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Rest Periods, Washup, Work Clothing,
and Military Leave Provisions
in Major Union Contracts




Bulletin N o. 1279
UNITED STATES DEPARTM ENT O F LABO R
Arthur J. G o ld b e r g , Secretary
BUREAU O F LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan C lagu e , Com m issioner




Rest Periods, Washup, Work Clothing,
and Military Leave Provisions
in Major Union Contracts




Bulletin No. 1279
April 1 6
91

UNITED STATES DEPARTM ENT O F LABO R
Arthur J. G o ld b e r g , Secretary
BUREAU O F LABO R STATISTICS
Ewan C lague, Com m issioner

From the Monthly Labor Review of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, September
and November I960, and March 1961 issues, with an additional table.

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C.




11

-

Price 30 cents

Preface
For the four studies brought together in this bulletin, virtually all
agreements in the United States covering 1,000 or more workers, exclusive
of railroad and airline agreements, were analyzed. The 1,687 agreements
in this category covered approximately 7.5 million workers, or almost half
of the estimated total agreement coverage in the United States, outside of
the railroad and airline industries.

All agreements studied were part of the Bureau’ s file of current
agreements maintained for public and governmental use under the provisions
of the Labor Management Relations Act, 1947. The provisions of agreements
covering 1,000 or more workers do not necessarily reflect policy in smaller
collective bargaining situations or in nonunion establishments.

These studies were undertaken in the Bureau’ s Division of Wages
and Industrial Relations under the supervision of Harry P. Cohany. The re­
port on rest periods was prepared by DenaG. Weiss and Ernestine M. Moore;
on washup, cleanup, and clothes change by Dena G. Weiss and Theessa L.
Ellis; on safety equipment and work clothing by DenaG. Weiss and Laura A.
Wood; and on military service allowances by Dena G. Weiss.







Contents
Page
Paid rest periods in major union contracts, 1959 -----------------------------------------------Prevalence of p rov ision s----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1
1

Duration -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Number, timing, and scheduling ----------------------------------------------------------------Other regulations ------------

4
5
7

Paid time for washup, cleanup, and clothes change in 1959 ----------------------------Scope of s tu d y __________
Prevalence of agreement p rov ision s________________________

9
9
9

Contract allowances for safety equipment and work clothing, 1959 --------------------Work clothing — -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

17
19

Military service allowances in major union contracts, 1959 ______________________

21

Prevalence ______________________________________

21

Regular service a llow a n ces-----------------------------------------------------------------------Temporary duty allowances ----------------------------------------------------------------------Vacation pay and other requirements --------------------------------------------------------

24
27
28

Other veterans'

benefits ----------------------------

Appendix:
Provisions for paid washup, cleanup, clothes change,
and paid rest periods ------------------------------------------------------------------------------




v

30

31




Paid Rest Periods in
Major Union Contracts, 1959
P ro vision s for paid rest periods during regular
working hours were included in a fourth of the
major collective bargaining agreements in effect
in 1959. In about two-thirds of the agreements
providing for rest periods, such allowances— often
called “relief periods,” “coffee breaks,” or “smok­
ing time”— applied to all employees; in the re­
maining agreements, coverage was limited to
special groups of workers, primarily women.
Generally, two rest periods daily were specified.
The prevalence of formal rest period provisions
has remained virtually unchanged since 1953, the
date of the Bureau of Labor Statistics previous
study, when such provisions were found in about
23 percent of the contracts analyzed.1 It seems
reasonable to assume that the practice of provid­
ing formal rest periods is more common than the
above figures would indicate. The matter of rest
periods may be covered either by plant rules re­
ferred to in the agreement but which are not
defined or spelled out in detail,2 or may be gov­
erned by longstanding company policy. Legally
required rest periods applicable to women workers,
may also lessen the need for specific contract
provisions.3
This study is based on an analysis of 1,687 col­
lective bargaining agreements on file in the Bureau
of Labor Statistics, each covering 1,000 or more
employees, or virtually all agreements of this size
in the United States, exclusive of railroads and
airlines.4 The 7.5 million workers covered by
these agreements represented somewhat less than
half of all workers estimated to be under agree­
ment in the United States, exclusive of railroad
and airline agreements. Of the agreements studied,
1,063, covering over 4.5 million workers, were in
manufacturing, and 624 agreements, with slightly




more than 2.9 million workers, were in nonmanu­
facturing industries. All of the agreements were
in effect in 1959; half were scheduled to expire
during that year.
Prevalence of Provisions
A fourth (25.6 percent) of the 1,687 agreements
analyzed provided paid time for short periods
away from the job for purposes of rest or relaxa­
tion (table 1). These agreements covered less
than a fourth (22.5 percent) of all workers in the
study, but not all workers under these agreements
were eligible for rest periods.

Provisions for rest periods were not specified in
any of the major agreements in the apparel indus­
try and were rarely included in the following
manufacturing industries: tobacco, printing, pe­
troleum refining, leather, and primary metals.
Low representation was also noted in the non­
manufacturing industries of mining, transporta­
tion, electric and gas utilities, and construction.
Among the industries in which paid rest period
provisions were most prevalent were food products,
electrical machinery, transportation equipment,
communications, and retail trade.
In about two-thirds (288) of the agreements
with provisions on the subject, all employees in
the bargaining unit were uniformly entitled to
rest periods. In 102 agreements, rest periods
were limited to special groups, generally women,

1 See Paid Rest Period Provisions in Union Agreements, 1952-53 (in
Monthly Labor Review, May 1954, pp. 531-535), or BLS Bull. 1166 (1954) „
pp. 18-22.
* For example, rest periods are rarely specified in steel industry agreements,
but according to reports published during the 1959 strike, provision for them
may be encompassed within “ local working conditions.”
* The following 12 States have laws relating to rest periods for women
workers, most of which provide for a 10-minute rest period within each
half of the day: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Kentucky, Nevada,
New York, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
A Agreements for the railroad and airline industries are not collected by the
Bureau and, therefore, are not included in this study.

2
T a b l e 1.

E m p l o y e e s C o v e r e d b y P a id R e s t P e r io d P r o v is io n s -

Number studied

Employee coverage

Number with paid
rest period provisions

All employees

Industry

Women only

Agree­
ments

Workers
(thousands)

Agree­
ments

Workers
(thousands)

Agree­
ments

Workers
(thousands)

Agree­
ments

Workers
(thousands)

All industries........................ ...........................................................

1,687

7,477.3

433

1,683.1

288

1,154.7

47

147.0

Manufacturing............... L......................................................

1,063

4,555.3

288

969.9

194

622.4

30

97.0

Ordnance and accessories................ ................................................
Food and kindred products............................................................
Tobacco manufactures.....................................................................
Textile mill products.......................................................................
Apparel and other finished products_____________ ____________
Lumber and wood products, except furniture______ ____ ______
Furniture and fixtures_______________ ____ _____ ______ ______
Paper and allied products.-................... ...................................
Printing, publishing, and allied industries....................................
Chemicals and allied products........................................................
Petroleum refining and related industries_____________________
Rubber and miscellaneous plastics products__________________
Leather and leather products________________________________
Stone, clay, and glass products........................................ ..............
Primary metal industries.......................... .....................................
Fabricated metal products...................... .......................................
Machinery, except electrical................ ...........................................
Electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies..................... ......
Transportation equipment ...........................................................
Instruments and related products..................................................
Miscellaneous manufacturing________________________________

15
120
11
33
45
13
20
54
31
57
23
24
20
38
124
52
117
100
127
24
15

39.4
405.8
27.6
78.4
464.1
37.2
32.1
118.0
62.2
113.6
63.8
128.1
62.5
100.8
724.8
146.4
283.9
438.3
1,152.2
54.2
22.5

9
61
1
6

26.0
261.4
1.1
10.9

7
47

17.7
218.0

5

14.8

1

1.0

1

1.3

4
6
17
2
21
2
8
1
12
6
15
24
40
39
7
7

6.6
8.2
55.5
2.5
42.5
2.7
15.7
1.3
34.1
15.4
60.9
50.1
120.8
234.4
10.7
9.4

4
4
7
1
13
1
7
1
6

6.6
4.5
9.3
1.2
19.3
1.6
14.1
1.3
7.7

8
1
4

32.7
1.4
15.3

2

12.8

11
15
36
24
4
5

36.3
34.4
107.6
128.9
6.0
7.4

1
3
1
3
1

1.2
6.5
1.2
8.3
1.5

Nonmanufacturing................................................... - ...........

624

2,922.0

145

713.2

94

532.3

17

50.1

17

252.7

1

1.5

95
79
78
12
92
36
55
155
5

573.2
558.1
200.5
21.6
245.1
176.8
184.9
701.9
7.4

8
46
2
3
52
6
18
8
1

47.3
373.3
9.4
3.6
155.9
31.7
50.2
38.0
2.5

M in in g , c ru d e p e tro le u m , a n d natural gas p ro d u c tio n
T ra n s p o rt a tio n 3

_

_. _ ___

Communications______ ____ ______________ ________—_______
Utilities: Electric and gas............. ................................................
Wholesale trade____________________________________________
Retail trade -.................................................................................
Hotels and restaurants....................................................................
Services___________________________________________ ________
Construction_______________________________________________
Miscellaneous nonmanufacturing_______ ________ _____________

1Includes agreements which provided for rest periods during the summer
months only, those with different provisions for male and female employees,




1
6
34

43.1
318.8

1
37
1
10
5

1.0
109.1
6.0
28.8
25.6

1. 5

1

1.9

11
3

36.2
8.0

1

>

2.5

and those limiting rest periods to employees at designated stations or locations.

3

U n d e r M a jo r C o l l e c t iv e B a r g a in in g A g r e e m e n t s ,

by

I n du stry,

1959

Employee coverage—Continued
Designated depart­
ments only

Designated occupa­
tions only

Continuous opera­
tions only

Other 1

Coverage not clear2

Industry

Agree­
Workers
Agree­ Workers
Agree­ Workers
Agree­ Workers
Agree­ Workers
ments (thousands) ments (thousands) ments (thousands) ments (thousands) ments (thousands)
13

48.2

23

78.1

5

7.5

14

95.2

43

152.5

4

6.8

8

34.7

5

7.5

10

68.5

37

133.0

2
1

8.3
3.0

4

8.6

2

3.8
6.8

2

3.0

3

11.0

1

1

1.5

10.2
1.1

1.6

1
I

1.0
6.0
15.0

41.4

1
4

1.4
26.4

1
3

9.2
4.5

15

43.4

1
1

1.5
1.0

1
9

1
2

1. 2
1.1

3
1

1.6

11.0

1

1.7

2.3

11.0

2

1

1
1
1

1

2.5

2
1

20.0

1

13.0

2
4
2
4
1
8
2
1

2.7
12.2
3.4
6.0
4.5
68. 2
3.2
1.0

4

26.7

6

19.5

1.0

5
1
1
3

17.2
7.5
1.5
8.0

1

3
2

5.4
3.9

2
1

* Includes agreements with such statements as “ present practice to be
continued” and “ employees now allowed rest periods shall continue to re­
ceive them/ *




11.5
8.5

1
2

2.8
4.4

1
1
1

6.7

1.1
2.7
8.5

All industries.
Manufacturing.
Ordnance and accessories.
Food and kindred products.
Tobacco manufactures.
Textile mill products.
Apparel and other finished products.
Lumber and wood products, except furniture.
Furniture and fixtures.
Paper and allied products.
Printing, publishing, and allied products.
Chemicals and allied products.
Petroleum refining and related industries.
Rubber and miscellaneous plastics products.
Leather and leather products.
Stone, clay, and glass products.
Primary metal industries.
Fabricated metal products.
Machinery, except electrical.
Electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies.
Transportation equipment.
Instruments and related products.
Miscellaneous manufacturing.
Nonmanufacturing.
Mining, crude petroleum, and natural gas pro­
duction.
Transportation.2
Communications.
Utilities: Electric and gas.
Wholesale trade.
Retail trade.
Hotels and restaurants.
Services.
Construction.
Miscellaneous nonmanufacturing.

* Excludes railroad and airline industries,
N o t e : Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

4
T a b l e 2.

T

otal

Number with
paid rest period
provisions

Industry

D a il y T im e A l l o w a n c e

P a id R e s t P e r io d s U n d e r

for

Total daily time allowance

Duration not
indicated

Under
10 minutes

10 minutes

15 minutes1

Workers
Workers Agree­
Workers Agree­
Workers Agree­
Workers Agree­
Agree­
ments (thousands) ments (thousands) ments (thousands) ments (thousands) ments (thousands)
All industries—

_____

__ _ _

________

433

1,683.1

04

208.1

6

10.2

31

81.4

17

65.1

Manufacturing......... ............... ......................

288

060.0

66

214.5

3

4.0

27

55.0

14

37.3

Ordnance and accessories _ _
_
Food and kindred products _ _
Tobacco manufactures _.
_
Textile mill products.................................................
Apparel and other finished products........................
Lumber and wood products, except furniture_
Furniture and fixtures... .
_____
Paper and allied products_____ _______ __________
Printing, publishing, and allied industries________
Chemicals and allied products___________________
Petroleum refining and related indnstries_
Rubber and miscellaneous plastics products___
Leather and leather products _
Stone, clay, and glass products
_ _ _
Primary metal industries____ __
Fabricated metal products_ _
Machinery, except electrical.....................................
Electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies___
Transportation equipment........................................
Instruments and related products __
Miscellaneous manufacturing

9
61
1
6

26.0
261.4
1.1
10.0

2
13

8.3
61.1

2

3.4

1

2

4.5

5

1.1

0.6

4
6
17
2
21
2
8
1
12
6
15
24
40
30
7
7

6.6
8.2
55.5
2.5
42.5
2.7
15.7
1.3
34.1
15.4
60.0
50.1
120.8
234.4
10.7
0.4

1
3

2.4
7.6

1

1.0

4

7.2

1

3.7

1

1.6

8
4
5
7
3
0
3
1

10.2
12.2
8.7
0.1
6.8
50.0
4.2
1.0

1

2.8

1
1
3
2

LI
13.0
4.3
3.6

145*

713.2

28~

5T

1
8
46
2
3
52
6
18
8
1

1.5
47.3
373.3
0.4
3.6
155.0
31.7
50.2
38.0
2.5

2
5

6.8
18.6

1
14
2
3
1

1.1
41.5
0.7
4.7
1.3

N onmanufacturing....... .......................... ........
Mining, crude petroleum, and natural gas pro­
duction ___
Transportation <
Communications ___
_ _ _ _ _
__
Utilities: Electric and gas _ _ _
_ _ _
Wholesale trade__ ___________ _ _ ____ ___
Retail trade
Hotels and restaurants
Services__________'_____________________________
Construction___ __
__ ____ _________
Miscellaneous nonmanufacturing

1

2
.

2.0

1

1.1

— ■■
■

3

1.1

1
2
0
2
6
1
1

1.5
2.0
17.1
2.5
22.0
1.4
1.1

15.2

26.4

1

3

15.2

1
2

3.0

13.0
10.4

■— -

3

27.8

1

16.3

2

11.5

* Includes 3 agreements with a total of 14 minutes and 1 with 16 minutes.
>Includes 1 agreement with a total of 21 minutes, 2 with 24 minutes, and
4 with 25 minutes.

* Includes 2 agreements with a total of 35 minutes, 5 with 40 minutes, and
1 with 00 minutes.

to employees in designated departments or occu­
pations, or to workers on continuous operations
or on hazardous jobs. The following clauses
illustrate such limitations:
Women employees of the company shall receive a rest
period of 10 minutes each half day, during which they
shall be free to leave their work places.

In 43 agreements, the employee coverage was
not clear; the provision usually stated that present
practices were to be continued. A few stipulated
that rest periods were to be negotiated at the
local plants or that “ reasonable” or “ adequate”
rest periods were to be allowed or granted “ when
practical.”

*

*

*

. . . there shall be no interruption of production for
smoking or lunch, except that employees working in
restricted areas shall be allowed a 5-minute smoking
period each half shift. . . .
*

*

*

All employees on continuous operations are to receive,
individually, a rest period of 10 minutes before and after
lunch.
*

*

*

Under exceptional conditions of hazardous or fatiguing
work, reasonable provision will be made for rest periods
for employees engaged in such work.




Duration
Although the total duration of rest periods
ranged from 5 to 90 minutes per day, 157 of the
339 agreements with maximum time limits granted
20 minutes (table 2). The next largest number
of agreements (91) provided for a daily total of
30 minutes. Virtually all of the agreements in
the telephone industry which defined the duration
of rest periods were in this latter category. Only

5
M

a jo r

C

o l l e c t iv e

B a r g a in in g A

g reem en ts, b t

I

n d u stry,

1959

Total dally time allowance—Continued
20 minutes

Over 20 and under
30 minutes ’

Over 30
minutes *

30 minutes

Varies by sex and
occupation

Industry

AgreeWorkers AgreeWorkers AgreeWorkers Agree­
Workers AgreeWorkers
ments (thousands) ments (thousands) ments (thousands) ments (thousands) ments (thousands)
157

621.4

7

10.3

91

510.3

8

16.4

22

61.2

120

506.2

7

10.3

38

116.9

4

8.8

9

17.2

5
24

14.3
146.0

6.6
4.9
32.3
1.4
22.6
1.6
12.9
1.3
2.1

2
4
27
17
3
5

3.5
5.0
96.7
142.9
5.1
7.3

37

2.5

115.2

1
1
2

1.2
2.8

1

35.4
1.3

3

3

6.6

3

4.5

13.5

1

1
1

1.0
1.7

1.6
66.9
22.0
9.4
8.5

10.0

1

4
1
1
3

43.4
2.2
2.9
4.2

1.7

1

1.4

1

1.7

2

4.8

53

393.4

4

7.6

13

44.0

4
36
2

36.1
311.9
9.4

9

31.0

1
1

2.6
2.5

2

4

a few agreements provided for rest periods of
more than 30 minutes or less than 10.
In 22 contracts, the daily time allowance varied
for men and women or by occupation. In nine
retail trade agreements, a 20-minute allowance
was permitted all employees except those in de­
partments where the “ established practice was
15.” One agreement in the food industry pro­
vided “ two 10-minute break periods in all depart­
ments except women on ovens who are allowed
three 15-minute breaks.” Another contract in
that industry provided for two 10-minute rest
periods except “ continuous enrober belt and
candy-packing belt operators who receive the
equivalent of a 5-minute rest period each 40
minutes of work.”
The length of the rest period was not indicated
in slightly more than a fifth of the agreements.

7.6

22.4

1
9

* Excludes railroad and airline industries.




5.4

4.0

8

2

1.2

1.5
1.4
4.2

1
20
4
7
1

1
2

16
1

4
4
4
1
10
1
6
1
2

1

1.0
16.6

1

4.0

All industries.
Manufacturing.
Ordnance and accessories.
Food and kindred products.
Tobacco manufactures.
Textile mill products.
Apparel and other finished products.
Lumber and wood products, except furniture.
Furniture and fixtures.
Paper and allied products.
Printing, publishing, and allied industries.
Chemicals and allied products.
Petroleum refining and rolated industries.
Rubber and miscellaneous plastics products.
Leather and leather products.
Stone, clay, and glass products.
Primary metal industries.
Fabricated metal products.
Machinery, except electrical.
Electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies.
Transportation equipment.
Instrumenta and related products.
Miscellaneous manufacturing.
Nonmanufacturing.
Mining, crude petroleum, and natural gas pro­
duction.
Transportation.*
Communications.
Utilities: Electric and gas.
Wholesale trade.
Retail trade.
Hotels and restaurants.
Services.
Construction.
Miscellaneous nonmanufacturing.

N ote : Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

Many of these were also vague on other details,
as the following clause illustrates:
The duration of the relief period or spell out time as
is in practice at present in each gang at each plant will be
continued unless, as result of local collective bargaining,
such duration shall be changed.
Employees will be allowed two rest periods in accordance
with written agreements to be negotiated' on a local basis.
Number, Timing, and Scheduling
Most commonly, the agreements specified two
rest periods of 10 or 15 minutes daily, one in each
half of the shift (tables 3 and 4). Where a single
break per day was specified, it was usually to be
taken during the first half shift.
In 200 agreements which contained references
to scheduling, the details were frequently left to

6

T

able

3.

N um ber

and

T im in g

of

D

a il y

P aid R e s t P e r io d s U n d e r M a j o r C o l l e c t iv e B a r g a in in g A g r e e m e n t s ,
M e t h o d of S c h e d u l in g , 1959

by

[Workers in thousands]
Number
with paid
rest period
provisions

Method of scheduling

Number and timing of daily rest periods

Number and
timing not
specified 1

1 rest period
2d half of
shift

1st half of
shift

2 rest periods
Timing not
indicated

1st and 2d
half shifts

Timing not
indicated

Other »

Agree­ Work­ Agree­ Work­ Agree­ Work­ Agree­ Work­ Agree­ Work­ Agree­ Work­ Agree­ Work­ Agree­ Work­
ments ers ments ers ments ers ments ers ments ers ments ers ments ers ments ers
Total with provisions.......................... 433 1,683.1
Totalfwith specified method.................... 200 885.9
By mutual agreement___________ 18
51.6
Company to determine time. ......... 52 154.9
At times consistent with operation
requirements......... ........................ 10
24.4
Staggered so as not to interfere with
production............................... ....... 6
31.9
Within specified periods after start
and/or before end of shift........... 18 129.9
11.9
After less than 2 hours' work *____
5
After 2 hours' work____ _________ 40 215.8
3
After 3 hours' work ____________
4.7
After more than 3 hours’ work *___ 3
6.1
Other 5____________ ____________ 45 254.7
Total with no reference to scheduling... 233 797.4

73 202.9
6
5 9.2
7.7

1 1.5
67 193.7

22 75.5
14 40.0
1 1.0
3 6.5
1 9.9
2 4.0
3 11.1
1 1.7
3 5.8
8 35.6

* Agreements contained reference to rest periods but number of periods
and timing either were not clear or not indicated.
* Includes 16 agreements which provided 2 rest periods and 9 in which the
number of rest periods was not clear but the timing in both groups usually
varied according to sex, work requirement, department, or occupation; an
additional agreement specified 3 rest periods.
* Includes agreements which provided rest periods within a range of 1 to
1% hours after starting time.
* Includes 1 agreement which provided that rest periods were to be taken
at intervals of not less than 4 hours, 1 agreement which provided a rest period

T

able

4.

N um ber

and

D

u r a t io n [o f

4 14.1
3 11.6
1 1.5
1 1.1

1

264 1,138.0
149 745.3
5
23.0
36 104.9
6
17.8
6
31.9
16 111.0
3
7.9
36 202.3
2
3.0
1
1.5
38 242.1
115 392.9

51.5
14.1
3.9
1.1
4.5

2

1

15
8
3
1
2

4.6

9.0

2.5

7 37.4

135.0
41.0
14.2
24.3

1

2.5

19 94.0

26
10
1
5
1

66.3
24.9
1.8
16.7
1.0

3
16

5.4
41.4

after AH consecutive hours' work, and 1 agreement which provided rest
periods when “uninterrupted work” exceeded 4 hours.
s Includes agreements with provisions which usually referred to continua­
tion of present practices; also includes 1 agreement which provided for rest
periods “in the morning,” 1 agreement which provided rest periods at “rea­
sonable intervals following the beginning and prior to the end of work period
in each half shift,” and another in which scheduling was a matter of local
plant option.
N ote: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

D a il y P a id R e s t P e r io d s U n d e r M a j o r C o l l e c t iv e B a r g a in in g A g r e e m e n t s ,
b y E m p l o y e e s C o v e r e d , 1959

Number with paid rest
period provisions
Number of daily periods and duration

Agreements

Workers
(thousands)

433
73

1,683.1
202.9
1.0
19.2
64.8
53.7
2.4
36.1
16.6
6.1
617.8
2.9
501.7
7.6
1.0
40.5
81.6
1.7
25.7

Total with provision.
Number and duration not clear *....................
1 period; duration not indicated......................
1 period; under 10 minutes..............................
1 period; 10 minutes................. _......................
1 period; 15 minutes..........................................
1 period; 20 minutes...........................................
2 periods; duration not indicated....................
2 periods; 5 minutes each..................................
2 periods; over 5 but under 10 minutes each.
2 periods; 10 minutes each______ ______—
2 periods; over 10 but under 15 minutes each
2 periods; 15 minutes each................................
2 periods; 20 minutes each................................
2 periods; duration varies by sex..................
2 periods; duration varies by occupation___
2 periods; other *..............................................
3 periods....................... ___................................
Other *............ ................ ......... ............... ........
1 Includes 43 agreements in which employee coverage was not clear.
* Includes 1 agreement which allowed a total of 20 minutes daily and 2
Which allowed a total of 30 minutes daily.
• Includes 13 agreements which specified that present practices would
continue, 8 agreements which differed the length of rest periods for the morn­
ing and afternoon, and 8 agreements which contained a variety of other
provisions.




29
10
3
6

1

6

22
10
2

9
9
4
154
2
89
4

1
8

29
1
9

Employees covered
All employees
Agreements
288
20

1

6

18
3
2
8
7
4
119
2
57

Specific groups *

Workers Agreements Workers
(thousands)
(thousands)
1,164.7
41.9
1.0
19.2
67.6
18.4
2.4
30.9
13.2
6.1
444.8
2.9
395.3

1

7
26
7

14.4

145
53

528.4
161.0

4
7
1
2
35
32
4
1
3
1
2

7.2
35.4
5.2
3.4
173.0
106.4
7.6
2.9
13.4
1.7
11.3

* Includes agreements in which the number of rest periods and duration
differed by department, occupation, work requirement, travel time, and so
forth.
N ote: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

7

the discretion of the company or were to be
arranged so as not to interfere with production or
operation requirements. Such a method of sched­
uling was set forth in an agreement which granted
a maximum of three rest periods to specific groups
of workers:
Rest periods shall be taken so as to not interfere with
production or continuous operation of work groups, and
shall be limited to one 10-minute rest period per full shift,
which shall be taken at designated times or as otherwise
scheduled by supervision.
However, for dayworkers in the cutting, finishing, re­
winder and roll, box shop, and storehouse and loading
departments only, working regular dayworker schedules
(7:00 a.m. to 12:00 noon and 1:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m.) on
repetitive operating jobs in the above departments, the
company will recognize not more than 3 such 10-minute
rest periods per full shift.
In 40 agreements, a rest period was scheduled
after 2 hours had been worked. In virtually all of
these agreements, two rest periods per day were
specified.
Under the terms of 18 agreements, such breaks
were scheduled within specified periods after the
start and/or before the end of the shift:
All employees, shift and day workers, will receive smok­
ing, rest, or lunch periods in accordance with the following
schedule. . . .
Shift workers, 1st shift—7:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m.:
1st rest period—10 minutes (between 9:00 a.m. and
10:00 a.m.)
2 d rest period—10 minutes (between 12:00 noon and
1:00 p.m.)

*
*
*
Except as otherwise specified . . . an employee shall be
assigned one 15-minute relief in each session not less than
45 minutes from the start or end of the session.
Although 45 agreements referred only in general
to the method of scheduling, such as rest periods
at “ any time” or “ in the same manner and under
the same circumstances as before,” 233 contracts,
covering nearly 800,000 workers, made no reference
whatsoever to this matter. Included in this
group were 67 agreements which also failed to
specify the number and timing of rest periods.
Such breaks, it would appear, can be handled
informally and may not require the degree of
detail found in other collective bargaining areas.
The lack of scheduling provisions was most com­
mon in the following industries: food, textile mill
products, stone, clay, and glass, machinery, trans­




portation equipment, instruments and related
products, primary metals, and retail trade.
Where two rest periods were provided, they were
usually of equal length (table 4). In the few
cases where they were of unequal duration, the
longer period occurred in the morning.
Two rest periods shall be allowed without deduction of
pay at regular times in each shift to be mutually agreed
upon by the employer and the union; a.m., 15 minutes;
p.m., 10 minutes.

Other Regulations
Rest period regulations other than those govern­
ing timing, duration, or scheduling were infre­
quently incorporated in the agreements. Thus,
provisions for disciplinary action or revocation of
rest period privileges in case of abuse were found
in 26 agreements, and rules requiring employees
to remain on the premises or to go to special areas
were found in 39 agreements.
In addition to time mentioned above [10 minutes], an
allowance will be given for travel time from the work area
to an approved smoking area and return, this time not to
exceed 5 minutes for each smoking period. . . . This
privilege, if abused, may be withdrawn at any time after
such abuse has been called to the attention of the union
and has not been satisfactorily corrected.
*

*

*

Em ployees are granted the privilege o f eating a sand­
wich, drinking milk or other soft drink, or taking a smoke
(in place provided) during working hours, bu t it is agreed
that this privilege shall not be abused. If it is determined
b y mutual agreement between management and the union
that this privilege is being abused, it shall be withdrawn
either from the individual, department, or entire group.

*
*
*
A warning bell shall be sounded 1 minute prior to the
expiration of each rest period and employees shall be at
their places of work on the expiration of said rest periods.
The provisions for rest periods as herein set out are
agreed to by the company upon the understanding that
the employees assume responsibility for return to their
places of work by the expiration of the specified rest period,
and if such privilege is abused by the employees to such
extent that the same cannot be enforced by individual
discipline, the company will call the matter to the attention
of the Labor Relations Board [a joint labor-management
grievance committee] in writing, and if such abuses con­
tinue 5 working days after such board has received such
notice, the company may discontinue rest periods for any
shift or department for such time as the company may
deem proper.




9

Paid Time for Washup, Cleanup,
and Clothes Change in 1959
T h e p r e v a l e n c e of pay for washup, cleanup, or
clothes-changing time dining regular working
hours has remained relatively unchanged since
1953. A recent Bureau of Labor Statistics study
of 1,687 major collective bargaining agreements
in effect in 1959 revealed that only about 17
percent, the same proportion as found in an earlier
study,1 contained specific provisions for paid time
for washing up, changing clothes, cleaning up the
machine or workplace, or related activities in­
volved in leaving the job for lunch or for the day.
Many of these provisions applied only to employ­
ees in designated occupations or departments,
not to all employees in the bargaining unit.
These cleanup activities are essentially jobrelated functions. The absence of an agreement
provision may mean that the worker is expected
to perform these functions on his own time.
However, it is reasonable to assume that informal
arrangements are widespread and that, in this
area, the prevalence of agreement provisions is
not an accurate measure of the extent of the
practice.
Washup time and clothes-change time are selfexplanatory terms. Cleanup time, for purposes
of this study, was defined to cover preparatory
and cleanup activities involving the workplace at
the beginning or end of the workday, such as
checking out and returning tools to the tool
crib, arranging the work area, and making out
reports required by management.

* For data on paid time for washup, cleanup, and clothes change in union
agreements in 1953, see Paid Time for Washup, Cleanup, and Clothes
Change, 1952-53 (in Monthly Labor Review, April 1954, pp. 420-423), or
BLS Bull. 1166,1954, pp. 14-17.
* The Bureau does not maintain a file of railroad and airline agreements;
hence their omission from this study.




Scope of Study
This study was based on 1,687 collective bar­
gaining agreements, each covering 1,000 or more
workers, or virtually all agreements of this size
in the United States, exclusive of railroads and
airlines.2 The approximately 7.5 million workers
covered by these major agreements account for
slightly less than half of all workers estimated to
be covered by all collective bargaining agreements
in the United States, exclusive of railroads and
airlines. Of the agreements studied, 1,063 cov­
ered 4.5 million workers in manufacturing estab­
lishments and 624 applied to 2.9 million workers
in nonmanufacturing establishments. All of the
agreements were in effect at the beginning of
1959, and slightly less than half (823) expired
during that year.

Prevalence of Agreement Provisions
Provisions relating to paid time for personal
washup, changing of clothes, and machine or
workplace cleanup, or for a combination of these
activities, were found in 278 agreements, covering
865,000 workers, or 17 percent of the major agree­
ments analyzed (table 1). Such provisions were
contained in about one-fifth of the contracts in
manufacturing and about one-tenth in nonmanu­
facturing industries, and were relatively most prev­
alent in food, petroleum, chemicals, transportation
equipment, ordnance, and machinery. In none
of these industries, however, did the incidence of
such provisions exceed half of the major, agree­
ments studied.
A single work activity only was covered in 200
agreements. Two types of activity were covered
in 72 contracts; more than half of these were in
food, transportation equipment, and construction
industries. All three activities were mentioned
in only six agreements.

10

T a b l e 1.

Industry

P r o v is io n s

Number studied

for

P a id W a s h u p , C l e a n u p ,1 a n d C l o t h e s - C h a n g b

Number providing
paid washup, cleanup,
and clothes-change
time

Type of provision
Washup only

Cleanup only

Agree- Workers Agree­ Workers Agree­ Workers Agree­ Workers
ments (thousands) ments (thousands) ments (thousands) ments (thousands)
All industries..................................................................... ................ 1,687
Manufacturing........................................................................... 1,063
Ordnance and accessories
___
__
15
Food and kindred products__________________ _____________ 120
Tobacco manufactures
____
11
Textile mill products__ __ ____________ ________________
33
Apparel and other finished products................................................
45
Lumber and wood products, except furniture
13
Furniture and fixtures _ ____
20
PaDer and allied products _ ___ ____ ....
__
54
Printing, publishing, and allied industries. ..................................
31
Chemicals and allied products _ . ...
57
Petroleum refining and related industries........................................
23
Rubber and miscellaneous plastics products............... ..................
24
Leather and leather products. _
_ _ ___ _ _______
20
Stone, day, and glass products...........................................................
38
Primary metal industries....................................................................
124
Fabricated metal products
__ __
52
Machinery, except electrical ......................................................... 117
Electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies.............................. 100
Transportation equipment . _
_ _
__
127
Instruments and related products___________________
24
Miscellaneous manufacturing _ _
15
Nonmanufacturing..................................................................
624
Mining, crude petroleum, and natural gas production
17
Transportation *....................................................................................
05
Communications
79
Utilities: Electric and gas
__
78
Wholesale trade _ __
12
Retail trade........................................................................................ .
92
Hotels and restaurants.
___ _ ___
36
Services__
_ .........
........... ............................ „
55
Construction........................................................................................
155
Miscellaneous nonmanufaotnrin g
__
_ _____
5
1Refers to cleanup activities involving machinery or workplace such as
the preparation of the workplace for the following day, returning tools to




7,477.3
4,555.3
39.4
405.8
27.6
78.4
464.1
37.2
32.1
118.0
62.2
113.6
63.8
128.1
62.5
100.8
724.8
146.4
283.9
438.3
1,152.2
54.2
22.5
2,922.0
252.7
573.2
558.1
200.5
21.6
245.1
176.8
184.9
701.9
7.4

278
216
5
27
2
2

864.8
633.6
15.4
115.3
2.4
9.6

112
104
3
1
2

265.3
233.3
10.3
1.0
9.6

80
43

281.5
142.3

4
2

10.3
2.4

2
7
1
20
11
5
2
8
7
12
28
26
44
5
2
62
1
21
1
3
6
1
29

2.4
21.7
7.5
30.0
24.3
37.6
2.5
38.9
10.2
27.4
47.8
75.8
145.3
17.6
2.2
231.3
1.5
72.9
1.3
8.9
30.0
4.3
112.4

2
5
1
10
1
2
2
2
3
8
22
18
18
2
2
8

2.4
8.6
7.5
16.6
1.1
2.4
2.5
2.9
3.9
14.8
40.4
37.3
58.9
11.2
2.2
32.0

2
6
1
1
1
3
3
14
1

2.7
16.4
1.8
34.6
2.0
2.4
4.1
16.6
47.8
1.4

3.5

37
1
17
2
3

139.2
1.5
62.2
5.4
18.0

1

1.4

2
5

27.2

14

52.2

5

the tool crib, or the preparation of reports. In contrast, washup and clothes
change refer to personal cleanup.

11
T

im e

U nder M

ajo r

C o l l e c t iv e B a r g a in in g A g r e e m e n t s ,

I n d u stry,

by

1959

Type of provision—Continued
Clothes change only Washup and clothes Cleanup and clothes
change
change

Washup and
cleanup

Washup, cleanup,
and clothes change

Industry

Agree­ Workers Agree­ Workers Agree­ Workers Agree­ Workers Agree­ Workers
ments (thousands) ments (thousands) ments (thousands) ments (thousands) ments (thousands)

9.3

18
15
1
2

62.4
53.2
2.1
2.2

2.7

1
5
1
1
3
1

1.5
6.0
15.6
8.0

3

9.2

1

3.5

2

5.7

24.8
12.0

4

2

2

1
1

18
18

96.0
96.0

16

92.5

11.0
6.8

8
6

12.8

8.5
4.3

* Excludes railroad and airline industries;




1

2.5

1

1.0

36
25

122.8
85.7

1
1
3
1
1
2
1
2
2
9
2

2.2
1.3
4.7
30.0
1.4
2.8
1.7
2.4
6.3
28.2
5.0

11

37.1

3
1

9.4
1.3

7

26.4

6
5
1

1
1
1
1
1

1

12.2 All industries.
11.2
Manufacturing.
3.0 Ordnance and accessories.
Food and kindred products.
Tobacco manufactures.
Textile mill products.
Apparel and other finished products.
Lumber and wood products, except furniture.
Furniture and fixtures.
Paper and allied products.
Printing, publishing, and allied industries.
Chemicals and allied products.
2.2 Petroleum refining and related industries.
3.5 Rubber and miscellaneous plastics products.
Leather and leather products.
Stone, clay, and glass products.
Primary metal industries.
Fabricated metal products.
1.0 Machinery, except electrical.
Electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies.
1.5 Transportation equipment.
Instruments and related products.
Miscellaneous manufacturing.
1.0
Nonmanufacturing.
Mining, crude petroleum, and natural gas produc­
tion.
Transportation.*
Communications.
Utilities: Electric and gas.
Wholesale trade.
Retail trade.
Hotels and restaurants.
Services.
1.0 Construction.
Miscellaneous nonmanufacturing.

N ote: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

12
T able

2. P r o v is io n s f o r P a id W a s h u p , C l e a n u p ,
a n d C l o t h e s -C h a n g e T im e U n d e r M a j o r C o l l e c t iv e
B a r g a in in g A g r e e m e n t s , b y E m p l o y e e C o v e r a g e ,
1959

[Workers in thousands]
Type of provision

Employee coverage

Washup

Cleanup

Clothes change

Agree­ Workers Agree­ Workers Agree­ Workers
ments
ments
ments
Total studied..................
Number with provi­
sions________ ______
All employees_____
Employees in desig­
nated occupations
or departments. —
Other1......................
Number with no pro­
visions..........................

1,687 7,477.3 1,687 7,477.3 1,687

7,477.3

50
30

195.3
136.3

49 117.3
58 189.4
18
2
2
33.0
5
39.0
1,615 7,014.7 1,547 6,964.9 1,637

54.1
5.0
7,282.0

172
118

462.6
306.3

140
80

512.4
290.0

i Present practice was to continue in 3 agreements containing washup
provision, in 1 providing for clothes change, and in 1 allowing for machinery
and/or work-station cleanup. Details for the remaining 4 agreements were
to be negotiated at the local level.
N ote: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

Paid Washup Time

. Of the 278 agreements with
provisions for paid washup, cleanup, and clothes
change, 112 allowed paid washup periods only.
However, washup time was also referred to in 60
agreements with provisions for cleanup or clothes
change or both (table 1).
In the main, washup time applied to all em­
ployees covered by the agreement, but 49 con­
tracts limited the provisions to designated jobs or
occupations and 5 did not specify the coverage.
(See table 2.) Typical of the provisions that
limited coverage are the following illustrations:
. . . showers on company time will be authorized for
employees who are required to work on extremely dirty
jobs or with hazardous materials requiring protective
clothing or showers . . .
*
*
*
Employees on spray gun and sandblast work will be
permitted to leave the job 15 minutes prior to quitting
time in order to bathe.
A specific amount of time for washup was pro­
vided in 94 agreements, granting, most commonly,
either 5 (28 agreements) or 10 minutes per day
(46 agreements) for this purpose (table 3). Of
the 5 agreements with a daily allowance in excess
of 15 minutes, 1 allowed 18, 3 allowed 20, and 1
allowed 30 minutes.
In 25 agreements, time allowances varied by
occupation or department; fifteen other agree­




ments stipulated that “reasonable,” “sufficient”
or the “ time necessary” for washup would be
given:
Except for jobs set forth in exhibit F . . . all employees
shall be permitted to stop work to wash up 6 minutes
before quitting time at the lunch period and at the end of
the shift. The employees in the jobs set forth in said
exhibit F shall be permitted to stop work to wash up 10
minutes before quitting time at the lunch period and at the
end of the shift.
*

*

*

The company will continue its practices of allowing
a reasonable amount of time for necessary washup and/
or clothes change.
In a number of agreements, the amount of time
allowed could be used for more than one type of
activity, as illustrated below:
A 5-minute washup period shall precede the quitting
time of each shift. During this period, employees shall
be permitted to cease work for the purpose of washing up
and taking care of their tools.
*
*
*
Employees on jobs which require toxic clothing and a
bath . . . shall be allowed to leave their job 15 minutes
before quitting time in order to return clothing to the
Service Department and take a bath.
Under the terms of 76 agreements, emplo3r
ees
were allowed a single washup period, usually at
the end of the shift. Many of the agreements in
the chemical, machinery (except electrical), electri­
cal machinery, and transportation equipment
industries provided for this type of scheduling.
A 15-minute washup period on company time shall be
allowed to employees . . . when handling skin-irritating
materials or lead compounds. This time shall be taken
before the regularly scheduled quitting time . . .
*
*
*
Employees in the Foundry Division and in the forge,
heat treat, welding, and snagging departments will be
allowed 15 minutes washup time prior to the end of their
shifts . . .
Employees were permitted two periods for
personal washup, one before lunch and one before
quitting time in 54 agreements and at the begin­
ning and end of a shift in 1 additional agreement.
Most of these were found in the machinery
(except electrical), electrical machinery, and
construction industries.
It is recognized that the performance of certain jobs
results in the employee being exposed to severe dirt con­
ditions. In these cases, employee will be allowed sufficient
time for washing up before lunch time and quitting time.
Five agreements (one in chemicals, two in
machinery, one in instruments and related prod-

13
ucts, and one in construction) provided for washup
before lunch only.
In six agreements, the time for washup depended
on the job or department; for example:
The employees in the following departments . . . have
a 5-minute washup period immediately preceding their
lunch periods and a 10-minute washup period immediately
preceding the end of their shifts. No other employees have
a mid-shift washup period. All other employees in the
factory bargaining unit have a 5-minute washup period
immediately preceding the end of their shift.

Paid Cleanup Time .

Paid time for cleaning up the
machine or the work place, or returning tools
to the tool crib, or other similar duties was
provided by 140 agreements; in 60 of these, the
provision appeared in combination with washup
and/or clothes-change time. In manufacturing
industries, this pay practice was most prevalent
in petroleum, stone, clay, and glass, food, and
transportation equipment. The highest repre­
sentation among the nonmanufacturing group was
in transportation and construction.
Almost half of the 58 contracts which limited
pay for cleanup activities to special groups were
in meatpacking and transportation, as the
following clauses indicate:
Five minutes per day . . . will be paid to employees
who use and sharpen one knife daily. Ten minutes per
day . . . will be paid to employees who use and sharpen
two knives daily . . .
*
*
*
All operators shall receive 10 minutes preparatory time
at the beginning of their runs or trippers and 10 minutes
time after car or bus arrives at bam or garage for making
out manifests and turning in receipts at the end of the
day’s work.
Of the 140 agreements with provisions for ma­
chine cleanup or similar activities, 101 did not
specify an actual time allowance. This omission
may be attributed to the fact that variations in
the nature of the work in certain plants preclude
defining cleanup time in specific time allowances.
Of this group, 41 agreements specified only that
“reasonable,” “sufficient,” or the “ time neces­
sary” would be allowed. For example:
When an employee is required to return tools or other
company equipment at the end of workday he will be
allowed a reasonable time therefor before the scheduled
end of such workday, taking due account of the distance
of his work from the check-in point and the nature of the
tools handled.
*
*
*




T a b l e 3.

D a il y T im e A l l o w a n c e a n d T im e A ssig n ­
m ent for W a sh u p, C l e a n u p , and C lothes C hang e
U n d e r M a jo r C o l l e c t iv e B a r g a in in g A g r e e m e n t s ,
1959

[Workers In thousands]
Type of provision
Daily time allowance and
time assignment

Washup

Cleanup

Clothes change

Agree­ Work­ Agree­ Work­ Agree­ Work­
ments ers ments ers ments ers

Total studied....................... 1,687 7,477.3 1,687 7,477.3 1,687 7,477.3
Number with provisions... 172 462.6 140 512.4
50 195.3
T ime A llowance

Less than 5 minutes...........
5 minutes................—..........
More than 5, less than 10
minutes.............................
10 minutes............................
More than 10, less than 15
minutes.............................
15 minutes_____________
More than 15 minutes___
Varies by job, occupation,
and/or department..........
To be agreed upon..............
At discretion of employer..
“ Reasonable,” “suffi­
cient,” or “time neces­
sary”
Other.............
No reference..

2
3.5
28 50.1
2
2.4
46 130.0

2
15
4
13

3.3
34.9
6.9
31.5

11
5
25
1

30.8
9.3
66.2
1.6

3
2
16
1
12

15.1
4.0
49.8
2.4
74.3

15
118
19

29.4
51.7
87.9

71 179.8
1
1.2
5
6.9
54 143.1
6 16.7

1
3
16
3
5
1

1.2
7.0
89.5
12.2
9.4
8.0

41 •140.4
3 16 50.9
15 99.1

5
*8
8

7.5
22.2
38.5

76 246.7
4 11.2

10
9

35.8
59.2

5 12.9
1
1.6
13 80.6
1
3.0
7.9
3
37 148.6

1
3
1

4.7
3.7
2.1
1.2
88.7

T ime A ssignment

At end of shift.....................
At beginning and end of
shift....................................
Before lunch.........................
Before lunch and end of
shift....................................
Varies by job, occupation,
and/or department..........
At discretion of supervisor.
To be agreed upon..............
Other 4..................................
No reference.........................

3
32

15.0
99.9

1
25

i Includes agreements in which the total daily allowance could be used for
washup, cleanup, or clothes change: in a few. tne allowance varied by sex.
3 Includes agreements in which the total daily allowance applied to both
cleanup and washup, agreements providing pay in lieu of cleanup time, and
those in which the allowance varied with the day of the workweek.
* Includes agreements providing pay in lieu of clothes-change time and
those in which the allowance covered both clothes change and washup.

4 Includes agreements in which provisions (1) differed for various groups
of employees, (2) provided for local negotiation, and (3) were unclear.

N ote : Because of rounding, sums of individual items m ay not equal
totals.

Employees engaged in work where tools are taken from
department tool rooms shall be allowed sufficient time to
return tools or equipment at the end of the shift on com­
pany time.
Another 12 agreements, all in the meatpacking
industry, made the time allowance discretionary
with the employer:
The company shall supply knives, steels, whetstones,
and meat hooks prepared for use, at its expense, or permit
employees using same to prepare them on company time
(as a work assignment determined upon and directed by
management), as the company may elect.
Time varied by occupation in 16 agreements, as
in the example shown on the following page:

14
T a b l e 4.

T

otal

D a il y T im e A l l o w a n c e f o r W ashtjp , C l e a n u p , a n d C l o t h e s C h a n g e U n d e r M a j o r C o l l e c t iv e
B a r g a in in g A g r e e m e n t s , b y E m p l o y e e C o v e r a g e , 1959

Time allowance provision covering—
All agreements
Total daily time allowance

All employees

Employees in
All employees in
specific groups or sbme activities and
occupations only specific groups in
other activities

Other *

Agree­ Workers Agree­ Workers Agree­ Workers Agree­ Workers Agree - Workers
ments (thousands) ments (thousands) ments (thousands) ments (thousands) ments (thousands)
Total studied..........................................-.................-............ 1,687
Number with provisions........................................................ 278
Time allowance covered all activities:
Less than 5 roinut^s
........ .
3
40
5 minutes______________________ -_____________
4
More than 5, less than 10 minutes__-_____________
52
......,
_
10 minutes
,,
2
More than io, less than 15 minutes_______________
16
15 minutes
_______________________
2
More than 15, less than 20 minutes „
6
__
20 minutes
_ ._
2
More than 20, less than 30 minutes.,
________
30 minutes
________________________
3
29
Varies by job, occupation, and/or department___
1
Tn be apreed upon
.. . . .
_
__
3
At discretion of employer_____________________ _
“Reasonable." “sufficient," or “time necessary"___ 46
Time allowance specified for some activity and for
other activities—
4
Not indicated ______________________ —__________
4
Varies by occupation and/or department________ __
1
Apreed upon
_ ______________________ _____
8
At discretion of employer ........
“Reasonable," “sufficient," nr “timenecessary”
4
25
Other *— .........................................................................
23
No reference to time allowance

7,477.3 1,687
864.8 168
5.2
92.5
5.8
130.9
5.4
45.3
3.5
19.9
3.3
5.6
88.5
2.4
3.7
148.9

2
1
18
2
29

3.5
79.5
2.4
99.9
5.4
20.7
1.2
3.3
1.5
60.0
2.6
104.0

22.6
9.8
8.0
62.0
7.9
67.5
126.6

3
1
1
1
2
9
13

19.6
1.6
8.0
8.0
2.3
25.0
70.7

1 Includes agreements providing for the continuation of presently estab­
lished practices, with no details given.
* Includes agreements in which (1) time allowances varied by sex or day of
week; (2) provisions applied to all employees but duration was specified for
designated groups only; (3) different time allowances were specified for 1 or
Spray painters shall be allowed to leave their jobs 10
minutes before quitting time in order to clean their
equipment.
Burners shall be given 2 minutes at lunch time to shut
off their gas oxygen and shall be given 5 minutes at
quitting time to disconnect and turn in their torches.
Time assigned for cleanup was predominantly
at the end of the shift. However, four agreements
specified time allowances at the beginning (pre­
paratory time) and end of shift, and five desig­
nated time for cleanup before lunch as well as at
the end of the shift.
The time allowed for gathering tools and reaching tool
shed by quitting time at noon and at 4:30 p.m. is to be
agreed upon by the employer and the steward . . .
*

*

*

Each employee will be allowed personal and area clean­
up time before his lunch period and before the end of his
work shift . . .

Paid Clothes-Changing Time.

Paid clotheschanging time, the least prevalent of the three




2
31
2
43
2
5

7,477.3 1,687
518.9
77

i

1
9
2
9
9
3
2
10
1
1
17

7
6

7,477.3 1,687
191.6 27
1.7
13.0
3.4
31.0
20.9
12.5
4.1
22.3
2.4
1.1
44.9

14.1
20.3

7,477.3 1,687
112.4
6

2
2
2

3.8
3.5
6.2

1

6.2

3
7
2
8

8.2
54.0
5.6
25.0

7,477.3
42.0

1

3.0

1
4

3.5
35.6

more activities and mutual agreement permitted for other activities; and (4)
time allowances varied b y occupation for some activities and no duration was
specified for other activities.
N ote : Because of rounding, sums of individual items m ay not equal totals.

activities studied, was noted in only 50 agree­
ments. These provisions were concentrated in
the food and chemicals industries.
Fewer than half of the 50 contracts providing
pay for clothes-change time designated the actual
amount of such time. Sixteen agreements al­
lowed 12 minutes; 15 of these were in the meat­
packing industry and 1 in ordnance.
Twelve minutes per day will be paid employees for
changing clothes, and shall be counted as working time
for all purposes.
Employees were authorized to change clothes
at the end of the shift in 10 agreements, and in 9,
clothes-changing time was at the beginning and
end of the shift. Most of these agreements were
in the food industry, where employees were re­
quired to wear special clothing on the job.

Total Daily Allowances.

In the 130 agreements
with definite time allowances for all of the activ­
ities specified in the contract, the combined du­
ration ranged from 3 to 30 minutes per day, with

15
5 and 10 minutes the most prevalent (table 4).3
The time allowed exceeded 15 minutes in only 13
agreements. The total time was derived by
adding the individual allowances, as in the follow­
ing examples which provided a total of 30 and 10
minutes per day, respectively:
. . . The following schedule of allowable time shall be
adhered to:
(1) Five-minute change period at the start of the
shift.
(2) Ten-minute washup period before the eating
period.
(3) Five-minute change period after lunch.
(4) Ten-minute washup period at the close of the
shift.




Employees shall be allowed 5-minute washup time at
noon and 5 minutes before quitting time to replace tools,
clean machines and benches, and wash up . . .
In 148 agreements the total daily allowance
could not be ascertained.
In agreements where the provisions applied to
special groups of workers only, the total amount
of time was more liberal than in situations where
they applied to all workers. For example, of the
29 agreements that granted 15 minutes or more,
20 covered special groups or occupations.

* Applies to agreements which had mentioned 1, 2, or all 3 of the activities
studied.




17

Contract Allowances for Safety
Equipment and Work Clothing, 1959
P r o vision s related to the furnishing of personal
safety equipment and protective apparel were in­
cluded in 502 of 1,687 major collective agreements
analyzed by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. A
smaller number, 267, referred either to the issuance
of uniforms or general work clothing, or to the pro­
vision of allowances for their purchase. Most of
these agreements provided that the entire cost
of furnishing safety equipment or apparel was
to be assumed by the employer, as was the
expense of maintaining work clothing.
The
agreements usually did not specify whether
company or employee was responsible for main­
taining or replacing safety equipment but since
such equipment was issued to employees on an
“ as needed” basis and remained company property
in most cases, it is likely that the employer also
bore this expense.
The practice of supplying protective or work
clothing is probably more widespread than this
analysis of agreement provisions would indicate.
For example, the wearing of protective apparel is
frequently required by government safety regu­
lations and hence may not be subject to unionmanagement negotiation. In general, however,
it would appear that furnishing and maintaining
work clothing is still the employee's responsibility
in most organized establishments.
This study was based on 1,687 collective bar­
gaining agreements, each covering 1,000 or more
workers, or virtually all agreements of this size
in the United States, except for the railroad and
airline industries.1 The approximately 7.5 million
workers covered by these major agreements ac­
count for slightly less than half of all workers
estimated to be covered by all collective bargain­
ing agreements in the United States, exclusive
of railroads and airlines. Of the agreements
studied, 1,063 covered 4.6 million workers in
manufacturing, and 624 applied to 2.9 million
workers in nonmanufacturing. All of the agree­
ments were in effect at the beginning of 1959,
and slightly less than half (823) expired during
that year.




Safety Equipment
Under the terms of 490 of the 502 agreements
referring to safety equipment, the employer
agreed to furnish, whenever necessary, such items
as goggles, boots, and gloves. The remaining
agreements specified that some or all of the
protective devices, frequently of an individualized
nature such as prescription glasses and safety
shoes, would be sold to employees at less than the
full purchase cost. (See table 1.)
Safety equipment provisions were more preva­
lent in manufacturing than in nonmanufacturing
industries. In manufacturing, half of the pro­
visions were found in primary metal products,
machinery (except electrical), and transportation
equipment industries; in nonmanufacturing, elec­
trical and gas utilities, construction, and trans­
portation agreements contained most of these
provisions. (See table 2.)

i The Bureau does not maintain a file of railroad and airline agreements;
hence their omission from this study.
T a b l e 1. P r o v is io n s C o v e r in g S a f e t y E q u ip m e n t ,
W o r k C l o t h in g , a n d T h e ir M a in t e n a n c e ,1 M a j o r
C o l l e c t iv e B a r g a in in g A g r e e m e n t s , 1959

Agreements
Type of allowance

Workers

Num­ Per­ Number Per­
ber cent (thou­ cent
sands)

Total studied.......................... ........................ 1,687 100.0 7,477.3 100.0
Agreements with provisions for safety 2712 42.2 * 2,972.1 39.7
equipment, work clothing, and their
maintenance.
502 29.7 ' 2,112.8 28.3
Safety equipment....... .............................
At no cost to employee.----- --------- 490 29.0 2,093.7 28.0
12 .7
19.1
.3
At some cost to employee.................
Work clothing------------------------- ------ 267 15.8 1,088.8 14.5
937.5 12.5
At no cost to employee................... 238 14.1
151.3 2.0
29 1.7
At some cost to employee________
922.8 12.3
Clothing or equipment maintenance ... 214 12.6
908.5 12.1
At no cost to employee__________ 210 12.4
.2
14.3
4 .2
At some cost to employee................
.4
30.2
14 .8
Other4___________________________
Agreements with no reference to allowances. 975 57.8 4,505.2 60.3
* Safety equipment includes such items as safety shoes, rubber boots, gloves,
goggles, and other personal protective apparel. Work clothing also includes
uniforms. Maintenance of work clothing refers to laundering and/or cleaning
services.
a Unduplicated total of allowances shown separately. Items may appear
singly or in combinations, in 1 agreement.
t Number of workers refers to number covered by agreements, not to num­
ber eligible to receive, or required to use, safety equipment or special work
clothing.
4 Includes 13 agreements in which past practices were to be continued or in
which allowances differed by occupation, sex, or length of service, and 1 agree­
ment in which costs of work clothing and maintenance were shared when
selected by authorized company-union representative, and in which
company paid the costs if clothing was not so selected.
N ote : Because of rounding, the sum of individual items m ay not equal
totals.

18
and first aid kits. All such equipment shall either be
carried on line trucks or kept in a place quickly available
to all employees concerned. Coveralls, or other protec­
tive clothing, will be provided by the company where acid
conditions are encountered in the work to be performed,
or for painting that would endanger the clothing of the
employees.

Representative provisions for furnishing these
items follow:
Protective devices, wearing apparel, and other equip­
ment necessary to properly protect employees from injury
shall be provided by the company in accordance with
practices now prevailing in each separate plant or as such
practices may be improved from time to time by the
company. Goggles, gas masks, face shields, respirators,
special purpose gloves, fireproof, waterproof, or acidproof
protective clothing when necessary and required shall be
provided by the company without cost, except that the
company may assess a fair charge to cover loss or willful
destruction thereof by the employee.
*

*

*

*

The employer will provide outer garments, consisting of
raincoats, boots, and sheepskin-lined jackets, to such em­
ployees as work, or are assigned to work, in locations
which are not fully protected from the elements, or which
are not regularly adequately heated.
In 12 agreements, standard equipment was
furnished free of charge, but employees were re­
quired to pay some part of the cost for items
that had to be adapted to the needs of the in­
dividual. For example:

*

The company shall provide all employees necessary
protective equipment, including rubber blankets, rubber
gloves, rubber sleeves, rubber hats, rubber boots, other
protective rubber footwear, rubber coats, rubber hose.
T a b l e 2.

*

P r o v is io n s C o v e r in g S a f e t y E q u ip m e n t , W o r k C l o t h in g ,

and

Employer agrees to—

Industry

Nu:mber
stu died

Provide safety Provide work
clothing
equipment *

Provide and
maintain
Provide safety Provide and
maintain
equipment
work clothing
and work
work clothing and furnish •
clothing
safety
equipment

Agree­ Workers Agree­ Workers Agree­ Workers Agree­ Workers Agree­ Workers Agree­ Workers
ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­
sands)7
sands)7
sands)7
sands)7
sands)7
sands)
All industries...................................................................... 1,687 7,477.3
Manufacturing_____________________ _______ 1,063 4,555.3
39.4
Ordnance and accessories________________________
15
Food and kindred products__________ ___________ 120 405.8
Tobacco manufactures...................................................... 11
27.6
Textile mill products____________________________ 33
78.4
Apparel and other finished prodnets
...
45 464.1
Lumber and wood products, except furniture_______ 13
37.2
Furniture and fixtures___________________________ 20
32.1
Paper and allied products_______________ _______
54 118.0
Printing, publishing, and allied industries___ ______ 31
62.2
Chemicals and allied products......................................... 57 113.6
Petroleum refining and related industries__________
23
63.8
Rubber and miscellaneous plastics products________ 24 128.1
Leather and leather products_____________________ 20
62. 5
Stone, clay, and glass products___________________
38 100.8
Primary metal industries................................................ 124 724.8
Fabricated metal products_______________________
52 146.4
Machinery, except electrical______________________ 117 283.9
Electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies_____ 100 438.3
Transportation equipment.............................................. 127 1,'152.2
Instruments and related products............. ........ ............ 24
54.2
Miscellaneous manufacturing_____________________ 15
22. 5
N onmanufacturing....................................... .......... 624 2,922.0
Mining, crude petroleum, and natural gas production. 17 252.7
Transportation *........................ ........ ............................... 95 573.2
Communications.......................................... ....................
79 558.1
Utilities: Electric and gas_______________ _______
78 200.5
Wholesale trade__________ _____________________
21.6
Retail trade_______________________ ____________ 12 245.1
92
Hotels and restaurants_______ ___________________ 36 176.8
Services........................................ .. ______________
55
Construction....................... .............................................. 155 184.9
701.9
Miscellaneous nonmanufacturing___ _________ ____
5
7.4

418 1,819.1
306 1,422.2
8
20.1
13
37.7
2
5
15
9
9
2
18
81
25
46
14
49
7
3
112
9
17
8
36
1

4.4
10.6
27.8
24.9
57.2
3.8
55.9
609.4
76.2
96.2
40.4
326.3
25.9
5.4
396.9
19.6
78.6
26.4
100.4
1.0

1
40

1i
170.0

I F°r definitions, see footnote 1, table l.
J in *TvTes *0 agreements in which employees were required to pay for a
part of the cost of safety equipment, which was usually made to order.




30
10

75.4
20.2

4

5.1

1
2
2
1

18
17
1
6

45.5
43.7
3.0
11.5

1.1
7.6
5.4

1
85

1.6
7.2

1.1

2
1
1

2.7
2.8
15.0

1

1.8

1

1.8

20

55.2

9
2
5
2
1
1

34.7
3.2
11.8
2.8
1.6
1.2

144
30

671.3
76.6

46
27

145.3
61.4

22

61.1

12

35.8

1
1

4.0
1.5

1

1.5

87
1
1
3

9.3
3.5
1.8
3.8

2
2
1
114

4.4
3.1
1.0
594.7

2

6.2

1
19

1.0
83.9

23
1
1
2
37
30
18
2

273.3
1.7
2.9
2.3
111.4
146.7
54. 5
2!o

2
1
6
5
1
2
1
1

5.0
30.0
17.4
16.0
5.0
8.5
i!o
i.i

1
* Includes 1 agreement In which employer maintained or provided monetary allowance toward maintenance of work clothing,
4 4 agreements also provided a monetary allowance toward maintenance of
work clothing.

19
Goggles are provided for work dangerous to the eyes.
Standard safety goggles that do not require a prescription
are furnished free of charge. Employees requiring a
special ground lens will be furnished goggles at cost; the
company furnishing the frames free.

Work Clothing
The majority of the 267 provisions for supplying
and/or maintaining work clothing were found in
food producing (canneries, dairies, etc.) or food
serving and selling industries (hotels, restaurants,
and groceries). These industries and transporta­
tion, where sanitation and public appearance are
also of great importance, accounted for nearly
two-thirds of the agreements with such provisions,
Usually, the employer required that special cloth­
ing or uniforms be worn.

Where the employer agreed to provide work
clothing, he usually also agreed to pay for laun­
dering or cleaning. Only 48 work clothing
clauses did not also provide for clothing mainte­
nance. On the other hand, 13 agreements which
referred to work clothing maintenance did not
specify who was to provide these services.
Examples of clauses relating to the furnishing
of work clothing follow:
Company agrees to furnish to drivers one standard jacket
type uniform with one extra pair of trousers free after 1
year of continuous employment. . . .
*
*
*
Any employer requiring employee to wear a uniform
shall pay for same and said uniform must bear union
label.
*

M a in t e n a n c e ,1 M a jo r C o l l e c t iv e B a r g a in in g A g r e e m e n t s ,

by

*

*

I n d u s t r y , 1959

Employer agrees to—
Provide monetary allowance for—
Provide safety
equipment Maintain work
Other
ana maintain
clothing >
Work clothing provisions •
work clothing
Work clothing * but furnish
safety
equipment1

No reference to
allowances

Industry

Agree­ Workers Agree­ Workers Agree­ Workers Agree­ Workers Agree­ Workers Agree­ Workers
ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­
sands) '
sands)'
sands)
sands) ?
sands)'
sands)'
3
3

11.4
11.4

10
5

23.9
6.8

12
7

59.2
16.0

17
16

92.1
91.0

14
7

30.2
16.8

3

11.4

5

6.8

2
1

2.3
8.0

13

87.3

2
1

5.8
1.6

1

1.2

2

3.3

1

1.1

1
1
1

1.8
3.7
2.2

1

1.2

2

2.6

1

1.7

5

43.2

1

1.1

7

13.4

3

31.2

1

1.1

i
1

3.0
9.0

1
1

1.4
1.6

5

10.4

5

5

17.1

17.1

8 7 agreements also provided for maintenance of work clothing.
• See footnote 4, table 1.
' Number of workers refers to number covered by agreements, not to
number eligible to receive, or required to use, safety equipment or special
work clothing.




975 4,505.2 All industries.
Manufacturing.
635 2,790.2
6
16.3 Ordnance and accessories.
38 141.2 Food and kindred products.
11
27.6 Tobacco manufactures.
31
68.8 Textile mill products.
45 464.1 Apparel and other finished products.
12
33.2 Lumber and wood products, except furniture.
26.2 Furniture and fixtures.
17
45 101.9 Paper and allied products.
62.2 Printing, publishing, and allied industries.
31
56.7 Chemicals and allied products.
26
26.9 Petroleum refining and related industries.
8
14
67.5 Rubber and miscellaneous plastics products.
18
58.7 Leather and leather products.
43.2 Stone, clay, and glass products.
19
34 104.1 Primary metal industries.
68.6 Fabricated metal products.
26
70 184.9 Machinery, except electrical.
84 391.7 Electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies.
75 806.5 Transportation equipment.
25.2 Instruments and related products.
15
10
15.1 Miscellaneous manufacturing.
N onmanufacturing.
340 1,715.0
8 233.2 Mining, crude petroleum, and natural gas production.
39 148.1 Transportation.®
69 500.0 Communications.
73.4 Utilities: Electric and gas.
31
9
18.3 Wholesale trade.
85.9 Retail trade.
39
3
22.3 Hotels and restaurants.
99.9 Services.
27
111 527.7 Construction.
4
6.3 Miscellaneous nonmanufacturing.

*Includes 1 agreement in which employees were required to pay for a part
of the cost of safety equipment, which was usually made to order.
* Excludes railroad and airline industries.
N ote : Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

20

If the company requires employees to have certain
special equipment and clothing, it will be furnished to the
employees without charge. Each individual will be held
responsible for any such special clothing or equipment
furnished. The company may require a refundable
deposit not to exceed the actual cost of the items furnished.
T y p ic a l o f a rra n g e m e n ts fo r b o t h
m a in ta in in g w o r k

c lo th in g w e re

fu r n is h in g a n d

th ese

c la u s e s :

payroU on the first day of the payment month, provided
such employees have completed 90 days’ service by the
15th day of said payment month . . .
*

*

When members of the unlicensed personnel are required
by the company to furnish and wear uniforms, they shall
receive additional compensation at the rate of $12.50 per
month.
*

The employer will furnish his employees with coats
and . . . such uniforms as may be required by the em­
ployer and pay for the laundering of the same.
*

*

*

If the company requires an employee to wear a standard
cap or uniform, the company shall furnish and launder
same at its expense. . . . The company shall furnish
and maintain, at its cost and expense, all special outer
apparel heretofore customarily used by the group and
which is reasonably necessary for the performance of the
job.
A ll

a g reem en ts

th a t

p r o v id e d

fo r

c lo t h in g

m a in t e n a n c e o n ly w e r e in f o o d p r o d u c in g o r s e llin g
in d u s tr ie s .
pressed

G e n e r a lly ,

th is

r e q u ir e m e n t

w as

Employer shall launder or pay for laundering of cover­
alls, aprons, trousers, shirts, sweat shirts, and cap covers
worn by employees when on duty. All laundry will be
done by a union laundry wherever services and prices are
comparable.
*

*

Signatory members of association agree to pay for all
laundry required by all clerks in their employ, such as
uniforms, etc.
M o n e ta ry
w ork

a g reem en ts,
an ce

a llo w a n c e s

c lo th in g

a ls o

F ou rteen

o r

in c lu d in g
co v e red

o f

th e

29

tow a rd

u n ifo rm s
4

w ork

th e

w ere
in

w h ic h

c lo th in g

a g reem en ts

p u rch a se

s p e c ifie d

w ere

th e

in

o f
29

*

An allowance of 50 cents per week per employee will
be paid for the furnishing of work clothes. . . .
An
allowance of 30 cents per week per employee will be paid to
all employees to compensate them for the payment of
laundry. This allowance may be discontinued at the
employer’s option should it be decided by the employer to
have the laundry done either by a commercial laundry or
its own laundry. Clothing to be laundered shall consist
of outer working garments only.

In

a

d iffe r e d

fe w
fo r

a g reem en ts,
m en

m e n t, a c c o r d in g

a n d
to

th e

cost

w om en ,

o f

a n d

w ork
in

c lo t h in g

on e

agree­

th e p a r t y s e le c tin g s u c h

ite m s :

a llo w ­

The corporation will furnish clothing and uniforms in
accordance with the following:
Where the corporation requires the wearing of white
clothing in men’s occupations, white trousers and T-shirts
will be furnished by the corporation on a 50-50 basis. The
corporation will stand 50 percent of the expense for not
more than either (a) 3 trousers and 4 T-shirts or (b) 2
trousers and 6 T-shirts per labor agreement year. . . .
The choice of (a) or (b) . . . is at the employee’s option.
Laundry for trousers and T-shirts wiU be provided.
Where the corporation requires women to wear uniforms,
such uniforms will be furnished and laundered by the
corporation.
*

*

*

m a in te n a n c e .
in

th e

m ea t­

p a c k in g in d u s tr y .

All employees shall be required at all times to main­
tain a clean and neat appearance. When the employer
requires that uniforms be worn, the employee shall receive
an allowance for uniforms of $27.50 per year. Semi­
annual payments of $13.75 shall be payable on April 1
and October 1 of each year to qualified employees on the




*

ex­

as fo llo w s :

*

*

The selection of uniforms for drivers, as well as the
selection of overalls, aprons, shirts, and the method of
laundering such clothing for plant employees shall be
made by an authorized representative of the union and the
employer. The cost shall be equally divided between the
employer and the employees.
Where the selection of uniforms and clothing, as well as
the method of laundering, is not done as outlined, the
employer shall pay the entire cost . . .

21

M ilita ry Service Allow ances in

P r e v a le n c e

M a jo r U nion Contracts, 1 9 5 9

P r o v is io n s
b on u ses
s e r v ic e

R ig h t s a n d b e n e f i t s
in g

a r e la tiv e ly

b a r g a in in g
b e y o n d

th ose

th e

1 ,6 8 7

e m p lo y e e s
r e g u la r

T h is

le g a lly

p r o v id e d

p r o p o r tio n

w h en

su ch

1959

fo r

an

th e

d u ty

d u ty

w as

as

stu d y

o f

b e n e fits

15

e ffe c t
o r

F orces

p a rt

w ere

a d o u b lin g in

p resen t

in

a llo w a n c e

s lig h tly

p a y m en ts

u n d er th e R e se rv e

T h e

A b o u t

A rm ed

a

h ig h e r

p ercen t
in

1959

b on u s

o r

in

u n it.

in

10

to

s e r v in g

reserve
th a n

s p e c ifie d

o f t h e a g r e e m e n ts a n a ly z e d .1
w as d u e to

la w , a n d

p r o v id e d

a g reem en ts

e n te r in g
o f

in

r e q u ir e d .

m a jo r

tou r

b y

s m a ll n u m b e r o f m a jo r c o lle c t iv e

a g reem en ts

s p e c ific a lly

a

e m p lo y e e s le a v ­

fo r m ilit a r y tr a in in g a r e p r o t e c t e d

o n ly

o f

a c c r u in g t o

1953,

p ercen t

M o s t o f th is c h a n g e

th e p a y m e n ts fo r re se rv e
F orces A ct o f

w as

b a sed

o n

an

fo u n d

to

fo r

a n d /o r
in

m ilit a r y

e m p lo y e e s

252

reserve

in

o r

a g reem en ts,

th e a g r e e m e n ts s tu d ie d
co n tra cts

a ll b u t

s e r v ic e

e n t e r in g

a llo w a n c e s

r e g u la r

em erg en cy
o r

a b ou t

(ta b le

1 ).

an ces,

m ore

th a n

fiv e

th r e e m a n u fa c t u r in g

p rod u cts,
e q u ip m e n t,

h a lf

(1 3 3 )

in d u s t r ie s :

e le c tr ic a l

w ere

m a c h in e r y ,
a n d

o f

som e

a n d

fo u r

th e s e a llo w ­

fo u n d

c h e m ic a ls

c o m m u n ic a t io n s ,

w ere

p ercen t

A lth o u g h

n o n m a n u fa c t u r in g in d u s t r ie s in c lu d e d

fo llo w in g

d u ty

15

o r

m ilita r y

in

a n d

th e

a llie d

t r a n s p o r t a t io n
e le c tr ic

a n d

gas

u tilitie s .
T h e

n u m b e r o f a g r e e m e n ts w it h

fo r

s h o r t-te r m

fo r

r e g u la r

(4 5 ).

reserve

s e r v ic e

d u ty

(1 4 0 )

(1 5 4 )

a n d

p a y

p r o v is io n s

ex ceed ed

em erg en cy

A g r e e m e n t s p r o v id in g fo r a ll th r e e

th o se

s e r v ic e
ty p e s o f

1 9 5 5 .2
a n a ly s is

o f

1 ,6 8 7 c o ll e c t iv e b a r g a in in g a g r e e m e n t s , e a c h c o v e r ­
in g

1 ,0 0 0

o r

m ore

a g r e e m e n ts in
roa d s
ered

a n d
b y

a h lin e s .3

th e se

le s s t h a n

a n d

a n a ly z e d ,
w ork ers,

T h e

o r

v ir tu a lly

7 .5

a g reem en ts

th e

a ir lin e
1 ,0 6 3
w ere

U n it e d

m illio n

su ch

w ork ers

rep resen ted

S ta tes,

a g reem en ts.
a g reem en ts,

in

a ll

S ta te s , e x c lu s iv e o f r a il­

h a lf o f a ll w o r k e r s e s t im a t e d

a g r e e m e n t in
ro a d

w ork ers,

th e U n it e d

to

b e

e x c lu s iv e

O f

th e

c o v e r in g

m a n u fa c t u r in g ,

a n d

c o v ­

som ew h a t
u n d er
o f r a il­

a g reem en ts
4 .5
624

m illio n
agree­

m e n t s , w it h s lig h t ly o v e r 2 .9 m illio n w o r k e r s , w e r e
in

n o n m a n u fa c tu r in g

m e n t s w e r e in

e ffe c t in

a b o u t h a lf e x p ir in g




in d u s tr ie s .
J a n u a ry

d u r in g

A ll

th e

agree­

1 9 5 9 o r la te r , w it h

1959.

» See M ilita r y Service P a ym en ts in U n io n A greem ents, 1953 (in M o n t h ly
L a b o r R e v ie w , J u ly 1954, p p . 771-776) o r B L S B u ll. 1181 (1955), p p . 1-6.
* U n der that act, m en w h o have com pleted 2 to 4 y e a r s o f active d u ty w ith th e
A rm e d F orces m a y be required to serve in the R e a d y R eserves o r the S ta n d ­
b y R eserves u n til th e y h a ve co m p le te d 6 years’ service. R e a d y R eservists,
in a d d itio n to participating in n o t less th a n eight scheduled drills o r train ing
periods, are to perform each year 17 d a y s o f a ctiv e d u t y o r n o t m ore th an 30
d a y s o f activ e d u t y for training. N e w enlistees, w h o are requ ired to en roll
tor 8 years, m u st perform in itial activ e d u t y o f 3 to 6 m o n th s a n d th e n par­
ticipate in th e ann ual train ing program s.
* A greem ents for th e railroad an d airline industries are n o t collected b y the
B u rea u and are therefore n o t in clu d e d in th is s tu d y .

22

T a b l e 1.

M il it a r y S e r v ic e A l l o w a n c e s in

M a jo r

[W ork ers in
A greem en ts w ith p a y pro v isio n s for—
N um ber
stu d ied

T o t a l w ith
p a y provision s

In d u stry

R eg u la r
m ilitary
d u t y o n ly

Short-term
reserve
d u t y o n ly

E m e rg e n cy
d u t y o n ly

R egular
m ilita ry an d
short-term
reserve d u ty

A gree­ W o r k res
m ents

A gree­ W o r k ­
m ents
ers

A gree­ W o r k ­
m ents
ers

A g ree­ W o r k ­
m en ts
ers

A gree­ W o r k ­
m en ts
ers

A gree­ W o r k ­
m en ts
ers

A ll in du stries............................................................. .............................

1,687 7,477.3

252 1,075.1

70

222.7

79

340.7

2

6 .7

25

81.5

M a n u fa ctu rin g .......................................... .................................

1,063 4,555.3

192

700.7

55

141.5

68

320.9

1

3 .7

17

42.0

O rd n an ce and accessories.
_
_ _
F o o d an d k indred p rod u cts __ ____
T o b a c c o m anufactures
.
___
...
_
T extile-m ill p ro d u cts .
.
......
.....
___
_ _
A p p a rel an d oth er finished textile p r o d u c ts ..
L u m b e r a n d w o o d p rod u cts , except furn itu re. __
F u rn itu re and fixtures
P a p er a n d allied p r o d u c ts _ _______ __________________________
_
P r in tin g , pu b lish in g, and allied in d u stries........ .......
C h em icals and allied p r o d u c ts ..........................................................
P etroleu m refining and related industries _ ...
R u b b e r an d m iscellaneous plasties p rod u cts
_ _
L eath er and leather p rod u cts_____________ _______ ____________
Ston e, cla y , and glass p rod u cts . . .
P rim a ry m etal in d u stries._.
. . ...
...
F a bricated m etal p rod u cts
_ _
M a c h in e r y , except e lectrica l..
E lectrical m ach in ery, e q u ip m e n t, and supplies
_
T ran sp ortation eq u ip m en t _
____ . . . . ....
In stru m en ts and related p rodu cts
_.
M iscella n eou s m a n u fa ctu rin g ___

15
39.4
120
405.8
11
27.6
33
78.4
45
464.1
37.2
13
32.1
20
54
118.0
31
62.2
57
113.6
23
63.8
24
128.1
20
62.5
38
100.8
124
724.8
52
146.4
117
283.9
100
438.3
127 1,152.2
24
54.2
15
22.5

5
5

12.2
14.8

1

1 .9

1
1

5 .5
4 .4

1
1

1.1
2 .1

4

11.6

4

11.6

3
14
2
19
5
14
3
5
11
9
16
34
28
8
7

3 .2
21.7
2 .7
36.5
23.5
110.1
4 .6
11.2
19.0
57.6
31.4
210.9
107.1
15.2
7.7

2
1
5

3 .2
1 .5
12.0

3
5

3 .2
7.2

6
1
14

11.3
9 .6
110.1

3
2
9
3
5
10
6
4

4 .6
5.4
15.5
9.1
12.5
28.2
29.5
6.7

1
1

1.3
2 .0

9
6
14
1
5

14.5
103.5
39.0
3 .9
5.7

N on m an u factu rin g *..................................................................

624 2,922.0

60

374.5

15

81.2

11

19.9

M in in g , cru de petroleu m , and natural gas p ro d u ctio n
T ran sp ortation 2____
_
___
_
_
....... ...........
C om m u n ica tion s.
U tilities: E lectric and gas
W h olesale trade_______________________________________________
R etail trade ___
___
_
H otels an d restaurants.
S ervices. __
_
__ ___
. ....
_ ....
C on stru ction
....
_.
...
..... _
M iscella n eou s n on m an u fa ctu rin g.
_ ....

17
95
79
78
12
92
36
55
155
5

252.7
573.2
558.1
200.5
21.6
245.1
176.8
184.9
701.9
7.4

1 In clu d es 1 agreem ent w ith p a y provisions for all ty p e s o f m ilitary service,
8 w ith allow ances for regular and short-term reserve d u ty , a n d 1 w h ich




1

1 .2

1

285.1
60.2

9
2

63.0
6.1

3
6

25.5

2

9 .6

1

3 .8

1

1 .3

1

1 .3

1

1 .5
3 .4
2 .0
4 .0
7 .2
1 .0

8

39.5

3
5

3 .1

3 .9
35.6

1.3

1

2 .9
11.2

1
1

4 .2
10.6

6

5.7

2
2

1
1
1
1
2

3 .7

1.2

35
17

4
1

1.3

p rovid es em ergen cy p a y o n ly .
in d u ctio n exam inations.

1

3 .1

A ll o f these 10 agreem ents also p a y for pre­

23

C o l l e c t iv e B a r g a i n in g A g r e e m e n t s , b y I n d u s t r y ,

1959

thousands]
Agreements with pay provisions for—Continued
Short-term
reserve an d
e m ergen cy
d u ty
A gree­
m ents

W ork­
ers

P rein d u ctio n
p h ysical or
draft b o a rd
exam in ation
A gree­
m ents

W ork ­
ers

R egular
R egular, short­
m ilita ry d u t y
term reserve,
an d p rein d u c­ a n d em ergen cy
tion exam ination
d u ty
A gree­
m ents

O th er *
In d u stry

W ork ­
ers

A gree­
m ents

W ork ­
ers

A gree­
m ents

W ork ­
ers

14

53.0

16

52.0

9

37.8

27

239.4

10

41.4

11

22.8

14

48.0

8

28.8

12

62.9

6

30.3

1

2.4

1

1.3

1
1
1
1

1.3
1.2
1.5
1.1

3

8.3

2

4.4

2

2.8

1

1.3

1

3.2

2
1

3.7
2 .4

1
3
3
1

2.5
6.9
26.8
1.2

3

30.3

2

4 .0

1

1
1

1.2
1.7

1

1

17.0

1
2
2

3.2
2. 3
3.4

11

61.6

9.0

15

176.6

1.2

4

28.1

1

3

30.3

15
2

4.0
1

a Excludes railroad and airline industries.




9.0

176.6

1.0

4

11.1

2
2

7.3
3.9

A ll industries.
M an u factu rin g.
O rdnance and accessories.
F o o d and k indred p rodu cts.
T o b a c c o m anufactures.
T extile-m ill products.
A p parel and other finished textile produc ts.
L u m b e r and w o o d produ cts, except furniture.
F u rn iture and fixtures.
P a p e r an d allied products.
P rin tin g, p ub lishing, an d allied industries.
C h em icals and allied p rodu cts.
P etroleu m refining and related industries.
R u b b e r and m iscellaneous plastics p rodu cts.
Leath er and leather products.
Stone, cla y, and glass produ cts.
P rim a ry m etal industries.
F abricated m etal p rodu cts.
M a ch in e ry , excep t electrical.
E lectrical m ach in ery, e q u ip m e n t, and supplies.
T ran sp ortation eq u ip m en t.
Instrum ents an d related produ cts.
M iscellaneous m anufacturin g.
N onm anufacturing.*
M in in g , crude p etroleu m , and natural gas p rod u ction .
T ran sp ortation.*
C o m m u n ication s.
U tilities: E lectric an d gas.
W holesale trade.
R etail trade.
H otels and restaurants.
Services.
C on stru ction .
M iscellaneous n onjnanu facturing.

N o t e : Because ofrounding, sums ofindividual items may not equal t t l .
oas

24

m ilita r y

le a v e

w ere

m a c h in e r y

a n d

a llo w a n c e s

fo r

reserve

th e

ru b b er

a n d

e le c tr ic a n d

P a id
n a tio n
th e

in d u s tr y ,

tim e
w as

con cen tra ted

c o m m u n ic a t io n s

o ff

th e

e le c tr ic a l

in d u s tr y ,

w ere

t r a n s p o r t a t io n

R e g u la r

fo r

o n ly

A llo w a n c e s

p r e v a le n t

E m p lo y e e s d e p a r t in g fo r r e g u la r m ilit a r y s e r v ic e

in

w ere,

e q u ip m e n t,

in

m ost

cases,

e n title d

to

an

a llo w a n c e

ex ­

p r e s s e d in m u ltip le s o f a fu ll w e e k o r m o n t h o f p a y ,

p r e in d u c t io n
in

S e r v ic e

w h ile

g a s u tilitie s .

s p e c ifie d

fo llo w in g

tr a in in g

in

35

p h y s ic a l

w ith o u t

e x a m i­

a g reem en ts,

as

d u r in g

in

d e d u c tio n

th e

o f

th e

m ilit a r y

in te rv a l c o v e r e d

b y

th e

p a y
p la n

r e c e iv e d
(ta b le

2 ).

L e s s fr e q u e n t w e r e p r o v is io n s fo r a s a la r y c o n t in u a ­

c la u s e s :

t io n

Any employee ordered by selective service to report for
preinduction physical or any employee ordered by Military
Reserve to report for a physical examination preparatory
to and in connection with being ordered to military training
and service and thereby required to be absent from w'ork
shall be granted pay for time lost . . . .
*

u n d er

w h ic h

b etw een

th e

e m p lo y e e

b is s a la r y

a n d

r e c e iv e d

th e

h is m ilit a r y

p a y

(i.e ., m a k e u p ) , a p r a c t ic e g e n e r a lly f o ll o w e d
c o m m u n ic a t io n s
n oted
a

*

p la n

d iffe r e n c e

in

a

in d u s tr y .

A

th ir d

s m a ll n u m b e r o f a g r e e m e n ts ,

fix e d -d o lla r

a llo w a n c e .

C la u s e s

in

th e

a rra n g em en t,
c a lle d

fo r

illu s t r a t in g

*
th e se

When an employee is ordered to report to his local
draft board during his regularly scheduled working hours,
actual time off will be compensated for at his regular
straight-time rate, but not to exceed a maximum of 8 hours
for each bona fide order.

ty p es o f p a y m en ts

fo llo w :

Any employee who has a 3-month service record with
the employer and who is called into the military service
of his country . . . shall receive, at the time of actual
induction into active service, a bonus pay of 1 week

T able 2.

T y p e s o p M il it a r y S e r v ic e A l l o w a n c e s in

M a jo r

[Workers In

F u ll p a y for—

In d u stry

R egu la r d u t y

P a y differential (m a k e u p ) for— >

Short-term reserve E m e rg e n cy d u t y
d u ty

R egu la r d u t y

Short-term reserve
d u ty

A gree­
m ents
A ll industries
M an u factu rin g, T

.........
...

____
_ .......

O rdnance and accessories
F o o d and kin dred p rod u cts
......
...
T o b a c c o m an ufactures.
___
T e Yt.ilp.-mill p rod u cts
_
_
_
A p parel and oth er textile finished produ cts
L u m b e r and w ood products, excep t furniture
F u rn itu re and fixtures. _
___ . . . . . .
. _
______
P a p er and allied p rod u cts______________________________________
P rin tin g, publishing, and allied indu stries____________________
C h em icals and allied p rod u cts_________________________________
P etroleu m refining an d related in du stries_ __________________
_
R u b b e r and m iscellaneous plastics p r o d u c ts __________________
L eath er an d leather p rod u cts_______________- __________________
Stone, cla y, and glass p r o d u c ts ________________________________
P rim a ry m etal in d u s trie s ______ _
_
. . . . . . . .
F a bricated m etal p rod u cts _ _
. _
. ____ . . . . . .
M a ch in ery , excep t e l e c t r i c a l _ - _____________________ ______ _
_
E lectrical m ach in ery, e q u ip m e n t, and supplies
__________
T ran sp ortation e q u ip m e n t
...
In strum ents and related p ro d u cts. _ .
___
_
M iscella neous m anufacturin g ,
_ _
N on m an ufacturin g »

_____

M in in g , cru de petroleu m , an d natural gas p r o d u ctio n _______
T ran sp ortation 2
_ . . . ___ _
C om m u n ica tion s .
. _
U tilities: E lectric and gas______________________________________
W holesale trade________________________________________________
R etail trade_____________________________________________________
H otels and restaurants_________________________________________
S ervices_________________________________________________________
C on stru ction ___________________________________________________
M iscellaneous non m an u fa ctu rin g______________________________

W orkers

A gree­
m ents

W orkers

A gree­
m ents

W orkers

A gree­
m en ts

W orkers

Agree­
m ents

82

247.8

5

8.3

2

3.2

45

354.9

141

722.7

71

209.3

1

1.1

14

78.2

109

463.7

2

3.0

1

1.1

1
5

5.5
14.8

3

10.6

2
1
8
3

3.2
1.6
16.1
12.9

3
11

3 .2
17.2

10
2

17.0
11.2
110.1

2
1
5
10
20
17
1
7

2 .6
1 .5
3 1 .5
16. 5
1 7 2 .7
48.5
3 .9
7 .7

14
2
8
8
6
10
10
6
2

5.4
14 .3
56.6
14.5
2 0 .3
39.0
10 1
2 .0

11

3 8 .5

1

1 .2

1
5

1.4
16.1

3

18.6

1

1 .3

* Covers agreements in which employees have an option between full or
differential pay, which refer to the continuation of existing practices, or which
are otherwise not clear.




W orkers

2

2 .7

12

7 5 .5

4

7 .2

2

3 .2

31

276.7

32

259.1

1
2

1.1
4 .8

1
1

1 .1
2 .1

28

249.4
2 7 .4

23
8

2 17 .2
38.1

1

3 .8

1

1 .3

* Excludes railroad and airline industries,

3

25

equivalent to 40 hours’ pay, based on his hourly rate of
pay.
*

*

*

Any employee having worked for a period of 1 year at
the . . . plant of the corporation who enters the Armed
Forces of. the United States . . . shall, upon entering
the Armed Forces of the United States or oceangoing
merchant marine, receive 1 month’s pay, less his or her
first month’8 pay as a member of the Armed Forces of the
United States or oceangoing merchant marine.
*

*

U n d er

fro m

th e

th e

th ree

d iffe r e n c e s

w as

ty p es

a ctu a l a m o u n t

e ith e r

in

w age

u n ifo r m

fo r

*

o f

p a y m en ts

o f

th e

r a te s ),
a ll

o fte n ,
In

d e s c r ib e d

a llo w a n c e
or

its

e m p lo y e e s

(a s id e

d u r a tio n ,
m e e t in g

le n g t h -o f-s e r v ic e

it

23

v a r ie d

o f

th e

76

e m p l o y e e ’s
th e

p la n s

c o m p u ta tio n

w ere

o f

to

w it h

le n g th

a ls o

(ta b le

r e q u ir e m e n ts

a tta in e d

a fte r

6

W h ere

m a k eu p

th e

m a x im u m

g ra d u a te d

p la n s

e s p e c ia lly in
b e n e fits
la tte r
w ere

o f

a llo w a n c e

a m o u n ts , it r a n g e d
T h e

p a y

1 or

w as

fro m

$40

m on th s

to

e m p lo y e e s
m a k eu p

an

w ith

e m p lo y e e
(ta b le
in

fo r

in

g ra n ted

a d d it io n a l

d ep en d en ts.
u p

th e

to

6

e x a m p le

In

E m erg en cy d u ty

R egula r d u t y

on

p age.

O ther i

R eg u la r d u t y

Short-term reserve E m e rge n cy d u t y
d u ty
In d u stry

W orkers

A gree­
m ents

W orkers

39

293.4

12

22

84.3

12

A gree­
m ents

W orkers

1.3

8

1.3

4

1.3

A gree­
m ents

W orkers

16.8

1

16.8

1
1

8 .3

1

W orkers

23.1

4

10.9

14.0

2

5.0

1

1.3

1

1.3

1
1

1.2
9.6

1

3.7

2.0

4

9.0

2

6.0

2.1

1

3

Agree­
m ents

1

A gree­
m ents

1.0

2

4.4

4

5.7

2

2 .8

1

1.2

1

3

4 .6

1 .3
1

1.0

1

1.2

13
1

65.2
2.4

17

209.1

209.1

2
2

3.8
5.2

N o t e : Because ofrounding, sums of individual items may not equal t t l .
oas




1

2.9

1

17

3.1

5 ),

th e

m on th s

C o l l e c t iv e B a r g a in in g A g r e e m e n t s , b y I n d u s t r y , 1 9 5 9

D olla r am ou n ts
for—

th e

(ta b le

thousands]
P a y differential
(m a k eu p ) for—
C on tin u ed

4 ).

d o lla r

lib e r a l

p a y m en ts
in

p la n s

s e r v ic e

$150.

m ore

p o s s ib le , a s illu s tr a te d

a ll
o f

w eeks

p r o v id e d

th e 2 3 p la n s w h ic h

cases,

fo llo w in g

to

an

in to

3 ).

exp ressed

b e n e fits
w ere

b e n e fits ,

u n d er

2

m ore

s e r v ic e .

e n tered

o r le s s a n d , m o s t fr e q u e n t ly , e n t it le d
fu ll o r

or

o f

g ra d u a te d

sta tu s

b e n e fits

s e r v ic e

g e n e r a lly

r e q u ir e m e n ts ,

a c c o r d in g

d ep en d en cy

M in im u m

to

In the event of declaration of war or declaration of
national emergency by the President, employees called
into military service during the period of such war or
national emergency will be paid a bonus of $40 at the
time of their departure for military service.

a b o v e ,

m in im u m

A ll industries.
M an u factu rin g.
O rdnance and accessories.
F o o d and kindred p rodu cts.
T o b a c co m anufactures.
T e xtile-m ill p rodu cts.
A p parel and other textile finished produ cts.
L u m b e r and w o o d p rodu cts, e xce p t furniture.
F u rn iture and fixtures.
P a per and allied p rodu cts.
P rintin g, publishing, and allied industries.
C h em icals and allied products.
P etroleu m refining and related industries.
R u b b e r and m iscellaneous plastics p rodu cts.
Leath er and leather p rodu cts.
Stone, cla y , and glass products.
P rim a ry m etal industries.
F a bricated m etal p rodu cts.
M a ch in e ry , excep t electrical.
E lectrical m achinery, eq u ip m e n t, an d supplies.
T ran sp ortation e q u ip m e n t.
Instrum ents and related products.
M iscella neous m anufacturin g.
N on m anufacturing.*
M in in g , crude petroleu m , and natural gas pro d u ctio n .
T ran sportation.*
C o m m u n ication s.
U tilities: E lectric and gas.
W holesale trade.
Retail trade.
H otels and restaurants.
Services.
C on stru ction .
M iscellaneous n onm an ufacturing.

th e

26

T able 3.

M e t h o d o p C o m p u t in g M il it a r y S e r v ic e A l l o w a n c e s , M a j o r C o l l e c t iv e B a r g a i n in g A g r e e m e n t s , 1 9 5 9
[W ork ers in thousands]

Military service allowances
T o ta l w ith p a y
provision s

U n ifo r m » for all
e m p loyees

T y p e o f m ilita ry service

Agree­
m ents
R eg u la r m ilita ry service..............
Short-term reserve train in g........
E m erg en cy d u t y ________________

140
154
45

A gree­
m ents

W orkers

620.7
753.9
307.5

61
147
41

222.9
734.5
296.6

An employee whose net credited service at the beginning
of his leave is—
1. Over 1 year— payments for 3 months.
2. 1 year or less— payments for 2 weeks.
Such payment will be at a rate equal to the amount by
which the employee's rate of company pay exceeds his
rate of Government pay at the beginning of the leave.
Upon completion of the payments provided above, an
employee who had, at the beginning of his leave, a wife
or dependent child or children under 18 years of age shall
receive payments for a further period of 3 months or the
remainder of his period of military service, whichever is
shorter, at a rate equal to the amount by which his rate
of company pay at the beginning of his leave exceeds
his rate of Government pay at the beginning of such
further period.
m ost

lib e r a l

a llo w a n c e

u n d er

a

A gree­
m ents

W orkers

1 E x clu d in g differences am ong em p lo y e e s’ w age rates.
2 Inclu des 1 agreem ent for th e 3 ty p e s o f m ilita r y service in w h ich existing
practices w ere to be con tin u e d . O f the rem a in in g 5 con tracts p ro v id in g for
regular m ilita ry p a y , len gth o f m ilitary service co n tr o lle d p aym en ts in 2 and

T h e

G ra du ated b y len gth
o f co m p a n y service

G ra du ated b y d ep en d ­
e n c y status and len gth
o f c o m p a n y service
A gree­
m ents

W orkers

142.4
2.8

50
2

O ther *

W ork ers

23

A gree­
m ents

245.9

W orkers

6
5

9.6
16.7
10.9

4

length of both military and company service in 3 Provisions in the remain­
.
ing contracts covering short-term reserve and emergency duty were unclear.
N o t e : Because ofrounding, sums ofindividual items may not equal totals.

3. 2

Employee's net credited service on date of
reporting to military service

Number of months com
pany will pay the difference between employee's
military pay and company
pay

Beginning—
7th through 12th month____________
13th through 36th month__________ 2
37th through 60th month__________ 3
61st month and over________________4

1 month
months
months
months

3.3 For purposes of making the military leave payment,
“ military p a y " will include basic pay plus any allowances
for grade or rank, service, and special qualifications or duty
as these are in effect and apply to the employee upon his
entrance into military service.
3.4 For purposes of making the military leave payment,
“ company p a y " will be computed on the employee's basic
hourly rate plus any differential applicable, in effect on the
date the military leave becomes effective.

g ra d u a te d
*

*

*

p la n w h ic h p r o v id e d m a k e u p p a y r a n fo r 4 m o n t h s ,
a n d
p a y .

on e

fu ll-p a y

p la n

p r o v id e d

L e n g th -o f-s e r v ic e

6 y e a r s , r e s p e c t iv e ly , a n d

u p

to

r e q u ir e m e n ts
w ere p h ra sed

13

w eek s

w ere

5

o f

a n d

as fo llo w s :

An employee who is granted a military leave will receive,
upon application, the difference between his military pay,
as defined in subsection 3.3, and his company pay, as
defined in subsection 3.4, where his company pay is the
greater, for a period of time dependent upon the employee's
net credited service with the company as set forth in sub­
section 3.2, provided th at:
a. This payment will terminate upon an employee's
release from active military duty when the release is prior
to the expiration of the period for which the employee
would receive payment under subsection 3.2.
b. An employee who receives more than one military
leave in any consecutive 12-month period during the tenure
of this agreement shall be given as his military leave pay
the difference between the payment he received for his last
leave and the payment he would receive for the present
leave if it were'his original leave, following the schedule in
subsection 3.2.




Military Severance P ay: Upon written evidence from
his commanding officer that such employee is actually
serving in the Armed Forces, severance pay will be granted
according to continuous company service, as follows:
0 to 6 months' service_________________ 1 week's base pay
6 months to 1 year___________________ 2 weeks* base pay
1 year to 2 years______________________ 3 weeks' base pay
2 years to 3 years_____________________5 weeks' base pay
3 years to 4 years_____________________7 weeks' base pay
4 years to 5 years------------------------------- 9 weeks' base pay
5 years to 6 years____________________ 11 weeks' base pay
Over 6 years________________ — _______ 13 weeks' base pay
In
ic e

fiv e
w as

a g reem en ts,
a

a llo w a n c e .

fa c to r

in

E x a m p le s

tb e

le n g th

d e t e r m in in g

o f m ilit a r y s e r v ­
th e

s iz e

o f

th e

a re:

Any employee who has been in the employ of the com­
pany for a period of at least 6 months and who is . . .
inducted into the Armed Forces of the United States pur­
suant to the provisions . . . of the Reserve Forces Act
of 1955, . . . if he is inducted for a period of 2 or more
years' continuous active service with the Armed Forces

27

of the United States, shall receive a sum of money equiva­
lent to 1 month’s earnings, based on the average amount
of pay he received from the company during the last 3
months immediately preceding his induction; and if
inducted for a period of 6 months or more but less than 2
years of continuous active service shall receive a sum of
money equivalent to 40 hours’ pay at his regular straighttime rate during the last pay period immediately preceding
his departure from the company for induction into the
Armed Forces.
*

*

ex cep t

U n lik e
v ir tu a lly
reserve

D u ty

r e g u la r
a ll

tr a in in g

m a k eu p ty p e
a

fa cto r

T able 4.

in

or

s e r v ic e ,

em ergen cy

(ta b le 2 ).

a llo w a n c e s

p r o v id in g

p a id

d u ty

le a v e

w ere

o f

to

th e

s iz e

o f

th e

3

o f

th e le n g th

w it h

o f th e

tem p ora ry

m on th s,
fo r

a g reem en ts

reserve

t r a in in g

3 ).

th e

grea t

2 w eek s

a llo w a n c e p e r io d

d u ty

ra n g ed

m a jo r it y

a n n u a lly

o f

(ta b le

fro m

1

fo r

w eek

a g reem en ts
6 ).

Employees who are members of the New York or N ew
Jersey National Guard or other reserve components of the
military forces will be paid the difference between their
earnings based on a 40-hour week and their military pay
for not more than 14 days spent in encampment or on
naval cruise, provided the employee has at least 6 months’
service with the company and has been a member of a
military unit for at least 6 months prior to his encampment
or cruise.
Any employee with 52 or more weeks of service attending
annual encampments of or training duty in the Armed
Forces, State, or National Guard or U.S. Reserves shall
be granted a military pay differential for a period of up
to 2 weeks annually. The employee shall be granted
credited service for such 2-week period or portion thereof
during which he is absent. Such military pay differential
shall be the amount by which the employee’s normal
salary, calculated on the basis of a workweek up to a
maximum^ of 40 hours which the employee has lost by
virtue of such absence, exceeds any pay received from the

in
fo r
th e

L e n g t h o f s e r v ic e w a s n o t

d e te r m in in g

ty p es

p r o v id e d

*

m ilit a r y

tw o

A lth o u g h

A llo w a n c e s

a g reem en ts

(ta b le

a ll

Employees on the company payroll for a period ex­
ceeding 1 year leaving employment for active duty in the
Armed Forces shall be granted differential pay . . . for
a period of 3 months; except, however, such employees
entering active duty for a period of 1 year or less shall
receive this differential for a period of 1 month . . . .

T em p ora ry

in

c la u s e s

a llo w a n c e

C o m p a n y S e r v ic e R e q u ir e m e n t s f o r U n if o r m o r M in im u m A l l o w a n c e s , 1 R e g u l a r M il it a r y D u t y , 1 9 5 9
[W orkers In thousands]

U n iform or m in im u m
a llo w a n c e 1

T o t a l n u m ber
w ith regular
m ilita ry d u t y
plans

A gree­
m ents

M in im u m service requirem en ts
M in im u m service
requirem en ts n o t
in d ica ted

Less th an 6
m onths

W orkers

A gree­
m ents

W orkers

Agree­
m ents

W orkers

O ver 6 m on th s b u t
less th a n 1 year

6 m on th s

1 year

O th er *

W orkers

A gree­
m ents

W orkers

A g ree­
m ents

W orkers

A gree­
m ents
1

1 .3

1

Agree­
m ents

1.3

T o t a l.......................

140

620.7

24

111.7

32

245.8

42

146.7

3

5.3

38

109.9

F u ll nay___T.....
1 W fw
? wpfilrs
...........
4 w eek s____________
1 m o n t h ___________
3 m on th s__________
O ther *______ „ ____ _

82
42
19
6
11
1
3

247.8
133.0
68.9
15.9
24.2
1.2
4.7

8
3
1
1

9
3
4

27.3
12.4
12.8

38
22
6
3

4.1
41

25
12
8
2
3

69.7
28.3
33.9
3.2
4 3

1

128.8
78.6
20.7
11.3
17.2
1.2

2
2

2

18.0
9.7
1.6
1.4
2.7

1

2.6

2

2.1

M a k e u p p a y .................
2 w e e k s ..__________
4 w eek s____________
6 w eek s____________
1 m o n t h . __________
3 m o n th s _____ _____

45
33
1
1
8

13
13

89.4
89.4

22
20
1

216.4
2143
1.1

2

15.7

1

1.2

7

32.2

1

i.o

2

15.7

I

2

3549
303.7
1.1
1 .0
24.9
24 2

1.2

1
4
2

1.0
7.0
24 2

D o lla r a m o u n ts ..............
$40..... ..........................
$50..................- ...........
$60...................
$75...............................
$100 or m o r e 4..........

12
1
4
1
4
2

16.8
1.0
6.5
1.3
5.7
2.4

3
1
2

1

2.1

2

2 .3

6

8.1

1

2.1

1
1

1.0
1.3
2

5. 7
2 .4

1

1.3

W ork ers

O ther *t_____

T

4 4
1.0
3.4

6

1Minimum allowance applies to minimum benefits under graduated plans.
* Contract specified a l existing practices will continue.
l
* In 2contracts, employees received 1day’ pay for each month of service,
s
and in 1contract, 5hours' pay f each month of service.
or




4

4 One allow ance bon u s o f $100; the oth er o f $150.
N o t e : Because o f rounding, sum s o f in d iv id u a l item s m a y n o t equ a l
totals.

28

T able

5.

C om pany

S e r v ic e

R e q u ir e m e n t s

for
M a x im u m
A llow ance
M il it a r y D u t y , 1959

U nder

G raduated

P lan s,

R egular

[W ork ers In thousands]

M a x im u m graduated allow ance

T o ta l n u m ber
w ith regular
m ilitary d u ty ,
graduated
plans o n ly

M a x im u m
service not
indicated or
n o t clear

M a x im u m service requirem en ts
6 m o n th s

1 year

2 years1

3 years

5 years

O ver 5 years 3

Agree­ W o r k ­ A gree­ W o r k ­ A gree­ W o rk ­ A gree­ W o rk ­ Agree­ W o rk ­ A gree­ W o r k ­ Agree­ W o r k ­ A gree­ W o r k ­
m ents
m ents
ers
m en ts
ers
ers
m ents
ers
m ents
ers
m ents
ers
m ents
ers
m ents
ers
T o t a l____ _____________________

76

394.2

8

19.1

3

4.4

43

302.5

8

17.9

3

5.9

6

30.0

5

F u ll p a y _____________________________
2 w eek s__________________________
3 w eeks__________________________
4 w eeks____________________ „ ____
8 w eeks__________________________
13 w eeks_________________________
1 m o n th ..
2 m on th s________________________
A m ou n t n o t in dica ted _

43
21
3
10
2
1
1
4
1

133.9
62.8
4.0
41.4
7.5
1.2
1.4
14.8
1.1

4
1

13.4
2 .6

3~
3

4.4
4.4

16
11

50.1
38.8

7
2

16.8
5.4

3
2

5. 9
3.0

14.6

2

2 .3

8.5

28.8
8.6
1. 7
17.0

5

3

5
2
1
1

1
1

1.4
1.6

1

1.7

1

1.5

M a k eu p p a y ________________________
8 w eeks________________ _________
3 m onths
4 m on th s________________________
D eterm in ed b y depen den ts____

29
1
4
1
23

254.7
1.1
6.5
1.2
245.9

27

252.4

1
1

1.1
1.1

1

1.2

4

6.5
1

1.2

23

245.9

D olla r am ounts
$100 or m o r e 3___________________

4
4

5.7
5.7

1
1

1

4
4

3.4
6.4

4

1

9.7

2.9

14.6

1
1

1.1
1.2

1

10.0

1.1

5.7
5.7

1 Inclu des 1 contract w ith m axim u m requirem en t o f over 1 an d less than 2
years.
3 Inclu des 3 contracts w ith m axim u m requirem en ts o f 6, 8, a n d 10 years,
respectively, an d 2 contracts o f 15 years.

3 E m p loyees are paid bonuses totaling $175 at 3 intervals— prior to m ilita ry
leave, u pon returning to co m p a n y service, and after 6 m o n th s’ w ork fo llo w in g
m ilitary service.

Federal or State Government. Such items as subsistence,
rental, and travel allowance shall not be included in deter­
mining pay received from the Government.

a

*

*

N o t e : Because ofrounding, sums ofindividual items may not equal t
otals.

r u le ,

th e se

6 -m o n th
th e

reserve

W h ere

o f

fe w

th e

a g reem en ts

m ilit a r y

th is m a t t e r

d id

le a v e

n o t

set

p o lic ie s ,

fo rth

s im p ly

th e

d e ta ils

r e fe r r in g

to

a s fo llo w s :

The treatment of employees who are members of the
reserve components of the Armed Forces during routine
training periods or when called into these services in emer­
gencies will continue in accordance with the current
practices of the company.
M in im u m
set

fo rth

p r o v id in g
fo u r th

o f

in
fo r

le n g t h -o f-s e r v ic e

r e q u ir e m e n ts

a b o u t

o f

o n e -t h ir d

reserve

th o se

w it h




a lth o u g h

p la n s

(2 7 )

a

w ere

at

or

c o n s id e r a b le

c a lle d

fo r

b e lo w

th e

n u m b er

1 y e a r ’s

o f

s e r v ic e .

*

An employee attending a compulsory training period of
the National Guard or compulsory cruise of the Active
Organized Naval Reserve shall be paid the differential
between the rate of pay received from the National Guard
or Naval Reserve and his straight-time hourly or day rate
based on a 40-hour w eek, for a period not to exceed 2
r
weeks.
An employee called out for National Guard duty in an
emergency shall be paid the differential between the rate
of pay received for such duty and the pay which he would
have received during regular working days involved in
such duty at his straight-time hourly or day rates for an
8-hour day. Such differential is not to be paid for more
than 4 weeks during any calendar year.
A

r e q u ir e m e n ts

le v e l,

t r a in in g
em ergen cy

th e

an d

in

d u ty

a b ou t

a ll

ex cep t

n ew

e m p lo y e e s

V a ca tio n

M o re
v id in g
th a t

h ir e s ,

w o u ld

P a y

th a n

r e q u ir e m e n ts
it

fo r

O th e r

b e

m ilit a r y

e m p lo y e e s

or

w ere

assu m ed

n o t
th a t

p r o b a tio n a r y

a llo w a n c e s .

R e q u ir e m e n ts 4

th r e e -fifth s

v a c a tio n

can

tem p ora ry ,

q u a lify

a n d

r e g u la r

e lig ib le

earn ed

s e r v ic e

e s ta b lis h e d ,

o f

th e

s e r v ic e
w o u ld

a llo w a n c e s

a g reem en ts

p a y m en ts
a ls o

(ta b le

r e c e iv e
7 ).

p ro ­

s p e c ifie d

F o r

th e ir
ex­

a m p le :

An employee who, at the time of leaving active employ­
ment to enter military service of the United States, has
qualified for a vacation . . . and has not received a
vacation or vacation allowance, shall then be granted
such allowance . . . .
Any employee, with 1 year’s continuous service, upon
entering the armed services of the United States shall
receive 2 weeks’ pay . . . .
*

*

*

w ere

a g reem en ts

c la u s e s .

m in im u m

s p e c ific a lly

on eA s

* T h is analysis is lim ited to vacation policies in agreem ents w hich also
p ro v id e d m ilitary service paym ents. F or vacation allow ances to em ployees
entering or returning from m ilitary service, regardless o f leave paym ents,
see Paid V acations in M a jo r U nion C on tracts, 1957 (in M o n th ly Labor
R e v ie w , Ju ly 1958, p p . 744-751) o r B L S B u ll. 1233.

29

Any employee who has a 3-month service record . . .
shall receive, at the time of actual induction into the active
service, a bonus pay of 1 week equivalent to 40 hours’
pay . . . .
Such employee shall be entitled to his pro
rata vacation pay . . . .

A

fe w

a g reem en ts,

e m p l o y e e ’s
tio n
a t

p e r io d

su ch

tou r

o f

h ow ever,

d u ty

sta ted

c o in c id e d

or

if

h e

t im e ,

a

m ilit a r y

d e c id e d

to

ta k e

le a v e

th a t

w it h

h is

h is

if

an

v a ca ­

v a c a tio n

a llo w a n c e

w o u ld

n o t b e p a id .
T h e

r e m a in in g

sta tem en t
th ese

on

52
th is

a g reem en ts,

m ilita r y

le a v e

a g reem en ts
s u b je c t.
th e

c la u s e s

h a d

v a c a tio n
are

n o

e x p lic it

P r e s u m a b ly ,
c la u s e s

a d m in is te r e d

Absence for military training or emergency active duty
under this article shall not be deducted from the regular
vacation period to which the employee may be entitled.
If an employee elects to take his military training active
duty under this article during his vacation period or if
his emergency active duty under this article occurs during
his vacation period, he shall receive only his vacation pay
for this period.

u n d er

an d

th e

in d e p e n d ­

e n tly .
A m o n g th e

1 5 4 a g r e e m e n ts w it h r e s e r v e t r a in in g

a llo w a n c e s , m o r e
w h eth er
lin k e d

su ch

to

th a n

t im e

earn ed

o ff

h a lf w e re
w it h

v a c a tio n

n o t

p a y

e x p lic it

w as

t im e ,

in

w h ile

w a y

60

co n ­

in

t r a c t s t h e s e b e n e f i t s w Te r e e n t i r e l y s e p a r a t e .
v a c a tio n
c a lly

b e n e fits

n o te d

em erg en cy

in
d u ty

w ere
28

o f

sep a ra te
th e

45

w as

as to

a n y

a ls o

*

T h a t
s p e c ifi­

a g reem en ts

w ith

p r o v is io n s .

O n ly
reserve

A leave of absence [with pay] of 2 calendar weeks per
year in addition to regular vacation will be granted to an
employee who is a member of the National Guard or a
member of the Reserve Corps if he is called for summer
camp training . . . .
*

*

6.

M il it a r y

S e r v ic e

fo u r

*

a g re e m e n ts r e q u ir e d

t r a in in g ,

in

a g a in s t v a c a t io n

w h o le

or

in

t h a t t im e
p a rt,

b e

o ff fo r

ch arged

p a y :

Employees who are members of reserve military organi­
zations will take the periodic training required by such
organizations during their vacations . . . . If the training
period exceeds the vacation allowance . . . the company
will grant additional time off up to 2 weeks and will pay
to the employee the difference between his regular pay and
Government pay. Special arrangements will be made to
cover longer periods of training.

*

Absence on account of . . . National Guard duty shall
not be counted as vacation time. However, in considera­
tion of this and to minimize interference with operations,
preference in choice of vacation time between M ay 1 and
December 1 must be given to other eligible employees.

T able

*

Employees shall be encouraged to use their vacation
time to fulfill military training requirements. In such
cases, vacation pay will be paid in lieu of payments under
this policy . . . .

*

*

A l l o w a n c e s f o r S h o r t - T e r m R e s e r v e T r a in in g
C o l l e c t i v e B a r g a i n i n g A g r e e m e n t s , 1959

and

*

E m ergency

D u ty,

M a jo r

[W orkers in thousands]
M ilita r y p a y plans for—
Short-term reserve d u t y

E m e rg e n cy d u t y

L en gth o f p erio d p a id
F u ll p a y

M akeup pay

O ther

M akeup pay

F u ll p a y

O ther

Agree­
m ents
U niform nr m in im u m allnwanna l
1 w eek __________________________________
2 w eeks
_
3 w e e k s ...........................................................
4 w eeks_________________________________
1 m o n th ________________________________
2 m on th s..........................................................
3 m on th s..................—...................................
A m o u n t n o t in d ica te d _________________
O th er.............................................................. ..
M a x im u m allow ance (graduated plans
o n l y ) __________________ ___________________
2 w eek s.............................................................
4 w eeks___________ _____________________

W orkers

Agree­
m ents

W orkers

A gree­
m ents

W orkers

A gree­
m ents

W orkers

A gree­
m ents

W orkers

A gree­
m ents

5
2
1

8.3
2 .4
1 .8

23.1

2
1

3.2
2.1

39
3
28

293.4
5.1
253.9

4

10.9

3 .0
1.1

722.7
2.2
665.6
31.5
2.3
10.9

8

1
1

141
2
119
7
1
5

1
4

2.4
27.1

1

1.1
1
2

1 .2
3.8
*4

10.9

1
6

>8
1

1.8

1

1
1

23.1

1.8

1 In clu d es tota l allow an ce for u n iform plans a n d m in im u m allow ance for
gradu a ted plans.
s In clu d es 2 agreem ents w h ich p r o v id e d for an o p tio n o f eith er the difference
betw een co m p a n y p a y a n d m ilita ry p a y for a p e rio d o f 2 w eeks o r fu ll p a y for
1 w e ek , 2 contracts in w h ich past practices w ere to co n tin u e , an d 4 agreem ents
in w h ich am ou n ts w ere n o t in d ica te d .




1.2
9.2

W orkers

1.0
1.0

* In clu d es 3 agreem ents in w h ich present practices w ere to con tin u e an d 1
w h ich w as n o t clear.
N o t e : Because o f ro u n d in g, sum s o f in d iv id u a l item s m a y n o t equ a l totals.

30

T a b l e 7.
M il it a r y S e r v ic e A l l o w a n c e s a n d V a c a t io n
P a y , M a jo r
C o l l e c t iv e
B a r g a in in g
A greem ents,
1959
[W ork ers in thousands]

A

s m a ll

fo r

th ereb y
R egular
m ilita ry d u t y

P rovision s

Short-term
reserve d u ty

E m e rge n cy
d u ty

fro m

a

N o specific p rov ision lin k in g
m ilita ry an d va ca tion pay__
V a ca tion p a y in a d d itio n t o
m ilita ry a llow a n ce__ _______
M ilita ry leave charged against
v acation p a y ________________

140

620.7

154

753.9

45

307.5

52

177.3

87

287.1

17

61.2

88

443.4

1 63

457.0

2 28

s tip u la te d

a fte r a n

“ fin a l,”

th a t

e m p l o y e e ’s

t h a t is , a ft e r h e h a d

p e r io d ,

p a y m en ts

u s u a lly
to

30

th o se

d a ys,

r e je c t e d

F o r c e s a fte r le a v in g th e c o m p a n y .

r e q u ir e m e n t,

t h a t a llo w a n c e s w o u ld

r a r e ly

s t ip u la te d ,

w as

b e m a d e o n ly if s e r v ic e w a s

(e x c lu d in g

e n lis t e e s ),

or

if

th e

em ­

246.4

4

o u t

th e A rm e d

in v o lu n ta r y
T o ta l w ith p r o v i s io n s ________

a g reem en ts

d e s ig n a te d

r u lin g

A n o th e r
A g ree­ W o r k ­ A g ree­ W o r k ­ A g re e ­ W o r k ­
ers
m ents
ers
m ents
m ents
ers

o f

o n ly b e m a d e

in d u c tio n h a d b e c o m e
served

A greem en ts w ith allow ance for—

n u m b er

p a y m e n t s w o u ld

10.0

1 In clu d es 3 agreem ents w h ich p r o v id e d that i f to u r o f d u t y coin cides w ith
va ca tion p eriod , em p loy ee w ill get the v acation allow ance o n ly . O therw ise,
these allow ances are separate.
2 O ne agreem ent w ith sam e p rovision s as stated in footn ote 1.

p lo y e e w a s c a lle d
o f im m in e n t

O th e r

ou t

d an ger

“ d u r in g a r e c o g n iz e d

to

th e

p e r io d

n a tio n a l s e c u r it y .”

V e te r a n s ’ B e n e fits

N o t e : Becau se o f r ou n d in g , sum s o f in d iv id u a l item s m a y n o t e qu a l totals.
A

The first week of such duty shall be counted as a week
of vacation for which the employee involved receives
regular vacation pay.
If a second week of such duty is required, the employee
will be paid the difference between his service pay and
his regular straight-time scheduled pay for that week.
If the employee has qualified for a vacation and has
taken such vacation prior to his notification to report for
duty, the first week of such duty shall be taken without
pay. If a second week of duty is required, the employee
will be paid the difference between his service pay and
his basic salary or wages for that week.
*

*

O

th e r

R

e q u ir e m

th a t

e v id e n c e

o f

m en ts

w o u ld

e n t s .

an

h is

A

n u m b er

e m p lo y e e
m ilita r y

b e m a d e.

h a d

s e r v ic e
F o r

o f

to

a g reem en ts

s u b m it

b e fo re

o ffic ia l

a n y

p a y ­

e x a m p le :

It will be the responsibility of each employee affected
to present the Personnel Division with a record of the
time spent and compensation received while serving for
special short periods, in an emergency period, or the
annual field training period.
*

*

*

Any full-time employee . . . inducted into the Armed
Forces during the term of this agreement shall be given
severance pay allowance when the proper evidence of
induction is presented . . . .




o f s p e c ia l c la u s e s r e la t in g

lis t e d

in

a llo w a n c e s ,

a g reem en ts

b u t

m ore

o fte n

to

v etera n s

p r o v id e d

th a t

m ilit a r y

w ere

in c o r p o r a te d

c o n t r a c ts w it h o u t s u c h p a y m e n ts .
p r o v is io n s
r a n g in g

w ere

fro m

1

c r u a l.

In

a

p en d ed

on

th e

o f

O th e r
to

fo r
to

e d u c a tio n a l

4

yea rs,

n u m b er

o f

w ith

in

M o s t com m o n
le a v e

(u n p a id )

fu ll s e n io r it y

in s ta n c e s ,

su ch

c o m p a n y ’s a p p r o v a l o f

le a v e

th e

a c­
d e­

cou rses

stu d y .
c la u s e s

e n a b le

th ey

*

In the event an employee is granted a leave of absence
[with pay] beyond such 17 days [for annual military train­
ing], the employee’s vacation allowance, if any, may be
applied for such additional period of absence and the
employee may be paid the amount of his vacation allow­
ance as though he had taken his vacation during such
extended period of absence.

s p e c ifie d

v a r ie ty

w ere

b een
t io n .

w o u ld
on

h a v e

m ilit a r y

T h is

le m s w it h

r e fe r r e d

v etera n s

to

to

been

c la u s e

a ls o

p rog ra m s

fo r

jo b s

to

p rom oted

h a d

th ey

d u t y , a s in

resp ect to

o n -t h e -jo b

q u a lify

d e a ls

d is a b le d

th e fo llo w in g
w it h

w h ic h
n o t

illu s t r a ­

s e n io r it y

p ro b ­

v e te ra n s:

A reasonable program of training shall be afforded to an
employee who shall not be qualified to perform the work
on the job which he might have attained if he had not
been absent on such service . . . .
An employee . . . who has been disabled in the course
of such service . . . shall during the period of such disa­
bility be assigned, without regard to the provisions of
Article V II I hereof relating to seniority, to any vacancy
which shall be suitable to his disability, provided that the
disability of such employee is of such nature that it shall
be onerous or impossible for him to return to his own job
or department . . . and provided he shall have the
minimum physical requirements for the work available.
S k ills

a c q u ir e d

u s e d fo r b u m p in g

d u r in g

m ilit a r y

s e r v ic e

c o u ld

b e

p u rp oses u n d er th e term s o f o n e

a g reem en t:

Veterans applying for reinstatement after their discharge
from the armed services may use experience and/or skill
acquired in the services as a basis for bumping.

31

Appendix

P r o v is io n s

fo r

P a id
an d

D a ta
c lo th e s
ca te

th e

p r o v id e d




on

ch a n g e
ex ten t
fo r

at

p a id
h ave
to
a ll.

rest
b een

w h ic h

W ash u p,
P a id

p e r io d s
brou gh t
th e y

C le a n u p ,

R e s t

and

p a id

tog eth er

a p p ea r

C lo th e s

C h a n g e,

P e r io d s

t im e
in

s in g ly

th e
or

in

fo r

w a sh u p ,

ta b le

on

c le a n u p ,

p a g e

32

c o m b in a t io n ,

or

to

and
in d i­

are

n ot

32

Provisions for Paid Washup, Cleanup, Clothes Change, and Paid Rest Periods, Under Major Collective Bargaining Agreements, by Industry, 1959

N um ber

N um ber with
p r o v is io n s

Industry
A g ree­
m ents

W ashup, cleanup,
W ashup, cleanup,
N um ber without
R e s t p e r io d s only clo th e s change,
and clo th e s
p r o v is io n s
change
and r e s t p e rio d

W ork e rs
W o rk e rs
W o rk e rs
W o rk e rs
W ork ers
W ork e rs
[A gree­
A g ree­
A g ree­
A g ree­
A g ree­
(thou­
(thou­
(thou­
(thou­
(thou­
(thou­
m ents
m ents
m ents
m ents ■
m ents
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)

1,687

7 ,4 7 7 . 3

599

2, 185 .0

166

502. 0

321

1, 320 .2

112

3 6 2 .9

1,088

M a n u fa c tu r in g ----------------------------------

1,063

4 ,5 5 5 .3

401

1 ,2 8 1 .9

113

312. 0

185

648. 3

103

3 2 1 .6

662

O rdnance and a c c e s s o r i e s _______________
F o o d and kindred p r o d u c t s ____ ___ ___
T o b a c c o m a n u fa c t u r e s ____________________
T e x tile m ill p r o d u c t s _____________________
A p p a r e l and other fin ish ed p rod u cts _____
L u m b er and w ood p rod u cts ,
excep t furniture _
F u rn itu re and fix tu re s
_ _
„ __
P a p e r and a llie d p r o d u c t s ________________
P rin tin g , publishing, and
a llie d in d u stries
____ ___ __ __ _
C h e m ic a ls and a llie d p ro d u cts
P e tr o le u m refin in g and rela ted
in d u s t r ie s __
__ ___
_ __ _ __
R u bber and m is c e lla n e o u s p la s tic s
p rod u cts
_
_ __
L ea th er and lea th er p r o d u c t s ____________
Stone, cla y , and g la ss p rod u cts -------------P r im a r y m eta l in d u strie s __ __
F a b r ic a te d m etal p rod u cts
__
__ __
M a ch in ery, ex cep t e le c t r ic a l ____ __
E le c t r ic a l m a ch in ery , equipm ent
and supplies __
__
__
__ __
T ra n sp orta tion equipm ent
__ _____
Instrum ents and r ela ted p ro d u cts „ _____
M is c e lla n e o u s m anufacturin g _ __ __ __

15
120
11
33
45

3 9 .4
405. 8
2 7 .6
7 8 .4
464. 1

10
67
2
8
-

29. 0
2 8 1 .7
2 .4
2 0 .5
-

1
6
1
2
-

3. 0
20. 3
1. 3
9 .6
-

5
40
6
-

13. 6
166 .4
_
10. 9
-

4
21
1
-

1 2.4
95. 0
1. 1
-

5
53
9
25
45

10.4
124. 1
2 5 .2
5 7 .9
464. 1

13
20
54

3 7 .2
32. 1
118. 0

4
7
20

6 .6
9 .4
6 1 .5

I
3

1.2
6. 0

4
5
13

6 .6
7 .0
3 9 .8

1
4

1. 3
15.7

9
13
34

30. 6
2 2 .7
56. 5

31
57

6 2 .2
113. 6

3
30

10. 0
5 6 .4

1
9

7 .5
13.9

2
10

2. 5
2 6 .4

11

16. 1

28
27

5 2 .2
5 7 .3

-

2

2 .7

12

3 9.5

4 .7
27. 1
1.5
8. 0
10 .4

13
17
24
112
30
71

7 9 .5
5 8.7
54. 9
7 00 .7
66. 1
196.4

A ll in d u stries

_ ___

__ __ __ __ _

5 ,2 9 2 . 3
3 ,2 7 3 .4

23

6 3 .8

11

24. 3

9

2 1 .6

-

24
20
38
124
52
117

128. 1
6 2 .5
100. 8
7 2 4 .8
146 .4
2 8 3 .9

11
3
14
12
22
46

4 8 .6
3. 8
45. 9
24. 1
80. 3
8 7 .5

3
2
2
6
7
22

33. 0
2 .5
11. 8
8.7
19.4
3 7 .4

6
1
6
5
10
18

11. 0
1. 3
7 .0
1 3.9
53. 0
39. 7

2
6
1
5
6

100
127
24
15

438. 3
1,152.2
5 4 .2
2 2 .5

48
65
11
7

140. 0
314. 2
2 6 .6
9 .4

8
26
4
-

19. 3
7 9 .9
15.9
~

22
21
6
5

64. 3
169. 0
9 .0
7 .2

18
18
1
2

5 6 .5
6 5 .4
1.7
2 .2

52
62
13
8

298. 3
838. 0
2 7 .6
13. 1

__

624

2 ,9 2 2 .0

198

903 .2

53

190. 0

136

6 7 1 .9

9

41. 3

426

2 ,0 1 8 .9

M ining, crude p etroleu m , and natural
gas p rodu ction __ ___ ___ _ ___ ____ ___
T r a n s p o r ta tio n 1 __ __ __ __ ____ __ __
C om m u n ication s _
U tilities: E le c t r ic and g a s _______________
W h olesale trade _ _____
__
R e ta il trade — __ __ __ __ _ _ _ _ _ _
__
H otels and restau ran ts
_ __ __ __ _ __
_
S e r v ic e s _
C on stru ction
____ ___ ___ __ __ __ __ __
M is c e lla n e o u s nonm anufacturing
in d u stries

17
95
79
78
12
92
36
55
155

2 5 2 .7
57 3 .2
558. 1
2 0 0 .5
21. 6
245. 1
176. 8
184. 9
701. 9

1
28
47
5
3
54
7
18
34

1.5
118. 8
3 7 4 .6
18.2
3 .6
160.4
3^6. 0
5 0 .2
137 .4

20
1
3

71. 6
1. 3
8 .9

7
46
2
3
48
6
18
5

4 5 .9
373. 3
9 .4
3 .6
130.4
31.7
5 0 .2
25. 0

1
1

1. 5
1.4

_

_
_

16
67
32
73
9
38
29
37
121

2 5 1 .2
4 5 4 .4
183.5
182. 3
18. 0
8 4.7
140.9
134.7
564. 5

1

2 .5

1

2. 5

4

4 .9

N onm anufacturing __

____

_

5

7 .4

_

_

2
1

4. 5
4. 3

_

-

26

99. 5

_
_

4

25. 5

_

-

3

13. 0

1 E x clu d es r a ilr o a d and a ir lin e in d u strie s.
NOTE:

B eca u se o f rounding,




sum s o f individual ite m s m ay not equal to ta ls.

☆ U .S . GOVERN M EN T PRINTING O FFIC E

1961 O - 592780

Recent BLS Industrial Relations Studies
Bull. No.

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