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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
JAMES J. DAVIS, Secretary

CHILDREN’S BUREAU
GRACE ABBOTT. Chief

REFERENCES
ON THE PHYSICAL
GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
OF THE NORMAL CHILD

Bureau Publication N o. 179

UNITED STATES
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON
1927


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SINGLE COPIES OF THIS PUBLICATION MAT BE
OBTAINED

FREE

UPON

CHILDREN’ S BUREAU.

APPLICATION

TO

THE

ADDITIONAL COPIES MAT

BE PROCURED FROM THE SUPERINTENDENT OF
DOCUMENTS, U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE,
WASHINGTON, D . C.
AT

50 C E N T S P E R C O P Y


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7

FOREWORD

i In the present day not only the pediatrician and the parent but
also the teacher, the social worker, the health officer, and even the
correctional officer, are vitally interested in the question o f the physi­
cal fitness of children. No single factor is of greater importance
m dealing with the health of nations. Although almost every
modern school and institution recognizes this fact and makes some
sort o f attempt to evaluate the physical condition o f its charges,
too often the examinations made are either valueless or actually
uetrimental in effect, owing to faulty methods or improper appli­
cation. It is becoming of daily increasing importance that practical and uniform standards for making these examinations be de­
veloped for the everyday use o f the great mass o f workers
An enormous amount o f research in this field is being carried
on by vanous agencies and independent investigators, with very
- results* 11 has l°ng been obvious to many o f these workers
that their progress would be very markedly advanced if some means
could be found o f coordinating all these various pieces o f work,
l.very student o f the literature on any scientific subject is impressed
by the waste and delay involved in duplication and overlapping o f
research where the whole field is so inadequately covered. Variations
in metho.ds o f work or m instruments used, and failure to take full
advantage o f the previous findings o f others also contribute to this
With the idea o f promoting cooperation among the students of the
problem o f physical fitness the Children’s Bureau called a conference
o f leading experts m this and related fields which met at the bureau*
on October 11, 1922. The members o f the conference were as fol•.
P* B. Bardeen, Dean of the Medical School, University
o f Wisconsin, Madison, W is.; Dr. Franz Boas, Columbia University,
’J S ^ Y<n k Clt? ’
A* Bolt, Baltimore, M d.; Dr. Howard
Childs Carpenter, Philadelphia, Pa.; Dr. Taliaferro Clark, United
w atf - Ii bllCT? e?}th ^ v i c e , Washington, D. C. ; Dr. John Foote,
vVashmgton, D C.; John C Gebhart, Association for Improving
the Condition o f the Poor, New York City; Dr. Clifford G. Grulee,
Chicago, 111.; Dr. Samuel McClintock Hamill, Philadelphia, Pa.;
Dr. Milo Heilman New York City; Dr. Henry F. Helmholz, Sec­
tion o f Pediatrics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn.; Dr. Buford John­
son, Psychological Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University Balti­
more, Md.; Dr. Vernon Kellogg, National Research Council’ Wash­
ington, D C.; Dr. J. H. Mason Knox, jr., Chief, Bureau o f Child
Hygiene, Department o f Health, Baltimore, Md.; W. M Gilbert
Carnegie Institution o f Washington, Washington, D C .; Dr Henrv
L. K. Shaw, Albany, N. Y .; Dr. Richard Smith, Boston, Mass.; Dr
Edgar Sydenstncker, United States Public Health Service Wash-


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33

IV

_____;____

FOREWORD

ington, D. C. ; Harriet Wedgwood, American Child Health Associa­
tion, New York City; and Dr. Jesse Feiring Williams, Columbia
University, New York City, The conference was attended by the
following members o f the Children’s Bureau staff: Grace Abbott,
Chief o f the Children’s Bureau; Dr. Ella Oppenheimer, director, and
Dr. Edith E. Nicholls, o f the child-hygiene division; Dr. Anna E.
Rude, director, and Dr. Ethel M. Watters, associate director, o f the
maternity and infant-hygiene division ; and Dr. Robert Morse W ood­
bury, director of the statistical division of the bureau.
The conference discussed plans for systematizing and corre­
lating the numerous investigations which had already been made
and for initiating researches needed to round out the study o f the
problems of physical fitness. As a result of the recommendations of
the conference several important investigations and studies were
undertaken by the Children’s Bureau, including studies of rickets
in Washington, D. C., and in New Haven, Conn., and a posture
demonstration among school children in Chelsea, Mass.1
The conference considered that one of the first steps to be taken
was a thorough review o f all the work that has been done along
these lines in the past. Approximately 10,000 books and articles
dealing with the various phases of physical fitness in children have
been examined with care, and much has been found to be o f little
or no value. This bibliography, therefore, does not include all this
material, but it indicates the contents o f about 2,500 articles in
such a way that future investigators can find for themselves with
the least possible delay whatever material in the work of their prede­
cessors will be of assistance to them. In general, only articles
reporting original research have been annotated. The articles in­
cluded were those available up to July 1, 1926.
In the section on growth in weight and height one is impressed
by the necessity for uniform and better standards of measurement
which this compilation brings out. Immense effort has been devoted
to these studies, but owing to faulty methods of one kind or another
large proportion of the work is almost valueless. The need for
consideration o f standards in the problems o f physical fitness is
obvious. This bibliography should be an aid in the promotion of
this end.
The bibliography was planned by Dr. Ella Oppenheimer, director
o f the child-hygiene division of the bureau ; the reading of the litera­
ture was done by the following members of the bureau staff: Dr,
Isabel Perry, Dr. Edith Nichols, Mrs. Helen Pope, Evangeline Ken­
dall, Anna Kalet, and Dora Hansen ; the medical editing by Dr. Kate
Karpeles ; and the classification and arrangement by Doctor Karpeles
and Helen W. Ford.
1 In connection with the posture demonstration reports have been issued on Posture
Clinics and Posture Exercises (U. S. Children’s Bureau Publications Nos. 164 and 165,
Washington. 1926).


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CONTENTS
Foreword.. ____________________
Section I. General growth in weight "and height! 11111" II
Section II. Growth and development of special parts of the body
A. Skeletal system and teeth____ _______
1. Skeleton________________
2. Teeth_____ _____________ ___________ I I I I
B. Circulatory system___________________
1. Heart and blood vessels________
"
~
» 2 . Blood____ ______________________ _
_«
it** i(i,
3. Functional development_____________________
C. Respiratory system_________ __________ ___
D . Nervous system_______ vj_______
Section III. Metabolism____ I _ I _ ____ ZZI_ZZZ_Z _I
I II
~
""
A . Digestion_____________ .___________
,1
B. Elimination______________________ _ _ ~
1
C. General nutrition and m etab olism .Z IIZZ IT
III
I
D . Temperature___________________ ________
Section IV . Adolescence and puberty__________ I I I I I
III'II
“~
Section V. Standards and methods of judgingphysical fitness in children^
V


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126
128
128
134
163
176

182
190
190
219
244
313
321
335

ABBREVIATIONS OF MAGAZINE TITLES
J. A. M. A ________________
Arch. Pediat_I_____?____ ti
Brit. M. J____ ____________
Am. J. Dis. Child_________
Am. J. Obst_________ _____
Bost. M. & S. J_____ _____
New York M. J_________
Am. J. Physiol____________
Ztschr. f. Kinderh________
Jahrb. f. Kinderh________

_
..
_
..
..
-

Arch. f. Kinderh_________
Monatschr. f. Kinderh___
Deutsche Med. Wchnschr.
Virchow’s Archiv_________

..
_
_

VI


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Journal of American Medical Association.
Archives of Pediatrics.
British Medical Journal.
American Journal of Diseases of Children.
American Journal of Obstetrics.
Boston Medical and Surgical Journal.
New York Medical Journal.
American Journal of Physiology.
Zeitschrift für Kinderheilkunde.
®
Jahrbuch für Kinderheilkunde und Physische
Erziehung.
Archiv für Kinderheilkunde.
Monatsschrift für Kinderheilkunde.
Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift.
Virchow’s Archiv für Pathologische Anatomie
und Physiologie und für Klinische Medicin.

REFERENCES ON THE PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF
THE NORMAL CHILD
SECTION L GENERAL GROWTH IN WEIGHT AND HEIGHT
1

A dam s, Samuel S .: (t The systematic weighing of infants, a guide to
normal growth.” Am. J. Obst. [New York], vol. 54 (1906), pp. 832842.
An article on the necessity of systematic weighing of infants, illustrated by
eight charts on infant growth from the author’s practice at the Washington
Hospital for Foundlings.

2

Adsersen, H . ; “ Meddelelser om nyfpdte B0rns Yaegt og Laengde ” [Com­
munications in regard to newborn children's weight and length].
BiblioteTc for Laeger [Copenhagen], ser. 8, vol. 5 (1904), pp. 248-260.
The probabilities of seasonal and geographical influences on birth weight and
length are discussed with a view to stimulating interest in the problem
Five
graphs and two tables, made up from material obtained from Danish and
German lying-in hospitals, show seasonal and geographical variations in the
size of the newborn. It is pointed out that there is a seasonal difference which
vanes with sex and with geographical location of place of birth.
Affleck, G. B .: “A minimum set of tentative physical standards for chil­
dren o f school age.” Pedagogical Seminary [W orcester], vol. 27 (1920)
pp. 324-353.
. A study of the literature on physical standards, with a collection of tables
from various investigators (Hastings, Pyle, Emerson, Woodrow, Smedley and
Crampton) to be used by parents, teachers, school nurses and physicians and
by investigators as a basis for further work. Bibliography.
A h lfeld , F .: Über Ernährung des Säuglings an der Mutterbrust [Nutri­
tion of the Breast-fed Infant]. Leipzig, 1878. 45 pp.
Investigation of progress of weight of one child from the fourth to the
twenty-sixth week of life and of the quantity of breast milk taken by the child
during; that time. Comparisons are made with a few other writers on the same

3

4

5

6

7

A itk en , W illia m : On the Growth of the Recruit and Young Soldier
Macmillan & Co.; London, 1887. 238 pp.
A treatise by a professor in the British Army Medical School designed to
give recruiting officers scientific information by which the fitness of boys and
men for military service may be determined. The subject of the militarv
fitness of boys under 20 years of age is given particular attention in chapters
on the development of the bones and internal organs, and emphasis is laid on
the necessity for carefully established standards of height, weight, and chest
girth at the various ages. Appendixes give schedules of measurements, and
Army regulations.
’
A lb itzk i, I. A .: “ O vliyanii shkoli na fizicheskoyie razvitie ” [On the
effect of school on physical development], Vrach [St. Petersburg] vol
11 (1890), pp. 69 5-69 8; 72 6-72 8; 744-747.
Account of 4,145 measurements of 1,462 school boys, aged 8 to 23 years to
ascertain effect of school on physical development.
Height, chest circiim
ference, weight, lung capacity, and muscular force were obtained, usually at
the beginning and end of the academic year. Most of the boys were measured
two or more times. Findings are discussed and compared with those of other
writers. Several tables and diagrams are presented.
A llaria, G. B. : “ Ricerche antropometriche sulla crescenza delle fanciulle
povere” [Anthropometrical studies of the growth of poor girls]
II Ramazzini [Florence], vol. 6 (1912),. pp. 60-86.
The author studied 652 girls employed in urban industrial establishments
420 m cotton factories in a rural district, and 158 girls of well-to-do families’
Their ages varied from 12 to 21 years. He gives for each of these groups and
for each year of age the height, weight, lung capacity, hemoglobin content -of
the blood, muscular force, longitudinal and transversal diameters of the skull
cephalic index, and bisacromial diameter. All these measurements were higher
for the well-to-do girls than for the poor girls. This superior physical de­
velopment of the well to do the author attributes to their more favorable
social and domestic environment and the fact that they are free from the bad
conditions of industrial work.
1


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PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF TH E CHILD
8

A llix , É m ile: Étude sur la physiologie de la première enfance [A Study
of the Physiology of Early Childhood]. Paris, no. 31, 1867. 255 pp.
Thesis for medical degree (University of Paris). On pages 205 to 209 the
author reports the results of his own observation of 34 infants, 3 days to
4 years of age, to determine the relations which exist between the temperature,
the circulation, and the respiration when the child is awake and when he is
asleep. The rest of the thesis is a general treatise on physiology, based on the
work of other investigators. References.

9

Altherr, H .: Über regelmässige tägliche Wägungen der Neugeborenen
[On Regular Daily Weighing of Newly Born Infants]. Basel, 1874.
48 pp.
Account of weighing by author of 480 newborn infants at a Basel hospital.
All the children were weighed immediately after birth, and in most cases the
weighing was continued daily for two weeks. The report consists chiefly of
statistical data obtained by author and deals with the initial weight, physio­
logical decrease, subsequent gain, effect of sex and of method of feeding.
Seventeen conclusions are stated. The report contains seven charts. References.

10

Am herst College: Anthropometric W ork of Amherst College. 2 pp. (No
publisher, no date.)
A study, continued for six years at Amherst College, of the physical measure­
ments of 1,258 students of average development and 57 college athletes, to
show the difference, if any, between the athlete and the average man. Each
examination included a^out 35 body measurements and several tests of strength.
The athletes exceeded the average by 6.92 per cent in weight and 10.24 per
cent in tests of strength. In other measurements the differences were small.
1 1 -----------, Physical Education Department : “ On some relations of human
stature to muscular strength.” Publications of the American Statisti­
cal Association [Boston], yol. 3 (189 2-93), pp. 347-349.
Test measurements of the tallest 20 men and the shortest 20 men in the
classes of 1889, 1890, 1891, and 1892 at Amherst College to determine whether
greater muscular strength is a correlative of lesser bodily height, other con­
ditions being equal. Results of the measurements are tabulated. The study
shows that the correlation mentioned apparently does not exist.

12

Anderson, W . G. : “ Students in gymnasium.” The Adelphian [Brook­
lyn], voi. 5, (1885), pp. 10-11.
A brief article by an instructor in physical training giving comparison in
weight, height, and lung capacity of students in the gymnasium classes of
Adelphi Academy with standards established by Bowditch, Roberts, and others.
Technique of measurements is not given.

13

A n o n ym ou s: “ Étude sur les variations de poids observées chez des
enfants envoyés à la montagne ” [ Study of weight variations in chil­
dren sent to the mountains].. Bulletin médical [Paris], 1903, 17th
year, pp. 849-851.
Changes in weight of 519 boys and 395 girls from 3 to 14 years of age are
shown by graphs. Special attention is paid to the apparent effect of mountain
air on weight improvement with relation to sex, age, etc.

14

A n on ym ou s: “ Measurements of the Chinese.” Nature [Londoh], voi. 78
(1908), p. 607.
Average measurements of 669 Chinese boys from 10 to 24 years of age, as
to weight, height, chest (normal), chest (expanded), neck (circumference),
wrist (circumference), and hips (circumference), with comparison of English
boys in weight, height, and normal chest measurements, the last obtained
from the British Association averages. The Chinese figures were submitted
to the magazine by A. H. Crook, Queen’s College, Hong Kong. No technique
is given.

15

A n o n ym ou s: “ Über die Abhängigkeit des Körpergewichtes der Frucht
von dem der M u tter” [Dependence of fetal weight on the weight of
the mother]. W iener Medizinische Wochenschrift, 12th year, no. 33
(1862), p. 519.
From material collected from 320 cases of pregnant women, by Dr. V. K.
Gassner, formerly at the Lying-in Hospital of Munich, the author derives a
law of the dependence of the mass of the fetus on the mass of the mother’s
body. The woman increases in weight during last three months of pregnancy
in exact relation to whole weight. A first-born child weighs less than ether
children.
Anthropom etric Committee of the B ritish Association for thé A d ­
vancement of Science: Reports.
In 1875 the British Association for the Advancement of Science appointed
an anthropometric committee to collect observations on the systematic exami­
nation of the heights, weights, and other physical characters of the inhabi­
tants of the British Isles. This committee, with various changes in personnel,
functioned until 1912, when the work was discontinued. Its reports appear

16


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general

16

grow th

in

w e ig h t

a n î> h e ig h t

3

Anthropom etric Committee of the B ritish Association for the A d ­
vancem ent of Science— Continued.
in the Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science,
as follow s:
1875. Appointment of committee.
1876. Preparatory work.
1877. Published London, 1878, pp. 231—232 : Measures taken to insure uni­
formity in methods and instruments.
1878. Published London, 1879, pp. 152—156: Abstract of tables of measure­
ments of boys at Westminster School and letter sorters at the
General Post Office, ages 13 to 18, about 2,000 in all, showing
average height in inches, average weight in pounds, average strength
ot arm in pounds, ratios between height and weight and height and
strength.
1879. Published London, 1879, pp. 175—209: Committee reported being in
Possession of nearly 12,000 original nieasurements, in addition to
50,000 collected by Mr. Roberts. Tables show average height and
weight of persons in various occupations, ages from 12 years up;
tables of the height without shoes, weight, and chest girth of boys
in the school of Christ’s Hospital at each month, quarter, and year
from 9 to 15 with various tables of correlations ; tables of com­
parison of stature and weight of British, Americans, and Belgians,
prepared by Mr. Charles Roberts, with remarks on the establish­
ment of a standard of stature and weight.
Summary o f the
progress of anthropometric research in other countries.
1880. Published London, 1880, pp. 120—159: New observations nearly equal
in number to all those previously collected were added during the
year A standard class was established by collection of as large
a number of cases as possible enjoying the most favorable condi­
tions in respect to fresh air, exercise, and food, and a table
shows the decrease in stature of boys aged 11 and 12 as social
conditions are further and further removed from the standards,
'tables also show the actual, average, and mean height, weight,
chest girth, and strength of boys and men from 10 to 50 years
of age, in the standard class, and their correlations, and the
mean annual growth expressed in percentages from ages 11 to 23.
Observations are ^reported of color of hair and eyes, in standard
class. An investigation was made as to town or country origin
and results tabulated. Bowditch’s observations on 12 boys and
13 girls, from birth to 22 years of age, reprinted, with com­
ment on the increased comparative growth of girls from about 12
to 14, and a table reprinted from Roberts’ Paper on Factory Chil­
dren illustrating this increase. Tables from 1,850 observations
made during several years on boys in Marlborough College, includ­
ing head girth, arm girth, and leg girth. Table of age, weight
chest circumference, and strength of 3,695 boys accepted or rejected
as candidates for employment as telegraph messengers .
1881. Published London 1882, pp. 225-272: The report shows few new
observations. Mr. Charles Roberts contributed a paper showing
the mean height, weight, chest girth, and strength of the British
population as far as observed, at the different ages, the “ mean ”
representing the value of greatest frequency; the average height
and weight of several classes of the population yielding material
for study of the comparative effects of town and country life
Mr. Francis Galton added a paper on the range in height, weight"
and strength of the different classes at every age, the range being
measured through an extension of the principle by which probable
error is ascertained. Doctor Lawson summarized the results of
inquiries into eyesight and color blindness, to which Mr. Roberts
added a report on eyesight and color blindness as observed at
Marlborough College.
1882. Published London, 1883, pp. 278-280: Brief report, enumerating the
additional data secured on height, weight, and color of eyes and
hair ot both sexes hut omitting the results of these observations.
Some observations on adults.
1883. Published London, 1884, pp 253—306: A summary of all the work
of the committee to date, with sample of the cards used by the
committee in collecting observations and index to the tables given
m each year’s report. This report adds statistics on children in
the industrial schools and in the York Friends’ School and some
observations on infants at birth ; also a list of monographs on
anthropometry published in England and the United States
1884. Published London, 1885, pp. 279-282: Observations on eyesight tend­
ing to show that between the ages of 10 and 40 a slight improve­
ment takes place.
1885 to 1904. No work except measurements of a small number each year
at the annual meetings of the society, not reported in form to be’
available for any work upon children.
1905. Published London, 1906, pp. 198-206: Report of a new committee
which had drawn up a list of dimensions of the human body suit­
able for measuresient and taken other preliminary steps toward an
anthropometric investigation of the British Isles.
1906. Published London, 1907, pp. 349 to 369: Committee published charts
of the adult male human figure with points marked between which
measurements were to be made; also sample cards for inquiries
and general remarks about the work to be done.


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PHYSICAL GROWTH ANfD DEVELOPMENT OP TH E CHILD
16

17

18

19

Anthropom etric Committee of the B ritish Association for the A d ­
vancem ent of Science— Continued.
1907. Published London, 1908, pp. 354-368 : The anatomical subcommittee
reported the chest measures that have been used in anthropometric
investigations from early times ,and recommended the method to
he used in this survey ; also submitted a series of schedules for use
in schoql anthropometric work.
1908. Published London, 1909, pp. 351^399 : A final report of the work
commenced by the committee in 1902, summarizing its efforts to
date. The report deals only with methods and apparatus to be
regarded as standard in anthropometric investigation.
1909. Published London, 1910, p. 286 : Brief report of the extent to which
anthropometric measurements were being undertaken in schools.
1910. Published London, 1911, p. 256 : No statistical work done. Report
very brief.
1911. Published London, 1912, p. 130 : No statistical work done. Report
very brief.
1912. No report.
A ntonov, A .: [On the changes in the weight of the newborn in the first
few days of life]. Journal dietskikh boUezniei, vol. 1 (1925), pp. 16-26.
(Reviewed in Zentralblatt für die Gesamte Kinderheilkunde [Berlin],
vol. 19 (1926) , p. 278.)
The author studied the physiological loss of weight and the course of the
weight curve of 493 newborn infant?. About 6 to 7 per cent reached their
original weight within the first eight days, 50 per cent within the first two
weeks, and 75 per cent within the first three weeks. In 25 per cent of cases
the increase in weight was abrupt, in 75 per cent slow and gradual.' First­
born children regained their original weight more slowly than second born.
Children who were underweight at birth regained their original weight sooner
than those horn with a normal weight.
A ppleton, V . B . : “ Growth of Chinese.” Am. J. Dis. Child. [Chicago],
vol. 30 (1925), pp, 48-49.
Two hundred and twenty-four girls, aged from 6 to 22 years, students in
two cities in Chekiang Province, East China, were measured, and examined
for physical traits related to growth and development. All measurements were
made by the author, with anthropometer and calipers. Age was accurately
determined. Tables give average for age, for groups of from 5 to 34 subjects,
of 12 absolute measurements, and o f 10 computed relative measurements. The
brain of a Chinese girl continues to grow after adolescence. Annual increase
in height is accelerated from the tenth to the thirteenth year ; growth in
stature continues until the eighteenth year. Annual increase in weight is
greatest from 9 to 16 years. Adolescence was found to be not as much delayed
in Chinese as is frequently assumed. References.
------ — “ Further study of the growth of Chinese,” China Medical Jour­
nal [Shanghai], vol. 40 (1926), pp. 259-264.
One of a series of studies made by the author to discover factors which
govern the growth of Chinese Children and to determine which variations are
due to innate racial growth impulse and which to accidental accessory causes,
such as climate and hygienic condition. The material for analysis consists of
a series of wèight-height-age measurements made on 345 male students in
Fukien, from 9 to 24 years of age, and a similar series made on 242 Chinese
boys in Hawaii. The Chinese in Hawaii were superior in height, weight, and
rate o f growth. The author notes that dental caries is more prevalent among
Chinese children in Hawaii than among those in China. Tables and references.

20

Arnold, F elix : “ Weights and school progress,”
Psychological Clinic
[Philadelphia], vol. 10 (1916), pp. 33-39.
To test the theory that school progress of children is •determined in large
measure by their weight the author weighed the children in four schools in
New York City successively for a number of terms. Technique and number of
observations are not given. Analysis of the results, in the author’s opinion,
confirmed the theory that the heavier the child for his age the higher will be
his school grade.

21

A ron : “ Über Körperbau und Wachstum von Stadt- und Landkindern ”
[Build and growth of city and .country children]. Berliner Klinische
Wochenschrift, vol, 56, pt. 2 (1919), pp. 742-744.
Aron and Lubinsky measured height and weight of 223 school boys of the
village of Deutsch-Rosselwitz, 202 from private schools in Breslau, and 261
from city public schools. All were of the same race. Ages wére 7 to 13.
Results are put in tables. The private-school pupils showed greatest height
and weight. The country children showed lowest height and weight, but little
above^that of city public-school children. However, for Livi’s index ponderalis.
100 wt, ^he country children showed the best results and the private-school
lit
pupils the worst. Thus thé work of the country children seems, to retard
height and develop muscles. The superior height of the city children i? but
a temporary phenomenon ; other children later equal them.


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GENERAL GROWTH IN W EIGH T AND H EIG H T

5

22

Aschenheim , E rich: “ Ergebnisse von Schuluntersuchungen in Rem­
scheid ” [Results of examinations of school children in the city of Rem­
scheid]. Ztschr. f. Kinderh. [Berlin], vol. 37 (1924), pp. 109-118.
An account of an original study of the physical condition of 7,665 publicschool children, boys and girls in nearly equal numbers, in a medium-sized
industrial town in Germany in the year 1922—23. About one-half of the children
were 5% to 7 years of age, the rest, 14 to 15 years. The author gives in
several tables their height and weight and the deviations of both from normal.

23

A sch er: “ Über Schülerfürsorge” [Care of school children]. Zeitschrift
für Medicinalbeamte [Berlin], vol. 25 (1912), pp. 79-89.
From a study "of anthropometrical measurements made by Florschütz, of in­
sured people, and by Villaret, of recruits, and by the author, of 7,087 West­
phalians and 14,000 East Prussians, all school boys and girls from 6 to 14
years of age, the author concludes that the “ constitution” can not be ap­
praised from the height alone or the weight alone but from their relation to
each oiher and from a physician’ s estimate of the appearance of the bare
chest. The author’s data are presented in two tables.

24

A stengo, Alphonse: Rapport du poids des enfants à la durée de la
grossesse [Relation between the Weight of Infants and the Length of
Gestation]. Paris, no. 544, 1905. 48 pp.
A thesis (University of Paris) giving statistics of the weight at birth of
18,660 infants as related to the period of gestation.

25

A tla ssoff: “ Be la périodicité dans le développement de l’organisme dans
l’âge scolaire et de son importance ” [Periodicity in the development of
the organism at school age and its importance]. Congrès international
de médecine, C.-r. 1903, xiv, section de pédiatrie [M adrid], (1904), pp.
848-853.
A study based on 10,218 measurements collected at a boarding school for
boys, the pupils having been measured at the beginning and end of each school
year during their entire course. Original figures and curves are not given.
The author found periodicity, in growth a well-established fact of great im­
portance to educator and physician.

26

Auden, George A .: “ Heights and weights of Birmingham school children
in relation to infant mortality.”
School Hygiene [London], vol. 1
(1910), pp. 290-291.
The author présents two tábles of heights and weights of children from 4 to 6
inclusive, and of boys and girls of 7 and 8, in five wards representing different
social conditions of the city Of Birmingham.

27

A u sset: “ Les stagnations de poids chez les enfants et particulièrement
les nourrissons” [Arrested increase of weight in children and par­
ticularly in infants]. Bulletin de la Société de pédiatrie de Paris,
vol. 6 (1904), pp, 19Í-209.
-A discussion of two cases of infants who, without apparent: cause, failed to
gáin in weight, and of other cases of children whose weight suddenly increased
after a long period of arrest following illness.

28

Ayrton;, M . C .: Recherches sur les dimensions générales et sur le dével­
oppement du corps chez les Japonais [Investigation on the General
Bodily Dimensions and Physical Development of the Japanese]. Paris,
no. 535, 1879. 46 pp.
Thesis (University of Paris). Original measurements of 227 Japanese males
agçd 13 to 73 years and 2 4 : females between the. ages of 7 and 50 years.
Author gives for each case age, occupation, height, and span ; also averages for
all persons of the same age.,.

2»

B achauer: “'Körpermasse von Augsburger Yolksschulkindern vor und
nach dem K riege” [Body measurements of children in the Augsburg
public schools before and after the w ar]. Zeitschrift für Schulgesund­
heitspflege [Leipzig], vol. 34 (1921-22), pp. 113-120.
The author gives weights and heights of 4,873 Augsburg boys and girls of
6 and 7 years of age (age given as the even year). He finds that the war
did not affect children anthropometrieally, although anemia was greatly
increased.

30

Bacher, C. W . : Die Reife der Nepgeborenen [Maturity of Newborn In­
fants]. Wuerzburg, 1887. 16 pp.
This dissertation shows from other students’ statistics that the length and
weight of infants are too variable to constitute authoritative proofs of maturity.
The author recommends instead the more or less cartilaginous condition of
certain bones, the relative size o f sternum or pelvis, the formation of the
sinuses, the development of muscular, vascular, and nervous systems, etc.


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6

PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHILD
31

32

33

34

35

36

37

B ackhaus: “ Grundsätze und Erfahrungen auf dem Gebiete der Kindermiichbereitung % [Principles and experiences in the preparation of
milk for infants].
Münchener Medizinische Wochenschrift, vol. 3
(1905), pp. 1883-85.
Tbp author studied at the Empress Augusta Victoria House the weight of
1,000^ newborn infants, most of whom were first-born children of unmarried
working women between 25 and 35 years of age. The initial loss of weight
and gams in weight were studied in relation to birth weight, amounts of food
consumed, etc.
Baldwin, Bird T .: “A psycho-educational study of the fourth and fifth
school grades.” Journal of Educational Psychology [Baltimore], vol.
4 (1913), pp. 364-365.
A short report of a longer study on the interrelations between chronological,
physiological, and pedagogical age. See author’s “ Physical Growth and School
Progress,” Bulletin United States Bureau of Education, 1914, no. 10.
)------- Notes on School Observation. The Physical Nature of a Child.
University of Texas Bulletin, vol. 1, no. 188 (1911). 26 pp.
A syllabus designed to help teachers in detecting physical defects. It includes
a table of height-and-age and age-and-weight distributions, based on author’s,
study of children at the University of Chicago elementary and high schools
and the Francis W. Parker School; charts representing graphically the growth
in height and weight p i 14 boys and 11 girls; simple tests of lung capacity;
standards of cephalic index; suggestions for observation of asymmetry of body,
defective teeth, enlarged tonsils, adenoids, nasal obstructions, malnutrition,
defective vision, and hearing. A sample record card and a bibliography are
included.
- — — Physical Growth and School Progress. Bulletin, U. S. Bureau
of Education, 1914, no. 10. Washington. 212 pp.
An important investigation based on consecutive measurements, at yearly
and half-yearly intervals for periods of 3 to 12 years, of 861 boys and 1,063
girls in elementary schools of high standing in Chicago and New York. A
total of 33,840 measurements of height, weight, and lung capacity were taken
by trained anthropologists, and measurements were recorded in age groups
within three months of the exact age of the child. A detailed study was made
of records of health and school progress, and 34 tables and 39 charts were
constructed showing results of the investigation. The general conclusion is
drawn that the tall, heavy boys and girls with good lung capacity are older
physiologically and more mature mentally than short, light hoys and girls.
The bulletin concludes with a historical summary of the science of physical
measurements:
The Physical Growth of Children from Birth to Maturity.
University of Iowa Studies, vol. 1, no. 1 (1921). Iowa City. 411 pp.
The _ author’s most extended work, to date o f publication. An intensive
analysis of the problem of physical growth from birth to maturity treated
from the ontogenetic standpoint, bringing the material of his previous mono­
graph, “ Physical Growth and School Progress,” up to date and adding much
new material. Part. I discusses anthropometric instruments and methods and
gives data on 5,772 Iowa children. Part It adds, as original data, 5,000 weight
measurements on 400 infants; height and weight of 9,074 infants with com­
parative curves from other ihvestigations; height and weight of 27.912 pre­
school children; 400 individual growth curves; and 1,548 total or partial
coefficients of correlation. Part III presents an analysis of original data on
anatomical and physiological ages from 6 500 boys and girls. Part IV includes
a survey of 911 investigations of physical growth in this country and abroad.
Part V summarizes in 643 comparative tables of measurements data from
approximately _5,385,400 recorded rases in various countries. Part VI is an
annotated bibliography comprising 911 works on physical measurements. Each
section, or chapter, is summarized, and author’s conclusions, based on his own
data, recorded.
----------- “ The relation between mental and physical growth.” Journal
of Educational Psychology [Baltimore], vol. 13 (1922), pp. 193-203.
The author, after referring to his former studies on this subject, urges use
of the individualizing method. From data on about 2,500 normal boys and
girls under physical training he gives growth curves in height for boys and
girls and points out that on account of the evenness of growth predictions in
respect to this can be made by the Pearson method or the regression formula.
From 143 boys and girls examined at the Iowa Child Welfare Research Station
by the Stanford revision of the Binet scale, of whom 42 had had four school
examinations and 36 had had five, the author makes mean mental growth
curves of average and of superior boys and of girls up to 14 years. He next
gives the intelligence-quotient curves of superior and average boys and girls.
Finally he repeats an earlier statement that tall, heavy children are more
mature 'physiologically and mentally than short, light children.
—-------- L. W . Campbell, and H . J. K e fa u v e r : Studies in Experimental
Education. Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, 1920. 80 pp.
An introduction to and summary of diagnostic studies of 129 boys and girls
assembled at a> summer school of education at Johns Hopkins University. In
connection with the author’s work as instructor in a course in experimental
education the physical measurements of these boys and girls were taken and


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GENERAL GROWTH IN W EIGHT AND H EIGH T

7

compared with their mental tests. The author outlines the method of correlat­
ing the results of the two systems of measurement and derives a sample graph
showing development of- an accelerated and of a retarded boy. Actual record
of the physical measurements, compiled by L. W. Campbell and H. J. Kefauver,
appears as chapter 2 of the bulletin.
B
allantyne,
J. W : An Introduction to the Diseases of Infancy. Oliver &
38
Boyd, Edinburgh, 1891. 235 pp.
The author devotes a large part of this volume to the anatomy and physiol­
ogy of infancy, adding to the material collected from other writers a number
of original investigations. Nine plates.
39 Barr, A . L .: “ Some anthropometric data of western college girls.”
American Physical Education Review [Brooklyn], vol. 8 (1903), pp.
245-248.
A comparative study of physical measurements of girls from Wellesley,
Oberlin, and the University of Nebraska. The charts upon which the remarks
are based are not reproduced.
40 Baudraud, J. M .: L ’accroissement; ses caractères normaux et anormaux
chez le nourrisson : ses rapports avec l’hérédité [Growth : Its Normal
and Abnormal Characteristics in the Infant ; Its Relation to Heredity].
Paris, no. 217, 1911. 648 pp.
A thesis (University of Paris) on the theory of growth. Author takes up
(1) normal growth of the human cell from the beginning of intrauterine life
until the end of the second year of extra-uterine life, and proper care of the
mother and child during this tim e; (2) irregular growth caused by lack of
proper care or bad environment; (3) effects on growth of bad heredity, mainly
alcoholism, tuberculosis, and syphilis. The discussion is not based on cases
investigated by the author with the exception of a few illustrations of bad
hereditary influences. Bibliography.
41 Bean, Robert Bennett: “ Filipino types: Manila students.” Philippine
Journal of Science, Sect. General Science, vol. 4, no. 5 (1909), pp.
263-296.
A comparison of the phvsical characteristics of several hundred Manila
students from about 18 to 30 years of age, divided into eight classes: Primi­
tive, modified primitive, pustraloid, etc. For each class the maximum, mean,
and minimum measurements are given for cephalic index,_ nasal index, stature
standing, stature sitting, morphologic face index, physiognomic face index,
head length, head width, head height, nose length, nose width, chin to nasion,
chin to hair line, bizygomatic width, frontal circumference, parietal circum­
ference. forehead circumference, occipital circumference, fronto-parietal index,
forehead occipital index, fronto-occipital inde?;, forehead parietal index, occipito­
parietal index,' weight, and age. Bibliography.
— — “ The pulse of growth in man. A preliminary report.”
Ana­
42
tomical Record [Philadelphia], vol. 28 (1924), pp. 45-61.
A discussion of the wavelike nature of growth to which attention has been
directed by numerous observers. The author presents four charts of super­
imposed curves and two diagrams, derived from the figures of many investi­
gators, showing alternations in development of various parts and organs of
the body. References.
— — The Racial Anatomy of the Philippine Islanders. J. B. Lippin43
cott Go., Philadelphia, 1910. 236 pp.
Largely on adults, but containing, on [Sages 54 and 55, remarks on the
relation of stature to age among the Filipinos, and on pages 160 .to 16o, notes
on the omphalic index in the early years.
-------- “ The sitting height.” American Journal of Physical Anthropol­
44
ogy [Washington], vol. 5 (1922), pp. 349-390.
A report of a i studv of sitting height, based upon observations of about
6 000 persons of various races, among whom were 1,500 children from Ann
Arbor, Mich., more than 700 Filipino children of Manila, and more than 300
male Filipino students 18 years or over. The author prefers HrdliCka’s instru­
ments method, and technique. Tables and curves show the comparative
length and the rate of growth of the torso for the different groups and for
the two sexes at various ages, and data are given for the groups, on the
sitting-height index (i. e., “ the sifting height or torso in terms of the stature
taken as 1 00” ).
- A —n “ The stature and the eruption of the permanent teeth of
45
American, German-American, and Filipino children. Deductions from
the measurements and examination of 1,445 public school children in
Ann Arbor, Mich., and 776 in Manila, P. I.” American'Journal of
Anatomy [Philadelphia], vol. 17 (1914—15), pp. 113—160.
An extensive, detailed study to establish standards as to the time of erup­
tion of the teeth and furnish data on the extent o f decay. The records were
made in 1906, 1907, and 1908, from, children in the public schools of Ann
Arbor Mich., and the normal and trade schools of Manila. Methods are fully
described. Results are tabulated, as far as possible, and summarized under :
The eruption of the teeth in relation to (1) development of the individual, (2)
stature, (3) race, (4) sex, (5) school grade; the eruption and decay of the
teeth in relation to morphologic form ; the law of alternation of development.
Bibliography.
•


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8

PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OE THE CHILD
46

Beaudouin: “ Pesées quotidiennes et alimentation d’un enfant né avant
terme
[Daily weighing and feeding of a child born before term].
Normandie medicale [Rouen], vol. 3 (1888), pp. 234-236.

t Ä Ä s T ’Ä S ' s r Ä Ä ' I S to™
Ä i ' f t 8tm”Ä S a f™ ,“1 CMld' •* the " 4 < t1' <*>«'“
47

«»

Belem ann, W ilh e lm : Das Verhältnis zwischen Körperlänge, Kopf umfang
und Gewicht bei Neugeborenen [Relation between Length, Head Circum­
ference, and Weight of Newborn Infants]. Wuerzburg, 1889. 27 pp.
An inaugural dissertation. After discussing the difficulty of determining
E s th e r or not a child is premature, the author gives original data ^ thf
length, weight, and fronto-occipital circumference of 51 newborn bovs and
Motlier 8., age an<i number of children are recorded. These data he
useful
° f deVel0pment’ Which he belieyes

48

B Î ot» J- ,B - M ’ P ’ : Contribution à l’étude du développement physique de
1 en fan t. taille, poids, périmètre thoracique, Thythmes cardiaque et
respiratoire, tension artérielle [Data on the Study of Physical De\elopment of the Child; Height, Weight, Chest Circumference, Cardiac
and Respiratory Rhythms, Blood Pressure]. Bordeaux, no 56 1913
118 pp.
physical3
' and 667 investigation
made
in Bordeaux
of
pnjsicai devplonmlntUnfiVßfiS
development of 661iiti.)
boys
girls, varying
in age
from a fpw
resnrira«onl0flnriahiSA i1Author giJes weight, height, chestScircuinierence, pulse!
respnation, and blood pressure for every case and also averages bv sex for the
first month of life and for each year o f life.
u Æ aveiages Dy sex ior me

49

Bendix, Bernhard : “ Zur Ernährungsphysiologie dqs Säuglings.
II.
Uber die Entwicklung von Zwillingen ” [Nutritional physiology of the
infant. II. The development of twins]. Jahrh. f. Kmderh. [Berlin],
vol. 54 (1901), pp. 703-720.
cnninienting on the fact that some infants thrive on the most un­
scientific diet the author describes 11 cases of twins: who received identical
fare and treatment and^ differed little in weight at birth and yet in 9 out of
nwe V a i as<i l showed diverging development. Full data on the twins are
afforded by the comparative curves and tables.

50

Beneke, F. W . : Die anatomischen Grundlagen der Constitutionsanomalieen des Menschen [The Anatomical Basis of the Constitutional
Anomalies of M an]. Marburg, 1878. 262 pp.
A general and pathological treatise on the heart and arterial system, lungs
larynx, trachea, liver, spleen, and kidneys, containing data on normal growth
tl i i S '
slze+ ls S1Yen o£ various organs in the eight periods : Birth
te 11 days, 11 days to 3 months, 3 months to 1 year, 1 to 2 years 2 to 3
ex ami ned^and^
r1v 600
coo14measurements
y„ears’ 14
21
and ifea
nearly
made on Ninety-nine
the arterial subjects
system. were
In
connection with the data on each organ there is a discussion of the change®
puberty. Comparisons are made in 15 tables with Quetelet’s findings
Attention is repeatedly called to the fact that the child’s heart is relatively
smaller than the adult’s and that the child’s blood pressure is higher
m the lungs and lower in the circulation than the adulCs
P
6 18 ülgüer

51

Benestad,

G .: “ Die

Gewichtsverhältnisse reifer norwegischer Neuse-

w o S tsn f
?
erï en 12 Ta.gen nach der G eburt’’ [Proportionate
weights of mature Norwegian infants in the first 12 days after birth!
Archiv fur Gynäkologie [Berlin], vol. 101 (1913), pp. 292-350.
. ®tll5y
? f U979 mature, newborn infants,,'obtained from the records
I S
» ?
Christiania. Average weight was 3,466 grams ( a loss! a v «
ing 189 grams, took place within the first two, to three days- the original
weight was again reached within eight days. First-born children show! i n
iv$ight tban children of pluriparæ, also a greater lo I s T t the
chfidren^iffor1^ ^ay i nd a saial,er Sain at the end of the ninth day Smaller
suffer®d J|88 1088 and began their increase earlier than large children
refeîe°ncerS S hls statistieal data in 10 tables and gives a long list ¿ f
52

Ber N u tH ti^ nn fd: “ h Ur •E ™ äiirung Neugeborener mit Eiweissmilch ”
[Nutrition of newborn infants with protein milk], Jahrb. f . Kinderh
[Berlin], new ser. vol. 75 (1912), pp. 280-314.
Observations^ are given of the weight changes, etc., of 83 infants nnrioV q
Asylum of Berlin, between October, 1910 and
cu rved
Ul1 data 0Q these cases are given in two long tables and six


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GENERAL GROWTH IN W EIGH T AND H EIGH T
53

54

55

56

57

58

59

9

Bergmann, E. : “ Die physiologische Gewichtsabnahme und die Bezie­
hungen zwischen Ernährung und Gewichtsverlauf bei 1,000 Neugebo­
renen ” [The physiological decrease in weight and the relation between
feeding and the course of weight in 1,000 newborn infants]. Ztschr.
f. Kinderh. [Berlin], vol. 14 (1916), pp. 149-165.
Author observed 1,000 newborn infants in a maternity hospital in Berlin to
determine the decrease in their weight after birth and the subsequent increase.
Of these 1,000 infants, 611 regained or exceeded their original weight in
periods varying from a few days to over three weeks ; 389 were discharged from
the hospital after three weeks, weighing less than they did at birth. The
decrease in weight took place, in most cases, in the first three to four days
after birth; it was proportionate to the weight and amounted on an average
to 7.8 per cent of the original weight. Heavy children regained their original
weight more slowly than those of average or less than average weight at
birth. No definite correlation was found between quantity of milk taken and
increase in weight.
---------- “ Zur Frage der Beeinflussung der Brustkinder durch die Kriegs­
ernährung der M ütter” [The question of the effect upon breast-fed
children of their mothers’ war diet]. Ztschr. f. Kinderh. [Berlin],
vol. 20 (1919), pp. 75-111.
Observations by the author concerning the apparent effects of different types
of diet, one a war diet, upon the development of her two children. The
children weighed 3,300 grams at birth and were of about the same length.
The changes in weight and the development of the children are discussed in
detail. The child born when the mother was on a poor diet during and after
pregnancy seemed to develop more slowly than the other.
Bernard, P. : “ Considérations médico-légales sur la taille et le poids
depuis la naissance jusqu’à l’âge adu lte” [Medico-legal considerations
on height and weight from birth to adult age]. Archives de Vanthro­
pologie criminelle et des sciences pénales [Paris], vol. 2 (1887), pp.
213-225.
After commenting on the medico-legal significance of human weight and
height when age is to be ascertained or comparison made of assailant and
victim, etc., the author quotes and discusses statistics collected thereon by
Leffage, Pagliani, Bouchaud, Fleischmann, Gerhardt, Buffon, Zeising, Quetelet,
Bowditch, et al.
Berry, E. M . D. : “ On the physical examination of 1,580 girls from ele
mentary schools in London.” Brit. M. J. [London], vol. 1 (1904)
pp. 1248-1249.
A report by the medical examiner of the Technical Education Board, London
County Council, as to physical examination of girls applying for scholarships
in higher-grade schools. Methods are not given. A table shows average height
and weight of 1,385 girls grouped by ages 11 to 15 and compared with height
and weight of boys of the same ages examined for scholarships and conse­
quently coming from the same social class. Weight is also compared with
statistics from other countries. Comparative figures for chest expansions are
given for boys and girls.
Bertillon, Jeanne: “ L ’indice encêphalo-cardiaque, d’après les documents
laissés par le docteur Parrot ” [The encephalo-cardiac index, from
documents left by Dr. Parrot]. Bulletins de la Société d-anthropologie
de Paris, ser. 3, vol. 10 (1887), pp. 149-158.
A paper composed largely of tables, with explanatory notes, compiled from
records left by Doctor Parrot, of the weights of different organs of the body
as determined by him at autopsy. Number of observations is about 500. The
tables show the comparative development, from birth to 6 years, of stature,
weight of body, brain, heart, and spleen ; the proportion of increase for
various periods of time ; comparative development of the sexes ; relationship
between brain weight and body weight, brain weight and heart weight.
Betke, H a n s : “ Die Couveusenbehandlung der Frühgeborenen und Lebens­
schwachen” [Incubator treatment of premature and weak infants].
Monatsschrift für Geburtshülfe und Gynäkologie [Berlin], vol. 40
(1914), pp. 255-275.
A detailed study of the weight, temperature changes, and caloric require­
ments of premature infants brought to the children’ s clinic at the University
of Berlin. The majority of the infants were kept two months. Nine tables
are included of weights, diseases affecting the infants, mortality, etc.
Beyer, H . G. :
Some observations on normal growth and development of
the human body under systematized exercise.” Transactions of the
First Pan-American Congress, 1893 [W ashington], (1895), pt. 2, pp.
1196-1217.
A report of two successive measurements made on 50 naval cadets in Sep­
tember, 1892, and April, 1893, the items selected for record being height,
weight, lung capacity, and total strength, with brief outline of the gymnastic
exercises taken during the interval between measurements. Tables show the
distribution, by height in millimeters, of 230 cadets (average age 18 years)


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10

PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OP THE CHILD

who were previously admitted to the academy and comparison of their measure­
ments with those of Amherst students and Boston school boys. The measure­
ments showed an average gain in height, in the six-month period, of 8 milli­
meters; in weight, of 3.3 kilograms; in lung capacity, of 154 centimeters ; in
total strength, of .123 % kilograms. Analysis of data, comparison with various
other anthropométrie statistics, and discussion of methods of physical training
conclude the report.
60 Beyer, H . G. : “ The influence of exercise on growth.” American Physical
Education Review [Boston], vol. 1 (1896), pp. 76-87.
The author, a surgeon in the United States Navy, reports the effect of regular
. gymnastic exercises upon the development of the cadets coming under his obser­
vation. Accurate annual measurements of 186 cadets, aged 16 to 22, compared
with the normal growth curve from records of 4,537 naval cadets previously
measured, showed a distinct gain in height above the normal gain, amounting
to about 1 inch during the four years of systematic exercise ; a gain in weight
proportionately greater than the gain in height but more easily lost ; and a gain
in strength. There was, however, a loss in vital index— the ratio of lung
capacity to weight.
61 •
---------- “ The relation between physique and mental work.” American
Physical Education Review [Boston], vol. 5 (1900), pp. 149-160.
Report of the examination of 85 boys applying for positions as navy-yard
apprentices. The physical examinations were marked by à table of percentile
grades compiled by the author from many observations. The mental examina­
tions were made by other members of the examining board. Later, examinations
of 15 more boys were added to the original list. From these figures the author
worked out various correlations between physical and mental development, con­
firming, in his opinion, the results obtained by Porter in his researches on
“ Precocity and Dullness.”
62 ---------- “ The value to physiology of anthropometric tests and measure­
ments in the form of statistics and their importance to education.”
American Physical Education Review [Brooklyn], vol. 6 (1901), pp.
181-193.
In a general discussion of his subjèct the author includes an interesting
comparative study of physical measurements of 4,541 cadets and 3,445 other
mén and boys, mostly landsmen and naval apprentices, made to determine the
effect of mental upon physical development. Living conditions in the two
classes being as nearly equal as could be found for such a study the author
concluded that brain work may favorably influence bodily development.
63 Biedert, P .: “ Zur Beurtheilung der Wägungsresultate bei Säuglingen”
[On the judging of results o f weighing infants], Jahrh. f. Kinderh.
[Leipzig], new ser. vol. 19 (1882), pp. 275-291.
Author weighed four infants twice daily—-the first for 47 days, the second
for 68 days, the third for 100 days, and the fourth for 4 days. He found that
intake and evacuation produced some fluctuations in weight ; therefore, in order
to avoid mistakes, he recommends “ double weighing ” ; that is, weighing be­
fore and after feeding and taking the average of these two weights. The
article is principally a discussion of how to control weight.
64 Biermer, R. : “ Beiträge zur Frage der natürlichen Ernährung” [Con­
tribution to the question of breast feeding).
Arch. f. Kinderh.
[Stuttgart], vol. 47 (1907), pp. 68-94.
In connection with data on amounts of food taken the author gives tables
on the weights of his two sons during their first year.
65 Binet, A ., and Th. Sim on: “ La misère physiologique e t - l a misère
.sociale ” [Physiological poverty and social poverty]. Année psycho­
logique [Paris], vol. 12 (1906), pp. 1-24.
As gn experiment in the practical value of health inspection of school chil­
dren the authors examined 245 boys and 308 girls from 6 to 14 years of age
in a public school of Paris. The investigation included a medical examination,
anthropometric measurements, and tests of organs of sense. Methods of meas­
urement are carefully described and results are tabulated. Results of medical
examination are not reported. Physical retardation or advancement is dis­
cussed in detail, especially its correlation with social conditions.
66 — ------ and N . Vaschide: “ Mesures anatomiques chez 40 jeunes garcon s” [Anatomical measurements of 40 young boys]. Année psycho­
logique [Paris], vol. 4 (1897), pp. 133-136.
A short chapter in a memoir “ La psychologie à l’école primaire,” giving
results of measurement of weight, stature, and length of step. Methods are
described.
67 Bird, Fridericus: D e dimensionibus corporis humani inter se comparatis.
[The Relative Proportions of the Human Body]. Halle, 1817. 36 pp.
An inaugural dissertation in which the author discusses, the relations;
apparently existing between certain body dimensions and the “ architectura
plithisica ” or “ nervosa,” etc. It contains tables of the breadth of the chest
and its girth, of the length of the collar bone, of the distance between the
xiphoid process and the symphysis pubis ; of the girth of the abdomen, of the
extremities, and of the head. Some of the tables concern childhood from
early infancy to the twenties.


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Bischoff, E. : “ Einige Gewichts- und Trockenbestimmungen der Organe
des menschlichen K örpers” [Some determinations of weights and dry
values for organs of the human body]. Zeitschrift für Rationelle
Medicin [Leipzig and Heidelberg], ser. 3, vol. 20 (1863), pp. 75-118.
To secure exact data on the weight of the human body the author in 1861
and 1862 dissected five cadavers of normal individuals : A man of 33, a
woman of 22, a newborn boy, a newborn girl, and a prematurely horn boy of
6 months. He also used the weights ascertained by his father in 1853 of the
body of a boy of 16 years. The method of dissection is described, and numer­
ous tables give weights for each, body of blood, fat, skin, bones, muscles, and
organs, separately and in groups. Other tables compare different parts of the
same body or the same part of different bodies. The dry weights are deter­
mined for the man and one infant. The article is preceded by a sketch of
similar work previous to 1863.
B lagovidoff, I . : Materiali k izsliedovaniu zdoroviia inorodtzev Simbirskoi gubernii Buinskavo uiezda [Results of an Investigation of
the Condition of the Health of Mongolian Tribes of the Province of
Simbirsk, Buinski County].
N. A. Lebedeff, St. Petersburg, 1886.
105 pp.
An original study of boys from 8 to 20 years old belonging to three Mon­
golian tribes living in northeastern Russia. The author gives in numerous
tables for each year of age the vertical and horizontal diameter of the head,
circumference of head, neck, and chest, length of neck, trunk, and arm, cir­
cumference of shoulder, length of leg and foot, circumference of hip and
thigh, height and weight of body, capacity of lungs, and power of compres­
sion of right hand. He discusses his findings in detail and compares them
with those obtained by several Russian and West European writers who studied
other races. Bibliography.
Bleyer, A . : “ Mesures anthropométriques de deux mille enfants d’une
ville industrielle du Dauphiné ” [Anthropometric measurements of
2,000 children in an industrial city in the Province of Dauphine],
Archives de médecine des enfants [Paris], vol. 22 (1919), pp. 311-314.
Investigation of the body measurements of 1,010 boys and 1,055 girls aged
4 to 14 years, was made in a French industrial city as a part of the work of
the American Red Cross in France. Average weight, height, circumference of
head and chest are given for every year of age and for boys and girls. For
the purpose of comparison statistics for Paris obtained by other writers and
American figures quoted from Holt are included. It was found that many
children in Dauphine, notwithstanding their unsatisfactory physical condition
and lack of proper care, were taller and heavier than either the American
children or those in Paris.
----------- “ Periodic variation in the rate of growth of infants, based upon
the weight of 1,000 infants.” Arch. Pediat. [New York], vol. 34 (1917)
pp. 366-371.
A study of the seasonal variations in the rate of increase in weight of 1 000
infants attending the Washington University Dispensary in the first and
second years of life. The data show that there is an acceleration from mid­
summer to late fall, a retardation in winter, and a greater retardation in spring
and early summer. Gains in the first year of life are greater in summer and
fall and in the record year best gains were in August. This periodic variation
does not appear to be due to change of diet or heat. Three charts and manv
references are included.
Boas, F. : “Anthropological investigations in schools.” Pedagogical Sem­
inary [W orcester], vol. 1 (1891), pp. 225-228.
A résumé of investigations made to the date of writing, with references
No original observations.
----------- “ Anthropometry o f Central California.” Bulletin of the Am er­
ican Museum of Natural H istory [New York], vol. 17 pt 4 (19051
pp. 347-380.
’*
The material for this study of Indians was collected by Dr. Roland B. Dixon
in 1899 and 1900, in connection with the work of the Huntington California
Expedition, and by Mr. V. K. Chestnut in 1892 and 1893, in connection with
anthropometric investigations for the World’s Columbian Exposition
Most of
the measurements are Of adult subjects, but a few measurements of children are
included.
----------- Changes in Bodily Form of Descendants of Immigrants. U. S.
Senate Document No. 208. Washington, 1911. 573 pp.
Report of an investigation for the United States Immigration Commission
on the physical characteristics o f immigrants. An extended and important
work, giving the results of many measurements of foreign-born children, dis­
cussing the relations between time of immigration and changé of type - rate of
physiological development of foreign born and American born ; probable cause
of change in type ; problem of heredity; phenomena of growth; effect of size
of family. The points selected for inquiry were stature, weight, physiological
development, length and width of head, width of face between the zygomatic
arches, color of hair, eyes, and skin, to which were added notes on the descent
of the individual measured and the record of his immigration. For corn122290— 27------ 2


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PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OP THE CHILD

parison material was collected from the_ records of Newark Academy, N. J., as
showing development of American families living in this country for several
generations under most favorable conditions. Many tables and charts are
given. It was found that bodily traits supposed to be most stable change
under the influence of environment, and it is concluded that the adaptability
of the immigrant seems greater than was supposed.
75 Boas, F . : “ Growth.”
Monroe’s Cyclopedia of Education, vol. 3, pp.
187-190. The Macmillan Co., New York, 1912.
A resume of the scientific investigations on this subject to the date of
writing. No new material.
76 ----------- “ On Dr. W illiam Townsend Porter’s investigations of the growth
of the school children of St. Louis.”
Science [New York], new ser.
vol. 1 (1895), pp. 225-230.
A critical examination of Doctor Porter’s statistical methods. No original
data are given.
77 — ■ ■ “ Physical characteristics of the Indians of the North Pacific
Coast.”
American Anthropologist [Washington], vol. 4 (1891), pp.
25-32.
With various measurements of adult Indians are included notes on the
cephalic index of a small number of Indian children. Twelve boys near Puget
. Sound gave an average of 83.9 ; 13 from southern Oregon, 87.3.
American Journal of
78 —-------- “ The anthropometry of Porto Rico.”
Physical Anthropology [Washington], vol. 3 ‘ (1920), pp. 247-253.
Report of observations taken in connection with the survey of Porto Rico
by the New York Academy of Sciences. Measurements of school boys contain
an element of uncertainty because of the difficulty of determining exact age,
but on the whole show a growth curve lower than that of Mexican and
Italian children; since the adults of Sicily and of Porto Rico have approxi­
mately the same stature, a retardation in growth of Porto Rican boys seems
to be indicated. Eruption of permanent teeth, however,- seems to be about
one year in advance of normal. The cephalic index shows Porto Rican boys
to be roundheaded. References.
79 ---------- “ The growth of children.” Science [New York and Lancaster,
Pa.], new ser. vol. 5 (1897), pp. 570-573.
Statistics gathered in 1891 and 1892 in the schools of Worcester, Mass.
Full particulars will be found in the Report of the Commissioner, United
States Bureau of Education, 1904, pp. 47-132. The author derives tables
showing the average increase in stature in boys and girls in one-year periods
from 5 to 16; also a table showing comparative rate of growth of short and
tall children, in one-year periods, from 6 to 16. He concludes that young
children grow more uniformly than older children; that short children are
retarded in development throughout growth, but are likely to make this good
by. longer adolescence. From examination of the figures of Bowditch as to
Boston children of differing nationalities, he concludes that differences in
development in varying social classes are largely results of acceleration and
retardation of growth and tend to disappear during the last years of growth.
80 ---------- “ The growth of first-born children.” Science [New York], new
ser. vol. 1 (1895), pp. 402-104.
Observations and measurements were made of school children in Toronto.
Ontario, and Oakland, Calif., to determine whether the rate of growth varies
with first-born and later-born children. Tables give height, weight, sex, age,
number of eases, and order of birth. Number of cases observed not stated.
Second-born children exceeded third-born and later-born children in height and
weight. First-born children exceeded all later-horn children in stature and
weight. The difference prevailed from sixth year to adult life in females and
from sixth year to fifteenth year in males.
81 ----------- “ The growth of Toronto children.” Report of the British Asso­
ciation for the Advancement of Science, 1897 [London] (1898), pp.
443-449.
A report on a series of measurements of the school children of Toronto,
Ontario, and Oakland, Calif., taken for the anthropological exhibit of the
World’s Columbian Exposition. Data were collected on stature without shoes,
finger reach, sitting height, weight, age in years and months, place of birth,
nationality of grandparents, place of birth and occupation of parents, numbers
and ages of brothers and sisters, order of birth of child, and mental ability.
Methods o f measurement and number of cases (several thousand) are not given.
Variability of series is computed and tables formulated showing statures of
Toronto children as compared with American; differences between average stat­
ures o f boys and statures of children of various orders of birth, and their
mean errors; differences between average statures of girls and the statures
of first-born girls, and their mean errors; comparative sizes of families in
Oakland and Toronto; nationalities of grandparents of Toronto girls.
82 ---------- “ The influence of environment upon development.”
Proceed­
ings of the National Academy of Sciences [W ashington], vol. 6 (1920),
pp. 489-493.
A general discussion with no detailed statistical work. From observation
of ablut 120 pupils at Newark Academy and of several thousand Jewish chil­
dren in differing social environments in New York the author concludes that
environment plays an important part in determining bodily form.


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Boas, E. : “ The relation between civilization and stature.” Journal of
Sociologie Medicine [Easton,’ P a.], vol. 18 (1917), pp. 397-401.
From a study of the findings of other authorities the author believes that
stature is influenced by environment as well as by heredity and that stature
increases with civilization.
----------- “ Third report on the Indians of British Columbia.” Report of
the Sixty-first Meeting of the British AssO'dation for the Advancement
of Science, 1891 [London] (1892), pp. 408-447.
This extended report deals largely with customs and physical characteristics
of adult Indians but contains some anthropometric data on children.
----------- “ Zur Anthropologie der nordamerikanischer Indianer ” [The
anthropology of the North American Indians]. Zeitschrift für Eth­
nologie [Berlin], vol. 27 (1895), pp. 360-411.
A report of the author’s study of the bodily measurements of the North
American Indians, mostly adults. It contains also a number of tables and
curves including observations of individuals from 5 years of age.
----------- and j J> Earrand: “ Physical characteristics o f. the tribes of
British Columbia.” Report of the British Association for the Advance­
ment of Science, 1898 [London] (1899), pp. 628-683.
This report, largely on adults, contains one table (p. 644) on the growth of
Shushwap children from September, 1894, to June, 1897. Records of 16 chil­
dren are given, measurements of each having been taken a,t the two dates.
---------- and C. W issle r: “ Statistics of growth.”
Report of Commis­
sioner, I L S . Bureau of Education, Washington, 1904, vol. 1, pp. 25-132.
A discussion o f the methods of collecting and reducing observations on growth.
Data consist of measurements of several thousand school children, in Worcester,
Mass., in 1891 and 1892. Weights with clothing, without shoes, are given in
pounds ; all measures of length are in millimeters. Stature measured standing
free, by rod with sliding arm ; height, sitting on a level seat, whenever possible
knees above level of seat. Head measurements taken with pointed calipers.
Breadth of hand, from first to fourth finger across knuckles, hand flat. Pages
47—132 give graphic and tabulated summaries of these measurements. The
authors conclude that peculiarities of growth are due to varying rapidity of
development and that this variability conforms with the general variability in
the rapidity of physiological development as deduced from observations on
gestation, dentition, puberty, senility, and mental achievement. From these
data and conclusions there is deduced a new table of growth giving the
typical— not average—statures for each age.
Bobbitt, J. E .: “ The growth of Philippine children.” Pedagogical Sem­
inary [W orcester], vol. 16 (1909), pp. 137-168.
A study of the measurements of 1,180 Filipino boys and 438 Filipino girls
from 6 to 21 years of age as to height, span of arms, weight, vital capacity,
and grip of right and left hands. Methods are the same as those described by
Smedley in his report on Chicago children. There are many tables and growth
curves, the latter based on median values. Comparisons are made with results
of Smedley and Boas in studies of white children and of Misawa’s measure­
ments of Japanese. Additional study was made of 60 Chinese boys at the
Tondo Chinese School in Manila and results compared with a study of 659
Chinese boys made by A. H, Crook at Queen’s College, Hongkong.
Boucek, B .: “ Vysledek opëtného vâ-zeni skolni mlâdeze za doby jedneho
roku” [Results of repeated weighings of school children during one
year.]
dasopis pro vefejn é zdravotnictvi [Prague], vol. 2 (19001901), pp. 210-214.
An account of repeated weighings of 418 boy aud 357 girl pupils in a small­
town school in Bohemia. The children were weighed five times in one school
year. In a table are given average weights of the children by sex and by
classes at each weighing. No immediate effect of vacations was observed; a
loss of weight was noticed during the spring and summer months ; the greatest
gain took place in the fall, in the first six weeks after vacation ; the increase
during the period from December to February was 'much smaller than in the fall.
Bordier and Eabre: “ Valeur de la surface spécifique chez les enfants
nouveau-nés” [The “ specific-surface” value for newborn infants].
Bulletin de la Société d'obstétrique de Paris, vol. 6 (1903), pp. 212-214.
A comparison is made of the specific surface (i. e., the relation of the body
- surface ta body weight) of infants and adults. The weight, height, surface
measurements and the specific surface values are given for 10 newborn infants,
measured by the author with the Bordier instrument for measuring surface
area. The surface area in relation to .body weight is much greater for infants
than for adults. I
Borrino, A .: “ Sulla diminuzione fisiologica del peso del neonato ” [On
the physiological loss o f weight of the newborn infant]. La Pediatria
[Naples], vol. 25 (1917), pp. 413-430.
An account of the author’s study o f 1,110 newborn normal infants at a
clinic in Turin. The loss of weight after birth and of gain following the initial
loss is studied, and several tables and extensive quotations are given. The


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PHYSICAL GROWTH AfTD DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHILD
author concludes that ( 1 ) the physiological loss of weight of the newborn
infant fluctuates between 100 and 300 grams and reaches its maximum on the
second or third day of life, the amount of this loss depending only upon the
infant’s weight and not upon any other factor; (2) the physiological loss is
caused, above all, by elimination of large quantities of water from the skin
and lungs; (3) in a majority of breast-fed infants the weight starts to rise on
the third or fourth day ; (4) failure to gain we ight or slow or irregular gain
must h'e called to a physician’s attention. Bibliography.
.Bouchaud, J. B. : De la mort par inanition et études expérimentales sur
la nutrition chez le nouvëau-ne [On Death from Inanition and Experi­
mental Studies on Nutrition of the Newborn]. Paris, no. 141, 1864.
134 pp.
A thesis (University of Paris) giving an account of author’s investigation of
weight of 54 newborn infants at a maternity home in Paris. The changes in
weight and the amount of milk given during the first 9 or 10 days of life were
studied. Twelve cases were studied during the first year of life. Conclusions:
' A loss of weight takes place within the first two days, amounting to 65 grams
the first day and 35 grams the second; the original weight is regained within
the week ; the average weight is 3*250 grams at birth and 9,000 grams at the
end of* the year ; the daily gain in weight is 20 to 25 grams during the first
few months and 10 to 15 grams after the fifth month ; the increase in length
amounts to 19 centimeters in a year and is rapid at first hut very slow at the
end óf the year. Two tables are given.
Bouchtit, E .: “ Du changement de nourrice” [Change of wet nurse].
Gazette (les hôpitaux civils et militaires [Paris], vol. 47 (1874), pp.
617-62Ò.
The initial loss of weight and the monthly changes in weight, together with
food requirements, are given for an infant during the first year.
Boulton, Percy: “ Some anthropometrical observations.”
Brit. M. J.
[London], vol. 1 (1876), pp. 280-282.
The author gives tables of age, height, weight, and rate of increase in weight
per inch of total height from birth to height of 7 feet. Methods of derivation
are. not fully described.
Bow ditch, H . P. : “ The growth of children.” Eighth Annual Report
State Board of Health, Massachusetts, voi. 8 (1877), pp. 273-323.
Boston.
A report of measurement of 24,500 children in public and private schools of
Boston. The survey extended over one year (1875-76), data having been secured
by teachers under superintendence of principals. Heights werè taken without
shoes; weights with clothing, and allowance for clothing estimated; birthplace
of subjects, nationality and occupation of parents, and color (white, black, or
mulatto) were noted. Average heights and weights for different ages and
nationalities were calculated. The author found : (1) Boys are heavier and
taller than girls to age 11, when for two or three years this condition is
reversed ; (2) children of American-born parents are taller and heavier than
those of foreign-born parents; (3) pupils in selected (private) schools are
superior in height and weight to public-school children and to English boys of
nonlaboring classes; (4)- below 58 inches boys are heavier than girls in pro­
portion to height ; above 58- inches the reverse is the case. Many tables and
graphs.
----------- “ The growth of children, studied by Galton’s method of per­
centile grades.” Twenty-:secónd Annual Report of the State Board of
Health of Massachusetts, (1891), pp. 479-522. Boston.
The author explains Galton’ s method of percentile ‘ grades and arranges
statistical data on about 24,000 school boys and girls of. Boston in 12 tables
giving heights and weights of boys and girls of all nationalities, from 5 to 18
I years, in inches and centimeters, and in pounds and kilograms, with 11 per­
centile grades from 5 per cent to 95 per cent and averages. He rearranges the
same material in curves, adding a comparison of the percentile rank of -Italian
children based on observations of Pagliani, and of Russian factory children,
based on observations of Emilmann, with Boston children. Hé concludes that
maximum yearly growth is greater in boys than girls but occurs two or three
years later in boys ; that large children make their most rapid growth earlier
than small ones ; that the period of accelerated growth in large boys differs
from that in small boys rather in duration than in intensity ; that the retardedgrowth period occurs in boys at about 11 years and in girls at about 9 ; and
that during the period of female superiority height is more marked in the
lower and weight in the higher percentile grades. He comments on the fact
that children of American parentage in the public schools, are-usually larger
than those of other nationalities.
Boyd, Robert: “ Tables of the weights of the human body and internal
organs in the sane and insàne of both sexes at various ages, arranged
from 2,614 post-mortem examinations.” Philosophical Transactions of
the Royal Society of London, voi. 151, pt. 1 (1861), pp. 241-266.
Tables give age, sex, body weight, height, weight of cerebrum, cerebellum,
pons, and medulla, encephalon, lungs, heart, thymus, stomach, liver, spleen,
pancreas, kidneys, renal capsule, ureters. Assigned causes of death are in­
dicated.


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Bradford, E. H . : “ The effect of recumbency on the length of the spine.”
Bost. M. & S. J., voi. 109 (1883), pp. 245-246.
The author calls attention to the fact that lying down immediately in­
creases the length of the body and substantiates his statement by measure­
ments of .11 individuals, aged 3 ^ to 40 years, measured .erect and in dorsal
recumbency. The method of measurement is not given.
Brenton, H elen : “ Climate and race as factors influencing the weight of
the newborn.” American Journal of Physical Anthropology [Washing­
ton], voi. 5 (1922), pp 237-249.
Data for this study were obtained from the birth records of about 2,000
Minneapolis infants as given in the obstétrical charts of three hospitals, for
the years 1915 to 1919. Statistical methods are described and illustrative
charts presented, with many references to the work of other investigators. The
author found that temperature has little if any influence on birth weight, and
that there is no direct seasonal variation in the | weight of the newborn.
Children o f American-born parents showed higher birth weights than those of
foreign born ; figures from observers in Europe showed higher birth weights than
those of first generation American-born children of the same nationalities.
Breslau: “ Über die Veränderung im Gewichte der Neugebornen ” [Varia­
tions in weight in the newborn], Denkschrift der Medizinisch-Chi­
rurgischen Gesellschaft des Kantons [Zürich] (I8 6 0 ), pp. 111-118.
Study o f weights of 100 normal newborn children at a maternity hospital in
Zurich immediately after birth and again at the time of discharge from the
hospital, which took place on the average about 10 days after birth. Data
presented by sex and method of feeding: As a rule a decrease was found in
the weight of the newborn amounting on the average to one-fifteenth of the
weight of the body.
Broca, P au l: Mémoires d’anthropologie (Memoirs of Anthropology). C.
Reinwald et Cie.. Paris, 1871. 3 vols.
The collected writings of the author, arranged by subject but giving dates
of publication so that the reader may trace the progress of the science of
anthropology in France.
Broman, Iv a r : Normale und abnorme Entwicklung des Menschen [Nor­
mal and Abnormal Development Of the Human Being], Verlag von
J. F. Bergmann, Wiesbaden, 1911. 808 pp.
Pages 153 to .167 are, devoted to post-émbryonic development of the human
form in three periods: Neutral childhood (birth to 7 years), bisexual childhood
(8 to 15 or 17 years), and youth (16 or 18 to 20, females developing earlier).
Tables are given on these stages, including one compiled froth Biedert, Monti,
Stratz, and Hochsinger on food, weight, length, and cranial circumference- of
the newborn. Six hundred and forty-two cuts and eight plates.
Brotzu, Giuseppe: “ Indagini antropometriche sugli allievi dèlie scuole
all’ aperto di Sienna ” [Anthropometrical studies of pupils in the openair schools in the city of Sienal. Igiene della scuola [Genoa], voi.
15 (1924), pp. 16 9-177; 193-205 ; 217-223.
Anthropometrical studies of 257 children in four open-air schools in the city
of Sienna, boys and girls in nearly equal numbers. Each child was examined
twice, the second time after an interval of five to six months. The author gives
in tables by sex for each year of age the height, weight, Rohrer’ s index, chest
circumference, bisachromial diameter, vital capacity,-muscular force, and hemo­
globin content as found in the first examination. This is followed by an ac­
count of the differences found by him in the same children six months later.
He concludes that the children, who were found underdeveloped at the time of
the first examination, reached a normal condition after a six-month stav in the
open-air schools.

104

Broudic, Louis: “ Contribution à l’étude de la progression du poids du
nourrisson au cours de la première année ” [Contribution to the study
of the gain in weight of the nursling during the first year]. Nourrisson
[Paris], vol. 7 (1919), pp. 15-22.
Basing his study on records of 300 infants at ,a maternity institution in
Fans, varying numbers of whom were weighed at frequent intervals during the
first year of life, the author finds that the average-infant at birth weighs 3 280
§ra™s; at 5 m2nths’ 6-2^0 grams; at 6 months, 6,710 grams ; and at 1 year
8,770 grams; that the gain in weight is much more rapid in the first than in
irrc ^farities^* ^ear
W? ’ fhat the normal curve of weight increase has many

:05

Brüning, H .: “ Zur Frage der Kriegsneugeborenen ” [Status of infants
born during the war], Deutsche Med. Wchnschr. [Leipzig], vol. 44
Whereas Keltner in Zeltschrift fur Sauglingsschuts), 1916, volume 2, contends
that infants born during the war are inferior, Hofmann in 1918 found from
comparing material in a Rostock maternity clinic for the period January 1
19i 7^ ith the ®ame for tlie Period January 1, 1912, to June
> , *..e?e bad been no decrease of weight in such infants' nor increase
of defective children, -but that the loss o f Weight following birth was not
regained so rapidly as with pre-war infants.


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PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF TH E CHILD

106

Brünniche, A .: “ Et Bidrag til Bedömmelsen a f Borns Legem su dvikling ” [A contribution to the determination of the physical develop­
ment of children]. Bibliothek for Laeger [Copenhagen], ser. 5, vol. 11
(1865), pp. 361-384.
To secure a basis of comparison for the physical condition of children coming
under his care the writer collected data on the children who came to the chil­
dren’s hospital in Copenhagen. Measurements of height, weight, and circum­
ference of head and chest were taken for more than 300 children 2 to 8 years
of age. Three tables show the measurements mentioned.
107 Budin, P .: Le nourrisson; alimentation et hygiène, enfants débiles,
enfants nés à term e; leçons cliniques [The Nursling; Feeding and
' Hygiene o f Premature and Full-term In fan ts; Clinical Lessons]. O.
Doin, Paris, 1900. 394 pp. Translation by W . J. Maloney. The Caxton Publishing Co., London, 1907. 198 pp.
A general treatise containing many individual case histories with charts of
growth and development. :
108 ----------- and P. Plan chon: “ Note sur l’alimentation des enfants ” [Note
on the feeding of children]. Pédiatrie pratique [Lillie], vol. 2
(1 9 0 3 -4 ), pp. 13-21.
A record ot age, weight, and amount of food taken by 129 infants cared for
at a children’s clinic.
109 Bürgers: “ Messungen von Düsseldorfer Volksschulkindern ” [Measure­
ments of public-school children of Düsseldorf]. Archiv für Hygiene
[Munich and Berlin], vol. 94 (1924), pp. 276-283.
The author weighed and measured 2,643 children, boys and girls in nearly
equal numbers, 6 to 8 years old, pupils in the public schools of Dusseldorf. His
figures and similar data for 14 other cities he gives in two tables, arranging the
height and weight by sex and for each six months of age. Most of the article
consists of a discussion of the data presented in the tables.
110 Burgerstein, L. “ Untersuchung der Schüler und Schülerinnen in K ris­
tiania ” [Examination of public-school boys and girls in Christiania].
Zeitschrift für Schulgesundheitspflege [Leipzig], vol. 34 (1921), pp.

11- 12.

HI

112

113

An account of the measurement and weighing of 30,000 school children of
Christiania, Norway. The children were divided for every year of age into
three groups according to weight ; this method of studying the children’s
physical condition the author considers much superior;, to the usual designa­
tions such as “ state of nutrition,” “ development,” “ good,” “ medium,” and
“ bad.”
Burls, Frederic: “ Growth of children in height and weight.” American
Journal of Psychology [W orcester], vol. 9 (1898), pp. 253-326.
The salient facts from studies previously made of the physical and mental
development of children during the years usually spent in common schools.
Extensive bibliography. No original observations.
Burtscher, H u g o : “ Das Wachsthum der Extremitäten beim Menschen
und bei Säugethieren vor der Geburt ” [Growth of limbs of men and
mammals before birth]. Zeitschrift für Anatomie und Entwickelungs' geschickte [Leipzig], vol. 2 (187 6-77), pp. 357-374.
To investigate the growth of limbs of human beings and other mammals
the author measured whole limbs and parts of limbs of the fetus, comparing
results with measurements of the adult made by Professor Alby. Sex was
noted, and data arranged according to size, not age. For human beings nine
tables are given showing absolute length of limbs, relative length in per­
centages of body length, dimensions of parts of hand and foot in percentages
of body length, length of upper limbs as compared with lower, relative length
of fingers, etc., and the conclusions are drawn that hand and foot grow more
rapidly than arm and leg before birth and less rapidly after birth; that the
micfdle finger and big toe are relatively longer before birth than after ; that
in the early fetus the upper and lower limbs are the same length, but the
lower limbs become longer with development ; that the thumb grows rela­
tively shorter ; that there is an interesting variation between ring finger and
forefinger. He concludes that the law of growth for the extremities of human
beings and other mammals is probably the same but that further study should
be made before definite conclusions can be formulated.
Burtseff, P. A .: “ K voprosu o fizicheskom razvitii vospitannikov morskovo uchilishcha ” [Physical development of the cadets of the naval
academy]. Medizinskiia pribavlieniia k morskomu sborniku [St. Pe­
tersburg], 1886, pp. 1 1 2-13 2; 173-190.
After discussing the works of several investigators on the physical devel­
opment of school boys author gives an account of his own study of 954 Naval
Academy pupils ranging in age from 14 to 21 years, of whom 1,923 measurements
were made. Average weight, height, and chest circumference, annual increase in
these measurements, and periods of greatest development are given, and data


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are compared with those obtained by 11 other writers, Russian and foreign.
Ihe author concludes that his findings agree with those of the other
investigators.
114

115

Cadre, M a xim e: Étude sur les modifications du poids, de la taille et de
la suture sagittale cliez le nouveau-né (dans les 9 premiers jours) [A
Study of the Modifications of Weight, Stature, and the Sagittal Suture
of the Newborn during the First Nine D ays]. Paris, no. 83, 1910.
120 pp.
Thesis for medical degree (University of Paris). The original work con­
sists of observations of the condition of the sagittal suture of 203 infants
from birth to 9 days of age, with detailed accounts of 42 cases, and length
and weight of 209 infants, measured at birth and on the fifth and the ninth day
The author found overlapping of the sagittal suture at birth most frequent
among the infants of primiparæ ; length at birth most frequently found was
49 centimeters. Bibliography.
Calvary, M a rtin : “ Die Bedeutung des Zuckers in der Säuglingsernäh­
rung ” [ Significance of sugar in infant feeding]. Ergebnisse der Inneren
Medizin und Kinderheilkunde [Berlin], vol. 10 (1913), pp. 699-725.
The author presents weight curves for nine infants whose digestion - of sugar
was studied. Bibliography.

116

Camerer, W . : “ Beiträge zur Physiologie des Säuglings ” [Data on physi­
ology of the infant]. Zeitschrift für Biologie [Munich and Leipzig],
new ser. 15, vol. 33 (1896), pp. 521-534.
A history of two children observed by the author. For one, a normal breast
■tod^ infant, amount of food, progress of weight, and amount of insensible per­
spiration for every day of the first 113 days of life, and brief history of the
next seven weeks are given. At the end of 162 days the child weighed 8 020
grams. For the other, an underweight, premature, artificially fed child, the
quantity 8-nd chemical composition of the food, and tlic weight every two or
three weeks for the first 75 weeks of life are given. At the end of the 75
weeks the child weighed 6,700 grams. Author found that the artificially fed
infant was overfed at some periods in spite of the great care with which his
food was selected. Overfeeding of artificially fed infants he considers usual.
117
“ Das Gewichts- und Längenwachstum des Menschen, insbeson­
dere im 1. Lebensjahr” [The growth in weight and height of the
human being, particularly in the first year of life]. Jdhrb. f. Kinderh.
[Berlin], vol. 53 (1901), pp. 38 1 ^ 4 6 .
Account o f weights and heights of 283 children "in well-to-do families of
Berlin m the first 10 years of life, with special emphasis on those under 1
year old. The weights for the latter are given for each week of life according
to sex, method of feeding, and weight at birth. Data as to the eruption of
teeth are arranged in the same way. For the children between the second and
eighth years of age the average weights are given for each month of life bv
sex and for both sexes combined. The height is given for each week of age
for all children under 1 year old ; for each month for children over 1 but
under 2 years old, and for each year for those over 2 years old. A large number
of tables are given, but no general averages nor conclusions.
118 ----------- “ Gewichtszunahme von 21 Kindern im ersten Lebensjahre ” [In­
crease in weight of 21 children in the first year of life]. Jahrb. f
Kinderh.
[Liepzig], new ser. vol. 18 (1882), pp. 254r-264.
History of development of 21 children in the first year of life. Author gives
separately for each child sex, number of previous births by the mother age of
parents, method of feeding, and history of child’s physical development during
the first year of life. The tables given by the author refer to each case sepa» rately ; there are no general conclusions.
119 — — — “ Untersuchungen über Massenwachstum and Längenwachstum
der K in der” [Investigations on the increase in weight and height of
children]. Jahrb. f. Kinderh. [Leipzig], vol. 36 (1893), pp. 249-293.
A study of the weights and heights of 116 persons varying from newborn
infants to men and women 20 years old. The weights of children under 1 year
were studied for the entire year and the figures given for every week ; the weights
and heights of the older children are given for various periods. About threelourths of these cases (exact number not available) are from original investi­
gations ; the others were taken from other writers.
120 Camerer, W ., J r.: “ Gewichts- und Längenwachstum der K in d er” [In­
crease in the weight and height of children]. Medizinisches Correspondenzblatt des Würtembergischen Ärztlichen Landesvereins [Stutt­
gart], vol. 75 (1905), pp. 454-459.
From other students’ statistics and a few personal observations the author
gives two tables, one on increase in weight and one on increase in height of
boys and girls separately, from 1 to 18 years of age. He enumerates various
phenomena of absolute and relative growth, such as regular fluctuations in
weight and height during the day and the year, the periods of accelerated growth
the effects of sex, occupation, and material prosperity.
e


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121

122

123

124

125

126

PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT ÔE TH E CHILD
Camerer, W ., J r .: “ Gewichts- und Längenwachstum der Kinder ”
[Children’s growth in weight and height].
Pfaundler und Schloss­
mann : Handbuch der Kinderheilkunde, vol. 1, pp. 232-247. Leipzig,
1910.
The author notes variations in length and weight due to time of day and
year, state of nutrition, and time spent in bed and discusses the advantages
and disadvantages of the generalizing and individualizing methods in statistics.
He describes the general laws of growth, first in weight and then in height, and
discusses initial loss of weight after birth, the difference produced by natural
and artificial feeding, the long-continued effect of low weight at birth, the
superiority in weight of boys over girls exeept when the earlier puberty of girls
gives them the advantage, and the cessation of physiological growth at 16 for
girls and 19 for boys. The length of boys at birth he puts at 49 centimeters
and of girls at 48 centimeters. He calls attention to the periods of most rapid
growth— the first year of life and puberty. Pubertal growth in length begins at
12 in girls and 13 in boys. Three tables give weights of breast-fed and artifi­
cially-fed infants and weights and lengths of children from 1 to 18 years of
age. The figures are based chiefly on the elder Camerer s observations. Many
details of growth are illustrated in 13 graphs.
-— “ Gewichts- und Längenwachstum der Kinder, insbesondere sol­
cher im ersten Lebensjahre” [Growth in weight and height of chil­
dren, especially up to 1 year of age]. Verhandlungen der Gesellschaft
für Kinderheilkunde [W iesbaden], vols. 14r-16 (1 89 7-99), pp. 1-9.
Using data collected by his father and by Vierordt concerning 250 boys and
girls, most of them infants, the author compiles tables of weights of breast-fed
and artificially-fed infants up to 1 year of age; also tables of heights and
weights of children up to 6 years and up to 19 years of age. Boys grow least
from 4 to 12 years of age and girls from 6 to 10. The former have concluded
rapid growth in height by 17 and the latter by 14.
“ Gewichts- und Längenwachstum der Kinder, insbesondere
solcher im 1. Lebensjahre ” [Growth in weight and height of children,
especially in their first year of life]. W iener Klinische Rundschau,
vol. 14 (1900) , pp. 28-30.
Account of weights of 250 children. Author arranges the weights for each
week of the first year of life according to the method of feeding and the initial
weight and concludes that the weight of the first year of life is affected not so
much by the method of feeding as by the initial weight. He also gives tables
showing the development in height of 12 persons for each year of life during
the first 19 years.
Camescasse, J. E. L. : “ Étude statistique sur l’évolution du poids des
enfants de Paris entre quatre ans et quinze a n s ” [Statistical study
on evolution of weight of Parisian children between 4 and 15 years of
age]. Archives de médecine des enfants [Paris], vol. 21 (1918) dp
113-149.
Weights and data are given on the growth of 2,571 boys and 2,506 girls sent
from Paris to Forges-les-Bains because of poor health. Weights were taken
every four weeks. Amount of clothing worn at time of weighing is stated
Data were accumulated between 1904 and 1914. The author found girls lighter
than boys from birth to 11 years of age, heavier from 12 to 15 years and
lighter again after 16 years.
’
Carlier, G .: “ Recherches anthropométriques sur la croissance; influence
de l’hygiène et des exercices physiques” [Anthropometric researches
in growth ; the influence of hygiene and physical exercises]. Mémoires
de la Société d’anthropologie de Paris, ser. 2, vol. 4 (1889), pp. 265-346.
Data were obtained by the systema tic weighing and measuring of boys'in the
military schools at Montreuil and Saint-Hippolyte at six-month intervals in the
years 1886 to 1890— a total of 10,497 observations. Weights and measure­
ments were taken without clothing. Results are tabulated to show arith­
metical average of height, weight, and chest circumference, ages 13 to 18, prog­
ress of growth, and relationships between the measures taken. Extended discussion of the influence of puberty, race,, sex, surroundings, and school training, climate, seasons, and sickness is given. Author finds that environment
. and Seasons affect growth and that there are periodic variations in growth rate.
Carstadt, F ritz; Über das Wachstum der Knaben vom 6 bis zum 16
Lebensjahre” [Growth of boys between 6 and 16]. Zeitschrift für
Schulgesundheitspflege
[Hamburg and Leipzig], vol. 1 (1888) dd
65-69.
This principal of a Breslau school containing 600 boys from 6 to 16 vears
old measured their height without shoes on the 1st o f April, July, October and
January of two years. The resulting 4,274 measurements he put into’ two
tables according to age, one of heights and annual and semiannual growth in
height and the other of maximum and minimum heights, with the difference
between them. The annual increase in height was about 4.8 centimeters to the
age of 12, after which it kept increasing to 7.5 at 15. Variations in height at
a given age increase to age of 15.


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Cassel, J., and H . K am nitzer: “ Versuche mit Albulactin bei künstlich
genährten Säuglingen ” [Tests with albulactin on artificially fed
infants]. Arch. f. Kinderh. [Stuttgart], vol. 49 (1 90 8-9), pp. 168-188.
With a case history and curve' for each of trine infants the authors demon ­
strate the successful use of albulactin as a food. The experimentation was con­
ducted in the children’s asylum, Berlin-Wilmersdorf, from September, 1907, to
March, 1908.
128 Cassinelli, L. R. : “ Desarollo físico y psíquico del niño en edad escolar
(6 a 14 años)” [Physical and mental development of the school child
between 6 and 14 years of age]. La Semana médica [Buenos Aires],
vol. 24, pt. 2 (1917), pp. 437-441.
A table based on investigation of 10,000 school children in Buenos Aires
gives their average weight, height, bisacromial diameter, muscular force, chest
expansion, and anterio-posterior diameter for each year of age and separately
for the sexes. Part of the article takes up the mental development of a child
from 6 years until the âge of 14.
129 Castell, A u g u s t: Über den Einfluss des Alters der Mutter auf Gewicht
und Länge des neugeborenen Kindes [Effect of Age of Mother on
W eight and Length of Newborn Child]. Königsberg, 1869. 31 pp.
An inaugural dissertation in which the author incorporates in his tables data
on a great number of births in 1866, 1867, and 1868. He shows for comparison
tables of Duncan and Hecker and discusses their theories, that weight of infants
depends primarily on age of mother (Duncan) and on number of pregnancies
(Hecker). Author believes that unprejudiced survey of tables will substantiate
Hecker s view.
130 Castellanos, I. : “ Estudio antropológico de las asiladas en la Escuela
Reformatoria de Aldecoa ” [Anthropological study of girl inmates of
the reformatory school at Aldecoa]. La Reforma Social [Habana],
vol. 3 (1915), pp. 150-163.
An account of anthropological investigations made by the author of 56 girls
of 10 to 23 years, inmates of a reformatory near Habana. The author deals
mainly with the physical and mental abnormalities of these persons and refers
only incidentally to their height, cephalic index, and facial index.
131 ----------- “ Estudio antropológico de los asilados en el Correccional de
Guanajay ” [Anthropological study of boy inmates of the correctional
institution of Guanajay, Cuba.] La Reforma Social [H abana], vol. 4
(1915), pp. 17-40.
Anthropological study of 101 boys from 10 to 19 years old, inmates of a cor­
rectional institution in Cuba. Tables are given for age, height, race, maximum
anterio-posterior diameter, iniac diameter, maximum transverse diameter,
cephalic index, horizontal circumference, inio-frontal curve, facial angle, and
force of right and left hand.
132 Cattell, J. McKeen, and L ivingston Earrand: “ Physical and mental
measurements of the students of Columbia University.” Psychological
Review [New York and London], vol. 3 (1896), pp. 618-648.
An account of measurements and tests made on students of Columbia Uni­
versity in 1894-95. The paper is considered by the authors rather a description
and discussion of methods than an important contribution to knowledge of the
subject, but results (averages) of 100 cases, average age 18, are given. The
tests were largely psychological but include a few physical measurements.
133 Chaillé, Stanford" E . : “ Infants, their chronological progress.”
New
Orleans Medical and Surgical Journal, new ser. vol. 14 (1887), pp.
893-912.
A general discussion of the physical, mental, and moral development of
infants.
134 Chalmers, A . K . : “ Preliminary notes of an inquiry into the physique of
Glasgow school children.” Journal of the Royal Sanitary Institute
[London], vol. 25 (1905), pp. 903-913.
Report of examination of 750 children, 150 of whom were of Jewish parentage,
in four districts in Glasgow, one where the death rate was high, two where it
was lower, and one where it was still lower. Ages were 6 to 14. Methods of
measurements are not given. The results are shown in tables (Kay’s) of
height, weight, mental capacity, condition of nutrition, teeth, etc.
135 Channon, H arold John, and Geoffrey A rth u r H arrison: “ The chemical
nature of the subcutaneous fat in the normal and sclerematous infant.”
Biochemical Journal [Cambridge], vol. 20 (1926), pp. 84-92. .
The analytical constants of the subcutaneous fat of eight infants, normal for
the purposes of this study, were determined by methods which are fully de­
scribed. The iodine value was found to be lowest at birth, increasing to the
adult value from the eighth to the twelfth month of life. There was a cor­
responding decrease of melting point with age. The saponification value was
almost constant at 200. Tables and references.


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136

137

138

139

140

141

142

PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHILD
Chapin, H . D. : “A plan of infantile measurements.” Medical Record
[New York], voi. 46 (1894), pp. 649-651.
The author presents a plan for 10 cranial measurements, girth of abdomen
and chest, and weight and length 'in infants. He has measured 98 cases from
birth to 2 years of age and gives the data for them in tabular form. The promi­
nence of the parietal bosses in infancy the author attributes to the rapid devel­
opment of the sensory-motor areas. He considers altered relation in the chest
and abdominal circumferences evidence of the presence and extent of rachitis.
Charles: “ Viabilité des nouveau-nés, à terme et avant terme; accouche­
ment spontané et provoqué ” [Viability of the newborn, at and before
term. Delivery spontaneous and induced]. Nouvelles archives d’ob­
stétrique et de gynécologie [Paris], vol. 8 (1893), pp. 404—417.
With discussion of methods of determining the age of the fetus and methods
of artificial delivery the author includes data on infants, collected at the
Maternity Hospital at Liege during nine years, the total number of births
considered being 3,714. An analysis shows the proportion of these infants
who survived and ages of the fetuses at birth.
Charrin and Nobécourt: “ Influence des maladies de la mère sur le
développement de l’enfant ” [Influence o f sickness in the mother on the
development of the child]. Comptes rendus des séances et mémoires
de la Société de biologie [Paris], ser. 10, vol. 2 (1895), pp. 703-704.
Observation of the growth rate of five infants, two with healthy mothers
and three with mothers in poor health. The daily increase in weight of those
with healthy mothers was found to be five or six times that of the others.
Children’s Bureau, IT. S. Department of Labor: Statures and Weights
of Children under Six Years of Age, by Robert M. Woodbury. Publi­
cation No. 87. Washington, 1921. 117 pp.
A detailed report of the results of weighing and measuring 172,000 children
in the United States. All but 1,612 of these children were under 6 years of
age, and all were white except 4,976. Many tables are given and comparisons
made of heights and weights of city and country children, children of nàtive
and foreign parentage, and negro and white children. Average weights and
heights are given for white boys and white girls, by months. The relation of
rickets, malnutrition, heart abnormality, carious teeth, diseased or enlarged
tonsils, and adenoids to defects in stature and weight is discussed, and tables
show the average weights and heights for these children, compared with normal
children.
Chose, E fim : Über den Einfluss durchgemachter Rachitis auf die Kör­
permasse von Schulkindern [Effect of Rickets on Physique of School
Children]. Munich, 1914. 28 pp.
This dissertation (University of Munich), after stating opinions of other
students on the crippling and stunting effects of rickets, introduces the author’s
own investigation on the weight and height of rachitic boys and girls from 5%
to 7% years of age in three public schools of Munich. Eight tables present
actual weights and heights of such children. Averages calculated from this
material, and the Riedel and Skibinsky figures for normal children, are put
into tables, interpreted through the Pirquet-Index and Livi-Index, represented
by diagrams and variation polygons. The author found that rachitic children
evidence practically no inferiority in height and very little in weight. Even
this inferiority the author believes due not to rickets but to other ill effects of
the same factors that caused the rickets.
Christopher, W . S. : “ Measurements o f Chicago school children.” J. A.
M. A. [Chicago], voi 35 (1900), pp. 61 8-62 3; 68 3-68 7; 918.
A report of measurements of 5,636 children (2,537 boys and 3,099 girls)
in Chicago public schools, made under the direction of the author, the investi­
gation extending from March, 1899, to May, 1900. Data were secured as to
height (allowance for heels), weight (correction for clothing), strength of
grip, vital capacity, fatigue and endurance, hearing, and vision. Tables of
norms for boys and girls. Charts and curves. Author found that his obser­
vations confirmed the conclusions of Dr. Porter that mediocrity of mind is asso­
ciated with mediocrity of physique.
Clark, Taliaferro: Heights and Weights of School Children. See U. S.
Public Health Service.
■
------ :— The Physical Care of Rural School Children. See U. S. Public
Health Service.
----------- Edgar Sydenstricker, and Selwyn D. Collins: Heights and
Weights of School Children. See U. S. Public Health Service.
Coerper, Carl: “ Die Habitusformen des Schulalters ” [Habitus in school
age]. Ztschr. f. Kinderh. [Berlin], voi. 33 (1922), pp. 144-157.
Author discusses at length “ habitus ” of school children. He considers the
pathological types, Stratz’s, Sigaud’s, and Kretzschmer’s, and their value in
diagnosis. Giving his technique in measuring the child be presents two tables
on types in 6,000 boys and girls of ages from 8 to 13.


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143

Cohn, M o ritz: “ Die Kenntnis der Korperlange, ein Massstab fur die
normale Entwicklung der Schulkinder ” [Science of height; a standard
for the normal development of school children]. Zeitschrift fiir Schulgesundheitspflege [Hamburg and Leipzig], vol. 25 (1912), pp. 693-696.
Measurements o f 90 healthy, normal boys are given. A table, arranged for
11 heights, shows average, minimum, and maximum age and weight and num­
ber of children measured in each case. The ages range from 6 years 7 months
to 13 years 11% months.

144

Collier, W . A . : “ Das Geburtsgewicht der Unehelichen und seine Bedeutu n g ” [The weight at birth of illegitimate children and its signifi­
cance]. Klinische Wochenschrift [Berlin and Munich], vol. 1, pt. 2
(1922), pp. 2051-2052.
For the purpose of determining the differences in the weight of legitimate
and illegitimate newborn infants the author studied the weight at birth of
1,982 infants born alive in the city hospital of Frankfurt on the Main. In
three tables he presents the weights according to legitimacy, order of birth,
and sex. There was practically no difference between the legitimate and
illegitimate first-born children; legitimate second-born children were heavier
than illegitimate; this, in the author’s opinion, was due to general social con­
ditions and to the mother’ s environment. The prevailing viewpoint that
illegitimate children are. generally lighter in weight than those of legitimate
birth is attributed by the author to the fact that first-born are most frequent
among them.

145

Combe, A . : “ Korperlange und Wacbstum der Volksschulkinder in Lau­
sanne ” [Height and growth of public-school children in Lausanne].
Zeitschrift fiir Schulgesundheitspflege [Hamburg and Leipzig], vol. 9
(1896), pp. 569-589.
Measurements o f height and weight of 1,000 girls and 1,000 boys in the first
seven years of the Lausanne public schools are given, and comparisons are
made with findings of other workers. Attention is called to periods of unusual
increases in weight and height and to the importance of the nationality factor
in relation to height and weight.

146

Cordeiro, F. J. B .: “A contribution to anthropometry.” New Yorlc M. J.,
vol. 45 (1887), pp. 484-487.
As a contribution to the study of the growth curve between the ages o f 14
and 18 the author gives figures and curves derived from measurement of over
5,000 candidates for the naval service on board the U. S. S. Minnesota. Sub­
jects were nude, height registered to the nearest eighth of an inch, pounds to
the nearest quarter. The results are compared with the work of Roberts, Bowditch, and Quetelet. From study of numerous investigations the author con­
structs what he believes to be the normal curves o f length and weight for all
living things, from the beginning of life to old age.

147

Cramer, H . : “ Zur Diätetik des Frühgeborenen ” [Dietetics of the premature child].
Monatsschrift für Kinderheilkunde [Leipzig and
Vienna], vol. 6 (1 9 0 7 -8 ), pp. 489-496.
In a study of the feeding of premature infants the author gives data on
weight changes, amounts of nourishment taken, etc., for three healthy, first­
born infants, born at 7, 8, and 9 months of gestation, respectively.

148

Crampton, C. W . : “ Physiological age, a fundamental principle.” Ameri­
can Physical Education R eview [Springfield], vol. 13 (1908), pp. 141154 ; 214-227 ; 268-283 ; 345-358.
Data for this paper were taken from records made by the writer or under his
immediate supervision of New York City high-school boys during the years 1901
to 1906. All tables are based upon a large number of observations, often in
the thousands. On this evidence the writer believes that all observations of
the adolescent— anthropological, medical, educational, or social— must hereafter
rest upon classification as prepubescent or postpubescent and not upon chrono­
logical age. Following careful definition of the terms involved he constructs
curves showing the expectancy of pubescence and degree of postpubescence for
half-year groups from 12% to 18% years of a ge; derives an empirical per­
centage for each half year and compares with it the values for children of
German and American parentage derived from records of about 600 highschool children. Correlating weight, height, strength, and scholarship with
pubescence, he finds postpubescents differing from prepubescents, both mentally
and physically. He finds that growth rates are dependent upon pubescent
periods and not upon age; that accelerations in weight, height, and strength
occur at the same tim e; and that the more rapid the development the more
rapid is the gain in weight, height, and strength. Concluding with a discussion
of the significant features of life centering about puberty, he adds as appendixes
an analysis of the racial constitution of the group studied; an investigation of
elementary-school boys as to correlation between eruption of the teeth, and
weight and height; a chart of various physiological epochs, founded upon Boas,
and a table of preliminary observations as to correlation of weight, height, and
first menstruation.


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149

150

151

152

153

154

155

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PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OP TH E CHILD
Crum, Frederick S .: “Anthropometric statistics of children— ages six to
forty-eight months.” Publications of the American Statistical Asso­
ciation, 1916-17 [Boston], new ser. vol. 15, no. 115 (1918), pp. 332336.
From over 10,000 sets of measurements of babies at better babies’ contests
and baby health conferences the author compiled tables of average physical
measurements (weight, height, circumference of head, chest, and abdomen,
diameter of chest, length of arm and leg) for ages 6 to 48 months. These are
here reproduced with a brief discussion.
Curjel, D. F . : “ The weight at birth of infants in India.” Indian Journal
of Medical Research [Calcutta], vol. 8 (1 92 0-21), pp. 363-365.
The author investigated the condition of development and nutrition as
shown by weight of the normal Indian infant at birth. In various parts of
India 1,849 infants were weighed by medical women, and for purposes of
comparison weights at birth of 289 normal infants born in India of other
than Indian parents were also collected. Results show that the average
weight of Indian infants (6.5 pounds) compared favorably with that of infants
o f other parentage; that there is no appreciable difference in birth weight of
Mussulmans, Hindus, and Indian Christians; that the early marriage age has
no adverse effect on birth weight; that high mortality must be due largely to
postnatal conditions.
Curtiss, F. H .: “ Some investigations regarding loss in weight and gain
in height during sleep.” American Physical Education Review [Cam­
bridge, M ass.], vol. 3 (1898), pp. 270-273.
A study of three college students, aged 17, 19, and 21, weighed nude in
the evening and morning through a school year. A slight nocturnal loss in
weight and a slight gain in height were found to occur.
DafEner, F ran z: “ Über Grösse, Gewicht, Kopf- und Brustumfang beim
männlichen Individuum vom 13. bis 22.- Lebensjahre, nebst verglei­
chender Angabe einiger Kopfmasse ” [Height, weight, head and chest
girth in the male from the thirteenth to the twenty-second year, with
a comparative estimate of some head measuremnts].
Archiv für
Anthropologie [Braunschweig], Supp. 15 (1885), pp. 121-126.
A table gives age, height, weight, circumference of head and chest of 180
Bavarian cadets from 13 to 20 years old and of 520 Bavarian soldiers 21 and
22 years old. Author’s discussion includes maximal and minimal measure­
ments and comparisons with infants and apes. He believes that brachycephalism
represents a higher stage than dolichocephalism.
----------- “ Vergleichende Untersuchungen über die Entwicklung der
Körpergrösse und des Kopfumfanges ” [Comparative investigations on
the development of the size of the body and head]. Archiv für
Anthropologie [Braunschweig], vol. 15 (1884), pp. 37-44.
Author gives figures for size of head and height for 426 boys and 344 girls
from the time of birth to 6.4 years old and compares his findings with those
of Hecker, who measured nearly 1,000 newborn infants.
Danson, J. T .: “ Statistical observations relative to the growth of the
human body (males) in height and weight, from eighteen to thirty
years of age, as illustrated by the records of the borough gaol of
Liverpool.” Journal of the Statistical Society of London [London],
vol. 25 (1862), pp. 20-26.
The author discusses Quetelet’s observations and constructs tables of height
and weight for ages 18 to 30 from measurements of prisoners who had been
taken at the Liverpool jail, using groups of 100 for determining the average
for the various ages.
-----------“ Statistical observations on the growth of the human body (males)
in height and weight, from 18 to 30 years of age, as illustrated by the
records of the borough gaol of Liverpool.” Journal of the Statistical
Society [London], vol. 44 (1881), pp. 660-674.
The author obtained the material for this study from the measurements made
at a Liverpool jail of prisoners committed in three two-year periods, 1857—58,
1867-68, and 1877-78. Measurements of 8,771 subjects are recorded in tabular
form, showing average, maximum, and minimum heights and weights in each
o f the time periods, and number who attained the respective heights of 5 feet
5 inches, 5 feet 6 inches, and 5 feet 8 inches at each age in each period. The
author reaches the conclusion that men in European countries do not reach
physicial maturity until about 30 years of age.
Davenport, C. B .: Body-build and Its Inheritance. Carnegie Institution
of Washington, Washington, 1923. 176 pp.
Examination of thousands of young men during the World War aroused
the interest of the author in the extraordinary diversity of body build and in the
factors which might be responsible for such variation. This exhaustive report
embodies the results of his study not only of his own data but of much material
contributed by other workers. It contains, in addition to the text, 53 tables,
53 text figures, and 9 plates.


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157

158

159

160

161

162

163

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growth in weight and height

23

Davenport, C. B. : “ Human metamorphosis.”
American Journal of
Physical Anthropology [W ashington], vol. 9 (1926), pp. 205-232.
The author presents data in support of the view that in man growth of the
body is not a continuous process but is the resultant of several growth-promot­
ing internal stimuli acting at different times and upon different organs. To
anthropometric material collected by many investigators he has added measure­
ments made by himself and two assistants on boys and girls of all ages from 3
to 17, inmates of the Orphan Asylum of Brooklyn. The racial stock he describes
as predominantly “ Nordic.” Fourteen growth curves and seven basal tables
of stature and weight derived from this mass of material support the theory of
discontinuous growth. References.
D avidsohn, H einrich: “ Die Wirkung der Aushungerung Deutschlands
auf die Berliner Kinder mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Waisen­
kinder der Stadt Berlin ” [Effect of scarcity of food in Germany upon
Berlin children, with special reference to orphans of city of Berlin].
Ztschr. f. Kinderh. [Berlin], vol. 21 (1919), pp. 349-407.
The author found the weight and height of 1,384 orphans between 2 and 14
years of age and compared his findings with those of Camerer and Rietz.
Distinct retardation in height and weight as a result of the war was noted.
Debierre: “ Le développement des membres du côté droit l’emporte-t-il
originairement sur celui des membres du côté gauche?” [Is the de­
velopment of the extremities of the right side originally superior to
that of the left?]
Comptes rendus des séances et mémoires de la
Société de biologie [Paris], ser. 8, vol. 4 (1887), pp. 28-31.
The author weighed the extremities of 11 subjects less than 2 years old, 3
fetuses of 6 to 7 months, and 8 infants from birth to 2 years of age. Methods
are exactly described. He concludes that there is no original difference in the
dimensions of the two sides of the body and that the race is right-handed
because of education and possibly hereditary influence.
De Busk, B. W . : “ Height, weight, vital capacity, and retardation.”
Pedagogical Seminary [Worcester], vol. 20 (1913), pp. 89-92.
A study of 105 boys in the Colorado Teachers’ College Training School, ages
7 to 16, inclusive, who were weighed (clothed) on gymnasium scales and
measured with stadiometer, and whose vital capacity was tested with wet
spirometer. Results were tabulated to show retardation or acceleration in
school grades. On account of the small number studied, no definite conclusions
are drawn, but it is suggested that retarded children are likely to be below
the normal in height and weight ; that vital capacity varies most from the
norm ; that the accelerated and normal show a higher vital capacity per
pound than the retarded.
----------- “ The vital index in development.” Pedagogical Seminary [W or­
cester], vol. 24 (1917), pp. 1-18.
Data were obtained from the Colorado Teachers’ College as to age, physio­
logical age from the teeth, mental age, grade, height, weight, •vital capacity,
condition of teeth, tonsils, and nasal tract of 200 children (10 t boys and 96
girls). Results of the investigation are compared with those of many others,
and it is concluded that children of a given chronological age who have higher
vital indexes are more mature and test mentally higher than those with lower
vital indexes. Tables and bibliography are given.
Debio, K a rl: “ Über fortlaufende Körperwägungen während der Denti­
tionsperiode” [Continuous weighing during dentition period]. Jahrb.
f. Kinderh. [Leipzig], new ser. vol. 20 (1883), pp. 64-71.
From an examination of other authors’ material and a long table compiled
for him of weights taken about every week of a very healthy breast-fed boy
from his fourteenth week to the seventieth, the author decides that dentition,
even when it progresses normally, as in this case, affects the vegetative de­
velopment of an infant’s body ; the coming of almost every tooth causes a loss
of weight. Only the third and fourth incibors and last canine tooth were cut
by the infant without a fluctuation in weight.
Demoor, J. : “ La taille et le poids des élèves des écoles communales de
Bruxelles pendant la guerre” [Stature and weight of pupils in the pub­
lic schools of Brussels during the war]. Bulletin de VAcadémie royale
de médecine de Belgique [Brussels], ser. 4, vol. 29 (1919), pp. 37-118.
Following a résumé of studies on normal growth the author reports the
result of an investigation based on annual measurements recorded by school
authorities, of children 3 to 14 years, of age during the years 1914 to 1918.
Methods are described in detail. Tables show the development in weight and
stature during the years of the war and various comparisons with estab­
lished standards and with pre-war records. The author found, that the develop­
ment of Brussels children was retarded and modified slightly in the first two
years of war, and still more in the two following years. Bibliography.
Desfosses, P. : “ Proportions du corps des enfants ” [Proportions of the
bodies of children]. Presse médicale [Paris], vol. 16 (1908), pp.
185-187.
A brief general account of the changes in the relative proportions of the
human body from birth to the time of maturity.


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PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OP TH E CHILD

165

Devine, W m . H . : “ Comparative statistics on physical examinations of
pupils of the Boston Public Schools from December T, 1915, to March
1, 1920, and remarks, with especial reference to malnutrition.” Bost.
M. & 8. J., voi. 182 (1920), pp. 658-660.
A report of work done in Boston public schools to combat malnutrition.
Statistical table is given showing that of 504,593 children weighed and
measured by school nurses in Boston between 1915 and 1920, 10,430 showed
malnutrition. Statistics quoted from New York, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Newark,
Rochester, and Worcester show from 1.1 per cent to 5 per cent of the children
to be malnourished.
166 Dick, A .: “ Materiali k izsliedovaniu rosta, viesa, okruzhnosti grudi i
zhizniennoi iemkosti lekhkikh . dietskago i iunosheskago vozrastov ”
[D ata on the investigation of height, weight, chest circumference, and
vital capacity of lungs in childhood and adolescence].
Voyennomeditsinsky zhurnal [St. Petersburg] (1883), pt. 146, pp. 223-302:
363-450.
Account of investigation made by author in St. Petersburg in 1876-1879
of the height, weight, chest circumference, and vital capacity of lungs of
1,153 children varying in age from 4 to 20 years, boys and girls in nearly
equal numbers. Author reviews the literature and summarizes the findings
of Quetelet, Liharzik, Zeising, Pagliani, and others. He gives the data men­
tioned in a large number of tables, by sex, separating the children in the
asylums from the others. He analyzes at length the effects of sex, age, and
social condition and discusses the reciprocal relation between height, weight,
and the other findings. He also compares in detail his data with those obtained
by other investigators and presents conclusions on the growth of children of
school age, which on the whole agree with those drawn by other writers.
167 Dickson, S. H .: “ Some additional statistics of height and weight.”
Charleston Medical Journal and Review, voi. 13 (1858), pp. 494-506.
Author continues observations of a previous article (Charleston Medical Jour­
nal and Review, 1857, voi. 12, pp. 607—613). Data procured by questioning 141
members (male) of a class in the Medical College of South Carolina as tó
weight, height, and lineage are compared with material similarly obtained by
other investigators. Data were also obtained fbr 166 girls in South Carolina
private schools. These data are compared with statistics of Quetelet, Forbes,
Whewell, Horner, Cowell, Harrison, and Villermi, and the conclusion is reached
that young men and women of the United States show no deterioration as com­
pared with the parent stocks.
168 ----------- “ Statistics of height and weight.” American Journal of the
Medical Sciences [Philadelphia], new ser. voi. 52 (1866), pp. 373-380.
The author adds to statistical material previously published by him results of
investigations of height, weight, nativity by States, and lineage of 286 young
men. in Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia. Methods of measuring and of
obtaining the data are not given. General comparisons are made with the
figures of others for men of different countries.
169 Dietrich, H en ry: “ The food requirement of the breast-fed infant.” Arch.
Pediat. [New York], voi. 37 (1920), pp. 278-281.
In connection with statements on this subject, based on various authorities,
the writer presents a chart showing the actual food intake and gain in weight
of his own child from birth to the twenty-first week of age.
170 D luski M adam e Bronislas : Contribution à l’étude de l’allaitement maternel [A Contribution to the Study of Maternal Nursing]. Paris, no.
355, 1894. 118 pp.
Thesis for medical degree (University of Paris), which concerns largely the
mother, but contains four chapters (pages 79 to 90) on the weight of infants.
For 369 infants the average initial loss was 212 grams, the extreme limits
being 10 and 700 grams.* For 250 infants whom their mothers had never
nursed the average loss was 221 grams ; for 35 whose mothers had nursed them
a little the average was 214 grams ; for 84 whose mothers had nursed them
more the average was 183 grams. Tables show the date of commencement of
gain in weight of the same infants, and three chapters discuss the time when
birth weight was regained, the average daily gain, and the time of the detach­
ment of the umbilical cord. Bibliography.
171 Dolgenkov, V . I .: “ O zhisniesposobnosti dietiei do pervago goda v
zavisimosti ot vremeni ikh rozhdienia po miesazam goda ” [Longevity
of children in the first year of life in relation to the month of their
birth]. Vrachebnaya Gazeta [St. Petersburg], voi. 9 (1902), p. 541.
Author analyzes records of births and infant deaths in a rural district of
Russia for a period of two years to find the expectation of life of children horn
m different seasons. His results disprove the prevailing theory that peasant
children conceived in the fall and winter, when the peasants’ food supply is
greater, live longer than those conceived in the season of harvesting, when the
Parents are exhausted by hard work. According to author, expectation of life of
the children is affected by climate, mode of living, and many other conditions.


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172

173

25

Dovodchikoff, K . K .: “ Narodniia shkoli Romanov-Borisogliebskago
ouiezda i ich ucheniki ” [Public schools of Romanov-Borisogiieb district
and their pupils]. Vestwik obshtshestvennoy higieni, sudebnoy i prakticheskoy meditzini [St. Petersburg], vol. 8, pt. 2 (1890), pp. 1-35.
The author noted in each case the height, weight, chest circumference, relation
of height to weight, pulse, breathing, sight, and any pathological conditions
found and gives in his article a part of the data obtained.
Downes, Rupert M . : “ The interrelationship of some trunk measurements
and their relation to stature.” Journal of Anatomy and, Physioloau
[London], vol. 48 (1914), pp. 299-314.
V
UV
• riè determine the ratio between the interspinous and vertical trunk diameters
m the human body, the author examined 201 subjects, of which 47 were male
children and 53 female. Methods and apparatus are fully described and results
The vertical trunk diameter was found to be greater^Relatively to
height m female than in male children ; the interspinous and intercristal
^v>aî5 e^erS4.i.re^aBveiy
trunk diameter and body height, greater in the male
^ d r e n than in female ¡ the .intertrochanteric diametei-, relatively to body!
,female children than in male; asymmetry present in more than 50 per
cent of all subjects. Bibliography.
F

174

Dubois, Maurice: “ Le poids et la taille des enfants de 6 à 17 ans à
Liege en 1918 ” [The weight and stature of children from 6 to 17 years
of age at Liege in 1918]. Bulletin de VAcadémie royale de médecine
de Belgique [Brussels], ser. 4, vol. 29 (1919), pp. 1568-1594.
-. To determine the effect of the war upon the stature and weight of the chili£ennnf
author selected from records of the medical examination of
15,000 children, the records of 1,827 boys and 2,460 girls 6 to 17 years of aee
whom he felt to be representative of the average normal child population. Of
these he classified about 1,350 as “ well,” about 2,350 as “ ill,” and the remain­
der as indeterminate in reference to health. Tables and curves of growth were
constructed for each of these classes. Since his statistical methods differed
f c teleÎ ’ he had no standard for comparison with children in
?i° c -a1 i
es-'i, ,T1 retardation of growth in weight and stature of the children
the same abnormal h° WD “ comparison with the growth of healthy children in

175

Duckworth, W . L. H .: “ Observations on 104 school children at Vori and
at Palaikastro in Crete.”. Report of the British Association for the
Advancement of Science, 1910 [London] (1911), pp. 237-251.
The author in 1903 measured and observed 59 boys and 25 girls at Yori in
Cietc and 20 schoolboys of corresponding age at Palaikastro, also in Crete!
this paper records hair color, eye color, and cephalic and breadth index of head
and compares these with measurements of 100 school children in Spain.
Dudrewicz, L .: “ Pomiary aatropologiczne dzieci Warshawskich ” [An­
thropological measurements of children in W arsaw ]. Zbiôr Wiadomôsci do antropologii krajowéj akademii umiçjetnoéci w Krakowie
[Krakow], vol. 6, pt. 2 (1882), pp. 3-23.
Originai measurements in Warsaw of 3,138 children from 2 to 15 years, boys
and girls in nearly equal numbers. Numerous tables give the average mini­
mum, and maximum height of the children for each year of age and the average
amount of yearly growth, and color of skin, eyes, and hair; length, width, and
diameter of head, cephalic index, width of forehead, length and width of face
ana shape of nose.
*

176

177

Dukes, C. : “A record of the physical examination of 1,000 boys at their
enhance on public-school life.” Lancet [London], vol. 2 (1907), pp.
iaA+n
fornL u,s.ed .1“ conducting examinations at Rugby of youths
i? -Î 2 + 15
°£ a? e' , Ta-hles give by age the average and mean height and
weight and the physical defects noted.

178

179

Dum outet: “ Contribution à l’étude du poids harmonique chez les enfants
du deuxième age.” [Contributions to the study of harmonie weights
among children]. Archives de médecine des enfants [Paris], vol 24
(1921), pp. 352-361.
By « harmonic weight ” the author means the weight corresponding to the
age which a child of a given height should have reached. Study of children
normal and abnormal, led him to the conclusion that there is a harmonic weight
which every normal child can and should attain and that it is the necessary
accompaniment o f general physical and physiological well-being.
r
Duncan, J. M atthew s: “ On the weight and length of the newly-born
child in relation to mother’s age.” Edinburgh Medical Journal, vol. 10,
pt. 1 (1864), pp. 497-502.
The question is discussed whether or not primiparity affects dimensions of
the newborn, as Hecker believes that he has proved. The author’s observa
A 07,0 ?,regnancies and 2,087 infants in the Edinburgh Royal
Maternity Hospital, Results are presented in five tables. Primiparous mothers


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180

181

182

PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHILD
had children averaging 7.17 pounds in weight and 19.213 inches in length; the
corresponding figures for children of multiparous mothers were 7.277 pounds
and 19.202 inches. The data show that the infants’ dimensions increase up to
mothers’ age of 25 to 29 and then decrease. Therefore the author believes
that the age of the mother, not the order of pregnancy, is the decisive factor.
D w ight, Thom as: “ The sternum as an index of sex, height, and age.”
Journal of Anatom y and Physiology [London], vol. 24 (1 889-90), pp.
527-535.
A continuation of a previous report. In this article the author gives the ster­
nal length, body length, and total height in 228 cases— 142 male and 86
female.
-----------and T. M . E-otch: “ The neck and head in infancy.” Arch. Pediat.
[Philadelphia], vol. 8 (1891), pp. 641-653.
The author discusses in detail the development and relations of the larynx,
the nose, the tonsils, Eustachian tube, and the jaws, and the proportions of the
cranium. On page 645 he gives a table of his own measurements
o f the height of the posterior nares and the breadth between pterygoid processes
at the hard palate for children of ages ranging from birth to 17 years. The
number of cases is not stated.
Education, Bureau of, IT. S. Departm ent o f the In terio r: Experimental
Study of Children Including Anthropometrical and Psycho-physical
Measurements of Washington School Children, by Arthur MacDonald.
U. S. Bureau of Education Report, 1897-98, vol. 1, pt. 1, pp. 985-1204.
Washington, 1899.
Records of two special studies of normal physical characteristics are included
in this report. One is a study of 1,074 chilren, considering cephalic index and
sensibility to heat and locality upon the skin, with relation to sex, mental
ability, and sociological condition, based upon observations by the author; the
other, an anthropometrical and sociological study of 16,473 white children and
5,457 colored children based upon measurements by their teachers. Instruments
and methods are fully described, and data are grouped in tables showing many
correlations of physical characteristics with sex, sociological conditions, na­
tivity, race, and mental ability. Summaries of the investigations of Bowditch,
Peckham, Porter, Chamberlain, Boas, West, Gilbert, Greenwood, Beyer, and
Kline, as well as of foreign investigators, are given for comparison.
Bibliography.
-----------Physical Growth and School Progress, by Bird T. Baldwin. Bu­
reau of Education Bulletin, 1914, No. 10. Washington, 1914. 212 pp.
See Baldwin, Bird T.
------------ Statistics of Growth, by Franz Boas and Clark Wissler. Report
of Commissioner, Washington, 1904, vol. 1, pp. 25-132. See Boas, F.,
and C. Wissler.

1 8 2 a Einhorn, D . : “ Predvaritelnye dannye antropometricheskogo naselenia
Shkolnikov Minska v 1922-1923 gg.” [Preliminary anthropological
data on school children in the city of Minsk in 1922-23]. Vrachehnoie
Dielo [Kharkov], vol. 8 (1925), columns 217-222.
An anthropological study of 1,965 school children (723 girls, 1,242 boys),
varying in age from 8 to 15 years, to ascertain the physical condition and the
physical type of the children of Minsk. The author gives for each year of
age the average, minimum, and maximum height by sex and by race, for Jews
and Russians. He found that the average height of the Jewish girls at 8
and 9 years of age was below that of the boys of those ages; at age 10 it
was superior, and at age 14 again inferior. Russian girls of this district at
ages 8 to 15 were taller than boys of the same ages. A table of heights
correlated with social condition of the parents shows that the children of
well-situated parents were taller than those of parents in poorer social condi­
tion. Heights of Jewish children as obtained by him in 1922-23 were inferior
to corresponding heights obtained in 1916.
183 Ekkert, A . I . : “ Opit fisicheskago izsliedovanlla uchashchihsiia v nachalnikh gorodskih shkolah Peterburga ” [Study of physical development
of pupils in elementary public schools of St. Petersburg]. Vrach
[St. Petersburg], vol. 15 (1894), pp. 708-713.
Account of a study of the physical development of pupils in the public ele­
mentary schools of St. Petersburg made by the author in 1892-93. Author
examined once, at the end of the academic year, 1,145 children (boys and
girls in nearly equal numbers) ranging in age from 6 to 14 years, and gives
in 11 tables and 7 charts their average height, chest circumference, and weight
for each year of age by sex, also the average annual increase in these measure­
ments and the relation between chest circumference and height. He found
that until the age of 11 years the boys gained in height, weight, and chest
circumference more rapidly than the girls; from 11 to 14 years the advantage
was on the side of the girls.
184 Elderton, Ethel M .: “ Height and weight of school children in Glasgow.”
Biometrika [Cambridge], vol. 10, pts. 2 and 3 (191 4-15), pp. 288-339,


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A mathematical discussion of statistics as to the heights and weight of over
60,000 school children in Glasgow, between the ages of 5 an 14, grouped in four
classes' according to the economic standing of their parents. Data were ob­
tained from the records of ah inquiry made in 1905-6 in the schools, the teach­
ers taking the measurements and recording weight to nearest pound, height to
nearest quarter inch, age to nearest year. Curves show comparison with those
of the British Association Anthropometric Committee for the artisan class;
comparisons are also made with data on the children in Staffordshire and Wor­
cestershire. Over 70 tables and 1 plate are included.
185 Elsässer, M . A .: “ Klinik von H eil-,! Entbindungs-, und Irrenanstalten”
[Clinic of infirmary, lying-in hospital, and insane asylum]. Schmidt’s
Jahrbücher [Leipzig], vol. 7 (1 83 5), pp. 314-329.
The author, giyes statistics on 543 infan.ts born between 1828 and 1833 in a
lying-in hospital, - Stuttgart. Of these infants, 281 (141 boys and 140 girls)
were first born. Figures are given on weight and length there was little differ­
ence in the figures for the boys and the girls.
186 — -------“ Medicinisch-gerichtliche Mittheilungen. II. Über die Gewichts­
und Massverhältnisse bei neugeborenen Kindern ” [Medico-legal Com­
munications.
II. Weight and measurement of newborn children].
Zeitschrift für die Staatsarsheikunde [Erlangen], 21st year (1841),
pp. 235-258.
In the obstetrical department of Catherine Hospital in Stuttgart author
weighed 500 newborn boys and 500 newborn girls. Number of infants for each
weight from 4 to 10 pounds, and average weight of boys and girls and length of
100 boys and 100 girls are given. In full-term newborn children the umbilicus
is usually more thap an inch below center of the body. Relation of upper and
lower parts of the body is not constant in the newborn.
187 --------- - “ Medicinisch-gerichtliche Mitteilungen. III. - Über die Neugeborenheit ” [Medico-legal Communications. III. The meaning of “ new­
b orn ” ]. Zeitschrift für die Staatsarzneikunde [Erlangen], 22d year
(1842), pp. 219-288.
The author considers, with citation of many observations of individual cases,
the condition o f the skin in the newborn living child, the discharge of meconium,
and the changes in the umbilicus.
188 Elsom , J. C .: “ Statistics regarding short-course students, University of
Wisconsin, season 1909-10.”
American Physical Education R eview .
[Boston], vol. 15 (1910), pp. 348-349.
Data were secured by director of physical education by measurement of 150
short-course men, who came from farms, and results were compared with aver­
ages for 8,000 college students of all classes, and for the freshman class. The
men from the farms appeared physically more vigorous than those from the city.
189 Emerson, W illia m B . P .: “ Malnutrition in children; a class clinic.”
International Clinic [Philadelphia], ser. 29, vol. 4 (1919), pp. 212-236.
Gives in detail the method of organizing and conducting a nutrition. class,
with table of weight and height standards; forms for history and physical
examination, weight record, and record of physical defects; specimen individual
record charts, and tables showing the average increases in weight and height
of a class selected as an example, and a comparison of actual and expected
weight gains in the same class.
190 Enebuske, C. J .: “An anthropometrical study of the effects of gymnastic
training on American women.” Publications of the American Statis­
tical Association [Boston], new ser. vol. 3 (1892-93), pp. 600-610..
A study o f the results of monthly measurements of 100 junior students of
the Boston Normal School of Gymnastics as to weight, lung capacity, strength
of legs, back, chest, left and right forearm, together with 53 different measure­
ments taken at the beginning and end of a year’s work.
>
191 ----------- “ Some measurable results of Swedish pedagogical gymnastics.”
Proceedings of the American Association for the Advancement of
Physical Education, 1892 [Springfield], vol. 7 (1893), pp. 207^235.
Report o f the development of 26 students *at the Boston Normal School of
Gymnastics, ages 17 to 42, during a seven months’ course o f study.
192 Engelm änn, George J .: “ The American girl of today.” Am. J. Obst.
[New York], vol. 42 (1900), pp. 753-796.
A presidential address before the American Gynecological Society dealing
largely with the. physiological condition of American girls in schools and col­
leges and in business life during the prepubertal, pubertal, and adolescent
periods. Data were obtained from the authors dispensary practice in St. Louis
and from a large number of records furnished him by college professors, direc­
tors of physical training, secretaries of statistical organizations, and employers
in all parts of the country. Charts show life intensity, mortality, morbidity,
and weight increases for girls aged 5 to 18; the similarity between the physical
and psychical changes during the entire pubertal period and a single menstrual
period. Bibliography.
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194

PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OP TH E CHILD
Ensch: “ Pourquoi la taille et le poids des enfants ne sont-ils plus les
mêmes que du temps de Quetelet? ” [W hy are the height and weight
of children not the same as in the time of Quetelet?] Médecine scolaire
[Paris], vol. 9 (1920), pp. 24-27.
The author quotes the finding of Boas that stature in a family decreases from
the first born to the last and suggests the lowered birth rate a§ a reason for
increase of stature since the time of Quetelet.
Erism ann, E .: “ Die Schulhygiene auf der Jubiläumsausstellung der
Gesellschaft für Beförderung der Arbeitsamkeit in M oskau” [School
hygiene at the jubilee exposition of the Society for the Promotion of
Diligence in Moscow]. Zeitschrift für Schulgesundheitspflege [H am ­
burg and Leipzig], vol. 1 (1888), pp. 347-373 393-419.
Data on the height of 3,212 boys and 1,458 girls in city schools and 16,988
boys and 14,382 girls in factories— all Russian children from 7 to 18 years of
age. City children were found to have a greater height and smaller chest
girth than other children. Additional tables are given on weight, visual
defects, etc.

----------- “ Untersuchungen über die körperliche Entwicklung der Arbeiter­
bevölkerung in Zentralrussland ” [Investigations on the physical de­
velopment of the working population in Central Russia]. Archiv für
Soziale Gesetzgebung und Statistik [Tubingen], vol. 1 (1888), pp.
9 8 -1 3 5 ; 429-484.
Description of the investigations conducted from 1879 to 1885 in Central
Russia on the living conditions in 1,229 factories'of all kinds and sizes, and on
the health and welfare of the employees— 64,820 men and 36,102 women from
8 to 80 years of age. The many statistics include the anthropometrical
measurements of height, chest girth, and for a part of the number of weight
and strength. The height was taken without foot covering a n d , the chest
measure below the shoulder blades and at nipple level. The article makes
constant comparisons of the classes mentioned with other Russians and other
nationalities.
(Quetelet’s figures are several times challenged.)
There are
also comparisons within the classes as to place o f origin ana kind of occupa­
tion. The article brings out the great irregularity of growth, the “ spurts ”
before and during puberty, occurring earlier in the female than in the male and
earlier in height than in chest girth and weight. The influence of occupation
on health is established. The article contains many tables and diagrams.
196 E vetsky, Étienne : “ On the growth of children during the first year and
on the nutritive conditions o f early childhood.” Neic York M. J., vol.
33 (1881), pp, 172-189.
Observations were made on 102 children at a New York infant asylum. The
metabolism, changes in weight, amount of milk consumed, and elimination of
waste products were studied. A combined table from Gregory and Kézmârksy
shows the gain and loss in weight for the first seven days.
197 Ewart, Robert J .: “ The influence of parental age on offspring.” Eugenics
Review [London], vol. 3 (1 911-12), pp. 201-232.
Data for this study were collected in an ironworking town of 105,000 in­
habitants by 4,000 to 6,000 observations of two groups of children, one in their
sixth and one in their thirteenth year. Both individual and collective methods
were used. Tables show age of parents at time of children’s birth and height
in inches of boys and girls at 6 years of age ; best age combinations for father
and mother ; age of mother and physical development of child at birth ; in­
fluence of social status on the age curve of physical development at end of
sixth year ; relationships of intervals of birth and physical development. The
author finds some correlation between height and intellectual development in
well-to-do classes. In general, he concludes that the physical and mental
development and the vitality of the progeny vary with the age curve as related
to fecundity of the parents, the best girls being produced shortly before the
summit is reached and the best boys a year or two later.
198 ----------- “ The influence of the age of the parent at birth of child on eye
color, stature, and intelligence.” Journal of H ygiene [Cambridge], vol.
16 (1 91 7-18), pp. 12-35.
In addition to giving data on the ages of parents in relation to eye color and
intelligence of their children, the author gives data for several hundred cases
on the relation of parents’ ages at the time of the child’s birth to the child’ s
height. In general, he finds that age of parents per se has no effect on children’s
growth. Bibliography.
199 Faber, H arold K . : “A study of the growth of infants in San Francisco
with a new form of weight chart.” Arch. Pediât. [New York], vol. 37
(1920), pp. 244-254.
By use of a table giving first-year weights in different localities the author
.
shows the need of a weight curve for each major section of the United States.
From 5,227 weighings of normal, full-term infants, both breast fed and arti-*
ficially fed, made between 1906 and 1919 at a San Francisco clinic, he constructs
composite curves, showing maximum, mean, and minimum weights for the first
year in that locality. He also constructs a chart showing seasonal variation
in growth of infants compared with seasonal variations in humidity and
temperature. Bibliography.

195


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200

Fasbender, H . : “ Mutter- und Kindeskörper. Das Becken des lebenden
Neugeborenen ” [Bodies of mother and child. The pelvis of the live
newborn infant].
Zeitschrift für Geburtshülfe und Ggnäkologie
[Stuttgart], vol. 3 (1878), pp. 278-304.
^
o f the relation between physical development of the mother and
that of the newborn child, based on 630 cases investigated at a maternity
home in Stuttgart. Author found that children of primiptn-ae are lighter and
shorter than those of multiparae; that the largest children are those born
and 85 years old ; that taller women usually have
h v 1?,nni-nHnnTVer chlldren- Each of these points is illustrated by tables and
by quotations from a number of writers.

201

Faye, A . L .: Nogle Unders0gelser Angaaende N yf 0 dte B 0 i*ns ErnaeringsForhold [Some Observations on the Nutrition of the Newborn]
C C
Werner & Co., Christiania, 1874. 175 pp.
The author studied the daily weight curve of 80 infants (40 boys and 40
girls) born at a maternity hospital. Observations are given in the from of
abbreviated case histones for each child and its mother. The findings of
other investigators are discussed.
gs oi

202

Faye, F. C., and H . V o g t: “ Statistiske Resultater stöttede til 3,000 paa
Fodselsstiftelsen i Christiania undersögte Svangre og Födende samt
Born
[Statistical results of a study of 3,000 cases at the Lying-in
Foundation in Christiania, observations on pregnancy, puerperium and
infants born]. Norsk Magazin for Laegevidenskaben [ Christiania 1
ser. 2, vol. 20 (1866), pp. 1 -3 9 ; 193-219 ; 2 8 9 -3 1 2 ; 393-414;
J’
„mlDUte detail are given every phase of the mother’s life history of her
pregnancy and puerperium, which might affect her offspring. Weight and
length of the infants are given and numerous other observations.'
0

203

Feer, E .: “ Bgobachtungen über die Nahrungsmengen von Brustkindern”
[Observations on amount of nourishment for breast-fed children!
Jahrb. f. Kinderh. [Leipzig], vol. 42 (1896), pp. 194-251.
auSorCp“ Ä ° a " « g

204

e

Ö

Ä

t e l ®

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' S

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Feilchenfeld, Bruno: “ Erfahrungen mit der Aufzucht von Frühgeborenen
in der Familie ” [Experiences with raising premature infants' in their
own fam ilies]. Zeitsehr: f. Kinderh. [Berlin], vol. 33 (1922), pp
Between April 1, 1914, and June 30, 1921, the author studied for a vear or
more 118 premature infants and 43 twins of poor families. During the first
year the mortality of the breast fed was 23.2 per cent and of the artificially
fed 63.9 per cent. The weight of the infants was 2,500 grams or less P r /
mature children weighing more than 1,500 grams seldom showed mental do­
th
great many in the second year reached such a degree of development
that they were able to perform the same functions as normal children o f^ h e
*a“ e age- Twms weighing less than 2,500 grams develop Hke premature children. The article contains graphs, tables, and a bibliography.

205

Feldm an, W . M .: The Jewish Child. Its History, Folklore, Biology, knd
Sociology. Bloch Publishing Co., New York, 1918. 480 pp.
, I n. t]i is extensive work on many phases of Jewish childhood comDarative
physical measurements are given for 151 Jewish and 50 non-Jewish bovs be
tween 11 and 16 years of age. The measurements were made bv the author
but methods are not stated. References.
.uy rne autftor-

206

Fergus, W a lter, and G. F. Rodw ell: “ On a series of measurements for
statistical purposes recently made at Marlborough College.” Journal
of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland T L o n don], vol. 4 (187 4-75), pp. 126-135.
L
™ ^ i rep.01i o f *the measurement of 550 English boys 10 to 19 years of asre
mostly sons of professional men, educated in the country
Weight heis-ht
circumference of head, girth of chest, girth of the flexed arm over Means’
muscle, and girth of calf of leg were the points considered. Techniaue *is
described. The paper was read to the institute by Francis Galton* who
followed it with a mathematical discussion of the data, designed to show^ of
how great value school measurements might be to anthropology.
t0 SQ W ot .

207

Fe*kerston,JR. H .: “ Weight of Victorian infants.” Australian Medical
Journal [Melbourne], new ser. vol. 9 (1887), pp. 495-496.
Weights of 5,000 male and 5,000 female infants, taken from the records of
the Women s Hospital, Melbourne, for the years 1857 to 1887 show an average
o f 7 pounds 5 y8 ounces; for the 5,000 males, 7 pounds 7 ounces • for Die 5 000
females, 7 pounds 3 % ounces. Observations as to the a v e r t s bv different
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PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OE TH E CHILD
Fleischm ann, L. : “ Über Ernährung und Körperwägungen der Neuge­
borenen und Säuglinge ” [Nutrition and weight of newborn and older
infants]. Wiener Klinik, vol. 3 (1877), pp. 145-194.
Mostly quotations from a number of writers on the weight of newborn infants
and their gain, in weight during the first year of life.- Histories and charts
are also given of six original cases in which the method of feeding and progress
of weight during the first year of life were studied.
Fleischner, E. C. : “ The relation of weight to the measurements of chil­
dren during the first year.” Arch. Pediat. [New York], vol. 23 (1906),
pp. 739-760.
Author seeks to determine the relation which weight and measurements of
malnourished infants bear to normal weight and measurements and to each
other and the degree to which increase in weight influences increase in
measurements. Five hundred children arbitrarily classified as well nourished
(25 per cent), fairly well nourished (35 per cent), poorly nourished (40 per
cent), all under 1 year old and patients in New York hospitals, were measured
(method not given) ; data were obtained as to weight, length, circumference
of head, chest, and abdomen. Charts and tables summarize these measure­
ments. Conclusion is reached that increase of measurements of malnourished
children shows some variation from normal, and that during the first year the
primary factor in increase of body measurements is steady increase in weight.
References.
Flem ing, R . M .: “ Sex and growth features in social analysis: an
abstract of a communication read before the Royal Anthropological
Institute on February 28, 1922.” Man [London], vol 22. (1922), pp.
69-75.
A study to show how far sex and growth influence physical characters.
First measurements (method not stated) were taken on 2,000 to 3,000 chil­
dren in schools of England and Wales, and remeasurements, at intervals of
one to two years, were analyzed in 419 cases— 187 jpale and 232 female.
Author deduces: (1) Diffefence in rate of development of the sexes ; (2) a
tendency to increase in cephalic index with growth (table) ; developmental sex
differences in changes of color of eyes and hair.
Flores, D. A . C .: “ Que desarrollo orgänico ha de tener el hombre sano
para considerarle en la edad a d u lta?” [W hat degree of physical de­
velopment must be reached by the normal man in order to be con­
sidered as an adult?] Gaceta médica de Granada, vol. 19 (1901), pp.
241-246, 289-297, 313-323.
After quoting several writers the author gives an account of his own in­
vestigation of 50 men ranging from 16 to 50 years. He states in each case
the age, upper, lower, and median chest circumference, and left, right, and
median vertical diameters. He discusses his -findings in detail and presents
conclusions on the physical development o f the adult human being.
Foisy, Louis-H ippolyte-G aston : De quelques applications de la balance
à l’étude physiologique et clinique des nouveau-nés [Some Applica­
tions of the Scales to the Study, Physiological and Clinical, of the
Newborri]? Paris, no. 4, 1873. 52 pp.
Thesis for medical degree (University of Paris), in three chapters : (1) The
weight and growth of the newborn ; (2) the causes of retardation or arrest of
growth; (3) the infant’s food. The original observations include a table of
birth weight of about 1,200 infants, classified by age of the mother and. her
condition of primiparity or pluriparity ; a note on the birth weight of 13 pairs
of twins, and numerous individual case records. Bibliography.
Forbes: “ Experiments on the weight, height, and strength of men at
different ages.” Report of the Sixth Meeting of the British Associa­
tion for the Advancement of Science, 1836 [London], vol. 5 (1837)
pp. 38-39.
A brief report of the measurement of about 800 students in the University
of Edinburgh, aged 15 to 25, taken by the author as an extension of the work
of Quetelet. Methods are not described. He found the Scotch apparently
better developed than the Belgians.
Forssberg, Edy. : Yäxlingar i människokroppens län gd” [Changes in the
height of human beings]. H ygiea medicinsk och farmaceutisk Manadsskrift [Stockholm], vol. 65, pt. 2 (1903), pp. 295-336.
Following his discussion of the historical and modern aspects of and investi­
gations in his subject, the author in three tables and one graph gives his
observations o f the average height, rate of growth, length of back, leg etc.
for 3,494 persons of both sexes from birth through 80 years of age together
with some racial comparisons. Bibliography.
Foster, W . L. ; “ Physiological age as a basis for the classification of
pupils entering high school : relation of pubescence to height.” Psycho­
logical Clinic [Philadelphia], vol. 4 (191 0-11), pp. 83-88.
A study based upon examination of 459 boys entering a New York high school
Tables show degree of pubescence, minimum, maximum, and average weight,
height, and age.
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Fourmann, F ritz: Wovon ist das Gewicht der Neugeborenen abhängig?
[On W hat Does the Weight of the Newborn Depend?] Carl Georgi,
Bonn, 1901. 68 pp.
A discussion of the influence of mother’s age, number of previous pregnancies,
environment, diseases, etc., upon the weight of the infant at birth. The author
gives data for over 1,000 cases with the following findings : The average
weight of the newborn boys was 3,360.7 grams, of the girls 3,221.8 grams.
The weight increased with the duration of pregnancy and with the number of
previous pregnancies. Twins weighed less than children born singly—boys on
the average .2,723.7 grams, girls 2,316 grams. Mothers of larger size had
heavier children. This is also true of vigorously constituted women. Syphilis,
tuberculosis, heart disorders, and rheumatism in the mother, affect the weight
of the child. The mother’s age has no considerable effect ©n the child’s weight.
Many writers are quoted. Extensive bibliography.
217- de Franco, Lauro: Études historiques et recherches sur le poids et la
loi de l’accroissement- du nouveau-né [Historical Studies and Re­
searches on the Weight and the Law of Growth of the Newborn].
Paris, no. 97, 1874. 71 pp.
Thesis (University of Paris). Original work consisted of observations of the
weight of 530 infants, aged 1 day to 7 months, at the municipal nurses’ direc­
tory, tabulated by age and sex and summarized by a growth curve. One table
o f weights of 20 pairs of twins, aged 2 to 99 days, shows their inferiority in
weight to the average infant. The average weight at birth was 3,250 grams,
and normal loss of weight in the first few days did not exceed 100 grains.
Bibliography.
218 Frankel, Lee, and Louis I. D u blin : Heights and Weights of New York
City Children 14 to 16 Years of Age. Metropolitan Life Insurance Co.,
New York, 1916. 53 pp.
A study to establish standards of height and weight by which the physical
fitness of boys and girls for employment may be estimated. Data were secured
from the records of 10,043 children, 14 to 16 years of age, who were certified
for employment by the Board of Health of New York City during the nine
months from July 13, 1914, to April 12, 1915. Ages are stated in years and
months, 14 years and 1 day, for instance, being put into group 14 years 1
month. Heights include shoes, error for heels estimated ; weights include
clothing, error estimated. The question of race is considered and discussed at
some length, with comparisons of the data of Boas (q. v.) in Changes in Bodily
Form o f Descendants of Immigrants. Physiological and chronological ages are
also discussed. An appendix contains comparisons of figures for New-York boys
and girls with figures from employment certificates of 4,449 children in Buffalo,
Rochester, Syracuse, Schenectady, and Yonkers. A table is derived of suggested
minimum weight limits for each inch of height of New York boys and girls, ages
14 to 15 and 15 to 16, to be used in granting certificates, the results of the
investigation of nationality not showing sufficient variations to warrant separate
tables for the different races.
219 Freeman, G . R ,. : “ Weights and measurements of infants and children in
private practice compared with institution children and school chil­
dren.” Am. J. Dis. Child. [Chicago], vol. 8 (1914), pp. 321-326.
Weights and measures of 278 cases in private practice are given and com­
pared with 1,000 institution cases studied by the author in the New York
Roman Catholic orphan asylums, with 34 private cases reported by Camerer,
with Holt’s charts given in his textbook, and with measurements of 98,000
school children reported by Stanley Hall. Charts give weight and height for
first year, weight for first 12 years, and height for first 11 years.
220 Freudenberg. K a rl: “ Grösse und Gewicht der Berliner Schulkinder”
[Height and weight of school children of Berlin]. Klinische Wochenh
schrift [Berlin and Munich], vol. 3 (1924), pp. 1411-1413.
A discussion of weight and height of 40,290 school children of Berlin from
6% to 16% years old, boys and girls in nearly equal numbers, obtained in 1923
under the auspices of the public-health authorities of Berlin, and comparison
with similar data obtained in 1902-1903. The author gives in several tables
the height and weight of these children by sex and for every year of age, also
the percentage of the decrease or increase between the two above periods by
sex and for each year of age. The tables are arranged separately for the publicschool children and for high-school pupils who usually belong to the more com­
fortably situated middle class. The results show that the high-school pupils
were taller and heavier than the public-school children of the same ages ; but in
1923 the difference in their favor was much smaller than before the war which
shows that the middle classes suffered more from the bad economic conditions
due to the war than the working classes.
221 Freund, W . : “ Zur Pathologie des Längenwachstums bei Säuglingen und
über das Wachstum debiler Kinder ” [On the pathology of infants’
growth in length and on the growth of delicate children]. Jahrh. f.
Kinderh. [Berlin], vol. 70 (1909), pp. 752-773.
Author investigated 36 children under 1 year of age to determine whether
length of the infant's body is affected by pathological conditions or debility.
These children were admitted to a municipal infant hospital in Breslau on
account of illnes», and most of them were observed by the aruthor during a large
part of the first year of their life. He found that illness and digestive dis-


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PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OE THE CHILD
orders common in infancy and general debility affect very little_ the develop­
ment of the length of the body but very much the increase in weight. Author
gives curves and histories of 14 of his cases and quotes in detail from several
writers who share his point of view.
Friedberg, Edward, and C. N oeggerath: “ Entfettete Frauenmilch als
Heilnahrung” [Fat-free mother’s milk as a curative diet]. Arch. f.
Kinderh. [Stuttgart], vol. 68 (192 0-21), pp. 195-214.
In connection with a study of feeding experiments the authors give graphs
for nine infants, with case histories.
Friedenthal, H .: “ Das Wachstum menschlicher Säuglinge in den ersten
Monaten nach der Geburt ” [Growth of infants in the first months after
birth]. Verhandlungen der Physiologischen Gesellschaft zu Berlin, vol.
35 (1911), pp. 75-78.
Prom data on 15 cases the author draws conclusions regarding the length
of time it takes an infant to double his original weight.
----------- “ Daten und Tabellen betreffend die Gewichtszunahme des Men­
schen und anderer Tierarten ” [Data and tables on increase in weight
of men and other animals]. Arbeiten auf dem Gebiete der Experimen­
tellen Physiologie [Jena], pt. 2 (1911), pp. 221-259.
From a great mass of material collected partly by himself author shows
in numerous tables and graphs increases in weight with dates, periods in which
weight is doubled, increases in weight with amount of food consumed, duration
of pregnancy and of suckling, for human beings and animals.
----------- “ Über das Wachstum des menschlichen Körpergewichtes in den
verschiedenen Lebensaltern und über die Volumenmessüng von Lebe­
wesen ” [Increase in human weight at various ages and measurement
of the volume of living creatures]. Arbeiten auf dem Gebiete der E x ­
perimentellen Physiologie [Jena], pt. 2 (1911), pp. 40-48.
An authoritative discussion, based largely on author’s own experiments, of
the increase in human weight at various ages, and of measurement of volume.
Figure I shows graph of weights of mammals, according to age ; Figure II, their
duration of pregnancy and weights at birth. A diagram gives ages when human
weight is doubled beginning with fertilization of egg. Figure III is a stereopticon view of man, photographed before two mirrors, from which the man’s
volume and weight may be derived, as described by Pulfrich and elsewhere by
.author. This method he recommends for very small creatures.
Fröbeliüs, W . : “ Über die Bestimmung der grösseren oder geringeren
Lebensfähigkeit der Neugeborenen” [Determination of greater or less
viability in newborn infants).
St. Petersburger Medicinische Zeit­
schrift, new ser. vol. 4 (1873-74), pp. 363-373.
In a foundlings’ home in St. Petersburg the author divided 1,208 infants born
in 1872 into three classes according to length and weight, and 452 newborn chil­
dren in 1873 into three groups according to relations of head, chest, and the
body length, thus ascertaining that mortality and morbidity vary inversely as
physical development. For a favorable prognosis chest girth must not be
exceeded by head girth by more than. 2 to 2.5 centimeters and must itself
exceed one-half the body length by 7 centimeters. The article contains three
tables.
Frölich, H .: “ Die menschliche Körperlänge ”
[Human height]. Allge­
meine Medicinische Gentral-Zeitung [Berlin], vol. 65 (1896), pp. 5 8 -5 9 ;
6 9 -7 0 ; 8 2 -8 3 ; 9 4 -9 5 ; 107; 11 9-20 ; 1 3 2 -3 3 ; 1 4 4-45 ; 156-57.
From ancient and medieval history, from military statistics and from the
measurements conducted by Quetelet, Bowditch, Schmidt, Hansen, himself, and
others, the author presents a mass of detail on the height of children and
adults. He discusses height in different epochs, races, and countries, height as
affected by social class, etc.
Fuchs, K . E .: Die Abhängigkeit des Geburtsgewichtes des Neugeborenen
vom Stand und der Beschäftigung der Mutter [Relation Between the
Infant’s Weight at Birth and Mother’s Social Condition and Occupa­
tion]. K. A. Linsel, Luetzen, 1899. 47 pp.
Discussion is based on the study of 849 cases. Author disagrees with Piimrd
and other writers who think that women not engaged in strenuous work give
birth to heavier children. He divided his cases according to the mother’s oc­
cupation and concluded that (1) the highest average weight is attained by
children of married women staying at home;, (2) very little difference is
noticed between the above and the children whose mothers were engaged in
strenuous w ork; (3) children of women engaged in occupations requiring no
physical _ exertion were about 110 grams lighter than those whose mothers
were doing strenuous w ork ; and (4) bad hygienic conditions of the mother
affect adversely the. infant’s weight.
Fürst, K a m illo: “ I. Über aüssergewöhnliche Entwicklung der F ru ch t”
[Extraordinary development of the fetus].
Wiener Medizinische
Wochenschrift, vol. 33 (1883), pp. 344-346.
Of 3,307 newborn infants in Professor Braun’ s obstetrical clinic during 1881.
71 weighed more than 4,000 gram s; 20 of these were first born. Of the 20


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first born, 17 were boys and 3 were girls. Of the other 51, 38 were boys and
id were girls. Two short tables show how weights were distributed. The
heaviest infants were 2 boys— one, 5,000 grams in weight and 55% centimeters
in length, the other, 5,300 grams and 57 centimeters.
Fuhrmann, E. ! “ Einiges fiber die Gewichtskurven der Neugeborenen ”
[On weight curves in newborn infants]. Medizinische Klinik rBeiiinl
vol. 3 (1907), pp. 510-512.
. 'î,he ? ï thor stu<ïïed the weight of 405 male and 505 female newborn infants
in the Alexandra Foundation for Women at St. Petersburg. When divided into
two. groups, more than and less than 3,337 grams, the heavier group showed aninitial loss of 9.2 per cent of the birth -weight, the lighter group of 9.06 per
cent. It was found further that the weight of the infant increases with the age
of the mother, that the first born is lighter than other infants. No effect of
season was discernible.
Galton, E .: “ On the height and weight of boys aged 14, in town and
country public schools.” Journal of the Anthropological Institute of
Great Britain and Ireland [London], vol. 5 (1875), pp. 174-181.
Data on height and weight of about 1,000 boys in town and country schools
showing the physical superiority of the country boys. A large part of the
article deals with the author's methods of handling the data mathematically.
Gandini, V .: “ I çaratteri antropometrici di 400 bambini delle scuole
elementari ” [The anthropometrical characteristics of 400 children in
elementary schools]. L ’lgiene della scuola [Genoa], vol. 4 (1913)
pp. 193-209 ; 227-235.
Account of an original study of 400 public-school boys 6 to 12 years old
to ascertain the effect of the child s social and economic environment on
his men Lai and physical development. After a summary of similar data
obtained by other writers the author gives for each boy weight, height, chest
circumference, chest expansion, muscular force, measurement of skull face
and nose; also detailed information on the boy’s intelligence, emotions w ill’
conduct, and memory. He presents these findings in a number of tables and
concludes that children of the poor are inferior in physical development to
children of the well to do ; that on the whole there is little physical difference
between the intelligent and unintelligent children and that there is no rela­
tion between intelligence' and social and economic conditions. Bibliography.
Gardiner, G. F ., and H . W . H oaglan d: “ Growth and development of
children in Colorado.” Transactions of the American Climatological
Association [Philadelphia], vol. 19 (1903), pp. 258-264.
A preliminary study of effect of climate on development.
Over 1000
public-school children of Colorado Springs were measured as to weight, height
inspiration and expiration, chest girth, and thoracic perimeter. Age and
length of residence in Colorado' are recorded.
Height with shoes weight
with indoor clothing, chest measure over undergarments, with steel tape
vital capacity on wet spirometer, three trials allowed. Ages from la s t’ birth­
day, 9 to 15 years, inclusive. Results compared with observations of Porter,
, ,LoU1?’
Christopher, Chicago. Curves show apparent superiority of
children in Colorado Springs, but authors do not consider work final.
Gaujoux, E. : “ Essai sur l’évolution du poids et de la taille chez l’enfant ”
[Evolution of weight and stature in the child]. Annales de médecine
et chirurgie infantiles [Paris], vol. 13 (1909), pp. 37-43.
After reminding the reader that in order to understand the pathology of
the child, a knowledge of its healthy state is essential, the author emphasizes
the importance of systematic measurements of weight and height. He qiiotes
the formulas used by Terrian, Weill, and Schwartz, and cites the tables com-

times 6 centimeters as years have passed since 5. The child weighs 9 kilos at
1 year and increases as many times 1,500 or 1,750 grams as the number of
its years up to 7. Thereafter it increases as many times 2,500 to 2,750 grams
as its years exceed 7 up to 14.
Gaupp, E rn st: tiber die Mass- und Gewichtsdifferenzen zwischen den
Knochen der rechten und linken Extremitäten des Menschen [Differ­
ences of Measurement and Weight between the Bones of the Right
and Left Extremities of M an]. Breslau, 1889. 37 pp.
An inaugural dissertation (University of Breslau).
Author discusses
anatomical asymmetry at great length as investigated by others in case of
animals and human adults. His own work on children includes studies of
skeletons
of
10-year-old
.
,
,H I
16-year-old youth, and
...
17-year-old
girl,
m which the right clavicle, humerus, and radius showed a slight superiority
over the left ; a large number of measurements on living children between 5
and 12 years in whom the right arm after the age of 9 surpassed the left
about 1 centimeter ; and the skeletons of eight newborn infants,, in three
of which the arms right and left were alike, in two the right was larger,
in three the left was larger. In these infants’ skeletons thé right leg was
larger in four cases and the left in four cases.


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Gebhart, John C.: The Growth and Development of Italian Children in
New York City. The New York Association for Improving the Condi­
tion of the Poor, Publication No. 132. New York, 1924. 36 pp.
The three major subjects of this report are: (1) The stature and weight of
Italian children in New York City as compared with other racial groups; (2)
the dentition of Italian children; (3) the seasonal variation in growth of Italian
children in New York City. Average statures were obtained from measure. ments o f 1,608 hoys and 1,899 girls, aged 1% to 13% years, brought to the
clinic of the Mulberry Health Center for physical examination; average weights,
from 1,753 boys and 2,030 girls, aged 1% to 14% years, from the same group.
Weights were taken with indoor clothing, heights with shoes. Measurements
were recorded to the nearest- pounds and inches. Age was reckoned to the last
birthday. Records of dentition were secured by the supervising school dentist
and recorded in the case of 1,150 boys and 1,200 girls between 4 and 13 years
of age. Records of successive weight-were available for 363 boys and 614 girls
under the supervision of the nutrition workers. The average period of observa­
tion for girls was 4.15 months; for boys, 3.8 months. Charts and tables show
comparison of these results with the Woodbury and Burk-Boas norms of growth,
with the growth of southern children, and with the growth of “ Latin ” children
in Detroit public schools; also of the seasonal variation in growth with that
of Boston school children.
237 Geissler, A rth u r; “ Messungen von Schulkindern in Gohlis-Leipzig ”
[Measurements of school children in Gohlis-Leipzig]. Zeitschrift für
Schulgesundheitspflege [Hamburg and Leipzig], vol. 5 (1892), pp. 24 9253.
Geissler discusses measurements of height and weight made by Hasse at the
end of the summer vacation in 1889 on 1,386 boys and 1,420 girls from 6 to 14
years old attending the schools of Gohlis-Leipzig. Measurements were takgn
without shoes and upper garments. Average results are shown in a table.
By
using special weight-height indexes, which he explains, for the two age groups,
6 to 11 and 11 to 14, the author found that these children were well developed
as compared with those measured by Erismann, Pagliani, Landsberger, Carstadt,
Geissler, and Uhlitzsch, and even by Kotelmann and Bowditch. Better develop­
ment was found among well-to-do than among poor children.
238 -----------and Bichard U h litzsch : “ Die Grössenverhältnisse der Schulkin­
der im Schulinspektionsbezirk Freiberg” [Height relations of school
children in the school district of Freiberg]. Zeitschrift des KöniglichSächsischen Statistischen Bureaus [Dresden], vol. 34 (1888), pp. 28-40.
Height was measured of 10,343 boys and 10,830 girls from 6% to 14% years
of age. The authors compare their figures with those of Quetelet for Belgium,
Bowditch for Boston, and Erismann for Central Russia, and with the official
statistics for the Kingdom of Saxony. They conclude: The children of the
school district of Freiberg are below the normal height of Saxon children; the
boys are superior to the girls in height, except from the eleventh to the six­
teenth year; the children of the mining class are inferior in height to those of
the burgher class.
289 Gihon, A.- L .: “ Report based upon the examination of 6,129 candidates
for admission to, and pupils in, the Naval Academy,” in “ Report of
the Surgeon General of the United States Navy for the year 1879.”
Report of the Secretary of the Navy, pp. 183-205. Washington, 1880.
A tabulation of all the physical measurements recorded at the Naval Academy
from 1852 to 1880. For ages 14 to 23, measurements are given of weight,
height, chest circumference, chest expansion, vital capacity, and strength. A
description of methods and a table of minimum physical measurements for can­
didates for naval service are included.
240 Gilbert, J. A lle n : “ Researches on the mental and physical development
of school children.” ; Studies from the Yale Psychological Laboratory
[New H aven], 1892-1895, pp. 40-100.
A report of an investigation made in 4893—94 in the public schools of New
Haven, Conn., as to : (1) Muscle sense, (2) sensitiveness to color differences,
(3) force of suggestion, (4) letter memory, (5) voluntary motor ability and
fatigue, (6) weight, (7) height, (8) lung capacity, (9) reaction with discrimi­
nation and choice, (10) time memory. About 100 children^ from 6 to 17 inclu­
sive were tested, the teachers being asked to grade the subjects as bright, aver­
age, and dull. Results are shown in many tables and charts, In comparing
physical results with the work of other investigators the author found New
Haven children heavier than Boston or Milwaukee children, probably because
of a smaller proportion of foreigners studied.
24 1 — ------ “ Researches upon school children and college students.”
The
University of Iowa Studies in Psychology [Iowa City], vol. 1 (1897),
pp. 1-39.
Data for this study were obtained in the public schools of Iowa City, West
Liberty, and Cedar Rapids; Iowa City Academy; and the State University of
Iowa. About 100 pupils of each year of age from 6 to 19 were examined. Mean
value was used in computations in preference to arithmetical average, and the
following tests were made: (1) Pulse, (2) pain threshold, (3) wrist lift, (4)
weight, (5) height, (6) estimation of length by sight, (7)- estimation of length
by arm movement, (8) lung capacity, (9) lift with arms, (10) voluntary motor


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ability and fatigue, (11) pulse after fatigue. Tests 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, anrl 11
showed a degree of correlation with mental ability as rated by the teachers;
this correlation is illustrated by charts.
Goddard, H . H . : “ The height and weight .of feeble-minded children in
American institutions,” Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases [New
York], vol. 39 (1912), pp. 217-235.
The author collected data .from 19 American institutions for the care of the
feeble-minded and from these constructed tables and curves showing the com­
parative height and weight of normal and feeble-minded children. From com­
parisons with data for normal children from Boas, Burk, and Roberts, the
author decides there is a remarkable correlation between physical.and mental
development. Bibliography.
Godin, L. G. : “ Note sur la taille minima que doivent presenter les
enfants de 13 ans destinés à s’engager à 18 ans (au sujet de l’admission
des enfants dans les écoles militaires préparatoires d’infanterie)” [Note
on the minimal height which should be attained by 13-year-old boys
destined to enlist at 18 (with relation to their admission to military
preparatory schools) ]. Archives de médecine et de pharmacie militaires
[Paris], vol. 36 (1900), pp. 117-121.
To discover, if possiblè, a definite standard of height for admission to military
schools the author examined the records o f 1,000 cadets at Saint-Hippolyte,
finding none of 130 centimeters and under at 13 years and few of 132 centi­
meters, who reached 154 centimeters at 18 years. Studying at Andelys a series
of 400 of 130 and 132 centimeters he found his results confirmed. By further
researches, his own and others, he estimated the average growth in stature
from 13 to 18 years as 20 centimeters, making the required stature at 13 years
134 centimeters.
Godin, P au l: “ De la puberté à la nubilité chez l’ adolescent moyen au
point de vuè de la croissance ” [The growth of the average adolescent
from puberty to the age of marriage]. Bulletins et mémoires de la
Société d’anthropologie de Paris, ser. 5, vol. 10 (1909), pp. 497-501.
From measurements of 100 adults (details not given in this article) the
author constructed a table showing» the average which an adolescent must
reach, in 6 anthropometric values, to become adult. From measurements of
a number of adolescents he determined the average of adolescent growth and
the growth to be made between the adolescent age and full maturity. Esti­
mating the rate of postadolescent growth, he concludes that puberty commences
at 15% and ends at 17% and that three more years are necessary for the attain­
ment of full physiological maturity,
------- — “ Difference de Dévolution de la croissance chez le garçon et chez
la fille” [Difference in the evolution of growth between (he boy and
the girl]. Médecine.scolaire [Paria], vol. 9 (1920), pp. 100-102.
Representing the index of growth by the relationship between volume of
trunk and volume of head the author compiles a table showing the variations in
growth in the sexes from birth to 21 years of age. Original data are not givën
in this article.
-----------“ Du rôle de l’anthropométrie en éducation physique ” [The rôle
of anthropometry in physical education]. Bulle'ins et mémoires de la
Société d anthropologie de Paris, ser. 5, vol. 2 (1901), pp. 110-134.
To illustrate the value of anthropometry in physical education the author
gives in detail the results of the semiannual measurements of 200 boys at a
military school, ages 14% to 18 years. From these boys he selected two groups
of 50 each—-one group composed of those who had regular gymnastic training
with apparatus, the other of those who did not. Ten measures of each boy were
taken at each half-year period, the results showing the value of the gymnastic
training in increased growth and more perfect growth rhythm. Two other
groups were also measured, including 14 boys of subnormal nhvsical devrlonment, of whom 7 were given regular gymnastic training. Careful measurements
proved the value of the physical training.
----------- “ Formule individuelle de croissance physique pour les enfants
des deux sexes” [A formula of individual physical growth for children»
o f the two sexes]. Comptes rendus hebdomadaires de VAcadémie des
sciences [Paris], vol. 162 (1916), pp. 50-52.
The author expresses physical growth by the formulas : ~ and
where C =
the volume of the skull, V =volum e of the trunk, and O = the length of the
extremities. Details of the method of determination are explained, and an
example is given illustrating the process.
-----------“ Leggi dell’accrescimento aile quali mi hanno condotto le mie
ricerche sull’accrescimento delle varie parti del corpo ” [Laws of
growth which I derived from my researches on the growth of various
parts of the body]. Archivio per Vantropologia [Florence], vol. 43
(1913), pp. 89-97. '
The author describes the laws of growth which he derived after twenty
years of study of the children of French soldiers and of the children ca^ed
for at a Paris hospital. These laws are : ( 1 ) Law of alternate growth ; by


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the author means that width and length of the body, or of parts of the body,
do not increase at the same time ; also, periods of growth alternate with
periods of inactivity. ‘ (2) Law of puberty; here the author enumerates the
well-known characteristics of puberty. (3) Law of proportion ; in the body
o f the human being, from the newborn infant to mature man, every part has a
certain proportionate relation to the whole. This proportion changes at the
end of the sixth year, then at the end of the fifteenth year, and again at the
time of maturity. (4) The law of asymmetry, which is found in the organs
that come in pairs, for instance, legs,-arms, shoulders. In the right-handed
persons the right upper limb is longer and thicker than the left ; the right
shoulder lower ; the left lower limb is longer and larger than the right. In
left-handed persons the reverse is true.
Godin, Paul : “ Les proportions du corps pendant la croissance de 13 ans %
jusqu’à 17 ans % ainsi que à la naissance, à 6 ans % et à 23 ans %
représentées en millièmes de la ta ille” [The proportions of the body
during growth from 13% to 17% years of age, as well as at birth, at
6 % , and at 23 % years, represented in thousandths of the height].
Bulletins et mémoires de la Société d'anthropologie de Paris, ser. 6 ,
vol. 1 (1910), pp. 268-297.
The original data for this article are the same as those obtained by !the author
for his “ Recherches^ anthropométriques sur la croissance des diverse parties du
corps” (No. 251, this section). This article, in three parts, expresses in tables,
charts, and textual notes: (1) The growth in length and width of the different
parts of the body represented as thousandths parts of the total height, from
13% to 23% years of âgé ; (2) a study in the same manner, of the 10 subjects
whose lower limbs bore the greatest proportion to length of trunk (Macroskéle) and the 10 whose lower limbs bore the least proportion (Brachyskéle)
(3) a study of the evolution of the proportions of the body from the
beginning to the end of postfetal growth and from birth to adult age.
----------- “ Lois de croissance auxquelles m’ont conduit mes recherches sur
la croissance des diverses parties du corps (1893-1913)” [Laws of
growth derived from my researches on the growth of the different parts
of the body (1893-1913)]. Journal of the .Royal Anthropological Insti­
tute of Great Britain and Ireland [London], vol. 44 (1914), pp.
295-301.
A summary of the_ laws of growth «illustrated by charts and giving references
to the author’s publications in which may be found the original material from
which these laws were derived. Twenty-eight laws are stated, grouped under:
(1) Laws relating to alternations in growth, (2) laws relating to puberty,
(3) laws relating to proportions, (4) laws relating to asymmetries.
— t----- Recherches anthropométriques sur la croissance des diverses
parties du corps. [Anthropometric Studies on the Growth of the
Different Parts of the Body]. A. Maloine, Paris, 1903. 224 pp.
The author measured at six-month intervals a varying number of boys at a
military school. From these subjects he obtained ä series of 100 boys, aged
13% to 18%, who had been measured 9 or 10 times, each with 129 different
measurements. Technique is described. Height was measured from the ground
to 17 different points, and a chart was constructed showing the comparative
position of these points at different stages of growth. Most of the book is
devoted to a discussion of comparative developments. Tables and bibliography.
----------- “ Un série de lois de croissance basées sur 2,000 observations d’en­
fants, 300,000 mesures, et 100,000 notations (1 891-1893-1914)” [Se­
ries of laws of growth based upon 2,0 00 observations of children,
300,000 measurements, and 100,000 notations
(1891-1893-1914)].
Comptes rendus des séances de l'Académie des sciences de Paris, vol.
159 (1914), pp. 99-102.
This article enumerates without discussion the’ laws of growth as formu­
lated by the author. The laws are arranged in four groups—L6 on the alter­
nations of growth ; 10 on puberty ; 8 on proportions during growth ; and 4
on normal asymmetry.
Goh.de, E. : “ Die Ernährung der Jugend während des Krieges ” [Nutri­
tion of young people during the war]. Zeitschrift für Schulgesund­
heitspflege [Leipzig], vol. 29 (1916), pp. 338-339.
This report declares that o n ‘ the basis of 6,391 weighings (every 14 days)
of 913 pupils in Bochum from November 1, 1915, to February 1, 1916, the
weight of school children was progressing normally, in spite of the war
Only 64 poor children fell below average figures.
Goldfeld, Z. : “ Die Abhängigkeit der körperlichen Entwicklung Neu­
geborener vom Berufe, der E ltern ” [Relation between the physical
development of newborn infants and the occupation of the parents],
Zeitschrift für Geburtshülfe und Gynäkologie [Stuttgart], vol. 72
(1912), pp. 407-437.
The author makes comparisons of the weight and height of 780 newborn
infants at a maternity hospital in Wurzburg. Children of parents in 18 occu­
pations are studied. Age of the mother *.nd number of previous pregnancies
are given.


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Goldstein, F ritz: “ Klinische Beobachtungen über Gewichts- und Längen­
wachstum unterernährte* schulpflichtiger Kinder bei Wiederauffüt­
terung ” [Clinical observations on growth in weight and height induced
by giving extra feedings to undernourished children of school age].
Ztschr. f. Kinderh. [Berlin], vol. 31-32 (1 921-22), pp. 178-198.
In a children’s infirmary at Buch in 1920 the author observed many under­
nourished children, 1 to 14 years old, from the proletariat of Berlin. The
children were weighed in their shirts before breakfast and measured after
their siesta. Their nutrition was not estimated according to fat pad or the
indices of Rohrer, Pirquet, and others. The small children 2 to 6 years old
had suffered much from rachitis and fell far below Camerer’s normal figures ;
those from 6 to 14 years old, 271 boys and 241 girls, also fell below Rietz’s
figures. The diet and general treatment of the children are described. Eightynine per cent were subnormal in weight, 50 per cent in height. Under treat­
ment the weight increased rapidly until almost normal, and then came an
increase in height. The article contains seven curves and six tables.
Gray, F. J .: “ Diurnal variations in weight.” American Physical Educa­
tion Review [Springfield], vol. 15 (1910), pp. 6-14.
Two groups of men were studied. The first group, consisting of 14 men
18 to 25 years of age who had had various degrees of physical training, were
weighed two days a week four times a day for about five months. The second
group, consisting of 16 seasoned athletes, were weighed daily, before and after
exercise, for several weeks. Tables and charts are included.
Gray, H . : “ Ideal tables for size and weight of private-school boys.”
(Am . J. Dis. Child. [Chicago], vol. 22 (1921), pp. 272-283.
Three hundred and eighty pupils were examined. From their measurements
(height, weight, chest girth) and age, tentative'ideal tables were made and com­
pared with “ average normal standards.” Other standards of height and
•weight are freely quoted.
----------- “ Size and weight in 130 boarding-school boys (M iddlesex).”
Medical Clinics of North America [Philadelphia and London], vol. 4
(1921), pp. 1899-1914.
Data are given for age at nearest birthday, weight taken stripped, height,
chest girth taken at the midpoint between full expansion and forced expiration.
These findings are compared with those of other workers, and a table of stand­
ards is constructed. Bibliography.
---------- and W . J. Jacomb: “ Size and weight in 136 board ng-school boys.”
Am. J. Dis. Child. [Chicago], vol. 22 (1921), pp. 258-271.
A report of observations of 136 boys of the “ higher economic class.” Age,
height, weight, and chest girth are compared with general standards.
Gray, J., and Jas. F. Tocher: “ 'She physical characteristics of adults and
school children in East Aberdeenshire.” Journal of the Anthropological
Institute of Great Britain and Ireland [London], new ser. vol. 3 (1900),
pp. 104-124.
The number of children studied was 14,561; the -color of the hair and eyes
and shape of the nose were noted, and in some cases sitting and standing
height. The data on the children are handled only by proportion; actual
figures are not given.
Greenwood, A rth u r: The Health and Physique of School Children. Pub­
lished for the Katan Tata Foundation, University of London, by P. S.
King & Son, Westminster, 1913. 96 pp.
A study of the physical condition of children in the public elementary schools
of England and Wales, based on the annual reports of school medical officers,
made subsequent to the passage of the education act in 1907. The available
data comprised records of about 800,000 individuals.
The inquiry dealt
mainly with heights and weights, the primary object being to determine the
average height and weight at each age from 3 to 15 years; to compare the
heights and weights of children, of one district with those of another; to
enable school medical officers to compare the development of the child •popula­
tion of the same district at different periods. In addition, the author discusses
differences in physical development between boys and g irls; between city and
country children; between children in half-time employment and those attending
school full time. The report has numerous tables and charts. Appendices
give in condensed form the results of several comparable investigations by
other workers.
Greenwood, J. M . : “ Heights and weights of children.” American Public
Health Association Report, 1891, vol. 17, pp. 199-204. Concord, 1892.
Investigation by the superintendent of schools, Kansas City, Mo., to discover
whether American children show physical deterioration as compared with children
in other countries. In the school years of 1886 and 1890 measurements were
taken of 6,708 children from 10 to 18 years of age, of whom 2,996 were girls
(2,515 white American, 314 colored, 167 foreign) and 3,712 boys (3,002 white
American, 493 colored, 217 foreign). Height was taken without shoes and
weights without outer clothing. Each individual was measured but once.
Age, average height, and average weight were tabulated and comparison was
made with Mulhall’s figures of height and weight of English, American, and


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Belgian children, and figures of Crowell, Quetelet, Bowditch, Pagliani, and
Leyet of height of children of vasious countries. The author found no indi­
cation of physical deterioration of Americans as compared with other races.
Gregor, K o n ra d : “ Über die Verwendung des Mehles in der Säuglings­
ernährung
[Use of flour in infant nourishment]. Arch. f. Kinderh.
[Stuttgart], vol. 29 (1900), pp. 95-162.
In connection with a study of the use of flour in infant nourishment the
author gives data on the weights and weight curves of 90 infants in the
Children’s Clinic of Breslau University who remained under his supervision
for a year.
Gregory, J .: “ Über die Gewichtsverhältnisse der Neugeborenen” [On
the weight of the newborn]. Arch. f. Gynäkologie [Berlin], vol. 2
(1 8 7 1 ),'pp. 48-60.
A study of changes in weight of 60 newborn infants in a Berlin clinic.
Changes in weight, in grams, are given for full-term and premature infants.
Attention is paid to method of feeding and age periods at which losses and
gains occurred. Special attention is given to the decrease in weight soon
after birth.
Gribbon, M adge R. : “ Some factors modifying the nutrition of children.
A survey of 3,000 of the most marked cases of malnutrition in Viennese
children, made in summer of 1921.” Edinburgh Medical Journal,
vol. 29 (1922), pp. 12-17.
A survey to determine what factors caused the persistence of malnutrition.
Children served by the Friends’ Relief Mission were classified into four
nutritional groups : O, normal ; A, fair ; B. had ; C, worst. Three thousand
of the C class were studied, with 300 A children for comparison. Investiga­
tions were made by a trained social worker, with schedule for collection of
information. (Sample given.) Methods of weighing and measuring are not
given. Tables were compiled comparing average weights in kilos of children
6 months to 6 years old in A and C classes, with normal standard, taken from
the Tirquet Clinique, and with weights in kilos of C class children, arranged
with reference to the presence of rickets, tuberculosis, or other disease. Size
of family and position in family, parental care, cleanliness, air space per
person, and family income were considered, and a table was compiled giving
the average duration of breast feeding. The author concludes that the three
factors determining continuance of malnutrition are illness, size of the family,
and position of the child in the famity.
Griffith, J. P. Crozer, and. J. Claxton G ittin gs: “ The weight of breast­
fed infants during the first two weeks of life.” Arch. Pediat. [New
York], vol. 24, no. 5 (1907), pp. 321-345.
In the Preston Retreat of Philadelphia for confinement of married working
women the authors studied the weight during the first two weeks of life of 11
boys and 115 girls, all normal and Tull term. The greatest weights were found
in boys whose mothers were between 25 and 29 years, multiparae, and robust.
The initial loss is greatest on third or fourth day and is regained by the tenth
to the fourteenth day. The heaviest infants lose most, girls begin to regain
sooner. The loss is most marked in first-horn children.
Grover, Joseph. T. : “ Some measurements of normal children, especially
of the leg and arm. Some interesting deductions and practical possi­
bilities.” Arch. Pediat. [New York], vol. 32 (1915), pp. 473-486.
A report of measurements of about 500 normal children from birth to 12
years and 9 months of age, giving in tabular form the weight, head circum­
ference, antero-postero head measurement, chest circumference, length, leg
length, arm length, percentage of leg and of arm length to height. Methods
of measurement are given. Many relationships between various measurements
are discussed. The author concludes that comparisons of the circumferences of
the head and chest are much more accurate in relation to weight than to age ;
that the arms and legs grow in a definite relation to the increase in height;
that age is a poorer basis for the comparison of any dimensions than is weight
or height.
Grulee, G. G., and B. E. Bonar: “ Some observation on the so-called
inanition temperature of the newborn.” Transactions of the American
Pediatric Society [Chicago], vol. 33 (1921), pp. 59-69.
Previous literature on the subject is carefully reviewed. One hundred and
eighty-two infantg in the maternity ward o f the Presbyterian Hospital, .Chicago,
were observed for 5 days. Weight, temperature, amount and kind of food, and
body excretions were recorded. Tables give the data in full. The author con­
cludes that there is no relation between the per cent loss of weight, or the
quantity of food ingested, and the “ transitory fever of the newborn.” The
probable cause of fever is the absorption of protein products from the intestines.
G undling, X a v e r : Über Gewichtsverhältnisse der Neugeborenen in den
ersten Lebenstagen und die Ursachen der Gewichtsabnahme [Weight
of Newborn Infants During the First Days of Life and Causes of Loss
in W eight]. Erlangen, 1898. 45 pp.
In this thesis (University of Erlangen) on the weight of newborn infants
the author first treats the work of former investigators on the subject and then
describes the material he studied in 1896 in the women’s clinic of the University


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o f Erlängdi, where weighings are made at birth and daily thereafter. The
children are all healthy and full-term, 30 boys and 30 girls that were first horn
and 30 boys and 30 girls of multiparæ, all born in the occipital presentation
with no meconium lost during the birth act. The figures are shown in four
tables of weights during the first nine days, and eight pages are given to con­
clusions from each group of figures and from the whole. Other tables give
data on 32 infants, of whom 7 were first born and 25 not, 18 \frere girls and
14 boys, all born in the breech presentation. Children born in this pos’ tion
suiter a smaller initial loss than those born «in the occipital and recover the
.
birth weight sooner. The author concludes that the chief factor in causing
loss of weight is meconium.
von Gutfeld, F ritz: “ Über den Einfluss körperlicher und sozialer Ver­
hältnisse der Mütter auf die Körpermasse ihrer Neugeborenen ” [In­
fluence of physical and social relations of mothers on proportions of
their newborn infants]. Zeitschrift für Geburtshülfe und Gynäkologie
[Stuttgart], vol. 73 (1913), pp. 266-279.
In ^the case of 5,000 women confined in the Charité at Berlin between January, 1907, and January, 1909, the author studied age, height (in most cases),
number of pregnancy, and occupation of the mothers, and length, weight, and
head girth of their infants. Children are separated in the eight tables by sex
and by legitimacy. Boys were regularly larger than girls. The length and
weight of infants rose continuously with age of the mother to their maximum
when the mother was 28 to 35 years. These same values increased with each
additional pregnancy up to the fourth, after which they remained about the
same. Legitimate boy infants were larger than illegitimate; with girls the
reverse was true. Domestic servants had larger children than laboring women.
Dimensions of children were proportional to height of the mother.
H aake, H .: “ Über die Gewichtsveränderung der Neugeborenen” [On the
variations in weight of newborn infants]. Monatsschrift für Geburts­
kunde [Berlin], vol. 19 (1862), pp. 339-354.
A brief summary of opinions of several writers on physiological decrease of
weight, followed by an account of the author’ s studv of 100 newborn infants
at a maternity home at Leipzig. The author found that a decrease in weight
invariably takes place immediately after birth and usually lasts a .day or two.
after which an increase begins. Most of his cases regained their original
weight in the first nine days.
H äberlin , C arl: Über die körperliche Entwicklung von Kindern im
Frieden und Krieg ” [The physical development of children in peace
and war]. Arch. f. Kinderh. [Stuttgart], vol. 66 (1918), pp. 370-384.
The author compares the condition of children 4 to 14 years old in a
sanatorium at Wyk during peace and during war. A table gives figures for
lieipfbt, wêîgbf. chest girth, and strength. Another table gives hemochrome
content according to Gowers-Sahli. and hematin content. These values are
determined also for 64 poor boys and 83 poor girls between 6 and 14 in 1917,
and the figures are compared with corresponding figures ïor 1907 to 1914.
The author discovered no ill effects due to the war.
Haehner, H . : “ Über die Nährungsaufnahme des Kindes an der Mutter­
brust und das Wäehsthum im ersten Lebensjahre ” [Nutritional intake
and growth of the breast-fed infant during the first year]. Jahrb. f.
Kinderk. [Leipzig], new ser. vol. 15 (1880), pp. 23-78.
The author gives detailed observations upon a girl infant. The milk for
every meal was weighed during the first 34 weeks. The infant was breast fed
for 24 weeks, then received mother’s milk and cow’s milk until weaned in the
twenty-seventh week. Her weight was taken every week during her first -year
and her length at frequent intervals. At birth she was 3,100 grams in weight
and 50 centimeters in. length ; at 52 weeks her weight was 9,470 grams and
her length 75 centimeters. Tbe mother’s milk was weighed separately for the
rieht and left breast. The data obtained by other investigators are compared
with those of tbe author.
H a ll, W . S. : “ The changes in the proportions of the human body during
the period of growth.” Journal of the Anthropological Institute of
Great Britain and Ireland [London], vol. 25 (1895), pp. 21—46.
Two thousand school boys in and about Philadelphia were measured for stand­
ing height, height of pubes, height of knee; girth of head, neck, chest, abdomen
hips, thigh, knee, calf, ankle, upper arm, elbow, forearm, wrist ; depth of chest’
abdomen ; the interacromial breadth : the length of the upper arm forearm’
hand, fo o t; weight: vital capacity; fhe strength of the back, extensor muscles
of the thigh, pectoral muscles, forearm and upper arm extensors and flexors.
Charts from the author and other authorities give computed comparative curves
of development. Table 1 compares the measurements taken with the height as a
modulus, grouping by age and giving the number of cases for each observation
Table 2 gives the measurement of the body parts according to ages. Table 3
gives the relation of weight to linear dimensions and of lung capacity to
strength. Table 4 gives the strength of muscle groups by ages. Author’s
conclusion : Vertical and horizontal growth alternate. The weight at different
ages varies either as the product of height, the interacromial breadth, and the
depth of the abdomen, or as the product of the height and the depth o f the
chest squared.


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H a ll, Mrs. W . S .: “ The first five hundred days of a child’s life.” ChildStudy Monthly [Chicago and New York], vol. 2 (1 89 6-97), pp. 330-342,
394-407, 458-473, 522-537, 586-608.
A mother's observations of her own child, from whom she was not absent
more than three hours at a time during the waking hours of the first 16 months
of his life. Measurements were taken by the father, a professor of physiology
in Northwestern University Medical School, who also prepared the chapter on
growth. The record ia arranged under the headings: Ancestry, Environment,
Physical Development, and Psychical Development, and the observations are
recorded and summarized.
276 H am m ett, F. S .: “ The effect of the maternal ingestion of desiccated
placenta upon the rate of growth of breast-fed infants.” Journal of
Biological Chemistry [Baltimore], vol. 36 (1918), pp. 569-573.
A study of the growth of 177 infants during the first 13 days of life, the
mothers having been given desiccated placenta. Comparison with the normal
showed a decided increase in growth rate.
277 -----------“ The relation between growth capacity and weight at birth."
American Journal of Physiology [Baltimore], vol. 45 (191 7-18), pp.
396-405.
To discover the relation between weight at birth and early growth the author
collected data from the records of the Boston Lying-in Hospital as to weights
of 537 infants, all breast fed, on the first, third, fifth, seventh, ninth, eleventh,
and thirteenth days after birth. Weights from 5 to 11 pounds were grouped
in six classes and the per cent change in weight tabulated and shown by
graph. Tables are also given showing the per cent recovery to or over the
initial weight, per cent distribution' according to birth weight of 1,000 con­
secutive cases, and individual and relative growth capacity, classified by birth
weight. The author found growth capacity for first two weeks dependent
upon, and inversely proportional to, birth weight, and ability to recover and
pass initial weight dependent on same law. Bibliography.
278 Ham m ond, John, and H sia Sheng: “ The development and diet of
Chinese clildren.” Am. J. Dis. Child. [Chicago], vol. 29 (1925), pp.
729-742.
A study of the measurements and of the diets of 96 Chinese boys, ages 5
to 17, living in the School for Poor Children, Peking. A sample of the chart,
used is presented, showing space for 34 measurements. The subjects wore
only short coolie cloth trousers for which no weight was computed. Allow­
ance was made for the Chinese method of recording age by subtracting 1%
years from the given age of each boy. Growth curves are derived for sitting
height and age, standing height and age, weight and height, showing compari­
son with Chinese boys in summer schools and American hoys (Baldwin). Food
intake was low compared with American standards, but physical condition
excellent. Height, weight, and weight-for-height ratio were lower than those
of American boys.
279 H arding, H . W . : “ Physique and the mental ability of school children.”
The Child [London], vol. 2 (1911), pp. 766-768.
An article asking that more attention be paid to the physical health of
school children and including one table compiled from measurement of 219
boys, aged 13 and 14, attending three schools in Yarmouth, which shows the
superior physique of boys in a higher grade at school. No technique is given.
280 H arrington, T. 3?.: “ Health and education.” American Physical Edu,
cation Review [Boston], vol. 15 (1910), pp. 373-388.
With a general discussion of health problems in education the author in­
cludes a series of measurements of 763 boys and 653 girls of Boston parentage,
*
attending in 1900-1909 the same schools in which Bowditch took his measure­
ments. It is very probable that these two set's of measurements represent, in
many instances, two generations of the same family. Average height in inches,
without shoes, for ages 7 to 14, and average weight in pounds for the same
ages are recorded. Two thousand weights of Boston schoolboys, aged 7, 9,
11, and 13, taken at random from data collected by the author, are compared
with average weight of Boston schoolboys in 1876. Study to be continued.
281 H artelius, J. G. W . : “ Undersokningar vid Arboga folkskoior ” [Inves­
tigations of the public schools of Arboga]. Hygiea, Medicinsk och
Farmceutisk Mdnadsskrift [Stockholm], vol. 64, pt. 1 (1902), pp. 20 8223.
In five graphs and two tables are shown height, weight, and chest measure­
ments of 248 boys and 362 girls 8 to 14 years of age.
282 H astin gs, W . W . : “Anthropometric studies in Nebraska.”
American
Physi'cal Education Review [Boston], vol. 5 (1900), pp. 53-66.
An address before the National Education Association, Los Angeles, 1899.
A tentative report is included of the results of measurements in 10 schools in
Lincoln, Nebr., during 1898, and many comparisons are drawn between the
physique of Nebraska children and those from other parts of the country and
(briefly) from Belgium and England.


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H aw kes, E. W . : “ Skeletal measurements and observations of the Point
Barrow Eskimo, with comparisons with other Eskimo groups.” Ameri­
can Anthropologist [Lancaster, P a.], vol. 18 (1916), pp. 203-244.
Report of a year's study of a Skeletal collection from Point Barrow, Alaska,
in the Wistar Institute of Anatomy, Philadelphia. It is based largely on adult
material but contains a brief note (page 216) on infantile and adult character­
istics.
284 Hecker, C.: “ Über Gewicht und Länge der neugeborenen Kinder im Verhältniss zum 'A lter der M u tter” [On the weight and length of new­
born infants in relation to the mother’s age]. Monatsschrift für
Geburtskunde und Frauenkrankheiten [Berlin], vol. 26 (1865), pp. 34 8363.
The purpose of the article is to dispute the contentiön that the child’s weight
increases with the mother’s age only until she reaches 25 to 29 years, after
which there is a steady decrease. The author collected information on 4,449
cases in a maternity home in Berlin and presents his data in tables giving the
children’s weight according to sex and mother’s age. He found that the weight
of the infant increases with the mother’s age until she becomes 44 years old
and also with the number of preceding chlldbirths.
285 H edger, Carolina: “ The school children of the stockyards district.”
Transactions of the Fifteenth International Congress on Hygiene and
Demography, 1912 [Washington], vol. 3 (1913), pp. 170-188.
The article deals largely with economic data, but contains two tables of
height, weight, and chest girth for boys of 7 to 16 years and girls of 6 to 15
years. Methods of measurement are not given.
286 Heidemann, M .: *?•Über Gewichtsschwankungen Neugeborener mit beson­
derer Berücksichtigung der Resultate bei vierstündlichem Anlegen ”
[On fluctuations in weight of newborn infants, with special reference
to the results obtained with the four-hour feeding schedule]. Monats­
schrift für Geburtshülfe und Gynäkologie [Berlin], vol. 33 (1911), pp.
168-184.
A study o f the effects of various feeding methods upon the growth of 528
newborn infants in a maternity Hospital at Heidelberg.
287 H eim , P., and M . K . J oh n : “ Die kaseinfettangereicherte Kuhmilch
(K . F. Milch) als Dauer- und Heilernährung [Casein-fat milk as a
regular and a therapeutic food for infants.] Monatsschr. f. Kinderh.
[Leipzig and Vienna], vol. 11 (1912-13), pp. 621-643.
In connection with a study of infant feeding changes in weight of infants are
discussed and 10 weight curves are presented.
288 ---------------- ------ “ Über die Verwendbarkeit caseinangereicherter Kuhmilch.
Theoretische Überlegungen” [On the use of casein m ilk; theoretical
considerations]. Ztschr. f. Kinderh. [Berlin], vol. 4 (1912), pp. 1-31.
Tn connection with a discussion of the addition of casein to cow’s milk the
authors give case histories and weight curves for five infants in a children’ s
polyclinic in Budapest.
289 Heim ann, F ritz: “ Physiologische Gewichtsabnahme und transitorisches
Fieber beim Neugeborenen ” [Physiological löss of weight arid transi­
tory fever in newborn infants]. Monatsschrift für Geburtshülfe und
Gynäkologie [Berlin], vol. 51-52 (1920), pp. 27-41.
A discussion of the many phases and factors involved in the physiological loss
of weight following birth, the discussion being based on previous publications
by others and on the writer’s own observations during eight years in the
Breslau’s Woman’ s Clinic of 1.581 infants .that were kept over 10 days in the
clinic and were not subject to severe illness. These infants belonged to the
lower classes, had an average birth weight of 3.262 grams, and were 97.5 per
cent breast fed. receiving five meals a day. After taking up in turn many
details on the initial loss and showing that it is lessened by beginning early to
feed the infant, the author considers from his experience with 8,441 infants the
harmless transitory fever accompanying the initial loss.
290 H eller: “ Physiologie der Neugeborenen” [Physiology of the newborn].
Deutsche Med, Wchnschr. [Leipzig and Berlin], vol. 40, pt. 2 (1914),
p. 1832.
A series of investigations was conducted in a midwives’ school. The same
amount of milk was given in five meals to 200 children, six meals to 70, and
seven meals to 20. Of the first series 10.5 per cent reached initial weight on
the ninth day, of the second group 10 per cent, and of the third group 15
per cent. Tests of blood-sugar content on 12 newborn and 3 premature
Infants by Bang’s method showed that this content lies within the same
limits as 'in the case of older infants and adults. It remained constant in
spite of variations in amount and time of meal, etc. Temperature, on the
other hand, as tested on 52 children showed great variation, due perhaps to
abnormal metabolic processes.


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PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHILD
H ellm uth, K arl, and von W n orow sk i: “ Variationsstatistischer Beitrag
zur Frage des Einflusses der Jahreszeit auf das Körpergewicht der
Neugeborenen ” [Contribution according to variation statistics con­
cerning the question of the effect of season on body weight of the
newborn]. Klinische Wochenschrift [Berlin and Munich], voi. 2
(1923), pp. 75-78.
The authors differ in their conclusions from Abels, who from statistics on
3,459 births became convinced that the average weight of newborn infants in
other seasons is considerably greater than "during the winter on account of the
poverty of foods in vitamins in the latter season. The authors had data
on 26,515 births occurring between 1912 and 1922._ Tables of this material
are divided according to first-born and later-born infants. Curves are also
given. The authors find that from the standpoint of statistics there is no
fluctuation of the birth weight according to season. They cite instances in
which critical evaluation of statistical results has corrected many fallacies.
Heron, D avid : The Influence of Defective Physique, and Unfavorable
Home Environment on the Intelligence of School Children.
Galton
Eugenics Laboratory Memoirs, No. 8 . London. 1910. 60 pp.
A lengthy statistical examination of a pioneer school survey by the London
County Council, dealing with 12 boys’ schools and 13 girls' schools, a total
of 4.286 boys and 4,474 girls. For every child there is a statement of age,
height, weight, and mental capacity, with additional reports, not complete,
of state of teeth, nutrition, hearing, condition of adenoids, tonsils, and cervi­
cal glands, condition of clothing, and degree of cleanliness. The analysis of
these records led to the conclusion that too much latitude was given for
personal judgment. No sensible effect on intelligence of nurture, environment,
and physique was discovered.
Herrman, C .: “ One hundred infants followed from birth to the end of
the' first year.” Arch. Pediat. [New York], vol. 30 (1913), pp. 97-110.
A summary of the records of about 100 infants born in the maternity ward
o f a hospital and followed with observations at periods of one month or
less during the first year of life. Charts are given of the unusual records,
with descriptive notes on the cases.
H erskovits, M elville J. : “ Correlation of length and breadth of head
in American negroes.” American Journal of Physical Anthropology
[Washington], vol. 9 (1926), pp. 87-97.
In a general study of variability under racial crossing with special ref­
erence to the'American negro-white population the author collected data on
the length and breadth of head of 1,211 boys from Public School 89, New
York City. Tables.
----------- “A further discussion of the variability of family strains in the
negro-white population of New York City.” Journal of the American
Statistical Association [Concord, N. H .], vol. 20 (1925), pp. 380-389.
Tables show the interpupilIary distance, width of nostrils, height of ear, and
length of middle finger in two groups of negro-white children, comprising about
1,200 boys and about 120 girls.
--------- - “ The influence of environment on a racial growth curve.” School
and Society [Lancaster, Pa.], vol. 22, no. 551 (1925), pp. 86 - 8 8 .
From the records of the Colored Orphan Asylum at Ri verdate. New York
City, the author Secured a series -of measurements of height and weight of
about 300 boys who had been measured at least three times a year “ over an
appreciable length of time.” Measurements were taken with outer clothing
and shoes removed. • Weighing was on an ordinary scale and height was
recorded from a feet-and-inches recorder attached to the scale. In the statis­
tical computations allowance was made for inaccuracies clue to the use of this
• instrument. Comparison of the results with statistics from a public school for
boys with negro-white racial background showed the colored orphanage children
lighter in weight and smaller, year for year, from 5. to 16, than public-school
children of the same racial type, the differences being about the same as those
found by Boas between Hebrew children in and out of orphanages.
----------- “ Some observations on the growth of colored hoys.” American
Journal of Physical Anthropology [Washington], vol. 7, (1924), pp.
439-446.
One thousand and six boys of Public School 89, New York City, a mixed
racial group of low economic standing, were measured as to height and weight
by the author. Height was measured with shoes, to the nearest centimeter, on
a wooden measuring rod with a projecting arm. Deduction was made for the
heel. Weight was taken without coats, sweaters, or overcoats, with an ordinary
scale. Age was checked with the school record,; calculated in years, months, and
days, and tabulated to the nearest half-year. Tables show the mean and
. standard deviation of the mean, the standard deviation of the series, and the
increment for each year over the preceding year in height and weight, with
comparative data from Boas, Greenwood, and HrdlFka : also the coefficients of
variability for Iowa white boys (Baldwin) and for the present series. The col­
ored boys were found to grow faster in height and weight to the sixteenth year
than thé white boys. The adolescent acceleration in growth was found to occur
approximately one year earlier in colored than in white boys.


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h e ig h t

H ertz, Poul: “ Investigations on the growth of children in the Copen­
hagen elementary schools.” School H ygiene [London], vol. 3 (1912)
pp. 175-178.
.
; A report of measurements of 2,365 children attending two schools in Copen­
hagen, one a pay school, one free. Methods are not given. The children of
the Pay school were found heavier and taller, the difference being at a minimum
at about 10 years of age. Tables give average weight and height of boys 6 to
and girls 6 to 14 and comparative figures for tlie two schools.
H éry Lu cien : Sur l’allaitement des nouveau-nés [ Feeding the New­
born], Paris, no. 166, 1897. 72 pp.
Thesis for medical degree (University of Paris). Two chapters on loss and
?ain ot weight in the newborn contain tables on the comparative loss of weight
of 336 infants of women who had not previously nursed an infant and of 1<Û
infants of women who had nursed, showing a greater initial loss in the former
series. Gain in weight began sooner in the second series. Bibliography.
H erzfeld, B. : “ Das neugeborene Kind und seine Eigentümlichkeiten ”
[The newborn child and its peculiarities]. Jahrh. f. Kinderh I Berlin 1
vol. 99 (1922), pp. 78-85.
The author discusses weight and temperature of newborn children without
stating the number of children observed. His tables show the initial loss to be
y.79 per cent and the end of such loss to occur on the second day in 82 per
cent of cases, on the third day in 45 per cent, on the fourth day in 31.3 per cent
later than the fourth day in 15.5 per cent. According to liis statistics birth
weights are seldom regained by the tenth day. The temperature after birth is
• iv f * ^ ^
Children born “ dry ” have relatively low temperature. Dur­
ing the first 12 to 18 hours the temperature of all infants falls to about 35° C
then rises to 36.2 C., where it remains for the next six days, and then rises on
the eighth day to 37 C. Detachment of the umbilical cord does not affect ternperature, but any irregularity in feeding does. The author had not observed the
so-called transitory fever.

301

H ess, Julius H .: Premature and Congenitally Diseased Infants.
Lea &
Febiger, Philadelphia, 1922. 397 pp.
The author describes the characteristic features of the fetus and.gives tables
or the weight, length, head, and other measurements, as given by many authori­
ty:8. by weekly and monthly periods of-intrauterine development. He also gives
^tables from other authorities of a large number of measurements of the body
limbs, brain, and internal organs for mature and premature infants The development of _premature infants is discussed in detail. The formulas of DuBois
aï • P-til»018 and of Howland and Dana for estimating body surface are ex­
plained, and Pfaundler’s dermatograph for measuring body surface is discussed
and shown m a photograph.

302

Hesse, W . : “ Bestimmungen des Gewichtes und Messungen der Körper­
länge bei einem Kinde im ersten und zweiten Lebensjahre ” [Determina­
tion of weight and measurement of length of body in the case of one
child in the first and second year of life]. Archiv für Gynäkologie
[Berlin], vol. 14 (1879), pp. 491-493.
Data as to the weight, height, and feeding of one child in the first two years
of his life. Two pages of tables are included.
----------- “ Bestimmungen des Gewichtes und Messungen der Körperlänge
bei einem Kinde im ersten und zweiten Lebensjahre” [Determinations
of weight and measurements of length of a child in the first and second
• years]. Archiv für Gynäkologie [Berlin], vol. 17 (1881), pp. 150-152.
This table gives date, weight, length, record of teeth, diet, etc., of a drl in
Saxony from birth in October, 1878, to October, 1880. In the first ye'i’r she
gained 18.22 grams per day ; in the second year, 7.38 grams.

303

304

Heubner, O.: “-Wachstum des Kindes ” [Growth of the child]. Lelrlmch
der Kinderheilkunde [Leipzig], vol. 1 (1911), pp. 1 - 12 .
After describing changes in growth between infancy and maturity the luthor
asserts that all growth proceeds according to laws. These can be ascertained
by weighing and measuring either many children of the same age or tl e same
children at different ages. The first table, compiled from Camerer and others
gives weight of nurslings from 4 to 5.2 weeks old and of boys and giiis sepa­
rately from 2 to 18 years old. Two tables from Camerer, Lansberger, et al.,
give the length during the first year, and another table the height of toys and
girls separately for each year up to 19. From these data the author draws the
conclusions that growth both in weight and in height shows periodical fluctua­
tions, being retarded in the third quarter of the first year and during the years
^ • iTx
9 to 13 in boys, and that increase in height and increase in
weight are not congruent— height increases slightly between November and
March, considerably between April and August, whereas weight increases from
August to November. The circumferences of skull and of chest are given in a
table based- on the investigations of Selimid-Monnard and Monti and o f Lands­
berger and Ranke, and the quotient of height to skull according to ftaudriitz.
12229°— 27------4


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PHYSICAL GROWTH A5TD DEVELOPMENT OE THE CHILD
H illebrand, Franz, “ Untersuchungen über die Milchzufuhr und über
die Jodkaliumausscheidung des Säuglings ” [Investigation into the in­
take of milk and elimination of iodide of potassiùïn in the infant].
Archiv für Gynäkologie [Berlin], vol. 25 (1884-85), pp. 453-481.
In the obstetrical clinic at Bonn the author studied 25 newborn girls during
their first 10 days of life ; of these, 16 were normal. He gives case histories
o f these 16, including 9 first born, and tables of weights and food intake.
Perspiration was not determined. Results obtained by other students are dis­
cussed and shown in comparative tablés. The author concludes that first-born
infants are 1% days behind others in weight and appetite.
Hillen'berg: “ Betrachtungen über den Einfluss der natürlichen und
künstlichen Ernährung auf die körperliche Entwicklung der Säuglinge
im Stadt- und Landkreis Zeitz ” [Observations on effect of natural and
artificial feeding on physical development of infants in city and dis­
trict of Zeitz]. Zeitschrift für Säuglingsfürsorge [Leipzig], vol. 6
(1912), pp. 157-169.
The author gives observations of the weighing of 1,659 infants. Tables show
weights of infants with relation to method of feeding over definite periods of
time. For the ages 4 to 6 months bottle-fed infants are heavier ; in the second
half of the first year breast-fed infants are heavier. The author believes first
teeth come later with artificial feeding.
Hirsch, J .: “ Die ‘ physiologische Gewichtsabnahme’ der Neugeborenen”
[The “ physiological decrease” in the weight of the new born], Ber­
liner Klinische Wochenschrift [Berlin], vol. 47 (1910), pp. 11-13.
Study of 17 normal newborn infants in a maternity hospital in Berlin to
determine the nature of the “ physiological loss ” in weight. The author dis­
agrees with the theory that the decrease is due to an increased output of the
infant’s body accompanied by small intake and attributes it to the discharge of
meconium ; he says it can not be consi dered as a real decrease. He also found
that there is a very small real decrease amounting to 10 to 20 grams and due to
the decomposition of albumin and evaporation of water through the skin. If
the food is sufficient the original weight is regained within eight days. One
table and two curves are given.
H irschi, H en ry: “ Bericht über die Gesundheitsverhältnisse bei 1,000
Neugeborenen in den ersten Lebenstagen ” [Report on the »state of
health of 1 ,0 0 0 infants during the first days of life]. Archiv für Gynä­
kologie [Berlin], vol. 69 (1903), pp. 702-716.
A discussion of the weight of 1,000 infants in an obstetrical clinic at Prague
is included, and two tables are given.
H irst, Barton Cooke: “ Weight sheets of infants fed entirely or partially
upon the bottle in the Philadelphia Hospital, during the five months.
August to December, inclusive. Annals of Gynaecology and Pediatry
[Philadelphia], vol. 5 (1891), pp. 249-252.
Weights of 28 infants are given, 6 partly breast fed and 22 artificially fed.
Hitchcock, E. : “A comparative study of average measurements.” Pro­
ceedings of the American Association for the Advancement of Physical
Education [Ithaca], vol. 6 (1891), pp. 37-42.
Tables showing comparative measurements, in 52 dimensions, of Amherst,
Mount Holyoke, and Wellesley students, from statistics of about 500 individuals
at each of the three colleges, taken from the freshman classes, 1884 to 1889.
----------- “A synoptic exhibit of 15,000 physical examinations.” Proceed­
ings of the American Association for the Advancement of Physical E du­
cation, [Ithaca], 1890, p. 5.
A list of average measurements derived from the" examination of nearly
15,000 students at Yale, Amherst, and Cornell. Fifty different measurements
are listed without details of technique or discussion of results.
----------- The Results of Anthropometry, Carpenter & Morehouse, Am ­
herst, 1892. 7 pp.
A paper read before the American Association for the Advancement of
Physical Education in April, 1892. It gives the results of physical measure­
ments of nearly 3,000 students at Amherst but does not state technique. A
chart shows various groupings of measurements of 43 portions of the body,
seven tests of strength, capacity of lungs, and pilosity.
---------- and H. H . Seelye: An Anthropometric Manual Giving Physical
Measurements and Tests of Male College Students and thç Method of
Securing Them. Carpenter & Morehouse, Amherst, 1893. 35 pp.
A report describing apparatus used and giving results of measurements and
physical examinations of Amherst students.


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H itchings, F. W ., and G. W . F itz: “ Seasonal variations in growth of
boys.” Gaillard's Medical Journal [New York], yol. 77 (1902), p! 216.
A. study o f 20 boys, aged 7 to 14, at the Boys’ Home at Dedham, Mass.
Subjects were weighed stripped, once a week, and heights measured (method
not given) every three months except in the third quarter. The author found
that more than 90 per cent of the total increase in weight was made between
June and December; that weight variations in individuals were more marked
in the winter-spring than in the summer-fall period; that the general form of
the curve of growth in weight was common to all subjects studied. Weather
conditions showed little influence. Growth in height either was continuous or
was more rapid at the period of rapid growth in weight.
315 H öjer, J. A . : “ Körpergewichten von Säuglingen in einigen Vororten
Stockholms 19 20-1924” [Weight of "infants in certain suburbs of
Stockholm in 1920-1924.] Acta paediatrica [Upsala], vol. 5 (1925),
pp. 59-78.
The a'uthor studied the weights of 550 infants in Stockholm under 1 year
of age. The children were weighed at birth ; then once a month during
periods which varied from several weeks to nearly one year. Tables give the
weight and increase in weight according to the method of feeding (breast,
mixed, artificial) and length of the observation period. Swedish, Norwegian,
and German breast-fed infants showed similarity in regard to gain in weight.
The artificially-fed infants showed a much slower gain than those at the
breast or on mixed feeding. The time required to double the original weight
was found to depend mainly on weight at birth. When the course of growth
was similar doubling of the original weight took place within 164 days in the
case of children weighing at birth 3,500 grams and within 112 days in the
case of those weighing 2,500 grams. References.
H offm an, F. L .: Army Anthropometry and Medical Rejection Statistics.
The Prudential Press, Newark, N. J., 1918. 114 pp.
A communication by the statistician of the Prudential Insurance Co. of
America, who served as a member of the committee on anthropology of the
National Research Council, urging a national anthropometric survey and new
physical standards. Statistics show the results of recruiting experience from
1906 to 1915. giving various tables of height, weight, and chest measure from
the age of 18 up.
317 H o fm a n n : “ Über die Gewichtszu- und Abnahme neugeborener Kinder ”
[On the increase and decrease in the weight of newborn children].
Neue Zeitschi'ift für Geburtskunde [Berlin], vol 27 (1850) nn 145148.
A study of 36 newborn infants made by the author in a maternitv hospital at
Wurzburg to decide as_ to the existence of a decrease in weight' of newborn
infants. The author gives no statistics but presents his conclusion that such
a decrease actually takes place, most frequently within 36 to 48 hours after
birth, that on the third day the child begins to gain, and that on the fifth or
sixth day it reaches its initial weight. The amount of decrease and increase
the author thinks, depends on the care received by the child.
318 H olm gren, I . : “ Über den Einfluss der Basedowschen Krankheit und
verwandter Zustände auf das Längenwachstum nebst einigen Gesetzen
der Ossifikation ” [Influence of Basedow’s disease and related conditions
upon height, together with some laws of ossification], Nordiskt Medicinskt Arkiv (Inre medecin) [Stockholm], 1909, vol. 9, ser. 3, no. 5,
pp. 1 -1 1 7 ; 1910, vol. 10, ser. 3, no. 1, pp. 1-185, and no. 2, pp. 187-247.
In an effort to prove that Basedow’s disease is accompanied by premature
growth and ossification the author thoroughly works over a great mass of
material found in other treatises and his own researches, conducted chiefly in
the polyclinic for internal diseases in Stockholm. 1905-6. He present’s de­
tailed descriptions of many cases, also numerous tables and graphs, and attaches
a full bibliography. He measures the height of the subject without shoes, with
feet touching from heel to toe. lie concludes that struma and abnormally rapid
heart action are found with excessive stature in the adolescent stage and with a
relatively early ossification of the epiphyseal cartilage.
339 H olt, L. Em m ett: Standards for growth and nutrition. Am. J. Dis.
Child. [Chicago], vol. 16 (1918), pp. 359-375.
The author discusses three standards of nutrition susceptible of application to
large groups of children : (1) The weight-to-height relationship, (2) the annual
rate of increase in weight and growth in height, (3) the general app-arance of
the child. By a comparative study of 1,774 observations made by a physical
director on 350 boys of a favored social group whose weights were taken semi­
annually, without clothing, for a period of years, with the studies of Porter,
Hastings, Boas, and Bowditch, be shows that wide variations make the weightfor-age relationship of little value in determining nutrition.
By similar
analysis he shows that height-age curves are unreliable. In weight-to-height
curves he finds surprising uniformity, pointing to the value of the weightheight index. His data also show the value of the record of annual increase in
height and weight as a nutrition index, and the fact that growth is more rapid
in summer than in winter. Deductions from any measurements, he feels, should
be modified by inspection of the general appearance of the child.


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H o lt, L. Em m ett, and H . L. E a les: “ Observations on the health and
growth of children in an institution.” Am. J. Dis. Child. [Chicago],
vol. 26, no. 1 (1923) , pp. 1-22.
A 31-month study of the inmates of a home and school for poor children of
both sexes, aged 4 to 16, who were housed during the early part of the study in
New York and during the later part in the country. The routine of living is
described and particulars as to diet are given, with typical diet sheet of a
medium-sized boy. Weights without shoes and in indoor clothing were taken
about once' a month; heights, without shoes, about once in three months.
Observations of weight on 151 boys and 195 girls numbered 2,995. Those data
are discussed with reference to racial distribution, relation of weight to height,
of height to age, and of weight to age, progress in weight and height, and sea­
sonal variations in growth. There are several tables and charts. The authors
found good health and excellent nutrition possible in institutional life; a con­
siderable deviation from the ideal diet consistent with good health ; no regular
seasonal variations in grow th; a remarkably regular annual gain but wide
monthly fluctuations.
— ------ and John H o w la n d : “ Growth and development of the body.”
Diseases of Infancy and Childhood, Ch. II, pp. 15-32. D. Appleton &
Co., New York, 1923.
Statements in previous editions have been revised and brought up to date.
This chapter now contains average birth weights of 568 females and 590 males
from records of consecutive cases at three New York institutions ; observations
upon weight during the first few weeks from the authors’ own investigations of
100 healthy nursing infants, weighed daily, supplemented by 735 other cases for
which the authority is not given; a weight curve for the First year from com­
plete charts of about 200 healthy nursing infants weighed every week, and in­
complete charts of about 700 other infants, representing 30,000 observations ; a
chart of average weight for height of boys of five nationalities, from figures of
Baldwin and Bowditch ; tables of standard weight for height, based on measure­
ments partly original, heights without shoes, weights in clothing, including shoes
(figures are given for average observed weight of clothing worn by boys and
girls at the present time) ; tables of average annual increase in weight and
height, birth to 18 years; average net weight, height, and circumference of
head and chest, birth to 3 years ; average length at birth of 442 infants (231
male, 211 female) from records of two New York institutions ; average circum­
ference of head at birth from 446 infants (231 male, 215 female) from two
New York institutions ; remarks upon growth of extremities compared with thetrunk, closure of sutures and fontanels, shape of the head, measurements of
chest and qbdomen.
H rdlicka, A le s: Anthropological Investigations on One Thousand White
and Colored Children of Both Sexes. Wynkoop, Hallenbeck, Crawford
Co,. New York and Albany, 1900. 86 pp.
A study of 1,000 children in the New York Juvenile Asylum and of 100 children
in the New York Colored Orphan Asylum to learn something of the physical
condition of children in asylums and the probability of their being made useful
citizens; also to add to the anthropological data on children, normal and abnor­
mal. The techni'que of measurements and examination is fully described, and
records are arranged to show percentage of abnormalities in various groups (sex,
color, race, family history) and comparison of normal physical characteristics
in the different groups.
------ — Physical differences between white and colored children.” Am eri­
can Anthropologist [W ashington], vol. 11 (1898), pp. 347-350.
An abstract of a study of the more stable physical differences between white
and negro children. The statistical data noon which the study is based are
not given in this article.
— s----- Physiological and Medical Observations amopg the Indians of the
Southwestern United States and Northern Mexico. Smithsonian In­
stitution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 34. 460 pp. W ash­
ington, 1908.
Many tables and charts are nresen*ed and a. summary given of observations
of 54 Apache and 80 Pima children whose ages were known and of 392 Apache
and 310 Pima children of unknown ages. Data include height, weight, pulse,
respiration, dentition, principal head and face dimensions, manual strength,
puberty, and appearance of beard.
Illinois Department of Public H ealth : “ Illinois standard weights and
measurements of normal children prepared by Illinois Department of
Public H ea lth ; normals, with minimum and maximum allowances,
based on measurements of 12,500 children; revised to Aug. 1, 1920.”
Illinois Health News [Springfield], vol. 7 (1921), pp. 154-157.
Tables only. No statements as to method of derivation.
In gerslev, E . : “ Om nyfodte Borns Vagtforhold ” [W eight o f newborn
children], Nordiskt Medicinskt Arkiv [Stockholm], vol. 7, no. 7
(1875), pp. 1-33.
In 17 tables the weights of 3,450 newborn children are studied and the results
given in relation to age and povei'y of mother, etc. Daily increases are also
studied.


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Issm ef, E .: “ Zwei Hauptmerkmale der Reife Neugeborener und deren
physiologische Schwankungen ” [Two main symptoms of the maturity
of newborn infants and their physiologic fluctuations]. Archiv für
Gynäkologie [Berlin], vol. 30 (1887), pp. 277-315.
An original study of records of length and weight of 12,803 newborn infants
at a maternity hospital in Dresden, 61.8 per cent of whom were mature. The
author considers length and weight as the most important characteristics of
maturity. He discusses in detail his own findings (giving a small number of
statistics) and those by a number of other writers. The weight and length are
affected by the child’s sex (boys are heavier than girls) ; mother’s age (younger
mothers have larger children) ; and number of previous births (first-born chil­
dren are lighter than those of subsequent birth). Race affects the size; women
of the taller northern races give birth to larger children than southerners, and
large parents have larger children than small parents.
Jaenicke, D r .: “ Schulärztliche Untersuchungen in einer Thüringener
Berufsschule ” [Physical examinations of pupils in an industrial con­
tinuation school in Thüringen]. Zeitschrift für Schulgesundheitspflege
und soziale Hygiene [Leipzig], vol. 38 (1925), pp. 303-311.
An account of a physical examination made by the author of 733 boys and
283 girls ranging in ages from 14 to 17 years and attending an industrial con­
tinuation school in a German city. The author gives the average weight and
height for each year of age for both sexes, and for the boys correlates these
data with occupation. He found that the figures so obtained were for both
sexes one or two years below the average for the corresponding ages. He
attributes this to the effect of the war.
von Jaschke, Raid: “ Beitrag zur Frage nach dem Nahrungs- und Efnergiebediirfnis des vollkommen gedeihenden Brustkindes” [Contribution
to the question of the food and energy requirement of the normally
developing breast-fed child]. Ztschr. f. Kinderh. [Berlin], vol. 16
(1917), pp. 1-12.
A study of a normal breast-fed male infant weighing 3,820 grams at birth.
Two weight curves and a table giving the amounts of milk consumed, with
its caloric value and the energy quotient for the first 159 days of life are
included. During the first month an increase in weight corresponded to an
energy quotient of more than 100, usually 120. After that the quotient became
lower, approaching Heubner’s value of 100.
Johnson, Buford J .: Mental Growth of Children in Relation to the Rate
of Growth in Bodily Development. E. P. Dutton and Go., New York,
1925. 160 pp.
The studies that appear in this monograph are based on records of the
Bureau of Educational Experiments, New York, which bad been established
about seven years at the time of writing. All data were obtained at the
bureau’ s own nursery school and city and country school, the physical measure­
ments by the school physician. The data on physical growth include tables
of monthly measurements of weight and height of several individuals from
1.4 to 9.8 years of age, and a table showing the relation of the weightheight index to chronological age, to pulse rate, .and to blood pressure in boys
and girls under 13 years of age. Repeated measurements at regular intervals of
weight, height, pulse rate, and blood pressure of the same children showed
wide variations from the established norms for certain groups. Although the
ratio of weight to height increased with chronological age, small groups at each
age showed wide variations from the norm. Blood pressure was influenced to
a greater extent by weight-height index than by chronological age. Pulse rate
decreased with increasing chronological age and with increasing weight-height
index.
Johnson, G. E . : “ Some facts of child development and their relation to
school work and school grading.” Report of the Andover, Mass.,
School Committee, 1900, pp. 10-24.
A superintendent’s report suggesting changes in the school system to take
more account of the physical condition of the children. A small series of
measurements is included which bear out Porter’ s theory of the correlation
between physical and mental development.
Jona, E .: “ Sulla statura e circonferenza toracica degli scolari agiati in
confronto dei poveri ” [On the height and chest circumference of
school children of well-to-do families as compared with poor children].
L ’lgiene della scuola [Genoa], vol. 4 (1913), pp. 131-133.
An account of measurement by author of the height and chest circumference
of school boys 6 to 11 years old in the city of Turin. The exact number
of children is not given, but it was “ over 600.” The author gives the average
height and chest circumference for each year of age in two groups— one for
the well-to-do children, the other for the poor. He found that the children in
the poor group were shorter than those in the well-to-do but had a larger
chest circumference. This is attributed by the author to the fact that poor
children are out of doors more, even in cold weather, than children in wellto-do families.


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PHYSICAL GROWTH AND. DEVELOPMENT OP THE CHILD
Kakuschkin, N . : “ Zur Topographie des Nabels bei Frauen und Neu­
geborenen” [Position of the navel in women and newborn]. Monats­
schrift für Geburtsliülfe und Gynäkologie [Bprlin], vol. 36 (1912),
pp. 278-291.
A table for newborn infants gives weight, position of body at birth, sex,
supraumbilical length, infraumhilleal length, and proportionate relation of
latter to former. The greater the weight of [lie infant the higher is the navel
in relation to body length. It is higher in girls than boys and higher in
infants with vertex than with breech presentation.
K a rn itzk y , A . O .: “ Chto takoye zdorovi normalni rebenok?” [W hat is
a normal healthy child?],
itusslci Vrach [St. Petersburg], vol. 4
(1905), pp. 417-423.
After giving an account of the conditions required for the perfect develop­
ment of a child in intrauterine and extrauterine life the author gives in tables
average weights of children (number not given) from birth to the age of 17
■ years as found by several writers. To this he adds the weights and annual
increase in weights of his own five children whom he studied regularly from
birth until the oldest was about 17 years old. Greater variations were found
by the author in the growth curves for his children than in *tlie general
growth curves of other investigators.
,
----------- “ Individualiziruiushchi sposob pri izuchenii zakonov rosta
clieloviecheskavo tiela ” [Individualizing method of the study of the
laws of growth of the human body]. Russki Vrach [St. Petersburg],
vol. 3 (1904), pp. 238-241.
A discussion of the advantages. of the individualizing method jas compared
with the generalizing method for obtaining information concerning laws of
growth. The author gives a brief account of the study of his own five
children which he carried on from their birth until the oldest was 16% years
old. In a table lie gives their weight and annual and monthly increase in
weight. He compares these data with corresponding average values obtained
by other writers for groups of children and finds considerable differences
between the two sets of figures. Several writers are quoted and references
given.
---------- “ K voprosu o rostie i razv-itii dietskavo organisma ” [On the
question of the growth and development of the child’s body]. TJniver. sitctskiia Izvestiia [K iev], vol. 48 (1908), pp. 427-446.
A history of the physical development of the author’s son from the time
of his birth until his accidental death when 33 weeks old. The author gives
consecutively for every day of the child’s life his weight, average weight for
each week, daily and weekly fluctuations, and for every week the length of the
body, circumference of head and o f , chest, and general physical condition;
also in a separate table the number of white blood corpuscles for each week
from the seventh to the thirty-third. In a summary of his findings the author
_ states that a child gains in weight slowly during the first month and more
rapidly in the second month ; the gain in length is greatest in the first month
of life. The study of the blood of a breast-fed child is a sure sign of his
normal growth and development.
— ------- “ Zakon periodichnosti v viesovikh narostanyakh u dietiey ”
[Law of periodicity in increase of weight of children]. Vrachebnaya
Gazeta [St. Petersburg], vol. 10 (19Q3), pp. 617-620, 643-647.
The author reviews the literature on ¡periodicity of growth of the young
child and gives a brief account of the study of weight, height, and chest
circumference of his own five children (ages not given) during several years.
The children were weighed several times daily and the quantity and quality
of their food noted. On the basis of his own findings and those obtained by
other writers he concludes that there is a law of periodicity of growth,
namely, that the rate of growth varies with the seasons. In his own children
he found the increase in weight particularly rapid in the fa ll; it was slow
in the winter. In the summer the weight decreased. No explanation is given.
References.
----------- “ Zur Physiologie des Wachstums und der Entwicklung des
kindlichen Organismus ” [The physiology of the growth and develop­
ment of the child organism]. Jahrb. f. Kinderh. [Berlin], vol. 68
(1908), pp. 462-474.
The author describes in detail the development of his sixth child, a boy, who
was breast fed to the age of 11 weeks; then in addition to mother’ s milk
received a barley decoction, and at the age of 3 months and 9 days began
wholly artificial nourishment. The infant progressed satisfactorily imt.il the
twenty-eighth week. The author insists that, body weight is not a sufficient
criterion of health; that to it must be added consideration of sleep, appetite,
good spirits, and especially the objective examination of feces and blood. Three
tables are given; the first contains data on weight, length, girth o f head
and chest, and general condition; the other two, data on white corpuscles,
red corpuscles, hemoglobin, the iron and the specific gravity of the blood.
Kassow itz, K a rl: “ Zur Frage der Beeinflussung der Körperlänge und
Körperfülle durch die Ernährung ” [Influence of diet on height and
nutrition]. Ztschr. f. Kinderh. [Berlin] vol. 30 (1921), pp. 275-280.


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341
,

342

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To show the effect of good nourishment in promoting the development of
poor children thè author gives tables showing how the children in a home in
Vienna after a sufficiently long sojourn exceeded Camerer’s figures for both
height and weight. Their food was affected by the war in quality but not in
quantity. Especially robust were 14 children who had stayed over five years in
the home, and on these children the author gives many details. These children
alone, the author believes, invalidate Schlesinger’s theory of the irrelevance of
external influences on height.
Kastner, O. : “ Korpervolumen unci spezifisches Gewicht von Sauglingen ”
[Volume and specific gravity of infants’ bodies]. Ztschr. f. Kinderh.
[Berlin], voi. 3 (191 1-12), pp. 391-412.
A study of body volume and specific gravity of 154 infants under 1 year.
Some of the infants were examined after death. The specific gravity at different
ages is given, and comparisons are made of the author’s, findings with those of
other workers. The effect of pathological conditions is noted. Several refer­
ences are given.
K atz, S. E ., and Horace G ray: “ Health and growth of children in an
institution.” Am. J. Dis. Child. [Chicago], voi. 27 (1924), pp. 464-472.
The authors studied 156 children in a Jewish institution Ayhich receives both
boys and girls, from 5 to 17 years of age, from the poorest classes of society.
Observations were made on physical development and state of nutrition. Charts
show height for age, and weight for height, of boys and girls ; and tables, the
state of nutrition with relation of weight to height, length of residence in the
home, tuberculosis in the parents, and order of progeny.
K ay, T .: “ Tables showing height, weight, mental capacity, condition of
nutrition, teeth, etc. (of Glasgow school children).” Journal of the
Royal Sanitary Institute [London], voi. 25 (1 9 0 4 -5 ), pp. 907-913.
Measurements of about 700 children,. aged 6 to 14 ; details of method not
given. Tables show relation of height to weight, and mean inspiration and ex­
piration for each year of age ; numbers differing more than 5 per cent from
average, for each year ; weight and height at each year in several schools,
with comparisons ; mental capacity, school attendance, care of teeth, personal
cleanliness, housing conditions, etc. No conclusions.
Kehrer, E. A .: “ liber die Ursachen der Gewichtsveranderungen Neugeborener ” [The causes of variations in weight in the newborn].
Archiv fur Gyndkologie [Berlin], vol. 1 (1870), pp. 124-125.
From a study of the weight loss after birth of 144 newborn infants and a
comparison of weight losses in animals the author gives his theories as to how
part of this weight loss in infants may be prevented.
Kerr, J. : “ Standards of heights for school children.” School Hygiene
[London], voi. 8 (1917), pp. 101-115.
With many references to statistical work relative to height and weight of
children the author illustrates his contention that statistics without a standard
are valueless. He constructs a.chart with a standard height curve from 119
centimeters at the age of 5 to 177 centimeters at the age of 19 ; plots on it for
comparison curves from the statistical work of five investigators, and derives a
table of percentage deficiency at each birthday for four of the groups. He
concludes that without this or a corresponding method no benefit can be de­
rived from further research.
Kettner, Arthu r H . : “ Das erste Kriegs jahr und die grossstadtiscben
Volksschulkinder ” [First year of war and the city public-school chil­
dren]. Deutsche Med. Wchnschr. [Berlin], voi. 41, (1915), pp. 14281429.
The author, a school physician in North Charlottenburg, had experience from
1907 to 1915 among 5,000 children of the laboring classes from their birth to
the age of 14 years. He notices little injury of young‘ children due to war,probably owing to Federal aid to nursing mothers, though he finds greater fre­
quency of rachitis and tetanus. Moreover, in the spring of 1915 he gave an
official report that according to observations other children, too, seemed to have
suffered no adverse effects. A little later, however, school measurements of
weight and height proved that the children had sensibly suffered during the
war year of June, 1914, to June, 1915. He gives four graphs of weight and
height of boys and girls, containing curves for peace years and the war year.
K ey, A x e l: “ Laroverkskomitens Betankande, Bilag E, 1 afd., T e x t ”
[Report of Educational Committee, Suppl. E, 1st part, Text]. Stock­
holm, 1885. 719 pp.
An exhaustive study of school hygiene in Sweden and other countries. Chap­
ter 11 deals with growth and development. More than 14,000 children are
studied. More than 20 tables and 1 graph give the findings as to height,
weight, yearly increase in height and weight, etc.
K eys, Noel, and W m . W . Cadbury: “An age-height-weight study of
Cantonese school boys.” . China Medical Journal [Shanghai], voi. 40
(1926), pp. 14-24.
A study made by a class in statistical method of the Canton Christian Col­
lege, designed to provide height-weight data applicable to Cantonese schoolboys
and not open to question because of age inaccuracies. The records of the


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PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT ÖE THE CHILD

annual measurements over a 10-year period of the nearly 1,000 boys enrolled in
the college were the source of data. All statements of age were established by
at least two authorities. The series used comprised a net total of 1,013 meas­
urements, with from 50 to 100 individuals at each age level from 8 to 19 years,
inclusive. Methods of calculation are given in detail. Tables and curves show
the height-weight-age standard for Cantonese schoolboys and a comparison of
the growth of Canton Christian College hoys with that of American and of other
Chinese. The Cantonese measurements fell, in general, above the Chinese,
hut below the American standards. The period of most rapid growth was the
fourteenth year, as contrasted with the fifteenth year for Chinese elsewhere and
the sixteenth year for Americans. References.
348 Kézm ârszky, Theodor : Klinische Mittheilungen aus der ersten geburtshilflichgynäkologischen Universitäts-Klinik in Budapest (1869-82)
[Clinical Communications from the First Lying-in and Gynecological
University Clinic in Budapest (1 8 6 9 -8 2 )]. F. Enke, Stuttgart, 1884.
239 pp.
In this book on physiological and pathological births the author devotes a
section (pages 199 to 216) to infants born in the clinic of the University of
Budapest during the years 1869-1872 and 1874-1882. Of 4,549 newborn, 3,506
came at- term; 1,046 were prématuré; girls were in the relation of 100 to
105.41 ; and the mortality was 15.36 per cent. Numerous tables give the length
and weight of the above infants, their head girth, weight during the first nine
days, initial loss and time of gain, etc., and the same measurements according
to age and size of their mothers, and the number of the birth. The heaviest
child was a boy, second birth, of 4,850 grams, and the longest, likewise a boy,
first born, of 58 centimeters.
349 -------— “ Über die Gewichtsveränderungen reifer Neugeborener” [Weight
variations of full-term, newborn infants].
Archiv für Gynäkologie
[Berlin], vol. 5 (1873), pp. 547-561.
In 1871-72 _ the author studied body weight in newborn infants in an
obstetrical: clinic of Budapest. He gives a mass of data on 73 normal breast­
fed children (34 boys and 39 girls), of whom he weighed 41 once a day and 32
twice a day. He concludes that all infants lose weight after birth ; that the
increase, beginning usually on the second or third day, is far more gradual than
the loss ; that, in general, boys lose less weight and gain more than girls ;
and that first-born children show less favorable progress than others.
350 Kim pflin, M . G. : “ Les lois de la croissance physique pendant l’enfance
et l’adolescence ” [The laws of physical growth during infancy and
adolescence]. Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l'Académie
des sciences [Paris], vol. 158 (1914), pp. 801-803.
Report of measurements of 200 school children, 11 to 16 years of age, in a
French school where much attention is paid to physical condition. Height,
weight, and chest expansion are recorded six times each year. Methods of
measurement are not given. The figures tend to show improved physique,
being in all cases higher than those of Quetelet, Godin, Mayet, and Marage.
351 Kirkoff, N . : “ Recherches anthropologiques sur la croissance des élèves
de l’école militaire de S. A. R. le prince de Bulgarie, à Sofia ” [An­
thropological researches in the growth of the pupils at the military
school of the prince of Bulgaria, at Sofia]. Bulletins et mémoires de la
Société d'anthropologie de Paris, ser. 5, vol. 7 (1906), pp. 226-233.
Report of measurements made every three months for three years on the
same boys at military school, ages 11 to 20 years. Exact methods of measure­
ment are not stated. Measures taken were stature, chest circumference, length
of leg. weight of body in kilograms, vital capacity, strength of right hand, head
measurements (3). Comparisons are made with Belgians, Russians, Germans,
Italians, French, and English. Discussion.
352 Kirstein, F. : “ Über die physiologische Gewichtsabnahme Neugeborener ”
[The physiological decrease in weight of the newborn], Zeitschrift
für Geburtshülfe und Gynäkologie [Stuttgart], vol. 80 (191 7-18), pp.
448-465.
A study of the nature of the physiological decrease in weight of 768 normal
newborn infants at a maternity clinic in Marburg. The author divides his
cases into 12 groups according to their initial weight. The average decrease
amounted to 7.8 per cent of the initial weight for all groups combined. It
was caused by the discharge of (1) meconium and later feces; (2) urine; (3)
evaporation of water due to perspiration and respiration. The author con­
cludes that (1) a decrease is present in every case; (2) the physiological
decrease ends within two to four days after birth; (3) the quantity of urine
discharged by the newborn infant in the first few days is very small owing to
the small amount of fluid taken by infant and to loss of water through
perspiration.
353 K isskalt, K a rl: “ Die Körperkonstitution der ostpfeussischen Stadt- und
Landschulkinder ” [Physical constitution of East Prussian city and
country school children], Deutsche Med. Wchnschr. [Leipzig] vol
42, pt. 1 (1916) , pp. 757-759.
The author investigated height, weight, and strength (through girth of lower
arm and by use of Collin’s dynamometer) of Königsberg school children be-


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tween 6 and 14 or 18 years of age— 289 in private schools and 571 in public
schools. Measurements were taken with clothing (2 centimeters being taken
off for shoes), during May and June of 1914. Tables contain, besides the
author’s data, those of Ascher and Camerer. The question of race compli­
cates deductions. From his figures the author finds that private-school pupils
are the best developed in all respects ; next come public-school children living
in the country. The worst developed are public-school children of the city,
who, though of superior race to a large extent, are subjected to the worst
social conditions.
K ita, T .: Hygiene scolaire au Japon [School Hygiene in Japan]. Pamph­
let. (D ate and place of publication not given).
A report by the chief of the Japanese Bureau of Child Hygiene to the
“ Congrès international de propagande d’hygiène sociale et d’éducation prophy­
lactique,” held at Paris in 1922. Contains .table of height and weight of
Japanese school children and students, aged 7 to 26_, in 1910 and 1919, show­
ing the increase due presumably to physical education. Methods of measure­
ment and computation, are not given.
K jolseth, M arie: “ Untersuchungen über die Reifezeichen des neuge­
borenen Kindes ”
[Investigations of the signs of maturity of the
newborn infant].
Monatsschrift für Geburtshülfe und Gynäkologie
[Berlin], vol. 38 (1913), pp. 216-298.
The author studied signs of maturity in 1,233 newborn infants, 156 of
whom were dead. A table of weights in relation to duration of pregnancy is
given, and the author studied in detail the various parts of the body and
head, as well as the skin, hair, bones, nails, genitalia, and placentae in rela­
tion to maturity. The effect upon birth weight of mother’ s food, parents'
physical condition, race and nationality, infant’s sex, mother’s age, and number
o f previous pregnancies are also considered.
Klautsch, A . : “ Über Körperwägungen bei Flaschenkindern in den beiden
ersten Lebensjahren ” [On the weighing of bottle-fed children in the
first two years of life]. Arch. f. Kinderh. [Stuttgart], vol. 27 (1899),
pp. 305-316.
Discussion of the development of bottle-fed children in the first two years of
life observed by author in an institution at Halle, with histories and charts
of eight cases. The gain in weight ' in the first two years is not regular ; it
is affected by digestive disturbances, dentition, particularly when the teeth
appear at short intervals, and by such diseases as pneumonia, measles, pleurisy,
and rickets.' The growth during the second year is slower than during the
first.
K leinschm idt, H . : “ Der Einfluss der Hitze auf den Säuglingsorga­
nismus ” [Influence of heat on the infant organism ].' Monatsschr. f.
Kinderh. [Leipzig], vol. 9 (1 91 0-11), pp. 455-492.
In connection with a discussion of- the influence of heat on infants the author
gives case histories of 15 infants 2 to 10 months old who were kept in an atmos­
phere in which the heat and humidity were carefully regulated. Pulse, temper­
ature, weight changes, color of skin, perspiration, and excretions were studied.
Koch, K a rl: “ Ein Beitrag zu den fortlaufenden Körperwägungen während
der Dentitionsperiode ” [Contribution to continuous weighing during
dentition period]. Jahrb. f. Kinderh.
[Leipzig], new ser. vol. 20
(1883), pp. 341-343.
The author presents for a boy born June 13, 1874, a table of age, weight,
and illness between August, 1874, and February, 1876. The dates of the
appearance o f the first three canine teeth are omitted.
Koch-H esse, A .: “ Beiträge zur Wachstumsphysiologie des Menschen”
[Physiology of human growth], Zeitschrift für Schulgesundheitspflege
[Hamburg and Leipzig], vol. 18 (1905), pp. 293-319, 400-416, 457-492.
An authoritative treatise concerning height according to age, weight accord­
ing to age and height, and annual growth of individuals, based on the author’s
elaborate statistics derived from measurements made- 10 times a year of 300
boys, aged 8 to 20, in Stoy’s Academy, Jena. The author criticizes many other
investigations, gives numerous tables and graphs, and discusses in great detail
the various mathematical methods of treating such material.
----------- “ Wachstumsperioden beim Menschen ” [Periods of growth in
mankind]. Politisch-Anthropologische Revue [Eisenach and Leipzig],
vol. 3 (1 90 4-5), pp. 665-668.
The article is a theoretical discussion of the question whether in the life of
the human being there is a gradual uniform growth or a periodic rise and fall
of the growth energy. Without giving any definite answer the author takes up
the various periods of the physical development of the human, being and the
changes in physiology and growth taking place in boys at the end of the seventh,
the twelfth, and the fifteenth year, with particular reference to puberty. He
shows that the changes taking place at these ages (change of teeth at the age
of 7 and phenomena of puberty later) are only partial symptoms of a general
modification of condition. This the author considers as an established fact
proved by his researches. He is unable on account of lack of data to come to
a similar conclusion with regard to the first years of child life.


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PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OE THE CHILD
K örb er: “ Die Durchschnittsmasse ausgetragener Neugeborener und ihre
Lebensfähigkeit, berechnet aus den Jahresberichten der Findelhäuser
in St. Petersburg und Moskau ” [Average measurements of mature
newborn infants and their vitality computed from the annual reports
of foundling homes in St. Petersburg and Moscow]. Vierteljahrsschrift für Gerichtliche Medicin und Öffentliches Sanitätswesen [Ber­
lin], new ser. vol. 40 (1884), p. 225.
The author studied records of 12,366 newborn infants at two infant asylums
in St. Petersburg and Moscow and gives data showing the relation.of weight,
body length, and chest measurements to vitality.
K osm ow ski, W . : “ O wzröscie i wadze dzleci klas biednych w W arszawie ” [On the height and weight of the children of the poor in W ar­
saw ]. Medycyna [W arsaw ], vol. 22 (1894), pp. 105, 125, 153, 173.
The author studied 3,438 children (1,540 boys and 1,898 girls), aged 8 to 15
years, of the poor classes in Warsaw. He obtained the weight and height and
annual gain in weight, and compared these data with similar information for
children in Stockholm, Boston, Turin, and London, which he took from other
writers. He concluded that the children of the poor in Warsaw are in general
not much inferior in physical development to the children of the poor in Stock­
holm ; they are better developed than the children in Turin but are considerably
inferior to the children of Boston and London. A number of tables and charts
on the height and weight o 1 the children ir these cities are included.
----------- “ Über Gewicht und Wuchs der Kinder der Armen in W a r­
schau ” [W eight and growth of children- of the poor in W arsaw ].
Jahrl). f. Kinderh. [Leipzig], new ser. vol. 39 (1895), pp. 70-76.
The author presents data, on height and weight for 1,540 boys and 1,898 girls,
from 8 to 15 years old, from the poorest classes of Warsaw. He counted six
months or more as one year. The measurements were taken by physicians, and
mostly in April and May in the evening. On an average boys were larger than
girls except when 13 or 14 years of age. Puberty usually began at 13 in the
girl and 14 in the boy. Christian children were slightly larger than Hebrew.
Many of the tables compare these Warsaw children with those of Stockholm
(Axel Key), Boston (Bowditch), Turin (Pagliani), and London (Roberts).
The poor children of Warsaw were better developed than the Italian, less de­
veloped than the Swedish, and very inferior to the American and the English.
Kosorotov, D .: “ Zametka ob izmerenii grudi i rosta u rekrut ” [Notes
on measuring chest and height in recruits], Voyenno-Sanitarnoe Dielo
[St. Petersburg], vol. 7 (1887), pp. 201-203.
Discussion of the uncertainties involved in measuring height and chest cir­
cumference of recruits. On the basis, of his experience as an army doctor the
author concludes that great caution is necessary in estimating the height and
chest circumference of recruits as an indication of their physical condition and
that these measurements have little scientific or medico-legal value.
Kotelm ann, L .: “ Die Körperverhältnisse der Gelehrtenschüler des
Johanneums in H am burg” [Physical condition of pupils of Johanneum
College in Ham burg]. Zeitschrift des Königl. Preussischen Statistischen
Bureaus [Berlin], vol. 19 (1879), pp. 1-16.
Aided by the professors the author made a thorough physical examination of
515 boys of the Johanneum College of Hamburg in the summer of 1877. He
discusses at length their previous illnesses, their height and weight measured
without shoes, their muscular condition, their pad of subcutaneous fat
measured over the biceps, their bony structure tested in the tibia and at the
tables are given. The author found that puberty is a period of great growth
wrist, and their thoracic perimeter taken at the level of the nipples. Many
in all directions save that o f the fat layer; as age increases,' the lung capacity
and fat layer, relatively, also increase, and the upper extremities become better
developed than the lower.
Krüger, G .: “ Über die zur Nahrung Neugeborener erforderlichen Milch­
mengen mit Rücksicht auf die Gewichtsveränderungen der Kinder |
[The amounts of milk required for the nourishment of newborn chil­
dren with regard to their changes in weight]. Archiv für Gynäkologie
[Berlin], vol. 7 (1 87 4-75), pp. 59-106.
The author reports 275 weighings of infants done by himself, and gives
many details regarding 12 of his cases. He discusses the work of other writers
on the nutrition and weight of children, and compiles a table giving the number
of meals taken and the amount of milk drunk during the first 11 days o f life
by some of the healthy infants under his care.
K ulka, W ilh e lm : “ Studien zur Wachstumsphysiologie an den Zöglingen
einer militärischen Erziehungsanstalt” [Studies on the. physiology of
growth in pupils of a military cadet school]. Das Österreichische
Sanitätswesen [Vienna], vol. 24 (1912), pp. 1365-1383.
The author describes attention bestowed upon physique of students in a
military school in the suburbs of Brunn, and presents long tables giving their


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weight, height, and chest girth as measured every February and July from
1906 to 1912. The hoys ranged from 14 to 21 years of age. These statistics
are compared with similar ones compiled by Erismann, Weissenberg, Camerer,
jr., Corstadt, Roberts, Kocn, Hesse, Rietz, et al. The author also discusses the
relation of mean chest girth to height and of weight to height.
368 Ladd, M ayn ard : “ The results of substitute feeding in premature in­
fants.” Arch. Pediat. [New York], vol. 27 (1910), pp. 416-425.
A study of 125 premature infants treated without incubators and fed with
modified cow’s milk. Data were secured from hospital records. The author
found that no infant weighing less than 1,200 grams at birth and none in the
sixth month of gestation, survived. The total mortality compared unfavorably
with cases recorded by Budin at the Clinique Tarnier.
369 La Fétra, L. E. : “ The hospital care of premature infants.” Transac­
tions of the American Pediatric Society, vol. 28 (1916), pp, 90-101.
A résumé of the author’s personal experience in the observation and treat­
ment at Bellevue Hospital of many cases of premature birth, including a table
of the average length of infants whose weights were 2 to 7% pounds ; a table of
23 cases giving gestation period, when known, weight in pounds and ounces,
length in centimeters and length in inches, and a table of data of 14 infants
successfully treated, giving initial weight, discharge weights, time in hospital,
and method of treatment. Methods of obtaining statistical data are not given.
370 Landois, F elix: “ Zur Physiologie des Neugeborenen ” [Physiology of the
newborn infant].
Monatsschrift für Gehurtshülfe und Gynäkologie
[Berlin], vol. 22 (1905), pp. 194-233.
The author personally observed 50 newborn infants during their first 10 days
of life, measuring their weight and the amount of milk drunk. He recounts the
history of such studies in the past and gives bibliography. He hjfnself weighed
the 50 infants five times daily, not excluding underweight or pathological cases
He divides them into three classes: (1) Cases in which the umbilical cord was
severed late ; (2) cases in which it was severed early ; (3) icteric cases. The
weights at birth fell between 1,290 and 4,330 grams. They averaged 3,327 for
boys and 3,184 for girls. In recovering initial loss, etc., class 1 fared best
and class 3 worst. The heaviest infants lost least and recovered loss most
quickly. First-born children developed less favorably than others. Girls lost
more than boys but recovered more quickly. The author discusses a second
weight loss, which he observed in 76 per cent of his 50 infants.
371 Landsberger: “ Das Wachstum im Alter der Schulpflicht” [Growth dur­
ing period of compulsory school attendance]. Archiv f ür Anthropologie
[Braunschweig], vol. 17 (188 7-88), pp. 229-264.
The author discusses the importance of school hygiene and the anthropometrical work of many scholars. His own data were obtained from a group of Ger­
man and Polish school children of Posen of different social classes. The num­
ber of children in the group decreased from 104 in 1880 to 37 in 1886. Meas­
urements of 22 dimensions were made each May in the period between these two
years.
372 L an g, Gustave : “ Poids moyen des enfants nouveau-nés de primipares à
terme, d’après les statistiques de la maternité de Nancy ” [Average
weight of newborn infants born of primiparae, at term, from statistics
of the lying-in hospital at Nancy]. Archives de tocologie et de gyné­
cologie [Paris], vol. 19 (1892), pp. 758-761.
From the hospital records of 13 years (1879-1891) the author selected 1,032
weighings of infants born of primiparæ, at term, finding an average weight of
3,165 grams, Removing from his series the weights of less than 2,000 and
more than 4,000 grams, he found an average of 2,700 grams. Bv further exami­
nation of his graphic curve he arrived at a figure of 2,965 grams, which he con­
siders the approximate average of his series.
373 von Lange, E m il: “ Die Gesetzmässigkeit im Längenwachstum des
Menschen ” [The law governing increase in height in mankind]. Jahrh.
. f. Kinderh. [Berlin], vol. 57 (1903), pp. 261-324.
A comprehensive discussion, fortified by 17 tables and 7 figures, of investi­
gations concerning the height of man from birth through adolescence and the
laws governing such growth. The fetal period is considered, and all stages
of extrauterine life ; the sexes are compared, and an ideal curve is constructed
from a great number of curves ; this curve is parabolic.
374 Lange-N ielsen, Chr.: “ Om nyf 0 dtes vegt og laengde i N orge” [Weight
and length of the newborn in Norway]. Norsk Magazin for Laegevidenskaben [Christiania], ser. 5, vol. 16 (1918), pp. 1134-1145.
The author compares the findings of other investigators and shows in seven
tables the variations. in the size of the newborn as governed by the age and
parity of the mother. His own data cover 7,190 infants in Christiania and
Bergen. For his own, investigations he found the average weight to be 3,484
grams and the average length 50.87 centimeters.


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PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OP TH E CHILD
L ängstem , Leo: “ Ernährung lind Wachstum der Frühgeborenen”
[Nutrition and growth of premature infants].
Berliner Klinische
Wochenschrift, vol. 52, pt. 1 (1915), pp. 631-634.
A discussion of the care and development of 250 premature infants in the
Empress Augusta Victoria House. The author considers the utilization of tat
by the premature infant and the weight of infants in relation to chances of
living. Reference is made to others’ work, especially to Reiche’s findings.
----------- “ Hunger und Unterernährung im Säuglingsalter” [Hunger änd
undernourishment in infancy]. Jahreskurse für Ärztliche Fortbildung
[Munich], vol. 3 (June, 1912), pp. 5-37.
•A detailed discussion of others’ findings, with a small number of data and
one curve and table on work done by the author.
------- — and E. Edelstein: “ Die chemische Zusammensetzung frühge­
borener Säuglinge und ihr Wachstum sansatz” [The chemical compo­
sition of premature infants and their growth]. Ztschr. f. Kinderh.
[Berlin], vol. 15 (1 91 6-17), pp. 49-70.
The authors studied the chemical make up of premature infants through
dissecting two that died a few days after birth and determining the meta­
bolism of two that were thriving at the age of 1 month. The two 7-month
infants that died of asphyxia weighed 960 and 1,420 grams. The methods
followed in the chemical analyses are given and also tables of the results,
which are compared with those of other investigators. . The composition ot
these two infants was almost identical. As compared with normal newborn
infants, premature infants have very little fat and a very high water content ;
they have about the same amount of nitrogen and a much greater excess ot
sodium over potassium. The two infants born after eight months of pregnancy
weighed 2,050 and 1,640 grams. The results of metabolism studies of these
two infants are shown in tables. To double their birth weight these infants
needed 18,800 and 14,000 calories ; a normal full-term infant uses 2 8 .8 UU
calories.
Lankes, D r.: “ Vor- und Nachkriegsbeobachtungen über Grösse und
Gewicht von Schulneulingen [Pre-war and post-war observations on
the height and weight of school entrants]. Zeitschrift für Schul­
gesundheitspflege und Soziale Hygiene [Leipzig], vol. 38 (1925), pp.
317-319.
An original study of the height and weight of 516 school entrants, hoys and
girls in nearly equal numbers, for the purpose of deciding whether the height
or weight is more easily affected by unfavorable living conditions. The author
found that 78 per cent of the childrën studied by him had an average weight
below that of pre-war times, and 54 per cent of the boys and 48 per cent ot
the girls were in height below the pre-war average. The author concludes
that under unfavorable living conditions the weight is affected more frequently
than the height.
Larson, J_ H .: “ Butter fat and the child’s weight.” Arch. Pediat. [New
York], vol. 37 (1920), pp. 610-614.
A presentation of the weights of 10 children selected from a group of resi­
dents at an orphans’ cottage at Rochester, N. Y., recorded at six-month inter­
vals during 2% years previous to the end of 1918. The record shows a loss ot
weight during a six-month period when oleomargarine replaced butter in the
diet and recovery when the use of butter was resumed.
Lascoux, P au l: Étude sur l’accroissement du poids et dé la taille des
nourrissons [Study of the Growth in Weight and Height of Infants].
P aris,. no. 276, 1908. 76 pp.
Thesis (University of Paris). Largely pathological, hut containing one
chapter on normal growth in which the author reports his results of measure­
ments of 100 infants (foundlings) the day after birth, of 100 infants (found­
lings) 10 days after birth, of 100 infants at a lying-in hospital at birth of
20 infants at the Clinique Tarnier at birth and on the tenth day, and ot o
newborn infants observed for one month as to growth in height and weight.
The dissociation between increase in weight and increase in height during the
first 10 days of life is established by these observations.
Laure, Georges: Des résultats fournis par la pesée quotidienne des
enfants à la mamelle [Results Obtained by tbe Daily Weighing of
Breast-Fed Infants]. Paris, no. 237, 1889. 69 pp.
Thesis (University of Paris). The author reports his observations of a large
number of infants and presents a chart showing. for_ an infant born at term,
the daily increase in weight for 60 days, the quantity of milk ingested, the
number and hour of daily nursings, and the weight of milk at each nursing.
Among 429 infants he found 9 who had no initial loss in wreight. Bibliography.
Lebzelter, V ik t o r : “ Grösse und Gewicht der Wiener gewerblichen
Jugend im Jahre 1923. Versuch einer einfachen Klassifizierung der
jugendlichen Arbeiter ” [Height and weight of young workers in
Vienna in 1923. Attempt at a simple classification of young workers].
Ztschr. f. Kinderh. [Berlin], vol. 39 (1925), pp. 233-238.


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GENERAL growth in weight and height

L ^ i^ \ ä usi ^ r annrtd

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girls as boys
383

55
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tal1 a° d Und1rnourishf

” the«

were three

many

Lee, Alice, M arie A . Lewenz, and K arl Pearson: “ On the correlation
of the mental and physical characters in man.” Proceedings of the
Royal Society of London [London], voi. 71 (1 90 2-3), pp. 106-114
,^0i?Ì;Ìnuin/S the study of measurements of Cambridge undergraduates ana nf

S

fnh Shlpe o f ^ h ^ H e^ d) ‘ the Ìuthors^work Ìu^thf'coW tlaD ons^efw ^en

?

«SS “ SI ^ Ä S '

384

Lehmann, J. H . W . : “ Versuch, den Wachsthum junger Menschen männ­
lichen Geschlechts nach Höhe und Statur auf mathematische Gesetze
zuruckzufuhren LAttempt to explain by mathematical laws the growth
of young Persons of the male sex in height and size]. Magazin für
die Gesam te Heilkunde [Berlin], voi. 60 (1843), pp. 3 - 9 5 .
The author measured 122 boys varying in age from 3 to 23 vears
Ho
obtained age, height, length of the middle finge?? a n d t h ic k n e s s o f “ he arm
Each case _was observed several times within one or more years He claims to
have found that the length of a boy’s middle finger and the thickness h fh is
arm increase with an increase in height.
micKiiess or ms

385

Lentz

E rn st: “ Physiologische Schwankungen im Jugendalter und ihr
L?S- au? i?ie geistige A rb eit” [Physiological fluctuations in youth
and their influence on mental work],
Zeitschr. für Pädagogische
Psychologie [Leipzig], voi. 18 (1917), pp. 23-39.
discusses the relation between children’s physical and mental health on
statisHcshfn
h ^ li^
h t^off h
e-«°ther’
^eason.s.’ school
attendance,
anthropometrical
statistics, in t’
the
light
his
own observations
and the
investigations
of Mallina-.
Hansen,. Camere* Schmidt-Monnard, Makower. Schuvten QueMet Bowditeh
n w i anii ? Axel Key> Erismann, Lobsien, Schmidt, Hoesch, Ernst, Strata and’
th|tvears ?912th13
,hlS 300. P»phs. of 9 to 14 years of age during
alia 1913—14 he concludes that spring and fall are the mo<*t
™mÌ-hÌUl seasoi?.s and November and December the least. He discusses also the
’ a0S , proportions of child and adult and the differences between the sexes
especially in the retarded growth and acceleration connected with puberty.
’
386 L esh aft: “ Materiali dlia izuchenija shkolnago vosrasta ” [Data on the
study of children of school age]. Zdorovie [St. Petersburg], voi. 3
(1880), pp. 6 , 26, 57, 103.
.
t-roC an investigation made by the author in 1878 of the physical con/9i3 puplla ranging from 10 to 18 years in two St. Petersburg high
schools for boys. In several tables he gives for each year of age the size of
head and neck, chest circumference, length of arm, shoulder, wrist, leg hip
nuanm v’ otPdJ v % ^ £ ? r1nCe ° f hip and thigh ; also height and weight of ’body
between hnif h i n =
measurement of muscular strength, and different
between half-height and chest circumference. He compares some of his data
by several other investigators for persons of the same ages
natbor also describes the physical defects found in the boys and makes
suggestions for their correction and prevention.
387 Letournier, L o u is: De l ’influence de la profession de la mère sur le poids
de l’enfant [Influence of the Mother’s Occupation on the Weight of the
Child]. Paris, no. 502, 1897. 56 pp.
A thesis (University of Paris) on the influence of work during pregnauev
upon the weight of the child at birth. Data for weights at birth in relation to
mothers employment are given in 20 tables for 732 maternity cases in the
not1res^rnm CJ1f i « m - 1896’ T1i? average weight of a child whose mother did
a / a^Suing occupation was 3,082 grams, and that of a child whose
iw h?61 dld
3>319 grams. The weight of a child whose mother had a
lighter occupation and did not rest was 3,130 grams ; for a child’ whose mother
did rest from a lighter occupation it was 3,318 grams.
388 von Liebig1, G .: “ Gewichtsbestimmungen der Organe des menschlichen
K örpers” [W eight determinations of organs of the human body]
Archiv Ju r Anatomie, Physiologie, und Wissenschaftliche Medierà
[Leipzig], 1874, pp. 96-117.
The author compares weights of organs of several adults, one bov 16 vears
? dh iÌ W0TnTnbOrn iafants- aiuj one premature infant. Data are shown in 12
tables. In the newborn, muscles are relatively less developed and viscera m ore
ora h a ?fdtfitÌ 1tnta? ad?\ts+’ Weight of the bones of the head and torso ta about
thirds
weiglit q,f the skeleton in adults ; in infants it is about twoin the newborn ‘ h
ghi Slde 1S heavier 1D adults, the left side is heavier


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56

PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHILD

389

Liharzik, Fran z: Das Gesetz des menschlichen Wachsthumes und der
unter der Norm zurückgebliebene Brustkorb als die erste und wichtigste
Ursache der Rachitis, Scrophulose und Tuberculose [The Law of
Human Growth and the Subnormal Thorax as the First and Weightiest
Cause of Rachitis, Scrofula, and Tuberculosis]. Vienna, 1858. 188 pp.
A study based on thousands of observations by the author and by such
students as Habit, Goetz, and Bednar. Proportions of the human body, espe­
cially of the chest, during infancy and childhood, and pathological conditions, are
considered. From his study of growth the author derives general law3. For
instance, human development involves unities of 276-—276 days of intrauterine
life, 276 months of extrauterine growth. This time is also divided into two
periods in the relation of 6 to 17, in the former of which most of the develop­
ment takes place. More than 100 pages of tables are included.
39 0 ----------- The Law of Increase and the Structure of Man. Vienna, 1862.
12 pp.
During nearly seven years the author measured the parts of the body of 300
individuals of both sexes and different ages. The whole frame of a human being,
he contends, can be derived for any age from seven fundamental dimensions :
Length of head, of neck, of sternum ; distance from xiphoid cartilage to pubic
symphysis, total length of leg, elevation of internal malleolus over sole of
foot, and length of clavicle. With these dimensions is used a system of mutually
intersecting and tangent circles, which remains the same for all ages. The
whole increase of the body comprises 24 epochs covering 25 years. The first
epoch occupies the first solar month; each following epoch is a month longer
than the epoch preceding. There is a subdivision into, three sections— the first
embracing 21 months, the second the next 150 months, and the third the one
hundred and seventy-first to the three hundredth month. A detailed table
covering these 25 years gives measurements in centimeters for 25 important
parts of the body.. Two diagrams of a newborn child and of a young man, with
the circles drawn, give further anatomical measurements.
391 Lipiec, M elanie: “ Über das Wachstum der polnischen Jüdinnen ”
[Growth of Polish Jewesses],
Mittheilungen der Anthropologischen
Gesellschaft in Wien, ser. 3, vol. 42 (191 1-12), pp. 115-195, 281-284.
The author discusses her measurements of 340 Polish Jewesses, taken with
the subjects stripped. Those from 10 to 18 years of age were in institutions
for the poor in W atsaw ; those 18 and 19 years old were students in Zurich
and of a better class socially. Many graphs, 143 tables, and 7 pages of
measurements of height, torso, and extremities. Repeated comparisons are
made of the other Jews and of other races. The author concludes that
growth between the ages of 10 and 19 is 20 per cent of total grow th; that from
10 to 15 years of age the growth is more rapid than from 15 to 19; that
from 15 to 19 growth in breadth is greater than growth in length; that
modifications of indexes are not great; and that growth energy in the later
years is greater in males than in females.
392 Lips, Friedrich: Über die Gewichtsverhältnisse der neugeborenen Kinder
zu ihren Placenten [Relation ot Weight of Newborn Children to their
Placenta]. Erlangen, 1892. 41 pp.
This dissertation (University of Erlangen) contains a table covering 11 pages
of data collected in Erlangen Lying-in Institute on 225 newborn infants and
consisting of age of mother, sex of child, weight of child and of placenta,
length of child, size of placenta, relation between child and placenta. Much
space is given to information on all weight relations of newborn children
derived from other students. The author finds from his own research that
size of child and placenta correspond in a general way.
393 Lissauer: “ Über Oberflächenmessungen an Säuglingen ” [Measurement
of the surface area of bodies of infants]. Jahrh. f. Kinderh. [Berlin],
vol. 58 (1903), pp. 392-411.
The author obtained measurements of the surface area of 12 dead children,
only 1 of whom was over 1 year old at the time of death, to ascertain the
relation of the surface area of the body to its food requirements. The values
obtained are presented in several tables. - The author concludes that the food
requirements of children of equal weight increase with age and that they
are proportionate not to the weight but to the surface area.
894 Loeffler, Loth a: “ Über ärztliche Untersuchungen der Tübinger Studen­
tenschaft im S .-S . 1923 und W .-S . 1923-1924 ” [On physical examina­
tions of students of Tubingen in the summer semester of 1923 and
winter semester 1923-24].
Klinische Wochenschrift [Berlin and
.M unich], vol. 3 (1924), pp. 892-894.
An account of physical examinations of 853 male and 90 female students
at the University of Tubingen in the summer semester of 1923 and 1,129 male
students and 111 female in the winter semester of 1923-24. A number of
the students in the first group were reexamined in the second group. Ages are
not given. The author gives in several tables the height and weight by sex
and discusses the gain in height and weight found by him among the stu­
dents reexamined in 1923-24. The failure of the students to gain in weight
or their loss of weight he attributes to difficult economic conditions.


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GENERAL G RO W TH IN W E IG H T AND H E IG H T
395

Lomm el, F .: “ Störungen des Reifewachstüms ” [Disorders in growth
during the period preceding maturity].
Münchener Medizinische
Wochenschrift [Munich], vol. 71 (1924), pp. 156-157.
In the author’s opinion, there is no such thing as a “ normal ” human bein«
in regard to size of the body, and the best method of judging the constitution
adividual is general inspection. He made a study of 681 boys, in the
fmX
t0 1? . y®ai's ?ld- whom he kept under observation from three to
nhoo<-ynn.«S’ J?#ir ng wb,lcb Peri®d he obtained several times their height, weight,
ciI oumferenee, degree of development of the genital organs, and general
S i n c e riiehenni:-neoeFlfctyi'®ix ®f these boys were found to be physically inferior.
PulP°se of his study was to compare the physically inferior bovs
heightthofSlth?'iSiv^/.liiIldity ni he divided his subjects into two groups. Tiie
w ellht
0 ? “ * ° ' boys varied from 142 to 160 centimeters, the
^ n H m e W ^ + e 1 1^ 0 40-0 ^ lloF ams; f 5® helght of the others varied from 155

»S Ä " M
to
396

397

398

399

400

401

57

Ä

S?
*■“ above-mentioned 56 bois

—
- “ Über den Einfluss des Krieges auf den Ernährungszustand der
Bevölkerung in Jena ” [Effect of war on nutrition o f the people of
Jena].
Berliner Klinische Wochenschrift [Berlin], vol. 53 (1916)
p. 293. See also Deutsche Med. Wchnschr. [Leipzig], vol 42 pt 1
(1916), pp. 351-353.
t i,° determine the effect of the war on the nutrition of the people of Jena
Lornmei constructed weight curves of infants for the years 1913^ 1914 and
191o and of boys between 14 and 18 years of age for 1912 to 1915.
J
Many
classes were represented, and 3,500 weighings were taken, No unfavorable
result was detected in the last year.
Long-ridge, C. N . : “ The initial loss of weight in infants.” Brit. J. Child.
Dis. [London], vol. 2 (1905), pp. 403-407.
n v ? ait^+T er?T obtained from the notes on 400 normal infants born in Queen
evenings^of ^hi Pthi rdb f e < u w.ei£h.ed immediately after bil.th and ou the
and eighth days and on the morning of the day
were used* and *£« 1i ° +spital i F oat the fourteenth day). Knife-edge balances
F F S }ls®d, and weight recorded in pounds and ounces. The weighings are
tabulated by sex and grouped under children of primiparae and multipart.
van der Loo, C. J . : “ Over Hinderen met minder goeden gesondheidstoestand, wisselend in lengte van 109-150 cm ” [On children of deli­
cate health varying in height from 109 to 150 centimeters]. Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde [Amsterdam] vol 64 nt 1
(1920), pp. 1689-1701.
'
’ y
hc^Uha nP°idntf,.?L E« ° rigin0al investigation of 330 schodl children of delicate
neaitn aged fiom 6 to 12 years and varying in height from 109 to 150
pvprl Fi1? ' J b?, autbor glves weight, height, and chest circumference of
J bi°rs tbe relation between delicate health, small chest circumreience, undei weight, and low vital capacity.
Lubinski, H erbert: Über Körperbau und Wachstum von Stadt- und
Landkindern [Bodily Build and Growth in City and Country Children!
Breslau, 1919. 17 pp.
Inaugural dissertation (University of Breslau). The author studied the
height and weight of school boys 7 to 13 years old. measured stripped Two
hundred and twenty-three were in the village schools of Upper Silesia 261 in
city public schools and 202 in Breslau private schools; that is pure ’ count™
«r0<ib+ mi6 Pr°k'taiiat:, and the well-to-do classes of the city were represented
Slight illnesses were not deemed a reason for rejecting the boys. The thesis
presents curves of the height and weight of the three groups indicated, and
tables of height, weight, and Livi’s index ponderalis, 100 \/wt. In height the
-ht.
private pupils came first, then the public-school pupils, and lastly the country
childien. Differences in weight were less marked; private pupils came first
country boys next, and public-school boys last.
:
■ ■f ’
e nrst,
Lübben, K . H .: “ Die körperliche Entwicklung der Schulkinder ” [The
physical development of school children].
CorrespondenzhUitier des
Allgemeinen Ärtzlichen Vereins von Thüringen i Weimar 1 vol 22
(1893), pp. 53-59.
, Roe®alts are gije n of 7,000 measurements of healthy boys from 7 to 15 years
and_a study made regarding periods of greatest increases in weight
and economic factors m relation to weight.
weignt,
® rnsb: “ Eine Untersuchung über Grössen- und Gewichtsver­
haltnisse Hamburger Volksschüler während und nach der Krie^szeit”
[A study of the height and weight of public-school children in Hamburg
during and after the war]. Zeitschrift für Schulgesundheitspflege und
Soziale Hygiene [Leipzig], vol. 38 (1925), pp. 319-323.
An_ account of an original study of the height and weight of all DUDils in
an eight-grade public school in Hamburg.
(Neither number of Dunils nnr
their ages are given). The study covered the war years, 1914-1918 and the


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58

PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHILD

vpar 1924 The data were obtained twice every year. The author gLfe£> in two
tnhles the' children’s average height and weight for each grade and yeai, and
in two o th e r tables the indexes of the height and weight arranged as above
and computed with the data for 1914 as 100. The lowest figures were obtained
for 1918; ih 1924 the height was still in a number of cases below and the weight
in many cases above the figures for 1914.
Lutz
R o lf: “ Die körperliche Entwicklung des Neugeborenen ” [ The
402
physical development of the newborn infant]. Zentralblatt fur Gynä­
kologie [Leipzig], vol. 36 (1912), pp. 1577-1581.
The author collected data on the weight and length of the body and_ circum­
ference of the head of 1,000 infants born in a maternity home in Berlin The
duration of pregnancy in each case is stated. Comparisons are made with the
findings of six other writers and conclusions drawn regarding the relative si/e
of ¿Midien m different parts of Germany. For children b?rn between the
twentv-eighth and the forty-fourth week of pregnancy the weight varied fiom
1120 to 3 820 grams, the length varied front 38 to 57 centimeters, and the
circumference of the head from 28 to 38 centimeters.
M
acaulay,
T. B .: “ Weight and longevity.” Publications of the Ameri­
403
can Statistical Association [Boston], vol.. 2, nos. 9 -16 (1891), pp. 287296.
Discussion of the value of height-weight standards in estimating insurance
risks
it deals largely with tuberculosis statistics but has tables of standaid
and average weight! for various ages and occupations, of normal individuals.
404 Maceone, L : “ Influenza della cura climatica sullo sviluppo fisico dei
fanciulli ” [Effect of mountain air on the physical development ot
children]. Giornale della reale Accademia di medicina di T 01 mo, ser.
4, vol. 7 (1901), pp. 791-796.
In connection with a study of the effects of a vacation in the mountains oni 72
delicate children of both sexes, 6 to 12 years old, the_au.^°i £
hemo
weight height chest circumference, chest expansion, musculai force, and hemo
globin content of the blood, just before their departure for the mo viatains, immediatelv after their return from a 2 months vacation, and again 2 fa months
later.y A similar study was made of 25 delicate children of both sexes, 6 to 1
years old, who had no vacation in the mountains.
405 MacDonald, A : “ Beiträge zu der Entwicklung und den Entwicklungs­
fehlern der K in der” [Children’s development and defects of develop­
ment]. Jahrb. f. Kinderh. [Berlin], vol. 71 (1910), pp. 180-188.
The author presents deductions from measurements and observations of 20,000
school children of Washington, D. C., including white and colored, native and
foreign
After commenting on the significant connection between height and
the development of the heart the author presents five detailed tables followed
bv a statement of conclusions to be drawn from the figures cited, on the rela­
tion between intelligence on the one hand and head girth or index op the othei.
Defects as relatedTo sex, mentality, nationality, social status, and race, and
mental power as related to sex. nationality, abnormality, and race are discussed
The statistics are taken from Man and Abnormal Man (U. S. Senate Document
No. 187).
.
406 _______ “ Growth of children in Germany.” Pediatrics [New York and
London], vol. 7 (1899), pp. 542-545.
'i*
The author auotes tables of (1) Kotelmann, showing relation of length ot
bnrlv to long caDacitv ages 9 to 20 ; (2) Wintrich, showing relation of weight
Ä J v tn biifg canacitf age™9 to 20 ; (3) Carstadt, showing result of 427
measurements of height in half-year periods from 6 to 16(4 years. He- com­
piles a table from measurements of Weissenberg (method of measurement not
given) of 132 Jewish subjects (three newborn, four 5 years old, twentydrve 10
rears old and one hundred adults) to show development ot the head.; The re­
lation of head measurements to the other body measurements at various ages
is discussed.
.
______- Experimental Studies of Children, Including Anthropometrical
Psycho-physical Measurements of Washington School Children. See
Education, Bureau of.
407 M c llro y , A . L ouise: “ The relative loss of heat and loss of weight, and
- the treatment of shock in the new-born.” Proceedings of the Royal
Society of Medicine, Section of Obstetrics and Gynecology [London],
vol. 18 (1925), pp. 39-44.
.
A comparison of the loss of initial weight in infants bathed in accordance with
the usual hospital procedure and in those wrapped immediately aftei birth in
warmed blankets and oiled instead of bathed for the first eight or nine days.
Less loss of weight occurred in the second group.
408 Mackenzie, W . L., and A . Foster: Report * * * on a Collection of
Statistics as to the Physical Condition of Children Attending the Public
Schools of the School Board for Glasgow, with Relative Tables and
Diagrams. London, 1907.
57 pp.
,. ,
Phvsical measurements of 72,857 children in 73 primary and higher grade
schools, Data secured by the teachers on weight, height, and eyesight v^ere


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GENERAL GROWTH IN W EIGH T AND H EIG H T

PJQ

409

Mp * “ o Ä

410

S

:

5 ilyppem o i Physlcal Eancatlon- The ° larendon

exercises; and (3) a pp en d ixes¿ith S m ££ ’J
actIcaI system of gymnastic
different ages showing the value of systematized 1
S f y s i r a f t S n g ! 8 ° f b° yS at
“ Observations on the development o f a child during
[Chicago J^voi. 3 a S ) f ? T l Ä - m
n ih g w i£ et t e rK ® - f l r s ? d ^ ? ntal ^

^

W

Study

PbysiCal development of her <*ild, begin-

411

- * * CMW
chest girth, head girth .a n d abdominal girth at Wrth and at°fi
s’ a Ä i
months, averaged from her own notes on 500 infant* - Ä
JH i , 12i18- 1and 2|
respiratory rate in relation to age.
° UU iniants > also a table of pulse and
412

413

M akow er, A . A . : “ Untersuchungen über W achstum » [Investigations
n growth].
Zeitschrift für Schulgesundheitspflege [Hamburg and
Leipzig], vol. 27 (1914), pp 97-120
L-namourg ana
garments removed. Maximum nnti m L^!m Lwere taken with shoes and upper
tables and graphs show increases in height, w eigh tf^ n d ^ es^ girth . giVeD’ &nd
M ailin g-H an sen , R .; “ Perioden im Gewicht der Kinder und in der
Sonnenwarme, Beobachtungen, Fragment I I I - A ” [Periodicity in weight
o f chüdren and heat of sun. Part I I I - A ] , K o p e X g S
vTlhSm
TrapJ 1886!C44 ppd) Ung’ 1886‘

alS°

Part III_ B

(Hoffenberg &

c o ^ f n g ^ o ^ T . 6weerk,a yearera^d1Cwarmththof sunht A nia weight °£. children ac
his ideas with 44 graphs The sJbierts wei» iah A i arg^ aPPendi^ illustrates
and height were t S
daily forsev era lT ea rs w & t w
^ h? se W *
Royal Deaf and Dumb Institute
Copenhagen One set
the
evening weight o f about 70 boys every day frorf M av' lt s | ® i(o T n Ä Ä
another set gives height from February lS s “ m Februarv Ä
| & ® öd
periods of maximum, minimum, and medium weia-ht
i ' Seas°$al
boys between the ages of 9 and 15 yeah are airo dhcuheci ^
lncreases for

It

414

o^}£&£

$ 8

$

Ä

ooai- * * * • *

s is H ? »1SSSfi tÄÄÄffiÄÄ s:
415

M artin, C. : “ Geburtshülfliche und gynäkologische Masse und Gewichte »
IS,b
h 1
gynecological measurements and weights]. Monats(1867) w S ^ S ) SkWnde Und Frauenlc™nkheiten [Berlin], vol. 30
n e ^ o r h nmatureWinbanh— boysre|ndn girlsm in ^ u a h ^ h m S f
on the average 9 centimeters in the case of 15 0 hnv« « iii aitrochan ters was
S 4 ° Ä « t S 'S Ä e l r '!

* -»-««

to 35

416

Archtv fär 0
D ecem bÄ l *

12229°— 27------5


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StU% °? 10,’71l births, between January 1, 1884 and

60
417

418

419

420

421

422

PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF TH E CHILD
M artin, R u d o lf: “ Die Körperentwicklung Münchener Volksschulkinder
in den Jahren 1921, 1922 und 1923 ” [The physical development of
school children in Munich in 1921, 1922, and 1923]. Anthropologischer
Anzeiger [Stuttgart], vol. 1 (1924), pp. 76-95.
Several tables and diagrams show the height and weight of boys and girls
from 6% to 13 years old for each six months of age before the war, and in
1921 1922. and 1923. The pre-war figures were taken by the author trom
other writers and apply to nearly 10,000 children in three German cities;
the 1921-23 figures were obtained by the author himself from 3,989 children
of Munich. The postwar figures show lower averages than those obtained
before the war. The author compares the children of Munich with those of
Chicago using the figures from Baldwin’s report. For this purpose he gives
the weight and height by sex and by city for each six months of life in 15
age groups. He found that in each age group the children of Chicago were
taller and heavier than those of Munich. The German figures for 1921 23
were lower in the case of children born in 1914 and 1915 than in the case
of those born in 1917. This is attributed by the author to the fact that the
former children spent a longer period under unfavorable food conditions than
the latter group.
M athis, 0. : “ Le développement physique chez les mousses du vaisseauécole “ La Bretagne ” [Physical development of apprentice marines of
school ship La Bretagne]. Archives de médecme navale [Paris], vol. 78
(1902), pp. 241-254.
The physical development of 713 apprentice marines from 14 to 17 years
old on the school ship La Bretagne. These lads are examined every six
months and record made of height, weight, and circumference of chest and
arm. The apprentices are of poor physique when they arrive. Tables give
measurements of four age groups from arrival through four semesters, and the
actual gain is also tabulated. The boys are compared in development with
children cited by Pagliani and Carlier, with normal children according to
Pignet’s formula, - and with pupils at the military school of “ Montreuil sur
Mer.”
M atiegha, H einrich: “ liber die Beziehungen zwischen Korperbeschaffenheit und geistiger Thatigkeit bei Schulkindern ” [On the relationship
between physical condition and intelligence in school children],
Mittheilungen der Anthropologischen Gesellschaft in W ien [Vienna],
new ser. vol. 18 (1898), pp. 122-126.
Data were obtained in the schools of Prague, where 7,000 boys were made
the subjects of investigation. The relationships between intelligence as in­
dicated by school standing (class and teacher’ s estimate) and height, hair
color eye color, and head circumference were worked out in tables, leading the
author to the following conclusions: The indirect influence of physical condi­
tion upon school standing is evident, as poor health interferes with regular
work and attendance; the direct relationship is not so evident. The most
evident relationship is between head circumference and intelligence, the more
intelligent boys having a larger average measure.
M atveyeva, V . G .: “ Fizicheskoye razvitie dietei Peterburgskikh gorodskikh shkol ” [Physical development of the children of the public
schools in St. Petersburg]. Vrach [St. Petersburg], vol, 16 (1895),
pp. 918-920; 941-943.
Account of 3,333 weighings and measurings of 2,134 pupils— boys and girls
in nearly equal numbers— of public schools in St. Petersburg. The author gives
in 10 tables the average height, weight, and chest circumference for each year
of age of the children, more than half of whom were weighed and measured two
or three times at intervals of one year. In four additional tables the author
gives similar data obtained by other writers and concludes, contrary to other
investigators, that the public schools of St. Petersburg do not affect adversely
the physical development and nutrition of the pupils. References.
M a yet, Lucien : “ Le développement normal moyen du corps de l’enfant ”
[Mean normal development of the child’s body]. Enfance [Paris], vol.
1 (1913), pp. 104-123.
From a study of previous works on the subject as well as from personal ob­
servations the author constructs graphs of the normal weight of a child in Ms
first year, in his first 2 years, and in his first 13 years ; also of the normal
height in the first 13 years ; of the thoracic perimeter during 13 years, and of
the coefficient of robustness from 1 to 21 years. For this coefficient he uses
Pirquet’s formula : Height in centimeters, weight in kilograms, and thoracic
perimeter in centimeters. In 1906 he made 1,250 observations of children
between 7 and 13 years of age, and after that time many other series of meas­
urements. In addition to the above factors in normal development the author
discusses dentition, walking, changing proportions in a child’ s form, and sec­
ondary sexual characteristics.
------- “ Le développement physique de l’enfant ” [The physical develop­
ment of the child]. Journal médical français [Paris], vol. 6 (1912),
pp. 366-374.
Increases in weight, height, thoracic perimeter, coefficient of robustness, etc.,
up to 13 years are discussed. Original observations are summarized in curves
and comparison made with the work o f previous investigators.


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GENERAL GROWTH IN W EIGH T AND H EIGH T
423

61

Mead Cyras D. : « Height and weight of children in relation to general
intelligence. Pedagogical Seminary [Worcester], vol. 21 (1914), pp.
394 400.
,
? ° ™ ,s for comparison of normal and mentally defective children were estab­
lished by measurements taken by the author in May, 1912 of 236 normal
boys and 245 normal girls of the Caldwell, N. J., public schools Hei<rht°w?th
shoes; weight with ordinary clothing; ages in years and months
With t w £
S
UrQ
em^
,wSre c° m'Pai'ed measurements of ^ 88 boys and 141 g ir l^ o f^ h e
Indiana School for Feeble-Minded Youth, examined in February and March

S

Ä Ä j s ä C
early adolescent period showed

i T Ä
itself also with

the
^ t iv e s were more variable in height than normal boys
424

Meeh, C a r l : “ Volummessungen des menschlichen Körpers und seiner
einzelnen Theile m den verschiedenen Altersstufen ” [Measurements of
the volume of the human body and its separate parts at various ages]
Z eU sch n ß fur Biologie [Munich and Leipzig], vol. 31 (1894), pp.'
je c ï^ a r y m ^ ^ T L ^ T r o r n T Î ^

tL s e obtaîned by HaEess
425

3

i Ä s s?ffS
mentardefectives ® defec

t PCadav^

of

and 10 living sub-

In addltl° n to lns own flgures and a?<*or gives

Menard, S a in t-Y v e s: Contribution à l’étude de la croissance chez
1 homme et les animaux (Physiologie et hygiène comparés) [Study of
Growth m Men and Anim als]. Paris, no. 122, 1885. 119 pp.
. A ^ tailed comparison of the laws of growth and growth curves in human

'Ä Ä Ä Ä Ä S T

‘

tissues and portions of the body as well as general' increases in heLli t nd
weight are considered; also the relation of sex^climate. and slason t o f r o w t f
426

Mer w f i.im i;B' 1
” g r o w t h ]. Ergebnisse der Physiologie
[Wiesbaden], vol. 15 (1916), pp. 102-184.
Q11;V deta-iled discussion of the growth of human beings and animals
The
tüÎÎttna gYYes a definition of growth, describes its phenomena and charac­
teristics, its abnormalities, processes connected with it causes of arowth nnd
its laws. He concludes with an account of certain problems feaH n o t»
of s ,w t h ' * « * oi

s S m S
427
pp.

oi Dewb0In Infants-’

New York

weight at birthSSi0n ° f the devel°Pment attained by infants of unusually low
428

429

Merriiis, Edward: “Anthropometry of Chinese students.” China Medical
Journal [Shanghai], vol. 24 (1910), pp. 318-324.
The author measured the height and weight of 219 Chinese bovs *nd rq
Chinese gn-ls m the Wuchang schools and lelgth of feet of the airls as te n 9
Height is given in inches without shoes ; weight of clothing is deducted from"
Iota! weight Methods are not accurately described. Various comnarilons a^e
made with favored classes in England and America. The C h in ed S w e e t
show no diminutl- ia - - Ï
Â
2
M h ! ! Î eime^
iEin1 ?u 1
itrag zur toP0 graphischen Anatomie der Brust-,
Bauch- und Beckenhohle des neugeborenen Kindes [Topographical

aM PeMe Cailtlœ 01
fant up to 10 days old, compares relative positions with those in the adnit"
mwfography
y
° f ° ther lnvestlgators aad sometimes a^in g'h ls^w n :
430

.A,Agus1:: Übe.r die Gewichtsveränderungen der Neugeborenen
[Variations in Weight of Newborn]. Marburg, 1873. 21 pp.
.
a lying-in hospital at Hadamar (Nassau) the author weighed 26 infant
boys and girls every morning, after their bath during the firS 12 davT o f ifr
^ l e Tv,a11 bF®ast fedV 7 he récita n t data are Ihown in a tablt Ind four
eupea. The author concludes that the initial loss extends from birth to tho
third day. Girls lose less weight than boys, recover their birth
onanoi*
and in the 12 days gain more The children of m o t h ^
In“ gain less“ Children o£ younger mothers. First born lose more than others


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431

432

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434

435

436

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PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF TH E CHILD
Meyer, P au l: Über Ursachen, welche das Stillen verbieten, insbesondere
das Stillen nach schweren Blutverlusten in der Geburt [Causes Pro­
hibiting Nursing, Especially alter Heavy Losses of Blood during the
Birth]. Marburg, 1901. 41 pp.
Inaugural dissertation (University of Marburg). The author gives weights
at birth and amounts of milk drunk for about 500 infants of mothers who lost
over 1,000 grams of blood at childbirth and yet nursed their children. Data
are arranged according to amount of loss of blood, number of the pregnancy,
and time in which infant recovered birth weight.
The author compares
amounts of milk drunk by infants here studied with normal amounts as
stated by Biedert. He concludes that breast-fed infants whose birth caused a
loss of 1.000 to 2,500 grams of blood to the mother thrive as well as other
breast-fed infants.,
Michailoff, N . F .: Materiali k opredieleniu fizicheskavo razvitia i bolezniennosti v selskikh shkolakh Ruzskavo uiezda Moscowskoi gubernii
[Data on the Study of tbe Physical Development and Sickness in the
Rural Schools of Ruzski District of Moscow Government]. Moscow,
Islenev, 1887. 42 pp.
To determine the- physical development of school children and the prevalence
of sickness among them, the author obtained height, weight, chest circumference,
condition of- spine and shoulders, and data on sickness of 892 pupils from 7 to
13 years old in several rural schools; one-fourth of them were girls. The
author gives his data in numerous tables, compares his results with those
obtained by other investigators, and concludes that the physical development
of boys is superior to that of the girls, that the annual rate of gain in height
between 8 and 13 years of age decreases gradually, and that the gain in
weight and chest circumference is fluctuating. The girls at the age of 13 show
accelerated growth of the body. Bibliography.
Mies, J .: “ Über die Höbe und die Höhenzahl des Gewichts und des Volu­
mens von Menschen und Tieren ” [On the height and height value of
the weight and volume of human beings and animals]. Virchow’s
Archiv für die Pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie [Berlin], vol.
123 (1891), pp. 188-193.
Figures are given for weight and height of 2,107 cases of newborn infants
observed by other workers. The author correlates the dimensions of animals,
adults, and children with the height of a column of water with cross section
10 centimeters square.
M isawa, Tadasu: “A few statistical facts from Japan.” Pedagogical
Seminary [Worcester], vol. 16 (1909), pp. 104—112.
An abstract of material in the Japanese “ Child Study ” magazine, appar­
ently published in various numbers for 1908, including quotations from the
annual report of the department of education (Japanese) for 1901,_ with table
showing average height, weight, and chest girth of 869,014 school children, aged
7 to 16; a table from work of Dr. M. Mishima’s examination of 9,609 boys and
7,466 girls from birth to 15 years of age, giving height, weight, chest girth,
head circumference, and length of le g ; a table of average values (height,
weight, chest girth) for ages 13 to 17. The author concludes that physical
development is as much dependent on social and historical circumstances as on
geographical and other physical environment and is therefore largely subject to
human control.
M ishnevsky, V . : “ K izsliedovaniu rosta, obioma grudi i viesa ” [The
study of height, chest circumference, and weight].
Voyenno-Samtarnoe Dielo [St. Petersburg], vol. 9 (1889), pp. 281-282.
On the basis of studies made by several writers of about 30,000 cases and his
own 285 cases the author compiles tables giving the formulas for height, chest
circumference, and weight which he worked out according to a method called
by him “ method of minimum squares.” The author uses this formula to show
the percentage of deviation from the average o f the height, chest circumference,
and weight which were obtained by the several writers.
M iw a, N . : “ On the body-weight and stature of new-born infants.” SeiVKwai Medical Journal [Tokyo], vol. 13 (1892), pp. 67-72.
The author studied 24 male infants and 18 female, born at full term, from
1 to 5 days old, for body weight, stature, and circumference of head. He com­
bined his results with those of Doctor Sakaki, who measured 13 male infants
and 15 female to discover approximately the stature and body weight of new­
born infants in Japan. By comparing his figures with those for European
infants, determined by Quetelet, Elsässer, Casper, Liman,_ Robert, Veit, Haake,
and Hecker he found a difference of about 1 centimeter in stature and 300 to
500 grams in body weight in favor of European infants.
M öhring, P .: Über die Veränderungen des Gewichts, der Temperatur und
des Haemoglobingehaltes bei Neugeborenen [Changes of Weight, Tem­
perature, and Hemoglobin Content in Newborn Infants]. Heidelberg,
1891. 49 pp.
An inaugural dissertation (University of Heidelberg). The author gives
resumes of previous works on changes in weight, in temperature, and in blood
o f newborn infants. He devotes a page each to 30 carefully constructed graphs


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f!tr ce“ t of cases it reaches its maximunv in the first davs
Md w c S
inn eaCgeneral6
v^ris^T ® 11!.b ^ oglob ifi content and temperature
weigirt^re n e ga tiverem related.
* hemoglobin content and decrease in
438

439

M o gg i, D in o : “ L ’accrescimento del lattante normale in Firenze ” (The
growih of the normal infant in Florence]. Rivista di clinica pediatnea [Florence], vol. 23 (1925), pp. 577-615.
V
The author measured 400 infants under 1 year old and obtained for each
either actual or calculated measurements. Instead of presenting
l ^ ? % l l UT-ements as he obtained them the author gives in a number of
* 5
An®r|as? m weif ht, height, chest, and skull circumference for each
year of life, the ponderal index, sitting height circumferof ehest ^nd th a ^ o f’ oranm™
i pro? ortion between®circumference
Circumference and height?
¡ S Ä
(Proportion between the chest
nc<i aii5* neiS^t). In almost all of the above tables the author ffivp«*
in addition to his own data those Quoted from several other writers
The
inaipirFrcn^oSew iiitba si,u<iy was to compare the figures on the growth of children
in riorence with similar ones for cities in Germany, France and Russia and
F gossible’ the first signs of racial difference Thfs difference as
expiessed m figures, was very small for the children studied. References ’
Molinari, Pio: “ Ricerche sullo sviluppo degli alunni nelle scuole elementar1 di Brescia
[Investigations of the physical development of

fÄ F S ä

440

S '

Brescl aL

W en°

iahme nrly equral nu“ bers, in the city of Brescia. The data are liv en in a
girls" beytwSe6en ? L 6agesyn f io f nnSa6-iaThe autilor concludes from hls^Ible that
these
6 Af+Lafh ! ° L 10V y e a r s are better developed than boys of
1-wrvTr« iv
the age of 14 their growth becomes slower and soon the
boys become taller und heavier than the girls. The author agrees with other
?he1i^mS affect to a great extent the physical development or cniiaren within the same race and the same city.
M oll, Leopold: “ Beitrag zur Aufzucht frühgeborener Kinder ” [Rearing
fooI QAQire children]. Ztschr. f. Kinderh. [Berlin], vol. 21 (1919), pp.
,a PParatus for keeping a premature infant warm the author
a° d CUrVe,i re’ aH,,S *° “ “ nutritioif ot premature

441

M ontague, Helen, and L. H ollin gsw orth : “ The comparative variabilitry
90
a i r r? ™ American Journal of Sociology [Chicago], vol.
( l y i i j , pp, ooo—oTU.
v J£be cJ-ata weiie obtained from the obstetrical case histories of the New
York Infirmary for Women and Children. One thousand infants of each sex
^f+hV,7^ U^le<^i a,?^ j-be analysis of their measurements given in tables
The
sexes* at birth.Ude that there ls 110 inherent anatomical variability in the

442

Montessori, M aria: “ Sui caratteri antropometrici in relazione alle gerarchie intellettuali dei fanciulli nelle scuole” [On anthropometrical
characteristics in relation to mental development of school children!
Archimo per Vantropologia e la etnologia [Florence], vol 34 (1904)
pp. 243-300.
j
j
'
w
The author studied 105 normal bovs 9 to 11 vears nid nnntii i™
„„ i, ,
in Rome The boys were selected anfong three J K s t ^ Ä t e u Ä t ^ ^average
l al backwarK
d- , For ?ach ebil<1 the author gifes weight, L ig h t chest circum^
ference, cerebral craniums (maximum circumference, length, height sum of the
three diameters, minimum diameter of forehead, height of forehead sum of
frontal diameters), facial, cranium (total height of face M s o K t a l W r
subnasal height, bizygomatic diameter, bigonial diameter) length and
width of nose, cephalic and nasal indexes. Like other writers L e found in thl
foreheTds.111®61111 chlldren not only lar®er heads but also wider faces and higher

443

M onti, A . : “ ü a s Wachstum des Kindes von der Geburt bis einschliess­
lich der Pubertät” [Growth of the child from birth to pubertv in­
clusive]. W iener Klinik [Vienna], vol. 24 (1898), pp. 287-316 ’
data obtained from other writers on the weight and length
o f the body and its separate parts, size of head, chest measurement relatio? of
H
°-f body to surface, and mutual relation betweenweight of body its
^ u ftb . size of head, and chest measurement. These data refer to individual«
o f all ages from newborn infants to persons over 20 years old.


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448

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PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OP TH E CHILD
M on ti, A : “ Übersichtliche Zusammenstellung der WachsthumsVerhält­
nisse der K in der” [Comprehensive survey of growth of children].
Arch. f. Kinderh. [Stuttgart], vol. 10 (1888-89), pp. 401-429.
The author has here attempted a careful testing and grouping of data of
other observers on children’s body weight, height, girth of head and of chest,
and relation of these factors of growth to one another. Among the authors
considered are Quetelet, Zeising, Liharzik, Bouchard, Bowditch, Russow, Froebelius, Fleischmann, Schöpf, and Merei. The article contains many tables.
Moon, S. B. : “ The growth of boys.” Report of the Tenth Annual Meet­
ing of the American Association for the Advancement of Physical
Education, 1895, pp. 19-23. Concord, 1896.
From annual measurements for a period of eight years of about 150 privàteschool boys, aged 11 to 16, tables are compiled, which are compared with
Doctor Seaver’s tables giving measurements of Yale University students.
M oss, B,. E .: “ Height and weight table compiled by a committee of the
medical section of the National Fraternal Congress, 1900.” Medical
Examiner and Practitioner [New York], vol. 10 (1900), pp. 299-302.
Report of a committee appointed to formulate a table of height and weight
for determining insurance risks. Height and weight were taken for 133,940
male applicants between the ages of 18 and 55 ; the method is not stated.
Nationality, occupation, and locality are not given. The author found that the
greatest number of applicants were 5 feet 7 inches, 5 feet 8 inches, and 5 feet
9 inches tall and that the nearer the medium standard the better the risk ; also
that a young man at 20 increases in weight in proportion to increase in age,
and that the taller the man the greater the percentage of increase.
Mourlot, Cam ille: Des variations de poids chez les nouveau-nés nourris
par leurs mères, pendant les dix premiers jours [Variations in Weight
of Breast-fed Newborn Infants during the First Ten D ays]. Paris,
no. 261,' 1892. 76 pp.
Thesis for medical degree (University of Paris). The original work includes:
Observations of initial loss of weight in 125 infants born at term ; 15 observa­
tions of weight changes of infants reported as individual cases ; discussion of
these and of other illustrative cases. The author found that there was an
initial loss of 150 to 200 grams, of which 100 to 120 grams was lost the first
day ; that in a few cases there was no initial loss ; that the gain began
ordinarily on the third day ; that large infants regain their initial weight less
quickly than small ; that the initial loss was less in girls than in boys and in
infants of multiparæ than in those of primiparæ. Bibliography.
M ühlm ann, M .: “ Das Wachstum und das A lte r ” [Growth and age].
Biologisches Centralblatt [Berlin], vol. 21 [1901), pp. 814-828.
The original data upon which the author’s conclusions as to bodily changes
are based do not appear in his àrticle, which includes, however, tables of the
weight of the body and its organs, in 10-year periods from birth to 90 years and
of the relative weights worked out in per cents.
----------- “ Über das Gewicht einiger menschlicher Organe ” [Weight of
certain human organs]. Virchow's Archiv [Berlin], vol. 163 (1901),
pp. 75-83.
A discussion and 4 tables of the weights of organs in 48 bodies dissected in
1899 and 1900 in the City Hospital. Odessa. Each table gives name, age,
weight, height, weight of lungs, weight and length of alimentary canal, and
weight of heart, brain, liver, kidneys, pancreas, spleen, thymus, etc. The
weights are given separately for the two sexes, first as absolute figures, and
then as percentages of body weight. Eight of the males and nine of the
females were below 21 years of age. The author believes that the alimentary
canal, lungs, and heart continue growing into old age.
----------- Über Wachstumserkrankungen” [Disorders of growth]. Jahrb.
f. Kinderh. [Berlin], vol. 70 (1909), pp." 174-208.
From a careful consideration of the daily weights of 12 newborn infants
and of 6 from 3 to 8 months old, all normal, for which the author presents
curves, he comes to the conclusion that growth consists not only of progress
but of progressive phenomena. He discusses dentition, puberty, the patho
logical affections of growth, and the so-called “ fever of growth.”
M uffang, H .: “ Écoliers et étudiants de Liverpool” [School children and
students of Liverpool].
Anthropologie [Paris], vol. 10 (1899), pp.
21-41.
The author had measured, according to his direction, 148 English boys and
79 English girls 9 to 14 years of age in a public school ; 485 pupils in the
Liverpool Institute (commercial and Latin school), aged 7 to 17; 86 students
in University College; 27 professors; and 74 subjects engaged in commerce or
industry. Data are given for height taken in shoes without allowing for heels ;
color of hair and eyes ; shape of the nose ; cephalic index. He found the
average cephalic index 78 or 78.5. The social classes varied more in stature
than in cephalic index. His observations confirmed those of other scientists
as to variations in growth at the age of puberty.


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454

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M urray, M. Bruce: Child Life Investigations: The Effect o f Maternal
Social Conditions and Nutrition upon Birth-Weight and Birth-Length.
Medical Research Council.
Special Report Series, No. 81. London,"
His M ajesty’s Stationery Office, 1924. 3 4 pp.
Data were obtained from the medical and social-case records for 1914 1915
and 1918 of two maternity hospitals, covering more than 1,000 cases, and from
the records of two private maternity homes 185 cases. No data were obtained
from a definitely wealthy class. Social grouping was made on the basis of
expenditure. No evidence was found that poverty, lack of proper nourishment
and other unfavorable social conditions during pregnancy affect the develop­
ment of the child in regard to weight and length. Tables. References.
N agorski, V .: “ Ob otnoshenii zhizniennoy emkosti lekhkikh k rostu i
wiesu ” [The relation between vital capacity of the lungs and height
and weight]. Vrach [St. Petersburg], vol. 2 (1881), pp. 669-670.
The author weighed and measured 630 boys and 314 girls ranging from 6 to
15 years of age, pupils in the public schools of St. Petersburg, to study the re­
lation between the vital capacity o f the lungs and the height and weight of the
bodies. He found that this relation is fairly constant. In the boys he obtained
an average of 65 centimeters of vital capacity for each kilogram of weight and
in the girls 57 centimeters. He gives in several tables the height, weight and
vital capacity of lungs separately for the sexes and quotes from Quetelet and
Hutchinson. '
Nassau, Erick: “ Zur Frage des Eiweissnährschadens beim Säugling”
[The question of protein as an injurious food for.children], Ztschr. f.
Kinderh. [Berlin], vol. 26-27 (192 0-21), pp. 270-289.
In connection with a study of the effect upon infants of an increase in pro­
tein the author presents nine tables and many case histories.
Nesbit, O. B .: “ Malnutrition of school children.” Journal of the Indiana
State Medical Association [Fort W ayne], vol. 14 (1921), pp. 108-110.
In connection with a discussion of malnutrition the author gives the average
gains in weight of pupils of two schools and the percentage o f pupils underweight in various schools. Four charts are given.
Neubauer, K . : “ Einfluss der Ernährung auf das Wachstum und die
Entwickelung frühgeborener Kinder ” [Effect of food on the growth and
development of premature children]. Monatschr. f. Kinderh [Berlinl
vol. 21 (1921), pp. 21-31.
‘
An account of experiments in feeding 100 premature infants in a hospital in
Vienna. Some were fed on human milk, others on cow’s milk, still others on
protein milk, several on alkaline Joghurt milk, and some on alkaline whev
The average weight of these premature infants at birth was 1,500 grams • in a
number of cases later investigations (exact time not given) were made as to the
child’s physical and mental development. The author found that the physical
development was accelerated by the addition of whey salts. This was proved
by the rapid growth and physical development of the child, not only in the
first year but also in later years, as was shown by follow-up examinations
several years later. Bibliography.

457

N eum ann, H . : “ Körpergewicht der Säuglinge nach socialer Gruppie­
rung ” [Body weight of infants according to social groupings]. Jahrb f
Kinderh. [Berlin], vol. 56 (1902), pp. 719-724.
From the records of the Berlin Society for the Protection of Children for the
years 1888 to 1901 the author took the weights of 665 illegitimate children—
318 boys and 347 girls. In general their fathers were laborers, their mothers
servants; they seldom were long breast-fed. In the society they were weighed
every six months; at the end of the third year they were put out in foster
i ar? n J he author believes the average weights of this class of children are 2,000
to 4,000 grams for the second half of the first month ; 2,590 to 5,000 grams for
the second month; 3,000 to 5,500 grams for the third month; 3,500 to 6 000
g r a ^ s fo r the fourth month ; 4,000 to 7,000 grams for the fifth month ; 4500
to 7,000 grams for the sixth month; 5,000 to 7,500 grams for the seventh
month; 5,000 to 8,000 grams for the eighth m onth; 6,000 to 8,500 grams for
month; 6,000 to 8,500 grams for the tenth to twelfth month • 7 000
to 10,000 grams for the thirteenth to fifteenth month. Their condition’ grows
worse as they grow older.
6
“

458

N ew South W ales, Department of Public Instruction. Report upon the
Physical Condition of Children Attending Public Schools in New South
W ales (with Special Reference to Height, Weight, and Vision) based
upon Statistics Obtained as a Result of the Introduction of a Scheme
of Medical Inspection of Public School Children, 1907-1908, with An­
thropometric Tables and Diagrams. Sydney, 1908. 66 pp.
exhaustive study based upon measurements of height and weight of
36,850 school children. The tables and graphs show average height and weight
at each year of school age; comparison of physical development with mental
progress; comparison of measurements of city and country children; comparison
o f measurements in well-to-do and in poor districts; and comparison of children
In New South Wales with those in various other parts of the world.


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459

460

461

462

463

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465

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PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHILD
Niceforo, A lfred o : “ Note préliminaire d'anthropologie sur 3,147 enfants
des écoles de Lausanne, étudiés en rapport à leur condition, sociale ”
[Preliminary anthropological note on 3,147 children of the schools of
Lausanne studied in relation to social condition]. Scuola positiva
nella giurisprudenza civile e penule e nella vita sociale [Rome], ser. 2,
vol. 1 (anno 13), pp. 257-298, 412-440.
In ascertaining the relation between physical characteristics and social con­
dition the author recorded the height, weight,. thoracic perimeter, respiratory
index, force of muscular contraction, cephalic circumference, height of forehead,
cephalic index, probable cranial capacity, color of eyes, color of hair, and some
facial anomalies of 2,451 boys and 726 girls from 7 to 14 years of age, all
French Swiss, in the elementary schools and first two classes of industrial
College or high school of Lausanne. The data collected- are shown in 27 tables
in 22 pages of figures at the conclusion of thè article. In .general, the author
decides that, other things being equal, the children of well-to-do families are
superior to poor children in height, absolute and relative weight, thoracic
strength, cephalic circumference, height of forehead, and cranial capacity ; the
same superiority holds, too, in the brachycephalic and dolichocephalic types of
the rich over the poor.
Nobécourt, P. : “ Considérations pratiques sur la croissance et l’alimen- '
tation du nourrisson ” [Practical hints on growth and nutrition of the
infant]. Clinique [Paris], voi. 3 (1908), pp. 600-602.
Weights and lengths are given for infants of different ages, together with
the amount of nourishment they require. Rules for calculating normal weights
at different âges aré suggested.
Norinder, I . : “ Bidrag till kannedomen om folkskolebarnens kroppsutveckling och halsotillstand ” [Contribution to knowledge of development
and health condition of common-school children]. Hygiea, medicinsk
och farmaceutisk Manadsskrift [Stockholm], voi. 69, pts. 1 -2 (1907),
pp. 1199-1205.
The author examined 224 boys and 198 girls 7 to 13 years of age to ascer­
tain their height, weight, and chest measurements. The findings are given in
two tables and two curves.
Oakland School Report: “ Physical development of Oakland children.”
Oakland, California School Report, 1892-93, pp. 38-44.
Report of measurements of about 6,000 children in the schools of Oakland,
Calif., in the fall of 1892 for the anthropological exhibit at the World’ s Fair.
Measurements were taken under the direction of the University of California
and Stanford University. Technique is not given. Tables show the average
height standing, height sitting, weight, and finger reach. Lists are also given of
occupations of parents and nationality.
Odier, Louis: Recherches sur la loi d’accroissement des nouveau-nés
constaté par le système des pesées régulières et sur les conditions du
bon aleaitement [Researches on the Law of Growth of the Newborn,
as Determined by a System of Regular Weighings ; and on the Condi­
tions of Good Nourishment]. Paris, no. 28, 1868. 56 pp.
Thesis for medical degree (University of Paris). General and historical. No
original observations but six curves of the development of the newborn under
different conditions, derived from the author’s original work, are included.
Ogston, Alexander: “ Table of cases with weights of the bodies and
lungs of live and stillborn children.” British and Foreign Medical and
Chirurgical Revieic [London], voi. 42 (1868), pp. 472-475.
A table of 61 cases gives sex, whether live or stillborn, conditions of lungs
when examined, body weight, and weight of lungs. The weight of the lungs in
relation to the body weight was found to be greater in stillborn than in liveborn children.
Ogston, F. : “ On the average length and weight of mature newborn
Scotch children.” Edinburgh Medical Journal, voi. 27, no. 2 (1881),
pp. 603-615.
A study of the lengths and weights of 200 newborn children in Scotland,
100 cases from the medico-legal practice of Aberdeen and 100 from private
practice in Aberdeen and Peterheads. The author finds averages for these
children to be 19 to 22 inches in length and 6 to 9 pounds in weight. A table
gives the average lengths and weights of children in different parts of Europe,
with authority for data.
Oker-Blom , M a x : “ Om làngd- och viktforhállanden hos eleverna vid Hel­
singfors stads folkskolor ” [Length and weight of pupils in Helsing­
fors public schools].
Finska Ldkaresdllskapets Handlingar [H el­
singfors], voi. 54, no. 10 (1912), pp. 353-373.
Observations were made of 1,582 boys and 1,642 girls, 7 to 15 years of age,
to ascertain their height and weight, and yearly increase in stature. The data
are given in 12 tables.


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Opitz, H a n s: “ Über Wachstum und Entwicklung untergewichtiger aus­
getragener. Neugeborener ” [Growth and development of the full-term
but underweight newborn]. Monatschr. f. Kindern. [Leipzig and Vi­
enna], voi. 13, no. 3 (1914), pp. 145-164.
' i In ti le w .omen s Clinic at Breslau University the author studied the causes
or underweight in 73 newborn infants, including no twins nor premature
births. Forty-four weighed 2,750 to 2,550 grams ; 20 weighed 2,550 to 2 350
grams; and 9 weighed 2,350 grams or less. Many were firstborn, many illegitimate, and all from the lower classes. In only a few cases of round
healthy infants was the underweight due to hypoplasia. In four cases it was
due to syphilis and in three cases to tuberculosis of the mother. In all
other cases the parents seemed normal. In general the infants studied were
like normal children in mortality and growth curve. They were no more liable
to infection but were more liable to chronic nutritional disturbances and exu­
dative diathesis. The article contains 11 curves.
Oppenheimer, Carl: “ Über die Wachstumsverhältnisse des Körpers und
der Organe ” [Relations in growth of body and its organs]. Zeitschrift
für Biologie [Munich and Leipzig], voi. 25 (1888), pp. 328-357.
The author studied 943 bodies from 1882 to 1887 at the pathological insti­
tute of the University of Munich. Tables of results fill 10 pages, showing age
weight, and height of person, and weight of his brain, lungs, heart, liver’
kidneys, and spleen. A man has attained most of his height at 18, a woman
at 15. The lungs grow more rapidly than the body ; the heart, spleen, and
kidneys at about the same rate as the body; and the-liver and brain much
less rapidly than the body.
Orgler, A rn old: “ Das Längenwachstum der Zw illinge” [Growth in
length of twins]. Monatschr. f. Kinderh. Originalien [Leipzig and
Vienna], voi. 12 (1 913-14), pp. 490-501.
The author discusses comparative growth in length of 22 sets of twins
observed by him for five months. In 13 cases he gives parallel tables of
height and weight. He concludes that the growth curve differs in twins even
m intrauterine life.
0ru m , H . P. T .: “ Vaegtsvingninger hos det spaede Barn ” [Weight
fluctuations in the newborn]. Nordislc Tidsskrift for Tem pi [Copen­
hagen], voi. 12 (191 3-14), pp. 397-406.
Six hundred and twenty-five children were weighed daily from 2 weeks
‘- o l year of age to determine the effect of season on growth. Breast-fed
children seemed to gain most rapidly from June to November. The maximum
increase was from September to November.
Oschmann: “ D ei Einfluss der Kriegskost auf die Schulkinder ” [Effect
of war food on school children]. Zeitschrift für Schulgesundheitspfleae
[Leipzig], vol. 30 (1917), pp. 49-59.
, To test the effect of war diet on school children thé author examined the
« height and weight of two groups— one consisting of 161 girls and 169 bovs
from 6 to 11 yeare old, belonging to the. middle class, measured under like
conditions during the! school years 1913-14, 1914-15, and 1915-Î6 and the
other consisting of 164 boys and girls, 5% to 6V2, beginning school in 1915
and 148 beginning in 1916 For the former groupé the^ a v lr a g f iAcrease in
welght was smaller in 1915—16 than, in preceding years, but the
■ chiMren .w?re. J S healthy and strong. For the second group* too, thete wal
a slight, inferiority m weight and height for the year 1916. But the fatalitv
from diseases, was due, says the author, not to malnutrition but to the care­
lessness of parents.
L

472

Ostravidoff, N . I .: Razvitie, zabolievaiemost i smertnost dietie S. Peterburgskavo hospitatelnavo doma .v zavisimosti ot vskarmlivania ikh
grudim materi i kormilitz.
[Physical Development Morbidity, and
Mortality of Children at the Infant Asylum at St. Petersburg as Re­
lated to Their Being Fed at the Mother’s or Nurse’s Breast]
St
Petersburg, 1895. 141 pp.
The author divides the children into two, groups: (1) Those who during
the stay at the asylum were fed by their mothers and (2) those fed by nail
nurses. For each of the groups he discusses weight, morbidity, and mortality
He concludes that weight and increase in weight are " greater and morbidi tv
and “ ovality lower, in the first group than in the secSnd. Numerous tobies

473

P aglian i, L. :
Lo sviluppo umano per età, sesso, condizione sociale ed
etnica studiato nel peso, statura, circonferenza toracica, capacita vitale
e forza muscolare ” [Development of the human body according to age
sex, social and ethnographical condition as shown by weight height’
chest circumference, vital capacity, and muscular force].
'Giornale
della società italiana d'igiene [M ilan], vol. 1 (1879) un -357-376
453—491, 589-6Ö8.
' j;.;
f T,hL W rt is ba,sei 2 n works of several writers and on the author’s own studv
S L 1,048 b/?ys and 968 girls ranging in age from 3 to 19 years; The author
discusses the physical development (weight, height, chest circumference, vital


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capacity,,and muscular force) , of the human being from the beginning of fetal
life until the end of the growth period; also the effect of various kinds of
living conditions on the physical development of children. Numerous tables
and quotations from other writers are given.
P aglian i, L . : Sopra alcuni fattori dello sviluppo umano [On Some
Factors of Human Development]. Turin, 1876. 71 pp.
The author studied the 234 inmates of an agricultural colony near Turin
for orphans and abandoned boys aged 10 to 19 years to find the effect of
living conditions on physical development. In several tables he gives the
average weight, height, chest circumference, vital capacity, and muscular force
for each year of age. The boys were measured shortly after their admission
and about 200 once a year in the three succeeding years. The author found
that the boys grew very rapidly while in the colony, which he attributes to the
favorable living conditions in the institution as compared with the boys’
previous surroundings. For the purpose of comparison author also studied
over 200 (exact number not given) girls in a high-class boarding school. In
several tables he gives their age, weight, height, vital capacity, and muscular
force, measured once a year for three years. He found the values far above
the average for girls of the same ages, and the height and weight of the girls
greater than those of the boys of the same age, which is contrary to the usual
findings. This he attributes to the unusually good living conditions in the
girls’ school.
Pakhom ov, D. A .: “ Nabliudenia nad fizicheskim razvitiiem vospitannikov S. Peterburgskoi Dukhovnoi Seminarii ” [Observations on the
physical development of students of the theological seminary of St.
Petersburg]. Zhurnal Russkago Obshchestva Okhranenya Narodnago
Z dr avia [St. Petersburg], vol. 9 (1899), pp. 689-700.
The author investigated the physical development of 24 boys, pupils in a
theological seminary in St. Petersburg, continuously during the six years of
their stay in that school. At the time of entrance their ages varied from 14
to 17 years. The purpose of the study was to find the effect of boarding schools
on the pupils’ health. The author gives the height, weight, vital capacity of
lungs, and chest expansion for each pupil and each year of the investigation;
also the gain in each case at the end of the sixth year.
Paschal, Franklin C., and Louis It. Su llivan : Racial Influences in the
Mental and Physical Development of Mexican Children. Comparative
Psychology Monographs, Vol. III.
The W illiam s & Wilkins Co.,
Baltimore, 1925. 76 pp.
A study of all of the 9 and 12 year-old Mexican boys and girls in the Tucson
public-school system at the time of the investigation. The anthropometric
work was done by L. R. Sullivan, in accordance with the technique described
in his Essentials of Anthropometry (American Museum of Natural History*
New York, 1923). A table (p. 51) summarizes the anthropometric findings
of the study.
Pauli, H . : “ Über den Parallelismus von körperlicher und geistiger
Entwicklung der Volksschulkinder ” [Ön the relation between physical
and mental development of public-school children]. Münchener M edi­
zinische Wochenschrift [Munich], vol. 71 (1924), pp. 526-527.
The author studied 15,000 children 5 to 14% years old, pupils in the public
schools of Karlsruhe. He gives their average height and weight by sex for
each six months of age, distinguishing the following groups: Special classes
of backward children, backward children in general classes, children who were
always promoted, and all pupils; also the average difference between the
first three groups. The author found that the backward children were inferior
in height and weight to those who never failed to be promoted.
Pearson, K a rl: “ On the magnitude of certain coefficients of correlation
in man.” Proceedings of the R oyal Society of London, vol. 66 (1900),
pp. 23-32.
In this study (pp. to 26) is included a section on the correlation between
weight and length of infants at birth, the data being taken from records of
1,000 male and 1,000 female infants born at term. Tables are given.
---------- and L. H . C. T ip p e tt: “ On stability of the cephalic indices
within the race.” Biometrika [Cambridge], vol. 16 (1924), pp. 118138.
A study based upon measurements of about 4,500 school children from the
English professional class, ages 4 to 19, made between 1895 and 1900, and
upon a series of measurements taken by and for Galton in his anthropometric
laboratory, about the year 1884. These subjects ranged from 5 to 80 years
o f age and were of mixed English classes. Methods of analysis of the data
are shown by 15 tables and 3 diagrams. The authors found no significant
change in cephalic indices for children, from 5 to 20 years of age, and no
evidence of continuous change in the series of subjects from 6 to 80 years of
age. Stability of the cephalic index was. not shown to be disturbed by change
in environment. The author does not accept the view of Professor Boas as
to the change in head shape of Jewish immigrants, nor of Miss Fleming (Man,
London, voL 22, 1922, pp. 69-75), as to a change of cephalic index with
growth.


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Pccklmm^ G. W :** The growth of children.” Sixth Annual Report of
State Board of Health of Wisconsin, 1881, pp. 28-73. Madison, 1882.
Report of a study undertaken under the auspices of the Wisconsin State
Board of Health. Several thousand children in the Milwaukee schools were
measured, largely by teachers or school principals.
Heights (sm in i and
?Ì^?.dl? g without shoes) were taken to hundredths of an inch : weights to the
nearest quarter pound, in indoor clothing ; color of hair and eyes, nationality
and age at last birthday were recorded. Much emphasis is placed upon thè
an<i SlimaÌ e « ? height and weight, and several pa gll are
devoted to a study of density of population as affecting growth. References.
—
“ Vari ous observations on growth.” Seventh Annual Report of
State Board of Health, Wisconsin, 1882, pp. 185-188. Madison, 1883.
miÉ Portion of the extended study of the author on the growth of children
students?at
9ie ayerage height without shoes of 539
bovs and l i S l 1 1* 9
! ged 14
a7 era8'e heights, without shoes, of 95
girls
years old; and average weights of 107 boys and
Som » a r t i f U L v ° i d‘ « A lso a
showing the actual increase in heights
rre™ year
year of. 7 brothers and sisters 2 to 19 years of age. Methods of
measurement are not given, and practically no discussion is included.
Peiper,, Albrecht:^ ‘ Über Längenwachstum und Ernährung beim Säugi Gr 0r^th in length and nourishment of the infant]. Jahrb f
Kinder h. [Berlin], voi. 90 (1919), pp. 341-346.
‘
•4n connection with a study of diet and its effect on development the author
fevfrafw eek s.* 6
* Weight and length of 71 in fllt e o v e r a*1p e r io d ot
Peiper, Erich: “ Die körperliche Entwicklung der Schuljugend in Pommern
[Physical development of school boys in Pomerania]. Archiv
fur Soziale Hygiene [Leipzig], voi. 7 (1 91 1-12), pp. 109-137.
a„A«..0neiine+'^iS ° 4 studying deterioration in the German rural population the
aHtt!oi collected measurements of the height, weight, and chest girth of 42 528
n 1??)lq °+Skf r° m d
44 years of age. Deductions were made for clothing
no«at edTta^ie® a?e gi Vun’ and his results compared with those of Quetelet
Beneke, Landoxs, Landsberger, Seitz, Camerer, Schmid-Monnard? and others 1
Peiler, Sigism und: “ Das Gewicht der Neugeborenen nach der sozialen
Lage und dem Ernährungszustände der M u tter” [W eight of newborn
according to social position and nutritional condition of motherl.
Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift [Vienna], voi. 27 (1914), pp. 327—329
°,f a statistical investigation embracing 5,487 newborn infants
Abe Piskavek Clinic and Sanatorium the author arrived at the conclusion
,conciltlo5s.
Pregnant mothers have an even stronger influence
on weight and length of infants than have sex, age, number of previous births
etc. Summarized tables give weights of boys and of girls o f different classes’
and according to age of mother. This article is principally a defense of the
foregoing theory and a discussion of Bondi’s a tt a c k u p o n it
° f the
----- “ Das intrauterine Wachstum und soziale Einflüsse ” rintrauterine growth and effects of social conditions]. Zeitschrift für Konstitutionslehre [Berlin], voi. 10 (1924), pp. 308-320.
h o 2 V v S a 1 n aili> - 1 3

Ä ° f n Ä a fte b le l f f f f l

hfrttwif th i 5ahn!?ren <>Ü“ otl ers w\° stayed at tbe maternity home before the
i5 ild> an? (2) those who did not stay there. Several tables eive
between len#ÜL and weight as expressed by the so-called Rohrer’ s
ntde,V 441® author found that in the cases where the expectant mothers staved
at the maternity home from 2 to 8 weeks before confinement h e lv ie f ^nd
larger children were born. Prom this he concludes that the re«?
^
provideä at the maternity home hèd a f\vorablcTeffS o
?o2dltìond
ìì!fi?Ìor?Ììa^ev ^ 1^ ren *re no* in^eri° r constitutionally, but durine their in
mother
*** unfavorably affecte<3 by the bad Hying conditions of the'
486

Der Einfluss sozialer Momente auf den körperlichen Entwick­
lungszustand der Neugeborenen ” [The influence of social factors on
devei op?n7ent „°/ newborn infants]. W iener Arbeiten aus
p p ^ l -4 7 Ste d6r 8octalen Medizin [Vienna and Leipzig], sec. 5 (1913),
The author studied the records of 5,487 newborn infants obtained fmm tnrA
“ Eternity institutions in Vienna, to determine the « f i T s Ä l m Ä n s m
the physical development especially the weight)
2 "*
f ° r 5’0*6 fuI1:Ìe.rm infa"ts whole moihere we?e or v lr io u s social
classes and economic conditions. The average weight of the first born bovs in
institution was 3,255 grams, girls 3,145 grams ; the figures increased with
®a£b successive birth until they reached for the fifth to seventh birth 3 515
grams for the boys and 3,361 grams for the girls. In the other institution’ the
figures were 3,376 grams and 3,237 grams f o r t h e first-Dora^ bo^s and -iris
espectively, and 3,608 grams and 3,452 grams for the boys and girls of the fifth


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to seventh birth. No definite relation between age of mother and child’s weight
was noted. Many tables show the weight of the infants in relation to sex,
number of mother’s previous pregnancies, her age, marital status, duration of
prenatal rest in a maternity home, and her economic condition. The author
concludes : (1) The average weight increases with the number of pregnancies,
but the difference becomes constantly smaller. (2) Children o f well-to-do par­
ents are born heavier than those of poor parents ; the difference is still greater
when the mothers are unmarried or when they spend their entire pregnancy
period outside of an institution. (3) The differences in weight caused by social
factors are as great as, and even greater than, those caused by the sex of the
child or the number of previous pregnancies. (4) The length of the newborn
infant is affected by social conditions in the same way as the weight.
Peiler, Sigism und, and Friedrich B ass: “ Die Bedeutung der Vitamine
für das Wachstum des Fötus [The significance of vitamins for the
growth of the fetus], Zeitschrift für Geburtshülfe und Gynäkologie
[Stuttgart], voi. 88 (1924), pp. 127-133.
Study of the weight o f 2,360 newborn infants in Vienna, according to season
and the kind of prenatal care received by the mother. The authors found that
the children born in the summer were about 80 to 87 grams heavier than those
born in the winter ; also they were heavier when the mothers stayed at a mater­
nity home. The authors are unable to find any definite explanation for these
two facts, but they tentatively attribute them to the greater amount of vita­
mins present in the summer food and to the good prenatal care at the maternity
homes.
— ----- ---------- “ Die Rolle exogener Faktoren in der intrauterinen Ent­
wicklung des Menschen mit besonderer Berücksichtung der Kriegs- und
Nachkriegsverhältnisse” [The part played by exogenic factors in the
intrauterine development of the human being with special reference to
war-time and post-war conditions]. Archiv für Gynäkologie [Berlin],
vol. 122 (1924), pp. 208-238.
Original study of the part played by exogenic factors in the intrauterine
development of the human being. The authors studied 14,500 newborn infants
in Vienna from 1912 to 1922, inclusive. The cases are divided into four groups
according to the mother’s marital condition and according to the care she
received in the antenatal period. The authors found that a decrease in weight
amounting to about 350 grams took place. since the war in all the abovementioned groups. This is attributed by the authors to the shortage in food,
particularly fats and proteins, due to the war. They conclude that a reduction
in the calories, proteins, vitamins, and other elements in the mother’ s food
checks the growth of the fetus. Numerous references to other writers. Tables
and diagrams.
Perret and Planchon: “ Établissement de la courbe de poids des nour­
rissons pendant la seconde année ” [The establishment of the curve of
weight of infants during the second year]. Obstétrique [Paris], voi. 9
(1904), pp. 193-203.
Data for this study were obtained at the Clinique Tarnier where 72 normal
infants were weighed, some every week and some every 15 days, and records
made of age, sex, weight at birth, weight at the end of the first year, and
weight at the end of each week of the second year. The curve of weight con­
structed from these figures is reproduced, the method of its derivation being
carefully explained.
Pershin, A . V . : “ Ob izmïenienii vïesa i temperaturi tlela u novorozhdennikh dietle v pervie niedieli ikh zhizni ”
[Fluctuation of weight
and temperature of the body of newborn infants during the first week
d'f life]. Dnevnik obshchestva vrachei pri imperatorskom Kazanskom
Universitiete [K azan], no. 1 (1891), pp. 27-123.
The purpose of the study is to ascertain the extent and nature of physio­
logical loss. The author investigated the weight of 29 newborn infants at
the university clinic at Kazan, Russia, the children being weighed nine times
a day for six days. The author gives in tables thè results of each weighing
separately for each case, and after a detailed discussion of his results he
presents 18 conclusions. He found a decrease of weight in every case. It
took 65 hours in the case of boys and 70 in the case of girls, to make up the
loss. More than one-half of the loss was due to the discharge of meconium.
In the first few days metabolism takes place at a higher rate in boys than in
girls.
Peterson, O. V . : “ Ytterligare om vigtsförhällandena hos spada barn
under första lefnadsâret ” [Weight of young children in the first year
of life].
Upsala Läkarefbrewings Förhandlmgar, vol. 23 (1887-88),
pp. 399-411.
A study of the daily weight increase of a child born June 2, 1886, weighing
4,800 grams. Thè daily gain is given in a long table. The child gained 5,700
grams during its first year of life.


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Pfannkuch, W ilh e lm : “ Über die Körperform der Neugeborenen ”
[Bodily form of newborn children]. Archiv für Gynäkologie [Berlin!
vol. 4 (1872), pp. 297-310.
’
The author compiles tables from the weight, length of body, and size of
head of 372 newborn boys, 155 of them first-born, and of 342 girls, 140 of them
first-born, and gives the following conclusions: Weight varies directly as
length and mass of head but increases more rapidly. Development is advanced
according to amount of muscle and fat. Girls are plumper than boys but
boys are usually heavier. Boys have relatively greater length and larger
skulls. The latter fact probably accounts for their greater mortality at birth
By studying 400 newborn children the author found that the heads of the
first born are not so long as those of other infants.
Pfaundler, M .: “ Körpermassstudien an Kindern” [Studies of bodily
measurements in children]. Ztschr. f. Kinderh. [Berlin], vol 14 (1916)
pp. 1-148.
The author discusses the possibility of bringing variations in size of children
under mathematical laws. After considering Galton’s accidental curve he treats
at length Gauss s curve based on general law of probability and concludes that
height does actually follow Galton’s law. Besides height he discusses body
measurements in various classes, discards the parabola as a growth curve, and
detects a relation between weight and conception time. He perfected a device
for directly determining surface and tested the Vierordt-Meeh coefficient as an
mdex o f stature. He discusses the “ law of surface area ” and body volume and
body thickness. He refers to investigations on children conducted under his
supervision by Riedel, Skibinski, Diskanski, Matusiew-icz, and analyses the work
done by_ Weissenberg and others. In the same periodical, 1917, vol. 16, Bern­
stein criticises this study and Pfaundler replies to him.
----------- “ Über Körpermasse von Münchener Schulkindern während des
K rieges” [Bodily measurements of Munich school children during the
w ar]. Münchener Medizinische Wochenschrift, vol. 6 6 , pt 2 (1919)
pp. 859-862.
Mayerhoefer and Miss Schiller made 2,500 measurements in 1917-18 of the
height and weight of Munich school boys and girls 6 and 7 years of age. Livi’s
index was calculated. Results were shown in one, graph and eight tables.
Pfaundler, after comparing the data with those of Riedel and Skibinski on
the same schools before the war, concludes that a leveling process has taken
place, that the rich children show the effects of the war more than the poor
and the extremely well-developed children more than the mediocre.
Pfeiffer, E m il: “ Bemerkungen betreffend Wachsthum und Körperwä­
gungen der Säuglinge ” [Observations on growth and body weights of
infants], Jahrb f. Kinderh. [Leipzig], new ser. vol. 19 (1882-83)
pp. 142-147.
. The author does not agree with Pleischmann’s observation that the normal
infant at the end of the fifth month weighs 550 grams more than twice its
birth weight and at the end of' the year weighs 900 grams less than three
« raes its birth weight. The author’s own experience agrees much better with
Vierordt s and Bouchaud’s curves. A diagram gives increase in weight of a
heavy and a small infant when 5 months and 1 year old. Another .gives the
monthly increase throughout the first year, of nine infants reared at first on
the breast and then on mixed feeding. The author weighed the infants himself
every three or four days.
Pfitzner, W .: “ Social-anthropologische Studien. I. Der Einfluss des
Lebensalters auf die anthropologischen Charaktere ” [Social-anthropological studies. I. The influence of age on anthropological characteris­
tics]. Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Anthropologie [Stuttgart! vol
1 (1899), pp. 325-377.
The author observed in a large number of individuals the hair and eve color
body ienstffi stem length (trunk and head), arm length, leg length: length’
breadth, height, and circumference of head; and breadth and height of face’
Ihe observations are grouped in age periods of varying length, from birth to 10Ö
years, for each of the sexes, and many tables of relationships are derived
ih e author finds but three absolute and permanent characteristics by which
an individual may be described: Sex, age, and length-breadth index of the
head (found to be constant from birth to death).
Piering, Oscar: “ Über die Grenzen des Körpergewichtes Neugeborener”
[The limits of body weight of newborfl infantsl. Monatsschrift für
Geburtshülfe und Gynäkologie [Berlin], vol. 10 (1899), pp. 303-314.
A mass of information on variations in the weight of newborn infants with
sources cited The least weight, 717 grams, is recorded by R itter; the heaviest
stillborn child weighed 11,300 grams, according to* Ortega, and the heaviest
surviving one 6,133 grams, according to Wright. The author also describes the
development of full-term twins born in April, 1898, who thrived without the
use o f the incubator and were normal at time o f writing, though at birth the
boy weighed only 1,455 grams and the girl only 1,095


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Pies, W .: “ Zur Physiologie des Neugeborenen,
Über: die Dauer, die
Grösse, und den Verlauf der physiologischen Abnahm e” [Physiology
o f newborn infant. Duration, extent, and course of physiological loss
in weight]. Monatschr. f. Kinderh. [Leipzig and Vienna], vol. 9
(1910-11), pp. 514-543.
A study of weight gains and losses of 150 infants born at the lying-in de­
partment of the Empress Augusta Victoria House. Of these, 96 per cent
attained initial weight on an average on the twenty-second day. This retarded
gain was attributed to hard labor and nervous strain of the mothers, who
belonged to the very poor classes. The greatest initial loss was found in
first-born infants. Weight fluctuations are discussed in detail. Article in­
cludes nine graphs.
Pinard, A . : “À propos du développement de l’enfant ” [The development
of the child]. Revue scientifique [Paris], ser. 4, vol. 5 (1896), pp.
109-111.
To demonstrate the value of rest preceding delivery the author ascertained
the average weight (3,010 grams) of 500 children born of mothers working till
' time of delivery, of 500 children born of mothers who rested at least 10 days
before delivery in a refuge (3,290 grams), and of 500 children born of mothers
who sojourned at the Clinic Baudelocque (3,366 grams).
von Pirquet, C .: “ Eine bnfache Tafel zur Bestimmung von Wachstum
und Ernährungszustand bei Kindern ” [A simple table for determining
growth and nutrition in children]. Ztschr. f. Kinderh. [Berlin], vol.
6 (1913), pp. 253-262.
The author points out how proportions in a growing human being change
according to age and also how individuals of given age may differ. He gives
graphs of the average child in Russia according to Gundobin and in Germany
according to Camerer. On the basis of Camerer’s investigation he gives tables
of boys’ and girls’ height and weight up to about 18 years, and curves where
Ht 3
the ages form the abscissas and the relations
> the ordinates. The greatest
Wt.
growth in length takes place in the first three years of life ; there is little in
■ the sixth year*
Pism enny, N . N . : “ Sravnenie fizicheskago razvitiia uchenikov fabrichnikh i zemskikh shkol Serpukhovskago uezda v zavisimosti ot niekotorikh uslovii zhizni fabrichnago nasielieniia ” [A comparison of the
physical development of the pupils of the factory and rural schools of
Serpukhov County with reference to certain living conditions o f factory
workers]. Vestnik obshtshestvennoy higieni, sudebnoy i prakticheskoy
meditzini [St. Petersburg], 1905, pp. 506-524.
A study of 642 school boys and 254 school girls 8 to 13 years old. The
author obtained weight, height, chest circumference; and details as to living
conditions of the parents. About one-half of the children belonged to families
of factory workers ; the others were peasants. The purpose of the investigation
was to ascertain the differences in the physical development of the children of
these two groups. The author found that as regards height, chest circum­
ference, and annual gain in both, the advantage, other things being equal, was
on the side of the peasant children ; and in each of the groups families with
the higher income had the better-developed children. Numerous tables give the
author’s findings and those of other writers.
Poetter: “ Messungen und Wägungen von Leipziger Schulkindern im
Kriege, verglichen mit der Priedenszeit ” [Measurements and weights
of Leipzig school children in war times as compared with peace times],
Zeitschrift für Schulgesundheitspflege [Leipzig], vol. 32 (1919), pp.
49-57.
•
In February, 1914, all the public-school children of Leipzig were measured
and weighed systematically. By the same system the boys and girls o f the
fifteenth and thirty-first district schools, between 7 and 14 years of age, were
weighed and measured in March, 1917, and February, 1918. Thus the author
had data on more than 1,200 children in one of the schools and on 1,200 to
1,500 children in the other school for each of the years, 1914, 1917, and 1918.
The system of measurements is described, and the results are presented in six
tables. The more prosperous children of the one school showed better values
than those of the other. Girls showed superiority over boys from the eleventh
or twelfth year on. Measurements in 1917 and 1918 showed a reduction in
weight, a very slight decrease in height, and a decided increase in girth of chest.
Porter, W . T .: “ The growth of St. Louis children.” Transactions of the
Academy of Science of St. Louis, vol. 6 , no. 12 (1894), pp. 263-380.
An exhaustive study based on measurements of 33,500 children in St. Louis
schools, each individual measured but once. Measurements of head and face
were made by medical students ; other data were collected by teachers in ac­
cordance with printed instructions, here reproduced. A list of the apparatus
used and schedule of the survey are also given. Statistical methods employed
are explained at length, and the comparison of median and average values is


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505

506

507

508

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discussed, also influence o f occupation and nationality of parents. There are
chapters on percentile grades, sexual differences in growth, rate of growth,
relation between physical development and mental capacity, and the applica­
tion to individuals of mean values derived by the generalizing method. Many
tables and diagrams and a bibliography are included.
Porter, W . T. : “ The physical basis of precocity and dullness.” Trans­
actions of the Academy of Science [St. Louis], voi. 6 , no. 7 (1893),
pp. 161-181.
See also Zeitschrift für Ethnologie [Berlin] ; vol. 25
(1893), pp. 337-356.
From measurements of 33,500 St. Louis school children (for method see
No. 503 this section) the author derives tables and graphs based upon distribu­
tion by school grades, from which he concludes : (1) Precocious children are
heavier, taller, have larger chest girths and wider heads than either the mean
or average child of same age, and dull children, vice versa. (2) The compara­
tive rate of growth of dull, mediocre, and precocious children of the same sex
is the same at all ages from 7 to 16, inclusive ; the acceleration in weight
preceding puberty takes place at thé same age, and the point at which girls
become heavier than boys is the same. (3) No child whose weight is below
the average for his age should be promoted beyond the average grade for his
age without physical examination.
------ — “ The relations between the growth of children and their deviation
from the physical type of their, sex and age.” Transactions of the
Academy of Science of St. Louis, voi. 6 (1893-1894), pp. 243-250.
The author discusses work of Quetelet in arriving at a law of probable devia­
tion of individual measurements from the median value, and of Geissler and
Uhlitzsch on deviations' from the average value, of an anthropometric series,
and selects the average as the basis of his own conclusions. From measure­
ments.of 33,500 St. Louis school children (for method see No. 503 this section)
he derives tables showing number of observations (in groups), average, probable
deviation, relative annual increase of average, and relation of probable devia­
tion to average, and concludes that the physiological difference between the
individual children in an anthropometric series and the physical type of the
series is directly related to the quickness of growth.
---------- - “ The relative growth of individual Boston school boys.” Ameri­
can Journal of Physiology [Baltimore], voi. 61 (1922); pp. 311-325.
See also Bost. M . & S. J., voi. 188 (1923), pp. 639-644.
An investigation to determine how the growth of the individual boy is re­
lated to the growth of the average. Data were secured by monthly measure­
ments for nine years of 2,421 boys and 2,380 girls born in 1904, 1905, and
1906. The numerical chance that a child will remain in his initial percentile
grade throughout the period of growth is determined from these data ; also the
degree of such deviation as may occur. Many individual records are compared
with general results. The author feels that by means of these data retarded
growth may be detected and disease prevented or checked.
----------- “ The seasonal variation in the growth of Boston school children.”
Am. J. Physiol. [Baltimore], voi. 52 (1920), pp. 121-131.
A study to demonstrate seasonal variation in growth. .Several thousand
school children in Boston were measured as to height ánd weight in 1909, and
measurements were repeated monthly with same children through June, 1919.
Work was done by school nurses under physicians ; methods of measurement
are not given. Results are tabulated by months of age ; by gain in weight
from September to January and from February to June; by weights distributed
by months and by monthly percental increase. Graphic curves are derived.
Seasonal growth indicated by these curves was further demonstrated by com­
parison of two series of 12 consecutive weights taken from month-age and
growth-by-month tables, respectively.
Potei, M aurice: De l’accroissement en poids des enfants nés avant terme
[Growth in Weight of Premature Children]. Paris, no. 471, 1895.
40 pp.
Thesis (University of Paris). Weights are given for several hundred pre­
mature infants in the Crèche des Enfants Débiles. The increases in weight
are grouped according to the time of gestation.
Powys, A . O.: “ Data for the problem of evolution in man. Anthropo­
metric data from Australia.” Biometrika [Cambridge], vol. 1 (1902)_*
pp. 30-49.
With material irrelevant to the subject of growth the author includes
observations on the heights of male and female criminals in Australia.
Methods of measurement are not given. Ages are from 15 up. The article
includes comparative curves of male and female stature, plotted by heights
and frequency per 1,000 cases ; table of means, modes, standard deviation, and
skewness of 5-year age groups ; tables of heights and ages off about 50,000 male
and 8,000 female criminals in New South Wales. The author concludes that
man is more variable than woman in stature ; that after the age of 27 in man
and of 25 in woman there is a loss in height of approximately one-third inch
per 10 years.


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510

Puig y R oig, Pedro: “ Croissance pondérale et staturale des enfants
espagnols” [Growth in weight and height o f Spanish children].
Archives de médecine des enfants [Paris], vol. 22 (1919), pp. 449-465.
Data consist of statistics compiled in the Lying-in Hospital and Orpnanage
at Barcelona for the years 1910 to 1918 ; full measurements were taken every
three months. Most of the children were between 3 and 9 years of age The
author used the generalizing method. Spanish children seemed to be inferior
in development ' to Anglo-Saxon children,

511

Putilov, P .: Materiali k izucheniu rosta cheloviecheskavo tiela [Data
on the Growth of the Human Body], Omsk, 1886. 90 pp.
The author studied cadavers of human adults and that of one child for the
purpose of determining (1) the surface of various parts of these bodies and
their mutual relation and (2) the difference between the surfaces of the various
parts of the body of an infant and an adult. After a discussion of the history
of anthropology the author gives a number of tables showing for the infant and
for the adult the surfaces in square centimeters of. the various parts of the
head, neck, chest, abdominal region, pubic region, upper and lower extremitiesthe surfaces of all the muscles and the joints and of the membranes of the
head, neck, chest, and abdomen. In conclusion he summarizes all his findings in
one table and shows how much the skin of each part of the body grows from
birth to adult age.

512

Putnam , Jas. J .: “ The ideal weight of children.” Arch. Pediat. [New
York], vol. 39 (1922), pp. 71-85.
A discussion of factors influencing growth and nutrition. There are included
the data obtained by the U. S. Children's Bureau from the weighing and measur­
ing of 4,626 Gary children, aged 2 weeks to 7 years, and of 687 private-school
children near Boston.

513

Putzig, H ., and H . V ollm er: “ Die physiologischen Tagenschwankungen
des Körpergewichtes und der Körpertemperatur im Säuglingsalter ”
[The physiological daily fluctuations in the weight and temperature of
infants]. Ztschr. f. K vn der\ [Berlin], vol. 37 (1924), pp. 269-270.
The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether there is a relation between
the increase in weight and the decrease in body temperature in infants. The
infants (number not given) were fed five times a day every four hours ; the
food was in all cases equal in amount and composition ; the infants were
weighed and their temperature taken every four hours. The author found that
the daily weight of infants over 3 months old varies froth 150 to 500 grams.
It increases in the afternoon, reaches its- maximum at midnight, decreases in
the early morning and undergoes very little change throughout the forenoon.
The temperature runs a course very similar to that of the weight. These
fluctuations in weight and temperature, the authors think, are produced by the
transition from sleep to wakefulness and by the accompanying variations in
the intensity of metabolism. They found no direct causal connection between
the fluctuations in weight and those in temperature. References.

514

Pye, W .: “ Three lectures on the growth rates of the body and especially
of the limbs in their relation to the processes of rectification of de
fortuity.” Lancet [London], 1890, vol. 2, pp. 163, 329, 431.
Tables are given of the ,annual increment of stature for various ages and
various social strata ; also of the rate of growth o f' the limbs.

515

P yle, W . H .: A Manual for the Mental and Physical Examination of
School Children (revised). University of Missouri Bulletin [Colum­
bia], vol. 21, no. 12 (1920). 39 pp.
Tables o f physical measurements for city and country children.

516

— ------- “A study of the mental and physical characteristics of the Chi­
nese.” School and Society [New York], vol. 8 (1918), pp. 264-269.
Data for this study were collected by Dr. J. W. Creighton under the direc­
tion of the author. About 500 Chinese from 10 to 18 years of age were
measured as to standing and sitting height and weight, lung capacity, strength
o f grip, muscular speed of hands, length and breadth o f head. A comparison
with American standards showed the Chinese in general physically inferior
to Americans.

517

----------- and P. E. C ollin s: “ The mental and physical development of
rural children.” School-and Society [New York], vol. 8 (1918), pp
534-539.
*
A study o f the entire school population of a Missouri county, over 2,000
children in, all, the physical measurements, which were made in the fall of
l ? 17’. including heightstanding, height sitting, weight, lung capacity, strength
of grip, and muscular speed. Absolute and relative measurements for country
and city children are shown in tabular form. In general there was little
difference in physical development between country and city children, with
the balance slightly in favor of city children. City boys made à better showing
than city girls.


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519

520

521

522

523

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75

Quest, Robert: “ Über extreme Körpergewichtsabnahmen bei Kindern
der ersten zwei Lebensjahre ” [Extreme losses o f body weight in chil­
dren during the first two years of life]. Monatschr. /. Kinderh. [Leip­
zig], vol. 3 (1 9 0 4 -5 ), pp. 453-464.
After discussing the works of Bouchaud (1864) and Woronoff (1882) on
extreme losses of weight in children the author considers the question how
great such a loss of weight may he and still permit recovery. Sifting ma­
terial in the Breslau Children’s Clinic covering 10 years he selects 38 cases
o f children 2 years old or younger who lost more than one-fourth of their
weight. Thirteen cases belonged to the first and second months ; 17 were
from the third to the sixth, 8 from the sixth to the twenty-fourth. The
smaller the total weight, the larger the relative loss.
The most frequent
causes of decrease in weight were tuberculosis and nutritional disturbances.
Among the 38 there were 8 cases of the former, 23 of the latter. From the
23 the author selected 7, for which he gives long case histories and weight
curves. The greatest loss in an infant that recovered amounted to 34.8 per
cent of its weight.
Quetelet, L. A . J . : Anthropométrie [Anthropometry]. Baillière et fils,
Paris, 1871. 479 pp.
A comprehensive work including tables of measurements, a discussion of the
relation of various factors such as climate, age, profession, economic status,
etc., to body measurements, and a study of the laws of physical growth.
---------— “ Recherches sur la loi de la croissance de l’homme ” [Re­
searches on the law of growth in m an]. Annales d’hygiène publique
et de médecine légale [Paris], vol. 6 (1831), pp. 88-113.
Contains a careful study of data concerning the growth of man from which
the author derives a formula for the law of growth. He finds that woman
is shorter than man because she is smaller at birth, reaches maturity sooner,
and has a slower rate of growth. At the age of 19 years men in the city
are taller than men in the country. The growth of man terminates at about
the twenty-fifth year.
---------- “ Recherches sur le poids de l’homme aux différents â ges” [Re­
searches in the weight of man at different ages]. Annales d’hygiène
' publique et de médecine légale [Paris], vol. 10, pt. 1 (1833), pp.
5—27.
An article that does not include the tables upon which the author’s con­
clusions are based but reports a small number of observations upon the newborn and children under 5 years of age. One of the earliest reseâréhes to
establish the fact of loss in weight immediately after birth and the variation
m the relative weight and height of the sexes at the period of puberty.
----------- Sur l’homme et le développement de ses facultés [On Man and the
Development of His Faculties]. Bachelier, Paris, 1835. Vol. 1, 327
pp. ; vol. 2, 327 pp.
In-the second volume of this important work (pp. 1 to 96) thé author gives
. the results of his studies on the bodily development of man from the fetal
stage to dissolution. The article is interesting as pioneer work in the science
of physical measurements and the mathematical treatment of physical data and
establishes some o f the fundamental facts which have been verified by later in­
vestigations. Many tables show increase in weight, height, and strength com­
pared for the sexes and for different classes of society.
----- “ Taille de l’homme â: Venise pour l’âge de vingt ans ” [Stature of
Venetian men at the age o f 20 years]. Bulletin de l’Académie royale
des sciences, des lettres et des beaux-arts de Belgique [Brussels] ser 2
vol. 27, no. 3 (1869), pp. 196-200.
The author briefly reviews the progress of anthropometry since the publica­
tion of his Physique Sociale ” in 1835 and quotes the observations of M7 Bodio.
who measured, a large number of young soldiers in Venice -and found in his
results a verification of Quetelet’s theories as to the laws of growth. '■
Quirsfeld, Eduard: “ Untersuchungsergebnisse der physischen und geis­
tigen Entwicklung bei 1,014 Kindern vom 1 . bis 8 . Schuljahre” [Re­
sults of investigations of the physical and mental development of 1,014
children from the first to the eighth school year]. Prager Medicinische
Wochenschrift, vol. 32 (1907), pp. 653-656.
Frpm observations on the physical and mental development of the same 1 014
children through the first eight years of their schooling the author presents
statistics and suggestions on hygiene. During the eight years boys increased in
height 30.02 centimeters and girls 36.6 centimeters ; boys increased in chest
firth 12.3 centimeters and girls 13.21 centimeters ; boys increased in weight
ko ßi ^ ° ^ ranisi
kilograms ; and in strength boys improved from
52.61 per cent to 70.21 per cent and girls from 55.71 per cent to 70.12 per cent.
Mental and physical fitness were parallel. At entrance 39.2 per cent and 42 1
per cent of the girls were healthy and without defect ; at the end of eight years
these percentages had fallen to 25.1 and 32.5, respectively.
;
*
12229°— 27------ 6


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525

526

527

528

529

530

531

PHYSICAL GBOWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OP TH E CHILD
Quirsfeld, E du ard: “ Zur physischen und geistigen Entwicklung des
Kindes während der ersten Schuljahre ” [Physical and mental develop­
ment of the child during the first school years]. Zeitschrift für Schul­
gesundheitspflege [Hamburg and Leipzig], vol. 18 (1905), pp. 103-185.
This article, containing a great mass of statistics, discusses examinations of
about 8,000 boys and girls made every July during the first four years of school,
as to height, chest girth, lung capacity, weight, muscular tissue, and nutrition,
vision, hearing, comprehension, memory, etc. The material is worked into tables
o f measurements, percentages, curves, and diagrams. Physical and^ mental
development varied directly with material prosperity. Girls evidenced better
comprehension and memory than boys and during the four years improve more
therein.
Radlauer, C u rt: “Anthropometrische Studien an Somali (H aschia)”
[Anthropometrical studies of the Somali]. Archiv für Anthropologie
[Braunschweig], new ser. vol. 13 (1914), pp. 451-473.
In the summer of 1910 the author obtained measurements o f 85 Somali,
among whom there were 22 adult males, 1 adult female, 6 girls (5 to 8 years
old), and 6 boys (8 to 12 years old). Following a résumé of previous
anthropological studies of these people he reports the results of these measure­
ments in numerous tables of absolute and relative values, based upon the
arithmetical averages of his observations. The individual measurements are
also given for each of the 35 subjects. Bibliography.
Radosavljevich, P. R. : “ Physical measurements of pupils in Mostar,
Herzegovina (A u stria).” Translations of the Fourth International
Congress on School Hygiene [Buffalo], vol. 5 (1914), pp. 541-550.
The original purpose of this study was to investigate thoroughly the relation
between bodily development and intellectual activity of school children. A
total of 4,634 persons between the ages of birth and 65 years were measured,
but this paper relates only to pupils from the high gymnasium for boys, the
elementary and secondary public schools of Mostar, All were Serbs or Croats.
Measurements were made of standing height, sitting height, circumference,
length, width, and height of head, length, width of right and left ear, and
body weight. Technique is described, and results are tabulated. From tables,
of average values the author found very slight correlation between measure-,
ments and mental capacity. Since average values studied and evaluated with
reference to the distribution, of cases, maxima and minima, and so forth, give
a variety of results, the author concludes that school anthropology has not
yet reached the stage of definite conclusions.
Ram sey, W . R ., and A . G. A lle y : “ Observations on the nutrition and
growth of newborn infants.” Am. J. Dis. Child. [Chicago], vol. 15
(1918), pp. 408-412.
A comparison of data from charts in the ward for newborn in the hospital
connected with the University of Minnesota, with certain generally accepted
Standards of nutrition and growth. Some of the points considered are average
birth weight, average initial loss, average time when recovery of weight
begins, daily number of stools, gain in weight during the first 10 days.
Ranke, J. : “ Über Körpermessung an Lebenden ” [Body measurements
on living subjects]. Correspondènzhlatt der Deutschen Gesellschaft
für Anthropologie, Ethnologie und Urgeschichte [Munich], 1884, 15th
year, pp, 171-177.
A study of the laws of growth as applied to.the fetus, the infant, and the
adult, with spécial reference to the relative proportions of the body and limbs.
Ranke, O. : “Anthropometrische Untersuchungen an gesunden und kran­
ken Kindern mit besonderer Berücksichtigung des schulpflichtigen
Alters ” [Anthropometrical investigations on healthy and sick children
with special reference to school age], Zeitschrift für Schulgesund­
heitspflege [Hamburg and Leipzig], vol. 18 (1905), pp. 719-745, 81 6837. ,
This article is prefaced with a discussion of former work on the subject,
especially that done by Lihariik. The author’s research rests on measure­
ments made in the summer and fall of 1902 on 2,509 healthy and 298 sick
children, from birth to 15 years of age, in schools, clinics,1; and other institu­
tions, o f Kiel, Lubeck, and Alsterdorf. Of the healthy children 1,468 were
boys, 1,041 girls. The investigation involved details of body length, size of
head, and family history. In addition to giving' comprehensive tables of fig­
ures the author discusses many individual cases, being especially interested
in incipient hydrocephalus. He finds that boys are larger than girls, except
between the ages of 6 and 14, and that the head has assumed its definitive
form by the seventh year. The children were almost all brachycephalic, the
girls showing slightly lower averages than the boys. Especially, intelligent
children had mean values, for their ages, of head measurements and indexes.
--------- . “ Beiträge zur Frage des kindlichen W achstum s” [D ata on the
question of children’s growth]. Archiv für Anthropologie [Braun­
schweig], new ser. vol. 3 (1905), pp. 161-180.
Measurements of 2,509 children varying in age from a few hours to 15 years.
The investigation was made in a gynecological clinic and in day nurseries and


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schools of the cities of Kiel and Lubeck. The author gives for each year of
age and each sex the height, length of trunk, length of legs, horizontal sagit­
tal and transverse head circumference, and head diameters, body-head index
trunk-head index auricular height and index, stating the differences noted at
the end of the 15 years. Quotations are given from several investigators for
purposes of comparison.
rfS
532

R aynaud, L. : “ Détermination de l’â g e ” [The determination of age].
Journal de médecine de Paris, 2 ser. vol. 19 (1907), pp. 32-33.
Medidb-legal. The author reports in detail his method of determining the
lf% n d y 21hyears1oldXammatl0n’ ° f an Algerian Prisoner, apparently between

533

Reiche, A d a lb e rt: “ Das Wachstum der Frühgeburten in den ersten
Lebensmonaten ” [The growth of the premature child in the first
months of life]. Zeitschr. f. Kinderh. [Berlin], vol. 12 (1915), pp. 369-

534

535

536

oAft stu(iy of the growth and development of 100 premature infants weighing
840 grams to 2,500 grams, at the Empress Augusta Victoria House They were
“ enured every 8 to 14 days in weight, height, and girth o f head and chest!
The article contains many tables and curves. Bibliography.
Physiological, Anatomical and Pathological Researches.
Sutherland & Knox, Edinburgh, 1848. 659 pp.
. i ? chapter 13 (pp. 376—388) the author gives tables of the weights of some
u fjh e organs of the body at different period! of life. The information was col
lected at the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary and includes a limited number of
observations of the organs of children. Methods used are de“ ribedTn detail
-!:11? H \ Ih lefeld t: “ Einfluss von Alter der Mutter und
Geburtigkeit des Kindes auf dessen Entwicklung ” [Effect of mother’s
age and number of pregnancies on the development of the child]
Klinische Wochenschrift [Berlin], vol. 1 (1922), pp. 2524-2525.
Investigation o f 634 legitimate children born in Rostock Prussia in deter

born to younger mothers are superior to children of multiparæ and eider
mothers in weight at birth, and in weight and size, s t X o ? ¿utrftion and
?hysical and mental condition at the time of the investigation
This is' con
traiy to the findings of many other authors. Four tables are given.
*
°
von Reuss, A . : “ Über die Bedeutung der Unterernährung in der ersten
Lebenszeit ’ [The significance of undernourishment in earlv infancvl
Ztschr. f. Kinderh. [Berlin], vol. 4 (1912), pp. 499-525
yJ'
hlB*0tleS ,0r 1“ ,ant8 are slv“

537

538

*» connection with ,

Reuter, F. : “ Beiträge zur Anthropologie Hinterpommerns. Eine Schul­
kinderuntersuchung in Pollnow ” [Data on the anthropology of lower
Pomerania ; an investigation of the school children in Pollnowl
Archiv fur Anthropologie ([Braunschweig], vol. 28 (1903), pp. 288-338
Q<rfIeawa1'^mei ? ^ . Were “ ade of 189 b°ys and 184 girls, from 6 to 14 years of
Each child’s record gave age; birthplace of child and of parents •^atheFs
occupation »col or of skin, eyes, and hair ; head form ; shape of forehead nnw
and ears ; state of nutrition ; and 19 body measurements. Methods and instru’
ments are described. Many tables give the results of the measurements™!!?
panson with Worcester children, and various correlations measurements> comhn, ‘‘ K ? P^ 0r™ .und KôrPerbau ” [Form of head and structure of
5 U9Ô8)
h 4£ l!47f aSSen' Und Gesellschafts-Biol<jgie [Munich], vol.
S

* U£ I ° Î
w itlf short^orso^nd^ong^egs^^ve1! ì g
hSd il l i S ï î
lU ty
is broad and long. These conclusions are based on a masa of material presented
from r i r « h”t S
539

S M rSt srm p

hoys and girla

Riccardi, P. : “ Di alcune correlazioni di sviluppo fra la statura umana e
1 altezza del corpo seduto” [Relations between standing and sitting
heights in the human being]. Memorie della Reggia Accademia di
(scienza, L ettere ed A rti [Modena], voi. 8 , ser. 2 (1892), pp. 231-309
,
author studied the relation between standing height and sitting beie-ht
in 1,185 persons from 3 to 35 years old, men and women in nearly enne?
numbers. In a number of tables the author gives by scS and age the s ^ a n C
n>eieeÎèeS1+ting heighÌi’ annual increase in each, and proportion in both heiehtf
S . J eonentage^ and fluctuations in this proportion for each year of aee in^fhe
first 20 years of life. He concludes that in both sexes the sittìng height il


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PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF TH E CHILD
somewhat greater than half the standing height; the proportion between the
two increases with advancing a g e; in women this disproportion is a little
greater than in men, particularly between the ages of 12 and 35 years.
Riccardi, P .: “ Note antropologiche fatte intorno ad alcuni giovani della
R. Casa di Custodia in Bologna ” [Anthropological notes about some
boys at the royal house of detention in Bologna]. Archivio di psichiatria, science penali ed antropologia criminate [Turin], vol. 3 (1882), pp.
151-156.
.
The author gives a description of the physical characteristics of each of 20
hoys; also, in a table, the age, height, span of arms, antero-posterior, trans­
verse, and minimum frontal diameters, height of face, bizygomatic diameter,
facial angle, cephalic index, and horizontal circumference of head. This is fol­
lowed by a discussion of the values so obtained and an enumeration of the
abnormal physical characteristics found, such as asymmetry of skull and face,
low forehead, hydrocephalic characteristics of skull, prognathism, and mongoloid,
negroid, and cretin types.
Riedel, Eduard: Die Korperlange von Miinchner Schulkindern [Height
of Munich School Children]. Munich, 1913. 34 pp.
Inaugural dissertation (University of Munich). The author discusses the
height of 1,862 school boys and 1,854 girls 5% to 7% years old, attending three
public schools in Munich in 1912—13. Shoes were not reckoned in the height.
The girls were measured by the author himself. The arithmetical mean height
was. 110.9030 centimeters and 114.0468 centimeters for boys of 6 and 7 years;
109.7146 centimeters and 113.3098 centimeters for girls of these ages. For
each case the author has calculated, also, the oscillation exponent, mean devia­
tion from the arithmetical mean, mean deviation from the single value, and
probable deviation from the same, probable deviation from the arithmetical
mean, parameter of the Gauss curve, e tc .; all of which he discusses in the
opening section of his thesis. In nine graphs he compares his results with
theoretical data or with the figures of Geissler-Uhlitzsch.
R ietz, E .: “ D as Wachstum Berliner Kinder wahrend der Schuljabre ”
[Growth of Berlin children during school years]. Archiv fur Anthropologie [Braunschweig], new ser. vol. 1 (1 90 3-4), pp. 30-42.
This article concerns the height, weight, and chest measure of 5,134 school
children of Berlin, divided according to sex and material prosperity. The meas­
urements are taken in summer clothing, shoes excluded; chest measurements
according to Frolich’ s methods. Tables and graphs give height, weight, and
annual growth o f boys and girls; other tables give variations in height and
mass, chest measurements, _the quotient of weight in grams divided by height
in centimeters, and comparison of boys and girls of richer and poorer classes in
Berlin and other German cities with those, respectively, of Sweden, Denmark,
England, Boston, Turin, and Warsaw. The author comments on a retardation
m growth of boys from the age of 9 or 10 to 13 or 14, and on earlier pubertal
acceleration in girls at 11 to 14. The more prosperous class is better developed
than the poor class, the chest averaging 3 centimeters greater in circum­
ference. The Berlin children showed superiority in height to all others except
the English.
°v
R ip ley, W . Z . : “ The form of the head as influenced by growth.” Science
[New York and Lancaster, P a.], new ser. vol. 3 (1896), pp. 888-889.
The author measured length and breadth of heads of 485 students at the
Massachusetts Institute of Technology grouped as follow s: First year, 215;
second, 6 9 ; third, 66; fourth, 136. Measurements apparently were taken but
once, and the method is not given. Results are compared with observations of
several investigators in the United States and Europe.
Roberts, C .: “ The physical development and the proportions of the
human body.” St. George's Hospital Reports, 1874-1876 [London],
vol. 8 (1877), pp. 1-48.
An investigation suggested by the work of Quetelet to determine the typical
forms of man for each age as they existed at that date in England. The
measurements considered were height, chest girth, weight of body, and size
and proportions of head, trunk, and limbs. Data were collected from the work
of many investigators and arranged in eight tables and two diagrams showing
average and mean proportions of the body at each year from birth to 30 years
of age.
-------- “ The physical requirements of factory children.”
Journal of
the Royal Statistical Society [London], vol. 39 (1876), pp. 681-733.
An attempt to formulate standard tables of physical measurements to assist
factory surgeons in determining whether children should be certified as fit for
employment. The tables show actual, average, and mean height, chest girth,
and weight of about 10,000 factory and other children, and the relation which
these physical qualities bear to one another; the relations between heights
and weights of 1,000 boys of the exact age of 14; the mean rate of growth
between 8 and 14 years for determining the typical proportions of any child
of the laboring class; the height, chest girth, and weight of 1,000 children of
each age (last birthday) and both sexes, from which are deduced minimum
standards of physical capacity for factory work.


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Robertson, T. B railsford: “A comparison of the weights at birth of
British infants born in the British Isles, the United States, and Aus­
tralia.” University of California Publications on Physiology [Berke­
ley], vol. 4, no. 20 (1915), pp. 207-210.
From the work of various investigators in the three countries mentioned
the author discovered that Australian newborn infants weigh more than those
born in the eastern United States, and the latter than those born in the
British Isles. He discusses social and economic conditions in the three coun­
tries and concludes that birth weight of infants of same race is a sensitive
criterion of social and economic environment.
547 -------- — “ Studies on the growth of m a n : I. Pre- and post-natal growth
of infants. II. The postnatal loss of weight in infants and the com­
pensatory overgrowth which succeeds it.” Am. J. Physiol. [Baltimore],
vol. 37 (1915), pp. 1-42, 74-85.
I. A curve for the latter part of intrauterine growth is plotted by mathe­
matical processes, the basic data being the weight of premature infants in
South Australia. This curve is a continuation of the postnatal weight curve
with an indentation at birth. There is no indication of more than one growth
cycle in utero after the implantation of the embryo. The human growth
periods are (1) to the implantation of the embryo; (2) to the age of 1 year;
(3) to the age of 5.5; (4) to adult weight. The maximum velocity of growth
is at 12.5 years in the female and at 14.5 years in the male. II. The infants
were weighed one week after birth. A comparison is made between the observed
loss and gain in early infancy and the presumptive weight if the curve of
growth were not depressed by birth.
548 —— — “ Studies on the growth of man. III. The growth of British in­
fants during the first year succeeding birth.” Am. J. Physiol. [Bal­
timore], vol. 41 (1916), pp. 535-545.
From data supplied by infant-welfare associations in London and Leeds on
about 2,000 infants a curve is derived by indicated statistical methods, show-,
ing increase of weight in males and females of British parentage during the
first, year. Comparisons are made with data on South Australian infants of
British descent. The author finds that though the absolute amplitude of the
first growth cycle in man is affected by environment the specific velocity of
the growth process is affected very little; that the period of half completion
of the cycle is later in females than in males and in Australia than in Eng­
land. Bibliography.
549 -----------“ Studies on the growth of man. IV. The variability of the weight
and stature of school children and its relation to their physical wel­
fare.” Am. J. Physiol. [Baltimore], vol. 41 (1916), pp. 547-554.
An investigation to determine (a) the relative variability of weights and
stature in school children and (b) the influence o f environment upon the
variabilities of these dimensions. The study is based on the records of 50
children of each sex, and age, from 6 to 14 years, inclusive, selected from the
statistics of the Oakland. Calif., School Department; Curves are derived in
the usual manner for each sex. The author finds that rate of growth in
weight and variability in weight increase from the seventh to the fifteenth
year; that stature and variability of stature increase at an almost uniform
rate during this period; that the variability of stature is less than the varia­
bility o f w eight; that, at 8 years of age, increasingly unfavorable environ­
ment and lack of medical care result in deficiency of weight and stature, de­
creased variability of weight, and increased variability of stature.
550 ----------- The Chemical Basis of Growth and Senescence. J. B. Lippincott
Co., Philadelphia, 1923. 389 pp.
In Chapter II, “ The Physical Manifestations of Growth in Man,” the author
assembles the results of many studies to demonstrate the existence of three
growth cycles in man— the infantile, the juvenile, and the adolescent.
551 Rogers, B. M . H .: “ The physique of boys.” Bristol Medico-Chirurgical
Journal [Bristol], vol. 27 (1909), pp. 27-31.
A comparative study of the heights, weights, and chest measurements of
boys 13, 14, and 15 years of age in industrial schools and in public schools,
reported by the medical officer of the Clifton Wood Industrial School. Meth­
ods of obtaining data and the number of measurements are not definitely
stated.
552 R ok h lin , L. L . : “ Rabochie podrostki shkol fabrzavucha po metalu ”
[Apprentices attending the industrial schools in the metal industries],
Vrachebnoie Dielo [Kharkov], vol. 8 (1925), columns 391-398.
The author studied the physical condition of 540 boys between 14 and 18 years
o f age, apprentices attending trade schools in the metal industries. He gives for
each year o f age the average standing and sitting height, annual increase in
millimeters of chest circumference at inspiration, expiration, and in repose;
weight in kilograms ; average and annual gain in pectoral index, i. e., difference
between chest circumference and half height. In several tables he compares
the. state of nutrition, and the type and incidence of diseases among his cases,
with those of apprentices from other parts of Russia, quoting several Russian
writers. References.


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PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF TH E CHILD
Rosenstern, Iw an : “ Zur Wirkung der Kohlehydrate auf den Anwuchs
im Säuglingsalter” [Effect of carbohydrates on growth in infancy].
Zeitschr. f. Kinderh. [Berlin], vol. 18 (1918), pp. 333-352.
In connection with a study of the effect of various diets on growth the
author gives for two healthy infants many tables and eight curves relating
to weight and metabolism.
Rotch, T. M .: “A , comparison in boys and girls of height, weight, and
epiphyseal developments”
Transactions of the American Pediatric
Society [New York], vol. 22 (1911),*pp. 36-38.
In studying a table made up from over 500 cases examined by Röntgen rays,
together with other material, the author found a decided difference between the
epiphyseal growth and that of height and weight. He also found that epiphy­
seal growth seemed to have a definite relationship, to mental growth and
suggests the state of the epiphyses as a sound basis for educational grading.
---------- and A . W . G eorge: “ A study of normal living anatomy in early
life.” Transactions of the Association of American Physicians [Phila­
delphia], vol. 22 (1907), pp. 67-75. See also American Journal of
Medical Sciences [Philadelphia and New York], vol. 134 (1907), pp.
417-424.
The authors advocate studying growth and development by a series o f X rays
for all ages and illustrate by five röntgenograms showing the normal foot of a
child, the vital organs, and centers of ossification of the hand at 2% and 6
years of age. Data were collected at the Children’s Hospital, Boston.
R o t t : “ Zur Ernährungstechnik frühgeborener Säuglinge ” [Feeding tech­
nique for premature infants]. Ztschr. f. Kinderh. [Berlin], vol. 5
(191 2-13), pp. 134-174.
The article contains a case history, growth curve, and table of body weights
and amounts of milk imbibed, for each of 13 infants.
R ott, F r itz : “ Beitrag zur Wesenerklärung der physiologischen Gewichts­
abnahme des Neugeborenen ” [Contribution to the explanation of the
physiological loss of weight in the newborn], Ztschr. f. Kinderh. [Ber­
lin], vol. 1 (1910-11), pp. 43-61.
To investigate the initial loss of weight of the newborn the author used
Strubell’s refractometric method of determining the breaking exponent (n d) of
the blood serum. He examined four healthy breast-fed infants in a private
clinic for almost two weeks after birth and gives in this article their case
histories, and for each day the body weight, n d, amount of food taken, and a
curve of refraction, of weight, and of nourishment. There is an obvious parallel
between the weight curve and the refraction curve. The author believes that
the initial loss is due primarily to a loss of water. Infants drink nothing their
first day, little on the second day. Their weight falls lowest on the third
day and equals weight at birth on the sixth day or later.
Row e, Olin W . : “ Routine examination and management of the newborn.”
Minnesota Medicine [St. Paul], vol. 8 (1925), pp. 24-30.
Records of 638 newborn infants at the Duluth Clinic, Minnesota, showed the
average weight of 327 boys as 3,374 grams; of 311 girls as 3,161 grams.
Rum a, R . : “Antropometricheskiia materiali dlia opredelienia fizicheskavo
razvitiia uchashchikhsia ” [Aaithropometrical data on physical develop­
ment of school children]. SborniJc sochmienii po sudebuoy meditsinie
[St. Petersburg], vol. 3, pt. 2 (1880), pp. 95-131.
Previous literature on the physical development of children, Russian and
foreign, is discussed. The author obtained for each year of age the average
height, weight, and chest circumference of 1,706 pupils in elementary and sec­
ondary schools; they varied in ages from 7 to 18 years; one-third of them were
girls. The weight he was able to obtain for only 411 of the children. He com­
pares his data with those of other investigators and finds that his children were
physically inferior to those studied by the other -writers. He attributes this
not only to the effect of school but to living conditions.
Runeburg, Einar: “ Till kännedomen om kroppsvickten hos nyfödda
främst med hänsyn till förhällandena i Finland ” [W eight of the new­
born with special reference to conditions in Finland]. Finslca LäTcaresällsJcapets HandUngar [Helsingfors], vol. 57 (1915), pp. 894-906.
In a table are given the weights of 19,124 infants born of 12,498 married and
6,626 unmarried mothers from 1866 to 1905 in a lying-in hospital in Helsing­
fors. The average weight for all infants studied was 3,378 grams. For in­
fants o f unmarried mothers the average weight was 3,342 grams, and for infants
of married mothers, 3,413 grams.
Russow, A . : “ Vergleichende Beobachtungen über den Einfluss der
Ernährung mit der Brust und der künstlichen Ernährung auf das
Gewicht und den Wuchs (Länge) der K inder” [Comparative observa­
tions on the effect of breast feeding and artificial feeding on the weight
and height of children]. Jahrb. f. Ki/nderh. [Leipzig], vol. 16 (18808 1 ), pp. 86-132.


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The effect of breast feeding as compared with artificial feeding, based on
5,000 weights and measurements of children (number of children not given)
obtained in St. Petersburg. Of these 4,100 refer to infants 15 days to 1 year
o ld ; 900 to those over l year but under 8 years old. The author presents
in a number of tables the weight and length of the- infants for each month
of age according to the method of feeding. The breast-fed infants of the same
ages were heavier and longer than the others; of the children 1 to 8 years
old those that were breast fed in infancy were heavier and taller than the
others, especially in the first years of life.
Sack, N . : “ Materiali k kharakteristikie fizicheskavo razvitya dietie ”
[Data on physical development of children]. Vestnik obshtshestvennoy
hiyieni, sudebnoy i prakticheskoy meditzini [St. Petersburg], January,
1898, pp. 1-34.
A study based on the examination by the author of 6,678 pupils in Moscow
schools between the ages of 8 and 22 years. A large number of tables give
age, height, weight, and chest circumference for each year of age of the
children examined, relation between these measurements and their annual
increase, and weight of the children according to the economic situation of
the parents. In conclusion the author states that in the school life of Moscow
there were apparently factors favoring the children’s growth in height but
tending to check the satisfactory development of their chest circumference
and weight.

563

------- “ Über die körperliche Entwicklung der Knaben in den Mittel­
schulen Moskaus ” [The physical development of boys in the interme­
diate schools of Moscow]. Zeitschrift für Seimigesundheitspflege
[Hamburg and Leipzig], vol. 6 (1893), pp. 649-663.
,
^:as toi do with 6,800 observations made September to December,
.
x• ’
b°ys ® to 22 years of age in 12 high schools and polytechnics
or Moscow. I he six tables and discussion concern particularly the height and
chest girth and their relation to each other, the annual growth, and comparison with boys of like ages in lower classes. The physique of the boys studied,
though inferior to that of boys in other countries, is superior to that of their
fellow-countrymen in the lower schools, in factories, etc. Their “ spurt ” is
from 12 to 16, whereas that of the latter is from 14 to 18. The Jews are
relatively small and have a -“ spurt” o f only 2 years
Safford, M . V ictor: Influence of Occupation on Health during Adoles­
cence. See U. S. Public Health Service.

564

Sakuragi, J .: Gewichtsverhältnisse von Säuglingen proletarischer Be­
völkerung bei natürlicher und künstlicher Ernährung [W eight of
Breast-Eed and Artificially-Fed Infants of the Working Classes]
. Kästner & Callwey, Munich, 1908. 99 pp.
Weights and heights of 200 breast fed and 180 artificially-fed infants— bovs
and girls in equal numbers— are given for different age periods under f year
These children were brought to a milk station and consultation center in
Munich. Weights of Japanese infants from Mishima’s book on the growth of
Japanese children are also given.
Salomon, G ustav: Uber Messung und Wägung von Schulkindern und
deren praktische Konsequenzen für die Lösung einiger hygienischer
Schulfragen [Measuring and Weighing School Children and Their
Practical Results in Solving Some Problems of School Hygiene]. Jena
1898. 63 pp,
•
’
Inaugural dissertation (University of Jena). A résumé of the work of
Quetelet, Zeising, Lihariik, Vierordt, Russow, Albu, Roberts, Wretiind Bowditch, Kotelmann, Landsberger, Mailing-Hansen, Vahl, Hertel, Karstadt Axel
Key, Wiener, Dovertie, Camerer, Janke, Schmid-Monnard, Kosmowski and
Gilbert to collect and summarize their work for the benefit of future investiga­
tors. No original observations. Bibliography.
Salvetti, G., and S. Segagni: “ Quelques remarques sur les enfants
élevés au biberon ” [Remarks on bottle-fed infants].
Nourrisson
[Paris], vol. 10 (1922), pp. 29-37.
The authors record from their experience at a dispensary the results of
repeated weighings of a considerable number of infants nourished at the breast
with mixed feeding, and with artificial feeding. A series of 7,568 weighings’
continuing over one year, showed the superiority of breast feeding. Tables. ’
Sam osch: “ Einige bemerkenswerte Ergebnisse von Schulkindermessungen
und Wagungen ” [Some noteworthy results from measuring and weigh­
ing children]. Zeitschrift fur Schulgesundheitspflege [Hamburg and
Leipzig], vol. 17 (1904), pp. 389-403,
Eleven tables give height and w eight. measurements for 1,969 Breslau chil­
dren for half-yearly periods, the data for boys and girls being given sepa­
rately. The author intends that his study shall simply supplement the work
o f Schmidt and Lessenich on the children of Bonn. He believes that among
children of a given age usually the best developed physically are the most
advanced in school.

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Santori, S. : “ Studio su alcuni indici dello sviluppo fisico e sui rapporti
esistenti fra essi, l’agiatezza, l’intelligenza e la condotta; richerche
eseguite sugli .alunni delle scuole elementari del Comune di Roma negli
anni scolastici, 1903-1906 ” [Study of certain indications of the physi­
cal development of children and of the relations existing between physi­
cal development, economic conditions, intelligence, and conduct; investi­
gations of pupils of elementary schools of the municipality of Rome in
the school years 1903-1906]. Internationales Archiv für Schulhygiene
[Leipzig], voi. 3 (1907), pp. 225-242,
An original investigation of 1,400 school children from 6 to 18 years old in
the city of Rome. The author discusses height, weight, physical strength, chest
circumference, size of head; cephalic index, and visual acuity of the children
with reference to their age, economic condition, and degree of intelligence.
The physical condition of the children was found in general to be normal. The
children of the well to do were taller but had a smaller chest circumference than
the children of the poor. In other respects there was little difference between
them. There is a relation between physical and mental development, and atten­
tion and conduct in school, varying at the different stages of development.
569 Sargent, D. A . : “ On the relation of the cephalic index to height, weight,
strength, and mental ability.” . Journal of the Boston Society of Medi­
cal Sciences [Boston], voi. 4 (1899-1900), pp. 135-143.
To discover whether dolichocephalic and brachycephalic young men belong to
distinct types, mentally and physically, the author took record cards of 1,100
Harvard students who had been recently examined and grouped them according
to cephalic indices. The dolichocephalic group were found superior in height,
weight, strength, and athletics ; the brachycephalic in college rank.
570 ----------- “ The physical development of women.” Scribner’s Magazine
[New York], voi. 5, February, 1889, pp. 172-185.
A semipopular article based on comparative measurements of 1,200 boys and
girls, aged 13 to 16, and about 4,000 men and women, aged 17 to 35, with charts
illustrating the differences in the sexes, relating to about 50 body measurements.
Technique is not given.
571 ----------- “ The physical proportions of the typical man.” Scribner’s Maga­
zine [New York], voi. 2 (1887), pp. 3-17.
The author measured by his own methods, which are fully described, a large
number of persons of various ages and constructed charts of normal development
upon which might be plotted the line of an individual’s measurements showing
h is ‘ deviations from the average. A popular article explaining the writer’ s
objectives in physical training.
572 — »-------“ The physique of scholars, athletes, and the average student.”
Popular Science Monthly [New Y ork ]; voi. 73 (1908), pp. 248-256.
To ascertain whether students who rank highest in scholarship are also
superior in height and weight the author tabulated for study the medium
measurements of 15 groups of men including men from the University crews,
from the football teams, from the Lawrence Scièntiflc School, honor Scholar­
ship men in various groups, stipend scholarship men in various groups, the
first 50 athletes from 1893 to 1900, 1,000 University students in 1880, and
500,000 Americans in 1860 (Army standard). His study of this material led to
many interesting observations but no definite answer to fiis inquiry.
573 Sauerm ann: “ Zur Physiologie der Milchsekretion und der Ernährung der
Neugeborenen in den ersten Lebenstagen ” [Physiology of milk secre­
tion and of nutrition :of newborn in first days]. Medizinische Klinik
[Berlin], voi. 8 , pt. 1 (1912), pp. 280-281.
The author gives data relating to his own daughter born July 3, 1903, in 2
tables of weight from July, 1903, to January, 1905, and in tables giving size
of meals from August, 1903, to September, 1903. The child did not recover
birth weight till her sixth week.,
574 Scammon, Richard E. : “ On the weight increments of premature infants
as compared with those of fetuses of the same gestation age and
those of full-term children.” Proceedings of the Society for Experi• mental Biology and Medicine [New York], voi. 19 (192 1-22), pp.
133-136.
Curves of per cent increment in weight of 78 premature infants were kept
for nine months and compared with similar curves for full-term infants and
the calculated rate of increment of fetuses of the same, size and age-. A table
and à graph of the per cent increment, for the age is shown. The author
concludes that premature infants, after the initial retardation incident to
birth, grow at the fetal rate until the latter part of-the first year.
575 Schaeffer, O. : “ Über die Schwankungsbreite der Gewichts,Verhältnisse
vón Säuglingen in dèh ersten 14 Lebenstagen und die Ursachen dieser
,
Schwankungen” [The variation of weight in infants during the first
14 days of life and the causes thereof], Archiv für Gynäkologie
[Berlin], voi. 52 (1896), pp. 282-313.


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From an examination of 592 healthy children in clinics at Munich and
Heidelberg the author found that only 14.5 per cent had attained their initial
weight by the seventh day, and only 41 per cent by the fourteenth day. Girls
showed greater variation than boys. The heavier the infant the greater was
its initial loss. The weight was least where the mother was small, under 20
years of age, hard-working, tuberculous, etc.
The curve of the total N
elimination was parallel to the curves of weight and temperature. Prema­
ture children showed a greater elimination of N in the urine and! more
icterus, as well as greater loss of temperature.
von Schaetzel, Peter: Über den Einfluss des Alters der Mutter und der
Zahl der vorausgegangenen Schwangerschaften auf Länge und Gewicht
der Neugeborenen [On the Effect of the Mother’s Age and the Number
of Previous Pregnancies on the Length and Weight of the Newborn].
Julius Abel, Greifswald, 1893. 22 pp.
Figures are given for the weight and length of 1,520 newborn infants accord­
ing to mother’s age and number of pregnancies. Quotations from Hecker’s study
of 4,449 cases are included. The author found that the infant’s weight in­
creases with the mother’s age, the maximum being reached at 30 to 34 years,
after which there is a decrease, with again a slight increase for women over
39 years old. The weight was also found to increase with the number of pre­
vious pregnancies. Length was not . affected by cither the mother’s age or the
number of previous pregnancies. A large amount of statistical data on the
author’s cases is included.
Schick, B .: “ Die physiologische Nagellinie des Saüglings” [The physio­
logical nail line of the young infant]. Jahrh. f. Kinderh. [Berlin],
vol. 67 (1908), pp. 146-160.
The author presents seven pages of tables containing 250 measurements o f
the transverse line on the nail on the thumb, middle finger, and little finger of
young infants, as well as graphs and diagrams of the same. He explains that
such lines are not due to syphilis ; they may arise from any disturbance of health,
and also regularly appear from about the fifth week to the thirteenth week as
a physiological phenomenon. He therefore traces the development of the normal
infant nail from birth on. This line, since it has a definite progress, possesses
value as a sign of age. It appears also on the toenails. He concludes that the
vicissitudes of the birth act affect the matrix of the n a il; four to five weeks
afterwards the line on the nail appears and grows slowly out.
------- —- Ernährungsstudien beim Neugeborenen [Studies in feeding of
the newborn]. Ztschr. f. Kinderh. [Berlin], vol. 17 (1918), pp. 1-113.
The author is of the opinion that the physiological decrease in the infant’s
weight taking place within the first days after birth is due to insufficient intake
of food and can be avoided to a considerable extent by proper feeding. The
article contains a detailed account of the methods of feeding used for this
purpose under the author’s direction in 751 cases.
-----------“ Zur Frage der physiologischen-Körpergewichtsabnahme des Neu­
geborenen” [Question of physiological loss of body weight in the new­
born]. Ztschr. f. Kinderh. [Berlin], vol. 13 (191 5-16), pp. 257-281.
The author gives weight curves and amounts of nourishment for 12 infants
who were given forced feedings of human milk in order to prevent the usual
physiological loss of weight after birth. Theories and work of others along this
line are discussed. To a certain extent the forced feedings succeeded in their
object of preventing the physiological loss of weight.
Schiff, F ritz: “Anthropologische Untersuchungen an jüdischen Kindern
in Jerusalem ” [Anthropological investigations concerning Jewish
children in Jerusalem]. Archiv für Anthropologie [Braunschweig],
new ser. vol. 13 (1 91 4-15), pp! 348-357.
The author presents data collected by him in 1913 on height, cephalic index,
color of hair and eyes, etc., of 604 boys and girls from 4 to 16 years old, from
schools organized in Jerusalem by German Jews. The discussion is illustrated
by seven figures and five tables.
Schi0 tz, Carl: “Aldrene 12 til 17 aar ” [Ages 12 to 17 years]. Medicinsk
Revue [Bergen], vol. 36 (1919), pp. 149-181.
In 13 tables and 4 graphs observations are given as to social status, number
of children in family, height, weight, age at onset of puberty, head and face
dimensions, and color of hair and eyes of 231 boys and 177 girls. Bibliography.
— —— “En underspkelse av 10,000 Norske skolebarn, saerlig med hensyn
til vekstforhold ” [A study of 10,000 Norwegian school children with
special reference to growth]. Medicinsk Revue [Bergen], vol. .34
(1917), pp. 673-707, 751-832.
Following a short review of work in this field a detailed report is given on
all phases of growth, together with 30 graphs, 17 tables, and 8 diagrams.
Data are arranged to show the number of children of ordinary height, fair
height, tall and very tall stature, and of small, very small, and dwarf stature;
the relation of eye, hair color, and disease to grow th; the difference of growth
in the sexes; and the difference in the various social groups. A long bibliog­
raphy is included.


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* PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF TH E CHILD
Schi0tz, C arl: Physical Development of Children and Young People dur­
ing the Age of 7 to 18-20 Years. G. W . B r 0 ggers boktrykkeri, Chris­
tiania, 1923. 54 pp.
A detailed study of the development of 28,700 pupils attending elementary
and secondary schools in Christiania. The four parts
with (1)
weight, (2) height, (3) the relation between weight and height, (4) periods of
development and puberty. Great care was taken to have all measurements
made in a uniform manner with uniform instruments. Careful comparisons
are made as to the age periods when the greatest increases in weight and
height occur for the two sexes and for children from different types pf schools
and in different environments.
Statistical laws are followed strictly, the
probable error, standard deviations, etc., being worked out. Rohrer s index
/ weight X 100.\ j^g use(j in studying weight-height relations. As a means of

studying gthe ages at which the characteristic signs of puberity appear 2,999
children all of average development for their ages, were photographed without
clothing, and the facts brought out by such procedure are discussed. Twentyseven of these photographs are reproduced, together with 31 tables and curves.
“ Utviklingsforhold hos barn i 2 til 6 aars alder” [Develop­
584
mental conditions in children from 2 to 6 ]. Norsk Magasin for Laegevidenskaben [Christiania], ser. 5, vol. 18 (1920), pp. 425-459.
In five detailed tables with accompanying remarks the development of 264
boys and 249 girls is set forth. Several cuts show proportional development
Bibliography.
585 Schlake, Friedrich: Körpermessungen von Landkindern an der Südküste
des Kurischen Haffs [Body Measurements of Country Children on the
South Coast of the Kurisches H aff], Königsberg, 1916. 28 pp.
Inaugural dissertation (University of Königsberg). The author in December,
1915, measured 400 boys and girls 1 to 13 years old as to height, weight, chest
measurements, girth of lower arm, and force by Collin s dynamometer. The
children were in Schaaksvitte and Kirche-Schaaken, Königsberg, of LithuamanPrussian stock, poor folk, living in unfavorable hygienic and social conditions
but sturdy from their active life. Infants were regularly nursed by their
mothers. The data' are placed in tables and compared with those of Camerer,
Quetelet, Schmid-Monnard, et al. Boys were in general larger than girls, but
the latter showed an extraordinary increase from 11 to 13 years of age. In
chest measurements (expiration) boys from 6 to 13 years showed an average
annual increase of 1.15 centimeters and girls of like age 1.3 centimeters,
whereas most authors report an increase of 2 centimeters. The military fitness
o f this population was 90 per cent. The soldiers were invariably taller than
the average for the whole German Empire.
586 Schlesinger, E u gen : “ Das Wachstum der Knaben und Jünglinge vom 6
bis 20 Lebensjahr” [Growth of boys and youths between 6 and 20].
Ztschr. f. Kmderh. [Berlin], vol. 16 (1917), pp. 265-304.
A careful study made of about 10,000 Strassburg youths 6 to 20 years
of age. The author groups his material according to social plane and further
according to development and constitution of the individual. All measurements
were made by the author himself. To avoid variations due to season and hour
he made the examinations in the morning and for the most part in the spring.
He counted the second half year as a whole year and allowed for weight of
clothing. His conclusions -are expressed in numerous curves and tables, and
long discussions He discerns four periods of growth : 6 to 9, 9 to 10 or 11,,10
to 15 or 16, 15 to 20. Throughout childhood growth in height is greater than
in weight. The variation among individuals of a given age increases as boys
grow older. The best class presents a greater height and relatively lighter
weight than the others. Inferior children form at first 4 per cent of the whole
number, then 2 per cent. Inferiority among apprentices is 8 per cent. Inferior
boys are three to four years behind others. They are peculiar also for periods
of growth cessation. Anemic, neuropathic, or rachitic children show no in­
feriority in height. Chest girth shows little relation to height but has a much
closer connection with weight. Bibliography.
-------- “ Das Wachstum des K in des” [The child’s growth]. Ergebnisse
587
der Inneren Medizin und Kinderheilkunde [Berlin], vol. 28 (1925), pp.
.456-580.
Beginning with an account of the early studies of growth, namely, those by
Quetelet, Camerer, Pirquet, and Pfaundler, the author proceeds to discuss in
detail the methods of examination, laws of growth, differences in growth due
to sex, race, and individual constitution, periodical fluctuations in the process of
growth caused by changes in seasons, periods of accelerated and retarded growth,
the conditions affecting growth, such as environment, general state of develop­
ment, underfeeding, school work, illness, disorders in the functioning of the
endocrine glands. He quotes in detail figures of the weight and height of chil­
dren obtained by various persons in 23 cities of Germany after the war, also by
Camerer, Baldwin, and several other investigators. He gives no new statistical
data of his own, but quotes those he published in reports of his studies made in
1911-1918 on the height, weight, and ponderal index of school children,
Twenty-five tables and a list of over 300 references.


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.

588

589

590

591

592

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Schlesinger, E u g e n : “ Unterschiede im Wachstum bei Schulkindern und
jungen Leuten von verschiedener Konstitution und aus verschiedenen
Bevölkerungsschichten ” [Differences in growth among school children
and young men of varied constitution and varied classes of society].
Deutsche Med. Wchnschr. [Leipzig], vol. 43 (1917), pp. 1607-1608.
From observations on 10,000 boys between the ages of 6 and 20, in private
schools, polytechnic schools, public schools, etc., the author derives four periods
of grow th: The first from 6 to 9, fairly rapid, more in height than in weight
or in girth of chest; the second from 9 to 10; the third from 10 to 15 or 16,
of rapid growth, that in height being greatest at 14 and in weight at 15;
and the last period of slight increase in height and lively increase in weight.
Differences in classes are due to heredity more than to environment. Thin,
anemic, and nervous children show no inferiority in height. Defective children
show long periods of stagnation in grow th.. The chest development is related
rather to weight than height. A retarding effect in growth can be detected at
6, due to the beginning of school; at 14, among boys beginning to w ork; among
the upper classes at 16, the age for matriculation examinations.
* ---------- - “ Wachstum, Ernährungszustand und Entwicklungsstörungen der
Kinder nach dem Kriege bis 1923 ” [Growth, state of nutrition, and
disorders of development of children between the end of the war and
1923]. Ztschr. f. Kinderh. [Berlin], vol. 37 (1924), pp. 311-324.
This article, which is a sequel to a previous study, is ¡a general discussion of
the weight and height of about 3,100 school children and 300 infants and
kindergarten children who were weighed and measured many times every
year between 1919 and 1923. The author gives no tables; for the method of
his investigation he refers the reader to his previous articles. He found that
the retardation in the children’s growth first became noticeable in 1917 and
was greatest in 1920, when height was 4.3 per cent below norm al; weight in
the period from 1917 to 1920 was from 4 to 12 per cent below normal. In the
years 1921 and 1922 both height and weight reached pre-war standards; in
1923 they again went below normal.
----------- “ Wachstum, Gewicht, und Konstitution der Kinder und der
herangewachsenen Jugend während des Krieges ” [Growth, weight,
and constitution of children and youths during the w ar]. Ztschr. f.
Kinderh. [Berlin], vol. 22 (1919), pp. 79-128.
A detailed study of the effects of the war upon 5,000 boys from infancy to 18
years, representing every class" of society. For the most part the author used
the generalizing method, but he employed the individualizing method in
studying 300 boys between 6 and 14. He studied the weight-height relation
at various ages and for the different years of the war.
----------- “ Wachstum und Gewicht der Kinder und der herangewachsenen
Jugend während des Krieges ” [Growth and weight of children and
adolescents during the war]. Münchener Medizinische Wochenschrift,
vol. 66 , pt. 1 (1919), pp. 662-664.
Besides pupils of public schools and vocational schools in the second and
third years of war, treated in preceding works, the author here considers in
the fourth year of the war infants and small children from two large infant
homes and boys from six private and polytechnic schools. For comparison he
had his own data on the same schools for 1911 and 1913.
Schloss, E rn st: “ Über den W ert vierstündlicher Wägungen für die
Beurteilung des Zustandes junger Säuglinge ”, [Value of weighing young
infants every four hours in judging their condition]. Monatschr. f.
Kinderh. [Leipzig], vol. 8 (1 90 9-10), pp. 674-677.
The author advocates weighing an infant four times a day if its exact condi­
tion is to be ascertained. Six curves show weight changes in three healthy
and three sick infants in first or second month of life. One of the three normal
infants was fed on extracted human milk, another on whey-reduced milk. The
graph of the third illustrates how misleading would be only one daily weigh­
ing. Variations are caused by urination, differences in amounts of milk taken,
etc.
---------- and Erank Leonhard: “ Tricalciumphosphat als Knochenbildner
beim menschlichen Säugling ” [Tricalcium phosphate as a bone-builder
in the human infant].
Biochemische Zeitschrift [Berlin], vol. 60
(1914), pp. 378-394.
In connection with a discussion of the treatment of rickets this article in­
cludes weight curves and data on excretions for two infants over periods of
three and five months.
Schlossm ann, A r t h u r : “ Die Arbeitsleistung des Säuglings ” [The energy
production of the infant.]. Monatschr. f. Kinderh. [Leipzig and Vienna],
vol. 12 (191 3-14), pp. 47-53.
The author discusses the energy expended by infants in motion. In a table
he compares weight, work, duration thereof, etc. of four children that figured
In experiments by Rubner-Heubner, Niesmann, and Mengler.


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Schlossm ann, A rth u r : “ Weiteres zur Frage der natürlichen Säuglings­
ernährung” [More on the question of the breast feeding of infants].
Arch. f. Kinderh. [Stuttgart], vol. 33 (1902), pp. 338-371.
The author’s experiments with human milk pressed from the breasts of two
to five excellent nurses cover 192 days in the case of one child and 72 days
in the case of the other. Both infants were premature, the first syphilitic, the
second frail but not diseased. The tables of results, *covering 12 and 5 pages
respectively, give weights of the infants, amounts of milk consumed, and
chemical analyses of the milk, with calorimetric values.
595 Schm id-M onnard: “ Gewichts- und Längenzunahme bei K indern” [In­
crease of children’s weight and height]. Zeitschrift für Schulgesund­
heitspflege [Hamburg and Leipzig], vol. 9 (1896), pp. 317-323.
In his tables and discussion the author explains, that except in early infancy
. children increase in weight most in August. September, October, least in
January to July, and in height most in July and August, least in September
to January. The differences are more marked in boys than in girls; they
appear in children attending and those not attending school.
596
“ Über den Einfluss der Jahreszeit und der Schule auf das
Wachsthum der Kinder ” [Effect of season and school upon the growth
of children].
Verhandlungen der Gesellschaft für Kinderheilkunde
[Wiesbaden], vol. 10-11 (1 89 3-94), pp. 250-251.
In order to determine whether school exerts a retarding effect upon growth
the author measured 190 boys and girls from 1 to 13 years of age at inter­
vals for a year. Seasonal variations are discussed in connection with periods
of school attendance.
597 — ----- “ Über den Einfluss der Jahreszeit und der Schule auf das
Wachsthum der Kinder ” [The effect of season and school on the
growth of children]. Jahrb. f. Kinderh. [Leipzig], new ser. vol. 40
(1895), pp. 84-106.
The author conducted investigations on 20 boys and 44 girls between the
ages of 2% and 7, and 14 boys between the ages of 7 and 14, children o f the
lower class in Halle, to ascertain whether Malling-Hansen’s results are true
of German children. The measurements were taken from 4 to 6 p. m. at
intervals of three to ’ six weeks between June 22, 1893, and August 6, 1894.
The author found that height increased from February to August and very
little from September to January, and that weight increased not at all from
February to June and decidedly from July to January. Illness and mortality
are most frequent early in the year, least frequent in the fall. Camerer found
the best metabolism from September to November. Vacations had no note­
worthy effect on growth. The article contains five curves.
598 ----------- “ Über den Einfluss des Militärdienstes der Väter auf die
körperliche Entwicklung ihrer Nachkommenschaft ” [On the effect of
the fathers’ military service on the physical development of their
progeny]. Jahrb. f. Kinderh. [Leipzig], vol. 33 (1892), pp. 327-350.
Original study of 2,700 well children in Frankfort-on-the-Main, Halle, and
vicinity. The ages varied from 1 day to 30 months. All the children had been
breast fed for at least nine months. The author found that the children
whose fathers had been in the military service were 600 to 800 grams heavier
than those of fathers who did not serve in the' army. This difference became
still greater when the order of the child’ s birth was considered. It is known
that children of young primiparæ are at birth lighter than children of older
pluriparæ, but beginning with the second year they gain in weight more rap­
idly than the latter. This gain was particularly great in the children whose
fathers had been in the military service. Several writers are quoted and nine
charts and eight tables given showing the average weight, chest and head cir­
cumferences of his cases by sêx and city for each month of age.
599 ----------- “ Über den W erth von Körpermaassen zur Beurtheilung des
Körperzustandes von K indern” [The value of physical measurements
in determining the physical condition of children].
Archiv für
Anthropologie [Braunschweig], vol. 27 (1900-1902), pp. 130-133.
After reporting the measuring and weighing of 2,000 children of preschool
age and o f 3,200 between the ages of 6 and 14 the author discusses the methods
of Percy Boulton and others of estimating health from bodily proportions. He
agrees that if weight corresponds to height according to average values, one
can assume a normal constitution. The article contains five tables and two
graphs.
600 ■
---------- “ Über die körperliche Entwicklung der Feriencolonie-Kinder ”
[The physical development of children in vacation colonies]. Jahrb. f.
Kinderh. [Leipzig], new ser. vol. 37 (1894), pp. 297-318.
To ascertain the advantages of vacation colonies for poor children the author
took measurements of height, weight, and chest girth of 563 boys and 446 girls
of Halle, before and after they were sent for three weeks to vacation colonies ;
also of 677 boys and 697 girls not sufficiently subnormal physically to be sent to
said colonies ; and for control purposes, of about 1,400 normal boys and girls of
Halle. The material is presented in seven tables and three curyes. The child­
ren were weighed in their underclothes. Age was determined at the half year.
The author discusses his observations in detail.


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602

603

004

605

606

607

608

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Schmidt, Alexander: “ Über die Pflege kleiner Frühgeburten” [Care of
small premature children]. Jahrd. f. Kinderh. [Leipzig], vol. 42
(1896), pp. 301-332.
The article contains data on weight, milk consumption, stools, physical and
mental development, etc., during the first year of life of the author’s son, a
premature child born with a weight of 1,490 grams. The child developed
perfectly.
Schmidt, E. A .: “ Körperliche Ertüchtigung der schulentlassenen
Jugend in den Entwicklungsjahren von L4-19 ”
[Physical fitness of
youths out of school in the development years from 14 to 19.] Ber­
liner Klinische Wochenschrift [Berlin], vol. 55 (1918), p. 150.
After discussing in general the growth of boys between 15 and 20 years and
the greater inclination to tuberculosis, as discovered in the army, of individuals
late in developing, the author considers in particular the examinations made by
Matthias in Zurich in 1913-14 of 750 young men 18 to 19 years old and by
Godin of 100 boys 14% to 18 years old, and the general effect of exercise in
increasing chest girth and weight.
----------- “ Massen- und Gewichtsverhältnisse der 6 -14 Jährlingen an den
Volks- wie an den höheren Schulen der Stadt B on n ” [Measure and
weight relationships of 6 to 14 years old children in elementary and
higher schools at Bonn].
Zeitschrift für Gesundheitsfürsorge und
Schulgesundheitspflege [Leipzig], vol. 36 (1923), pp. 9-10.
Measurements (method not given) of 4,491 boys and 3,992 girls in height and
weight, tabulated to show comparisons of figures for the different schools.
and h .,H . Lessenich: “ Über die Beziehungen zwischen körper­
licher Entwicklung und Schulerfolg” [The relations between physical
development and success in school]. Zeitschrift für Schulgesundheits­
pflege [Hamburg and Leipzig], vol, 16 (1903), pp. 1-7.
Measurements of height and weight were taken at the instance of the school
physicians, of 2,089 boys and 2,153 girls in the public schools of Bonn during
May, 1902. The authors present tables by sex according to the distribution of
the ages 5 to 15 in the different school classes and according to the average
height and weight of various ages in the said classes. They conclude that their
investigations, like those of Porter on the public-school pupils of St. Louis,
prove that usually the best-developed children physically are also the brightest
in school.
Schroeder: “ Über die Verschiedenheiten in der Grösse der Köpfe neuge­
borener K in d er” [Variation in size of head of newborn children].
Beiträge zur Gelurtskunde [W urzburg], vol. 5 (1868-69), pp. 401-421.
Author presents various tables on length, weight, and head measurements
of 383 normal infants. A table on boys and girls shows that the former
are heavier than the latter by 66.4 grams and longer by 0.45 centimeter;
they are also more brachycephalic. Other tables, arranged according to order
o f birth, show that first-born children are lighter and shorter than others;
head measurements differ very little. A long table contains data on the
effect of mother’s age on weight, length, and head measurements of infants.
The author’ s findings are compared with Hecker’ s. The author differs •from
Frankenhäuser, who ascribes lighter weight of first-born children to shorter
pregnancy. •
Schroeder, K a rl: Lehrbuch der Geburtshülfe [Textbook on Obstetrics].
Max Cohen, Bonn, 1886, 9th ed. 845 pp.
Brief remark (page 60) concerning the investigation made by the author
in the city of Bonn of the weight and length of 364 newborn infants. The
former averaged 3,179 grams ; the latter 49 centimeters. His figures differ,
though not much, from those obtained by Hecker, which circumstance he
attributes to the physical differences between the people living in various
parts of Germany.
Schroeder, W ilh e lm : “ Über die Ernährung 8 to 15 jähriger Kinder ”
[Nourishment of children 8 to 15 years old]. Archiv für Hygiene
[Munich and Leipzig], vol. 4 (1886), pp. 39-67.
In a study of the nourishment of 38 boys from 8 to 15 years old in a
house of correction at Gehlsdorf the author gives height, weight, chest girth,
and measurements of strength taken with Collin’s dynamometer. . Comparisons
are made with the figures of Quetelet, Kotelmann, Pagliani, and others. These
boys were found to be well developed in weight, chest, and strength measure­
ments but poorly developed in height.
Schuckink, Kool A . : “ Gewicht en lengte van schoolkinderen in verband
met gebrekkige voeding” [W eight and height of school children in
relation to diet]. Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde [Am ­
sterdam], vol. 61, pt. 2 (1917), pp. 337-345.
The author gives in several charts the average weight, height, and state
of nutrition of school children in Utrecht as obtained by an investigator in
1905 and by the author himself in 1916. The number of children is not given
in either case. Increases found in the average weight and height of children
in 1916 over 1905 are probably due to school feeding.


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Schulz, F ritz: Über die Gewichtsverhältnisse der Säuglinge am 10.
Lebenstage gegenüber dem Gewicht bei der Geburt [Weight of Infants
on the Tenth Day as Compared with Their Weight at Birth]. Greifs­
wald, 1903. 28 pp.
Inaugural dissertation (University of Greifswald). The author discusses
the weight of 600 infants, healthy and sick, born 1901 to 1903 at the Uni­
versity of Greifswald hospital. By the tenth day, 48 per cent, had recovered
their birth weight, many of them much more than their- birth weight. He
examines at length the reasons that may have prevented the other 312 from
regaining their initial loss in weight.
Schuster, E .: “ First results from the Oxford anthropometric laboratory.”
Biometrika [Cambridge], vol 8 (1911-12), pp. 40-51.
Detailed physical and anthropological data obtained from Sheffield students.
Over 800 students, 18 to 23 years old, were examined. Craniometry and
visual acuity were included in the examinations. Many tables aré given.
Schute: “ Natürliche Ernährung und Gewichtsverhältnisse von 100 Säug­
lingen der Osnabrücker Hebammenlehranstalt” [Breast feeding and
weight of 100 infants in the Osnabrück School for Midwivesl.
Deutsche Med. Wchnschr. [Berlin], vol. 41 (1915), pp. 618-620.
The author studied 100 infants (56 boys and 44 girls) horn in the Osna­
brück School for Midwives, most of whom remained there 12 days. Within
that time 45 per cent regained their birth weight, on an average upon the ninth
day. The infants were weighed daily. The weight curves were little affected
by sex by operations upon the mother, by her loss of blood, or by her tempera­
ture. The average weight at birth was 3,357 grams. Ninety-four of the
mothers had abundant milk.
Schwarz, H erm an, and Jerome L. K o h n : “ T h e'in fan t of low birth
weight; its growth and development.” Am. J. Dis. Child. [Chicago],
vol. 21 (1921), pp. 296-306.
The authors followed the case histories of 272 children with low birth
weights f2,500 grams or less)— 166 for 3 months, 130 for 6 months, 100 for
12 months, and 26 a greater length of time. Gains in length and weight were
noted and summarized in tables. They found the gain in weight during the
first 12 months to he at the same rate as that of the normal child, so that the
deficiency was not made up at the end of the first year. Normal length was
attained sooner than normal weight.
Schwerz, F ra n z: “ Untersuchungen über das Wachstum des Menschen”
[Investigations on growth of mankind].
Archiv für Anthropologie
[Braunschweig], new ser. vol. 10 (1911), pp. 1-38.
In the agricultural population of the Canton of Schaffhausen, Switzerland,
the author measured the height and weight of 1,778 persons and the torso
and limbs of 1,245 persons— males from 7 years to maturity, females from 7
to 15 or 17 years. His ow n. results he compared with those of many other
investigators. In addition to careful and detailed discussion the article con­
tains 47 tables, 19 figures, a bibliography, and a list of 42 general results
according to sex, race, and social status, arranged in series on height, weight,
torso (upper edge of breastbone to that of os pubis), relations between torso
and limbs, head, face, and relations between head and face.
Schwiening, H einrich: “ Körpergrösse und Körpergewicht des Men­
schen” [Height and weight of m an].
Deutsche Med. Wchnschr.
[Leipzig], vol. 40, pt. 1 (1914), pp. 498-500, 556-558.,
Many case histories are given, together with 36 pages of tables and 13 pages
of curves, for infants who were fed upon special diets designed to test sugar
tolerance effect of water limitation, effect of diets lacking in fat, etc.
----------- “ Über Körpergrösse und Brustumfang bei tuberkulösen und
nichttuberkulösen Soldaten” [Height and chest girth of tuberculous
and nontuberculous soldiers].
Deutsche Milit'dr'drztliche Zeitschrift
[Berlin], vol. 35 (1906), pp. 273-291.
Statistics and conclusions here given rest on measurements of height, chest
girth, difference between deepest inspiration and expiration, and percentage of
chest girth to height, of 4,707 nontuberculosis and 4,540 tuberculous soldiers
from records between October, 1898, and September, 1904. Ages are not given.
Like Grimm in 1863, author was unable to establish a satisfactory correlation
between chest measurement and health. Bibliography.
Secretary of N ation al M edical In stitu te of M exico: “ Investigación de
los promedios anatómicos y funcionales de los niños mexicanos, segfin
sus diversas edades” (Anatomical and physiological study of Mexican
children of various ages). [Part of National Medical Institute’s an­
nual report for 1908-9 to the Secretary of Public Instruction.] Boletín
de Instrucción Pública, Mexico, vol. 13 (1909), pp. 541-549.
Account of anatomical and physiological study of 14 children, inmates of an
orphan asylum in Mexico, ranging from 6 to 14 years. The study was made
in partial response to a request by the Secretary of Public Instruction of
Mexico for an investigation of the anatomy and physiology of Mexican children
from birth to the age of 14.


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Seggel : “ Brustbau und Körpergewicht im Verhältnis zur Körperlänge ”
[Chest build and weight as related to height]. Verhandlungen des In­
ternationalen Medicinischen Congresses [Berlin], 10th Session, vol. 5
(1890), pp. 162-174.
As an army doctor in the Third Field Artillery Regiment of Bavaria the
author from 1885 to 1889 exactly measured 1,643 soldiers between 19 and 23
years of age, in height, weight, chest girth, shoulder breadth, and sagittal diame­
ter of breast. He found that the younger men were superior to the older in
height, weight, and breadth of shoulder, but inferior in girth of chest. The last
measurement was greatest in heavy laborers. Tall people were relatively
heavier than short. Comprehensive statistics are derived from this material on
the various measurements and their relations to one another.
----------- “ Über das Verhältnis von Schädel- und Gehirnentwickelung zum
Längenwachstum des Körpers ” [Relation of development of skull and
brain to height]. Archiv für Anthropologie [Braunschweig], new ser.
vol. 1 (1 9 0 3 -4 ), pp. 1-29.
Seven hundred Munich school boys ranging from 10 to 21 years of age and
belonging to various classes of society were measured at annual intervals. Each
boy was measured from one to nine times, according to his term at the school.
The author obtained in this way 3,608 measurements from which he compiled
tables of height according to age, differences between maximum and minimum
height, and increase In height for each year, and graphs based on the first and
the third table, the latter of which he prefers. A table of types of growth
shows that the greatest increase occurs in the fourteenth year. Similar tables
give the distance between the pupils of the eyes. The minimum is 48 milli­
meters in a boy of 11 and the maximum 69 in a boy of 16. There follow tables
of such distance between the pupils as compared with height ; of skull measure­
ments of dolichocephalic and brachycephalic human beings ; of men, women,
Japanese, and various apes, and of 20 Togo young women ; and graphs of
curves representing height, distance between eyes, and increase in weight of
brain. Since the distance between the pupils of the eyes, the breadth of the
skull, and the weight of the brain increase uniformly, the growth of the first
named relative to the size of the body constitutes, other things being equal, a
reliable standard of intellectual capacity. But the distance between the pupils
need not be great when the forehead is high and full. The best brains accom­
pany a forehead high, full, and broad.
Segond, P au l : “ Du poids des nouveau-nés ” [The weight of the new­
born]. Annales de gynécologie [Paris], vol. 2 (1874), pp. 298-308, 3 6 6375.
In an article largely based on the work of other investigators the author
records his own observations of the increase in weight of one infant, weighed
daily from 7 days to four months of age. References.
Sharp, J. Gordon: “ The food value required by growing girls, aged four
to fifteen. Results of investigations carried on for seventeen years,
with analyses and comments.” British Journal of Children's Diseases
[London], vol. 11 (1914), pp. 202-214, 246-251.
The author records his experiences with the dietary of an institution housing
30 children of the neglected classes. Tables of gross week’s food supply, menus,
and many sample height and weight charts are reproduced. The article con­
cludes with a comparison of the author’s observations with British, Jewish, and
Quetelet tables, apparently showing that later care, however excellent, can not
compensate for growth losses in the earliest years of life.
Shinn, M illicen t W . : “ Notes on the development of a child.”
Uni­
versity of California Publications in Education [Berkeley], vol. 1
(1893-1899), pp. 5-424.
The author made careful observations of the development of one child (her
niece) throughout the first three years of life. She records development in
weight and height, sight, hearing, dermal senses, taste, smell, sensations o f
muscular activity, motion and position, organic sensations, well-being and dis­
comfort, sleep, and spontaneous, reflex, and instinctive movements. She com­
pares observations with those of Preyer and quotes briefly from other sources.
See also author’s “ Development of the Senses in the First Three Years of
Childhood.”
-----------The Biography of a Baby. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, 1900.
247 pp.
Minute observations of the mental and physical development of a child
during the first year of its life, based upon the author’s notes on the develop­
ment of a child (No. 621 this section).
Shirokogoroff, S. M . : “ Notes on the physical growth among the
Chinese females and males of Chekiang.” China Medical Journal
[Shanghai], vol. 39 (1925), pp. 1029-1040.
A comparison of the process of growth of females in Chekiang with that of
males o f Chekiang and Kiangsu, based on measurements made by V. B. Appleton.
The data appear as tables of average, absolute, and relative (weight-height,
trunk-height, etc.) measurements for ages 6 to 20 or more, of stature in milli­
meters, and o f grams per centimeter of stature. The influence of anthropologi-


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cal type upon the phenomena of growth is discussed, with emphasis upon the
importance of a due consideration of this matter in all studies of the Chinese
References.
Sicheff, A . I. : Izmïerienie obyema i poverkhnosti tïel u dïeteï po vozrastam [Measurement of Volume and Surface of Children’s Bodies],
St. Petersburg, 1902. 98 pp.
Dissertation (University of St. Petersburg). The first part consists of an
account of the metabolism of infants, children, and persons up to 24 years of
age, quoted almost entirely from Camerer, Rubner, Miller and others ; numerous
tables giving analysis of human and cow’s milk, quantity of milk taken by
infants, amounts of urine, feces, and perspiration excreted by infants, and
changes in infants’ weight. In the sécond part the author describes his own
work of measuring the volume of the bodies of 101 children varying from
premature infants to children 15 years old ; in the third part, that of measur­
ing the surfaces of 24 bodies varying from newborn infants to children 15
years old. After tabulating his data he presents conclusions on the relation
between volume, surface, height, and weight. Bibliography.
von Siebold, Eduard : “ Über die Gewichts- und Längenverhältnisse der
neugeborenen Kinder, über die Verminderung ihres Gewichtes in den
ersten Tagen, und die Zunahme desselben in den ersten Wochen nach
der Geburt ” [W eight and length of newborn children, decrease of their
weight in first days, and increase of weight in first weeks after birth].
Monatsschrift für Oelnirtskunde und Frauenkrankheiten [Berlin], vol.
15 (1860), pp. 337-354.
Between 1832 and 1858 the author carefully observed the weight of 1,586
male and 1,414 female infants. He presents a. table of their initial weights
arid a number on the loss ■and recovery of the birth weight. Comparisons are
made with the findings of Elsässer, Quetelet, and others.
Siesel, Prosper: Über wiederholte Geburten derselben Frau in Bezug
auf Gewichts- und Längenverhältnisse der Kinder und in Bezug auf
die Geburtsdauer [Repeated Deliveries of the Same Woman, with Re­
spect to W eight and Length of Children and to Duration of Birth Act].
Strassburg, 1905. 29 pp.
A thesis (Kaiser Wilhelm University at Strassburg). The author cites
previous investigations on the physical inferiority of the first-born child and
the longer duration of the first birth. He presents a table for 310 women who
in the previous four years at the women’s clinic of the Strassburg University
had borne at least two children. This material he works over into statistics
on the superiority in height and weight of later-born over first-born children.
The question is complicated by the fact that boys are regularly larger than
girls. With the second child there is a superiority in weight of 182.7 grams ;
with the third, of 50.71; with the fourth, of 27.04; with the fifth, of 57.86;
with the sixth, of 230 ; with the seventh, of 34.26 ; with the eighth, of 33.33.
In height there is much less difference ; 0.6 centimeter superiority of second
child over first ; 0.75 centimeter in third over second.
Sieveking, C. H .: “ Gewichtstabellen von Brustkindern und künstlich
ernährten Säuglingen der Hamburger Fürsorgestellen, 1913 ” [W eight
tables on breast-fed and artificially-fed infants of Hamburg milk
nurseries, 1913]. Zeitschrift für Säuglingsfürsorge [Leipzig], vol. 8
(1 91 4-15), pp. 154-159.
Data on the weight of breast-fed infants (3,851 legitimate and 164 illegiti­
mate) and of artificially-fed infants (755 legitimate and 79 illegitimate) from
records of milk nurseries of Hamburg in 1913. Percentages of loss and of
gain in weight in the four classes are shown. Four pages of tables are given.

628

Sim on, T h ., and G. V erm ey le n : “ Comparison du développement
physique (taille et poids) d’enfants normaux et anorm aux” [Com­
parison of the physical development (height and weight) of normal and
abnormal children]. Bulletin de la Société clinique de médecine men­
tale [Paris], vol. 9 (1921), pp. 75-79.
Comparison of height and weight (methods of measurement not given) of 79
feeble-minded children 6 to 20 years of age, with those of 79 normal children
paired with them by year and month of birth. In the 79 couples the normal
child was shorter only 13 times ; in weight the normal child was inferior from
the age of 6 to the age of 12 and gained no real superiority before the age
o f 15.

629

Simon, W . : “ Gewicht Neugeborener, soziale Stellung und Ordnungs­
nummer der Geburt. Eine Untersuchung auf statistischer Grundlage”
[The weight of newborn infants, social position, and order of birth. A
study on a statistical basis]. Archiv für Soziale H ygiene und Demo­
graphie [Berlin], vol. 1 (1925), pp. 3-16.
The author studied 689 maternity cases in the city hospital of Aussig from
1921 to. 1923. His purpose was not to prove that there is a connection between
the weight of the newborn infant, the social position of the parents, and the


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order of birth, because this circumstance is very well known. His purpose was
mainly to determine mathematically the relationship of the three above factors.
He found that the weight increases somewhat with the parents’ position and
considerably with the order of birth. This relation is expressed by the author in
a series of mathematical formulas.
Simpson, Jas. Y . : “ Memoir on the sex of the child as a cause of diffi­
culty and danger in human parturition.”
Edinburgh Medical and
Surgical Journal, vol. 62 (1844), pp. 387-439.
A discussion is included of the relative weights and sizes of male and female
infants at birth, as found by a study of the records of the Dublin Lying-in
Hospital and of British statistics.
Snitkin, M . : “ Materiali dlia izucheniia rosta dietei pervych nedel
zh izni” [Data on the growth o f infants in the first weeks of life].
Meditsinski otchet ImperatorsTcavo St. Petersburgskavo Vospitatelnavo
Doma sa 1876 god [St. Petersburg], 1877, pp. 184r-210.
A study of 1,170 newborn infants and 1,676 infants 1 month old made by the
author at the Municipal Infant Asylum in St. Petersburg. He obtained the
weight, length, and circumference of head and chest as soon ; as the infants
were brought into the asylum. Each of the groups he divided, into three
classes, according to weight, and found that a higher weight was always com­
bined with a longer body and a larger chest and head. At the end of the
month the increase in the length o.f the body was greater than that of the
chest or head. Children who on account of illness gained no weight at the end
of the month showed a greater increase in length than in the circumference of
the head or chest. A large number of tables referring to the author’s cases are
included.
Soames, H . A . : The Scientific Measurement of Children. L. Upscott
Gill, London, 1891. 15 pp.
A pamphlet to attract parents’ attention to the importance of weighing and
measuring children regularly and accurately. Table 1 from Robert’s Anthro­
pometry gives sex and height by years from 6 to 16. Table 2 from the
author’s observations gives weight of boys for heights from 48 to 56 inches.
Table 3 gives height and chest girth for boys. The number of cases observed
is not stated.
von Sobbe, A u g u st: Über Gewichts- und Längenverhältnisse der
Neugeborenen mit Bezugnahme auf das Alter der Mutter [W eight and
Length of the Newborn Infant with Reference to Mother’s A ge]. Mar­
burg, 1872. 32 pp.
Inaugural dissertation (University of Marburg). Between 1850 and 1870
the author measured 1,064 male and 936 female newborn infants. All
weights under 2,800 grams were discarded as pathological. The average
weights and lengths, respectively, were found to be 3,261.7 grams and 48
centimeters for boys ; 3,188 grams and 47.2 centimeters for girls ; 3,176 grams
and 47.5 centimeters for first-born children ; 3,263 grams and 47.8 centimeters
for others. The age of the mother did not affect length, but increasing age did
seem to mean increase in weight of the infant. The thesis contains 2 curves
and 22 pages of tables.
Som m erfeldt, O. : H0jde-og Vaegtbestemmelser a f unge Maend, udf0rte
paa Laerlinge-Plejehjemmet, med Bilag fra Haerens Elevskole og det
konglig Opfostringshus [Height and Weight Determinations of Young
Men Carried Out in the Apprentice Home, and an Addition from the
Army Candidate School and the Royal Orphans Hom e]. Copenhagen,
1902. 64 pp.
In 16 detailed tables, 11 tabulations, and 2 graphs the material obtained
by the author and many other investigators is arranged to show height, weight,
yearly increase in height and weight, relation between height and weight,
median height, and weight and chest measurements. Separate tables are given
for the poorer and well-to-do classes, for the children o f professional classes,
for city and country youths, and for the army and apprentice schools. The
author observed 2,242 youths between 14 and 21 years of age.
Spielrein, Is a a k : “ Über Kindermessungen in Rostow am D o n ” [Meas­
urements of children in Rostof on Don], Zeitschrift für Schulgesund­
heitspflege [Hamburg and Leipzig], vol. 29 (1916), pp. 451-461, 503513, 548-560.
In the spring of 1913 the author examined about 2,000 boys between the
ages of 6 and 15 during the morning hours. Height was taken without shoes,
weight with only hose ; two chest measurements were made, of normal and or
deep respiration, at nipples and below shoulder blades, and strength was
tested with the Collin dynamometer. The author discusses the questionnaire
he used ; the effect of season and time of day ; and the age, education, and
occupation of parents. He describes the various schools he investigated.
Data are shown in 27 tables. It is found that pupils have better development
than children not studying ; that in the public schools, Russians at first have
higher values than Jews and Armenians, but that from 12 or 13 to 15 Jews
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overtake Russians because of earlier puberty, grid the Armenians, though the
shortest, are the strongest. In the better schdtfis Armenians showed the best
results, then the Russians, then the Jews. A relation was noted between
physical development and class standing.
636 Spitzer, O lga: “ Untersuchungen an Krakauer Mädchen [Investigations
on Krakow girls]. Mittheüungen der Anthropologischen Gesellschaft
in W ien (1915), vol. 45, pp. 210-215.
The author took numerous anthropological measurements of 1,000 Polish
girls between 6 and 15 years of age in the public schools of Krakow. Thirteen
tables give the figures for height, length of torso, breadth of shoulder, pelvis,
outstretched arms, length of hand, and indexes for head, face, nose, and ear.
Observations were made also of hair, eyes, mouth, breasts, and menstruation.
637 Springer, M au rice: La croissance; son rôle en pathologie [Growth; Its
Rôle in Pathology]. Paris, no. 89, 1890. 196 pp.
Thesis (University of Paris) presented for the doctor’s degree in medicine.
Following a discussion of the physiology of growth the author shows the effects
o f its demands upon the bony tissue, the nervous, vascular, and lymphatic sys­
tems and the digestive apparatus, and its relation to certain infectious dis­
eases. His original research, an experiment with puppies fed on milk from
which the salts had been extracted, is described in detail. Twenty-one cases
are cited from the author’s hospital practice, in which the demands of growth
were a contributing factor in disease.
638 Stage, G . G . : “ Über Körperwägungen während der Dentitionsperiode ”
[Body weight during the period of dentition]. Jahrh. f. Kinderh.
[Leipzig], new ser. vol. 20 (1883), pp. 425-438.
The author made a study of many children (number not given) under 1
year old to determine the effect of dentition on weight. He weighed the
children every week during a year. In his article he gives the figures for
some of them and draws the conclusion that only in a very few cases was
the weight directly affected by dentition, but that in no case could there be
any question of considerable general effect on the development of the child.
639 Starkov, I. : Fizicheskoie razvitie vospitannikov voyennouchebnikh
zaviedienii [Physical Development of Students in Military Schools].
Stasiulewich, St. Petersburg, 1897. 187 pp.
Report based on individual health records of 9,496 students, 10 to 22 years
of age, in military schools throughout Russia. In a large number o f tables
are shown age, birthplace, occupations of parents, general constitution, de­
velopment of muscles, thickness of subcutaneous layer of fat, color of hair
and eyes, condition o f hearing, sight, and teeth, height, chest circumference,
weight, circumference of abdomen, and length of legs. A separate chart is
devoted to the sexual development of the students. All the individual records
*
were prepared simultaneously in one year according to uniform instructions
issued for that purpose by the military authorities of Russia. More than half
the report consists of tables.
640 Stéenhoff, G . : “ Bidrag till kännedomen om vâr folkskolehygien ” [Con­
tribution to the knowledge of our public-school hygiene]. Hygiea, Medicinsk och Farmaceutisk Mdnadsskrift [Stockholm], vol. 62, pt. 2 (1900),
pp. 145-165.
In two tables and four graphs the author gives his findings as to the health
conditions of 8,699 children of Stockholm, Sundsvall, and Christianstad. Height,
weight, and chest measurements are given for 677 girls and 654 boys.
641 Steet, G . C. : “ Notes on the development and growth of boys between
thirteen and twenty years of age.” St. George's Hospital Report, 1874r1876 [London], vol. 8 (1877), pp. 49-56.
To test the qualifications of “ candidates for public and other services ” the
author suggests taking measurements of height, weight, strength, and chest
development. A table gives the results of such measurements taken by the
author (methods described) of boys 13 to 19 years of age, the number varying
from 946 to 153 for different ages. Weight and chest capacity showed irregu­
lar increases. Height correlated with strength.
642 Stépanofï, N ic o la s: Taille et poids des enfants des*écoles primaires de
Lausanne [Stature and Weight of Children in the Public Schools of
Lausanne]. Charles Guex, Lausanne, 1903. 30 pp.
Data were obtained from anthropometric records o f the schools of Lausanne.
The author had at hand records of the height of 10,860 boys and 11,553 girls,
taken in 1886, and of height and weight of 3,405 boys and 4,261 girls, taken
in 1897. Methods of using the records are described, and tables and curves
are constructed. The conclusions are: (1) The monthly growth of boys is more
or less regular to 15 years, within 1 centimeter— after that age, within 2 or 3
centimeters ; (2) in girls the corresponding irregularities begin at 12 years ;
(3) the monthly increase in weight in boys, within 1 kilogram, is fairly regu­
lar to 12 years; (4) in girls irregularity begins at 11 years; (5) pubertal vari­
ations in height and weight of the sexes are established ; (6) increase in height
and in weight, in boys and girls, has three distinct periods; (7) boys and girls
born in the warm months are taller and heavier than those born in the cold
months; (8) boys and girls of Lausanne are superior in height and weight
to those of Brussels and Turin.


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643

Stephenson, W . : “ On the rate of growth in children.” Transactiom
Ninth International Medical Congress [W ashington], vol. 3 (1887) pp
446-452.
’
Prom figures o f other investigators the author derives curves showing the
annual increase in weight in boys and in girls from birth to 18 years: tables
showing annual gain in height and weight, in each sex, from 5 to 18 ; standard
weight in pounds for each inch in height in boys from 6 to 18 and in girls
from 5 to 18, with the method of computation. He compares his results with
statistics for various classes in England and for American-born and An■>•]»American in America.

644

The relation of weight to height and the rate of growth in
man.” Lancet [London], vol. 2 (1888), pp. 560-564.
Using the data of' the Anthropological Committee of the British Association,
and of Bowditch the author derived tables of average height and weight for
boys and girls, aged 5 to 18, charts of the annual increase in weight for the
same ages, and tables of standard weight in pounds for each inch in height
from 40 to 61 m boys and 38 to 58 in girls, with explanation of the statis­
tical method by which these figures were obtained. Part 4 of the article
carries these investigations into adult life.
Sternberg, G. M . : [Statistics of the measurements of recruits, one group
consisting of individuals 16 to 20 years of age.] . Report of the Surgeon
General of the Army to the Secretary of W ar for the fiscal year end­
ing June 30, 1893. Washington, 1893.

645

646

Stevenson, Paul H . : “ Collected anthropometric data on the Chinese.”
China Medical Journal [Shanghai], voi. 39 (1925), pp. 855-898.
The author has assembled the anthropometric data in the files of the
Research Committee of the China Medical Missionary Association, contained
in .m e records of physical measurements on over 10,000 individual Chinese
collected during the 10-year period between 1915 and 1925 by more than 30
1!iv^J'iSators. Eighteen tables and 11 figures, including graphic height charts
of Chinese boys and girls from 5 to 15 years of age in South, Central and
North China, respectively, present the essential facts recorded. The author
discusses at some length the height and weight of Chinese during the period
of growth.
&
*

647

Stewart, S. F .: “A study of physical growth and school standing of boys.”
Journal of Educational Psychology [Baltimore], vol. 7 (1916) pp
414-426.
’
Data were secured from measurements of 207 boys of the elementary and
“ teh smiools of the University of Chicago during the eight years from 1906-7
to lö 16—14, successive annual measurements made by the physical director of
tne school ot education having been recorded as many times as possible. The
first part of the study deals with averages; the second, with individual
records of 29 boys whose physical measurements are complete for four or
successive years. The author concludes that when averages are con­
sidered the group one year ahead of normal grade averages both heavier and
taller than the normal group; when individual curves are studied there seems
no correlation; when individual curves and correlations are considered together
with the size of the body at 14 years and stage of development, heavy or
tall boys of early development rank better than those of later development;
light boys of late development rank better than those of early or medium
development.
Stiles, C. W ., and G. A . W h eeler: Heights and Weights o f Children.
See U. S. Public Health Service.

648

Stockton-H ough, John: “ Statistics relating to seven hundred births
(white) occurring in the Philadelphia Hospital (Blockley) between
1865-1872.” Philadelphia Medical Times, vol. 16 (188 5-86), pp. 92-94.
A table which gives the average age of mother, whether single or married,
the number of the pregnancy, duration of gestation, sex of infant, length of
trunk, standing height, and weight.
Stolte, K .: Über Störungen des Längenwachstums der Säuglinge” [On
disorders of growth in length of infants]. Jahrb. f. Kinderh. [Berlin]
new ser. vol. 78 (1913), pp. 399-425.
A summary and discussion of the findings of many workers on the regu­
larity of increases in children’s growth and the relation of growth increases
to season, heredity, feedings, etc.
Storey, T. A . : “ Some daily variations in height, weight, and strength.”
American Physical Education Review [Boston], vol. 6 (1901) nn
293-297.
Weights and measures of a few students recorded by themselves; strength
was estimated by the dynamometer and the ergograph. The number of cases
in various observations is stated. Daily variations of 1.4 centimeters in
height, of 0.9 pound and 10 to 15 kilograms in strength are normal.

649

650


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651

Stratz, C. H . : Der Korper des Kindes und seine Pflège [The Child’s Body
and Its Care].
Verlag von Ferdinand Enke in Stuttgart, 1909.
386 pp.
A study bringing together the findings of many authorities on bodily
measurements, weight, and nutritional requirements at different ages.
652 ----------- “ Het Normale Gewicht van Kinderen ” [Normal weight of chil­
dren]. Nederlandsch Maandschrift voor Verloskunde en Vrouwenziekten [Leyden], vol. 1 (1912), pp. 376-380.
On the basis of data by several writers author computes what he considers
the average weight and height for the entire period of growth ; that is, from
mrth to the age of 20. He gives in a table for each year of age by sex the
height, weight, and the index of these two values ; that is, weight for each
centimeter o f height.
653 ----------- “ Wachstum und Proportionen des Menschen vor und nach der
Geburt ” [Growth and proportions of the human being before and
after birth]. Archiv fur Anthropologie [Braunschweig], vol. 8 (1909).
pp. 287-297.
On the basis of his own investigations (of which no account is given) and
those of others the author works out laws of growth which he presents and
illustrates by figures and charts. Growth from the first month of gestation
to 20 years is discussed. Between the ages of 2 and 4 years and 8 and 10
years the increase in weight is relatively greater than the gain in height.
Between the ages of 5 and 7 years and 11 and 15 years the growth in height
is predominant.
654 Studzinski, J. B. : “ Les indicateurs fondamentaux du développement
physique régulier de l’organisme in fan tile” [Fundamental indicators
of normal physical development in the infant organism]. Annales de
médecine et chirurgie infantiles [Paris], vol. 4 (1900), pp. 73-74.
Working over the data of four works published in Paris, St. Petersburg,
Tubingen, and New York, the author gives tables of weight, height, thoracic and
cephalic perimeter, relation of thoracic perimeter to height and of cephalic'
perimeter to thoracic perimeter, for infants of 1 to 12 months and for children
o f 1 to 17 years.
655 Stuhl, K a rl: “ Messungen und Beobachtungen beim arztlichen Dienst auf
Schulschiffen ” [Measurements and observations during medical service
on school ships], Jahrb. f. Kinderh. [Berlin], ser. 3, vol. 37 (1918),
pp. 159-170.
The author, who was physician for two school ships with youths from work­
ing and rural classes and middle classes, conducted physical examinations in the
tall o f 1914. Boys entering these schools are 15 or 16, rarely as old as 19
Daily measurements were made. Results are shown in five graphs. The hard
life reduced weight and even height but not girth of chest. The author touches
on other phases of growth, quoting from Bernstein, Seitz, et al.
656 Sue: “ Sur les proportions du squelette de l’homme, examiné depuis l’âge
le plus tendre, jusqu’à celui de vingt-cinq, soixante ans, et au delà ” [On
the proportions of the human skeleton, examined from the earliest age
to that of 25, 60, and beyond]. Mémoires de mathématique et de physic
que présentés à l’Académie Royale des Sciences [Paris], vol. 2 (1755)
pp. 572-585.
'
A few measurements designed to show the relationship between the length of
the trunk and of the upper and lower extremities in children.
657 Suligow ski, F .: “ Kilka slôw o pomiarach antropometrycznych mlodziezy
gimnazyum mçzkiego w Radomiu ” [A few words on anthropological
measurements of pupils in a high school for boys in the city of Radom]
Medycyna [W arsaw ], vol. 15 (188 6-87), pp. 512-528, 544-547 559-564
and 641-643.
’
Account of a study, by the author, of 1,133 boy pupils ranging from 9 to 21
years m the secondary schools of Radom. In a number of tables the author
gives tne maximum, minimum, and average height, chest circumference chest
expansion, and weight for each of the pupils’ ages, and the annual in­
crease m these values. He compares his findings with those of Quetelet
Leshaft, and a few others, which he gives in parallel tables.
658 Su tils: Guide pratique des pesages pendant les deux premières années à
l’usage des médecins inspecteurs [A Practical Guide to Weighing dur­
ing the First Two Years, for the Use of Medical Inspectors]. Paris
1889. 156 pp.
This work is based on 3,600 weighings of infants made in five years bv the
author, who also invented an apparatus for weighing. The text contains 64
weight curves, and discussions of the work done by Bouchaud, Odier, and
Blache, on infants normal monthly increase in weight.


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Sweden, N ational Labor and Social 'Welfare Departm ent: Sveriges
Officiella Statistik. Socialstatistik. Kroppsutvecklingen hos minderäriga industriarbetare i Sverige av K . Socialstyrelsen [Physical devel­
opment of industrially employed children in Sweden].
Stockholm,
1925. 100 pp.
This -study, made in compliance with the law which requires the physical
examination of every working child upon first entering employment at the age
of 13 and annually thereafter until he reaches the age of 18, shows the results
of the initial examination and of three annual examinations of 11,500 workers
under 18 years old, 2,315 of whom were girls. All these workers remained in
the same occupation during the entire period covered by the study. The report
gives in numerous tables for each year of age and separately for the sexes the
average weight, height, and. chest circumference and the annual increase of these
three measurements. It was found that girls at- the age of 14 were better
developed in regard to height, weight, and chest circumference than hoys of the
same a g e ; after that the boys became superior to the girls. The above data are
compared with those obtained by other studies in Sweden, Norway, and England.
660 Sym ington, Johnson: The Topographical Anatomy of the Child.
E. & S.
Livingston, Edinburgh, 1887. 75 pp.
This work is based on an investigation by the author. It is illustrated by
14 colored plates and 33 woodcuts, from frozen sections of cadavers of chil­
dren of both sexes, aged 2 months to 13 years. Many of the plates are life size.
Part I consists of plates, with descriptions; Part II, of a bibliography and
full discussion o f the sections.
661 Talbot, Fritz B .: “ Studies in growth. I. Growth of normal children.
II. Growth of premature infants.” Am. J. Bis. Child. [Chicago], vol.
27 (1924), pp. 541-555.
The figures for Part I o f this study were compiled from a series of bodysurface measurements taken according to the DuBois linear formula on the
subjects used for the metabolism experiments reported in Carnegie Institution
of Washington Publication No. 302, 1921. Smoothed curves, drawn to indi­
cate trend of growth, show separately for the sexes weight for age, height for
age, height for weight, circumference of head, chest, and abdomen, and length
of trunk, leg, foot, and arm. Corresponding curves are given in Part II for a
series of premature infants. The author finds that the premature infant,
smaller at birth than the normal infant, remains under size for an indefinite
number of months. His measurements are submitted as of possible diagnostic
value in uncertain cases of prematurity. References.
662 Tattersall, C. H . : “ Tile medical inspection of schools in relation to
public health work in Salford.”
Public Health [London], vol. 19
(1 9 0 6 -7 ), pp. 654-664.
Report of a medical officer to the Salford School Board, including the results
of anthropometric measurements of 1,329 boys at approximately 8, 10, and 13
years, including a description of methods and a tabulation of results. It was
observed that the better-fed children showed marked superiority in development.
663 Taylor, C. K .: Physical Standards for Boys and Girls. The Academy
Press, Carteret Place, Orange, N. J., 1922. 56 pp.
A continuation of the author’s work in promoting interest in physical measure­
ment of school children to the seventeenth year of age. Tables are given of
standard measurements for boys, derived from study of over 5,000 boys, and
grouped by type of build— slender, slender-medium, medium, medium heavy, and
heavy— and tables for gipls, derived from a smaller number and grouped as
preadolescent or postadolescent, slender, slender-medium, medium, mediumheavy, and heavy. There are directions for taking the measurements and
scoring results.
.
664 Taylor, Bood: “ The measurements of 250 full-term newborn infants.”
Am. J. Dis. Child. [Chicago], vol. 17 (1919), pp. 353-362.
At the University Hospital of Minnesota 250 full-term normal infants (125
of each sex) were measured, the ages varying from 2 to 10 days. The author
tabulated the nationality, and the chest circumference according to sex and
age. Table 3 gives the maximum-minimum and average of weight, span,
length, sitting height, occipito-frontal circumference, chest circumference, trunk
length, arm length, leg length, shoulder breadth, head and neck height, in­
tertrochanteric diameter, foot length, and hand length, with a comparison of
Weissenberg’s measurements. A table from Pearson and Robertson gives the
deviation from standard for British infants. Another table from Pearson
gives the weight and length of newborn- infants, 1,000 of each sex being
measured. Graphic charts show for both sexes body length, chest circum­
ference, occipito-frontal circumference, span, and body weights.
665 Teixeira de M attos, Jhr. E d : “ Die Buttermilch als Säuglingsnahrung ”
[Buttermilk as an infant food]. Jahrb. f. Kinderh. [Berlin], vol 55
(1902), pp. 1-61.
In connection with a discussion of the value of buttermilk for infants the
author
gives 15 case histories with weights of infants fed in a polyclinic from
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Tezyakoff, N . : “ Fizicheskoie razvitie uchenikov zemskikh shkol Elisavetgradskago uieizda ” [Physical development of the publio-school
pupils of Yelisavetgrad County].
Vestnik obshtshestvennoy higieni,
sudebnoy i prakticheskoy meditmini [St. Petersburg], vol. 29, sec. 2
(1896), pp. .121-138.
An account of a study of the physical condition of 2,597 hoys and 313 girls,
6 to 16 years old, pupils in rural public schools. The author gives height,
chest circumference, and difference between the latter and the half-height for
each year of age by sex and by duration of school attendance. It was found
that in the majority of cases the chest was too narrow and that this narrow­
ness increased with the school attendance.
Theis, W ilh e lm : Über die Gewichtsveränderung der Neugeborenen
[Change of Weight in Newborn.] Halle, 1868. 28 pp.
Inaugural dissertation (University of Halle). After a review of previous
works on- the subject the author gives data on three boys and nine girls from a
series of four weighings during the first nine days of life. The average weight
o f the girls was 2,950 grams, of the boys 3,307. During the first three days the
girls lost an average of 185 grams each, and the hoys 117. Table gives data
on 40 children born the same year and weighed on the day of birth and day of
discharge, usually 15 days later. Average weights for boys on these two days
were 3,092 and 3,265 grams, and for girls 3,148 and 3,267 grams, respectively.
As causes of initial loss of weight the author suggests weight of meconium,
lack of milk, defective functioning of alimentary tract, and profuse perspiration.
Thiele: “ Der Einfluss von Krankheiten, insbesondere der Tuberkulose,
auf das Wachstum und den Ernährungszustand der Schulkinder ”
[Effect of diseases, especially tuberculosis, on the growth and nutrition
of school children], Berliner Klinische Wochenschrift, vol. 52 (1915),
pp. 949-950.
The author measured 1,006 Chemnitz school children 6, 9, and 13 years of
age who were free from deformities; of these, 500 were anemic and 300 either
tuberculous or with tuberculous tendencies. The results are given in tables.
The anemic children were little inferior to the normal children, but the tuber­
culous children were underweight. The boys were also undersized, but the girls
at the age o f 13 showed excessive size,, due to coming puberty, which is earlier in
girls than in boys.
Thoma, R . : Untersuchungen über die Grösse und das Gewicht der
anatomischen Bestandtheile des menschlichen Körpers im gesunden
und im kranken Zustande [Investigations of Size and Weight of
Anatomical Sections of the Human Body in Normal and in Pathological
States]. O. W . Vogel, Leipzig, 1882. 291 pp.
The first part of the book deals with theoretical considerations, the second
with a series of observations, and the appendix takes up the mathematical
foundations for the theory of individual variations. The mathematical dis­
cussions are kept as simple as possible. The amount of material handled was
very large, as is evidenced by the bibliography covering 12 pages. Some of the
data on height the author collected from 732 boys between 7 and 19 in the
schools of Heidelberg, measurements being taken without shoes. He finds that
height and weight are greater in males than females except from 12 to 15
years of age. Normal growth is not regular but has stages of retardation and
acceleration.
Thorndike, Edward Lee: “ The physical growth of children.” Notes on
Child Study, pp. 21-30. Columbia University Contributions to Philos­
ophy, Psychology, and Education. The Macmillan Co., New York, 1901.
An analysis of certain of the researches of Franz Boas on physical growth
used in the author’s classes at Teachers College.
Thorne, L. T .: “ The physical development of the London schoolboy;
1890 examinations.” Brit. M. J. [London], vol. 1 (1904), pp. 829-831.
An investigation of the physical condition of boys aged 9 to 16 years, in­
clusive, all pupils of the Technical Education Board of the London County
Council, between 1898 and 1902. With data as to condition of lungs, heart,
spine, eyes, throat, nose, hearing, and urine are included tables of chest ex­
pansion and circumference of chest with forced inspiration, of 1,644 boys,
and a table of heights (in boots) and weights (stripped to the waist but with
jackets on) of 1,710 boys.
Törnell, Gottfried: “ En svensk folkskola pä landet. Skolhygenisk Studie ”
[A Swedish public school in the country. School hygiene study].
Hygiea, Medicinsk och Farmaceutisk Mänadsskrift [Stockholm], vol.
7 1 /1 -2 (1910), pp. 911-933.
After describing the class schedules and home work required of pupils in
the school at Hvetland and the development of pupils as compared with the
incidence of disease the article gives three tables showing height, weight, and
chest girth of 11 boys and 6 girls in whose families tuberculosis had appeared,
the same data for 151 boys and 163 girls (normal), and median, maximum, and
minimum heights for a group of boys and girls ranging in age from 6 to 14t4
years.


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Tolentino, M ariano: “ Weight of newborn Filipino babies.” Journal of
the Philippine Islands Medical Association [M anila], voi 1 (1921)
pp. 111-112.
From the records of the weight o f 200 healthy, full-term infants in the
the EJniippme General Hospital the author derived an average
°£ 2,962.4 grams. The records of 16 infants born in the pay department
showed an average weight of 3,510.6 grams.
J
p
Toronto, Canada, Department of Public H ea lth : “ Height and weight
tables of Toronto school children.” PuUic Health Journal [T oron to!
voi. 15 (1924), pp. 391-403.

19? 2’ Ì ^sHrI®y was made of the public schools of Toronto to
establish standards of height and weight for age among Toronto school chilData were secured under uniform conditions for 30,035 bovs and
+• S1irlS’
i,nd0? r clothing, excepting shoes. Tables derived by ordinary
statistical methods show an average height and weight for age a little lower
* fi13,11 thbse of the new Baldwin-Wood tables. The rapid gain in height^of
girls of 13 years is especially marked in the case of Toronto girls, and Toronto
boys of 13 are heavier than the Baldwin-Wood standard. The Baldwin-Wood
greater range in both height and weight at each age, than do the
loronto taDles. Growth curves are presented.
675 Townsend, C. W . : “ Some statistics on weight of infants, sex, and fetal
heart-rate.” Bost. M. & 8. J., voi. 134 (1896), pp. 484-485.
fen £ r i hfQ
larg? y statistical, submitted to combat what the author
felt to be erroneous statements in circulation, based on small numbers of
observations. In 1,000 cases of infants born at full term at the Boston
v n W ” Hfospit,al he f°und the average fetal heart rate to be 140.26 in males,
141.83 m females. The weight of the same infants was 7 pounds 8 9 ounces
for males and 7 pounds 5.1 ounces for females. Attempted prediction of sex
from rate of heartbeat he felt to be useless.
676 •—------- “ The so-called physiological loss in infants.” Bost. M . & 8 J
voi. 116 (1887), pp. 157-160.
’
1RSfi
®ostoa Lymg-in Hospita! from May 1, 1885, to July 15,
1886, of 231 normal breast-fed infants of healthy mothers. Two tables are
given : One compares the changes in weight in infants of primiparse and of
multiparae ; the second compares the changes in weight in infants fed in different ways. The authors observations w ere: (1) Initial loss of weight is
physiological for civilized human beings— it does not occur in the few lower
observed; (2) first-born lose more than later-born infants; (3) this
loss of weight is due to (a) tardy secretion of milk (6) laxative effect of
colostrum (c) the feeble condition of the infant; (4) additional artificial food
dmnmshes, but does not eliminate, this weight loss, and is an objectionable
practice. Many other workers are quoted and a bibliography compiled.
677 Trettien, A . W . : “ Creeping and walking.” American Journal of P sy­
chology [Worcester], voi. 12 (1900), pp. 1-57.
A study of the attitudes and movements of the child during the first few
years. Data were selected from medical journals, hospital reports! and replira
to a questionnaire sent out by the author. He discusses development of the
embryo; position in utero; prenatal movements; length, weight, and relative
proportions of parts of the body in the infant at birth; Composition and struc­
ture of the body, including a description of the spinal curves Under the
headings: Measurements, Arms, Chest, Legs, Creeping, First Steps Reversion
with numerous subheadings, information was obtained by q u e s t ib n n fh la s to
the development of many children, and the results analyzed at length
(45 pages) with regard to both mental and physical processes. References8
678 Tschepourkovsky, E th ym e: “Anthropologische Studien ” [Anthropolog­
ical studies]. Archiv fur Anthropologie [Braunschweig] 1911 new
ser. voi. 10, pp. 151-183.
’
The anthropological characteristics of the races of Great Russia aro rii*
S o o ChiÌdren.any
give data ° D height and on bead dimensions of over
679 Tuckerman, F. : Anthropometric Data Based upon Nearlv 3 000 Men suro
ments Taken from Students. Amherst, 1888. 1 page.
e
The subjects measured were 52 students of the three upper classes of the
Massachusetts Agricultural College, in 1884-85. Average results are L ™ ?
and a table of percentage differences between the two sides of the8 body S
680 Tudeer, O .: Forberedande undersokningar a f det s. k “ fullgàngna ”
finska fostrets vikt- och dimensionsforhàllanden ” [Preliminary in
vestigations of the so-called “ full-term ” Finnish fetus and its dimen­
sions]. Finska Ldkaresallskapets Handlingar [Helsineforsl vni
(1915), pp. 875-893.
8 ° rsj, voi.
Results o f investigations of other workers are given. The author observed
infants of 5,289 women confined in the lying-in hospitals of Helsine-fnrs
Confinements of 4,412 of these occurred between the thirty-ninth and fortieth
week of pregnancy. The pregnancy of 877 lasted more than 40 weeks. In the
fiist group the weight of female infants of unmarried mothers averaged 3 314
§ri*i^s and ma^e. mfants 3,486> grams ; female infants of married mothers
gra“ s a,n?
infants 3,576 grams.
Infants of married mothers
were also found to be the longer.


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Tugendreich, G .: “ tiber schlechte Entwieklung von Geschwistern
wahrend der Stillung ” * [On poor development of children of the same
fam ily during nursing]. Ztschr. f. Kinderh. [Berlin], vol. 2 (1911)
pp. 312-324.
v
An account of the author’s study of the physical development of 13 children
“ oai. S ? families. He gives the weight and general condition of each child
i-i , k an<* . ^en. MSMn when the child was several months or several years
varied in each case). A comparison of the weight and physical
children belonging to the same family showed that when one
child m the family was below average weight at birth and failed to gain
sufficiently during nursing, the other child showed the same tendency, although
the mother s health, quantity of milk, and other conditions were favorable.
concludes that this tendency to poor development is something
peculiar, idiopathic. Several charts are presented.
Tttxford, A . W ., and It. A . G legg: “ The average height and weight of
E n glish seh ooi children.” Brit. M. J. [London], vol. 1 (1011), pp.
A computation of data supplied by school medical officers, of the heights
( * * “ 5 boots) and weights (in indoor clothing) of English school children.
The averages, grouped by age for boys and girls living in country areas and
“ th| “ o ? 11, and ^ the south of England, represent 583,640
woio^+U^,,™2letiWeLenp a n d I f yearf of age. The authors derive height and
weight curves but feel that lack of definiteness in the statement as to age
makes these somewhat unreliable.
®
Uhlitzsch.: “Anthropometrische Messungen und deren praktischer W ert ”
LAnthropometrical measurements and their practical value]. Ailgemeines Statistisches' Archiv [Tubingen], vol. 2 (1 891-92), pp, 419-451.
i+liscussie*s
y^ork of this kind already carried on by great
investigators, its results and its practical value, the laws of physical developar?d the factors influencing it, the effect of hygiene on development, etc.
His tables give height, weight of boys and of girls, from 6 to 20 years of age,
being taken from Quetelet, Erismann
Kotelmann, Carstadt, Hasse, Geissler and Uhlitzsch, Bowditch, and Pagliani!
U kraina P ublic-H ealth Service: “ Resultati obsledovaniia rabochikh
podrostkov na Ukrainiie v 1923 godu ” [Results of a study of working
children in Ukraina in 1923]. Pervi ukra inski institut rabochei meditsini, Trudi i materiali. Vypusk pervii. Kharkov, 1925, 150 columns.
TT1An. acc°unt of the first study of the physical condition of child workers in
Ukraina. The study was made in 1923 by the public-health authorities of
Ukraina m accordance with a government decree prescribing periodic physical
i'ianooiatl0tS ° £ a11 .wor.kers under 18 years of age. The report deals with
11,000 workers ranging m ages from 14 to 18 years, over 600 of whom were
f 1Yes in numerous tables the height, weight, and chest circumference
according to age, sex, race, social condition, and occupation. The weight,
l^+hpkfiftPAnth11^ i n c r e a s e s with age; the absolute increase is greatest
in the fifteenth year, it is then about 5.3 to 6 kilograms; in the seventeenth
year this amount decreases to 3.3 to 4.2 kilograms; but the relative increase in
weight, that is in proportion to the increase in height, goes on uninterruptedlv
t T ™ Se^ TbeK chest circumference is smaller than the h alfleig h t K fo r l
£5® af e P£ .1®’ kut at the age of 17 there begins a considerable increase in
tke..ckest circumference, and at 18 it is greater than the half-height. Many
are compared with those obtained by other writers in Russia and
abroad. Numerous tables and references.
ana
U. S. Public H ealth Service, U . S. Treasury Departm ent: Heights and
Weights of Children, by C. W . Stiles and G. A. Wheeler. Public
Health Reports [W ashington], vol. 30 (1915), pp. 2990-3003.
. A. s! udy t0 compare two sanitary groups: (Group P) and (Group S> living
in homes provided with privies or in homes provided with sewers and no
privies. Tests were made of white school children, American and southern
llvm& m a southern city in the sandy coastal plain, the children being
of the same age, with slight variations, to the day. They are compared as to
heights and weights taken at quarter-year periods. Heights were taken in
Rocking feet, to the nearest y4 inch; weights, with clothing but S o u t
1652
toS‘ 771h
betwfen
1,642
and
i,o o z ^765h
((s o to
771 bovsms77
boys, 877 ¥to ^881ldrea.
girls)^ amined
from 6 was
to 17%
vears
of age
j^ u sh re . These children were compared by sanitary groups, results tabulated'
?.ad
following conclusions reached: (1) In general, sitting height is a
little more than one-half standing height, but in girls from 13 + « 1 7
proportion is greater. (2) The children showed two strikinl interruptiols in
growth, at ages 11 and 14. (3) From 6 to 13 there is no con fta u tln d u n iform
growth between boys and girls; from 13 to 17 boys excel. (4)
Pf.
fotal-yvar periods (12 of boys, 12 of girls) Group S excelled in standing
16 periods, Group P in 8 periods; in sitting height GroSn I
fn Ci1l ed
J3 periods, Group P in 11 periods; in weight, Grolap ’ S excelled
ivem gesT Group p T n 28.“ 9 Perl° dS- AcCordingly’ GrouP s ^ celled in 44


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IT. S. Public H ealth Service, U . S. Treasury D epartm ent: Heights and
Weights of School Children, by Taliaferro Clark. Reprint No. 750,
Public Health Report. Washington, 1922.
36 pp.
A study of the heights and weights of 14,335 native white school children in
Maryland, Virginia, and North and South Carolina, ranging in age from 6 to 16
years and all attending school. Age at nearest birthday is employed and
measurements in shoes, except as the children attended school barefoot.
Weights were taken in ordinary indoor clothing. Measurements are so classi­
fied that midpoints of unit classes fall on the even inch and even pound.
Arithmetical averages are used as a basis of statistical comparisons. Many
tables and charts show various correlations. Average weights are given for
each inch of height, for boys and for girls, and for each year from 6 to 16.
----------- Heights and Weights of School Children; a study of the heights
and weights of 14,335 native white school children in Maryland, Vir­
ginia, and North and South Carolina, by Taliaferro Clark, Edgar
Sydenstricker, and Selwin D. Collins. Public Health Reports [W ash­
ington], vol. 37, pt. 1 (1922), pp. 1185-1207.
Report of a survey made by the United States Public Health Service. Ages
ranged from 6 to 16 years, inclusive. Heights were taken in shoes; weights in
indoor clothing. Measurements are so classified that the midpoints of unit
classes fall on the even inch and the even pound. The final results of the
study are presented as average weights of boys and girls of each age, by
heignt groups.
-----------Influence of Occupation on Health during Adolescence, by M.
Victor Safford. Public Health Bulletin No. 78. Washington, 1916.
51 pp.
This report gives statistics of height, weight, chest expansion, and strength
o f grip, which are tabulated by race or nationality, showing average, maximum,
and minimum measurements. Comparative tables show these figures in rela­
tion to those of applicants for employment certificates, New York City, southern
school children. Dr. D. A. Sargent’s measurements of students, Robert’s English
school boys, and Bowditch’s Boston children.
----------t- The Physical Care of Rural School Children, by Taliaferro Clark.
Reprint No. 366, Public Health Reports. Washington, 1916. 8 pp.
Largely a study of defective conditions but including (page 4) a brief sum­
mary of findings with regard to the physical measurements of the rural school
children of Porter County, Ind., obtained during an intensive survey by the
Public Health Service.
----------- The Physical Care of Rural School Children, by Taliaferro Clark.
Reprint No. 840, Public Health Reports. Washington, 1923. 12 pp.
Largely a study of- defects but including (pp. 4 and 5) a brief summary of
findings as to the growth and development of 14,335 white children in rural and
semirural localities in Maryland, Virginia, and North and South Carolina, ob­
tained in a statistical study made by the Public Health Service. See Reprint
No. 750, Public Health Reports, May 19, 1922.
Vahlensieck, Carl: “ Ernahrungserfolge im zweiten Lebensjahre bei
gesunden und kranken Kindern ’’ [Success in the nutrition of healthy
• and sick children from 1 to 2 years of age]. Jahrl). f. Kinderh. [Ber­
lin], ser. 3, vol. 93 (1920), pp. 177-190.
The author discusses the diet of children in their second year. He cites the
average weight deficit of 629 young children that visited the Barmer Nurslings
Home from 1908 to 1909 and selects 125 from among them for extended dis­
cussion.
Valence, A . : “ Étude sur les mensurations faites sur les élèves de l’école
n avale” [A study of the measurements of pupils at the naval school].
Archives de médecine navale [Paris], vol. 89 (1908), pp. 161-200.
Data were obtained from records of measurements of naval cadets taken at
entrance to the service and four months later for 12 consecutive years. The
author found the two measurements insufficient for determination of physical
condition and stated that no formula could serve as a means of estimating vital
force during the period of growth. The respiratory index is an excellent indi­
cation of the power of resistance.
Van Voorthuijsen, A . : “ Onderzoekingen over de Schoolvoeding te Gro­
ningen ” [Investigations on school feeding in Groningen]. Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor Oeneeslcunke [Amsterdam], 1912, pp. 165-177.
Investigation of school feeding made by the author in the city of Groningen.
After quoting several writers and giving in several tables the weights and
heights of school children in Utrecht, the author gives in a table the increases
in weight of five of the children investigated by him during the latter part or
1911 and early months of 1912. In another set of tables, by way of illustra­
tion he gives for each of the five children the quantity of food in calories and
the chemical composition of the food consumed in school and at home during a
certain week.


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Variot, G .: “ L ’accroissement statural et l’accroissement pondéral chez
le nouveau-né” [Increase in length and weight of newborn infants].
Presse médicale belge [Brussels], vol. 60 (1908), pp. 821-826.
The author has already established that in hypotrophie conditions due to
chronic gastroenteritis stature is arrested less than weight. For instance, an
infant 8 months old had the length of a normal 4-month-old infant and the
weight of a 2-month-old infant. This constitutes dissociation of growth. But
dissociation is also physiological ; from many mean weights of infants born in
French hospitals taken 1 day after birth, 10 days after, and 30 days after, it
is shown that in the first 10 days they gain 100 grams and 2.3 centimeters and
in the next 20 days 600 grams and 2 centimeters. Four cases are described in
detail.
Variot, G .: La croissance chez le nourrisson [Growth of the Infant].
G. Doin, Paris, 1925. 339 p p ..
Dr. Variot gives in this volume the results of important studies made by him
on the growth of infants, during the years when he was in charge of an infant
asylum. The book is divided into two parts ; one dealing with normal, the
other with abnormal growth.
“ L ’arrêt temporaire de croissance chez les nourrissons en rapport
avec l’éruption dentaire ” [Temporary arrest of infants’ weight increase
in relation to dentition]. Journal de clinique et de thérapeutique in­
fantiles [Paris], vol. 7 (1899), pp. 210-14.
A study made by the author of 42 infants at the Dispensary of Belleville,
whose weight loss could be ascribed only to dentition. Case histories with
disturbances in health, weights, condition of teeth, etc., are given.
----------- “ Note sur la dissociation de la croissance * * * chez les
débiles ” [Note on dissociation of growth * * * in weak children].
Bulletins de la Société de pédiatrie de Paris, vol. 10 (1908), pp. 1 9 3195.
. A
discussion, illustrated by three cases, of the characteristic growth of
healthy and sick premature infants. The author finds a pronounced dissocia­
tion of growth in weight and length when premature infants are not healthy.
and Chaumet : “ Tables de croissance des enfants parisiens de 1
an à 16 ans, dressées en 1905 ” [Growth tables of Parisian children
from 1 to 16 years of age, compiled in 1905]. Bulletins de la Société
de pédiatrie de Paris, vol. 8 (1906), pp. 49-58.
Measurements taken with Variot’s pediometer. Abnormal children were
eliminated, but as many Paris classes and communities as possible were repre­
sented. Height was taken without shoes and weight without clothing The
averages are calculated for 100 to 190 individuals for each year and each sex
This material the authors present in a table and in graphs, with discussion
which brings out the superiority of girls from 10 to 15. Another table com­
pares figures of Quetelet, Bowditch, Botch, and others, all of which are similar
save those of Quetelet.
-----------and Fliniaux : “ Tables des croissances comparées des nourrissons
élévés au sein et au biberon durant la première année de la vie ” [Tables
of growth comparing breast-fed and bottle-fed children during the
first year of life]. Comptes-rendus hebdomadaires des séances de
l'Académie des sciences [Paris], vol. 158 (1914), pp. 1361-64.
To ascertain mean weight of newborn infants the authors took the statistics
for 500 boys and 500 girls at St. Louis and obtained 3,130 grams for the
former and 3,020 grame for the latter. For length they took the same num­
bers from the Hospice des Enfans-Assistés, and obtained 49.8 centimeters for
boys and 49.3 for girls. For monthly growth up to 1 year they used the
records of the Belleville Goutte de Lait and the Institute de Puericulture des
-Enfans-Assistés and found that there existed little difference in weight and
length between artificially-fed and breast-fed infants. In the infants observed
the weight for both sexes at the end of a year was 91 kilos and the length
71.7 centimeters. A table is given for weight and length of boys and girls for
each of the first 12 months as related to the method of feeding.
W arrentrapp, G .: “ Bericht an die Baudeputation zu Frankfurt am Main
zur Beantwortung der Frage über die zweckmässigste Einrichtung der
Schulbänke und Schultische ” [Report to the committee of construc­
tion at Frankfort on Main in answering the question as to the most
satisfactory installation of school benches and desks]. Vierteljahrs­
schrift für Öffentliche Gesundheitspflege [Braunschweig], vol. 4 (1872)
pp. 298-306.
To improve school forms from the hygienic point of view the authorities at
Frankfort on the Main in Germany about the year 1870 had the height
measured, with shoes, of 3,459 boys from 6 to 21 years old and 2,448 girls
from 6 to 19 years old, pupils in their public schools. The average, maximum,
and minimum heights for each sex are shown in tables.


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V a siliev , V . I . : “ K voprosu o vlijanii selskoi shkoli na fizicheskoye razyitie uchashtschikhsya ” [Effect of the rural school on the physical de­
velopment of the pupils]. Vestnik obshtshestvennoy higieni, sudebnoy
i prakticheskoy meditzini [St. Petersburg], 1900, pp. 369-388.
The author studied 2,233 pupils 9 to 13 years old in rural schools, nearly
one-third of them girls, to ascertain the effect of school on their physical
development. Weight, height, and chest circumference are given by sex and
age. Contrary to other writers the author finds that the absolute weight,
height, and chest circumference increase with the years of school attend­
ance, which he attributes to the happy spirit of the children in the schools
investigated by him, to the devotion of the teachers to their work, and to
the informality of the instruction, which prevents overwork and promotes
happiness.
V asilievski, N . P .: “ K voprosu o vlijanii narodnoi shkoli na zdorovie i
fizicheskoi razvitie uchashchikhsya dietie, po nabliudeniam proizvedennim v 1893-94 uehebnom godu nad uehenikami zemskikh shkol
Kovrovskago uiezda ” [On the question of effect of public school on
the health and physical development of school children according to
investigations- made in the school year 1893-94 of the pupils of the
rural schools of Kavrovski district]. Vrach [St. Petersburg], vol. 16
(1895), pp. 36, 59.
A study of 938 rural school children 7 to 14 years old (about one-sixth of
them girls). The author gives in several tables the children’ s height, chest
circumference, difference between chest circumference and half height for each
year of age, annual increase in each of the above measurements; also an account
of the physical defects found in the children.
V azh n ov, K . V . : “ O flzicheskom razvitii uchashchikhsia v narodnikh
shkolah Egorievskago ouiezda Riasanskoi gubernii v 1895-96 uchebnom godu ” [On the physical development of the pupils in the public
schools of Egorievski district, Government of Ryazan, in the school year
1895-98], Vestnik obshtshestvennoy higieni, sudebnoy i prakticheskoy
meditzini, February, 1897, pt. 7, pp. 31-43.
Original study of physical development of 562 boys and 155 girls 7 to 14
years old, pupils in rural public schools, made in the school year 1895-96. Tn
a number of tables the author gives for each year of age the average height,
chest circumference, form of chest, condition of spine, hearing, sight, teeth,
and state of nutrition. He found that the rate of growth in height and in
chest circumference decreased with each year of school attendance, but he
refrains from attributing this to the effect of school life.
V eit, G .: “ Beiträge zur geburtsMlflichen Statistik ” [D ata on obstet­
rical statistics]. Monatsschrift für Geburtskunde und Frauenkrank­
heiten [Berlin], vol. 5 (1855), pp. 344r-381; vol. 6 (1855), pp. 101-132.
In connection with data on delivery the author gives the weights at birth
o f 2,550 infants.
Venn, J .: “ Cambridge anthropometry.” Journal of the Anthropological
Institute of Great Britain and Ireland [London], vol. 18 (188 8-89),
pp. 140--154.
The results of measuring height, weight, visual acuity, strength of pull and
of squeeze, vital capacity, length and breadth of heart are recorded for 1,235
university students, by age and by scholastic grading.
----------- “ Results of anthropometry at Cambridge.” Transactions of the
International Congress of Hygiene and Demography, 1891 [London],
vol. 10 (1892), pp. 308-314.
A report o f examination of over 2,000 men at Cambridge, aged about 19 to
23, the instruments and methods used being those selected by Francis Galton
for anthropometrical investigations throughout England. Height was meas­
ured to the tenth of an inch, thickness of shoes being deducted; weight, in
clothing, to a quarter of a pound. In general, the author found the Cambridge
men more fully developed than Englishmen of the same age selected at random;
the correlation between mental and physical capacity was too slight to be sig­
nificant. Various tables.
Vierordt, H erm ann: Anatomische, physiologische und physikalische
Daten und Tabellen zum Gebrauche für Mediciner [Anatomical, Phys­
iological, and Physical Data and Tables for Use of Medical Men].
Verlag von Gustav Fischer, Jena, 1888. 309 pp.
A mass of data collected from other investigators on the human body at dif­
ferent ages, its make-up, and needs. The first part (about 100 pages) gives
height, weight, and size of organs, according to age, sex, race, etc. The second
part (over 150 pages) treats blood, digestion, respiration, amounts of food re­
quired by children at various ages, analyses of milk, excretions, etc. The third
part gives information on thermometry, specific gravity, pharmacopoeia, various
tables of measurement, etc. Many references are given.


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708

V ignes, H enri: “ Le poids des enfants nés à terme ou au voisinage du
terme dans la population hospitalière de l’agglomération parisienne ”
[The weight of infants born at term, or near term, in the hospitals of
Paris and environs]. Revue anthropologique [Paris], vol. 34 (1924),
pp. 152-159.
The author correlates the weight of the infant with the period of gestation,
using as a basis for his conclusions a study of nearly 2,000 cases, and illustrat­
ing his discussion with numerous curves.
709 Villerm é, L. R .: “ Mémoire sur la taille de l’homme en Fran ce” [The
stature of man in France]. Annales d’hygiène publique et de médecine
légale [Paris], vol. 1 (1829), pp. 351-399.
Data for this article were secured fiom answers to a series of questions sent
out by the French Government in 1812 and 1813 as to the stature of military
conscripts, the age of complete development, and causes, whether of location
or occupation, which rendered young men physically unfit. The author dis­
cusses in detail the returns from the different sections of the country and finds
that poverty and its accompaniments produces men of small stature and re­
tarded development and that rigor of climate can be considered only a secondary
cause.
.
710 Vines, J. H .: “ The physique of the public-school boy.” American physi­
cal Education Review [Boston], vol. 9 (1904), pp. 110-115.
A record of height, weight, and age of English school boys in 1874 and
1901— about 700 cases reported each year. The conclusion is that English
school boys are materially increasing in height and weight up to the eighteenth
year.
711 Vinogradova-Lukirskaya, L . : “ K voprosu ob izliedovanii rosta i viesa
uchenitz srednikh uchebnikh zavedeniy ” [Examination o f height and
weight of high-school grils]. Vestnik obshtshestvennoy higieni, .sudebnoy i prakticheskoy meditzini [St. Petersburg], vol. 21, pt 2 (1894),
pp. 67-94, 186-218.
Account of height and weight of 1,680 school girls 8 to 20 years old ob­
tained by the author at Moscow during four consecutive school years. She
gives in numerous tables the maximum, minimum, and average height and
weight of the girls for each six months of a ge; also the semiannual increase
in height and weight. She also quotes in separate tables similar data for boys
and girls obtained by several other writers, Russian and foreign. She con­
cludes that the Moscow girls 10 to 15 years old are taller and, between 12
and 14 years, heavier than boys of the same ages; that school life retards in­
crease in height and weight more than poverty; and that the average height
and weight and their average annual increases are greater in children of wellto-do families than in children of poor families.
712 V iu ra y Carreras, J .: El examen del peso de los niños durante los prime­
ros meses de la infancia es el mejor método para reconocer si siguen
la ley de crecimiento” [Study of the children’s weight in the first
months of life is the best way of finding out whether the child is
developing properly according to the law of growth].
Revista de
ciencias medicas de Barcelona, 1886 (1 2 ), pp. 4-11.
The author describes three kinds of scales, quotes from several writers the
weights of infants, and gives the weight of his own child as it progressed in
the first six months of its life.
713 von V oit, C .: Über die Periodicität im Gewichte der Kinder ” [Periods
in the weight of children]. Münchener Medizinische Wochenschrift
vol. 33 (1886), pp. 129-131.
The author comments on the experiences of Malling-Hansen, president of the
Royal Deaf and Dumb Institute in Copenhagen, who every day weighed his 130
pupils and noted that there was a loss in weight from May to July, a decided
gam from July to December, and a slight gain from January to M ay; who noted
moreover that several improvements in the diet produced no apparent improve­
ment in health. The author discusses the complicated question of assimilation
and points out that an increase of weight may mean an increase of water
instead of body substance.
714 Voronov, G. : “ K voprosu o raznitze nabliudaiemoi v narostanii viesa u
grudnikh dietie s bolshim i malim viesom ” [Difference in increase of
weight of large and small infants]. Meditsinskoe ObOzrenie [Moscow]
vol. 20 (1883), pp. 324-340.
A study of increase in weight of 1,582 normal infants under 10 days old in a
Moscow orphan asylum. The average weight was 3,100 grams. The infants
were weighed immediately after admission to the asylum at the age of 1 to 3
days and just before leaving it at the age of 4 to 10 days. In his tables the
author shows the absolute daily fluctuations of weight in grams for infants
1 to 3 days old and separately for those 4 to 10 days old, and in each of these
groups he gives two subdivisions for those weighing less than 3,100 grams and
those above that weight. He compares his data with those of several other
writers and concludes that infants of smaller weight regain their original
weight sooner than heavier children. The absolute gain of the average child


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is an indication of the state of his nutrition and in children of smaller weight
it is greater than in heavier children.
W agn er, G.: Beobachtungen über Gewicht und Masse der Neugeborenen
[Observations on Weight and Measurements of Newborn Infants].
. R. Leupold, Königsberg, 1884. 72 pp.
Study of weights and measurements erf 1,500 newborn infants at a maternity
clinic at Königsberg. The author weighed and measured each infant once
shortly after birth and a second time before the infant was discharged, usually
between the eight and the fourteenth day after birth. He found that the better
an .
is developed at the time of birth the less he gains, and the weaker
the infant the more he develops in the days following birth. This, however,
the author limits to normal children; he specifically excludes very poorly
developed or premature children. He found that girls and first-born children
^e_X6i°P more rapidly than boys or children of later birth. For every one of his
1,500 cases he gives the weight, length, size of head, width of shoulders, straight
diameter, straight oblique diameter, and transverse diameter; as obtained in
the first and second measurements. • These data are arranged according to
child s sex and mother’s age.
716 W alk er, E. W . A .: “ The growth of the body in man. The relationship
between the body weight and the body length (stem length).” Pro­
ceedings of the Royal Society in London, ser. B., vol. 89 (1916), pp.
157-173.
Measurements (number not given) made by the author of body length and
weight of 1,613 boys and 56 girls in English schools are compared with those
made by others. Formulas are presented for showing the relation between
growth in body weight and body length, and for judging normality.
717 -----------“ The relationship between body weight and the length of the
body (stem length) in man.” Journal of Physiology [Cambridge], vol.
50 (191 5-16), pp. 3-4.
A report of 201 cases in which the actual and calculated body lengths and
the percentage of difference are tabulated. A formula is presented for show­
ing the relation of weight to body length.
718 W arner, Francis: “ Mental and physical conditions among 50,000 chil­
dren seen 1892-94 and the methods of studying recorded observations,
with special reference to the determination of the causes of mental
dullness and other defects.” Journal of the Royal Statistical Society
[London], vol. 59 (1896), pp. 125-168.
An elaborate study with great statistical detail. The subjects investigated
were: (a) Development defects; (6) nerve signs; (c) nutrition; (d) dullness;
(e) eye cases; (f) rickets; (g ) exceptional children.
719 ----------- The Study of Children and Their School- Training. The Mac­
millan Co., New York, 1897. 264 pp.
A general study made by the author and others of the mental and physical
development of 100,000 children, based rather upon observation than upon
actual measurements. Special attention is paid to the points to look for
in studying children and the characteristics of normal and subnormal children.
720 W arren, S. P .: “ The average birth weight in 2,000 confinements in the
State of Maine.” Am. J. Ohst. [New York], vol. 76 (1917) pp
932-936.
A paper based on the author’s personal record of confinements, during a
practice of 40 years, in which he entered the weight of infants, without cloth­
ing taken with obstetric scales. Actual recorded birth weight showed an
average of 8*4 pounds for girls and 8% for boys. Since parents were of dif­
ferent nationalities, many from races of comparatively small stature, the
figures are presented merely as an interesting phenomenon. No conclusion is
drawn.
721 W ateff, S .: “Anthropologische Beobachtungen an den Schülern und Sol­
daten in Bulgarien ” [Anthropological observations on school children
and soldiers in Bulgaria]. Archiv für Anthropologie [Braunschweig],
vol. 27 (1900-1902), pp. 29-30.
In 1896 a committee was formed to make an anthropological study of the
Bulgarian race. Part of the work consisted in examining 209,929 school chil­
dren between the ages of 6 and 10, 20,810 between 10 and 15. and 6145
between 15 and 20. Findings are here recorded.
722 W edh olm , K a rl: “ Über den Einfluss der Säuglingsernährung auf Ernäh­
rungszustand und Entwicklung der Musculatur im Kindesalter” [The
effect of feeding during infancy on nutrition and muscular developmeht in childhood]. Arch. f. Kinderh. [Stuttgart], vol. 66 (1916), pp.
715

In order to
bottle feeding
fer®as,t. fed and
rnvT
The bottle-fed

investigate the effects
the author examined
279 bottle fed. They
to sixth year,
children had not been


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throughout childhood of breast versus
814 children, of whom 535 had been
were studied in groups of first, second,
and seventh to fourteenth year periods.
breast fed more than two weeks after

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PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF TH E CHILD
birth ; the breast-fed children had had mother’s milk at least six months.
The data appear in two curves of development in fat and in muscle of the
two classes of children during the aforesaid five periods. The author con­
cludes that the breast-fed children are fatter and stronger than the others
during the first two years. Thereafter there is no particular difference. In
the second year rachitas occurs in 9 per cent of the first class and 50 per
cent o f the second class of children.
W eissbart, M a x : “ Gewichtsbestimmungen während einer Stillperiode
nebst Bemerkungen über Nährmittel für Stillende ” [Weights during
nursing, with remarks on foods for nursing mothers].
Jahrb. f.
Kinderh. [Berlin], vol. 72 (1910), pp. 309-327.
The author describes the development of an infant that was weighed by
his mother before and after every nursing from his twelfth day till he was
6 months old. The child was 49 centimeters long at birth and weighed 3,200
grams. This article gives in tables and curves the amounts of milk con­
sumed each day and the increases in weight, and compares the progress of the
infant with that of others. The child nursed for only 7 to 10 minutes at a
time. He increased most in weight in the second half of the first year, es­
pecially in the seventh and eighth months, when he was weighed three or four
times monthly. He was weaned when 11 months old.
W eissenberg, S .: “ Das Körpergewicht nach Alter und Geschlecht”
[W eight of the body according to age and sex], Zeitschrift für Eon
stitutionslehre [Munich and Berlin], vol 10 (1 92 4-25), pp. 738-741.
The author attributes great importance to weight in estimating the con
stitution of the human body. For this reason he weighed 4,400 persons, males
and females in nearly equal numbers, ranging in age from infancy to 80
years; over 3,000 of these persons were under 20 years of age. In a table he
gives for each sex at each year of age, the minimum weight, the maximum,
difference between these, the average annual increase, and the weight in grams
for each centimeter of height. In the discussion accompanying the table he
takes up the differences in weight between the sexes at various ages.
----------- “ Das Wachstum des Kopfes und des Gesichtes” [Growth of
head and face]. Jahrb. f. Kinderh.
[Berlin], vol. 68 (1908), pp.
304-317.
The author measured 25 infants, 25 boys 5 years old, 25 boys and 25
girls 10 years old, 25 boys 15 years old, 100 men and 50 women, all of the
Hebrew race, as to height, length, breadth, and circumference of head; length
and width of face and of nose. Results are shown in tables and curves. The
skull proper grows least; the nose grows quickly; the jaw is the last part of
the head to develop.
----------- “ Das Wachstum des Menschen nach Alter, Geschlecht und Rasse ”
[Growth of man according to age, sex? and race]. Globus [Brunswick],
vols. 93-94 (1908), pp. 101-109.
The author gives a table of the height of 2,590 Hebrew men and 1,884
women between birth and 75 years of a ge; also a curve for the same material.
To compare with these figures he presents a table of men’s and women’s
heights as estimated by Erismann, Roberts, Quetelet, Zeising, and Schadow,
and curves according to Erismann, Roberts, and Quetelet. Another graph
shows the influence of comfort and of occupation upon height and weight. The
author justifies his choice of material by the facts that Jews are homogeneous
in race and living conditions and that they have the same average height
as other Europeans. He points out that general laws of growth persist through
differences of race. A growth curve is irregular; males are larger than females;
from about 10 to 15 years of age girls are larger than boys. Growth may be
divided into these periods: First 2 years of very rapid growth after which a
child has one-half of his ultimate height; 2 years to 6 years much slower
grow th; 6 years to 10 or 12, slow growth, after which the child has threefourths of his final height; 10 or 12 to 17 or 18, rapid grow th; 17 or 18 to
25, slow grow th; after 25, no growth. The full differentiation according to
race, sex, and individual appears after accelerated growth at puberty.
-----------Das Wachstum des Menschen, nach Alter, Geschlecht, und
Rasse [The Growth of Man as Affected by Age, Sex, and Race].
Strecker & Schröder, Stuttgart, 1911. 230 pp.
The author points out the irregularity of growth in seven periods, different
rates of different parts of the body resulting in varying proportions of the
child and adult, the important differentiating factors of age, sex, race, climate,
occupation, rank, etc. Sixty tables, 22 curves, 2 plates, and 3 pages of
bibliography are included.
----------- “ Die Körperproportionen des Neugeborenen ”
[The body pro­
portions of the newborn infant]. Jahrb. f. Kinderh. [Berlin], vol 64
(1906), pp. 839-847.
The author measures the bodies of 15 boys and 14 girls up to 2 weeks of
age, and 9 boys and 8 girls from 2 to 4 months old, in length, reach of out­
stretched arms, skull, sitting height, breadth of shoulders, of hips, circum­
ference of head, breast, length of torso, arm, leg, hand, and foot. He compares
his measurements with those of Quetelet, finding no great differences, and
with those taken of adult Hebrews. Infants show less variation in size than
adults, and less difference due to sex. Their energy of growth is very great,
especially in the first three months. Their proportions are very different from
those of adults, especially in the much greater relative size of the upper body.


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W eissenberg, S .: “ Die südrussischen Juden” [South Russian Jews].
Archiv für Anthropologie [Brunswick], yol. 23 (1 894-95), pp¿ 347-424,
531-579.
After asserting that anthropometry should study colors and measurements
of children and effect upon them of climate, economic condition, and occupa­
tion, and after describing anthropometrical measurements, the author enters
upon a thorough discussion, from birth to old age, of the South Russian Jews,
which he illustrates by many graphs and tables. Other writers on Jews and
other races are cited. Various parts of the body are considered separately;
also localities, sexes, and ages.
—1------- - “ Mediko-soziale Untersuchung an den von den öffentlichen Küchen
gespeisten Kindern ” [Medico-social study of the children fed in public
kitchens]. Ztschr. f. Kinderh. [Berlin], vol. 39 (1925), pp. 634-644.
A study of the physical condition and of the social and economic circum­
stances of 1,313 children ranging in age from 4 to 15 years, boys and girls in
nearly equal numbers, fed in the public kitchens of three cities during the
famine in Russia. In several tables the author gives the weight, height, chest
circumference, and general physical condition of these children. He concludes
that a food shortage of brief duration produces no permanent injury to the
body.
Wesener, F e lix : Über die Volum Verhältnisse der Leber und der Lungen
[Volume of the Liver and the Lungs]. Marburg, 1879. 45 pp.
Inaugural dissertation (University of Marburg). A study based upon 471
dissections of which four-sevenths were made in Vienna and the rest in Mar­
burg. Twelve of the T9 tables give data on sex, height, volume of liver and
lungs, etc., up to the age of 21 years. The greatest increases in the volume of
liver and lungs occur during the first year. The former seems unaffected by
puberty but shows a spurt in growth during the eighteenth to twentieth year.
The lungs increase in size especially during puberty. At birth the liver is
considerably larger than both lungs together; at puberty a change, begins;
and by maturity in men the lungs are larger than the liver.
W e st, Gerald M .: “Anthropometrische Untersuchungen über die Schul­
kinder in Worcester, Massachusetts, Amerika ?. [Anthropological in­
vestigations of the school children of Worcester, Mass., U. S. A .].
Archiv für Anthropologie [Brunswick], vol. 22 (1893-94), pp. 13-48.
This is a thorough treatment of measurements collected by Dr'. Franz Boas
and others, of the school children of Worcester, Mass. The material comprises
data on 3,250 boys and girls from 5 to 21 years of age. Sixty-six per cent of
the parents were American, 20 per cent Irish, 7 per cent English and Scotch,
and 6 per cent from other European countries. The data include weight, total
height, sitting height, length and width of head, and width of face. The
article contains 5 figures and more than 30 tables, and very full discussions,
embracing mean variations, difference of averages, and comparisons between
different measurements. Other anthropometrical statistics are also considered.
----------- “ The anthropometry of American school children.” Memoirs
International Congress of Anthropology, 1893 [Chicago], 1894, pp.
50-58.
The author discusses statistics collected for the World’s Columbian Exposi­
tion on the anthropometry of school children in Toronto, Oakland, Boston, Mil­
waukee, St. Louis, and Worcester. He calls attention to differences due to
heredity and environment, race and locality, sex and social status; he explains
the factors, rate of growth and period of growth, “ shoots ” in growth at
certain ages, asymmetry in curves due to precocious children, and the many
variations in the period of female superiority.
Apparent fluctuations in
figures are sometimes due to different mathematical treatment of material.
Children of foreign parents are better developed when born here than when
born abroad.
In the Toronto intelligence tests the “ poor ” students are
almost invariably the better developed physically. Both boys and girls are
mesocephalic at all ages.
W h y te , G. D .: “ Report of the research committee of the C. M. M. A. on
the height, weight - and chest measurements of healthy Chinese.”
National Medical Journal of China [Shanghai], vol. 3 (1917), pp.
101-113.
Data were collected by physicians in different parts of China and compiled
in an effort to establish a standard of physical fitness for the Chinese, from
height, weight, and chest circumference. About 2,100 cases of both adults and
adolescents were reported. Results are tabulated. The Chinese were found to
weigh less per inch of stature than Europeans, and to exhibit sufficient racial
peculiarities to make special standards necessary.
------------“ The height, weight, and chest measurements of healthy
Chinese.” China Medical Journal [Shanghai], vol 32 (1918), pp. 210216, 322-328.
Measurements were made on adult and adolescent males and females in
different parts o f China. Chest, height, and weight measurements áre given
for about -1,000 adolescents. Weight for height indexes and factors for estab­
lishing a “ norm ” for Chinese are discussed. Southern Chinese were found to
be o f a slighter? builld than those of the northern part. A study of increase in


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PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF TH E CHILD

height and weight showed that the gain in height was distributed evenly
through the year, but 96 per cent of a year’s gain in weight occurred in the
winter.
736 W ilck e, K . : “ Das Geburtsgewicht der Kinder bei engem Becken ” [Birth
weight of children whose mothers have narrow pelves]. Beiträge zur
Geburtshilfe und Gynäkologie [Leipzig], vol. 4 (1901), pp. 291-302.
After discussing the work of other investigators on the relation between
narrow pelvis of the mother and weight of the child the author gives data on
1.858 normal births between 1894 and 1900 in the obstetrical division of the
women’s clinic in the University of Halle. In 358 cases (19.26 per cent) the
pelvis was narrow. After classifying material as shown in several tables the
author concludes that a smaller average birth weight accompanies a narrow
than a normal pelvis. A narrow pelvis does not cause a longer pregnancy.
First-born children of mothers with narrow pelves weigh less than those born
later.
737 W illia m s, J. W . : Obstetrics. D. Appleton & Co., New York, 1923.
1076 pp.
_ The development of the child from the first few weeks of pregnancy until
birth is described. Besides data from other workers the author gives results
o f observations made under his direction of over 15,000 infants. The weight,
length, and physical characteristics are given for healthy infants at birth.
Weights and lengths at birth of colored and white children are compared.
738 W im m enauer: “ Über die Bestimmung des Ernährungszustandes bei
Schulkindern” [Determination of nutrition in school children]. Zeit­
schrift für Schulgesundheitspflege [Hamburg and Leipzig], vol. 25
(1912), pp. 601-619.
The author describes examination of the state of nutrition of Mannheim
school children by the inspection method, with illumination falling directly on
ribs. The nutrition is good if no depression appears between ribs, and so on.
Of 1,175 boys 6 to 7 years old 18.6 per cent showed undernutrition and of
767 girls of the same ages 13.8 per cent. Tables give average height and
weight o f 538 boys and 613 girls between 6 and 13 years with comparative
figures for Munich and from Vierordt’s material. A table contrasts findings in
height and weight with those of inspection method. Really “ hungry ” children
are two years behind normal in weight, but they are not so numerous as
certain publications in 1911 would indicate.
739 W in c k e l: “ Untersuchungen über die Gewichtsverhältnisse bei hundert
Neugeborenen in den ersten zehn Tagen nach der Geburt ” [Investiga­
tions on the weight of 100 newborn infants in the first 10 days after
birth].
Monatsschrift für Geburtskunde und Frauenkrankheiten
[Berlin], vol. 19 (1862), pp. 416-442.
Weight of 100 normal newborn infants (56 boys and 44 girls) at a maternity
hospital in Berlin taken once a day during the first 10 days of life. The
author discusses the course of their weight for each of the 10 days, giving the
amount of decrease or increase, the number of cases, and the average change in
weight. He attributes the physiological loss to (1) evacuation of urine and
meconium, (2) accelerated activity of the skin, (3) pressure of clothes and
exertion caused by crying and suckling, and (4) change from intrauterine to
extrautenne method of nutrition.
740 W issle r, C .: “ The growth of b oy s; correlations for the annual incre­
ments.”
American Anthropologist [W ashington], new ser vol 5
(1903), pp. 81-88.
A study to assist in determining the probable annual increment of growth
in tne individual for each degree of adult stature. Data were gymnasium
records of about 300 boys, aged 11 to 18, in a private school. Stature was
recorded in centimeters to nearest unit, weights in kilograms to tenths, ages
to nearest birthday (methods of weighing and measuring not given). Correiations were calculated by the Pearson formula and tabulated as to the annual
increments for stature, weight, and arm reach, compiled from groupings of 126
to 199 cases; the annual increments of stature and the annual increments of
weight from complete records o f 70 boys, aged-12 to 17. A table also shows
average increment and variabilities in seven groups of 33 to 198 cases The
author suggests certain inferences but considers the data insufficient fdr definite
conclusions.
741 W oin arski, S. E. A . Z .: “ Some statistics of the length and weight of
children born in the Lying-in Hospital, Melbourne, during the first four
months of 1879.” Australian Medical Journal [Melbourne], new ser
vol. 1 (1879) , pp. 415-420.
A purely statistical study giving for each month the number of cases, births,
sex, civil state of mother, number of the pregnancy, and number of births
The maximum, minimum, and average length and weight are given for the totai
number of cases and for each sex.
742 W ood, Edith E .: “ Notes on oriental babies.” American Anthropologist
[Lancaster], new ser. vol. 5 (1903), pp. 659-666,
Measurements are given for 61 Chinese children from 1 day to 7 years of
age, and o f 22 Japanese from 6 days to 6 years, as to weight, height, spine,


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chest, skull, arm, foot, and number of teeth, with notations as to health.
Measurements were made by physicians (methods not stated). Results are
tabulated and compared in a general way with statistics for other nationalities,
W oodbury, Robert M .: Statures and Weights of Children under Six
Years of Age. See Children’s Bureau.
W oolley, H elen Thompson, and Charlotte R u st Fischer: “ Mental and
physical measurements of working children.” The Psychological Mono­
graphs, Psychological Review Publications, vol. 18, no. 1 (whole no.
7 7 ). Princeton, N. J., 1914. 247 pp.
The report of a smàll portion of a larger investigation, undertaken to fur­
nish a scientific demonstration of the effect of early child labor. More than
800 working children were tested in the 14-year-old series, data on 753 of
whom appear in the summary. Of these, 679 were retested at 15 years.
Height standing was taken with shoes, height of heel being later subtracted.
Weights were taken with clothing, the scale recording weights to twentieths
of a kilogram. Summarizing tables show height in centimeters and inches,
percentiles and limits ; weight in kilograms and pounds, percentiles and limits.
Graphs show correlation of height and weight with school grade. Further
investigations were made of visual acuity, auditory acuity, vital capacity,
strength and steadiness of hand, and rapidity of movement. The authors
found a positive correlation between physical tests as a whole and school
grade.
W oronichin, N .: “ Fortlaufende Wägungen während der D entition”
[Regular weighing during dentition]. JahrJ). f. Kinderh.
[Leipzig],
new ser. vol. 16 (1 88 0-81), pp. 133-143.
A collection o f measurements, including weight of a male infant during denti­
tion. Details are given of the contrivance used for making head measurements.
W u rtz, A d o lf: “ Ein Beitrag zur Ernährungsphysiologie des Säuglings”
[A contribution to the physiology of infant nutrition].
Jahrb. f.
Kinderh. [Berlin], vol. 58 (1903), pp. 528-571.
A detailed account of the development of the author’s son, who weighed
3,950 grams at birth, giving changes in weight, amount, kind, and caloric value
of food consumed, times of feeding, etc., for about the first five months.
Y eats, John: “ On human growth in towns.” Transactions of the Na­
tional Association for the Promotion of Social Science [London], 1864,
pp. 536-547.
A historically interesting article, one o f the early investigations of the
relation between physical and mental development. The author had height,
weight, and chest girth of 500 boys measured, and tabulated the results.
Yerington, H en ry H erbert: “ Clinical supervision of the well baby
during the first year.” J. A. M. A. [Chicago], vol. 71 (1918), pp.
1043-1045.
A brief report of methods and work in a well-baby clinic in San Francisco
It includes also a record of 2,966 weighings at the clinic of 521 infants, from
which the author found the initial loss in weight greater than that given in
Holt’s tables. At the end of the first year, however, he found the San Fran­
cisco infants heavier than infants from any locality previously recorded.
Y lp po, A r v ö : “ Das Wachstum der Frügeborenen von der Geburt bis
zum Schulalter. Untersuchungen über Massen-, Längen-, Thorax- und
Schädelwachstum bei 700 Frühgeborenen” [Growth of premature in­
fants from birth to school age. Investigations on growth in length,
thorax, and skull in 700 premature infants].
Ztschr. f. Kinderh.
[Berlin], vol. 24-25 (191 9-20), pp. 111-178.
The measurements covered several months in 50 per cent of the cases and
up to 9 years in one case. Premature children showed retardation of growth
in all respects, especially in the second half of the first year. The growth
is made up from about the third to the fifth or sixth year. Twenty-nine figures
and a bibliography of 64 titles are included.
----------- “ Zur Physiologie, Klinik, und zum Schicksal der Frühgeborenen ”
[Physiology, clinical condition, and fate of premature infants]. Ztschr.
f. Kinderh. [Berlin], vol. 24-25 (1 91 9-20), pp. 1-110.
• This article contains 23 photographs and graphs, 12 tables, and a bibliog­
raphy of 143 titles. It estimates that in Germany the percentage of prema­
ture infants amounts to 10 and points out that often they are mentally as
well as physically subnormal.
The author bases his studies upon others’
investigations and upon 668 cases at the Empress Augusta Victoria House.
Infants weighing less than 2,500 grams were considered premature. Of the
668 cases 128 were twins. Thirty-four weighing less than 1,000 grams showed
a very high mortality. Of the whole number 40 to 45 per cent reached school
age. Sections are devoted to the nutrition, metabolism, and care o f prema­
ture infants.
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Y o u n g , Josephine E .: “ Supernormal environment in its relation to the
growing child.” Transactions of the Fourth International Congress
on School Hygiene [Buffalo], vol. 2 (1913), pp. 17-30.
Data for this report were secured from the children attending the school of
education connected with the University of Chicago— 404 girls and 201 boys,
all of the favored classes. Records were made of height, weight, lung capacity,
blood pressure, hemoglobin content of blood, condition of adenoids and tonsils,
and rank in scholarship. Details of method are not given. Results are
tabulated and compared with existing reports on children of the poorer
. classes. The hemoglobin studies are compared with a control series of 100
from the Jewish Home for the Friendless. The author found that the children
of the rich were taller and heavier and had greater lung capacity than publicschool children, but they had lower hemoglobin content and blood pressure.
The prepubertal increase in development of girls over boys does not appear in
her records, the prepubertal boys showing relatively and absolutely greater
growth than boys of the public school but a greater loss of vigor and develop­
ment than girls of the same group.
Zacharias, Otto: “ Tiber Periodicität in der Gewichtszunahme bei K in ­
dern ” [Periodicity in gain of weight by children]. Monatliche Mit­
te ilu n g e n aus dem Qesammtgebiete der Naturwissenschaften [Berlin],
vol. 6 (1 888-89), pp. 35-37, 57-60.
The author discusses the content and purpose of Pastor Malling-Hansen’s
Tabellen über den Wachsthumsrythmus der Kinder, based on daily measure­
ments for four years of 58 girls and more particularly of 72 boys in his school
at Copenhagen. Throughout the year Malling-Hansen discovered decided fluc­
tuations. Height increased from April to August, w eight. from August to
December. He concludes that variable weather is not conducive to health;
small stature marks races subject to great changes of temperature.
Zahorsky, J .: “ The weight of infants as a diagnostic and prognostic
means.” St. Louis Courier of Medicine, vol. 28 (1903), pp. 7-12.
The author considers the weight as sensitive and as important a diagnostic
and prognostic index in pediatrics as is the temperature. Case histories are
cited.
Zeiner-Henriksen, K . : “ Skolebarns vekst. I. Unders0kelse av 1,333
skolebarn ved Hortens folkeskole” [Growth of school children. I.
investigations of 1,333 school children of Hortens (Norway) public
school]. Norsk Magazin for Laegevidenskaben [Christiania], ser. 5,
vol. 16 (1918), pp. 52-60.
In two graphs and three tables the author sets forth his own observa­
tions and those of other investigators. He finds the ages of 8, 12, and 13
years to be the time of greatest variation in growth for girls. During puberty
there is the greatest variation in individual growth. From 9 to 10 and 12 to
13 are periods of maximum growth for girls. The maximum growth for boys
is from 8 to 9 and the minimum from 12 to 13 with a rise to 14.
•---------- ‘ “ Skolebarns
vekst.
II.
Vekst0kning
i
sommerhalvaaret.
Maaling av 1,008 skolebarn (521 gutter— 487 piker) ved Hortens
folkeskole ” [Growth of school children.
II. Growth increase in
summer. Measurements of 1,008 school children (521 boys— 487 girls)
of Hortens _(Norway) public school]. Norsk Magazin for Laegeviden­
skaben [Christiania], ser. 5, vol. 18 (1920), pp. 262-271.
Observations are set forth in three tables and a graph. The curve for girls
rises from 11 to 13; rate of growth for boys decreases from 9 to 11, and rises
from then to 14. The maximum rate of growth for both sexes is in May and
June and the minimum in October.
Zeising, A .: Über die Metamorphosen in den Verhältnissen der mensch­
lichen Gestalt von der Geburt bis zur Vollendung des Längenwachs­
tums [Changes in the Proportions of the Human Form from Birth
to Completion of Growth in Height]. Bonn, 1859. 99 pp.
The author gives the number of centimeters added to stature by each year
of growth both according to measurement and according to calculation, and
also gives widths of head, thorax, etc., in terms of body height. He points out
that different parts of the body grow at different rates. Successive growth
follows a certain law, which applies to the whole sphere of natural science.
In the first period of growth, 8 years, there is an increase of 28 inches; in
the second period, 13 years, there is an increase of 20 inches.
Zeltner, E . : “ Die Beziehungen zwischen Brustwachstum, Schädelwachs­
tum und Körpergewichtszunahme bei Säuglingen ” [The relation
between the growth of the chest and skull and the increase in body
weight of infants]. Jahrb. f. Kinderh. [Berlin], vol. 74 (1911), pp.
421-428.
The purpose of the study was to determine the relation between the develop­
ment of the chest and skull and the increase in weight of little children. The
author measured 695 infants in a municipal consultation center in Nuremberg
and presents his data in three chart.«. He concludes that (1) there is a
relation between the development of chest and skull on the one hand and
increase in weight on the other; (2) increase in chest circumference produces


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increase in weight; (3) the same is true of the skull, but the relation here is
much less pronounced; (4) in cases of thriving infants the increase in the
chest circumference soon becomes greater than the increase in weight or in
size of skull; in cases of retarded development the latter takes the lead.
757 Zenetz, M . N . : “ O sootnoshenii mezhdu pulsom, dikhaniem i rostom u
chelovieka” [Relation between pulse, breathing, and size of m an].
Vrach [St. Petersburg], vol. 13 (1892), pp. 649-651.
The article, according to the author’s statement, is a brief excerpt from a
work by Landois, entitled “ Die Lehre vom Arterienpuls ” and published in
1872. The data refer to 45 adults and 38 children 2 to 15 years old, for each
of whom the height, chest circumference, and pulse were obtained. This mate­
rial is arranged in a table according tj> the height of the individuals. The
author concludes that frequency of the pulse is in inverse ratio to the height
of the individual.
758 Zhbankoff, D. N . : “ O vljanii narodnoi shkoli na fizicheskoye razvitye
uchashchikhsya ” [Effect of the public school on the physical develop­
ment of the pupils]. Vestnik oh slit sliest vennoy higieni, sudelmoy i
prakticheskoy meditzini [St. Petersburg], vol. 1, pt. 2 (1899), ‘ pp.
147-194.
The author measured 1,051 boys 7 to 14 years old in rural public schools.
About one-third of them were measured two or three times at intervals of one
year. In several tables the author gives the average height, chest circum­
ference, and relation between these two measurements for each year of the
boys’ age and for each year of school attendance, and the annual gain in height
and chest circumference. He also quotes similar data obtained by other
writers. In conclusion, the author, contrary to the writers whom he quotes,
states that the assertion that the rural schools have a bad effect on the children’s
health has no basis in fact because of the shorter school year and lighter pro­
gram in the rural schools.
759 Zbukoovski, I. T .: O stepeni pitania v S. Peterbursgkom Vospitatelnom
Domie dietiei otpravlennikh v okruga v 1890 godu [On the Degree of
Nutrition of Infants Admitted to the Infant Asylum of St. Petersburg
•
and Placed Out in Villages in 1890]. St. Petersburg, 1892. 36 pp.
The author conceived the idea that the nutrition of the infant is indicated
by the daily gain in his weight, in percentages of his original weight. For
this purpose he weighed 7,530 infants who were cared for at the St. Peters­
burg infant asylum during 1890, prior to being sent to the villages. They were
weighed daily during their stay in the asylum, which lasted on the average
26 days. The author found that the average daily gain for infants fed by the
mother was seven-tenths of 1 per cent of the infant’s weight at the time he
was brought to the asylum, and for those fed by a paid nurse six-tenths of
1 per cent. Several tables and charts are given.
760 Zhukovski, I . : “ O vzvieshivanii grudnikh dietiei, kak mierylie ikh vozrastania.” [On weighing of infants fed at the breast as a means of
judging their growth]. Sbornik sochinienii po sudebnoi meditzine [St.
Petersburg], vol. 2, pt. 1 (1880), pp. 71-98.
A study of weight changes of 6,686 infants under 1 year of age at a munici­
pal asylum in St. Petersburg. The author observed the children during an
average period of five weeks in an attempt to ascertain the relation of weight
to state of nutrition.


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SECTION IL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF SPECIAL
PARTS OF THE BODY
A . SKELETAL SYSTEM AN D TEETH
1; SKELETON
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A eb y , Chr. : “ Die Altersversehiedenheiten der menschlichen Wirbel­
säule” [Variations in human spinal column at different ages]. Archiv
für Anatomie und Entwichelungsgeschichte [Leipzig], 1879, pp. 77-138.
The author describes his dissection and examination of the spinal column
of 8 newborn infants and 13 adults of both sexes as well as of a few embryos,
fetuses, and children. He concludes that the vertebral columns of children
and adults have very different proportions. The child’s lumbar column is
relatively shorter and the cervical column longer than that of the adult. The
adult column is relatively more slender than the juvenile. The article contains
1 plate, 9 charts, 12 long tables, and many shorter tables.
Alexander, B éla: “ Die Entwicklung des knöchernen Handskeletts vom
Beginne der ersten Knochenpunkte ” [The development of the skele­
ton of the hand from the beginning of the first centers of ossification].
Wiener Klinisch-Therapeutische Wochenschrift, vol. 12 (1905), pp.
671-676, 702-705.
Without describing the material on which he bases his findings, except that
studies were made with X rays, the author discusses each detail of the skele­
ton of the hand from the beginning of ossification. In four children of one
family the order was os magnum, unciform, cuneiform, semilunar, scaphoid,
trapezoid, and trapezium ; whereas in four children of another family the ’ order
of ossification was . os magnum, unciform, cuneiform, trapezoid, semilunar,
scaphoid, and trapezium.
Arsim oles, L ., and Du Coumeau de Carritz: “ Étude du thorax et de la
section thoracique dans la deuxième enfance” [Study of the thorax
and of the thoracic cross section from 6 to 16 years of age]. Annales
de médecine et chirurgie infantiles [Paris], vol. 10 (1906), pp. 181-192.
The authors advocate ascertaining the anteroposterior and maximum trans­
verse diameters and the cross section of the thorax of children by Maurel’s
technique with the aid of stethograph, compasses, or stethometer, and paper
ruled in square centimeters. The child examined is nude, either seated or
upright, and the methods of measuring are explained in detail. The thoracic
perimeter increases with age but not in proportion to it. It grows rapidly
between the ages of 14 and 16. The right half is usually larger than the left.
The transverse diameter increases more than the anteroposterior. At every
age there is a corresponding, constant, average value for the thoracic index
^(transverse diameter X 100) t t MS average index for the 6 to 16 year period
(anteroposterior diameter)
is 148. The normal thoracic cross section should be over 200 square centimeters
between 6 and 8, over 240 square centimeters between 8 and 10, over 250
between 10 and 12, over 280 between 12 and 14, and at least 350 between
14 and 16.
Bade: “ Die Entwickelung der menschlichen Fussknochen nach Röntgogrammen ” [Development of the bones in the human foot as shown
by Röntgen rays]. Deutsche Med. Wchnschr. [Leipzig and Berlin],
vol. 26 (1900), pp. 90-91.
The lecturer presents and explains X-ray pictures on the development of the
human foot.
The human infant at birth has the astragalus, calcanéum,
metatarsals, and phalanges, and in a few days the external cuneiform. Later
come the epiphyses of tibia and fibula, the internal and middle cuneiform, and
last of the ankle bones, the scaphoid. The sesamoid appears on the great toe
at 14 years, and tuberosity continues to the eighteenth year. Illness affects the
development of the tarsal bones. Development is earlier in girls than in boys.
Bade, Peter: “ Die Ossifikation des menschlichen Fuss-Skeletts nach
Röntgogrammen ” [The ossification of the skeleton of the human foot
as shown by Röntgen rays]. Fortschritte auf dem Gebiete der Rönt­
genstrahlen [Ham burg], vol. 3 (1899-1900), pp. 134-140.
This concise article with its 40 Röntgenograms on three plates treats the
ossification of the human foot from the eighth week of fetal, to the eighteenth
year of extrauterine life. After a survey of former observations with X rays
the author discusses the fetal period and then states that at birth the foot does
not yet show the scaphoid, three cuneiform, distal epiphyses of tibia and fibula,
epiphyses of metatarsal bones, and single phalanges in ossified condition. The
ossification of the foot is then traced through childhood.


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Ballantyne, J. W . : “ The head of the infant at birth.” Edinburgh Medi­
cal Journal, vol. 36, pt. 1 (1890), pp. 9 7 -1 1 1 ; 429-440.
After stating the definitions of the various diameters of the head, laid down at
the International Medical Congress in Washington 1887, the author discusses
the size of the normal head before, immediately after, and several days subse­
quent to birth, and gives his observations on measurements made by himself
and by other investigators. Diagrams are included.
------—
“ The spinal column in the infant.” Transactions of the MedicoChirurgical Society of Edinburgh [Edinburgh], new ser. vol. 11 (1892),
pp. 71-80.
By the use of frozen sections the author studied a 6%, a 7%, and an 8%
months’ fetus and two full-term infants, extending this study by examination
of four skeletonized fetuses and infants, and dissection of several fresh speci­
mens. Tables show for eight cases the total height, length of spine, and
length of cervical, dorsal, lumbar, and sacrococcygeal portions of spine ; one
plate shows representations of the spine from five frozen sections.
Bean, Robert Bennett: “ The growth of the head and face in American
(w hite), German-American, and Filipino children.” Anatomical Rec­
ord [Philadelphia], vol. 9 (1915), pp. 50-52.
The author presents concisely his findings on the head diameters and the
cephalofacial index of 146 Filipino girls and 579 boys, 309 German girls and
324 boys, 412 American girls and 415 boys. The cephalofacial index has
been originated by the author. He calls the Filipinos hypo-phylo-morphs, the
Germans meso-pbylo-morphs, and the Americans hyper-phylo-morphs.
Beddoe, John: “ The somatology of eight hundred boys in training for
the royal navy.” Journal of the Anthropological Institute [London],
vol. 34 (1904), pp. 92-99.
The author secured head measurements of about 200 boys in training for
the British Navy, with general observations of the groups of 800 to which they
belonged. With these he compared measurements secured at reformatories and
industrial schools, finding that the Navy boys were superior in head measure­
ments. Methods are not given in detail.
Behrendsen: “ Studien über die Ossifikation der menschlichen Hand ver­
mittels des röntgenschen E rfahrèns” [Studies on the ossification of the
human hand by means of the Röntgen process].
Deutsche Med.
Wchnschr. [Leipzig and Berlin], vol. 23 (1897), pp. 433—435.
In this article eight figures give radiograms of children’s left hands from
birth to 12 years. The author describes the ossification as it advances each
year, and in conclusion gives the order in which the bones, epiphyses, etc.,
develop, with physiological variations.
Berkenbusch, H a n s : Die innern Proportionen des menschlichen Halses
in den verschiedenen Lebensaltern und die Fascienverhältnisse dieses
Körperteiles [Interior Proportions of the Human Neck at Various
Ages and Fasciae of This Part of the Body]. Gottingen, 1890. 43 pp.
A dissertation (University of Gottingen). Two tables give proportion of
median diameter of third cervical vertebra (lower edge) to that of occipital
foramen, median diameter of vertebra to that of spinal canal from fourth
cervical vertebra, median diameter of spinal canal to third cervical vertebra to
that of occipital foramen, length of cervical vertebral column to median
diameter of occipital foramen, length of cervical vertebral column to height of
skull ; and hyoid bone, upper edge of epiglottis, upper edge of thyroid cartilage,
lower edge of crocoid cartilage, upper edge of cricoid lamina, lower edge of
cricoid lamina, breastbone, for two newborn infants, a 1-year-old girl, a 6-yearold boy, and a 13-year-old girl, as compared with three adults. Text is divided
into two sections entitled “ Interior Proportions of the Human Neck at Various
Ages ” and “ Fasciae in the Neck.” Bibliography.
Binet, A lfre d : “ La croissance du crâne et de la face chez les enfants
normaux entre 4 ans et 18 ans ” [The growth of the skull and of the
face in normal children from 4 to 18 years of age]. l’Année psycho­
logique [Paris], vol. 8 (1901), pp. 345-362.
A report of an investigation made by the author among Parisian school
children, 20 o f whom at each 2-year age period from 4 to 18 years, were
measured in May and June, 1901. Subjects from 14 to 18 years of age were
remeasured in October and November, 1901. Fifteen measurements (heights,
diameters, etc.) of the head are recorded, and total body stature. The author
found that the size of skull increased 12 per cent ; that the face increased 24
per cent; that the ophryosubnasal distance had an increment equal to 39 per
cent ; that during puberty there was an acceleration in rate of growth of
both skull and face.
Blandet, L .: “ De la croissance. Article I er— Système osseu x” [Growth.
First article— Bony system].
Journal de médecine [Paris], vol. 4
(1846), pp. 349-351.
.
Author discusses osteogenetic disorders in first and second dentitions and
in ossification of the skull. He found in a 2-year-old boy who had died of
convulsions, a close union of skull bones, occlusion of fontanels, circular de­
pression, crowded brain, and over 30 grams of fluid.-


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Bloch, A . M . : “ Étude de la croissance des ongles.”
[Study of the
growth of the nails]. Comptes rendus hebdomadaires de la Société de
biologie [Paris], vol. 65 (1908), pp. 335-336.
Studying the growth of the nails by moulds of the fingers and toes, the author
found, as in previous studies, that trom birth to the age of 5 years the nails
of the hand grow 0.06 to 0.08 millimeter a day and from 5 to 30 years, 0.10
to 0.14 millimeter a day; that the nail of the great toe, from 7 to 30 years,
grows from 0.04 to 0.07 millimeter a day ; that the seasons have no influence
on the growth of the nails.
Boas, F . : “ Heredity in head form.” American Anthropologist [Lancas­
ter, P a.], 1903, new ser. voi. 5 (1903), pp. 530-538.
A mathematical study based upon head measurements of 48 families of East
European Jews, secured for the author by Dr. Maurice ,Pishberg. A table
shows the distribution of cephalic indexes of the 256 individuals, men, women,
and children, the indexes ranging from 73 to 91. Results of the study are
inconclusive.
B öh m : “ Über die forensische Bedeutung des Knochenkerns in der
untern Epiphyse des Oberschenkels der Neugeborenen” [Forensic sig­
nificance of center of ossification in lower epiphysis of the thigh of
newborn infants], Vierteljahrsschrift für Gerichtliche und Öffent­
liche Medicin [Berlin], voi. 14 (1858), pp. 28-45.
The author first lists his own findings on 40 bodies and then compiles a
table on 186 infants examined by Ollivier, Mildner, Casper, and himself and
shows the importance from a forensic standpoint of the center of ossification
studied.
B on n ifay, Jean : Du développement de la tête au point de vue de la
céphalometrie depuis la naissance jusqu’à l’âge adulte [The Develop­
ment of the Head from the Point of View of Cephalometry from
Birth to Adult L ife]. Lyon, no. 138, 1897. 80 pp.
Thesis for the degree of doctor of medicine (University of Lyon). Fol­
lowing a résumé of previous investigations, and discussions of the exterior
morphology and evolution of the skull and of the principles of craniometry,
and cephalometry, the author reports the results of his own measurements of
1.093 normal subjects. He tabulates, in 19 age groups from birth to 24
. years, the number of cases at each age, the stature, the horizontal circumterenee, transverse and anteroposterior demicircumference, transverse and
anteroposterior diameter, and cephalic index. On this material he bases a
discussion of the general evolution *of the head, of individual variations in
the dimensions of the head, and of their relation to stature.
Breslau: “ Neue Ergebnisse aus Schädelmessungen an Neugeborenen”
[New data on measurements of the skull of newborn infants]. Wiener
Medizinische Wochenschrift, vol. 12 (1862), pp. 785-787.
To decide whether the skulls of newborn boys are larger than those of
newborn girls the author weighed and measured 576 infants (300 boys and
276 girls) at a maternity hospital in Zurich. The skulls of the boys were
found to be larger than those of the girls in full-term and premature children
even when body weight was the same. Data appear in a table.
Brubacher, H ein rich : “ Über den Gehalt an anorganischen Stoffen,
besonders an Kalk, in den Knochen und Organen normaler Und
rachitischer Kinder ” [Content in inorganic matter, especially calcium,
of the bones and organs of normal and rachitic children]. Zeitschrift
für Biologie [Munich and Leipzig], voi. 27 (1890), pp. 517-549.
The author examined chemically the bodies of three normal children, one
newborn, one 28 weeks old, and the third 4 years old. Ample tables give
content in water, fat, ash, calcium oxid, magnesium oxid, and phosphoric
acid. The skeleton becomes poorer in water and richer in ash, etc., with
growing age. Muscles, skin, and intestines lose water content with growth.
In the growing organism the requirement for inorganic matter is much greater
than in the adult ; is especially great in the fetus and the young child. The
infant needs 0.32 gram of calcium daily for the bones alone. It seems that
the young organism possesses some storing place other than the blood for its
calcium and iron.
Budin: “ Considérations sur la forme du crâne au moment de la nais­
sance et pendant la première semaine qui suit l’accouchement ” [On
the form of the skull at the moment of birth and during the first week
following delivery]. Bulletins de la Société d?anthropologie de Paris,
ser. 2, vol. I I (1876), pp. 553-557.
A descriptive article, based on the author’ s own study of anteroposterior
and transverse diameters of an indefinite number of heads of infants born at
a lying-m hospital. Comparisons of the difference in head form between vertex
and face presentation are made..


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Charming1, W alter, and Clark W issle r: “ Comparative measurements of
the hard palate in normal and feeble-minded individuals. A preliminary report.”
American Journal of Insanity [Baltimore], vol. 61
(1 9 0 4 -5 ), pp. 687-697.
To verify or disprove the assumption that certain types of deformity of the
hard palate are correlates of feeble-mindedness, the authors collected about
1,600 casts of the hard palate from public-school children and adults, and
from inmates of schools for the feeble-minded. The measurements reported
upon in this article are (1) the minimum distance between the first molars,
measured horizontally from the bases of the m olars; (2) the maximum height
o f the palate above the plane of the gum line; (3) the distance from the line
connecting the two first molars to the alveolar poin t; (4) the distance between
the canines measured horizontally from their bases. They found no difference
in size of palate between feeble-minded and normal individuals and small
difference in variability of dimensions. According to their results, the width
o f palate remains approximately unchanged from the ninth or tenth year,
and there is little growth after the sixth year. Tables are given.
Cheatle, A rth u r H . : “A few notes on 250 temporal bones of all ages
sectioned vertically through the antrum and mastoid process.” Journal
of Laryngology, Rhinology, and Otology [London], vol. 20 (1905),
pp. 150-151.
This concise article gives facts on the outer antral wall, suprameatal
. triangle, suprameatal spine, petrosquamosal sinus, forward lateral sinus, and
types of mastoid process', usually with special reference to their condition in
childhood.
Clarke, J. Jackson: “ Some observations on the temporal bone, chiefly
in childhood.” Journal of Anatomy and Physiology [London], vol. 27
(189 2-93), pp. 411-414.
The author shows a table on the temporal bones of children from 3 weeks
to 20 years old, 19 of the 24 being younger than 7 years. The thickness of
the outer wall of the antrum or of accessory air cells, the thickness o f bone
between antrum and lateral sinus, vertical distance of posterior and superior
point of tympanic bone from best spot for opening antrum, and other features
are noted. The author advocates taking the posterior extremity of the tympanic
bone as the lower limit of the posterior border of the meatus and the supra­
meatal spine as the upper limit.
Coffin, L. A . : “ The development of the accessory sinuses of the nose.”
American Journal of the Medical Sciences [Philadelphia and New
York], vol. 129 (1905), pp. 297-312.
The author summarizes the statements of many observers as to the time of
the appearance of the various sinuses, and from these and his own observa­
tions of 12 to 15 skulls of infants and stillborn makes the following deduc­
tion s: (1) But two of the accessory sinuses are present at birth— the ethmoidal
cells and the maxillary antrum; (2) the ethmoids and the antrum are constant
sinuses; (3) the antrum in infancy occupies a position which makes impossible
the usual methods of drainage and cuts off the antral route to the ethmoid and
sphenoidal sinus; (4) the sphenoidal sinus makes its appearance shortly after
birth ; (5) the frontal sinus appears between the end of the first and th e ,
beginning of the third year. The article is illustrated with 19 photographic
plates.
Corson, Eugene R . : “A skiagraphic study of the normal membral
epiphyses at the thirteenth year.” Annals of Surgery [Philadelphia],
vol. 32 (1900), pp. 621-647.
Twelve reproductions of skiagraphs ofr the epiphyses of a mulatto boy 13
years of age, with description, discussion, and references, largely to the work
of John Poland on “ Traumatic Separation of the Epiphyses.”
Dane, J . : “ Further studies upon the arch of the foot in infancy and
childhood.” Transactions of American Orthopedic Association [Phila­
delphia], vol. 11 (1898), pp. 54-69.
By means of frozen sections and careful measurements (not tracings) of the
feet of 38 children under 1 year of age and 10 children 1 to 2 years of age,
the author found that— contrary to the prevailing opinion that the feet of
newborn and very young children are flat— the feet of these children were not
really flat but appeared so because of the pad of “fat under the arch. Tables
summarize measurements of the length and height of the arch in each foot,
for the 48 children, up to 2 years of age. The average height of the arch
for infants of 1 year and under was 1.651 centimeters, and for children 1 to 2
years it was 1.510 centimeters. Also 0.301 and 0.218 represent the averages
for the ratio of the height to the length of the arch for children of these ages.
----------- “ Report of some studies upon the arch of the foot in infancy.”
Journal of the Boston Society of Medical Sciences [Boston], vol. 3
(1 89 8-99), pp. 209-213.
Measurement of 76 feet of children under 2 years of age (method de­
scribed) showed the height of the arch for infants 1 year and under to be
1.651 centimeters; between 1 and 2 years, 1.510 centimeters. Photographs
from frozen sections show' the bones of the feet arranged to make a good arch.


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D avis, W arren B .: “ The development of the bones of the face.” Inter­
national Jou't'nal of Orthodontia [St. Louis], vol. 3 (1917), pp. 567-591.
A summary of opinions as to development to the sixtieth day of embryonic
life, followed by statements based chiefly on the author s own study of sections
and dissections of a series of 145 specimens covering development from the
60-day fetus to adult life. Twenty-nine figures are given. Bibliography.
Ducournau de Carritz, Gaston! Étude du thorax et de la section thora­
cique chez l’enfant de 6 à 16 ans [Study of the Thorax and Thoracic
Section in the child from 6 to 16 Years Old]. Toulouse, no. 618,
1905. 130 pp.
Thesis (Toulouse University). After a sketch of previous work on the
thorax, the author describes the technique of measurement employed by
Professor Maurel,. showing cuts of his stethometer and stethographer, and de­
scribes in detail his own investigation of the thorax with Maurel s methods
upon 63 boys between 6 and 16 years old in a private and a public school.
Thirteen lads were ruled out as abnormal. The remaining 50 were put into
five classes according to ages : 6 to 8. 8 to 10, 10 to 1-, 12 to 14, and 14 to
16 Besides many data on the thorax, including the anteroposterior and trans­
verse diameters, thoracic perimeter, respiratory type, pulmonary capacity,
length of thorax and sternum, etc., the author determined the height, weight,
and cutaneous surface. The figures are tabulated and frequently are compared
with those obtained by Quetelet of Belgium and Dick of Russia. Many con­
clusions are drawn by the author. Briefly, he believes that ift the period
between 6 and 16 there is a constant proportion between the thorax on the
one hand and the height, weight, and body surface, on the other.
D w ight, Thos., and T. M . B otch: “ The spine in infancy.” Arch. Pediat.
[Philadelphia], vol. 8 (1891), pp. 161-172.
A record of observations of the morphology and flexibility of the infant’s
spine compared with that of the adult. Tables showing the absolute propor­
tional length of the divisions of the spine are quoted from Reby, Symington,
and Cunningham. Three specimens were prepared and studied by the authors.
_______________ “ The thorax in infancy.” Arch. Pediat. [Philadelphia],
vol. 8 (1891), pp. 321-332.
The author discusses the contour of the infant’ s thorax and the relation of
the viscera. Exact data and references are not given.
E ngel, S., and E lla B u n ge: “ Normaltafeln des Kindesalters ” [Indexes
of normal conditions in childhood]. Ztschr. f. Kinderh. [Berlin], vol
33 (1922), pp. 61-64.
Authors present 10 pictures of normal hands and wrists of children up to
12 years of age and an elaborate graph showing variation in development of
the bones of the hand.
Eagerlund, L. W . : “ Om benkarnans utveckling i extremiteternas ben
under forsta lefnads&ret ” [Development of centers of ossification in
bones of extremities during the first year of life]. Finska Ldkaresdllskapets Handlmgar [Helsingfors], vol. 32 (1890), pp. 37-51.
The sizes of various centers of ossification in the newborn were studied in
40 infants. The author gives the results of his observations in six pages of
tables. Work of other investigators is discussed.
Fankhauser, M a x : Die Schadelform nach Hinterhauptslage, Studien
fiber den Einfluss der Geburt auf die Gestalt des kindlichen Kopfes
[Shape of Skull after Occipital Position. Studies on the Effect of
Birth upon the Form of the Child’s Head]. Bern, 1872. 110 pp.
This dissertation (University of Bern), of 110 pages contains a comprehensive
discussion on the beads of infants born in the occipital position. Two plates
show 10 figures of skulls, and numerous tables give measurements at birth and
at stated periods thereafter of the following diameters: Mentooccipital, frontooccipital, suboccipitobregmaticus, biparietal, bitemporal, frontosuboccipital, occipitobregmatic, frontobregmatic, frontomental, and biorbital. The subject
matter considers the progress of the birth act, dislocations of the sutures,
and form and volume of the head. Body weight and length, sex of the infant,
number of previous children borne by the mother, and many other factors are
also discussed. Full data are collected on 85 newborn infants in lying-m
institutes at Bern and Prague.
Fehling, H . : “ Die Sternfontanelle und der Horizontalumfang des Schad e ls” [Anterior fontanel and horizontal circumference of the skull].
Archiv. fur Oyndkologie [Berlin], vol. 7 (1874—75 ), pp. 507—530.
A study of the infant skull in relation to length, weight, sex, order of birth,
etc., based upon measurements of about 300 infants on the third or fourth day
after birth, according to methods recommended by Elsflsser.
Fetterolf, Geo., and J. C. G ittin gs: “ Some anatomical features o f the
child’s thorax and their practical application in physical diagnosis.”
Am. J. Dis. Child. [Chicago], vol. 1 (1911), pp. 6-26.
Data are original. Thoraces of newborn children (number of cases not
stated) were examined in cross and sagittal section after fixing by injecting
10 per cent formalin and freezing. The relations of the thoracic viscera are


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discussed in detail; 18 figures of the frozen sections illustrate the article. The
horizontal position of the ribs, the elevation of the sternum, the more hori­
zontal position of the heart, with the right ventricle anterior and the large
size o f the thymus are emphasized. The authors think it highly problematical
that enlarged bronchial lymph nodes cause a bruit, or an impaired percussion
note possible of diagnosis.
Freiberg, A . H ., and J. H . Schroeder: A note on the foot of the Ameri­
can negro.”
American Journal of Orthopedic Surgery [Boston], vol. 1
(1 90 3-4), pp. 16 ^ 1 6 7 .
To determiné whether the widespread belief in the flatness of the negro foot
is founded on fact, the authors made examination of the feet of 88 adult
negroes, 34 adult whites, and 40 negro children. They found that among negro
children the normal foot preponderates, but flattening of the arch of the foot
is much more frequent in the negro than in the white adult.
Fridolin, Julius: “ Studien über das Wachsthum der Extremitäten beim
Menschen, nach der Geburt ” [ Studies on growth of extremities in
human beings after birth].
Archiv für Anatomie und Physiologie
[Leipzig], 1881, pp. 79-81.
The author investigated relative growth of parts of limbs as compared with
whole limbs and time of change to proportions of adults. Ages of infants ex­
amined ranged from 1 day to 1 year. Freshly dissected limbs of right side
were measured. A long table contains data on length, weight, sex, age, upper
and lower arm and hand, calf, thigh, and foot of 100 subjects. The relative
energy of growth of different parts of limbs is varied. The change to relative
proportions of adults takes place in first hálf year for lower limbs and in
second half year for upper limbs.
Friedleben, A l e x : “ Beiträge zur Kenntnis der physikalischen und che­
mischen Constitution wachsender und rachitischer Knochen der ersten
Kindheit ” [Contributions to the knowledge of the physical and chemi­
cal constitution of growing and rachitic bones in early childhood].
Jahrb. f. Kinderh. [Berlin], vol. 3 (185 9-60), pp. 6 1 -1 3 7 ; 147-178.
Two-thirds of this article is devoted to normal conditions. A 15-page table
gives results of many tests on 22 breast-fed and 4 artificially-fed infants: Data
include sex, age, diet, girth of skull, great fontanel, teeth, and external condi­
tion of skull. The defective ossification of newborn infants disappears within
a few weeks, more rapidly in breast-fed infants than others. In the second
section on the chemical analysis of children’s skeletons, data obtained by various
' other investigators are tabulated. The author then describes his own methods
of examination and shows a cut of his apparatus. Twenty pages of tables give
his findings on bones of 46 children, including 8 infants. Other tables treat
the medulla. Emphasis is put on second half of the first year o f life,
when water content increases and mineral salts decrease.
Hasselwander, A lb e rt: “ Untersuchungen über die Ossifikation des
menschlichen Fussskeletts ” [Investigations on ossification of the
bones of the human foot].
Zeitschrift für Morphologie und An­
thropologie [Stuttgart], vol. 5 (1 9 0 2 -3 ), pp. 438-508.
Hasselwander studied ossification of 301 feet of 284 fetuses and young
children, of whom 208 were cadavers. These latter he examined anatomically
as well as with X rays. The calcaneous talus, trigonum tarsi, naviculare pedis,
cuboideum, cuneiform I II, III, primary, middle, and end metatarsalia, and
phalanges are considered. The article is illustrated with a plate of 5 figures.
29 text figures, and 16 elaborate tables. Bibliography.
H aw kes, Onera A . M . : “ On the relative length of the first and second
toes of the human foot, from the point of view of occurrence, anatomy,
and heredity.” Journal of Genetics [Cambridge], vol. 3 (1913-14), pp.
249-274.
The author examined the feet of 1,461 males and 840 females, most of them
under 18 years o f age, studied the skeletons of 91 embryos and 14 fetuses, and
sent out 7,000 cards for tracings of feet, from which he obtained 808, including
381 o f offspring of unknown parents and 150 where one parent was known. A
flexed position is normal for all but the great toe.
H eim ann, A lfred, and K arl P otpeschnigg: Über die Ossifikation der
kindlichen H a n d ”
[Ossification of the child’s hand].
Jahrb. f.
Kinderh. [Berlin], vol. 65 (1907), pp. 437-456.
Impressed with the importance for pathology, law, etc., of X-ray determina­
tions of ossification, the author investigated the ossification of the hand in 100
boys and girls between the ages of 4 weeks and 12 years, at the children’ s clinic
in the Royal University of Munich. He found in healthy children a great,
variation in the time when ossification took place; the order of ossification was
fairly regular as follow s: Os magnum, unciform, cuneiform, semilunar, trape­
zoid, trapezium, scaphoid, pisiform. These results he. puts into a table of age,
sex, weight, height, diagnosis of health, and explanation of ossification.
H ess, A lfred F ., and M ildred W ein stock : “A comparison of the evolu­
tion of carpal centers in white and negro new-born infants.” Am. J.
Bis. Child. [Chicago], vol. 29 (1925), pp. 347-354.
Röntgenograms of the wrists of about 500 newborn infants were made
between November, 1923, and November, 1924, at a hospital which cares for


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PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF TH E CHILD
both negro and white women. Charts and figures classify the subjects accord­
ing to race, sex, and size, and present the results of the study. Carpal centers
were, observed in 28 per cent of the 131 full-term negro infants, and in 10 to
11 per cent of the 212 full-term white infants. A similar preponderance among
negro infants was shown in the premature and small group. Carpal centers
at birth were noted more frequently in female than in male, and in heavy
than in light infants.

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A report of the result of measurements of the heads of 166 infants born at
term. Measurements were made within 24 hours after the birth of the child,
with Turner’s calipers and an ivory scale marked to the twentieth and fiftieth
o f an inch. Biparietal, occipitofrontal, and occipitomental average diameters
were recorded, and compared with figures of Baudeloque, Velpeau, Cazeaux,
Burton, Ashwell, Murphy, and Churchill. Comparisons are made also with the
figures of Doctor Meigs, to whom this communication is addressed.
H offm ann, P h il.: “ Conclusions drawn from a comparative study of the
feet of barefooted and shoe-wearing peoples.” American Journal of
Orthopedic Surgery [Philadelphia], vol. 3 (1 9 0 5 -6 ), pp. 105-136.
A comparative study of the feet of barefooted people and 560 Caucasians
who wore shoes. A study is made of the length of the foot and of the
phalanges in relation to body weight, among these two classes of people, both
in infants and adults, and o f the shape of the foot, range of motion, etc.
Twenty-five photographs.
H ofm an n , E d w a rd : “ Zur Kenntnis der natürlichen Spalten und Ossifikationsdefecte am Schädel Neugeborener, insbesondere in gerichts­
ärztlicher Beziehung ” [Knowledge of normal fissures and ossification

H oth, H erm ann: Über die Veränderung der Kopfform Neugeborener in
den ersten vierzehn Lebenstagen [Change in Shape of Head in New­
born Infants during First Fourteen Days of Life]. Marburg, 1868.
28 pp.
Inaugural dissertation (University of Marburg). Four measurements were
made of skulls of 250 boys and 250 girls born in the Lying-in Institute at
Marburg between 1859 and 1863. Tables show relation of sex, presentation at
birth, and order of birth to skull measurements.
H rd licka, A . : “ Measurements of the cranial fossae.” Proceedings of the
United States National Museum [W ashington], vol. 32 (1907), pp.
177-232.
Report of measurement of 198 crania, of which 40 were skulls of fetuses
and children, 60 adult white males, 30 adult white females, 20 adult Indian
males, 15 adult negro males, 10 adult negro females, 13 adult anthropoid apes,
10 adult monkeys, and other mammals. Technique is fully described, many
tables showing comparative figures are given, and results are summarized.
Hueter, C.: “Anatomische Studien an den Extremitatengelenken Neugeborener und Erwachsener ” [Anatomical studies of the joints of ex­
tremities of newborn and adults]. Archiv fur Pathologische Anatomie
[Berlin], vol. 26 (1863), pp. 484-519.
A detailed study of the joints of extremities of newborn infants and of
adults.
H um phry, George M u rray: A Treatise on the Human Skeleton. Mac­
millan & Co., Cambridge and London, 1858. 604 pp.
A comprehensive work by a lecturer on surgery and anatomy in the Cam­
bridge University Medical School, treating of the bones from their formation
in the fetus to their condition in old age. The author gives, not a detailed
description of the bones but a summary of information, physical, physiological,
pathological, and practical, gathered from his own observation and researches,
to supplement standard manuals of anatomy. Sixty plates and many references
are given.


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H untington, G. S. : “ Contribution to the topographical anatomy of the
thorax in the foetus at term and the newborn child.” Medical Report
of the Society of the Lying-in Hospital [New York], 1897, pp. 3 2 4 350.
A detailed study of original material from the New York Lying-in Hospital.
The paper is in two sections : (1) The form and external character of the
lungs ; (2) the topography of mediastinum and mediastinal surface of the
lung. “ The following anatomical conditions * * * impress their char­
acter most strongly on the arrangement of the viscera in the fetal thorax,
when contrasted with the form and contents of the adult chest cavity: (1)
Differences in extent and configuration of the lurfgs before and after pulmonary
respiration has been established ; (2) differences in the extent of the pleural
sacs and of the complementary pleural spaces, especially the costophrenic
sinus ; (3) presence of thymus ; (4) relative large size of fetal liver, in­
fluencing indirectly the arrangement of the thoracic contents by determining
the level of the diaphragm.” The author merely gives an inventory of the
specimens. There is no conclusion nor discussion of the material. Twenty-one
plates are shown.
Jurgens, E . : “ Der Sinus sigmoideus im Kindesalter” [Sigmoid sinus in
childhood]. Monatsschrift für Ohrenheilkunde [Berlin], vol. 44 (1910),
pp. 429-451 ; 509-517.
This complete article on the sigmoid sinus in childhood contains a table on
62 cases from 2 months to 14 years, showing length of axis and distance from
asterion to end of jugular canal, and remarks on the bulb of the jugular vein,
another table on the greatest sinus width and depth, and still another on the
jugular foramen and the emissary mastoid vein. The sinus in the years 12,
13, 14, especially, is carefully described. Photographs and drawings are in­
cluded.
Konikow, M . : “ Zur Lehre von der Entwickelung des Beckens und seiner
geschlechtlichen Differenzierung ” [Theory of development of the pelvis
and its sexual differentiation]. Archiv für Gynaekologie [Berlin], voi.
45 (189 3-94), pp. 19-42.
Author studied development of the pelvis in living individuals, three males and
three females, of every year of age between birth and 20 years. Measurements
were made of spines, crests, trochanters, and conjugate diameters. Data are
shown in full tables and one graph. During the first year a great and regular
increase of the pelvis in all diameters takes place. In the following four, years
the external conjugate grows but slightly as compared with transverse measure­
ments. From 6 to 10 the external conjugate has a relatively great growth,
and the other measurements a more or less regular increase. From 10 to 11
all female dimensions are larger than male, and during the next four years
they increase much more rapidly than in the male. Until the age of 10 to 11
there has been little difference between the sexes. By the. age of 20 the male
pelvis has equaled the female in transverse dimensions but not in conjugata.
Landa, E. : “ Contribución al estudio de la forma de la cabeza en los
niños recién nacidos ” [Data on the study of the form of the head of
newborn children].
Gaceta Médica [Mexico], ser. 3, vol. 7 (1912),
pp. 41-47.
Author describes the forms of head of newborn infants as affected by the
process of delivery, use of instruments, or presentation at birth ; also the
changes in the shape of head taking place in the first few days of life. He
distinguishes three forms of head : Brachycephalic (very short), mesocephalic
(medium), and dolichocephalic (very long). He illustrates his points by a
brief account of 240 newborn infants whose cephalic indexes he measured.
Le Courtois, E. : Essai sur l’anatomie de la voûte du crâne [Essay on
Anatomy of Vault of Skull]. Paris, no. 274, 1870. 134 pp.
Thesis, University of Paris. The author gives data on measurements of 130
fetal and infant skulls, and discusses the intrauterine development of the
skull. Several plates, tables, and figures are included.
----------- “ Sur la forme et le développement du crâne chez les nouveaunés ” [The form and the development of the skull of the newborn].
Bulletins de la Société d’anthropologie <de Paris, ser. 2, vol. 4 (1869),
pp. 720-721.
Brief résumé of observations by the author as to the head forms of the new
born and the fetus, recording, without details as to the manner in which they
were obtained, the cephalic indexes of 26 infants, aged 1 to 10 days.
Le D am any, P . : “ Recherches sur quelques proportions du corps chez
les nouveau-nés; differences sexuelles du b assin ” [Research on certain
bodily proportions in the newborn; sexual differences in the pelvis].
Journal de Vanatomie et de la physiologie normales et pathologiques
de Vhomme et des animaux [Paris], vol. 46 (1910), pp. 664—690.
In seeking an anatomical cause for the greater frequency of hip dislocation
among girls than boys the author measured 21 cadavers of infants.
He
arrived at a corrective figure for the thickness of the genitals in measuring the
length of the lower extremities. In 200 boys and 200 girls he found the
difference of this length insignificant. Measurement, in 200 subjects, of the


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PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF TH E CHILD

transverse diameter of the trunk at the level of the iliac crest showed no
appreciable variation. Height of the pelvis covered with fleshy in 100 subjects
of both sexes, showed a negligible difference. Anteroposterior diameter of
the pelvis at level of the anterior and superior iliac spines was notably greater
in girls than in hoys. Data are presented in tables.
58 Long, E li, and E. W . C aldw ell: “ Some investigations concerning the
relation between carpal ossification and physical and mental develop­
ment.” Am. J. Dis. Child. [Chicago], vol. 1 (1911), pp. 118—138.
Data are original, the work corresponding to that reported by Doctor Rotch
in “ The Roentgen Ray in Pediatrics.”
Two hundred radiographs of both
wrists were taken. The subjects varied in age from infants to young men,
hnd in mental capacity from idiots to brilliant high-school students. Figures
1 to 13 and 19 to 44 are X rays and photographs of cases cited. Charts
14 to 18 show the relation of carpal development to height, weight, age,
and mind. The author’s conclusions are: (1) The two wrists do not develop
synchronously in an individual, neither is carpal development an index of
general osseous or of mental development; (2) age, height, and weight increase
in general with, advance in carpal development.
59 M andelstam , J .: “ Über die Grösse des gegenseitigen Abstandes der
grossen und kleinen Fontanelle bei neugeborenen Kindern ” [Distance
between large and small fontanel in newborn children]. Archiv für
Gynaekologie [Berlin], vol. 16 (1880), pp. 182-191.
The author measured with caliper compasses fontanels of 98 infants on the
third or fourth day after birth. Three tables show distance between fonta­
nels ; frontooccipital diameter ; long transverse and short transverse, long and
short diagonal diameters ; and perimeters of frontooccipital, of long and small
oblique diameters. Other tables show length, weight, sex, serial number of
birth, and dependence of distance between fontanels or sagittal suture on
other dimensions.
60 M anouvrier, L. : “ Recherches sur le développement quantitatif com­
paré de l’encéphale et de diverses parties du squelette” [Researches
in the comparative development in volume of the brain and different
parts of the skeleton]. Bulletin de la Société zoologique de France
[Paris], vol. 7 (1882), pp. 131-229.
Data for this study, which the author feels insufficient for final conclusions,
were secured by measurement of various series of skulls and skeletons, includ­
ing a small number of those of children, from birth to age of maturity. The
relations studied in this paper concern the skull, the femur, and the jaw, the
first as having a protective relation to the brain and sense organs, the second
as representing by its weight the development in volume of the organs of
locomotion and support, and the third representing the development of the
nutritive system. The data include a table showing the craniocerebral index
of a number of children (perhaps 20; inexactly stated), a table showing
craniomandibular index of 14 children, and a few other observations on sub­
jects under 20 years of age.
61 M aurel, E. : “ Étude du thorax chez le nouveau-né ” [Study of the thoraxof the newborn infant]. Archives mensuelles d’obstétrique et de
gynécologie [Paris], vol. 5 (1914), pp. 517-544.
A detailed study of the thorax of 37 newborn infants. Many sternoxyphoid
cross sections of the thorax are shown. Nine tables give the diameter, perim­
eter, surface of radiation, and other thoracic measurements.
62 Mauro, C.: “ Intorno ad alcune misure antropometriche degli scolari ”
[On some anthropological measurments of school children]. Gazzetta
internazionale di Medicina, Chirurgia, Igiene e Interessi professionali
[Naples], vol. 16 (1913), pp. 183-184.
A brief discussion of the method of measuring chest expansion and chest
diameters and of their significance as an index of the child’s physical de­
velopment.
63 de M érejkow sky, C.: “ Recherches sur le développement du squelette
hum ain” [Researches on the development of the human skeleton].
Bulletins de la Société d’anthropologie de Pains, ser. 3, vol. 6 (1883),
pp. 152-177.
In discussing the theory that the human fetus is the intermediate Jink
between man and the ape the author gives many data concerning the infant
skull.
64 M erkel, Fr. : “ Beitrag zur Kenntnis der postembryonalen Entwicklung
des menschlichen Schädels ” [Contribution to knowledge of postembryonic
development of the human skull]. Beiträge zur Anatomie und E m ­
bryologie als Festgabe Jacob Henle [Bonn], 1882, pp. 164-185.
Material for this detailed study consisted of 20 skulls of children between
birth and 17 years taken from the Gottingen collection. The author compares
skulls of newborn infants and adults and discusses at length the. growth of the
skull. Postembryonic development of the skull is divided into two periods—
birth to about the seventh yeär, and after a temporary cessation of growth,
puberty to maturity. A summary at the close_ of the article traces changes in
the skull through different phases of these periods.


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65

M ies, Joseph : “ Unterschiede zwischen Länge, Breite und LängenBreiten-Index des Kopfes und Schädels ” [Differences between length
breadth, and length-breadth index of head and cranium], Mittheilungen der Anthropologischen Gesellschaft in W im (1890-91) new
ser. 1 0 -1 1 ; General Register, new ser. 1-10, pp. 37-49.
In and about the ( ,mr 1886 the author measured 25 subjects in the Pnhlie
Hospital o f Cologne of persons native to that city, and 25 in the Muiüch
ne
Pe^sons from other parts of Germany than Cologne. Thirty?n h hrfw
female- _Tha subjects included a fetus of 7 to 8 months
10 bodies of children up to 5 years, and 3 between 7 and 14 years. The text
seven tables treat the length, breadth, and index of length and breadth of
ÎenÂhanbreardthU^nr!
£h° r,i?£n-index
Cl^des of^ head
theand
averaSe
differences
between
lengtn breadth, and ?pnt+hU
length-breadth
skull increase
from
birth
maks^than^’infernales“

66

67

68

69

119

Mghly probable that tBese differences are greater in

“ Radiographies relatives à l’accroissement du système osseux ”
[Radiographic studies of the growth of the bones]. Revue d'ortho­
pédie [P a n s], ser. 2, vol. 3 (1902), pp. 275-289.
An X-ray study of one child photographed at half-yearly periods from 3 tn 7
years. Four skiagraphs are reproduced and many dLcribed Tn detail
Moser, E m il: Über das Wachsthum der menschlichen Wirbelsäule
[Growth of Human Spinal Column]. Strassburg, 1889. 59 pp.
An inaugural dissertation (University of Strassburg). The seven tables and
six curves placed at the conclusion of this article show age (birth to matuiitv'l •
body length ; length of free spinal column; relation of same to length of bodv '
p e n s io n s of cervical, dorsal, lumbar, vertebræ, etc. The author describes in
df t aff the spinal column of newborn infants, children of 3 years and o t 5 to 6
years, children at puberty, and adults and determines peculiarities characteriz­
e s these Pei*iods. In tne course of growth the head attains twice its size at
B^hôgraphyinal column three tlmes> an4 lower extremities four to five times.
N eum ayer, V . L. : “ Ein Beitrag zur Lehre von Längenwachstume des
Hirnschadeis ” [A contribution to the study of growth in length of
the skull]. Mitteilungen der Anthropologischen Gesellschaft in W ien
[Vienna], vol. 38 (1908), pp. 1-16.
Part II deals with a study of 50 skulls of infants from birth to 6 months
5ol*1vears^of4aLe^
Sf Udy
of 236 skalls
of subjects
birth to
years ot age. dThe
The m^bnd
method of
measurement
is described
and from
the following
conclusions reached : The infant’s skull differs from the adult’s in various
proportions ; at birth the postauricular part is longer than the preauricular
but in process of growth this postauricular dolichocephaly is gradually though
! Len^tb in growth takes place both i / t h e preauricular a fd
i“ J ? e Postauricular regions ; the postauricular part grows until about the
tenth year, and the preauricular until about the twentieth. References.
Papillault, G. : “ Quelques lois touchant la croissance et. la beauté du
visage hum ain” [Some laws concerning the growth and the beauty of
the human face]. Bulletins de la Société d’anthropologie de Paris
ser. 4, vol. 10 (1899), pp. 200-241.
Deals largely with questions of phylogeny but contains (pp. 223-2261 a
comparison of measurements of 20 skulls of newborn infants, with skulls^ of
50 adults previously measured.
•
v

70

de Parchappe, J. B. M . : Recherches sur l’encéphale, sa structure, ses
fonctions, et ses maladies [Researches on the Brain, Its Structure
Functions, and Diseases], Bouvier & Bouvier, Paris, 1836. I l l pp.
- ¿ w o r k ,in ,three Parts : (1) Thé volume of the head in man; (2) the volume
of the brain in man ; (3) relation between the volume of the head and of the
of diildren are Ä d e d 1™ 8 COncern adults’ but a few figures of measurements

71

Pearson, K . : “ On the laws of inheritance in man. II. On the inherit­
ance of the mental and moral characters in man, and its comparison
with the inheritance of the physical characters.”
Journal of the
Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland [London] vol.
33 (1903), pp. 179-237.
See also Biometrika [Cambridge] vol 3
(1904), pp. 131-190.
To ascertain the degree o f resemblance, mental and physical, among children
of the same parents and to discover whether there is any relationship between
tke ®*i®rnal shape of the head and a teacher’s estimate of the general grade
a p,?pd’ tbe author collected between 3,000 and 4,000 schedules from
tcâchers o f various kinds of schools, showing family relationships nhvsioue
menta! ability, head measurements, color of hair and eyes, and temperament’
The head measurements were made by spanners devised for this work and adS o Ä f i * +1? accprate as met«1 cadpers. Examination of this material by
statistical mettiods, fully described, led the author to the conclusion that evolu« o n and selection play no greater and no less a part in production of psychical
than o f physical characteristics. Thirteen diagrams and five tables are given.


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72

73

74

75

76

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PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OE TH E CHILD
Pfister, H .: “ Die Kapazität des Schädels (der Kopf höhle) beim Säug­
ling und älteren Kinde ” [The capacity of the skull in the infant and
older child]. Monatsschrift für Psychiatrie und Neurologie [Berlin],
vol. 13 (1903), pp. 577-589.
The author measured the capacity of the skulls of 77 hoys and 77 girls from a
few days to about 10 years old, most of them less than a year old. The
material was from the Children’s Hospital of Emperor and Empress Frederick
and excluded foreign races and pathological conditions. The data are shown
in tables, and the mean volumes for given ages are listed. The author describes
his methods of dissection and explains how he arrives at the conclusion that
the capacity of the cranial cavity is that of the skull minus 6% per cent.
That of boys is always larger than that of girls. This difference, about 20
cubic centimeters at birth, is over 100 cubic centimeters by the fourth year.
A t-"2% years of age, two-thirds of the total increase in head volume has been
attained. Large individual variations often occur, even when sex and age are
the same.
Pleissner, H u g o : Nonnulla de Ossificatione in Femoris Inferiore Epiphyse
[Ossification of the Lower Epiphysis in the Femur]. Leipzig, 1861.
22 pp.
Thesis (University of Leipzig). Author gives data first of Olivier, Mildner,
Casper, and Bohm, and then his observations of 21 newborn infants. Contend­
ing that Bohih’s conclusions are overdefinite, Pleissner offers the following
results of his study : Ossification in the lower epiphysis of the femur can be
wanting in the full-term new born especially if the child or the mother is
weak. Size % to 3 rheinish lines (rheinish line = A inch) proves that child
can not have been born very prematurely. A diameter of over 3 rheinish lines
makes it a matter of certainty that the infant is fully developed.
Poland, John: Skiagraphic Atlas Showing the Development of the Bones
of the W rist and Hand. Smith, Elder & Ob., London, 1898. 40 pp.
A series of 19 skiagraphic plates showing the development of the bones of
wrist and hand from 1 to 17 years of age, with a brief introductory chapter
on anatomy, and descriptive notes.
Pryor, J. W . : Ossification of the Epiphyses of the Hand. Bulletin of
the State College of Kentucky, ser. 3, no. 4, October, 1906. 33 pp.
A study, illustrated by 20 skiagrams, with notes by the author, and a
chronological table comparing his findings with those of Morris, Cunningham,
Gray, Holden, and Poland.
----------- The Chronology and Order of Ossification of the Bones of the H u­
man Carpus. Bulletin of the State University of Kentucky, new ser.
1, no. 2, April, 1908. 22 pp.
A report of observations by the X-ray method of 554 hands, 266 female and
288 male, including a chronological table showing the degree of ossification
of the bones of the carpus in 136 female hands, from 3 months and 8 days to
12 years, 7 months, and 9 days, and o f 153 male hands from 44 days to 14
years and 16 days. A summary, in tabular form, shows what the author
believes to be the chronological order of ossification, with its variations and
combinations.
----------- “ Time of ossification of the bones of the hand of the male and
female and union of epiphyses with the diaphyses.” • American Journal
of Physical Anthropology [Washington], vol. 8 (1925), pp. 401-410.
The studies reported are based on Röntgenograms of 64 white males, 12
years, 6 months to 22 years, 10 months of age, and 81 white females, 12
years to 22 years 6 months of age ; and on a table previously published by
the' author giving the size of the centers of ossification and the order in which
they appeared in the hands of 113 females, aged 3 months and 8 days to 8
years, and of 116 males from 7 months and 12 days to 8 years of age. Origi­
nal data of the first study are given in tabular form. The author found the
ossification of the bones of the female in advance of that of the male from
the time of appearance of centers of ossification in the embryo until the
epiphyses are united with the diaphyses. References.
Puyhaubert, A . : “ Recherches sur l’ossification des os des membres chez
l’homme ” [Researches in the ossification of the bones of the limbs in
m an]. Journal de Vanatomie et de la physiologie [Paris], vol. 49
(1913), pp. 224-268.
Report of results of radiographie studies, the number of observations vary­
ing with the points observed. Tables show ossification of the bones of the feet
from before birth to 16 years ; time of appearance of the epiphyseal points of
tibia, fibula, and femur; and comparison of the dates assigned by various
authors for ossification of the bones of wrist and ankle.
Pye, W a lte r : “ On the growth rate of the bones of the lower extremi­
ties, with especial reference to ricketty curvatures.” Journal of
Anatomy and Physiology [London and Edinburgh], vol. 23, new ser.,
vol. 3 (1889), pp. 116-123.


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Children to he measured were placed upon a board covered with paper ruled
in 2-mch squares upon which were made tracings of the outline of the limbs.
Tattoo points over the anterior iliac spine, the interval between the outer
tuberosity and the head of the tibia, and the lower border of the external
malleolus, assured measurement from identical points. The heights of 54 children of the hospital-patient class, who were without ailment causing a dimin­
ished stature, compared with normal standards, showed them to be of fair
average development. Various measurements at two-month and at three-month
intervals are recorded and summarized, and comparisons are made with ricketty
su Djects.
80

von Banke, H . : “ Die Ossifikation der Hand unter Röntgenbeleuchtung ”
[Ossification of the hand as determined by X-ray examination]. Ver­
handlungen der Versammlungen der Gesellschaft für Kinderheilkunde
auf den Versammlungen Deutscher Naturforscher und Aertze [Düssel­
dorf], 1898, pp. 138-152.
The author displays 17 very clear radiograms of children’s hands between
birth and 18 years of age. His discussion covers the ossification as it ad­
vances with age according to his own researches and those of Rauber
Behrendsqp, and Schwegel.
’
81 Bodes, Charles Bradford: “ The thoracic index in the Negro.” Zeitschrift fur Morphologie und Anthropologic [Stuttgart], vol. 9 (1905-6)
pp. 103-117.
This article, after reviewing the literature on the thoracic index, considers
first thoracic measurements made upon 506 healthy negroes (212 males and 294
females) from the age of a few days to 86 years. Very few showed predominant
| :blood. Age, sex, weight, height, and physique also were noted. The
1? <l13 1^ualsJwere measured standing, with arms hanging naturally at sides,
clothed, and at the end of quiet expiration, with an elastic band placed around
the thorax at the level of the gladiolo xiphoid articulation. The circumfer­
ence of the thorax was measured with a steel tape measure, the anteroposterior
diameter in the midsagittal plane with IVIartin’s pelvimeter, and the transverse
diameter at the widest point of thorax. As defined by Rodes, the thoracic
index (unlike that of investigators before Hutchinson) is the ratio of the
anteroposterior to the transverse diameter. There was a rapid decrease
in the thoracic index of the negroes examined from about birth to puberty
and thereafter a more gradual rise. The thorax was more rounded in the
female than in the male. In 50 young white women at Missouri University
the index was found by the author to be 73.14. In 48 young negro women
he found it to be 70.9. Other investigators have determined the index of
white-^males to be 73.48, 73.6, 74.6, and 70. The author has determined it
for male negroes at 70.7. Therefore the thorax of the negro is flatter than
that o f the whites. The author also measured 11 embryos and fetuses irre­
spective of race, finding that the thoracic index is at first very high then
decreases, at first rapidly, and then more slowly. The results of investiga­
tions are shown in five tables and three graphs.
82 Böse, C .: “ Beiträge zur europäischen Rassenkunde und die Beziehungen
zwischen Rasse und Zahnverderbnis ” [Data on European races and
the relation between race and tooth decay]. Archiv für Rassen- und
Gesellschaf tsUologie [Berlin], vol. 2 (1905), pp. 68 9-79 8; vol. 3,
pp. 42-134.
A detailed discussion of the form and size of the head and face of the
European races and of the relation of race to tooth decay. A considerable
part o f the author’s investigations was concerned with school children 6 to 14
years old. He and several assistants measured the heads and faces of 24,260
boys and 20,947 girls in Germany, Sweden, Denmark, the Netherlands, Belgium,
Bohemia, and Switzerland. The results of this investigation are given in the
article.
88 Botch, Thomas M organ: “A comparison in boys and girls of height,
weight, and epiphyseal development.” Transactions of the American
Pediatric Society [New York], vol. 22 (1911), pp. 36-38.
A reproduction of a triple chart shows a comparison of boys and girls with
regard to weight, height, and epiphyseal development. Original data are not
given. The article calls attention to the earlier epiphyseal development of
girls and states the author’s belief that this development is a true index
of physical, and probably of mental, age.
84 ----------- “A study of the development of the bones in childhood by the
Roentgen method, with the view of establishing a developmental index
for the grading of and the protection of early life.” Transactions of
the Association of American Physicians [Philadelphia], vol. 24 (1909),
pp. 603-624.
Analysis of Rontgenographs of the hands and wrists of about 200 children,
normally developed, taken at the Children’s Hospital in Boston. Discussing
the various methods of determining the fitness of children for school and for
physical work, the author concludes that no other index is so satisfactory
as the epiphyseal development. Eleven plates.


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PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OP TH E CHILD

Kotch, Thomas Morgan: “ School life and its relation to the child’s
development.” American Journal of the Medical Sciences [Philadel­
phia], new ser. (1909), vol. 138, pp. 702-712.
According to the author, a Röntgen picture of the body structure, espe­
cially of the wrist joint, affords the surest index of development of the child.
Six illustrations show the development of hand and wrist hones under the
Röntgen ray from the age of 6 months to 13% years. Observations are from
general practice. Precise data are not given.

86

---------- and Harold Wellington Smith: “A study of the development of
the epiphyses of the hand and wrist for the purpose of classifying
the cadets at Annapolis.” Transactions of the Association of American
Physicians [Philadelphia], vol. 25 (1910), pp. 200-211.
A report of work done in establishing standards of epiphyseal development
for young men from 15 to 20 years of age, illustrated with seven plates from
Roentgen pictures and three type charts. The work is considered by the
author to be introductory only.

87

Runge, George: “ Versuch einer anthropologischen Untersuchung des
neugeborenen Schädels” [Attempt at an anthropological investigation
of skulls of newborn infants]. Archiv für Anthropologie [Braun­
schweig], vol. 20 (1891-92), pp. 303-319.
The author studies skulls of 10 St. Petersburg children. He describes each
one, noting kind of presentation at birth, and gives 45 determinations for each
in- a table, with which he shows for comparison Tarenetzky’s corresponding
data on 10 adult skulls. The text brings out differences between newborn
and adults.

88

Scammon, Richard E., and W illiam H. Rucker: “ Changes in the form
and dimensions of the chest at birth and in the neonatal period.”
Am. J. Dis. Child. [Chicago], vol. 21 (1921), pp. 552-564.
Data were obtained by measurements of the thoraxes of late fetuses and
full-term stillborn children and of living infants on the first, third, fifth,
seventh, tenth, and twelfth days after birth. Data on the circumference of the
chest immediately before and after the first inspiration were taken from the
observations of Linzenmeier. The authors found that the horizontal chest
circumference (at the nipples) is markedly increased at the first inspiration.
Within 12 hours after birth it enters a period of decrease which continues for
two or three days and is followed by increase, the initial circumference being
regained in the second week. The anteroposterior and the transverse diameter
of the thorax, both at the level of the nipples and at the tenth rib, shows
changes comparable with those of the circumferences at these levels. The
thoracic index (anteroposterior diameter divided by transverse diameter and
multiplied by 100) at the nipples stands at about 86 before birth, rises to an
average of 106, and then drops to about 102 in the first 24 hours. Bibliography.

89

Von Skatkowski, Bronislaw: “ Über das Verhältniss gewisser Durch­
messer des kindlichen und des mütterlichen Schädels ” [Relation of
certain diameters of the child’s and the mother’s skull]. Archiv für
Gynaekologie [Berlin], vol. 38 (1890), pp. 501-510.
Pour tables show the relation of the mother’s skull to her infant’s in the
bitemporal, biparietal, and suboccipitobregmatic diameters in 200 cases in
which 64 of the mothers were Slavic, 6 Hungarian, and 130 German. The
infants were never measured during the first day after birth. All were fullterm infants. There was a striking similarity between the mother’s skull and
her child’s, especially in the protuberances of the parietal bones. In the 86
first born there was in most cases a difference between mother and child of
4.5 centimeters in the bitemporal diameter, 5 centimeters in the biparietal, and
5.5 centimeters in the suboccipitobregmatic.

90

---------- “ Über das Verhältniss gewisser Durchmesser des kindlichen
und des mütterlichen Schädels” [Relation between certain diameters
of the skull of the child and the skull of the mother]. Archiv für
Gynaekologie [Berlin], vol. 40 (1891), pp. 245-252.
The article compares diameters cf skulls of 100 mothers with those of their
newborn infants, which in this investigation were premature, between 1.400
and 2,700 grams in weight, usually 2,000 to 2,500 grams. The five tables give
length -and relation to the bitemporal, biparietal, and suboccipitobregmatic
diameters. The older a premature infant, the greater is the similarity between
his skull and that of his mother. In 75.2 per cent cases his biparietal diameter
is 5 to 6 centimeters smaller than his mother’s.

91

Spitzy, Hans: “ Über Bau und Entwicklung des kindlichen Fusses” [On
structure and development of a child’s foot], Jahrh. f. Kinderh.
[Berlin], new ser. vol. 57 (1903), pp. 731-762.
This long and detailed article treats of the child’ s foot, beginning with the
embryonic stage, both physiologically and anatomically. The prevailing opinion
that the infant foot is flat is due to the thick pad of fat usual after birth.
In reality the infant foot even in the fetal stage is well arched and archi­
tecturally very similar to the adult foot. The author carefully describes the


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development of the foot through the creeping and walking stages and gives
tables of measurements. Bibliography.
92 Stettner, E rn st: “ Über die Beziehungen der Ossifikation des Handskeletts
zu Alter und Längenwachstum bei gesunden und kranken Kindern von
der Geburt bis zur Pubertät ” [The relations of ossification of the
skeleton o f the hand to age and height in healthy and sick children
from birth to puberty]. Arch. f. Kinderh. [Stuttgart], vol. 68 (19202 1 ), pp. 342-368, 439-466 ; vol. 69-70 (192 1-22), pp. 27-62.
In the Children’s Clinic of Erlangen University, from the spring of 1918 to
the summer of 1919, the author took 700 X-ray pictures of children, 250 of
whom were normal. Of these, 68 girls and 57 boys, between birth and the
age of 13, from the moderate-sized children of the laboring class constituted
the mean. In studying age, sex, height, class, etc., in relation to ossification,
the author classified his subjects into tall, medium, and short children, accord­
ing to Pirquet, and into laboring, agricultural, and upper classes. He con­
cludes that the centers of ossification appear earlier in girls than boys, as
regards both age and height; that wealthier children develop more rapidly;
that there is no appreciable difference between right and left hands in ossifica­
tion ; that growth processes are regulated by the endocrines; and that even for
normal children no general scheme is valid. Thirty-two tables and a bibliog­
raphy are included.
93 Stevenson, Paul H . : “Age order of epiphyseal union in man.” Ameri­
can Journal of Physical Anthropology [Washington], vol. 7 (1924),
pp. 53-93.
Material for study was a collection of 110 skeletons in the laboratory of
Western Reserve University. Of these, 20 belonged to the age period from 15
to 19, inclusive, barring the possibility that one was of the fourteenth year.
An extended study showed the essential reliability of epiphyseal union as an
indicator of age, especially in the case of the long bones. In the 15 to 20
year period the epiphysis of the distal extremity of the humerus unites first;
that of the head last. The age of the greatest epiphyseal activity is the nine­
teenth year. References.
94 Sullivan, L. I t .: “ Growth of the nasal bridge iu children.” American
Anthropologist [Lancaster, P a.], vol. 19 (i9 1 7 ), pp. 406-409.
An analysis of material collected in 1890 by Professor Boas, in the measure­
ment of school children of Worcester, Mass. The technique of measuring the
nasal arch is described and tabulations made for both boys and girls of ages
5 to 16. The results showed that the growth in anteroposterior diameter in
girls to the age of 14 antedated that of boys by one year or more, but that
14, 15, and 16 year old girls all corresponded to 14-year-old boys.
95 Thoma, R .: “ Untersuchungen über das Schädelwachstum und seine
Störungen. I. Die Spannung der Schädelwand ” [Investigations on
growth of skull and its disturbances. I. Tension of wall of skull].
Virchow's Archiv [Berlin], vol. 206 (1911), pp. 201-271.
This article, one of a highly technical series on the skull, contains 70 pages,
23 figures, and 6 tables on the tension of the cranial wall. Much space is
given to the pressure of the cerebrospinal fluid in the subarachnoid spaces.
The development of the complicated forms of the skull is to be explained only
when pressure of the brain is added to pressure of said fluid and at least in
certain places is greater than the latter. The relatively slight pressure exerted
by its contents on the wall of the skull calls forth relatively high tension of
material. A final table gives intracranial fluid pressure, material tension of
bony tissue, and highest pressure of brain for individuals of 2, 11, 12, and
19 years.
96 — — — “ Untersuchungen über das Schädelwachstum und seine Störun­
gen. III. Das postfötale Wachstum ” [Investigations on growth of
skull and its disturbances. III. Postfetal growth]. Virchow's Archiv
[Berlin], vol. 219 (1915), pp. 80-191.
The author discusses blood vessels, Sharpey’s fibers, and hone lacunae,
thickness of bone lamella}, cell counts in bony tissue, tertiary bone tissue and
substantia Spongiosa, appositional and interstitial growth of bone, and nones
of cranial roof. He attempts to prove that almost the whole surface growth
of bones of cranial roof after the third year of extrauterine life is interstitial.
Sixty-five figures and 14 tables are presented^
97 Tikhanoff, M . T .: Ob energii rosta konechnostey i pozvonochnago stolba
do 14 lietniago vozrasta [On the Energy of Growth of the Extremities
and Spinal Column until the Age of 14 years]. St. Petersburg, 1894.
81 pp.
A dissertation (St. Petersburg University) giving an account of the author’s
. study of the bodies of 70 children ranging in ages from embryos to 14 years
for the purpose of determining the relative energy of growth ; that is, the
difference in rate of growth of the bones composing the upper and lower ex­
tremities and of various parts of the spinal column. The author gives his
findings in numerous tables and also quotes extensively from other writers.
12229°— 27— —9


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Töppich, Gerhard: “ Die Porosität der Knochen des Neugeborenen mit
Berücksichtigung des Verhaltens der Porosität bei Erwachsenen und
Greisen ” [The porosity of bones of the newborn infant with considera­
tion of condition of porosity in later life]. Archiv für Anatomie und
Physiologie, Anatomische Abteilung [Leipzig], 1914, pp. 9-24.
, From tests made on carefully prepared skeletons of one young man and of
five infants in the Anatomical Institute of the University of Breslau, compared
with statistics of other investigators, the author presents tables and numerous
results on porosity of different bones and finds that the skeletons of infants
show a different grade of porosity from, those of adults, but the same relative
values. He gives other tables on the volume of red marrow and the weight and
volume of the spleen ; the marrow is greater in volume than the spleen.
Tomes, C. S. : “ Studies on the growth of the jaw s.” Transactions of the
Odontological Society of Great Britain [London], new ser. voi. 24
(1892), pp. 143-158.
A study of models of children's jaws, taken at intervals from 4 to 21 years
of age, which are in the museum of the Royal College of Surgeons. A table
shows the distance between the middle of the grinding surfaces of the second
temporary upper molars and òf the second upper bicuspids ; from the middle of
the back edge of the grinding surface of the second temporary molar to the
center of the back of the neck of the central incisor of the same side, where it
joins the gum,. The author found that the early attainment of its full dimen­
sions by the anterior portion of the jaw is an essentially human characteristic.
V a n Pelt, Joseph K. J. : “ Measurements of the diameters of the foetal
head at term, collected from seven hundred cases of labour.” Am eri­
can Journal of the Medical Sciences [Philadelphia], new ser. voi. 39
(1880), pp. 111-114.
Measurements by the cephalometer of Stein, and occipitomental, occipito­
frontal, and biparietal diameters of 646 subjects are recorded in tabular form.
A list o f the longest diameters observed in both sexes is also given, and a
summary of the measurements of above diameters as recorded by 15 other
investigators. References.
V eit, J. : “ Die Entstehung der Form des Beckens ” [Origin of form of
pelvis].
Zeitschrift für Geburtshülfe und Gynäkologie [Stuttgart],
voi. 9 (1883), pp. 347-372.
The author examined the pelves of 50 newborn infants of at least 2,400
grams’ body weight. The average value for conjugata vera was 3.478, and the
greatest value for transverse diameter was 3.802. The relation, therefore, was
1 : 1.093, whereas in the adult it is 1 :1 .2 2 —1.29. The adult pelvis is essen­
tially different from that of the newborn infant, and extrauterine factors are
necessary to account for thè change. The article contains tables and a review
of other work on this subject.
V o lto lin i: “ Der Knochenkern in der untern Epiphyse des Fem u r” [Cen­
ter of ossification in the lower epiphysis of the fem ur]. Vierteljahrs­
schrift für Gerichtliche und Öffentliche Medicin [Berlin], voi. 15 (1859),
pp. 95-106.
Report of a case of a very young infant whose center of ossification in the
lower epiphysis of the femur was unusually large.
W eissenberg, S .: “ Das Wachstum der Hüftbreite nach Alter und Ge­
schlecht ” [Growth of pelvic width in relation to age and sex].
Monatsschrift für Geburtshülfe und Gynaekologie [Berlin], voi. 29
(1909) , pp. 822-829.
The author measured the pelves of 2,500 persons of both sexes and of
various ages. The breadth of hip is greater in boys till the eighth year,
the same in boys and girls during the ninth year, and thereafter larger in
women than men. The greatest increase in size of hips is during the first
two years ; there is also a very rapid increase in girls from the eleventh to
the fifteenth year and not so rapid an increase in boys from the fourteenth
to the seventeenth year. The author also clearly demonstrates a connection
between broad hips on the one side and on the other early menstruation and
developed breasts. Furthermore, he shows that the width of hips compared
with shoulders is mucK greater in women than in men. The article contains
five tables and one grapn.
W itzin g e r, M . : Über die Stirnfontanelle und den horizontalen Umfang
des Kopfes beim Neugeborenen [On the Anterior Fontanel and the
Horizontal Head Circumference o f the Newborn], Jent & Reinert,
Bern, 1876. 31 pp.
A discussion of the relations of such head measurements as the horizontal
head circumference, size of fontanels, etc., to weight, length of body, sex.
and number of previous births. Measurements are given for 100 mature
newborn infants. The value of head measurements as criteria for judging the
maturity of infants is discussed. The author believes that weil-developed
bodies have large fontanels and that larger fontanels generally accompany
wide sutures.


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W o lff, Julius: “ Über das Wachsthum des Unterkiefers” [Growth of the
lower ja w ]. Virchow's Archiv [Berlin], vol. 114 (1888), pp. 493-547.
A very thorough treatment of growth of the lower jaw. Former literature
is reviewed. The author’s own measurements are shown in a table bn breadth
o f alveoli of both incisors, breadth of incisors and canine teeth, breadth of
flrst five teeth, etc., of fetus, newborn infant, 6-months-old child. 1-vear-old
w W » 2-year-old child, 6-year-old child, and four adults. The author also
studied the upper jaw. The major conclusion is that the lower jaw is subiect
tu a much more powerful growth and expansion than has been found in anv
other bone.
J
W oronichin, N . : “ Neue Beobachtungen über den Einfluss des Körper­
baues, des Ernährungszustandes, der rachitischen und syphilitischen
Processe auf den Durchbruch der Milchzähne” [New observations on
the effect of body structure, nutritional condition, rachitic and syphi­
litic processes on eruption of milk teeth]. Jahrb. f. Kinderh [Leip­
zig], vol. 11 (1877), pp. 143-159.
To clarify the matter of canine teeth in a former publication on 23,732
observations of children iti St. Elizabeths Hospital at St. Petersburg the
author presents here 6,802 observations from the year 1875 on the first three
years of life, dividing age between two and three years according to months
so as to determine more precisely the time of eruption of the first 20 teeth!
I a °,1.e.s covering 16 pages are divided into material on boys and girls on
rachitic and nonrachitic children. Preliminary tables show also distribution
of good, ordinary, and deficient body structure.
----------- “ Über den Einfluss des Körperbaues, des Ernährungszustandes
und des rachitischen Processes auf den Durchbruch der Milchzähne”
[Effect o f bodily structure, nutritional condition, and rachitic processes
on eruption of the milk teeth], Jahrb. f. Kinderh. [Leipzig], new
ser. vol. 9 (187 5-76), pp. 91-105.
7^9 nMti a r L P-res+ntSfitai)1!S on body structure, nutrition, and dentition of
23,732 children in the first three years of life, of whom 6,836 boys and 6 810
girls were nonrachitic, and 5,765 boys and 4,321 girls were rachitic. Among
nonrachitic children in the eighth month the average number of teeth was 1 2
for boys and 1 for girls, whereas for nonrachitic boys the average was 0.8 and

S
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109

110

” of sood build get teeth morf easily and at

ri “ Untersuchungen über den Durchbruch der Milchzähne ” [Investi­
gations on eruption of milk teeth], Jahrb. f. Kinderh. [Leipzig] vol
13 (1878-79), pp. 193-225.
Many tables on teeth, weight, height, head measurements, and chest girth
m It
in
Elizabeth Hospital and 33 in a foundlings’ home
discussal S ” arately B° yS ^
§irlS and rachitic and nonrachitic children are
Zeltner, E , : “ Die Entwicklung des Thorax von der Geburt bis zur Voll­
endung des Wachstums und ihre Beziehungen zur Rachitis ” [Develop­
ment of thorax from birth to completion of growth and its relation to
rachitis]. Jahrb. f. Kinderh. [Berlin], new ser. vol. 78 (1913), Supple­
mentary vol., pp. 150-169.
The äuthor compares the thorax in many individuals up to about 19 vears
with the thorax of 100 healthy adults. He considers all three dimensions^nd
the relation between thorax and lungs. The infant chest is emDhvsematmi«
-conical; that of the adult is cylindrical. The thorax of the L w Z r n in“ ant is
conditioned entireiy by the lungs. During the first year it grows rapidly in
Width and during the first half of the second year in length. This latter
nv
S1n?i!?ea?ii ’ the.ehi ld is.learning to sit and walk. By 18 months
.
child s thorax is formed. Next, there is a slow growth, chieflv
?n
Erom 3 to 7 years diaphragmatic breathing changes to costal
brea.thmg. From about the fifth or sixth year the upper chest girth surpasses
the lower. There is. little breast development in ageFlO to i f . The second
most important period of thoracic development is pubertv
The greatest
changes are in volume and formation of upper lobes
The volume doubles '
between the ages of 12 and 20. Increase in body height comes in middle
period of puberty. Constant reference is made to rachitis. The article con­
tains 5 tables, 6 curves, and a short bibliography.
Zielinsky, W . : “ Das Wachstum der Kiefer und Zähne und ihre Bezie­
hungen zur Kaufunktion ” [Growth of jaws and teeth and their rela­
tions to chewing]. Deutsche Monatsschrift für Zahnheilkunde [Ber­
lin], vol. 26 (1908), pp. 804-840.
A discussion of the development of jaws, teeth, and the function of chewing
w iöi the embryo and covering the 21 years needed for the develop­
ment of the human jaw. Different proportions are noted of skull and face of
newborn, child, and adult. The infant’s head is relatively large and its face
very short on account of its undeveloped jaw. The jaw is used and begins
growing with the appearance of the milk teeth. At the end of the second year
I l e^ lcifica£°,?
th.1 Permanent teeth starts. The growth of the various
teeth is carefully described. The, article contains 35 figures and a bibliography,


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PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHILD
W . : “ Inwieweit sind Zahnwachstum und Kieferbildung
abhängig von der Körperentwickiung? ” [How far are growth of
teeth and formation of jaw dependent on bodily development?].

Zielin sky,

Oesterreichisch - Ungarische

Vierteljahrsschrift

für

Zahnheilkunde

[Vienna], vol. 28 (1912), pp. 280-300.
A description of tbe development of the jaw and teeth in children. The
different types of jaws and faces are described, and the effect of growing teeth
iaw> especially when the stimulus of chewing has started. The effect of
different diseases and of mouth breathing is traced.
The author believes that
if the jaw has been retarded in growth in early years it can not later make up
this development.
2. TEETH
112

Abbott,- Frank: “ Teeth of the lower jaw at birth.” Transactions of the
World's Columbian Dental Congress [Chicago], vol. 1 (1894), pp. 26 6288.
Thirteen figures show sections of teeth from the dissected lower jaws of two
infants born at term. Description and discussion.
113 Ahrens, H an s: “ Die Entwickelung der menschlichen Zähne ” [The de­
velopment of human teeth]. Anatomische H efte, Referate und Bei­
trage [Wiesbaden], vol. 48 (1913), pp. 169-266.
The author’s material consisted of 43 fetuses, 1 newborn infant, and 8
children 4 months to 8 years old. The various stages of development are
discussed in detail. Bibliography.
114 Eean, It. B. : “ The eruption and decay of the permanent teeth.” Ana­
tomical Record [Philadelphia], vol. 8 (1914), pp. 299-302.
A preliminary report on the teeth of 2,221 school children—776 Filipino,
628 German, _ 817 American. The author found eruption among the Filipinos
from one to four years earlier than among Germans and Americans, and among
Americans slightly earlier than among Germans ; the females of the races
studied were more precocious than males in regard to the eruption of teeth,
but this difference was very slight among Filipinos. He found also that the
lower teetn erupt before the upper, except the upper premolars ; that there are
slight racial differences in the order of eruption ; that the law of alternation in
development of the structures of the body decrees that periods of acceleration
in the development of one structure shall be synchronous with periods of re­
tardation in the development of another.
115 ----------- “ The eruption of the teeth as a physiological standard for test­
ing development.” Pedagogical Seminary [Worcester], vol. 21 (1914),
pp. 596-614.
The data for this paper were secured by examination of 630 Filipino boys
and 146 Filipino girls, 322 boys of German extraction and 306 German girls,
407 American boys and 410 American girls. Determining the average or mean
number of teeth erupted or erupting at each age, the author found that eruplion begins earlier among Filipinos than in the German and American groups;
that the girls of each group* are more precocious than the boys in eruption of
teeth. From his data he constructed a table giving the physiological standard
of eruption, and the time at which 50 per cent of the teeth are present. The
morphologic form of the face (hyperontomorph and hypoontomorph) is dis­
cussed in its relation to tooth eruption and the. relation between mental and
dental development. Bibliography.
116 Bunting, R. W . : “ Report of the examination of the mouths of 1,500
school children in the public schools of Ann Arbor, Michigan.” Dental
Cosmos [Philadelphia], vol. 51 (1909), pp. 310-322.
Tabular records of the results of an examination made in 1906 and 1907,
showing percentage of eruption of each tooth at various ages ; number of
teeth erupted at various ages ; distribution of caries in percentage of total
caries examined ; percentage of caries found in each tooth at the various ages ;
stature weight in relation to eruption in boys and girls; stature weight in
relaton to caries in boys and girls, brain weight in relation to eruption and to
caries in boys and girls. The results for negroes and whites were found to be
noticeably different. The correlations doted were, for the most part, very slight.
117 Debègue, A n dré: Les dents à la naissance [The Teeth at Birth]. Paris
no. 371, 1911. 62 pp.
Thesis for doctor’s degree (University of Paris). Contains one table fromi
the author’s study of records of 500 infants, showing the dates of appearanceof the central incisors and 20 case studies of infants born with teeth
Bibliography.
118

Gundobin, N . P .: “ O proriezivanii zubov u dietie ” [On teething in chil­
dren]. Meditsina [St. Petersburg], vol. 6 (.1894), pp. 202, 218, 234,251..
Description of noiinal, irregular, and difficult teething (almost entirely quo­
tations). A brief account- of 80 cases of teething observed by the author who,
disagrees with the prevailing opinion that teething is accompanied by morbid’
processes. He thinks that these processes are rare ; that when present they
are due to diseases of childhood and dot to teething itself. Long bibliography


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Heffenfinger, E. : “ W hat is normal dentition and what shall we do with
premature teeth ?” Massachusetts Medical Journal [Boston], vol. 24
(1904), pp. 97-104.
A. general article based on observations from the author's practice. His
table of dentition is : First molars, 6 years ; incisors, 7 to 8 years ; bicuspids,
9 to 10 years ; canines, 12 to 14 years ; second molars, 12 to .15 years ; third
molars, 17 to 25 years.
Herpin, A .: “ Les dents à la naissance’’ [The teeth at birth]. Bulletins
et mémoires de la Société d’anthropologie de Paris, ser. 6, vol. S (1912),
pp. 386-393.
The author quotes figures relative to the development of the teeth from
Legros, Magitot, Roese, and others, and describes and discusses several cases of
eruption of one or two teeth at birth or immediately thereafter.
H rdlicka, A le s : “ Human dentition and teeth from the evolutionary
and racial standpoint.” Dominion Dental Journal [Toronto], vol. 23
1911), pp. 403-421.
This article, though largely on evolution, recounts on pages 413 and 414 some
results o f the investigation of the teeth of 960 Apaches and Pima children.
James, W . W ., and A . T . P itts: “ Some notes on the dates of eruption
in 4,850 children, aged under 12.” Proceedings of the Royal Society
of Medicine ( Odontological Section) [London], vol. 5, pt. 3 (1912), pp.
80-101.
The authors investigated the eruption of teeth of all the children attending
the dental department of a hospital for children during a period of about
five years. Method of examination and record are explained in detail. Cases
ranging from 5 to 12 years were grouped in periods of three months, and a
system was devised to show the teeth present in each age group. Tables and
curves were derived, and a final table compiled showing the average date at
which the teeth appear.
J u n g: “ Die Entwicklung des Gebisses und seine Pflege im Kindesalter ”
[The development of the teeth and their care in childhopd]. Die
Oesundheit in W ort und Bild [Berlin], vol. 2 (1905), pp. 446-456.
The author describes the mouth of the newborn infant, the appearance of
milk teeth from the sixth or seventh month to the end o f the second year, their
replacement by the second set of teeth, and the child’s general health at this
time.
L iv y , John: “ On the periods of eruption of the permanent teeth as a
test of age.” Brit. M. J. [London], vol. 2 (1885), pp. 241-244.
About 4,000 children were examined, 2,000 over 10 years of age, at various
mills and workshops in Bolton, England, to determine the age at which eruption
of the permanent teeth takes place and the normal progress of eruption. Con­
siderable variability was found. The results of the investigation are shown
in extended tables.
Rose, C.: “ Die Zahne der Dalarner und Gotlander ” [Teeth of people of
Dalarne and Gotland]. Deutsche Monatsschrift fiir Zahnheilkunde
[Leipzig], vol. 22 (1904), pp. 735-748.
Comparisons are made between the teeth of 626 school children in Dalarne,
Sweden, and of 626 school children in the island of Gotland. Possible reasons
for the difference in the quality of the teeth of the two groups of children are
discussed.
----------- “ Über die mittlere Durchbruchszeit der bleibenden Zahne des
Menschen ” [Average time for cutting permanent teeth among human
beings]. Deutsche Monatsschrift fiir Zahnheilkunde [Leipzig], vol
27 (1909), pp. 553-570.
After discussing the inadequacy of previous statistics on teeth, the author
presents results for children he personally examined. Children of different
sexes and ages are considered separately. The numerous tables include fig­
ures for thousands of children from different parts of Germany. The author
found that all permanent teeth erupt earlier with girls than boys ; the canine
teeth are much larger in the male than the female and are particularly late
in erupting in boys ; in general, the time of cutting permanent teeth is very
variable. The fact that teeth are out earlier in Sweden than in Germany,
and earlier in the upper than in the lower classes, may be due to the pre­
dominance of the Germanic race.
------ — “ Zahnverderbnis und Militartauglichkeit ” [Decay of teeth and
military fitness]. Deutsche Monatsschrift fiir Zahnheilkunde [Leip­
zig], vol. 22 (1904), pp. 135-150.
In addition to data on recruits, tables on school children are given showing
correlation of condition of teeth, weight, and height. One table gives figures
on 1,529 boys and 1,391 girls between 6 and 13 years of age,in the Catholic
schools o f Dresden. The children with very bad teeth are on an average
2% kilograms lighter and 5 centimeters shorter than children with good teeth.
Another table concerns children (number not given) in Koetzting, Bavaria.


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PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OP TH E CHILD
Rose, C . : “ Zahnverderbnis und Zensur” [Decay of teeth and school
standing]. Deutsche Monatsschrift fur Zahnheilkunde [Leipzig], vol.
22 (1904), pp. 347-360.
Prom data collected for the most part by himself, the author presents 20
tables correlating the condition of the teeth of school children with their
weight and height and with their school reports. Material is based on exam­
inations of 2,920 children in Dresden, 1,021 in Frankfort on the Main, 3,868
in Nordhausen, 243 in Clingen, 395 in Weissensee, 461 in Frankenhausen, 310
in Leuben b. Riesa, and 248 boys and - 234 girls in Koetzting. Physical
development and school reports vary in excellence directly in accordance
with good condition o f teeth.
Spier, Leslie: “ The growth of Porto Rican boys, with special reference
to the relation between their stature and detention.” Journal of
Dental Research [New York], vol. 1 (1919), pp. 145-157. See also
American Anthropology [Lancaster, P a .], vol. 20 (1918), pp. 37—48,
and Dental Cosmos [Philadelphia], vol. 60 (1918), pp. 899-905.
Data for this investigation were obtained from plaster casts of the dental
arches and from measurements of some 350 schoolboys of Utuado, P. R.,
collected by Franz Boas in 1915. Tables were constructed showing the num­
ber of deciduous and permanent teeth present among a total of all possible
teeth, and these formed the basis for other tables showing the average age
and variabilities for the loss of the deciduous and the eruption of the perma­
nent teeth. These were compared with similar data on Boston boys, from
figures by Channing, and showed that the Porto Rican boys appear to erupt
their teeth about a year in advance of Boston boys. Further investigation
of the data showed a marked functional relation between stature and stage of
dental development in both groups of boys.
Spokes, Sidney: “ The teeth as a test of age, a note on eruption.”
Brit. M . J. (London), vol. 2 (1905), pp. 568-569.
From the tooth charts of a number of boys of known age in a large public
school the author deduces figures showing to what extent the second permanent
molars may be expected to be present in the mouth at the ages of 12, 13, and
14 years.
Suk, V . : Eruption and decay of permanent teeth in whites and negroes,
with comparative remarks on other races.”
American Journal of
Physical Anthropology [W ashington], vol. 2, no. 4 (1919), pp. 351—388.
Material for this article was obtained by the author through observations
on 1,008 subadult Zulu (492 males and 516 females), most o f them in schools
of the American Zulu Missions, and through observations in .Europe by the
author and Prof. T. Matiegka mostly on children of Czech extraction, repre­
senting the urban and rural population of central Bohemia. Their results are
compared with those of Bean on Filipinos and German-Americans, HrdliCka on
Indians, and Roese on Europeans. Observations are reported in great detail
with many tables. The author concludes that in general dentition is earlier
in girls than in boys, in colored races than in white, that the beginning and
end of eruption in the lower jaw is somewhat earlier and the main period of
eruption a little shorter than in the upper ja w ; on the whole,' eruption pro­
ceeds in the right side a little in advance of the left. Uncivilized races have
better teeth than civilized. Bibliography.

B. CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
1. HEART AND BLOOD VESSELS
132

133

Baccichetti, A . : “ Sulla forma del cuore infantile ” [On the form of the
infant’s heart]. La Clinica Pediatrica [Modena], vol. 6 (1924), pp.
341-363.
The author studied the form of the heart of 108 infants from 1 to 3 days
old. He presents in a table for each case the detailed measurements of the
heart as obtained by him by means of the teleradioscope and concludes that in
the newborn infant the round form of the heart is most frequent; the sex has
no effect on the form and size of the heart. The average dimensions of the
' heart as- obtained by him were : Length 4.79 Centimeters, the sum of the greatesi
distance of the left and right boundaries of the heart from the median line
of the sternum 4.47 centimeters, surface of the heart 13.48 square centimeters.
The angle of inclination showed great variations, but the oblique position was
most prevalent. The dimensions of the heart of the newborn are proportionate
to the length of the body. Up to a certain limit these dimensions increase in
proportion to the weight.
Bam berg, K arl, and H erm ann P u tzig : “ Die Herzgrosse im Sauglingsalter auf Grand von Rontgenfernaufnahmen ”, [ Size of heart in infancy
on basis of Röntgen photographs]. Ztschr. f. Kinderh. [Berlin], vol.
20 (1919), pp. 195-211.
The author studied at the Empress Augusta Victoria House 133 X-ray photo­
graphs o f the heart of 75 healthy infants under 1 year. He chose an in­
stantaneous exposure of T’a1J second, 60 amperes, 110 volts, and a distance of
150 centimeters. One table arranged alphabetically shows age, weight, length of


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torso, chest diameter, and seven heart measurements. In other tables the data
are rearranged according to age, weight, girth o f torso, length of torso, weight,
and relation of length o f torso to breast diameter. There are also one sketch
two X-ray pictures, and two curves. The infant’s heart grows very rapidlv’
particularly in the first six months. The mass is influenced by height and torso
index, but little by weight.
Bardeleben, K a rl: “ Das Klappendistanzgesetz ” [The valve-distance
law ]. Jenaische Zeitschrift für Naturwissenschaft [Jenal. new ser
7, vol. 14 (1880), pp. 467-529.
The author made 700 examinations of veins in six adults and five children
He describes preceding literature on this subject, his methods of investigation
of the important veins, and his findings. In most cases and in the majority
ot veins the valves are most numerous in infancy and decrease with age.
Bean, Robert Bennett: “ Notes on the postnatal growth of the heart,
kidney, liver, and spleen in man.” Contributions to Embryology
[Carnegie Institution of Washington], vol. 9, nos. 27-46 (1920) m>
265-284.
From about 1,300 records from the Charity Hospital, New Orleans, and
Jonns Hopkins Hospital data were accumulated on the growth of the heart
kidney, liver, and spleen, with relation to race, age, puberty, heredity state
of nutrition, etc.

136

Beneke, F. W . : Über das Volumen des Herzens und die W eite der
Arteria pulmonalis und Aorta ascehdus in den verschiedenen Lebens­
altern [Heart Volume and W idth of the Pulmonary Artery and
Ascending Aorta at Various Ages]. Verlag von Theodor Kay, Cassel,
1879. 56 pp.
Two hundred and eighty-five cadavers in Vienna and 330 in Marburg were
examined. There are graphs on these organs at different ages, and many
tables, one showing age, sex, height, nutritional condition, volume of heart
circumference o f pulmonalis and aorta. The discussion covers 28 pages, of which
10 consider ages up to 21 years. At different ages the relation of the width of
tnese arteries to height and to heart volume varies greatly. The pulmonary
artery is larger than the ascending aorta to the end of puberty: later the
relation changes. The heart develops most rapidly in the first and second years
The sexual difference is slight up to seven years. To the fifteenth year the
growth is greater in the female; thereafter it is greater in the male. From
puberty on, the blood pressure in the two great arteries leading from the heart
is lower in the female than in the male. Blood pressure in general increases
with age till it reaches its height at the prime of life. Pubertal development
depends very largely on relatively great increase of blood pressure at this
time, when the arterial system is relatively narrow and the heart is growing
rapidly,
0
137 Cavaglieri, E .: “ II cuore e l’apparechio circolatorio nei primi dieci anni
di v it a ” [The heart and circulatory system in the first ten years of
life]. Morgagni [M ilan], vol. 42 (1900), pp. 549-591.
A description of the heart and circulatory systëm of 34 children, varying
in age from 1 to 10 years, who were examined by the author at the pediatric
clinic in Padua. The article gives for each child the height, span, chest
circumference, total length of sternum, length of abdomen, distances between
the iliac chest, cardiac index, distances between the tips of the second and
fifth metacarpals of the right hand, and condition of the heart, blood vessels,
and lymphatic system.
138 Cruchet, R en é : “ Les trois faces du cœur chez l’enfant ” [The three sur­
faces of the heart of the child]. Bulletins et mémoires de la Société
anatomique de Paris, vol. 76 (1901), pp. 96-100.
Post-mortem observations of 29 subjects less than 15 years of age led the
author to question the findings of Testier and others as to the shape of the
heart in childhood. Observations are recorded in detail, but the number is con­
sidered too small for definite conclusions.
139 DeBuys, L. R ., and E. C. Sam uels: “ Growth of the heart: roentgenographic observations.” Am. J. Dis. Child. [Chicago], vol. 30 (1925), pp.
355-358.
From study of 623 röntgenograms of 400 normal infant hearts, taken within
the first 24 hours after birth and at different periods up to the thirty-ninth
month, the authors conclude that up to this time there is no rotation of the
heart and that it does not assume a more vertical position.
1 4 0 ----------------------- Further observations upon the shadows of the thymus and
the heart.” Southern Medical Journal [Birmingham], vol. 17 (1924),
pp. 260-264.
’ ; f
'
A report on 450 observations, a part on infants included in the authors’
first study, new observations having been made at 6 months and 1 year, and a
part on newborn infants. Eighteen additional reproductions of radiographs
confirm the findings of the original study. The authors believe that “ the
change in the position of the apex beat of the heart in the first year is appar­
ently not due to its rotation, but to the slower growth in size o f the heart as
compared with the more rapid growth in the size of the thorax.” &


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Dietlen, H a n s: “ Die Perkussion der wahren Herzgrenzen ” [Percussion
of true heart lim its]. Deutsches Archiv für Klinische Medizin [Leip­
zig], voi. 88 (1 9 0 6 -7 ), pp. 286-301.
The author studied percussion of the heart in over 200 adults and 25 children
between 3 and 14 years. The group of : “ adults ” included children of 15 or
over. Eight dimensions were ascertained for subjects in the horizontal position
according to Moritz’s orthodiagraph method. A table gives percentage of
correctness attained for each dimension in case of males, of females, and of
children under 14. Two plates contain 276 diagrams of the heart.
Dobrovolski, N . : “ Ob izmienieniakh arterii u dietie po vozrastam ” [On
the changes in the arteries in children according to ages]. Medizinskiia Pribavleniia k Morskomu Sbornika [St. Petersburg], 1903, pt. 1,
pp. 24, 81, 149, 189, 246, 303 ; p t 2, p. 11.
The author summarizes studies of arteries of embryos, infants, older children,
and adults made by several writers. In numerous tables he gives averages
o f diameters of arteries, thickness of arterial walls in micromillimeters, and
circumference of arteries as obtained by those writers. The purpose of his
own study was to ascertain changes in arterial walls produced by the growth
o f the individual. With this aim in view he studied the arteries of the
bodies of 29 children, most of them under 1 year old, and those of 2 adults.
In a number of tables he gives the circumferences and thicknesses of the
walls of various arteries of each subject and presents his findings on the
increase with age in the thickness of the walls and circumferences of the
various arteries and aorta. Bibliography.
Elsässer: “ Über den Zustand der Fötuskreislaufwege bei neugeborenen
Kindern ” [Condition of fetal circulatory passages in newborn chil­
dren]. Zeitschrift für die Staatsarzneikunde [Erlangen], 21st year
(1841), pp. 3-18.
The author examined the fetal circulatory system in 144 newborn infants.
Of 52 born dead, 48 showed the fetal passages still open, but in 4 the foramen
ovale was closed. Of the other 92 infants who died during the first month,
58 showed passages fully open. Hence the time of closing is uncertain. As
a rule, ductus Arantii closes first, then ductus Botalli, and, last, foramen ovale.
In other words, fetal circulatory passages are usually fully open some time
after birth. Therefore, their being open or closed is no indication whether a
newborn child found dead has breathed or not.
----------- “ Über den Zustand der Fötuskreislaufwege bei neugeborenen
Kindern ” [Condition of fetal circulatory passages in newborn chil­
dren], Zeitschrift für die Staatsarzneikunde [Erlangen], voi. 63-64
(1852), pp. 247-261.
On examining 70 stillborn children the author found ductus Botalli and
foramen ovale open in all and ductus Arantii open in all but 1. Among
300 infants that died after birth all passages were open in 80 o f 108 pre­
maturely born and in 127 of 192 full-term infants. Therefore, as a ruleT
the fetal passages mentioned are still open after birth. The time at which
they close can not be determined precisely, but it falls within the first six
weeks.
Gibson, G. A . : “ Some deductions from a study of the development of
the heart.” Edinburgh Medical Journal, voi. 38, pt. 1 (1892), pp.
429-433.
Largely a discussion of fetal growth. Contains one plate showing com­
parison of the thickness of the walls of the heart in eight specimens from
the age of 3% months (fetal) to 22 months (postnatal).
Gierke: “ Über die Lage und Grösse des Herzens im Kindesalter”
[Position and size of heart in childhood]. Jahrb. f. Kinderh. [Leipzig],
new ser. voi. 2 (1 868-69), pp. 391-394.
The author measures the size and location o f heart in 50 normal
children, aged between 8 days and 13 years, all having well-formed thoraxes.
He discusses percussion, which he finds easier and more reliable in children
than in adults. The results are presented in two drawings and one table giving
the constitution, age, height, and weight, and the dimensions of thorax and of
heart.
Groedel, Franz M. : “ Die röntgenologische Untersuchung des kindlichen
H erzens” [Röntgen-ray investigation of the heart of the child].
Ztschr. f. Kinderh. [Berlin], voi. 29 (1921), pp. 36-42.
The author discusses the great value of taking Röntgen photographs of the
hearts of children. Any method, he asserts, is adapted to young children.
From the school age on, only orthodiagraphy or teleröntgengraphy should be
used. Size, form, and function can thus be studied satisfactorily. The Ortho­
diagraphie relation between heart and basal breadth of the lungs is on an
average 1 :1 .9 . The author discusses also the great variations of the heart and
the pathologically enlarged heart in the growing body.
Haberda, A lb in : Die fötalen Kreislaufwege des Neugeborenen und ihre
Veränderungen nach der Geburt [Fetal Circulatory Blood Vessels of
the Newborn Infant and Their Changes after Birth],
Verlag von
Josef Säfär, Vienna, 1896. 112 pp.


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In addition to citing the work of many other investigators, the author gives
results of his own studies on the time when the stump of the umbilical cord
came off for 155 infants, and of his observations on obliteration of navel
vessels in over 100 cases. He examined the ductus arteriosus in about 500
bodies of young children.
H apke, Theodor: Über die Bestimmung der Herzresistenz bei Kindern
[On Ascertaining Resistance of Children’s Hearts]. Gottingen, 1893.
42 pp.
Inaugural dissertation (Gottingen University).
The author explains his
procedure in taking chest measurements and “ heart resistance ” o f 21 boys
' from 1% to 14 years and 20 girls from 4 to 13 years, and describes in d 'tail,
using tables, how maximum breadth and resistance vary with age, height,
weight, constitution, and position of diaphragm. The article concludes with a
bibliography and a large chart giving all details for the 41 subjects examined.
H ochsinger, Carl: Die Auscultation des kindlichen Herzens [Ausculta­
tion of the child heart]. Beiträge zur Kinderheilkunde aus dem Ersten
Öffentlichen Kinderkranken-Institute in Wien [Vienna], pt. 1, 1890-91.
194 pp.
The first two chapters of this treatise, entitled “ Introduction ” and “ Normal
Auscultation,” describe the heart in healthy children and repeat many data
collected by other students. The heart in the young child is strong, owing to
the relatively wide diameter of the subclavian and carotid. Between the ages
of 7 and 12 this diameter diminishes as compared with the mass of the heart.
The conclusions drawn by Rillet and Barthez from examination at autopsy of
193 children, aged between 15 months and 14% years, show that the girth of
the heart remains relatively the same between 15 months and 5% years ; from,
then to puberty it increases. The author considers normal auscultation, rhythm
of heart tones, prevalence of systolic tones, influence of respiration, with tables
by Steffen on the frequency of the pulse, and by Beneke and Bigot on the
volume of the heart and width of the aorta and pulmonalis in children.
Lange, R ., and H . Feldm ann: “ Herzgrössenverhältnisse gesunder und
kranker Säuglinge bei Röntgendurchleuchtung” [Size of heart in
healthy and sick infants determined by Röntgen rays]. Monatschr.
f. Kinderh. [Berlin], vol. 21 (1921), pp. 458-474.
The authors studied the size of the heart of 150 infants with the X rays
according to Altstaedt, photographing some many times. In healthy children
the relation of transverse diameters of heart and lungs is 1 : 1.9-2 ; in "new born,
1: 1.7. The latter have relatively large hearts. The infant heart is usually
a long oval, and its position is slightly tilted, almost never horizontal. It
shows, however, a remarkable movability.
Linzenmeier, Georg: “ Der Verschluss des Ductus arteriosus Botalli nach
der Geburt des Kindes ” [Closure of the ductus arteriosus Botalli after
the birth of the child]. Zeitschrift für Geburtshülfe und Gynäkologie
[Stuttgart], vol. 76 (1915), pp. 217-253.
After discussing discovery by Galen of the closing of the ductus arteriosus at
birth, and the investigation concerning it since- Harvey, the author attempts
to test the topographical and anatomical findings of Walkhoff. He dissects four
full-term infants that died at birth without breathing, and two that died at
age of 4 or 5 days when the tissue would still show conditions at birth, de­
scribing in detail how the. chests had changed in these two groups. He
also inflated the lungs in 15 fetuses, treating some with lime, some with
paraffin, till he obtained three good molds of the ductus tube, wherein a sudden
bend was clearly to be discerned. He concludes that several factors are con­
cerned in closing the arterial duct. The newborn infant breathes, the lungs
expand, the heart is raised in toto, it turns on its long axis, and its point,
turns to the left. The tube is bent ; there is a muscular contraction. All this
is made possible by the loose placing of the ductus and the yielding structure.
One table and a bibliography are included.
Ludger, H enri-Edm ond-G uillaum e: De la mensuration clinique du cœur
chez les enfants du sexe masculin de 10 à 14 ans [The Clinical Meas­
urement of the Heart of Boys 10 to 14 Years of Age]. Paris, no. 76,
1883. 50 pp.
Thesis for medical degree (University of Baris). The original work consists
o f observations of 210 subjects as to height, weight, chest circumference, pulse
rate, constitution, and dimensions of the heart. The method of ascertaining
heart dimensions is minutely described. Results are tabulated. The relation
of average dimensions of the heart to height and to chest circumference are
studied. Results are inconclusive.
M ayer, Katherine M. : “ Obesrvations on the capillaries of the normal
infant.”
Am. J. Dis. Child. [Chicago], vol. 22 (1921), pp. 381-387.
The author made microscopic examinations of the capillaries of the fingers of
a number of infants and has illustrated her findings with eight drawings.
“ In general,” she states, “ it might be said that from birth the end capil­
laries begin development from small loops at the periphery of the subcapillary
plexus. Until about the third month the development is very rapid. From
then on there is not much change.” The article includes a review of the litera­
ture of similar research.


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Mosler, E ., and M . Kretschner: “ Über den Tonus des kindlichen Herz­
muskels ” [On the tonicity of the cardiac muscle in the child].
Klinische Wochenschrift [Berlin and Munich], vol. 3 (1924), pp.
2096-2097.
'
The author made Valsalva’s experiment on 16 children, 7 of them girls 6
to 14% years old, in order t o . form a judgment of the degree, of persistency
of form of the child’s heart And' to compare the data with those 'obtained on
adults. All children had healthy lungs and organs^ of circulation. In most of
these cases the child’s heart showed very slight resistance to Valsalva s experi­
ment, as shown by the shadow on the X-ray screen, . The pulse disappeared in
all cases in which the Valsalva was carried put in an orderly manner; the
blood pressure, which before the experiment was 100 to 120, went down to
zero after 3 to 4 pulse beats. There was never a rise in the blood pressure
as is the case with adults. The authors conclude that the child’ s heart pos­
sesses a considerably slighter persistency of form than the adiilt heart, that
it, therefore, resembles an insufficient adult heart with decreased tonicity ; that
for this reason children in general should be kept away from excessive exer­
cise, and that in athletics and gymnastics attention should be paid to proper
breathing exercises, because children knowing how to breathe properly will
not often employ the type of breathing of the Valsalva experiment, and will thus
avoid injury to the circulatory system. The X-ray findings for each case are
given in a table.
156 Potain, and Vaque 2 : “ Du cœur chez les jeunes sujets et de la prétendue
hypertrophie de croissance ” [The heart in young people and its alleged
hypertrophy due to growth]. Semaine médicale [Paris], vol. 15 (1895),
pp. 413-415.
The authors deny that growth causes a cardiac hypertrophy such as was
described in Semaine médicale in 1885 by G. Sée, and in 1894. by S. Saache.
They examined 43 boys 5 to 13 years old àt the Hospital^of St. Louis ; 27
boys 14 to 20 years old at the École d’Alembert, in a very fine state of health;
12 soldiers from 20 to 24 years old
at Fort de Mogent ; and 20more soldiers
between 20 and 29 at the École de la Faisanderie. Pathological hearts were
excluded. The authors regard percussion as the only accurate means of deter­
mining the volume of the ¡heart. They found that the heart grows gradually
to the eleventh or twelfth year, then very rapidly
for some years, and more
moderately between the seventeenth arid twenty-third years. The1 volume of
the heart shows no relation to weight but a decided relation to height and
thoracic perimeter, as is shown in a graph. No relation appears to exist among
frequency of pulse, arterial tension, and physiological development of the
heart. Another graph shows how muscular exercise in military service in­
creases the volume of the heart. Dividing soldiers into groups according to
amount of gymnastics, the authorsascertained for the volume of the heart
91 cubic centimeters in the least athletic group, 98 cubic centimeters in the
next, and 101 cubic centimeters in the most athletic group.
157 Preisicli, K o rn e l: “ Herzvolumen im Säuglings- und Kindesalter” [Vol­
ume of the heart in infancy and childhood]. Jahrh f. Kinderh.
[Berlin], ser. 3, vol. 41-42 (1920), pp. 4Ô0-403.
This article contains a table giving age from birth to 12 years, sex, cause of
death, and heart volume, of 35 cases in the Stephanie Hospital of Budapest
The author recognizes, the limitations of his data and intends the article
merely as encouragement to further investigations on the volume of the heart.
The method of dissecting the heart and finding its volume by amount of water
displaced from a full vessel is described. The volumes varied from 19 cubic
centimeters in a newborn infant to 133 cubic centimeters in a child from 8
to 12 years old. '
.
158 Sahli, H . : Zur topographischen Percussion des kindlichen Herzens [Top­
ographical Percussion of the Child H eart]. Bern, 1881. 47 pp.
Thesis (University of Bern). Author gives much space to other authorities
on the heart, as Bizot and Beneke on dimensions ; Rauchfuss on position ; and
Locher, Bednor, Gierke, and Weil on percussions. Tables give many data on
the normal deep dullness of children’s hearts from the age of 9 months to 12
years and the normal superficial dullness. The text lists differences between
the child and .the adult heart and reasons therefor. Transition sometimes has
taken place by the age of 6, sometimes not before 12. Many phases of the
heart are treated, such as mobility, relation to lungs and thymus, and shifting
of position according to pose of body.
159 Sawyer, J. E. H . : “A note upon the position of the apex beat in children.”
British Journal of Children's Diseases [London], vol. 6 (1909), pp.
535-540.
The author examined 500 normal children of varying types of development
from less than 1 year to 15 years of age to determine the position of the
apex beat in relation to the. left mammary line in the fifth intercostal space.
All the children were examined in the erect position, the mammary line being
determined by the position of the left nipple. Charts show the usual position
of the apex beat in each year of childhood. The apex beat was found outside
this line in 104 cases, at the line in 310 cases, and inside in 86 cases. The
author concludes that the apex beat is normally outside the line up to the
third year and at the line from the third to the tenth year ; after this it gradrally assumes the adult position.


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von Starck, W . : “ Die Lage des Spitzenstosses und die Percussion des
Herzens im Kindesalter ” [Position of apex beat and percussion of
heart in childhood]. Arch. f. Kinderh. [Stuttgart], voi. 9 (188 7-88),
pp. 240-293.
The author gives summaries, often with tables, of work done by other inves­
tigators on the size of the child’s heart, its position, form and development
o f thorax, position of mammillae, etc., and presents his own findings from exami­
nation of 300 healthy, well-built children between the ages of 12 days and 15
years. The tables, covering eight pages show, for about 20 children in each
year, circumference and diameters of chest, position of apex beat, and distance
of mammillae from midline. Apex beat lies outside of the mammillary line
usually till the fourth year, then more and more seldom till the thirteenth
year ; it ceases to do so after. In* general, the apex beat is higher in child­
hood than in adult life. Many pages are given also to percussion of chil­
dren’s hearts. Tables and eight figures are presented. Bibliography.

161

Stocquart, A . : “ Contribution à Fanatomie de l’enfance. Le poids du
cœur ” [Contribution to the anatomy of childhood. The weight of the
heart]. Archives de médecine et de chirurgie pratiques [Brussels],
vol. 3 (1889), pp. 165-167.
Weights of 33 hearts of children, aged from 1 to 10 years, from the author’s
own researches, are tabulated with no comment except a description of the
method of dissection.
Strassm ann, P .: “Anatomische und physiologische Untersuchungen über
den Blutkreislauf beim Neugeborenen ” [Anatomical and physiological
investigations on circulation of the blood in the newborn], Archiv
für Oynaekologie [Berlin], voi. 45 (1893-94), pp. 393-445.
After devoting pages to the ductus arteriosus as treated by Galenus, Botalli,
Harvey, and others the author describes his own dissections and operations
on many newborn infants and fetuses, as well as on animals. A long and
careful account is given of the position and condition of organs in the chest
before breathing and of the mechanical closing of the ductus arteriosus.
The author gives 13 conclusions. Bibliography.
----------- “ Zur Lehre vom Blutkreisläufe beim Neugeborenen ” [The knowl­
edge of the circulation of the blood in the newborn infant]. Berliner
Klinische Wochenschrift [Berlin], vol. 31 (1894), pp. 498-500.
The author discusses the closure of the ductus arteriosus (falsely called
ductus Botalli), the great vessel that leads from the pulmonalis to the
aorta in the fetus and is dropped from the circulation after birth. He dis­
sected this duct in the fetus, and also experimented on it with injections
of gypsum, gelatine, etc. He explains how the duct is closed when breathing
commences by the lowering of pressure in the right heart and in the arteria
pulmonalis. In the fetus before the thirtieth week the closure is not suffi­
cient and all the vessels in the thorax are filled with blood. But normally
the closing of the duct is momentary and mechanical, as is proved by the clear
heart tones of the newborn.
■î Térrien, Eugène: “ Situation et déplacements physiologiques de la pointe
du cœur chez les enfants de 5 à 15 a n s” [Situation and physiological
displacements of the apex of the heart in children from 5 to 15 years
of age]. Revue mensuelle des maladies de Venfance [Paris], vol. 21
(1903), pp. 548-552.
A study of normal children (number not given) in three postures; Lying
on the back, on the left side, and on the right side.

162

163

164

165

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V allois, H ., and Ch. Bennejeant: “ Le développement du canal dentaire
inférieur et la vascularisation des dents dé la mâchoire inférieure aux
différents âges ” [The development of the lower dental canal, and the
vascularization of the teeth of the lower jaw at different ages].
Bulletins et mémoires de la Société d’anthropologie de Paris, ser. 6,
vol. 4 (1913), pp. 568-584.
A study to test the theory of Serres that the blood supply of the milk teeth
is furnished by a special artery occupying its own canal. Data are based
on a study of 56 mandibles, of children, from birth to 8 years o f age, and
about 20 fetuses and newborn infants. The author found the theory untenable.
V a silev sk y , S. O. : “ Polozhenie i granitzi serdtza u dietiei ” [Position and
limits of h*art in children], Vrach [St. Petersburg], voi. 6 (1885),
pp. 546, 560.
An account of the method used by thè author for finding the position and
limit? of the heart in 865 living children. and 112 cadavers. The ages repre­
sented 2 weeks to 12 years. The author gives for each age the number of
cases, width of the Heart at the level o f the nipples, and* width from the
apex on the left to the outer border on the level of the diaphragm on the
right.


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V eith , A d o lf: Uber orthodiagraphische Herzuntersuchungen bei Kindern
1m schulpflichtigen Alter ” [Orthodiagraphic investigations of the heart
in children of school age]. Jahrb. f. Kinderh. [Berlin], vol. 68 (1908)
pp. 205-223.
Veith examined orthodiagraphically the hearts of healthy children between
6 and 14 years of age. The tests were made in the Children’s Clinic of
Munich University upon 80 boys from a Catholic orphanage and 25 boys and
25 gins from the public schools. All the children were examined sitting and
some also in a lying position. The heart was taken in diastole with moderate
breathing. The median distance right and left was found to be on an average
1 : 22 : : 2 : 5. There was a certain parallel between body size and the heart
silhouette. Weight and chest girth proved less significant than with adults.
Age in itself and sex showed no effect. Tables contain many measurements
of the heart as well as weight, height, age, and chest girth.
Vernois, M a x im e : Mémoire sur les dimensions du cœur chez l’enfant
nouveau-né [Memoir on the Dimensions of the Heart of the Newborn
Child]. J. B. Ball ère, Paris, 1840. 40 pp.
Measurements are given of the hearts of 336 infants, aged 1 day to 4
months. Measurements taken were as follow s: Height, breadth, thickness of
left ventricle., thickness of l ight ventricle, thickm ss of interventricular par­
tition, circumference of aorta at its union with the heart, circumference of
pulmonary artery at its union with the heart. The exact position of measure­
ments taken is described, and tables are given.
Ziskin, Thom as: “ Development and size of the heart in children as re­
vealed by teleroentgen-ray measurements.” Am. J. Dis. Child. [Chi­
cago], vol. 30 (1925), pp. 851-855.
Prom telerontgenograms of the hearts of more than 40Ô children from
4 to 16 years of age the author computed 1Ô average measurements and ratios
between measurements of the normal heart in childhood. Grouped in tables
by age and by height these form a standard for differentiating normal from
abnormal child hearts. The results of the study are also shown in charts.
The author found that the ratio between the transverse diameter of the
heart and the internal chest diameter diminishes slightly as the child develops,
because of change in the position of the heart ; that the right border of the
heart does not extend relatively further to the right in childhood ; that there
is a constant ratio, approximately 50 per cent, between the median right and
the median left diameters.
2. BLOOD

170

171

172

Adelsberger, Lucie: “ Die Verdauungsleukocytose beim Saugling” [D i­
gestive .eucocytosis in the infant].
Ztsclir. f. Kinderh.
[Berlin],
vol. 29 (1921), pp. 153-189.
Using Metz’s apparatus for counting, the author studied digestive leucocytosis in infancy, giving in this article an account and table of each of 35 tests
and concluding with a long bibliography. »The text discusses the number of
leucocytes after various diets and such factors in digestive leucocytosis as
intestinal flora, ferments, heterologous albumin, and salts. After mother's
milk leucopenia sets in and after artificial feeding, leucocytosis. But bacterial
flora, though different, stand in no relation to this leucocytosis or leucopenia
i erments do not affect the leucocyte reaction. The digestive leucocytosis falls
usually in the second or third hour after a m eal; it is probably due to an
actual increase of white blood c*ells through a plastic stimulation of different
substance on the leucopoLtic system.
A llaria, G. B .: “ Über die Molekülkonzentration des Blutserum bei
nephritischen und nicht nephritischen Kindern ” [Molecular concentra­
tion of blood serum in nephritic and nonnephritic children]. Jahrb f
Kinderh. [Berlin], vol. 63 (1906), pp. 74-101.
• 4 llari a
molecular concentration of the blood serum of 19 children
b u w t « 06
a 41 9nniCKat TurAn ? 10 WPre nephritic and 9 had healthy
kidneys. I-Ie took 50 to 80 cubic centimeters of blood from a vein. Crvoscopic
point was determined by Beckman’s thermometer and specific electrical con­
ductivity by Wheatstone’s bridge. The five tables contain data on -the crvo­
scopic point, and the specific electrical conductivity, on albumin, sodium
chloride, sodium carbonate, total of salts, erythrocytes, globular value mole­
cules, etc. A case history is given of each child. Average values for non­
nephritic children were as follow s: The cryoscopic point, 0.557° ; the specific
electrical conductivity, 110.15; sodium chloride, 5.67 gram s: sodium carbonate
1.5 gram s; and total salts, 7.22 grams.
A m berg, Sam uel: “ The opsonic content of the blood of in fa n ts”
J. A. M. A. [Chicago], vol. 48 (1907), pp. 304-308,
Examinations were made of the blood of 45 infants, according to the method
of Simon and Lamar, which is briefly described. Since few of the'infants (from
a dispensary) were strictly normal, the author does not consider his results
conclusive. They indicate that the opsonic content of the infant’s blood does
^ 2ilow tbe rules, lald down by Moro for the bactericidal power of the blood •
avei'aj>e values exceed those laid down by Simon for normal adults A
distinct advantage seems to exist in favor of the breast-fed infant


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GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OE PARTS OF BODY
173

174

175

176

177

178

179

135

Appleton, V . B. : “ Determination of hemoglobin during infancy by the
Palmer and Van Slyke methods.” Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Baltimore], voi. 34 (1918), pp. 369-372.
The blood of 103 children less than 2 years of age was studied by the Palmer
method. All were normal, and about 90 per cent were breast fed. Blood was
taken from the toe. The hemoglobin values, arranged in a table by age group­
ing, show an early rapid decrease and later more gradual decrease from 1
day to 23 months. Bibliography.
Arneth and Nienkem per: “ Dber das normale qualitative Leukocytenblutbild des Sauglings nach Arneth ” [Qualitative picture of leucocytes
in normal infant blood according to Arneth’s method].
Ztschr. f.
Kinderh. [Berlini, voi. 34 (192 2-23), pp. 263-286.
A study of leucocytes of 10 normal infants during the first 10 days ; 3 were
breast fed, 3 bottle fed, and 4 on a mixed diet of human and cow’s milk. The
blood was taken between 11 and 12 a. m. and analyzed according to Armeth’s
method. One table gives a quantitative picture of total leucocytes, neutrophils,
eosinophils, and mast cells: a second table gives neutrophilic and eosinophilic
leucocytes, and the-last table is the qualitative picture of lymphoid cells. The
cells of infant’s blood are remarkably sensitive to all influences, especially
poisons. The article contains a detailed account of previous investigator’ s
work.
Aschenheim , Erich : “ Der Einfluss der Sonnenstrahlen auf die leukocy­
te! re Blutzusammensetzung ” [The effect of the sun’s rays on the leu­
cocyte content of the blood]. Ztschr. f. Kinderh. [Berlin], voi. 9 (1913),
pp. 87-98.
The author conducted 31 experiments during the summer at the forest station
of an infant home, placing infants well and convalescent, for one hour in the
sun, naked except for a head covering. The temperature varied between 30° C.
and 38° C. Thè tests were begun three hours after meals, and the total num­
ber of leucocytes were counted before and after the tests. The results are pre­
sented in a long table. In 80 per cent of the cases the direct sunlight caused a
general leUcocytosis in the peripheral blood. The lymphocytes increased much
more, relatively, than other kinds of leucocytes ; there was a relative decrease
of neutrophiles. The author believes the lymphocytosis partly accounts for the
favorable influence of heliotherapy upon tuberculosis.
B ahrdt: “ Demonstration zur Untersuchung der Lipiimie beim Saugling ”
[Demonstration on the investigation of lipemia in the infant]. Miinchener Medizinische Wochenschrift, voi. 55 (1908), p. 824.
The author tested lipemia in the infant by leaving a drop of blood to coagu- late in a V-formed Neissen’s tube and then centrifugalizing it. Lipemia begins
one hour after a meal and lasts seven to nine hours. It is reduced in atrophy
or enterocatarrh.
Bakwin, H arry, and Helen R iv k in : “ The estimation of the volume of
blood in normal infants and in infants with severe malnutrition.”
Am. J. Dis. Child. [Chicago], voi.-27 (1924), pp. 340-351.
Using a micromodification of the dye method of Keith, Rowntree, and
Geraghty, by which, blood volume can be determined with 4 cubic centimeters of
blood, the authors made determinations of the blood, plasma, and corpuscular
volume in a group of 30 infants under 8 months of age, normal for the pur­
poses of this study, and in* a second group of infants with severe malnutrition.
Repeated determinations were made in 16 instances. Tables show total volume
and volume per kilogram of body weight, grams hemoglobin per 100 cubic
centimeters and serum protein per cent for both series of infants, and charts
the volume of blood, plasfna, And red cells per kilogram of body weight in rela­
tion to age in normal infants. The authors found that at birth the corpuscular
volume is relatively high, falling rapidly so that the absolute volume of red
cells is less at 8 weeks’ of age than at birth. The average value of blood
volume is 101 cubic centimeters per kilogram of body weight; of plasma volume.
61 cubic centimeters. The blood volume per unit of body surface in infants is
much smaller than in adults. References.
Sang, Iv a r : “ Über Lipämie I ” [On lipemia]. Biochemische Zeitschrift
[Berlin], vol. 90 (1918), pp. 383-387.
At 10 a m., before breakfast, the author tested the lipemia of 19 males, pf
whom one was 7 weeks old, one 9y2 months, another 14 years, and six others
students between 18 and 21. The average values were 0.02 per cent for fat,
0 09 per cent for cholesterin, 0.30 per cent for alcohol fraction; the values
t'or ester lay between 0.12 per cent and 0.20 per cent, those for phosphatids
between 0.13 per cent and 0.27 per cent. The author concluded that age plays
no röle in the lipoid content of blood. This article also gives results of tests
on dogs.
Bardach, M artha: “ Über die Suspensionsstabilität der Blutkörperchen
im Kindesalter” [Suspension stability of blood corpuscles in child­
hood], Arch. f. Kinderh. [Stuttgart], vol. 69-70 (1921-22), pp.
114-122.
\uthor tested suspension stability of corpuscles of blood by Plant’s method
in* 113 boys and girls, normal and sick, between the first and fifteenth years.
Data are shown in tables. In healthy children the lower limit was 10 milli­
meters and the average was between 11 and 22. These values are higher than


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136

PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OP THE CHILD
effppi3UntntipoihioC/)Ii1Si a? Cy was det<;rmined
hem o U b ln “ Æ e S ! f e S & g y g g B «

inspeed of sinking,

ls the

180

f Ä

Ä

r

e

M

Ä

f Ä

S

*

Blood-sugar determinations in 26 normal children

>

ln chlldh00d”
a<rd 2 t« 1 4

^

Methods*1arffull^descH bed07V e ^ ^ n c l s f ^ Cent ? age and SGX had no influenca
Bauer, J., and Käthe N eum ark: “ Über den Gehalt des Säuglingsblutes
an hamolrtischen Normalambozeptoren » [Hemolytic normal ambocepr>rfSim
ino ? nt bl00d^‘ Arch- f- Kinderh. [Stuttgart], vol. 53 (1910),
P P * -LvfJL

181

man?.er of treating the serum and of noting the hemolysis and data
as to age, diet, diagnosis, and hemolysis of about 86 children are liven
Th«
neîh<iriS aiTlve
the conclusion that artificially fed children usually ûossess
normal amboceptors sooner than hreast-fed children. The m -obahnftvihlf
fection influences the formation of these antibodies is pointed out.
y
Benjam in, Erich: Die Beziehungen der Milz zu den Lymphocyten des

182

Blood
m oodJ.

s
183

norwas any
»

Leipzig, 11905.

s

ä

° f Spleen t0 Lymphocytes in Children’s
36 pp.

“ size °f ,he sp,e“ and

iBerr f S n ,n ^ 1:A " ? ber Fibrinausscheidung beim gesunden und kranken
Kinde, nebst Analysen normalen und pathologischen B lu tes’’ [Fibrin
“
t1
h ? 1he? nthy, and the sick child- with analyses of normal
95?, p p ^ Î S ï m bl° 0 d ]' ArCh' f ' Km äerh- [Stuttgart], vol. 18 (1894È T * 1 and-40 sick

184

if ,? Zr^
Kenntnis der Zusammensetzung des Blutes im Kindesalter
[Knowledge of composition of blood in childhood]. W iener
Medizinische Blatter, vol. 17 (1894), pp. 656-657.
di scovered^hat "
Ä
chi kf Th ° f •bl°t°,d'
Ihild^ the1w lisht o / ythrPeSidHe b° th 4 bl00d and « f serum is very high i t thl

185

subjects and1the"1technfque V T t u e h e s t e T u h yG|i “ I f60 T a b lef^ h ti0DS ° f , th?
red corpuscles in 16 cases and Z
L L n L i / J en,' Tatdes 8h ov count of
cubic millimeter of blood in 25 cases5- countSl f XhT?1 ?16 of eorPuscles in %
leucocytal formula in 29 cases • tim l ’nf
whlt<- corpuscles m 15 cases;

186: pp1 ]? 2 7 S '

Rw ista d% c t a c a

pediatrica [Florence], vol. 6

1 year aoh?°f or * theedpurp0.se0<of fi^inl^-Aie ^ 29 inf,ant/

sr
tS
ä “
that during fetal life andTn thp

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(1908),

f,rom ^veral hours to

än«U1T
ä ,f t”s ra :1
? b0er+ ° i wri.ters> and conclude

137

GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT ÛE PARTS OF BODY

theSM wbom *and^ is ° later
187

188

B in e ^ H J., and O. W in delpv: “ Unders0gelser over Blodsukkeret hos
Bern’’ [Investigation of blood sugar in children]. Bibliotek for Laege
[Copenhagen], voi. 105 (1912-13), pp. 181-194.
1rifaT,tQ

f K ^ c o n d u d e d th lt dth f’ bfood-sugar concentration of well infants is the
same as that of well adults.
_
j.. 4
Borland, H u g h H .: “ Coagulation of infantile blood.
Glasgow Medical
Journal, ser. 4, voi. 60 (1903), pp. 165—170.
/
,
,

è

*

«

^ T S o S a u l* b f o i î Æ

hemogfobinomTter

y É

S Î S S

with age, beginning with the first day of life.
on "Ronchut and J D ubrisay: “ De la numération des globules du sang a
189 Bouchut « a J- £ ua 1>éJ t pathologlquc chez leg a d u lto et c h « IM
enfants” [The count of blood corpuscles in normal and pathological
conditions of adults and children]. Gazette médicale de Paris, ser. 4,
voi. 7 (1878), pp. 168-9, 178-9.

1

190

¿ S
M
S
S
a o to O O ^ T b e 1
S
ï 0| % ,9 1 1 .
The highest white count was 12,181; the lowest, 761, average, b,70 .
Breinl, A ., and H . P riestley: “ Observations on the blood conditions of
children of European descent residing in tropical Australia. , Armais
of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology [Liverpool], voi. 8 ( 1914-10],
PPC a S fu f blood examinations were made in Townsville on 574 school ¿hüd^en
of European descent, between 7 and 15 years of age, of whom the majonty

Mess-a? situi ssa a s « s psao<,aQ?SpS“â a

«*

n Temnerate climate; (2) that the average hemoglobin content ot the Diooa
is Normal; (3) that the number of leucocytes is slightly
’ i 4^¿ J § § f
the average blood pressure does not show any difference from that of noi mal
children in temperate climates. References.
191 Brow n, M uriel J .: “ The sugar content of the blood in normal and
under-nourished children, and the effect of fat on the absorption of
carbohydrate.”
Quarterly Journal o f Medicine [O xford], voi. 18
(1925), pp. 175-189.
.
,
Maclean’s method (Maclean and deWesselow, Quarterly Journal of Medicine,
1Q20—1 voi. 14. p. 103) was used in blood-sugar estimations. A study ot 35
normal* children whose ages ranged from a few hours to 1 year, showed that
Z sugarh con tek of The blood of normal infants up to * weeks of age varies
between 0 072 per cent and 0.097 per cent, and from 6 weeks up to» 1 yea
from 0.086 per cent to 0.116 per cent. Findings are presented in tables and
charts. References.
_
. . ,
. . .
192 Caronia, G., and L . Auricchio: “ Sulla genesi delle reazione leucocitarie
durante la digestione nei la tta n ti” [On the development o f leucocytic
reactions during digestion in infants]. La Pediatria [Naples], voi. 28
(1920), pp. 1129-1134.
. ...
(
Study of leucocytic reactions during digestion in three infants.^ The author
found that in the normal infant there are present leucolytic substances during
the first hour after ingestion of food and at the same time there is a maximum
decreale in leucocytes ; later the leucocytic substances disappear and leucocytosTs becomes manifest: In a dyspepsie infant leucolytic substances are absent
or appear only in minimum traces at the various stages of digestion and at the
lame Ptime thé white corpuscles show no decrease or a very slight decrease and
leucocytosis is absent or appears only in slight traces; Several charts are
given.
,. ' .
_, , .
iQo carnenter, H . C., and J. C. G ittin gs: “ The coagulation time of blood in
infants and children.” Am. J. Dis. Child. [Chicago], voi. 5 (1913),
PP* critical review of previous work with emphasis on the report of My dr
SoRs-Cohen
No S a c t observations are reported. The general conclusion is
that coagulation time in adults and in infants shows too wide a variation to be
of diagnostic value.


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PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHILD

194

Carstanjen, M a x : “ W ie verhalten sich die procentischen Verhältnisse
der verschiedenen Formen der weissen Blutkörperchen beim Menschen
unter normalen Umständen ” [The percentage relations of the various
forms of white blood corpuscles in mankind under normal conditions].
Jahrb. f. Kinderli. (B erlin), vol. 52 (1900), pp. 215-241, 333-359.
684-720.
The author studies the percentage in the blood of polynuclear leucocytes
lymphocytes, transitional forms, large mononuclear leucocytes, and eosinophilic
cells. His subjects he chose from the healthiest of the poor people that visited
his hospital. He divides them into the following groups : 5 newborn, whom he
examined daily during the first 12 days ; 5 infants from 1 to 6 months old and
o from 6 to 12 months ; 5 in each year from the second to the fifteenth ; and
5 from la to 20 years. Preceding investigations are discussed for purposes of
comparison. The results of the present study are as follows : Hemoglobin
content is higher in the newborn than later. Polynuclear leucocytes show a
high percentage (73.45) during the first 24 hours. They then sink to 36.12 by
the ninth day, and so remain a half year. From the fifth year to old age they
amount to 51.86 to 69.22 per cent. Lymphocytes have a low value (16.05 per
cent) in the first 24 hours and a value of 45.6 per cent by the twelfth dav
They vary between 19.33 and 33.25 per cent from fifth year to. old age. The
transitional forms show 18.66 per cent in the first week and fluctuate "between
6.75 and 9.47 per cent from the age of 6 months to the end of life. Large
mononuclear leucocytes seldom exceed 1 per cent at any period. Eosinophilic
cells are not affected by age.
195 Cherry, Thos. H ., and Ed. G. Langrock: “ The relation of hemolysis in
the transfusion of babies with the mothers as donors.” J A M. A
[Chicago], vol. 66 (1916), pp. 626-627.
In 34 tests of agglutination with mothers’ and their newborn infants’ blood
no agglutination was noted by the ocular method in any case. Hence these
aerologists conclude that all mothers can be used as donors for their infants if
there is no contraindication in the .mother’s condition.
196 Courtney, Angelia M ., and Helen L. Fales: “ Variations in infants of
total blood solids and the concentration of sodium chlorid in the
plasma.” Am. J. Dis. Child. [Chicago], vol. 14 (1917), pp. 202-209.
The authors made 79 determinations of blood solids and 81 of blood chlorid
on 67 children, most of them under 2 years of age. Thirteen were wellnourished, normal children from 2 months to 6 years of age. A table of data
on the normal children shows age, percentage of water in blood, total solids
(percentage by weight) and chlorid in 1 cubic centimeter of plasma, computed
as grams of sodium chlorid. The concentration of chlorid in the plasma was
about the same as that of normal adults ; the average for total solids in the
blood was about 5 per cent lower than for adults. Bibliography.
197 Drucker, P au l: “ Investigations on the normal values for the hemoglobin
and cell volume in the small child.” Acta Pœdiatrica [Upsala], vol 3
(1923-24), pp. 1-39.
The author describes in great detail his study of the blood of 146 healthy
children between 2 weeks and 6 years of age, including for comparison studies
o f the blood of 124 children suffering from various maladies. Tables show the
differences in hemoglobin value between heel and ear blood ; between blood
obtained by incision with a sharp cataract knife and with a blunter instrument *
between blood obtained by a superficial and by a deep incision. Findings are
compared with those of other investigators, with references. The great diver­
gencies in reported results are attributed to technical and physiological errors
and to differences in racial characteristics. The author’s examination of 85
healthy children from 2 weeks to 2 years of age showed a rapid initial fall in
the hemoglobin curve, which reached a low level about the second or third
month, remained level for the first year and rose again during the second year.
The cell volume; except in the first few months, was found to be about the
s%me as that of healthy adult women.
198 Duperie, P. L. André: Globules du sang; variations physiologiques dans
l’état anatomique du sang [Blood Corpuscles ; Physiological Variations
in the Anatomical Condition of the Blood]. Paris, no. 125, 1878. 91 pp.
Thesis (University of Paris). In ehapteis two and three (pp. 49—74) modifi­
cations of the blood according to age and sex are reported and also many
observations of the blood of the newborn and of children at different ages.
199 Durante, D. : “ Leucocitosi digestiva nei bambini in condizioni normali e
morbose del tubo intestinale ” [Digestive leucocytosis in children under
normal and pathological conditions of the intestinal tract]. Pediatria
[Naples], vol. 9 (1901), pp. 213-231.
After quoting from a number of writers on the pathological and physiological
conditions affecting leucocytosis, the author gives an account of his own study
of digestive leucocytosis of children under normal and pathological conditions
He gives in several tables the circumstances of each of the 38 cases and con­
cludes that there is in children an increase of the white blood corpuscles during
digestion, this increase being smaller when the child is on a milk diet than
when the diet is mixed, and more abundant when child is on high protein
diet. Diseases of the intestinal tract do not have a noticeable effect on
leucocytosis ; but when the general condition of the child is below par diges­
tive leucocytosis is less active than when he is in robust health.


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GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF PARTS OF BODY

200

139

Duzär, J., and S. R u szn y äk : “ Examination of plasma proteins in in­
fants.” Am. J. Dis. Child. [Chicago], vol. 28 (1924), pp. 441-446.
The authors describe their method of determination, and the results obtained
by examination of healthy and sick infants. The number of subjects is not
given. In normal infants they found that conditions characteristic o f the
newborn remain unchanged until the middle of the second month. The blood of
the newborn is low in fibrinogen, rich in globulin and total albumin: erythro­
cytes drop very slowly in the Linzenmeier tube. The Frisch-Starlinger and
Gcrloczy reactions are negative, while the Daranyi is positive. The nature
and extent of the changes normally completed during the second month are
shown graphically by chart. References.

201

Elder, „George, and Robert H u tch ison : “ Some observations on the
maternal and foetal blood at birth.” Edinburgh Medical Journal, vol
41 (1895), pp. 105-113.
The author compares his observations with those of other workers. The fetal
blood was taken from the umbilical cord at the time of birth. The maternal
biood was collected from the ear in the first and second stages of labor The
^no oo1o 0d 1,c0rpusclt s- wei?. €stimated on six infants and found 350.000 to
500,000 cells per cubic millimeter higher than the maternal count. Hemoglobin
was recorded by Gower s method in nine infants; the average was 105 6 • this
was definitely above that of the hemoglobin of the seven mothers examined.
T„he.™lute count was made in 12 infants. The average was 17.884 (per cen(
ot differential count also given), which was above the leucocytosis of pregnancy.
202 van Em den, J. E. G .: “ Klinische Untersuchungen über die Blut­
plättchen” [Clinical investigations on the blood platelets]. Fort­
schritte der Medicin [Berlin], vol. 16 (1898), pp. 241-251.
In his general investigations on the number of blood platelets in the adult
and m animals the author gives a table on the erythrocytes, platelets and
leucocytes m the blood of five newborn children. At first fewer platelets cir­
culate in the infant’s blood than in the adult’s, but the number soon rises.
203 Fehrsen, A . O. M .: “ The haemoglobin and corpuscular content of the
blood of the newborn.”
Journal of Physiology [London] vol 30
(1904), pp. 322-329.
’
'
The resets are given of observations of the blood of 40 infants, examined
on the first and the tenth day of life. Methods are described
Hiebest
erytbrocjrte count- 1,250,000; lowest, 4,300,000.
Highest leucocyte count
32,500; lowest 7,600. In counts of ov<^r 18,000 the author found a ?arge
increase of finely granular eosinophil cells; as the count decreased there w as
an increase in the percentage of lymphocytes and mononuclear elements
Hemoglobin was 110 per cent to 115 per cent. Nucleated red blood corpuscles
were invariably present up to the third hour after birth. A high coloT ndex
was found m all cases. Bibliography.
s
e
204 Filia, A .: “ Sul contenuto in colesterina del sangue di bam bini” [The
Cholesterin content of the blood of children],
Rivista di clinica
pedtatrica [Florence], vol. 12 (1914), pp. 339-345.
The author studied the Cholesterin content of human milk from 11 indi­
viduals ; also the cholesterm content of the blood of 13 breast-fed infants from
iudaymi^° 10 months °M> and of 1 2 bottle-fed infants from 2 to 10 months
The author gives his findings in two tables and two charts, and savs
Ikat cow s milk does not seem to be richer in Cholesterin than human milk
?nd that in the majority of cases studied the blood of the breast-fed children
is richer in cholesterm than that of the bottle-fed children. The author believes
more work is necessary before definite‘ conclusions can lie drawn.
205 F in dlay, L. R . Fua, and C. T. No-eggerath: “ Ist der hämolytische
Komplementgehalt des Blutserums ein Mass der Säuglingskonstitution?” [Is the hemolytic complement content of blood serum a stand­
ard of an infant’s constitution?]. Jahrb. f. Kinderh. [Berlinl vol
70 (1909), pp. 732-761.
J’
.. With comparatively large amounts of blood from the veins of 98 infants
• the authors tested the serum with the usual titration in hemolytic series to
dn tlnIlgulsh tlie seru“ mch in complement from that poor in complement In
all 98 cases he employed ram’s blood, and in 33 cases also, the ervthrocvtes
of guinea pigs. There was usually good agreement; usually, but not always
the hemolytic influence of rams blood is stronger. The children are designated
as heteroentrophic, heterodystrophic, and as subject to alimentary intoxication. Case histones and curves are given in 11 cases. A constant relation
between complement content and health ft not to be accepted. When it does
occur it is to be considered merely the expression of development or greater
age of child. The author thinks it premature to base nutritive-physiological
questions on the changing amount of complement in the blood.
206 Fischl, R u dolf: “ Zur Histologie des kindlichen B lu tes” [Histology of
infant’s blood]. Zeitschrift für Heilkunde [Berlin], vol 13 (1892)
pp. 277-299.
‘
’
i Among children only infants' show a difference in the histology of the blood
from adults. The author examined 50 newborn infants, of whom 7 were
perfectly healthy and over 3,250 grams in weight. Of these, five showed no
12229°— 27------10


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PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OP TH E CHILD

ervthroblasts. Of six premature infants, whose birth weight varied between
2.220 and 2,520 grams and length between 44 and 47 centimeters the erythroblasts were missing in three cases. But from other observations the author
concludes that in infants below 2,000 grams and 40 centimeters many erythroblasts are to be found which belong almost entirely to the normoblast type and
show no mitosis.
207 Elusser, E m il: “ Untersuchungen über die Gerinnbarkeit des Blutes in
den ersten Lebenswochen ” [Investigations concerning the coagulation
of the blood in the first weeks of life]. Monatschr. f. Kinderh.
[Leipzig and Vienna], vol. 12 (1913-14), pp. 705-13.
Flusser determined the blood-coagulation time in infants by Wright’s method,
with the Bürker and Schulz modifications, uniformly in a temperature of 19
to 20° C., between 5 and 6 p. m. In 50 experiments on healthy children in
their second week he found the average time to be 8 minutes and 15 seconds,
in the same number of experiments on infants slightly ill, 8 minutes and 10
seconds; and in 92 cases of icterus neonatorum 11 minutes and 40 seconds.
208 Prank, Arm ando, and Lotte M ehlhorn: “ Über den Ablauf der Blutzu­
ckerkurve unter dem Einfluss reiner Nahrungstoffe ” [Course of blood
sugar curve under influence o f pure foods]. Jahrb. f. Kinderh.
[Berlin] ser. 3, vol. 91-92 (1920), pp. 41-42, 313-346.
Using Bang’s method the authors tested every one-half hour the curve of
sugar in the blood of over 20 children in the first and second years of life
after administration of cane sugar, dextrose, leyulose, starch, casern,
adrenalin. The article contains 37 curves and a list of seven conclusions
The fasting value of blood sugar is 0.086 per cent. All the sugar tests
caused glycosuria. The hyperglycemia after different doses is described.
209 Erank, M a x : “ Beitrag zur Biologie der weissen Blutzellen in der Neuge­
burtszeit und im Säuglingsalter ” [Contribution to the biology of white
blood cells of the newborn and of infants]. Ztscliv. f. Kindevh. [Berlin ], vol. 31-32 (192 1-22), pp. 16-34.
The author discusses at length the change in the white corpuscles during
the first two weeks o f life to the condition prevailing ^ o u g h o u t infancy.
What was made up of myeloid elements consists later chiefly of lymphatic
cells The “ hange usually begins on the third, or fourth day sometimes aiter
36 hours. In premature infants it may begin on sixteenth to twenty-first
day. During this change the large mononuclear forms and so-called transition
cells are especially interesting. On the first day the number of mononuclear
leucocytes is highest, and on the second it has considerably decreased. Many
phases are discussed in detail.
The article contains four tables and a
bibliography.
210 Eriedjung, Josef K .: “ Beiträge zur Physiologie und Pathologie des
Blutes im Kindesalter ” [Contributions to physiology and pathology
of blood in childhood].
D ie Medicinische W oche [Berlin], vol. 1
(1900), pp. 4^-6, 10-14.
The author studied physiology of blood in 4 infants, 1 bottle fed and J
breast fed, and in 10 other children up to 13 years. He used Jolles method
for determining iron in blood. Data given in a table are weight of child, number of red corpuscles in blood, hemoglobin content, and specific gravity, ln e
author concludes that two periods of childhood— weaning and puberty: aie
' characterized by rich iron content of blood.
211 Eunkenstein, O .: “ Über Temperatursteigerungen und Leukocytose bei
Kindern nach Körperbewegungen ” [Rise of temperature and leucocy­
tosis in children after physical exercise]. . Monatschr. f. Kinderh.
[Leipzig and Vienna], vol. 6 (1 9 0 7 -8 ), pp, 100-108.
The effect of physical exercise in increasing temperature and leucocytosis
Is discussed by Funkenstein in connection with his own experiments and those
o f other students. His own results are shown in. tables giving age, weight,
pulse, and temperature before and after 30 mnutes of Swedish exercises or
apparatus gymnastics or after 10 minutes of the former and 5 minutes of
running. One table gives month, hour, temperature, number of leucocytes,
polynuclear neutrophile leucocytes, large lymphocytes, small lymphocytes, mo­
nonucleates, mast cells, .and polynuclear eosinophile leucocytes. His subjects
were 13 healthy boys and girls from 4 to 12 years old. The temperature was
taken in the rectum. After physical exercise the author ascertained a small
but never-failing increase of temperature and also increase of leucocytes in
the peripheral circulation. These two phenomena are not parallel, for the
strongest leucocytosis accompanied a temperature increase of only 0.7 per cent
and with the strongest temperature increase there was almost no increase of
leucocytes.
212 Gallo, Carmine: “ Ricercbe sul contenuto in ferro nel sangue dei neonati ”
[Studies of the iron content of the blood of newborn infants]. Pediatria [Naples], vol. 32 (1924), pp. 606-610.
An account of a study made by the author of the iron content of the hlood
and the relation between the hemoglobin and the iron content. He studied 25
Infants from 2 to 10 days old born of healthy mothers and without any
hereditary defect. All the children, except two, were born at term, and were


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well developed. The author gives m a table for each infant, the age sex.
weight, quantity of hemoglobin, and proportion of iron in the blood. He concludes that the iron in the blood of an infant born at term varies from 0 34
to O.o5 grams per thousand grams, which is a lower proportion than in the
Premature infants the iron content is not greater than the average
.bor,p J1*'
There is no relation between the weight, sex and
iron content of the blood; also no relation between the proportion of hemo­
globin and the iron content of the blood. References.
y
0
G allo, C arm ine: “ Sulla reazione leucocitaria nei neonati durante il
pianto ” [The effect of crying on the number of leucocytes in newborn
infants]. La Pediatria [Rome], vol. 32 (1924), pp. 1265-1270.
The author studied 20 newborn infants from 1 to 9 days old, all but two
° w-m S a ^ re bo-m at term- The first leucocyte count was made after the
child had been given an hour of complete rest, and the second, 10 minutes
after intense crying caused artificially. He gives in a table for each case age
amount of hemoglobin, number o f red ana white blood corpuscles and tne
^ucocyuc formula before and after crying. He concludes that in newborn
infdntk tin inci6itse in leucocytes takes piace alter cry mg ; it is prouortional
' by a slS rieu cop e°n il
ChUd ; W laSts f0r not over
followed
Garling, K a rl: “ tiber das leukocytare Blutbild walirend der Menstrua[Leucocytic blood picture during menstruation].
Deutsches
A rchw fur Klinische Medicin [Leipzig], vol. 134-135 (1 92 0-21), pp.
353-357.
_
9
,esti™pted leucocytes of 37 healthy subjects, young and unmarsicb: subjects during menstruation. The total number of ieucocvtes
d*d n?i£ fhcrease.-' Eosinophils increased in 15 of the healthy cases and debut only slightly. Lymphocytes increased in 17 cases and
decreased in 11. Mononuclear leucocytes increased in 11 cases and decreased
menstruationUth0r CaD UOt deteet a constant relation between eosinophilia and

215

G otzky: “ Der physiologische Blutzuckergehalt beim Kinde nacb der
Mikromethode von Bang ” [The physiological amount of sugar in the
Childs blood, according to Bang’s micromethod]. Ztschr. f. Kinderh
Ongmalien [Berlin], vol. 9 [1913), pp. 44-63.
tr tf„pf,Mldrtn’S blood i£or sugar with the micromethod, which he
discusses, as well as his apparatus. He extracted 150 to 250 milligrams of
blood from more than 100 healthy infants from a few days to 13 vlare old
to16, ! f i g u r e s _fill 14 pages.
A table sums up the results for the first
days of life, first 12 months, and first 12 years. For these periods average
values of sugar in the blood are 0.085, 0.095, and 0.102 that is the s ig lr
content increases with age.
.¿iSA
s’ tue bUgar

216

217

• ■^>er Einfluss subkutaner Adrenalininjektionen auf das
Blutbild gesunder und kranker Kinder ” [The effect of subcutaneous
adrenalin injections on the blood of healthy and sick children]. Jahrb
f. Kinderh. [Berlin], vol. 89 (1919), pp. 442-460.
a study ° f tbe effect of adrenalin on the blood the
r«fS1Xi>Sie bls flndll?gs regarding the relative proportions of the various
S « f wh.lte corpuscles before injecting adrenalin. His subjects were four
infants, aged 9 months, 8 months (two infants), and 6 weeks
Grünewald, Elisabeth, and Erich Rom inger: “ Weitere Untersuchungen
über den Wassergehalt des B lu tes” [Further investigations into the
content of the blood]. Ztschr. f. Kinderh. [Berlin], vol 33
( 1 9 2 2 ) , pp. 6 5 -8 4 .

authors- studied the water content of blood in 109 children during 10
months in the university clinic of Freiburg, testing it at 6 30 morning and
evening, with Pulfnch’s refractometer.
Data on refraction ’ numbers and
^^bamin con tent Tare given in three long tables, and fluctuations are «presented
i ? . s?x graphs. In every individual there is a daily variation' of values with a
curveenfm?
d
the evenin®’ caused probably by muscular work. The
fiography
f ts 1S £ar more irregular than that for older children. Bib218

Gundobin, N .: Über die Morphologie und Pathologie des Blutes bei
Kindern” [Morphology and pathology of blood in children]. Jahrb.
f. Kinderh. [Leipzig], vol. 35 (1893), pp. 187-218.
inf«S+o,aawSir ixoi£ej ma? J details from his investigation of morphology of
Vear 4 Tnbl+hP i ™ d 011 12 observations of newborn and 28 of infants up to a
cormiscl?«!
there are very many white corpuscles, and the red
cornntcip« 1« 1 9 Oftn ii3, ln number- M older infants the number of white
inroon e\ ls 12’ . 0 on an average, with individual variations from 14,000 to
50ino°ön^hQ
T ^ f ln adulis tbey are 7,000 to 10,000. Red corpuscles average
^non’+ £ ^ <ntoa oQm +th!iftadult‘ Lymphocytes number 50 per cent to 66 per
nhrifi’f ih
un 6tv
ceDt- Children’s blood becomes Hike adults’
ape at the beginning of the third year. The number of white corpuscles is very
constant. Ihere are four tables, several case histories, and a bibliography.


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G yörgy, P : “ Über den Gehalt des Blutserums an Kalk und anorganischen
Phosphor im Säuglingsalter” [Content of blood serum in calcium and
inorganic phosphorus in infancy]. Jahrb. f. Kinderh. [Berlin], voL
99 (1922), pp. 1-12.
The’ article contains five short tables. One table of findings, obtained by the
simple method cited by Kramer and Tisdall, of calcium in the blood serum of
12 normal and sick children between the ages of 1% and 12 months shows the
average to be 10.1 milligrams per cent [sic]. Another table on inorganic phos­
phorus in blood serum of 13 children between ages of 2% and 12 months shows
the average to be 5 2 milligrams per cent [sic]. Table five shows the relation
of calcium to phosphorus to be 1.95 under normal conditions. Bibliography.
220 H aden, Russel L ., and Prank C. N eff: “ The volume index and color
index of the red blood corpuscles in new-born infants.” Am. J. Dis.
Child. [Chicago], vol. 28 (1924), pp. 458-463.
Data for this study were secured by examination of blood from the longi­
tudinal sinus of 11 normal infants under 24 days of age. In b cases simul­
taneous counts were done, for comparison, on blood obtained by pricking the
heel The average red-cell count was found to be 3.96 millions per ctfbic milli­
meter! and the cell mass 112 per cent of the adult normal. Average hemo­
globin was 17.37 grams per 100 cubic centimeters. Volume index ranged from
1.10 to 1.64; color index from 1.14 to 1.63. The actual percentage of hemoirlobin per unit volume of cell was found to be tbe same as in the adult. A
higher count was found in peripheral than in sinus blood. References.
221 H agn er, Otto : “ Schwankungen in Eiweissgehalt und in der Leitfähig­
keit beim Säuglingsblute ” [Variations in protein content and con­
ductivity of infant’s blood]. Ztschr. f. Kinderh. Originalien [Berlin],
vol. 8 (1913), pp. 50-75.
On his tests upon 18 children at the University of Freiburg, the author gives
a table showing age (1 to 10 months), refractometric protein value in per cent,
difference in per cent, conductivity in terms of 10-4 difference, refractometric
scale, and resistance in centimeters and at 18° C. He gives also case his­
tories of these infants. Even the healthy infant is subject to daily variations
in blood concentration according to its meal times, and any illness affecting
the alimentary canal results in decided variations of osmotic pressuie.
222 H alban, Josef: “Agglutinationsversuche m t mütterlichem und kindlichem
B lu te ” [Studies in agglutinization with the blood of mother and child].
W iener Klinische Wochenschrift, vol. 13, no. 24 (1900), pp. 545-548.
To obtain the mother blood and the fetal blood, the author in 14 cases took
blood from the uterus and the umbilical cord near placenta, immediately alter
delivery. He found that the two samples of blood agglutimzed in very dif­
ferent fashions, as if they came from quite different organisms. He gives a
table of the action of the mother and child serum. The mother and fetal
blood are therefore different in their percentage of agglutinins and lysms.
Often the blood of a mother contains agglutinins of which her child has no
trace Therefore the fetus selects only certain albuminous substances from the
mother body. Sometimes agglutinins are found in fetal and not in parental
blood. The author discusses work on agglutinization done by other investi­
gators.
223 H allez, G. L .: “ Le sang et les organes hématopoiétiques dans le premier
â g e ” [Blood and hematopoietic organs in early childhood]. Nour­
risson [Paris], vol. 7 (1919), pp. 102-113.
The author describes the red corpuscles in the embryonic, premedulary, and
medulary periods, the white corpuscles, the blood serum, and the hematopoietic
organs— the marrow, spleen, lymphatic system, liver, and thymus— of the
young child.
224 H app, W . M .: “Appearance of isoagglutinins in infants and children.”
Journal of Experimental Medicine [New York], vol. 31 (1920), pp.
313-333.
The isoagglutination reaction of 131 infants and children from birth to 10%
years was examined by testing their serum and washed corpuscles microscopi­
cally against the serum and corpuscles of each of the four adult groups (num­
bers as used by Moss). It was found that the grouping as present m adults
is rarely present in blood from the umbilical cord ; that isoagglutination, rarely
present at birth, is always present after two years ; that the grouping is
established in the corpuscles before it is in the serum; that the early grouping
in the corpuscles is liable to change by the acquisition of new receptors (; that
grouping, once established, does not change; that isoagglutinins are present
in mother's milk.grouped as in her blood, but these agglutinins are probably not
transmitted to the nursing infant; tb,at_it_is not safe to transfuse an infant
from its mother without making the preliminary tests.
225 H aselhorst, G., and A . Papendieck: “ Hämatin als physiologischer
Bestandteil des Blutes in der Fötalperiode und bei Neugeborenen ”
[Hematin as a physiological component of the blood in the fetal period
and in newborn infants].
Klinische Wochenschrift [Berlin and
Munich], vol. 3 (1924), pp. 979-980.
Hematin has until recently been considered a by-product of, certain patho­
logical conditions; recently it has been found to be a physiological constituent
Of the blood of the umbilical cord. The authors of this article studied blood


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?£ the umbilical cord of 118 infants for its hematin content. They found
immatin present ln 84 per cent of the cases. The hematin index varied from
M ° 4- Hematmemia is not limited to the confinement period, but also takes
place during the second half of the fetal period, and in the first several davl
of extrau terme life the authors found it in seven out of eight infants under
l week of age. The authors also tested the blood for bilirubin and found an
abnormal quantity of it in the serum of the umbilical cord. The amount of
bilirubin is known to be abnormally high during the entire period of Dreg’ -+1* 1bec.om^s *ftffi higher in the first week of extrauterine life after
o f h e m a t i n Z l f of'bi'lTrubin. ” * * * * n0
relati° D between the content
226

H ayem , G .: Des caractères anatomiques du sang chez le nouveau-né
premiers jours de la vie ” [The anatomical characteristics
° f î r e ^l00d ,of the newborn during the first days of life]. Comptes
rendus des seances de l’Académie des sciences rParisl vol 84 ( 18 7 7 1
pp. 1116-1169.
’
.
^
^’
tiofisSUmmary of hndings, descriptivé only, without record of original observa.

227

228

229

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232

Du sang et de ses altérations anatomiques [Blood and Its AnaPP 1 A l f û T 'Q f î n n o l
in «« « «
T »«
~ -i nnrv
î a o Itomical
Alterations]. nG. AMasson,
Paris,
1889. -1035
pp.
.
.
t^ 1&5 *leal with the blood of the fetus, the newborn infant and
the child. In the newborn infant the red corpuscles at first increase and’ then
g r e a s e m number. -T h e -number seems to depend on the cutting of the
n?lulllCal c.o rd>. h?ing 5,087,000 to the cubic millimeter in six children whose
cord was immediately cut and 5,576.000 in eight infants whose cords were
cut after cessation of arterial beats. The pigment of the corpuscles (h e. the
iPrf0?i?rtl-0 f °£ hemoglobin determined by the chromometric process) is stronger
ihe infant than m the adult; the hemoblasts are fewer in number
The
co+ii5!l!c?ia8 are 18.000 per cubic millimeter during the first 48 hours
^beieas they are about ¿.000 in the adult. They decrease thereafter, and the
hemoblasts increase. After weaning, infant blood approaches that of adults.
H eller, F ritz: “ Der Blutzuckergehalt bei neugeborenen und frühge­
borenen K indern” [Content of sugar in blood of newborn and pre­
maturely born children]. Ztschr. f. Kinderh. Originalien [Berlin!
vol. 13 (191 5-16), pp. 129-134.
L
J’
pf epe/im ents on 12 full-term and 8 premature infants
Tables of
t?sts ^ lth each child show weight, amount of food, time interval
and. Percentage of blood sugar.
In general, neither age
a™?Pat,
nor interval since last meal was found to exert much effect
on the blood sugar content. No lactose was found in the hlood of the newborn
H elw ig : ‘‘ Neuere Untersuchungen über die Wirkung des Unterrichts auf
den kindlichen K örp er” [Recent investigations on the effect of school
work upon a child’s physique],
Internationales Archiv für Schul­
hygiene [Munich], vol. 7 (1911), pp. 218-243.
. The author discusses blood tests made by him on boys in a private school
living under the most favorable conditions. The degree of degeneration or rp’
theementali°tv *5? thefriiTm
thejength and difflculty of the school work,
°> th'e"*h,lld’ *5* air condition^, and exercise. His results show
that the effect of mental work is pathological, that of exercise if not excessive
himselt
g
6 SiVeS tableS ° f hlS in s tig a tio n s on ’six boys and on
“ Coagulability of. the blood of infants.” Cincinnati
hancet and Observer, new ser. vol. 2 (1859), pp. 473-474.
test the coagulability 'of the blood of newborn infants the author pro­
found
th6 hldöd of the placenta and the umbilical cord PHe
found that in each case coagulation took place within 15 or 20 minutes
6
K in d etn »Um i “ d . Her™ a“
Schlesinger: “ Blutuntersuchungen hei
it • • ?
investigations among' children].
CentralUatt für
Klinische Medtctn [Leipzig], vol. 12 (1891), pp. 873-876.
The authors, using Hammerscblag’s method, made 400 tests of the snoeifie
gravity of the blood of 150 healthy children
Value* for fa« « ,.£ / + specific
were 1.048 to 1.052 and for the second to sixth year 1 ö lg t f ¥ ( « 6 4 The J S
deviation in 24 hours amounted to 0.0025. In efght obsl^vations on feverish
the specific gravity of bioöd. serum showed very little variation The
most important results of microscopic investigation were that thp nnm w nt
eosinophile cells is often excessive in healthly aTwell aTsick children“ aTso ?hai
mitosis has been found, biit oftpner in newborn than older infants and nnclpar
fo°rrPaduitsS^ three Phenomena ^ a t are physiological l o f A i Ä f f i n g h ^
H o f^ n fan t ^ u d a «h-m arg» rei E “Amino-acid content o f blood
pp 6 4 ^ 6
d hlldren‘
A m - J- D u - CMM- [Chicago], vol. 27 (1924),
sbow
resuits of studies , made by the Folin method in 50 cases
«fleeted to range from infancy to puberty, and normal as far as the r e o Ä
ments for this investigation were concerned. A variation from 892 t«9 7 14
milligrams in 10O cubic centimeters of normal fasting bl?od was found* with
References6 flgUr6 ° f 5-42 milllgfams Per hundred cubic centimeters o f blood!


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PHYSICAL GEOWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF TH E CHILD
H ow land, J., and W . M cK . M arriott: “ The calcium content of the
blood in rachitis and tetany.” Transactions of the American Pediatric
Society, vol. 28 (1916), pp. 202-209.
With tables of the calcium content of the blood in cases of rickets and tetany
the author includes a report of examination of che blood of five normal infants
made for comparative study.
Japha, A lfr e d : “ Die Leukocyten beim gesunden und kranken Sâugling ”
[Leucocytes in the healthy and sick infant]. Jahrh. f. Kinderh.
_ [Berlin], vol. 52 (1900), pp. 242-270.
The author studied digestive leucocytosis in infancy at the Charité, Berlin.
He is interested not only in the whole number of white blood corpuscles but
also in the relation of the various kinds. The infant blood is taken from
the finger or toe before and after the meal, which contains 1.1 to 4.6 grams
of animal albumin. Descriptions are given of 14 tests on 12 healthy infants,
also of tests on sick infants and adults, followed by a discussion of other
literature on this subject. The •author concludes that digestive leucocytosis
can not be considered a constant phenomenon in infancy and certainly has
no diagnostic value. In the healthy person beyond the nursling age there
is usually leucocytosis after a meal containing animal albumin and following
a period of fasting. The leucocytosis consists chiefly in an increase of poly­
nuclear cells. Digestive leucocytosis is not an essential element in absorption,
but only an attendant circumstance.
——
“ Die Leukocyten beim gesunden und kranken Saugling” [Leu­
cocytes in the healthy and sick infant]. Jahrh..f. Kinderh. [Berlin],
vol. 53 (1901), pp. 179-198.
A study of leucocytes in the blood of 22 healthy infants and 31 with
atrophy and other pathological conditions giving intestinal disturbances, the
relative number of red and white corpuscles, proportion of different kinds of
leucocytes, etc. ; also, a comparison of the number and kind of leucocytes in
infants and adults in health and disease.
Jones, B .: “ I. Isoagglu'tinins in the blood of the newborn.” Am. J. Dis.
Child. [Chicago], vol. 22 (1921), pp. 586-597.
Earlier work on isoagglutinins is reviewed. The author describes his
technique fully. Of 197 cases in which the blood was collected from the
placental end of the umbilical cord, all could be placed in the four accepted
groups. Of these, 78.7 per cent were confirmed by noting the agglutinating
action of infant serum on cells of known groups. The percentage of newborn
infants, here reported as having their group established, is much higher than
has previously been reported. “ The results seem to depend o n . a technique
which permits the recognition of weak agglutinins. Isoagglutinins have been
demonstrated in the blood of a seven-months’ fetus. The demonstration of
strong isohemolysins in the serum of newborn infants indicates the advisability
of making proper test for compatibility before selecting a donor for transfusion
in infants.
----------- “ Isohemolysins in human blood, with especial reference to the
blood of the newborn.” Am. J. Dis. Child. [Chicago], vol. 22 (1921),
pp. 598-605v
A study made at the Boston Lying-in Hospital. The literature of the sub­
ject is reviewed. The technique of this investigation is described, and possible
errors of technique are noted. Although the properties of isoagglutinins and
isobemolysins are closely related, and isohemolysins never occur independently
o f isoaggliitinins, much less work has been done on isohemolysins than on
isoagglutinins. In this study 121 specimens of blood from the newborn and
144 specimens of adult blood were examined for isohemolysins. They were
found in 27.3 per cent of infants in blood of certain groups and in 88.5
per cent of adult specimens of the same group. Infants’ serum was generally
weaker and isohemolysin “ a ” predominated.
Jones, E. L loyd : “ On the variations in the specific gravity of the blood
in health.” Journal of Physiology [Cambridge], vol. 8 (1887), pp. 1-14.
The author measured the specific gravity of the blood of 362 healthy indi­
viduals of both sexes, varying in age from birth to over 92 years. The method
is described. He found the specific gravity highest at birth, about 1,066 in
both sexes. Within the first two weeks it began to fall, continuing to fall
until the second year. The average in this period was for males, 1,048; for
females, 1,050. From the age of 6 to 12 the average for males was 1,050.5;
for females, 1,052, From the age of 12 it continued to rise to the period
35 to 45, more rapidly in the male than in the female.
Jones, M artha R .: “ The calcium content of blood plasma and corpuscles
in-the newborn.” Journal of Biological Chemistry [Baltimore], vol. 49
(1921), pp. 187-192.
A series of observations was made on the calcium content of the blood of
normal infants ranging in age from 4 hours to 12 days. In 68 determinations
on 22 infants (12 boys and 10 girls! the average values were as follows : Whole
blood, 8.8 milligrams per 100 cubic centimeters ; corpuscles, 5 milligrams;
plasma, 12.3 milligrams. The 12 days were divided into six periods of two
days each and the results of the analyses made during each period were
averaged and plotted. The plasma values remained constant throughout, but
the corpuscle averages tended to decrease and those of the whole blood to
increase. Bibliography.


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Jones, M artha R ., and L. L. N y e : “ The distribution of calcium and
phosphoric acid in the blood of normal children.” Journal of Biological
Chemistry [Baltimore], vol. 47 (1921), pp. 321-331.
The alkali reserve of plasma, and the distribution of calcium and the com­
pounds of phosphoric acid in the blood, were studied in 34 normal children,
from 4 weeks to 14 years of age. The corpuscles were found to be richer in
all types of phosphoric acid than the plasma. In general, calcium and
phosphorus values for boys averaged slightly higher than those for girls. The
average calcium content of corpuscles was found to be slightly less than that
o f the plasma, the values in milligrams per 100 cubic centimeters being as
follow s: Whole blood, 9.4; corpuscles, 8.7; plasma, 10. The carbon dioxid
combining power of the plasma averaged 51.8 volumes per cent in 32 children.
No relation can be established between the alkali reserve and the concentration
of calcium and phosphoric acid in the blood. Bibliography.
241 K arnitzki, A . 0 .: “ Die Zusammenzetzung des Blutes und die Konsti­
tution des kindlichen Körpers in Zusammenhang mit seiner Ernährung
und seinem Gewicht ” [Composition of blood and constitution of the
child’s body in connection with nutrition and weight].
Jahrd. f.
Kinderh. [Berlin], vol. 80 (1914), pp. 429-442.
The author bases his elaborate discussion on observations' from 1886 to 1911
on ages up to puberty of his own seven children and the children in his private
practice and hospital experience. He uses the physiological-clinical individualiz­
ing method. The article contains a long bibliography, two graphs of the hemo­
globin content and of red corpuscles in healthy children at different ages, and
ends with a list of the author’ s 12 conclusions, which embrace the follow ing:
Growth terminates at 17 or 18; it is affected by seasons; normally the weight
and blood curves grow steadily; there is relation between the energy of a child
and the composition of his blood.
242 ---------- “ Über das Blut gesunder Kinder ” [The blood of healthy chil­
dren]. Arch. f. Kinderh. [Stuttgart], vol. 36 (1903), pp. 42-79. See
also Dissertation by the author. Kiev, 1901. 254 pp.
This article includes a historical survey, and throughout discusses the work
done on blood by other investigators. The author studied 62 extremely healthy
children from a few months to almost 14 years of age. He examined intestines
(the condition o f which he thinks greatly affects the blood) and the liver,
spleen, glands, chest, girth, weight, and growth. He investigated the compo­
sition of the blood, the number of form elements, the relation of the colorless
blood cells to one another, the amount of hemoglobin, and the specific gravity.
He takes up one constituent at a time, considers it in children of different
ages, and lists his results on each constituent. The results are numerous,
being 80 in the case of leucocytes and neutrophiles. Bibliography o f 158
titles.
243 Katzenellenbogen, M arie: “ Untersuchungen über den Blutkalkgehalt
bei Kindern nach der Wrightschen Methode” [Investigations into the
lime content of the blood of children by the Wright method]. Ztschr.
f. Kinderh. [Berlin], vol. 8 (1913), pp. 187-204.
The author investigated the lime content of the blood of 62 children up to
14 years old, including 12 newborn, in a children’s clinic in St. Petersburg.
She made 200 tests by Wright’s method, with varying factors of age, diet,
rickets, and spasmophilia. Her results in some cases coincided with Neurath s
and in others did not. The general conclusion is that the blood of normal
children endeavors to maintain a lime content corresponding to an ammonium
oxalate solution 1:1800, irrespective of age and diet. Newborn infants show
a smaller lime content. Rachitis made no difference, spasmophilia caused a
smaller content. The article contains six tables.
244 K eating, John M ., and W illia m A . Edw ards: “ Diseases of the heart
and circulation in infancy and adolescence.” Arch. Pediat.
[Phila­
delphia], vol. 4 (1887), pp. 656-680, 705-737.
.
Largely pathological but containing (pages 712-715) a description of the
blood o f the newborn child.
245 K ingsburg, E. B., and J. P. Sedgwick: “ The uric-acid content of the
blood of newborns.” Journal of Biological Chemistry [Baltimore],
voi. 31 (1917), pp. 261-268.
An investigation to determine whether the high uric-acid excretion during
the first few days of life is accompanied by a simultaneous increase of this
substance in the blood. Examination was made, by methods fully described,
of the blood o f 31 infants and a separate series of analyses of uric acid in
maternal and placental blood, for comparison. The authors found that during
the first 3 or 4 days of life the uric-acid blood content of the newborn is
higher than that of the placental and maternal blood. References.
246 Koch, H erbert: “ Über Complementbestimmungen des kindlichen Serums ”
[Complement determinations in serum of children]. Arch. f. Kinderh.
[Stuttgart], vol. 50 (1909), pp. 384-398.
In determining complement in serum of children the author used Moro’s
methods, except that he designates hemolytic value as zero, trace, slight,
strong, and complete. Tables fill seven pages. Table 1 gives data on 21


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children between 1 and 13 years of age, having no: fever. Other tables give
values on infants—7 artificially fed and 10 breast fed. Complement values
can not be correlated easily with age, health, etc. Bibliography.
Kochmann, R u dolf: “ Uber die klinisclie Bedeutung der hamoklasischer
Krise im Kindesalter ” [Clinical significance of the liemoclastic crisis
in childhood]
Arch. f. Kinderh. [Stuttgart], voi. 72 (1922-23), pp
242-250.
The author tested the hemoclgstic crisis, of Widal in 10 healthy and 10
sick infants and 10 healthy and 5 sick older -children. All infants that are
healthy and less than 6 months old show leucopenia after a meal following a
fast o f 4 to 5 hours. If, however, the fast is not so long, there may even
be leucocytosis. Older healthy children, after drinking 200 grams of milk
following a fast of 12 hours, reacted with leucocytosis. Therefore, in children
over 6 months having healthy livers the hemoclastic crisis of Widal is nega­
tive. Bibliography.
Kramàr,
Eugen: “ liber Colliagglutinine ” - [B.
Cóli
agglutinins]
Monatsclir f. Kinderh. (Leipzig], voi. 24 (1923), pp. 799-809.
In investigating the B. Coli agglutinins of 53 infants between 8 days and
19 months o.d the author found that normal agglutination in infancy is a
regular phenomenon. It appears , in two great curves between birth and the
third month and between the eighth and the nineteenth month. Eighteen
tests proved a close relationship between the agglutinin content, of the blood
of the mother and child. Nine series of tests on the blood of the mother
before delivery, on the blood of umbilical cord, and on the blood of the
newborn showed that in all* probability normal agglutination of the infant is
inherited from the mother. Of 20 tests on infants between 8 days and 14
months of age before and after inoculation with colon bacilli only 5 presented
large agglutinin values.
Kramer, B., F. Tisdall, and J. H ow land: “ The clinical significance of
calc.um concentration in the serum of children and possible errors in
its determination.” Am. J. Dis. Child. [Chicago], voi. 22 (1921), pp.
560-64.
These investigators attack the assertions, made that the blood calcium con­
centration is variable in thè normal child. They state that diet, exercise,
etc., exert little influence on the calciums content of the serum. A normal
child’s blood contains a higher calcium concentration than an adult’s. They
fail to find any calcium in corpuscles. The average calcium concentration for
normal children is 10 to 11 milligrams per 100 cubic, centimeters of serum. A
discussion of sources of error in technique follows.
Krasemann, Erich: “ Blutalkaleszenzuntersuchungen bei gesunden und
kranken (insbesondere intoxizierten) Saugiingen ” [Investigations into
the alkalinity of the blood of healthy aud sick infants, especially such
as have intoxication], JaKrJo. f. Kinderh. [Berlin], vol. 97-98 (1922),
pp. 85-102.
Krasemann determines the alkalinity of the blood, of 50 nurslings by the
Rohony process, which expresses the degree of aeidpgls by the titration number,
or carbonate number, “ C,” C, in normal adults, is 1.25^1.60; anything below
1.25 denotes an acidotic condition. The normal C for nurslings over 4 weeks
is between 1.3 and 1.52; it rises with the age of the nursling. Great uni­
formity was found in healthy infants nourished on a milk mixture plus 5 per
cent sugar, when the sinus puncture was made two hours after the second
meal. A low C, i. e., an acidotic state, was ascertained in newborn infants, in
the umbilical-cord blood and in premature infants, and always before death.
Fat lowered the alkalinity of the blood more than carbohydrates did.
Krüger, Friedrich: Über das Verhalten des foetalen Blutes im Momente
der Geburt [Reaction of Fetal Blood at Moment of Birth], Dorpat,
1886. 44 pp.
Thesis (University of I'orpat). After giving a resume of conclusions of
former students on fetal blood at birth, the author describes his method of
examining blood. He takes it from the umbilical vein, severing the cord imme­
diately. collecting it in four receptacles for hemoglobin, fibrin test, etc. Ten
cases are described in detail, with table. Water in infants’ blood is 78.93 per
cent, in mothers’ blood 80.16 per cent. Fibrin content is much less than that
of mothers. Hemoglobin is about the same in both but increases in the blood
of the newborn. Sex and weight do not essentially affect constitution of blood.
Blood at birth coagulates easily but slowly. Bibliography.
Langer, J o se f:. “ Über Isoagglutinine" beim Menschen, mit besonderer
Berücksichtigung des Kindesalters” [Isoagglutinins in mankind, with
special reference to cliildhood]. Zeitschrift für Heilkunde, Abteilung
für Innere Medizin [Vienna and Leipzig], new ser. vol. 4 (1903), pp.
111-141.
The author writes at length on former investigations by other Students and
on his own extensive studies of physiological and pathological cases. His
article contains 18 tables and a bibliography, As regards children, he decides
that the serum of newborn infants rarely shows isogglutination, whereas their
erythrocytes are as agglutinable as those of older children. The agglutinins


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seem to appear in the first months of life. It is not yet certain whether
isoagglutinin formation comes from the colostrum or from mother’s milk
through simple absorption by the child’s organism, or from some other source.
253 Leichtenstern, 0 . : Untersuchungen über den Haemoglobulingehalt des
Blutes, in gesunden and. kranken Zuständen [Investigations into the
Hemoglobulin Content of the Blood in Health and Sickness]. F. C W
Vogel, Leipzig, 1878. 106 pp.
Ninety-one healthy persons from 36 hours to 20 years old, as well as
100 over that age, were examined. The blood of healthy newborn infants
is richer in hemoglobin than that o f any other period. At the age of 10 to 12
weehs the hemoglobin content is similar to that of adults. The minimum is
1eached between the age of 6 months and 5 years. There is a gradual increase
of hemogiobin content from 6 to 15 years of age. The increase is more decided
after the age of 15. In childhood up to 10 years there is 7 per cent more
hemoglobin in the blood of boys than of girls.
P
m° re
254 Lesné and Langle : “ La leueocytose digestive chez l’enfant ” [The leucocytôsis of digestion in the child]. Bulletin de lu Société de pédiatrie
de Paris, vol. 19 (.1921), pp. 83 -92.
A report o f 95 examinations of the blood of children from 1 month to 16
years of age by methods carefully described. Six leucocytic curves are given
for infants from 1 mon h to 1 year of age. The author found the leucocytic
count o f infants variable, changing even in the same infant from minute to
minute. Each infant, however, has a curve peculiar to itself, which repeated
examinations even at long intervals, establish and confirm. The general
character of this curve is variable. In the normal infant it varies with the
amount of milk invested, an increase of white corpuscle^ being evident after a
small meal, a diminution after a large meal, the amount of milk at which the
change takes place varying from 50 to 100 grams and differing for breast-fed
artificially-fed infants. Results with children from 2 to 16 years were
difficult to reduce to a general law.
255 L ief mann. E. : “ Über den Harnsäuregehalt des kindlichen Blutes ”
[The uric-acid content of children’s blood], Ztschr. f. Kindern Originalien [Berlin], vol. 12 (.1915), pp. 227-238.
It having been proved that the blood of every healthy person contains uric
acid, the author undertook to test the blood of children with the AutenriéthKonigs berger calorimeter. She extracted 5 cubic centimeters of blood from
the heel. One table gives the uric acid in 13 normal cases from 9 weeks to 21
years of age. The value for nurslings is 1.3 to 1.7 milligrams in 100 cubic
centimeters of blood. The value rises "with age to 2 to 4 milligrams (Steinitz)
in- adults. An abnormally high uric-acid value accompanies a purin diet and
many diseases— not, however, the exudative diathesis.
256 Ligh t, Gertrude 17. : “ The blood in infancy and childhood.” New York
M. J., vol. 74 (1901), pp. 1000-1002.
A review of the knowledge of the blood of infants. The author gives full
references and summaries from the data of eight investigators who found
that at birth the red blood cells number 5,742,080 ; the white blood cells, 15 000hemoglobin, 125 to 130 per cent. The blood assumes adult proportions about
the twelfth year. Infants’ blood tends to resume embryonal characteristics
when clinical balance is disturbed, these changes being out of proportion to the
cause.
257 Lindberg, G ustaf: “ Über den Blutzuckerspiegel des Säuglings im Hun­
g e r ” [The picture of sugar in the blood of fasting infants]. Ztschr.
f. Kinderh. Originalien [Berlin], vol. 15 (1 91 6-17), pp. 71-83.
Lindberg used Bang’s micromethod in his blood tests of 14 breast-fed babies
from 3 to 9 months’ old, some of whom had begun mixed feeding. Eight of
them were entirely healthy, and six were healthy except for exudative diathesis
He took their blood in the evening three hours after they had eaten and just
before their dinner ; thereafter, for 60 hours, they received only saccharin and
water. He noted weight and the samples of blood during this fast and after
they returned to normal fare. Results are put in two curves and three tables.
In weight , the children lost on an average 6.5 per cent. They seemed to feel
no discomfort from the fast. Sugar values in the healthy children were on an
average 0.074 per cent after a fast of 24 hours ; 0.073 per cent after 36 hours ;
0.074 per cent after 48 hours; and 0.074 per cent after 60 hours. The exuda­
tive diathesis caused slightly lower values, except that five cases in the eruption
stage showed hyperglycemia. According to these results healthy infants on a
hunger diet have about the same amount of sugar in the blood as adults.
258 Lippman, H ym a n Sh alit: “ A morphologic and quantitative study of
the blood corpuscles in the new-born period.” Am. J. Dis Child.
[Chicago], vol. 27 (1924), pp. 473-526.
The greater part of the previous literature on the morphology of the blood
of the newborn is presented in condensed, outline form, with brief discussion.
The author’s own study was made on 71 newborn infants (31 girls and 40
boys). Examinations of blood from the heel were made as near birth as
possible ; at approximate six-hour intervals up to and including 36 hours ;
at 48 hours, and at 5 days. Counts were taken of red blood cells, leucocytes,
and platelets. Differential studies included the examination of 500 cells in
each blood smear. The statistical methods employed are fully discussed, and
original data presented in 17 tables and 36 figures. The author finds that the


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morphology of the blood at birth approximates that of the last part of fetal
life, and the picture presented is far different from that seen at 6 hours, and
again at 12 hours. The observations reported support the view that the
neonatal changes are due to the increased stimulation of the blood-forming
organs. References.
{
259 Lucas, W m . P .: “ Physiology of the blood in infancy and childhood.”
J. A. M. A. [Chicago], vol. 77 (1921), pp. 332-338.
Previous work on the study of blood is reviewed, and blood chemistry for the
infant „and adult are compared.
260 -----------and B. F. D ea rin g : “ Blood volume in infants estimated by the
vital dye method.” Transactions of the American Pediatric Society,
vol. 32 (1920), pp. 65-67. See also Am. J. Dis. Child. [Chicago], vol.
21 (1921), pp. 96-106.
Report of a study made at the University of California Medical School to
determine the normal variations in blood volume during the first year of life.
The history and method of use of the dye process are discussed, and the method
of computing results. Tables show the blood-volume computations of 30 new­
born infants aged 2% hours to 15 days, grouped according to age and accord­
ing to weight; of 11 fairly normal infants^ aged 15 days to 1 yea r; and of
3 infants with fairly marked secondary anemia. The authors found a great
variation of blood-volume percentage in newborn infants, ranging from 10.7
to 19.5 per cent of body weight, and from 107 to 195 cubic centimeters per
kilogram, and the pigment volume from 304 to 899 cubic centimeters. The
children from 15 days to 1 year showed a greater uniformity and a tendency
to stabilize the blood volume during the first few months.
261 —— f---------------- Hoobler, Cox, Jones, and S m yth : “ Blood studies in new­
born infants.” Transactions of the American Pediatric Society, vol.
33 (1921), pp. 20-58.
The article reviews previous literature and gives technique and data in full.
The blood of 150 infants from birth to 14 days old was studied. Usually the
blood was collected on alternate days from the longitudinal sinus. Comparisons
are made between the peripheral and deep blood. Hemoglobin tests, red and
white differential counts, and platelet counts were made. A quantitative analy­
sis was made of the nonprotein nitrogen, urea nitrogen, uric acid, creatinm,
sugar, carbon dioxide, calcium, and phosphorus. The coagulation time was
estimated, and the presence of prothrombin in the platelets was tested. The
stools and blood plasma were examined for urobilin.
262 Lust, F .: “ Die Viskosität des Blutes beim gesunden und kranken Säug­
lin g ” [The viscosity of blood in the healthy and sick infant]. Arch. f.
Kinderh. [Stuttgart], vol. 54 (1910), pp. 260-278.
With Hess’s viscosimeter Lust tested the viscosity of blood in 11 newborn
infants, 16 infants from 2 to 13 months old, and 15 children from 1% to 11
years old, all normal and healthy. The viscosity and water content for these
three periods he found to be, respectively, as follow s: 6.3 and 77.7 per cent;
3 8 and 82 per cen t; 4.1 and 80.6 per cent. The viscosity of blood in men
Hess had determined to be 4.7 and for women 4.4. Lust also discusses the
effect upon viscosity of food, salt infusions, and various illnesses.
263 -----------“ Über den Wassergehalt des Blutes und sein Verhalten bei den
Ernährungsstörungen der Säuglinge” [The water content of blood and
its action in nutritional disturbances in infants]. Jahrb. f. Kinderh.
[Berlin], vol. 73 (1911), pp. 85-100, 179-214.
Believing that a constant relation exists between body weight and the con­
centration of blood, the author determined the water content of blood by
measuring the dry residue. The blood was taken three hours after meals.
The average value of water in the blood of nine newborn infants from 1 hour
to 30 days old was found to be 77.7 per cent, as compared with 78.14 per cent
for the adult man and 79.7 per cent for the adult woman; it was also evident
that a close relation exists between body weight and blood concentration and
that in the initial loss variations of the water content, are involved. From
further tests on nine infants over a month old, the water content in the blood
was found to be 81.9 per cent for breast-fed children and 82.2 per cent for
. artificially-fed children. Tests on 16 children from 1% to 11 years gave a
percentage of 80.62. Carbohydrates were found to increase weight and water
content
The experimentation extended also to sälts and to the effect of
diseases. The article contains 9 tables, 20 curves, a list of 14 conclusions, and
a bibliography.
264 ----------- “ Über die antiproteolytische Substanz im Blutserum gesunder
und kranker Säuglinge ” [Antiproteolytic substance in the blood serum
of healthy and sick infants]. Münchener Medicinische Wochenschrift,
vol. 56, pt. 2 (1909), pp. 2047-2051.
The author tested the antiproteolytic substance in the blood serum of 10
healthy and many sick infants, by Fuld and Gross trypsin method. Tests on
healthy infants showed that 0.2 to 0.25 cubic centimeter of a 0.2 per cent fer­
ment solution of pancreatin phenania was necessary to neutralize 0.5 cubic
centimeter of serum. The youngest infant, 14 days old, had the same content
in antitrypsin as infants over 1 year old. The author concludes that anti-


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ferment values can not be explained and determined easily. The article con­
tains two tables and two curves. Bibliography.
Macciotta, G .: “ II comportamento delle reazioni del sangue nei bambini
in rapporto all et& ed alia alimentazione ” [Nature of reaction of blood
in children in relation to age and food]. Clinica pediatrica [Modena],
vol. 6 (July, 1924), pp. 385-406.
With the aid of the Engels-Lowy method (titration with N/75 solution of
tartaric acid) the author studied the effect of age and food on the reaction of
blood in infants. He studied 39 infants ranging in ages from 8 days to 1 year.
He found that the alkalinity of the blood was slightly lower in infants than in
adults; the younger the infant the greater the' difference. Breast-fed children
show a greater alkaline reaction than those fed artificially. Feeding with
diastatic polysaccharides raises the alkalinity. In hunger the latter goes down.
The decrease of alkalinity is particularly great on a diet rich in fats.
M cC lanahan, H . M ., and A . A . Johnson: “A brief report of sixty-eight
blood examinations in infancy, with a review of the recent literature
of the blood in infants.” Arch. Pediat. [New York], vol. 33 (1916),
pp. 757-771. See also Transactions o f the American Pediatric Society,
vol. 28, 1916, pp. 65-79.
Abstracts of the articles upon the blood of infants in 16 leading medical
journals (American) for the years 1910 to 1915, inclusive, are followed by a
report of blood examinations of 68 normal infants'. Procedure is described.
Determinations are listed by individual cases. No new facts were developed.
The blood o f the infant was found to vary from that of the adult in the high
proportion of the lymphocytes. A second count on 14 infants showed a con­
siderable variation from the first. A gfadual but irregular increase in the
polymorphonuclear cells is apparent during the first year of life.
M cK ellips, G. M ., I. M . De Young1, and W . H. Bloor: “ The distribu­
tion of phosphoric acid in the blood of normal infants.” Journal of
Biological Chemistry [Baltimore], vol. 47 (1921), pp. 53-58.
Data for this study were obtained by examination of the blood of 21 normal
infants from birth up to two weeks of age. Tables show the phosphoricacid compounds in the blood of these infants and averages and variations in
the phosphoric-acid compounds in the blood of infants and of adults. Very
little difference was noted in the sexes. In infants gaining weight the
phosphoric-acid values were higher than the average in the plasma and some­
what lower in the corpuscles, whereas in those losing weight the reverse
was the case. The corpuscle values as a whole are remarkably similar in the
infant and the adult. In the plasma the organic phosphorus is regularly
much higher in the infant than in the adult.
M cLean, Stafford, John P. Caffey, et a l.: “ Blood platelet counts In In­
fants and in young children.” Am. J. Dis. Child. [Chicago], vol. 30
(1925), pp. 810-828.
Platelet counts were made on the blood of the following subjects, normal
for the purposes of this study: Fifteen newborn infants, none more than 5 days
of a ge; 10 premature infants, from 2 days to 9 weeks of a ge; 17 infants,
from 3 weeks to 1 year of a ge; 9 children, from 1 to 6% years of age. The
average count in the newborn infants was 278,000; in the premature 246,000;
in the age group from 3 weeks to one year 359,000; and in young children
341,000. Tables.
M anning, John B .: “ Blood of infancy and early childhood.” North­
west Medicine [Seattle], new ser. vol. 4, (1912), pp. 146-148.
Contains a r6sum6, with references, of studies of other investigators. No
original observations.
M arriott, W . M c K .: “ The blood in acidosis from the quantitative stand­
point.” Journal of Biological Chemistry [Baltimore], vol. 18 (1914),
pp. 507-517.
A revised technique for determination of acetone bodies in small samples
of blood is described and results in 25 analyses, 6 of which were of the
blood of normal children 5 to 10 years old, are tabulated. Expressed in milli­
grams per 100 grams of blood, the acetone and acetoacetic acid in children
varied from 0.5 to 0.8; the oxybutyric acid, from 1.4 to 4.4.
-----------and W a rre n B . Sisson : “ Variations in the lipoid (fa t) content of
the blood of infants under certain nutritional conditions.” Am. J. Dis.
Child. [Chicago], vol. 16 (1918), pp. 75-82.
A study to determine'~whether the amount of subcutaneous fat of an infant
is in any way proportional to the blood fat. Fifty-two determinations of blood
fat were made from 48 infants, 14 of the infants being considered normal.
Data, in tabular form, sho\y age, weight, nutritional state, nutritional trend,
food, calories per kilogram, hours after feeding when test was made, blood
fat per cent, and clinical condition. The authors found that subcutaneous fat
does not necessarily bear any relation to circulating fat. In general, an
infant who is gaining weight, no matter what the state of his nutrition,
will have a higher average blood fat than one who is not gaining. Breast-fed
Infants gaining weight have high blood-fat percentages.


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M artin, E d .: “ Isoagglutination beim Menschen nebst einer Bemerkung
zur Marx-Ehrenroothschen Blutdifferenzierungsmethode ” [Isoaggluti­
nation in mankind with a comment on the biood differentiation method
of Marx Ehrenrooth]. Centralblatt für Bakteriologie und Parasiten­
kunde [Jena], 1st div., völ. 39 (1905), pp. 704-712.
In the Woman’s Clinic at Greifswald Martin conducted experiments on
agglutination and isoagglutination. He tested the blood of mothers before,
during, and after birth, and of young infants, examining the reaction of
the mother’s and the infant’s blood on each other and on his own corpuscles.
He found that illness produced no effect, and by comparing the variations that
occur in like experiments with the serum and corpuscles of healthy men that
pregnancy and birth act like purely physiological functions.
He believes
that the Marx-Ehrenrootfi method is not sufficiently reliable for forensic prac­
tice and that Uhlenruth’s method is safer. Three tables give the details of
his work. Animal experiments also are described.
M ayer, R u d o lf: “ Kalziumbestimmungen im Serum Gesunder, Rachi­
tischer, und Spasmophiler, sowie nach Adrenalin Vorbehandlung ” [Cal­
cium determinations in the serum of healthy, rachitic, and spas­
mophilic children; also after use of adrenalin]. Arch. f. Kinderh.
[Stuttgart], vol. 70 (1921-22), pp. 170-184.
In this investigation into the calcium content of the serum of healthy infants
Table 1. which'gives age of 10 infants, titration numbers, and milligrams of
calcium per 100 cubic centimeters of serum, shows an average of 11.25; Table 2.
on seven children between 4 and 10 years, shows an average of 11.38. In
both cases variations are very slight. Two other tables prove independence
of calcium content of diet and its great constancy. The normal value in
the adult is not much higher— 12.2. It seems that the value in the infant
below 6 months is a little higher than later. Bibliography.
M ayers, Laurence H . : “A study of the erythrocyte curve at various ages
and its relationship to hemoglobin curve.”
Archives of Internal
Medicine [Chicago], vol. 30 (1922), pp. 478-484.
Blood samples for this study were obtained from 41 apparently normal in­
fants by incision of the right great toe with a sharp cataract knife. The
second drop was used. Thirty-seven samples were taken at time of delivery
and four within two hours after delivery. In 10 cases counts were made on
the second, eighth, and fourteenth days. The red blood count for the 41 cases,
taken within two hours of delivery averaged 7,630,000; the average of the 10
cases taken on second, eighth, and fourteenth days, was 6,260,000. Study of
available data on hemoglobin content and erythrocyte count showed that, in
childhood, the curves are not parallel, and that the norm employed in determin­
ing the color index of adults does not apply in determining the color index
of children under 10 years of age. References.
M enicanti: “ Über das specifische Gewicht des Blutes und dessen Bezie­
hung sum Hämoglobingehalt” [The specific gravity of blood and its
relation to hemoglobin content],
Arbeiten aus dem MedicinischKlinischen Institute der K . Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität zu Muenchen [Leipzig], vol. 3, 1st half, 1893, pp. 490-505.
This article refers principally to adults. In health,; specific gravity stands
in a constant relation to hemoglobin content with only small individual varia­
tions. A table gives these two values fpr nine boys from 9 to 16 and six girls
from 3 to 11. The blood was taken from the fingers between 9 and 10 a. m.
and 4 and 6 p. m. In comparison with the hemoglobin content, specific
gravity is less than in the adult. Both values grow greater with increasing
age.
M ertz, A lbrech t, and Erich R o m in g er: “ Experimentelle Blutzuckerun­
tersuchungen bei Kindern ” [Experimental investigations of the sugar
in the blood of children]. Arch. f. Kinderh.
[Stuttgart], vol. 69-70
(192 1-22), pp, 81-106.
The author tested the sugar in the blood of infants by Bang’s micromelhod
as given in this monograph of 1916—17. The sugar value for healthy infants
after a fast of four hours was on an average 0.081 per cent. Age and nutri­
tion showed no influence. In a series of double experiments on five children
after administering dextrose alone and after administering it with 5 grams
of tannin, he ascertained a considerable checking of intestinal absorption
through the tannin. A long table gives full data on the blood-sugar content
of 25 children with 30, 50, and 20 grams of dextrose. The concentration of
dextrose at time of entering the blood and^not the absolute amount in the
alimentary canal is significant for liyperglyiemia.
M itchell, A . Graeme: “ Leucocyte counts during digestion, in bottle-fed
infants.” Am. J. Dis. Child. [Chicago], vol. 9 (1915), pp, 358-373.
Following a resume of previous investigations on this subject,; the author
reports a study of 50 practically normal children on whom over- 700 blood
counts were made. The blood was removed from the toes and counts made
immediately before feeding, immediately after feeding, 15 minutes after feed­
ing, one-half hour after, and so on every half hour until the next feeding. Tech-


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nique of the counts is described, and tabular record given of the individual
cases. Several illustrative case histories are given in detail. The author found
that bottle-fed infants do not constantly show digestive leucocytosis. The
majority show a smaller number of leucocytes in the superficial blood after
taking food than before, the decrease being greatest from one to two and a
half hours after food. When a rise does occur, it is most frequently soon after
feeding, and a decline begins in a half hour. Crying, struggling, and chilling
of the part from which the blood is extracted increase the count. References.
Modica, O .: “ Sul diametro dei globuli rossi del sangue fissato dell’uomo
e sulle percentuali delle varie grandezze globulari nei primi tre mesi
di vita estrauterina ” [On the diameter of red blood corpuscles in the
human being and on the percentages of the various sizes of these
corpuscles in the first three months of extrauterine life.] Archivio di
farmacologia sperimentale e sciense affini [Siena], 1911-12, pp. 325-384.
The author studied the blood of 37 infants under three months old and 3
adults in a clinic of the University of Parma. He found that in breast-fed
infants born at term the average diameter of the red blood corpuscles in the
first day of life is greater than in adults; it increases slightly in the next four
days; on the sixth day there is a rapid decrease, which continues very slowly
through the first three months, at the end of which the average diameter is
that of the adult blood. The author also found that the number of small-size
red blood corpuscles increases with a g e; that o f the larger ones decreases.
M ogw itz, G .: “ Über den Blutzucker der Säuglinge” [Sugar in the blood
of infants]. Monatschr. f. Kinderh. Öriginalien [Leipzig and Vienna],
vol. 12 (1913-14), pp. 569-585.
•
The author investigated the amount o f sugar in the blood of infants, using
Ivar Bang’s method. He obtained the results 0.07 to 0.11 per cent from 22
healthy children, one 12 years old, one 3 years old, and the others ranging
from 7 hours to 13 months, all of whom had received no food for 3% to 4
hours. In seven experiments he found nothing abnormal in premature infanls,
and in seven further experiments no difference between arterial and venous
blood. Six experiments on an accentuated carbohydrate diet showed hyper­
glycemia, and four on a hunger diet showed hypoglycemia. Psychical disturb­
ances showed no influence. Thirty-eight experiments on sickly children proved
that though fever and alimentary intoxication cause a tendency to hyper­
glycemia yet in general disease produces little effect on the percentage of sugar
in the blood.
M on ti: Über Veränderungen der Blutdichte bei Kindern ” [Changes in
the concentration of children’s blood] Arch. f. Kinderh. [Stuttgart],
vol. 18 (1894-95), pp. 161-178.
For two years the author studied in a children’s hospital the concentration
of children's blood between birth and 10 years of age. For the most part he
used Hammerschlag's method, but in a small series of 23 children he used both
Hammerschlag’s and the pyknometer method. One table gives minimal, medium,
and maximal values; another compares thickness of the blood with the hemo­
globin content. Blood density is highest in the newborn. It varies directly
with weight, varies also with time of day and muscular action, and is positvely
correlated with hemoglobin.
Moore, Fred: “Acetone bodies in the blood of children.” Am. J. Bis.
Child. [Chicago], vol. 12 (1916), pp. 244-253.
The blood o f 16 normal children was examined quantitatively for acetone
bodies. Expressed as milligrams of acetone per 100 grams of blood this was
found to vary from 1 to 33, with an average of 6.3. The blood of a normal
child after 48 hours of voluntary starvation was found to contain 39.5 milli­
grams o f acetone bodies per 100 grams of blood. References. v
Moro, E rn st: “ Vergleichende Studien über die Verdauungsleukocytose
beim Säugling” [Comparative studies on digestive leucocytosis in the
infant]. Arch. f. Kinderh. [Stuttgart], vol. 40 (1 9 0 4 -5 ), pp. 39-50.
Moro defines digestive leucocytosis, cites prior investigators on the subject
and mentions his own method of study. He took blood from the ear or great
toe o f infants, before and after meals, at half-hour intervals. From a series of
experiments on two to four infants in each case he studied leucocytosis in the
healthy breast-fed child, the healthy artificially-fed child, and the breast-fed
child who was being weaned to cow’s milk. In normal cases he discovered not
a leucocytosis but leucopenia, beginning during the nursing and at its maximum
1 to 2% hours afterwards. Then the leucocytes begin to increase and three to
four hours after the meal have attained the normal number. On the other
hand, when a new kind of albumin is introduced into the system, leucocytosis
accompanies digestion. The results appear in tables.
Morse, M ary E .: “ The blood platelets in normal women, in obstetrical
patients, and in the newborn.” Bost. M. & S. J., vol. 166 (1912), pp
448-452.
Platelet counts made with 12 infants during the first 19 days of life indicated
that the number, which varies widely at birth, tends to become stable at the
end o f the first week.


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M ü ller, E r ic h : “ Die Blut- und Hämoglobinmenge und die Sauerstoff­
kapazität des Blutes bei gesund- und bei blassaussehenden Kindern”
[The amount of blood and heVnoglobin, and the oxygen capacity of the
blood in healthy looking and pale children]. Jahrh. f. Kinderh. [Ber­
lin], vol. 72 (1910), supplement, pp. 176-208.
Müller tested between 11 and 12 a. m. the blood of 30 children between 6
and 16 years of age in the Rummersburg Orphanage. Twenty of the children
had a healthy, fresh color and 10 were pale. The tests were made by the CO
method as used by Zuntz and Plesch. In the 20 healthy children the average
specific gravity was 1.0435, less than that of adults; the amount of blood was
6.92 per cent of body weight, greater than that of adults; the hemoglobin
(determined by method of Tallquist, Sahli, and Fleiscbl-Miescher) was 80 per
cent of body weight, greater than in adults ; and the oxygen capacity was 15.6
volume per cent, less than in adults. The 10 pale children were free from
kidney and other grave complaint. The specific gravity was 1.0410, the amount
o f blood 7.12 per cent of body weight, the hemoglobin 79 per cent, and the
oxygen 15.3 per cen t; that is, practically the same as in the healthy children.
Therefore the great majority of pale children are not anemic. The amount mf
blood, the hemoglobin content, and the oxygen capacity present compensatory
phenomena, in that the oxygen brought to the tissues is approximately the
wsame. Mülle.r presents his own figures and those of other students in 14 tables.
Bibliography.’
285 ----------- “ Untersuchungen über die Arbeitsleistung des Blutes und des
Herzens bei blassen Kindern in 6 bis 12 Lebensjahre ” [Investigations
on the working capacity of the blood and heart in pale children be• tween 6 and 12]. Jahrb. f. Kinderh.
[Berlin], vol. 34 (1916), pp.
251-258.
The author gives the results of his studies of the blood and heart of six
pale children between 6 and 12 years old and compares therewith similar in­
vestigations upon healthy children. The two sets of results showed little
difference. The six pale children were not anemic in the ordinary acceptance
of the term. Aside from the appearance of the children and the percentage
of hemoglobin he found two distinct groups according to relations between
oxygen capacity of the blood and oxygen consumption on the one hand and
on the other hand the minute-volume and the speed of the flow of blood.
286

287

288

M u ggia, A ld o : “ Sul contenuto di glucosio nel sangue della prima infanzia ” [On the sugar content of the blood in infancy]. Rivista di
clinica, pediatrica [Florence], vol. 22 (1924), pp. 1-11.
In order to determine the sugar content of the blood of infants, the author
analyzed samples of placental blood in four cases; also the blood of 22 normal
children ranging in age from 6 days to 2 years, and of 8 sick children from 1
month to 1 year old, using the micromethod of Fontes and Thivolle, with
blood taken 3% hours after the child had been fed. The placental blood con­
tained on an average 0.102 per cent of glucose: in well children under 1 year
old the glucose content varied from 0.105 to 0.155 per cent, and during the
second year of life from 0.081 to 0.126 per cent.
N ast, Eberhard: “ Über den Eiweissgehalt des Blutes im Kindesalter
mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Tuberkulose” [Protein- content
of blood in childhood with special reference to tuberculosis]. Ztschr.
f. Kinderh. [Berlin], vol. 11 (1914), pp. 92-110.
The author determined refractometrically the protein content of the blood
of more than 200 children from 1 month to 12 years of age, healthy children
and tuberculous. The blood was taken when subjects were lying quiet in bed.
Findings are put in two long tables giving age, albumin content in normal and
tuberculous cases, etc. The content is 5.3 to 6.8 for the first three months and
5.5 to 7 for the third to the eighth month. The change to the higher value
of adults comes about the tenth month. Bibliography.
Neurath, R u d olf: Über die Bedeutung der Kalksalze für den Organismus
des Kindes unter physiologischen und pathologischen Verhältnissen ”
[The significance of lime salts for the child organism in physiological
and pathological conditions].
Ztschr. f. Kinderh. [Berlin], vol. 1
(191 0-11), pp. 3-42.
The author is much interested in Wright’s method of _ determining the
oxalate-precipitable calcium combinations in the blood of children. He made
control tests with other methods and found that the two series of results tally.
His experiments were on *4 healthy nurslings and 12 sick children from 1%
to 9 years; on the effect of different diets on 16 children from 15 days to 10
months o ld ; on the effect of lime upon 10 children; and also on various patho­
logical cases. He concluded that in normal human beings the nursling period
sbows relatively high values in lime and that they fall with increase of age.
Breast-fed children show in their blood a higher content in oxalate-precipitable
lime salts than artificially-fed children. More lime in the food only occasionally
produces an excess of lime in the blood. Long bibliography.


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N i d o u x , M . : “ Sur la présence de l’oxyde de carbone dans le sang du
nouveau-né” [On the presence o f carbon dioxide in the blood of the
newborn]. Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de VAcadémie
des sciences [Paris], vol. 132 (1901), pp. 1501-1504.
Ten experiments with the blood of the newborn (methods described) show
* averase a* 0Unt ° f 11 CUbie - “ t i S e r Ä
Nobécourt, F ., and Sevin: “ Le ferment amylolytique du sérum sanguin
chez 1 enfant normal et chez l ’enfant m alade” [The amylolitic ferment
of the blood serum in normal and sick children]. Revue mensuelle des
maladies de l’enfance [Paris], vol. 20 (1902), pp. 25-37.
The authors studied, the serum of 37 normal infants from 2 davs to 2 vears
of age, and of 9 individuals from 2 years 7 months to 29 years. Methods are
resul^s t?kulated by name, age, date of examination, weight and
quantity of sugar produced by 1 cubic centimeter of serum. In the normal
state this amount was: Fiist month, generally, 0.005 gram to 0 0199 sram •
second month, same average limits, seldom falling below the lower ; 2 nfonths
to 2 years, same average limits, never falling below the minimum occasirmailv
reaching 0.0290 gram; 2 years to adult life,'0.02 ¿ram t o 0 0299V a m
Nonnrat, G. F .: “ Studies on the cholesterol and fatty acid content in
the blood of normal and icteric infants.” Proceedings of the Society
for Experimental Biology and Medicine [N ew 'York], vol. 21 (1923—24)

Cholesterol and fatty-acid studies on blood were undertaken Drimarilv
determine the reïatmn of these substances, if any exists, to icterus neonatorum
and to establish average values for infants. About 100 determinations m«™
made on the blood of infants and of older children varying in age from 1 to 4 V«
ï f aî®- a"°W Qv/ lu,eS -for cholesterol seemed quite constant in the blood of in­
fants. A gradual rise ro normal adult values was observed before the speond
year of life. Adult fatty acid values obtained throughout infancy. Tables.
N ystén, E in a r: “ Om blodsoçkerhalten hos dibarn” [Blood sugar in
nurslings]. Finska LäJcaresällskapets Handlingar [Helsingfors 1 vol
60, pt. 2 (1918), pp. 1061-1081.
. ) J’
^uthor discusses findings of other investigators, and after examining the
b °oä of 42 infants in the children’s home in Helsingfors (21 well infante and
21 infants suffering from intestinal disturbances) he concludes that the sugar

SsJBK*

was much less

Ogata, M atsutaro: Blutbefunde im Kindesalter [Blood* Findings in Child­
hood]. Greifswald, 1908. 63 pp.
Inaugural dissertation (University of Greifswald). Data on red comuscles
white corpuscles, specific gravity, hemoglobin content, quantitative values of
healthv e Ä e n f fleUC0C:yteeS’ an.d alkalinity. The author’s studied i n Ä 17
cbildren from infancy to 9 years. The newborn showed the highest
numbers of erythrocytes and leucocytes and the highest hemoglobin content
* t w e m Tj.os,<
f ouu
o ana
« T eb,730,
r a o but
' t a the
Æ ’?latter
0,0,
».S92|«0
a idage.
Ä e The
c o snecifie
Ä S
increased
with
a+VG
y
and hemoglobin content 80 to 91 per cent Alkalinitv
is 426.4 to 479.7 milligrams of sodium hydroxid. Bibliography.
'
K l ty
Opitz, H a n s: “ Über Blutregeneration bei Kindern, insbesondere bei
Säuglingen”
[Blood regeneration in children, especially infantsl
Monatschr. f. Kinderh. [Leipzig], vol. 24 (1923), pp. 112-204.
m
*® divided into discussions on physiological peculiarities of child
hood, general comments on blood regeneration, effect on blood regeneration of
such Physical agents as light, natural and artificial, of endocrines and
a£ extravascular and intravascular blood transfusion. Subjects were free from
are bgiven!n
bHograp*hy. Mimy P&ges ° f case histories and tables of findings
Orland, Ferdinand: “ Beitrag zur Untersuchung des neutrophilen Blut­
bildes beim gesunden und beim kranken Säugling” [Contribution to
investigation of. the neutrophil blood picture in the healthy and sick
infant]. Medizinische Klinik [Berlin], vol. 3 (1907), pp. 1491-1493.
A study in mothers’ consultations and women’s clinic in Bonn of the blood
picture of 14 healthy breast-fed infants, varying in age from 3 days to 7
months, brought to a clinic in Bonn. Valqes for normal adults are also given
The tables give percentages of nuclear forms from one to five. No observations were made before the third day after birth. Prom then till the eighth
moÇth there was little variation, nor did change in diet produce any real
modification.
J
Otto, Oscar: “ Über Blutkörperchenzählungen in den ersten Lebensjahren
[The Blood Count during the Early Years of Life].
Halle 1883
30 pp.
Inaugural dissertation (University of Halle). After a long account of previliterature on blood corpuscles in adults and children the author presents
the figures he obtained from counting corpuscles in blood taken from the
fingers o f 10 normal children, 10 rachitic, 8 scrofulous or tubercular, 15 with


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P H Y S IC A L G RO W TH AND D EVELOPM EN T OF T H E C H ILD
diarrhea, and 6 others in pathological condition. Among the 10 normal infants
between 10 hours and 1 year 2 months in age only 3 had fewer red corpuscles
than adults. The usual effect of illness was to increase the white corpuscles.
Parouty, Raym ond-M arie-Léonard: Étude clinique de la coagulation du
sang de l’enfant à. l’état normal et dans certains états pathologiques [A
Clinical Study of the Coagulation of the Blood of the Child in Normal
Health and in Certain Pathological Conditions]. Bordeaux;, no. 44,
1910. 114 pp.
Thesis for medical degree (University of Bordeaux). Following a lengthy
discussion of methods of determining the time of coagulation of the blood, the
•author records, by individual cases, the results of three series of observations
made by himself, as follows : Infants, born at term, from 1 day to 18 months
of age, 23 observations, 11 minutes, 15 seconds, to 12 minutes; children from
18 months to 5 years, 26 observations, 9 minutes 15 seconds to 9 minutes
40 seconds ; children from 5 to 15 shears. 27 observations, 9 minutes 40
seconds. The rest of the thesis concerns pathological conditions. Bibliography.
Peiper, Erich: “ Das specifische Gewicht des menschlichen Blutes ” [Spe­
cific gravity of human blood]. Centralblatt für Klinische Medicvn
[Leipzig], voi. 12 (1891), pp. 217-224.
Peiper’s tests by means of Schmaltz’s capillary pyknometer were made with
11 healthy children— 8 boys between 7 and 10 years of age and 3 girls between
6 and 13. The specific gravity for the boys was 1.0522 and for the girls
1.0501— values lower than those for adults.
Perlin, A n n a : “ Beitrag zur Kenntnis der physiologischen Grenzen des
Hämoglobingehaltes und der Zahl der Blutkörperchen im Kindesalter ”
[Contribution to the knowledge of the physiological limits of the
hemoglobin content and the number of corpuscles in the blood in
childhood]. Jahrl). f. Kinderh. [Berlin], voi. 58 (1903), pp. 549-571.
The author examined the blood of 155 healthy and 31 sick children from
1 day to 16 years old and from the poorer classes. She used Frank’s needle
in taking the blood, determined the hemoglobin with. Fleischl’s hemometer as
improved by Miescher, and often, in addition, used Gower’s hemoglobinometer.
The number of red corpuscles was determined by the apparatus of Thoma£eiss, and the white corpusc’ es were determined by the apparatus o f Thoma.
The results obtained are shown in one table for the first three days, in another
table for the fourth to the thirtieth day, and in other tables for 2 to 18
months, 2 to 4 years, 4 to 8 years, and 16 to 18 years. The figures are
compared with those of other investigators. The author found a higher
content in the well to do and a lower in sick children, but no difference
caused by sex. The content of hemoglobin and of red corpuscles is highest
in the newborn and lowest in the first year and rises to the sixteenth ye°r.
That of the white corpuscles is highest in the newborn and sinks to the
sixteenth year. Bibliography.
Pettibone, C. J. V ., and F. W . Schultz: “Amino acid nitrogen in the
systemic blood of children in health and disease.”
J. A. M. A.
[Chicago], voi. 67 (1916), pp. 262-263.
Observations on the amino acid content of the blood of more than 60 children
from 1 month to 13 years of age, among -whom were 10 normal subjects.
Blood was drawn by hypodermic from the median basilic vein of the arm or
by Tobler’ s method from the superior longitudinal sinus. Analysis was done
by the method of Van Slyke and Meyer. The results as tabulated show in
normal children 2.05 to 6.97 millimeters of nitrogen per 100 cubic centimeters
of blood.
Pfaundler, Meinhard: “ Physikalisch-chemische Untersuchungen an Kin­
derblut ” [Physicochemical investigations of children’s blood]. Verhand­
lungen der Gesellschaft für Kinderheilkunde [Wiesbaden], voi. 21-22
(1 9 0 4 -5 ), pp. 24-40.
Pfaundler believes that the most promising way to study the blood physically
and chemically is through the determination of its alkalinity, which is related
to the blood contept in hydroxyl ions. He uses Farka’s method as modified by
Hober, whereby the electromotive power is measured by the compensation
method after charging the chain by a very sensitive galvanometer. It takes
less time and is better than the titration method. Blood was taken from a vein
or from a heart puncture directly after death, the two methods giving almost
the same results; 100 measurements were made on 40 children. The con­
centration of the hydroxyl ions in the blood serum varied between 0.2 by 10_T
and 3.4 by 1()-7 grams equivalent per liter. Values increased after first year on
to maturity.
-------— “ Über die actuelle Reaction des kindlichen Blutes ” [Actual re­
action of child’s blood]. Arch. f. Kinderh. [Stuttgart], voi. 41 (1905),
pp. 161-184.
After a long theoretical discussion of the lessened alkalinity of blood as a
biochemical criterion for acidosis, the author presents a table on ion concentra­
tion and reaction of serum of blood of 28 children, some dead, some alive.
Blood was taken from the latter while fasting and in bed. Ages ranged from
2 days to 13 years. In 6 cases there was an acid reaction, in 14 an alkaline
reaction, in 8 an almost neutral reaction. High alkalinity is rare in the
infant ; neutral reaction is rare in the older child. Bibliography.


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Pollitzer, R . : Stato del sangue e degli organi ematopoietici nel neonato ”
{State of the blood and of the hematopoietic organs of the newborn
infant]. La, Pediatria [Rome], vol. 32 (1924), pp. 1144-1154.
The author studied the most important hematopoietic organ, the bone
marrow, in 32 normal newborn infants from 8 hours to 6 days old. In each
ease he examined the peripheral blood and made a puncture in the tibia for the
hematopoietic examination. He gives- his findings in two tables; in one the
data on the analysis of the peripheral blood for each infant; hi the second
table the contents of the bone marrow in each case. The blood of the newborn
is abnormally rich in cellular elements and in hemoglobyi ; and even in the first
few days it contains some erythrobla’sts. In- the marrow at the time of birth
immature red corpuscles are more numerous than the white ones; a few davs
later the proportion is reversed. The more intense proliferation of the white
medullary elements coincides chronologically with the diminution of the poly­
nuclear s in the blood
There exists, in general, an inverse relation betwecm
° “ mber
the fully formed blood corpuscles, white or red, in the blood
and the number o f the immature elements in the marrow.
Rabinowitsch, D ina: “ Die Leukocyten verschiedener Altersstufen. Un­
tersuchungen über die Leukocyten gesunder Kinder ” [The leucocytes
at various ages. Investigations on the leucocytes of healthy children]
Arch. f. Kinderh. [Stuttgart], vol. 59 (1912-13), supplement, pp. 161-172
The author tested the blood of 150 healthy boys and girls from 1 to 16
years of age, and arranged in tables the maximum, minimum, and average
number of total leucocytes and various forms of leucocytes in 1 cubic milli¡PStSF
l1*00*? according to age. The total number was on an average 6 000—
7,000, as in adults. The neutrophils were 30 per cent of total white corpuscles
at 1 and 2 years and 70 per cent at 15, as in adults. The lymphocytes were 60
per cent at 1 and 2 years and 30 per cent at 16, as in adulk The eosinophils
were 4 to 6 per cent. The transitional forms were 2 to 3 per cent. The inmst
cells were 0.3 to 0.6 per cent. The large mononuclear cells were 1 to 3 3
per. cent. Sex did not affect the leucocytes.
Reiss, E m il: “ Die refraktometrische Blutuntersuchung und ihre Ergeb­
nisse für die Physiologie und Pathologie des Menschen” [Refractometric blood tests and their bearing on human physiology and path­
ology]. Ergebnisse der Inneren Medisin und Kinderheilkunde [Berlin 1
vol. 10 (1913), pp. 531-634.
This article, containing 34 tables, discusses refrnetometric blood tests in
general, types of refractometer. manner of taking blood, etc., an«! their uses
and results in both the physiological and the pathological state Many Dages
devoted to the calculation of the albumin content from the coefficient of
refraction. Albumin content of blood serum is between 7 and 9 per cent in
ml k. a io i a.nd between 5.6 and 6.6 per cent up to fifth month in th° in fL t
Table _0 gives these findings in 40 cases between the ages of IV. days and
18 years. Breast-fed children are indicated with an asterisk. The method
used gives exa^t results for water loss and water retention in nutritional
disturbances of infants. Bibliography.
"
in nutritional

306

“ Untersuchungen der Blutkonzenfration des- Säuglings ” [Inves­
tigations into the concentration of the blood o f infants]
Jahrb f
Kinderh. [Berlin], vol. 70 (1909), pp. 311-362.
‘
b * . the concentration of the blood in infancy the author means not the
osmotic concentration but the combined content of all dissolved substances
The author took the blood from the great toe three hours after the last
me_al and examined the blood serum refractometricaliv. The child’s weight was
determmed at the same time
A table for 38 healthy children D 7 infants
and the others langmg from 1 to 18 years) shows refractive index and nro
i tein content
The latter is 5 6 per cent to 6.6 per cent for the infants and
J ’ o b fr cent to 9 per cent for the older child, as for adults
Twentv-one
case histories are p’-esented.
-«-wcniy one

307

von Reuss, A . : “ Über den Antitrypsingehalt des Serums beim Säugling”
[Antitrypsin content of serum in the infant],
Wiener Klinische
Wochenschrift, vol. 22 (1909), pp. 1171-1172.
The author presents a table on antitrypsin value of serum in 43 infants
Results are usually negativ- in the breast-fed infants, positive in sick infants
and slightly positive in healthy artificially-fed infants.
miants,
Riesenfeld, E. A ., A . R. Rose, and I. H andelm an: “ The distribution of
inorganic phosphorus m the blood of the newborn.” Am J Dis Child
[Chicago], vol. 29 (1925), pp. 611-617.
*
with examinations of the whole blood of the umbilical cord
examinations were made o f : (a) Arterial blood-of the cord lb)
venous blood of the cord, (c) blood from the superior longitudinal sinus and
inn J 6? 011® blood from the mother. Decided differences and variations’ were
found in the samples from these sources. The difference between the phosphorus values in whole blood of the umbilical cord and in arterial and venous
coid blood was found tm be very slight. The phosphorus of maternal blood
was usual.y lower than that of cord blood The cases in which the phosphorus
to thn«aD-el £ & & 'A ceecJe'i fbat of cord blo.od were about equal in number
to those in which the cord blood exceeded fontanel blood. A close parallelism

308

12229°— 27—

tbe
11


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PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF TH E CHILD
B iesenfeld, E. A ., Isidore H andelm an, and A n ton B . B o se : “ Inorganic
phosphorus in the blood of the newborn; its seasonal variation and its
relation to rickets.” Am. J. Dis. Child. [Chicago], vol. 30 (1925), pp.
646-658.
One thousand four hundred and thirty-nine inorganic phosphorus determina­
tions were made on the blood of mothers and their newborn infants. Nearly
80 per cent of the subjects were of the negro race. The original Tisdall
method of analysis was used. The child’s blood was obtained by severing the
litigated pulsating cord and permitting the blood to drip into a test tube.
The infant’s blood averaged 4.12 ±0.028 milligrams inorganic phosphorus per
100 cubic centimeters. No significant variations were found due to race,
previous habitat of the mother, or time the mother spent out of doors during
gestation, but variations with diet of the mother, season, relative humidity,
and available sunlight were apparent. The article contains six tables, four
charts, and a reference list.
Bom inger, Erich: “ Über den Wassergehalt des Blutes des gesunden und
ernährungsgestörten Säuglings ” [The water content of the blood o f the
healthy and dyspeptic infant]. Ztschr. f. Kinderh. Originalien [Ber­
lin ], vol. 26 (1920), pp 23-64.
Bang’s method was used. Five pages of tables give the water content of the
blood of 64 healthy infants (including 4 premature infants) for the first year.
Results are also given of tests upon 32 healthy infants fed weak fennel tea.
The effects of fasting upon water content of the blood are also noted. A high
concentration was found during the first month. After the fifth month there
was little fluctuation. No difference was found between breast-fed and arti­
ficially-fed infants.
Bosenstern, J .: “ Über alimentare Leukocytose ” [Alimentary leucocytosis]. Monatschr. f. Kinderh. [Leipzig and Vienna], vol. 8 (1909-10),
pp. 9-23.
On the basis of previous tests and those described in this article, the author
feels convinced that all constituent parts of milk except water, but especially
sugar and salts, can call forth fever and leucocytosis, and that this is not due
to bacteria or catarrhal condition. With human milk as well as cow’s milk
there appear substances that can in certain circumstances work chemotactica lly ; appearing in normal digestion, they lose their toxic effect in circulation
unless too concentrated, as in case of 3 per cent sodium chlorid dose per os.
or unless given parenterally. Since albumin and fat play but a small part in
this connection, the author’s experiments involve ingredients of whey, milk
sugar, and salts, in weak and strong doses, by mouth and subcutaneously, ■but
not intravenously, given to three healthy babies and many more dyspeptic ones.
Results are put in tables and curves.
E u sz, Em erich: “ Die physiologischen Schwankungen der Refraction und
der Viskosität des Säuglingsblutes ” [Physiological variations of the
refraction and viscosity of infant blood].
Monatschr. f. Kinderh.
[Leipzig and Vienna], vol. 10 (1911), pp. 360-372.
The author tested viscosity of infant blood by Determann’s apparatus and
refraction of plasma by Abbe’ s refractometer. Only healthy subjects were used.
Tables give age, body weight, viscosity, and refraction. Table I on 108 infants
follows the generalizing method for ages from 3 hours to 14 months. Tables
II and III follow the individualizing method on seven and three subjects dur­
ing first few days of life. Two curves show weight, refraction, and viscosity
for first month and for 14 months. Tables IV and V show the influence of
time' o f day, and the final table, VI. gives viscosity and refraction before and
after meals for 24 subjects. Viscosity and refraction vary widely in infants.
They rise during first few days, then sink. The viscosity sinks gradually dur­
ing the whole first year and refraction rises gradually. Bibliography.
Samelson, S .: “ Über Fettspaltung im Säuglingsblut” [Splitting of fat
in infant blood]. Ztschr. f. Kinderh. [Berlin], vol. 4 (1912), pp. 205-207.
Author investigates the fat-splitting power of blood in 14 infants between
3 months and 2 years of age. A table shows the presence of a fat-splitting
ferment in the serum in every case. This is evidently a means used by the
organism to bring fat into blood circulation and also to remove it.
Scheer, K u rt: “ Der Chlorspiegel im Blutserum des Säuglings und seine
Abhängigkeit von der Magensaftsekretion ” [Chlorin picture in the
blood serum of the infant and its dependence on secretion o f gastric
juice]. Jahrh. f. Kinderh. [Berlin], vols. 91-92 (1920), pp. 347-356.
The author studied relations of body weight, albumin, and ehlorin in the
serum of blood taken hourly between 9 a. m. and 6 p. m. from the heels of
nine infants from 2 to 4 months old. Diets were mother’ s milk, milk gruel,
protein milk, buttermilk, and tea. Bang’s micromethod was used. The article
contains nine curves. Bibliography.
----------- “ Untersuchungen über den Chloridgehalt des Serums beim
Säugling unter verschiedenen Bedingungen ” [Investigations on the
Chloride content of infant serum under various conditions]. Jahrh. f.
Kinderh. [Berlin], vol. 44-46 (1921), pp. 295-314.
By Bang’s microfnethod the author tested the percentage of chloride in the
blood serum of 70 infants, taking the blood from the heel. Results are put


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In eight curves and in tables. The content in the resting organism was found
to be 0.50 to 0.59 per cent. It is closely related to digestion, falling after
meals. This phenomenon is not to be found after the third or fourth year.
Salt temporarily causes a high chloride content. Bibliography.
Scherenziss, D avid : Untersuchungen fiber das foetale Blut im Momente
der Geburt [Investigations on Fetal Blood at Moment of Birth].
Dorpat, 1888. 36 pp.
Inaugural dissertation (University of Dorpat). The author studies blood of
the infant at birth as compared with that of adults. At outset he describes
his methods o f determining specific gravity of bipod 9 times and of serum
5 times, of determining fibrin content of blood 9 times, content of insoluble
salts in blood 6 times and in serum 4 times, chlorin content in blood 6 times
and in serum 4 times, and his methods in 4 potassium and sodium deter­
minations and 10 spectrophotometric hemoglobin determinations. The average
specific gravity of the blood of the newborn is 1.0592, of adults 1.0607. Average
hemoglobin is 76.8 for infants, 100 for adults. Fibrin content of infants stands
in relation to mother’s blood as 2 :7 . Infant blood is richer in salt and in
sodium but poorer in potassium than is adult blood. Sex and weight appear to
have no effect on the quantitative composition of blood of the infant at birth.
Tables are given.
Schiff, E rn st: “ Beiträge zur Chemie des Blutes der Neugeborenen ”
[Contribution to the chemistry of the blood of the newborn]. Jahrb.
f. Kinderh. [Berlin], vol. 64 (1906), pp. 409-441, 540-575.
The author studied the chemistry of blood during the first 10 days of
infancy, noting also temperature, weight, and stools.
He determined dry
residue, ash, albumen, and specific gravity of serum in a large series of cases.
Results are tabulated and discussed.
----------- “ Neuere Beiträge zur Hämatologie der Neugeborenen mit be­
sonderer Rücksicht auf die Abnabelungszeit” [More recent contribu­
tions to the hematology of newborn infants with special reference to
the time of cutting the navel cord]. Jahrb. f. Kinderh. [Leipzig], new
ser. vol. 34 (1892), pp. 159-201, 459-481.
The theories of other authors are discussed. The author’s own observations
are 500 in number upon 27 infants, of whom 18 had the cord cut 10 minutes
after birth and 9 at birth. At birth the nurse held the cord and the doctor
took a drop of blood from the great t o e ; he took another drop when the cord
was cut. On succeeding days of sojourn in the hospital blood tests were made
and also, determinations of weight, temperature, urine, chlorides, urates, and
specific gravity of the blood. The very numerous tables contain data on the
red corpuscles of the blood, according to immediate or late cutting of cord
and age, on daily amount of urine, percentage of urea, etc. The author believes
that the infant gains in weight through gain of blood during birth and through
retention of umbilical cord some minutes after birth, but that this excess of
blood is lost during the first three or four days.
-------- “ Neuere Beiträge zur Haematologie der Neugeborenen ” [New
contributions to the hematology of newborn infants].
Jahrb. f.
Kinderh. [Berlin], vol. 54 (1901), pp. 1-23, 172-212.
The author made 834 tests of the specific gravity of the blood of 58 infants;
25 he did not consider in this study because they were not perfectly healthy.
He also made 259 observations for hemoglobin upon 20 infants and 63 obser­
vations for the number of red corpuscles. All this experimentation covered the
first 10 days of extrauterine life. The direct or pyknometric method and the
indirect method are described, of which the author prefers the former. The
prick was made in the great toe always in the same circumstances. Full
notations were kept of the infant’s condition. Whereas the specific gravity ol
the blood in the adult and older child remains approximately the same, that
o f the newborn varies for the individual and by day and by hour. The limits
for the first 10 days are 1.0813 and 1.0590. There is a decrease of about
0.001 per day and 0.01 from birth until the tenth day. The high specific
gravity at birth the author ascribes to initial difficulties of circulation and to
rapid cooling. The specific gravity is higher by day than by night, higher in
sturdy than weak infants, and in those whose umbilical cord is cut late. Sex
and order of birth seem to have no influence. Nor does the specific gravity
appear to vary with the number of blood corpuscles nor the hemoglobin content.
This long article contains many tables.
-------- “ Über das quantitative Verhalten der Blutkörperchen und des
Haemoglobin bei neugeborenen Kindern und Säuglingen unter normalen
und pathologischen Verhältnissen ” [The quantitative content of the
corpuscles and hemoglobin in the blood of newborn children and
nurslings in normal and pathological conditions].
Zeitschrift für
Heilkunde [Berlin], vol. 11 (1890), pp. 17-88.
The author discusses in detail the methods and results of his investigations
on the red corpuscles, white cells, and hemoglobin in the blood of young
Infants. He obtained the blood, usually twice a day, by pricking the great toe
with a needle and used Thoma-Zeiss’s apparatus in counting. He presents
comprehensive tables and in many cases curves of his tests on about a dozen
infants. The red and white corpuscles and hemoglobin are all greater in
quantity during the first three or four days of life and decrease with irregular
fluctuations.
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Schiff, Ernst, and E. R oser: “ Über das quantitative Verhalten der Albu­
mine und Globuline im Blutserum des Säuglings ” [Quantitative pro­
portion of albumin and globulin in blood ierum of the infant]. Monatschr. f. Kinderh. [Berlin], vol. 19 (1920-21), pp. 15-20.
The author gives data on albumin and. globulin content of blood serum,
hemoglobin, and number o f red and white corpuscles in 49 infants. Albumin
tends to have highest values in healthy and in young infants.
Schippers, J. C.: “ Bestimmung der Blutlipoide nach B a n g ” [Determina­
tion of blood lipoids after the method of Bang]. Jahrb. f. Kinderh.
[Berlin], vol. 93 (1920), pp. 151-159.
After discussing Ivor Bang’s two methods of determining blood lipoids the
author lists a number of results he obtained from his own investigations
concerning the blood content in neutral, fat, Cholesterin, cholesterinester, and
phosphates and fatty acids of infants and older children. The tests were
made in the morning after a fast of 10 hours. There was great variation
among different individuals and slight variation among various tests on the
same; subject. From comparison of above figures obtained from infants, older
children, sick children, and children with eczema the author concludes that
there is probably a relation between the ester content of blood and resistance
to disease.
■
-----------and Cornelia de L a n g e : “ Verdauungsleukocytöse und Verdauungs­
leukopenie bei Kindern ” [Leueocytosis and leucopenia in children
during digestion]. Ztschr. f. Kinderh. [Berlin], vol. 33 (1922), pp.
169-183.
To study action of leucocytes during digestion in healthy childhood the
authors studied the effect of fasting on 9 subjects, cow’s milk on 11 infants,
mother’ s milk on 7 infants, cow’s milk on 12 children between 1% and 8
years, pancreatin solution on 4, and effect of lying and standing on 6. Data
are shown in five curves and many tables. Among the conclusions the authors
state that Widal’s method of testing function of liver by hemoclastic reaction
is not practicable in infants and young children. Number of leucocytes in
fasting children is very varied, even in the same child. There is also great
variation during digestion, which may be due to difference in time of day, to
excitement, exertion, static and chemical influences, etc.
Schloss, 0 . M . : “ The normal percentages of the different varieties of
leukocytes in infants and children.” Archives of Internal Medicine
[Chicago], vol. 6 (1910), pp. 638-645.
The blood of 80 children, 3 days to 12 years old, was examined; causes of
eosinopbilia as eczema or helminthiasis were eliminated. In making the dif­
ferential white counts the results of the cover slip and slide smears tallied
Well, Repeated counts were made on each child. The technique is described.
The conclusion was that there is no physiological eosinophilia in childhood;
5 per cent is the upper limit of normal. There is considerable fluctuation in
the eosinophile percentage.
— - and H elen H a rrin g to n : “ Comparison of the carbon dioxid
tension of the alveolar air and the hydrogen-ion concentration of the
urine with the bicarbonate of the blood plasma.” Am. J. Bis, Child.
[Chicago], vol. 17 (1919), pp. 85-94.
In estimating the carbon-dioxid tension of the alveolar air and the bicar­
bonate of the blood plasma in 21 infants at the Bellevue Hospital, New York,
...
,
„ plasma bicarbonate (carbon dioxid, volume per cent)
the average value o f ------------ ^ F on -d iöxid tensi5FWf"alT^l^F air ' !---------was
1.5. The factor by which the carbon dioxid of the plasma bound as bicarbonate
must be multiplied to be converted into terms of carbon-dioxid tension of
alveolar air, was found to be 0.66. These factors (1.5 and 0.66) are identical
with those found for adults. The estimation of alveolar air was unreliable in
infants with shallow respiration The hydrogen-ion concentration of the urine
varied with diet. Tables.
Schlutz, F. W ., and C. J. V . Pettibon e: “ Quantitative determinations
of nonprotein nitrogen in the blood of the new-born.” Am. J. Bis.
Child. [Chicago], vol. 10 (1915), pp. 206-211. ,
The result of 26 blood analyses in children under 1 2 .days of age are tabu­
lated and discussed. The age, weight, hours after feeding, total nonprotein
nitrogen, urea nitrogen by both the Folin-Denis and Van Slyke methods,
ammonia nitrogen, and amino-acid nitrogen are stated.
Schmal, S .: “ Blutzuckerwerte bei Frühgeborenen’’ [Amounts of sugar
in the blood of newborn infants], Ztschr. f. Kinderh. [Berlin], vol. 3§
(1924), pp. 597-598.
An original study of sugar in the blood of 11 prematurely born children
weighing from 1,600 to 2,875 grams and from 12 hours to 51 days old- Iphp
amount of sugar in the blood varied fpom Q.0513 tq 0-0812 pgr cent, which is
considerably lower than [bat in infants born at term.* This agrees with
Rumpfs theory that the younger the individual [he smaller [he amqun[ of sqgg?
in the blood.


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Schiicking, A drian : “ Die Blutmenge der Neugeborenen.
Ein neuer
Beitrag zur Abnabelungstheorie ” [Amount of blood in the newborn.
A new contribution to theory of cutting umbilical cord]. Berliner
Klinische Wochenschrift, vol. 16 (1879), pp. 581-583.
The author emphasizes that the umbilical cord should not be cut until the
infant has received the maximum of blood. He refers to writings on the
subject by himself and others and describes his tests on five infant cadavers
in three of which, where cord was cut after several minutes, the total amount
of blood equaled one-ninth of body weight, and in two, where cord was cut im­
mediately, blood equaled only one-fifteenth of total weight.
329 Schulz, P au l: “ Ein Beitrag zur Frage der Verdauungslipämie ” [A con­
tribution to the question of digestive lipemia]. Ztschr. f. Kinderh.
Originalien [Berlin], vol. 4 (1912), pp. 63-91.
To determine lipemia the author uses Schelble’s method of classifying the
blood serum as very slightly cloudy, cloudy, very cloudy, and expressively
cloudy. To do this he draws a few drops of blood from the heel or great toe
and centrifuges it at the rate of 3,000 revolutions a minute, removing the
fibrin from the serum. The fat in the nourishment is determined. The children
tested included healthy infants breast fed and artificially fed and atrophic
children without fever. Full details are embodied in case histories, curves, and
tables. The clouding appears two to three hours after the meal, disappears in
seven to nine hours, and is strongest two to four hours after. A feces test
proved that the fat was well assimilated. The author concludes that a part of
the fat ingested goes into the blood through the ductus thoracicus, and another
part by way of the blood capillaries through the cystic veins into the liver.
How much is retained there is not known. The fat in butter caused the greatest
cloudiness, that in mother’s milk and cow’s milk much less; next in order come
sesame oil and cod-liver oil.
330 Scipiades, Elm er: “ Beiträge zur Physiologie des Blutes der Neuge­
borenen in den ersten 10 Lebenstagen” [Contributions to physiology
of the blood of the newborn in first ten days of life]. Archiv für
Gynaekolögie [Berlin], vol. 70 (1908), pp. 630-655.
Scipiades tests the blood of eight newborn healthy infants, using ThomaZeiss’s apparatus for counting the red and white corpuscles and Lacker’s for
drawing blood from the great toe. Tables give findings for each of the first 10
days, or tests made upon five infants ¿athed only once after birth and upon three
tfiat received daily baths. The only distinction between the two types was that
the number of red and white corpuscles was somewhat higher in the children
bathed every day than in the others. This may have been due to chance. The
number of red corpuscles at birth is unusually large; later few are needed and
produced. White corpuscles also decrease.
331 Sedgwick, J. P ., and F. B. K in gsb u ry: “ The uric-acid content of the
blood in the newr-born.” Transactions of the American Pediatric Society
[New York], vol. 29 (1917), pp. 51-57. See also Journal of Biological
Chemistry [Baltimore], vol. 31 (1917), pp. 261-268.
Report of an investigation to determine whether the high uric-acid excretion
during the first few days of life is accompanied by a simultaneous increase of
this substance in the blood. The Myers-Fine and Lough modification of the
original Folin-Denis method for the determination of uric acid was used with
minor changes. Daylight was used whenever possible in reading the colorimeter.
The uric-acid content of the blood of 31 newborn infants, from content of
placental blood to that 10 days after birth is tabulated; also, for comparison,
th» uric-acid content in 18 tests of maternal and placental blood. The authors
think their finding of parallelism of high uric-acid content and high excretion of
this substance during the first three or four days is indirect support of the
theory that human fetal tissues possess no micolytic power. References.
332 -----------and M . Z ie g le r: “ The nitrogenous and sugar content of the blood
of the newborn.” Am. J. Dis. Child. [Chicago], vol. 19 (1920), pp.
429-432.
Analysis of the blood of 51 normal infants 3 to 43 days old shows that
the values for ereatin plus creatinin and nonprotein nitrogen are high during
the first days of life. The creatinin and sugar values are essentially the
same as for normal adults. The urea nitrogen is near the maximum for
normal adult value.
333 Sherman, Dewitt H ., George W . Pucher, and H arry R. Lohnes: “ Blood
chemistry of the newborn in health and in inanition fever.” Am. J.
Dis. Child. [Chicago], vol. 30 (1925), pp. 496-503.
A detailed account of a comparison of the blood chemistry of normal newborn
infants with that of infants suffering from inanition fever. In the study of
23 normal infants the authors state that “ the values on the first day were
on cord blood, while the data on the third and fifth days were obtained from
the fontanel.” Analysis showed urea nitrogen varying but little during the
period studied: carbohydrate falling slightly after the first d a y ; sodium
chlorid definitely higher on the first day than later, and reaching a con­
stant level on the th ird; amino acids high in cord blood and coming to a
constant level on the third d a y ; carbon dioxide combining power expressed in


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millimeters, low in the cord blood and increasing up to the fifth d a y ; per­
centage of water almost constant, the average being 79.3 per cent. The blood
chemistry of the normal newborn, after the third day, is within the range of
the averages reported for the normal adult.
334 Silbermann, Oscar: “ Zur Hämatologie der Neugeborenen ” [Hematology
of the newborn], jahrb. f. Kinderh. [Leipzig], new ser. vol. 26 (1887),
pp. 252-257.
A study of the blood of 60 newborn infants. It was found that the decom­
position o.f corpuscles during the first days of life releases hemoglobin, and
that the blood of newborn infants is richer in fibrin ferment than that of
adults.
335 Slawik, E rn st: “ Studien über die physiologischen Verhältnisse des Blutes
' beim Neugeborenen mit besonderer berücksichtigung der Blutplättchen ”
[Studies on physiological condition of blood in the newborn, with
special reference to blood platelets]. Ztsehr. f. Kinderh. [Berlin],
vol. 24-25 (191 9-20), pp. 212-226.
Erythrocytes in 82 countings on young infants averaged 5,580,000. After
great variation during the first 10 days the excess of erythrocytes ceased, the
number falling in one case from 8,200,000 to 6,400,000. For nine premature
infants the average was 5,950,000. White corpuscles in 82 countings averaged
11,200. Glass cover-slip preparations were made after the method of Sahli
for blood platelets of 20 healthy 10-day-old infants. The number varied
from 202,000 to 616,000. (It was 230,000 in premature infants.) There
was great variation in structure and size. By the fourth week the giant
platelets were no longer found. Bibliography.
336 Stoeltzner, W ilh e lm : “ Bestimmungen der Blutalkalescenz an rachiti­
schen und nichtrachitischen Kindern ” [Determinations of blood alka­
linity in rachitic and nonrachitic children]. JahrT). f. Kinderh. [Leip­
zig], vol. 45 (1897), pp. 29-44.
In 1896 Stoeltzner tested alkalinity of the blood of 200 children, using the
method o f Löwy as modified bv Berend. The lowest value found was 35.4
and the highest 468. Alkalinity is not dependent on diet and is not- corre­
lated with rachitis. A table gives detailed data on 25 infants. Bibliography.
337 Strathmann, H erw eg H . : “ Untersuchungen über den Cholesteringehalt
des. Blutserums ” [Investigations on Cholesterin content of blood se­
rum]. Monatschr. f. Kinderh. [Berlin], vol. 19 (1 92 0-21), pp. 20-27.
The author presents a table giving Cholesterin content of serum and age and
nutrition of 28 persons between 3 weeks and 28 years of age, a few o f whom
were healthy. Values for healthy infants fell between 0.13 and 0.16 (values
for adults are 0.11 to 0.24). The author concludes that diet does not affect
Cholesterin value in the healthy infant. Bibliography.
838 Strzelbicki, J .: “ Przyczynek do nauki o morfologii i patologii krwi
dziecieeej” [Morphology and pathology of children’s blood]. Gazeta
Lekarska [W arsaw ], ser. 2, vol. 17 (1897), pp. 718-727, 749-754,
781-785.
After quoting a number of writers the author gives an account of his own
study of the blood of 63 normal children varying In age from 10 minutes to 13
years. He gives in tables for each case the number of red and white blood
corpuscles and the proportion between the two.
339 Tagliam uro, P .: “ Contributo clinico-sperimentale sul contenuto in ferro
del sangue dei bambini in condizioni normali e patologiche ” [Clinicoexperimental data on the iron content of children’s blood in normal
and pathological conditions]. Lh Pediatria [Naples], vol. 15 (1907),
pp. 561-575.
After quoting a number of writers the author gives an account of his study
as to whether there is a relation between the quantity of hemoglobin and iron
in children’s blood under normal and pathological conditions. For this purpose
he studied 6 normal children from 17 months to 6 years old, and 41 sick chil­
dren from 7 months to 5 years old. He gives for each case the age, hemoglobin,
and iron content of the blood and concludes that there is no constant relation
between the hemoglobin and iron content under either normal or pathological
conditions.
340 Takasu, K . : “ Blutuntersuchungen bei den japanischen Kindern ” [In­
vestigations of blood of Japanese children]. Arch. f. Kinderh. [Stutt­
gart], vol. 39 (1904), pp. 346-354.
The author tested the blood of 48 Japanese children— 30 that were 2 hours
to 10 days old and 18 older children. Findings appear in two tables. Examin­
ing two groups from 1 to 3 days old and from 4 to 10 days old, he found
averages to be, respectively, for hemoglobin, 130.2'per cent and 121.1 per cent:
for red corpuscles, 4,843,000 and 4,656,000; for white corpuscles, 19,300 and


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14,700 ; for polynuclear neutrophiles, 68.4 per cent and 58.5 per cent ; and for
lymphocytes, 26 per cent and 34.5 per cent. Contrary to Schiff, Takasu con­
cludes that race does not affect composition of the blood.
Tileston, W ild er, and C. W . Com fort: “ The total nonprotein nitrogen
and the urea of the blood, and the phenolsulphonephthalein excretion
in children.” Am. J. Dis. Child. [Chicago], voi. 10 (1915), pp. 278-287.
A study of the blood and urine in various pathological conditions, contain­
ing also a record of five practically normal cases. The blood of two children,
over 2 years of age, taken before breakfast after a fast of 12 hours or more,
showed 24.4 and 26 milligrams of nitrogen and 9.5 and 10.9 milligrams of
urea nitrogen per 100 cubic centimeters, respectively. The phenolphthalein
excretion in normal children, when the period of observation was extended to
two hours, was within the limits of 78 to 81 per cent.
Tisdall, Frederick F., T. G . H . Drake, and A lan Brown: “ The carbohy­
drate metabolism of the normal infant.” Am. J. Dis. Child. [Chicago],
voi. 30 (1925), pp. 675-682.
The authors determined the fasting blood-sugar concentration in 68 normal
infants, varying in age from 1 to 18 months. Blood was taken from the longi­
tudinal sinus at least four hours after feeding, and tested by the SchafferHartmann method. An average value of 0.085 per cent was found, the normal
variation appearing to be from 0.075 to 0.095 per cent. Subcutaneous injec­
tions of lb cubic centimeters per pound of body weight of a 5 per cent solu­
tion of glucose produced only a slight rise in blood-sugar concentration ; of
10 and 15 per cent solutions, after one-half hour, a rise to about 0.225 per
cent. Intravenous administration of a 10 per cent solution of glucose pro­
duced a greater rise in blood-sugar concentration, but tue original level was
more quickly reached. Charts are presented and references given.
Trum pp: “ Viskosität, Hämoglobin- und Eiweissgehalt des kindlichen
B lu tes” [The viscosity, hemoglobin, and albumin of children’s blood].
Münchener Medizinische Wochenschrift, voi. 56, pt. 2 (1909), pp. 21452147.
With Hess’s viscosimeter the author studied for two years the viscosity,
hemoglobin, and albumin of children’s blood. For the albumin he took blood
from the vein, for the other two purposes from the toe. He tested 152 chil­
dren, 7 women, and some animals. The viscosity of blood in healthy infants
is 3.2 to 3.6 ; in children between 7 and 13 years, 3.75 to 4.1 ; in adults (accord­
ing to Hess), 45. In mothers it is one-third less than in their newborn infants.
The author discusses viscosity theoretically : It is, he says, the content of the
plasma in viscous substances, not crystalloids but colloids. From experiments
in vitro he concludes that the water content can be traced in the thickening
or thinning of the blood and that viscosity shows approximately the carbonicacid content of the blood. The hemoglobin content by Sable’s method was 70
in healthy older children and very much higher in newborn infants.
Tunnicliff, R u th : “ Observations on the anti-infectious power of the
blood of infants.” Journal of Infectious Diseases [Chicago], voi. 7
(1910), pp. 698-707.
A study of the phagocytic power of infants’ leucocytes. Experiments were
made with the blood of a small number of healthy institutional children from
birth (blood from the umbilical cord) to 3 years of age. The bacteria em­
ployed were streptococci, pneumococci, and staphylococci. Technique is fully
described. The author concludes that at birth the opsonic power of the blood
serum toward these bacteria is a little less than that of adult serum ; that
it falls lower during the first months and reaches adult power at about the
second year; that the phagocytic activity of the leucocytes follows a similar
course ; that the phagocytic power of the whole blood drops during thè first
two months and does not reach that of adult blood until about the third year ;
that during the first and second years of life the anti-infectious power of the
blood is far below that of the blood in adult life.
U nger, L. J. : “ Precautions necessary in the selection of a donor for
blood transfusion.” J. A. M. A. [Chicago], voi. 76 (1921), pp. 9-11.
The author tested for the presence of agglu'inins and receptors 119 chil­
dren from less than 1 day to 4 years of age and found that agglutinins are
present in 13 per cent of newborn infants, and that only 25 per cent of new­
born infants have cells that can be agglutinated. The full quota of ag­
glutinins and receptors is acquired between the third and the fourth vear of
life.
U theim , K irsten: “A study of the blood and its circulation in normal
infants and in infants suffering from chronic nutritional disturbances.”
Am. J. Dis. Child. [Chicago], voi. 20 (1920), pp. 366-392.
This article represents a large amount of original research conducted at the
St. Louis Children’s Hospital. References are made to similar earlier work.
Comparisons are made for normal and athreptic infants and infants suffering
from various other illnesses as to blood protein, blood flow, capillary" and venous
hemoglobin, and numerical blood counts and blood pressure. Control estima­
tions were performed on healthy and starving animals.


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347

348

349

350

351

352

353

P H Y SIC A L G RO W TH AND D EVELOPM EN T OE T H E CH ILD
Veeder, B. S., and M . Johnston: '‘ The creatinin and creatin content of
the blood of children.” Am. J. Dis. Child. [Chicago], vol. 12 (1916).
pp. 136-144.
Report from the department of pediatrics of the Washington University
Medical School and St. Louis Children’s Hospital. The method of Folin ana
Denis was used in determining tlie nonprotein nitrogen, the creatinin, and
creatin in 75 children. Each case is tabulated for age, sex, condition of
health, creatinin, creatin, and nonprotein nitrogen.
Group tabulations are
given for nephritis, and also various diets. '
— ------- and M eredith: “ The creatinin and creatin content of the blood
in children.” Am. J. Obst. [New York], vol. 74 (1916), pp. 357-359.
A brief report of determinations made by the methods of Folin and Denis
on 70 children, some of whom were normal. The creatinin figure for normal
children varied between 0.58 and 3.44 milligrams per 100 cubic centimeters.
The creatin figure was rarely over 5 milligrams per 100 centimeters. No
specific relationship was found between the amount of creatin and creatinin,
nor any relation between the amount of creatin and the clinical condition.
W arfield, L. M .: “ The differential leukocyte count in the new born.”
American Medicine [Philadelphia], vol. 4 (1902), pp. 457-459.
A review of previous literature giving tables of differential white counts
from Lundobin and Carstanjen.
Differential white counts on newborn at
birth and on the third and eleventh days were made in HL-eases by the author.
W e iss, Julius : “ Die Wechselbeziehungen des Blutes zu den Organen,
untersucht an histologischen Blutbefinden im frühesten Kindesalter ”
[Correlation of blood to organs, tested by histological state of blood
in very early childhood]. Jahri). f. Kinderh. [Berlin], vol. 35 (1893),
pp. 146-186.
From November, 1891, to April, 1892, in the Karolinen Children’s Hospital
at Vienna, Weiss investigated histology of blood in infants. He first gives
findings in esse of five healthy subjects between 6 days and 10 weeks in age.
He says, “ The preponderance of mononuclear leucocytes, which varied con­
siderably in size and shape of cell bodies, was definite in all cases; likewise,
.transitional forms were much more numerous than in healthy adults. We
could not ascertain any particular increase in eosinophilous cells, accepted as
typical of childhood by ether authors.” He discusses leucocytosis and presents
tables on number of eosinophiles and other leucocytes. The work of Maragliano and Neusser is also discussed; though differing from the latter in many
respects the author agrees that “ the blood is a direct representation of all the
organs.” Bibliography.
W ernstedt, W ilh i: “ Zur Kenntnis der physiologischen Schwankungen
des Leukocytengehaltes im Blute der Brustkinder ” [Knowledge of the
physiological fluctuations of the leucocyte content in the blood of
breast-fed children], Monatschr. f. Kinderh. [Leipzig], vol. 9 (191011), pp. 343-344.
The author, to study the leucocytosis of infant blood, tested many infants
with raw breast milk, boiled breast milk, and boiled cow’ s milk, after a water
diet of 12 to 34 hours, after an absolute fast of 5 to 8 hours, and at the usual
intervals of 2% to 4 hours. These diets and fasts, etc., produced no variation
in the leucocytosis. However, when very frequent measurements were made,
the apparently lawless variations snowed leucopenia during and after sleep and
a high leucocytosis accompanying motion, crying, and unrest.
W id o w itz ,. J .: “ Hämoglobingehalt des Blutes gesunder und kranker
Kinder ” [Hemoglobin content of the blood of healthy and sick chil­
dren]. Jahrb. f. Kinderh. [Berlin], vol. 27 (1887-88), pp. 380-395;
vol. 28 (1888), pp. 25-60.
This long article on the hemoglobin of infant blood, based upon 747 tests
by the author, concerns chiefly pathological conditions. Warning is given
that Fleischl’s hemometer is subject to much inaccuracy and that blood con­
centration is affected by many factors. The physiological section involves
only 19 healthy children from 3 months to 15 years of age. A table com­
pares Widowitz’ s results with Leichtenstern’s. The hemoglobin content is of
little aid in clinical diagnosis, for whereas it never falls below 60 per cent
in the healthy, it sometimes reaches 110 per cent in the sick.
W illiam son , C. S .: “ Influence of age and sex on hemoglobin; a spectrophotometric analysis of 919 cases.” J. A. M. A. [Chicago], vol. 65 (1915),
pp. 302-307. See also Archives of Internal Medicine [Chicago], vol.
18 (1916), pp. 505-528.
Following a discussion of the work of Leichtenstern in blood analysis the
author reports the results of the examination of 919 specimens, 485 from
subjects 1 day to 20 years of age. His instruments and methods are minutely
described and the curve of hemoglobin percentage depicted in two charts, the
second showing the influence o f sex as well as age. The hemoglobin content
was found highest at birth, with an irregular descent to the age of 1 year,
a gradual ascent to the age of about 20 years, and but slight variations to
the age of 76 and over. Sex differentiation was slight, beginning to show
plainly in the sixteenth or seventeenth year and continuing during the age of
ehild bearing, with slight variations thereafter,


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Wimberger, H ans: “ Beziehung zwischen Nahrungskonzentration und
Blutbeschaffenheit ” [Relation between food concentration and qualify
of blood]. Ztschr. f. Kinderh. Originalien [Berlin], vol. 25 (1920),
pp. 64-82.
After a long introduction concerning previous , investigators Wimberger
describes his studies of food concentration, daily weight, serum concentration
by means of refractometer at 17.5° (Centigrade), hemoglobin content, and
number of red corpuscles. Subjects were seven children between 7 months and
15 years, five of them healthy. The study on each lasted from 4% to 15
weeks. Each case is discussed with a graph and table of findings. The con­
centration of the blood maintains great constancy with differences in amount
of fluid taken. The blood is independent of water in surrounding tissue*
Bibliography.
3. F U N C TIO N A L D E V E LO PM E N T

355

Alvarez, W . C., Rosalind Wulzen, Fletcher B. Taylor, and Esthei
Starkweather: “ Blood pressure in university freshmen and office pa*
tients.” Archives of Internal Medicine [Chicago], vol. 26 (1920), pp.
381-404.
A study of the average blood pressure for normal individuals of both sexes,
based on examination of 8,737 University of California freshmen and 1,000
office patients.
Technique is fully described.
The authors emphasize the
necessity for further study, but reach the general conclusions that the average
blood pressure in girls rises between ages 16 and 17, drops to age -25, then
rises again rapidly. They draw no conclusions for men, because of disturb­
ances in sampling owing to the war, but from clinical experience they state
that high pressure appears earlier and to a greater degree in young men than
in young women.

356

von Anrep, B .: “ Über dïe Entwicklung der hemmenden Functionen bei
Neugeborenen” [The development of inhibition functions in the new­
born]. Archiv für die Gesammte Physiologie des Menschen und der
Thiere [Bonn], vol. 21 (1879-80), pp. 78-80.
Since it has been determined that the inhibitory reflexes in the newborn
are at first passive and then develop with amazing rapidity, the author con­
cludes that the greater pulse frequency of small children depends not only
on lack of vagus tone but on more energetic metabolism, greater frequency of
breathing, and smaller mass.

357

Balard, P .: “ Des variations du pouls et de la tension artérielle chez
le nouveau-né, étudiées comparativement à l’état de veille et pendant
le sommeil par l’oscillométrie ” [Variations of the pulse and blood
pressure of the newborn, studied comparatively by the oscillometer
when the infants were awake and when they were asleep]. Comptes
rendus des séances et mémoires de la Société de biologie [Paris], vol.
72 (1912), pp. 998-999.
Report of observations of pulse rate and blood pressure of 10 normal
infants, aged 10 days and under, all blood pressures having been taken by the
Pachon oscillometer at the upper arm, three successive examinations in each
case. Table. A definite increase in systolic blood pressure was evident when
the infants were awake, the diastolic remaining practically constant. In 9 of
the 10 cases the pulse rate was higher when the infants were awake than when
they were asleep. The element in blood pressure which varies, the : difference
between systolic and diastolic pressure, predicates increased •cardiac activity.

358

---------- “ Des variations du pouls et de la tension artérielle' chez le
nouveau-né étudiées comparativement pendant le repos et pendant la
tétée par l’oscillométrie ” [Variations of pulse and blood pressure of
the newborn studied comparatively in repose and during nursing, by
the oscillometer].
Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances et
mémoires de la Société de biologie [Paris], vol. 72 (1912), pp. 999-1000.
Report of observations of pulse rate and blood pressure of 10 normal infants,
aged 10 days and under, all blood pressures having been taken by the Pachon
oscillometer, and results recorded in tabular form. The author found an in­
creased pressure doing nursifig greater in the systolic than the diastolic
values ; also an increase in frequency of pulse. Blood-pressure results predi­
cate increased cardiac activity.

359

---------- “ La tension artérielle et l’oscillométrie chez le nouveau-né ”
[Arterial blood pressure and oscillometry of the newborn]. Nourrisson
[Paris], vol. 9 (1921), pp. 304-319.
Discussion of the value of the oscillometer and its use with a brief résumé
of the studies of arterial blood pressure in the newborn. In 40 observations
the author found that at birth pressure varies from 3 centimeters 5 hydrogen
to 5 centimeters 5 hydrogen. Examinations of the pulse frequently repeated
(number of subjects not stated) showed a rate of 150 at. birth, decreasing in
the first day to 100 or less, regaining 150 in the second day. A chart gives
curves of pulse, temperature, weight, and arterial pressure for the first 10 days
o f life. References.


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PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHILD

Balard, P. : “ Le pouls et la tension artérielle de l’enfant et du nouveauné ” [The pulse and arterial blood pressure of the child and the new­
born infant]. Gazette des hôpitaux [Paris], vol. 86 (1913), pp. 837-841.
A résumé, with references, of the work of Seux, Eminet, Vierordt, Von Basch,
Pachon, Koessler, Martinet, Belot, and of the author’ s own investigations.

361

---------- “ Modifications évolutives du pouls et de la tension artérielle
chez le nouveau-né, dans les premiers jours de la vie, étudiées par
l’oscillométrie ” [Progressive modifications of pulse and blood pressure
of the newborn, in the first days of life, studied by the oscillometer].
Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances et mémoires de la Société
de biologie [Paris], vol. 78 (1912), pp. 483-485.
A report of examination of 10 normal infants whose pulse and blood pressure
were taken the minute after birth and the first cry, again at the end of the
first quarter hour and the first hour, then every 2 hours for the first 12 hours,
then once a day to the end of 10 days. Weights are recorded and results tabu­
lated. The author found much variability in the pulse during the first day.
The systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased regularly, though with slight
oscillations in the curve of the systolic.

362

---------- , Sur la cause de la diminution de fréquence du pouls chez le
nouveau-né dans les premières heures de la vie ” [The cause of diminu­
tion in pulse rate of the newborn in the first hours of life]. Comptes
rendus hebdomadaires des séances et mémoires de la Société de biologie

[Paris], vol. 73 (1912), pp. 486-488.
To discover, if possible, a relationship between diminution of pulse rate
and lowering of temperature in the first hours of life, the author observed the
rectal temperature of 10 normal infants, the minute after the first cry, at the
end of a quarter hour, an hour, at 2-hour intervals for the first 12 hours, then
once a day to the end of 10 days. The lowering of temperature was found to
be roughly parallel with the diminution of pulse rate. Table and curves are
given.

363

364

Becquerel, A . : “ Du pouls chez les enfants, depuis la fin de la première
dentition (2 ans à peu près) jusqu’à la puberté (15 ans)” [The puise
of children from the end of the first dentition (about 2 years) to
puberty (15 years)]. La Clinique des hôpitaux des enfants [Paris],
vol. 1 (1841), pp. 227-231.
A report o f 150 observations of the pulse of normal children, grouped in
four series : 2 to 6 years, 6 to 9, 9 to 12, and 12 to 15. The pulse rate was
taken both while the children were awake and while they were asleep.
Beretta, L. : “ Della sfigmomanometria in generale ; della tensione arte­

riosa nei bambini sani nelle loro diverse eta ” [On sphygmomanometry
in general ; on the blood pressure of healthy infants of various ages].
La clinica medica italiana [Milan], vol. 42 (1903), pp. 100-135.
The author gives in a table for each of his 241 cases (children from 2 days
to 13 years old) age, weight, height, pulse, respiration, and blood pressure;
in a separate table the blood pressure of seven cases of pneumonia and bron­
chitis with detailed histories of these cases is given and conclusions are pre­
sented as to the physiology and pathology of blood pressure in children and
the differences in this respect between children and adults.

365

Beyer, Walter: Untersuchungen über das häufige Vorkommen von sys­
tolischen Herz-Geräuschen bei Kindern ; nebst Bemerkungen über die
physikalische Natur der Pulmonal-Geräusche, über Accentuation der
II Töne, über unreine Töne und Nonnensausen in den grossen Venen
[Investigations on Frequent Presence of Systolic Heart Murmurs in
Children ; with comments on the physical nature of the pulmonic mur­
murs, on accentuation of the secondary sound, on impure sounds and
venous hum]. Leipzig, 1907. 46 pp.
Inaugural dissertation (University of Leipzig). Author studied systolic
heart murmurs of 830 boys and girls between the ages of 0 and 14 years in
Dresden during the summer of 1906. He took notes on constitution, form of
thorax, color of skin and mucous mebranes. quality of pulse, position and
nature of apex beat, and auscultation. He also made examinations after club
swinging. Systolic murmurs were found in 38.7 per cent of the boys and in
45.5 per cent of the girls.

366

Boenheim, Felix: “ Untersuchungen über accidentelle Herzgeräusche bei
jugendlichen Gesunden ” [Investigations on accidental heart murmurs
in healthy young people]. Deutsches Archiv für Klinische Medizin
[Leipzig], vol. 124 (1917-16), pp. 118-133.
The author discusses, with support of 10 tables, accidental heart murmurs
In healthy school children between 8 and 14 years of age. These murmurs occur
in 172 out of 279 girls and 94 out of 169 boys— they are usually heard at the
pulmonic aïea. The first heart sound is usually heard, too. No correlation
was found with the form of thorax nor with pulse and breathing. Amplitude


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of blood pressure is greater where accidental murmurs are present than where
they are absent. Accidental murmurs seem not to be pathological before
puberty. Bibliography.

367

Buggs, Jens: “ Unders0kelser over albuminuri, blodtryk, etc., hos
skolebarn ” [Investigations on albuminuria, blood pressure, etc., in
school children]. Norsk Magazin for Laegevidenskaben [Christiania],
ser. 5, vol. 11 (1913), pp. 1601-1696.
In 13 tables the author gives the results of blood pressure and albuminuria
tests under various conditions in 550 boys and 526 girls 7 to 16 years of age.
Two tables show the onset of puberty in both sexes as compared with results
of albuminuria tests.

368

Burlage, Stanley Boss: “ The blood pressures and heart rate in girls
during adolescence. A statistical study of 1,700 cases.” Am. J.
Physiol. [Baltimore], vol. 64 (1923), pp. 252-284.
Data for this article were obtained from blood-pressure readings taken on
837 girls in the Ithaca public schools, aged from 9 to 20 years, heart rate,
weight in pounds, height in inches, age, and menstrual condition also having
been recorded; and from similar records on 847 young women students in
Cornell University between the ages of 16 and 26. Technique is fully de­
scribed. Statistical treatment of this material led to the following conclu­
sions : (1) These data for school girls and college girls must be correlated
separately. Data for school girls must be considered separately for those
who have reached puberty and those who have not. (2) When systolic pres­
sure is correlated with weight, height, and age (a) nonmenstruating school
girls show the greatest correlation with weight, height, and age in the order
named; (b) menstruating school girls show correlation with weight and height
but none with age; (c) college girls show significant correlation only with
weight. (3) When diastolic pressure is correlated with weight, height, and age
(a) nonmenstruating school girls show the greatest correlation with the fac­
tors weight, height, and age in the order named; (b) menstruating school
girls show correlation in the same order as (a), but in less degree; ( c ) ' col­
lege girls show correlation with weight only. (4) When pulse pressure is
correlated with weight, height, and age (a) the nonmenstruating school girls
show correlation with the factors in the order named ; D>) the menstruating
school girls and college girls show no significant correlation. (5) When pulse
rate is correlated with height, age, and weight (a) the nonmenstruating school
girls show correlation with the factors in this order; (b) the menstruating
school girls show a correlation with age and weight in this order; (c) the
college girls show no significant correlation. Bibliography.

369

Buttermilch, W ilhelm : “ Puls und Blutdruck bei kranken Säuglingen”
[Pulse and blood pressure in sick infants]. Verhandlungen der Gesell­
schaft für Kinderheilkunde [Wiesbaden], vol. 23-24 (1906-7), pp.
113-118.
In discussing pulse and blood pressure of sick children the author mentions
many facts applicable also to the normal infant. He used Gartner’s tonometer
in his measurements in the Berlin and Weissensee Infants’ Clinic, greasing
with vaseline the ring for the finger, and choosing a time after meals when
subjects were quiet. He found a great individual variation in pulse; the
blood pressure he believes is independent of pulse. It was on an average 80
millimeters in healthy infants below 6 months and 84 after 6 months. In
200 cases the pressure in right and left hands was the same 138 times, higher
in the left 43 times, and higher in the fight 19 tim es; the difference amounted
to 5 to 10 millimeters. The pressure in sleep is less than in nursing. The
bath increased it in 34 cases out of 50 and decreased it in 7 cases.

370

Churchill, Fleetwood: “ On the rhythm of the heart of the fetus in utero
and of the infant after birth.” Dublin Quarterly Journal of Medical
Science, vol. 19 (1855), pp. 326-332.
Comparing the' rhythm of the sounds of the heart of the fetus and of the
Infant shortly after birth the author found a distinct change, the two sounds
after birth being of equal strength and loudness and dividing the period of
each •pulsation equally. This peculiarity of rhythm persists for about a year
and a half and then gradually changes to that of the adult.

371

Clerk, F. E .: “A study of the cardiovascular index in elementary-school
children.” Pedagogical Seminary [Worcester], vol. 23 (1916), pp.
135-152.
Following a discussion of the value of the cardiovascular index and methods
used in its determination the author reports the results of studies made in the
schools of Clinton, Mass. The number of examinations (22 subjects) was too
small for the establishment of standards, but results showed interesting tenden­
cies, especially when compared with the work of Doctor McCurdy and of Judson
and Nicholson. Bibliography.

372

Curschmann, Hans: “ Über den Blutdruck im Kindesalter” [Blood pres­
sure in childhood]. Medizinische Klinik [Berlin], vol. 15, pt. 2 (1919),
pp. 1281-83. >
In 1917 the author studied blood pressure in 169 boys and 279 girls between
8 and 14 years of age, using the Rlva-Rocci apparatus. One table gives his
findings as to diastole, systole, and amplitude, and another table data collected


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PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF TH E CHILD
by Eckert, Oppenheimer, Kaupe, et al. The author found that height and
weight played no rôle in blood pressure ; musculature, size of heart, and thorax
played a greater part.

373

Dearborn, George Van Ness: “ The blood pressure in the leg in various
positions ; the brachial pressure after short maximal exercises and the
normal pressure in physically trained individuals, with an appended
preliminary note regarding the blood pressure’s autonomic rhythm.”
A m erica n P h ysica l Edu ca tion R e v ie w [Springfield], vol. 20 (1915),
pp. 337-352.
Original work was done at Harvard Summer School— 39 cases observed, 28
female and 11 male, aged 11 to 60. Stanton apparatus was used. A table
gives case, age, sex, brachial blood pressure, and posttibial pressure with leg
horizontal, vertical, and standing, with percentage of relation of tibial to
brachial pressure. The average vertical leg pressure was 60.8 per cent of the
brachial pressure, and the average standing leg pressure was 133 per cent.
Separate tables for various types of exercise give heart rate and blood pressure
before and after exercise.

374

Durand-Viel, P .: Des variations de la pression artérielle au cours de
quelques maladies chez les enfants [Variations in Arterial Pressure
in the Course of Certain Illnesses of Children]. Paris, no. 156, 1903
99 pp.
• 'ril®sis / o f medical degree (University of Paris). Largely pathological, but
introduced by one chapter on blood pressure of normal children, and containing
a small number of original observations.

375

Eminet, P. P. : “ Sphygmographie und Tonometrie bei gesunden Kindern
im Alter von 7-15 Jahren” [Sphygmography and tonometry in healthy
children from 7 to 15 years old]. A rch. f. K in d erh . [Stuttgart], vol.
46 (1907), pp. 328-356.
* After commenting briefly on the work of Scliatilow and Troizky, the author
describes his own work in taking pulse and blood pressure of 200 healthy chilo 3 ? i etwefen 6 and i5 years of age, from the upper, middle, and lower classes,
cniiaren ot well-to-do families have a higher blood pressure and a sphygmogram
closer to the normal type, than poor children. Pulse frequency is greater with
a low pressure than with a high. In the school age monocrotism is not
observed; there is a tendency to predicrotism rather than to dicrotism— there
> a.re t^ a maxima of blood pressure, one in the sixth and the other in the
eleventh year. The pulse curve of children is usually unequal ; in many cases
arhythmia is noticed. By the age of 15 it is more constant and of dicrotic
character, like that of the adult. The size of the sphygmogram is directly pro­
portional to the blood pressure.

376

Epstein, A l.: Beitrag zur Kenntnis des systolischen Schadelgerausches
der Kinder. [Contribution to Knowledge of Systolic Murmur in Chil­
dren’s Skulls], Prague, 1878. 35 pp.
This pamphlet of 35 pages contains one long table at end, giving data on
13 boys and 9 girls between 5 months and 3% years, tested by author for
physical condition, condition of skull, auscultation, and glands. Murmur in
children s skulls is an expression of murmurs in the carotid and larger intra­
cranial arteries. The most favorable age for its presence is second half of
nrst year and second year ; it may occur between third mouth and sixth year
Although it is considered physiological by some writers, Epstein thinks it' is
not physiological.

377

Faber, H. K., and C. A . James: “ The range and distribution of blood
pressures in normal children.” A m . J. D is. Child. [Chicago], vol 22
(1921), pp. 7-28.
A careful study in which 2,710 observations of systolic and diastolic pressures were made on 1,101 normal children. The. previous literature on the
subject is reviewed and found not suitable for comparative tables. Data are
fully given and technique described. The authors’ summary states that: (1)
l ne standard of deviation is more important than the actual sphygmographie
reading; (2) such standard must be based on the statistical method of frequency distribution; (3) normal means and standard deviations for systolic
and diastolic pulse pressures and for pulse and pulse pressure (pulse product)
nave been compiled for girls a#id boys separately, by year, between the ages of
4 and 16 years ; (4) reference tables for clinical application are given ; (5)
mean systolic, diastolic, and pulse pressures show no significant sexual differ­
ences,^ but standard deviations are in practically all cases greater for girls
indicating a normally greater variability in female children* which is particu­
larly marked during adolescence; (6) illustrative examples of the method
ot measuring deviations in various pathologic states are given ; (7) in children
hypotension is more frequent than hypertension ; (8) the method of applying
the authors standards, though involving, the use of reference tables, reaiiires
j only a few seconds to use.
. ,

378

Farge, Émile-François: Du pouls chez l’enfant, à l’état physiologique
[The Pulse of the Normal Child]. Paris, no. 128, 1847. 34 pp.
Thesis for medical degree (University of Paris). The original work recorded
consists of 57 observations,of the pulse rate of infants from 4 to 20 hours
old (1 - observations) ; from 1 to 8 days (31 observations) ; from 8 to 15


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days (5 observations) ; and from 5 days to 1 month (9 observations). All
observations were made while the subject was quiet and in a horizontal posi­
tion. The author found the pulse extremely variable at the beginning of life,
remaining between 125 and 130 during the first month. The influence of
seasons, temperature, hour o f the day, position, sleep, wakefulness, and diges­
tion are discussed,

379

Findlay, Leonard: “ The systolic pressure at different points of the cir­
culation in the child and the adult,” Quarterly Journal of Medicine
[London], vol. 4 (1910-11), pp. 489-497.
Observations were made on-healthy and sick individuals of both sexes,
tb°ir ages varying from 2% to 50 years. Methods are described and 95
individual readings recorded. The author found that during childhood and
youth the systolic arterial pressure is fairly uniform at different points of the
circulation.

380

Friberger, Ragnar: “ Nägra iakttagelser angäende utvecklingen af puls
och blodtryck under den senare barnaäldern ” [Some observations on the
pulse and blood pressure in later childhood].
Upsala Läkareförenings Förhandlingar [Upsala], new ser. vol. 18 (1912-13), pp. 147-56.
Pulse frequency and blood pressure of 305 children of Upsala 6 to 14
years of age are given in four graphs. Pulse frequency in girls 5 years or
older is higher than that of boys. The systolic blood pressure of girls rises
sharply, reaching a peak at 12 years; that of boys remains stationary from
8 to 12 and then rises sharply. Bibliography.

381

—— — Über Arhythmie bei gesunden Kindern ” [Arrhythmia of healthy
children]. Arch. f. Kinderh. [Stuttgart], vol. 58 (1912), pp. 30-72.
A thorough study of arrhythmias in 321 children between ages of 5 and 14
from the public schools of Upsala. A table arranged according to age gives
separately for boys and girls the most common pulse frequency; the maximum,
minimum, and average frequency; and the percentage of arrhythmias with
usual and with high and low pulse frequency. Not one of the 321 children
showed a perfectly regular pulse. Arrhythmia decreased from the fifth to
the twelfth year and increased somewhat in the thirteenth and fourteenth
years. It is more frequent in girls than boys. Height, weight, and muscular
development seem to have no influence. Arrhythmia is, then, physiological
in children. Arrhythmia was present in 73 per cent of children with an
unstable nervous system, whereas of all the children studied, 62 per cent
snowed arrhythmia. Nineteen curves on the respiration and pulse are given.
Bibliography.

382

— -— Über die Entwicklung von Puls und Blutdruck im späteren
Kindesalter” [Tfie development of pulse and blood pressure in later
childhood]. Arch. f. Kinderh. [Stuttgart], vol. 60-61 (1913) rrn
331-339.
Doctor Friberger examined the pulse and blood pressure of 305 boys and girls
from 6 to 14 years old, most of them Upsala school children. Both pulse and
blood pressure were taken when the children were lying down, the latter with
the Riva-Rocci apparatus. From the fifth year on pulse frequency was found to
be higher in the girls than in the boysi The systolic blood pressure was highest
in girls in the eleventh year, in boys in the thirteenth year— at the beginning
of puberty. Pulse and blood pressure do not have parallel courses
The
author presents four graphs illustrating his findings and discusses the work of
other investigators.

383

Gaujoux, E. : “ Recherches sur la tension artérielle normale chez
l’enfant” [Researches in normal arterial blood pressure in childhood].
Annales de médecine et chirurgie infantiles [Paris], vol. 12 (1908)
pp. 435-439.
From more than 500 readings of arterial blood pressure of normal children of
different ages, sexes, statures, and degrees of development (methods described)
the author concludes that: (1) There exists a fairly definite average pressure
for the healthy infant which increases proportionately with the age of the
subject; (2) at puberty there is a marked increase in average pressure' (3) in
certain physiological .processes, menstruation, digestion, physical and intel­
lectual effort, etc., the pressure is appreciably modified.

384

Gunzburg, L. : “ Einfluss des Wachstums auf Herz und Lungen ” [Effect
of growth on heart and lungs], Wiener Medisinische Presse, vol 20
(1879) , pp. 908-910.
Theoretical description of the development of the heart and lungs from the
embryological state to the end of growth. Immediately after birth the heart
changes its position and form because Of breathing. The changes in the lungs
are still greater and affect their color, weight, consistency, and capacity From
birth to puberty the growth of the heart and lungs proceeds rather slowly for
a period. From puberty to the age of 20 a more rapid development of the
breathing and speaking apparatus takes place.
The lungs are then very
sensitive and have a low power of resistance. The normal relation of the
heart and lungs to each other is often affected by various factors. The pur­
pose o f the article is to point out two conditions observed by the author at the
time of puberty (number o f cases not given) : ( 1 ) Hemorrhages of the lungs:
(2) accelerated heart action often combined with stinging pains. Both symp-


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PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OE TH E CHILD
toms he saw in the absence of any definite disease of the lungs or heart. The
author attributes these symptoms to the great sensitiveness of the heart and
lungs at that age.

385

Hecht, Adolf E .: “ Der Mechanismus der Herzaktion im Kindesalter,
seine Physiologie und Pathologie ” [The mechanism of heart action in
childhood, its physiology and pathology], Ergebnisse der Inneren
Medizin und Kinderheilkunde [Berlin], vol. 2 (1913), pp. 324—441.
This article of 117 pages, embracing many tables and 21 plates of 109 graphs,
after an introduction on the electrocardiographic method and the heart-experi­
ment station in the Children’s Clinic of the Royal University at Vienna, takes
up first the physiology of the child’s heart and then its pathology. The
author studied 70 healthy children of many ages, from the newborn infant to
the child of 13 years, and 300 sick children. In his study of healthy children
he considers the absolute size of the electrocardiogram, the influence of position,
effect of breathing, physiological arrhythmia, time of transfusion, duration of
systole, and heart pause.

386

H enn ig: “ Über die bei Kindern am Kopfe und am oberen Theile des
Rückgrats vernehmbaren Geräusche” [Murmurs perceptible in head
and upper part of spine in childhood]. Archiv für Physiologische
Heilkunde [Stuttgart], 1856, pp. 411-440.
The author discusses five questions concerning murmurs perceptible in head
and upper part of the spine of children, where and by what moans they are
heard, when and how long they are heard, what kind they are. how they are
explained, and what is their diagnostic value. Thirty pages of discussion with­
out tables are devoted to answering these questions. The number of observa­
tions is not given, but many special cases, particularly of pathological
character, are described.

387

Hensen, H .: “ Beiträge zur Physiologie und Pathologie des Blutdrucks ”
[The physiology and pathology of blood pressure]. Deutsches Archiv
für Klinische Medicin [Leipzig], vol. 67 (1900), pp. 436-530.
The author made his numerous tests of blood pressure at Leipsic and Kiel
with the Riva-Rocci apparatus. He prefers to use the brachial rather than the
radial pulse; pressure is 3 to 15 millimeters higher in the former than in the
latter. His long discussion he devotes to three top ics: Pulse and blood pres­
sure ; blood pressure in normal circumstances; blood pressure in pathological
conditions. The average blood pressure of 25 normal children 3 to 15 years
old was found to be 116 millimeters; the maximum and minimum were 80 and
150- The average for 8 children from 4 to 6 years was 107, and of 8 from 11
•to 12, 122. The author presents 27 curves and 7 tables and a bibliography.

388

Hess, R., and S. Gordin: “ Plethysmographische Untersuchungen an
gesunden und kranken Kindern ” [Plethysmographie investigations on
healthy and sick children]. Ztschr. f. Kinderh. [Berlin], vol. 10 (1914),
pp. 353-364.
The authors attempted to estimate the volume of the limbs, the blood volume
in them, and its change according to temperature in the case of children by
use of the plethysmograph but found the restlessness of their subjects a great
hindrance. Morawitz’s process for short experiments was successful and gave
similar values to those obtained for adults. With it they ascertained the
change of volume in the vessels according to change of temperature in the sur­
rounding water.

389

390

391

V

Heubner, O .: “ Das Elektrokardiogramm des Säuglings und Kindes ”
[The electrocardiogram of the infant and child].
Monatschr. f.
Kinderh. [Leipzig and Vienna], vol. 7 (1908-9), pp. 6-12.
The findings of a study made by the author and Fumaro upon 17 infants
and some older children, a few of whom were diseased; a comparison of the
electrocardiogram for children of different ages and for children as compared
with adults; a description of the method, using Einthoren’s string galva­
nometer ; and a brief summary of the work of previous investigators.
Hooker, D. R .: “ The influence of age upon the venous blood pressure in
man.” Am. J. Physiol. [Baltimore], vol. 40 (1916), pp. 43-48.
A report of a series of observations on men of different age groups, sum­
marized in decades and in half decades from 5 to 85 years of age. The boys
were found in orphan asylums, schools, and shops. Observations were made in
trunk-vertical position, the venous-pressure readings being expressed in centi­
meters of water and referred to the heart level. Tables and a curve show the
rise in pressure from youth to old age.

Hotz, A .: “ Dynamische Pulsuntersuchungen bei Kindern im Vergleich
mit Erwachsenen” [Investigations of dynamic pulse in children in
comparison with adults]. Jahrb. f. Kinderh. [Berlin], new ser. vol. 81
(1915), pp. 313-333.
Hotz investigated dynamic pulse in adults and 40 children between 3
months and 15 years of age in the Children’ s Hospital of Zurich. He< used
Christen’ s energometer, with an air sack 5% by 11 centimeters for the children
and one of 9 by 15 centimeters for the adults. The article contains a discus-


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GBÖWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OP PARTS OP BODY

169

sion of pulse during rest and work. Dynamic qualities of pulse are approxi­
mately proportional to body weight. Normal values show great variation but
differ considerably from pathological values
Fourteen curves and six tables
are given. Bibliography.

392

Hotz, A . : “ Weitere dynamische Pulsuntersuchungen bei gesunden und
kranken Kindern ” [Further dynamic-pulse investigations of healthy
and sick children]. Jahrb. f. K in d erh . [Berlin], vol. 84 (1916), pp.
407-440.
The author made Christen’s dynamic-pulse diagrams with the energometer of
20 healthy and 15 sick children between 9 and 16 years of age. He also made
a few tests of the effect of digitalis, adrenalin, caffeine, etc. The collar of the
instrument was always applied to the upper arm. Of Christen’s three pulse
types— sufficient, insufficient, and hypersufficient— the last named was not fpund
in these 35 children.
The investigation concerned filling, energy, power,
specific filling, specific raising, diastolic blood pressure, flexion coefficient, net
energy, and ventricular systole. Results are shown in 2 tables and 13 curves.
The author comments on the great constancy of the pressure at which the
variation of volume reaches its maximum. In healthy children between 9 and
15 years it was always between 100 and 110 centimeters.

393

Hutchinson, Robert, and George Elder: “ Some observations on the
movements of the fontanel in children.” Edinburgh H ospital R ep orts
[Edinburgh and London], vol. 3 (1895), pp. 268-290.
A report of observations made on children (number not given) with the
fontanels still open, by means of Marey’s sphygmograph, and of the cardio­
graph writing on a revolving cylinder. Tracings are reproduced in 26 figures.
The authors found that the fontanel has a double pulsation, arterial and
respiratory; that the arterial intercranial pulse is anacrotic in ty p e; that the
respiratory pulsation takes the form of depression of the whole fontanel with
Inspiration and bulging with expiration; that the fontanel pulse is readily
affected by sleep, chloroform, posture, movement, and inhalation of nitrite of
amyl. References.

394

Judson, C. E., and P. Nicholson: “ The blood pressure in normal infants.”
A m . J. D is. Child. [Chicago], vol. 8 (1914), pp. 257-269.
To find a standard of blood pressure in children about 2,300 observations
were made on children, aged 3 to 15, at public schools, the Foster Home, and
the Southern Home. Records were made with subject reclining; the widest
cuff available in proportion to the arm was used. Different types of manom­
eters were used and compared. Diastolic pressure was taken in the fourth
phase. Table I by the authors gives age, width of cuff, circumference of arm,
systolic, diastolic, and pulse pressure by three methods, and pulse rate. Number
of cases is not cited. Table II gives pulse pressure from various observers.
Table III gives age, systolic, and diastolic pressure. The technique and physi­
ology . of blood pressure are discussed. Conclusion : The systolic pressure is
higher than is generally taught and does not increase from year to year.
Diastolic pressure changes very little. Pulse pressure increases most and is
the most important determination in children.

395

Jurasz, Anton: Das systolische Hirngeräusch der Kinder [Systolic
Cerebral Murmur], Habilitationsschrift, Heidelberg, 1877. 96 pp.
Thesis (University of Heidelberg). This work on systolic cerebral murmur
of children contains 96 pages and many tables and is divided into a historical
section on the work of other investigators and clinical and anatomical sections
based on the author’s own investigations. Sixty-eight healthy and sick children
between 5 months and 4 years were examined. The murmur occurs only
between ages of third to fourth month and fourth to sixth year and is closely
connected with development of skull base, especially carotid canal, and probably
with foramen spinosum. It is a physiological phenomenon and can not be
used in diagnosis of disease.

396

Katzenberger, Arm in: “ Puls und Blutdruck bei gesunden Kindern ”
[Pulse and blood pressure in healthy children]. Z tschr. f. K in d erh .
[Berlin], vol. 9 (1913), pp. 167-195.
The author determined the frequency of pulse in 112 boys and 100 girls
from 6 months to 14 years old, using the Riva-Rocci sphygmomanometer and
a stethoscope. He found that the pulse and pressure vary widely in children,
the pulse being higher and the pressure lower than in adults. The results
of his own investigations and those of other students are tabulated, and the
effects upon pulse and blood pressure of weight, sex, sleep, position of body,
time of day, mental excitement, meals, motion, breathing, and bath are
discussed. Bibliography.

397

Kaulen, Gustav: •“ Untersuchungen über die Intensität der Herztöne im
Kindesalter mit Hilfe des Bockschen Differentialsthethosköps ” [In­
vestigations on intensity of heart tones in childhood with help of
Bock’s differential stethoscope]. • Jahrb. f. K in d erh . [Berlin], vol.
97-98; ser. 3, vol. 47-48 (1922), pp. 141-152.
With Bock’s differential stethoscope the author studied intensity of heart
Results are tabu-

tones in 248 children between 1 month and 14 years of age.


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PHYSICAL GROWTH A M ) DEVELOPMENT OP THÈ GÊtlLD
lated. With M standing for mitral, Tr for tricuspid, P for pulmonic, and A
for aortic, tones in order of strength are, for first two years—

and for ages 3 to 14—

M
I

MP
II I

A
I

P
II

Tr A
I II

Tr
II

M
I

PM A
II II II

Tr
I

P Tr
I II

A
I

There are great individual differences. The first two years form a unit as
compared with later years.
In the first two years the first tones^ over
pulmonic and aortic are lounder than the second ; afterwards the relation, is
reversed. Sex does not affect intensity of heart tones. Physical exercise
strengthens them. Bibliography.

398

Kaupe, W alther: “ Der Blutdruck im Kindesalter ” [Blood pressure in
childhood]. Monatschr. f. Kinderh. [Leipzig], voi. 9 (1910-11), pp.
257-263.
The author determined the diastolic and systolic blood pressure of 144
healthy children, 123 of them girls, between 3 and 13 years of age, with the
Riva-Roeci apparatus. In his tables, besides the blood pressure, he gives the
age of each child arid its general health and in some cases the hemoglobin
content. One table shows the average difference between the systolic and
diastolic value. Sex seexns not to affect blood pressure. :Usually but not
always a powerful pulsé is found in a strong child. The pressure gradually
rises after the seventh or eighth ,year, except that it is low in girls 12 years old.

399

Keating, J. M., and W . A . Edwards: “ Clinical studies on the pulse in
childhood.” Arch. Pediat. [Philadelphia], voi. 5 (1888), pp. 727-740.
A paper read before the College of Physicians in Philadelphia, general for
the most part but containing a table showing the pulse beat of a number of
infants, asleep and awake, and of a smaller number during active muscular
movement or mental excitement. Details oif method si obtaining the data
are not given, and the article has no definite conclusions. References.

400

401

Kilborn, Leslie G. : “ Blood pressure of Szechwauese students.”
Medical Journal [Shanghai], voi. 40 (1926), pp. 1-7.

China

During the physical examination of students in the West China Union Uni­
versity and associated schools, the writer recorded the blood pressures of 741
students, of whom 443 were under 21 years of age. Pressure was taken with
a Nicholson “ l'rinceps ” mercury sphygmomanometer, with cuff Î2 centimeters
wide, applied to the right arm while the subject was in a sitting posture. The
auscultatory method was used throughout. Systolic pressure was read on the
first appearance of sound on lowering the pressure in the cuff ; diastolic pres­
sure at the fourth point. About one-fourth of the records were taken in April
and May, 1924 ; the remainder in September of the same year. All examina­
tions were made between 2 p. m, and 5 p. m. For comparison the blood pres­
sures of nine Canadian and United States boys, 14 to 17 years of age, were
also taken. These boys, with one exception, were born in Szechwan and, except
for furlough periods, had lived there continuously. Mean systolic and diastolic
pressures for the entire series were lower than the standards for Anglo-Saxons of
corresponding ages. The pulse pressure was as .high as that of the white races.
Systolic and diastolic pressures*! thé nine Canadian and United States boys
were higher than those of the Chinese; pulse pressure was about the same.
The records showed no marked variation of blood pressure with age. Tables
and references.
Koessler, Mlle. L. : L ’oscillomêtrie appliquée à l’étude de la tension

artérielle chez les enfants [Oscillometry Applied to the Study of the
Arterial Tension of Children]. Paris, no. 144, 1912. 192 pp.
Thesis for doctor’s degree (University of Paris). Following a discussion
of the significance of systolic, diastolic, and variable pressures, and a résumé
of work already done by investigators of this subject, the author reports her
own observations on 229 boys and 213 girls aged 5 days to 15 years. All
methods are described, and results are tabulated in groups by age. Pressure
as related to age, weight, and height is illustrated by tables and curves. The
author concludes that in the study of arterial tension knowledge of the diastolic
pressure and of the “ pulse pressure ” is of the greatest importance; that in
the normal child arterial tension increases regularly'from birth to adult age,
except for variation at about 5 years in girls and 7 years in boys: that in
normal children the systolic and diastolic pressures increase equally with weight
and stature. Bibliography.

402

Kolossowa, Anna; “ La pression sanguine chez les enfants dans les con­
ditions physiologiques et pathologiques ” [The blood pressure of chil­
dren in physiological and pathological conditions]. Archives de 'méde­
cine des enfants [Paris], ser. 1, vol. 5 (1902), pp. 421-423.
•Blood-pressure examinations of more than 340 normal children aged 1 to
13 years, taken with Gartner’s tonometer and here described, gave the follow­
ing results: Ages 1 and 2, 80 to 85 millimeters; 3 and 4, 85 milliirieters ; 5 to
7, 90 to 95 millimeters ; 8 to 10, 95 to 100 millimeters ; 11 (o 13, 100 to 110
millimeters.


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GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT ÔP PARTS ÓP BODt

403

404

Krumbhaar, E. B., and H . H . Jenks: “ Electrocardiographic studies in
normal infants and children.” Heart [London], vol. 6 (1917), pp.
189-196.
Electrocardiograms were taken by the authors on 42 normal infants and
children (methods described) in age from 1 minute to 12 years. They found
that the ventricular complexes associated with preponderance of the right
ventricle are constantly found from birth to the second or third month, and
that the modifications of this phenomenon that occur in the different age.period
are produced with remarkable constancy in the individuals of each group ; that
thè initial downward deflection of the ventricular complex is abnormally large
in the infants' electrocai diogram ; that the T wave is practically absent in
the first week and reaches normal size about the third week ; that the actual
size of the units of the ventricular complex is greater than in the adult ; that
the P-K (P—Q) interval is both actually and proportionately shorter than the
P—R (P—Q) interval of adults, and that sinus arrhythmia, seen only once in
the first year, became increasingly frequent from the sixth year to puberty.
Lee, B». I. : “ Blood-pressure determinations, urinary findings,, and differ­
ential blood counts in a group of 662 young male adults.” Bòst. M. é
8 . J.,

405

voi. 173 (1915), pp. 541-543.

A report of the entrance physical examinations of the Harvard freshman
class. Average age was 18, height 5 feet 8 inches, weight 143 pounds. Aver­
age systolic pressure, approximately 120 millimeters of mercury ; average dia­
stolic pressure, 80 millimeters. Blood counts showed no deviation from accepted
standards; albuminuria was present in 5 per cent of the subjects, with no
apparent pathological significance.
Leipoldt, C .. Louis: “ Blood pressure in the school child.” Brit, M. J.

[London], no. 3399 (1926), p. 347.
From examination of his own records of blood-pressure estimation in Trans­
vaal school children, more than 12,000 in number, the author concludes that
no definite standard can be established from such records.

406

Leitäo, M ello: “ Pressâo arterial na infancia ” [Blood pressure in chil­
dren]. ArcM vos Brasileiros de Medicina [Rio de Janeiro], voi. 1
(1911), pp. 729-748.
A study of blood pressure in 200 children from 1 month to 5 years old.
The author gives in several tables the blood pressure of the child in the morn­
ing and evening, according to the method of feeding, for each month of age
under 1 year, for those over 1 but under 2 years, and for those from 2 to 5
years old. In a separate table he gives all combined findings, also blood-pressure
figures obtained by several other writers. He concludes that blood pressure in
normal children is between 62 and 100 in the first seven months ; in the eighth
month it goes down to 78 ; from then until the age of 5 years it remains
almost stationary ; artificially-fed children have a lower blood pressure than
breast-fed children. Bibliography.

407

408

---------- “ Pression artérielle chez l’enfant ” [Arterial blood pressure of
infants]. Archives de médecine des enfants [Faris], vol. 16 (1913),
pp. 102-116.
The author tested and recorded the blood pressure of 200 children from
1 month to 5 years of age, at a Children’s Hospital, using the sphygmoma­
nometer of Erlanger and Hooker. Systolic and diastolic pressures were taken at
9 a. m. and 3 p. m. during April, May, and June, the subjects being normal
children who had not been ill for at least 30 days preceding the examination.
Pressure was taken at the femoral artery; pulse at ankle. The nu hor found
the systolic pressure mounting from 62 millimeters hydrogen in the first month
to a maximum .of 100 in the seventh, dropping to 78 in t,.e eigbtu month, when
all the infants observed were artificially fed, and mounting slowly from that
age to 5 years. In general infants artificially fed showed a lower pressure than
those nursed. Bibliography.
Letourneau, Charles, J. M. : Quelques observations sur les nouveau-nés

[Some Observations on the Newborn].

409

Paris, no. 35, 1858.

46 pp.

Thesis for medical degree (University of Paris), largely pathological, but.
containing one tgble of pulse rate as observed in 72 infants, from less than 10
minutes to 31 days of age, from which the author found an average during the
first month of 124 ; two tables of bodily measurements for 50 infants born at
term ; one table of weight of the viscera of infants born at term ; and a small
number of measurements of premature infants.
Lüthje, H . : “ Beitrag zur Frage der systolischen Geräusche am Herzen

und der Akzentuation des II. Pulmonaltons ” [Contribution to ques­
tion of systolic murmurs of the heart, and accentuation of second pul­
monic tone]. Medizinische Klinik [Berlin], vol. 2 (1906), pp. 404-406,
433-435.
After an examination of 445 girls between 6 and 20 years of age and 409
boys between 6 and 13, the author decided that “ functional murmurs ’’ ■are
almost a rule in childhood. Pulmonic murmurs occur most frequently from
ages 10 to 14 when growth is rapid and the chest is flat. Systolic murmurs

12229°— 27------12


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PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHILD
among girls occurred in 70 per cent of cases and among boys in 76 per cent.
Accentuation of second pulmonic tone was found in 708 of the 854 children.
The one table contains findings on systolic murmur over pulmonic area, sys­
tolic murmur at mitral area, systolic murmur over other areas, accentuation
of second pulmonic tone and of second aortic tone.

410

McCurdy, J. H .: “Adolescent changes in heart rate and blood pressure.”
American Physical Education Review [Springfield], vol. 15 (1910), pp.
421-432.
Thesis for a provisional master’s degree (Clark University, Worcester,
Mass.). The original work consists of blood-pressure and heart-rate tests of
58 normal boys, aged 10 to 20 years, the tests made both in the horizontal
position and standing, blood pressure by the Erlanger sphygmomanometer. Re­
sults are recorded for prepubescent, pubescent, and postpubescent groups. The
author found from his data and careful medical examination that a high heart
rate indicates poor muscular adjustment; a low blood pressure (below 100)
shows lack of v ig or; an abrupt pubertal rise in pressure is neither proved nor
disproved. References.

411

412

413

Milvin, G. Spencer, and J. H. Murray: “ Blood-pressure estimation in
children.” Brit. M. J. [London], vol. 1 (1915), pp. 669-670.
The results of blood-pressure estimations made on 40 children between 4 and
14 years of age are shown in a table giving age, pulse rate, auditory systolic,
auditory diastolic, and pulse pressure. Methods are described. The systolic
pressure was found to be slightly lower in children than in adults, the average
diastolic level decidedly higher, the pulse pressure lower.
Michael, M ay: “A study of blood pressure in normal children.” Am. J.
Dis. Child. [Chicago], vol. 1 (1911), pp.*272-275.
The literature of the subject is reviewed. One hundred and twenty-eight
cases, were examined and the blood pressure tabulated by the child’s height, by
his weight, and by the method of Sallom.

Monti, A . : “ (Propaedeutische Vorlesungen des Prof. A. Monti) Über
den Puls der Kinder” [(Propaedeutic lectures of Professor A. Monti)
Pulse of children]. Allgemeine W iener Medizinische Zeitung, vol. 34
(1889), pp. 80, 91-92.
In a small space the author presents extensive data on the pulse of normal
children. He presents a table compiled from many authors on maximum,
minimum, and average pulse of children between 1 and 12 years and notes
his corrections. Averages range from 110 to 84. He gives pulse of the average
newborn as 134. He also presents findings of Mayr and of Guy on children
of various ages. Pulse frequency decreases with age of the ch ild; time of
diastole is relatively greater than time of systole. Effect of length, rate of
growth, sex, time of day, posture, digestion, sleep, breathing, and emotion is
discussed.

414

Müller, Erich: “ Untersuchungen über die Arbeitsleistung des Blutes und
des Herzens bei gesunden Kindern vom 6. bis 11. Lebensjahre” [In­
vestigations into the functions of the blood and of the heart in healthy
children from the sixth to the eleventh year]. Ztschr. f. Kinderh.
[Berlin], vol. 7 (1913), pp. 266-281.
In investigating the functions of the blood and of the hearts of children the
author is particularly interested in the minute volum e; i. e., the amount of
blood that is pumped from the heart in a minute. He determines this for 19
healthy children between 6 and 11 years of age, as well as the volume of the
heart throb, time of circulation, the pressure, oxygen capacity, specific gravity,
and iron content o f the blood, and lifting power of the heart. The author de­
scribes his technique in examining the children between 10 a. m. and 1 p. m.
after they had breakfasted at 6.30, and compares his findings (minute volume
of the blood 3184 cubic centimeters, heart-throb volume 39.04 cubic centi­
meters, and circulation time 30.41 seconds) with the corresponding values from
Plesch for adults.

415

416

Nicholson, O. H .: “ The sphymographic appearances of the pulse in in­
fancy ; a preliminary note.”
Scottish Medical and Surgical Journal
[Edinburgh], vol. 8 (1901), pp. 419-426.
An article based on the author’s original observations in the Children’s Hos­
pital for 10 years. Number of cases is not stated. Seven figures of pulse
tracings are given. The author concludes that the infant’s pulse is not a simple
type of curve. He elaborates on its peculiarities and discovers similarity be­
tween the newborn infant’s pulse and that of certain diseased states in adults.
Nizzoli, A .: “ Sul valore del rapporto sfigmo-viscosimetro in pediatria ”

[On the value of the relation between blood pressure and blood vis­
cosity in pediatrics]. La Pediatria [Naples], vol. 28 (1920), pp. 368386, 419-434.
The purpose of the author’s work was to verify the theory advanced bv
Martinet that in healthy children a constant relation exists between blood
pressure and blood viscosity. After quoting numerous writers the author
tells of his study of the blood pressure of 2,278 normal children ranging in
age from a few hours to 11 years. He also obtained the age, blood. pressure,
viscosity, proportion of blood pressure to viscosity, weight, and height for 28
children with normal viscosity, 25 children with hypoviscosity ana 22 with


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173

hyperviscosity. He concludes that Martinet’s theory has no greater practical
value than the consideration of blood pressure and viscosity separately. Bibli­
ography.
Oppenheimer, K ., and S. Bauchwitz: “ Über den Blutdruck bei gesun­
den Kindern” [Blood pressure of healthy children]. Arch. f. Kinderh.

[Stuttgart], vol. 42 (1905), pp. 415-38.
In the belief that blood pressure should be measured in thereapeutics the
authors tested it in the case of 68 healthy children. They took only the
systolic pressure and estimated it at least three times on each occasion (the
first measurement being ignored on account of child’s nervousness) ; after the
first doctor made an estimation the second made a control estimation. A very
full description is given of apparatus of von Bosch, of Gärtner, and RivaRocci. In studying one child seventy-five times and another sixty times the
blood pressure, the authors found, varied within 10 millimeters of mercury.
The results are compared with those of other students. The pressure rose
according to increase in years, after the partaking of food (except in case of
infants) and of drink, usually after exercising, and always as sequence of
nervous excitement.

418

Payan, L., and Ed. Giraud: “ La tension veineuse normale chez l’enfant”
[The normal venous tension of the child].
Comptes rendus des
séances de la Société de "biologie [Paris], vol. 94 (1926), pp. 344-345.
The authors present a table of observations on 81 children, normal for the
purposes of this study, the ages ranging from birth to 15 years.

419

420

Pertot, S.: “ Beitrag zur Blutuntersuchung am Krankenbette” [Contri­
bution to blood investigation at the sick bed]. W iener' Klinische
Wochenschrift, vol. 14 (1901), pp. 779-782.
The author describes specimens o f blood •taken from healthy people of
various ages, including newborn infants, and explains his technique.
Pop off, A. M . : Materiali k voprosu o krovianom davlienii u zdorovikh

dietiei [Data on Blood Pressure of Well Children].
1913. 202 pp.

421

422

St. Petersburg,

For this dissertation (University of St. Petersburg) the author studied the
blood pressure of 800 'well children ranging in age from a few hours to 16
years. He gives by very detailed age groups the average weight, height,
chest circumference, circumference of head, pulse, breathing, and blood pressure
on the right and left arm as obtained by the methods of Korotkov, Riva-Rocci,
and Gärtner. His discussion treats of the constancy of blood pressure and
its fluctuations as affected by physiological conditions, such as age, weight,
height, and sex ; the relation between pulse and blood pressure, the effect of
breathing, crying, anger, joy, muscular effort, mental effort, sleep, feeding at
the breast, and eating ; also the effect of premature birth and congenital
debility. The data are given in numerous tables and compared with those
obtained by other writers.
Rucker, M . Pierce, and J. W . Connell: “ Blood pressure in the new­
born.” Am. J. Dis. Child. [Chicago], vol. 27 (1924), pp. 6-24.
Blood pressures were taken at birth of 32 white' and 20 negro infants. The
arm was used in all instances. The arithmetical averages for the 52 infants
were as follows : First day, 55/40 ; second, 58/41 ; third, 54/39 ; fourth,
5 8 /4 2 ; fifth, 6 0 /42 ; sixth, 63/43 ; seventh, 6 1 /4 4 ; eighth, 6 3 /4 4 ; ninth,
64/43 ; tenth, 64/41. Six case histories of unusual subjects are given, and
the literature of the subject is collected in a bibliography of 67 references.

von Salle: “ Über Blutdruck im Kindesalter ” [Blood pressure in child­
hood]. Jahrl). f. Kinderh. [Berlin], vol. 73 (1911), pp. 273-283.
With the Riva-Rocci-Recklinghausen apparatus the author tested the blood
pressure, systolic, and diastolic of 75 normal children from 3 to 11 years old.
There were variations in each age and individual, but a steady increase of
blood pressure could be discerned according to age, weight, and size. The
blood pressure of four normal nurslings was found to be 80 millimeters hydro­
gen. The pressure was lower in status lymphaticus and higher in neuropathy
and nephritis. Results are presented in two tables and a curve.

423

Schlieps, W ilhelm : “ Über Herztöne kranker und gesunder Säuglinge”
[Heart sounds of sick and healthy infants]. Monatschr. f. Kinderh.
[Leipzig and Vienna], vol. 10 (1911), pp. 450-456.
In examining six healthy, breast-fed children the author found that only
in two was the first sound the louder at the base of the heart ; in the others
the stronger sound coincided at the base with the diastole o f the heart. In 10
so-called healthy, bottle-fed children the second sound at the base was in eight
cases louder than the first, and in two cases no difference was to be noted.
Bibliography.

424

---------- Über pseudokardiale und kardiale Geräusche im Kindesalter
ohne pathologische Bedeutung ” [Pseudo-cardiac and cardiac murmurs
in childhood without pathological significance]. Jahrl). f. Kinderh.
[Berlin], new ser. vol. 76, supplementary volume (1912), pp. 247-282.
After a survey of previous work on the subject the author describes his own
studies of the hearts of 273 children. Each one was tested several times as to
pulse, blood pressure, hemoglobin, urine, and by auscultation and some by


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426

427

428

429

430

431

PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHILD
X-rays, while standing, lying, and after exercise. Of the 273, 100 had func­
tional systolic murmurs. Among other findings the author concludes that
anemia and heart murmurs have no causal connection in childhood. Onethird of functional murmurs are due to lowering of tone in the heart muscle,
for which the term “ atonic ” is proposed. It disappears on improvement of
. general health. The article contains 10 figures and concludes with two pages
of Bibliography.
Seham, M a x : “ The electrocardiogram in normal children.” Am. J. Dis.
A Child. [Chicago], voi. 21 (1921), pp. 247-281.
The author reports and shows characteristic electrocardiographs for normal
children from a collection of 101 electrocardiographs on children 1 hour to 12
years old.
----------- and Grete Egerer-Seham : “ Physiology of exercise in childhood.
Part I. A study of normal children of school age.” Am. J. Dis. Child.
[Chicago], voi. 25 (1923), pp. 1-45.
After summarizing the work of previous authors on pulse rate and blood
pressure in children during exercise the authors record the results of about
.600 determinations carried out on 100 children between the ages of 6 and 15
years, systolic and diastolic pressures and pulse rate having been taken in
standing, sitting, and reclining postures. Normal values having thus been
determined, experiments were carried out with an especially devised ergometer,
with dumbbells, and with staircase exercises ; and numerous tables were con­
structed showing the effect of different types of exercise on the circulatory
reactions, reaction of pulse and blood pressure to measured amounts of work,
. effect of various amounts and kind of work on pulse and blood pressure at
different ages, relation between weight and capacity for work in normal chil­
dren, etc. References.
Seux, V . : “ Du pouls chez les nouveau-nés” [The pulse of the newborn].
Union médicale [Paris], voi. 9 (1855), p. 522.
Not an original article but a résumé with lengthy quotations of an investi­
gation made by M. Seux. An early contribution to studies of the infant
pulse rate.
Sm ith, J. Lew is: “ The infantile pulse in health.” American Medical
Times [New York], voi. 7 (1863), pp. 275-277.
This article contains the following original observations : 57 on the pulse
in healthy infants during the first half hour of life ; 42 during the first
week, wakefulness, sleep, or condition of excitement being noted after the
first six hours ; 24 from the close of the first week to the close of the first
month; 38 from the close of the first month to the close of the third month;
37 from the close of the third month to the close of the sixth month; 29 from
the close of the sixth month to the close of the first year. The author found a
marked diminution of the pulse in sleep except in the first week of life, and a
gradual diminution when the infant was awake but quiet during the entire
first year.
Stowell, W . L. : “ Blood pressure in children.” Arch. Pediat. [New
York], voi. 25 (1908), pp. 88-94.
Following general observations on variations in adult blood pressure the
author quotes the results of 216 observations. made on children. From tht-se
he derived the average pressure in healthy children from 3 to 17 years inclusive,
showing the lowest. 89 millimeters, at 4 years, and the highest, 117 millimeters,
at 16 years. Many obsèrvations on children with various diseases are also
recorded. Bibliography.
Stocks, Percy, and M . Noel K a ra : Blood Pressure in Early Life : A sta­
tistical study. Cambridge University Press, 1924. 88 pp.
An investigation to determine normal blood pressure during puberty and
adolescence ; to ascertain the normal range of systolic and diastolic blood
pressure and pulse pressure at ages from 5 to 40 ; to examine the interrelation
between these pressures, and their correlation with pulse rate, physical de­
velopment, muscular strength, respiratory and psychological functions, social
class and athletic habits. Data were obtained from 1,633 subjects, as follows :
540 boys in London County Council elementary schools.
560 boys in London secondary schools.
69 boys of Merchant Taylors’ School.
,
154 boys of Bristol secondary schools.
42 men on the staff of the Virol Company’s factory.
154 male students of University College, Lon'don.
114 female students of University College, London.
Methods are fully described as a contribution toward establishing a standard
technique. Twenty-two figures and 44 tables (including two which summarize
the findings of various observers as to mean systolic and diastolic pressures of
males at different ages) accompany the text, which concludes' with a list of
72 references.
Sutliff, W . D ., and E velyn H o lt: “ Thé age curve of pulse rate under
basal conditions.” Archives of Internal Medicine [Chicago], voi. 35
(1925), pp. 224-241.
From data of many investigators, the authors derived charts showing the
curve of basal, pulse rate in relation to age for both sexes between ages 1 and
SO, and the curve of basal pulse rate for males compared with the curve (Aub


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and Du Bois) of basal metabolism per square meter of body surface hourly for
™Average basal pulse rate at 1 year was found to be 116 for males
and 122 for females. The curve drops rapidly for the first three years, then
less rapidly to the adult level, reached at 20 years of age. Variability is
greater in children than in adults ; in females than in males. An extended
discussion of previous studies is accompanied by a list of 45 references.
432 Tavastsjerna, A .: “ Zur Kenntnis der individuellen Schwankungen des
Blutdruckes beim gesunden Menschen ” [Knowledge of individual varia­
tions of blood pressure in healthy man]. Skandinavisches Archiv für
Physiologie [Léipzig], vol. 21 (1 90 8-9), pp. 405-430.
The author took blood pressures of 500 males and females, of whom 246 were
school children between 7 and 19 years. The data of other students are ex­
tensively discussed. The author’ s own findings are shown in 14 tables and 3
figures. Maximal, minimal, and mean values are given for blood pressure and
pulse frequency.
433 Trousseau, A . : “ Sur le pouls des enfants à la m am elle” [The pulse of
nurslings]. Journal des connaissances médico-chirurgicales [Paris]
vol. 9, pt. 1 (1841-42), pp. 23-29.
Two series of observations were made by the author.
In the first series
no distinction was made as to the state of activity, sleep, nursing, or excite­
ment. In the second, these distinctions were included, and observations were
made of the same infant under varied conditions. The first series consisted of
27 boys and 27 girls, aged 15 days to 21 months ; the second, of 59 boys and 47
girls, aged 8 days to 21 months. Subjects were divided into several age groups
and minimum, average, and maximum pulse rates were recorded for each group
The author found that the pulse in the third month has the frequency which it
preserves to the twenty-first month ; that from the third month through the
twenty-first the pulse of girls is more rapid than that of boys; that the pulse
is more rapid when the infants are awake than when they are asleep. Normal
variations were as follows : In the second half of the first month, 120 to 164 •
from 1 to 2 months, 96 to 132 ; from 2 to 6 months, 100 to 162 ; from 6 months
to one year, 100 to 160 ; from one year to 21 months, 96 to 140.
434 Trumpp, J .: “ Blutdruckmessungen an gesunden und kranken Säuglin­
gen ” [Blood-pressure measurements of healthy and sick infants].
Verhandlungen der Gesellschaft für Kinderheilkunde [Wiesbaden], vol.
21—22 (1904—5 ), pp. 207—2124. See also Jahrl). f. Kinderh. [Berlin],
vol. 63 (1906), pp. 43-59.
Trumpp measured the blood pressure of healthy and sick infants 1,300 times.
Some of the work was done in Munich; but 1,062 measurements on 56 in­
fants were made at the Children’s Asylum, Berlin. Gartner’s tonometer was
used. The newborn showed values no different from older children. The
healthy, breast-fed infant showed a blood-pressure curve almost horizontal
between 75 and 90 millimeter hydrogen ; 60 was reached only in sleep or in
cases of premature birth. Muscular and nervous stimulation and the taking
of food increased blood pressure. Three hundred tests on the hands resulted
in a higher pressure 122 times for the left hand and 97 times for the right
hand, and no difference 81 times. Sixteen tables give temperature weight and
blood-pressure curves foy 1 healthy infant and 15 sick ones.
435 V a lle ix : “ Recherches sur la fréquence du pouls chez les enfants nouveaunés et chez les enfants.âgés de sept mois à six a n s ” [Observations of
pulse rate in newborn infants and in children aged 7 months to 6
years].
Mémoires de la. Société médicale d’observation de Paris,
vol. 2 (1844), pp. 300-380.
Data were obtained from three series of observations : One of 4 children
observed for 24 days, one of 6 children for 24 days, one of 33 children for 25
days. The total number of observations was 567. The author found that the
pulse is less rapid in the newborn than in infants of 6% months ; that rise in
temperature increases pulse rate ; that the pulse of girls is more rapid than that
of boys ; that during sleep the pulse is sensibly retarded ; that from 7 to 27
months the number of pulsations does not change noticeably, remaining at about
126 when the child is in a state of ordinary activity.
436 W ilson , M ay G. : “ The circulatory reactions to graduated exercise in
normal children.” Am. J. Dis. Child. [Chicago], vol. 20 (1920) pp.
188-198.
To assist in finding’a criterion of cardiac function applicable to children
an investigation was conducted at New York Nursery and Child’s Hospital, and
at the' Department of Pediatrics, Cornell University Medical College, N. Y.
Twenty normal children aged 6 to 13 years were observed at two-day intervals
for two to eight weeks. A total of 500 observations were made. Pulse, sys­
tolic blood pressure, character, duration and rate of exercise, and clinical re­
actions of subject were recorded. Typical pulse and blood-pressure charts arè
shown. The complete data of one experiment in each of the 20 eases àrè
tabulated. The author’s conclusions are that the circulatory response to exer­
cise in children is similar to that of adults and reasonably constant. The pulse
returns to normal within two minutes after exercise to the. clinical limit of
tolerance. The type of blood-pressure curve is the best criterion of exercise
tolerance and therefore of cardiac function. A delayed rise and summit with
a prolonged fall indicate the limit of tolerance, :
‘V


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PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OP THE CHILD
W olfen soh n -K riss, Mrs. P.: “ Über den Blutdruck im Kindesalter”
[Blood pressure in childhood].
Arch. f. Kinderh. [Stuttgart], vol.
53 (1910), pp. 332-348.
The author tested the blood pressure with the Riva-Roeci and Sahli methods
on about 350 healthy children in a polyclinic at Berne
She discusses results
obtained by other investigators and describes her own methods. Seven tables
show a§e, size of children, and the minimum as woll as maximum pressure.
Conclusions are that blood pressure rises with increasing age, with greater
height, and with greater weight. No relation to sex could be established.
Zam kin, H arry O. : “ The size of the liver and the spleen in apparently
normal children.” Arch. Pediat. [New York], vol. 43 (1926), up.
169-185.
The author reports his own study of 2,100 apparently normal infants and
children. The findings recorded were determined in greater part by palpation
Monthly examinations were made during the first year ; annual examinations to
and including the twelfth year. Significant changes in size appeared in four
groups : 10 days to 1 year, inclusive, 531 cases : 2 years to 4 years, inclusive,
458 cases ; 5 years to 9 years, inclusive, 835 cases ; 10 years to 12 years, in­
clusive, 276 cases. With reference to the costal margin in the mid-clavicular
line, the liver varied from just palpable to 6.5 centimeters below ; it was found
3.5 centimeters, 4.5 centimeters, and 5.5 centimeters below as late as 9 years
of age, and fairly often as low as 3.5 centimeters below up to 12 years
Neither the state of nutrition nor the type of diet affected the height of the
liver. The spleen was palpated below the free border of the ribs in 25 per
cent o f the series, the frequency being greatest during the first year. Neither
type of feeding during the first year, race, nor nationality of parents had any
appreciable effect on the size of the spleen. The article has a comprehensive
review of the literature, with referencs, and several tables.

C. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
439

440

441

442

443

A n d ral and Gavarret: “ Recherches sur la quantité d’acide carbonique
exhalée par le poumon dans l’espèce humaine ” [Researches into the
quantity of carbonic acid exhaled by the lung in the human species].
Annales de chimie et de physique [Paris], ser. 3, vol. 8 (1843), pp. 129150.
The author discusses the quantity of carbonic acid exhaled by 36 males and
26 females between the ages of 8 and 75. Twelve were boys and six girls be­
low the age of 20. One table on the male sex and one on the female sex show
age, musculature, and carbon consumed in one hour. Other things being equal,
the male exhales more carbonic acid than the female. In girls and women men­
struation decreases the output. .The quantity of carbonic acid varies directly
with vigor of constitution.
A rm bruster: “ Vom Kehlkopf der Neugeborenen ” [Larynx of newborn
babies]. Der Kinder-Arzt [Leipzig], vol. 26-30 (1915-1919), pp. 3-5.
A discussion of the relative positions of the larynx in. the infant and adult
with relation to the vèrtebræ, and the advantages to the infant and adult in
such position.
Bahrdt, H ., and E. Edelstein: “ Die Methodik der Untersuchung des
respiratorischen Stoffwechsels am Säugling ” [The method of investi­
gating the respiratory exchange in the infant]. Jahrl. f. Kinderh.
[Berlin], vol. 72 (1910), supplement, pp. 43-70.
The authors describe their methods of testing the respiratory metabolism of
infaDts in the Empress Augusta Victoria House by means of the Pettenkofervoit
apparatus and Pettenkofer’s methods of analysis.
Bernstein, J .: “ Zur Entstehung der Aspiration des Thorax bei der
G eburt” [Origin of the expansion of the thorax at birth]. Archiv für
die Gesummte Physiologie des Menschen und der Thiere [Bonn], vol.
28 (1882), pp. 229-242.
After refuting Hermann’s theory on elastic tension of the fetal thorax the
author argues that the thorax of the newborn infant, in consequence of respi­
ratory moyements, is subject to new equilibrium, and discusses mechanics
of this change, and. develops his own theory of excess expansion. This rests on
the hypothesis that the thorax of the fetus and all parts connected with it
grow in a condition, of elastic equilibrium. If a powerful inspiration occurs
organs, muscles, etc., are stretched and draw in opposite directions, but not
being entirely elastic they retain a certain degree of extension. The author
refers to tests without precisely tabulating them.
--------- - “ Weiteres über die Entstehung der Aspiration des Thorax nach
der Geburt ” [Further on the origin o f. expansion of the thorax after
birth]. Archiv für die Gesammte Physiologie des Menschen und der
Thiere [Bonn], vol. 34 (1884), pp. 21-37.
. The author continues discussion öf volume 28 of this periodical on the
origin of expansion of the thorax after birth. He again calls Hermann’s theory
on elastic tension of fetal thorax a physical impossibility.


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Tests on six kids, two lambs, and one infant convinced him that expansion of
the thorax arises in consequence of the first powerful movements of breath­
ing directly after birth. In the human newborn, at least after the first week,
there is a negative pressure in the thorax. That it is not so great as -in
adults is due to the fact that young tissue has a lesser elasticity coefficient
than older and that bronchi and alveoli become thicker and perhaps also more
numerous.
444 Billard, G., and P. Gourdon: “ Sur l’indice de la puissance de ventilation
pulmonaire chez les enfants de l’école prim aire” [The index of
chest expansion in school children]. Comptes rendus des séances de
la Société de biologie [Paris], vol. 94 (1926), pp. 12-13.
By this index the authors designate the relation of chest volume to vital
capacity. In a series of 150 children they found no correlation between stature
or weight and vital capacity, but a fairly constant value, ranging from 4.5 to
5.5, for the above index.
445 Boynton, R uth E .: ‘‘A comparison of normal standards for the vital
capacity of the lungs of women.”
Archives of Internal Medicine
[Chicago], voi. 33 (1924), pp. 292-300.
The author includes a number of observations on girls from 16 to 20
years of age.
446 B rilli, L. :
Ricerche sulla ventilazione polmonare nell’ età infantile ”
[Studies of respiration in childhood]. Lo Sperimentale [Siena], voi.
47 (1893), pp. 218-229.
The author carried out 40 experiments with 25 children from 3 to 11 years
old for the purpose of finding the quantity of air expired by them. Eighteen
were well ; the others were convalescent from diseases of the lungs or pleura.
For each experiment the author gives the age, weight, height, chest circumference temperature, pulse, time of day, duration of study, and quantity of air
expired every five minutes. He found that the amount of air expired every
five minutes by children from 3 to 11 years old varied between 30 and 47
liters ■ respiration is more active in children than in adults ; in proportion to
the sizes o f their bodies the children breathe more air than adults ; in children
of the same age the weight, height, and chest circumference bear no relation
to the amount of expired air.
447 D oh m : “ Über den Mechanismus der Respiration des Neugeborenen ”
[The mechanism of respiration in the newborn]. Archiv für Gynaekologie [Berlin], vol. 35 (1889), pp. 503-504.
The author tested with mask and spirometer the respiratory exchange of a
very young infant when quietly breathing and when crying; it was 35 cubic
centimeters in the first case and 120 to 140 cubic centimeters in the second.
There is atelectasis, the author maintains, on the first day of life and often
on the second. The air exchange of infants is much greater than that of adults.
[Me­
44 8 ----------- “ Über die Mechanik der Respiration des Neugeborenen”
chanics of respiration of the newborn]. Deutsche Gesellschaft für
Gynäkologie, Verhandlungen [Leipzig], 1890, pp. 102-108.
The author demonstrated mechanics of infant respiration with dead bodies
into which glycerine had been injected. For the normal newborn child there
is an exchange with every breath of 35 cubic centimeters of air, which amount
may rise to 120 cubic centimeters in crying. The respiratory curve shows no
pause between inspiration and expiration. Air exchange with each breath
amounts to one-fourth of whole capacity of lungs— considerably more than in
adults. Complete development of alveoli of lungs can not be assumed after
shallow breathing.
449 Eckerlein: “ Zur Kenntnis des Atmungsmechanismus der Neugeborenen ”
[Mechanism of breathing in newborn infants],
Zeitschrift für
Geburtshülfe und Gynäkologie [Stuttgart], voi. 19 (1890), pp. 120-173.
The author discusses the work done on the respiration of infants by Maye,
Monti Steffen, Kehrer, Vierordt, Kennebaum, Preyer, Kronecker, Weber, et al.
To determine the form of the thorax of newborn infants he made observations
for 10 days on 5 healthy children with an apparatus for outlining the longi­
tudinal profile, and for 6 to 9 days on 28 infants, with a tape measure, to
obtain the chest girth. The latter results are shown in tables. The mean for
468 measurements is 32.4 centimeters. Means from 468 measurements of antero­
posterior and transverse diameters of the chest are 8.7 centimeters and 9.8
centimeters, respectively. The infant’ s thorax is therefore much less flat than
that of the adult. To ascertain the changes in the thorax the author made
curves of the chest girth of the above 28 newborn infants, which curves show a
sinking on second and third days after birth. The lung volume of 4 stillborn
infants he found to average 51 cubic centimeters. Further experiments on the
living infants showed how the thorax rises and falls in quiet and in deep
breathing.
The same experiments are conducted by artificial inflation of
cadavers. With Marey’s drum the author measured the rhythm of respiration
of which he gives many graphs. With a specially made spirometer he tested the
respiratory exchange of 5 children during their first 8 or 10 days of life, and
made over 100 curves. He found it 2,500 cubic centimeters a minute for
crying and 1,700 for normal breathing. The infant has a greater respiratory
exchange than the adult. The article concludes with many spirometrie curves
o f respiratory rhythm in newborn infants.


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450

Eckstein, A ., and H . R om inger: “ Die Atmung des Säuglings” [Respira­
tion of the infant]. Ztschr. f. Kinderh. [Berlin], vol. 28 (1921), pp
1-37.
The authors studied respiration in 72 infants up to 1. year of age, using a
mask constructed of glass and Gad’s pneumatograph. The method of testing is
described, also frequency and volume of respiration and respiratory type The
article contains 14 pictures of apparatus and curves of breathing. Resuits are
expressed also in a detailed table.
The average frequency of the normal infant is 37 to 49 breaths a minutephysiological variations are between 30 and 70. Volume of air inspired bv
young infants is 10 to 13 cubic centimeters ; at about six months it rises to
18 cubic centimeters and in the second half of the first year to 30 cubic centi­
meters. Respiratory type of older infant is not very different from that of
adult. Bibliography/

451

Emerson, W . R. P., and H . Green: “ Vital capacity of the lungs of chil­
dren.” Am. J. Dis. Child. [Chicago], vol. 22 (1921), pp. 202-211.
From various institutions in Boston vital capacity was estimated on 350
aPiu1oximately normal children— 84 girls and 266 boys. Surface area was
calculated by the tables of Benedict and Talbot, except for heavier children
tor whom the chart of DuBois and DuBois was used. The height weight
age, vital capacity, and surface area of each child are given, the data ’analyzed
in groups based on sex and height, and the ratio of the Vital capacity:to the
surface area estimated for the groups. The authors’ conclusions are: (1)
A very close relationship was found between vital capacity and surface area
in childreh : (2) there is practically no difference between children con
sidered m the tables for normal weight, for height, and those falling 7 5 per
cent below norm al; (3) the determinations of vital capacity for girls' were
on a whole much lower than those for boys, but the same relation held between
vinal cai ,acity and surface area; (4) determinations of vital capacity below 7
years of age are unreliable.
J
1

452

Engel, _S.: “ Form, Lage, und Lageveränderungen des Bronchialbaumes
im Kindesalter ” [Form, position, and change of position of the bron­
chial tree in childhood]. Arch. f. Kinderh. [Stuttgart], vol 60-61
(1913), pp. 267-288.
si^ J t h e bronchial tree in childhood the author made 23 metal
2 * 5 i ? 0SRy from cadavers of young children, and took many X-ray pictures
of the thoraxes of living children. In this article he shows 18 figures 3 tables
according to ages from birth to 13 years, of the frontal and sagittal diameters
Ä
^ b r o n c h i a ! tubes, their length, and the position of their bifurcatio n , and tables for the 4 quarters of the first year and for each of the 12
S rJ+ w M y+earÄ con/ aimng the position of the bifurcation and of the diaphragm
relatively to the sternal vertebrae. He finds the proportion of right to left
t o . 12-,. After about the fifth year the trachea move! from the
right to the median line in the normal thorax, and the bifurcation falls from
above to below the fourth vertebra.
anon
us 1 om
E eitelberg, Joseph: Der Stand der normalen untern Lungenränder in
den verschiedenen Lebensaltern nach den Ergebnissen der Percussion
[Position of Normal Lower-Lung Margins at Various Ages, According
to Results of Percussion]. Dorpat, 1884. 93 pp

453

ää

454

455

* ¡a
s

ä

}]?“ § margins at five, points. Up to 20 years of age the margin of the left
lung is usually a little deeper than that of the righ t: the boundary lines of
« P i » « ! ft
axillary line are definable in one-half o f the cases up to
10 and m two-thirds of the cases up to 20.
y
Eitz, George W . : “A study of types of respiratory movements.” Journal
of Experimental Medicine [Neve York], vol. 1 (1896), pp. 677-692.
By means of belt pneumographs connected with piston recorders the author
secured respiratory tracings of 407 subjects and derived tables of the resp°ratory movements of thorax and abdomen, recorded in millimeters of the
following groups: 35 boys aged 6 to 15— average, 9 years 8 months- 34
females with unconstricting dress, aged 3 to 60, of Eskimo, Egyptian Syrian
American Indian, Samoan, Hawaiian, Javanese races; 44 females with conÄ n ngi ™ f . ’ a4 edA13 t(? 48’ of EgyPRan- Eskimo, Syrian, Javanese, American
Bidian races• o2 American women, aged 17 to 34— average 22 years 5
months— classified as to wearing of corsets. The author concludes that in
P£th sexes normal abdominal respiratory movement is somewhat in excess of
oh ^ t»iin0Ve+^e? t ’
I 116 c »est contributes the same bulk of air as the
abdomen, that constriction of dress causes preponderance of thoracic movements in ratio to restriction of abdominal movements and sensitiveness of
nervous coordination. References.
or
Forster, J.: Über die Kohlensäureausseheidung bei Kindern ” [Carbonicacid eiimination in children]. Amtlicher Bericht der 50. Versammlung
Deutscher Naturforscher und Aerzte, in Muenchen vom 17 bis 22
September, 1877, p. 355.
'
, With Pettenkofer’s respiratory apparatus the lecturer tested 14 bovs nnd
girls ranging from 14 days to 9 years o f age in a state of rest and hunger ami


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179

. determined that for 10 kilograms of weight 10-12 grams of carbonic acid were
eliminated in one hour, as opposed to 4-5 grams in the adult.
456 Gilbert, J. A lle n : “ Lung development in the child.” J. A. M. A. [Chi­
cago], vol. 38 (1902), pp. 1436-1437.
A plea for gymnasia in public schools based on a comparison of the vital
capacity of pupils 6 to 17 years of age in public and private schools. About
1,600 children were examined. One table and one chart are given.
457 G ittings, J., George Fetterolf, and A . G. M itch ell: “A study of the
topography of the pulmonary fissures and lobes in infants (with special
reference to thoracentesis).” Am. J. Dis. Child. [Chicago], vol. 12
(1916), pp. 579-589.
Previous literature is reviewed with emphasis on its discrepancies. The re­
lation of the pulmonary fissures to the ribs and scapulæ was determined in 14
formalin-hardened specimens 6 weeks to 15 months old. The fissures of the
lungs in infancy were found to show practically the same relation to the bony
framework as in adults. The lower level of the lungs in infancy is probably
higher than in adults.
458 Godin, P au l: “ Respiration thoracique et respiration abdominale volon­
taires au cours de la croissance ” [Voluntary thoracic and abdominal
respiration in the course of growth]. Comptes rendus hebdomadaires
des séances de VAcadémie des sciences [Paris], vol. 157 (1913), pp.
388-389.
On the basis of observations upon 230 children from 13 -to 18 years of age
the author states that thoracic expansion in breathing is to abdominal ex­
pansion as 10 is to 5 in the prepubescent period and as 6 is to 4 after puberty ;
or, in other words, the pulmonary expansion is horizontal before puberty and
horizontal and vertical after puberty.
459 Gregor, Konrad: “ Untersuchungen über die Atembewegungen des
K in d es”
[Investigations in respiratory movements of the child].
Arch. f. Kinderh. [Stuttgart], vol. 35 (1 9 0 2 -3 ), pp. 272-304.
After discussing Basse’s four types of breathing among mammals and his own
fourfold division of the development of breathing in children from birth to 14
years the author describes a new series of studies on ordinary children, both
strong and weak, between 7 and 14. He photographed 15 girls and 9 boys so as
to obtain the side view of torso, naked, in two positions after inspiration and
expiration. He discusses in detail the movements of the girls’ bodies in breath­
ing and of the boys’, the differences due to age and sex, and the influences
caused by physical development. A table gives details on the respiration of his
24 subjects, and a plate reproduces the photographs. The author discovers a
great variety in the combinations of abdominal and thoracic breathing. Girls
hold longer to abdominal breathing. They are much inferior to boys in the
way they breathe and stand.
460 Haedke, M axim ilian : Über den Nachweis epldermoidaler Elemente in
den Lungen Neugeborener [Proof of Epidermoid Elements in the
Lungs of Newborn Infants]. Kiel, 1894. 15 pp.
Inaugural dissertation (University of Kiel). In the pathological institute at
Kiel the author examined the lungs of 11 newborn infants that had been dis­
sected and in 7 ascertained the presence of epidermoid cells. A description of
each infant is given.
461 Hasselbaech, K . A . : “ Respirationsforspg paa nyf0dte Bprn ” [Respiratory
studies on the newborn], Bibliotek for Laeger [Copenhagen], ser. 8,
vol. 5 (1904), pp. 219-247.
The work of other investigators is discussed. In five tables observations on
25 infants (11 girls and 14 boys) 15 minutes to 6 days of age are given.
462 Khàrina-M arinucci, R. ; “ Capacitâ respiratoria e statura seduta ”
[Vital capacity and sitting height]. La Pediatria [Naples], vol. 32
(1924), pp. 832-849.
The purpose of this article is to find the relation between the sitting height
and vital (or respiratory) capacity in normal children as a means of judging
the child’s physical condition. The author gives in two tables the following
data obtained by Professor Fabozzi : Age, height, sitting height, weight, chest
circumference, and vital capacity for over 1,300 school children 3 to 11 years
old. by sex. In two other tables he gives data obtained by himself in a study
of 960 children ranging in age from 6 to 11 years old, boys and girls in nearly
equal numbers. He gives for them the relation between the sitting height and
vital capacity, and in a fifth table he presents an index showing the vital
capacity for each centimeter of sitting height. He concludes that the vital
capacity, considered by itself, increases with age ; it is greater in males than in
females and in the rich than in the poor. The proportion between Vital
capacity and sitting height is constant in children. The number which expresses
the relation between the cube of the* height and the vital capacity in normal
condition fluctuates around 21 ; that expressing the relation between the cube
root of the vital capacity and the sitting height is in normal condition equal
to 0.16 or 0.17. Both these indexes constitute an objective method for judging
whether the maximum quantity o f air inhaled or exhaled by an individual is
sufficient for the development of the body. References,


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PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHILD

463

K rogh, A u g u st, and J. Lindhard: “ Measurements of the blood flow
through the lungs of man.” Skandinavisches Archiv für Physiologie
[Leipzig], vol. 27 (1912), pp. 100-125.
In their measurements of blood flow through the lungs the authors use as
subjects three adults and one child of 14 years weighing 53.5 kilograms. The
article contains sections on the method of determining blood flow, a long table
of volume of air in lungs, mean percentage of nitrous oxide, final percentage
of oxygen blood flow, pulse, etc., and a summary,
464 M arfan, A . B., and H . Dorlencourt: “ Recherches sur l ’exhalation de
vapeur d’eau par le poumon chez le nourrisson sain et chez le nourris­
son atteint de choléra infantile ou de diarrhée commune ” [Researches
in the elimination of water vapor through the lungs in normal infants
and those with common diarrhea]. Bulletins de la Société de pédiatrie
de Paris, vol. 20 (1922), pp. 22-27.
This article contains a report of a study of nine normal infants, whose
exhalation of water vapor was determined by means of an apparatus invented
by the author, not here described. A table shows age, weight, and water ex­
haled per kilogram of weight in 10 minutes. The average was found to be
0.0318 gram, the quantity increasing from the age of 1 to. 3 months, then
gradually decreasing to 6% months, the age of the oldest subject examined.
465 Mehnert, E. : Über topographische Altersveränderungen des Atmungsap­
parates und ihre mechanischen Verknüpfungen [Topographical Changes
at Different Ages, of the Respiratory Apparatus and their Mechanical
Connections]. Verlag von Gustav Fischer, Jena, 1901. 151 pp.
This book contains 40 tables, 30 figures, and 3 elaborate plates. The text
is divided into sections on larynx, trachea, diaphragm, etc., at different ages.
Both cadavers and living individuals were examined. The whole respiratory
apparatus sinks as age progresses. In the fetus the head is bent forward with
chin on the breast; in extrauterine life the head is raised. In the fetus ribs
are horizontal ; in childhood they take on a slant. Exact location of cricoid
cartilage, tracheal bifurcation, etc., is noted at different ages as they sink.
This “ age descensus ” is more rapid in male than in female.
466 No'back, G . J. : “ The developmental topography of the larynx, trachea,
and lungs in the fetus, newborn, infant, and child.” Am. J. Dis. Child.
[Chicago], vol. 26 (1923), pp. 515-533.
The relation of the respiratory system to the vertebral column and the
shifting of this system in a cranio-caudal direction were studied by locating
the levels of the following points : The tip of the epiglottis, the inferior
margin of the cricoid cartilage, the tracheal bifurcation, the upper and lower
limits of the lungs, and the illation of the apex of each lung to the supra­
sternal notch. These levels were determined from 102 fetuses and full-term,
newborn children ; midsagittal sections of a 5-year and an 8-year-old child ;
a model of the topography of thoracic and abdominal viscera of a 65-millimeter
human embryo ; and a series of tracings of medially sectioned human fetuses.
Seven charts show the findings of the author plotted with those of many other
investigators. References.
467 Recklinghausen, Heinrich : “ Über die Athmungsgrösse des Neuge­
borenen” [Respiratory capacity of the newborn infant]. Pflüger's
Archiv für die Gesammte Physiologie des Menschen und der Thiere
[Bonn], vol. 72 (1895-96), pp. 451-493.
This article is in three parts : A general section including a description of
Dohrn’s tests, the main part describing the author’s own experiments on four
infants with an apparatus to which he devotes many pages, and a third part
containing full data in four tables and a plate of five figures on the apparatus,
and seven curves on the subjects. In these four children, when quiet and
asleep, the frequency of breathing averaged 62 per minute. The volume of
air was 1,370 cubic centimeters per minute- to 3 kilograms of weight, whereas
in the adult it is 300 cubic centimeters.
468 Rennebaum, Fran z: Die Athmungscurve des neugeborenen Menschen
[Respiratory Curve of the Newborn Infant]. Jena, 1884. 30 pp.
Inaugural dissertation (University o f Jena). After a description of his re­
cording apparatus (Marey’s polygraph from Roth in Prague), of which he gives
a picture, the author shows 6 curves of adults’ respiration and 12 of infants’
respiration and notes the differences. Breathing of the newborn agrees with
that of adults in that the inspiration passes into expiration without nause and
surpasses the latter in duration. On the other hand the infant differs essen­
tially from adult in absence of respiration pause and in greater frequency and
slighter depth of respirations. These differences are to be explained by greater
flexibility of children’ s thoraces which follow alteration in the volume of the
lungs more easily than in adults, by less energetic contractions of the dia­
phragm, by shorter duration of circulation of blood, and by very slight thoracic
aspiration in the beginning.
469 Rock, F. E. : “ Chest girth of Edmonton school children.” School Hygiene
[London], vol. 1 (1910), p. 345.
This article presents a table for boys and one for girls 4 to 15 years of age,
giving the measurements of the chest at rest and the amount of expansion of
the chest, in centimeters. The probable error is noted. Measurements were
taken at the level of the nipple.


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470

471

472

473

474

475

476

181

Scherer, F .: “ Die Respiration des Neugeborenen und Säuglings; experi­
mentelle Studie” [Respiration of the newborn and of the older in fan t;
experimental study]. Jahrh. f. Kinderh.
[Leipzig], vol. 43 (1896),
pp. 471-497.
Observations made by the author at the clinic for infants at Prague. He
of gases. He quotes several writers on each of the points he investigated,
presents in several tables the results of his 85 experiments, and draws the fol­
lowing conclusions : (1) The Intensity of the exchange of gases in respiration of
the newborn is much greater than in the case of adults; (2) low temperature of
the environment causes an increase in the exchange of gases ; (3) the exchange
becomes somewhat smaller in the first hours after birth, increases rapidly be­
tween the ninth hour and the middle of the second day, and after that rises
slowly but steadily.
Schnepf, B. : “ Influence de l’âge sur la capacité vitale du poumon ” [The
influence of age on the vital capacity of the lungs]. Gazette médicale
de Paris, ser. 3, vol. 12 (1857), pp. 331-335, 386-392, 602-606.
The author reports the results of a varying number of observations made at
different age periods from 3 or 4 years to 80 years. Number o f observations
at each age was 9 to 342. Discussion of tbis material includes consideration
of tbe relation between the phases of increase and decrease of lung capacity ;
relation between the influences of age and of stature ; comparison between
averages of stature and lung capacity ; coefficients of lung capacity at different
ages for each centimeter of height ; weight of body ; and lung capacity.
Schwartz, H erm ann: Die vorzeitigen Athembewegungen. Ein Beitrag
zur Lehre von den Einwirkungen des Geburtsaktes auf die Frucht.
[Premature Movements of Respiration ; a contribution to the theory
of the effects of the act of birth on the fetus]. Breitkopf und Härtel.
Leipzig, 1858. 308 pp.
This book discusses respiratory process of the fetus and influence of the act
o f birth on fetal circulation and its consequences for the child. There is a
table of frequency of elimination of urine or meconium before or after birth of
infants born dead or almost dead. Sixty-one births are described in detail from
the author’s experience at Lying-in Institute of Kiel between 1852 and 1857,
and from records by Professor Litzmann of 1,300 births. The author is par­
ticularly interested in the time when the newborn infant first breathes.
Signorelli, A . : “ Il diametro vertebrale o altezza dei polm oni” [Vertebral
diameter or height of the lungs]. A tti di società romana di antro­
pologia [Rome], voi. 14 (1908), pp. 219-238.
The author measured 200 boys and men varying in age from 5 to 64 years
to determine the maximum vertical diameter of the lungs of a living being.
In several tables be gives separately for each case the age, height, height of
spinal column, height of sternum, perimeter and diameter of middle thoracic
segment, height of abdomen, hi-iliac diameter, and vertebral diameter. He
discusses the tables and concludes that the vertical diameter (he also calls it
“ vertebral ” diameter) varies according to age, height of the person, height
of spinal column, and all the other factors given by him in the tables. The
vertical diameter of the lungs of the adult was on the average 30 centimeters,
which is 5 centimeters greater than that generally found in corpses.
Ssokolow, D. : “ Der differentielle Pneumograph und seine Anwendung
bei Kindern ” [Differential pneumograph and its use in children].
Jahrh. f. Kinderh. [Berlin], vol. 75 (1912), pp. 265-279.
The author describes his pneumograph, of which he gives a photograph, for
registering the motions of the thorax in respiration and inspiration on the right
and left sides, and explains 7 X-ray photographs and 19 curves made by his
pneumograph o f 15 boys and girls from 1 to 13 years old. These double curves
of right and left sides with their ascending and descending lines in inspiration
and expiration show typical breathing in cases of health, of heart disease, etc.
Stewart, C . A . : “ The vital capacity of the lungs of children in health
and disease.” Am. J. Dis. Child. [Chicago], vol. 24 (1922), pp. 451-496.
A continuation of the study reported o h page 83 of the same volume (No. 437
of this list). Examinations were made of 2,509 normal and 253 sick children.
The previous literature on vital capacity is extensively reviewed. Full statis­
tical tables are given. In addition to a verification of his earlier conclusions
the author reports that girls may be considered relatively more mature for
their age than boys, since their vital capacity forms a greater proportion of
the estimated adult maximum. The maximum capacity is reached in the
twentieth year : for boys and slightly earlier for girls. Formulas are given
for computing the vital capacity on the basis of external body measurements.
----------- and O. B. Sheetz: •
“ The vital capacity of the lungs of children.”
Am. J. Dis. Child. [Chicago], vol. 24 (1922), pp. 83-88.
The vital capacity recorded by a wet spirometer is given for 430 healthy
children. The observations are tabulated by age, height (sitting and standing),
weight, and sex. Age varied from 4 to 15 years. The vital capacity was con­
stantly greater for boys than girls.


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477

478

479

480

PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OE THE CHILD
Stiles, C. W ., and Floyd Graves: Lung Capacity of Children.
See
U. S. Public Health Service.
Teuffel, E. : “ Zur Entwickelung der elastischen Fasern in der Lunge des
Fotus und des Neugeborenen ” [Development of the elastic fibers in the
lung of the fetus and newborn]. Archiv für Anatomie und Physiologie
[Leipzig], 1902, pp. 377-391.
After outlining previous investigation by Gardner and others on elastic fibers
in the lungs the author describes the same in 11 fetuses and 10 infants from
5 days to 1 year old. He states that the elastic fiber originates in protoplasm
o f the embryonic cell. The fibers grow through apposition. The extrauterine development is stronger and quicker than the intrauterine ; factors therein
are respiration and blood circulation.
Toùrneux, F. : “ Sur le développement de l’êpithelium et des glandes du
larynx et de la trachée chez l’hom m e" [On the development of the
epithelium and the glands of the larynx and trachea in m an]. Comptes
rendus des séances et mémoires de la Société de biologie [Paris], ser.
8, vol. 2 (1885), pp. 250-252,
The author traces the development o f the epithelium of the respiratory tract
from the time the embryo is 2 months old until six months after birth. Details
of observations from which his conclusions are derived are not given.
U. S. Public H ealth Service, U. S .'T re a su ry Departm ent: Lung Ca­
pacity of Children. Spirometer Tests of 1,618 White School Children
(751 boys, 867 girls) in the City of X , by C. W . Stiles and Floyd
Graves. Reprint No. 306, Public Health Reports. Washington, 1915
8 pp.
In this investigation each child was given three trials, and the highest record
was taken for final summary. Tabulations were made by sex, quarter years,
total years, and sanitary conditions of the home. Children were 6 to 17 years
old. From 6 to 13 years, inclusive, the boys had an average of 100 to 200 cubic
centimeters’ greater lung capacity than the girls ; from 14 to 17, from about 300
to about 1,100 cubic centimeters. At the age of 11 a slight irregularity was
found in the increase curve for both boys and girls. Children from homes with
better sanitation showed greater lung capacity than those from homes with
poorer sanitation.
W ilson , M ay G., and D. J. Edwards: “ The vital capacity of the lungs
and its relation to exercise tolerance in children with heart disease.
Standards for normal vital capacity for children.” Am. J. Dis. Child.
[Chicago], vol. 22 (1921), pp. 443-454.
The aim of this study was to determine to what extent measurements of the
vital capacity, as an expression of one aspect of the respiratory function, can
be correlated with the exercise-tolerance test as a form of measurement of
cardiac functional capacity. To establish a standard for normal vital capacity
the authors studied 44 boys and 41 girls from 6 to 16 years of age, expressing
the vital capacity on the basis of a square meter of body surface as determined
from the height-weight chart of DuBois and DuBois. The average vital ca­
pacity of the boys studied was 1.902 cubic centimeters for each square meter of
body surface : of the girls, 1,837 cubic centimeters. Vital-capacity measure­
ments were found to show a close relation to heart functional capacity as
gauged by exercise tolerance.
D.

481

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N E R V O U S SYSTEM

A llaria, G. B .: “ Essai sur les propriétés physico-chimiques et sur la
physiogenèse du liquide cérébro-spinal” [The physicochemical proper­
ties and the physiogenesis of the cerebrospinal fluid]. Archives de
médecine des enfants [Paris], vol. 8 (1905), pp. 214-231, 257-280.
Data for this extended study were obtained by lumbar puncture of 26 sub­
jects, 24 children and 2 men. Although none were in normal health, several
of the specimens, owing to the nature of the malady affecting them, were con­
sidered normal, the numbers of these specimens being indicated (p. 257).
Tables show freezing point, electric conductivity, and sodium chlorid con­
tent, the quantity of electrolytes (sodium chloride, sodium carbonate) estab­
lishing true molecular concentration. A study of the relationship between
the molecular concentration of the cerebrospinal fluid and that of the blood is
based on specimens from subjects not in normal health.
Berry, R. J. A .: “ The annual rate of growth of the brain as determined
from living males between the ages of 6 and 21 and the relations o f
the same to education.” Medical Journal of Australia [Melbourne], vol
1 (1917), pp. 536-544.
Results of an investigation in which the author estimated, by methods de­
scribed, the cubic brain capacity of 1,126 normal living males between the ages
of 6 and 21. He found that the increase is rapid at adolescence and also that
the rate of growth in the three diametral measurements was not regular and
coincident but that increase in cubic capacity at any period was due to accel-


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emtcd growth in one diameter more than another. As a final conclusion he
Btated that it was impossible to predict intelligence from head measurements
alone, but that abnormal typos could be detected by use of the norms derived
rrom his work. Discussion.
483

Berry, R . J. A ., and S. D. Porteus: Intelligence and Social Valuation.
Puolications of the Training School at Vineland, New Jersey, no 20
1920. 100 pp.
As a preliminary to the use of the measure of brain capacity as an aid in
diagnosis of mental subnormality, it became necessary for the authors to deter­
mine wliat cubic capacity of brain is normal for the boy or girl at each year of
tion>
al Me. Measurements were made by one worker, specially trained, of
6,<00 males (6,281 normal and below 16 years of age), and of 2 717 nublicscliool girls and university women. Methods of measurement and of computing
brain capacity are described, and results of the study are given in 14 tables with
descriptive text.

484

von Bischoff, Theodor L. W . : Das Hirngewicht des Menschen [Weight
of the Human Bra n]. P. Neusser, Bonn, 1880. 69 pp.
Numerous tables contain most of the materi: 1 collected by the author during
many years. They give body and brain wdght of 12 male and 4 female
fetuses ; 12 uormal newborn boys and 12 noimni newborn girls : 49 boys newborns to 20 yeai s ot a g e; and 63 girls of the same ages. They give data on
559 men and 34* women arranged according to brain weight and approximately
kS? me number arranged according to body weight, according to age, and
according to height. Other tables give d.ta obtained by other investigators
The various chapters discuss brain weight in relation to sex bodv size age
race, convolutions of cerebrum, intelligence, etc.
’ b ’
Böke. Julius: “ Über die Untersuchung und Semiotik des Gehörorgans
beim Kinde ” [Examination and symptomatology of organ of hearin0- in
the child|. Juhrb. f. Kinderh. [Leipzig], vol. 12 (1878), pp. 355-365.
The author states the structural differences between ear of newborn or of
child and that of adult. Mucous membrane around the drum is filled with
secretion during the first three to four months of life, and sometimes till the
second year The infant’s hearing is very undeveloped. The petrous bone and
external auditory canal are very different from later form. Much of the artialp
describes pathological conditions.
%
Braune, W i l k : “ Das Gewiehtsverhältniss der rechten zur linken Hirn­
hälfte beim Menschen” [Weight relations of the right and left hemi­
spheres of the human brain], Archiv für Anatomie und Phvsioloaie
[Leipzig], 1891, pp. 253-270.
“
■
The article contains a table of the weights of different parts of the brains of
100 subjects, mostly adults and mostly normal, including no insane or criminals
the brains were dissected when fresh, cut from the spinal cord at the deeVissntion of the pyramids, and separated into the two sets of hemispheres by sections
through the corpus callosum and along the corpora quadrigemina. Of the whole
left »*■ heavier in 52 per cent of the cases. In the cerebrum the
right half was offener heavier, and in the cerebellum the left. Where the right
was heavier no lefthandedness was ascertained.
rignt
Clapp, C. A .: “A communication upon the weight of infants’ lenses and
their solids.” Archives of Ophthalmology [New York], vol 42 (1913)
pp. 618-624.
’
f*
The lenses of 16 infants were weighed within 24 hours after death and after
desiccation, and the percentage of solids was estimated. The infants were 7 to
i50 days old, the average being 45 days. The author’s conclusion was that
while the weight of the infant lens varies widely the actual weight and bercenL
age of solids is less than m adults.
p

485

4S6

487

488

480

Cohn, M ich ae l: “ Kalk, Phosphor, und Stickstoff im Kindergehirn ” [Cal­
cium, phosphorus, and nitrogen in children’s brains], Deutsche Med
Wchnschr. [Leipzig], vol. 33, pt. 2 (1907), pp. 1987-1991.
By means of Dr. Albert Neumann’s acid mixture the author determined cal­
e f y Phosphorus, and nitrogen in the brains of 13 children ranging in age from
wif+frta
•
y1?ars* A table gives age, sex, diagnosis, weight of brain
2 2 $ l0^en» Ph°spb°^us, and calcium. The brain at birth contains 89 per
cent water , at 20 years, 77.5 per cent water. During the first year it takesPon
more substance not containing nitrogen than containing it. During this time
the total phosphorus slightly decreases, but extractive phosphorus increases
Calcium decreases as the medulla, which contains little calcium develons
ot ,lle b,rai» s Qf two children that died of tetany the author d o ®
that this disease results from an anomaly of calcium metabolism.
aouDts
Banielbekoff, a ,: Materiali k voprosu o vlesie i obyemie golovn ovoi
gpmPQVO mozga dietei oboyevo pola v vozraste nizhe goda [Weight and
Volume of Brain and Spinal Cord of Children of Both Sexes Under One
Year of Age]. St. Petersburg, 1885, 26 pp.
Thesis (University of St. Petersburg), The author quotes a nnmher of
writers on the size of the brain of human beings of all ages His-own studv
1R.s t- Petersburg, included the examination of bodies of 100 bam and 100
girls under 1 year old. In two tables, one for each sex, the author gives for


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every one of his cases the age, weight and length of the body, size of head,
weight of the spinal cord and the various parts of the brain, volume in cubic
centimeters of the spinal cord and various parts of the brain, the cause of death,
and also the average of above measurements for all cases combined. In two
other tables he gives the averages of the above measurements for every 10 days
of age and the number of cases in each group.
Dieckmann, A d o lf: Beiträge zur Anatomie und Physiologie des Neugeborenen-Auges [Anatomy and Physiology of the Eye of the Newborn].
Marburg, 1896. 43 pp.
Inaugural dissertation (University of Marburg). The writer studied the eyes
of infants dying at birth. Schmidt-Kimpler’s ophthalmometer was used. In the
section on formation of folds in the retina of newborn infants nine cases are
minutely described and in another section on refractive value, five. Two pages
of tables give 17 dimensions of the eye in 16 cases.
Galton, P. : “ Head growth .in students at the University of Cambridge.”
Nature [London], vol. 38 (1888), pp. 14-15.
A summary of a part of a memoir by Doctor Venn in which relative brain
volumes of several hundred Cambridge students were estimated by multiplying
the maximum length and breadth and height above a certain plane and conclu­
sions drawn as to the relation between brain volume and mental capacity.
Honor men were found superior in brain capacity at 19, and still superior,
though to a less degree, at 25.
Gladstone, R. J. : “A preliminary, communication on some cephalometric
data bearing upon the relation of the size and shape of the head to
mental ability.” Journal of Anatomy and Physiology [London], vol.
37 (1 9 0 2 -3 ), pp. 333-346.
The age, sex, weight, height, head length, breadth, height, and circumference
were taken. The scholastic standing, and the cephalic and auriculobregmatic
indexes were noted. The number of cases is not given, nor_are the data com'pletely tabulated. No conclusions are reached.
----------- ‘‘A study of the relations of the brain to the size of the head.”
Biometrika [Cambridge], vol. 4 (1905), pp. 105-123.
An investigation to obtain a series of formulas by which to predict from
the chief measurements of the head the approximate weight of the brain.
Data collected in the postmortem room of the Middlesex Hospital include
measurement of about 40 children, for whom causes of death were such as to
be unlikely to affect the size of brain and head. Plates show the difference in
thickness of skull between a child and an adult.
Godin, P au l: “ Cerveau, germen et soma au cours de la croissance”
[Brain, germ cell, and body in the course of growth].
Province
médicale [Paris], vol. 24 (1913), pp. 377-378.
The author contrasts the periods of growth of the brain which achieves onethird of total volume in intrauterine life, another one-third in first 5 years,
and the last one-third in the next 10 years
The germ cells are completely
inactive between birth and puberty, at which time they develop rapidly. The
body develops much more gradually and steadily.
H eptner W . : “ Das Massenwachstum der peripheren Nerven und anderer
Gewebebestandtheile der Extremitäten nach der G eburt” [Growth of
peripheral nerves and other tissues of the extremities after birth].
Archiv für Anatomie und Physiologie, Anatomische Abteilung [Leipzig],
(1915), pp. 277-295.
After giving four tables derived from data of others on weight of brain and
of body the author describes his studies of the arms of a newborn boy, the
right arm of 3-yeaf-old boy, and the arms of two men. Tables show findings
on bones, muscles, nerves, vascular system, fat, and skin of these subjects, and
various relations among them. Difference in constitution of newborn appears
especially in the bony system. The lower arm always has less musculature,
fewer nerves, and more bone than the upper. The author discusses growth in
detail, giving the following index figures : Brain, 1, 2.9, and 3.76 for the
newborn, the 3-year-old, and the adult, respectively ; spinal cord, 1 and 7.1
for the newborn and the adult ; peripheral nerves of the arm, 1, 4, and 15.3
for the newborn, the 3-year-old, and the adult.
H erzog, M a xim ilian : “ The brain weight of the Filipino.” American
Anthropologist [Lancaster, P a.], new ser. vol. 10 (1908), pp. 41-47.
The author weighed by methods fully described the brains of 113 Filipino
males who died at the prison in Bilibid. The weights are individually recorded.
The average of 10 individuals from 17 to 20 years of age was found to be
1,325.5 grams, or very little below the generally accepted average.
Heubner, O. : “ Die Entwickelung des kindlichen Gehirns in den letzten
Foetal- und ersten Lebensmonaten ” [The development of the child’s
brain in the last months of fetal life and first months o f extrauterine
life ]. Zeitschrift für Pädagogische Psychologie und Pathologie [Ber­
lin], vol. 2 (1900), pp. 73-83.
The author displays and explains cross sections of brains of infants that
were born prematurely or died a few days or months after normal birth. He


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describes the development of neurones, etc., at different ages. He points out
how the development of mental processes goes hand in hand with comprehensive
changes in the physical structure. The brains of an idiot and a genius, though
similar in broad lines, are very different in detail.
H orstm ann; C.: “ Beiträge zur Entwickelung der Refractionsverhältnisse
des menschlichen Auges während der ersten fünf Lebensjahre ” [T h e
development of refraction in the human eye during the first five years].
Archiv für Augenheilkunde [Wiesbaden], vol. 14 (1 884-85), pp. 328336. See also Bericht der Ophthalmologischen Gesell schuft [Stuttgart],
1883-84, pp. 79-83.
The author tested refraction in the eyes of 50 infants between 8 and 30 days
50 children between 1 and 2 years, and 50 between 4 and 5 years, from the
middle or upper classes. He put a solution of 1 to 2 per cent atropin in the
eyes some time before the examination, for which he employed a Hirschberg
eye mirror and lamp light. Among the infants myopia was found in one
instance, emmetropia in five, and in all the others hypermetropia from 1 to
ß D. In the older children farsightedness decreased, but even at 5 years of
age it was still characteristic of the great majority of children. In many
cases the author compared the vision of the children with that of their parents
and did not find that heredity played an important röle.
Keith, A rth u r: “ The growth of brain in men arid monkeys with a short
criticism of the usual method of stating brain ratios.” Journal of
Anatomy and Physiology [London], vol. 29 (1 894-95), pp. 282-303.
From data on 250 boys under 20 and 135 Catarrhine apes the author studies
the relative brain weight, cranial capacity, and relation of brain weight to body
weight. The article contains 12 tables and 14 diagrams.
Königstein, V . : “ Untersuchungen an den Augen neugeborener Kinder”
[Investigations on the eyes of newborn children]. Medizinische Jahr­
bücher [Vienna], 1881, pp. 47-70.
Königstein examined both eyes of 300 newborn infants in an obstetrical
clinic. The infants’ eyes were treated with an atropin solution of 1 : 1,000.
Similar investigations conducted previously by von Jaeger, Ely, and Horstmann
are criticized. The author found no case of myopia and only a few cases of
emmetropia. Most of the infants showed hypermetria between one-sixteenth and
one-twentieth. He concludes that the child’s eye is probably exclusively hyper­
metropic ; that it is not always blue but often brown ; that the distinction in
breadth and appearance of arteries and veins is not so pronounced in children
as in adults; and that in many eyes of the newborn can be found remains of
pupillary membrane and blood extravasation. The detailed tables give sex. age
color of hair and iris, nationality of parents, and refraction of infant, oi
parents, and of relatives.
Lange, O.: “ Zur Anatomie des Ciliarmuskels des Neugeborenen”
[Anatomy of the ciliary muscle in the newborn]. Klinische Monats­
blätter für Augenheilkunde [Stuttgart], vol. 39 (1901), pp. 1-6.
This discussion, illustrated by two figures, of the anatomy of the ciliary
muscle is based on arguments concerning preceding theories and on examination
of the 36 eyes ^of 18 newborn infants. The ciliary muscle in the newborn is
different from that of the adult and is also very varied in different infants. In
most of the 18 the separate parts were well developed; in 4 the ring portion
was not. In 3 infants the circular fibers were numerous, but in no case did
the ciliary muscle consist exclusively of longitudinal fibers. The author speaks
of the important röle played by innate individualities of the structure o f the
ciliary muscle in myopia and in the general development of the eyeball. Thus
he explains myopia where there has never been eye strain and also anisome­
tropia.
Leopold, J. S., and A . Birnhard: “ Studies in the chemistry of the spinal
fluid of children.” Am. J. Dis. Child. [Chicago], vol. 13 (1917), pp.
In this study, made at the German Hospital, New York, spinal fluid was
examined for nonprotein nitrogen, urea, uric acid, creatinin and sugar, reaction
to litmus, cell count, globulin, and Wassermann. Of the 59 children examined
10 were normal. The spinal-fluid findings are compared in percentage with the
blood analysis of the patient. Full data are given in tables.
Levinson, A ., Greengard, and H . Lifven d ah l: “ Cerebrospinal fluid
in the new-born.” Am. J. Dis. Child. [Chicago], vol. 31 (1926) dp
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reP°rt of a study of the cerebrospinal fluid of 100 newborn infants
With few exceptions the fluid was withdrawn from 1 to 24 hours after birth!
Lumbar puncture was first used ; cistern puncture later. Twelve of the fluids
were colorless, 4 were blood stained, 24 were blood tinged ; in the rest the color
ranged from pale to deep yellow. Pressure in the fluid obtained by lumbar
puncture averaged 4.5 millimeters of mercury ; in that obtained by cistern
puncture, 25 millimeters of mercury. The authors give details of the methods
wbich they found most satisfactory in making the punctures and testing the
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Merkel, Friedrich, and Andrew W . Orr: “ Das Auge des Neugeborenen ”
[The eye of the newborn infant]. Anatomische H efte, I. Abteilung
[Wiesbaden], vol. 1 (1892), pp. 271-299.
Tlie authors made a detailed study of 26 eyes of newborn infants. A table
gives data on 19 parts o f inner, middle, and outer eye in each case, and a
plate stows cross section of the eye of a newborn— two radial sections near the
ciliary oody. Each portion of the eye is described, and the differences between
the ¿ye of adult and infant are discussed. The whole form of eye remains
unaltered only a short time after birth. In the newborn the lateral half of
the ball in its posterior part shows a much greater bulging than in the adult,
the cornea has a greater relative thickness, the suprachoroideal space is not yet
fully developed, the optic nerve contains as many fibers as that of the adult,
and the greater thickness later is due to formation of medulla.
Michaelis, Paul: “ Das Hirngewicht des K in d es” [Brain weight of the
child]. Monatschr. f. Kinderh. [Leipzig and Vienna], vol. 6 (1 90 7-8),
pp. 9-26.
The author weighed the brains of 276 boys and girls of all ages up to 14
years, abnormal brains being excluded. Two long tables for boys and girls
separately give age, weight, and height of body, weight of brain, and causes
o f death. Other tables give maximum, minimum, and mean weights of these
brains. Still others give separately the weights of cerebrum, right and left
hemispheres, cerebellum, and rest or the brain. The cerebral hemispheres the
author separated from the brain by a section through the pedunculi cerebri.
Tie, female brain is always lighter than the male. The brain grows very
rapidly during the first year, reaching in the boy 945 to 1,055 grams. It is
Usually three times this weight in the fifth -year and thus not much less than
the adult weight. The individual variations in brain weight are very great
even for the same age, weight, and height.
M ies: “ Über das Geliirngewicht des heranwachsenden Menschen” [Brain
weight in the growing human being]. Mittheilungen der Anthropo­
logischen Gesellschaft in Wien, new ser. vols. 14-15, no. 1 (1894, Janu­
ary and February), pp. 147-151.
This article contains two graphs and one table on brain weight at different
ages and height in millimeters to 1 gram of brain weight. In 627 cases the
author collected the data personally from other investigators. He assembled
2,000 cases. The brain of the newborn girl weighs 330 grams, that of the
newborn boy 340 ; in nine months these weights become 90Ö and 1,050, respec­
tively. Later growth is not nearly so rapid. Till the second or third year
the body increases in weight with less rapidity, relatively, than the brain, and
from the third to the twentieth year with greater rapidity. During these first
20 years the absolute weight of the brain is always greater in the male than
in the female.
----------- “ Über das Gehirngewicht neugeborener K in der” [B r a n weight
of newborn children]. Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift, vol. 2 (1889),
p. 39.
The author deplores the lack of precision in statistics on brain weicht of
children. He compiles a table of 15 sets of data, giving, where possible, sex
and number of cases involved, besides mean brain weight. The average weight
for 203 full-term, newborn infants was 339.35 grams. He also derives 7.5 to 8.5
grams weight and 1% to 1% millimeters length to 1 gram of brain weight.
Pänau, Georges A ntoine: La refraction et le Tond d’oeil de l’enfant
nouveau-né [The Refraction and the Fundus of the Eye of the New­
born]. Nancy, no. 31, 1899. 139 pp.
Thesis for medical degree (University of Nancy). The original work in­
cludes observations of the eyes of 121 infants, from one-half hour to 11 days
of age. Examinations were made after dilatation of the pupil with atropin.
Eâcli record included age. sex, weight, degree of maturity, mode of presenta­
tion, refraction, and description of the appearance of the fundus. Two chapters
discuss the data obtained. Bibliography.
Parrot, J .: “ Sur le développement du cerveau chez les enfants du
premier â g e ” [Development of the brain in young infants]. Archives
de physiologie normale et pathologique [Paris], ser. 2, vol. 2 (1879), pp.
505-521.
The development of the brain of young infants, particularly the modification
of color in the medvdlary substance, is discussed. Violet, in various shades from
the deepest to the lightest, and milk white are the commonest colors. Though
colors change the relative intensity in different parts remains the same: and
everv chromatic peculiarity is strongest in the core, weakening toward the
periphery. The author is particularly interested in the system or organ of
Rolando. He dissected !)6 brains, which he arranged not according to legal
but real age, determined in the youngest by the bony point of the lower epiphysis
of the femur (his first two groups cover 15 days each, the others the succeed­
ing months). He gives a detailed description on the groups, showing how the
violet gradually whitens and the cerebral substance becomes denser. The parts
covering highest functions develop most slowly.


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Pfister, H erm ann: “ Das Hirngewicht im Kindesalter” [The brain
weight in childhood]. Arch. f. Kinderh. [Stuttgart], voi. 23 (1897),
pp. 164r-192.
The author investigated brain weight in 156 children— 88 boys and 68 girls
between 1 week and 14 years of age— that had died at the Children’s Hospital
o f the Emperor and Empress Frederick in Berlin. Excluding all pronounced
cases of hyperemia, anemia, and meningitis he severed the spinal cord at the
decussation of the pyramids and weighed the brain with the soft membranes
directly after taking it from the cranium. The article contains very full
tables of results and a bibliography. The right hemisphere was found to be
heavier than the left in 53.2 per cent and the left heavier in 41.6 per cent of
the cases regardless of sex or age. The absolute weight of the cerebellum was
greater in the male than in the female.
511 ----------- “ Neue Beiträge zur Kenntniss des kindlichen Hirngewichts”
[New contributions to the knowledge of the weight of children’s
brains]. Arch. f. Kinderh. [Stuttgart], voi. 37 (1903), pp. 239-242.
The author presents a table giving the age, length, and total brain weight
o f 72 boy infants and 73 girl infants, dissected in Berlin, since 1898. The
brain •was separated where the pyramid crosses from the spinal cord, and
weighed. The infants came from the lower classes of society. So far as possi­
ble foreign and pathological brains were discarded. Cases of hyperemia and
anemia were noted.
512 ----------- “ Theilwägungen kindlicher Gehirne ” [Weights of parts of chil­
dren’s brains]. Arch. f. Kinderh. [Stuttgart], voi. 37 (1903), pp.
243-251.
The author presents a table of measurements of the brains of 33 boys and 39
girls, mostly in the first year. The dissection was done in 1899 and 1900, the
material coming from the Emperor and Empress Frederick Children’s Hospital
in Berlin. Pathological conditions were discarded ; the brain was severed from
the spinal marrow at the lower end of the pyramid. The tables show age,
total brain weight, total weight of cerebrum, and of cerebellum and of the rest
of' the brain and of each half of the cerebrum. There was usually a slight
difference in the weight of the halves of the cerebrum and great variation in
the weight of the cerebellum. The cerebellum also grows much more than the
rest of the brain ; i. e., to seven times its birth weight, as compared with four
times for the rest of the brain. The male brain was regularly larger than the
female.
513 -------— “ Über das Gewicht des Gehirns und einzelner Hirntheile beim
Säugling und älteren Kinde ” [W eight of brain and separate parts
thereof in infant and older child]. Neurologisches Centralblatt [Leip­
zig], voi. 22 (1903), pp. 562-572.
The author describes the technique of weighing brains of 161 boys and 141
girls _between the ages of 1 week and 14 years that had died in a children’s
hospital at Berlin. These brains were from children of the lower classes.
So far as possible foreign race and pathological conditions were excluded.
Five tables give sex, age, and average weight in grams of the whole and
parts of the brains. Fourteen conclusions have to do with the greater weight of
the male brain, with more rapid growth of the cerebellum than of the rest of
the brain, and difference in weight between halves of brain.
514 Quest, Robert: “ Über den Kalkgehalt des Säuglingsgehirns und seine
Bedeutung” [The calcium content of the infant brain and its signifi­
cance]. Jahrb. f. Kinderh. [Berlin], voi. 61 (1905), pp. 114-121.
Incited by Sabbatani’ s theory that a decrease of calcium in the cortex cerebri
means increased excitability the author dissected the brains of 12 children,
o f whom 2 had had hypertonia and 3 tetanus, and the other 7 were normal (2 of
these had died in the fetal stage, 1 had died at birth, and 4 had died later).
He treated the brains according to the Hoppe-Seyler method. In the seven
normal infants the author found that the calcium content of the brain was
very high in the fetus and the newborn but diminished with time, very rapidly
in tbe first months and then more gradually. Thus Sabbatani’ s theory is sub­
stantiated, since all experimentation shows that excitability is least in early
infancy. The brains of tbe children that had had tetanus showed a con­
spicuously low calcium content.
515

Roberts, M . H in e s : “ The spinal fluid in the new-born.” J. A . M. A.
[Chicago], voi. 85 (1925), pp. 500-502.
In Grady ' Hospital, Atlanta, Ga., lumbar puncture was done on 423 newborn
negro infants. The first 100 fluids were examined for cellular content and
Wassermann reaction. In the last 327 cases the blood drawn from the longi­
tudinal sinus was studied for pigment content and Wassermann reaction. The
investigation showed that xanthocromia of the spinal fluid in newborn infants
is a physiological condition, the intensity of pigmentation being closely related
to the physical development of the child. The pigment persists at least until
the ninth day, and is cleàred by the fourth week.
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Sabin, F loren ce: “ Description of a model showing the tracts of fibers
medullateddn a newborn baby’s brain.” American Journal of Anatomy
[Baltimore], vol. 11 (1 91 0-11), pp. 113-136.
The study is made from six specimens in the Johns Hopkins University
anatomical laboratory, of which three were infants’ brains. Sagittal and
transverse serial sections were made. Eleven figures and all measurements are
from the author’ s work. A list is given of all the medullated tracts found in
the newborn brain.
Scammon, Richard E., and H alb ert D u n n : “ On the growth of the
human cerebellum in early life.” Proceedings of the Society for E x ­
perimental Biology and Medicine [New York], vol. 21 (1 923-24), pp.
217-221.
To determine whether the rapid growth of the cerebellum in infancy is corre­
lated with the marked development of muscular coordination and activity in this
period, the authors devised empirical formulas for the relation between the
cerebellum volume and body length in the fetal period, the relation between
body length and age in the fetal period, and the relation between cerebellum
weight and age in postnatal life. The source material for study is not described
in this article. Tables and 1 chart indicate that the rapid growth in the
cerebellum in the first postnatal year is to be regarded as a diminishing residuum
of intrauterine growth energy, rather than as a result of the stimulation of
extrauterine environment.
Schiff, E., and E. S tran sk y : “ Besonderheiten in der chemischen Zusammensetzung des Sauglingsgehirnes ” [Peculiarities in the chemical com­
position of the infant brain], Jahrh. f. Kinderh. [Berlin], vol. 44^46
(1921) , pp. 245-258.
The authors examined the chemical composition of the cerebrum of 12
infants, most of whom had died of pneumonia. Results are put in two tables
and a graph. Weights are given in percentage of dry substance and the
total lipoid content is reckoned. Water content of the brain decreases with
increasing age. Lipoid content increases. The brain lipoids in the infant
consist for the most part of cholesterin, whereas unsaturated phosphatids pre­
vail in the adult. The infant brain is richer in albumin. It has, then, many
peculiarities not only in morphological structure but also in chemical compo­
sition.
Schloss, 0 . M ., and L. C. Schroeder: “ Nature and quantitative deter­
mination of the reducing substance in normal and pathological cere­
brospinal fluid.” Am. J.. Dis. Child. [Chicago], vol. 11 (1916), pp.

1- 10.

520

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The cerebrospinal fluid was studied in 49 cases of children free from
meningeal disease in the wards of Bellevue Hospital, New York City. The
reducing substance is fermentable, dextrorotary, and probably dextrose. In
these cases the cerebrospinal sugar ranged from 0.05 to 0.134 per cent. These
figures are approximately the same as for dextrose.
Sokol off, D. A . : “ O razvitii perifericheskih nervov u novorozhdennikh
dietiei ” [On the development of peripheral nerves in newborn children].
Vrach [St. Petersburg], vol. 11 (1890), pp. 384r-388, 456-460.
An original study of the development of the peripheral nerves in 55 cadavers
of children who were from 1 day to 4 years old at the time of death. The
author found that the nerve trunks of the children were less developed than
those of adults, particularly as regards myelin, which was entirely absent
in many nerve fibers and present to a very small degree in others. He quotes
several writers who found in infants insufficient development of the central
nervous system and concludes that this underdevelopment of the entire nervous
system, a peculiarity of infancy and early childhood, is much greater than
that of other organs. Several tables are included giving in detail the con­
dition of the nerves studied.
Spitzka, E. A : “ The brain weight of the Japanese.”
Science [New
York], new ser. vol. 18 (1903), pp. 371-373.
After a review of the literature on this subject the author regroups the
figures of Taguchi for 597 adult Japanese subjects and 156 children from 2
months to 14 years of age and compares them with figures for Europeans.
He finds that the brain of the Japanese grows more slowly during infancy
and early youth than does that of the European.
T a ft, A . E . : “An estimation of the proportions of gray and white matter
in the human brain, made through the plane of the op'tic chiasm by
means of the planimeter.” Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
[New York], vol. 47 (1918), pp. 161-175.
This study, while largely of adult brains under pathological conditions, has
a report of measurements of six specimens, two infants, aged 7 weeks and
4 months, respectively, one child 5 years old, and 3 adult microcephalies. The
author finds that sex, age, and brain weight do not appear to have any
constant relation to the proportions between white substance and cortical
gray. References.


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Taguchi, K . : “ On the weight of the encephalon of the Japanese.” The
Sei-i-Kwai Medical Journal [Tokyo], vol. 22, no. 1 (1903), pp. 6-8.
11-21, 27-34.
Résumé of a speech made by a professor of anatomy In Tokyo University
before the National Medical Association. During the 10 years preceding publi• cation the author weighed the brains of 597 bodies among which were 73
cadavers of males "and females from 2 months to 20 years o'f age. Methods
o f weighing are described in detail. Among the 73 he found a range of weight
in males from 427 grams to 1,566 grams, in females from 499 grams to 1,366
grams. By tabulating the weights by age he found indications that the
male brain develops more rapidly than the female. The article largely con­
cerns measurements of adults and has many references to the work of
investigators in other countries.
Tietze, A lexan der : “ Beiträge zur Lehre von den Gehirnpulsationen ”
[Contributions to the theory of brain pulsations]. Archiv für E x ­
perimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie [Leipzig], vol. 29 (189192 ), pp. 320-326.
The author measured brain pulsation in a 7-year-old boy whose frontal bone
had been fractured. He describes in detail the technique by which he ob­
tained five curves of brain pressure during mental activity, brain pulse, carotid
pulse, etc.
U lrich, G ustav : Refraction und Papilla optica der Augen der Neugeborenen [Refraction and Optic Papilla of Eyes o f Newborn]. Königs­
berg, 1884. 25 pp.
Inaugural dissertation (University of Königsberg).
In the gynecological
clinic of the University of Königsberg in 1882-83 the author examined the eyes
o f 43 female and 59 male infants from 1 day to 2 weeks old. A 1 : 1,000
solution of atropin was dropped into the conjunctival sac, and the child was
held upright by the nurse. Table gives resulting data on refraction, form of
papilla, scleral and choroidal ring, central canal, color, etc. The author con­
cludes the eye o f the newborn is always of hyperopic formation ; cones are in­
born ; optical papilla is characterized by gray coloring and scantiness of smaller
vessels. No essential difference in refraction of the two eyes was found.
V u lp iu s, Oscar: “ Über die Entwicklung und Ausbreitung der Tangen­
tialfasern in der menschlichen Grosshirnrinde während verschiedener
Altersperioden ” [The development and distribution of tangential fibers
in the cortex of the human cerebrum at various ages]. Archiv für
Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten [Berlin], vol. 23 (1 891-92), pp.
775-798.
After a historical review of the theories concerning medullary association
fibers in the normal cortex the author describes his own methods in dissecting
and studying brains, 14 of which were from individuals under 18 years of age,
and gives in certain cases a detailed discussion and a curve. He concludes
that the newborn has no medullary fibers except in the anterior central winding,
which shows bundles of fibers ; the tangential fibers in number and develop­
ment take a middle position between the inner and outer ones ; nutritional
disturbances appear to check the development of the tangential fibers ; this
development is not ended in all cortical layers by the seventeeth year ; the
number of the tangential fibers is not the same in different parts of the brain ;
the Baillarger and the Yicqu ’Azyr striae are due to accumulation of tangential
fibers.
WatefE, S .: “ Contribution à l’étude anthropologique sur le poids du
cerveau chez les Bulgares ” [A contribution to anthropological study of
the weight of the brain of the Bulgarians]. Congrès international de
médecine, comptes rendues 1900, vol. 13 (section de l ’anatomie descrip­
tive et comparative) [Paris], 1901, pp. 128-138.
Measurements are recorded of the weight of the whole brain and of different
parts of the brain, of 72 Bulgarian men and 40 Bulgarian women— all cases
at the hospital Alexandre at Sofia. Only 11 men and 6 women were under 21
years o f age. The age, occupation, and the clinical and anatomical diagnosis
are given for each case, and findings are presented in a table.


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SECTION III. METABOLISM
A. DIGESTION
1

Allaria, G. B .: “ Des caractères physico-chimiques de la salive du
nourrisson” [Physico-chemical characteristics of the infant’s saliva].
Archives de médecine des enfants [Paris], vol. 14 (1911), pp. 250-263.
The author studied the physico-chemical characteristics of 43 samples of
saliva of 12 infants from 1 to 18 months old in the Medical Clinic o f Turin.
Saliva was obtained 8 times by mechanical stimulation, 30 times by taste of
saccharin, and 5 times by sodium chloride. He designates his methods of ob­
taining osmotic tension, electrical conductivity, concentration of chlorides,
specific gravity, degree of viscosity and of surface tension. Findings are shown
in three tables, and results noted separately on each point. The conclusion is
that the principal physico-chemical characteristics of the infant’s saliva are very
different from those of milk and of blood.
2 ----------- “ Die chemische Reaktion des Sauglingspeichels” [Chemical re­
action of infant saliva]. Monatschr. f. Kinderh. Originalien [Leipzig
and Vienna], voi. 10 (1911), pp. 179-194.
The author reports results of tests of acidity of the saliva of _about 400
infants, including newborn and infants up to 22 months of age. Litmus, phenolphthalein, and methylorange tests were used. The saliva was found to be
almost neutral immediately after secretion.
3 ----------- “ Esiste la maltasi nella saliva dei lattante? ” [Does maltase
exist in the saliva of infants?]. La Pediatria [Naples], voi. 17 (1909),
pp. 896-904.
The author studied the saliva of 16 infants, 4 of whom were perfectly well.
All results were negative. The author concludes that there is no maltase in
the saliva of the infant, that for this reason it does not transform the starch in­
to maltose and that such a transformation does not take place in the stomach,
the contents of which, even when alkalinized, reveal no maltase.
4 ----- — “ Recherches sur le pouvoir plastéinogène du suc gastrique des
nourrissons sains et atrophiques ” [Researches into the plasteinogen
power of the gastric secretion in healthy and atrophic infants]. A r­
chives de médecine des enfants [P aris], vol. 10 (1907), pp. 321-335.
After discussing the nature, reactions, importance, etc., of plasteinogens the
author describes how he experimented on eight infants from 15 days to 18
months old in the clinic at the Royal University of Turin, making 74 test
meals of which 39 were of boiled cow’s milk, sometimes diluted, 17 contained
sugar, and 18 salt. He observed especially the plasteinogen function and re­
action, the rennin, and the pepsin. Results are shown in tables. He concludes
that the plasteinogen ferment always makes it appearance with the presence of
albuminoids in thè gastric juice. The quantity varied directly with the dura­
tion of the test meal in the stomach. Its function seemed independent of
rennin, nor was there any direct relation between plastein and pepsin. De­
gree o f health did not influence the plasteinogen function.
5 ----------- “ Ricerche ed appunti sulla funzione dello stomacho del lattante ”
[Investigations and data on the functioning of the infant stomach].
Rivista di clinica pediatrica [Florence], voi. 6 (1908), pp. 481—502.
The author’s own study of the functions of the infant’s stomach, supple­
mented by numerous quotations from various writers. The author found that
the functioning of the infant stomach is imperfectly developed, owing to the
following factors : The very slight hydrogen-ion concentration of the gastric
contents and the consequent insufficiency of peptic digestion ; insufficient an­
tiseptic action of the gastric juice and insufficient acid reflex of the pylorus ;
absence of osmoregulatory power of the stomach with a consequent lack ot
gastric isotonia ; scarcity of some of the principal enzymes. Also the position
o f the infant’s stomach was found to be more vertical than in older children
and the width of the pyloric ring relatively greater in the first year of lire.
All these circumstances make the gastric digestion or protein substances quite
imperfect in comparison with that of the adult.
6 ----------- “ Richerche sulla lattasi nella saliva del lattante” [Researches
on lactase in the saliva of the infant]. Riforma medica [Naples], vol.
26 (1910), pp. 561-562.
To determine whether the saliva of infants contains lactase the author
studied the saliva of 17 infants 3 to 17 months old, in a clinic of the University of Turin. Some were fed. at the breast, others at the bottle ; 12 were
sick at the time of the study. In most cases the saliva was extracted directly
from the children’s mouths. In no case was lactase found.
190


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191

A lla ria , G. B . : “ Über die Wirkung des Speichels im Anfangsstadium
der Verdauung beim Säugling” [The effect of saliva in the initial
stage of digestion in the infant]. Jahrb. f. Kinderh. [Berlin] new
ser. vol. 74 (1911), pp. 252-273.
The author studied initial digestion through saliva in eight infants from 1
to 10 months old in the clinic of the Royal University of Turin. With his ap­
paratus for the purpose he extracted saliva from the mouth and also milk
saliva after the children had begun to suck at the bottle. After being swallowed
was , at ®5Ce raised from the stomach. These three fluids and the
sterilized cow s milk used as food were all tested for cryoscopic degree bv
Beckmann’s thermometer, specific electrical conductivity at 18° C., concen­
tration of chlorides reckoned as sodium chloride by Wohlard-Koranyi’s
process, extent of inner rubbing with vertical viscosimeter at 18° C., degree of
surface tension by stalagmometric process at 18° C., and in many cases the
active reaction or concentration of hydrogen ions. For the test meals the
author used isosmotic solutions of full milk with 10 per cent lactose solution
hyposmotic solutions of diluted milk with 3 per cent lactose solution, and
hyperosmotic solutions of sweetened milk with 15 per cent lactose solution
Results are shown in three tables, each containing data on 24 experiments, and
are also discussed. Infant’s saliva possesses an important physico-chemical
property in diminishing the molecular concentration of fluids and thus the
degree o f osmotic tension. It also moderates the reaction and makes liquids
less irritating to the stomach.
8
~ — “ Untersuchungen über Lösungen im Säuglingsmagen ” [Investigations on Solutions in the infant stomach]. Jahrb. f. Kinderh. [Berlin]
vol. 66 (1907), pp. 259-285.
The author conducted experiments on the solutions in the stomach of five
healthy and two atrophic infants in the pediatric clinic of the Royal University
of Turin. The quantity in his test meals he regulated according to age The
meals were of four kinds : Pure cow’s milk, modified milk, sugar solutions, and
salt solutions. The cryoscopic grade was determined with the Beckmann ther­
mometer, the electric conductivity with a Wheatstone bridge, inner friction
with a viscosimeter, the surface tension with the stalagmometric method of
Traube, the specific gravity of 18° C. with a pycnometer, the total acidity of the
mtrate fluid with sodium hydroxid N /50 and with litmus paper, chloride by the
Wohlard-Koranyi method, and sugar by the use o f Fehling’s solution. A final
conclusion is that the solutions in the infant stomach tend slowly to approximolecular exchange the degree of osmotic concentration of the blood,
and that the frequent sign of hyposmosis is due to the disturbing element saliva,
which being strongly hyposmotic, disturbs the physical processes striving after
an equilibrium. One can not ascribe an osmoregulating function to the infant
stomach; there is no gastroisotonia in infants.
9
—----- “ Untersuchungen liber Wasserstoff-Ionen-Konzentration im Sauglingsmagen ” [Investigations on hydrogen-ion concentration in the
infant stomach]. Jahrb. f. Kinderh. [Berlin], vol. 67 (1908) no
123-142.
The author studied acidity in the case of nine infants, between 6 and 18
months old, healthy so far as the alimentary canal was concerned. FortyiT e L
, ies were made. The greatest acidity found corresponded to about
1/1.500 of a normal solution of hydrochloric acid. It was 50 to 100 times
less_ than that of adult. Free hydrochloric acid was lacking in all 48 tests
Unlike those of adults, infants’ stomachs showed a great difference in degree
between active and potential acidity. Since the active acidity is far below the
percentage for the optimum of pepsin digestion, the latter finds unfavorable
conditions in the infant stomach. The low active acidity limits its function
to preparing the digestion of albumins, which takes place almost entirely in the
intestine. The infant stomach has only a very weak antiseptic power. The
tables of data arranged according to diet cover six pages.
10 A llio t, Leon: La capacité stomacale du nouveau-né. [The Capacity of
the Stomach of the Newborn], Paris, no. 9, 1905. 35 pp.
Thesis (University of Paris). The author measured, by methods described in
detail, the stomachs of 50 infants stillborn from the sixth month of gestation
to term. Results are tabulated and compared with the findings of other in­
vestigators. Bibliography.
11 Alw ens, W ., and J. H u sler: “ Röntgenuntersuchungen des kindlichen
Magens ” [Röntgen investigations of the child’s stomach]. Fortschritte
auf dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen [Hamburg] vol 19 (1912)
pp. 183-200.
The article contains 27 figures of the stomachs of infants and young
children on different diets. The great difference between infant and child
was found to be that the infant’s stomach has a horizontal position and the
child’s stomach a vertical position. Unlike Flesch and Peteri, the authors
found peristalsis in the infant stomach. The latter also has a large air
bubble. When the diet is changed from milk to gruel, mush, etc., the form
and position o f the stomach also change. Position of standing and walking
also affects it. Pathological conditions are briefly discussed.
The article
concludes with short case histories of 13 infants, whose stomachs appear in
one or more o f the figures, and with a bibliography.


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PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHILD

12

Aron, H a n s: “ D as Salzsäurebindungsvermögen von Frauen- und Kuh­
milch ” [The capacity of human and cow’s milk to combine with
hydrochloric acid]. Jahrb. f. Kinderh. [Berlin], vol. 79 (1914), pp.
288-304.
The stomach of the infant is much poorer in acid than that of adults,
especially in so-called free hydrochloric acid. The latter Hess found in the
newborn before the first meal, not afterwards. This denotes an [H+] = I X 10~4.
In fact, it is a question whether there is any peptic digestion in the infant.
Muller ascertained that a positive Congo paper reaction is obtained in water
with 0.001 per cent hydrochloric acid, in human milk with 0.1 to 0.16 per
cent, and in cow’s milk with 0.3 to 0.35 per cent. Therefore the milk may
be the cause for the low acidity in infantile digestion. The author gives four
tables of results from his experiments concerning the acidity in mixtures of
hydrochloric acid with human milk, with cow’s milk, with water, with cow’s
and whey. A graph also shows the contrasts. His methods and apparatus
are described for the [H+] and calorimetric tests with indicators. To obtain
a certain degree of acidity cow’s milk requires three to four times as much
hydrochloric acid as human milk.
13 A sch off: “ Zur Histologie der Darmschleimhaut des Neugeborenen”
[Histology of intestinal mucous membrane of newborn]. Münchener
Medicinische Wochenschrift, vol. 52, pt. 1 (1905), pp. 483-484.
Aschoff refers to his examinations of the histology of the intestinal mucous
membrane of the newborn, without describing his material. His discussion
constantly cites other investigators. He ascertains histological differences
between newborn and adults. As seen through the microscope the goblet cells
are much more numerous, and production of mucous is much greater, than
with adults.
14 A urnham m er, A lb e r t : “ Über die Unterschiede der Magenverdauung bei
natürlicher und unnatürlicher Ernährung ” [Differences in the gastric
digestion of natural and artificial diet]. Arch. f. Kinderh. [Stuttgart],
vol. 51 (1909), pp. 150-160.
The author studied 13 infants between 1% and 6% months old, on diets
o f human and cow’s milk. One table gives for each subject extensive data, in­
cluding coagulation and pepsin digestion. These last are treated in a second
table, giving time of action for both human and cow’s milk. Breast-fed infants
secrete less pepsin and have less coagulation in the stomach than artificiallyfed infants.
15 ----------- “ Unterschiede der Magenverdauung bei natürlicher und un­
natürlicher Ernährung ” [Differences in the gastric digestion of the
breast-fed and the artificially-fed infant]. Verhandlungen der Ver­
sammlungen der Gesellschaft für Kinderheilkunde auf den Versamm­
lungen Deutscher Naturforscher und Aerzte [Wiesbaden], vol. 25
(1908), pp. 47-51.
An investigation carried out with healthy infants 1% to 6% months old.
Acidity and the presence of pepsin and rennin are studied. The acidity did
not differ in breast-fed and artificially-fed infants; pepsin was less in evidence
with the former than with the latter; rennin was not found with the former
but was always found with the latter.
16 B agin sk y, A d o lf : “ Untersuchungen über den Darmkanal des mensch­
lichen Kindes ” [Investigations concerning the intestinal canal o f the
child]. Virchow’s Archiv [Berlin], vol. 89 (1882), pp. 64-94.
After discussing former investigations on the child’s intestinal canal the
author describes his own dissection and study of a 4-month fetus, a 7-month
fetus, a newborn infant, a child of 1 year, and a child of 3 years. He "himself
drew the 15 figures that he presents in 2 plates. He discusses in turn the
stomach, cardia, fundus ventricoli, pylorus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and
colon. He believes that without regard to the muscles the intestinal wall is
characterized by two things: The surface of the intestine is constantly increas­
ing through augmentation of the villi, and the number of glands is consid­
erably increased from the fetal period to later periods.
17 Bauer, Ludw ig, and Ernst Deutsch.: “ Das Verhalten der Magensäure,
Motilität, und Resorption bei Säuglingen und Kindern unter physiolo­
gischen und pathologischen Verhältnissen ” [The behavior of gastric
acidity, motility, and absorption in infants and children under physi­
ological and pathological circumstances]. Jahrb. f. Kindrh. [Berlin],
vol. 48 (1898), pp. 22-71.
The authors describe their investigations concerning the gastric acidity,
motility, and absorption of eight healthy infants a few months old and nine
healthy children from 2% to 12 years old, also of many sick children. One
or two hours after a breakfast following a night of fasting the stomach con­
tents were removed and examined. Resorption was tested by the Penzoldt and
Faber method; i. e., potassium iodide was given in gelatine pills, and the urine
and saliva were analysed. For motility, doses of 1.5 gram of salol were ad­
ministered and the urine controlled after 10 minutes (Ewald) or 10 hours
(Huber) with liquor ferri sesquichlorati. The tables of results fill 17 pages.
The author finds in healthy infants a few months old lactic acid in the fore-


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ground and in infants over 6 months old about the same percentage of free
hydrochloric acid as in adults. They find potassium iodide in the saliva after
4 to 7 minutes, and in the urine after 7 to 15 minutes. In healthy children
they find first lactic acid and then hydrochloric acid prominent as digestion
progresses.
In motility and absorption these children differ hut slightly from
adults.
18 Beneke: “ Über die Länge des Darmkanals bei Kindern, sowie über die
Oapacität. des Magens Neugeborener ” [Length of intestine in children
and also capacity of stomach in newborn infants]. Deutsche Med.
Wchnschr. [Berlin], vol. 6 (1880), pp. 483-436, 448-449.
For 12 years the author studied the relation between anatomical conditions
and constitutional troubles. In the vascular system the arterial vessels are
relatively wide at birth and narrow at puberty, after which they grow large
again. The carotids, however, do not change, wherefore the blood pressure in
the brain remains the same. The author has measured also the heart, lungs,
etc., of children but here devotes most space to his work on the intestines
and the stomach. The length of the small intestine stands to the height in the
relation o f 570 to 100 in newborn infants, 660 to 100 in second year, 550-600
T° 100 in the third year, and 450 to 100 after growth stops; that is, the
intestine is longer m children than in adults, in which fact, the author thinks,
lies the secret of growth. He found a greater area for intestines of children
than of adults, by examining the organs in water. He determined also a
greater cubic capacity for intestines and greater metabolism in children than
in adults. The capacity of the stomach he discovered to be 35 to 43 cubic
centimeters in newborn infants, 153 to 160 cubic centimeters after the four­
teenth day, and 740 cubic centimeters at the age of 2 years. On dividing
his subjects into normal, atrophic, and hypertrophic he ascertained that for
100 centimeters of body length the length of the small intestine was 313 centi­
meters in the atrophic, 407 centimeters in the normal, and 447 centimeters in
the hypertrophic.
19 Biedert, P h .: “ Über normale Milch Verdauung ” [Normal milk digestion].
Jahrb. f. Kinderh. [Leipzig], new ser. vol. 28 (1888), pp. 344-384.
The author’s theories are constantly compared with those of Escherich. Four
chemical analyses are described: Cow’ s milk feces, cow’s milk casein, coagulated
casein, and milk curds in consumptive stool; also four cases of nutrition from
the long series observed carefully during 10 years in the hospital at Hagenau,
showing the partial success of the Soxhlet process; also five cases of nutrition
with meal.
20 Blagodatny, H élène: “ La traversée digestive chez le nourrisson’’ [The
passage of food through the digestive tract of the infant]. Nourrisson
[Paris], vol. 11 (1923), pp. 331-341.
The author studied by means of the X rays the passage of food through the
digestive tract of normal infants ranging in age from 6 days to 11 months.
The number o f subjects is not given. For these experiments the infants were
fed at first on milk alone and then on milk mixed with a 5 per cent solution of
carbonate of bismuth. The author describes the gastric stage of digestion,
discussing in detail the vertical and transverse forms of the infant stomach,
then the jejuno-ileal, and finally the intestinal stage, stating for each group the
average time during which the food remained in the investigated part of the
digestive tract.
21 Bleyer, A . S .: “ The variation in the production of free hydrochloric
acid in the infant stomach from various foods.” St. Louis Courier of
Medicine, vol. 26 (1902), pp. 248-253.
A report of 90 examinations of the stomach contents of infants fed on nine
different foods, made at different periods of digestion varying from 15 minutes
to 2% hours. Table and discussion.
22 Bloch, C. E .: “Anatomische Untersuchungen über den Magendarmkanal
des Säuglings” [Anatomical investigations into the alimentary canal
of the infant]. Jahrh. f. Kinderh. [Berlin], vol. 58 (1903), pp. 121-174.
The author dissected and studied the alimentary canal of 5 normal infants
and of 10 that had died of gastroenteritis, first injecting 100 to 150 cubic
centimeters of a 1/10 formalin solution. He describes both stomach and
intestine in detail and presents a table showing Paneth’ s cells in various parts
of the intestine. The distinction between the stomach of the infant and that
o f the adult does not rest upon the development of the single^gland cells which
are as much developed in the child as in the adult, but upon the number of the
glands and the gland cells, and also upon the arrangement of the glands. The
mucous membrane is little developed in the stomach but much so in the
intestine, which is longer than that of the adult. Bibliography.
23 Borie, P. René: L ’estomac du nourrisson. Anatomie et physiologie.
[The Stomach of the Infant. Anatomy and Physiology]. Toulouse
no. 321, 1899. 50 pp.
The original work in this thesis (University of Toulouse) consists for the
most part of analysis of the stomach contents of infants of different ages,
tested one-half hour, one hour, and one and three-fourths hours after eating,
Thirty-six testings are recorded, in which the author found the stomach empty
at the one and three-fourth hour test, and free hydrochloric acid present.
Further researches and comparison of the work of others led him to conclude


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P H Y S IC A L G RO W TH AND D EVELOPM EN T OP T H E C H ILD
that digestion is complete with the appearance of free hydrochloric acid and
not sooner, that this takes place at about one and three-fourths hours after
feeding, and that feeding oftener than once in three hours is harmful to
digestion. Bibliography.

24

Bovaird, D., and M. Nicoll: “ The weights of the viscera in infancy and
childhood, with special reference to the weight of the thymus gland.”
A r c h . P e d ia t. [New York], vol. 23 (1906), pp. 641-668.
Data were collected from 571 postmortems at the New York Foundling Hos­
pital during three years. Cases range in age from newborn to 5 years. The
cause of death, sex, nutrition, length, and weight of thymus, lungs, heart,
liver, spleen, and kidneys are recorded and tabulated by age groups. Vieraordt’s
tables for the same ages are given. A discussion of the material accompanies
the tables.

25

Buchheim, Irene: “ Zur Rontgenologic des Magendarmkanals beim Kind
jenseits des ersten Lebensjahres ” [Rontgenology of alimentary canal
in the child after the first year]. A r c h . f . K i n d e r h . [Stuttgart], vol. 72
(1922-23), pp. 100-110.
This article discusses Röntgen investigation of the alimentary canal after
the first year, as conducted by other students, and author’s own observations
on the time required by the stomach and small intestine for emptying. Twentythree children between 1% and 14 years, healthy so far as digestion was
concerned, were studied during the period 1919 to 1921 after a meal of barium
sulphate and apple sauce. Contrasts with corresponding phenomena in adults
are constantly drawn. Two tables give full data on the 23 children. Food
began to enter the small intestine after one to two hours and to leave in two
to four hours; it began to leave stomach after one to three hours, usually
after two hours. Bibliography.

26

Carlson, A . J., and H. Ginsburg: “ The tonus and hunger contractions
of the stomach of the newborn.” A m . J . P h y s i o l. [Baltimore], vol. 38
(1915), pp. 29-32.
The authors studied the gastric tonus and hunger contractions of many vig­
orous newborn infants while the infants were asleep, and found the contrac­
tions in evidence shortly after birth before any food had entered the stomach.
The phenomenon is like that in the adult except that the periods of motor
quiescence are only 10 to 15 minutes. Two tracings show the contractions in
a 9-hour-old infant and in a 9-day-old infant.

27

Clarke, T. W . : “ Gastric digestion in infants. A review of the litera­
ture.” A m e r ic a n J o u r n a l o f th e M e d ic a l S c ie n c e s [Philadelphia and
New York], new ser. vol. 87 (1909), pp. 674-685.

28

---------- “ The diagnostic value of gastric analysis in the digestive dis­
turbances of infancy.” A r c h . P e d ia t. [New York], vol. 28 (1911), pp.
648-656.

As the title indicates, a review only.

No original work reported.

In 1907 the author was appointed to the staff of the Rockefeller Institute
for Medical Research and undertook a long series of investigations on infant
digestion. His report, published in 1909, was followed by a number of articles
by American and foreign observers, which this article summarizes and com­
pares with the author’s own work in an effort to learn the truth as to the
value of gastric analysis in infancy. The conclusion reached is that much
more investigation and practical application of the results on ill children will
be necessary before any facts are established. The article contains a descrip­
tion of the author’s apparatus for removal of stomach contents. Bibliography.

29

---------- “ The effect, of certain so-called milk modifiers on the gastric diges­
tion of infants.” A m e r ic a n J o u rn a l o f t h e M e d ic a l S c ie n c e s [Phila­
delphia and New York], new ser. vol. 87 (1909), pp. 827-888.
In order to determine the effect of certain foods on gastric digestion 122
observations were made on 22 infants (age not given) at the New York
Nursery and Child’s Hospital. The children were given test feedings of lactose,
lime water, and barley water in various combinations with cow’s milk and
human milk. Sodium citrate was also added to the cow’s milk formula. Gas­
tric analyses were made from these various kinds of feedings, and the results
tabulated, summarized, and applied.

30

Cowie, D. M., and W m . Long: “ Further observations on the acid con­
trol of the pylorus in infants.” A m . J . D i s . C M ld . [Chicago], vol. 2
(1911), pp. 252-261.
A study to discover, if possible, a basis for treatment in pyloric stenosis.
Observations were made on the emptying time of infants’ stomachs, and the
acid content in relation to emptying time was determined. No conclusion was
reached.

31

---------- and W . D. Lyon: “An experimental study on the food reactions
in the infant’s stomach compared with those in vitro.” A r c h . P e d ia t.
[New York], vol. 28 (1911), pp. 100-119.
A report of experimental studies on a large number of infants, by examina­
tion of stomach contents. Technique is not fully described. Tables show 107
tests on about 40 infants, aged 1 day to 23 months, giving food (breast or
formula) time in stomach, amount taken, amount recovered, condition of


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lavage, percentage and character of curds, presence and condition of mucus,
and acid content. The progress of the secretion of mucus in the case of
two infants is shown by charts. The effects of basic calcium casein and of
sodium-citrate feeding are illustrated by tabulated »results of a small number
of experiments. The author concludes that the infant’s stomach secretes all
the digestive juices from the first day of life ; that free hydrochloric acid
rarely occurs in the infant’ s stomach during the active part of the day ; that
a total acidity value from 8 to 30 offers the normal stimulus for pyloric
relaxation ; that basic calcium casein delays the evacuation of the stomach
contents ; that sodium citrate inhibits the action of rennet ; that the curds
normally present in the infant’s stomach are paracasein hydrochloride.

32

33

CrisafL, D. : “ La funzionalita del fegato nei bambini provate col levulosio ” [Liver function in the child as indicated by the use of levulose].
R i v i s t a di clin ica p ed ia tr ie a [Florence], vol. 1 (1903), pp. 108-109.
A brief account of the author’s study of several children (number and
ages not given) for the purpose of studying the functioning of the liver by
means of levulose. In the well children the author found no relation between
the quantity of levulose utilized and the weight of the body. Most illnesses
did not seem to affect the functioning of the liver.
Cunningham, D. J. : “ On the form of the spleen and the kidneys.”
J ou rn a l

of

A n a to m y

an d

P h y s io lo g y

[London], vol. 29 (1895), pp.

501-517.
The article deals largely with adults, but an illustration and description of
a model, produced by the reconstruction method, of the liver, right kidney,
stomach, and spleen of a child are included.

34

Czerny, Adlabert: “ Die Ernährung des Säuglings auf Grundlage der
physiologischen Functionen seines Magens ” [The nutrition of the
infant on the basis of the physiological functions of its stomach].
M e d ic in is c h e W o c h e n s c h r i ft [Prague], vol. 18 (1893), pp. 495-496,
510.
Making no mention of personal experiments the author discusses the
physiological function of the stomach of the breast-fed and the artificiallyfed infant. Whereas, he states, the breast-fed infant has digested his meal in
1% to 2 hours and may safely receive another after 3 hours, the artificiallyfed ‘ infant requires 3 hours to digest a meal and should not begin a second
until 4 hours have elapsed. According to the author, the antiseptic function
of free hydrochloric acid is impaired if food is ingested before a former meal
is thoroughly digested.

35

Dargein, Pierre: “ Surface et volume comparés de l’estomac et du
duodénum ” [ Surface and volume of stomach and duodenum com­
pared]. B ib lio g r a p h ie a n a to m iq u e [Paris and Nancy], vol. 7-8 (18991900), pp. 207-216.
After presenting a discussion and tables on the dimensions of the stomach
and duodenum and the relations between them in the case of 22 adults, the
author gives a table of the length of the greater curvature, of the capacity,
and of the surface of the stomach of 8 infants of ages from birth to 11
months. The surface of the mucous membrane of the stomach varied with
age. At birth it was 12 square centimeters, at 6 months 67, at 1 year probably
140.

36

Davidsohn, Heinrich: “ Beitrag zum Chemismus des Säuglingsmagens”
[The chemistry of the infant stomach]. Z ts c h r . f. K i n d e r h . [Berlin],
vol. 2 (1911), pp. 420-428.
The author believes that not titration but the concentration of hydrogen ions
is the only measure for the acidity of a fluid. He made five gastric studies on
two healthy infants, two on one retarded child and one on a very young infant,
all artificially fed and without digestive disturbances. In every study he ascer­
tained the presence of pepsin in the stomach, which, however, took no part in
digestion. Different kinds of feeding produced almost no variation. He
accepts the identity of pepsin and rennet.

37

---------- “ Beitrag zum Studium der Magenlipase” [Contribution to the
study of gastric lipase]. B e r li n e r K l i n i s c h e W o c h e n s c h r i f t [Berlin],
vol. 49, pt. 2 (1912), pp. 2080-2081.
From his experimentation on adults and children (number not specified) the
author believes that the lipase of pancreatin solution has optimum effectiveness
with a slightly alkaline reaction corresponding to normality in hydrogen ions
of 1 X 10~8. The optimum of lipase action in gastric secretion is found with a
slightly acid reaction. After a fatty diet the stomach content shows a weaker
acid reaction than usual, and this is especially important for the infant. The
author is convinced of the existence of a gastric lipase which can be measured
quantitatively and evaluated clinically. To obtain the pancreatic secretion of
infants he used the duodenal tube of Gross as modified by Hess.

38

---------- “ Beitrag zur Magenverdauung des Säuglings ” [The gastric di­
gestion of the infant]. Z t s c h r . f . K i n d e r h . [Berlin], vol. 9 (1913),
pp. 470-493.
After appraising his own work and that o f other students on infant’s gastric
digestion, the author concludes that reaction of milk digestion at its height is
always acid, corresponding to [H] of 1X10-®, by which coagulation, lipolysis,


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P H Y S IC A L G RO W TH AND D EVELO PM EN T OP T H E CH ILD
and casein digestion (through rennin) are optim al; digestion is governed first
by coagulation and secondly by lipolysis; duration of digestion, best seen
through Röntgen photographs, is about 1% to 2% hours in the breast-fed and
3 to 3% hours in the artificially-fed infant. The author describes methods and
results of investigation on the amount of acidity and testing of ferments. One
table gives results of eight tests of [H+] on undiluted and diluted gastric solu­
tion. There are five tables and two graphs. The author ascertains the occa­
sional presence of pancreatic secretion and raises the question whether or not
lab and pepsin are the same.

39

Davidsohn, Heinrich: “ Beitrag zur Physiologie und Pathologie der
MagenVerdauung beim Säugling ” [Physiology and pathology of gastric
digestion in the infant]. A r c h . f. K i n d e r h . [Stuttgart], vol. 69-70
(1921-22), pp. 239-255.
From 53 double experiments on 30 infants the author concludes in opposition
to Schackwitz that removal of stomach contents in two unequal portions gives
varying acidity determinations. He conducts other experiments testing age and
diet as affecting digestion, in both artificially-fed and breast-fed infants. In
artificially-fed infants the pH of the stomach contents does not appreciably
increase during the nursing period. In breast-fed children the pH is low during
the first six months; thereafter it increases rapidly till it permits peptic diges­
tion. Twenty of these tests were carried out with seven infants. Factors affect­
ing the pH are the hydrochloric-acid content, the power in the milk to bind it,
the reaction of the milk and motility of the stomach, the age and constituion
of the child, etc. The article contains 17 tables.

40

---------- “ Die Pepsinverdauung im Säuglingsmagen unter Berücksichti­
gung der Acidität” [Pepsin digestion in the infant stomach with ref­
erence to acidity]. Z t s c h r . f . K i n d e r h . [Berlin], vol. 4 (1912), pp.
208-230.
The author considers many sets of experiments conducted by other students,
describes a series of experiments by Michaelis and himself on the dependence of
pepsin digestion upon acidity, whereby they determined that the optimum of
pepsin activity attends an [H+] of 1,610 X -2 and mentions tests by Salge and
himself on about 10 breast-fed and artificially-fed infants wherein the stomach
content removed one to two hours after a normal meal gave a [H+] of about
5.6 X 10-5. The difference between free and bound hydrochloric acid is only
quantitative. A tolerably high acidity is necessary for pepsin digestion. The
acid in infants; stomachs is lactic acid, but it is too limited in amount for
activating pepsin digestion, and the author concludes that the latter is sacri­
ficed for the sake of the fat splitting of the lipase in the stomach for which the
optimum is not an acid but a natural reaction. He agrees with Pawlow, who
through tests with various kinds of foods has shown that the difference in the
gastric secretions of adults and infants is only apparent.

41

-------- “ Molke und Magendarmfermente ” [Whey and ferments in the
alimentary canal]. Z t s c h r . f . K i n d e r h . Originalien [Berlin], vol. 8
(1913), pp. 178-186.
The important fermentative processes in the infant stomach are coagulation
and fat splitting. The author’s investigations on whey and alimentary ferments
were conducted by the gas chain method. The reaction o f human milk is ap­
proximately neutral, more acid than blood, and not very different from that of
cow’s milk. The reaction of human milk was (H+)— 1.1 X 10-6 and of cow’s
milk [H + ]= 3 X 1 0 -7. Human milk showed no coagulation in 20 hours, whereas
cow’s milk showed coagulation in 36 to 107 minutes. The reason is the differ­
ence in salt content. The more diluted the cow’s milk the longer it requires
for coagulation. In an appendix the author gives tables on gastric lipase, pan­
creatic lipase, and lactase.

42

-------- “ Neuere Arbeiten zur Physiologie und Pathologie der Magenverdauung beim Saugling” [New work on the physiology and pathology
of gastric digestion in the infant]. A r c h . f. K i n d e r h . [Stuttgart], vol.
69-70 (1921-22), pp. 142-155.
A critical review of current theories on the gastric digestion of the infant
The presence_of pepsin in the stomach juices and in the mucous membrane of
the_stomach is proved; but is this pepsin effective? Three methods o f investi­
gation have been tried : Testing stomach content for products of protein decom­
position, artificial digestion tests with stomach content, and determination of
stomach acidity, All the work of note along these lines is discussed by the
author. He concludes that peptic digestion has not been proved by the first
two methods. Acidity of the infant stomach with both breast and bottle
feeding amounts to [H ] = 1 X 1 0 - B. But peptic digestion of infant begins with
[H ]= = l X 1°-4 and is optimal at 2 X 1 0 -2. In the breast-fed infant till the ninth
month and in the artificially-fed infant throughout suckling period, practically
no peptic digestion of milk takes place.

43

-------- “ Untersuchungen fiber das fettspaltende Ferment des Magensaftes nebst Angaben zur quantitativen Bestimmung derselben ” [Quan­
titative investigations on the fat-splitting ferment of the gastric secre­
tion]. B e r li n e r K l i n i s c h e W o c h e n s c h r i ft [Berlin], vol. 49, pt 1 (1912]
pp. 1132-1134.
Borrowing Rova and Michaelis’s method of surface tension, the author meas­
ures 0.5 to 1 centimeter of diluted gastric secretion to 60 centimeters of


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M ETABO LISM

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This method he used with a series of secretions. He gives a nico0fi Tr„aube s stalagmometer, wherein the value of tributyrin solution was
and ° f pure water was 94 drops. He ascertained a greater digestion of

stomach il d i S e n f f r o m 1t l Ä
44

107

t h e p a n Ä . * “ * SUggeSts that Upase ° f the

Dß Buys, L. R., and A . Henriques-: “ Effect of body posture o