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Rest Periods, Washup, Work Clothing, and Military Leave Provisions in Major Union Contracts Bulletin N o. 1279 UNITED STATES DEPARTM ENT O F LABO R Arthur J. G o ld b e r g , Secretary BUREAU O F LABOR STATISTICS Ewan C lagu e , Com m issioner Rest Periods, Washup, Work Clothing, and Military Leave Provisions in Major Union Contracts Bulletin No. 1279 April 1 6 91 UNITED STATES DEPARTM ENT O F LABO R Arthur J. G o ld b e r g , Secretary BUREAU O F LABO R STATISTICS Ewan C lague, Com m issioner From the Monthly Labor Review of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, September and November I960, and March 1961 issues, with an additional table. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C. 11 - Price 30 cents Preface For the four studies brought together in this bulletin, virtually all agreements in the United States covering 1,000 or more workers, exclusive of railroad and airline agreements, were analyzed. The 1,687 agreements in this category covered approximately 7.5 million workers, or almost half of the estimated total agreement coverage in the United States, outside of the railroad and airline industries. All agreements studied were part of the Bureau’ s file of current agreements maintained for public and governmental use under the provisions of the Labor Management Relations Act, 1947. The provisions of agreements covering 1,000 or more workers do not necessarily reflect policy in smaller collective bargaining situations or in nonunion establishments. These studies were undertaken in the Bureau’ s Division of Wages and Industrial Relations under the supervision of Harry P. Cohany. The re port on rest periods was prepared by DenaG. Weiss and Ernestine M. Moore; on washup, cleanup, and clothes change by Dena G. Weiss and Theessa L. Ellis; on safety equipment and work clothing by DenaG. Weiss and Laura A. Wood; and on military service allowances by Dena G. Weiss. Contents Page Paid rest periods in major union contracts, 1959 -----------------------------------------------Prevalence of p rov ision s---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 1 Duration -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Number, timing, and scheduling ----------------------------------------------------------------Other regulations ------------ 4 5 7 Paid time for washup, cleanup, and clothes change in 1959 ----------------------------Scope of s tu d y __________ Prevalence of agreement p rov ision s________________________ 9 9 9 Contract allowances for safety equipment and work clothing, 1959 --------------------Work clothing — ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 17 19 Military service allowances in major union contracts, 1959 ______________________ 21 Prevalence ______________________________________ 21 Regular service a llow a n ces-----------------------------------------------------------------------Temporary duty allowances ----------------------------------------------------------------------Vacation pay and other requirements -------------------------------------------------------- 24 27 28 Other veterans' benefits ---------------------------- Appendix: Provisions for paid washup, cleanup, clothes change, and paid rest periods ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ v 30 31 Paid Rest Periods in Major Union Contracts, 1959 P ro vision s for paid rest periods during regular working hours were included in a fourth of the major collective bargaining agreements in effect in 1959. In about two-thirds of the agreements providing for rest periods, such allowances— often called “relief periods,” “coffee breaks,” or “smok ing time”— applied to all employees; in the re maining agreements, coverage was limited to special groups of workers, primarily women. Generally, two rest periods daily were specified. The prevalence of formal rest period provisions has remained virtually unchanged since 1953, the date of the Bureau of Labor Statistics previous study, when such provisions were found in about 23 percent of the contracts analyzed.1 It seems reasonable to assume that the practice of provid ing formal rest periods is more common than the above figures would indicate. The matter of rest periods may be covered either by plant rules re ferred to in the agreement but which are not defined or spelled out in detail,2 or may be gov erned by longstanding company policy. Legally required rest periods applicable to women workers, may also lessen the need for specific contract provisions.3 This study is based on an analysis of 1,687 col lective bargaining agreements on file in the Bureau of Labor Statistics, each covering 1,000 or more employees, or virtually all agreements of this size in the United States, exclusive of railroads and airlines.4 The 7.5 million workers covered by these agreements represented somewhat less than half of all workers estimated to be under agree ment in the United States, exclusive of railroad and airline agreements. Of the agreements studied, 1,063, covering over 4.5 million workers, were in manufacturing, and 624 agreements, with slightly more than 2.9 million workers, were in nonmanu facturing industries. All of the agreements were in effect in 1959; half were scheduled to expire during that year. Prevalence of Provisions A fourth (25.6 percent) of the 1,687 agreements analyzed provided paid time for short periods away from the job for purposes of rest or relaxa tion (table 1). These agreements covered less than a fourth (22.5 percent) of all workers in the study, but not all workers under these agreements were eligible for rest periods. Provisions for rest periods were not specified in any of the major agreements in the apparel indus try and were rarely included in the following manufacturing industries: tobacco, printing, pe troleum refining, leather, and primary metals. Low representation was also noted in the non manufacturing industries of mining, transporta tion, electric and gas utilities, and construction. Among the industries in which paid rest period provisions were most prevalent were food products, electrical machinery, transportation equipment, communications, and retail trade. In about two-thirds (288) of the agreements with provisions on the subject, all employees in the bargaining unit were uniformly entitled to rest periods. In 102 agreements, rest periods were limited to special groups, generally women, 1 See Paid Rest Period Provisions in Union Agreements, 1952-53 (in Monthly Labor Review, May 1954, pp. 531-535), or BLS Bull. 1166 (1954) „ pp. 18-22. * For example, rest periods are rarely specified in steel industry agreements, but according to reports published during the 1959 strike, provision for them may be encompassed within “ local working conditions.” * The following 12 States have laws relating to rest periods for women workers, most of which provide for a 10-minute rest period within each half of the day: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Kentucky, Nevada, New York, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. A Agreements for the railroad and airline industries are not collected by the Bureau and, therefore, are not included in this study. 2 T a b l e 1. E m p l o y e e s C o v e r e d b y P a id R e s t P e r io d P r o v is io n s - Number studied Employee coverage Number with paid rest period provisions All employees Industry Women only Agree ments Workers (thousands) Agree ments Workers (thousands) Agree ments Workers (thousands) Agree ments Workers (thousands) All industries........................ ........................................................... 1,687 7,477.3 433 1,683.1 288 1,154.7 47 147.0 Manufacturing............... L...................................................... 1,063 4,555.3 288 969.9 194 622.4 30 97.0 Ordnance and accessories................ ................................................ Food and kindred products............................................................ Tobacco manufactures..................................................................... Textile mill products....................................................................... Apparel and other finished products_____________ ____________ Lumber and wood products, except furniture______ ____ ______ Furniture and fixtures_______________ ____ _____ ______ ______ Paper and allied products.-................... ................................... Printing, publishing, and allied industries.................................... Chemicals and allied products........................................................ Petroleum refining and related industries_____________________ Rubber and miscellaneous plastics products__________________ Leather and leather products________________________________ Stone, clay, and glass products........................................ .............. Primary metal industries.......................... ..................................... Fabricated metal products...................... ....................................... Machinery, except electrical................ ........................................... Electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies..................... ...... Transportation equipment ........................................................... Instruments and related products.................................................. Miscellaneous manufacturing________________________________ 15 120 11 33 45 13 20 54 31 57 23 24 20 38 124 52 117 100 127 24 15 39.4 405.8 27.6 78.4 464.1 37.2 32.1 118.0 62.2 113.6 63.8 128.1 62.5 100.8 724.8 146.4 283.9 438.3 1,152.2 54.2 22.5 9 61 1 6 26.0 261.4 1.1 10.9 7 47 17.7 218.0 5 14.8 1 1.0 1 1.3 4 6 17 2 21 2 8 1 12 6 15 24 40 39 7 7 6.6 8.2 55.5 2.5 42.5 2.7 15.7 1.3 34.1 15.4 60.9 50.1 120.8 234.4 10.7 9.4 4 4 7 1 13 1 7 1 6 6.6 4.5 9.3 1.2 19.3 1.6 14.1 1.3 7.7 8 1 4 32.7 1.4 15.3 2 12.8 11 15 36 24 4 5 36.3 34.4 107.6 128.9 6.0 7.4 1 3 1 3 1 1.2 6.5 1.2 8.3 1.5 Nonmanufacturing................................................... - ........... 624 2,922.0 145 713.2 94 532.3 17 50.1 17 252.7 1 1.5 95 79 78 12 92 36 55 155 5 573.2 558.1 200.5 21.6 245.1 176.8 184.9 701.9 7.4 8 46 2 3 52 6 18 8 1 47.3 373.3 9.4 3.6 155.9 31.7 50.2 38.0 2.5 M in in g , c ru d e p e tro le u m , a n d natural gas p ro d u c tio n T ra n s p o rt a tio n 3 _ _. _ ___ Communications______ ____ ______________ ________—_______ Utilities: Electric and gas............. ................................................ Wholesale trade____________________________________________ Retail trade -................................................................................. Hotels and restaurants.................................................................... Services___________________________________________ ________ Construction_______________________________________________ Miscellaneous nonmanufacturing_______ ________ _____________ 1Includes agreements which provided for rest periods during the summer months only, those with different provisions for male and female employees, 1 6 34 43.1 318.8 1 37 1 10 5 1.0 109.1 6.0 28.8 25.6 1. 5 1 1.9 11 3 36.2 8.0 1 > 2.5 and those limiting rest periods to employees at designated stations or locations. 3 U n d e r M a jo r C o l l e c t iv e B a r g a in in g A g r e e m e n t s , by I n du stry, 1959 Employee coverage—Continued Designated depart ments only Designated occupa tions only Continuous opera tions only Other 1 Coverage not clear2 Industry Agree Workers Agree Workers Agree Workers Agree Workers Agree Workers ments (thousands) ments (thousands) ments (thousands) ments (thousands) ments (thousands) 13 48.2 23 78.1 5 7.5 14 95.2 43 152.5 4 6.8 8 34.7 5 7.5 10 68.5 37 133.0 2 1 8.3 3.0 4 8.6 2 3.8 6.8 2 3.0 3 11.0 1 1 1.5 10.2 1.1 1.6 1 I 1.0 6.0 15.0 41.4 1 4 1.4 26.4 1 3 9.2 4.5 15 43.4 1 1 1.5 1.0 1 9 1 2 1. 2 1.1 3 1 1.6 11.0 1 1.7 2.3 11.0 2 1 1 1 1 1 2.5 2 1 20.0 1 13.0 2 4 2 4 1 8 2 1 2.7 12.2 3.4 6.0 4.5 68. 2 3.2 1.0 4 26.7 6 19.5 1.0 5 1 1 3 17.2 7.5 1.5 8.0 1 3 2 5.4 3.9 2 1 * Includes agreements with such statements as “ present practice to be continued” and “ employees now allowed rest periods shall continue to re ceive them/ * 11.5 8.5 1 2 2.8 4.4 1 1 1 6.7 1.1 2.7 8.5 All industries. Manufacturing. Ordnance and accessories. Food and kindred products. Tobacco manufactures. Textile mill products. Apparel and other finished products. Lumber and wood products, except furniture. Furniture and fixtures. Paper and allied products. Printing, publishing, and allied products. Chemicals and allied products. Petroleum refining and related industries. Rubber and miscellaneous plastics products. Leather and leather products. Stone, clay, and glass products. Primary metal industries. Fabricated metal products. Machinery, except electrical. Electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies. Transportation equipment. Instruments and related products. Miscellaneous manufacturing. Nonmanufacturing. Mining, crude petroleum, and natural gas pro duction. Transportation.2 Communications. Utilities: Electric and gas. Wholesale trade. Retail trade. Hotels and restaurants. Services. Construction. Miscellaneous nonmanufacturing. * Excludes railroad and airline industries, N o t e : Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals. 4 T a b l e 2. T otal Number with paid rest period provisions Industry D a il y T im e A l l o w a n c e P a id R e s t P e r io d s U n d e r for Total daily time allowance Duration not indicated Under 10 minutes 10 minutes 15 minutes1 Workers Workers Agree Workers Agree Workers Agree Workers Agree Agree ments (thousands) ments (thousands) ments (thousands) ments (thousands) ments (thousands) All industries— _____ __ _ _ ________ 433 1,683.1 04 208.1 6 10.2 31 81.4 17 65.1 Manufacturing......... ............... ...................... 288 060.0 66 214.5 3 4.0 27 55.0 14 37.3 Ordnance and accessories _ _ _ Food and kindred products _ _ Tobacco manufactures _. _ Textile mill products................................................. Apparel and other finished products........................ Lumber and wood products, except furniture_ Furniture and fixtures... . _____ Paper and allied products_____ _______ __________ Printing, publishing, and allied industries________ Chemicals and allied products___________________ Petroleum refining and related indnstries_ Rubber and miscellaneous plastics products___ Leather and leather products _ Stone, clay, and glass products _ _ _ Primary metal industries____ __ Fabricated metal products_ _ Machinery, except electrical..................................... Electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies___ Transportation equipment........................................ Instruments and related products __ Miscellaneous manufacturing 9 61 1 6 26.0 261.4 1.1 10.0 2 13 8.3 61.1 2 3.4 1 2 4.5 5 1.1 0.6 4 6 17 2 21 2 8 1 12 6 15 24 40 30 7 7 6.6 8.2 55.5 2.5 42.5 2.7 15.7 1.3 34.1 15.4 60.0 50.1 120.8 234.4 10.7 0.4 1 3 2.4 7.6 1 1.0 4 7.2 1 3.7 1 1.6 8 4 5 7 3 0 3 1 10.2 12.2 8.7 0.1 6.8 50.0 4.2 1.0 1 2.8 1 1 3 2 LI 13.0 4.3 3.6 145* 713.2 28~ 5T 1 8 46 2 3 52 6 18 8 1 1.5 47.3 373.3 0.4 3.6 155.0 31.7 50.2 38.0 2.5 2 5 6.8 18.6 1 14 2 3 1 1.1 41.5 0.7 4.7 1.3 N onmanufacturing....... .......................... ........ Mining, crude petroleum, and natural gas pro duction ___ Transportation < Communications ___ _ _ _ _ _ __ Utilities: Electric and gas _ _ _ _ _ _ Wholesale trade__ ___________ _ _ ____ ___ Retail trade Hotels and restaurants Services__________'_____________________________ Construction___ __ __ ____ _________ Miscellaneous nonmanufacturing 1 2 . 2.0 1 1.1 — ■■ ■ 3 1.1 1 2 0 2 6 1 1 1.5 2.0 17.1 2.5 22.0 1.4 1.1 15.2 26.4 1 3 15.2 1 2 3.0 13.0 10.4 ■— - 3 27.8 1 16.3 2 11.5 * Includes 3 agreements with a total of 14 minutes and 1 with 16 minutes. >Includes 1 agreement with a total of 21 minutes, 2 with 24 minutes, and 4 with 25 minutes. * Includes 2 agreements with a total of 35 minutes, 5 with 40 minutes, and 1 with 00 minutes. to employees in designated departments or occu pations, or to workers on continuous operations or on hazardous jobs. The following clauses illustrate such limitations: Women employees of the company shall receive a rest period of 10 minutes each half day, during which they shall be free to leave their work places. In 43 agreements, the employee coverage was not clear; the provision usually stated that present practices were to be continued. A few stipulated that rest periods were to be negotiated at the local plants or that “ reasonable” or “ adequate” rest periods were to be allowed or granted “ when practical.” * * * . . . there shall be no interruption of production for smoking or lunch, except that employees working in restricted areas shall be allowed a 5-minute smoking period each half shift. . . . * * * All employees on continuous operations are to receive, individually, a rest period of 10 minutes before and after lunch. * * * Under exceptional conditions of hazardous or fatiguing work, reasonable provision will be made for rest periods for employees engaged in such work. Duration Although the total duration of rest periods ranged from 5 to 90 minutes per day, 157 of the 339 agreements with maximum time limits granted 20 minutes (table 2). The next largest number of agreements (91) provided for a daily total of 30 minutes. Virtually all of the agreements in the telephone industry which defined the duration of rest periods were in this latter category. Only 5 M a jo r C o l l e c t iv e B a r g a in in g A g reem en ts, b t I n d u stry, 1959 Total dally time allowance—Continued 20 minutes Over 20 and under 30 minutes ’ Over 30 minutes * 30 minutes Varies by sex and occupation Industry AgreeWorkers AgreeWorkers AgreeWorkers Agree Workers AgreeWorkers ments (thousands) ments (thousands) ments (thousands) ments (thousands) ments (thousands) 157 621.4 7 10.3 91 510.3 8 16.4 22 61.2 120 506.2 7 10.3 38 116.9 4 8.8 9 17.2 5 24 14.3 146.0 6.6 4.9 32.3 1.4 22.6 1.6 12.9 1.3 2.1 2 4 27 17 3 5 3.5 5.0 96.7 142.9 5.1 7.3 37 2.5 115.2 1 1 2 1.2 2.8 1 35.4 1.3 3 3 6.6 3 4.5 13.5 1 1 1 1.0 1.7 1.6 66.9 22.0 9.4 8.5 10.0 1 4 1 1 3 43.4 2.2 2.9 4.2 1.7 1 1.4 1 1.7 2 4.8 53 393.4 4 7.6 13 44.0 4 36 2 36.1 311.9 9.4 9 31.0 1 1 2.6 2.5 2 4 a few agreements provided for rest periods of more than 30 minutes or less than 10. In 22 contracts, the daily time allowance varied for men and women or by occupation. In nine retail trade agreements, a 20-minute allowance was permitted all employees except those in de partments where the “ established practice was 15.” One agreement in the food industry pro vided “ two 10-minute break periods in all depart ments except women on ovens who are allowed three 15-minute breaks.” Another contract in that industry provided for two 10-minute rest periods except “ continuous enrober belt and candy-packing belt operators who receive the equivalent of a 5-minute rest period each 40 minutes of work.” The length of the rest period was not indicated in slightly more than a fifth of the agreements. 7.6 22.4 1 9 * Excludes railroad and airline industries. 5.4 4.0 8 2 1.2 1.5 1.4 4.2 1 20 4 7 1 1 2 16 1 4 4 4 1 10 1 6 1 2 1 1.0 16.6 1 4.0 All industries. Manufacturing. Ordnance and accessories. Food and kindred products. Tobacco manufactures. Textile mill products. Apparel and other finished products. Lumber and wood products, except furniture. Furniture and fixtures. Paper and allied products. Printing, publishing, and allied industries. Chemicals and allied products. Petroleum refining and rolated industries. Rubber and miscellaneous plastics products. Leather and leather products. Stone, clay, and glass products. Primary metal industries. Fabricated metal products. Machinery, except electrical. Electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies. Transportation equipment. Instrumenta and related products. Miscellaneous manufacturing. Nonmanufacturing. Mining, crude petroleum, and natural gas pro duction. Transportation.* Communications. Utilities: Electric and gas. Wholesale trade. Retail trade. Hotels and restaurants. Services. Construction. Miscellaneous nonmanufacturing. N ote : Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals. Many of these were also vague on other details, as the following clause illustrates: The duration of the relief period or spell out time as is in practice at present in each gang at each plant will be continued unless, as result of local collective bargaining, such duration shall be changed. Employees will be allowed two rest periods in accordance with written agreements to be negotiated' on a local basis. Number, Timing, and Scheduling Most commonly, the agreements specified two rest periods of 10 or 15 minutes daily, one in each half of the shift (tables 3 and 4). Where a single break per day was specified, it was usually to be taken during the first half shift. In 200 agreements which contained references to scheduling, the details were frequently left to 6 T able 3. N um ber and T im in g of D a il y P aid R e s t P e r io d s U n d e r M a j o r C o l l e c t iv e B a r g a in in g A g r e e m e n t s , M e t h o d of S c h e d u l in g , 1959 by [Workers in thousands] Number with paid rest period provisions Method of scheduling Number and timing of daily rest periods Number and timing not specified 1 1 rest period 2d half of shift 1st half of shift 2 rest periods Timing not indicated 1st and 2d half shifts Timing not indicated Other » Agree Work Agree Work Agree Work Agree Work Agree Work Agree Work Agree Work Agree Work ments ers ments ers ments ers ments ers ments ers ments ers ments ers ments ers Total with provisions.......................... 433 1,683.1 Totalfwith specified method.................... 200 885.9 By mutual agreement___________ 18 51.6 Company to determine time. ......... 52 154.9 At times consistent with operation requirements......... ........................ 10 24.4 Staggered so as not to interfere with production............................... ....... 6 31.9 Within specified periods after start and/or before end of shift........... 18 129.9 11.9 After less than 2 hours' work *____ 5 After 2 hours' work____ _________ 40 215.8 3 After 3 hours' work ____________ 4.7 After more than 3 hours’ work *___ 3 6.1 Other 5____________ ____________ 45 254.7 Total with no reference to scheduling... 233 797.4 73 202.9 6 5 9.2 7.7 1 1.5 67 193.7 22 75.5 14 40.0 1 1.0 3 6.5 1 9.9 2 4.0 3 11.1 1 1.7 3 5.8 8 35.6 * Agreements contained reference to rest periods but number of periods and timing either were not clear or not indicated. * Includes 16 agreements which provided 2 rest periods and 9 in which the number of rest periods was not clear but the timing in both groups usually varied according to sex, work requirement, department, or occupation; an additional agreement specified 3 rest periods. * Includes agreements which provided rest periods within a range of 1 to 1% hours after starting time. * Includes 1 agreement which provided that rest periods were to be taken at intervals of not less than 4 hours, 1 agreement which provided a rest period T able 4. N um ber and D u r a t io n [o f 4 14.1 3 11.6 1 1.5 1 1.1 1 264 1,138.0 149 745.3 5 23.0 36 104.9 6 17.8 6 31.9 16 111.0 3 7.9 36 202.3 2 3.0 1 1.5 38 242.1 115 392.9 51.5 14.1 3.9 1.1 4.5 2 1 15 8 3 1 2 4.6 9.0 2.5 7 37.4 135.0 41.0 14.2 24.3 1 2.5 19 94.0 26 10 1 5 1 66.3 24.9 1.8 16.7 1.0 3 16 5.4 41.4 after AH consecutive hours' work, and 1 agreement which provided rest periods when “uninterrupted work” exceeded 4 hours. s Includes agreements with provisions which usually referred to continua tion of present practices; also includes 1 agreement which provided for rest periods “in the morning,” 1 agreement which provided rest periods at “rea sonable intervals following the beginning and prior to the end of work period in each half shift,” and another in which scheduling was a matter of local plant option. N ote: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals. D a il y P a id R e s t P e r io d s U n d e r M a j o r C o l l e c t iv e B a r g a in in g A g r e e m e n t s , b y E m p l o y e e s C o v e r e d , 1959 Number with paid rest period provisions Number of daily periods and duration Agreements Workers (thousands) 433 73 1,683.1 202.9 1.0 19.2 64.8 53.7 2.4 36.1 16.6 6.1 617.8 2.9 501.7 7.6 1.0 40.5 81.6 1.7 25.7 Total with provision. Number and duration not clear *.................... 1 period; duration not indicated...................... 1 period; under 10 minutes.............................. 1 period; 10 minutes................. _...................... 1 period; 15 minutes.......................................... 1 period; 20 minutes........................................... 2 periods; duration not indicated.................... 2 periods; 5 minutes each.................................. 2 periods; over 5 but under 10 minutes each. 2 periods; 10 minutes each______ ______— 2 periods; over 10 but under 15 minutes each 2 periods; 15 minutes each................................ 2 periods; 20 minutes each................................ 2 periods; duration varies by sex.................. 2 periods; duration varies by occupation___ 2 periods; other *.............................................. 3 periods....................... ___................................ Other *............ ................ ......... ............... ........ 1 Includes 43 agreements in which employee coverage was not clear. * Includes 1 agreement which allowed a total of 20 minutes daily and 2 Which allowed a total of 30 minutes daily. • Includes 13 agreements which specified that present practices would continue, 8 agreements which differed the length of rest periods for the morn ing and afternoon, and 8 agreements which contained a variety of other provisions. 29 10 3 6 1 6 22 10 2 9 9 4 154 2 89 4 1 8 29 1 9 Employees covered All employees Agreements 288 20 1 6 18 3 2 8 7 4 119 2 57 Specific groups * Workers Agreements Workers (thousands) (thousands) 1,164.7 41.9 1.0 19.2 67.6 18.4 2.4 30.9 13.2 6.1 444.8 2.9 395.3 1 7 26 7 14.4 145 53 528.4 161.0 4 7 1 2 35 32 4 1 3 1 2 7.2 35.4 5.2 3.4 173.0 106.4 7.6 2.9 13.4 1.7 11.3 * Includes agreements in which the number of rest periods and duration differed by department, occupation, work requirement, travel time, and so forth. N ote: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals. 7 the discretion of the company or were to be arranged so as not to interfere with production or operation requirements. Such a method of sched uling was set forth in an agreement which granted a maximum of three rest periods to specific groups of workers: Rest periods shall be taken so as to not interfere with production or continuous operation of work groups, and shall be limited to one 10-minute rest period per full shift, which shall be taken at designated times or as otherwise scheduled by supervision. However, for dayworkers in the cutting, finishing, re winder and roll, box shop, and storehouse and loading departments only, working regular dayworker schedules (7:00 a.m. to 12:00 noon and 1:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m.) on repetitive operating jobs in the above departments, the company will recognize not more than 3 such 10-minute rest periods per full shift. In 40 agreements, a rest period was scheduled after 2 hours had been worked. In virtually all of these agreements, two rest periods per day were specified. Under the terms of 18 agreements, such breaks were scheduled within specified periods after the start and/or before the end of the shift: All employees, shift and day workers, will receive smok ing, rest, or lunch periods in accordance with the following schedule. . . . Shift workers, 1st shift—7:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m.: 1st rest period—10 minutes (between 9:00 a.m. and 10:00 a.m.) 2 d rest period—10 minutes (between 12:00 noon and 1:00 p.m.) * * * Except as otherwise specified . . . an employee shall be assigned one 15-minute relief in each session not less than 45 minutes from the start or end of the session. Although 45 agreements referred only in general to the method of scheduling, such as rest periods at “ any time” or “ in the same manner and under the same circumstances as before,” 233 contracts, covering nearly 800,000 workers, made no reference whatsoever to this matter. Included in this group were 67 agreements which also failed to specify the number and timing of rest periods. Such breaks, it would appear, can be handled informally and may not require the degree of detail found in other collective bargaining areas. The lack of scheduling provisions was most com mon in the following industries: food, textile mill products, stone, clay, and glass, machinery, trans portation equipment, instruments and related products, primary metals, and retail trade. Where two rest periods were provided, they were usually of equal length (table 4). In the few cases where they were of unequal duration, the longer period occurred in the morning. Two rest periods shall be allowed without deduction of pay at regular times in each shift to be mutually agreed upon by the employer and the union; a.m., 15 minutes; p.m., 10 minutes. Other Regulations Rest period regulations other than those govern ing timing, duration, or scheduling were infre quently incorporated in the agreements. Thus, provisions for disciplinary action or revocation of rest period privileges in case of abuse were found in 26 agreements, and rules requiring employees to remain on the premises or to go to special areas were found in 39 agreements. In addition to time mentioned above [10 minutes], an allowance will be given for travel time from the work area to an approved smoking area and return, this time not to exceed 5 minutes for each smoking period. . . . This privilege, if abused, may be withdrawn at any time after such abuse has been called to the attention of the union and has not been satisfactorily corrected. * * * Em ployees are granted the privilege o f eating a sand wich, drinking milk or other soft drink, or taking a smoke (in place provided) during working hours, bu t it is agreed that this privilege shall not be abused. If it is determined b y mutual agreement between management and the union that this privilege is being abused, it shall be withdrawn either from the individual, department, or entire group. * * * A warning bell shall be sounded 1 minute prior to the expiration of each rest period and employees shall be at their places of work on the expiration of said rest periods. The provisions for rest periods as herein set out are agreed to by the company upon the understanding that the employees assume responsibility for return to their places of work by the expiration of the specified rest period, and if such privilege is abused by the employees to such extent that the same cannot be enforced by individual discipline, the company will call the matter to the attention of the Labor Relations Board [a joint labor-management grievance committee] in writing, and if such abuses con tinue 5 working days after such board has received such notice, the company may discontinue rest periods for any shift or department for such time as the company may deem proper. 9 Paid Time for Washup, Cleanup, and Clothes Change in 1959 T h e p r e v a l e n c e of pay for washup, cleanup, or clothes-changing time dining regular working hours has remained relatively unchanged since 1953. A recent Bureau of Labor Statistics study of 1,687 major collective bargaining agreements in effect in 1959 revealed that only about 17 percent, the same proportion as found in an earlier study,1 contained specific provisions for paid time for washing up, changing clothes, cleaning up the machine or workplace, or related activities in volved in leaving the job for lunch or for the day. Many of these provisions applied only to employ ees in designated occupations or departments, not to all employees in the bargaining unit. These cleanup activities are essentially jobrelated functions. The absence of an agreement provision may mean that the worker is expected to perform these functions on his own time. However, it is reasonable to assume that informal arrangements are widespread and that, in this area, the prevalence of agreement provisions is not an accurate measure of the extent of the practice. Washup time and clothes-change time are selfexplanatory terms. Cleanup time, for purposes of this study, was defined to cover preparatory and cleanup activities involving the workplace at the beginning or end of the workday, such as checking out and returning tools to the tool crib, arranging the work area, and making out reports required by management. * For data on paid time for washup, cleanup, and clothes change in union agreements in 1953, see Paid Time for Washup, Cleanup, and Clothes Change, 1952-53 (in Monthly Labor Review, April 1954, pp. 420-423), or BLS Bull. 1166,1954, pp. 14-17. * The Bureau does not maintain a file of railroad and airline agreements; hence their omission from this study. Scope of Study This study was based on 1,687 collective bar gaining agreements, each covering 1,000 or more workers, or virtually all agreements of this size in the United States, exclusive of railroads and airlines.2 The approximately 7.5 million workers covered by these major agreements account for slightly less than half of all workers estimated to be covered by all collective bargaining agreements in the United States, exclusive of railroads and airlines. Of the agreements studied, 1,063 cov ered 4.5 million workers in manufacturing estab lishments and 624 applied to 2.9 million workers in nonmanufacturing establishments. All of the agreements were in effect at the beginning of 1959, and slightly less than half (823) expired during that year. Prevalence of Agreement Provisions Provisions relating to paid time for personal washup, changing of clothes, and machine or workplace cleanup, or for a combination of these activities, were found in 278 agreements, covering 865,000 workers, or 17 percent of the major agree ments analyzed (table 1). Such provisions were contained in about one-fifth of the contracts in manufacturing and about one-tenth in nonmanu facturing industries, and were relatively most prev alent in food, petroleum, chemicals, transportation equipment, ordnance, and machinery. In none of these industries, however, did the incidence of such provisions exceed half of the major, agree ments studied. A single work activity only was covered in 200 agreements. Two types of activity were covered in 72 contracts; more than half of these were in food, transportation equipment, and construction industries. All three activities were mentioned in only six agreements. 10 T a b l e 1. Industry P r o v is io n s Number studied for P a id W a s h u p , C l e a n u p ,1 a n d C l o t h e s - C h a n g b Number providing paid washup, cleanup, and clothes-change time Type of provision Washup only Cleanup only Agree- Workers Agree Workers Agree Workers Agree Workers ments (thousands) ments (thousands) ments (thousands) ments (thousands) All industries..................................................................... ................ 1,687 Manufacturing........................................................................... 1,063 Ordnance and accessories ___ __ 15 Food and kindred products__________________ _____________ 120 Tobacco manufactures ____ 11 Textile mill products__ __ ____________ ________________ 33 Apparel and other finished products................................................ 45 Lumber and wood products, except furniture 13 Furniture and fixtures _ ____ 20 PaDer and allied products _ ___ ____ .... __ 54 Printing, publishing, and allied industries. .................................. 31 Chemicals and allied products _ . ... 57 Petroleum refining and related industries........................................ 23 Rubber and miscellaneous plastics products............... .................. 24 Leather and leather products. _ _ _ ___ _ _______ 20 Stone, day, and glass products........................................................... 38 Primary metal industries.................................................................... 124 Fabricated metal products __ __ 52 Machinery, except electrical ......................................................... 117 Electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies.............................. 100 Transportation equipment . _ _ _ __ 127 Instruments and related products___________________ 24 Miscellaneous manufacturing _ _ 15 Nonmanufacturing.................................................................. 624 Mining, crude petroleum, and natural gas production 17 Transportation *.................................................................................... 05 Communications 79 Utilities: Electric and gas __ 78 Wholesale trade _ __ 12 Retail trade........................................................................................ . 92 Hotels and restaurants. ___ _ ___ 36 Services__ _ ......... ........... ............................ „ 55 Construction........................................................................................ 155 Miscellaneous nonmanufaotnrin g __ _ _____ 5 1Refers to cleanup activities involving machinery or workplace such as the preparation of the workplace for the following day, returning tools to 7,477.3 4,555.3 39.4 405.8 27.6 78.4 464.1 37.2 32.1 118.0 62.2 113.6 63.8 128.1 62.5 100.8 724.8 146.4 283.9 438.3 1,152.2 54.2 22.5 2,922.0 252.7 573.2 558.1 200.5 21.6 245.1 176.8 184.9 701.9 7.4 278 216 5 27 2 2 864.8 633.6 15.4 115.3 2.4 9.6 112 104 3 1 2 265.3 233.3 10.3 1.0 9.6 80 43 281.5 142.3 4 2 10.3 2.4 2 7 1 20 11 5 2 8 7 12 28 26 44 5 2 62 1 21 1 3 6 1 29 2.4 21.7 7.5 30.0 24.3 37.6 2.5 38.9 10.2 27.4 47.8 75.8 145.3 17.6 2.2 231.3 1.5 72.9 1.3 8.9 30.0 4.3 112.4 2 5 1 10 1 2 2 2 3 8 22 18 18 2 2 8 2.4 8.6 7.5 16.6 1.1 2.4 2.5 2.9 3.9 14.8 40.4 37.3 58.9 11.2 2.2 32.0 2 6 1 1 1 3 3 14 1 2.7 16.4 1.8 34.6 2.0 2.4 4.1 16.6 47.8 1.4 3.5 37 1 17 2 3 139.2 1.5 62.2 5.4 18.0 1 1.4 2 5 27.2 14 52.2 5 the tool crib, or the preparation of reports. In contrast, washup and clothes change refer to personal cleanup. 11 T im e U nder M ajo r C o l l e c t iv e B a r g a in in g A g r e e m e n t s , I n d u stry, by 1959 Type of provision—Continued Clothes change only Washup and clothes Cleanup and clothes change change Washup and cleanup Washup, cleanup, and clothes change Industry Agree Workers Agree Workers Agree Workers Agree Workers Agree Workers ments (thousands) ments (thousands) ments (thousands) ments (thousands) ments (thousands) 9.3 18 15 1 2 62.4 53.2 2.1 2.2 2.7 1 5 1 1 3 1 1.5 6.0 15.6 8.0 3 9.2 1 3.5 2 5.7 24.8 12.0 4 2 2 1 1 18 18 96.0 96.0 16 92.5 11.0 6.8 8 6 12.8 8.5 4.3 * Excludes railroad and airline industries; 1 2.5 1 1.0 36 25 122.8 85.7 1 1 3 1 1 2 1 2 2 9 2 2.2 1.3 4.7 30.0 1.4 2.8 1.7 2.4 6.3 28.2 5.0 11 37.1 3 1 9.4 1.3 7 26.4 6 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12.2 All industries. 11.2 Manufacturing. 3.0 Ordnance and accessories. Food and kindred products. Tobacco manufactures. Textile mill products. Apparel and other finished products. Lumber and wood products, except furniture. Furniture and fixtures. Paper and allied products. Printing, publishing, and allied industries. Chemicals and allied products. 2.2 Petroleum refining and related industries. 3.5 Rubber and miscellaneous plastics products. Leather and leather products. Stone, clay, and glass products. Primary metal industries. Fabricated metal products. 1.0 Machinery, except electrical. Electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies. 1.5 Transportation equipment. Instruments and related products. Miscellaneous manufacturing. 1.0 Nonmanufacturing. Mining, crude petroleum, and natural gas produc tion. Transportation.* Communications. Utilities: Electric and gas. Wholesale trade. Retail trade. Hotels and restaurants. Services. 1.0 Construction. Miscellaneous nonmanufacturing. N ote: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals. 12 T able 2. P r o v is io n s f o r P a id W a s h u p , C l e a n u p , a n d C l o t h e s -C h a n g e T im e U n d e r M a j o r C o l l e c t iv e B a r g a in in g A g r e e m e n t s , b y E m p l o y e e C o v e r a g e , 1959 [Workers in thousands] Type of provision Employee coverage Washup Cleanup Clothes change Agree Workers Agree Workers Agree Workers ments ments ments Total studied.................. Number with provi sions________ ______ All employees_____ Employees in desig nated occupations or departments. — Other1...................... Number with no pro visions.......................... 1,687 7,477.3 1,687 7,477.3 1,687 7,477.3 50 30 195.3 136.3 49 117.3 58 189.4 18 2 2 33.0 5 39.0 1,615 7,014.7 1,547 6,964.9 1,637 54.1 5.0 7,282.0 172 118 462.6 306.3 140 80 512.4 290.0 i Present practice was to continue in 3 agreements containing washup provision, in 1 providing for clothes change, and in 1 allowing for machinery and/or work-station cleanup. Details for the remaining 4 agreements were to be negotiated at the local level. N ote: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals. Paid Washup Time . Of the 278 agreements with provisions for paid washup, cleanup, and clothes change, 112 allowed paid washup periods only. However, washup time was also referred to in 60 agreements with provisions for cleanup or clothes change or both (table 1). In the main, washup time applied to all em ployees covered by the agreement, but 49 con tracts limited the provisions to designated jobs or occupations and 5 did not specify the coverage. (See table 2.) Typical of the provisions that limited coverage are the following illustrations: . . . showers on company time will be authorized for employees who are required to work on extremely dirty jobs or with hazardous materials requiring protective clothing or showers . . . * * * Employees on spray gun and sandblast work will be permitted to leave the job 15 minutes prior to quitting time in order to bathe. A specific amount of time for washup was pro vided in 94 agreements, granting, most commonly, either 5 (28 agreements) or 10 minutes per day (46 agreements) for this purpose (table 3). Of the 5 agreements with a daily allowance in excess of 15 minutes, 1 allowed 18, 3 allowed 20, and 1 allowed 30 minutes. In 25 agreements, time allowances varied by occupation or department; fifteen other agree ments stipulated that “reasonable,” “sufficient” or the “ time necessary” for washup would be given: Except for jobs set forth in exhibit F . . . all employees shall be permitted to stop work to wash up 6 minutes before quitting time at the lunch period and at the end of the shift. The employees in the jobs set forth in said exhibit F shall be permitted to stop work to wash up 10 minutes before quitting time at the lunch period and at the end of the shift. * * * The company will continue its practices of allowing a reasonable amount of time for necessary washup and/ or clothes change. In a number of agreements, the amount of time allowed could be used for more than one type of activity, as illustrated below: A 5-minute washup period shall precede the quitting time of each shift. During this period, employees shall be permitted to cease work for the purpose of washing up and taking care of their tools. * * * Employees on jobs which require toxic clothing and a bath . . . shall be allowed to leave their job 15 minutes before quitting time in order to return clothing to the Service Department and take a bath. Under the terms of 76 agreements, emplo3r ees were allowed a single washup period, usually at the end of the shift. Many of the agreements in the chemical, machinery (except electrical), electri cal machinery, and transportation equipment industries provided for this type of scheduling. A 15-minute washup period on company time shall be allowed to employees . . . when handling skin-irritating materials or lead compounds. This time shall be taken before the regularly scheduled quitting time . . . * * * Employees in the Foundry Division and in the forge, heat treat, welding, and snagging departments will be allowed 15 minutes washup time prior to the end of their shifts . . . Employees were permitted two periods for personal washup, one before lunch and one before quitting time in 54 agreements and at the begin ning and end of a shift in 1 additional agreement. Most of these were found in the machinery (except electrical), electrical machinery, and construction industries. It is recognized that the performance of certain jobs results in the employee being exposed to severe dirt con ditions. In these cases, employee will be allowed sufficient time for washing up before lunch time and quitting time. Five agreements (one in chemicals, two in machinery, one in instruments and related prod- 13 ucts, and one in construction) provided for washup before lunch only. In six agreements, the time for washup depended on the job or department; for example: The employees in the following departments . . . have a 5-minute washup period immediately preceding their lunch periods and a 10-minute washup period immediately preceding the end of their shifts. No other employees have a mid-shift washup period. All other employees in the factory bargaining unit have a 5-minute washup period immediately preceding the end of their shift. Paid Cleanup Time . Paid time for cleaning up the machine or the work place, or returning tools to the tool crib, or other similar duties was provided by 140 agreements; in 60 of these, the provision appeared in combination with washup and/or clothes-change time. In manufacturing industries, this pay practice was most prevalent in petroleum, stone, clay, and glass, food, and transportation equipment. The highest repre sentation among the nonmanufacturing group was in transportation and construction. Almost half of the 58 contracts which limited pay for cleanup activities to special groups were in meatpacking and transportation, as the following clauses indicate: Five minutes per day . . . will be paid to employees who use and sharpen one knife daily. Ten minutes per day . . . will be paid to employees who use and sharpen two knives daily . . . * * * All operators shall receive 10 minutes preparatory time at the beginning of their runs or trippers and 10 minutes time after car or bus arrives at bam or garage for making out manifests and turning in receipts at the end of the day’s work. Of the 140 agreements with provisions for ma chine cleanup or similar activities, 101 did not specify an actual time allowance. This omission may be attributed to the fact that variations in the nature of the work in certain plants preclude defining cleanup time in specific time allowances. Of this group, 41 agreements specified only that “reasonable,” “sufficient,” or the “ time neces sary” would be allowed. For example: When an employee is required to return tools or other company equipment at the end of workday he will be allowed a reasonable time therefor before the scheduled end of such workday, taking due account of the distance of his work from the check-in point and the nature of the tools handled. * * * T a b l e 3. D a il y T im e A l l o w a n c e a n d T im e A ssig n m ent for W a sh u p, C l e a n u p , and C lothes C hang e U n d e r M a jo r C o l l e c t iv e B a r g a in in g A g r e e m e n t s , 1959 [Workers In thousands] Type of provision Daily time allowance and time assignment Washup Cleanup Clothes change Agree Work Agree Work Agree Work ments ers ments ers ments ers Total studied....................... 1,687 7,477.3 1,687 7,477.3 1,687 7,477.3 Number with provisions... 172 462.6 140 512.4 50 195.3 T ime A llowance Less than 5 minutes........... 5 minutes................—.......... More than 5, less than 10 minutes............................. 10 minutes............................ More than 10, less than 15 minutes............................. 15 minutes_____________ More than 15 minutes___ Varies by job, occupation, and/or department.......... To be agreed upon.............. At discretion of employer.. “ Reasonable,” “suffi cient,” or “time neces sary” Other............. No reference.. 2 3.5 28 50.1 2 2.4 46 130.0 2 15 4 13 3.3 34.9 6.9 31.5 11 5 25 1 30.8 9.3 66.2 1.6 3 2 16 1 12 15.1 4.0 49.8 2.4 74.3 15 118 19 29.4 51.7 87.9 71 179.8 1 1.2 5 6.9 54 143.1 6 16.7 1 3 16 3 5 1 1.2 7.0 89.5 12.2 9.4 8.0 41 •140.4 3 16 50.9 15 99.1 5 *8 8 7.5 22.2 38.5 76 246.7 4 11.2 10 9 35.8 59.2 5 12.9 1 1.6 13 80.6 1 3.0 7.9 3 37 148.6 1 3 1 4.7 3.7 2.1 1.2 88.7 T ime A ssignment At end of shift..................... At beginning and end of shift.................................... Before lunch......................... Before lunch and end of shift.................................... Varies by job, occupation, and/or department.......... At discretion of supervisor. To be agreed upon.............. Other 4.................................. No reference......................... 3 32 15.0 99.9 1 25 i Includes agreements in which the total daily allowance could be used for washup, cleanup, or clothes change: in a few. tne allowance varied by sex. 3 Includes agreements in which the total daily allowance applied to both cleanup and washup, agreements providing pay in lieu of cleanup time, and those in which the allowance varied with the day of the workweek. * Includes agreements providing pay in lieu of clothes-change time and those in which the allowance covered both clothes change and washup. 4 Includes agreements in which provisions (1) differed for various groups of employees, (2) provided for local negotiation, and (3) were unclear. N ote : Because of rounding, sums of individual items m ay not equal totals. Employees engaged in work where tools are taken from department tool rooms shall be allowed sufficient time to return tools or equipment at the end of the shift on com pany time. Another 12 agreements, all in the meatpacking industry, made the time allowance discretionary with the employer: The company shall supply knives, steels, whetstones, and meat hooks prepared for use, at its expense, or permit employees using same to prepare them on company time (as a work assignment determined upon and directed by management), as the company may elect. Time varied by occupation in 16 agreements, as in the example shown on the following page: 14 T a b l e 4. T otal D a il y T im e A l l o w a n c e f o r W ashtjp , C l e a n u p , a n d C l o t h e s C h a n g e U n d e r M a j o r C o l l e c t iv e B a r g a in in g A g r e e m e n t s , b y E m p l o y e e C o v e r a g e , 1959 Time allowance provision covering— All agreements Total daily time allowance All employees Employees in All employees in specific groups or sbme activities and occupations only specific groups in other activities Other * Agree Workers Agree Workers Agree Workers Agree Workers Agree - Workers ments (thousands) ments (thousands) ments (thousands) ments (thousands) ments (thousands) Total studied..........................................-.................-............ 1,687 Number with provisions........................................................ 278 Time allowance covered all activities: Less than 5 roinut^s ........ . 3 40 5 minutes______________________ -_____________ 4 More than 5, less than 10 minutes__-_____________ 52 ......, _ 10 minutes ,, 2 More than io, less than 15 minutes_______________ 16 15 minutes _______________________ 2 More than 15, less than 20 minutes „ 6 __ 20 minutes _ ._ 2 More than 20, less than 30 minutes., ________ 30 minutes ________________________ 3 29 Varies by job, occupation, and/or department___ 1 Tn be apreed upon .. . . . _ __ 3 At discretion of employer_____________________ _ “Reasonable." “sufficient," or “time necessary"___ 46 Time allowance specified for some activity and for other activities— 4 Not indicated ______________________ —__________ 4 Varies by occupation and/or department________ __ 1 Apreed upon _ ______________________ _____ 8 At discretion of employer ........ “Reasonable," “sufficient," nr “timenecessary” 4 25 Other *— ......................................................................... 23 No reference to time allowance 7,477.3 1,687 864.8 168 5.2 92.5 5.8 130.9 5.4 45.3 3.5 19.9 3.3 5.6 88.5 2.4 3.7 148.9 2 1 18 2 29 3.5 79.5 2.4 99.9 5.4 20.7 1.2 3.3 1.5 60.0 2.6 104.0 22.6 9.8 8.0 62.0 7.9 67.5 126.6 3 1 1 1 2 9 13 19.6 1.6 8.0 8.0 2.3 25.0 70.7 1 Includes agreements providing for the continuation of presently estab lished practices, with no details given. * Includes agreements in which (1) time allowances varied by sex or day of week; (2) provisions applied to all employees but duration was specified for designated groups only; (3) different time allowances were specified for 1 or Spray painters shall be allowed to leave their jobs 10 minutes before quitting time in order to clean their equipment. Burners shall be given 2 minutes at lunch time to shut off their gas oxygen and shall be given 5 minutes at quitting time to disconnect and turn in their torches. Time assigned for cleanup was predominantly at the end of the shift. However, four agreements specified time allowances at the beginning (pre paratory time) and end of shift, and five desig nated time for cleanup before lunch as well as at the end of the shift. The time allowed for gathering tools and reaching tool shed by quitting time at noon and at 4:30 p.m. is to be agreed upon by the employer and the steward . . . * * * Each employee will be allowed personal and area clean up time before his lunch period and before the end of his work shift . . . Paid Clothes-Changing Time. Paid clotheschanging time, the least prevalent of the three 2 31 2 43 2 5 7,477.3 1,687 518.9 77 i 1 9 2 9 9 3 2 10 1 1 17 7 6 7,477.3 1,687 191.6 27 1.7 13.0 3.4 31.0 20.9 12.5 4.1 22.3 2.4 1.1 44.9 14.1 20.3 7,477.3 1,687 112.4 6 2 2 2 3.8 3.5 6.2 1 6.2 3 7 2 8 8.2 54.0 5.6 25.0 7,477.3 42.0 1 3.0 1 4 3.5 35.6 more activities and mutual agreement permitted for other activities; and (4) time allowances varied b y occupation for some activities and no duration was specified for other activities. N ote : Because of rounding, sums of individual items m ay not equal totals. activities studied, was noted in only 50 agree ments. These provisions were concentrated in the food and chemicals industries. Fewer than half of the 50 contracts providing pay for clothes-change time designated the actual amount of such time. Sixteen agreements al lowed 12 minutes; 15 of these were in the meat packing industry and 1 in ordnance. Twelve minutes per day will be paid employees for changing clothes, and shall be counted as working time for all purposes. Employees were authorized to change clothes at the end of the shift in 10 agreements, and in 9, clothes-changing time was at the beginning and end of the shift. Most of these agreements were in the food industry, where employees were re quired to wear special clothing on the job. Total Daily Allowances. In the 130 agreements with definite time allowances for all of the activ ities specified in the contract, the combined du ration ranged from 3 to 30 minutes per day, with 15 5 and 10 minutes the most prevalent (table 4).3 The time allowed exceeded 15 minutes in only 13 agreements. The total time was derived by adding the individual allowances, as in the follow ing examples which provided a total of 30 and 10 minutes per day, respectively: . . . The following schedule of allowable time shall be adhered to: (1) Five-minute change period at the start of the shift. (2) Ten-minute washup period before the eating period. (3) Five-minute change period after lunch. (4) Ten-minute washup period at the close of the shift. Employees shall be allowed 5-minute washup time at noon and 5 minutes before quitting time to replace tools, clean machines and benches, and wash up . . . In 148 agreements the total daily allowance could not be ascertained. In agreements where the provisions applied to special groups of workers only, the total amount of time was more liberal than in situations where they applied to all workers. For example, of the 29 agreements that granted 15 minutes or more, 20 covered special groups or occupations. * Applies to agreements which had mentioned 1, 2, or all 3 of the activities studied. 17 Contract Allowances for Safety Equipment and Work Clothing, 1959 P r o vision s related to the furnishing of personal safety equipment and protective apparel were in cluded in 502 of 1,687 major collective agreements analyzed by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. A smaller number, 267, referred either to the issuance of uniforms or general work clothing, or to the pro vision of allowances for their purchase. Most of these agreements provided that the entire cost of furnishing safety equipment or apparel was to be assumed by the employer, as was the expense of maintaining work clothing. The agreements usually did not specify whether company or employee was responsible for main taining or replacing safety equipment but since such equipment was issued to employees on an “ as needed” basis and remained company property in most cases, it is likely that the employer also bore this expense. The practice of supplying protective or work clothing is probably more widespread than this analysis of agreement provisions would indicate. For example, the wearing of protective apparel is frequently required by government safety regu lations and hence may not be subject to unionmanagement negotiation. In general, however, it would appear that furnishing and maintaining work clothing is still the employee's responsibility in most organized establishments. This study was based on 1,687 collective bar gaining agreements, each covering 1,000 or more workers, or virtually all agreements of this size in the United States, except for the railroad and airline industries.1 The approximately 7.5 million workers covered by these major agreements ac count for slightly less than half of all workers estimated to be covered by all collective bargain ing agreements in the United States, exclusive of railroads and airlines. Of the agreements studied, 1,063 covered 4.6 million workers in manufacturing, and 624 applied to 2.9 million workers in nonmanufacturing. All of the agree ments were in effect at the beginning of 1959, and slightly less than half (823) expired during that year. Safety Equipment Under the terms of 490 of the 502 agreements referring to safety equipment, the employer agreed to furnish, whenever necessary, such items as goggles, boots, and gloves. The remaining agreements specified that some or all of the protective devices, frequently of an individualized nature such as prescription glasses and safety shoes, would be sold to employees at less than the full purchase cost. (See table 1.) Safety equipment provisions were more preva lent in manufacturing than in nonmanufacturing industries. In manufacturing, half of the pro visions were found in primary metal products, machinery (except electrical), and transportation equipment industries; in nonmanufacturing, elec trical and gas utilities, construction, and trans portation agreements contained most of these provisions. (See table 2.) i The Bureau does not maintain a file of railroad and airline agreements; hence their omission from this study. T a b l e 1. P r o v is io n s C o v e r in g S a f e t y E q u ip m e n t , W o r k C l o t h in g , a n d T h e ir M a in t e n a n c e ,1 M a j o r C o l l e c t iv e B a r g a in in g A g r e e m e n t s , 1959 Agreements Type of allowance Workers Num Per Number Per ber cent (thou cent sands) Total studied.......................... ........................ 1,687 100.0 7,477.3 100.0 Agreements with provisions for safety 2712 42.2 * 2,972.1 39.7 equipment, work clothing, and their maintenance. 502 29.7 ' 2,112.8 28.3 Safety equipment....... ............................. At no cost to employee.----- --------- 490 29.0 2,093.7 28.0 12 .7 19.1 .3 At some cost to employee................. Work clothing------------------------- ------ 267 15.8 1,088.8 14.5 937.5 12.5 At no cost to employee................... 238 14.1 151.3 2.0 29 1.7 At some cost to employee________ 922.8 12.3 Clothing or equipment maintenance ... 214 12.6 908.5 12.1 At no cost to employee__________ 210 12.4 .2 14.3 4 .2 At some cost to employee................ .4 30.2 14 .8 Other4___________________________ Agreements with no reference to allowances. 975 57.8 4,505.2 60.3 * Safety equipment includes such items as safety shoes, rubber boots, gloves, goggles, and other personal protective apparel. Work clothing also includes uniforms. Maintenance of work clothing refers to laundering and/or cleaning services. a Unduplicated total of allowances shown separately. Items may appear singly or in combinations, in 1 agreement. t Number of workers refers to number covered by agreements, not to num ber eligible to receive, or required to use, safety equipment or special work clothing. 4 Includes 13 agreements in which past practices were to be continued or in which allowances differed by occupation, sex, or length of service, and 1 agree ment in which costs of work clothing and maintenance were shared when selected by authorized company-union representative, and in which company paid the costs if clothing was not so selected. N ote : Because of rounding, the sum of individual items m ay not equal totals. 18 and first aid kits. All such equipment shall either be carried on line trucks or kept in a place quickly available to all employees concerned. Coveralls, or other protec tive clothing, will be provided by the company where acid conditions are encountered in the work to be performed, or for painting that would endanger the clothing of the employees. Representative provisions for furnishing these items follow: Protective devices, wearing apparel, and other equip ment necessary to properly protect employees from injury shall be provided by the company in accordance with practices now prevailing in each separate plant or as such practices may be improved from time to time by the company. Goggles, gas masks, face shields, respirators, special purpose gloves, fireproof, waterproof, or acidproof protective clothing when necessary and required shall be provided by the company without cost, except that the company may assess a fair charge to cover loss or willful destruction thereof by the employee. * * * * The employer will provide outer garments, consisting of raincoats, boots, and sheepskin-lined jackets, to such em ployees as work, or are assigned to work, in locations which are not fully protected from the elements, or which are not regularly adequately heated. In 12 agreements, standard equipment was furnished free of charge, but employees were re quired to pay some part of the cost for items that had to be adapted to the needs of the in dividual. For example: * The company shall provide all employees necessary protective equipment, including rubber blankets, rubber gloves, rubber sleeves, rubber hats, rubber boots, other protective rubber footwear, rubber coats, rubber hose. T a b l e 2. * P r o v is io n s C o v e r in g S a f e t y E q u ip m e n t , W o r k C l o t h in g , and Employer agrees to— Industry Nu:mber stu died Provide safety Provide work clothing equipment * Provide and maintain Provide safety Provide and maintain equipment work clothing and work work clothing and furnish • clothing safety equipment Agree Workers Agree Workers Agree Workers Agree Workers Agree Workers Agree Workers ments (thou ments (thou ments (thou ments (thou ments (thou ments (thou sands)7 sands)7 sands)7 sands)7 sands)7 sands) All industries...................................................................... 1,687 7,477.3 Manufacturing_____________________ _______ 1,063 4,555.3 39.4 Ordnance and accessories________________________ 15 Food and kindred products__________ ___________ 120 405.8 Tobacco manufactures...................................................... 11 27.6 Textile mill products____________________________ 33 78.4 Apparel and other finished prodnets ... 45 464.1 Lumber and wood products, except furniture_______ 13 37.2 Furniture and fixtures___________________________ 20 32.1 Paper and allied products_______________ _______ 54 118.0 Printing, publishing, and allied industries___ ______ 31 62.2 Chemicals and allied products......................................... 57 113.6 Petroleum refining and related industries__________ 23 63.8 Rubber and miscellaneous plastics products________ 24 128.1 Leather and leather products_____________________ 20 62. 5 Stone, clay, and glass products___________________ 38 100.8 Primary metal industries................................................ 124 724.8 Fabricated metal products_______________________ 52 146.4 Machinery, except electrical______________________ 117 283.9 Electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies_____ 100 438.3 Transportation equipment.............................................. 127 1,'152.2 Instruments and related products............. ........ ............ 24 54.2 Miscellaneous manufacturing_____________________ 15 22. 5 N onmanufacturing....................................... .......... 624 2,922.0 Mining, crude petroleum, and natural gas production. 17 252.7 Transportation *........................ ........ ............................... 95 573.2 Communications.......................................... .................... 79 558.1 Utilities: Electric and gas_______________ _______ 78 200.5 Wholesale trade__________ _____________________ 21.6 Retail trade_______________________ ____________ 12 245.1 92 Hotels and restaurants_______ ___________________ 36 176.8 Services........................................ .. ______________ 55 Construction....................... .............................................. 155 184.9 701.9 Miscellaneous nonmanufacturing___ _________ ____ 5 7.4 418 1,819.1 306 1,422.2 8 20.1 13 37.7 2 5 15 9 9 2 18 81 25 46 14 49 7 3 112 9 17 8 36 1 4.4 10.6 27.8 24.9 57.2 3.8 55.9 609.4 76.2 96.2 40.4 326.3 25.9 5.4 396.9 19.6 78.6 26.4 100.4 1.0 1 40 1i 170.0 I F°r definitions, see footnote 1, table l. J in *TvTes *0 agreements in which employees were required to pay for a part of the cost of safety equipment, which was usually made to order. 30 10 75.4 20.2 4 5.1 1 2 2 1 18 17 1 6 45.5 43.7 3.0 11.5 1.1 7.6 5.4 1 85 1.6 7.2 1.1 2 1 1 2.7 2.8 15.0 1 1.8 1 1.8 20 55.2 9 2 5 2 1 1 34.7 3.2 11.8 2.8 1.6 1.2 144 30 671.3 76.6 46 27 145.3 61.4 22 61.1 12 35.8 1 1 4.0 1.5 1 1.5 87 1 1 3 9.3 3.5 1.8 3.8 2 2 1 114 4.4 3.1 1.0 594.7 2 6.2 1 19 1.0 83.9 23 1 1 2 37 30 18 2 273.3 1.7 2.9 2.3 111.4 146.7 54. 5 2!o 2 1 6 5 1 2 1 1 5.0 30.0 17.4 16.0 5.0 8.5 i!o i.i 1 * Includes 1 agreement In which employer maintained or provided monetary allowance toward maintenance of work clothing, 4 4 agreements also provided a monetary allowance toward maintenance of work clothing. 19 Goggles are provided for work dangerous to the eyes. Standard safety goggles that do not require a prescription are furnished free of charge. Employees requiring a special ground lens will be furnished goggles at cost; the company furnishing the frames free. Work Clothing The majority of the 267 provisions for supplying and/or maintaining work clothing were found in food producing (canneries, dairies, etc.) or food serving and selling industries (hotels, restaurants, and groceries). These industries and transporta tion, where sanitation and public appearance are also of great importance, accounted for nearly two-thirds of the agreements with such provisions, Usually, the employer required that special cloth ing or uniforms be worn. Where the employer agreed to provide work clothing, he usually also agreed to pay for laun dering or cleaning. Only 48 work clothing clauses did not also provide for clothing mainte nance. On the other hand, 13 agreements which referred to work clothing maintenance did not specify who was to provide these services. Examples of clauses relating to the furnishing of work clothing follow: Company agrees to furnish to drivers one standard jacket type uniform with one extra pair of trousers free after 1 year of continuous employment. . . . * * * Any employer requiring employee to wear a uniform shall pay for same and said uniform must bear union label. * M a in t e n a n c e ,1 M a jo r C o l l e c t iv e B a r g a in in g A g r e e m e n t s , by * * I n d u s t r y , 1959 Employer agrees to— Provide monetary allowance for— Provide safety equipment Maintain work Other ana maintain clothing > Work clothing provisions • work clothing Work clothing * but furnish safety equipment1 No reference to allowances Industry Agree Workers Agree Workers Agree Workers Agree Workers Agree Workers Agree Workers ments (thou ments (thou ments (thou ments (thou ments (thou ments (thou sands) ' sands)' sands) sands) ? sands)' sands)' 3 3 11.4 11.4 10 5 23.9 6.8 12 7 59.2 16.0 17 16 92.1 91.0 14 7 30.2 16.8 3 11.4 5 6.8 2 1 2.3 8.0 13 87.3 2 1 5.8 1.6 1 1.2 2 3.3 1 1.1 1 1 1 1.8 3.7 2.2 1 1.2 2 2.6 1 1.7 5 43.2 1 1.1 7 13.4 3 31.2 1 1.1 i 1 3.0 9.0 1 1 1.4 1.6 5 10.4 5 5 17.1 17.1 8 7 agreements also provided for maintenance of work clothing. • See footnote 4, table 1. ' Number of workers refers to number covered by agreements, not to number eligible to receive, or required to use, safety equipment or special work clothing. 975 4,505.2 All industries. Manufacturing. 635 2,790.2 6 16.3 Ordnance and accessories. 38 141.2 Food and kindred products. 11 27.6 Tobacco manufactures. 31 68.8 Textile mill products. 45 464.1 Apparel and other finished products. 12 33.2 Lumber and wood products, except furniture. 26.2 Furniture and fixtures. 17 45 101.9 Paper and allied products. 62.2 Printing, publishing, and allied industries. 31 56.7 Chemicals and allied products. 26 26.9 Petroleum refining and related industries. 8 14 67.5 Rubber and miscellaneous plastics products. 18 58.7 Leather and leather products. 43.2 Stone, clay, and glass products. 19 34 104.1 Primary metal industries. 68.6 Fabricated metal products. 26 70 184.9 Machinery, except electrical. 84 391.7 Electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies. 75 806.5 Transportation equipment. 25.2 Instruments and related products. 15 10 15.1 Miscellaneous manufacturing. N onmanufacturing. 340 1,715.0 8 233.2 Mining, crude petroleum, and natural gas production. 39 148.1 Transportation.® 69 500.0 Communications. 73.4 Utilities: Electric and gas. 31 9 18.3 Wholesale trade. 85.9 Retail trade. 39 3 22.3 Hotels and restaurants. 99.9 Services. 27 111 527.7 Construction. 4 6.3 Miscellaneous nonmanufacturing. *Includes 1 agreement in which employees were required to pay for a part of the cost of safety equipment, which was usually made to order. * Excludes railroad and airline industries. N ote : Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals. 20 If the company requires employees to have certain special equipment and clothing, it will be furnished to the employees without charge. Each individual will be held responsible for any such special clothing or equipment furnished. The company may require a refundable deposit not to exceed the actual cost of the items furnished. T y p ic a l o f a rra n g e m e n ts fo r b o t h m a in ta in in g w o r k c lo th in g w e re fu r n is h in g a n d th ese c la u s e s : payroU on the first day of the payment month, provided such employees have completed 90 days’ service by the 15th day of said payment month . . . * * When members of the unlicensed personnel are required by the company to furnish and wear uniforms, they shall receive additional compensation at the rate of $12.50 per month. * The employer will furnish his employees with coats and . . . such uniforms as may be required by the em ployer and pay for the laundering of the same. * * * If the company requires an employee to wear a standard cap or uniform, the company shall furnish and launder same at its expense. . . . The company shall furnish and maintain, at its cost and expense, all special outer apparel heretofore customarily used by the group and which is reasonably necessary for the performance of the job. A ll a g reem en ts th a t p r o v id e d fo r c lo t h in g m a in t e n a n c e o n ly w e r e in f o o d p r o d u c in g o r s e llin g in d u s tr ie s . pressed G e n e r a lly , th is r e q u ir e m e n t w as Employer shall launder or pay for laundering of cover alls, aprons, trousers, shirts, sweat shirts, and cap covers worn by employees when on duty. All laundry will be done by a union laundry wherever services and prices are comparable. * * Signatory members of association agree to pay for all laundry required by all clerks in their employ, such as uniforms, etc. M o n e ta ry w ork a g reem en ts, an ce a llo w a n c e s c lo th in g a ls o F ou rteen o r in c lu d in g co v e red o f th e 29 tow a rd u n ifo rm s 4 w ork th e w ere in w h ic h c lo th in g a g reem en ts p u rch a se s p e c ifie d w ere th e in o f 29 * An allowance of 50 cents per week per employee will be paid for the furnishing of work clothes. . . . An allowance of 30 cents per week per employee will be paid to all employees to compensate them for the payment of laundry. This allowance may be discontinued at the employer’s option should it be decided by the employer to have the laundry done either by a commercial laundry or its own laundry. Clothing to be laundered shall consist of outer working garments only. In a d iffe r e d fe w fo r a g reem en ts, m en m e n t, a c c o r d in g a n d to th e cost w om en , o f a n d w ork in c lo t h in g on e agree th e p a r t y s e le c tin g s u c h ite m s : a llo w The corporation will furnish clothing and uniforms in accordance with the following: Where the corporation requires the wearing of white clothing in men’s occupations, white trousers and T-shirts will be furnished by the corporation on a 50-50 basis. The corporation will stand 50 percent of the expense for not more than either (a) 3 trousers and 4 T-shirts or (b) 2 trousers and 6 T-shirts per labor agreement year. . . . The choice of (a) or (b) . . . is at the employee’s option. Laundry for trousers and T-shirts wiU be provided. Where the corporation requires women to wear uniforms, such uniforms will be furnished and laundered by the corporation. * * * m a in te n a n c e . in th e m ea t p a c k in g in d u s tr y . All employees shall be required at all times to main tain a clean and neat appearance. When the employer requires that uniforms be worn, the employee shall receive an allowance for uniforms of $27.50 per year. Semi annual payments of $13.75 shall be payable on April 1 and October 1 of each year to qualified employees on the * ex as fo llo w s : * * The selection of uniforms for drivers, as well as the selection of overalls, aprons, shirts, and the method of laundering such clothing for plant employees shall be made by an authorized representative of the union and the employer. The cost shall be equally divided between the employer and the employees. Where the selection of uniforms and clothing, as well as the method of laundering, is not done as outlined, the employer shall pay the entire cost . . . 21 M ilita ry Service Allow ances in P r e v a le n c e M a jo r U nion Contracts, 1 9 5 9 P r o v is io n s b on u ses s e r v ic e R ig h t s a n d b e n e f i t s in g a r e la tiv e ly b a r g a in in g b e y o n d th ose th e 1 ,6 8 7 e m p lo y e e s r e g u la r T h is le g a lly p r o v id e d p r o p o r tio n w h en su ch 1959 fo r an th e d u ty d u ty w as as stu d y o f b e n e fits 15 e ffe c t o r F orces p a rt w ere a d o u b lin g in p resen t in a llo w a n c e s lig h tly p a y m en ts u n d er th e R e se rv e T h e A b o u t A rm ed a h ig h e r p ercen t in 1959 b on u s o r in u n it. in 10 to s e r v in g reserve th a n s p e c ifie d o f t h e a g r e e m e n ts a n a ly z e d .1 w as d u e to la w , a n d p r o v id e d a g reem en ts e n te r in g o f in r e q u ir e d . m a jo r tou r b y s m a ll n u m b e r o f m a jo r c o lle c t iv e a g reem en ts s p e c ific a lly a e m p lo y e e s le a v fo r m ilit a r y tr a in in g a r e p r o t e c t e d o n ly o f a c c r u in g t o 1953, p ercen t M o s t o f th is c h a n g e th e p a y m e n ts fo r re se rv e F orces A ct o f w as b a sed o n an fo u n d to fo r a n d /o r in m ilit a r y e m p lo y e e s 252 reserve in o r a g reem en ts, th e a g r e e m e n ts s tu d ie d co n tra cts a ll b u t s e r v ic e e n t e r in g a llo w a n c e s r e g u la r em erg en cy o r a b ou t (ta b le 1 ). an ces, m ore th a n fiv e th r e e m a n u fa c t u r in g p rod u cts, e q u ip m e n t, h a lf (1 3 3 ) in d u s t r ie s : e le c tr ic a l w ere m a c h in e r y , a n d o f som e a n d fo u r th e s e a llo w fo u n d c h e m ic a ls c o m m u n ic a t io n s , w ere p ercen t A lth o u g h n o n m a n u fa c t u r in g in d u s t r ie s in c lu d e d fo llo w in g d u ty 15 o r m ilita r y in a n d th e a llie d t r a n s p o r t a t io n e le c tr ic a n d gas u tilitie s . T h e n u m b e r o f a g r e e m e n ts w it h fo r s h o r t-te r m fo r r e g u la r (4 5 ). reserve s e r v ic e d u ty (1 4 0 ) (1 5 4 ) a n d p a y p r o v is io n s ex ceed ed em erg en cy A g r e e m e n t s p r o v id in g fo r a ll th r e e th o se s e r v ic e ty p e s o f 1 9 5 5 .2 a n a ly s is o f 1 ,6 8 7 c o ll e c t iv e b a r g a in in g a g r e e m e n t s , e a c h c o v e r in g 1 ,0 0 0 o r m ore a g r e e m e n ts in roa d s ered a n d b y a h lin e s .3 th e se le s s t h a n a n d a n a ly z e d , w ork ers, T h e o r v ir tu a lly 7 .5 a g reem en ts th e a ir lin e 1 ,0 6 3 w ere U n it e d m illio n su ch w ork ers rep resen ted S ta tes, a g reem en ts. a g reem en ts, in a ll S ta te s , e x c lu s iv e o f r a il h a lf o f a ll w o r k e r s e s t im a t e d a g r e e m e n t in ro a d w ork ers, th e U n it e d to b e e x c lu s iv e O f th e c o v e r in g m a n u fa c t u r in g , a n d c o v som ew h a t u n d er o f r a il a g reem en ts 4 .5 624 m illio n agree m e n t s , w it h s lig h t ly o v e r 2 .9 m illio n w o r k e r s , w e r e in n o n m a n u fa c tu r in g m e n t s w e r e in e ffe c t in a b o u t h a lf e x p ir in g in d u s tr ie s . J a n u a ry d u r in g A ll th e agree 1 9 5 9 o r la te r , w it h 1959. » See M ilita r y Service P a ym en ts in U n io n A greem ents, 1953 (in M o n t h ly L a b o r R e v ie w , J u ly 1954, p p . 771-776) o r B L S B u ll. 1181 (1955), p p . 1-6. * U n der that act, m en w h o have com pleted 2 to 4 y e a r s o f active d u ty w ith th e A rm e d F orces m a y be required to serve in the R e a d y R eserves o r the S ta n d b y R eserves u n til th e y h a ve co m p le te d 6 years’ service. R e a d y R eservists, in a d d itio n to participating in n o t less th a n eight scheduled drills o r train ing periods, are to perform each year 17 d a y s o f a ctiv e d u t y o r n o t m ore th an 30 d a y s o f activ e d u t y for training. N e w enlistees, w h o are requ ired to en roll tor 8 years, m u st perform in itial activ e d u t y o f 3 to 6 m o n th s a n d th e n par ticipate in th e ann ual train ing program s. * A greem ents for th e railroad an d airline industries are n o t collected b y the B u rea u and are therefore n o t in clu d e d in th is s tu d y . 22 T a b l e 1. M il it a r y S e r v ic e A l l o w a n c e s in M a jo r [W ork ers in A greem en ts w ith p a y pro v isio n s for— N um ber stu d ied T o t a l w ith p a y provision s In d u stry R eg u la r m ilitary d u t y o n ly Short-term reserve d u t y o n ly E m e rg e n cy d u t y o n ly R egular m ilita ry an d short-term reserve d u ty A gree W o r k res m ents A gree W o r k m ents ers A gree W o r k m ents ers A g ree W o r k m en ts ers A gree W o r k m en ts ers A gree W o r k m en ts ers A ll in du stries............................................................. ............................. 1,687 7,477.3 252 1,075.1 70 222.7 79 340.7 2 6 .7 25 81.5 M a n u fa ctu rin g .......................................... ................................. 1,063 4,555.3 192 700.7 55 141.5 68 320.9 1 3 .7 17 42.0 O rd n an ce and accessories. _ _ _ F o o d an d k indred p rod u cts __ ____ T o b a c c o m anufactures . ___ ... _ T extile-m ill p ro d u cts . . ...... ..... ___ _ _ A p p a rel an d oth er finished textile p r o d u c ts .. L u m b e r a n d w o o d p rod u cts , except furn itu re. __ F u rn itu re and fixtures P a p er a n d allied p r o d u c ts _ _______ __________________________ _ P r in tin g , pu b lish in g, and allied in d u stries........ ....... C h em icals and allied p r o d u c ts .......................................................... P etroleu m refining and related industries _ ... R u b b e r an d m iscellaneous plasties p rod u cts _ _ L eath er and leather p rod u cts_____________ _______ ____________ Ston e, cla y , and glass p rod u cts . . . P rim a ry m etal in d u stries._. . . ... ... F a bricated m etal p rod u cts _ _ M a c h in e r y , except e lectrica l.. E lectrical m ach in ery, e q u ip m e n t, and supplies _ T ran sp ortation eq u ip m en t _ ____ . . . . .... In stru m en ts and related p rodu cts _. M iscella n eou s m a n u fa ctu rin g ___ 15 39.4 120 405.8 11 27.6 33 78.4 45 464.1 37.2 13 32.1 20 54 118.0 31 62.2 57 113.6 23 63.8 24 128.1 20 62.5 38 100.8 124 724.8 52 146.4 117 283.9 100 438.3 127 1,152.2 24 54.2 15 22.5 5 5 12.2 14.8 1 1 .9 1 1 5 .5 4 .4 1 1 1.1 2 .1 4 11.6 4 11.6 3 14 2 19 5 14 3 5 11 9 16 34 28 8 7 3 .2 21.7 2 .7 36.5 23.5 110.1 4 .6 11.2 19.0 57.6 31.4 210.9 107.1 15.2 7.7 2 1 5 3 .2 1 .5 12.0 3 5 3 .2 7.2 6 1 14 11.3 9 .6 110.1 3 2 9 3 5 10 6 4 4 .6 5.4 15.5 9.1 12.5 28.2 29.5 6.7 1 1 1.3 2 .0 9 6 14 1 5 14.5 103.5 39.0 3 .9 5.7 N on m an u factu rin g *.................................................................. 624 2,922.0 60 374.5 15 81.2 11 19.9 M in in g , cru de petroleu m , and natural gas p ro d u ctio n T ran sp ortation 2____ _ ___ _ _ ....... ........... C om m u n ica tion s. U tilities: E lectric and gas W h olesale trade_______________________________________________ R etail trade ___ ___ _ H otels an d restaurants. S ervices. __ _ __ ___ . .... _ .... C on stru ction .... _. ... ..... _ M iscella n eou s n on m an u fa ctu rin g. _ .... 17 95 79 78 12 92 36 55 155 5 252.7 573.2 558.1 200.5 21.6 245.1 176.8 184.9 701.9 7.4 1 In clu d es 1 agreem ent w ith p a y provisions for all ty p e s o f m ilitary service, 8 w ith allow ances for regular and short-term reserve d u ty , a n d 1 w h ich 1 1 .2 1 285.1 60.2 9 2 63.0 6.1 3 6 25.5 2 9 .6 1 3 .8 1 1 .3 1 1 .3 1 1 .5 3 .4 2 .0 4 .0 7 .2 1 .0 8 39.5 3 5 3 .1 3 .9 35.6 1.3 1 2 .9 11.2 1 1 4 .2 10.6 6 5.7 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 3 .7 1.2 35 17 4 1 1.3 p rovid es em ergen cy p a y o n ly . in d u ctio n exam inations. 1 3 .1 A ll o f these 10 agreem ents also p a y for pre 23 C o l l e c t iv e B a r g a i n in g A g r e e m e n t s , b y I n d u s t r y , 1959 thousands] Agreements with pay provisions for—Continued Short-term reserve an d e m ergen cy d u ty A gree m ents W ork ers P rein d u ctio n p h ysical or draft b o a rd exam in ation A gree m ents W ork ers R egular R egular, short m ilita ry d u t y term reserve, an d p rein d u c a n d em ergen cy tion exam ination d u ty A gree m ents O th er * In d u stry W ork ers A gree m ents W ork ers A gree m ents W ork ers 14 53.0 16 52.0 9 37.8 27 239.4 10 41.4 11 22.8 14 48.0 8 28.8 12 62.9 6 30.3 1 2.4 1 1.3 1 1 1 1 1.3 1.2 1.5 1.1 3 8.3 2 4.4 2 2.8 1 1.3 1 3.2 2 1 3.7 2 .4 1 3 3 1 2.5 6.9 26.8 1.2 3 30.3 2 4 .0 1 1 1 1.2 1.7 1 1 17.0 1 2 2 3.2 2. 3 3.4 11 61.6 9.0 15 176.6 1.2 4 28.1 1 3 30.3 15 2 4.0 1 a Excludes railroad and airline industries. 9.0 176.6 1.0 4 11.1 2 2 7.3 3.9 A ll industries. M an u factu rin g. O rdnance and accessories. F o o d and k indred p rodu cts. T o b a c c o m anufactures. T extile-m ill products. A p parel and other finished textile produc ts. L u m b e r and w o o d produ cts, except furniture. F u rn iture and fixtures. P a p e r an d allied products. P rin tin g, p ub lishing, an d allied industries. C h em icals and allied p rodu cts. P etroleu m refining and related industries. R u b b e r and m iscellaneous plastics p rodu cts. Leath er and leather products. Stone, cla y, and glass produ cts. P rim a ry m etal industries. F abricated m etal p rodu cts. M a ch in e ry , excep t electrical. E lectrical m ach in ery, e q u ip m e n t, and supplies. T ran sp ortation eq u ip m en t. Instrum ents an d related produ cts. M iscellaneous m anufacturin g. N onm anufacturing.* M in in g , crude p etroleu m , and natural gas p rod u ction . T ran sp ortation.* C o m m u n ication s. U tilities: E lectric an d gas. W holesale trade. R etail trade. H otels and restaurants. Services. C on stru ction . M iscellaneous n onjnanu facturing. N o t e : Because ofrounding, sums ofindividual items may not equal t t l . oas 24 m ilita r y le a v e w ere m a c h in e r y a n d a llo w a n c e s fo r reserve th e ru b b er a n d e le c tr ic a n d P a id n a tio n th e in d u s tr y , tim e w as con cen tra ted c o m m u n ic a t io n s o ff th e e le c tr ic a l in d u s tr y , w ere t r a n s p o r t a t io n R e g u la r fo r o n ly A llo w a n c e s p r e v a le n t E m p lo y e e s d e p a r t in g fo r r e g u la r m ilit a r y s e r v ic e in w ere, e q u ip m e n t, in m ost cases, e n title d to an a llo w a n c e ex p r e s s e d in m u ltip le s o f a fu ll w e e k o r m o n t h o f p a y , p r e in d u c t io n in S e r v ic e w h ile g a s u tilitie s . s p e c ifie d fo llo w in g tr a in in g in 35 p h y s ic a l w ith o u t e x a m i a g reem en ts, as d u r in g in d e d u c tio n th e o f th e m ilit a r y in te rv a l c o v e r e d b y th e p a y p la n r e c e iv e d (ta b le 2 ). L e s s fr e q u e n t w e r e p r o v is io n s fo r a s a la r y c o n t in u a c la u s e s : t io n Any employee ordered by selective service to report for preinduction physical or any employee ordered by Military Reserve to report for a physical examination preparatory to and in connection with being ordered to military training and service and thereby required to be absent from w'ork shall be granted pay for time lost . . . . * u n d er w h ic h b etw een th e e m p lo y e e b is s a la r y a n d r e c e iv e d th e h is m ilit a r y p a y (i.e ., m a k e u p ) , a p r a c t ic e g e n e r a lly f o ll o w e d c o m m u n ic a t io n s n oted a * p la n d iffe r e n c e in a in d u s tr y . A th ir d s m a ll n u m b e r o f a g r e e m e n ts , fix e d -d o lla r a llo w a n c e . C la u s e s in th e a rra n g em en t, c a lle d fo r illu s t r a t in g * th e se When an employee is ordered to report to his local draft board during his regularly scheduled working hours, actual time off will be compensated for at his regular straight-time rate, but not to exceed a maximum of 8 hours for each bona fide order. ty p es o f p a y m en ts fo llo w : Any employee who has a 3-month service record with the employer and who is called into the military service of his country . . . shall receive, at the time of actual induction into active service, a bonus pay of 1 week T able 2. T y p e s o p M il it a r y S e r v ic e A l l o w a n c e s in M a jo r [Workers In F u ll p a y for— In d u stry R egu la r d u t y P a y differential (m a k e u p ) for— > Short-term reserve E m e rg e n cy d u t y d u ty R egu la r d u t y Short-term reserve d u ty A gree m ents A ll industries M an u factu rin g, T ......... ... ____ _ ....... O rdnance and accessories F o o d and kin dred p rod u cts ...... ... T o b a c c o m an ufactures. ___ T e Yt.ilp.-mill p rod u cts _ _ _ A p parel and oth er textile finished produ cts L u m b e r and w ood products, excep t furniture F u rn itu re and fixtures. _ ___ . . . . . . . _ ______ P a p er and allied p rod u cts______________________________________ P rin tin g, publishing, and allied indu stries____________________ C h em icals and allied p rod u cts_________________________________ P etroleu m refining an d related in du stries_ __________________ _ R u b b e r and m iscellaneous plastics p r o d u c ts __________________ L eath er an d leather p rod u cts_______________- __________________ Stone, cla y, and glass p r o d u c ts ________________________________ P rim a ry m etal in d u s trie s ______ _ _ . . . . . . . . F a bricated m etal p rod u cts _ _ . _ . ____ . . . . . . M a ch in ery , excep t e l e c t r i c a l _ - _____________________ ______ _ _ E lectrical m ach in ery, e q u ip m e n t, and supplies __________ T ran sp ortation e q u ip m e n t ... In strum ents and related p ro d u cts. _ . ___ _ M iscella neous m anufacturin g , _ _ N on m an ufacturin g » _____ M in in g , cru de petroleu m , an d natural gas p r o d u ctio n _______ T ran sp ortation 2 _ . . . ___ _ C om m u n ica tion s . . _ U tilities: E lectric and gas______________________________________ W holesale trade________________________________________________ R etail trade_____________________________________________________ H otels and restaurants_________________________________________ S ervices_________________________________________________________ C on stru ction ___________________________________________________ M iscellaneous non m an u fa ctu rin g______________________________ W orkers A gree m ents W orkers A gree m ents W orkers A gree m en ts W orkers Agree m ents 82 247.8 5 8.3 2 3.2 45 354.9 141 722.7 71 209.3 1 1.1 14 78.2 109 463.7 2 3.0 1 1.1 1 5 5.5 14.8 3 10.6 2 1 8 3 3.2 1.6 16.1 12.9 3 11 3 .2 17.2 10 2 17.0 11.2 110.1 2 1 5 10 20 17 1 7 2 .6 1 .5 3 1 .5 16. 5 1 7 2 .7 48.5 3 .9 7 .7 14 2 8 8 6 10 10 6 2 5.4 14 .3 56.6 14.5 2 0 .3 39.0 10 1 2 .0 11 3 8 .5 1 1 .2 1 5 1.4 16.1 3 18.6 1 1 .3 * Covers agreements in which employees have an option between full or differential pay, which refer to the continuation of existing practices, or which are otherwise not clear. W orkers 2 2 .7 12 7 5 .5 4 7 .2 2 3 .2 31 276.7 32 259.1 1 2 1.1 4 .8 1 1 1 .1 2 .1 28 249.4 2 7 .4 23 8 2 17 .2 38.1 1 3 .8 1 1 .3 * Excludes railroad and airline industries, 3 25 equivalent to 40 hours’ pay, based on his hourly rate of pay. * * * Any employee having worked for a period of 1 year at the . . . plant of the corporation who enters the Armed Forces of. the United States . . . shall, upon entering the Armed Forces of the United States or oceangoing merchant marine, receive 1 month’s pay, less his or her first month’8 pay as a member of the Armed Forces of the United States or oceangoing merchant marine. * * U n d er fro m th e th e th ree d iffe r e n c e s w as ty p es a ctu a l a m o u n t e ith e r in w age u n ifo r m fo r * o f p a y m en ts o f th e r a te s ), a ll o fte n , In d e s c r ib e d a llo w a n c e or its e m p lo y e e s (a s id e d u r a tio n , m e e t in g le n g t h -o f-s e r v ic e it 23 v a r ie d o f th e 76 e m p l o y e e ’s th e p la n s c o m p u ta tio n w ere o f to w it h le n g th a ls o (ta b le r e q u ir e m e n ts a tta in e d a fte r 6 W h ere m a k eu p th e m a x im u m g ra d u a te d p la n s e s p e c ia lly in b e n e fits la tte r w ere o f a llo w a n c e a m o u n ts , it r a n g e d T h e p a y 1 or w as fro m $40 m on th s to e m p lo y e e s m a k eu p an w ith e m p lo y e e (ta b le in fo r in g ra n ted a d d it io n a l d ep en d en ts. u p th e to 6 e x a m p le In E m erg en cy d u ty R egula r d u t y on p age. O ther i R eg u la r d u t y Short-term reserve E m e rge n cy d u t y d u ty In d u stry W orkers A gree m ents W orkers 39 293.4 12 22 84.3 12 A gree m ents W orkers 1.3 8 1.3 4 1.3 A gree m ents W orkers 16.8 1 16.8 1 1 8 .3 1 W orkers 23.1 4 10.9 14.0 2 5.0 1 1.3 1 1.3 1 1 1.2 9.6 1 3.7 2.0 4 9.0 2 6.0 2.1 1 3 Agree m ents 1 A gree m ents 1.0 2 4.4 4 5.7 2 2 .8 1 1.2 1 3 4 .6 1 .3 1 1.0 1 1.2 13 1 65.2 2.4 17 209.1 209.1 2 2 3.8 5.2 N o t e : Because ofrounding, sums of individual items may not equal t t l . oas 1 2.9 1 17 3.1 5 ), th e m on th s C o l l e c t iv e B a r g a in in g A g r e e m e n t s , b y I n d u s t r y , 1 9 5 9 D olla r am ou n ts for— th e (ta b le thousands] P a y differential (m a k eu p ) for— C on tin u ed 4 ). d o lla r lib e r a l p a y m en ts in p la n s s e r v ic e $150. m ore p o s s ib le , a s illu s tr a te d a ll o f w eeks p r o v id e d th e 2 3 p la n s w h ic h cases, fo llo w in g to an in to 3 ). exp ressed b e n e fits w ere b e n e fits , u n d er 2 m ore s e r v ic e . e n tered o r le s s a n d , m o s t fr e q u e n t ly , e n t it le d fu ll o r or o f g ra d u a te d sta tu s b e n e fits s e r v ic e g e n e r a lly r e q u ir e m e n ts , a c c o r d in g d ep en d en cy M in im u m to In the event of declaration of war or declaration of national emergency by the President, employees called into military service during the period of such war or national emergency will be paid a bonus of $40 at the time of their departure for military service. a b o v e , m in im u m A ll industries. M an u factu rin g. O rdnance and accessories. F o o d and kindred p rodu cts. T o b a c co m anufactures. T e xtile-m ill p rodu cts. A p parel and other textile finished produ cts. L u m b e r and w o o d p rodu cts, e xce p t furniture. F u rn iture and fixtures. P a per and allied p rodu cts. P rintin g, publishing, and allied industries. C h em icals and allied products. P etroleu m refining and related industries. R u b b e r and m iscellaneous plastics p rodu cts. Leath er and leather p rodu cts. Stone, cla y , and glass products. P rim a ry m etal industries. F a bricated m etal p rodu cts. M a ch in e ry , excep t electrical. E lectrical m achinery, eq u ip m e n t, an d supplies. T ran sp ortation e q u ip m e n t. Instrum ents and related products. M iscella neous m anufacturin g. N on m anufacturing.* M in in g , crude petroleu m , and natural gas pro d u ctio n . T ran sportation.* C o m m u n ication s. U tilities: E lectric and gas. W holesale trade. Retail trade. H otels and restaurants. Services. C on stru ction . M iscellaneous n onm an ufacturing. th e 26 T able 3. M e t h o d o p C o m p u t in g M il it a r y S e r v ic e A l l o w a n c e s , M a j o r C o l l e c t iv e B a r g a i n in g A g r e e m e n t s , 1 9 5 9 [W ork ers in thousands] Military service allowances T o ta l w ith p a y provision s U n ifo r m » for all e m p loyees T y p e o f m ilita ry service Agree m ents R eg u la r m ilita ry service.............. Short-term reserve train in g........ E m erg en cy d u t y ________________ 140 154 45 A gree m ents W orkers 620.7 753.9 307.5 61 147 41 222.9 734.5 296.6 An employee whose net credited service at the beginning of his leave is— 1. Over 1 year— payments for 3 months. 2. 1 year or less— payments for 2 weeks. Such payment will be at a rate equal to the amount by which the employee's rate of company pay exceeds his rate of Government pay at the beginning of the leave. Upon completion of the payments provided above, an employee who had, at the beginning of his leave, a wife or dependent child or children under 18 years of age shall receive payments for a further period of 3 months or the remainder of his period of military service, whichever is shorter, at a rate equal to the amount by which his rate of company pay at the beginning of his leave exceeds his rate of Government pay at the beginning of such further period. m ost lib e r a l a llo w a n c e u n d er a A gree m ents W orkers 1 E x clu d in g differences am ong em p lo y e e s’ w age rates. 2 Inclu des 1 agreem ent for th e 3 ty p e s o f m ilita r y service in w h ich existing practices w ere to be con tin u e d . O f the rem a in in g 5 con tracts p ro v id in g for regular m ilita ry p a y , len gth o f m ilitary service co n tr o lle d p aym en ts in 2 and T h e G ra du ated b y len gth o f co m p a n y service G ra du ated b y d ep en d e n c y status and len gth o f c o m p a n y service A gree m ents W orkers 142.4 2.8 50 2 O ther * W ork ers 23 A gree m ents 245.9 W orkers 6 5 9.6 16.7 10.9 4 length of both military and company service in 3 Provisions in the remain . ing contracts covering short-term reserve and emergency duty were unclear. N o t e : Because ofrounding, sums ofindividual items may not equal totals. 3. 2 Employee's net credited service on date of reporting to military service Number of months com pany will pay the difference between employee's military pay and company pay Beginning— 7th through 12th month____________ 13th through 36th month__________ 2 37th through 60th month__________ 3 61st month and over________________4 1 month months months months 3.3 For purposes of making the military leave payment, “ military p a y " will include basic pay plus any allowances for grade or rank, service, and special qualifications or duty as these are in effect and apply to the employee upon his entrance into military service. 3.4 For purposes of making the military leave payment, “ company p a y " will be computed on the employee's basic hourly rate plus any differential applicable, in effect on the date the military leave becomes effective. g ra d u a te d * * * p la n w h ic h p r o v id e d m a k e u p p a y r a n fo r 4 m o n t h s , a n d p a y . on e fu ll-p a y p la n p r o v id e d L e n g th -o f-s e r v ic e 6 y e a r s , r e s p e c t iv e ly , a n d u p to r e q u ir e m e n ts w ere p h ra sed 13 w eek s w ere 5 o f a n d as fo llo w s : An employee who is granted a military leave will receive, upon application, the difference between his military pay, as defined in subsection 3.3, and his company pay, as defined in subsection 3.4, where his company pay is the greater, for a period of time dependent upon the employee's net credited service with the company as set forth in sub section 3.2, provided th at: a. This payment will terminate upon an employee's release from active military duty when the release is prior to the expiration of the period for which the employee would receive payment under subsection 3.2. b. An employee who receives more than one military leave in any consecutive 12-month period during the tenure of this agreement shall be given as his military leave pay the difference between the payment he received for his last leave and the payment he would receive for the present leave if it were'his original leave, following the schedule in subsection 3.2. Military Severance P ay: Upon written evidence from his commanding officer that such employee is actually serving in the Armed Forces, severance pay will be granted according to continuous company service, as follows: 0 to 6 months' service_________________ 1 week's base pay 6 months to 1 year___________________ 2 weeks* base pay 1 year to 2 years______________________ 3 weeks' base pay 2 years to 3 years_____________________5 weeks' base pay 3 years to 4 years_____________________7 weeks' base pay 4 years to 5 years------------------------------- 9 weeks' base pay 5 years to 6 years____________________ 11 weeks' base pay Over 6 years________________ — _______ 13 weeks' base pay In ic e fiv e w as a g reem en ts, a a llo w a n c e . fa c to r in E x a m p le s tb e le n g th d e t e r m in in g o f m ilit a r y s e r v th e s iz e o f th e a re: Any employee who has been in the employ of the com pany for a period of at least 6 months and who is . . . inducted into the Armed Forces of the United States pur suant to the provisions . . . of the Reserve Forces Act of 1955, . . . if he is inducted for a period of 2 or more years' continuous active service with the Armed Forces 27 of the United States, shall receive a sum of money equiva lent to 1 month’s earnings, based on the average amount of pay he received from the company during the last 3 months immediately preceding his induction; and if inducted for a period of 6 months or more but less than 2 years of continuous active service shall receive a sum of money equivalent to 40 hours’ pay at his regular straighttime rate during the last pay period immediately preceding his departure from the company for induction into the Armed Forces. * * ex cep t U n lik e v ir tu a lly reserve D u ty r e g u la r a ll tr a in in g m a k eu p ty p e a fa cto r T able 4. in or s e r v ic e , em ergen cy (ta b le 2 ). a llo w a n c e s p r o v id in g p a id d u ty le a v e w ere o f to th e s iz e o f th e 3 o f th e le n g th w it h o f th e tem p ora ry m on th s, fo r a g reem en ts reserve t r a in in g 3 ). th e grea t 2 w eek s a llo w a n c e p e r io d d u ty ra n g ed m a jo r it y a n n u a lly o f (ta b le fro m 1 fo r w eek a g reem en ts 6 ). Employees who are members of the New York or N ew Jersey National Guard or other reserve components of the military forces will be paid the difference between their earnings based on a 40-hour week and their military pay for not more than 14 days spent in encampment or on naval cruise, provided the employee has at least 6 months’ service with the company and has been a member of a military unit for at least 6 months prior to his encampment or cruise. Any employee with 52 or more weeks of service attending annual encampments of or training duty in the Armed Forces, State, or National Guard or U.S. Reserves shall be granted a military pay differential for a period of up to 2 weeks annually. The employee shall be granted credited service for such 2-week period or portion thereof during which he is absent. Such military pay differential shall be the amount by which the employee’s normal salary, calculated on the basis of a workweek up to a maximum^ of 40 hours which the employee has lost by virtue of such absence, exceeds any pay received from the in fo r th e L e n g t h o f s e r v ic e w a s n o t d e te r m in in g ty p es p r o v id e d * m ilit a r y tw o A lth o u g h A llo w a n c e s a g reem en ts (ta b le a ll Employees on the company payroll for a period ex ceeding 1 year leaving employment for active duty in the Armed Forces shall be granted differential pay . . . for a period of 3 months; except, however, such employees entering active duty for a period of 1 year or less shall receive this differential for a period of 1 month . . . . T em p ora ry in c la u s e s a llo w a n c e C o m p a n y S e r v ic e R e q u ir e m e n t s f o r U n if o r m o r M in im u m A l l o w a n c e s , 1 R e g u l a r M il it a r y D u t y , 1 9 5 9 [W orkers In thousands] U n iform or m in im u m a llo w a n c e 1 T o t a l n u m ber w ith regular m ilita ry d u t y plans A gree m ents M in im u m service requirem en ts M in im u m service requirem en ts n o t in d ica ted Less th an 6 m onths W orkers A gree m ents W orkers Agree m ents W orkers O ver 6 m on th s b u t less th a n 1 year 6 m on th s 1 year O th er * W orkers A gree m ents W orkers A g ree m ents W orkers A gree m ents 1 1 .3 1 Agree m ents 1.3 T o t a l....................... 140 620.7 24 111.7 32 245.8 42 146.7 3 5.3 38 109.9 F u ll nay___T..... 1 W fw ? wpfilrs ........... 4 w eek s____________ 1 m o n t h ___________ 3 m on th s__________ O ther *______ „ ____ _ 82 42 19 6 11 1 3 247.8 133.0 68.9 15.9 24.2 1.2 4.7 8 3 1 1 9 3 4 27.3 12.4 12.8 38 22 6 3 4.1 41 25 12 8 2 3 69.7 28.3 33.9 3.2 4 3 1 128.8 78.6 20.7 11.3 17.2 1.2 2 2 2 18.0 9.7 1.6 1.4 2.7 1 2.6 2 2.1 M a k e u p p a y ................. 2 w e e k s ..__________ 4 w eek s____________ 6 w eek s____________ 1 m o n t h . __________ 3 m o n th s _____ _____ 45 33 1 1 8 13 13 89.4 89.4 22 20 1 216.4 2143 1.1 2 15.7 1 1.2 7 32.2 1 i.o 2 15.7 I 2 3549 303.7 1.1 1 .0 24.9 24 2 1.2 1 4 2 1.0 7.0 24 2 D o lla r a m o u n ts .............. $40..... .......................... $50..................- ........... $60................... $75............................... $100 or m o r e 4.......... 12 1 4 1 4 2 16.8 1.0 6.5 1.3 5.7 2.4 3 1 2 1 2.1 2 2 .3 6 8.1 1 2.1 1 1 1.0 1.3 2 5. 7 2 .4 1 1.3 W ork ers O ther *t_____ T 4 4 1.0 3.4 6 1Minimum allowance applies to minimum benefits under graduated plans. * Contract specified a l existing practices will continue. l * In 2contracts, employees received 1day’ pay for each month of service, s and in 1contract, 5hours' pay f each month of service. or 4 4 One allow ance bon u s o f $100; the oth er o f $150. N o t e : Because o f rounding, sum s o f in d iv id u a l item s m a y n o t equ a l totals. 28 T able 5. C om pany S e r v ic e R e q u ir e m e n t s for M a x im u m A llow ance M il it a r y D u t y , 1959 U nder G raduated P lan s, R egular [W ork ers In thousands] M a x im u m graduated allow ance T o ta l n u m ber w ith regular m ilitary d u ty , graduated plans o n ly M a x im u m service not indicated or n o t clear M a x im u m service requirem en ts 6 m o n th s 1 year 2 years1 3 years 5 years O ver 5 years 3 Agree W o r k A gree W o r k A gree W o rk A gree W o rk Agree W o rk A gree W o r k Agree W o r k A gree W o r k m ents m ents ers m en ts ers ers m ents ers m ents ers m ents ers m ents ers m ents ers T o t a l____ _____________________ 76 394.2 8 19.1 3 4.4 43 302.5 8 17.9 3 5.9 6 30.0 5 F u ll p a y _____________________________ 2 w eek s__________________________ 3 w eeks__________________________ 4 w eeks____________________ „ ____ 8 w eeks__________________________ 13 w eeks_________________________ 1 m o n th .. 2 m on th s________________________ A m ou n t n o t in dica ted _ 43 21 3 10 2 1 1 4 1 133.9 62.8 4.0 41.4 7.5 1.2 1.4 14.8 1.1 4 1 13.4 2 .6 3~ 3 4.4 4.4 16 11 50.1 38.8 7 2 16.8 5.4 3 2 5. 9 3.0 14.6 2 2 .3 8.5 28.8 8.6 1. 7 17.0 5 3 5 2 1 1 1 1 1.4 1.6 1 1.7 1 1.5 M a k eu p p a y ________________________ 8 w eeks________________ _________ 3 m onths 4 m on th s________________________ D eterm in ed b y depen den ts____ 29 1 4 1 23 254.7 1.1 6.5 1.2 245.9 27 252.4 1 1 1.1 1.1 1 1.2 4 6.5 1 1.2 23 245.9 D olla r am ounts $100 or m o r e 3___________________ 4 4 5.7 5.7 1 1 1 4 4 3.4 6.4 4 1 9.7 2.9 14.6 1 1 1.1 1.2 1 10.0 1.1 5.7 5.7 1 Inclu des 1 contract w ith m axim u m requirem en t o f over 1 an d less than 2 years. 3 Inclu des 3 contracts w ith m axim u m requirem en ts o f 6, 8, a n d 10 years, respectively, an d 2 contracts o f 15 years. 3 E m p loyees are paid bonuses totaling $175 at 3 intervals— prior to m ilita ry leave, u pon returning to co m p a n y service, and after 6 m o n th s’ w ork fo llo w in g m ilitary service. Federal or State Government. Such items as subsistence, rental, and travel allowance shall not be included in deter mining pay received from the Government. a * * N o t e : Because ofrounding, sums ofindividual items may not equal t otals. r u le , th e se 6 -m o n th th e reserve W h ere o f fe w th e a g reem en ts m ilit a r y th is m a t t e r d id le a v e n o t set p o lic ie s , fo rth s im p ly th e d e ta ils r e fe r r in g to a s fo llo w s : The treatment of employees who are members of the reserve components of the Armed Forces during routine training periods or when called into these services in emer gencies will continue in accordance with the current practices of the company. M in im u m set fo rth p r o v id in g fo u r th o f in fo r le n g t h -o f-s e r v ic e r e q u ir e m e n ts a b o u t o f o n e -t h ir d reserve th o se w it h a lth o u g h p la n s (2 7 ) a w ere at or c o n s id e r a b le c a lle d fo r b e lo w th e n u m b er 1 y e a r ’s o f s e r v ic e . * An employee attending a compulsory training period of the National Guard or compulsory cruise of the Active Organized Naval Reserve shall be paid the differential between the rate of pay received from the National Guard or Naval Reserve and his straight-time hourly or day rate based on a 40-hour w eek, for a period not to exceed 2 r weeks. An employee called out for National Guard duty in an emergency shall be paid the differential between the rate of pay received for such duty and the pay which he would have received during regular working days involved in such duty at his straight-time hourly or day rates for an 8-hour day. Such differential is not to be paid for more than 4 weeks during any calendar year. A r e q u ir e m e n ts le v e l, t r a in in g em ergen cy th e an d in d u ty a b ou t a ll ex cep t n ew e m p lo y e e s V a ca tio n M o re v id in g th a t h ir e s , w o u ld P a y th a n r e q u ir e m e n ts it fo r O th e r b e m ilit a r y e m p lo y e e s or w ere assu m ed n o t th a t p r o b a tio n a r y a llo w a n c e s . R e q u ir e m e n ts 4 th r e e -fifth s v a c a tio n can tem p ora ry , q u a lify a n d r e g u la r e lig ib le earn ed s e r v ic e e s ta b lis h e d , o f th e s e r v ic e w o u ld a llo w a n c e s a g reem en ts p a y m en ts a ls o (ta b le r e c e iv e 7 ). p ro s p e c ifie d F o r th e ir ex a m p le : An employee who, at the time of leaving active employ ment to enter military service of the United States, has qualified for a vacation . . . and has not received a vacation or vacation allowance, shall then be granted such allowance . . . . Any employee, with 1 year’s continuous service, upon entering the armed services of the United States shall receive 2 weeks’ pay . . . . * * * w ere a g reem en ts c la u s e s . m in im u m s p e c ific a lly on eA s * T h is analysis is lim ited to vacation policies in agreem ents w hich also p ro v id e d m ilitary service paym ents. F or vacation allow ances to em ployees entering or returning from m ilitary service, regardless o f leave paym ents, see Paid V acations in M a jo r U nion C on tracts, 1957 (in M o n th ly Labor R e v ie w , Ju ly 1958, p p . 744-751) o r B L S B u ll. 1233. 29 Any employee who has a 3-month service record . . . shall receive, at the time of actual induction into the active service, a bonus pay of 1 week equivalent to 40 hours’ pay . . . . Such employee shall be entitled to his pro rata vacation pay . . . . A fe w a g reem en ts, e m p l o y e e ’s tio n a t p e r io d su ch tou r o f h ow ever, d u ty sta ted c o in c id e d or if h e t im e , a m ilit a r y d e c id e d to ta k e le a v e th a t w it h h is h is if an v a ca v a c a tio n a llo w a n c e w o u ld n o t b e p a id . T h e r e m a in in g sta tem en t th ese on 52 th is a g reem en ts, m ilita r y le a v e a g reem en ts s u b je c t. th e c la u s e s h a d v a c a tio n are n o e x p lic it P r e s u m a b ly , c la u s e s a d m in is te r e d Absence for military training or emergency active duty under this article shall not be deducted from the regular vacation period to which the employee may be entitled. If an employee elects to take his military training active duty under this article during his vacation period or if his emergency active duty under this article occurs during his vacation period, he shall receive only his vacation pay for this period. u n d er an d th e in d e p e n d e n tly . A m o n g th e 1 5 4 a g r e e m e n ts w it h r e s e r v e t r a in in g a llo w a n c e s , m o r e w h eth er lin k e d su ch to th a n t im e earn ed o ff h a lf w e re w it h v a c a tio n n o t p a y e x p lic it w as t im e , in w h ile w a y 60 co n in t r a c t s t h e s e b e n e f i t s w Te r e e n t i r e l y s e p a r a t e . v a c a tio n c a lly b e n e fits n o te d em erg en cy in d u ty w ere 28 o f sep a ra te th e 45 w as as to a n y a ls o * T h a t s p e c ifi a g reem en ts w ith p r o v is io n s . O n ly reserve A leave of absence [with pay] of 2 calendar weeks per year in addition to regular vacation will be granted to an employee who is a member of the National Guard or a member of the Reserve Corps if he is called for summer camp training . . . . * * 6. M il it a r y S e r v ic e fo u r * a g re e m e n ts r e q u ir e d t r a in in g , in a g a in s t v a c a t io n w h o le or in t h a t t im e p a rt, b e o ff fo r ch arged p a y : Employees who are members of reserve military organi zations will take the periodic training required by such organizations during their vacations . . . . If the training period exceeds the vacation allowance . . . the company will grant additional time off up to 2 weeks and will pay to the employee the difference between his regular pay and Government pay. Special arrangements will be made to cover longer periods of training. * Absence on account of . . . National Guard duty shall not be counted as vacation time. However, in considera tion of this and to minimize interference with operations, preference in choice of vacation time between M ay 1 and December 1 must be given to other eligible employees. T able * Employees shall be encouraged to use their vacation time to fulfill military training requirements. In such cases, vacation pay will be paid in lieu of payments under this policy . . . . * * A l l o w a n c e s f o r S h o r t - T e r m R e s e r v e T r a in in g C o l l e c t i v e B a r g a i n i n g A g r e e m e n t s , 1959 and * E m ergency D u ty, M a jo r [W orkers in thousands] M ilita r y p a y plans for— Short-term reserve d u t y E m e rg e n cy d u t y L en gth o f p erio d p a id F u ll p a y M akeup pay O ther M akeup pay F u ll p a y O ther Agree m ents U niform nr m in im u m allnwanna l 1 w eek __________________________________ 2 w eeks _ 3 w e e k s ........................................................... 4 w eeks_________________________________ 1 m o n th ________________________________ 2 m on th s.......................................................... 3 m on th s..................—................................... A m o u n t n o t in d ica te d _________________ O th er.............................................................. .. M a x im u m allow ance (graduated plans o n l y ) __________________ ___________________ 2 w eek s............................................................. 4 w eeks___________ _____________________ W orkers Agree m ents W orkers A gree m ents W orkers A gree m ents W orkers A gree m ents W orkers A gree m ents 5 2 1 8.3 2 .4 1 .8 23.1 2 1 3.2 2.1 39 3 28 293.4 5.1 253.9 4 10.9 3 .0 1.1 722.7 2.2 665.6 31.5 2.3 10.9 8 1 1 141 2 119 7 1 5 1 4 2.4 27.1 1 1.1 1 2 1 .2 3.8 *4 10.9 1 6 >8 1 1.8 1 1 1 23.1 1.8 1 In clu d es tota l allow an ce for u n iform plans a n d m in im u m allow ance for gradu a ted plans. s In clu d es 2 agreem ents w h ich p r o v id e d for an o p tio n o f eith er the difference betw een co m p a n y p a y a n d m ilita ry p a y for a p e rio d o f 2 w eeks o r fu ll p a y for 1 w e ek , 2 contracts in w h ich past practices w ere to co n tin u e , an d 4 agreem ents in w h ich am ou n ts w ere n o t in d ica te d . 1.2 9.2 W orkers 1.0 1.0 * In clu d es 3 agreem ents in w h ich present practices w ere to con tin u e an d 1 w h ich w as n o t clear. N o t e : Because o f ro u n d in g, sum s o f in d iv id u a l item s m a y n o t equ a l totals. 30 T a b l e 7. M il it a r y S e r v ic e A l l o w a n c e s a n d V a c a t io n P a y , M a jo r C o l l e c t iv e B a r g a in in g A greem ents, 1959 [W ork ers in thousands] A s m a ll fo r th ereb y R egular m ilita ry d u t y P rovision s Short-term reserve d u ty E m e rge n cy d u ty fro m a N o specific p rov ision lin k in g m ilita ry an d va ca tion pay__ V a ca tion p a y in a d d itio n t o m ilita ry a llow a n ce__ _______ M ilita ry leave charged against v acation p a y ________________ 140 620.7 154 753.9 45 307.5 52 177.3 87 287.1 17 61.2 88 443.4 1 63 457.0 2 28 s tip u la te d a fte r a n “ fin a l,” th a t e m p l o y e e ’s t h a t is , a ft e r h e h a d p e r io d , p a y m en ts u s u a lly to 30 th o se d a ys, r e je c t e d F o r c e s a fte r le a v in g th e c o m p a n y . r e q u ir e m e n t, t h a t a llo w a n c e s w o u ld r a r e ly s t ip u la te d , w as b e m a d e o n ly if s e r v ic e w a s (e x c lu d in g e n lis t e e s ), or if th e em 246.4 4 o u t th e A rm e d in v o lu n ta r y T o ta l w ith p r o v i s io n s ________ a g reem en ts d e s ig n a te d r u lin g A n o th e r A g ree W o r k A g ree W o r k A g re e W o r k ers m ents ers m ents m ents ers o f o n ly b e m a d e in d u c tio n h a d b e c o m e served A greem en ts w ith allow ance for— n u m b er p a y m e n t s w o u ld 10.0 1 In clu d es 3 agreem ents w h ich p r o v id e d that i f to u r o f d u t y coin cides w ith va ca tion p eriod , em p loy ee w ill get the v acation allow ance o n ly . O therw ise, these allow ances are separate. 2 O ne agreem ent w ith sam e p rovision s as stated in footn ote 1. p lo y e e w a s c a lle d o f im m in e n t O th e r ou t d an ger “ d u r in g a r e c o g n iz e d to th e p e r io d n a tio n a l s e c u r it y .” V e te r a n s ’ B e n e fits N o t e : Becau se o f r ou n d in g , sum s o f in d iv id u a l item s m a y n o t e qu a l totals. A The first week of such duty shall be counted as a week of vacation for which the employee involved receives regular vacation pay. If a second week of such duty is required, the employee will be paid the difference between his service pay and his regular straight-time scheduled pay for that week. If the employee has qualified for a vacation and has taken such vacation prior to his notification to report for duty, the first week of such duty shall be taken without pay. If a second week of duty is required, the employee will be paid the difference between his service pay and his basic salary or wages for that week. * * O th e r R e q u ir e m th a t e v id e n c e o f m en ts w o u ld e n t s . an h is A n u m b er e m p lo y e e m ilita r y b e m a d e. h a d s e r v ic e F o r o f to a g reem en ts s u b m it b e fo re o ffic ia l a n y p a y e x a m p le : It will be the responsibility of each employee affected to present the Personnel Division with a record of the time spent and compensation received while serving for special short periods, in an emergency period, or the annual field training period. * * * Any full-time employee . . . inducted into the Armed Forces during the term of this agreement shall be given severance pay allowance when the proper evidence of induction is presented . . . . o f s p e c ia l c la u s e s r e la t in g lis t e d in a llo w a n c e s , a g reem en ts b u t m ore o fte n to v etera n s p r o v id e d th a t m ilit a r y w ere in c o r p o r a te d c o n t r a c ts w it h o u t s u c h p a y m e n ts . p r o v is io n s r a n g in g w ere fro m 1 c r u a l. In a p en d ed on th e o f O th e r to fo r to e d u c a tio n a l 4 yea rs, n u m b er o f w ith in M o s t com m o n le a v e (u n p a id ) fu ll s e n io r it y in s ta n c e s , su ch c o m p a n y ’s a p p r o v a l o f le a v e th e a c d e cou rses stu d y . c la u s e s e n a b le th ey * In the event an employee is granted a leave of absence [with pay] beyond such 17 days [for annual military train ing], the employee’s vacation allowance, if any, may be applied for such additional period of absence and the employee may be paid the amount of his vacation allow ance as though he had taken his vacation during such extended period of absence. s p e c ifie d v a r ie ty w ere b een t io n . w o u ld on h a v e m ilit a r y T h is le m s w it h r e fe r r e d v etera n s to to been c la u s e a ls o p rog ra m s fo r jo b s to p rom oted h a d th ey d u t y , a s in resp ect to o n -t h e -jo b q u a lify d e a ls d is a b le d th e fo llo w in g w it h w h ic h n o t illu s t r a s e n io r it y p ro b v e te ra n s: A reasonable program of training shall be afforded to an employee who shall not be qualified to perform the work on the job which he might have attained if he had not been absent on such service . . . . An employee . . . who has been disabled in the course of such service . . . shall during the period of such disa bility be assigned, without regard to the provisions of Article V II I hereof relating to seniority, to any vacancy which shall be suitable to his disability, provided that the disability of such employee is of such nature that it shall be onerous or impossible for him to return to his own job or department . . . and provided he shall have the minimum physical requirements for the work available. S k ills a c q u ir e d u s e d fo r b u m p in g d u r in g m ilit a r y s e r v ic e c o u ld b e p u rp oses u n d er th e term s o f o n e a g reem en t: Veterans applying for reinstatement after their discharge from the armed services may use experience and/or skill acquired in the services as a basis for bumping. 31 Appendix P r o v is io n s fo r P a id an d D a ta c lo th e s ca te th e p r o v id e d on ch a n g e ex ten t fo r at p a id h ave to a ll. rest b een w h ic h W ash u p, P a id p e r io d s brou gh t th e y C le a n u p , R e s t and p a id tog eth er a p p ea r C lo th e s C h a n g e, P e r io d s t im e in s in g ly th e or in fo r w a sh u p , ta b le on c le a n u p , p a g e 32 c o m b in a t io n , or to and in d i are n ot 32 Provisions for Paid Washup, Cleanup, Clothes Change, and Paid Rest Periods, Under Major Collective Bargaining Agreements, by Industry, 1959 N um ber N um ber with p r o v is io n s Industry A g ree m ents W ashup, cleanup, W ashup, cleanup, N um ber without R e s t p e r io d s only clo th e s change, and clo th e s p r o v is io n s change and r e s t p e rio d W ork e rs W o rk e rs W o rk e rs W o rk e rs W ork ers W ork e rs [A gree A g ree A g ree A g ree A g ree (thou (thou (thou (thou (thou (thou m ents m ents m ents m ents ■ m ents sands) sands) sands) sands) sands) sands) 1,687 7 ,4 7 7 . 3 599 2, 185 .0 166 502. 0 321 1, 320 .2 112 3 6 2 .9 1,088 M a n u fa c tu r in g ---------------------------------- 1,063 4 ,5 5 5 .3 401 1 ,2 8 1 .9 113 312. 0 185 648. 3 103 3 2 1 .6 662 O rdnance and a c c e s s o r i e s _______________ F o o d and kindred p r o d u c t s ____ ___ ___ T o b a c c o m a n u fa c t u r e s ____________________ T e x tile m ill p r o d u c t s _____________________ A p p a r e l and other fin ish ed p rod u cts _____ L u m b er and w ood p rod u cts , excep t furniture _ F u rn itu re and fix tu re s _ _ „ __ P a p e r and a llie d p r o d u c t s ________________ P rin tin g , publishing, and a llie d in d u stries ____ ___ __ __ _ C h e m ic a ls and a llie d p ro d u cts P e tr o le u m refin in g and rela ted in d u s t r ie s __ __ ___ _ __ _ __ R u bber and m is c e lla n e o u s p la s tic s p rod u cts _ _ __ L ea th er and lea th er p r o d u c t s ____________ Stone, cla y , and g la ss p rod u cts -------------P r im a r y m eta l in d u strie s __ __ F a b r ic a te d m etal p rod u cts __ __ __ M a ch in ery, ex cep t e le c t r ic a l ____ __ E le c t r ic a l m a ch in ery , equipm ent and supplies __ __ __ __ __ T ra n sp orta tion equipm ent __ _____ Instrum ents and r ela ted p ro d u cts „ _____ M is c e lla n e o u s m anufacturin g _ __ __ __ 15 120 11 33 45 3 9 .4 405. 8 2 7 .6 7 8 .4 464. 1 10 67 2 8 - 29. 0 2 8 1 .7 2 .4 2 0 .5 - 1 6 1 2 - 3. 0 20. 3 1. 3 9 .6 - 5 40 6 - 13. 6 166 .4 _ 10. 9 - 4 21 1 - 1 2.4 95. 0 1. 1 - 5 53 9 25 45 10.4 124. 1 2 5 .2 5 7 .9 464. 1 13 20 54 3 7 .2 32. 1 118. 0 4 7 20 6 .6 9 .4 6 1 .5 I 3 1.2 6. 0 4 5 13 6 .6 7 .0 3 9 .8 1 4 1. 3 15.7 9 13 34 30. 6 2 2 .7 56. 5 31 57 6 2 .2 113. 6 3 30 10. 0 5 6 .4 1 9 7 .5 13.9 2 10 2. 5 2 6 .4 11 16. 1 28 27 5 2 .2 5 7 .3 - 2 2 .7 12 3 9.5 4 .7 27. 1 1.5 8. 0 10 .4 13 17 24 112 30 71 7 9 .5 5 8.7 54. 9 7 00 .7 66. 1 196.4 A ll in d u stries _ ___ __ __ __ __ _ 5 ,2 9 2 . 3 3 ,2 7 3 .4 23 6 3 .8 11 24. 3 9 2 1 .6 - 24 20 38 124 52 117 128. 1 6 2 .5 100. 8 7 2 4 .8 146 .4 2 8 3 .9 11 3 14 12 22 46 4 8 .6 3. 8 45. 9 24. 1 80. 3 8 7 .5 3 2 2 6 7 22 33. 0 2 .5 11. 8 8.7 19.4 3 7 .4 6 1 6 5 10 18 11. 0 1. 3 7 .0 1 3.9 53. 0 39. 7 2 6 1 5 6 100 127 24 15 438. 3 1,152.2 5 4 .2 2 2 .5 48 65 11 7 140. 0 314. 2 2 6 .6 9 .4 8 26 4 - 19. 3 7 9 .9 15.9 ~ 22 21 6 5 64. 3 169. 0 9 .0 7 .2 18 18 1 2 5 6 .5 6 5 .4 1.7 2 .2 52 62 13 8 298. 3 838. 0 2 7 .6 13. 1 __ 624 2 ,9 2 2 .0 198 903 .2 53 190. 0 136 6 7 1 .9 9 41. 3 426 2 ,0 1 8 .9 M ining, crude p etroleu m , and natural gas p rodu ction __ ___ ___ _ ___ ____ ___ T r a n s p o r ta tio n 1 __ __ __ __ ____ __ __ C om m u n ication s _ U tilities: E le c t r ic and g a s _______________ W h olesale trade _ _____ __ R e ta il trade — __ __ __ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ H otels and restau ran ts _ __ __ __ _ __ _ S e r v ic e s _ C on stru ction ____ ___ ___ __ __ __ __ __ M is c e lla n e o u s nonm anufacturing in d u stries 17 95 79 78 12 92 36 55 155 2 5 2 .7 57 3 .2 558. 1 2 0 0 .5 21. 6 245. 1 176. 8 184. 9 701. 9 1 28 47 5 3 54 7 18 34 1.5 118. 8 3 7 4 .6 18.2 3 .6 160.4 3^6. 0 5 0 .2 137 .4 20 1 3 71. 6 1. 3 8 .9 7 46 2 3 48 6 18 5 4 5 .9 373. 3 9 .4 3 .6 130.4 31.7 5 0 .2 25. 0 1 1 1. 5 1.4 _ _ _ 16 67 32 73 9 38 29 37 121 2 5 1 .2 4 5 4 .4 183.5 182. 3 18. 0 8 4.7 140.9 134.7 564. 5 1 2 .5 1 2. 5 4 4 .9 N onm anufacturing __ ____ _ 5 7 .4 _ _ 2 1 4. 5 4. 3 _ - 26 99. 5 _ _ 4 25. 5 _ - 3 13. 0 1 E x clu d es r a ilr o a d and a ir lin e in d u strie s. NOTE: B eca u se o f rounding, sum s o f individual ite m s m ay not equal to ta ls. ☆ U .S . GOVERN M EN T PRINTING O FFIC E 1961 O - 592780 Recent BLS Industrial Relations Studies Bull. No. T itle Price Agreement Provisions 1282 Paid Sick Leave Provisions in Major Union Contracts, 1959 30 cents 1272 Union Security and C heckoff Provisions in Major Union Contracts, 1958-1959. 20 cents 1266 C ollectiv e Bargaining C lau ses: Company Pay for B u siness, October 1959* 35 cents 1251 Premium Pay for Night, Weekend, and Overtime Work in Major Union Contracts, 1958. 30 cents 1248 Paid Holiday P rovisions in Major Union Contracts, 1958. 25 cents 1233 Paid Vacation P rovisions in Major Union Contracts, 1957. 30 cents 1216 C ollectiv e Bargaining C lau ses: D ism issal Pay. August 1957. 25 cents 1209 A nalysis of L ayoff, R eca ll, and Work-Sharing Procedures in Union Contracts. March 1957. 30 cents T!ime Spent on Union Em ployee-Benefit Plans 1284 Pension Plans Under C ollectiv e Bargaining: Normal Retirement, Early and D isability Retirement, F all 1959* 40 cents 1280 Health and Insurance Plans Under C ollective Bargaining: Surgical and Medical B enefits, Late Summer 1959* 30 cents 1274 Health and Insurance Plans Under C ollective Bargaining: Hospital B enefits, Early 1959« 30 cents 1259 Pension Plans Under C ollectiv e Bargaining: Part I. V esting Provisions and Requirements for Early Retirement Part II. Involuntary Retirement P rovision s, Late 1958. 25 cents 1250 Health and Insurance Plans Under C ollective Bargaining: A ccident and Sickness B enefits, F all 1958. 25 cents 1236 D igest of One Hundred Selected Health and Insurance Plans Under C ollective Bargaining, Early 1958. $1.25 1232 D igest of One Hundred Selected Pension Plans Under C ollectiv e Bargaining, Winter 1957-58. 45 cents Union A ctivities 1267 Directory of National and International Labor Unions in the United States, 1959* 45 cents 1263 Union Constitution P rovision s: Trusteeship. November 1959* 30 cents 1239 Union Constitution P rovision s: E lection and Tenure of National and International Union O fficers, 1958. 30 cents Work Stoppages 1278 Analysis of Work Stoppages, 1959* 40 cents General 1225 A Guide to Labor-Management Relations in the United States. April 1958. $ 2 .0 0 1225-1 1225-2 Supplement No. 1. November 1958. Supplement No. 2. July 1959. 45 cents 45 cents