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The Selection
A n d Training
O f Volunteers
In Child C a re










Prepared by

U. S. Department of Labor


In cooperation with

Office of Civilian Defense

19 4 3

U 52c.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Frances Perkins, Secretary

Katharine F. Lenroot, Chief



W A S H I N G T O N : 1943

For sale b y the Superintendent o f Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, W ashington, D . Ci
Price 10 cents
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis



Letter o f transmittal.......................................................................................................
Purpose o f training for volunteer service....................................................................
Division o f training responsibilities..............................................................................
Training committee o f defense council................................................................
Child-care committee o f defense council.......................................... ..................
Subcommittee on volunteers.....................................................................
Community agencies and educational institutions...........................................
Selection o f volunteers...............................................................••••••........................
Qualifications o f volunteers in child care............................... ............................
Health and energy...........................................................................................
Physical and emotional make-up. ...............................................................
Education...................................................... ...................................................
Use o f the civilian-defense volunteer office. ......................................................
Selection by the child-care committee.................................................................
Registration for training........................................................................................
Introductory course on the community and the w ar.......................................
Planning the course....................................... ................? ...............................................
Suggested basic course in child development for volunteers in child c a r e ..
Orientation meeting.................. ....................................................... ..............
W hy and how to study -children.................................................. ................
How adults can give children emotional security........ .. . ................. ....
Physical growth and health care....................................... ..........................
Growth through learning. . ...........................................................................
Opportunities for intellectual growth..........................................................
Growth o f young children through p la y .....................................................
Play and leisure-time interests o f older children......................................
Guidance o f the young child’s emotional and social development. . . .
The adolescent’ s emotional and social adjustment...................................
Community responsibility for children’s welfare......................................
Techniques o f teaching...................................................................... .................. •
Field trips and observation. ....................................................................... ..........
Scheduling and supervision....................................................................................
Requirements for satisfactory completion o f the course.................................
Cautions in working with volunteers...................................................................
Placement o f volunteers....................................................................
In-service training o f volunteers...................................................................................
Further courses. . ...................................... ...............................‘ .............................. •••
A p p en d ix ...........................................................................................
Self-analysis sheet for use o f volunteers in child care......................................
Questions for the lecturer to ask himself............................... ............................
Questions for the discussion leader to ask himself............................................
Films suitable for use in volunteer training classes......................................
Reading references dealing with the care and guidance o f young children..
B ooks......................................................................................................................
Reading references for workers with older children and adolescents...................
B ooks.............................................................................
Registration blank...................................................................
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis





U n ite d S t a t e s D e p a r t m e n t


L abor,

C h il d r e n ’ s B u re a u ,

Washington, August 3, 1943.
M a d a m : Herewith is transmitted a manual, The Selection and Training
of Volunteers in Child Care, written by Marion L. Faegre, consultant in
volunteer training. Mrs. Faegre is on leave o f absence from the University
of Minnesota, where she is assistant professor o f parent education in the
Institute o f Child Welfare.
The material was prepared under the supervision o f Dr. Katherine Bain,
director o f the Division o f Research in Child Development, with the co­
operation of the United States Office of Civilian Defense. Gordon W.
Blackwell, special assistant, Defense Council Service Division, Dean McCoy,
area supervisor for civilian war services, and Mary Arnold, program liaison
officer, Defense Council Service Division, all of the Office of Civilian Defense,
read the manuscript and gave many suggestions that were of special value
because o f their experience in the field o f volunteer training.
It is hoped that the manual will be helpful to those workers who are
giving the volunteer program the benefit of their professional experience.
Respectfully submitted.
K a t h a r in e F. L e n r o o t , Chief.
H o n . F ran ces P e r k in s ,

Secretary o f Labor.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


This manual is an attempt to bring together for the use o f child-care
committees and community agencies having the responsibility of training
child-care aides, some suggestions gleaned from the experience of such
groups in many different communities. It is designed to accompany the
supplement an earlier manual, Volunteers in Child Care, published by the
Office of Civilian Defense with the cooperation of the Children’s Bureau
and the Office o f Defense Health and Welfare Services, in which such ques­
tions are taken up as why these volunteers are needed, and where and how
effective use may be made of them, together with an outline o f a suggested
During the war professional personnel is being taxed to the utmost to
cover the expanded service needed in the child-care field. Volunteers can
perform a very important job by assisting professional personnel to meet
the needs created by the war. Understanding, on the part o f volunteers
and other citizens, of what constitutes adequate community services for
children is the first step in arousing public interest in obtaining those
The training o f child-care volunteers under the auspices o f the Office of
Civilian Defense offers a challenge to committee members who themselves
are giving volunteer service. In making available to their communities
their special talents and wide experience in social welfare, comihunity health,
and the education and care o f children, these committee members are
being offered at the same time a unique opportunity. Not only do they
further the war effort by fitting many thousands o f useful workers to
serve where they are most needed, but also, by doing this, they bring sharply
home to the minds of many more thousands the philosophy back of this
The use of volunteers is far from new, but it is still associated in the
minds of many people with the casual efforts of the bygone “ lady bountiful.”
The present widespread and increasing need for the services o f unpaid
workers makes possible a revaluation of the whole idea o f voluntary service
in community welfare. The extensive use of volunteers in recent years
has already been remarkably influential in an educational way. Many who
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


The Selection and Training

have been skeptical about the value of workers lacking professional training
have become convinced through seeing the results of the last 2 years’ effort
that there exists among the homemakers o f America a reservoir o f help
that has as yet barely been dipped into. In cases in which the use o f
volunteers has failed or fallen far short of expectations, it can be seen
on close examination that the break-down was due at least in part to hasty
and unreasoned planning, based on an unrealistic foundation.
In some such instances volunteers have been trained and then left at
loose ends for months without being placed. In others, impossibly high
requirements as to training or the number of hours to be contributed per
week have limited the groups of trainees to those women who had much
leisure. Such women are not always the ones who take responsibilities
most seriously. Many women who could have given a few hours a week
were denied the opportunity of doing so because the course involved being
away from home 3 days a week. Still other communities found that volun­
teers could not work satisfactorily without good supervision but failed to
provide that supervision before the volunteers were lost.
This manual has been prepared in the belief that very careful consider­
ation is necessary both in the selection o f persons who are to be working
with children and in the planning of their basic training. It is hoped that
use of this material will increase the number of those who, instead of
“ knowing about children,” “ know children.”
The terms child-care aide and “ child-care volunteer” are used to desig­
nate those unpaid workers who assist with the care and guidance of children
in any o f a great variety o f programs such as hospitals, playgrounds, schools,
and child-care centers.1 Only those who are in actual contact with children
other than their own come under this heading. These volunteers should have
completed the requirements of a basic training course for work with children
planned and conducted by a child-care committee, a child-care agency, or
an educational institution. The course should be approved by the local
defense council.
The completion o f such an officially approved course and the giving of
volunteer service at the rate of 2 hours per week entitle an individual to
membership in the United States Citizens Service Corps. The official
insignia of the corps may then be worn. Special awards are provided for
periods of service of 500, 1,000, 2,000, 3,000, 4,000, and 5,000 hours.
Membership pins and special awards may be presented at public meetings
or rallies planned by the executive o f the corps in cooperation with the
child-care committee. Membership in the corps constitutes official Federal
recognition for wartime volunteer services, Supervision of the volunteer
remains the responsibility o f the agency that is being served.
1 Persons interested in the training of junior child-care aides are referred to a manual published by the
U. S. Office of Education, Training H igh-School Students for Wartime Services to Children, listed on
p. 34.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

of Volunteers in Child Care


The purpose of the basic training given the volunteers who work with
or for children is to provide them with some background for a growing
understanding of children, and to make them more alert to the ways in
which children are influenced by the early happenings in their lives and
more aware of the part that adults play in such childhood experiences. In
addition, the course should give a general explanation of the various ways
in which child-care volunteers may be useful; that is, a description of com­
munity services provided for children in clinics, hospitals, child-health
programs, recreation programs, extended school services, child-care centers,
in their own homes, and in foster homes.
The course is not expected to take the place o f professional training even
on a very small scale. But no matter what age group volunteers may work
with, some knowledge of the ways in which children differ and the ways
in which they are all alike, is essential. Workers with children should have
some acquaintance with the principles o f human development, for a child
at any age is the product of all that has gone before in his life experience.
Sympathetic help is possible only when those who teach or care for children
have some familiarity with the maturation processes that have been at work.
Following this basic course, directed toward an understanding o f the
underlying needs o f children and the processes by which development goes
on, further training courses should be given in order that workers may be
specifically prepared for service in many types o f child-care programs.
Because the nursery school offers an excellent opportunity for study
of young children, any training course that prepares workers for children’s
programs necessarily makes liberal use of nursery schools as laboratories.
Child-health clinics, playgrounds, institutions for child care, and extended
school-service programs are some o f the other places where directed observa­
tion of children may be arranged.
Child-care organizations that have long-established programs o f volun­
teer training will be able to give valuable assistance to those planning train­
ing courses. Consideration should be given to all existing agencies in
which use has been made of volunteers, in order to profit by their experience.

Any training program for volunteers in child care should be community­
wide in scope. It is, therefore, important to consider carefully the threefold
division of responsibilities for training in this field.

Training Committee of Defense Council
The training committee o f the defense council is responsible for co­
ordinating all training programs of defense-council committees and agencies
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

The Selection and Training


in the community and for serving as a clearing house for training facilities,
equipment, materials, techniques, and procedures. It therefore stands ready
to assist the child-care committee in every way possible in seeing that the
course is planned and conducted so that it will be educationally effective.
The defense council generally delegates to this committee the responsibility
for approving courses for prospective members of the United States
Citizens Service Corps.

Child-Care Committee o f Defense Council
In the first place, the child-care committee of the defense council should
have thé major responsibility for deciding what the training needs in this
field are in the community and how they can best be met. This is logical,
since the child-care committee is representative of the various local agencies
and organizations concerned with the well-being o f children. It may be
the decision o f this committee to conduct a training course or to request
an agency or educational institution to give the course after consultation
with the committee. The child-care committee also may make the final
selection of volunteers from those referred to it by the volunteer office.
Subcommittee on volunteers.
If the number of volunteers to be trained is large, the child-care com­
mittee may want to appoint a subcommittee on volunteers. Workers from
the fields of health, social welfare, and education should be included in the
membership of this subcommittee. Any agencies or educational institutions
in the community that are concerned with training in this field will need
representation. If the community has a good nursery school and nurseryschool teachers, much help can be expected from the staff. If possible,
the subcommittee should include a staff member from a child-guidance clinic,
a person experienced in parent education, a librarian (a children’s librarian,
if one is available), and someone from the field of group work and recrea­
tion. Other interested members of the community— married women who
were formerly teachers, nurses, writers, or persons experienced in organiz­
ing group activities— will by their special gifts or enthusiasm greatly add
to the planning of the group. If this subcommittee is well chosen, lecturers
and discussion leaders for the entire course may come from its membership.
The executive assistant.— To have one subcommittee member, called the
executive assistant, assigned to the job of making all the arrangements for
the physical details connected with the, course will be almost a necessity.
The chairman of the subcommittee should not be burdened with these
responsibilities in addition to those she is already carrying in her work of
planning and integrating the course.
The subcommittee must make decisions on such matters as: (1) The
number, type, and length of meetings; (2) the proportion o f time to be
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

of Volunteers in Child Care


spent in lectures, discussions, field trips, observation, and practice work;
and (3) the time of day best suited to attract the largest number o f volun­
teers and most convenient for the contributing specialists. With the assist­
ance of the training committee of the defense council, the executive assistant
will then take over the task of planning such physical details as:
(1) Finding an easily accessible and suitable location.
(2) Making sure at each meeting that the room is open and properly
ventilated, that enough seats are set up, and that equipment such as black­
board and chalk are ready for use.
(3) Helping to gather and set up exhibits, charts, posters, and so forth.
(4) Notifying prospective trainees of the program schedule and the
time and place of the meetings.
(5) Registering students.
(6) Arranging for the taking o f attendance and for the checking in and
out of library books or pamphlets, when these are available.
(7) Seeing that mimeographed materials such as registration and inter­
view blanks, instruction sheets, health certificates, lesson topics, outlines,
and bibliographies are on hand when needed.
The coordinator of the course.— Either the chairman or a subcommittee
member appointed by the chairman should be responsible for the coordi­
nation of the course— for seeing to it that all necessary plans are made and
carried out. It will be helpful to have the coordinator open each session
and make all announcements. Often it is she who gives the introductory
explanatory lecture. In many localities outstanding persons will be avail­
able as contributing speakers— among them physicians, mental hygienists,
nutrition workers, parent educators, social workers, public-health nurses,
and group-work leaders. If specialists outside the subcommittee are asked
to contribute lectures, the coordinator will have to acquaint them with
the particulars o f the course, so as to minimize duplication and overlapping.
If subcommittee members themselves are taking part in the meetings, which
will usually be the case, their familiarity with the whole plan will help to
unify the different features o f the course. It is desirable, when possible,
to have each contributing speaker attend the meeting preceding the one in
which he is to take part or any other meeting in the series that ties up
closely with the material he is to present.
The coordinator should see that notes are kept on the details of the
course, for use in the planning o f future courses.
Liaison members with volunteer office and training committee.— The
selection of volunteers may be expected to proceed more smoothly if one
member of the subcommittee represents the volunteer office and acts as a
liaison person between that office and the child-care committee, interpreting
the one to the other. 'Similarly, a liaison member with the training com­
mittee of the defense council should be appointed.
546298°— 43------ 2
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


The Selection and Training
Community Agencies and Educational Institutions

Child-caring agencies and educational institutions o f the community may
have- experience in this field of training and certainly have resources in
terms o f leadership, materials, and physical facilities. These resources
should be used to the utmost. The part each agency or institution should
play in the community-wide training program for volunteers in child care
should be based upon the decision o f the child-care committee.

Qualifications o f Volunteers in Child Care
To be successful each volunteer needs to feel convinced o f the importance
o f her job and of its constructive nature.* She must be willing to take
responsibility, she must be able to accept direction from trained workers,
and she must have the time and inclination to devote herself regularly to
the work.
Health and energy.
Good physical health is a prerequisite, as work with children requires
endurance and much physical activity. Many women over 45 years o f
age do not have die necessary strength. If the chosen work does not involve
actual participation in children’s activities, the age or physical condition
o f the volunteer is, o f course, o f less significance. Medical examination
before engaging in work that involves association with children protects the
volunteer, the agency, and the children: A chest X-ray is usually required.
The report o f the volunteer’s physician should include a statement to the
effect that nothing in her history makes it inadvisable for her to do work
that involves associating with children, from their point of view or
from hers.
Physical and emotional m ake-up.
. The volunteer worker with children must be free from physical peculiari­
ties or defects noticeable to children. She must be free from speech defects,
such as stuttering, marked hesitation o f speech, or lisping, if she is to work
with young children whose speech is in the process o f formation. Her voice
should be pleasant and low-pitched. She should not show signs o f excessive
emotional excitability, often betrayed by nervous mannerisms and nervous
laughter, jerkiness, volubility, or fussing with hands or clothing.
The preliminary interview should serve to give many hints as to the
volunteer’s emotional balance and poise. Much can be learned about the .
applicant’s attitudes toward children. She should have not only a liking for
children but a genuine interest in them, which impiies much more than a
merely superficial response to their appeal. A real wish to help give
children a chance to develop, rather than overearnest efforts to mold them
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

of Volunteers in Child Care


along lines of “ goodness” is in itself an indication of a person’s emotional
Intelligence, willingness to learn, and understanding of children’s needs
are not confined to those persons who have completed a certain amount of
formal education. A high-school education or its equivalent, with prefer­
ably some training in art, nursing, dramatic work, child study, Sundayschool teaching, music, club work, and so on, is, however, used as a basis
for selection in many communities. Experience with children— of one’s
own, in groups of Boy or Girl Scouts, in Sunday school or other organiza­
tions— is valuable, but the person who has “ taken care of lots of children”
or who “ just loves children” is not necessarily one who understands their
Skill in human relations is an essential. Experience with people and
ability to get on with them, as evinced by successful work, must be sought
in all volunteer workers in child care. Special skills or interests, as, for
example, in storytelling, music, drawing, nature study, and handicrafts, are
o f great value and usefulness.

Use of the Civilian-Defense Volunteer Office
It is recommended that all agencies hoping to use volunteers turn to the
volunteer office of the local defense council. Where such a volunteer office
has not been established, the local defense council should be urged to
establish one. The confusion in communities where this has not been done
testifies to the desirability of using the volunteer office as a clearing house
so that capable volunteers may not have to make a fruitless search for a
place in which their abilities and training may be o f use. The pooling of
needs has the advantage of making it possible for the agencies whose work
has not brought them much before the public to obtain the volunteer help
they require.
Because of the great need for emergency wartime care o f children, a large
number of volunteers is required for the various services undertaken in con­
nection with children’s welfare. Child-health and child-care centers, schools,
recreational activities, playground or extended school programs, juvenile
courts, child-caring agencies, hospitals, clinics, libraries, and all other
organizations providing help in the guidance or care of children can make
use of many thousands of volunteers trained to become child-care aides.
Volunteers needed in any of these fields should be provided by the volunteer
office. If the volunteer office does not have in its files the names of a
sufficient number of qualified persons available to agencies or groups need­
ing volunteers in child care, it is the responsibility of the volunteer office
to recruit such personnel with the advice and assistance of the child-care
committee or its subcommittee on volunteers.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


The Selection and Training

Eligible volunteers who register with the volunteer office o f the defense
council are told at the time o f registration about the different types o f
service needed, and after an interview the volunteer’s assets are checked
on a form listing a great variety of possibilities. After such an initial
screening, a list of potential child-care aides is provided the child-care
committee upon request.

Selection by the Child-Care Committee
Members o f the child-care committee may be designated to interview
again persons offering their services and to determine the suitability of
each individual for the training course and for work with children. The
detection o f personality difficulties that might prevent the volunteer from
making a useful contribution is often possible in this intimate personal
conference. Rigidities and peculiarities come to light under these circum­
stances that make it possible to prevent clashes later on, as when a volunteer
complains that she just can’t work” with a certain person, and causes
confusion on a busy day. The importance o f a careful interview is corrobo­
rated by the experience o f British child-care centers indicating that only
about half o f those volunteering for child care are suitable.2 Any candi­
dates for training who finally conclude that their abilities better fit them for
other kinds o f volunteer work should be taken back to the volunteer office
immediately in order that their services may ndt be lost. To have them
go away dissatisfied makes for very poor community relations.
Care should be taken at this point to apprise the volunteer o f the amount
o f time and effort that must be put into the course, o f the seriousness o f
her commitment and o f the importance o f reliability and regularity. Con­
sideration o f the minimum o f time to be given to volunteer work after the
completion o f the training course is also necessary at this point. Much
dropping out later on can be avoided if the work is pictured as being hard
enough so that those not seriously interested will not enroll.
Thorough discussion o f the basis on which selection is to be made should
take place among those committee members who are responsible for the
interviewing. The first thing to be taken into consideration is what the
volunteer wishes to do, and what kind o f contribution her experience has
equipped her to make. The face-to-face interview should enable the com­
mittee member to make a fairly good guess as to whether the volunteer
has a point o f view and attitudes that will make it possible for her to slip
easily into some niche in the child-care program. When an applicant’s
enthusiasm appears to exceed her strength or her abilities, it may be desir­
able to guide her tactfully into some other kind o f volunteer activity. It
may seem necessary, for example, to point out that work with children is
•>See quotation from talk by Lady E. D. Simon in Volunteer Manpower, published by the California
Citizens Committee o f the W hite House Conference on Children in a Democracy, March 10, 1943, p. 15.
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of Volunteers in Child Care


very taxing, requiring a great fund o f physical reserve. Also, to describe
the reading and field-work assignments as rather difficult may prevent em­
barrassment on the part of a woman who has not fully realized that more is
involved than merely attending lectures. It is highly desirable, if volunteers
are going to drop out, that they do so at this point, where they may immedi­
ately be rerouted into other kinds of work. They should, without fail,
be helped at once to locate another activity more in accord with their
interests and abilities. All those finally chosen who complete the require­
ments for a course should be “ passed” for the sake of morale, hence the
importance of careful initial selection. The course itself will supplement
the interview as part of the selection process. The sample self-analysis sheet
shown on page 28 might be discussed with each volunteer at this interview.

Registration for Training
Volunteers who are accepted at the interview by a member o f the child­
care committee should talk over with the interviewer the hours and the
days when they would like to observe and do field work, noting these times
on registration blanks for the course.3 When possible, opportunity for
actual observation of the type of work fdr which the volunteer has expressed
enthusiasm should be arranged before registration.
As volunteers are accepted, they should be given instructions as to the
time when meetings will begin, the number of absences allowed, and so on.
They should be told, too, the number of hours to be spent and all other
requirements to be fulfilled before membership in the United States Citizens
Service Corps is granted.

Introductory Course on the Community and the War
Completion of a short orientation course set up by the defense-council
training committee is sometimes required, in order that the prospective
worker may have an over-all glimpse of the community’s wartime problems,
the civilian-defense set-up, and the ways in which attempts are being made
to meet the impacts of war. However, it will probably be more satisfactory
to provide such basic content material at the beginning of the child-care
course or to weave it into the course at various points.

It is suggested that the course be organized as a series of 10 to 12 lecture
and discussion periods of at least 1 % hours each, field observation of 15 to
18 hours, and, in addition, about 50 hours o f practice and reading in a
selected field, under professional supervision, making a total of about 80
hours. Field observation visits should be made before the meetings at
Foi sample registration blank, see p. 36.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


The Selection and Training

which the topics they cover are to be discussed. Field practice may be
arranged as a continuation of the course after the class periods are com­
pleted or may run concurrently with the meetings. The course may be
concentrated into 1 month or spread out over 6 to 8 weeks.
In certain situations the rapidly expanding need o f volunteer workers
may make it necessary on occasion to decrease the number of hours of
practice included in the course. When such circumstances arise, it becomes
important to see that especially careful in-service supervision is maintained
so that inexperienced workers will not feel confused and inadequate.
In the following suggested course the first two meetings would be largely
in lecture form. It is important that full and careful directions as to how
field observations are to be carried out be given at these meetings. Assign­
ment of volunteers for observation periods should be made and lists o f
observation questions handed out in time for each class member to make at
least one field observation before the third class meeting. From this
time on, what the volunteers are observing in between meetings will come up
for discussion in connection with the appropriate lecture.

Suggested Basic Course in Child Development for Volunteers
in Child Care
I. Orientation Meeting
At this meeting an explanation o f the purpose o f the course should be
given, including a description of the conditions creating the need for
volunteer workers and an analysis of what the community facilities for the
Welfare o f children are, and how they need to be expanded. A summary
o f various types of volunteer participation in the total child-care program
should be included, as well as a detailed account of what the course involves
in the way o f time, responsibility, reading, attendance at lectures, and field
and practice work. An outline of the requirements for service after training
should be presented, too.
II. W hy and How T o Study Children
This part o f the course would provide a background of knowledge about
children as a safeguard to their welfare. It would emphasize the importance
o f understanding the early years as a foundation for all that comes later,
the differences between children and adults and their effects upon relation­
ships, the observation o f children as a means o f adding to our understanding
o f them and to our objectivity in dealing with their problems, and the value
o f the nursery school as a center for observation and study. Particular at­
tention would be given to study of the basic needs of childhood. (The showing
of an appropriate film would be desirable.)
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


of Volunteers in Child Care


III. How Adults Can Give Children Em otional Security
In treating this topic it would be pointed out that the child’s desire for
security and affection is as strong as his physical needs ; that the personality
and habits o f his teachers and parents furnish a background for the establish­
ment o f the child’s attitudes ; that self-control is possible only when
a child feels safe— when he is accepted, liked, approved o f; and that group
care may supplement home environment.
The lecturer would aim to make clear how the problems of older children
arise out of their attempts to free themselves from dependence on the family
and would stress the community’s responsibility for facilitating the transi­
tion to adulthood. It is suggested that half the time at each meeting be
given to the presentation of the topic, and half to discussion based upon
the field observation of the trainees.
Although most of the following questions apply more particularly to
observation in schools and child-care centers, they may be adapted by the
leaders who do the training to apply to observation periods in any other
type o f child-care program. It is not expected that all the questions listed
under the various topics can be covered in the discussions. They may serve,
as well, to point out the need for supplementary reading.



W ise loving adult guidance.
Are the teachers in charge sensitive and understanding?
What qualifications are desirable for a head teacher? For her assistants?
For other employees?
Is the atmosphere easy and friendly?
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

The Selection and Training


Do the children appear happy? Is affection freely given?
Describe the teacher’s voice.
Are the adults alert to protect children from situations likely to cause fear?
Are the standards set within the children’s ability?
Do the teachers show insight into home conditions and family relationships?
What opportunities do parents have to consult with teachers?
What arrangements are made for the referral to family agencies of problems
outside the teacher’s province?
What information is it helpful for a teacher to have about a child’s home,
and how does she get this information?
How may bulletin boards for parents be made use o f?
Suggest ways o f helping a new child to adjust.
How does the teacher aid the timid or shy child to gain self-confidence?
Point out differences in the attitudes o f older and younger children toward
their teachers.
Give instances when the teacher helps by (a) showing how, (b) doing with,
(c) telling, and (d) enforcing.
IV .

Physical Growth and Health Care

In connection with this topic, the physical and mental characteristics of
children o f different ages would be pointed out and the orderly progress of
growth and the development o f individual variations would be emphasized.
The lecture should stress also the need for regular health supervision, includ­
ing medical and dental care; immunization; guidance in nutrition and
mental hygiene; school lunch programs; preventive measures as applied to
individuals and groups; and community protective measures for all children.

A good physical environment.
Are the rooms light, airy, well-ventilated?
Is the temperature well-controlled?
Is there plenty of floor space per child?
Is the location safe? Is the building fireproof? Are there enough fire
escapes? Are fire drills held?
How are radiators, heating pipes, stairs, and so on, made safe for children?
Is the floor covering easily cleaned?
Is refrigerating and food-handling equipment adequate?
Are curtains colorful? Is furniture gaily painted?
Equipment planned fo r children’s use.
What arrangements are made for children’s clothing? Lockers? Hooks?
Separate rooms?
Describe tables and chairs. Are they suitable?
Describe toilet facilities. Are they accessibly located? Are there enough
toilets and bowls? If these are not child size, are steps or boxes provided?
How are children’s needs fbr rest and sleep provided fo r? Is the floor used
for informal rest periods? If so,#is it free from drafts? How are the
cots made? Where are they stored? How is bedding cared for? Must
the same rooms be used for play and sleep?
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of Volunteers in Child Care

Health care.
Are inoculations and medical examinations required before children enter
the group?
Who does the morning inspection? Are the children kept apart until alter
What does the morning inspection include? W hy?
What are the rules for exclusion for colds?
What are the arrangements for isolating a child who becomes ill during
To w honf does the person in charge report a communicable disease?
Is first-aid equipment on hand? Is it out of the children’s reach?
Is someone present who is trained to give first-aid treatment?
Growth variations.
How do the older preschool children differ from the younger ones in the
group in respect to: (a) Proportions of the various parts of the body;
(b) getting on and off chairs; (c) walking, running, jumping?
Of what significance to the worker with young children is the fact that
growth proceeds from the head downward?
Suggest several reasons connected with individual growth variations why all
2-year-olds or all 3-year-olds cannot be expected to show the same
Discuss reasons for the increase in average height noticeable in recent years
in the general population.

Growth Through Learning

These lecture periods would outline the ways in which comfortable family
relationships form the basis for social adjustment; the part maturation
plays in learning; and sound principles of child guidance as illustrated
by the building up of good habits of eating, sleeping, and elimination, and
by wholesome social contacts. The lecturer would also stress the basic
laws of learning and the importance of recognizing individual rates o f de­
velopment rather than imposed norms o f behavior and achievement. (The
showing of a nursery-school film would be desirable, if possible.)

Good food and eating conditions.
Is the food well prepared and attractive?
A re the menus well balanced?' Well varied?
How is the eating situation made pleasant? Are the children broken up into
small groups? When and how much is conversation encouraged? How
does the teacher guard against distraction? Why are manners not stressed?
What precautions are taken when new foods are served?
Is size of serving varied according to individual needs and preferences?
List some of the phrases that can be used as positive suggestions to get
children to eat.
Describe an instance in which a teacher encouraged a dawdler to eat. How
does she handle the child who eats too fast? Do her methods tend to
keep the atmosphere pleasant?
Are menus available to parents? Of what importance is this?
546298°— 43-------3
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The Selection and Training

Adequate rest and sleep.
By what means are the children put in the mood for rest or sleep? Is time
allowed for them to quiet down? Is the room darkened?
How does the teacher handle a child whose restlessness or noise distracts
Observe several children and note how long it takes each to fall asleep. How
much difference is there between the quickest and the slowest?
Do children appear eager and zestful for their noon meal after morning
How is fretfulness upon awakening handled? How is an abrupt awakening
independence in toilet habits.
Observe the times when the children are sent or taken to the toilet. How
is this schedule arrived at?
How much help does a 2-year-old need? A 3-year-old? A 4-year-old?
Why do small boys and girls use the same toilet room ?
What terms do the teachers use about toilet needs?
How are accidents handled?
How does the teacher handle the child who wants to play in water after
washing? The child who does not get his hands clean? Who does not
want assistance in combing his hair?
Are the arrangements for hanging up washcloths, combs, tooth brushes, and
similar things, such as to promote good habit training?
List some of the positive suggestions that would be helpful in the toileting
V I.

Growth Through Learning (Continued)



Free play indoors or out.
Is the play area as large as required for the amount of equipment and
number o f children?
Do children have direct access to the playground?
Is the play-yard surface suitable for children’s play?
What equipment favors large-muscle development? Is climbing apparatus
safe? Are there push and pull toys? Large blocks for lifting? Tools
for digging, for use in snow, and so on?
What differences do you note in the kind and amount of physical activity
in 2- and 4-year-olds?
Are children allowed to choose their own activities? How does the teacher
guide them toward constructive use of equipment? Does she encourage
experimentation with new materials?
Play among associates.
How does the teacher give encouragement to the child who is a “ follower” ?
One who tends to dominate others?
How are instances o f aggression and roughness taken care o f? How does
the teacher discriminate between noise that is incidental to play and
noise that is boisterous and disturbing?
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What parts o f dressing and undressing can children undertake at 2 years?
At 3 years? At 4 years?
Do children have access to tissue handkerchiefs? To cloths and brushes
when they spill something?
How much help do the children give in setting the table? Serving food?
Removing their dishes?
What parts o f the routine seem most provocative o f anger?
What is the teacher’s attitude toward mishaps and mistakes?
When does the teacher step in to give help or prevent trouble? Give in­
stances of interference and noninterference in situations in which children
are experimenting?
V II. Opportunities fo r Intellectual Growth
The lecture on this topic would point out how the child’s mind expands
through exploring, manipulating, and questioning, and how provision o f a
rich environment contributes to the stimulation o f mental powers. (The
showing of an appropriate film would be desirable.)
The lecture would emphasize, too, the desirability o f encouraging good
habits o f reading in older children, o f recognizing the educational possibili­
ties of the movies and radio, and of making available to older children a
wide range of cultural facilities in the community.

Stimulating environment.
Are the play materials of wide variety and well chosen?
Are they easily accessible to children? Describe.
Are the surroundings stimulating to curiosity? How?
Give an instance in which a child solved a problem for himself (for example,
getting a wagon around an obstruction, building a tower o f blocks, in­
ducing another child to let him use a t o y ). Did the solution show good
thinking for his age?
Encouragement o f language development.
List questions asked by a 2-year-old and a 4-year-old. How do they differ?
At which age does the child depend more on his teacher’s response?
How does the teacher try to acquaint children with new words? How does
she help them to understand something puzzling?
Why does the teacher use short words and sentences and the same phrases
over and over again?
Are good library facilities available for the older children?
Recognition o f changing attention span.
List and discuss references o f children to past and future occurrences. What
do “ tomorrow” and “ yesterday” imply to a 2-year-old? To a 4-year-old?
List a number o f articles and materials in the room that may be used in
a variety o f ways.
Watch a 2-year-old for 5 minutes, noting how often he changes his activity.
Do the same with a 4-year-old. How does the change in attention span
affect the space provided, the sizes of groups o f the two ages, the number
and type of play materials provided?
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The Selection and Training

Recognition o f gradual achievement o f muscular control.
How do the differences in bodily proportions between a 2-year-old and a
4-year-old affect the ability o f each to make use of things in his environ­
ment? Why is the 4-year-old better able to handle small objects?
Opportunities fo r self-directed activities.
Do the older children have a part in planning their own program?
Does the attitude o f the adults in charge encourage initiative?
Is the atmosphere free from repressive discipline?


Growth o f Young Children Through Play

The meaning of play in the young child’s life would be pointed out in the
course o f the lecture, also the need for a physical setting that meets play
requirements and for materials for active play and for dramatic and creative
self-expression. The part played by stories, pictures, songs, and rhythms
would be stressed.

Recognition o f interest changes with age.
What materials are provided with a view to children’s learning size, shape,
color, and other qualities of objects?
Listen in at storytelling periods for 2-year-olds and for 4-year-olds. How
and why do the story materials vary?
How do children use in their play what they get out of stories and songs?
Which books bear evidence o f greatest use? Why do the children like these
so much?
Count the laughs produced by several stories. What kinds o f things caused
Making use o f the world o f nature.
How does the teacher make seasonal use o f environment? Do children
hear stories about plants, insects, animals? Are their questions en­
couraged? Are short excursions frequent? Do the children have pets?
A garden ?
Note instances o f how children reflect in their play things they see and
hear about.
Making use o f the child’s growing awareness o f other children as
Give examples o f children’s helping one another, showing sympathy, enjoy­
ing one another’s humor.
Music and art.
What are some o f the things to keep in mind in choosing songs for young
children ?
Describe music and rhythm experiences that grow out o f children’s play.
What is done with the children’s art products?
IX .

Play and Leisure-Tim e Interests o f Older Children

Study of this topic would cover the stages and levels of play interest;
sex differences in children’s activities; and the influence o f play in promoting
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of Volunteers in Child Care


physical and social powers, imagination, leadership, and'creative expression.
It would include, too, suggestions for arts and crafts, games, and hobbies
for older children and indications of the ways in which informal neighbor­
hood gangs, organized groups, and camps may promote adjustment and
good use o f leisure. (The showing o f an appropriate film would be

Constructive values o f play.
At what age do boys’ and girls’ play interests definitely begin to diverge?
Note some of the typical activities of 8-year-old boys and girls on a play­
When does a child begin to lose interest in his immediate neighborhood
as a play center? How near a 9-year-old’s home should a playground be
In what ways is the informal neighborhood gang a constructive influence?
How may recreation leaders build on this group interest?
List some o f the benefits o f the summer camp for older boys and girls.
List substitutes for these benefits to be had in the city.
Discuss the values o f organized athletic activities for older boys and girls.
What are some of the ways in which extended school programs may satisfy
creative needs seldom met in the average home?
Are the facilities for the older children’s use adequate? Are they separate
from those: provided for the younger children?
X . Guidance o f the Young Child’ s Em otional and Social
This topic would deal with early emotional behavior and its handling;
how fear and anger patterns are established, their prevention and recon­
ditioning; how children absorb adult attitudes of fear, hate, prejudice* and
their opposites.

Through associating with other children.
What are some of the ways in which children learn acceptable group
behavior through association with other children? Discuss instances of
sharing, taking turns, cooperation in working toward a common end,
dramatization o f everyday experiences.
Give cases in which you have seen children “ disciplined” by other children,
or by the circumstances in the case rather than by an adult.
Name some o f the materials that encourage group play. With what ma­
terials are children more inclined to carry on solitary play?
What methods have you seen teachers use to draw into play a child who
tends to be an onlooker? What techniques are useful with a child who
likes to dominate others?
Through subordinating o n e’s own wishes to those o f the group.
What methods do children use to get others to follow their suggestions?
Are the children who are most original and creative also popular?
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Describe instances in which children showed they were learning to control
their anger reactions.
Through the beginnings o f community living.
What do children learn by being expected to care for materials and
Are the children expected to put away toys after using them? What re­
sponsibility are they expected to assume for their own wraps, and so on?
What occurrences during the day’s routine give children a chance to become
aware of the rights of others?
What opportunities do the older children have to do things for or with
the little children?
X I. The Adolescent’ s Em otional and Social Adjustm ent
Treatment of this topic would be concerned with emotional stability as
dependent upon how well adolescents’ mental-health needs are met. The
discussion would stress the ways in which youth’s recognition o f new powers
involves revaluation o f old habits; the ways in which interest in the opposite
sex, in earning, in the future, affect the adolescent’s development; and the
inevitability o f conflict leading to emancipation as a normal part of growth.

In what concrete ways have you observed older children giving evidence
o f: (a) Ability to postpone satisfaction o f desires, (b) ability to refrain
from emotional outbursts when blocked or thwarted, (c) growing power
o f accommodation to others’ desires and interests?
Give examples from observation of older children’s craving to be accepted
by their peers. What are some o f the things, material and otherwise, that
appear to concern them most in their attempts at social recognition?
How would you suggest getting the cooperation o f a 13-year-old girl who
is never interested in the activities planned by the neighborhood-house
chib she belongs to?
Discuss the kind of training and attitudes desirable for a probation worker
to have.
X II. Community Responsibility fo r Children’ s W elfare
This topic— to which two class sessions might well be given— would point
out basic services necessary for maintaining good family life ; ways in which
social security, housing, health services, and so forth, form the ground work
for a community approach to planning for the total needs o f children;
community resources and lacks with respect to such specific services as
those offered by child-guidance clinics, neighborhood houses, children’s
institutions, day care in foster homes, family welfare agencies, and recrea­
tion and adult-education programs. (Because the discussion provoked by
this topic will apply to problems that are different in each community, no
questions are listed. Some time at the last meeting should be spent in
checking up on reading and field work and in making final arrangements
for placement o f volunteers.)
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of Volunteers in Child Care
Techniques of Teaching

Any training course for volunteers depends for its success not only on
the care with which the materials are planned, but also on the manner
in which they are presented. All adult education leans heavily on the
interest and enthusiasm o f the group members. This strong motivation
on the part of the learner makes planning and conducting courses for
volunteer workers especially enjoyable.
The majority of training courses given so far have depended very largely
upon lectures for presenting the main body of information. Research has
shown that the use of lectures, or of a combination of lectures and dis­
cussions, for helping adults to understand, remember, organize, and use
new ideas has been relied on too much. We should keep in mind that
under the best of circumstances participants in a lecture program will be
likely to understand less than two-thirds of the material, remember less than
one-third, and be able to organize and use less than a sixth. Such findings
point out the need of tying up the class work, of whatever kind, with
practical work, such as actual study of and work with children on a play­
ground or in a nursery school.
Those in charge of volunteer training are thus challenged to find and
make use of as many original and different methods as they can. The use
of films (such as those listed on pages 29-31) is not new but is a pleasant
and too little used way of getting ideas to stick. A dramatization o f an
interview between a teacher and a parent on some phase of child behavior
or education, a panel discussion in which several points of view are repre­
sented, a duologue on child-welfare progress between imaginary nineteenthand twentieth-century characters, a question period in which adolescents
themselves take part in talking over their problems, a group session held
in a nursery school, a storytelling demonstration— these are only a few
of the ways to enliven group meetings.
Workers in adult education must take account, too, of the fact that
individual differences in ability are probably greater than in classes for
younger students. This necessitates more adaptation of methods to indi­
vidual needs. “ Learning . . . clings childishly to its medieval trappings,”
suggests an advocate o f fresh attacks. “ The ritual of discomfort and
strained effort to gain factual information” 4 is out of date.
Desirable changes in attitude and growth o f appreciation and insight do
not come about automatically by sitting and listening to speakers, no matter
how valuable the information they may give or how skilled they may be
in presentation; hence discussion, observation, and the practical work in the
course are highly important parts o f its content material.
When experienced discussion leaders are available, much group partici­
pation will be possible. The use of discussion has its hazards, however.
4 Thomas R. Adams : Motion Pictures in Adult Education, p. 68.
New York, 1940.
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American Association for Adult Education,


The Selection and Training

When not directed by trained leaders, many group members unaccustomed
to this method of unfolding topics may become disgruntled at what seems
to them a waste of time. They are not ready for such an approach until
they have learned, through carefully planned question and discussion periods,
how much the group members actually can contribute to the thinking through
of problems. The leader who prefers to talk with her group rather than to
talk at them will be able, during the question periods that should be included
in each meeting, to give demonstrations of how group contributions to
thinking can come about. A very large class can be broken up-into small
groups for discussion o f special topics, under the leadership of persons
competent to discuss such things as games, songs, and food preparation.
It may be well to announce in advance that questions from the group
should be confined to problems arising during field trips and observation
periods, for otherwise individual members whose own children are uppermost
in their minds may tend to take up the time of the group on questions that
have little or no application to the future work o f the volunteer. Some group
leaders, however, find that their most successful discussions are those in
which mothers bring out points regarding their first-hand experience with
their own children, which may be used in a very realistic way to illustrate
points applicable to all children. Members of child-care committees se­
lected for their counseling ability should be available for conferences with
those individuals whose questions indicate that a lessening of tension about
their own problems may increase their value as child-care aides.
The more varied the materials and presentation, the easier it will be to
make sure of giving something concrete to everybody, and the more real
will be the contacts established with individual group members. Pictures,
simple charts and graphs, films, loan libraries, exhibits o f play materials,
children’s stories, music books, and workshops demonstrating the effective
use of materials should be included whenever possible.6
To place too great reliance upon reading, however, is an unrealistic
approach, for study o f the reading habits o f parents has revealed that more
than 50 percent o f middle-class fathers and mothers in 3,000 families studied
had not read a book on child care within a year, and that 20 percent of
parents of the highest socioeconomic level had never done so.6
Some communities have charged a fee of a dollar for materials, and with
the resulting funds have bought books for the use o f the trainees. If 5 or
10 cents a week is charged for the books, they will be returned more
A list of suitable films is given on pp. 29—31. A reference list o f books and pamphlets will be
found on pp. 32-35. State libraries (usually located at the State capital) may often be relied on for
loan packets of books. The U. S. Office of Education also sends out loan materials.
®The Young Child in the Home. Report of the White House Conference on Child Health and Pro­
tection, p . 75. D. Appleton-Century Company, New York, 1936.
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of Volunteers in Child Care


Field Trips and Observation
The first step in making field trips and observation valuable is to obtain
die hearty cooperation of the various centers or agencies in which obser­
vation of children’s programs is to go on and in which practice in group
leadership or other forms o f participation is to take place.
Preliminary conferences with nursery schools, day nurseries, kinder­
gartens, hospitals, clinics, settlement houses, persons in charge o f recreation
and extended school programs, and other agencies to be visited, are essential,
so that their programs may be as little disrupted as possible. If workers
in those agencies that are to have dealings with the volunteers are invited
to attend the course, much better mutual understanding may result.
Some of the points that must be taken up at conferences with the child­
care agencies are the number of volunteers who can be present at different
times o f the day (for example, fewer in a nursery school during nap
period, more during outdoor play p e rio d ); what is expected of the volun­
teers by each agency (for example, instructions as to where to put wraps
or how to be inconspicuous in a clin ic ); and what the individual problems
of each agency are in relation to volunteers.
Because the person untrained in observing children does not know what
to look for when she spends an hour in a nursery school or on a playground,
she is unlikely to benefit much by the time spent in this way unless she is
prepared on what to watch for and how to record what she sees. Complete
lists of things to be looked for should be placed in the hands o f the volun­
teers from the beginning, so that reference to them may be made constantly.
Discussion and interpretation of the observations made by volunteers con­
stitute an important part of the training session.
Participation of the student by means of reading reports, field trips to
various institutions, filling out observation papers, and so on, will be
especially helpful to those in charge of the training as an indication of what
the volunteer is getting out of the course.

Scheduling and Supervision
Several considerations should be kept in mind when planning the number
of hours and how the periods should be grouped, both during and after
training. For example, requiring more than half a day at a time will
automatically exclude many women who might be able to give smaller
blocks of time. On the other hand, those who must travel long distances
may prefer to give 1 full day rather than 2 half days. A plan that works
well in places having large numbers of volunteers is to hold two sessions
of the lecture and discussion part of the course concurrently, one in the
afternoon and one in the evening.
Though it would be preferable to have volunteers give time on several
successive days, so that the children among whom they work would feel more
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The Selection and Training

secure, many volunteers cannot arrange this.
mind when planning schedules.

This fact must be kept in

Requests to take only part o f the course will be handled according to
the individual local situation. For example, office workers who have only
evenings, Saturday afternoons, and Sundays free may in some cases be
allowed to attend lectures, putting off or lengthening their observation and
field work as circumstances demand, if it is felt that there will be need
for these volunteers at odd times. In general, it is inadvisable to allow
volunteers to take the lectures only. The lectures and discussions lose much
of their meaning when not made concrete by actual association with children.
If the number o f volunteers in a class exceeds 25 or 30, it may be
necessary to have more than one person handle the scheduling o f field
work, as the amount of detail makes it a heavy load. In order to meet
the war emergency and not to have to repeat the course too often, thus
consuming the instructors’ time unnecessarily, a class o f 50 or even 60
may be arranged, provided there are enough places available for observa­
tions and field work, and enough persons competent to supervise this part
of the course. It is too great a drain on the instructors’ and committee’s
time and energy to hold a course for only 10 or 15 people, several o f whom
will invariably drop out.
Each volunteer should have an opportunity early in the course to observe
several types o f services or programs for children, for she may be helped
by this means to make up her mind as to the particular field o f work in
which she is most interested.
Persons scheduling volunteers who definitely intend to give their time
in child-care centers should arrange for each to take part during the course
in all the day’s routines. If such volunteers are urgently needed, practice­
teaching periods may be arranged to follow within a few days the periods
o f observation of the techniques o f each routine.
There are advantages in having volunteers observe in agencies in which
they will later work. They get to know the children, the teachers, the
group leaders or hospital staff, and the specific procedures. When there is
wide variance in standards o f group work, it may be advisable for volunteers
to become acquainted with several set-ups.
Plans for supervision o f field work will probably be worked out differently
in each community. In some cities, for example, salaried supervisors handle
the practice participation in nursery schools, and in-service continuation
training. In many instances skilled volunteer workers with professional
background in a particular field will be called upon to direct practice work,
whether in a well-baby clinic, a housing-development playground, or an
extended school-service lunchroom. Selected members of the child-care
committee may bear the responsibility for accompanying small groups of
trainees on field trips and discussing with them what they learn on their
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of Volunteers in Child Care


However these features of the course are managed, it is highly important
that the volunteer be given the benefit of the best supervision possible. It is
more than usually necessary now, because of the threat to community rela­
tions that exists when inexperienced people attempt to fit into busy, under­
staffed organizations that are unprepared to deal with them.

Requirements for Satisfactory Completion of the Course
The usual basic requirements for satisfactory completion of the training
course are attendance at a series of lecture and discussion sessions of IV 2
or 2 hours each, whether weekly or biweekly, and participation in field trips
as arranged, often two half-day trips per weeks during the training period.
Observation papers, book reports, or other required written work must
be handed in by the end of the course. Paper work should be kept at a
minimum, however. The examination (if one is given) must be completed
and a final conference must be had with the supervisor. The use o f a
conference for self-analysis rather than as the basis for a grade is recom­
mended. At the final interview an evaluation may be made of the volun­
teer’s practice work and suggestions may be given for further study.

Cautions in Working W ith Volunteers
In working with volunteers it should be remembered that they may not
have been in a school situation for some time and may be fearful of their
ability. They will need the reassurance afforded by a very informal ap­
proach, as far removed from a chalk-and-blackboard atmosphere as possible.
The bogie o f an examination may be avoided by presenting typical questions
and discussing them, or even, as was done in one city, by giving out and
talking over the examination questions several weeks in advance. Volun­
teers appreciate recognition o f some o f the obstacles that stand in their
way, such as the limitations of time, distractions of household and family
cares, lack of library facilities, transportation difficulties, and others.
Members of child-care committees and supervisors will want to keep in
mind that the volunteers need encouragement and appreciation o f their
efforts. In addition to her desire to serve her community, each recruit
has, when she comes into the course, certain personal wants, felt or unfelt.
All need to have their feelings of worth bolstered up in this new venture,
and all need recognition as they go along to increase their awareness that
what they are doing is of real importance. In order to help volunteers
become useful workers with children, it is as necessary to make them feel
happy and serene as it is to increase their knowledge.
Those in charge of the course should foster feelings o f self-confidence and
worth by showing personal interest in the volunteers as individuals by
1 A sample self-analysis sheet (see p. 28) may be handed to the volunteer early in the course or it
may be used at this time.
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The Selection and Training

remembering as many o f their names as possible, or, failing that, by
remembering something about each one, such as the ages o f her children,
or her work background. It is important to keep well in mind the fact
that the surface behavior o f the volunteers should not be accepted at its face
value but that the workers should be on the lookout for hidden needs,
attitudes, and capabilities.
Willingness to learn from the volunteers is an important attribute of
those working on the course. Absorption in the job they have set out to
do sometimes causes forgetfulness that what is going on is not a one-way
process. Open-mindedness and alertness to suggestions about methods,
awareness o f feelings o f perplexity, an attitude o f seeking from the volunteers
the benefits to be had from their experience should be the aim o f those
responsible for their training. Expression of opinions should be sought,
as open discussion often throws a great deal o f light on needs that may
not have been planned for.

The child-care committee should work in cooperation with the warinformation committee o f the defense council in awakening the community
to the importance o f the well-being of children in wartime and the need
for volunteers in child care. Good publicity, by radio, newspaper, and
organization announcements, should constantly urge new recruits to register
with the civilian-defense volunteer office. Of course, recruitment is pri­
marily the responsibility o f the volunteer office.
A method successfully used in one Canadian city was to get from school
principals the names o f individuals in the district who might be interested
in volunteer child-care services. Such an approach often leads to the
discovery o f recruits who have not been reached by other forms o f publicity.
Members of speakers bureaus who attempt to describe the various types
o f volunteer work needed in a community should be given enough informa­
tion to enable them to make the work attractive and intelligible to such
organizations as college women’s clubs, the League o f Women Voters,
parent-teacher groups, women’s clubs, and church groups.

Referral o f volunteers is in the hands o f the volunteer office with the
child-care committee sometimes handling specific placements. The liaison
officer between the volunteer office and the child-care committee, mentioned
on page 5, will be very helpful in this connection.
The importance o f having a job for volunteers, once they have finished
a training course, is obvious. It is difficult to plan so that the need for
volunteers coincides with the completion o f their training, but it is highly
desirable to make immediate use of the enthusiasm engendered by the course.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

of Volunteers in Child Care


The number of volunteers available will dwindle very fast if the trainees are
not put to work. While those taking training courses undeniably derive
great personal benefit from the experience, their morale as volunteers will
be almost sure to suffer if they are not given something to do at once. If,
for example, it is impossible to have child-care centers open when volunteers
who have selected this assignment are ready, it is wise to arrange before­
hand for temporary use o f the trainees in other locations. Day nurseries,
settlement-house nursery schools, hospitals, and recreation centers will look
to the volunteer office and the child-care committee for volunteers and may
also be willing to give temporary assignments to those wishing to assist in
day-care centers. While the time o f those giving the course is far from
wasted even when trainees are not used, the emergency is too great to permit
a loss o f good material through haphazard planning.
It goes without saying that locations for either temporary or permanent
placements should be chosen with a view to the convenience and preferences
o f the volunteers. In some cases a small special fund may be required to
provide carfare and lunch money for volunteers who might otherwise be
unable to carry on if asked to go any distance from home. The provision
of such a fund might prevent the loss o f a number o f able workers.
Even the most responsible of volunteers need to be reminded o f certain
T. To consider their presence on the job as important as though they
were paid workers.
2. If absence is unavoidable, to notify their supervisor as long in advance
as possible.
3. To stay away for at least 3 days when symptoms o f a cold are present,
and to remain away the proper length o f time if exposed to a communicable
4. To refrain from discussion with other volunteers that could be called
“ gossip,” whether or not such talk concerns the children or their families.
5. To subordinate their own personal likes and dislikes, whether it means
being careful not to show partiality to “ that darling little Eddie” or to
mention their dislike of cod-liver oil.
6. To abstain from hasty criticism, remembering that when observing or
helping for only short periods o f time, with gaps in between, it is impossible
to understand what the teacher, play-group leader, nurse, or physician may
be doing as a part o f a well-thought-out plan; also to keep in mind the
difficulties in the home situation that may be tied up with a child’s behavior.
7. To wear simple clothing and to avoid wearing elaborate jewelry.
Colorful smocks are suitable for nursery-school use, plain cover-all gowns
for clinic wear.
An important feature of placement is arranging for substitutes when
workers must be absent. One volunteer should be assigned to this task in
each agency using three or four volunteers. The subcommittee on volun-
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


The Selection and Training

teers should keep in constant touch with each group. Much telephoning
can be saved by prearrangement as to who are substitutes for whom. In
some centers each volunteer is responsible for providing a substitute from
a list with which she is provided of available persons in her neighborhood.
Two women may agree to handle a particular job, alternating as necessary.

In-service training is the responsibility o f the agency using the volunteers.
It should include continued conferences with the staff of the agency where
the volunteer is placed and with members o f the child-care committee, giving
opportunity for constant improvement of the worker’s abilities along the
line o f her interests. Follow-up work on techniques in connection with
routines, plastic arts, games, storytelling, and so on, will be much appreciated
by the volunteers. Though there may not be time at once for a second and
more intensive course, the provision of good bibliographies and o f avail­
able source material will make up to some extent for this lack.
In some communities groups o f volunteers who have “ graduated” from
the first course meet for luncheon and discussion with volunteers in training,
thus encouraging a certain esprit de corps among the membership.
A part o f the in-service training of volunteers that should not be over­
looked is the interpretation o f situations encountered by the volunteer in
terms of the social problems involved. The interest o f the worker should
not be confined to tackling the immediate problem, but should lead in the
direction of greater thoughtfulness as to her civic responsibility.

The growth o f the volunteer worker can take place only in such measure
as her training prepares her to be continually more useful to her com­
munity, and as the supervision of her activities is carried out so as to
make her more and more conscious of the benefits accruing both to the
organization and to herself in a program whose goal is the betterment of
child life.
Hardly will the course have been completed and the volunteers placed
before it may be necessary to give it again. The increasing need for volun­
teers in child care and the unavoidable dropping out of trained workers make
it desirable to have intervals between courses only long enough for a list o f
prospective trainees to be built up. Even though volunteers have the best
o f intentions and attitudes, they are subject to any number o f occurrences
that cause them to leave. The shortage of domestic help, the constant
transferral of families from one part of the country to another, the arrival
of new babies, and illness among the volunteers’ children are some o f the
serious interferences to the smooth running of programs involving unpaid
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

of Volunteers in Child Care


One great advantage of having courses follow one another at fairly short
intervals is that women who have missed certain class periods have an
opportunity to make up the omissions. It is helpful if the same members of
child-care committees contribute to successive courses, for each speaker
will profit by his or her experience, and the course may be expected to
grow in effectiveness with every repetition.
After the basic course, planned to give a general foundation of attitudes
and information, it will be necessary to arrange further training along
specific lines, in order that volunteers may be useful in all the types of
activities that various agencies may set up. Thus, health programs would
want to give detailed courses of instruction along the lines o f nutrition and
medical care; extended school programs would want to plan courses that
include special techniques in crafts, games, and the like; workers in the
social-welfare field will need explicit guidance in such activities as home
visits; volunteers serving in child-care centers should be given additional
help in daily routines, techniques o f storytelling, and use o f play materials.
Such courses should be planned and given by specialists in the various fields
in which demand for additional help has become acute.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Self-Analysis Sheet for Use of Volunteers in Child Care
(Adapted From Gary, In d., Volunteer Training Course)
1. Health and vigor.
Do I give an impression of good physical health and mental poise?
Am I able to work throughout my period of service without exhaustion?
Do I meet periods of confusion, noise, or emergency without tension or impatience?
Have I been absent because of illness?
2. Attendance and punctuality.
Am I businesslike in carrying out my obligations?
Have I arrived punctually and left unhurriedly?
Have I willingly given additional time for conferences?
3. Respect for people.
Do I really like and enjoy people?
Am I free from discrimination based on economic status, creed, race, and so forth?
Am I equally interested in service to all children in the group?
Do I respect people as individuals, both adults and children?
4. Professional attitudes.
Do I show loyalty to those with whom I work?
Am I free from idle curiosity and a tendency to gossip?
Am I able to show a professional, objective approach to problems?
5. Cooperation and responsibility.
Am I willing to work closely with the staff, under supervision ?
Have I the techniques for comfortable cooperation?
Do I anticipate needs and make contributions without being told?
Do I carry a fair share of responsibility for routine matters?
Am I eager to assume increasingly heavier responsibilities?
6. Rapport with children.
Do I enjoy children? Are they at home with me?
Do they accept my guidance wholeheartedly with a minimum of resistance?
7. Success in guidance.
Are my methods of guidance based on sound principles?
Can I analyze situations intelligently and unemotionally?
Do I try to study and understand the children in the group?
Am I unafraid in problem situations? Am I careful about turning over to the
director those problems that she should handle?
8. Understanding of and response to the goals of the center.
Am I gaining a fairly adequate understanding of preschool education?
Am I open-minded and broad-minded?
Am I learning to accept the possibly unique goals of the center?
Am I gaining a constructively creative approach to child-care problems?
9. Promise as a child-care worker.
Are my qualities such that I should be recommended for further training?
Do I have the qualities and abilities needed in a full-time worker?

Questions for the Lecturer To Ask Himself
Subject matter.
Do you try to learn as much as you can about your audience when planning talks?
Does the material you present challenge the listeners’ thinking?
Does it inspire them to find out more about the subject?
Is your material clearly expressed, with concrete illustrations? Are these chosen from
the listeners’ experience?
Do you seek to make your material more effective by adding to your vocabulary?
Do you limit the number of ideas you express, and them bring out those points in a way
that will make them stick?

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


How do you go about establishing rapport with your listeners?
Do you make effective use of your voice.
I s it agreeably pitched?
_ . 9
Do you avoid monotony and lack of inflection.
Is it loud enough so that the people in the back can hear.
Are you free from distracting mannerisms.'



S S S &


,nd oyet?

you Sieck yourself a» to the habit of inaertmg “ uh” between words?

* *

- that

,°°k “

Questions for the Discussion Leader To Ask Himself
n A vml remain as much as possible in the background. ^
Do you throw questions back to the group instead of giving a direct answer.
Do you use the experience of the group whenever possible.
Do you keep the discussion moving toward a weH-thought^ut goal.
Hnw rln vnn check irrelevant comments? Misstatements.
.,. 9

Ifs s is Ip S liis s :* and to summarize underlying principles?

Films Suitable for Use in Volunteer Training Classes
Board of Eduction, Rochester, N. Y „ Parent Eduction Department. 555 Plymouth
1 reel. 16 mm. Silent. Inquire about rental.
Outdoor play equipment, locker room, morning rest, table setting, and naptime.

H abit Form ation.

1 reel, 16 mm. Silent.
Painting, block play, rest period, morning inspection.

N ursery-School U se o f M aterials.

fails to ship film back within 24 hours of showing.
Good to use in publicity for prevention of delinquency.
Brandon Films, Inc.. 1600 Broadway. New York. N. Y.
T .
A P h c T w Live. (Baaed on a survey by the Philadelphia Houamg Aaaoetatton.)
2 reels. 16 mm.' Sound. Rental. S3 a day.
Community responsibility for decent housing tellingly presented.

B“= s o t V^
return shipment.)
Judy’s Diary S eries:

1. From Morning Until Night. 2 reels, 16 mm. Silent.
Judy’s physical care and habit formation.
2. By Experience I Learn. 1% reels, 16 mm. Silent.
.. ,
Judy’s development from 9 to 18 months. Learning to walk, climb, eat,
and play.
3. Now I Am Two. 2 reels. 16 mm. Silent.
ctM.aua crslf-Vipln and indeoendence.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


P la y’s the Thing.

1 reel. 16 mm.


How safe, inexpensive equipment can be made at home.
need for playmates.

Emphasizes child’s

Erpi Classroom Films, Inc., 3511 35th Ave., Long Island City, N. Y.
six films were made by Dr. Arnold Gesell.)
L ife B egins.

6 reels, either 16 or 35 mm.


(The following

Rental, $10 a day.

An over all view of the work of the Yale Clinic of Child Development. A
normal infant’s development from birth to 18 months is shown. Of particular
value to students and to adult-education groups interested in child study.
A B a b y’s D ay at T w elve

W eek s.

1 reel. 16 mm.


Rental. SI .25 a day.

Infant care is presented in detail, with an interpretation of the meaning of
the baby’s reactions.
T hirty-Six W eek s Behavior D a y.

1 reel. 16 mm.


Rental, $1.25 a day.

The reactions of the baby are compared with those he experienced at 12 weeks.
A B ab y’s D a y at F orty-E ig h t W eek s.

1 reel. 16 mm.


Rental. SI a day.

The psychological implications and the educational significance of the infant’s
everyday life are stressed.
Behavior Patterns at O n e Y ear.

1 reel, 16 mm.


Rental, $1.25 a day.

Of interest to groups interested m mental development.
test situations.
E arly Social Behavior.

1 reel, 16 mm.


Raby is shown in many

Rental, $1.25 a day.

Ten different children from 8 weeks to 7 years of age in a variety of social
Maryland State Health Department in cooperation with the Children’s Bureau, U. S.
Department of Labor, Washington, D. C.
Child H ealth C onference. 3 reels. 16 mm.
Bureau; borrower must prepay return shipment.)

T he


(Lent by Children’s

Shows how doctor and nurse educate parents who bring well babies for physical
Mead Johnson & Co., Evansville, Ind., distributor.
B o b b y G o es to School, by American Academy of Pediatrics. Shown to
medical and nonmedical groups on recommendation of physicians. 1 reel, 16 mm.
Sound. Inquire about rental.

W h en

Shows the importance of a complete physical examination for a child upon his
entrance into school.
National Association for Nursery Education. 71 E. Ferry Ave., Detroit, Mich.
1 reel, 16 mm.
prepay transportation both ways.

G lim pses o f a N u rsery School.


Rent free; borrower to

Nursery-school routines, experiences with nature, music, and books.
parent participation and observation, also a parent conference.


National Commission for Young Children, 3314 Cathedral Ave. NW., Washington. D. C.
A n d So To W ork T h ey G o .

to show 35 mm. film strip.

Film strip. Can be used on any projector constructed
Rental, $1.50, plus transportation one way.

A day in a child-care center. Designed for use in factories at noontime, and
for any other groups interested in knowing the meaning of good child care.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


National Motion Pictures Co., Mooresville, Ind.
2 reels, 16 mm. Sound or silent.
What a city health department does for a family.

Y ou r H ealth Departm ent.

Inquire about rental.

National Probation Association, 1790 Broadway, New York, N. Y.
1 reel, 16 or 35 mm. Sound. Rental, $2 a day or $10 a week
for the 16 mm. film, $4 a day or $20 a week for the 35 mm. film.

B o y in Court.

New York University Film Library, 71 Washington Square S., New York, N. Y.
Studies o f Norm al P ersonality D evelo p m en t:

*1. Balloons. 2 reels, 16 mm. Sound. Rental, $3 a day.
Aggression and destruction games.
* 2 . Finger painting. 2 reels, 16 mm. Color. Silent. Rental, $6 a day.
Use of nursery-school activity as a projective technique.
*3. Frustration Play Techniques. 3% reels, 16 mm. Sound. Rental, $4 a day.
Special techniques in diagnosis of normal personality patterns.
*4. This is Robert. 8 reels, 16 mm. Sound. Rental, $7.50 for 3 days.
Robert’s development from beginning nursery school through his first
year in public school.
5. A Child Went Forth. 2 reels, 16 mm. Sound. Rental, $3 a day.
Two- to seven-year-olds are shown in activities at a nursery camp.
6. For Health and Happiness. 1 reel, 16 mm. Color. Sound. Rental, $3 a day.
Good daily routines are shown as a basis for understanding of health and
nutrition recommendations.
Nursery Training School of Boston, 355 Marlborough St., Boston, Mass.
B endin g the Tw ig.


reels (1 colored), 16 mm.


Rental, $2, plus transpor­

tation both ways.
Morning inspection, activities illustrating self-reliance; use of jungle gym,
painting, clay, and tools.
University of California. Institute of Child Welfare, Berkeley, Calif.
A s the T w ig is B en t.

1 reel, 16 mm.


Rental, $3 in California, $5 elsewhere.

Children who attended the nursery school are shown at various stages of growth
until they go back to the campus later as students.
University of Illinois, Visual Aids Service, Urbana, 111.
L ife in the N u rsery School o f the University o f Illinois.

1 reel, 16 mm.


Rental, $1, plus transportation.
Shows progressively more social behavior of 2-, 3-, and 4-year-olds.
University of Iowa, Department'of Visual Instruction, Iowa City, Iowa.
P reschool A d ventures.

3 reels, 16 mm.



Rental, $3.

A wide variety of activities at nursery school and at home.
University of Minnesota, Visual Education Service, Minneapolis, Minn.
A D a y in the N u rsery School.


reels, 35 mm. Silent. Rental, 50 cents, plus trans­

Typical activities of Institute of Child Welfare nursery-school children.
^Suitable for use by a skilled interpreter with advanced students who have considerable background.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis



Reading References Dealing With the Care and Guidance of
Young Children
On growth and developm ent.
Meek, L. H.: Your Child’s Development and Guidance Told in Pictures. Lippincott,
Philadelphia, 1940.
Rand, W., et al.: Growth and Development of the Young Child.
delphia, 1940.

Saunders, Phila­

Included here especially for its section on nutrition.
Schulz, L. R., and M. S. Smart: Understanding Your Baby.
L. I.. 1942.

Sundial, Garden City,

The baby’s growth in pictures.
Woodcock, L. P.: Life and Ways of the Two-Year-Old.

Dutton, New York, 1941.

A warm understanding picture of how the 2-year-old differs from older and
younger children.

T he parents9point o f view.
Aldrich, C. A., and Mary M.: Babies Are Human Beings.

Macmillan, New York,

Sound recommendations for establishing happy relationships between children
and adults.
Bro, M. H.: When Children Ask.

Willett, New York, 1940.

Contains a helpful discussion on children’s questions and how to answer them.
Evans, Eva Knox: Children and You; a primer of child care. Putnam’s, New York,
1943. 64 pp. 35 cents each, if purchased in minimum lots of 10 copies or more.
“ Taking care of children is never easy, but it can be interesting and fun” when
done with affection and understanding.
Faegre, M. L., and J. E. Anderson: Child Care and Training.
Press, Minneapolis, 1943.

University of Minnesota

Simple, concrete suggestions for guidance, soundly based on research.
Hanford, H. E.: Parents Can Learn. Holt, New York, 1940.
Capably written by a parent who is not a specialist in child development.
Levy, J., and R. Monroe: The Happy Family.

Knopf, New York, 1938.

A cheerful, constructive picture by a husband and wife of what family life can
contribute to the development of personality.
Wolf. A. W. M.: The Parents’ Manual.

Simon & Schuster, New York, 1941.

Mrs. Wolf believes that the most valuable thing parents can do for their children
is to enjoy them, and she shows them how.

How children learn in child-care centers.
Alschuler, R., ed.: Children’s Centers. Issued by National Commission for Young
Children. Morrow, New York, 1942.
A guide to those interested in establishing centers.
materials, bibliographies.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Building plans, equipment,


Foster, J. C., and M. L. Mattson: Nursery-School Education.

D. Appleton-Century,

New York. 1939.
Standard nursery-school procedure.
Landreth, Catherine: Education of the Young Child.

Wiley, New York, 1942.

Manual of techniques for use in child-care centers and nursery schools, with a
wealth of practical illustrations.
Waring, E. M. B., and M. W. Johnson: Helping Children Learn.
Press, Ithaca, N. Y., 1941.

Cornell University

The authors give hundreds of concrete learning situations.

Special psychological problem s in wartime.
Freud, Anna, and D. T. Burlingham: Children and War. Medical War Books, New
York, 1943.
Gruenberg, S. M., ed.: The Family in a World at War. Harper, New York, 1942.
Wolf, A. W. M.: Our Children Face War. Houghton, Boston, 1943.

Association for Childhood Education, 1201 Sixteenth St. NW., Washington, D. C.
Children’s Books for Fifty Cents or Less.


25 cents.

Equipment and Supplies for Nursery Schools, Kindergartens, and Primary Grades.
48 pp. 1939. 50 cents.
Music and the Young Child.

36 pp.


Helen Christianson, comp.

Toward Democratic Living at School.
Uses for Waste Materials.

12 pp.

What Is a Nursery School?
1940. 35 cents.

32 pp.


35 cents.

35 cents.
32 pp.



35 cents.

20 cents.

Elizabeth Neterer and Lovisa C. Wagoner.

24 pp.

California State Department of Education, Sacramento, Calif.
California Program for the Care of Children of Working Parents. Vol. XII, No. 6.
125 pp. 1943. (Price not given.)
Canadian Council on Child Welfare, Ottawa, Canada.
Play and Play Materials for the Preschool Child.
(Price not given.)

Harriet Mitchell.

Pub. 45.

60 pp.

Child Welfare League of America, Inc., 130 East 22d St., New York, N. Y.
Standards for Children’s Organizations Providing Foster Family Care. 57 pp. 1941.
35 cents.
Children’s Bureau, U. S. Department of Labor, Washington, D. C. Single copies free.
Food for Young Children in Group Care.

Pub. 285.

34 pp.


10 cents.

Home Play and Play Equipment for the Preschool Child.

Pub. 238.

20 pp.


10 cents.
Standards for Day Care of Children of Working Mothers.

Pub. 284.

20 pp.


10 cents.
The Child From One to Six.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Pub. 30.

150 pp.


10 cents.


The Road to Good Nutrition.

Pub. 270.

54 pp.


15 cents.

Toys in Wartime; suggestions to parents on making toys at home.

44 pp.


Cuyahoga County Nutrition Committee, approved by Cleveland Division of Health and
Public-Health Committee, Academy of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio.
Food for Young Children in Day-Care Homes; for children from 9 months to 2 years.
How To Feed Children in Day-Care Homes; for children over 2 years of age.
Institute for Psychoanalysis, 43 East Ohio St., Chicago, HI.
Growing Up in a World at War. 28 pp. 1942. 25 cents.
Iowa Child Welfare Research Station, Iowa City, Iowa.

(Prices not given.)

No. 5. The Young Child and His Education. Ruth Updegraff. 9 pp.
No. 10. How the Child’s Mind Grows.

Beth E. Wellman.

No. 29. Musical Guidance of Young Children.
No. 57. The Nursery School as a Family Aid.
No. 73. Art in the Daily Life of the Child.

8 pp.

Harold M. Williams.
Grace Langdon.

Grant Wood.


16 pp.


10 pp.




Kansas State College, Division of Home Economics, Manhattan, Kans.
Applying Nursery School Methods of Child Guidance in the Home.
et al. Bulletin 2. 48 pp. 1942. Single copies free.

Katherine Roy

Michigan State College, Extension Division, East Lansing, Mich.
Homemade Toys and Play Equipment.

Alice Hutchinson.

Bulletin 216.

28 pp.

National Commission for Young Children, 3314 Cathedral Ave. NW., Washington, D. C.
Some References on Children in Wartime.

17 pp.



National Recreation Association, Inc., New York, N. Y.
Home Play in Wartime.

Virginia Musselmap.

19 pp.


(Price not given.)

U. S. Office of Civilian Defense, Washington, D. C.
Volunteers in Child Care.
D. C. 1942. 5 cents.

12 pp.

U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington,

U. S. Office of Education,* Federal Security Agency, Washington, D. C.
School Children and the War Series:
Leaflet No. 1. School Services for Children of Working Mothers. 6 pp. 5 cents.
Leaflet No. 2. All-Day School Programs for Children of Working Mothers.
12 pp. 5 cents.
Leaflet No. 3. Nursery Schools Vital to America’s War Effort. 12 pp. 5 cents.
Leaflet No. 5. Training High-School Students for Wartime Services to Children.
60 pp. 10 cents.
Leaflet No. 7. Recreation and Other Activities in the All-Day School Program.
39 pp. 10 cents.
U. S. Public Health Service.
The Communicable Diseases. A. M. Stimson. Misc. Pub. 30.
ment Printing Office, Washington, D. C., 1939. 25 cents.

I l l pp.


*Information Exchange. Free loan packets (over 60 in number) are available for circulation and use
in group discussions and programs of various sorts. Three packets at a time, may be borrowed for a
2-week period.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis



Reading References for Workers W ith Older Children and
Anderson, J. E .: Happy Childhood.

D. Appleton-Century, New York, 1933.

Boettiger, E. F.: Your Child Meets the World Outside.

D. Appleton-Century, New York,

Driscoll, G. P.: How to Study the Behavior of Children.
University, New York, 1941.
Fallis, E.: The Child and Things.
Hartman, G.: Finding Wisdom.

Teachers College, Columbia

World Book, Yonkers, N. Y., 1940.
Day, New York, 1938.

Reynolds, M. M.: Children from Seed to Saplings.

McGraw-Hill, New York, 1939.

Teagarden, F. M.: Child Psychology for Professional Workers.

Prentice-Hall, New York,


Children’s Bureau, U. S. Department of Labor, Washington, D. G.
Guiding.the Adolescent.

Pub. 225.

Handbook for Recreation Leaders.

94 pp.


Pub. 231.

Understanding Juvenile Delinquency.

121 pp.

Pub. 300.

Single copies free.

10 cents.

20 cents.

In press.

National Recreation Association, 315 Fourth Ave., New York, N. Y.
Day Camping.

Maude L. Dryden.

32 pp.


25 cents.

For the Storyteller. 44 pp. 1938. 35 cents.
Games for Quiet Hours and Small Spaces. Third edition.
T een

Trouble; what recreation can do about it.

59 pp.


Virginia Musselman.

24 pp.


10 cents.
New York State Committee on Mental Hygiene of the State Charities Aid Association,
105 East 22d St., New York, N. Y.
Understanding Children; a study outline for children’s institutions. 51 pp. New
York. 1939. 45 cents.
Play Schools Association, 1841 Broadway, New York, N. Y.
A Handbook on Play Schools for Group Leaders and Teachers.

37 pp.


15 cents.
Plans, procedures, materials for the all-day care and after-school care of children.
From the Records; an adventure in teacher training. Clara Lambert. 138 pp.
60 cents.
A verbatim record with interpretation of training courses for group leaders and
teachers of work-play programs.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


Registration Blank
(Nam e o f city)

Civilian Defense Council

Training Course fo r Volunteers in Child Care
N am e_____________________________________________________ i___ ____________________



A ddress-----------------------------------------------------Age (ch eck ):
Under 25

ages of

(Husband’ s initials)

Telephone num ber___________________


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Schooling: (Circle your last year at school.)
High school: 1 2 3 4

College: 12 3 4

Other (music, nursing, business, e tc .): 1 2 3 4

Name of last college or school________________


Major field______

Relevant experience: _______________________________________________________________

Special abilities (check)



Nature study-:_______

Others___________________________________________________________________ .________
Occupation before marriage_____________ ___

Husband’s occupation ____1___ — _____

Are you registered with the volunteer o ffic e ?__________________________ _________ ____
Periods available for training and service:





(Signify first, second, and third choices when checking.)








What age children do you like best to work with?
What parts of town are most convenient for you to reach?

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


^ Sat.