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THE RELOCATION PROGRAM A Guidebook for the Residents of • Relocation Centers May 1943 WAR RELOCATION AUTHORITY WASHINGTON, D. C. Digit zed by Google A MESSAGE FROM THE NATIONAL DIRECTOR '1'o the Residents of Relocation Centers: Ever since I became Director of the War Relocation Authority on June 17 of last year, I have wanted to issue a formal statement of WRA policy to the evacuated people. Until now, the swift pace of events and the lack of any previous governmental experience with large-scale wartime relocation have made this a virtual impossibility. Under the circumstances, it was extremely difficult to forecast precisely and in detail what our policies would be from one week to the next. To some extent, this condition still prevails. But today I believe we can, with greater assurance than before, lay down at least the broad outlines of our program and indicate some of the general directions in which we are trying to move. That is the purpose of this pamphlet. \Vhen you look back over the developments of the past year in relocation, I believe an unmistakable trend in governmental action comes sharply into focus. As far back as May of 1942, even before the movement into relocation centers was fully under way, a program was adopted permitting groups of evacuees to leave the assembly and relocation centers to accept seasonal farm employment. In J.uly the War .Relocation Authority established proce<lures under which American citizens might leave the relocation centers indefinitely and establish residence anywhere outside the eight States that lie within the Western Defense Command. Two months later, in the latter part of September, this policy was broadened so as to include aliens as well as citizens and so as to permit establishment of residence in any community outside the area actually evacuated. Then in January of this year, the Secretary of War, with the full approval of the President, initiated a program under which American citizens of. Japanese descent may contribute directly to the national war effort through work in defense plants or enlistment in the anned forces. At the same time, a registration program was carried out with a view to speeding up the whole process of handlini issuance of indefinite leave. All these steps were part of a single and consistent pattern. All were part of an effort which the United States Government has been making since the early days of evacuation to restore the evacuated people, as rapidly as wartime exigencies will permit, to their rightful place in American life~ As this is written, several thousand evacuees III Digitized by Google already have left the relocatim1. ·cep~ under indefinite leave procedures. Many thousands more, I aµi ,?onfident, will be going out in the months that lie ahead. · · Because of this prospect, ·the poli'cieS an.d procedures governing the relocation centers have been simplified at every possible point. Both the opportunities and the limitations of life at the centers have been and will continue to be comparatively simple and few. But it is important that these opportunities and limitations be widely and dearly understood by the people most directly affected-the residents of the centers. I sincerely hope that this booklet will help to create such an understanding and that it will contribute toward a solution of the problems which are faced jointly by the WRA and the· evacuated people. Sincerely, Director. IV Digitized by Google THE RELOCATION PROGRAM BASIC AIMS OF THE WAR RELOCATION AUTHORITY At the present time, the War Relocation Authority is working toward two fundamental objectives: (1) to help as many of the evacuees as possible in effecting a personal relocation outside the evacuated area; and (2) to inake the relocation centers as livable and productive as wartime conditions will permit for those evacuees who are unable to effect a personal relocation while the war is going on. Looking to the future, the first of these objectives is by far the more important both for the great majority of evacuees and for the N~tion. In normal American communities you will have a far better opportunity than in the relocation center to develop the kind of home and family life you really want. You will probably be able to use your energies more productively and effectively. The returns for your work-the wages you earn-will certainly be greater and your chances of making a successful adjustment in the post-war period will be tremendously enhanced. The WRA recognizes all these advantages and earnestly hopes that all able-bodied residents of relocation centers, and especially those who intend to remain in the United States after the war, w;ill eventually take advantage of the opportunity to leave the relocation centers after proper clearance is granted. Every effort will be made to provide the residents who continue to live within the centers with adequate living quarters, nourishing food, sound medical care, education for children of school age, and a variety of work opportunities. LEAVE PROCEDURES Any resident of a relocation center-male or female, citizen or alien-may apply for a permit to leave the center at any time. Three types of leave are available : ( 1) short-term; ( 2) seasonal ; and ( 3) indefinite. Short-term leave is granted for brief periods to permit visits to medical specialists, negotiation of property arrangements, or transaction of other similar personal business which cannot be handled at the center. It provides for travel only to specific destinations and may be granted by the Project Director without referral to the Washington office. 1 Digitized by Google Seasonal leave is intended for evacuees who want to take jobs of limited duration in agriculture or industry and who propose to return to a relocation center on the completion of the job. It is granted to cover work only within a specifically defined area and has a definite · time limit. Any evacuee out on seasonal leave, however, may apply at any time to the Relocation Officer serving the territory where he is working for extensions or for conversion to indefinite leave without the need for returning to the relocation center. Indefinite leave is designed for evacuees who wish to leave the relocation centers permanently for employment, for higher education, or simply for the purpose of establishing a normal home. Those who obtain this type of leave are free to move around as they choose ( outside the evacuated area) the same as any other resident of the United States. One qualification, however, is that aliens must report periodically to the United States attorney ( for the area where they are residing) in accordance with Justice Department regulations. And all evacuees who have left the centers on indefinite leave should report promptly to the Director of the War Relocation Authority in Washington any changes of job or changes of address. Special postcards are furnished for this purpose, but if these are lost or misplaced, a letter to the Director will be satisfactory. Specific information on all types of leave and how to apply for them may be obtained from the Leave Officer at the relocation center. RETURN TO A RELOCATION CENTER The War Relocation Authority earnestly hopes that all evacuees going out on indefinite leave will depart from the centers with a firm intention to make a successful adjustment and that they will not return except for occasional brief visits. Experience has proved that satisfactory adjustments can be made in the overwhelming majority of cases, and that life outside the centers is infinitely preferable for nearly all able-bodied and well-intentioned residents. Evacuees out on indefinite leave who find themselves completely unable to make the necessary adjustments may apply to the nearest Relocation Officer for permission to resume residence once again within a relocation center. Such permission wtll be granted only if the .Relocation Officer is satisfied that there is no really satisfactory alternative solution. Brief visits to the centers, on the other hand, may be a1Tanged at any time by writing to the appropriate Project Director. 2 Digitized by Google RELOCATION ASSISTANCE PLACEMENT To help the residents of relocation centers in finding jobs and in making adjustments after they have gone out o:h indefinite leave, the War Relocation Authority is establishing a number of field offices throughout the interior States. Principal offices are located in Chicago, Salt Lake City, Denver, Kansas City, Cleveland, New York, and Little Rock. Branch offices are situated in a good many other cities · between the Rocky Mountains and the Eastern Seaboard States. \Vorking with local committees made up of interested citizens, these offices are trying to find as many suitable jobs for evacuees in private business or agriculture as possible. They are also attempting-again with the help of the volunteer committees-to create better public understanding of the relocation program and to prepare community sentiment for the reception of relocating evacuees. Through these offices and committees, the '\-Var Relocation Authority is learning about the many communities where the evacuees no,v have a good chance to make a successful relocation and about those few where they may still have a less satisfactory reception. The trend of public sentiment throughout the Middle West appears definitely to be moving in the direction of greater evacuee acceptance. TRAVEL AND SUBSISTENCE Any resident of a relocation center who is going out on indefinite leave to accept a job and does not have enough money to meet the expenses of the trip may apply in writing to the Project Director for special travel assistance. Applicants for this type of assistance should indicate the amount of cash on hand and the total cash income for the preceding 6 months. ,vhere· travel assistance is made available, it will be in an amount sufficient to make up the difference bet ween the applicant's cash resources and the cost of three essential items: · 1. Railroad coach fare for the applicant and each dependent making the trip; 2. Meals en route ( calculnted at $3 per day) for the applicant and each dependent making the trip; a: Family subsistence during a brief period of adjustment after arrival at the point of destination ( calculated at $50 for an applicant traveling without dependents; $75 for an applicant traveling with one dependent; and $100 for an applicallt traveling with more than one dependent). Evacuees out on indefinite or seasonal leave who find themselves in emergency need of temporary financial help ( over and above travel 3 Digitized by Google assistance provided by WRA) should apply to the local public welfare agency in the nearest community or request the nearest relocation officer for an introduction to such agency. Arrangements have been made so that such assistance will be provided to needy evacuees outside the relocation .centers wherever possible. POLICIES GOVERNING THE OPERATION OF RELOCATION CENTERS As long as evacuees remain in relocation centers, their opportunities to lead a well-rounded and fully productive life will inevitably be more limited than in ordinary American towns and cities. Relocation centers, by their very nature, can never be turned into normal communities in the full sense of the phrase; they will always have serious shortcomings. In the last analysis, however, the character of each center will depend largely on the residents themselves. The War Relocation Authority provides the basic framework for community development; but a well-balanced, peaceful, and productive community can be created only through wholehearted and energetic evacuee collaboration. FOOD The War Relocation Authority will make every efl'ort to provide the residents of relocation centers at all times with well-balanced and nutritious meals, and will provide, wherever possible, for the special needs of nursing mothers and others who require unusual dietary treatment. Like all other residents of the United States, the people in relocation centers will be subject to rationing restrictions which the demands of war have imposed upon civilian life. LODGING Living quarters for evacuee families at relocation centers will probably never be wholly satisfactory from every point of view. Construction materials are extremely scarce these days and are likely to remain so as long as the war goes on. HEALTH SERVICE It is a cardinal principle of the WRA at each relocation center that the health of the community and of the individual residents will be safeguarded by every feasible means. Necessary medical and public health services will be available to all residents who need them, and every effort will be made to keep these services as normal as possible. W arthne conditions, however, have disrupted medical services throughout the Nation and will inevitably affect this phase of the program at relocation centers. · 4 Digitized by Google ·At all centers every precaution will be taken to prevent the outbreak and spread of epidemics and to maintain proper sanitary conditions. Residents requiring highly specialized types of treatment not available at the center will ordinarily be referred to outside hospitals. In cases where the Chief Medical Officer at the center determines that · such treatment is actually needed and is medically sound, the expenses both of the trip and of the treatment will be borne by the Goyernment. Wherever a resident desires to go to an outside hospit11,l for . treatment of a type available at the center, the patient himself will be expected to pay all the costs involved. EMPLOYMENT AND COMPENSATION To the fullest extent possible, the War Relocation Authority will provide jobs and vocational training for ~l able-bodied residents of 1·elocation centers who want to work. The majority of opportunities av~ilable will probably continue to be in the fields of mess operations. construction and sanitation, project administration, agriculture and land development, internal security and fire protection, and consumer enterprises. The majority of evacuee residents who work on WRA-sponsored jobs or in consumer enterprises at the relocation centers will be paid at the rate of $16 a month. For app~entices and others who require close supervision, the rate will be $12 per month. For those with professional skills, unusually difficult duties, or supervisory responsibilities, it will be $19 a month. The standard work week at the centers is 44 hours. An evacuee resident, who is forced by accident or illness to be absent from a WRA-sponsored or consumer enterprise job, will receive regular compensation and clothing allowances during the first 15 days of his absence. Where such absences extend for more than 3 days, however, a doctor's certificate will be required in order to retain the worker on the rolls. Any worker who is forced to be absent from his job for more than , 15 days because of illness may apply to the Placement Officer for unemployment compensation. Such compensation is paid to those certified as eligible by the Placement Officer at a monthly rate equal to 60 percent of the ordinary WRA wages. This means $7.20 per month for those with an apprentice classification; $11.40 per month for those with the highest work classification; and $9.60 per month for all othereligibles. An evacuee worker who suffers a disabling bodily injury in connection with the performance of duties on a WRA-sponsored job (but not on a consumer enterprise job 1 ) is entitled to disability 1 Most consumer enterprises at relocation centers have made their own arrangements for dlsablllty compensation. 529093°-43---2 5 Digitized by Google compensation u~d~r the laws of the United Stew. ---Suph -~nsation, if certified, will amount to two-thirds of the disabled worker's norm a I WRA wages and will extend ( after a waiting period of 3 days and after the normal 15 days' leave of absence has expired) throughout the period of total disability. Special payments may also be made at rates established by the United States Employe~' Compensation Commission for permanent partial disability resulting from the loss of an eye or some other permanently disabling injury. If a disabled worker prefers to receive disability compensati_on rather than ordinary WRA wages during the first 15 days of his disability, he may apply on this basis. No worker, however, will be eligible to receive both disability compensation and WRA wages 01· WRA unemployment compensation for the same period. At each center, evacuees working for WRA have the right at all times to present complaints or recommendations about working conditions, wage classifications, or similar matters to the Fair Employment Practices Committee. This Committee, which will be composed entirely of evacuee workers chosen by their fellows, wi11 serve as intermediary for the whole working group in all negotiations with the Project Director or his staff relating to evacuee employment at the center. As such, the Committee is in position to perform an extremely vital function in the settlement of labor relations problems. CLOTHING ALLOWANCES All residents who are employed either by WRA or by consumer enterprises, or who are eligible for unemployment compensation, are entitled to monthly allowances for the purchase of clothing. Eligible family heads receive such allowances not only for themselves but for each dependent who is not working or not receiving unemployment compensation. All other eligibles receive only personal clothing allowances. At the four southerly centers-Colorado River, Gila River, Rohwer, and Jerome-the following scale of monthly clothing allowances will apply : (a) $3.50 for each person over 15; (b) $3 for each dependent between the ages of 8 and 15, inclusive; (c) $2 for each dependent under 8. At the other six centers where the climate is more severe, the rate will be 25 cents per month higher in each of these categories. COMMUNITY GOVERNMENT At a11 relocation centers, the WRA is giving the evacuee residents an active voice in the management of community affairs. At the same time, however, the WRA is a Government agency using public funds 6 Digitized by Google and is responsible, through the President and the Congn¥§l, to the American people for the proper expenditure of those funds. Because of this fact, the WRA must maintain ultimate control over the management of the relocation centers. It must establish certain broad policies and insist that the commwiity conduct its affairs within the general limits of those policies. Within the limits imposed by WRA's Federal responsibilities, however, evacuee government at relocation centers can and should play a vital and highly significant role in community life. The WRA needs and wants counsel and participation of the center residents. It encourages the residents to work out their own governmental forms and to reach their own independent decisions. It encourages them to set up programs and lay down rules in the interest of the community welfare. It reserves the right of veto not as a comprehensive check on all actions of the evacuee government but merely as a safeguard llgainst any occasional actions which may exceed the limits of national policy. The actual form which evacuee government takes will vary from one center to the next according to the decision of the residents. To perform the principal functions of evacuee government, WRA policy provides for three types of governmental bodies : (1) a Community Council, (2) a Judicial Commission, and (3) an Arbitration Commission. The Community Council is primarily a policy-forming and factfinding body. Under WRA policies, the Council may exercise the following functions: 1. Enact regulations or ordinances covering all matters other than felonies under State or Federal law (provided such ordinances are not in conflict with law or Government regulations) and prescribe penalties for their violation ; 2. Present resolutions at any time to the Project Director on any subject affecting the community welfare; 3. License community enterprises and receive license fees, provided the total amount .of these fees is not more than $1,000 in any 1 year; 4. Solicit and receive funds and property and administer such funds and property for community purposes; 5. Appoint boards, committees, or commissions to investigate various phases of community life or to discharge specific administrative functions. The Project Director is authorized to veto only those actions of the Council which are in excess of the functions prescribed above. The Judicial Com;mission is comparable to a criminal court. Its primary job is to enforce the regulations enacted by the Council. In discharge of this fwiction, it examines evidence, hears testimony, and 7 Digitized by Google . imposes penalties on offenders -whom it finds guilty of misdemeanors prescribed by the Council. The Arbitration l'om,niission is analogous to a civil court. It is established to deal with any disputes of a civil nature between residents of the center and tries to arbitrate them, wherever possible, so that the disputants will not have to bear the expenses of regular court procedure. All evacuee residents of the- center 18 years or over are entitled to vote in community elections or referenda, but only those 21 years or over are eligible to hold elective office.. EDUCATION The War Relocation Authority will provide standard elementary and high-school education for all children of school age at all relocation centers. Teachers will be chosen and courses of study will be laid out in conformity with the standards of the State in which the relocation center is situated. Credits earned in relocation center schools will be recognized in regular public schools and, in most cases, for colleges and university entrance throughout the United States. The school program at the centers will provide for a minimum of 180 days per year of classroom activities plus vocational experience. All high-school students over 16 years of age will be given an oppoi·tunity to receive vocational training in connection with the regular work program at the center, and credits earned for such training will be counted toward graduation. No instruction will be given in the Japanese language as part of the regular school program. In addition to the elementary and high schools, the WRA (whereever possible) will assist the evacuee residents in establishing _day nurseries for children of preschool age and will furnish facilities for adult education courses. Religious or denominational schools established and maintained at no expense to the WRA may be permitted at any relocation center by the Project Director. INTERNAL SECURITY Maintenance of law and order at the relocation center is a responsibility of the Project Director. To aid in carrying out this function, the director at each center maintains a police force composed of both properly qualified evacuees and civil-service personnel. No resident of a relocation center may be arrested without a warrant unless he or she has committed or is committing an offense in tht actual presence of a member of the internal security force or has cor1 fessed to the commission of an offense. Warrants, however, may htissued by the Project 'Director or acting Project Director for the arrest of any resident responsibly and plausibly accused of committing an 8 Digitized by Google offense against the public peace and security. In cases involving a felony under State or Federal law or a misdemeanor not covered by Community Council ordinances, the accused may be turned over to authorities outside the center for detention and trial. In most other cases, arrangements for detaining the accused person will be made by the Project Director and trial will be conducted at the center either by the Project Director or by the Judicial Commission. The Project Director may summon witnesses to testify in conection with any cases which are to be tried at the relocation center. Any evacuee standing trial at a relocation center has the right: 1. To know the nature of the charge; 2. To plead guilty or not guilty; 3. To be represented by an advisor of his own choosing; 4. To cross-examine witnesses personally, if not represented; 5. To have defense witnesses. If convicted by the Project Director or the Judicial Commission of an offense against the public peace and security, an evacuee resident may either be sentenced to jail or suspended from all work and pay privileges at the center or both. No sentence imposed by the Project Director or the Judicial Commission for any one offense, however, is to extend for a period of more than 3 months. CONSUMER ENTERPRISES Consumer enterprises of various kinds--such as stores, canteens, and barber shops-have been and will be established by the evacuees at all relocation centers so that residents may purchase goods and services not provided by WRA. For fully effective management of such · enterprises, evacuee residents at all centers are encouraged to form consumer cooperative associations at the earliest possible date. Within the limits prescribed by over-all WRA policies, the board of directors and the members of the association are free to run the consumer enterprises in any way they choose. · They will be responsible for all debts incurred and will be entitled to share in the profits in accordance with sound cooperative principles. Each association will be expected to meet its own operating costs, including wages ( at standard WRA rates) for all employees and a fair rental on buildings and equipment made available by the War Relocation Authority. The WRA, however, will furnish all possible advice and assistance to the associations and will provide their employees the same as other residents with food, shelter, and medical care. Qualifications for membership in the cooperative associations vary slightly from center to center and are specifically set forth in the bylaws of each association. All residents of the center may patronize the various enterprises freely without joining the association. 9 Digitized by Google In order to receive cash dividends, however, a patron must become a member of the association either by outright investment in a mem-, bership or by assigning the appropriate portion of the initial dividend necessary to cover a membership investment. Only members of the association are permitted to vote for the election of officers and to have a voice in the formulation of policy. EVACUEE NEWSPAPERS AND PUBLICATIONS At all centers, the ,vRA encourages the evac-qee residents to assume the fullest possible responsibility for publishing a newspaper that meets community needs and urges the newspaper staffs to work ';toward progressively high journalistic standards. Like all other newspapers in the United States, relocation center papers will enjoy full freedom of editorial expression. The Project Director, however, may suspend publication of the newspaper at any time if this seems necessary in the interest of public peace and community security. Each relocation center paper is permitted and encouraged to include a supplement or section in the Japanese language. WRA-Sponsored Newspapers At those centers where no agency or organization of the residents is in a position to assume full responsibility for publication of a newspaper, the WRA will provide the community with a mimeographed paper as a Government-sponsored enterprise. Such papers will be prepared and edited by evacuee residents under general supervision of the Project Reports Officer and will be distributed throughout the community free of charge. No sale of subscriptions or of advertising space will be permitted in the case of papers financed wholly from Government funds. Evacuee-Sponsored Newspapers Any organization of the evacuee residents which is authorized to handle and disburse funds-such as the Consumer Enterprise Association-may assume full responsibility for publishing a community newspaper or may provide the paper with partial financing in return for specific services. Any type of financial arrangement that meets the community needs may be worked out provided it has the approval of the Project Director. Even after the paper has been transferred to evacuee sponsorship, the WRA ,may (in the discretion of the Project Director) continue to provide emplqyees of the paper with compensation and clothing allowances at standard WRA rates and may furnish rent-free space in available buildings. In return, the WRA will expect the pa per to publish official announcements or releases and to check such stories ( in the interest of accurate presentation) with the appropriate project official in advance of publication. Once the newspaper has been transferred to evacuee sponsorshjp, 10 Digitized by Google it may sell subscriptions, charge the residents a nominal fee for individual copies, and collect advertising revenues. Other Publications Any group of evacuee residents desiring to issue (in either English or Japanese) some other publication-such as a school or church paper, a literary magazine, or a newspaper representing some particular ·segment of the population-may apply to the Project Director for permission to use WRA supplies and facilities. If the Project Director determines that the publication is in the community interest, he may authorize the WRA staff at the center to furnish all possible assistance , and may (in his discretion) provide the staff of the publication with standard compensation and clothing allowances. The WRA, however, is not in a position to provide compensation and clothing allowances for the staff of more than one community-wide newspaper in each relocation center. LEGAL AID Evacuee residents needing legal advice or services may apply at any time at the office of the Project Attorney for help. No fees will be charged for advice or ajd rendered by the Project Attorney or members of his staff to·e:vacuee residents. Charges made by outside agencies for notarization, recordation, filing, and similar services, however, must be paid. In cases where legal work outside the relocation center is involved, the Project Attorney or members of his staff may refer the evacuee resident to an appropriate attorney in private practice, but the expense for the private attorney's services will be borne by the evacuee. The Project Attorney's office will also furnish legal assistance to the consumer enterprise association, the community government, and other evacuee activities. PUBUC ASSISTANCE GRANTS Any evacuee resident who has not refused to work and who finds that his total income (from all sources) is inadequate to meet his needs and tho_se of his dependents may apply at the office of the Project Counselor for public assistance grants. Where certified, such grants will ordinarily be made in the following amounts: (a) $4.75 per month for each man over 17; ( b) $4.25 per month for each woman over 17; ( c) $2.50 per month for each dependent between the ages of 13 and 17, inclusive; ( d) $1.50 per month for each dependent under 13. In unusual cases where an actual need exists, grants in excess of these amounts may be made upon approval by the Project Director. 11 Digitized by Google If the grants are spent for purposes other than those for which application was m~e, they may be suspended at any time. RECREATION A broad and varied program of recreational and other leisure-time activities is encouraged at all relocation centers'. Responsibility for organizing and conducting such activities rests largely with the evacuee residents. At all centers, however, the WRA will set aside certain areas and buildings specifically for recreational purposes and will lend every possible assistance to the residents, particularly in organizing activities with a direct bearing on the general welfare of the community. Traditional Japanese activities-such as hon odori, shibai, goh and flower arrangement-which have no political implications are freely permitted. Formation of local branches or chapters of national organizations such as the Red Cross, YMCA, YWCA, and Boy Scouts is definitely encouraged. BELIGION Like all other residents of the United States, evacuees at relocation centers are free to worship as they please and to conduct any type of religious service of a nonpolitical nature. Because of the critical shortage of building materials, it now seems unlikely that WRA will be able ·to provide church buildings at relocation centers as originally intended. Space for all denominations, however, will continue to be made available in the recreation halls. Religious workers among the evacuee residents may carry on their religious activities and may hold other WRA jobs at regular rates of compensation. No such worker, however, will receive WRA wages for the performance of religious duties. Religious leaders from the outside will be admitted within the centers only on the invitation of church groups among the residents. BURIAL .OR CREMATION The WRA will provide standard ~ndertaking and burial services or cremation for all evacuees who die while in residence at a relocation center. The choice between burial and cremation will be governed by the wishes of the deceased or (in case no preference has been expressed) by the desires of the immediate family. Burial will ordinarily be in a cemetery located on or near the relocation area. In cases where burial at some other cemetery is preferred, costs of transporting and interring the body will be borne by the immediate family of the deceased. · At centers where no photographic service is provided through consumer enterprises, families desiring funeral photographs should 12 Digitized by Google apply to the Project Reports Officer. Wherever possible, the WR.A will take such pictures and will supply the evacuee family with two prints free of charge. I£ additional prints are desired, necessary arrangements will have to be made with a commercial photographic shop. GENERAL INFORMATION FOR EVACUEES PROPERTY ASSISTANCE The job of helping evacuees with their property problems, which was handled during the evacuation period by the Federal Reserve Bank and the Farm Security Administration, was taken over by the War Relocation Authority in August 1942. To carry out this function, an Evacuee Property Office has been established in San Francisco with branches at Los Angeles and Seattle. All evacuees-whether residing in a relocation center or elsewhereare entitled to the services made available by this Office. These services including the following types of assistance: 1. Secure tenants or operators for both agricultural and commercial properties. . 2. Negotiate new leases or renewals of existing leases. 3. Obtain buyers for real or personal property of all kinds. 4. Effect settlement of claims for or against an evacuee. . 5. Adjust, differences arising out of inequitable, hastily made or indefinite agreements. 6. Obtain an accounting for amounts due, and facilitate collection thereof. 7. Ascertain whether property is being satisfnctorily maintained Of whether damage or waste is occurring. 8. Check inventories of goods and equipment, and recommend utilization of material for the best interests of the evacuee and the nation. Residents of relocation centers needing property assistance should consult with the Evacuee Property Officer (if there is one) at the center or (if not) with the office of the Project Attorney. Evacuees who live outside relocation centers and who need property assistance should communicate directly with the Evacuee Property field office in the city nearest to the property in question. This would be Room 955, 1031 South Broadway, Los Angeles, Calif., for properties in southern California or Arizona; Whitcomb Hotel Building, San Francisco for properties in northern California; and Room 6609, White Building, Seattle, Wash., for properties in Oregon .or Washington. Any evacuee having a property problem that cannot be solved readily at the relocation center will have to execute a"Reqnest for Assistance" in order to provide the Evacuee Property Office with proper 13 Digitized by Google authorization to act in his behalf. In filling out this form, the property-holder may designate specifically how the problem shall be handled or may give the Office broad authority to determine an advisable course of action. In cases where broad authority has been provided, the Office will take no definite action (except in emergency cases) without obtaining prior approval of the property-holder. All evacuees are entitled to have their personal properties stored in Government-leased warehouses without charge during the war-time period. Those who have such property now in private storage may request that the Evacuee Property Office transfer it to Government storage. In such cases, both transportation ( to the warehouse) and · storage will be at Government expense. Each evacuee is also entitled to one movement of personal property at Government expense over and above the movement to a Government warehouse for storage. This movement may be from the point of storage either to a relocation center or to a railhead outside the evacuated area, but not first to one and then to the other. Each unattached evacuee or evacuee family going out of a relocation center on indefinite leave is entitled to have a maximum of 500 pounds of personal property ( over and above the limit permitted by rail or bus tickets) shipped to the point of destination at Government expense. CONTRABAND REGULATIONS The War Relocation Authority has adopted no contraband regulations. At all centers, however, the Authority is cooperating with the Western Defense Command and the Department of Justice in carrying out the applicable contraband regulations of those two agencies. Western Defense Command regulations apply to all persons of Japanese descent living in California, Washington, Oregon, Arizona, Nevada, Idaho, Utah, and .Montana. In terms of relocation centers, this means that all residents of Japanese extraction at Manzanar, Tule Lake, Colorado River, Gila River, Central Utah, and Minidoka are affected. Department of Justice regulations apply to all alien Japanese living anywhere in the United States. The lists of items which are contraband for all persons of Japanese descent in the far Western States listed above and for alien Japanese throughout the United States are virtually identical. They include (1) firearms and other weapons, (2) ammunition, (3) bombs and other explosives, (4) radio transmitting sets, (5) codes and signal devices, (6) cameras, (7) radio receiving sets with short-wave bands, and (8) certain types of books, photographs, maps, and drawings. The contraband regulations of both the Department of Justice nnd the Western Defense Command prohibit the affected persons from possessing, using, or operating these types of articles. At Manzanar and Tule Lake, provision has also been made .by t·he Western 14 Digitized by Google Defense Command for inspection of incoming parcels addressed to evacuee residents and removal from these parcels of any contraband items. Citizen evacuees residing outside the Western Defense Command area wh.o- wish to recover cameras, short-wave radio sets, or other items previously surrendered as contraband are eligible to apply for restoration of such property at any time. The following procedures are suggested: 1. For recovery of items surrendered to the Army or the Wartime Civil Control Administration at the time of evacuation or at an assembly center, application should be made to the Western Defense Command, San Francisco, Calif. 2. For recovery of items surrendered at a relocation center, application should be made to the Project Director. 3. For recovery of items surrendered to the Department of Justice, citizen evacuees residing at the Heart Mountain, Granada, Rohwer, or Jerome Relocation Centers may consult the Evacuee Property Officer or the Project Attorney. Any citizen evacuee living outside relocation centers and outside the Western Defense Command ·who wishes to recover items surrendered to the Department of Justice should communicate with the United States Attorney who has custody of the surrendered property. REPATRIATION AND EXPATRIATION Evacuees of Japanese ancestry are free at all times to request repatriation (in the case of aliens) or expntriation (in the case of American citizens) to the Empire of Japan. Residents of the relocation centers desiring to request repatriation or expatriation should apply to the Project Director. Evacuees residing outside the centers who wish to make such an application should communicate directly with the State Department in Washington, D. C. It should be understood, however, that submission of an application for repatriation or exp.airiatioo is nQ guarantee tbnt the applicant will actually be able to gQ to Japan during the wartime period. This will depend on the conclusion of exchange negotiations between the governments involved and oii the amount of space available on the exchange ship if and when it sails. Residents of relocation centers whose repatriation or expatriation has been requested by the Japanese Government will be so informed and will be asked to indicate whether they wish to go to Japan. The WRA will advise the State Department of these decisions. All persons, regardless of age, will be free to indicate their own individual decisions on this matter. 15 Digitized by Google VOTING RIGHTS After careful study, the Solicitor of the War Relocation Autbority has issued an opinion that evacuee residents of relocation centers are probably not legally entitled to vote in the counties where the centers are located. All American citizens of voting age who are properly registered in the counties of their residence prior to evacuation, however, are entitled to vot~ by absentee ballot in both the primary and general elections in California, Oregon, Washington, and Arizona. Citizen residents of relocation centers who were evacuated from California or Arizona and who are not now properly registered may be registered by mail if the residence requirements can be met. In the case of evacuees from Oregon and Washington, however, it seems doubtful that absentee registration will be permissible under the present laws of those States. INCOME TAX LIABll.lTY Both citizen and alien evacuees are subject to Federal taxes on their personal incomes the same as all other residents of the United States. In ma~ing out income-tax returns, residents of the relocation centers should include all income received from sources outside the center plus all wages received at the center and all clothing allowances received as compensation for work. The Bureau of Internal Revenue has ruled, however, that evacuee residents of the centers need not pay Federal income taxes on (1) public assistance grants, (2) unemployment compensation, (3) clothing allowances received as a result of involuntary unemployment, or (4) subsistence provided by the War Relocation Authority. As residents of the States from which they were evacuated, all evacuees continue to be subject also to the incometax laws of such States. · 16 I. S, GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1143 Digitized by Google