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JAMES J. DAVIS, Secretary





Bureau Publication No. 172

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis




Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Letter of transmittal_________________ ___________________________________
Introduction______________________________ ______________________________ - 1
Foreword to teachers______________________________________________
Games and play for little children_______________________________________
Games of imitation_________________________________________________
Rhythm games and folk games and dances________ ____;_____________
Miscellaneous indoor games_____________________ ____________________
Miscellaneous outdoor games________________________________________
Recreation for older boys and girls_____________________________________
Miscellaneous indoor games_____________________________________________ 13
Table games_____________________________________________
Games for parties_______ _________________________ ______t___________
Miscellaneous outdoor games________________________________________
Relay races_________ ;_________________________ y_____________________
Athletic meets______________________________________________
Gymnasium work__________________________________________________
Various recreational activities__________________________
Music as recreation for the blind_____________________________
Equipment for playground, playroom, and gymnasium___ 1______________
Playground--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- _J$
Playroom for little children_________________________________________
Appendix A.— The physical training of the blind__________________ _____
Appendix B.— Recreation for blind children____________________________
Appendix C.— The diversions of two-score blind people_________ :_______
Appendix D.— List of references________________________________________

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


U n it e d S tates D e p a r t m e n t of L abor ,
C h il d r e n ’ s B u r e a u ,

Washington, August 15, 1926.
S i r : There is transmitted herewith a handbook o f recreational

activities for blind children, which was prepared by Martha Tra villa
Speakman after a study o f many schools for the blind in the United
States and England, as well as the leading ones in Paris and Vienna.
The handbook is intended for the use o f teachers o f the blind in
institutions and day classes, and o f other persons associated with the
blind, such as club leaders and parents.
The descriptions o f games and other recreational activities have
been written with the assistance o f the heads o f many schools, as
well as teachers and other individuals interested in the probleln o f
recreation for the blind. Special acknowledgment is due to Mr.
Robert Irwin, of the American Foundation for the Blind, and Mr.
Edward E. Allen, director, Perkins Institution and Massachusetts
School for the Blind; and to Miss Marion Kappes, department for
thp blind, Cleveland public schools, who wrote the chapter on music.
Respectfully submitted.
G r a ce A bbott ,

Hon. J a m e s J. D a v is ,

Secretary o f Labor,
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


The heaviest burden on the blind is not blindness, but idleness.—H elen K eller.

* * * the blind man * * * above all, needs occupation, and * * *
the more actiye, the more normal he can make his life, the happier he will be.
Thus it is doubly necessary that all the things which he can indulge in should
be found for him to do. He must be brought into the life which surrounds
him, * * * Nothing helps a blinded man more to forget his blindness than
the discovery that he can still enjoy his hours of recreation.— Sir Arthur

* * * games and all recreation are even more needed by the blind than
by the sighted. Too much can not be done to alleviate their lot * * *.
The habitual state o f concentration in which the blind are plunged from the
want of objects to distract them makes some diversion necessary for them.—
Sebastian QuiUie.
Recreation is as important as any other part of a teacher’s work. Recrea­
tion in school should aim to make blind children socially independent and
shbuld also prepare them,to more easily make their own recreation after they
graduate from school.— R obert Irwin.

The blind may have the best educational, musical, or industrial training, but
without fearlessness and confidence which result largely from spontaneous
recreation they will rarely become independent men and women.— C. F. F.
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The joy that comes from happy hours o f play contributes greatly
toward making life worth living, for the blind as well as for others.
Games and other forms o f recreation have a special value in the
training o f the blind, for they help to overcome self-consciousness
and to develop freedom o f motion and social grace that are great
assets to a person handicapped by blindness. This is well understood in schools for the blind, where many recreational activities
are carried on that add to the health and happiness o f the students.
Recreation for blind children should be planned not only to
give them pleasure but also to prepare them for ordinary social
intercourse. These children should become accustomed to taking
part in social activities during their school days, so that when they
leave school they will readily join in thé recreation o f the family
and the community in which they live.
For this reason their games and other activities should be as
nearly as possible the same as those o f children that can see. Many
games do not depend on sight, and these can be played by blind
children among themselves or with other children.
But before attempting to play a game with children that can
see, a blind child must learn the game well and must practice play­
ing it. Children in boarding schools for the blind should have the
opportunity to play with children that can see, and parties and
athletic meets to which outsiders are invited should be held fre­
quently. Through these meetings blind children realize that they
can play many games with other children on equal terms, and the
realization o f “ being in things” gives them self-confidence, ease,
and freedom o f manner. Children in day classes for the blind have
the advantage o f mingling with other children after school hours.
I f a blind child is well taught, he will be able to join the others in
play, but unless he knows the games well he may be excluded from
them through the shyness resulting from his blindness and through
the other children’s impatience with him.
It is therefore essential to blind children’s happiness that games
be taught them. In conducting the games the teacher should study
the individual needs o f each child, so that none will be neglected
but each will feel that he is an important unit in the group. As
a result o f this feeling the child loses the tendency to be solitary
that is unfortunately common among the blind, and he is encour­
aged to associate with others.
Many games give an opportunity for the players to develop the
spirit o f overcoming difficulties, sometimes even struggling until
it hurts. This helps to develop moral stamina.
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As the pupils gain self-confidence they should be encouraged to
act on their own initiative and to take responsibility instead o f
depending on* their teachers. The older boys and girls should be­
come accustomed to organizing groups for games and planning
athletic meets and parties. The younger children should be trained
to accept responsibilities in accordance with their years, such as
keeping toys in their proper places.
The games and other recreational activities in this handbook
have all been undertaken successfully by blind children.1 More
material can be found in the sources listed on pages 72-74.
1A number of the games selected were suggested by blind children in the Virginia
School for the Deaf and Blind, Staunton, Va.
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Plan your program o f recreation so that it will include both
active and quiet play. The children will enjoy the play period more
i f it offers variety and if they are not tired out by too much physical
Choose games suited to the age o f the players. Little children
find the greatest pleasure in simple plays—hardly games at all but
merely make-believe and singing or saying a rhyme. These plays
encourage creative imagination. Somewhat older boys and girls
demand games that are more complicated and that show the skill
o f the individual; and still older ones take the greatest interest in
team games, in which competition between groups is the chief
factor. I f a game confuses the players it may be unsuited to their
age; discard it and choose another one. A confusing game gives no
See that all the children are included in the game. I f a game is
well chosen and well conducted every child will want to play.
Be sure that every player understands the game thoroughly. To
enjoy a game the players must understand it.
In teaching a new game have the children stand in a circle. It is
easy to maintain order in this way. Choose clever children to start
the new game, and as the others get to understand it let them take
part. Make the game easy at first and add the difficult parts step by
step. Let the children find out the point o f the game themselves;
they like to discover it.
I f circumstances require that a game be adapted do not hesitate
to do it, but having decided on rules enforce them.
Encourage the spirit o f fair play. See that every child gets a
chance to be leader.
Help the children to overcome the fear due to blindness by getting
them so interested that they forget themselves in play. Encourage
timid ones to give dares and to take risks. Develop the children’s
judgment in this matter.
Try to inculcate through the games alertness, self-control, con­
centration, and skill.
Teach the children to play with all their might and to cultivate a
sense o f honor. ^Teach them that any victory not earned strictly by
fair play is a disgrace to them and their team. Show them that to
be trusted is far better than to be praised, and that defeat, i f it is the
result o f an honest trial o f strength, is honorable defeat.
Remember that play is the serious business o f childhood, and do
not make light o f the problems that come up in a game, but remember
also that play is intended to bring happiness. Put yourself into the
game, and the children will catch your spirit. Laugh with them.
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Play acting and make-believe can be the source o f much fun as
well as a stimulus to the imagination and power o f imitation. When
the blind child pretends to be Little Red Riding H ood visiting her
grandmother or a high-stepping horse prancing down the road or a
bird flying he forgets himself and enters into the realm o f play land.
The teacher can encourage the children by suggesting new roles and
entering into the spirit o f the play.
Dramatizing simple short stories is a means o f expression that
children enjoy greatly. Acting out the stories that are read or told
in the classroom makes them seem more real. Many nursery rhymes
and songs are suitable for acting out by little children, such as Five
Little Chickadees.2
Games in which the players impersonate workers in different
professions and trades such as the doctor, the teacher, the farmer,
the merchant, the baker, the carpenter, the blacksmith, and the
garage mechanic give the child a much clearer idea o f these occupa­
tions than he could gain through merely hearing about them. The
children should be led to discuss the place o f the various trades in
the community. Care should be taken that each child understands
well what vocation he is pretending to carry on. In playing store
it is well for the children to use real money to give them experience
in handling it. Thus they learn to tell by the feel and the sound
the difference between the various coins.
An example o f the kind o f game that may be developed from acting
is “ Pleasantville.”

“ A ll aboard fo r Pleasantville.”
“ Where is Pleasantville?” you may ask. Just a step, and we
are out on the large lawn that forms one o f the playgrounds o f the
Overbrook girls’ school.
. . .
The entire lower« school seems in transit this bright Saturday
morning, little children hurrying out with baskets and bottles, larger
ones tugging at chairs and dry-goods boxes. The lawn with its
surrounding avenues o f trees presents a scene o f lively activity.
Here is the village green, and there are the encircling streets o f
W e are halted at the entrance by two bank clerks, very much in
evidence and very much in earnest; a Braille check must be cashed
2 See Songs and Games for Little Ones, by Gertrude Walker and Harriet S. Jenks, p. 93
(Oliver Ditson Co., Boston, 1912). Many other songs in this book lend themselves to
. ..
* Contributed by the Pennsylvania Institution for the Instruction o f the Blind, Over­
brook, Philadelphia.

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into various imitation coins before we can proceed, for we are
expected to be purchasers o f the Pleasantville commodities.
Then we survey the scene.
On the steps o f the cottages are set up a drug store and a grocery
store. In the former is found a surprising array o f bottles—every­
thing from camphor to soda pop— and boxes, especially pill boxes,
o f all descriptions. The dispensary has been a heavy contributor
to this outfitting. W ith the grocery the household department was
a generous cooperator, lending cans, cartons, vegetables, etc., to be
returned at the end o f the day. The little storekeeper has swept
her store vigorously and covered her shelves with white paper before
arranging her wares in orderly fashion.
Next we come to the hospital, where doctor and white-capped
nurse are in attendance with a large supply of bandages and medi­
cines— the latter based on aqua tepida. Alecs three-wheeled cart is
serving as ambulance and rolls up frequently with fresh recruits—
very lively patients they are, considering the contusions and broken
bones to be treated. Fingers are bandaged with real skill, and a
sling is made in scientific manner. Next door is the school, where
lessons in spelling, arithmetic, music, and physical training are
going on with excellent discipline.
“ The monotonous voice o f the preacher” is heard from the near­
by church. A library, well furnished with discarded Braille books,
is in charge o f a systematic little librarian, who checks up the books
taken out and returned. The children’s playground, with swings,
seesaws, etc., furnishes an ideal amusement park, the features being
available at 5 paper cents each. The “ zoo ” consists o f a couple o f
lambs and three members of the Frisky Squirrel family. Mother
Frisky is so tame that she scampers up and down the little girls’
dresses and will sit for a minute on one’s shoulder while she cracks
a nut.
“ What can Mary and Annie do ? ” I wondered, thinking o f two
girls who were woefully lacking in initiative and imagination. “ We
certainly need laundresses,” I finally said. “ W ho wants to be a
laundress? ” “ Oh, I just love to wash,” chorused Mary and Annie.
They were soon established between two trees with buckets, small
scrubbing boards, and clothesline and clothespins which delighted
their hearts. They rubbed and scrubbed happily all day long,
rewashing the dolls’ wardrobe as soon as it had dried, and they
were full o f pride when a house mother complimented them upon
their work by sending a pair o f stockings to be washed. (As the
work grows, a laundry list may have to be added to their outfit.)
The children all came to Pleasantville in families—father, mother,
and children. The first thing was to rent a house. Then the house
had to be furnished with chairs, tables, etc. The children showed
considerable ingenuity in this furnishing. One little girl built her
house around a tree, decorating the trunk with sketches and pictures
in a really artistic manner. She also served lunch on a daintily
arranged table.
A homelike note was given by the advent o f the little kindergart­
eners. Hearing the unusual commotion, they strayed over, to be
delightedly adopted as the children in the families.
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A bit o f real storekeeping was done, too, in a shop where real
candy was sold, the proceeds to go to the support o f a little blind
girl m Mrs. Smith’s school in China.
A court and a jail were projected, but they and the policeman
were idle.

One child acts as sandman, pretending to carry a bag o f sand
and sowing it, while the other children pretend to go to sleep. All
sing The Sandman.4

Children find great joy in marching, running, and skipping to
music, and in playing rhythmic games. The folk games and dances
that call for circle formation with hands joined are well suited to
the blind. I f any o f the children have some sight, these can guide
the others unobtrusively. Circle formation should be substituted
for couple formation in such dances as Dance o f Greeting (Clap,
clap, bow ).5
The following folk-song games have been suggested by several
schools for the blind: Princess Thorn Rosa, How Do You Do My
Rosa, The Girl Is Walking in the Ring, The Fox Goes over the
Ice, The Christmas-Tree Song;6 Adam’s Sons, Clap and Trap, The
Mulberry Bush, The Musician, While Traveling over Sea and L and ; 7
The Clapping Dance, The Handkerchief Dance, On the Meadow
Green; 8 Our Shoes Are Made o f Leather, Here We Go round the
Mulberry Bush, Isabella, London Bridge, Farmer in the Dell, Here
Come Three Dukes A-Riding, Oats and Beans and Barley, Jenny
Jones, Round and Round the Village, The Roman Soldiers, Did
You Ever See a Lassie?, The Muffin Man, There Was a Jolly
Miller, Looby Loo.9
Records o f many folk dances may be obtained from manufacturers
o f phonographs.

The children sit in a circle.
center. A ll say or sing:

One child, the “ spider,” sits in the

Little Miss Muffet
Sat on a tuffet
Eating her curds and whey.
Along came a spider,
Who sat down beside her
And frightened Miss Muffet away.
4 Songs and Games for Little Ones, p. 80.
BFolk Dances and Singing Games, by Elizabeth Burchenal, p. 4. G. Schirmer, New
York, 1909.
8 Folk Games of Denmark and Sweden, by Dagny Pederson and Neva L. Boyd. Saul
Bros., Chicago, 1915.
7 Folk Games and Gymnastic Plays, by Dagny Pederson and Neva L. Boyd. Saul Bros..
Chicago, 1914.
8 Folk Dances o f Bohemia and Moravia, by Anna Spacek and Neva L. Boyd. Saul
Bros., Chicago, 1917.
8 Old English and American Games, by Florence Warren Brown and Neva L. Boyd.
Saul Bros., Chicago, 1935.
See Rhythmic Action Plays and Dances, by Irene Phillips Moses, p. 26 (Milton
Bradley Co., Springfield, Mass., 1915).
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While the first three lines are being said each child in the circle
makes a bowl o f her left hand and uses the right hand as though
eating with a spoon.
At the words, “ Along came a spider,” the center child tiptoes to
some child in the circle, sits down beside her, and tugs at her skirt.
The child chosen by the spider jumps up and runs away. She then
becomes the spider, and the game is repeated.

The children stand in a circle with the leader in the center.
recite the following :


Lome out into my farmyard
And see my pretty barnyard.
I ’ve cows and pigs and chickens
And sheep and horses, too.
You do not need to fear them ;
They’ll let you come quite near them.
Then choose the one that you like best
And take it home with you.

The leader tells each child what animal he is to imitate, and each
one makes a noise in imitation of that animal. The leader then
chooses the best one. The child chosen becomes leader for the repeti­
tion o f the game.

The children form a large circle; and they sing the song, Little
Ball, Pass Along,11 rolling a ball around the circle from one child to
the next. When the last word o f the song is sung the child that has
the ball knocks on the floor three times. The teacher then taps an­
other child ; and this one goes over to the one that has the ball, asks
him a question, and then tries to guess from his answer who he is.
I f the guesser is successful he starts the ball rolling for the repetition
o f the game. I f he is unsuccessful the child that held the ball last
rolls it.

The children are seated in a circle. Thè teacher taps one child,
who is to be the “ echo.” This child tiptoes out o f the room. The
other players sing the echo song,12 and the echo repeats the last word
o f each line, thus:
“ Echo, Echo, are you n ear?” — _____ !_____________ “ Near.”
“ Tell us if you can hear ” ___ ______________ ________ “ Hear.”
“ Will you with us children sta y ?” _u_________ ______; “ Stay.”
“ Join us in merry p la y ” _________ __________________ “ Play.”

Meantime the teacher taps another child, who tries to find out who
is the echo by the sound o f his voice. I f he guesses correctly he be­
comes thé echo.
This game may be played without the song, the two players merely
calling out-“ Hello ! ” to each other.
11 Songs. and Games for Little Ones, p. 105.
12 Songs o f a Little Child’s Day, by Emilie Poulsson and Eleanor Smith, p. 88.
Bradley Co., Springfield, Mass., 1910.
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The children stand in a circle, except one, the “ dame,” who sits in
the center. They sing:
Dame, get up and bake your pies,
Bake your pies, bake your pies.
Dame, get up and bake your pies,
So early in the morning.

The dame gets up, goes to one child in the circle and says, “ What
kind o f pie do you want ? ” That child answers, and the dame tries
to guess who answered. I f she is successful, she changes places with
the other child. I f not, she is dame again.

The children stand in a circle with hands on their hips and say:
Hickory, dickory dock, tick-tock,
The mouse ran up the clock.
The clock struck one.
The mouse ran down.
Hickory, dickory dock, tick-tock.

While saying these lines the children act as follows:
“ Hickory, dickory dock ” : Bend right, then left, then stand erect.
“ Tick-tock” : Stamp with each foot.
“ The mouse ran up the clock ” : Take six running steps into the
center o f ring.
“ The clock struck one ” : Clap hands once.
“ The mouse ran down ” : Take four running steps back to circle.
“ Hickory, dickory dock ” : Bend right, then left, then stand erect.
“ Tick-tock ” : Stamp with each foot.

The players stand in a circle with the leader in the center. The
teacher is at the piano. The leader calls the name o f one player,
to whom she bounces a basket ball, keeping it in rhythm with the
piano. This player catches the ball and bounces it back, and the
leader calls the name o f another player and bounces the ball to him ;
and the game is continued, the players keeping time with the music.
Any player that fails to catch the ball drops out o f the game.

The children form a circle. A basket ball is given to one child in
the circle, and he calls the name of the one to whom he wishes to
bounce the ball. The child whose name is called says, “ Here,” and
the one with the ball thus learns where the other one is standing
and bounces the ball to him. I f that player fails to catch it the
center player calls another one to receive the ball. I f he catches it
he takes the place o f the center player.

The teacher taps the desk a number o f times rhythmically and
then calls on a child to tap the same number o f times in the same
rhythm. Children enjoy playing this game with a tap bell.
Adapted from “ Dame, Get Up and Bake Your Pies,” in Rhythmic Action Plays and
Dances, p. 73.
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The children stand in a circle or (if in the schoolroom) sit in
their seats. One child is “ it.” The teacher taps another child, who
leaves the room. This child calls out from the next room. “ I t ”
tries to guess who has gone from the ring. I f he fails to guess cor­
rectly the child outside calls again. I f he is unable in three guesses
to tell who the player in the next room is, he is told. The teacher
chooses another child to go out o f the room so as to give the child
who was unsuccessful another chance. I f he guesses correctly the
child who was in the other room returns and becomes “ it,” and the
teacher chooses another child to go out.

One child, “ it,” sits on a chair in the front o f the room, and the
teacher chooses another child to go up and knock on the floor behind
“ it.” “ It ” says, “ W ho is knocking at my door ? ” The knocker
says, “ It is I.” “ It ” tries to guess who answered. I f he can not
guess in three tries, he is told, and then another child is chosen to
knock. I f he guesses correctly the knocker becomes “ it,” and the
teacher chooses another knocker for the next game.

A ll the children except one are seated in a circle on the floor. The
extra player goes into the center o f the circle to be the “ dog.”
Miscellaneous articles representing bones are scattered on the floor
near him. The other children try to creep up and take the bones
without the dog’s hearing them. When a child is caught he changes
places with the center player, becoming the dog, and the game

The children form a circle with one player in the center. The
teacher taps certain players, who, in turn, speak to the one in the
center, saying, “ W ho a m i ! ” The players continue to say, “ W ho
am I ? ” disguising their voices, until the player in the center recog­
nizes the voice o f one and calls him by name. I f the guess is cor­
rect, the teacher says to the center player, “ Chase Charlie,” or “ John,”
or whoever has been recognized, and the center player then tries to
catch him. I f he succeeds he changes places with the one he caught.
I f he fails he goes into the center again.

The players stand in a circle with one o f them outside. This
player runs around the circle and drops a bean bag behind one o f the
others. That one picks up the bean bag and chases the first player,
who runs around the circle to the space left vacant by the chaser.
I f he is caught before reaching the vacant space, he takes the bean
bag to drop it again. I f he reaches the space safely, the chaser takes
the bean bag and the game is repeated. This game is somewhat
like Drop the Handkerchief.
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A ll the players but one sit at their desks with heads bowed on the
arms as though sleeping, each with a hand outstretched. The odd
player, who is the “ squirrel,” carries a “ nut ” (which may be a black­
board eraser or any other small article). He runs on tiptoe up and
down the aisles and drops the nut into one o f the waiting hands.
The player that gets the nut at once jumps up from his seat and
chases the squirrel, who is safe only when he reaches his seat. Should
the squirrel be caught before he reaches his seat, he must be squirrel
the second time. Otherwise the player who received the nut becotnes
the next squirrel.

Three or four articles, such as a paper weight, a book, a sheet o f
paper, and a piece o f chalk, are put on the teacher’s desk. The
teacher names the articles and describes their positions, and then calls
out the names o f a corresponding number o f pupils. The first pupil
called goes to the desk and touches the first article named; the second
touches the first and the second article; the third touches the first,
the second, and the third article; and so on, until the last child has
touched all the articles. The number o f articles may be increased
as the children become used to the game.

Two or more children leave the room while another child hides
with a loud-ticking clock. Those who have gone out come back and
try to find the child with the clock. The first one to touch hhn is
the next one to hide.

The children sit in a circle on the floor, with one child in the
center. A child in the circle says, u Here I am, Harry,” and Harry
rolls the ball to that child. Harry then says, “ Here I am, M ary.’
Mary rolls it back to Harry, and so on. (This game helps the chil­
dren’s sense o f direction.)

The children are seated on the floor in a circle. The teacher or a
child with partial sight sets up toy tenpins in the center o f the
circle, tapping the floor with each one as she sets it up to indicate to
the other players where they are and how many there are. Then one
player in the circle tries to knock down the tenpins by rolling a big
rubber ball or basket ball. The teacher calls out how many are left
standing, and the children call out how many have been knocked
over. The game is continued, the children rolling the ball in turn.

The children sit in a circle or at their desks. Each child is given
the name o f one part o f a stage coach, such as “ wheel ” or “ win­
dow.” The teacher then tells the class a story, using the words that
have been given to the various players. Every time that the story-
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teller mentions any part o f the stage coach the player representing
that part gets up and turns around. Whenever the words “ stage
coach ” are said all the children change places with one another.

Each child is given a peanut. The sides o f the desks are named
North, East, South, and West; and the corners, Northeast, Northwest,
Southeast, and Southwest. The teacher calls out “ East,” or “ South­
west,” or any direction, and each child puts his peanut at the point
indicated. The teacher then announces the names o f the children
that have placed the peanut correctly. The child who places the
peanut correctly the greatest number o f times wins the game.

The children form a circle, with one child, the “ rabbit,” outside.
The rabbit runs around outside the circle and taps one o f the other
players, who becomes the chaser. The chaser runs after the rabbit
and tries to catch him, and the rabbit tries to get into the space (in
the circle) left vacant by the chaser. I f the rabbit is caught before
reaching that space he must go into the center o f the circle and remain
there until another player is caught or until he can free himself by
paying a forfeit. The successful chaser then becomes the rabbit;
and he taps another player, who becomes the chaser. I f the chaser
fails to catch the rabbit, the chaser becomes the new rabbit, and the
former rabbit joins the circle.

One player, the “ cat,” has a tiny bell suspended from his neck.
The other players, who impersonate the mice, try to catch the cat.
I f he is caught he becomes one o f the mice, and the player that caught
him becomes the new cat.

A space is marked off as “ Tommy Tiddler’s ground.” One player
is counted out to be Tommy Tiddler. Tommy stands in the space
marked out as his ground. The other players run into Tommy’s
territory and sav, “ I am on Tommy Tiddler’s ground digging gold
and silver.” I t any player is tagged while in Tommy’s territory
that one becomes Tommy Tiddler.

One child is “ it,” and he calls out, “ I ’ll choose the prettiest,”
or “ the ugliest,” or “ the funniest.” He swings each o f the others
around in turn, and when he lets go the player swung falls into
some position and remains in it, representing a statue. After all
have taken positions “ it ” feels each one and chooses one as the best
statue. This player is “ it ” for the next game.
10331°—27----- 2
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The players form a circle around an imaginary pond o f water,
with one player, the “ crab,” in the center. The circle players pre­
tend that they are wading in the water and try to keep from being
caught by the crab. Any players caught by the crab become crabs,
and they go into the center o f the circle and help catch others until
all are caught.

One player is the tramp, one is the mother, and the remaining
seven or more are the children. The oldest child is named “ Sunday,
the second oldest child, “ Monday,” and so on. The mother .goes to
the store, and while she is away the tramp comes to ask for some­
thing to eat. The oldest child, “ Sunday,” tells him she has nothing
to give him, so he takes the youngest child, “ Saturday,” away with
him. Then the mother returns and scolds “ Sunday” for losing
“ Saturday,” and pretends to give her a hard whipping. The mother
goes away again and tells “ Monday ” to take care o f the children.
Immediately the tramp comes again and asks for something to
eat. “ Monday ” says “ No,” so the tramp takes “ Friday ” with
him. This continues until every child has been taken. When the
mother returns and finds all the children gone, she commences to
hunt for them. When she discovers the hiding place o f the tramp
and the children she tells the children to run home. I f they can
get back to their home before the tramp catches any o f them, they
are free. Otherwise they must go back with the tramp. Sometimes
it is agreed that in the next game the first child caught is to be the
tramp, and the second, the mother.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


A ll the players form a circle except the leader, who stands in the
center o f the circle with a cane in his hand. The circle players walk
around him until he taps three times on the floor with his cane, when
they must stand still. The leader thereupon places the end o f his
cane in the hand o f some player. The leader chooses an animal for
the other player to imitate, such as cat, dog, cow, sheep, lion, donkey,
duck, or parrot. That player makes a noise like that o f the animal
chosen, and the leader then tries to guess who the player is. I f the
guess is right the player that made the noise becomes leader. I f it is
wrong the game is repeated with the same leader.

Two leaders are chosen. They in turn choose sides or teams.
The teams go to different rooms or into the opposite corners o f the
same room, so that one group can not hear the other group. The
leaders meet the teacher in another room to decide upon some object
well known to all the players, such as a particular tree in the school
yard. The two leaders then go to the groups from which they came.
In each o f the groups each member in turn asks his leader a question,
trying to discover what object has been chosen. The leader can
answer only “ Yes ” or “ No.” The group that first guesses the object
wins, and both leaders join the winning side. Then each group
chooses another leader, and the game is repeated. The group that
gains the greatest number o f players wins.

A certain object is agreed upon, and all the players leave the room
except one, who stays to put the object in a place where it can be
touched. When it is “ hidden ” he calls the others in by saying,
“ Huckle, huckle, bean stalk,” and they try to find the object by
feeling around the room. Each player that finds the object goes
to his seat saying, “ Huckle, huckle, bean stalk ” (which now means
“ I have found it ” ), but not telling where it is. A fter all the players
have found the object the game is played again. The player who
was first to find the object hides it for the next game.
u Many of the games described as indoor games can be played on the playground, and
many of those described as outdoor games can be played in the gymnasium. A picnic or
party is more fun if games different from the accustomed ones are played, and for this
reason certain games and stunts have been selected as suitable for special occasions and
are listed under the heading “ Parties.”

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All but two o f the players sit in a circle. One o f these goes into
the center o f the circle, and the other walks around and asks each
player for some article. (Each player must remember what article
he has given to the collector.) After each player has given some­
thing the collector stands behind the center player, who is kneeling,
and holds one article at a time over his head, saying, “ Heavy, heavy,
hangs over thy head.” The one that is kneeling asks, “ Fine or
superfine?” The collector says “ F in e” i f the article belongs to
a boy and “ Superfine ” if it belongs to a girl and then says, “ What
must the owner do to redeem it?” The kneeling player tells what
the owner must do to redeem the forfeit— climb a tree, run a certain
distance, or do some other stunt. Every player must do something
to redeem his article. I f anyone fails to do his stunt, he forfeits
his article.




The children sit in a circle or in a straight line. Two players
go out and select a certain time of the day—half past, quarter of, or
on a certain hour, or any number o f minutes before or after the
hour. I f they choose 10 minutes after 2, they come in and say, “ I t
is 10 minutes after,” and the others guess the hour chosen.
When one o f the seated players guesses the hour correctly, the
first two players leave the room again and select two objects or the
same kind, such as toys, fruits, or articles o f clothing. For example
one chooses to be an apple, and the other an orange. They then
return to the player who guessed correctly the time and ask, “ Which
do you want— an apple or an orange?” The player he chooses goes
out with him to select another time o f day, and the other joins the

One child leaves the room. The others choose a character in
history or literature or a person in the school. The guesser returns
and asks questions which must be so put that they can be answered
by yes or no. The player whose answer leads the guesser to think
o f the right answer is the next to leave the room, and the game
is repeated.

One player, who is “ it,” thinks o f an object; for example, a certain
telegraph pole. The players in turn ask “ it ” questions which are
answered by either yes or no. The first player asks, “ Does it belong
to the animal kingdom ? ” and the answer is no. The next player
asks, “ Does it belong to the vegetable kingdom ?” and the answer
is yes. The third player asks if it all belongs to the vegetable kingdom, and the answer is no. The questions continue until the object
that “ it ” has in mind has been guessed. The player who correctly
guesses the object is “ i t ” for the next game. This can be played
by having the players divide into two groups as in “ Yes or No.”
(See p. 13.)

The players form a large circle, with one, who is “ king,” in the
center. The players in the circle are lords and ladies o f the court.
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The king calls one of them by name. That one tries to tiptoe to
the king without being heard by the others. I f he is heard the other
lords and ladies cry “ H ush! ” and the one called must return to
the circle. The king then calls another player. The one that suc­
ceeds in reaching the king becomes king, and the former king becomes
one o f the circle.

Each player holds several articles, such as coins or books, or any­
thing that will not break when dropped. The first player, “ it,”
drops an article on the floor and chooses another player to guess
what article was dropped. This player has three guesses. I f he is
unsuccessful he must pay a forfeit and name some other player to
be guesser. I f he is successful he becomes “ it.”

A large donkey is cut out of paper and put on a screen or sheet
hung across the room. A tail is cut out of paper, and a hatpin is
put through it. Each player in turn holds the tail by the hatpin
and advances to the donkey to pin the tail on it. The player who is
most nearly accurate in pinning the tail in place wins.
The donkey may be drawn on a blackboard with chalk, and when
this is done the players draw the tails.

A player is chosen as leader; the others, who are seated, are num­
The leader, standing in front, says: “ The Prince of Paris has lost
his hat. Did you find it, No. 4, sir?’* Whereupon No. 4 jumps to
his feet and says: “ What, s ir ! I, sir ? ”
Leader. “ Yes, sir. You, sir.”—No. 4. “ Not I, sir.”
Leader. “ W ho then, sir?”—No. 4. “ No. 7, sir.”
No. 7, as soon as his number is called, must jump at once to his
” ’
* “ The Prince o f
Leader, “ W ho then, sir?”—No. 7. “ No. 3, sir.”
No. 3 immediately jumps to his feet and the same dialogue is
repeated. The object o f the game is for the leader to try to repeat
the statement, “ The Prince o f Paris has lost his hat,” before the
player named can jump to his feet and say, “ What, sir! I, sir?”
I f he succeeds in doing this he changes places with the player who
failed in promptness, that player becoming leader.
Should any player fail to say “ Sir ” in the proper place, this also
is a mistake, and the leader may change places with that player.

A number o f players place their hands one on top o f the other on
a table. Beginning with the lowest hand each child in turn with­
draws his hand, placing it on top o f the pile, counting one, two,
and so on up to nine. (Each child says one number.) When the
number nine is mentioned the whole pile is overturned*and the player
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who called out “ Nine ” catches his neighbor’s hand, saying, “ This
is my leg o f mutton; you must do one o f three things for me.”
The other player then says, “ I will i f I can.” He is then given
his choice o f three things to do. ( I f the player who has called
uot “ Nine ” fails to catch the hand o f his neighbor he must pay
a forfeit.)

The first child says, “ I packed my grandfather’s trunk and in it
I put— ” (Here the first child names one article—shoes, or coat, or
any article he wishes.) The second child continues the game by
repeating what the first one said and adding one more article, thus:
I packed my grandfather’s trunk and in it I put shoes and coat.”
The third child repeats what the second child said and adds another
article, thus: “ I packed my grandfather’s trunk and in it I put
shoes, coat, and hat.” The fourth player repeats it all and adds
another article, and so on. Any player who fails to mention any o f
the articles is out o f the game. The player remaining in the game
the longest wins.

The first player says, “ In my grandfather’s garden grow rad­
ishes.” Then the game is continued by repeating and adding, as
in Grandfather’s Trunk.

The players stand at the back of the room facing the front. The
child chosen to be “ i t ” stands at the front o f the room with his
back toward the others. A bell is placed on the teacher’s desk. “ It ”
counts to 10, and the others move toward the desk during the count­
ing. When “ i t ” reaches 10, i f he hears a player moving he sends
that player to the back of the room to start again. The one Vho
reaches the front o f the room first taps the bell, and he becomes ¥ it ”
for the next game.

A number o f containers are passed around the class. In each has
been placed something with a characteristic smell. The child that
guesses correctly the greatest number wins. Flowers, spices, camphor,
vanilla extract, etc., may be used.

The children stand in a row with their hands clasped behind them
(or in two rows if the class is divided into sides). The teacher places
a nut or other small object in the hand o f each child. The child tries
to recognize it by the sense o f touch. As soon as one thinks that he
recognizes the object he must hold it up, and the teacher asks him the
name o f it. I f he names it correctly it counts one point for him or for
his side. I f he is wrong it counts minus one for him or his side. The
individual or side with the greatest number o f points wins.
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Each player is given a number. The teacher strikes a note or a
chord on the piano. Then she calls a number, and the player with
this number must tell what note or chord has been played. The
player with the highest score at the end o f five minutes wins the game.

The teacher collects familiar objects which sound when tapped,
such as a bell, a piece o f wood, a tin pan, a glass, and a cup. The
players sit in a circle, and as each object is tapped by the teacher
the players write the name o f the material of which it is made;
such as metal, wood, glass, or china. The player whose list is most
nearly correct wins.

The teacher says: “ l a m thinking o f a word beginning with ‘ br ’ ”
(giving sound only). The first child says, “ Is it ‘ break’ ? ” I f that
guess is wrong the teacher says, “ No, it is not ‘ break,’ ” and the next
child guesses another Avord. The game is continued until the correct
word is guessed. The player who guesses correctly chooses a word
for a repetition o f the game.

Each child receives a set o f cards with a word in Braille on each
card (all the sets are alike). The teacher calls for a word, and the
child who finds it first among his cards brings the card to her. The
game continues thus, and the child that hands in all his cards first

The players are seated in a circle around the room. The first
player says “ One,” the second, “ Two,” and so on. But whenever the
counting reaches seven, or any multiple o f seven, the player whose
turn it is says “ Buzz,” instead. (The other numbers—eight, nine,
etc.— are named in their order.) I f any player makes a mistake and
says “ Seven” when he should say “ Buzz’* he is out o f the game.
The game continues until there are only two players left. They
count until one o f them fails to say “ Buzz ” at the right time, The
other wins the game.

Certain children are placed at the sides and corners of the school­
room to represent the points o f the compass. The others remain in
their seats. One o f the players in the seats calls for some direction
such as “ Where is east ? ” The child at that point should answer,
“ Here is east.” I f he fails to answer, he changes places with the
one that asked the question. I f a player, instead o f asking for a
direction says, “ Cyclone! ” all the children representing points o f
the compass change places.

The players may sit at their school desks. One player gives the
name o f a river, mountain, city, or State, or any other geographical
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name. The next player must give a geographical name beginning
with the last letter o f the word previously given. For instance, if
London is the first word given, New York may be the next, Kala­
mazoo the next, and Omaha the next. Any child failing to answer
in turn is out o f the game.

The four points of the compass are represented by the four sides
o f the room. The children stand in a group in the center o f the
room, with one player, “ W ind,” in front o f the group. When
“ W i n d ” calls “ North,” all the players turn toward the side o f the
room representing north. The same is done with east, west, and
south. When “ W in d ” calls “ Variable,” the players run back and
forth in any direction. When he calls “ Tempest,” they turn around
three times. I f any player fails to obey the orders, “ W ind ” goes
up to him and blows him out o f the game. The teacher directs this.
This game may be played while the children are in their seats by
having them change seats at “ Variable” and stand up and turn
around three times at “ Tempest.”

The players sit in a circle on the floor. Each one is given the name
o f some article used in school, such as desk, chalk, or eraser. The
leader spins a plate in the center o f the circle. As he does so, he calls
out the name o f some article, such as chalk. The player who has been
given that name must jump up and catch the plate before it stops
spinning. I f he is successful he is the next to spin the plate. I f he is
unsuccessful he must resume his seat and pay a forfeit.

Each child is given the name of something connected with a rail­
road. One player relates a story concerning a railroad, in which he
uses the names given to the players. A t the mention o f the word
“ whistle,” whoever is “ Whistle ” must imitate the whistle o f a loco­
motive. When “ bell ” is mentioned the player who has been given
that name makes a noise like a bell. The game continues until each
child has imitated that which he represents. A t the word “ station,”
the children all change seats. Anyone failing to change his seat or
not answering to his name must pay a forfeit.

A ll stand in a circle. The teacher gives each child a number, and
she may act as postman to start the game. The postman calls out,
“ Number 4 has a letter for number 3.” The players having these
numbers change places, and in the meantime the postman tries to get
into one o f the vacant places. The player whose place the postman
gets is the next to be postman.

The players are seated in a circle with the leader in the center.
The leader taps a plaver, saying, “ Beast,” or “ Bird,” or “ Fish.” I f
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B O Y S .I .A S B


A -p


he says “ Fish,” the player called on must name a fish, such as trout,
pike, pickerel, black bass, or shark, before the leader can count to 10*
After saying “ Fish ” the leader begins to count 1, 2, 3, etc. I f the
player replies before 10 is reached the leader calls on another player
in like manner. I f a player fails to answer he changes places with
the leader. This game requires quick wit as well as knowledge o f the
names o f many beasts, birds, and fish. A beast, bird, or fish once
named can not be named again.

The players are seated in a circle. The first player begins the
game by saying a letter o f the alphabet, and each player after him
adds a letter. Each letter must be so added as to become part o f an
English word. Each player tries to avoid giving the final letter to
a word, but sometimes this can not be avoided. When a player com­
pletes a word he loses one point, and the player at his right starts a
new word. The game ends when any player has lost 20 points. The
winner is the player with the least number o f lost points. I f the
player at the right o f the one who has completed the word does not
realize that a word has been completed, but continues to add a letter,
that player loses a point and the player who recognizes the fault
gains a point.

The players form a circle, shoulder to shoulder, with one player
in the center. Each player holds the left hand out, keeping the
elbow close to the body, and puts the right hand into the left hand
as i f about to take something out. A ll say the following:
Dillar, dollar, how you wander
From the one hand to the other.
Is it fair, is it fair to keep
Poor Sally standing there?

As the verse is said a coin or other small object is passed around
the circle. Every player keeps moving his right hand to his
neighbor’s left and back to his own left. The child in the center
tries to find the object. Blind children become clever in lightly
touching the other players’ palms and sensing where the object is.

One child goes out o f the room. A ball is placed somewhere in
the open where it can be touched. Then the child returns. The
teacher plays the piano while the child searches for the ball. Soft
music indicates that the searcher is far from the ball and loud music
indicates that he is near it. Very loud music indicates that he is
very near the ball and that he should stop and search in that place.
When the ball is found the game is repeated with another searcher.

A ball with a bell inside is used. The children sit in a circle
and roll the ball back and forth without picking it up, pretending
that it is hot. One player, who is “ it,” tries to catch some player
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that has the ball. When a player with the ball is caught he becomes
“ it,” and the game continues.

The children stand in a circle and a ball is passed around while
the teacher plays the piano or claps her hands. When the music
or clapping stops the child that has the ball gives it to the child
next to him and then leaves the circle and sits down. This is done
until all the children are out.

Two lines, A and B, face each other. Each captain secretly chooses
a word for his line to act out>—“ wolf,” or “ man,’’ or “ gun.” A t a
signal each captain runs down his line, whispering the word to each
player. A t another signal the players in each line act out their
w ord: For “ w o l f ” they bark; for “ m an” they say “ A h ! ” ; for
“ gun ” they say “ B an g! ” The winner is decided thus: I f A acts
“ man,” and B, “ gun,” A wins, because a man can fire a gun. I f A
acts “ man,” and B, “ wolf,” B wins, because a w olf can eat a man.
I f A acts “ gun,” and B “ wolf,” A wins, because a gun can shoot a
wolf. Each time a side wins it scores one point. I f both lines act
the same word they are tied. The line that gains 20 points first wins.

The children form a circle, and one child, “ it,” goes out. The
teacher gives each one in the circle the name o f some animal, fruit, pr
flower. She calls in “ it ” and tells him the names o f the animals,
fruits, and flowers but does not tell him which children have been
given the various names. “ I t ” calls out the name o f a fruit, a
flower, or an animal, and claps his hands at the same time. The
child in the circle who has that name must answer, endeavoring to
disguise his voice. “ It ” tries to guess who answered. I f he guesses
correctly the child that answered becomes “ it.” I f his guess is
wrong he must be “ it ” again.

Two teams, each with 26 players, line up opposite each other.
Each player on each team represents one letter o f the alphabet, and
he wears this letter pinned on his coat. The teacher stands at one
end o f the room between the lines and calls out some word (no letter
may occur twice in the same word). The players whose letters
make up this word step quickly out in front o f their lines and form
the word. The team whose players correctly complete the word
first scores one. The team having the highest score at the end o f
10 minutes wins.

A ll the players except the one who is “ it ” stand in a circle.
stands in the middle o f the circle with a long stick. The
players walk around until “ i t ” taps on the floor with his
They then stand still; and “ it ” touches one player with the
saying, “ Grunt, Piggy, grunt.” This player must grunt.
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“ It ”
“ It ”



is allowed three guesses to find out who is the piggy. I f he succeeds
the piggy becomes “ it.” I f he fails he is “ it ” again.


The players sit in a circle, and each player except “ i t ” is.given
the name o f a fruit. “ It ” stands in the center o f the circle and
calls out three times the name o f a fruit. The player who has been
given the name o f that fruit must respond before it is called the
third time. I f he does not respond in time he becomes “ it.”

The players stand in a circle with one player, “ it,” in the center.
“ It ” calls the names o f two o f the players in the circle. These must
change places with each other while “ it ” tries to catch one o f them.
In order to find out the direction in which to run, and also to avoid
a collision, those whose names are called clap their hands and call
to each other. The one caught becomes “ it.”

Two teams stand facing each other, as far apart as floor space will
allow. The hands o f one team are extended, palms up. One player
from the opposite team, usually the captain, starts the game by com­
ing forward and slapping some one’s hands. The player whose
hands have been slapped must chase the one who slapped them. I f
he is caught before returning to his team he is kept captive by the
opposite team. It is then the chaser’s turn to slap the extended hands
o f someone on the opposing team and to be chased. The side having
the largest number o f players after five minutes o f play wins the

The players stand in a circle, facing the center. The teacher
stands m the center o f the circle, holding a long rope. Attached to
the end o f the rope is a wooden block covered with sandpaper, or
some other object that will make a noise when dragged along the
floor. She swings this around the circle. As the players hear it
approaching they try to jump over it. I f the rope strikes the feet
o f any player, he is out o f the game. The game continues until
there is only one player left in the circle. That player wins the

One child, “ it,” stands in the corner with his face toward the wall.
The other children hide themselves somewhere in the room. “ It ”
counts to 10. When he has finished counting he tries to guess where
any one o f the others is hidden. The children who are hiding help
“ it ” by calling from their respective hiding places. The first
one whose place he guesses correctly is next to be “ it.”

A small bell is hung around the neck o f one o f the players. This
player is the “ cat.” The other players form a circle with the cat in
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the center, and another player, the “ dog,” goes into the circle also*
When the dog has caught the cat each chooses another player to
take his place.

Tenpins or Indian clubs are arranged thus:







A lightweight wooden bowling ball is used. It is best to have a
single alley. I f there are two alleys, the ball rack should divide
them, so as to give the players a guide to the alleys’ positions. Small
circles may be cut in the alley to indicate where to set up the pins,
so that a blind player can set them up. The “ setter-up” should
call out the number o f pins standing after every ball has been
The players choose sides and take turns bowling. The teacher
taps the floor with a stick to indicate where the pins are. Each
player rolls two balls at each turn. After a player has rolled two
balls the pins knocked down are counted and added to his score,
and then the pins are set up again for the next player. After all
the players have had the same number o f turns, such as 10, each
player’s score is counted.
Scoring is done as follow s:
Each pin knocked down counts 1 point.
I f all the pins are knocked down by the first ball, this is called
a “ strike.” This counts 10 plus the number o f points made by the
two balls rolled at the player’s next turn.
I f all the pins are knocked down by two balls (one turn), this
is called a “ spare.” This counts 10 plus the number of pins knocked
down by the first ball rolled at the player’s next turn.
The highest possible score is 300.

Two teams are formed, and they stand at opposite ends o f the
room. A bowling pin or an Indian club is placed on the floor at a
point equally distant from the two teams. The object o f the game
is to knock down the pin by rolling a basket ball at it, and each time
a member o f a team succeeds his team scores one point. A certain
number o f points, such as 10 or 15, should be set beforehand as the
score required to win.
The players on the two teams roll the ball alternately. Before
each player rolls, the teacher taps the ground three times with the
pin, so that the player will know where the pin is. The room should
be quiet so that the players can judge the location o f the pin by the
tapping. This game helps the blind to develop the sense o f direction.

Two teams, Red and Blue, with an equal number o f players on
each team, stand in two lines 20 feet apart. An Indian club is placed
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in front o f each player o f the Red team. The object o f the game is
to roll a basket ball so as to knock down all the clubs o f the opposing
team. The first player o f the Red team calls out to indicate his posi­
tion, and the first player o f the Blue team rolls the ball toward him
to knock over his club. I f a player’s club is knocked down he is out,
and he must take the club and leave the game. When three players
are out the side is retired and the other team rolls the ball. At the
end o f each inning the number o f pins knocked down by each side
is counted. The side scoring 100 first wins. I f a player bounces or
throws the ball he is disqualified for that inning.

Two teams, Red and Black, stand 3 feet apart, back to back. The
teacher calls out “ R e d ! ” and the Reds run to the wall that they are
facing and the Blacks turn and pursue them. When a player reaches
the wall he is safe. A ll the Reds that are caught must join the
Blacks. The sides line up again, back to back, 3 feet apart, as
before. Next “ B lack ! ” is called. The Blacks run to the wall which
they are facing and the Reds turn and pursue them. The game is
continued until all the players are on one side.

One or two pairs o f partners can take part in this game. A board
is provided, 30 feet long, with raised edges. Five inches from each
end o f the board a slight groove is cut— one o f which is the starting
line and the other the finishing line. Eight circular pieces o f iron,
which are to be slid along the board, are provided. Before the game
is begun the board is sprinkled with sand. The players slide the
pieces along the board in turn.
Scoring is done as follows: Three points are counted for a side
i f one o f its pieces comes to rest projecting over the end o f the board.
Two points are counted i f it rests between the finishing line and
the end, or on the line. I f no piece reaches the line the one nearest
to it scores one. The side that first makes 21 points wins. The
players change ends after every round.

A bell is put in a large wastebasket and the basket placed 10 or
more feet from the players. The players take turns throwing the
ball into the basket, and before each player throws, the teacher rings
the bell to show where the basket is. Each time a throw is successful
the thrower gains a point. The game continues until 20 points have
been scored by one player. That player wins the game.

This game may be played in the schoolroom, with the children in
their seats. One player says, “ I ’ve hidden myself somewhere in
the room.” The otljer children in turn guess hiding places that
might have been chosen; and the hidden child answers each incorrect
guess by saying, “ Cold,” “ Warm,” “ Hot,” etc., showing whether
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the guesser is nearly correct or not. The one that guesses the hiding
place correctly wins.

The children are divided into two teams, standing in line on oppo­
site sides o f the room. The teacher dictates words to be spelled,
and the teams take turns in spelling. Any child that misspells a
word must leave the line and sit down. The child that remains
standing when all the others have been “ spelled down ” wins for
his team.

The players form a circle with the leader in the center. The leader
tosses a bean bag to one o f the other players and calls out a word as
he does so. That player must catch the bean bag and spell the word.
I f he fails to catch the bean bag or to spell the word correctly he is
out o f the game. The player that stays in the game longest wins.

A set o f alphabet cards in Braille is distributed, one to each child.
The leader stands in front o f the other players and says, “ I am going
on the train. W ho wants to go with me?” He then touches one
player on the shoulder and says, “ I f I take you, what will you
bring?” That player questioned must name some object, the name
o f which begins with the letter on his card. For instance, if the
letter on his card is “ d,” he may say “ Doll ” or “ Donkey.” When he
has supplied a word he joins the leader and follows him- to another*
child, o f whom the leader asks the question. The game continues,
each child that supplies a word joining the leader’s party.

The players sit in their schoolroom seats. A bean bag is placed
on the front desk in each row. At a signal the first player in each
row picks up a bag and tosses it back over his head to the next
player behind, and so on until the bag reaches the last one in the row.
When the one in the back seat receives the bag he runs forward
down the left-hand aisle, places the bag on the front desk, and
runs back to his seat. The player in the front seat again starts the
bag backward. The passing backward is repeated three times. The
row that finishes first wins the game. Then the players in the front
seats take the back seats, the other players move forward one seat,
and the game proceeds as before. The number o f players in the
rows must be equal.

Two teams form in lines on opposite sides o f the room, each with a
The leader o f one side takes hold o f the left, wrist o f the next
player with his right hand; this player does the same to the third
player, and so on down the line. The same *s done by the other
side, except that the left hand is used to grasp the next player’s
right wrist.
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A number o f clothespins, 10 or more, are placed on a chair or table
beside each leader. A t the word “ Go,” each leader picks up a
clothespin and places it in the hand o f his neighbor. That player
passes it on to the next in the same way, and thus it goes down the
whole line. Each player passes only one pin at a time. The last
player in each line puts each pin as it comes to him on a chair or
table. When all the clothespins have been passed down, the last
player begins to pass them back one by one in the same way as they
came down the line. The side completing the passing first wins.
I f a player passes more than one clothespin at a time his side loses.
Dropping a pin and picking it up and passing it on in the regular
way delays the side but does not disqualify it.
This game can be played by passing peanuts, as many as can be
held at one time.

One child leaves the room, and the others choose a pair o f homo­
phones, such as ate—eight, great—grate, made—maid, tail—tale,
beat—beet, hear— here, meat—meet, peace—piece, sea—see. The
child that left the room now returns and says to one o f the others,
“ How do you like it?” Supposing the words “ tail—tale” have
been chosen, the child may answer, “ When it is told to me.” The
questioner then says to the next child,“ When do you like it? ” The
child may say, “ On a rainy day.” I f “ Where do you like it?” is
the next question, the answer may be, “ On a donkey.”
The child whose answer leads the questioner to think o f the word is
next to leave the room.

The players divide into two equal lines facing each other. Each
holds his right hand out, palm up. Each line has a starter at one
end and an umpire at the other. The starter holds a coin on the
palm o f his hand. A t the word “ Go,” each starter drops his coin on
the palm o f the player next to him, and the players pass it on thus
until it gets to the umpire at the other end o f the row. The row get­
ting its coin to the umpire first wins the game. The coin must never
touch a player’s fingers but must be kept on the palm o f the hand,
and when passed to the next player must be dropped on the palm o f
that player’s hand.

The players sit at tables, four or more at each table. Two or more
sets o f alphabet cards in Braille are placed on each table. A class
o f objects is agreed upon, such as flowers. One' player picks up a
card and calls out the letter on it. Each o f the other players at the
table tries to give the name of a flower beginning with that letter,
and the player that first calls out the name of such a flower scores
one point. Then the player at the first player’s left picks up a card
16 For descriptions of a number of table games, with illustrations, see “ Games for the
Blind Which May Be Played Anywhere,” by Harold Molter, principal of boys department,
Perkins Institution and Massachusetts School for the Blind, in Popular Mechanics, Vol.
XXV, No. 1 January, 1916, pp. 11-14. Specially constructed chessmen may be bought
from the Perkins Institution and Massachusetts School for the Blind.
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and calls out the letter on it, and the other players try as before to
be first in calling out the name of a flower beginning with that letter.
When a player scores 20 points he wins the game.
The game may be played with partners. When playing with a
partner each individual that gains a point gains one for his partner
A variety o f classes o f objects may be used, such as trees, vege­
tables, animals, birds, cities, rivers, countries, and famous mei\.

Several sets o f alphabet cards in Braille are heaped in the center
o f a table. The leader names a word, and the other players try to
spell out the word with the cards. The player that first succeeds wins.

The board should be 8y2 inches square, ruled as shown in the draw­
ing to form 33 smaller squares. Spaces can be cut out in the vacant
corners to hold unused pegs. A hole is bored in the center o f each
square. A peg is fitted in each hole except the center hole. The
galne is played by jumping one peg over another into an empty
space, until all are off the board except one, which is in .the center
hole. When a peg has been jumped over, it is removed from the
board, as in checkers.









Space for pegs



Space for pegs




















































Space for pegs

Space for pegs




The solution is as follows: Jump, in the order given, from 29 to
17; 26 to 24; 17 to 29; 33 to 25; 12 to 26; 26 to 24; 28 to 30; 31 to 33;
33 to 25; 10 to 12; 25 to 11; 6 to 18; 13 to 11; 27 to 13; 8 to 10; 10
16Many other puzzles are not dependent on sight.
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to 12; 13 to 11; 18 to 6; 1 to 9; 16 to 4; 3 to 1; 1 to 9; 6 to 4; 4 to
16; 16 to 28; 21 to 23; 7 to 21; 24 to 22; 21 to 23; 28 to 16; and
15 to 17.

The Brahma puzzle consists o f three pegs. On one peg there are
\ seven rings—the largest at the bottom and the others in diminishing
> sizes, the smallest on top. The puzzle is solved when all the rings
1 have Jbeen removed from the first peg to the third peg without ever
\ having had a larger ring resting on a smaller one.



T IT -T A T -T O E

On a board with nine sunken squares “ tit-tat-toe ” can be played.
Small pieces o f wood cut in squares or circles can be used as men.
The object o f the game for each player is to get three o f his men
in a row and to prevent his opponent from doing the same. The
winning row may be vertical, horizontal, or diagonal. The players
place their men in turn until one player has three in a row or all the
squares are filled.

Chessboards and checkerboards are made for the blind, with the
squares either sunken or perforated and with specially constructed
places. For perforated boards the pieces have pegs to fit the holes.
To distinguish the men o f opposing players the bases o f the pieces
are constructed differently, half o f them being square and half round.
Schools for the blind participate in checker and in chess tourna­
ments, playing against other schools for the blind or against ordinary
Blind people, like other people, often play chess by mail.



Special dominoes for the blind are made with small brass tacks

s representing the dots. The dominoes interlock, so as to keep the

j game from being disarranged. Ordinary dominoes can be used
I when a sighted and a blind player play together. When a domino
( tournament is held there should be a seeing referee at each table to
j call out the numbers.


< Playing cards are manufactured with the faces printed in Braille.
) Blind players should arrange their cards by suit and in order o f
} rank, so that they can be played easily and quickly. When none o f
| the players can see, the cards o f the different suits may be held
| between the fingers (the easiest way for beginners). Solitaire may
(be played by reversing the way seeing people play it—having the
( cards in the piles face upward and those removed from the piles
face downward.
“ Authors ” and other games can be played with cards marked in
Braille. A number o f sets o f alphabet cards marked in Braille
should be provided; these may be used in several games. (See p. 25.)
10331°—27---- 3
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Backgammon, parchesi, lotto, and other games can be played by
the blind with special boards. (See p. 25.)

One player is appointed doorkeeper, and the other players are
divided equally into two groups. One group leaves the room, and
the players who remain are seated in a circle, a vacant seat being
left next to each player. A player in the room chooses one o f the
group outside, and the doorkeeper calls in that one. As he enters
each player in the room offers him a seat. I f he sits by the one who
chose him he is allowed to remain in the room; if not, he is “ clapped
out,” the players clapping their hands to show that he must go out.
Another player then chooses one from the outside group, and the
game continues until all are seated.

The children divide into two teams. A table is arranged with
many articles upon it. Each child feels each o f these articles and
tries to remember them and their positions on the table. Then the
teacher disarranges the articles. The first player on one team tries
to replace the articles in their original positions. I f he is successful
his side gains one point. The teacher then moves the articles around
again, and another player on the same team tries to replace them.
I f any player can not replace the articles in two tries his team is
retired,‘ and the other side tries. When 10 has been scored by one
team that team wins.

One child goes out o f the room. The others choose some object fin
the room, such as a plant. The child that left the room returns and
says, “ W hy is it like me ? ” In turn, the players answer with different reasons, such as: “ Because it is tall,” “ Because it is growing.”
The child whose answer made the guessing child think o f the object
is “ it ” for the next game.

A row o f chairs is placed in the center of the room, so that they
alternate in direction— one chair facing one way, the next the opposite way. There is a chair for every player but one. The players
march around the chairs in a single file, while the teacher plays the
piano or claps her hands. When the teacher stops the piano or
stops clapping all the players scramble for chairs. One will be left
without a chair. This player is out o f the game, and he takes a chair
away with him. The game starts again, and when the music stops
another player will be left without a chair. It is continued until only
one chair and two players are left in the game. The one who succeeds
in sitting on this chair when the music stops wins the game.
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The player who is “ it ” thinks of something sold in a grocery
store, such as thyme. He starts the game by saying, “ My grand-:
father keeps a grocery store and sells something beginning with “ t.”
Each child guesses something sold in a grocery store the first letter
o f which is “ t,” such as tea or tomatoes. The one who guesses
“ thyme ” is “ it ” for the next game.
This game may be varied by choosing sides, each with a captain
and a goal. When one side guesses the correct article the other side
runs toward the goal. Those caught must join the other side.

To mystify the other players it is necessary that two players know
this game. One of them, “ it,” goes out o f the room. The other stays
in the room and with the help o f the other players decides upon some
object in the room; for example, a certain picture on the wall. Then
“ it ” is called back, and the first player begins to question him about
the object chosen, thus: “ Is it that book? ” “ N o; it is not that
book.” “ Is it that door? ” “ No.” “ Is it that pink dress? ” “ No.” .
“ It ” continues to say “ No ” till the questioner says, “ Is it this
ch air?” It has been agreed that the word “ th is” is to be used
with the object chosen. Therefore “ it ” says “ Yes.”

This is played in the same way as Magic except that it is arranged
that the question about the chosen object is to follow a question about
some black object, instead o f depending on the words “ this ” and
“ that.”

One player says, “ I am thinking o f a fruit.” Each o f the other
players then asks a question which can be answered by “ Yes ” or
“ No,” such as: “ Is it large?” or “ Has it seeds?” The player that
guesses the fruit chooses the next fruit. This game may be played
with the names o f flowers instead o f fruits.

• |•


A tray, on which are placed several different articles which have
been previously weighed and the weights noted, is brought into the
room. The persons in the room are provided with paper and pencil
and are asked to write down what they think the various things
weigh. The competitor who most nearly guesses the weight o f the
greatest number o f things wins. The following articles may be
used: A stone, a pincushion, a cup and saucer, a shoe, a small box,
and a poker. This is a good game for older children.

The players are seated in a circle. One is chosen for “ K itty.”
K itty goes round on hands and knees to each player and meows
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three times. The player in front of whom K itty is meowing must
pat Kitty on the head three times and at the same time say, “ Poor
Kitty, poor Kitty, poor Kitty,” without laughing. I f the player
laughs, he must change places with Kitty, and the game goes on.

A story-teller stands in front of a group o f children who are
named after the different parts o f a stage coach or an excursion
train. (Not only the names of the parts of a stage coach or train
may be used, but also anything connected with either.) For instance:
I f a stage coach is used, the players may be named the driver, the
horse, the wheels, etc.
The story-teller begins a story o f the stage coach or train. When
a name that has been given a child is said, that child makes a noise
showing his role—neighing, or saying “ Whoa ” or “ Giddap.”
Whenever the story-teller uses the words “ stage coach ” or the word
“ train,” all the players get up and turn around. As the story is
about to conclude the story-teller says, “ And that was the end o f
the story o f the stage coach.” Then all change places, the story­
teller seeks a seat, and the one left without a seat must now tell
the story.

The players stand in a straight line, and the teacher stands in
front. The players say, “ Our old Granny doesn’t like tea.” The
teacher says, “ What will you give her instead?” The teacher taps
one child and i f that child does not answer before the teacher counts
to five, he must pay a forfeit. He must pay a forfeit also if he
answers before the teacher starts counting or i f he says a word that
has the letter “ T ” in it.

Each player is provided with a small box o f beads o f different
shapes and sizes—the same number o f beads in each box. Each
player is given a thread and needle or a shoe lace (depending on the
size o f the beads); and at a signal he begins to separate the beads,
putting the small ones, the medium-sized ones, and the large ones in
separate groups, and then stringing them, keeping the three sizes
separate. The player that correctly completes his string first wins.
B E A N -A N D -R IC E R A C E

A game similar to Stringing Race can be played with beans o f
various sizes and rice, the object being to separate the beans from
the rice. The player that finishes first wins.


Each player has a paper and a pencil, and he numbers 10 spaces
on the paper to be filled in. Someone who can play by memory sits
at the piano and plays the first few measures o f a well-known tune.
Each player' writes on his paper the name o f the tune, leaving a
blank if he does not know it. The same is done with the other 9
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tunes the pianist has selected. The player that names the largest
number o f tunes correctly wins.



I f any o f the players can see they must be blindfolded. The
players sit in a circle. Various spices and other things that have a
characteristic odor, such as gasoline, cologne, soap, and different
vegetables or fruits, are passed around. (These have been placed
in containers, so that the players will have only the smell as a clue.)
Each player writes down the names o f the articles that he recognizes,
The player that has the most complete and correct list wins.
For other sense games see page 16.


Each player is supplied with a paper and a Braille slate, and
each writes a line o f poetry, either original or from memory. Each
one folds his paper so as to conceal what he wrote, except the last
word o f the line, which was written on the fold. Each slip is passed
on to the next player. This one is to supply the next line, which
must rhyme with the last word o f the previous line. Again the
slips are passed on, and a new line is written and passed on with
the new rhyming word written on the fold. When the papers have
gone the round o f the company the slips are unfolded and the verses
read out.




One o f the party goes out o f the room. All the others make re­
marks about him, which are put down on paper by the “ scandalmonger.” When everyone has said something, complimentary or
otherwise, the victim is called back into the room and the “ scandalmonger ” begins to read the remarks from his list. I f he reads,
“ Someone says you are very lazy,” the unfortunate one has to guess
who said this. I f the guess is wrong the “ scandalmonger ” reads
another remark and the player again tries to guess who made it.
When he has successfully guessed who made a certain remark the
player that made it must leave the room, and the game is repeated.

The leader stands in the middle o f the room, and the others sit
in a circle. The leader asks some player the question, “ How do
you like your neighbors?” to which he may reply, “ Very m uch”
| or “ Not at all.”
I f he answers, “ Not at all ” the leader asks him whom he would
prefer as neighbors. He chooses two others, who try to change places
/ with his two objectionable neighbors while the leader tries to get
/ into one o f their seats before the others can sit down.
I f he says “ Very much,” everyone in the room must change chairs
at once, the leader trying to get a seat for himself,
The player who fails to get a seat takes the leader’s place and
continues the questioning.

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M IN U T E ?

Two teams, A and B, are formed, and a timekeeper and a scorer
appointed. A player from team A then goes out o f the room, and
team B chooses a letter o f the alphabet. He is then called in again,
and the timekeeper says “ Go.” The letter is told him ; and he has
to say as many English words beginning with that letter as he can,
the scorer counting one point for each word. A t the end o f a minute
time is called, and then the score is counted and read out. A player
o f team B then goes out, and so on alternately till every player has
had a turn. The scores are then added up, and the side with the
largest score wins. Any letter may be chosen except X and Z.

This game must be prepared beforehand. The teacher takes a
paragraph o f 10 to 15 lines from a book and marks all the adjectives
used. She then makes a list o f these adjectives, taking care that they
are in a different order from the one in which they appear in the
She provides all the players with Braille slates, and she reads
aloud the selected part, pausing wherever an adjective occurs. When
the players have written the paragraph, leaving blank spaces for the
adjectives, the teacher reads aloud the list o f adjectives, and the play­
ers write the adjectives in their proper places. Five minutes are
allowed for the players to write the words, and then the results are
read out.

The children form a circle with a leader in the center. The leader
goes to the first child and says, “Are you pleased or displeased?” I f
the answer is, “ I am pleased,” the leader passes to the second child
and asks the same question o f him. I f the answer is, “ I am dis­
pleased,” the leader says, “ What shall I do to please you?” The
child then asks the leader to have one o f the other children to do
something to please him ; for instance: “ Have John stand on a chair
and sing ‘ Yankee Doodle,5” or “ Have Jane play on the piano.”
The child designated to do a certain action must do it or pay a for­
feit. After the action has been done the leader passes to the next
child, and the game is continued.

Each player is given a Braille slate and a paper. A long word,
containing 10 or more letters, is written at the top o f each paper.
The object o f the game is to get as many words as possible out o f
the letters in this word. Each player must, in a given time, such as
five minutes, write as many words as he can make o f the letters in
this word, not using any letter more than once in a word unless it
occurs more than once in the original word. When time is called
the player with the greatest number of words reads his list, and the
other players check their words as they are called out. The player
with the greatest number unlike anyone else’s wins the game. Good
words to choose are such as the follow ing: Experimentally, immeasur-
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able, mispronunciation, notwithstanding, conscientiously, Constanti­
nople, enfranchisement.

Each player is provided with a Braille slate. A letter o f the
alphabet is chosen, and each player writes as many geographical
names beginning with this letter as he can remember. A t the end o f
three minutes the player with the greatest number o f names on his
list reads his words aloud. Any player who has the same name on
his list calls out “ Yes,” and crosses it off. When all the lists have
been read in turn each player is allowed one point for every word
that no other player has. The player having the greatest number o f
points wins the game. This game can be varied by limiting the names
to a particular geographic feature, such as names o f towns or o f

The players divide into two groups. One group goes out o f the
room and chooses a word of several syllables. While outside they
make plans for acting out by conversation each syllable o f the word
and then the whole word. When they come back into the room they
hold the conversation they planned, and the other players try to
guess the word. Such words may be used as kingdom ” (kingdumb) and “ infancy” (in-fan-see).

A number o f different articles are placed on a table. The children
feel these articles for two minutes. Then the articles are covered
and each child makes a list o f as many o f them as he can remember.
The child that lists the greatest number wins.

Several small familiar objects that will not break are put into a
bag. Each player puts his hand into the bag and feels the different
objects. 9 After the bag has been passed to every player each one
writes out the names o f all the objects he can remember. The player
with the most complete list wins.
U P , J E N K IN S !

The players are divided into two teams, each with a captain.
(Each player is captain in turn during successive rounds o f the
game.) The teams stand on opposite sides o f a table. Team A
passes a quarter or other coin from hand to hand under the table
and endeavors to conceal from team B which individual holds it.
The leader o f team B calls “ Up, Jenkins!” Then all o f the hands
o f team A are brought from under the table and held up toward
team B, with palms closed and fingers closed down tightly over the
palms, the quarter being in one of the hands.
The leader o f team B then commands, > Down, Jenkins!” and the
hands o f team A are simultaneously slammed down flat on the table
with palms downward, This is done with enough noise to hide the
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clink o f the coin striking the table. Team B then tries to guess
under which hand the coin is laid, and its leader orders off the table
each hand supposed not to have it. The captain o f the guessing
team, who alone may give these orders (though his players may
assist him with suggestions), calls for the lifting o f one specified
hand at a time. The player named by him must lift the hand indi­
cated and must take that hand from the table.
I f team B succeeds in eliminating all the empty hands o f team A
so that the last hand hides the coin they win the round. I f the coin
is disclosed before the last hand is reached team A adds to its score
the number o f hands remaining on the table when the coin is
A t the end o f each round the coin goes to the other side. The side
having the highest score at the end o f 20 minutes wins.

A ball o f string is provided for each guest (a different color for
each), and a favor is fastened to the end o f each ball o f string.
The string is twisted in and out among trees and shrubs and with
the other strings, and the favor is finally hidden somewhere. The
strings all start at one place, and each has the name o f a player
Each guest on arrival at the party is given his or her string and is
told to follow it so as to find the end, where the favor is attached.

The players sit in a circle. The child who is “ it ” says to the first
player, “ Name a letter.” “A ,” says the first player. The leader
then says to the second player, “ Name the ship,” and immediately
begins to count to 10. The second player must mention a name for a
ship beginning with “A ,” such as “Arbor ” or “ Arlington,” before the
leader has finished counting to 10. I f he fails he must pay a for­
feit. The leader continues with the next player, thus:
Leader. “ Name the captain.”—Third player. “ Alfred.”
Leader. “ Name the cargo.”—Fourth player. “Apples.” .
Leader. “ The place it is bound for.”—Fifth player. “ Alabama.”
The leader may ask as many questions as he wishes. When the
letter “ B ” is given by the first player, answers begin with the letter
“ B ,” and so on.

Before the party small paper tags, each bearing the name o f a
city typed in Braille, are prepared. The leader pins one o f these
tags on the back o f each player without letting the player know what
is on his tag. The players read the tags on one another’s backs, and
by conversation each tries to find out what he is representing.

Snapping the apple.

Each player is assigned an apple suspended by a string from the
top o f a door or a chandelier. The player that first catches the apple
with his teeth wins the game. The player must not touch the apple
with his hands while he is trying to bite it.
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Pumpkin fortune.

The letters o f the alphabet are cut in a pumpkin which is placed
on a table. The players take turns trying to stab the pumpkin with
a hatpin. Each player has three turns. The first letter touched
stands for the name o f the future husband or wife o f the player,
the second stands for his or her profession, and the third stands
for a word describing him or her. Any players that have sight
should be blindfolded.


The rules for simple leapfrog are as follows: Any player who
bends over to make a back for others to leap over is called the
“ back.” He must rest his hands on his knees or near them to
make a firm back. It is against the rules for any player making a
back to throw up his back or bend it lower while a player is leap­
ing over it; but each player, before jumping, may say “ High
back! ” or “ Low back! ” and the one who is down must adjust
his back accordingly before the jumper starts. He then must do
his best to keep the back perfectly level and still unless the game
calls for a different kind o f play. In some games the “ back” stands
with his back toward the jumpers and in others with his side toward
them. I f he is to stand on a certain line, he must “ heel i t ” when
with his back toward them and stand with one foot on each side
o f the line when his side is toward them.
The player who leaps must lav his hands flat on the “ back” at
the shoulders and not “ knuckle ” ; that is, double under his fingers.
Any player transgressing this rule must change places with the
“ back.” The “ back” must be cleared without the jumper’s touch­
ing him with any part o f the body except the hands. Such a touch
is called “ spurring,” and the “ back” that is spurred must stand
upright before another player jumps over him. The jumper who
spurred must change places with the “ back.” I f the “ back” does
not stand upright in time, he remains “ back.” When a,leap is
made from a starting line or taw the jumper may not put his
foot more than half over the line. Good jumpers will land on the
toes with knees bent and back upright, not losing the balance.
The first player makes a back, standing either with his back or
his side toward the one who is to leap over. The next player runs,
leaps over the back, runs a few steps forward so as to allow space
for a run between himself and the first player, and in his turn
stoops over and makes a back. This makes two backs. The third
player leaps over the first back, runs and leaps over the second, runs
a short distance and makes a third back, and so on until all the
players are making backs, when the first one down takes his turn at
leaping, and so on indefinitely.
This may be made much more difficult by each player moving
only a few feet in advance o f the back over which he has leaped,
as this will then leave no room for a run between the backs but
requires a continuous succession o f leaps by the succeeding players.
17 Bancroft, Jessie: Games for the Playground, Home, School, and Gymnasium, p. 127
(The Macmilan Co., New York, 1918).
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The players are lined up in two or more single files, as for the
simplest form of leapfrog.
The first player in each file takes his place on the starting or taw
line and makes a back, with his head away from the file. The next
player immediately jumps over him and makes a back one pace
ahead o f the first player. The third jumps over the backs o f the
two and makes a third back, and so on until all are down. Then the
first player jumps over all in succession, but steps to one side when
he has vaulted over the last back. The others all follow.
The line wins which is first reduced to one player in the position
o f 44back ” ; in other words, when every player in the line has jumped
over the back o f every other player.


The players form a circle, all facing toward the center. The circle
must be large enough to allow ample jumping space between the
players. Every player makes a back, except one, who has been se­
lected to begin the leaping. This one leaps over the back o f each
player in the circle. When he gets nearly around, the second player
(the first one over whom he jumped) begins to leap around the
circle. The game continues, each player going back into stooping
position after he has completed the circle. I f a jumper overtakes
another the one overtaken must drop out o f the game. The game
proceeds until but three players are left.

A ll the players except two form a circle. The two odd players,
“ Jacob” and “ Rachel, are placed in the center. The object o f the
game is for Jacob to catch Rachel. Rachel does all she can to avoid
being caught.
Jacob begins the game by asking, 4Rachel, where art thou ? ”
Rachel replies,44Here I am, Jacob,” and immediately tiptoes to some
other point in the ring. She may dash from one side o f the ring
to the other or resort to any tactics except leaving the ring. Jacob
may repeat his question whenever he wishes, and Rachel must answer
each time.
When Rachel is caught Jacob returns to the ring and Rachel
chooses a new 44Jacob,” this time taking the aggressive part and seek­
ing him with the question,44Where art thou, Jacob ? ”

A heavy rope is used, 50 feet or more in length. Two captains are
chosen. They in turn choose sides. The captains face each other and
stand about 5 feet from the center o f the rope. Each side lines up
behind its captain. A ll the players grasp the rope, and at a given
signal the tug o f war begins. The team which successfully pulls
the other team over wins.
C A T C H -A N D -P U L L TU G O F W A R

The players are divided into two teams. The game is played on
a space divided into two parts, one side grass and the other asphalt or
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other material. The boundary between the two parts is the dividing
line for the teams. The teams stand on opposite sides o f the line.
The game starts at a signal. Each player reaches over the line and
tries to catch hold o f an opponent by the hand and pull him across
the line. Only one player at a time may try to secure a hold on an
opponent. A player is not captured until he has been entirely pulled
over the line. He must then join his captors in trying to pull his
former team mates across the line. The team wins that has the
largest number o f players at the end o f a time limit. This game is
one o f the best for a large number o f players.
(E specially fo r boys)

Two sides divided as equally as possible in regard to number and
strength stand opposite each other at a distance o f 8 or 10 feet. Each
side stands with hands securely joined. Each side has a captain who
stands at the left end o f the line. The sides take turns as attackers
and defenders. The captain o f the first side to attack chooses one
player as runner. This player runs with all his might and tries to
break through the defenders’ line. I f he succeeds all the defenders
who are cut off from the captain’s end o f the line must cross over and
join the attackers’ side. I f the attackers’ runner fails, he must join
the defenders’ side. The attackers then become defenders, and the
game goes on until one captain has lost all his men. This captain is
allowed three trials to break through the enemy’s line and redeem his
fallen fortunes; but if in three tries he does not succeed his side loses
the game. To make the game shorter a rule may be made that de­
fenders cut off from their own line and runners who fail to break
through the defenders’ line are out o f the game.
(E specially f o r boys)

A ll the players except two join hands in a circle, the “ ram ” being
in the center of the circle and another player outside. The ram tries
to get out o f the circle by jumping over or rushing under the arms o f
the circle players or by breaking through them. The player on the
outside helps him in any way he can. I f the ram gets out o f the circle
the two circle players who are to blame for his success must take the
places o f the ram and the outside player.

Football with considerable adaptation can be played by the blind.
The ball is not passed or carried, but only kicked. No goal posts
are used and no distance lines, except a “ half-way ” line to show the
starting point. The object o f the game is to kick the ball over the
goal line o f the opposing team, thus scoring one point. The members
o f the opposing team try to prevent the ball from going over their
goal line by stopping it with their bodies.
W ith the help o f the teacher or referee two teams are formed,
as nearly equal in kicking and stopping ability as possible. I f any
players have a little sight, they must be allotted fairly to the two
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The referee tosses a coin to decide which team shall have the
choice o f goals. The other team is given the ball first. The captain
o f this team stands at the center o f the field (indicated by the
referee) and kicks the ball toward the other team’s goal line. The
defending team is scattered about the field in front o f its goal,
hoping to get in the way o f the ball. I f one o f them succeeds in
getting hold o f the ball, he at once kicks it back toward the opposing
team’s goal, and that team tries to get in the way o f the ball.
Two 15-minute or 20-minute halves are played, and the team
that has made the highest score at the end o f the second half wins
the game. After the first half the teams exchange goals. The
team that kicked off at the beginning o f the first half goes on the
defensive at the beginning o f the second half, and the other team
kicks off.
A bell placed inside the ball helps the players to know where it is.


This game is played with a basket ball. The playing field is a
rectangular grass plot surrounded by a cinder path. Two waste­
baskets or other baskets large enough to hold the ball are used for
goals, and these are placed on opposite sides o f the playing field,
on the cinder path, close to the edges o f the grass plot.
When Sport X is played by girls the circumference o f the grass
plot should not be more than 50 yards.
(Blue runners)


(Red runners)

The players are divided equally into two teams o f 10 or more,
which may have distinguishing names, such as the Reds and the
Blues. The captain o f each team designates a certain number o f
players, such as four, as fielders and the rest as runners. The
fielders, who are equal in number, stand in the grass plot, each
fielder opposing a fielder o f the other team. The runners o f both
teams line up behind their respective goals, awaiting their turns to
run. The teams have their innings alternately, and the runners o f
each team run in regular order. The runners o f each team should
be numbered.
33 This game was originated at Chorley Wood College, England, a school for blind girls.
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The object o f the game is for the runnels to score runs by tagging
the opposing goal while the ball is in play. The first runner o f one
team (say, the Reds) begins by standing at his own goal, throwing
the ball into the grass plot, and running across the grass for the
Blues’ goal. The Blue fielders try to get the ball out o f play by
putting it in the Reds’ basket. The Red fielders try to help their
runner by keeping the ball in play, punching and kicking it about.
As long as the ball continues in play the Red runner may continue
to score runs. After every run he returns to his own goal without
crossing the grass plot.
I f the Red runner throws the ball behind him he forfeits his
inning. I f he throws the ball out o f bounds in any other direction
the Blue team scores three runs. (“ Out o f bounds ” means outside
the grass plot.)
I f a Red fielder holds the ball, that is, gets it in both his hands, or
i f he sends it out o f bounds the ball is out o f play, and the Red
runner can not score.
I f a Blue fielder sends the ball out o f bounds it is still in play,
and the Red runner may score a run. I f a Blue fielder obstructs the
passage o f a Red runner or gets in a position which causes the
runner to touch him the Blue team is charged with a score o f minus
When the ball goes out o f play the Red runners can not score any
more runs but must give up the ball, and the Blues get their inning.
The first Blue runner then throws the ball from his own goal and
runs for the Red goal, the Red fielders try to keep the ball in play
and the Blue fielders try to get the ball into the Red goal.
When every runner has had his turn the score is counted.

Two players with partial vision are chosen, one to be the bear
and one the wolf, and each has a den. The other players are sheep.
A ll the sheep take partners, the totally blind having as partners
those with some vision. A t a given signal the sheep run away from
the w olf and the bear, who try to catch the sheep in an allotted time,
say two minutes. When a pair o f sheep are caught, they are taken
by the captor to his den. If, while being chased, the partners let
go each other’s hands, they are penalized by being given up to the
chaser. When the time isjup a whistle is blown to stop the game, and
all the remaining sheep are called back to the fold. A count is then
made o f the sheep that are free and o f those in the den o f the bear
and o f the wolf. I f the largest number are free, the sheep win. I f
the largest number are in the den o f one o f the chasing animals that
animal wins. Another bear and wolf are then chosen, partners are
changed, and the game is repeated.



Partners are chosen as in Bear, W olf, and Sheep, and a certain
number o f trees are designated as goals, there being two goals fewer
than the number o f couples. A t a given signal all the couples run
for goals, only one couple being allowed to take position at each goal.
O f the two remaining couples one becomes “ it ” and chases the other.
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The couple being chased runs to some goal which must be then
vacated by the couple already there. This couple then is chased.
Should the couple that is “ it ” tag the couple being chased the latter
becomes “ it,” and the game continues.

One player is the fox, and the others are sheep. The fox may
catch the sheep only at “ midnight.” The game starts with the fox
standing in a den marked in one corner o f the playground and the
sheep in a sheepfold marked in the corner diagonally Opposite. The
fox leaves his den and wanders about the meadow (playground),
whereupon all the sheep come out and scatter around, approaching
him as closely as they dare. They keep asking him, “ What time
is it ? ” and he names any hour he chooses. Should he say “ 3 o’clock ”
or “ 11 o’clock ” they are safe; but when he says “ Midnight ” they
run for the sheepfold, the fox chasing them. The first sheep caught
changes places with the fox, and the game is repeated. When this
game is played in a schoolroom only a few children should be sheep.
This is a good group game, and it develops alertness. It teaches
the children to take risks and to dare.


A row o f tin cans with strings attached to them are put on top
o f a fence. The players stand on one side o f the fence and throw
stones or balls at the tin cans, trying to knock them off. A t the
same time one or two players stand on the opposite side o f the fence
and below it (so as not to get hit), and they pull the strings o f the
cans, so that they will make a noise to indicate their position to the
player aiming at them.

Two or more players can have good fun kicking a tin ball about
in the grass. The noise it makes in the grass indicates to the players
where it is.

One player is “ it,” and he stands in the center. The other players
join hands and circle around him until “ i t ” claps his hands three
times, whereupon the circle stops moving and the teacher taps one
circle player. This player must at once step toward “ it.” “ It ”
tries to catch him, and when he succeeds he tries to guess whom he
has caught. I f his guess is correct “ it ” and the other player change
places* I f not correct “ it ” continues in the center. The player
who is called into the circle will try by noiseless stepping and dodg­
ing to give “ it ” some difficulty in catching him, but when once caught
must submit without struggle to examination for identification.
Players may try to deceive “ i t ” by bending their knees to seem
shorter or by any other ruse.

This game should be played on a grass field with a gravel driveway
in the Center. This arrangement gives boundaries that guide the
blind children.
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A ll the players except one who is “ it ” stand on one side o f the
driveway. “ It ” stands in the center o f the driveway and calls:
Pom Pom Pullaway!
I f you don’t come, I ’ll pull you aw ay!

whereupon all the other players must run across the driveway to the
grass on the opposite side, and “ i t ” tries to tag as many as possible
before they reach the grass. Those tagged by “ it ” join him in trying
to catch other players the next time they dash across the driveway.
The one originally “ it ” remains the caller throughout the game.
“ It ” again calls “ Pom Pom Pullaway,” and all the players not
caught must run for their original goal. The players run from one
side to the other in this way until all have been caught. The last one
to be caught becomes “ it ” for the next game.

One player is the “ gypsy ” and the others are her children. The
gypsy tells her children to stay home while she is away. While
she is gone the children run away and hide. On her return the
gypsy tries to find them. The first one found becomes gypsy fof
the next game.

The players stand in a circle, with one in the center, and choose
a goal at some distance from the circle. The center player tells a
story in which he must use the words, “ The boiler burst.” When
these words are said the players must rush for the goal. The one
reaching it first becomes story-teller for the next game.

One player is chosen to be “ it ” and the others hide. “ It ” calls
out, “ Bob o’ link,” and one o f the other children answers “ Bob o’
link ” three times. “ It ” is given three trials to guess who has
answered. I f “ i t ” fails to guess who has answered, that player
gets in free. I f he guesses correctly, the player must run for the
goal. I f “ i t ” catches him the player is “ i t ” for the next game.

One player is “ it,” and he chases the others, trying to tag one
o f them. A player may escape being tagged by stooping, but may
not escape in this way more than three times. After the third time
o f stooping the player may resort only to running to escape being
tagged. Any player tagged becomes “ it.” I f a large number play
there should be several taggers.

(T R A D E S )

The players divide into two groups, and each group has a goal.
The goals are about 20 feet apart. One group chooses a trade,
and these players approach the goal o f the other group. When
they come to a point about 3 feet from the opposing goal the leader
says, “ Here we come.” The leader o f the opposite side replies,
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“ Where from ?” “ California.” “ What’s your trade?” “ Lemon­
ade.” “ Show us some.”
The players then act and talk as though carrying on the trade they
have selected. The other group tries to guess what the trade is
and the leader calls out the name o f it, such as “ Tailor ” or “ Carpen­
ter.” I f the guess is correct the acting players turn and run for
their goal and the guessing players pursue them. Anyone caught
must join the other side.

Hide and seek can be played in the regular way, the only change
being that the players that are hiding call out. Either they may be
found or else their hiding place may be guessed by the player who
is “ it.”

A ll the players except two stand in a circle. These two stand in
the center and see which one can pull the other over a line indicated
on the floor or ground. The player that is pulled over the line must
try to catch the other players. Any that he catches must then help
him to catch the others.
‘(F or the partially sighted)

The “ w olf ” in his den attracts a drove o f “ sheep ” by his growling.
One o f the sheep upon seeing the w olf commences to “ baa.” There­
upon the wolf chases the sheep, and they run to their fold. I f the
w olf succeeds in capturing one o f the sheep, that sheep becomes the
w olf and the w olf joins the other sheep.


The following games, described in Games for the Playground,
Home, School, and Gymnasium, by Jessie H. Bancroft, have been
successfully played by the blind: Arch Ball, Beetle Goes Round
(W hip T ag), “ B ” Game, Recognition, The Minister’s Cat, Forcing
the City Gates, Guess Who, Poison Snake, My Lady’s Lap Dog,
Nimble Squirrel, Literary Lore, Cat Party, Bargain Counter, Spoon­
ing, Bear in the Pit, Snail, Catch o f Fish, Japanese Crab Race, Skin
the Goat.

Races o f all kinds, when not overdone, are excellent exercise, and
they develop competition in a way that no other form o f play does.
Races develop alertness and freedom o f motion.
Relay races are good for older children, for they develop team
spirit, one o f the highest forms o f play. Any kind o f play that
makes a child forget himself and play his best for the team helps
to bring out the best in him.
Nearly all races can be run as relays. It is best to teach the race
as run by individuals and afterwards choose teams for a relay race.
Every player should understand the principle o f relay racing.
Young children should not run relay races.
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The players form in two or more files with an equal number o f
players in the files. They sit dowh on the floor, cross-legged, facing
front. The first player in each line is captain. Each captain holds
a basketball. At a signal from the teacher he passes the ball back
down the line, over the heads o f the players, each player helping to
pass the ball. When the ball reaches the last player in line, that
player jumps up and runs to the front o f the line, sits down in front
o f the captain, and passes the ball over his head as before. This is
repeated until every player has run to the front o f the line. The line
finishing first wins.

The players form two circles facing outward, with the same num­
ber in each circle. The players in each circle are numbered, every
number in one circle corresponding to a number in the other. At a
signal, each one of the two players who are numbered “ 1 ” runs
around the circle toward the right and back to place, tagging No. 2,
who runs around the circle and tags No. 3, and so on. The circle
that finishes first wins.

The players form two teams, and the members o f each team stand
in couples, one couple behind the other. A goal is indicated for each
team at a distance in front o f it. A t a signal the first couple in
each team run to the goal and back again, and then touch the next
couple, who do the same, and so on. The team that finishes first wins.
H E E L -A N D -T O E R E L A Y R A C E

Two or more files o f players are formed, with a goal in front o f
each. A t a signal the first player in each file starts walking as
rapidly as possible, placing the heel o f one foot in front o f the toe
o f the other foot and touching it. When he reaches the goal he
tags it, turns around and walks back the same way, and tags the
next in line. This player goes to the goal in the same way and
returns to tag the third player. Each player does the same until
the leader is again at the head o f the line. The line that finishes
first wins. Tightly drawn strings can be stretched from one end
o f the room to the other end as a guide for each line.

Two or more lines are formed with an equal number of players in
the lines. The first player in each line is captain of the line, and
he holds a basketball. A t a signal each captain passes the basketball
over his head to the next player, and each player in the line passes
it over his head till it reaches the last player. He takes the ball, runs
to the front of the line with it, and again passes it down the line
over the heads of the players. The line whose captain returns first
to his original place wins.
In other forms o f the pass-ball relay the ball may be passed
between the feet or to one side instead o f overhead.
10331°—27 ----- 4
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J U M P , P IG , O V E R TH E S T IL E

Two or more lines with an equal number o f players are formed.
A t a signal the first player in oach line runs to the referee, who
stands at the front o f the room and gives the player a wand or
yardstick. Holding it firmly by the ends, the player must put one
foot and then the other over the wand. The wand will then, be
behind the player. The player returns the wand to the referee, runs
back to his line, and tags the next player. This one runs to the
referee, takes the wand, and repeats the stunt. The line that finishes
first wins.


Two or more lines are formed with an equal number o f players.
The first player in each line puts a basketball between his knees and
jumps like a kangaroo to a given point and back again and then
hands the basketball to the next player, who does the same. This
continues until every player has had a turn. The line finishing first

The players stand in two files, each file headed by a leader with
some sight. Each player holds the waist o f the player in front o f
him. At a signal the lines race to a given point. The line that
reaches the point first without breaking wins.

An obstacle relay race is one in which the players must overcome
certain obstacles. For example: Four lines are formed, each with
an equal number of players. The first player in each line is given
a suit case containing four Indian clubs. A t a signal he runs to
the goal, perhaps 50 feet away, opens the suit case, puts the Indian
clubs in a pile on the ground, runs back to the line with the empty
suit case, and hands it to the next player. This player runs up to
the Indian clubs, puts them in the suit case again, and then runs
back to the line and hands the bag to the third player, who repeats
the stunt. The team finishing first wins.

Four lines are formed with an equal number o f players. A ll face
front, the first four players at the starting line.
A wastebasket or other receptacle is placed at the starting point
for each line. Beyond each basket, at right angles to the starting
line, is placed a row o f six potatoes or similar objects about 2 yards
A t a signal each player runs to the first potato in his row, picks
it up, runs back to his basket with it, puts it in the basket, runs
for the next potato and puts it in the basket, and so on until all
potatoes are in the basket. The player who first gets all his potatoes
into his basket wins. Four other players then race, and the winners
o f the heats race against one another.
T A G -T H E -W A L L R E L A Y R A C E

The players should all be seated in rows, with the same number
o f players in the rows. Each row is numbered or named for a color.
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A t a signal the last player in each line runs forward and tags the
front wall. As soon as this player is out o f the aisle the others all
move backward one seat. This leaves the front seat vacant; and the
runner, having touched the wall, returns immediately and takes
this vacant front seat. As he sits down he calls the number or color
o f his row, which is a signal for the player that is now last in the
line to run forward, the line moving backward one place as soon
as he is out o f the aisle. He in turn, having touched the wall, takes
the vacant front seat. The race is continued in this way until one
o f the players that sat originally in the front seats returns to his
seat. That player’s row wins.
I f this game is played in the schoolroom, only half the rows should
run at a time, alternate rows remaining seated.
As in all schoolroom games in which there is running, the seated
players should be careful to keep their feet under the desks so that
the runner will not trip. To avoid confusion, the runner must go
down the left-hand aisle and return by the right-hand aisle.



Two or more lines are formed, equal in number. The players
face front, standing with their feet apart. The first player o f each
line holds a dumb-bell, and at given signal he bends over and passes
the dumb-bell between his knees to the player behind him and so on
down the line. As soon as the last player receives the dumb-bell, he
runs with it to the front o f the line, and passes the dumb-bell as
before. The line that finishes first wins.

Competitive athletic meets and games between classes or other
groups are valuable for blind boys and girls. Not only do such con­
tests create interest in the games and enthusiasm for them but they
develop a feeling o f comradeship and of “ being in the game ” that
is of great value to the players.
Efforts should be made to arrange competitive athletic meets and
games between students in the school for the blind and students in
ordinary schools. The sense o f being able to compete with seeing
boys or girls is of great value in developing self-confidence in the
blind. It is also an excellent experience for the seeing pupil to play
with the blind.
The following rules for athletic meets are extracts from the consti­
tution, by-laws, and rules o f the National Athletic Association of
Schools for the Blind :19

I. The classification and events for the boys’ contest shall b e :
Class A. 140 pounds or ov er:
Standing broad jump_________________________________________:____ »_
Hop, step, and jump^.------- ------- ------------------------------------ ---------- ---------2
16-foot rope climb, free style---------------------------------------------------------------1
75-yard dash_____________________________________________ _______ _____
19 The object o f this association, as described in Article II of its constitution and rules,
is as follow s: “ This association is organized for the purpose o f creating and maintaining
a school spirit in schools for the blind, bringing them into closer touch with one another,
arousing the spirit of true sportsmanship, and encouraging the physical development of
the pupils in them.” The constitution and by-laws are printed in the Outlook for the
Blind [New York], Vol. I ll, No. 1, April, 1909.
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Class B. 125 pounds or over, and under 140 pounds:
Standing broad jump_____________________________
Three consecutive jumps-________________
16-foot rope climb, free style___________ _________ _____Z Z Z Z L Z Z Z T
60-yard dash______ |_________
Class C. 110 pounds or over, and under 125 pounds :
Standing broad jump—____________ ________
Three consecutive jumps______________________ „ 1 ________
50-yard dash___________________ ______ ~__~_____
Class D. 90 pounds or over, and under 110 poundsT"
Standing broad jump________________________________
Basket-ball throw__ _________________________
45-yard dash____ _______________________ ' __ _
H I”
Class E. Under 90 pounds, and over 10 years old
Standing broad jump_________________________ ___
40-yard dash____________________ __________

















(Children under 10 may be entered by permission of superintendent.)
II. Standing broad jump.— A joist 5 inches wide shall be sunk flush with the
ground. The outer edge of this joist shall be called a “ scratch line ” and the
measurement of all jumps shall be made from it, at right angles to the nearest
break in the ground made by any part of the person of the competitor The
measurements shall be read at the joist. In front of the scratch line the ground
shall be removed to a depth of 3 and width o f 12 inches outward, and the toes
of the competitor may extend over the scratch line, provided he does not break
ground in front of the scratch line in making the jump. Each competitor shall
have two trials ; the event shall be decided by the best o f the trial jumps by the
competitors. The landing pit shall not be lower than the top of joist, and no
weights shall be used in making the jump.
The feet of the competitor may be placed in any position, but shall leave the
ground only once in making an attempt to jump. When the feet are lifted from
the ground twice, or two springs are made in making the attempt, it shall
count as a trial jump without result. A competitor may rock forward and back
lifting the heels and toes alternately from the ground, but may not lift either
foot clear of the ground.
A fou l jump shall be one where the competitor, in jumping off the “ scratch
line, makes a mark on the ground immediately in front of it, and shall count
as a trial without result.
III. Three consecutive jumps.— The feet of the competitor shall leave the
ground only once in making an attempt for each o f the three jumps and no
stoppage between jumps shall be allowed. The jump must be on a level place
and landing pit shall not be lower than the top of joist. In landing from thè
first two jumps the heels must be together. Each competitor shall have two
jumps. In all other respects the rules governing the standing broad jump shall
govern the three standing broad jumps.
? J ' ^ s^e.s ~ The track sha11 be level ana the contestant may or may not be
guided by wires as used by some schools.20
Eadb runner at the word “ Ready ” shall assume a position for starting
and shall start at the crack of a pistol in the hands o f the starter
Starting before the pistol is discharged shall be considered as a false start
and no account shall be kept o f a record made from such a start At thè
second false start the competitor shall be penalized 1 yard, and at the third
191 l j n

a device for assisting blind runners is given in “ Recreathe blind> by
H- Burritt, in The Playground, Vol. V, No. 2 fifa y,

three-strand twisted wire cable [or clothesline wire] as light as is consistent with
strength is stretched breast high between well-guyed end posts 110 yards apart
* * *
iriiarlar btdds In °ne_ hand a wooden handle attached by a short flexible" chain Tor
a .rin® 011 the wire. As he runs the ring slips along, and both the feel and the
sound it gives enablehim to hold his course. So far, so g ood : but how to afford a
lhO—yard mark was not ascertained until we had stretched across
fihe track at this Place a fringe made of hammock twine to strike the runner in the face
much as the low-bridge indicator does the men standing on top of moving height trains’
This fringe stop, which is entirely satisfactory, covers the two parallel cables of onr
running track. Starting as they always do from the same end, bund boys can practice
running as much as^they please; but in all real racing one instructor starts a nhir fo f
them®with*5a ¡top°w S ch .’^ hlle another instructor, stanling at the 100-yard mark, W e s
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false start shall be disqualified. The course shall be measured by the judges
before the events are run off.
The finish of the course shall be represented by a line between two finishing
posts, drawn across at right angles at the sides of the track, and 4 feet above
such line shall be placed a tape attached at each end to the finishing posts. A
finish shall be counted when any part of the winner’s body, except his hands
or arms, shall reach the finish line. The order o f finishing for second and
third place shall be decided in the same manner.
Y. Basket-ball throw.— Contestant stands in a stride position facing direction
the ball is to be thrown.
The ball must be thrown with both hands from overhead forw ard; contestant
must not leave position before measurement is taken.
I f any part of the body touches the ground before measurements are taken
it shall not be recorded, but counted as a trial.
The contestant shall not jump upward in throwing the ball or raise one leg.
Each contestant shall have two trials.
The measurement shall be made from the inside o f the circling block and direct­
ly in front of the thrower to the spot where the ball first touched the ground.
YI. S ixteen-foot rope climb.— The rope shall be 16 feet, the distance from
the floor to pan or beam, and shall be slack. Contestants may climb the rope
from either sitting or standing position, using hands alone or hands and feet.
The pan or beam must be touched with the hand with sufficient force to cause a
sound. The timing of this event must be done by sound and the timers shall
have their backs to the contestants. Should there be any contestants who are
unable to reach the top, 20 seconds shall be added to the time of the class before
average is taken for each contestant that is unable to do so.
VII. Hop, step, and jump.— The competitor shall take off from one foot only
and shall first land upon the same foot with which he shall have taken off.
The reverse foot shall be used for the second landing, and both feet shall be
used for the third landing. In all other respects the rules fo r the three con­
secutive jumps shall govern.
VIII. There shall be not less than three contestants entered in each class
from each school. Where there are less than three, they shall compete in the
class next above the one for which they are qualified.
IX . Three copies of the contest records shall be made, one copy to be sent to
the executive committee official in charge o f the contest, and one to each of the
other two members of the committee.
X. The names of all pupils whose age, weight, and sex makes them eligible
and who do not enter contest shall be sent to each member o f the executive
committee, together with reasons for not entering.
X I. The best of all the trials of each boy shall be added and the average
found for the class in that event. The average o f the class shall be the record
o f the class for that event. This average shall be compared with the averages
of the other schools to decide the winner.
X II. Each school shall send in its best record in each event. The boy who
makes the best individual record of all the schools in any event, shall be given
one point; this point shall be added to the score o f the school.




G IR L S ’



I. The classification and events for the girls’ contest shall be:
Class A. 125 pounds or over:
75-yard dash. #
Standing broad jump.
Basket-ball throw.
Class B. 110 pounds and under 125 pounds:
60-yard dash.
Standing broad jump.
Basket-ball throw.
Class C. 90 pounds and under 110 pounds:
50-yard dash.
Standing broad jump.
Class D. Under 90 pounds.
40-yard dash.
Standing broad jump.
The rules governing the boys’ championship contest shall also govern the
girls’ contest.
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A rticle X I. E ligible contestants.— Only bona fide students, who are pursuing
a course including literary work, are eligible to participate in a contest sanc­
tioned by this association.
A rticle X II. Ineligible contestants.— No pupil shall be eligible to compete
in any contest, sanctioned by this association, who is not an amateur accord­
ing to the ruling o f the American Amateur Athletic Union. Neither shall a
pupil be eligible to compete in any contest sanctioned by this association who
has been expelled from any school or who left a school on account of mis­
demeanor, unless reinstated by the executive committee.
Postgraduate students and regular salaried employees are ineligible.
Any pupil 25 years of age or over is ineligible to compete in any contest
sanctioned by this association.

A rticle V. Contests.— A girls’ contest shall be held annually upon the
second Saturday in May.
A boys’ contest shall be held annually upon the third Saturday in May.
The contest shall include such events as shall be determined by the executive
committee. In case o f bad weather the contest shall be held on the next fa ir
school day.
A rticle VI. Officials for contests.— The officials fo r the contest shall be the
superintendent, president, or principal o f the school, and three wholly disin­
terested persons who are entirely competent and familiar with the use o f
the stop watch.
A ll timing and measuring shall be done by the three disinterested officials.
The time on any event must be taken by three regulation stop watches. Time
taken by one or two watches will not be considered. In case all three
watches disagree the time o f the middle watch shall be taken. In case two'
agree and one disagrees the time o f the agreeing watches shall be taken.
I f for any reason only two o f the three watches record the time and they
fail to agree, the slower o f the two times shall be taken.
The judges shall see that the events are carried out strictly in accordance
with the rules and shall so designate on the bottom o f the record sheet. All
judges shall be required to familiarize themselves with the rules governing
the contest before the contest.
A rticle VII. R ecord sheets.— Only athletic records submitted on official record
sheets properly signed will be considered by the committee.
The record sheet, as furnished by the executive committee, shall be filled
out and mailed immediately after the contest to the member o f the committee
who shall have that contest in charge.
Failure to mail record sheets within 24 hours after the contest renders the
records o f the delinquent school void. Such records shall not be considered
by the committee.
A rticle VIII. Scoring.— Points are to count five, three, and one for the first,,
second, and third places, respectively.
A rticle IX . Trophies.— A suitable trophy shall be given for each contest
to the school scoring the highest number o f points.
Trophies shall also be given for each contest to the school scoring the second
and third largest number o f points.
A rticle X . Ties.— In case o f two contestants tying for first place in an
event in any contest, the tying contestants shall each be» credited with four
points; the contestants who would have otherwise been second shall be
considered third, scoring one point.
In case of two contestants tying for second place the contestants shall
each score two points, the next contestant in rank being considered fourth.
In case o f the two contestants tying for third place each contestant shall
score one-half point.
I f three or more contestants tie for first place, the total number o f points
for that event shall be divided equally among them. (Total number o f points,
nine.) I f three or more contestants tie for second place, the total number o f
points for second and third places shall be divided equally between tying
I f three or more contestants tie for third place, the point fo r third place
shall be divided equally between the tying contestants.
A rticle XIV. Annual dues.— The annual dues for each school shall be $4.
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Besides the track-meet events described on pages 45-47 in the ex­
tracts from the constitution and by-laws of the National Athletic
Association for the Schools for the Blind the following events have
been found practicable:
Running high jump.— The running high jump can be done by
blind athletes if they are exceptionally clever. It is necessary that
two players with some sight stand at each jumping standard and
call out “ H ere” to indicate the position of the jumping standard
before each contestant jumps.
Shot put.— The shot put is used at many track meets. Care must
be taken to safeguard the spectators and the other contestants when
the shot is being put. Hammer throwing and javelin throwing are
dangerous and should not be done at track meets for the blind.

Pupils not participating in the track meet may take part in some
stunts. The following have been suggested as suitable:
Sack racing.—Usually four or six boys compete. Each boy puts
both feet in a potato sack. They stand ready, and at the word “ G o ,r
try to get to the goal by jumping or in any other way.
Three-legged race.—The contestants stand in couples, each with
one leg tied to his partner’s. In each couple one boy has the right
leg free, and the other the left. When they run they appear to have
three legs instead o f four. A t a signal all run for the finish line.
The pair that reaches it first wins. Bandages or handkerchiefs
should be used to tie the legs together, as cord cuts and is
Spider race.— Four or five players get down on all fours and at a
signal race on their hands and knees to the finish line.
Wheelbarrow relay.— One flayer gets down on his hands and
knees. His partner stands behind and grasps him at the knees, thus
making a “ wheelbarrow.” They then race another similar “ wheel­
barrow ” to a finish line, about 20 feet from the starting line. The
player “ wheeling the barrow ” must hold the player that is the “ barr o w ” above the knees in order to keep his back from sagging and
causing it to be strained or injured.
Usually this is done only by boys, but it may be done by girls i f
they are suitably dressed.
Pole battle.— Two boys stand on small packing boxes about 3 feet
apart. Each boy takes a pole and tries to knock his opponent off
his box without falling off himself.
Nailing race.— Each player has a small board, 10 nails, and a,
hammer. A t a signal the players begin to hammer the nails into
the board. After three minutes the signal to stop is given and the
work examined. The player who has hammered in the greatest
number o f nails wins.
Racing on blocks.—Any number o f players may enter this race,
A goal is set for the finish, a short distance away, usually 25 feet.
Two wooden blocks about 2 inches by 4 inches by 12 inches are
used by each runner. The runner places his feet on his two blocks,,
bends over, and by lifting the blocks alternately with his hands ad­
vances. I f he falls off the blocks he is out o f the race.
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Circus riders.— Several teams are formed. For each team four
or more wrestling mats are laid end to end. The players o f each
team stand in line, and at a signal the first player of each side
takes a position at the starting line, which is at one end o f the
four mats. Immediately the next player on each side jumps on the
first one’s back, and the race begins. The “ horses ” and the “ riders ”
race up the center o f the mats, the riders doing their best to bal­
ance themselves on the backs o f their horses, and then go back to
the starting point. The horse then becomes the rider o f the next
player in his team. I f a horse stumbles or a rider loses his balance
he must drop out o f the contest. The game continues until all have
served as horse and rider. The team having the most players in
line when all have had their turns is the winner.

Floor drills and exercises should be given in the gymnasium as
well as exercises on the apparatus. Parallel bars, exercises with
weights, rope climbing, tumbling, pyramid building, relay races o f
all kinds, and almost all ordinary gymnasium work are possible with
blind children.
Pyramid building requires complete silence and close attention.
It must be done quickly so that those taking part will not get too
tired. The strongest boys should be at the bottom of the pyramid.
The boy lightest in weight should be on top.
Tumbling is excellent exercise. The following varieties o f tum­
bling may be used: Forward somersaults (varied by placing hands
, in different positions), backward somersaults, head stands, double
somersaults, hand stands against wall, handsprings, and stunts in­
volving two persons.
The following gymnastic exercises, which should be accompanied
by a description by the teacher, o f each animal imitated, will help
the children to visualize certain animals and their movements:


Elephants.— The children march in a straight line with bodies
bent forward. The hands are clasped, arms hanging down. The
arms are swung from side to side in rhythm. The arms represent
elephants’ trunks.
Rabbits.— The children form a straight line. They hop on all
fours like rabbits, keeping time to music.
Birds.— The arms are moved lightly up and down to represent
the wings o f birds. One child is leader and “ flies ” all around the
room, the others following.
Kangaroos.—The hands are held bent up to-the chest. Each child
leaps from a squatting position.
Turkeys.— The arms are stretched down and away from the sides,
with fingers spread apart to represent wing feathers. The heads
are carried proudly with chins in. Long steps are taken with the
foot lifted high at each step.
Ducks.— The children form a straight line and bend their knees
till they are almost sitting on their heels. The hands are placed on
the knees. As they move forward their bodies sway, and the result­
ing movement is like the waddling o f ducks.
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In the animal imitations variations may be introduced by letting
each child be a different animal. A leader called circus manager
stands in the center. The circus manager calls out the names o f the
animals that he wishes the children to represent. Any child that
fails to obey the commands is sent to the “ cage,” which is formed
by chairs.

Roller skating can be done by blind children; and hockey on roller
skates can be played with a tin can for a puck. A rink such as the
one described on page 64 should be provided.
Swimming is a favorite sport. There is a certain freedom about
being in the water, as a blind person is in less danger o f bumping
into things in water than on land. Some blind persons learn to dive
by using a diving chute.
The following events have been included in swimming meets for
the blind: Race to end o f pool and back again, best form, farthest
distance in “ dead man’s float,” fewest strokes used in swimming
length o f pool, diving (plain and fancy), special stunts, swimming
farthest distance under water, life-saving drill.
Fishing is enjoyed by many who are blind. Special mention o f
the pleasure o f fishing has been made by several well-known blind
Rowing can be done by the blind, and it is a genuine pleasure,
especially to blind campers. As a rule it is well to have one seeing
person accompany each row boat, but on a small lake competent
boys or girls, even though they are entirely blind, can row without
the aid o f any seeing person.
Wrestling is done successfully by the blind, but not boxing.
W inter sports can be participated in by the blind under certain
conditions. Coasting and tobogganing can be done safely if a track
is made in the snow so that the toboggan sled will follow the same
path each time. The blind should not coast on public highways
nor on any hill where there are trees or other obstructions. Many
schools have constructed special toboggan slides on the playground
for coasting. These can be flooded with water and frozen or can
be packed with snow. It is a good plan to have at least two slides,
a small one for the younger children, and a higher and longer one
for the older ones. Ice skating can be learned by the blind. Hockey
can be played on the ice with a tin can.
Scouting.— In many parts o f the country successful scout troops
for the blind have been formed. There is nothing in the “ tenderfoot
test ” that a blind scout can not do. Blind scouts are able to do
practically all that seeing scouts do except pass some o f the tests
tor “ Eagles.”
They learn through commands instead of imitation. For example,
in learning a knot the scouts are told the uses of the knot; then they
feel it and are given rope. Directions for tying it are read aloud.
A fter going through these steps several times the blind scouts find
no difficulty in mastering the different knots. After all the knots
have been learned knot-tying games can be played. For example,
a Further information on recreational activities for the blind may be obtained from the
American Foundation for the Blind, 125 East Forty-sixth Street, New York City.
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the scout leader ties different knots, and then a contest is held.
Every scout touches each knot and then writes its name and its uses.
Buzzers are used for signaling. Several troops have .made radio
sets. Bandaging and other forms o f first aid can be learned.
As part o f the scouts’ study of nature lectures about birds are
given, and bird specimens are given them to feel. They take field
trips and learn the songs o f the birds. Tree study is much easier,
as the scouts can gather leaves and feel the bark of the trees. The
leader reads aloud descriptions o f trees—their height, color, and
■other characteristics. Flowers are studied in the same way.
When blind scouts go hiking through the woods the leader holds
one end o f the rope and the other hikers hold on to this rope at
different points and follow him.
It has been found that scouting can do much to emphasize health
and sociability. Blind scouts can mingle with other scouts and have
a common interest with them in the scout organization, where they
«an do practically the same things.
The leader o f a troop of Boy Scouts recommends the following
games for blind scouts (these games were selected from the Boy
Scouts’ handbook): 22
Let ’er Buck, Push O ’ War, Pyramid Building, Cock Fighting,
Tilting, Poison, Crab Race, Hand Wrestling, Leap Frog, Shop
Windows (handle articles instead o f looking at them), Scout’s Nose,
K im ’s Game, Fire-Lighting Race, Horse and Rider, Mumbley-Peg
(care must be taken with the knife, but there are as few accidents
with the blind as with seeing children), First-Aid Game (this must
be adapted), Take the Hat, Swat the Fly, Greek Writing.
The following are taken from the Handbook for Scoutmasters:23
Jump the Stick (put a bell on the stick or rope), Tag Bell, Bull
in the Ring, Medicine-Ball Relay, Pass Faster, Pull Up, Elbow
Wrestling, Take the Trench (hold hands around the goal while the
attackers try to break through), You’re It, Pull Him Over, Swat ’em,
The Hunter, Pole Fights, H og Tie, Slip the Noose, Blindman’s Buff,
Chase the Tail.
Blind Camp Fire Girls win honors in their troops much the same as
other Camp Fire Girls do. One group camps every summer, doing
the cooking and all the other work of the camp. Some of this group,
who have partial sight, take great interest in photography. A n­
other group has made camp-fire manuals in Braille so that each
girl has her own.
The leader o f the Girl Scout troop at the “ Lighthouse,” the head­
quarters o f the New York Association for the Blind, wrote the
follow ing:
Blind girls are just as individual as seeing girls. We had a play last week
which our younger girls put together and gave without any outside assistance.
The last scene showed a room full of girls doing scout activities. One girl
was making a b ed ; another, peeling apples; one, setting a table for six people;
.another, hemming a tow el; and another, bandaging an arm. As far as I could
see each girl gave as good a performance as any sighted scout I have ever
22 Boy Scouts o f America, the official handbook for boys. Published by the Boy Scouts
o f America, New York, 1925. This handbook is now available in Braille. It can be
obtained from the Boy Scouts of America, Payne Avenue and East Twenty-fourth
¡Street Cleveland.
28 Handbook for Scoutmasters, a manual of leadership. Published by the Boy Scouts
o f America, New York, 1925.
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All you have to remember in teaching blind girls is that they do not learn
by imitation, they learn by commands, by being shown just what we wish
them to do. It may take them a little longer to learn and a little longer to
complete a given task, but as far as we have been able to tell they can take
their place as scouts without having any privileges given them.
As for our meetings we follow pretty closely the rules that are laid down
for any scout meeting. Our drilling may not be as complicated, but even then
we have learned to do rather good marching. We play the prescribed games,
all except throwing and catching games. As scouting means to me a spiritual
development as well as a physical one, I feel that our girls get as much out of
their meetings as any seeing group.

Information on the work o f Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts, and Camp
Fire Girls may be obtained from the headquarters of these organiza­
tions. Their addresses are as follows: Boy Scouts of America, 200
Fifth Avenue, New York City; Girl Scouts (In c.), 670 Lexington
Avenue, New York City; Camp Fire Girls (In c.), 31 East Seven­
teenth Street, New York City.
Material on nature study may be obtained from the United States
Department o f Agriculture, Washington, and from the National
Association o f Audubon Societies, 1974 Broadway, New York City.
Reading is the one great source o f happiness for most blind people.
It is universally accepted as first among the leisure-time activities for
the blind.
Gardening on a small scale can be done by blind children. (See
p. 70.) In one school an effort is made to plant seeds o f many differ­
ent kinds o f vegetables and flowers as a: part of the school work,
so as to give pupils some idea of them. This is a good way for the
future housekeeper to learn about vegetables and fruits—how they
are grown and at what seasons and what are the approximate costs
o f growing. Several schools have window boxes for vegetables and
Pets give great pleasure, and many blind children take care of
them. In one o f the schools visited in the course of the Children’s
Bureau study the boys raised rabbits, guinea pigs, and chickens;
and the girls had dogs, cats, and canaries. Another school had two
sheep, as well as rabbits and chickens.
Dramatics are a regular part of the year’s program in “many
schools. Blind children enjoy acting just as much as other children
and do it just as well as many who see. Children in the kinder­
garten and primary classes find joy in acting out the stories read to
them by their teachers.
Older boys and girls get pleasure from attending the theater with
a seeing friend who explains whatever needs explanation. Seats
should be obtained near the front so that the blind person may hear
every word.
In New York, where there are about 3,500 blind people, special
matinees are given for the blind. These are free o f charge and are
given on a day other than the regular matinee day.
Plays are chosen in which the interest is centered in the dialogue
‘ rather than the scenery or the acting. Sometimes the players put in
a few explanatory words as they go along to give the blind audience
a better idea o f what is being acted. Before each act begins a
description is read o f the stage setting so that the audience can have
a Diental picture o f it.
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It is said that, the actors enjoy acting before a blind audience, as
it shows greater enthusiasm and appreciation than an ordinary
audience does.
Dancing is both exercise and fun, and it gives the blind poise and
self-confidence. The teacher should place the pupils’ feet in the cor­
rect positions, as well as explaining the steps. I f dancing is done
in the gymnasium the floor should have a cement border. The rough­
ness o f this border warns the dancers that they are near the wall,
and they can thus avoid colliding with it.
Folk dancing as well as social dancing can be taught the blind.
Folk dancing should be done for the pleasure o f the dancers rather
than for the entertainment o f an audience. Dressing in national cos­
tumes suitable to the dances gives blind children pleasure.
Descriptions o f many folk dances are given in the books listed on
page 72. (See also p. 6.)
A t the beginning o f a party or dance marching to music is a good
way to “ break the ice.” I f the marchers wish to sing as they march
they should be encouraged to do so. When the guests have assembled
they should take partners. This may be done by some plan such as
the following: The boys line up on one side o f the room and the
girls on the other. A t a signal the two lines march toward each
other. When the lines are within two paces o f each other another
signal is given, and all face front and march in couples. A seeing
person leads the march, countermarching and making figures such
as circles and curves. A ll should be encouraged and urged to keep
step and to walk erect with ease and grace.
When a dance is given to which seeing guests are invited the
hostess must remember to tell the guests—if they are girls—that
they are expected to ask the blind persons to dance.
Museum study should be open to the blind. Special opportunity
should be given them to handle the objects in museum collections,
and to have them explained by an official o f the museum. The
Roosevelt collection in New York City has been made available to
the blind, and recently more than 500 blind men and women visited
this collection on a special night reserved for them. They were
allowed to feel the specimens which ex-President Roosevelt brought
from Africa, and many other things. A special lecturer gave
explanations and answered questions.
Many persons have interesting and instructive collections in their
own homes which they would be glad to have the blind enjoy i f
they knew how much pleasure it would give. Small collections
might be borrowed by schools for the blind from time to time.
Every school for the blind should provide models o f many things
that the children should be familiar with, such as means o f trans­
portation—boats, railways, automobiles, carriages, airplanes; ani­
mals, birds, insects, and fish; and famous buildings ana local ones.
A school in Vienna has collected models o f churches and other
buildings in the city. The children feel these models, and when
they go on trips through the city they try to visualize the buildings.
Chibs o f all kinds should be encouraged. The “ belonging ” in­
stinct is a natural one and should be encouraged. The comradeship
and good fellowship that result from having a common purpose are
invaluable. Debating clubs not only give the club members an op
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portunity to become familiar with the pros and cons o f many sub­
jects but also develop the self-reliance and independence which is
the seed o f a blind man’s prosperity.
Seeing persons should be invited to join the clubs whenever pos­
sible. In after-school life the blind are in constant companionship
with those who can see; so that the more friendships that are formed,
the easier it will be for the blind to take their places in normal soci­
ety after they leave school.
Handicrafts are a great aid to the happiness o f the blind. The
distinction between recreational handicrafts and actual industrial
work should be understood. Handicrafts that train the hands to
coordinate and that give expression to the desire to create are o f
value. Many leisure hours may be happily spent knitting, cro­
cheting, and doing similar work.
Kindergarten work is a foundation for other kinds o f handicraft
later on. Weaving, basketry, and hammock making can be done by
the blind. Many boys have found joy in sloyd work—making toys
o f wood. Sloyd work needs careful supervision. In many schools
it has been carried on with success»
In some schools the boys make little wagons from boxes, using
spools or circular wooden disks for wheels; and they make bridges,
boathouses, and train tracks, and set up many things, using mechan­
ical-construction sets. It is advisable to supply children with plenty
o f material and to have it at their disposal (not locked up), so that
it can be used in free time. Things should be kept in the same places
so that the children can find them.
In a girls’ school for the blind in England clay modeling and
pottery making are a source o f keen enjoyment. The girls are free
to go to their modeling in their leisure time as well as during the
instruction period. In this school the girls weave fine wool material
to make their school dresses and bright braids for trimming the
dresses. The principal o f the school said that the students thor­
oughly enjoyed this form o f self-expression.
The following kinds o f handiwork have been suggested: Kinder­
garten work, basketry, knitting, crocheting (especially rugs), build­
ing with blocks (see p. 65), toy making, wagon making, bridge build­
ing, train-track construction, work with mechanical-construction sets,
sloyd work, clay modeling, and work in plasticine, pottery, making
radio sets, playing with an old alarm clock—taking it to pieces and
studying its works, making flowers, costumes, and decorations o f
crepe paper.
>Special days are enjoyed by blind children, perhaps even more
than by children that can see. Halloween, St. Valentine’s Day,
Thanksgiving, Easter, and the other holidays, including special
school anniversaries, should be celebrated. Looking forward to them
and making special preparation for them is often as great a pleasure
as the days themselves.
Blind children enjoy having decorations at a party and “ dressing
up ” in fancy dress. They feel the atmosphere that special decora­
tions create.
On Easter Monday an Easter-egg hunt may be held, as follows:
Each egg has the name o f a player, in Braille, pasted on it. The
eggs are put in certain places (on the ground, so that they will not
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be crushed). A string leads to the place where the first egg is
“ hidden.” When this egg is found, directions will be found attached
to it indicating the place where the next egg is hidden, and so on
until all are found.
Every child’s birthday should be celebrated in some way. In some
large institutions where it is not possible to celebrate each child’s birth­
day individually it is the custom to have all the birthdays that come
in the same month celebrated together.
Outdoor excursions, including trips to places o f historic interest,
have been found instructive as well as pleasurable. The zoo is o f
interest to blind children. They can hear the animals even though
they can not see them. A picnic in the woods or by a stream is en­
joyed by the blind just as it is by others, and when this is combined
with nature study it is a double pleasure.
The song o f the birds and the many other outdoor sounds are full
o f interest for the blind. One totally blind girl said that she would
like to spend at least a week with some one who could tell her about
nature. She was curious to know the meaning o f the many sounds
she heard and to hear a description* o f the lake and the shore line and
o f the pond lilies that grew near its edges.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Music as a profession for the blind, music as an essential branch
o f general education and culture, and music as a recreation for those
deprived o f pleasures dependent on sight—these are the three aspects
o f music which claim the consideration o f those who are concerned
with directing the musical activities in the life and education o f the
The training o f professional musicians has been one o f the chief
concerns o f schools for the blind since their beginnings. Excellent
and highly specialized departments o f music have been developed in
most o f the institutes for the blind both in this and in foreign coun­
tries. The satisfactory result of the training offered is testified to
by the fact that according to statistics quoted m regard to occupations
o f the blind, the number of musicians and teachers o f music is second
only to the number of farmers.25
The mistaken belief which was current in the past that because a
person was blind he must study music and that if he were given suffi­
cient instruction he would become a successful musician has given
way before the findings o f modern psychology. The present policy
of attempting to locate talent and to make opportunity commensurate
with ability is an important advance from several points o f view. It
saves the unmusical blind person— and there are many— from the
discouragement o f trying to compete with talented musicians, either
blind or sighted; it saves the music teacher from the wasted effort o f
trying to extract high-grade results from low-grade material. There
is also this important consequence: Music itself is saved from being
an unsuccessful profession for the untalented and may therefore take
its rightful place as a satisfying recreation for the amateur.
The study o f music as a part of general education has exactly
the same value for children without sight as it has for normal chil­
dren, and educators o f the blind may well copy so far as they are
able the modern methods o f music which are being developed in the
best public and private schools throughout the country. There is
little need for special study o f problems o f blindness in consider­
ing this aspect o f music.
Music developed distinctly as a recreational activity for the
blind has received less attention than it deserves. The correlation
o f opportunity with talent is one thing ; the correlation o f oppor­
tunity with desire is, quite another question, but o f equal importance.
It is the purpose o f this chapter to review the various phases o f
music education, emphasizing the possibilities o f personal satisfac­
tion and joy for the students throughout.
There are three types o f interest in music for talented and un­
talented alike. There is a personal, emotional reaction to music, a
love o f listening or o f self-expression. There is a mechanical
24 By Marion Kappes, department for the blind, Cleveland Public Schools.
26 The Blind, by Harry Best, p. 67. The Macmillan Co., New York, 1919.

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis



approach, an interest in instruments, in the production o f sound,
or in the technique o f performance. There is finally the intellectual
curiosity, the wish to analyze, to understand the theoretical basis
o f music, to know who the composers were and how they worked.
Any small mixed group, either o f children or o f adults, with or with­
out musical training or ability, will represent these three types o f
interest in music. A ll are legitimate and worthy o f attention and
Music enters largely into the life o f the child o f preschool age.
I f he does not see, he will be the more attracted by sounds. He will
discriminate instinctively between pleasant and unpleasant sounds;
and if he is helped to listen, is given an opportunity to experiment
with sounds himself, and is offered more musical than unmusical
sounds to which to attend, he will have established before he reaches
school a basis o f musical taste and enjoyment.
The development o f a sense o f rhythm and pleasure in rhythmical
motion goes far in early childhood. Response to rhythm is primi­
tive, but as soon as control o f personal rhythm is established ar­
tistic development has begun. Very little children may learn to
step to music o f varying tempo, to run and to skip and to play the
simple musical games o f the kindergarten. I f blind children are
given an opportunity early in life to express purposeful rhythm,
they will not establish those “ blindisms ”— crude habits o f repeated
motion—which are so hard to break in later life. An eafly develop­
ment o f a feeling for beauty o f form and motion is the basis for a
later appreciation o f form in music and particularly o f the relation
between music and movement.
From babyhood all children should hear and learn the music o f
childhood, the nursery rhymes and songs that are the inheritance
o f all o f us. There are delightful collections o f phonograph rec­
ords known as the “ Bubble B ooks” containing these children’s
ditties; moreover, probably every home, whether it has a phono­
graph or not, has a repertory o f songs—perhaps some o f them from
foreign lands—which should be passed on from one generation to
the next.
Blind children especially should be encouraged to experiment
with sounds and instruments. They may have drums and horns
and triangles and should be helped to use these with meaning.
Madame Montessori has included in her materials some excellent
musical apparatus—tone bars and musical bells— which could be
used to advantage with quite young children, but there are simple
substitutes which may serve when these expensive sets are not
Music in school or out is rightfully a joyful experience for a child.
When the formal study o f music is begun in school joy must not be
lost in a zeal for achievement or in an accumulation o f precise knowl­
edge. The introduction o f eurhythmies into schools for the blind has
proved that musical understanding and appreciation can be gained
through an experience so vital and so completely personal that it
remains a source o f pleasure throughout life, even for those who do
not specialize in music. “ Eurhythmies,” to quote Walter Damrosch,
“ would let daylight into many a dark torture chamber of the ordi­
nary teaching o f music, which consists mainly in the practicing o f
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis




dreary scales and the exclusion o f anything like feeling.15 In eu­
rhythmies classes the pupils move about the room interpreting with
steps and gestures the music which is played, note for note and beat
for beat. Quarter notes are walking steps; eighth notes are running
steps; a measure o f four beats is indicated by four successive posi­
tions of the arms similar to those used in conducting; loud music is
represented by strength in the b od y; soft music by relaxed posture.
Training is given in steadiness, quick response, control, balance, etc.
There are also exercises for form and grouping. After the funda­
mental vocabulary o f motion is familiar it may be used in the impro­
visation o f rhythms and later in making “ patterns ” o f pieces played,
representing their rhythm, form, and shading. These simple inter­
pretations, growing out of an understanding o f musical form, become
essentially original dances, affording the same pleasure that all true
dancing should give. The greatest contribution of eurhythmies to
the education of the blind is a freeing o f the personality through
music and motion, with a consequent re-creation o f powers deadened
by blindness.
Singing usually holds first place in any school music course.
Chorus work is featured in all schools for the blind and occupies a
prominent place on every school program. The numbers performed
are often of considerable difficulty, and since the parts are usually
learned by rote the chorus meetings must necessarily be given over
largely to drill. I f then it sometimes happens that the students con­
sider the chorus period recreational to an extent not warranted by
their interest in the music itself, it is probably because they can not
have the intellectual stimulation of reading new music which sighted
singers enjoy. The singing o f more or less familiar songs in informal
meetings is therefore more pleasurable to blind children. Many
hymns and patriotic and folk songs, which are naturally learned by
rote, ought to be in the repertory o f everv blind child; he will then
be able to take part in community sings with sighted singers and will
have a stock o f music to use for his own enjoyment.
School children ought to*have plenty o f chance to sing for the pure
fun o f singing. Perhaps the boys might even be allowed to use their
naturally lusty voices in a naturally lusty way once in a while at
least without serious damage.
It is well to remember that for many children, especially b$ys,
performance upon an instrument is less of a strain upon self-con­
sciousness than is singing. Many a boy can express his emotion on a
drum with greater satisfaction than with his voiee.
The instruments which the majority o f blind people are given
an opportunity to study are the piano and the organ. Many schools
do not approve o f teaching the blind to play portable instruments.
Whatever may be the arguments against teaching them to play the
smaller instruments, such as the violin, the clarinet, and the* cornet,
for professional use, there is not a doubt that from the recreational
point o f view all o f the arguments are in its favor. These instru­
ments are cheaper and more possible to own, they are easier to learn,
the music is simpler to read and to memorize—being written on
one staff instead o f on two or three—the music is more easily played
by ear, and the chance for ensemble work with its valuable social
10331°—27- ---- 5
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis



contacts is greater. Bands and orchestras o f blind and semisighted
players have been organized in many places and are performing
with much success and giving real pleasure to both members and
Trie study o f an instrument may well be considered a profitable
pastime. There are, o f course, difficulties to be overcome by sheer
hard work which is in no sense recreation, but there is a fascinat­
ing game element in the acquiring of technique. The pleasure which
each pupil finds in his music lesson will depend on whether his natu­
ral interest is emotional, mechanical, or intellectual. The wise teacher
will seek a balanced development through a tactful use o f the domi­
nant interest.
Performance on an instrument is not always a source o f enjoy­
ment to the blind. There are many players both blind and sighted
who do not enjoy playing. The reasons for this are various, but
in the case o f the blind the teachers bear a greater responsibility.
A blind pupil is limited much more than a sighted pupil by what
his teacher gives him to play. Many teachers are afraid to let
their pupils play dance music or jazz or popular tunes o f any sort.
They do not themselves like jazz, they are scornful o f music with
a popular appeal, and they do not know how to handle ,the sort o f
taste that does like it. Musicians should be big enough to give all
music a place in the music world and frank enough in the case o f
the blind to recognize that it is not always “ the best,” as the teacher
sees it, that is best for the pupil. Many blind young people are
missing joy from their music just because they can not play the
music o f the day, while their sighted companions can pick up any­
thing and play it, no matter how strict and high-brow their teacher
may be. The blind will get real joy out o f playing if they can play
music that they themselves like and that their associates like to hear.
And for the most part they do like high-class music.
In a stimulating book called “ Creative Music for Children,” 26
Mrs. Satis Coleman describes a successful experiment in music teach­
ing which has included the making o f simple instruments. For the
blind such music work holds interesting possibilities, combining as
it does manual with artistic training and appealing to the mechan­
ical instinct as well as the musical taste. Mrs. Coleman has suggested
a rich use o f leisure time employing only the simplest materials.
Every blind person should learn to be an appreciative listener.
There are many concert opportunities for the blind which would be
even more enjoyed by those who attend if they were trained to listen
intelligently. Here the phonograph and the radio come to the rescue
o f the music teacher, affording as they do a wealth o f material for
discussion and comparison and the gradual building up o f standards
of taste. In many large cities symphony concerts for children are
given for a nominal admission fee. Sometimes in connection with
these concerts illustrated talks on music are offered for the benefit o f
school children.
Theory and harmony are often considered dull necessities o f a
musical life, and those who can play what they hear without any
apparent effort are regarded with envy and discouragement by their
less gifted neighbors. And yet even those of mediocre talent may
26 Creative Music for Children, by Satis N. Coleman.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Lincoln School, New York, 1925.



learn their harmony at the keyboard in a practical, workable way,
and may find it a source of great pleasure for leisure hours as well
as a time saver in the studying and memorizing o f music. Playing
by ear is no longer frowned upon by music teachers; rather it is en­
couraged and taught and made a basis o f development for both
technique and theory. There is no need for theoretical music to be
a bore. Even for a child mind o f ordinary keenness there is some­
thing quite fascinating in the way chords behave. Especially when
children can work in groups, a music class is often as much looked
forward to as a play period.
The reading and writing o f Braille notation is usually the most
difficult task in the study o f music. Yet it is a necessary foundation
for later independent enjoyment of musical literature. I f the read­
ing from the beginning is more musical than mechanical, if it results
immediately in music, either heard, sung, or played, rather than in
a vocabulary o f signs, the learning will be less boresome. I f the
writing expresses something heard or to be performed rather than
an exercise in symbols, it, too, will seem worth learning.
The standards o f the music department of any school will gain
rather than suffer if the recreational values o f all musical activities
are duly weighed. Let there be every opportunity for hearing music.
Let time be found if possible for glee clubs, bands, orchestras, musicstudy clubs, or any form o f recreational music in which the pupils
may be interested. A ll residential schools should provide the bovs’
and girls’ sitting rooms with pianos and phonographs which the
pupils are free to use as they like. Anything which tends to create a
vital interest in and a sincere love for music is worthy a place in any
The place o f music in the out-of-school life o? the blind child will
be determined to a certain extent by what the schools offer, although
undoubtedly there are influences in the home and social life of all
children which are the perpetual despair o f the school music teachers.
The schools will have positive influence over out-of-school music
so far as they consider out-of-school conditions and possibilities. The
home teachers, the families, the societies for the blind, and other
interested organizations share the responsibility in making music a
wholesome recreation for the blind.
In his home and when he' is alone the blind student of music should
have musical resources. A phonograph and a growing collection o f
records is within the means of many and is a source o f pride as well
as pleasure. Every instrumental pupil should, if possible, own an
instrument and keep it in good tune and repair. Making a collection
o f instruments, no matter how crude, is an interesting hobby. For
those who like to read books about music or whose musical educa­
tion has advanced to the point where they enjoy reading new music
the public libraries offer interesting material. There is a large and
valuable collection o f compositions available for those who read
New York Point as well as the different forms of Braille.27
scores may be bought from the American Printing House for the
F ^ M o r t Avenue Louisville, K y .; the Illinois School for the Blind, Jack­
sonville, 111. , the Perkins Institution and Massachusetts School for the Blind, Watertown,
?*,N Rtl0n^1TJvnsi ltAUte1 for £he. Bli,nd> 224 Great Portland Street, London, w!
England , the Royal Blind Asylum, Craigmillar Park, Edinburgh Scotland. They may be
borrowed from the State library, Sacramento, Calif.; the State library, Albany, N. Y ;
Library of Congress, Washington; the National Library for the Blind, 1800 D Street
1NW., Washington; the New York Public Library.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis



A musical education ought to be a social asset to a blind person.
Those who take instrumental lessons should be encouraged to play
for social gatherings. The music teacher can help them to learn
pieces which they can and will play for their friends. There are
often opportunities for the blind to take part in ensemble groups, to
sing with others, or to play accompaniments--perhaps to play for
dances. Occasionally a blind boy will have enough initiative to
organize and direct a dance orchestra— to the detriment of his
musicianship, possibly, but the advantage o f his independence and
popularity. Broadcasting stations frequently give places on their
programs to blind performers, and an opportunity is thereby afforded
the blind artist to enjoy the experience o f performing for a large
audience without the embarrassment of appearing on a stage.
There are countless opportunities for the blind to hear good
music. Movements are on foot to place a radio set in the home o f
every blind person. The number o f free concert tickets which are
put at the disposal o f blind persons indicates the desire of managers
and clubs to cooperate in putting music within reach of all who
need it. In many cities there are free concerts, museum programs,
lectures on musical subjects, and the like, which the blind should
be informed of and urged to attend.
The music-memory contests which are organized and carried on
annually in several States may be entered by blind music students
to their great pleasure and profit. Committees in charge o f these
contests if approached on the subject are usually glad to cooperate
in making it possible for blind contestants to compete on equal terms
with others.
. ,,
, ,
For the benefit o f those who are interested in further study o f music
and its possibilities as a recreation, a reference list is appended which
includes books and music of recent publication or of particular
interest from a popular point o f view. (See pp. 73-74.) The titles
of other valuable books for the student and music lover can be ob­
tained from any library.
Many are the questions which are constantly raised in the minds
of those who would present music as a recreation for the blind. It
is hoped that the present chapter suggests solutions for some o f
them. The blind themselves would perhaps answer all these ques­
tions simply and sufficiently thus: a Music is an essential in our lives.
It is art, education, and recreation for us. It is more to us than to
those who see but it is not different. W e want unbounded music.
We would ask that all avenues o f learning, hearing, and making
music be opened to us as they are to others.”
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


The playground should have plenty o f grass. It should have
shade trees, but they should not interfere with the space for running
games. Provision should be made for the boundaries required by
many games. A cinder path in the grass provides a line that can be
distinguished by blind children. Fragrant shrubs such as lilacs,
mock oranges, and wisteria should be planted on the playground.
A playground for blind children should contain practically the
same equipment as playgrounds for seeing children, but special care
must be taken to indicate where the apparatus is, in order to prevent
accidents. In hot weather apparatus should be in the shade as much
as possible.
Although apparatus on the playground is desirable, it is wise not
to have too much. It will seem more attractive to the children if
they must take turns in using it.
Swings.— A circular path of fine gravel should be around each
swing. The diameter o f this circle should be at least 4 feet greater
than the reach o f the swing when it is in full motion, so that if a
child keeps outside the circle he will be safe. Most of the injuries
caused by SNvings occur to children on the ground, who are hit by
the swing when it is in motion. Swings should always be set
parallel to the playground fence or to a near-by building.
N ote.—Do not use a fence to encircle swing. It is not as safe as
a path, for children occasionally fall from the swing and might fall
on the fence. Besides, other children might climb on the fence while
the swing is in motion and thus be hurt.
Slides.— Both the straight and the wavy slides are popular and
give freedom o f motion.
Flying rings, like swings, should have a path around them. A
child swinging far out on these might hit another child playing
near by unless there is something to indicate the position of the rings.
Seesaws should be low, so that if a child gets off one end the child
on the other end will not bump too hard.
Sand boxes.— A corner with afternoon shade is the best place
for the sand box. I f there are many children that enjoy playing in
the sand it is advisable to have several small boxes— one for every
four children— rather than one large one. The sand should be
changed frequently.
An outdoor pavilion with benches and toys should be provided for
rainy weather.
28 A list of manufacturers of play equipment may be obtained from the Playground and
Recreation Association of America, 315 Fourth Avenue, New York City.

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis



Trolley coaster™—Draw taut a stout cable between two elevations,
the lower o f which may be about 5 feet from the ground, and the
other (which should be at least 100 feet away—better 120) about 5
feet higher, so that a weighted pulley suspended on this cable will
roll by gravity from the higher down to the lower end. Let a
child be this weight, holding on by both hands to a crossbar handle
attached to the pulley and suspended from it. Let him reach the
handle from a platform approached by steps. His feet should strike
the ground near the lower end and serve as a stop (a very long stiff
spiral spring on the cable is a safer stop). By means o f a cord
attached to the pulley the child can readily run the trolley coaster
back to the next child on the platform awaiting his turn. As any
child on a high platform will need to be cautioned against falling,
so a blind child will also against letting himself go before grasping
with both hands (we have protected ours with a railing). But there
is little danger in the case o f blind children, since they are notori­
ously careful about falling. O f course if this appliance is set up on
a hillside the coasting child will be at no time far above the ground.
Building logs.— One corner o f the playground should contain 20
or 30 logs about 12 feet long and some old boards, so that the children
can build cabins or forts. Play o f this kind not only is good physical
exercise but is also a stimulant to the imagination. With such mate­
rial as this children make up plays and games and make things that
give more happiness than the average manufactured toys or equip­
Tug-of-war rope.—A long stout tug-of-war rope should be a part
of the playground equipment.
Stilts.— Children can make stilts and spend happy hours walking
and racing on them.
Open-air roller-skating rink.— A large space o f concrete (about
40 feet by 60 feet) may be set off in an open field or in one corner
o f the playground for roller skating. The edges of this concrete
rink should be slightly turned up in order to indicate to the skaters
where the edge is.
Wading pool.™—To make a wading pool excavate a specified area
and construct a cement basin, placing at the lowest point a drain
that may be opened and closed at will. At the same point bring in
a supply water pipe, letting it extend a little higher than the grade
line o f the playground. A sand trap is necessary to prevent the
clogging o f drain pipes.
Such pools are usually circular in form, about 40 or 50 feet across,
with water 5 inches deep at the edge and 18 inches deep in the cen­
ter. The thickness required for the concrete walls depends some­
what on the climate. In the South the walls need not be more than
4 inches thick; northern climates demand heavier construction and
reinforcement. The top o f the side walls should slope outward so
that rain and drippings will drain away from the pool. Although
considerably used the circular pool is likely to be more expensive
than the pool o f straight-line shape because o f the difficulty in mak20 The directions for building and using the trolley coaster were supplied by Mr. Edward
E. Allen, director, Perkins Institution and Massachusetts School for the Blind, Watertown, Mass.
a° Adapted from Layout and Equipment of Playgrounds, published by the Playground
and Recreation Association of America, New York, 1921.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis



ing concrete forms. A hexagonal pool with three south faces de­
veloped with sand court and pergola is suggested as having all the
advantages o f th£ semicircle as to shade, with much lower cost of
The water should be let out o f the pool every few days and the
empty pool permitted to bake in the sun. These pools should be
used only for paddling and wading and not for swimming. A
fence with a gate should surround a wading pool used by blind

There should be one real playroom where playthings are kept on
open shelves, so that the children are free to come in and play
whenever they want to. The playthings should always be kept in
the same places, and the other objects in the room should be kept in
their accustomed places, too. Toys should be large enough to .be
handled. Many toys made by commercial firms are so small and so
intricate that they are not suitable for little children.


The following equipment has been successfully used in indoor
playrooms for very young blind children:
A small table, circular in shape, approximately 2 feet high and 3
or 4 feet in diameter, covered with white oilcloth. A blind child
may practice walking by holding on to the table and walking around
it. Small chairs are also useful.
A small stairway with a hand rail. This can be used to teach
children to go up and down stairs, and it also serves in playing house.
A small slide with a mat on the floor for the children to land on.
This is also suitable for the outdoor playground.
Building blocks.—Blocks made by a carpenter or some pupil that
has a knowledge o f tools are much better than the small and perish­
able blocks usually found in toy shops. W ith good blocks a child
can build a house large enough to stand up in.
Bean bags.— Every playroom should have at least half a dozen
bean bags, about 6 inches square, made from heavy ticking and
filled with small beans. Mechanical toys and toys that make music,
or any noise, are favorites with blind children.
Noah's Ark.—A small child finds great joy in a Noah’s Ark that
has wooden animals sufficiently large to be handled and played with.
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Toy animals o f every kind should be in the playroom o f every
school for the blind to help the children to gain an idea o f the
animals represented.
Spools a7bd heads.— Old spools and wooden beads strung on tape
make good playthings.

The gymnasium should be long rather than square, so that there
will be sufficient room for races. The floor should be of hardwood
surrounded by a cement border 3 or 4 feet wide as a warning o f the
nearness o f the walls. This is better than having the floor sloped
at the wall, as the cement border permits all the floor space to be
used, whereas a curved floor cuts off much valuable space.
The following gymnasium equipment has proved satisfactory:
Bar stalls, parallel bars, rope ladders, wall pulleys and weights,
flying rings (not traveling ones*), jumping standards, “ horse,”
hanging ropes, jumping rope, window ladders, punching bags, bas­
ket balls and other balls, inclines, mats, stationary bicycle, rowing
I f the swimming pool is built under the gymnasium care must be
taken to have it built sufficiently high so that it will drain easily.
Careful attention should be paid both to the filtering system and
the heating system. I f the pool is in a separate building it should
have a skylight top, which gives far more light and better ventila­
tion than an ordinary roof. In warm weather the skylight can be
rolled back altogether and the pool exposed to the sun.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

I f physical training is necessary for the complete development of the seeing,
how much more important must it be for the blijnd? Shall they be handi­
capped with feebleness, awkwardness, and helplessness in addition to blind­
ness? The surroundings of the blind do not favour the development of activity,
self-reliance, and independence. Parents and friends find it easier to attend to
the wants and requirements of their blind children than to teach them to be
self-helpful in the common acts o f everyday life. Among the poor the mother,
busy from morning till night, is thankful if her little blind child will sit still
and thus keep out of danger. Among the rich a mistaken kindness leads the
friends to guard every movement, and prevent physical exertion. As a rule
the vitality of the blind is much below the average vitality of seeing persons,
and any system of education which does not recognize and try to overcome
that defect will be a failure. It is the lack of energy and determination, not
the want of sight, that causes so many failures among the blind. Even if a
blind person becomes an accomplished scholar, a good musician, a skilled
mechanic, who will employ him if he is timid, awkward, and helpless? He
must have faith in his own capabilities and be able to inspire confidence in
others. There is a prejudice against the employment of the blind in remunera­
tive positions; and it can only be overcome by giving the blind person a train­
ing equal to the seeing, with whom he has to compete, and an activity equal to
all requirements. By careful examination it will be found that the blind who
are leading lives of usefulness are those who have not allowed their blindness
to debar them from physical activity.
* * * It [physical training] is a source of enjoyment to the blind, but it
is a great deal more than that— it is a condition precedent to all education and
all success in the teaching of the blind, because, without confidence, courage,
and determination to go about freely in the world there is no chance of success
for a blind person, and that confidence and courage are given by the play­
ground and gymnasium.
f rom an address made at a meeting of the London Conference o f Workers for the
Blind by the late F. J. Campbell, principal of the Royal Normal College for the Blind.
Upper Norwood, London, England.

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

* * * Through a mistaken idea of kindness blind children are frequently
pitied and petted at home and guarded so carefully against any possibility of
mishap that they become absolutely dependent and inactive in both mind and
body. Too often the relatives and friends of blind children regard them as
outside and separated from the ordinary duties, pleasures, and interests of
everyday life and do not realize that they crave responsibility, amusement, and
recreation just as every human being does. They have, as Sir Arthur Pearson
says, “ too much pity for their blindness and not enough sympathy with their
human natures.”
It seems to be the general opinion of persons working with blind children
that they should be treated exactly as other children excepting in cases where
there is need for stimulus to keep their bodies and minds in action. In work­
ing with blind children their tendency to sit down and dream or to wander
about aimlessly must be kept constantly in mind, and an attempt made to
counteract it by arousing a desire for active games.
To encourage the blind child to take part in the normal activities o f child­
hood is very vital and should be begun in infancy. As soon as a blind child
begins to use its hands toys should be given to it, preferably those which
make a noise to attract its attention and arouse its mind. A blind child
should never sit long in one place alone and unoccupied. When it has to
sit still it should be given various-sized balls—some with bells inside— blocks
of different shapes, pebbles, animals with a variety o f coverings, such as wool,
fur, or hair. Teddy bears, dolls, wooden beads, toys of sweet-scented wood,
a harmonica or some other musical toy, or a rocking horse will keep the child
occupied and happy. A sand box, provided with pails, shovels, and molds is
excellent for these children. Olay as well as sand is invaluable to blind
children because of its use in developing the sense o f touch.
All small children like to help with the household duties; and while later
on they may not consider this play, still blind children will get a great deal
of happiness by being useful. They can easily be taught to. prepare veg­
etables, to wash dishes, to gather fruit, to feed chickens, to knit, to string
beads, to wind wool, and these occupations will keep them active and happy
and at the same time be of great educative value. Older children will enjoy
basketry, reed work, and cord work. The girls can be taught to sew both
by hand and on the machine and if provided with self-threading needles can
work quite independently. Boys can be taught to be very successful carpenters.
Imitative play is a vital part of the education of all children and is espe­
cially important for blind children for it gives them an opportunity for devel­
opment through imitation which they do not get as readily as other children.
Girls find satisfaction in playing house, school, or store; but boys will demand
something more exciting * * *. Such games should be encouraged, and
space and “ properties” provided.
Blind children need to hear the voices of the people around them and should
be talked to as much as possible and questioned as to what they hear or feel
so as to learn to take an interest in what is going on around them and to
become sensitive to and to interpret correctly a greater variety o f sounds and
sensations. Stories either read or told to them will always interest them,
and they will enjoy memorizing stories or poetry. They should become familiar
with the stories all children love, nursery rhymes, folk and fairy tales of
various literatures, Uncle Remus stories by Joel Chandler Harris, Just So
stories by Rudyard Kipling, Nonsense Books by Edward Lear, and also books
by Sara Cone Bryant, Beatrix Potter, and Lewis Carroll. As they grow older
they will become interested in books of adventure, of travel, and o f biography
(especially of successful blind people) and will enjoy description more than
other children.
32 The Playground [New York], Vol. XIY, No. 9 (December, 1922), pp. 481-488.

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis



Just as all children, they love dramatic play, such as the spontaneous
dramatization, either in pantomime form or with impromptu words, o f the
stories they hear. Amateur dramatics takes an important part in most schools
for the blind. Charades, minstrels, pageants, and simple plays are very
popular forms o f recreation, and even the more ambitious productions such as
Shakespeare have been presented with remarkable success.








Physical training.— The physical well-being of blind children is freauentlv
neglected in their homes. They are forbidden to help about the house for
tear of their destroying something and are not allowed to play with other
children because of the danger of their being hurt, and the result is that thev
are underdeveloped through lack of ordinary activities of childhood by which
other children are unconsciously developed. Work in the gymnasium will
make up somewhat for these disadvantages if the defects of the children are
carefully studied and exercises prepared to correct them. It is well o f course
to begin with the more simple exercises and drills, but as soon as courage and
confidence are developed the children will be able to take almost the same
work as seeing persons can. Simple calisthenics and wand drills can be taken
by small children, and later they will learn to use Indian clubs, dumb-bells
parallel, horizontal, and stall bars, horses, trapezes, climbing ropes and hori­
zontal ladders. Marching is splendid training for blind children especially
if they are taught to keep distances. Wrestling, volley ball, push ball are
also favorite activities. Some blind children become excellent bowlers No
special device is necessary to make bowling alleys serviceable for the blind
A hand rail above the ball rack about 30 inches from the floor and extending
to the foul line is a slight aid to bowlers in getting their direction but is not
Swimming is an admirable and popular recreation. Some blind children
learn to dive by means of a diving chute by Which they learn the right angle
to enter the water in order to make a successful dive. There is little a blind
person can not do in any kind of diving and swimming.
Folk and aesthetic dancing are also taught in many blind schools but is most
successful when there are a few children with partial vision. Dancing gives
the sightless child confidence in moving about freely and also cultivates poise.
Social dancing is very popular and can be made possible even for the totally
Playgrounds.—The degree o f blindness and age at which sight was lost have
a. very direct bearing upon the play of the blind child. Children with partial
vision and those who did not lose their sight until after they were old enough
to learn some children’s games become the teachers o f those who do not see at
all. In every group o f blind children there will always be some more energetic
and venturesome ones; but some children are naturally very timid and many
are made so by unwise restraint, so as a general rule blind children must be
provided with good playground apparatus and a sympathetic and ingenious nlav
leader before they will play.
A successful way o f laying out a playground is to have it surrounded on all
sides by shade trees in regular rows. In order to avoid the danger o f the
children running against these trees, the playgrounds may be bounded by walks
which the moment a blind child sets foot upon them are a warning o f danger.
Thus^ it is possible for children to run freely about the playgrounds. This
plan is especially practical in a large institution, where it is best to have several
playgrounds m order to separate the children into small groups.
Pets. It brings great joy to the blind child who must depend upon others
for so much help to be given the responsibility o f the care of some pet. Helen
Keller tells of the happiness a canary gave h e r; other blind persons take care
o f chickens, pigeons, or rabbits. Dogs are always excellent pets for children
Games. Circle games with singing and action, hide-and-seek, Roman soldiers
(a version of prisoners’ base) blind man’s buff, Red Rover are a few o f the
playground^ games which blind children enjoy. Modifications o f other games
come about naturally after the children learn to play spontaneously. The
nature o f the playgrounds, the number o f children, the proportion o f children
with partial vision and their ages, will all have an influence on the games and
the adaptations.
earth was a version o f tag used on one playground in which
the child who was “ i t ” remained on the sidewalk and tried to catch the^ther
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis



children as they crossed from the grass on one side o f the walk to the other.
Blind children enjoy the ordinary amusements such as hiking, automobiling,
swimming, rowing, skating, and playing push ball and tug-of-war.
Gardening.— Gardening is a splendid occupation for blind children and has
been introduced into many blind schools with success. It teaches delicacy
of touch, for the little seeds and young shoots must be handled with the utmost
gentleness. Gardening also develops neatness, order, accuracy, measurement,
and concentration, and affords the only chance for many children who come
from congested districts o f cities to obtain knowledge of nature.
The ground should first be plowed and fertilized and then be given over
to the children, who with some instruction and direction should be able to
care for their gardens themselves. The hoeing, raking, leveling, and dividing
up into individual plots can be done by the children by means of cord and
graduated sticks. A board about 8 inches wide and as long as the rows are
to be will simplify the planting. The child can use the board placed so that
the ends are against the end stakes as a guide in digging a trench for his
seeds. When the seeds for the first row are planted he simply turns the
board and plants along the other sid e; in a similar manner the other rows are
finished. The children have little difficulty in telling the plants from the
weeds (most weeds are prickly to the touch, have smaller leaves and more
slender stems), and they are able to keep their gardens cultivated with very
little assistance.
Athletics —-Football is the most popular game and most successful that is
played by blind boys. Two concessions only need to be made them when they
are playing with boys with sight. One is that the ball must be put in play
on the word, “ pass,” thus enabling them to start at the right moment. The
second concession is that goal kicking is abolished. One -game in which five
touchdowns were made by blind boys, one after a 40-yard run, shows pretty
clearly that these boys can make the game very interesting.
Basket ball may also be adapted for the blind by substituting padded barrels
for^ baskets and having small sleigh bells sewed on the outside o f the ball,
which is passed on the ground from one player to another. This will interest
younger boys, but is too far from being real basket ball to. satisfy the older
A game resembling baseball is sometimes played by the blind. The diamond
is about one-third the regular size. The pitcher must have partial vision.
The pitcher is required to throw the ball underhanded and to keep the same
rate of speed at all times and to pitch when a signal is given him by the
umpire. The batter strikes at every ball pitched and learns not only to hit
the balls with an ordinary bat but to hit them on the ground, for blind fielders
would be helpless with the ball in the air.
Field sports in which blind boys can compete on an equal footing with the
seeing boys without concessions being made to them are o f course more
interesting and valuable. Competition in athletic sports is almost imperative
in schools for the blind for it helps the pupils to forget the handicap under
which they labor and it arouses their ambition and encourages self-reliance.
Realizing the value of such activity, those interested in the blind organized
the National Athletic Association of Schools for the Blind. [See pp. 45-48.]







Entertainments, parties, etc.— An effort should be made to have blind per­
sons go out as much as possible. Lectures, concerts, theaters, church, and
other public gatherings and entertainments at which there is something inter­
esting to hear and people to meet will be interesting diversions. Blind chil­
dren either in schools or in their homes should have opportunities to enter­
tain their friends and to learn to be model hosts and hostesses. Some schools
make a point of having a party once a month. Different groups take turns
entertaining the rest of the school, and sometimes the whole school will enter­
tain friends from outside. Musical or dramatic programs may be given, dances
or card parties. Special holidays such as Christmas, Fourth o f July, and
Halloween may always be celebrated by some sort o f a feature party. A mas­
querade Halloween party was given at one blind school, and the fact that the
masqueraders could not see the grotesque costumes did not seem to detract
a bit from the enjoyment. Where there are a few children with partial vision,
Maypole dances and figure marching are very successful.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

I have felt for a long time that a tabulation of the different diversions blind
people have would be helpful both to teachers o f the young blind and to the
older people in the world who no longer see. In order to make such a tabu­
lation I requested in the April (1923) number o f the Ziegler Magazine that
its readers should write me what their diversions are. Out o f the 15 000 com­
puted readers o f the magazine only 42 sent in replies. These replies, though
so few in number, are excellent, full, and valuable. They come from all parts
o f the country. Most of their writers were institution-trained, active busy
citizens; and while a few are still students, a few describe themselves as now
laid on the shelf because o f old age, who would be unhappy indeed were they
unable to while away their accumulating hours o f leisure.
Twenty-eight of the 42 replies are from men, 16 from wom en; 3 are hand­
written, 3 dictated, 4 in point or Braille, and 33 typewritten— which means that
most of those replying are owners of a typewriter. One o f the best letters
however, is in point.
Haying tabulated and studied the replies, I find that they mention 102 differ­
ent diversions, that as a rule the men tell o f having twice as many both in
number and variety, as the women d o ; that, while they resort more often to the
purely passive pastimes, like listening to radio or phonograph, they also indulge
far more in the active outdoor sports, like rowing, fishing, and hiking, than the
women do. One even enjoys opossum hunting with dogs at night. But in selfentertainment reading, puzzles, solitaire, story writing, etc.— the women stand
in some lespects better than the men. One woman finds her greatest relaxation
in swimming, as eight men also do. Eight returns, most of them from men,
stress the love of nature— the solitude o f the woods with their occasional bird
notes, and the music and murmurs o f the leaves and water courses. Strangely
enough no one mentions smoking, even as a pastime.
In general the diversions oftenest mentioned are the social ones, like cards,
dancing, clubs; second in frequency come out-of-door activities, particularly
walking with a friend; third, self-entertainment; fourth, the purely passive:
fifth, the home occupations—for even a few of the men enjoy housework; sixth
the sought entertainment, like concerts or visiting places of interest; seventh’
the social-service pursuits, such as teaching fellow blind people gainful occupa­
tions and pastimes or entertaining children. The most popular single diversion
is reading.
Finally, frequent correspondence with friends, and hosts of them— nationally
in the mother tongue, but internationally in Esperanto3i— is stressed as a most
delightful and mutually satisfactory pastime, since it brings “ Light in dark­
ness, hope in despair, and help in need.”
The prevailing thought of these two-score writers is that healthful diversions
brighten quite the half o f life, and that those who spend their leisure without
them are the really blind.
tho S
director of the Perkins Institution and Massachusetts School
fo r th e Blind, in The Beacon [London], Vol. VIII, No. 83 (November, 1923) » 10
* J nÎ2.riIîati0? concerning Esperanto can be obtained from the Esperanto Association
of North America, Pierce Building, Copley Square, Boston.
"O “

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Atkinson, Robert K .: Play for Children in Institutions. Russell Sage Founda­
tion, New York, 1923.' 44 pp.
Children's Bureau, IT. S. Department of Labor: Play and Recreation. Publi­
cation No. 92. Washington, 1923. 56 pp.
Garrison, Charlotte G .: Permanent Play Materials for Young Children.
Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1926. 122 pp.
Gulick, Luther H alsey: A Philosophy o f Play. Charles Scribner’s Sons, New
York, 1920. 291 pp.
Lee, Joseph: Play in Education. The Macmillan Co., New York, 1923. 500 pp.

Bancroft, Jessie H .: Games for the Playground, Home, School, and Gymnasium,
The Macmillan Co., New York, 1918. 463 pp.
Children’s Bureau* U. S. Department of L a b or: A Brief Manual o f Games for
Organized Play Adapted from Standard Sources. Publication No. 113.
Washington, 1923. 39 pp.

Poulsson, E m ilie: Finger Plays. Lothrop (now Lothrop, Lee & Shepard),
Boston, 1905. 80 pp.
Walker, Gertrude, and Harriet S. Jenks: Songs and Games for Little Ones.
Oliver Ditson Co., Boston, 1912. 136 pp.

Brown, Florence W ., and Neva L. Boyd: Old English and American Games.
Saul Bros., Chicago, 1915. 55 pp.
Burchenal, Elizabeth: Dances of the People. G. Schirmer, New York, 1913.
83 pp.
Burchenal, E lizabeth: Folk-Dances and Singing Games. G. Schirmer, New
York, 1909. 92 pp.
Pedersen, Dagny, and Neva X. Boyd: Folk Games of Denmark and Sweden.
Saul Bros., Chicago, 1915. 58 pp.
Pedersen, Dagny, and Neva L. B oyd : Folk Games and Gymnastic Play. Saul
Bros., Chicago, 1914. 43 pp.
Spacek, Anna, and Neva L. B oyd : Folk Dances of Bohemia and Moravia.
Saul Bros., Chicago, 1917. 45 pp.

Children’ s Bureau, U. S. Department o f Labor: Backyard Playgrounds.
Folder No. 2. Washington, 1923.
Education, Bureau of, TJ. S. Department o f the In te rio r: Athletic Badge Tests
for Boys and Girls, prepared by the Playground and Recreation Association
of America. Physical Education Series No. 2. Washington, 1923. 17 pp.
----------------: Preparation of School Grounds for Play Fields and Athletic
Events, by Dorothy Hutchinson. Physical Education Series No. 1. Washing­
ton, 1923. 17 pp.

Hazeltine, A lice I . : Plays for Children. American Library Association, Chi­
cago, 1921. 116 pp.
P layground and Recreation Association of A m erica: Selected List o f Plays
and Operettas for Children and Young People.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis



Bryant, Sara Cone: How to Tell Stories to Children. Houghton Mifflin Co.,
Boston, 1905. 260 pp.
Bryant, Sara C .: Best Stories to Tell to Children. Houghton Mifflin Co., Bos­
ton, 1912. 181 pp.
Stories to Tell to Children; a selected list with stories and poems for holiday
programs. Third edition. Carnegie library, Pittsburgh, 1921. 76 pp.

Adams, Charles M agee: “ The World and the Blind Man.” Atlantic Monthly
[Boston], vol. 134, No. 5 (November, 1924), pp. 595-602.
Best, H a rry : The Blind. The Macmillan Co. New York, 1919. 763 pp.
Burritt, O. H., Principal Pennsylvania Institution for the Instruction of the
Blind, Overbrook, Philadelphia: “ Recreation in a School for the Blind.”
The Playground, [New York], Yol. Y, No. 2 (May, 1911), pp. 59-69.
Campbell, Charles F. F., Superintendent, Ohio State School for the Blind, and
M ary Dranga Cam pbell: “ Suggestions for the Blind and Their Friends.”
Outlook, for the Blind [Columbus, Ohio], Vol. VII, Not 3 ('October, 1913),
pp. 61—64.
Cow gill, A lbert G., Principal Teacher, Boys’ School, Pennsylvania Institution
for the Instruction o f the Blind, Overbrook, Philadelphia: The Story o f the
Overbrook Boy Scouts. Reprinted from the Eighty-fourth Annual Report of
the Pennsylvania Institution for the Instruction o f the Blind, 1916. 23 pp.
Green, S. M., Superintendent, Missouri School for the Blind, St. Louis:
“ Training the Blind Pupil for Citizenship.” Twenty-fourth Biennial Conven­
tion, American Association of Instructors of the Blind, Colorado Springs,
Colo., June, 1918, pp. 65-68.
H alfpenny, A m y K ., Instructor, Pennsylvania Institution'for the Instruction
of the Blind, Overbrook, Philadelphia: “ Helps for the Mother o f a Blind
Child.” Outlook for the Blind [Columbus, Ohio], Yol. I l l, No. 1 (April,
1914), pp. 41—46.
Lewis, F. Park, President, Board o f Trustees, N.ew York State School for the
Blind, Batavia: “ The Blind Child.” Outlook for the Blind (Columbus, Ohio),
Vol. X, No. 1 (April, 1916), pp. 5-9. •
M olter, Harold, Principal of Boys’ Department, Perkins Institution and
Massachusetts School for the Blind: “ Games for the blind which may be
played anywhere.” Popular Mechanics [Chicago], Vol. XXV, No. 1 (Janu­
ary, 1916), pp. 11-14.
Pearson, Sir A rth u r: Victory over Blindness. Geo. H. Doran Co., New York,
1919. 265 pp.
Rutherford, Elizabeth, Principal, Kindergarten, Texas School for the Blind,
Austin: “ Recreation and Play for Blind Children.” Twenty-sixth Biennial
Convention, American Association of Instructors of the Blind, Austin, Tex.,
June, 1922, pp. 31-35.
W oolston, R obert W ., Superintendent, the Illinois, School for the Blind, Jack­
sonville: “ The Social Education of Blind Children; How can we train
them to take their normal places in their home communities?” Twenty-fifth
Biennial Convention, American Association of Instructors of the Blind, Overlea, Md., June, 1920, pp. 69-72.

Botsford, Florence H udson : Folk Songs of Many Peoples. The Woman’s Press,
New York, 1921. In 2 volumes: Vol. I, 235 p p ; Vol. II, 464 pp.
Cheatham, K it t y : A Nursery Garland. G. Schirmer, New York. 1917. 117 pp.
Davison, Archibald T., and Thomas W hitney Surette: 140 Folk-Tunes. Con­
cord Series Not. 7. The Boston Music Co., Boston, 1921. 154 pp.
Elliott, J. W .: Mother Goose Nursery Rhymes and Nursery Songs. McLoughlin Bros. (In c.), New York, 1870. 110 pp.
Farnsworth, Charles H., and Cecil J. Sharp: Folk-Songs, Chanteys, and Sing­
ing Games. H. W. Gray Co., New York, 1916. I l l pp.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis



Mayhew, Ralph, and Burges Johnson: The Bubble Books (14 volumes, 14-15
pages each) with phonograph records by Columbia Graphophone Co. Harper
& Bros., New York, 1917-22.
Sharp, Cecil J . : Nursery Songs from the Appalachian Mountains. Novello &
Co. (Ltd.), London, England, 1921. 34 pp.
Shaw, Edna: Songs to Sing. Simcoe Publishing Co., Buffalo, N. Y., 1922.
24 pp.
Smith, Eleanor, Charles H. Farnsworth, and C. A. Fullerton: Children’s
Hymnal. American Book Co., New York, 1918. 284 pp.
Twice 55 Community Songs. C. C. Birchard Co., Boston. No. 1 : The Brown
Book (1919). 62 pp. No. 2 : The Green Book (1923). 176 pp.
Wier, Albert E.: Songs the Children Love to Sing. D. Appleton & Co., New
York, 1916. 256 pp.

Brower, H arriette: Story-Lives of Master Musicians. Frederick A. Stokes Co.,
New York, 1922.- 371 pp.
Cather, Katherine Dunlap: Pan and His Pipes. Victor Talking Machine Co.,
Camden, N. J., 1916. 83 pp.
Chapin, Anna A lice: The Heart o f Music. Dodd, Mead & Oo., New York,
1906. 299 pp.
Faulkner, Anne Shaw: What W e Hear in Music. Victor Talking Machine
Co., Camden, N. J., 1913. 398 pp.
Lillie, Lucy C.: The Story o f Music and Musicians for Young Readers. Harper
& Bros., New York, 1886. 245 pp.
Mason, Daniel Gregory: A Guide to Music for Beginners and Others. The
Baker & Taylor Co., New York, 1910. 243 pp.
Scholes, Percy A .: The Book o f the Great Musicians. Oxford University Press,
London and New, York, 1920. 124 pp.
Tapper, Thomas: First Studies in Music Biography. Theodore Presser Co.,
Philadelphia, 1900. 316 pp.
W hitcom b, Ida Prentice: Young People’s Story o f Music. Dodd, Mead & Co.,
New York, 1908. 400 pp.

Coleman, Satis N .: Creative Music for Children. Lincoln School, New York,
1925. 220 pp.
Jaques-Dalcroze, E m ile: Rhythm, Music and Education (translated from the
French). G. P. Putnam’s Sons, New York, 1921. 366 pp.
Pennington, J o: The Importance of Being Rhythmic. G. P. Putnam’s Sons,
New York, 1925. 142 pp.
Schauffler, Robert Haven : The Musical Amateur. Houghton Mifflin Co., Bos­
ton, 1911. 261 pp.
Scholes, P ercy A .: The Listener’s Guide to Music. Oxford University Press,
London and New York, 1919. 106 pp.
Seymour, H arriet A .: What Music Can Do for You. Harper & Bros., New
York, 1920. 215 pp.
Spaeth, Sigm und: -The Common Sense of Music. Boni & Liveright, New York,
1924. 375 pp.
Stanford, Charles V illiers, and Cecil F orsyth : History o f Music. The Mac­
millan Co., New York, 1916. 384 pp.
Stone, Kathryn E.: Music Appreciation Taught by Means o f the Phonograph.
Scott Foresman & Co., Chicago, 1922. 175 pp.
V ictor Talking Machine Co., Camden, N. J.: Music Appreciation for Little
Children. 1920. 175 pp.
----------------: Music Appreciation with the Victrola for Children. 1923. 288 pp.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


Alphabet Game, the______________
Anagrams_____ ________________ H ill
Animal Imitations_______1.111111111111111”
Animal Noises.
Animal Noises_________________
Animal, Vegetable, or MineraLI.IIIIIIIIIII
Athletic meets_______ _________
Automobile Relay Race____ 11.. ” ” 1.1’ *'
Bake Your Pies______________ _____
Battering Ram_______________
Bean ana Rice Race__________*111
Bean-Bag Basket____________________ H”
Bean-Bag Pass_________________ _____ "I
Bean-Bag Spelling______________
Bear,WoIfj and Sheep________________ III
Beast, Bird, or Fish___________•_______
Belled Cat, the_______________________
Black Magic__ .11111111111111111
Bob o’ Link;__________________________ II
Boiler Burst,,the_______________________I
Bouncing Ball___________________ IIIIIII
Tenpins or Bowling
Boy Scouts.
Brahma Puzzle, the_____________________
Building logs_____________________ IIII”
Caii Baii....................................... mum
Camp Fire Girls,
Capping Verses________________________
Cards_______________________________ I
Cat and Dog___________ *_______________
Catch-and-PullTugof War.____________ I
Character Game_______________________
Charades________________________ _____
Chess and Checkers.
Chess and Checkers____________________
Circle Jump the Shot__________________
Circle Relay Race_______________________
Circle Tenpins_________________________
Circus Riders__________________________
Clap In and Clap Out___________ ______
Clock Game___________________________
Clothespin Race__________ .
Club Ball............................................m i l l l
Couple Relay Race__________________ HI
Crab_____________________________ ____
Folk dancing.
Dillar, Dollar__________________________
Direction Game_________________ ______
Dog and Bones___________________ _____
Dramatics_____________ _____..I ______ I
Drop and Guess_______ ......................... .
Drop the Bean Bag..... ............................... .
Duck Race____________________________
Easter-egg hunt............. .......................... .
Echo______ _____________________ _____
Entertainments, parties, etc____ 1111111111
Parties, games for.
Equipment for playground, playroom, and
Esperanto, correspondence in____________
Exchange__________________ ________
Farmyard, the__________________ I..I
Fence Tin Can___________ ______ ..H U .
Fishing_________________________ m i n i
Flying ring?___________ ____ ..111.11111
Folk dancing___________________
Football. . . ____________________ m m -







10331°— 27----- 6
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

















Forfeits......... .....! ___________
Fruit Basket........;___ I____ ""I"..........*
Fruits____________________ i m m i m *
Gardening________1111111111111111111111111 53,70
Geography____________ 1111111111111111
Geography C h a in ..m _ .m m iI I I I I im iI I I
Girl Scouts.
Going to Jerusalem___________
Grab Bag___________________ IHH
Grandfather’s Garden_______ II. I
Grandfather’s T ru n k ................. HH
Grocery Store_________________IIIIIIIH
Grunt, Piggy, Grunt________
Guess What I Am _______________
Guessing Game_________________HUH
Guessing Weights____________ 1—111111*11
Gymnasium (equipment)________ HIIII ”'
Gymnasium work_____________ _
G ypsy_____________ ________ _______
Halloween games____________________
Heel and Toe Relay Race___________111111”
Here We Come (Trades)_________I ...I I I I I I
Hickory Dickory Dock___________
H ide_____________________________HU
Hide and Seek_______________
Hide the Ball____ _______________ HI
Hot B all__________________________ IIIIIII
How D o You Like I t ? ___________ IIIIIIIII
How D o You Like Your Neighbors?HHIim
How Many Words a M inute?_________ HH
Huckle, Huckle, Bean Stalk_________
Ice skating.
Winter sports.
Imaginary H id in g ____________IIIIIIIIHHI
Imitation, games of_______________ IIIIIIIII
Animal Imitations.
Indoor games, miscellaneous (for little chil­
Indoor games, miscellaneous (foHoider boys
and girls)______________________________
Indoor Shuffleboard______________ IIII
Jacob and R achel.____________ III” I
Jump, Pig, over the Stile..................... IIIIIII
Kangaroo Relay Race___________
Keep off the Earth___________________ IIIH
Kingand Courtiers______________ IIHH IIII
King’s Run, th e____________________ HI
Leapfrog_____________________ IIIIIIIIIIIII
Leapfrog, continuous_________________ IIII”
Leapfrog R ace_______________________ IIIII
Leg of Mutton__________________ II.IIIIIII
Little Ball, Pass Along________________ IIII
Little children, games and play for________ I
Little Miss M ullet______________________ I
M agic____________ i_________________ IIIII
Making Words out of W ord s.IIIIIIIIIim i'
Marvelous Memory______________________
M emory_____________________ I_________ H
M idnight
Missing Adjectives_________________ HHH
Museum study.
Moving Alphabet______,__________________
Museum stu d y_________________________II
Music (game)__________________________ II
Music as recreation for the blind__________
Musical Ball_____________________________
Musical Notes__________________________ I
Nailing Race_____________________________
Nature study.
Nimble Coin, th e________________________





__________ minim





Obstacle Belay Bace____________________
Old Witch_____________________________
Older boys and girls, recreation for________
Our Old Granny Doesn’t Like Tea----------Outdoor excursions_______________ ____ . .
Ourdoor games, miscellaneous (for little chil-



Outdoor games, miscellaneous (for older boys
and girls)---------------------------------------- — 35
Overhead Pass Ball Belay Bace---------------28
Parties, games for----------------------------------39
Partner Tree Tag----------------- ------- --------63
Pavilion, outdoor------------------------26
Peg Solitaire (a puzzle)-------- ------------------P ets________________________
------ 53.69
Phonics Game-------------------------------------15
Pinning the Tail on the Donkey--------------63.69
Playground (equipment)--------------------—65
Playroom for little children (equipment) —
Pleasantville----------,--------- .----------- ------- Pleased or Displeased__________________ — 32
Points of the Compass__________________
Poison Stick______________
Pole Battle____________________________
Pom Pom Pullaway__________________—
Poor Kitty__________________
Potato Race___________________________
Prince of Paris-------------------------------------35
Pumpkin Fortune-------- -----------------------26
Puzzles................................................ —----49
Racing on Blocks----------------------------------18
Railroad__________________ ___________
Red and Black_________________________
References, list o i----------------------------------42
Relay races----------------------------- ------------6
Rhythm games and folk games and dances..
Roll Ball--------------------------------------------51
Roller-skating rink, open-air-------------------51
Rowing----------------------- -----------................
Sack Race------------- -------------- --------------63
Sand boxes ___________________ — —----6
Sandman, the---------------------------------31
Scandal____________ _____ ____________
Scent____________ ____________________
School_____________________ ___________
Scouting_______________ - .................... ......
Seesaws___________ ____ ___ ______
Sense games------------------------- --------------- 16,31
Ship Alphabet, the---- --------------------------21
Slap Tag........................................................
Snapping the Apple------------------------------

Special days----------------- ------ ----------------19
Spelling Game--------------- ------ ---------------24
Spelling Match__________________ :-------49
Spider Bace____________________________
Spider Web_________________ ______ ___
Sport X _______________________________
Squirrel and Nut-------------------------------- —
Stage Coach___________________________
Stairway for playroom (illustration)---------11
Stilts__________________ - ------ -------------41
Stoop Tag-------- ---------------------------------45
Stride Relay Bace--------------------------------30
Stringing Race----------------------------- ------49
Stunts______________ s----------- ------ --------51
Swimming.— -------------- ---------------- ;-----66
Swimming pool.------------------------ ----------63
Swings__________ — ------------ --------------25
Table games.......................................... .......
Tag-the-Wall Relay Bace..... ..................... ...
Tap the Rabbit------- .----------------------------8
Tapping Game________________________
Team Bowling---------------------------- ---------22
Tenpins or Bowling-------- — ............ ..........
Team Bowling.
Three-Legged Race____________ ________
Tin Ball................... - ...................................
Tobogganing” ~See Winter sports.
Tommy Tiddler’s Ground------- — ---------16
Touch____________________ ____ —-----—
Track athletics.
Athletic meets.
Here We Come
games of.
Trolley coaster--------------------------------------Tug of War--------------------- ------ :-------— .36,64
Catch-and-Pull Tug of War
Up, Jenkins 1-------- ------- -----------------------51
Various recreational activités-------------------64
Wading pool----------------------------- ----------18
W eathercock------------------------------------}—
What Will You Bring?.................................
Wheelbarrow Race--------------------------------9
Who Am I?-----------------------------------------9
Who Has Gone from the Ring?....................
Who Is Knocking at My Door?...................
Why Is It like Me?----------- ----------- --------51
Winter sports---------------------------------------42
Wolf and the Sheep, the.................. ...........
Wolf, Man, or Gun--------------------------------17
Word Game__________________ ________
Wrestling...______________ ____________
Yes or No------------------- -------------------------


See See

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis