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S C IE N T IF IC R E S E A R C H
AN D DEVELO PM ENT
IN A M E R IC A N INDUSTRY

A STUDY OF
MANPOWER
AND COSTS




B ulletin No. 1148

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
in co o p eratio n w ith
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE




SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
IN AMERICAN INDUSTRY
A Study of Manpower
and C osts

BULLETIN NO. l l M
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
LLOYD A. MASHBURN, Acting Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
EWAN CLAGUE, Commissioner
In cooperation with
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office
•Washington 25, D. C. - Price 50 cents







LETTER OF TRANSM ITTAL

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OP LABOR,
Bureau of Labor Statistics,
Washington, D. C., October 3, 1953*
The Secretary of Labor:
I have the honor to transmit herewith a report on industri­
al research and development in the United States, prepared by this
Bureau in cooperation vith the Department of Defense.
This is the final report on a survey of private companies
and nonprofit agencies (other than educational Institutions) engaged
in research and development, which was conducted in 1952 by the D e ­
partment of Defense, Research and Development Board, Walter G.
Whitman, Chairman. Kenneth Colmen was mainly responsible for the
planning and conduct of the survey and served as consultant in con­
nection with the preparation of the report.
The report was prepared in the Bureau of Labor Statistics,
Division of Manpower and Employment Statistics, by Helen Wood,
Robert W. Cain, and Joseph H. Schuster. The Bureau wishes to express
appreciation for the assistance received from the officials of pri­
vate companies, professional societies, and Government agencies who
reviewed the manuscript.
Ewan Clague, Commissioner.
Hon. Lloyd A. Mashburn,
Acting Secretary of Labor.




ill




FOREW ORD

This final report presents the findings of a nationwide
survey of Industrial research and development conducted by the Re­
search and Development Board In mid-1952. The report vas prepared
by the Division of Manpower and Employment Statistics of the Bureau
of Labor Statistics, United States Department of Labor. Its objec­
tive is to provide a comprehensive picture of Industrial research
resources In the United States.
I wish to express my appreciation for the cooperation
received from all participating companies.
In addition, the assist­
ance, and suggestions of the many individuals and organizations —
private and Government — that aided in planning the study is ac­
knowledged with thanks.

UUX4A—
Chairman,
Research euad Development Board

June 25> 1953.




(v)




C O N TEN TS
Page
INTRODUCTION ....................................................

1

SUMMAHT OF FINDINGS ............................ ...... .........

3

RESEARCH ENGINEERS AND SCIENTISTS ..............................
Distribution of e m p l o y m e n t ...... .........................
Research engineers and scientists as percent of
total employment ..........................................
Employment on Government contracts .........................
Change in employment, January 1951 to January 1952 ........

5
5
9
10
13

SUPPORTING'PERSONNEL...........................................
Distribution of employment ..................................
Support ratios ..............................................

17
17
17

COST OF R E S E A R C H .............
Distribution of research cost ..............................
Research financed by Federal Government ....................
Research cost as percent of sales ..........................

21
21
22
26

RESEARCH COST PER WORKER .......................................
Cost per research engineer or' scientist ....................
Cost per engineer or scientist on Governmentfinanced r e s e a r c h .........................................
Cost per research w o r k e r ..................................

30
30

TURNOVER OF PROFESSIONAL RESEARCH STAFF .............
Annual separation rate ............................
Liability for military s e r v i c e .............

33

3k
38

38
UO

APPENDIXES:
Appendix A
Appendix B
Appendix C

Appendix D




- Scope and method of s u r v e y ...................
- Letters and schedule .........................
- Statistical data classified by industry,
size of company, and size of professional
research staff ..............................
- Statistical data classified by major
research specialty ..........................

(v ii)

U3

k$

57
97

TEXT TABLES
Page
1.
2.

3.

l.
*

5.

Percent distribution of research engineers and scientists,
by industry and size of company, January 1 9 5 2 ..........
Percent of research engineers and scientists employed on
Government prime contracts and subcontracts, b y industry
and by size of company, January 1932 ....................
Percent change in employment of research engineers and
scientists on Government and nongovernment work, January
1951 to January 1952, b y industry and b y size of
c o m p a n y ................ ..................................
Cost of research on Government prime contracts and sub­
contracts as percent of total research cost, b y industry
and by size of company, 1951 ............................
Average cost per research engineer or scientist on all
research and on Government-financed research, by
industry, 1951 ......................................... ..

8

11

lU

2h

35

CHARTS

1.

Electrical machinery, aircraft, and chemicals industries
5
employ largest numbers of research p e r s o n n e l ..... .
2. A few large companies employ most research engineers and
scientists ...............................................
6
3. Employment of research engineers and scientists increased
most in defense industries during 1951 ..................
15
l . Average number of supporting workers per research engineer
;
or scientist was less than one in over half the com­
panies— much higher in a f e w ................. ...........
19
5 . Aircraft and electrical machinery industries lead in
Government-financed research— chemicals and motor
vehicles in privately-financed r e s e a r c h ...................
22
6. Cost of research as percent of sales was highest in
industries with large defense contracts ...................
27
7. Cost per research worker varies much less among industries
than cost per research engineer or scientist ............
31
8. Large companies have higher average cost per research
worker than small companies .............................
32
9 . Average cost per research engineer or scientist was under
$13,500 in half the companies— much higher in a f e w ....
33
10. Average cost per research worker was under $7>300 in half
the companies— much higher in a f e w .....................
38
11. Military calls accounted for only a small proportion of
the separations of research engineers and scientists
in 1951 ..................................................
39
12. A sizable proportion of research engineers and scientists
are liable for military d u t y ............................
^1




(v iii)

APPENDIX TABLES
Page
C-l.

C-2.
C-3.
C-4.
C-5.
C-6.

C-7.

C-8.

C-9.

C-10.

C-ll.

C-12.

C-13.

C-14.

C- 15 .

C-l6.

Research and development expenditures for the United
States and cost of research and development performed
by Government, industry, and colleges and
universities, 1941-1952 ..............................
Distribution of research employment and research costs,
by i n d u s t r y ...........................................
Distribution of research employment and research cost,
by size of c o m p a n y ....................................
Distribution of research employment and research cost,
by size of professional research s t a f f .... ..........
Number of research engineers and scientists, by industry
and size of company,January 1952 .....................
Number of research engineers and scientists,
by industry and size of professional research
staff, January 1952
................................
Number of reporting companies and number of research
engineers and scientists, by size of professional
research staff and size of company, January 1952 ....
Average number of research engineers and scientists
per 100 employees, by industry and size of company,
January 1952 ..........................................
Average number of research engineers and scientists
on Government contracts per 100 employed, by industry
and size of company, and average number on Government
subcontracts per 100 on all Government contracts,
January 1952 ..........................................
Average number of research engineers and scientists
on Government contracts per 100 employed, by industry
and size of professional research staff, January
1952 ....................................
Percent change in employment of research engineers
and scientists, January 1951 to January 1952, by
industry and size of c o m p a n y .........................
Percent change in employment of research engineers
and scientists, January 1951 to January 1952, by
industry and size of professional research staff ....
Percent change in employment of research engineers
and scientists on Government prime contracts and
subcontracts, January 1951 to January 1952, by
i n d u s t r y ..............................................
Average number of supporting personnel per research
engineer or scientist, by industry and size of
company, January 1952 .................................
Average number of supporting personnel per research
engineer or scientist, by industry and size of
professional research staff, January 1952 ............
Cost of research, by industry and
size of company, 1 9 5 1 ................................




(ix)

58
59

60
6l
62

63
64

65

66

67
68

69

70

71

73

74

A P P E N D IX

TA B LE S

-

C o n tin u e d

Page
Cost of research, hy industry and size of professional
research staff, 1951 .......................... .
Cost of Government-financed research as percent of
total research cost, by industry and size of
company, 1951 .......................................
Cost of Government-financed research as percent of
total research cost, by industry and size of pro­
fessional research staff, 1951 .....................
Cost of research as percent of sales, by industry and
size of company, 1951 ..............................
Cost of research as percent of sales, by industry and
size of professional research staff, 1951 .........
Average cost per research engineer or scientist, by
industry and size of company, 1951 .................
Average cost per research engineer or scientist, by
industry and size of professional research staff,
1951 ................................................
Average cost per research engineer or scientist on
Government-financed research, by industry and size
of company, 1951 ....................................
Average cost per research engineer or scientist on
Government-financed research, by industry and size
of professional research staff, 1951 ...............
Average cost per research worker, by industry and
size of company, 1951 ..............................
Average cost per research worker, by industry and
size of professional research staff, 1951 .........
Annual separation rate of research engineers and
scientists, by industry, July 1950 bo June 1951
and July to December 1951 ..........................
Annual separation rate of research engineers and
scientists, by industry and size of company,
July to December 1951 ................... ...........
Annual separation rate of research engineers and
scientists, by size of company, July 1950 to
June 1951 and July to December 1951 ................
Annual separation rate of research engineers and
scientists, by size of professional research staff,
July 1950 to June 1951 and July to December 1951 •••
Research engineers and scientists liable for military
duty per 100 employed, by industry and size of
company, January 1952 ..............................
Research engineers and scientists liable for military
duty per 100 employed, by size of professional re­
search staff, January 1952 .........................




(x)

75

76
78
79

81
82
84
85

87

88
90

91

92

93

94

95

96

A P P E N D IX

TA B LE S

-

C o n tin u e d

Page
D-l.
D-2.
D-3.
D-4.

D-5>

D- 6 .

D-7.

D- 8 .

D-9.

Number of reporting companies, by industry and major
research s p e c i a l t y .....................................
Cost of research, by industry and major research
specialty, 1951 ..................................
Distribution of research employment and research cost,
by major research specialty ...........................
Number of research engineers and scientists, by major
research specialty and size of professional research
staff, January 1952 ....................................
Number of supporting workers per research engineer or
scientist, by major research specialty and size of
professional research staff, January 1952 .............
Cost of Government-financed research as percent of
total research cost, by major research specialty
and size of professional research staff, 1951 ........
Average cost per research engineer or scientist, by
major research specialty and size of professional
research staff, 1 9 5 1 .... . •............................
Average cost per research worker, by major research
specialty and size of professional research staff,
1951 ....................................................
Number of companies reporting that they were qualified
to do research in selected research specialties ......




( x i)

100
101

102

103

103

104

105

105

106




IN TROD UCTIO N
Research and development in Industry is by far the largest
segment of the Nation’s scientific research activity. In 1952, the
national expenditures for scientific and engineering research and
development totaled about 3 3A billion dollars, of which about 2 l/2
billion was for work done in laboratories and other facilities owned
or operated by private industry. Both the total national outlay and
the cost of the research performed by private business were more than
l - percent higher in 1952 than 19^ 9 — owing primarily to the emphasis
t0
on military technology which has characterized the current program of
partial mobilization but also in part to the needs of an expanding
civilian economy (table C-l).
The demand for scientific and engineering personnel and
research facilities arising from both these sources created a need
for more information about private industry's huge research resources,
comparable to that already available regarding the much smaller re­
search operations of universities and Government agencies, l/ More
accurate estimates were needed of the total national cost of indus­
trial research, the amount of research performed by different indus­
tries, and the number of research engineers and scientists employed
in these industries.
Information on the cost of research per worker
employed was also needed for use in estimating manpower requirements
and determining whether proposed projects were feasible in view of
the available resources of scientific and technical personnel. Other
questions in which there was widespread interest were the extent of
employment of supporting personnel and the effect on research staffs
of calls to military service and other types of turnover.
In order to obtain information on these and related ques­
tions, the Research and Development Board conducted in mid-1952 a
questionnaire survey of the research and development activities of
private companies and nonprofit research agencies (other than
colleges and universities). 2/ Nearly 2,000 concerns, including

l/ The Engineering College Research Council of the American
Society for Engineering Education conducted a survey of research in
colleges and universities in 1950* The National Science Foundation
publishes statistical data on the research activities of the Federal
Government.
One of the Foundation's most recent publications is
Federal Funds for Science, I - Federal Funds for Scientific Research
and Development at Nonprofit Institutions, 1950-1951 and 1951-1952.
Washington: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1953. W pp.
2/ In addition to colleges and universities, such nonprofit
research agencies a3 hospitals and museums were also excluded, inas­
much as their normal research activities are not industrial in char­
acter. The scope and method of the survey are described in detail in
Appendix A.




(1)

almost all companies with large research programs, sent in usable
questionnaires. These companies employed about 6 l/2 million per­
sons and had sold nearly 100 billion dollars worth of goods and serv­
ices during 1951* The number of firms with small research, activities
which were not reached by or failed to respond to the survey could not
be determined exactly. However, the study covered most of the indus­
trial research and development work in the United States— probably
about 85 percent of the total, measured in terms of 1951 cost. 3/
A preliminary report giving highlights of the survey find­
ings was issued at the beginning of 1953. The present report incor­
porates the data presented in this earlier publication and also in­
cludes much additional information, particularly with respect to the
cost and employment experience of individual firms. Among the topics
covered are the numbers of research engineers and scientists employed
on both Government and nongovernment work; the employment of support­
ing personnel; the cost of research performed, on Government prime
contracts and subcontracts and under company sponsorship; the rela­
tionship of research cost to value of sales; the average cost of
research per employee, on Government-financed and company-financed
projects; and, finally, the turnover rates among research engineers
and scientists and the past and potential effects of military calls
of such employees.
Information is presented for different industries and for
companies of different sizes.
Insofar as possible, the varying ex­
perience of individual companies In the same industry and 3 ize group
is also analyzed.
Companies were asked in filling out the questionnaire to
state the research specialty in which they were most competent, as
well as the industry in which they belonged. Statistical data clas­
sified according to the companies' major research specialties and
covering most of the major topics considered in the report are pre­
sented in Appendix D.
Throughout the report, the term "research" is used to de­
note both research and development. The difficulty In obtaining uni­
form interpretation of this term from companies in the survey is one
of the limitations of the data which the reader should bear in mind.
This matter is discussed in greater detail along with other limita­
tions of the data and definitions of terms in Appendix A.

3 / The term "research cost," as used in this survey, refers to
the "operating cost of research and development performed" (as defined
in item 3 of the questionnaire, which is reproduced in Appendix B).
The cost data obtained therefore exclude capital investment (except
as reflected in depreciation charges) and also expenditures for any
research services which the reporting companies purchased from other
concerns. On the other hand, the figures include the cost of research
performed by the given companies on funds provided by the Federal
Government or other organizations.




2

SUMMARY OF FIN D IN G S

RESEARCH PERSONNEL
About 96,000 research engineers and scientists were employed
in January 1952 by the nearly 2,000 companies in the study. Close to
three-fourths were working for companies in six branches of manufac­
turing- -the aircraft, electrical machinery, chemicals and allied prod­
ucts, professional and scientific instruments, machinery (except elec­
trical), and petroleum refining industries. Over half were employed
in the first three of these industry groups.
Large companies employed most of the engineers and scien­
tists. Two out of three were on the staffs of companies with 5,000 or
more employees.
Only 1.5 percent of the employees of the reporting compa­
nies were research engineers or scientists. This percentage is high­
er, of course, than would have been found if companies without re­
search programs had been included in the survey.
Approximately half the research engineers and scientists
were working on federally financed projects, almost all of which were
sponsored by the Department of Defense or the Atomic Energy Commis­
sion. The number employed on Government contracts was more than 50
percent higher in January 195^ than in January 1951- Nevertheless,
most industries achieved some increase in employment on companyfinanced research during the year.
The total number of supporting workers (including techni­
cians and other laboratory assistants and clerical and administrative
personnel) employed by companies in the survey was 143,000. Thus,
the average ratio was 1 .5 supporting workers per research engineer or
scientist. However, this ratio varied widely among companies of dif­
ferent sizes, among industries, and from one company to another in the
same industry and size group.

COST OF RESEARCH

The total cost of research performed by the reporting com­
panies was nearly 2 billion dollars during 1951. The electrical m a ­
chinery, aircraft,and chemicals industries, which were the leading
employers of research personnel, also had the greatest dollar volume
of research costs— altogether, more than 1 billion dollars.
The Federal Government paid for nearly half of the 1951 re­
search and development cost. Among major industries, the Government's
share of the research cost ranged from 85 percent in aircraft manufac­
turing down to a low 3 percent in petroleum refining.




3

Government-financed, research accounted for about threefifths of tiae total research cost in companies with fewer than 500 em­
ployees, compared with about one-half of the total for larger organi­
zations. However, the large companies did far more research work for
the Government than the small ones, because their total research ca­
pacity was so much greater.
Research cost represented about 2 percent of the total value
of sales of the reporting companies during 1951 * I*1 the aircraft in­
dustry the proportion reached 13 percent, but in several others it
was less than 1 percent. -The proportion also varied greatly among
companies in the same industry.
Average cost per research engineer or scientist in 1951 was
$ 21,900 (total operating cost of research divided by the average num­
ber of research engineers and scientists employed). Of the branches
of manufacturing with large research programs, the one with the low­
est cost per research engineer or scientist was chemicals and allied
products. At the other extreme was the motor vehicle industry, with
an average cost about four times as great as that for chemicals and
allied products. Figures for individual companies also varied widely.
Taking all research workers into account, including sup­
porting personnel as well as engineers and scientists, average cost
per research worker was $8,800. This cost ratio varied much less
among industries and individual companies than the cost per research
engineer or scientist.

TURNOVER OF PROFESSIONAL RESEARCH STAFF

The annual separation rate of research engineers and scien­
tists was 13.9 per 100 employed during the year July 1950-June 1951 >
and about one-fifth higher during the last half of 1951* Separations
for reasons other than military service accounted for most of the
turnover in both periods. In the last half of 1951 > the annual rate
of military calls was only three out of every 100 research engineers
and scientists.
Although military calls did not affect many research engi­
neers and scientists in 1950 and 1951> they could cut more deeply in
the future. One-fourth of the research engineers and scientists in
the study were in the categories most liable to military service; 19
percent were in the Reserves or National Guard and another 6 percent
were classified either 1A or 2A by Selective Service as of January
1952.
Since then, considerable change in the proportion of profes­
sional research workers liable for military duty has probably taken
place, since men are constantly leaving and others entering the R e ­
serves and the various Selective Service categories.




k

RESEA R C H E N G IN E E R S A N D SC IE N T ISTS
DISTRIBUTION OF EMPLOYMENT

Engineers and scientists engaged in industrial research and
development work are concentrated, to a great extent, in a few indus­
tries and in large companies.
In January 1952 nearly three-fourths of the 95>700 profes­
sional research workers in the survey were employed in six branches
of manufacturing— the aircraft, electrical machinery, chemicals and
allied products, professional and scientific instruments, machinery
(except electrical), and petroleum refining industries (chart l ) . bj
Over half were in the first three of these industry groups; more than
one-fifth were in aircraft manufacturing alone. The mobilization
program initiated in mid -1950 resulted in a great expansion of research

hf It should be noted in connection with these and other figures
classified by industry that each reporting company was placed, of
necessity, in a single industry (Appendix A ) .
275235 0 - 53 - 2




5

activities in the aircraft and electrical machinery industries, par­
ticularly the former. It also led to a rapid growth in the research
staffs of the professional and scientific instruments industry. In
the chemicals, petroleum refining, and machinery (except electrical)
industries, the direct effect of the defense program has been much
less, but these industries have long been among the leaders in the
Nation's industrial research and development effort.
All other branches of manufacturing, besides the six just
mentioned, together employed only 16 percent of the research engineers
and scientists in the survey. Altogether, the proportion employed in
manufacturing was 88 percent. The remaining 12 percent were in a
variety of nonmanufacturing industries (table C-2).
The concentration of professional research personnel in
large organizations is apparent when companies are classified accord­
ing to their total employment in January 1952 (chart 2). Approximate­
ly l- percent of the surveyed research engineers and scientists worked
t0
for the UU largest companies, each of which had at least 25,000 em­
ployees. These companies represented only 2 percent of the 1,953
organizations in the study. Two-thirds of the research engineers and
scientists were employed by the 222 companies (ll percent of the

C hart 2

A FEW LARGE COMPANIES
EMPLOY MOST RESEARCH ENGINEERS AND SCIENTISTS
Pe rcent o j
Reporting Com panies

Total Com pany
Employment,
Ja n u a ry 1952

SOUTCe! T able C - 3

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATI STICS




Percent of
Research Engineers and Scientists

6

total) with 5,000 or more employees. In contrast, only U percent
worked for the 6h2 companies (33 percent of the total) with fewer than
100 employees (table C- 3 ).
The concentration of research engineers and scientists in
large companies was greatest in the aircraft, motor vehicle, and
petroleum refining industries (table l ) . In each of these three in­
dustries, about nine-tenths of the research engineers and scientists
were working for companies with 5,000 or more employees. Concentra­
tion of personnel in large companies was characteristic also of all
other major branches of manufacturing and of nonmanufacturing indus­
tries exclusive of commercial consulting firms and nonprofit research
agencies. 5/
Organizations in these two last categories naturally tend
to be much smaller than companies whose research and development
programs are an adjunct to production or other operations. None of
the consulting firms and nonprofit agencies in the study had as many
as 5,000 employees, and nearly two-thirds of the professional research
workers employed by such organizations worked for ones with fewer than
500 employees.
When the figures on employment of research engineers and
scientists are classified according to the size of the companies'
professional research staffs, a still greater concentration of re­
search personnel in a few large organizations is shown. The 3 + com­
*
panies with the largest professional research staffs (500 or more)
employed approximately U8 percent of all research engineers and
scientists in the survey, whereas the proportion working for the Uk
companies with the largest total employment (25,000 or more) was
approximately lo percent. This difference reflects the fact that
some of the large companies had relatively small research programs. 6 /
For example, one out of every eight companies with 5,000 or more em­
ployees had fewer than 15 research engineers and scientists; this
group was made up principally of companies in the machinery (except
electrical), textile, and food industries. On the other hand, some
small companies had research staffs far above the overall average for
concerns in their size group. This was true not only of commercial
cons tilting and nonprofit research organizations but also of some
manufacturing concerns which were devoting a great part of their
resources to development work for the Armed Forces at the time of the
survey.

5/ A similar pattern of concentration is noted when research
engineers and scientists are classified by industry and size of pro­
fessional research staff (table C- 6 ).
6 / Table C-7 cross-classifies reporting companies and research
engineers and scientists, by size of company and size of professional
research staff.




7

Table 1,

Percent distribution of research engineers end scientists,
by industry and sine of company, January 1952 1/

All
reporting
companies

Industry

Companies with total
employment of —
Less
than
500

500
to
■4,999

5,000
or
more

All industries........ ..... ,............

100.0

11.2

21.8

67.0

Manufacturing .............................

100.0

6.9

20.8

72.3

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

9.6
2.5
5.2
20.1
6.8
7.8
2.5
.8
18.2
7.6

24.0
10.7
15.1
40.7
39.4
22.7
10.5
9.0
25.4
29.1

66.4
86.8
79.7
39.2
53.8
69.5
87.0
90.2
56.4
63.3

100.0

UZ.fi

29.1

28.3

100.0
100.0
100.0

89.2
37.8
8.7

10.8
62.2
18.4

Chemicals and allied products....... ....
Petroleum refining..... ................
Primary metal industries ................
Fabricated metal products ...............
Machinery (except electrical) ....... .
Electrical machinery ....................
Motor vehicles and equipment............
Aircraft and parts ......................
Professional and scientific instruments ..
Other manufacturing....................
Nonmanufacturing .........................
Commercial consulting f i r m s .... ........
Nonprofit research agencies .............
Other nonmanufacturing ............ .....

1 / See ap p en d ix ta b le C-5 f o r f ig u r e s u n d e rly in g t h i s t a b le .




8

—

72.9

RESEARCH ENGINEERS AND SC IE N T IST S A S PERCENT OF TOTAL EMPLOYMENT
One indication of the degree of emphasis on research activ­
ities in different industries and in companies of different sizes is
provided by data on the average number of professional research
workers employed per 100 employees of all types.
In interpreting
these figures, it should he borne in mind that the survey was limited
to organizations engaged in research and development. Hie figures do
not represent the ratio of professional research employment to total
employment in any industry as a whole, since many companies do no
research or development work. The date of the employment information,
January 1952, is also of importance in this context. At that time,
defense-related development work was at a very high level and mass
production on defense contracts had hardly begun in many companies in
the aircraft and other industries. In later stages of the defense
program the ratio of research personnel to total employment undoubt­
edly declined somewhat.
The average number of research engineers and scientists per

100 workers in all the reporting companies taken together was found
to be 1.5 in January 1952 (table C- 8 ). The aircraft industry, which
employed the largest absolute number of research engineers and scien­
tists, was also the branch of manufacturing with the highest relative
number (4.3 per 100 employees). The three manufacturing industry
groups which were, in absolute numbers, the next largest employers of
profession?! research personnel also had comparatively high ratios,
as follows: Professional'
and scientific instruments, 3*7 per 100
workers; chemicals, 3 .0 ; and electrical machinery, 2 .7 . The industry
groups with the lowest ratios were primary metals (0 .3 ), motor
vehicles (0.4), and nonmanufacturing industries other than consulting
firms and nonprofit agencies (0.4). Commercial consulting firms and
nonprofit research agencies, whose major activity is providing pro­
fessional services, naturally had very much higher percentages of
professional research workers than any other industry (24.5 and 47.2,
respectively).
Each of these ratios is of course an average for all
reporting companies in the given industry. The relative numbers of
professional research workers employed by individual companies varied
widely above and below the industry averages.
There were also wide differences in the ratio of engineer­
ing and scientific workers to total employment among companies in the
same size group. Generally, however, the small companies in the sur­
vey had a higher ratio than the large companies. In manufacturing as
a whole, companies with less than
employees had an average of
research engineers and scientists per 100 employees, compared with
for those with
to
employees and
for those with
or more employees. The percentage of professional research personnel
had an inverse relationship to size of company in almost every major
branch of manufacturing and also in most nonmanufacturing industries.

500

1.7




500

4,999

1.2

9

4.7
5,000

It should he emphasized, however, that these findings apply
only to companies with research and development programs and that
most small companies do no research and development work. A crosssection of all American industry would show that research engineers
and scientists represent a higher proportion of total employment in
large than in small companies. 7 /

EMPLOYMENT ON GOVERNMENT CONTRACTS

Since the current program of partial mobilization began in
mid-1950, the Government has initiated and financed a large volume of
military research and development. About one-third of this Govern­
ment-financed research has been conducted in laboratories owned and
operated by Federal agencies. Most of the remaining two-thirds has
been carried out by private industry. However, colleges and univer­
sities and other nonprofit institutions have also participated sig­
nificantly in defense research.
Approximately half of the research engineers and scientists
in this study were employed in January 1952 on projects sponsored by
Federal agencies— in nearly every case the Department of Defense or
the Atomic Energy Commission. The proportion of the professional
research staff working on Government contracts was the same in non­
manufacturing as in manufacturing industries — by percent in each of
these two industry divisions (table 2). In absolute terms, however,
manufacturing industries, as a group, employ many more research
engineers and scientists on Government work than do nonmanufacturing
industries.
The relative numbers of research engineers and scientists
employed on Government work were naturally highest in the branches of
manufacturing most directly related to the defense effort. In the
aircraft industry, 92 percent of the professional research personnel
in the study were working on Government-financed projects; in the pro­
fessional and scientific instruments industry, 70 percent. Commercial
consulting firms had also assigned a sizable majority (66 percent) of
their professional research staffs to Government work.

7 / Companies with fewer than 500 employees account for
approximately 35 percent of total manufacturing employment in the
United States, according to unpublished reports of the Small Defense
Plants Administration. However, findings of this survey of industrial
research show that companies in this size class employed less than 10
percent of the research engineers and scientists in manufacturing
concerns. Statistics on employment by size of company are not availa­
ble for nonmanufacturing industries.




10

Table 2. P ercen t o f re se a rc h eng in eers and s c ie n tis ts employed on
Government prime c o n tra c ts and su b c o n tra c ts, by in d u stry
and by s iz e o f company, January 1952

Item

E stim ated
t o ta l number
o f re se a rch
eng in eers and
s c ie n tis ts
re p o rte d

A ll
types
of
work
A.

A ll in d u s trie s .........................................
M anufacturing ............................................
Chemicals and a llie d p ro d u c ts ...
Petroleum re fin in g ............................
Prim ary m etal in d u s trie s ..............
F ab ricated m etal products ............
M achinery (except e le c tr ic a l) ..
E le c tric a l m achinery .......................
Motor v e h ic le s and equipm ent . . .
A irc ra ft and p a rts ............................
P ro fe ssio n a l and s c ie n tif ic
in stru m en ts .......................................
O ther m anufacturing .........................
Nonm anufacturing ................................
Commercial c o n su ltin g firm s . . . .
N onprofit re se a rc h agen cies . . . .
O ther nonm anufacturing ...................
A ll siz e s of companies .......................
Less than 500 e m p lo y e e s............
500 - 4->999 employees .....................
5,000 o r more employees ................

1/ 95,694
83,772
H,032
4,954
1,810
2,562
5,891
17,375
3,072
20,235
5,758
8,083
11,922

3,803
3,421
4,698
1/ 95,694
10,999
20,499
64,196

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

P ercen t employed. on —
Government c o n tra c ts
NonPrime
Sub­ govern­
ment
T otal
con­
con­
tr a c ts tr a c ts work
By in d u stry

48.9
48.9
5.4
4.5
10.0
39.9
24.5
60.2
23.1
92.1

69*6

24.5
49.2

43.4

5.5

51.1

4 3.7

5.2

51.1

4 .7
3.9
7.2
23.2

.7

94.6
95.5
90.0
60.1
75.5
39.8

16.8

53.0
20.3
86.3
61.1
20.0

100.0
a .4
65.8
45.8
100.0
100.0
53.0 50.1
100.0
35.4 33-6
B. By siz e o f company
100.0
48.9 43.4
100.0
58.7 43.0
100.0
47.9 38.6
100.0
49.3 46.8

.6
2.8

16.7
7.7
7.2
2*8
5.8
8.5
4.5
7.8

76.9
7.9
30.4
75.5
50.8
34.2
47.0

20.0
2.9
1.8

64.6

5.5

51.1

15.7
9.3
2.5

a .3

52.1

50.7

1 / Inclu des e stim a te s fo r 134. companies th a t f a ile c to re p o rt th e number o f research
eng in eers and s c ie n tis ts employed. Although exact numbers a re g iven , n o t a l l d ig its o f th e
numbers are s t a t i s t i c a l l y s ig n if ic a n t.




11

The proportion of research engineers and scientists on
Government contracts was lowest in the following industries: Food
and kindred products (l percent); paper {b percent); petroleum
refining (5 percent); and chemicals (5 percent). Characteristically,
many companies in these industries prefer to finance their own re­
search programs in order to insure secrecy of development and to take
advantage of future production contracts. However, by independently
undertaking research work of types needed by the Federal Government,
these industries have participated in defense research to a greater
extent than the percentages-cited above would indicate. Furthermore,
since the chemicals industry has a very large research staff, the
actual number of research engineers and scientists employed on
Government contracts was greater in this industry than in some others
(for example, fabricated metal products) where the proportion on
Government work was much higher.
The extent to which small business enterprises participate
in Government contracts is a matter which has received considerable
public attention. This survey indicates that the proportion of the
professional research staff assigned to Government-financed projects
was, on the average, slightly higher in small than in large companies.
Firms with fewer than 500 employees reported that three-fifths of
their research engineers and scientists were on Government work,
whereas the figure for larger organizations was about one-half
(table 2). However, the absolute number of research engineers and
scientists on Government research projects was much greater in large
than in small companies.
Most of the research work for Federal agencies was done on
contracts let directly b y these agencies. Forty-three percent of the
research engineers and scientists in the survey were working on
Government prime contracts, as compared with 6 percent who were on
subcontracts.
Government research projects often require such expensive
equipment and such large specialized staffs that only large companies
can undertake them. However, many.phases of such projects can be
handled effectively by smaller organizations on a subcontract basis.
As expected, the survey showed that the proportion of all research
engineers and scientists working on Government subcontracts was
higher in small than in large companies— 1 5 .7 percent in those with
less than 500 employees, compared with 9*3 percent in those with 500
to U ,999 workers and 2.5 percent in still larger organizations. An
unanticipated finding is the much higher proportion of research
engineers and scientists working on Government prime contracts than
on subcontracts even in organizations with less than 500 employees
(table 2 ).
Commercial consulting firms had the highest proportion of
professional research staff employed on Government subcontracts (20
percent). Nevertheless, such firms had more than twice as many pro­
fessional research workers on Government prime contracts as on sub­
contracts .




12

In the fabricated metal products industry, subcontracts were
of greater relative importance than in any other branch of manufac­
turing having a sizable amount of Government research. 8/ Seventeen
percent of the research engineers and scientists in this industry were
employed on Government subcontracts— owing to the substantial number
of small firms in the industry and the high proportion of the research
staffs of these small companies engaged in research work for the
Government. The manufacturing industries which employed the largest
absolute numbers of research engineers and scientists on subcontracts
were those with the largest research staffs— aircraft and electrical
machinery (table 2).

CHANGE IN EMPLOYMENT, JANUARY 1951 TO JANUARY 1952

Employment of research engineers and scientists rose sub­
stantially during 1951 , a year of rapid expansion in the defense
program. The companies in the survey increased their employment of
professional research personnel by nearly one-fourth between January
1951 and January 1952— from an estimated 77,*+00 to about 95,700.
Every industry for which information is available expanded
its research staff to some extent during the year (tables C-ll and
C-12). As would be expected, however, the industries most intensively
engaged in defense research reported the greatest increases in employ­
ment of research personnel, in both percentage and absolute terms
(chart 3)* In the aircraft industry, employment of research engineers
and scientists increased by nearly 50 percent over the 12-month
period. In the electrical machinery and professional and scientific
instruments industries, it rose by 28 percent. The smallest relative
increase (6 percent) occurred in the petroleum industry (table 3)•
The part which the defense program played in the expansion
of research staffs is shown still more clearly by figures on the
change in employment on Government and nongovernment research work.
The number of research engineers and scientists doing Governmentfinanced research rose by 52 percent between January 1951 and January
1952 in all industries taken together, whereas the number on non­
government research work increased by only 5 percent. Employment of
research engineers and scientists on subcontracts rose relatively
more (5 8 percent) than employment on prime contracts (5 1 percent),
but the actual number of men added was much greater on prime con­
tracts than on subcontracts (table C-13).

8/ See table C-9It will be noted from this table that
the average number of research engineers and scientists on Government
subcontracts per 100 on all Government contracts was higher in the
paper and the paint industries than in fabricated metal products.
However, the total number of research engineers and scientists on
Government contracts was very small in these industries.




13

Table 3 . Percent change in employment o f research engin eers and s c ie n t is t s on Government and
nongovernment work, January 1951 to January 1952,. by ind u stry and by s iz e o f company

Item

E ngineers and s c i e n t is t s
employed on —

A ll en g in eers
and
s c i e n t is t s

Government c o n tr a c ts
Other work
Number P ercen t change, Number P ercent change, Number P ercent change;
reported, Jan. 1951 to rep orted , Jan. 1951 to rep orted, Jan. 1951 to
Jan. 1952
Jan. 1952
Jan. 1952
J a n .1952
J a n .1952
J a n .1952
A. By in d u str y
1 /9 5 ,6 9 4

2 3 .7

1 / 45,445

5 2 .0

1 /5 0 ,2 4 9

5 .1

83,772

2 3 .3

39,4 6 7

5 2 .2

44,305

5 .1

Chem icals and a l li e d produ cts . . . .
Petroleum r e f i n i n g ......................
Primary m etal in d u str ie s ....................
F ab ricated m etal products .................
M achinery (excep t e le c t r ic a l) . . . .
E le c tr ic a l machinery .............................
Motor v e h ic le s and equipm ent ..........
A ir c r a ft and p a rts ..................................
P r o fe ssio n a l and s c i e n t if i c
in stru m en ts ............................................
Other m anufacturing ......................

14,032
4 ,9 5 4
1,810
2,562
5,391
17,375
3 ,072
20,235

1 0 .8
5 .7
9 .5
2 0 .8
1 4 .7
2 7 .5
1 0 .9
4 8 .5

802

69.8

8 .6
5 .6
1 0 .1

5,758
8,083

Nonmanufacturing ............................................
Commercial c o n su ltin g firm s ............
N on p rofit research a g e n c ie s .............
Other nonm anufacturing .........................

A ll in d u str ie s ................................................
M anufacturing ..............................................

223
181
1 ,0 2 2
1,443
10,460
710
18,636

8 .7
5 .7
4 4 .6
7 4 .2
5 4 .0
1 0 4 .0
5 2 .8

13,230
4 ,7 3 1
1 ,6 2 9
1 ,5 4 0
4 ,4 4 3
6 ,9 1 5
2 ,362
1 ,5 9 9

3 .2
1 .2
- 2 .5
1 1 .9

4 ,1 3 9
1 ,851

44*2
4 0 .7

1 ,6 1 9
6 ,2 3 2

- 6 .4
6 .1

11,922

28 .3
1 2 .8
2 3 .2

5,978

5 0 .8

5,944

5 .3

3,303
3 ,421
4 ,6 9 8

3 1 .5
2 4 .9
1 6 .8

2,502
1,813
1,663

5 2 .9
3 1 .2
6 6 .8

1 ,3 0 1

1,608

3 ,0 3 5

3 .2
1 8 .4
.3

8 .4

B. By s iz e o f company
A ll s iz e s o f companies .............................

1 /9 5 ,6 9 4

2 3 .7

1/ 45,445

5 2 .0

1 /5 0 ,2 4 9

5 .1

Less than $00 em ployees ......................
500 - 4 ,9 9 9 em ployees ......................
5,000 or more .............................................

10,999
2 0 ,499
64,196

3 3 .4
2 2 .3
2 3 .0

6,085

5 8 .9
4 2 .1
5 4 .8

4 ,9 1 4
11,182
34,153

1 1 .3
9 .6
4 .2

9 ,3 1 7
30,043

1 / In clu d es e stim a te s fo r 134. companies th a t f a ile d to rep ort the number o f research en g in eers and s c i e n t is t s
em ployed. Although e x a ct numbers are g iv en , n ot a l l d ig it s o f the numbers are s t a t i s t i c a l l y s ig n if ic a n t .




Ik

Despite the rapid expansion in employment on Government
research contracts, most industries achieved some increase during the
year in the number of research engineers and scientists working on
company-financed research. In one industry, primary metals, the gain
in employment on nongovernment research (10 percent) exceeded that on
Government work (6 percent). The motor vehicle and professional and
scientific instruments industries were the only ones that experienced
a net decline in employment on nongovernment research— no doubt owing
largely to a shifting of personnel to defense work for the Federal
Government.




15

The relative increase in size of professional research staff
during 1951 was greater in small than in large companies. Firms with
fever than 500 employees in January 1952 had increased their employ­
ment of research engineers and scientists by 33 percent daring the
preceding year.
In contrast, organizations with 500 to *+,999 em­
ployees experienced a 22 -percent increase in staff and those with
5,000 or more employees a 2 3 -percent increase.
Since this survey was concerned with industrial research
and development work only, the findings do not indicate the overall
trend in employment of engineers and scientists during 1951• The
large expansion in industrial research and development staffs which
occurred during the year may well have been achieved in part by
transfers of personnel from production work and other types of activ­
ities, as well as by an influx of new engineering and science grad­
uates.




16

SU PPO R T IN G PERSONNEL
DISTRIBUTION OF EMPLOYMENT

Research engineers and scientists axe assisted by draftsmen,
laboratory assistants, other technicians, skilled craftsmen, and ad­
ministrative, clerical, and maintenance personnel. These "supporting
personnel" include all employees, except the engineers and scientists,
who do work connected with research and development programs (includ­
ing a proportionate share of overhead personnel).
The companies in the study employed about 143,000 supporting
workers— half again as large a number as the total of 95,700 research
engineers and scientists. Nearly fifty-five percent of the supporting
personnel, as of the engineers and scientists, were in three indus­
tries --electrical machinery, aircraft, and chemicals. In some indus­
tries, however, there were marked differences in the relative numbers
of workers in these two occupational categories. For example, elec­
trical machinery manufacturers were the largest employers of support­
ing workers, but the aircraft industry led in employment of research
engineers and scientists (table C-2). The motor vehicle industry em­
ployed about three times as large a proportion of the supporting per­
sonnel in the survey as of the professional research workers.
The concentration of employment in the largest firms was
even greater in the case of supporting workers than of their profes­
sional colleagues. Twenty-four percent of the supporting workers and
14 percent of the research engineers and scientists were employed by
the seven reporting companies with 100,000 or more employees (table
C-3). An analysis of the distribution of employment among companies
with professional research staffs of different sizes shows the same
high concentration of supporting personnel in a few organizations with
very large programs (table C-4).

SUPPORT RATIOS

During the current period of manpower shortages in engineer­
ing and the sciences, the possibility of expanding supporting staffs
in order to utilize professional personnel more efficiently has been
widely discussed. The "support ratio"— that is, the number of sup­
porting workers employed per research engineer or scientist— has b e ­
come a matter of great interest and importance in research management.
Detailed data on support ratios have therefore been compiled for com­
panies that supplied information on the size of both their professional
and their supporting staffs.

purposes.

These data are of two types, which are useful for different
The average support ratios, presented first, summarize the




17

experience of all companies in a given industry or size group. 9/ They
would be the best measures to use, for example, in estimating overall
requirements for supporting personnel in connection with defense plan­
ning. Companies interested in comparing their own support ratios with
those of other companies in the same industry and size group will, how­
ever, find the median and quartile ratios most useful.

Average Support Ratios

The average support ratio for all companies in the survey
was 1.5 in January 1952, but the support ratio varied widely among
industries. Motor vehicle manufacturers had by far the highest aver­
age number of supporting workers per research engineer or scientist
(5-2). The electrical machinery industry came next, with a ratio of
2.0. The industries with the lowest ratio (0.7) were those manufac­
turing transportation equipment other than motor vehicles and aircraft
and those making "other chemical products" (table C-l4).
When the companies were classified according to size, the
average support ratio was found to increase from 0 .9 for those with
less than 500 employees to 1.3 for those with 500 to 4,999 employees
and 1.6 for those with 5 >000 or more employees. 10/ Statistical
analyses show that the variations in the companies’ support ratios
were even more closely related to differences in company size than to
industry differences. 11/ In general, firms with large staffs have
apparently found it feasible to have greater specialization of per­
sonnel than is practicable in smaller organizations. The relatively
low support ratios of the small companies probably also reflect the
fact that such firms often contract out much of their subprofessional
work to drafting firms and machine shops, since their volume of work
does not warrant the maintenance of a staff to perform these service
functions-.
Ratios for January 1951> comparable to those for January 1952
already presented, show that the average support ratio for all report­
ing companies was the same (1 .5 ) in both these months. In more than
half of the industries for which separate figures are available, no
change in the average ratios occurred over the year, and in all other

9/
The average ratios were computed by dividing the aggregate
number of supporting personnel on the payrolls of the given group of
companies by the aggregate number of research engineers and scien­
tists in their employ. Throughout the report, the terms "average"
and "mean" denote statistics computed by this method.
10/ A classification of the firms by size of professional re­
search staffs shows a similar direct relationship between the support
ratio and the size of the research program (table C-15).
11/ This conclusion is supported by analysis of variance tests.
A memorandum describing the results of these tests has been prepared
by the Bureau of Labor Statistics and will be available upon request.




18

industries, the increase or decrease was small. Apparently, there was
no significant increase in utilization of supporting personnel during
1951, despite the shortage of engineers and scientists. In this sur­
vey, no information was obtained as to the number of companies which
considered that they were already employing as many supporting workers
as they could utilize efficiently, nor as to the number which would
have liked to expand their supporting staffs but were unable to do so
because of labor shortages.

Median and Quartile Support Ratios

The extremely wide range in the support ratios of individual
companies is shown in chart U. Half the companies in the survey re­
ported that the number of supporting workers per research engineer or
scientist in their employ was 0.8 or less, but a few firms had support
ratios many times as high as this median figure. 12/

AVERAGE NUMBER OF SUPPORTING WORKERS PER RESEARCH
ENGINEER OR SCIENTIST WAS LESS THAN ONE IN OVER
HALF THE COMPANIES-- MUCH HIGHER IN A FEW

N u m b er o f

0

1.0

u n it e d s t a t e s d e p a r t m e n t

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

of

2.0
labo r

3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
A v e r a g e N u m b er of S u p p o rtin g W ork ers
P er R esea rch E n g in eer or S c ie n tis t, J a n u a ry 1952
,

a0

9.0

10.0

12/ The median ratio is the value for the middle company, in a
ranking of the companies in order of the size of their support ratios.




19

The average support ratio for all firms in the survey, as
indicated in the last section, was 1.5* There are two reasons why
the average was so much larger than the median ratio:
(1) The ex­
tremely high support ratios reported by a few companies; and (2 ) the
fact that, in most industries, large companies usually had higher ra­
tios than small companies. Both these factors raised the average ra­
tios but did not affect the medians. They are responsible similarly
for the substantial difference between the mean (or average) and the
median ratios for practically every industry and company size group
(table C-14).
The variation in support ratios among companies should be
taken into account by any concern wishing to compare its own employ­
ment pattern with the survey findings. A ranking of the companies
according to the size of their support ratios shows a relatively wide
range in ratios even for concerns in the middle half of the distribu­
tion— from 0.3 (the lower quartile) to 1.5 (the upper quartile). The
range between these two figures (the interquartile range) for compa­
nies in a particular industry and size group was somewhat narrower in
most cases. Though influenced by both company size and industry, the
support ratios in individual organizations apparently depended even
more on factors such as varying company personnel policies, the exact
nature of the research program, and the availability of technicians
in the locality.
In a number of industries, companies with fewer than 500
employees had a lower-quartile support ratio of zero. This means
that at least one-fourth of the companies in these categories re­
ported no employment of supporting workers. 13 /

13 / The companies which reported that they employed no support­
ing workers generally had very small research programs.
In such
organizations, the entire staff involved in research activities may
have consisted of professional workers, or, if the company conducting
the research program had some other major business, the assistance
given the research staff by administrative and other overhead person­
nel may have been so slight as to be negligible when translated into
"full-time equivalent" terms. However, erroneous reporting (misclassification of personnel or failure to count overhead personnel as sup­
porting workers) apparently accounted for the "0" support ratio in
some cases.




20

COST OF RESEARCH
DISTRIBUTION OF RESEARCH COST

The two basic yardsticks used to gauge the size of a re­
search program are dollars and numbers of employees. These two meas­
ures yield similar findings as to the relative magnitude of different
programs, since personnel expenses form a sizable proportion of the
total cost of research and development projects.
The electrical machinery, aircraft, and chemicals indus­
tries, which led in employment of research personnel, also had the
highest total research costs (table C-l6). They accounted for 5^
percent of the total 1951 cost of research and development reported
by the companies in this survey. Furthermore, they employed in
January 1952, as previously noted, 5k percent of the research engi­
neers and scientists.
In most individual industries, the cost and employment per­
centages did not agree as closely as these combined totals (table C- 2 ) .
However, a wide difference was found only in the motor vehicle indus­
try. In dollars, the research and development program of this indus­
try amounted to about 11 percent of the total for all companies in
the study and was nearly as large as that of the chemicals industry.
Nevertheless, motor vehicle manufacturers employed only about one out
of every 30 research engineers and scientists.
The major reason for
the higher proportion of total costs than of research engineers and
scientists in this industry was its relatively high support ratio.
The concentration of research and development activity in
the largest companies was greater when measured in terms of financial
outlay than is indicated by the employment data (table C-17). The
seven companies in the survey which employed 100 ,00§ or more employees
were responsible for 26 percent of the 1951 cost, compared with l1*
percent of the research engineers and scientists employed in January
1952. In contrast, the 1,339 organizations with fewer than 1,000
employees accounted for only 12 percent of the cost and 18 percent of
the research engineers and scientists (table C- 3 ).
A classification of the companies by the size of their pro­
fessional research staffs likewise shows a higher concentration of
research costs than of employment in the largest organizations, al­
though the differential is less. The 18 reporting companies with
1,000 or more research engineers and scientists accounted for UU per­
cent of the cost of research, compared with 37 percent of the engi­
neering and scientific employment. Conversely, the 1,82U concerns
with a total professional research staff of less than 125 did only 21
percent of the research, measured in dollars, but employed 29 percent
of the research engineers and scientists (table C-U). The explanation
of these findings, as of that for the motor vehicle industry, lies in
the support ratios. Since the number of supporting workers employed

275235 0-53-3




21

per research engineer or scientist tended to he higher in large than
in small organizations (p. 18 ), the large concerns had a higher per­
centage of the total cost than of the professional research personnel.

RESEARCH FINANCED BY FEDERAL GOVERNMENT

Government-Financed Research as Percent of Total Research Cost

The Federal Government paid for nearly half of the total
cost of industrial research and development work performed in this
country during 1951. This corresponds closely with the proportion of
research engineers and scientists working on Government contracts at
the beginning of 1952. About 97 percent of the cost of federally
financed research was on work for the Department of Defense or the
Atomic Energy Commission.
The predominance of Government-financed research in indus­
tries directly related to national defense, and above all in aircraft
manufacturing, is evident from the cost data shown in chart 5 (as also
from the information on employment of research engineers and scien­
tists on p a g e d ) . Eighty-five percent of the aircraft industry’s




22

1951 research and development cost was on Government contracts. The
Government also financed half or more of the research done by the
professional and scientific instruments and electrical machinery in­
dustries and by commercial consulting and nonprofit research organi­
zations (table b ) . In contrast, the chemicals and petroleum indus­
tries themselves financed all but 7 percent and 3 percent, respec­
tively, of their total research and development cost. These indus­
tries have, however, contributed to defense research to a greater
extent than the percentages suggest, since part of their companyfinanced research activity has had a bearing on defense problems.
The motor vehicle industry also had a large research and
development program financed to only a small extent by the Government.
Only 9 percent of the cost of research in this industry during 1951
was on Government contracts, fiowever, 23 percent of the industry’s
research and development engineers and scientists were employed on
Government projects. This difference reflects the fact that, in the
motor vehicle industry, the average cost of research per engineer or
scientist was lower on Government than on other work (p. 3*0. 1^/
Government-financed research was of somewhat greater rela­
tive importance in small than in large companies (table C-l8).
Nearly three-fifths of the cost of research performed by concerns
with less than 500 employees was incurred on Government contracts,
whereas in larger organizations the proportion was almost one-half.
Nevertheless, the total dollar cost of Government research carried
out by the companies with 5,000 or more employees far exceeded the
total cost of the work done by the much greater number of smaller
companies. 15 /
When the data are classified according to the size of the
companies’ professional research staffs, the Government’s share of
the research and development cost was highest in large organizations,
in percentage as well as absolute terms. Fifty-five percent of the
cost of research done by companies with 500 or more research engi­
neers and scientists was for work on Government contracts, compared

lb/ In certain industries, other than motor vehicles, lesser
differences were found between the percent of research cost on Govern­
ment contracts and the proportion of research engineers and scientists
employed on such work (as may be seen by comparing the figures in
tables 2 and *+). These differences can, in some instances, be traced
to the same type of cost differential as was noted in the motor vehicle
industry, but they were also due in part to other factors. The two
sets of figures do not refer to exactly the same period of time. Fur­
thermore, the two sets of data were, of necessity, based on somewhat
different groups of companies, since some of those sending in ques­
tionnaires did not supply information on employment while others failed
to furnish cost data.
15/ These findings agree closely with those regarding the em­
ployment of research engineers and scientists on Government contracts
(p. 12).




23

Table 1*. Cost of research on Government prime contracts and sub­
contracts as percent of total research cost, by industry
and by size of company, 195>1

Item

E stim ated
c o st o f
re se a rc h
re p o rte d
(m illio n s)

P ercen t o f re se a rc h c o st on —Government c o n tra c ts
NonA ll
Prime
Sub­ govern­
types
T o tal
con­
con­
of
ment
tr a c ts tr a c ts work
work
A. By in d u stry

A ll in d u s trie s ..............................................

1/&1>980

M anufacturing ................................................
Chemicals and a llie d products . . . .
Petroleum re fin in g ................................
Prim ary m etal in d u s trie s ...................
F ab ricated m etal products ................
M achinery (except e l e c t r i c a l ) ............
E le c tric a l m achinery ............................
Motor v e h ic le s and equipment ..........
A irc ra ft and p a rts ................................
P ro fe ssio n a l and s c ie n tif ic
in stru m en ts .........................................
O ther m anufacturing ..............................
Nonm anufacturing .........................................

1,791
221

Commercial c o n su ltin g firm s ............
N onprofit re se a rc h agen cies ............
O ther nonm anufacturing .......................

50
39
100

A ll siz e s of companies ............................
Less th an 500 employees ...................
500 - 4,999 employees
...................
5,000 o r more employees .....................

98
37

a
104
437
214
411
93
135
189

1/ 1,980
146

346
1,488

100.0

46.8

42.5

4 .3

53.2

100.0

46.4

42.4

4 .0

53.6

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

7 .1
3 .1
9 .5
3 1 .1
23.8
57.0
9 .4
8 5.1

6 .5
2 .7
7 .0

100.0
100.0

5 7.3
1 9 .7

100.0

50.6

18.9
16.6
53.7
9 .1
79.2
49.8
5.1
43.7

100.0
100.0
100.0

65 .4
53.2
42 .9

49.3
50.3
38.7

6 .9
16.1
2 .9
4 .2

B_.....By siz e o f company
46.8
100.0
42.5
57.6
100.0
42.0
100.0
49.9
4 0 .9
100.0
4 5 .1
43.3

4-3
15.6
9 .0
1.8

.6
.4
2 .5
12.2
7 .2
3 .3
.3
5.9
7.5
4.6

1 / Includes e stim a te s fo r 181 companies th a t f a ile d to re p o rt c o st o f re se a rc h .
E stim ates are rounded to th e n e a re s t m illio n .




2k

92.9
96.9
90.5
68.9

76.2
43.0
90.6
14.9
42.7
80.3
4 9 .4
34-6
46.8
57.1
53.2

42 .4
50.1
54.9

with about forty percent or less of the cost reported by companies
with smaller research staffs (table C- 19 ). The high figure for large
organizations resulted mainly from large Government research con­
tracts in the aircraft and electrical machinery industries.
Even in small companies, Government-sponsored research was
conducted mainly on contracts made directly with Federal agencies.
In firms with less than 500 employees, the total cost of research on
Government prime contracts was nearly three times as great as that of
work on subcontracts (table k ) . In companies with 500 to ^,999 em­
ployees, the corresponding ratio was about 5 to 1 and in those with
5,000 or more employees, nearly 25 to 1. 16 /
The proportion of research cost in different industries
incurred on Government subcontracts is shown in table U. These data,
like the figures on employment of research engineers and scientists,
indicate that subcontracts were of greatest relative importance in
the fabricated metal products industry and in commercial consulting
organizations. They also show that the dollar value of research work
done on subcontracts was greatest in the aircraft industry, which in­
cludes many small manufacturers of aircraft parts as well as large
companies producing complete aircraft or engines.

Paid;icipation of Individual Companies in Government Research

The percentages cited so far are a measure of the extent to
which the research and development facilities of different industries
and of companies in different size groups were utilized on Governmentsponsored research during 1951- To indicate how Government contracts
were distributed among individual companies, information has been
compiled also on the percentage of the total research cost of each
company which was Government-financed.
About Uo percent of the companies in the survey did no
Government research during 1951. In several industries, including
chemicals and petroleum refining, the proportion of companies without
Government research contracts exceeded 50 percent. At the other ex­
treme were the aircraft manufacturers, more than half of which did
research only on Government contracts during 1951• In three out of
every four companies in this industry, Government-financed research
accounted for 83 percent or more of the total 1951 cost of the com­
pany’s research activities.
In most industries, however, there was wide variation among
companies in the degree of participation in Government research.
More than one-fourth of the electrical machinery companies, for

16/ These findings also correspond with those based on infor­
mation regarding employment of professional research personnel (p. 12).




25

example, did research only on Government contracts during 1951 >
whereas another fourth reported that the cost of their Governmentsponsored research amounted to only 23 percent or less of their 1951
research cost. The variation was most extreme among the manufac­
turers of "other transportation equipment" and the commercial con­
sulting firms. Over a fourth of the organizations in "both these
groups did no Government research at all, though a similar proportion
conducted research only on Government contracts (table C-l8).

RESEARCH COST AS A PERCENT OF SALES

Administrators in charge of research programs often rely in
part on certain rule-of-thumb relationships in the planning and budg­
eting of their programs. The ratio of research cost to value of sales
is one of the most important of these relationships.
The present report contains two types of data on this sub­
ject:
(l) Overall percentages for different industries and for com­
panies of different sizes; 1 jJ and (2) median and quartile ratios
derived from percentages for individual companies. A businessman
interested in comparing the ratio of research cost to value of sales
in his own organization with comparable figures for other companies
will find the median and quartile ratios most suited to his purpose.
The overall percentages are, however, a better indication of the
degree of emphasis on research and development in different indus­
tries— insofar as this can be determined from a survey limited to
companies having research and development programs.

Average Ratios

The cost of research performed during 1951 by the companies
in this survey amounted to about 2 percent of the total value of their
sales (or services, in the case of research and consulting organiza­
tions not producing a physical product). The percent varied widely
among industries. Aircraft companies had a far higher figure (13 per­
cent) than any other branch of manufacturing, owing primarily to the
many large Government research contracts in this industry and to the
fact that, in 1951 > mass production of military aircraft was just
beginning. The next highest figure for a manufacturing industry (6
percent) was found in the electrical machinery and the professional
and scientific instruments industries. These industries also had
large defense contracts, but the proportion of research performed for
the Government was considerably lower there than in aircraft manufac-

17/ The overall percentages were computed by dividing the total
research cost for the companies in the specified industry or size
group by the total value of their sales.




26

turing. At the low end of the scale were the petroleum refining,
primary and fabricated metals, and "other" manufacturing industries,
where research costs amounted to less than 1 percent of sales
(chart 6). However, the total value of sales in these industries was
so great that even this low percentage represented a sizable dollar
volume of research (chart 5).

Chart 6

COST OF RESEARCH AS PERCENT OF SALES
WAS HIGHEST IN INDUSTRIES WITH LARGE DEFENSE CONTRACTS
Percent of Cost
1951 Research Cost
Financed by
Industry
Government and
as rercent or oaies
by Private Industry
AIRCRAFT
ELECTRICALM
ACHINERY
©
PROFESSIONAL AND ENTS
SCIENTIFIC INSTRUM
G o v e rn m ent

15
”1

P r iv a t e
In d u s tr y

©
©

m

©

m
©
©
©

CHEM
ICALS
M
ACHINERY
(Except Electrical)

MOTOR VEHICLES
PRIM ANDM
ARY
FABRICATED ETALS

PETROLEUMREFINING
OTHER MANUFACTURING
NONMANUFACTURING

Source: Tables C-18 and C-20

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT O LABOR
P
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

In all nonmanufacturing industries taken together, the ratio
of research cost to sales or services was 1.8 percent, close to the
average for all industries (tables C-20 and C-21). The overall ratio
for nonmanufacturing organizations reflects primarily the situation
in the telecommunications industry, which accounted for most of the
research spending by nonmanufacturing concerns.
Nonprofit research agencies and commercial research
services— with research costs amounting to 90 and ^7 percent, respec­
tively, of the total value of services rendered— were also included
in the nonmanufacturing category. In both these types of organiza­
tions, research and development is the major business, not a support­
ing activity as in manufacturing and telecommunications. However,
the total cost of the research performed b y these organizations was
too small to have much effect on the average ratio for all nonmanu­
facturing concerns.




27

Small companies tended to have a higher ratio of research
cost to value of sales than large organizations. Those with fewer
than 500 employees reported a research cost amounting to about 7 per­
cent of their total sales, whereas the comparable figure for larger
companies was about 2 percent. 18/ These data, of course, relate only
to companies having industrial research programs.
If the survey had
covered all industrial concerns, including those without research
activities, the finding would undoubtedly have been reversed, since
relatively few small companies conduct research. 19 /

Median and Quartile Ratios

The relationship between the cost of research in a particu­
lar company and that company's total value of sales is the net result
of a great number of factors— for example, the products manufactured
by the company, its degree of integration, the size of its defense
contracts if any, its financial resources and competitive situation,
and the policy of the management. The interplay of these factors
leads to great variation among companies in the ratio of research
cost to sales. One-fourth of the manufacturing companies in the
study had ratios of 0.8 percent, or less, whereas another fourth had
ratios of 5-6 percent or more. Thus, even if one considers only the
companies in the middle half of the distribution, the ratios are
found to have a wide range— from 0.8 to 5.6 percent (the upper and
lower quartiles).
In some branches of manufacturing the interquartile range
was narrower than this (table C-20). In petroleum refining, for
example, the lower quartile was 0.4 percent and the upper quartile
was 1.5 percent. On the other hand, in the professional and scien­
tific instruments industry the range was from 3-^ to 20.0 percent; in
aircraft and parts, from 3.2 to 18.8 percent, in electrical machinery,
from 1.9 to 11.1 percent. The extremely wide range in ratios in
these three industries undoubtedly reflects, to some degree, the con­
trasting situation in companies with large defense research contracts
and those that did not hold such contracts.

18/ It will be recalled that research cost as a percent of
sales for all companies in the survey taken together was also 2 per­
cent. The total value of sales of companies with fewer than 500 em­
ployees was so small, relative to the sales of larger companies, that
their experience had a negligible effect on the overall average.
19 / This survey included approximately 1 out of every 5 manu­
facturing companies with 500 or more employees but only about 1 out
of 350 manufacturing concerns with fewer than 500 employees. In all
size groups, the organizations in the survey are believed to repre­
sent the majority of all those conducting industrial research, al­
though the coverage of large organizations was better than that of
smaller organizations.




28.

These findings show that no one figure adequately portrays
the relationship between research cost and value of sales in an in­
dustry. The median ratios do, however, provide a more typical pic­
ture of the relationship, as it exists in individual companies, than
do the averages discussed in the preceding section.
In manufacturing as a whole, the average and median percen­
tages were the same (2 percent), hut the two statistics differed
markedly in some industries. In the professional and scientific
instruments industry, for example, the average ratio was 6 percent,
whereas the median ratio (which, by definition, was equalled or e x ­
ceeded by the ratios for half of the reporting companies) was 8 per­
cent. The reasons for this difference is made plain by the cost
ratios for companies of various sizes. The small instrument manufac­
turers tended to have higher ratios of research cost to sales than
the large ones, and there were so many small companies that their
cost ratios largely determined the median. The few large companies,
however, had a much greater total value of sales than the small
firms, and their ratios, therefore, mainly determined the average.
In aircraft manufacturing, on the other hand, the statis­
tical picture was reversed— the average ratio for the industry (13
percent) was more than half again as high as the median ratio of 8
percent. Here, the explanation lies in the very high ratios of re­
search cost to sales in a few big aircraft companies holding large
defense contracts and the lower ratios reported b y the greater number
of small companies.
For commercial consulting firms the median ratio of research
cost to value of services was 77 percent. For nonprofit research
agencies it was 100 percent, indicating that at least half the organi­
zations in this category were engaged wholly in research during 1951 .
In contrast, the median ratio for companies in telecommunications and
other nonmanufacturing industries was only about 3 percent. The
total number of such companies in the study was very small, however,
much smaller than the number of consulting and nonprofit organiza­
tions. Consequently, the latter organizations mainly determined the
very high median ratio (67 percent) for all nonmanufacturing firms.




29

RESEARCH COST PER W ORKER
Ratios of research cost to research personnel serve a vari­
ety of purposes. They are valuable to companies or Government agencies
concerned vith setting cost standards for their own research activities
or those of their contractors. They can also be used to estimate the
total cost of employing a specified number of research workers or, con­
versely, to estimate the personnel required to perform a research pro­
ject of a given dollar size. Cost per research engineer or scientist
is the ratio most useful for some purposes; other purposes are better
served by cost data related to total research employment. This report,
therefore, presents both kinds of information. As in preceding sections
of the report, two types of statistics are given:
(1) Average ratios
for all companies in different industries and size groups— the figures
best adapted for use, for example, in estimating personnel require­
ments, and (2) median and quartile ratios, which portray the cost ex­
perience of individual companies.

COST PER RESEARCH ENGINEER OR SCIENTIST 20/

Average Cost Ratios

The average cost per research engineer or scientist was
$21,900 in 1951 in all industries taken together. Of the nine
branches of manufacturing shown in chart 7, the one with the lowest
cost per research engineer or scientist ($16 ,500 ) was the chemicals
industry.
The highest average cost--$68,600--was that for the motor
vehicle industry. This was more than twice the $28,000 for the elec­
trical machinery, the next highest ratio. Differing support ratios
largely explain these variations in average cost. As noted earlier,
the motor vehicle industry employed a much larger number of support­
ing workers, relative to the number of research engineers and scien­
tists, than any other branch of manufacturing, whereas the chemicals
industry had a rather low support ratio.
Commercial consulting firms and nonprofit research agencies
had an average cost per research engineer or scientist of $ 15,100 and
$12,k00, respectively. In telecommunications and other nonmanufactur­
ing industries, however, the average cost was $23,300, slightly above
the $22,500 average for all manufacturing industries.

20/ Operating cost of all research and development divided by
the average of the January 1951 and January 1952 employment of re­
search engineers and scientists.




30

The cost per engineer or scientist also varied directly vith
the size of the company (chart 8). Thus, the average ratio for compa­
nies with less than 500 employees was $14,800, compared with $18,100
for those with 500 to 4,999 employees, and $24,300 for larger organiza­
tions (table C-23). A classification of the companies by the size of
their research staffs shows a similar relationship— rising cost ratios
with increasing research staffs (table C-23). Since support ratios
tended to be higher in large than in small organizations, they help to
account for the variation in cost among companies in different size
groups as well as among those in different industries. 21/

21/ Statistical tests show that about 40 percent of the total
variation in average cost per research engineer or scientist among the
surveyed companies was accounted for by variation in the support ratio.
The differences in average cost among industries and company size groups
were also highly significant. A memorandum describing the analysis of
covariance test on which these conclusions are based has been prepared
by the Bureau of Labor Statistics and will be available upon request.




31

Chart 8.

LARGE COMPANIES HAVE HIGHER AVERAGE COST PER
RESEARCH WORKER THAN SMALL COMPANIES
Averaae Cost
Average Cost
Per Researcn w orK er, 1951
Per Research Engineer or Scientist, 1951
Thousands of Dollars
thousands of Dollars

Source:- Tables C-22 and C-26
Median and Quartile Cost Ratios

Chart 9 depicts the survey findings with respect to average
cost per research engineer or scientist in individual companies. A
few companies reported an extremely high cost, exceeding $ 60,000 in
some instances, but half of the companies had a cost of $ 13,500 or less.
This median figure was only three-fifths of the average cost
per research engineer or scientist for all companies in the study
($21,900). Median cost was lower than average cost in practically every
industry and company size group (table C-22). The reasons for these
differences are the same as for the similar differences discussed in
earlier sections of the report 22/--namely, that a few companies had
very high costs and that, in general, large companies reported the high­
est cost figures.
In any comparison of the survey findings with the cost expe­
rience of a specific company, the wide range in cost per research en­
gineer or scientist among the reporting companies should be borne in
mind. When these companies are ranked in order of their average costs,
the range for organizations in the middle half of the distribution is

22/

See pp. 20 and 28 .




32

found to be from $8,900 to $ 20,500 (the lower and upper quartiles).
Comparable figures for different Industries and company size groups
are presented in table C-22. In some industries the interquartile
range was narrower than it was for all companies in the survey, but
in other industries it was wider. In the chemicals industry, for ex­
ample, the range wa3 from $7,500 to $16,100 and in petroleum refining
from $12,500 to $19,700.
In contrast, in the motor vehicle industry
the lower quartile was $14,900 and the upper quartile $65,900.
Obviously, the cost per research engineer or scientist in
individual companies is greatly influenced by other factors as well
as industry and company size. Foremost among these other influences
is the extent of utilization of supporting personnel, a particularly
important factor in the motor vehicle industry. Other factors which
contributed to the variation in costs include differences in annual
charges for facilities, equipment and supplies, and wage and salary
differentials.

COST PER RESEARCH ENGINEER OR SCIENTIST ON GOVERNMENT-FINANCED RESEARCH

The research which industry conducted for the Federal Gov­
ernment during 1951 cost $23,900 per research engineer or scientist
employed. This average figure, which included work on both prime




33

contracts and subcontracts, was higher by $2,000 than the overall
average for both Government and nongovernment work (table 5) •
In some industries, Government-sponsored research involved
a lower average cost and, in others, a higher average cost than the
research financed by the companies themselves.
In still other indus­
tries no significant difference was found. Aircraft manufacturers,
for example, had an average cost per research engineer or scientist
of about $2^,000 on all their research work and also on Government
contracts alone. In the chemicals industry, on the other hand, the
cost figure for Government-sponsored research was slightly over
$22,000, about $6,000 more than the average for all research ac­
tivities in these industries.
In sharp contrast are the findings
for the motor vehicle industry, where the average'cost per research
engineer or scientist on Government work (approximately $3^,000)
was only half as great as the average for both Government and non­
government projects.
The information obtained in connection with this survey
does not provide a basis for any detailed analysis of the reasons
for these differences. Since many of the companies in the survey
had no Government contracts, the cost figures for Government research
do not reflect the experience of all the companies included in the
overall figures for both Government and nongovernment work. More
important, however, is the fact that the types of research done for
Government have often differed basically from those conducted by the
same company on its own funds.

COST PER RESEARCH WORKER 2^/

When research cost is related to
(including supporting personnel as well as
the result is a series of ratios which are
less variable than the ratios discussed in

total research employment
engineers and scientist),
not only lower but much
the preceding sections.

The average cost per research worker for all companies was
$8,800 in 1951* Among the industries shown in chart 7, average cost
ranged from $ 7,500 for professional and scientific instruments manu­
facturers to $10,900 for motor vehicle companies. Data for companies
of different sizes show a moderate increase in average costs, from

23 / Operating cost of all research and development divided by
the average of the January 1951 and January 1952 employment of all
research workers.




Table 5»

Average cost per research engineer or scientist on
all research and on Government-financed research,
by industry, 1951 1/

All
research

Industry

Governmentfinanced
research 2 t

All industries ..........................

121,900

♦23,900

Manufacturing ..........................

22,500

24,500

16,500
20,900
21,500
16,500
18,300
28,100
24,300

22,400
15,800
20,300
14,900
21,700
29,400
34,200
23,700

17,900
17,100

19,800
17,100

Nonmanufacturing .......................

17,800

20,100

Commercial consulting f i r m s .... .
Nonprofit research agencies .........
Other nonmanufacturing ...............

15,100
12,400
23,300

15,700
12,800
32,300

Chemicals and allied products .......
Petroleum refining ...................
Primary metal industries .............
Fabricated metal products ............
Machinery (except electrical) .......
Electrical machinery .................
Motor vehicles and equipment .........
Aircraft and parts ...................
Professional and scientific
instruments .......................
Other manufacturing ................

1/

7/

Figures rounded to the nearest $100.
Source: tables C-24 and C-25-




35

68,600

$ 7>700 for companies with fewer than 500 employees to $8,000 for
those with 500-4,999 employees and $9,200 for those with 5>000 or
more employees. 2k/
The findings with respect to cost per research worker in
individual companies are summarized in chart 10. Half the companies
in the study had a cost per research worker of $7,300 or less. This
median figure was lower than the average cost of $ 8,800 for all re­
porting companies, but the two statistics were much nearer together
than the median and average figures on cost per research engineer or
scientist. The explanation of the latter finding is that only a very
small number of companies had an exceptionally high cost per research
worker, whereas considerably more were found to have an extremely
high cost per research engineer or scientist.

2k/ A classification of the companies by size of professional
research staff showed a similar increase in average costs with the
size of the organization. Average cost per research employee, by in­
dustry and size of company, is shown in table C-26; comparable data
classified by size of professional research staff are presented in
table C- 2 7 .




36

For the middle half of the companies, the range in cost per
research worker was from $5>200 to $10,000. This Interquartile range
was less than half as great as the corresponding range in cost per
research engineer or scientist. Similarly, in every industry and com­
pany size group, the figures on cost per research employee in individ­
ual companies varied much less than those on cost per research engineer
or scientist. Cost ratios based upon all research employees, including
supporting personnel as well as engineers or scientists, do not reflect
the wide variation among companies in the utilization of supporting
workers.

275235 0 - 53 -4




37

T U R N O V E R OF P R O F E S S IO N A L R E SE A R C H STAFF

During the past 3 years of partial mobilization, the rate of
turnover of engineering and scientific personnel became a matter of grave
concern to administrators of research programs and Government agencies
responsible for defense manpower problems. On projects essential to
the defense effort as well as nondefense projects, losses of profes­
sional personnel increased, owing to Reserve and Selective Service
calls and to the many favorable employment opportunities open to engi­
neers and scientists. Administrators reported also that replacements
were difficult to obtain, because of the personnel shortages in these
professions, and that the training of new employees is, at best, a
wasteful and time-consuming process.
One of the major aims of the present survey was to provide
information on the rate of turnover of professional research staffs
and on how much of this turnover was due to withdrawals for military
service. Figures on separations of research engineers and scientists
were obtained for two periods--the 12 months following the outbreak
of war in Korea (July 1950-June 1951) and the subsequent 6 months
(July to December 1951)• Data for the latter period have been con­
verted to an annual rate basis to facilitate comparisons with data
for the preceding year. Information was obtained also on the Reserve
and Selective Service status of research staffs at the time of the
study, in order to indicate their liability for future military duty.

ANNUAL SEPARATION RATE

The annual separation rate of research engineers and scien­
tists during the last half of 1951 was l6.k per 100 employed. 25 /
Calls for military service were responsible for less than one-fifth
of all the separations of research engineers and scientists from July
to December 1951- Ihe annual rate of military calls during this
period was only 3-0 per 100 professional research workers. Reserve
calls averaged 1.8 per 100 workers and Selective Service calls 1.2
per 100 (table C-28).
Factors other than calls to military duty caused the bulk
of the separations during this period about 1 3 .h per 100 research en­
gineers and scientists. These separations included quits, discharges,
lay-offs, deaths, and retirements. Although no separate statistics

25 / Separations include all terminations of employment initiated
b y either the employer or the employee during the period.




38

were collected on the reasons for separations (other than military
calls), losses due to deaths and retirements accounted for a relatively
small proportion of separations. 26/
Petroleum refining was the industry with the lowest separa­
tion rate (8.8 per 100 research engineers and scientists). In the air­
craft industry, where the tremendous expansion in employment resulting
from the defense program led to increased competition for scientific
and technical personnel, the separation rate was 20.8 per 100. However,
in certain industries with smaller research staffs, the average separa­
tion rate was even higher--nearly 25 per 100 in companies manufacturing
photographic equipment and supplies and in nonprofit research agencies.
Although the differences among industries in the rate of
personnel loss were due largely to factors other than the rate of mili­
tary calls, separations for military service had a greater impact on
some industries than others (chart 11). Companies manufacturing ma­
chinery (except electrical) had the highest annual rate of military

2 6/ Statistics on the white male population as a whole indicate
that the annual rate of deaths and retirements is about 2 per 100
employed workers.
See U. S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor
Statistics, Bulletin No. 1001, Tables of Working Life, August 1950*




39

calls (7.2 per 100 engineers and scientists). The lowest rate (1.2
per 100) was found in the petroleum industry and the nonprofit re­
search agencies.
There was no consistent relationship between the rate of
personnel turnover and the size of a company. In some industries, the
companies with the smallest number of employees had the highest turn­
over rate. However, in other industries, the medium-sized and large
companies fared worse than the small ones (table C- 29 ) •
A comparison of these separation rates for the last half of

1951 with comparable figures for the preceding 12 months shows a marked
increase in turnover among research engineers and scientists. The an­
nual separation rate of l6.4 per 100 professional research workers for
all the reporting companies during July-December 1951 was 18 percent
higher than the rate of 13-9 during the year from July 1950 to June
1951- Personnel losses became more frequent in practically every in­
dustry and in companies of all sizes (tables C-28 and C- 30 )• 27/
There was no change in the rate of Beserve calls between the
two periods, taking all industries together. The rate of withdrawals
due to Selective Service rose by 50 percent (from 0.8 to 1.2 per 100
engineers and scientists), but such separations were too few to be a
major factor in the overall Increase in personnel losses. Most of the
increase was in separations for reasons other than military service—
no doubt, mainly transfers to other more attractive employment.

LIABILITY FOB MILITARY SERVICE

Although Reserve and Selective Service calls did not cut
deeply into the national supply of research engineers and scientists
during the last half of 1950 or 1951 ^ the future effect of military
demands on such personnel could be more serious. As of January 1952,
19 percent of the engineers and scientists in the study were members
of the Reserves or National Guard and were therefore liable for mili­
tary service. Another 6 percent were classified 1A or 2A by Selective
Service (available for service or granted temporary occupational de­
ferments) . The total number of men in these categories was approxi­
mately 2 ^, 000 , out of the 95>700 engineers and scientists of both
sexes in the study.
The relative numbers of professional research workers who
were reservists or classified 1A or 2A as of January 1952 varied

27 / Annual separation rates axe also classified by size of pro­
fessional research staff (table C-31).




considerably from one industry to another (chart 12). The proportion
was highest in the two industries most extensively engaged in defense
research— electrical machinery (35 percent) and aircraft (29 percent).
Of the major industries shown in the chart, primary and fabricated
metal products had the lowest proportion (15 percent) of the profes­
sional research staff in the categories most liable to military duty.

In general, large companies were in a somewhat more vulner­
able position than small ones with respect to the military status of
their engineers and scientists. Twenty-nine percent of the profes­
sional research personnel employed by companies with 5,000 or more
employees were members of the Reserves or classified 1A or 2A as of
January 1952 (table C-32). The comparable figure for companies with
500-4,999 employees was 19 percent and for those with fewer than 500
employees, 15 percent. It is likely that large companies have, in
the past several years, hired relatively more new graduates than small­
er companies and that they therefore have a higher proportion of young
men on their staffs. 28 /

28/ Figures classified according to the size of the companies'
professional research staffs likewise show that the proportion of re­
search engineers and scientists liable to military service tended to
be greater in large than in small organizations (table C -33).




4l

It should he noted that all these data on the liability of
research engineers and scientists to military service relate to the
situation in January 1952. Since then, a considerable change in the
proportion of professional research workers liable for military duty
has probably taken place, since men axe constantly leaving and others
entering the Reserve and the various Selective Service categories.
In early 1953 > many reserve officers had to reapply for their commis­
sions in order to keep their reserve status; a substantial number did
not sign up again. Offsetting the reduction in reserve forces due to
resignations, retirements, and deaths is the fact that many recent
engineering and science graduates have been liable for military duty.
Most men graduating from college are subject to the provisions of the
Selective Service Act. In addition, a considerable number of male
graduates have been commissioned in the Organized Reserves after com­
pleting Reserve Officers' Training Corps programs.
Under present legislation, nearly every young man has an
obligation to serve for a total of 8 years, including both active
duty and service in the Reserves. Thus, there is a strong likelihood
the number of persons in the Reserves will increase in the future and
will become an even more important problem in scientific manpower
planning.




k2




A PPEN D IX A
SCOPE AND METHOD OF SURVEY

^3

SCOPE AND METHOD OF SURVEY

HOW THE SURVEY WAS MADE
This study of industrial research is based on a mail survey
conducted from May to August 1952 by the Research and Development
Board of the Department of Defense. Plans vere developed and the
questionnaire was drafted by the Board, in consultation with the Bureau
of Labor Statistics, other Government agencies, and several companies
with large research and development programs. The questionnaire is
reproduced in Appendix B.
The Bureau of Labor Statistics prepared this report in co­
operation with the Research and Development Board. The Bureau was
responsible for the editing and coding of the returns and the planning
and preparation of both the statistical tabulations and the analytical
report.
In an effort to inventory all industrial research in the
United States, a mailing list of more than 5>000 companies was com­
piled. It included all companies listed in the National Research
Council's volume, Industrial Research Laboratories of the United States,
1950 and any additional firms included in lists of the following: The
1,000 largest manufacturing companies in the country, companies holding
research and development contracts with the Department of Defense, the
100 largest Department of Defense production contractors; and other
selected groups, such as engineering firms and consulting laboratories.
Some additional companies having research programs were located through
the wide publicity given to this survey by newspapers and technical and
trade journals.
The mailing of survey schedules began in May 1952. Nonre­
spondents were sent follow-up letters in July 1952. By mid-October
1952, when the survey vas closed, some 3>000 companies had responded.
Of these, 1,953 submitted usable questionnaires. 29/ Some 1,000 re­
plies were received from companies which said they had no research
program. Several companies, including a few with large research pro­
grams, stated that they could not supply the requested data, either
because of the cost of assembling the information or because they con­
sidered such data confidential.
Although 1,953 companies sent in usable schedules, not all
of them supplied data on every item in the questionnaire. For example,
l 8l of the reporting companies failed to report their 1951 research

29/ The criterion used in evaluating the usability of a com­
pleted” schedule was that the company must have reported at least one
of the following items: Cost of all research, number of research
workers, or number of research engineers and scientists.




4k

cost, 13V did not indicate the number of research employees in 1952,
and 138 did not report the number of research engineers and scientists.
Estimates were made of these three items for each of the nonreporting
companies, and these estimates have been included in the data presented
in charts 1, 2, and 5 , and in tables 2, 3, 4, C-2, C-3, C-4, C-13, and
D-3. The remaining charts and tables are based wholly on data actually
reported by the companies in the survey.

PROBLEM OF DEFINITION

Scientific research and development work was defined as fol­
lows in the questionnaire: 30/
Basic and applied research in the sciences
(including medicine), and in engineering; and design,
development, and testing of prototypes and processes.
Excludes quality control, product testing, market re­
search, sales promotion, sales service, and research
in the social sciences and psychology.
The possible lack of uniformity in the interpretation of
definitions is perhaps the most important limitation that must be
taken into account in the analysis of the results of this survey. A
particularly difficult problem in connection with the definition of
research and development arose from the fact that in some industries
the line of demarcation between development and production is often
hazy. In the aircraft industry, for example, the production of new
models may begin before all details of the design are final. Further­
more, in many industries it is often necessary to make engineering
changes and adaptations in products. In such cases, it is almost im­
possible to determine precisely where developmental processes end and
production work begins, and the companies' judgment on this matter
may well have varied.
Even companies that could clearly differentiate research
and development from related activities sometimes had difficulty in
ascertaining the cost of their research programs and the number of
their research employees. Many companies did not have accounting
systems which could readily provide the requested cost data. Simi­
larly, some respondents did not have exact records on personnel al­
located to research and development work. This difficulty was en­
countered especially in companies where the research personnel were
engaged intermittently in research and nonresearch activities. A n ­
other problem of definition arose from the fact that the companies
were asked to include in their figures on research employment "a pro­
portionate share of overhead personnel (administrative, clerical,

30/ The questionnaire, which also contains definitions of other
terms, is reproduced in Appendix B.

A




45

maintenance, etc.)." The extent to which overhead personnel were al­
located to research and development work undoubtedly varied somewhat
among the reporting companies. Still another possible source of dif­
ficulty was the fact that companies were asked to include in the em­
ployment figures the full-time equivalent (based on the company’s
average workweek) of employees engaged part-time in research work.
These difficulties in obtaining precise statistics on re­
search and development activities were anticipated when the survey
was planned. The survey questionnaire stipulated that reasonable
estimates of research and development expenditures and manpower would
be sufficient.
Despite these limitations, the findings of this survey are
believed to give a satisfactory general picture of the scope and dis­
tribution of industrial research activities. The reader should, how­
ever, bear in mind the approximate nature of the figures, particularly
those for the more detailed classifications of companies.

CLASSIFICATION OF DATA

In this survey, respondents were requested to supply infor­
mation on a "company" basis. After consultations with industry repre­
sentatives and other persons, it was judged that the only practicable
way to obtain the needed data on research and development programs was
to ask each company to submit one consolidated return. One reason for
the decision was that in many companies, large as well as small, the
major part of the research activity is organized and controlled at the
company level. To avoid duplicate reporting and, at the same time, to
reduce the work involved in filling out the questionnaire, each com­
pany was asked to exclude from its return all scientific research and
development done b y subsidiaries and affiliates— which were sent
separate questionnaires.
In the statistical tabulations, the data have been clas­
sified in several ways— by industry, b y the company's major research
specialty, by size of company, and by size of the company's profes­
sional research staff. Though the conduct of the study was facili­
tated by the fact that only one consolidated return was submitted by
each company, this created problems in connection with the classifi­
cation of data by industry and research specialty, as indicated by
the following discussion and by the discussion of the research spec­
ialty classification in Appendix D.

Industry

In Item 12 of the questionnaire, a list of Hi industries
was provided, and each company was asked to check the one of these




H6

industries which accounted for the largest portion of its total sales.
The 1*1 industries have been consolidated into smaller numbers of in­
dustry groups in the tables and charts.
In comparing the findings of this study with other statis­
tics classified by industry, it should be noted that, in most such
statistics, the unit classified is an establishment rather than a
company. Even where the classification is based on establishments,
figures for particular industries generally include some "secondary
products" within the purview of other industries. In the present
study, this problem is greatly magnified, particularly in the case of
large, multiestablishraent companies with a number of different prod­
ucts or with integrated operations.
It should be noted also that a company's principal research
field does not always correspond with its principal production field.
For example, companies seeking greater diversification are likely to
concentrate their research activities in new areas.

Size

Reporting companies were classified on the basis of two
different size groupings:
The size of the company (based on total
company employment in January 1952); and the size of the company’s
professional research staff (based on number of research engineers
and scientists in January 1952). The classification by size of com­
pany is a grouping widely used in analysis of economic data and prob­
ably the one of most interest to businessmen and business analysts.
This size classification also facilitates the comparison of the re­
sults of the survey with findings from other surveys of industrial
research and development.
The classification of data b y the size of the company's
professional staff directs attention to the scale of the company’s
research program. It is useful in analysis of data pertaining to
research resources for the following reasons:
(a) The number of
research engineers and scientists employed is one of the most impor­
tant factors determining a company’s ability to perform research; and
(b) within groups of companies classified according to the number of
research engineers and scientists, there is likely to be greater homo­
geneity with respect to research and development programs than is the
case among companies grouped according to other size criteria.










A PPEN D IX B
LETTERS A ND SCHEDULE




RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT BOARD
W A S H IN G T O N

25. D . C .

1 July 1952
D ear Sir:
The R esearch and D evelopm ent Board, as you know, is
undertaking a national m ail survey of industrial resea rch and
developm ent. C opies of the questionnaire for th is project w ere
sent you in M ay. We send them to you again with th is letter
because we have had no reply from you since our fir st m ailing
early in M ay, and we want to be su re you are counted.
Our purpose is to obtain sta tistic s on the resea rch and
developm ent p ra ctices and potential of A m erican industry. In
the course of the current defense effort, we have a ll observed
that in creasin g dem ands for technical m anpower and fa c ilitie s
create difficult p ro b lem s. If we know m ore about the nation's
resea rch and developm ent capacity and the effect of m ilitary
c a lls on it, we can perhaps help ease som e of th ese p rob lem s.
We should be able to plan m ilitary resea rch and developm ent
m ore intelligently when we know m ore about how you in industry
use your resea rch sc ien tists and e n g in e e rs. Should a greater
national em ergency suddenly be forced on u s, we w ill need to
know m ore than we do now about the location of sp ecific r e ­
sea rch r e so u r c e s. In the course of the p roject, we m ay locate
som e fa c ilitie s which even now are available and needed for
m ilitary resea rch and developm ent p ro jects.
R ep lies are already in from about 2500 com p an ies. But
the project w ill be m ore useful if we get a m uch larger return as
soon as p o ssib le . So I hope that if you have not replied you w ill
do so very so o n . A reply does not obligate your company in any
w ay, and your inform ation w ill be kept in strict confidence. If
your, reply has been delayed because you can supply so m e , but
not a ll, of the inform ation we seek , send us what you can.
And, of cou rse, if your reply has been sent recen tly , or if
you have w ritten us about the project and are w aiting for our
an sw er, forgive th is duplication.




WALTER G . WHITMAN, Chairman
51

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT BOARD
WASHINGTON 25. D. C.

Dear Sir:
This is the second year of our current defense effort.
In many ways it will be one of the most difficult. Among
the pressing problems we face is the increasing demand
for technical manpower and facilities which has been created
by the expanded defense program .
The Research and Development Board of the Office of
the Secretary of Defense is , therefore, vitally interested
in determining industry* s research and development capacity
and the past and potential effect of m ilitary call-ups on this
capacity. The Board also w ishes to assist the m ilitary de­
partments in locating possible contractors for research and
development projects.
All industrial organizations known to perform scientific
research and development are being asked to help by com ­
pleting the accompanying questionnaire. While some of the
requested information is now available, it is unstandardized,,
incom plete, and often inaccurate. If your company does no
research or development, please complete only the tear sheet
attached to the questionnaire.
Your reply, of course, will not obligate your company
in any way. It will be kept in strict confidence, and pub­
lished information will not permit identification of individual
fir m s.




Sincerely

WALTER G. WHITMAN
Chairman
52

o.tr »*..

S C R MHITilUIIWL
E U ITV
INFORMATION flinm nui

Budgat Burmau No. 22-3204
Approval Bxpirma 31 Aug 32

Data la E n te re d )

SURVEY OF INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

STRU H
This questionnaire is concerned with allcompany IN CTIOSince accounting procedures ong companies, reasonable
scientific aa<*Sdevelopment vary widely amfor scientific research
research and development* conducted by your
and
its divisions. In order to affiliates.
exclude all subsidiaries and avoid duplication, please estimates will be satisfactory. Please enytr a blank.
"none" where appropriate, rather than leaving the word
GEBERAL (Reaaonable oatimatam w ill bo a u f fi e ia a t )
1. WHAT WAS THE TOTAL NUMBER EMPLOYED BY YOUR COMPANY IN ALL OF ITS ACTIVITIES IN JANUARY 1952?
2. WHAT WERE YOUR COMPANY’ S TOTAL SALES (or to ta l valua of aervicea, i f mora appropriate) IN
OF ITS ACTIVITIES IN CALENDAR 1951?
COST INFORMATION (Reaaonable aat imataa w ill be a u ffic ia n t)
3 . WHAT WAS THE TOTAL OPERATING COST OF ALL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PERFORMED WITHIN YOI
PANY IN CALENDAR 1951? (Operat ing coat ia the coat o f diract labor and matariala plum

proportionate ahare of overhead coat a --a d m iniatration, maintanance, rant, deprecjjrftUm^ atc

4. HOW MUCH OF I HIS TOTAL OPERATING COST WAS FOR RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT PERFORME
PRIME CONTRACTS FROM THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT
SUBCONTRACTS FROM OTHER COMPANIES FOR WORK FOR THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT

TOTAL

MANPOWER INFORMATION (Reaaonabla eatimataa w ill j e f a u t tL
Quest iona 3 - 8 refer to the number engaged full time in reaearch or de\t^opi
t iate equivalent (baaed on your current average work week) o f thoae wor
5. HOW MANY OF YOUR COMPANY’ S EMPLOYEES, INCLUDING A PROPORTIONATE SHARE OF OVERHEAD PERSONNEL
(a d m iniatrative. c le r ic a l, maintenance. e t c .) WERE ENGAGED IN RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT:
JANUARY 1951
JANUARY 1952
iGED IN RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT:
6 . HOW MANY OF YOUR COMPANY’ S ENGINEERS AND SCIENTISTS2 W
l
JANUARY 1951
JANUARY 1952
ENGAGED IN
7. HOW MANY OF YOUR COMPANY’ S ENGINEERS AND SCIENTISTS
JANUARY 1951
RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT ON:
PRIME CONTRACTS FROM THE FEDERAL GOVERNMEN'
F FEDERAL GOVERNMENT
SUBCONTRACTS FROM OTHER COMPANIES FOR WORK F01

TOTAL

ASSUMING THAT:
a . NEW RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT DEFENS1
ARE AVAILABLE FOR PROJECTS ON WHICH YOUR
COMPANY IS WILLING TO WORK
ENTIFIC RESEARCH ANO DEVELOPMENT TECHNICAL
b. THERE IS NO CHANGE IN THE
STAFF, AND
LEVEL,
c . THE DEFENSE EFFORT CONTI
RS AND SCIENTISTS YOUR COMPANY WISHES TO ASSIGN DURING
WHAT IS THE MAXIMUM NUMBER OF4
PRIME CONTRACTS OR SUBCONTRACTS FOR RESEARCH OR DETHE REMAINDER OF CALENDAR 1952
VELOPMENT FOR THE DEFENSE i^ROGRAM'
HE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT? (Your anawer w ill neither obt c o n t r a c t s nor w ill i t obligate the Federal Govern*
lig a te your company in a a n v v to

JANUARY 1952

«•w.mijn vuimi

went in any.way to o f fer\a%H^O£ta ) .

J H £ r S and SCIENTISTS PRIMARILY ENGAGED IN SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
9 . HOW MANY OF YOUR COMJ
OR DEVELOPMENT IN J,
‘ HAD THE FOLLOWING MILITARY STATUS:
MEMBERS OF MILITAR
OR NATIONAL GUARD
CLASSIFIED
pvai labf/1 for induction) OR 2-A (deferred becauae o f c i v i l i a n employment)

malea between the agea o f lfM and 26 can be ao claaai tie d

10. HOW MANY ENCIMEERS ANl) SCIENTISTS PR I MAR-1 LY ENGAGED IN RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT LEFT THE EM­
PLOY OF YOUlV VOMPANy CURING THE FOLLOWING PERIODS (exclude tranafera within the company):
JULY 1950REASON FOR LEAVING
JUNE 1951

JULY 1 9 5 1 DEC 1951

SEPARATIONS (R eaignation, diamlaaal, re tirem en t, death, e tc .)

Baaic and applied reaearch in the aciencea (including rgedicine), and in engineering; and deaign, development and
teating o f prototypes and proceaaea. Excludes q u a lity c o n tr o l, product te s tin g , market reaearch, sa les promotion,
, and
in the social sciences and p sy h
2sales se rv icewith at reaearch bachelor’s degree in engineering coro lo g y . or the equivalent in experience or training.
Individuals
lea st a
science,
ROB FORM | U p
1 MAY 52 , H O

275235 0 - 53 - 5




( C l a a a i f i a d Only Whan Data la .E ntered)

53

C NIDNIA INFORMATION
OF E T L SECURITY




,;raRH confidential
;Ti0W

.... >.

CHECK LIST OF SPECIALTIES
does not s t r i c t l y follow an i n d u s t r i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p a tte rn , is in the
The defense agencies wish to know the areas of research and develop­
form of g r e a te s t use to the defense agencies. Your response w ill n e ith e r
ment in which i n d u s tr ia l o rg an iza tio n s are q u a lif ie d and, in ad d itio n , the
o b lig a te your company in any way to accept c o n tr a c ts nor w ill i t o b lig a te
are a s in which they might wish to undertake a d d itio n a l defense work. The
the defense agencies in any way to o f f e r c o n tr a c ts .
following check l i s t of research and development s p e c i a l t i e s , while i t
IN THE COLUMNS HEADED: NEW DEFENSE WORK
11. IN THE COLUMNS HEADED: QUALIFIED
CHECK (X) ALL SPECIALTIES IN WHICH YOUR COMPANY WISHES TO ASSIGN ANY OF
a. RATE ("A”,
"C") THE THREE BROAD AREAS IN WHICH YOUR COMPANY
ITS PRESENT STAFF OF ENGINEERS AND SCIENTISTS OR ITS PHYSICAL FACILITIIES
HAS GREATEST COMPETENCE.
TO NEW DEFENSE CONTRACTS AT SOME TIME DURING CALENDAR 1952. (Refer to
b. CHECK (X ) ALL OTHER BROAD AREAS IN WHICH YOUR COMPANY IS QUALIFIED.
aaevmption* in Queation 8.)
c. CHECK (X) UNDER EACH BROAD AREA THE SPECIALTIES IN WHICH YOUR COMPANY S QUALIFIED.
NEW DEFENSE WORK
QUALIFIED
NEW DEFENSE WORK
QUALIFIED
ENGINEERS Building*
BROAD SPECIALAND
BROAD SPECIAL­
TIES
AREAS TIES
SCIENTISTS Equipment) AREAS
_ *m/
SCIENTISTS. EqJ pZ nt)
GEOPHYSICS AND GEOGRAPHY
AIRCRAFT ARMAMENT
□
(ID (01)
(01) (Ql)
BOMBING SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT
ATMOSPHERIC PHYSICS
(02)
(02)
FIRE CONTROL SYSTEMS
CARTOGRAPHY
( 03)
GUNS
(03)
MUNIT IONS
(04 )
GEODESY
(04 )
(05)
GEOLOGY
(0*5 )
TESTING AND EVALUATION
GEOMAGNETISM ANO ELECTRICITY
(06)
AIRCRAFT EQUIPMENT
HYDROLOGY
(07)
AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEMS
(02) (01)
((58)
IONOSPHERE
ELECTR ICAL SYSTEMS
(02 )
METEOROLOGICAL EQUIPMENT
(09)
INSTRUMENTATION
(03 )
(10)
OCEANOGRAPHY
(04 )
mechanical systems
PHOTOGRAMMETR1C EQUIPMENT
(11)
PARACHUTES
(0*5)
PHOTO INTERPRETATION
(12)
TEST ING AND EVA LUATION
(06 )
SEISMOLOGY
AIRCRAFT, PILOTED
(13 >
(14)
SOIL MECHANICS
AERODYNAMICS AND STRUCTURES
(03) (01)
WEATHER FORECASTING
CATAPULTS AND ARRESTING GEAR
(15)
(02
GUIDED MISSILES
HYDRODYNAM ICS
(03 )
AERODYNAMICS AND STRUCTURES
PROPULSION
(04
(12) (01)
(02)
COUNTERMEASURES
testing , aircraft flight
(06
(03
GUIOANCE ANO CONTROL
TESTING, PROPULSION SYSTEMS
(06)
(04)
LAUNCHING ANO HANOLING
ATOMIC ENERGY
PHYS ICAL EFFECTS
(04 (01)
PROPULS ION AND FUELS
(08)
TARGET DRONES
RADIOLOGICAL INSTRUMENTATION
(06)
(02)
TEST RANGE PROCEDURES ANO INREACTORS
(03
STRUMENTAT1ON
WEAPONS RESEARCH
(04)
TEST AND TRAINING EQUIPMENT
(08)
BASIC NATURAL SCIENCES
□
(09)
WARHEADS AND FUZES
10*5) (Cl)
BIOLOGY
MEDICAL SCIENCES
CHEMISTRY
(02)
□
ANT IB IOT ICS
(13) (01)
mathematICS
(03)
(02)
ATOMIC MEDICINE
(04
PHYS ICS
AV 1AT 1ON MED 1C INE
(03
BIOLOGICAL WARFARE
□
(04)
BACTER10 LOGY
(06) (01)
AGENTS FOR CROPS, ANIMALS AND M
AN
DENT ISTR Y
(08)
PROTECT ION
(02)
(06)
DISEASE
METHODS OF 01SSEM1NAT 1ON
(03

(

n

TT

□

T T)

)
)
)

n

)

)
)
)

)




CHEMICAL WARFARE
AGENTS (War Gaaax , Scraaning

(07)
(08)
(09)

(03)

PROTECT ION
MUNITIONS, WEAPONS 4 DISSEMINATION
ELECTRONICS
ACOUSTICS
ANTENNAS ANO PROPOGATION
COMHUNICATION
COMPONENTS
ELECTRON TUBES
ELECTRONIC COUNTERMEASURES
INFRAREO
INTERFERENCE REDUCTION
RADAR AND RE LATED FIE LDS
TEST EQUIPMENT
EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES
CLOTH ING ANO PERSONAL
ELECTR ICAL
FOOD
HEAVY EQUIPMENT AND ENGINEERING
CONSTRUCT 1ON
MAINTENANCE equipment and u t il i t i e s
MARINE CRAFTS AND ASSOCIATED
HYDRODYNAMICS
MECHANICAL
PHOTOGRAPHY AND OPTICS
PACKING, PACKAGING AND PRESERVAT 1ON
POWER UNITS
SHELTER
STORAGE
TOOLS, GENERAL PURPOSE
FUELS AND LUBRICANTS
PETROLEUM
SYNTHETIC LUBRICANTS AND HYDRAULIC
FLUIDS
LIQUID PROPELLANTS (Fuala and/or

(04)

EQUIPMENT FOR STORAGE, PROTECTION,
AND DISTRIBUTION

(02)
„L ,03'

L)

(08) io n
(02)
(03)
(04)
(05)
(06)
(07)
(08)
(09)
(10)
□
(09) (01)
(02)
(03 )
104)
(05 )
(06)
(07)
(08)
(09)
(10)
(ID
(12)
(13)
□
(10) (01)
(02)

Smokaa and Incandiariaa)

Oxidinara)

(10)
(ID
(12)
(13)
(14)
(15)

(05)
(06)
□
(15)

TT

IMMUNOLOGY
MEDICAL ASPECTS OF BIOLOGICAL
ANO CHEMICA L WARFARE
MEDICAL EQUIPMENT AND PROSTHETIC
DEV ICES
NEUROPSYCHIATRY
PHYSIOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY
SANITATION
SHOCK ANO TRANSFUS ION
SURGERY
TOX ICOLOG Y
materials

u
o o fO o
-P o

107) (01)

(01)
(02)
(03)
(04)
(05 )
(06)
(01)
(02)
(03)
(04)
(05 )
(06)
(07)
(66)
(09)
(10)
(ID
(12)
(13)
(14)

INORGANIC AND MINERAL
METALLURGY, EXTRACTIVE
METALLURGY, PHYSICAL
ORGANIC AND FIBROUS
PHYSICS OF METALS
PLASTICS
NAVIGATION
CELESTIAL
DEAD RECKONING
ELECTRONIC, COMMON USER
ELECTRONIC, SELF SUFFICIENT
GYRO AND INERTIAL
PILOTAGE AND BEACONS
ORDNANCE
DEGAUSS 1NQ NETS AND BOOMS
EXPLOSIVES ANO PROPELLANTS,
MOLECULAR
FIRE CONTROL
FUZES, FIRING, ANO EXPLODING
MECHAN ISMS
GUNS AND MOUNTS, LARGE CALIBER
LAND MINES AND GRENADES
PROJECTILES AND AMMUN IT ION DETAILS
_ ROCKETS AND ROCKET LAUNCHERS
SEA MINES AND DEPTH CHARGES
SMALL ARMS AND AUTOMATIC WEAPONS
TORPEDOES AND TUBES
VEHICLES. COMBAT
VEHICLES. NONCOMBAT
WARHEAOS AND BOMBS

(Clara i f iad Only Whan Data la Bntarad) C N ID N IA | NFORMATS ON
OF E T L
(THIS SECTION WILL BE DETACHED AS SOON AS YOUE COMPLETED QUESTIONNAIRE IS RECEIVED)
NAME OF C0MPANY____________________________________________
NAME AND TITLE OF INDIVIDUAL COMPLETING QUESTIONNAIRE
BUSINESS AODRESS (City, Zona and Stata) _______________
PLEASE CHECK- IF YOU WISH TO RECEIVE A COPY
OF THE UNCLASSIFIED SUMMARY REPORT

(Plaaaa Turn To Naxt Paga)

PLEASE CHECK IF YOUR COMPANY OOES
NO RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT

INFORMATION

C NB HU
OFE T L

0” >r

»*'* '•

____________________________________________________ MIWSTBML CLASSIFICATION
12. PLEASE CHECK (X) AMONG THE FOLLOWING LIST OF INDUSTRIES THE ONE THAT ACCOUNTED FOR THE LARGEST PORTION OF
YOUR COMPANY'S TOTAL SALES (or to ta l value qf aervicea, i f aiore appropriate) IN ALL OF ITS ACTIVITIES IN
CALENDAR 1951.
NON-MANUFACTURING
COMMERCIAL CONSULTING FIRMS
NONPROFIT RESEARCH AGENCIES
BUSINESS TRADE ASSOCIATIONS
MINING:
(20) _____
COAL, METALLIC AND NONMETALLIC MINERALS
(21)
CRUDE PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS
(22)
RAILROADS
(23 >
AIRLINES
12H)
PUBLIC UTILITIES
TELECOMMUNICATION, RADIO AND TELEVISION
(25 )
BROADCASTING
ALL OTHER NON-MANUFACTURING
(3 D
MANUFACTURING
(85)
ORDNANCE AND ACCESSORIES
(86)
FOOD AND KINDRED PRODUCTS
(87)
TOBACCO
(88)
TEXTILE MILL PRODUCTS AND APPAREL
(89)
LUMBER AND WOOD PRODUCTS (except fu rn itu re)
(90)
FURNITURE AND FIXTURES
(91)
PAPER AND ALLIED PRODUCTS
(92)
PRINTING, PUBLISHING AND ALLIED INDUSTRIES
CHEMICALS AND ALLIED PRODUCTS:
(HO)
INDUSTRIAL INORGANIC AND ORGANIC CHEMICALS
(HI)
DRUGS AND MEDICINES
(H2)
SOAP, CLEANERS, ETC.
PAINT, VARNISH, LACQUER AND INORGANIC PIGMENTS
(H3)
(HH)
OTHER CHEMICAL PRODUCTS
(01)
(10)
(30)

(50)
15D
(93)
(9H)
(95)
(96)
(97)
(98)
(60)
(61)
(70)
(71)
(72)
(73)
(80)
(81)
(82)
(99)

MANUFACTURING (C oni’d)
PRODUCTS OF PETROLEUM AND COAL:
PETROLEUM
COAL
RUBBER PRODUCTS
LEATHER AND LEATHER PRODUCTS
STONE. CLAY AND GLASS PRODUCTS
PRIMARY METAL INDUSTRIES
FABRICATED METAL PRODUCTS (except ordnance.
machinery , and t ranaport at ion equipment)
MACHINERY (except e l e c t r i c a l)
ELECTRICAL MACHINERY, EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES*COMMUNICATION EQUIPMENT
OTHER ELECTRICAL MACHINERY, EQUIPMENT AND
SUPPLIES
TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT:
MOTOR VEHICLES ANO MOTOR VEHICLE EQUIPMENT
AIRCRAFT AND PARTS
RA 1 LROAD EQU 1 PMENT
OTHER TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT
PROFESSIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CONTROLLING
INSTRUMENTS:
SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS
PHOTOGRAPHIC EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES
OTHER PROFESSIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CONTROL­
LING INSTRUMENTS
ALL OTHER MANUFACTURING

INSTRUCTIONS FOR RETURNING QUESTIONNAIRE

1.
N EN L,
and seal. Please place completed questionnaire in enclosed envelope marked "Security Information CO FID TIA "
2. Place this sealed envelope
ment Board, Washington 25, D C in enclosed franked envelope addressed to Chairman, Research and Develop­
. .
3. Seal franked envelope and mail.
REMARKS

# USGVRMTPININOFC.1952O 203715
. . OENE RTGFIE —
N




0 . 1 , Wk.n B . t . i . u . t . r . d )

MIIPVHPIIVIAI
Q F Q IN
)N ID |T .

OLvUnl I V
INFORMATION

A PPEN D IX C
STATISTICAL DATA CLASSIFIED BY INDUSTRY, SIZE OF C O M PA N Y ,
AND SIZE OF PR O FESSIO N A L RESEARCH STAFF




57

C— Research and development expenditures in the United States and cost of research and development
1
performed by Government, industry, and colleges and universities, 19^1 to 1952
(millions of dollars)
Government
Total
Research
Cost of research
Year research expenditures
expend!performed
tures
Amount Percent Amount Percent
1200
22
19^1.•. $ 900
$ 370 h i
46
1942... 1,070
49c
240
22
64
1943... 1,210
780
300
25
1944... 1,380
940
68
28
390
1 , 07 c
28
430
70
1945... 1,520
1946... 1,780
910
470
26
51
1,160
520
1947... 2,260
51
23
1948... 2,610
22
1,390
570
53
21
1,550
1949... 2,610
550
59
1,610
56
20
570
1950... 2,870
1,980
700
21
59
1951... 3,360
2,240 60
800
21
1952... 3,750
i

Colleges and .universities
Industry
Research
Research
Cost of research
Cost of research
performed
expenditures
performed
expenditures
Amount Percent Amount Percent Amount Percent Amount Percent
$ 40
$20
2
t 660
$ 510 57
5
73
20
c.
560
780
50
52
5
73
4l0 34
20
2
60
850
70
5
6
2
420 30
66
20
80
910
20
2
430 28
100
990
65
7
/•>
840 47
120
1,190
67
30
7
1,050
2
170
8
1,570
47
69
50
1,820
220
8
70
1,150 44
70
3
69
270
10
990 38
1,790
70
3
1,180
41
320
11
80
1,980
69
3
80
1,300
2,300
68
2
360
11
39
80
68
2
420
11
1,430 38
2,530

Source; Research and Development Board, Department of Defense, April 1953*




C2. Dstributionofresearchemlomtandresearchcost, byindustry
- i
pyen

1/

Percent distribution
Industry

Number
of
companies

Employment, January 1952
All
research
workers

Engineers
and
scientists

Supporting
personnel

Cost of
research,
1951

90.2

90.5

1.5
.8
.9
14.6

1.1
•9
.5
9.4

1.2
.8
.6
11.2

7.3
2.3
.6
.7
.6

8.7
3.2
.9
1.0
.8

6.3
1.7
.5
.5
.4

7.2
2.5
.7
.3
.5

49
33
38
50
150
184
236
105
26
63
16

5.2
1.4
1.5
1.6
2.3
5.6
21.8
27.9
6.7
21.0
.2

5.2
1.8
1.3
1.9
2.7
6.2
18.2
24.6
3.2
21.1
.3

5.2
1.1
1.7
1.4
2.0
5.3
24.3
30.1
9.0
21.0
.1

4.9
1.2
1.1
1.9
2.0
5.3
22.1
31.9
10.8
20.8
.3

Professional and scientific instruments ...
Photographic equipment and supplies .....
Other professional and scientific
instruments .............. .........

153
24

5.7
1.9

6.0
2.1

5.5
1.7

4.7
1.6

129

3.8

3.9

3.8

3.1

Other manufacturing .....................

93

1.8

1.8

1.7

1.6

Nonmanufacturing ....... ........ ..........

415

10.9

12:5

9.8

9.5

Commercial consulting firms .... .........
Nonprofit research agencies .............
Other nonmanufacturing ..................

286
39
90

3.1
2.7
5.1

4.0
3.6
4.9

2.6
2.1
5.1

2.5
2.0
5.0

Total.....................................

--

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Total number reported 2/ ..................

1,953

238,266

95,694

142,572

1,538

89.1

87.5

Food and kindred products ...............
Textile mill products and apparel ........
Paper and allied products ................
Chemicals and allied products...........
Industrial organic and inorganic
chemicals ......................... •
Drugs and medicines ...................
Soap, cleaners, etc....................
Paint, varnish, etc. ................. .
Other chemical products ................

73
49
49
276

1.3
.8
.7
11.5

85
77
19
32
63

Petroleum refining ......................
Rubber products ........... .......... .
Stone, clay, and glass products .........
Primary metal industries ........ ........
Fabricated metal products ...............
*
Machinery (except electrical) ........... .
Electrical machinery ....................
Transportation equipment......... .
Motor vehicles and equipment ..........
Aircraft and parts ....................
Other transportation equipment.......

Manufacturing ........................... .

:

$1,980
(millions)

1/ The figures in this table are estimates covering all 1,953 companies in the survey* They include
companies that failed to report one or more of the items shown in the table.
2/ Although the manpower estimates are given in exact numbers, not all digits of these numbers are
statistically significant.




5
9

C -3. D istr ib u tio n o f research employment and resea rch c o s t , by s iz e o f company

1 ./

Percent distribution
Total company
employment

0
25
100
200
500
1,000
5,000
25,000
50,000
100,000

24
99
199
499
999
- 4,999
- 24,999
- 49,999
- 99,999
or more

.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............

T o t a l ........ ..... ............
Total number reported 2/ ......

Number
of
companies

308
334
177
303
217
392
178
29
8
7
—

1,953-

Employment, Janus?.ry 1952
All
research
workers

Engineers
and
scientists

0.6
2.3
1.4
4.5
5.4
14.2
26.3
16.4
9.1

1.0
3.1
1.9
5-4
6.3

Supporting
personnel

19 .8

13.7

0.4
1.7
1.1
3.8
4.8
13.6
25.6
16.0
9-2
23.8

100.0

100.0

100.0

238,266

95,694

142,572

1 5 .2
27.3
17.2

8 .9

Cost of
research,
1951

0.5
1.9
1.1
3.8
4.7
12.8
23-9
16.6
8.7
26.0
100.0
$1,980
(millions)

1/ The figures in this table are estimates covering all 1,953 companies in the survey. They include
companies that failed to report one or more of the items shown in the table.
2j Although the manpower estimates are given in exact numbers, not all digits of these numbers are
statistically significant.



C-4-. D is tr ib u tio n o f research employment and resea rch c o s t , by s iz e o f p r o fe s s io n a l research s t a f f 1 /

Percent distribution
Size of company's professional
research staff

0 4
5 - 1 4
15 - 29
30 - 49
50 - 1A
75 - 124125-249
250 - 4 9 9
500-999
1^000 or more
Total

--- *........ ......
....... ...... ..... .
...................
...... ............
.............. .
...................
...................
.................. .
...................
......... ......... .

.............. ........ ......

Total number reported 2/ ........

Number
of
companies

681
585
269
148
79
62
62
33
16
18
—
1,953

Employment, January 1952
Cost- of
research,
1951

All
research
workers

Engineers
and
scientists

Supporting
personnel

1.3
4.3
5.1
5.1
4-5
4-4
11.8
12.6
11.2
39.7

1.6
4-9
5.4
5.8
5.1
5.8
11.8
11.9
10.3
37.4

1.2
3.9
4.8
4.7
3.9
3.5
11.8
13.0
11.9
41.3

1.2
3.9
4.5
4.6
3.7
3.5
10.8
13.3
10.4
44.1

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

238,266

95,694

142,572

$1,980
(millions)

1/ The figures in this table are estimates covering all 1,953 companies in the survey. They include
companies that failed to report one or more of the items shown in the table.
2/ Although the manpower estimates are given in exact numbers, not all digits of these numbers are
statistically significant.




C-5. Number of research engineers and s c ie n t is t s , by industry and s iz e o f company, January 1952

Companies with total employment of—
Industries

All
sporting
ompanies

0
to
24

100
to
199

25
to
99

200
to
499

500
to
999

1,000
to
4,999

5,000
to
24,999

25,000
to
49,999

50,000
to
99,999

100,000
•r
more

Not rep m vvu

All industries*..,....... ............... .

91,585

801

2,785

1.583

4,819

5,746

13,827

24,353

15,674

8,482

11,600

1,915

Manufacturing*..... .................. •••••

80,306

257

940

1,028

3,181

3,948

12,495

23,905

15,547

(S/)

(2/)

1,400

MM
MM
—

M.
—
—
MM

Food and kindred products ........ ••••
Textile mill products and apparel.......
Paper and allied products*.••••••.......
Chemicals and allied products*...........
Industrial organic and inorganic
chemicals........... ••••••.....••••
Drugs and medicines....................
Soap, cleaners, etc*...*..............
Paint, varnish, etc*.......... *.......
Other chemical products********.......

1,358

734

4
—

847
13,201

(2/0
99

7,591
3,047
884
910
769

13
11
(2?)
568

33
38
(2/0
(2/)
21

66
70
21
49
62

(2/0
(I/O
(2/5

31
19

15
5
-200

17
33
35
674

45
(2/0
&/)

799

358
'238
417
2,324

584

422
365
6,002

883
995
(2/)
143
(2/)

35
15
44
63
156
345
608
775
(2/0
737
(2/)

444
111
77
195
814
1,745
3,283
1,273
142
1,089
42

1,715
737
538
394
683
1,001
2,668
6,250
447
5,638
165

1,528
—

(2/0
(2/)

263
162
(2/)
107
(2/)

8ft

—

S 3
79
34
92
63
(2/)
55
(2/)

(2/)
18
27
(2/)
174
55
288
20
—
20
—

78
73
30
52
217
235
928
103
(2/)
76
(2/)

213
303
65

n

4,953
1,771
1,210
1,719
2,491
5,418
17,274
21,926
1,445
20,235
246

Professional and scientific instruments..
Photographic equipment and supplies....
Other professional and scientific
instruments* *.......................

5,716
1,954

43
6

260
(2/)

149
38

572
211

770
362

659
(2/)

1,960
—

3,762

37

(2/)

111

361

408

(2/)

1,960

Other manufacturing...................

1,688

21

55

42

134

264

557

586

N onmanufacturing...........................

11,279

Commercial consulting firms.............
Nonprofit research agencies....... ......
Other nonmanufacturing...................

3,428
3,204
4,647

k in

544

1,845

479
43
22

1,270
406
169

555
467
(2/)
(2/)

1,638
794
725
119

1,798
(2/0
1.313
(2/)

(2/)
—
--

MM
(2/)

—
625
MM

7)

(2
(2/0
(2/0
(2/)
8,967
**M
8,967
—

(2/)
(I/)

MM
M.

4.091
(2/0
(2/0

(2/)
331
331
MM
MM

(2/0
(2/)

209
(2/0
(2/)
93
494
(2/)
(2/)
15
108
109
143
41
(2/)
(2/)

—

.MM
-M

(2/)

—

—

(2/)

13

—

—

16

(£/)

(2/)

515
52

MM

MM
MM

(2/)

(2/)

463

—

448

127

(2/)

-M
-448

MM
MM
127

451

MM
MM
-M

(2/0
—
—

(2/)

1,332

kV )

(£/)

—

Petroleum refining*........... ..........
Rubber products..........................
Stone, clay,and glass products..........
Primary metal industries*.... ...........
Fabricated metal products................
Machinery (except electrical)......... .
Electrical machinery.............. .......
Transportation equipment.................
Motor vehicles and equipment...... ....
Aircraft and parts........ *............
Other transportation equipment........

(2>0

—

(?/)

3,365
(2/)
674
(2

58
51
32
29
30

9
36
21
12

(2/0

mm

1/ This table is based on reports from 1,815 companies. In addition, the study included 138 companies that failed to supply information on the
number of research engineers and scientists employed in January 1952.
2/ Data withheld to avoid disclosing figures for individual companies, but these data are included in totals.




C-6. Number of research engineers and s c ie n t is t s , by industry and s iz e o f p ro fessio n a l research s t a f f , January 1951

Companies with professional research staff of-—
Industry

All industries ..................... .
Manufacturing.... .......................

All
reporting
companies

1/ 91,585

80,306

Food and kindred products ................
Textile mill products and apparel ........
Paper and allied products ................
Chemicals and allied products ...........
Industrial organic and inorganic
chemicals .......... ................
Drugs and medicines ...................
Soap, cleaners, etc. ...................
Paint, varnish, etc. ...................
Other chemical products ...............

1,358
734
847
13,201

Petroleum refining ..................... .
Rubber products ..........................
Stone, clay, and glass prod u c t s ..........
Primary metal industries ....... .
Fabricated metal products .............
Machinery (except electrical).............
Electrical m a c h i n e r y ............. .
Transportation equipment ......... .......
Motor vehicles and equipment ...........
Aircraft and parts .....................
Other transportation equipment .........

4,953
1,771

.

7,591
3,047
884
910
769

1,210

1,719
2,491
5,418
17,274

21,926

0
to
4

1.^0

50
to
74

75
to
124

125
to
249

250
to
499

500
to
999

9,689

1,000
or
more

4,590

5,053

5,334

4,629

5,386

10,787

11,223

1,093

3,841

4,102

4,358

4,044

4,557

9,285

9,642

(2/)

68

175

(2/)
(2/)

(2/0
(2/)
(2/)
746

_

566

(2/)
(2/)
1,393

(2/)

_
—

1,975

_
—
—
2,524

—
(2/)

(2/0

808

(2/)

1,160

(2/)

(2/)

309

1,237

(2/)
&0
(2/0

—

—

57
38
184
53
(2/)
15

102
117
662
167

211
28

157
163
125
441
84
142

( /)
2

375

890

346
237
(2/>

21

86

46

170

(*/)

37

82
109
114

52
136

223

248

(2/)

(2/)

20

W)

26

120
94
143
59

120

415
551

606

246

40
11

171
47
91
33

1,445
20,235

30
to
49

15
to
29

5
to
14

8

78

88

133

462
616
779
346

106
151
89

—

—

(2/)

(2/)

174

( /)
2
(2/)

105

(2/)

255
—
—

965
(2/)
850

(2/)

(2/)
(2/)

(£/)

—
115
514
470
953
224
144
(2/)
(2/)

(2/)
294
190
540
767
373

(2/)
(2/)
—

(2/)

(2/)
614
742
277
(2/)

(2/)
(2/)

2,i?8
—
—

(2/)
(2/)
940

1,222

2,380

<2/0
(2/)

(2/)
(2/)

5,716
1,954

110
12

374
55

235
( /)
2

C2/)

450
(2/^

( /)
2

(2/)

3,762

98

319

(2/)

(2/^

(2/)

(2
/)

(2/)

Other manufacturing .............. .......

1,688

105

243

112

161

--

301

766

Nonraanufacturing...... ....................

11,279

347

749

951

976

585

829

1,502

1,581

Commercial consulting f i r m s ...... .
Nonprofit research a g e n c i e s ...... .
Other nonmanufacturing ...................

3,428
3,204
4,647

257
16
74

525
51
173

610

530
185

273

(2/)

(2
/)

(2/)
(2/)

(2/>

818
(2
/)
(2/)

103

238

261

527

—
—

_

_
—

_

(2/)
( /)
2

—
—
_
_

—
—
—

(2/)

3094

2,632
_

2,632
—

Professional and scientific instruments ..
.
Photographic equipment and supplies ....
Other professional and scientific
instruments .........................

492

( /)
2

—

—

( /)
2
1,007

33,454

(£/'

9,243
14,242
_
14,242
—
( /)
2

(2/)

_

(2/)

(2/)

—

( /)
2

—

988
(2/)

—

—

(2/)
__

( /)
2

(2/0

_
(?/)

1/ This total is based on reports from 1,815 companies. In addition, the study includes 138 companies that failed to supply information on the
number of research engineers and scientists employed as of January 1952.
2/ Data withheld to avoid disclosing figures for individual companies, but these data are included in totals.




C-7* Number of reporting companies and number of research engineers
and s c ie n tis ts , by size of professional research sta ff and
siz e of company, January 1952
Size of professional
research sta ff

Companies with to ta l employment o f—
25,000
Less
500
5,000
than
or
to
to
500
more
24,999
4,999

A ll
reporting
companies
1/

Number of comnanies
T otal.................................................... ... i.i2 2 L
0 - 4 ...........................................
560
5 - 1 4 ........................................
540
243
1 5 - 2 9 .........................................
138
30 - 49........................... .............
50 - 7 4 .......................................
73
75 - 124......................................
55
1 2 5 - 2 4 9 ......................................
61
250 - 499 ...................................... •
30
500 - 999......................................
15
1,0 0 0 or more......... •**••**•*«*
17
T o t a l ............................................. ., 89*670
0
5
15
30
50

75 125 250 500 -

1,0 0 0

4 ............................. .............
1 4 . . . . . ................ ............
29........................................
49........................................
74........................................
124......................................
249......................................
499 ......................................
999......................................
or m o r e * ••*••*••

l>359
4,421
4,839
5,155
4,388
5,13*
10,737
10,395
9,689
33,453

.

971
474
328
96

46
15
4
6
—
—

......... m . . ..
80
189
121
72
36
29
23

6
3
--- ■

162

5
25
19
20
21
20

26

15
7
4

40
1

3
l
l
c.
1
6
7
5
13

Number of research engineers and sc ie n tists
_ M S 8 ., . _ ,._i2z5.Z2.... 24,353,.
1 ,1 1 8

2,565
1,909

1,691
861
330
983

531
—

223

1,644
2,447
2,686
2,199
2 ,72 6
3,925

1,8 36
1 ,8 8 7

188
518

15

736

3
24
15
42

1 ,2 1 5
1,960

113
118

4,695
5,535
4,531

4,960

1,134
2,493
3,271
28,493

X / Excludes 221 companies that fa ile d to report number of research engineers
and s c ie n tists employed or to ta l company employment*




6k

...

C-8. Average number o f research engineers and sc ie n tis ts per 100
employees, by industry and size of company, January 1952

A ll
reporting
companies

Industry

A ll industries
Manufacturing ......... ....................................................
Food and kindred products .............................
T extile m ill products and apparel . . . . . . .
Paper snd a llie d products ...............................
Chemicals and a llie d products ......................
Industrial organic and inorganic
ch em ica ls............................... .......................
Drugs and medicines .......................................
Soap, cleaners, e tc . ......................................
Paint, varnish, e tc . ......................................
Other chemical products .........................
Petroleum refining
Rubber p ro d u cts................................................
Stone, clay, dud glass products .........
Primary metal industries .................................
Fabricated metal products ...........................
Machinery (except e le c tr ic a l) • • • • • ...........
E lectrica l machinery ..........................................
Transportation equipment .................................
Motor v eh icles and equipment ....................
A ircraft and parts ..........................................
Other transportation equipment ................
Professional a n d .scien tific instrum ents..
Photographic equipment and supplies . . .
Other professional and s c ie n tific
instruments ...................................................
Other manufacturing ............................................
Nonmanufacturing .......................................................
Commercial consulting firms ...........................
Nonprofit research agencies ...........................
Other nonmanufacturing .................... .................




65

1.5
1.6
.5
.5
.6
3.0
3.0
3 .0
2.6
3.5
2.8

Companies with to ta l
employment o f—
Less
500
5,000
than
to
or
more
500 4,999
7.5
4 .7
1.7
1.7
1.3
5.3
5.1
5.8
6 .1
5.7
4.5
4.3
4.1
3.1
4.-5
4 .4
3.3
5.3
4.7
5.8
5.4
1.2

1.9
1.7
.7
•4
. .7
3.2

1.2

2.9
2.3
2 .4
3.6
—

1.0
1.4
.8
.3
.7
1.1
2.7
2.4
.4
4.3
.4
3.7
3 .4
3 .9
.9
1.1

3 .4
24.2

3 .!
4*0
2.8
2.1
2.4
3.9
.6
.6
.7
•9
1.3
2.6
2.7
.6
5.1
.4
3.2
7 .7
2.5
1.3
6 .7

24.5
47.2
.4

29.3
44.1
6 .1

10.5
49.2
2.0

7.5
10.4
6 .8

1 .4
•4
.5
.5
2.8

.9
1.5
.8
•2
.4
.9
2.6
2.3
.3
4.2
.3
3 .4
2.5
4 .4
.6
.3
__
—
.3

C-9*

100

Average number of research engineers and scientists on Government contracts per
by industry and size of company, and average number on Government subcontracts
per
on all Government contracts, January

100

Industry

employed

1952

Number of engineers and scientists
on Government contracts
per 100 employed
Companies with total
employment of —
All
reporting
Less
500
5,000
companies
than
to
or
more
500
4,999

Number of engineers
and scientists on
Government subcon­
tracts per 100 on
all Government
contracts

All industries............................

48.9

58.7

47.9

49.3

12.4

Manufacturing................... *.... ....

48.9

59.6

46.4

50.7

11.3

Food and kindred products ...............
Textile mill products and apparel.........
Paper and allied products ...............
Chemicals and allied products...... .....
Industrial organic and inorganic
chemicals ..........................
Drugs and medicines ...................
Soap, cleaners, etc....................
Paint, varnish, etc....................
Other chemical products..... ..........

.7
10.2
3.5
5.4-

4.3
40.0
—
10.3

1.0
16.4
3.4
6.2

.1
3.3
3.8
4.3

_
15.7
51.9
14.8

6.8
.9
3.9
9.4
10.3

13.4
7.5
2.3
13.8
8.5

5.7
1.0
26.3
17.0
10.5

6.4
.1
.3
6.2
—

6.2
20.8
37.8
53.6
3.4

Petroleum refining .......................
Rubber products .... ....................
Stone, clay, and glass products ..........
Primary metal industries ................
Fabricated metal products ...............
Machinery (except electrical) ............
Electrical machinery ....................
Transportation equipment ................
Motor vehicles and equipment •..........
Aircraft and parts ....................
Other transportation equipment .........

4.5
19.3
6.9
10.0
39.9
24.5

2.5
46.3

U.9.

22.8
53.3'
—
58.0
76.7
48.0
89.0
70.0
8.6 .
85.0
62.5

13.3
37.3
31.7
69.8
91.9
28.2
98.4
60.3

3.8
15.7
2.2
4.8
16.0
16.0*
54.1
86.2
21.6
91.4
32.3

13.7
28.2
11.3
28.8
46.5
35.8
12.4
6.5
11.5
6.3
21.2

Professional and scientific instruments ...
Photographic equipment and supplies ••...
Other professional and scientific
instruments.... ........ ...... ....

69.6
79.9

74.8
88.2

57.2
76.2

76.3
—

12.5
15.0

67.7

71.2

47.1

76.3

12.0

Other manufacturing.....................

68.8

71.5

75.7

58.8

15.7

Nonmanufacturing ..........................

49.2

57.8

56.8

28.1

19.4

83.3
54.5
48.0

__
—
28.1

32.7
7.4
10.6

Commercial consulting firms ...............
Nonprofit research agencies ..............
Other nonmanufacturing ....................




60.2
86.6
23.1
92.1

65.8
53.0
35.4

66

64.3
50.9
22.0

19.8

C-10.

Average number of research engineers and scientists on Government contracts per 100
employed, by industry and size of professional research staff, January 1952

Industry

All
reporting
companies

Companies with professional research staff of —
0
to
4

5
to
14

15
to
29

30
to
49

50
to
74

75
to
124

125

250
to
499

500
to
999

1,000

to
249

or
more

All industries ..............................

A8.9

29.1

37.3

41.3

38.9

33.7

32.1

44*4

38.0

49.9

63.8

Manufacturing ................................

48.9

29.5

35.4

37.9

34.7

37.1

30.9

40.3

35.1

48.4

66.6

Food and kindred products .................
Textile mill products and apparel .........
Paper and allied products .................
Chemicals and allied products ............
Industrial organic and inorganic
chemicals ....... *....................
Drugs and medicines ......................
Soap, cleaners, etc.............. ........
Paint, varnish, etc........... ...........
Other chemical products ..................

.7
10*2
3.5
5.4

4.6
26.5
2.9
11.3

2.1
27.3
2.9
7.4

0
14.7
6.9
10.4

0
G/>

_
—
—

_
_
(1/)

_
_
(1/)

6.8
•9
3.9
9.4
10.3

22.5
6.5
0
21.4
7.1

5.5
4.4
0
9.6
14.5

1.5
0
a/)

a/)

a/)

_
__
—

__
_

4.5
19.3
6.9
10.0
39.9
24.5

7.5
46.2
5.5
33.3
45.6
22.0
65.5
60.9
23.4
81.3
56.5

_

41.9

16.7
23.1
4.2
17.4
43.4
30.0
53.3
57.8
50.0
65.4
45.5

Petroleum refining .... ....................
Rubber p r o d u c t s ...... ..................
Stone, clay, and glass products ...........
Primary metal industries ......... .........
Fabricated metal products .................
Machinery (except electrical) ..............
Electrical m a c h i n e r y ....... ...............
Transportation e q u i p m e n t ....... ...........
Motor vehicles and equipment .............
Aircraft and parts ......................
Other transportation equipment .......

60.2
86.6
23.1

92.1

9*4
5.5

39.7
35.2
31.0

1.4
0/)

4.1
10.9
11.3
0
(i/)
a/)

15.5

1 £*4
<
a/)

6.1

a /)
a/)
&/)

4.0

2.9
a /)
G /)
0/)
a/)

d7>

9.9

51.7

76.3
19.3
74.5
76.7
O /)
100.0
—

84.8

a/)
a/)

6.9
7.9
0
—

a/)
a/)

0

a /)

48.8
26.1
66.6
40.2
32.3
a/)
(1/)

30.9
21.1
67.8
57.5
23.6

__

2.1

5.8

a/)
.6
a /)

a/)
a/)
a/)
a /)

—

3.0

6.5

a/)

Q/>

a/)

38.9
52.5
85.6

46.2
97.0
88.9.

0/)
a/)
Q/>

99.1

100.0

—

—

—

( V)

a/)
G/>

_

a /)

2.4

a/)

_
__

a/)
(V)

—
—

a/)
a/)

77.8
71.6
a/)

_
_
_
a/)

90.8

—
_
_
_
_
a/)

49.7
90.7

_

90.8

90.7
—

Professional and scientific instruments ....
Photographic equipment and supplies ......
Other professional and scientific
instruments ..........................

69.6
79.9

53.9
62.5

62.1
87.3

52.5
a/)

67.7
(1/)

49.9

35.1

a /)

a/)

67.7

53.1

56.8

53.0

60.8

42.3

43.3

a/)

—

—

a/)

Other manufacturing .....................

68.8

12.3

50.2

61.6

59.0

—

69.3

82.8

—

—

—

Nonmanufacturing ........... ..................

49-2

27.9

46.9

49.6

56.3

50.8

37.9

68.9

53.8

a/)

a/>

Commercial consulting firms ...............
Nonprofit research agencies *..............
Other nonmanufacturing .....................

65.8
53.0
35.4

33.3
—
15.3

56.8
28.2
21.8

65.3
52.5
2.0

89.8
24.9
U.6

76.9
a />
a/)

a/)

67.3
a/)
0/)

a/)
44*3
(1/)

d/)




l/

Data are not shown for fewer than three companies*

31.5

a/)

_
a/)

c-ll.

Percent change in employment of research engineers and
s c ie n tis ts , January 1951 to January 1952, by industry
and size of compaay
A ll
reporting
companies

Industry

A ll in d u stries ...........................................................
Manufacturing ..............................................................
Food and kindred products ...............................
T extile m ill products and apparel ..............
Paper and a llie d products • .............................
Chemicals and a llie d products ......................
Industrial organic and inorganic
chemicals ...................................................
Drugs and medicines ........................................
Soap, cleaners, e tc ..........................................
Paint, varnish, e tc ..........................................
Other chemical products ...............................
Petroleum r e f in in g ..............................................
Rubber p ro d u cts......... *.........................................
Stone, clay, and glass products
Primary metal industries .................................
Fabricated metal products ...............................
Machinery (except e le c tr ic a l) ....................
E lectrica l machinery ..........................................
Transportation equipm ent.................................
Motor veh icles and equipment . • ................
A ircraft and parts ..........................................
Other transportation equipment ................
Professional and s c ie n tific instrum ents..
Photographic equipment and supplies »•.
Other professional and sc ie n tific
instruments ...................................................
Other m anufacturing........................................
Nonmanufacturing .......................................................
Commercial consulting firms ...........................
Nonprofit research agencies ......... .................
Other nonmanufacturing ......................................




68

23.7
23.8
7.2
2 .4
6 .9
10.8
11.9
10.7
6 .6
3.5
14.4
5.7
10.4
6 .0
9.5
20.8
14.7
27.5
45.0
10.9
48.5
27.5
28.3
21.4
32.6
33.9
23.2
31.5
24-9
16.8

Companies with to ta l
employment of—
Less
than
500

500
to
4,999

6.8
-14.0
4 .8
15.2

22.3
21.9
13.5
2.9
6.3
13.8

20.0
29.1
5.9
8.6
11.1

13.0
15.1
27.8
3.2
16.1

3 3 .4
3 3 .8

15.5
15.5
7.8
38.6
36.3
22.0
63.7
45.6
-2 .8
66.7
14.3
39.2
58.0
33.6
30.1
33.1
36.9
30.4
14.6

b.K

22.3
1 4 .2
6.2

19 .2
18 .9

19.4
37.9
8.0
41.7
25.9
41.3
66.1

31.7
44.0
23.9
.8
21.8
46.4

5,000
or
more
2 3.0
2 3 .8
4 .6
4 .5
8 .0
9 .8
1 1 .3
9 .9
3 .9
2 .0

—

5.6
9 .4
5 .4
8 .9

17.2
11.4
27.0
45.7
11.2
49.0
28.9
18.0
5.2
30.0
23.5
10.3
__
—
10.3

C-12. Percent change in employment of research engineers and s c ie n tis ts , January 1951 to
January 195* > by industry and size o f professional research s ta ff
275235 0 - 53

Companies with professional research staff of —
Industry

All
reporting
companies

75

0
to
4

5
to
14

15
to
29

30
to
49

50
to
74

124

to

125
to
249

250
to
499

500
to
999

1,000
or
more

All indust r i e s ....... .................. .

23.7

5.3

21.7

22.3

20.0

20.0

27.4

19.0

15.4

27.7

29.3

Manufacturing ............................

23.8

6.6

21.9

21.8

16 .4

18.0

26.9

17.0

14.6

27.1

31.1

Food and kindred products ..............
Textile mill products and apparel .....
Paper and allied products .............
Chemicals and allied products .........
Industrial organic and inorganic
chemicals .........................
Drugs and medicines .................
Soap, cleaners, etc..................
Paint, varnish, etc....... ...........
Other chemical products ......... .

7.2
2.4
6.9
10.8

6.5
0
5.6
7.0

11.1
8.5
2.6
16.2

4.0
-7.5
5.0
13.1

19.1
G/)

e/>
G/)
16.0

0
. O/)
—
8.2

_
—
—

_
—
—

11.9
10.7
6.6
3.5
14.4

8.2
16.7
0
0
2.2

22.8
17.7
16.7
4-9
14*9

18.3
11.8

5.2
13.9
G/)
G/)
10.8

Petroleum refining ....................
Rubber products ..................... ..
Stone, clay, and glass products .......
Primary metal industries •.. •...........
Fabricated metal products .............
Machinery (except electrical) .........
Electrical machinery ..................
Transportation equipment ...............
Motor vehicles and equipment ........
Aircraft and parts ..................
Other transportation equipment ......

5.7
10.4
6.0
9.5
20.8
H.7
27.5
45.0
10.9
48.5
27.5

2.8
-4.8
3.2
0
12.5
19.0
11.7
-6.3
-11.1
5.3
-31.2

18.8
18.5
12.9
24.7
39.7
10.2
30.9
23.9
6.8
42.2
10.0

2.0
10.6
6.0
20.9
9.5
18.9
35.2
44.8
6.0
109.7
32.8

Professional and scientific instruments.
Photographic equipment and supplies ..
Other professional and scientific
instruments ......................

28,3
21.4

3.8
0

38.9
41.0

45.1
G/)

32.6

4.3

38.5

Other manufacturing ...................

33.9

5.1

Nonmanufacturing ....................... .

23.2

Commercial consulting firms ...........
Nonprofit research agencies ...........
Other nonmanufacturing............. .

31.5
24.9
16.8




1 / Data are not shown for fewer than three companies.

G/>
6.8
14.3

9.0
8.5

15.4
G/)
—
17.3
16.3
6.6

G/)
G/)
G/)
10.2
17.4
2.9
e /j
a /)
G/)
G/>
g

/)

6.5
31.0
6.7
45.3

9.2
30.9
—

G/)

7.8

e/)
G/)

O/)
—
—

6.7

6.7

—
—
10.2

5.8

—
—

G/)

—
—

G/)
G/)

0/)
G/)

6/)
G/)

5.6

G/)

a /)

G/)

a/)

—
—

—
—

—

17.2
0/)
G/)
0/)

—

G/)
G/)

__
—
—
_
_

26.2
G/)
40.2
—

—
_
—
28.4
66.1
—
66.1
—

G/)
27.2
45.7
_
45.7
—

27.9
29.7
103.7

19.8
19.3
52.6
59.6

—

G/)
G />
0/)

50.6

17.4

23.6

Q A

G/)

G/)

G />

O/)
G/)

_
—

G/)
G/)

44.9

47.0

7.6

17.8

G/>

—

—

0/>

27.2

47.4

37.6

—

81.3

25.4

~

—

—

1.5

20.5

24.6

39.0

35.7

30.3

32.6

15.6

a/)

G/)

2.8
-11.1
0

24.2

26.6
25.6

61.1
5.1
32.5

97.8
3.0

G/>

21.2

G/)

_
_

Q/>

26.2

G/)
17.3
G/)

_

G/)
0/)

9.8
13.1

19.6

24.6
8.2
2.1
G/)
G/)

26.0
G/)

27.9

G/)
—

20.2

a/)

C-13.
Percent change in employment of research engineers and
scientists on Government prime contracts and subcontracts,
January 1951 to January 1952, by industry
A

Engineers and scientists employed on Government contracts
Prime contracts

Total

Subcontracts

Industry
Percent change
Percent change, Number
Percent change, Number
Number
reported, Jan. 1951 to
reported, Jane 1951 to
reported, Jan. 1951 to
Jan.1952
Jan. 1952
Jan#1952
Jan.1952
Jan. 1952
Jan.1952
All industries ....................

1/45, 445

52.0

1 /3 9 ,713

5 1 .0

1 / 5 ,7 32

57.6

Manufacturing .....................

39*467

52.2

34,863

5 1 .7

4,604

57.5

Chemicals and allied products ••••
Petroleum r e f i n i n g ...... ........
Primary metal industries.... .
Fabricated metal products .......
Machinery (except electrical) ....
Electrical m a c h i n e r y............
Motor vehicles and equipment •••••
Aircraft and parts ..............
Professional and scientific
instruments................. .
Other manufacturing .............

802
223
181
1,022
1,443
10,460
710
18,636

6 9.8
8.7
5.7
44.6
74.2
54.0
104.0
52.8

683
192
129
547
926
9,163
628
17,462

81.2
34.6
21.2
36.0
53.3
53.0
106.8
53.1

119
31
52
475
517
1 ,2 9 7
82
1,174

45.6
-50.8
-19.0
56.5
130*2
84.9
90.9
49.4

4,139
1,851

44.2
40.7

3,630
1,503

45.2
40.5

509
348

29.5
50.5

Nonmanufacturing ...................

5,978

50.8

4,850

46.3

1,128

67.6

Commercial consulting firms .....
Nonprofit research agencies .....
Other nonmanufacturing ..........

2,502
1,813
1,663

52.9
31.2
66.8

1,684

42.1
31.4
67.6

818
134
176

70.1

1,679
1,487

1/ These figures are estimates covering all 1*953 companies in the survey*
not all digits of the numbers are statistically significant.



29.2
88*4

Although exact numbers are given,

,

C-14. Average number or supporting personnel per research engineer or s c ie n tis t,
by industry and .size of company, January 1952
All companies

Companies with fewer than 500 employees

Industry
Number of
companies
reporting

Mean */

Median

Lower
quartile

Upper
quartile

Number of
companies
reporting

Mean t /

Median

Lower
quartile

Upper
quartile

1/ 1,735

1.5

0 .8

0.3

1.5

921

0.9

0.5

0 .1

1.3

Manufacturing ............................

1,398

1.5

.8

.3

1.5

640

1 .0

.7

.2

1.4

Food and kindred products ........ .
Textile mill products and apparel .....
Paper and allied products ..............
Chemicals and allied p r o d u c t s ..........
Industrial organic and inorganic
chemicals ............... .........
Drugs and medicines ......... ........
Soap, cleaners, etc..................
Paint, varnish, etc. .................
Other chemical products ......... .

67
46
48
243

1 .0
1 .6

.6
1 .0
.6
.6

17

.8

.5
.4
.5
•4

0
0

1 .0
1 .0
1 .0
1 .0

75

1 .1
.8
.8
.8

Petroleum refining ....................
Rubber products .......................
Stone, clay, and glass products .......
Primary metal industries ..............
Fabricated metal products .............
Machinery (except electrical) ..........
Electrical machinery ...................
Transportation equipment ••••«.........
Motor vehicles and equipment .........
Aircraft and parts ..................
Other transportation equi p m e n t ..... .

46
31
35
43
137
166
217

14

1.7
5.2
1.5
.7

Professional and scientific instruments.
Photographic equipment and supplies ..
Other professional and scientific
instruments ........... ...........

139

1.4

20

All industries .................. .......

68
17
29
54

.9
.9

.7
1.5
.9
'
1.9

1 .1
1 .1
1.3

2 .0

.6
.6
.5

.3
•4
.3

.2
.3

.7
.5

.1
.2
.2
.2

1 .0

,5

.9
.9
.7

.4
.5
.4
.4
.4
.5

1 .0
1 .0
1 .0

1 .0

12
11

1 .6

152

.7

1 .0
1 .0
.8
1 .0
1 .0

47
39

.7
.5
.7

1.5
1.3
1.7

1 .0
1 .8

8
60

1.9

1 .8

5.0
2.4

63
114
25
4
19

1.7

1 .0
1 .0

2 .0
2 .6

,5

.5

0

34

.7

.3
.3
.3
.7
•4

0
0
0
0
0

17
14
13

1 .8

.8

.5
.7
.5

.3
.3

1 .0

.7
•4
.4
.7
.7

1.3

1 .0

10
22

.8

i .6

0
0
.3

.7

1 .0
.7

1 .0
1 .0
1.1
1 .0
1.3

.8

.2

1.5
1.4

(2/J

.3
.3
( /)
2

2 .0
2 .8
( /)
2

(*/)

3.0
( /)
2

1 .2

,5
1 .6
.6

.4

.3

1 .0

2

(£/)

1.5
G /)

1 .2

.8
1 .0

.3

.2

1.5
1.5

96
14

1 .1
.6

.6
1 .0

.2
.3

1.5
1.3

119

1.4

.7

.3

1.5

82

1.3

.6

.2

1.5

Other manufacturing ....................

80

1.4

.9

.3

1.5

38

.9

.8

.3

1.5

Nonmanufacturing .... ....................

337

1 .2

.5

0

1 .1

281

.8

.5

0

1 .0

Commercial consulting firms ............
Nonprofit research agencies ............
Other nonmanuf a d u r i n g ................

226

1 .0

.8

.6

.7
.9

4

80

27
42

.5
.5
.5

0

1 .6

1 .0
1 .0

212.

.9

.5
.5

0

31

1 .0
1 .0
1 .0

See footnotes at end of table*




100
24

62

1.3
2.3

.4
.3

1.3

.4

2 .2

1.5

.1

0

C-14. Average number of supporting personnel per research engineer or s c ie n tis t,
by industry and size of company, January 1952—Continued
Companies with 5,000 or more employees

Companies with 500 to 4,999 employees
Industry

Number of
companies
reporting

Mean ^

Median

Lower
quartile

Upper
quartile

Number of
companies
reporting

Mean— /

Median

Lower
quartile

Upper
quartile

All industries ...........................

545

1.3

0.9

0.4

1.8

200

1.6

1.1

0.6

1.9

Manufacturing.............. .............

516

1.3

.9

.4

1.8

188

1.6

1.1

.7

2.0

Food and kindred products .............
Textile mill products and apparel .....
Paper and allied p r o d u c t s ...... .......
Chemicals and allied p r o d u c t s ....... ..
Industrial organic and inorganic
chemicals ...... ..................
Drugs and medicines ..................
Soap, cleaners, etc...................
Paint, varnish, etc...................
Other chemical products .............

31
22
28
62

.8
1.3
.9
.8

.5
.7
.6
.7

.3
.4
.3
•4

1.0
1.3
.9
1.1

15
10
9
22

1.2
1.9
.9
1.0

.9
1.7
.7
.8

.5
1.3
.2
.7

1.0
2.1
1.4
1.1

18
20
3
4
17

.8
.8
.8
.7
,7

.8
.7
(2/)
(2/)
.5

.4
.6
(2/)
(2/)
.4

1.2
.9
(2/)
(2/)
1.4

9
7
3
3

1.1
•9
.8
.7

.7
(2/)
(2/)
(1/)

—

1.0
(2/)
(2/)
(2/)
—

Petroleum refining .....................
Rubber products ........................
Stone, clay, and glass products
Primary metal industries ...............
Fabricated metal products ..............
Machinery (except electrical) .........
Electrical machinery ...................
Transportation equipment ..............
Motor vehicles and equipment ........
Aircraft and parts ........ ..........
Other transportation equipment ......

9
11
13
19
56
78
86
41
10
24
7

1.6
1.2
.9
1.3
1.2
1.4
1.5
1.9
3.2
1.8
1.3

.9
1.3
.8
.5
1.1
1.1
1.3
1.2
2.8
1.0
(2/)

.3
.6
.6
.2
.5
.4
.6
.6
1.3
.7
(2/)

1.0
1.5
1.7
.9
2.1
1.9
2.0
2.5
3.7
1.9
(2/)

17
4
7
13
13
22
11
31
9
17
5

1.5
.9
2.2
1.0
1.1
1.2
2.2
1.7
5.6
1.4
.4

1.2
(2/)
(2/)
.9
1.0
1.8
1.4
1.3
5.0
1.3
(2/)

.9
U/)
(2/)
.7
.7
.5
.8
.5
.7
.5
C§/)

1.6
(2/)
(2/)
1.5
1.5
2.1
1.8
3.0
6.2
2.4
(2/)

Professional and scientific instruments.
Photographic equipment and supplies ..
Other professional and scientific
instruments .......................

31
5

1.1
.5

.9
(2/)

.5
(2/)

1.5
(2/)

6
1

1.6
(2/)

(2/)
(2/V

(£/)
(2/)

(2/)
(2/)

26

1.4

.9

.5

1.5

5

1.5

(£/)

(2/)

(2/)

Other manufacturing ....................

29

1.4

.9

.3

1.5

8

1.6

1.0

.6

1.5

Nonraanufacturing....... .................

29

1.2

.7

.3

1.5

12

1.6

.7

.5

1.2

Commercial consulting firms ............
Nonprofit research agencies ...........
Other nonmanufacturing......... .

3
4
22

2.3
1.0
1.3

(2/)
(2/)
.6

(2/)
(2/)
.3

(2/)
(2/)
1.3

____

___ .

____

____

____

—
12

—

—
.7

—
.5

1,2

—

1.6

—

1.8
(2/)
(2/)
(2/)
—

—

1/ Excludes 213 companies that failed to report number of research employees or number of research engineers and scientists. The numbers of
reporting companies in the three size groups do not add to the totals shown in column 1, which include companies not reporting their total employment.
2/ Means are not shown for fewer than three companies; medians and quartiles are not shown for fewer than eight companies.
*/ Means were computed by dividing the aggregate number of supporting personnel by the number of research engineers and scientists for each
specified group of companies. They thus reflect to a great extent the experience of the largest organizations in the group. This should be borne in
mind in comparing the means with the median ratios, which were computed from rankings of ratios for individual companies.







(3-15• Average number of supporting personnel per research engineer or s c ie n tis t
by industry and size of p rofessional research s ta f f, January 1952

Industry

All
reporting
companies

Companies with professional research staff of—
0
to
4

5
to
14

15
to
29

30
to
49

50
to
74

All Industries .... ...............

1.5

1.0

1.1

1.2

1.2

1.2

Manufacturing ........................

1.5

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.3

1.3

Food and kindred products ............
Textile mill products and apparel .....
Paper and allied products .............
Chemicals and allied products .........
Industrial organic and inorganic
chemicals ......................
Drugs and medicines ................
Soap, cleaners, etc.......... ......
Paint, varnish, etc........... .....
Other chemical products ............

1.0
1.6
.9
.9

.8
1.2
•
9
.6

•9
.
6
.7
.7

.5
1.9
1.2
.7

1.0

1.1
.8
.8
.8
.7

.5
.7
.4
.7
.5

.6

jS

.4
.6
(1/)
.9
1.1

.8
1.2
G/)
G/)
.8

Petroleum refining......... ..... .
Rubber products .....................
Stone, clay,and glass products ........
Primary metal industries .............
Fabricated metal products .............
Machinery (except electrical) ..... .
Electrical machinery ................
Transportation equipment......... .
Motor vehicles and equipment ...... .
Aircraft and parts .......... ......
Other transportation equipment ........

1.5
.9
1.9
1.1
1.1
1.3
2.0
1.7
5.2
1.5
.7

.8
1.3
1.2
1.1
.1.3
.9

.7
.7
.8

1.8
G/)

1.0

1.9
2.4
2.1
.6

.6
1.2
1.3
1.5
2.1
2.5
1.9
2.0

.6
1.5
1.6
1.2
1.9
1.7
G/)
G/)

Professional and scientific instruments..
Photographic equipment and supplies ...
Other professional and scientific
instruments .....................

1.4
1.2

1.3
.9

1.4
2.2

1.8
O/)

1.4

1.4

1.2

Other manufacturing ........... .

1.4

1.1

1.2

1.0

Nonmanufacturing ......................
Commercial consulting firms ...........
Nonprofit research agencies ...........
Other nonmanufacturing ...............

.9
1.6

1 / Data are not shown for fewer than three companies.

1.0

.2

1.0
.8
1.2

1.0
1.0

1.2
1.4
1.3
2.3
5.6
.9
.7

1.4
1.9
.9

a/)
G/)
G/)

.7

1.1
.5
G/)
G /)
G/)
G/)
G/)

2.0
.4
1.5
1.6
2.4

G/)

1.4
—

75
to
124

125

250

to

to
499

249

500
to
999

1,000
or
more

0.8

1.6

1.6

1.6

1.6

.7

1.6

1.7

1.7

1.6

1.1
G/)

_
_
—
1.1

_
_
G/)

_
_
a/)

G/)

G/)

_

_
_
—

_
G/)
G/)

.9

1.0

1.0

G/)
.8
G/)

.8
—
G/)
G/)

.7

—
—
G/)
G/)
.6

1.0

1.6
G/)
G/)
G/)

—

1.3
G/)

2.3

0/)
G/)

2.2
1.7
2.6

.2
a/)
G/)
G/>

a/)

2.9

—

1.3

_
_
G/)
(1/)

1.0
3.4
G/)

1.3

G/>
G/)
__
_
_

2.5
1.6
_

1.6

_
_
_
_
G/)

2.3
1.4
1.4

—

1.9

.8
Q /)

•4
G/)

G/)

(l/)
a/)

_

G/)
a/)

1.9

1.9

.8

.6

1.1

.6

1.3

.8

1.1

1.0

.8

.6

.7

1.0

1.2
•9
.6

.9
.8
.7

.4
.7
G/)

1.0
1.0

1.1
1.4

—

—

a/)

G/)

—

G/)

.8

1.9

—

—

_

1.0

1.2

1.1

G/)

Cl/)

G/)

1.4

1.2

G/)
G/)

.Q
G/)

( /)
1
(I/)

C-16.

Cost of research, by industry and size of company, 1951
(thousands of dollars)

ATT
reporting
companies

Industry

Companies with total employment of—
0
to
24

25
to
99

200
to
499

100
to
199

500
to
999

1,000
to
4,999

5,000
to
24,999

25,000
to
49,999

50,000
to
99,999

100,000
Not
or
reported
more

All industries.

1/ $1,804,529

$8,418

$34,523

$20,927

$69,461

$88,332

$236,866

$424,863

$317,686

$171,708

$397,168

$34,577

Manufacturing..

1,624,687

2,080

10,319

12,509

49,818

62,157

218,765

420,093

316,329

171,570

(2/)

(2/)

(2/)
—
—

— •
—
—

Food and kindred products ......... ..
Textile mill products and apparel...
Paper and allied products..........
Chemicals and allied products.... .
Industrial organic and inorganic
chemicals....................
Drugs and medicines...............
Soap, cleaners, etc..............
Paint, varnish, etc..............
Other chemical products..........

Commercial consulting firms.
Nonprofit research agencies.
Other nonmanufacturing.....

cost

o ij e ^ s e M ^ l t ^ 19^51^




131,34X5
44-*04.3
12^342
6,486
10,019

362
238
—
22
193

553
827
275
468
536

92,942
22,890
20,752
34,596
38,404
99,729
432,343
511.324
o
,»
r>

Nonmanufacturing.....

(2/)
2,659

n

48
275
178
(2/)

(2/)
w x

432
205

88
906
273
1,176
963
(2/)
696
(2/)

145
93
—
2,024

165
359
377
8,190

464
176
278
10,741

5,297
6,753
4,952
31,618

898
393
259
(2/)

3,604
1,586

11,548
14,907
(2/)
1,519

0/)

IgA

1,717
5,196
602
(2A
(2/)

7,570
1,547
960
3,846
12,206
36,522
54,795
33,756
4,344
27,071

lg/)

1,063

(2/)
137
209
(2/)
2,154
916
3,215
234

1,694
981
377
542
3,267
3,822
16,206
2,454

540
459
610
753
3,122
4,720
10,871
14,568

234

2,126

13,119

IgA
IgA IgA
IgA

IgA

2 , 3a

410,804
6,217

(2/)

91,813

453

2,689

1,940

9,403

8,860

9,360

30,794

68

(2/)

620

2,556

2,900

969

61,019

385

(2/)

1,320

6,847

5,960

24,842

139

523

1,226

1,981

179,842

Professional and scientific
instruments.......... .........
Photographic equipment and
supplies......................
Other professional and scientific
instruments...................
Other manufacturing.

27
—
(2/)
815

*

Petroleum refining.................
Rubber products.....................
Stone, clay, and glass products....
Primary metal industries...........
Fabricated metal products..........
Machinery (except electrical)......
Electrical machinery................
Transportation equipment..
Motor vehicles and equipment.....
Aircraft and parts........ .......
Other transportation equipment....

23,889
15,817
11,116
204,230

6,338

24,204

8,418

19,643

44,193
37,577
98,072

5,210
808
320

17,343
3,712
3,H9

6,113
1,584
721

10,637
6,614
2,392

13,928
8,270
5,453
89,452
W X
(2A

10,406
2,855
-25,146
10,313
9,980
6,030
11,432
22,945
45,207
132,145
11,236
118,199
2,710

(2/)

(2/)
—
—
—
.—

(I/)

—
—
—
—

(2/)

(2/)

28,272

wx

(2/)
““
2,731

(2/)

(2/)
—
—
—
—

—
—
—

—
—
(2/)

(2/)
(2/)
8.501

(2/)
189,657
—
189,657

__
600
(2/)
—
93,174
2/0
(2/)

i
(2A
—
—
(2A
43,501
(2
—

A

%
(2/)
964
1.037
2^
2^
(2/)

""

34,676

(2/)

—

—

(2/)

—

(2/)

—

—

--

8,391

34,676

—

—

—

(2/)

5,995

9,583

5,116

145

-

—

134

26,175

18,101

(2/)

4,260
14,559
7,356

4,770

1,357

138

(2/)

—

__

—

—

(2/)
(2/)

—
4,770

—
1,357

—
—
138

disclosing figures for individual companies, but these dat a are included in totals.

(2/)

630
(2/)

C-17. Cost of research, by industry and size of professional research s t a f i, 1951
(thousands of dollars)

Companies with professional research staff of —
Industry

All
reporting
companies

0
to
4

5
to
14

15
to
29

30
to
49

50
to
74

All industries ...........................

1/*1,804,529

*19,466

$71,242

$80,021

$84,897

$67,469

Manufacturing .............................

1,624,687

15,738

60,433

66,410

73,975

61,474

Food and kindred products ...............
Textile mill products and apparel ......
Paper and allied products ..............
Chemicals and allied products ..........
Industrial organic and inorganic
chemicals .........................
Drugs and medicines ............. .
Soap, cleaners, etc. ................ .
Paint, varnish, etc...................
Other chemical products ..............

131,340
44, 043
12,342
6,486
10,019

494
534
196
178
325

1,973
1,867
190
927
2,570

Petroleum refining ......................
Rubber products ........................
Stone, clay, and glass products ........
Primary metal industries ...............
Fabricated metal products ..............
Machinery (except electrical) ...........
Electrical machinery ...................
Transportation equipment ...............
Motor vehicles and equipment .........
Aircraft and parts ...... .............
Other transportation equipment .......

92,942
22,890
20,752
34,596
38,404
99,729
432,343
511,324
94,303
410,804
6,217

525
247
639
431
1,287
1,019
2,281
2,128
572
926
630

1,101

11,010

Professional and scientific instruments..
Photographic equipment and supplies ...
Other professional and scientitic
instruments .......................

91,813
30,794

1,591
182

5,746
1,458

6,973

61,019

1,409

Other manufacturing.......... ..........

24,842

Nonmanufacturing.............. .........
Commercial consulting firms ......... .
Nonprofit research agencies ............
Other nonmanufacturing .................

23,889
15,817
11,116
204,230

974
1,059
393
1,727

2,890
1,793
1,490
7,527

1,722
1,617
1,518
6,964
10,223
2,672
• 769
1,312
591

75
to

125
to

124

249

52,503
_

(2/0

21,658

8,351
(2/)

__
_
_

_
_

(2/0

(2/)

(2/)
2,141
(2/)
1,351

(2/0

(2/)

_
_

_
_

—

“

679
1,659
G/>

4,421
3,522
(2/)
(2/0

10,924
(2/0

(2/0
23,078
(2/0

(2/)

2,269

<£/>
1,624
857
2,173
7,388
9,614
13,512
10,824
5,689
2,491

2,278
(2/)
—
1,271
7,664
11,220
15,965
6,037
2,982
(2/)
(2/)

(2/)
—

3,961
—
—
(2/0
(2/)
6,020
7,650
1,902
(2/)
(2/)
(2/0

22,433
(2/)
(2/)
(2/)

—
19,199
(2/)
16,849
(2/)
6 0
20,674
17,357
29,351
(2/)
(2/)

7,547

(2/)

3,662
(2/)

(2/0

5,683
(2/0

4,288

(2/)

(2/0

(2/)

(2/)

(2/)

1,437

4,160

1,302

4,030

—

3,847

9,143

179,842

3,728

10,809

13,611

10,922

5,995

12,906

19,361

44,193
37,577
98,072

2,434
225
1,069

7,491
620
2,698

8,053
1,232
4,326

5,647
1,828
3,447

2,976
(2/0
(2/0

(2/)

9,965
(2/)
(2/0

(2/)

$28,790

(2/)

36,651

(2/)
(2/)

Not re­
ported

_
—
—
36,147

16,646

2 >644

or
more

227,809

3,068
2,754
(2/)
(2/)
(2/)

(2/0
4 >407
2,030
9,319
10,932
9,927
6 0
(2/)

1,000

180,523

(2/0
(2/)
(2/)
8,350

680

500
to
999

$65,409 $199,884 $252,711 $ 194,122 $740,518

5,642
(2/)
4,224
11,187

1,915
3,044
1,625
5,144

250
to
499

(2/)

35,111
_
_
(2/0
(2/)
12,505
120,318
(2/)
6/0

(2/0
(2/)
_
_
_
39,924
78,397
■ _
78,397
—

i

_
_
_
_
(2/0
299,658
249,336
_
249,336

681
29
(2/)
257
(2/)
(2/)
(2/)
(2/0
1,593
1,280
(2/)
2,336
(2/0
(2/0
(s7)

229

_

(2/)
(2/)

(2/)

(2/0

—

(2/)

(2/)

—

—

—

24,902

(2/)

(2/)

7,132

(2/)
12,519
(2/)

(2/)

_

3,970
2,627
535

(2/)
(2/0

(2/)

923

1/
This total is based on reports from 1,772 companies. In addition, the study included 181 companies that failed to supply information on the cost
of research in 1951*
2j
Data withheld to avoid disclosing figures for individual companies, but these data are included in totals.




' C-18. Cost of Government-financed research as percent of to ta l research c o st,
by industry and size of company , 1951

Companies with fewer than 500 employees

All companies
Number of
companies
reporting

Mean i/

1/ 1,630

A6.8

•10.0

1,302

AS.A

59

Upper
quartile

Number of
companies
reporting

0

71.4

8 88

57.6

22.0

0

90.0

9.2

'
0

6 6 .4

611

59.9

20.0

0

90.0

0
.8
0
0

0

43
224

3.7
14.4
3.2
7.1

0

0
21.9
2.5
5.0

14
8
8
143

4.5
38.6
3.1
11.2

0
23.0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
32.0
0
5.8

73
62
15
23
51

9.5
.4
2.9
9.8
10.2

0
0
0
7.9
0

.
0
0
0
0
0

6.8
0
4*4
13.4
8.1

46
39
9
16
33

17.2
3.9
5.2
11.8
8.8

0
0
0
8.1

0
0
0
0
0

6.0
0
5.4
13.3
8.1

Petroleum refining ......................
Rubber products ......... ...............
Stone, clay, and glass products ........
Primary metal industries •••••..........
Fabricated metal products ......... .
Machinery (except electrical) ..........
Electrical m a c h i n e r y ........... ........
Transportation equipment ...............
Motor vehicles and equipment .........
Aircraft and parts ............ .......
Other transportation equipment........

43
30
30
37
124
151
208
96
23
59
14

3.1
13.6
2.7
9.5
31.1
23.8
57.0
70.8
9.4
8 5 .I
52.8

0
21.7
0
.4
24.5
2.9
67.4
91.7
16.1
100.0
38.4

0
4.8
0
0
0
0
22.7
24.2
1.9
82.9
0

6.9
37.5
1.4
13.3
76.3
33.3
100.0
100.0
28.7
100.0
100.0

20
14
9
6
55
59
111
24
3
18
3

9.6
34.6
.1
61.4
78.0
53.5
80.8
73.3
31.8
77.7
77.1

3.4
31.7
,0
(2/)
76.2
0
86.7
94.5

Professional and scientific instruments..
Photographic equipment and supplies ...
Other professional and scientific
instruments.... ...................

136
21

57.3
29.1

50.0
100.0

13.6
13.9

94.6

1 00.0

100
16

76.2
93.1

115

73.0

47.0

13.6

82.3

84

Other manufacturing .....................

80

54.9

12.7

0

73.3

Nonmanufacturing ..........................

328

50.6

14.2

0

Commercial consulting firms ......... .
Nonprofit research agencies .............
Other nonmanufacturing ••••.... .........

220
33
75

65.4
53.2
42.9

47.8
10.3
0

0
0
0

Industry

All industries .................. .
Manufacturing ............... ..............
Food and kindred products ...............
Textile mill products and apparel ......
Paper and allied products ...............
Chemicals and allied products ...........
Industrial organic and inorganic
chemicals •••............. .........
Drugs and medicines ..................
Soap, cleaners, etc...................
Paint, varnish, etc.............. .
Other chemical products .............. .

See footnotes a t end o f tab le



41

Median

Lower
quartile

0
0

Mean i/

Median

.0

Lower
quartile

Upper
quartile

13.0

(2/)

0
0
0
(2/)
0
0
33.3
40.0
C2/)

100.0

4 2 .9

100.0

(2/)

(2/)

(2/)

50.0

13.6
10.0

100.0

100.0

70.9

50.0

13.6

94.6

40

73.4

41.5

0

98.5

90.3

277

54.9

26.2

0

9 4 .9

100.0
50.0
10.0

208
29
40

62.9
48.4
17.9

50.0
7.3

0
0
0

100.0

0

6 0 .0
0
(2/)
100.0
66.4
100.0
100.0
(2/)

100.0

48.6
10.5

C-18. Cost of Government-financed research as percent of to ta l research co st, by industry
and size of company, 1951—Continued

Companies with 500 to 4,999 employees
Industry

Number of
companies
reporting

Mean^/

Median

Lower
quartile

Companies with 5>000 or more employees
Upper
quartile

Number of
companies
reporting

*/
Mean-'

Median

Lower
quartile

Upper
quartile

All industries ..........................

507

49.9

5.7

0

5 0 .0

186

45.1

1.2

0

26.2

Manufacturing.................... .......

-480

■48.0

6.2

0

50.0

175

45.7

1.7

0

26.3

Food and kindred products .............
Textile mill products and apparel ......
Paper and allied products ..............
Chemicals and allied products .........
Industrial organic and inorganic
chemicals ............ ............
Drugs and medicines ..................
Soap, cleaners, etc..................
Paint, varnish, etc..................
Other chemical products ..............

28
23
26
55

.7
25.1
4.3
4.3

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
6.6
3.1
1.4

16
9
9
21

4.6
2.6
2.2
7.6

0
.8
0
.3

0
0
0
0

r 0
19.2

17
16
3
4
15

5.1
•4
17.9
6.7
12.3

,
0
0
(2/0
(2/)
0

0
0
(2/)
(2/)
0

1.3
0
(2/)
(2/)
0

9
6
3
3
—

9.7
(3/)
.9
10.5
—

2.7
(2/)
(2/)
(2/)
—

0
(2/)
(2/)
(2/)

6.8
(2/)
(2/)
(2/)

Petroleum r e f i n i n g ....... .............
Rubber products .......................
Stone, clay, and glass products .......
Primary metal i n d ustries.... ..........
Fabricated metal products ..............
Machinery (except electrical) ..........
Electrical machinery ..................
Transportation equipment ..............
Motor vehicles and e q u i p m e n t..... .
Aircraft and parts ...................
Other transportation equipment ......

8
9
13
17
50
71
82
a
10
23
8

.8
25.7
6.9
27.8
30.1
38.7
65.6

0
20.5
0
1.3
14.6
4.0
55.3
97.1
23.4
100.0

0
8.8
0
0
0
0
11.2

0

2.1
11.1

.8

4.2
15.0
8.6
54.0
68.7
8.2
83.6
9.9

(2/)
(2/)
.4
10.2
2.9
54.4
85.9
2.5
95.1
(2/)

0
(2/)
(2/)
0
0
0

1.6
(2/)
(2/)
.9

Professional and scientific instruments.
Photographic equipment and supplies ••
Other professional and scientific
instruments ......................

28
4

50.4
68.3

32.6

24

Other manufacturing............ .

6.2
90.1
0

100.0
100.0

14
4
7
11
13
20
10
29
9
17
3

(2/)

8.6
(2/)

66.4
(2/)

5
1

54.4
(2/)

46.6

(2/)

(2/)

(2/)

4

3.0

0

32.0

7

0

0

44.4

11

(2/)
(2/)

(2/)
(2/0
0

_
—
11

91.2
28.6
98.7
84.3

29

63.4

Nonmanufacturing .........................

27

61.6

Commercial consulting firms ............
Nonprofit research agencies ...........
Other nonmanufacturing .................

2
4
21

(2/)
55.5
61.7

6 9.6

W X
(£/)

0

24.2

0

25.1
9 .9
33.3
50.0
19.3
87.8
100.0
28.7

,0

2.5

4 .8

46.8

2.5
.9
85.9
(2/)

9.3
68.8
97.6
16.1
99.1
(2/)

(2/)
(2/)

(2/)
(2/)

(2/)
(2/)

85.3

(2/)

(2/)

(2/)

18.3

(2/)

(2/)

(2/)

33.9

0

0

0

—
33.9

_
0

_

_

0

0

31.4

1/ Excludes 323 companies that failed to report total research cost or Government-financed research cost. The number of companies in the three size
groups do not add to the totals shown in column 1, which include companies not reporting total employment.
2/ Means are not shown for fewer than 3 companies; medians and quartiles are not shown for fewer than 8 companies.
3/
Less than 0.05 percent.
*/
Means were computed by dividing the aggregate cost of Government-financed research by the total research cost for each specified group of companies.
They thus reflect to a great extent the experience of the largest organizations in the group. This should be borne in mind in comparing the means with the
median percentages, which were computed from rankings of percentages for individual companies.




C-19

Cost of Government-financed research as percent of total
research cost* by industry and else of professional
research staff, 1951

Companies with
15
to
29

Drofessional research staff of—
125
50
30
75
to
to
to
to
49
74
124
249

250
to
499

500
to
999

.26,0,

1,000
or
more

..55*.4_

0
to
4

n

34.4

35.6

40.5

37.0

..JL-iL—

33.4

41.1

33.7
2.2
15.9
6.6
5.3

33.0
1.0
31.2
1.7
10.8

40.0

3.7
14.4
3.2
7.1

0
34.6
9.0
8.1

34.6
14.0
(1/)
3.0
9.1

30.8
ao
ao
(i/)
6.5

27.2
—
(A/)

37.8
0
(I/)
—
1.0

32.3
—
—
—
19.1

55.6
-—
—
(A/)

56.7
—
—
—
(A/)

9.5
0.4
2.9
9.8
10.2

7.5
4.0
1.6
6.0
6.2

8.8
4.5
0
9.1
18.5

1.1
0
(1/)
6.5
7.5

12.6
0
OQ
(i/)
13.8

8.8
(1/)
0/
00
O)

8.2
(I/)

(I/)
.3
(I/)

(A/)
ao
ao
(A/)

(A/)

(A/)

—
—
—

—
—
—

Petroleum refining............ ......
Rubber products .................... .
Stone, clay, and glass products .......
Primary metal industries .............
Fabricated metal products ............
Machinery (except electrical) .........
Electrical machinery .................
Transportation equipment .............
Motor vehicles and equipment ........
Aircraft and parts .................
Other transportation equipment ......

3.1
13.6
2.7
9.5
31.1
23.8
57.0
70.8
9.4
85.1
52.8

13.0
22.3
2.1
26.4
47.6
31.1
49.9
64.9
33.6
72.0

a/)
31.9
32.1
6.0
20.1
23.4
69.3
49.3
18.1
84.5
83.2

5.0
(A/)
—
(A/)
50.4
22.5
65.1
28.4
11.4
(A/)
(A/)

00

—
ao
a/)
27.7
65.0
76.3
ao
ao
a/)

(A/)
(A/)

<i/>
2.9
57.3
12.8
53.3
60.3
O0
99.2
—•

5.2
—
—
ao
(A/)

83.3

5.3
21.4
2.7
43.6
43.9
16.3
58.1
48.8
11.7
73.3
39.9

69.8
40.4
(A/)
99.1
—

—
—
—
70.8
88.4
—
88.4
—

—
—
—
—
—
(A/)
51.9
79.7
—
79.7
—

Professional and scientific instruments..
Photographic equipment and supplies ...
Other professional and scientific
instruments .................. .

57.7
29.1

47.5
36.2

60.8
85.3

63.5
(1/)

82.1
(A/)

-47.8
(1/)

45.0
ao

ao

ao
(A/)

—
—

ao
(3/)

73.0

49.1

52.2

63.6

79.5

35.3

46.3

a/)

—

—

a/)

Other manufacturing ..................

54.9

27.0

40.8

47.2

31.3

—

45.7

79.7

—

—

—

Nonmanufacturing ......................

50.6

38.0

49.2

43.0

51.4

18.4

57.3

70.8

67.0

(A/)

ao

65.4
53.2
42.9

45.9
0
27.2

58.9
24.8
25.2

63.0
40.9
3.4

88.9
10.1
12.0

79.7
ao
Q/>

(1/)
-57,9

78.5
ao
ao

All
reporting
companies

Industry

All industries _T......................

4-6.8

l6.tr

Food and kindred products ... .........
Textile mill products and apparel .....
Paper and allied products ............
Chemicals and allied products .........
Industrial organic and inorganic
chemicals ......................
Drugs and medicines .................
Soap, cleaners, etc...... ..........
paint, varnish, etc....... ..... .
Other chemical products .............

Commercial consulting firms ...........
Nonprofit research agencies ...........
Other nonmanufacturing ...............
1/




a

Data are not shown for fewer than three companies.

5

4 3

88
0

-2.5
ao
.9
ao
a/)
49.4
92.6
93.0
(1/)
99.3

--

a/)
57.0
0/)

—

/)

(A

—
a/)

£*20. Cost of research as percent of s a le s, by industry
and size of company, 1951

All companies
Industry

Number of
companies
reporting

Mean*/

' Median

Companies with fewer than 500 employees

Lower
quartile

Upper
quartile

Number of
companies
reporting

Mean t /

Median

Lower
quartile

Upper
quartile

1,703

2.0

2.8

1.0

12.8

922

6.9

7.4

2.4

Manufacturing...............................

1,377

2.0

2.0

.8

5.6

648

4.3

4.0

1.8

11.8

Food and kindred products .................
Textile mill products and apparel .........
Paper and allied products • ........... .
Chemicals and allied products ........ .
Industrial organic and inorganic
chemicals .................. ..........
Drugs and m e d i c i n e s .... ................
Soap, cleaners, etc. ..................
Paint, varnish, etc. ....................
Other chemical products ................

64
45
46
246

.3
.9
.5
2.5

.3
.6
.4
2.4

.1
.2
.2
1.3

.6
1.4
.7
4.7

15
11
9
162

.5
1.3
.9
2.5

1.3
1.2
.6
2.6

.2
.5
.3
1.3

6.2
2.0
3.3
5.8

81
65
16
29
55

3.0
3.3
1.1
1.1
1.6

2.1
3.5
1.7
2.1
1.8

1.3
1.7
1.3
1.3
1.0

5.0
5.8
2.7
3.2
3.3

53
42
9
21
37

2.7
3.2
2.5
2.4
1.8

2.4
3.6
1.6
2.4
2.4

1.0
1.4
1.3
1.7
1.2

8.9
6.6
4.6
3.9
4.2

Petroleum refining .............. .
Rubber products ••••......................
Stone, clay, and glass products ...........
Primary metal industries..... ............
Fabricated metal products ............ .
Machinery (except electrical) ............
Electrical machinery ....••...............
Transportation e q u i p m e n t ...... ...........
Motor vehicles and e q u i p m e n t .... .
Aircraft and parts ••........... .
Other transportation equipment .........

41
31
33
39
131
164
213
96
24

.6
1.8
1.1
.6
1.4
1.5
4.2
3.2
1.3
7.7
.7

.4
.8
.4
.3
.7
.8
1.9
1.1
.4
3.2
.2

1.5
3.5
2.4
1.2
3.7
3.2
11.1
10.8
1.9
18.8
3.0

18
14
10
7
57
64
112
24
3
19
2

3.0
3.9
2.6
2.5
5.4
3.4
7.4
6.5
1.9
9.1
e/)

1.6
3.3
2.5
(2/)
3.4
3.0
6.4
4.0

.6
1.9
*4
(2/)
1.4
1.1
2.7
2.7

14

.6
.9
1.3
.4
.9
1.5
6.4
4.5
1.2
12.7
.9

Professional and scientific instruments ...
Photographic equipment and supplies .....
Other professional and scientific
instruments .................... ......

142
22

5.8
4*8

8.3
7.9

3.4
4.3

20.0
20.0

105
17

120

6.4

8.3

3.1

19.6

1.8

*4

5.0

All Industries ..............................

Other manufacturing ••••............... .

y

60

W )

W )

4.1
«/)

3.3
ft/)

3.0
6.8
4-0
(2/)
10.8
6.0
14*9
9.4
(*/)
12.5
(V)

11.8
14.8

10.7
20.0

4.8
5.0

21.7
21.7

88

11.1

10.8

4.7

22.4

40

4.1

4.3

1.8

25.0

27.5

73.4

25.0

94.3

51.3
83.2
5.6

77.8
100.0
6.7

40.0

64

1.1

Nonmanufacturing .......... ..................

326

1.8

66.7

n.i

92.3

274

Commercial consulting firms •• ••...........
Nonprofit research agencies ...............
Other nonmanufacturing ....................

222
29
75

47.4

77.4
100.0
2.6

38.7
85.9
.7

93.8
100.0
8.1

207
26
a

See footnotes a t end of tab le




8 9.8
1.0

37.5

93.9

80.2

100.0

2.6

28.6

C-20. Cost of research as percent of s a le s, by industry and size o f company, 1951—Continued
Companies with 5,000 or more employees

Companies with 500 to 4,999 employfBBB
Industry

Number of
companies
reporting

Mean!/

Median

Lower
quartile

Upper
quartile

Number of
companies
reporting

Meani/

Median

Lower
quartile

Upper
quartile

All industries ............................

536

2.0

1.3

0.5

2.9

200

1.9

0.7

0.3

2.0

Manufacturing ...................... .......

509

1.9

1.3

.5

2.8

188

2.0

.8

.3

2.3

Food and kindred products ..............
Textile mill products and apparel ......
Paper and allied products ..............
Chemicals and allied products ..........
Industrial organic and inorganic
chemicals ..........................
Drugs and medicines ...................
Soap,cleaners, etc.....................
Paint, varnish, etc....................
Other chemical products ..............

32
24
28
58

.3
.9
.5
2.4

•2
•4
.4
1.7

.1
•2
•2
1.0

.6
1.0
•6
2.7

17
9
9
22

.3
.8
.4
2.6

.1
.1
.1
1.7

.4
1.0
•6
3.9

17
16
4
5
16

2.1
3.9
1.8
1.5
1.3

1.8
3.2
T2/>
(2/)
1.0

1.3
1.3
(2/)
(2/)
.9

2.3
4.7
(2/)

10
6
3
3

3.2
3.0
1.0
.7
—

3.7
(2/>
(2/)
(2/)

1.8
(2/)
(2/)
(2/)
—

(2/)
(2/)
(2/)

Petroleum r e f i n i n g ....... ..............
Rubber products .........................
Stone, clay, and glass products ........
Primary metal industries ...............
Fabricated metal products ..............
Machinery (except electrical) ..........
Electrical machinery ....................
Transportation equipment ................
Motor vehicles and equipment .........
Aircraft and parts ....................
Other transportation equipment .......

8
10
13
16
55
74
87
42
11
23
8

1.3
.7
.7
.8
1.1
1.8
4.1
6.1
1.5
15.6
1.6

.4
.8
•6
.6
1.0
1.4
2.7
2,2
1.8
5.9
.6

.3
.3
.4
.2
.5
.7
1.5
.8
.4
1.3
.1

1.3
1.3
.8
1.2
1.8
2.2
5.5
7.9
2.1
17.1
3.0

15
4
8
13
13
24
11
30
9
17
4

.5
.9
1.3
.4
.6
1.3
7.1
4*4
1.2
12.5
.6

.5
(2/)
1.2
.4
.4
1.0
5.2
4.8
.7
11.0
(2/0

.3
(2/)
.4
.2
.3
.c
s
1.7
.7
.4
7.5

.6
(2/)
1.4
.8
.6
1.5
6.3
11.0
1.3
18.0

m

m

Professional and scientific instruments..
Photographic equipment and supplies ...
Other professional and scientific
instruments .........................

29
4

3.8
4.8

3.6
(2/0

1.0
(2/)

6.7
(2/)

6
1

5.8
(2/)

(2/)
(2/)

Q/y
m

(2/)
(2/)

25

3.7

2.5

.8

5.4

5

7.6

(2/)

ti/y

<2/0

Other manufacturing...... ..............

33

1.4

.8

.2

2.8

7

.5

(2/)

m

<2/)

27

5.2

1.8

•4

29.0
94.2
1.9

(2/)
(2/)
1.5

Nonmanufacturing..................... .
Commercial consulting firms ............
Nonprofit research agencies .............
Other nonmanufacturing ..................
1/
three size
2/
2/

3
3
21

W )

(2/)
•2

m

1.6

4.5
,(£/)
(2/)
3.0

3

.3
2.4

—

.8

12

.2

___

___

___

—
12

—

—

.8

.2

4.7

.6

(2/)
_
—
<3/)

___
—

.6

Excludes 250 companies that failed to report total research cost or value of sales (or services). The numbers of reporting companies in the
groups do not add to the totals shown in'column 1, which include companies not reporting their total employment.
Means are not shown for fewer than three companies; medians and quartiles not shown for fewer than eight companies.
Less than 0.05 percent.
Means were computed by dividing the aggregate cost of research by the total value of sales for each specified group of companies. They thus
reflect to a great extent the experience of the largest organizations in the group. This should be borne in mind in comparing the means with the median
percentages, which were computed from rankings of ratios for individual companies.

*/




C-21. CoFt of rerearch as percent of sa le s, by industry and size of
professional research s ta f f, 1951

Industry

All
reporting
companies

Com]sanies with professional research staff of—
0
to
4

5
to
14

15
to
29

30
to
49

50
to
74

75
to
124

125
to
249

250
to
499

500
to
999

1,000
or
more

All industries ........................

2.0

0.7

0.8

1.1

1.4

1.2

1.1

1.6

1.6

2.2

5.1

Manufacturing ....................... ,
Food and kindred products ...........
Textile mill products and apparel ...
Paper and allied products ..........
Chemicals and allied products ..... .
Industrial organic and inorganic
chemicals .....................
Drugs and medicines ..............
Soap, cleaners, etc...............
Paints, varnish, etc..............
Other chemical products ..........

2.0
.3

.8
.2
.5

1.3
.4
(i/)
.4
2.0

1.2
(1/)
(1/0
(1/)
1.4

1.5
.5
(1/0

1.5

2.1

7.0

--

....

1.7

1.0
.1
.7
.6
2.0

1.0

.5
2.5

.6
.2
.2
.3
1.2

3.7

2.3

(A/)

(A/)

3.0
3.3
1.1
1.1
1.6

1.0
1.8
.9
1.9
.9

3.1
1.1
2.3
1.9
1.6

1.4
2.9
(1/0
2.0
1.6

1.8
3.0
(1/)
(i/>
1.9

2.6
4.2
(1/)
(1/0
<1/0

(1/)
4.1
(1/)

4.6
(1/)
(2/)

(A/)

(A/)

Petroleum refining .................
Rubber products ......... ............
Stone, clay, and glass p r o d u c t s.....
Primary metal industries ............
Fabricated metal products ..........
Machinery (except electrical) ......
Electrical m a c h i n e r y .... ...........
Transportation equipment ............
Motor vehicles and equipment .....
Aircraft and parts ............... .
Other transportation equipment ....

.6
.9
1.3
.4
.9
1.5
6.4
4.5
1.2
12.7
.9

.9
.9
1.4
•4
.6
1.3
2.3
1.1
.6
2.9
1.0

.7
1.0
.6
.3
1.5
1.3
2.7
.8
.8
1.7
.4

(1/)
.8
.8
.9
.6
1.2
3.0
1.3
1.0
5.2
1.3

5.8
4.8

3.5
4.3

3.9
5.8

3.6

6.4

3.4

7

1.1

r
*

Nonmanufacturing ........................

1.8

Commercial consulting firms ..........
Nonprofit research agencies ..... ....
Other nonmanufacturing.............. .

47.4
89.8
1.0

Professional and scientific instruments
Photographic equipment and supplies .
Other professional and scientific
instruments ............ ..........T
Other manufacturing ..................

m
o

(1/)

%

(I/O

.3
—

.8
.9
1.6
4.5
1.6
1.0
(1/)
(1/)

(1/)
(1/)
.9
3.3
.5
(1/0

18.7
(1/)

3.9
(1/)

5.5
(1/0

I£ T
>
10.1

Q A

r

7
J

1*4

-5.U

1.0

.6

o
-50

7

4*1

O 9

30.3
13.3
.3

30.0
88.6
.1

no

91.0
(1/)
(A/)

7 rs

83.5
q

T /
1.4

—

(17)

a /)

(17)
.2
4.0
1.9
3.7
1.3
(1/)
10.4
—

.

v .u
(A/)
1 7

2.0
(1/)

(1/0

•
a

"
*

(1/)
(1/)
2.1

(1/)

c

1 / Data are not shown for fewer than three companies.




♦

—

(I/O

—
.5
(1/)
1.5
(1/0
(1/)
2.5
. 11.2
6.0
(1/0
10.0

(I/)
.9
--

(1/)
(1/)

..

—

__
—
(1/0
(1/)

—
__
.„
.

..
..
__

10.9
2.1

24.8

(A/)
7.6
12.2

(i/)
11.8

24.8

12.2

6.8

(1/0

L

(1/)

(I/O
—

(1/)

1.2

4.9

O n
2,0

6.0

<i/>

75.1
(1/)
(1/)

(1/)

1.0

(A/)
(A/)
(A/)

-91.0
O/)
(A/)

—

(A/)

(A/)

(p)
(A/)

C-22. Average cost per research engineer or s c ie n tis t, by industry and
size of company, 1951
Companies with fewer thai1 500 employ ees

All companies
Industry

Number of
companies
reporting

Meanl/

Median

Lower
quartile

Upper
quartile

Number of
companies
reporting

Mean t /

Median

Lower
quartile

Upper
quartile

All industries........................... ...

2/ 1,654

♦21,900

#13,500

# 8,900

#20,500

877

#14,800

#11,300

#7,500

♦18,000

Manufacturing...............................

1,346

22,500

14,200

9,200

21,000

621

15,600

11,100

7,500

18,000

Food and kindred products...... ..........
Textile mill products and apparel........
Paper and allied products........ ........
Chemicals and allied products......... .
Industrial organic and inorganic
chemicals...................... ••••••
Drugs and medicines....... ......... ..
Soap, cleaners, etc.....................
Paint, varnish, etc.....................
Other chemical products.................

61
43
46
239

17,000
19,200
13,500
16,500

14,900
14,000
11,200
10,000

10,000
10,000
8,300
7,500

20,000
20,800
14,400
16,100

14
10
9
152

10,600
10,200

9,400
10,000
10,000

12,500

8,900

6,700
.5,000
6,000
6,700

10,900
12,500
10,000
13,500

77
67
15
26
54

18,200
16,400
14,900
7,100
13,500

11,000
10,000
11,500
9,700
10,000

7,000
7,100
8,100
6,600
7,800

16,300
16,600
15,600
11,700
16,500

49
42
8
19
34

12,200
10,200
10,000
9,900
12,500

8,300
8,500
8,700
9,900
9,800

6,600
5,000
8,000
7,500
6,700

15,000
12,300
11,500
11,500
14,300

Petroleum refining....................... .
Rubber products...........................
Stone, clay, and glass products...........
Primary metal industries ................. .
Fabricated metal products.................
Machinery (except electrical)............
Electrical machinery.................. .
Transportation equipment..................
Motor vehicles and equipment...........
Aircraft and parts.....................
Other transportation equipment.........

44
30
34
37
128
157
213
97
23
60
14

20,900
13,600
18,600
21,500
16,500
18,300
28,100
27,600
68,600
24,300
30,800

17,100
12,500
14,300
16,700
15,000
15,200
15,600
22,500
28,900
21,300
15,400

12,500
8,500
9,200
11,200
9,100
9,800
10,000
13,200
14,900
15,000
11,500

19,700
16,300
20,000
23,900
22,000
21,700
25,000
40,100
65,900
37.000
25.000

19
14
12
6
55
59
112
24
3
19
2

20,500
12,800
13,300
14,500
16,000
16,400
19,000
22,200
12,400
24.300
h/)

12,500
10,600
10,400

7,700
8,500
4,600

17,500
12,500
18.800

(2/)

S o
7,700
6,700
9,400
9,200

b o
20,900
17,000
23,700
28,400
(2/)
25,000

12,500

11,400

12,500
10,500
14,200
16,600
m

16,300
b o

b o
8,000
(2 /)

(2 /)
20,000
21,900

137
22

17,900
17,300

14,200
15,200

8,000
7,200

20,000
20,000

97
16

16,000
15,600

14,800

7,500
5,800

115

18,200

13,700

8,300

20,000

81

16,200

11,700

7,700

19,300

80

19,400

13,100

10,000

21,100

38

15,000

11,300

8,600

18,400

Nonmanufacturing............................

308

17,800

11,600

7,700

18,500

256

13,900

11,500

7,500

18,000

Commercial consulting firms............ ..
Nonprofit research agencies..............
Other nonmanufacturing....................

201
32
75

15,100
12,400
23,300

11,200
10,800
12,500

7,500
7,100
9,000

17,900
15,000
25,000

189
28
39

14,300
11,400
19,100

11,200
10,800
12,500

7,500
6,500
9,000

17,900
15,000
23,000

Professional and scientific instruments...
Photographic equipment and supplies.....
Other professional and scientific
instruments...... ....... ........... .
Other manufacturing.•••.••........ ..

See footn otes at end o f table,



C-22. Average co st per research engineer or s c ie n tis t, by industry and
siz e of company, 1951 - / Continued
Companies with 5,000 or more employees

Companies with 500 to 4-,999 employees
Industry

Number of
companies
reporting

Mean t /

Median

Lower
quartile

Upper
quartile

Number of
companies
reporting

Mean l /

Lower
quartile

Upper
quartile

#18,000

# 13,200

# 23,700

Median

All industries .......................... .

535

#18,100

#15,400

#10,000

$23,200

194

#24,300

Manufacturing................ .............

508

18,400

15,500

10,000

23,200

183

24,400

18,300

13,500

23,700

Food and kindred products ................
Textile mill products and apparel ........
Paper and allied products .............. .
Chemicals and allied products ............
Industrial organic and inorganic
chemicals ........... ................
Drugs and medicines ................ .
Soap, cleaners, etc • ............... .
Paint, varnish, etc. ...................
Other chemical products ................

32
22
28
60

15,000
19,600
12,100
14,700

15,300
13,900
12,100
13,000

10,000
10,000
8,300
9,300

20,200
16,700
14,300
16,800

14
10
9
22

18,200
20,000
15,400
17,900

17,200
19,400
12,700
15,200

13,900
10,000
12,000

19,300
22,700
18,ICO
19,100

17
18
4
4
17

12,900
17,600
12,600
10,800
13,600

11,100
16,400
2/0
b o
13,100

7,500
9,700
foo
(2/)
7,800

14,400
20,500
h/)

10
6
3
3
—

19,600
16,900
15,700
5,100
—

182300

13,300

24,300

h/)
(2/)
(2/)

b o
d/0
d /)

(2/)

Petroleum refining ............... .
Rubber p r o d u c t s .... ............... .
Stone, clay, and glass products .........
Primary metal industries .................
Fabricated metal products ................
Machinery (except electrical) ............
Electrical machinery ............. ........
Transportation e q u i p m e n t .... ............
Motor vehicles and equipment ...........
Aircraft and parts ............
Other transportation e q u i pment.... .

8
10
13
17
54
75
86
41
10
23
8

17,900
18,100
13,700
16,800
15,900
20,900
18,100
27,300
31,100
26,000
49,400

15,100
15,800
11,500
13,100
15,500
16,200
17,100
24,600
33,700
24,500
11,600

13,300
7,700
9,000
10,300
10,100
10,000
12,200
16,300
11,800
17,300
5,000

17,500
27,000
18,400
20,500
22,800
21,700
25,000
37,000
63,900
27,500

16
4
8
12
13
21
11
30
9
17
4

21,000
13,400
19,700
22,600
17,800
16,600
32,400
27,700
75,500

19,000
b o
18,600
17,900
18,000
20,200
19,100
23,300
65,900

24,100

2 4 ,100

21,500

Professional and scientific instruments ..
Photographic equipment and supplies ....
Other professional and scientific
instruments ....................... .

31
5

14,900
10,300

15,400

8,900

19,000

6
1

26

16,900

15,000

8,800

20,000

Other manufacturing ..................... •

31

21,700

15,700

11,300

22,700

27

16,900

11,700

8,200

19,900

Non manufacturing................. .
Commercial consulting firms ..............
Nonprofit research agencies ..........
Other nonmanufacturing ...................

2
4
21

(2/)
3,000
25,500

b o

(27)
10,000

(2/)

(2/)
(2/)
7,500

<2n

29,300

25,000
b o

w x

16,600

(3/)
d/)

20,000
h/)

h/)

22,700
24,100
20,000
28,500
24,500
43,800
74,900
42.300

?2/>

12,900
12,300
12,000
13,900
15,600
14,900
11,300
15,800
h/)

19,600
h/)

(2/)
(2/)

(2 /)
(2/)

(2/)
(2/)

5

19,500

(2/)

(2/)

(2/)

7

17,100

(2/)

(2/)

(2/)

11

22,100

12,900

10,500

15,300

—
(2/)
25,000

9,400

—
11

mi
22,100

•M*
—
12,900

h/)

M.
—
10,500

—
15,300

1/ Cost figures rounded to the nearest $100.
.
.
. j. ^
. .
*
..
2/ Excludes 299 companies that failed to report total research cost or number of research engineers ana scientists. The number of reporting
companies in the three size groups do not add to the totals shown in column 1, which include companies not reporting their total employment.
3/ Means are not shown for fewer than three companies; medians and quartiles are not shown for fewer than eight companies.
*/ Means were computed by dividing the total cost of research by the average number of research engineers and scientists for each specified
group of companies. They thus reflect to a great extent the experience of the largest organizations in the group. This should be borne in mind in
comparing the means with the median ratios, which were computed from rankings of ratios for individual companies.




C-23. Average co st per research engineer or s c ie n tis t, by industry and siz e o f professional research s t a f f , 1951 1 /

Industry

Companies with professional research staff of- -

All
reporting
companies

0
to
4

5
to
14

15
to
29

30
to
49

50
to
74

75
to
124

125
to
249

250
to
499

500
to
999

1,000
or
more

All industries ............................

$21,900

$15,500

$17,700

$17,800

$17,800

$17,100

$14,500

$21,000

$24,900

$22,500

$25,000

Manufacturing .............................

22,500

16,300

17,900

18,100

18,800

17,600

13,500

21,500

26,200

23,900

25,1°0

Food and kindred products ............ ..
Textile mill products and apparel ......
Paper and allied products ..............
Chemicals and allied products ...........
Industrial organic and inorganic
chemicals ......................... .
Drugs and medicines ...................
Soap, cleaners, etc....................
Paint, varnish, etc....................
Other chemical products ...............

17,000
19,200
13,500
16,500

18,000

17,600
17,900

12,300

(2/)
—
19,300

—
—
—

13,100

(2/)
(2/)
13,900

—
—

12,600

e/>
(2/)
(2/)
12,900

14,800

12,300
10,700

27,300
(2/)
11,700
14,200

—

19,600

9,900

13,600
10,700

13,000
19,400
G/>
G /)
13,600

14,800
15,300

14,100
(2/)
—

(2/)
19,300
(2/)

Petroleum refining ......................
Rubber products .........................
Stone, clay, and glass products ........
Primary metal industries ...............
Fabricated metal products ............. .
Machinery (except electrical) ..........
Flectrical m a c h i n e r y ...................
Transportation e q u i p m e n t ......... ......
Motor vehicles and equipment .........
Aircraft and parts ....................
Other transportation equipment ......
Professional and scientific instruments..
Photographic equipment and supplies....
Other professional and scientific
i n s t r u m e n t s .......... ..................
Other manufacturing
Nonmanufacturing

........................

..................... .........

C o m m e r c i a l c o n s u l t i n g f i r m s ...............
N o n p r o f i t r e s e a r c h a g e n c i e s ...............
O t h e r n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g .....................

1/
2/




18,200
16,400
14,900
7,100
13,500

11,600
16,300
9,900
9,000

14,600

19,600

13,100
12,200

8,600

8,6 00
12,100
G/)

12,700
15,900

19,500

8,800

&)

(2/)
(2/)

p )

(2/)

16,000
—
—
<2/)
(2/)
13,000

—
20,500
10,400
30,300
(2/)

—
—
—
15,000
20,900
(2/)
(2/)
(2/)
(2/)
20,000
—
—
(2/)
(?/)
—
14,500
56,400
(2/)
31,600

(2/)
12,300
10,000
23,600
16,500
16,800
19,700
41,600
54,700
25,200
46,400

23,200
(£/)
—
11,900
15,900
24,500
19,500
27,900
20,900

24,300
30,800

17,700
35,500
63,600
25,000
45,000

15,500
17,900
14,800
16,700
20,700
22,200
9,000
17,700
20,200
16,200
18,500

17,900
17,300

15,000
15,200

18,100
31,000

17,000
(.2/0

18,700
(2/)

15,400

13,900

G/)

(£/)

18,200

5,000

15,900

17,600

19,700

14,100

18,100

(2/)

19,400

15,500

19,100

13,600

29,000

(?/)

20,100

17,800 .

12,900

17,000

16,900

12,900

13,800

20,600

17,400

17,200

15,100
12,400
23,300

12,100
12,500
15,500

17,000
12,400
17,900

16,300
13,200
19,700

13,000
10,100
5,00a

14,400

C2/)
(2/)
23,100

18,500
(2/)

(2/)
e o
(2/)

20,900
13,600
18,600
21,500
16,500
18,300
28,100
27,600

1

68,600

Cost figures rounded to the nearest $100.
Data are not shown for fewer than three companies.

13,000
21,300
22,700
14,100

12,600

G/>
G /)

(2/)
—
G/)

19,200
12,000
17,800
18,600
29,500
(2/)
25,100
—

—

G/>
(2/)

11,600
9,200
(2/)
(2/)
(2/)

A /]

26,600
' 18,700
28,900
(2/)
31,000
—

G/>

—

G J)

—

—
(2/)
(2/)
—
—

—
—
(2/)
14,700
—
—
—
—
21,400
37,200
—

37,200
—

(2/)
(2/)
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
(2/)
36,300
20,800
—
20,800
—

&;>

—
—

(2/)

CS/)

—

(2/)

—

—

—

(2/)

(2/)

—

—

(2/)

—

(2/)

C-24. Average cost per research engineer or s c ie n tis t on Government-financed research,
T-vtr 4 nr?T»«: + T»v a r v l c i <7.A n f* ( * n m n f t n v . 1 0 * 5 1

_/

275235 0 - 5 3

All companies
Industry

Number of
companies
reporting

Mean hi Median

Companies with fewer than 500 employees

Lower
quartile

Upper
quartile

Number of
companies
reporting

Mear£/

Median

Lower
quartile

Upper
quartile

2/ 813

*23,900

*11,400

$ 6,800

*20,300

433

*15,800

$10,600

$6,000

* 19,500

657

24,500

11,700

7,000

20,900

292

17,700

10,500

6,000

20,000

Food and kindred products....................
Textile mill products and apparel......... .
Paper and allied products...................
Chemicals and allied products...............
Industrial organic and inorganic
chemicals..... ........................ .
Drugs and medicines.......................
Soap, cleaners, etc.......................
Paint, varnish, etc. .................... .
Other chemical products................ .

7
IB
10
61

4,200
31,900
12,000
22,400

a/)
13,900
8,500
8,300

(2/0
3,000
4,000
5,000

(2/)
30,000
16,200
15,500

3
3
—
30

4,800
14,800
—

(2/)
(2/)

(2/)
(2/)

(2/)
(2/)

11,600

6,300

5,000

12,000

27
8
5
10
11

30,700
8,400
10,400
7,300
13,900

9,500
5.000

5,300
3,000
(2/0
3,800
5,000

17,500
6,700

6,300

5,000

12,000

(2/)
(2/)
(2/)
(2/)

(2/)

10,000
13,300

14
4
2
5
5

13,800
11,100
(2/0
9,100
9,300

(2/)
(2/)
(2/)
(2/)

Petroleum refining..........................
Rubber products.............................
Stone, clay, and glass products.............
Primary metal industries....................
Fabricated metal products...................
Machinery (except electrical).............. .
Electr ic al machinery...................... .
Transportation equipment....................
Motor vehicles and equipment............. .
Aircraft and parts........................
Other transportation equipment............

18
18
10
IS
71
66
158
77
17
51
9

15,800
9,300
9,300
20,300
14,900
21,700
29,400
24,000
34,200
23,700
42,500

18,200
12,500
11,000
20,000
18,800
18,000
22,400
30,100
16,000
30,100
28,400

6
8
—

8,400
9,100

(2/)
9,400

16,700
11,300
20,300
10,000

5,000
6,000
2,000
4,000
7,500
7,400
8,300
10,000
8,000
12,500
4,500

3
32
23
84
18
2
14
2

18,500
16,700
18,700
18,800
22,400

(/
2)

(2/)
13,800
9,300
11,000
14,600
(l/)
14.S00
(2/)

Professional and scientific instruments.....
Photographic equipment and supplies.......
Other professional and scientific
instruments.............................

89
16

19,800
13,300

12,400
13,500

7,500
7,200

23,200
21,900

64
12

18,400
21,000

10,600
14,300

73

21,100

11,900

7,000

24,500

52

17,600

Other manufacturing............ .........

36

17,200

10,300

5,700

19,100

18

Nonmanufacturing...............................

156

20,100

11,200

6,200

20,300

Conunerc ial consulting firms..................
Nonprofit research agencies.............. .
Other nonmanufacturing......................

121
17
18

15,700
12,800
32,300

11,200
8,400
29,000

6,700
4,300
6,000

17,100
11,400
33,500

All Industries................................
Manufacturing.......... ..................... .

See footnotes at end o f ta b le.



II
2)

6,700
10,100

11,000
9,400
9,200
12,100
12,200
11,900

12,600

(/
2)

h/)

(/
2)
(/
2)
(/
2)
(2/)

5,000
(2/)
6,700
5,000
7,500
8,000

(/
2)

(2/)

10,600
(2/)

25,000
15,800
21,800
28,400

h/)

8,000

16,300

(2/)

h/)

6,000
4,500

21,300
21,900

10,300

6,000

21,100

14,700

12,900

7,100

19,100

141

13,700

10,900

5,900

16,700

117
14
10

14,500
10,800
17,000

11,200
7,100
10,200

6,700
4,300
5,000

17,100
10,700
29,900

22,300

C-2A. Average cost per research engineer or s c ie n tis t on Government-financed research
by industry ana size of company, 1951 1 /—Continued
Companies with 5,000 or more employees

Companies with 500 to A,999 employees
Industry

Number of
companies
reporting

Mean ^

Median

Lower
quartile

Upper
quartile

8,000

$ 24,500

7,900

22,400
(2/0.
31,300

Upper
quartile

$23,200

97

26,500

14,800

8,800

20,800

1
5
3
10

(2/)
16,700
13,600
35,000

2/
(2/)

(2/0
<2/0
2/0
2/
(2/)

6
1
1
2

4 1 ,100

<2/0
(2/0
(2/)

16,100
9.300

(2/)

18,800
25,000
29,900
36,000
26,700
b o

10
A
2
6
6
11
9
23
6
16
1

12,900
( /)
2

8,300
(2/0

37,600
(2/0

A
—■

23,300
—

16,600

13,600

11,600

25,000

A

15

19,500

10,000

5*9000

17,900

3

10

22,000

27,900

8,400

32,200

1

$ 12,400

Manufacturing.......... ..................

2A5

20,800

12,200

Food and kindred products...............
Textile mill products and apparel......
Paper and allied products...............
Chemicals and allied products......... .
Industrial organic and inorganic
chemicals..........................
Drugs and medicines...................
Soap, cleaners, etc...................
Paint, varnish, etc........... .......
Other chemical products..............

3
9
7
18

3,700
A0,100
11,100
lljAOO

(2/)
11,000
(2/)
9,100

(2/)
3,800

15,500

6
3
2
3
A

13,A00
6,700
(3/)
A,60Q
17,500

(2/0
(2/0
(2/0
Q/0
(2/5

(2/)
(2/0
(2/
(2/)
(2/)

Petroleum refining......................
Rubber products.......... ..............
Stone, clay, and glass products........
Primary metal industries................
Fabricated metal products...............
Machinery (except electrical)..........
Electrical machinery....................
Transportation equipment.............. .
Motor vehicles and equipment........ .
Aircraft and parts.............. .
Other transportation equipment.......

1
A
6
8
29
31
62
3A
8
20
6

(2/)
10,500
5,500
1A,900
12,900
27,900
18,500
27,100
2A,000
26,100
7,A00

<2/>
(2/)
(2/)
1A,6o o
11,700
12,700
16,200
19,900
13,200
21,900
(2/)

(2/0
(2/0
(2/)

Professional and scientific instruments.
Photographic equipment and supplies...
Other professional and scientific
instruments........................

18
A

12,900
8,900

1A

1/

Lower
quartile

$ 8,800

$ 21,000

Commercial consulting firms.............
Nonprofit research agencies........ .
Other nonmanufacturing...................

Median

$ 15,400

255

Nonmanufacturing.......... ................

Mean ^

$ 26,500

All industries........................... .

Other manufacturing.................... .

Number of
companies
reporting

2
3
5

(2/)
1A,A00
3A,500

(2 /;
(2/0
(2/)

$

(2/)

1,000

6,400
7,600
8,200
8,900
9,600
8,100
16,300

(2/0
(2/0
(2/)

(2/)

19,000
15,000

(2 /)
(2/0
(2/)

98 .

0/0
(2/0
(2/)
-*
■

h/)

26,000
19,600
9,700
36,200-

(-3/)
2$
(2/)

1

(2 /)
23,500

12,400

5,000

(2/0
U/0
(2/0
(2/)
*"
*

(2/)
2$
(2/0
(2/)

13,800

8,300

19,000

(2/0
2/
2/0
(2/)
16,000
18,200
17,A00
(2/)
28,200

b o
(2 /)

2/
(2/)
2-0
(2/)
17,300
24,300
a , 900

20

p/>
w x

(2/0
( /)
2
*
”■

(2 /)
9,80
6,000
9,500
(2/)
16,200
(2/)

b o
43,800
(2/)

(2 /)
--

(2/)
—

(2/)
—

23,A00

(2/)

(2/)

(2/)

9,800

(2/)

(2/)

(2/)
(2/)

23,600
38,700
23.A00
(2/)

b o

(2/)

(2/)

(2/)

«...
- -

w x
w x

....

« ...

- -

- -

- -

(2/)

(2/)

(2/)

—

(2/)

C o s t f i g u r e s r o u n d e d to n e a r e s t |100.
E x c l u d e s 7 2 7 c o m p a n i e s t h a t d i d n o t have a n y G o v e r n m e n t - f i n a n c e d r e s e arch.
Al s o e x c l u d e s A 13 c o m p a n i e s tha t f a i l e d to r e p o r t e i t h e r c o s t o f
G o v e r n m e n t - f i n a n c e d r e s e a r c h o r n u m b e r o f r e s e a r c h e n g i n e e r s and s c i e n t i s t s w o r k i n g o n G o v e r n m e n t - f i n a n c e d contracts.
The n u m b e r o f r e p o r t i n g c o m p a n i e s
in the t h ree size g r o u p s d o n o t a d d to th e t o tals shown in column 1, w h i c h i n c l u d e c o m p a n i e s n o t r e p o r t i n g their t o t a l e m p loyment.
2j M e a n s a r e n o t s h o w n f o r f e w e r t h a n three companies; m edians a n d q u a r t i l e s a r e n o t sh o w n f o r f e w e r than e i g h t companies.
*/
M e a n s w e r e c o m p u t e d b y d i v i d i n g the a g g r e g a t e c o s t of G o v e r n m e n t - f i n a n c e d r e s e a r c h b y the a v e r a g e n u m b e r o f r e s e a r c h e n g i n e e r s a n d s c i e n t i s t s
w o r k i n g on G o v e r n m e n t c o n t r a c t s f o r e a c h s p e c i f i e d g r o u p o f companies.
T h e y t hus r e f l e c t to a g r e a t e x t e n t the e x p e r i e n c e of the l a r g e s t o r g a n i z a t i o n s
in the group .
This s h o u l d b e b o r n e in m i n d in com p a r i n g the means w i t h the m e d i a n ra t i o s , w h i c h w e r e c o m p u t e d f r o m ran k i n g s o f rat i o s fo r i n d i v i d u a l

7/

 companies.


C-25. Average cost per research engineer or s c ie n tis t on Government-financed research, by industry and siz e of
professional research s ta f f, 1951 1 /

Industry

AT 1
reporting
companies

Companies with professional research staff of —
0
to
4

5
to
14

15
to
29

30
to
49

50
to
74

75
to
124

125
to
249

250
to
499

500
to
999

1,000
or
more

123,900

$16,400

$17,500

$19,800

$16,600

$16,700

$17,300

$23,900

$25,800

$28,200

$25,700

24,500

16,800

17,400

21,700

18,500

17,200

13,900

24,800

26,700

30,200

25,4-00

Food and kindred products ............. .
Textile mill products and apparel ......
Paper and allied products ..........
Chemicals and allied products
Industrial organic and inorganic
chemicals •••••........ ............
Drugs and medicines ...................
Soap, cleaners, etc. •••••............
Paint, varnish, etc. ....... ..........
Other chemical products .. ...........

A,200
31,900
12,000
22,400

4,800
14,600
10,000
8,100

3,900
21,300
3,800
15,700

—

—

--

..

50,200
15,700
10,500

—
12,700
10,800

(2/)
(2/)
13,500

—

...
—

17,000

30,700
8,400
10,400
7,300
13,900

10,800
6,700

6,000
—

17,400

7,500
33,300

15,500
-—
(2/)
9,500

26,700

2,500
4,000

14,200
13,300
—
7,600
20,300

Petroleum r e f i n i n g ..... ................
Rubber products ....... .................
Stone, clay, and glass products ........
Primary metal industries ................
Fabricated metal p r o d u c t s ......... .....
Machinery (except electrical) ..........
Electrical machinery ••••••••••••••••••••
Transportation equipment
Motor vehicles and equipment .........
Aircraft and parts ............... ••••
Other transportation equipment .......

15,800
9,300
9,300
20,300
14,900
21,700
29,400

5,000
8,500
8,600
24,500
19,500
16,700
18,100
13,500
8,200
14,400
13,800

•_
10,200
9,800
4,000
12,100
23,000
20,400
42,000
46,800
25,400
100,000

9,500
—
(2/)
18,300
13,200
19,900
27,300

(2/)
—
(2/)
18,300
9,800
15,800
15,900
23,300

(3/0
(2/)
12,600
17,700
8,200

34,200
23,700
42,500

10,700
13,300
9,000
22,200
18,000
12,100
14,300
37,000
32,000
26,000
65,600

ig/)

ig/)

(2/)
—

24,900
—

(2/)
(2/)

17,700
(2/)
9,300
(2/)
— ■
39,200
18,000
31,500
(§/)
31,600
—
(2/)

All industries ................ ........
Manufacturing...... ....... .........

24,000

ig/)

ig/)

h/)

—
—

ig/)

—

<3/0
(2/)
—

—
—
(2/)
..
.
—
—

..
.
—
—
8,700

(2/)

ig/)

Ig/)

—
—
—

—
—
..

(2/)
(2/)

..

—
— ■

19,600
30,300

21,700

22,300

17,100

18,600

ig/)

igj)

ig/)

ig/)

21,100

15,800

15,700

22,500

25,000

13,900

20,000

(2/)

Other manufacturing................ .

17,200

8,600

16,000

11,000

17,000

—

11,300

Nonmanufacturing ..........................

20,100

14,800

17,900

14,800

11,600

14,200

29,500




1/
2/

Cost figures rounded to the nearest $100.
Data are not shown for fewer than three companies.

17,300
10,100
25,800

15,200
9,000
34,300

12,500
4,100
12,100

14,700
(2/)

(2/)
-38,900

ig/)

(2/)

14,700
7,300

13,100
—
25,100

(2/)

—
(2/)
—

19,800
13,300

15,700
12,800
32,300

—
—

(2/)
7.500

Professional and-scientific instruments..
Photographic equipment and supplies ...
Other professional and scientific
instruments.... ...................

Commercial consulting firms ....... .....
Nonprofit research agencies
Other nonmanufacturing ..........

—
57,900

15,900
—
—
(2/)
(2/)
14,100
33.700
ig/)

31,300
—■
(2/)
(2/)

..
..
—
(2/)
37,100

—

37,100
—

..

..
—
—
(2/)
42,500
19,300
..
19,300
—
(2/)

—

—•

—

(2/)

21,600

—

—

—

20,300

22,400

(2/)

ig/)

..

ig/)

(2/)
18,200

..

(2/0

Ig/)

23,800

ig/)

—

(2/)

C-26.

Average cost per research vtorxer, by inaustry and size

of

company,

Companies with fewer than 500 employees

All companies
Industry

All industries.#............................
Manufacturing# ........... ........... ........

Number of
companies
reporting
2/ 1,666

1 ,3a

1951 1/

Upper
quartile

Number of
companies
reporting

Mean

Median

Lower
quartile

Upper
quartile

Median

Lower
quartile

$8,800

#7,300

#5,200

$10,000

885

#7,700

#6,700

$4,800

#10,000

8,900

7,300

5,300

10,000

612

7,800

6,700

4,800

10,000

Mean^/

Food and kindred products.................
Textile mill products and apparel........
Paper and allied products# .............. .
Chemicals and allied products#............
Industrial organic and inorganic
chemicals......................... .
Drugs and medicines#...................
Soap, cleaners, etc# ..................
Paint, varnish, etc.....................
Other chemical products#...... .........

61
45
47
238

8,700
8,500
7,100
7,900

8,700
7,100
7,000
7,000

6,400
5,000
6,000
5,000

10,000
9,500
8,500
8,500

13
10
9
155

5,800
7,100
5,600
6,900

6,300
5,000
6,000
6,100

4,000
4,600
3,600
5,000

10,000
8,300
6,700
8,000

77
64
15
28
54

7,800
9,200
8,600
4,000
7,600

7,000
7,100
8,000
5,700
6,600

5,000
5,000
5,800
4,000
5,000

8,300
9,200
9,500
7,000
8,300

50
39
9
21
36

7,700
6,700
7,800
5,300
6,900

6,800
6,000
7,100
5,800
5,500

5,000
4,000
5,600
3,600
4,800

9,800
7,700
10,000
7,100
7,400

Petroleum refining........................
Rubber products...........................
Stone, clay, and glass products......... .
Primary metal industries.................
Fabricated metal products#...............
Machinery (except electrical)............
Electrical machinery##....................
Transportation equipment# # ........ ........
Motor vehicles and equipment#..........
Aircraft and parts#.....................
Other transportation equipment.........

43
30
33
39
127
160
209
96
23
58
15

8,100
7,200
6,600
10,100
7,900
8,000
9,400
10,000
10,900
9,700
15,500

7,600
7,200
6,600
8,200
7,000
7,300
7,700
8,700
8,800
8,500
9,300

6,000
5,000
4,500
6,200
5,300
5,000
5,100
6,100
7,000
5,500
6,000

9,400
9,400
8,900
11,100
9,900
10,400
10,300
12,400
11,300
13,700
11,700

18
13
12
6
54
58
109
24
3
18
3

7,400
8,700
7,700
9,900
7,600
8,300
8,400
7,800
8,000
7,800
7,800

6,500
7,100
5.300
(1/)
6,300
6,300
7,900
7,300
Q/)
7,000
(1/0

5,000
3,600
4,400
(1/)
5,000
4,000
5,000
5,000
(1/)
4,000
(1/)

8,300
10,600

Professional and scientific instruments..#
Photographic equipment and supplies....
Other professional and scientific
instruments# .........................

136
20

7,500
7,500

6,800
7,700

4,900
5,700

9,000
10,100

96
14

7,600

10,400

6,700
8,500

4,500
6,300

9,400
10,900

116

7,400

6,800

4,800

9,000

82

7,100

6,300

4,400

8,800

Other manufacturing..... .................

77

8,700

7,600

5,300

10,100

35

8,300

7,000

4,600

10,000

Nonmanufacturing............................

325

8,100

7,100

5,000

9,900

273

7,700

7,100

4,800

9,700

214
35
76

7,500
6,600
9,300

7,000
6,300
7,500

4,500
5,000
5,500

9,500
8,000
11,000

202
31
40

7,600
7,100
10,000

7,100
6,300
7,400

4,500
4,800
5,500

9,700
8,000
12,200

Commercial consulting f i r m s . •
Nonprofit research agencies. •.............
Other nonmanufacturing. ............... .

See footnotes a t end o f table#



10,400
(1/)
8,300
10,000
10,800
10,000
(1/)
10,000
(1/)

C-?6. Average cost per research worker, by industry and size of company, 1951 1 / __Continued

Companies with 500 to 4,999 employees
Industry

Number of
companies
reporting

Mean */

Companies with

Median

Lower
quartile

Upper
quartile

Number of
companies
reporting

Meani/

All industries.

533

$8,000

*7,500

*5,800

$10,100

197

*9,200

Manufacturing.

506

8,100

7,500

5,800

10,100

186

9,200

31
24
29
58

8,700
11,200
6,500
8,200

8,900
8,300
7,000
6,900

7,200
5,600
6,000
6,000

10,000
11,000
8,700
9,600

16
10
9
21

8,800
7,200
8,000
7,900

17
18
3
4
16

7,100
9,800
6,900
6,300
7,600

6,600
9.100

6,000
6,100

1,2/)
(2/)

9
6
3
3

8,000
9,100
8,900
3,000

6,600

(2/)
(2/)
5,500

7,900
10,200
(2 /)

8
10
13
17
54
76
85
40
10
22
8

6,900
8,400
7,100
5,600
7,500
8,800
7,600
9,500
7,500
9,400
18,200

7,900
8,000
6,900
7,000
7,600
7,200
7,500
8,700
7,900
9,600
9,500

6,500
4,900
3,700
5,200
5,300
5,400
5,700
6,700
6,100
7,000
5,000

9,700
9,400
8,900
8,400
9,900
10,000
10,000
15,800
10,400
15,900
16,300
8,600

Food and kindred products.........
Textile mill products and apparel*.
Paper and allied products*........
Chemicals and allied products.....
Industrial organic and inorganic
chemicals....................
Drugs and medicines.............
Soap, cleaners, etc. *..........
Paint, varnish, etc.............
Other chemical products.........
Petroleum refining..............
Rubber products.................
Stone, clay, and glass products..
Primary metal industries........
Fabricated metal products.......
Machinery (except electrical),...
Electrical machinery............
Transportation equipment........
Motor vehicles and equipment...
Aircraft end parts.............
Other transportation equipment.

.
•

.

.
.
.

a
*

Professional and scientific instruments. «
Photographic equipment and supplies... .
Other professional and scientific
instruments*................. .
a

31
5

6,900

6,900

5.700

6,300

(/
2)

(/
2)

26

7,100

7,100

Other manufacturing.

30.

9,000

27

7,500

Nonmanufacturing.....
Commercial consulting firms
Nonprofit research agencies.
Other nonmanufacturing.....

a
a

2
4
21

a/)
6,400
11,000

(2/)

9,600
16
4
7
13
13
23
11
30
9 '
17
4

8,100
7,100
6,500
11,500

8,600
7,400
10,000
10,000
11,200
9,300
14,200

Median

$8,200
8,200
9,000
7,300
8,400
8,200
8,100
(2/0
(2/0
(2/)
8,600
(2/0
(2/)
8,400
7.700
8,400
8.700
8,900
8,800
8.800
h/)

6
1

7,600

h/)

5,000

3,900

5

7,700

8,300

6,600

11,000

7

8,200

7,500

5,900

10,000

11

8,700

(2/)
(2/)
8,500

(2/)
(2/)

__
—
11

a*
.
-8,700

8,500

(/
2)
(/
2)

7,500

(2/)
(2/)

5,300

11,000

(/
2)

Lower
quartile

Upper
quartile

$10,000
6,900 10,100
7,100
9,900
4,800
8,200
7,300
6,400 8,600
8,700
7,500
8,200
(2/)
(2/)
(2/0
(2/0
(2/)
(2/)

$6,700

(2/)
(1/)
7.200
5,600
6,500

5,800

(2/)
(2/)
12,900
10,300
10,500
9,600
11,900
11,300
12,200
h/)
(2/)
(2/)
(2/)
(2/)
8,900

5,800

8,900

7.200

6,700
7,000
5.900

6.900
Q/)
Q/)
(2/)
(2/)
(2/)

9,400

1/ Cost figures rounded to the nt____
+, j
Excludes
companies that failed to report total research cost or number of research employees. The number of reporting companies in the
three size groups do not add to the total shown in column 1, which include companies not reporting their total employment.
Means are not shown for fewer than three companies; medians and quartiles are not shown for fewer than eight companies,
T W
00mpute* ^ d i v i d i n g the aggregate cost of research by the average number of research employees for each specified group of companies.
They thus reflect to a greet extent the experience of the largest organizations in the group. This should be borne in mind in comparing the means *ith
median ratios, which were computed from rankings of ratios for individual companies.
p
g
lth




C-27. Average cost per research worker, by industry and size o f professional research s ta ff, 1951

Industry

All
reporting
companies

1/

Companies with professional research staff of-—
0
to
4

5
to
14

15
to
29

30
to
49

50
to
74

75
to
124

125
to
249

250
to
499

500
to
999

1,000
or
more

All industries ............................

$8,800

$7,900

$8,200

$7,900

$8,200

$8,000

$8,200

$8,300

$9,300

$8,600

$9,400

Manufacturing .............................

8,900

8,000

8,200

7,800

8,400

7,900

7,900

8,400

9,400

8,900

9,500

Food and kindred products .......... .
Textile mill products and apparel ......
Paper and alliea products •••«..........
Chemicals and allied products ..........
Industrial organic and inorganic
chemicals ................... *......
Drugs and medicines .................. .
Soap, cleaners, etc....................
Paint, varnish, etc....................
Other chemical products .......... .

8,700
8,500
7,100
7,900

8,500
9,000
6,100
7,100

9,100
11,100
7,500
7,300

8,400
7,200
6,000
7,400

12,100
(2/)
6,300
7,300

(2/)
(2/)
(S/)
7,700

(2/)
(2/)
7,400

7,000
(2/)
—
9,800

_
—
—
7,200

7,800
9,200

7,200
7,300
10,900
5,900
6,200

8,400
6,500
7,300
6,100
7,900

6,400
7,700
(2/)
6,100
9,500

7,300
7,900
(2/)
(2/)
7,500

7,300
11,700

6,900
(2/)
(2/)

8,400
(2/)
(2/)
(2/)

(2/)
—
—
—
—

(i/)

<2/0
(2/)

(2/)
10,700
(2/)
—
—

Petroleum refining ••••.................
Rubber products .........................
Stone, clay, and glass products ........
Primary metal i n dustries.... ...........
Fabricated metal products .......... .
Machinery (excerrt electrical) .........
Electrical machinery ............. ......
Transportation equipment ...............
Motor vehicles and equipment .........
Aircraft and parts ....................
Other transportation equipment
.....

8,100
7,200

7,300
9,200
7,400
6,100
9,600
10,000
7,500
5,700
5,200
5,700

8,400
(2/)
—
7,100
9,400
9,000
10,100
7,900
(2/)
(2/)

8,900
7,300
7,100
10,000
(2/)
13,400
—

8,700
(2/)
6,500
(2/)
(2/)
8,500
7,000
8,000
(2/)
7,900
—

(2/)
(2/)
—
—
—
—
6,200
14,000
—

6,600

(2/)
7,400
5,500
10,700
7,700
7,000
8,500
10,900
8,300
12,500
24,900

8,100
—
—

10,100
7,900
8,000
9,400
10,000
10,900
9,700
15,500

7,200
6,300
9,800
8,500
6,300
6,600
9,300
11,000
18,500
9,000
10,300

__
—
—
—
—
(2/)
11,000
8,800
—
8,800
—

Professional and scientific instruments..
Photographic equipment and supplies ...
Other professional and scientific
instruments ........................

7,500
7,500

6,900
9,600

7,700
9,200

5,900
(2/)

6,500
—

8,100
(2/)

9,600
(2/)

(2/)

(2/)
«/)

_
—

(2/)
<s/>

7,400

6,600

7,200

5,900

6,500

7,700

11,100

(2/)

(2/)

—

(2/)

Other manufacturing .....................

8,700

8,100

9,300

8,100

12,400

—

9,000

7,700

—

Nonmanu fac turing ..........................

8,100

7,500

8,000

8,300

7,100

9,400

9,700

7,700

8,700

(2/)

(2/)

Commercial consulting firms ............
Nonprofit research agencies .............
Other nonmanufacturing .................

7,500

7,500
6,900
7,800

8,300
6,000
8,000

7,100
7,000
12,900

6,700
5,800
8,800

10,600

(2/)

7,200
(2/)
(£/)

(2/)
7,400
(2/)

__

6,600

(2/)

__
—

1/
2/

8,600
4,000
7,600

6,600

9,300

Cost figures rounded to the nearest $100.
Data are not shown for fewer than three companies.




6,600

(i/)

, (2/)
—
(2/)

6,800

%]

dJ)

9,300
—
—
(2/)
(2/)
8,300

6,800
7,300
(2/)
(2/)
(2/)

9,900

(2/)
(2/)
7,300
12,000
(2/)
12,300
--

_
—
—
(2/)

14,000
—

—

_
—
—
(2/)

—
—
—

—

dJ)

C-28.

Annual separation rate of research engineers and scientists, by industry,
July 1950 to June 1951 and July to December 1951

Number of separations per 100 research engineers and scientists
Industry

July 1950 to June 1951
Selective
Service
calls

July to December 1951 2/
Reserve
calls

Selective
Service
calls

Other se­
parations

16.4

1.8

1.2

13.4

10.9

16.2

1.8

1.2

13.2

.8
.3
.9
.9

8.0
7.6
6.5
6.7

15.0
13.8
14.4
13.8

1.0
1.8
4.0

1.0

1.0
.8
.8
.8

13.0
11.2
9.6
12.0

1.0
1.0
1.7
2.4
2.2

.8
.6
1.2
2.7
1.1

6.2
8.3
4.7
10.7
8.1

13.8
11.6
17.6
20.6
14.8

.8
1.2
1.8
.4
.6

.6
.6
1.4
3.2
.6

12.4
9.8
14.4
17.0
13.6

8.5
9.6
5.9
11.0
13.4
12.9
15.2
19.3
13.6
19.9
H.7

1.7
1.7
1.2
1.3
1.8
1.9
3.1
1.9
2.4
1.8
2.5

.2
.6
.4
.5
.8
1.8
1.3
.6
.3
.6
.7

6.6
7.3
4.3
9.2
10.8
9.2
10.8
16.8
10.9
17.5
11.5

8.8
11.8
10.8
11.4
15.8
17.6
15.8
20.6
18.0
20.8
16.4

1.2
1.4
.6
1.4
1.4
1.8
3.2
2.2
2.0
2.2
2.8

16.7
22.0

1.0
1.4

.8
1.6

14*9
19.0

18.6

24.6

15.7

.9

.7

14.1

Other manufacturing.............. ...........

M.l

1.6

.7

11.8

Nonmanufacturing ...............................

15.5

1.3

.6

13.6

Commercial consulting firms .................
Nonprofit research agencies .................
Other nonmanufacturing............ ..........

16.3
25.9
8.5

1.3
1.3
1.2

14.0
24.1
6.9

19.8

Total

Reserve
calls

All industries .................................

13.9

1.8

0.8

11.3

Manufacturing ..................................

13.6

1.8

.9

Food and kindred products ....................
Textile mill products and apparel ...........
Paper and allied products .............. .
Chemicals and allied products ............. ..
Industrial organic and inorganic
chemicals ...............................
Drugs and medicines ............ ...........
Soap, cleaners, etc...... ..................
Paint, varnish, etc........................
Other chemical products ...................

10.2
8.9
10.7
8.8

1.4
1.0
3.3
1.2

8.0
9.9
7.6
15.8
11.4

Petroleum refining ..........................
Rubber products .............................
Stone, clay, and glass products .............
Primary metal industries ....................
Fabricated metal products ....................
Machinery (except electrical) ...............
Electrical machinery ........... ..............
Transportation equipment ................... ..
Motor vehicles and equipment ..............
Aircraft and p a r t s ...... ..................
Other transportation equipment ............
Professional and scientific instruments .....
Photographic equipment and supplies .......
Other professional and scientific
instruments ............................

1 / Rates for the six-month period were converted to annual ra tes.
2/




Less than 0.05 percent.

1.0
.5
.4

Other se­
parations

\

Total

(g/)
.6
1.4
.8
1.2
5.4
1.4
.6
2.0
.6
4.0

7.6
9.8
8.8
9.2
13.2
10.4
11.2
17.8
14.0
18.0
9.6

1.2
.6

.6
.8

16.8
23.2

17.2

1.4

.6

. ,15.2

14.2

1.2

•4

12.6

16.8

1.2

.8

14.8

1.6
.8

1.2
.4
.8

17.0
23.6
7.2

24.8
9.0

1.0

C-29*

A n n u a l separ a t i o n rate of r e s e a r c h e n g i n e e r s a n d scientists,
b y i n d u s t r y a n d size o f company,
J u l y to D e c e m b e r 1951 1/

(Number of separations per 100 research engineers and scientists)

All
reporting
companies

Industry

Companies with total
employment of —
Fewer
than
500

500
to
999

5,000
or
more

A
,

All industries

16.4

19.2

19.0

1 5 .0

Manufacturing....... ...................

16.2

18.2

17.8

1 5 .8

Food and kindred products ........... .
Textile mill products and apparel ....
Paper and allied products *»..........
Chemicals and allied products ........
Industrial organic and inorganic
chemicals .......................
Drugs and medicines •*....*.»«».....
Soap, cleaners, etc.................
Paint, varnish, etc.................
Other chemical products ...... ......

15.0
13.8
14*4
13.8

24»4
12.2
5.2
I4 .8

14.2
16.0
13.8
14.8

14.8
1 3 .2
1 5 .8
1 3 .4

13.8
11.6
17.6
20.6

9.4
10*4
16.0
29.2
17.8

18.4
12.0
10.4
21.4
13.4

1 3 .4
1 1 .2
19 .0

Petroleum r efining.... ..............
Rubber products ......................
Stone, clay, and glass products
Primary metal industries ....... .....
Fabricated metal products •......... •..
Machinery (except electrical) ..... .
Electrical machinery •«•••»••••«•••••••
Transportation equipment .............
Motor vehicles and equipment .......
Aircraft and parts ......... .......
Other transportation equipment ......

8.8
11.8
10.8
11.4
15.8
17.6
15.8
20.6
18.0
20.8
16.4

1 0 .0

8.8
12.6
18.0

7.4
21.2
10.4
22.8
8.0
(2/)

17.4
23.6
35.6

9-2
12.2
1 0 .0
10.2
14.8
23.0
13.2
20.4
17.6
20.6
8.8

18.6

27.0

24.6

24.6

19.6
24.6

12.4
—

17.2

27.8

17.2

12.4

14.2

12.2

13.8

15.6

16.8

20.0

25.0

4.8

19.8

I9 .2
23-0
16.2

25.8
23 *6

Professional and scientific
instruments .................
Photographic equipment and supplies .
Other professional and scientific
instruments .............. .
Other manufacturing .............. ....
Nonmanufacturing ...................
Commercial consulting firms ..........
Nonprofit research agencies ..........
Other nonmanufacturing ...............
1/
2/

14.8

24.8
9.0

8.0
36.0
9.6

19 .2

14.6
18.6
16.0
20.6

23.6

2 4 .0

Rates for the six-month period were converted to annual rates.
Data are not shown for fewer than three companies.




92

(2/)
—

—
4.8

C -3 0 .

A n n u a l s e p a r a tio n r a t e o f r e s e a r c h e n g in e e r s and s c i e n t i s t s ,
b y s iz e o f com p an y, J u ly 1 9 5 0 t o Jun e 1 9 5 1 and J u ly t o
December 1951

Number of separations per 100 reseiarch engineers and scientists
Total company
employment

July 1950 to June 1951
Total

Reserve
calls

Selective
Service
calls

July to December 1951 1/

Other sep­
arations

Total

Reserve
calls

Selective
Service
calls

Other sep­
arations

Total ..................

13.9

1.8

0.8

11.3

16.4

1.8

1.2

13.4

Less than 500 ..........

17.3

1.5

1.2

M.6

19.2

1.4

1.2

16.6

500 - 4,999 ............

16.4

1.5

.8

14.1

19.0

1.6

8

16.6

5,000 or more ...... ..

12.6

1.9

.8

9.9

15.0

2.0

1.2

11.8

1/

Rates for the six-month period were converted to annual rates.




C -3 1 . A n n u a l s e p a r a tio n r a te o f r e s e a r c h e n g in e e r s and s c i e n t i s t s ,
b y s iz e o f p r o fe s s io n a l r e se a r c h s t a f f , J u ly 1 9 5 0 t o
Jun e 1 9 5 1 and J u ly to D ecem ber 1 9 5 1

Number of separations per 100 research engineers and scientists
July to December 1951 1/

July 1950 to June 1951

CM ( e Ui r r UlCDpi-UilCLL
y nf pi* » T c ci n i l
s r'o;
rfl
research staff
Total

Reserve
calls

Selective
Service
calls

Other
sepa­
rations

Total

Reserve
calls

Selective
Service
calls

Other
sepa­
rations

Total.....................

13.9

1.8

0.8

11.3

16.4

1.8

1.2

13.4

o - / .... ...........

13.7
14.4
U.6
14.0
15.5
14.7
12.0
15.0
14.0
13.4

2.7
2.0
1.6
2.0
1.5
1.6
1.2
1.8
1.3
2.1

.9
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.1
.9
.4
.6
.4
1.0

10.1
11.1
11.8
10.9
12.9
12.2
10.4
12.6
12.3
10.3

18.8
19.0
19.2
17.0
17.8
15.4
16.0
19.6
14.2
15.0

1.2
1.8
2.0
1.2
2.6
1.6
1.2
1.8
1.0
2.0

2.4
1.2
2.0
1.2
1.4
.8
.2
.8
.2
1.6

15.2
16.0
15.2
14.6
13.8
13.0
14.6
17.0
13.0
11.4

1 5 30 50 75 125 250 500 -

2 9 ...............
49 ...............
1 L ...............
12L ..............
2Z.9..............
Z.99..............
999 ..............
1^000 or more T f . t ....... .

1/




Rates for the sixrmonth period were converted to annual rates.

C-32* Research engineers and sc ie n tis ts lia b le for m ilitary auty per 100 employed,
by industry and size o f company, January 1952
All reporting
companies

Companies with total employment of
Less than 500

5,000 or more

500 - 4,999

Industry
Classified
1A or 2A

Members of
Reserves or
National Guard

Classified
1A or 2A

Members of
Reserves or
National Guard

Classified
1A or 2A

Members of
Reserves or
National Guard

Classified
1A or 2A

Members of
Reserves or
National Guard

All industries ...........................

18.9

4.1

10.5

3.9

14.8

7.5

21.8

Manufacturing ...... ......................

6.7

19.5

4.0

9.8

3.6

14.1

7.9

22.2

Food and kindred products ..............
Textile mill products and a p p a r e l .... ..
Paper and allied products ............ ..
Chemicals and allied products ..........
Industrial organic and inorganic
chemicals ..........................
Drugs and medicines ..................
Soap, cleaners, etc...... .............
Paint, varnish, etc......... .........
Other chemical products ....... .......

vo
V
Jl

6.3

2./+
2.5
2.8
4.9

12.5
13.6
17.9
17.1

0
2.9
0
4.6

7.1
5.9
7.5
10.1

0
1.3
1.8
3.4

12.9
17.1
14.4
13.8

3.5
3.0
4.1
5.8

12.2
12.3
23.3
19.4

6.3
3.3
2.9
6.4
3.4

19.3
11.3
22.2
12.9
16.2

6.6
2.8
2.2
3.9
5.2

11.7
8.9
5*6
7.8
12.9

4 .6
1.4
8.7
10.1
2.4

14.7
11.1
13.0
22.6
16.6

6.8
5.0
2.1

20.8
11.6
26.1
(1/)

Petroleum refining ......................
Rubber products ........................
Stone, clay, and glass products .........
Primary metal industries ......... ......
Fabricated metal products ...............
Machinery (except electrical) ..........
Electrical m a c h i n e r y ........... .......
Transportation e q u i p m e n t .... ...........
Motor vehicles and equipment .........
Aircraft and parts ...................
Other transportation equipment .......

3.4
4.9
2.5
2.2
2.7
7.4
11.6
6.2
3.9
6.3
11.1

24.8
12.4
12.5
12.2
11.9
13.2
23.0
22.8
19.9
23.0
19.2

1.9
3.6
6.2
10.6
3.0
2.4
4.2
3.9
2.9
4.4

15.2
5.8
15.9
11.1
10.3
12.7
8.4
12.8
0
16.1
(1/)

39.7
23.4
17.4
6.6
12.3
13.7
11.6
15.9
13.4
16.3
7.1

3 .7
5.2
2 .3
1 .7
1.8
9 .9
14.1
6 .5
4 .5

(1/)

4.4
3.2
3.5
3.4
3.7
4.3
3.9
4.0
2.2
3.9
12.5

6.6
11.1

24.4
12.2
12.1
13.0
13.1
13.0
28.2
23.7
21.2
23.9
24.5

Professional and scientific instruments..
Photographic equipment and supplies ...
Other professional and scientific
instruments .......................

7.2
1.5

17.3
6.8

4.5
1.5

9.9
7.9

2.6
1.5

11.2
3.7

13.1
—

25.9
_

8.5

18.7

5.7

10.7

3.2

13.4

13.1

25.9

Other manufacturing......... ...........

4*4

13.6

2.9

7.6

4.2

13.9

5.8

15.9

Nonmanufacturing...... ...................

3.7

14.4

4.3

11.4

5.4

18.4

1.1

14.2

4.9
3.1
3.0

10.2
13.6
12.7

19.4
14.7
27.5

_
_
1.1

__
_
14.2

Commercial consulting firms ............
Nonprofit research agencies ............
Other nonmanufacturing..... .........

1/




4*4
5.3
2.1

Data are not shov.ni for fewer than 3 companies.

11.3
14*3
16.6

.3
6.4
5.3

a/)

C-33. Research engineers and scientists liable for
military duty per 100 employed, by size of pro­
fessional research staff, January 1952

Members of
Reserves or
National Guard

Size of professional
research staff

Classified
1A or 2A

Total ..................

6.3

18.9

3.7
3.3
2.9
3.0
3.4
4.4
4*4
5.0

12.4
12.0
11.6
13.1
10.7
15.2
16.4
23.6
14.9
24.7

0 4
5 - H
15 - 29
30 - 49
50 - 74
75-124
125-249
250 - 499
500 - 999
1,000 or more




.......
.......
.......
.......
.......
.......
.......
........
.......
.......

6 .4
9.8

96

APPEN DIX D
STATISTICAL DATA CLASSIFIED BY M A JO R RESEARCH SPECIALTY




97

STATISTICAL DATA CLASSIFIED BY M A JO R RESEARCH SPECIALTY

In filling out the questionnaire, companies vere asked to
check the specialty in which they were most competent to perform re­
search and development. Their choice was limited to a list of l6
fields oriented toward the research interests of the Department of
Defense. 31/ In the tabulations, these 16 research categories have
"been consolidated into eight major research specialties as follows:
(a)

Aeronautics
Aircraft, piloted
Guided missiles

(e)

Fuels and lubricants
Fuels and lubricants
Geophysics and geography

00

Basic and medical sciences
Basic natural sciences
Medical sciences

(f)

Materials

(g)

Ordnance

Electronics

00

Other major specialties
Aircraft armament
Atomic energy
Biological warfare
Chemical warfare
navigation

(c)

(a)

Equipment and supplies
Aircraft equipment
Equipment and
supplies

The classification of companies by major research specialty
has some of the same limitations as the industry classification. Even
if a company were competent to perform research in several major
specialties, it was forced to select one of these as the field in
which it was most competent to do research. To illustrate, some com­
panies in the electrical machinery industry checked electronics as
their primary specialty even though a part of their research activity
was in aeronautics or materials.
In the statistics, the entire research staff and research
cost of each company were, of necessity, classified under the spec­
ialty in which the company was most competent. Consequently, the
figures presented in the following tables give‘only a rough indica­
tion of the distribution of scientific effort among different
specialties.
The interrelationships between the specialty classification
and the industry classification used elsewhere in the report are indi­
cated in tables D-l and D-2. Companies in the electrical machinery
industry did most of the research work here classified under elec­
tronics. Aircraft manufacturers did most of that classified under
aeronautics. In basic and medical sciences and materials, most of
the work was done by companies in chemicals industries; in ordnance,

3i/

See questionnaire, reproduced in Appendix B.




98

most of it was done by motor vehicle manufacturers; in fuels and
lubricants, by petroleum refining companies. Die research classified
under materials, equipment and supplies, and "other major specialties"
was conducted in a variety of industries. These relationships explain
the many sim ilarities between the data given in the following tables
and the statistics for different industries presented in the body of
the report and in Appendix C.
Each company was asked to indicate on the questionnaire not
only its primary research specialty but also a ll the specialties, out
of a long and detailed lis t, in which it was qualified to undertake
research. The numbers of companies which checked each specialty are
given in table D-9. It should be noted that the figures in this table
are not additive, since most companies checked more than one specialty;
many checked 15 or more specialties.




99

D -l. Number of reporting companies, by industry and major research sp e c ia lty

Major research specialty of company
All reporting
com­
panies

All industries ..........................

Manufacturing ...................... .

Industry

Aero­
nautics

Basic
and
medical
sciences

Elec­
tronics

1,953

79

324

277

647

1,538

58

222

217

Equip­
ment
and
supplies

Fuels
and
lubri­
cants

Other
spe­
cial­
ties

Mate­
rials

Ord­
nance

112

321

119

74

547

70

263

102

59

Food and kindred products ............ .
Textile mill products and apparel .....
Paper and allied products ..............
Chemicals and allied products ..........
Industrial organic and inorganic
chemicals ........................
Drugs and medicines ............. .
Soap, cleaners, etc................ .
Paint, varnish, etc. .................
Other chemical products ............ ..

73
49
49
276

—
—
—
—

7
2
1
155

_
—
—
2

62
39
24
16

—
1
1
7

3
6
21
80

_

85
77
19
32
63

—
—

36
74
12
10
23

—
—
—
1
1

3
1

4
—
1
—

32
1

2
—
—
—

3

2

Petroleum refining .................... .
Rubber products .......................
Stone, clay, and glass products ........
Primary metal industries ...............
Fabricated metal products .............
Machinery (except electrical) .........
Electrical machinery ...................
Transportation equipment ...............
Motor vehicles and equipment ........
Aircraft and parts ...................
Other transportation equipment ......

49

—
—

2
7
10

44
1

76
124
67
40
5
27
8

2

—
—

—

33

—

2
3

38
50
150

—

1

4

2

7

3
3

1
4

3

105
26
63
16

6
34
1
31
2

—
1
—

144
2
—
2
—

1H
236

—

2

9
1

7

2

7
7

3
13
31

1
1
2

1
—
1
14

8
1
1
1

—

3

_
1
—

1
—
—
1

1
20
20
35
26
14
5
4
2
1
1

26
18
6
20
17
—
3

_
1
1
1
6
5
5
3
1
1
1

—
—

5

—

3

Professional and scientific instruments.
Photographic equipment and supplies...
Other professional and scientific
instruments ............. ..........

153
24

7
—

22
1

47
5

39
16

8
1

4
—

11
1

15
—

129

7

21

42
.

23

7

4

10

15

Other manufacturing ....................

93

1

7

8

34

—

24

13

6

Nonraanufacturing ........................

415

21

102

60

100

42

58

17

15

Commercial consulting firms ...........
Nonprofit research agencies ...........
Other nonmanufacturing ................

286
39
90

14

3

74
17

46

18

3

12

11

11

35
5
18

13

4

74
5
21

1

2




100

3

2
22

1

D-2.

Cost of research, by industry and major research specialty, 1951
(thousands of dollars)

275235 0 - 53 - 8

Major research specialty of company

All
reporting
companies

Aeronautics

All industries ............ ...... .............

l/H.804,529

$370,955

Manufacturing ..................................

1,624,687

359,405

Industry

23,889
15,817
11,116
204,230

_
—
—
—

131,340
44,043
12,342
6,436
10,019

—
—
—
—

Petroleum r e f i n i n g .... ......................
Rubber products ..............................
Stone, clay, and glass products ..............
Primary metal industries ....................
Fabricated metal products ....................
Machinery (except electrical) ...............
Electrical machinery ........................
Transportation e q u i p m e n t ..... ...............
Motor vehicles and equipment ....... .......
Aircraft and parts ........................
Other transportation equipment ............

92,942
22,890
20,752
34,596
33,404
99,729
432,343
511,324
94,303
410,804
6,217

_
—

893
(2/0
6,261
347,662
(2/)
345,153
(2/)

Professional and scientific instruments .....
Photographic equipment and supplies .......
Other professional and scientific
instruments ............................

91,313
30,794
61,019

Other manufacturing .........................
Nonmanufacturing ..............................

Food and kindred products ...................
Textile mill products and apparel •...........
Paper and allied products .................. .
Chemicals and allied products ...............
Industrial organic and inorganic
chemicals ..............................
Drugs and medicines ............. ..........
Soap, cleaners, etc........................
Paint, varnish, etc........................
Other chemical products ....................

Commercial consulting firms .................
Nonprofit research agencies ..................
Other nonmanufacturing ......................

Basic and
medical
sciences

Elec­
tronics

Equip­
ment and
supplies

Fuels
and lu­
bricants

Materials

$146,706

$ 531,668

$291,906

$106,103

$187,698

$142,170

$27,323

129,033

435,086

281,018

96,186

168,915

129,531

25,508

1,586
(2/0
(2/)
110,399

__
—
—
(2/)

22,126
11,706
4,202
10,084

_
(2/)
(2/)
1,417

51,883
43,403
11,020
1,322
2,771

—
—
—
(2/)
(2/)

3,884
(2/)

(2/)
450
2,686

(I/O
—

i /)
—

(2/)
996
4,465
1,440
25,930
61,903
19,371
51,996
3,722
45,044
3,230

91,819
(2/)

48
2,179
956
(2/)

__
—
(2/)
(2/)
597
2,945
397,381
(2/)

3,717
—

7,616
<2/)

1,006

3,717

(2/)

24,842

(2/)

476

179,842

11,550

44,193
37,577
98,072

3,648
5,328
2,574

—

(2/)

W )

3,502
1,805

1,005
—
(2/)
(I/)

Ordnance

Other
spe­
cialties

(2/)
2,976
4,927
77,545

__
(2/)
(2/)
(2/)

(2/)
3,076

71,150
(2/)
(2/)
1,494
4,841

C2/)

(2/)

_
_

B o
(2/)
482

—

(2/)

_

(2/)

(2/)
19,728
12,787
30,646
3,217
11,839
240
2,242
(2/)
(2/)
(2/)

1,290
6,216
15,887
2,658
87,717
87,329
_
388

61,495
29,552

400
(2/)

282
__

3,845
(2/)

7,058

6,394

31,943

(2/)

282

(2/)

7,058

5,662

4,696

2,286

7,196

(2/)

17,668

96,582

10,888

9,917

18,783

12,639

1,815

8,408
8,584
676

12,456
5,492
78,634

7,345
960
2,583

2,526
(2/)
(2/)

2,801
9,765
6,217

5,959
(2/)
(2/)

1,050
(2/)
(2/0

642

7,400

—
(2/)
2,118
—
(2/)
—

—

(2/)

(2/)
(2/)
(2/)
(2/0
& 0
5,476
938
C2/)
(2/)
(2/)

l/ This table is based on reports for 1,772 companies. In addition, the study includes 181 companies that failed to supply information on the cost of
research in 1951.
2/ Data withheld to avoid disclosing figures for individual companies, but these data are included in totals.




D-3.

Distribution of research employment and research cost,
by major research specialty 1/

Percent distribution
Number
of
companies

Major research specialty
of company

Employment, January 1952
All
researoh
workers

Engineers
and
scientists

Supporting
personnel

Cost of
research,
1951

102

Aeronautics ..............................
Basic and medical sciences .......... .
Electronics ..............................
Equipment and s u p p l i e s ............
Fuel and lubricants ................. .
M a t e r i a l s ....... ........ ...............
Ordnance .............................. .
Other research specialties ..............

79
324
277
647
112
321
119
74

18.7
8.6
27.1
16.8
6.0
10.8
10.3
1.7

19.3
11.6
22.8
18.9
6.3
12.3
6.9
1.9

18.3
6.6
30.0
15.3
5.9
9.8
12.6
1.5

18.8
7.7
27.0
15.2
5.7
10.4
13.8
1.4

Total ....................................

-•

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Total number reported 2/ ................

1,953

95,694

142,572

238,266

$1,980
i (millions)

■

1/ The figures in this table are estimates covering all 1,953 companies in the survey. They include
c o m m n i e s that failed to report one or more of the items shown in the table.
2j Although the manpower estimates are given in exact numbers, not all digits of the numbers are
statistically significant.




D-A. Number of research engineers and s c ie n tis ts , by major research sp ecia lty and size o f professional research s ta f f, January 1952
Companies with professional research staff of —
All
reporting
companies

Major research specialty
of company

0
to
4

5
to
14

15
to
29

30
to
49

50
to
74

75
to
124

250
to
499

125
to
249

500
to
999

1,000
or
more

1/ 91,585

1,00

4,590

5,053

5,334

4,629

5,386

10,787

11,223

9,689

33,454

18,475
10,833
21,781
17,567
5,928
10,502
4,665
1,834

All specialties .........................

23
309
166
527
102

146
665
726
1,604
203
747
290
209

173
550
1,015
1,760
257
713
444
141

352
585
842
1,627
183
890
445
410

189

466
636
659
1,344
604
926
396
355

1,282
2,394
1,400
2,013
1,122
1,022
1,036
518

1,883
2,354
1,564

2,632
(2/)
2,094

11,329
(2/)
12,718
6,221

Aeronautics..... .............. ..........
Basic and medical sciences ....... .......
Electronics ••........... .................
Equipment and supplies ...................
Fuels and lubricants .................. .•
Materials ......................... ..... .
Ordnance .................................
Other research specialties ..............

% \

880
597
1,463
( /)
2
854
355
(2/)

1,008
2,178
1,203
1,033

(I/)
2,002
(2/)

(2/)

1J
This table is based on reports from 1,815 companies. In addition, the study included 138 companies that failed to supply information on the
number of research engineers and scientists employed in January 1952.
2j
Data withheld to avoid disclosing figures for individual companies, but these data are included in totals.

D-5.

Average number of supporting personnel per research engineer or scientist, by major research specialty and size of
professional research staff, January 1952

Companies with professional research staff of —
Major research specialty
of company

All
reporting

0
to
4

5
to
14

15
to
29

30
to
49

50
to
74

75
to
124

125
to
249

250
to
499

500
to
999

1,000

companies

All specialties ..................

1.5

1.0

1.1

1.2

1.2

1.2

0.8

1.6

1.6

1.6

1.6

Aeronautics .......................
Basic and medical sciences ........
Electronics ............ ........
Equipment and supplies ..........
Fuels and lubricants.... .........
Materials ........... ..............
Ordnance ......................... .
Other research specialties ••...•.•

1.4
.8
2.0
1.2
1.4
1.2
2.6
1.1

2.5
.6
1.2
1.1
.8
.9
1.7
1.1

2.6
.8
1.3
1.2
1.0
.9
1.7

2.0
.9
1.2
1.1
1.4
.7
2.9

•4
.8
1.5
1.1

1.6
(l/)
2.5
—

1.2
G/)
2.2
1.4
—
_
_

1 .0

2.7
.8
1.7
1.4
1.3
1.9
2.0
1.5

1.4

1 .0

1.2
.9
1.1
1.3
1.4
.9
1.4
1.6




l/

Data are not shown for fewer than three companies.

G/)

1 .4
2 .1
.8

.7
.7
1.1
.8
.5
.9
.9
.4

1 .0
1.2
.6
1.3
1.5
5.7

Q/)

1 .1

(i/)

or
more

D-6. Cost o f Government-financed research as percent of to ta l research c o st, by major research sp ecia lty
and size of professional research 6 ta ff, 1951

Major research specialty
of company

All
reporting
companies

All specialties ....................

46.3

Aeronautics ........................
Basic and medical sciences ........
Electronics ........................
Equipment and supplies ............
Fuels and lubricants .•............
Materials ..... ....................
Ordnance ...........................
Other research specialties ........

87.0
6.2
58.5
36.0
5.2
13.9
23.5
49.0




1/

Companies with professional research staff of—
0
to
4

5
to
14

15
to
29

30
to
49

50
to
74

75
to
124

125
to
249

250
to
499

500
to
999

34.4

35.6

40.5

37.0

32.3

33.4

41.1

36.0

55.4

55.3

38.4
11.1
53.4
39-2
21.6
14.9
61.6
32.2

61.9
16.7
63.7
31.8
27.2
15.6
43.1
44.8

77 *4
9.1
71.3
31.7
15.5
27.7
36.6
26.7

52.2
12.3
75.4
27.3
13.3
17.4
41.3
41.0

96.2
5*4
59.9
47.9
(1/)
7.8
12.1
19.3

81.3
1.4
66.3
29.5
11.0
8.7
60.7
33.9

97.7
8.7
95.8
24.4
2.2
2.1
44.9
80.4

98.8
1.3
74.7
18.0
5.2
35.0
7.9

88*4
(i/)
70.8

83.3
0/)
52.3
45.1

Data are not shown for fewer than three companies.

d7)
22.1
(1/)

1,000
or
more

(I/)

D_7. Average cost per research engineer or s c ie n tis t, by major research sp ecialty and size of professional research s ta f f, 1951 1 /
Companies with professional research staff of—
Major research specialty
of company

All specialties

............

Aeronautics .................
Basic and medical sciences ...
Electronics .................
Equipment and supplies ......
Fuels and lubricants .........
Materials ....................
Ordnance .....................
Other research specialties ...

1/
2/

All
reporting
companies

$21*200 ..
24-,100
14-, 500
27,500
17.900
20,300
18,600
33.900
16,300

0
to
4

5
to
14

15
to
29

30
to
49

50
to
74

75
to
124

250
to
499

125
to
249

$15,500

$17,700

117,800

$17,800

$17,100

#14,500

$21,000

$24,900

32,900
11,000
16,700
18,100

17.600
13,300
19,000
19,800
16.600
14.,800
22,900
15,400

34,300
12,900
20,200
16,100
20,700
13.900
27,400
13.900

17.600
13,800
19.600
J9,100
17.600
15,400
17.600
19,800

18,400
13,200
17,800
18,200
(2/)
16,400
22,900
14,600

11,900
13.500
18,200
14.300
14.300
15,300
11.500
14,700

30,800
17,300
20,500
18.700
20,200
26,900
21.700
15.700

29,700
13,800
18,800
9,700
f 20,000
20,100
79,900

14,000
11,800
16,600
19,500

1,000
or
more

500
to
999

$22,500

$25,000

37,200j
(2/)
21,400;

20,200
(2/)
32,800
19,300

(2/)
14,100
G/>

(2/7

Cost figures rounded to nearest $100.
Data are not shown for fewer than three companies.

D-8.

Average cost per research worker, by major research specialty ana size of professional research staff, 1951 1/

Companies with professional research staff of—

All specialties ..............




l7
2/

0
to
4

5
to
14

15
to
29

30
to

50
to

75
to

125
to

250
to

500
to

49

74

124

249

499

999

$8,300

$ 9,300

$8,600

$9,400

8,100

11,500
7,000
8,700
5,700
8,100
8,300
11,700

8,900
(2/)
10,300
8,000

$8,800

$7,900

$8,200

$7,900

$8,200

$8,000

$8,200

9,900
7,900
9,400
8,100
8,200
7,800
9,200
7,600

9,300
7,200
8,500
8,500
7,600
6,400
6,500
8,800

5,000
7,300
8,100
9,200
8,900
7,200

11,000
6,800
8,800
7,700
9,000
7,900
6,700
6,900

8,200
7,000
9,500
8,300
7,500
8,100
7,000
8,700

13,300
7,700
7,200
9,100

8,200
8,200
8,700
8,000
9,300
8,100
6,100
9,900

Cost figures rounded to nearest $100.
Data are not shown for fewer than three companies.

8,600
8,100

(2/)

7,200
7,100
8,100

•

9,600
7,800
7,500
8,700
9,200
8,000
6,200

1,000
or
more

0
0
0

Aeronautics ...................
Basic and medical sciences .—
Electronics ................ ..
Equipment and supplies .......
Fuels and lubricants ........
Materials .....................
Ordnance ......................
Other research specialties ....

All
reporting
companies

a

Major research specialty
of company

(2/)
6,20C
--

(2/)

—

6,600
(2/)

—
—

D -9.—Number of companies reporting that they were q u alified to do research in selected
research sp ec ia ltie s i j
Research sp ecialty

Number of
companies
2/

A ir c r a ft armament.................... .........................
Bombing system s and equipm ent...........,
F ir e c o n tr o l s y s t e m s .............................,
G u n s..............................................................
M unitions . . . . ...............................................
T estin g and e v a lu a t io n ...........................,

Geophysics and geography—Continued
H ydrology..........................................................
Ionosphere....................................................... ..
M eteorological equipment ...........................
Oceanography....................................................
Photogrammetric equipm ent........... ..
Photo interpretation ............................ ..
Seismology ...................................................... ..
S o il mechanics • • • • . . . .......................... ..
Weather forecasting .....................................
Guided m issiles • • • • .........................................
Aerodynamics and str u c tu r e s............. ..
Countermeasures ..............................................
Guidance and control .................................
Launching and handling .......................... ..
Propulsion and fu els ............. .....................
Target drones ..................................................
Test range procedures and
instrumentation
...........
Test and training equipment • • • • • • • • • .
Warheads and fuzes ............................ ..
Medical sciences ................................................
A n tib io tic s ......................................................
Atomic medicine ..............................................
............. ....
Aviation medicine
Bacteriology ....................................................
D e n tistr y ........................ ..................................
Disease ..............................................................
Immunology ........................................................
Medical aspects of b iological and
chemical warfare .......................... ..
Medical equipment and prosthetic
devices ....................................................
Neuropsychiatry • • • • • ..................................
Physiology and p ath ology......... ................
Sanitation ........................................................
Shock and transfusion .................................
Surgery ...............................................................
Toxicology...........................................................
M a ter ia ls..............................................................
Inorganic and mineral .................................
Metallurgy, e x tr a c tiv e ...............................
Metallurgy, physical ........... .......................
Organic and fibrous .....................................
Physics of metals .........................................
P la s t ic s ...................................................... ..
Navigation ............................ ................................
C elestia l ...........................................................
Deed reckon in g............................................ ..
E lectronic, common u s e r .......................... ..
E lectronic, s e lf s u f f ic ie n t ..................*
Gyro and in e r tia l .........................................
Pilotage and beacons ...................................
Ordnance.......................... ..
e. . . . . . .
Degaussing nets and booms
Explosives and prbpellants, molecular.
Fire c o n tr o l...................................
Fuzes, fir in g , and exploding
mechanisms
......................
Guns and mounts, large caliber ..............
Land mines and grenades ............................
P ro jectiles and ammunition d e t a ils ....
Rockets and rocket launchers ..................
Sea mines and depth charges ....................
Small arms and automatic weapons . . . . .
Torpedoes and tubes .....................................
V ehicles, combat ............................................
V ehicles, noncombat .....................................
Warheads and bombs .......................................

289
124
169
54
44

A ir c r a ft e q u ip m e n t.........................................
Automatic c o n tr o l s y s t e m s ...................,
E le c t r ic a l s y s t e m s ....................................
In stru m entation ...........................................
M echanical s y s t e m s .................
,
P arachutes .......................................................
T estin g and e v a lu a t io n ..........................

Research sp ecialty

497
20 1
185
20 4
215
29
147
185
89
50
48
79
56
62
674
146
539
168
272
639

A ir c r a ft, p i l o t e d ...........................................
Aerodynamics and str u c tu r e s . . . . . .
C atapu lts and a r r e stin g g e a r .......... .
Hydrodynamics ................................................
P r o p u ls io n ........................................................,
T e stin g , a ir c r a f t f l i g h t .................... .
T e stin g , p ro p u lsio n system s
B asic n atu ral s c i e n c e s ..............................
B io lo gy .............................................................. ,
C h e m istr y .........................................................
M a th em atics.................
,
P h y sics
..................... . . • • .............
E le c t r o n ic s .......................................................... ,
A co u stics ..........................................................
Antennas and p r o p a g a tio n .................... .
Communication ................................................
Components
,
E lectro n t u b e s ..............................................
E le c tr o n ic counterm easures • •• •• •• <
I n f r a r e d ........................................................... .
In te r fe r en c e r e d u c t io n ..........................
Radar and r e la te d f i e l d s .....................
T est equipment .............................................
Equipment and su p p lies ...............................
C loth in g and p e r s o n a l.............................
E le c t r ic a l ..................................................
Food ................................ ....................................
Heavy equipment and en g in eerin g
c o n stru c tio n .......................................... .
M aintenance equipment and
u t i l i t i e s ................................................. .
Marine c r a fts and a sso c ia te d
hyd rodyn am ics....................................... .
M e c h a n ic a l...................................................... .
Photography and o p tic s .........................
P ack ing, packaging and
p r e s e r v a tio n ..........................................,
Power u n its ...................................................,
S h e l t e r ...............................................................
S t o r a g e ...............................................................
T o o ls, g en era l p u r p o se ..........................
F u els and lu b r ic a n ts .........................
Petroleum ................................................. ..
S y n th etic lu b r ic a n ts and h yd ra u lic
f lu id s .........................................................
Liquid p ro p e lla n ts
............
Equipment fo r sto r a g e , p r o te c tio n ,
and d is tr ib u tio n .................................
G eophysics and geography .........................
Atmosphere .....................................................
Atm ospheric p h ysics
C artography ....................................................
Geodesy • • .....................................................
G eology .......................................................
Geomagnetism and e l e c t r i c i t y ............

88

136
160

275
302
73
140
102
96
258
328

1,034
94
214
160
178
162
92
64
102
62

356
107
238
165
248

96

100

76
97
207
19
22
15
6
62
26

Number of
companies
2/
.
26
52
47
16
31
8
12

45
16

437
90
73
209
92
84
56
130

149
95
319
85
22
28
137
13
53
107
29
11

70
41
39
61
65
4
717
230
101
208

278
147
253
174
24
28
105
104
59
44
537
20
50
175
165
78
57
93
94
52
70
114
154
39
83

1 / The numbers of companies qu alified to do research in atomic energy, b iological warfare, and chemical warfare are not shown*
2 / Totals shown do not add, since many companies indicated that they were q u alified to do research in more than one research
sp ecialty within an area of sp ecia lisa tio n . Sim ilarly, most companies indicated that they were q u alified in more than one area of
sp ecialization .




106

U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 0 —1953

ERRATUM
Bureau of Labor Statistics Bulletin No. 1148, "Scientific Research
and Development in American Industry"
Page 8 3 j Table C-L2, i.d Column
"Mean" cost per research engineer or scientist for "Nonprofit research
agencies" with 500 to 4,999 employees should be t 17.000 instead of

£ 7.0 00 .