commission Order, No. 1,1917..* 6 p . m . to 6 a . m _ . .
I f any work performed between 6.30 p. m. and 6
IndustrialCommission Orders, Nos. 2 and 3,
a. m . i t shall be limited to 8 hours per night, 48
1917.
hours per week.




Occupations or industries specified

Manufacturing occupation, i . e., all processes i n the production of commodities. Includes the work performed
i n dressmaking shops and wholesale millinery houses, i n
the workrooms of retail millinery shops, and i n the
draperv and f u m l t u n j covering workrooms, the garment
alteration, a r t needle work, fur garment making, a n d
millinery workrooms i n mercantile stores, and the candy
making department of retail candy stores, and of restaurants. Ezceptions: F r u i t and vegetable d ^ I n g , canning,
preserving, and packing establishments.
Laundry occupation, f. o., all the processeg connected w i t h
the receiving, marking, washing, cleaning, nnd ironing
and distributing of washable and cleanable materials, the
work performe<l i n laundry departments i n hotels and
factories.
Elevator operators.
Manufacturing establishment. Exceptions: Managers, superintendents, or persons doing clerical or stenographic
work.
Bakcshops come w i t h i n the term manufacturing establishment.
Women employed as recorders, slipmakerff and weighers
are excepted from the night work prohibition.

10 p . m . to 6 a . m . ,

o

A n y lucrative occupation. Exceptions: Telephone operators or telegraphers, artists, nurses or domestics, over 16
years of age.
Mercantile establishments.
Elevator operators.

Manufactories and laundries. Exceptions: Pea canneries.
Mechanical or mercantile establishments, restaurant, confectionery store, telegraph or telephone, express or transportation, Exceptions: W o r k may be done on one night
per week w i t h o u t bringing establishment under this
ruling."

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I n "Wisconsin Statutes," 1923, sees. 103.01103.02, pp. 1104-1105.

I f any woman works at any time, between tho
hours of 8 p. m, and 6 a. m . on more than one
nlgbt per week, not more than 8 hours of work
i n any one night or more t h a n 48 hours of work
i n any one week, are permitted.
I f any woman works at any time between the
hours of 9 p. m . and 6 a. m . , not more than 9
hours of work In any one night or more than 54
hours i n any one week, are permitted.

I b i d . , sec. 103.02, pp. 1104-1105..

Place of employment, i , e., manufacturing, mechanical or
mercantilo establishment, l a u n d r y , restaurant, confectionery store or telegraph or telephone office or exchange
or any express or transportation establishment.
Hotels.

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CHART

V I I I . — H O M E - W O R K LAWS I N T H E U N I T E D
PART A.-LAWS PROHIBITING HOME

El

STATES

WORK
m

State

minols.
I n "Revised Statutes of
Illinois," 1921 (ed. b y
B . J. Smith), ch. 48,
sees. 40-40, pp. 908-909.

Indiana.
I n "Burn*a Annotated
IndianaStatutes,"m4,
sees. 8034-8035, pp. 9991000.
Maryland.
I n " T h e Annotated Code
of the Public General
Laws of M a r y l a n d / '
1918 (ed. b y Geo. P .
Bagby),Vol. I l l , part.
27, sees. 208-275, pp.
390-401,




Places covered b y law

Mandatory clause

N o room or rooms .
used.

N o room or rooms .
used.

. shall be

. shall be

N o room or apartment.
be used . . .

. shall

Occupations or Industries covered
bylaw

Exceptions

Room or rooms, apartment or
' apartments i n any tenement
or dwelling house used for
eating or sleeping purposes'.

Manufacture, i n whole or i n part, of Immediate members of family living
coats, vests, trousers, knee pants,
therein.
overalls, cloaks, shirts, ladies' waists,
purses, feathers, artificial flowers,
c i g a r s . . • m a d e , altered, repaired,
cleaned, sorted, or finished, i n whole
or i n part, for sale or for wages.

Room or rooms, apartment or
apartments i n any tenement
or dwelling house.

Manufacture of coats, vests, trousers,
knee pants, overalls, cloaks, furs, fur
trimmings, fur garments, shirts,
purses, feathers, artificial flowers, or
cigars for sale.

Immediate members of family l i v i n g
therein.

Room or apartment i n any tenement or dwelling house, or
part of any tenement or dwelling house.

Manufacture, i n whole or i n part, altering, repairing, or finishing of any
articles whatsoever.

Immediate members of family l i v i n g
therein, i . e., husband, wife, their
children, or the children of either.
Tailor or seamstress employed b y fami l y on articles for family. Articles for
exclusive use of person occupying
house.
Workshop on main or ground floor not
used for cooking or sleeping purposes
and having a separate entrance from
the rest of the building.

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CHART V I I I . — H O M E - W O R K

LAWS

IN

THE

UNITED

STATES—Continued

to

PART A . - L A W S PROBIBITING HOME WORK-Continued.
State
Masfachusetts.
I n * * O e n e r a I L a w a of
Massachu^setts/' 1921,
Vol. I I . ch. 149, eecs.
143-H7, pp. 15aM585.

Mandatory clause

Places covered b y law

Occupations or industries covered
bylaw

Exceptions

A roomor apartmcDt . . . shall
not be used for the purpose of
making • • .

A room or apartment i n a tenement or dwelling bouse.

JIaking, altering, repairing, or finishing therein, coats, vests, trousers, or
wearing apparel of any description.

Members of family dwelling therein.
Room or apartment i n a tenement or
dwelling house, not used f o r l i ving or
sleeping purposes, having a separate
entrance and not connectcd w i t h any
room used for such purposes.

None of the work mentioned i n
this section shall be done i n
any room or apartment

A n y room or apartment used for
l i v i n g or sleeping purposes or
which is c»nnected w i t h room
or rooms used for such purposes, and which has not a
separate and distinct outside
entrance.

Manufacture of coats, vests, trousers,
knee pants, overalls, skirts, dresses,
cloaks, hats, caps, suspenders, jerseys, blouses, waists, waist bands,
underwear, neckwear,rurs, fur t r i m mings, fur garments, shirts, hosiery,
purses, feathers, artiflcial flowers,
cigars, cif;arcttcs, . , . or making of
these articles i n whole or i n part.

Seamstress manufacturing articles for
family use.

Room or apartment i n any tenement or dwelling house.

Manufacture of wearing apparel,
purses, feathers, artificial flowers, or
other goods for male or female wear.

Members of family dwelling therein
and three additional persons.

A n y article, manufaetmred, altered,
repaired or finished.

Immediate members of family l i v i n g
therein.
Dressmakers who deal solely i n the
custom trade direct to the consumer
and whoso shops aro on the ground
or second floor, and who have a perm i t issued b y the commissioners of
labor certifying t h a t the premises are
well lighted, well ventilated, and
sanitary, and that there is 1,000 cubic
feet of air spaco for each person employed therein.
Bakeries for which certificate of eiemption is issued.

Mrctiigao.

I n " C o m p i l e d Laws of
Michigan," 1915, Vol.
I I . ch. 100, sec. 6343.
pp, 2032-3033.

Missouri.
I n "Revised Statutes of N o room or apartment . . shall
Missouri," 1919, Vol. I I .
bo used.
ch. 64, sees. 6834-6836,
pp, 2I4&-2149.
New Y o r k .
I n "Session Laws of New- N o article shall be manufactured . , .
York,'* 1921, ch. 60,
sees. 36a-3ti6, pp. 208213«




N o article of food . . . shall be
manufactured . . .
N o articles shall be manufactured . . .

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A n y room or apartment of a tenement house.

Tenement house, i n any portion
of an apartment, any part of
which is used for l i v i n g purposes.
I n a part of a cellar or basement
of a tenement bouse more than
one-half of i t s height below
the level of the curb.

Food, dolls, or dolls' clothing, article
of children*s or infants* wearing apparel, manufactured, altered, re- paired, finished, i n whole or i n part.
Articles manufactured, altered, repaired, finished.

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" G e n e r a l Code o f
Ohjo, Page's Compact
E d i t i o n , " 1920, V o l . I ,
sees. 1020-1021, p . 497,

N o dwelling .

. shall be used

D w e l l i n g or room or building or
apartmeht thereof i n o r connected w i t h a tenement, dwelling, or other building.

Carrying o n a n y process of making
wearing apparel or goods for wear,
use, o r adornment, manufacturing
cigars, cigarettes or tobacco goods i n
any form.

Immediate members of family l i v i n g
therein.
Room or apartment h a v i n g no w i n d o w
or door or other opening i n t o a
l i v i n g or sleeping room of a tenement
or dwelling, a n d h a v i n g a separate
entrance, and not i n use for l i v i n g or
sleeping purposes, a n d sufficiently
lighted, heated, and ventilated.

N o room or apartment i n a n y
tenement o r dwelling house
. . . shall be used . • . for the
manufacture . * .

R o o m or apartment i n any tenement or dwelling house.

Manufacture of coats, vests, trousers,
knee pants, overalls, skirts, dresses,
cloaks, hats, caps, suspenders, jerseys, blouses, waists, waist bands,
underwear, neckwear, furs, f u r t r i m mings, f u r garments, shirts, hosiery,
pun;es, feathers, artificial flowers,
cigars, or cigarettes, or m a k i n g
i n whole or i n part of these articles.

Immediate members of family l i v i n g
therein.

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^eansyivanla.
I n " S t e w a r t ' s Purdon's
Digest of t h e Statute
L a w of Pennsylvania,
1700-I903." sees. 52-^6,
p p . 1606-1607, a n d i n
^'Supplement t o P u r don's Digest o f t h e
Statute L a w of Penns y l v a n i a , 1905-1915,"
par. 70-72, sec. 6123.

H

N o person, firm, or corporation
shall hire or employ any person . . .

A n y room or apartment i n a n y Manufacture of coats, vests, trousers,
knee pants, overalls, skirts, dresses,
rear b u i l d i n g or buUding i n
cloaks, hats, caps, suspenders, jer^
t h e rear of a tenement or
seys, blouses, waists, waist bands,
dwelling house.
underwear, neckwear, furs, f o r t r i m mings, f u r garments, shirts, hosiery,
purses, feathers, artificial flowers,
cigars, o r cigarettes, or making i n
whole or i n part of these articles.
N o person, firm, o r corporation •Kitchen, l i v i n g r o o m , ' o r bed- Manufacture, or p a r t i a l manufacture
engaged i n the manufacture or
of clothing or other wearing apparel,
room i n a n y tenement house
sale of clothing . . . shall baror dwelling house.
cigars, cigarettes.
gain or contract w i t h any person . . . for t h e manufacture

I'enness^e.
I n " T h o m p s o n ' s Shan- N o room or rooms . . . shall be
non's Tennessee Code",
used for t h e manufacture for
1018, sees. 4342-a-59 t o
p p . 1865-1866.




E o o m o r rooms, apartment or
apartments i n a n y tenement
or dwelling house used for eati n g or sleeping purposes.

Manufacture for sale, i a whole or i n
p a r t , of coats, vests, trousers, knee
pants, overalls, cloaks, shirts, ladies'
waists, purses, feathers, artificial
flowers, cigars, all wearing apparel.

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Resident members of family, i . e.,
parents a n d their children or t h e
children of either.

Immediate members of family l i v i n g
therein.

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CHART V I I I - — H O M E - W O R K LAWS I N T H E U N I T E D

STATES-Continued

PART B.—LAWS REGULATIXQ HOME WORK—Continued

Occupations or industries
covered by law

Persons
whose
work Is controlled b y law

Requirements which must be met before home work is permitted

State

Places covered b y law

CaIirornfa«
I n " I n d u a t r l a l Welfare C o u i i n i s s t o Q
O r d e r ' ' No. Ha,
and No. 15a, 1923.

A n y place outside the place
of business of the person
giving out home work.

Manufacturing Industry „ . , Women or m i n o r s , Persons hiring work done must obtain permit from Industrial Welfare
Commission. Employer must keep
record of all names and addresses of
all home workers, of amount paid
each worker, amount of work performed and piece rates paid.
Employer is not permitted to give
out homo work to anyone employed regularly at his place of
business.

A l l buildings, apartments,
rooms, and places i n any
tenement or
dwelling
house used for residential
purposes.

Manufacture of artificial
flowers, purses, cigars,
cigarettes, or any articles
of wearing apparel intended for sale.

Others than the
immediate
members of the
family.

Persona engaged i n such work to
notify factory inspector w i t h i n 30
days after the time of commencing
work. Work has to be done i n clean,
sanitary rooms properly lighted and
ventilated.

Room orTooms, apartment
or apartments i n any tenement or dwelling house
used for eating or sleeping
purposes.
House, room, or placfe

Manufacture, In whole or i n
part, of coats, vests, trousers, knee pants, overalls,
cloaks,
shirts,
ladies'
waists, purses, feathers,
artificial flowers, cigars, or
any wearing apparel of
any k i n d whatsoever.
A n y process of making, altering or finishing, cleaning,
sorting, i n whole or i n part
for sale or for wages.

Immediate members of family
living therein.

Persons so occupied or having control
of such workshop to notify board of
health w i t h i n 14 days after the
time of commencing work.
Hours of work for females and list of
children employed, w i t h their ages,
to be posted.
Premises to be kept i n a cleanly state,
free from any matter of infectious
or contagious nature.
A l l articles made are subject to inspection and examination.
Employer t o keep list of all .work^
shops i n his employ.

Connecticut.
I n ''General Statutes
of Connecticut," Revision of 1918, sees.
235,'i-2358, p. 729.
Illinois.
I n "Revised Statutes
of I l l i n o i s , " 1921,
(ed. b y B . J . Smith),
ch, 48, Becfl. 40-40<
pp* 908-909.




Exceptions

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Indiana.
I n " B u m ' s Annotated
I n d i a n a Statutes,"
1914, sees. 8034-8035,
p p . 99&-3000,

Marytoiid.

One room or rooms, apart- M a k i n g , i n whole or i n part,
ment, or apartments i n any
a n y vests, coats, trousers,
tenement
or
dwelling
knee pants, f u r , fur t r i m house, or b u i l d i n g i n the
^ mings,
shirts,
purses,
rear of a tenement or dwellfeathers, artificial flowers,
i n g bouse.
or cigars for sale.

" T h e Annotated A room or apartment I n any
tenement
or
dwelling
Code o f the Public
house, part of a n y teneGeneral Laws of
ment or dwelling bouse.
M a r y l a n d " 1918 (ed.
byGeorgeP.Bagby),
Vol. I l l , art. 27, sees.
268-275^ pp. 396-401.

In




Immediate members of family
l i v i n g therein.

Person, firm, or corporation h i r i n g
w o r k done to obtain w r i t t e n p e r m i t
f r o m chief inspector who investigates
premises where w o r k is t o be done
before granting permit.
Premises t o be adequately ventilated.
P e r m i t states m a x i m u m number of
persons w h o m a y be employed, prov i d i n g for not less t h a n 250 cubic feet
of air space per person between the
hours of G a. m . and 6 p . m . , a n d for
not less t h a n 400 cubic feet of air space
per person between the hours of 6
p. m . and 6 a. m . Chief inspector
m a y m o d i f y latter provision allowing 250 cubic feet of air space per
i f electricity is used for light-

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P e r m i t m a y be revoked at any time I f
health of c o m m u n i t y or of those employed therein require I t .
Permit to be posted.
Manufacturing I n whole or
i n part, oltering, repairing,
or finishing therein any
articles whatsoever.

Immediate members of f a m i l y
living
therein
(husband, wife,
their children, or
the children of
either).

License t o be obtained b y persons Articles for the exclusive use
of person occupying house.
desiring to do home w o r k f r o m chief
of bureau of statistics, w h o consults E m p l o y m e n t of tailor or
seamstress b y person or
records of local health authorities and
f a m i l y t o do w o r k for such
i f premises are reported satisfactory
person or f a m i l y .
has premises reinspected to verify
report.
Workshop on m a i n or ground
floor of any tenement or
License states m a x i m u m number of
dwelling house n o t used for
persons w h o m a y be employed procooking or sleeping purv i d i n g for not less t h a n 500 cubic feet
poses and having separate
of air space per person.
entrance a n d w h i c h is enPremises to be inspected every 6
t i r e l y separate from the rest
months.
of the building.
Premises t o be free f r o m infectious,
contagious, or communicable disease,
and f r o m a l l insanitary conditionsPermit may be revoked a t any t i m e I f
health of c o m m u n i t y or those employed therein re quire i t .
Employer giving out w o r k to keep register o f persons employed on home
w o r k and to be sure that such home
workers are licensed.

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CHART V I I I . - . H O M E - W O R K

LAWS I N T H E U N I T E D

STATES—Continued

C5

PART B . - L A W S REGULATING HOME WORK-Contlnued

State

Places covered b y law

Occupations or industries
corered b y law

Persons
whose
work is controlled by law

Requirements which must be met before home work is permitted

Massachusetts.
I n " General Laws of
Massachusettjj,"
1921» V o L I I . c b . 149,
sees. 143-H7, pp»
15S1-I585.

A room or apartment I n a
tenement
or
dwelling
house.

Making, altering, repairing,
or finishing coats, vests,
trousers, or wearing apparel of any description.

Family dwelling
therein.

Liccnse to be obtained b y persons
desiring to do home work from the
department of labor and industry.
Premises subject to inspection b y
inspectors of the department of labor and industry.
Premises to be i n cleanly condition,
free from vermin, and all infectious
and contagious matter.
Employer giving out work to keep
register of persons employed on home
work and to forward such register
m o n t h l y to the department of labor and industry and to be sure that
such home workers are licensed.
License to be posted.

Room or apartment i n a tenement or dwelling house not
used for l i v i n g or sleeping
purposes having a separate
entrance and not connected
w i t h any room used for
such purposes.
Tailor or seamstress making
articles for family wear.

W r i t t e n permit to be obtained b y persons desiring to do home work from
factory inspector, who investigates
before granting permits.
Permit states maximum number of
persons who may be employed, providing for not less than 250 cubic feet
of air space per person.
Permit may be revoked at any time if
health of community or o f those employed therein requires i t .

Seamstress manufacturing
articles for family use.

Michigan.
I n ** Complied Laws of
Michigan,"
1915,
Vol. I I , ch. 100, sec.
5343, pp. 2033-2033.




Room or apartment In any
tenement
or
dwelling
house, building, or parts of
buildings.

Manufacture of coats, vests,
trousers, knee pants, overalls, skirts, dresses, cloaks,
hats, caps, suspenders,
jerseys, blouses, waists,
waist bands, underwear,
neckwear, furs, fur t r i m ming, fur garments, shirts,
hosiery, purses, feathers,
artificial flowers, cigars,
cigarettes, or making of
these articles i n whole or i n
part.

of 1 ight, heat, and ventilation.
Premises to bo clean, sanitary, fit for
occupancy, and free from contagious
and infectious diseases.
Employer giving out work to keep register of persons employed on home
w o r k and to be sure that such home
workers are licensed.
Permit to be posted.

Exceptions

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Missouri.
I n " E e v i s e d Statutes
of M i s s o u r i / * 1919,
V o l . 11, ch. 54, sees.

eS34-€S36, pp. 2H&-

Room or aparlfmont i n any
tenement
or
dwelling
house.

Manufacture of wearing apparel, purses, feathers,
artificial flowers, or other
goods for male or female
wear.

Room or rooms, apartment,
or apartments i n any tenem e n t or dwelling house.
B u i l d i n g situated i n the rear
of any apartment or dwelli n g house.

Manufacturing,
altering,
repairing, or finishing for
wages or for sale any articles whatsoever.

2HS.
N e w Jersey.
I n "Session L a w s of
N e w Jersey/* 1917,
ch. 176, p p . 159-622.




Members of family dwelling
therein and
three additional
persons.

Premises to he i n clean and healthy
condition.
Employer giving o u t w o r k to keep
register of persons employed on home
work.
W r i t t e n permit t o be obtained b y per- T a i l o r , seamstress, women's
exchanges not organized for
sons desiring to do home w o r k or b y
profit.
employer desiring t o give o u t home
w o r k from commissioner of labor,
w h o investigates premises for w h i c h
p e r m i t is requested before granting
permit.
P e r m i t to last not longer t h a n 6 months.
P e r m i t states m a x i m u m number of
persons w h o m a y be employed
therein, p r o v i d i n g for not less t h a n
250 cubic feet of air space per person
between the hours of 6 a. m . a n d 6
p . m . , and for not less t h a n 400 cubic
feet of air space per person between
t h e hours of 6 p . m . a n d 6 a. m , , b u t
t h e commissioner of labor m a y modi f y t h e latter provision.
P e r m i t m a y be revoked a t a n y t i m e i f
health of the c o m m u n i t y or of those
employed therein requires i t .
Premises t o be properly lighted, i n
clean a n d h e a l t h f u l condition, free
f r o m v e r m i n , a n d every matter of
infectious and contagious nature.
E m p l o y e r t o be sure t h a t a l l home
workers i n his employ have a permit.
P e r m i t to be posted.

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CHART V I I I . — H O M E - W O R K LAWS I N T H E U N I T E D

STATES—Continued

00

PART B . - L A W S REQULATINQ HOME WORK-Continued

State

New Y o r k ,
I n "Session Laws of
New Y o r k , " 1921,
c h . fiO, sees. 350-366,
p p . 208-213.

PennsylTanla.
I n *'Stewart'3 Purdon's Digest of the
Statute L a w of Pernisylvnnia, 1700-1903/'
sees. 52-6fl, pp. 16001008, and I n " S u p plement to Purdon's
Digest of the Statute
L a w of Pennsylvan i a , " 1905-1915, par.
70-72, sec. 6123, and
par. 360, sec. 6818.




Places covered b y law

Tenement bouse or any part
thereof.
A n y room or apartment of
a tenement bouse.

NTo rodm or apartment i n
any tenement or dwelling
house

Occupations or industries
covered by law

Manufacturing,
altering,
repairing, or finishing of
any articles whatsoever.

Manufacture of coats, vests,
trousers, kneo pants, overalls, skirts, dresses, cloaks,
hats, caps, suspenders, Jerseys,
blouses,
waists,
waist bands, underwear,
neckwear, furs, f u r t r i m mings,
fur
garments,
shirts, hosiery, purses,
feathers, artificial flowers,
cigars, or cigarettes, or
making i n whole or i n part
of these articles.

Persons w h o s e
work is controlled by law

Immediate members of family
living therein.

Immediate members of family
living therein.

Requirements which must be met before home work is permitted

Eiceptions

o
n
License to be obtained b y owner of Articles for sole use of occupant or his family.
tenement where persons desire to do
home w o r k from commissioner of Collars, culls, shirts, or shirt
waists made o f cotton or
labor, who acts upon favorable relinen and laundered before
p o r t by local board o f health and
selling.
verl flcatlon of this report by h is own
Dressmakers who deal solely
office.
i n the custom trade direct
Premises to be inspected every 6
to the consumer and whose
months, to be well lighted and venshops are on the ground or
tilated and allow 500 cubicfeet of air
second floor, and who have
space per worker, to be i n clean,
a permitissued b y the comhealthful, and sanitary condition,
missioner of labor certifyto be free f r o m infectious, containg that the premises are
gious, or communicable diseases,
well lighted, well ventia n d from vermin.
lated, and sanitary, and
Permit may be revoked at any time if
t h a t there is 1,COO cubicfeet
health of community or of those emof air space for each person
ployed therein m a y require i t or i f
employed therein.
children under 14 years of age are
employed therein.
Rooms on main or ground
floor having separate enEmployer giving out work to obtain
trance unconnected w i t l i
permit from commissioner of labor
l i v i n g rooms not used for
and t o keep a register of persons emcooking or sleeping purployed on home work and to be sure
poses.
t h a t such home workers are licensed.
Permit to be obtained b y person desiring to give out home work from fact o r y inspector, who investigates
premises where work is to be done
before granting i t .
Permit t o state maximum number of
persons who may be employed
therein, providing for not less t h a n
250 cubic feet of air space per person.
Permit m a y be revoked at any time i f
' health of community or if those employed therein require i t .
Premises t o bo clean, sanitary, fit for
occupancy.

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Room or apartment I n any
tenementordwellmghouse
or any building or parts of
buildings.

Manufacture of coats, vests,
trousers, kneo pants, overalls, skirts, dresses, cloaks,
hats, caps, suspenders, jerseys, blouses, waists, waistbands, underwear, neckwear, furs, fur trimmings,
f u r garments, shirts, hosiery, purses, feathers,
artificial flowers, cigarettes
or cigars or making i n
whole or i n part of these
articles.

Kitchen, living room, or bed- Manufacture of clothing,
room i n any tenement or
wearing apparel, cigars,
dwelling bouse.
cigarettes, or the partial
manufacture of these articles.

Room or rooms i n any house, Manufacturing purposes.
rooming house or tenement.

Employer giving out work t o keep
register of persons employed on home
work and to be sure t h a t such homo
workers have permits.
Permit to be posted.
Permit to be obtained b y persons desir- Seamstress, manufacturing
articles for use of family
ing to give out home work from facl i v i n g therein.
tory inspector who investigates
premises where work is to be done
before granting i t .
Permit to state maximum number of
persona w h o m a y be employed
therein, providing for not less than
250 cubic feet of air space per person.
Permit may be revoked at any time i f
health of community or of those employed therein require It.
Premises to be clean, sanitary, fit for
occupancy, adequately ventilated,
and provided w i t h fire escapes.
Employer giving out w o r k to keep
register of persons employed on
home w o r k and so be sure that such
home workers have permits.
Permit t o be posted.
Resident members Certificates to be obtained b y person
of family, i . e.,
desiring to do some work from board
parents and their
of health.
children or the Premises to be free from infectious or
children
of
contagious diseases.
either.
Permit may be revoked at any time i f
health of community or of those employed therein require i t .
Permit to be obtained b y persons desiring t o do home work from board of
Permit t o last 1 year.
Processes of w o r k not to be hazardous
t o health or t o create dust, foul odora,
or undue noise.
Premises to allow 400 cubic feet of air
space per person.

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CHART V I I I - — H O M E - W O R K LAWS I N T H E U N I T E D STATES-Continued

Or

o

PART B.—LAWS REGULATIXQ HOME WORK—Continued

state

Places covered b y l a w

Pennsylvania—Contd.
I n ' * Rulings of the In- A n y dwelling, tenement
dustrial Board perbouse, apartment bouse or
lodging nouse I n which a
taining to women i n
room or rooms are devoted
industry."
Rule
or used for industrial homo
W-23,1922, pp. 13-15.
work.

Tennessee;
I n " T h o i ^ o n ' s Shan- Room or rooms, apartment
non's T e n n e s s e e
or apartments in any teneCode," 1918, sees.
ment or dwelling house
4342a-59 to 4342a-<«>,
used for eating or sleeping
pp. 1865-1866.
purposes.

Wisconsin:
I n "Wisconsin Statutes," 1921, Vol. I ,
sees. 1418b and 172S)r,
pp. 1114 and 1378.




Occupations or industries
covered by taw

Persons w h o s e
work Is controlled by law

Requirpmonts which must be met before home work is permitted

Eiceptlous
Vi
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>

^Vlanufacturing,
finishing,
repairing, altering or handling . . . ofany article or articles the material
for which has been furnished by the employer.

A n y person or persons i n a home
who manufacture, finish, repair, alter or
handle i n any
manner, material furnished by
the employer.

Permit to bo obtained by persons desiring to do home work from the State
or local department of health, which
investigates premises where work is
t o be done before granting it.
Permit to last 1 year.
Premises to be clean, sanitary, and free
from any infectious, contagious or
communicable disease.
Permit may be revoked at any time
and work must be withdrawn if any
infectious, contagious or communicable disease is found.
Employer giving out work to keep
register of persons employed on home
' work and to be sure that such home
workers have permits.
Employer giving out work must conform to the regulations of the child
labor law and the women's hour law.

Manufacture for sale, In Immediate memwhole or in part, of coats,
bers of family
vests, trousers, knee pants,
living therein.
overalls, cloaks, shirts,
ladies' waists, purses,
feathers, artificial flowers,
cigars, all wearing apparel.
Workshop, i . e., place where
goods or products are manulactured,
repaired,
cleaned, sorted, i n whole
or i n part, for sale or for
wages.

Persons engaged i n such work to notify
board of health w i t h i n 14 days of the
time of commencing work.
Premises to be kept i n a cleanly state,
free from all matters of infectious or
contagious nature, and free from
vermin.
Articles manufactured to be inspected.
Employer giving out work to keep
register of persons employed on
home work.

Persons employed
o r l i v i n g therein.

Permit to give out homo work must be
obtained from the industrial commissioner b y any person desiring to
give out home work.

Tenement or dwelling house, Articles manufactured, alshed or other building situtered, repaired or finished.
ated i n the rear of a tenement or dwelling house.

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Permit conditional o n their observing
m i n i m u m wage and c h i l d labor laws.
Permit m a y be revoked at any time for
failure t o observe these laws.
License for premises where w o r k is to
be done m u s t bo obtained b y owner
or lessee of factory or contractor for
any owner or lessee w h o employs any
persons at home w o r k from the commissioner of p u b l i c health or local
health officer. H e a l t h office investigates premises before issuing
license.
Workers to be free f r o m any infectious
or communicable diseases.
Premises to be inspected every year.
P e r m i t m a y be revoked a t any t i m e i f
health of c o m m u n i t y requires i t .
Employer g i v i n g o u t w o r k t o keep
register of persons employed on home
work.

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CHART I X . — M I N I M U M - W A G E L E G I S L A T I O N I N T H E U N I T E D STATES
A D M I N I S T R A T I O N OF M I N I M U M - W A G E L A W S

States

Body empowered to administer law

Method of selecting occupation or industry to be considered b y this body

Arizona.
I n "Session Laws of A r i zona," 1923, ch. 3, pp. 6-7

M i n i m u m wage fixed b y law..

Arkansas.
I n "Digest of the Statutes Industrial welfare commission. (Commission is composed of the commisof Arkansas," 1919 (ed.
sioner of labor and 2 men and 2
b y T . D . Crawford and
women. One man and 1 woman
Hamilton Moses), ch.
appointed b y the governor, the
117, sees. 7108-7114, pp.
other m a n and other woman ap1857-1859, and i n "Session Laws of Arkansas,"
Sne m a n ^ n d 1 woman shall repre1921, No. 140, pp. 214-216.
sent employees, the other man and
other woman the employer. They
shall hold office for 2 years and shall
not receive any salary.)
CaUfornla.
I n "Hennlng^s General
Laws of California,"
1919 (ed. b y W . H .
Hyatt), ch. 161, act 2107,
pp. 1100-1105.

Method of arriving at wage awards

Industrial welfare commission. (Commission is composed of 6 persons, 1
of w h o m shall be a woman appointed
b y the governor for t e r m of 4 years.
The members are to receive $10 per
diem when employed at their duties.)




Investigation at discretion of commission to determine necessity of raising
or lowering the m i n i m u m wage set
b y law.

Commissioner calls a wage board composed of an equal number of representatives of employers and employees i n the trade i n question
w i t h a member of the commission as
chairman. The board investigates
the trade and reports to the commission, fixes the n u n i m u m wage necessary. After a public hearing the
commissioner fixes the m i n i m u m
wage for the trade.

Principles b y which amount
of award is determined

Refusal to comply w i t h law
is misdemeanor.

Amount adequate to supply A n y store, office, shop, restaurant, dining room,
the necessary cost of l i v m g
hotel, rooming house, launto maintain health and to
dry, or manufacturing
provide the common necesestablishment.
sities of life.

g

Classes of employees covered by law

Refusal to comply w i t h law
a
misdemeanor.
Employee may recover back
wages and costs.

Exceptions

Date of award

Occupations or Industries

Classes of employees

Amount of wages

$16 per week.

Females..

A m o i m t adequate to supply
necessary cost of iiroper
l i v i n g and to maintain the
health and welfare of such
workers.

M i n i m u m wage fixed b y law. Commission has power to raise or lower
m i n i m u m set b y law i n any occupation, trade, or industry after investigating and holding public hearings,
at w h i c h both the employers and
the employees engaged i n the particular trade under consideration
may present arguments. Commission has special authority to set a
m i n i m u m wage rate for the hotel and
restaurant trades after a public hearing, provided the rate so set is not i n
excess of that established b y law.

Investigation at discretion of commission to determine necessity of establishing a m i n i m u m wage i n the occuation. Investigation
conducted
y examining papers, books, w i t nesses and b y holding public hearings at which employers, employees,
and other interested persons may
testify.

Occupations or industries
covered b y law

Means provided for securing
enforcement of award

A n y manufacturing, mechanical, or mercantOe
establishment, laundry,
express or transportation
company.
Exceptions:
Cotton factories, gathering of fruits or farm products.

Amount necessary to supply
the cost of proper l i v m g
and to maintain the health
and welfare of such workers.

The various occupations,
trades, and industries i n
which women and minors
are employed.

Women; minors (persons of
either sex) under 18 years
of age.

Dec.

1,1922

A n y manufacturing, mechanical, or
mercantile establishment, laundry,
express, or transportation company.
Mercantile establishment at Fort
Smith and L i t t l e Rock.

General and professional officcs...

Experienced females. ,
Inexperienced females.

$1.25 per day:
$1 per day.

Experienced females..
Inexperienced females.

s u p e r week.
$10 per week.

Experienced women or minors.

$16

Inoipcrlenced women
years and over,
tinder 18 years

Female workers..

$12 per week; $52
per month.
$10
per
week;
$43.33U
per
month.
$16
per
week;
$G9.33U
per
month.
$12 per week.
$10 per week.
$16 per week.

Women physically defective b y age or otherwise
may be granted a special
license b y commission.
License must be renewed
every 6 months.

July 31,1020

Apprentices: Special wages
set b y commission during
specified period of apprenticeship.

Experienced woman or minor.
Inexperienced:
Women
Minors
Experienced woman or miM a y 8,1923 Manufacturing industrynor.
Inexperienced women or minors.
Women or minors:
M a y 9,1923 Fish canning industry
Experienced
Inexperienced
Women or minors:
July 23,1923 Laundry and dry cleaning...
Experienced
Inexperienced
Experienced woman or miAug. 8,1923 F r u i t and vegetable canning.
nor.
Inexperienced woman or minor.
Aug. 8,1923 F r u i t and vegetable packing industry Experienced woman or minor.
Inexperienced woman or minor.
Experienced:
Sept. 14,1923. Unclassified occupations
Woman or minor^
Minors where no women
are employed.
Inexperienced:
Women
Minors,
Women or minors
Sept. 14,1923. Hotels and restaurants
Sept. 14,1923, N u t cracking and sorting industry... Experienced woman or minor.
Inexperienced woman or minor.
Apr.

8,1923

18

Mercantile i n d u s t r y -

5437®—24t. (TofoUowpageSl.)

mont^

week;
per

$9 per week.
$0.33H per hour.
$0.28 per hour.
$16 per week.
$14 per week.
$0.33H per hour.
$0.25 per hoar.
$0.33H per hour.
$0.25 per hour.
$16 per week.
$12 per week.
$12 per week.
$10.56 per week.
$16 per week.
$0.33>^ per hour.
$0.25 per hour.
No. 1.

CHABT I X . — m i n i m u m - w a g e L E G I S L A T I O N I N T H E U N I T E D STATES—Continued
A D M I N I S T R A T I O N OF M I N I M U M - W A G E

States

Colorado. 1/.
I n " Compiled Statutes of
Colorado," 1921, ch. 77,
sees. 4197^217, pp. 10521056.

Kansas.
I n "General Statutes of
Kansas," 1915, ch. 108,
art. 42, sees. 10495-10515,
pp. 2147-2151, and i n
"Session Laws of Kansas,*'1920, ch. 29, p p .
36^7, and i n "Session
Laws of Kansas," 1921,
ch. 263, pp. 417-419.

Body empowered to administer law

M e t h o d of selecting occupation or industry to be considered b y this body

Method of arriving at wage awards

Means provided for securing
enforcement of award

Principles b y which amount
of award is determined

Occupations or industries
covered b y law

Classes of employees covered b y law

Exceptions

Refusal to comply w i t h law
a misdemeanor.

Wages adequate to supply
the necessary cost of living
and to maintain health.
Wages sufficient for living
wages for women and minors of ordinary ability.

A n y occupation. (Occupation construed to include
**any and every vocation,
trade, pursuit, and industry.")

Women, minors (persons of
either sex under 18 years
of ago).

Women physically defective
or crippled b y age or
otherwise or less eflicient
than woman workers of
ordinary ability may bo
granted special license,
stating wage; number so
licensed must not oxcecd
one-tenth of the total number employed i n any establishment.

Refusal to comply w i t h law
a misdemeanor.
Employee may recover back
wages and costs.

Wages that are reasonable
and not so low as to be
detrimental to health and
welfare.

A n y industry or occupation.

Women, apprentices, learners, minors.

Industrial commission i (Gommissioa
is composed of 3 members appointed
b y the governor, w i t h the consent of
the senate, for terms of 6 years, at a
salary of $4,000 per annum. N o t
more t h a n 1 member may represent
employees' interests nor may more
than 1 represent employers).

Investigation at discretion of commission, or a t the request of not less
than 25 persons engaged i n occupation, to determine necessity of establishing a m i n i m u m wage i n the occupation investigation conducted
b y examining books, papers, and
witnesses, and b y public hearings at
w h i c h employers, employees, or
other interested persons may testify.

Commission investigates an occupation b y examining books and records and by holding public hear-

Court of industrial relations. (Court
is composed of 3 judges appointed b y
the governor w i t h the consent of tbe
senate for 3-year terms at a salary of
$5,000 per year.)

Investigation at discretion of court of
industrial relations or on request of
25 persons engaged i n the occupat i o n i n question to determine the
necessity of establishing a m i n i m u m
wage i n the occupation.

Court investigates conditions of work,
holds public hearings and then sets
m i n i m u m wage.




LAWS—Contmued

or^^other interested ^ persons^ m S
testify. Commission
then
sets
minimum wage for such occupations; or commission establishes a
wage board composed of not more
than 3 representatives of employers
i n the occupation i n question, an
equal number of representatives of
female employees, an equal number of representatives of the public,
and a member of the commission.
The representatives of the employers and the employees to be
elected b y their respective groups;
at least 1 member of every group to
be a woman. The wage board investigates the occupation and reports to the commission a m i n i m u m
wage, which the commission may
accept or reject.

1 Legislature has never made an appropriation sufficient to p u t t M s l a w i n t o effect.

Date of award

July 19, 1922

Classes of employees

Occupations or industries

Laundry occupation, i. c., laundries,
dyeing, d r y cleaning and pressing
establish ments.
Manufacturing occupation, i. e., all processes i n the production of commodities, and includes the work performed i n florists' shops, and candymaking departments of confcctioncry
stores and bakeries.
Exceptions: Millinery work rooms,
dressmaking establishments, hemstitching and button shops, and
alteration drapery and upholstery
departments of a mercantile establishment may obtain permission
from the court of industrial relations
to operate under the mercantile
order.
Mercantile establishments; includes
all establishments operated for the
purpose of trade i n the purchase or
sale 0 f any goods or merchandise and
includes the sales force, the wrapping employees, the auditing and
checking force, tho shippers i n the
mail-order department, the receiving,
marking, and stock-room employees,
sheet music saleswomen and demonstrators, and all employees i n such
establishments i n any way directly
connected w i t h the sale, purchase,
and disposition of goods, wares, and
merchandise.
Telephone operators

Woman or minor:
Experienced
Inexperienced
Woman or minor:
Experienced
Inexperienced,in general.

Garment workers and millinery workrooms,
and
dressmaking
est a b lishmcDts.

Amount of wages

$11 per week.
$7.50 per week.
$11 per week.
$7.50 per week.

$G.60 per weelc.

Experienced w o m a n o r $10.50 per week.
minor.
I n o x p o r i e n c e d adult $7.50 per week.
woman.
Minors
$6 per week.

Women or minors I n cities
or communities of less
than 1,000 population:
Experienced
$7 per week.
Inexperienced
$6 per week.
I n cities or communities of
1,000 and less than 5,000
population:
$7.50 per week.
Experienced
$6 per week.
Inexperienced
I n cities or communities of
5,000 and less than 20,000
population:
$S per week.
Experienced
$6 per week.
Inexperienced
I n cities of 20,000 or more
population:
$9 per week.
Experienced
$7 per week.
Inexperienced

5437**—24t. (To follow page 61.) No. 2.

CHAET I X * — m i n i m u m - w a g e L E G I S L A T I O N I N T H E U N I T E D STATES--Continued
A D M I N I S T R A T I O N O F M I N I M U M - W A G E LAWS—Continued

States

Massachusetts:
I n "General Laws of
Massachusetts/' 1921,
Vol. I I , ch. 151, pp. 1595-

Body empowered to administer law-

Board of conciliation and arbitration.
(Board is composed of the 3 associate commissioners of the department oflabor and industries. These
commissioners must include 1 representative o f l a b o r and one representative ofemployers oflabor, appointed b y the governor for terms of
3 years.)




M e t h o d of selecting occupation or industry to bo considered by this body

Investigation at discretion of board to
determine necessity of establishing
a m i n i m u m wage i n an occupation.

Means provided for securing
enforcement of award

Principles b y which amount
of award is determined

Occupations or Industries
covered b y law

Organization b y the board of a wage Publish names of all employers refusing to comboard composed of an equal number
p l y w i t h awards of the
of representatives of employers of
board.
the occupation i n question and of
persons to represent the female employees i n said occupation, and of
one or more disinterested persons to
represent the public, b u t the representatives of the public shall not exceed one-hal f the number of the representatives of either of the other parties. After study of the needs ofthe
employees and the financial condition of the occupation, the wage
board recommends a m i n i m u m wage
which the board m a y accept or reject.

Wages suitable for a female
of ordinary abOity based
on needs o f t h e employee
and the financial condition
of the industry. Wages
adequate to supply the
necessary cost of living and
to maintain the worker i n
health.

A n y occupation..

Method of arriving at wage awards

Classes of employees covered b y law

Females, minors

Exceptions

A n y woman physically defective may obtain a license fixing a lower wage.

Date of award

Occupations or Industries

Aug.

1,1918

Retail millinery workrooms...

Jan.

1,1919

Wholesale millinery

Sept. 1,1919

Canning and preserving

Jan.

1,1920

Candy making,..

Feb.

1,1920

Men's clothing and raincoats..

...

M a r . 1,1920

Corset factories

July

1,1920

K n i t goods

Feb.

1,1921

Office and building cleaners.

Classes of employees

Experienced females over 19
years.
Inexperienced females
Experienced females over 18
years of age.
Inexpericnccd females
Experienced females 18 years
and over.
Inexperienced females
Females:
Experienced
Inexperienced
Experienced females 18 years
and over.
Inexperienced females
Experienced females
Inexperienced females:
17 years and over
U^der 17 years of age
Experienced females
Inexperienced
Females

M i n o r lines of confectionery and food
preparations occupations.

Experienced:
Females 16 and over
Females under 16 years
of age.
Inexperienced:
Females 16 years and
over.
Under 16 years of age
Experienced females
M a y 15,1922 Paper-box occupation
Inexperienced females^ 18
years and over.
Under 18 years of age
Experienced employees
M a y 15,1922 Women's clothing occupation
Inexperienced employees 18
years and over.
Under 18 years of age
Experienced employees
June 1,1922 Men*s furnishings factories
Inexperienced employees 16
years and over.
Under 16 years of age...
June 1,1922 Muslinimderwear, etc., occupation.„ Experienced employees
Inexperienced employees 16
years and over.
Under 16 years of age
Experienced employees
June 1,1922 Retail stores
Inexperienced employees un^
der 18 years.
A l l others
July 1,1922 Laundries
Experienced employees
Inexperienced employees...
Females:
M a r . 1,1923 Brush industryExperienced.Inexperienced
Jan. 2,1924 Manufacture of druggists* prepara- Females:
tions, etc.
Experienced
Inexperienced-

N o v . 1,1921

M37®-24t.

(TofoUowpage51.)

Amount of wages

$10 per week
$3 per week.
$11 per week.
$6 per week.
$11 per week,
$8.60 per week.
$12.50 per week.
$8 per week.
$15 per week.
$7 per week.
$13 per week.
$10 per week,
$8 per week.
$13.75 per week.
$8.50 per week.
$15.40 per week.
$0.37 per hour.
$12 per week.
$9 per week.
$10 per week.
$8 per week.
$13.50 per week.
$10 per week.
$8.50 per week.
$14 per week.
$11 per week.
$9 per week.
$13.75 per week.
$9 per week.
$8 per week.
$13.75 per week.
$8 per week.
$7.50 per week.
$14 per week.
$10 per week.
$12 per week.
$13.50 per week.
$11 per week.
$13.92 per week.
$9.60 per week.
$13.20 per week.
$9.60 per week.
No. 3.

CHART I X . — M I N I M U M - W A G E L E G I S L A T I O N I N T H E U N I T E D STATES—Continued
A D M I N I S T R A T I O N OF M I N I M U M - W A G E L A W S - C o n t i n u e d

States

Minnesota.
,
^^
I n ** General Statutes of
Minnesota" 1913, sees.
3904-3923, pp. 889-891,
and i n " Session Laws of
Minnesota," 1921, cb.
81, pp. 85-86, and i n
"Session Laws of M i n nesota," 1923, ch. 153,
pp. 173-174.

North Dakota.
I n "Session Laws of
N o r t h Dakota," 1919,
ch. 174, pp. 317-322.

Body empowered to administer law

M e t h o d of selecting occupation or industry to bo considered b y this body

Method of arriving at wage awards

Means provided for securing
enforcement of award

Principles b y which amount
of award is determined

Occupations or industries
covered b y l a w

Classes of employees covered b y l a w

Amount adequate to supply
l i v i n g wages for women
and minors of ordinary
ability.

A n y occupation (occupation
to include any business,
industry, trade, or branch
of a trade).

Women, minors (females
under 18 years of age,
males under 21 years of
age.)

Women physically defective Jan.
may obtain a license fixing
a lower wage. Number of
licenses m a y not exceed
one-tenth of the number
ployed i n the establishment.

1,1921

A n y occupation-

Wages adequate to supply A n y occupation (occupation
to include a business, inthe necessary cost of l i v m g
dustry, trade, or branch
and
maintain
women
thereof. ExcepUoris: Agworkers i n health. Rearicultural or domestic
sonable wages for minor
service.)
workers.

Women; minors (under 18
years of age)

A n y female physically defective b y age or otherwise
may obtain a license fixing
a lower wage.

4,1922

Public housekeeping, i . e., the work of
waitresses i n restaurants, hotel
dining rooms, boarding houses, attendants employed at ice cream and
l i g h t l u n c h stands and steam table
or counter work i n cafeterias and
delicatessens where freshly cooked
foods are served, and the work of
chambermaids i n hotels and lodging
houses and boarding houses and
hospitals, and the work of janitresses
and car cleaners and of kitchen
workers i n hotels and restaurants
and hospitals and elevator operators.
Waitress or counter girl

Industrial commission. (C ommission
is composed of 3 salaried members
appointed b y the governor b y and
w i t h the advice and consent of the
senate for 6-year terms).

Investigation at discretion of commission or on request of 100 persons engaged i n the occupation to determine
the necessity of establishing a minim u m wage i n the occupation. Investigation conducted b y examining
papers, books, witnesses, and by
holding public hearings at which
employers, employees, or other interested persons may testify.

After the preliminary investigation Refusal to comply w i t h law
a misdemeanor.
Emthe commission m a y determine a
ployee may recover back
m i n i m u m wage for the occupation i n
question. Or the commission estabwages and costs.
lishes an advisory board of not less
t h a n 3 or more t h a n 10 representatives of employers i n the occupation
i n question, an equal number of employees, and one or more representatives of the public, b u t no more representatives of the public than i n
either one of the other groups. A t
least one-fifth of the membership of
this board must be women and the
public group must contain at least
1 woman. This board after exami*
nation of books and witnesses,
recommends a m i n i m u m wage,
which the commission may accept
or reject.

Workmen's compensation bureau.
(Bureau is composed of the commissioner of agriculture and labor and
t w o other workmen*s compensation
commissioners appointed b y the
governor for terms of 6 years at a
salary of $2,500 per annum.)

Investigation at discretion of bureau
to determine necessity of establishing a m i n i m u m wage m the occupation. Investigation conducted by
examining pai)ers, books, and w i t nesses, and b y holding public hearings at which any interested persons
may testify.

Organization b y the bureau of a conference composed of not more than 3
representatives of the employers and
an equal number of representatives
of the employees i n the occupation
i n question, an equal number of
representatives of the public, and
one or more commissioners. After
investigation the conference recommends a m i n i m u m wage, which the
bureau may accept or reject.




Refusal to comply w i t h law
a misdemeanor.
Employee may recover back
wages and costs.

Exceptions

Date of award

Apr.

Occupations or industries

Classes of employees

Experienced:
Women or minors i n
cities of 5,000 or more
iKjpulation.
Women or minors In
towns of less than
6,000 population.

$12 per week; $0.25
per hour; for all
hours i n excess of
48 per week.
$10.25 per week;
$0,215 per hour;
for a l l hours i n
excess of 48 per
week.
Inexperienced:
$9.12 per week;
Females 18 years or over
$0.19 per hour for
I n cities of 5,000 or
all hours i n exmore population.
cess of 48 per
week.
Females 18 years or over $7.G8 per week;
i n cities of less than
$0.16 i>cr hour for
5,000 population.
all hours i n excess of 48 per
week.
Females under 18 years $7.08 per week;
i n cities of 5,000 or
$0.10 per hour for
more population.
all hours i n excess of 48 per
week.
Females under 18 years $6.48 per week;
i n cities of less than
$0.13U per hour
5,000 population.
for all hours in
cxcess of 48 per
week.

Chambermaids and kitchen help
Apr.

4,1922

Amount of wages

Manufacturing occupation, i e., all
processes i n the production of commodities, i . e., includes the work
performed in dressmaking shops and
wholesale millinery houses, i n the
workrooms of r e t a i l millinery shops,
and i n the drapery and furniturecovering workshops, the garment
alteration, art, needle w o r k , fur
garment making and m illiner y workrooms i n mercantile stores, and the
candy-making departments of retail
candy stores and of restaurants and
I n bakery and biscuit manufacturing establishments, i n candy manufacturing and i n bookbinding and

Experienced....
Inexperienced..
Experienced...
Inexperienced.,

Women:
Experienced—.
Inexperienced..
B ookbinding and j ob-press feed i n g . . . Women:
Experienced
Inexperienced
&437®—24t. (TofoUowpageSl.)

$14.90 per
$11.90 per
$14.20 per
$11.20 per

week.
week.
week.
week.

$14 per week; $60.57
per month.
$9 per week; $39
per month.
$14 per week; $60.67
per month.
$9 per week; $39
per month.
No. 4.

CHART I X . ~ M I N I M U M - W A G E

LEGISLATION IN THE UNITED

A D M I N I S T R A T I O N OF M I N I M U M - W A G E

States

Body empowered to administer law

Method of selecting occupation or industry to be considered by this body

Method of arriving at wage awards

Means provided for securing
enforcement of award

Principles b y which amount
of award is determined

STATES—Continued

LAWS-Contlnucd

Occupations or industries
covered by law

Classes of employees covered b y law

Exceptions

Date of award

N o r t h Dakota—Continued.

Occupations or industries

A l l other manufwturing.,

Apr.

Apr.

Apr.

Classes of employees

Women:
Experienced
Inexperienced.

Mercantile occupation, 1. c., the work Women:
of those employed i n establishments
Experiencedoperated for the purpose of trade in
the purchase or sale of any gomls or
Inexperlenceil.
Tnerchandlse, and includes the sales
orco, the wrapping force, the auditng or checking force, the shippers
n the mail-order department, the
receiving, marking, and stockroom
employees, and sheet-music saleswomen and demonstrators, and
cigar-stand girls,
4,1922 Laundry occupation, i. e., all the pro- Women:
cesses connected w i t h the receiving,
Experienced.
marking, washing, cleaning, ironing, and distribution of washable or
cleanable materials. The work performed In laundry departments i n
hotels, hospitals, and factories.
Inexperienced.

4,1922

4,1922

Telephone occupation-

Women, I n towns of 1,800
and over population:
Experienced
Inexperienced..
I n towns of under 1,800 population:
Experienced
Inexperienced.

Oregon.
I n "Oregon Laws," 1920,
Vol. I I , sees. 6068-6687,
pp. 2671-2676.

Industrial welfare commission. (C ommission is composed of 3 members
appointed b y the governor for terms
of 3 years, 1 to represent the employing class and 1 the employed.)




Investigation at discretion of commission to determine necessity of establishing a m i n i m u m wage i n the occupation. Investigation conducted by
examining papers, books, and witnessess, and b y holding public hearings at which interested persons may
testify.

Organization b y the commission of a
conference composed of not more than
3 representatives of the employers in
the occupation i n question, an equal
number of representatives of the employees, an equal number of representatives of the public, and 1 or
more commissioners. After investigation the conference recommends a
m i n i m u m wage, which the commission may accept or reject.

Refusal to comply w i t h law
a misdemeanor.
Employee may recover back
wages and costs.

Wages adequate to supply A n y occupation. (Occupat i o n to include any and
the necessary cost of livevery vocation, pursuit,
ing and to maintain health.
trade and industry.)

Women, minors (under 18
years of age).

A n y woman physically defective or crippled b y age
or otherwise may obtain a
license fixing a lower wage.

Oct. 14,1919

Mercantile occupation, i . e., the work Women:
of those employed i n establishments
Experienced...
operated for the purpose of trade i n
Inexperienced..
the purchase or sale of any goods or
merchandise, and includes the sales
force, the wrapping employees, the
auditing or check Inspection force,
the shippers i n the mail-order department, the receiving, marking^
and stock-room employees, and
sheet music saleswomen and demonstrators.
Alanufacturing occupation; i, e., all Women:
processes i n the production of comExperienced...
modities. Includes the w^ork perInexperienced.
formed i n dressmaking shops and
wholesale millinery houses, i n the
workrooms of retail millinery shops,
and i n the drapery and furniture covering workrooms, the garment alteration, art needle work, fur garment,
making and millinery workrooms i n
mercantile stores, and the candy
making department of retail candy
stores, and of restaurants.
Personal service occupation; L e., man- Women:
icuring, hairdressing, barbering, and
Experienced..other work of like nature and the
Inexperienced.,
work of ushers i n theaters.
L a u n d r y occupation; i. e., all the processes connected w i t h the receiving, Women:
marking, washing, cleaning, and
Experienced...
ironing and distribution of washable
Inexperienced..
and cleanable materials. The work
_iotel3 and
Telephone and telegraph occupations.. Women:
Experienced-..
Inexperienced..

Amount of wages

$14 ^ r week.
T o ^ determined
by conference between the board
and
the employer and employee
concerned.
$14.50 per
$62.83 per
$9.60 per
$41.60 per

week;
month.
week;
month.

$14 per week, or
$13.50 per week
(If laundry privi l e g e s a r e all o w e d ) ; $60.67
per month.
$irperweek;$47.67
per month.
$14 per week; $60.67
per month.
$l0perweek;$43.43
per month.
$12 per week; $52
per month.
$9 per week; $39
per month.
$13.20 j>er week.
$9 per week.

$13.20 per week.
$9 per week.

$13.50 per week,
$9 per week.

$13.20 per week.
$9 per week.

$13.20 per week.
$9 per week.

6437®-24t. (To follow page 51.) No. 6.

CHART I X . — M I N I M U M - W A G E LEGISLATION I N T H E U N I T E D STATES—Continued
A D M I N I S T R A T I O N OF M I N I M U M - W A G E

States

Body empowered to administer l a w

Method of selecting occupation or industry to be considered b y this body

Method of arriving at wage awards

Means provided forsecuring
enforcement of award

Principles by which amount
of award is determined

LAWS-Continued

Occupations or industries
covered b y law

Classes of employees covered b y law

Exceptions

Date of award

Occupations or industries

Classes of employees

Amount of i

Oregon—Continued.

South Dakota.
I n " Session Laws of South
Dakota/' 1923, ch. 309,
p. 329,

Utah.
I n "Compiled Laws of
U t a h , " 1917, sees. 36713674, pp. 782-783.
Washington.
I n "Pierce's Annotated
Code, State of Washington," 1921, vol. I ,
sees. 3526-3646, pp. 10991102.

Public housekeeping occupation; i.e., Women:
the work of waitrosses in restaurants,
Experienced-..
hotel dining rooms, boarding houses,
Ineiperlenced.
and all attendants employed at ice
cream and light-lunch stands, and
steam table or countcr work in cafeterias and delicatessens where freshly
cooked foods are served; and tho
work of chambermaids in hotels and
lodging houses and boarding houses,
and the work of ianitresses; and car
cleaners; and of kitchen workers in
hotels and restaurants; and elevator
operators between the hours of 7 a. m.
and 11 p. m. A retail candy department conducted i n connection w i t h
an ice cream, soft-drink or lightlunch counter, or w i t h a restaurant.
Office occupation; i. e., the work of
those employed as stenographers, Women:
bookkeepere, t3rpists, filing clerks,
Eiperienced...
billing clerks, cashiers, checkers, inInexperienced.
voicers, comptometer operators, auditors, attendants i n physicians' and
dentists' offices, and all kinds of
clerical work
Packing, drying, preserving, canning Women:
perishable fruits or vegetables.
Experienced
Inexperienced...
M i n i m u m wage fixed b y l a w —

Industrial commissioner..




equals

a

living

Investigation at discretion of the committee to determine the necessity
of establishing a m i n i m u m wage i n
the occupation. Investigation conducted b y examining papers, books,
and witnesses, and b y holding public hearings at which employer, employees, and other interested persons may testify.

Organization b y the committee of a
conference composed of an equal
number of representatives of the
employers and of the employees i n
the occupation i n question and 1 or
more representatives of the public
b u t no more representatives of the
public than i n either one of the
the other groups, and a member of
the committee. T h e conference
recommends a m i n i m u m wage,
which the committee may accept
or reject.

Refusal to comply w i t h the
law a misdemeanor. E m ployee may recover back
wages and costs.

Wages adequate for their
maintenance. Wages adequate to supply the necessary cost of l i v i n g and to
maintain the workers i n
health.

A n y factory, workshop, mechanical or mercantile
establishment, laundry,
hotel, restaurant, or packing bouse.

A n y woman or girl over the
age of 14.

A n y regular employer of
female labor.

Amount
wage.

Violation of law a misdemeanor, t o be prosecuted
b y all the city, State, and
county prosecuting officers.

Commissioner of immigration, labor,
and statistics.

Industrial welfare committee. (Committee is composed of the director
of labor and mdustries appointed
b y the governor w i t h the consent
o f the senate and holding office at
his pleasure), and the supervisor of
industrial insurance and the supervisor of industrial relations (appointed b y the director oflabor and
industries), and the supervisor of
women i n i n d u s t r y (appointed b y
the supervisor of industrial relations
w i t h the approval of the director of
labor a n d industries).

Refusal to comply w i t h law
a misdemeanor. E m ployee may recover back
wages and costs.

Women.

The various occupations,
trades and industries.

Women, minors (under 18
years of age).

Apprentices.
Industrial
commissioner must be
notified of each apprentice and must give permission for their employment.

$13,20 per week.
$9 per week.

$60 per month.
$9 per week.

$0.27H per hour.
$0.22 per hour.

Oct.

4,1921

Dec. 14,1921
Dec. 14,1921

Dec. 31,1921
Jan. 22,1922

$12 per week.

Women (adult):
Experienced..
Inexperienced
Women (minor)..
A n y woman physically defective or cnppled, by
age or otherwise, m ^ y obtain a license fixing a
lower wage.

Experienced women

$1.25 per day.
$0,90 per day.
$0.75 per day.

Public housekeeping, i . e . , linen room Females over 18 years of age.
girls, chambermaids, c l e a n e r s ,
kitchen girls, dishwashers, pantry
girls, pantry servers, waitresses, Minors...
counter girls, bus girls, elevator operators, ianitresses, laundry workers (except where a commercial
laundry is operated), and any other
occupation which would properly
be classified under public housekeeping. The establishments shall
include hotels, rooming houses,
boarding houses, restaurants, cafes,
cafeterias, lunch rooms, tea rooms,
apartment houses, hospitals (not
nurses), philanthropic institutions,
and any other which may be properly classified under this industry.
Laundry, dry-cleaning or dye works Females over 18 years of age
occupations, trade or industry.
Telephone or telegraph lines or i n any Females over 18 years of age
public occupation other than public
housekeeping, laundry, dry-cleaning, and dye works, mercantile and
^^manufacturing._ ^
^
Females over 18 years of age
Manufacturing occupations, trades Women:
and industries.
Experienced..
Inexperienced

$14.50 per week;
$2.60 per day;
$0.35 per hour.
$12 per week.

$13.20 per week.
$13.20 per week.

$13.20 per week.
$13.20 per week.
$9 per week.

6437®—24t. ( T o follow page 51.) No. 6.

CHART I X . — M I N I M U M - W A G E L E G I S L A T I O N I N T H E U N I T E D STATES—Continued
A D M I N I S T R A T I O N OF M I N I M U M - W A G E LAWS—Continued

State

Body empowered to administer law

Method of selecting occupation or industry to be considered b y this body

Method of arriving at wage awards

Means pro vided for securing
enforcement of award

Principles by which amount
of award is determined

Occupations or industries
covered b y law

Classes of employees covered b y law

Exceptions

Date of award

Occupations or industries

Oct. 27,1922

Mercantile, manufacturing, printing,
laundering, or dyo works establishments, sign painting, machine or
repair shop, or parcel delivery service, or any other industry other than
public housekeeping occupation, stenographer, bookkeeper, typiat, billing clerks, filing clerks, cashier,
checker, invoicer, comptometer operator, or any clerical office work,
including assistants and helpers i n
doctors' and dentists' offices; any
occupation, trade, or Industry not
mentioned above.
A n y occupation, trade or Industry.
Exceptiom: Seasonal industries.

Classes of employees

Amount of wages

Washington—Continued.

Wisconsin:
I n "Wisconsin Statutes/'
1923, Vol. I , sees. IW.OIIfrt.li, pp. 1118-1119.

Industrial commission. (Commission
is composed of members appointed
by the governor, w i t h the advico and
consent of the senate, for terms of C
years at a salary of $5,(X)0 per year.)




Investigation at discretion of the commission, or on the filing of a verified
complaint of any person, to determine the necessity of establishing a
m i n i m u m wage I n the occupation.

Organization b y the commission of an
advisory wage board selected to represent fairly the employers, the employees, and the public. The living
wage determined on by the commission and this advisory board shall be
the legal m i n i m u m wage.

Each day an employer employs a person at less than
the legal m i n i m u m wage
shall be a separate offense.

' L i v i n g wage," i. e., compensation sufficient to enable the employee to maintain herself under conditions consistent w i t h her
welfare.

Every person i n receipt of, or
entitled to, any compensation for labor performed for
any employer.

Females, minors-

A n y females or minor unable to earn " a living
wage" may obtain a
license filing a lower wage.

Aug.

1924.

1,1921

Seasonal industries.

Minors

$9 per week.

Women and boys over 17
years of age:
Experienced—
I n cities of 6,000 or
more.
I n cities under 5,000.
Inexperienced
Minors:
Experienced....
Ine.\perieneed
Females or minors:
I n cities of 6,000 or more.
I n cities under 5,000..,,.

$0.22 per hour.
$0.16 per hour.

5437"—241. (To follow page Si.)

$0.25 per hour,

$0.20 per hour.
$0.16 per hour.
$0.25 per hour.
$0.22 per hour.
No. 7.

FOREWOED,—The following foiir maps hare been made from the
charts to give a picture of conditions tliroughout the United States.
I n the maps depicting limitation of working hours i t has been possible
to show only one law for each State. The law selected for the map is
that one which covers the greatest number of women. For instance,
Wisconsin appears as a State having a 9-hour day, 50-hour week,
although the State also has a law limiting hours of work i n hotels
to 10 per day, 55 per week. The 9-hour law, however, includes the
majority of the women i n the State, for i t covers manufacturing,
mechanical, or mercantile establishments, laundry, restaurant, confectionery store, or telegraph or telephone office or exchange, or any
express or transportation establishment.
Moreover, the map showing the weekly limitations is not, i n every
State, based on a dhect statement i n the law. Where a State has
limited daily hours but not weekly hours and where work is not
expressly forbidden on the seventh day of the week, the map shows
the daily hour laws multiplied b y seven to determine the weekly limit.
The States where this situation holds true are Colorado, Montana,
Washington, and some occupations i n New Mexico (see Chart I ) ,
Idaho (see Chart I I ) , Illinois, and Virginia (see Chart I I I ) . I n
Virginia, however, the Sunday observance laws are so enforced that
hey preclude women working more than 6 days or 60 hours per week.
Probably custom i n most industries i n the various States limits the
working days to 6, b u t these maps show the hours that the ''labor
laws'' allow a woman to work.




53
O

NO. 2.




WOMEN'S BUREAU. U S DEPARTMENT OF LABOR. 1924

LEGAL WORKING

HOURS

FOR

WOMEN-DAILY

FNGINftM Wrf'ROOuCTJON PLANT. U. S. ARMY, WASMIN(;iON PARRACKS. D. C.

NO. 3




WOMEN'S BUREAU, U S DEPARTMENT OF LABOR. 1924

LEGAL WORKING

HOURS

FOR

WOMEN-WEEKLY

iN'.,INf{-t? KM«ODuCTiOS TlAM. U S. AWMy, WASmINMON barracks. C'. c.

NO 4.




WOMEN'S BUREAU. U S DEPARTMENT OF LABOR. 192A-

NIGHT WORK

LAWS

FOR

WOMEN

E^.l,lNf^B wirHonurriON plant, u s. army, washim-.ton barracks, o. c.

NO. 5.




WOMEN'S BUREAU U 5 DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

MINIMUM WAGE

L A W S FOR

1924

WOMEN

WOMEN'S BUREAU
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

CHANGES IN STATUS OF MINIMUM WAGE LAWS SINCE PUBLICATION OF BULLETIN 40
ARIZONA.~Declared unconstitutional by the United States Supreme Court (October 19, 1925), which affirmed the Judgment of the United States District Court upon the authority of Adkins r. Children's
Hospital, 26 U. S. 525 (decision by the United States Supreme Court holding the District of Columbia minimum wage law unconstitutional).
KANSAS.—Declared unconstitutional by the Kansas Supreme Court (July 6, 1925) on the United States Supreme Court's interpretation of the fourteenth amendment to the Federal Constitution, in the case
of Adkins v. Children's Hospital.
WISCONSIN!—
State

Body empowered to administer law

Method of selecting
occupation or industry to be considered b y this body

Method of arriving at
wage awards

Industrial Commission (commission
is composed of members appointed
b y the governor, w i t h the advice
and consent of the senate, for terms
of 6 years at a salary of $6,000 per
year).

Investigation at discretion of commission to determine
the wages which are
oppressive and unjust

Commission may is- Payment of wages i n violation of any
sue order correctmg
order of the commission shall be
wage situations redeemed a violation of the law unless
vealed by Its mvtsi t can be proved the order was unligations.
reasonable, Every day an order is
not complied w i t h is a separate
oflense.

Means provided for securing
enforcement of award

Principles b y which amount of award
is determined

Occupations or industries covered b y law

C l a s s e s of e m ployees covered by law

" N o wage paid or agreed to be paid
by any employer to any adult female
employee shall be oppressive."
"Oppressive" is defined as " a n y
wage lower than a reasonable and
adequate compensation for services

Every person I n receipt of or entitled
to any compensation for labor performed for any employer.

A d u l t females

Exceptions

WISCONSIN 1

I n ' " S e s s i o n Laws of
Wisconsin/'
1925,
ch. 176.

» Law appearing i n Bulletin 40 now applies to minors only.




A n y adult woman unable to earn the
wage determined by the commission
may obtain a hcense fixing a lower
wage. A n y employer may obtain a
license to pay adult females less than
the established wage, if employer
shall satisfactorily establish that he
is unable to pay such wage.