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---------------Mr. P"'E~lDF.XT: An ('xll"a(jr~~innIy c(:ur~c of event!', -with wllich all n::'c tco ihmilial' tc; nccll
recital, has separa:,cll, in fac.t, the Government nnd the L:lllks. 'Vhat relatiun shall they }.car
hereafter 1 Shall the tlanks ag:ai:J. be us(',1 a~ fiscal agents of the Government 1 Be the l;~Pl)si­
tories of the public money 1 And, above ull, ~h:1U their notes be <:unsitlered and treated a~
money, in the receipts and cxpenuitures of the Govcrnment 1 This is the great a.nd leading
question j one of the first magnimue, and full l-f cunsequcnc('~. I have gi ..·en it my most anx~
iolts and deliberate attentiun j and ha\"c come to the conclusion that we have rencheu the pcrim'\. when the iu:erest both of the Guvernment o.nd the banles forbid a rennion. I now propo:;u
to offer my rca;;ons for this (!onclu~ion. I shall do it with that perfect frankness due to the sul,·
ject, to thc coun~ry, and the pu~itioll I occupy. All I asi.;: is, that I may be heard with a c:mdur
and fairness corrcl![.onding to the !Sincerity with which I shall deliver my sentiments.
Those who support a reunion of the banks and the Government, hn~re to overcome a preliminary difficulty. They !lre now scpan.'ltcd, by uperation of law, and cannot be united while
the present sLate ()f things continue, witholll repealing the law which has disjoined them. I
ask, who is willing to propose its repeal? Is there any onc whu, during the SUSpCll.':iUll of specie payment~, would advocate their employmL!nt as the fiscal ageuts of the Go,·ernmcnt, who
would makc them the deposituries of the public revenuc, or who would receive and pny nwny
their notes in the public dues1 If there be none, then it result>1 that the separation must continue for the prc!'cnl, and tha.t the reunion ml1st ue the work of time, and depending on the
contingency of the resumption of specie payment~.
But suppose thi~ difficulty to be r('moved, and that the banks werl' regulnrly redeeming their
notes. from what party in this body can the proposition come, or by which can it be supporteU.
for fJ. reunion between thCln and the Government 1 Who, after what has ha.ppeneu, can advocate the reunion of the Govel'nment with the league of State banks 1 Can the opposition, who
for years have been denounC'in~ it n~ the Inost dangerolls instrument of power, anll efiicient
menns of corrupting and c'onlTOl1ing the Guvernment and country? Can they, after the exact
fulfilment of all their predictions of disastrous ('onieql1CllCeS frum the conncxion, now turn
round and support that whieh they hnve so long nnd loudly condemned 1 We h:J.\"e heard
much from the opposite side of untried experiments on the currency. I concur in the justice of
the censure. Nothing can be morc delica.te thnn the currency. Nothing can require to bc
Inure delicately handled. It ought never to be t:unpered with, nor touclu~d, ulltil it becometi
absolutely necC'~sary. But if untried cxpcriment:s justly d~sC'r\'e censure, what cumlt-mna.tion
woulll:J. repetition of an experiment that has fa.ilcll ncservcl An experiment that ha.s ISO signally failed, both in the opinion of Supporicrs and oppollcnts, as to call down the biller denunciat.ion of those who tried it. If to make the experiment wns folly, the rcp~titi()n would be
madness. But if the opposition cannot :mpport tllc measure, how can it be {"xpected lO l'ccci\·c
~upport from the friencls of the administration, in whose hands the experiment htl:> su ~ignally
failed, as to cnll down from them execrations deep and lond 1
If, Mr. President, there be anyone point fully establb,hclluy experience and reason, I hoitl it
to be thl~ utter incompetency of thc SLa.te blinks to furnilSh, of themselves, a s(lunll nnd ~table
currency. They may succeed in prosperotls timcl>, but tbe first ad ...erse cnrrent llcc(' ....::oarily
throws thcm into llltcr (·onfusion. Nor hl15 any devicc been f011nd to give them the requisite strength and stability, but 0. great central and controlling bank, in:;tiLutcd umler the authority of this Government. I go further. If \VC mllst continue our cunnexiun with thl: bank,,if'we must receive !lnd pay away thelr notes ~=,meney; we'rid ()niy have the right to regulate

nnd gi,·c unifortni'y and !Otability to them, but we nre bound. to (!o so, an(l to usc the mo~l
efficient mean;; f~)r tha~ purpose, The con~tituti(ln makes it onr tluty to lny and collect the
taxe.5 and du!ie' u11i[v,-m!y taroughlJut the Union j to fulfil which we nrc bound to give the
hi;he:>t pos5i!>le equality of value throughout e"ery part of the country, to whate,"er medium
it lllay be (,oHeeted in; and If that be bank notes, to adupt the most effective means of flee ampti!'.hing it, which experience bas shown to be fl b:1nk of the Unitel! States. This has been
Ion:; my opinion. 1 en!t'rtained it in IBIG, l;'Ind. repea!ed it in Dly place here on the deposite
que5ti,m in 1834. The only alternatil'e then is, disguise it as you may, between a disconnp.xion
and a bank of the United States. This is the: real issue to which all must come, and ought
no\\" to be openly amI fairly met.
Bllt there are difficulties, in the way of 0. natil/nal bank, DO le1"8 formidable than a reconnexion with the State banks, It i~ uttcrly impracticable, at present, to establisb one. There is
rca..on to believe that a majority of the people oflhe United States are deliberately and unalterably ojlposecl to it. At all en-ats, there is n. numerous, respectable, and powerful party (I refer
to th(~ old State rig-h:::; party) who are, nnd e\'t>r have been, from the beginning Oflht> Govefllmen t,opprt~ed. to the b:m ~\:; 3.11.t who;;.'? opinions, thus long and firmly entertained, ought at least
lo besomnch respected as to forbid the creati~")n of one, without an amendment of the c011:>-titution.
To this 111Ust be added the in ... uperable difficulty, thnt the Executi\'c branch of the Govenlment
i,. openly opposecl to it, and pledged to interpose his veto, on constitntional ground!':, should :l
hi!! pass to inc-orporate onc. For fuur .re~rs, 3.t ]east, then, it will be impracticable to charter a
bank. 'Vhat must be done in the me::tn timE~ 'I Shall the Treasury l:e reorganized to perform
tbe functions which hn,re been recently llischarged by the banks, or sh:tl1 the State ins:itution~
be again employed until a bank can be created 1 In the one CIl!!le, we shall have the so much
villiticcl nnd denounced sub-trea:>tuy, as it i!'l called j and in the other, difficulties insurmount:1blc woulJ grow np ngainst the e;:tabIishment of a bnnk Let the Stale in~titutions be once reinstated, and reunitel} to the Gm-ernment as their fiscal 3gent~, and they will be fmlUrl the fi1'l't
an:! most strenl1iltlS opponents of a llational bank, by which they wonM be overshadowed ~md
curtailed in their profit:;:. 1 hold it certain that in pro~pcro\ll'> tim~, when the Stnte banks arc
in full operatio!"l, it is impossible to e~tablish a national bank. Its creatiol1, then, !!'hould the
reunion with the State b:l11ks take place, ,,·m be postponed until some di!"a~ter, similar to the
pre:>ent, shall again befall the country. But it requires little of the spirit of prophecy to see
that such anolhf::f di~3.'!ter would be tbe of the wbole system. Already it hos had two
pa.ralytic strokes-the third would prove fatal.
But suppose the~e difi'iculties were oycrcoml', I 'V'otlld still be opposed to the incorporntion of
a bank. So far from a1fhrding the relief ,,-hich mnny anticipate, it "·ouh! be the m()$t disal'trou;; measnre that could be adopted. A~ grealll.S is the calamity under which the country i~
suffering, it is nothin3 to what "'ould follnw the creation of 8l1('h :tn institution, under existing
circum:-;t8Ilcc~, In ouler II) compel the Stntc instiLmions to pny !"llccic, the' baJ:k must have a
c:t;Ji:al as gort'at, or nen)'lr as g-rcnt, in proronion to the' existing ilislitUlicn~, n~ tho late bani.
lla;.I, when;h\!:l, to those of th:u (hy_ This wo~ld give it nn immense capital, not much
1('85 1han one hUlhlrc<1 miUious of dollar.o;, of wIuch a l:lrgc proportion, !';ay twenty millions,
mu~t be ~pecic. Frum what S,)UTCe i.;: it to be derived '1 From the Stale banks" It would
empty their V:lult~, and lea \'e them in tbe most helples!'i condition. From abroad, and England
ill l1arlic~lln.r"
It w,mld reproduce that re\rolsive current, which has IDle]y cuvered the COUDH'Y widl de~oll'1!inn. Th? ti.le is ~ti1l running to Europe,} if forcel1 back hy any artifieinl
';au.';e, be1iJrc th~ f~rci~l (~t'ht is pail', cannvt but be fullowed by the most (li$il,.;trous consequt:nces.
Dut ~l1ppo:-:;e thi~ dillienl"" m·C'rt;oJml" rm.l the tank re (":~Iablh:hl'ct, I t\;;k "'hat would be fltt'
eff'et:~~ llD.lcr sllch cir(;um~;nnr.('~ 1 "'here "'cu!d it find l"llUm for hu!';in(:'s~ ('Ommensllfah.'
wi~h j:s eXlcl1-:\eJ capital. \\'i[ho~l: c),~l,..hil1;r ~hc Stale in,,:i!t1tions, enfeebled by the witbdrawnl
,)1' Iheir 111e311S ill on!er to create the iU:<:lrUl11l'nt of tht'ir orrrc!':!'Ilon 1 A few of the more \rig_
J~'},-l ~ mi~:lt :S:1n·i","c· ;~but :he 1':lr ~r:!J.:~r ponion, 'with theil- uebtor;;, creditor;;, and ~tockholden<~

,vould be invuiveu 1:1 CLml-:1Cn Tu:n. The bank 'Would, in{!ccd, gi ...·e a specie Cl1l"lChCY, T.ot by
cnablinti the exi"ting iU>ili:n:it.n:; tu rc:mme, but t.:; LleSlr').r~ng them {tnd to.~.. ing their pJ.'lce.
Thosc who ta;,;:e a di:T~rent '.-jcw, amI su loudly anticipate rditof f.orn a na~ional b:!nk, arf'
deceived l;y a ~llPpU~('U allalv7Y bNweL'll the prc::;ent si:mllion (If the cuuntry anJ tbat of 1816,
,\,,·hen the late Lank wa,,; t!har:~rc.1, :If'~'r the war \\"i:11 Great Driiain. I \\"as :tn aewr in that
scene, and IDay be permitted lO s},C?lk i:l rdation to it w'ith sum.c li~tlc authoritr. Between the
two periods there 1 .. little ur no analogy. They s!aml almnst in e,mtra~t. In 1816, the Go,"crnlnellt \vas a (ld,t!.!c to the bank,.-ll.IW i. i" a creditur: a differellce uf tIll' greatest impurtauee, a .. as the pre,.:cnt ljucstion is cuncerned. The banks ha.l o\-er-is~ucd, it i::i tru~, but
their oVer,i::;,;ucs WerC' l<J the G·j .... ernUll!llt-a sol\'cln allu able debtor , whose credit, held l.iy lh··
llallks inlhe ~hapc "(stud,: W:J.S at par. It wu" their exec::-"i\'C issues to the G{I\"ernJnen~, un i:~
stock, which mainly cau,.;cd the ~ll.,;pcnsion; ill proof uf which, it is a remarkahlc fact, that
the depreciation of bank pn.pcr untlel' gllht and ~ih"~r was a.buut equal to the proportion which
the GovernlUent :stock heM by the" bvre tu their j"',.ues. It was this cxccs~ that hung on
the nlar1cet 8n ..l dep!'e"",.:d the valnt' of their nO:C$. The ;sulution is easy. The.! bank,; took
the Govcrnmen: stock raya!.Jlc in tweh"c year~, and i~Slll'd their notes fur the same payai,le O~l
demand, in viulation of the plainest prin.:iplcs of l.Jankillg. It fllllt..\\'cLI, of cour;o;c, that when
their nore~ were prcsc:ntell ful' payment, they hat! nothing but Go'.-ernmcl1t stuck to Jnt!ct them.
Eut its f"tuck was at },ar, and all the banks had to du was tu go into market with the stock tll('Y
hehl and t:'1ke up their no!c~, anLl thus thl.! o::x:ce~$, which hung upon thc market and dl'prc"'~elf
their "ralne, wuuld ha ..·c bCl'll withdrawn from circulati,m, Ul:tt the rcsitlnc wou!d h3.\r!.! ri:~t'n tu
par, or nearly par: with g'old aIlLI silYcr, whf!n ~pl!cie payulcnts might be easily rc~unlcll.
This they were unwilling' to do. They were profiting- every w;,\y-hy drawing interest on
rhf"! stock, by disc()unting un it a..s capital, and by its ('onlinne(l rise in the market. It becan:e
nece:o-;sary to COlllpcl them to :surrender these alh·~' Twu Ine~hods presented thcmseh't!s
-one a bankntfli kl\", and the other a national h.:lnk. I was ul'POSClllO the fllnucr then, as r
am no·w. I rcgarLle.t it as a han;h uncoll"liLutinnal lnca.... ure-()pl'u~ed to the J'igh~ of the
State:;:. If they I a~'e not !"urrc:lllered the right to incuTporate l'allk:;;, a~ is conceded, ils exercise cannot be c~J)ltl'l,lkd by th!.! at:tivll llf this G.)vcrnmell!, which hns no powcr 11l1t what i~
~.xprc,.;"ly grantclI, anlillo an:llOrity to cUlllr.Jl the S:a.~cs in the cxcrci,.:e (11' their rc:<cn;cd
It )"cllJ.:1.i:l(',l ILl l'e~Ol"t lu a l::1.~i(Jnal bank, :ts the lllcallS (If cutnpul:-iun. It l'ro\"cd cffl!clual. Specl(~ p:1.ymcnts W('l't~ restoTe.! j bl1!,C'''~ll with thi .. f;[rikin~ n,\nlntnge, it was 1'01}Clw(·(l by great Pl'CSSul'e in 181 S, '10, and ':.!O, n" nIl who nrc old enuugh to l'l;mCluu,zr that rel'jud Ulu,;t rcc(l!leCI. Such, in [act, lllll,.,t ever be cunSl."qllCllcc of re:.nmplioll, whcnjfor("(".l ll:ltIer the nUlst fa ...·urablc cirC:l1m.stL\.ncc~; anu snch, accordingly, it prc.l\red even in Eng-lauLl, with
nIl her resources .anll WillI alltbc cautiun I'he u,,:cLl in re",toring a ",pecic circulation, nth'r the
lun .... !!tusPeJ1",ic.n of 1797. What. t:Qen, would be .its effecrs in the prl"scnt condition uf the
CO\.~ltJ'Y, whell 1;1(' Govt.'rnmcnt is a crC'tlitlll', ins:cad uf a debtor; '\vhcn there are sa many
ncwly create,l b~n,{s withuut c,;tah};she,l credit; '\'.-}Lf:m the u,,·,~r-issul':S are ~o gl'cnt; allll when
"'r'" :t p,)r'.. ivll L1f the dcb:UI'S nrc not in a cCJn,titiun to bc coerced?
As grcat GS is the till,..!
~u l u. roll.:;..
f..'f llbn.;ter wllich i:~ pas",ing on!!' the lLu~ll, il wuuld he as nOlhlllg (0 'what v."uid full(n,," were
n uULiouall>:u:.k to ue c:.;r:J.bl1:sht."l :t." the tnC'nns uf cOl!rcin~ ~r(:cie payml'nt:>.
] am. bunnl1 tn :<pc:t~; \Yi~i''''l1t rC"L!nre on (hj:.;. imror~;'Ult poiut. l\fy llpinion then j"", that, if
i~ !;hunhl be ,lc:cl"luinc'.l £(.1 ClJlllpl'l 1he r(,sl(J1'a~iol1 of ~f!.cic p'l.'ylncnhs by the ur,tl'nf'y lit' banks.
therE.' i~ LUll/llC \'o';ty-·-hu: tu that I have ill~llpl~ra.ulc 1l1,je(!.it:ul'I. I lll('nn the alluptiull (,f th~
l'~nu::;llyallia Bnn~i uf the UllitL'L1 S!nt(~::; as the fi,.caI ngeut of tho GuvcrnUll'nl.
It i,.: alrL':l,ly
in operatilOn, :tn,1 ":l1~t:'linell uy gl"C'rn n~~unr('(.·::; :Ind l)(Jwel't'nl cunn('xilln~, hOih at h(Jll~~ and
abror1.,L ih :l3L'lll:y ~I'~cit! p;:J~nnl!lll" might unllonhtcdly he n.:..;tnr('d, n!lll tllal with
i'U..- Ie::;:; ~H~u.liter than IhflJ!lgh a Hewly (,I'ea:ell hauk; hnt Iwt \\"jlllOltt !'C\"crc T'r('~:-HI~. 1 ('all~
T:(ll, hUWt!'.-t'T, '."~C' fill' l:'uch :'1. )a!.!:!.~nre. J ~:lnn(>t a;.:rce ttl gi\'C n pn:f\!H'l-:<::~ :111,1 ~'.ldl atl'":lnwg'(':'
tu t1. b ..'ln~: Oflll1~ \..~f thL'a !~l 'Hi' ,cr ... (If lhi . . . c\)nfi.:J~ra~r· ovet· thd"':C uf C.J:ll{'II!·:--;-n. l.,allk d\~pcul~n..nt
llf-'l.'!l the ·.il! l,f a S-n:~ nJl-..~ ~I\l"j,~t.:~ ~I. ~~..: i;!~I:tL'nc(" al.a! c·:'~~!rLJ. 1 c~!n!1(.t ("l u~ent 1u {'i.'r

t'ueh fll";"O:-S 011 t:1C st.:lcidl01der.>, many of ~·hom, if rum.)r is to be tru.;:;~ed, are foreign capitlil.list'S, and without claim on the bunmy of the Go\"ernment. But, if all these and many other
objections ""ere o."ercome, there i~ still one which I cannot sur-mount.
There has been, as \ve all kll()';l·, a conlli~t oo!tween one of the d~pl1rtlnen!s of the Govem
tnent and that institution, in which, in my opinion, the dep:utmcnt was the Msnilnllt j but I
cannot consent, after what hns occurred, tu gi\-c to the bank a triumph OVf'r the Governmen.t,
for such its adoption as the fi~cal agent of the Gov-ernment wOllM neces:5-anl:r be conside~d.
It would degrade the Government in the eyes of (')ur citizens and. of the world. and go far to
make that bank the Go~·ernment it8eU:
But, if aUlhc!'le difiicultie:s were OyerCOllle, there arc other:;:, to me, wholly insurmountable.
1 belong to the State rights rar.y, which, at all times, from the beginning of the Gm"ernment
to this day, has been 0ppoRed to such an institUti,m, as unconstitutional, inexpedient, and dangerous. They h:1\"t' e\"er dreadcd the union of the poiitical and moneyed power, and the central nction of the Government to ,,"hich it $0 strongly tends j and, at all lime.!:, have strennously
resisted thcir jU!lction. Time and experience have ('on firmed the truth of tlieir principles;
and this, abo,"e all other periods, is the one at which it would be most dangerous to l'eptl.~
from them. Acting on them, I ha l""C n~""CT gi \"en my COlln~cnan('e or suppOrt to a national bank,
but under n comptll;;;ion which I fell to be imperious, and ne,·er ,,·hhollt an open declaration of
my opinion as unfa~..orable to a banI•.
In supporting the bank of 1816, I openly dcelart:d that, a~ a question de'llOrO, 1 would be decidcclly ngain:,;t the bank, and ,,·ouhl be the i:l:St tll give it my !"llpport. 1 ah"o stated that, in
~upporting the bank then. I yielded to the necessity of the caSe, growing OUt of the then exi!;ting and long estllbliilhed connexion between the Go,"ernment and the bauldng systC1U. I took
the ground, even at that early perioll, that so hllg a.i th~ C(lnnexion existed; so long as the
Governmcnt reech·ed nnd paitl aw:ty b~mk notes .as nDne)", they were bound to regulate their
vallle, and had no alternnti..e but the e:o::abli:;lnncnt of a n:l.thmnl bank.
r foun{\ the connexion in existence nnd establil;'hen ber,lre my time, and o,"er which 1 c01dd
have no control.. I yielt!ed to thc neccf<sity in orner to corrt'ct lhe di;:;ordercti l'Ito.te of the currency, which had fallen exclusi.ely under the contiol of the State;:;. I yic1detllo what I could
not r('veT~c, just 3...<; any member of the Senate now woul,l, who might heJievt: that Louisiana
was unconstitutionally admitted into the Union, but who wonlll, rle.'erthcle~~, feel compelled
t~ vote to extend the laws to th~t Statp., ~s one of its members, on the ground Ihat its admissIOn was an act, whcther c{Jn~titlltioIllll or nncollsH!utiolllll, which he cuuld nol rc,-ersc.
In 1834, I acted in conformity to the ~amc principle, in proposing the ren~w31 of tIle bank
chlll"tcr~ for a !;ohort period. My object, a~ expressly :lyowcd, was to u~c [lle hank to break the
conneXlOn between the Govemment ::md the bankin~ ~ystem g7·(1r!Ulllht in urder to B'tt!rL the
r.::tl:stfophe :"hich h~~ now hefallcn U~. and whieh I then clearly percei\·~:l. Bnt the cor~nexiou,
,,"hICh I behc,-ed to be irl'c'"cr!:'ihk in 1~16, t:.l.,;; now been bruken by operatiun of la'v, It is
n::nv on open q~le~tiull. I feel l11y~elf frcl', t~r the fi1':;:t time, to choo~c l1W conr!'le on this ilnpon:mt subject, nn(l, in opi.,o~inti a bank, I act ill confurmity to pl'illciplcs '~'hich I hav-c entertained el"Cr ~ince I h:1,-e fully iln".:>:<tigated the !!<uhjcct.
Bnt my opposition to a reo"union with the banks i~ not ,"onfined to objections limited to n.
nntic.mal or State b:tnks. It ~oes be}"ond, and cOlnprebcnds otht.'fS of a moO': gener:ll no.turc
relnting to the cnrrenf'y, which to me arc dl'cisi\"e. I am of the imrrc~sinn t1,nt the cannexion has a most pernicious inilncnce o"er bank curr£'nry j that it ten,!;;; to <li:<tl1rh that l'Itllbilily
nnd llhifonn.ily of \Oaluc which is cS$ential to a "'oun,l C't11'rency j on.1 is among the leading
r.:tuses ofthn.t tendency to exp::m~ion ond contraction, whIch cxrcricllcc hl\..<; shown i~ incitfent to
bnnk note!!; as n currency. They nre, in my opinion, at be~t. "'ithollt the req'ti"ilc quo.lities to
.',)n<;titllte 0. currency C'\'en when nnconnccteti with Ih~ GOYCnlnlent ; ::tncl are donhl:r di:-:qIlQli·
tied hy rea:,on of that connexioJn, whi.~h !'<u~jcct!'i them ttl sudden cJtpnn..::ion,.-; olld contractit.)tls,
aucl CXpO!li:f'S t},cm to fatal cata<-tr0rlws, 51.l.:h Il!" the pre~ent.
I wi~l c:-:p!ain lny Yi~ws. A no:e Cil·(,U~:1.t~" 111..'; men!l)" on o..C-:{)~:l.t Qf the c:-edit of thc

instituti·:.r. l.y \\"il:r:h i. !.~ l.-;.iU~l!. Lut l;eca.u~e Go,'crnmcnt l'ecci\'~s i:' like gol.! nlld hll\'cr in ell
jtM due!!. nnl! tbu,", O.!,!ol i.& OWll crcLlit t~ that uf the It. in fllct, l"irtua.l1y cndor:;cs ,'n
the not,· of every "'llccie·p:tying ba.nk, U rcech'nblc by GU\'crnlllcnt in its dnes," To unliersta.nd ~1\)\\' grc:l~T.}- tid!'! atM...; to) th~ circula.tiun of ba.nk notcs, ".~ mURt remcmber that Government. I'> the grt.':lL Ul')DCY I!..:aler ufthc country. anll the hulder of immen:re public", ar•. 1
tho.t It h3:1 thc POU'l'T of crca~ing a ltcmnnd against. c,'er), citizen 0.1 high 0.0; it pleases, in the

sh:Jpe of a. ra..~, ur Itll:)". "'hich l:3.n be tUl!'c}u1l'gcd, us the la.\V now is, unly by bo.llk u()te~ or
S'"ld a.nd !o'ih'l'l·. Tlli.i, of cour:oc. (!~nnut but aad grc3.tly to tbc crelU!. of bank nllteS, Ilnd eontribute much to thelr circula.:i.ln, thcugh it mo.)" be dhlicult to deternline 'With 0.11Y precL<ion tn
to who.t exteut. It c~rt:1iu!y i:i ,-cry great. Fur wby is it that nn individual of the tir.;t crc(lit,
,,'bo.~c re,;p.msi!.·ili'y is ~\) i:1.1i.<pnt3!Jle tbo.t bi~ friend of cllual crelUt cndor='C~ 11i~ note f.,r
nothing. ~h:luhI put hi:: "'i~h hi$ fri'!l1d'~, Lcin3 t1wit j\)int cratUt, intt) a. bank, an r! lob:alit t!te n'.He~ nf the h3nk. which i~, in fact, but the credit of the book il:sclf, and pRy !"is: {ll'f
ccuto di."corrnt hel"'cen the crc~lit uf himself nnd his fri(>nd nnd Ihal of the bnnk 1 The known
and esta.hli<:hcll credit of t.he lxlnk m:1y be one rea..OOion. but tbere il' another ftnd powerful '-'lie:
tbe G·.l\·crnmcnt trc::.t... the cr,~.HI of the h:tnk :1~ guM and t;il-"cr ill all itK lrnlll'lnctinn,.. nnrl t!c·r:e
not trefLt the t~redit of ilhli\·i.!ual~ ill tbe .£:1111e m:mnC!r. To tCOllI the truth, let us reverllc thf!
(,3.lSe, antI flUl'P:J!=c the Qu,·crnmcnt. tu treat the. juint crec:tit of the indivicluAls as mODry. nnci
nt,t the ere.lit of the oonlq and i... it nut obvioU.i. tho.t, lnst.eall oC borrowing from the bank, anti
1'3yiRg !pis: p~J" cenl. tlioiCUttlll, the bnnk w",uld he glll\1 tv burro\v flUm them tlJl tbe !'lame tcrm~.
From thilS we 1ll:1)· pcrcci\'c lhl! ro,,-crflll inllucncc. which bnnk circula.tion t!iTh'cs from the
c:lnn~:d,'n with th:= ere.tit 'If the GO\"CTnment.
It f~llf)\\,:;, a..; n ncC'c~~:try e:Jll~etllUm':c, thnt to the extent of this inlluencr, the i!>!'iues of tIlt'
Bl1nk.s c-xpan(! nil.! C:~lnlra·.;t witb the exp:ln:uun anJ contnacti•.m of the fiKenl a.c~ion c:f the
Guvl!rnnumt i w itll the inC~l"cn~' of it~ ,11lticlC, taxL'K, income. autl cXfleruHll1ro; with the deoro-ite,..
in its \';Hll:~ ncting m' nlhti~h"lnnl cal1it3.l, nnd tho amount or bauk nnre~ wi:hth'n1o\'n, in eun,oC,-,1.h!lh!", 1"1'0111 cin:nlnti,m i ail ut whh·h lnu.;t dirc"-:!.i" a.tTl?ct the nO'hJUnt of their l111~ille:c!'
a.nL~ i~,,"lO'~, :tllJ bJ.n~~ ,ollTl'l!llC'Y mu:'t uf cuurtle pnrlo.ko.! ur nil tbu:or. vihruHunq 1" whir"
Il\o fi:;c;\l Dcli ••:! ui" the G..l\·crl1m'·I~·. i.; 11l'cc~l<al'ily cXI"ll~cd. o.n.t, \\'ben ~rcnt aecl Fm!-1cn, rnu:<t
CX?.I:-C .he :.y.:t ... Ul lu c"~:l';~l',,'ph~~ ~UC:l tl:< we l10W "'ilnc~""
III t':lCt_ 3. lUort: ~lli!nh!c in"tnn"L'
cunu ..,.: "e ~dl?L:C:.l t., illll.:.rate the u·u.l, vI wha.t I a.'-ic'I, than Ihl! llrcl'>Cll!; 0.:0; I I"b:111 pr.\cc~ !
t:) :0111.1"''',
'I'.. un:!\.·r",tan·1 thc Cllll::C:< u'hi:-h le.l t~ the J'fC-;C'nt of tbin~f, we tUn:::t P.:'") "twl~ '"
t!lC: p:nr Ib~·I. ",hell tcrht' ~Y~'l'm ll'illlllllhctl in C'ln~rC~1'i-l\ ~·:o1('m whicb imp,,:;etl dn\ i~"',
l~ut i ...11 the "~ll'I'n~c of run:nuc. but to encouroge tbe int\\1~tTY uf ClDC plIrtirJD l,f tbe Uniou 3.'- ti:t!
c,:pcnsl! of the uthcr. Thill "·'IN fo>Uu\\"c.1 up by th~ D-ct uf lS:!d, ,,-hu~h Ct'nl'umm:ltcd the
:oy.4:em. It l·a.i:-;cli Ih~ duti~to ~ e~trn\'ao~ntly. that oul uf an oDnuol impnrtatiun of sixty-fClur
luHli :n.... Iflirl,--t""U pruc-.e<1 inlo the TrCflRUry J thllt illl, GU"enunrnt touk one half fhr the
l~::I!!'.y ~.·f in~r.;.'ucic~ t:.l.l u~beT. CI'11l111c~"i miHiullli ,,"erc Ihl1~ ponTed iUlo the Trcn\t;ury
bel'unli Lhe ",;luts uf the GI:\'l!l'l1lDcn:, whicb hCCAllll' in lime the Hcmrec of the mo=--t ~xtr:\\·n·
gllllt c~pcll.Htun::<o Thi., '·ast incr"n~c of ree,·il,L.. ancl cxr~lu!iturcs W:lo; f(llJov.-ecl loy a (!('T' •• o'ltn ... ":0.,'1'111·1.111 .If the l1\1sinr.,;~ ufo tlle b:lIlk:ol,
Thc"J h:llt to diKC.JUllt nnd i.q!=ue frech'
l ......
'" , ' "
~l\:l:.,l(' lb~ m~t'l;h-lllt~ hI p:l}' thl'h' '!n:y boJlllt~, Dli w~ll n~ In Ult.t:t the \,:It:ll}" incrt'a:<etl cxrl'nd;.
turl.!.-' llf ;hc G~I\·'·lUIIICU:. An,nl\cr e:ii:d (,.ltuwed tilt' nct uf lR~, wbicb ~n-"c 3. !'oti!l f:lT~b'r
~J..·':ln)o~I.'n bl !!it' nl:t;'Jll t:f Ill" bIU:l;;:o, 3n.1 "'hicll i... "'C1rthy l1f notice. It tttt·nc.t the ('xr·h:ll:::\.·
. '
wl~h E!:·.,;hu\(t ill C:\\',
lOr lhi.i co>ulllry. Tllo.t l'orticJD of the pt"occe,-!,.. (.f (Iur expr'r!~, w}:it:h.
i:l (',ll!,:c'lll,·tH:.: ~r 1!1(~ high c!u'ic",. r-ould 11U lun~f'r return ,,-itb prufir, in the u~n:tl nr.irll!,.,
w!11.:11 \~.~ h!1.·.! !,.••• :\ in tbe l::-hil "f rccd\'ing ),riucll':lU}' fr•.un thot l'II1antry in rx,.h:tn:=c !i'r
uar I'X,"'''''', :"'·.'tnfl~ '.! jll z.,~.l utI,-l ~i:"cr. in onh.·.· hl llucch:tsc flhnUur u:'~jc:::< :1l tht' ~"l':h
'rili; w1.~~h" r:r : W\;;,,·: \~'!1::11 ~\."" :h:" Wl'::~crn ,HTt.'cti.lll h' :~l~ preci. a .. 1ll~t:l~", lh~ l·e':ld,.ill','
r&.!~,a •• :.;;' wllh:h !o.l~ ! ... ,,:: 1.,:I •. w .. .! h~' ::1» llUUl~' Ili."::1-.:cr~o 'Vida the cxd::!.llU'c ill oUl'f:n·..1r. :ml~



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I~' :~c"J· 3!'~n,,311t

:m an ir. vl- thE re\"e~u(?, ah!l0s: every restraint we,.,. remo\"hi un tne oJ i,;count;.t an.l i~sues
,-.1' the ban:>:.. , e~leci~l!y in th.:! nor~;:f"rn section of the Union, where thclOe ~au=,\!s prillcip;:.lJy
operated. \Vith th.i!ir ir.crea$e, wages nnd prices of t:very de~ripti(.n r\.J;;c ill pwp(:.rthm.
tt.J]oweu of cou.·se by nn ibc:reasing demand ..:m the ballks f .... l· further is.-m:.:,;. Thi.s i~ .he true
~nu~e of thaI. expansion of the cuneney, which began about the C(lml"lt.'n~Cl:1ellt of the late
administration i but which was errone.;>u;;ly charged by it tu Ihe Eo.u!>: ;.,f the {.Tnitcd S!Iltes.
It rm;e 0111 of the action of the G<.lY(>rnll'len •.
The bank, in incren~ing it~ ba":inc:;:,, nctcd 1:1 vbedience to t!Je 1.··.·1Hlniua (,f 11ungs ~t the
lime, nnd in confvrmity w.ilh tht' banks geller:llly in the same :.-'~(:tiun. I. \\':15 at l1!is j,lnc-t\ue
Ihat the Inte administration came into pvwer-ll jl1nctur~ remarkable :1. many re~pct:ts, but
mure especinlly in l"cl.ltion tu lhe lill'~Slioll of tbe ('urcency. :\:lo!'<! l.1· tht: ":::\~l::;~:;; 'whi..::b have
r;::nce terminated in the complete prostra:iol1 of the ballliS ~nd tl.e (".:unerc~~l Pl·I..;8peJiiY
or the country were in full Deti ':i.y"
Anu~her call~, aLout th:u time, (I do not remember the preci,.e (~a:\:',) bl.:pm \0 F·ro\fuee
l'u..... erflll (;reel::. I n:ler to the In~t renewal of the chnrter of tIle Bal.. :i vI EI~'.!hll:oJ. It was
renewed for ten ye3.n'. nnd, among other provi~jons, contained one lllaldng tlle nvte~ of that
hank a Jegal lcnder in aU cases exc~pt between the banI, and its cleliircns. The effect was to
·!j"Fcn~e stl!l further with the Ui;C of the precious metals in that grea.l cummcfI,ial country,
wJlich, of cuursc, caused them to 110w Ollt in e\"ery dircctiun throutih the \'ari(.I11:'; channel.s of
i~~ commerce_ .A large pllr:ion took their direction l;itht!Tward, and "'t!rvcd :,:tjll funher to
ll){· thz current, \\'hich, from cnuscs alrC'ady enmneratcJ, was l1;Jwiug ::;.0 ~tH ngly in this
,1irection -; and \\ hich slill further incr~a,..eJ the force of the reannillg l:l1fU-UI, l.n the lllrn of tIle
The auminil<tr:l.ti(Jn not (';)mprChClld t!:ic lHffku!!ies and t1:lnf;cr~: whic-h sUrJcuuued it.
In;;:tcrl'.l of perceiving the truc rca::vn of thct?xpansion onhe Cl1rrell<':Y, ...nt! aL!<..pling the mea·
"nrcs to it, they aluibutell it tv the Bank uf the Unitnl State,.;. nn,l made it the
<::lU:--e or prcte.x.t for waging war un that institutioll. .:\mor..::; the £r:-t aus l.1 hl.".tilJty, the uepo.,;ites were remvved, and tran~lcrreu to :o;electetl State bnnk:;:, the ctit!C't of \~·h.ich, instead of
H:,;1s,1n; the It'udeney to expan"ivn, W;lS to throw vtf the vr.iy rt:,..:rair.l that he:d the Lanl>:ing
iasti'lltiun~ of the c{)untry in check; and vf course ~a\·c tv thc ::,wciHtg tide, wluch was \fes·
t inell to de~olate the counlry, 3. puwcrful impubc_
Banks :<pnlZJg up in 1;·,·(::-Y dircc:lun; disL', ,unt.'i aud issue:. iucl'ca;;cli ahnOSl WiLh(.Jut limitation; and nn imnlE:u:<c ;,:uq;lu.~ }'c\"o:!llue accumnlated in tIle deposite banks, which, after tIle payment of the pllblic ~l(lbr, the UlOl:it cxtr:;n'a.gnnt appropriatiull!': couM not CXh:Ulst. :md which aeted as additiunal bauldng capital. The
va.~ue of mc~ey d~ily depreciated; prices rose i and then comment'cd tho:<e unbc..11l111ed i:'}lecul~tlons, pnrlJcularly in public land,., which ''''ns transferred, hy mi11i(.)'js uf ncr,.!>, from the pubhc to Lhe speculators for \\."orth 1e,.:s ban k note~, till at lcng~h tIle ::,wcl!ic ~ 1hA.'ll Wilt' cl.ec1wd, nnd
the revu]sh'c current I.Htr.;;.t its {'artier:" and on~r:,rr('atl r.nd dt:::.vl:liC,1 ;he laMl,
The first ('heck camc frolD the n:tr.k of Englnnd, which, alarmt:d at the llJ:-:: vI it~ rrecions
metals, refused to diseuunt American iJiU~, in order to prC\"Cl11 ~ fllr!h£'r decrt:'asc of its cal'h
means, and Ca.ll::"e a return of tc.w;c which it hnd loEl. Then fulluw(·;l the o:e:eutioD cf the
Ilcpo~itc act, which, inslcnd (If II remeJilll meal',uJ'l', as it might h:nrc lt~'en ma,lc if 11tOperly
executetl, was mnde lh£' inl<trument of wcnil:cnillg the IJanks at the I'cinl d' rTl::"'~Ule, c:;p:'dally in the great mctn'j)o!is of tile Union, where so large n pcrtitlD of the ~;l]rr]llS re':enue WnS
Anll, Jlnaih', the Treasllry (.lrder, which ~tiil further weali:c'I)":>,! rJJO~c Lm:.k:i, t-y
withdrawing their cn~lll1l~an", to be in\·c,.;cJ in puhlic lands iu the Wts,.
It i~ often tu IH'C'.-ellt whnt t.::lnnot be remedied, which the p!'e;o<t'nt illst:mce ~IJOllgJy
illn.<:trnh.'li. Ir the adrnir.istra~iiln }<~d fvrmc,l a true cunc"'pt.i"n of the ..longer in liml', wbat
1w.....: happe-ned mib'ht lin\"", tilcn DC'C:ll (:a~ily :l.n'rtcd. Tile ncar ,:;,pf·ruach uf the t:'xI~jr., •
! i~·n or the ehartcr of the Unite~l S!:t~c~ B~\n!' wl.m!.1 ha,·c a.'1".1'..1t.' .. 1 amr1e lllean'" l,f stayjng
:h(.' l~..:-:.-':·Iatil'n, if it had. heen time~y ;3.nd r:'<"rer1y u1'cd. I :;.nw it then, nr.,1 PllTc:"cd to ,encw
ihe.· .::ha;-;C'r, fur ;.t Elaiteo.1 I.t:r.iod. "'d:;l ~u\.:h mo,Efica.jl.n:; n" wonld 1;~~1.·\' c:r\!c~l\aUy 1(~,.:i~It',l
!l~l' in('!e:l~in!" eXj.rru:::l{.!'l u' ;}:e .;;uu.'; nn,1, ~t the ".au~e :ime, f'!''''<~l\a~!y ~nl1 f:nnHy, we~r

out the ConllCX!tm bt=l\\"ecn ~hc ~'n.n~ ~r.:! the Go·.-ernt-:lent. To \i:-£' the (:xpre~sion 1 tllcn U!;,·J
" [0 unbauk the bank:; j" to let d':I\\'u the ~y~teln (·rt!'ily, nnd !:ill to effect the .separo.tiCJu betwEell
the bank nr.d the Gv .... crnlll('nt as ill 0.\" ..... ,1 the plJ:'-!'oibiUty of thnt ~hock which 1 then saw ,,,as
lnevitab!c.: withuut "OlllC ::.l1ch rClllc.!y. The 1I10111cnt was elllinently propitiol1s. The prcck:!::
mctals ,,"crc flowing in un 11:; f.rdll e','ery ql1art('r, nnd the \'iguruus measures I purposed ~lJ
adupt in the rell(:\\,nlllf the charlcr, would have cff'cctlln.lly arre~tcd tbe inerca~ of banks o.!'!.l
checked thc excc:o:; LIt' tt~ir .H:o~ul.1nt~ ::I.IlJ i~:.ut.':> i ~o that the aCCLUn\l~l\ting ma.~ of golll n.nt!
silver, instertll of bcil~g CUll\·er"~.l into ll:lll~ capital and I'm'clling the tidc of paper cirClllati(.r..
would hayc been ",ut.~titn~C,1 in the .,:ace <.Jf balak nnte:,., as a r-c.nna11l:nt ur.d wbolesome aJ.;~i­
tion to the currency u1' the cl,uu:ry.
But ncithl!r tht: ::.Limiui:.-traii... :n lh}r the orr(.:li:ivn lm~tair.l·l] lnf;, nnd the prer.iol.1~ (lJlP()r~ur tty pa"s£t1 un~dzc.l. I thell elc-.uly ~a\\" tIl(.:' {'tulling calamity ""'as ine\ritaule, and it hn!" Jlcj~b.'r
arrh'~u sooner, J1ur j:-; it grea:t'r, Ihan what I expeC'ted.
Such art! the leading cau"'cs wllich ha.\-e produced the prc!'Ocnt dj~ordered sta.te of the (,"141rcncy. There are (Itht.'rs c.f a. minor character. c(:nnectcd wl~h the ~encrnl condition of t!'l'
(:ommece'ial wurld and the lIr·crn~i,.n ('1' tl.c Executive Lnul\:h I.:f the GU\·\·ll1lllcr.l, but ,,·hic:~.!
(.f thelll!'oclve!S, w"uhl ht1\-c rru.tllc~·d liale cm~ct_ To repeat the cal.1S(S in a few \Vords, :b'
vast iucrca:-c which tht.:: larilr l'I lS2.t nnd le2S {;ave to the Ibcal action of tIlC Guvernmer.t,
l;ombillcc1llrith lllt: cau~cs I ha\'c f·I,tllnCralt·lI. gave the first ilnpnl~e 1(1 the cxpan:--ion uf nIt:
,:urrency_ The!<c, in tnrn, gtl. ... t! tllat extr;1urdiuflry jlllpul~e to o\'crrrading nnl\ t-J'lecub\ti~ I.
(thcy n.rtl cfIi:cts :lnll nut cau~(·~) which ha:; finally lennimttc(l in the prcl-'t!nt calamity. It lUi.r
thul:i be ultimately trac~,llo the l..unnf'XiUll l·c~wc(:n thl" bnnlcs and the GLI ..... efrun ...'l1t i all~ it ::0:
not a little relllarktl.lJlc that the ~u:<pen:-:i(lD ui ~peeic paymc:nhi in 1~16 in this cuuntry. nr:d
that of 1797 in Great Brjtain, ,,"&;Ore prl:.luced by IiI"! cnnSl·::.
There is anc..thcr rcaSlln a~aim:t ~hc uniun ,.f Ihe Gc..'\'ernment and the l)nnk::, intimately C(.:I%leete.! with that m'hler cllu~illcrativn, which I leohnll next l'l'OI.Ct.'tl to I'tnttl. II gin;!'! n. prcf~ Jcucc t.l (Inc porti(.'U (If citizens u\-er a:l(·,}u.:r, that .i ... nei:h('l' hiir, f'qulll, nor ct.;nsiMcnt with t!.l·
.;pirit. of our institutiun!'!.
That the ccnncxi(.n IWiW('Cll the bmk amI t}w Gu\-ernmcnt, the' rccci·.. ir.g nnll pnyir.g aw;-.y
their nu:t s a,. ca~h, and the usc llf the pl1blic JI1\ ·ney fr01H tIn; \imc uf thr. \:u11 ...·cti(·n tu the l:::-:l.ur,scment, i:; t1.(' ~l nrce of iUlUlens\.' profit to lll,-' L;'lUk~, (."(\I!uot lll~ 111.1('~li\'ncll. It i:-; iJn[Jv:-~ ihlc. a,."1 I h; ~aill, tv n:lccr'o.iu \\"iih 3nr pr e.:i:.iuJl tu what t::~lcnt lh~ir i,:~ues and Cil·Cllla~i\. f'
.lcpend npun it, uut it cCl"aiuly cun~:j: n:c~ a larb"(: r.rClJ'ltJllil.·ll. A !'oinglc illu::tratiLln IUIlY thrv·...light 1.lpun this puint. Sl1rp.J~e lile nlUt:nt were tu lu~{C up the •.. ('de:o~ ucgg:u in l.hc strcd,
noll enter intu a ct.ntrncl wi~h that nuthing ~hCl1.11,.l lIe .rCl!dVcl\ in pnynll.!lll (.If its duet! l.t·
iur the !oale!!l of it~ puulic lan.l:; in flltllre. E:XCt·pt gold nnd I:'ilver and his promi~sory notes. ar.ll.
that he sh(Jl1ld tho Il~U uf lh~ public fLlndN fruln the time (If their collection UDtillheir d!s\IUCseJ1l~nt.
Call ;.\uy l'lH" (':o:tiulate tlu! wC;1~:h whil'b :such n ('(lnU'net would cunrer'l HisIlO:£1i
would circuhHC Lar a::111 wide \.o".. cr tl,e will.Ie ,:~:el1t of the ljuioll; wOldtl he Lhc lneuitilll
1!&ro1.1gh '\,vhich tbe cx.::hnugl!s ur .he cut.1ntry \\"l'\lll\ lit' rl'rfu1'I11cd; and hil'i ample and e.x:ter.ll~ll credit wonl,l ~i\·c him a cl'l:ln.II u,,'Cl' ail the l ••"\ul~ili~ instii.lItiuu.s nnllmonEycd trantlacth:l:.,
\,i thc comnlur.iir. The l(,I~:-t, . . ,.h·n (·f u. hm~ltlt,l mi!l:lI11li \\'(,Iuhl nut ~ivc a control mt':"t·
t:tfectllal. 1 n,..~., wmtl.l i: 1I\.' !.lil', Wl)iIU iL !.Ie l"111n1, \;..•. lj!.! it he ('Iln.:i~tcut wj\h the !.'[Iirit l:1
l,\'U jn,.titutiol;~. tu ('l'I:fcr ,.uch nl~\·.Ul'm.. c~ llll nny iulti ... .i.lua.ll Alitl if uut (.J) one, wuuld it t·,
lfcoufcrrc..ll..ll al!)" r.uul~l('r1 An.~, why ~huuhl it Lc t't.:ufl·ncu un any <,t.rll(lralc Lull)" ('I;'\l~ 1 II.)\".' r31: tlu:y J 'I.:....... i1·I)· hc' N1!itletllu ~l'ndits:ou \"n:-.t, whit"h nIl UlU .. t ac~;:uuwlc,t61
\.•)ullIu",,: ue jn4Lly t:~'I.fll.·;·\::·,! u:1 nny U nUl~cl' ~r 11llinr(lrllul'a~cll iu.ll,,·illuals 1
I :.:tnlC: nlll thc~~ \'i\:'\, ~ \\"::h ::r.y ju~",";i"u [.f \oriIlgiu~ lh.Wll .. dim;} t...ll ImI:kil:~ iH !!.til uti. 1 ~
1 hn..".~ no unkjl1,ll\!e:ill~ h"WaH!~ :l. ..:l~l wilnit!\·.::·. J ,hI n,'t huhl theUl J'c.;;r'·lbi:'.l(· fi.:l' tllC r:' ~
:;ent !"tate of lhinri.~. It ~!;l .• ~r.m 11 np ~ ... ll~na!l~.·, wi~hlilit cilhl'i' tho.! L:\l~ri:~ l.r tll\.· c,lmm'm::','
)H!l'cciYiTlg tb~ CI.'!l~\.\l\U':ll':C~~ v":::"':l hn','c ~'l I:L\\'r : !hc l'l'W!(~illn >t ~W('::l 1.1. "l!1.
':\Iy \.bj.!\!t ....
·t to> r.u'~·~ n·"'" ti·(·
. · l ..:\. J..'.~
-..., •.:~-. , -...
...... ,: • •
~...., .
T"• ••..;..:.
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t.: - l't"l
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Th'" ~"'"')'l·C 1'1,,,·-1 l' ~ b""0:l·J~ ..J • :l\'":.\
:l ~... 1 iIl"!.·).-,r':llU
subj·~ct. It affects tbe in·
'. . . ;;;:\?
.. l.
Icrests and condi.iJll. of th~ whole cv:umuni:y, and will be ill.\'e.5'i~ated to the bottoln_ Nothh:; will be let: unexplored, :10::1. it i::: f0r the interc ..;:: of b ..:>th the banks =mc..l of the cOlntnunity,
that the e\"il3 incident to the cc.nncxic--%i l'ohculd l~c fully understood in tin.1t?, an ..'\. the cOll.nexion
11.:: gradually terminate<.!, !:> such ccll\"ul"'i ....ll ..;: sha!l fun.)w as to sweep away the whole system, with its ad,-anlages as ,,-ell :1!" its di~::lJ";;::.
Bnt it is not only between citizen ~nl! ci:izcn that the c0nnexicn is unfair and unequal. It
lS as much so between CIle rlJrtion of the c\~untry nnll =tnlJ~her. Thc c'JnnexilJn of the Govc:.-nment with tbe ballk$, whether it t-e wi ..h a combiuati.011 cf St:"lte bank:;: or wish a national
institnthn, ,,-ill nece;;:",nrily cen-tralize tht· n~.i,..n of the systeln at the principal point of collecti·)n and discu~emenL and at which the mother bal1~, U~· the..- heat! I,)f the lengue of State banb.
nUlst be located. Fr0~n that point the whole sys~~m, Ihr,)u;;h the c(lnl1exi~);} with the Government, will be enabled to contr0! the cxch:l.n;;·.!;;:bo~h at }wme ::md abroad; and with it, the commerce, fIJrei011 and dOlllCS~ic, inc1lL!in:;- t-xport;; 3.11J impo!"ts,
After what has b~ell the;;:e pl.·':n~5 will l"(''1uire bu: li:tle il1ustra~i~m_ A singlp one will
be sufficient, and I will take. as in the fonner instance, th:1t of an indh'id.ltal.
Suppose. then, the Government, at tbe commcncemPllt ("If its operation, ha~l selected an indiy~r:!ual mercham. at anyone point in the Uni.-:m, .say ~e,"!." Yurk, and had connel;ted itself with
liim, as it has wi:h the banks, by gi\"ing him the usc of ~he public fUllds from the time o:f'their
.: ::llcction until their disbur,:;.~ment, and of rcceh'ing and. paying away, in all its tr:lRs:lction~,
nNlting but his promi!<l;:or:r nOle~, except golll and ::.ih"er. Is it not manife~t that a decisive con·
t:-ol ,,-ould be gil"cn t\l the port where he resUc\.I, Ol'er all the others; that his promissOry notes
V;'0111~1 circub!c e'"cry wher-e, through. ~1l the ramifica~il)ns l.f conune:-ce; t11:1t they 'Woul,1 reg';latc exc11nn;;e:o; that they ,,"ouM :'e the medium of paying- l~ut:r bouu!:'; nnll that they wouM
:1' ~!':lct th!! import~ and expor~.:; of the country to the pert whc1"t' such. C'x~r:1\.lrdinary facilitit"!'
yo )re aifoJrd.!d·'
If s~lch \\"ou!ll clearly be the effec:l> ill the ca:oc ~upl)o""e.1, i: is equaUy clear
t;:at the conce:l.tr3.!L)n of the ("un:cncy at the smne point, thr.)tlg·h the conn('Y.:ion of the Gcv. ·:·:~tnent Wi!!1 the han!;s, wm.l.Id Ita ;-e equal if not ~rc3tcr eff~ct~; nnd th3 t, whether one general
lqnk s!lOuld be U!.~:! ttl> an :1:;-"nl, or a )C'!1~'le c..,f bank.;;, wh~('h ~hnuhl ha~'e their centre there.
To other purts of the country, the triilin;-:lllnm~:lgc~ whie:1 u h."allCh cr dc'l)(l~i~e hank would
~:.~.. ('. in the s3fe kecping cf the pu~.~!ic re,'c!1UC, T.,)uh! be a,- lJn!!i:n;!", c·~ll1r:t;,·cd to the Josse~
c:l.uscfi to their COlDDlcrce by cen~ralizitl~ the 11l0ncyed ,,'ctiou ()f the eoulltn' at a remote POitlt.
Other gentlcnl.Cll can !>peak f01" theil" C-Wll scctlOn~; I (":1n !'Oreak with ('\.!r.fhll.'nce nf that '\'hich
I ha,·e the hono: in part to rcprc~cnt. "The entire staple Stnte~, I fL!el a. decp c(;l1"ielioll, banks
an<l aU,. "Would, l~ lhe ent'! be great g!l!nt'rs b)· the clis.'::e,'er~"ncc, whaten'l' nl~.;bl be the tempOl'a1'Y mConvel1lence" II there be any other sec-tic!l in '".-llkh the ci=ccts "rill be diirerent. it
l.'.-",uJd be but to confirm th~ dew:'l whi":!l I h!l. 't'~ pres('n:e,~.
As connected ,~i~h ~l~i"'J then:! j.;: a p lin!: '~'::'!! (!-:.·:;:!n"!.12~ c(.l1<.I~rmioll. The union bei.',",ecn
b:Ullr :lnd Government is nJt only a l~laill ~,H.1:-ce c...f that (~:ll1~crvu.:; eXi~all;::i~'n and contraction
j:l the banking- ~y:,,~em> which I h~\\"c :llrc~H~:" i:lu::<~rated, h:.:t is a1,.;) one of the principal causes
o~'that po""erful and a:m\...< i!"rc<oi;;.~ihl~ tendency to th.: incrl'~sc ~1fl'allk",. wI! iche ...·en its friends
~'ee and deplore. I fhn:lt on thi~ r-0:11~ on a f •.>rmcr occ::t~ion, (lin "Ir. "\V('h,..:er's 1l1otion to renew the bOonl\: charter in 1833,) and ~'':ll not repeat what I then saitt nnt, in addition to tlte
-·::·.l~es then cntuncr~tc:'!, thcre "XI! ln~n:: o~her;;; yer;: p~)werf'-'l. ~lld mllUl1~ others the one under
They al1 may he ~~m~l:ll'.:! ur in onp. g ..!I1cral cn'1:<C"
hn,-e made bankil:;; too prutirah!e; far, n~:-y 1hr, t.}._) pr.:!1"Ub]0; an-i, I m~:; n.!·}, inl1!lcn~:n1. On(' ( I f thl:.' most
':11plc ~Ollrcc:-= of !1~is I'l",,'li: and. i!1tluenc~ lll:ly l~c ~!":l':e"'" :1" I h:1\'e l:'huWll, to th~ ('\.'llne:doll
":i!h the ("n1nnnmcnt ; 3n,\ io::, \"f c':'Ia~'''E', :1:nl..'11;;- the l't':~n~llE'!l, cnu:-,cs of taO! ~~\"Ol1g nnd inees...;.::n tendency of the ::::.. ;::~em •• , illC!"C~"C, '~";!i·:h e\·.~n i:~ f:-ien,l.<o :;:e~ nlU:::! finally o,'crwhehll
":'iJcr IhL' I':tnli'~ or the i!~;;;:~::t:i-,r." ·_~f !:1'~ c '".l:l:;Y. ",V::h n. ,-ic'..\" ,.) c1H'ck it~ growth, thc:y
}I -\.. ;:, 11ro,... ,::.~~a t) ~ilni: tlie ll~!:~::' .:-:- \."f !,~!~:.:.:: ~~l ~ t: ....! Olll.'Hl1! vf ~ .. :"111i:ill;:: c~r':·~11:'5- all nlnenr{..
~~"'·:!lt L,f tl~l~ '2·'\n':~~u:!.·:~n; bu:!~ -:,; l:<: ..:t.':".1.'~ :~ . . :t:.. ::":.:~ .:·_~~:"c~~ "f ~""1_"~! 3:1 :-.. . . :~.\(\'~'.. ...~lll.~l'!.,t, if i: '\-.:re-

• ~ ,..,..t1'on









praclicnblc, "'~u!J l;t1~ illcr(::1~C the prol1ts :uu! mtlu('tll"c ,)1' l.::l!l~i: capil:tl ; ::In:! th:u, fina.:ly. ir
would jus:ly produce :mch indiqn:1!hm en the l'n1 t of th~ re~ 1.)1' the cutlununity ngain!'tt such
unequa.1 ru.h·ant:Jge~. th~t in the end. t\f~er a l~m:; ::lnll vi\llcn:. gtnl~gl~. th!l u"'crLhr,)'W oflhe entire system ,nmM f.>U.')w. TI.) \,u,-ia\!J tbis difficnlty. it hns heen )l1'cJl):l.iCti
add a limilatintl
upon the 31ll"Ullt of their bu,.in"'lIli i the Clr!Jct.~ of "'hich \\"vuhl be the ncc ...1nlllull:ltil.m of (.1.'
vorites to tb.!! cxclu~i"ll ll( the reNt uf the c'lmmunity. which w"uM he 11\1 lelO.i fatuI t\l the !oil-stem.
There can be, in (act, bllt line sate: nu,lclJn~iitent Nlll~,t:n the l'cll.llJrillgb:ulliin;;-. os a. 1.u~inC!i>",
less profitable I1n.l illll~t"'1l1i:ll; nnl the fir~t ::In.1 ikcish'c I'I:I!P tl)\\-a.rll:-; thi-c. i"4 n ui~I.:,·cI'anc,:
between the ballk~ and the GO\"O!:l'tl111cnt. T" tlli:s 11m,)" bl.! ad,l~.I, :IIOlll.! ('Jr~c:nI11IhllitatilJnOI\
the denolninnti~n uf the nulc:< to be i,;;;.-ue~l, ,,-hich ,,-,nlld upcrn:e lrl It. himih\r ru:t.nner.
I pa..u (J\·".r othE'r imp.Jr~nnt tl!>jecti.'n:s tu til.! c\lnn~xi~)l\; the con'U)ling inllucnce Dud the
spirit of tcpecull1litll1 ,,-h~ch ill'l)fc:.u1~ far and wille o"er Elle Jlllll1. ,\Vllo hlUl nut seen antI deplt'!'e,l the \·n~t M·I c ... rrup:ing inlluence brought to bellr upon &J.o Jegi."Ja'ur~ to obtain
cbartcl'lI, and the lu.!n.n~ llecc,",=-nry to llnr:idpate in tbe I'rlJfi~llI urthe ingti~n:iOll::. Thils gi\"co;; :!
,:ontroI tl) the G,)\'crnmcnt, whh:h brallt:> ~\lch i;l.\'ors, cf 3. 1\\.)041. cx~~n~i.\'e an;! p~r~\id.. l\t ..
character; all or which Dll.\l\t continue tl> I'Il)r~Q.l anJ increa....e. if the ('onuexiull whuuld CODtinue, until the whule cmmuuui:y mo.... t hCCOln~ une cuntamiuatctl and currupted m3SS.
There i:ll an():h~r, antl a fin:ll reo..o;;o,)n, wbieh I sh:r.ll3ossign the rcuuiOll ",jth the b:mklll.
We Ju1\'c reached a ne'" ern with regard to theelc .ms:itutiorv;. He "'hl> "'0'.11.1 judge oC the
future by the palSl. in reference to theln. will be whully mil"taken. The )''''3r 1833 marks the
commcnC'cmenl of thi.c c ::t, Thill extra.l'nlino.ry mnD, '''ho ho.(1 the puwcr uf ilnprinting hi:.
own (ecling~ aD the c\lmnluuity, then comlncur.ed IJh hu.o.tHe atl::lcklC, '''hieb hn.,·c left :.'Uch
etreets behind, lllllt the wnr thell cummenced agniu!4t the b:ll1ks. I clcorly ~cc. will not tenninOole, unlcl'S thcra b" n. ~l,aralilln hetwean tbem and the Government-until une or "b.:
o~ltcr trhnn'lb.-lillthc GtJ\'erDlllcnt hecOlDc::' the bal\~, ur the b!\nk the G"Vcl·uluent. In resisting Ibci~ nnh,n 1 net o.~ thll frieul! uf but-h. I hlu"l'. n~ I ho.,'c liaiot, no un1ciml rcelhl~
10,,'a1",1 tbe bank:-. I :un Dci~hcr Q, h:tnk m:\ll, D\)r 0.11 nnti·lJ'lnli 1l1:t.n. I hnvc hn~l little ('I'Unexion w·itb them. :\I:tll)' (.e til)" ill':"t t'l'lt:n.I"" fur wlwnl I b:J.\'c Ihe hiSlae:o;t elOlc~m, han! :t
dcr.p interest ill tl..dr l'l"'''l'l!l·i~y. nnd a:o; fa.t· as r.·icnll..hip or 1'\·\')<,)0:\1 ,\t::v:hmcnt l'X!(,l\f!~, 6n,.
, l'natit..D "".mI.) b~ l":rollg1y in tlu:-ir fll\·!Jr. Dll: I ..~nll.111p her\! as the t'rrro'~l'n!nljvc of n.Inc lieul
, rre!tcllt i an.1 I "l1nll
n..: wt:ll :'1" lUI!
nr inwu"st. 11u~. k- to t 1113 wlw!e, nll.! to) tlu~ IIt:U:'\'
~:1~~1ilY plll':'UC thllt C.. ~lflo'e which, 1t111it!1' the m •.,..t enl:Jl'gc(\ ,-icw, I b~lic,'c tn he my du!y. In
1:31. lli'!\\\' till.! Ill'c>leut c:ri .. i... I in \':tin rOli""'.l n w"l'lling \',)i~\!. :1.:\.1 en.1f':\,·,u'''Iltn a\'cll il.
I nuw ~~t "'ith ~\i~l:\l ct~rln.ill!y, onc far melra p·,r:cnlOlL04. If Lillo; strl1;r~h~ i~ tu gn nn-if tb~
- ",111 in.:is~ UI
b a.n k....
. 1011 a l'l!l1ni:ln
, WIth :hc Guvcl-nlllcnt. against thc :lcn:~u of a la.rge and illllu• '1\1 Jlur~i->n uf tbc c.mmm:uL)'- an:1. nbUV'l all. if they Rbould "ucccull in elf'eeling it. a.
llu~"l will ini~\'irttl·l:: .. weep a,r:t)· the ",hllIr~ "y",l"'JU, A ,t(Orr pnpuJar czcJle~neDt i!'l
r~ uX
" l wat
., f":,,')CI::'i "'-11.l 'It 1,\'
. h C ~:trt of
~ ,"'"
never "-I.
...• r'>~,"
. ..m • 3\! I ('l'''.,:l! t":~r t,l .·C ll'l':t~c.
. \.
wi.-«1oIl1 t.) l.,.l~ li.l\~l~· iahJ the .c \!t .....~ •. :111.\ "\)rrl!':~ I:. bl'flJl'~ th!! l'X.~·llC~'J~llt ~h:1l1 hccomc F"
grcOot a", tu!lllll~i.• h :h~ .'~,;o~t':, wl.h a!l I:" ~ .• ·.,1 :U:I~ en!, :\;f:'m.~t wh:eh 11 l~ ~hrl·cte".
Tile only ~:tr~ ('n:lr~e f,'l' lJ I~ll G.I;-\·m:l\··ll~ llll.l h~\u~... , i'!l t·, Tr'~n:\.in r." ~hl!:i ar\!. l'c:rnrnlt'oleacb in the u.'e tiC Iheil' 11\\,11 crt'lU~ ",n·'! ill .hl~ tll:\1l:l~I·lllCr.~ l)f Iht'jJ' uwn. :1I1;l:r~. The 1c:-..
the r.olltrul and iuflat!ltct! .. f thl! onc I.)\'&:r l:lU ",tll'!J' thp. h'~: t.'r. C"'tdhu',l to their lcgi~illl:Ltl'
s!,hf'rr, tbaL 1)1' atl~)r~!il1g tt~ml'tlr:\ry cr,!·:l'. I,) C~lmllll!r,,:inl an.l bu:-:iuc":f men, hauk llutes "",uM
furr,i:-:h Q ":lr~ :m'.~ 1"1 u"cnil'llt ('bculatiull in t!l!'~ Talllle uf c."l'nmcme an\\ lJUl'ill~I- ..•
within whil'h thc h:1n~n lUlly 1.': '·4!",lI!'Cti\"l'!Y :-iIt1I1.h!,I, ex.::njlt :1hn·... "~ en:in:ly fr ....Ul thu~c lluc.
tuntjon" and C,'JI\'Ul":l"~l:' Il.' \\'h~!'h Ihe~' nrc n:iW I"J 11,"&",':-O"'! i or if diU)" I"hlluld ,·.ct':t!Oli\.,u:111y I'e
~uhject h'\ th('tn, :bc! I!,-il w ••\11.1 h,' hlc:tl o.llll lC1l1,'\lI':lr:.·, "'!\\'ing lU1.!1shn·!'>(' ~ ~h,. ncHun of tho:
Ou·..."rlllnl·nt. :In·' th.> :%0'11\'1",,1 rnr!'f'llcy \If th~ I,; m'l~ry: .'11 ~~IC t:::\'Ji:io:: I:f w~:!..h t;ll! pr.l~pefjty
aml !':\ft!n- vr th~ l'n:'mnm::,' !"I' ~Il~l'.!h .! ..... ·n.!.
I ha\·~'" nell'· :-=!a:4.' d 1Ur ulJi~c:i.:us I~' ::1.:' l'l'~ll1i,,;~l uf .!l'.! n,"~·.":,n'l'!'\n· t,.. .~:1 :!\., !':ll.. k~. U tb~j'"
a.rt! '~t'll fJl11'! ~ ... j ; if 'h .. ~':".'''. t:._\!:~-. "\~." :,:' \:1":;!1"'~~·."~" i:·.·· \!":':'\~··~11· '';:\1:.- i if D. l:\nk of lb·...


United S~3.!es be .in:r.mcticat·~e: or if practicable, wenId, at ,}!is time, be the destruction oC a
large portion of the ~:xi~,ing banks, and l'1' renewu! and s~\·ere pecuniary dis~r~ss j if it would
he against the set~led con\"iction of nn old and powerful party, whose Op~SltlOn time ~annot
abate j if the Unic:ll <.,f Guvernmellt and banks a,lds 10 the unfitne~:; of ~elr notes for cuculation, and be unjust an.1 une(~ual between citizen and citizen, and one por~ion of t~e Union and
another; and, finally, if it would excite an implacable and o~,;tinate war, wIllch could only
terminate in the o\"cnhrow of the banking :;ystem, or the institutions ( I f the country. it then
remains that the only alternati,,·e wonhl be permanently to separate the two, and to reorganize
the Treasury so as to enable it to rerfonn those dlltit..'s which ha 'orc heretofore heen peribrmed
by the banks as its fi..;cal abenls. Thi:ii propost'd recorganization has leen callt:d a :ooub trea...c;..
luy-an unfortunate wonl, calculated to mi~lead and cl.njure up <lifiicllltics and dangers that
do not in rt'ality t'xi~t. So far fn.'m an exrerimcnt, or some new de\Fice, it is only returning
to the cld mule of ccl!c('tin~ and dbbursing public money, which for thousands of years, haS
been the 01 al! enlightened pE:L'ple rill within the la~t eenmry,
In what manner it is intended to reorganise the Trea"ury by the bill rerorte-d, I do not
know. 1 ha\'e been too lnuch engaged to read it; and I can enly ~ay, that for one, 1 shall
as!:>€nt to no arrangement which pro,·ides for a Treasury bank, or that can be perverted into
(:nc. If there can be any ~cheme more fatal thau a reunion with the banks at this time, it
'wuuld be such a 111'C',ject. Nor willI give my a....sent to any arrangement which shall add the
least unnecessary ra'rOD:lge. I am the ~worn foe to p~lronage, and ha'o·e done as much and
sutrered as much in resi;.;ting it as anyone. Too many year~ have passed o,rer me to ~hange,
at this late day, my COlUse or rrinciples. But 1. will ~3y, it h; impossible ~o tQ organize
the Treasury for the performance of its o,.,·n functions, as to give to the Executive a tenth
part of the pntn.'n:tge it \,·m lose b~' the proposed separatillD, which, When the bill for the
reorganizati.:m comes up, I mny ha\·e nn (lppvrtunity to ~how. I hase \reutured this assertion
aftcr mucb reflection, nnd with entire confidence in irs cl'rreclnc:-;~.
But something uure mu~t be done besides the reorganiz.l.ticn of the Tre:l5ury. Under the
re:::.oluti"u of lAW, bnnk illites woultt again be receivell in the dues of the Government, if the
banks should resume specie payments. The legal, as well as the n~lUal connexioD. must be
severed: But I am opposed to an harsh or precipitate mea~ure~. No great process can be
effected without a shock, but through the agency of time. I accor(lingly pwpose to allow time
for the final separation; ami with this view, I have drawn up an amendment to this bill, which
J ~ho.ll offer at tl.c ,proper lime, t? modify the reRoIution of 1816, by proYhling that at1er the fi."'t
01 January next I turee fourths 01 all Sl1m~ dl.le to the Government may be reeeh·ed in the notes
of specie-paying ball~i:~; nnel that after the bt of January next follo~\'ing, one half; nnd after
the firiSt of JnnuOl.ry next snb:>equcnt, one fourth; and after the ht of JaDl.l,:-,ry thereafter. noIJljng- but Ihc }cg.ti (,l!r!'ent:'}, (,f the Unircll S:atc~, or bill.;-, n(\t(:~, or paper i~Sl\ed. nnder tlleir
authority, nnd which mny by la . . \" be nnthorized to he receive(\ in their dul's. If-the time i~ not
thOl1ght to be am?le, I am perree!1)" di:"posed to extend it. The pt'riod is of little hnponnnce
jn my eyl's, so that the obj~ct be effected.
In addition to thi:::, it seem:'! tu lllll thnt !"ome measure, of a remedial chnracter, connected
with the currency, I..)llght to he alll1pte\~, to ea;;e vif tbe prc!"!"llre while the process is going
throngh. It is llc:3imble that the Gc,yermnent ~honld malce :ts few nnd smaU clcmand:i on the
specie mnr~\et as p~):'"ilolc during the time, so as to throw no impediment in the WRy of the resumption of :::rccie I~nym('n~s. 'Vi;h thi .. ,·jew, I am of the il~prcssiOll that the sum necessary
Jor the pr<:sent \\"an~~ <..if" the Treali'ury l"h,mld be rai~t!J. by n pnper, whi('h ~honItt at Ihe same have the requi'i~e (i\mliri('.~ t.) enable it to PCl'!t.1 (m the fnnction:s of a. raper circu13tioD.
Ulll1er thi:> illlprc::;~iun, I <.,bj~l:~ to the iuterc,t:t to ue al!owcd on the Treasnry n<.'tes. which this
bill nuth(lrizes to b~ i"",uE'd, ('n the "cry orr\"·~i~p. grllun(l th:tt the 8cn:\~or frolll ~tassachU~Clts
bc;:;lOWS his Ufpl'c,bati'Jn, H~ aprro;'es of in:erest, becaul:'e it would throw them out ot' C.lrCUhltjOl1 in:o the hal1tt~ uf cari":lli':", a:o: n e~'n ... (r.ier:.t ~mil !>,:lfe ila·e"tment; and I disapprove.
f.t~c:nu:-c it ",111 b~\·e that ('ff~'('!, I ~\~l t::'r,-:~~d to E.'r-.:c (!!;he llrc-c('~~: hC', I w;:,ulll ~\1pposel is

, ···'c .L·"'l·r·~·('u"
·1· .. •, r":""
,·try .1.,.
.... .... - (~" ..•.
..... ..

But I g':.) f:u:h.!7. 1 :1.l11 oi tile ill'l.;,!"cssioIl, to lll'].:':!!' lili, grc3.~ m:!~;;ure ,.uece:~;:f~l an:l !;ccun:
it a~ainst renctilJl}" ~ome s!alJlc :lnd ~:J.fe medium of circllla.ti 111, to t:l;"c the pl~ce of banI. no:es
in [he fi~c:J.l oper:1.tion~ of the" Gll"~rnmcnt, ought to be i:o:sl~ed. I intcn,t to propose nothill~.
It would be impossible, with ~o goreat a weight of OPPO'iiLion, to pas:, any measure ldlhout
entire support of the a.lministl"ation; :Lnll, if it were, iL ought 110t to he attempted where !O')
mach must depenJ on the mOlle of execution. The best measure that CClUld. be dc"ise~l
might fail, and impo~e a hea\'y r£:-spun:;ibili;y on its author, unle".'! it met with the heury app1'obation of tho~c who arc to execute it, I thEn intend lllcrt::ly to throw out suggesti()n~, in
order to cxcite the rellcetion of o~hel'S on a subject .so delicate', aUll of Sll Inuch importanct.",
acting on the principle that it i'j the dut.y of all ill so great a juncture liJ present their view,.
withOtll resen·c.
It is, then, 111.y impression, r.h:l.t, in the present conlli:ion of the world, a paper currency, in
some form, if not nece,.;>,ary, i-s ahnost indi~rensnble in fin:mci31 :lnu commercial operation,;
of civilized nnd extcn ..ivc communities, In m:\ny re,.;pects, it has a ,,'asl superiority over a
melalliC' currency, especially in grcn.t and extended transactions, by il.'i greater chenpne.<;.q,
lightnc;;!', nnd the f:'.C'i!i~)· of d~lel'tninin:;' the nn1Lmnt, The great Lle~i,leratum i~, to n!'cer~nin
what deo;;cripIi,m of p:l.jlcr has the re'luisitc q~l:1liti·~s of being fl'~'c fr.J!ll flLlctualiJn in \'al11:.'.
and liahili:y to U!lU,c:C, in the greatest perf,·ction, I IlIl,"C !'110'",'n, I tm"'t, that the bank note,;; ti"
not pos<;('ss these requisites ill a dl'gr.:c lIuOicicntly high for this purpose. I gL1 farther, It l'J me, nfrer bes:owiIl;s the best refleetiun I can give the subject, that no convertible papel·.
that j"" no raper whnse credit Cl'S:S upon n, 1'TU'lltisc to pfltl, is !<uitablc fur currency. It i!-l lh"
f()rffi of credit proper in I'ri';:ltc transar,inu-; hetwc('n m::1.n and mall, hnL nllt for a stanllar.J (,I'
,-aIm', to pcrfl.lrm cxchange,; genemllT, whIch con!>timte the approprin!e functions of money
or currenr:y. The measnre of safety in the two cases arc wholly di{fer~nt, A p!"omi:;!'or,r
note, or cnn\'crtible paper, i..: considered !-Iufe so long as; the drawer hns ample means to m{:l't
hL.,; engagements: autl iu pa~sing fl'om hand to hunll, r('ganl is hall only to his abiJjty and willingness to pay. 'Very di:f'cTent is tllt~ C:i"e in cnrr.:-nc:y. The a~~re3~te value of thc '!UI'reney of :l country ncc~~~arily bears a small prnporrion to thc n~grc~ate value of its prnperty.
This pwportion is not well a"eertain~l\, allli io.; probably snhject to clInsi,ierahlc variation ill
different countries, and at lliffcrt'nt periods in the same clHtntry, It may be n,o;snllled clmjl'l·.
tural!.r, in order to illu;;tra!t.! wlw.t I say, at one to thirty. A",,"uming Ihis proplIrtion 10 he CO!rect, which probahly i~ no: "ery fa.r from the truth, it fnlluws th:!.t, ill 3. ~,lUIlLt conlIition o1'lh,'
country where the ctll'l"t!'lley is metallic, the ag-grcgnw nl.ln~ uf the c,)in is not more than l'Ill'
in tltirly ofthe agog-reg-ate \"aJue of Ihe properly, It al;;o fullows that an illcrea~E: in the' alll(lUIiI
of the currencT, by the atlllition of n paper circulation of 11.J intrinsic value, uut incr~ases till'
nonlinal ,-:l.luc of the a;{grega!e property of the country in lhe s3.l11e prnp(JrtilJll ~ hat the incn':J.~l'
bears to the whule ll.lDOlwt of currency; 1-U tho.t, if the curre'ncy be doubled, the nominal ,'altH'
of lh~ rroperty will a.b;o be duubled. lIenee it is, that whell the pa.pcr currancy of a. COUnlJT
i!' in the !'h:tpl! uf prvmi~o;()ry nutcl!l', there is n constant tendency EU exccs:o<. 'Vc look CUI" theil"
safety lO the ability of the drawer, nnd HU lou;; as hi~ Illl':ln-; are nml'le to mcet hi ... ("nga~l~­
ments there is no clistl'll.~t, withuut retlcctiu;::, that, considered as eurr~ncy, it CiJ.nno~ ~nfel.\·
exceed une in thirty in valuc compared to properl)' j and the dclu.~jon is further incTen~ed hy
the constant incn:asp. In value of properly, with the incrEase of the notes in circulatiun, so a~
to maintain the :<;:t1nC relnti,'e proportion. It t,)1I0WS that a GOyertUllcnt mar safely COnha(;l
::I. ck!lt, tn'lny timt.!.' the n.mnunt of i'.s a~,,::-("O~~J.te c irculatinn i bur, if it w~r~ to attempt til pllt i!"
l)rmnissllry nutes ill cirCL11ation in amount C'i.1FLl tll ils cleht~, an ex. losioll in the cnrrcnr.y \\")ulol
he incyitablc. And hC'nr.c, with ll:ht'r cnU1;e~, the c(}n~tant tendl'Jlcy tu an l'xre:;sin~ i~.~!tc n(
lm.nk l!IIW;;; in pl'o~p(!ruu!oi titnC'~, when ~o lar~.~ rI. por.il111 of the c'l1ulllunit~· nrc :tnxilll1": 1", nhtam
aCColllmOtla~ilJll, aud ",,11<) nre llisappoint('r\ when Ill'g.)fin.hle paper j'l reCtI,,!!,t hy thl! hnnk~ , n,,·
rdll!'=lill~ thal it would no: be saf,! tn (tb:cuunt bt:yonll the limi:'i I ~"L.-;::,i':;ll:':l~ f.),' a I'af.! .:~ ..
cul:.Jli')1l, however !!'lod the p::,pcr u(!cl'l!d.
0:1 \\"h,,·, lhl!ll, lJ'J.;ht a jl:lprr C:lrr·~a'=y 1:1 rc,;t? I \\·,rl~'! S:'''· '.m ,.1~:lllll ! :\11'[ ~tl:lply ",imply
which r::g'.lb:e.; :he \-:llLl': of every tilill3' cl-::e-thc C·.l11:;'al1~ l~::lllJ!1J \"hi:-h th'': Go,·ernmcll


(0':1 the co.nmuni:y i . . ,I i:s r.\?.:ess~ry supp1ie~, A me..!iam, re::tillg on th~ dellland, wh~c.
~jmply otligatt's lhe G.}vermnenl to receive it in all of its dues, to th~ excluslon of every thing
dse, except goM and silver, anli which shall be optionnl with t1~os~ who have demands on
Government to receh'e or not, would, it seems to me, be as stable In l~ value os those meI.aJs.
t}(cmselves, and he 8.$ little liable to abuse :t& the power of coining, It w~uM witbjD·


itself a self-regulating power. It could only be issued to those who had claims on .the Govemment und w those only with their consent, and, of course, only at or above par With gold an4
:HIve; which "Would be its habitual state; for, as fnr as the Government was concerned, i\
would be equal, in cvery Te~pect, to goM and silver, and superior in many. particularly in
regulating the dista.nt exchanges of the country. Should, however, a demand for gold aDd
:oilver from abroad, or Olhcr acchlental cnnse;o, depress it, temporarily, as compared with the
preciou."> metals, it ,\-'ould then return to the Treasury, and Q..S it could not be paid out during
.;;uch depression, ilS gradual diminution in the market would ~oon restore it to an equalitYa
when it "\\'ould again fiow out into the general circulntion. Thus there would be a constant
alternate flux and reflux inlO and from the Tre:tsury, between it and the precious metals; but
if at any time a permanent. depJe~ion in its value be p(kiSible fronl any cause, the only eB'ect
would be to operate as a reduction ortax~ on the commllnity, and t.he only sufl"ererwouJd be
the Govemmpnt itself. Against this, its o,,'n interest would be a sufficieut guaran~y.
Nothing but experience can determine what amount and of what denominations might be sate!y
issued; but it may be safely assumed that the country would absorb an amount greatlyexceeding its annual income, Much of it$ exchanges, which amount to a vast sum, as well as ius
banking business, would rel"o} ve about it, and many millions would thus be l(ept in circulal.ion
heyond the demands of the Government. It may throw some light on this subject to state that
North Carolina, just after the revolution, issued a large amount of paper, which was mado
receivable in dues to her. It "'as also made a legal tender, but wh.ich, of course, was not obligatory after the a(loption of the federal constill.1tion. A large amount, say between four and
five hundred thousand dollars, remained in circulation ailer that period, and continued to
circulate for more than twenty at par with gold and silver during the whole time, with
no other advo.ntagt! than being received in the revenue of the State, which was much less
than $100,000 per annum. I speak on the informaticn of citizens of that State, on whom
I can rely.
But.• whatever m.ay be the amount that can be circula.ted, I hold it clear that, to that amount,
it would be as stable in value as gold and silver itself, provided the Government be bound to
receive it exclusively with those metals in all its dlles, and that it be left perfectly optional
with those whG have claims on the G(ivernment to receive it or not. It will also be a necessary
conditio~ that notes of too small II. denomination should 110t be issued, so that the Treasury
shall have ample ~eans to meet all demands, ehher in gold or lSilver, or the bills of the Govl'rnment, at the optlOn of those whu hn ';e claim~ on it. "\Vith thef;c conditions no farther vad:Ilion cuuld take place between iE llnd guM and silver, lhan that which would be caused by the
action of commerce. An unusual demand from a.broad for the metals, would, of course, raise
them a little in their relative value, and depress, relatively, the Government bills in the same
proportion, which would cause them to flow into the Treasury,and gold and silver to 110" out j
while, on the contrary, an increased demand forthe bills in the domestic exchange would haVe
the reverse effect, causing, as I have stilted, an alternate llux and re1lux into the Treasary.
between the two, which would at all times keep their relative values either at. or near par.
Noone can doubt thaUhe fact of the Government receivingandpayinga,vay blUlknotes in aU
its fiscal transactiontl, is one of the principal sources of their grellt circUlation; and it was
mainly on that arcount that the notes of the late Bank of the United Stales so freelycirculatecl·
all over the Union. I would ask, Chen, why should the Government mingle its credit with
that of private corporations 1 No one clln doubt but that the Government credit is beUer than
that of any bank-more stable and more safe. ",Vhy then should it mix it up with the Ie.

f'1:.t of tno3C lr.!'tltULlOl1:; 1 'Vhy not n;;;e its vwn credit to the amount of its (J\~-Il
1 Why l:'houhl it nO! be safe in its own hands, while it ~hall be consillcno,l
:safe in tLe hand,; of ei~ht huu,!rc.l p:"iva:c institution ... scaLtcrc.l all over the country,
and whil.:h havc no u:hcr object but their o,,-n private profit!':, to increase which, t)l('Y
almost con .:ilntly extenl! their business to the most dangeruus extremes 1 And 'why :,.hon~:1
the c(lInrllllnity be compelled to gi,,-e :;.i% per cent. discount for the Goyernment credit blended
-",,-itiJ lRnl .1' the banks, When the superior credit of lhp Government coull! be furnished separa.tely, will"lut discount, to the mutual ad.-antage of the Government nnd the community ~
'Vhy, tet II, o.! ask, should the Government be expused to !"ouch difficnlties as the present, loy
~T.ing1ing i w credit with the banks, when it conld be exempt from all sllch by using by itself ~:;,:
own ~nft:r '.·relliL'l It is time the community, which has ~o deep an interest in a. sound nLel
~hci1i' .;ur:-cncy, and the equality of the laws between one portion of the citizens and the country 8.1111 allu:her, should rcfl\!ct seriously on these things; not for the purpose of oppressing ar.y
Interest, but to correct gradually di~orders of a dangeroLls character. which have insensibly in
Ihe long ("(.nne, without being perceive(l by anyone, crept Into the stafe.
TIlt! ';!,,~'don . is not betwecn credit and no credit, as some woulu have us believe, but in
What form C'redit can !Jest perfurm the functiuns of a .sound and saf~ currency. On this imllortaut lll'!nt, I have freely thrown out my ideas, leaving it to this body anl! the public to determin{' what they are worth. Eelieving that there might be d. sOllnd nnd safe paper currency
Zul1ndl!d Oll the crcJit of Gon.lrnment exclusivcly, I wn.... desirous that those whu nre responsihIe and have the power, shouhl have availed thcmselvclIi of the opportunity oC the temporary
·JdiciL of tIn.: Trca...mry, and the postponement of the fourth instalment intended to be deposited
with the Si:ltes, to usc them a.s the means of affurding a circulation for the pre.sent relief of the
country ~Ild the banks, during the process of separating them frum Government; and, it
t::..pcrienct: "hould justify it, of furDlshing a permanent and safe circulatiun, which would
grf'!}· fa~ilitate the opera.tions of the Treasury, and atlord incidentally much facility to the
commcl'C ia l operations of the country. But Il different direction was given, an(l when the allernative '''-:1.S presented of a loan or the withhulding the fourth instalment from the Stnles, I
diet n c; hesitate to gi"e a df.'ciJcd l...ate for withholding it. l\fy avarsion to a public debt js
deep and durable. It is, in my opinion, pernicious, and is little short of it fraul! on the 'public_
I saw too much of it during the late war not to understand something of the nat.ure and character of puL1ic loans. NC\-Cl· was a country Inore egregiously imposed on.
Having now presented my \-iews of the and the measures which the permanent policy
of the country, loo)cing to its liberty and lasting prosperity, requires, I come finally to the
question of relief. I have placed this last, not that I am devoid of sympathy for tbe country
in the pecuniary distress which now pervades it. No one stru~gled earlier or longer to prevent it, than myself; nor clln ally one more sensibly feel the wide spread blight, which ha".
suddel1ly blasted tbe hopes o~ 50 many. an,1 prec~pita.,e~ ,hous.nus C~U& aBluence to poverty.
The desolation has fallen mamly on the mercanule clas!'; whIch I have ever held in
the highest estimation. N'o co\.m~ry e,'cr had a. snperior body of merchants j of higher honer,
of more elaring entErprise, ur of greater skill and energy. The ruin uf such a elass is a hea.vy
calamity; and I am solicitous, amoll~ other things, to give such ~tability to our currency as to
prevent the recurrence of a similar calamity hercafter. But it v:a~ fir!St neC~fisnry, in the Ofder of things, tllat we :should detcrm.ine what sound policy, lookins tu the future, d~mands to
be done at the present juncture, before we consider the question of r~lief i which, 3..~ urgent n.;; •
it may be. is subordinate and must yield to the former. The patient lies under n dllngerol~~
disease, with a burning lhir:st and othcrsymptom,o;, which distresses him more than the viLal (;fgalls which are attacked. The t;kilful physicia.n flflit makes him~elf master uf tht: nalure ut
the diselLSc, and then determinc~ un the treatment necessary fur the restoratiun of hea.llh. l.·h.i~
done, he next allc'lriates the distressing synlptoms1 as far as j!'; consistent with the resLoration lJt
health, and no farther. Such shall be my ("ourse. A:s far as I po~~ibly cnn, consistently ''''ilh
the views I entertain, and what I believe necessary to rcstore the body politic to health, I will
do every thing in my power to mitigate the present distress. FarthcI I c::mnot go.




Aficr the be:::t reflection, 1 am oC the opinion lilat the Goverum<:nt can do but litt!f~ in til«>
w,1yof relief, an(1 that it is a case which must be tnainly left t~ th~ constit~tion of the ~tient ••
"'~m, thank God, is young, vigorous, and robust, with a constltUtlOn suffic1ent to =-,ustam
<l"l'ercome the severest I dread tbe doctor 3.nd hi... drug,; much more than ~hc Jiscase
:if$clf. The distrcs..o; of the countl'Y consists in its indebtedness, and can only be rel.eved b~
payment of its debts. To effect this, industry, frugality, economy, and time, are no:<"'ess:lTY· i
rely more on the growing crop--on the cotton, ricc, and torocco of tile South-thOll •In an th··
projects or devices of politicians. I am utterly opposed to all coercion by this Gov<,rnme:u
But Government may do sometbing to relieve the distress. It is out of debt, and is one <:.f {h.~
princip3.1 creditors both of lhC' banks and of the' merchants, a.nd should set an example of ht.c·
r.ll indulgence. This 1 am willing to give freely. I am also prepared to vote fre~l): ~., .. uSP. "f
Government credit, in !lOme safe furm, to supply any deficit in the circulation d,~;;' ~ \; ~~ rh'f ..
,:css of recovery, as far as its financial wllnts "'ill permit. '1 see not what 'Ji.
t~ '.
~':lfely done. But my vL<iion may be obtuse upon tbis subject. ThOl'le ,\"ho ditrer ~i
, ·d
w:~.) profcss l'U much symp~thy for the public, seem to think thal much.rc1ief~·;~o
·t!d ..
I h.ttlrey wt\t p~ ...... ~. 1 ~~·bXfo~ ." ~""-l.:ha'lr' .pniIC~~...~' ..:
them, that whatever th~y may propose, if it shall promise relief, afld be not incOt~, .'.vii'.,
th.e course which I deem absolutely necessary filr the r~toration of the COUtllf:l"
• fee.
l1calth, shall cheerfully receive my l!'Iupport. They may be more l{~en-sighted thllll: .. ~__
UI~ best meaus of relief, but ennnot have a strollger dispOSition to affurd it.
We have, Mr. PresideDt, arrived at n remarkable era in our political hisl ,.' .r··· ~: ts (,·f
legislative and executive encroacllment~, of tariffs and Rurplusse8, orban1t and t'.\bli~ dte:~ and.
extravagant expenditure, are pass for the present. The Government stlpld ... in." paa~iOh·.
(hsentanglea from the palSt, and freer to choose its future course tb'9.n it ever ha<; been siDee.,.illl
,·ommencement. We abont to take s. fresh start. I move off under tbe ~o"te !'ighhs baU~.
ner, Mel go in the direction which Illave been so long moving. I seize the; :"l'PCJ{t1uliiy t~o.-.~
fuughly to reform the Government; to bring it back to its original prin~U"';' to reti-emda.
and economize. and rigidly to enforce accountability. I shall oppose, "'''en~ousl1, aU at- .
•,Uempts to originate a new debt; to create a national bank; to reun • .; .,
-';hCl\\' ad
money powers (more- dangerous tban Church an(1 State) in any fo:
~.• pr~vent the disturbances of the r.:ompromise, which is gradunlly remo. ij' <.
• I " t.
of the tarift' system; and mainl)', I shall llse my best efforts to give 'on
. .:.'fa'lcI to
th~ great conRervative princiJ!i~ of Stat,= sovereignty, over the dallgerou ~r.. '. o,,,'·.e it~­
COIlIOlidation. ~ rejoice to thmk that lht: Executive DepartDldni... . :,e UOvedlment.1S now so reduced I~ l'Ower and means, t~a' It can no lOllger rely on ".;: ;. '~e and
p:l;trunage to seeu,re a maJ.or~ty. Henccfon\'ard It can have no hope of supportiTl".·· .f "ut on
"'u!do~, ~~eratlon, P!'trlotlsm,<?te~ attaellment to the Constitution, wbic!' tr'st will
JIl:1ke .It, m 1ts own oefencc l ~ !111Y.ID .etieclmg the reform which I deem indispe.·
~ to the:
;.;].lvatlon of the country ana lls mSlltutlons.
. ~ Joole, siT, with pride to the wisc and noble benrin~ (If the little Slate righl"l parly' which
]' ;<: my yl'lde to b~ ~ mel:'l.l~r, lllTUI1!l"hout the eventful ~.~ri{ld through 'Whlc.h~.!e~nt" ... ·
p:,-ssed ISID~e 1~•.!'1~C~ already bears testimonY' to:' ~iOl:ism, finiii-.'B:"d. ~~
~;l~y, and hlS~ry Will JWltlce. In t.hat fCD.t, as I bave stated the tariff sy:...em •'" Implied
m the counctls of the natIOn .. W~ saw Us dn;astrous political bearings-foresaw ji!j! .' ,'111usses
and the extravagances to whmh 1t would lead. We rallied. on the election of ll,+' 'PI'e$:tlent to arrest it. through the in11uencc of the Executive Department of the GOl-e rr ' ~'Lt. In
Ihi::; we failed, We then feU back UllOA the rights and 8ltvereignty oC the Stat('~.·
b'y lhe
a·~tion of a I'mall but gallant Stal~, ana throllgh tbe poten~ of its interpmdtion <Nt"
.)·lllt th("
.';·/l"tem to fhe ground, sUl'llained, as it was, by the oppositlon and t)Ie acimini~'11
. and by
t.he whole ~owcr and patronage of the Government. The p(lmicious overflow (of •I· TreQ5l1o
Iy. uf whicb it was thc pllrcnt, could not be nrrestcll nt once. The surplus ",as'" ~ dOD I>J
t.l~.! Exccmive, and, by its control over the bllnkR, became the fruilfullilourcc ot Exc. ........ vc inan"lice IlDd encroaehment. Witbout he~itntion, we joincd ,'ur old op(lonents on tbe l~rfa qne~
II.Jn,.but under ,?ur uwn flag and witbuut lller~ng in ~heil' runles, nnilmadc 0. and suo:.. 1!!<slul War agaJllfoll the encruachments of the J1;XllCUllvc.
Thn.t ttlrminated, we pnrt wilh our latE' a.llies ill pJaee, nnd move for"'Drcl, lag or onwnd
W~H' may, .to Secure the ii'uits of uur long but lSucce:'l:!Iful :-;truggle. under the ~ld.repuhlicll.n flo,?:.
<II ';)ri, w)11ch, LhOllgh tanercd nnd torn, ha~ never y~t beun lowered, a~d, wuh the ble51S1Dg 01
«'; _d, never shall be "'itb my (,t'n~(,ll!.




v. .