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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
JAMES J. DAVIS, Secretary

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
ETHELBERT STEWART, Com m issioner

BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES!
*T
BUREAU OF LABOR S T A T I S T I C S /.................... llO.
SAFETY

CODE

JQ A

SERIES

SAFETY CODE
FOR POWER PRESSES AND
FOOT AND HAND PRESSES
NATIONAL SAFETY COUNCIL, SPONSOR




AMERICAN STANDARD
Approved November 11, 1926
American Engineering Standards C om m ittee

¥

DECEMBER, 1926

WASHINGTON
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
1926




ADDITIONAL COPIES
OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE PROCURED FROM
THE SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON, D. C.
AT

20 CENTS PER COPY

CONTENTS
Introduction--------------------------------------------------------------------------------Section 1. Scope and purpose-------------------------------------------------------Section 2. Definitions------ -----------------------------------------------------------Section 3. References to other codes---------------------------------------------Section 10. General hazards----------------------------------------------------------Rule 100. Press foundation------------------------------------------------------Rule 101. Working space and aisles------------------------------------------Rule 102. Lighting-----------------------------------------------------------------Rule 103. Means of disconnecting power-------------------------------------Rule 104. Bolt, pulley, gear, and shaft guards------------------------------Rule 105. Switches and other electrical apparatus-----------------------Rule 106. Feeding mechanisms_________________________________
Rule 107. Protection against flying particles-------------------------------Section 11. Safeguarding press hazards at point of operation___________
Rule 110. Safeguarding classification___________________________
Rule 111. Inclosure of ram____________________________________
Rule 112. Limitation of ram stroke--------------------------------------------Rule 113. Gate guards, two-hand tripping devices, sweep guards___
Rule 114. Special hand tools___________________________________
Section 12. Other press guards_____________________________________
Rule 120. Treadle guard______________________________________
Rule 121. Latch on hand lever_________________________________
Rule 122. Interlocking control_________________________________
Section 13. Making and setting dies________________________________
Rule 130. Design and construction_____________________________
Section 14. Operating rules_______________________________________
Rule 140. Inspect5 and maintenance__________________________
on
Rule 141. Die setting_____ ____________________________________
Rule 142. Instruction of operators_____________________________
Rule 143. Rules for operators_________________________________

Page
1,2
2, 3
3
4
4, 5
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
5
6, 7
6
6
6
6, 7
7
7
7
7
7
8
8
8,9
8
8
8
8,9

APPENDIX
(The appendix is not a part of the Power Press Code. It is merely a dis­
cussion of the code, including illustrated descriptions of press hazards and
methods used to overcome them.)
A. Power-press hazards:
Page
Paragraph 200. Classification by causes_______________________ 11,12
12
Paragraph 201. Normal operation____________________________
Paragraph 202. Accidental tripping----------------------------------------12
Paragraph 203. Defects of machines__________________________
12
Paragraph 204. Die setting_____________________ _____________
12
Paragraph 205. Falling objects______________________________
12
Paragraph 206. Miscellaneous_______________________________ 12,13
B. Safeguarding press hazards at point of operation:
Paragraph 207. Safeguarding classification____________________
13
Paragraph 208. Automatic or semiautomatic feed preferable to
manual feed--------------------------------------------------------------------13
Paragraph 209. Long and short runs--------------------------------------- 13, 14
Paragraph 210. Not an afterthought__________________________
14
Paragraph 211. Suggestions for die designers, makers, and setters— 14,15




hi

IV

CONTENTS

W© *1 H 0

C. Automatic and semiautomatic feeds:
Page
Paragraph 212. Advantages--------------------------------------------------15
Paragraph 213. Automatic roll feeds__________________________
15
Paragraph 214. Automatic push or pull feed__________________
15
Paragraph 215. Automatic plunger feed----------------------------------- 15,16
Paragraph 216. Chute feed__________________________________
16
Paragraph 217. Sliding feed_________________________________
16
Paragraph 218. Sliding dies_________________________________
16
Paragraph 219. Dial feeds__________________________________
16
Paragraph 220. Revolving dies---------------------------------------------16
Paragraph 221. Safety finger spring--------------------------------------16
Ram inclosures (pars. 222-225)________________________________ 16,17
Limitation of ram stroke (par. 226)-------------------------------------------17
Gate guards (pars. 227-229)___________________________________
17
Two-hand tripping devices (pars. 230-234)_______________________ 17,18
Sweep guards (pars. 235-237)__________________________________
18
I. Hand tools (par. 238)_________________________________________
19
J. Nonrepeat and treadle disconnecting attachments:
Paragraph 239. Purpose and function_________________________
19
Paragraph 240. Where needed_______________________________
19
Paragraph 241. Releasing brake_____________________________
19
Paragraph 242. Maintaining tension in brake band____________
19
20
Paragraph 243. Ratchet to prevent dropping back_____________
K. Methods of removing material:
Paragraph 244. General-------------------------------------------------------20
Paragraph 245. Strippers___________________________________
20
Paragraph 246. Knockouts__________________________________
20
Paragraph 247. Knockout bolt guards-------------------------------------20
Paragraph 248. Reversing dies______________________________
20
L. Qualifications of operators (par. 249)__________________________
20
M. Press installations (par. 250)---------------------------------------------------20




BULLETIN OF THE

U. S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
WASHINGTON

NO. 430

DECEMBER, 1926

SAFETY CODE FOR POWER PRESSES AND FOOT AND HAND PRESSES
INTRODUCTION
This Code was formulated and revised according to the procedure
of the American Engineering Standards Committee, under the spon­
sorship of the National Safety Council, by the following committee:
Name and title

Affiliation

Representing

Chairman, C. B. Auel, manager em­ Westinghouse Electric & Manu­ National Safety Council,
facturing Co., Pittsburgh, Pa.
metals section.
ployees service department.
A. L. Kaems, safety engineer................... . The Simmons Co., Kenosha, Wis. National Safety Council,
automotive section.
Secretary, W. Dean Keefer, director in­ National Safety Council, 108 East National Safety Council
dustrial safety division.
Ohio Street, Chicago.
Chas. R. Gabriel-..................................... E. W. Bliss Co., Brooklyn, N. Y... National Machine Tool
Builders’ Assocation.
H. S. Putnam, manager safety division..
American Can Co., 120 BroadDo.
Broadway, New York.
C. B. Bartlett, production engineer___
Geuder, Paesehke & Frey Co., Sheet Metal Ware Asso­
Milwaukee, Wis.
ciation.
Warren S. Smith, secretary (alternate).
Sheet Metal Ware Association,
Do.
342 Madison Avenue, New
York.
Herman Schwab-..................................... . Aluminum Goods Manufacturing
Co., Manitowoc, Wis.
William H. Doolittle, superintendent National Metals Trade Associa­
tion, Peoples Gas Building,
department of classification and safety.
Chicago.
E. E. Barney--.......................................... Remington Typewriter Co., 374 American Society of
Broadway, New York.
Mechanical Engineers.
Chars. N. Underwood................................ Industrial Engineer, 5008 Penn
Do.
Street, Frankfort, Pa.
Cornelius VanHom, inspecting engineer.. Travelers Insurance Co., 30 East American Society of
42d Street, New York.
Safety Engineers.
C. A. Briggs, safety engineer.................... . 2830 Robinwood Avenue, Toledo, Society of Ohio Safety
Engineers.
Ohio.
W. S. Paine, research engineer. ................ Aetna Life Insurance Co., Hart­ National Bureau of Cas­
ford, Conn.
ualty and Surety Un­
derwriters.
W. J. Graves, safety engineer-.
Michigan Mutual Liability Co., National Association of
Mutual Casualty Com­
Detroit, Mich.
panies.
C. R. Ailing, vice-president.................
Underwriters’ Laboratories, 207 Underwriters’ Labora­
East Ohio Street, Chicago.
tories.
J. A. Dickinson, mechanical engineer _
Bureau of Standards, Washington, Bureau of Standards.
D. C.
J. F. Dalton. .......................................
International Association of Ma­ U. S. Department of
chinists, Broadway and 11th
Labor.
Street, New York.
John P. Meade, director division of in­ Department of Labor and In­ Department of Labor
dustrial safety.
dustry, Boston, Mass.
and Industry of Mas­
sachusetts.
R. H. Leveridge, chief bureau of electrical New Jersey Department of Labor, New Jersey Department
Trenton, N. J.
and mechanical equipment.
of Labor.
J. M. Sandel, director bureau of industrial Department of Labor and Indus­ Pennsylvania Depart­
standards.
try, Harrisburg, Pa.
ment of Labor and
Industry.
R. McA. Keown, engineer. ...................... Industrial Commission of Wis­ Industrial Commission
consin, Madison, Wis.
of Wisconsin.




1

2

SAFETY CODE FOR PRESSES

1. The use of power presses and foot and hand presses for stamp­
ing and forming pieces of metal and other material has grown so
rapidly, and the loss of hands or fingers on these presses as commonly
operated is so frequent, that this hazard has become one of the most
serious mechanical problems in accident prevention. Different fac­
tors that make the problem difficult are the wide variety of operations
and operating conditions—variations as to size, speed, and type of
the press; size, thickness, and kind of pieces to be worked; construc­
tion of dies; required accuracy of the finished work; skill of opera­
tors ; length of the run, etc. Under these varying conditions a wide
variety of guards and feeding methods has been devised.
2. This Code is one of a number of safety codes on various subjects
which have been or are being formulated under the general auspices
of the American Engineering Standards Committee. One purpose
of the Code is to serve as a guide to State authorities. The Code
itself is printed on pages 2 to 9, inclusive, of this publication, and
it includes such requirements as may properly be enforced by a State
industrial commission or labor department. These requirements are
necessarily brief and general because of the varying conditions men­
tioned above. It, therefore, has seemed advisable to include an ap­
pendix on pages 11 to 20 presenting additional information that is
not a part of the Code but which contains illustrated descriptions and
discussions of press hazards and of the methods that have been used
to overcome them. The photographs will be loaned on request to
State or other authorities desiring to reproduce this Code.
3. When adopted for State use, the references to other national
codes in section 3 should be changed so as to refer to the correspond­
ing regulations of the State itself.
4. The Code is also intended for use directly by concerns operating
presses. When so used the distinction between “ m andatory” and
“ advisory ” items (see par. 20, sec. 2) largely disappears. The entire
Code may be adopted by any manufacturing concern as a standard
to be followed by its superintendents, foreman, designers, mechanics,
and operators.
5. While very different problems are encountered in large and
small shops, and on large and small presses, a definite line can not
be drawn between them and therefore they are not treated sepa­
rately in this Code. For most of the sections of the Code illustra­
tions will be found in the appendix showing the application of the
various safeguarding methods to both large and small presses and
to short as well as long runs.
6. I t is realized that there are many hazards in shops where presses
are used and that not all of these hazards are related to press op­
eration. These nonpress hazards are important but they can not
logically be covered in this Code. They are or will be dealt with in
other codes.
SECTION 1. SCOPE AND PURPOSE
Rule 10. Scope.
These requirements apply to all power presses, foot presses, and
hand presses, by which are meant machines fitted with rams (plung­
ers) and dies for the purpose of blanking, trimming, drawing, punch­



SAFETY CODE FOR PRESSES

3

ing, or stamping material, also including plate shears and plate
punches but not including bulldozers, hot-metal presses, hammers,
bending presses or brakes, power screw or fitting presses, air presses,
and hydraulic presses, which are either covered by other codes or
require special treatment.
Rule 11. Interpretations and exceptions.
The purpose of this Code is to provide reasonable safety for life,
limb, and health. In cases of practical difficulty or unnecessary
hardship, the enforcing officers or body may grant exceptions from
the literal requirements of this Code or permit the use of other
devices or methods, but only when it is clearly evident that equiva­
lent protection is thereby secured.
N o t e .—To secure the uniform application of this Code enforcing officers are
urged, before rendering decisions on disputed points, to consult the committee
which formulated it—the Committee on Safety Code for Presses, in care of
American Engineering Standards Committee, 29 West Thirty-ninth Street,
New York, or National Safety Council, 108 East Ohio Street, Chicago.

SECTION 2. DEFINITIONS
Rule 20.
The word “ shall ” is to be understood as mandatory and the word
“ should ” as advisory.
Rule 21.
The word “ approved” means approved by the authority having
jurisdiction.
Rule 22.
The word “ ra m ” means the moving part of the press which is
sometimes called plunger, slide, gate, or mandrel.
Rule 23.
The word “ knockout ” covers any mechanical device for removing
material, sometimes called kickout or ejector.
Rule 24.
“ Manual feeding ” is placing material under the ram by hand or
by hand tools.
Rule 25.
“ Semiautomatic feeding ” is placing material under the ram by
some mechanical device, which device requires the attention of an
operator at each stroke of the ram.
Rule 26.
“Automatic feeding” is placing material under the ram by a
mechanically actuated device that does not require the attention of an
operator at each stroke of the ram.
Rule 27.
A “ gate guard ” is one that completely incloses the point of opera­
tion before the operating clutch can become engaged.
Rule 28.
A “ sweep guard ” is one th at moves across the point of operation
after the operating clutch has become engaged.




4

SAFETY CODE FOR PRESSES

SECTION 3. REFERENCES TO OTHER CODES
Rule 30.
This Code is supplemented by the following codes:
Safety Code for Mechanical Power Transmission Apparatus.
N o t e .—Copies may be obtained from the American Society of Mechanical
Engineers, 29 West Thirty-ninth Street, New York City.

National Electrical Safety Code.
N o t e .—Copies may be obtained from Superintendent of Documents, Govern­
ment Printing Office, Washington, D. C.

National Electrical (Fire) Code.
N o te .—Copies

may be obtained from National Board of Fire Underwriters,
76 William Street, New York City.

Safety Code for Walkway Surfaces.
N o t e .—This code is now in preparation, but tentative draft may be obtained
from the American Engineering Standards Committee, 29 West Thirty-ninth
Street, New York City.

Code of Lighting Factories, Mills, and Other Work Places.
N o t e .—Copies

may be obtained from Superintendent of Documents, Govern­
ment Printing Office, Washington, D. C.

Safety Code for the Protection of the Heads and Eyes of Indus­
trial Workers.
N o t e .—Copies may be obtained from Superintendent of Documents, Govern­
ment Printing Office, Washington, D. C.

SECTION 10. GENERAL HAZARDS
Rule 100. Press foundation.
Every press shall be placed on a substantial foundation, floor,
or other support, and shall be securely fastened or anchored in place.
Rule 101. Working space and aisles.
Presses shall be so located as to give (a) enough clearance between
machines so that the movement of one operator will not interfere
with the work of another; (&) ample room for cleaning machines
and handling the work, including material and scrap; (c) aisles of
sufficient width to permit the free movement of employees bringing
and removing material. Surrounding floors and flooring shall be
kept in good condition, free from obstructions and grease.
Rule 102. Lighting.
Presses should be so located, with respect to sources of both nat­
ural and artificial light, that light of sufficient intensity will fall
on the w ork; direct or reflected glare and shadows, including mov­
ing shadows, should be avoided.
N o t e .—For specific requirements see Code of Lighting Factories, Mills, and
Other Work Places.




SAFETY CODE FOR PRESSES

5

Buie 103. Means of disconnecting power.
Every power press shall be provided with means for disconnecting
all power from the press and from the pulley on press. Acceptable
methods are:
(a) Individual motor drive; if the switch or starter is so con­
structed and located that the motor may be accidentally started,
provisions shall be made to permit locking or latching in on position.
(b) Tight and loose pulleys on countershaft, with belt shifter
which can be locked or latched in off position.
(c) Belt perch or idler pulleys to facilitate throwing belts off and
on the drive pulley.
(d) Clutch on drive pulley, with clutch handle that can be locked
or latched in off position.
Large presses should, if possible (as, for example, friction-clutch
presses), have some provision for stopping press instantly at any
point of the stroke.
Buie 104. Belt, pulley, gear, and shaft guards.
All belts, pulleys, gears, and shafts shall be guarded. Removable
sections, preferably hinged, shall be provided in such guards where
necessary, so that the press can be turned by hand.
N o t e .—For specific requirements see Safety Code for Mechanical PowerTransmission Apparatus.

Buie 105. Switches and other electrical apparatus.
All switches and other electrical apparatus shall be guarded.
N o t e .—For specific requirements see National Electrical Safety Code and
National Electrical (Fire) Code.

Buie 106. Feeding mechanisms.
All gears and feed rolls on press feeding mechanisms shall be
guarded.
N o t e .—For specific requirements see Safety Code for Mechanical PowerTransmission Apparatus.

Buie 107. Protection against flying particles.
A shield, goggles, or other means of protection should be provided
if the nature of the operation and the kind of material are such as to
cause an appreciable hazard from flying particles.
N o te .—For specific requirements see Safety Code for the Protection of the
Heads and Eyes of Industrial Workers.

14755°—26------2




6

SAFETY CODE FOR PRESSES

SECTION 11. SAFEGUARDING PRESS HAZARDS AT POINT
OF OPERATION
Rule 110. Safeguarding classification.
One or more means of safeguarding the press hazards at the point
of operation shall be provided and used on every press, depending
upon the method of feeding, and in accordance with the following:
Method of feeding press

Safeguarding required

I. Automatic feed___ ______ ___
Automatic roll feed.
Automatic push or pull feed.
Automatic plunger feed.

Inclosure of ram (see rule 111), or
limitation of ram stroke (see rule
112), or gate guard (see rule 113).

II. Semiautomatic feed___ ______
Chute feed.
Slide feed.
Sliding dies.
Dial feed.
Revolving dies.

Inclosure of ram (see rule 111), or
limitation of ram stroke (see rule
112), or gate guard (see rule 113).

III. Manual feed................................ Inclosure of ram (see rule 111), or
limitation of ram stroke (see rule
li2), or gate guard (see rule 113),
or two-hand tripping device (see
rule 113), or sweep guard (see
rule 113), or special hand tools
(see rule 114).

Rule 111. Inclosure of ram.
Opening between bottom of inclosure and work or working surface
shall not exceed % inch. The top of the inclosure shall extend at
least as high as the upper limit of travel of the ram. There shall be
no dangerous shear points between the guard and any moving part.
Openings in the guard shall not exceed y2 inch if within 4 inches of
any danger p o in t; if farther away than 4 inches, openings shall not
exceed 2 inches square or 1 inch wide.
N o t e .— I f t h e i n c l o s u r e i s v e r y c l o s e t o t h e d ie , i t i s r e c o m m e n d e d t h a t o p e n ­
i n g s d o n o t e x c e e d % in c h .

Rule 112. Limitation of ram stroke.
I f press is safeguarded by limiting the ram stroke, the stroke of
the ram shall be such that the clearance between the ram and die or
stripper shall not exceed % inch.
Rule 113. Gate guards, two-hand tripping devices, sweep guards.
I f press is safeguarded by gate guard, or two-hand tripping de­
vice, or sweep guard, such guards and devices shall conform to the
following specifications:
(a) Every such device shall be simple and reliable in construction,
application, and adjustment. I t shall be permanently attached by
means of cap screw or through bolts to the press frame. I t shall not
offer any accident hazard of itself. I t shall be designed and con­
structed to minimize the possibility of removing or misusing essen­
tial parts and to facilitate inspection of them.
(b) The device shall be so designed and constructed th at it would
be extremely difficult for the operator to place or permit his hand to
remain within the danger zone while the ram is approaching the
lower limit of its down stroke.



SAFETY CODE FOR PRESSES

7

(tf) Two-hand tripping devices should be so arranged as to prevent
tying, wedging, or otherwise securing one handle or button and oper­
ating the press with the other hand only, except by use of a key in
possession of foreman.
(d) On slow acting presses the device shall be arranged so as not
to permit the operator placing his hand in the danger zone after the
press has been tripped and while the ram is still descending.
(e) Openings in gate and sweep guards shall not be greater than
specified in rule 111.
(/) Unless the device is directly connected to the ram (for ex­
ample, a sweep guard), a nonrepeat attachment shall be provided,
by which the treadle or operating lever is disconnected after each
stroke and a positive stop is introduced to stop the press. The non­
repeat attachment shall not be dependent upon the action of any
spring, except a compression spring operating in or on a closely fitting
barrel or rod and so wound that the space between coils is less than
the diameter of the wire. Such nonrepeat attachment, however, is
not required for a gate guard so constructed as to assure its being
in place to offer full protection if the press should repeat from riding
the treadle or breakage of the latch return spring.
N o t e .—A nonrepeat attachment may be so arranged that it can be rendered
inoperative in case continuous operation is desired, provided that for such opera­
tion the press shall otherwise be safeguarded as specified in rule 110.
Sweep guards which are attached to the ram and which move downward so
that the operator’s hand might be caught between gate and lower die are not
recommended.
If nonrepeat attachments are provided on some of the presses in a depart­
ment, they should preferably be provided on all the presses so that there will
be less likelihood of confusion and, therefore, of accident when operators are
changed from one machine to another.
Two hand-tripping devices constitute a serious hazard if it is easy to tie
down or wedge one lever or button so the press can be operated with one hand
only. Press operators must be given careful supervision by foremen or others
in positions of authority to insure the proper use of such devices.

Rule 114. Special hand tools.
Hand tools for placing and removing material shall be such as
to permit easy handling of material without the operator placing his
hand in the danger zone. Such tools are accepted in lieu of a guard,
only where the use of the tools is strictly enforced by the employer.
SECTION 12. OTHER PRESS GUARDS
Rule 120. Treadle guard.
On every foot-operated power press a substantial guard shall be
placed over the treadle to prevent accidental tripping, or an equally
effective special design of treadle shall be used. For treadles other
than long bars extending across the machine the openings in such
guards shall not be more than twice the width of the foot.
Rule 121. Latch on hand lever.
Hand-operated power presses, especially if of large size, should
be equipped with a spring latch on the lever to prevent accidental
or premature tripping.




8

SAFETY CODE FOR PRESSES

Rule 122. Interlocking device.
Each hand-operated power press, if tended by more than one man,
should have an interlocking lever or similar device controlled by
the helper to prevent accidental or premature tripping.
SECTION 13. MAKING AND SETTING DIES
Buie 130. Design and construction.
Newly constructed dies shall be designed and constructed so as to
involve the least possible hazard to the press operator. They should
be cut away so that unnecessary crushing hazards will not exist.
They should be so arranged that the operator will assume a natural
position and do his work in the safest possible manner. Dies shall
be so designed and constructed as to provide or permit safeguarding
as required in section 11. The die setter should be held responsible
for procuring and installing, when he sets the dies for any opera­
tion, an effective guard or safe feeding arrangement suitable to the
operation.
SECTION 14. OPERATING RULES
Rule 140. Inspection and maintenance.
Regular inspections shall be made to insure proper condition of
all bolts and screws which might become loosened by vibration; of
all treadle attachments, treadle and clutch springs, and all parts of
clutch. Oil should not be allowed to collect in excessive quantities
because of the possibility of gumming and causing the clutch or
pulley to stick and repeat.
Rule 141. Die setting.
In setting dies (except on large presses which can not be turned
by hand) the source or power shall be disconnected from the press
and the press shall be turned by hand until proper alignment of the
dies is assured.
Rule 142. Instruction of operators.
Before starting to work on a press, and before starting to work on
any materially different operation, the press operator should be
carefully instructed in the hazards of the machine and of the par­
ticular operation and in the safe method of work.
Rule 143. Rules for operators.
The foreman of the press department should enforce the following
rules:
(a)
Do not operate your machine unless the press and all safety
devices are in perfect working order. I f anything is wrong, stop
work and notify the foreman.
(&) Always use the safety devices and guards provided for your
protection.
(c)
I f you think that any device on your press interferes with
production, consult the foreman and try to devise some better guard.
For most operations some method can.be found that is both safe and
efficient,




SAFETY CODE FOR PRESSES

9

(d ) I f automatic or semiautomatic attachments or special tools
are provided for feeding, always use them and never place your
hand under the ram.
(e) I t is easier and quicker to feed stock from the level of the press
table.
(/) I f material sticks in the die, remove it with a stick, not with
fingers. I f this happens frequently, notify foreman, who will have
the attachment or die adjusted.
(g ) Do not wear gloves if there is danger of fingers being caught
under the ram or in feed rolls.
(h ) Grasp material by the sides, if possible, rather than by top
and bottom.
(i) Do not let your hand or head be caught between top of guard
and any projection on ram.
(j) Keep your hair short or wear a cap.
(k) Inspect clutch mechanism at beginning of each shift and
operate press without work a few times to make sure that brake
band is working properly. This is especially important on Monday
morning or after any shutdown, and after oiling.
Cl) I f clutch begins to click, have it inspected.
(m) Never distract attention of another press operator—you
might cause him to lose a finger.
(n ) Pay strict attention to your work at all times.
(The remainder of this pamphlet is not a part of the Power Press
Code. I t is merely a discussion of the Code, including illustrated
descriptions of press hazards and methods for overcoming them, the
paragraphs being numbered 200 to 250 and followed by Figures 1
to 63.)







APPENDIX
A.—POWER-PRESS HAZARDS
Paragraph 200. Classification by causes.
Most press accidents occur at the operating point or dies. The
following table summarizes the results of a careful study of 147
power-press accidents, the reports of which were sufficiently detailed
to make accurate classification possible. Sixty-one of tnese were
taken from the records of the Aetna Life Insurance Company and
86 from the records of the Wisconsin Industrial Commission. The
table clearly shows the general trend of press accidents although
the number of cases is too small to include all minor causes. The
tabular form of the first p art of the classification is based on the
fact that, for an operator to be injured at the operating point, there
must be a combination of two causes—there must be some reason for
him to place his hand between the dies, and there must be some
reason for the ram to come down at that time.
(a) ACCIDENTS TO FINGERS OF OPERATOR AT OPERATING POINT
Ram came down because of—
Cause

Normal Accidental
operation tripping

Total

72
7
1
2

Normal feeding or removing material______________
Removing material that stuck___________________
Cleaning or oiling__________________ ___________
Slipping, stumbling, horseplay, etc________________
Total__________________________________

Defect of
machine

i

20
5
1
1

21
2

113
14
2
3

82

27

23

132

(6) ACCIDENTS DURING OPERATION BUT NOT AT OPERATING POINT
Caught between moving part and frame or bed-------------------------------------------------------------------- 6
Adjusting machines without throwing off power------------------------------------------------------------------- 4
End of punch broke and struck eye__________________________________________________ ___ 3
Miscellaneous:
Adjusting machine, accidentally threw on power________________________________________ 1
Injured heel on treadle and developed infection---------------------------------------------------------- ----- 1
Total____________________________________________ ______ _______ _____ _____

15

Grand total-------------------------------------------------------------- --------- ---------- i_________

147

In six of these cases the operator reached around the side of a
stationary or movable guard.
In five cases the press was equipped with a two-hand device which
was out of order or not effective.
In four other cases there was a mechanical guard which failed to
operate.
In four cases the operator failed to use the chute feed.
In one case he took the guard off.
In one case he failed to use the hand tool provided.




11

12

SAFETY CODE FOR PRESSES----APPENDIX

In one case he left his finger on the sliding die, the ram being
unguarded.
The files from which these power-press accidents were taken also
disclosed 4 accidents on foot presses—3 during normal operation
and 1 resulting from horseplay.
Par. 201. Normal operation.
The large proportion of accidents listed under “ normal opera­
tion ” shows clearly that most of them occur on unguarded or
imperfectly guarded presses, due to an error or lack of coordination
on Jl
J J,j1
J 3r, such as—
(<?) Failing to remove fingers soon enough.
(d) Reaching in to adjust material after tripping.
(e) Wearing gloves.
To operate an unguarded press usually requires accurate coordina­
tion of the movement of hands and feet and this in turn requires that
the mental condition of the operator be of a high standard. Any­
thing that interferes with such coordination, whether internal or
external, is likely to cause an accident.
Par. 202. Accidental tripping.
The table shows that another important cause of accidents is
accidental depression of the treadle, as by—
(a) A falling object.
(&) Being struck by truck or other moving object.
(o) A person other than the operator stumbling onto it.
(d) Operator being bumped into by another person or an object.
Par. 203. Defects of machine.
As indicated by the table, a considerable number of accidents result
from genuine repeating or dropping back of the press, caused by a
defect or deficiency in the machine, such as—
(a) Pulley “ seizing ” or “ freezing ” on shaft.
(b) D rifting because of poor braking (brake becoming loose or
brake bolt shearing off).
(c) Dog breaking.
(d) Latch return spring breaking or coming loose.
(e) Pitm an breaking, allowing ram to drop.
(/) Square-jawed clutch burring and sticking.
Par. 204. Die setting.
Another group of accidents consists of those occurring to die set­
ters, while setting or adjusting dies, when fingers are caught by the
unexpected descent of the ram, or when a splinter is thrown from
the dies out of alignment.
Par. 205. Falling objects.
Die setters are sometimes injured by dropping a die on the hand or
foot, by a scratch or bruise from hand tools, etc. These are often
not reported as press accidents.
Par. 206. Miscellaneous.
A small percentage of press accidents result from other causes,
such as—




SAFETY CODE FOE PRESSES— APPENDIX

13

(a) Flying particles or pieces, from the material or the die,
striking the operator’s eye, face, or neck.
(5) Operator or other person, or material, being caught between
belt and pulley, or belt catching and pulling press over.
(c) Shaft breaking, permitting pulley to fall.
(d) Person or material being caught in gears.
(e) Injury from electric power.
(/) Knockout mechanism breaking, and falling bolt or other part
injuring operator’s foot.
B.—SAFEGUARDING PRESS HAZARDS AT POINT OF
OPERATION
Far. 207. Safeguarding classification.
As specified in rule 110 of the Code, one or more means of safe­
guarding the press hazards at the point of operation shall be pro­
vided and used on every press, depending upon the method of feed­
ing and in accordance with the following:
Method of feeding press

Safeguarding required

I. Automatic feed_________________________ Inclosure of ram (see pars. 222-225), or
limitation of ram stroke (see par. 226),
Automatic roll feed (see par. 213).
Automatic push or pull feed (see par. 214).
or gate guard (see pars. 231-233).
Automatic plunger feed (see par. 215).
(See Figs. 2,3, and 4.)
II. Semiautomatic feed_____________________
Chute feed (see par. 216).
Slide feed (see par. 217).
Sliding dies (see par. 218).
Dial feed (see par. 219).
Revolving dies (see par. 220).
(See Figs. 32 to 48.)

Inclosure of ram (see pars. 222-225), or
limitation of ram stroke (see par. 226),
or gate guard (see pars. 231-233).

III. Manual feed---------------- ---- --------- --------- Inclosure of ram (see pars. 222- 225), or
limitation of ram stroke (see par. 226),
(See Figs. 1 to 31.)
or gate guard (see pars. 231-233), or
two-hand tripping device (see par.
234-238), or sweep guard (see pars.
228-230), or special hand tools (see
par. 227).

Par. 208. Automatic or semiautomatic feed preferable to manual feed.
Automatic or semiautomatic methods of feeding can usually be
adapted for the m ajority of jobs that are now fed manually (except
for certain blanking operations). Such methods eliminate all the
hazards described in paragraphs 201, 202, and 203, and prevent
accidents caused by inattention or other failure of the operator as
well as those caused by mechanical defects. These methods also
generally result in an increase in production and a decrease of
spoilage. One or another of them should, therefore, be used wher­
ever possible.
Par. 209. Long and short runs.
I t is often assumed th at automatic or semiautomatic feeding is
practicable only in large establishments or on continuous runs. This
is not the case. Some companies have found it possible to use auto147550—26----- 3




14

SAFETY CODE FOR PRESSES----APPENDIX

matic or semiautomatic methods on all press operations, both long
and short runs. There are doubtless still some cases where these
inherently safe methods of feeding are impracticable and where an
external guard is the only form of protection that can be applied, but
such cases have been found to be much less numerous than was
formerly supposed, and their number is constantly decreasing as
experience with the other methods develops.
Par. 210. Not an afterthought.
These preferred methods of feeding are not something to be
applied after the operation has been laid out and the dies made.
They are an essential part of the operation itself. Therefore, they
can not be successfully used except with the knowledge and coopera­
tion of the die designers, die makers, and die setters, as well as of the
operating executives. Feeding devices, knockouts, and g’ ards must
u
in general be attached to the die, or must be laid out to conform to
the die; therefore, the die designer, maker, and setter should be held
responsible for them and should have the element of safety con­
stantly in mind during the designing, construction, and placing of
the dies.
Par. 211. Suggestions for die designers, makers, and setters.
(a)
Before starting to make a die determine what method of feed­
ing is to be used to insure safe operation and lay out the die
accordingly.
(&) Cut away all unnecessary metal, especially on front and sides.
(See fig. 1.)
(c) Cut away front of upper die at 45° bevel to decrease danger
and enable operator to see the work. (See fig. 1.)
(d) Construct and set dies so operator will hold stock by sides,
not by top and bottom.
(e) I f piece is to be cut or formed on one end only, arrange dies
so the other end of the piece will project at the front and can thus
be held safely by operator.
(/) I t is advisable to tap heavy dies so that screw eyes may be
inserted for convenience in lifting. In case of dies with pilot pins,
the screw eyes should be placed in the lower die to prevent dies
separating.
(</) A “ soft punch and a hard die ” tend to prevent chipping.
(h) Use guide pins to insure alignment of dies and reduce hazard
of flying particles.
(i) On hand-fed blanking work make an inclosing guard to fit the
die or adjust some guard already on hand for this purpose. On
some small jobs this inclosure may be attached to the die or die
block instead of to the machine. Generally the bottom of the
inclosure can be attached to the stripper.
(j) Set the stripper or inclosure not more than % inch above the
lower die and have the top of the inclosure at least as high as the
highest travel of the ram.
(k) Guard not only the front but both sides of the die, and the
back if possible, so the operator will not be tempted to reach around
under the ram if the material sticks.
(I)
The lower die may be extended sidewise and backward by
means of a plate to prevent reaching in. (See fig. 22.)




SAFETY CODE FOR PRESSES— APPENDIX

15

(??i) When setting dies or Snaking adjustments (except 011 large
presses which can not be turned by hand) always disconnect the
power first. Throw the belt off (unless a tight and loose pulley, or
clutch on the drive shaft, is provided). The “ safety sto p ” or pin
provided on the clutch of the press is not sufficient to protect you in
case the pulley should seize on the shaft.
(n) I f you disconnect power by throwing a belt shifter, clutch
lever? or electric switch, be sure to lock or block it in the open
position.
(o) In running the press the first few times under power, it is good
practice to place a steel shield in front of the dies in case the die
should shift and a splinter be thrown out.
(p) Before you leave the machine make sure that the guard or the
feeding apparatus is in first-class condition for safe, efficient opera­
tion. Eemember the press operator is not a machinist and can not
be expected to repair a broken, bent, or defective guard.
(q) Before leaving the press, tighten any loose screws or bolts and
repair any other defects that you may observe in the press itself, or
in the tripping mechanism.
(r) Always remefriber that a die is not a good die unless it is a
safe die.
C.—AUTOMATIC AND SEMIAUTOMATIC FEEDS
Par. 212. Advantages.
Where automatic or semiautomatic feeding can be used, they have
been found the most generally successful means of safeguarding the
operation and in most cases they have also increased production or
reduced cost. W ith these feeds it is unnecessary for the operator to
place his hand under the ram during ordinary feeding. He may,
however, be tempted to do so if a piece sticks, or he may do so acci­
dentally. Therefore, it is necessary to provide a stick or pick with
which to re*move the material if necessary, and an inclosure to pre­
vent putting a hand under the ram. W ith an automatic feed this
inclosing guard may well be interlocked with the clutch lever. (See
2 .)
Par. 213. Automatic roll feeds—
Are often used on continuous operations of blanking from strips.
The small gears on feed rolls should be inclosed, especially for women
operators whose clothing or hair may get caught. The rolls them­
selves should be guarded although not so hazardous as the gears.
For construction of gear and feed-roll guards see Safety Code for
Mechanical Power-Transmission Apparatus. The ram should be
inclosed. (See fig. 3.)
Par. 214. Automatic push or pull feeds—
Are similar to roll feeds in general but different in actual feeding
mechanism. This feed is also used for blanking larger pieces. The
ram should be inclosed.
Par. 215. Automatic plunger feed.
Another form of automatic feed is a magazine or chute in which
blanks or partly formed pieces are placed and automatically fed one
at a time by a mechanical plunger or other device which pushes
them into place under the ram. (See fig. 4.) This method some­



16

SAFETY CODE FOR PRESSES— APPENDIX

times can not be used where accurate placing is required. For this
as for other automatic feeds an inclosure of the ram is necessary.
Par. 216. Chute feed.
One of the most widely used semiautomatic methods of feeding
consists of a horizontal or inclined chute in which each piece is placed
by hand. The piece then slides or is pushed onto or into the lower
die. As with the methods already described, it is necessary to inclose
the ram. The safety of this method of feeding lies prim arily in
the fact that in regular operation the hand need never be placed
under the ram, while for removing pieces of stock a pick is provided.
Some of the many variations of this method which have been used
successfully to meet various conditions are shown in Figures 5 to 10.
Companies using feeds of this type have found th at they practically
eliminate accidents, increase production, and decrease costs; and can
be adapted to many blanking or forming operations of small or
moderate size.
Par. 217. Sliding feeds—
And other special mechanical feeds have been used to advantage
in certain forming operations. (See figs. 11,12, and 13.)
Par. 218. Sliding dies—
Are those which slide forward at each operation for safe feeding
and then return to position under the ram for the downward stroke.
The die may be slid forward and backward automatically, or by
hand, or by a foot lever. The ram should be inclosed to eliminate
danger to the operator. (See figs. 14,15, and 16.)
Par. 219. Dial feeds—
Operate on the same principle as revolving dies, except that the
dial simply carries the work into one fixed die. Inclosure of the
ram is necessary.
Par. 220. Revolving dies—
Composed of two or more dies in one and automatically revolving
with each stroke of the press, likewise permit safe feeding. Inclosure
of the ram is necessary. (See figs. 17 to 21.)
Par. 221. Safety finger spring.
Automatic mechanisms sometimes introduce special hazards of
their own which require attention.
D.— RAM INCLOSURES
Par. 222. Inclosing guards.
For most hand-set blanking work, and for some forming opera­
tions, complete protection can be provided by an inclosing guard
with space between the guard and lower die sufficient to admit stock
but not fingers—not exceeding 3/8-inch. Such guard is often at­
tached to the stripper or to the die itself. To permit a view of the
work the guard, or the front portion of it, is often made of wire
mesh, wired with glass, of mica. (See figs. 22 to 34.)
Par. 223. The guard may be in telescopic form or in the form of a
spring. As such guards must fit the size and shape of the die, it is
essential th at the die maker or die setter be made responsible for



SAFETY CODE FOR PRESSES— APPENDIX

17

procuring and setting up a proper guard for each new operation.
One large user of such guards carries them in standard sizes, the
opening through which the upper die passes varying by 1 inch.
Par. 224. For complete protection the guards should inclose the rear
as well as the front and sides of the ram, or the lower die should
be extended by means of a horizontal plate so as to prevent reach­
ing in from the sides or rear. (See figs. 23 and 27.)
Par. 225. The operation of riveting ears to kettles can be made safe
by inclosing the ram with a guard attached to the lower die or horn
and assembling the kettle, ear, and rivets before placing in the press.
E.—LIMITATION OF RAM STROKE
Par. 226. Short stroke of ram.
A similar method, giving complete protection, is to use a press
with short ram stroke or with length of stroke adjustable. The
stroke can then be adjusted so there is not enough room for a finger
to get under the ram.
F.—GATE GUARDS
Par. 227. Need for supervision; repeating.
Gate guards, in connection with the tripping mechanism, must
be carefully maintained and supervised to prevent being thrown
out of adjustment intentionally or unintentionally. They should
be so constructed as to prevent reaching around, over, or under the
guard. Most gate guards are preferable to sweep guards in one
respect, because when the treadle or hand lever is operated the gate
completely incloses the point of operation before the clutch can
become engaged. When connected with the tripping mechanism
only, however, they do not guard against accidents caused by repeat­
ing of the press, and an effective nonrepeat attachment should be
used except as provided in rule 113e of the Code. (See pars. 239
to 243.)
Par. 228. Usual types.
Most gate guards are attached to the foot treadle. Some types
expand upward or sideways instead of downward. The usual wellknown types of gate guard are not illustrated here; special arrange­
ments are shown in Figures 2, 35 to 38.
Par. 229. Hand trip.
Instead of being connected to the foot treadle, the gate guard may
be pulled down by hand and at the last instant of travel may itself
trip the press.
G.—TWO-HAND TRIPPING DEVICES
Par. 230. Adjustments.
As specified in rule 113c of the Code, two-hand operating attach­
ments should be so arranged that it will be impossible to block, tie
down, or hold down one button or handle. Adjustments to permit
operating by one hand or by foot, when the nature of the operation
requires, should be controlled by the foreman only.



18

SAFETY CODE FOR PRESSES----APPENDIX

Pax. 231. Positive stop.
Some two-hand tripping devices introduce a positive stop or solid
block below the ram, which is removed only when the hand levers
are depressed, thus preventing accidents from repeating as well as
from error of the operator. (See figs. 39, 40, and 41.)
Par. 232. Nonrepeat device needed with other types.
Most two-hand devices, however, are attached to the tripping mech­
anism and operate to trip the press or to release the foot treadle by
which the press is tripped. These attachments offer no protec­
tion against genuine repeating of the press; therefore, an effective
nonrepeat attachment (pars. 239 to 243) should always be used in
connection with them. Most of the two-hand devices are well known
and are therefore not illustrated here.
Par. 233. Use on large presses.
The electric and compressed-air types of two-hand attachment can
be extended for large presses on which two or more men are em­
ployed, by placing four, six, or more buttons or valves in the electric
circuit or air line, all of which must be operated simultaneously to
operate the press.
Par. 234. Horn press.
A special variation of the attachments just described is the fol­
lowing : On a horn press where one hand is needed to hold the stock,
a hand lever may be substituted for the foot treadle, thus keeping
both hands out of danger.
H.—SWEEP GUARDS
Par. 235. Sweep guards attached to ram.
Figures 42 to 48 show various guards which swing or move across
or in front of the die during the stroke of the press. The part which
may strike the operator’s hands should be covered with leather or
rubber to soften the blow as much as possible. Guards of this type
should be so arranged that the operator can not reach around or
behind and get his hand into danger.
Par. 236. Attached to trip.
Sweep guards may be attached to the tripping mechanism. When
so installed a nonrepeat attachment on the press is needed to give
the same degree of protection as if the guard were attached to the
ram (pars. 239 to 243).
Par. 237. Horn press.
For a horn press used for folding and grooving, a special guard
has been devised, consisting of pieces on either side of the upper die
which spread and push away the fingers when the ram descends.
(See fig. 43.) Horn press operations may also be safeguarded by
having the center portion of the upper die attached to the tripping
mechanism, so that this portion comes down, ahead of the ram, and
prevents the press being tripped if a finger is between the dies. The
operation of such a device is similar to that of a gate guard (par.




SAFETY CODE FOR PRESSES----APPENDIX

19

I.—HAND TOOLS
Par. 238. For hand feeding—
W ithout placing the hand under the ram, a variety of special
tools have been developed and used successfully on operations where
automatic feeds, or enclosing guards, are impracticable. Such tools
include pushers, pickers, pliers, tweezers, forks, magnets, and suc­
tion disks. They furnish protection, provided they are always made
use of by the operator; strict discipline is required to enforce their
use. Therefore, because of the human element involved, they fu r­
nish less complete protection than the methods described in sec­
tions C, D and E ; but with proper discipline they are safer than
the methods described in sections G, H, and I. (See figs. 49 to 58.)
J.—NONREPEAT AND TREADLE-DISCONNECTING
ATTACHMENTS
Par. 239. Purpose and function.
A nonrepeat attachment, as described in rule 113e of the Code
and illustrated in Figs. 39, 40 and 41. removes the hazards of—
(a) Operator riding treadle.
(b) Pulley seizing on shaft.
(c) Shaft* drifting because of defective brake.
(a) Breakage of latch return spring is n o t‘hazardous if spring is
as described in rule 113e of the Code.
A nonrepeat attachment does not eliminate the hazard of the dog
or other part of the mechanism breaking or wearing; this can be
cared for only by regular inspection.
Par. 240. Where needed.
These devices are not required for safety where automatic or semi­
automatic feeds, or inclosing guards, are used as described in para­
graphs 212 to 226, inclusive, nor where safe methods of hand feeding
are provided and rigidly enforced as outlined in paragraph 238.
They are, perhaps, desirable, but not essential, with sweep guards or
similar devices attached to the ram, as outlined in paragraph 235.
It is, however, very desirable to provide an effective nonrepeat attach­
ment and also a treadle guard, if the only other safeguard is a sweep
or gate attached to the tripping mechanism (pars. 227 and 236) or
a two-hand operating attachment not involving a positive stop (pars.
232 and 233).
Par. 241. Releasing brake.
To reduce wear on the brake and thus help to prevent repeating,
a type of press in which the brake is released during each stroke is
recommended.
Par. 242. Maintaining tension in brake band.
I t is desirable to maintain constant tension in the brake band to
reduce the likelihood of the press repeating or dropping back. This
may be accomplished by introducing a strong spring at the bpake*
band connecting screw,




20

SAFETY CODE FOR PRESSES----APPENDIX

Par. 243. Ratchet to prevent dropping back.
Dropping back of the ram may be prevented by providing a ratchet
wheel on the shaft with a dog or pawl so that shaft can revolve only
in the forward direction.
K.—METHODS OF REMOVING MATERIAL
Par. 244. General.
The safe removal of material, without placing the hand under the
ram, is as necessary as the safe placing of it. In many types of auto­
matic or semiautomatic feed the removal of material is taken care of
automatically. In some cases the punchings fall through the lower
die .In other cases the devices for placing material (such as special
hand tools) also serve for removing it. In still other cases special
schemes of removal are necessary.
Par. 245. Strippers—
Should always be used. On inclined presses these may be suffi­
cient.
Par. 246. Knockouts.
Various types of automatic knockout, kickout, or ejector have
been used, including mechanical devices and compressed-air jets,
some of which are actuated automatically or by foot.
Par. 247. Knockout bolt guard.
On some types of press a guard to hold the knockout bolt (bumper
stud) from being thrown onto the operator’s feet, in case of breakage,
is desirable. (See fig. 54.)
Par. 248. Reversing dies.
The danger of removing by hand can sometimes be eliminated
by reversing the upper and lower dies and providing a knockout
in the upper die. (See fig. 55.)
L.—QUALIFICATIONS OF OPERATORS
Par. 249. Workers should not be permitted on press operation if
they are fatigued or otherwise unable to perform their work safely.
N o t e .—Men who change from day to night shifts become sleepy during
their first night’s work and therefore are not so alert as they are at other
times. It has been practicable in some instances to place such men on less
hazardous work during the first night.

To reduce fatigue proper chairs for operators are recommended.
Unless fool-proof feeding methods are used, the safe operation of a
power press requires accurate coordination; operators who can not
or do not attend to their work should not be tolerated.
M.—PRESS INSTALLATIONS
Par. 250. Bolting power presses direct to a concrete floor or founda­
tion causes vibration of the floor and may cause breakage of the
bolts. This may be avoided by fastening the press to timbers
grouted into the concrete, or by placing a “ gasket ” of soft wood
1 or 2 inches thick, or of cork or lead, between the press and the
concrete. In the latter case hardwood washers between bed plate
of press and upper end of bolt will further decrease vibration.



ILLU STRATED D ESCRIPTIO NS

21

Courtesy Perfection Stove Co. and zEtna Life Ins. Co.

Courtesy W estinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co.
F ig . 1.— D ies and die holders cut aw ay to decrease danger and to improve

view of work. Special methods of guarding must also be provided.
211 ( b ) and (c ).)

(Pars.

Courtesy American Can Co.

F ig. 2.—Automatic feed w ith gate guard. (Looking upward at front and
side of press.) M aterial is fed from side, and press operates continuously.
The bar indicated by arrow, attached to clutch lever, holds the gate guard
in place in front of ram w hile foot treadle is in operating position. Second
illustration shows machine stopped and guard open. Clutch lever can not
be returned to operating position until guard has been closed. (Pars. 212
and 228.)
14755°—26------ 4




22

SAFETY CODE FOR PRESSES---- A PPE N D IX

Courtesy W estinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co.

F ig. 3.— Automatic roll feed with ram inclosure.

(Par. 213.)

Courtesy Remy Electric Co., Division of General Motors Corp.

F ig . 4.—Automatic plunger feed.

Piece at bottom of magazine is pushed onto
die by plunger that is operated mechanically. Ram inclosure removed
temporarily to show operation. (Par. 215.)




ILLU STRA TED D ESCRIPTIO N S

23

Courtesy Simmons Co.
F ig . 5.— Semiautomatic chute feed adapted to various irregular pieces." F o r m ­

erly these pieces had to be set in die by hand. In some instances it has been
necessary to reverse the punch and die. In many cases it is possible and
advisable to attach chute to die. It often takes hours of experim enting w ith
different angles o f ‘chute to . get piece to locate itself properly. Complete
protection is provided by adding ram inclosures. (Par. 216.)

Courtesy American Can Co.
F ig . 6. — Semiautomatic chute feed, w ith ram inclosure made in two sections.

Lower section secured firmly in position. Upper section so hinged that it
can be raised when press is stopped. Press can not be operated when upper
section is raised, and this section can not be raised w hile press is operating.
Flyw heel removed to show operation. (Par. 216.)




24

SAFETY CODE FOR PRESSES----A PPE N D IX

Courtesy Simmons Co.

7.— Semiautomatic chute feed A permitting ram inclosure ; used on inclined
press. Formerly when piece w as fed crosswise, as shown in B, it did not
center itself in die. N ew method increased production and decreased spoilage.
(Par. 216.)

F ig .

Courtesy Simmons Co.

Fig. 8.— Sem iautomatic chute feed for piercing operation of barrel-shaped piece.
Ram inclosure is provided. I f set up on a straight press, the piece is ejected
by compressed a ir ; if set up on an inclined press, the piece w ill fa ll aw ay
by gravity. (Par. 216.)




ILLU STRATED D ESCRIPTIO N S

25

Courtesy Aluminum Goods Mfg. Co.
F ig . 9 . — Semiautomatic chute feed.

Pieces are so light that revolving dial
has been installed under chute to help carry pieces into the die. Hand
trip has been disconnected for th is operation. Bam inclosure has been
removed temporarily to show operation. (Par. 216.)

Courtesy Simmons Co.
F ig . 10.— Semiautomatic, horizontal chute feed.

Vertical bar A, w ith springs
behind it, put sufficient pressure on pieces to keep them from tipping over
as they are pushed along, last piece on right dropping into die. Ram in ­
closure has been removed to show detail of operation. (Par. 216.)




26

SAFETY CODE FOR PRESSES----APPENDIX

Courtesy Western Electric Co.

11.— Semiautomatic slide feed. Lowest piece in m agazine is pushed into
die by hand-operated plunger. Ram inclosure has been removed temporarily
to show detail of operation. (Par. 217.)

F ig .

Courtesy Michigan Mutual Liability Co. and Weis Mfg. Co.

12.—Looking down. Semiautomatic slide feed w ith hand-operated m a g a ­
zine that can be used interchangeably w ith various dies. M agazine is ad­
justable in that its size and shape may be varied to suit size and shape of
various pieces, inasmuch as each corner of magazine can be positioned and
fastened independently to base. Furthermore, bottom of magazine, through
which blanks are pushed one at a time, can -be raised for different thicknesses
of stock. (Par. 217.)

F ig .




ILLU STRATED DESCRIPTIO N S

27

Courtesy Ford Motor Co.
F ig . 13.— Semiautomatic slide feed, consisting of m agazine and hand-operated

plunger. Ram inclosure removed temporarily to show detail of operation.
(Par. 217.)

Courtesy Clum Mfg. Co.
F ig . 14.— Semiautomatic feed on kick press w ith hand-operated sliding die.

Ram inclosure removed temporarily to show operation. T his same arrange­
ment is adapted for use on a great variety of power-press operations. Many
of these jobs permit the installation of an interlocking lever to prevent the
premature tripping of the press. (Par. 218.)




28

SAFETY CODE FOR PRESSES---- A PPE N D IX

B

Courtesy Eastman Kodak Co.

15.— Semiautomatic feed. Sliding die is operated mechanically by eccen­
tric at rear of press. Work removed by air blast. Note ram inclosure.
A shows die in out position for placing work in d ie ; B shows die under ram.
(Par. 218.)

T ig .

Courtesy Cleveland Foundry Co. and .Etna Life Ins. Co.
F ig . 16.— Semiautomatic fe e d ; sliding die actuated by inclined piece on side

of ram. Pilot pins insure alignment. Ram inclosure removed tem porarily
to show operation. Spring at lower left pushes die toward operator as ram
ascends. (Par 218.)




ILLU STRA TED D ESCRIPTIO N S

29

Courtesy 2Etna Life Ins. Co.
F ig.

17.—Semiautomatic feed. Revolving die with ram inclosure. Inclosure
has glass window for clear view of operation. (Par. 220.)

147550
(—26 ------- 5



30

SA FETY CODE FOR PRESSES---- A PPE N D IX

Courtesy Clum Mfg. Co.

F ig. 18.— Semiautomatic fe e d ; revolving dies w ith ram inclosure. Presses
operated hydraulically for assembly operations. Two or three girls work at
each machine. (Par. 220.)

Courtesy Weis M anufacturing Co. and Michigan Mutual Liability Co.
F ig . 19.— Semiautomatic fe e d ; revolving die w ith ram inclosure.

air jet from below blows finished pieces into curved pipe.




Compressed(Par. 220.)

IL LU STR A TED D ESC R IPTIO N S

31

Courtesy Western Electric Co.

F ig. 20.— Semiautomatic feed ; revolving die w ith ram inclosure.




(Par. 220.)

32

SAFETY CODE FOR PK ESSES---- A PPE N D IX

Courtesy American Pulley Co.

Fig. 21.— Sem iautomatic feed; revolving die w ith ram inclosure.




(Par. 220.)

ILLU STRATED D ESCRIPTIO N S

33

Courtesy American Can Co.

F ig. 22.— Power press w ith m anual feed and ram inclosure. Standard sizes of
inclosing guards are kept in stock to fit all operations w ith openings in
bottom plate varying by 1 inch. The i/i-inch plate marked A -A forms an
extension of low er die. Guard is hinged at right, shown in Fig. 23.
(Par. 222.)

Courtesy American Can Co.
F ig . 23.— The same ram-inclosing guard as in Fig. 22 swung open for die

setting. Note extensions B -B which, when guard is closed, extend backward
and prevent reaching around behind the guard. (Pars. 222 and 224.)




34

SAFETY CODE FOB PRESSES----A PPE N D IX

Courtesy American Can Co.
F ig . 24.— This line of seven presses is operated by two persons—one at press

at left, other at press at extrem e right. First press at left is fed by hand
and pieces are transferred to succeeding presses by compressed air. Note
ram inclosures, bumper stud guards, and treadle guards on all presses. Ram
inclosures on second and third presses are shown in Fig. 6. (Par. 222.)




il l u s t r a t e d

d e s c r ip t io n s

35

Courtesy General Electric Co.

F ig. 25.—Adjustable guard inclosing ram. M aterial is fed by hand from the
side of the press. Side pieces and front of guard can be adjusted sep­
arately. (Par. 222.)

Courtesy Pierce-Arrow Motor Car Co. and iEtna Life Ins. Co.

F ig. 26.— Spring incloses punch above stripper on hand feed press. Space be­
tween coils must not be large enough to admit finger. (Par. 222.)




36

SAFETY CODE FOR PRESSES---- A PPE N D IX

Courtesy American Can Co.

F ig. 27. Conical spring guard in open position (ram up) on hand-fed press.
Spring telescopes when ram descends. Can not pinch fingers between coils.
(Par. 222.)




37

ILLU STRA TED D ESCRIPTIO N S

Courtesy Pierce-Arrow Motor Car Co. and 2Etna Life Ins. Co.

F ig. 28.— Hand feed press. Ram inclosure w ith celluloid window in front.
spring acts as a knockout. ( Par. 222.)

The

Courtesy General Electric Co.
F ig . 29.—Ram inclosure attached to die block, w ith mica windows.

of ram must be lim ited so it w ill not form shear w ith top of guard.

222.)




Stroke

(Par.

38

SAFETY CODE FOR TRESSES----A PPE N D IX

Courtesy J. L. Clark Mfg. Co.
F ig . 30.— Manual feed w ith ram inclosure used on blanking operation.

F lat
gauge at right extends working table and at same time speeds up produc­
tion and decreases spoilage. (Par. 222.)

Courtesy Industrial Commission of Wisconsin.
F ig . 31.— B asket guard inclosing ram for liand-feed blanking operation.

ing a t bottom is ju st large enough for ram to pass through.




Open­
(Par, 222.)

ILLU STRA TED D ESCRIPTIO N S

39

Courtesy Clum Mfg. Co.

F ig. 32.— Hand feed forming die with ram inclosure. Operator drops flat piece
in slot as sh o w n ; piece is formed into circle by horizontally moving ram
actuated by bell cra n k ; it then drops into keg underneath press. Similar
devices are arranged on a great variety of sm all form ing and piercing jobs.
(Par. 222.)




40

SAFETY CODE FOE PRESSES— A PPE N D IX

Courtesy Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co.

F ig. 33.— Hand fe e d ; guard inclosing rams on gang press. Guards may be
adjusted along length of supporting rod. Enough space is left for feeding
material, but not enough for fingers to be placed under plungers. (Par. 222.)

F ig. 34.—A simple ram inclosure made of flat iron on hand feed press.
Should be used only where ram stroke is so lim ited th at ram does not form
shear with top of guard. (Par. 222.)




ILLU STRA TED D ESCRIPTIO N S

41

Courtesy Geud«er, Paeschke & Frey Co.
F ig . 35. —Front and rear view s of large hand feed press w ith gate guards.

Gate A at front (fastened at top) is interlocked w ith gate D at rear (fastened
at bottom ). Closing one gate autom atically closes the other. Man at rear
must withdraw the interlocking bar B before press can be tripped by hand
lever C. (Par. 228,)




42

SAFETY COM3 FOB PRESSES---- A PPE N D IX

Courtesy American Can Co.
F ig . 36. — Manual feed w ith gate guard on blanking and drawing die.

Gate is in
up position. Depressing treadle first brings gate into down (closed) position;
the clutch then becomes engaged and ram descends. (Par. 228.)




43

ILLU STRATED D ESCRIPTIO N S

Co'i I', spring'’o f j u s ¥

.s af fi c?ent;tension
Jx> lift «juard.
woi 1 k )Cm«shex.
8
f tnetal; welded to
'|i<jh+ band iron. •
flo ck pift.previntino'^ripp-

i iftg of-prfe'ss untilfeoisW

A $ iftfilice.;
<

<•* • ••

ftod/C 'nesC
O ilt.

n treadle.,
q

(Colt S'prmq o f ju*t) s uff(Cienti«niS f on
Ijto. Irffc cjuard,

j-No, !8 xH*me£H ex.

J rnstal^eWed to; .
' ytqhi ba nd iron. /
w |.* f press unf(l Bo!st«r,

WRod 'con'r.
!rt«ctinq treadle
Courtesy American Can Co.
F ig . 37. —Hand-operated sliding die w ith gate guard around ram.

brought down autom atically when die is pushed in.
until guard is down and die is in. (Par. 228.)



Guard is
Press can not be tripped

44

SAFETY CODE FOE PRESSES-— APPENDIX

Courtesy Geuder, Paeschke & Frey Co.
F ig . 38. — Hand feed w ith gate guard both front and rear.

Gate is collapsible,
supported on rollers by horizontal guides, and is closed by operating lever.
Gates are closed completely before friction clutch engages. (Par. 228.)

F ig . 39.— Two-hand tripping device w ith positive stop.

A solid steel block
(shown in black below the left-hand lever) prevents the descent of the
ram until it is tipped out o f the w ay by depressing the left-hand lever. The
right-hand lever is then depressed, tripping the press. No foot treadle.
(Par. 231.)




ILLU STRATED D ESCRIPTIO N S

45

Courtesy E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co.
F ig . 40.— Positive stop device for metal-embossing press.

A swinging strut
(or prop) is installed on each side o f head. The press has a two-hand trip,
and the struts, connected to the tripping mechanism, are swung out toward
the horizontal when press is tripped. When operating levers are released
and press regains dead center, struts again assume a vertical position and
prevent press from repeating. (Par. 231.)

Courtesy Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co.

kick press w ith two-hand tripping device and air ejector.
Before foot lever w ill operate the press, operator must use both hands to
depress the two hand levers releasing the pins engaged in the rack on the
front of the ram, (Par. 231.)

F ig .

4 1 . — Hand-fed




46

SAFETY CODE FOR PRESSES---- A PPE N D IX

Courtesy American Can Co.

F ig. 42.—Hand feed embossing press w ith horizontal-bar sweep guard. The
bar, which normally lies against lower platen, rises autom atically w ith stroke
of press and pushes hands out of danger. (Par. 235.)

Courtesy Geuder, Paeschke & Frey Co.
F ig . 43.— Sweep guard for horning press w ith ram inclosure at front.

Guard
is thin m etal strip B on each side of press. When ram is up, spring A holds
guard up under ram so operator can insert m aterial in machine. Descending
ram forces guard down and out, removing operator’s hand from danger zone.
(Par. 235.)




ILLU STRATED D ESC R IPTIO N S

47

Courtesy Perfection Stove Co.
F ig . 44.— Hand feed w ith sweep guard operated by the ram.

bumper on edge of sweep.
(Par. 235.)




Note rubber
A shows guard o p en ; B shows guard closed.

48

SAFETY CODE FOR PRESSES---- A PPE N D IX

F ig . 4 5 — Hand feed toggle press w ith sliding sweep guard operated by roller A

attached to bottom of arm connected to knuckle. W hen treadle is de­
pressed, roller A travels in groove on top of rail B, pushing gate to right
in front of die. Gate is closed when blank holder is w ithin 4 inches of die
and roller A drops below rail B. Gate h its push rod C and spring mechan­
ism pushes gate back to its open position. This transpires before start of




ILLU STRATED D ESCRIPTIO N S

49

Courtesy National Enameling & Stamping Co.

upstroke and therefore gives operator access to die on all of upstroke and
first three-quarters of down stroke, thereby elim inating all interference from
guard. When gate is open the one-leaf spring D forces roller arm to left so
that roller A is in proper position on top of rail B to repeat operation. This
type of guard can be adapted for use on large presses up to 30 revolutions
per minute. (Par. 235.)




50




SAFETY CODE FOR PRESSES----APPENDIX

ILLU STRATED D E SC R IPTIO N S

51

c

Courtesy Aluminum Goods Mfg. Co.
F ig . 46.— Manually fed press w ith horizontal sweep guard.

A has stationary
section of guard removed to show how rack and pinion actuate sliding sec­
tion of guard. B shows complete guard w ith sliding section o p e n ; C shows
sliding section closed. (Par. 235.)




52

SAFETY CODE FOR PRESSES---- A PPE N D IX

Courtesy Perfection Stove Co.
F ig . 47.— Hand feed press w ith canvas roller-curtain sweep guard.

A shows
guard open for feeding press. When press is tripped canvas curtain unrolls
upward as shown in B, sweeping operator’s hands from danger zone.
(Par. 235.)

Courtesy Ford Motor Co.

48.— Hand feed press with sweep guard. Pieces are placed in lower die.
When treadle is depressed lower die raises against upper die and guard moves
down in front of danger zone. (Par. 235.)

F ig .




ILLU STRATED D ESCRIPTIO N S

53

F ig. 49.— Special hand tools for feeding presses. Special hand tool A is con­
nected to vacuum air line. Button on handle (B ) controls flow of air. (Par.
238.)

Courtesy General Electric Co.
F ig . 50.— Soft-nosed

(Par, 238.)




pliers, used for feeding presses, damaged in

service.

54

SAFETY CODE FOR PRESSES----APPENDIX

Courtesy Ford Motor Co.

F ig. 51.—Hand tools for placing and removing m aterial.




(Par. 238.)

ILLU STRATED D ESCRIPTIO N S

55

Courtesy W estinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co.

Fig., 52.— Suction disk (upper le ft), magnet (upper right), and other special
hand tools for placing and removing material. (Par. 238.)




56

SAFETY CODE FOR PRESSES----A PPE N D IX

Courtesy Westingliouse Electric & Mfg. Co.
F ig . 53. — Hand feed w ith two-hand liftin g device connected w ith vacuum air

line used to pull sheet into die for first c u t ; for remaining cuts operator pulls
stock by edges of sheet. Ram inclosure temporarily removed to show detail
of operation. (Par. 238.)

Courtesy American Can Co.
F ig . 54.— Bumper stud guards.

Prevents stud and bumper from dropping on
foot of operator in case stud comes loose or breaks; A for ligh t work, B
for heavy work. (Par. 247.)




ILLU STRATED D ESCRIPTIO N S

57

Courtesy Aluminum Goods Mfg. Co.
F ig . 55.—Hazard of pieces sticking in lower die eliminated, and production

increased by reversing dies and providing knock-out for upper die.
inclosure removed temporarily to show operation. (Par. 248.)




Ram

58

SAFETY CODE FOR PR ESSES---- A PPE N D IX

A

Courtesy Michigan Mutual Liability Co. and Weis Mfg. Co.

F ig. 5 6 — Mechanical finger. A link or wedge cam, tap bolted to ram, actuating
a horizontal finger which reaches into press and pulls out piece (A ) or
pokes out piece ( B) . A little machine work, like drilling a half-inch hole,
is necessary the first time attachm ent is used w ith any die. Ram of the
press must be tapped for stud to attach connecting link or wedge cam.
(Sec. K.)




ILLUSTRATED DESCRIPTIONS

59

Courtesy Westinghouse Iilectrie & Mfg. Co.
F ig . 57. — Square shear guard made of angle iron placed in front and in­

dependent of hold-down. Guard makes it possible to operate machine w ith
one man and to discard circular cutter slitting process requiring tw o men.
Shear cuts a much cleaner edge than slitter, thus elim inating many cuts and
scratches. Out pieces drop off and are piled autom atically on trucks at rear.
The remaining scrap is engaged by mechanically operated rollers at right
of feed table and moved onto trucks placed there for that purpose. Note
guard on rolls.

Courtesy National Cash Register Co.
F ig . 58.—Guard for square shear, applied to back of hold-down.




work w ithin % inch of knife.

Operator can

60

SAFETY CODE FOE PRESSES---- A PPE N D IX

Courtesy Clum M anufacturing Co.
F ig . 59.—Well-guarded squaring shear.

Guards carried back close to knife.
Each section of guard has sufficient vertical movement through slotted bolt
holes.

F ig . 60.—Treadle guards.

Courtesy International Harvester Co, and ^Etna Life Ins. Co.
F ig . 61.—D evice on treadle bar prevents bar being tripped by pressure a t any

other point.
point A.




To trip, device m ust first be rotated on the bar by pressure at

61

ILLU STRA TE!) D ESCRIPTIO N S

Courtesy E. W. B liss Co.

Fig. 62.— Safety spring lateli




011 hand

lever.

62

SAFETY CODE FOB PKESSES----APPENDIX

Courtesy American Can Co.
F ig . 63.— Sheet-metal and wire-inesh guard furnishes protection on three sides.

Guard is open on press side to permit easy access to latch, but sheet-metal
disk is attached to pulley spokes to furnish protection. Swinging door gives
access to outside of pulley.




INDEX
Page
Aisles (rule 101)-----------------------------4
Apparatus, electrical (rule 105)______
5
Attachments, nonrepeat and treadledisconnecting------------------------------ 19, 20
Brake, releasing------------------------------- 19
Brake band, maintaining tension in_
_ 19
Bumper stud guards (tigs. 24, 5 4 )_34,56
Chute feed. (See Feeds.)
Classification:
Of safety means, at point of oper­
ation-------------------------------------- 13
Power press hazards, by cause- 11-13
Safeguarding (rule 110)-------------6
4
Code, reference to__________________
Definitions---------------------------------------3
Dial, revolving, semiautomatic chute
feed (fig. 9 )--------------------------------- 25
D ies:
Blanking die, gate guard on, man­
ual feed (fig. 3 6 )------------------- 42
Design and construction (rule
130)_________________________
8
Designers, suggestions for------- 14,15
Die holders, cut away to improve
view (fig. 1 ) ------------------------- 21
Drawing die, gate guard on man­
ual feed (fig. 3 6 )------------------- 42
Forming die, with ram inclosure,
hand feed (fig. 32)___________ 39
Lower die, hazard of pieces stick­
ing in, eliminated (fig. 55 )------ 57
Makers, suggestions f o r _______14,15
Reversing_______________________ 20
Revolving_______________________ 16
Revolving, with ram inclosure
(fig. 17)-------------------------------- 29
Revolving, with ram inclosure,
semiautomatic feeds (figs. 18,
19, 20, 2 1 )________________ 30-32
Setters, suggestions for-----------14,15
Setting, operating (rule 141)-----8
Sliding_________________________ 16
Sliding (figs. 14, 15, 16)--------- 27,28
Sliding, with gate guard around
ram (fig. 3 7 )------------------------- 43
Ejectors. {See Knockouts.)
Electrical apparatus (rule 105)--------5
Embossing press, hand feed, with
horizontal bar sweep guard (fig. 42) _ 46
Feeds :
Automatic and semiautomatic- 15,16
Automatic, definition----------------3
Automatic plunger (fig. 4 ) ______ 22
Automatic plunger (par. 215)— 15,16
Automatic push or pull-------------- 15
Automatic r o ll_________________
15
Automatic roll, with ram inclos­
ure (fig. 3 )----------------- ---------- 22
Automatic,
with
gate
guard
(fig. 2 ) ----------------------------------- 21
Chute__________________________ 16
Chute, semiautomatic, to irregular
pieces (fig. 5 ) ________________ 23
Chute, semiautomatic, ram inclo­
sure (figs. 6, 7 ) ____________ 23,24
Chute, semiautomatic, for piercing
operation (fig. 8 ) _____________ 24
Chute, semiautomatic, horizontal
(fig. 10)-------------------------------- 25
Chute, semiautomatic, revolving
dial (fig. 9 ) _________________
25
D ia l___________________________ 16
Feeding mechanisms (rule 106)_
5
Hand, in lieu of impracticable au­
tomatic ------------ ---------------------- 19




Feeds—Continued.
Page
Hand, with canvas roller-curtain
guard (fig. 47 )_______________ 52
Hand, with conical spring guard
(fig. 27)-------------------------------- 36
Hand, with gate guards, front
and rear views (fig. 3 5 )_______ 41
Hand, with guards inclosing
rams, gang press (fig. 33)_____ 40
Hand, with horizontal-bar sweep
guard (fig. 4 2 )_______________
46
Hand, with ram inclosure, cellu­
loid window in front (fig. 2 8 )- 37
Hand, with simple ram inclosure
made of flat iron (fig. 3 4 )_____ 40
Hand, with spring inclosing punch
above stripper (fig. 26 )_______ 35
Hand, with sweep guards (figs.
44, 4 8 )------------------------------ 47,52
Hand, with two-hand lifting de­
vice (fig. 53)------------------------- 56
Manual feeding, definition (rule
2 4 )---------------------------------------3
Manual, to power press, and ram
inclosure (figs. 22, 2 3 )________ 33
Manual, with gate guards (fig.
36) -------------------------------------- 42
Manual, with horizontal sweep
guard (fig. 46)_______________
51
Manual, with ram inclosure,
blanking operation (fig. 30)_
_ 38
Revolving die, semiautomatic, with
ram inclosure (fig. 17)_______ 29
Semiautomatic feding, definition
(rule 25 )_____________________
3
Slide, semiautomatic, hand-oper­
ated plunger and magazine
(figs. 11, 12, 13)___________ 26,27
Sliding (par. 217)______________ 16
Sliding die (figs. 14, 15, 16)_ 27, 28
_
Flying particles, protection against_
_
5
Gear guards (rule 104)____________
5
Goggles, against flying particles (rule
107)--------------------------------------------5
Guards:
Basket, inclosing ram, blanking
operation (fig. 3 1 )___________ 38
Belt (rule 104)________________
5
Bumper stud (fig. 54 )__________ 56
Bumper stud, and treadle (fig.
^ 2 4 )--------------------------------- 34
Gate, around ram, hand-operated
sliding die (fig. 37) __________ 43
Gate, definition_________________
3
Gate, front and rear view (fig 35) _ 41
Gate, need of supervision________ 17
Gate, on blanking and drawing die
(fig. 36)--------------------------------- 42
Gate (rule 113)________________ 6 ,7
Gate, to automatic feeds (fig. 2 ) _21
Gear (rule 104)________________
5
Horizontal sweep guard, manually
fed press (fig. 4 6 )----------------- 51
Inclosing ram________________ 16,17
Pulley (rule 104)______________
5
Shaft (rule 104)_______________
5
Shear guard, square (fig. 57, 58,
5 9 )________________________ 59,60
Sheet-metal and wire-mesh guards
(fig. 63 )--------------------------------- 62
Sliding sweep guard operated by
roller, toggle press (fig. 4 5 )_49
Sweep, attached to trip------------ 18
Sweep, attached to ram________ 18
Sweep, canvas roller-curtain (fig.
4 7 )__________________________ 52

63

64

INDEX

Guards—Continued.
Page
Sweep, definition-----------------------3
Sweep, hand feed press (fig. 48) _ 52
Sweep, horning press, ram inclos­
ure (fig. 4 3 )------------------------- 46
Sweep, horizontal-bar, embossing
press (fig. 4 2 )----------------------- 46
Sweep, operated by ram, hand feed
(fig. 4 4 )______________________ 47
Sweep (rule 113)---------------------- 6.7
Treadle (fig. 60)------------------------ 60
Treadle, line of seven presses (fig.
24 )
34
Treadle (rule 120)---------------------7
Hand lever, latch on, power press
(rule 121)------------------------------------7
Hand to o ls:
Special, for feeding presses (fig.
4 9 )______________ —
------ —
------- 53
Special, for placing and remov­
ing material (fig. 51 )------------ 54
Special (rule 114)-------------------7
Special variety, for hand feeding- 19
Suction disk and magnet (fig 52) _ 55
Hazards, power press:
Classification, by causes-------------- 11
Safeguarding at point of opera­
tion________________________ 13-15
Horn press:
Hand lever vs. foot treadle--------- 18
Sweep guard for, with ram in­
closure (fig. 4 3 )-------------------- 46
Inspection and maintenance, operating
(rule 140)----------------------------------8
Installation, press---------------------------- 20
Instruction of operators (rule 142)—
8
Interlocking device, power press (rule
122)--------------------------------------------7
Kick press, hand-fed (fig. 4 1 )------------ 45
Kickouts. (See Knockouts.)
Knockouts:
D efinition______________________
3
Ejector, air (fig. 41 )____________ 45
Ejector, definition (rule 23 )_____
3
Kickout, definition (rule 2 3 )-----3
Method of removing material--------- 20
Lever, hand, latch on (rule 121)____
7
Lighting (rule 102)------------------------4
Magnet, and suction disk, for placing
and removing material (fig. 52 )____ 55
Maintenance and inspection, operating
(rule 140)_____________________ ___
8
Manual feed. (See Feeds.)
Mechanical finger (fig. 56)--------------- 58
Metal-embossing press, stop device for
(fig. 4 0 )-------------------------------------- 45
Operators:
Accidents to fingers, at operating
point-----------------------------------11, 12
Instruction of (rule 142)______
8
Qualifications or----------------------- 20
Rules for, operating (rule 143)_8 ,9
Pliers, soft-nosed, damaged in service
(fig. 50)---------------------------------------- 53
Plunger feed, automatic (fig. 4 ) --------- 22
Power, means of disconnecting (rule
103)_____________________________
5
Press foundation (rule 100)________
4
Pulley guards (rule 104)____________
5
Ram :
Adjustable guard inclosing (fig.
25 )
__________ 35
Definition (rule 22 )____________
3
Gate guard around, hand-operated
sliding die (fig. 37 )--------------- 43




Ram—Continued.
Page
Inclosure, attached to die block
mica windows (fig. 2 9 )________ 37
Inclosure, basket guard, banking
operation (fig. 31)____________ 38
Inclosure, horning press, sweep
guard (fig. 4 3 )_ ___________ 46
_
Inclosure, made of flat, iron, handfeed press (fig. 34)__________ 40
Inclosure, on gang press, hand
feed (fig. 33)________________
40
Inclosure (pars. 222-225)_____16,17
InclosUre, semiautomatic chute
feed, piercing operation (fig. 8)_ 24
Inclosure, to automatic roll feed
(fig. 3 ) --------------------------------- 22
Inclosure, to hand feed forming
die (fig. 3 2 )_________________
39
Inclosure, to line of seven presses
(fig. 24 )______________ ______ 34
Inclosure, to manual feed, power
press (figs. 22, 2 3 )__________ 33
Inclosure, to revolving die, semi­
automatic feed (figs. 17, 18, 19,
20, 21)_____________________29-32
Inclosure, to semiautomatic chute
feed (figs. 6, 7 ) ____________ 23,24
Inclosure, used on blanking opera­
tion, manual feed (fig. 3 0 )_
_ 38
Inclosure, with celluloid window
in front (fig. 2 8 )_____________ 37
Limitation of stroke (rule 112)__
6
Short stroke of________________
17
Sweep guards operated by, hand
Sweep guards operated by, hand
feed (fig. 4 4 )________________
47
Ratchet, to prevent dropping back___ 20
R ules:
Definitions--------------------------------3
8
Dies, making and setting________
Hazards, general_______________ 4, 5
Operating______________________8, 9
Press guards____________________
7
References to other codes_ ,___
_
4
Safeguarding press hazards at
point of operation____________ 6, 7
Scope and purpose—___________ 2, 3
Safeguarding classification (rule 110) _
6
Safety finger spring________________
16
Safety spring latch on hand lever
(fig. 62)--------------------------------- 61
Shaft guards (rule 104)____________
5
Soft-nosed pliers, damaged in service
(fig. 5 0 )___________ _____________ 53
Strippers, method of removing ma­
terial____________________________ 20
Suction disk, and magnet, for placing
and removing material (fig. 52 )---- 55
Switches (rule 105)------------------------5
Toggle press, hand feed, with sliding
sweep guard operated by roller (fig.
4 5 )__ ___________________________
49
Tools, hand. ( See Hand tools.)
Treadle guards. ( See Guards.)
Trip, sweep guards attached to______ 18
Tripping device:
On treadle bar (fig. 6 1 )------------ 60
Two-hand (pars. 230-234)_____17,18
Two-hand, with air ejector (fig.
4 1 )__________________________ 45
Two-hand, with positive stop (fig.
39)_ 1_____ __________ ______ 44
_
Working space (rule 101)___________
4