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U. 5. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR JAMES J. DAVIS, Secretary  BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS ETHELBERT STEWART, Commissioner  BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES} BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS • SAFETY  . . . · No. 378  SERIES  CODE  SAFETY CODE FOR  WOODWORKING PLANTS INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT BOARDS AND COMMISSIONS AND THE NATIONAL BUREAU OF CASUALTY AND SURETY UNDERWRITERS, SPONSORS   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  TENTATIVE AMERICAN STANDARD Approved October 16, 1924, by American Engineering Standards Committ:ee  ••• "l:~&.NTo,.:  04...  \  '1t ~ ..•  .;  .. "' ·~~,,,.,,_to!: •·  DECEMBER, 1924  WASHINGTON GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 1925   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ADDITIONAL COPIES OF THIS PUBUCATION KAY BE PROCUBEII FROM THE SUPERINTENDENT OF DOOUYENTS GOVERNYENT PRINTING OFFICE WASHINGTON, D. C, AT  5 CENTS PER COPY V  THE SECTIONAL COMMITTEE WHICH FORMULATED THE SAFETY CODE FOR WOODWORKING PLANTS ' R,epresenting InternationaZ Association of IndttStriaZ Accident Boards and Commissions:  Dr. Lucian W. Chaney, Bureau of Labor Statistics, United States Department of Labor, Washington, D. C. C. B. Connelly, Department of Labor and Industry, Harrisburg, Pa. R. McA. Keown, Industrial Commission, Madison, Wis. ( State Capitol). Richard J. Cullen, Department of Labor, 124 East Twenty-eighth Street, New York City. Rowland H. Leveridge, Chief, Bureau of Electrical and Mechanical Equipment, New Jersey State Labor Department, Trenton, N. J. John P. Meade, Director, Division of Industrial Safety, Department of Labor and Industries, State House, Boston, Mass. Representing National Bureau of Casualty and Surety Underwriters:  T. M. Nial, National Bureau of Casualty and Surety Underwriters. W. S. Paine, Research Engineer, Bureau of Inspection and Accident Prevention, Aetna Life Insurance Co., Hartford, Conn. J. L. Thompson, Superintendent, Engineering and Inspection Department, Travelers Insurance Co., Hartford, Conn. Bolger Jensen, Manager, Engineering Department, Maryland Casualty Co., Baltimore, Md. F. M. Bullen, Assistant Underwriter, United States Casualty Co., 80 Maiden Lane, New York City.  Representing makers of safeguards: A. F. Howe, Granite City, ·n1 Representing Department of Commerce:  John A. Dickinson, Bureau of Standards, Department of Commerce, Washington, D. C. Ma-nufacturers of woodworking machinery: A. G. Stuedeman, President, Jenkins Machine Co., Sheboygan, Wis. Users of woodworking machinery: Mr. William B. Baker, Secretary Association of Wood Using Industries,  Room 531, Monadnock Building, 53 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, Ill. Fred Burdick, Northern Furniture Co., Sheboygan, Wis. W. L. E. Keuffel, % Keuffel & Esser Co., Adams & Third Streets, Hoboken, N. J.  Representing workmen:  Joseph Binder, Pattern Makers' League, 1007 Second National Bank Building, Cincinnati, Ohio. Carpenters and Joiners' Union, John T. Cosgrove, First General Vice President, United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America, Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. George Orris, Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind.  Representing FederaZ Compensation Commission:  R. J. Hoage, Chief Statistician, United States Compensation Commission, Washington, D. C.  Representing National Associ~tion of Mutual Casualty Companies:  F. A. Barker, Lumbermen's Mutual Casualty Co., Lumber Exchange, Chicago, Ill.  Representing Electric Power Club:  A. H. Moore, General Electric Co., Schenectady, N. Y.  Representing National Safety Oouncil:  A. S. Regula, Liberty Mutual Insurance Co., 41 East Forty-second Street, New York City.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  m   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  CONTENTS IN'l'RODUCTION Page  Section 1. Scope, application, and exception___________________________ Rule 10. Scope------------------------- ------------------------Rule 11. Application and exceptions______________________________ Rule 12. New and old installations_______________________________ Rule 13. Reference to other codes________________________________ Section 2. Definitions________________________________________________ Rule 20. " Shall" and "should" _____ ---------------------------Rule 21. Point of operations________________________________________ Rule 22. Push stick______________________________________________ Rule 23. Push block______________________________________________  1, 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2  PART 1.-PLANT LAYOUT Section 10. Machinery------------------- ---------------------------Rule 100. Machine layout_________________________________________ Section 11. Floors and aisles_________________________________________ Rule 110. Floors kept repaired___________________________________ Rule 111. Nonslip floors------------------------- ---------------Rule 112. Aisles_________________________________________________  2 2 2, 3 2 3 3  PART 11.-MACHINES AND EQUIPMENT Section 20. Machine drive, feed, speed, and control____________________ Rule 200. Machine drive ______________-___________________________ Rule 201. Self-feed--------------------- ------------------------Rule 202. Speeds----------------------~ -------------------------  3, 4  3 3  3,4  PART 111.-WOODWORKING MACHINERY ::lection 30. Circular crosscut, rip, resaw, and swing cut-off saw3________ Rule 300. Crosscut table saws____________________________________ Rule 301. Ripsaws ------------------------------- ----------~----Rule 302. Circular resaws________________________________________ Rule 303. Feed rolls______________________________________________ Rule 304. Swing cut-off saws_____________________________________ Rule 305. Counterweights ------------------------------- --------Rule 306. Limit stops and latches_________________________________ Rule 307. Guarding of saws beneath and behind tables_____________ Section 31. Band saws and band resaws____________________ ____ Rule 310. Inclosing saw blades___________________________________ Rule 311. Feed rolls________________________ _________________ Section 32. Jointers ------------------------------ -----------------Rule 320. Automatic guards------------------------ -------------Rule 321. Point of operation ___________________ :...__________________ Section 33. Tenoning machines ------------------------------ -------Rule 330. Guarding of cutting heads______________________________ Rule 331. Feed chains and sprockets______________________ _______ Section 34. Boring and mortising machines___________________________ Rule 340. Chucks ------------------------- -------------Rule 341. Counterweights -------------------------- -------Rule 342. Universal joints_________________________ _____________ Rule 343. Guarding 11perating treadles_____________________________   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  V  4, 5 4 4 4, 5 5 5 5 5 5 5, 6 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6, 7 6 7 7 7  VI  CONTENTS  Section 35. Wood i:;.hapers, etc. _______________________________________ _ Rule 350. Gua:i'ding of cutting heads ____________________________ _ Rule 351. Spindle starting and stopping devices ___________________ _ Section 36. Planing, molding, sticking, and matching machines, etc _____ _ Rule 360. Guarding of cutting heads _____________________________ _ Rule 361. Feed rolls --------------------------------------------Section 37. Profile, swing-head, and back-knife lathes _________________ _ Rule 370. Guarding of cutting heads ____________________________ _ Section 38. Sand:ng machines ------------------------------------Rule 380. Feed rolls---------------------------------------------_ Rule 381. Drum sanding machines ________________________________ Rule 382. Disk sanding machines_.:. ______________________________ _ Rule 383. Belt sanding machines _________________________________ _ Section 39. Miscellaneous machines______________________ .;. ___________ _ Rule 390. Other machines not excluded ___________________________ _  Page  7 7 7  7,8  .'  7 8  8 8 8 8 8 8  8 8  PART IV.-VENEER MACHINERY 9 Section 40. Steaming equipment and soaking pits______________________ 9 Rule 400. Steam vats and soaking pits---------'-----------------__ 9 Section 41. Log-handling equipment___________________________________ 9 Rule 410. Cranes, log trolleys, etc_________________________________ V Section 4~. Saws_____________________________________________________ 9 Rule 420. Drag-saws_____________________________________________ Section 43. Veneer cutters and wringers______ -'------------------------- 9, 10 9 Rule 430. Veneer slicer and rotary veneer cutters__________________ 9 Rule 431. Veneer clippers________________________________________ 9 Rule 432. Veneer wringers------------------'--------------------10 Rule 433. Operating levers or treadles_____________________________ PART V.-COOPERAGE MACHINERY 10 Section 50. Saws ---------------------------- - ----------------------10 Rule 500. Heading bolters ____ -----------------------------10 Rule 501. Swing cut-off saws____________________________________ 10 Rule 502. Bolt, stave, and heading equalizers_..: ______________ :______ 10 Rule 503. Barrel-stave saws (cylindrical saws)____________________ Rule 504. Heading saws, variable-feed ripsaws, flat-stave saws, head 10 rounders, etc----------------,.-----------------------------~Section 51. Single and double stave planers, single and double heading ll planers____________________________ ------------------------------1l Rule 510. Guarding of cutting heads ____________ :_______________ 11 Rule 511. Point of operation_____________________________________ 11 Section 52. Stave and heading jointers and matchers___________________ 11 Rule 520. Guarding -----------------------------~---------------11 Rule 521. Foot-power machines___________________________________ 11 Section 53. Stave croziers____________________________________________ 11 Rule 530. Guarding______________________________________________ 11 Rule 531. Feed chains____________________________________________ 11 Rule 532. Counterweights---------------------------------------11 Section 54. Barrel sanding machines____________________________________ u Rule 540. Sanding belts__________________________________________ Section 55. Power windlass for barrels ________________________________ 11, 12 11 Rule 550. Counterweights---------------------------------------12 Rule 551. Control levers_________________________________________ 12 Section 56. Pail and barrel lathes_____________________________________ 12 Rule 560. Guards----------------------------------"'------------12 Section 57. Miscellaneous cooperage machinerY----------------------~-12 Rule 570. Other machines not excluded____________________________ PART VI.-OPERATING RULES Section 60. Inspection and maintenance_______________________________ Rule 600. Inspection______________________________________________ Rule 601. Maintenance------------------------~------------------   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  12 12 12  CONTENTS.  vn Page  Section 61. Selection and operation of machines _______________________ 12, 13 12 Rule 610. Selection of suitable machines__________________________ 13 Rule 611. Circular rip and cut-off saws____________________________ 13 Rule 612. Band saws and band resaws____________________________ 13 Rule 613. Lathes_________________________________________________ 13 Section 62. Veneer machines and equipment____________________________ 13 Rule 620. Steam vats____________________________________________ 14 Section 63. Clothing and goggles worn by operators___________________ 14 Rule 630. Clothing______________ ~-------------------------------14 Rule 631. Goggles_______________________________________________  P.ABT VIL-EXPLANATORY MATTER  Section 70__________________________________________________________ 14, 15 14 Rule 700. Location of machinery_________________________________ 14 Rule 701. ~Iachine foundations___________________________________ 14 Rule 702. Motor drive____________________________________________ 14 Rule 703. Lighting_______________________________________________ 14 Rule 704. Selection of suitable machines__________________________ 15 Rule 705. Saw speeds_____________________________________________ 15 Rule 706. Care of machines and tools_____________________________ 15 Rule 707. Cracked saws__________________________________________ 15 Rule 708. Wabble saws___________________________________________  Index ----------------------------------- ----------------------------- 16-18   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  BULLETIN OF THE  U. S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS WASHINGTON  NO. 378  DECEMBER, lffl  SAFETY CODE FOR WOODWORKING PLANTS INTRODUCTION 1. This woodworkin~ safety code is primarily int.ended to cover the hazards of the "pomt of operation ' in woodworking machinery frqtn the crude lumber to the finished product. 2. This code is one of a series intended ultimat.ely to cover all American industry which are being prepared under the procedure of the American Engineering Standards Committee. · 3. The code is in form to be adopted by States and municipalities or promulgated by order of an industrial commission. 4. It may also be used by industrial establishments which use woodworking machinery to t.est and standardize the~r safety equipment. 5. The code will be revised from time to time to keep it abreast with the advances of safety practice. SECTION 1. SCOPE, APPLICATION, AND EXCEPTION  Rule 10. Scope.  This code is intended as a guide for the safe operation and maintenance of woodworking machinery, including cooperage and making of veneer. It deals primarily with " point of operation" hazards on woodworking machinery. Rule 11. Application and exceptions.  The purpose of this code is to provide reasonable safety for life, limb, and health. In cases of practical difficulty or unnecessary hardship the enforcing authority may grant exceptions from the literal requirements of this code or permit the use of other devices or methods, but only when it is clearly evident that equivalent protection is thereby afforded. NOTE.-It is suggested that when exceptions are asked the enforcing authority consult with the Committee on Safety Code for Woodworking Plants, care American Engineering Standards Committee, 29 West Thirty-ninth Street, New York City. Such consultation will tend to bring about uniform application of the code and will keep the committee informed of criticisms which should be considered.  Rule 12. New and old installations.  After the date when this code becomes effective all new construction and installations shall conform to its provisions. Equipment installed prior to that date shall be modified to conform to its provisions unless exception is allowed in accordance with rule 11. 16526°-26---2 1  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  2  SAFETY CODE FOR WOODWORKING PLANTS  Rule 13. Reference to other codes. The present code is supplemented by the following codes of the American Engineering Standards Committee which deal with general hazards. Of special importance are the following: · (a) (b) ( c) ( d)  -Mechanical power-transmission apparatus. Exhaust systems. Lighting. Electrical codes: 1. National Fire Code. 2. National Safety Code. 3. Power Control Code.  SECTION 2. DEFINITIONS  Rule 20. "Shall" and "should."  The word "shall" is to be understood as mandatory; the word "should" as advisory. Rule 21. Point of operations. The term '' point of operations" shall be understood to mean thltt point at which cutting, shaping, or. forming is. accomplished upon\ the stock, and shall include such other points as lnay offer a hazard to the operator in inserting or manipulating the stock in the operation of the machine. Rule 22. Push stick. Push stick shall mean a narrow strip of wood with a notch cut into one end and used to push short pieces of lumber through saws. Rule 23. Push, block. Push block shall mean a short block of hardwood provided with a handle similar to that of a plane and having a shoulder at the rear end. This block is used for pushing short stock over revolving cutters. 1  PART 1.-PLANT LAYOUT SECTION 10. MACHINERY  Rule 100. Machine layout.  (a) Machines should be so located that each OJ.>erator will have sufficient space in which to handle the material with the least possible interference from or to other workmen or machines. Machines should be so placed that it will not be necessary for the operator to stand in or so near an aisle as to be liable to hazard. (b) Woodworking machinery shall be firmly secured to substantial floor or foundations. NOTE.-Wherever plant layout permits, it is advisable to locate heavy-duty machines on the ground floor.  ( c) Machines should be arranged to take advantage of natural lighting as far as possible. (d) Provision should be made for the removal of shavings and dust. SECTION 11. FLOORS AND AISLES  Rule 110. · Floors kept repaired. All floors shall be kept in good repair and shall be free from protruding nails, splinters, holes, unevenness, and loose boards.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  SAFETY OODE FOB WOODWORKING PLANTS  8  Rule 111. Nonslip floors.  ;Floors where operators stand to operate ma<'hines, such as wood shaper~ jointers, saws, and wood-turning lathes, shall be provided with ettective means to prevent slipping. Rule 112. Aisles. Aisles of sufficient width to permit the passing of trucks and workmen without crowding shall be · maintained in a.11 working plac.es and stock rooms.  PART II.-MACHINES AND EQUIPMENT SECTION 20. MACHINE DRIVE, FEED, SPEED, AND CONTROL  Rule 200. Machine drive. (a) It is recommended that careful consideration be given to the advantages of individual motor drive. (b) Not more than 10 machines should be driven by a single motor or other power unit. (c) A mechanical or electrical J?OWer control should be provided on each machine which will make 1t possible for the operator to cut off the power from each machine without leaving his position at the point of operation. (d) For general rules regarding starting and stopping devices, emergency stops, etc., see Safety Code for Mechanical Power-Transmission Apparatus. Rule 201. Self-feed. It is recommended that automatic feeding devices on machines be installed wherever the nature of the work will permit. Rule 202. Speeds. (a) OirC'Ular saws.-The table gives the recpmmended and maximum speed in revolutions per minute for various sizes of circular saws working in softwood. The maximum allowable speed, given in the third column of the table, shall not be exceeded.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  CIRCULAR SAW SPEEDS  Revolutions per minute  Diameter of saw  8-lncb _________ •••••• 10-incb ____ ._ ••••••••• 12-incb••••••••••••• _. 14-lncb••••••••••••••• 16-incb_._•••••••••••• 18-lncb••••• _._ ••••• _. 20-incb_ •• _._ ••••••••• 22-lncb••••••••••••••• 24-incb ••••••••••••••• 26-incb ••••••••••••••• 28-incb ••••••••••••••• 30-incb••••••••••••••• 82-lncb••••••••••••••• 34-incb••••••••••••••• 36-incb••••••••••••••• 40-incb••••••••••••••• #-inch._ ••••••••••••• '8-incb •••••••••••••••  114-lncb•••••••••••••••  60-incb._ •••••••••••••  m::refror Ma1:lmum softwoods speed 4,500 3,600  3,000 2,570 2,250  2,000 1,800 1,635  1,500 1,385 1,285 1,200 I,125 1,060 I,000 900  820 750 1166 600  5,400 4,320 3,600 3,085 2,700 2,400 2,160 1,965 1,800  1,660 1,540 1,440 1,350 1,270 1,200  1,: 900 800 720  4  SAli'ETY CODE FOR WOODWORKING PLANTS  (b) Band saws. 1. No band-saw wheel shall be run at a speed in excess of tniat.  which will allow a factor of safety of 10 in all parts of the wheel. 2. The frame of each machine shall be marked by the manufac- . turer in letters not less than one-quarter of an inch m height showing this maximum allowable speed. . 3. Band-saw wheels shall be so designed, manufactured, and mounted that they will run true at the maximum allowable speed without excessive vibration. PART m.-WOODWORKING MACHINERY SECTION 30. CIRCULAR CROSSCUT, RIP, RESAW, AND SWING CUT-OFF SAWS ' NOTB TO SECTION ao.-It ls recognized that these standards for saw ~rds are not perfectly applicable to all operations for which saws are used. , The standards given are those upon which woodworkers have agreed as m'(;\St generally useful. . · ', Since there are a considerable number of cases not satisfactorily met by\ these standards, the enforcing authority should exercise rather wide latitude 1 in allowing the use of other devices which give promise of affording adequate ' protection. It may be expected that by so doing further progress in saw guarding will be encouraged.  Rule 300. Crosscut table saws.  Each circular crosscut saw shall be guarded by a hood which shall cover the saw at all times at least to the depth of the teeth. The hood shall adjust itself automatically to the thickness of, and shall remain in contact with, the material being cut. The hood shall also be so designed as to protect the operator from flying splinters and broken saw teeth. Rule 301. Ripsaws.  (a) Each circular ripsaw shall be guarded by a hood which shall cover the saw at all times at least to the depth of the teeth. The hood shall adjust itself automatically to the thickness of, and shall remain in contact with, the material being cut. The hood shall also be so designed as to protect the operator from flying splinters and broken saw teeth. The hood for self-feed ripsaw need not rest upon the table nor upon the material being cut. Such hoods shall be required to extend to a position not more than one-half inch above a plane passing through the bottom of the feed rolls. (b) Spreader.-Each circular ripsaw (other than self-feed saws with a roller or wheel back of saw) shall be provided with a spreader fastened securely behind the saw. The spreader shall be slightly thinner than the saw kerf and sli~htly thicker than the saw disk. (c) Kiclc-b(J,(Jlc device.-Each c1rcular ripsaw (other than self-feed saws with a roller or wheel back of saw) shall be provided with a device to prevent material from being thrown back on the operator. Rule 302. Circular resaws.  (a) Each circular resaw shall be guarded by a hood or shield ot metal above the saw. Such hood or shield shall be so designed as to guard against danger fr~m flying splinters or broken saw teeth.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Sil'ETY CODE FOR WOODWOBKING PLANTS  5  (l>) Each circular resaw (other than self-feed saws with a roller or wheel at back of saw) shall be provided with a spreader fastened securely behind the saw. The spreader shall be sliJhtly thinner than the saw kerf and slightly thicker than the saw disk. ·Rule 303. Feed rolls.  Feed rolls shall be protected by a semicylindrical guard to prevent the hands of the operator from coming in contact with the in-running rolls at any point. The guard shall be constructed of heavy material, preferably metal, adjustable to the size of the stock being cut and firmly secured to the frame of the machine. Rule 304. Swing cut-o:tr saws.  Each swing cut-off saw shall be provided with a metal hood, so arrani?ed that the part of the saw above the table ·is covered to at least \the root of the teeth. This hood shall be constructed in such a maiµier and of such material that it will afford the operator a view of the cutting edge of the saw at all times. NOTE.-The hood should adjust itself automatically to the thickness of, and remain in contact with, the material being cut. The hood shall be so designed ss to protect the operator from flying splinters and broken saw teeth.  Rule 305. Counterweights.  Each swing cut-off saw shall be provided with an effective device to return the saw automatically' to the back of the table when released at any point of its travel. Such device shall not depend for its proper functioning upon any rope, cord, or spring. If there is a count.erweight, one of the following or equivalent means shall be used to prevent its dropping: (a) It shall be bolted to the bar by means of a bolt passing through both bar and counterweight. (b) A bolt shall be put through the extreme end of the bar. ( c) Where the counterweight does not encircle the bar a safety chain shall be attached to it. Rule 308. Limit stops and latches. (a) Limit chains or other equally effective devices shall be provided to prevent the saw from swinging too far in either direction. (b) A latch may be provided to catch and retain the saw at the rear of the table.  Rule 30'1. Guarding of saws beneath and behind tables.  Where conditions are such that there is possibility of contact with the saw plate, the exhaust hood, or ~ard if no exhaust system is required, shall be so arranged and mamtained as to guard effectively that portion of the saw which is beneath and behind the saw table. SECTION 31. BAND SAWS AND. BAND RESAWS  Rule 310. Inclosing saw blades.  AU portions of the saw blade shall be inclosed or guarded except the working side of the blade below the guide rolls or gauge. Such guard shall be self-adjusting. Band-saw wheels shall be fully .incased. 16526°-25----3   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  6  S.AFETY CODE FOB. WOODWORKING PLANTS  Rule 311. Feed rolls. ·, Feed rolls shall be protected with a semicylindrical guard to l>re-  vent the hands of the operator from coming in contact with the inrunning rolls at any point. The guard shall be constructed of heavy material, preferably metal, adjustable to the size of stock being cut, and firmly secured to the frame of the machine. SECTION 32. .JOINTERS  Rule 320. Automatic guards.  To afford maximum protection, each hand-feed planer and jointer with horizontal head should have an automatic guard over the cutting head. B.ule 321. Point of operation.  (a) Each hand-feed plainer and jointer with horizontal head shall be equipped with a cylindrical cutting head, the throat of ~ioh shall not exceed seven-sixteenths (n) inch in depth nor :five-eighths ( % ) inch in width. It is strongly recommended that no cylinder he used in which the throat exceeds three-eighths (%) inch in depth 0r one-half (½) inch in width. · (b) Each wood jointer with vertical head shall have either an exhaust hood or other guard so arranged as to inclose completely the revolving head, except a slot of such width as may be necessary and convenient for the application of the material to be jointed. SECTION 33. TENONING MACHINES  Rule 330. Guarding of cutting heads.  (a) Each tenoning machine shall have all cutting heads, and saws if used, covered by a metal guard. If such guard is constructed of sheet metal, the material used shall be not less than one-eighth (¼) inch (a:pproximately No. 11 gauge) in thickness, while if cast iron is used 1t shall be not less than three-sixteenths ( -h) inch in thick• ness. (b} Where.an exhaust system is used, the hood may form pa.r1; or all of the guard and shall be constructed of metal of a thickness. not less than the above. Rule 331. Feed chains and sprockets.  .! ··:·  (a) Feed chains and sprockets of all double end tenoning ma~ chines shall be completely inclosed, except that portion of chain used for conveying the stock. (b) At rear ends of frames over which the feed conveyors run, sprockets and chains shall be gu~rded at sides hy plates projecting beyond periphery of sprockets and ends of lugs. · · ( c) Where space permits, the rear ~nd of the frame over which the feed conveyors run should be so extended" that the material as it leaves the machine will be guided to a point within easy reach of the pel'.Son " taking away " at the rear of the tenoner. , SECl'ION 34, :QORING AND MORTISING MACHINES  Rule 340. Chucks.  Safety bit chucks with no projecting set screws shall be used.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  SAFETY CODE FOB WOODWORKING PLANTS  'l  Rule 341. Counterweights. If there is a counterweight, one of the following or equivalent means shall be used to prevent its dropping: (a) It shall be bolted to the bar by means of a bolt passing through both bar and counterweight. (b) A bolt shall be put through the extreme end of the ba.r. (c} Where the counterweight does not encircle the ba.r a safety chain shall be attached to it. Nom.-Counterweights suspended by chain or rope should travel in a pipe or other suitable inclosure wherever they might fall and cause injury.  Rule 342. Universal joints. Universal joints on spindles or boring machines shall be inclosed t.o prevent injury to operator. Rule 343. Guarding operating treadles. An iron stirrup shall be fastened to the floor over the treadle, leaving only sufficient room for the operator's foot between treadle and stirrup. SECTION 35. WOOD SHAPERS, ETC.  Rule 350. Guarding of cutting heads.  The cutting head of each wood shaper, hand-feed panel raiser, or other similar ma.chine not automatically fed, shall be inclosed with a cage or adjustable guard so designed as to keep the operator's hands away from the cutting edge. In no case shall a warning device of leather or other material attached to the spindle be acceptable. C,.lindrical heads should be .used wherever the nature of the work will permit. Diameter of circular shaper guards shall be not less than the greatest diameter of the cutter. Rule 351. Spindle starting and stopping devices.  All double spindle shapers shall be provided with a spindle starting and stopping device for ea.ch spindle. SECTION 36. PLANING, MOLDING, STICKING, AND MATCHING MACHINES, ETC.  Rule 860. Guarding of cutting heads. (a) Each :planing, molding, sticking, and matching machine shall have all cuttm~ heads, and saws if used, covered by a metal guard. If such guard 1s constructed of sheet metal, the material used shall be not less than one-eighth (¾) inch (approximately No. 11 gauge) in thickness, while if east iron 1s used 1t shall be not less than threesixteenths ( h) inch in thickness. · (b} Where an exhaust system is used the hood may form part or all of the guard and shall be constructed of metal of a thickness not less than the above. Rule 861. Feed rolls. (a) Feed rolls shall be guarded by a strip or bar fastened to the frame carrying the rolls so. as to remain in adjustment for any- thickness of st~k. Where the oop roll is corrugated the guard shall be extended over the top of the rolL .   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  8  SAFETY CODE FOR WOODWORKING PLANTS  ( b) Sectional feed rolls should be provided for planers, matchers,< and molders. ~ : ( c) Where solid feed rolls are used the sectional finger device \ should be used to prevent kick backs. SECTION 37. PROFILE, SWING-HEAD, AND BACK-KNIFE LATHES  Rule 370. Guarding of cutting heads. (a) Each profile, swing-head, and back-knife lathe shall have all cutting heads, if used covered by a metal guard. If such guard is constructed of sheet metal, the material used shall be not less than . one-eighth (¼) inch (approximately No. 11 gauge) in thickness, while if ·cast iron is used it shall be not less. than three-sixteenths ( / 6 ) inch in thickness. ( b) Where an exhaust system is used the hood may form ~art «?r all of the guard and shall be constructed of metal of a thickness not less than the above. SECTION 38. SANDING MACHINES  Rule 380. Feed rolls. Feed rolls of drum-feed .sanding machines shall be protected with a semi-cylindrical guard to prevent the hands of the operator from coming in contact with the in-running rolls at any point. The guard shall be constructed of hea.vy material, preferably metal, adjustable to the size of stock being finished, and firmly secured to the frame of the machine. · Rule 381. Drum sanding machines. Each drum sanding machine shall have an exhaust hood or other guard, if no exhaust system is required, so arranged as .to inclose the revolving drum, except such portion of the drum above the table, if table is used, as may be necessary and convenient for the application of the materia.l to be finished. Rule 382. Disk sanding machines.  _Each disk sanding machine shall have the exhaust hood or other guard, if no exhaust system is required, so arranged as to inclose the revolving disk, except such portion of the disk above the table, if table is used, as may be necessary for the application ·of the material to be finished. Rule 383. Belt sanding machines. Each belt- sanding machine sh~ll h_a-ve both pull~ys 'inclosed in such a manner as to guard the pomts where the_ belt rlins on to the pulleys. The edges of the unused run of belt shall be inclosed. · NoTE.-For guarding of pulleys see Safety Code for Mechanical Power~~r'ansmission Apparatus. ·  SECTION 39. MISCELLANEOUS MACHINES  Rule 390. Other machines not excluded,  The mention of specific machines under sections -30 to 38, inclusive, is not intended to exclude other working machines from th1uiequirements that suitable guards and ~aust hoods -must be provided to reduce to a minimum the hazard due. to the point of, operation· of such machines. ·  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  SAFETY CODE FOR WOODWORKING PLANTS  9  PART IV.-VENEER MACHINERY SECTION 40. STEAMING EQUIPMENT AND SOAKING PITS  Rule 400. Steam vats and soaking pits.  (a) Sides of steam vats shall extend to a height of not less than thirty-six (36) inches above the floor, working platform, or ground. ( b) Large steam vats divided into sections shall be provided with substantial walkways between sections, each walkway to be provided with a standard handrail, removable if necessary. NOTE.-Provided the size of stock handled will permit. it is advisable to keep the size of the vat sections in eight (8) feet or less. ( c) Finger guards shall be provided for steaming vats.  ( d) In so far as possible vats shall be located in buildings or in special sheds heated in cold weather to keep the amount of steam at a.· minimum. ( e) Means shall be provided to ventilate buildings in which steam vats are located. NoTE.-High ceilings with roof ventilators or louvers are desirable. Where ceilings or roofs are low, exhaust fans should be provided. SECTION 41. LOG-HANDLING EQUIPMENT  Rule 410. Cranes, log trolleys, etc.  (a) All gears, sprockets, and other dangerous parts shall be inclosed with standard guards. ( See Safety Code for Mechanical Power-Transmission Apparatus.) NOTE.-The use of log trolleys or cranes is urgently recommended except where the stock handled is very small. SECTION 42. SAWS  Rule 420. Drag-saws.  (a) Drag-saws shall be so located as to give at least four (4) feet clearance for passage when saw is at extreme end of stroke, or if such clearance is not obtainable the saw and its driving mechanism shall be provided with a standard inclosure. SECTION 43. VENEER CUTTERS AND WRINGERS  Rule 430. Veneer slicer and rotary veneer cutters.  Revolving and other moving knives shall be guarded. Rule 431. Veneer clippers.  (a) Veneer clippers shall have automatic feed or shall be provided with a guard which will make it impossible to place a finger or fingers under the knife while feeding stock. (b) Sprockets on chain or slat belt conveyors shall be inclosed. NOTE.-lt is recommended that conveyors or traveling tables be installed to remove material from clippers.  Rule 432. Veneer wringers.  In-running side of veneer wringer shaJl be inclosed, leaving only sufficient space to insert stock but not enough to permit fingers to enter the rolls.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  10  SAFETY CODE FOR WOODWORKING PLANTS  Rule 433. Operating levers or treadles. Operating levers or treadles on all veneer machinery shall be so located or protected that they can not be shifted or tripped acci:: dentally. 1  PART V.-COOPERAGE MACHINERY SECTION 50. SAWS  Rule 500. Heading bolters. (a) Each heading bolter shall have the saw inclosed to prevent accidental contact. NOTE.-A hood fastened to the back of log carrier is recommended to C9ver that portion of the saw which can not be inclosed by a stationary housin~  (b) The log carrier shall be provided with an effective de.vice that will return the carrier automatically to a position in front of the saw. Such device shall not depend for its proper function.i~g upon any rope, cord, or s_pring:. If a counterweight 1s used, a. safety chain should be attached to 1t to prevent dropping should the bar break or the weight become disengaged. All bolts supporting the . bar, weight, and chain shall be provided with cotter pins or equally effective device. A bolt shall be put through extreme end of counterweight bar to prevent dropping of weight. · {c) A limit stop shall be provided to prevent the carrier from swinging too far back and thereby exposing to contact the unguarded position of the saw. Rule 1501. Swing cut-off saws. For rules covering this equipment see section 30, rules 304 to 307, inclusive. Rule 502. Bolt, stave, and heading equalizers. Each bolt, stave, and heading equalizer shall have the saws incased to prevent accidental contact, except that portion immediately adjacent to the feeding device. Rule 503. Barrel-stave saws (cylindrical saws). Each machine of this type shall have the saw and the revolving part to which the saw blade is bolted inclosed to prevent accidental contact, except that part of saw immediately adjacent to the feeding device. Rule 5.04. Heading saws, variable-feed ripsaws, :flat-stave saws, head rounders, etc. · (a) All machines coming under this rule shall have the saws inclosed t<>__prevent accidental contact. '(b) Where sprocket feed device is used it shall be inclosed in such a manner as to prevent the operator's fingers from getting between the feed sprocket and the stock. ( c) Counterweights used to actuate feed shall operate in a stationary casing. ·   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  SAFETY CODE FOR WOODWORKING PLANTS  11  SECTION 51. SINGLE AND DOUBLE STAVE PLANERS, SINGLE AND DOUBLE JIEADING PLANERS  Rule 510. Guarding of cutting heads. The exhaust hood or other guards, if no exhaust system is required, shall be so arranged and maintained as to guard effectively all cutting heads and knives of single and double planers. Rule 511. Point of operation. (a) Feed rolls, except such portion as may be necessary to admit stock, shall be completely inclosed. .. NoTE.-Sectional feed rolls should be provided for heading planers.  ( b) "\Vhere solid feed rolls are in use a sectional finger device ( or an equally effective safeguard) shall be used to prevent kick backs. SECTION 52. STAVE AND HEADING JOINTERS AND MATCHERS  Rule 520. Guarding.  Each stave or heading jointer ehall have an adjustable or automatic guard to cover all of the head except that portion where the stock is applied. Rnle 521. Foot-power machines.  Foot-power machines for jointin~ staves shall be equipped with a guard which prevents the operator s fingers from coming in contact with the knife. SECTION 53. STAVE CROZIERS  Rule 530. Guarding.  The cutting heads shall be incased except that part which actually embeds itself in the stock. Rule 531. Feed chains.  The feed chains and sprockets of stave croziers shall be completely inclosed. Rule 532. Counterweights.  A safety chain should be attached to counterweight to prevent dropping should the counterweight bar break or the weight become disenga~d. All bolts supporting the bar, weight, and chain shall be provided with cotter pms or other equally effective method of locking. A bolt shall be put through extreme end of counterweight rod to prevent dropping of weight. SECTION 54. BARREL SANDING MACHINES  Rule 540. Sanding belts.  Each belt sanding machine shall have both pulleys inclosed in such a manner as to guard the points where the belt runs onto the pulley. The edges_ of the unused run of the belts shall be inclosed. SECTION 55. POWER WINDLASS FOR BARRELS  Rule 850. Counterweights.  Counterweights shall operate in 'a stationary casing.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  12  SAFETY CODE FOB WOODWORKING PLANTS  Rule 551. Control levers,  Control levers shall be located within easy reach of the operaffor when standing in the usual operating position. SECTION 56. PAIL AND BARREL LATHES  Rule 560. Guards. The requirements of section 37 for back-knife and profile lathes, in so far as they are applicable, shall govern the gu'arding of pail and barrel lathes. SECTION 57. MISCELLANEOUS COOPERAGE MACHINERY  Rule 570. Other machines not excluded. The mention of specific machines under sections 50 to 55, inclusive, is not intended to exclude other working machines from the requirements that safeguards be provided to reduce to a minimum the hazard due to the point of operation of such machines.  PART VL-OPERATING RULES SECTION 60.-INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE  Rule 600. Inspection. . All woodworking machinery should be inspected at intervals not exceeding 60 days. Rule 601. :Maintenance. (a) Dull, badly set, improperly filed, and gummed saws are responsible for a large proportion of circular and band saw accidents. · Great care should be taken by those responsible for the condition of such saws to make sure that they are properly filed, set2 etc.; also that they are removed as soon as they show indication ot becoming dull. (b) .All knives and cutting heads. of woodworking machines should be kept. sharp, properly adjusted, and firmly secured. ( c) Bearings should be kept free from lost motion and well lubricated. · d) Arbors of all circular saws should be free from play. e) Guards should be installed wherever possible and their use en orced. If special operations require the removal of the guard, it should be immediately replaced upon the completion of the work which required its removal. No employee should be permitted to remove a guard or to operate the machine without the guard except with the consent of the foreman.  l  SE~lON 61. SELECTION ANI) OPERATION OF MACHINES  Rule 610. Selection of suitable machines. Machines should not be used for operations of such variety as to necessitate the removal of safeguards suitable for the usual service. The specific operations involving special hazards should be assigned to machines suitable for such work.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  SAFETY CODE FOR WOODWORKING PLANTS  18  R~e 811. Circular rip and cut-o1f saws. ' (a) No foreman or other J?erson in charge should permit a cir-  cular ripsaw to be operated with hood, spreader, or kick-back device removed? or rendered inoperative, unless the nature of the operation renders it imJ?ossible of performance· with such devices, or any of them, in position, in which case same shall be immediately replaced upon completion of such operation. (b) All cracked saws should be removed from service. Rule 812. Band saws and band resaws.  (a) Before starting a band saw the blade should be tested with fin~ers and proper tension secured. ( b) The back thrust should be adjusted carefully to the normal position of the saw blade. ( c) To secure satisfactory operation, means should be provided for preventing the accumulation of dust on the face of band wheels. (d) Using a small saw for large work or forcing a wide saw to cut on a small radius is bad practice. The saw blade should in all cases be as large as the nature of the work will permit. (e) Saws should not be stopped too quickly nor by thrusting a piece of wood against the cutting edge of teeth when :r_>ower is off. (f) Twists or kinks should be promptly removed with a hammer. (g) To av,oid vibration, brazed joints should not be thicker than the saw blade. (h) Each saw should be carefully examined as it is put on or taken off the band wheel to detect cracks or other defects. Cracked saws or saws which indicate probability of breakage should be promptly removed to avoid injury both to saw and to operator. Rule 613. Lathes.  Particular care should be taken to have all material fastened securely to faceplates or held properly between centers. SECTION 62. VENEER MACHINES AND EQUIPMENT  Rule 620. Steam vats.  (a) Covers should be removed only from that portion of steaming vats on which men are working. A portable railing should be placed at this point to protect the operators. (b) Workmen should be forbidden to ride or step on logs in steam vats. (c) All cranes, log trolleys, and other hoisting equipment used in the veneer industry should be tested and inspected frequently. (d) When· attaching dogs to log care should be taken not to place hand or fingers where they might be caught between log and·d~. ( e) Particular attention should be given to inspection and mamtenance of veneer saws. (f) Care should· be taken to see that all material is securely fastened to the saw table. · (g) Whenever veneer slicers or rotary veneer cutters have been shut down for the purpose of inserting log or to make adjustments operators should make sure that macliine is clear and other workmen are not in a hazardous position before starting the machine. · ( h).' Operators ·should be forbidden to ride the carriage of a ·yeneer slicer.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  14  SAFETY CODE FOR WOODWORKING PLANTS  SECTION 63. CLOTHING AND GOGGLES WORN BY OPERATORS  Rule 630. Clothing. (a) Gloves should not be worn while operating machines. ( b) Loose flowing garments, sleeves, neckties, etc., offer. a decided accident hazard and should not be worn by operators of machines. Rule 631. Goggles. Where danger from dust, flying chips, etc., exist, proper eye protection should be provided. (See National Safety Code for the Protection of the Heads and Eyes of Industrial Workers.)  PART VII.-EXPLANATORY MATTER SECTION 70  Rule 700; Location of machinery. By locating heavy-duty machinery on the ground floor, most of the vibration due to high operating speed can be eliminated. Rule 701. :Machine foundations. Undue vibration and noise caused by high-speed machinery may be eliminated to a large extent by cushioning the machine foundation. This can be done by inserting rubber, felt, cork, or other elastic material between the machine base and the floor beams or girders to which the machine is fastened. It must be borne in mind, however, that the bolts that hold the machine to the foundation must not pass through or touch the girders or floor beams of building. The cushioning material must be fastened to the floor beams or girders by bolts that are independent of the machine base. Rule 702. Motor drive. The initial expense of individual motor drive is frequently higher than that of other power~transmission equipment such as line shafting, etc., but has a great many advantages. It offers a better control of the individual machine. It also eliminates overhead shafting and belting, thereby improving lighting and general appearance of shop. Then, too, it eliminates injuries due to oiling and maintenance of overhead transmission equipment. Rule 703. Lighting. Proper lighting is of vital importance. It is a widespread belief among men experienced in accident prevention work that 25 per cent of all avoidable accidents in the country are due to improper lighting. Too much is often as bad as insufficient illumination. The Lighting Code gives values of intensities. It is also important that proper attention is given to the maintenance of all lighting equipment, i. e., cleaning and adjustment of reflectors. Dust accumulated on the lamp bulbs quickly cuts down the intensity of the light. Makeshift reflectors or those whose adjustment has been impaired have a tendency to spoil the efficiency of any carefully worked out lighting system. · Rule 704. Selection of suitable machines. Under rule 610 of this code the statement is made that machines should not be used for operations of such variety as to necessitate the  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  SAFETY CODE FOR WOODWORKING PLANTS  15  removal of safeguards suitable for the usual service. It is well to plan or route the work in such a way as to avoid too frequent adjustment of machines and altering of position of guards. The proper 1.·egard for this rule will increase production by reducing the time lost due to making adjustments, and will also reduce accidents by insuring continued use of safeguards suitable to the work. Rule 705. Saw speeds.  The speeds for circular saws shown in Part II, under section 20, rule 202, were obtained by dividing 36,000 by the diameter of the saw e~ressed in inches. The figure obtained in this manner gives the recommenqed speed for softwoods. The maximum speed is 20 per cent higher than the recommended speed. Speeds of saws not given in this table may be obtained in this manner. If the maximum speed only is required, it can be obtained by dividing 43,200 by the diameter of the saw. The recommended speeds are based on a peripheral velocity of 9,325 feet per minute, which is approximately correct for softwoods, but may be reduced as much as 20 to 25 per cent for hardwoods. The most effective speed for any particular saw also depends, to some extent, upon the weight of the frame and the size of the bearings upon which it is mounted. Construction of inadequate weight and rigidity may necessitate operation at speed lower than that recommended in the table of rule 202 for satisfactory operation. Rule 706. Care of machines and tools. Dull and improperly set tools are the direct cause of many accidents which are attributed to carelessness of operator or lack of proper guards. Rule 707. Cracked saws. The practice of drilling the end of a crack in a saw to prevent further cracking should not be permitted, as the use of such a saw is extremely dangerous. Cracked saws should not be used. Rule 708. Wabble saws.  In some plants it is customary to rig up a circular saw by inserting wedges between the saw disk and the collar to form what is commonly known as a wabble saw. This saw is used for the work ordinarily performed by a dado saw. This practice is dangerous and should not be permitted. ..   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  INDEX SeoPart tion Accidents, prevention of. ••••• Adjustments:  i:~iiers.iii-..rotarycntters.·······---···· ··Advisory requirements_······Aisles, width of..···-········· Application of code---········· Arbors, circular saws_·-······· Automatic feeding devices••••• Automatic =ds, jolnters •••• Back-knife athes•••.•••••••••• Band saws ••••••••••• ---·····Accidents, prevention of. _ Care of, discusslon of rules_ Speed, rules concernlng_. _ Band resawa..•........... ~.-Care of, <lisoussionofrules_ Barrel lathes •••••••••••••• ·--Barrel sanding machines ••• _._ Barrel-stavesaws (eyllndrical)_ Bearings,, maintenance of••••• _. Belt, sandlng machines•••••••• Belts, sanding••••••••••••••••• Bolt equalizers •• Boring machines •••••••••••••• Brazed joints, thickness of__ •• _  c~~~~~~.~o:.t~~. Circular saws••••••...... ·-··-  Accldepts, prevention oL.  Arbors •••••••••••••••••.. _  ir:•  6  60  601 (a)  7  70  704  6  62 2 11  620 (d) 20 112 11 601 (d) 201  ··-r ··-r 2 3 3 3 6 6 2 3 6 5 5 5  l 60 20 32 37 31 60 61 20 31 61 56 54 50  320  ·ooicii5  612 202 (b)  .....6i2  -------.... ·ooa  6  60  3 5 5 3 6  38  54 50  600 (c) 383 540 502  61  ..6i2{g)  3 3  34  340  6 6  60  2 3  20 30  ·oooiii ~f~  34  30 60  table·-············ 300 C osscut saws___ ·····Clrcular resaws: 3 30 Guards for.······-········ 30 ~~~ c1r!Y~J~ws:·············· 3 C1'8C'ked saws ••••••••••••• 6 111 6llm Gtlllrds for •••••••••••••••• 3 a 30 301 Operation of •••••••••••••• 6 61 6ll a 431 43 Clip~, veneer____ ••••••••••• 4 Clot ing, operators': 63 630 Gloves ••·-···-············ 6 Loose garments ••••••••••• 6 63 630(b Codes, references to •••••: ••••• 1 13 Control leTers-•••••••••••••••. -·T . 65 551 Cooperage machinery ••••••••• Ii Counterweights, rates concernIng: Boring and mortising machines••••••••••••••••••• 3 34 341 Heading saws, etc.... ••••••• 6 liO 6M (c) Power windlass for barrels. Ii 56 550 5 /i.1 532 Stave croziers_-········-·Swing cut-off saws •••••••• 3 30 305 Cracked saws: Drilling and use of•••••••• 7 707 70 Removal of••••••••••••••• 611 ~b~ 6 61 { 612 II Cranes: Log•handllng equipment •• 4 41 410 6 62 620 (c) Veneer Industry··-------·· Cross-euttablesaws,guards for. 30 300 3 Croziers, stave •••••••••••••••• 6 53 Cut-off saws •••••••••••••••••• 6 61 611 Cutting heads, gnardlng of: Back•knlfe, firofile and swing•head athes ••••••• 3 37 370 Molding, planing ma• chines, etc •••••••••••••• 3 36 360 Single and double planeni. 5 61 610 Stan croziers ••••••••••••• 6 63 630 Tenoning machines ••••••• 3 33 330 Dad088WS ••••..••••••••••••• 7 70B 70  (a{  ------ --------  16   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  SeoPart tton  Rule  -----  DeftnitlonA ••••••••••••••••• Devices: Automatic feeding •••••••• 2 3 Kick-back •• -·--·········3 Sectional finger_·······-·; { 5 5 Sprocket teed---------·-·Starting and stopping_ •••• 2 Spindle •••·••• ----····· 3 Disk sanding machlnes-••••••• 3 Drag-ilaws ••••••••••••• -·····- 4 Drnm sanding macblnes. _____ 3 Emergenc7c;sto~. (&,Safety Code or echanlcal Power-Transmlsslon Apparatus,) Equalizers, bolt, head and stave•••••••••••••••••••••••• 6 Equipment ••••••••••••••••• -2 4 Log•handllng •••• ••••••• -· Steaming, veneer machlnery ••.•••••••••••••• 4 Veneer machines •••••••••• 6 Exceptions to rules•••••••••••• ............ E:xhaust=m: Back• e, profile, and swing•head machines••• 3 Moldfng, planing ma• chlnea, etc •••••••••••••• 3 Tenoning machines ••••••• 3 Explanatory matter••••••••••• 7 Feed chains, guards for: Stave croziers ••••••••••••• Ii Tenoning machines- •••••• 3 Feed rolls, rules concerning: Band saws and band r&saws .................... 3 Circular and other saws.••• 3 Dmm sanding machines •• 3 Molding, planing machines, etc....•••••••••••• 3 Single and double planers. 5 Flat-stave saws ••••••••••••••• 6 Floors: RepairoL1 Nonslip-•••••••••••••••••• 1 Foot-power machines ••••••••• 6 4 Gears,(=ofrarety·Codefor· Mechanfcal Power-Transmission Apparatus.) Goggl~ye protection_ •••••• 6 ( alao National Safety Code for the Protection of the Heads and Eyes of Industrial Workers.) Guarding of: Cutting headsBack•knlfe, profile and swlng•head lathes ••••••••••••••• 3 Planllli machines, etc. 3 Single and double planers_ •••••••••••• 6 Stave croziers ••••••••• 6 Tenoning machines ••• 3 Wood shapers_ •••••••• 3 Saws beneath and behind tables ••••••••••••••••••• 3 Stave or heading Jolnters •• 6 Guards: Antomatlc •••••••••••••••• 3 Barrel and pail lathes ••••• 6 Installation and removal 6  of-···--·······--·---·  ,RuLI  2 ··-----201 20 30 36 361 C 30 b 51 511  50 20  35 38 42 38  50  TI  504 b  200  d) 351 , 382 '· 420 \381  502  -··ff -------40  62 l  ······ii  37  370 (b)  36 33  =m  53  33  531 331  31 30  3ll  38  303 380  36 51  361 5ll 6M  ------ -----·--  60 11 11  62  no  111  621  {l  410 (a)  .03  631  37 36  370 360 (a)  61 53  610  33 36  630 330 360  62  30  307 620  32  116  320 660  GO  C!Ol(e)  17  INDEX SecPart tion  I  SecPart tion  Rule  R-and-feed panel raiser ________ Ji'l:and-feed planer: ' E=ment _______________ G for _________________  3  35  350  Head rounders ________________  3 3  321 (a) 320  5 5  32 32 50  Heading halters -- _____________ Heading ~ualizers ____________ Heading Jomters ______________ Heading planers, single and double ____________ --- --- -- -Heading saws _________________ Inspection: Cranes, log trolleys, etc., veneer machines ________ Veneer saws_______________  Woodworking machinery_ Instnllations, new and old ____ 1olnt.s: Brazed, thickness of_______ 'U nlnrsal, boring ma1oin'tie:!~~~::::::::::::::::::: ?Equipment _______ ------- -  i 0 °iJ~ontal head _______  Vertical head _________ Heading and stave ________ Kick-back device ______________ Latches, circular saws _________ Lathes: Be.ck-knife, profile and swing head ______________ Barrel and pail ____________ Layout of machines ___________ Levers, operating. ____________ Ligbtic8u-a1a,ii.."igiit1ngC0<1eS Limg;~fa'; and other saws___ Log carrier ________ • _______ Location or machinery _______ Log carrier, equipment ________ Log trolleys ___________________ Log-handling equipment ______ Machine drive ________________ Machine foundations __________ Machine layout _______________ Machines _____________________ Care of____________________ Selection and operation of. Machinery ____________________ Cooperage_________________ Location of________________ Veneer ___________ ------ -- Maintenance of tools __________ Veneer saws_______________ Mandatory requirements ______ Matchers______________________ Matching machines ___________ Maximum speeds: How calculated ___________ Table, circular saws. ______ Molding machines ____________ Mortising machines ___________ Motor drive, advantages of.. __ Miscellaneous machines: Cooperage ________________ Woodworking machinery_ Operating rules __________ - --__ Operating treadles: Boring mortising machinesand ___________________ Veneer machinery_________ Operation of machines_________ Operator's clothing____________ Pall lathes __ -----------------Planers, single and double _____ Planing machines _____________ Plant la}'l)ut __________________ Point of operation: De11ned ___________________ 1olnters ___________________ Single and double planers__ Power control, provision for ____ Power windlass for barrels _____   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  50  504  500 502  5 5  50 52  5 5  51 50  --------------501  6 6 6  62 62 60 1  620 (c) 620 (e) 600 12  6  61  612 (g)  3 3 3  34 32 32  -a:ii<iii  3 3 5 3 3  32 32 52 30 30  ·-aoicci 306 (b)  3 5 1 4 7  37 56  ---------------  3 5 7  5 4 4 2 7 1 2  7 6 1 5 7 4 6 6  ----5 3 7 2 3 3 7 5 3 6 3 4 6 6 5 5 3 1  10 43  70  2 Ii  320 321 (b)  100 433 703  30  306 (a) 500 (c) 700 500 {b) 410  41 20 70  -----200  50 70 50 41  10  701 100  ------------70 706 61 -------10 -------------------70 700  ---iiii- -------601 62  2 52 36 70 20 36  620 (f) 20  ---------------  705 202 (a)  70  --------------702  57 39  570 300  34  343 433  34  ------ -------43 61  63  -------630  --------------------------- -------56 51 36  2 3 5  342  32 51 20 lili  21 321 511 200 (c)  .................  Profile lathes __________________ 3 Pulleys: 3 Sandlngmachlne.~--------Belt_________ ---------5 ( See al&o Safety Code for M echanlcal Power-Transmission Apparatus.) Push block, defined ___________ ----Push stick, defined ____________ Recommended speeds: How calculated ___________ • 7 Table, circular saws _______ 2 References to other codes ______ Resaws: 3 Band ______________________ -----------------Circular 3  Rule  ---  i  37  --------  38  383  54  540  2 2  23  70 20 1  705 202 (a) 13  31 30  --------302  22  Ripsaws· Circular and self-feed ______ 3 30 301 (a) Variable-feed______________ 5 50 504 Rotary veneer cutters ________ 4 43 430 Rules for operation ____________ 6 Safeguards, adjustment and removal of __________________ 7 70 704 Sanding belts _________________ 5 54 540 Sanding machines _____________ 3 38 Barrel _____________________ 5 54 Belt_______________________ 3 38 -----383 Disk ______________________ 3 38 382 Dmm _____________________ 381 Saws __________________________ 4, 35 42, 38 50 Band _____________________ 3 31 -----500 Barrel-stave _______________ 5 50 Circular___________________ 3 30 -------Dado .• ______ -- ---------- - 7 70 708 Flat-stave _______________ ._ 5 50 504 Head rounders ____________ 5 50 504 Heading __________________ 5 50 504 Rip, variable-feed _________ 5 50 504 30 304,305 Swing cut-off______________ { 3 5 50 501 Wabble ___________________ 7 70 708 Saw blades, guMds for ________ 313 310 Saw speeds ____________________ 7 70 705 Scope of code __________________ 1 10 Sectional feed rolls ____________ 3 36 361 (b) Selection of machines __________ 6 61 610 Self-feed ripsaw _______________ 3 30 301 (a) Slicer, veneer ____ ------------4 43 430 Soaking pits __________________ 4 40 400 Solid feed rolls .. _____________ . 3 36 361 (c) Speeds: Band saws ________________ 2 20 202 (b) Circular saws _____________ 2 20 202 (a) How calculated. __________ 7 70 705 Spreader ______________________ 3 30 { 301 (b)  ------ ----------------------  Sprockets: Guards for ________________ ( Su also Safety Code for Mechanical Power-Transmission A:i,paratus.) Stave croziers _____________ TenonInf; machines _______ Veneer c ippers ___________ Sprocket feed device __________ Starting and stopping devices: General rules. (See Safety Code for Mechanical Power-Transmission Apparatus.) Spindle ___________________ Stave croziers_---------------Stave equalizers _______________ Stave jomters _________________ Stave planers, single and double.----------"- _________ Steam vats: Equipment _______________ Operating rules ___________ Sticking machines. ____________ Swing cut-off saws, equipment ________________________ Swing-head lathes _____________ Tenoning machines ___________ Tools, maintenance of.._: _____  302 (b)  4  41  410 (a)  5 3 4 5  53 a3 43 50  531 331 431 504 b)  3  35 53 50  -----002  5 6 5  52  5  51  4  40 62 36  6 3  3 30 37 3 33 3 6, 7 60, 70  t)  351  --------------400 620  -------304--307 --------  -ooi:100  18  INDEX SeoPart tion  Treadles, operating: Boring and mortising ma-  chines.. •••••••••••••••• __  Veneer machinery------- -Universal joints, boring machines••·-··-············-·-Variable-feed ripsaws ••••••• -Veneer cllppers-·····-·····-·Veneer cutters, rotery.·----·-Veneer machines, equipment._ Veneer machinery•• ,.-··---··Veneer Bt\WS. Inspection t\lld malntent\llce ••••••••• _______   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  3 4  34  3  34  6  4 4 6 4  6  43  ro  43 43  SecPart tion  Rule  342 604 431 430  Veneer slicers: Adjustments•••••••••••••• Carriages of•••••• _•••• _. __ Guards for.·-····-······-· Veneer Vibration, tion of... ___ Wabhle llt\WB••••. --·-·-·-----Wood jolntera, vertical head __ Woodworking machinery._ ...  620 (e)  Wood shapers._. _______ --·-·-. Wringers, veneer______________  343 433  ------ -·-·----------62  62  0  wn:H:Tua-···-·-··-·-  ==°.!:i:·a,ioois::::::  6 6 4 4 7 7 3 3 6 6 3 4  R~  ~  62 62 43 43  620~ 620 )  70 70  700,701 708 321 (b)  32  430 432  ------------60 600 60 601 (b) 35 ---·---43 432