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LI3.3:277
grinnell college
library

State Hour Laws
For Women
WOMEN’S BUREAU BULLETIN 277

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary




WOMEN’S BUREAU
Mrs. Esther Peterson, Director

la

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State Hour Laws
Fer Women
J^tHT O?*

^jres o*.

WOMEN’S BUREAU BULLETIN 277
(Revision of Bulletin 250)

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary




WOMEN’S BUREAU

Mbs. Esther Peterson, Director
WASHINGTON ; 1961

hL/

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington 25, D.C. - Price 35 cents




foreword
This bulletin covers the provisions of State hour laws for women
as of October 1, 1960. It provides an analysis of the laws regulating
daily and weekly hours of work, day of rest, meal and rest periods,
and nightwork; i.e., standards established by State hour laws and regu­
lations pursuant thereto and by State minimum-wage laws and orders.
The most recent of a series of reports published by the Women’s
Bureau on State hour laws for women, this bulletin supersedes
Bulletin 250, issued in 1953. The first such report, “State Laws
Affecting Working Women,” Bulletin 16, was issued in 1921. In the
period of approximately 40 years since publication of the original
bulletin, significant gains have been made in the establishment of
legal hour standards governing the employment of women in virtually
all States.
In 1960, laws in 24 States and the District of Columbia set a
maximum of 8 hours a day, 48 hours or less a week, or both; in 1921,
laws in 12 States, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico set such
maximum hour standards. Today, 22 States and the District of
Columbia have laws which require at least 1 day of rest in every
7 days; in 1921, 12 States and the District of Columbia had such
laws. Meal periods of specified duration must be allowed women
workers in one or more industries in 25 States, the District of Colum­
bia and Puerto Rico; whereas, approximately 40 years ago, such
laws were in effect in 19 States and Puerto Rico. Nightwork for
adult women is prohibited or regulated, or both prohibited and reg­
ulated, in one or more industries or occupations in 21 States and
Puerto Rico; in the earlier period, nightwork laws for adult women
were in effect in 15 States and Puerto Rico.
This bulletin was prepared by Regina M. Neitzey and Josephine
M. Urani, under the direction of Alice Angus Morrison, Chief of the
Division of Women’s Labor Law and Civil and Political Status. The
material presented in this report has been reviewed by State admin­
istrators in individual State reports. These separate reports are
available on request to the Women’s Bureau.




Esther Peterson,
Director, Women’s Bureau.

iii

State Hour Laws for Women
SUMMARY
The first enforceable law which regulated the maximum hours of
employment of women became effective in Massachusetts in 1879.
Today, 46 States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico have
established standards governing at least one aspect of women’s hours
of employment; i.e., maximum daily or weekly hours, day of rest, meal
and rest periods, or nightwork. A number of such laws include special
provisions which permit a variation from the established standards,
or provide for overtime hours of work under specified conditions, or
both. Only 4 States—Alabama, Florida, Hawaii1 and Iowa—have
not established any legal standards governing hours of employment
of women.
Maximum Daily and Weekly Hours
Forty-three States and the District of Columbia have laws which
regulate the number of daily and/or weekly hours of employment for
women in one or more industries.
Seven States—Alabama, Alaska, Florida, Hawaii, Indiana, Iowa,
and West Virginia—and Puerto Rico do not have such laws. Al­
though the laws of Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico set no maximum
daily and weekly hours, minimum-wage laws require the payment
of premium rates for time worked beyond hours specified.
The highest standards 2 (the lowest maximum hours) established
for daily and weekly hours in each of the 43 States and the District
of Columbia are shown in the following analysis.
Twenty-four States and the District of Columbia have laws regu­
lating the employment of women which establish, as their highest
standard, a maximum of 8 hours a day, 48 hours a week, or both for
one or more industries.* *
i Although Hawaii’s “wage and hour law” does not place a limit on hours of employment, it requires
payment of one and one-half times the employee's regular rate for hours over 40 a week.
* If a State has set different legal maximum-hour standards for different industries, the law establishing
the highest standard, i.e., the lowest maximum hours, is shown.




1

Arizona._________ _ .____
Arkansas______
.......
California..___ __ _ .____
Colorado. ______ _ .
Connecticut___ __
.____
District of Columbia___ ____
Illinois_ __________
_
.____
Kansas. _
____ _____
Louisiana..
_______ ____
Massachusetts .
_ _ ____
Montana* _ __
____
Nevada..
_ ...
New Hampshire _ _
____

8-48
8-0
8-48
8-48
8-48
8-48
8-48
8-48
9-48
8-48
8-48
10-48

New Mexico_______
_____
New York__ ____
_____
North Carolina _
_____
North Dakota.
.
Ohio_____
_____
Oregon. __
.
_____
Pennsylvania
. _ _____
Rhode Island..
_____
Utah..
___
._____
Virginia _
Washington __
.
._____
Wyoming 4

8-48
8-48
9-48
8-48
8-44
10-48
9-48
8-48
9-48
88-48

*Men and women.

Nine States have set as their standard a maximum 9-hour day for
women, and of these all but one (Idaho) have a maximum of a 50- or
54-hour week. Maine’s law sets a 50-hour week for women production
workers in manufacturing and mechanical establishments and 54
hours per week for women workers in a number of other establish­
ments and industries.
Idaho______ ______ _________
Maine_______ . .________
Michigan _ ____
.________
Missouri .
_____ ________
Nebraska.. _______ ________

99-50
9-54
9-54
9-54

Oklahoma. _ _ __ ...................
Texas.. _.
.
________
Vermont___
__ ________
Wisconsin... .
________

9-54
9-54
9-50
9-50

Nine States have a maximum of 10 hours a day and from 50 to 60
hours a week. In Georgia and South Carolina the law is limited to
one type of manufacturing only—cotton and woolen goods.
Delaware______
Georgia*______
Kentucky_____
Maryland_____
Mississippi____

10-55
10-60
10-60
10-60
10-60

New Jersey 10-54
South Carolina*
* 10-55
South Dakota 10-54
Tennessee 10-50

*Men and women.

Minnesota has fixed no daily limit in its statute, having only a 54hour weekly limitation for manufacturing and several other industries.
Virtually all State hour laws cover manufacturing; most of them
apply to a variety of other industries as well. Standards are usually
3 Day-of-rest law provides, in effect, for a 4&-hour week. Nine hours a day permitted, if time worked over
8 hours a day is paid for at one and one-half times the employee’s regular rate.
* A 1959 amendment to the Wyoming hour law permits hours over 8 a day, provided one and one-half
times the employee’s regular rate is paid for each hour worked over 8 a day in a 12-hour period. (Hours
in excess of 48 a week may be worked provided premium rates are paid for the excess hours. Op. Atty.
(Jen., Nov. 6, 1959.)

2




the same for manufacturing and nonmanufacturing. However, in
four States, the highest standards established for daily and weekly
hours—8 hours a day and 48 hours a week—apply to nonmanufac­
turing; i.e., to mercantile establishments in Connecticut, to public
housekeeping and telephone exchanges in Kansas, to retail stores and
eating places in Montana, and to mercantile, laundry and drycleaning
establishments, and offices in Ohio. For manufacturing establish­
ments, the maximum daily and weekly hours in these four States are:
Daily

Ohio




~

-

-

Weekly

9
9
8
9

48
49K
48

3

All maximum-hour standards (highest to lowest), applicable to
women workers in one or more industries are:
Maximum hours

Maximum hours

Daily

Daily

Arizona - _
Arkansas-

8
8

California

8
8
*9

Colorado

8
8
*9

Connecticut_____

-

8

9
Delaware 5___
__
District of Columbia__
Georgia ____
.
Idaho_ __
Illinois 6
__ ____
Kansas
____

Kentucky
Louisiana__ ______

-

Maine. _________
Maryland 5- - Massachusetts___ _
Michigan__________ Minnesota__ ____
Mississippi __
____
Missouri
_
Montana-__ __
Nebraska____ ____Nevada_
New Hampshire 5 _
_

10
8
*10
9
8
8
9
9
10
8

9
9
9
10
9
9
12
10
9
8
*8
9
8
10
10% \

Weekly

48
(*
*)

New Jersey___
New Mexico 5_.
New York____

48
108 (in
2 weeks)
48
108 (in
2 weeks)

48
48
58
55
48
60
48
48
49/2
54
60
48
54
50

North Carolina.

North Dakota.
Ohio________
Oklahoma
Oregon__

Pennsylvania - _
Rhode Island -.
South Carolina
South Dakota..
Tennessee____
Texas________

54

60
48
54
70
54
60
54
48
54
48
48
54

Utah_________
Vermont_____
Virginia______
Washington___
Wisconsin 5___

Wyoming 4

10
8
9
8
9
10
11
8%
9
8
9
9
8
8
10
10
10
9
*10
12
10
10
10
9
10
8
9
9
8
(*)
9
9
10
10
10
10
8

Weekly

54
48
56
48
48
48
55
55
48
54
48
48
54
44
48
44
60
48
48
55
60
54
50
54
54
60
48
50
48
60
50
54
50
54
55
60
48

*Men and women.
See footnote 3 on p. 2.
4 A 1959 amendment to the Wyoming hour law permits hours over 8 a day, provided one and one-half
times the employee’s regular rate is paid for each hour worked over 8 a day in a 12-hour period. (Hours in
excess of 48 a week may be worked provided premium rates are paid for the excess hours. Op. Attv. Gen..
Nov. 6,1959.)
* Hour law sets other maximum hour standards for nightwork.

4




Permitted Variations From Maximum Daily Hours, Weekly Hours,
Days per Week
Hour laws in 23 States, in addition to setting the maximum number
of daily and/or weekly hours, or both, or limiting the number of days
to be worked per week, include provisions which permit adjustments
in the legal maximum. By these permitted variations, application of
the hour laws are more flexible and adaptable to the requirements of
the industries or occupations covered by the laws.
With few exceptions, hours in excess of the weekly maximum are
prohibited. However, a considerable number of States permit women
to be employed beyond the daily maximum hour limit in various
circumstances. Among these are: To make one shorter workday
in the week; to make a shorter workweek; to make up time lost due
to breakdown of machinery, accident, or illness; to take into con­
sideration the needs caused by emergencies, seasonal processing, or
unusual events; or to alleviate any hardships which may result from
strict application of the law. One State—Texas—requires the pay­
ment of double the regular rate for such longer daily hours. A few
States with laws providing for an 8-hour day, 6-day workweek, permit
a woman who is employed for not more than 6 hours a day to work 7
days a week.
Provisions allowing variations from the maximum-hour standards
are shown on the charts for the following States:
Arizona
California
Connecticut
Delaware
Georgia
Illinois
Kansas
Maine

Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New York
North Dakota
Ohio

Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina
Texas
Vermont
Virginia

Overtime
In 34 States, overtime—hours over the maximum daily or weekly
hours or more than the days per week as set by law—may be worked
for specified reasons and periods of time. Because of the type of
industry covered, some of the maximum-hour laws are inapplicable
during parts of a year.
The majority of the overtime provisions permit longer hours in
seasonal industries to prevent spoilage of perishable products or to
allow extra hours to be worked in mercantile or retail trade prior to
or following holiday seasons, or during an emergency which may en­
danger the life, health, and welfare of the community.




In 13 States, the laws provide that before overtime hours may be
worked, permits must be obtained or authorization given by the
State labor departments.
Hour laws in eight States require the payment of one and one-half
times the employee’s regular rate for hours worked in excess of the
maximum set by law; in two States, double time.
Provisions for overtime hours are shown on the charts for:
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut
Illinois
Kansas
Louisiana
Maine
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota

Mississippi
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon

Pennsylvania
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Vermont
Virginia
Washington
Wisconsin
Wyoming

In addition to the 34 States with overtime provisions, Kentucky,
Rhode Island, South Carolina, and Puerto Rico require extra pay for
hours worked on the seventh consecutive day of the week or on
Sundays and holidays. In Rhode Island, a permit must be obtained
for employment on Sundays and specified holidays.
Day of Rest
Nearly half the States (22) and the District of Columbia have
established a 6-day workweek for women in some or all industries.
In two of these States—Colorado and Utah'—the law does not apply
to manufacturing establishments.
Arizona
Arkansas
California*
Colorado
Connecticut **
Delaware
District of Columbia
Illinois*

Kansas
Louisiana
Massachusetts*
Nevada
New Hampshire*
New JerseyNew York*
North Carolina

North Dakota
Ohio
Oregon
Pennsylvania
South Carolina
Utah
Wisconsin*

•Men and women.
••Standard shown is applicable to females; anothor statute prohibits Sunday employment of all employees
in commercial occupations or work in any industrial process with specified exceptions. (Employees covered
by statute who are employed on Sunday must be relieved of duty for one of the 6 days following.)

6



Of the 28 States and Puerto Rico with no laws limiting the work­
week to 6 days, 8 States have laws applicable to both men and women
which prohibit employment on Sunday with specified exceptions:
Alabama
Florida
Maryland

Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri

Virginia
West Virginia

Eight other States—Georgia, Maine, Michigan, New Mexico,
Oklahoma, Tennessee, Texas, and Vermont—have Sunday “blue
laws” which prohibit the performance of work by an individual.
Since they do not regulate employment, these are not listed with the
day-of-rest laws shown on the charts in this report.
In Montana, by law, Sunday is a legal holiday. Three additional
jurisdictions—Rhode Island, Kentucky, and Puerto Rico—have laws
which require the payment of overtime rates to both men and women
for work on the seventh day or on Sunday, thus, in effect, encouraging
a 6-day workweek. The Rhode Island statute, under the jurisdiction
of the State Department of Labor, prohibits employment on Sundays
and holidays, but allows work of necessity and charity to be performed
on such days by special permit, provided time and one-half the
worker’s regular rate is paid. The Kentucky law requires the pay­
ment of time and one-half the worker’s regular rate for work on the
seventh consecutive day for persons working at least 40 hours a week.
Puerto Rico provides for a day of rest but permits work on such a day
at double the employee’s regular rate.
Meal Period
Twenty-five States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico
provide that meal periods, varying from one-third of an hour to 1
hour in duration, must be allowed women employed in some or all
industries. The length of the meal period is provided for by statute,
order, or regulation in these 27 jurisdictions:
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Delaware
District of Columbia
Indiana*
Kansas
Louisiana
Maine

Maryland
Massachusetts
Nebraska*
Nevada
New Jersey*
New Mexico
New York*
North Carolina
North Dakota

Ohio
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Puerto Rico
Rhode Island
Utah
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin

•.Men and women.




7

Kentucky requires that before and after the regularly scheduled
lunch period (duration not specified) rest periods be granted females;
and in Wyoming, females employed in specified establishments who
are required to be on their feet continuously must have two paid rest
periods, one before and one after the lunch hour.
Rest Period
Twelve States require rest periods (as distinct from a meal period)
for women workers in one or more industries. Most of the provisions
are for a 10-minute rest period within each half day of work:
Alaska
Arizona
California
Colorado

Kentucky
Nevada
New York
Oregon

Pennsylvania
Utah
Washington
Wyoming

The laws in Alaska, Kentucky, Nevada, and Wyoming cover a
variety of industries (in Alaska and Wyoming, applicable to women
standing continuously); laws in New York and Pennsylvania apply
to operators of elevators not provided with seating facilities. Rest
periods in one or more industries are required by wage orders in
Arizona, California, Colorado, Oregon, Utah, and Washington.
In addition to the 12 States, manufacturing establishments operat­
ing on a 24-hour schedule in Arkansas, when necessary, may be
exempt from the meal-period provision if females are granted 10
minutes for each of two paid rest periods and arrangements made for
them to eat at their work.
Nightwork
Twenty-one States and Puerto Rico have laws which either prohibit
the employment of adult women at night, establish maximum-hour
standards different from those established for daywork, or regulate
the conditions under which women may be employed after specified
evening hours. Six States and Puerto Rico have both prohibitory
and regulatory laws governing the employment of women at night.
Twelve of these States and Puerto Rico prohibit nightwork for
adult women in certain occupations or industries, or under specified
conditions. In these jurisdictions, hours of prohibited employment
vary, ranging from 9 p.m. to 8 a.m.
Connecticut
Kansas
Massachusetts
Nebraska (except by
permit)

8



New Jersey
New York
North Dakota
Ohio
Puerto Rico

South Carolina
Utah
Washington
Wisconsin

In North Dakota and Washington, the prohibition applies only to
elevator operators; in Ohio, only to taxicab drivers. Utah prohibits
the employment of women in restaurants on a split shift after midnight.
In six States and Puerto Eico, which prohibit nightwork in specified
industries or occupations, and nine States, which do not prohibit
nightwork, the employment of adult women at night is regulated in
one or more industries either by limitation of maximum hours or by
establishment of specific working-conditions standards.
Six States and Puerto Eico both prohibit and regulate:
Connecticut
Kansas
New Jersey

New York
Puerto Rico

Utah
Wisconsin

States that regulate only:
California
Delaware
Illinois

Maryland
New Hampshire
New Mexico

Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island

One additional State—Arizona—and the District of Columbia
prohibit only night messenger service for females under 21; the
Arizona law is also applicable to males under 21.




9

STATE HOUR LAWS

State

ALABAMA:
No law.
ALASKA:
General Safety
Code, ch.
XXVII, sec.
27-03.
ARIZONA:
Rev. Stat. (1956),
with 1959 supp.,
vol. 2, sec. 8­
666; vol. 8, sec.
23-281.

Ibid., vol. 8, sec.
23-236.

Industrial Com­
mission Mini­
mum-Wage
Order 2-A,
Sept. 12, 1948.

Employee coverage; oc­
cupation or industry
coverage

Maximum-hour provisions
Daily

Weekly

Days per
week

Permitted
variations

0)
Women, 18 and over.
Any employment.

Females................. ......... 8 (in 1348.
All employment. Ex­
hour
ceptions: Domestic work;
period).
telephone or telegraph
offices or exchanges^ or
railroad yard omces
when only 3 females are
employed; nurses; chil­
dren’s camps when on
written contract basis
for longer than 1-week
term, except camps reg­
ulated by existing ordi­
nance of any city or
town.
Persons under 21 years..
Messengers for tele­
graph or messenger com­
pany in the distribution,
transmission or delivery
of goods or messages in
incorporated cities or
towns.
Women and minors un­ 2 periods
der 21.
within
Laundry and Dryclean­
12 hours.
ing Industry.
(SEE Appendix I.)

ARKANSAS:
Stat. Annotated
1947, with 1955
supp., vol. 7,
secs. 81-601
through 81-607,
81-614, 81-617,
81-619, 81-622.

Females____________8.
Manufacturing, me­
chanical or mercantile
establishment; laundry;
express or transporta­
tion company; hotel,
restaurant, eating place;
bank, building and loan
association, insurance
company, finance or
credit business, or em­
ployment in any capac­
ity. Exceptions: Do­
mestic, agricultural or
horticultural employ­
ment; cotton factories;
gathering of fruit or farm
products; switchboard
operators in small tele­
phone exchanges ex­
empt under provisions
of the Fair Labor Stand­
ards Act; railroad em­
ployees whose hours are
regulated by F e d e r a 1
law; processors or canners of fruits and vege­
tables subject to and
complying with the Fair
Labor Standards Act;
and upon application,
by permit, females em­
ployed in executive or
managerial capacity.2
By law, banks and trust
companies complying
with wage and hour pro­
visions of the Fair Labor
See footnotes at end of table.

10



6.

6.

Adult women
may be em­
ployed 7 days a
week, if daily
hours do not
exceed 6.

FOR WOMEN
Nightwork
Overtime

0)

Provisions do not apply
to or affect females
engaged in harvesting,
curing, canning, or
drying any variety of
perishable fruits or
vegetables, during pe­
riods necessary to
harvest, cure, can, or
dry fruit or vegetables
to save from spoiling.

Meal period

Rest period

Prohibited

Regulated

10-minute period
after 2 hours for
women required
to stand at their
work.

10 p.m. to
5 a.m.

One 10 minutes
each half day
worked, or 2
such periods
during any full
working shift,
paid for at em­
ployee's regular
rate.
114 times the regular rate
must be paid for hours
over 8 a day and on 7th
consecutive day. Per­
mit from Commission­
er must be obtained
for: (a) Overtime of a
permanent nature in
excess of one hour a
day; and (b) for work
on 7th consecutive
day, not to exceed 90
days. 9-hour day for
hotels and restaurants
may be established by
regulation of Commis­
sioner.




30 minutes after 6 In manufacturing
or fabricating
continuous
establishments,
hours of work,
exempt from
except 6J4 hours
meal period
for employee
provision,
dismissed for
where 24-hour
day by 1:30 p.m.,
continuous op­
where 3 or more
eration is nec­
females are em­
essary or where
ployed.
shutdown
Not less than Y\would result in
hour for lunch.*
loss of product:
10 minutes for
each of 2 peri­
ods, 1 in first
half and 1 in
last half of
workday.
(Suitable ar­
rangement
must be made
for females to
eat at their
machines or
place of work.)

11

STATE HOUR LAWS

State

Employee coverage; oc­
cupation or industry
coverage

Maximum-hour provisions
Daily

Weekly

Days per
week

ARKANSAS—Con.
Stat. Annotated
Standards Act meet re­
1947—Con.
quirements of provi­
sions of female labor
law.
Ibid., sec. 81-410.. Women....... ...................
Factory, manufactur­
ing establishment, work­
shop or other places with
6 or more men and
women employees.

CALIFORNIA:
Annotated Codes
(West's 1955),
with 1959 supp.,
vol. 44, secs.
1350, 1352,
1352.1; Act 4052
as amended by
ch. 99 (L. 1959).

Females, 18 years and
over.
Manufacturing, me­
chanical, mercantile es­
tablishment; laundry;
cleaning, dyeing, or
cleaning and dyeing es­
tablishment; hotel, pub­
lic lodginghouse, apart­
ment house, hospital,
beauty shop, barber­
shop, amusement place,
restaurant, cafeteria, tel­
egraph or telephone of­
fice, elevator operator in
office building, express
or transportation com­
pany. Exceptions: Ex­
ecutives, administrators,
or professional women,
l.e., employee engaged
in work which is pre­
dominately intellec­
tual, managerial, or cre­
ative, which requires
exercise of discretion
and independent Judg­
ment and for which re­
muneration is not less
than at the rate of $350
a month; or employee
licensed or certified by
the State and engaged
in the practice of law,
medicine, dentistry, ar­
chitecture, engineering,
or accounting.

Ibid., secs. 850,
851, 851.5, 852,
854.

J8 (in any
day of 24
hours).

Men and women............ * 9 (averThe sale at retail of
age),
drugs and medicines, or
compounding of physi­
cian's prescriptions in
any store, dispensary,
pharmacy, laboratory,
or office, including regis­
tered pharmacists.4
See footnotes at end of table.

12



48.

108 (in 2
consec­
utive
weeks).

(8)

Permitted
variations

FOR WOMEN—Continued
Nightwork
Meal period

Overtime

Rest period

Prohibited

Regulated

1 hour must be al­
lowed for meals
if lunchroom not
provided on
premises, and
during such
hour women
shall be per­
mitted to leave
establishment.
The 8-hour law does
not apply to:
Graduate nurses, li­
censed vocational
nurses, clinical lab­
oratory technicians
or technologists,
and X-ray labora­
tory technicians in
hospitals during an
emergency. 1H
times straight time
hourly pay for
hours over 8 a day
must be paid to
licensed vocational
nurses, technolo­
gists, or technicians.
Harvesting, curing,
canning or drying
of any variety of
perishable fruit,
fish, or vegetable
during periods
when necessary to
harvest, cure, can,
or dry such prod­
ucts to prevent
spoilage.
Processing of biologicals, human blood
products and other
such products of
laboratories operat­
ing under license
from the U.S. Treas­
ury and U.S. De­
partment of Agri­
culture during peri­
ods when it is
necessary to con­
tinue such proces­
sing to prevent
spoilage.
ALSO SPECIAL
PROVISION
FOR DEFENSE
EMERGENCY,
until 91st day after
adjournment of 1961
Legislature.
The hour provisions
do not apply in case
of accident, death,
sickness or epidemic.

Not to exceed 1
hour.

577081—61------ 2




13

STATE HOUR LAWS

State

CALIFORNIA—
Continued
Annotated
Codes—Con.
secs. 551,554 and
556.

Industrial Wel­
fare Commis­
sion Orders,
Nov. 15, 1957.

Ibid.

Employee coverage, oc­
cupation or industry
coverage

Maximum-hour provisions
Daily

Women and minors un­
der 18 years.
Manufacturing Indus­
try, No. 1-57; Personal
Service Industry, No. 2­
57; Professional, Tech­
nical, Clerical, and Sim­
ilar Occupations, No.
4-57; Public Housekeep­
ing Industry, No. 5-57;
Laundry, Linen Supply,
Dry Cleaning, and Dye­
ing Industry, No. 6-57;
Mercantile Industry, No.
7-57; Transportation In­
dustry, No. 9-57; Amuse­
ment and Recreation In­
dustry, No. 10-57; Broad­
casting Industry, No.
11-57. Exceptions: Ex­
ecutives, administrators,
professional women.
(SEE Appendix I.)
Women and minors
under 18.
Canning, Freezing, and
Preserving Industry, No.
3-57; and Industries
Handling Products A fter
Harvest, No. 8-57. Ex­
ceptions: Executives, ad­
ministrators, professional
women.
(SEE Appendix I.)

See footnotes at end of table.

14




8 in 13 (11
hours
must
elapse
between
the end
of one
work­
day and
begin­
ning of
next, ex­
cept 8
hours in
bonafide
change
of shift).

*8..

Days per
week

Permitted
variations

1 day's
rest in 7,
except
in emer­
gency.

Men and women..........
Any occupation of la­
bor. Exceptions: Work
performed in care of
animals, crops, or lands;
protection of life or prop­
erty; common carrier
engaged in or connected
with movement of
trains; employees work­
ing under collective­
bargaining agreements.

Weekly

Provision does not
apply when
total hours do
not exceed 30 a
week or 6 in any
1 day.
If nature of work
requires that em­
ployee works 7
or more consec­
utive days, days
of rest may be
accumulated
and equivalent
time off allowed
during calendar
month.
Employment on
7th day permit­
ted when total
hours do not ex­
ceed 30 a week
or 6 a day.

6................ Employment on
7th day permit­
ted when total
hours do not
exceed 30 a week
or 6 a day.

FOR WOMEN—Continued
Nightwork
Overtime

Meal period

Rest period

Prohibited

Regulated

SPECIAL
PROVI­
SION FOR DE­
FENSE EMER­
GENCY.

Permitted for women 30-minute period 10-minute paid
period for each
after 5 hours'
18 years and overf in
4 hours' work,
emergencies, when
work, except on
or major fraction
a 6-hour work­
not prohibited by law
thereof, insofar
day.
or when necessary to
as practicable in
prevent perishable “On-duty" meal
middle of work
period permit­
products from spoil­
ted when nature * period, except
ing. V/i times regular
on days totaling
of work pre­
rate must be paid for
less than 3)6
vents relief from
over 8 hours a day
hours. Exemp­
all duty; to be
and over 6 days a
tion by Commis­
counted as time
week; over 54 a week
sion may be au­
worked. Ex­
for specified resident
thorized.
emption by Com­
housemothers and
mission may be
resident managers of
authorized.
homes for the aged
(on maximum 54hour work-week).

Permitted for women
18 years and over dur­
ing periods necessary
to prevent spoiling or
in emergencies when
not prohibited by 8hour law; maximum
of 72 hours in any 7
consecutive days al­
lowed, if followed by
a 24-hour no-work
period.
1H times
regular rate must be
paid for hours over 8
up to and including
12 a day, and for first
8 hours on 7th consec­
utive day; double
time for hours over 12
a day, over 8 on 7th
day, except on 7th
day when total hours
do not exceed 30 a
week, 6 a day.
ALSO
SPECIAL
PROVISION FOR
DEFENSE EMER­
GENCY.




.do.

do.

No woman shall
be required to re­
port for work
between 10 p.m.
and 6 a.m. unless
suitable trans­
portation is
available.
If meal period
occurs during
these hours, hot
food and drink
facilities must be
available.

Do.

15

STATE HOUR LAWS

State

CALIFORNIA—
Continued
Industrial Wel­
fare Commis­
sion Order,
Jan. 1, 1958.

COLORADO:
Rev. Stat., 1953,
with 1957 supp.,
vol. 4, sec. 80­
7-13.

Ibid., vol. 3, sec.
48-2-1, 48-2-2.

Minimum-Wage
Order No. 13,
May 4, 1956.

Minimum-Wage
Order No. 10,
May 4,1956.

Maximum-hour provisions

Employee coverage; oc­
cupation or industry
coverage

Daily

Women and minors
under 18.
Motion Picture Indus­
try, No. 12-57. Excep­
tions: Professional ac­
tors and actresses; exec­
utive, administrators,
and professional women.
(SEE Appendix I.)

8 (in a cal­
endar
day of 2.4
hours).

Men and women
The sale at retail of
drugs and medicines or
compounding of physi­
cians’ prescriptions in
any store, dispensary,
pharmacy, laboratory,
or office.3
Women and minors
under 18.
Beauty Service Occu­
pations.
(SEE Appendix I.)

9 (average).

Days per
week

1 (10 hours
must
elapse
between
the end
of one
work­
day and
the be­
ginning
of the
next).

Females
Manufacturing, me­
chanical or mercantile
establishment; laundry;
hotel or restaurant.1

Weekly

Women and minors
under 18.
Laundry Industry.
(SEE Appendix I.)

See footnotes at end of table.

16




8

8.

108 (in 2
consec­
utive
weeks).

0

Permitted
variations

FOR WOMEN—Continued
Nightwork
Overtime

Meal period

Rest period

Permitted for women
18 years and over in
emergencies; maxi­
mum of 16 hours in­
cluding meal periods
in any one day from
the time required to
report to work until
dismissed. 1H times
regular rate must be
paid for hours over 8
up to and including
12 a day and for first
8 hours on 7th con­
secutive day; double
time for hours over 12
a day, over 8 on 7th
day.

30 minutes, not
more than 1
hour, after 6J4
hours’ work.
“On-duty” meal
period per­
mitted when
nature of work
prevents relief
from all duty;
to be counted
as time worked.
Exemption by
Commission
may be author­
ized.

10-minute paid
period for each
4 hours’ work,
or major frac­
tion thereof, in­
sofar as possible
in middle of
work period,
except on days
totaling less
than 3Yi hours.
Additional inter­
im rest periods
during actual
rehearsal or
shooting must
be given to
swimmers,
dancers,
skaters, and
other perform­
ers engaged in
strenuous physi­
cal activities.
Exemption by
Commission
may be author­
ized.

Prohibited

Regulated

Food and hot
drink shall be
provided em­
ployees required
to work after
11:30 p.m.
When employees
are required to
work at night
and are not dis­
missed in time
to return home
by public serv­
ice transporta­
tion, transporta­
tion shall be pro­
vided by em­
ployer.

In case of emergencies
or conditions de­
manding immediate
action or in case of
processing of seasonal
agricultural products,
over 8-hours’ work In
a calendar day per­
mitted on payment of
time and one-half em­
ployee’s regular hour­
ly rate, provided that
a permit is first ob­
tained from the In­
dustrial Commission.
Hour provisions do not
apply in case of acci­
dent, death, sickness,
or epidemic.

In cases of emergency,
females may be per­
mitted to work over 8
hours a day, by per­
mit from Industrial
Commission. 1J4
times regular rate
must be paid for
hours over 8 a day, 44
a week.
Emergency employ­
ment in excess of 8
hours a day and 44
hours a week per­
mitted; by permit
from Industrial Com­
mission for hours in
excess of 8 a day. 1H
times regular rate
must be paid for
hours over 8 a day, 44
a week.




30 minutes............
“On-duty” meal
period, counted
as time worked,
permitted when
nature of work
prevents relief
from all duty.
Not less than 30,
nor more than
90, minutes; not'
to be counted as
working time.

10-minute paid
period for every
4 hours of work­
ing time, or
major fraction
thereof.

do.

17

STATE HOUR LAWS

State

COLORADO—
Continued
Minimum-Wage
Order, No. 12,
May 4, 1956.

Minimum-Wage
Order, No. 11,
May 4, 1956.

Maximum-hour provisions

Employee coverage; oc­
cupation or industry
coverage

Daily

Weekly

Women and minors un­
der 18.
Public Housekeeping
Industry.
(SEE Appendix I.)

8.

8.

48.

CONNECTICUT:
General Stat. (Re­ Females and minors un­
vision 1958), vol.
der 18.
Mercantile establish­
6, secs. 31-13,
31-19; and Ad­
ments. Exceptions: Per­
ministrative
manent salaried employ­
Regulations, De­ ees in executive, mana­
partment of La­ gerial, or supervisory
bor (1948).
positions excepted from
the provisions of the
minimum-wage law who
receive a regular salary
of not less than the mini­
mum fixed for such em­
ployment in any wage
order or administrative
regulation issued under
the minimum-wage law.3
Ibid., sec. 31-12— Females and minors un­ 9................ 48.
der 18.
Any manufacturing *
or mechanical establish­
ment.

Ibid., sec. 31-18__ Females and minors un­
der 18.
Public restaurant,
cafe, dining room, bar­
ber shop, hairdressing or
manicuring establish­
ment or photograph gal­
lery. Exception: Hotels.
Ibid., sec. 31-17— Women........... ................
Bowling alley, shoeshining establishment,
or billiard or pool room.
Ibid., vol. 9, sec. Men and women......... .
53-302.
Any commercial occu­
pation or any industrial
process, with specified
exceptions.
See footnotes at end of table

18



Permitted
variations

48..

Women and minors under 18.
Retail Trade Industry.
(SEE Appendix I.)

Days per
week

10 hours’ employ­
ment permitted
on 1 day in
week, to pro­
vide 1 shorter
workday in
week.

FOR WOMEN—Continued
Nightwork
Overtime

Meal period

Rest- period

Prohibited

Regulated

In cases of emergency 30 minutes after 5 10-minute paid pe­
hours of work,
riod for every 4
or conditions demand­
except on 6-hour
hours of work.
ing immediate action,
workday.
females may be per­
“On-duty" meal
mitted to work over 8
period, counted
hours a day, by per­
as time worked,
mit from Industrial
permitted when
Commission. 1^ times
nature of work
employee’s regular
rate must be paid for
prevents relief
from all duty.
hours over 8 a day, 48
a week.
10-minute paid pe­
In cases of emergency Not less than 30,
nor more than
riod for every 4
or conditions demand­
hours of work­
90, minutes; not
ing immediate action,
to be counted as
over 8 hours a day
ing time, or ma­
jor fraction there­
permitted; by permit
working time.
of.
from Industrial Com­
mission.
times reg­
ular rate must be paid
for hours over 8 a day,
48 a week.
Overtime permitted dur­
ing Dec. 18-25, if em­
ployer grants at least
7 holidays with pay
annually.
10 hours a day, 52 hours
a week, for not more
than 4 weeks in any
12 months may be al­
lowed by Commis­
sioner of Labor and
Factory Inspection in
cases of emergency
and of seasonal or
peak demand.

By regulation; 1
a.m.-6a.m.for
female as sole
occupant of es­
tablishment.

Do.»a

10 hours a day, 55 hours
a week for not more
than 8 weeks in any
12 consecutive months
may be allowed by
Commissioner of La­
bor and Factory In­
spection, in emergen­
cy or seasonal or peak
demand.
ALSO SPECIAL
PROVISION FOR
DEFENSE EMER­
GENCY.




1 a.m.-6 a.m.i by
permit issued to
employer com­
plying w ith health
and welfare regu­
lations and trans­
portation 2 re­
quirements.

Do.i 2

After 10 p.m.

19

STATEIHOUR LAWS

State

Employee coverage; oc­
cupation or industry
coverage

Maximum-hour provisions
Daily

DELAWARE:
Code Annotated
Females, 16 and over___ 110___
(1953), with 1968
Any mercantile, me­
(SEE
supp., vol. 10,
chanical or manufactur­ Nighttitle 19, ch. 3,
ing establishment; laun­ work.)
dry; baking or printing
secs. 301, 302,
304.
establishment, tele­
phone aud telegraph of­
fice or exchange; restau­
rant, hotel, place of a­
musement, dressmaking
establishment or office.
Exceptions: Canning or
preserving or prepara­
tion for canning or pre­
serving of perishable
fruits and vegetables.
Ibid., sec. 516.
Persons under 21______
Messengers for tele­
graph, telephone or mes­
senger company in the
distribution, collection,
transmission or delivery
of goods in any town or
city with population of
over 20,000 persons.
DISTRICT OF
COLUMBIA:
Code 1951, with
1960 supp., pt.
5, vol. 2, secs.
36-301, 36-303.

Females........................... 8.
Manufacturing, me­
chanical, or mercantile
establishments; laun­
dry, hotel, restaurant,
telegraph, or telephone
establishment or office;
or express or transporta­
tion company.

Weekly

Days per
week

Permitted
variations

1 55..

6------------ 12 hours permitted
on 1 day of each
week, upon con­
dition that total
hours for any
week shall not
exceed 55.

48.

6.

Ibid., sec. 36-206._ Females, 18 to 21.
Messengers.
FLORIDA:
No law...................................................
GEORGIA:
Code Annotated
(1935), with
1958 supp., title
54, sec. 201.

Men and women............ 10.
Cotton or woolen man­
ufacturing establish­
ments. Exceptions: En­
gineers, firemen, watch­
men, mechanics, team­
sters, yard employees,
clerical force, and all
help needed to clean up
and make necessary re­
pairs or changes in or
about machinery.

HAWAII:
No law.................
IDAHO:
Code Annotated
(1947), with
1959 supp., vol.
8, sec. 44-1107.

Females, 16 and over_
_ 9.
Mechanical or mer­
cantile establishment;
laundry, hotel, or res­
taurant, telegraph or
I telephone establishment;

See footnotes at end of table.

20




<*)
60.

Daily hours may
be regulated by
employers pro­
vided number of
hours do not in
the aggregate ex­
ceed 60 hours a
week.
Employees may
work such time
as necessary to
make up lost
time, not to ex­
ceed 10 days,
caused by acci­
dents or other
unavoidable cir­
cumstances.

FOR WOMEN—Continued
Night work
Overtime

Meal period

Rest period

Prohibited

Regulated

If any part of daily
employment of
females is per­
formed between
11 p.m. and 7
a.m. of the fol­
lowing day,
such female
shall not be em­
ployed more
than 8 hours in
any 24.

Not less than 30
minutes for
meals. % of an
hour after 6 con­
secutive hours
of work, except
6Vi hours, if em­
ployment for
day ends not
later than 1:30
p.m. and work­
er is dismissed
for the day.

10 p.m.-6 a.m.__

% hour after 6
continuous
hours of work,
except establish­
ments with 2 or
fewer female
employees.
Work period of
6H hours per­
mitted if em­
ployment ends
not later than
1:30 p.m. and
employee is dis­
missed for the
day.

7 p.m.-6 a.m___

<*>




21

STATE HOUR LAWS

State

Employee coverage; oc­
cupation or industry
coverage

Maximum-hour provisions
Daily

IDAHO—Con.
Code Annotated— office, express or trans­
Continued
portation company, i
Exceptions: Harvesting,
packing, curing, canning,
or drying perishable
fruits or vegetables.
ILLINOIS:
Annotated Stat. Females, 16 and over___
(Smith-Hurd,
Mechanical or mer­ 8..... .
(SEE
1950), with 1959 cantile establishment; Nightsupp., ch. 48, factory, laundry, hotel, work.)
secs. 5, 5a, 8.1.
restaurant, barbershop,
beauty parlor, telegraph
or telephone establish­
ment or office thereof;
place of amusement; ex­
press or transportation
or public utility busi­
ness; common carrier;
public or private insti­
tution or office there­
of.1 Exceptions: Grad­
uate nurses; operators
for a telephone company
in an agency in a private
residence or place
of business other than
an exclusive telephone
establishment.

Ibid., secs. 8a-8c*
8h.

INDIANA:
Stat. Annotated
(Burns, 1952),
with 1957
supp., as
amended by
ch. 51 (L. 1959),
vol. 8, Pt. 1,
sec. 40-1007.

Men and women______
Factory,2 mercantile
establishment;
trans­
portation or public serv­
ice company; hotel,
apartment hotel, restau­
rant, hospital, laundry,
telephone or telegraph
establishment; banking
institution, brokerage
business, theater,
freight or passenger
elevator, or any employ­
er engaged as a contrac­
tor to furnish labor upon
contract to any person,
municipality, or county
institution, or any office
thereof. Exceptions:
Janitors, watchmen,
superintendents, or fore­
men; employees engaged
for not more than 3
hours on Sunday setting
sponges in bakeries,
caring for live animals,
maintaining fires or
electrical current, or
necessary repairs to
boilers, machinery,
equipment, or power.3
Men and women______
Manufacturing or
mercantile establish­
ment; mine, quarry,
laundry, renovating
works, bakery, or
printing office.

IOWA:
No law.
See footnotes at end of table.

22




Weekly

Days per
week

48.

Permitted
variations

In other than
mercantile
establishments,
9 hours may be
worked on 1
day a week if
weekly hours do
not exceed 48.

6 (24 con­
secutive
hours of
rest in
each
calen­
dar
week).

FOR WOMEN—Continued
Night work
Overtime

Meal period

Prohibited

Regulated

Telegraph or tele­
phone operators
may be em­
ployed not more
than 10 hours
between 7:30
p.m. and 8 a.m.,
if sleeping facili­
ties are provided
and operator is
allowed at least
4 hours of sleep.

In mercantile estab­
lishments during 4
weeks in calendar
year, 9 hours a day,
54 hours a week, per­
mitted.
In canneries between
June 1 and October 15
10 hours a day, 60
hours a week, per­
mitted.
In public emergencies,
employment neces­
sary
to
furnish
essential public serv­
ices such as com­
munication, sewage
disposal, water sup­
ply, light, gas, and
transportation
are
exempt from provi­
sions of hour law fora
period not to exceed
48 hours.
ALSO
SPECIAL
PROVISION FOR
DEFENSE EMER­
GENCY.
SPECIAL
PROVI­
SION FOR DE­
FENSE
EMER­
GENCY




Rest period

60 minutes for
noonday meal.
In special cases
and for good
cause, chief in­
spector may
issue permits
for shorter meal
time.

23

STATE HOURZLAWS

State

KANSAS: i
Industrial Wel­
fare Order No.
1 (1939).

Ibid., No. 2
(1939).

Ibid., No. 3
(1939).

Employee coverage; oc­
cupation or industry
coverage




Daily

Women and minors.......
Laundry Occupations,
i.e., laundries, dyeing,
drycleaning, and press­
ing establishments.

9 (in 10
consec­
utive
hours,
except
in 12
hours
in case
of
break­
down of
machinery).
Women and minors____ 9_
Manufacturing, i.e.,
all processes in the pro­
duction of commodities;
work performed in flor­
ists’ shops, candymaking
departments of confec­
tionery stores and bak­
eries, millinery work­
rooms, dressmaking es­
tablishments, hemstitch­
ing and button shops,
alteration, drapery and
upholstery departments.
(Such departments in
mercantile
establish­
ment may be granted
permission to operate
under the mercantile
order.

Women and minors___
Mercantile Occupa­
tions, i.e., work in estab­
lishments operated for
the purpose of trade in
the purchase or sale of
goods or merchandise,
including the sales force,
wrapping employees,
auditing and checking
force, shippers in the
mail-order department,
receiving, marking, and
stockroom employees,
sheet-music saleswomen
and demonstrators, and
all employees in such
establishments in any
way directly connected
with the sale, purchase,
and disposition of goods,
wares, and merchandise.
Exception: Regularly
registered pharmacists.
See footnotes at end of table,

24

Maximum-hour provisions

9 (in 10
consecu­
tive
hours.)

Weekly

Days per
week

Permitted
variations

49H-

49H.......

6.

54.

6....... ........ 10 hours in 13
consecutive
hours permitted
1 day of each
week, provided
maximum hours
(54) are not
exceeded.

FOR WOMEN—Continued
Nightwork
Overtime

Meal period

An additional
hours
a week may be
worked, provided
daily maximum is
not exceeded.

1 hour, after not
more than 6
hours of work,
except Vi hour,
upon applica­
tion to Labor
Department if
both employer
and employee
prefer shorter
period.

Overtime of 4Vi hours a 45 minutes, after 5
week allowed in cases
hours of work
of emergency. In sea­
except, upon ap­
sonal industries han­
plication, Labor
dling perishable food
Department
products, such as can­
may grant short­
neries,
creameries,
er lunch period.
condenseries,
and 30 minutes when
poultry houses, the
industry is oper­
full amount of over­
ated on 8-hour
time is allowed for 6
basis.
weeks during their
peak season or for 2
periods a year not to
exceed 3 weeks each.
Cream testers may
work 6Vi days a week
between May 1 and
September 1, if week­
ly hours do not exceed
54.
In a poultry dressing
and packing business,
during the season
from October 15 to
December 24,11 hours
a day and 58 hours a
week are permitted
for 4 of the 6 weeks’
peak season, and 11
hours a day and 60
hours a week for the
remaining 2 weeks,
provided 1 of these
latter weeks falls be­
tween November 1
and
Thanksgiving
Day, and the other
between
Thanks­
giving Day and
Christmas.
1 hour after no
more than 5
hours of work,
except 45 min­
utes, upon
application to
Labor Depart­
ment, if both
employer and
employee prefer
shorter period.




Rest period

Prohibited

Regulated

9 p.m. to 6 a.m.„

After 9 p.m.,
except after 10
p.m. one day
of the week,
by temporary
order, in such
communities
as the agri­
cultural trade
may demand.

25

STATE HOUR LAWS

State

KANSAS—Con.
Industrial Weifare Order No.
4 (1939).
Ibid., No. 5 (1939)-

KENTUCKY:
Rev. Stat. (1958),
sec. 337.380.

Ibid., sec. 337.305-

Ibid., secs.
337.370, 339.210.

Minimum-Wage
Orders, as
amended by
ch. 36 (L. 1958).

Maximum-hour provisions

Employee coverage; oc­
cupation or industry
coverage

Public Housekeeping
Occupations. (SEE Ap­
pendix I.)
Telephone Exchange or
Office. Exceptions: Small
exchanges requiring
not more than 2 opera­
tors on duty at one
time; exchanges in
residences operated by
members of house­
hold.
Laundry, bakery, fac­
tory, workshop, store,
or mercantile, manufac­
turing, or mechanical
establishment, or hotel,
restaurant, telephone ex­
change, or telegraph
office.

Daily

Weekly

Days per
week

8_______

48..............

3 8 (in 2
shifts or
“tours,”
one of
which
shall not
exceed 6
hours).

48 ...

10

60...........

0)

10

60

«

Any employment.

Females under 21 (18 to
21).
Any gainful occupa­
tion. Exceptions: Do­
mestic service, nursing,
farmwork, casual do­
mestic employment, de­
livery of newspapers on
regularly
scheduled
routes.

(>)

All Industries and Oc­
cupations (May 27,
1947); Hotel and Res­
taurant Industry (July
15, 1954).
(SEE Appendix I.)

Ibid.................. .

m

Laundry, Dry Clean­
ing, and Dyeing Industry
(Apr. 1,1942).
(SEE Appendix I.)
LOUISIANA:
Females, 18 and over__
In communities of
6,000 population or more,
manufacturing, me­
chanical, or mercantile
establishment; laundry,
hotel, theater, restau­
rant, telegraph or tele­
phone establishment;
transportation
com­
pany; or operator of a
freight or passenger ele­
vator. Exceptions: Fe­
males employed in agri­
culture, domestic serv­
ice, or in an executive
capacity;
processing,
packing, and canning of
fish, seafood, fruits, and
See footnotes at end of table.
tated (West's,
1950), with
1959 supp., vol.
16, secs. 23:291,
23:331-333, 23:
337.

26



8 _

48 - ........ i 6.............

Permitted
variations

FOR WOMEN—Continued
Night work
Overtime

Provisions do not apply
in cases where, be­
cause of emergencies,
restrictions of hours
of work would result
in interruption or
impairment of service
to the public.

Meal period

Rest period




Regulated

(2)

20 minutes for
each meal after
no more than
5 hours of work.

For operators em­
ployed after 11
p.m., total work
time, plus rest
and sleep time,
must be per­
formed within 12
consecutive
hours.

(SEE Rost
Period.)

(1 Yi times minimumwage rate must be
paid for hours over 48
a week, except occu­
pations
regulated
under Federal Fair
Labor
Standards
Act. Weekly maxi­
mum for females, 60
hours.)
(114 times minimumwage rate must be
paid for hours over
44 a week in Zones 1
and 2; over 48 a week
in Zones 3 and 4.
Weekly maximum
for females, 60 hours.)

Prohibited

10-minute paid
period after 4
hours of work,
optional with
employees, in
addition to
lunch period.

(SEE Rest
Period.)

19-minute paid
period after 4
hours of work
in addition to
lunch period.

do.

do.

In establishments
in which 3 or
more females are
employed, at
least 30 minutes
after 6 continu­
ous hours of
work; except 613
hours, if employ­
ment ends and
employee is dis­
missed for day.

27

STATE HOUR LAWS

State

Employee coverage; oc­
cupation or industry
coverage

Maximum-hour provisions
Daily

LOUISI AN A—Con.
Rev. Stat.—
vegetables; fishing in­
Continued
dustry; processing of
sugarcane or sorghum
into sugar, molasses, or
syrup;
stenographic,
bookkeeping or other
office or clerical work
except when such work
is performed for laun­
dries, hotels, or restau­
rants; file, route, or in­
formation clerks; mul­
tiplex, teleprinter, tele­
phone, telegraph, or
switchboard operators.2
Ibid., secs. 23: Females, 18 and over__ 9__.
291, 23:311-313.
Mine, packinghouse,
bowling alley, boot­
black
establishment;
distribution of merchan­
dise; place of amuse­
ment where intoxi­
cating liquors are made
or sold;8 or any other
occupation not covered
by the 8-48-hour law.
Exceptions: Females em­
ployed in agriculture,
domestic service, or in
an executive capacity.
MAINE:
Rev. Stat. 1954,
Females, 16 and over.
with 1959,
1. Workshop; factory; 19supp., vol. 1,
manufacturing, mechan­
ch. 30, secs.
ical establishment (SEE
30-30, 39.
9-50-hour maximum for
production workers);
mercantile establish­
ment, beauty parlor,
hotel, commercial place
of amusement, restau­
rant, dairy, bakery,
laundry, drycleaning es­
tablishment, telegraph
office, telephone ex­
change with more than
750 stations, express or
transportation company.
2. Production workers 19..
in any workshop, fac­
tory, manufacturing, or
mechanical establish­
ment. Exceptions:
Manufacturing estab­
lishment or business,
the materials and prod­
ucts of which are perish­
able and require imme­
diate labor thereon; any
females working in an
executive, administra­
tive, professional, or
supervisory capacity, or
their personal office as­
sistants who receive an
annual salary of more
than $1,560, and those
employed in offices of
common carriers subject
to the Federal Railway
Labor Act.

bee footnotes at end of table.




Weekly

Days per
week

Permitted
variations

54.

10 hours in any 1
day may be
worked to make
a shorter day's
work for 1 day
of the week.

150-

FOR WOMEN—Continued
Nightwork
Overtime

Meal period

During emergencies, 10hour day and 60-hour
week permitted in
packing plants, can­
ning plants and fac­
tories handling fruits,
seafoods, vegetables,
and perishable foods.

Rest period

30 minutes each
day for a meal;
not to be
counted as hours
worked.

Relaxation of hours 30-minute consec­
may be made, on
utive rest peri­
od after 6J4
written
employerhours of work in
employee agreement
approved by Com­
establishments
missioner, for not
with 3 or more
more than 15 days,
female employ­
singularly or consec­
ees, except tele­
utively, in calendar
phone exchange
year, on proof of ne­
for night opera­
tor who may
cessity, extraordinary
sleep during
requirements or emer­
major part of
gencies.
Public service employ­
night. By per­
ees are exempt from
mit from Com­
hour provisions, in
missioner,
cases of emergency
shorter rest peri­
ods may be fixed
involving danger to
property, life, public
in manufactur­
safety or public health
ing establish­
ment if necessary
or in cases of extra­
ordinary public re­
due to continu­
ous nature of
quirement.
54-hour weekly maxi­
processes or
mum inapplicable (1)
special circum­
between Dec. 17 and
stances affecting
Dec. 24, inclusive, for
such manufac­
mercantile establish­
turing establish­
ments, beauty parlors,
ment, if shorter
rest periods will
hotels, commercial
not be injurious
places of amusement,
to health of fe­
restaurants, dairies,
males affected
bakeries, laundries,
drycleaning establish­
thereby.
ments, telegraph of­
fices, telephone ex­
changes with more
than 750 stations, ex­
press or transporta­
tion company; and
(2) 8 days prior to
Easter Sunday in
millinery shops or
stores.
ALSO
SPECIAL
PROVISION FOR
DEFENSE EMER­
GENCY.

577981—61------ 3




Prohibited

Regulated

(SEE Meal
Period.)

29

STATE HOUR LAWS
State

MARYLAND:
Annotated Code
1957, with 1959
supp., vol. 8,
art. 100, sec. 52.

MASSACHU­
SETTS:
General Laws
Annotated
(1958), with
1959 supp., vol.
22, ch. 149, secs.
1, 56, 58, 59, 66,
68, 99-101; ch.
85 (L. 1960).

Employee coverage; oc­
cupation or industry
coverage

Females,! 18 and over..
Manufacturing, me­
chanical,
mercantile,
printing, baking, or
laundering
establish­
ment.3 Exceptions:
Canning or preserving,
or preparing for canning
or preserving of perish­
able fruits and vege­
tables.

Maximum-hour provisions
Daily

60..
(SEE
Nightwork.)

Women and minors, 16
to 18.
Factory or workshop,
or any manufacturing,
mechanical, or mercan­
tile establishment (in­
cluding premises used
for a restaurant or for
publicly providing and
serving meals, and prem­
ises used in connection
with cleansing, dyeing,
laundering, or pressing
fabrics or wearing ap­
parel), hospital (non­
professional personnel),
telegraph office or tele­
phone exchange (includ­
ing switchboard oper­
ator in a private ex­
change), express or
transportation com­
pany, private club, of­
fice, letter shop, finan­
cial institution, laun­
dry, hotel, manicuring
or hairdressing estab­
lishment, motion-pic­
ture or other place of
amusement, garage, ele­
vator operators in such
establishments or in any
building occupied in
whole or in part by any
such establishment, or
in any office building.
Exceptions: Persons de­
clared by Commissioner
to be employed in a
supervisory capacity or
persons serving exclu­
sively as personal secre­
taries.

9 (in 10) i.

Girls between! 6 and’21;
boys between 16 and
18.
TTBarbershop, bootblack
stand or establishment,
stable (elsewhere than
on a farm), garage, brick
or lumber yard, con­
struction or repair of
buildings, or radio broad­
casting station, except
las talent.
See footnotes at end of table.

9 (in 10)—

Ibid., secs. 60, 66
and 67.

30




Weekly

48_.

Days per
week

Permitted
variations

(2)

Up to 12 hours
may be worked
on Saturdays,
Christmas Eve,
and 5 working
days preceding
Christmas Eve
in retail mer­
cantile establish'
ments outside
City of Balti­
more, provided 2
rest periods of
not less than 1
hour each are
granted on each
of such days and
workday during
remainder of cal­
endar year does
not exceed 9
hours.
Overtime per­
mitted to make
up time lost on
a previous day
of the same
week due to
stoppage of ma­
chinery on
which worker is
dependent, pro­
vided stoppage
is not less than
30 consecutive
minutes. De­
partment must
be notified
within 48 hours.
Office workers
may be permit­
ted by Commis­
sioner to exceed
9 hours a day
but not 48 hours
a week.
In manufacturing
establishments
and hotels
where employ­
ment is deter­
mined by De­
partment of La­
bor and Indus­
tries to be sea­
sonal, 52 hours a
week allowed if
average for year
does not exceed
48 a week, ex­
cept that in fish
processing 52
hours a week
permitted only
during months
of June through
October.

FOR WOMEN—Continued
Nightwork
Overtime

Meal period

Rest period

Prohibited

If any part of
work is done
before 6 a.m. or
after 10 p.m. of
said day, not more
than 8 hours in
any 1 day per­
mitted.

In establishments
with 3 or more
female employ­
ees, J^-hour
interval after
6 continuous
hours of work,
except 6Yi hours
if not permitted
to work during
remainder of
day.
(SEE entry under
PERMITTED
VARIA­
TIONS.)

Nonprofessional hospi­
tal employees in
emergencies may
work overtime, if
Commissioner au­
thorizes such over­
time.
In extraordinary emer­
gencies, overtime al­
lowed in public serv­
ice or other businesses
requiring shifts, De­
partment of Labor
must be notified.
ALSO SPECIAL
PROVISION FOR
EMERGENCY OR
CONDITION OF
HARDSHIP.2

SPECIAL
PROVI­
SION FOR EMER­
GENCY OR CON­
DITIONS
OF
HARDSHIP.2




After 6 hours of
employment: 45
minutes in mer­
cantile establish­
ments; 30 min­
utes in factory,
manufacturing
or mechanical
establishment,
or workshop.
Exceptions: Iron
and glass works,
papermills, let­
terpress estab­
lishments, print,
bleaching and
dyeing works.
Commissioner
of Labor and In­
dustries may ex­
empt a mechan­
ical establish­
ment, factory or
a workshop
from statute’s
meal-period pro­
visions, if he de­
termines that
continuous na­
ture of plant’s
processes or
special circum­
stances affecting
a plant warrant
such dispensa­
tion. He must
be satisfied that
employee's
health will not
suffer.

Regulated

11 p.m. to 6 a.m.
for females
employed in
any capacity
in manufac­
turing or me­
chanical es­
tablishments;
and for girls
under 2i in
regular serv­
ice telephone
exchanges or
telegraph of­
fices.
10 p.m. to 6 a.m.
for girls be­
tween 16 and
21, boys be­
tween 16 and
18 in mercan­
tile establish­
ments.
10 p.m. to 5 a.m.
for minors un ­
der 21 as mes­
sengers for
telegraph,
telephone, or
messenger
company, ex­
cept delivery
of messages
directly con­
nected with
conducting or
publishing of
newspapers to
or between
newspaper
offices.

10 p.m. to 6 a.m.

31

STATE HOUR LAWS

State

MASSACHU­
SETTS—Con.
General Laws
Annotated—
Con., secs. 48,
49, 50, 51A.

Employee coverage; oc­
cupation or industry
coverage

Maximum-hour provisions
Daily

Weekly

MICHIGAN:
Stat. Annotated
1950, with 1959
supp., Rev. vol.
12, sec. 17.19.

Females, and males un­ 9 (average,
der 18.
10 maxi­
Factory, mill, ware­
mum).
house, workshop, quar­
ry; clothing, dressmak­
ing, or millinery estab­
lishment; any place
where the manufacture
of goods is carried on, or
where goods are pre­
pared for manufacturing;
laundry, store, shop, 2
or other mercantile
establishment, office,3
restaurant, theater, con­
cert hall, music hall,
hotel, hospital, street or
electric railway; elevator
operator.
Exceptions:
Fruit and vegetable can­
ning or fruit-packing es­
tablishments engaged in
preserving and shipping
perishable goods; stu­
dent and graduate nurses
in hospitals or nurses in
fraternal or charitable
homes. (Excepted em­
ployments must be ap­
proved by Labor Depart­
ment as not being inju­
rious to worker's health.)
See footnotes at end of table.

32




54.

Permitted
variations

24 consec­
utive
hours of
rest in
every
7 days.3

Men and women......... .
Workshop, or manu­
facturing, mechanical,
or mercantile establish­
ment (including prem­
ises used for a restaurant
or for publicly providing
and serving meals, and
premises used In connec­
tion with cleansing, dye­
ing, laundering, or press­
ing fabrics or wearing
apparel); watchmen
(including guards in
banks); employees main­
taining fires; also women
and minor elevator op­
erators in the establish­
ments covered by this
law. Exceptions: Manu­
facture or distribution
of gas, electricity, milk,
or water; hotels, drug­
stores, livery stables or
garages; the transporta­
tion of food, or the sale,
or delivery of food by
establishments other
than restaurants; jani­
tors, employees whose
duties include no work
on Sunday other than
(1) setting sponges in
bakeries, (2) caring for
live animals, (3) caring
for machinery; the prep­
aration, printing, pub­
lication, sale, or delivery
of newspapers; farm or
personal service.

Days per
week

Commissioner
may grant
exemptions
under condi­
tions as he
deems necessary
for a period not
exceeding 60
days.

FOR WOMEN—Continued
Nightwork
Overtime

12-hour day permitted
female floral designers
employed in flower
shops or greenhouses
for the 3 days preced­
ing the holidays of
Valentine’s
Day,
Easter, Mother’s Day,
and Christmas, with
approval of the Com­
mission.




Meal period

Rest period

«

Prohibited

Regulated

STATE HOUR LAWS

State

MICHIGAN—Con.
Department of
Labor Regula­
tions Affecting
Employment of
Adult Females
and Minors for
the Canning
Season.
MINNESOTA:
Stat. Annotated
(1945), with
1969 supp., vol.
13, sec. 181.18.

MISSISSIPPI:
Code Annotated
1942, with 1958
supp., recom­
piled vol. 5A,
sec. 6993.8

MISSOURI:
Annotated Stat.
(Vernon’s,
1949), with 1959
supp., vol. 15,
sec. 290.040.

Maximum-hour provisions

Employee coverage; oc­
cupation or industry
coverage

Females, 18 and overCanning season.*

Daily

12

Weekly

Days per
week

70_______

In emergencies,
adult females
may be em­
ployed up to a
maximum of 14
hours a day, not
to exceed 70
hours a week.

Females, 16 and over __
Public housekeeping,
manufacturing, mechan­
ical, mercantile, or laun­
dry occupation, or
telephone
operator.2
Exceptions: Employees
engaged in the seasonal
occupation of preserving
perishable fruits, grains,
or vegetables if such
employment does not
continue for more than
75 days in year; tele­
phone operators in
towns under 1,500 popu­
lation; night employees
who are at their place of
employment for not
more than 12 hours and
have opportunity for at
least 4 hours of sleep.

54

Females..___ ________
Laundry, millinery,
dressmaking, store, of­
fice, mercantile estab­
lishment, theater, tele­
graph or telephone of­
fice, or any other occu­
pation not here enumer­
ated. Exception: Domes­
tic servants.

i 10............ 60

Females, 16 and over_
_
Manufacturing, me­
chanical, or mercantile
establishment, factory,
workshop, laundry,
bakery, restaurant,
place of amusement,
stenographic or clerical
work of any kind in the
above industries, ex­
press, transportation,
or public-utility busi­
ness, common carrier, or
public institution. Ex­
ception: Telephone com­
pany.

9....... ........ 54..............

o

8................

(*>

(>)

MONTANA:'

Females
Manufacturing, me­
chanical, or mercantile
establishment, tele­
phone exchange room
or office, or telegraph
office, laundry, hotel, or
restaurant.
See footnotes at end of table.
1947, Anno­
tated, replace­
ment vol. 3,
with 1959 supp.,
sec. 41-1118.

34



Permitted
variations

FOR WOMEN—Continued
Nightwork
Overtime

Meal period

Rest period

Prohibited

Regulated

In emergency periods
not
exceeding
4
weeks’ aggregate in
calendar year, Indus­
trial
Commission
may allow overtime
and prescribe rules
therefor.
Hour provisions do
not apply in cases of
emergency
which
may affect the safety,
health, morals, or
welfare of the public.
On application of em­
ployer,
Industrial
Commission may, for
cause shown, exempt
employer or class of
employers from pro­
visions of the Act.
Hour provisions inap­
plicable in case of
emergency or public
necessity.

Establishments
can­
ning or packing per­
ishable farm prod­
ucts, located in rural
communities or in
cities of less than
10,000 population, are
exempt from hour
provisions for a pe­
riod not to exceed 90
days of year.




35

STATE HOUR LAWS

State

MONTANA—Con.
Revised Codes
Men and women
1947—Con., sec.
Restaurants,
cafes,
lunch counters and
41-1131.
other commercial eating
establishments.

Ibid., secs. 411113, 41-1115.

NEBRASKA:
Rev. Stat. 1943,
1955 cum.
supp., with
1957 pocket
part, sec. 48­
203.

Ibid., sec. 48-212.

NEVADA:
Rev. Stat.
(1959), vol. 5,
secs. 609.020,
609.110,
609.120.

Maximum-hour provisions

Employee coverage; oc­
cupation or industry
coverage

Daily

Weekly

8 (in 12)... 48

Men and women......... __ 8
Retail store, leased
business controlled by
lessor including delivery
personnel;
wholesale
warehouse
supplying
goods to retail establish­
ment, including deliv­
ery personnel. Excep­
tions: Registered phar­
macists and assistant
pharmacists.

48

Females, 16 and over_
_
Employment (a) in
any manufacturing, me­
chanical or mercantile
establishment; laundry,
hotel, restaurant, or
office,1 in metropolitan,
primary, or first class
city 3 or (b) for any em­
ployer of 25 or more peo­
ple within the State.3
Exception: Public serv­
ice corporations.

9

48___

(?)

54____

8 (in 13)..

Days per
week

(»)

Men and women______
Assembling
plant,
workshop, or mechani­
cal establishment.4 Ex­
ception: Establishments
operating in three 8hour shifts.

Females..................... .
Private employment.
Exceptions: Domestic
service;
agriculture;
State, county, city, or
town employment; ex
ecutives or supervisors
who consent to work be­
yond the maximum
hours permitted.

See footnotes at end of table.

36




1 6______

Permitted
variations

FOR WOMEN—Continued
Night work
Overtime

Meal period

Rest period

Prohibited

Regulated

Hour provisions inap­
plicable to person
working over 8-48hour week, when re­
lieving another em­
ployee in case of sick­
ness, or where health
of public is imperiled,
or life and property is
in imminent danger,
or other unforeseen
cause or causes.

1 a.m. to 6 a.m.
Exceptions:
Manufactuing, mechani­
cal, or mer­
cantile estab­
lishment,
laundry, hotel
or restaurant,
when em­
ployer obtains
permit from
Labor Com­
missioner.

In emergency periods,
manufacturing plants
processing seasonal
agricultural products
may employ women
11 hours a day, not to
exceed 20 days at any
one
time. Permit
must be obtained
from Labor Commis­
sioner.
30 consecutive
minutes be­
tween 12 noon
and 1 p.m. or
during any
other suitable
hour for lunch.
Employees must
be free to leave
work premises
during such
time.
In event of illness of
employer or other
employees or an un­
foreseen temporary
increase in employ­
er's business, if no
additional
persons
are available, any
female may be em­
ployed not more than
12 hours a day, 56
hours in any 1 week
of 7 days, provided
that time and a half
employee’s regular
rate is paid for each
additional hour over
8 a day in 13-hour
period, or 48 a week.




J^-hour period
after the 3d
hour and before
the end of 6
hours’ work.
No period of
less than 30
minutes is
deemed to in­
terrupt work
period.2 Ex­
ception: Com­
munications
industry.

Two 10-minute
periods, 1 in 1st
4-hour work
period, 1 in last
4 hours of
work.2 Excep­
tion: Com­
munications in­
dustry.

37

STATE HOUR LAWS

State

Employee coverage; oc­
cupation or industry
coverage

NEW
HAMPSHIRE:
Rev. Stat.
Females and minors un­
Annotated 1955,
der 18.
with 1959 supp.,
Manual or mechanical
vol. 3, secs.
labor in any manufac­
275:15, 275:17,
turing establishment.
275:21.

Ibid., secs.
275:15, 275:17,
275:18, 275:20,
275:21.

Females and minors un­
der 18.
Manual or mechanical
labor in any employment
other than manufactur­
ing. Exceptions: House­
hold labor and nursing;
domestic, hotel, and cab­
in labor, including dining
and restaurant service
operated in connection
therewith and inci­
dental thereto; boarding­
house labor; operators
in telegraph and tele­
phone offices; farm labor;
canning of perishable
fruits and vegetables.
Ibid., secs. 275:
Men and women______
32-35.
Any occupation. Ex­
ceptions: Establishments
used for manufacture or
distribution of gas, elec­
tricity, milk, or water;
transportation, sale, or
delivery of food: janitors,
watchmen, firemen em­
ployed at stationary
plants, or caretakers;
employees whose duties
on Sunday include only
setting sponges in baker­
ies, caring for live ani­
mals, or caring for
machinery and plant
equipment; preparation,
printing, publication,
sale, or delivery of news­
papers or periodicals
with definite on-sale
newsstand dates; farm
or personal service; labor
due to an emergency
that could not reason­
ably have been antici­
pated; work connected
with retail stores in
resort areas, cabins and
inns, and in theaters,
motion-picture houses,
hotels and restaurants;
employees engaged in
canning of perishable
goods and in telegraph
and telephone offices.
See footnotes at end of table.

38




Maximum-hour provisions
Daily

(SEE
Nightwork.)

___

10 H

(SEE
Nightwork.)

Weekly

Days per
week

Permitted
variations

48.

54.

Regular employ­
ees in mercantile
establishments, for
the 7-day period
immediately pre­
ceding Christmas
Day, are exempt
from the nightwork regulation
but total hours
shall not exceed
54 a week for the
full year.

6 (1 day
of rest).

FOR WOMEN—Continued
Nightwork
Overtime

During 8 weeks in any
6-month period, 1014
hours a day and 54
hours a week per­
mitted if Labor Com­
missioner, after a
hearing, grants a spe­
cial license, copy of
which must be posted
in workroom.
ALSO
SPECIAL
PROVISION FOR
DEFENSE EMER­
GENCY.
Workers in laundries
may be employed,
for 3 months of the
year, up to 60 hours a
week if, following a
hearing, special li­
cense is granted by
Labor Commissioner.
Daily hours may not
be exceeded. Copy
of license must be
posted in rooms
where females are ememployed.
ALSO
SPECIAL
PROVISION FOR
DEFENSE EMER­
GENCY.




Meal period

Rest period

Prohibited

Regulated

When females are
employed or
permitted to
work for any
time between 8
p.m. and 6 a.m.
on more than 2
nights a week, it is
considered nightwork, and such
work may not
exceed 8 hours in
any 24 nor 48
hours in any
week.
Do.

STATE HOUR LAWS
State

NEW JERSEY:
Stat. Annotated
(1937), with
1959 supp., secs.
34:2-24, 34:2-28.

Ibid., sec. 34:
6-63.

Employee coverage; oc­
cupation or industry
coverage

Maximum-hour provisions
Daily

Females, 18 and over_ _. 110Manufacturing or mer­
cantile establishments,
bakery, laundry, or res­
taurant. Exception:
Canneries engaged in
packing perishable prod­
ucts such as fruits or
vegetables.

Weekly

54........

Days per
week

Permitted
variations

6..........

If daily working
hours do not ex­
ceed 8 in hotels
or other estab­
lishments of a
continuing busi­
ness nature,
hour provisions
do not apply.

Men and women_____
F actory, worksh op.
mill, mine, or place
where goods are manu­
factured.

NEW MEXICO:
Stat. Annotated
1953, with 1959
supp., vol. 9,
secs. 59-5-1,-2,­
4,-5,-7.

Females, 16 and over__ 8 (in not
Industrial or mercan­
more
tile establishment2
than 3
hotel, restaurant, cafe
shifts).
or eating house, laun­
dry, office (as stenog­
rapher, bookkeeper,
clerk, or in other clerical
work), place of amuse­
ment, public utility
business.
Exceptions:
Interstate commerce
where working hours
are regulated by act of
the Congress of the
United States; hospitals
or sanitariums, regis­
tered or practical nurses,
midwives, domestic
servants.4
Ibid., secs. 59­
Females, 16 and over__ 8.
5-4, 59-5-6.
(SEE"
Telephone or tele­
graph office. Excep­
Nighttions: Establishments
work.)
employing 5 or fewer
females; interstate com­
merce where working
hours are regulated by
act of the Congress of
the United States.
Ibid., secs. 59­
Females, 16 and over__
5-13, -14 and
Transportation.* Ex­
-15.®
ception: Interstate com­
merce where working
hours are regulated by
an act of Congress of the
United States.
See footnotes at end of table.

40




48.

48.

56..

w

0)

FOR WOMEN—Continued
Nightwork
Overtime

Meal period

Rest period

Prohibited

Regulated

12 midnight to Upon application,
by special order,
7 a.m. in man­
Commissioner of
ufacturing es­
Labor and In­
tablishments,
dustry may au­
bakeries, or
thorize employ­
laundries.
ment of females
Exceptions:
over 21, in manu­
Canneries en­
facturing estab­
gaged in pack­
lishment or bak­
ing perishable
ery primarily
products such
engaged in man­
as fruits or veg­
ufacturing bis­
etables; glass
cuits and crack­
manufactur­
ers, if he finds
ing establish­
working condi­
ments.
tions, including
ALSO SPE­
safety and trans­
CIAL PRO­
portation facili­
VISION
ties, adequate to
FOR DE­
protect health
FENSE
and safety of
EMER­
workers.
GENCY.
H hour for mid­
day meal, after
6 consecutive
hours of work
on any workday
except Satur­
day.
If any such place
is operated at
night or in 8hour shifts, the
meal period
shall be fixed
with regard to
mutual interest
of employer
and employee.
In emergencies, 2 hours
of overtime a week
may be worked if
time and one-half is
paid for such hours.3

30 minutes, not
included as
part of working
time.

Hour provisions do not
apply in cases of ex­
treme emergencies re­
sulting from fire,
flood, storm, epi­
demic of sickness, or
other like cause.

H hour, not part
of working day.

When hours of
work are be­
tween 10 p.m.
and 7 a.m., 54
hours a week
permitted.

In emergency, 60 horn's
a week may be
worked; work over 56
hours a week must be
paid for at time and
one-half.




41

STATE HOUR LAWS

State

NEW YORK:
Consolidated
Laws Annotated
(McKinney’s
1948), with 1959
supp., Book 30,
secs. 2,172,173,
173-a; find ch. 50
(L. I960).

Ibid., sec. 181;
and ch. 85
(L. 1960).

Employee coverage; oc­
cupation or industry
coverage

Females over 16............. .
Factory, i.e., mill,
workshop, or other man­
ufacturing
establish­
ment. (Manufacturing
to include making, alter­
ing, repairing, finishing,
bottling, canning, clean­
ing, or laundering any
article or thing in
whole or in part, except:
(1) Drydock plants re­
pairing ships; (2) power­
houses,
generating
plants, or other struc­
tures owned or operated
by a public-service cor­
poration or a municipal
corporation other than
construction or repair
shops, subject to the
jurisdiction of the publicservice commission; and
(3) structures operated
as refrigerated ware­
houses for the handling,
packing, refrigeration,
and storage of fruits and
vegetables and which are
subject to the jurisdic­
tion of, or licensed by, the
department of agricul­
ture and markets; struc­
tures used in celery
cleaning or packing.) 2
Females over 16. ............
Mercantile establish­
ment; beauty parlor.
Exceptions:
Beauty
parlors in cities and
villages under 15,000
population.

Ibid., sec. 182;
and ch. 85 (L.
I960).

Females over 16.
___
Hotel or restaurant
(including females over
18 having the care, cus­
tody, or operation of a
freight or passenger ele­
vator in these indus­
tries). Ex ceptions.
Those employed solely
as singers and perform­
ers; resort or seasonal3
I hotel and restaurant
See footnotes at end of table.

42



Maximum-hour provisions
Daily

Weekly

1 8-

Days per
week

Permitted
variations
In order to make a
shorter workday,
workdays, or a
holiday, 10 hours
may be worked
on any 1 day of
the week. If the
shorter workday
is not more than
m hours, the
other 4 days
may be up to 9
hours each,
total weekly
hours not to
exceed 48.

‘ 48..

6 Except:
In order to make
Female
a shorter work­
writers
day or work­
days, 10 hours
or re­
porters
may be worked
employ­
on any 1 day of
ed in
the week. If
the shorter
news­
workday is not
paper
offices,
more than 4^
duly li­
hours, the other
censed
4 days may be
pharma­
up to 9 hours
cists,
each,total
and fe­
weekly hours not
male
to exceed 48.
employ­
ees of
duly
recog­
nized
florists
on day
before
Easter
Sunday,
Easter
Sunday
morn­
ing, and
Dec. 23
of each
year.
6................ In order to make
a shorter work­
day, workdays,
or a holiday, 10
hours may be
worked on any
1 day of the
week. If the
shorter work­
day is not
more than
hours, the other

FOR WOMEN—Continued
Nightwork
Overtime

Meal period

Females over 18: Up to Seepage 47.
10 hours a day, 60
hours a week permit­
ted in sauerkraut can­
neries between Sep­
tember 1 and Decem­
ber 1. Up to 10 hours
a day, 60 hours a week
permitted in estab­
lishments canning or
preserving perishable
products
between
June 15 and October
15; Industrial Com­
missioner may grant
permits allowing 12
hours a day, 66 hours
a week between June
25 and August 1, if the
needs of the industry
require such overtime
and the health of the
women so employed
will not be injured.
ALSO SPECIAL PRO­
VISION FOR DE­
FENSE
EMER­
GENCY
UNTIL
JULY 1, 1961.

From Dec. 18 to Dec. See page 47.
24, inclusive, and for
2 additional periods
a year for inventory,
overtime permitted;
no period may be of
more than 1 week’s
duration; under the
8-48 schedule, the ad­
ditional hours may
not exceed 6, and un­
der the permitted
variation schedule, 5
hours; employment
may not be later
than 10 p.m.
In lieu of Dec. 18-24
period, employer may
select any 7 consecu­
tive days (for per­
mitted overtime) dur­
ing period from Dec.
4 through following
Dec. 23, by filing
written notico of days
selected with Indus­
trial Commissioner.
ALSO SPECIAL
PROVISION FOR
DEFENSE EMER­
GENCY
UNTIL
JULY 1, 1961.
SPECIAL
PROVI­
SION FOR DE­
FENSE
EMER­
GENCY
UNTIL
JULY 1, 1961.




See page 47.

Rest period

Prohibited

Regulated

10 p.m. to6a.m., Employment be­
tween midnight
except mid­
and 6 a.m. allow­
night to 6a.m.
ed in multiple
in plants on
shift plants on
multiple shifts,
permits from
for females
Industrial Com­
over 21. Ex­
missioner, if he
ceptions:
finds that satis­
Proofreaders,
factory condi­
linotypists,
tions exist in­
monotypists
cluding transpor­
and bindery
tation and safe­
workers in
guards for pro­
newspaper,
tecting the
publishing or
health and wel­
commercial
fare of such fe­
printing
males.
establish­
ments or in
book binderies
or pamphlet
binderies.
9 p.m. to 6a.m.,
for females un­
der 21.

10 p.m. to 7
a.m. for fe
males over
16; except
midnight to
7 a.m. for fe­
males in mer
can tile estab
lishments.
Exceptions:
Writers and
reporters em
ployed in
nowspapcr olfices, duly li
censed phar­
macists, and
employees of
duly recog­
nized florists
on the day
before Easter
Sunday,
Easter Sun­
day morning,
and Dec. 23
of each year.

Midnight to 6
a.m., for fe­
males 21 and
over em­
ployed in
restaurants.
Exceptions:
Hatcheck
girls, cigarette
girls, or
flower girls,
attendants in

Upon applica­
tion, Commis­
sioner may
permit such
employment in
dining rooms
and kitchens of
restaurants if
he finds that
satisfactory
conditions ex
ist, including

43

STATE HOUR LAWS

State

Employee coverage; oc­
cupation or industry
coverage

Maximum-hour provisions
Daily

Weekly

NEW YORK—Con.
Consolidated
employees in rural com­
Laws Anno­
munities and in cities
tated.—Con.
and villages of less than
15,000 population, ex­
cluding that portion of
the population of a 3dclass city residing out­
side of its corporation
tax district where such
city embraces the en­
tire area of a former
township.

Ibid., sec. 183;
and ch. 85 (L.
1960).

Females over 18.*............ 8___
Care, custody, or op­
eration of a freight or
passenger elevator. Ex­
ceptions: Elevator em­
ployees in hotels or
restaurants. (See pre­
ceding entry.)

Ibid., secs. 162,
184; and ch. 85
(L. 1960).

Females over 21.*.........__ g
Conductor or guard on
any street surface, elec­
tric, subway, or elevated
railroad car or train.
Ibid., sec. 185.
Females over 21.*..
and ch. 85 (L.
Messenger for a tele­
1960).
graph or messenger com­
pany in the distribution,
transmission, or de­
livery of goods or
messages.
Ibid., sec. 161,
Men and women..
and ch. 85 (L.
Factory, mercantile
1960).
establishment, hotel,
restaurant, freight
passenger elevator in
any building or place;
projectionist or operator
of motion-picture ma­
chine; engineer and fire­
man in place where mo­
tion pictures are shown;
place in which legiti­
mate theater produc­
tions, such as dramatic
and musical produc­
tions, are shown or ex­
hibited (other than mo­
tion pictures, vaudeville
or incidental stage pres­
entations regularly given
throughout the week as
established policy), in­
cluding performers, en­
gineers, and firemen;
building watchmen, jan­
itors, superintendents,
supervisors, managers,
engineers and firemen.
Exceptions:
Foreman
in charge; employees in
dairies, creameries, milk
condenseries, milk-pow­
der factories, milk-sugar
factories, milk-shipping
station, butter and
cheese factories, ice
cream-manufacturing
plants and milk-bottling
plants, having 7 or less
See footnotes at end of table.

44




Days per
week

Permitted
variations
4 days may be
up to 9 hours
each, total
weekly hours
not to exceed
48.

48..

48..

48..

If practical diffi
culties or unnec­
essary hardship
would ensue,
board of stand­
ards and appeals
may make a var­
iation from law’s
provisions if the
spirit of the act
be observed and
substantial jus­
tice done.

FOR WOMEN—Continued
Nightwork
Meal period

Overtime

SPECIAL
PROVI­
SION FOR DE­
FENSE
EMER­
GENCY UNTIL
JULYl, 1961.

60 minutes shall
be allowed for
noonday meal.

___ do..

Rest period

Prohibited

Regulated

ladies’ cloak­
rooms and
parlors; fe­
males em­
ployed in or
in connection
with the
dining rooms
and kitchens
of hotels.
10 p.m. to 6
a.m., for fe­
males under
21 in hotels
and restau­
rants.
10 p.m. to 7 a.m.
If elevator is
used in con­
nection with
a business or
industry in
which women
may be em­
ployed before
7 a.m., opera­
tors may
begin work at
6 a.m.
10 p.m. to 6 a.m.

adequate
transportation
and safeguards
for protecting
the health and
welfare of such
females.

10 p.m. to 7 a.m.

_do..

_do.

577981—61------- 4




45

STATE HOUR LAWS
Employee coverage; oc­
cupation or industry
coverage

State

Maximum-hour provisions
Daily

Permitted
variations

Days per
week

Weekly

NEW YORK—Con
Consolidated
employees; employees
Laws Anno­
(if board of standards
tated.—Con.
and appeals approves),
engaged in an industrial
or manufacturing pro­
cess necessarily contin­
uous, in which no em­
ployee is permitted to
work more than 8 hours
in any calendar day;
certain specified em­
ployees working not
more than 3 hours on
Sunday; resort or sea­
sonal hotel and restau­
rant employees in rural
communities and in
cities and villages of less
than 15,000 population,
excluding that portion
of the population of a
3d-elass city residing
outside its corporation
tax district where such
city embraces the entire
area of a former town­
ship; * employees in
drydoek plants engaged
in making repairs to
ships.
Ibid., sec. 162, and
ch. 85 (L. 1960).
Any factory, mercan­
tile or other establish­
ment or other occupation
covered by labor law.

f
Ibid., sec. 203-a,
and cb. 85 (L.
1960).

Operators of passenger
elevators, not equipped
with seats, operated and
maintained for use by
the public. Exception:
Factory building or any
other building having
only 1 passenger eleva­
tor.

See footnotes at end of table.

43




|
1

FOR WOMEN—Continued
Night work
Overtime




Meal period

Rest period

Prohibited

Regulated

60 minutes in fac­
tories and 45
minutes in
mercantile or oth
er establishment
or occupation for
the noonday meal,
or midway dur­
ing a shift of more
than 6 hours
starting between
lp.m. and 6 a.m.
If shift starts be­
fore noon and
continues after 7
p.m., an addi­
tional meal pe­
riod of at least 20
minutes shall be
allowed between
6 p.m. and 7 p.m.
Commissioner
may grant writ­
ten permit for a
shorter meal pe­
riod, such per­
mit to be con­
spicuously posted
at main entrance
of establishment.
ALSO SPECIAL
PROVISION
FOR DE­
FENSE EMER­
GENCY UN­
TIL JULY 1,
1961.
45 minutes---------- 15-minute recess
eriod every 3
(SEE Rest
ours in addi­
Period.)
tion to a 45minute lunch,
period.
SPECIAL
PROVISION
FOR DE­
FENSE
EMER­
GENCY
UNTIL JULY
1, 1961.

K

47

STATE HOUR LAWS

State

Employee coverage; oc­
cupation or industry
coverage

NORTH
CAROLINA:
General
Stat.
(Replacement
1958) with 1959
supp., vol. 2C,
sec. 95-17.

Females, 18 and over___
Any occupation or in­
dustry.
Exceptions:
Employers of 8 persons
or fewer in each place of
business; agricultural
occupations; ice plants;
cotton gins and cotton­
seed-oil mills; domestic
service in private homes
and boarding houses;
work of persons over 18
in bona fide office, foremanship, clerical, or
supervisory capacity,
executive
positions,
learned
professions,
commercial travelers,
motion-picture theaters,
seasonal hotels and
clubhouses, commerical
fishing or tobacco-re­
drying plants, tobacco
warehouses, charitable
institutions; hospitals;
railroads, common car­
riers, and public utilities
subject to jurisdiction of
Interstate
Commerce
Commission or North
Carolina Utilities Com­
mission, and utilities
operated by municipali­
ties or transportation
agencies regulated by
the Federal Govern­
ment; State or munic­
ipal employees; hotels,
and outside salesmen on
commission basis.
Ibid., sec. 95-26.
Women over 162
Laundry, drycleaning
establishment, pressing
club; workshop, factory,
manufacturing establish­
ment, or mill. Excep­
tions: Seasonal indus­
tries in the process of
conditioning and pre­
serving perishable or
semiperishable commod­
ities; agricultural work.
Ibid., sec. 95-27—_ Females, 18 and over 2__
Retail or wholesale
mercantile
establish­
ment or other business
employing females for
the purpose of serving
the public as clerks, with
3 or more employees at
any one time, sales­
ladies, or waitresses, and
other employees of pub­
liceating places. Excep­
tions: Bookkeepers, cash­
iers, office assistants; es­
tablishments employing
fewer than 3 or more
chan 8 persons.
See footnotes at end of table.

48



Maximum-hour provisions
Daily

) (in 12
con­
secutive
hours.) i

Weekly

48.

55..

Days per
week

Permitted
variations

FOR WOMEN—Continued
Nightwork
Overtime

Meal period

In mercantile estab­
lishments 10 hours a
day may be worked
from Dec. 18 to 24, in­
clusive, and during
two 1-week inventory
periods annually.
Longer hours may be
worked by florists
and employees of flor­
ists 1 week prior to
and including Christ­
mas Day, Easter, and
Mother’s Day.
In seasonal industries
in the process of con­
ditioning and pre­
serving
perishable
and semiperishable
commodities,
10
hours a day, 56 a
week permitted.
In laundry and dry­
cleaning
establish­
ment, employees per­
mitted 55 hours a
week.

Longer hours may be
worked by florists
and employees of
florists, 1 week prior
to and including
Christmas Day,
Easter, and Mother’s
Day.




J4 hour must be
allowed after
6 consecutive
hours. Period
of 6J4 hours
may be worked
if terms of em­
ployment do
not call for a
day longer than
this.

Rest period

Prohibited

Regulated

STATE HOUR LAWS

State

NORTH
DAKOTA:
Rev. Code 1943,
vol. 4, sec. 34­
0606.

Department of
Agriculture
and
Labor,
MinimumWage Order
No. 2, Sept. 1,
1949.
Minimum-Wage
Order No. 5,
July 7, 1953.
Ibid., Order No.
1, Aug. 16, 1956.

Employee coverage; oc­
cupation or industry
coverage

Females, 18 and over_
_
Manufacturing, me­
chanical, or mercantile
establishment: hotel or
restaurant, telephone or
telegraph establishment
or office, or express or
transportation company.
Exceptions: Villages or
towns of less than 500
population (see entries
from Minimum-Wage
Orders 1 and 3); rural
telephone
exchanges;
small telephone ex­
changes and telegraph
offices, if Commissioner
after a hearing deter­
mines that work is too
light to justify applica­
tion of the Act.

Maximum-hour provisions
Daily

m.

Weekly

48....

Women, 18 and over_
_
Manufacturing Occu­
pation.z
(SEE Appendix I.)

Women, 18 and over_
_
Telephone
Occupa­
tions—all Telephone Ex­
changes.
Women, 18 and over_
_ m.
Public Housekeeping
Occupation.3
(Establishments in 9—
towns of less than 500
population.)
(SEE Appendix I.)

See footnotes at end of table.

50




48.
54.

Days per
week

. 6..............

Permitted
variations

10 hours in any
1 day, and work
on 7 days in any
1 week permitted
in emergencies,
provided weekly
hour limit is not
exceeded.
Emergency
deemed to exist:
(1) in the case of
sickness of
more than 1
female employ­
ee, when doc­
tor’s certifi­
cate must be
furnished
showing it will
not be danger­
ous to human
life to continue
employment
in the estab­
lishment in­
volved; (2) em­
ployment re­
quired in con­
nection with a
banquet, con­
vention, cele­
bration, or
because the
legislative as­
sembly is in
session; (3) em­
ployment as
reporter in any
of the courts of
the State.*

FOR WOMEN—Continued
Night work
Overtime




Meal period

Rest period

Prohibited

Regulated

30-minute mini­
mum
period
for noon meal.
No woman shall
be employed
more than
successive hours
without a rest
period.
Adequate time at
reasonable hours
for meals.
^-hour period,
free from inter­
ruption, for each
meal furnished
employee on
premises; 1 hour,
if employee
must leave
premises for
meals.
No woman shall
be employed for
more than 4
hours of contin­
uous labor
without a rest
period.
Time for meals
eaten on prem­
ises during
working shift
considered work­
ing time.

11 p.m. to 7
a.m., for ele­
vator opera­
tors.

51

STATE HOUR LAWS

State

NORTH
DAKOTA—Con.
Department of
Agriculture and
Labor, Mini­
mum-Wage
Order No. 3,
Mar. 6,1957.
Ibid., Order No.
4, Mar. 12,
1959.

Employee coverage; oc­
cupation or industry
coverage

Women, 18 and over___
Mercantile
Occupation.
(Establishments in
towns of less than 500
population.)
(SEE Appendix I.)
Women, 18 and over---Laundry, Cleaning and
Dyeing Occupation.
(SEE Appendix I.)

OHIO:
Rev. Code Anno­
tated (Page’s,
1953), with 1959
supp., title 41,
secs. 4107.43,
4107.45, 4107.46.

Maximum-hour provisions
Daily

Weekly

Days per
week

Permitted
variations

54.

Females, 18 and over1.. 38 (in 10). 48............ - 6................. In mercantile es­
tablishments,
Any employment.3
10 hours on 1
SEE next entries for
day of the cal­
manufacturing,
cases
not otherwise covered,
endar week per­
mitted females
and financial institu­
over 18, and 10
tions. Exceptions: Agri­
hours within 12
cultural field occupa­
tions, domestic service
consecutive
hours on days
in private homes, fe­
preceding May
males over 21 in mercan­
tile establishments and
30, July 4,
Thanksgiving
communications com­
Day, Dec. 26,
panies in cities under
and Jan. 1; pro­
5,000 population; fe­
vided weekly
males over 21 earning at
maximum and
least $45 a week in exec­
8 hours on other
utive, professional, su­
days of week
pervisory, or admini­
strative positions re­
are not ex­
ceeded.
quiring a certain
In laundry and
amount of discretion;
dry cleaning es­
women in the profes­
tablishments, 9
sions of medicine, regis­
hours on any 2
tered nursing, phar­
days of the cal­
macy, law, teaching,
endar week per­
and social work; profes­
sional employees in hos­
mitted; pro­
pitals, such as graduate
vided maxi­
mum of 48 hours
and student nurses, an­
esthetists, technicians,
is not exceeded.
In an office, 10
graduate and student
hours, within
dietitians, and interns.
12 consecutive
hours, on any 1
day of a cal­
endar week per­
mitted females
over 18.
In public trans­
portation com­
panies females
over 21 may be
employed to
operate street
cars, trackless
trolleys, or mo­
tor coaches for
same hours and
periods as
males, provided
maximum 48hour week is
not exceeded.
See footnotes at end of table.

52



FOR WOMEN—Continued
Nightwork
Overtime

Meal period

Rest period

Prohibited

Regulated

Vi hour must be
allowed for the
noon meal.
No woman shall
be employed for
more than 4
hours of con­
tinuous labor
without a rest
period.
Adequate time
and provision
at reasonable
hours must be
given to em­
ployees for
meals.
In mercantile estab­ H-hour period
lishments, 10 hours in
after 5 consecu­
tive hours of
any 1 day and 50
work, except fe­
hours in week per­
males over 21
mitted 1 week in first
6 months of year, and
employed by
public trans­
2 weeks in last 6
months of year.
portation com­
pany. (Periods
In laundry and dry
of less than H
cleaning
establish­
hour not
ments, 9 hours on any
2 days of the week
deemed inter­
and 50 hours a week
ruption to con­
tinuous work.)
may be worked in
the weeks preceding
or including New
Year’s, Good Friday,
Memorial Day, July
4,
Labor
Day,
Thanksgiving, and
Christmas.
During periods of emer­
gency caused by fire,
flood, epidemic, or
other disaster, hour
provisions not appli­
cable to public utility
company, and carrier
subject to Part I of
Interstate Commerce
Act, or a communica­
tions company.




9 p.m. to 6
a.m., for fe­
male taxi
drivers.

53

STATE HOUR LAWS

State

OHIO—Continued
Revised Code
Annotated, sec.
4107.46—Con.

Ibid., sec. 4107.47.

Ibid., sec. 4107.42.

OKLAHOMA:
Stat. Annotated
(1954), with
1959 supp., title
40, secs. 81, 82.

OREGON:
Rev. Stat. (1957),
vol. 5, secs.
653.255, 653.265.

Maximum-hour provisions

Employee coverage; oc­
cupation or industry
coverage

Females, 18 and over_
_
Manufacturing estab­
lishments and cases not
otherwise covered.4

Females..-_____ _____
Financial institutions,
including Federal Re­
serve banks and home
loan banks.

Daily

Weekly

Days per
week

2 9........

48______

6..............

2

9.......... .

48 .

Permitted
variations

10 hours a day
may be wrorked
on any 1 day of
the week by fe­
males over 18,
provided work
is divided into 2
or more periods
which fall with­
in 12 consecutive
hours.

-

Females..........................
Factory, workshop,
businessoffice, telephone
or telegraph office, res­
taurant, bakery, milli­
nery or dressmaking
establishment, mercan­
tile or other establish­
ment.

Females, 16 and over_ 9................ 54..............
_
Manufacturing, me­
chanical, or mercantile
establishment, laundry,
bakery, hotel, restau­
rant, office building,
warehouse, telegraph or
telephone establishment
or office, printing estab­
lishment, bookbindery,
theater,
showhouse,
place of amusement, or
any other establish­
ment.1 Exceptions: Reg­
istered
pharmacists,
nurses; agricultural or
domestic service; estab­
lishments
employing
fewer than 5 females in
places of less than 5,000
population.
Females____ _________ HO
Any manufacturing,
mechanical, or mercan­
tile establishment, laun­
dry, hotel, restaurant,
telegraph or telephone
establishment or office,
or express or transporta­
tion company.

See footnotes at end of table.

54




.

1 60.........
4

FOR WOMEN—Continued
Nightwork
Overtime

Meal period

Rest period

Prohibited

Regulated

In canning establish­ At least H-hour
ments preparing agri­
period after 5
cultural or horticul­
consecutive
hours of work.
tural perishable foods
during the grower’s
(Period of less
harvest season, hours
than H hour
not deemed
restrictions inappli­
interruption to
cable to females over
21 engaged in canning
continuous
farmer’s perishable
work.)
products.
During periods of ex­ H-hour period
after 5 consecu­
traordinary
condi­
tions caused by prep­
tive hours of
work. (Period
aration of reports for
of less than H
any department of
the State or the Fed­
hour not deemed
eral Government, the
interruption to
daily maximum of 9
continuous
hours shall not apply
work.)
to those actually en­
gaged in report prep­
aration.
H hour for meal­
time in estab­
lishments
providing
lunchrooms; if
suitable lunch­
room is not pro­
vided, 1-hour
period during
which time em­
ployees may
leave establish­
ment.
Telephone operators in
time of great disaster
or calamity or epi­
demic may be em­
ployed over the maxi­
mum hours, if consent
of employees is
secured and double
time paid.
Hotel and restaurant
employees in emer­
gencies may work
maximum of 10 hours
a day, if consent of
employees is secured
and double time is
paid for such extra
time.

Provisions inapplicable
to females employed
in harvesting, pack­
ing, curing, canning,
and drying of perish­
able fruits, vegetables,
or fish, provided em­
ployees are paid 1H
times regular rate for
hours over 10 when
employed in can­
neries or drying or
packing plants.




55

STATE HOUR LAWS

State

OREGON—Con.
Wage and Hour
Commission
Order No. 17,
July 22, 1941.
Ibid., No. 5, Jan.
7, 1951.

Maximum-hour provisions

Employee coverage; oc­
cupation or industry
coverage

Women and minors___
Student nurses in
places such as hospitals
and sanitariums.
Women and minors
under 18.
Hospitals, Sanitariums,
Convalescent and Ola
Peoples' Homes.
(SEE Appendix I.)

Daily

Weekly

Days per
week

Permitted
variations

48_______
8___ ____ 44_______ 6___

Ibid., No. 9, May
6, 1952.

Women and minors under 18.
Mercantile.
(SEE Appendix I.)

8......... .

Ibid., No. 6, Feb.
10, 1953.

Women and minors under 18.
Preparing Poultry, Rab­
bits, Fish, or Eggs for
Distribution.
(SEE Appendix I.)

8—......... . 44............

Ibid., No. 12,
Oct 13,1953.

Women and minors
under 18.
Office.
(SEE Appendix I.)

8

Ibid., No. 1,
Aug. 10, 1954.

Women and minors
under 18.
Beauty Operators and
Manicurists.
(SEE Appendix I.)
Female beauticians
10
Other employees............. 8-......... .

See footnotes at end of table.

56




44______

6____

44 _

a

44.. ___
44

6_
_
6________

Employee want­
ing greater
number of con­
secutive days
off may work 10
days without a
day off, if
agreeable to
employer and
other employees
in the depart­
ment.

FOR WOMEN—Continued
Night work
Overtime

Meal period

30 minutes after 5
consecutive
hours of work.
“On-duty" meal
period permit­
ted when
nature of work
prevents relief
from all duty;
to be counted
as time worked.
In emergencies, Com­ 45 minutes after 5
consecutive hours
mission may grant
of work.
special overtime per­
mit; issued only on “On-duty" meal
condition the applica­
period permitted
when nature of
ble minimum over­
time rate specified in
work prevents
order (1^4 times the
relief from all
minimum) is paid.
duty; to be
counted as time
worked.
In case of emergency,
overtime permitted,
provided 11$ times
the regular rate is
paid for such over­
time.
In event of disaster
within the com­
munity, hours regu­
lations not applicable.

In emergencies, Com­ 30 minutes after 4
consecutive hours
mission may grant
of work, except
special overtime per­
on 5-hour day.
mit for hours over 8
and 44; 1^4 times regu­ “On-duty” meal
lar rate must be paid
period permitted
for hours over 40 a
when nature of
week.
work prevents
relief from all
duty; to be
counted as time
worked.
Exemption by
Commission may
be authorized.
In emergencies, Com­
mission may grant
special overtime per­
mit. \Vi times regu­
lar rate must be paid
for all time in excess
of regular hours.




30 minutes after 5
consecutive
hours of work,
except on 6hour day.
“On-duty” meal
period per­
mitted when
nature of work
prevents relief
from all duty;
to be counted
as time worked.
Exemption by
Commission
may bo author30 minutes after 4
consecutive
hours of work,
except on 5hour workday.

Rest period

Prohibited

Regulated

10 minute paid
period for each
4 hours’ work­
ing time, or
major fraction
thereof, insofar
as practicable
in middle of
work period.
10-minute paid pe­
riod, for each 4
hours’ working
time, or major
fraction thereof,
insofar as practi­
cable in middle
of work period.
If forenoon work
period is less
than 2% hours,
no rest period
need be given,
if agreeable to
employee and
employer; 20minute period
must be given
in afternoon.
10-minute paid pe­
riod for each 4
hours' working
time, or major
fraction thereof;
insofar as prac­
ticable in middle
of work period.
Exemption by
Commission may
be authorized.

.do.

No woman shall be
required to re­
port for, or be
dismissed from,
work between 10
p.m. and 6 a.m.,
unless suitable
transportation is
available.
If meal period oc­
curs between
these hours, fa­
cilities for hot
food and drink
must be avail­
able.

10-minute paid
period for each
4 hours of work­
ing time or
major fraction
thereof; insofar
as practicable
in middle of
work,period.

57

STATE HOUR LAWS

State

OREGON—Con.
Wage and HornCommission
Order No. 4,
Mar. 10, 1956.

Ibid., No. 13,
Mar. 10, 1956.

Ibid., No. IS,
Aug. 4,1956.

Ibid., No. 14,
Nov 9, 1956.

Maximum-hour provisions

Employee coverage; oc­
cupation or industry
coverage

Women and minors
under 18.
Amusement and Rec­
reation.
(SEE Appendix I.)

Daily

Weekly

8-—......... 44

Days per
week
6...............

8................. ___

44

8

44

8

44.............. 6................

under 18.
Personal Service.
(SEE Appendix I.)

under 18.
Telephone, Telegraph,
or Similar Communica­
tions Occupations. Ex­
ceptions: Women em­
ployed in administra­
tive, executive or pro­
fessional capacities, as
defined.

under 18.
Public Housekeeping.
(SEE Appendix I.)

Ibid., No. 10,
May 10, 1957.

Industries for which
the State Wage and
Hour Commission has
not established by indi­
vidual or special order a
different wage. Excep­
tions: Minors employed
at domestic work and at
chores in or about pri­
vate residences; news­
paper carriers and news­
paper vendors.
See footnotes at end of table.

58




8................ 44_______

Permitted
variations

..............

6................

6........ ......

Employment on
7th day permit­
ted for employ­
ees who work 6
hours or less a
day.

FOR WOMEN—Continued
Nightwork
Overtime

Meal period

In emergencies, Com­ 30 minutes after 5
mission may grant
consecutive
special overtime per­
hours of work.
mit. 1J4 times regu­
lar rate must be paid
for all time in excess
of regular hours.
Employees have
right of appeal to the
Wage and Hour Com­
mission if they feel
they are being re­
quired to work over­
time too frequently
or unnecessarily.
-do.
----- do..............................

Rest period

10-minute paid
period for each 4
hours of work­
ing time or ma­
jor fraction
thereof; insofar
as practicable
in middle of
work period.

Regulated

(2)

.do.

In emergencies, Com­ 30 minutes after Two 10-minute
mission may grant
5 consecutive
periods in 8-hour
special overtime per­
hours of work,
workday; inso­
mit. \Yi times regu­
except on 6-hour
far as practi­
lar rate must be paid
workday.
cable in middle
for all time in excess
of each work
of regular hours. Tel­
period.
ephone or telegraph
establishments not
demanding uninter­
rupted attention of
operator may be
granted a special li­
cense for different
hours by the Com­
mission.
In emergencies, Com­ 30 minutes after
10-minute paid
mission may grant
5 consecutive
period for each
special overtime per­
hours of work.
4 hours of
mit. in times regular “On-duty” meal
working time or
rate must be paid for
period permit­
major fraction
all time in excess of
ted when nature
thereof; insofar
regular hours.
of work pre­
as practicable
Employees may appeal
vents relief from
in middle of
to the Wage and Hour
all duty; to be
work period.
Commission if they
counted as time
feel they are being
worked.
required to workover­
time too frequently
or unnecessarily.
30 minutes after
10-minute paid
5 consecutive
period as nearly
hours of work,
as possible in
except minors
the middle of
under 16.
each 4-hour
30 minutes at
work period.
noon; not to be
counted as
working time.




Prohibited

(2)

(>)

59

STATE HOUR LAWS

State

OREGON—Con.
Wage and Hour
Commission
Order No. 3,
July 9, 1957.

Ibid., No. 7,
Jan. 3, 1958.

under 18.
Organized
Youth
Camps.
(SEE Appendix I.)

under 18.
Laundry, Cleaning
and Dyeing.
(SEE Appendix I.)

Ibid., No. 8,
Mar. 15, 1959.

Ibid., No. 2,
Oct. 12, 1959.

Maximum-hour provisions

Employee coverage; oc­
cupation or industry
coverage

under 18.
Manufacturing.
(SEE Appendix I.)

under 18.
Canning, Freezing,
and Processing.
(SEE Appendix I.)

Daily

Weekly

8________

Days per
week
6___

8

44............ . 3

8...........___

44 ............

Permitted
variations

secutive hours
free time each
week, camp may
allow 48 consec­
utive hours free
time for each
2-week period.

........

6................

10 (for
mi­
nors).

PENNSYLVANIA:
Stat. Annotated
Females, 18 and over___ i 10............ 48.............- 6...........— (SEE Overtime.)
Any ' establishment, By regu­
(Purdon’s 1952),
By regu­
By regu­
By regulation:
with 1958 supp., i.e., any place where
lation:
lation:
Office employlation:
work is done for compen- a 10 (in 12). 48.—....... 6________
title 43, secs.
103, 104, 107;
sation of any sort to
(G-2).
regular sched­
(G-2).
(G-2).
and
whomever payable. Ex­
ule of 40 hours
Department of
ceptions: Agricultural
a week or less,
Labor and
field occupations; do­
on an annual
Industry Regu­ mestic service in private
salary basis
lations (as indi­ homes; nurses in hospi­
and not laid
cated) Govern­ tals; executives * over 21
off in slack
ing the Hours
years of age earning at
periods, may
be employed
Provisions of
least $35 a week.
the Women’s
By regulation:
10 hours in
Law and ReguSecretaries to execuany day, 54
See footnotes at end of table.

60




FOR WOMEN—Continued
Night work
Meal period

Overtime

Rest period

2 hours off duty
In emergencies, Com­
between 7 a.m.
mission may grant
and 7 p.m. each
special overtime per­
day for every
mit. lYi times regular
rate must be paid for
volunteer or
counselor.
all overtime worked.
Employees may appeal
to Wage and Hour
Commission if they
feel they are being
required to work over­
time too frequently
or unnecessarily.
In emergencies, (1) Yi 45 minutes after 5 10-minute paid
period for each 4
hour overtime a day
consecutive
hours of work­
permitted, provided
hours of work.
ing time or
1H times regular rate “On-duty” meal
major fraction
period, if nature
is paid for hours ever
thereof; insofar
8 a day, 44 a week;
of work pre­
as practicable
and (2) Commission
vents employee
in middle of
may grant a special
from being re­
work period.
lieved of all
overtime permit for
hours over 8Vi a day,
duty, to be
counted as time
44 a week. iy> times
worked.
regular rate must be
paid for hours over 8
up to 10 a day, over
44 up to 60 a week.
Employees may appeal
to Wage and Hour
Commission, if they
feel they are being
required to work
overtime too fre­
quently or unneces­
sarily.
In emergencies, Com­ 30 minutes after 5
consecutive
mission may grant
hours of work.
special overtime per­
mit. 1H times regu­ “On-duty” meal
lar rate must be paid
period permit­
ted if nature of
for
all
overtime
worked.
work prevents
relief from all
duty; to bo
counted as time
worked.
15-minute paid
No maximum-hour pro­ 30 consecutive
period after 3
minutes after 5
vision for women.
consecutive
However,
women
hours of work;
hours of work.
and minors working
except on 6(1) over 10 hours a
hour workday.
day must be paid 1J4
times regular rate for
all overtime worked;
(2) on 7th consecutive
day in regularly
scheduled workweek
must be paid lt£
times regular rate for
the first 8 hours, dou­
ble time for hours in
excess of 8.
If strict application of J^-hour meal or
rest period
law imposes unnec­
must be granted
essary hardship, De­
partment of Labor
after 5 consecu­
tive hours of
and Industry, with
work. (Interval
approval of industrial
of less than ^
board, may make gen­
hour not to be
eral and special rules
deemed inter­
prescribing variations.
ruption of work
By regulation:
period.)
In emergencies, de­
fined as a situation Employees shall
not be required
resulting from fire,
to remain in
flood, storm, epi­
workroom durdemic, act of God,

577981-81-

5




(SEE Meal
Period.)
By regulation:
15-minute
period after 3
hours of work
for female oper­
ators of eleva­
tors, unless
seats are pro­
vided. (W-4.)

Prohibited

Regulated

C3)

(3)

Females may be
employed in
manufacturing
establishments,
provided there
is compliance
with the law and
with regulations
of the industrial
board. Applica­
tion for employ­
ment on 2- or 3shift basis must
be made to De­
partment of

61

STATE HOUR LAWS
State

Employee coverage; oc­
cupation or industry
coverage

Maximum-hour provisions
Daily

Weekly

Days per
week

Permitted
variations

pennsylvania-

Continued
lations Affecting
Employment of
Women, 1948
edition, as
amended.

tives (exempt from
provisions of labor
law) are not subject to
the hour provisions of
such laws, provided
they earn at least $35
a week. (G-5.)

See footnotes at end of table.

62




hours in any
week, if em­
ployment in
quarterly peri­
od of 13 con­
secutive weeks
does not ex­
ceed 520 hours.
(0-7.)
If Vi hour or
more is lost
because of
breakdown of
machinery on
which em­
ployee is
engaged and
dependent for
employment,
maximum
hours may
be extended
2 hours a day
to make up
time lost.
Week may
not exceed 48
hours. Writ­
ten report
must be sent
to Depart­
ment of
Labor. (G-8.)

FOR WOMEN—Continued
Nigbtwork
Overtime

Meal period

public disaster, or
ing meal or rest
Government order
period.
which requires la- By regulation:
bor longer than 10
6 consecutive
hours a day or 48
hours may be
hours a week to preworked by emserve life, property,
ployee then
health, or the public
dismissed for
service, employees
day, provided
whose duties are
15-minute rest
directly connected
period is
with such emergenallowed.
cies may be permit(G-ll.)
ted to work more
The regularly
than the daily and
scheduled
weekly maxi mums
meal or rest
prescribed. If emerperiod may be
gency exists for more
eliminated,
than 24 hours, perprovided apmission for overtime
proval of
must be obtained
Labor Departfrom the Secretary
ment has been
of Labor, who shall
obtained and
determine the duraemployees are
tion of the emerpermitted to
gency. (G-2.)
eat and rest at
In canning, process­
such intervals
ing or packing peras not to enishable fruits or vegedanger their
tables during canhealth in
ning season, employindustries
ment beyond hours
where manuspecified permitted
facturing procprovided approval
esses involve
of Labor Departcontinuous
ment is obtained
operation or,
before
establishwhere processes once begun
ment puts into
effect any schedule
must be comof hours at variance
pleted, to
with the strict proavoid spoilage,
visions of the stator where an
ute. (S-l.)
employee’s
Outside representaduties require
tives may be perher to be away
mitted to work in
from the facexcess of 10 hours a
tory, office, or
day and 48 hours
depot. (G-6.)
and 6 days a week.
1 hour after 6
(G-10.)
continuous
Maximum-hour prohours of work
visions may be
for regular emwaived for night
ployees in reservice in telephone
tail trade.
exchanges in con(S-3.)
tract employment
Maximum of 6
located in bona fide
consecutive
home, provided: (a)
hours without
business may be
J^-hour period
cared for by memin canning,
bers of contracting
processing and
family or bona fide
housohold; (b) no
fruits or vegedefinite assignment
tables during
of hours is necesthe canning
sary; and (c) emseason. (S-l.)
ployee has a general
A total of 2
average of at least 6
hours’ inhours of rest during
activity is
the night. (W-7.)
considered
equivalent to
1-hour meal or
rest period in
small telephone office
with one oper­
ator on duty
from 10 p.m.
to 7 a.m. (S-5.)




Rest period

Prohibited

Regulated

Labor and
Industry.
By regulation:
Employers of females on 2- or
3-shift basis
must: (a)
Comply with
all applicable
laws; (b) provide responsible management and
supervision
during working hours; (c)
arrange adequate transportation, if
prompt public
transportation
is not available
or worker does
not have regular private
transportation;
and (d) obtain
permit for
such employment of females from Department of
Labor and
Industry for a
period not to
exceed 2 years.
(S-6.)

63

STATE HOUR LAWS

State

PENNSYLVANIAContinued
Stat. Annotated
(Purdon's 1952),
with 1958 supp.,
title 43, secs. 41,
47, 48.

Ibid., sec. 481

Employee coverage; oc­
cupation or industry
coverage

Maximum-hour provisions
Daily

Weekly

Days per
week

Females under 21........ ............... ......................... .........
Distributing or selling
newspapers, magazines,
periodicals, publications
or articles of merchan­
dise; and
Minors under 21.
Messenger service for
telephone, telegraph, or
messenger companies.
Men and women_________ _____ ____________ 6.
Motion picture the­
ater.

PUERTO RICO:
Laws Annotated
(1953), with
1959 supp., title
29, secs. 289,295,
296, 298, 299,
and title 33, sec.

Men and women............
Any commercial or
industrial establish­
ment, enterprise, or lu­
crative business not sub­
ject to sec. 2201 of the
2201.
Penal Code,2 i.e., shops
for the repair of machin­
ery of any industry;
shops giving service or
facilities to any indus­
try; printeries, editori­
als, newspaper enter­
prises, garages, filling
stations and gasoline
distributing establish­
ments; public market
places (not including
establishments or stands
for the sale of provisions
and merchandise); es­
tablishments where re­
freshments and coffee
are sold—restaurants,
cafes, hotels, inns; con­
fectionery and pastry
stores; stands selling
only candy, matches,
tobacco, newspapers;
flashlights and acces­
sories; bulbs for domes­
tic use; plug fuses and
fuses; casinos; billiard
rooms; ice depots; meat
stands; milk depots;
slaughterhouses; dairies;
livery stables; piers or
docks; undertaking es­
tablishments; public
and quasipublic utili­
ties; theaters, racetracks,
and other places de­
voted exclusively to
amusement of charity;
pharmacies; commercial
establishments oper­
ating within airports;
commercial or service
establishments oper­
ating within hotels
which constitute a part
of facilities offered to
guests or visitors. Ex­
ceptions: Occasional or
piecework; and profes­
sionals, executives and
administrators.
See footnotes at end of table.

64




0)

Permitted
variations

FOR WOMEN—Continued
Nightwork
Overtime

Meal period

Rest period

Prohibited

Regulated

8 p.m. to 6 a.m._

By permit from the_
_
Secretary of Labor,
emergency work nec­
essary to prevent
danger and consider­
able financial loss
may be performed on
days establishment
must remain closed
to the public.
Employees employed
or permitted to work
on day of rest shall
be paid double the
salary rate for regular
working hours.




65

STATE HOUR LAWS

State

Employee coverage; oc­
cupation or industry
coverage

Maximum-hour provisions
Daily

Weekly

0)

0)

PUERTO RICO—
Continued
Laws Annotated— Females_ __________
_
Con., title 29,
Any lucrative occupa­
secs. 289, 457,
tion, i.e., work in any
458, 465.
factory, mill, centrale,
machine shop or estab­
lishment or place of any
kind where a factory or
mechanical enterprise
exists; storehouse, store,
establishment or place
of any kind where mer­
cantile transactions are
carried on; farms, plan­
tations, rural properties
or places of any kind
where agricultural, hor­
ticultural, or pasturing
pursuits are followed;
mining and fishing un­
dertakings.

Minimum-Wage
Board Orders,
as amended by
Act 96, effec­
tive Juno 26,
1956.

Men and women
Alcoholic
Beverages
and Industrial Alcohol
Industry, No. 30, Oct. 8,
1959; Food and Related
Products Industry, No.
33, Jan. 15, 1960; Retail I

See footnotes at end of table.

66




Days per
week

Permitted
variations

FOR WOMEN—Continued

i

Nightwork
Overtime

Meal period

1 hour; work
period may not
exceed 4 con­
secutive hours.
Exception: Tex­
tile factories.
Yt hour in textile
factories be­
tween the 2
periods in 8hour shifts,
provided fac­
tory establishes
a cafeteria on
its premises
where workers
may, if desired,
take their meals
at reasonable
prices.

No maximum-hour
provisions.
How­
ever, twice the regu­
lar rate must be paid
for hours worked over
8 a day and 48 a week,
and on day of rest.




Rest period

Prohibited

Regulated

10 p.m. to 6
a.m. Excep­
tions: Women
over 18 em­
ployed as
telephone
operators,
telegraphers,
artists, nurses,
and houseworkers; in
tourist or
commercial
hotels.
SEE also
Nightwork
Regulated.

Employment of
women 18 and
over permitted
between 10 p.m.
and 6 a.m., pro­
vided woman is
not pregnant;
does not work
more than a
total of 8 hours
in the 24-hour
period preceding
6 a.m.; and
work shift is
rotated so that
no woman shall
work consecu­
tively on night
shift more than 3
weeks: (1) In the
textile industry
and in the pack­
ing, canning, or
refrigeration of
fruits or vege­
tables; (2) in
cases of emer­
gency or neces­
sity, for the
purpose of per­
mitting employ­
ers or owners to
complete urgent
or necessary
works which
must be finished
within a deter­
mined time in
shops, factories,
or any other
commercial or
industrial estab­
lishment, by
permit from
Secretary of
Labor. Com­
pensation to be
paid for accord­
ing to statute.!
Employer must
provide trans­
portation facili­
ties from factory
to bus stops for
women who
work at night in
textile factory
located in dis­
trict distant
from bus and
public vehicle
stops.

67

STATE HOUR LAWS

State

PUERTO RICO—
Continued.
Minimum-Wage
Board Orders—
Continued
Note: Working
conditions from
applicable
orders num­
bered 1 to 24,
issued prior to
Act 96 of June
26, 1966 (which .
changed the
minimum-wage
rates), remain
in full force and
effect.
Ibid., see Note.

Employee coverage; oc­
cupation or industry
coverage

Trade Industry, No. 42,
May 10, 1958; Hospitals,
Clinics, and Sanatoria
Industry, No. 41, July
10, 1958; Hotel Industry,
No. 46, Aug. 5, 1958;
Restaurant, Bar and
Soda Fountain Indus­
try,(No. 47, Aug. 28,1958;
Coffee Industry in Its
Agricultural Phase, No.
58, Oct. 3, 1959; Dairy
Industry,. No. 27, Apr.
9, 1960; Laundry and
Dry Cleaning Industry,
No. 37, May 1, 1960.
(SEE Appendix I.)
Men and women
Paper and Paper Prod­
ucts,
Printing
and
Publishing Industry, No.
31, June 17, 1960.
(SEE Appendix I.)

Maximum-hour provisions
Daily

Weekly

0)

(*)

Ibid., see Note.

Men and women
Wholesaling and Ware­
housing Industry, No.
34, Oct. 30, 1957.
(SEE Appendix I.)

0)

Men and women
Transportation
In­
dustry, No. 38, Aug. 16,
1960.
(SEE Appendix I.)

(ia)

(0

Ibid., see Note.

Men and women
Construction Industry,
No. 44. June 15, 1958.
(SEE Appendix I.)

0)

0)

Ibid., see Note.

Men and women............
Theater and Cinema
Industry, No. 48, Sept.
12, 1958.
(SEE Appendix I.)

0)

Permitted
variations

0)

Ibid., see Note.

Days per
week

0)

RHODE ISLAND:
General Laws
1956, with 1959
supp., vol. 5,
sees. 28-3-11,
28-3-16.

Women and minors, 16
to 18.
Factory, or manufac­
turing,
mechanical,
business, or mercantile
establishment. Excep­
tion: Women working
by shifts during differ­
ent periods or parts of
the day, in the employ
of a public utility.
See footnotes at end of table.

68




48.

If a 5-day week is
worked, daily
hours may be
9 3/5.

FOR WOMEN—Continued
Nightwork
Overtime

No maximum-hour
provisions.
How­
ever, twice the regu­
lar rate must be paid
for hours worked over
8 a day and 44 a week,
and on day of rest.

do -

Meal period

Prohibited

Regulated

1 hour of rest for
meals during 4,
or part of 4, con­
secutive hours
of work. Ex­
ceptions: News­
paper, magazine
and photoen­
graving phase,
provided twice
the earned wage
is paid em­
ployee for work
during said rest
period.

No maximum-hour pro­
visions.
However,
twice the regular rate
must be paid for 9th
hour worked on any
day;
times for
hours over 9 a day
and on day of rest.
No maximum-hour pro­ 1 hour of rest not
later than noon
visions.
However,
for lunch period.
twice the regular rate
must be paid for Twice the wage
rate must bo
hours worked over 8 a
paid employee
day and 44 a week,
required or per­
and on day of rest.
mitted to work
during said rest
period.
No
maximum-hour
provisions.
How­
ever, twice the reg­
ular rate must be
paid for hours worked
over 8 a day and 40 a
week, and on day of
rest.




Rest period

15-minute paid
period for light
meal after first
2 hours of
work.

0)

€9

STATE HOUR LAWS
Employee coverage; oc­
cupation or industry
coverage

State

RHODE
ISLAND—Con.
General Laws
1956—Con., secs.
28-3-13,
28-3-14,
28-3-16.

Ibid., sec.
28-3-17.

ibid., vol. 4,
sec. 25-1-6.

Minimum-Wage
Order, 5-R-2,
Jan. 1, 1954.

Minimum-Wage
Administrative
Regulations.
Oct. 1, 1957.

Maximum-hour provisions
Daily

Weekly

Days per
week

Permitted
variations

Women and minors.......
Factory, workshop,
mechanical, or mercan­
tile establishment. Ex­
ceptions: Women work­
ing by shifts during dif­
ferent periods or parts of
the day in the employ
of a public utility; tele­
phone exchange where
operator during the
night is not required to
operate at the switch­
board continuously but
may sleep during a con­
siderable part of the
night.
Persons under 21-—.......................... . ...........................
Messenger for tele­
graph, telephone, or
messenger company in
the distribution, trans­
mission, or delivery of
goods or messages.
Men and women-................................. ........ ........ . 3 q
Gainful activities in
any store, mill or factory;
any commercial occupa­
tion; work of transporta­
tion, communication, or
industrial process. Ex­
ception: Work which is
both absolutely neces­
sary and can lawfully be
performed on Sunday.

Men and women______ < 9.
Restaurant and Hotel
Restaurant Occupations.
(See Appendix I.)

Men and women-...........
Restaurant, Hotel Res­
taurant and Public House­
keeping Occupations.
(See Appendix I.)

See footnotes at end of table.

70




4 48.

If a 5-day week is
worked, daily
hours may be
9

FOR WOMEN—Continued
Nightwork
Overtime

Meal peiiod

.20 minutes after16.
consecutive
hours of em­
ployment, ex­
cept on; (1) 6^hour workday
which ends not
later than 1
p.m.; (2) 714hour workday
which ends not
later than 2
p.m., provided
worker is al­
lowed sufficient
opportunity for
“On-duty”
meal.2

Rest period

Prohibited

Regulated

10 p.m. to 5

Upon written appli­
cation, with a sworn
statement of neces­
sity for work and of
economic hardship
which would prevail,
at least 10 days pre­
vious to the Sunday
or holiday referred
to, Director of Labor
may grant a permit
for employment on
such days.
Employees
working
Sundays and holi­
days, under such per­
mit, must receive at
least 1H times em­
ployee's regular rate
for work so per­
formed.
Provision
inapplicable to per­
sons employed at
letic contests and
events.




Transportation
must be pro­
vided women
going off duty
between 11 p.m.
and 6 a.m., un­
less employee
has own means
of transporta­
tion. Time
spent waiting for
such transpor­
tation to be
counted and
paid for, as
working time.
Do.
(Applicable to
women employed
in hotel and
hotel restaurant
occupations.)

71

STATE HOUR LAWS

State

Employeo coverage; oc­
cupation or industry
coverage

Maximum-hour provisions
Daily

RHODE
ISLAND—Con.
Minimum-Wage
Men and women............
Order, 4-R-3,
Retail Trade Occupa­
July 1, 1958.
tions.
(SEE Appendix I.)
Minimum-Wage
Men and women______
Administrative
Retail Trade Occupa­
Regulation,
tions.
Oct. 1, 1957.
(SEE Appendix I.)
SOUTH
CAROLINA:
Code of Laws 1952, All operatives and em­
with 1959 supp.
ployees.
vol. 4, secs.
Cotton and woolen
40-61, 40-62.
manufacturing establish­
ments engaged in man­
ufacture of merchan­
dise. Exceptions: Me­
chanics, engineers, fire­
men, watchmen, team­
sters, yard employees,
and clerical force.
Ibid., sec. 40-81... Women..........................
Mercantile establish­
ments.
Ibid., vol. 6, secs. Women and children...
64-5, 64-6.
Manufacturing estab­
lishment,
i.e., any
plant or place of business
engaged in manufactur­
ing; mercantile estab­
lishment, i.e., any place
where goods or wares
are offered or exposed for
sale, not including, how­
ever, a cafeteria or res­
taurant.
Exceptions:
Manufacturing estab­
lishments involving
chemical manufacturing
processes requiring con­
tinued and uninter­
rupted operation for
normal production.
Ibid., vol. 4, sec
Men and women
40-51, 40-52,
Cotton, rayon, silk,
40-53.
or woolen textile mills.
Exceptions: Office and
supervisory staff, en­
gineers, firemen, watch­
men, shipping and out­
side crews, repair shop
crews, carpenters, me­
chanics, and electricians.
Ibid., vol. 6, secs.
Regular employees,
64-4, 64-4.1,
i.e., those who usually
64-5.1.
work 8 hours or more a
week (men and women.)
Textile manufactur­
ing, finishing, dyeing,
printing, or processing.
Exceptions: Watchmen,
firemen, and other main­
tenance and custodial
employees,
establish­
ments in any city hav­
ing exact population of
5,140, provided no work
is performed before 10
p.m. on Sunday.

See footnotes at end of table.

72




Weekly

Days per
week

Permitted
variations

(«)

If a 5-day week Is
worked, daily
hours may be
9^.<

<48.

(«)

(«)

(!)

(2)

(3)

5 (in 7
consec­
utive
days).

*6..

Over 10 hours a
day or over 55
hours a week
may be worked
to make up time
lost by accident
or other unavoid­
able cause, up to
60 hours in calen­
dar year. Such
time lost must be
made up within
3 months after it
was incurred.

FOR WOMEN—Continued
Night work
Overtime

Meal period

Rest period

Prohibited

Regulated

0)

After 10 p.m.
SPECIAL NATION­
AL EMERGENCY
PROVISION.

Sunday employment
permitted if: (1) “of
absolute necessity or
emergency”; or (2)
voluntary work, in
certain departments,
essential to offset or
eliminate a processing
bottleneck or to re­
store a balance in
processing operations
and to maintain a
normal production
schedule. 1H times
the usual average
daily wage or salary
must be paid for such
employment.
ALSO SPECIAL
NATIONAL
EMERGENCY
PROVISION.




73

STATE HOUR LAWS
State

SOUTH
DAKOTA:
Code 1939, with
1956 supp., vol.
1, sec. 17.0601.

TENNESSEE:
Code Annotated
(1953), with
1959 supp., vol.
9, secs. 50-718,
50-719.

Maximum-hour provisions

Employee coverage; oc­
cupation or industry
coverage

Females and minors un­
der 16.
Any occupation. Ex­
ceptions: Farm laborers,
domestic servants, tele­
graph or telephone oper­
ators, persons engaged
in the care of livestock.

Daily

Females, 15 and over___ 91
Factory (see second
maximum-hour entry),
mine, mill, workshop,
mechanical or mercan­
tile establishment; laun­
dry, cleaning, and press­
ing
establishment;
hotel, restaurant, roominghouse, theater, mov­
ing-picture show, bar­
bershop, beauty shop,
roadside drink- or food­
vending establishment;
telegraph, telephone, or
other office; express or
transportation com­
pany; State institution,
or any other establish­
ment, institution, or en­
terprise where females
are employed.2
Factory manufactur­ 10 (double
ing woolen, worsted, and
the reg­
cotton goods or articles
ular rate
out of cotton goods.
must be
Exceptions: Stenogra­
paid for
phers and pharmacists;4
hours
mercantile establish­
over 9 a
ments and telephone
day).
and telegraph companies
in rural districts and in
towns of less than 3,000
population; superin­
tendents, matrons,
nurses, and attendants
employed by, in, or
about such orphans'
homes as are charitable
institutions not run for
profit and not operated
by the State; and em­
ployees engaged in the
first processing of, or
in canning or packing,
See footnotes at end of table.

74




Days per
week

Permitted
variations

10

Females, 18 and over___ 10.
Workshops or facto­
ries, i.e., manufacturing,
mills, mechanical, elec­
trical, mercantile, art,
and laundering estab­
lishments; printing, tele­
graph and telephone of­
fices (see second maxi­
mum-hour entry); de­
partment stores; or any
kind of establishment
wherein labor is em­
ployed or machinery
used. Exceptions: Do­
mestic service, agricul­
tural pursuits, fruit and
vegetable canning fac­
tories.
Telegraph and/or tele- 10phone offices.

TEXAS:
Civil Stat. (Ver­
non’s, 1947),
with 1959 supp.,
vol. 15, Article
5172a, secs. 1, 2,
3, 5, 6, 9,11.

Weekly

50.

In laundries and
cleaning and
pressing estab­
lishments, 11
hours’ work per­
mitted on any
day if weekly
maximum is not
exceeded and
double the reg­
ular rate is paid
for hours over 9
a day.
In banks, 12 hours’
work permitted
in any 1 day, if
weekly maxi­
mum is not ex­
ceeded and dou­
ble time is paid
for hours over 9
a day.®

FOR WOMEN—Continued
Nightwork
Overtime

Meal period

Rest period

Prohibited

Regulated

12 hours a day permit­
ted on the 5 days pre­
ceding Christmas.
Employees in cities of
less than 3,000 popu­
lation are exempt
from 54-hour weekly
limitation, provided
10 hours are not ex­
ceeded in hny one
day.
In seasonal employ­
ment, 54 hours may
be worked in any 8
weeks of the calendar
year.1
In cases of emergency
affecting the opera­
tion of common car­
riers, public utility
companies, and other
industries which af­
fect the health and
well-being of State
citizens, provisions of
the hour law may be
suspended for the du­
ration of such emer­
gency.
ALSO SPECIAL NA­
TIONAL EMER­
GENCY PROVI­
SION.
In cases of extraordi­
nary emergencies,
such as great calam­
ities, or when neces­
sary for the protection
of human life or prop­
erty, longer hours
may be worked, but
for such hours double
time must be paid to
female employees who
work more than 40
hours a week.
ALSO
SPECIAL
NATIONAL
EMERGENCY
PROVISION.




75

STATE HOUR LAWS
State

TEXAS—Con.
Civil Stat.—Con.

UTAH:
Code Annotated,
1953, with 1959
supp., vol. 4,
sec. 34-4-3; and
Industrial
Commission
Welfare Regu­
lations for any
occupation,
trade or indus­
try, effective
Sept. 14, 1937,
as amended
April 20,1948;
and Adminis­
trative Regu­
lations for the
issuance of
emergency
work permits,
approved May
12,1939.

Employee coverage; oc­
cupation or industry
coverage

Maximum-hour provisions
Daily

Weekly

perishable or seasonal
fresh fruits or vegetables;
bank employees. (SEE
permitted variations for
bank employees.)
Females, 18 and over__
Any industry, trade,
or occupation. Excep­
tions: Domestic service
and executive positions.

8 (in 12
consec­
utive
hours).*

48..

Industrial Com­
mission Mini­
mum-Wage
Order, No. 1,
Sept. 1, 1960.3

Women and minors un­
der 18.2
Retail Trade Occupa­
tions.
(SEE Appendix I.)

8 (in 12).

48..

Ibid., No. 2, Oct.
1, 1960.3

Women and minors
under 18.®
Restaurant Occupation.
(SEE Appendix I.)

4 8 (7^ in
12, on
split
shift 0.

48..

Ibid., No. 4, Sept.
1, 1960.8

Women and minors
under 18.®
Laundry and Cleaning,
Dyeing and Pressing In­
dustries.
(SEE Appendix I.)

Ibid., No. 3, Sept.
1, 1960.3

Women and minors
under 18.®
Public Housekeeping
Industry.
(SEE Appendix I.)

See footnotes at end of table.

76




Days per
week

Permitted
variations

FOR WOMEN—Continued
Nightwork
Overtime

Meal period

Rest period

Prohibited

Regulated

Hour provisions are not By regulation: Yi By regulation: 10 .
minutes in each
hour for adult
applicable to packing
4 hours or fracor canning of perish­
women; em­
tion thereof,
able fruits or vege­
ployment prohiblted for
period to be
tables or to manufac­
made available
turing of containers
more than 5
to employee
hours without
for such industry,
after no more
during the packing
rest and food.
than 2^ con­
season or to picking,
secutive hours
cleaning, processing,
of work.
or packing of fowls.
If life or property is in
imminent
danger,
overtime permitted.
In emergencies or peak
periods in the busi­
ness of an employer,
Industrial Commis­
sion may permit
longer hours.
By regulation: For
overtime in emer­
gency or peak period,
emergency-work per­
mits must be ob­
tained from Indus­
trial
Commission;
employment for more
than 4 extra hours on
3 days in a calendar
week prohibited.
Between 12 mid­ Between 10 p.m.
10-minute paid
30 minutes, 5
and 6 a.m. no
period in each
night and 6
hours after starting work, not
4 hours or
a.in., no em­
woman may
be required to
fraction thereof,
ployee shall
to be deducted
report for work
be required to
for employees
from hours
or be dismissed
required to
take interval
worked, if eraunless the fol­
work more than
separating
ployee is not relowing are
consecutive
work periods.
lieved of all
made available:
hours.
duties and per­
(1) suitable
mitted to leave
transportation
premises. Max­
at no extra
imum period of
cost; (2) suit­
1 hour may be
able facilities
allowed.
for securing or
making hot
food and drink.
After midnight, For females re­
no female
porting for work
period,* 5 hours
or whose shift
shall be re­
after starting
terminates be­
quired to
work. Maxi­
work split
tween midnight
mum period of
and 6 a.m., see
shift.
1 hour may be
Regulated (1)
allowed.
and (2) under
Order No. 1.
Do.
Unless special permis­ See Meal Period ___ do..................... See prohibited
under Order
under Order
sion is secured from
No. 1.
No. 1.
Industrial Commis­
sion, women may not
be required to work
for a period exceeding
maximum hours.
In emergency, female
over 21 may be re­
quired to work on 7th
consecutive day or
over 8 hours in one
day, if employer has
obtained permission
for such work from In­
dustrial Commission.
677981—-61------ 6




-do..

Do.

77

STATE HOUR LAWS

State

VERMONT:
Stat. Annotated
(1959 Revision),
with 1959 supp.,
vol. 7, title 21,
secs. 6, 440, 441,
443, 452.

Employee coverage; oc­
cupation or industry
coverage

Women and minors, 16
to 18.
Labor in mine
quarry, manufacturing
or mechanical establish­
ment. Exceptions: Telehone exchange where
ours of actual labor of
operator do not exceed
the hours herein pro­
vided, or where operator
during the night is not
required to operate at
the switchboard contin­
uously but is able to
sleep the major part of
the night.1

Maximum-hour provisions
Daily

Weekly

Days per
week

50_.

Employment over
the maximum is
not a violation,
if such employ­
ment makes up
time lost (more
than 30 minutes)
on a previous
day of the same
week, due to
stoppage of ma­
chinery upon
which a woman
or minor is em­
ployed or de­
pendent for
employment.

E

VIRGINIA:
Code 1950 (1953
Replacement
vol.), with 1960
supp., vol. 6,
secs. 40-34, 40­
35, 40-39; and
chs. 232 and 321
(L. 1960).

Females, 18 and over.... 9 (in 14S).. 48.
Factory, workshop,2
laundry,
restaurant,
mercantile, or manu­
facturing establishment.
Exceptions: Bookkeep­
ers, stenographers, office
assistants or cashiers,
buyers, managers, or
assistant managers, of­
fice executives; mercan­
tile establishments in
towns of less than 2,000
inhabitants or in coun­
try districts.

See footnotes at end of table.

78




Permitted
variations

(*)

Manufacturing
establishments,
with a rotatingshift schedule,
operating con­
tinuously 24
hours each day,
may employ
females 8 hours
a day on 7 con­
secutive days;
such 7 consecu­
tive days to
occur not oftener
than once in 14
consecutive
days.

FOR WOMEN—Continued
Night work
Overtime

In cases of emergency
or where seasonal or
peak demand places
unusual and tempo­
rary burden on a
manufacturing
or
mechanical establish­
ment, 10 hours a day,
60 hours a week, may
be worked, if Com­
missioner of Indus­
trial Relations is noti­
fied and grants per­
mission in advance
for such overtime, the
period of which may
not exceed 10 weeks
in any 1 year.
In a manufacturing
establishment or busi­
ness, the materials
and products of which
are perishable and
require
immediate
labor to prevent
decay or damage, any
provision of the stat­
ute regulating em­
ployment of women
and minors may
be suspended for a
period not to exceed
2 months in year, by
Commissioner of In­
dustrial
Relations
with approval of the
Governor.
In cases of extraordi­
nary emergency or
extraordinary public
requirements,
em­
ployer engaged in
public service8 may
be exempted.
SPECIAL
ALSO
PROVISIONS IN
CASE OF WAR.
During fruit and vege- .
table seasons, hour
provisions do not ap­
ply to factories en­
gaged exclusively in
canning, processing,
or packing of fruits
or vegetables.
10 hours a day may be
worked for a period
of 90 days annuaUyin
the (1) handling or^
redrying of leaf tobac­
co during the tobacco
market seasons, (2)
shelling and/or clean­
ing of peanuts, (3)
shucking and pack­
ing of oysters, (4)
dressing and process­
ing of poultry.
In florist shops and
greenhouses women
may be employed 10
hours a day on the 3
days preceding and
on Valentine’s Day,
Christmas Day,
Easter Sunday, and
Mother’s Day.




Meal period

Rest period

Prohibited

Regulated

STATE HOUR LAWS

State

Employee coverage; oc­
cupation or industry
coverage

Maximum-hour provisions
Daily

Weekly

VIRGINIA—Con.
Code 1950—Con.

WASHINGTON:
Revised Code
Annotated
(1951), with
1953 and 1955
supp., vol. 7,
title 49, secs.
49.28.070,
49.28.080.
Ibid., sec. 49.
28.080.
Industrial Wel­
fare Commit­
tee MinimumWage Order,
No. 43, Apr. 1,
1949, as
amended by
ch. 294 (L.
1959), effective
June 11, 1959.
Ibid., No. 44,
June 6, 1949, as
amended by ch.
294 (L. 1959),
effective June
11, 1959.

Ibid., No. 45, and
45A, Nov. 28,
1949, as
amended by
ch. 294, (L.
1959), effective
June 11, 1959.

Females, 18 and over___ 8.
Mechanical or mer­
cantile establishment,
laundry, hotel, or res­
taurant.
Exceptions:
Harvesting,
packing,
curing, canning, or dry­
ing of perishable fruits
or vegetables; canning
fish or shellfish.
Males and females...
Household or domes­
tic employees.
Women and minors un­
(3)
der 18.
Office Workers.
(SEE Appendix I.)

Women and minors un­
der 18.
Mercantile Industry,
Wholesale and Retail.
(SEE Appendix I.)

0)

Women and minors un­
der 18.
Theatrical, Amuse­
ment and Recreation In­
dustry; and General
Amusement and Recrea­
tion Industry.
(SEE Appendix I.)

K3)

See footnotes at end of table.

80




*60..

Days per
week

Permitted
variations

FOR WOMEN—Continued
Night work
Overtime

Meal period

Rest period

Prohibited

Regulated

In developing and
printing of amateur
photographic film,
women may be em­
ployed 10 hours a
day for 3 working
days following Dec.
25, Jan. 1, Easter
Sunday, July 4th and
Labor Day.
In hospitals, hour pro­
visions do not apply,
in an emergency situ­
ation when strict
compliance might
reasonably be calcu­
lated to jeopardize
lives or health of
persons relying on
such hospitals for
care or treatment.
ALSO SPECIAL
WARTIME PRO­
VISIONS.
0)
SPECIAL PRO­
VISIONS FOR
PERIOD OF NA­
TIONAL EMER­
GENCY.

In cases of emergency,
employment may be
for “a longer period."




30-minutes in each
and every 8hour shift.

10 minutes in
every 4-hour
work period.

30-minutes in each
regularly sched­
uled full-time
shift.

10-minute paid
period in each
4-hours' consec­
utive work; or,
when morning
shift is less than
4 hours and
afternoon shift
is 4 hours, one
15-minute paid
period in after­
noon shift.
10-minute paid
period in each
4-hour work
period, insofar
as practicable in
middle of each
work period.

30-minutes in each
regularly sched­
uled full-time
shift; prohibits
work for more
than 5 consec­
utive hours
without a meal
period.
"On-duty" meal
period to be
counted as
hours worked.

81

STATE HOUR LAWS

State

Employee coverage; occupation or industry
coverage

WASHINGTON—
Continued
Industrial WeiWomen and minors unfare Committee
der 18.
Minimum-Wage
Public Housekeeping
Order No. 46,
Industry.
Jan. 23, 1950,
(SEE Appendix I.)
as amended by
ch. 294 (L.
1959), effective
June 11, 1959.

Maximum-hour provisions
Daily

Weekly

Days per
week

(>)

p

Ibid., No. 47,
Feb. 13,1950.
as amended Dy
ch. 294 (L.
1959), effective
June 11, 1959.

Women licensed by the
State to practice
beauty culture.
Beauty Culture Indus­
try.
(SEE Appendix I.)

c)

Ibid., No. 48,
June 5,1950, as
amended by
ch. 294 (L.
1959), effective
June 11, 1959.

Women and minors under 18.
Laundry, Dry Clean­
ing and Dye Works In­
dustry,
(SEE Appendix I.)

p)

Ibid., No. 49,
July 10, 1950,
as amended by
ch. 294 (L.
1959), effective
June 11, 1959.
Ibid., No. 50,
July 17, 1950,
as amended by
ch. 294 (L.
1959), effective
June 11, 1959.

Minors under 18
(SEE Appendix I.)

‘8..............

Women and minors under 18.
Manufacturing and
General Working Con­
ditions.
(SEE Appendix I.)

(s)

Women and minors under 18.
Food Processing Indus­
try.
(SEE Appendix I.)

(3)

Ibid., No. 52,
Women......... ..................
Apr. 16,1951,
Fresh Fruit and Vege­
as amended by table Packing Industry.
eh. 294 (L.
(SEE Appendix I.)
1959), effective
June 11, 1959.
See footnotes at end of table.

(')

Ibid., No. 51,
Mar. 12, 1951,
as amended by
ch. 294 (L.
1959), effective
June 11, 1959.

82




Permitted
variations

6..............

FOR WOMEN—Continued
Night work
Overtime




Meal period

30 minutes in
each regularly
scheduled full­
time shift; pro­
hibits work for
more than 5
consecutive
hours without
a lunch period.
Provision not
applicable to
nurses’ aides on
a shift from 11
p.m. to 7 a.m.
Yi hour, and on
request, a maxi­
mum of 1 hour,
in every regular
full-time shift.

Rest period

10-minute paid
period for each
4 hours’ work­
ing time, or
major fraction
thereof, and in­
sofar as practi­
cable in middle
of work period
and not in
rush periods.

30 minutes in
10-minute paid
each regularly
period in each
scheduled full­
4-hour work
time shift; pro­
period.
hibits work for
more than 5
consecutive
hours without a
meal period.
30 minutes; pro­
___ do__________
hibits work for
more than 5
hours without
a meal period.
30 minutes in
each regularly
scheduled full­
time shift; pro­
hibits work for
more than 5
consecutive
hours without
a lunch period.
Shorter lunch
period may be
authorized by
supervisor of
women and
minors in in­
dustry, if appli­
cation is made
and good cause
shown.
30 minutes; pro­
hibits work for
more than 5
consecutive
hours without
a lunch period.
Shorter lunch
period may be
authorized by
supervisor of
women and
minors in in­
dustry, if ap­
plication is
made and good
cause shown.
....... do.................. .

Prohibited

Regulated

After 12 mid­
night for
women eleva­
tor operators.

(»)

10-minute relief
period in every
continuous half
shift, as nearly
as practicable
in middle
thereof.
Relief period to
be by general
relief or by re­
lief personnel,
at option of
employer.

15-minute paid
period,
arranged for by
individual re­
lief or general
period, in each
4- or 5-hour
shift, as nearly
as practicable
in middle of
each shift.

do.

83

STATE HOUR LAWS

State

Employee coverage; oc­
cupation or industry
coverage

WASHINGTON—
Continued
Industrial Wel­
Women and minors un­
fare Committee
der 18.4
Minimum-Wage
Telephone and Tele­
Order No. 53,
graph Industry.
May 1, 1951, as
(SEE Appendix I.)
amended by ch.
294 (L. 1959),
effective June 11,
1959.

WEST VIRGINIA:
Department of
Labor Regula­
tions for the
Protection and
Preservation of
Life, Health, and
Safety of Women
in Industry
(1943).

Maximum-hour provisions
Daily

Weekly

C8)

Females_______
Any industry.

WISCONSIN:
Stat. Annotated
(West’s, 1957),
with 1959 supp.,
vol. 17, secs.
103.01, 103.02;
and
Administrative
Code. Rules
of Industrial
Commission,
sec. Ind 74.

Females, 18 and over.1—- 9 (in 15*).
Any trade, occupa­
(SEE
tion, or process of Nightmanufacture, or any work.)
method of carrying on
such trade or occupa­
tion, or any place of em­
ployment.3
See also Hotels and
Telephone Operators.
Exceptions: (By Ad­
ministrative Code) from
hour restrictions of
sections 103.01 and 103.02
Wis. Stats, and Orders
of Industrial Commis­
sion: Women, 21 years
or over who are execu­
tives, professional wom­
en,4 registered pharma­
cists, doctors, dentists,
or registered nurses;
office employees of fac­
tories, laundries, and
mercantile establishSee footnotes at end of table.

84




Days per
week

0)

60.

Permitted
variations

FOR WOMEN—Continued
Night work
Overtime

Meal period

Rest period

30 minutes in each 10-minute paid pe­
riod in each con­
8-hour shift; pro­
tinuous 4-hour
hibits work, by
period of em­
employee on 8ployment.
hour shift, for
Paid waiting time
more than 5
considered as sat­
hours without a
isfying the restmeal period. Ex­
period require­
ception: Em­
ment.
ployee may waive
lunch period with SEE “On-duty”
meal and rest
employer’s con­
period under
sent on Satur­
meal period.
day, Sunday,
holiday, and
night duty, i.e.,
when major time
is between 6 p.m.
and 7 a.m.
“On-duty” meal
and rest periods,
counted as time
worked, permit­
ted where only
one employee on
duty or nature
of work prevents
relief from all
duties.
Yi hour must be
allowed as a
lunch period.

10 hours a day, 55 hours Less than 1 hour
during each day
a week, may be
or night for
worked during emer­
dinner or other
gency periods, not to
meals.
exceed 4 weeks in
year, if lYi times (By Administra­
tive Code.)
regular rate is paid
At least 30 min­
for excess time.
utes close to
Industrial Commission
usual meal
is authorized to issue
period time or
general or special
at such other
orders fixing such pe­
time deemed
riod or periods of time
reasonable by
(day, night, or week)
Commission.
during which work
may be done, as shall Prohibits employ­
ment of women
be necessary to pro­
for more than 6
tect the life, health,
hours without a
safety, or welfare of
meal period.
women workers.
Until such orders
have been issued by
the Commission, the
hours specified in the
statute prevail.




Prohibited

Regulated

(<0

<*)

Employment be­
(By Adminis­
tween 8 p.m. and
trative Code.)
6 a.m. more than
In factories
1 night a week
and laundries
may not exceed
on shifts start­
8 hours a night.
ing or stop­
48 hours a week.
ping between
(By Administra­
1 a.m. and 6
tive Code.)
a.m.; be­
Maximum hours:
tween 12 mid­
8 a day, 48 a
night and 1
week.
a.m., when
adequate pub­ (SEE also Hotels
and Telephone
lic or private
Operators.)
transporta­
Night shift means
tion is not
work between 6
available.
p.m. and 6 a.m.
in factories and
laundries; 6:30
p.m. and 6 a.m.,
except for 1 night
a week, in mer­
cantile or me­
chanical estab-

85

STATE HOUR LAWS

WISCONSIN—
Continued
Stat. Annotated
and Administra­
tive Code—
Continued

Daily

Weekly

ments, if office is sepa­
rate from such estab­
lishment and work
does not require office
workers to enter fac­
tory, laundry or mer­
cantile establishment.

Hotels«.
fBy Administrative
Code):
Telephone operators
in exchanges hav­
ing:
1,500 telephones and
over.
600 to 1,499 tele­
phones.
400 to 599 telephones.
200 to 399 telephones.
Under 200 tele­
phones.

Administrative
Code. Rules
of Industrial
Commission,
sec. Ind 73.

Maximum-hour provisions

Employee coverage; oc­
cupation or industry
coverage

State

Women and minors, 16
and 17.7
Canning or First Proc­
essing Fresh Fruits or
Vegetables, during sea­
son of actual canning of
product. Exceptions:
Factories engaged in de­
hydrating fruits and
vegetables, which are
covered by general fac­
tory regulations.

See footnotes at end of taole.

86




10.

55.

9­

50.

10.

50

10.
10.
10.

54
54
60

6 9............ . 8 54.

Days >er
wee!

Permitted
variations

FOR WOMEN—Continued
Nightwork
Overtime

Meal period

Rest period

Prohibited

Regulated

lishments, con­
fectionery stores,
telegraph offices,
telephone offices
and exchanges,
express and
transportation
establishments;
8 p.m. to 6 a.m.,
except for 1 night
a week, in res­
taurants and
beauty parlors.

(By Administrative
Code.) Hours in ex­
cess of day or night
work maximums may
be worked not more
than 4 weeks in year,
in emergency or peak
periods, provided: In­
dustrial Commission
is notified of such
overtime within 24
hours, and time and
one-half the regular
rate is paid for the
excess hours.

Employment
between 9 p.m.
and 6 a.m., may
not exceed 9
hours a night, 54
hours a week.

(5)

30 minutes free for
each meal.

(By Administra­
tive Code):
Night shift in
exchanges with
1,500 or more
telephones is
work between
6:30 p.m. and 6
a.m. on more
than 1 night a
week; maxi­
mum hours, 8
a night, 48 a
week; in ex­
changes with
less than 1,500
telephones is
work between
10 p.m. and 6
а.m. and,
according to
the number of
telephones, is
counted as 8,
б, 5, and 4
hours, respec­
tively.

In emergencies occa­ 30 minutes at
usual time for
sioned by break­
downs, climatic condi­
meals, viz, at or
tions or unusual peak­
about 12 noon,
loads, women and
6 p.m. and mid­
minors, 16 years and
night.
over, may work 11 Stretch of work
hours a day, 60 hours
between meal
a week, for not more
periods may not
exceed 6 hours.
than 12 days, in can­
neries which have
complied with safety
and sanitation orders
of the Industrial
Commission. Time
and one half the
regular rate must be
paid for hours over 9
a day, 54 a week.




87

STATE HOUR LAWS

State

WISCONSIN—
Continued
Stat. Annotated
(West’s, 1957),
with 1959 supp.,
vol. 17, sec.
103.85; and Ad­
ministrative
Code. Rules
of Industrial
Commission
sec. Ind 75.

Stat. Annotated
(West’s, 1957),
with 1959 supp.,
vol. 17, sec.
103.69.
WYOMING:
Stat. 1957, with
1959 supp., vol.
7, secs. 27-218,
27-220.

Employee coverage; oc­
cupation or Industry
coverage

Maximum-hour provisions
Daily

Men and women______
Factory or mercantile
establishment. Excep­
tions: Janitors, watch­
men; manufacture of
butter, cheese, or other
dairy products; distri­
bution of milk or cream;
canneries, bakeries, flour
and feed mills; hotels
and restaurants; em­
ployees whose duties
require no work on Sun­
day other than caring
for live animals or main­
taining fires; any labor
called for by an emer­
gency that could not
reasonably have been
anticipated; and (By
Administrative Code)
specified male employ­
ees in paper and pulp
mills, viz. superintend­
ents and department
heads whose work is su­
pervisory and not man­
ual; millwrights, elec­
tricians, pipefitters and
other employees whose
duties include not more
than 5 hours of essential
work on Sunday, mak­
ing necessary repairs to
boilers, piping, wiring
or machinery.
Minors under 21 .............
Messengers for tele­
graph or messenger com­
pany in the distribu­
tion, transmission, or
delivery of messages or
goods, in cities of 1st,
2d, and 3d class.
Females, 16 years and
over.
Manufacturing, me­
chanical, or mercantile
establishment, laundry,
hotel, public lodginghouse, apartment house,
place of amusement, or
restaurant.*

See footnotes on next page.




Weekly

Days per
week

24 consec­
utive
hours of
rest in
every 7
consec­
utive
days. 8

*8 (in 12)..

Permitted
variations

FOR WOMEN—Continued
Nightwork
Overtime

¥

Meal period

Rest period

Prohibited

Regulated

Work on 7th day per­
mitted in case of
breakdown of ma­
chinery or equipment,
or other emergency
requiring immediate
services of experi­
enced and competent
labor to prevent seri­
ous injury to person,
damage to property,
or suspension of
necessary operations
when such labor is
not otherwise im­
mediately available.
Industrial Commission
may by general or
special order make
reasonable exceptions
or modifications to
the law if it deter­
mines that the carry­
ing out of the stat­
ute’s provisions
causes practical diffi­
culties or unnecessary
hardships, and that
“life, health, safety,
and welfare of em­
ployees shall not be
sacrificed or endan­
gered thereby.”

8 p.m. to 6 a.m.®

Over 8 hours a day in
a 12-hour period may
be worked, provided
time and one-half is
paid for each and
every hour of over­
time in any 1 day
for each day during
which such overtime
is worked.1
In an emergency, fe­
males may be em­
ployed overtime if
time and a half is
paid for hours over
8 a day. An Execu­
tive order or procla­
mation of the Presi­
dent of the United
States declaring an
emergency is to be
construed as an emer
gency within the pur­
view of this act.*




2 rest periods of
not less than 15
minutes each, 1
before and 1
after the lunch
hour,8 for fe­
males who are
required to be
on their feet
continuously.

89

FOOTNOTES
ALABAMA:
1 The penal code imposes a fine on any person who “compels his child, apprentice or servant to perform
any labor on Sunday," with exceptions. (Code 1940, with 1955 supp., vol. 4, title 14, ch. 16, sec. 420.)
ALASKA:
i Alaska has no maximum hours law. The “Alaska Wage and Hour Act" H.B. 101, L. 1959, effective
May 4, 1959, requires employer in commerce, other business, or production of goods or materials to pay
employees, male and female, not acting in a supervisory capacity, one and one-half times the employee’s
regular rate for hours over 8 a day, 40 a week, with specified exceptions.
ARKANSAS:
1 Labor Commissioner may grant exemptions to meal period provisions on such terms and conditions
as he, in his discretion, may prescribe.
2 Females employed in executive or managerial capacity defined as persons who exercise real supervision
and managerial authority entirely different from that of regular salaried employees, and who receive at
least $35 a week exclusive of commissions and bonuses.
CALIFORNIA:
1 Applicable to employment by one or more employers in enumerated occupations and industries.
:Hours of work permitted per day shall be consecutive, except on Sundays, holidays and time for meals;
provision does not apply to hospitals employing only one person to compound physicians’ prescriptions. ’
2 Not more than 12 days may be worked in any 2 consecutive weeks. The employer shall apportion the
periods of rest to be taken by an employee so that the employee will have the complete day of rest during
each week.
4 Women pharmacists may work the same hours as men because their hours of work are governed by
the laws regulating hours of work of pharmacies. (Op. Atty. Gen., June 22, 1956.)
5 Employer may declare an unpaid recess of one-half hour or more, provided (a) employee is notified of
time to report back, and is permitted to leave the premises, and (b) there are not more than 2 such periods
within one shift and total duration does not exceed 3 hours.
COLORADO:
1 Beauty shops come within the term mercantile establishment, (Op. Atty. Gen., Apr. 13, 1939); section
does not apply to women in cleaning and dyeing establishments, (Op. Atty. Gen., Oct. 20, 1939); women
employed in drug stores who do not sell drugs and medicines at retail, or compound physicians' prescrip­
tions, are subject to this section. (Op. Atty. Gen., Feb. 27, 1939.)
2 Periods of rest to be taken by the employee must be so apportioned that the employee is entitled to
2 half-days or 1 complete day of rest during each week; 108 hours to be worked on not more than 13 days
in 2 consecutive weeks.
3 Law applies only to those who actually sell drugs and medicines at retail or who compound physiciansprescriptions. Any other women in drug stores are subject to sec. 80-7-13. (Op. Atty. Gen., Feb. 27,
CONNECTICUT:
1 Nightwork provisions are applicable to females employed in any manufacturing, mechanical or mer­
cantile establishment, or in any public laundry, public restaurant, cafe, dining room, barbershop, hair­
dressing or manicuring establishment, or photograph gallery. Provisions inapplicable to physicians,
surgeons, nurses, pharmacists, attorneys at law, and teachers, or to women engaged in social work, or to
display workers whose chief or sole duty is the arranging and displaying of merchandise for advertising
purposes in accordance with designs created by themselves, and who receive at least $150 a month.
2 In lieu of adequate public transportation, transportation shall be available to the worker, either by use
of a personally owned automobile or through facilities satisfactory to the Commissioner of Labor, providing
for transportation by the employer or by means of an approved car-pool arrangement.
3 The provisions of the law regulating hours of women employees apply to employment of women
prescription pharmacists. (Op. Atty. Gen., Mar. 18, 1937.)
4 Public laundry regarded as a manufacturing establishment. (General Statutes (Revision 1958), vol. 6,
sec. 31-43.)
* No person shall require or permit any employee engaged in any commercial occupation or in the work
of any industrial process to do any work of his occupation on Sunday unless such employee shall be relieved
from work for 1 full regular working day during the following 6 days.
DELAWARE:
1 When employed by more than one concern or employer in covered establishments or occupations, the
total time of employment shall not exceed that allowed per day or week in a single establishment or
occupation. (Code Annotated (1953), with 1958 supp., vol. 10, title 19. sec. 303.)
FLORIDA:
1 Whoever employs his apprentice or servant in labor or other business on Sunday, unless it be in the
ordinary household business of daily necessity, or other work of necessity or charity, shall be fined not
more than $10 for each offense. (Statutes Annotated (1944), with 1959 supp., vol. 22, title 44, sec. 855.03.)
HAW An:
1 The Hawaii wage and hour law, applicable to employees in private employment, with exceptions,
places no limit on hours of employment, but requires payment of 1H times a worker’s regular rate for hours
over 40 a week, except for specified agricultural employees who are permitted, during 20 weeks of the year,
to work up to 48 hours a week at the regular rate, with payment of l\h times such employee’s regular rate
for hours over 48 a week. Prohibits split shifts unless all shifts fall within 14 hours, except in case of
extraordinary emergency. (Revised Laws of Hawaii, 1955, vol. 1, sec. 94.4.)
IDAHO:
1 Railroads in interstate commerce and telegraphers and printer operators for railroads in interstate
commerce not restricted by State hour regulation. (Ops. Atty. Gen., Mar. 22, and Oct. 7,1941.)
ILLINOIS:
1 By interpretations of the Attorney General, the scope of the 8-hour law may be summarized as followsNewspaper publishers are not subject to the act (Aug. 26, 1937). Included under coverage are females
employed in any office of enumerated industries and at the county poor farm (Aug. 26, 1937); in dyeing
and cleaning establishments and as accountants in mercantile establishments (Jan. 5, 1940); in charitable
institutions (Nov. 18, 1942); and in commercial hatcheries (Apr. 29, 1943). Excluded from coverage are
females employed in insurance companies, real estate agencies, finance companies, fraternity houses and
radio stations (Jan. 5, 1940); in “Currency exchanges" (June 19, 1947); and in banks (Aug. 30,1949).

90




ILLIN OIS—Continued
J Factory includes a mill, workshop or other manufacturing establishment, and all buildings, sheds
structures or other places used for, or in connection therewith, where one or more persons are employed at
manufacturing, including making, altering, repairing, finishing, refining, bottling, canning, cleaning or
laundering any article or thing.
* Opinions of the Attorney General re the scope of the 6-day-week law indicate that the following employees
are not included in the coverage: Employees of undertaking establishments, radio stations, fraternity houses,
charitable institutions (Jan. 8, 1940); workers employed by cemetery associations (Dec. 7, 1946).
KANSAS:
1 Orders have been promulgated by the Kansas Labor Department, pursuant to the authority vested in
it by the State legislature, to “establish such standards of wages, hours, and conditions of labor for women
. . . and minors . . . as shall be held hereunder to be reasonable and not detrimental to health and welfare.”
(General Statutes Annotated 1949, with 1955 supp. (Corrick’s) secs. 44-601,44-601a). The Labor Depart­
ment of Kansas reports that under this same authority permits are issued granting permission to employ
women in war production in excess of the hours established by Industrial Welfare Order No. 2.
2 Employment between 12 midnight and 5 a.m. prohibited for females under 18 years.
3 Eight hours a day and 6 days a week constitute a basic workweek for all women and minor telephone
operators.
KENTUCKY:
1 No day-of-rest provision. By statute, every employer who requires or permits any employee to work
7 days in any 1 workweek shall pay such employee at the rate of time and one half for the time worked on
the 7th day, except employee not permitted to work more than 40 hours during the workweek. Exempt
from overtime provisions are: Supervisors, telephone exchanges with less than 500 subscribers, stenog­
raphers, bookkeepers, technical assistants of licensed professionals, employees subject to Federal Railway
Labor Act; seamen, persons icing railroad cars, common carriers under Division of Motor Transportation;
employees and employers subject to F.S.A.A., F.R.M.A., I.C.C., Ky. P.S.C.; hospitals and charitable
institutions; employees of the State, United States or any political subdivision; farming; work performed in
homes, residences, restaurants, hotels, and apartment houses, such as cleaning, waiting on tables, etc.;
and general house, restaurant or hotel work. (Revised Statutes (1958), secs. 337.010 and 337.050.) Another
statute prohibits Sunday employment, with exceptions. (Sec. 436.160 (1-3).)
LOUISIANA:
J Where female employee works 6 days for one employer and works for another employer at another job
on the 7th day of the week, thereby working 7 consecutive days, neither employer is guilty of any violation.
(Op. Atty. Gen., Apr. 18, 1955.)
2 By interpretation, beauty shops are covered by law as mechanical establishments (Op. Atty. Gen.,
May 12,1943), and radio stations as telegraph establishments (Op. Atty. Gen., June 11, 1945). Exempted
by interpretation are registered nurses in manufacturing establishments (Op. Atty. Gen., Oct. 17, 1945),
employees of boardinghouses (Op. Atty. Gen., Sept. 28, 1945), and females employed entirely in clerical
work or growing of plants in florist shops, also inapplicable in communities of less than 6,000 (Op. Atty
Gen., Sept. 18, 1944).
* By interpretation, section 311 is applicable to females employed in barrooms
Op. Atty. Gen., Sept. 29
1953.)
MAINE:
i Statute prohibits females from knowingly being employed or accepting employment for more than
maximum hours in one or more establishments.
MARYLAND:
i An act of 1888 (amended in 1943) limits to 10 hours the workday of employees in the service or under the
control of corporations or manufacturing companies engaged in manufacturing cotton or woolen yarns,
fabrics, or domestics of any kind. Certain exemptions applicable to males over 21 years of age are in the
act. (Annotated Code 1957, with 1959 supp., vol. 8, Art. 100, secs. 1-3.)
* Statute prohibits any person “having servants or children” to “command or suffer any of them to do
any manner of work or labor on Sunday,” with exceptions. (Annotated Code 1957, with 1959 supp., vol. 3,
Art. 27, sec. 492.)
* By interpretation statute does not apply to office work in the establishments covered by the law. (Op.
Atty. Gen., Oct. 23, 1941.)
MASSACHUSETTS:
1 Exceptions to 10-hour overall spread: (1) Transportation or telephone companies, hotels, private clubs
and places of amusement where the employment is determined by the department to be seasonal, and to
hotels where meals are served during 3 separate periods totaling not more than 7 hours in 1 day and the
employment is connected with serving of meals; (2) in mercantile establishments, spread of 11^ consecutive
hours permitted during a total of not more than 7 days in any calendar year, of which 6 shall be weekdays
within 4 weeks immediately preceding Christmas, and the 7th, the Saturday immediately preceding
Easter; (3) in any place of employment where the principal source of income of certain employees is in tips
or gratuities, upon written petition of not less than 60 percent of such employees, the Commissioner may
allow a spread of 12 hours; (4) hospitals if Commissioner finds an emergency exists requiring such action.
2 The current expiration date is July 1, 1961; this regulation has, for a number of years, been extended
annually by the legislature.
3 In addition, employment on Sunday in a number of occupations is prohibited, with specified exceptions
and variations.
MICHIGAN:
1 Commissioner of Labor recommends: “There be rest periods of 15 minutes duration morning and after­
noon or like employment periods, such as swing shifts. ’
2 By interpretation, includes beauty shops. (Op. Atty. Gen., Apr. 7,1931.)
3 By interpretation, includes telephone office. (Op. Atty. Gen., Mar. 19,1914.)
* The extension of hours (during the canning season) is granted only when the employer has exhausted all
sources of additional employees.
MINNESOTA:
1 Statute provides that “all trades, manufactures and mechanical employments” are prohibited on Sun­
day, with exceptions. (Statutes Annotated (1945) with 1959 supp., vol. 40, sec. 614.29.)
2 Applicable in sanatoriums to chambermaids, janitresses, kitchen workers, elevator operators and
telephone operators, but not to nurses or other employees. (Op. Atty. Gen., June 11,1941.)




91

MISSISSIPPI:
1 The factory inspector recommends that all places of business operating 7 instead of 6 days per week and
employing females, should give all female employees 1 day off in every 7 days, or reduce the daily working
period on 7-day week employment to 814 hours a day in order to stay within the legally prescribed 60-hour
week schedule.
2 Under the criminal laws, it is unlawful for any person “to employ another person to work on Sunday,”
with specified exceptions. (Code Annotated 1942, with 1958 supp., Recompiled, vol. 2A, sec. 2868.)
2 Employment of persons over 16 limited to 10 hours a day in any mill, cannery (except fruit or vegetable),
workshop, factory, or manufacturing establishment, except that on first 5 days of week an additional Yi hour
a day may be worked, such additional time to be deducted from the last day of the week; and except that
persons employed at night only, may work 11H hours on first 5 nights of week and 3% hours on Saturday
night, but 60 hours shall constitute a full week’s work for such employees. (Code Annotated 1942, with
1958 supp., Recompiled, vol. 5A, secs. 6986 and 6992.)
MISSOURI:
1 Under the penal law, it is a misdemeanor for anyone to “compel or permit an apprentice, servant or any
other person under his charge or control, to labor or perform any work” on Sunday, with specified excep­
tions. (Annotated Stat. (Vernon’s 1949) with 1959 supp., vol. 41, sec. 563.690.)
MONTANA:
* Montana State constitution (Art. XVIII, sec. 4, as amended by referendum effective Dec. 2, 1936),
provides that “a period of 8 hours shall constitute a day’s work in all industries, occupations, undertakings,
and employments, except farming and stock raising; Provided, however, That the legislative assembly
may by law reduce . . . but shall have no authority to increase the number of hours constituting a day’s
work beyond that herein provided.”
In addition to the statutory provisions shown, various other provisions also require that 8 hours shall con­
stitute a day’s work for persons (men and women) employed in specified industries and occupations, includ­
ing public amusements; mines, mills, and smelters; railway employees; sugar refineries; and others. Some
provide also that 48 hours shall constitute a week’s work.
2 By law, every Sunday is considered a legal holiday in the State of Montana. (Montana Revised Codes
1947, Replacement vol. 2 with 1959 supp., Sec. 19-107.)
NEBRASKA:
1 Office does not include a bank. (Op. Atty. Gen., Jan. 22, 1943.)
2 The legislature has classified cities with more than 5,000 but not more than 40,000 population as first
class; with more than 40,000 but less than 150,000 population, as primary; and with 150,000 population or
more, as metropolitan. (Revised Statutes 1943, with Cumulative supp., secs. 16-101, 15-101 and 14-101.)
3 Hour law applicable to all females, including supervisors employed in establishments mentioned in the
statute; limitation cannot be escaped by having female supervisors complete their work at home. (Op.
Atty. Gen., Dec. 11, 1957.)
* The “lunch hour” statute does not apply to a retail store, since such a place is not an assembling plant,
workshop, or mechanical establishment. (Op. Atty. Gen., Dec. 11, 1957.)
NEVADA:
1 Seven-day week is prohibited by statute even though total hours do not exceed 48. (Op. Atty. Gen.,
Mar. 30, 1955.)
2 Meal and rest periods must be included in the 8 hours of work per day to which women are limited.
(Op. Atty. Gen., May 11, 1947.)
NEW JERSEY:
» Day means any 24-hour period; it does not refer to a calendar day. (Op. Atty. Gen., Sept. 10, 1959.)
NEW MEXICO:
1 No day-of-rest provision; law provides that not more than 48 hours may be worked in any 1 week of 7
days. However, according to the following decision, “any hotel, restaurant or cafe which requires a female
employee to work more than 48 hours in any 1 week of 7 days, without a rest period of at least 1 day per week
(not 1 day per 2 weeks) is violating the law . . . and the intention of the legislature that every female
employee should get at least 1 day of rest each week.” (Op. Atty. Gen., Oct. 19, 1954.)
2 Dry cleaning establishments are mercantile establishments within the meaning of the law. (Op. Atty.
Gen., June 17, 1955.)
3 A woman employee working over 8 hours a day but not over 48 hours a week is not entitled to overtime
pay. However, she should not be permitted to work over 8 hours a day, except as provided by the emer­
gency clause. (Op. Atty. Gen., July 21, 1952.) A cleaning establishment, being a mercantile estab­
lishment, may work its women employees in excess of 8 hours per day in emergency cases, but for all excess
work over 48 hours in any 1 week of 7 days, will have to pay on a time and one-half basis. (Op. Atty. Gen.,
Oct. 19, 1954.)
* The scope of the exemptions has been interpreted to exempt from coverage all female employees in a
telephone or telegraph office where 5 or less are employed (Op. Atty. Gen., 3937); of hospitals and sanitari­
ums, including clerks, cleaning women, etc., (Op. Atty. Gen., Mar. 17, 1953); female dental assistants whose
duties are not entirely clerical and stenographic (Op. Atty. Gen., Apr. 24,1953); and to exclude from coverage
State employees whose hours of labor may be fixed by the Governor, subject to approval of the State board
of finance (Op. Atty. Gen., Mar. 16,1953).
« Female taxicab drivers must be employed in accordance with laws pertaining to hours of employment of
females (Op. Atty. Gen., Sept. 25, 1952).
9 For women employed in transportation, ch. 180, Laws of 1921 (repealed by Women’s 8-Hour Law of
1933, as amended in 1939) is still in force. (Op. Atty. Gen., Oct. 4, 1933.)
NEW YORK:
* Where a female or male minor is employed in two or more factories or mercantile establishments in the
same day or week, the total time of employment shall not exceed that allowed per day or week in a single
factory or mercantile establishment. (Consolidated Laws Annotated (McKinney’s 1948) with 1959 supp.,
Book 30, sec. 174.)
2 Provisions inapplicable to women office workers 16 years of age and over, even if duties are partly per­
formed in a manufacturing or mercantile establishment. (Op. Atty. Gen., Mar. 20, 1928.)
3 The term “Resort” applies to establishments which operate for not more than 4 calendar months and
15 days in each year. The term “Seasonal” applies to establishments in which the number of employees is
increased by at least 100 percent from the slack to the busiest season.
* Under 18 years, employment prohibited.
*Under 21 years, employment prohibited.
9 Statute reads that employers shall allow employees “at least 24 consecutive hours of rest in any calendar
week.”

92




*

a

+
*_

^

NORTH CAROLINA:
1 Employees of motion picture theaters, restaurants, dining rooms and public eating places permitted
overall spread of 14 consecutive hours.
2 For hours law applicable to establishments employing 9 or more persons in many of these industries, see
first entry in coverage column.
NORTH DAKOTA:
• Work in manufacturing, mechanical, mercantile, laundry, express or transportation company not
within emergency exemptions. (Op. Atty. Gen., Jan. 10, 1944.)
2 All existing State wage and hour laws applying to women workers shall apply to all manufacturing in­
dustries and establishments.
3 Hospitals are not subject to regulations as public housekeeping establishments with respect to hours
of employment required of female kitchen workers, according to decision of the State Supreme Court.
{Panel v. Trinity Hospital Association (1942), 72 N.D. 262; 6N. YV. 2d 392.)
4 Women may not be employed more than 26 days a month.
OHIO:
1 Title 41, sec. 4109.22 of the Ohio Revised Code, as amended, Sept. 30,1955, regulates hours of employment
for females under 18 years of age.
2 If workday is not continuous, overall work period may not exceed 10 hours, except 12 hours in nonprofit
hospitals, hotels, and restaurants; 13 hours in communications companies.
3 A female may be employed in more than one place of employment, provided the aggregate number of
hours employed do not exceed 8 a day, 48 a week.
4 Ohio State Regulation of Hours of Employment of Females 18 and Over sets maximum workweek of 8
hours a day, 48 hours a week for retail store, office, laundry or dry cleaning; of 9 hours a day, 48 hours a
week for factory, restaurant, hotel, drive-in, bar, hospital, financial institution, and other types of work.
(Ohio Department of Industrial Relations: A Working Woman’s Guide, Feb. 1958.)
OKLAHOMA:
1 Not applicable to females employed in banks. Ex parte Carson, (1926), 33 Okla. Cr. 198, 243 P. 260.
OREGON:
1 More restrictive hours of employment of women and minors, provided for in Wage and Hour Com­
mission’s orders, take precedence over longer hours permitted under statute. Letter ruling of Commissioner
of Bureau of Labor, Sept. 14, 1959. Maximum hour provisions which prevail under these orders are listed
in chronological order following statute citation in chart.
2 Order No. 4 specifies night work prohibited for minors.
3 Order provides that “Every woman and minor shall have at least 1J-3 days rest in seven.”
PENNSYLVANIA:
1 Applicable to work in one or more establishments.
2 By interpretation, manufacturing establishments include bakeshops. (Department of Labor and Indus­
try, Mar. 25, 1925.)
3 From Department of Labor and Industry Regulations: Spread of hours limited to 2 hours more than the
maximum working hours permitted by law or regulation. (G-4). In cases of change of shift, schedule
must provide 12 hours between tours of duty. (G-9). In hotels and restaurants, the spread of hours may
not exceed 13 in a day, except that for front-office employees working split shifts, the daily spread shall be
determined by averaging over a 2-day period. (S-2). In transportation industry, employees must have
12 hours between tours of duty, 10 in emergencies. (S-4). In telephone industry, 10 hours may be worked
within 13 consecutive hours in 1 day. (S-5).
4 By interpretation, executives include industrial nurses earning at least $35 a week. (Department of
Labor and Industry, Aug. 4, 1941.)
PUERTO RICO:
1 Puerto Rico’s 1919 law regulating the work of women and children (Session laws: 1919, Act 73, as
amended 1930, Act 28, and 1947, Act 6), was amended in 1949, Act 364, eliminating the previous maximumhour limitations for women of 8 hours a day and 48 hours a week. The law as now amended provides
that women not subject to the Federal Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as amended, shall be paid twice
the salary agreed for regular hours of work in excess of 8 hours up to 12 hours a day, or in excess of 48 hours
up to 72 hours a week, and triple time for hours in excess of 12 hours a day or 72 hours a week; women
covered by the FFLSA shall be paid time and one-half salary agreed upon for work after 8 hours up to 12
hours a day, or in excess of 40 hours up to 60 hours a week, and triple time after 12 hours a day or 60 hours
a week. Act 379, Session laws 1948, has similar provisions for all employees “in every commercial, indus­
trial, and agricultural establishment; in every shop, factory, centrale, mill, and manufactory; in every ranch,
property, farm, estate, and plantation; in every public-service enterprise, in every gainful business, including printeries, publishing houses, newspaper enterprises, clinics, hospitals, pharmacies, teaching institu­
tions, boardinghouses, hotels, eating houses, restaurants, stores, groceries, warehouses, depots, markets,
garages, bakeries, theaters, racetracks, casinos, and other similar businesses; in every business office or
establishment, law office, consulting room, and professional office, and in every place devoted to the render­
ing of services of any kind through payment . . . shall also be applied to all chauffeurs and drivers of
public and private motor vehicles except those who work on a commission basis . . . but shall not be
applied to persons employed in domestic service: Provided, however, “That they shall be entitled to 1 day
of rest for every 6 days of work.”
Government employees are also exempted “excepting such agencies and instrumentalities as are devoted
to agricultural, industrial, commercial, or public service enterprises.” (Laws Annotated (1953) with 1959
supp., title 29, secs. 271-280, 285, 288, 457.)
2 Title 33, sec. 2201, laws Annotated 1953 with 1959 supp., (Penal Code) is a Sunday closing law appli­
cable to all commercial establishments except those specifically exempted. A second Sunday law, sec. 2204
of the Penal Code, applies to barbershops—except those in rural districts.
3 Order provides that no employer can divide the workday into more than two shifts; nor can he establish
a larger span than 8 hours between the end of the first shift and the beginning of the second. The hours
worked during a third or during successive shifts in a day, or the hours worked in any shift that starts 8
hours after the first ended, shall be compensated for at a rate of one and one-half times the wage rate the
employee is then earning.
RHODE ISLAND:
1 Employment of minors under 18 prohibited between 11 p.m. and 6 a.m.
2 In factories employing 5 or more women and children, such employees must be allowed their mealtimes
at the same hour, except those beginning work at a later hour than the other employees, may have meal­
times at a different hour. No such person shall be employed during the meal hour in tending the machines
or doing work of other women and children in addition to their own.
577981—61------ 7




93

RHODE ISLAND—Continued
3 Work and employment prohibited on Sundays and specified holidays, except for work that is absolutely
necessary and can lawfully be performed on Sunday. Law provides for enforcement by Department of
Labor and, on conviction, payment of fine of $25 for each employee involved and each separate offense
committed but in no event shall fine be less than $200.
4 Maximum-hour law for women and minors.
5 One and one-half times the basic hourly rate must be paid for hours worked over 45 a week, except over
48 hours in resort hotels.
6 At least 24 consecutive hours of rest in each period of 7 consecutive days should be scheduled for all
employees; $1.25 an hour must be paid for all hours worked on 7th consecutive day.
SOUTH CAROLINA:
1 It is unlawful for any person “to employ, require or permit the employment of women or children to
work or labor in any mercantile or manufacturing establishment, on the Sabbath Day .... The Com­
missioner of Labor and factory inspectors are hereby charged with the enforcement o\ this section, as well
as all other laws now in force relating to labor." Convicition for violation is punishable by a fine of $25
to $100, or imprisonment, not to exceed 30 days, for each offense. (Code of Laws 1952, with 1959 sudd .
vol. 6, secs. 64-5 and 6.)
2 Law establishes an 8-hour day, 40-hour, and 5-day week, but provides that employment over 8 hours
a day and 40 hours a week is permitted when the provisions of the Federal Fair Labor Standards Act have
been complied with. It further provides that work periods shall fall within 12 consecutive hours on any
day work is not continuous but is divided into 2 or more periods.
3 The Commissioner of Labor is charged with the enforcement of this statute.
TENNESSEE:
i By interpretation, seasonal employment applies exclusively to those types of work which can be
performed only at one time of the year, such as the handling and processing of perishable fruits and vege­
tables. (Letter, dated Mar. 14, 1957, from Chief Inspector, Division of Workshops, Factories and
Elevators.)
TEXAS:
1 The law limiting hours of employment of females to 9 hours in a calendar day or in a dav of 24 hours
means 9 hours in any period of 24 consecutive hours. (Op. Atty. Gen., Feb. 17, 1958.)
2 Hospital employees and employees in interstate railroads engaged in office work are included in
coverage. (Ops. Atty. Gen., July 31, 1943 and Oct. 2, 1942.)
3 By interpretation, female bank employees are subject to overtime rates after 9 hours a day, provided
they have worked 40 hours in the week.
4 The statute limiting hours of work to not more than 9 a day or 54 a week does not apply to stenographers
and pharmacists. Women who work in mercantile establishments or telephone and telegraph companies
are also exempted from the statute, if the city, town, village or rural district in which they work has less
than 3,000 inhabitants. (Op. Atty. Gen., July 8, 1957.)
UTAH:
1 Hours must be worked in not more than 2 working periods. (Twelve hours must elapse between end
of 1 workday and beginning of another, except when there is a change in working schedule—Retail Trade
Order.)
2 Persons under 18 years of age limited to 8 hours a day, 44 hours and 6 days a week. Employment prohib­
ited between 9 p.m. and 6 a.m., in retail trade occupations.
3 Order No. 5 supplements Provisions of Orders Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4.
4 Eight consecutive hours include one-half hour meal period paid for and allowed by the employer as
paid time.
3 Employment of girls under 18 years of age and boys under 16 years of age prohibited in the public house­
keeping industry, and after 10 p.m. in restaurant occupations and laundry and drycleaning industry.
Minors (see footnote 3) must be certified by the school superintendent or local issuing officer before entering
employment.
VERMONT:
1 By interpretation, a beauty parlor is not a mechanical establishment (Op. Atty. Gen., Apr. 27, 1939);
office workers in manufacturing establishments are exempt from coverage of the law (Op. Atty. Gen ,
July 25, 1940).
'
2 Laundries are not engaged in public service. (Op. Atty. Gen., July 19, 1940.)
VIRGINIA:
1 It is a misdemeanor for a person to employ “his apprentices or servants in labor or other business" on
Sunday, with exceptions. (Code 1950, with 1960 supp., sec. 18-329.)
2 By interpretation, workshops include beauty shops. (Op. Atty. Gen., July 14, 1938.)
3 Law prohibits employment of females more than 9 hours in any one day of 24 hours without an
unbroken rest period of 10 consecutive hours, except an unbroken rest period of 8 hours once in any work­
week in connection with shift changes.
WASHINGTON:
1 The “Washington Minimum Wage and Hour Act” (Ch. 294, Laws of 1959) requires overtime pay of
one and one-half times the regular rate of pay for hours worked in excess of 8 in any workday or 40 in any
workweek for male and female employees covered by the Act. The Washington State Supreme Court
ruled that provisions of the Washington Miminum-Wage Law relating to authority to issue regulations
and set daily overtime payments of time and one-half were invalid. (Peterson et al. v. Hagan, Apr. 14,
1960.)
2 Time employed includes minutes or hours when employee has to remain subject to employer's call and
is not free to follow his or her own inclinations.
3 Order provides that the hours of employment of women and minors shall be subject to any applicable
statute of the State of Washington.
4 Minors 16 and 17 years of age shall not be employed more than 8 hours in any 1 day or 6 days in any 1
week, except in seasonal industries or in cases of emergency.
5 Employment of minors 14 and 15 years of age prohibited between 7 p.m. and 6 a.m., unless authorized
by order or special permit.
« Employment of minors 16 and 17 years old prohibited between 10 p.m. and 6 a.m., when not attending
school; between 9 p.m. and 7 a.m., when attending school.

94



WEST VIRGINIA:
1 The statute provides that “it is unlawful to labor or to employ any person on Sunday,” with specified
exceptions. (Code Annotated 1955, with 1959 supp., vol. 2, secs. 6072 and 6073.)
2 A 10-minute rest period during each 4-hour shift is recommended by the State Labor Department.
WISCONSIN:
1 The total daily and weekly hours of women employed in regulated industries by 2 or more employers
may not exceed those permitted by law. (Administrative Code sec. Ind 74.08.)
2 Women employed in regulated trades and occupations must have at least 9 consecutive hours of rest from
the end of one workday to the beginning of next.
s Any place of employment defined as any manufactory, mechanical, or mercantile establishment, beauty
parlor, laundry, restaurant, confectionery store, telegraph or telephone office or exchange, or express or
transportation establishment.
4 Executive and professional women are those engaged in work predominately intellectual, managerial or
creative, requiring exercise of discretion and independent judgment for which remuneration is not less
than $350 a month.
5 Industrial Commission does not have the power to change the maximum daily and weekly hours pre­
scribed by statute for women employed in hotels.
6 Before and after the actual canning of the product, the hours of work of women 18 years of age and over
must be kept within the regular factory limits, except that, women employed in canteens and eating houses
operated by canning factories to feed their workers may work between 6 p.m. of one day and 6 a.m. of the
following day. (Administrative Code sec. Ind 73.01 (2).)
7 Under specified conditions, regulations may be waived for boys 16 and 17 years of age.
3 Twenty-four consecutive hours of rest in each calendar week is deemed compliance with section 103.85,
Wis. Stat. (Administrative Code sec. Ind 75.)
9 Industrial Commission is authorized to issue orders altering or supplementing standards set in statute
WYOMING:
1 By interpretation, in industries within coverage of the women’s 8-hour law, there are no positive restric-.
tions on hours in excess of 8 a day or 48 a week, except that an employer must pay time and one-half for
each hour of overtime by the day or week. The overtime-pay penalty is the only method used to protect
women workers from unreasonable hours of employment. (Op. Atty. Gen., Nov. 6, 1959.)
2 By interpretation, also included are employees in drycleaning establishments, clerical workers in inter­
state commerce also covered by FFLSA, manual labor in railroad shops, and eating places in private clubs.
(Ops. Atty. Gen., May 19, 1939; Dec. 11, 1947; Sept. 15, 1948; and June 27, 1950.) Not covered are beauty
operators, canvassers, and employees of railroad telegraph and telephone offices. (Ops. Atty. Gen., Mar.
6. 1941; Aug. 11, 1941; and Sept. 15, 1948.)
3 Required rest periods included in hours worked. (Op. Atty. Gen., Aug. 9, 1951.)
4 War conditions do not themselves warrant emergency employment of women for overtime hours; in
emergencies overtime employment is optional with employers. (Op. Atty. Gen., May 5, 1947.)




APPENDIX I
Industries and Occupations Covered by State Industrial Commission, Minimum Wage, and Welfare
Orders With Hour Provisions
ARIZONA:
(1) Cleaning, dyeing, pressing, processing, or any other work incidental thereto, of
Laundry and Dry
clothing (including hats), household furnishings, rugs, textiles, fur, leather, or
Cleaning Industry
fabric of any kind; (2) the collection, sale, resale, or distribution at retail or whole­
sale of these services; (3) the producing of such services on their own behalf, by es­
tablishments, businesses, institutions, clubs, or hospitals which services may be
incidental to their present business; (4) self-service laundries, automatic laundries,
help-yourself laundries, you-do-laundries, and any type of rental laundries. Ex­
ception: Worker under 21 whose chief occupation is that of a student actually
attending public or private school.
CALIFORNIA:
Any industry, business, or establishment operated for the purpose of furnishing
Amusement and
Recreation Industry entertainment or recreation to the public, including but not limited to theaters,
night clubs, dance halls, bowling alleys, billiard parlors, skating rinks, riding
academies, race tracks, amusement parks, athletic fields, swimming pools, gym­
nasiums, golf courses, tennis courts, carnivals, and wired music studios. Exceptions:
Performers whose activities involve the exercise of artistic talent or athletic pro­
ficiency; women employed in administrative, executive or professional capacities
(as defined); apprentices regularly indentured under State Division of Appren­
ticeship Standards.
Broadcasting In­
dustry .

«

^

Any industry, business, or establishment operated for the purpose of broadcasting
programs through the medium of radio or television. Exceptions: Women em­
ployed in administrative, executive or professional capacities (as defined); ap­
prentices regularly indentured under State Division of Apprenticeship Standards.

Any industry, business, or establishment operated for the purpose of canning
Canning, Freezing
and Preserving In­ soups; or of cooking, canning, curing, freezing, pickling, salting, bottling, preserving,
or otherwise processing any fruits or vegetables; seafood, meat, poultry or rabbit
dustry
products, when the purpose of such processing is the preservation of the product;
and includes all operations incidental thereto. Exceptions: Women employed in
administrative, executive or professional capacities (as defined); apprentices
regularly indentured under State Division of Apprenticeship Standards.
Industries Handling Any industry, business, or establishment operated for the purpose of grading,
Products After Har­ sorting, cleaning, drying, cooling, icing, packing, dehydrating, cracking, shelling,
candling, separating, slaughtering, picking, plucking, shucking, pasteurizing, fer­
vest
menting, ripening, molding, or otherwise preparing any agricultural, horticultural,
egg, poultry, meat, seafood, rabbit, or dairy product for distribution, and includes
all operations incidental thereto. Exceptions: Women employed in administrative,
executive or professional capacities (as defined); apprentices regularly indentured
under State Division of Apprenticeship Standards.
Laundry, Linen
Supply, Dry Clean­
ing, and Dyeing
Industry

Any industry, business, or establishment operated for the purpose of washing,
ironing, cleaning, refreshing, restoring, pressing, dyeing, storing, fumigating, moth­
proofing, waterproofing, or other processes incidental thereto, on articles or fabrics of
any kind; includes but not limited to clothing, hats, drapery, rugs, curtains, linens,
household furnishings, textiles, furs, or leather goods; and includes self-service
laundries and the collection, distribution, storage, sale or resale at retail or whole­
sale of the foregoing services. Exceptions: Women employed in administrative,
executive or professional capacities (as defined); apprentices regularly indentured
under the State Division of Apprenticeship Standards.

Manufacturing In­
dustry

Any industry, business, or establishment operated for the purpose of preparing,
producing, making, altering, repairing, finishing, processing, inspecting, handling,
assembling, wrapping, bottling, or packaging goods, articles, or commodities, in
whole or in part. Exceptions: Such activities covered by orders in the canning,
preserving and freezing industries; in industries handling products after harvest;
in the motion picture industry; women employed in administrative, executive or
professional capacities (as defined); apprentices regularly indentured under State
Division of Apprenticeship Standards.

Mercantile Industry Any industry, business, or establishment operated for the purpose of purchasing,
selling, or distributing goods, or commodities at wholesale or retail; or for the pur­
pose of renting goods or commodities. Exceptions: Women employed in admin­
istrative, executive or professional capacities (as defined); apprentices regularly
indentured under State Division of Apprenticeship Standards.
Motion Picture[Industry

Any industry, business, or establishment operated for the purpose of motion pic­
ture or television film production, including but not limited to motion pictures for
entertainment, commercial, religious, or educational purposes; including all extra
players. Exceptions: Professional actors and actresses; women employed in ex­
ecutive, administrative or professional capacities (as defined); apprentices regu­
larly indentured under State Division of Apprenticeship Standards.
"Extra players" defined as persons employed in the production of motion pictures
to perform any work, including but not limited to that of a general extra, stand-in,
photographic double, sports player, silent bit, or dress extra; or as extra employed
in dancing, skating, swimming, diving, riding, driving, or singing; or as extra em­
ployed to perform any other actions, gestures, facial expressions, or pantomine.

96



%
J
^

^

CALIFORNIA—Con.
Personal Service In­
dustry

Any industry, business, or establishment operated for the purpose of rendering,
directly or indirectly, any service, operating, or process used or useful in the care,
cleansing, or beautification of the body, skin, nails, or hair, or in the enhancement
of personal appearance or health; including, but not limited to, beauty salons,
barbershops, bath and massage parlors, physical conditioning and weight control
salons, and mortuaries. Exceptions: Women employed in administrative, execu­
tive or professional capacities (as defined); apprentices regularly indentured under
State Division of Apprenticeship Standards.

Professional, Tech­ Includes professional, semiprofessional, managerial, supervisorial, laboratory, re­
search, technical, clerical and office work; includes but is not limited to, account­
nical, Clerical, and
Similar Occupations ants; accounting clerks; appraisers; board markers; bookkeepers; canvassers;
cashiers; checkroom attendants; checkers; circulation clerks; claim adjusters;
classified advertising saleswomen; clerks; collectors; compilers; computers; copyreaders; copywriters; demonstrators; instructors; interviewers; investigative
shoppers; librarians and their assistants; messengers; office machine operators;
physicians’ and dentists’ assistants and attendants; research, X-ray, medical, or
dental laboratory technicians and their assistants; secretaries; social workers;
statisticians; stenographers; teachers; telephone, teletype and telegraph operators;
telephone solicitors; tellers; ticket agents; tracers; typists; and other related occu­
pations listed as professional, semiprofessional, clerical, and kindred occupations.
Exceptions: Professional, technical, clerical, and similar occupations performed in
an industry covered by another minimum-wage order; the exchange operator of a
telephone company having less than 150 stations operated under the jurisdiction of
the Public Utilities Commission and where employee’s duties as operator are inci­
dental to other duties; women employed in administrative, executive or profes­
sional capacities where work is predominantly intellectual, managerial, or creative,
requiring exercise of discretion and independent judgment and for which remu­
neration is not less than $350 per month; or those licensed or certified by the State to
practice law, dentistry, architecture, engineering, teaching, or accounting; ap­
prentices regularly indentured under State Division of Apprenticeship Standards.
Public Housekeep­
ing Industry

Transportation In­
dustry

4

Any industry, business, or establishment which provides meals, housing, or
maintenance services whether operated as a primary business or when incidental
to other operations in an establishment not covered by another minimum-wage
order; includes but not limited to restaurants, nightclubs, taverns, bars, cocktail
lounges, lunch counters, cafeterias, boarding houses, clubs, and all similar estab­
lishments where food in either solid or liquid form is pi spared and served to be
consumed on the premises; catering, banquet, box-lunch service, and similar food
for consumption on or oft' premises; hotels, motels, apartment houses, roominghouses, camps, clubs, trailer parks, office or loft buildings, and similar establish­
ments offering rental of living, business or commercial quarters; hospitals, sani­
tariums, rest homes, child nurseries, childcare institutions, homes for the aged,
and similar establishments offering board or lodging in addition to medical, surgi­
cal, nursing, convalescent, aged or child care; private schools, colleges, or universi­
ties, and similar establishments which provide board or lodging in addition to
educational facilities; establishments contracting for maintenance or cleaning of
commerical or living quarters; establishments providing veterinary or other animal
care service. Exceptions: Student nurses in schools accredited by State Board of
Nurse Examiners or by Board of Vocational Nurses Examiners or in schools
exempt by law (religious nursing schools); women employed in executive, admin­
istrative or professional capacities (as defined); apprentices regularly indentured
under State Division of Apprenticeship Standards.
Any industry, business, or establishment operated for the purpose of conveying
persons or property from one place to another whether by rail, highway, air, or
water, and all operations or services in connection therewith; includes storage or
warehousing of goods or property, and the repairing, parking, rental, maintenance,
or cleaning of vehicles. Exceptions: Women employed in administrative, execu­
tive or professional capacities (as defined); apprentices regularly indentured under
State Division of Apprenticeship Standards.

COLORADO:
Beauty Service Oc­ All services or operations used or useful in the care, cleansing or beautification of
the skin, nails, or hair, or in the enhancement of personal appearance and also
cupations
services or operations incidental thereto, including the service of maids, cashiers,
reception or appointment clerks.
Laundry Industry

Any trade, business, industry, club, institution, or branch thereof engaged in (1)
washing, ironing, or processing incidental thereto, for compensation, of clothing,
napery, blankets, bed clothing, or fabric of any kind whatsoever; (2) the collecting,
sale, resale or distribution at retail or wholesale of laundry services; (3) the produc­
ing of laundry service for their own use by business establishments, hospitals,
clubs, or profitmaking institutions; (4) self-service laundries; including work
performed in connection with plant maintenance, and by office workers, clerks,
curb service employees, errand and delivery boys. Exceptions: Laundries in
charitable institutions which pay no wages and in which only inmates are
employed; drycleaning departments in laundries.

Public Housekeep­
ing Industry

Hotels, restaurants, motels, roominghouses, cottage camps, clubs, hospitals,
convalescent homes, sanitariums, private schools, colleges, and any establishment
that prepares and offers for sale food or refreshment for consumption either on or
off its premises; lodging accommodation for hire to the public, to employees, or
to members, whether such service is the principal business of the employer or
merely incidental to another business.




Public Housekeeping Occupation defined as performance of any and every type
of work concerned with or incidental to the Public Housekeeping Industry,
including office personnel. Exceptions: Registered nurses, student nurses, female
internes, dietitians laboratory technicians; student employees in sororities,
fraternities, college clubs, or dormitories.

97

COLORADO—Con.
Retail Trade Indus­ Any trade, business, industry, institutuion or branch thereof engaged in, or con­
try
cerned with, the selling or offering for sale any commodity, article, goods, wares
or merchandise, to the consumer, in wYhich 50 percent or more of the dollar volume
of business results from retail sales.
KANSAS:
Public Housekeep­ The work of waitresses in restaurants, hotel dining rooms, and boardinghouses;
ing Occupations
attendants in ice-cream parlors, soda fountains, light-lunch stands; steam table or
counterwork in cafeterias and delicatessens where freshly cooked foods are served;
confectionery stores where lunches are served; chambermaids in hotels, lodging
and boardinghouses, and hospitals; janitresses; car cleaners; kitchen workers in
hotels, restaurants, and hospitals; women elevator operators and cigarstand and
cashier girls connected with such establishments.
KENTUCKY:
All Industries and
All occupations. Exceptions: Labor on a farm; domestic service in home of em­
Occupations
ployer; firms subject to regulation by the State Public Service Commission;
employment under any special State wage order. (Two special minimum-wage
orders are currently in effect: Hotel and Restaurant Order and Laundry, Dry
Cleaning, and Dyeing Order.)
Hotel and Restau­
rant Industry

All establishments offering lodging accomodations for hire to the general public;
and establishments preparing and offering for sale food for consumption. Ex­
ception: Hotels having no more than 10 guest rooms, none of which are for transient
guests.

Laundry, Dry Clean­ All places where persons are engaged in washing, cleaning, or dyeing clothing,
ing and Dyeing
washable and cleanable materials, directly or indirectly connected with such place
Industry
of business; all work in the process of receiving, marking, washing, cleaning, dye­
ing, ironing, and distribution of washable and cleanable materials.
NORTH DAKOTA:
Laundry, Cleaning Any establishment where clothes are washed, cleaned or dyed by any process, by
and Dyeing Occu­
any person, firm, institution, corporation, or association; and such work shall in­
pation
clude all the processes connected with the receiving, marking, washing, cleaning,
ironing, and distribution of washable or cleanable materials, including work per­
formed in laundry departments in hotels and factories.
Manufacturing Oc­
cupation

All processes in the production of commodities, including work in dressmaking
shops, wholesale millinery houses, workrooms of retail millinery shops; drapery
and furniture covering workshops, and garment alteration, art, needlework, furgarment making, and millinery workrooms in mercantile stores; employees of
creameries and produce houses, and the candy-making departments of retail candy
stores and of restaurants, bakery and biscuit manufacturing establishments,
candy manufacturing, and bookbinding and job-pressfeeding establishments.

Mercantile Occupa­
tion

Establishments operated for the purpose of trade in the purchase or sale of any
goods or merchandise, including the sales force, wrapping force, auditing or check­
ing force; shippers in the mail-order department; receiving, marking, and stock­
room employees; and all other work. Exception: Employees performing office
duties solely.

Public Housekeep­
ing Occupation

Includes waitresses in restaurants, hotel dining rooms, boarding houses, bars and
taverns; all attendants employed at ice-cream, light-lunch, and refreshment
stands; steam table or counter work in cafeterias and delicatessens where freshlv
cooked foods are served; chambermaids in hotels, lodging houses, and boarding
houses; janitresses, car cleaners, elevator operators; kitchen workers in hotels and
restaurants.

OREGON:
Amusement and
Recreation

Studio operators in wired music services, assistants in radio broadcasting and
televisior studios, cashiers, ushers and checkroom attendants in theaters and other
places of amusement, including but not limited to such occupations in dance halls,
bowling alleys, billiard parlors, skating rinks, riding academies, shooting galleries,
racetracks, amusement parks, athletic fields, public swimming pools, private and
public gymnasiums, golf courses, tennis courts, carnivals, concessions in any and
all amusement establishments, and all similar occupations. Exceptions: Women
employed in administrative, executive or professional capacities, as defined, and
for which remuneration is not less than $250 a month.

Beauty Operators
and Manicurists

Services or operations used or useful in the care, cleansing or beautification of the
skin, scalp, nails or hair, or in the enhancement of personal appearance, and all
services or operations incidental thereto, including services of maids, cashiers,
reception or appointment clerks. Exceptions; Women employed in administra­
tive, executive or professional capacities, as defined, and for which remuneration
is not less than $250 a month.

Canning, Freezing
and Processing

Any industry, business or establishment, operated for the purpose of canning,
packing, preserving, barreling, freezing, dehydrating, or anv other processing of
fresh fruit, berries, vegetables, meat, fish, shellfish or Crustacea. Exceptions:
Farmer who processes only the product of his own farm; women employed in
administrative, executive or professional capacities, as defined.

Hospitals, Sanitar­
iums, Convalescent
and Old People's
Homes

Includes cooks, kitchen helpers, waitresses, janitors, charwomen, and all other
women and minors employed therein. Exceptions: Trained nurses, student
nurses, or other professional or executive help.

Laundry, Cleaning
and Dyeing

The process of receiving, marking, washing, cleaning, dyeing, finishing and dis­
tributing clothing and materials. Exceptions: Women employed in administra­
tive, executive or professional capacities, as defined, and for which remuneration
is not less than $2.50 a month.

98




-

OREGON—Con.
Manufacturing

Includes any industry, business or establishment operated for the purpose of pre­
paring, producing, making, altering, repairing, finishing, processing, inspecting^
handling, assembling, wrapping, bottling, or packaging goods, articles, or com­
modities, in whole or in part. Exceptions: Such activity covered by other orders,,
including the order in the canning, packing, preserving, freezing or other processing
operation; women employed in administrative, executive or professional capacities,,
defined as: (1) Work predominantly intellectual, managerial, or creative which'
requires exercise of discretion and independent judgment, and for which remunera­
tion is not less than $300 a month; or (2) employees licensed or certified by the
State who are engaged in the practice of any of the recognized professions.

Mercantile

Any business or establishment operated for the purpose of purchasing, selling, or
distributing goods or commodities at wholesale or retail.

Office

Includes stenographers, bookkeepers, typists, billing clerks, filing clerks, cashiers,,
checkers, invoicers, comptometer operators, auditors, library attendants, and all
types of clerical work not covered by other orders of the Commission. Excep­
tions: Women employed in administrative, executive or professional capacities,,
as defined, and for which remuneration is not less than $250 a month.

Organized Youth
Camps

A day or resident camp, whether or not operated for profit, established to give
campers a recreational, creative, educational experience in cooperative group
living wherein the activities are conducted on a closely supervised basis whether
or not the camp is used primarily by an organized group or by members of the
public and whether or not the activities or facilities are furnished free of charge or
by the payment of a fee. Exceptions: Mining, lumbering, labor, hunting, and
fishing camps; dude ranches, resorts, auto courts, tourists camps, year-round
schools, convalescent homes, and correctional camps.
Includes counselor, such as head counselor, assistant, specialist counselor or in­
structor, camp mother, teacher, supervisor, group or division leader, senior or
junior assistant and trainee counselor, cocounselor and counselor aide; and cook,
kitchen assistant, maintenance worker or other person working primarily for
financial remuneration in an organized youth camp. Exceptions: Camp director;
camper wrho receives all or a portion of his camping or remuneration in addition
to his camping for the performance of routine tasks in connection with the camp;
any bona fide volunteer, as defined, under specified conditions.

Personal Service

Masseurs, doctor and dental and laboratory assistants, mortuary attendants,
taxi drivers, bus drivers, chauffeurs and dispatchers, and all similar occupations.
Exceptions: Women employed in administrative, executive or professional ca­
pacities, as defined, and for which remuneration is not less than $250 a month.

Preparing Poultry,
Rabbits, Fish or
Eggs for Distribu­
tion

Any industry, business, or establishment operated for the purpose of grading,
sorting, cleaning, packing, candling, separating, slaughtering, plucking, or other­
wise preparing poultry, rabbits, fish or eggs for distribution. Order not applicable
to the canning of fresh fruits, vegetables, fish, shellfish or Crustacea, or to the bar­
reling or preserving of fresh fruit and berries, or to operations on a farm incident
to production or preparation for market in their raw, live, or natural state of prod­
ucts of that farm.

Public Housekeep­
ing

Waitresses, cooks, counter and salad workers, food checkers, bus and vegetable
workers, dish and glass washers, kitchen help, maids, chambermaids, house­
keepers, barmaids, linen room girls, cleaners, janitresses and janitors, charwomen
and housemen, checkroom attendants, matrons, elevator operators, and all others
employed in hotels, motels, trailer parks, restaurants, boardinghouses, roominghouses, apartment houses, catering, banquet or box-lunch services, cafeterias,
light lunch stands, ice-cream and soft-drink stands, beer taverns, cocktail lounges,
clubs (public and private), private schools, colleges, or universities, and similar
establishments which provide board or lodging in addition to educational facilities;
establishments contracting for maintenance or cleaning of commercial or living
quarters, as well as matrons, car cleaners in transportation industries, and other
work of like nature. Exceptions: Domestic help in private homes, enrolled stu­
dents employed by educational institutions, and persons who, for religious, chari­
table, fraternal or similar reasons, voluntarily donate services to such educational
institutions; women employed in administrative, executive or professional capaci­
ties, a$ defined, and for which remuneration is not less than $250 a month.

J

PUERTO RICO:
Alcoholic Beverages The manufacture, including, but without limitation, distilling, rectifying, blending
and Industrial Alco­ or bottling of rum, gin, vodka, whiskey, brandy, cordials, liquers, wines, ale,
hol Industry
beer and similar malt beverages with or without alcohol, and other alcoholic
beverages; industrial alcohol; acetone, antifreeze and any related byproducts.
Exceptions: Managers, executives, and professionals; bona fide traveling salesmen.
Coffee Industry in
its Agricultural
Phase

Comprises the planting and replanting of coffee trees (including preparation of the
soil), its cultivation and harvesting; removal of pulp from coffee beans, washing,
drying, crushing and packing of the beans, whether these activities are carried on
at the farms or their dependencies; conditioning of shade trees; and any work or
service necessary or related to the activities mentioned.

Construction Indus­ Comprises, without limitation, every act, process, operation, work or service
try
necessary or incidental, or related to the designing, project, fabrication, recon­
struction, alteration, repair, conservation, or maintenance of buildings, works or
constructions; assembling or installation at construction site of machinery or device;
dismantling, wrecking or demolition of said works, constructions or buildings;
removal of devices or machinery installed in these. Exceptions: Managers, ex­
ecutives and professionals; works, buildings or constructions made by force account
for purely agricultural purposes; those covered by another mandatory order; or
by the Federal Fair Labor Standards Act.




99

PUERTO RICO—Con.
Dairy Industry
Includes, both in its agricultural as in its industrial phase, every work, process
(Order revised in
and service necessary or related to the production of fresh milk and to the handling,
1960 to Dairy and
bottling, pasteurizing, homogenizing or processing of same; as well as transportaCattle Industry).
tion performed in vehicles owned, managed, or operated by any employer in said
industry. Exceptions: Managers, executives, and professionals; production of
milk for consumption by farmer or his family; retail sale at any milk stand, store,
or establishment.
Food and Related
Products Industry

Canning, preserving (including freezing, drying, dehydrating, curing, pickling
and similar processes) or any other manufacturing or processing and the packaging
in conjunction therewith, of foods; ice; ices, ice cream and similar frozen products;
refreshing beverages, such as soft drinks; and including, but without limitation,
meat animals and meat animal products; poultry and poultry products; fish and
seafood products; fruits, vegetables, and their products; grains and grain products;
candy, confectionery, and related products; miscellaneous foods and food products;
handling, grading, packing or preparing in their raw or natural state of fresh vege­
tables, fresh fruits or nuts. Exceptions: Managers, executives, and professionals
and other specified occupations and industries; bona fide traveling salesmen,
work or service covered by the Federal Fair Labor Standards Act.

Hospitals, Clinics
Comprises every establishment where medical-help is provided or where sick perand Sanatoria In- sons are hospitalized; every independent employer (not operating said establishdustry
ment) providing ambulance services or services such as the administration of
oxygen, anesthesia or serum to a person or the care and attendance of sick per­
sons; includes any work or service necessary or related to the above activities.
Exceptions: Managers, executives, and professionals; hospitals, clinics, or sanatoria
operated by the State government, the Government of the Capital or by the munic­
ipal governments; student nurses in schools recognized by the Government.
Hotel Industry

Every establishment open to the public wholly or partially engaged in furnishing,
for or without profit, lodging or room, with or without board, to permanent or
transient guests; activities operated jointly or in connection with the hotel industry
by hotel or independent employers, such as gambling houses, ballrooms, bathing
beaches, swimming pools, tennis courts, golf links, barbershops, bars, restaurants
and soda fountains. Exceptions: Managers, executives and professionals; estab­
lishments with 5 or less rooms accommodating not more than 8 guests; establish­
ments, not open to the public, furnishing lodging or rooms for educational, religious
or medical help and to students; beauty parlors and retail stores operated in hotels;
services a laundry and dry cleaning plant renders hotel industry.

Laundry and Dry
Cleaning Industry

Every act, process, operation, service or work performed in relation to washing,
cleaning, starching, pressing and dyeing of clothes or fabrics of any kind whatso­
ever; includes, but without limitation, the fixing, preparation, wrapping, collection,
delivery, return, transportation and distribution of said clothes or fabrics. Excep­
tions: Managers, executives, and professionals.

Paper, Paper Prod- The manufacture of pulp from wood, rags and other fibers; the conversions of such
ucts, Printing and pulp into paper or paperboard; the manufacture of building board from bagasses
Publishing Industry or similar materials; the manufacture of paper, paperboard, and pulp into bags,
boxes, containers, tags, cards, envelopes, pressed and molded pulp goods, and all
other converted paper products; the printing performed on any of the foregoing
products; and the printing or publishing of books, newspapers, periodicals, maps,
music, and all other products or services of typesetters, advertising typographers,
electrotypers, stereotypers, photoengravers, steel and copper plates engravers,
commercial printers, lithographers, gravure printers, private printing plants of
concerns engaged in other business, binderies, and news syndicates; including
office work, repair, maintenance, conservation, distribution or transportation of
manufactured or printed products. Exceptions: Managers, executives, and
professionals.
Restaurant, Bar,
Comprises every establishment open to the public where foods, coffee, alcoholic
and Soda Fountain beverages, soft drinks, ices, and sweets or any of said articles are served or sold writh
Industry
or without profit; any establishment, without being open to the public, serves or
sells to its members and guests any of the foregoing articles; any work or service
necessary or related to above activities. Exceptions: Managers, executives and
professionals; establishments exclusively devoted to educational, religious, or
medical purposes, wiiich operate on force account any activities of the industry,
activities comprised in the hotel industry as defined by the Minimum Wage Board;
private homes serving meals to domicile or having not more than ten guests for
board.
Retail Trade Indus- Comprises, but not as a limitation, every act. process, operation, work or service
try
necessary, incidental or related to the sale or transfer to consumers, for or without
profit, of any kind of merchandise or goods, carried out at any establishment or
place; also comprises establishments engaged in retail and wholesale trade using,
part of the time, not more than twro employees in wholesale activities. Exceptions:
Managers, executives and professionals; soda fountains, restaurants, bars, hotels;
traveling salesmen.
Theater and Cinema Comprises every establishment or place where, for profit, motion pictures are
Industry
exhibited or shown or art productions are presented by actors, musicians or singers;
any wrork or service necessary or related to the above activities. Exceptions:
Managers, executives, or professionals.
Transportation Industry

100



Comprises, but without limitation, every act, process, operation, work or service
necessary, incidental, or related to transportation or conveyance of persons or
things by or in any kind of motor vehicles including those run by rails. Excep­
tions: Managers, executives, and professionals; transportation of any agricultural
products by any farmer in his own vehicles; transportation, if another mandatory
order is applicable.

T

PUERTO RICO-Con.
Includes, but without limitation, the wholesaling, warehousing and other distribu­
Wholesaling and
tion activities of jobbers, importers and exporters, manufacturers’ sales branches
Warehousing In­
and offices established for wholesale distribution of their products, industrial dis­
dustry
tributors, mail-order establishments, brokers and agents, and public warehouses.
Exceptions: Managers, executives, and professionals; industrial wholesaling and
warehousing of products manufactured in Puerto Rico; other specified occupations
and industries.
RHODE ISLAND:
Restaurant and
Hotel Restaurant
Occupations

Restaurant and hotel restaurant occupations include any activity connected with
the preparation or offering of food and/or beverage for remuneration, for human
consumption, either on the employer’s premises or elsewhere by such services as
catering, banquet, box-lunch or curb service whether such service is operated as the
principal business of the employer or as a unit of another business, to the public,
to employees or members or guests of members, or to paying guests (applicable to
employers of 3 or less employees).

Restaurant, Hotel
Restaurant and
Public Housekeep­
ing Occupations

For coverage of restaurant and hotel restaurant occupations see preceding entry.
Public housekeeping occupations mean all employment connected directly or
indirectly with the offering or furnishing of rooms and/or lodging for remuneration
to the public; to employees; to members or guests of members; to paying guests,
students or others; whether such service is operated as the principal business of the
employer, or as a unit of another business; including such occupations as chamber­
maid, parlormaid, cashier, clerical worker; such as room and desk clerk, coat-room
attendant, matron, charwoman, telephone operator, cleaner, janitor, bellboy,
porter, doorman and all workers properly classified in this occupation in any
establishment furnishing rooms and/or lodging for remuneration. Exceptions:
Employment on a farm; domestic service in a private home, unless operated as a
rooming house; student workers employed on a part-time basis (22 hours or less
a week); employees of employers of 3 or less persons.

Retail Trade
Occupations

/

All employment in or for any industry or business selling or offering for sale any
type of merchandise, wares, goods, articles or commodities to the consumer; all
work connected with the soliciting of sales or opportunities for sales, and/or the
distributing of such merchandise, wares, goods, articles or commodities and the
rendering of services incidental to the sale, use or upkeep of the same whether
performed on the employer’s premises or elsewhere. Order No. 4-R-3, July 1, 1958,
is applicable to establishments and occupations exempt from coverage of Adminis­
trative Regulations, Oct. 1, 1957, except home delivery of newspapers. Exceptions
for Administrative Regulations: Home delivery of newspapers; student workers
employed on part-time basis (22 hours or less a week); employees of employers of
3 or less persons.

UTAH:
Laundry and Clean­ Includes any place where washing, ironing, cleaning, pressing, or processing inci­
dental thereto, of any kind of washable fabric is conducted; and those places or
ing, Dyeing and
Pressing Industries divisions of establishments where the cleaning or dyeing or pressing of particular
fabrics and all processes incidental thereto are conducted as a process aside from
usual laundry practices.
Public Housekeep­
ing Industry

Restaurant Occupa­
tion

#

i-

Hotels, boardinghouses, roominghouses, motels, apartment houses, resort hotels,
hospitals, institutions, building space to rent for business, manufacturing, com­
mercial enterprises, and other public service. Includes linen-room girls, maids,
cleaners, elevator operators, other female or minor employees connected with the
establishment unless or until their specific occupation is governed by another
minimum-wage order. Exceptions: Registered nurses, licensed practical nurses,
and resident managers.
All places selling food or beverages in solid or liquid form to be consumed on the
premises. Exceptions: Retail ice cream or retail soft drink (nonalcoholic) estab­
lishments where 90 percent or more of the business volume is from ice cream or
soft drink sales.

Retail Trade Occu­
pations

Any industry or business, operated for the purpose of selling, offering for sale, or
distributing goods, wares, and merchandise at retail, to selected individuals or to
the general public, and rendering services incidental to such operations.

WASHINGTON:
Beauty Culture
Industry

Includes hairdressing; hair coloring and bleaching; manicuring; hair manufactur­
ing; massage; marcel or permanent waving; cosmetology; haircutting; body massage
and weight reducing; selling and demonstrating or applying beauty preparations,
cosmetics, and supplies either to the demonstrator or to other persons; instructing
students in any of the foregoing occupations, and all services or operations inci­
dental to such occupations, including the services of instructors in beauty schools.

Food Processing
Industry

Any industry, business or establishment operated for the purpose of processing
by canning, freezing, cooking or otherwise of food for human or other consumption,
including the processing of fruit, vegetables, fish, shellfish, dog food, or any other
products for the purpose of preserving them for food purposes, for human or other
consumption. Exceptions: Same as the three last exceptions listed under Manu­
facturing Order.

Fresh Fruit and
Vegetable Packing
Industry

Any industry, business, establishment, person, firm, association or corporation
engaged in handling, packing, packaging, grading, storing or delivering to storage
or to market or to a carrier for transportation to market, any agricultural or horti­
cultural commodity in its raw or natural state as an incident to the preparation of
such products for market. Exceptions: Employees specifically covered by another
minimum-wage order; women engaged in vocational education, work experience
or apprentice training program, under conditions specified in order; and two last
exceptions listed under Manufacturing Order.




101

WASHINGTON Con.
Laundry, Dry
Includes, but is not confined to: (1) The marking, sorting, washing, cleaning,
Cleaning and Dye
collecting, ironing, assembling, packaging, pressing, receiving, shipping, or renoWorks Industry
vatmg in any capacity directly concerned with sale or distribution at retail or
wholesale of any laundry or drycleaning service; (2) the work performed by
clerical workers and telephone operators (not employed directly by a telephone
company) in connectior with the production and furnishing of these services;
(3) the production of laundry, drycleaning or dyeing services bv anv establish­
ment, which services may be incidental to its principal business; (4) the cleaning,
pressing, finishing, refreshing, dyeing, or processing of any article of wearing
apparel, including hats, household furnishings, rugs, textiles, fur, leather (including
shoes), or any fabrics whatsoever, when such activity is not performed in the
original process of manufacture. Exceptions: Same as those shown for the Theatri­
cal Amusement and Recreation Industry Order; and minors engaged in vocational
education, work experience or apprentice trainirg program, when such program
is properly supervised by school personnel or in accordance with written agree­
ments or approved training schedules.
Manufacturing and
General Working
Conditions

Any industry, business or establishment, wholesale or retail, operated for the pur­
pose oi making, remodeling, repairing or fashioning by preparing and combining
materials by nature or machinery, or producing goods, wares and merchandise by
some industrial process, including but not being confined to work performed in
dressmaking, millinery, drapery and furniture-covering houses, garment, art,
needlework, furmaking operations, shoe manufacturing and repairing, creameries,
candy, floral, bakeries, biscuitmaking and bookbinding establishments. Excep­
tions: (1) Processing by canning, freezing or otherwise of fruits and vegetables, fish
or marine or other agricultural products; (2) any industry or occupation specifically
?irVere<^ ky another minimum-wage order; (3) women and minors covered by Office
Workers Order; (4) nurses, student nurses, female internes, dietitians, and laboratorians; (5) newspaper vendors and newspaper carriers; (6) minors engaged in voca­
tional education, work experience or apprentice training program under conditions
specified m order; (7) telephone or telegraph operators employed directly by a tele­
phone or telegraph company; (8) employees of common carrier railroads, sleepingcar companies and freight or express companies subject to regulation of Federal
Law.

Mercantile In­
dustry, Wholesale
and Retail

Any industry, business, or establishment operated for the purpose of purchasing,
selling, or distributing goods or commodities at wholesale or retail. Exceptions:
Employees of common carrier railroads, sleeping-car companies, and freight or
express companies subject to regulations of Federal Law; nurses, nurses’ aides and
telephone operators employed directly by a telephone company, who are not en­
gaged in purchasing, selling or distributing goods or commodities at wholesale or
retail; occupations in an industry covered by another minimum-wage order.

Minors

^^wstry or establishment not expressly covered by a special Industrial Wel­
fare Order. Exceptions: Agricultural labor; domestic work or chores performed in
or about private residences; minors employed directly by a telephone or telegraph
company; newspaper vendors and newspaper carriers; and two last exceptions
listed under Manufacturing Order.
Includes but is not limited to all types of clerical work, general office workers, typ­
ists, stenographers, secretaries, any and all office-machine operators, bookkeepers
(hand and machine), accountants, accounting clerks, statisticians, tellers, cashiers,
collectors, telegraph and teletype operators, F BX and office telephone operators,
office messengers, ticket agents, appraisers, librarians and their assistants, phy­
sicians and dentists’ assistants and attendants, research, X-ray medical or dental
laboratory technicians and their assistants, office checkers, invoicers, and similar
occupations. Exceptions: Employees of common carrier railroads, sleeping-car
companies, and freight or express companies subject to regulations of Federal Law;
nurses and nurses’ aides not engaged in office work; telephone operators employed
directly by a telephone company who are not engaged in office work; occupations
m an industry covered by another minimum-wage order.

Office Workers

Public House­
keeping Industry

Any industry, business or establishment operated for public housekeeping, in­
cluding restaurants, lunch counters, cafeterias; catering, banquet, or box-lunch
seiTaCe' ,cur^ service; boardinghouses; all other establishments where food in either
solid or liquid form is prepared for and served to the public to be consumed on the
premises; hotels and motels; apartment houses; rooming houses; camps; clubs
(public and private); hospitals, sanitariums, rest homes, or maternity homes;
building or housecleaning or maintenance services. Exceptions: Same as those
shown for Theatrical Amusement and Recreation Industry Order; and nurses,
student nurses, female internes, dietitians, and laboratorians.

Telephone and Tele­ Includes any business or establishment operated primarily for the purpose of
graph Industry
transmitting messages for the public by telephone or telegraph for hire.
Theatrical Amuse­
ment aDd Recrea­
tion Industry and
General Amusement
and Recreation
Industry

Amusement and recreation orders include any industry, business, or establishment
operated for the purpose of furnishing entertainment or recreation to the public:
1 heatrical Amusement and Recreation Industry includes both moving-picture
and legitimate theaters and food and drink dispensaries operated in connection
therewith; and General Amusement and Recreation Industry includes, but is not
limited to, dance halls, theaters, bowling alleys, billiard parlors, skating rinks,
riding academies, shooting galleries, race tracks, amusement parks, athletic fields,
public swimming pools, private and public gymnasiums, golf courses, tennis
courts, carnivals, wired-music studios, and concessions in any and all amusement
establishments, but excluding the Theatrical Amusement and Recreation In­
dustry. Exceptions: Occupations specifically covered by another wage order;
cashiers (covered by the Office Workers’ Order); employees of common carrier
railroads, sleeping-car companies, and freight or express companies subject to
regulations of Federal Law; telephone operators employed directly by a telephone
company.
*

102




■p

APPENDIX II
ALABAMA: i
Seats
Toilets
Occupational limitations
ALASKA:
Minimum wage
Equal pay
Seats
Rest period 3
Lunchroom
Restroom
Washroom
Toilets
Weight lifting
Occupational limitations
ARIZONA:
Minimum wage
Daily hours
Weekly hours
Day of rest
Rest period
Nightwork 3
Seats
Occupational limitations
ARKANSAS:
Minimum wage
Equal pay
Daily hours
Day of rest
Meal period
Rest period
Seats
Lunchroom
Toilets
Occupational limitations
CALIFORNIA:
Minimum wage
Equal pay
Daily hours
Weekly hours
Day of rest
Meal period
Rest period
Night work
See footnotes on p. 105.




CALIFORNIA—Continued
Seats
Dressing room
Restroom
Washroom
Toilets
Industrial homework
Weight lifting
Occupational limitations
COLORADO:
Minimum wage
Equal pay
Daily hours
Weekly hours
Day of rest
Meal period
Rest period
Seats
Dressing room
Toilets
Occupational limitations
CONNECTICUT:
Minimum wage
Equal pay
Daily hours
Weekly hours
Day of rest
Nightw'ork
Seats
Dressing room
Restroom
Washroom
Toilets
Industrial homework
Occupational limitations
Maternity
DELAWARE:
Daily hours
Weekly hours
Day of rest
Meal period
Nigh twork
Seats
Lunchroom
Dressing room

Types of Labor Laws by State 1
DEL AW ARE—Continued
Washroom
Toilets
Occupational limitations 3
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA:
Minimum wage
Daily hours
Weekly hours
Day of rest
Meal period
Nightwork 3
Seats
Toilets
FLORIDA: 1
Seats
Occupational limitations3
GEORGIA:
Daily hours
Weekly hours
Seats
Occupational limitations
HAWAII:
Minimum wage
Equal pay
Industrial homework
IDAHO:
Minimum wage
Daily hours
Seats
ILLINOIS:
Minimum wage
Equal pay
Daily hours
Weekly hours
Day of rest
Nightwork
Lunchroom
Restroom
Washroom
Toilets
Occupational limitations
Industrial homework

INDIANA:
Meal period
Seats
Dressing room 4
Toilets
Industrial homework
Occupational limitations
IOWA:
Seats
Dressing room
Toilets
Occupational limitations 3
KANSAS:
Minimum w age
Daily hours
Weekly hours
Day of rest
Meal period
Nightwork
Seats
Lunchroom
Dressing room
Toilets
KENTUCKY:
Minimum wage
Daily hours
Weekly hours
Day of rest5
Rest period
Seats
Dressing room
Toilets and washroom
Occupational limitations
LOUISIANA:
Minimum wage
Daily hours
Weekly hours
Day of rest
Meal period
Seats
MAINE:
Minimum w'age

MAINE—Continued
Equal pay
Daily hours
Weekly hours
Meal period
Seats
Toilets
Occupational limitations 3
MARYLAND: 1
Daily hours
Weekly hours
Meal period
Nightwork
Dressing and washroom
Toilets
Industrial homework
Weight lifting
Occupational limitations 3
MASSACHUSETTS:
Minimum w'age
Equal pay
Daily hours
Weekly hours
Day of rest
Meal period
Nightwork
Seats
Dressing room
Toilets
Industrial homework
Weight lifting
Occupational limitations
Maternity
MICHIGAN:
Equal pay
Daily hours
Weekly hours
Seats
Dressing room
Toilets
Industrial homework
Weight lifting
Occupational limitations

104

MINNESOTA: i
Minimum wage
Weekly hours
Seats
Lunchroom
Dressing room
Toilets
Weight lifting
Occupational limitations
MISSISSIPPI: i
Daily hours
Weekly hours
Lunchroom
Rest and dressing room
Toilets
W ashroom
MISSOURI: '
Daily hours
Weekly hours
Seats
Wash and dressing room
Toilets
Industrial homework
Occupational limitations
Maternity
MONTANA: «
Equal pay
Daily hours
Weekly hours
Seats
Occupational limitations 3
NEBRASKA:
Daily hours
Weekly hours
Meal period
Nightwork
Seats
Dressing room 4
Toilets
NEVADA:
Minimum wage
Daily hours
Weekly hours
Day of rest
Meal period
Rest period
Seats
Toilets
See footnotes on p. 105.




NEW HAMPSHIRE:
Minimum wage
Equal pay
Daily hours
Weekly hours
Day of rest
Nightwork
Seats
Toilets
NEW JERSEY:
Minimum wage
Equal pay
Daily hours
Weekly hours
Day of rest
Meal period
Nightwork
Seats
Lunchroom
Dressing room
Restroom
Toilets
Industrial homework
NEW MEXICO:
Minimum wage
Daily hours
Weekly hours
Meal period
Nightwork
Seats
Occupational limitations 3
NEW YORK:
Minimum wage
Equal pay
Daily hours
Weekly hours
Day of rest
Meal period
Rest period
Nightwork
Seats
Lunchroom
Restroom
Dressing room
Washroom
Toilets
Industrial homework
Weight lifting
Occupational limitations
Maternity

NORTH CAROLINA:
Minimum wage
Daily hours
Weekly hours
Day of rest
Meal period
Seats
Toilets
Occupational limitations 3
NORTH DAKOTA:
Minimum wage
Daily hours
Weekly hours
Day of rest
Meal period
Nightwork
Seats
Dressing room
Restroom
Toilets
Washroom
OHIO:
Minimum wage
Equal pay
Daily hours
Weekly hours
Day of rest
Meal period
Nightwork
Seats
Lunchroom
Dressing room
Toilets and washroom
Industrial homework
Weight lifting
Occupational limitations
OKLAHOMA:
Minimum wage
Daily hours
WTeekly hours
Seats
Washroom
Toilets
Occupational limitations
OREGON:
Minimum wage
Equal pay
Daily hours
Weekly hours

OREGON—Continued
Day of rest
Meal period
Rest period
Nightwork
Seats
Dressing room
Restroom
W ashroom
Toilets
Industrial homework
Weight lifting
PENNSYLVANIA:
Minimum wage
Equal pay
Daily hours
Weekly hours
Day of rest
Meal period
Rest period
Nightwork
Seats
Lunchroom
Dressing room
Restroom
Toilets and washroom
Industrial homework
Occupational limitations
PUERTO RICO:
Minimum wage
Day of rest4
Meal period
Nightwork
Seats
Toilets
W ashroom
Dressing room
Industrial homework
Maternity
RHODE ISLAND:
Minimum wage
Equal pay
Daily hours
Weekly hours
Day of rest5
Meal period
Nightwork 3
Seats
Dressing room 4
Toilets

RHODE ISLAND—Continued
Industrial homework
Occupational limitations
Maternity
SOUTH CAROLINA:
Daily hours
Weekly hours
Day of rest
Nightwork
Seats
Toilets
Occupational limitations 3
SOUTH DAKOTA:
Minimum wage
Daily hours
Weekly hours
Seats
Dressing room
Toilets
TENNESSEE:
Daily hours
Weekly hours
Seats
Dressing room
Toilets
Industrial homework
TEXAS:
Daily hours
Weekly hours
Seats
Toilets
Industrial homework
Occupational limitations 3
UTAH:
Minimum wage
Daily hours
Weekly hours
Day of rest
Meal period
Rest period
Nightwork
Seats
Restroom
Dressing room
Washroom
Toilets
Weight lifting
Occupational limitations

V

VERMONT:
Minimum wage
Daily hours
Weekly hours
Seats
Toilets
Maternity
VIRGINIA: '
Daily hours
Weekly hours
Nightwork 3
Seats
Restroom
Toilets
Occupational limitations

WASHINGTON:
Minimum wage
Equal pay
Daily hours
Weekly hours
Meal period
Rest period
Nightwork
Seats
Dressing room
Restroom
Lunchroom
Toilets
Washroom
Weight lifting

W ASHING TO N—Continued
Occupational limitations
Maternity
WEST VIRGINIA: *
Meal period
Seats
Lunchroom
Washroom
Dressing room
Toilets
Industrial homework
Occupational limitations 3
WISCONSIN:
Minimum wage

WISCONSIN—Continued
Daily hours
Weekly hours
Day of rest
Meal period
Nightwork
Seats
Lunchroom
Dressing room
Restroom
Washroom
Toilets
Industrial homework
Occupational limitations

WYOMING:
Minimum wage
Equal pay
Daily hours
Weekly hours
Rest period
Seats
Occupational limitations

FOOTNOTES
1 Eight- of the States with no day-of-rest law, have laws which prohibit employment on Sunday with specified exceptions. In Montana, by law, Sunday is a legal holiday.
2 From Safety Code, applicable to women required to stand at their work.
3 Applicable to employees under 21 years of age.
< Facilities must be provided, when authorized by State Labor Official,
s Not required by statute. Extra pay required for work on Sunday or on 7th day.

«=

1

I
O
Cn





Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102