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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
JAMES J. DAVIS, Secretary

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
ETHELBERT STEWART, Commissioner

BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES { .
BUREAU OF LABOR STA TISTICS)
SAFETY

CODE

.

. . XT
A CJ
il0 .* 1 0 i

SERIES

SAFETY CODE FOR FORGING
AND HOT METAL STAMPING
AMERICAN DROP FORGING INSTITUTE AND
NATIONAL SAFETY COUNCIL, SPONSORS




TENTATIVE AMERICAN STANDARD
Approved April 8, 1927
American Engineering Standards Committee

/fV \
w

AUGUST, 1927

UNITED STATES
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON
1927




CONTENTS
Page

12

Introduction---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------*
Section 1. Scope and purpose------------------------------------------------------------A*
Section 2. Definitions-------------------------------------------------------------------------’
Section 3. References to other codes-------- -----------------------------------------Section 10. General requirements---------------------------------------------------------«
£
Rule 100. Working space---------------------------------------------------------------Rule 101. Aisles--------------------------------------------------- ------------------------{
J
Rule 102. Platforms---------------------------------------------------------------------®
Rule 103. Goggles--------------------------------------------------------------------------®
Rule 104. Lighting-------------------------------------------------------------------------»
Section 11. All hammers----------------------------------------------------------------------'
Rule 110. Scale removers and oil swabs-----------------------------------------o
Rule 111. Treadle guard-----------------------------------------------------------------®
Rule 112. Blocking hammer-----------------------------------------------------------Rule 113. Scale guard---------------------------------- ---------------------------------%
Rule 114. Hammer die keys----------------------------------------------------------Rule 115. Feeding cold material----------------------------------------------------Section 12. Steam and pneumatic hammers-------------------------------------------Rule 120. Clearance and cushion----------------------------------------------------Rule 121. Stop valves--------------------------------------------------------------------Rule 122. Drain cock--------------------------------------------------------------------Rule 123. Steam pipes-------------------- ----------------------------------------------Section 13. Mechanically operated hammers-----------------------------------------Rule 130. Means of disconnecting power-----------------------------------------7. o
Rule 131. Safety stops------------------------------------------------------------------|
Rule 132. Inclosure of springs-------------------------------- ----------------------°
Rule 133. Shaft failure—------------------ ------------------------------------------°
Section 14. Board drop hammers----------------------------------------------------------°
Rule 140. Inclosure for board---------------------------------------------------------g
Rule 141. Overhead platform and ladder---------------------------------------o
Section 15. Other machines------------------------------------------------------------------^
Rule 150. Hydraulic presses-valves-------------------------------------------------9
Rule 151. Hydraulic presses-blocking----------------------------------------------9
Rule 152. Cold trim presses----------------------------------------------------------9
Rule 153. Cold heading and similar operations------------------------------9
Rule 154. Bulldozers----------------------------------------------------------------------9
9
Rule 155. Bolt heading and rivet-making machines-------------------------Rule 156. Hot saws-----------------------------------------------------------------------Rule 157. Power shears and punches----------------------------------------------10
Rule 158. Grinding wheels and tumblers---------------------------------------10
Section 16. Furnaces----------------------------------------------------------------------------jO
Rule 160. Front of furnace------------------------------------------------------------19
Rule 161. Insulation of sides---------------------------------------------------------10
Rule 162. Hood____________________________________________________
">
Rule 163. Pressure release devices-------------------------------------------------10
Section 17. Miscellaneous----------------------------------------------------------------------- H» 12
Rule 170. Accumulator pits------------------------------------------------------------11
Rule 171. Shower bath and locker rooms---------------------------------------11
Rule 172. Potassium or sodium cyanide-----------------------------------------11
Rule 173. Transfer trucks--------------------------------------------------------------11
Rule 174. Storage racks for dies------------- ----------------- ---------------------11
Rule 175. Taking lead casts----------------------------------------------------------11
Rule 176. Ramps--------------------------------------------------------------------------11
Rule 177. Housekeeping-----------------------------------------------------------------11
Rule 178. Storing material------------------------------------------------------------12
Rule 179. Inspection and maintenance--------------------------------------------12




iii

IV

CONTENTS
Page

Section 35. Operating rules------------------------------------------------------------------- 12,13
Rule 250 (a). Changing dies or making repairs___________________
12
Rule 250 (&). Projecting keys_____________________________________
12
Rule 250 (c). When not in use____________________________________
12
Rule 250 (d). Mushroomed tools___________________________________
12
Rule 250 (e) . Tongs or steel fork__________________________________
12
Rule 250 if). Replacing board_____________________________________
12
Rule 250 iff). Adjusting board mechanism_________________________
12
Rule 250 {h). Feeding cold material_______________________________
12
Rule 250 (i). Cold trimming---------------------------------------- -----------------13
Rule 250 (j). Goggles—-----------------------------------------------------------------13
Rule 250 (1c). Safe clothing_______________________________________
13
Rule 250 (I). Furnaces____________________________________________
13
Rule 250 ( m ) . Dies 200 to 500 pounds_____________________________
13
Rule 250 in). Dies 500 to 1,000 pounds-------------------------------------------13
Rule 250 (o). Dies more than 1,000 pounds_________________________
13
Rule 250 ip). Transfer boards-----------------------------------------------------13
Illustrated descriptions-------------------------------- ---------------------------------------- 14-32




BULLETIN OF THE

U. S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
WASHINGTON

NO. 451

SEPTEMBER, 1927

SAFETY CODE FOR FORGING AND HOT METAL STAMPING
INTRODUCTION
1. This code was formulated by the following committee under
the joint sponsorship of the American Drop Forging Institute and
the National Safety Council, which committee functioned under the
procedure of the American Engineering Standards Committee:
Name and title

Affiliation

Representing—

Chairman, G. A. Kuechenmeister.
Owen F. Luckenbach.............

Dominion Forge & Stamping Co.
(Ltd.), Walkerville, Ontario.
29 Wall Street, Bethlehem, Pa____

American Drop Forging Institute.

Howard L. Johnson..

Baldwin Chain & Manufacturing
Co., Worcester, Mass.
New Jersey Department of Labor,
Trenton, N. J.

R. H. Leveridge, chief bureau
of electrical and mechanical
equipment.
John P. Mead, director division
of industrial safety.
S. N. Clarkson, executive sec­
retary.
MacDonald S. Reed...... .........
Lucian W. Chaney...................
R. McA. Keown, engineer-----Reginald Steel--......................
George J. Earl, secretary.........
W. J. Graves, safety engineer.
W. S. Paine, research engineer.
T. M .N ial.............................
G. A. Orth..............................
Hugo P. Frear........................
S. J. Owen, Jr.........................
Capt. H. C. Minton-.............
Wm. H. Doolittle, safety engi­
neer.
Prof. Chas. F. Park, director....
E. R. Frost, manager.............
E. C. Clarke, vice president
and general manager.
Chas. E. Lehr, chief engineer. _.
J. L. Thompson-.....................
Secretary, W. Dean Keefer,
director industrial division.

1Forging

Association of Governmental Labor
Officials of United States and
Canada.
Department of Labor and Indus­
Do.
try, Boston, Mass.
Electric Power Club, B. F. Keith Electrical Manufacturers' Council
(for Electric Power Club).
Building, Cleveland, Ohio.
Erie Foundry Co., Erie, Pa______ Erie Foundry Co.*
Bureau of Labor Statistics, Wash­ International Association of In­
dustrial Accident Boards and
ington, D. C.
Commissions.
Do.
Industrial Commission, Madison,
Wis.
R. Steel & Sons (Inc.), 482 Vernon Master Blacksmiths' Association.
Avenue, Long Island City, L. I.
Master Blacksmiths' Association, Alternate.
30 Church Street,New York City.
Michigan Mutual Liability Co., National Association of Mutual
Detroit, Mich.
Casualty Companies.
Aetna Life Insurance Co., Hart­ National Bureau of Casualty and
ford, Conn.
Surety Underwriters.
National Bureau of Casualty and Alternate.
Surety Underwriters, 120 West
42d St., New York City.
American Car & Foundry Co., 165 Railway Car Manufacturers' Asso­
ciation.
Broadway, New York City.
Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp., Society of Naval Architects and
Marine Engineers.
Bethlehem, Pa.
Bureau of Standards, Washington, U. S. Bureau of Standards.
D. C.
.
Watertown Arsenal, Watertown, U. S. War Department.
Mass.
National Metal Trades Associa­ Independent expert.
tion, People’s Gas Building,
Chicago, 111.
Mechanical Laboratories, Massa­ American Society of Mechanical
Engineers.
chusetts Institute of Technology,
Cambridge, Mass.
National Machinery Co., Tiffin, National Machinery C o..
Ohio.
Chambersburg Engineering Co.,
Do.
Chambersburg, Pa.
Bethlehem Steel Co., Bethlehem, National Safety Council, metals
section.
Pa.
Travelers Insurance Co., Hartford, National Safety Council.
Conn.
Do.
National Safety Council, 10$ East
Ohio Street, Chicago, 1 1
1.

equipment manufacturers are not organized.




American Society of Mechanical
Engineers.
Do.

1

2

SAFETY CODE FOR FORGING AND HOT METAL STAMPING

2. The nature of any industry invariably reflects the nature of the
product manufactured. If the product is a refined machine, ex­
tremely accurate and finely finished, like an adding machine, the
factory in which it is built is likely to be a model for highly de­
veloped processes, economical methods for handling material, fault­
less housekeeping, excellent working conditions, etc. Manufacturing
establishments so conducted are generally profitable.
3. I f on the other hand, the product is rough, black, and unfinished,
like forgings, raw castings, etc., the work place is more likely to be
dark, smoky, dusty, and crude, and uneconomical methods are more
likely to prevail. Business under such conditions is generally
unprofitable.
4. The forge shop is the result of evolution. It started as a hand
smithy and many things which featured the old-time blacksmith shop
still prevail. It is unfortunate, economically, that this is so. Com­
paring the forging industry with others, there is not one which
offers so much chance as forging for improvement in the reduction of
waste and the development of modern methods for economical
production.
5. This code deals primarily with but one form of industrial
waste—namely, accidents—but if, incidentally, it is the means of
promoting greater interest in some of the business needs which have
never been as profitable as might be, this code will doubly serve its
purpose.
6. This is one of a number of safety codes on various subjects
which have been or are being formulated under the general auspices
of the American Engineering Standards Committee.
7. The code is designed to serve as a guide to State authorities in
the formulation of laws or regulations. It is also intended for volun­
tary use by concerns in the forging industry or having a forge depart­
ment. The code may be adopted by any such concern as a standard
to be followed by its superintendents, foremen, designers, mechanics,
and operators.
8. A similar code on power presses and foot and hand presses has
recently been formulated under similar auspices and may be obtained
from the National Safety Council, Chicago.
9. The illustrations contained herein are not a part of the code
proper; they simply show how various manufacturers have met
certain code requirements.
SECTION 1. SCOPE AND PURPOSE
Rule 10. Scope.
This code applies to all classes of power-forging machinery for
both drop forging and flat-die forging, including steam hammers,
pneumatic hammers, mechanically operated hammers, hydraulic
presses, trimming presses, bulldozers, upsetting machines, and boltheading and rivet-making machines, hot saws; and incidental opera­
tions in connection with such machinery.
Buie 11. Purpose and exceptions.
The purpose of this code is to provide reasonable safety for life,
limb, and health. In cases of practical difiiculty or unnecessary




DEFINITIONS

3

hardship the enforcing authority may grant exceptions from the
literal requirements of this code or permit the use o f other devices or
methods, but only when it is clearly evident that reasonable safety is
thereby secured.
Note.— It is suggested that in cases where exceptions are asked, the enforcing
authority consult with the committee on Safety Code for Forging, in care of
American Engineering Standards Committee, 29 West Thirty-ninth Street, New
York, or National Safety Council, 108 East Ohio Street, Chicago, or American
Drop Forging Institute, Union Bank Building, Pittsburgh. Such consultation
will tend to bring about uniform application of the code and wUl keep the
committee informed of criticisms which should be considered if and when the
code is revised.

SECTION 2. DEFINITIONS
Rule 20.
The word “ shall ” is to be understood as mandatory and the word
“ should ” as advisory.
Rule 21.
The word “ approved ” means approved by the authority having
jurisdiction.
Rule 22.
Power hammers may be classified in either of two ways:
(a) They may be called “ forging hammers ” or “ drop hammers,”
ana the distinction is usually based upon the type of work that is
done and upon the manner in which the anvil is assembled with ref­
erence to the operating mechanism and machine supports; or
(b) They may be called “ steam hammers,” “ pneumatic ham­
mers,” or “ mechanical hammers,” and the distinction is based upon
the manner in which the ram is actuated.
Rule 23.
Forging hammers are so constructed that the anvil assembly is
separate from the operating mechanism and machine supports; it
rests on its own independent foundation. In such hammers flat
dies are most generally used, or dies that do not require perfect
alignment. Certain exceptional forging hammers are made with
the frame mounted on the anvil; for instance, the smaller single
frame hammers are usually made with the anvil and frame in one
piece. Practically all forging hammers which are operated by
steam or air are double acting.
Rule 24.
Drop hammers are so constructed that the f rames and upper parts
of the machines are held and maintained in alignment with the anvil
in such a manner as to insure matching of the die impressions. The
entire assembly of the hammer is supported by the anvil which in
turn rests on a single foundation. Flat dies are rarely used in drop
hammers; the purpose of this type of hammer being to shape the
finished forging exactly to the impression machined in the dies;
excess metal is extruded as “flash ” or “ fin ” which must later be
trimmed off. Practically all air or steam drop hammers are double
iacting.




4

SAFETY CODE FOR FORGING AND HOT METAL STAMPING

Buie 25.
Steam hammers may be either single or double acting, and all
steam hammers can be adjusted to operate equally effectively with
compressed air furnished from some exterior source. Steam ham­
mers are built in both “ drop hammer ” and “ forging hammer ” types
and are still essentially steam hammers, in ordinary parlance, even
though operated by compressed air instead of steam. Another type
of hammer has an air compressor built integral with the hammer,
and in this type there is a definite relation between the movement
of the compressor piston and the hammer ram. The compressor of
the hammer is operated by a motor, by belt drive, or by similar
mechanical power. The name “ pneumatic hammer ” is believed to
be the usual and clearest name for this type, which is of the “ forg­
ing hammer” class. Mechanically operated hammers (i. e., direct
mechanical drive without the interposition of compressed air) are
made in both drop hammer and forging hammer types. Drop ham­
mers in this class include both board drop hammers and hammers
which have the ram suspended by ropes or belts lifted by a crank, by
a drum on which the belt is wound, or by similar means. These
hammers drop by gravity only. Forging hammers in this class are
of numerous types and are made principally in small sizes. Typical
examples are helve hammers and hammers with rams having flexible
connection, such as a spring to the actuating mechanism which is
belt or motor driven. In these hammers, the ram may be driven
downward.
Buie 26.
Terms not defined are understood to be used with their usual
significance.
SECTION 3. REFERENCES TO OTHER CODES
Buie 30.
This code is supplemented by the following codes:
Safety Code xor Power Presses and Foot and Hand Presses.
Note.— Copies may be obtained from National Safety Council, 108 East Ohio
Street, Chicago.

Safety Code for the Use, Care, and Protection of Abrasive Wheels.
Note.— Copies may be obtained from Superintendent of Documents, Govern­
ment Printing Office, Washington, D. C.

Safety Code for the Construction, Care, and Use of Ladders.
Note.— Copies may be obtained from Superintendent of Documents, Govern­
ment Printing Office, Washington, D. C.

Safety Code for Mechanical Power-Transmission Apparatus.
Norn—Copies may be obtained from the American Society of Mechanical
Engineers, 29 West Thirty-ninth Street, New York City.

National Electrical Safety Code.
Note.—Copies may be obtained from Superintendent of Documents, Govern­
ment Printing Office, Washington, D. C.

National Electrical (Fire) Code.
Note.—Copies may be obtained from National Board of Fire Underwriters,
76 William Street, New York City.



GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

5

Safety Code for Walkway Surfaces.
Note.—This code is now in preparation, but tentative draft may be obtained
from the American Engineering Standards Committee, 29 West Thirty-ninth
Street, New York City.

Code of Lighting Factories, Mills, and Other Work Places.
Norn— Copies may be obtained from Superintendent of Documents, Govern­
ment Printing Office, Washington, D. C.

Safety Code for the Protection of the Heads and Eyes of Indus­
trial Workers.
Note.— Copies may be obtained from Superintendent of Documents, Govern­
ment Printing Office, Washington, D. C.

SECTION 10. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
Rule 100. Working space. (See fig. 1.)
Machines shall be so located as to give (a) enough clearance be­
tween machines so that the movement of one operator will not inter­
fere with the work of another; (b) ample room for cleaning machines
and handling the work, including material and scrap. The arrange­
ment of machines shall be such that operators will not stand in
aisles.
Rule 101. Aisles. (See fig. 1.)
Aisles shall be provided, of sufficient width to permit the free
movement of employees bringing and removing material. A mini­
mum aisle width of 4 feet 6 inches is recommended. This aisle
space is to be independent of working spaces and storage spaces.
Aisle space should be defined by marking where practicable.
Norn— The marking of aisles is desirable to discourage piling or leaving
material, tools, etc., therein.

Rule 102. Platforms.
I f wooden platforms are used on the floor in front of machines,
they should be substantially constructed and a separate platform
should be provided for each machine.
Note.—Long platforms serving a row of hammers or presses are difficult to
keep in repair and are often neglected.

Rule 103. Goggles.
Goggles shall be provided for all hammer operators, heaters,
helpers, and cold-trim press operators as required by the Head and
Eye Protection Code.
Rule 104. Lighting.
Machinery and equipment should be so located with respect to
sources of both natural and artificial light that light of sufficient
intensity will fall on the work. Direct or reflected glare and shadows
including moving shadows should be avoided.
Note.— For specific requirements see Code of Lighting Factories, Mills, and
Other Work Places.
53340°—27------2




6

SAFETY CODE FOR FORGING AND HOT METAL STAMPING

SECTION 11. ALL HAMMERS
Rule 110. Scale removers and oil swabs. (See fig. 2.)
Oil swabs or scale brushes or similar devices to remove scale shall
be provided which are long enough to enable a man to reach the
full length of the die without placing the user’s hand or arm between
the dies.
Rule 111. Treadle guard.
All hammer treadles shall be substantially and effectively guarded
to prevent accidental tripping. The portion of the treadle at the
rear of the hammer shall also be guarded so that scrap or other ma­
terial can not collect below this portion of the treadle and prevent
it from returning to normal position. (See figs. 3 and 5.)
Note.—Treadle latches or locking devices, while preventing accidental trip­
ping of the treadle, do not always prevent the descent of the ram;. This 1 t
s
particularly true of steam drop hammers where a shutoff in the steam line
will allow the ram to fall, regardless of treadle movement.

Rule 112. Blocking hammer. (See fig. 4.)
A proper timber or bar shall be provided at each hammer for
blocking up the ram when changing or otherwise working on the
dies or hammer, and shall be either—
(a) A timber not less than 4 by 4 inches, preferably of hardwood
with a ferrule on each end and preferably with a handle on the
side; or
(&) A rail or structural shape carefully squared at the ends; or
(<?) A pipe riot less than 2y2 inches inside diameter, with a flange
on each end; or
(d) A forked clutch on the side of hammer frame which is inde­
pendent of the actuating mechanism. (This is applicable only to
hammers actuated by mechanical power.)
The size of timber blocks shall be such that the stress will not
exceed 800 pounds per square inch under the weight of the hammer
plus steam or air pressure in the case of a steam or air hammer. The
size of shapes or pipe shall be such that under similar conditionis
the safe working load will not be exceeded. (See fig. 6.)
Nom—Hardwood blocking from railroad cars may be used.

Rule 113. Scale guard.
A scale guard of substantial construction shall be provided on the
back of every hammer, so arranged as to stop all flying pieces. This
guard may be pivoted on one side to permit easy access to dies, or
scale guards may be supported on floor standard or may be suspended
from the ceiling by chains with hooks at the bottom. (See fig. 7.)
Rule 114. Hammer die keys.
Hammer die keys shall be of material that will not crack or splinter
or fly off and shall not project so as to endanger workmen.
Note.—It is suggested that hammer die keys be made of open-hearth mate­
rial (Mn 0.40 to 0.50 per cent; C 0.50 to 0.60 per cent); that they be machined
accurately to fit notches; and that the ends be tempered to prevent spreading,
upsetting, or breaking. The ends of keys should be redressed when necessary.
For backing out keys a “ key backer ” held by a fixture is recommended. (See
figs. 8, 9, and 10.)




MECHANICALLY OPERATED HAMMERS

7

Another method which has been found satisfactory is to use softer
keys (C 0.37 to 0.50 per cent), heat treated by quenching in oil until
black and then cooling in the air. These keys upset before they will
split. This necessitates frequent dressing but is reported to be much
better than using hard keys. If the small end of the key upsets
before it starts out of the die, the key is driven up as far as possible,
then the end is burned off with an acetylene torch and the key driven
out.
Buie 115. Feeding cold material.
Pliers or other suitable devices shall be provided for feeding mate­
rial (for example, where hammers are used for straightening malle­
able castings) so that the operator’s hand need not be placed under
the hammer at any time.
SECTION 12. STEAM AND PNEUMATIC HAMMERS
Buie 120. Clearance and cushion.
Every steam or air hammer shall have a sufficient steam or air
cushion or an equally effective spring head to prevent the piston from
striking the top cylinder head. The cushion or spring should be
placed at the top of the cylinder, so as to strike the piston head rather
than the ram; thus it will be effective should the rod break or pull
out of the ram, whereas the stop springs placed between the bottom*
of the cylinder and the top of the ram are not effective in such cases
and, on the contrary, tend to drive ram off the rod.
Buie 121. Stop valves.
Every steam hammer shall be provided with a stop valve in the
admission pipe line, in a convenient location.
Note.—This valve must be closed while repairing the hammer, changing dies,
or doing any other work on hammei* or dies. The steam or air pressure at
the hammer should be fairly constant and not higher than the pressure for
which the hammer was designed. If the pressure is higher, or if it fluctuates,
a reducing valve or automatic regulating valve supplemented by a safety‘valve
shall be used. When stop valve is out of reach place sprocket wheel and chain
on valve stem. Valve can then be easily operated from the floor.

Buie 122. Drain cock.
If the steam hammer cylinder is constructed without a self-draining arrangement, a drain cock shall be provided, preferably of the
quick-acting type, which should be piped to a sump or drain pipe.
If discharging into the air, it shall be so located as not to endanger
passers-by.
Buie 123. Steam pipes.
All steam pipes shall be covered where exposed to contact. Steam
pipes to hammers should be placed in floor trenches where prac­
ticable. Proper pipe supports or other equally effective means shall
be provided to prevent failure from vibration or expansion.
SECTION 13. MECHANICALLY OPERATED HAMMERS
Buie 130. Means of disconnecting power.
Every mechanically operated hammer shall be provided with means
for disconnecting power. Acceptable methods are:



8

SAFETY CODE FOR FORGING AND HOT METAL STAMPING

(a)
Individual motor drive; if the switch or starter is so con­
structed and located that the motor may be accidentally started,
provision shall be made to permit locking or latching in off position.
(&) Tight and loose pulleys on countershaft, with belt shifter
which can be locked or latched in off position.
(< Clutch on drive pulley, with clutch handle that can be locked
?)
or latched in off position.
(d)
Belt porch or idler pulleys to facilitate throwing the drive
belt off and on.
Note.—A belt porch should be used only where other disconnecting devices
are not practicable. Whatever disconnecting device is used shall conform to
the requirements of the Mechanical Power-Transmission Code.

Rule 131. Safety stops.
On mechanically operated hammers where only one hand is used
for holding the material, a safety stop, dog, or catch should be pro­
vided which will prevent the hammer coming down until such
device has been released and held out of the way by the other hand,
or a hand lever instead of the foot treadle shall be provided for trip­
ping the hammer. On hammers where neither hand is used for
holding the material a safety stop or tripping lever, or both, should
be provided which will require the use of both hands to trip the
hammer. (See figs. 11, 12, and 13.)
Note.—The purpose of this rule is to keep both hands out of the danger
zone whenever the hammer is descending or may accidentally descend.

Rule 132.
Inclosure of springs suspending the ram in power-driven hammers
is recommended.
Note.— Such inclosure will prevent injury to the operator in case the spring
breaks and will also prevent long stock being caught in the spring.

Rule 133. Shaft failure.
Suitable means should be provided to prevent the flywheel or driv­
ing pulley falling to the floor in case the shaft should break.
SECTION 14. BOARD DROP HAMMERS
Rule 140. Inclosure for board.
On every board drop hammer a substantial guard shall be pro­
vided around the board above the rolls to prevent the board falling
in case the board breaks or comes loose from the ram. (See fig. 14.)
Rule 141. Overhead platform and ladder.
On board drop hammers where it is necessary for work to be done
at or near the rolls a platform with standard railing and fixed ladder
should be provided for such purpose. (See figs. 15 and 16.)
Note.—In the case of a battery of hammers an overhead platform or runaway
may be constructed, providing access to the rolls of all hammers. On newer
types of board drop hammer, where the roll adjustments are made at the base
of the hammer, a platform and ladder are still desirable for belt adjustment,
oiling, and general maintenance.




OTHER MACHINES

9

SECTION 15. OTHER MACHINES
Buie 150. Hydraulic presses—Valves.
I f operating valves are not a part of or attached to the hydraulic
press, they shall be located so that the operator will have a clear
and unobstructed view of the press when standing in the usual oper­
ating position. I f for any reason this is impossible, a mirror giving
full view of the press shall be installed in front of the operator.
Rule 151. Hydraulic presses—Blocking.
When making repairs or changing dies, suitable blocks shall be
provided to prevent the press from closing accidentally.
Nom— Cast-steel blocks 9 by 12 inches have been found suitable for this
purpose. These blocks are placed on top of one another at opposite corners of
the press.

Buie 152. Cold-trim presses.
Cold-trim presses shall comply with all requirements of the Safety
Code for Power Presses (American Standard) obtainable from the
American Engineering Standards Committee or the National Safety
Council.
Note.—As it is not practicable to use automatic or semiautomatic feeds for
cold-trimming work, it will be necessary to provide such presses with an ap­
proved sweep guard, gate guard, or two-hand tripping attachment, or to use
pliers or other hand tools for feeding. A nonrepeat device is desirable.

Buie 153. Cold heading and similar machines—
Shall be provided with a screen guard to prevent injury to the eyes
from flying pieces. If machines have relief springs, such springs
should be guarded to prevent the bolt or nut from being thrown out
in case of breaking. (See fig. 17.)
Nom—Gears, pulleys, and flywheels must be guarded.

Buie 154. Bulldozers.
Measures should be taken to decrease the danger of a workman
stepping between the dies and being caught. Such precautions
include:
(а) A guard attached to side of moving head and lapping past
stationary head to prevent anyone stepping between dies. (See
fig. 18.)
(б) The base plates may be notched out so as to leave room for
a man’s leg.
(<?) In all cases the clutch should be kept in good order to prevent
repeating.
Note.—In addition to the foregoing, the guarding of the side gears on a bull­
dozer is most important.

Buie 155. Bolt-heading and rivet-making machines.
(a) Treadles shall be substantially and effectively guarded to pre­
vent accidental tripping.
(b) Suitable blocking materials shall be provided and used for
bloclang the treadles when setting or adjusting dies.




10

SAFETY CODE FOR FORGING AND HOT METAL STAMPING

Buie 156. Hot saws.
Every hot saw shall be provided with a guard of not less than oneeighth inch sheet metal to stop flying sparks.
Note.—A tank of water placed below the saw is also desirable.

Rule 157. Power shears and punches.
Shears and punches shall be provided with means of disconnecting
power. When setting knives or punches or otherwise working on
such machines they shall be blocked up. The maximum size of
material which can safely be cut or punched should be plainly
marked on the machine. (See fig. 19.) Shears should not be ar­
ranged so as to run continuously when not in use. Alligator shears
should not be so located as to face a passageway or aisle.
Buie 158. Grinding wheels and tumblers.
For guarding of grinding wheels, see the Safety Code on Abrasive
Wheels. For guarding of tumbling mills, see the Safety Code for
Foundries.
SECTION 16. FURNACES
(See fig. 20)

Buie 160. Front of furnace*
The radiation of heat from the front of the furnace or door shall
be decreased either by using a water jacket or spray in front of the
opening or door, or by using sheet steel or chains hung in front of
the furnace with water flowing down them, or by other equally
effective method. Whenever disk fans are used "for cooling the
operator, they shall either be permanently mounted on elevated
brackets, or the blades shall be closed with wire mesh or other suit­
able material so no one can come in contact with the blades.
Buie 161. Insulation of sides.
The sides of heating furnaces shall be insulated with asbestos
board, kieselguhr, or equally effective material.
Note.—When the furnaces are so located that there is sufficient room, a
casing of sheet metal can be built around the furnace, with sufficient air space
between the furnace and casing to decrease heat radiation.

Buie 162. Hood.
A properly designed hood or hoods should be placed over every
furnace when insulated. Such hoods are also advantageous on fur­
naces not so insulated.
Buie 163. Pressure release devices.
Paper seals or automatic dampers on air lines to heating furnaces
are recommended, to relieve the pressure in case of an explosion
caused by gas getting back into the air lines.
Note.—For prevention of fire in connection ^ith the storage and use of
fuel oil, see the regulations of the National Board of Fire Underwriters, 76
William Street, New York City.




MISCELLANEOUS

11

SECTION 17. MISCELLANEOUS
Buie 170. Accumulator pits—
Should be protected by a wire mesh screen.
Rule 171. Shower-bath and locker rooms—
Centrally located, should be provided for forge-shop workmen.
A drying room, well heated, should adjoin the shower-bath room.
The lockers should be of steel, well ventilated, and thoroughly cleaned
and fumigated at regular intervals.
Rule 172. Potassium or sodium cyanide—
Used in casehardening is a dangerous poison. It should be stored
in air-tight metal cans marked u Poison,” and workmen should
be cautioned not to get any in the mouth nor to inhale the fumes. A
hood connected to an exhaust fan should be provided to remove
such fumes. Many “ patent5 casehardening compounds contain
5
relatively large amounts of cyanide and are dangerous.
Rule 173. Transfer trucks.
(а) Transfer trucks shall be constructed in a safe and substantial
manner.
(б) The top face or table of each truck shall be covered with
sheet metal at least one-eighth inch in thickness, securely fastened in
place.
Note.—Elevating trucks are recommended.

Rule 174. Storage racks for dies.
Racks or shelves above 36 inches in height should be equipped at
the front edge with flanges at least one-half inch high to prevent dies
from falling to the floor.
Rule 175. Taking lead casts.
(a) A suitable place shall be set aside where dies may be set up and
lead casts taken without the possibility of interference from or injury
to other workers.
(b) Such location shall be at a reasonable distance from any source
of water supply to eliminate the danger of getting water into the
dies before the metal is poured in.
Rule 176. Ramps.
Ramps between die vaults, die-sinking department, yard, or forge
shop shall not exceed an angle of 10° from the horizontal.
Rule 177. Housekeeping.
Aisles and working spaces shall be kept in good order and free of
obstructions at all times. Material should be safely piled, hot forg­
ings put into steel boxes or barrels, or piled onto steel trays. The
“ flash ” should not be permitted to accumulate, but should be piled
onto trays as it comes from the trimming presses. (See figs. 1 and
22,23,24,25.)
Note.—Bar stock may be stored on end in separate racks, with the stock
extending below the floor of the aisle between racks, thus insuring a clear
aisle and making it easy to handle the stock.




12

SAFETY CODE FOR FORGING AND HOT METAL STAMPING

Buie 178. Storing material.
Loads on racks should be checked regularly to prevent overload­
ing. For small forgings, bins are recommended. Barrels of forg­
ings or parts should not be piled in tiers. Out-of-door racks, if made
of steel, should be set on concrete foundation and the lower members
of the steel structure kept clear from dirt and painted at intervals
to prevent rust and consequent failure of the structure.
Buie 179. Inspection and maintenance.
Regular inspection shall be made to insure proper condition of all
bolts, screws, keys, valves, etc., which might become loosened by
vibration; all parts of treadle, clutch, and other operating mech­
anism.
SECTION 25. OPERATING RULES
Buie 250.
The following rules should be adopted by the employer, promi­
nently posted in the forge shop, and strictly enforced by the foremen.
(a) Changing dies or making repairs.—Always place a substantial
timber under the hammer, shear, or punch. In the case of hydraulic
presses use cast-steel blocks. In the case of steam or air hammers
make sure the valve is tightly closed. In all cases block the treadle
to prevent accidental tripping while working on dies or hammer.
(b) Projecting keys.—When setting dies, make sure that the keys
do not project so as to cause injury.
(< When not in use.—At end of the day’s work or at noon, the
?)
hammer should always be left with the upper die or hammer rest­
ing on the bottom to prevent accidental tripping and injury to a
passer-by.
Note.—When it is necessary to have men come to work early in the morning
for the purpose of heating the dies before the hammer crews begin work, it
may be good policy to have the ram securely blocked in the up position.
Heated pieces of steel can then be placed on the die, the block knocked out,
and the upper die aUowed to fall onto the hot steel. This will obviate the
necessity of men, inexperienced in the operation of a hammer, handling the
hammer under power.

(d) Mushroomed tools should not be used; take them to the tool
room or blacksmith for repair.
(e) T tongs or steel fork for handling hot metal on the floor.
Jse
Pieces of metal may give a severe burn even if color does not indicate
heat.
(/) Replacing board.—When replacing board in a board drop
hammer, do not place hands on top of the ram while the board is
being put through the rolls; otherwise the board may fall and catch
the hands.
(g) Adjusting board rmchmdsm.—When adjusting the mechanism
of a board drop hammer, do not place the hand under the roll-releasing mechanism or over the knock-off mechanism; otherwise the mech­
anism may fall and crush the hand.
(h) Feeding cold material.—Use pliers, stick, or pick for feeding
so as to keep hands out of danger in case the hammer or press should
repeat.




OPERATING RULES

13

(i)
Gold trirnmmg.—Forgings that have been quenched for quick
inspection should be reheated so as not to be too hard, before sending
to the cold-trim presses.
(j) Goggles should always be worn when operating a hammer or
cold-trim press. Hammermen can wear goggles comfortably by
wearing a sweatband on the forehead.
(h)
Safe clothing.—For protection against flying scale wear asbes­
tos or leather aprons; asbestos or leather gloves or canvas gloves
with leather palm (the latter are cooler); Congress shoes, and leg­
gings. For handling rough stock wear hand leathers.
(?) Furnaces.—Oil or gas furnaces should be lighted by placing a
piece of burning oily waste into the furnace near the burner. Allow
fuel from the burner to flow over the waste and ignite. If air is
used, it should then be turned on slowly. When lighting a furnace
the operator should open all furnace doors; he should also use- a longenough rod to insert the burning waste so he can stand back in the
clear to avoid burns in case of explosion or flareback.
(m) Dies 200 to 500 founds.—All die blocks exceeding 200 pounds
in weight shall have holes drilled on both ends to a depth of
2 inches or more, and not less than three-fourths inch in diameter,
so rods can be inserted into these holes to facilitate lifting and mov­
ing the dies.
(n) Dies 500 to 1,000 founds.—Die blocks weighing between 500
and 1,000 pounds shall have holes not less than seven-eighths inch in
diameter.
(o) Dies more than 1,000 pounds.—Dis blocks weighing more than
1,000 pounds shall have holes drilled on four sides not less than 1 inch
in diameter and 3 inches deep.
(p) Tramfer boards.—Transfer boards shall not be used to trans­
fer dies between workbench and machine; transfer trucks shall be
used for this work.
53349°—-27------3




ILLUSTRATED DESCRIPTIONS
[These illustrations are not a part of the code proper; they simply
show how various manufacturers have met certain code requirements]

.14




ILLUSTRATED DESCRIPTIONS

F ig. 2.— Long swab for removing scale per­
mits worker to keep hands out o f danger.
(R u le 110).




16

SAFET1

CODE FOR FORGING AND H O T M E T A L ST A M PIN G

F ig . 3. This treadle guard, to protect against accidental tripping, is easily re­
moved for making repairs as it is held in place only by tw o hooks on the base o f
the hammer. The sliding section o f the guard permits operation o f the hammer
by either foot. (R u le 111)




ILLUSTRATED DESCRIPTIONS

17

FlG> 4.— Sliding gate guard and stop post on drop hammer. In A, gate is open
and stop post “ D ” is under ram. Foot treadle can not be operated because
o f the latch at “ E.” Gate is closed in “ B ” by moving hand lever “ C,’ which
swings post D ” out o f the way. Guard for belt and pulley has been removed
temporarily to show detail o f operation. (Rules 111, 112, and 131)




18

SAFETY CODE FOR FORGING AND H O T M E T A L ST A M PIN G

Fig.

5.— Guard fo r extension o f treadle at rear
o f hammer to prevent same being held up by
accumulation o f scrap or forgings. k
(Rule

P ig .




6. —

H ardwood
timber fo r
b lo c k in g
ham m er ;
ferru le on
each e n d ,
handle on
side. (R u le
112)

19

ILLUSTRATED DESCRIPTIONS

F ig. 7.— Scale guard to prevent scale and
forgings from flying across aislew ays;
pivoted at left and can be easily swung
aside fo r working on dies. (R u le 113)

F ig. 8 — Fixture for holding key backer.




(Rule 114)

SAFETY CODE FOE FORGING AND HOT METAL STAMPING




Fig. 9.— Holder for key backer. Part “A” is a
threaded round bar enlarged to a square end “Aa.”
This end has a cap “Ab ” with a round hole in which
part “ C ” moves freely. Part “ B ” is a flat piece
that screws up and down on bar “A.” To operate
it, part “ B ” is placed on the lower die and so ad­
justed that the left-hand end of part “ C ” is opposite
the die key. The hammer is then lowered on top of
part “ B ” to hold it firmly between the upper and
lower dies, and part “ C ” is struck with a ram to
drive out the key. (Rule 114)

ILLU STRATED DESCRIPTIONS

21

F ig. 10.— Carelessly allowing a key to project beyond the edge of the ram has
caused serious injuries. (Rule 114)

F ig. 11.— Vertical bar, at left of hammer, prevents its descent until tipped for­
ward by operator’s left hand. (Rule 131)




22

SAFETY CODE FOR FORGING AND H O T M E T A L ST A M PIN G

-Vertical pin, at left, prevents descent o f the hammer until the
pulled by the operator’ s left hand. (R ule 131)




ILLUSTRATED DESCRIPTIONS

F ig. 13— Hammer trip and hammer stop. Stop “ B ” normally is in
vertical position between ram and lower die to prevent operation o f
the machine. When operator pulls handle “ A ” toward him, “ B ” is
lifted out o f the w ay and rod “ D ” depresses the operating lever
causing the ram to descend. Cover guard for foot treadle has been
removed temporarily to show details o f operation. (R ule 131)




Fig. 14.— Inclosure for
board. (Rule 140)

23

SAFETY CODE FOE FORGING AND H O T M E T A L ST A M PIN G

F ig. 15.— Overhead platform with railing and ladder, for w orking
on rolls. Rolls and treadle should be covered. (R ule 141)




ILLU STRATED DESCRIPTIONS

25

F ig. 16.— Overhead platform giving ac­
cess to rolls of a battery of hammers.
Standard railing should be provided
on platform. (Rule 141)

F ig. 17.— Cold header with screen guard at top to stop flying pieces.
(at left) and gears (at right) also guarded. (Rule 153)




Flywheel

26

SAFETY CODE FOE FORGING AND H O T M E T A L ST A M PIN G

F ig . 18.— The flat bar attached to side o f moving head extends past the station­
ary head and prevents stepping between dies. (Rule 154)




F ig. 19.— Size and hardness o f material
w hich can safely be sheared, plainly
marked on side o f machine to prevent
overloading. (R u le 157) .

27

ILLUSTRATED DESCRIPTIONS

F ig. 20.— Front o f furnace is equipped with combination sheet steel and chain
screen over which water is sprayed to protect operator from excessive heat
radiation. A hood is also installed to exhaust excess heat and fumes. (Rules
160, 161, and 162)

to A&
■ 4Sfo
S ea r/ s 0/7

/ 7 / P/ O y e Jo&2
7 e < ' y / O3
<
sp aced g o /ee/"
apart a/7*//7 o /<
7c 2
sa /770 c//c7/77e/er
a a//" p/pe.
&

S A F E T Y */ R L M £ FXPL6S/OA/
se/ fL f o r c / r y o r
g as.
Courtesy Ford

Fig. 21.— Paper seals to relieve explosion pressure.




Motor Co.

(Rule 163)

SAFETY CODE FOR FORGING AND H O T M E T A L ST A M PIN G

? ' - • I f - "" " ~ ^ l _ !_ !
1
B
1 SB
* v -:n * •
F^ 8
tlM
n
n M il
>&&$#
* # &$<#♦##
** *•
****
****
#* *
* # »»»
»»**<****
SStX*

'<4%,, .
■ '*,I'
- .
### #
##
# **
»# * ♦
*»«?**V-r •
***#<?#
_

*

.

»«• .. .
' «»*» *2J2«f&
s; « mm
«*
,§g§ 5 § f ;
£S« is'- *
S* #.?4

s s s s s -^ .

F ig. 22.— Good storage o f bar stock.

(Rule 177)

F ig. 23.— Special bucket fo r removing
scrap. This bucket is picked up by an
electric truck. (R u le 177)




^

29

ILLUSTRATED DESCRIPTIONS

T ig. 24.— Good storage o f small and
medium sized dies on racks. (Rules
177 and 178)

F ig. 25.—Good storage o f large
blocks. (Rules 177 and 178)

die

Fig. 26.— Special table truck (a t left) fo r moving die blocks. Blocks are slid
from the top o f table onto the die-sinking machine. (R u le 250 (a) )




30

SAFETY CODE FOR FORGING AND H O T M E T A L ST A M PIN G

F ig. 27.— The latest trend points to the
installation o f forges just outside the
building, with openings in the wall
through which the oven is fed. This
shows an arrangement which has the.
advantage o f excluding all objection­
able features o f heat, smoke, and gases
from the workroom

W ro n<t M eth od :
oi hanging roof sash in

Nforge

shops and other*
j department's where the
/ window panes arvtdways
Ji rty and where weatherptvdf
requirements are not c f prime
importance.

C oM E cr M ethods
^Bottom
hmje
Vertical
opening ovt

Axis

Light and veiitiLjtion
unobstructed no matter how hhefe

the windows may he.

F ig . 28.— R oof construction fo r forge shops




ILLUSTRATED DESCRIPTIONS

31

F ig. 29.— A device consisting o f a long arm pivoted at A,
fitted with a spring B, and a flat strip at D. As the
ram descends, the roller at C moves the arm toward
the operator, pushing his hands out o f danger zone

F ig. 30.— On the average machine of this type, bar “ A ” is held in upper position by a
pin passing through two sides o f an open-jawed fork. “ B ” shows how this fork
has been looped over. Bar “ A ” has been extended, so if pin “ C ” should break or
drop out, bar “ A ” can not fall to the floor




SAFETY CODE FOR FORGING AND H O T M E T A L ST A M PIN G

Courtesy Detinning Forge & Stamping Co.

F ig. 3 1 — Pulley retainer. Near side o f outer members
are bolted to hammer frame. Far side o f center mem­
ber is bolted to the machine pulley. In case the
shaft breaks, the pulley can not fall to the floor




INDEX

Page
Accumulator pits, wire mesh screen for (rule
170) __........................................................... 11
Free of obstructions (rule 177)_____ _____ 1
1
General requirements (rule 101)............... - 5
Scale guard to prevent scale and forgings fiying across (fig. 7)...................................... 19Wide. Material piled safely (fig. 1).......... 14
Bins, for storing material (rule 178)____ _____ 12
Blocking:
All hammers (rule 112)_ ........... ............. 6
Hydraulic presses (rule 151) ----------- ------9
Board drop hammer. (See Drop hammer,
board.)
Boards, transfer, operating (rule250)................. 13
Bolt-heading machines, treadles guarded (rule
155)__............................................................
9
Bulldozers:
Flat bar attached to side of moving head
(fig. 18).................................................... 26
Guards for (rule 154)....................... ..........
9
Clothing, safe against flying scale, operating
(rule 250)........................................................ 13
Codes, references to_ ........................................ 4-5
Cold header with screen guard at top (fig. 17)... 25
Cold heading and similar machines, screen
guard for (rule 153)........................................ 9
Cold trimming, operating (rule 250)................. 13
Cold-trim presses. ( See Presses.)
Cyanide, sodium or potassium, storage of (rule
172) ................................................................ 11
Definitions.......................................................3-4
Die blocks:
Holes drilled in, operating (rule 250).......... 13
Specisd table truck for moving (fig. 26)...... 29
Die keys, hammer (rule 114).............................6-7
Dies:
Changing, or making repairs, operating
(rule 250)........................................... .
12
Storage racks for (rule 174) _....................... 11
Drain cock, steam and pneumatic hammers
(rule 122).............................................. ........
7
Drop hammers:
Definition (rule 24).............................. ...... 3
Device for, ingenious (fig. 29)____ ______ 31
Sliding gate guard and stop post (fig. 4)....... 17
Drop hammers, board:
Board mechanism, adjusting, operating
(rule 250)........................... ........ ........... 12
Board, replacing, operating (rule 250)........ 12
Inclosure for board (fig. 14)............. _......... 23
Inclosure for board (rule 140).................. _. 8
Overhead platform and ladder (rule 141)___ 8
Overhead platform, with access to rolls (fig.
16)__........................................................ 25
Overhead platform, with railing and ladder
(fig. 15)...... ............................................ 24
Feeding cold material:
All hammers (rule 115) ............. ....... ......... 7
Operating (rule 250)......................._........... 12
Forge shops, roof construction for (fig. 28) .......... 30
Forges, installation outside of building (fig. 27) _ 30
Forging hammers. ( See Hammers, forging.)
Furnaces:
Combination sheet steel and chain screen
for front (fig. 20)...................................... 27
Hoods for (rule 162).................................— 10
Hoods to exhaust excess heat and fumes (fig.
20)........................................................... 27
Insulation of sides (rule 161)....................... 10
Oil or gas, lighting of, operating (rule 250). 13
Pressure release devices, in case of explosion
(rule 163)........................................... - - 10




Page
Furnaces—Continued.
Pressure release devices, paper seals (fig.
21)........................................................... 27
Radiation of heat, methods* of decreasing
(rule 160)................................................. 10
Goggles:
5
General requirement (rule 103)..................
Operating (rule 250)............— .................. 13
Grinding wheels and tumblers, guarding of
(rule 158)........................................................ 10
Guards:
For extension of treadle, rear of hammer
(fig. 5)...................................................... 18
To prevent scale and forgings flying across
aisleways (fig. 7)...................................... 19
Treadle, all hammers (rule 111).................. 6
Treadle, to protect against accidental trip­
ping (fig. 3).............................................. 16
Screen, at top of cold header (fig. 17).......... 25
Hammer:
Blocking, hardwood timber for (fig. 6)....... 18
Position of, when not in use, operating (rule
250).......................................................... 12
Hammers, forging. Definition (rule 23).......... 3
Hammers, mechanically operated:
Power, means of disconnecting (rule 130) __ 7-8
Safety stops (rule 131)................................ 8
Shaft failure (rule 133)................................ 8
Springs suspending ram, inclosure of (rule
132)......................................................... 8
Vertical bar safety stops preventing descent
(fig. 11).................................................... 21
Vertical pin safety stop (fig. 12).................. 22
Hammers, power. Definition (rule 22)............ 3
Hammers, steam and pneumatic:
Clearance and cushion (rule 120)................ 7
Definition (rule 25)..................................... 4
Drain cock (rule 122).......... .......................
7
Steam pipes, to be placed in floor trenches
7
(rule 123).................................................
Stop valves (rule 121)...................... ..........
7
Hoods, for furnaces (fig. 20).............................. 27
Hoods, for furnaces (rule 162)........................... 10
Hot saws, guard to stop flying sparks (rule 156). 10
Housekeeping (rule 177).................................... 11
Hydraulic presses:
Blocking to prevent press from closing
(rule 151).................................................
9
Valves, location of (rule 150)....................... 9
Inspection and maintenance (rule 179)............. 12
Insulation of sides, furnaces (rule 161).............. 10
Kej' backer:
Fixture for holding (fig. 8).......................... 19
Holder for (fig. 9)........................................ 20
Keys:
Careless projection of, beyond edge of ram
(fig. 10)................................................... 21
Hammer die, material for (rule 114)............6-7
Projecting, operating (rule 250).................. 12
Lead casts, taking of (rule 175)......................... 11
Lighting, general requirement (rule 104).......... 5
Locker rooms, construction and fumigation
(rule 171)..................... .................................. 11
Maintenance, regular inspection (rule 179)....... 12
Operating rules.............................................. 12-13
Pipes for blocking hammers (rule 112).............. 6
Platforms, general requirements (rale 102)....... 5
Platforms, overhead:
With access to rolls, board drop hammers
(fig. 16).............. ..................................... 25
With railing and ladder, board drop ham­
mers (fig. 15)........................................... 24
Pneumatic hammers. (See Hammers, steam
and pneumatic.)

33

34

INDEX

Page
Page
Potassium cyanide, storage of (rule 172).......... 11 Stock and material piled safely, wide aisles (fig.
Power shears and punches:
1)................................................................... 14
Material, maximum size and hardness of,
Stop valves, steam and pneumatic hammers
marked on machine (fig. 19)................... 26
(rule 121).......... ...........................................
7
Means of disconnecting power (rule 157)... 10 Storage racks for dies (rule 174)........................ ll
Presses, cold-trim. Requirements (rule 152).. 9 Storing material:
Pressure release devices, furnaces (rule 163)___ 10
Bar stock (fig. 22)...................................... 28
Pulley retainer (fig. 31)..................................... 32
Bar stock (rule 177).................................... n
Punches, power. ( See Power shears and
Bins and racks for (rule 178)_______ _____ 12
punches.)
Die blocks, large (fig. 25)............................ 29
Purposes and exceptions (rule 11)................... 2-3
Dies, small and medium size, on racks (fig.
Racks, for storing material (rule 178)........... .
12
24)..................... ..................................... 29
Ramps, angle of, from horizontal (rule 176)___ 11
Scrap, special bucket for removing (fig. 23). 28
Rivet-making machines, treadles guarded (rule
Swabs:
155)................................ ....................... . . . . .
9
Long, for removing scale (fig. 2)................. 15
Roof construction for forge shops (fig. 28)........ 30
Oil, and scale removers, all hammers (rule
Safety stops:
110) ..........................................................
6
Hammer trip and hammer stop (fig. 13)... 23 Timber for blocking hammers (rule 112) .......... 6
Mechanically operated hammers (rule 131). 8 Tongs or steel fork, handling hot metal, operat­
Vertical bar at left of hammer (fig. 11)........ 21
ing (rule 250)..... ....... ..................... ............. 12
Vertical pin at left of hammer (fig. 12)....... 22 Tools, mushroomed, operating (rule 250)........ 12
Scale and forgings flying across aisleways,
Transfer boards, operating (rule 250)............... 13
guards to prevent (fig. 7)..... ......................... 19 Transfer trucks, construction of (rule 173)....... 11
Scale guard, to stop flying pieces, all hammers
Treadle, guard for extension of, rear of hammer
(rule 113).......................................................
6
(fig. 5)............................................................ 18
Scale, long swab lor removing (fig. 2)............... 15 Treadle guards:
Scale removers and oil swabs, all hammers (rule
All hammers (rule 111)...............................
6
110).........................................................
6
Easily removed for making repairs (fig. 3). 16
Scope (rule 10)..................................................
2 Trucks, transfer:
Scrap, special bucket for removing (fig. 23)....... 28
Construction of (rule 173)........................... 11
Shears, power. ( See Power shears and
Operating (rule 250)............. ..................... 13
punches.)
Valves, hydraulic presses, location (rule 150)... 9
Shower-bath rooms, location (rule 171).............. 11 Working space:
Sodium cyanide, storage of (rule 172)............... 11
Free of obstructions (rule 177).................... 11
Steam pipes, pneumatic hammers (rule 123)...
7
General requirements (rule 100) .................
5




LIST OF BULLETINS OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
The following is a list of all bulletins of the Bureau of Labor Statistics published since
July, 1912, except that in the case of bulletins giving the results of periodic surveys of the
bureau only the latest bulletin on any one subject is here listed.
A complete list of the reports and bulletins issued prior to July, 1912, as well as the bulle­
tins published since that date, will be furnished on application. Bulletins marked thus (*)
are out of print.
C on ciliation and A rb itration (in clu d in g strikes and lockouts).
♦No. 124. Conciliation and arbitration in the building trades o f Greater New York.
[1913.]
♦No. 133. Report of the industrial council of the British Board o f Trade on its in­
quiry into industrial agreements. [1913.]
♦No. 139. Michigan copper district strike. [1914.]
No. 144. Industrial court of the cloak, suit, and skirt industry of New York City.
[1914.]
No. 145. Conciliation, arbitration, and sanitation in the dress and waist industry
o f New York City. [1914.]
♦No. 191. Collective bargaining in the anthracite coal industry. [1916.]
♦No. 198. Collective agreements in the men’s clothing industry. [1916.]
No. 233. Operation of the industrial disputes investigation act o f Canada. [1918.]
No. 255. Joint industrial councils in Great Britain. [1919.]
No. 283. History o f the Shipbuilding Labor Adjustment Board, 1917 to 1919.
No. 287. National War Labor B oard: History of its formation, activities, etc.
[1921.]
No. 303. Use of Federal power in settlement of railway labor disputes. [1922.]
No. 341. Trade agreement in the silk-ribbon industry of New York City. [1923.1
No. 402. Collective bargaining by actors. [1926.]
No. 419. Trade agreements, 1925.
Cooperation.
No. 313. Consumers’ cooperative societies in the United States in 1920.
No. 314. Cooperative credit societies in America and in foreign countries. [1922.]
No. 437. Cooperative movement in the United States in 1925 (other than agricul­
tural).
E m ploym en t and Unem ploym ent.
♦No. 109. Statistics of unemployment and the work of employment offices in the
United States. [1913.]
No. 172. Unemployment in New York City, N. Y. [1915.]
♦No. 183. Regularity of employment in the women’s ready-to-wear garment industries.
[1915.]
♦No. 195. Unemployment in the United States. [1916.]
No. 196. Proceedings of the Employment Managers’ Conference held at Minneapolis,
Minn., January, 1916.
♦No. 202. Proceedings o f the conference of Employment Managers’ Association.
Boston, Mass., held May 10, 1916.
No. 206. The British system o f labor exchangee. [1916.]
♦No. 227. Proceedings of the Employment Managers’ Conference, Philadelphia, Pa.,
April 2 and 3, 1917.
No. 235. Employment system of the Lake Carriers’ Association. • [1918.]
♦No. 241. Public employment offices in the United States. [1918.]
No. 247. Proceedings of Employment Managers’ Conference, Rochester, N. Y., May
9-11, 1918.
No. 310. Industrial unemployment: A statistical study of its extent and causes.
[1922.]
No. 409. Unemployment in Columbus, Ohio, 1921 to 1925.
F o re ig n Labor Law s.
♦No. 142. Administration of labor laws and factory inspection in certain European
countries. [1914.]
H ou sin g.
♦No. 158. Government aid to home owning and housing o f working people in foreign
countries. [1914.]
No. 263. Housing by employers in the United States. [1920.]
No. 295. Building operations in representative cities in 1920.
No. 368. Building permits in the principal cities of the United States in [1921 to]
1923
No. 424. Building permits in the principal cities of the United States [1924 and]
No. 449. Building permits in the principal cities o f the United States in 1926.




(I )

In du strial A ccidents and Hygiene*
♦No. 104. Lead poisoning in potteries, tile works, and porcelain-enameled sanitary
ware factories. [1912.]
No. 120. Hygiene o f the painters’ trade. [1913.]
♦No. 127. Dangers to workers from dusts and fumes, and methods o f protection.
[1913.]
♦No. 141. Lead poisoning in the smelting and refining o f lead. [1914.]
♦No. 157. Industrial accident statistics. [1915.]
♦No. 165. Lead poisoning in the manufacture of storage batteries. [1914.]
♦No. 179. Industrial poisons used in the rubber industry. [1915.]
No. 188. Report of British departmental committee on the danger in the use of lead
in the painting of buildings. [1916.]
♦No. 201. Report of committee on statistics and compensation-insurance cost of the
International Association of Industrial Accident Boards and Commis­
sions. [1916.]
♦No. 207. Causes of death by occupation. [1917.]
♦No. 209. Hygiene of the printing trades. [1917.]
No. 219. Industrial poisons used or produced in the manufacture of explosives.
[1917.]
No. 221. Hours, fatigue, and health in British munition factories. [1917.]
No. 230. Industrial efficiency and fatigue in British munition factories. [1917.]
♦No. 231. Mortality from respiratory diseases in dusty trades (inorganic dusts).
[ 1918. ]
No. 234. Safety movement in the iron and steel industry, 1907 to 1917.
♦No. 236. Effect of the air hammer on the hands o f stonecutters. [1918.]
No. 249. Industrial health and efficiency. Final report o f British Health o f Muni­
tion Workers Committee. [1919.]
♦No. 251. Preventable death in the cotton-manufacturing industry. [1919.]
No. 256. Accidents and accident prevention in machine building. [1919.]
No. 267. Anthrax as an occupational disease. [1920.]
No. 276. Standardization of industrial-accident statistics. [1920.]
No. 280. Industrial poisoning in making coal-tar dyes and dye intermediates. [1921.]
No. 291. Carbon-monoxide poisoning. [1921.]
No. 293. The problem o f dust phthisis in the granite-stone industry. [1922.]
No. 298. Causes and prevention of accidents in the iron and steel industry, 1910 to
1919.
No. 306. Occupational hazards and diagnostic signs: A guide to impairments to be
looked for in hazardous occupations. [1922.]
No. 339. Statistics o f industrial accidents in the United States. [1923.]
No. 392. Survey o f hygienic conditions in the printing trades. [1925.]
No. 405. Phosphorus necrosis in the manufacture of fireworks and the preparation
of phosphorus. [1926.]
No. 425. Record o f industrial accidents in the United States to 1925.
No. 426. Deaths from lead poisoning. [1926.]
No. 427. Health survey of the printing trades. 1922 to 1925.
No. 428. Proceedings of the Industrial Accident Prevention Conference, held at
Washington, D. C., July 14-16, 1926.
Industrial Relations and Labor Conditions*
No. 237. Industrial unrest in Great Britain. [1917.]
No. 340. Chinese migration, with special reference to labor conditions. [1923.]
No. 349. Industrial relations in the West Coast lumber industry. [1923.]
No. 361. Labor relations in the Fairmont (W. Va.) bituminous coal field. [1924.]
No. 380. Postwar labor conditions in Germany. [1925.]
No. 383. Works council movement in Germany. [1925.]
No. 384. Labor conditions in the shoe industry in Massachusetts, 1920 to 1924.
No. 399. Labor relations in the lace and lace-curtain industries in the United States.
[1925.]
Labor Laws of the United States (including decisions of courts relating to
labor).
No. 211. Labor laws and their administration in the Pacific States. [1917.]
No. 229. Wage-payment legislation in the United States. [1917.]
No. 285. Minimum-wage legislation in the United States. [1921.]
No. 321. Labor laws that have been declared unconstitutional. [1922.]
No. 322. Kansas Court of Industrial Relations. [1923.]
No. 343. Laws providing for bureaus o f labor statistics, etc. [1923.]
No. 370. Laws of the United States, with decisions o f courts relating thereto.
[1925.]
No. 408. Labor laws relating to the payment o f wages. [1926.]
No. 434. Labor legislation of 1926.
No. 444. Decisions of courts and opinions affecting labor, 1926. (In press.)
Proceedings of Annnal Conventions of the Association of Governmental Labor
Officials of the United States and Canada.
No. 266. Seventh, Seattle, Wash., July 12-15, 1920.
No. 307. Eighth, New Orleans, La., May 2-6, 1921.
♦No. 323. Ninth, Harrisburg, Pa., May 22-26, 1922.
No. 352. Tenth, Richmond, Va., May 1-4, 1923.
No. 389. Eleventh, Chicago, 111., May 19-23, 1924.
No. 411. Twelfth, Salt Lake City, Utah, August 13-15, 1925.
No. 429. Thirteenth, Columbus, Ohio, June 7-10, 1926.
Proceedings, of Annnal Meetings of International Association of Industrial
Accident Boards and Commissions.
No. 210. Third. Columbus, Ohio, April 25-28, 1916.
No. 248. Fourth, Boston, Mass., August 21-25. 1917.
No. 264. Fifth, Madison, Wis., September 24-27, 1918.
♦No. 273. Sixth, Toronto, Canada, September 23-26, 1919.
No. 281. Seventh, San Francisco, Calif., September 20-24, 1920.




(ID

Proceedings of Annual Meetings of International Association of Industrial
Accident Boards and Commissions— Continued.
No. 304. Eighth, Chicago, 111., September 19-23, 1921.
No. 333. Ninth, Baltimore, Md., October 9-13, 1922.
No. 359. Tenth, St. Paul, Minn., September 24-26, 1923.
No. 385. Eleventh, Halifax, Nova Scotia, August 26-28, 1924.
No. 395. Index to proceedings, 1914-1924.
No. 406. Twelfth, Salt Lake City, Utah, August 17-20, 1925.
No. 432. Thirteenth, Hartford, Conn., September 14-17, 1926.
Proceeding's o f A nnual M eetings o f Intern ation al A ssociation o f Public
Em ploym en t Services.
No. 192. First, Chicago, December 19 and 20, 1913; Second, Indianapolis, Sep­
tember 24 and 25, 1914; Third, Detroit, July 1 and 2, 1915.
No. 220. Fourth, Buffalo, N. Y., July 20 and 21, 1916.
No. 311. Ninth, Buffalo, N. Y., September 7-9, 1921.
No. 337. Tenth, Washington, D. C., September 11-13, 1922.
No. 355. Eleventh, Toronto, Canada, September 4-7, 1923.
No. 400. Twelfth, Chicago, 111., May 19-23, 1924.
No. 414. Thirteenth, Rochester, N. Y., September 15-17, 1925.
P rod u ctivity o f Labor.
No. 356. Productivity costs in the common-brick industry. [1924.]
No. 360. Time and labor costs in manufacturing 100 pairs of shoes. [1924.]
No. 407. Labor cost of production and wages and hours o f labor in the paper boxboard industry. [1925.]
No. 412. Wages, hours, and productivity in the pottery industry, 1925.
No. 441. Productivity of labor in the glass industry. [1927.] (In press.)
R e ta il Prices and Cost o f L ivin g.
♦No. 121. Sugar prices, from refiner to consumer. [1913.]
♦No. 130. Wheat and flour prices, from farmer to consumer. [1913.]
♦No. 164. Butter prices, from producer to consumer. [1914.]
No. 170. Foreign food prices as affected by the war. [1915.]
No. 357. Cost o f living in the United States. [1924.]
No. 369. The use of cost-of-living figures in wage adjustments. [1925.]
No. 445. Retail prices, 1890 to 1926. (In press.)
Safety Codes.
No. 331. Code of lighting factories, mills, and other work places.
No. 336. Safety code for the protection o f industrial workers in foundries.
No. 350. Specifications o f laboratory tests for approval of electric headlighting
devices for motor vehicles.
No. 351. Safety code for the construction, care, and use o f ladders.
No. 364. Safety code for mechanical power-transmission apparatus.
No. 375. Safety code for laundry machinery and operation.
No. 378. Safety code for woodworking plants.
No. 382. Code o f lighting school buildings.
No. 410. Safety code for paper and pulp mills.
No. 430. Safety code for power presses and foot and hand presses.
No. 433. Safety codes for the prevention of dust explosions.
No. 436. Safety code for the use, care, and protection of abrasive wheels.
No. 447. Safety code for rubber mills and calenders. (In press.)
V o cation al and W o r k e r s’ E ducation.
♦No. 159. Short-unit courses for wage earners, and a factory school experiment.
[1915.]
♦No. 162. Vocational education survey o f Richmond, Va. [1915.]
No. 199. Vocational education survey o f Minneapolis, Minn. [1916.]
No. 271. Adult working-class education in Great Britain and the United States.
[1920.]
W a g e s and Hours o f Labor,
♦No. 146. Wages and regularity o f employment and standardization of piece rates in
the dress and waist industry of New York City. [1914.]
♦No. 147. Wages- and regularity of employment in the cloak, suit, and skirt industry.
[1914.]
No. 161. Wages and hours of labor in the clothing and cigar industries, 1911 to 1913.
No. 163. Wages and hours of labor in the building and repairing of steam-railroad
cars, 1907 to 1913.
♦No. 190. Wages and hours of labor in the cotton, woolen, and silk industries, 1907 to
1914.
No. 204. Street-railway employment in the United States. [1917.]
No. 225. Wages and hours of labor in the lumber, millwork, and furniture indus­
tries, 1915.
No. 265. Industrial survey in selected industries in the United States, 1919.
No. 297. Wages and hours of labor in the petroleum industry, 1920.
No. 348. Wages and hours of labor in the automobile industry, 1922.
No. 356. Productivity costs in the common-brick industry. [ 1924.]
No. 358. Wages and hours of labor in the automobile-tire industry, 1923.
No. 360. Time and labor costs in manufacturing 100 pairs of shoes. [1924.]
No. 365. Wages and hours of labor in the paper and pulp industry, 1923.
No. 374. Wages and hours of labor in the boot and shoe industry, 1907 to 1924.
No. 376. Wages and hours of labor in the hosiery and underwear industry,. 1907 to
1924.
No. 394. Wages and hours o f labor in metalliferous mines, 1924.
No. 407. Labor cost o f production, and wages and hours of labor in the paper boxboard industry. [1925]




(m)

W ages and Hours of Labor— Continued*
No. 412. Wages, hours, and productivity in the pottery industry, 1925.
No. 413. Wages and hours of labor in the lumber industry in the United States, 1925.
No. 416. Hours and earnings in anthracite and bituminous coal mining, 1922 and
1924.
No. 421. Wages^ and hours of labor in the slaughtering and meat-packing industry,
No. 422.
No. 431.
No. 435.
No. 438.
No. 442.
No. 443.

Wages and hours of labor in foundries and machine shops, 1925.
Union scale of wages and hours of labor, May 15, 1926.
Wages and hours of labor in the men’s clothing industry, 1911 to 1926.
Wages and hours of labor in the motor-vehicle industry, 1925.
Wages and hours of labor in the iron and steel industry, 1907 to 1925.
Wages and hours of labor in woolen and worsted goods manufacturing,
1910 to 1926.
No. 446. Wages and hours of labor in cotton goods manufacturing, 1910 to 1926.
No. 450. Wages and hours o f labor in the boot and shoe industry, 1907 to 1926.
(In press.)
W elfare W ork.
♦No. 123. Employers’ welfare work. [1913.]
No. 222. Welfare work in British munition factories. [1917.]
♦No. 250. Welfare work for employees in industrial establishments in the United
States. [1919.]
W holesale Prices.
No. 284. Index numbers of wholesale prices in the United States and foreign coun­
tries. [1921.]
No. 440. Wholesale prices, 1890 to 1926.
Wom en and Children in Industry.
No. 116. Hours, earnings, and duration of employment of wage-earning women in
selected industries in the District of Columbia. [1913.]
♦No. 117. Prohibition of night work of young persons. [1913.]
♦No. 118. Ten-hour maximum working-day for women and young persons. [1913.]
♦No. 119. Working hours of women in the pea canneries of Wisconsin. [1913.]
♦No. 122. Employment of women in power laundries in Milwaukee. [1913.]
No. 160. Hours, earnings, and conditions of labor of women in Indiana mercantile
establishments and garment factories. [1914.]
♦No. 167. Minimum wage legislation in the United States and foreign countries.
[1915.]
♦No. 175. Summary of the report on conditions of woman and child wage earners in
the United States. [1915.]
♦No. 176. Effect o f minimum-wage determinations in Oregon. [1915.]
♦No. 180. The boot and shoe industry in Massachusetts as a vocation for women.
[1915.]
♦No. 182. Unemployment among women in department and other retail stores of
Boston, Mass. [1916.]
No. 193. Dressmaking as a trad** for women in Massachusetts. [1916.]
No. 215. Industrial experience of trade-school girls in Massachusetts. [1917.]
♦No. 217. Effect of workmen’s compensation laws in diminishing the necessity of in­
dustrial employment of women and children. [1918.]
No. 223. Employment of women and juveniles in Great Britain during the war.
[1917.]
No. 253. Women in lead industries. [1919.]
Workm en’s Insurance and Compensation (including laws relating thereto).
♦No. 101. Care of tuberculous wage earners in Germany. [1912.]
♦No. 102. British national insurance act. [1911.]
♦No. 103. Sickness and accident insurance law of Switzerland. [1912.]
No. 107. Law relating to insurance of salaried employees in Germany. [1913.]
♦No. 155. Compensation for accidents to employees of the United States. [1914.]
No. 212. Proceedings of the conference on social insurance called by the Inter­
national Association of Industrial Accident Boards and Commissions
Washington, D. C., December 5-9, 1916.
No. 243. Workmen’s compensation legislation in the United States and foreign coun­
tries, 1917 and 1918.
No. 301. Comparison of workmen’s compensation insurance and administration.
[1922.]
No. 3i2. National health insurance in Great Britain, 1911 to 1920.
No. 379. Comparison of workmen’s compensation laws o f the United States as of
January 1, 1925.
No. 423. Workmen’s compensation legislation of the United States and Canada.
[1926.]
Miscellaneous Series.
♦No. 174. Subject index of the publications of the United States Bureau o f Labor
Statistics up to May 1, 1915.
No. 208. Profit sharing in the United States. [1916.]
No. 242. Food situation in central Europe, 1917.
No. 254. International labor legislation and the society o f nations. [1919.]
No. 268. Historical survey of international action affecting labor. [1920.]
No. 282. Mutual relief associations among Government employees in Washington,
D. C. [1921.]
No. 299. Personal research agencies: A guide to organized research in employment
management, industrial relations, training, and working conditions.
[1921.]
No. 319. The Bureau of Labor Statistics: Its history, activities, and organization.
[1922.]




(IV )

Miscellaneous Series— Continued.
No. 326. Methods of procuring and computing statistical information o f the Bureau
of Labor Statistics. [1923.]
No. 342. International Seamen’s Union of America : A study of its history and prob­
lems. [1923.]
No. 346. Humanity in government. [1923.]
No. 372. Convict labor in 1923.
No. 386. The cost of American almshouses. [1925.]
No. 398. Growth of legal-aid work in the United States. [1926.]
No. 401. Family allowances in foreign countries. [1926.]
No. 420. Handbook of American trade-unions. [1926.]
No. 439. Handbook of labor statistics, 1924-1926.
No, 448. Trade agreements, 1920.




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