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REMARKS
O F

VI R. W R I G H T A N D MR. M I L E S
I N S E N A T E , T H U R S D A Y , D E C E M B E R 20, 183S.

T h e csolutions of inquiry submitted yesterday by Mr. R I V E S , calling upon the S e c ret i y of the T r e a s u r y for information relative to the sale of the boiioVs of the U. S.
B,t i ;, coming up for consideration—
r, R I V K S went into a long detailed statement of the reasons for offering them.
M r . W R I G H T said the Senate would not expect the P e n n s y l v a n i a B a n k of the United States, w h i c h ,
h i m to attempt to reply to so elaborate a speech as by a special law passed at the last session of C o a th*tt to w h i c h they had just listened. H e came to gress, he w a s expressly authorized to do. H e h a d
h s seat with no expectation of such a debate. also h e a r d through the s a m e c h a n n e l , a n d from the
W h e n ' h e resolutions of the honorable Senator [ M r . same authority, that the sale h a d been m a d e to tr*o
RiVEs] were offered yesterday, they excited in his bank itself; l Uto the institution against w h i c h the
D
the information caused no surprise,
m n d no anticipation that an elaborate r n d set dis- bond w a s
cussion would be entered upon at this stage of them. no a l a r m , in his mind, because he supposed that
V h e y were m e r e resolutions of inquiry. T h e i r the state of the T r e a s u r y a n d the amount of a p p r o whole apparent object was to obtain facts, to learn priations by Congress w e r e such as to require t h e
Vie truth.of the m a t t e r s to which they related, and sale of at least one of the bonaU, to enable the der
\e could not have expected a debate upon the mer- p a r t m e n t to pay the public* creditors. N e i t h e r h a d
the c i r c u m s t a n c e that the sale had been m a d e to
\s .until the testimony had been obtained.
H e should not, therefore, attempt to follow the M r . Biddle's bank, to the institution which owed
,entl°man in his extended r e m a r k s , or to reply to the debt, given him any apprehension, as he h i d
a n y part of his a r g u m e n t . It was his intention to been con fid ins: enough tobelieve that the only offer,
occuny but a few moment* of the time of the Senate, or the best prler, to p u r c h a s e had come from thai
1
and 3 m a k e but a few observation of an incidental quaver, iind tlirt,' IVr that simple reason, the S e c retary hfad made'lhesaWtht-iv* v T h e law compelled
.h" racier.
r
/ h e n the resolutions w e r e offered, th?ir object the ^icr^tUry of Uifc' rre.xsury to ^r t the best p r i c e
'tie could c o m m a n d in the r j a r k j t J r r.he b o n i s , i a
: ned to be fully and m i n u t e l y expressed u p n
c. r face, and he w a s glad the honorable Semt'oTnad case he found it necessary to selLthem, a n d prohibiji xe forward with them. T h e inquirierAvcre mich ted him, l in any.even*. fro:n selling" a* a price ber
j1
V-i,.' Y r - fcad
' *>e d \sired might be m a d e and Uillv nn^.wered, llow ••h\ W ' \a ut- i\f *V b;md.
1
b JL h • ould not h a v e anticipated that e x c l u s i o n s oeen'crre'Fi^ciia-cnoivgi te believe that tL^ $?i\c w a s
v o u ' : e d r a w n and expressed here-,, before the facts maxte t o trie P e n n s y l v a n i a B a n k , because . h t l a w
- i
lown, or that a call for tosti<njjny would be compelled the Secretary to se,ll to that insti:ution, k
m a k i n g th* <>rri/,J ^ r tne ,KIC-S; advantageous, offer
de :u follow a j u d g m e n t upon I he issue.
-ft5r tbf^bond v'Vjfecd iu'^e 1 rn:irkt J t. I t w a s passible
. -iie 7 M as ignorant as the h on en able Senator;
too
had believed^
( M1r . Rivsus] w,ho had spoken w k h so m u c h warm-ihj hv^ eha\I rl*-€n h e a r Cdnlidin£, but he this w a s its e x w h n he
d of the sale, that
k J ' il :erms of such strong censure, as to ihe na- planation,first
and he h a d not now a doubt that such
> ;*' <^r character, or extent, of the connexion would
h
; r . ^ i h a d b r e n formed between the public T r e a s u r y tae S e cprovey to be theT truthu of the case, a we e n e v e r
r e a r of the
v an opr.. -he P e n n s y l v a n i a B a n k , nor w a s t h e gentleman portunity t to answer ther e a s r y should h Senator.
inquiries of the
io e desirous than himself that the truth as to that
on lexion, w h a t a v e r it might be, should be fully
If the honorable gentleman did not antertain the
\o VD; thar all the facts should be exposed to the s a m e confidence in the E x e c u t i v e officers of the
j . of the whole country ; that nothing should be G o v e r n m e n t as himself, he could regret the fa^t,
•'ddesi, or concealed, in relation to it. H e n c e he but it gave him n o right to complain, nor did h e
•• His pleased to see the resolutions, and should c h e t r - complain that it w a s s o ; though whan the S e n a t o r
for ihem.
h a d assumed to himself the character of an i n q u i r e r
t \\y \v\t
it was true, h e had learned through the public alter tb« f.icts, a n d then had felt at liberty, before
prints, that the S e c r e t a r y of the T r e a s u r y had, dur- | his inquiry was m a d e , to d r a w infrcrenae^, and proi n g thr vacation, sold one of the bonds held against 4 r m u n c e conclusions of a highly censorious and con




2
demnatory character, w h i c h inferences ana con- panied a n d characterized that c h a n g e , had g i v e n
clusions could, with justice, only be d r a w n from no relief to hii apprehensions, and they were n o w ,
the facts to be inquired after, he did feel, a n d must at this moment, as lively, and active, and strong as
express disappointment and regret. H a d it been they had ever been.
IVot so with the honorable Senator. T h e r e had
h i s case, whatever might h a v e been his feelings
towards the e x e c u t i v e officers concerned, how* been a time w h e n he had considered these daugers
e v e r m u c h he might h a v e distrusted their in- as not sleeping merely, but buried forever, and that
telligence, or integrity, or official faithfulness, if he he had n o w a g a i n become sensible of then exist
h a d proposed to inquire and to call upon them to ence, of their magnitude, and of their i m p e n d i n g
a n s w e r , he w o u l d have allowed them the opportu- character, w a s a matter of just congratulation to
nity to answer, before he w o u l d either h a v e cen- Mr. W . If they could not agree about the banks
sured or c o n d e m n e d ; and h e must say, that it generally, the Senator's speech o f this day h a d
w o u l d h a v e afforded h i m sincere gratification, if proved that about this particular banking institution
the Senator from V i r g i n i a had found it consistent they did and could agree. H e r e again they could
w i t h h i s feelings a n d sense of duty to h a v e pursued meet and unite their labors for the general" benefit
of the w h o l e country. No{ a man in these seats
that more just and generous course.
A t the opening of the honorable Senator's speech ? could h a v e failed to feel the dangers and mischiefs
M r . W . w a s led to suppose that an opportunity of this great banking institution, as the Senator had
for sincere congratulation w a s to be afforded to so eloquently, and forcibly, and v i v i d l y depicted
himself and the majority of the Senate. T h e y had them. T o Mr. W . the erlort had not raised n e w
l o n g looked upon the dangers and mischiefs atten- apprehensions, but confirmed all former impresdant upon any connexion b e t w e e n the T r e a s u r y of sions, and he would n o w promise the Senator, and
the nation and banks of any character, as among* all others, his most a n x i o u s co-operation in a n y
the most serious and alarming evils which had effort* finally and forever to r e m o v e the partig r o w n up under the administration of our republi- cular dangers so clearly pointed out, and all d a n c a n system of Government, w h i l e the Senator had, gers to our republican institutions of a like chaacter.
description of b n k i g
heretofore, but too successfully defended that con- tutionsc o m e from what e would repeal athainhe instiH
n e x i o n . H i s early remarks s e e m e d to present it entirely they might. the c o n n e x i o n n o w formed w a s
ignorant of
ben e w to his mind, charged w i t h s u c h horrible and tween the T r e a s u r y and this dangerous institutionfrightful consequences, that Mr. W . could not but H e w a s w i l l i n g and desirous to let the Secretary o f
suppose that he, and those w i t h w h o m he had acted, the T r e a s u r y answer that inquiry* H e believed.
Were again to have the powerful co operation of it w a s only a" connexion g r o w i n g out of the s a l e o f
the able Senator, in breaking up and eradicating the bond to w h i c h he had before referred," and g r e w s
forever that unnatural, improper, and vicious con- ing out of that sale in the m a n n e r he had painted
n e x i o n . In this, however, he had met hasty disap- o u t ; that ir w a s necessity, arising from t h e law o f
pointment, as it seemed to be the connexion with a Congress directing the sale, a n d not fr<©m the c h o i c e
single bank, and not a connexion with banks g e n e - of the E x e c u t i v e officers. If it w a s a n y other o r
rally, w h i c h had g i v e n the Senator his deep alarm, different connexion, he w a s further ready to s a y
and drawn down upon the Secretary of the T r e a - that it had been fotmed, without h i s k n o w l e d g e or:
sury, and the President, h i s unmeasured censures. consent, and should not m e e t his approbation.
It was a c o n n e x i o n with Mr. Biddle's bank, with H e r e h e had been and was still w i l l i n g to rest h i s
the P e n n s y l v a n i a Bank o f the U n i t e d States, w h i c h comments upon this matter.
had thus aroused the Senator's eloquence and inN e i t h e r the honorable Senator nor the body h e
dignation.
E v e n here, however, M r . W . found cause for addressed would expect h i m , upon-an o c c a s i o n l i k e
earnest congratulation. H e ",e«l rcneu.bered that, this, to g o into a general debate upon theJndeoend,.
upon repeated occas^ops w t b i r the *asi t w o rears, ent T r e a s u r y bill, or to follow i h l ^ ? £ g g ^
when he, and other f i i m u s w h o entertained opin- •nat > r g e portion of his remarks. It h a d a p ^ t r l ^
ions in accordance wi:h his o w n , had m a d e theu tc m m that the gentleman had, a s h e h k a s W « * 4
feeble attempts to arouse the honorable Senator rmttod, indulged extensively i n the w i d e nek* of
himself, the Senate, and tho ccuntry, to a sense of debate allowed by the courtesv o f the Seattle, in
tfie dangers u i d c o r r u p t i o n of'.hat g-ant inrufitiou,! this par* of his speech; but as Mr. W , had arisen
A e y had been c a l m l y and coarideirUy tela t*v t h e : to remark -jporuhe spirit and temper of t h e s p e e c h ,
S e n a t o r , and others w h o then acted with him', that j rather than .o a n s w e r its a r g u m e n t i n a n v aspect,
they w e r e practising *n imoosition upon the coun- h e s h o n l d be jr>tif.ed in passing this portion with*
try ; that they w^r* M»era;*ti:>g *• conjare »ip th^ out nctj^e.
ghost of a buried ere<r»y- - a :>nartotr,—a rn?r« s h a - , Th-*r-» w a s unother featare of the address, h o w
d o w , to produce alarm a n d apprehension , tn**t th^! e^e.*, w i t c h fell mare appropriately than a n y other
B^rik of the United State*, in any form of exist- within the limits h e h a d prescribed for himself,
ence, w a s effectually destroyed, w a s dead and and w h i c h must receive attention. It w a s the .ex:-.'
buried, never a^<^.- v> be disinterred to alarm er traordtnury position assumed by the S e n a tar, that
injure the p e o p l e ; that our apprehensions were to© the political opinions o f the President, and t h e
caur*e and policy of his administration, w e r e to b e .
tate, and were unreal.
"Notwithstanding these repeated and positive as- interpreted and proved by a letter from N i c h o l a s
surances, w h i c h , c o m i n g from the sources they d i d , ! Biddle, voluntarily published i n the n e w s p a p e r s o f
h e a l w a y s desired to consider friendly and sincere, j the country. W a s it upon such evidence that the
M r , W . had never for a moment permitted h i m s e l f President of the Unired States w a s 10 t»e j u d g e d
and condemned ? W a s his democracy and his atU> be misled or d e c e i v e d by them. T h e r e n e v e r bad <
b e e n a Moment w h e n he had considered the dangers \ t a c h m e n t to icpnbHcan priciples-t© !*• tried hy
&~om that institution at an end, o r m a t e i i a l l y lessened, j such a to>i ? H a d hi* publicly expressed opinion*,
T h e c h a n g e of Us form, from a National to a State and the public course of his w h o l e life, a u t h o r i z e d
Mn
nUitutioD connected v i t h tVc facts w h i c h a c c o m - j a judgment against h i m upon^ueh e v i d e n c e ?
institution,




s
W . h a d never yet seen ihe ierter alluded to, but he true idea of the message, and of the v i e w s and
r
h a d heard of it, and he now found the honorable wishes of the President as communicated in it ?
H e did not charge the Senator with intended **jtS e n a t o r a perfect master of its con ten LS. A l l this
w a s w e l l , as a matter with which he had nothing to fairness or want of candor. W i t h his intention h e
d o , a n d about w h i c h he felt no anxiety. AH he had nothing to do, but his inquiry w e n t to the faet.
w i s h e d to say was, that his friends were not to be W a s the representation of the Senator fair and
b o u n d by its terms, it? language, or its spirit, until candid in fact ? L e t , t h e message itself answer.
t h e y w e r e made parties to it by some higher proof T h i s is its l a n g u a g e :
" W h e n the late Bank of the U n i t e d States w a s
t h a n the letter itself. H e had never yet judged
t h e m by such a standard, nor should he ever do so, incorporated, and made thedepositoiy of the public
u n t i l they had been permitted to hear and answer moneys, a right w a s reserved to Congress to inspect, at its pleasure, by a committee of that body,
t h e c h a r g e s thus predicated.
E v e n this letter, however, had not answered the the books and the proceedings of the bank. In one
p u r p o s e s of the honorable Senator, and a different, of the States whose banking institutions are supa n d not less singular, description of testimony had posed to rank amongst the firat in point of stability,
b e e n brought in to supply the deficiency in the they are subjected to constant examination by c o m a r g u m e n t he had auempted Lo make. W h a t w a s missioners appointed for that purpose, and much of
t h a t other proof?
T h e comments of opposition the success of its banking system is attributed to this
n e w s p a p e r s upon Mr. Riddle's letter!
T h e re- watchful supervision. T h e same coarse has also,
rriark* and inferences of the Baltimore Chronicle in v i e w of its beneficial operation, been adopted by
u p o n that singular production \ \ M r W . w a s not I an adjoining State, favorabh' known for the care it
d i s p o s e d to extend remark upon such a case, based ! has a l w a y s bestowed upon whatever re laics tfc lib
u p o n such evidence, and coming from such a financial concerns. I submit to your consideration
quarter. H e would, therefore, only add. that such whether a committee of Congress migh: not be
n e v e r had been, and such never should be, the profitably employed in inspecting, at such intervals
s t a n d a r d by which -he would judge his friends. as might be deemed proper, the ai?airs and ac^Neither the President, ivir the Secretary of the counts of officers intrusted with the custody of the
T r e a s u r y , should ever receive condemnation from public moneys. T h e frequent performance 01 this
h i m upon such authority. If they were to be con- duty might be made obligatory on the committee in
v i c t e d of a design to fasten upon the country a respect to those ufficcrs w h o have large sums in
n a t i o n a l bank of 8113- character, he must learn the their possession, and leii discretionary in respect to
f a c t from better authority than the Bajtimore others. T h e y might report to the Executive such
C h r o n i c l e , or the comments of any other opposition defalcations as were found to exist, with a v i e w to
n e w s p a p e r , before he should subscribe to the verdict. a. prompt, removal from office unless the default
A single other po-ition of the Senator should w a s satisfactorily accounted for; and report, also,
to
r e c e i v e a passing notice, and M r . W . would corr^ theCongress, at the commencement of each session,
result of their examinations
t o a conclusion. A charge had been preferred It does appear to me that, with a and proceedings.
subjection of
a g a i n s t the President of the era vest character, class of public officers to the general supervisionthis
d r a w n from the face of his late message. It w a s the Executive, to examinations by a committee of
of
s a i d that he had made an arrogant and unconstitu- Congress at periods of which they should have no
t i o n a l recommendation, calculated to s jnk Congress
f r o m its high estate to the feet of the E x e c u t i v e ; previous notice, and to prosecution and punishment
breach of trust,
t h a t , in that recommendation. The disposition to as for felony for everymoneys, under thethe safe
keeping
system
r e n d e r the Executive superior and paramount to proposed,of "the public
might be placed on a surer foundation
t h e legislative power of the Government was con- than it has ever occupied since the establishment of
c l u s i v e l y manifested.
W h a t was the specific
c h a r g e from which this grave inference wa-; so the Government."
H a s the criticism of the gentleman presented
confidently drawn ? It was, that the President had
r e c o m m e n d e d that a commiiree of Congress, to be this recommendation, or rather suggest urn, fairly
appointed by the body, should e x a m i n e , at intervals, and candidly? F o r what purpose docs the Presiflic books, accounts, and money in the hands of the dent suggest that this committee should report to
officers charged with the collection, s a f e k e e p i n g , him, and what does he suggest should he repotted
a n d disbursement of the public moneys, as such j to him '* " T h e y might report to the : : E x e c u t i v e
c o m m i t t e e had been authorized by the* charter ofi such defalcations a.s were found to exist. says the
t h e late Bank of the United States, when it w a s | message, and for w h a t ? ''' W i t h a v i e w to a prompt
t h e depository of the public money, to examine its j removal from office." But what further are the
accounts.
F o r what purpose did the President j committee to d o ? " A n d report, also, to Congress,
propose this examination ? T h e Senator says, at the commencement of each session/' what?
11
t h a i the committee might make report thereof to j T h n result of their examinations and proceedt h e President ; that a committee of Congress? i n g s / ' Is here an attempt to evade the l e g i s l a t u r e ,
iriisrht be made the servants of the Executive, and | and draw power to the Executive *. T h e power of
rni^ht he brought lo the foot of ihe throne to g i v e ; remwval from office rests with the President bv the
fin account of their doing*, in Mead of m a k i n g a constitution, and it is only to advise him when the
report to The two H o u - e s of Congress, of w h i c h , exercise of that power is required for the safeiv ol
t h e y themselves would be a component part, and ; the public money, that n report 10 him from "the
w h i c h , n< independent ru preventatives of ih^| committee of examination i*. suggested. Is that an
prrqy.e. or ihe Smres, thty could do wimojui-kmnfTT'* atTeTTrpMo degrade ihe lcgi-lniive pnwt-r and bring
u • i011 or 0 isirrace.
x*"' L-1 r I r * •it.*nUf-vuhs>F.vieiiev u, i n ,» t'xecmive'^ Hoes li m a n V
M r W . would appeal :o the .Srjyrfb: himself to. ifest n disposition v to bring down Congress frjm its
} li<' would hold .1 committee ot
^ y if tins was n fair or *mv'iid >fr.'cmenr of tffC high i->'atc?
recommendation of the Pc.^rdci
•**irt~i«C{mvfey Coris'i-eskblaYnetrs-r. wiii.-h -/•:«.'.:M find a iLefnlcai, -<]:>; Senate, to thi- aud.'.-ii _••-.ot ri.*c- countrv. a :ion .-uch as is con-cm] )WJ:*: S '':.*• iKes-.fiv. and
J




4
should not immediately report the defaulting] such an inference could be possibly drawn. The
officer to the President, (i with a view to a prompt Senate were the witnesses of what he had said, and
removal from office" of the delinquent ? 'Would a he appealed to them, individually and collectively,
single Senator who heard him hold a committee to say if the language he had used was possibly
guiltless which should omit this- plain public duty 1 susceptible of any such interpretation. H e would
W a s it then a crime in the President to suggest the go farther, and say that no intention to use language
performance of it 1 Or was it an offence against of that character had existed in his mind, and he
Congress to mention, as proper, what aril were com- could not think he had made expressions so foreign
-belled to admit would be an imperious obligation 1 from his feelings and intentions. H e was not auH e could not anticipate such a conclusion from thorized to speak of Executive displeasure or to
such premises. W a s it, then, fair or candid to wield Executive censures, nor had he attempted to
Jiave commented with such severity upon the sug- y\o either.
gestion, and not to have slated the object of ihe reA single other remark. If the inference which
port proposed to be made to the Piesident, or the might follow from the last remark of the Senator
fact that a full and perfect report to Congress was was intended for him, he repelled and spurned it.
also recommended'? He could not so consider it.
[Mr. RIVES- rose as Mr. VV. was resuming his seat,
H a d the remarks which had fallen from the Sen- and inquired to what remark of his Mr. WRIGHT
ator proceeded from one of the gentlemen declaredly alluded, saying he did not know what allusion was
in the opposition. his surprise would have been less. intended]
Mr. W R R . I I T said he understood the Senator to
T h e y did not always, in the warmth of debate, and
acting under feelings of general political hostility, have closed with the words, " / a m no vassal of the
feel bound to give the.ir opponents an opportunity President. Let the Senator from New York unto be heard before they bestowed censure.**, nor did derstand that/'
they always find it suitable to their p u r p l e s to state
[Mr. Rivhis, turning from Mr. WBIGHT, and adthe whole case upon which to found the inferences dressing the Senate, said, I am not a vassal of the
they might wish te draw. But from a Senator President, or any one else, and 1 wish that understanding in the relation to the Administration stood everywhere.]
which he had supposed the gentleman from VirMr. N l L E S remarked that the war, among neu
ginia did, he had expected fairness and candor, at teals, had become so warm, at least on one side,
least; that if a judgment of condemnation must be that it might be dangerous lor him, being a quiet,
rendered, it would be after, and not before, an op- peaceable man, to interfere, even for the purpose
portunity had been afforded to present the facts] of moderating the fierceness, of the conflict. H e cer*
upon which it must rest; and that a statement of tainly felt obliged to the Senator from Virginia,
the whole case would be spread upon the record. [Mr. RIVKS] for introducing these resolutions ; he
H e had, however, doubtless mistaken the posi- desired, as much as the Senator, a full investigation of the Senator. H e remembered that some tion «f the conduct of the officers of the Treasury
parson had, during the summer past, defined the in the management of the finances. T h e inquiries
condition of a certain political party of the coun- were all very proper ; at any rate, he had no objectry to be that of " an armed neutrality." in refer- tion to any of them, or any others which the Senator
ence to the two great contending parties of the day. may choose to make. If there has been any illegal
Of this party? he believed the Senator called him- or improper connexion between the Treasury and
self a member, and from his speech of this day it the Bank of the United States, or any other banks,
was plain that he. Mr. W . , must have been mista- he would be one of the last to justify it H e would
k e n a s to the true definition of an " a r m e d neutral- not, however, imitate the Senator's example of conity." H e had supposed it indicated a relation demning the Secretary first, and then inquire into
purely defensive, bin he must suppose, fiom the his conduct. T h i s was not in accordance with his
example the Senator had presented, that it was one notions of justice and propriety, although, perhaps,
wholly offensive: that it was exclusively belliger- it may be with those of this new school of politicians,
ent, and authorized offensive war upon all parties. belonging to the "armed neutrality."
In this sense, all cause for his surprise and disapMr. N said he should vote for the resolutions,
pointment was removed. But if there was any and could assure the honorable Senator that he
thing of neutrality in the relation in which the would have voted for them without the eloquent
Senator had placed himself to-day towards the and very temperate speech by which they had been
party to which he belonged, it was surely an armed sustained. H e thought well of the resolutions, and
neutrality at the best.
would not stop to inquire what the motives or object
[ T o these remarks Mr. RIVES replied at some of the mover might be; it was to be presumed that
length, and Mr. W R I G H T rejoined in a very few they were purrly patriotic, and having reference
wordp, and substantially as follows:]
solely to the public interest. And he was sorry he
Mr. WUJGHT said he'did not wish to protract this could not say a^ much of the Senator's speech ; but
debate, and he found it so impossible TO make him- it did appear to him that that was not exactly in the
self understood by the honorable Senator ("Mr. right tone : it was a little too warm for a neutral,
Rcv£sl that he should not attempt to answer him and especially as the occasion seems to have been
farther. He would further assure the gentleman, sought bv the Senator.
T h e substance of it also appeared to him to be
and the Senate, that he should not penult himself,
in any degree, to partake of the hear and passion somewhat objectionable. Resolutions are ollered
which had characterized the la>t remarks to which proposing certain inquiries touching the conduct of
they had listened. H e rose foi a single purpose, to the Secretary of the Treasury, and on the considecorrect a single error. T h e Senator had represented ration of these resolutions, the Senator makes a
M r . W . as menacing him with E-Vecuiive displeasure; speech full ot crimination, condemning the Secreas attempting to terrify him by the dread of Execu- tary for the very acts about which the resolution asks
tive censurrs. H e had done no such thiuiMior had for information. It seemed to him thai it would
he, to his knowledge, said anything from which have been quite as e-andidand lair to have obtained



5
he i n f o r m a t i o n first, a n d t h e n to h a v e p r e d i c a t e d
t h e a c c u s a t i o n s upon it.
B u t w h a t h a v e w e w i t n e s s e d 1 A resolution of inq u i r y is i n t r o d u c e d , w h i c h is i m m e d i a t e l y c h a n g e d
frito a bill of i n d i c t m e n t a g a i n s t the A d m i n i s t r a tion a n d all its supporters. A n d w h a t is the p r o o f
by w h i c h the c h a r g e s p r e f e r r e d in this bill of i n d i c t m e n t a r e a t t e m p t e d in b e s u s t a i n e d 1 W h y , it
is t h e d e c l a r a t i o n s a n d a c c u s a t i o n s of the a v o w e d
a n d s w o i n e n e m i e s of the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ; the statem e n t s a n d c h a r g e s of the most reckless a n d d e p r a v e d of the Opposition presses, w h o s e vocation it
is to falsify a n d m i s r e p r e s e n t e v e r y act and m e a s u r e of the G o v e r n m e n t , r i g h t or w r o n g . A n d first
• a n d foremost oi^ this f o r m i d a b l e a r r a y of witnesses,
i s i n t r o d u c e d a very i m p o r t a n t p e r s o n , w h o h a s
a c t e d a c o n s p i c u o u s p a r t in the s e v e n y e a r s ' w a r ,
_o w h i c h the S e n a t o r has a l l u d e d . T h i s is no less
a p e r s o n a g e t h a n N i c h o l a s R i d d l e , one of the bellig e r e n t parlies to this v e r y w a r . W e l l , w h a t does
h i s w i t n e s s say hi support of the g e n t l e m a n ' s bill
o f i n d i c t m e n t 1 W h y lie says that the w a r b e t w e e n
; h e G o v e r n m e n t and the R a n k h a s ceased ; that
p e a c e , or at least a t r u c e , h a s t a k e n p l a c e ; thai he
Has h a d a negotiation with the G o v e r n m e n t , a n d
p u r c h a s e d in his b o n d s ; a n d t h a t the G o v e r n m e n t
f i a s t r e a t e d h i m v e r y fairly and h o n o r a b l y .
XsTow, s i r , ( s a i d M r . N . ) a l t h o u g h I h a v e no fault
o f111^ ^ v * t n l l l ^ s testimony, yet, as the S e n a t o r
^jjplL'tl that this w i t n e s s stood so high in r e p u t a t i o n
t h a t he could not be i m p e a c h e d , he w a s disposed
n witness s t a n d i n g e q u a l l y h i g h to i m p e a c h
L o offer
nim.
T h e witness he hud to offer w a s this same.
rVicholas Riddle, who, in his c e l e b r a t e d manifesto,
i s s u e d on the 5th of A p r i l last, g a v e his testimony reW a r d i n g this w a r . l i e said that it w a s a w a r c a r r i e d
o n b y the G o v e r n m e n t , a g a i n s t the " c r e d i t s y s t e m ; "
" h a t both p a r t i e s w e r e in the field face to f a c e ; that it
"^as a life a n d d e a t h s t r u g g l e , a w a r of e x t e r m i n a t i o n ,
in w h i c h t h e r e could be no c o m p r o m i s e or a c c o m m o d a t i o n , but that one or the o t h e r must fall. N o w ,
a c c o r d i n g lo this w i t n e s s hist A p r i l , t h e r e can h a v e
b e e n no peace or t r u c e b e t w e e n the G o v e r n m e n t
-ind the h a n k , m u c h less a n a l l i a n c e offensive a n d
d e f e n s i v e , as the S e n a t o r i n t i m a t e s . 1£ the asser. - e r t i o n s of M r . Biddle, at one time 7 nrc in d i r e c t
^ o n t r a d i c t i o n to his s t a t e m e n t s at a n o t h e r , a c c o r d i n g to the rules of testimony, h e w a s a d i s c r e d i t e d
-witness, a n d Ins t e s t i m o n y m u s t go for n o t h i n g .
O f the o t h e r w i t n e s s , on w h o m the S e n a t o r has
r e l i e d to s u p p o r t his c h a r g e s a g a i n s t the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , consisting ui' the B a l t i m o r e C h r o n i c l e a n d
:)ther Opposition p r e s s e s , he w a s not disputed to
s p e a k - li" the S e n a t o r looks to such s o u r c e s for
; o r r e e t i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the nets of the E x •-ciuive ofliecrs, he w a s not disponed to follow h i m
j n t o that field. H o w long the S e n a t o r had been in
: h e h a b i t of j u d g i n g of the m e a s u r e s of the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , from i n h u m a t i o n d e r i v e d from s u c h
s o u r c e s , M r . N . could not say ; but he believed the
fimc w a s not distant, w h e n the S e n a t o r h a d as litHe confidence in the s t a t e m e n t s oL^ these k;uirst b a n k
o r g a n s , as }lif h a d himself.
T h i s , M r . P r e s i d e n t , is the t e s t i m o n y on w h i c h
.Uch s e r u m s c h a r g e s a r e m a d e against the A d m i n istration , a n d s u s t a i n e d with so m u c h e a r n e s t n e s s
• >.nd w a r m t h . A n d not c n l v h a v e the past acts of
the E x e c u t i v e a n d S e c r e t a r y been c o n d e m n e d on
Jtitellig^nre d e r i v e d from such s o u r c e s ; but 'die h i a r e a n d i n t e n d e d m e a s u r e s of J he A d m mist t a: ion
j re a s c e r t a i n e d from the s a m e hone.-t c h a n n e l s of
-nformahon.
hooking
at the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n



t h r o u g h s u c h a m e d i u m , both to d i s c o v e r w h a t i
h a s done a n d w h a t it i n t e n d s to do, w h o c a n doubt
that the S e n a t o r will f o r m a most c a n d i d a n d i m partial j u d g m e n t of its m e a s u r e s a n d p u r p o s e s .
M r . N . said he did not propose to go m t o t h e
v a r i o u s m a t t e r s w h i c h h a d been i n t r o d u c e d i n t o
this debate, or to notice the n u m e r o u s c h a r g e s and
i n s i n u a t i o n s a g a i n s t the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n w h i c h h a d
been t h r o w n out.
H i s p r i n c i p a l object w a s to call attention to seve r a l positions w h i c h h a d been a s s u m e d . T h e first
a n d most i m p o r t a n t w a s the d e e l a r a h o n that the
seven y e a r s ' w a r w a s at an end. T h a t the G o v e r n m e n t h a d n o t only given u p the contest, b u t h a d
been obliged to s u c c u m b to the b a n k , a n d h a d
m a d e a d i s h o n o r a b l e pejice, a n d e v e n e n t e r e d i n to a n a l l i a n c e , defensive and offensive, w i t h the
b a n k . l i e , M r . N.> c o n g r a t u l a t e d the S e n a t e a n d
the c o u n t r y on this h i g h l y i m p o r t a n t fact, [about,
w h i c h h e ' supposed there could n o w be nu
doubt. It w a s a n n o u n c e d the other day by M r .
R i d d l e h i m s e l f ; but c o m i n g in r a t h e r a questionable s h a p e , a n d , c o n n e c t e d with o t h e r m a r vellous s t a t e m e n t s oi the d o i n g s of the bank, m a n y
doubted it. It is n o w , h o w e v e r , c o n i i r m e d by the
h o n o r a b l e S e n a t o r from V i r g i n i a ; and by the
m o u t h of t w o w i t n e s s e s e v e r y fact shall be established. S u r e l y , sir, it s h o u l d "be a subject of g e n e r a l rejoicing that this long c o n t r o v e r s y is closed ;
that this seven y e a r s ' w a r is t e r m i n a t e d •" that p e a c e
a g a i n r e i g n s in our b o r d e r s . F o r s e v e r a l y e a r s
past, and p a r t i c u l a r l y d u r i n g the e x t r a a n d the last
session of C o n g r e s s , w e h e a r d little else from the
o t h e r side of this hall, w h e t h e r from the l a r g e or
s m a l l division of the Opposition, but w a r s p e e c h e s
and p a n i c s p e e c h e s . T h e w a r of t h e G o v e r n m e n t
upon the b a n k s w a s held tip to the c o u n t r y as the
most a l a r m i n g state of t h i n g s ; as h a v i n g o c c a s i o n e d
t h e p r o s t r a t i o n of credit, the d e r a n g e m e n t of the
c u r r e n c y , the s u s p e n s i o n of the b a n k s , the r u i n of
c o m m e r c e , and the e n t i r e business of the c o u n t r y .
E v e n o u r civil institutions, and the liberties of the
c o u n t r y , w e r e to be o v e r t h r o w n by this cruel and
relentless w a r w h i c h the G o v e r n m e n t w a s w a g i n g
a g a i n s t the b a n k s .
T h e most eloquent a p p e a l s
w e r e m a d e to the people, to a r o u s e from their
l e t h a r g y , a n d i n t e r p o s e t h e i r m i g h t y a r m bofore, it "was too late nnd s a v e their dearest interests
from d e s t r u c t i o n . T h e interest of the b a n k s w a s
the interest of the p e o p l e ; and a w a r upon the
bank's w a s a w a r upon the people—a w a r w h i c h
affected e v e r y class a n d every interest, the rich a n d
the poor, the high a n d the low, the capitalist a n d
the l a b o r e r , all w e r e suffering, l a n g u i s h i n g u n d e r
the effects of this r u i n o u s a n d d e s t r u c t i v e w a r upon
the b a n k s a n d the c r e d i t s y s t e m .
T h i s is the l a n g u a g e , sir, w h i c h hut a few m o n t h s
since w a s a l m o s t daily h e a r d w i t h i n these walla.
H o s t i l i t y to the banks"' a n d the c r e d i t system w a s
the great and besetting sin of the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ,
w h i c h s w a l l u w e d up all others. R u t w h a t *-7o w e
h e a r n o w from the s a m e q u a r t e r 1 W h y , sir, wild
it be believed w h e n it goes forth to the c o u n t r y ,
that a S e n a t o r w h o w a s JUOM z e a l o u s and constant
in d e c l a r i n g and r e p e n t i n g the c h a r g e s of hostility to lhe b a n k s , is now the nisi to a r r a i g n a n d cond e m n , u n h e a r d , the s a m e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n loi h a v ing t e r m i n a t e d a w a r w h i c h w a s d e c l a r e d lo be so
d e s t r u c t i v e to the best interests of the c o u n t r y — o r
ha v i n g s u c c u m b e d to the m o n s t e r , and m a d e a dish o n o r a b l e peace, a n d formed a dangc-rou^ a l h a n
with him,

c
4
W h a t , sir. are w e t o t h i n k o f this 1 W e r e sarnie-J ' a r m e d n e u t r a l i t y / ' of - v . . . : : t h e S e n a t o r frtnfc
m e n then s i n c e r e 1 D i d they really b e l i e v e in the ; Virsrinia s e e m s t o ' a d n m h i m s e l f the h e a d , h e woitld
actual e x i s t e n c e o f a w a r , p r o s e c u t e d by the G o v - [ s a y n o t h i n g , a s h e did n o ; p e r h a p s u n d e r s t a n d its
e r n m e n t a g a i n s t t h e b a n k s a n d its r u i n o u s c o n s e - ' true c h a r a c t e r . But h e knew s o m e t h i n g o f itfefr
q u e n c e s , w h i c h filled t h e m w i t h s u c h fearful a p p r e - ! iral politic ians, w h e t h e r a r m e d or u n a r m e d ; hefc&i)
h e n s i o n s ; or w e r e they a t t e m p t i n g to h o l d u p t h i s ; w a t c h e d the c o u r s e of t h e m for thirty y e a r s , JSthd
b u g b e a r to frighten t h e people, to a l a r m t h e i r i m a « - ; f r o m the d a y s o f A a r o n B u r r to the p r e s e n t tune,
inationsj to e x a s p e r a t e their feelintrs, the m o r e they had a l w a y s been the s a m e . T h e history 61
effectually to enlist t h e m in the o n l y w a r w h i c h had j o n e w a s t h e history o f all. H e k n e w w e l l what
a n y real e x i s t e n c e in fact—a w a r by the p o l i t i c i a n s , = their n e u t r a l i t y w a s i n lis first, s e c o n d , a n d third
a i d e d by the b a n k s , u p o n the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d a . s t a s e . A l l deserters from the D e m o c r a t i c pafty
at first a s s u m e the character o f neutrals, o r n o - t ~"*~
majority o f the people w h o sustained it.
S u r e l y , sir, i f the g e n t l e m e n b e l i e v e d in the o x - , m e n : a n d whilst in this transition state, which
jstence o f the bank w a r , of w h i c h they h a v e had so j w a s s o m e t i m e s a l o n g e r anil s o n v t i m e s a shorter
m u c h to s a y , a n d t h e e v i l s o f w h i c h they have" p e r i o d , t h e y carry on a w a r a g a i n s t their olft
p o r t r a j e d in s u c h g l o w i n g colors, t h e y s h o u l d be friends a n d o l d p r i n c i p l e - , u n d e r their eld flag.
the first to rejoice at the return o f p e a c e : at a , T h i s , sir, lias been the c o u r s e o f neutral and norestoration o f a g o o d u n d e r s t a n d i n g b e t w e e n the ; party politician ; in tliis country. W h ilst m a i n taini n g "t h e eh a r acte v o f a •'m e d n eu t raIs. t h e y fig&t
G o v e r n m e n t and the b a n k s .
T h e s e g e n t l e m e n or the a r m e d n e u t r a l i t y appear under a piratical f!sg: and. at the e n d of s i x months
to be v e r y difficult to please. D u r i n g the la>t two or o n e y e a r , they throw io the w i n d s *2ie Deinosessions,"the w h o l e burden o f titvir c o m p l a i n t s w a s rratic banner, and take the:r ^t a lion in the ranks of
the hostility of the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n to the banks : t h e ir fti r m••"r e n e m ie<: w h e n a fter having T for some
a n d n o w they arraign the s a m e AdmiiiNiin;u>n, brief months, declaimed, eloquently a g a i n s t party
"pursuing t h e ' s a m e g e n e r a l p o l i c y , ior beinsr too and party spirit, t h e y b e c o m e the most intolerant,
friendlv to the banks~ and for formi n sr an a 1 ian• -o m a l i g n a n t , and per seen tins: partisans the country
1
with M r . B i d d l c ' s bank. But w h e t h e r these n e u - bns ever witnessed. F o r the truth of this statement,
trality politicians are p l e a s e d with t h i s n e w a s p e c t . he appealed to the political history of the country;
o f t h i n g s or not, it m u s t be gratifying to all w h o . lie appealed to exiMinsr fact*. L o o k round thes*e
h a v e con lid ed in their s p e e c h e s and d e c l a r a t i o n s halls, look into the State L e g i s l a t u r e s , cast your
heretofore, to learn that this s r e a t s o u r c e o f dansrer e y e o v e r the w h o l e country ; t a k e n , v i t w o f recent
a n d m i s c h i e f to all their interests—the bank Mar— a l a r m i n g s c e n e s w h i c h are n o w e n a c t i n g i n one of
is at an end.
the great States of this U n i o n , a n d then s a y who
M r . N . s a i d there w a s another point w h i c h are the most violent, u n s c r u p u l o u s , and reckless
s e e m e d to be c o n c e d e d in this debate, w h i c h he political partisans in the c o u n t r y ; w h o p u s h selfish
also t h o u g h t a subject o f just congratulation. It party m e a s u r e s to the greatest "extremes, breaking
w a s , that the d a n g e r o f a T r e a s u r y bank, w h i c h o v e r the barriers o f the constitution and l a w s , aha
w a s s o a l a r m i n g at the last session, had entirely t r a m p l i n g right and j u < k e u n d e r their feet? *
disappeared. T h e country h a d e s c a p e d that a w f u l •i
i ? e i i o u ? d ' s i r > i n d m o * t e v e r y i n s t a n c e , that
peril.
W e w e r e then told that that " e x e c r a b l e ' the bold, d a r i n g , a n d r e c k l e s s politicians, arc dem e a s u r e , " the I n d e p e n d e n t T r e a s u r y , w o u l d result serters from the popular .:ause, and at sorneskoTt
ll
^\Treasury
bank, springing: from the r e v e n u e s
o f the G o v e r n m e n t and the drafts and transfers o f
the T r e a s u r e r . T h e S n b - T r e a < u i v plan has been
in practical operation d u r i n g the *pa>t year, and
- ,
,
v ..j«tti^-o ~ « « purposes
'Iocs not appear to h a v e resulted in a ' T r e a s u r y - e
bank. Instead of that, we are v.nw told of an alli- oi a n ry o n e ; he p r e s u m e d all h e r e to be actuated
a n c e between the T r e a s u r y and the B a n k of th« by hiu h and honorable m o t i v e s .
T h e Senator from V i r g i n i a c o n c l u d e d w i t h an
U n i t e d Stares.
1 eloquent appeal to the friends o f the AdministraT h e r e w a s another subject o f c o n g r a t u l a t i o n ,
w h i c h , if not c o n c e d e d in the debate, was, he tion to t h r o w a s i d e their erovellinsr, selfish, party
to
n
l s o f party,
i bought, fully estabh>hed by what w o h a v e witness- purposes,a t e break a s u wd e r the t r a m m e interests of
and e l e v
their v i e s to the great
ed on this o c c a s i o n . H e alluded to the " h a l f w a y ! their country. T h i s appeal, <\r u n d e r other cirhouse." T h a t w a s crone, d e m o l i s h e d , and s w e p t ; c u m s t a n c e s , m i g h t h a v e b e e n tc o m m e n d a b l e ; it
a w a y with the bank w a r and the T r e a > u r v hank.; murht h a v e been worthy o f the S e n a t o r , a n d honor•Sir, it is g o n e : not a v e s t i g e vf it r e m a i n s ; and it^ ! able to the noble C o m m o n w e a l t h h e represents.
tenants m a d e a timely retreat from it before itsj Bur under w h a t c i r c u m s t a n c e s w a s it m a d e ? I*
fall, a n d passed on to the cud o f the rond in w h i r l , j \va< the c o n c l u s i o n o f a s p e e c h u n c a l l e d for by the
ihey had started, and h a v e n o w arrived at the mar-1 o c c a s i o n , intemperate in its tone, and throughout
hie p a l a c e , w h e r e they w c r e . n o oVinhr. kindly re-1 c h a r a c t e r i z e d by u n f o u n d e d
and unsupported
c e i v e d by the old occupants, with the friendly sain, j c h a r g e s [M\(1 ''riminations atrainst the A d m i n i s t r a fario-n. " G e n t l e m e n , w e are happy to -ee voii : w i l l ! tion and all its supporters.
y o u please be seated, ami m i k e y o u r s e l v e s at honv.\"'|
If a professed friend, said M r . 7v. s h o u l d meet
T i i est c h a n ares we re all i MI p o i: a n t: he rejoi * ed • e m the street, and arc." a b u s i n g m e w i t h hard
* m
at t h e m , and did not doubt thru rhe country w*»;dd' words, brat m e o v e r the h e a d with his- eajie f and
rejoice. W e h a v e ^n? r j e a r o f the B a n k wnr. of ! then >ay to m e , " Sir, le: ^ s n o v be f r i e n d s ; these
•he i m m i n e n t d a n c v r o f a Trr*a<ury ban 1 *, and f f strifes and contention* no; o n l y render u* unhappyi
rhe JitiIf-way h o u s e , w h i e h w a s an ob-*ncle on a'l, but thev a r e amioy i n *r ?o ?\.e w h o l e et»7nniunity; W
«id'^: the coast n o w seemed to be pretty muvh u - e l e v a t e o u r f e e l i u o ab*r.-e i h e s e k>w a n d bus*
•dear.
W e h a v e . Lo>ve>e:\ j: >ecm-, an armed p.i^^ions/* In MI h a en-c, 1 ^hould "C a little in*
r-en- j'alitv. a bellisrever* p.*^a *e p:ii"v.i»r nr'i'rnK, • dined 'M doubt UP* v'r,.:-i.-r":v of the ehvv.r-n! apnea*
w h o ••o-one:a*e w r h «..•:." •.•;''' c \ •_•"! •:"*,:°-?n *-:. 0'"-he
!-.:-•'»•• '*• iPv m o r e * ^ev.v..-.. i—.-liv.r ..




f
u u of party feeling ;hi> d a j be fairly submitted to the direct action o
\V-:i» Lr.s betrayed .t-./ the people, at least two-thirds of the electors in the
'*eni session, unless
m this dehate, or during: ;K
United States would be found in its favor. A n d yet
JC-be the Senator himself-:
we are called on :o abandon the measure, on the
He sp'/r.ks of the hi^h a r r exalted considerations ground that it has been condemned by the people,
r>r which he is actuated, r ; >ing above the misls of a n d told that it is a m e t e party measure. T o abanparty, sr.-d looking on] < :o ;he great interests of rhe don it, sir, would be to betray our trusts, to betray
country. Of the Ser^ti f's motives, aims, and pur- the people, to disregard their known will, to trainposes h*1 hail nothing " > *>ay: but he wished ihe pie upon their rights. Yet this is the w a y the S e n gentleman to understand, '-Kit however pure. disin- ator invokes us to elevate our minds above the low,
terested, or elevated :ht / uiaj, be, they are riot selnsh. and grovelling purposes of party.
more *»o rha.ii those of ;^e Senators to w Iwiu lie adM r . N. said he forbore to notice various other
d fes^ed his appeal.
matters touched upon by the Senator, as his princi^'t* are called on Ti* abarm.-ii the ruinous Sub- : pal object in rising: was, to call the attention of the
T r e a s u r y .scheme, a: i. ire told that it has been | Senate and the country to the new positions which
c o n d e m n e d by the eu,.u • i y. Is the Senator quitei are assumed. Sir. the a l a r m i n g evils which have
sure he is not mistaken . Occupying the pusition | so long threatened the ruin of the country, h a r e
he doe-, .* the head oi 01 alined neutrality, he mav ! suddenly disappeared, and that without any change
nor have been the ...us! impartial observer of i of policy on the part of the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ; for to
pa^in'-T events. Sir, a. greater mistake was i n n e r | regard the negotiation of a bond to the Bank of the
made. X o impartial observer can have mistakt u I United State* as constituting a change, would be
! tnfiing with the subject. T h e ' bank war, w h i c h
the elections of the past ear. T h e y have spoken
a language which cannot '.veil be misunderstood. had so huig aiiiicled the country, bringing so m a n y
T h e financial question hn^ been before the country; evils in its t r a m , is [it last terminated. T h e day of
if ha«* been discus-,ea. » • timiined. and is becoming panics is gone, and we may now expect quiet and
.
understood. T h e peopir have looked at it, m>t in prosperity. T h e S u b - T r e a s u r y bill is in practical
U> details, but at the great principle of the entire operation, and we have escaped that great and
di>e.«unecii«n of the nuances ot the Government a l a r m i n g peril, a T r e a s u r y B a n k . W e have also
from those of the banks, who desire to use the pub- got rid of the half-way house, and nothing now relic money for their own benerii, nud they are satis- mains but the a r m e d neutrality, a n d that ever fertile
That,
,Jied that it is founded in right and justice. T h a t theme of declamation, E x e c u t i v e influence.
is enough for them ; the;.. " • ish ;o look no further. MT? still rejnains, and will r e m a i n as long as this
.
<
W h e t h e r it will injure rl.c bank's or not, is nf m» G o v e r n m e n t endures. It has been, now is, and will
i.-otiseijuencc with them ; if srm>fied the m e a s u r e is continue to be, a subject about which m a n y great
ri»ht and just, they desire, ;o ^ee it carried oiu. good, and just men will entertain apprehensions o]
of
T h r ina^s of the people rv» honest, and they love clargei to our institutions ; ami they will eloquently
just ice sib J r e all t h i n g s T h e only difficulty has and earnestly w a r n the people against this J a n g e r
i-**en that ; he subject ^ ris not sufficiently under- In his opinion, this was not the weak point m our
stood. T h a t difficulty {> passing awa-v. T h e peo- political fortress; it was not the place w h e r e the
ple now understand Lhis qm-stion : tney have ex- iirst breach would be made. But whilst m a n v
amined it ;md decided upon it. It is no longer honest and good men will point to this source of
in the power of all :he combined talents in these danger, and raise their w a r n i n g voices against the
nail-.however great, ti* raysufy this subject or hood- increase of Executive power, there will at all times
will declaim eloquently and earnwink rhe people. The;, hru e considered it well, be other Mentha
and id"1 election^ ha . t u , n o u m e d their verdict ; estly against the abuses and the increa.se of Executive
then voice ha*= been h e a r d from the mountain* to power, Executive patronage, and E x e c u t i v e influthe valleys, and from the lakes to the Atlantic. ence, for other and far different motives and purIt i- the voiceof approbation. If Thisquestion could poses.